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their occurrence ; but it will be manifestly unfair to make tbcm the test of merit, 
or thence to pronounce a judgment on the accuracy of the whole. I may add 
that the greatest care has been taken to render the references and quotations 
accurate, and whenever it was practicable, they have been collated in type with 
the originals. The great importance of accurate references will be fully appre- 
ciated by the student who has experienced the inconvenience of the many 
inaccurate ones in the works of Nnres, GifFord, and others. 

The numerous quotations I have given from early maauscripta will generally be 
found to be literal copies from the originals, without any attempt at remedying 
the grammatical errors of the scribes, so frequent in manuscripts of the fifteenth 
century. The terminal contractions were then, in fact, rapidly vanishing as part 
of the grammatical construction of our language, and the representative of the 
vowel terminations of the Anglo-Saxon was lost before the end of that century. 
It is only within the last few years that this subject has been considered by our 
editors, and it is much to be regretted that the texts of Ritson, Weber, and 
others are therefore not always to be depended upon. For this reason I have 
had recourse in some cases to the original manuscripts in preference to using 
the printed texts, but, generally, the quotations from manuscripts have been 
taken from pieces not yet published. Some few have been printed during the 
time this work lias been in the press, a period of more than two years. 

In ascertaining the meaning of those early English words, which have been either 
improperly explained or have escaped the notice of our glossariats, I have chiefly 
had recourse to those grand sources of the language, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Norman. It appeared to mc to be sufficient in such cases to indicate the imme- 
diate source of the word without referring to the original root, discarding in 
fact etymological research, except when it was necessary to develop the right 
explanation. Etymological disquisitions on provincial words have also been 
considered unnecessary ; but in some few instances, where there existed no rea- 
sonable doubt, the root has been mentioned. 

In explaining terms and phrases of the Elizabethan era, I have had the 
advantage not enjoyed in preparing tliat part of the work which relates to the 
earlier period, of referring to the labours of a predecessor in the same task. The 
Glossary of Archdeacon Nares has here necessarily in some respects been my 
guide, generally a fsitlifol one as far as his explanations arc concerned, but still 
very imperfect as a general glossary to the writers of that age. I have attempted 
to supply his deficicncica by more than trebling his collection of words and 
pluTMes, but my plan did not permit mc to imitate his prolixity, and I have there- 
fore frequently stated resulta without explaining the reasoning or giving the 
reading which led to them. Nares' Glossary is however, notwithstanding its 
imperfections, a work of great merit, and distinguished by the clearness and 



discrimination with which the collections of the Shakespearian commentaton 
are arranged and discussed. To find him occasionally in error merely illustrates 
the impossibility of perfection in philological studies. 

Having had in view the wants of readers unskilled in early English rather 
than the hterary entertainment of professed students, I have admitted numerous 
forms the etymologist will properly regard corrupt, and wljich might easily have 
been reduced to their original sources. I may have carried the system too far, 
but to have excluded corruptions would certainly have rendered the work less 
generally useful ; and it is not to be presumed that every one who consults a 
manual of this kind will despise the assistance thus afforded. There are, too, 
many comiptions the sources of which are not readily perceivable even by the 
most experienced. 

So many archaisms are undoubtedly still preserved by our rural population, 
that it was thought the incorporation of a glossary of provincialisms would 
render the work a more useful guide than one restricted to known archaisms. 
When Ray in 16/4 published the first collection of English localisms, he gives 
three reasons for having undertaken the task : " First, because I knew not of 
anything that hath been already done in this kind ; second, because I conceive 
they may be of some use to them who shall have occasion to travel the Northern 
coimties, in helping them to understand the common language there ; third, 
because they may also afford some diversion to the curious, and give them occa- 
sion of making many considerable remarks." It is remarkable that Ray seems 
to have been unacquainted with the real value of provincial words, and most of 
bis successors appear to have collected without the only sufficient reason for pre- 
serving them, the important assistance they continually afford in glossing the 
works of our early writers. 

Observations on our provincial dialects as they now exist wiU be found in the 
following pages, but under the firm conviction that the history of provincialisms 
is of far inferior importance to the illustration they afford of our early language, 
I have not entered at length into a discussion of the former subject. I have 
spared no pains to collect provincial words from all parts of the country, and 
have been assisted by numerous correspondents, whose communications are care- 
fully acknowledged under the several counties to which they refer. These com- 
munications have enabled me to add a vast qviautity of words which had escoped 
the notice of all the compilers of provincial glossaries, but their arraugeraeut 
added immeasurably to the labour. No one who has not tried the experiment 
can rightly estimate the trouble of arranging long lists of words, and separating 
mere dialectical forms. 

The contributors of provincial words are elsewhere thanked, but it would 
hardly be right to omit the opportunity of enumerating the more extensive coo- 


manicatious. I may, then, mention my obligations to Captain Henry Smith, for 
his copious glossary of Isle of Wight proTindalisms ; to the Rev.. James Adcock, 
to whom I am principally indebted for Lincolnshire words ; to Goddard Johnson, 
Eaq. for his valuable Norfolk glossary ; to Henry Norris, Esq. for his important 
Somersetshire collection ; to David E. Davy, Esq. for his MS. additions to 
Forby ; to Major Moor, for hiscollectionB for a new edition of his Suffolk Words 
aud Phrases ; and to the Rev. J. Staunton, for the use of the late Mr. Sharp's 
manuscript glossary of Warwickshire words. Most of the other communications 
have been of essential service, and I cannot call to mind one, however brief, 
which has not furnished me with useful information. My anonymous correspond- 
ents will be contented with a general acknowledgment ; but I have not ventured 
to adopt any part of their communications unsupported by other authority. My 
thanks are also returned to Mr. Toone, for MS. additions tolus Glossary, chiefly 
consisting of notes on Massinger ; to Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., for a few notes on 
hunting terms in the earlier letters ; and to Mr. Chaffers, jun. for a brief glossary 
compiled a few years since from Chancer, Lydgate, &c. But my chief obliga- 
tions are due to Thomas Wright, Esq. M.A., whose suggestions on nearly every 
sheet of this work, as it was passing through the press, have been of the 
greatest advantage, and whose profound knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Norman has frequently been of essential service when the ordinary guidea had 
been ineffectually consulted. 


BmixTON Hitx, Suaarr, 
Fet. Iff, 1S47. 


Robert of Gloucester, aAer describing the Nuftnan Conqticst, thus alludes to the change cf 
Ijuiguagc iutroduced by that event . 

hAnd the NormnnB ne couthe ipcke tho txiU- lirr owe tpevhc, 
And s[»cke French u dude atom, and here chyldreu dude also techc. 
So that hey men of tlittfond, that of her blixl come, 
Holdediatlc thulkevpcche that hU nt hem nomc. 
Vor bot«a man coulhe French, mo toUh of hym wel lute, 
Ae loW9 men hotttrtfi to Engtyg*, and to her kunde 0/ieche ]ti(e. 
Ich weoe tber nc bo man in world coittrcyci none. 
That ne hoMcth to her kunde ipeche, bote Eogelond one. • 

Ac wel me wot vor to conne bothe wel yt yi, 
Vor the more that a man con, the more worth he yi. 
This extract describes Tcry correctly the general history of the languages current in England for 
the first two centuries after the battle of Hastings. Anglo-Norman was almost exclusively the lan- 
guage of thecouTtt of the Norman gentry, and of U^e^aCu^e. *' The works in English which were 
written before thcWars of Ihe Barons belong/' says Mr. Wright, " to the last expiring reraaina of an 
older and lotolly different Anglo-Saxon style, or to the first attempts of a new English one formed 
upon a Normaii model. Of the two grand monuments of the pontryof this period, Layamoa 
belongs to the former of these classes^ and the singular poem entitled the Ormulum to the latter. 
After the middle of the thirteenth centurVt the attempts at poetical composition in English became 
more frequent and more successful, and preriout to the age of Chaucer we have several poems of 
a very remarkable character^ and some good Imitations of the harmony and s})irit of the French 
versification of the time.'* After the Barons' Wars, the Anglo-Norman was gradually intermingled 
with the Anglo-Saxon, and no long time elapsed before the mongrel language, Cniclish, was in 
general use, formed, however, from the latter. A writer of the following century thus allegcfi his 
reason for writing in English : 

In Englii tonge y tchal jnw telle, 

5yf 5« ao long with me wyl dwelle t 

Ne Latyn wll y fpcke ne wottr, 

Bol EngliKh that men uiea maate, , 

For that yi joure kynde langagc, 

Thatje lufc here moit of usage; 

That can ecA man unther»tond« 

Thni U bom (n Bngtvndt : 

For that langage yiraoittchewrd, 

Alf wel mowe lereth a* tewed. 

Lalyn alto y trowe can raoe, 

Bot tho that hath hi t of Kholc tane t 

bom can FrenKh anil no Latync, 

That u»elh hu court and ducllt thertnac, 

And torn can of Lalyn aparty, 

That can Frenich ful Tebylly ; 

And >om uiithentundUh Eugllsch, 

That nolher cu) Latyn ne Frmiich. 

Btrf lerdf, ami letvde, nld and ytng, 

AU9 untherffondilh Bn/tlUch tang*. 

Therrnre y holde hit moit tikcr thanui? 

To schewc the langage that ech man eao ; 

And for lewethc men namely, 

That ran oo more of clergy. 

Tho ken iham whare mott nrde, 

For cicrkca can tmth •« and rcvlc 

In diven trakeaufHoly Wrltt, 

How they tchul lyve, yf chay loke hll : 

Thareforey wylle me holly halde 

To that langage that Engllwh yi ealdr. UH. tb^U. 49. f. 4H. 



The author of the Cunor Mundi tliouglit each nation should be coutented with one language, 
and that the English ifaould discard the Anglo-Norman : 

Till! Ilk Ink il n Iruulate 

Into In^Ua long to rede. 

For the loTc of laglit lede, 

Irgiti leJe or tnftlnnd. 

For lite cdtnniun at uiiderftADd. 

Fiankif rime* here r redd 

ComunMk Ira ilk cted. 

UaBtes it wrnj^ht fur FranllU iDVl, 

t^wtl It for himna Franklt con f 

Of logland the nacion 

Fi IngllgniBD thar in commun ; 

Theapeche that man wit mast may ipede. 

Malt thar wit to tpeke war nede. 

Seldtn teas /nr ani chanre 

Praittii JnglU tong in Fmnrt ! 

Givt ujtt Itkan Itiare tongvge, 

Mr thinle ice do Oiam mm outragt. 

MS. CM. Vfpct. A. ill. r. «. 

In the curious lale of King Eilward and the Shepherd, the latter is destaibediu being |)erfectlx ' 
attonisheil with the I'rcnch and Lalin of the court : 

The lordli anon to chawrobur went. 
The kyog aftur the iche[H^e lent. 

He was bro]t farth fblle tone ; 
He clawed hli hed. hli hare he rent, 
He wende wet to have be tchent. 
He ne wyit what wai to done. 
When he French and Latyn herde. 
He lude mervelle how It fcrde, 

And drvw hym ever alone; 

Jhe*u, he Bcid, for Ihl gret grace, 

Brytig me fayre cnit of thli place ! 

I^ady, now here my t»ne < 

MS. Canlah. F(. w. 48, f. SS. 
In the fifteenth centurr, English tnav be laid to have been the general language of this coiin^ 
lr>'.* At this period, too, what h now calli-d old English, rapidly lost its gramiDatical forms, and 
the English of the time of Henry VIII., orthography excepted, ditfcn very little from that of the 
present day. A few archaisms now obsolete, and old phrases, constitute the essential 

Our present subject is the provincial dialects, to which these very brief remarks on the general 
history of the English language are merely preliminary, — a subject of great dirticulty, and one 
which requires far more reading than has yet been attempted to develop satisfactorily, especially 
in its early period. Uelieving that the principal use of the study of the English dialects consists 
in the explanation of archaisms, I have not attempted that research wliichwoiddbe necessary to 
understand their history, albeit this latter is liy no means an unimportant inquiry. The Anglo- 
Saxon dialects were nnt numerous, as far as can be judged from the MSS. in that language «)iich 
have been preserved, aud it seems probable that most of our English dialects might l>e traced 
historically and etymolugically to the original tribes of the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, not forget- 
ting the Danes, whose language, according to Wallingfnrd, so long influenced the dialect of 
Yorkshire. In order to accomplish this we require many more early documents which licar upon 
the subject than have yet been discovered, anil the uncertainty which occurs in most cases of 
fixing the exact locality in which they were written adds to our difficiillic>i. When we come to a 
later period, the thirteentli and fourteenth centuries, there being no standard literary form of our 
native language, every MS. sufBciently exhibits its dialect, and it is to be hoped that all English 
works of tills period may one day be classed according to their dialects. In such an undertaking, 
great assistance will l>c derived from a knowledge of our local dialects as they now exist. Hence 
the value of specimens of modern provincial language, for in many instances, as in Robert of 
Gloucester's Chronicle, compared with the present dialect of Gloucestershire, the organic forms of 
the dialect have remained unchanged for centuries. The Ayenbytenf Inwvt is. perhaps, the most 
remarkable specimen of early English MSS. written in a broad dialect, and it proves very satisfac- 
torily that in the fourteenth century the principal features of what is termed the Western dialect 
! those also of the Kentish dialect. There can be, in fact, little doubt that the former was 

• Anoe, Counteat of SialTard, thui writes In 1U8, I ■ ■ ordeyne and mslw my lastament in Enf Uih tmge for 
my molt profit, redyng, and uDdersiandynf; in thbwlte." 


long ciiirent throughout the Southern counties, snr] even extcndediu tome degree ufar» Euex.* 
If wc judge fVoui the specitnen!^ of early Kn^lish of which tlie localities of conipoiitiou are known, 
we might perhaps divide the dialects of the fuurtcculh centurj' into three grand classes, the 
Northern, the Midland, and the Southern, the last being that now retained in the Western coun- 
ties. But, with the few materiaU yet published, I set little reliance on any classification of the 
kind. If we may decide from Mr. Wright's Specimens of Lyric Poctrj-, which were written in 
Herefordshire, or from Audelay's Poems, written in Shropshire in the fifteenth century, those 
counties would belong to the Midland division, rather than to the West or South. 

Tlie few writers who have entered on the subject of the early English provincial dialects, have 
advocated their theories without a due consideration of the probability, iu many cases the cer- 
tainty, of an essential distinction lictween the language of literature and that of the natives of a 
county. Hence arises a fallacy which has led to curious anomalies. We are not to supjiose, 
merely because we find an early MS. written in any county in standard English, that that MS. is 
a correct criterion of the dialect of the county. There are several MSS. written in Kent of about 
the lame date as the .\ycnbyte of Inwyt, which have nunc of the dialectical marks of that curious 
woik. Most of the ()uotalions here given from enrly MSS. must be taken with a tiinilar limita- 
tion as to their dialect. Hence the difficulty, from want of authentic specimens, of farming a 
classification, which has led to an alphabetical arrangeineut of the counties in the following brief 
ootioei : — 


The dialect of this county has been fully in- 
vestigated in Batchelor's Orthoepical Analysis 
of the English Language, Bvo. 1809. £irtai>cs 
the place of ow, ea of a, otc of the long o, oi uf 
i, (ic. When r precedes « and e final, or » and 
other consonants, it is frequently not pro- 
nounced. Ow final is often changed into er ,- 
ge final, into dge; and g final is (ometimes 

The Berkshire dialect partly belongs to the 
Western, and partly to the Midland, more 
strongly marked with the features of the former 
in the South-West of the county. Tlie a is 
changed into o, the diphthongs are pronounced 
broadly, and the vowels arc lengthened. iVai/ 
is pronounced iroye ; thik and thak fur tliis and 
that ; he for him, and the for her. 


The language of the peasantry is not very 
broad, although many dialectical words arc in 
general use. A list of the latter was kindly fur- 
mrded to me by Ur. Hossey. 

There is little to distinguish the Cambridge- 
ahire dialed from that of the adjoining counties. 
It is nearly allied to that of Norfolk andSuifalk. 
The pofcct tense is formed strongly, as hil, hot, 
tit, aot, epare, spore, e. g. " if I am spure," 
i.e. spired, &c. I have to return my thanks to 


ttic Rev. J. J. Smith and tbe Rcr. Charies 
Warren for brief lists of [iroviucialisrat current 
in tbis county. 

The Cbftsbire di&lcct cbaiiges I intoip, Winto 
uTor 00, i into oi or ee^ a into or, a into o, o into 
a. u into if ta into yo, and oa into iro. Mr. 
Wilhrabam hiis [)u1iH8hcd a ver>' uftcful and cor- 
rect glossary of Clicshire words. Second cd. 
12uu>. 1836. 

Extract from a ^eeek o/Judtu hcariot in the 
Play of Chri9t*9 Entry inio JerUMOtem* 

By dure God In magUile ! 

1 im w wroth u I mayc be. 

And tome waye I will wrccken roe, 

Ai fconr ai errr I male. 

My mayiler Jnua, as men mayewc, 

Wa« rubbed hrade, fotilc, antl knye, 

With Ajntnirnle of more dulntie 

Then I lee tnanye a dale. 

To that I ha%e grcate cnvye. 

That he luflVcd to dealroyc 

More then all hU ^ood thrye» 

And hli ilames tnwe. 

Hade 1 of ii hade maUterye, 

1 woulde have loulde It lone In hie. 

And put It u|» In trrtu«ry«, 

Ai I was wonte to doe. 

WhatMHMer we« germ to Jmu, 

1 bavr kepte. »lnre t hytn knewe ; 

For he hopea I wllbe trewe. 

Hi« puTie allwale t l»rc. 

Kym hade tiene tietter. In f{ood I'ayc, 

Hade fparcd oynuniCDle Llwt daie. 

* Thti it iiatcd OD tulBcieotly ample authorHy, but Vcntegin appean to limit It [d hla lime to the Wettarn 
CDUntlc«,~'* We »ce thai In atime tcvcraU parti uf EaglaDd itaelfe, both the name* of thlnfti. and proountia- 
Ikwa of wordi. an; wmcwhat diflVrcrit, and that amnoft: the country people that nrrer borrow any wotds out 
of the Latin or Frrnch, and of thit diffbrenl pronunCialloD one example in tteed of many ihal luffice. aa Ihb : 
for pronouncing according aa oo« would uy at Lontton, / woufd eat more chttte if I had it, the Northern man 
«alth. ^w f**^ 1*^ mart rh««M gim ay ha4»t, and Ihc We*[crne man »alth, Chud eat more cSeeee an c^rf it. Ln 
hrrrelhrtv difTrreiitproDOuntiatloni fn our owne country in one thing, and hereof many the like txamplci 
might tw altcaged."— rtr«r«yan'f tUttitutiom, ICM, p. l'X<. 


For wrocken I wllbetome waie 

or wut« that WBS done thrlr ; 

Three hundreth penny worthc* It wu 

That he let tpill In that place ; 

Therefore (*od geve me hard* grace. 

Bill hymselfe fthalbc »outde 

To the Jewes. nr that I title. 

For the tenth pcaye of It ; 

And thiK my maltter thnlbe quite 

Uy grefl^ a hundreth Toulde. 

ChaHv Pioy«. li. 13. 

It is almost unnecessary to ohacn'e, that the 
ancient Corniah language haa long been obso- 
lete. It Appears to have been gradually disiiiipd 
from the lime of Henry VIH.t but it was spoken 
in iome parl-s of the country tilt the eighteenth 
ceotury. Modem Corniah is now an Enghsh 
dialect, and a specimen of it is here givco. 
Polwhele has recorded a valuable list of Cornish 
proWncialisms, and a new glossary has recently 
been puhlished, in 'Specimens of C«riii.">h Pro- 
TLnclat DiaIcpl/8vo. 1846. hi addition to these, 
I have to acknowledge several wonla, hitherto 
annoliccd, comniunicaled hy Miss llkkti, and 
It T.Smith, Esq. 

Harrison, Description of Britiune, p. 14, thus 
mentions (he Cornish language: " The Cornish 
and Devonshire mmi, whose coiintrie the Rritons 
call Ccrniw, have a speach in like *iort of ihcir 
owne, and such as hath in deed more atHnitie 
with the Armoncanc toong than I can well dis- 
cusae of. Yet in mine Ofiiniun, they are botli 
but a corrupted kind of Dritish, albeit so far de- 
generating in these daies from the old, that if 
either of ihcm doo mecte with a Welshman, they 
arc not able at the first to understand one an- 
other, except here and there in some od words, 
without the hcl(»e of interjirctors." 

In Corowal. Pcinbr. and Devon they for to milk 
uy milky, for to Hiutnt. lo tquinny. thit, ihieky, 
die., and after most vctIm ending wltlt conftonanu 
Ihey clap* y. but more commonly the lower pari of 

lAvjriTt MS. jidditUm§ to Rnjr, A*hm. Mum 

(1) The Cornwall Schoolboy. 
An ould man found, one day, a yung genllemaa'i 
ponmantle, a» he were a going to ec dennar; be 
took'd et ea and gived ct tu t» wife, and uld, 
*• Mally, here'*a roul of llther, l<*okiM*c, I auppoa&c 
•ome poor ould fhuemaker or other have lot'en, 
lak'eo and pul'en a lop of the trjutcr of tha tied, 
he'll be glad to hab'en agen BUin day, I dear Kay." 
The uuld nun. Jan, that wu et neame, went to c* 
work at before. Mally thra 0[)en'd the portmAntle, 
and found en et three hundetd pounds. Soon after 
Ihet. the ould man nut being very well, Mally caid, 
" Jan, I'a^c «aavcil away a little mom-y, hy the bye, 
and a* thee auin't read or write, thee thu'it gn to 
»coo)'* the were then nigh threeicore and ten). He 
went but a very short (line, and corned hoam oar 
day, and uld, '• Molly. I w^ jn't gn tOKOoIno more, 
'caase the chlldcr do \x lafftin at me ; tliey can tell 
their Irtlert, aud I caon't tcU my A, B, C, and 1 
wud rayilicf ro lo work agea." " Do as thee wool," 
so* Mally. Jan had not btrti out many days, afore 
the yung geiillem.n came by that lost the |>ort- 
maatlt, and uld, •• Well, my ould nuo, dld'ce see 

or hear tell of slcb a thlog as a portmontle V* •< Poit- 
mantlc, sar, wos't that un, sumthing like thickey f 
{pointing to one behind es uddle.) I found one the 
t'other day lackly like thai." '• Where es et i" 
" Come along, 1 carr'd'en en and gov'en to my wife 
Ujilly -, thee sha't av'en. Mally, where es that roul 
of Ittlier that I gi Vd tha the t'other day '" •* Whai 
roul of Itthcr V uld Mally. " The roul of IKber I 
broft imand tould tha to put'eaa top of the toaster of 
the bed, afore 1 go'd to scool." " Drat tha empe- 
nmcv," Mid the gcntJenian, ** thee art bclwattlcita 
that was before I were twro." 

(2) A n'ettem Eclogue. 
Pengrouxe, a lad In maiiy a science blest. 
Outshone his toning brothers of the west i 
Ofsmugllogrhurlingr wrestling much he knew. 
And much of Un, and much of pilchards too. 
Fam'd at each vilUge. town, and country-hou»e, 
Metuckeo, HcUtone, Polklnhorne, and Grouce ; 
Trespls»en, Buddock, Cooy-yerlc, Trcterry, 
PallMUUrd, Hollabaxuck. Eglesderry. 
Pencob, and ResUJeg. Trevlskey, Breogue, 
trewlnnlck, Buskcnwyn, Busvcal, Roscreague : 
Uui what avsil'd hts fame and various art, 
Siui-c he, by love, was smitten to the heart * 
The shaft a tx-am of Bet Polglasv's eyes ; 
And now hedumplio loaths, and pilchard pies. 
Voting was the lou, a servant at St. Tiuy, 
Bom at PolpltJ, and bred at Mevagiaxy. 
Calm o'er the mouittain blush'd the rising day, 
And tlng*d the lummli with a purple rav. 
When sleepleu ttovn his hutch the lover stole. 
And met. by ebonce, the mUtrcu of his soul. 
And ** Whtther go'stf* he scratched bb skull and 

cry'd ; 
** Arrear, God bless us," well the nymph reply'd, 
*■ To Vealston sure, to buy a pound o' backy. 
That us and mcutcr wooderftjlly lacky ; 
God bleu us ale. this fortnight, 'pon my word. 
We nothing smoaksbut oak learcs and cue-terd.** 

Arrear then, Ucssy, 1y aloane the backy. 
Sty here a tiny bit and let ui lalky. 
Onnsy, I loves thee, wot a ha me. osy. 
Wot ha Peogrousc, why wot a, Betsy, h« .' 

Ah, hunklo, hunkln, mind at Uoushole fair 
What did you at the Choughs, the alehouse there } 
When you slows eighteen pence In cakes and beer. 
To treat that dirty trollup, Uall Roseveari 
Vou stufl* It in her gills, and makes such pucker. 
Arrear the people thoft you wld have choack her. 

Curse Mall Roserear, I uys, agreat Jack whore, 
I ne'er sees such a dirty drab before ; 
I ilufTs her gilts with cakes and beer, the hunk. 
She siutn hcTMlf. she meslin and got drunk. 
Best* drink sure for her jaws wan't good enow. 
So Jeckerf makes her drunk as David's sow ; 
Her feace is like a bull's, and 'lis a fooel. 
Her legs are like the legs o* cobler's stooel ; 
Her e>e« be f;rean*s a lick,^ as yafftrs big, 
Noost; flat's my hood, and neck so black's a pig. 
Btt Pol^lau. 

Ay, but I've more to uy i this Isn't ale. 
You deanc'd wy Mall Rosrvear 't a urtln t»lei 
She toald me so, and lefts me wy a sneare — 
Ay I you, Petigrouie, did deance wy Mall Roacrear. 

• Best driuk implies strong beer. 
X Ortea as a leek. 

t Brandy. 







> NoWf Bnty, hire me, Bcity, vkth and ioala. 
Hire me, I wye, end thou i»h»t hire the whoiile : 
Onenlfhr, a Wenfday nlKhl, I vowi to Ooade, 
Aloane, a houback, to Trciouzc I roade ; 
SureBewy vath. diit hiremp. 'iUdoIIci, 
A d— mndar bale wu nerer teed wy eyea. 
I hiret mm mtiilck at an oald bearne doore. 
And htm a woadroui rouiing on the floore ; 
So In I pofM my head ; tayt I, arreare I 
Why. what a devU'f neame If doing hcant ? 
Why dancing, cries the crowder by the wale, 
Whydeancing. deandng, meaner— 'ti» a bala. 
Deaoeing. «ay» I, by Gam I hirei turn preancen. 
But tell u» where the devil be the deanccn ; 
For fy the dtui and ctrawie to fleed about, 
I could not. Beviy, »py the happen out. 
At laite I iplca Rna^vrar, I wiih her dead, 
Whomeaket meilcanceall nlie, the uinking Jade. 
Say« 1 , 1 have no thorxc to k ick a fouU : 
Why kick, uyi Mall Rosevcar. then kick thyboote. 
And, Bet, dUl hire mc, fur to leert ui ale, 
A fiirthing candle wink'd again the wale. 
Bet Pol^ase. 

Ah, hunkln. hunkin, I am huge afraid 
That you ii laughing at a limple maid, 

Oeate, dearcat Bet, let'* hug thee to my hearttt 
And may ut never never never pearte ! 
No, if I lie* than. Oetiy, than I wUhet 
The Shackleheads may never clote the fUhe* ; 
That picky dog* may eat the iceanc when fule, 
Eat'n to ra^i, and let go ale the tchule. 

Bet Poigiau. 
Then here's my hond, and wy It teake my hearte. 

Goade bleai us too, and here ii mlne«, ods hearte I 
One buit. and then to Pilchardlng I'll packy. 

Bet Polgiaz*. 
And I to YeaUtone for my master's barky. 

(3) j4 Comuh Song. 
Come, all ye jolly Tinner boys, and lU/en to me ; 
I'll tell ee of a ttorle shall make ye for to sec. 
CooMming Boney Peartic, the schaamcs which he had 

To stop our tin and copper mines, and all our pilchard 

Be summonaed forty thouund men. to Polland they 

did goa» 
All for to rob aul plunder iticrc you very well do 

knawa ; 
But r<^thou-«md were killed, and taade dead in bUxxl 

and poare. 
And thirty thoutand ranncd away, and 1 cante tetl 

where, I'm sure. 
And should that Boory Pcartlc have forty thousand still 
To maake into an army to work hi* wicked wm. 
And try for to Invaade ui. If he doent quickly fly- 
Why, forty thousand Cornish boys shall knawa the 

reason why. 
Hurts tor tin and copper, boys, and Osberlei likewise f 
Hnrm for Cornish maadena— oh, bless Iheir pretty 

eye* I 
Huresfor ourould gentrle. and may they never faale f 
Hurea. hutea for Cornwall! hurea, t>o)r», "one and 


The di*lecl8of Cumberland, We»lmorclanii, 
Northumberland, and Durham may be conai- 

dered to be identical in ill cstential peculiari- 
ties, tbc chief diffpreDCM arising; from tbc mode 
of proiitinciutioQ. According to Boucher, the 
dialect of Cumberland is mucb less uniform than 
that of AVeatmorelaml. In Cumberland, wo is 
in frequent use inatead of the long o, as will be 
noticed in the following example. A glossary of 
Cumberland words \^as Vindly forwarded to me 
by Mr. Thomas Sanderson. 

(1) Love in Cumb^land. 
IVne,— •• Cuddle me. Cuddy." 

n'a, Jwohn. whai'n mannUhment'a'tii 

'At tuu's gnwn to dee for a hiaiy I 
Aw hard o' thti torrable tiss. 

An'flw'scum't to advise tha', — *at ii ee. 
Ifun, thoull nohbet Iwose tecgud neamc 

Wi* guwlln an' whlngln sea mlcklc) 
Cockswuntun I min boyde about heame. 

An' let her e'en ga to auld Nickle. 
Thy plew-geer's aw tlggln how^slrow, 

An* inmcbody'ft stown thee thy coutcr i 
Oh faiksl thou'sduin little 'at dow 

To fash theesci iwcr about her. 
Vour Seymey has broken car stang. 

An* mendlt it wid a clogcoaker ; 
Pump-trec'igeaneaw wheyt wrang. 

An' they've sent for auld Tom Stawkcr. 
Young filly's dung oure the lang stee, 

An' leam'd peer AnJrew the ihecker ; 
The* muddcr wtid sufTer't for l<ee. 

An haw hadn't happVt to cltek her. 
Thau's spoilt for aw manner o' wark ! 

Thou nobbet sits (K-ghan an' pleenan. 
Odswucke, man ! doCT that durty sark, 

An* prelfio gl'c way git a clean an I 
An* then gow to Carel wI' me, — 

Let her gang toknock-rroia wid hersewomin, 
Sec cUnUcn at market we'll see, 

A'^ll up'od ta' forgit her 'or mwomin' I 

(2) Song, by Mi*t Blantire* 
What ails Ma heart o* miner 

What mcMis this wat'xy c'e ? 
What garimeay Itirn pale as death 

When 1 lak' leave o' thee I 

When thou art far awa', 

Thou'll dearer be to me t 
But change o' place, and chui(e cf toUt, 

Hay gar thy fancy jee. 

When I lit down at e'en. 

Or walk in morning air, 
Ilk rustling bough will seem to wy, 

t us'd to meet thee there i 

Then I'll sit down and wail. 

And greet aueath a tree. 
And gin a leaf fa' i' my lap. 
I's ca't a word frae thee 

l'l\ hie melolhcbow'r 

Where yews wi' loies tred. 
And where, wi* monle a blushing bud, 

I strove my face to hide I 

I'll tloat on ilka spot. 

Where I ha'e been wl' thee, 
And ca'ioralnil some kindly look 

'Neath ilka hollow tree. 

Wi'sec thoughts i' my mind. 

Time thro' the warl may ga«, 
Aod And me still, in twenty years. 

The same as I'm to-day l 


*TU r^lendthlp bean the tway, 
And keept ftlendf 1* th« r*p ; 
And gin I think 1 1«« the ttlll. 
Wha can part thct* and nw i 

*' This dialect," ol»8crves Ur. Bosworth, " is 
remarkable for its broad pronunciation. In me 
the e it prooounced long and broad, as mff. 
The / is often omitted after a or o, as air for nil, 
eauf, call, boied, bold, coiui, cold. Words in iiiff 
generally omit I he j/, but somcttmes it is changed 
into k\ as think for thing, tovin for losing. 
They use con for can ; cunner for cannot ; thanner 
for shall not ; voo/, woontr for will, and wtU not ; 
yo for you, &c.'' Lists of provincial words pe- 
ctiliarto this county hive been kindly forviardcd 
hy Dr. Bosworth, Thomas Bateman, Esq., the 
Rev. Samuel Fox, the Rev. William Sliiltclo, 
Mrs. Butler, and L. Jcnitt, Esq. 

A Dialogue between Farmer Bennet and 7^mmua 

Farmer Btnnai, Tummiu, whjr dunner yo mnid 
mi'h thoom f 

Tummua LJdt, B«cot, mestrr, 'tli so coed. I con- i 
ner work wm the taohin ot aw. I've brt*ckti it ten 
timn I'm thur to do— It frories ao hard. Why, 
Hrtter hung out a imork-froek to dry, an In three 
tnlnlu It wor froiaen as BtiflT aa a praker, an 1 Con- 
ner afTord to keep a good Are ; I with I cud, Td toon 
mend yore thoon, an uthers tow. I'd §oon yam 
■um munney, I wftrraot ye. Conner yo find «um 
work for m*. mester, lhe*e hard tlmetf I'U doo 
onnythink to addle a penny. I coo thresh— I con 
split wood— I run mak tpar> —1 con tliack. 1 con 
kkower a dike, an I ron trench t'>w, but tc frersei 
•ohard. I con winner- 1 confother, or milk. If there 
beneedon't. I woodner mind drlTin plow or onnythink. 

Farmer B. I banner got nothin for ye to doo, 
Tummui t but Metter Boord towd me JItt now (hit 
they wor gootn to winner, an that thry thud wint 
■umt>ody to help 'em. 

T\4mmui L. O, I'm gild on't. 1*11 run nor an see 
whether I con help 'em ; bur I banner bin weeln the 
threshold ov Hester Boord'f doer for a nation time, 
becos I thoot mU«cs dldner um Hester well ; bur 1 
dunner bear malice, an ao I'll gi>o. 

Farmer B What did Misses Boord aa or doo to 
HcfttCT then t 

Tummu* L. Why, Hester may be wor lummut to 
blame loo; for her wor one on 'em, de ye see, (hat 
Jawd itklmmcrton, — the mak-gam that frunied sum 
o'the gcntefiKik. They said 'twor time to dun wee 
sich litter, or ilch slulT, or I dunner know whiit they 
cawdltt but they wor frunied wee Hester bout it; 
an 1 aald. If they wor frunted wee Hester, Iheymid 
t>ee frunieil wee me«. Thttwt mlsses'stiack up, an 
Hr«ter banner bio a charrin there kin. Out *tii no 
use to bear malice i an solll goo oor, and see which 
w« the winde blowv. 

AMwwsa'a JnfhSason IHctionar^, Introd. p .11 . 

The MS. Ashmole 53 contains an early ro- 
mance, written about the year 1377. which 
appears to have been composed by a clergyman 
living in the diocese of Exeter. Several extracts 
from it will be found in the following pages. 
The MS. posMtMS great intervft, having part of 

the author's original drauglit of the romance. 
See farther iu Mr. Black's Catalogue, col. 15. 

" A Devonshire song" is printed in Wits Inter- 
preter, ed. 1671, p. 171 ; the ** Devonshire ditty" 
occurs iu the same work, p. 247. The Exinoor 
Scolding and the Exmoor Courtihip, specimens 
of the broad Devonshire dialect M the commence- 
ment of the last centnr}', have been lately repub- 
lished. The. third edition was published at Exeter 
1 tn 1746, -410. Mr. .M.irshttll has given a list of 
I West Devonshire words in his Rural Ec^momy 
nf the West of England, 1 796, vol. i. pp. 32:1-32, 
but the best yet printed is that liy Mr. Palmer, 
appended to a Dinlogne in the Devonshire 
Dialect, 8vo. 1H37. A brief glossary is also 
addeil to the Devonahii^ Dialogue. 8vo. 1839, 
My principal guide, however, for the dialectical 
words of this county is a large MS. collection 
statrd in Mr. Thomas Rodd'i Catalogue of MSS. 
for 18-45 (No. 276) to have licen written by Dr. 
Milles, Dean of Exeter, and quotefl in this work 
as Dean Milles' MS. I have been since informed 
thai it was compiled by the late Rev. Richard 
Hole, but in either case its integrity and value 
arc undoubted. Notes of Devonshire words 
have been kindly transmitted by Ihc Rev. John 
Wilkinson, J, II. James, Esq., William Chappell. 
Esq.. Mrs. Lovell. mid Mr. J. Metcalfe. The 
West Countrj' dialect is now spoken in greater 
purity in Devonshire than in any other county. 

The following rcumrk-i on thr English dialects 
are taken from Au!ircy*6 Natural History of 
Wiltshire, a MS. preserved in the library uf the 
Royal Society : 

TIte Northern parts of Englnnd speake guttu- 
Tsllf ; snd In Yorkiihlre and tlic blthoprlck uf Dur- 
hani Ihey have more of the cadene^, or Scottish tone 
than Ihey hate at EdlDtwrough : In like manner, In 
Hercfordthlre the jr have more of the Welch radmce 
than theyhavein Walea. The Weitrrnc people can- 
not open their mouthettotprakfrr forundo. Wee pro- 
nounce |mh/, pnit, Ac., and eipecialty In PrronAhlre. 
The Exeter Coll. men in di(put*tionf, when they 
olIef^eCtotiM C^tumest Oiu«o Ctiusati, thry pronounce 
it, Oasa, QiS4» eef Caea Otsnti very un-gracefully. 
Nov ^eontra the French and Italians doe naturally 
pinnounee a fully ore rolundo, and e, and even chlU 
dren of French txitn In Knfcland ; and the farther 
you goe South the more fully, qd. NB. Thti muft 
proceed fiom the earth ur aire, or Imth. One may 
ot»erre, that the ipeech (twang or aceent— adlantu<| 
of ye vulgar bexlu to alter tome thlnf; toward* the 
Hcrefontwhirr manner even at C)Tenee«tcr. Mr. 
Thorn. Hobtw told me. that Sir Charles CavendUh 
did Miy, that the Oreeket doe ling their wnrdt (as 
the Hereff. di>e tu some dv^ee). From hence arose 
the accents, not uied by the ancletiu. 1 have a 
conceit, that the Brltoiu of the South partof this Itle, 
e. g. the Trinobantec, Ace., did vpeak no moreguttu* 
rail, or twanging*, than the InhabltanU doe now. 
The lone, accent. Ac, depend* on the temper of iha 
earth (and lo to plant*) and aire. 

{\) A Laven' Dialogue. 

Rab. 1 love dearly, Bet, to hear the tell : but, good 
loving now, let's tell o'aummet else. Time slips 

JM. I, fcgt, that It dith. I warais our vokes won- 
der what the gmlger'* a come Q*me. HI drive hoin«. 
I wlih thee good neart. 





Hab. Why thm oow. Oh. Bet t you ^en whftt 
I hft to tdl atwut, mnd you womt hc«r ne. 

S^r. 1, uy ao. CO ;—i flddle-de-<l«e— blind mftm. 

Ro6. Thrr* »fen ! — dM ctct any boddy hear the 
like * WHI, toc«. what be 1 to dn ^ 

Bet, I with. Rab, you'd Inve vetting me. Pllhee, 
Irt'a here no more o'at. 

Rah. Woll. I see how 'tU. You'll be the death 
o'me, ihat'i a cure thing. 

Bet. Dear hart, how you tell I I the death o' 
thee !— no. ool tot the world, Rab. Why I'd ne'er 
the heart to hurt thee nor any kindnt thing In all 
my bom dayi. What whimsies you have I Why do 
ye put yuunelf In such a pucker 1 

Rab. Why, because the mlnnet I go about to 
break my meend, whlpioce, you be a-go, and than 1 
coud bite my tongue. 

B»t. Why than will you veaat me away when you 
know I can't abide to hiar u'al t Good-now, don't'ee 
aay no more about et* U» have alwayi been good 
frlenda — let ui hide %o, 

Rjib. I've now lx?{;an, and I want let thee go till 
thee bait a-hcard me out. 

Bet, Well. I woll, but don't'ec cre«m my hand ao. 

Ra6. I don't know what I do nor what I lay ; — 
many many neart^ I ha'n't a tecn'd my eyet \aT 
thlnklng o'thte. 1 can't live lo, 'tli Dever the neer 
to tell o'at ; and I muit make an end n'at wan way 
or t'other. I be bent upon't ; therefore don't stand 
ahlUy shall^, but tookerdesee, iv thecdiin't aay thee 
wfd ha me, bemre thicca cloud hath heai'd ever)' , 
fhecn o* the moon. lure an doutilc-aurc I'll ne'er 
■1 thee agrn, b\it go a soger and nevvr zee liome j 
DO more- Lockt luck t my precious, what dUt cry vor^ | 

Bet. I be a cruel moody-hcarted tiresome body ; 
and you scare wan, you do so. I'm in a sad quan- 
dory. Iv I aay Is, I may be sorry : and If I cay no^ 
f nuy be sorry too, limmeC 1 hop you widn'l use 
me badly. 

Rab. Dlst think, my sweeilng. I shall e'er be 
mat'd anew to claw out my own eyes ? and thee art 
dearer to roe than they be. 

BrT. Hold not so breach now, but hear flrst what 
I've to lay. You must know. Rab. the teet money 
I've a croop'd up I be a shlrk'd out o*. but 'twill 
never goodee way an. I'll tell thee how t was 
* ^ced. 

RffA. Good-now, lovey, don'^tee think o'at. We 
shall fadgf« and find without eL 1 can work, and 
will work* an all my carklng and CArlog will be for 
thre, and everything sliaU bee at thee woud ha'et. 
The« shall do what thee wid. 

Bet. I say so too. Co, co. Rah. how you tell ! 
Why, ptthee. don't'ec think t be such a ninnyhsin- 
nwT as to dntre et. If 'tis ordained 1 shall ha iliec, 
rU do my t»cst to make tha a gude wife. 1 doriH 
want lobe cocker'd. Hark ! hark 9 don't I hear the 
bell lowering for alght J — 'tU, as t live. I shall tia 
et whan I get home. 

Ka/>, If I let thee go now, will meet me agen to. 
morrow evening in the dlromct i 

Be(. No. To-morrow mornlag at milking time 
I woU. 

Rati, Sttie. 

Bat. Sure and sure. So I wUh theegood neart. 

Aa6. Nurt, neart* my sweeting I 

(2) John Chnwbacon and hia m/e MrM^ citrn up 
tEreter to ztt the railway openctii May 1 , 1844. 

•« L,or Johnny ! lor Johnny ! now whaiivvcrca that, 

A uming along like a hoss upon wheels ? 
*TU •* bright ;is yer btiitons, and black as yer hat, 
I Jist Usuu, Johnny, and yer bow 'a wiueali !" 

" Dash my buttons. Moll — I'll be dam'd Iflknowt 

Us was vools to come yerr and (oum Into danger* 
Let's be off— 'a spits vire I lor, do let us go — 

And 'aholdiuphishead like a goose at a stranger. 
" I be a bit rrighteo'd— but let us bide yerr ; 

And hark how *a puff's, and 'a csughs. and *a blowa j 
He eddcn unlike the old cart-hoss last yer— 

Broken-winded ; — and yet only xee how *a goes ( 
■* 'A urns upon ladders, with they things like wheels. 
Or hurdles, or palings, put down on the ground : 
But why do they let 'un stray out of the veeli ? 

'Tls a wonder they don't clap 'un Into the pound.** 
" *A can't be alive, Jao — Idan't ihfnk 'a can.** 

*' I bnln't lureo' that, Moll, forjist look'ee how 
'A breathes like a hoss, or a tnlvell'd old man : — 

And hark how he's bust out a raufihing, good nnw. 
" 'A never could dra'all they wagglns,d'ee lee, 

If *a llvetl upon vatches. or turmrtt. or hay ; 
Why, they wagglnsbe vtU'd up with people — they l>c; 

And do 'ee bu t look h ow th cy 'm larfin a way \ 
" And look totheychiTdem aumlngabout, 

Wi' thetr moulhs vull of gingerbread, there by the 
ihows ; 
And ape to the scores of vine ladles tum'd out ; 

And genttemrn, att In their best Zunday clothei. 
■ ■ And look to this house made n' canvas lo smart ; 

A nd the dinner set out with such bussle and fuss ; — 
But us brought a squab pie, you know, in the cart, 

Anda keg of good aider— so that's nort to us. 
" I telPce what 'tis. Moll — this here Is my mind, 

The world's gone quite msse, as cure as you'm bom : 
*Tls at true as I'm living — and that Ihcy will vind, 

Wiih their hossn on wheels that don't live upon com. 
" I wouldn't go homeward b'fnbye to the vann 

Behind such a critter, when all's sed and dun, 
We've ■ travell'd score miles, but we never got harm, 

Vor there's nurt like a market cart under the sun." 


" The rustic dialed of Dorsetshire/* ot)ser\'08 
Mr. IJajnc9» " is, with little variation, that of 
most of the Western parts of England, which 
were incliitled in the kingdom of the West Saxons, 
the counties of Surrey, Hants, Berks, Wilts, and 
Dorset, and parts of Somerset and Devon." The 
Dorset dialect, however, has ei^eniial features 
of that of the Western counties which are not 
heard in Surrey or Hants, as will he sufficiently 
apparent from the specimens here given. The 
lacipuage of the south-east part of Dorsetshire 
is more nearly allied to that of Hants. 

*" In the town of Fnole," according to Dr. 
Salter, " there is a small imrt which appears to 
he inhabited hy ft peculiar race of people, who 
are, and prohably long have been, the fibhing 
population of the (icighhunrhood. Their man- 
ner of speaking is totally different from that of 
the neighbouring rustics. They have a great 
predilection for changing all the vowels into 
short II, using it in the second person, hut without 
a pronoun, and suppressing syllables, c. g. oojr'n 
eorV, can you not carry it, &c." Mr. Vernon, 
in remarking upon these facts, obscn-'cs, " the 
language of our seamen in general is well worth 
a close investigation, as it certainly contains not 
a Uw archaisms; hut the subject requires time 
and patience, for in the mouths of those who 


call the Bdlerophon tndthe ViUe de Milan, the 
BiOjf Ruffian and the Wheel-em-alontj, there is 

** But doth •uffer a Ma-chuige 
Into •otnethlng nrw and •trmoge." 
This moat be received with some limitatioa,aiid 
perhaps applies almost entirely to difficult mo- 
dern terms not easily intellig^Me to the unedu- 
cated. Many of the principal English nautical 
terms hare remained unchanged for centories. 

Valuable Uatt of Dorsetshire words have been 
liberally sent me by the Rev. C. W. Bingham, 
James Davidson, Esq., Samuel Bagstcr, Esq., 
Dr. Salter, and G. Oollop, £&q. ; but my prin- 
cipal references have been made to the glossary 
attached by Mr. Bantes to his " I'ocnis of Rural 
Life in the Dorset Dialect/' 8vo. 1844. The 
same work contains a dissertation on the dialect, 
with an account of its peculiar features. Tlie 
change of o into o, ao common in Dorsetshire, 
completely disappears as we proceed in a westerly 
direction towarxls Worcestershire. 
(1) .^ Letter from a Pariah Clerk in Dortet»hire 
to on abtent Vicar, in the Dialect of the 
County. From * Poems on several Occasions, 
formerly written by John Free, D.D.,' 8vo. 
Lond.1757, p.81. 

Meutn', ui't pl«ue you, 1 do ircnd 

Tbcmi letter to you u a vrlcnd. 

Hoping you'll pardon the inditing, 

Becu 1 am not us'd to writing. 

And that you will not ukc unkind 

A word or ao from poor George Uiod, 

For 1 am always fn the way, 

And needs must hear what people sijr. 

First of the houie they make a Joktt 

And tay the chimole* never anoak. 

Now theoccaiion of those jotta, 

Ai 1 do think, where fwallowi nefia, 

That chanc'd the other day to vaal 

Into the parlour, aut and aal. 

Bealde, the people not a few 

Begin to munnur much at you. 

For leaving of them In the lurch, 

And letting itTalngen aerve the chureh. 

Who are in haste to gn agen, 

Zo, tre ha'nt sang tb« Lord knowi when. 

And for their preaching, 1 do know 

Ai well as mixist, 'tb tnii to, ao, 

Zurc if the call you had were right, 

Vou ne'cT could thus your oelghtMun slight. 

But I do fear you've act your aim on 

Naught Id the world tnjt vllthy mammon, A^e. 

(2) Axen Maiden* to goo to Fiair. 
To-marra work so hard'i ya can. 
An' git yer Jobs up under han', 
Var Dick an' I, an* Poll's young man 

Be gw&in to flair ; an' aoo 
IfyouMl llake hold ov each a yarm 
Along the road ar In the twarm 
O* To'ke, we'll kip ye out o'harm, 

An* gi ye a fialreo too. 
We wood'i stiyUaie thar; I'll beboun' 
We'll bring our shiadcsbaclt out o' town 
Zome woys avore the sun ts down. 

So long's the kky ts clear ; 
An* aoo. when al yer work's a-done, 
Yer mother cant tiut let yc run 
An* aae a lltUe ff the fun 

Wber oothln is to feu. 

Thcaunha' flow*r« to love his light. 
The moon ha' flparklen brooks at night. 
The trcca da like the plftysome flight 

Ov ayer vrom the west. 
Let some like empty sounds to mock 
Ther luonesome vftlee by hill or rock. 
But merry chops da like t' unlock 

Ther hearts to maidens hen. 
Zoo you git ready oow, d*ye hiar ? 
Tho's nar another flair so near. 
Aa* thiese don't come but twice a year. 

An' you woon'f vind ui tpUren. 
Wr'U goo to al the sights an' shows, 
O' tumblers wl' ther spangled cloa's. 
An' conjurers wi' cunnen blows. 

An* raffle var a flalren. 

(3) The WoodiandM. 

spread agen your leaves an' flow'n, 
Luonetome woodlands I lunny wcKMilaoda 

Hare uDdemeath the dewy show'rs 

O' warm-ilr'd sprinf-time. sutmy woodlands I 
As when. In drong .sr otxm groun*. 
Wr happy tnioylsh heart 1 voun' 
The twitt'ren birds abutldm niun' 

Your hlgh-tMugh'd hedges, mnny woodlands f 
Va gie'd roe life, ya gle'd me Jfty, 

Luoorsomc woodlauds I sunny woodlands I 
Va gic'd me health as In my pl4y 

1 rambled droo ye, sunny woodlands I 
Va gie'd me freedom var to rove 

In Airy mcsd, arshlady grove i 
Va gle'd me tmllen Fanny's love. 

The best ov alt o't. tunny woodlands 
My rust shill skylark whiver'd high. 

Luosesome woodlands I autmy woodlands f 
To sing below your deep-blue sky, 

An* while spring-clouds. O sunny w nod lands I 
An' tMughso' trees that oonce stood bore. 
Wer glossy green (hi* happy year 
That gle'd me oon I lov'd so dear, 

An' oow ha lost, O ninny woodlands 1 
O let me rove agen unrpled, 

Luoncsoma woodlands I suiuiy woodlands ! 
Aloof; your green-bough'd hedges' aide, 

A( thfn I rambled, sunny woodlands I 
An' wher the ml»<n trees oonce stood, 
Ar tongues oonce rung among the wood, 
My memory shall mtake em good. 

Though you've alost em, aunny woodlands ' 

(4) The JTeepen lAady. 
When llate o' nights, upon the green. 
By lAtk wold house, the moon da sheen, 
A llady there, a-hangro low 
Her head's a-wak-en to an* Tn 
In roties to white's the driven snow t 

Wi' oon ysrm down, while oon da raat 

Al llly-whileupon the tirrast 
O fAlk poor wecprn llady. 
The rurdlen win* an' whUlen squall 
Do shiake the ivy t^y the wall. 
An* miakc the plyen tree-tops rock. 
But never ruffle her white fVock. 
An* ilamrorn door an' rotllen lock 

That in rAik empty house da sound. 

Da never seem to miake look round 
ThVk downcast weepen lladay, 
A liaday, as the ttale da goo. 
That oonce liv'd there, an' lov'd too iruci 
Vict by a young man out aald* 
A mother sad. tMit not a tnide ; 
An' then her father in hU pride 


Von Mttor Mi«t W wnAwywi 
To iMtk poacwMptn lUdy. 

That khe hersuf ihould 1c«tc hia door. 
' To dmrkra tl Again noo rauorv. 

At that her Uttlr plbysomr chile. 

A-ml awny a thouaand mitr. 

Should never meet her ryn to unlle. 
An* pliy again* (ill the in ihlarae 
Should die an' leive a taroUh'd nlame, 
A tad vazmiakcn liady. 

" Let me be loat," (he cried. '• the while. 

I do tfut know var my poor chile ;** 

An* left thehuome ov al her pride. 

To wander droo the wordle vide, 

Wi* grief that vew but che ha* tried, 
An' Ilk* a flow'r a blow ha' brokr, 
She withered wl' rAfk deadly fttrokr. 
An* died aweepen Uady. 

An* the da keep a-comen on, 

Towr fJklk father dead an' gnne, 

A* if her KMil could have noo rni 

Avore her taary chiak't a-prcat 

By hi* vargW-cn kbi : auo blett 
Be they that can but lire In tore. 
An* vlnea pllacc o* rcat above, 
Unlik' the weepco Uady. 


The Durbua dialect it the same aa that spokeit 
in Northumlwrland and the North Riditig of 
York«birc, the fonncr being more like Scotcht 
and the latter more like English, but each in a 
very flight degree. The Durham pronnnciation, 
though tofi. is monotonous and dravrling. See 
the * Quart«riy RedcfrTor Feb. 1836, p. 358. 

No glossary of Durham n-orda has yet ap- 
peared, but Kenoett has recorded a considerable 
Dumber in hii MS. Oloasary. I hare been en- 
abled to add many unknown to that author, 
derived from communications by the Rev. R. 
Douglas, George B. Richardson* Esq., Miss 
Portus. E. T. Warburton, Esq^iind Mr. S. Ward. 

If the following anecdote be true. Southern 
English is but little known amongst some of 
the lower orders in Durham i 

■* JohD." aald a master tanner In South nurham, 
th« other dAy, to one of his men, " bring in lome 
fuel." John walked off. revolving tTio word In his 
mind, and returned with a pHchfork I *< 1 don't 
want that*** said the wondering tanner: " I want fuel, 
John." ** Beg your pardon,'* replied the man. ** I 
thought yon wanted •oroething to turn over the •kins." 
And off he went again, not a whit the wi»cr, but 
aahamed to confess hii ignorance. Much mediLaiIng, 
he Hext pitched upon the betom. »houldcrlng which. 
bcretunwd to the ooundDg-houte. HU maater wai 
now Ida pasaloo. '* What a itupidastyou are. John," 
he exclaimed; " 1 want some sticks and thavlngt lo 
light th« flre." *' O-h-h-h V' rejoined tlte rustic, '* tboi'i 
what you want, U it ?" Why couldn't you say so it 
fir*t. master. Instead of using a London dictionary 
word ?" And, wishful to show that he was not alone 
In Kk IfDurance, he called a comrade to the unner'i 
prcance. and aaked hiro If he knew what " fuel" was. 
" Ay* I" amweicd Joe, *' ducks an'gcase, and itke 
like r — OaiMAeod Obasrrer. 


The dialect of Essex is closely allied in some 
parta of the county to that of Kent, and in 
otbcn to that of Suffolk, though generally not 

so broad, nor spoken with the strong Suffolk 
whining tone. Mr. Charles Clark has given a 
glossary uf Essex words at the end of * John 
Nookea aad Mary Styles, or an Essex CalTa 
Visit to Tiptree Races,"* 8vo. 1939, and I nm in- 
debtctl for many others to the kindness of thfi 
Rev. \V. I'riddcn and Mr. Edward T. HiU. A 
list of Essex words is given in the Monthly 
Magazine for July, 1814, pp. 498-9. 

(1) FtomaPoem^f ihefifiemthctniury^ by the 
Vicar of Maidotu 
Thcrfor, my loffe chyld, I si'hallc techc th*. 
Hrrken mc wellr the roaner and the kV^* 
How thi sowie inward schalleaqueyntyd be 
Wlthlhrwisgood and vertw In allewysse; 
Rede and consryve. for he Is to displce. 
That rcdyth ay, and noot what is ment, 
Suchc redyng is not but wyndc dcspent. 
Pray thI God and prayie hym withalle thl hart, 
Fadir andmodyr have In reverence. 
Love hem wclEe, and be thou never to smert 
To her mcnnyi conuy]e. but kepe the thens, 
Tylle thu be rlepld be clene wlthowjt offence i 
Saly w gladly to hym that 1« moor dygne 
Than art thiselfc. thu srhalt thl plase resygne. 
OrcdethI maystcr, thy thynge loke thu kepe. 
Take hede to thy housold. ay love thy wyff, 
E'Icssunte wordes oujt of thl mowth schalle crepe ; 
Be not irouft, kepe thi beheat os lyff. 
Be ttmpr^d, wyjtc. and non eacesayff : 
Thy wyves wordes make thu noon actorlt<}, 
In follsclepc no moor thann* nodyth ihe. 

US. HttrLVn,t. 96. 
(2) Coc*-«.Brt-« HiU. 
At Tottum's Cock-a-BevU Hill, 

A iput surpassed by few. 
Where toddlers ollts haut to eye 

The proper prltty wlew ; 
Where people crake so ov the place* 

Lt'as-wayi, so I've bard uy ; 
An' frum its top yow, ■artcny, 

Can sec a moasus way. 
'Bout this osd Hilt, I warrant ya, 

Their bog it nuvcr cease*; 
They'd growl thud yow nut own that It 

Beau Danbury's au* to pieces. 
But no sense OT a place, some think* 

li thia here hill so high.— 
Cos there, full oft, 'tis wtlon ooad. 

But that don't argufy. 
Vlt, if they their Inqulratlonsmaake 

In winter time, some will 
Condemn that place as no great shakes. 

Where fulki ha' the coad-chill I 
At sum'dy, 'hap*, when nigh thesput. 

May ha* a wish lo s«e't,— 
From Mauldontoun to Keldon'tls* 

An' 'gin a four releet. 
Where up the road the load It goM 

So lugsome an' so stiff, 
Thathossc* mosty klich a whop, 

Prum drivers In a tiff. 
Out who'd pay a how when tugging on ? 

Noni?buta tetchy cif : 
TIs right on plain etch chap dcsarvea 

A clumsy thump himself. 
Haul'd o'er the coals, slrh fellars e'er 

Shud b«, by Martin's Act ; 
But, then, they're raytbrr muggy ofl. 
So with um we're not sact. 



Uut thu«»iiU( 'hipi. to let urn oaf 

U wrong, becoi etch cartrr. 
ir maade iti cmart. hit P't and Q'l 

He'd mine for ever arUrr. 
At Cack-«Bevl% Hill, too* the 

Witcacre* ihow a tree. 
Which If yow clamber up, beture, 

\ precioui way yow iee. 
1 doro'l think I cudcUmeit now, 

Ald'U' I Utter cud ; 
1 stiuilii't wanley loike to troy, 

For guelch cum down I thud. 
My head 'ood twlm, — 1 'oodn't do'lt 

Nut even for a guinea: 
A Dairbour ax'J me, tothcr day, 

•* Naa, nai,*^ tayt I, •* nut qulnny.** 
At Cock a-BcTti Hill, I waa 

A -goon to tell the fnlki. 
Some wafMT* back— when I bar^n — 

In peace there lived John Noakes. 

It has Uecu already remarked that the orga- 
nic forms of Ihe Glouceattrshire dialect have 
remained unchanged for centuries, and are to he 
traced in Rohert of Gluuct'ster's Chronicle. 
Many Anglo-Saxon words are here preserved in 
great punty. " lie gcunne it him/' he gave it 
him, the Terb getatne being in general use 
amongst the peo&antry. The dialect is more 
aiindar to that of Somersetshire than of the 
adjuining counties, though nut ao Btroagly 
m;trked as a Western diakct. They change o 
into a,» into r.^tntoc, / iulo d^ p into ^, <short 
Q into I or aoy, long e into eecr, long i into ey, 
long o into ooa. The A.-S. termination en is 
still preserved ; ihte is UKcd for thou and you ; 
thilk ia in constant u&e^ htr is put for «Ae, jrAe 
for Aer, /for me, and ou for Ae, fAe, or it. Cotn- 
tnunications of Gloucestershire words have been 
received fnun the Rev. H.T. Ellacombe, Mias 
Shipton, and Mr. E. Wright. 

George Ridler't Oven, 

ThcBtwoni that built OeorRC Rldler'iovm, 

And thauy qeum from the Oli*akeney*s quaar ; 
And George he wur a jolly old mon. 

And hli yead It gfaw'd atioTe his yare. 
One thing of George Ridler I rauit commend, 

Ar>d that wur not a notable thea|[ ; 
He mead hli braa^ avoorehedled, 

Wi* any dree brothen hU aona ai'houM atng. 
There f Okk the treble and John the me*n, 

Lt-l every mon sing In hU auwn pleace ; 
And George he wur the elder brother, 

And thercroore he would ilng the bcasa. 
Mine hoatcst't mold (and herneaum 'twur Nell) 

A pretty wench, and I lnv'd her well i 
I lor'd her well, good reauaon why. 

Because s«hc lov'dmy dog and !• 
My dog Is good to catch a hen. 

A duck or goo<e la vood for men ; 
And where good company I spy. 

othethrr gwocs my dog and I. 
My mwothrr told I when I wur young, 

If I did rollow Ihe ttrongbeer pwoot i 
Thatdreok would pruv my auverdrow, 

Amtneauk me wear a cliarrad-barecwo.i(. 

My dng hna gotten zitch a trick, 

I'n i-lilt moMl« when ihiuy t>c skli : 
When thauy be sick and ltketadie» 

O Chechcr gwocs my dog and I. 
When [ have dree itspencc* under my thnmb« 

O then I tie welcome wherever I come ; 
But when I havenoae, O thi-n t ptus by, 

*TU poverty peartj goodconipADy. 
ir I fhould die, ai It may hnp. 

My greauvc ihallbc under the good yral tap; 
In Touted earmn there wfK>l u« tie. 

Cheek by jowl my dog and 1 1 

The romance of Octovian, according to Mr. 
D'IsraeU, ** is in the Hampshire dialect nearly 
as il is spoken now." ^Vlthough somewhat 
doubtful as to the literal corrcrrnes* of this 
opinion, an extract from it may be compared 
vrith a modern specimen of the (iaalect. A short 
glossar}' of Hampshire words is given in Warner's 
collections for that county. The dialect of the 
west of the county is similar to that of Wiltshire, 
f heing changed into r, and th into f/; and un 
for him, her, it. It is a common saying, that in 
Hampsliire every thing is called he except a torn- 
cat wliich is called «Ae. 

( I ) Extract from ihe early romance q/" Oefoptan 

The knyjtyi logh yti the halle. 

The mantelljs they yeve menstraiwalle ; 

Lavor and b&tyn they gon calle 

To wascche and aryte, 
And syth to dauncc on the walle 

Of Parys. 
Whan the soudan thys tydyng hcnle. 
For ire a« he wcr wod he fcrd : 
He ran with a drawe awerde 

To hyi raameotrye. 
And allehyi gi>ddys ther hoamerredf* 

With greet envye. 
Atterot, Jopyn, and Mahoun 
He alle to-lu*w wlih hys fachoun. 
And Jutriter he drew adoun 

Of hysautere: 
Me seyde, hy nere worth a icaloune 

A He y-fcre. 
Thn he haddc hyi goddyi ytiete. 
He wa* ibited of aJle hys hete. 
To aende hyt sendys nolde he najt leie, 

Tho anoooryjt, 
To Babylonye after lordea grete 

To balpbymfyjt. 

MS. Cbti. Cattf, A. U. 

J Letter to the Editor of ihe Timen,from a poor 
Man at Andotfer, on the Union Workhouee, 

Sir, — Hunger, as I've heerd say, breaks through 
Stone Walls ; but yet I shodn't have tliought of Ict- 
dngyou know about my poor Missus's dt^th, hut 
all my neltxiura aay tell it out* and It can't do you 
DO harm and may do others good, sptdally as Par- 
Itamtnt Is lo meet toon, whrn the Oentlefoke will t>e 
talking about the working foke. 

I be but a farmer* working man. and was roArricd 
lo my Mtsaus 90 year* agooe, and have three ChlU 
dem living with me, one 10, another 7* and t'other 
3. I tM subject to tud rumnrls, and never earns no 
morr, a« you may Judpc, thnn to pay rent and keep 




our bodiM ftnd louls tofethtr when we be ill wdl. 
1 wa> tended by Mr. WcttUke wh^n lie wak Union 
Dnctor, but whrn the Guardians turned him nut It 
wu a bid job for atl the Poor, and a prerious bad 
job for me and mine. 

Mr. Pajme when he come to be our Union Doctor 
tmrlcd upon me up to almost the end of lait AprlU 
but when I tend up to the Union Uouie a« utual, 
Mr. Broad, the RelerlDg OOlcer. tend back word 
there was nothing for me. and Mr. Payne wofint 
rome do more. I wa» loo bad to work, and had not 
Vittali for me, the Mitsut, and the youn|{ nnes, to 1 
waf furced to tell off (he Bed, Bedtlcad, and fum't- 
lurc of the young onci , to by VlttaU with, and then 
I and Miuui and the young onei had onljr one bed 
fnr all of ufl. Mi&tut was very bad, to, tlieo^buc as 
wr knowd twere no uiclo mk the Union fornothink 
ccpt we'd all go mto the Workhouse, and which 
>li>sus couldn't a bear, ai she'd bin parted from the 
childrm. she sends down to tell Mr. Westlake how 
liad we was a doing off, and he comes to ut directly, 
and lends upon us out of charity, and gives Missus 
Mutton and thlnp. which he said, and we know'd 
too wrll, she wantf>d of, and he gives thlioutofhii 
own Pocket. 

Missus complaint urowd upon her and she got lo 
vrry bad, and Mr- Westlake says to us, I do thtitk 
the puardUns wouldn't let your wife lay here and 
starve, but would do something for you If thry 
knowcd how bad you wanted things, and so, says he, 
I'll give you a SertiBcatc for some Mutton nnd 
things, and you take It to Mr. Broad, the relcvlng 
nflBcer. Well, 1 doe* this, and he tells me that hed 
five It to the guardians and let me know what they 
■aid. I sees him again, and O, says he, I gired thai 
SfrtiOcate to the Guardians, but rhey chucked it a 
CNM side and said they wouldnt tend to no luch 
thing, nor gi\e you nothing, not even If Missus was 
dying, if you has anything lo do with Mr. Westlake, 
as they had turned him off. 

I told my Mi»s<is this, and then says she we must 
try loget their Union Doctor, Mr. Payne, as wecin'l 
go on for ever takln;; things from Mr. Westlakc's 
Pocket, and he turned out of Place, and so good lo 
many potir folks besides us. So we gets Mr. Payne 
after a bit lo come down ; and he says to Miuu* 
you're very bad, and I shall order the Union to seudi 
you Mutton and other things. Next Week Mr. 
Payne calls again, and asks Missus did she have the 
things he'd ordered for her to have * She says I've 
hod a shltlings worth of Mutton, Sir. Why, says 
he, you wants other things besides Mutton, and [ 
ordered them for you in the Union Book, and you 
ought to have thera In your bad slate. This goes on 
for 5 nr 6 weeks, only a shillings wcuth of Mutton a 
Week being allowed her, and then one Week a Hlilc 
Gin woa allowed, and after that as Missus couldnt 
(M out of bed a Woman was sent to nurse and h<-Ip 

I didnt ask Mr. Payne to order these ere things. 
tho* bad enof God knows they was wanted ; but in 
the Ant week In tost November I was served with a 
summons cotendaforeour Mayor and Justices under 
the Vograncc Act; I think they said iwos cause I 
hod DOl found these things for Missus myself; but 
the UdIoo Doctor had ordered em of the Guardians 
on his sponslblllty. Well, I oltends afor« the 
Justlca, and there was nothing against me, and so 
they puts it off, and orders tr.c to lend afore em 
«(aln next week, which I does^ and then ihcrc wosot 
coof for rm to aend me to Gaol, as (he Guardians 
wanted, for a Month, and they puts it off again for 
aaotber Week, and says I must come afore em again 

■ind which I do«s ; and they tella me thcres nothing 
[■roved, that 1 could aford to piy fnr the things, and 
I mltr go about my business. 

I Just loses three days' work , or pretty handy, by 
this, and that mode bad a good bit worse Next Day 
Mr. Payne comes again, and MIisus was so nut- 
daccout bad. she says cant you give rre somrthing 
to do me good and ease me a bit ; says Mr. Payne, I 
dont see you be much worse. Vea. I be. says Mls*ua, 
and I wish you'd be so good as to let me send for 
Mr. Westlake, as I thinks he knows what'd mike me 
rosier, and cure the bad pains I do suffVr. Mr. Payne 
abused my Poor Minus, and dared hrr to do any. 
thing of that sort, and so we were feared to do it, 
left 1 should he pulled up again afore the Justice*, 
and lose more days work, and prhaps get sent to 
Gaol. Eight days after l-his Mr. Pa>ne nerer having 
rame nlst ui, and the Uni<.in hiving lowd us nothing 
al all, my poor Missus dies, and dies from want, and 
in agonies of pain, and as bad off as If shed hern a 
Savage, for she could only have died of want of them 
things which she wanted and I couldnt buy If she'd 
been In a foreign land, were there no Parsons and 
People OS I've heard tcll be treated si bad as dogs. 

Veart agone. If any body had been half so bad as 
ray MUstia, and nobody else wouM have tended to 
her, there'd been the clergyman of the parish, at all 
evenu, who'd have prayed with her, and seen too 
that she didn't die of starvation, but our Parwin is 
in favor of this here new Law, atid as he gets GOf. a 
year from the GuardUm, he arnt n gnlng to quarrrl 
with his Bread and Cheese for the likes of we, and 
so hedldnE come to us. Aliho' he must have knowed 
how 111 Miuus was ; and she, poor creature, went 
out of this here world wUhoot any Spiritual contl- 
lalion whnisrtmeveT from the Potir Man's Church. 

We'd but one bed .ib I've lelled you, And only one 
Bedroom, and It was very bod to be all In the same 
Room and Bed wiih poor Missus after shu were 
dead ; and as I'd no money to pay for a fofUn, I 
goes to Mr. Frond, ihen to Mr. Ma}cr, one of the 
Guardians, and iTirn to the overseers, and axes .ill 
of 'em to And a Coffin, but 'twere no use, and so, 
not knowing what In the World Co do. off I goes to 
tell Mr. Westlake of It, and he wossiwa down at the 
House, and blamed me much for not letting he know 
afore Mltausdled, and finding we'd no focnl nor fire, 
nothing for a shrowd eept we could wash up some> 
thing, and ihal we'd no soap to do that wiih, he 
gives us onmeihlng to get these ere things, and tells 
me to go again to the Rekvlng Offlrtr and t'olhrrm 
and try and get a CofTln, and to tell un Missus ought 
to be hurried as soon as posilble, eluc t'would make 
us til ni. This 1 does as afore, but get nothing, 
and then Mr. Westlake give me an order whrre to 
get a CoOln, and II he had not stood a friend to me 
and mine, I can't think what would have become of 
em« as twos sod at Nights to see the poor little things 
pretty nigh break their hearts wht?n they s«vd their 
poor dead motlirr by their j|de ayion the Bed. 

M y troubles wasnt to end even here, for Strang to 
tell the RegltCrer for Death* for (his District dnnt 
live In this the largest Parish with about MK>0 fnha- 
bitonlf, but at a Iltito Village of not more than 4(H> 
Peopie and 5 Mile« off, so I had lo walk there and 
back U* miles, which is very hard upon us poor folk, 
and what Is worse when I got there the Ftegistrer 
watot up ; and when he got up he wouldnt tend to m* 
afore hcd had hitbrcakfait, and I wu aforced tn wait 
■ bout unlU hod had done breakfast, and It seemed oi 
'twos a very long time for a fioor chap like me to be 
kept a waiting, whilst a man who Is paid fordoing 
what I wanted won't do such little work a* that 


aforf here mmde hiMrlf ramforUble. tbo* I telM 
bim haw had 1 waolod to get back, and that 1 »rH>u1d 
kww « Day by hit kreflnft me walilnit about. 

Thflt thli U moiUy the fault of the Guardlani 
rather than anybody elte 1b my firm tieleif, the' If 
Mr. Payne had done hit duty bed a been with Mivui 
many timet afore >he died and not have left her aj 
he did, when he kDowc<1 the wai vo bad, and hctl a 
made un give her what ihe wanted : but then he 
muit do, he aayt, Juit what the Guardlani wi>he«, and 
that amt to attend much on the Poor, and the Tl»- 
levlng Offlrer it docked If what he givei by even the 
Doctors ordera ami proved of by the Guordimiif 
Blerward, and he had to pay for the little Gin the 
Doctor ordered out of his own Pocket, and. as the 
Newspnpcr uys, for the Nurse, as this was put in 
our Paper by I'm sure 1 don't know who. but I be- 
lleret lis true, last week. 

And now, Sir, I shall laare It to you to Judge 
whether the Poor can be trettled any when so bad 
as they be In the Andovcr Union. 


TIic pronoun a is used for he, slie, or it. Strong 
pretfrits are ciinrent, climb, chmb^ heave, hovt, 
pick, puck, Khake, shuck, squeeze, a^oze, Stc. 
The dialect of this county must be classed as be- 
long;ingto the Midland division. The word /Mt/ 
is u»ed iti rather a peculiar manner. Instead of 
uiying, 1 hove hut just returnrd, they say I re- 
turned but juil. A. list of Herefordshire words 
is given in Uuncumb's IIi8toi7 of Hereford, and 
a more extended one baa recently Iwen sepa- 
rately published, 8vo. 1B39. 1 am indebted for 
many words not to be found in either of thete to 
lists given me by Sir S. R. Meyrick, T. W. Lone, 
Esq., and Mr. Perry. 

(1) From Maximon^ a tale in a ^fS. written in 
Hertfordshire of the time of Edward JL 
Herkne to my ron, 
As Irh ou telle con, 

Uf cide al hou yt goi. 
Of a mody toon* 
Hihie MaxurooD* 

Soth wlthoute lea. 
Clerc he wat ful god. 
So mont moo underttod. 

Nou herkne hou It wes. 

Vs wtUe he hevede y-noh. 
Purpre and pal he droh. 

Ant other murthes mo. 
He wes the feyrest mon* 
Wlth-outen Abiolon, 

That seththe wes ant Uio. 
Tho laite U lyf so longe. 
That he blgan unttronge. 

As mony tides so. 
Him con rcwe sore 
Al ii wUdelore, 

For elde him dude so wo ; 

So fone as elde him com 
Ys boc an honde he nom. 

Ant gan of rcuthci Tttl«, 
Of his herte ord 
He made moni word, 

Ant of If lyvM dcde. 
He gan mcne is monet 
So fcbl* were U bone. 

V*s hew blRon to wede. 
So dene he wu y-gno, 
TItat hpu ne hade he non : 

Vs hcrtc gan to blede. 

Care and kunde of elde 
Hikcth ml body f elde, 

That y ne maf stonde uprlht ; 
Ant min herte unbolde. 
Ant ml Ixxly lo eotde. 

That er thou wes so lyht. 
Ant ml body Ihunne, 
Such Is wortdcs wunnc, 

This day me thioketh nyht. 

M& HttrL 99A3, f. 


(2) Frcm an EngliaA translation of Macer de 
virtutibuM herbarum, made by John Lelamow, 
acolemaister of Herforde, 1373. 

Mowsere growuh lowc by thegrownde. and berith 
a yellowc flourc. Drlnke the Juit with wyne other 
ale, anil annynce the rcynes and the bak with the 
blode of a fox, for Itie ilone. Also itampe him and 
mylfoly togadyr, nnd drlnke that Juls with while 
wyne, and that wille make one to pisse. Also drlnke 
the Juit with stale ale, a srkc man thai is woundld, 
and yf he holdllhe that driokc he shalle lyfc, and yf 
he caste hit he shalle d'ye. Alto drinke the Juls of 
tbliserbe for thetquynanry. US, Sioanr 5, f. 35. 

There seem to be no peculiorilics of dialect 
here whicti are not common to the adjoining 
county of Cambridgeshire. They say mart for 
a (|uautity ; a mori of pneoplc, a mort of rain. 
To-year for this year, like to-day or to-morrvw. 
Wonderful for very ; his pain were wonderftU 
great. To yei himself ready, for to dress him- 
self ; he li too weak to get himself ready. If a 
disorder or illness of any kind l»c inquire<] for, 
they never aay it is better or worse, but that's 
iMittcr, or that's worse, with an emphasis on that. 
The Rev. Joseph Homer kindly favoured me 
with a list of the few provincial word* which 
may he peculiar to this county. 


The dialect of the native inhabitants of this 
island differs in many respects from the county 
to which It is opposite. The accent is rather 
mincing than broad, and haa little of the vulgar 
character of the West country dialects. The 
tendcncj* to insert y in the middle of words may 
be remarked, and the substicuttou of rfoi yis 
not uncommon among the peasantrj', but by no 
means general. The pronunciation may gene- 
rally he correctly represented by the duplication 
of the vowels. 

No printed glossary of hie of Wight provin- 
cioliiou has yet a^jpeared^ but a very valuable 
one in MS., compiled by Captain Henry Smith, 
was mo&t kindly placed at my diapotal by hia 
relative, Charles Roach Stuith, £aq. f.8.a« It 
htA licen fully used in the following pages. Use- 
ful communications have also been rt^ccived 
from E. J. Vernon, Esq., Dr. Brom6cld, and 
Dr. Salter. 













Specim^m of the hie of Wigkl ttialect. 
Wlint'i got therr you f 
A blastnuhun itradtllebob craAlun about In the 

Djunmut big. 
Slnddlcbobl Where ded'U leyani (o tuu^n by 

that iieysm ? 
Why, what thoud e caal'n f tes the right oeyun 

nn ut i 
Right ncywn, oo t why ye gun so(e rooU cun't 

see lea a Dumblcdore r 
I knowi ic*, but vur ul that Strmddlebob'c *o 

right a oeyam vorn ai Dumblcdore ci. 
Come. I'll be deyaod if I doac: laay thee a quart 

Dooe * and Til ax ineyaslor to night wht'O I 

goes whooam, bee't how *t wool. 
(Accordlogly n.t)aAtur was applied to by Wilt, 

who made hii dacUlon known to Jan Che 
next roomtng.l 
I lay. Jan t I axed ineyastur about that are 

UkC Dight. 
Wdl! what dcd *ur aay f 
Why a led one neyam ei jcat au vittun vorn as 

tother, Aud he lous a ben caald StraddJebob 

ever xuDce the bland was vust tneyad. 
The devvul ahav I if that's thekeeu 1 •pooos I 

kMt the quart. 
That theeluu't lucky 1 and we'll goo down to 

Arverton to the Red Lion and drink un aier 

we done work. 


■ KENT. 

I Tbe modem Kentiih dialect is alightly broad, 
indeed more so than that of Surrej or Siuaex. 
Vaiy, plaiy, icaiy, for day, play, way, Ike. Tliey 
say urho for hov, and vice vena. Mate, initead 
of boy or lad, is the luual address amongtt 
equals. The interchange of e and lo is common 
here u well as in the uietropoltg. At in most 
parts of England, the prunuuciation of noiues of 
places differs very much from the orthography, 
e.g. Smantci for Sevenoaks, DaimfoT Durcnth, 
Leiuum for Lcwisham, &c. No glossary of 
Kentish words has yet been published, unless vrc 
may so style a short list of words in Lcnis's 
History and Antiquities of the lale of Tenet, 
1 736, pp. 35-39, but I have received valuable 
communications from the Rev. M. II. Lloyd, 
John Brent, Esq., the Rev. Thomas StrcatfciM, 
the Rev. L. B. Larking, John Pemherlon Bart- 
lett, Esq., the Rev. Dr. I lusscy, Thomas Wright, 
Esq., Miss Cotterell, J. K. I'lughcs, Esq., and 
A. J. Uunkin, Esq. An early song in this dia- 
lect occurs in Kavenscroft's Melismala, 16U. 

We have a most curious specimen of the 
Kentish dialect of the fourteenth century (1340) 
iu the Ayeobyte of Inwyt, a MS. in the Arundel 
collection. An extract from it will be found at 
p. 801, and another is here given. The change 
ofyintop, and .into j, arc now generally pecu- 
liar to the West country dialect, hut appear at 
this early period to have extended over the 
South of England. In the next century, the 
broadness of the dialect was not so general. Al 
least, I poem of the liAeenth centur,', in a MS. 
al Oxford, written in Kent, is remarkably pure, 
alihongh the author excuses himself for his 

And though myn Eogllih tie tympill to myn eulcDt. 
HoEil in« excusid, for I wu borne in Kent. 

MS. LaMd. 416, f. 49. 
The principal peculiarity in this MS. seems to 
consist in e being the prefix to the verb instead 
of ior y. For a long period, however, the dia- 
lect of the Kentish peasantry was strongly 
marked. In a rare tract entitled, " How the 
Plowman lerned his Paternoster," a character is 
thus mentioned: 

lie wu pmtched, tome, snd all t<>.rente ; 
It lemed by his langogc that he ira» twme In Kente. 
HeUijuitB Anliquttt vol. 1. p. 46. 

The following very curious passage from 
Caxton will further illustrate this fact : 

And certaynly our langage now used varyeth 
ferre from that whiche was used and spoken whan I 
was borne, for we £nglysshenien ben borae under 
the domynacyon of the moiie, whlche is never stcd- 
faste, but ever waverynge, wexynge one season, and 
wancth and dyscreaseth another season *, and thai 
cvmya Englysshe that Is spoken In one shyre varyeth 
from another, Inioraochc that in my dayes happened 
that certayn marchauotes were In a shippe in 
Tatny.e for to have aayled over the see into 
ZeUnde, and for lacke of wynde, thel taryed atte 
Kortond, and wenle to lande {or to rcfrcshe them. 
And one of theytn, named ^iheCTt'lde, a meri-er, cam 
into an hows aud axed fur mete, and specyally he 
axyd after eggys; and thegoodewyf answerdc that 
she coude speke oo Frenslie, and the inarchaunt was 
angry, for be also coude speke no Frenshe, but wolde 
have hadde egges, aud the uoderstode bym not ; 
and thennc at laste another sayd that he wolde have 
ryren. Then the good wyf sayd that she understod 
hyin wc]. Loo. what sholde a man in tiiysc dayes 
now wryte egges or eyren / Certaynly It is hardeto 
playse every man, bycauae of dyversit^ and chaunge 
of langage. Ctuton't JStwy^M, HW. 

(I) Extract from the Ayenbyte (ff Intoyt, MS. 

Armtiel 57, ff. 86-87. 
Me ret loe lives of holy vaderes Ihet an holy man 
tealde hou he com to by monek, and scde hou thet 
he hedde y-by anc payenes lone, thet wes a prest to 
the momenctte*. And tho he wes a child on time 
he yede into the temple mid his vader priveliche; 
ther he ysc^ ane gratne dycvcl thet let ope ane 
vyealdinde stole, and aV his mnync aboiite him. 
Ther com on of the princes, and leal to hjm ; tho he 
Him aksede the ilke thet let inc the stole huannes 
he rom, and he aosuerede thet he com vram ane 
iondehuer he hedde arcred and y-mad maoyewerren 
and manyc vijtinge*, mo thet moche volk weren 
y-silaje, and moche blod thet y-SKd. The mayster 
him acscde Ine hou mtMrhe time he helte thet y-do, 
and he ansuerede ine thtitli dajrt. He hini cede, 
Ine suo moche time hett itio lite y-do 7 Tho he 
hct thethawer rljt wel y.beale, and evcle y-dra5e. 
F:fteT liian com another thet alsuo to him leal as* 
the verstc. The mayster him acsede huannea ha 
con]. E^e aosuerede thet ho com vram the se huer 
he taedde y.mfld tnanye tempestes, vcle laipes ICH 
bfoke, and moche volk adreytt. The malster acsedc 
ine hou long time. He ansuerede Ine tuentl dajes. 
He tnydc, ine luo moche time hest auo lite ydof 
Enerward com the thrldde, thet ansuerede Ihet he 
com vram ao< ciU huer he hedde y-by al ane 
bredale, and ther he hedde arered and y-mad cheastcs 
and itriGT, auo Ihet moche volk ther were y.slaje, 
and tfaei-to be hedde y slsje thane hotebounde. The 


taaltur blm aciede hou long time he aetu thetvor 
to dtme. He aiuuFnile ihet iac (en dx^e*. Tho he 
hcl thet he were wel y-byate TOt Ibct he hedde «uo 
longe abide thet to done without more. Ate luten 
com ttDother to-vore the prtnce, and to him he bea] ; 
and he him aoede, huannei romtt thou t He 
ansueredc thet he com «ram the crmltage huer he 
bedde y-by vourli yer vor to vondi ane mooek of 
fornicacion, thet ii Che tenoe of lecherie. and xuo 
mf>che Ich habbe y-do thet ine thitonyjt Ich hine 
habbe overcome, and y-do htm valle Into theyenne. 
Tho Ihip op the mAyster, and him kesle and be- 
cleptc, and dede the corouneope hit hcved, an dede 
him litte beiide him, and to him cede that he hedde 
grat thing y-do and gnt proweue. Tho saydc the 
guodo man thet hunnne he hedde thet y-hyerd and 
thet y lojc, he thojte thet hit were grat thing toby 
monekf and be tho enchcytoun he becom monek. 

(2) Extract from MS. Laud. 416, written Ay 

a native of Kent about 1460. 
Al«o use not to pley at the dice ne at the tablls, 
Ke none mnner gamy* uppon ihr holidatt ; 
Uie no tavrrnyi where be jciti* and fablit, 
Syngyng nf trwdc halettn, rondcletlu, or vlroUlt ; 
Nor eriy In mumyng to fecche home freich malt, 
Forytm&kyth maydios tostomble and TaMe In the 

And afterward thfy telle her counrele to the frein. 

Now y-wliyt were wele done to know 

The dylTrreDce bytweae t damielle and a malde, 

For alle bene lyke whas they itond in a low ; 

But 1 wylle telle what cxperiuncr said. 

And in what wy>e they bccntyrid and araled : 

Maydynfl were callla of lilk and of thrcd, 

And dAmaellU kerchevicpynnid uppon thcr bed. 

Wvffla may not tochirch title they be entyrcd, 
ETbrldyllldaad paytrelltH, toihcw her aray, 
And f«tyd alkatmwteai an hacooy to be hyred ; 
Thnn «he lokyth aboute her If eny be lo giy : 
And oon thyng I comend, which U mo»t to ray pay, 
ThvT kerrhef hanggyth »o low, that no man can 

To loke undlmethe ooni to shrew her eie. 

Jangelyng In chtrche among hem Ii not uild. 
To telle alle her howiwyfry of the weke byforc ; 
And alfo her hu«boiidl« ihallcnot be arcnild. 
Now crokyd aud crabbed they bene ever more ; 
And luche thynggei lo 1 they can kepe no srnre. 
They bene as clow and covert as the horn of 

That wylle not be herd bat from berya to belle. 

(3) From Dick and Salt a modem poem in the 

KenitMh dialect. 
Ym lee, when Mlddlemai come roun, 

I thought Jat Sal and I 
Ud go to Canterbury town* 

To we what we cud buy. 
Fer when 1 llVd at Challock Ley>. 

Our Srcont-man had bfvn : 
An wonro, when we wai carrln pemi. 

He told me what he'd tin. 
He Mid dare was • teejut tttHXt 

Dat Uuted for a wick ; 
An all de ploughmen dat went dare. 

If uit car dair thlnlng atlck. 
An how dat dare wai nable rigi. 

An Merrlander'i jokes ; 
Snuff-boitn, wblrllgl|S« 

An boufed sights a folk*. 

But what queer'd me, he Md 'twu kcp 

All rounatmut de church ; 
An how dey had him up de steps. 

An left htm in de lurch. 
At last he got Into de street. 

An den he lott his road ; 
An Bet an he come to a gate. 

Where all de soadgert stood. 
Den she keCcht fast hold av his ban. 

For she was rather scar'd : 
Tom aed, when fust he see 'em ttan. 

He thought slie'd be a-farcd. 


The dialect of Lancaaliire is principaUy known 
by Collier's Dialogue, ijubliahed under the aame 
of Tim Dobbin. A glossary of the fifteenth cen- J 
tun, written in Lancashire, is preserved in MS. ■ 
Lansd. 560, f. 45. A lettjcr in the Lancashire 
dialect occurs in Braithwaite's Two Lancashire 
Lovers, 1640, and other early specimens arc _ 
given in Heywon<r9 Late Lancashire Witches, fl 
4to. 1634r And Shadwf^ll's Lancashire Witches^ 1 
4to. 1GB2. The glossar}- at the cud of Tim 
Bobbin is iToperfect as a collcctton for thecoimty, 
and I have been chiefly indebted for Lancashire 
words to my father, Thomas HaUiweU, Esq. 
Brief notes hare also been received from (he 
Rev. L. Jones, George Smecton, Esq., the Rev. 
Ur. Hume, G. R. Spencer, Esq., and Mr. R. 
Pioctor. The features of the dialect will be 
seeti from the foltowing specimens ; o and ou arc 
changed into a, ea into o, at into mt, jt into k^ 
long o into oi, and d final into /. The Saxon 
termination en is retained, but generally mute. 

( 1 ) Extract from Tim Bobbin** Dialogue 

between ISimmiu and Meary. 

Jtf. Udds-flih 3 boh that wur breve. I wou'd I'd 
bin eh ;orc Kele. 

T. Whau whauj boh theawst hesr. It wur odree 
wey t<»oto; heawe'er I gcet there be sue* o'clock, 
on before eh opp'nt diir, 1 covert Nip wuh th' 
dojMi, ot eh dtoy meh netc weh, t'let him seehcaw 
1 i^iodrt her. Then 1 opp'nt dur: on whot te dule 
dust think, twh three Utile tyney UandyhewiUconm 
wcaiighing os If th* htttcewals wou'd o worrit roc, 
on after that twallut me whlck i Boh pretontly 
there coom o fine wumroon t on I took her for a hoo 
justice, hoor so meety fine ; F r 1 heard Eluchott 
o' Jack'i tell mch meastr.r, that hoo JuiLlcea awlus 
did th' mooatt o'th' wark ! Heawe'er. I axt hur If 
Hr. Justice wur o whoam ; hoo roii'd naw opp'n hur 
meawth t' sey eigh, or now ; twh limpurt on »ed Isi, 
(the dickkona Isi hur on him too) -Sed I, I wuddld'n 
tell him I'd fenespeyk to him. 

(2) A Letter printed and dittributed in the 
procetsion that ica» formed at Mancheater m 
commemoration of free trade. 

Bury. July ISth. IfNf!. 

To UB Law-an Jhon Rt7ssBt.L, — Well, me 
Lawrd, yoan gctt'o ut last up to ih* top •>' ih' lad- 
Ihur, un th' heemust stave anit brokk'n wl yo this 
time us it did afore. Wayal •eel* t'ncawwrthur yu 
kun keep yurstnnnm ur not; awm raytherfyertut 
yoon find It flippy un noan safe footin ; but, heaw- 
sumevvur, thin nawt like thr)in. 

But wot'r ynfurdootn.* Vuteenuilo think uto 





Vwt dyel o thing* winti mrndEn, un yii thtnkn reel, 
Ibr they dun:— but kon roniannidgeum i Vur fust 
job '11 be • twoffun; un iho It'll be o iwevt tubjek, 
It'll hB lum leawr •lufTobeawt 1(. But feawr ur not 
yo niun iLkk llkebrcek, un not let that oinllD, 
leftwty vtuff obeawt •'tUve-grooo un free-grtMn" 
•top yo. BlcM me life, moD ! lu aooof togtc won 
th' bally wratch to yer o »et o gawnbllos uts beyyln, 
un iplnnln, un weyvln, un warlu slavc-groon kottn 
ettrh day o thtr live*. Lawk obeawt Ihlr konshuniu* 
not letUn um iweetn thir faybry pic fur th' chllthur 
wl o bit o ilaTe-groou aliugur. It'i oa humbug, tne 
LmwtA, un tell um aw aay lo. Stick yo fast to the 
■kame o* having o« th' dewttea dike i but yo may 
•Hp eawt thooc twothrcy yer ut yore fur keepln up o 
(Ufferuuce, ua voon ut yno o mind. We kun tpa.Tc 
oro wen wer biny. 

Sum o yur skames urweel onoof? but th' ra»1n 
thing '11 bo for yo ro ta care to fpend uj little brait 
ut yo koD, un giv ui o gud tbrwle. 

Voan Icttn Sur Robbut (yoa knoon be'f a Berry 
mulTun we're sharp chap*) — aw aay yoan lettn Sur 
Robbut get howd o yur loolt and wurtch wl um 
wouBt, wi not beelo tharp onooflT. He made o ftid 
hondlin on um, too unigelta t'wajus for hit wark, 
tho* I'tkamc wuryoan, un tv yo dunnut mind he'll 
do t'lwne ogen. Hi<U let yo get tb' patthums redd]:, 
and make tntertlna, un t'bowu, un t'tkrewr, mi 
tJtchn: but he'll put t'moabceo togethur. un dray 
th' wage ut th' Sethurde nect. Iv yo umut yur ecu 
obeawt yo. 

DuuDot be fyert. moo, but rap eawt wl awe ut* 
net, un ui Berry foke 'II elp yo ut ard at we kon. 
Wayn helpt Kobdiii, un wayn eJp yo. If yoan tct 
obeawt yur wark gmdely. 

Wayre bavvin o greyt ttur to day heer for u* 
vurt^ln foke. un wayre to have doance o Muiiday 
nevt. Aw nobbut wuth ut yo k'd kum deawn un 
•eem — yoad tee titch o tcet un yer titch bhmwtin 
yoa ne'er ared nur 1 yor life. They konnut theawl 
i Lunnoo— iti nobbot gradely butthermUk un por- 
rltch Lankethur ladi ut kun theawt woth koin 

But yo mun ne'er heed, Lawrd John. Dunncvl 
be fycrt, ua aw ted ofure, but tton up for woti reel, 
un It t' pailyment winnit let yo ha yvr oan rode, 
kum e«wt, un let t' gangway kmwvei thry how ihjy 
kUD teawk t* public pap. 

Awm noan yutt to ritln, un aw feel tyerl. to nw 
mun lyeT awt moor ut aw av to tay tell me booil't 
rcatut itael. So aw remain, me Lawrd, 
Yours for evrur, 


(3) A Laneathire Ballad. 
Vow. aw me gud geotlet, an yau won tarry, 
lie lel how Gilbert Scutt toudn't marc Berry. 
He toudn't mare Berry at Warikin fair ; 
When heel be pide. hee knowi not, ere or nere. 
Soon at hee coom whoom, an toud hit wife Grace, 
H<'n up wl th* kippn. an twat him ore Di* face; 
Hooptckdt himoth* hilloc, »i tick a thwack. 
That hoo had whel nl a brokken hit back. 
Thou hooer, quo hee, wo't butlemroe riie, 
lie gi thee auth' Uvt, wench, that Imme He*. 
Ttwu udgit, quo hoi>, but whcr dui hee dwct f 
Belakin, quo hcc, but I connan tcl. 
I tuck him to be iiJin gud grctlmoti't ton ; 
Me *pt-nt too pente un mee when hee had doon. 
Me gin mee a lunch'n o denty »nlg py, 
An fchaukdtmeebllh' haundt mott lovingly. 
Then Grace, hoo prompOt hur, lonecatan lo lu-. 
To War'km hoo went, o Wmaday betime. 

An thecr too, hoo itade ful Ave mark It day*. 

Til th' moD, wi th' mare, wcro coom tu Raualey 

At Grace wai retttn won day In hur rowm. 
Moo tpydt th' mon a ndlu o th' mare down the town. 
Bounce gui hur hart, an hoo wer lo glopen 
That out o th* wtndohoo'd like fort Ittpin. 
Moo ttaumpdl, an hoo ttar'dt, an down ttalra hoo 

Wi* th' hat under th' arm, an windt welly gon. 
Hur hedgear flew off, an to did hur aiMwd. 
Moo ttaumpdt, an hoo atAr'dt, a» an hoo'd been 

To Raunley't hoo hy'd, an hoo hove up th* latch, 
Afore th' mon had teed th' more welly too ih' crratch. 
Mc gud mon, quo hoo, frcnd, hee greets yau mciry. 
Au drsiret yauM send him money for Berry. 
Ay, money, quo hee. th^c 1 connau spare i 
Belakin, quo hoo, but then lie ha Ih' mare. 
Moo poodt, an hoo thrompenll him, shaum't be 

teen ; 
Thou hangmon, quo hoo, He poo out thin ecn i 
He mak thee a toropan, haud thee a groat 
lie oth'r ha* th' money, or poo out the throat ; 
'Tween them they made such a wearison din. 
That for t' intreat them, Raunly Shaw coom in, 
Co4im. fy, fy, naunt Grace, coom, fy, an a donn ; 
What, doel, ar yau monkeen, or ar yau woon i 
Belakin, quo hee, yau lane to hard on— 
i think now that th' woman has quite spoildt th' 

Coom, fy, fy, naunl Grace, coom, fy, an a doon ; 
Yaust ha' th* more, or th* money, whether yau won. 
So Grace got th* moiMy, aa wboomwardt hoo'agoa, 
Hoo keepiU aw, on gect Oilbcrt Scoil ooo. 

The dialect of ihU county has been entirely 
neglected, with the exception of a few brief 
remarks in Macaulay's llialory of Claybrook, 
1791 ; but it deserves a careful study. A valu- 
able glossary of Leiceatcrshire words was given 
me by Mr. Jolm Gibson, but too late to be used 
in the early part of the work. 

The dialcrt oT the common people, though broad. 
kfl iufflclcntly plain and Intelligible. They have a 
strong propensity to aspirate their words; the letter 
h oomcs in almotton every occasion where It ought 
not, and Is as frequently omitted where it ought to 
come in. The words /if, mine, and such like, are 
pronounced as if they were spelt y*»M«,mo(nr,' ptnre, 
fact, Ac as If ihcy were spelt jtleace, /-mcv.- and In 
the plural sonietimes you hear pieicen ; clt>»*n for 
c/owfl/ and many other words In the same style of 
Saxon termination. The words thm and irherg 
are generally pnmounced thus, thcrrf, whttrt ; the 
words mercp, HeMrv*, Ac. thus, mitrrjf, Heaarve, Tho 
following |>eculiaTltlesor pronunciation arc likewise 
observable! w:, siroufrly aspltiteil, for u«, war for 
was, me^d for maid, /Hither for fnther, e'rry f<»r rverp- 
brig for brittgt, thttrruugh for fUrroir, /*au'/ for hnt/, 
c&rt-rU for rvf, malt/actory for mani</iicfory, fnor, 
tivu* for atuivMa. 

Maratttaif'M Cta^hrook, 1701, pp. 19fM> 


The river Withaiu may be considered! with 

tolcrahtc accuracy the boundary line between 

the Northern and Southern diiUecta of the 

county, which differ conaidcrably from each 


other; the former being more nearly allied to 
that of Yorkshire, the latter to the ipeecb of 
East Anglia, Ijut neither ore nearly so broad as 
the more Northern dialects. Many singular 
phrases are in use. They say, Very not well, 
I used to could. You shouldn't hare ought, &c. 
The Lincolnshire words were partially collected 
by Skinner in the seventeenth century, but no 
regular glossary has yet appeared. This defi- 
ciency, however, as far as the present work is 
concerned, has been amply supplied by as many 
as nineteen long commuDieationB, each forming 
a small glossary by it.<telf, and of peculiar value, 
from the Rev. James Adcock of Lincoln, to 
whom I beg to return my best acknowledg- 
ments, t have also to acknowledge asiistance 
from Sir E. F. Bromhead, Bart., the Rev. Dr. 
Oliver, Robert Goodocre, Esq., T, R. Jackson, 
Esq., Mr. E. Johnson, and papers kindly inserted 
at my suggestion in the Lincoln Standard. 

(1) Extract from MS. Digbf 86, written m 
• Lincolmhire, Irmp, Edw. J. 

Ni]tLD|^le, thou havest wrong, 
M'olt Ihou me lenden of thU lend. 

For Ich holde with the rijitc ; 
I lake wilnene of lire Wiwain, 
That JiMtu Crlit jaf inijt and main, 

And strengthe for to fljttc 

So wide to he hevcde i-gOD, 
TT»we ne founde he nevere oon 

Bi daye ne bl nljtte. 
Fowel, fur tht falftr mouth, 
Thi Hwe shfti t)cn wide couth, 

I rede the fle with mijtte. 

Ich habtie ieve to lieD here. 
In orchard and in ertiere. 

Mine Kingcs for to lingc ; 
Herdi nevere bi no leredi. 
Bote beodlnese and curteyii. 

And )oye hy gunnen mebiingc. 

Ofroucheie niurthchy letictli me, 
Fere, alio 1 telle the, 

Hy Uveth in ionglDginge. 
Fowel, thou iltcst on haael bou, 
Thou laitect hem, thou havetl wou, 

Thi word thai wide springe. 

Rlttpringeth wide, we) ich wol, 
Uou tei hit him that hit not. 

This tAWC« ne beth nout newc ; 
Fowel, hcrline to mi lawc, 
Ich wile the telle of here iawe, 

Thounekepest nout hem, 1 knowe. 

Thenk on Conitanllnn quenc. 
Foul wei hirciemcdc fuw and grcne, 

Hou sore bit ton hire rewe ; 
Hoefeddeacmpel In hire bour. 
And hclede him with eovertour, 

Loke war wlronuo beu trewe. RWJv Wnfi?. 

(2) From " fi'etldy and Sally ; a Lincolmhire 

late," by John Brown, 12mo. n. d. 

Cum, Sail, iti lime wc itarted now, 
Von'i Fanner Ilaycock'i latses ready, 

And malfter uyi he'll feed theeow. 
He dida't •*} w.-did he Neddy r 

YcM. that he did, to make the« baatfl* 

And git thee aen made fmart and pretty. 
We yaUer ribbon round the waist. 

The same as oud Squire Lowden's Kitty, 
And I'll go fetch my sister Beat, 

I'm sartin sure she's up and ready. 
Come gle's a bus, thou can't do leaa, 

Says Sally, No, thou musn'l, Neddy. 
See, yonder's Bess a cummin cross 

The fields, we lots o' lads and lassei, 
AU halm tie halm, and brother Joes 

A shouting to Che follts as pasMs. 
Odds dickens. Sail, well her a spree. 

Me hearl's a% light as ony feather. 
There's not a chap dost russcl me. 

Not all the town's chaps put toother. 


The metropolitan county presents little in its 
dialect worthy of remark, being for the most 
part merely a coarse pronunciation of London 
slang and vulgarity. The language of the lower 
orders of the metropolis is pictured very faith- 
fully in the works of Sir. Dickens. Tlie inter- 
change of V and ic is a leading characteristic 
Some of the old cant words, mixed with nume- 
rous ones of late formation, are to be traced in 
the London slang. 

TAt Thimble Rig. 
■* Now, then, my Jolly sportsmen ! I've got 
more money than the parson of the parUh. Those 
as don't play can't vln, and those as are here tiamt 
Ihrre! I'd hold any on you, from a tanner to a 
sovereign, or ten, as you don't tell which thimble 
(lie pea is under." '• It's there, sir." ■■ I barr tell- 
ings." ■• I'll go It agabi." '■ Vat you don't see 
don't look al, and vtl you do see dont tell. Ill 
hould you a soveren, sir, you don't tell me rilch 
thimble the pea is under." •• Lay tiim, sir, (In a 
wiilsper) ; It's under the middlc'un. I'll go you 
halves." •* Lay him another j Itut's right.'' " I'm 
biow'd iMit we've lost ; who'd a thought it i" Smack 
goes the flat's hat over hla eyea : exit tlie confederates 
with a loud laugh. 

" The most general and pervading charac- 
teristic of our pronunciation," observes Mr. 
Porby, " is a narrowness and tcnuily, precisely 
the reverse of the round, sonorotts, mouth-tilling 
tones of Northern English. The broad and open 
sounds of vowels, the rich and full tones of 
diphthongs, arc generally thus reduced." The 
same writer enters very minutely into the sub- 
ject of the peculiarities of this dialect, and his 
glossary of East Anglian words, 2 vols. 8vo. 
1830, it the moat complete publication of the 
kind. A brief list of Norfolk words is given in 
Brown's Certain Miscellany Tracts, 8vo. 1684, 
p. 1 16. A glossary of the provinciaUsms of the 
same county occurs in Marshall's Rural Economy 
of Norfolk, 1787, and observations on the dialect 
in Erratics by a Sailor, 1809. In adchtiun to 
these, 1 have bad the advanttigc of using com- 
munications from the Rev. George Munford, the 
Very Rev. F. C. Huscnbcth, Mrs. Rollins, and 
Goddard Johnion, Esq. 


A TOcahnUr* of the flftemth century, written 
in Norfolk, is'prrscncd in MS. Addit. 12I9&, 
but the Promptorium Puniilonim is a much 
more valuable uiiJ extensive repository of early 
Norfolk word>. A MS. of CapgraVe's Life of 
St. Kaiherine in the Bodleian Library, MS. 
Kawl. Poet. 1 1 8, was written in this county. It 
would appear from the following passage that 
Norfolk was, in early tiniei, one of tlic least re- 
fined parti of the island : 

1 wenttr liflyoge were ratltucion, quod be. 

For 1 lernrd nvverc mle on txike ; 

And 1 kan no Frms&he, to fcllh. 

But of Uie frnhcate I'ndc of Nortllfolk. 

rWri PUmglmaH, ti. Wriglit, p. 91. 

(\)OU Meanrei <if WtigM. 
MS. Cotton, Cliudlus E. vIlL fol. 8, of the four- 
tMmthccnlaor, wtiltm at Norwich. 

S«x wupundo nuklet .J. ledpound. .xij. Icd- 
punde J. rotiurl. .xxllij. fotracl .j. folhir of Btli- 
itruwe, )M havrd xc. and .xxviij^'. wnpound. 

Sck waxpunde nuklet .J. Icedpouod. .xvllj. leed- 
pund .J. leed tmle. Jtvlij. lead Ijolcs. j. fothir of ttie 
Konhleondea, yi liaat .xc and .xllij. levd punde, 
that tiecth .xlx. huDdryd and foura and fuurti wrx- 

pulHle, and y* avct more bl alx and leed 

punde, ttial tieeth to hundred and acxtena wexpunde. 

Seven* vaxpund makiet onleve ponde one iraye, 
twelf weyenon forhir, thia avi-lt two Ihouiaad and 
.ix. trorc and fcurc weapund, that becth thre hun- 
dryd and twrlfve leedpound, thia hiimore than that 
of the Norcthland tie foure and thrltti more of leed- 

kpoucdea, that t>eeth foure and twcntJ laaae. 
(2) Norfolk Degreet of Comparuon. 
PmUlt. Omtformtit. tupmlmtl—. 
IMOm . Uaa . . Lent 


Lcaaercr still Leaaeat of all. 

littler . . Littleat. 
Tiny . Tinier . ■ TInieat. 
Tttty . Tlltler . Tlltlcat. 



~A midland dialect, less broad and not to 
aiiuilarto the Northern as 'Warwickshire. I have 
to acknowledge communications on the dialect 
of this county from the Rev. J. B, P. Dennis, 
aod Cbarlei Young, Esq. 

Northumberland has a dialect the mo»t broad 
of all the English counties, nearly approaching 
the Scotch, the broadest of all English dialccls. 
The Scottish bur is heard in this county and ia 
the North of Durham. A large number of spe- 
'imens of the dialect have been published, and 
the prxmncial words have been collected by Mr. 
Brockett, but no extensive glossary of words 
peculiar to the county has l>ecn published sepa- 
rately. A short list, however, is given in Ray's 
English Words, ed. 1691 ; and others, recently 
collected, were sent me by George B. Richardson, 
Esq. and the Rev. R. Douglas. An early speci- 
men of the Northumberland dialect occurs in 
BoUeio's Dialogue, 1564, reprinted in Waldron'i 
notes to the Sad Shepherd, p. 167. 

Formerly belonged in dialect to the Norlhern 
division, but may now, I believe, be included in 
the Midland. I speak, however, with uncer- 
tainty, no work on the Nottinghamshire dialect 
having yet appeared. 

From a Treatite on the Fuluta in ano, by John 
Ardtme, (f Nncark. 
Johan Ardeme fro the drat pcatvJence that was In 
the yero of our Lord 1340, duelled la Newerke In 
Notlngtiamtchire unto the ycre of out Lorde 1370, 
and tber I heled roaoy men of Jutuia in ano,- of 
which the firat was Sir Adam Ever)'ngh4m of Laxton 
In the Clay byilde Tukkesford, wbiche Sir Adam 
for iotbe wai In Gaacooe with Sir Uenry that tyme 
named herle of Derby, and after wai made Duke of 
Lancatttv. a noble and worthy lord. The forsald 
Sir Adam fonoth luO^rcnd ,/iaru/am <n ano, made for 
to aikc counaell at atle the leches and corurglena that 
he myght fynd In Gascone, at Ourdeux, at Orlg- 
gcrac, Tolowa, and Neyybon, and Pcytera,and many 
other places, and alle fonoke hym for uncurable; 
whlche y-ae and y-herde, the foraaJd Adam ha»tlud 
for to tome home to hli contree, and when he come 
home he did of al hLi knyghlly clothings, aod cladde 
mournyng clothe* In purpoae of abydyng dtuolvyog 
or lesyng of hit body tieyng nyj to hym. A I ihe laate 
I foraald Johan Ardeme y-aojt, and covenant y.raade, 
come to hyme and did my cure to hym, and, our 
Lorde bcyng nienc, t htled hyme perfitcly within 
halfe a ycre, and afterward hole and sound he ledde 
a gUd life 3n yerc and more. For whlche cure 1 gate 
myche honour and lovyng thur^ alle Vnglcmd ; and 
(he foraald Duke of Lancaatrc and many other gen- 
tiles wondred therof. Aftc(r]ward 1 cured Hugon 
Derlyng of Fowlck of Balne by Snaythe. Afterward 
I cured Johan .'^rhefcld of Rlghlwclleaalde Tekllle. 
US. Sloant I4a, f. Ut. 

The provincial speech of this county has none 
of the marked features of the Westcni dialect, 
although many of the Gloucestershire and Wilt- 
shire words are in use. The Oxfordshire dialect 
may be described as rather broad, and at the 
same time sharp, with a tendency to coittrac- 
tioD. (/» is used instead of /, as in some other 
counties. There are not a lorgc number of 
words quite peculiar to the county, and no glos- 
sary has yet been published. Keonctt has pre- 
served many now obsolete, and I am imltbtcd 
for several to Mr. A. Chapman, and Francii 
Francillon, Esq. Id the sixteenth century, the 
Oxfordshire dialect was broad Western. In 
Scogin's Jests, we have an Oxfordshire rustic 
introduced, saying icA for I, dit for this, voy for 
fay, ehiU for I will, vor for for, &c. 


The dialect of Rutlandshij-e possesaes few, if 
any, features not to be found in the adjoining 
counties. It would appear to be most similar to 
that of Leicestershire, judging from a communi- 
cation o» the subject from the Rev. A. S. 



In the mnilcm dialect of this county, a ia fre- 
qnrntly changed into o or e ; c into g, co into ^ ; 
(/ final is often supprcascd or commuted into tin 
the present tense ; e is somctinies lengthened at 
the commencement of a word, as emd, end, and 
it is frequently changed intoa ,- jris often omitted 
before h; the A is almost invariabl)' wrongly 
used, omitted where it should be pronounced, 
and pronounced where it should be omitted j i 
is changed into ei or e ; / into «> ; o is generally 
lengthened ; r when followed by » ia often drop- 
ped, tite t in such cases being doubled ; / is en- 
tirely dropped in many words where it precedes 
», and is superseded by e, especially if tbcrc be 
any plurality ; y is prefixed to a vast number of 
words which commence with the aspirate, and is 
tnbstituted for it. See further observations in 
Mr. lUrtshome's Shropshire glossary appended 
to his Salopia Antiijua, Bvo. 1641, from which 
the above notices of the pecuUarities of the 
dialect have been taken. To this work I have 
been diiefly indebted for Shropshire words, but 
many unknown to Mr. Uartsbnme have been 
derived from Llhuyd's MS. additions to Ray, a 
MS. glossary compiled about ITSO, and from 
communications of the Rev. h. Darwall and 
Thomas Wright, Esq. 

A translation of the Pan Oculi in Bngliah 
Terse, made by John Mirkcs, a canon of Lille- 
shul, in Shropshire, is preserved in MS. Cotton. 
Chiud. A. ii. and MS. Douce 60, 103, manuscripla 
of the (ifleenth century. Tlie poem commences 
ti follows : 

God tvytb hyMMlf, a* wrytm wc fyndr, 

Th«t whcnne the biyndc tedcth the biynde. 

Into thedychc ttie; fallen txio. 

For they nc fteti whareby to go. 

MS. ail. Claud. A. II. f. 1(7- 

Ood with hiimclf, u writes y fyndr, 

That whan the biynde ledeth the biynde. 

Into the dirhc they fallcth bo. 

For they ne aeen howe they go. 

MS Dmice 60, f. 147- 
It should not he forgntlen that the dialect of a 
MS. is not necessarily that used by the author 
himself. It oftcner depended on the scribe. 
We have copies of i lampolc'g Prick of Conscience 
written in nearly every lUalcct. 

The poems of John Audclay, a monk of 
liaghmon, who wrote alraut 1460, afford a 
faitbful specimen of the Shropshire dialect of 
that period. A small volume of his poetry waa 
printed by the Percy Society, 8vo. 1844 : 
As 1 Uy Mke In my laflf^re. 

In an abbay here be West, 
TbIitKike 1 made with grtl dolour, 

When I myjt not »Iep ne have no re»t ( 
Oft with my prayen I ineblc*t, 

And Myd hyl^ to hevon kynj;, 
1 knowUche, Lord, hit if the best 

Mekel^ to take tht veaetynR, 
EUU wot 1 wU that I were lorae. 

Of al lordii be he bleat I 

Fore a] that je done U fore the best. 

Fore In thi defawte was never mon lost. 
That b here of womon txime. 

Mervel jenot of Ihii makyng. 

Fore I me excuse, hit li not I ; 
Thif wai the Hole Goft werehenf. 

That tayd theae wordit to faythfully ; 
Fore I qpoth never l»t hye foly, 

God hath me chaityat fore my levyng ! 
I thong my God my gncc treuly 

Fore hla gracioui veoltyng. 
Beware, aerla, I joue pray. 

Fore I mad thii with good entent. 

In the rerrrona of God omnipotent ; 

Prayi fore rae tbot t>cth present. 
My name is Jon the blynd Awdlay. 
The similaritiu'bctwecn the dialect of Aude- 
lay's pocnis and that of modern Shropshire arc 
not very easily perceptible The lendencj' to 
turoo into a, and lo drop the A, may be recog- 
nized, as aid for hold, &c. / is still turned into 
r, which may be regarded as one of Audelay's 
dialectical pectiliarities, especially in the prefixes 
to the verbs ; hut the ch for ih or «cA, so com- 
mon in Audelay, does not appear to be still 
ctuTcnt. There is much uncertainty in reason- 
ing on the early provincial ilialctrta from a single 
specimen, owing to the wide diflTerence between 
the broad and the more pobtbed specimens of 
the language of the same county ; and Audelay's 
poems can be by no means considered as affording 
an example of the broadest and purest early Salo- 
pian dialect. 

The Parrct divides the two varieties of the 
dialects of Somersetshire, the inhabitants of the 
West of that river using the Devonshire lan- 
guage, the difference being readily rccogni«cd by 
the brOBiJ iie for I, er for he, and the termination 
/A to the third person singular of the present 
tense of the indicative mood. TheSomersctshire 
dialect changes /A into d, > into r, / into v, in- 
verts the order of many of the consonants, and 
adds y to the infinitive of verba. It also turns 
many monosyllnlilca into words of two syllables, 
as aifer, air, iooSth, both, /oyer, fair, eier, fire, 
•laj/rrt, stairs, thower, sure, *c. See Jennings' 
Observations on some of the Dialects in the West 
of England, 182S, p. 7. 

A singularly valuable glossary of Somerset- 
shire words was placed in my hands at the com- 
mencement of the present undertaking by Hem; 
Norris, Esq., of South Pethcrton. ll was com- 
piled about Bfly years since by Mr. Norris'a 
father, at the suggestion of the late Mr. Boucher, 
anil Mr. Norria has continually enriched it with 
additions collected by himseljf. To this 1 am 
indebted for several hundred words which 
woulil otherwise have escaped me ; and many 
others have been derived from lists formed bjr fl 
my brother, the Rev. Thomas llalliwell, of | 
Wringlon, Thomas Elliott, Esq., Miss Elizabeth 
Carcw, the Rev. C. W. Bingham, Mr. EUjah 
Tucker, and Mr. Kemp. 

Niimeroua examples of the Somersetshire 
dialect arc to be found in old plays, in which 
country characters are frequently introduced, 
and in other early works. It should, however, 
be remarked that many writen hare uuhesi- 



Ufctngly tasigned early gpccimcnB, conlaining 
the prcvtuling marks of Western dialect, to Ibis 
rounty. when the style might be referred lo 
many others in the South and West of EugUnd ; 
and on this account I have omitted a list of 
pieces stated by various authore lo be specimens 
of Soracrectfchirc dialect. We have already seen 
that though the essential feature* of the present 
West country dialect may he found, they may 
possibly suit'spccimens of the South, Kent, or 
even Essex dialects, in the state the latter ex- 
isted two or three centuries ago. 

{\)T7u PfiuanI in London, from a wwA of the 
9fveHteenth amiury. 
Onr TKUDloD-deti is ■ dungeon, 

And yvitth chun gl«d chRin here ; 
Thiivaniout titty of Lungcon 

U worth ill Zomcwet-ihcrc ; 
In wagoUK, in carti, and in coschei. 
Ch« D*v«r did yet loc more hot ic, 
ThamodM* do zhioclike rochcs. 

And If proud u my father* vorc horac. 

jr^irhotft Lor4 Magon' pagtanU, ILSIT. 

(2) Johns account of hU Trip to BrtMtol.on the 
occaxitm of Princt AWerVa vuitt to hu 
I'Rcte Ben, 1843. 
Nunk I did ever I trll thee o' my Drittcr trip, 
T» ae* Purnce Allwrt an* tha gurt im thip 1 
How Mcftry goo'd wi* mc lthee'« know Meary ml wife) 
An' bow I got TTlghten'd mauat out o' ml life ? 
NlfuinlTetdid'n. 'ch 'eel tell thee o'tnow; 
Ao' be drat If tid'n true iv'ry word. 1 da tow I 
Vor Meutrr an' Miu war bwoth o' m along ; 
Any one o'm ool tell thee nlf iu da lay wrong. 
Wffgoo'd to Burgcotcr wl' Joe'i Uddle'ota ; — 
Thee** know thick ui da meaone, tha da caU'n wold 

In' ■ trotted in vine ftyle ; an" when wc got there. 
The voke wa» «a thick that 'twaa Jiw Ilk a vair. 
We did'o goo droo et, but goo'd to tha itatlon — 
There war gurt Im 'uaart all in a new Tuhlon ; 
An' there war gurt boxes U "olJ mooc'n a thouun', 
Za long aa all Pcthcrton, an' la high *s tha houicn. 
Ther war gennelmcnii' aarranti a-drataed all In blue, 
Wl* rud-coUar'd quoata, an* a lot o' em too ; 
An' all o' em number 'd— tot one ui did lee 
War mark'd In gurt vlggera, ahundcrd an* dree. 

Hem war nation aveard when tha tuw put hem In 
Ta the grut ooden boa, mauit aa blg'a a com blnn t 
T^had two gurt large windcn wi' 'olta vor tha glaw ; 
Tha lock'd op tha doort, an' there hem war vaia. 
Hem had'o bin there roorc'o a mitmlt or too, 
Vorc aumbody wuaieU'd. an' ofT u« did goo I 
Hy cyca! how hem veclM !— what away vor U ride I 
Hem dra'd In her breath, an* hem thought hem'd a 

VoreeTcr ua know'd et ut'oller*d out " *up i" 
Hem opp'd wr ea bond an' catch'd wuld o' et 'at ; 
AM the voke laugh'd at hem, an' that made hem mad ; 
But thof a'lednothln, hem veel'd cruel bad. 
When Tuathcm look'dout. hem war vrighteo'd atill 

Hem thori'twar tha •• wuld one" n-draggln, vov fura i 
Vor narry a 'oaa, nor nothin war In et i 
ruiwdiim*d if we did'n goo thirty miles in a mlnlt. 

Tha cows in tha vecls did cock up their tails, 
An' did urn vor their lives roun' Iha 'edges an* rails i 
Tha 'osaes did glowy, an* tha sheep gtowied too, 
An* the jackasses blared out " ooh— eh— ooh !" 

About a mile nfl* hem seed a church-steeple* 
An' in leas 'an a mlnnlt a iced all the people ; 
Us war glowing right at 'em ta ace who hem cou'dvlnd, 
But avore hemcou'd look, tha war a mile behind. 

Thcc'st bin to a varc where the conjeren ply — 
" Prlsto Jack an' begone I" and tha thing* vlecawy t 
Dash my wig ! an' If 'twad'n the same wi' tha people, 
wr the wagglnian"osaea,th« church an' thaatccple. 

Gwain auver a bnidge, athurta gurt river. 
Tha dreyv'd jis sa hard on' aa ventersom's Iver \ 
An' rummcil'd lik thunder : hem thoft to be ground 
All ta pieces, an' imaih'd, an' murdered, an' drown'd. 

Oh dear I my poor hed ! whc-n us think o' et now. 
How us ever got suver't hem can't trll thee *ow ; 
Ml hed UUl whlrdlcly all roun' and roun' — 
Hem cou'd'n ston* op, nor hem coii'd'n alt down. 

When us got In ta Brlster— But hem wo*n*t tell 

the now, 
(Vor 1 da ace thee art vldgetty now vor ta goo> 
How hero aeed tha Queen's husUmd tha Plmcc, an' 

hes train ; 
How tha Pimce on* tha ship war buoth catch'd In 

tha rain. 
Uch '1 tcU'ce tha rrsC o'et mm other time. 
Vor hem promised hem's wife hcm'd be woam evor« 

nine ; 
An' now tha elock'i hatttn a quarter past ten : 
Zo gee us thl hood, an' good night, Nuncla Bcc ' 

(3) Mr, Guy and the Robben, 
Mr. Guy war a gcnnelnun 

O' Huntspitl, well knawn 
As a graxivr, a birch one, 

WI' loni u' his awn. 
A Ateu went la Lunnun 
Bis cattle vor u aill ; 
All tha hossca that a rawd 

Nivcr minded badge or hill, 
A war afcard o' naw one : 
A nlvcr made hU will, 
Like wither vawk, avaura went 

Hii cattle vor U aill. 
One time a'd bin ta Lunnun 

An aawld la cattle well ; 
A brought awA a i>ower o'gawld. 

As I've a hired tell. 
As late at night a rawd along 

All droo a unkctood. 
A Doman rawte vrom off tha groun. 

An right avaur en stood. 
She look'd aa pitls Mr. Ouy 

At oncehia boss's pac« 
SUpt short, a wonderln how.atnlghl, 

She com'd in Jltch a place. 
A little trunk war in herhont 

She tim'd vur gwun wf chile. 
She ax'd en nlf a'd uke er up 

An COT era veo mile. 
Mr. Guy, a man o' veelin 

Vor a ooman In distreM/ 
Than took er up behind en ; 

A cood'n do na le«*. 
A corr'd er trunk avaur en. 
An by his bell o'lvathcr 
A bid or hawld vast : on thi rawd 
Athout much t&k, together. 


Not vur thA went ATtur ih* gld 

A whiMie loud an lonf, 
Which Mr. Guy lh»wt very stringf : 

Er voice too ilm'd la itroiig I 
She'd lost er dog, the icd ; an than 

Anuther whinle bUw'd, 
Th»t ttortlcd Mr. Guy :— a kUpl 

Hiv hoM upon tha rawd. 
Goo on^ wtl she ; bit Mr. Guy 

ZuRi ri( beglnn'U ta fccri 
Vor voioa rawic upon tha wine, 

An stm'd a comln near. 
Again thft rawd along ; k^aln 

Shcwhiulrd. Mr. Guy 
Whipt out hlx knife an cut Iha belt. 

Than putb'd er offl — Vnr why I 
Tha ooman he took up bchine, 

Begummen, war a hmh / 
Tha rubber* a«w ad lid ther plota 

Ourgruier lo trepan. 
1 tholl not tfapta tell what wd 

Tha man In oomanV rlawae ; 
Bit he, an All o'm jlst bchine, 

War what you raid luppawae, 
Thicuit, thA swBur. thadrcaten'd too. 

An At«r Mr. Guy 
ThAgallop'd All : twar nlTcr-iha-ncar : 

Hii ho«» along did vly. 
Auver downs, droo dalci.iwA a went, 

Twar dA-llght nowanuwit. 
Till at an Inn a fUpt, at lait, 

To thenk what he'd a Imt. 
A loit /—why, nothtn— but hli belt ! 

A aummet moor ad galn'd i 
Thic Jiltle trunk a corr'd awiU- 

Ugawld g'lorecontain'd ! 
Nlf Mr. Guy war hirc-h avaur. 

A no* war hircher itllt : 
Tha plunder u' tha highwAtnen 

Hi( rotrcM went U vlll. 
In lAfety Mr- Guy rawd whim ; 

A Oten tawld thaftorry. 
Ta meet wl* Jitch a rig myael 

I thood'Ofioce, be aorry. 

Kennett has recorded numerous Staffbrdsliire 
pronnciiUisms, most of which are probahly now 
obflolrte, and would hare escaped me but for hu 
Taluable coUcrtion&. A valuable MS. glossary 
b}- Mr. CUve, but extending no further than B 
in the part seen by me, was also found of use, 
and a few words in neither of these .MSS. were 
given me by Miss L. Marshall and Mr. Ednurd 
T. Oooch. The following specimen of the dia- 
lect, taken from Kniglit's • Quarterly Majfa/inr/ 
1823, will sufficiently exhibit its general charac- 
ter. The lengihcumg of the vowel i appears 
ver}' common. In the collieries surnames are 
very frequently confused. It constantly hap- 
pens that a son has a surname very diirerent 
from that of Ids father. Nicknames arc very 
prevalent, e. g. Old Puff, Nosey, Bullyhed, Loy- 
a-bed, Old Blackbird, Stumpy, Cowskin, Spindlc- 
ihanka, Cockeye, Pigtail, Yellow-belly, &c. 

Dialect of the BiUfon Folk, 
The dialect of the lower order here hai frequently 
lieen noticed, aa well a» the peculiar countmance of 
the r«al <• BUatou folk." We noticed ourM-tvaa (tip- 

on the excunion) the following i—** Thae •hata*!.'* 
for " you sh'a'Dt ;*' " thee eoat'oa," for " you can't j" 
*■ thee hott alT, lurry, or oil moth Lhoi ycd ftir thee,*' 
for •• uke yoursclfaway, sirrah, or I'll cruih your 
head;" " weear bUt thee f for "where are you ?" 
•' in a caxulty wee loik," for *' by chance:" with 
" Ibee bbt, Uiee khonna ;" " you arc, you iha'!!*!.** 
A young woman turned round to addreai a imall 
rhUd crying after her upon the threihold of the 
liuvcl, a^chc went off lowardi the mine, •• Ah, be 
veiled, yung'un if thee doft'n'r kuoo* my lx>ck ai well 
aa thee knoo-ast moy fee-aa." Some of the tietter 
apparelled, who aSlMrt a auprrlor style, use words 
which they please to term '* dicktunary words," 
such as '• easement, conTincInttd, absllmonlout. 
timothy" (for llmldl. One female, In ronvcnatlim 
with a crony at Ihe " truck-shop** door, spoke of 
** Sal Johnson's aspirating her mon's mtnd soo'a, and 
"madating his temper," and " I never seed a senti • 
mmt o' nothin' IxmI till it took Turn all at once't," 
(sentiment here used for symptom) speaking of in- 
disposition. — Wtxmieringt vfa Pen and Pencil. 

Concenation bettceen a StafforiUhire Canal 
Boatwan and hiM Wife. 

LMdif. Dun yo know Solden-mouth, Tummy f 

Gent, Eees; an' a' nratlon good feller he Is tew. 

Larfl'. A desput quoiet mon t But he lores a tup 
o'drlnk. Dun yo know his wolf f 

Gtnt, Know her I ay. liar's the very devil when 
her spertt's up. 

l^tdy. Her U. Hrr usm lliat man aheamful — 
her rags htm every neet of her loff. 

G*iu. Her does. Olve known her come Into the 
public and cat! him alt the neamt's her cuulil lay her 
tongue lew afore al! Ihe company. Her otighu to 
•tay till her'i got him t'[hc boat, amt then her mit 
say wha her'd a moind. But her Uks alter her 
fey t her. 

Ladif, Hew washer fey ther ? 

Gtnt. Whoy, singing Jemmy. 

Ladii. Ol don't think at how Oi rver know'd sing- 
ing Jemny. Was he ode Soaktr's brother f 

Gtnt, Cccs, he was. He lived a top o' Hell Book. 
He waa the wickedest, swcamlnst mon as ever I 
know*d. I should think as how he was the wickedest 
iDun i* the wold, and say he had (he rheumalis so 

The characteristics of the Suffolk dialect are 
in all essential particulars the aame as those of 
the Norfolk, so carefully investigated by Nfr. 
Forby. The natives of Suffolk in speaking ele- 
vate and depress the voice in a very remarkable 
manner, so thai " the Suffolk whine" has long 
been proverbial. The natives of all parts of 
East Aaglia generally speak in a kind of sing- 
song tone. The firit published list of Suffolk 
words i« given in Culluin's History of Hawsled, 
17H4, but no regular glossary appeared till the 
publication of Major Moor*B Suffolk Wdrds nnd 
Phrases, 8vo. 1823, a ver>- valuable collection of 
provincialisms. With tlic greatest liberality, 
Major Moor kindly placed in my hands his in- 
terleaved copy of tbis work, containing copious 
and important additions collectetl by him during 
the last twenty years ; nor have I been less for- 
tunate tu the equally liberal loan of most vain- 




able mnd numerous MS. additioni to Forbjr's 
East Anglim, collected in Suffolk by D. E.Davy, 
E*q. Brief lists havp also Iwen sent by Miss 
Agncft Strickland and tbeRcv. S.CIiarlcs. 

An early l)ook of medical receipts, by a pcr- 
SOD who practi&ed in Suffolk in the fiHccnth 
cenlurr, is preserved in MS. Ilarl. 1735; an 
English poem, written at Clare in 1445, is in 
MS. Addit. 1181-1; and IJokenhanrs Lives of 
Ihe Saints in MS. Arundel 327, transcribed in 
1447, is also written in the Suffolk dialect. 

(1) Extract from a MS. of Engluh poHry of the 
Jifletnth century, irritten in Suffolk, in the 
fto$$e»non qf I/'. S. Fitch^ E»q. 

Urtketh now fnrther at ttili fronie. 

How thU thfperil woldc come; 

Tu Abr&liam the tydyngua conijD, 

The prophctykhlt iimlrmoniyn, 

ThAl i> SlnytM *ud Jonu, 

AUacuc and Elia*, 

Ant 'DjuycD and Jcromle, 

And Ditvyd and l-Myr, 

And tUtcnand Saiiiucll. 

Thcl u-yn GcnlMy* cun<>tig ry^ht well, 

Long it were of httn aUe to tcltr. 

But hcrkynih how N'lay con •t>cl)e. 

A child that ii 1-tMryn to u», 

And a »onc i-jrTyn u*. 

Tlial thallc upholdm his kyndome. 

And alle this »hall b>n hU nomo, 

Wondiirrull Cod and of inyjht. 

And rcwfull, anil fadur nf ryjht, 

or the wnrld that hrrcaflur »hall byn. 

And Prince of Pea men thallc him tcyn : 

These both the oomcs ai }c mowe l-Ic^cn, 

That the pro|>hctyi to hyin jcvyn. 

(2) From BokeMtm'i Licea of t/tc Hainttt written 

in 1447. 
Whylnm, af the tlory icchyth ut. 
Id Antyoche, thai gtctc ryt^, 
A man ihcr wa« clepyd Thcodoiiut 
Wycf) 111 grrt ttaic<tooJ and dlgnytr, 
For t'f i'ayn>Tiiryc tbt palryark wathe, 
And had the rcule and al the govemauncr, 
To whom allc ptettyi dcde obccyaunce. 
ThU Thcodofiua had a wyf ful mete 
To byi utate, of whom was lx>m 
A doughtyr fayr, and clepyd Margarlte, 
But ryht ai of a ful shAr|i thorn, 
As (irovydcd waa of Ood beforn, 
Growyth a roae bothc fayr and good : 
So fptong Uargri'tcof the hethi-ne blood. 

MS. Arundel 337. fw- 

(3) A letter in the SvffoUt Dialect, written in 

the year 1814. 
Dkan FaiirsiD, 

I was aned aome iloundi affon by DlUy P. 
our 'aeuer at Mulloden lo make >nquIrBtion a' 

yeoar If Waaler had pahd In that there money 

^nlo the Bank. Billy i*. he fare kirnda uiinsy 
tfbout it, and when 1 ace him at Church ta day he 
•ah tJmmy. aayi he. prah ha yenw wrot —to I klcn«ta 
weTl um olT— and I aah, aayt I, 1 heent hnrd from 

t><)ulrc D at yit, but 1 dare aah, 1 ahall 

•/ore loDg~5o prah write me aomc lines, an tend 
iDCwahd, wtaha the money It pahd a* nic. 1 Jout 
know what to make of out Mulladcn fotka, uut 1 — 
bwl somehow or another, thcyrc allui inditjlc), an 

^L bwl someho 

ril be rot if I dont tiegln to think tome on em all 
tahnupacaly at last: ao at lo that there fulla— he 
({row fo big and su purdy that he want to be took 
down a pet; — an I'm glad to hare that yeow glnt it 
It cm properly at Wlckhum. I'm gooln lo meet the 
Mulladcn fnlkn a' Friday to gn a Ixiundi-n. so ptah 
write me wahd nforc Ihtnnum. on Itt me know If 
the money be \\a.M, ttul I may make Billy P. aiy. 
How itommin eowd lis nowaday*— «e hi-ent nnfeed 
no where, an theaE(*ck run blorcln aliout forwiltlo 
jeat OS if twa winter — yeow mah prnd out Iwool be 
a mortal Ind aeaH^n for green geese, an we shant ha 
no aprlng wahia afore Sooin fair. I dipt my alilp 
tut Tuesday (Hat a' roe— I meanWenadayj an th« 
acringa up their backs so naahunly I'm afeard 
lliey're wholly slryd— but 'stius Uod li* a atrang* 
rowd time. I heent got no news to tell ye, only 
we're all ttammenly set up about (hat there corta 
tnll — some folks dont fare ta like it no maiti-ta, an 
tht aah there waa a naahun noise about it at Norrlj 
lost Saturday was • fautnU. The mob thay got 
3 efijii, a farmer, a uiuire, an a mulla, an atrus 
yeowre alive thay hung um all on onejibblt — ao folka 
sah. HowMiroever we are all quite enough here, 
caae we fare to think it for our good. If you see 
that there chap Horry, give my sarvlce to em. 

The dialect of the East of Sussex is very 
nearly the same as that of Kent, while that of 
the West is similar to the Hampihire phrase- 
ology. *• In Stissex/* says Ray, English Wortls, 
cd. 1674, p. BO, '* for hasp, clasp, wasp, they 
pronounce hap&e, elapse, wapse, ^c. ; for neck, 
nick; for throat, throttle; for choak, chock; 
Ict'n down, U'l'n bland, come again and fct'n 
anon." Tliew obser\ation8 still hold good. In 
East Sussex day is pronounced dee, and the pea- 
santry arc generally disUnguished for a broad 
strong n)ode of speaking. They pronounce ow 
final as er, bi^t this habil it nnt peculiar; and 
they often introduce an r before the letters rf 
and/. A '" (ilossar)' of the Prorincialisms in 
use in the County of Sussex," by W. D.Cooper, 
was printed in 1836, a neat little work, a copy 
of which, with numerous MS. additions, wat 
kindly sent mc by the author. Several Sussex 
wonla, not included in Mr. Cooper's Ust, were 
sent to me by M. A. Lower, Emj., the Rev. 
James Sandbam, Colonel Dnvies, and M. T. 
Robinson, Esq. ; and Mr. Hulloway's General 
IJictionary of Provincialisms, 8vo. 1838, con- 
tains a considerable number. 

(1) Tom Cladpole't Journey to Lunnun, the 
Jir»t seven alanzoM. 

Laal Middlcmua 1 '^mcmbcr well. 

When ImrTcst was all over ; 
Ua chept had liout'd up all de t)anes. 

An alack'd up all de clover. 
1 think, lays ), \'\\ Uke a trip 

To Lunoun, dat I wul. 
An see how things goo on ■ bit, 

Lcat t shu'd die a fool I 
Fcr sikter Sal, five years agoo. 

WentoCTwud Squyer Orown; 
Hituaemattl, tir sunimut; don't know what, 

To live ut Lunnun town. 


Dey'hiv'd uncommon well lo SnI, 

An gc UT rlathe* an dat t 
So Sal 'hav'il naihun well lo deni, 

An grow'il quite tall an fat. 
I ax'd or Ben to let me gno. 

Hem riiHi dl' fcllur he, 
lie sirolch'il hl« wl|i, 'Tu Lunnun, Tom ?' 

Den turn'tl hiyquld, 'I'll ace.* 
So stratc to mother home gooa 1, 

An thua to ur did say. 
Uother, I'll goo an aee our Sal. 

Fet meaitoi u;i I may. 
De poor or gat did ahake ur head. 

Ah t Tom. twant never do, 
Poor Sal )■ (tone a le]ui way. 

An touat I now loose you ! 

(2) /t Dialogue between two Farm-laiourm in 

Tom. Why. Jim, where a bin t 

Jim. Down to look at the thip. 

Tmn. Did ye look at the Mack ? 

Jim. Umpt, I did, and it toakei terrible I 

Thm. Why didn't ye make a hole in it? 

Jim. 1 be guain (o it. 

Tam. It'i a pity, "twai »iih a mortal food 'uD. 

Jim. E> lure 1 Well, It'i meblicholy Bne time 
for the eropa. alnt II I 

T«m. Ah 1 it'll be ripping time prt tty won now. 

Jim. Ah! I *han'l do much at that for the 

Turn, What be |;uain to do with thai ere Juk ! 
Youd better let it bide. Do you think Ihechlmbley 
aweepcr will come to-day ? 

Jim. li» I he'f «afe to come, let It be how t'wull. 

Tim. Which way do you think he'll cnme ( 

Jim. He'll eomeathirt and acrou the common. 

r..™. What, calerwayi. aye) 

Jim. 1*». Did you mind what I waf a telling of? 

7>.m. To be sure; but dang ye ir 1 eould arnM: U, 
oonid you ? 

Jim. Lnr, ylf. 1 don't think It took much cute> 
new to do that ! 

Tlie following obstrvatinns on Ihc dialect of 
thia potiiity arc tiilieti fnim a MS. glossarj' of 
Warwickshire worils, compiled liv tlic late Mr. 
T. Sharp, anil kindly conitnunieatcd to mc by 
Mr. Snuntoii, of I^onghridge House, near 
Warwick : " The diphthiing ea is iisnally pro- 
nounced like 431. aa muit, nit, jdaise, paiac, walk, 
say, for meat, eat.pteate, weak, tea. The vowel 
o gives place to u, in sung, lung, amung, for 
MOng, long, among ; wunst for once ; gruii, fun, 
Uil pun, for ground, found, and pound. Shownd 
is also frequent for the imperative of show. A 
and are often intcrehaiiged, as drap, shap, 
yander, for dnp, nhop, yonder ; and (|icr contra) 
hoinmcr, rot, and gonder, for hammer, rat, and 
gander. J is substituted for d, in juke, jell, 
jeth, and jed, for duke, deal, death, and dead ; 
whilst juice is often pronounced diice. D is 
added to words ending in oir«, as drowndcd and 
gownd, for drotrned and gown. E is sotnci lines 
converted into a, as hatty, lafl, fatch, for MIti, 
left, aaA fetch. The noui. cose and the ace. are 
per]>elually and barbarously coafoiindeit in 

such phrases as, " They ought to have spoke to 
we ; her told him so \ he told she so ; us wont bo 
hurt, will us ? Thia is one of our most grntiug 
provincialisms." Tliis MS. glossary has been 
fully used in the following jiages. I liiivc also 
received coiiimuiiicalioTis from Mr. I'crrv, Mr. 
\V. Reader, the Rev. W. T. Brec, ihe R.rv. J. 
St,iunton, Mr. i. T. Walson, ami Tliumas 
Haslewiiod, Esq. The modern dialect of War. 
wirkshire contains a very large pro|K)rtion of 
Norlh country words, more than might have 
been expected from its locality. They say yat 
for gate, feul, fool, xAeeorn, sliame, teeea^ wheat, 
Yelhard, Edward, Jeeams, James, leean. lane, 
rooad, road, vool, will, p-yaaper, paper, /"eeoce, 
face, cooo^ coat, &c. 


" A bran new Wark by William de Worfat, 
containing a true Calendar of his thoughts con- 
cerning good rehberhood," 12roo. Kendal, 178;>, 
pp. 44, is a good specimen of the Westmoreland 
dialect, hut of great rarily. This dialect is very 
similar to that uf Cumberland. 

(1) y/ Weutmoretand Dialogue. 

Sarafi. What yee hev hard hee yan ev my awect- 
hartji, l^rd ! This ward ia brimful a lee for 

Jennet. Aye. thean lees enow, but I reckon (hat 

Sartth. Yee may be mlitaan aa weel as udder 
fowk ; yee mun know 1 went to Amaitle Lawer wie 
aur (Ireaady toth Bull, an she wod nit atand, but act 
orr an run up 'rawcr.hlll, an throoUi loan on tae 
Middle Barra plane, an 1 hefter he, tul I wer welly 
brOfon. Dick wor cumin up frae Sliver dale, an 
lomd her, heljit nir wie her loth btill, an then went 
heoam wie me. an while e.1 lecv 111 nirrer tak a kaw 
malr. Ise turc Itt a varra ahamriii ajirvl* to icnd 
onny young woman on. en what 1 think nicone hart 
li dun ea nac spot but Bcolhana pariah. En frac 
thii nebbon tea we er iweelharla. 

(2) A " Grahamed" Letter. 


Sur, — Ea ai se« oft pluagln ye aboot aummut lir 
udder, it maka me freetcnd et ye'U Iw giltin oot ur 
o' pashena, but, ye kna, et wer varra unlarned in 
oor dawie, en, therefore, oblciged when in a bit ov ■ 
dlfHrultec to ax aumbody et can rnlcetcn ua ont. 
Aw whope, h<ioiTer, et thla'cn el be't List time ct al 
hev occAfthun for yeradtiee; for If aw can manage 
to git hoad uT this aituwashun et nw hev uv me et, 
al be a gentelman oot days uv me life. Noo, ye 
aee, Mr. Hedditur. yaw day befowre t'reot com du, 
aw meen afowre t'tinte et fader was stinted to pay*t 
In ; for't iandlawrd wlv mlckle perswadin gev him a 
week or twa ower i but he tciled him plane enuf Ifbe 
dudent arum up that he wad send t'RninlKiMles ta 
aeca t'sllckscn turn byath fader en mutlilcr, mcaei en 
Dot bams, tut duer. O. man, thur tandiawrdt thur 
hard'hart'd chapa. Aw bvlecv he wad du'lt tu, for 
yan niver acet him luke piissant, eapecialle et farm, 
for o'lts et bnt rondiiliun, en we've lade sum UT 
this neu-fashend manner et they co' tiuanney ont 
(Kadderlikea to be like t'ncabers). Sartenly, it auita 
for yaw year, en theer's sum varra bonnie crop* whor 
it» been lade on middlin thick; but it we'at i 





t*«Dd flt weel ei a good foiid tiii«iUni. WhUh, llr. 
Hcddltur, c» AW wu gmngifn to uy. yaw day afowre 
t'Clme et Fader bed U pay't rnit bo »cnt me wid a 
coo CO a itlrk tuv a girt fare. Ihcy ro BraQlen Fare, 
nar Appelby^en aw wai to »cll ihem if anybody bad 
me out, for brau he mud hrv. whrdder aw gat Lher 
woorth ur nut. When aw was ut fare aw gat mt 
intuit midde) uv o'at thrang, whor aw thout aw 
cudnl help but meet wid a cu»tomar ;but aw waa 
was farHy cheetcd, for aw itude Iheer nar o't day 
we've mc hands uv rac pockets, en iieabody eamlcklc 
as axd mc what awd gayne aboot, en ye ma be sure 
•w pood a lang fawcc, tell a gudc-Iooken gentleman 
like feller com up tuv me, and nca doot seen aw was 
•are grhevd, began U ax mo cs to wbca aw was 1 
whor aw coo fra * hoc me Padder gat his leeven, en 
adeel mare sec like questions. Ov eoorw, aw telld 
bim nout but truth, for, ye kna, aw nlvver like ta 
tell a lee ta neabody, en aw dudnt forgit, et saame 
time to let him kna hoo badly offFaddcr was, en hoo 
It wud put him aboot when aw hednt selt l>ecas. 
Tgcnlleroan, puer feller! was a \arri feclcn man. 
for he seemed a girt decl hurt, en gcv me what aw 
wanted for me coo en lUrk, wldoot her a wuid ov 
barteren. Efthr o' was sattled. en we'ed gitten eader 
a glass, aw axed him for his nyarae to Uk U Faddcr, 
en he wrayate me't doon wld a wad pcnsel, ont luck 
UT a Ull gracn card t but unfortunatcle aw put Jl 
iiitul me wayaoowt pocket en't name gat rubbed not 
afowrv aw gat hyame. Ont tudder side et card, Mr. 
Heddjtur, was an adTertisemcQt, ov which this U a 
srurd for wurd copy : 


A Man ov Goox> Chaiiactkr, 

At a Salary of £AO(i per Annum, 

To Mind hi» own Businkvb, 

And a further sum of £S00, 


05' For further particulars rnquire of the Secre- 
tary for the Home Department." 
Et first aw dudut tak mickle nouitceoat ; but acn 
aw've lieen conslilerrn that me Fadder Is sara fashed 
we've sea mony ov us, en, aa aw siippowse, all hcv 
a» gude a chance a gitten a situwashun es onybody 
else, aw want to koa, Mr. Ileddltur, hoo aw mun 
gang aboot It. Aw cannet tell wltat sud ale mc gittcii 
ont, for iWvc alias bourne a gude carlcktcr, en thati 
t'sort uv a chap they want, en aw've oca doot aw 
cud iMoe larn I'tradc. Aw sec It corns ta nar Iwraty 
puod a week, throot yer, en iU a grand thing for a 
puer botly. T'lalMrin fowks aboot here cant hardlyi 
inak hofe cs mony shlMens. O man, t'fowk hcs lare 
shift to git a putten on. ooo o* days. Ilut bcildn o' 
that, aw can tell ye summct mare undcmeathf et 
nuks me irant U gang ta Lunnen sea mkklc es aw 
SDppowse luwhare this iltuwatlonis. Ve kna, Mr. 
Beddltur, me swecthart Nanny (es like U sham we 
tellen ye, but ye munnet menshion four agen for 
awt wort) cs aw was a lalng me swcethart Nanny 
went up ta Lunnen ta be a Leddies made, eu aw 
nid hkd tairm we'd to sec her et times. Es we ur 
•eafar off taen t'other, we rite letters back en forrcLt 
Ivery noo en then es udder fuwkdm's: but thcers 
Uytly been sum queer stowrles In oor dawlc aboot a 
feller they co Jammy Graam. They sa he's been 
pcepcn Intul oat letturs et gang up ta Lunnen, en 
then tellen oot en makenootmlscheefet Iverhecan. 
By gum ! if aw thout he'ed been broken fseals o* 
my Ictturs es aw sent ta Nanny— first lime aw met 
him aw wad giv him ilc a thumppm cs he nlver gat 
iB his life befosrrc. Aw wonder they hev'nl kick'd 
ace a ffOod-foT-DOut feller oot uv t'Poat long ten, 
whcB hcs gilly uv sec like sueckcn lo lif'O Irirks ei 

them. Me hand's beginning Ui wark, en aw mun 
finish wc beggin ov ye ta tell mc o' ye kna alioot 
ftltu<rashun, for rs detarmend ta hrft. en aw dunoet 
kna whea Secretary of t'llome Department Is. en 
theerfowre et at a loss whea ta apply tu. 
Yer effecshunct frlud, 

Jacob Stu BBS, 

aath July. 1844. fra t'Dawle. 

PS.— TVcdder*s nobbet been varra bad thur twea 
ur thrc days back . en thunner shooen hev been fleen 


The dialect of this county is so nearly related 
to that whicli is itenomiualed iKe West-Country 
diaJect, that the distinction must Iw nought for 
in wonis peculiar to it»clf rather than in any 
general feature. The Saxon plural termination 
en is still common, and oi is generally pronounced 
as ipi. Instances of their perfects may Ik; cited, 
87uip, snopt, hide, hod, /earf, lod, scrape, scrope, 
S.C. Some of their phrases are quaint. T/tat's 
makeg me ouf, puzzles mc ; a kind of a middling 
*ort qf a way he is in, out of sorts, Ac. Mr. 
IJritlon published a glos8ar>' of Wiltshire words 
in his Top<:>graphical Sketches of North Wilts, 
vol. iii, pp. 303-80 ; and a more coinptclc one hy 
.Mr. Akerutau has recently appeared, 12mo. 
1842. Many words pccidiar to tbib couiily will 
be found in the foUowiag |uiges whk-h have 
escaped lioth these writers, co[]L'i:ted cluefly from 
Kcnuett, Aubrey, and MS. lists hy the Kcv. Dr. 
Hiissey, Dr. S. Meiriman, the Rev. Kii:hard 
Crawley, and Mr. M. Jackson. The Chronicon 
Vilodunense, edited by W. H. Black, fol. 1830, 
is a specimen of the WiU&hire dialect in the fif- 
teenth ccnlur)-. It is so frequently qnoted in 
this work that any further notice is tinnecessary. 
The following clever pieces in the modern dia- 
lect of the county are from the pen of Mr. 

(1) The Hamet and the Biitle, 

A hamet set in a hollur tree,— 
A proper spiteful iwoad was he i 
And a merrily sung white hf did ie< 
Mis stinge as shearp as a bagganet : 
Oh, whoso vine and tiowld as I, 
I vears not bee, nor wapse, norvty t 

A blttleup thuck tree did dim. 
And scamvully did look at him ; 
Kayi he, " Zur hsmct, who gIv thee 
A right Ui eel in thuck there tree f 

Vor acl you sengs so nailun viae, 

I tell 'e 'tis a houtc o' mine.** 

The hamtt's conscience vrlt a twinge. 
But grawin' Iwwld wl his long stiugp, 
Zays he, *' Possession's the best Hitiw : 
Zo here th' sha'rat putaclnhw ! 
Be off, and leave the trt-e to me. 
The mUen's good enough for thee !" 

Just then a yuckcl, passln'tiy. 
Was avcd by them the cause to try : 
•• IU 1 h« f I SM how 'tis !'• says he. 
" They'll makes vamous nunch vor mr !"* 
His bill was shearp, his ttomach tear, 
7.0 np a snappfd the caddlln pair I 




Ael you a% be to laiiw Inclined, 

Thb lecUc itwory bear In tntnd ; 

Vox If to laaw you alma to fcwo, 

% ou'll Ttnd tbey-n allui s«r 'e lo : 
You U meet the v«te o the«e htre two. 
They'll lake your cwoat and carcau too ' 

(2) The GenuiM Remaina of William Little^ a 
Wilt t hire man, 

I've alius bin ai vluih o' money at a twoad U o' 
Teathrri ; but If ever I ^eti rich, I'll put it ael Id 
ZtKictcr bunk, and not do a« owld Smith, iho miller, 
did, «>mln* whoam vrora mnrket one nice. MarUl 
avraiil o'thlevetawai, so a puuhii pound-bElh and 
ael th' money a'd got about un In a hole In tlie wait, 
and llie next mamin* a'eouldn'c remember wbcre- 
abouU 'twaf, and had to pull purty tiigh a mile o' 
wall down before a' could vind It. Stoopld owIJ 
woiblrd I 

Owld Jan Wllkloi used to zay he allui cut** tukei, 
when a went a hedging too lang, bekaxc a* cou*d 
ea»lly cut 'em iharter if a' wanted, but a* eou'dnt 
make um langer ir 'em wu too thort. Zo xay> 1 ; 
lo I alluf aitei Tor more than I wanti* W I get* that, 
wvll and good ; but If 1 *%e* vor little, and gtti le«>, 
it'i mirlal akkerd t<> ax a arcond time, d'ye koeow 1 

PIple aay ai how they gicd th' D«am o' moonmkera 
to ui Wiltshire vauk bekaaea paaael o* ctupid bodln 
one night tried to rake the shadow o' Ih' moon out o' 
th'bruk, and tuk't vor a thin cheese. Out that's 
th' wrong Ind o' th' stwory. The chap> as wu* doln' o' 
this was smugglcra, and Ihry wasavUhin' up wmc 
kegs o'iip«rrl(s, and unly purtvndiKl lo rake out a 
cheese I Zo the exciseman ai axed 'cm the question 
bad his grin at •cm : but they had a good laugh at he 
when -ctn got whoame the stufT. 

Owld Molly Sanoell axM Mully Dafter to gle her 
a drap u' barm one day. " 1 ha'fi't a got nam t" says 
•he: " betldei, I do wantun niexrirtoUikc wT." 

Meaiter Goddin used to uy as how clilldcni costed 
a light o' money to brcng um up, and 'twas all very 
well whilst um was lecile, and sucked th' mother, but 
whtfl um began to rack the vathcr, 'twai nation 

Measter Cuss and his lun Etherd went to Lonnun 
a teetle time tence. and when um got (o their jour- 
ney's ind, Measter Cuss misHHl a girl panel a carr'd 
wi'un toth'cwoAch. "Lard, valhcrl" aayi Etherd, 
" 1 seedun drapoutat Viae!" (Oevtces.) 

(3) \orth WiUnhire eloptence, 
** Now, do'e plaie to walk In a bit. lur, and rcst'e, 
and dwont'e mind my measter up ag'in th' chimley 
earner. Poor aowl on hin, he've a bin drspcrt ill 
ever sence t'other night, when a wur tuk tcr'ble bad 
«r th* rheumatls In's legs and stummlck. He've a 
bio and tuk dree bottles n' doctor's stufT, but Ml be 
whipped Ifa dosimbly a bit th' better var't. Lawk. 
lur, but I be mam scrow to bv. ael in aich a caddcl, 
ael alang o'they childeru. They're a bin a leasln". 
and whte um coomed whoame. they ael tuk and 
rtrowcd the cam aelamang th' vtre stuff, and tohrre 
we be, ael In a muggic Itke. And you be lookin' 
niiddllniih, cur. and ael as if e was shrammed. I'll 
take and bleow up th' vlre a moascl ; but whnt be 
them beiliies at f here they be slat a-two I and here's 
my yeppum they've a' bin and searched, ond I've 
agutnarra 'nother 'gin Ziimlay bescpti thS».um !"' 
This elegant gamjile of Norlh WiUsTiire elo- 
quence was uttered nearly in a breath, by Mis- 
treM Virges, the wife of a Uljourer witii a Urge 

family, as the \>Qi.\T nmn's master citCered the 
cottage to inquire aft'Cr his tirAlth, nnd whether 
be woulil be soon able to return tu bis work. 

In Worcestershire, the peculiarity of speech 
most striking to a stranger is |>erhaps the inter- 
change of Aer and Mhfy e. g. ** her's going for a 
walk with she." This perrersion is even used 
in the genitive, " she's bonnet." As in Gloutres- 
tershire and Hcreforrlsbire, the pronoun tehich 
is constantly used to connect seutences. and to 
act as a species of cnnjunction. At a recent 
trial at Worcester, a butA.'ber, who was on his 
trial for aheep-fltealing, said in defence, " 1 
bought the sheep of a man at Broomsgrove fair, 
tphich he is a friend of the prosecutor's, and 
won't appear ; which I could have transported 
the prosecutor ever so long agoo if I liked." As 
in many other counties, the neuter is frequently 
invcsled with the masculine gender, A more 
striking feature is the continual dropping of the 
fin such words as ttair, fair^ pronounced Mtar, 
JoTt&c. ; and the letter r is sometimes sounded 
bctweCD a final vowel, or rowct-sound, and an 
initial one. No works on the dialect of this 
county have yet appeared, and the majority of 
the words here fjuoled as peculiar to it have 
been collected by my«elf. I bavc> however, re- 
ceived short comiiiunications from J. Noakc, 
Esq.r Jahez Allies, Esq., Miss Bedford, Mrs. 
John Walcot, Thomas UouHon, Esq., Mr. R. 
Bright, and Mr. William Johnson. ThefoUow- 
extroct is taken from a MS. in my possession. 

Extract from a MS* of medical receipt » written 
b}f Syr TomoM Jamyij Vicar qff" Badseye, about 
the year 1450. 

Kor the skawlca gode medcyn. Takepedylyon 
to handfulle ever that he be flowryd. and than ho 
ys lendur, and than take and tethe hym wclle In a 
potelle of stronge lye tille the to halfe tie aoddyn 
awey, and than wesche the skallyd hede In stronge 
pysse that ys hoote, and than »chave awey the schawle 
cleoe, and let not fur bledyng; and than make a 
plasture of petlytyon. and ley It on the hede gode 
and warme, and so let it ly a day and a nyth, and 
than take it awey, and so than take thy roele and 
mnnyng watur of a broke, and therof make theke 
Iiapilettes, and than sprtnle them on a clothe that 
wciilu cover at the soorc, and so ley It on the rore 
hedc, and let It ly lij. dayys and iij. nythtes ever It 
bfl remeveyd, and than take It of, and wesche the 
hedc wclle In strong pyise ayenne. and than take and 
»chave It dene to the flcsche. and than take rede 
pynownre as many ase wolle luffyce for to make a 
plattureover the sore, and tK>ylrthcm wclle In wa- 
ture, and than stampethem, and temper them with 
the softc of calamynte, and old barow grece that 
ys maltyoe clcno, and so use this tylle the Mke t>e 


There are numerous early MSS. still preserved 

which were written in various part^ of Yorkshire, 

most of them contAining marks of the dialect of 

the county. The Towneley Mysteries, which 


hare been printed by (he Surteei Society, \*ere 
tnitten in the ncigfabourhood of Wakcflelil. An 
Bngliih commentary on the Tsalms, translated 
from the Latin work by llampole, a MS. in Elan 
College Library, was aii^o written in this county, 
the writer objerving, " in Ibis werkc I eekc no 
itrange Inglyshebot thebghte«t and thccomon- 
«t, aiiiiswiike that cs mastc like til the I^tyn, 
[ %o that tliBs that knawcs noght the Latyn by the 
Iiiglvkbe may come to many Latyn wordes." 
A metrical translation of Grostliead's CKatitau 
d' Amour, in MS. Egcrton 927, was made by a 
" munke of Sallay," who calls it " the .Myrour of 
Icwcd .Men." To these mav be added MS. Harl. 
1022, MS. Harl. 5396, MS.' Coll. Sion. xriii. fl, 
and the Thornton .MS. so oftco quoted in the 
following pages. 

Higden, writing about 1350, says" the whole 
apeech of the Northumbrians, especially in Yotk- 
thire, is so harsh and rude that we Southern men 
can hardly understand it ;" and Wallingford, 
who wrote long before, obscncs that " there is, 
and long has been, a great admixture of people of 
Danish race in that province, and a great aimi- 
larily of tamjuage." See the ' Quarterly Review,' 
Feb. 1S3S, p. 365. There seem to be few traces 
of Danish in the modem Yorkshire dialect. 

So numerous are moderu pieces in the York- 
■hire dialect, that it would be difhcult to give a 
complete list. The rustic of this county has even 
had a newspaper in his native dialect, the ' Ynrk- 
thircComet,' the first number of which appeared 
in March, 1841 ; but in cansc(]ucncc of certain 
personal allusions ginng offence, the pidilislier 
wu threatened with a prosecution, and he relin- 
quished the work after the piildicatiou of the 
aeventh number, and refused to sell the objection- 
able parts. The most complete glossary uf York- 
ahire words was complied by Mr. Carr, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1828, hut it is confined toCravcn, the dialect 
(aid to be used by Chaucer's North country 
ichoUra, See Mr. Wright's edition, vol. i. ji. 
160. Dr. Willan's list of words used In the 
mountainous district of the West-Riding, in the 
ArcbaM>logia, vol. xvii. pp. 138-167, should also 
be noticed; and long previously a Y'urkshire 
glossary appeared at the cud of the Prai»e of 
Yorkshire Ale, l2nio. 1697. Thorcshy'a list of 
West-Riding words, 1 703, was publiahcd in Kay's 
Philosophical Letters ; and Watson gives a 
" Vocabulary of Uncommon Words used in Hali- 
fax Parish" in his History uf Halifax, 1775. 
These latter have been reprinted in the Hallam- 
shire Glossary, 8vo. 1829, a small collection of 
words used in the ncighliourhood of Slietlicld. 
The Sheffield dialect has Iwcn lery carefully in- 
Testigaled in an Essay by the Rev. II. 11. 1'l^wr, 
12mo. 1825. In addition to Ike printed gtoi- 
laries, I have bad the ailvantage of using .MS. 
lists of Y'orkshire words communlcateil by Wo. 
Turner, Esq., Wilham Henry Leatham, Esq., 
Henry Jackson, Esq., Dr. Charles Kookc, the 
Kev. P. Wright, Mr. M. A. Deiilmiu, Mr. Thomas 
Sanderson, John Richard Walbran, Esq., Mr. 
Banks, and N. Scatdierd, Esq. 

(1) A charm for the Tooth-ache, from the 

Thornton MatiHicript , {. 176. 

^ charme for the letHe-tcerke,— Sajr tlie chairnu 
thrlt, to It tie Mjrd U. tymes, and ay thrys at a 
chare mynge. 

I conjourt the, Isythrly bote, with that llkcsprre, 
Thst LofiRvout In tiU handesanvbcrr. 
Anil alfu Willi snr lialtr of thome. 
That cine tny Lordlft hedc was tMrDCf 
U'Eth atie thr wordU mare and Icsae, 
Wilh t)io Office or the Meue, 
WUh iny Lc»rde and Mi xii. postillea, 
WUh cure Lady and tier x. raaydenya, 
Saynt UsTgicte, the haty quene, 
Saynt Kalerin.the haly virKyoe, 
U. tymet (joJdliforbott, tliou wikkyde ini>B«j 
Thet erer thou make any rystyngCi 
Bot awaye mole thou wende, 
Tu the erdc and the stanc ! 

(2) Dicty Dicketon't Addreu to't knaym tcorld, 
frmn the fimt number (jf the YorktUre Comet, 
put/tuhedin 1844. 


Ah lud'nt wonder bud. when tome foakt hear 
o' me itartin' on a Paper, they'll say, what in't 
world hrs niaadc Dicky DIckMon tiethlnk hlxkcn o* 
cummin' alch a caaper ai that ? Wah, if ye'll DOti- 
biit hev haur o't paatlence o' Joab, Ah'll try ta tell 
ya. Ve mtin linaw, 'at abnot lix year iln'. Ah wur 
r a public-hoow, wheare ther wur a fellet as wur 
braggiu* on hit lamln', an' so Ah axed him what he 
knawed tboot onnj ktiEwledgeincnt, an' he said h« 
thowt he'd a rare lump moare Information i' fats 
heead, ner Ah hed 1' mine. Noo, ye jLnaw. Ah 
sudn't ha' been a (luarter ai ill road, if ther hedn't 
tieeo o lot o' chaps In't plaace 'at reckoned ta hev 
noa tmali share o* gumption. Soa, af kooin ai Ah 
gat hoaTDe that neet. Ah twarc ta cxir Uet, 'at as 
■tixre ai shoo wur a match-hawker, Ah wud leeam 
atl't poUshmenti 'at Schooitmaiatcr Gill could teich 
ma. Varry we«l, ilap at It Ah went, mail ii in' pot- 
hukei, an' ttroakai, an' .\h hardly Itnawi what ; an* 
then Ah leeamt ipelderln', readin*, i' fact, all 'at 
tong'heeaded £chool)mAlftter Gill knew hissen ; to 
'at, when Ah'd done wi' hiin. Ah wur counted as 
clever a chap as me feather afore ma, an' ye mun 
consider 'at Ah wur noa imatl beer when Ah'd coma 
u that pasf, for he could tell, boot luktn', hoo mlch 
paaper it wud tak' ta lap up an oonce o' 'bacca. 
Wecl, aa tooln aa Ah'd gotten la tie sa wonderful 
wiM*, d'ye cee f Ah thowt— an' it wur a bitter thowt. 
tew ! — what a plly it wor 'at Ivverybody couldn't 
dew as mlch aa Ah could. More Ah studied abooc 
It, an* war It pottered ma, Ah'll atsuare ya. Wun 
neet, hoolvver, as oor Bet an' me wur act be't fire- 
side, ihoo turned herten luddenly roand, an' said, 
" Thoo'iafooll, Dicky:" •• What '. Bet, doei thoo 
really meean ta say Ah'i a fooilr" ** Ahdew,"ihou 
Mid ; '* thoo't ■ real fooil I" " Hoo docs ta mak* 
that oot. Bet ^" said Ah. for Ah wur noane hauf 
suited atioot it. ** Ah'll say It ageeao an' ageean,** 
says shoo; " thoo's a fuoil, an' if ta'i ouny way 
parlikelaru kruw, Ah'll tell iha hoo Ah maks tt 
oot. In't first plaace, luke what braans thoo hc« a 
aa ilarlin' as onny 'at ivver theiise gun men hed ; 
an' yet, like a foull as Ah fay ihon Is. thoo taks It 
as eeasy as a pig in't muck." " Wcel, weel," Ah 
continld. " what wod t3 ha' ma ta dew, lass ' Tell 
us, an' Ah'll dew'i." •• Then," says ihoo, " start a 
paaper i' ihcc awn naative tongue, an' call it 
c'Vorshar Coaiet. Ah'll be bun fgr'l It'll pay as 


wnl u tvvcrgoold oofa did.** Noo, thfn. u moin 
u Ah hrc4rd oor Bct'i noationa. Ah wur omnium 
•lark m«U U carry 'em oot ; for Ah ihowt, bj ihoo 
ditl *at It wod pay capital, au' bealde. Ah lud nuyb« 
be troproovln't itaate o' tactaly, an'i morali o't 
vicluu». Ye doan't nred ta (hink 'at Ah'i nowt bud 
BD Ignarant tuuihrutn, for, though Ah uy't myaeo, 
Ah can tell ya 'at Dicky Dickefon'a ai full o'kuaw- 
Irdge ai a hcgg's full o' roeeat. Nut 'at Ah wanti 
U crick o* myMO, nowt o't »oart t It im't what Ah 
uyi an' thinks o' my»en, bud what other foaka uyt 
an' thinka o' ma ; an' If ye ha* no objectiooa. ye'* 
Just read a letter 'at Ah gat tea* Naathon Vickui 
AbooC a year an' a hauf lin'. when alt that talk wur 
agate relatln' ta Otlcy gerrin' f ranch lied. It ran aj 

M Pig-Colt Farm. Ocloabcr, 1849. 
'* Dear Dicky. 

*■ Ah mun coofeu 'at Ah've hceard lome talk 
aboot oor toon Konin* two Memben ta Partcment, 
au' if Irver it sudoome ta paw» thoo tna be luare'at 
Naathan Vickui 'U iLick to Lha up htll an* doon 
daale. Ah'i ooane ta thick, Dicky, bTid what Ah 
knawf pretty near what a chap Is be*t cut on ht» Jib, 
thoo unnerstaost an', depend on'l. lad, that's what 
Ah Judget thee by. Thoo's a man 'at 'II dew honour 
to't toon whcaretvver ta goes, an' if thvr's oiiny 
fcatbcTt for onnybody's cap, it's Dicky Dlckvaon 'at'i 
boon la get 'em, or rise Ah's a r<H>[l of ■ judge o' 
human flesh, that'* all. Ah bev varry gurl pleasure 
V oflbrln' tha my voale, an' oor Toby's in't bargain -. 
■n' Ah dew promise tha, 'at If Ivvery pig, mule an' 
cauf aboot my farm wur rcceavable as cummon 
aense creaturs, thoo lud 6n* a supporter i' ivT«ry 
one on 'em. Wi' a bucket o' compliments ta the 
•later Bet an'l rest o'l breed, 

" Ah Is, dear Dicky. 

'* Moast Tcapectful thine. 


Ta Mr. Dickeson, E»f. 

Noo, then. Ah ax ageean* b iher onny o* ya, dear 
readers, as wod hev't Iceast bit o' doot o* ycr minds 
Boof li thor. Ah say ' Noa : An fancies Ah can 
hear some o' ya chucklin', an' sayla', " Hurra for 
Dicky Dickeson I he flogsall 'at's goanc afore him !" 
An* let ma tell ya, 'at so Ah roccant ta dew ; an' It 
onny of ya is trubbled wi' lecu u' ghoasU or dull 
thowts, Ali'll guarantee la freeteo 'em oot o' ya, an' 
that's what noa soul afore ma's done yet. Bud All 
mun gl' ower vrltin' tul ya at present, fnr o<ir Bet 
tells ma 'at roe porridge hcs been waitin* this hauf 
hoor, an', as a matter In coarse, they're stUTwr stan- 
nln*. Ah can nobbut beg on ya ta reail t'Vorshar 
Comet ivvery week, an*, bcdewln'soa. tak' my worJ 
for't, ye'll siave snonny a poond I't yeear 1' piUi, 
boalusfccs. an' all sich belly muck as tha are. 

Bet Joins wl' ma 1' luv ta ya all, (sboo's a deaccnt 
tass, is Oct I) an' wl' a thoosand hoapcs 'at ye'll in- 
couragc roa. 

Ah is, dear Ivverybody, 

Ver varry humble tarvant, 

DicKV DtcKicaoN. 

T'Editor's Study. 

(3) A Letdx Adv^ia^m^nt. 


LaateUatip'ny Cheesecaake-Makker tul Her Msjetly. 

Begs ta inform I'ptiblic 'at shoo hri Jutt 


S6, I'aastry Square, Lesds, 

Wheare aha carrlea on 


O*lart-makker,hone»t brandy snap tuaker. trrcaclc- 

itlck boiler, humbug im[K)rter, sptce-pig' 

unlvartal decaf-nut. breead, checae. bunnack, an' 
plnc;r-beer deealer ; an' fro't experience 'at shno*B 
bed j' them llnet o' genius wal wl' her Msjesty, shoo 
begs ta auuorc t'inhabitants 'at shoo's t'lmpedcncc 
ta think here's noabody *ll gi' more fnr t*brais, or 
•Irh Incnnceeavable qualaty as thoo will. 

Biddy Buckk-bewlt alsoa desires u noatlce, 'at as 
for punctualnty, uoabody can be more soa ner hrr* 
ten ; for shoo nwlus heat'oven hoat, an' what's better, 
koeps a wheelbarrow for t'exprcaa purpose o* dea- 
paichin* articles ta all t'paartso't gloabe. 

P.S,— r consequence o'l Immense saale an* tupe> 
rioraty o' B. B.'s goods, lots o' uuprlncapled foaks 
hea been induced ta adopt her receapti like, an' la 
defraud her ; ta prevent which t'Honarable Commis- 
sioners o' Stamps hex ordered 'at all B. B.'s stulT be 
figured wi' a blliy-gooal'shccad, (them anlmaUbeln* 
tremendous fond o' lollipop) soa 'at noanc 1* fulur 11 
be gc-nii-lne but what is ornamented as afore parti- 
calariacd. Be suarc ta think on 

No. 96, Paastry Squai-e, Leeds. 

(4) Screws frotM Newspapert. 
Fnfwrf.— Felix KIlbbertoD hcd a sad roond wl* hit 
wife this week, caused, as we're teld, I»e Mlstroaa 
Flibbcrton bcin' guilty on a piece o' roguery, t'like 
o' which we seldom hear tell on. It's said, when 
Felix toHstctl on his teen, t'lasl Thursday momin*, 
he fan It oot 'at it wom't ower strong, but, tm't 
contraary, wur considerably weaker ner commnn. 
O" this fact comin' ta leet. he called his wife tut 
scratch, an' axed as lovlnly as ha wur aable. hoo U 
happened 'at his leea wur i' that ptckle. Noo, Felix 
an' his wife's colltc an' sich like, wur aullus prc- 
psared i' separate pots,— Ah meean tea-pots; an*, 
that morntn'. Mister Flibberton hevin' lig^ed ray- 
iher long i' bed, his wife hcd iho«t proper ta gulp 
her brekfastaforehe landed doon. T'qucstion wrjr, 
hcd t'mlstress ta'en t'biggest shaare o't teca, oa tlieare 
wur noanc In t'canUtcr then 1 T'poor woman said, 
ihcr wur precious little ta mak' t'brekfost oo j hud 
what ther wor» shoo divided fairly, leeavln' her hu«- 
batid be far t'blggrr hauf. Nut chu&ln' ta believe all 
'al his wife spluttered oot, Felix shooled o't sarvani. 
whoa depoasiNl 'at when shoo gat up, shoo wur suare 
'at theare wur then pimty i*t canister ta mak' six 
rxrv strong cups. Efier adeeal o' crt»sa-examlnaatlun 
between t'miftrcts an't sarvant, t'former began o' 
roario*. an' confeascd 'at shoo hed defixuded her law- 
ful partner, devoatin' tul her awn use three, wal tul 
her husband »hoo nobbut left one an* a hauf spooln- 
ful 0* teea. Felix wodti't grant noa pardon then, 
bud bun her ower la keep t'pccace for three months ; 
an'j, suppctasin* *at shoo brak it ogccan, he threcat- 
cned sendln' a brief u*t whoolc caase ta Ualster 
Wilklns, barrister, an' ta tak' sich steps as he mud 

J Munifiveftt Gifi,— Dt, Swabbs, Physician extra- 
ordinary ta Ivverybody 'at wants polaontn*, hesonee 
more come oot ov his shell, an' Icttcn t'wrorld knaw 
'at he's t'naame Dr. Swabbs still 'at iwer ha wor. 
Q' Tues<lay nect, wal t'doctor wur smookUi' his 
pipe, an* awillln* his tummter o' brandy an' watter, 
a depitation o*maad-sarviutt«, consistin' o't cooks an' 
seven or eight hooac an' choamer-niaads, waated on 
him wl' a Huond Robin, petltionln' for a small do- 
naatlon i' order ta buy amixtur u poison t'mlce wl*, 
as they wur gerrln varry Impedent i' ther walks in. 
tut kitchen an' cupboard; i* fact, at't truvtwarthy 
cook said, one on 'em hcd t'bare-faacedncss ta come 
an' wag his tail I' her chocolate, and then as bare- 
faocedly maadc his cscaape, wi'oot stoppin' ta be 
wallopped for't. T'doctor wuraoa moved be Iheaae 





mrgrcnenU, 'at he threw doon hit plpci brekkm' on't. 
w t'hcK)«r-maald teld ma, ihrutted hi* hsnd iutul liU 
pocket, ah' drew sixpence. What « blewlii' wod it 
be if tnva geDUAUy «od nobbui fuller Dr. Swabb*'* 
nunaple t 

A Utararj/ Sariati/.—A LiUmry Sidaty hei been 
fanned I' Otiey be some pcricverin' an* common- 
snueytning men, 'at't ov apinioD 'at tt'i nowt bud 
reifht 'at they »ud hev as mtch larnio' aa tba can 
alTurd ta pay for. A committee's bcH.-n maadc, con- 
lUtUi' o' seven o't wlieit o' thcase contplratori tut 
owcrthraw o' tgnarance, ao' rulet drawn up an' 
printed!' a bexcellent »tyle, varry creditable boath 
tut author an* tut printer thrreon, Att'i luare. we've 
juat torn a catalogue o't book« they're already got- 
un* an* as It eould'nt mlu but t/WA- fo/uim 1' ther 
faavMur. wc brg la lubjoin t'naftmt-* on a tu-Ihrct- o't 
principal warkt:— Jack t'Giaiit-Killcr. Tom Thumb, 
Cork Robin, Mother Hubbiird, Jumpin' Jem. Va*\ 
V Booita, Tom tTiprr't Son, an' a »plendid haup'ny 
edition o* Wblttln'ton an' hii Cat. Thti Ii a grand 
opportunaty for lorcn o* aoond mathamtttlcaj, an' 
Otht-r lltarary puriulti, ta come fomrd. an'tuppoart 
an' tuitaan a novelty fro' which tlia ma gether all 
t 'Info rmaat ion ther minds It un t'luke oot for. 

(5) Deborah DuckUotCn Advice Comer. 

If ya tuke noatlcc, yc would see, 'at I'Utter end 
o' March, i'c 6r»t quarter, t'mooin wurlaad ov her 
back, a suare sign o* stormy weather. Ye'tl all 
koaw, 'at tbearr't been part frost an' siuw sin' ; an*. 
If my Judgment Ivn't awfully wrong, we's ha' «ome 
more. Weel, no<>, 1' frosty weather, yeVe aware, 
it'i rayther daangerouE walkln*, bcco* u't varry gurt 
slapenca^ o't rooad* an't flrgs ; Ah'i quite poMlive 
itn't, for c»en l* niy time Ah'vc ^een more ner one 
long-legged coavey btowt or a level wi'i ffrund, an' 
Ah'vc Men monny a stool au 're* pec table woman, tew. 
L«tin«pmcTlbe a remady, then, for all sich jnisfur- 
tuDS. Shaadracb Scheddul.— a celcbraatetl hone- 
fthooar l*oor toon, propoaaod ta nharftcn barns for 
ihrve-haiipcnce a heead ; lads an' Iassps. fro' ten ta 
sixteen year o'aagr, thruppance: an' all aboon that 
nwdness, whether tha've big feet, little feet, or noa 
feet at all, fowerpence. 

N.B. Ivvcry allooance *ll be maade for wooden 
legs i an' o' them 'at honestly doesn't with ta be 
blessed wl'i last-naamed articles o' wecar, it'smoaic 
respectfully requested 'at they'll avaal iherscns o't 
■harpetiin' invention. Shaadrach Scheddul alluo^ 
Are per cent, otf for ready braai, or six monthi' 
trcdlt;— auther '11 dew. 

Ah advise all laadics 'at doesn't wish ta hev ther 
hasbands' slocklns ootraagcously mucky on a wnh- 
In'-day, nut ta alloo 'em t'prlrilege o' B[KMirt)n' 
knee-breeches, them hcrln' been proved, be varry 
clever philosophers, ta be tiecsdin' cause theareof, 
an't principal ncisoo why t'leg o't itockln' doesn't 
iMt u kmg u t'fooit. 

^6) VUiU ta Dicky Dicketon, 
O* Friday, Dicky DlrknKin wur visited I* his 
study be't Marquli o' Crabbum, an', efter a dccal o' 
enquiries aboot t'wcather, an' monny remarks eon- 
aamln' this thing an' that, t'lattcr prareedrd la ex- 
plaan what ha'd come for, soapin.' an' smilin' tut 
lamed editor, as It's genarally knawn all thease top- 
markers dew— when tha've owl ta ger oot on him. 
It appears 'at t'alm o't Marquis wur ta Induce Mr. 
Dickcson, as a capitalist o' some noate, ta Join wi* 
him r buyin' In all t'paapcr thaavins 'al tha can llg 
Cher haos on, km as ta hev all t'traade la thersens. 

Mr. DkkcMMi agreed, an' t'flre-leeUn' an' thaavin'- 
deralln* world is lukln' wi' mlch terror an' Int'reat 
tut result. 

Immediately efter t'Marquls o' Crabbum hed 
maaile hU exit, a gentle rap wur heeard at t'door o't 
study, an' when Mr.Dtckrwm bad 'cm walk forrard, 
in )>oppcd a bonny, blue-e'cd, Greclanouftied. 
whitc-tooiihed lasso* eighteen, an' be't vay I' which 
iVlitorsmacked ber roasy rhceks t»i' hU lit>i, here's 
Da doot bud it wur Nanny Tract. Shoo'd browt two 
ooatcaakfs, 'at shoo'd newly baaked, yc knaw. Mr. 
Dk-kcsnn set tul ta elt 'em, an' Nanny set tul ta 
watch him ; an' when t'ftrst hed finished his per- 
formance on't ooat-caakes, here's na need ta say 'at 
he began o* squcaxln't latter; ay, an' ye ma say 
what ya've a mind abciot t'modestyo't laadles.bud 
Nanny aqueeased him as weel, an' wor ther owt 
wrong In't. think ya ? ShaUywaJIy ! Bud, hoo- 
Ivver, t'cditor hedn't been long at this g»ta\ afore 
ha heerd another noise,— a ihufflln', ilinkin' noise, 
Ah meran, on* nut a reg'lar rap,— ootside o't door ; 
Boa, takkin' his shoe* off, he crej t nicely tut »pot, 
an', be gow ! if ha didn't fio't printer's dlvll llssrnin' 
Iheare, here's be nowt for lellia' ya on't. Mr. 
Oickecon, omiaust choaked wl' madness at this 
tum-up. {for whearc's ther onnybody 'at likes u hev 
ther love-Jtfwina heeard an* seen I) shoved him intut 
middle on hli ttuity ; an* commandin' Nanny la hod 
him a minute, {which saame shoo did ta f^rrfectlon,! 
he nent tut other end o't plaace, an' puttin' on a 
mlddtin'-siaed clog, lukc a run pau^eat t'|Kisteri"rs 
o*t imperient printer's divil, an' thearcby makkln' 
blm slog " Ood saave t'Queen" i' slch prime style, 'at 
delicate Nanny wur ta'en wl' a fit o* faontln*. 
T* music hevln' cccased as aooln as t'performer wur 
turned oot, Nanny bethowt berscn ta cotne roond ; 
bud, shaamcful ta say, her an' Dicky didn't paart 
wal fower I't eftcrnooln. at which time llau wur 
wanted up at hoame ta dsm stocklni an' crimp 

(7) MiicclUmieg. 

Men an' women Is like soa roonny cards, played 
wl' be two oppoaoents, Time an' Eternity : Time 
get's a gam noo an' then, an' hex t'pleaaure u' keep- 
In' his coards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better 
hand, an' proves, day be day, on' hoor be hoor, 'at 
he's wlnnln' Incolcalably fitt. 

Whentwer ya see one o' thease heng-doon, black 
craape thinj^uras 'at comes hauf doon a woman's 
bonnet an' faace, be niare 'at shoo'a widowed, an* 
" Ta Let!" 

It's confidently rumoured in t'palilleal world, 'at 
t'lax Is goln' ta be ta'en olT leather-breeches, an 
puttcn on white hats. 

Wliy does a young laady i' a rldln'-habit rcsemmie 
Shakspeare ? Cos shoo'a (olTen) mLs-cooatcd (mf«* 

A lad I'Otley. knawn be t'lnhabltantsforhis i>dd 
dewins iJke^ an' for hla modesty, tew. wun day went 
a errand for an owd woman 'at tha called Betty 
Crutiice : an' he wur sa sharp ower It, ^n' did It sa 
pteasanlly betide, 'at Betty aied him ta hev a bit o' 
applo-piefor his trouble. "Noa, thenk ya." said 
I'lad. " Thoo'd better, WUIy." said Betty. ■* Noa, 
thenk ya," repeeated tiad ; an* off he ran hoame. 
an' as sooln as ha gat Intut hoose, tmrat oot a-roartn' 
on' sobblD* aa If hti heart wod brek. •■ Billy, me 
lad," says his mother, *' what's t'matter wl' tha f* 
'*Wah." blubbered poor Billy, "Betty Cruttic* 
axed ma U hev a bit o' apple-pie, on* Ah said, Noft. 
thenk ya *." 


Potkcn li like brawllo' tongue*— Juii t'lhlngi U 
•tirup file* wi'. 

Why doesi inUnd ica rcseminle « linen -drupri'* 
■hop? Cot it contmsiu turgci aa' tu)i (tergtt an' 

* What's tald for thcue remarkable artlcln V 
ftbooted an auctioneer at a aaak' to three wrvk tin*. 
•* Here'i a likenen o' Queen Victoria, u'en Int'year 
•eveotMn ntnety-twu. a couple o' pint pou.'at'* 
been drunk oot on be't ceUbra«led Bobby Bunu« an' 
a pair o' tongt 'at Genaral Fairfax faa^ht wl' at 
t'bittico* Bfarflun Uoor, all I' wun lot: ay, ay, an' 
here's another thing ts goa wl' 'cm, a hay-fork 'mt 
Noah uicd ta bed dooa his beeasta wl' when ha wur 
la I'ark, tomettroe 1' fotrrrtcen hundred. Bud, 
hoolTver, It maks ua oddi tut year. Fowcr anicles 
bcre, all aiillquatles : what't said for 'rm i SlKpetice 
Is uid fur 'em, l;iaitirs an* gennlcmcn—clg^tprnce is 
aald for 'cm^-nlnepence, tenpence, a shttlln's &ald 
Tor 'em, Uadles and grnnleraen, an' ihenk ya for yer 
iDBfiianlmaty. Are ya all done at a shlUm'? Varry 
weel. then. Ah lahn't dwell : soo thcaie three ar- 
ticle* is Bo'n'." " Ve'rc relght, mauter," shooled 
a cobbler fru't crood, •* they art goin', tew i fur if 
my e'es (ell ma rclght, theare's na hannlet on't polin 
na ooaso on't plc(ur, an' na legs on't tongs." 

" Hoo sweet —hoo varry tweet — It Ufcl^Ul'lIce 
uld when ha wur stuck i' trecacle. 

Why doca a lad, detected i* robbln' ■ bee-tatTe» 
ger a double booty be't f Cot he gets boath tiouey 
an' whacks (m'(li). 

A striplin' runnin' up tul a paarer, 'at wur ham- 
merhi' an' brayio'soa at his wark, 'at t'»wreal fair 
ran doon his checks, bagan o' scraapin't iWecat otT 
hisfaaee Intul a pot wl' a piece o* tin. *' Hollow 1" 
shoots t'man, rubblu' his tmartln' fg«(urB wi' hit 
relght hand, "what meoant tha ta be com in ' la 
ftcraape t'skln off a man's coontenance f '* Nay, 
nay," said t'tad, <• Ah wurii't scraapin't skin ofT. doo, 
but nobbut t'swrcat, which wur o' noa ute (a ye, 
roaastcr, wat It loor ta me* ai Ah've been all ower» 
an' couldn't get na gootfe-grMue oimywbcsre UU E 
•aw ye." 

(8) .4 Fabl€. 
I'L' Kal^e book, we read at school. 
On ail owd Frosk, an arrand Fooyl ; 

I'rkfe crark'd her little bit o'Bntln i 
(T' IxKik o' me Ncyve, Mun) we a pnx, 
Shoo'd neeils meytch Bellies we un Ux ; 

Troath, shoo wor meeghtlly mlstayae. 
Two on bur young ont, they pretend 
Just guane a gaterds we a Friend, 

Stapiaht an' starin', brought her word— 
** Mother, we've seen, for tucr. To nteglit, 
*■ A hairy Boggard I sich a aeeght *. 

*• As big ! asblg ! eeh Loord I eeh Loord 1" 
Shoo puflTs, and thrust*, and fttmi, and swells, 
[Th' Balrni thowt »ho' ordooln' Bumntot else] 

To r*tch her Coyl o'speckl'd Leather ; — 
•• Wor it as big, my Lads, as me t" 
•' BU'H us,"u[id Toan, oublgasyc, 

'• Voar but a Beeau anent a Blether 1** 
No grain o* Marcy on her fiuts. 
At It agecan shoo swelU and ttrutt, 

At If the varry hangmciu bad her. 
Thiakin' ther Mother nobbut Joak'd, 
Th' young LoIm wl' laughln', wor hawf rhnak'd t 

A thing which made her ceti times modiler. 
Another thrust, and thick as Hops, 
Her Pudding's plalilcr'd all their Chopt, 

'M(.M there wor then a bonny sturrlng i 
Detad In a Minute as a Stoane 
All I'llopet o' t' Family wor gooane 

And not a stx-pincc left for t' burying. 
We think, do ye sec. there's no Ainull c-'iuiK-e 
This little hectoring Dog o' Fronee 

May cut juit sitch another Caper; 
He'll trust, for hirtln, ol a pfxl 
Ye,— mortal Tripes can never hod 

Sitch heaps o' wind, an' reek, an' vspor. 
What's bred I' t' Booane,an'runs 1' i' UlOiiyd, 
If nought, can niver come to fiooyd, 

LoA Uaysler Melv{lJ«'t crackt hl« IMtrhcr, 
llooar Fowk are sweaalln', every Lim', 
A fceard o' being swlng'd like him. 

Wi* iidmmy Whitbread's twinging sw{i4.irr. 



ATb« following are the principal obsolete and 
. prmincial UM( of thi« letter. 

(1) Ab! (-Y.-A-.) 

A I iwrle sire, I wide tho. 

Pi*Tg Ptnugfiman, p. 355, 
A f Lorde, he tmide, fuUe wo cs me. 
So faire chUdir «li ] hafcde thrv. 
And nowe ame 1 l«rte allonr ! 

VS. LlnrcM A. t. 17. f. tIJ. 

(2) He. .i for he is common in our old drama- 
tasti, in the speeches of peasants or illiterate 
pervoni, and in the provincial dialccla. See 
Apology for the Ix>llartl.<t, p. 120; King 
Alisaundcr, 7809. In Ihe western counties, it 
is alto used for the, and occasiionally for il. 

By Seym Pynyt, a fwpr if yth, 

TMt a/tcT rhat tyme a Doldp 

Ete ne drynWr no more that dxy. 

Fur notie k>nncs thytiKC. M8. AMhmcte 33, f. i. 

Vl'ylh yi tljt houd a biruld htm than, 

And |jrykrth y« ft4.>de and forth he nam. IK f. 4S. 

(3) They. Salop. 

(4) y/ is sometimes used in songs and bitrlesqiie 
portr; to lengthen onl a line, without adrling 
to the sense. It is often also a mere expk-livc 

raced liefore a word. 
Prefixed to verbs of Anglo-Saxon origin, ji 
has sometimes a negative, sometimes an intcn- 
tativc power. See Wright's Gloss, to Piers 
I'loughman, in v. 

(6) All. Sir P. Madden says, " apparently an 
error of the scrilw for al, but written as pro- 
DonoceiL" Oimparc 1. 930. 

He thai haven in hia hand 

A Deiiemark and Engeland. IJtiveUtkr GIO. 

(7) Sometimes prefixed to notins and adjectives 
tignifyiiig of the, lo tlir, on the, in the, and at 
the. See .Middlcton's Works, i. 262 ; Morte 
^'Arthur, ii. 87 : Piers Ploughman, p. 310. 

Martha fei a-doun a Croli. 
And ipradde anon to grounds. 

MS. OJI. Trill. Oxoii. Si. 

(8) Before a noun it is often a corruption 
of the Saxon on. See Havclok, p. 213 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 353. 

And that hh u Lammauc day rnyd her poer come 
Ccbone to 8artM»flrt, and thcs veage liofnr. 

R/,». dove. p. Km. 

19) Mavs. Few provincial expressions are more 

oommon than " a done" for have done. So in 

Peblia to the Play, st. 10, ap. Si'bbald, Chroii. 
Sc. Poet. i. 132, "a done with ane mischaunce," 
which is quoted as an "old song" by Jamieson, 
Supp. in V. ,/. 

Richard might, at thefamc went, a saved hymielf, 
it be would a fled awaie; for thote that were atiout 

hym nupcctcd tntASm aihl willed bym to die. 

Supp. to Httrdyngf f. lOS 
A don, leris, »ayd ourc lordyogei alle. 
For Iher tlie notd no lenger lend. 

SIS. iinui. c. as, r. its. 

(10) Onk. Sec Mr. Wright's note to the Alli- 
terative Poem on the Depobition of Richard II. 
p. 54. In the passage here quoted from the 
copy of the Eric of Tolous in the Lincoln MS. 
lUtson's copy reads oon, p. 100. 

Hyre lord and iche be of u blotle. 

US. Athmolt 01, r. lii. 

He wentc awaye and iyi;hede tore i 
A worde tpake he no more. 
Bol hcldehym wondlr itylle. 

MIS. lUnrabi A. 1. 17, t, US. 
Thre petsoDca In o Oodhede, 
Als clerkyi fa bokyi rede. 

MS. AsltmoltM, f. 81, 
Hir a ichanke blake, bir other graye. 
And alle htr body lyke the l«de. 

Tnu Thommt, MS. UnctlH, t. IMk 

(11) Always; ever. Cumh. " For ever and a" 
is an expression used by old rustics. 

A the mure I loke theron, 
A the more I thynke 1 fon. 

TuU'Htlfy Mt/Kteriet, p. 280. 

(12) At. Suffolk. Major Moor gives it the va- 
rious mcsnings of, he, or, our, if, on, of, have, 
and o/, with examples of each. 

Have ye uat perkua and chaa ? 
>Vhat uhuld ye do a tbla place? 

git Dtfrnmt, 3g3. 
Yes. Somerset. 

And. Somenel. Sec Ma\-elok, 359. 
Wcndyth home, a leve youre werryeng, 
Vc Wynne no worthyp at ihyi walle. 

MS. Hart. 9359, t. III. 
Chapes a cheynes of chalke whytte tylver. 

Martt Arlhurr, .U.V. Limulm, t. Ilfl. 
An interrogative, equivalent to what t 
ll'htti do you toy t I'ar. dial. 
(16) Ir. SuffM. 

And yit. ,t thnw woldyki nyghe mo nye, 
Thow thalt wde wetc 1 am not alayn. 

MS. Hmri. MM, t. IM . 




(17) l«. 

^uod n.irtluf thannc, a Goildrt hftir 
The Ihrldile lymc uuyo I tcliAllr. 

lii-uer. M.I. ,Vt. Anlli. 134, f. 158. 
At h; ram to the ncy^entcnilc vera, 

A» Ifte comjrnRe endcth y-wi», 
ThAt At optit «iri,m 

yt I.Jtyn y clcpuJ l». J/.V. (W/. 7V(». Oxoii. S?. 
Hainmvring Ihln in hii hcndc, on he went to the 
•mith'f hDuMi Now, tmllh, quoth hee, food mor- 
row, b thy wife upf No, quoth the iroith, but the 
it awake; go up and carry your Unneo, a Oodt 
naine. CMrr <if Cantrrburti, lOUII. 

(18) Sometimt!! repeated with oiljcctivcs, tbe 
fubstaiilivc having ^ne l>cfore and being un- 
derstood. Sec Macbeth, iii. 5, and the notet 
of the comnientator^. It is also occasionally 
prefixed to numeral adjectives, aa a-tm, a- 
hveit*, etc. and even n-orur, as in Macbeth, iii. 4. 

Somert he lette ^o byforr. 

And eharyotcs iluffede with ttorc, 

Wele a twelve mylo or more. 

MS. Lifieoln A. i. 17, t. ISO. 

(19) A common proverb, " he does not know 
great A from a bull's foot," is applied to an 
ignorant or stupid )ierson. Ray has a proverb, 
" A. B. from a battledore," and Taylor, the 
water-iM>et, has a poem on Cnryat, sililressed 
" To the gciillemen readers that underdand 
A. 11. from a baltle<l()re." Sec B. 

1 liDow Dot an A from the wynil-mylue, 
Nf ,4. B. from a boU-fi»t, 1 irowe, ne thtielf nothrr. 
MS. lUfl^ 41 , r. s. 
A-A. (1) Explained by Junius ror doleHliam. 
llainpole telU us that a male child utters the 
sounil if-o when it is bom, and a female e-e, 
being respectively the initials of the names of 
their ancestors Adoin and Eve. Seethe Ar- 
clia.i>logia, xix. 322. A couplet on the joys of 
heaven, in MS. CoU. S. Joh. Oxon. 57, is called 
ngnum a^a. 

Aa ! my tone Alexander, whare e« the grace, and 
the fortune that oure goddo highle the f That ea 
to laf , that thou tchold* alwaye overcome thynnc 
flKOtyi. MS. Univlii A. I. 17, f. 3. 

(2) Pretjuently occurs in an early medical MS. 
in hiocolu Cathedral for ana, q. v., and the 
contraction is still in tuc 
A.\C. An oak. Norllt. 
A.\D. Old. Yorkih. 
AADLE. To flourish ; to addle. l^ufoUk. 
AAtiED. .\ged. Palsgrave hai "aoy«/ lykc," in 

his list of otljectivcs. 
A AIN'T. To anoint. Suffol*. SeeJntt. M^jor 
Moor is the authority for this form of the word. 
See his SulTolk Words, p. 5. 
AAKIN. Oaken. ,VorfA. 
A.\LB. Ale. This form of the nord, which 
may be merely accidental, occurs in Malory's 
.Morte d'Arthur, ii. 445. 
AALLE. AU; every. 

FoTthy, my tone, yf thou doo ry^Ie, 
Thou tchalt unto thy love ot>eye. 
And folow hire wille by aaUt w«y. 

Cmmt. jr.V. 3ar. Amti^. 134, f. Ml. 
Suertla her fouikde to eome agayne, 
Syr Uawayne and Syr Ewayne. 
MU, he ttyeil, I thai dy« I w Imii/W, Dnn fnf. 

AAN. (1) Own. North. 

(2) Allan ! what say you ? £sW. 

(3) On. 
A tterte to hit helm and putt him ain, 
And to OlyvcT thannc a lelde. MS. ^iSiM>/r33, (. 8. 

Do, coayn, anon Ihyn armyt aan. 
And aray the In lylcer weile. Ibid. U 44. 

AANDE. Dreath. This is the Danish form of 
the word, although it more usually occurs in 
the Thornton MS. with one o. See Ami. 
Tliis MS. was written in Yorkshire, a ilialect 
which contains much of the Danish language. 
In old Srotch, it is Aynd; Su. Got. Ande; 
Isl. ^iirfe ,• Dan. Aanile ; Swcd. Ande. See 
Ihrc, in v. Andf. .land also occurs in the 
Morte d'.Vrlbur, Lincoln MS., f. 67, but is ap- 
parently a mistake for the conjunction and. 

Thay hadil crettit one thaire heddet, and thaire 
brealea ware bryghte lyk golde, and thaire mowthes 
opene ; thaJre anwit tleweany qwilili thynge that it 
tmate apone, and oute of thaire eghne ther come 
nammct of fyre. MS. Llnmln A. I. 17, f. Xl. 

Thlt aantt that men draui oft. 
BcLikcDi wynd that blawi o-lofL 

MS. Coll. I'fpat. A. III. r. 4. 
AjXNDORN. An afternoon's rejiost, or any oc- 
casional refection after dinner ; also simply the 
afternoon, in which latter sense it is a corrup- 
tion of uojiem, (|. V. Cumi. It would in the 
North lie pronoim(%d much Ukc amdem, q. v. 
This form of the word is found iii the Glos- 
sarium Northanbymbricum at the end of Ray. 
AANE. The beard growing out of Iiorlcy or 
other grain. 

We call It [wheal] pold or pollard, that hath no 
ooar« upon the earet. And that we call the oanr, 
which groweth out of the eare, like a long prickc 
or a dart, whereby the eare It dcfeoded from the 
danger of birdi. Cao^< Hutlnatrf, 1177, f. ti. 

AAR. Ere; before. 

And when hy ticn of ihritty yaar, 

Hy ben brouo of hare, at hy weren oar. 

Ki/ng AtiMtunder, 503.1. 

^AKS\. The arm. 

Judai icide. What wilt thou that be joven to thee 

for a wed f Sche antwcride, Uii ring and thi bye of 

the warra, and the tulTwhicho thou holditt in thin 

bond. Wickliffi,, MS. Buit. m. 

A.\RMED. Anncd. 

Therfoie for Crlit fnlMda In Helieh, be ye alao 
aarmti bi tbe tame thenklng; for he that luliyide 
in fleitche cecaaide fro tynnes. 

n-tcktifflft S'rw Tttl. p. m. 
AARON. The herb wakcrobin. See Colgrare, 

in V. I'njM. 
AARS, The anus. This unusual form occurs in 
the Middlehill tig. of the Promptoriuin. Sec 
Prompt. I'arv., p. U, in v. Art. in Dutch 
we have aanetrn, to go liackward, wliich in- 
volves the some form of the woriL 
AAS. Aces. Sec Amiei-4U. 
Siille be thou, Salhoou . 

The yi fallro ambet aa<. HarrmriHitKfH'll, p. 21. 
lu Rrynartl the Foxc, p. 62, " a pylgrjin of 
deux aat" i* appareotly applied to a pretended 
AAT. Fine oatmeal, with which pottage is thick- 
ene<l. See Markham's English llousevrife, 
quoted in Uoucber's Glosaary la v. liannoek*. 




AATA. After. Suffolk. 
AATlf. All oatb. North. 
lAAX. To ask. 

Whjin allc wai tpoke of that Uwy nwnle. 
The kyoge, with allr bis hole enunUf, 
ThaDDe at tule hem aaifth this. 
What kyage tncu ttll«D ihst he is f 

Gotcer, MS. Sx. Anti^. VM, t. 919. 

' AB. The sap of a tm. 

Vet diverse Itsve a&Mied to doale without okel to 
tlist eDd, htil not with so good succt-ssc as they have 
hnpc<l, bicaute Ihe ab or Julee will not losoone be 
tcmovril and rleatic drawne out. which some attri- 
bute to waut or time In iJie salt water. 

Jl'i'-rUiin'' De^n-iptiun af Bngtcnd, p. SI3. 

1 ABAC. Backwards. North. 

Ac dude by-holdeaf/ur. 

And hudde his cyjen. MS. Coll. Trin. Oma. 57. 
( ABACK-A-BEIIINT. Uchind; inlhcrtjar. North. 
ABACTED. Driven aviay Ijy violence. Mhithra. 
ABADE. (1) Abode; remained. Sec Uitsoii'B 
Met. Rom. iii. 288 ; Ywaine aiid Gawiu, 1 I8I>; 
Viiiuiif. uf Tundnle, p. C7 ; Sir Tristrcni, pp. 
232, 275. 293, 297. 
This kyng Cadwall his feast at London made; 
To hyin all kyugca, as soverayne Inrde. obeyed. 
Save kyng Oswy, at home thst tyins abade. 

Hantjfiig't Chrnniele. f. 91. 
[(2) Delay. See .4rchayilogia, xxi. •(9, 62; Sir 
Tristrem, p. 145; Golagros aiid Gawanc, 311. 
For Sonne aftlr that he was made. 
Ilefvl wIthouleQ Icnger abatie, 

Curnir Mundl, MS. Coll. Trin. OiHlab. (. 3. 
Anoynt he was withoutcn tAade, 
And kyng of tho Jewet made. Jbid. f. Afi, 

Wyth the koyght was Don iibadt 
He busk yd hyme forth and radc. 

jif.t Canlib. Ff. 1. fi. 

ABAFELLED. Bafllcd ; indignantly treated. 

What, do you think chill be oba/elted up and 

doWT] the town for a mesael add a scoundrel ? no chy 

bor you: alrtah. chll come, aay do more; chill 

come, tell him. Tht Lmdm Prodigal, p. 31. 


1 was dbaitchHe be oure Lorde of ourc beste bemes ! 
Mont Arlliun, MS. Uneoln, t. 26, 

ISSED. Ashamed; abatbcd. 
And unbosome y-t}e. 
Nouht ttbaUtod to agulte 
Ood and alle good men. 
So gret was myn licrte. 

Pieri PtvughmaH, p. 518. 

'AB.MST. The same ax Jbaiueil, q. v. See 

I j.ngtofi'8 C'bnm. pp. 1 70, 272 ; Wieliffc's New 

Test. p. 201 : Chaucer. Cant. T. 8193, 8887 ; 

Ywaine and Ganin, 846. 

The grape that thou hclite la thi hand, andkeste 
uudrf thi fete, and trade thcrone, rs the citee of 
Tyre, the whllk thou talk wynne thurgh strcnth. 
and treble It with thi fote. and therfore be nathynge 
obaUlt. Ll/f of Mrt«Hdtr, MS. LUinIn, f. 6. 

Hou unstable the world is here. 
For men schulde ben ntot'sf. 

M.S. A'lim.>le 41, f. 16. 

ABAKWARD. Backwards. 

In gryht ouft setlc and stiyld vrom shomc. 
That turnst abnktcitril Eves Dome. 

Hfli'i. Aniiq. il. tsn. 
ABAUENATE. To aUcnate; to transfer pro- 
pert; firom one to another. Jiiilfr. 

ABAND. To foraake ; to abandon. 
Let us therefore botli rruelty abnndtt 
Aud prudent seeke both gods and men to please. 

Mirourftir Uit^girntes, p. 87. 

ABANDON. (1) Lil)eralIy;atdi«ert;tion. (.-f.-A'.) 
Hoqiiefort. in v. Batulon, gives the original 
French of the following pasiuige : 
Afllr this swift gift lis but reason 
He give his gode too in abattdou, 

RiK». (/Me Am*, SMt. 

(2) Entirely ; freely. (A.-N.) 

His ribbcs and scholder fcl adoun. 
Men might tc the Liver at>andou». 

Arthour and MerliH, p. S83. 

(3) Promptly. (.-f.-.V.) 

Thcrcum an hundred knightes of gret might. 
Allc thai folwred him abauiidoHn. 

Uno/Waru'Hcr.f. 181. 
ABANDUNE. To subject. See Golagros and 
Gawanc, 275. 
Fortune to her lawys ran not af.tandune me. 
But I shall of Fortune rule the reyne. 

Slcetten's H-Vrkj. i. 373. 
ABARRE. To prevent. 

The lustle yoong gentlemen who were grcedie to 
have the prele. tnit more desirous tohavethe honor, 
were in a great agonle and greefe that ihcy were thus 
a&arrerf from apprtKhing to aasaile the citie. 

Holinthed, Hut. <^f Irrlaad , p. 37. 
Tleducynge to remembraunco the prysed memo- 
ryes and prrpetunli renowned factes of the famouie 
princes of Israel, which did not only abarre ydola- 
tryc and other ungodlynessc. but utterly alwlishcd 
all occasyoni of tlic same. 

tfrlghfii Motuutir Lctlen, p. SW. 
ABARSTICK. Insatiablenest. This word is 
found in Cockeram, Skinner, and most of the 
later dictionaries. 
ABARSTIR. More downcast. 

Dot ever alas I what was I wode t 
Myght no man be attavMtir, 

Ttiioneltp MytterteSip. SSI. 

A B A SC H E D. Abashed ; ashamed. 

The lady was abatcHvd wlthalle. 
And went downe ynio the luille. 

MS. Qlnlab. Ff. il. 38. f. 109. 

ABASE. To cast down ; to humble. See the 
Faerie Queent% II. ii. 32. Among illiterate 
persons, it is used in the sense of lirbtue. 
Harrison lives it ill tliis latter sense applied to 
metal, ill his Uescrifition of England, prefixed 
to llolinshcd, p. 2 IB. 

ABASSCIIT. Abashed. See Maundcvilc's Tra- 
Tcls, p. 22fi. Tliis word occurs in a great va- 
riety of forms. Il seems to be used fur injured, 
in tiie Moric d' Arthur, i. 366. " He sniole S)t 
Palomydes upon the helme thryes, that he 
abaulied his bclinc with bis strokes." 

ABAST. (1) Downcast. 

Wist Isaac where so he were, 
He wold be ab<j«( now. 
ilow that be is In dangere. 

Toumetf]/ Utfterits, p. 37. 

(2) A bastard. See Arthour and Merlin, as 
quoted in Ellis's Mrt. Rom., cd. 1811. i. 301, 
where probably the word should be priiitctl 
ti boat. 

ABx\STARDIZE. To render illegitimate or hue. 
See HoUyliand's Dictionarie, 1S93, 


Bting minrirn 

CorruptMl uid nttuitm-<ii'.r<1 tliu«. 
Thinke *ll Innko III, ihal doth Dol lookr like u<. 
;>«iiMr< V«<rn» .^rcaillii, lIKn, r. ull. 
ABASl'RE. All ttbawuient. Miryf. 
ABATAYl-MENT. A b«t11cment. 
or hardr hcwrD alon up Xo the ubirx, 
Enbaned uuUer Ibe abatajitmmt Id the but Uw«. 

Syr Catoaynei p. 30. 

ABATE. (1) To siiMract. A-lmtyn, luhtralio. 
Prompt. Par>'. This was formerly llic arith- 
lueticAl Irrni for tliat operation. To abate in 
a bargain, to lower the price of any article, was 
very common. See Prompt. Pan-, p. 314; 
Daries'i York Records, p. 1 56 ; Kara Mat. 
p. CO. 

Then abar« the leoe noumbre of these tuo In 
the umbrc toward fro the more, and kepe wele the 
dimtrence bytuene tlio tuo noumbre*. 

US. S:ome, SIS, f. MO. 

(2) Applied to metal to reduce it to a lower 
temiicr. Sec Florio, in v. KincaMre. It is often 
metaphorically used in the sense of to depress, 
variously applied. See Hall's Iliad, 1 58 1, p. 
Vi^; Pcrsones Talc, p. 83; Townley Mysteries, 
p. iy4 ; Nugie Aniiqua;, i. 4 ; Coriolontis, iii. 
3; Sterlinc's Crtesus. 1604 ; Uriltnn's Arch. 
Antiq. iv. 13; Hall's Union, Henry Vlll. f. 133. 

(3) To beat down, or overthrow. ISIuHnt. 

(4) To flutter; to beat with the wings. Several 
instances of this hawking term occur in the 
ilooke of llankyng, printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 
293-308. It seems to be used as a hunting 
term in Morte d' Arthur, ii. 355. 

(5) To disable a writ. A law term. 

Any one short clause or proviso, not legal, is suffl- 

dcnt to ubate the whole wtit ur Instrument, though 

la every other part absolute and without e^eeption. 

Huniertona Sermuha, IG69, p. 30. 

(A) Toceue. 

Vs coatJiuuDce obattd eny boit to make. 

tTHghft l^iJUIni; SiiKft, p. SI8. 
(7) To lower ; applied to banners. Sec. See We- 
ber's Met. Rom. ii. 477; OctuviaD, 1744; 
Dejiosition ofllichard II. p. 30. 
The sllwanJ was sconfllcO there, 
Abattit was the melsler bsneie. 

I.V "/ IVmrwIkr, p. 440. 

ABATEMENT. (1) An abatement, according to 
Randal Holme, " is a mark added or annexed 
to a coat [of arras] by reasrm of some dishon- 
ourable act, whereby the dignity of the coat is 
■bwed." Sec his .Academy of .\rmary, p. 71. 

(2) A diversion or aniusemeut. A'or/A. Sec Ma- 
lone's Shakes|>eare, v. 311; Jamicsoo, in v. 

ABATV. To abate. 

And that he for ys nevew wolde, for to a-baty ttryf. 
Do hey anMntfetnetit, sawve lyme and lyf. 

fO*. Oltmt. p. £4. 

ABADED. Aitonished. See Alxw. 
Many men of his kyode sauh him so utmuH, 

LangtoJVt Chnai, p. 910. 

ABAVT. About. Norlk. 

ABAVB. To be aitonished. Abmuil, t\. v., in 
Longloft's Chronicle, p. 210, ought {xrhaps to 
be written AlMVfH. See an instance of this 
word in a fngmeot printed at the end of the 

Viaiona of Tundole, p. 94, which ia incniy 
extract from Lydgate's Ijie of the Virgin Mary 
ollhoiigh it is inserted as a separate piioduction. 
of this terrible d'^olful Uiipeceioun, 
The peaplii hsrtyft gretlygan abmvm. 

Litftgate't Minor Poews, p. 144. 
ABAW. (1 ) To bow ; to Ijcud. 

Alletheknyghies of Walls londe. 
Ho made obaw to his honde. 

Jir«. Oiruo». ft. r. 41, t. Id) 
(2) To ostonith ; to confouuiL 
l>oke how je mow be abawed^ 
That seye that the Jewe ys saved. 

MS. Hart. I'Ol, f. OS 
ABAWT. Without. Stuff'oniiih. 
AUAY. At bay. See Kyng Allsaundcr, 3882; 
Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis, ed. Oyce^ 
p. 42, divided by that editor into two words. 
See Akbny .- Cotgrave in v. Rendre. Our third 
example exhibits it both as a substantive and 
a verb. 
And where aa she bong, tbel stood at afiay. 

MS. Lmii. 739, r. 19. 
Thus the forf9t thay fraye, 
The herlla bade at nbayt. 

Sir Drfmante, IfS. fjnr. f. 131. 
And thli dooD, every man Hood abrod and blowe 
the decth, and make a vhorl nbay for torewarde the 
houndes, and every man have a Irani roddeyn his 
hood to holde of the houade* that thel shul the tiet- 
ter atMyt. US. Bodt. Uti, 

ABAYSCHID. Frightened. AlMUchyd, or a- 
fcrde; territus, perterritus. Prompl. Pare. 

And anoon the domyiel roos and walkide: and 
Bchewasof twelve yeer, and thci wcren attnt/acfiid 
with a greet ttoncyng. Wicktljfe't Sew Tut. p. 41. 


The kyng of Scotlond was Iho all aiaytitmttt. 

ClirBM. ruatan. p. tS. 

ABAYST. Disappointed 

And that when that ihey were travyit. 
And of hcrtiorow werewbo^sr. 

Brtl. mill. It. U. 
What thyng that jc wllle In roe saye, 
^uw tluire noght be atjayttt. 

MS. Uimin A. i. 17, 1. 18. 

ABAYSTE. Abashed. See Ataut. 

Syr Eglamour e« aoghte atmjfsfs. 
In Goddls hclpe ca alle his trayste. 

Sir Kglaim-yr, MS. Llmnllt, t, 1*4. 

ABB. Theyamof a weaver's narp. Iptan't MS, 

adtUlioHS to JuniHn, in the Bodleian Library, 
ABUAR.VYED. Started. 

And aflyr that he koonDyngly obbamyrrf. 
And to the kyog evyn thus he tayd. 

l^tgatt't Mlnar Poems, p. 4. 
ABBAS. An abbess. 

The mirliat, and odur nonni* by, 
Toide hyt full opcniye. 

X.S lion* noTHU* «f n»mM, IMS. 
ABBAY. To bay ; to bark. An abbai/, or bark- 
ing.— Mimheu. See Abag. To keep at abbay, 
to keep at bay. Sec Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
ABBEN. To have. Diffcretit i)arts of this verb 
occur in Robert of (Jloiiccater, p. 166, &c. 
Maketh oua to don sunne, 

An4 eWsM lo mookunne. MS. Digbt 88, f. 1>7. 
ABBEY. (I) The great white poplar, one of the 
varieties of Ihe populut itlba. We*/. 


ly an V 






(S) To bring an ibljey to sgnnge, ia an old pro- 
verbiol enpression. See Skellon's Works, i. 
327, and the notes of the Editor upon the 

ABBET-LUBBER. A term of reproach for idle- 
Beat. Somtml. It is found in the diction- 
aria of Colgrave, Howell, Miege, and olheni. 
See also L\1t'b Euphues; Herrick's Works, 
L J28. 

The tnt»t of that which they iliit bc«low waf on 
the riche, and not the poorc in dertr, ai halt, lame, 
bHnde, aicke or impotent, tiut lither lublieni that 
might worke and would not. In to murh that it came 
into a comnieo provertK to call him an abbajf-lubbtr, 
that was Idle, wet Trd, a long l^wd lither loiterer, 
that might woike and would not. 

7%* Aurnyny* ofPauIu CKutch, IAG3. 

ABBIGGET. Expiate ; pay for. 
All* thrjr achalle atAtgftt dure, 
Tliat loltrn him in that tide. US. Ailtmolt 33, f. it. 

ABBLASTBE. A crossbow-man. This fomi 
ticcurs in the Herald's College MS. of Robert 
of Gloucester, Heame's edition, pp. 372, 378. 

ABBOD. An abbot. 
The byiaop hjrm anauerede, and the abbtd Dynok. 

not. p. i3i. 

ABBOT-OP-MISRILE. A person who super- 
intended the diversions of Christmas, other- 
wise called the Lord of Misnilc, q. v. See 
Collier's Annals of the Stage, i. 54 ; llampsun's 
Kalendarium, i. 117; Warton's Hist. Engl. 
Poet. ii. 525; Brand's Pop. Antiq. i. 27fi. 
Howell, in the list of ganif» appended to his 
lexicon, mentions the game of (lie abbot, which 
may be an allusion to litis ciutom. 

ABBRE\TATE. Decreased. 

Thyt poetycait ichoole, roaylter corrector of brevet 
■id loogca, caused CoIlyD(;b(irne to t)ec alrbrrvyatv 
diotter by the heade, anil to bee dcvyded into foure 
qitartCTa. HnlFi Vnton, Richard lll.f. IB. 

ABBROCHYN. To broach a barrel. Jbbroehyn 
or attamyn a vessellc of tlrjnkc, atlaiuino, — 
Prompt. Parr. 

ABnVT. Ave but. Yoriilt. 

ABBYT. A habit. 

And ctianane* gnde he dede liierlnne, 
llother the att^^t of te)'ntc Auitynne. 

n-Hght'i SI. Palrick't Purgatnty, p. 06. 

A-B-C. Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 398, has printed a curious alliterative alpha- 
bet, called the ABC of AriHtoile. There arc 
copies of it in MSS. Hari. 541, 1304, 1706, 
MS. Lambeth 853, and MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 
48. One of the Msa. ascribe it to a "Mayster 
Beuuet." It it verj* likely the original of com- 
potiliont like " A was an applc-pic," in books 
of nursery rhymes. 

A-B-C-BOOK. A catechism, hornbook, or 
primer, used fur teaching children the first 
rudiinentt of reading; somelimcs, (he nlplu-ilict 
in general. See King John. i. 1 ; Lyrlgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 87; .Maitland's Early Primed 
Books in the Lambeth Ijbrarj', p. 311 ; Cata- 
logue of Donee's MSS. p. 42. 

In the A U Cot bokci the Icail, 
Yt U written Umu ctarl/u nt. 

Tht Enttrltult e/ Y»ulh, (. I. 

ABCE. The alphabet. See Cotgrave, in t. 
AbecK, Carte; Prompt. P«r\-. p. 12 ; Brit. Bihl. 
ii. 397; Greene's Menaphon, 1616, dedication. 

ABDEVEMIAM. An as(roIogical word, mean- 
ing (he head of the twelfth house, io a st^eme 
of (he heavens. 

ABDUCE. To lead away, (ia/.) 

Oon thyng I dyd note in bothe these men, that 
thel thoght a religion to kcpe tecret betwene God 
and them certayn thyogei , rather than topon their 
wholl ttoroake : from the whych opinion 1 colde not 
abduct them withal my cnderor. State topers, i.A57, 

ABE. To atone for. 

Here he haddc the dettenee 
That the porre man xulde nW. 

R><iv. Aniif. I, 63. 

ABEAR. To deport ; to conduct. It is often 
used among illiterate persons for to bear, to 
So did the faerie knight hlmtclfe ii6e<>re. 
And ttouped oft hit head from thnme to shield. 

*<ier(e Vueriie, V. »ii. 19. 
ABECE. An alphabet ; an A B C. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 12; Rob. Glouccst. p. 266; Rcliq. 
Antiq. i. 63. 

Whan that the wlto man acomptclh 
Aftir the formcl propirte 
Of algoritroet atMice. 

Ci^rr, it.1. .loc, Aniiii. \3i, f. lOT. 
ABECEDARIAN. An nbeeedarian, one that 
leachcth or leameth the crosse row. Miwthca. 
ABECEDARY. Alphabetical. 

Unto thetc fewe you may annexcmore if you will, 
at your ocoation aerTelh, and reduce them Into an 
ahrrmlarye order. US. Cll. Omn. A». Orim. VJ*I. 
ABECHED. Fed ; satisfied. (.^..^•.) Compare 
the printed edition of 1532, f. 132. 
3it tchulde 1 tumdclie ben al'tchttd, 
And for the tyme wel refrcchcd. 

GMCtr, MS. Snc. Anili). 134, f. 181. 

ABEDDE. In beii Var. tiial. 

That night he sat wel tore tkale. 
And hit wir Ul warme abeddt. 

The Seiyn Sagrl, IM3, 
ABEUE. (1) To bid ; to offer. 
V iclial be the funte of alle 
That our mcatage tchal abede. 

tIS. Athmoir 33,r. 93. 

(2) Abode ; remained. See Syr Trj-amoure, 374. 
Befyte, with hyi frlowi bronde. 
Smote yn tonder, thorow Godyt sonde. 
The rope above the Sartyns hedd. 
That he with Befyte yn pre«on abtdt. 

MS. CaMlab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 108. 
ABEGE. To alone for. 

He woldc don hit laerilege. 

That many a man it tchulde atttite. 

Cowtr, MS. Sx. Antlii. 134, 1. 174. 
Alle Grecc It tchulde abe^fcsore 
To ICC the wlldc bett wone. 
Where whilom dwcllld a mannit tone. 

Coteer, MS. Sec. Antiq. 134, f. 90. 

ABEISAUNCE. Obedience. (J.-N.) 

An hound it ofgootl aVt«owMcc. for he wol lerneas 
a man al that a man wol techc hym. US. B<hII, MO. 
ABELDE. To grow bold. 

Theo folk of Perce gan abttdt. 

Kyog Alimvnder, Mi. 

ABELE. A fine Idnd of wliite poplar. Var. ilial. 

See Prompt. Parv. p. 17, where Mr. Way says 



it it " the nime given by botani»l> to the 
pojmhu alia." The name is very common iu 
the provinces. 
ABEL-WHACKETS. A game pUyed by sailors 
•with cards ; the loser rcceiring so many strokes 
from a handkerchief tnitted into a knot on his 
hand, as he hu lost the gaiues. Groie. 

That he the croA a4«/jrcAff may coaae, 
Vfhentvet he go UDdur the ionne. 

0'h«/i'MlM'N# u/A/<Monry, S43. 

ABENCHE. Vpon a bench. 1 18. 
Horn »ette him nbrnehe, 

I* barpe he gon elencbe. Kyng Ham, US7* 

ABENT. A sleep place. Skinner. The a is here 

perhaps merely the article. 
ABEUDAYINE. The sisUn. Boucher. 
ABERE. To bear. 

And with alio guod re»on, wc mowe of hem y-wii 
Abtre thllke trujigc, that ai thyng tobbud \i. 

Hob. Clauc. p. 196. 

ABEREMORD. A law term, meaning murder 
fully pruveil, as distinguished from man^laugh■ 
ter, and justifiable hnmiride. See Junius, in v. 
AUERING. A law phrase for the proper and 
peaceful carriage of a loyal subjiicl. Sec 
Hawkins' Engl. Drama, i. 239 ; Ms. Ashmolc 
1788, f. 20. 
ABERNE. Auburn. See ■ mentjon of "long 
airme beardes," in Ciuningliam's Revels Ac- 
count*, p. .')G. 
ABESSE. To humble. 

Krheone untitle other, what 1» tbli f 
Oure kyngc hath do this thynge amis, 
So to abcaae his riaitd. 
That cTcry man it my^U see. 

CMcer, MS. Hoe. Anllq. 134, f. il. 
ABESTOR. A kind of stone. 

Among ttoDce aheitor, which being hot wll never Ik 
coldc for our conatancief. l^Iy'* Mother Dombte, IfiM. 
ABESYANS. Obeisance. 

Now wuiftht'ppful tovcreyni that sytlyn here In syth, 

Lonlyt and ladycs and frankcltni In fay, 
With allcmaoer of flb«>ya/>a we recomaunde usrycht, 
rlcMutly to 3our pcraoncs that prrarnt ben in filay. 
MS. Tanner t07, f. 44. 

ABET. Help; assistance. 

I am thine cmr, the shame were unto me 

As wel a> the, if that I thould avent 

Through mince^ef, that he thini- honour thrnt. 

TrotluM and Crttrldtf, ii. a57. 

ABETTES. Abbots. See ^^'right's Monastic 
Letters, p. 206, for an example of this funa of 
the word. 
ABEW. Above. Devon. 
ABEY'. To ahie, q.v. See Hartshome's Mct.Talcs, 
p. 225 ; Richard Cocr de Lion, 71 1 ; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12031 ; Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet. 
U. 283; Cy of M'arwikc, p. 169. 
Farcwrllo, for 1 trhalle tone deye. 
And ilicake how I thy love abt^e. 

Cower, MX. Sue. AkH^. 134, f. W. 

ABEYD. To abide. 

And h) atieifd abstlncna and forsake abundans. 

MS. Dunce 311, I, i. 

ABEYE. To bow ; to oltey. 

To revoune thel moste nrdyi tthtj^e. 
In hcUe pctte clljs H-hallr Ihey liong. 

M.S. i:^al,il:. Kf. i. fi. I. IW. 


ABEYSAUNCE. Obeisance. Skinner think* 
the proper form of the word is abfitanee. 
Unavyfyd clerk soonp may be forlore. 
Unto that thecf to doone a&eyjawnea. 

MS. Oaidak Ft. I. C, t. I3C. 
ABEYTED. Ensnared. 

Hys fletshe on here was so abeyted. 
That thykc womman he coveylyd. 

US. Marr. 1701, l.i. 
AUEY5ED0UN. Olwyed. 
Ny they aUey^vdoun hem nothyng to the kyng best. 
Cfirvn. t'UottHn. p. 07, 

ABGREGATE. To lead out of the flock. Mim/m. 

ABIIOMINADLE. An old method of spelling 

abominable, ridlcided in Love's L<ibour's I,ost, 

v. 1. The word was not always formerly UMtl 

in a bad sense. Sec Webster's Works, iii. 175. 

ABHOR. To protest against, or reject solemnly. 

An old term of canon law. See Henry YHI. 

ii. 4. 

ABinANCE. Tarrying; dwelling. 

Wherein he Is like to remain 'till the dissolution 
of the woild , so long is his atfi'lanre. 

The Pariian, p. U. 
ABIDDEN. Endiurcd. 

He looked wan and gash, but spake to them and 
told tticm Itial the Lord, at the praycri of hU wife, 
had rrstorcil him to life, and that he had beene in 
purgatory, and what punishment he had abtitden for 
hisjealouse. lobltr of Ctnterburie, 1(XI8. 

ABIDE. (1) To persevere; to endure;to siifTcr. 
Peggc gives the phrase, " you must grin ami 
and abide\t," applied in cases where resistance 
is useless, which comes, I believe, from the 
North. It is also another form of able. Sec 
Corner's Hist. Dram. Poet. ii. 356 ; Malonc'a 
Shakespeare, v. 2C9. 
(2) Often used by Lydgate in the sense of to 
forbear. To tolerate is its meaning in the pro- 
vinces. See Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. 
120; Topscll's Four-footed Beasts, p. 75. 
ABIDYNGE. Patient. (-/.-S.) 
And Iwld and abidnnfie 

Oiimares to sulfre. Piere Ptnughman, ^. iiTi. 
ABlDY'NCiELY. Staying. 

That these had Ixu witli me famitler. 
And in myn houiolde hen abldjmgrtii. 

MS. Soe. M«hq. 134, f. KM. 

ABIE. To pay for ; to expiate. " To nbic it dear" 
is a ]ihra*c constantly met with in old writers. 
Ileame explains it to buy in liis glossary to 

ABIGOEDE. SufTer. (.-f.-S.) 

The wiche schal it aMggrde 

Thurrh whom he hath don this dede. 

I^gnvitr Cnthotine, p. 206. 

ABIGGEN. To ahie, q. v. See Gy of Warwike, pp. 

49, 129,138; Piers Ploughtiian, i>p. H.'i, 127; 

Kyng Alisaunder, 901 ; .\mls aiitl Ainiloiin, 

390; Se\y-n Sages, 497. 

The kynge scluille hvt soone ebynr, 

its. cuntub. Ff u. an, r ii'7. 
ADILIMENTS. Habiliments. See Hall's Union, 
Richard 111. f. 29. Sometimes written abil- 
mewlt, as in Archo^nlogia, xvii. 292 ; and abU- 
limeMl, as in the Woman in the Mooiie, 1597. 
Dnt to n'rouute her ryclu* *i*ylymmt. 
And wlmt p*t.nlrsto her did morte, 
Thcrto am 1 full insulTyrycnt. 

SkHtm'i Work; I, 3li3, 



A BILL. TomakeaMr. 

And osmely lo thunr Ihal mliHU thunc Ihire-lo 
with the hclpe of Godd la allc tbai thay nwy one 
ttwnmr vyte. MS. I.lna,tm A. I. 17. (. i3*. 

ABILU:RE. Stronger ; more »blc. 

AMUrrt thaoe ever wa« fyr Ector of Troye. 

Horlt Jrthure, MS. Uncafx, t. SI. 

ABIME. .\n abyss. 

Columpnc and \klk, upberyog (tamabimt, 

Ounctr, t4. Vim, p. S3D. 
No word iliul Ihcl 5U1 lowDe. 
Til that thci be Tallen dowoe 
Dnto the al^^mt wilhuulen iljt. 

Cur—r MuKili, MS. TVin. OJI. Canlab. t. IM. 

ABINTESTATE. Inlratale. Mimheu. 
ABISHERING. Atniriling lo Kasstall, as quoted 
by Cuurell, u " to lie (juit of aiuercianients lic- 
fore wbomsocrer of Iraiugretsion." Rider 
transUtct it hy /Itco non nditut, 
A BIST. Payesfforit. 

Tbou lexyt, be aeyd. vile lo«anjour \ 
Thou It abut bi M-yn Savour 1 

l.> 0/ irnnrHr, p. 188. 
AUIT. (1) A habit. The word occurs in tboenscai 
of clothing, as well ai a ciutom or habit. See 
KeUq. Anti<[. ii. 173; Prompt Parv. pp.97, 
179; Gcsta Ronianonini, p. 240; Wright'i 
Piirgatury, p. 141 ; Kob. Gloiic. pp. 1U5, 41)4. 

(2) An obit ; a »cr>iee for Ibc dead. 
A l«o If thrl vow hem to hold aa obit, or other rltU.. 

and CftKl behitith no meed for the kcping, but ra* 
thcr reprove, aa he dede Bum tyme the PharUeU, 
doutlcft that ii ajeo the goftpel. 

Af*Uogtl Jtir tthV LvUanU, p. KIA. 

(3) Abideth. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 115 ; Chau- 
cer, Cant. T. IG643 ; Rom. of the Ro»c, 49B9. 

He uyeth that grace not in him abil. 
But wiltltkd ende and curald aventure. 

Orr<te«. M.S. .fee Jnl«l. 134, f. J(B. 
Ne haste nou^t thin owen lorow. 
My u>De, and talce thU in thy wit. 
He hath iiou;t lefu that wcl ai.u. 

Guwtr, MS. ikpc. ,/nli,;. 134, f. 95. 
Seynt Bcnurd tharfore toiwych chyt. 
And aeyth mocbe for^yt that longc ubift, 

MS. Hurl. 1701, r.7S, 
ABITACLE. a habitation; a dwelling;. (Lai.) 
In whom aUo be je bildid togldre lolo the oMfacIt 
or God in the UooU Gooit. 

niekUffi^i Wee TM. p. IM. 

ABITE. (I) A lubilation ; an alKHlc. 
And eke abidin thiike dale 
To leTc hb Qbite, and gon hi* waie. 

JVtmaunt 1/ (A« Aoae, 4014. 

(2) To atone for. 
We, y«l, that ahal thou i«re atlfe. 

Ttnmeltg M^rtfriat, p. li. 

(3) To bite. (./.-&) 

Addrct, qutnrn, And dragouot 
U ..Ui( n ihlt folk, mycbcl and lytc, 
EnvcnyiDCU and abitt, 

Kynf Mlitaundtr, S611. 

Brounc lyouni, and eke white. 

Th«t iroMso Ciyn his folk ctvtt. lUd, TOM. 

(4) Ahideth. 

And M» ftii eiy parinit Iho tort 

I^biU ot him that fcoth about hit cure. 
And Lhiu he drlvtth foith hii a\huurc. 
Trfi'if tinti iittttiUt, i. IOi^J■ 
ABITED. Mildewed. Kent. 


' ABL 

ABITEN. Bitten; devoured. 

A thouient aliepi eh habbe abitfn. 
And too, ^cf hy weren i-wrlten. 

ileN«. ^tntUi. II. SOU. 
ABJECT. (I) A dnpicahle pcnon. 
J deemed it better hj to die, 
Thao at my fgeman's Teet an abject lie. 

Mlmurjiir MagUtralf, p, SO. 

(2) To reject ; to cast away. See Palsgrave, f. 
136; Utterson's Pop. Poet. ii. 7; Gileita tif 
Narbona, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 12 ; Skel- 
ton's Works, i. 308. 

The bloUile of the taied Kynfre Henry, althoiighe 
he had a (roodly fonne, wei clerely tt/irrrerf, and the 
crowne of the realmc. by aurthcritie of porliamente, 
enuyled to tlie Duke of Vorke. 

Uaii.Kdu^m r. r. 1. 
ABJECTION. Baseness, \ileness. Sec Minsbeti, 
in V. ; Harrison's nescri]itinn of Brilainc, p. 
18. It occurs in Skclton's Works, i. 345, ex- 
plained by the eilitor to mean there olyeclioti, 
ABL.\ND. Blinded ; made blind. 
The walmt.» han the aUand, 
And tberwhilei thai bolliand be, 
Sire, thou aeacbalt never i.»e. 

Tilt Bnim an*; Mtt, 

ABLASTE. (1) A erosslww. Tlic Prompt. 

Parv. p. 9, is the aulbority for this form uf the 


(2) Blasted. 

Vcnym at.d fyre togedir he caste. 
That lie Jaioo to %an aUattf, 
That yf ne were his oynement, 
Hia rluge and hit enchauntt-ment, 
Whiche Medea tok him to-fore. 
He hadde with that wormc be lore. 

Gweer, MS. «nc. Anllii. 134, t. i»l. 
ABLE. (1) This word has two distinct senses, 
the one to make able or give powtrr for any 
purpose ; the other and more reniarknlile one. 
lo warrant or answer for, as in King l.ear, 
iv. 6. See also Ashmole's Tlieat. Chem. Brit, 
p. 118; Narcs, in v.; MidiUctou's Works, 
iv. 22.1. 

(2) Fit ; proper. 

Noyc, to roe thou arte full, 
And Co ffly sacrifice acceptable. 

C/irttef Ptatft, I. AX 

(3) Wealthv. HrrrforiUh. 
ABLECTIVE. Adorned for sale. Cockfram. 
ABLEG.\TION. A dismission ; a dispcnrion. 

ABLEMENTES. HabiUmcnts. 

He toke a thtp of high and greate avantage, 
OX abtrmimtet for warre, and ordlnauoce. 

Hant^nir'M C/tiontfh, f. 14il. 

ABLENDE. To blind ; to daz/.le. (./.-»'.) As 
the early translations of Vcgeciiis will be occa- 
sionally quoted, it may l>e as well lo state that 
the one made at Berkeley'! request, 1408,froin 
which the following extract is made, is not by 
Trcvisa, as conjectured by Tanner, but by a 
person of the name of Cliflun. Tliit fact ap- 
pears frtmi the colophon of copies in MS. Donee 
291, and MS. Di|iliy 23.1; the labl-menlioncd 
one having bafflt*<l Slnitt, Keg. Antic), ed. 
I'lanchu, p. 77. Mannscripls of this work arc 
vcn- coDiniou. Fur examples of ailnult, wea 

ABO 8 

Piera Ploaghmau, ji. 377; Rob. Glouc p. 

HcKhal boll) aMrnito hit ennnyn liiit.and ulonyr 
hii mynde, ajid he tdul Mxlrynllch wounrtc hi» 
enemy. MS. Dovn 991, f. 19. 

ABLBNESS. Power; itrength. SeeMiddleton't 
Works, iv. 519, and the example quoted by 
ABLENT. Blinded; deceived. Sec Pier* 
Ploughman, p. 388 ; Wright's Political Songs, 
p. 330. 

Stnmgc thef, Ihou kchati be thcnl, 
For thou halt mc thu> abtmt. 

MS. J<UU. 10030, f. M. 
ABI.EPSY. Blindness. Cockrram. 
ABLESS. Careless and negligent, or untidy or 

slovculv in person. Line. 
ABLESsVd. Blessed. See Tundale, p. 23, 
where, however, the a may be merely the M- 
clamalion A ! 
ABLET. The bleak. /{>»/. 
ABLETUS. Ability. This seems to be the 
meaning of the word in an obscure and muti- 
lated passage in MS. Ashmo1e44. 
ABLEWE. Blew [upon her.] 
A«woi) tho wltc ovCTIhrewe, 

Wawaia toae hiT iMeivt. AnhtmranitM«rttnip.3l5. 

Thete mowe tibticfu be cho»cii to chyralrye, for 
bercynnr itoodirth al the hcllhc and pru6;l of the 
comynallc. .VS. noun tB] . f. 10. 

ABLIGURY. Spending in belly checre. Minnheu. 
ABLINS. Perhaps ; possibly. North. 
ABLODE. Bloody ; with blood. See fiy of 
Warwike. p. 315 ; Art hour and Merlin, p.333. 
OIubrluB Mt and byheld 
How here lymcsroone u.hIoile. 

MS. Coll. TriH. Oson. S?. 

ABLOY. An exclamation used in hunting, bor- 
rowed from the Frejich, and equivalent to 
On ! On ! 
The lorde for blyi abtojf. Si/r Gawoime. p. 44. 

ABLUDE. To differ ; to he unUke. UaU. 
ABLUSION. A chemical lenn, meaning the 
cleansing of medicines from any drugs or 

ADd also of ther Induraclon, 
OUe», aUv^iaiUt mctall fusible. 

CJtaHCfr, eif. Urrtr, p* JSH. 

, A-BLYNDEN. To Wind ; to daztlc {J,-S.) 
Why mcnc»tuw thl mood for ■ mote 
In thl brothvrcv cjghe, 
Sithea a bvcm iu thyn owenc 
A-l'tvn'iHh thiK-lvc. Pi«r> PliMghrtMnt p. 189. 
ABLYNG. Fitting. Sec Urr)-'s Chaucer, p. 364 j 
Ashmole's Thcflt. Chem. Bnt. p. 118. 

Whtrfurp what tymc « man douth what he may in 

at^HfTv hym tu grace, hit tufficith to him. fur God 

ttckitb not or a mmn that hr M^th impoulblc to hym. 

Ckuton'* Divert Fruifl/ul Ghttdtty Mutrrs. 

ABNORMETH. Dufli^rcth; disjiruiictb. 
Al fntnlth he in luite that lie ftujourneth. 
And all hi* cherc mod ipechc alio htnttntfrrnHh, 

TroilHt fi*iH Cretrtde, 1. 328. 

AfiOADE. Abided; suircrefl; radured 
for mil her maydeDt much did fejirc« 
If Obvroo had chauc'd (o hearc 
That Mab hb Quccne ihould have t»cen« Lberc. 
He would not have ab4taiie It. 

DrmjftvH'i Putmt, ft. 173* 


ABOARD. { 1 ) To approach near the short. (/>.) 
Cockcrara has ahboril, to approach near the 
shore, to grapple with a sliip. See alio Cot- 
grave, iu V. .Horde, yfrrtrce. 
Ev*n to the verge of gold, oboardlnfr Spain. 

SoUman and Ptrrrida, ISSKt. 
(2) In many kinds of games, tbij, phrase signifies 
that the person or side in the game that was 
either uone or but few, has now got to be as 
many as the other. Dyche. 
ABOBBED. Astonished. {^.-N.) 
The meuangert were abobbfd iho. 
Thai nisten what thai inighieu do. 

Arlhour a»it Merlin, p. 74. 

ABOCCHEMENT. Increase. Pmmpl. Pan. 

ABOCCHY'NGE. Increase. Prompt. Pan. 

ABOCOCKED. A cap of state. 

Some lay his high cap of estate, called abontkttt, 
garaUhed with twoo riche rrounf^, whlrhe waapre- 
•eoted to Kyng Edward at Vurke the fourth dale uf 
May. Hall. Kdii'arJ IV. f. a. 

ABODE. (1) Dehiy. See Gy of Warwike, p.46; 
Crake's Thirteen Psalms, p. 1 9. 

And ro he dcdL* wilhouten aU>iL>, 
Swiftliche horn he rode. 

Arthamrand Merlin, p. 107. 

(2) Wailed for. 

Y thanks God that y waa borne. 
That y aboiie thy» day. 

.V.V. Otnlab. Vt. li. W, f. M. 
ABOFE. Aliode; dwelling. 

Wolde GtHl. for hit modurt luf, 
Bryng roe onyi al oiyne abuft, 
I were out of thclre eye, 

MS. Caitlah. Ft. v. 411, f. iS. 

ABOFFE. Above. 

Be JhMU Crj'il that ii abq/fe. 
That QUID aught mc gode lofle. 

The CLxk(Mltli 
Tharc wai a ryallc roflc 
In that chamblr dbiiffe. 

MS. Lincoln A, i. 17, f. 13U. 
ABOGEN. Bowed. Baileif. 
.VBOGHTEN. Suffered. (,/.-S.) 

And that mNvA'ch golttct, 
Bothc Dejanire and llerculc-s. 

Gowrr, MS. Soc. Anilq. 134. f. 74. 
ABOHT. Bought. Sec Kyng Horn, H02 ; 
Chroti. of England, 854 ; llitson's Aueieiit 
Songs, p. 7 ; Harrowing of Hell, pp. 17, 25. 
Nou thou hut in that foul hous, 
A thyng that la ful precloui, 
Ful ducrc hit yt oboAr. 

fVrifrht'* Lyric Pv^trj/, p. 1(0. 

ABOLETE. Antiquated: abolished. 
And dare use tlic exiieryeni. 
In there obaolute contdeni 
To practyve suche afro/efe acicna. 

SktIli-H'M Wwk; il. 411. 
A-BONB. Excellently; well. 

Spurrei of golde alM he had on, 

And a good sw«nle, that wolde byte aJione. 

Sur Oawapnt, p. 917. 

A BONE. (1) To make good or seasonable; to 

ripen. Blount. 
(2) To disjiatch quickly. SUnner. 
(3; Above. See The Greiie Knight, 513; Richard 
Coerde Lion, 4361 ; Lybcaus Disconus, 1816. 
Tho fhei ftciche a tltcl hero afion. 
Seven kulghtes y-armcd ctiroe. 

.ttthour and Mcrltn, p. 128. 






ABOOD, Remained. 

Into the bath 1 Khotde goon. 
And In I wrnle aoooD by (nM, 
And there atood but ly tcl ipatv. 

MS. a>«. Tiber. A. Tli. f. 85. 

ABOON. AboTe; overhead. North. 
ABOORD. From the bank. 

A« men in nimnKr fenrle* pane the fooitl. 
Which It in vintet lord of all the pUlne, 
And with htitutnblingltrcaroeadoth bett* ntniord 
The ploughmoji* hope and ahrphcnrtla labour valne. 
Sp"**er't Rutnt* u/ltwme, IfiOl. 
ABOOT. Beaten down. SJtimer. See Aiott. 
ABOOVE. Above. »>»/. 
ABORB. Bom. 

At Tauodeane food I woi mborg and ibred. 

MS. ^thmclt X. f. Ua. 
ABORMENT. An abortion. An nuusual forni 
of the word found in Topsell's Histoi7 of 
Foui-Kooted Beasts, 1607, p. 21. Abortment 
oceun in lligins' Nomenclator, p. 17; and 
abotl in Florio, ed. 161 1, p. 2. 
ABORTY^'E. An abortion. II is also an ad- 
jective, as in Rich's Ilouestic uf this Age, p. G. 
The cbildrc that arc atwlyver, 
Tho are that t>en not bom iu lyves, 
Shut ri»e in thritty \tvj of elde. 

Cuntr JVuiufi, ,V& runlnb. t. 1.18. 

ABOSTED. Assaulted. {J.-N.) MS. Douce lOJ 
reads and toiled, and MS. Douce 333 bas 
Ae 6o»/fd. 

A Bretonc, a brmggere, 

A-ttotU* Vim ala. PItn Plgufknuin, p. 126. 

ABOT. An atibot. The oeciirrcnce of this fonn 
in early English shows that the new ortho- 
graphy abbat, which one sometimes sees, is 
incorreet. See Lcgenda; CatboUcci, p. 19; 
Flumpton Correspondence, p. 84. 
ABOTE, (1) Beaten down. 

or whtche light glad, Ood it wot. 
She waa atiaahld and obett. 

Chaum>t Dr—mt, ISW. 
(2) About. 

With ordir in the iMteyllyi araycd. 
They cum the towoe abott. 

Riliq. AnH>l. 

ABOTIIE. Above. 

tlUttfi* half lay manl on. 
The hevcd tro the nek bon. 

jirthitur and Merttltt p. 16. 

A-BOUET. This wonl, wliich occurs in Mr. 
Wright's glusaar)' to the Dcposilioii of Ricliiiril 
II., is perhaps a misprint for a bonel, a kind of 
ABOUOHT. Bought. Sometiinet, atoned for, 
{mm aUggtn; and it is occasionally the ortho- 
graphy (XT o&w/. Jennings gives the Somerset- 
shire proverb (Dialects, p. 80), 
Vur Taught, 
And dear abougtii. 
See Gy of Warwike, pp. 72, 1 55, 355 ; Chancer, 
Cant. T. 2305; Lybeaos Disconiis, 1979; Kyng 
Alisaunder, 898; Sir Clegcs, 43; Thyane's 
Debate between Pride and Lowlijies, p. 02 ; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 31 ; Ilawkiii.*' 
~ gl. Drama, L 13. The proverb given above 
I to be derived from an old one, " Dear 
I and farr fett, arc dainties for ladies," 
I Howell gives in liis cuUectiuii. p. 8. 


ABOUGHWED. Bowed ; obeyed. See a read- 
ing in the College of Arms MS. of Robert of 
Gloucester, in Hcame's edition, p. 106. 
ABOUN. Above. 

They laid that longe waa thu to aey. 
To God aboun be Joy and blyuc I 

Tvndalr't t'Mou, p. ISa. 

ABOUNDE. Alxiunrting. 

Ryjt »o thit mayde, of grace most aboHltrfe, 
A peerelle hath clotid wlthlnne hire brettea whyte. 
LifiUnIt, till. Sue. Anliq. I3<, f . 3. 
ABOURe. Protector? 

And If ihay have any mete. 
Parte with them wole we. 
Or ellci itroke* tliay ahal gete. 

By Cod and Seynle Mary, inyn tOmtrc. 

MS. Douct 17s, p. Sg. 

ABOUT. Circularty; in a circle. See Macbeth, 
i. 3. It is singularly used in the phrase, "about, 
my lirains," signifjing, " brains, go to work," 
as in Hamlet, ii. 2. In the eastern counties it 
is current in the sense of neor, as, " this horse 
is worth Dotliing about foiirty pounds." 
ABOUTEN. About. According to Cooper's Sus- 
sex Glossju-}-, p. 12, it is still in use in East 

And in thla wlie theae lordea all and fonut 
Ben on the !)onday to the cltec come 
Jboulen prime, and iu the loun alight. 

Cbmucer, CnHt. T. 2191. 

ABOUT-SLEDGE. A smith's great forging 
bauimer. See s note in Beaumont and Fletcher, 
ed. Dyce, iv. 289. 
ABOUTWARD. Near. Sec the Pliunplon Cor- 
respondence, p. 201. 

But than syr MarTok,hya steward, 

Waa faate abf/tetewardc 

To do hya lady gyle. MS. Cantab. Ff. II. 3R, f. 71. 

ABOUYE. To bow. 

Allc londys laole abomgt to by Weate aud by Este. 
Rub. CloHc p. IIS. 

ABOUJTE. Part, past of aiir, q. v. 
Or It »challe aore ben aAoujfe, 
Or thou tchalte worcbe aa y the lay. 

OMWr, MS. Sk. .Inltf. 134, f. ii. 
And that hath Dido core abovyr, 
Whoa dcth achall ever tie bcthoujtc. 

Jlii'l. I. lut. 
ABOVE. In old stage ilirections this word ge- 
nerally refers la the upper stage, the raised 
platform towards the back of the stage. Sec 
Webster's Works, i. 314. .iborr, in common 
speech, is C(]uivalcnt to more than. As above 
a bit, excecilingly, a very common phrase ; and 
the slang expression abore t/our hookii, i. e. too 
knowing or clever. 
AflOVEN. Aliove. 

With aparclea and amekc covered abvv«n, 
Aa bit were a ttreonyng oven. 

Otrm-MiMdl, Trin. Cvll. MS. t. i9, 
Hlr queynt abocen hir kno 
Naked the knlghtc* knewe. 

Sir Tritlrtm, p. 1146. 

ABOWE. (1) To bow. See Kyng Alisaunder, 
188 ; Rob. Glonc. pp. 78, 309. 
To Roland than Kho gan atn.wt 
Almualdoun til hia fete. MS. Mhmutt 9it f. 37, 
Tharcfore ech man heom acholde abowU, 
That guode 3cmc tharof nome. 

MS. UuJ. 1U*I, r. I. 




(2) Above. 

Into Uutt roygcoa where he yn kyng, 
W>*chc«twu-e atl oLhur far dothe abuwnile. 

Shurp't O/u. it ft. p.83- 
It wu butked abtni>« 
With besantn fulle bryghte. 

US.LIi-ntn. A. i. 17, r. 13(1. 

(3) To maitiUiu ; to bvuw. Tliia may be a mii- 
Ukc for arowe. Sec Arthour and Merlin, p. 
193, and the example quoted under Anclowe. 

ABOWEN. Above. Sec ReUq. Antiq. i. 54, 
189; Fionipt. Pair. p. 179. 
Kepehyt therforc wyth lemperat hele adowoe 
Full rorty dayci, lyll hyl wex black ntourii. 

WaAino/ff'tf Theat. Chfm. Brit, p. 171. 
ABOWES. AblM.ts. [Avowes ?] 

God and Seinte Marie, and Seln Lteaia alio, 
And alle the abotr«» of cilia churche. In waa ore Irh 
am I'do. Ret), a<iuc. f. i7i. 


Mowght Iho body he hyme henle, 
Af far aa he myght laat. Torrtnt of Porlttgutf p. 9. 
ABOWTll. Bought. 

And llier fort- God. that alle hath wrojth. 
And alle mankyndc dcrc ttbowlh, 
Sende ua happe and grace. 

Ma. D»He« S4, r. iX 
ABO\VTYNE. About. Cf. Iteliq. Antiq. i. 7; 
Prompt. Porv. p. 1 68 ; Songs and Carols, xi. 
Me dyd them in a panne of braaae, 
Alao hole aa ever It waa, 

And mode fycre nfwvfjme. US, Jihrntlc 61 , t. S. 
ABO.?EnE. Bowed. 

WrI corteyaly thanne abo^ade ahe. 
And to help hure gau hlin praye. 

US. AUmUi 33, f. tl, 
AB05T. Bought. 

Theac bargeyn wyl be defe ate;f. 

MS. DovaaOi, t. 1. 
ABRACADABR.\. This word, written in a pe- 
culiar niaiiucr, waa formerly worn alwut the 
neck aa a cure for the ague. Sec Pcttigrew 
on iledical Superstitions, p. S3 ; Arcbawlo- 
gia. XXX. 427. 

Mr. Bancater aayth that he healed IKNI In one yer 
of an ague, by hanging .4ltnuniUtttnt about thcr 
necka, and wold lUnch blood, or heal the toothake, 
althogh the partye* wer 10 myle of. 

MS. Mdil. stna. 
ABRAl). Withered ? 

The gode burgcU on a dal. 

Hii ympc Ihrireiide he >al. 

Fair l-woxe and fair i-tprad, 

But the olde trc wat abrud. Th§ Sctyn Sagts, 610. 

ABRADAS. A Mucedoniaa pirate, mentioned 
by Greene and Shakespeare The commenta- 
tors have failed in tracing any further notice 
of him. 

ABRADE. To rub, or scrape off. See Richanl- 
son in v. The word is still in use as a tea tenu. 

ABRAIlAM-COLOUUEl). Sec Abram-colourrd. 
Cf. Hawkins' Eng. Uroin. ii. 27C ; Blurt Mas- 
ter Coustable, 1C02. 

ABRAH\M-Ci:PIU. Tlie expression occurs in 
Romeo and Juliet, ii. 1, and is conjectured by 
Upton to be a mistake for Adam Cupid, and 
to allude to Adam Bell, the celebrated archer. 
See his olisenatioiis ou Shakespeare, ed. 1748, 
p. 2'13. The conjecture i» very plaiuililr, aa 

pro|)cr name* arc frequently abbreviated in 
early MSS., and it suits the sense and metre. 

ABRA11A.\1-MEN. According to the Ftatcrnityo 
of Vacabondes, 1575, " an Abraham-man i* be 
that walketh bare-armed, and bare-legged, and 
fayneth hj'mselfe maA, and caryelh a packc of 
wool, or a stycke with baken on it, or such 
lyke toy, and immclh himself poore Tom." 
They are alluded to by Shakespeare under (he 
name of Bedlam Beggars, and their still more 
usual appellation was Toms of Bedlam, q. v. 
According to Grose, to " sham Aliruin" is to 
pretenil sickness, which Nores thinks may have 
some connexion with the other term. Sec 
also Aubrey's Nat. Hist. Wilu, MS. p. 25'J; 
Harrison's Description of England, p. 184. 

ABRAHAM'S-BALM. A kind of willow. Ac 
coriling to Dullnkar, English Expositor, 1C41, 
it waa used as a charm to preserve choslily. 

ABRiVID. To rise on the stomach with a degree 
of nausea ; applied to articles of diet, which 
prove disagreeable to the taste or ilifHciilt of 
digestion. Sorlh. This may be the meaning in 
Troilus and Creseide, i. 725. 

Iiutead of oouriihing, it vtlmulatea. nbrndet, and 
carries away a part of the aolida. 

CWJiiM* MlKtllahla, 17'ii. p. 7U. 

ABUAIDE. (1) To awake; to start. Palsgrave 
lias " 1 abraydt, I inforce me to do a thyiigc." 
f. 136. 

And If that he out of hii alepe attrnidt 
lie roighte don ua bathe a vilanle. 

navcrr, Cant. T. 41811. 

(2) Explained abroad by Percy. See KeUqnes, 
p. 44. It more Ukely ought lo lie " a broide," 
a start. Sec Rilson't Anc. Pop. Poet. p. 19. 

(3) As a slight variation of our first meaning, it 
may be mentioned that the word is particularly 
applied to the action of drawing a sword fhim 
a scabbard. 

ABILVM. A cjuit term, according to Coles ap- 
plied to a naked or very poor man. Cf. 
Middlelon's Works, iii. 32^ 

ABRAM-COLOURED. Nares considers this ex- 
prcssion may be a corruption of autiirn, and is 
in some measure confinncd by a passage in 
Coriolanus, ii. 3 : " Our heads are some brown, 
some black, some abram, some balil, but that 
our wits are so diversly coloiircrd." The 
folio of 1685 alters abram lo aitAum, See 
Middlelon's Works, i. 259; Toone, in v. 

.\BRi\SE. Smooth. 

The fourth, in white, !■ Aphetela, a nynif'h aa 
pure sod ftitnple aa the aoui, or aa an abnue table, 
and 1» therefore called Simplicity. 

Brn Jimmttt, il. SIK, 

ABIUYDE. (1) Started; roused liimself. 
lliomydon with that itioke abrmttdt. 
And to the kynge Ihua he sayde. 

//Kimyrfin, I UP- 

(2) To upbraid. See the True Tragedie of 
Richard the Thinl, p. 22, where tlic editor boa 
divided the word. 

Dochat present felly gan abrmifd* 

To Moaullnc, and even thui he aayile. 

Ikiehat, b. vll. C 4. 





ABRAYDEN. To excite. 

For thcyr romodit^ to sbraydsii up pride. 

J.lfdgmi^t Mimar Poews, p. ISI. 
tABREAD. L'ncoufined ; exposed ; tpread out. 

} ABRECOCK. -in apricot. Grrard. 
ABRED. BrouKh( up. JTett. 
ABREDE. (1) This word is explained to up- 
braid, bv Skinuer, who refers to the following 
pusBge. He metuing is obvioiuly, " rau out 
ti his teases." 

How Troilui Dcre out of bis witte abrettt. 
And wrpt full lore, with v)u(;e pole of hcwe. 

The TcttttmiKl of Cmtid; ijt. 

{ (2) lo breadth. North. See Chronide of 
EngUnd, 808, in Ritson's Met. Rom. ii. 303. 
(3) Abroad. Yorkth. 

Thioe antiii shaU thou iprede abrede, 

I As mao in warre were forwerode. 

Ramavnl of Oie Raw, SSSi. 
ABREGE. To shorten ; to abridge. 
And for he wold hU longe tale abngt. 
Be woldc noo auctoritce allege. 
dtauctr. Qml.T.'JKi. 
Lareeiae it li, whot privilege 
Ther may Don avarice alrtggt, 
GMwr, 3IS. Sat. Antiq. 134, t. SOS. 
ABREKE. To break in. 
And 5ir we may owhar abrtke, 
Flc we hem with grct rt-lce. 
^rlliour and Merlin, p. !93. 

ABRENOUNCE. To renounce utterly. 7'oyfor. 
J ABREPT. To take away by violence. 

^B hli Dephew'i life he qucitioQs, 

^H And quefltinniag. abrvpta. 

^F BUtingatyt BrAchjf-Ucrtvnit'gia^ 1GS7. p. 4n, 

A BRE VDE. (1) To upbraid. See Mrayde. Ex- 
probmre, AngUce to abreyde. — MS. Egcrton 
829, f. 72. 
(2) Started. 

TtUe at the laste he a&reyde lodeyncly. 

Ltdgal; MS. Sac. Anliq. 134, f. 4. 

ABRIC. Sulpfaur. Cole: 

ABRICOT. An apricot. Sec Harrison's De- 
script, of Brit. p. 210; Bttrct's Alvearic, in v. 
Rider colls an apricot tree an abrictit -apple. 

ABRJUGEMENT. A dramatic iH-rfonnanee ; 
probably from the prevalence of the historical 
ilraiiuk, in which the cients of ycjira were so 
atridj/fd as to be brought witliiu the ciunpass 
of a play. Sec .\ Mids. Night's Dream, v. 1. 
It seems, however, lo be used for the actors 
themselves in Hamlet, ii. 2. 

ABRIGGE. To shield off. 

Alle myicheffbf from him to eMggt. 

Lyilgau't Minor PvemM, p. fi. 

ABRIPTED. Ravished. Cockeram. 
ABROACH. To "set abroach," lo tap. It 
is sometimes uscjI metaphorically in the slate 
of being diffused or advanced. Cf. Prompt. 
Parv. p. 52; Chaucer, Cant. T. 575'.); I.ydgatc's 
Minor I'oems, p. 104 ; Colyiic Ulow)>oll, 5. 
Kfjt at wlio tettc a tunoe abmcht. 
Re perrtde the harde roche. 
And (prooge outc watir alle at willr. 

Carter, MH. *.r. .Inllti. 134. f. 137. 
ABROAD. Broad. MinMheti, Sprrtui abroatl, 
widely distended. See First Sketches of 
llcnr) VI. \>. 97. 


n ABS 

ABRODE. (1) Abroad. North. 
Admyt thou ihouldat atiyde abimfr a year or twayoe. 
Should lO ahoTt atiaence cauMrto lonp and eke so greo- 
vouspaynef HomeuMond Jultet,up. Cotlitr,ji.ifi. 

(2) Spread abroad. North. 
ABROKE. (1) One that has a rupture i* said to 

be abroke. Kcnnett's MS. Glossary. 

(3) Tom. Hantt. 
A-BROKEN. Broken out ; escaped. 

And uide thci wer no men. 

But dcvcllf a-hrvken oute of helle. 

Sir ferwutnu, MS. 
ABRON. Auburn. 

A lucty courtier, whose curled head 
With obntn lockl was fairly fumlBhed. 

Hall't Salirrt, ilL i. 

ABROOD. (1) Abroad. (.f.-S.) 
To here bi»»hopes aUoute 
A'brtto4 in vi>ilyngc. Pierg Ploughman, p. 3S. 

(2) Sitting, applied to a hen. See Barel's 
Atvearie, in v. Tlic term is still in use in the 
Like black cur scaPd, with tail betwixt bis legs. 
Seeing he sate abrvati on addle egga. 

Ootn-y'i Mrfna CnaipHf, p. lUS. 

ABROOK. To bear; to endure. The same 
meaning as brook, with the a redundant. See 
2 Henry VI. ii. i. 
AllUUIT. Separated. Sec Mirldlelon's Works, 
ti. 151. .iir«/<fion, a breaking off, is funnd iu 
Minsheu, and Troilus and Cressida, til. 2. 
ABRYGGE. To abridge. 

My dayei, make y never so queynte, 
Schullcn Bbrygge and sumwhat Kwage. 

MS. Canbib. Ff. ii. 38, f. 81. 
ABSINTHIUM. WormwooiL See an early me- 
dical recript in MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 285. 
ABSOLENT. Absolute. 

And aAerward, lyr, verament. 
They called hym knyght abtotenl. 

Tht Squpr </ lam Ofgri, 030. 

ABSOLETE. Obsolele. Mituheu. 

ABSOLUTE. (1) Highly accomplished; perfect. 
See Pericles, iv. 1, anil Malone's note, p. 134. 

(2) Absolved; freed, t'/iaucer. 

ABSOLVE. To finish. See a somewhat pecu- 
liar use of this wortl iu TopseU's Four-Footcd 
Beasts, 1607, p. 89. 

ABSONANT. Untuiiablc. Cockeram. Hence 
ilisconlaQt, disagreeing. Glanville has abio- 
notu in the same sense. Sec Richardson, 
in v. 

ABSTABLE. Able to resist. 

Uc thanked God of hU myracle, 

To wltoae myght may tw nooeaStfaWe. 

Cuwcr, ed. 153>, f. .1*. 


Siche myraclii plcying not onrly pervertith oure 
bllevo but oure vcrrey hope in God, by the whichc 
Kyntii hopidcn that the more thcl ot#rCTn'</cM hrm 
fro fiche pleyci, the more medc Ihei thuld then have 
of Cod. HeH«. ../«»(«. il. 47 

ABSTENT. Absent. ITanc. 

ABSTER. To deter. 

As the other Baed upon the door makcth me lo 
rejoice and to put my whole afflalice in Christ, aii 
this in Uke manner bhuuld abfttr and fear me anil 
mine from doing evil. firc<'ft'« WorAr*. p. fi3. 

ABSTINENT. Abslcmiom. Uinihru. Absti- 




ncncy, which is not piven by Richnrdson, oc- 
curs in Harriiigton'n NiipE Ant. ii. 247. See 
the quotation under AlmfifitUe. 
ABSTRACT. A sepamtion. Sec Anthony and 
Cleopatra, iii. 6; Donee's lUustrationB. ii. 93. 
The verb is used in the sense of talung away 
surreptitiously, and sometimes by the rulgar 
for eriracl. 1 was once asked by the porter 
of an ancient college whether 1 was come 
"agcn lo-Jay to abttrael some of the old 
ABSURD. A schoUutic term, employed when 
false conclusions are illogically deduced from 
the premises of the opiwnent. See the Broken 
IleaK, i. 3. 
ABTHASE. AstcwariL Minthru. Tliercisa 
dispute about the exact meaning of the word, 
which is generally said tn be the old title of 
the High Steward of Seolland. 
ABU. AtKive. Deron. 
ABUCIIY.MENT. An ambush. 
V-Iciotlc jtmd on abuehj/Tnent 

Ssra^yns wonder fair. 
In the wode thnt ponder stent. 
Ten lliouiani >l by tsle. MS. ^tltmaU SS, f. ll>. 
ABUDE. To bid ; to offer. 

And In the fairc«l mancrc lh«l tw can. 
The mcMige he gan ii(.i«t>. MS. /4thmiU 93, f. M. 
ABUE. To bow J to obey, 
Nc undenlondo hou luther yl y> to do coy autnee. 
Other werny out the noble iludc, (list ai the world 
<l^■lrf^ to. Ko*. o(»"e. r. IM. 

ABUF. Above. 

Methoghi I ihowed nun luF when I msde hym to be 
AUe ingeli ahuf, like to the Trynytr. 

TVwfif /ry Ml/ft0rt^t p. S9, 

Derc lady, graunt me thi lufc. 

For the lufe of Hyra that »>ttU aV*ifii, 

That stongene wa« with a ipcre. 

MS. UncolnA. i. 17. MID, 
Me thane to luffu 
Allc thynge afiNfAr, 

Thow aughc be fayno, V.9. Lniul. XM. 

ABUUGES. To abie, q. v. Sec Wright's Lyric 
Poetry, p. 112 ; Walter Mapcs, p. 311 ; Ucliq. 
Antiq. ii. 276; Kyng Horn, 1081. 
Ac let uB and oure ofapryng 
Ahuggt oure mytdede. 

MS. Coll. Trix. Onm. C7. I. 11. 
Help me, God I and ihU day 

He aachsl ahugft, jef ich may. MS. Dmce 376, p. 3S, 
ABUIN. Above. Norlh. 
ABl'NUAND. [Those who are] abounding in 

Pll not the pore peple with your preehyng, 
Bot bagge at abundant and at rjche aray. 

.^udelai/'t r\>rmi, p. 30. 
ABUNDATION. Abimdancc. Ilfrrfonhh. 
ABURNE. Auburn. See Florio, in v. jithiimo. 
Auburn colour is translated by cilr'miui in the 
I'rompt. Par\'. wliich would make il an omngc 
tinge, rather than the bruu nish colour now so 
called. It is also s|>clt abuitme, as in the 
Triall of Wits, 160-1, p. 255. Another cjtam- 
ple of abume occtin in Well met, Goisip, 4 to. 
Lond. 1G19. 
Her blaek, tiroime, obumr, or her yellow hayre. 
Naturally lovely, »he doth iconic to weare. 

DfaylrH'. r<-tmt. I'.HVI. 

ABUS. The river H umber. 

Foreby the river that whylonio waa hlght 
The ancient a&v«, where with courage itoul 
t-ic Ihera defeated In vlctorloua flght. 

Fatrie f^ttfthn, 11. X. I(i. 
jUJUSCHID. Ambushed; in ambush. 

That wai abutchid ther bUide in a brent greve. 

trUUam imd the frcru-ol/, p. 1.11. 

ABUSE. To deceive ; to impose upon. Sec 
Cymbcline, t. 5 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, i. 
169. The noun occurs in Mcasiu-c for Mea- 
sure, v. 1. 
ABUSED. Vitiated; depraved. 
Such as have cure of aoule. 
That be so farre abused. 
They cannot lie excused 

By reason nor by law. Skelton'* VTortti, 1. 155, 

ABUSEFUL. Abusive. Herefordsh. 

ABUSHMENTLY. In ambush. Hulotl. 

ABUSION. An abuse. {.1.-N.) See the Faerie 

Queenc, II. xi. 11 ; Wright's Monastic Letters, 

p. 141 ; Hawkins' Engl. Dram. i. l.'>4 ; Trnilus 

and Crcseidc, iv. 990; Palsgrave, f. 17 ; Hall, 

Henry VI. f. 62. 

Moreovyr wys right a gret abu#?nn, 
A wiiman of a land to t>e a regent. 

JlfS. Sik:. 4hIIii. inl, f. Dfl. 
Marke wclle thyi conrlusyon, 

Throughesuche abiuyon. MS. Rjnft.C. 85U. 

ABUSIOUS. Abusive. 

Eveu on the very forehead of thee, thou abwtiou* 
Villoine ! therefore prepare thyselfe. 

TamiHf ti/ a Slirtw, IflU/. 

Full covertly to lay abutabemtnt. 
Under ao hyll att a itrayght poacage. 

MS. Hauil. ('. tn. 
ABUST. To arrange .> 

Wel. said he. y knowe ys wlUe, 

Fairer thou ahuti thy tale ; 
Lcl aoother ys roesiagc telle. 
And slond thou ther by thy fale. 

MS. ^ihmolii 31, r, St. 

ABUT. But. North. 

ABUTTAL. A boundarr. See a quotation &am 
Coke, bv Boucher, in t. 

ABUY. (1) To bow. 

Tho he waa kyng y-mad, ys hett he made anon. 
That claollche to Voitiger ys men ahuy4e cchun. 

Hnb. OlOHC. p. 1(16. 

(2) To abie, q. v. See Cotgravc, in v. Bmekert. 
ABUY3E. Toabic. q. V. 

Thi r>'0t thow schalt now abu^t^ 

As othere that leereth uppoo ure lore. 

Waller Mapa, p, 343. 
jVBVERT. To turn away. Cockeram. 
ABVOLATE. To Oy away. Coekemm. 
ABWENE. AI>ovc. 

Thane come of the orycnte cwyne hyme ogaynea 
A blake bustuus here ab»tnt In theclowdes. 

Morle Arlhure, MS. Unc-ln, t. til. 

ABYCHE. To suffer for. 

Ther start in Sander Sydebreche, 

.^ad ftwere, be hta fOder sowie, he tchulde abfrrht. 

Slunltyng of tbt Hnrr, 1 "a, 

ABYDDE. Abided. 

Some hope that whan she knowlth the case, 
V trust to Ood, that withyoe short spase. 
She will tno take agayne to grace : 

Than have y well nbyttde. Rttiq. vintiq. \ 84* 






ABTDE. To forbear. Cf. Urry. p. 1 13. 
ConiiJerlnf the brtt on every tide 
Tli«l fra hli lust WIT him better atiyde, 
Ttmu do §o hie a cburlUbe wretchldneue. 

Ounlctr, US. Quitub. 

ABTME. An abyss. Sec jIUme. 
A15TN. Been. 

Lord, and thou haddyit byn here, werely 
My brother hM) natt abttn ded, I know well thyue. 
liiSlv llflerUt.p. 104. 
ABYSM. An abyss. Shak. 
ABYT. Abidclh ; continuetb. See Kyiig 
Albaunilrr, 3C38 ; Urry's Chaueer, p. 542. 
Cf. Jhit. 
ABYYD. (1) Stay. 

Jbyr^, •)'t emperuur, yf thou wylt I Oelttlim, £48. 
(2) Suffer. 

llMt then broke my ootnaundemeiit, 
MryitiH 6m thou tchalle. lUUq. AnIUi. li. 91. 
AC. But. (/f.-S.) 
AC.\DEME. An academy. Shak. 
Come, brave iptritt or the rcalmc, 
Vnahadeil of the aoa^mc. 

I^rae/Mtm'a TAaffa'f BonfuW* 16S(>. 

ACAID. Vinegar. IhwtU. 
ACALE. Cold. {.I.-S.) 

And eek he waa to lore aenle. 
Thai he witte of himaclfc no bol«. 

Oswrr, MS. Hoc. Mnliq. 134, f. 133. 
For blood may cufTre blood, 
Botbc hungry and a-ca/a. 

Plera Ptijughman, p. 393. 
ACARNE. The sea-ronch. Keriey. 
A-CAS. By chance. Sir TrUlrem. 
A-CAST. Cast away ; lost. 

And weneth for le kcvere. and ever buth a.M«r. 
Wtighti Pitt. Sitngt, p. 149. 
My purpoa is y-falled ; 
Now u iny comfort o-rur. 

Pieri Plixithman, p. 457. 
AGATE R. A caterer; a purveyor. See Sad 
Shepherd, U. 2 ; Rutland Papers, p. 78. 
He i* my wardrobe man, my acuter, cook, 
BMtlcr, and steward. UcvU U an Aut I. 9. 

AGATES. Victuals ; provisions purcbasctL See 
Hocelcve's Poems, p. 40 ; Cotgrave, in v. 
t, and all choice that plenty can tend lo ; 
Bread, wine, oealu, fowl, feather, fiah, or fin. 

/hvi Shrpfier4, i. 3. 

AG.\TRY. The room or place allotted lo the 
keeping of all »<uch pro\-isions as the purveyors 
parchaMd for tlie king. 
ACATS. Agates. 

Cf M«c» and nf ainatlstc* and aiUmanta fyne. 

MS. Ailtmnit 44, f. 91. 

ACAU8E. Because. Safnlk. The following Suf- 
folk lines are from Major Moor's ms. 

Vow mussint sing a' Sunday, 

jt^auMt It Is a kin ; 
But yeou mah iing a* Monday, 
Tin Sunday eomc aglnn. 
ACAWMfN. Coming. Somirtet. 
ACAZUIK. Tin. Hovett. 
ACAZB. AgainM. 

The barona It blaprke, that it nat no;t wel Ido 
jlentt the pourvaancc, vor hli nolrle FrcoRsman non. 
Hub. 0(»Hc. p. :-3i. 

ACCABLE. To press down. Junhu. 

ACCAHINTS. Accounts. Slaffordth. 

ACCENSED. Kindled. 

Although thcl perceved their company to be at. 
cenxnt and Inflamed with fury and malice ynough, 
yet to aupnenl and encrcjae their madnotj thel cast 
oylc aiid piiche Into a fjTc. Hall, Henry ril. f. 41. 

ACCEPCION. Reception; acceptation. 

Thcr is nothing rljdlchr bygunne uitdir God, bot 
theempcruur3ivc therto favorable at-ceprion and un- 
dirfonging. yegrrliu, JUS. Ox urc 291 , f. 4. 

There is a second accr/itltin of the word faith, put 
either for the whole lystem of that truth which God 
hath been pleased tn reveal to hit Church In the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Tesumcnt, or some 
part thereof. jtafiifertim't 5erm"fi*, 1080, p. 61. 

ACCEPTILATION. A vcrball acquittance, when 
the delrtour demandrth of the crediloiir, Doe 
you acknowledge to have had and received this 
or that ? Anil the creditour aiiswercth, Yea, 
I doe acknowlerlgc it. Miruheu. 
ACCERSE. To call together; to stunmon. 
(Lai.) See Hail's Union, 1548, Edwanl IV. 
f. 2C; Henry \11. f. 40. 
ACCESS. .Augmentation. 

Drought thereunto more occeaee of catiraation and 
reverence than all that ever was done before or 
•luce. Lambnnlr'a Pframbulalitrn, IfiM, p. 301. 

ACCESSE. (1) A fit of any illness. See Florio, 
in V. Accfua. According to Blount, " the ac- 
cttt of an ague is the approach or coming ot 
the fit ;" and " in Lancashire they call the 
ague itself the access." See Jiei. 
(2) A fever. 

A water lilly, whiche dothe remedy 
In hole oeccMaa, aa bokes specify. 

Bocha*, b. I. c. 15. 
For as the grayne of the garnet ilcelh 
The stronge acc»*t and doth the hetc avale. 

I^dtale.tla.Si>e.Anliii. 134, f. 13. 

ACCESSIVEUE. Acoeasoriam^nte, accennvelir, 

bv his own seeking. Florio- 
ACCinAVY. An affidavit. A'orM. 
ACCIDE. Sloth; indolence; more especially 
applied to religious duties. (Lai.) 
Vayne dole, perplealte, and pryde, 
llkyng of godc and aerUt. 

MS. CM. Sim. ZtUI. 0. 
Swych lynno men kalle aceydtt 
Vn Goddyt scrvyse tloghe bctydc, 

MS. Hnrl. 17111. f. *!•• 
Accide ys slowthc In Godca aervlie. 
In which y fynde many a vice. 

MS. fiwl/. 48, f. lU. 
ACCIDENT. A symptom of illness. Kider. The 
situation of a too confiding girl, when her 
swain has proved faithless, is sometinica thus 
politely designated : 
*' When lovely woman stoops to fully. 
And finds too late that men betray.** 
ACCIDIE. Indolence; sloth. 
He hailde an afcidle, 
That he sleep Salerday and Sonday. 

Pleia I'ftnif/iiMli, p. as. 
ACCIPITKAUY. A falconer. Nath. 
ACCITE. To call ; to summon. Shak. 
ACCLOY. To cram ; to clog ; to overload ; to 
elov. Ilardyng uses this word very frequently. 
See his Chronicle, IT. 47, 59, 82, 94, 137, 140, 




And who w It doth, full foule hinMolf aedni/elh. 
For office uncoounlttcd ofte annojrcth. 

CAtnira-, MIS. Quilot. 

ACCLOYD. A wound given to a lioiT:e in shoe- 
ing, by lirinng a nail into Die tjniek. Sec 
TopscU's Fonr-Footcd Beasts, 1607, p. -JU. 
To accloy originally meant to drive a noil in 
shoeing a horse. See Prompt. Parv. p. 6 ; 
Cotgravc, in v. Enctouer. 
ACCOAST. To sail coastwiie ; to approach the 

(■oast. Sprruer. 
ACCOIL. To bustle. 

Atmut the caudron miny cookei aenytd, 
Wilh hookcs tnd l«dl«, a» need did re<iuyre. 

Faerie <iurmc, 1 1 . U. 3(). 

ACCOL. To embrace round the neck. See 
Surrey's Virgil, quoted by Richardson, in t. 

ACCOLADE. The ceremony of embracing, for- 
merly customary at the creation of knights. 


When this knyght that was oreoJiJerf, — and hit wu 
grete froste,-- and he aaw the fyre, he de»ccndlde of 
hi« horse, and yedc to the fyre, and warmlde him. 
Geita Homanorum^ p, 83. 

ACCOMBEROUS. Curahereome; troublesome. 
A Util tymc his yeft Is affreable. 
But fal aceomberows li the using*. 

CwnjAoint u/ renwa, 48. 
ACCOMBRE. To embarrass; to bring into 
trouble ; to overcome ; to destroy. See 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. .^6, 94 ; Piers Plough- 
man, gloss. See Acombre. 

Nay, knave, yf ye try me by noratjrT, 
I wyll as knavishly you accomber. 

Ptai/t coiled the Fwre PP. 
ACCOMMODATE. A very fashionable wortl in 
Shakespeare's lime, ridiculed both by him 
aiid Den Jonsou, the latter calling it one of 
" llic perfumed terms of the time." The in- 
definite use of it is well ridiculed by Bardolph's 
vain nttcmpt to define it in 2 Henry IV. iii. 2. 
Jtislice Shtillow has infonned us just previously 
that it was derived from the Italian accommoHo. 
ACCOMPLICE. A partner, associate, or com- 
panion. Tlus word was not fonneriy applied 
exclusively in a bad sense. See I Hen. VI. v. 2. 
ACCO.VIPI.lSIl. To equip, to dress out, to adorn 
cither in lK)dy or mind. Sec Hen. V. iv. ch. 
ACCOMPTE. To tell ; to recount. 

Syr, to arrftmptt you the contynewe of my consay te. 
Is from advcrsyte Magnyfyccnce to unbynde. 

Bketton'i fl'orW, i. 3(0. 

ACCONFERMENT. A confirmation. Rob.Glouc. 

ACCORACJE. To encomuge. 

But that same froward twalne would aecoragt. 
And of her (drnty adde unto their need. 

Fairieliume, II. II. SB. 

ACCORATH-EARTH. A field; green arable 

earth. North. 
ACCORD. Action in speaking, forrcspondiug 

with the words. Sec Titus Androuicus, v. 2. 
ACCORDABLE. Easy to he agreed. Minheu. 
ACCORDAND. Agreeing. 

For the resoun of his sauir was ay arnm<<i>i.< with 

the Godhcd for to dye. MS. OM. Kti,n. 10, f. »), 

ACCORDANT. Agreeing. 

Whiche saying is not actanlaunie with other 
wiltere. FiOUm, lUa, i. 18. 


Whan my fellows and I weren in that vale, wee 
weren in gret thought whetlier that wee dursten 
putten ourebodyesinavenlure, to gon in or non, in 
Che proteccloun of God. And sommc of ourc fellowca 
acnrdedcn to enter, and sonime noght, 

JfdvnWen'ie'a TfuveU, p. S8S. 

ACCORDING. Granting. 

To shew It to this knight, ace<mitng his desire. 

Fairrle {/linn; I. x. W. 
ACCORT. Hecdy ; wary ; jinident. Miiuheu. 
ACCOST. Explained by Cockcrom " to appro- 
priate." It occurs in a curious manner in 
Twelfth Night, i. 3. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, explains it "to trie, to attempt;" 
Minshcu, to " draw neare unto one ;" and the 
author of the New English Dictionary, 1G91, 
says, " wrestlers do accotl one another, by 
joining side to side." 
ACCOUNSAYL. To counsel with. 
And called him without fall. 
And said he wold him otctmnm^K 

R^c^arll Cotr dt UoH, SIM. 
And the Ihlrdesortc halth their HWm Co twaceows- 
*eilt with Che howse, and yet the greatest nomlmor 
theym hath no lemynge. 

fyrigfa't MonatHc Laurt, p. MM. 
ACCOUNT. To count; to reckon, ^nuer. 
To aecoHtil of, to esteem, as in Tarlton's Newa 
out of Purgatory, p. 59. 

ACCOUNTANT, Accountable ; responsible for. 

ACCOUPLE. To join ; to couple. See Hall and 

Bacon, quoted by Richardson, in v. 
ACCOURTING. Courting. Spetuer. 
ACCOWARD. To make one a cowanL 

I thought that al the wordcs In the world shulde 
nat have acvowarded the. Palsgratf, f. l.t?. 

ACCOY. To alarm ; to daunt ; to render diffi- 
dent, shy, or coy ; and sometimes to soothe, to 
pacify, or moke quiet. Spenser frequently 
uses the woril. See ./««>. Cf. Pede's Works. 
iu. 152. 

Forsaken wight, she verllle belierde 
Some ocher lasse UlyiiM had aet^dt. 

TmrtnWt Otid, 1S67, arg. 
ACCOYNTED. Acquainted. (Fr.) 

The people, having to graciousr a prince and 
aoovcrayne lorde as Che klnges highnts U,wlih whom, 
t»y the continuance of hli rcgiie over then) thiea »» 
yercs, tliey ought to be so well ocn*nre*. 

stale Paprri, 1. 474. 

ACCRASE. To crush ; to destroy. 

Fynding my youth myspent, ray subatance ym- 

payred, my credyth aceratd, my ulent hydden, my 

follyei laughed att. my rewync unpytti'd, and my 

trcwth unemployed. (tueeii'i Profrtnte, i. 81. 

ACCREASE. To increase; to augment. See 

Florio, in v. Aecrncrrf. 
ACCKEW. To increase ; to accrue. Spenser uses 
Ibis word, but without to or from, which 
accrue now reqtiires. 
ACCRIPE. A herb? 

Some be browne, and some be whit. 
And some be tender as oreHpe. 

Rtlii, jtnNf. I. 848 






I ACCROCIIE. To increase ; lo getlif r j to en- 
croach. See I'aUgrave, f. 137. 

And fyn, whan It lo low approfhclh, 
Tbo him anon Ihc atrengthe acrtvehcth. 

Gwccr, 3IS. AH'. ^Hlli,. VM.f. IfiJ. 
Me never aMTocA«tf trejtour nerr nor ferre 
Towarde hymwlfe. Bt<haat b. v. c. IG. 

[ACCRUMENT. Increase ; addition. Tai/tor. 
*ACCTECLOTHE. In an old inventor}-, dated 
15H6, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 25-1, mention is made 
of " aectertothe of j. )crd." 
IACCI'D. Tbe footmark of any animal. Cockerttm. 
IaCCUITY. Top; summit. 

The cauic whie. u tcllelh auton old. 
U that tbelre ucruiti/ li duM with cold. 

jt<hm>U't Thtar. Omm. Bril, p. Tl- 
' ACCURSE. To curse. SJtinner. 
ACCUSE. To discoTcr. 

The cntruei of the yerde ateuttth 
To him that In the watir mu»pth. 

noM. 0/ tlu Run, 1S91. 
ACCUSTOM. A custom. SUtinrr. 
I ACCISTOMED-TO. Acquainted with. Dortel. 
\ ACELEI). Scaled. 

The legat, tho It was aetUd, wende vorth over se. 
Hull. done. p. i\7. 

ACENTE. Assent. See Hoi). Glouc. p. 96; 

Prompt. Parr. p. 15, Tlic latter work gives 

the verb acfnlyn, p. 5. 
ACBNTENDEN. Assented. 

The douxxe perei acfntendgn thcr-to. 
To bide til winter were Mo. 

MS. lynict 37A. p. S7. 

(ACERBATE. To make sour; to sharpen. 

TIa tbU. said he. tliat acfrbatea my woe. 

AiJli/if <V> Bnehf-Manynlogla, IW?, p. ta. 

I ACEROTE. Brown bread. iUmhni. 

[ ACERTAINED. Confirmed in opinion. 
For DOW 1 am acertained Lhroughly 
Of every thlDR 1 desired to know. 

TtMifT* Goutr and ChnucWt p. SSS. 

^ACESCENT. Sour. Arbuthnol. 
I ACESE. To cease ; to satisfy. See Reliq. Antiq. 
u. I2C. 

At wo and werrea he achat nemtt 
And aet al reams In rest and paae. 

MS. Dtuct aOl, f. S9. 
And lltcl thlnfe pwre nedo may «re««ii. 
So that nature may have hire vuatenaunco. 

Borlliu, MS. Sw. Jfiltii. 134. f. 293. 
( ACETIIE. This form of atfl/i, q. v., occurs in 
Prompt. Pan-, pp. 5, 182. The quotation given 
tiy Mr. Way from Piers I'lougiiman ia scarcely 
applicable. Sec Jtnel/i. 
ACH. Smallagc ; w atcr-parsley. Tlic word oc- 
curi in an old lisl of plants in MS. Ilarl. 978, 
t. 5M, explained by the Latin npium. Sec 
also Prompt. Parr! pp. 6, 2 16 ; Itcliq. Anllq. 
t 51, 53; Wright's I.vric Poetry-, p. 20; MS. 
Med. Un(»lti, f. 280. ' 
j ACH.\in. AJum-watcr. Achcmical term, llmrell. 
IaCHAMECK. The dross of silver, i/owell. 
:H A R.MED. DeUghted. 

Ther ticn lomme that cten chyldren and men, and 
•Mth noon other llnh fro that tyme that Ihel be 
* alUi Wi i i t with matinyi floh, fur ralhrr thci wolde 
k* dnad ; and tfael tic depod wercwulfrt. for men 
•boM* be war of bem. MS. Bodl. Stfi. 

A-CHARNE. To set on. (.^.-N.) 

That other rvtoun is whanne thel a^rhanutk In a 
contr^ or werre there aa bataylea have y-t>e, there 
thci eteih of drde men* or of men that be honied. 
MX. Bodl. HO, 

ACH.AT. A contract; a bargain. See Urty'a 
Chaucer, p. 362. 

Cursed b« he, quod the kyng, that the arJtat made. 
M.S. Curr. I'ufKU. B. xvl. f. 83. 
ACHATES. An agate. Mimtheu. 
ACIIATtJlIR. Tlie person who had the charge 
of the aratry ; the purveyor. 

A grntit manciple was ther of a temple. 
Of which adtatourt mightcn take cnaemple. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. STO. 

ACHAUFE. To warm ; to make hot. (./..,V.) 

Whanne the hert hath be av. dayes at ttic rulle 

ikarslyche, the bukke bygynneth to achau/t hymielr 

and bolne. MS. Bodl. MC. 

That swollen sorow for to put away. 

With softe salve aehav/g It and dcHe. 

Bcfllut, MS. Soc. .■Intnl. 134, C iSD. 
And bc-scte In that settel scmlych ryche. 
Anil ocHattfid hym chefly, and thcnnc his chcr mended* 
•SVr Ctwayrte, p. 34* 
ACUAUNGED. Changed; altered. 

Whan the emi>erice that underttod, 
Al achaungtd was hire blod. 

The Serrn Saga, WO. 
ACIIAYERE. Gere; array. 

Scho was frely and fayre, 
Wele semyd hlr aehayere. 

Sir Degrevante, MS, Llneotn. 
ACHE. (1) An ash tree. This seems to be the 
meaning of it in the Plumpton Correspond- 
ence, p. 188. 
(2) Age. 

But thus GtKlIi low and he wll welde. 
Even of blod, of good, of ache. 

MS. Oauce 308, f. 30. 

ACHEKID. Choked. 

And right anon whan that Theseus selhe 
The best aehekid, he ahal on him lepe 
To sleen him, or they camin more to hepe. 

Leg. If/. 4rladnr. 13.1. 
ACHELOR. Ashler, or hewn stone n»ed fur the 
facings of walls. .\ contract fur building 
Burnley church, co. York, temp. Henry Vlli. 
specifics " a course of iioAetora." Sec Britton's 
Arch. Dirt, in v. .iililar. 
ACllRU. .\ II usher. In Arch£ologia,ixvi. 278, 
niciitioti is made of Loys Stacy, " ae/ier to the 
Duke of Burgoine." 
ACHES. Convulsions arc called " pricking 
aches" by Bidcr. It was sometimes used as 
a ili!>syllal)le. See HutUbras, 111. ii. 407. 
ACHESbt'N. Reason; cause. Heame, gloit* 
to P. Langtoft, explains it occonon. 
And all ho It dede for traiaooni 
King to be waa his aeAaaowfi. 

Arlhmtr mtt4 Merttn, p. 6. 
A-CHETre. To escheat. Prompt. Parr. 
.VCIIEVE. To accomplish. Urry reads achivrd. 
And through falshcd ther lust achertd, 
Whernf I repent, and am greved. 

Aem. «/ the Am, S048. 
A-CIIOKED. Choked. 

For he was a-chvkcd anon. 

And toward the dethc he drouth. 

US. lawd. lOe, f. IflS. 

ACK 16 


ACHON. BMh one. 

The Itdy lok her miydrnyi mehtm, 

AdU wenfe the «iy that bche hndile er gon. 

lAwiVW, 1018. 
ACHORN. An acorn. CAah. 
ACHRAS. A wild cboik-poar. Keney. 
ACIIWYN. To shun ; to avoid. Prompt. Parr. 
We have also, " achuyngt, or bcyngc ware, 
precavenji, ritant.^* 
ACISE. Assizrt. In ArcbieologU, rrij. 291, it 
U used in the sense of assize. 

Ther he tette hlf owne nettt. 
And nude batitfi. aoit Juttlcef. 

ACK. To mind ; to regard. North. 
ACRE. But. {A..S.) 

jlckt that nc tpl thou do man 

For the sothc thou haft 1-rounde. 

tia. fjnt. iM, r. 1. 

But verrmy Iotc U Tertue at I fele, 
For verray love may frcllc detlrc ncktlf. 

OmHt ■/ tmw, IV78. 
ACKER. (1) A ripple on the surface of the wa- 
ter. So explained in the Craven dialect, hut 
Ilnloct, in his Abcedarium, l,'i52, has " aktr 
of the sea, wliiohe prcvenlelh the flowdc or 
flowynge, impeftu innrm'' a ninre precise defi- 
nition, prevfnteth being of course used in the 
ttmc o{ prccedrth In the Prompt. Parv. p. 8, 
aij/r occurs with the same Latin that lluloel 
gives. See Eager, and Higre, ramifications 
of the same Icrm, wliich ap|iear to be applied 
to coinmnlinns of more violence that the ge- 
ncralit)- of lliiloet'a cxphiuationt necessarily 
implies. Mr. Way has a good note on this 
word in the Prompt Parr. p. 8, and makes 
the following extract from MS. Cott. Htus A. 
ULtii. f. 49: 

Wei know they the rnime yf It a-ry^ve, 

An after ii it clcpt. I unUrritonde. [wylttonde. 

Who* myght there may no shippe or wyod 

Thit reutoc m thoccian of propre kynde, 

Wytoutc wyndc hathe Mf romrautloun ; 

The marynec-r Ihcror may not be biyndr. 

But when and where iD every rcfjlnun 

It reKnethe. he moile have iitipectloun , 

For 1q vUge it may bothc hailc and tary. 

And uoaviicd therenr, a) myftcary. 

This extract scarcely licnr* out Mr. Way's 
opinion as to the CTtrnded meaning of the 
word aifr. The third line probably refers to 
the reume, or tide, and merely means to ex- 
press the great and then necessary impor- 
tance of t^e tide to navigation, not any 
particular commotion or current implied in 
oier. Jamieson has aiirr, " the motion, break, 
or movement made by a fish in the water, 
when swimming fast," which is similar to the 
meaning of the word in Craven. Lily men- 
tions the agar, but this seems to be the higre, 
not in the sense of a tide, but a sea-monster. 
See Nares, in v. Jffar. But, after all, it may 
mean the double tide, called by Drvdcn the 
ra^rp. The word acker ia also used as a verb 
in the north, to curl, as the water does with 
wind. See Carlylc's Hero Worship, p. 30, who 
tays the word is still applied, on the river 

Trent, to a kind of eddying twirl when the 
river is flooded, which is often extremely dan- 
gerous to the bargemen. 

(2) Fine mould. North. 

(3) An acre ; a fielil. l'or*rA. 
ACKERSPKIT. Said of potatoes, when the 

roots have gennioated before the time of ga- 
thering them. Chfh. See Aero^irr. It is 
also used among masons and stone-get lera, in 
reference to stone which is of a flinty or me- 
tallic quality, and difficult to work. 
ACKERY. Abounding with fine mould, applied 

to a field. North. 
ACKETOUN. A quilted leathern jacket, worn 
under the mail armoor; sometimes used for 
the armour itself. {A.-N.) 
Hys fomen were well boun 

To perce hyi 'iriferoun. I^6eau< /)i«eoj»uJ, 1172. 
ACKNOWN. Acknowledged. North. See lla- 
rington's Ariosto, 1591, p. 418; Lambard's 
Per. of Kent, UiOfi, p. 461 ; Supp. to Har- 
dyng's Chronicle, f. 75. 
ACiiSEN. Ashes. Will: This form of the 
word occurs in Kennett's Glossary, MS. Laiisd. 
ACK WARDS. When a beast lies backwards, and 
cannot rise. Sec the glossary prefixed to the 
Praise of York.'iliire Ale, 1697, p. H9. 
ACLIT. Adhered together. ZJeron. 
ACUTE. Awr>'. North. 
ACLOYE. To cloy j to overload ; to overran. 
See Acclog : Wright's Political Songs, p. 335 j 
Ashmole's Theal. Chem. Brit. p. 201. 
And told hym all the ca« unto the cod, 
Mow her eontrey wasgrevouAly acfoiml 
Wyth a dragon vcflom* and orible of kend. 

JtfS. Laud. 4I«. r. M. 
A-CLUMSID. Benumbed with cold, nicklift. 
ACME. Mature age. 

He rauftt be one that cin ioftruet your youth, 
And keep your a/ynt in the state of truth. 

Ben Jon*on'i Slap, of S'ewt, prot, 

ACOATHED. RoHen or diseased in the liver, 

as sheep. Domtt. 
A-COCK-HORSE. Triumphant See Ellis's Li- 
tcrarj' Inciters, p. 265. A somewhat slang cx- 
presiion, not quite obsolete. 
ACOIE. To make quiet. 

SIth that yo reft him thiiqualolauncc 
Of Blalacoll, hit mnti jole, 
Whiche all hU patnit might aeoit. 

H«m. «f lAi' Rur, SSH. 
ACOILD. Congealed. (.f.-.V.) 
Al to rolchel thou art afolld ; 
Now ihl blod it li araM. Oy »r Wmnrilu, p <0. 
ACOILE. See Level-coil, a game which Is men- 
tioned by Brome, under ihe title of Irrrll .4coHe. 
Sec Ueaumonl and Fletcher, iv. 215, note. 
ACOLD. (I) Cold. Dr. Forman, in his Auto- 
biography, MS. Ashmole 208. informs us that 
when his master " was aeold, he wold goe 
and carry his faggota up into a lofte till be was 

Thui lay thll poreie In |[ret dlitieue, 
.VtWrfe and hungrld at the fine. 

Omatr, MS. Sue. .4ntit. 134, f. IM. 

(2) In the following quotation, which ii put into 








mouth after he had mode the disco- 
Trf the Virgin Mary's presumed guilt, Mr. 
Sharp expUint acoU, called ; but the ordinary 
interpretatioo, at given above, will tuit the con- 
text, imphing that his powers were impaired. 
Uutdjood, Id ftrythc, Aiul that aeottt. 

Sharp'i Cot. Villi, p. R7. 
ACOLDYXO. Getting cold. 

The srkneSK of <hc world thou lehalt koowc b; 
chary t^ oeetdimgt and eldc of hyi feblcoeue. 

niimhUam't Strman, I.Wtl, MS. Uallon S7. p. !4. 

ACOLED. Cooled. Tliis is the reading of the 
Herald's College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
the other being aielde. See Heame's edition, 
p. U2. 
ACOLEN. To embrace. (J-N.) 

Then Mtla he the kay^t, and tiyisa hym thryts, 
A> uTcrly and sadly aft he hoa sette oouthe. 

8ifr Gaw^ne, p. "1. 
ACOMBRE. To encumber; to trouble. (A.-N.) 
Ct Arthour and Merlin, p. 26 ; Pcpoe. of Rich. 
1. pp. 29, 30 ; Skclton's Works, i. 298 ; Kyng 
"itaundcr, 8025 ; I'roinpt. Parv. p. 6 ; Cliau- 
', Cant. T. 510; Piers Ploughman, p. .11. 
jimmbrta wa« he for to here 
Aake of fo mony lettrel ftere. 
rurnr Mutidl, 1L1. CM. Trin. CanlBb. f. 76. 

A-COMELVD. Enervated with cold. Prompt. 
Parr. We have also the form a-ctommyrfc, which 
would connect it perhaps nith the provincial 
lenu clamm'd. 
ACON. Aix U ChipcUe. 

At jlcon it wa« brought to pas. 
At by m)-De auctor tried It waa. 

SkellnWl Workr, il. W. 

ACOMCK. Poisonous. Rider. 
ACOP. Conical ; ending in a point. 

Marry ihc'v not in fathlon yet ; ihe wears a hood, 
but it ttandj aevp. MUhemittt H. <>■ 

ACOPirS. Either a herb or stone, introduced 
by Mi<lillcton, in the Witch, as an ingredient 
(or a chann. See liis Works, iii. 327. 
ACORU.VL.NT. Agreeing. (./..A^) 

Sncb* thynge whereof a man may lere, 
Tliat to venu It iic*tr4aunt. 

Giitctr, US. .Sue. AhUi. 134, f. 41. 

ACORDEND. Agreeing. (.1.-N.) 
Nowe myght thou here neat cewend 
Whlcbe to thia vyoc U oeordmtf. 

Gwer, ed. IMS, t.X. 

ACORE. To sorrow ; to grieve. (.^.-,V. /) 
Ich am a man 1 Ich »chal go flfoie : 
Thou ae aujtett Dowjt mi de^acoii*. 

HaHMlmrK^t Mel. Tain, p. 113. 
At Gkmcnlre he deide.oc eir nadde he non : 
Thai acantit al IhU lond, and yi men echon. 

Rvb. C/iMie. p, 72. 

ACORSE. To curse. (A.-S.) 
OalM* bam eayiy ve> 

A€tnti for eveie. fitrt Plevghman, p. SJi. 

AmrMd beo that me bar, 
Aad tiM lyme that kh wat ibore. 

.VS. /.ourf. 1(0, t. 107. 
A-COHSy. To bur)'. 

DtUM lauilfm it la yn-lepud : 

Thlft nlme (he quene radde 
F'rr to n-cnrti/ here brother tiody, 
And alle that him ladde. 

MS. Cull, Tiin.Urmi.VJ. 

ACORTE. Same as Aeore, q. v. 

Qua peyrc of a marc, other thou asalt tie «mri'« 
lore. IMi. Clout, p.390 

Art thou, heicide, ODof thuike* 
Thou il ichalt a<wr(< tore I MS. Lavl. IDS, f, l». 

ACOST. On the side. {A.-N.) 

No tchal [icapc] non uf thia oat : 

Siweth me thua al anur. A'yn^^/ianiiviler. 3144. 

Forth ihai paaieth Ihli lond atosl 

To Clarence with alle her oaU 

AHhomr and Mtrlln, p. Ml. 
ACOUNTRE. An encounter. 

Wltll hard deoufirra« hym agayue. 

MS. Hurl. KS>, r. 106. 
The acotmrra of hem was ao strong. 
That man! dyed ther among. 

Gy «/ TVarwIkt, p. 991. 

ACOUPE. To blame ; to accuse ; to inciiliwtc. 
(A.-N.) Sec Pien Ploughman, p. 272 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 544. 

Alle ya pryde and vaoyt^. 
Of bl ihalt thou acoupwA be. 

MS. Hart. 1701. r. ». 
ACOUPEMENT. An accusation. {A.-N.) 

WUhouten aniwere to anuptment. 

Harithomi/i Met. TtltM, p. IIV. 

ACOUPYNG. An onset. 

At the acttupynti Ihe luiljtea [iperea] either brak on 

Swiftlk with here iwetde* ftwlnge thel togeder. [other, 

truiiam and tho WeruvV, p, 1S4. 

ACOVERD. Recovered. 

Bellteni, wlihouten leaing, 
.4coveTd and undede her eyin. 

Arthour and Mtrlin, p. 315. 

ACOW. Crooked ; obliquely ; awry. Sorlh. 

A-COYNTEDE. Mafle liis acquaintance. 

Heu a-eo^ntertg hym anon, and bicomen frendesgode, 

Dothe for here prowca, and for beo were of on blode, 

Ht,b. Clouc. p. 15. 

ACOYSYNG. Accusing. 

He ia forth brought, and the kyng 
Geveth him a&>p*yiig. AVn; .^JfaoMnder, 3073. 

ACQUEYNT. Quenched. 

The more thai my herle drynketh 
The more I may, to that me thynkelh 
My ihurat ahalt never be uf^weynr. 

Cower, ed. IS3>, r. 119. 
ACqUILL. A term in hunting. See Rcliq. 
.\utiq. i. 151. It was appUed to the buck and 
doe, the male and the female fox, and all ver- 
min, and corresponds to the French term 
tmgvittrr or ar/nilkr, a form of accuellir, for 
whi(.'h see Roquefort, in v. It is nearly syno- 
nymous with the more modern word imprime, 
which was afterwards appUed to uuharbour- 
ing the hart. See Sir H. Dryden's Twici, 
p. 26. 
AftJl'IST. An acquisition. Milton. Skinner 

has it as a verb, explained by acguirere. 
ACQUIT. Acquitted. Spetuer. 
ACQUITE. To requite. 

O, )iow 111 doftt thou ai^ilir the love I l>rare thee, 
and that which, for thy take, 1 do nowe foraake I 
The S>irj>lirrdett Felumttia, •p.O.Uiei-'t .S«ki». Ub. p.». 
ACQUITTANCE. (1) Acquaintance. Simnrr. 

(2) A receipt. A^or^*. 

(3) Requital. SeeOthcUo, iv. 2. Itisakooaed 
by Shakespeare in the sense of " to prt)cure an 
acquittance, to acquit." Sec Richard III, iii. 7, 





ACQUYSE. To acquire. 

L^u to go (o rnt, ami eriy for (o ryie. 
Honour anil goodcs dayly to ar^yte. 

atnUlatufi Uualitth Book), p> 981. 

ACRASED. Crazed. Grirflon. 

ACRE. (I) A field. The word »t first rignilied 

oot t determined quantity' of land, but any 

open ground, especially a wide caiujiagnc ; and 

that sense of it seems presened in the names 

of places, as Castle-acre, West-acre, in co. 

Norf. See Aker ; Keiinctt's Ulossar)-, p. ^•, 

MS. Lansd. 1033; Gloat, to P. Laogt. p. 


Pople with all« the rcchecs«» and akm, aU the! 

Thorgh ther douhtfneue, Ihe lond thorgh thel 
roDDen. Ptttr Langto/t, p. 115. 

(2) An old sort of duel fought by single com- 
batants, Enghsh and Scotch, between the fron- 
tiers of their Idngdom, with sword and lance. 

ACRE-DALE. Lands in a common field, in which 
dilfcrcnt proprietors hold portions of greater 
or lesser quantities. North. 
ACKEME. Ten acres of land. A law term. 
ACHE-MEN. Husbandmen. {Dut.) 
The routes up. and iong on bough. 
And acre-men ycde to the plough, Ijtp tt Frrinf.l/tt. 
ACRES. Tlic town so called ? 

Armedchym In a actonc, wiili orrracez TuUc ryche. 
Aboven one Ibat a Jcryoe of Am* owtc over. 

Mono Artfitirt, MS. LAnrxttn, f. 03, 
ACRE-SilOT. A kind oflocal land-tat, or charge. 
The Mid in-diheB Bhould be carefully mainuinnl 
and ropatre«l by thoac dyke-rrevn, out of Uie com- 
mon men.»hcti aiMtaed within every of tlie said 
towni. Uugitalift ImhankiKg, p. tji. 

ACRESTAFP. The plough-staff. Hutuel. Howell 
translates it /e ruroir dn coutre. See also 
Colgrave, in v. Caretle. 
ACROKE. Crooked. 

Who to byldelh after every man hl» howiei hit 
Khflllc ntondc aerbkr, M.i;. Dauee fl3. 

ACROtJKD. Crooked ; awry. Yorkth. 

ACROSPIRE. \V\\eu unhoused grain, exposed 
to wet weather, sprouts at lioth ends, it is said 
to aerwipire. Acconhng to Kersey, the oero- 
tpjire of com is " that part wliich shoot* out 
towards the smaller end of the seed." (Gr.) 

other will have^thc «i>rlt drowned, and most of 
chow which come without ektraordinary pains, will 
send forth tbelr nibatance In an uer<i»tiire. 

^u'lre^t HV/«, Hivat Six. MS. p. 31)4. 

ACROSS. (1) A kind of exclamation when a 
■ally of wit miscarried. An allusion to joust- 
ing. Sec All's Well that Ends Well, ii. 1. 
(2) On crou. 

When other tovera In anni acKM«, 
R^olce their chief dellghL 

Surrei/'* CoNtplahit o/Jbtenef. 
ACROSTIC. Crossed on the breast. 

Agreed t but what melancholy air, willi aenuite 
atvat, now comet from the Family } 

MUilslun'l nrork; II. 179, 

ACROTCIL To take up ; to aeiie. Huloft. 
ACSEDE. Asked. (,/.-&) 

The kyng AkModn «•««• 

H wan tall that be JiWf«. Mntlq, I . an. 


ACT. To behave; to conduct. Et»ex. 

ACT;GON. Shakespeare has a classical allusion 
in the Merry Wives of Windsor, ii. 1, applying 
this name lo a cuckold. The cominentators 
have not noticed that Blount remarks it is lO 
used " in a waggish sense." 

ACTE. Tlie sea-shore ; also, the elder tree 

ACTILLY. Actually. Tim Bobbin. 

ACTHJl'S. Active. 

He knows yuu to tie eager men, martial men, men 
of good stomaeks, very hot shots, very actum* tax 
valour, such as scorn to shrink for a wetting. 

WelMler-, »ror*», 11. 898. 

ACTON. A leather jacket sometimes worn 
under a coat of mail ; a kind of tunic. Seo 

Hit arum It was all of blackr, 
Hit hewberke and hU theelJe. Sir Otllllit. 

To Jeru^Blem he did hym Irde, 
His iictone and tils other wede. 

TWren/ p/ PortUf!at, p, 116. 
ACTOURES. Governors ; keepcra. (Lat. Mrd.) 

See glossary to Baher's ed. of Wiekliffe, in v. ^ 
ACTRESSES. In expUnation of niinicroiis pas- H 
sages in our old plays, it may be well to ob- 
serve th,nt aclrcfscs were not generally intro- 
duced into English theatres till after the 
Restoration. In Shakespeare's lime the female 
characters were personated by boys. There ii a 
curious letter on this subject in MS. Tanner 77. 
It would appear from the following aneodote, 
written in a copy of the Memoirs of the Count 
de Graminont, that this practice was continued 
to a later period : 

It It said the fleet which went for the queen 
[of Charles It.] stayed six weeks at Litbon, without 
any reason given. Some suppose a change In the 
quoen't perton wot the cautc ; to which William 
Dovcnant alluded when the king, one night at the 
play. Wat Impatient to have thepiay begin, — "Sire," 
said Pavenant, ■*rAey are ehawlng the 9u?en.'*' 
ACTU.VTE. To put into action ; toprodu(>e. See 
the Roman Actor, iv. 2 ; Florio, in v. Alluirr. 
ACTUKE. Action. 

Love made them not ; with ocriire they may be, 
WFiere neither party It nor true nor kind 

A lifer's CompMntt p. S40. 

.\CUATE. Sharpened. (Lai.) 

Oryndyng with vynegar tyll I wat fatygate. 
And also with a quantylc of tpycet aruatr. 

.Iliimol^e Thml. C/anw. Bril, p. mi . 
ACUMBRE. To encumber ; to worry. {J..N.) 
And but ttiou tone amende the. 
Titarfor mayst thou aciimbretl be. 

MS. Oarl. noi, (. X. 
Gil of Warwilte ml name It ; 
1 vel Ich am aeumbreit y-wla. 

Cy iif WmraHJtr, p. 21?. 

ACUNTRED. EnpounteTe<l. (.y.-TV.) 

So kenii thei aruntred at the coupyng lo-gadere. 
That the knl;l ipvre In speldca at loiehtvered. 

H'lHInni anil tlie tVmvi'If. p 1.10. 

ACL'RE. A chemical term, applied to a drug 
when its power is increased by the addition of 
some other. Krmg. 

ACURSEN. To curse (M.-S.) 

Which is lif that ourc I^rd 

In altc Uwcs acureeth. Pier* Flmtghmaitt p. 37ft. 








ACYCE. AudM. RittoH. 
A-CYDEN ANDYS. Aside; ohliqucly. Prompt. 
Pmrr. The King'tCollcge MS. reads ocyrfnanrff, 
tnil Pynson'a edition aeydenam. 
A-CYSEN. To aMign. Prompt. Part. 
ACYSE. MuiDer; cuitom. 

An tmiTfdBy fjrl, M yi the aritt^t 
Men to go to Goddyi icrrytr. 

MS. llarl. 1701, f «1. 
And of thac berdode bukket alio. 
Wyth bomttlr thy moche mytdo, 
Ttut Icve Crytico mcnnyi acjwe. 
Aod hauQtc al llic oewe fryte. 

US. Boil. 41S, r. 21. 

AD. Hath. 

Lo, taoa be od me to-rcnt, 
111 t»di MDd mi face t-schcDt. 

r/ic SfTim Sagti, 489. 
ADACTED. Driven in by force. Miniheu. 
AD.^FFED. Daunted. Juuiiu refers to tliii word 

in Chaucer. Urry reads adauid, q. t. 
ADAM. (1) The following is one of the most 
common early English proTcrbs, and John liaD 
took it ai a text for one of his revolutionary 
lermooa. SeeWright'i Songs andCarols, song i. 
when Adam ddv'd and Eve spaa. 
Who wa« then the gentleman ? 
(2) A Serjeant, or bailiff, was jocuUirly so called. 
See the Comedy of Errors, iv. 3, " Not that 
Aium that kept the paradise, but that Adam 
that keeps the prison." 
ADAM-A N D-EVE. The bulbs of ore Aw mam. 
lata, wkicli have a fancied resemblance to the 
human figure, f'raren. 
ADAMANT. The magnet; the loadstone. Early 
writers frequently use it in this sense, and oc- 
casionally the Ijitin adamat is so interpreted, 
but not in Prompt. Parv. p. 6, where the syno- 
nyroe is " prccyowse stone," meaning of course 
the diamond. Cf. Mills. Night's Urrain. ii. 2. 
ADAMATE. To love dearly. Mimhru. 
ADAM-BELL. A northern outlaw, so celebrated 
for archery that his name became proverbial. 
Percy has a ballad conceruiug him. 
with loynet in canva» bownrako tyde, 
Mfhcrc arrown ftick with micklo |irMc : 
Like ghotta of Adam Beit and Clymme, 
Sol lets for fear thcyl ihool at him. 

If/lttnKil'i fTorki, cd. Ifi73, p. SSI- 
ADAMITES. A sect of enthusiasts who are said 
to have imitated the nakedness of Adam in 
their pubUc assemblies. They are alluded lo 
in the .Merry Beggara, ii. 1. 
ADAM'S-ALE. Water. Var. dial. Jamieson 
gives Adam't^witw, a similar pluvse current in 
ADAM'S-APPLE. A kind of dtroo. Gerard. 
The nob iu a man's throat is also called by 
this name. 
AD.VM'S-FLANNEL. White muUein. It may 
have obtained this name, says Carr, from the 
waH white hairs, with which the leaves ore 
thickly clothed on both aides. CVaren. 
ADANT. Daunt ; quench ; mitigate. 
Ageyna heom thy wraththc oMnl, 
Gef hcom mercy and pea hcom graunt. 

Kifne Miiauntter, S6&3. 

ADARNECH. Colour like gold. IlmnU. 
ADARNED. Ashamed. Coin. 
ADAKKIS. The flower of sca-water. HomelL 
ADASE. To dazile. 

My clere aod ihynynge eycn were all q^gfd and 

derkcd. Ottton't Divert Fruyiful Chottl^ Uotrrs, 

The glittring therof wold have made every manV 

eyes »o adiued, that no man ahould have spied hla 

falihed, and founden out the trouth. 

Sir T. ,V»n'< fTorlciu, p. 4M. 

ADASSID. Dazzled ; put out of countenance. 
Beth not adaviiA for your lonocence. 
But iharpely take on you the govemalle. 

Chauctr, ed. Vrry, p. lOG. 

ADAUDS. In pieces. Yorkih. To rive all 
adaudt, i.e. to tear all in pieces. See Kennett's 
MS. Glossary, the glossary at the end of The 
Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 'l2mo, York, 1697, 
p. 89, and the Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 41. 
ADAl'NT. (1) To lame. (A.-N.) See Rob. 
Clone, pp. Gl, 372 ; MS. Colt. Nero A. x. f. 41. 
Hii flcfcphe wolde have charf;pti him will) fatncHe, 
but that the w.intone«se of his wombe with trnvalle 
and fastyng he adauntelfi, and In rltlyng and goyng 
travaylcth myghteliche his youthe. 

Roll. Clcuc. p. «2. 
(2) To daunt DanieL 
ADAUNTRELEY. Same as aeaun/lay, q. v. 
At last he upstarted at Ihcother side of the water, 
whii^ wc 4:all soil of the hart, and there other huntj- 
mea met him with an adauntrclry. 

Hawkim' Engl. Drcm, UL 230. 

A DAW. J'o be daunted. ^>fnter. 
ADAWE. (1) To awake. Palsgrave has, "1 
ailawe or odawne, as the daye dothe in the 
momynge whim the sonne drawcth towardes 
his rysyng;" and, "I adawe one out of a 
swounde." Cf. Troiliis and Crescidc, iii. 1 126. 
But, sire, a man that wakcth of his slcpr, 
He may not sodeoly wcl uken kepe 
Upon a thing, ne seen it porfitly. 
Til that he be adawtd vcraily. 

aiuotr, Cni,t. r. I(«74. 
For this ts Spica with hire bryjt spere. 
That toward evene, at mydnyjt and at roorwc, 
Downe fro hevcno aduirrtA al oure sorowe. 

Ltdgau, US. HmloH 73. 

(2) Down. The MS. Bodl. 415, f 26, readi 
" do adawe," in the following passage. Ct 
Cot. Myst. p. 294. 

Eutycyus the abbot, hys felawe. 
Herd sey hys tierc was so adauv. 

MS. Uarl. 1701, f. 17- 

(3) To kill ; to execute. 

Some wolde have hym odolee, 
And some sayde it was not lawe. 

Rirhard Coer d» Um, I17.I. 
ADAY. In the daytime. 

For what thing Wlllam woo ndat with hit tnwe. 
Were it fethercd foul, or foure.foted Ijcst. 

William and tht nrruMf. V- *• 

ADAYS. A shorter form of the common phrase 
" now-a-days." Eaitt Anglia. In the follow- 
ing passage it probably means the some as 
aday, q. v. 

What useth the eorl admtf^f 
Honlcs he ar rvvayesf 

MS. Oaaab. Pf. I. 0, r. St. 

ADAZ. An iddice. Keiutelt'i MS. Cllou. 




ADDE. H»il. 

Anil he byhcl liym nml >• al Kent vcr and ner, 
Al (h«l llrnjr" "''''' "•"'« wyll't kynfM d»)c 
Vorlygtr- H«ft. C/ouc. p. 231. 

ADDEEM. To think ; to judge ; to dclermine. 

And for rtTrngcmcnt of lliOM wrongfull tmuti, 
Wlilch 1 lo othen did InDicl afore, 
jIMrtm'd me to endure thlt penauncv tnr«. 

rtmrit ifutne, VI. vili. tS. 

ADDER-BOLT. The dr»gon fly. iar. dial. 

ADDER-SAY. I d«re my. Yorkih. 

ADDER'S-GRASS. A plant mentioned by Ge- 
rard, of which the generic name is cynomrchu. 
See his llerhall, cd. Johnson, p. 20.'). 

ADDER'S-TONGUE. A dcwription of this com- 
mon plant is in Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, 
p. 404. {Gerard. 

ADDER-WORT. The hislort or snake-weed. 

jVDDICE. (1) An addled egg. Iluloel. 

(2) Au aiUc or axe. This is a common form 
of the word. Narcs quotes Lyly's Mother 

ADDICT. Addicted. 

To studies good adiicl ot comely grace. 

Mlrrmr Jar Magitlralct, p. 175. 

ADDITION. A title given to a man over and 
above his first, or Christian, and 8\iniBmc, 
showing his rank, occupation, &c. or alluding 
to some exploit or achievement. A law term, 
frequently occurring in Shakespeare. 
ADDIMMSSEN. Hod I known it. North. An 
expression nearly obsolete, though still retained 
by some old ])ersons. Sec Marshall's Rural 
Economy of Yorksliirc, ii. 315. It seems to be 
merely a corruption of the very common old 
method of expressing repentance for any hasty 
action, hail I xnul, had I known the conse- 
quences. The following extracts give forms 
of the phrase very close to the provincial tenn. 
TliU dirtlfule ded I drswe roe lylle. 
And alle yi lomyd to a^yivytt. 

.W.«. UonrfK A. I. 17, r. SI, 

Jdiiuyit yt wylle not Iter. nu. t. SI , 

ADDLE. ( 1 ) To cam. Sorth. Forby nys "to earn, 

lo profit gradually." It occurs in the Townley 

Mysteries, p. 195. See Adgld. 

With goodroen'f hoga, or com, or hay, 
1 aMte my ninepcnce every day. 

Richard oj Datton Dole. 

(2) " To addle his shoon" is said m the North of 
a horse that falls ugwn his back, and rolls from 
one side to the other. In the South, when a 
hoTK does so, he is said to " earn a gallon of 

(3) To grow ; to tlirive. Eatl. 

Where Wye rmtirjueth the tree very tore. 
Kill tvye, or tree else will itddtti no more. 

TuMKr't Fire Hunilrcd Ptilnli, 1179, f. 47. 

(4) A twreUing with matter in it. Somermt. 
(6) Labourer's wages. Yorksh. 
ADDLE-HEADED. Stupid ; thoughllesi. Var. 

ADDLE-PATE. A foolish person. A'«i/. 
ADDLE-PLOT. a person who spoils anyamute- 

menl. Snnth. 

.\DDLE-P00I-. a pool or puddle, near a dung- 
dill, for receiring the fluid from it. Smith. 
AODLINGS. Earnings from labour. Yorbi/i. 
ADDOLORATE. To grieve. Sec Florio, in v. 

^VDDOUBED. Armed; accoutred. (A.-N.) 

Waa hotter llian ever to provide himaelfe of 
botae and armour, Mylng he would go lo the Uland 
bravely addimhed, and chew himtelf lo hla charge. 

Si'lHey't ^rcodlOt p. 977' 

ADDOULSE. To sweeten. This term occurs 
in the dictionaries of Minsheo and HoweU. 
See Adulce. 
ADDRESS. To prepare for anything; to get 
ready. (/>.) A verj- common use of llic word 
in our old (Iramalists. 
>VD£. To cut a deep gutter acron ploughed 

lan<l, Salop. 
ADEC. a vinegar milk. HowiU, 
ADECOUE. On oath. Perhaps an i>rror of the 
scribe in the following passage, the other MSS. 
reading a-eoire. 

By a token Ihou roe troue^ 
I brcke a lolein tuleemu. 

Ration'* Romamcn, ft. 8. 

ADELANTADO. The king's Ueiitenant of a 

country, or deputy in any important place of 

cliarge. Cf. Middlcton's Works, i. 241 ; Min- 

sheu, in v. It is a Spanish word. 

ADELE. Added ; annexed. So explained in 

the glossary to Urry's Cluiucer. It should lie 

two worils, a drh, a [Kirtion. 

ADEMAND. The loadstone. This form of the 

word occurs in MaundeWle's Travels, p. 161. 
ADENT. To fasten. MtTuthru. 
ADENVn. Dinned; stunned. 
1 wat odftyd of thAl dynt. 
Hit itoncil me and nud mo atont 
Styl out of my iteven. MS. Doure 302, r. 19. 
.U)EPCI0N. An acquirement. {Lat.) 

In the adfprxt'H anil obteynyng of the garland, 1 
being ledueed and ptovoked by ainlster enunaail 
and dlat>ollcal tcmpt«cion,did commyta farynoraua 
and detettable arte. Hall, RteMard III. f. 311. 

ADEQUATE. To make even or equal. Minthrn. 
ADERCOP. A spider. More generally written 
attercop, q. v. Arancns, an adercup, or a spyii- 
ncr. — Stan6riffii Vorabuta, sig. d. ii. Pulsgravo 
has ttdilircop. See Prompt. Parv. p. 16. 
ADES. An addice. Kmnetl. 
ADEWEN. To moisten ; to bedew. 

Thy gractouf thouryi lat reyne in habuodaunce. 
Upon myn hcrte tfadnwen every veyne. 

t^dgatt'a Minor l*ueHu, p. SSI. 
The hlo hevynes doth your grace adttme. 

MS. ^ilmuilt m, t. 174. 

ADGE. An addice. A'orfA. 

.\DII1B. A name given to the herb eyebrighf. 

in Dr. Thomas More's MS. additions to Ray. 
ADIIIBITE. To admit. InthofoUowingexam'ple 
it perhaps ought to be adhiiiled. Cf. Rhomco 
and Julictta, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 89. 

To which cxiuntalll there were wihIUtf very fewe, 
and lliey vcr>' •ccrete. liallf Ktwurd I*, f. IX 

ADUORT. To advise ; to exhort. 

Julius Agrlcola M-ai the first that by adkoniMf 
the Brilainea pulililiely, an.l hclpiug them privatelyi 
wun them to biitl.le hout.-* fttr tl>eni.c!*c». 

Sipu't Survny "/ Ijyuftoo, wl, KWI, p. «. 







AOUITETH. Adilitclh bim, i.e. fiU birntcU 

^*IMtth Mm a gay wrarlic o( the newc Jpi. 

>»'H|f*r» Poluical Suiifi, p. 3J9. 

ADiN. Witliin. Skitwx. 
ADIR. Either. 

II l> tfrrlil thai thr uid Thomaa Wranipr^'ih and 
WDUam WeUei aJialbe caplma of Ihc Kighrn for tltc 
MM tit*, lad Ihal tillr nl ihno ihall have IjIJ. «>. of 
thr day. DtHa'i 1'orAr Rromli, p. IfUS. 

AOtT. A tough or level in a mine, generally 

mule for draMing off water. Drrbyih. 
ADJOYN.\TE. Joined. 

Two mncly prlDCM, logpther iutj>tyf,ntr, 

III all the world waa none theitn tike alowttd. 

AD JO^'NAUNTES. Those who arc contiguous. 
The adjectiTe adjoynmnte occurs iu the Dial, 
of Creat. .Moral, p. 192. 

Sought and practiwd watraaod mcaneahow tojt^ine 
himaelf wilh foreln prlnrea, and to unrvc and hurte 
bla Delfhbore and tufji'ynaunte^ of the rpaltnc of 
Enflaod. H«ll. H-r<r„ Vl. t. M. 

ADJOYJJT. .\ person joined with another; a 
companion, or attendant. See Daniel's Civ. 
Wars, IT. 69, quoted by N.ires. 

ADJl'MENT. Help ; succour. ^Un/e. 

ADJUNCT. Cnitedwith; immediately conse- 
quent. See King John, iii. 3, and Kichardsou, 
in V. A4ioi*. 

ADJl'TE. To assist j to liclp. See Ben Jonson, 
w quoted hv Richardson, in v. 

AIULTOUIES. The arm bones. Vigo Ir. 

ADJIAANT. Assisting, See Aubrey's Wills, 
Royal Soc. MS. p. 109, for an instance of the 
word, the same with that taken by Richardson 
fifom Howell, Diet, in v. Adjule. 

ADLANDS. Those butts in a ploughed field 
which lie at right angles to the general di- 
rection of the others ; the p.irt close against 
the hedge*. Salop. [Headlands?] 

ADLE. (1) Unsound; unwell. E<ul. 

(2) To addle; to earn. Skinner and Kcnnett 
give this as a Lincolnshire fonu of the woriL 

ADHERALLY'S. Commanders. See Admiral. 
He fendc afttir lordyngya, 
Fyftene admirraltyt anil kjngyK, 
And annyd ihrrn in fyRM. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. II. 38, f. Ji.1. 

ADMrRABLIST. Most admirable. Acceutc(i 
on the antepenult. Yorhh. 

ADMIRAL. Tliis wonl, which the reader will 
find under other fonns, did not always imply 
its present acceptation, but a Saracen com- 
mander, nometiines a king. According to 
Krrivf" "■■ icrm admiral was not introduced 
t" ' ' r end of the reign of Erlward I. 

S<' ' ,ry, 1816, in v. Marituirhu ; and 

AdmyrM ; Richard Coer de Lion, 5042 ; 
Maundoile's Travels, p. 38. Robert of Glou- 
has the form amrayl. Sec Heame's 
in V. According to some, the word was 
iAtained in the wars with the Saracens of 
Spain, froin Emir'Otma, or emir of the water, 
which readily resolves itself into the other 
word. See Warton's Hist. Engl. Toct. Introd. 
p. caeir. 

ADM I RATI VE. Minsbeu calls the note of ad- 
miration, the admiratirr point. 

ADMISSION. An admuiiion, as when a prince 
doth avow Bnni her prince to be under hit pro- 
tcction. Untlyband. 

ADMITTANCE. In general the same as «</- 
miniott, but used by Shakesiieare in the tense 
of custom, privilege, or prerogative of being 
admitted into the presence of great jtersonages, 
Ford tells Palstalf he is a geutlenmii "of great 
mlmiltance." See the Merry Wives of Windsor, 
ii. 2. 

AD.MONISHMENT. AdmoniUon. SItat. 

ADMOVE. To move to. (Lai.) 

ADMYROLD. A Saracen commander, or king. 

Tho ipec on attnyntd, 

Of wordei he wei iwythe bold. A>>ijr Hom, M, 
ADNOTE. To note ; to observe. {Lai.) 
In this mitelT to bee adnnted, 
Whalevyl couniell withe prynr>'i mayr Induce. 
Brll. BM. iv. JNM. 

ADNUL. To annul. 

Shal utiirly itonde volde and attnuHld, accotdyng 
to the olde cuitume therof haddc and made, 

MS. Bi'dl. t Mk: t3». 
ADNYCHELL. To anuihilale. See an instamc 
of this fonu of the word in Skcltou's Works, 
i. 202. 
ADO. (I) Done ; finished. Somenetth. 
(2) To do. 

I wol that the! loglthlr go. 
And done a] that thel ban ndo. 

Ramoynl 0/ Iht Odh, M(M. 

ADON. (1) Adonis. Cf. Troilus and Creseide, 
iiL 722. 

For thilke love thou haddett to .ddun. 
Have pltcc on my bitter lere* «meru 

Chamxr. Canl. T. HM. 

(2) Done away. Cf. Morte d'jVrthur, ii. 29. 
And wliat wiili Venus, and othlr oppression 
Of housis, Uan his rentme is ad.ifi 

Lrf, 0/ Hvptrmn. 39. 

ADONNET. A devU. North. In Yorkshire 
one sometimes hears the sajing, " Better be 
in with that adonnti than out." 
ADOORS. At doors ; at the door. 

But when he uwe her goe forth athwr^t be tiaaled 
after Into the strtate. Rlrlti'i Fm-tietll, IMI. 

Hut what, ttr, I beseech ye, was thai paper, 
VouT lordship was so studiously imployed In, 
When ye came out a-tfo«r« f 

H'Mmitn PttnMfil, Iv. 1. 

ADOPTIOUS. Adopted. See All's Well that 

Ends Well, i. I. The commeutaton do not 

funiish another instance of the word. 

;VL)ORAT. A chemical weight of four pound*. 

iVDORE. To adorn. Sec the Faerie Qucene, 
IV. xi. 46 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, quoted by 
Nares in v. 
ADORN E. (1) To adore. 

The soDoe, the moone, Jubtter and Satume, 
And Mars lltc God of arrncs they dyd odeene. 

Hanlfiig', Chnmldt, I. M 
(2) Adoniing ; oriixment. Spnurr. 
ADOTE. To dual ; to grow silly. 

AD 11 



It bllMh that the mode wtit 
Beo othfrwhllc of U)tc odolid, 
Aod to by-whapctl knd anotld. 

dnriT, MS. Sot. yInlUi. 134, t. 177- 

ADOUNE. Below; dowu. {.1.-S.) 

So letlc thy ((race to me dUcendc adoxiM. 

Ifilgul; MS. JtkmtU SO, f. (7. 
And wticn the gc»|>cl yf y-done, 
A^yn thou myjth kuele adoum. 

OmMtitutlviu 0/ JfatfonvVt p> 3S. 
ADOUTED. Feared ! redoubted. (v/.-iV.) Cf. 
Morte d' Arthur, U. 69. 

He wu corajous and gode knight, 
Aod michcl •dovied In evtrich fight. 

Of qf ITanoUe, p, UO. 

ADOYNGB. Going on. 

Alio the whyle the tumement wai fvioynee.ahe wai 
with Queue GucneveT, and ever the- Queue atked her 
for what cauic the came into that eountrey. 

MoTic ifjnhm, i, Ml. 
ADPOYNTE. To appoint. Sec Wright'* Mo- 

nutic Lclt«r», p. 194. 
ADRAU. Afraid ; frightened. (A.-S.) 
The lady wase nevyr wo mAvd, 
Into the hale iche hyrn lad. 

TarrrHt ifParmfol, p. 1.1, 
ADRAMING. Chorliib. Kentf. 
A-DRAWE. (1) Todiawawifi towiUidnw. 

Awey fro hem he wold ■.^raiM, 
Vr that he myght. Ocfeetaa, 3S7. 

(2) To draw. In the Donet tlialect wc have 
trdruen, drawing. 

The jauit, tho he ley bym come, bygan yi mace 
admtve. Rob. Ulntte. p. SC?. 

ADREAMT. Dosing. This is the pronnciol mean- 
ing of Uie word in Oxfordsliire, and probably 
other tMontics. " You sec, ma'am, all this 
time she ij adreemt, between sleeping and 
waking," applied to an infant. The jihrase " I 
waa adreani'd," for " I dreamt," occurs in the 
City Night-Cap, act iv. Cf. Webster's Works, 
i. 139. 

I was even now attrtam'ti that you could lee with 
either of your eyes. In lo much ai I waked for Joy. 
and 1 hope to find it true. 

mi,, nun, ajHl romtia, 1905, p. M. 
AOREOE. To dread. 

So mightl stroke* ther wer glTcn, 
That ttroiig »chaflr« al lo HrlTfll ; 
No waa thcr non In that ferrc^t 
That or hli Ilif him might mlrade. 

<^ ^ tfarwUlt, p. 47. 
Omhsniin sflghc that tight. 
And sore him gao adrfde. Sir TrUtrem, p. 308. 

ADRELWURT. The herb feilcrfew. This name 
(lectin in an early list of plants, in MS. Ilarl. 
ADREN'CHEN. To drown. (A.-S.) 
The «ec the thai arfrencAe, 
Ne ahal lilt Uf oflheuche. K>iiir Hon,, 100. 

ADRENT. DrowuetL See Rob. Clone, pp. 

Uxxiv. 39, 384. 
ADRESSID. Dretied ; clothed, 
uf vayne glorye excuse me, 
That y ae have for love be 
The bettre ddrusUt and araycd. 

Coiver. M.S. Soc. .dnH^. 134, t. 14). 
How here ]elow heer war tressld. 
And hire atlre to wel mlrta^id. Itjid. f. iTti. 

ADREST. Dressed ; adorned. Sumertelth. 

486; 1 


ADREYNTE. Drowned. Cf. Seryn Sag;et, 1486 
Piers I'looghmitn. p. 198 ; Oesta Romanorum, 
p. 104 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 229 ; Minot's Poems 
pp. 58, 60, 62. 

So that he gan to swymme forth. 

Over for to wende; 
Ac hia raaater so evelc be coutbe. 
That be odrcynre atte ende. 

MS. Co». THn. Ojwi. 87. 
APRI.\NE. Ariadne. 

The plaint of Dejanire and Hctmlon, 
or .ddrlant and Yelpbllrc 

OuiKetr, Otnl. r. UgJ. 

ADRIHE. Aside ; behind. See Jamictoo, in 
V. Adrrich. 

The kyngis doujter whlche this sy^e. 
For pure abascbomcot drow hire adrilnt., MS. Sx. .4nliii. 134, t. 112. 
The kyngyi doujter wochc thU fytt. 
For pure abaaachyde drow byre ndry^t. 

Ibid. MS. Caittat. Ft. I. (I, t. 9. 
A-DRINK. Drunk. See the example quoled 

under Amonee. 
A-DROGH. Drew away. See the Herald's Col- 
lege MS. of Robert of Gloucester, quoted in 
Itramc's edition, p. 241. 
ADRONQUE. Drowned. Cf. Rob. Glouc p. 4S0. 
Tho rond hue hire sonde 

^dron^ue by the stronde. Kyng Rom, Qffi. 

ADROP. A species of aurichalc, mentioned by 
Ben Jonson, in the Alchemist, ii. I. Asbmolc 
allndea to it in his Theat. Chem. Brit. pp. 135, 
151 333. 
A-DKOWE. Drew. Cf. Rob. Glouc p. 307. 
Mure fwerdra than thay a-dro»f. 
That wcm Kharp y-grounde. 

MS. Aditmtih 33, r. sn 
ADROWED. Dried. Dmm. 
ADRY. Thirst). Var. dial. 
A-DRYE. To bear ; to suffer. (A.-S.) 

In alle thyt londe ther ys not socbe a kny)l« 
Were he never to welle y-dyjt. 
That hyt ttroke myjt a-rfrre. 
But he tehulde hyt tore abyc. 

MS. OiMab, Ft. II. X. f. na. 
ADULjVBLE. Easy to be flattered. Mhuhn. 
ADULCE. To sweeten. (Ut.) 

Not knowing this, that Jore decrees 
Some mirth, Vaduire man's miterlet. 

Hcrrick-, ir,.r*.. 11. 47. 
ADULTERATE. Adnlterotis; false. Often used 
in the latter general seme, without any refer- 
ence to adultery. Cf. Richard III. iv. 4; Co- 
medy of Errors, ii. 2 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, 
iv. 240 ; Rider's Diet, in v. AdulleriHe for 
aduilermu occurs in the Mirour for Magis- 
trates, p. 85. 
ADUN. Down. Cf. Wright's St. Patrick's 
Purgatory, p. 55. 
Slellich'b thU vers i-teld. 
Hit wer harme atfwn l-lelld. tHUq.AMUi. 11. 17r>. 

ADUNATION. Union. Toylor. 
ADUNCITY. Crookedness. Rider. 
ADURE. To bum. ihicofi. 
ADUSTON. Adustion. This fonn of the word 
occurs in Greene's Planctomachia, 1585, f. 11. 

with ther coppentanta 

Tliry lokc adutanlt. SlHHm'l Warkt, il. 4W. 






ADVANCE. To grace ; to give s lustre to. See 

Tiniou of Athens, i. 2. 
ADVANCERS. The second brandies of abuck'i 
horn. Sec the Lexicon TetTBglotton of Howell, 
and ApantfiTK. 
' ADd if ye wyn. make none oifMwnl. 

I For you ate lure of one yll aervaunte. 

ffciyr «■//<!<( Ihn foutt PP. 

ADVAl'NTOUR. A boaster. Pattgrme. 
ADVAYLE. Profit ; advantage. 

In any wbe to do. 

For lurre or mdtaafU, 

Ageyoat thyr kyng to nyle. 

MeMsn'f Woft[i, II, 432. 

ADVENTAYLE. The open and nioveal)lc por- 
tion of the heUnct which covered the mouth, 
for the purpose of rcsiiiration. 
My* adrtttta^ta he gan untacc, 
Hy« hed he imool of yn the place. Ocfprian, 1153. 
ADVERB. To luni to. 

And doo thru afcompte (heir good fcrvlec bad 
derelyoutof remcmbcraunce, whiche ullrrcth Iheytn 
«Bdoth«r«, for drede and their awDe aecuriliea, to (irit>iir« 
Ib iiMBCT In way of allegiaunce to th Erie of Kyldare, 
otorulng WL'le Dtgh their hole ductie to tlie Kloglt 
Hi^huea. suit Paptri, 11. ISS. 

ADVKRSACYON. Contention. 
Devyrlnge to a castell in to dwell, 
Uym aad bla men to kej^c frome all advermeyon^ 
iionfyn^j Chronicle, f. W. 

ADVERSE. Be unpropitious. 

And tc«yde how (hat wa^ a preaage, 
Touchende unto that other Perie, 
Of that fortune him achulde adter««* 

Cower, MS. Soc. ^ntiq. 134, I. 73. 

ADVERSER. An adver»ary. 

Myo Oiti-rrtcra and fala« wylnea bcrars agayntte 
me aay that (bey hard Prate aayo (bat 1 ahuld call 
iny very god lords Chauncellour knave. 

Jnhmilogia, xsllU 49. 
ADVERSION. Attention. 

The »aul bcttoweth her advertion 

On aomething cl»c. More'a Phil. Pttema, p. S04. 

AD\'ERTACYONNE. Information. 

or your good her(a I have a<f perf orison n«. 
Where thnrow In aowlc hoU made je be. 

Blgbt JfytteriM, p. 106. 
AD\'EnTASirD. Advertised. A'or/A. 
ADVERTENCE. Attention. 

Although tlie body aat etnong hem there, 
Uet atftrertence It alwaie ellia-where. 

Tn)tltu anil Vreittite, Iv. OOfl. 

ADVERTISEMENT. Admonilion. Tliis is the 
original meaning of the word in prefatory' no- 
tices. Cf. Mucli Ado about Nothing, v, 1 ; 
Uarrington's Nug. Antii). i. 46. 

ADVEST. To put a person in possession. Sec 
Colgravc. in v. Jdheritfr, Adreilir. 

ADVISEMENT. Consideration. 

Thereto, If you retpect their potition, they are 
aitual in manet of a circle or ring, having an liuge 
l*ke or portion of the aea in the mlddeit of them, 
which U not without perill to luch aa with anul) 
miv i atm e nt enter into the tame. 

Harriann'B J^enription of Brttmine, p. 33. 

ADVITE. Adult. (Lot.) 

Fyrat* tuch perumri, beyng nowe aifaife, that it 
to ate, pMsed their rhttdehoode, aa wel In mantn 
tir Tfio*. Et^ot't Oint^rnw, p. SS. 

ADVOCACIES. Lawsuit*. (//.-A'.) 

tic ye not ware how that falae Poltphele 
la now about eflionit fbr to plete. 
And brlnglu on you arfiwcorfea new ? 

TltlU»^» nnd Crtaeidtf, il. 1400. 

/VDVOCAS. I>aw>ers ; advocates. 

At thameful deth as hcrte can dcvite. 
Come to thlae Juget and hir odeoMU. 

Chmucer, OmI. T. 12295. 

ADVOCATION. Pleading. S/iat. 

ADVOCATRICE. A female advocate. Bfjo/. 

ADVOID. To avoid ; to leave j to ijuit. '■ Void 
the bar" is a phrase still used by the crier at 
the courts in Westminster Hall. Cf. Wright's 
Monastic Letters, p. 198; Hall, Heor>' IV. f. 
27 ; Supp. to Hardyug, f. 83. 

ADVOUCll. To avouch. 

Vet because It hath been* by us experimented, 
and found out (o be true, we male the better ndtwch 
It. Stanihurgt'a Deact-iptivn t^/ Ireland, p. 3(). 

ADVOWE. To avow ; to plead. See Palsgrave, 
f. 138. 

So that I male sale and advowe that never prinee 
bcaryng scepter and croune over rcalmea and re- 
gions, hath found or proved more faithfuller eoun- 
aaUera, nor tri-wcr subjectet, then 1 . 

Hall, Edward IV. f. DO. 

ADVOWTRY. Adultery. Cf. Gov. Myst. p. 216 ; 
Hardyng, f. 194 ; Supp. to Hardyng, f. 67 ; 
Percy's Rdiques, p. 12li; A)>ology for the Lol- 
lards, p. 78 ; Itom. of the Ruse, 4954. 

We giflb nojtc oure bodyse to Icchery-e ; we do 
Dane adrflu.rr>e, ne we do na tyimc wharcfote ut 
aulde ncde to do penauiKe, 

il.S. Lincoln A. i. 17, r.33. 
ADVYSY'ON. A vision j a dream. 

O good knyghle, tayd he, (how arte a foole, for that 
gentilwoman was the maistcT fendc of belle, the 
whiche hath power above alle devyls, and that waa 
the old lady that thow tawett in tbyn advyt^uH 
rydynge on the serpent. Morte d' Arthur, ii. 845. 
iVDWARD. Award; judgment; sentence. S^enter, 

This |)oet also uses it as a verb. 
ADWA'^TIIE. To wait for. Tliis peculiar form 
occurs in Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 202. 
ADYGHT. Dressed ; adorned. (A.-S.) 
The terys ranne on the kingis knei 
For Joyc that he sawe Dora adyght. 

US. Hart, !£», (. lOS. 

ADYLD. Addled ; earned. 

He has lufy/d hta ded, a kyng he hym calde. 

Tvwnrtey SSyiterira, p. IttS. 

ADYT. The innermost part of a temple ; the 

place where the oracles were pronounced. 

Behold, amidst the ad^u of our goda. 

Greenc'M f^'orlUt 1.114. 
jVDYTE. To indite j to write. 

Kyng Rychard dede a lottre wryte, 
A noble clerk it gan ddyre. 
And made therlnne mensyoun. 
More and lease, of the raunsoun. 

nicAard Om- da L4wi, 1174. 
ADZE. An addice. Mtjuheu. 
AE. One ; one of several ; each. North. 
AHR. An ear. £ruf. 
AEREMANCG. Divination by the air. 
lie (cmp(elh ofte, and eek also, 
Atrmnanti In iuggemanU 

Cintw, MS. Soc. ylnllil. 134, f. lU, 


24 AFF 

iESTrVE. Summer. 

I muit alto Jhew how Ibey am llkewlM logcrilCTcd 
out of lli« dutt of the Mrtti by wnime, «»rt»c "nd 
lumincr ihcwcn. wtioK life Uihort, ind there U no 
uie of thcni. Topttirt HMory 0/ Sarptnlt, p. 178- 

AEWAAS. Always. North. 
AEY. (1) Yc9. lor. dial. 
(2) Always; ever. 

Oiriewtyng, wtllc y wote. 

He bare the pryci atw- "S. Canub. Ft. 1. 6, f.BO. 

AP. Of. 

Fore u poucMI fore lolh hit U, 
With > tere i\f Uiyn ye. MS. Dtmct X», f. Ifc 
AFAITEN. To tame. (A.-N.) 

It ufailclh the deish 

Fnun folies fill unnye. Pirn FIOHghmaK, ji. 891. 
A-FALLE. Fallen. Cf. Reliq. Antiq. U. 272 ; 
Gesta Komanonini. p. '172. 

LordynRci, wel jc wyttth «lle. 

How Charlii the kyng of Frmunce 
Now u oppon my lood n-/hlle, 
With prido and gret bobiunc*. 

MS. Jihmnlt 33, r. id. 
AFARE. AflFairSi business. Sihrner. 
AFARNE. Afar off; ttt a ilistaiitM;. 
Al thay wmld wlhl hym afiime. 

Out «f Warwick, ItUdtthUt MS. 

AFATEMENT. Behaviour; gooil manners. 


Theo thridde lilm Uughte to pl«y at b«l j 
Thco fcoTthe t^remcnf lu balle. 

K^S AlUMunHer . GGl. 

AFAUNCE. Weber tsmjccturet this word to 
ml^all affinuvf. Tlic Bortl. MS. reads maunce. 
By aootlilr roou thou knowett h/omhm. 
And by the steorrci telle hU ehaunce. 

Kyng .iliMundtr, 739. 

A-FAYLE. To fail ; to be wanting. 
Two huudurd knyghtyi take the 
The Leroni boldcly to auayle ; 
Loke yowrc hertyi not a-fitth. 

MS. Cantab, ft. II. ."B, t. 17*. 

AFAYTY. To ume ; to stitMlue. (//.-A'.) 

At tone u »omcr come, to Yrlond he gan wcodc, 
Vor to afityln that lond, and to wyniie cch ende. 

Kfil,. Glvuc. p. 179. 
AFEARD. Afraid. Var. dial. This fonn of 
the word is a common archusm. See Merch. 
of Venice, u. 9. 
AFBDE. To feed. Chaum-. 
AFEPEO. Fcofcd ; gave fiefs. 

Thel lele make a guode abbey. 
And well yt a/r/td tbo. 

Ami! ami AmUouH, UWi. 

AFELD. (1) In the field. 

Thit brethren wcndclll n/Wd 

To witeu here fc : 
Ac Jocep Icvedc at hom. 

That hende waa and fr«. MS. Bodl. BM, f. S. 
Ant liou he iloh aJt-Mts 
Him that If fkder aquelde. Kynf Hi/rN, WJ. 

(2) Felled; dc»troycd, {.<.-&) 

That load diatrud and men aqueld. 
And Cllilendom thai han nleh*! ^/kM, 

Oy V IVansUtt, p. M. 
AFELLE. To fell ; lo cut down. (J.-S.) 
The kyng dude anon n/rtle 
Many thouunde oka. irh telle. 

Krttf .l/ini4nilrr, MMI. 
AFENCE. Offence. Pmmpl. Pan; 

AFEND. To offend. 

ThI God thou u-halt noft mflm4, 
Bot bryng thiaelfe to good end. 

MS. i>0Hce 301, f. 2. 
AFENGE. Received. (,Y.-S.) 
Selnle Uartha good was, 
Al ;e hereth of telle. 
Hy u/irn/T ouro Lord in here houf, 
Ai it aelth In the goipelle. 

MS. Call. TVIn. Oswi. i7. 
AFEORMED. Confirmed ; made fast. {A.-N.) 
Have who >o the maiitry may, 
Aflornui faate is this deray. 

Kmg Ali—utidtr, 7350. 

AFER. A horse. Norlhumb. 
AFERD. Instructed. {A.-N.) 

And hoteth him aende, fer and uerr. 

To hli justices lettm hard, 

That the coolrait beo a/er4 

To fruscbc the gadclyng. and to bete, 

And none of hcom on lyve Icle. 

K^ng Mitaunrinr, 1813. 

AFERE. (I) Afraid. As T>T\vliitt docs not ex- 
plain Ihia word, I give the French original of 
the passage in which it occim. 
Mloehcrt for ire gollh afitre. 
That 1 let any entre here. 

I Romau»l of tht RoM, 4073. 

Trop yr^ aula au rueur du ventre, 
l^uant oncquca nul y mlit le pl^. 

L» Human df la Rimt. 3827, 

(2) To make afraid. (,Y.-S.) 

Ve have with yow good cngynea, 
Swiike knowc but few ^areiynct ; 
A mangenel thou doo arere. 
And too thou achalt hem wet a/ete. 

Richanl Cuer de Mm, 4104. 

AFERID. Afraid. (A.-S.) 

Ha I cowarde herte of love unlerld. 
Whereof arte thou ao aore n/»ri</. 

Coicer. MS. Sar. Antiq. 134, f. 1«7. 

AFERRE. Afraid. (.i.-S.) 

jytu- icbe that i< n/lmne letle her flee. 

ilt/aan*« Aneivnt Song*, p. 77. 
AFERT. Afraid. (A.-S.) 

So gryftlich thel were wrought, 

Uche of hero a twerd brought. 

And mad hire ofBrt ao aore. 

rae Kyng ^ Tart, 411. 
A-FETID. This term is applied to deer in the 
followingpassagc, and apparently means well or 
fuU shaped. (.^.-.V.) 

And wcl a-fltid la whanne the hod b wcl woxt-ii by 
ordynauncc after the highte and the Khap, whan 
the tyndet bo wel giowc yn the beom by good mc- 
aure. MS. Bodl. .140. 

AFFADIL. A daffodil. A common old form of 
the word, found in Palsgrave, Minshcu, Florio, 
and Cotgrave. " Flour of affadilte" is recom- 
mended in a receipt to cure madncjts, in au old 
medical .MS. in Lincoln Cathedral, f. 282. See 
also Archscologia, xxx. 3H2. 
AFFAIED. Afraid; affrighted; affectod. toiay- 

AFFAIES. Burdens. La«glnfl. 
AKPAINEP. Feigned. Ihll. 
AFFAMISII. To famish willi hunger. 
AFFAYTED. rreparcd ; instructed: tamed.^ 




He badd* a clniton yungF of ige, 
Whom h« h*tb iD hU cbunbcr nffhUed, 

Ooum, Id. 1M>, r. «3. 
Hit eotikm bca tot hym q/Tbytirf, 
So that hb iMdjr b awiylcd. /M. t. 131. 

The jonve whelpe whirhe it nifttytnl, 
Hath OM bit mayttcr Ixttei .iwiyted 
To coocbe, wbaane he lajtelh, *• Coo lowe l~ 

Gwvr, MS. Soc. ^mtlq. 134, t. 46, 
And acbe of bcm hit talc nffanitlh 
All* to deceive an Innocent. 

IhU. I. 64. 

AFfE. Have. 

That mrstcr ^ffit to Wynne thcem medc. 

RUmm'i MntSttt Suugi, I. 47. 

AfFKARED. Aftaid. SAu*. Few prorindil 

wonb are more common. 
AFFECT. (I) To love. ThUword is used botU 

a« ■ nibftantive and a verb. 

True worth mam (cw : but ture I am. not many 

Have rot bare tertuet take afftcttd any. 

(2) A property of tlie miud. 

Ym, they oerc utterlie void of that *ffrcl. which 

■a naturallie IngraSM in man, which it to be jillll- 

full to the bumble and prostrate, and to retiit the 

^ proud and obttinat. Holinlliett, Hitl. u/ Irdaiul, p. Sj. 

H AFFECTATED. Affected. " A stile or oration 
V to much ttffectaled wytb strange words." 
' Barrt. 

AFFECTATION. A curious desire of a thing 

which nature hath not given. Rider. 
AFFF.CTEOtSI.Y. Affectionately, See .if- 

Mux hy» death, hit life again wai daily witalled, 
aail m^ttmttt eroouf hit lubjcctet drtytcd, but 
wtihyDC errved not. nor yet their ilesyre tnoke 

IooiM eflbcta. Hall, tAwarxi IV. (. St. 

AFFECTION. (1) Affectation. SAo*. 
(2) Sjinpathy. See a curious passage in the 
M<3rli. of Venice, iv. I, and the notes of the 
commenutnrs. Parson Hugh, Merr)' Wives 
of Winiisor. i. 1, malics a verb of it, to love. 
AFFECTION.VTED. Attached. SeetheCobler 

I' of Canterburie, 1608, sig, E. iii. 
And albeit he trusted the Engllihmen well 
iaough, yet being tmrne on the other tide nf the 
teas, he Wat tnore nffttctumatvd to the people of those 
prot locet tlteie tubject unto him. 
HMimhnl, Hitl. 0/ Inland, p. ii.* 
AFFECTIONED. Affected. S/uii. 
An'KCTVALL. Effectual. Such seems to be 
the meaning of the word in Archa^ologia, xxv. 
90, while in the same document, p. 89, affec- 
IwtU^ occurs in the same sense as affectu- 
<m*lf, q. T. 
Alooto failed not with nffeetuaii and manifett ar- 
ftunrntet to penwade her that her huutband had 
now DO more right or title to her at all. 

filWiir"* Fariwcll, IMl, 
AFFECTUOl'SLY. Passionately ; affection- 
I atcly. Cf. Giletta of Narbona, ap. Collier's 

■ Shak. Lib. p. 10; Harrington's Ntig. Ant. i. 19; 
H Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 99 ; Slate Pa- 
^1 pera, i. 827. 
^H I have sought tiym detirutly, 

^M I have tought hym t^rc-fwoWjr. /tWi'/. .intit- li, IS?, 

AFFEBBLED. Enfeebled. 

lo the rattiesint of nalurall issues, tltcagthcning 

the qffttbltd membert, attitting the livelte forcvt, 
disperting annoloua oppllationt, and qualiOeng of 
tundrie griefet. HarrtMon't TTetr. of Knfftaitd, p. 914. 
AFFEER. To settle ; to confirm. See Macbeth, 
iv, 3. Affeerours, says Cowell, arc " those that 
be appointed upon oath to mulct such as have 
committed faults arbitrarily punishable, and 
have no express penalty set down by statute." 
AFFENDE, To offend. 

Lawe it ny^e flemid oute of contri. 
For fcwe ben that didc It to nff^^. 

Ordnie, US. Soc. .tnltq. 134, f. 967. 
But now lo the mater that 1 bc-Sbrc rncvi-d, 
Uf the gomca to gay that grace hadde afftttntid. 

DrpoMUIon o/ lUcNord II. p. 91. 

AFFEILVUNT. The haunch. (.Y.-A.) 

He twreth moo tyndet thc-n dolth an herle. His 
heed may uoht be wcl devyK>d witbrtutc payntyng. 
Thel have a lungerc tayl than (he hert, and alto ho 
Iiath more grcce to hit aJfitrauHt then the hert. 

MS. Binll. &4C. 

AFFERDEDE. Frightened. 

Mo thoghte seho hade no jTawere, for the raaayooo 
of God comforthed me; but the grytely tyghte of 
hir aJTrrdedt mc. MS. Ijtteultt A. 1, 17, f. 241. 

AFFEUE, (1) To belong. (Fr.) 

Ho Wat llien burycd at Winchetter In royall wite. 
At lo tuche a prince of reason thuuld ajfertr. 

Hcrdynf't I'ltrvnirlt, f. lOti. 

(2) CouDtenancc ; demeanour. Gaie. 

(3) To terrify-. 

The Com Che Soudan nam, Richard for lo nfferit. 

Langto/t'M Chronicle, p. ID?. 

AFFERMID. Confinned. 

And whan that Uwe wat confermid 
In dewe forme, and alle e^ffirmij. 

G<mcr, MS. Sor. Aniil. 134, f. ltd. 
Among the goddet bighe It it ajffermril. 
And by etcme word written and contermcd* 

Chaurn-, Caul. T. 9351. 

AFFESED. Frightened, The fiillomiig extract 
from Browne is given by Richardson, in v, 
Phent, but it is, perhaps, the s:inic with 
ftnint. Prompt. Parv. p. 158, explained (o 
make qfraiii, and which has no connexion, 1 
believe, w illi either phee:e, or A.-S. fnian, ai 
Mr. Way seems to intimate. Sec Feff. 
She for a while wot well tore nffeni, 

Btvwnc't SliryAcar^t Pipe, Eel, 1, 

AFFICIIE. To affirm. (^.-.V.) 

of that they ten s womman riche, 
Thcr wol they alle here love nffiche. 

GmtcT, MS. Sic. jMilq. \M, f. 149. 
AFFIE. To tnist ; to rely. See Rom. of the 

Rose, 5480; K>-ng Alisaiinder, 7347. 
AFFINAGE. The refining of metals. Skinner. 
AFFINE. (1) A relative. Shakespeare baa it as 
a verb. 

Howe heyncut or detettabic a crymc tooevrr he 
had committed, trcatofl onely except, thoulde llke- 
wlte at ti^net and alyet to the holy orden be ttved* 
and committed to the bysihoppes pryton. 

Hall, Henry Vlt. I. M. 

(2) To refine. Skinner. 

AFl'lRE. On fire. 

And hir to love Uehe at I desire, 
Beulgne Lorde, to tet myn hert uffir*. 

I.^f<,te, MS. ^tltmolt 39, t. If. 

AFFIRMABLY. With certainly. 

I cannot wryte of suche ^fflntmUtf. 

Hard^Hii't ChrmUlt, t, M. 





of the gripe h« hB«l a tight, 
How ihe flew in affllgtkt. 

Torrtfnl t>f Portugalf p. 89. 
AFFLIGIT. Afflicted. MitundrvUe. 
AFFOND. Have found. 

A monelh after a mon rnygtitte bom lUftHirf* 
Lyaod ityll on the grownil. 

Hunllyng nf the Hmr», tS3. 
AFFONG. Same as Afonge, q. v. This form 

occur* in MS. Arund. Coll. Arm. 8. 
AFPORCE. To strengthen ; to compel. 

(torge upon gorge tn aff^mv hjr» lechery l 
The tonge daye he spent in glutony. 

Ruchaa, b. T. c. S. 
Swa iulde we do agayne* devellet that nffnrct» thamc 
to reve fra ui the hony of poure lyfe and of graee. 

MX. UnrrJn A. I. 17. f. IM. 

AFmRI). To afford to acll. A'on poumm 
lanluh vendrre, 1 cannot afford it at so little 
a iiricc. Rider. 
AFFOHE. To make effective. 
!>ti Ifiat thou out yykerye njfiir* 
To help ooa in (hit do<. MS. Jtkmole 93, f. 17- 
Beele and moyiture direelylh Iher ptaaagaa. 
With gre«ae fervence Vnffnr* yong coragtik 

LrdgaUi Miimr Patmt, p. M4. 
AFFORME. To conform. 

Ye icrrauntn that waytc upon the table. 

Be ye honest and dylygent ; 
To hym that t> most honourable 
Jfforma your mancrs and entenL 

Dvct. nf (#oM< SsrMwiWM, p. 0. 
AFFORN. Before. 

And alle the Sarsynt thay a-slowo. 
That thay nffum hiiu founde. 

US. AOimia 33, f. 3U. 

AFFORST. Thirsty. 

Noc hallfe yuowh therof he haddc, 

tjft be was %ffont. Ttw Ftere and (Ai; At^, Iv. 


Hut yet 1 am In grete n/frate 

Lest thou kliuldest nat doe as I sale. 

Rom. «f (/if Rok, KXtl. 

AFFRAMYNGE. Fraiiijngc, or o/fromi/wyr, or 
wynnyngc, Lucrum, etnolumenium. I'rompt. 
Par>-. p. 1/6. 
AFFRAP. To encounter; to strike down. 
They bene y-mctt, both ready to ttfivp, 

r^trU QwsM, II. i. 86. 
AFFRAY. (1) A disturbance. (A.-N.) 
Who lived eTcr In twiche dellie o day, 
That bim ne meved other conscience. 
Or ire, or Ulent, or som kin nlftaf. 

CTtftueer, Cant, T. tlA57. 

(2) To frighten. {J.-N.) 

Needles, God wot, he thought hire to nfrajt. 

CHaucrr, Cant. T. 11331. 

APFRAYED. Afraid. 

And whenne Kyngc Edwardes hootte had koow- 
lege that Sere Perys Ic Dratllle with the Scottes- 
menne were comynge. the! t«niewed fVoin the sege 
and were tf/Trayed. (VorJrwortA's Chrmid; p. 3. 

AFPRAYNE. To question ; to ask. {J.-S.) 
Dyforc the ainyral thanne he goth. 
And bygan hltn for to nffraytut. 

MS. ^lAiMi(« S3, r. ». 
I ^ffni^nt^ hym lint 
Pram whetmcs he come. 

Picrt PhUfhmiui, p. 317. 

AFFRENDED. Reconciled. 

Where when she saw ttut cruell war so ended,' 

And deadly foes so faithfully {{/Trcntlett, 

In lovely wise she gan that lady greet. 

Which had so great dismay so well amended. 

Faertt ifuKKt, i V, ill, 1 
AFFRET. An assault ; an attack, (/'r.) 

And, passing forth with furtout offrtl, 
Pietst through bis berer quite into his brow. 

Xosne (funm, IV. 111. II. 

AFFRICTION. Friction. Boylt. 
APFRimiLE. A daffodil. Chah. M 

AKFRON'l". To meet face to face ; to encounter. ^ 
Cf. Troilus andCressida, iii. 2; llomlet, iii. I, 
" On aflront," face to face. Ben Jonaon, iv. 
51, has the word as a substantive. 
The brigge ys of fair entaylle. 

On brede founy fete : 
An hundred kny;tcs wythoute faille, 
Tlicr on affrvnt mowc meet. 

MS. .Mmulc 33. f. St. 
AFFRONTEDNESS. Great impudence. SJmoter. 
AFFULDEM. Struck down. (A.-S.) 
Holand is an liardl man. 

So strong ntan and so wljt ; 
tn no batali tber he cam, 

Ne fond he nevcrc knyjt 
That onys a stmk hltn astod. 

That he on him tvide, 
That he ue nffutttem wcie wod, 

Outher slows at a bralde. MS. Athimit 33. 

He shrove hym with grete repentauncc. 

But of Coddys mercy he hadde none qJfiMiMncv. 

MS. Hurl. Ijlil, f. 8i. 

AFGODNESS. Idolatr)-. Skmwr. 
AFILE. To file; to polish. Cf, Troilus and 
Crcseide, ii. 1G81. 
Whanne he hath his tunge afitU 
With softe spcchc and with leaynges. 

Coioer, MS. Sue. yiillq. 134, f. U. 
For wel ho wiste, whan that song was songo. 
He must prechc, and wel ttfUe his tonge. 

CtaKosr QmI. r. 7li. 
AFILEU. DefUcd. 

Alas, hco salde, y nere y-«pllled 1 
l^or men me cleputh qucnc tiJtM. 

Kyng ^tUauHder, 1004, 
A-FINE. HW a^Mr, in perfection. SeG<(^ii. 
For no man at the Brste stroke 
fie may not fel adoune an uke. 
Nor o( the reitlDS have the wine. 
Till grapes lie ripe and wel n-fine. 

Rom. nf the RMe, 3flD0. 
AFINGRET. Hungry. Cf. Wright's PoUUcal 
Songs, p. 342 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 133, 1 76, 
283, 403, 
A vox gon out of the wodc go, 
j4^nfrvt so, that htm wcs wo; 
He nes nerere in none wise 
jtJiHgret erour tuUf so swlihc. 

Rellf. Amtq. ii. 
As hy were on a day sore ^fi/ngrMt 
To the bord hy sele. 

MS. (ML niH. OilM. S7. 
AFIT. On foot. North. 
A-FIVE. Into five pieces. 
f>\x Gil to klm gan to drive. 
That his •!,«« t)fast 0-/er, Cp (\f f^mnvike, p*i 

. Hi. 

I. a. 





AFLAMING. Flaming. 

The cting of tongues the ^fiaming fire Joth feed. 
JfptHd. <a W. Jtiiptt, p. atll, 
AFLAT, rut. Rieon. 
AFLAUNT. Showily ilresscd. 

Al t{^unt DOW vaunt It ; 

Bravo wench, oMt awey care; 
With Uyei or lave chaunt It, 

Tot do co*t lec thou tpore. 

P t WMt* and_Ca*»anirQ, 1. 9, 

AFLED. Esoiped. 

He fhnke hit eares« 
And horn grele femre» 

He thought hym well qfied. 

Sir TlMKU Mur^t Warku, 1U7- 

AFLIGHT. To be uncMy. (//.-M) 
Upon this worde htr herte afli^t» 
Tbyokende what was best to doone. 

Cower t b. ti. 
Tho was the boy i^gghi. 
And doril not tpeke. Octoefon, 191. 

A-FLORE. Oil the floor. 

And over keveryd with a pal, 
A-M» where she itondu. 

MS> VaMoh. Ff. t. 8, f. iXI. 

AFLOJEN. Flown. 

And were •fi»\9H grete and smalle. 

And eke the aoierel. UB. J-ltmolc 33, f. 41. 

AFLYTTE. Same as .Iflight, q. v. 

I Upon his woriie hire herte q/ty]le, 

Thenkrnde what was best to done. 
Goirrr, MS. Sor. Jntlq. 134, f. ()S. 
And tho for fere hire herte a/lfilt. I'-I'l- t. 111. 
AFO. To take ; to undeiialtc ; to receive. 
Tbcraperrur that was to fre. 
With him Gij than ladde he ; 
C'otfelt him bede and rit^, 
^L Gret worthtchip and rirhe fes ; 

^P Ac he thcrof nold afo, 

^^ For nothing that ho might do. 

Ct of fVmviikr, p. M. 
Bl ml Lord Jhetut Crist. 

This message ichil i^. /'<!<'. p. 133. 

For nought that y might a/o, 
V nD bitray Iherl TIrtl. IbU. p. 199. 

AFOAT. On foot. Var. diaL 
A FtJ ILD. Foiled ; cast down. 
Felice hadde of him gret rewthe. 
Gti, quod tchc, thou lovctt mc In trowthe I 
Al to tnlchel thou art t^/t'iJd; 
Now thl blod It is acolld. On it Wnrtniltr, p. 90. 

.SPONGE. To take; to receive. " Afongc Iiem 
who »o afonge," take them who will take tlietn. 
Cf. Wright's Middle-age Treat, on Sciciicr, p. 
140; Rob. Glouc. p. 91; Arthour and Mer- 
lin, p. 126 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 600, 972, 7209, 


Alas ! tede teinte Cuthberd, 

Fule eeh am to longe ! 
I adta this tchcp no longer kepe, 

Apmft hem who so afitngt I 

MS. CM. Trin. Onn. «7. (. «• 

AFORCE. (1) To force; to compel. Cf. Kyng 
Aliuonder, 7119: Rob. Glouc. pp. 121, 323; 
Skdton's works, i. 31, 308, explained to mean, 
to Utempt, to exert one's self. 
Thoghe men ^fiirctd hym, for drede. 
To fry that tliat man dyd that dede. 

MS. Harl. 1701. t. U. 
Fot {If a mon ^/brcr hym ay 
To do the goode that he may. 

jit may his goode dedut be %o wrought* 
'iliat par chaunce C3od aloweth.hym nought. 

MS. Jltmatt 41, r. 11. 

(2) To force ; to nviah. 

He hath me of vilanlc bltooght ; 
Me to afurto it In his thought. 

.■4rtliovr and Merttn, p. 88* 

AFORE. ( 1 ) Before ; forward ; in time past. 
(.i.-S.) It is used in the two latter senses 
with quick speakers ; especially in the northern 
provinces, and in Norfolk. In MS. Digby 40, 
f. 19, is the proverb, " Hee that will not be- 
ware afrjrr will be sory afterwardes." 
And when the lyenai hungurd sore, 
Sche ete of the gryflyn more. 

That t^fore was itronge and wyght. 

M.I. OinUb. Ff. 11. 38. f. U. 

(2) Gone. So explained in a MS. Sonierset- 
shire glossary, lent to mc by a native of that 
AFOREN. Before. CAaueer. 
AFORE-TUZ. Before tlioii hast. Yorhi. 
AFORETY.ME. In lime past. Still in use. See 
an instance in the Dial, uf Great. Moral, p. 14 I. 
AFORE-YENE. Over against ; directly in front 
of. Someriet. 
And tayid, nece, who hath arayid thut 
The yondir house, that ttante nfnri/im» ut t 

TnMHiand Crttrlda, II. IIW. 
AFORNANDE. Beforehand. Prompt. Parv. 
AFORNE. Before; formerly. Wft. 
Afitme provided by grace of Crltt Jhetu, 
To were Ij. crownyi In Yngland and in Frntmce. 
.W.S-. Harl. iSil, f. 4. 

AFORNE-CASTE. Premeditated. 
By high imoglTiaclon aforn«.<aMt9, 
Od a night chorghe Che hoggit tty hee brast. 

ChauefT, rrf. Vrry, p. I7I. 

AFORRAN. In store; in reserve. North. A 

corruption apparently of aforehand. 
A-Ft)RSE. By necessity. 

Than (Tl'IIc it a-JSirtt to mile hem ajeynr. 

Depotilivn ct/ iticAarrf //. p. 811. 

AFORTHE. (1) Toalford. (.i.-S.) 

Aod Y*'^ ^^"^ mete as lie myglite a/brthe, 
Aotl maurablc hyre. Piert Ptottgftmant I** 19tf- 
(2) Continually. {J.-S.) 

And here and ihere. m» llut my llttllc wit 
J/brthe may cek ihinkc I trmnftUte hit. 

OccUve, AiS. Sue. Jntiti. 134. f. S6?. 
A-FOnWARD. In fronl. 

Mill thre hoodrcd kDyjtet, A duk, Ihathvt fStword. 
Auilcde Corineut hynuelf a-fimvwA. 

Bob, dome. t>> 17. 
AFOTE. Ou foot 

Whcnne Adam Abctic body fond. 
For ROTWe t^/ble myjl he duI Blond. 

VurHtr Mumdi, US, CM/. TWh. Quitub, f. B. 
It Telle tbcy fou}t«n botbe ^f^*, 

G0KW JU. fibc. ^nff«. 134. f. 117. 
/VFOUE. A vow. 

Jake »eydc, y make t^/butt 
Y am OS redey ai thow, 

7^0 Frei* and the Bap, ft. \x\\. 
AFOUNDE. Discovered. 

And tho the Sanenct n/bumde 

Her lord was tUyn. 
Cvrrych to flu away that ftounde 

WufcrlyXayn, Octotinn» 16S0, 




AFOUNDRIT. FoumlRred. 

lie wu nil ^/iMitdlryil, uid coail nonr nlhlr lirl|>. 
Chtiuair, e-l. t'Tjr, p. «>!>. 

AFOUR. Over. 

ThU men, on llic klngo •oml. 
Wcnl a/iiKr ll»lf InglonJ. 

.irthuur anil ifrrtin, p. 84 

A-FOYSTE. In Prompt. I'an. p. 7, this is tnin»- 
Uted by tirida, the mcmiing of wliicli may lie 
tcea in that work, p. 103. The a n pro- 
bably the Brticlc, although Mr. Way informs 
me the Winchester -MS. reachi affysle. 
A-l'ttAWL. For all; in spil« of. Suffolk. 
AFKAYE. Fears fright. Cf. Prompt. Pani-. 
p. 175. 

Tim other rode hll w«>e, 
lll< luTle waf in grete ajmf- 

Syr TrynmiMrt, 138}. 

AFHAYET. Afraid. 

The fffion w«» n/niyrl, Uld fcril of lllsl fere. 

Hitb*tiH'* RaiunnceM, p. 12. 

AFREF.D. Afriiil. Derb^th. 

AFRET. Frctl<d; placed crotswise. (A.-N.) 

For round environ her crouriel 

Wu full of richc (t0lii> afrrl. 

Horn. 0/ Kim, 3X>k. 

AFRETIE. To dcvottr. 

Spedeth ou to ipcwen, 

Ak me dolh to ipello ; 
The fend ou afrttiv 

With fleU Bnt with felle. 

Writhft Pol. «)nff», p. tW- 

AFBEYNE. To judge. (.Y.-5.) 

But eeere we hope lo Thin guortneue, 
Whaiui* Thow ichalt thli werde mfnt"'- 

Hamimlc'4 SliM. CanK. US. 
AFBONT. In front. See tterHtr: 

LeMt hU people «hould l)e uullod not onlle v/nttt, 
but alu upon everie ilde the iMtlcIf, he camcd the 
ranlu iO lo plaec tliemwlvn, at their baltcU might 
• Irelch farre further In bredth than otherwue the 
order uf warre required. 

IMinihtd, Hill. Engtaod, p. SO. 

AFRONTTE. Abreast. 

And «or«t of all that Tundale Iknd, 
A/rvKtU unnethe thel myght paue. 

Ttindali^t rimiu, p 39. 
APRORB. Froicn. Sommet. 
AFROUGHTE. Asked? (A.-S.) 
The byMchnpe ipake wilhoule fayle, 
Thougho he were nolhynge afrmighlr. 

JU.V. ffurl. «£», r. 114. 

AFROl'NT. To accost; to encounter; to at- 
tack. (.^.-^'.) 

Au If a pore man ipeke a word, he >hal be foule 
n/nunf-l. Wrlgltft PoIUUmI S,mgt, p. 337. 

And with Nede I roette. 
That itfrouni»€t me foule. 
And faitour me called. Pltn Pluugliman, p. 4B. 

AFRY5TE. Frightened. 

Hire herle wi» so lore nfiyju. 
That Khe ne wtite what to thinks. 

(Jowtr. U.l. Sac. Antll. 134, f. 101. 
He h«-helde jlf the hlnde e»el hurt were. 
And fond fche nas but a-friit for fere of that dint. 
frULoKdlhi H'fru^J/, p. 100. 

AFT. (1) Oft. Perci/. 

(2) Behind. Generally a «ca term, hut it it in 
common use on the banks of the Tync, and 
occasionally in other places, in the sense here 
given, without any relation to nautical subjects. 

AFTE. Foolish f 

Hit nil bot Irewth, I wcod, an i^fle, 
For le tette ntiga In cnl crafie. 

n'fighft PtJitiml Snngt, p. 310. 

AFTER. Afterwards ; according to ; according 
to the shape of. " After that they ware," ac- 
cording to their degree. So in the Common 
Prayers, " Neither reward us after our iniqui- 
ties," i. e. according to our iniquities. The 
word occurs apparently in a pcciUiar seoso in 
Ritson's Ancient Songs, i. 40. 

Then othlr ladlei aftrr that they ware. 
To knyghtis weorc dcIlTerld there. 

A>tt^ Alimun'trr. 950.1. 
AFTERBURTHEN. The afterbirth. This word 
is often iiscil in the curious dcpoKitions reUtiog 
to the birth of the Prince of Wales in 1688. 
Sec Croft's Excerpta Anliqua, 1797. 
AFTERCLAP. Anything disagreeable happening 
after all consequences of the cause have been 
thought at an end. Hartshonie, Salop. Antiq. 
p. 303, 8«)Ti, " Ihc consequence, issue, result, 
generally received in malam partem." Cf. 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 77 ; Collier's Old Ballads, p. 94 ; 
Uolinshed, Hist. Engl. p. 197. 
To thy frende thowe lore*t motte, 
Loke thowe telle not alle thy wortte. 

Whatsoever bchappes; 
For whane thy frende yi thy foo. 
He woUe teU atle and more loo ; 

Beware of nftfrdafipM .' 3t.1. lyinml. 762, f. 
So that hit wai a tory happe, 
And he was a-gait of tifter.tttt}tyt . 

MS. Dmh KM, f. 14. 

AFTERDEAL. O'ltadvantagc. Cf. Reynard the 
Foxc, p. 149. 

For otherwise the partic ys dryven to a groatc 
aJier^Uh, and mtut be enforced, to his greiite char\lges, 
to repalrc to your majcstie for the tame, whiche be 
Is not well able to doo. STofe Papun, III. 4(i*l. 

AFTER-EYE. To keep a person in view; to 

follow him. Shak. 
AFTERFEED. The grass that grows after «he 

first crop has been mown, and generally fetl 

off, not lef^ for an nflermath, as in some other 

counties. Onm, 
AFTERINGS. The last milk drawn from a 

cxiw. y'ar. diaL 
AFTER-KINDRED. Remote kindred. 

Vet natheleise your kinrede Is but o/tfr-kiHrtAft 

for thry ben but litcll sibbe to you, and the kinne 

of your enemies ben Die sIbbe to hem. 

Chaucv, 9d. L'rrf, p. IftS, 

AFTERI-EYS. Aflennaths. Berit. 
AFTER-LONGE. Long afterwards. 

And nfttT-tofige he lyvcd withouten stryfe, 

Tyll he went from his morull lyfe. 

R'(l«. AMit. I. 47. 

AFTER-LO\'E. Love after the first love. S/ini. 
AFTERMATH. A second crop of grass. Var.dial. 
AFTER-SAILS. The soils that belong to the main 

and lui^n masts, and keep the ship to the 

AFTER-JERNE. To long after. 

God (rauntcs us noghle ay tliat we for-ptay, for 

he wlllc pyfc u» better thenne we t^er^yrnr. 

iis. uiuioIh a. 1. 17, (.an- 

AFTIN. Often. 

For aa ^/Um tymc as thou scorycdistc him with Ihl 





panjvbcmnite*, for to make liim (o ubej-c lo thl 
■VRiBUUDdmcntc*, he wolile nerrr, but encUnc tn 
me, GeMta R'HHiiH\ii-um, p. \W, 

ArriRCASTE. A fliniw at ilice after the gunc 
n endeil : anjihing done too lRt«. 

TtiuA ever he pleyelh an oflirraMtt 
Of alk that he Khalle uy or do. 

Gower, MS. Hoc. /Intiq. 134, t, tI>!J. 

Arr-MEAL. A laic nieal. 

Isdccd*. quoth ho. 1 kccjie an ordinary, 

Klghtp«Qce a mcale who there doth tup or Axnv : 
And dysa and cardet are but an accewarye : 
At ^/V-masJct who ihall paye for iho wine ^ 

Th^nnt*t DtlMte, p. 49. 

AFT^Tl-PARTE. The bcliinil side. Prompt. Pan. 
AFL'RE. On fire. 

lie «*oc yi aueide and ^runte, and myd such erneit 

That the tprong out myd ech duot of hetme to there, 
9%»t yt thujte myd ech duot, ai that heircd nfUra 
mm. Rttli. Clour, p. 308. 

APirHST. Thirtty. The two forms a-fyngre<l 
and a-fant, lurcording to Mr. Wriglit, npiwar 
lo lie clixracteristic of the dialect of tlie coun- 
ties in the West of England ; and a eon- 
firmttioa of this conjecture occurs in MS. 
Laud. 1033, f. 3, where the word furtt is 
givpu Bi current in Wilt.<hirc iu that sense in 
1697. Cf. Piers Ploughman, pp. 17G, 283, 
529; Kvng Horn, 1120; Jffortl. 
M'fiettt hy were for veryuetM; 
So tore that nai cndc. HS. OM. Trim. Onxi. S7. 
AFURT. Sullen. Wat. 
AFVSD. Had. 

of O. will I now ler my tale. 
And of hyi felaugh tpek I talc. 
That toutli him al obout ; 
Of hym if/trd grct doul. 

Civ 0/ iranclc*, JIUMthUl US, 

AKWORE. Befofv. Aor/A. 
AJni'E. To tru»t. 

In thaym thu may the afyf. 

Ohii af Warwick, MMtthUl MS. 
Pan *fyrd lo hit itreynlhe. 
In hit muchehed, and in hit leynthe. 

Kyng .f/uovnder, 7^1. 

AfYGHE. To tnisl. 

Who that hath trcwe amye, 
Jnlitlich he may hyra In her nfi/tzfm. 

Ayiif AtitaundfT, 47.1.1. 

AFYGHTETH. Tames ; rc<luces to subjection. 

Deifyni they nymetb, and cokcdriti, 
And ^fitghleth to henrc wille. 
For to beorr bcom to the flod, 

A>l*f j4tijMMitiifT, f;Sfl3. 

An'N. In fine ; in the end. (,/.-,V.) Cf. Uoke 
of Cunaaye, p. 21; Sevyn Sngcs, 1100; 
Mail land's' Lamlicth Books, p. 307; Gy of 
Warwike, p. 334 ; Arthoiu- and Merlin, pp. 3, 
1 13; Emarc, 913; Uiinfal, 343. On com - 
paring these examples, il seems we should oc- 
cwdoaally read a fine, i. e. and fine. So, "wcl 
■ ftne," well and fine. See A-fine. 

AG. To cut with a stroke. Korth. 

AGAAN. Against ; again. North. 

A-U.\UE. In the following passage is explained 
liy ElUa " distracted," while Wehcr rcathi a 
S/adr, a gadling. 

Ami taide. Dame, thou art n-gode. 
That thou mournest for the ded. 
That mai the do nother god ne qucd. 

The Serfn Sagtt, SGBI. 
AGADRED. Gathered. Skimifr. 
AGAII. The ague. North. 
AGAIN. (1) Against ; near to. Tliese iciues of 
the word arc not obsolete in the pro\inces. 
Whote lorUtityp douLlet wat tlayne larocnlalily 
Thorow treton, nptln him compatted and wrought. 
Sketum't H'lrrki, L G. 
(2) Towards. 

And praide hem for to riden again the qurne. 
The honour of hit rcgne to luitene, 

Oiaucrr, Conr. r. 4BII. 
Scho Telle hir lorde one knee* aga^nr. 
And of hit toiow tcbo ganoe hym frayne. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. W. 
AGAINST. To ride against the king, or other 
noble person, signitlcd to ride lo meet. Tlie 
term is not unfrequcntly used hy early writers. 
See Fairholt's Hist, of Lord Mayors' Pageants, 
p. C; Octavian, 1289. 
AGAINST AND. To resist ; to oppose, 
with castellet ttrong aud towrei for the nonei. 
At cchc mylet endc. to aga^nrtandr ai) the foonyae. 
Hardpng's Chroniclt, f.U, 
AGAINSTANDANS. Withstanding; resisting. 
For iigaintiandana thi rigthand flrghr. 
Home thou me ait thit of hcghe. 

MS. Batt. 425, f. I. 

AGAINTH. Againit. North. 

A-GAME. In game. Chtmctr. 

AGAN. Gone. 

The day liym wat ful ne^ agun. 

And come wat ne; the ni;t. MS. AAmvit 33, f. 30. 

AGAPE. On the gape. 

More solemn than the tedious pomp thai waita 
On priDcrt, when their rich retinue long 
or hursct \oA, and grooms tieimear'd with gold, 
Dutlei the crowd, and tett them aii agapt. 

Paradtw Ldi4t, b. v. 

AGjUL An exclamation. See the Exmoor 

Courtship, p. 19. 
AGARICK. The fungus on the larch. See 
Gerard, ed. Johnson, p. 13C3. Minslieu calls 
it " a white and soft mushroom." It is also 
the name of an Assyrian herb. Cf. Topsell'a 
Hist, of Serpents, p. 40; Clerk'sed. of Withals, 
p. 113; Halle's Expostulation, p. 21. 
AGARIFIEU. Ilaring the ague. Suffolk. 
AGAS-DAY. Agatha's Day. Sec the Paston 
Letters, iv. 426, qtioted in llampson's Med. 
KalcnOar. ii. 7. 
AG.\SEU. Astonished ; aghast. Shakesjicare has 
the word in 1 Henry VI. i. 1. 
In thit dttye all aboute 
Wat Don to ttcaroe ncy to ttowte. 
That up-toked for grcate double. 
The werv to tor« aguttd, Chester Plapn, il. n\ 

AGASPE. To gasp. 

Galba, whom hit gaiantyt garde for agarpt. 

.UeUon'a n„rlu, I. tl*,- 
AGAST. Frightened. North. 

He met a dwarfe, that seemed [rrrifydo 
With some late perili which he hardly patt. 
Or other accident which him agast. 

FaerU Qwoie, III. v. 3. 




AGATE. (1) A-doinK ; »-going. To " get agat«" 
is to make ■ l)eginnmg o( any work or thing ; 
to " be agate" i> to be on the road, on the 
way, appronching towardi the end. Sec 
lluutcr's li.illanisliire Glosjary, inv. Cotgrave 
ha« the expressions " to set the bells a-gale" 
and " to set a wheelbarrow a-gate." See his 
Diet, in V. Brimbakr, Brouiler, and the old 
play called Lingua, iii. 6. 

(2) Used metaphorically for a very diminutive 
person, in alluMon to the small figures cut in 
agate for rings. See Nares, in t. 

AGATE-WARDS. To grj agate-ward* with any 
one, is to accompany him part of his way home, 
and was formerly the last olficc of hospitality 
towards a guest, frequently necessary even now 
for guidance and ]>rotection in some parts of 
the country. In Lincolnshire it is pronounced 
agalehotur, and in the North generally 

AGATHA. In a little tract by Bishop Pilkington 
called " The Bumynge of Panics Church," 
8vo. Lond. 1D63, sig. G. i, " St. Agatha's Let- 
ters" ore mentioned as a charm for houses on 
fire. Cf. Becon's Works, 1B43, p. 139. 

AGATUUID. Gathered. 

with the p\Won come foulli fde, 
Ilavlni, rokti, crowll, snd pic, 
Aud gralc foulis, a^athriit wclc. 

Chaucer, tfd. Vrrv, p. 1B8. 

AGAYNBYER. The Redeemer. Prompt. Parr. 


Fur whs *Q ever toumrs one the rijie hjuide, he 
uUe fyndc ttitny obstacles and grcv&Dcei tliat ulle 
iieravcnture lett his agajfittammifngt. 

MS. lAtuxlK A. I. 17, r. W. 

AGAYNE-STANDE. To resist ; to oppose. 
For no Tcsone nc lawc of Isodr, 
May noghle ther a^ngnt-*(Qn4e. 

MS. UnciJH A. I. 17, r. 130. 
AGAYNSAY. Contradiction. Also, a verb, as 
in the following example. 

To which Rogicr* daujjhtcr called Anne, ray tnott 
drrrtt and welbeloved mother, I am the very trcw 
and Uaeall heyre, wblche dlsocnt all you auinot 
juitelj agnyntaj/t nor yel truly deny. 

Hall, Hmiy ri.f.Vi. 
AGAYNSA'n'SG. Contradiction. 
They grauntyd hym hys askyng 
Witbouteo more affajmaajfimg 

Riciari Cotr de tMn, 6D0. 
AGAYNM'ARDE. On the contrary; on the 
other hand. 
Itekcn a^tovnvyorit bow (iieie princes three 
Were fuU ungoodly quit by thecomooti- 

Bothct, b. r. c. IS. 
AGE. To advance in ycor^ " My daam agfn 
ftat," i. c. she looks older in a short space of 
time. It is sometimes used in Yorkshire in the 
sense of aflectiog with concern and amazement, 
because those passions, when violent and long 
indulged, are supposed to bring on gray hairs 
and premature old age. The verb agyn occurs 
in Prompt. Parv. p. 8, and Palsgrave has, " I 
age or wcxe olde." 
AG BE. Awry ; obliquely ; aikew. North. It is 
sometimes used for " wrong," and itccosionally 
a corruption of " ajar," as apphcd to a door. 

AGBEAN. Against ; again. North. 
AGEINS. Towards. 

^gfin* on olde itisn, horc upon hU hnle, 
Ve ihuld arise. Chaucer, Oant. T. 19677* 

AGELT. (1) Forfeited. (.-f.-S.) 

Thel he had i-wnthlhert your wif, 
Yit hs4 he oowt cgtll his Ut. 

(2) Offends. (.^.-S.) 
And hue thet agrll ine enie of the ilke hes tcs, himt- 

•el thcrof Torthcncke. MS. ArunAet. 67, C LI. 

AGEN. Again. A very common form in old 
works, and the provincial dialects of the pre- 
sent day. It is sometimes used fur ngairut. 
Ilartshome, Salop. Antiq. p. 303, gives the 
meanings, against, contiguous, by, towartls, 
AGENFRIE. The tmc lord, or owner of any 

thing. Shnner. 
AGENHINE. A guest at a honsc, who, after 
three nights' stay, was reckoned one of the 
faniilv. Cowell, 
jVGERbOWS. Eager; keen; aevere. 
He wrate sn epitaph for hti grsve^toae* 
With wordcs dcvDUte and sentence n^psnlMiif. 

Sktilan't H-orlr., I. 411. 
AGEST. Afraid; terrified. Ermotjr. 
AGETHE. Goeth. Riltoii. 
AGEY.V. Towards. 

Al day weofyn tho chyldcrln too. 

And ticych fowndyn he Don, 
Til it were a-yryn evyn. 

The chyldcrln wold gon hora. 

Sonfrw and Carutt, x. 
AGEYX-BYINGE. Redemption. Prompt. Pare. 
AGEYNWARDE. On the other hand. 
Iden mtut of right the vertuout p i efcrrs. 
And trlewly labour preyce and betynesfe; 
And agtimwantc diiprcyie folkc that errei 
Whlche haw no Joyr but al in id»|ji««e. 

l^itgaltTi iflnor Potnu, p. N. 
AGG. (1) To incite; to provoke. Ermoor. 
d) A grudge ; a spite. Northumb. 

(3) To hack ; to cut clumsily. }VUlt. 
AGGERATE. To heap up. Rider. 
ACGESTED. Heaped up. Cotet. 
AGGIE. To dispute ; to murmur. iJeron. 
AGGING. Murmuring; raising a quarrel. £rmoor, 
AGGL.\TED. Adonicd with aglets. 

The third dsy of August In the cille of Amlai 
came the Frcnche kyng iti a cote of blacke velvet 
upon while satin, and lied with Ucc« agnt'*tt4 with 
golde. Hall, Henry I'ill. r. IG2. 

AGG RACE. To favour. Spetuer. Tlijs writer 
also uses it as a substantive. 

AGGRATE. (1) To irritate. Var. dial. 

(2) To please; to gratift-. Spmtr. 

AGGREDE. To aggravate. Cbfes. 

AGGREEVANCE. A grievance. 

Unleste they were procJamed traitors, and with 

all diligence followed and pursued, the eTCDt therof 

would Ik verie evitl, to the aitfr^rance of goo,) 

But^ects, and to tho ineouragement of the wkked. 

Stanihurtfi Hit*, of irtland, p. 173. 

AGGREGE. The same as agreg, q. v. 

But at dred more lett thel geit thcrof harme to the 
coule. and tyraung for dcfaut of trespaw; forthi 
thai In iwclk the lynae o/r^reyir', bi resoon of the 
dtgri. Apoii^ /Or tht iMtltrdu, p. i. 










AGGRESTE YN B. A ticknesa inddcDt to hawki. 
A receipt for iti cure is given in the Book of 
St. AIImiu. 
AGGREVAU>S. A grievance ; an iiyar)-. 

PrcnHjit. Pat v- 
AGCROGGYD. Aggravated. Prompt. Parr. 
AGGROUP. To group. Dryden. 
AGGY. Ague*. North. 
AGHAST. Did frighten. S^pmier. 
ACHB. Ought. 

Weic «^< we to brcke the liuidn of corsytUe, 
m4 Ule to drcd« Ihjit byndn men fn lyn. 

US. (V/. JCftin. 10, f. 4. 
AQUEN. Own. 

Aod mwlc Ulle hyt aghtn lyknet. 

its. QiU, Slan. XV 111. fi. 

Tlul thott dMtmy thin ralrny, that cf , he that e& 

viM In hia a^i-n tghcn. MS. CiM. BUm. 10, r. 13. 

AGUDK. Either. 

Tot irhm y fthuld ajffter go or rydv. 

Y d)f hte my hcvede ryjt rooche with pryde. 

MS. Uarl. 1701, t.H. 

ACUFUL. Fearfui (.Y.-S.) 

David he wa* an arft/vf man, 
rnl right wlaU he rcgnd than. 

US. an. rtiftu. a. \\\. r. 44. 
AGHUCH. Feaifnl; dreidful. {A..S.) 

Ttker halo In at the haIle.dor an ngtitirh maytter, 
on the most on the molde on mcaure hygh. 

Ayr Gaumynff p. 8. 

AGHT. (1) Anj-thing. (.1.-S.) 

Whan offit wu do a^ras hya w>'lle, 
Uc cuned Ooddyt name wyth ylle. 

U.I. Hurl. rO), f. St. 

(I) Oire>; ought. Cf. Chester PUtys, i. 233. 

f «aa ooght than bo ave«^, 
Ala a damysct agttt to be. 

Vieninf and Gatcin, 734, 
A, Lord, to luflhe airht ui welJe 
That maket thi folk thus free. 

Towntlrif UjfslcrirM, p. A9. 
'cto Bf Arc myne hcrtc tbnne to be hIa. 
he cs tltat frendo that never wtlle falle. 

JV.!. Linnin A. 1. 17, f- !I9. 

(3) Panenioni; property. See the Townclev 
My>lerie<, p. 1 1. {A.-S.) 

And ox, or hon, or other aght, 

US. tUI Krifau. A. Ul. f. 38. 
Or make hym lese by« wurldly aghtt. 
Or frtndya alio to be unughle. 

US. Hm-I. 1701. f. 18. 


The man that thU plit ngkt, 
O the beiit fal yelld the prli. 

US. CMI. Vtfai. A. Ill 
(*) TJic eighth. 

The r^ght n a malster of lare. 
May t>rte a clerk. MS. Cntt. Gaiha, E. ix 
(C) Eight. Cf. Townelcy Mysteries, p, 
Tw^ne and Gawin, HSH. 

And also he wmle unto Iharae, that thay Kchnlcle 
makegrete tolempnytec lastyng aghte dayes, becauie 
of the areddyngc of Alcumler. 

US. LlncolH A. I. 17. f. i3. 

AGHTAVD. The eighth. 

Do your knave tnmi to drcumces 
The aghiitnd daJ that thai arc horn. 

jif«. cur. rnpu. A. 111. f. III. 
dali «al iril ihalr moden duel), 
arMon ul thai olTi'td be. IIM. t, SR. 

. f. 38. 

. f. 70. 
, 13; 

AGIiTELD. Intended. (AS.) 
The knight laid. May I Irabt In the 
For to tel my prevvtit 

That 1 have ofchteld for to do. Stxvn Sag*: 30A3. 

And Alexander went Into a temple of A|>oll», 

wharc als he aghttltd to hafe made lacriUce, and 

hafe hadd aniuere of that godd of crrtane thyngc* 

that he walde hafe aachcdc. US. Line. A. 1. 17, f. 1 1. 

For ur Lord had agHltU yete, 

A child to lala of his oxsprlug. 

US. Call, t'aiiu. A. 111. [. It. 

AGHTENE. Eight. 

Thes are the aghtme vices to knowe. 
In which men falleth that are slowe. 

US. Bodl. 48, r. 14a 
AGIMiR. A spy. Tliis is Skinner's explana- 
tion of the word, liut it is probahiy founded on 
a niistokcn rcacling in one of Chaucer's ballads. 
AG I LITE. Agile. 

If it l>e, as I have sayd, moiterately taken after 
some wrightir busincsse, to make one mure freihe 
and nfilliii to prosecute hli good and godly affaires, 
and lawfull businease, 1 sayeto you againc, he maye 
lawfullye doe it. 

HwtMirwke'a TmtiMt afiatnM DMn/r, p. M 
AGILT. Offended. Cf. Arch. xxi. 72. (.1..S.) 
Ye wile wel that Tirri that is here 
H:Lth ajgitt the douk Locre. 

Gn 0/ n'nruikt, p. ita. 
He affile her nere in otiiir caaCa 
Lx) here all wholly his trt-^itase. 

Horn, tifthe Rtuf, 2633. 

AGIN. (1) As if. Yoriih. 

(2) Against. Eatf. 

(3) Again, far. dial. 

(i) To begin. See Agynne. 

The child WBS don the pri«oun In : 
The malster his tale he gan ngiit. 

Tni StKim Sngn, 1410. 
AGIPE. A coat full of plaju. Co/m. 
AGIST.MENT. (1) The feeding of cattle in a 
common pasture, for a slii)iilnte'd jtrice. The 
agistment of a horse for the smtinicr cost 3«. 4rf. 
in 1531. Sec the FInchnle Chnrtcrs, p. 417. 
(2) .\n cnilKuikment ; earth lienpcd up. In 
marshy counties, where the teniints are bound 
to moke ami krep up a certain [jorlioo of dyke, 
bank, or dam, in onler to fence out a stream, 
audi bank is called an agistment. 
AGITABLE. Easily agitated. 

Suche is the mutacyon of the common people, 

lyke a rede wyth every wind isaf^UaUeand flexible. 

HaU, A/wirrd It', t. aX 

A-GKEEI). Slatted up. 

When the body detl rysc, a grymly go»l a-gltM, 

Ltfttgrtlt't Minor PttrmM, p. llfl 

AGLER. A needle-case. It is the translation 
of acuar in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45, a list of 
words written in Lancashire in the fifteeotb 

AGLET. The tag of a Iacc, or of the points for- 
merly used in dress, and which was often cut 
into the shape of little images. A little pktc 
of any mettti was eailcd an nglrt. Cf. Coventry 
Mysteries, p. 211; Spanisli Tragedy, iv. 4; 
Cunningham's Kcvels Accounts, p. 42 ; Baret's 
Alvcarie, in v. Mr. Way tells us the word pro- 
perly denotes the tag, but is often used to sig- 
nify the hice to which it was attached. See 




i'roiiipt. Parr. p. 8. Mr. HarUliorne, Salop. 
Antiq. p. 30.1, »n>«, " u upanKle, the gold or 
silver tinsel ornamenting the <lrcs« of a show- 
man or rope dancer." 

AGLET-BABY. A diminutive being, not cvcccd- 
iuu in iii/.e the tag of a point. Sec Taming of 
llic Shrew, i. 2. 

AGLETS. The ratkini of the hazel are called 
aj/lel» in Hcrard's Herbal, ed. Johnson, p. 1439. 
Ker»ey gives them the more generic interpre- 
tation of atUkerte. See Higios' Nomenclator, 
p. U2. 

AOLOTYE. To glut; to (atitfir. 

To innkcn wilh papclotrt 
To a^totye with hprc gurlra 

Tliat grwtcn .iflur fode. /»mt* PtoHghman, p. Mfl. 
AGLUTTTD. Choked. 

And whan the ii waking, ahe uiayMh to put over 
«t thcntring, and it it agiuttyt nnd kelyd wjrth the 
gletle that «hc tiAlh engenderc<t. 

Acio* of m. j4tl»ltt, aig. C. U. 
AGLYFTE. FrighUned. 

Ai he itoile *o Bore ntf^nfle, 

Hya rl;t hand up he lyfle. MX. Harl, I"(PI. f.M. 
AONyVlL. A hang-nail, either on the finger or 
toe- I'aUgrave has " agnayle upon one's twi." 
Cf. Cotgrave, in v. Agaimn: Florio, in v. 
Ghiiindolt ; Minsheu, in v. In MS. Med. 
Line, f^ 300, is a receipt " for agnat/tt «ne 
mans fete or womaui." (./.-S.) 
AGNATION. Kindred by the father's side. 

AONES-OAY. On the eve of St. Agnes many 
divinations were practised by maids to discover 
their future husbands. Aubrey, p. 136, directs " on St. Agnes's night take a row of pins, 
an<l pull out every one, one after another, saying 
a pnteninster, sticking a pin in your sleeve, and 
you will dream of him or her you shall marry." 

And on iweet SL Anna's night. 

Feed them with a promlwd tight ; 

How of huttiandt, tome of loven. 

Which an empty i]re.ini dltcovera- 

Bfn Jonmin't Sdfyr, 1003. 

Brand, who gives these lines without a refer- 
ence, reads " St. Agnes" in the first lilies which 
it, 1 believe, Aubrey's emendation. Aimea, 
or Agnes, was a virgin who refused the ad- 
dresses of the son of the prefect of Rome, as 
she was, she said, espoused to Christ. See 
Becon's Works, p. 139; Keightlcy's Fairy 
Mythology, ii. 143. 
AGNITION' An acknowledgment. Muye. 
.VONIZE. To acknowledge ; to confess. See 
Othello, i. 3; Hawkins' Engl. Dram. i. 258, 
269; Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 146. 
AGNOMINATE. To name; to designate from 
any meritorious action. See Locrine, iii. 3. 
Minsheu ct|>lains agnomination to be a " sur- 
name that one obtainctb for any act, also the 
name of an house that a man conimeth of." 
A-GO. (1) Gone; passed away. Sommel. 
or rc'loai hi ne Uketh hede, 
Al thilk Iretpu it a-gv, 

Wrlnhtt Pol. Si>ngt, p, 1!/;, 
To rarle wilh Cocke they asked bow lo do, 
And 1 lolde them he wat w-^. 
Curie Lortll— Bolt, p. 14. 

(2) To go. Cf. MS. Harl. 1701, t 4. 
Wolde jc bcleve my wrdyt at y, 
llyt thulde a.^ and aokun ky. 

MS. Badl. 41}. 
A-GOD-CHEELD. God shield you ! Pegrje. 
AGON. Gone ; past. H'eiit. Cf. Harrowing of 
Hell, p. 15; Wright's Political Songs, p. 149; 
Hardyug's Chronicle, f. 123; Chaucer, Cant. T, 
2338 ; Constitutions of .Masonry, p. 24. 
or bras, of tllver, and of golde. 
The world U paatld and agvnt. 

Cwoer, MS. Sue. Amtlf. 194, f. 90. 
Go and lokc wcle to that stone, 
Tyll tlie thyrd dey be agvnt. 

MS. AthmoU 01. r. 139. 
AGONE. Ago. Var. dial 

At, a while agvne, they made me, yea me, to mis- 
take an honest icolout pursuivant for a seminary. 
B*nh. Fair, II. I. 

AOONIOUS. Agonizing; full of agony. Fabian, 

AGONIST. A champion ; a prize-fighter. Kider. 

AGONIZE. To fight in the ring. Mim/ieu. 

A-GONNE. To go. 

Syr Key artiW uppon the morro»-ne. 
And loke hit hort, and woldo a-gunne. 

Sj/r GoMiQifntt p. Mil. 

AGOO. (1) Ago? Since. Dontt. 

(2) Gone. Somemt. 

Evyr lere in thamc, and that it al my woo, 
Farewclc, Fortune I my Joye it al «giM! 

L^tlptte't Minnr Poemi, p. 44. 

AGOOD. In good earnest ; heartily. 

The world laughed agitod at theie Jcttt, though, tft 
say tooth, thee could tiardly alTord it, for fcare of 
writhing her tweet favour. 

.^trniiw'e Hut </ NirmUt, 1008, 
AGORE. Gory ? 

And of bis hauberk ogm-e. 

And of his aketoun a fot and more. 

jlrthttut atut Martin, p. 937. 
A-GOTH. Passes away. 

Oe the lef, other lie the loth. 
This worldet wele al afmh. HtlU). Jntli/. 1 Idtl, 
AGR.VDE. To be pleased vrith. Sec Florio, 

in V. Gradire. 
AGRAMEDK. Angered. (,y..S.) 
Lybeauut wat tore atcharred. 
And yn hyi hcrle agrametlt. 
For he haddc y-lorc hyt twordr. 

AGR.\STE. Showed grace and favour. Spenttr. 
AGRAUNTE. Satiated with. (.Y.-A^.) 
Thoghe every day a man hyt haunle, 
5yt wyl no itian be hyt agnjunlw. 

MS. Badl. 415. 
AGRAYDE. To dress, to decorate. 
Thyn halle agrojntr, and hole the walk's 
With clodes, and wyth ryche palles. Ltmn/U, 00^ 
AGILVZING. " To send agrazing," seems to be 
a phrase applied to the dismissal of a servant. 
See Cotgrave, in v. Earnyer. 
ACRE. (1) In good part: kindly. (.1.-ff.) 
Whom 1 nt" foundr froward, ne fell. 
But toke agrf all whole my plale. 

Ilom. pf Iht Rfe. *M9, 

(2) Kind. (jt-N.) 

Uemttcy(\i\\e,*i4rr4, take parlr, and lutnwhat pirtloonr, 

DUdcyne nott lo htip u«. Kcpe you frame dlicem^Inunf. 

its, Harl. 7a90. f. Xf. 







(3) To pletue. Some editions read angre in the 
following pansge : 

If bmrmc afre me, whcrto plalnc 1 thtvne. 

Tniitui arut VrtitHdtf \. AW, 

AGREABIUTK. Ensiniiis of temper; equn- 

niniitv. Sec Urry's Chaucer, p. 309. 
ACREAGE. To allege. 

Neither dyd t ever put in question yf I shouMc 
doe you right, at you appearo to agreag*, but ontye 
what waa the ordynarye judgement. 

Kgrriiin Paprrtt p. S26. 

ACREAT. Altogether. To take b work affrni, 

isto take the whole work altogether at a price. 

Sec Barct'g Alvcarie, and Ulount's Glosso- 

graphia, in v. 

AGUEEABLE. Assenting to any proposal. For. 

AG REEABLY. In an uniform manner ; perfectly 

At last he met two kolghu to him unkuowne. 
The which were armed both agrtcaVly. 

Faeriw V«fen«t VI. »il. 3. 

\ A-GREP. In grief. Cf. Rom. of the Rose, 7573. 
He daaacheth forth orerward, 
Tlico othres romen afterward : 
He Mughle hU linyghlii in mcschef, 
He tok hit In hcurte a-grt/. 

Kyng AlUiaunitert 3785. 
And, oecc mine, oc take it nat n-gr^fr, 

Tnt!u4 and CrttcUe, Ul. S64. 
Madame, takes not o-freve 
A thyng that y yow say. Sir Dtgrtmnl, 4fi7. 
AGREG. To augment; to aggravate. 
And some tonges venemous of nature. 
Whan they perceyve that a prince Is mevcd. 
To agrtf bys yre do their busy cure. 

Bochiu, b. ill. c. 20. 
Of ravync and of sacrilege, 
Wbiche maketh the cotucieocc a/freggt. 

Gower, MS. Sor. .tntii/. 134, f. 1711. 
That ]c mjrjten my gref thus have breggid. 
As je have done, lo sore I waa offreggUL 

Occlnt. MS. UM. r. SM. 
, AGREMED. Vexed. See Agramtde. 
Ac tite douk anon up stert, 
As be ttiat was ogrenKd In hert. 

C]/ «/ ^onetJirr, p. 84. 

AGRESSE. To approach. (Lai.) 
Beholde, I sec him now agrtste. 
And enter into place. 

ifaivA-Jiw's Bngt. Dram. 1 SA8. 
■ A-CRET. In sorrow. (A.-S.) 
And giff ^e hoUlc ua a-gret, 
Shall I never cle mete. Sir D<igm>aM, llfio. 
IGRETHED. Dressed ; prepared. (A.-S.) 
Clothed ful komly for ani kud kingcs looe, 
la fodc clothes of gold ttgrethnt ful riche. 

WUtiam and the Werwlf^ p. 3. 

VTE. To grieve any one; to vex. Cf. 
hf» Monjiilic Letters, pp. 18«, 189; llur- 

j's Chronicle, f. 102; lloliiished, IliM. of 
I IirJand. p. 80 ; Tlie Basyn, xvii. ; Gy of Wur- 

l wikr. pp. 295, 318 ; Coventry Mysteries, p. 
K 41 J Morte d'Arlhur, i. 9, 377; Ilartshomc's 
■ Met. Tales, p. 189; Arch. x.xi. 71. 
^B Sjx BtljK therof was agrtryd, 

^B Aad as swythc smote of his heitd. 

^V MX. Cantab. Ff. il. »), f. 129. 

f tU was agmt/^ and nye o«te of wyt, Md. f. 24*. 

AGRIOT. A tart cherry. /InmM. 
AtjRlPPA. Apparently the name of a herb. It 
is mentioned in a recijw for the stone in MS 
Line. Med. f. 298. 
AGKISE. To terrify ; to disfignrc ; to be tern- 
tied. It is both an active and a neuter verb. 
Cf. Brii. Bibl. 1. 301 ; Cov. Myst. p. 331 ; Gy 
of Warwike, p. 2t.'i: Florio' in v. Ugdm 
PlowTiiau'a Tale, 2300 ; Troilus and Creseide. 
u. 1135. 

Other bringc him in such turmeotes 
That he therKir agrytt. 

MS. CW/. THn. On». tj. 
Thys man for fere wax sore ogrytyn. 
He spak wlian he was rj-syn. MS. BudL 485. 

In the ende of herv-yit wynde shalle rise, 
AnJ whete shalle in the felde <i^i«r. 

MS. Canlab. Ff. v. 48, f. 77. 

AG ROM ED. Angered. (A.-S.) 

The kyng wes ful sore ojromed. 
Ant of y> wordes luithe aschomed. 

Chrvnirle af Sngtamd, SOL 

AGROPE. To grope ; to search out. 
For who so wcle it weJ agropt. 
To hem bllongclh alle F.urope., ,lfs. Soc. Aniiii. 134, f. 173. 

In love agniMlh oute the sore. Ibid. t. 144. 

AGROS. Shiithlercd ; trembled ; was otTrighted. 

Cf. Sc\yn Sages, 886; Kjnig Horn, 132G; 

Troilus and Creseide, ii. 930; Legcnde of 

Thisbe of Babylon, 125. 

The wlf ogmt of this answere. 

And seyd, have thou no power me to dcre * 

Arihnur and UerliNt p. 30. 
Gli with ipors smot the stede. 
As a man 'that hadde nede. 
That Are under the fct aros; 
Nas ther uon that hlra agnu, 

Gy of Waru ikct p. 4U. 
Strife and chest ther aros. 
Hod) kiil{t tbetof agmt. 

MS. Omtab. Ff. v. 48, f. IDG. 

AGROTID. Cloyed ; surfeited. 

Out I am all agruU here befome 

To write of bem that in lore ben forswome. 

Vrry'* Chaaetr, p. 3^, 
Gorges agmteitd entxkssed their entrayle. 

Bochat, b. T. c. SU. 
AGROTONE. To surfeit with meat or drink. 
Prompt. Pare. The same work gives the sub- 
stantive affrotonynfff. 
AGROUND. To the ground. 

And how she fel flat downr before his feetc tnntnd. 

H«mm and Jtillal, IMt. 

AGRUDGE, Palsgrave lias " I aymdgt, I am 

agreved, je suis grcvc." 
.\GRU.M. A disease of hawks, for which a re- 
ceipt is given in the Book of St. Alban's, »ig. 
C. ii. 
AGRYM. Algorism ; arithmetic. Palsgrave is 
the authority for tliis form of the word, " to 
count by cyfera of agrym." 
AGUE. (1) Awry ; obliquely : askew. North. 
(2) Swelling and inflainiualioii fmni taking cold. 
E(ut. Sliake«p4'arc has ayurd in the sense of 
chilly. See Coriolaniis, i. 4. In Norfolk on 
ague in the face is said to be invariably cured 
by an unguent made of the leaves of elder, 
colled ague-oinlmml. 




AGUE-TREE. The sassafras. Crranl. 
AGUU^ll. A iieeillc-case. {.I.-N.) 
A lUrir nctUI forth I drowct 
Out of aguUer quclnt l-nowe, 
Aod gBn IhU nedill thredc anonc. 

ilura. <tf Iht Rn»t, M. 
Afil'ISB. To put on ; to An*i ; to adorn. Spm- 
ner. More, as quottMl by RichartUoii, unes it 
as a Eulistantivc. 
AGUKT. To he guilty; to oflcnd; to fail in 
iliilv tovarils anyone; to sin against. Cf. 
Piters I'loiigliinan, pp. 273, 518, 561; Rot). 
GInuc gloss, in v. {A.-S.) 

Thannc Luvifcr a-guUt In that tyde. 
Ami allv that hpldcn with hym id pride, 
Crltt on hym rengcauncc gin take. 
So that alle they by-oomcn deTclei hlakc. 

MX. Vovce 336, f. ID. 

AGVTAIN. Going. Somenet, The aame county 
has ag%em fur gone. 

AOYE. (1) Aside; askew. North. 

(2) To guide ; fo direct ; to govtmi. 

Syr Launfal ichud tje vtward of halle, 

For to a^9 byi gtste* ullc. l/tunfat. 023. 

AGYNNE. To begin. Cf. RiUon's Anc. S. p. 20. 
Thou wendcai that ich wrohle 
That y net ne thohtc. 
By Itymcnlld forte lyego, 
Y-wy» ich h(t withiugge, 
Ne thai ich ner asynnn 

Er ich Sudcnnc Wynne. Kifng Horn, 1985 

AH. (1) I. Yorkth. 
(2) Yisi. Derbyih. 

A-IIANG. Hanged ; been hanged. Ilob. Glouc. 
AH-HUT. a negative, for " nay, but." I'ar.dial. 
A-IIEIGHT. On high. 

rroni the dread cummit of Ihil chalky bourn 
Look up a-hrisM ; the ihrill. gorg'd lark to far 
Cannot be seen or heard. Do t>ut look up. 

KiMf Ltar, Iv. 6. 
A-HERE. To hear. 

Of oon the be<t ye mown* «.Aer«, 

That hyght Ottovynn. (Mttpian, S3. 

A-HIGH-tONE. A phrast- used by Middleton, 
i. 262, apparently meaning ^HiVe aloKt. Sec 
also another instance in Mr. Dyce's note on 
the above place. 
All INT. Behind. Norlh. 
A-III5T. Was called. {.1..S.) 

That amtabul maide Aliaaundrine <i-Aijr. 

Hill, mid llit tfrntvt/, p. 29. 

A-HOIGHT. Elevated; in good spirits. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Cheeal, Gogue ; Florio, in v. 

A-HOLD. To lay a ship a-hnU, to slay her or 
place her so that she may hold or keep to the 
winil. See the Tempest, i. 1, as explained by 
Richardson, in v. 

AHORSE. On horseback. North. It also oc- 
curs in Robert of Gloucester. Sec Heamc's 
Gloss, in V. 

AHTE. (1) Eight. 
Aitit moneth. ant davoa thre. 
In Engelfind king wci he. Chnm. n/ Englitiut, loll). 

(!i) Poasenions ; property. Cf. W. Mapes, p. 348. 
Ah I feyrc thlnga, freoly bore I 
When roe on woweth, both war blfore 
Whurh U worldct aMc. ITrifkrt l^nc fottrt, p. 46. 

(3) Ought. Prrcj/. 
AHUH. Awry; aslant. Var. diaL 
A-HUNGRY. Hungry. Shak. 
AHY. Aloud. 

But for ihc ipake ever vyleyny 
Among here fclawt al oAy. US. Hart. 1701, f. II. | 
AHYGll. On high. 

And owt of the loud no myghte schyp go, 
Bote bytweonc rochea two. 
So ahi/gh so auy mon myghte icone. 
That two mylewai bytweonc. Kyx; .<n<a<«id<rr, fiiSS. | 
One It schlppe that ulleth In the lee, 
A egle aAy}0, a wonne In lawe. 

MS. Bib. Keg. IS A. X. r. I Ilk I 
AH5E. Fear. 

Than It >pac Olibrious, 
Hath ache non nA j« .- 
Alle the paincs jc hlr do, 
HIr Ihenke it bot pUwe. J>/r. CtfAo/. p. M.] 

AID. In Staflxirdshire, a vein of ore goingl 
downwards out of the perpendicular line, i» ' 
called an aid. In Shropshire, a deep gulter 
cut across ploughed land, and a reach in the , 
river, arc also railed aidn. 
AIDLE. To addle ; to cam. North. 
A IE. An egg. 

And for the llthlng of a ducke. 
Or of an apple, or an aie. Vrrg*t C^ucer, p. 1U5»| 
AIEI.S. Forefatheni. {ji..N.) 
To gyve from youre hiiret 
That youre alrit yow Icfle. Pirr* /Vou^umn, p. .114. 

AlEli-DEW. Manna. Sec lligiiu's Adapialiun J 

of Juniiis's Noinenclator, p. 106. 
AiESE. Pleasure ; rccrcatiou. 

Then wide the Jurrour, Sync 1 may not by it, lete 
it me to fcrme. He «eide. Sir, I wil nether lelie It, , 
ne lete it to fcrme, for the alete that it dothe mr. 

Gtf<ra /(iimanurwiN, p. 4.19. 1 

AIG. (1) A haw. Lane. 

(2) Sourness. North. 

AIGHENDALE. A measure in Lancashire con- 
taining seven ijiuirts. .-/nA. 

AIGIIS. An axe. Lane. 

AIGIIT. Ought ; owed. >'or*i*. 

AIGHTEOEN. The eighth. 

The atghtrdcn dal, ich metelvc. 

So the ax pell lu the helve. 

That (chal hewe the wal atwo 

That had wrtiut me thit wo. Stvjm Sa^^. .TO. j 

AICLE. A spangle; the gold or silver tinsel 
ornamenting the dress of a showman or rope- 
dancer. Salop. 

AIGRE. Sour ; acid. Vor***. 

AIGREEN. The house-leek. Krrtiy. 

AIGULET. The clasp of a buckle, ".ligwlel la i 
fasten a clospc in." — Palngrave, C. 17. Spenser 
lias ofigulelt in the Faerie Queene, II. iii. 26. 

AIK. All oak. North. 

AIL. To lie indisposed. Var. diaL GiD gives 
aiVas the Lincolnshire pronunciation at 1 mil. 
Sec Guest's Eughsh Rhvthius, ii. 205. 

AIIXY. Alice. .VorM. ■ 

.\ILE. (1) A nrit that heth where the grand- 
father, ur great-grandfather was seised in liii 
demaines as of fee, of any land or tenement in 
fee simple, the dny that he dietl, and a stranger : 
alwtcth or entreth the same day and dispos- \ 
ictaeth the heir. Coterll. 



(2) A wing, or any port of a hiiildinK flanking 
another. The tcnu is usually apjihed to the 
pasuget nf a churcli, and it seems neceuory to 
call attention to the technical meaning of the 
wonL Sec Britton'i Arch. Diet, in v. 
All.EU. Ueprcsscd. (J.-S.) 
Schcnt war the Mhrewes« 

And ciM uiuclo. 
For af the NevU-cio« 

Ncdn biiil thatn kncle. Mlnoft Poems, p. 41. 

AILETTES. Small plates of steel placed on the 

ihouldcrs in ancient armour, invented in the 

reign of Edward I. SeeArch. xvii. 300, xix. 137. 

AILS. Beards of barley. £wex. HoUyband 

has, " the nlet or beard npon the eare of 


AILSE. AUce. ^'orlh. 

AIM. (1) To intend; to conjecture. Yorlt/i. 
Shake^|>ea^; has it as a substantive in the same 
sense in the Two Gent, of Verona, iii. 1. 

(2) To aim at. Grfenr. 

(3) " To give aim," to stand within a convenient 
distance from the butts, to infunu the archers 
how near their arrows fell to the mark. Me- 
taphorically, it is equivalent to, to direct. See 
Collier's Shakespeare, i. 167 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
p. 24 ; True Tragedie of Ridiard the Third, 
p. 27. 

(4) " To cry aim," in archer)', to encourage the 
archers by crying out aim, when they were 
about to shoot. Hence it came to be used for, 
to applaud, to encourage, in a general sense. 
See King John, ii. 1. A person so employed 
wuh called an aim-erirr, a word which is mito- 
phiirically U6C<1 for an abettor, or encourager. 
Sec Nares, in v. 

AIN. (l)Ovm. North. 
(2) Eyes. 

Than was Sir Amit glsd and fain ; 
For )olc he wcpe with his oin. 

Amii and MmlloUK, !l3a. 
AINCE. Once. A'or/A. 
AJNOUE. Anew. Rob. Glow. 
AJNT. To anoint. It is figuratively used (a de- 
note B Iwaliug. Suffolk. 
AIR.(1) Early. 

1 grlrv'd jrou never in all my life, 

Ncllhrr by laic or air ; 
Vou have great iln if you would »lay 
A silly poor lleggjr. HnOin Hno6, i. I07, 

(2) Sa beir. Cf. Kyng lUisannder, 7C3 ; Mioot's 
Poems, p. 14. 

Than was his fader, tothe to aay, 

Ded and blrid In the clay ; 

His mir was Sir Cioun. Cv "/ Warwilte, p. XI. 

(3) Appearance. " The air of one's face. Si/m- 
Metria yturdam fiaeomni/orNm ttUttu." — &trn- 

(4) Previously; before. Sec .,/re. 

AIRE. An aerie of hawks. Mifffe. Howell 
^m terms a well-conditioned hawk, " one of a 

H good aire." 

■ AiKEN. Eggs. 

^H Another folk there it ncit, ai hoggra rrcpcih i 

^H AflcT CTat>t>en and atrcH hy ikippen and lepctb. 

^^ Ayr,; .lIlMHhdtr, 4jWI. 

iL,- - 

36 AI.X 

AIRLING. A light airy |>er«on ;■ coxcomb. 

Some raorc there tie. slight airlinp, will IM won 
With dogs and hones. JonaoH'* Catutnet L & 

AlUMS. Anns. Norllk. 

jVIUN. (1) Iron. Bums uses this word, and it 
also occurs in Maundevilc's TraveU. See glos- 
sary, in V. 
(2) To earn. JfiUs. 

AIRT. A point of the comjiaas. North. 
AIRTII. Afraid. North. 
AIUTIIFUL. Fearful. North. 
AIRY, All aiery ; an eagle's nest. See this form 
of the word in Mossinger's Maid of llouom, i. 
2. It is also used for the brood of young in 
the neat. 
AIS. Ease. 

Whanno the getlei weren at ai*t 
Thai wentcD horn fram his paleii. 

Tht Srvtm Saga, 1860. 
AISE. Axweed. Skinner. 
AISH. Stubble. Hant: 

And 10 the contreye that 30 bcoi of 

Sethlhe ^c schuUen l-wcode, 
Wllhaulc travail al ainirHrht, 
Andthareowrelifcndc. MS.lattt. KW.f. 10(> 
AISILYIIE. Vinegar. 

And In ml mete that gaf galle tole. 

And mi thrl>l with auil^hi drank thai me. 

MS. Sodt. 4S5j f n. 
AISLICIIE. Fearfully. (^.-S.) 
There 1 aunlredo me Id, 

And aisliche 1 seyde. Pta-M Plmgttman, p. 471, 
AISNECIA. Primogeniture. Skimur. 
AIST. Thou wilt. Line. 
AISTRE. A house. Tliis word is in common 
use in Staflbrdshirc, Shropsliire, and tome 
other counties, for the fire-place, the back of 
the fire, or the fire itself: but fnniierly it was 
usetl to denote the house, or some particular 
part of the house, chambers, or apartmeata. 
AISYLL. Vinegar. AftiuAeu. 
AIT. A little island in a nver where osieni grow. 

See the Times. Aug. 20, 1844, p. 6. 
AITCII, An acb, or pain ; a paroxysm in an in- 
termitting disorder, Var, dial. See a note 
on this pniniindation of acAe in Doswell's 
Malonc, vii, 99, 
AITCII-HONE. The cdge-lione. far. dial. 
AITCIIORNING. Aconiing; gathering acorns. 

AlTll, An oath. A'orM. 
AITHE. Swearing. {.4..S.) 

Pride, wrathc. and glotooie, 
Mtht, ileuthe, and lecherle. 

Arthotu aiMl Merlin, p. .11. 
AITHER, (1) Either, North. Some of th<! 
provincial glossaries explain it, aiu, eaeh. 
Chcae on aUMer hand. 
Whether the lever ware 
iilnk or atille tUnde. Sir rrittrnm, p. IM. 

(2) A ploughing. North. 

jU-TO. Always. So explained in the glossary 
to the A|>ology for LuUord Doctrines, attri- 
buted to WicklifTe, in v. 

AITS. Oats. North. 

AIXES. An ague. North. 




AIYAII. Tlic fat alwut tlic kidney of veal or 
mutton. SuffoUc. 

A J AX. Pninounreil with the second syllable 
long. A nilly quibble Iwlween this word and 
a ^aiM was not uncoiunion among Eli/Jibctban 
writers ; anil Slmkcspeare alludes to it in this 
way in Love's Labour* Lost, v. 2. Sir John 
llarringrton was the principal mover in this 
joke. See an ajiposite quotation in Douce's 
llluttratious, i. 245. 

AJEE. .\wry ; uneven; V'ar. dial. 

AJORNEI). Adjoiuiied. 

Mo ajomrd thani to rclle In the North it Carlcle. 

Langiuft't ChrvHivle, p. 3Uff. 

AJUGfiEDE. J«dge<L 

The gmlllckte jowdle, ajufgtdc wUh lurtlM, 
Fro (ierae unto Geronc. by Jhesu of bevcnr. 

Morlt Artlturt, US. LOitnln, I. tS. 

AJUST. To adjust. 

Fnr whan tytne b, I ihal move and a-jH»t loch 
thingM that porcvn hem ful depe. 

Vrrj^t CAuMcer, p. 907. 

AK. But. (,/.-S.) 

Alt loke that we never mora 
Ntgo fette in tjew lore. 

nrrlfhfl Pol. SoKft, p. 211. 

AKALE. Cold. (J.-S.) See ^eale. 
That night he tat wel Bore akat€. 
And hU wtr lal wanne a-bedde. 

Stvyn Stiget, 1519. 
AKARO. Awkward. North. 
AKCOIIN. An acorn. Cf. Florio, in v. .rfcii»iii> ; 
Urry's Chaucer, p. 364, siielt aiehome. (jf.-S.) 
He clamlw hye upon a tree. 
Aniiakevm§ (or hungur ete he. 

.tf.<i. CanliiU. Ft. II. .18. f 131. 
AKE. An oak. .Ikf-appilln arc mentioned in 
MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 285. 

Tak everferae that Rrewei on the ■!(«« and tak 
the rutcs in Averellf and waache hit wtle.. 

Ar/fv. Aniui. L S>. 
It wai dole to ave 
Sir Eglamour undlr ane akft 
Tlllcon the tnomc that liegutine wake. 

MS. Linnln A. 1. 17. t. 140. 

AKEDOUN. The acton, q. v. 

Through brunny and tcheld, to the oiredauw. 
He tt>-tMrfl atwo hia tronchon. 

Kutg AliKUimler, SIU. 
AKEI.DE. CooleiL (J-S.) 

The kyng byre fader waa old man, and drou to 

roblene. [deatreiao. 

And the anguycse of hya dojter hym dude more 

And aAre/dtf hym wel the more, lo that ft-ble he wat. 

RiA. Gfouc. p. Mi. 

AKELE. TocooL (.i.-S.) 

And Uujte. yf Invc be to hot, 
111 what maner it tchulde tikele, 

Cvwrr, US. Smr. .^nli^. 134, f. ISO. 
Nym ;emc that the fury cole* 

Moche a.krtelh mo, 
And iholle into the ttronge pyne 
Of hcllc bryngc the. 

MS. <W;. Ttin. Onn. 37. 

AKENNYNGE. Iteconnoitring ; discovering. 

At the othtr aide alcrnnirfife, 
Thejr tygb Daric the kyng. 

AKEIL (1) Sir F. Madden, glossarv' lo Syr 
Gawayne, conjectures this to be an error, for 
tich a, each, every. Sec p. 53. Us uicauing 
seems rather lo lie tither. It may be an error 
for aither, or ather. 

(2) The ev])rc*«ion " AaZse o*fr" occurs inGani. 
uicr Gurlon's Needle, i. 2, but is eonjeelitred 
to be au error for " halse anker," or halsc 
anchor. The halse, or luibser, was a particular 
kinil uf cable. 

(3) An acre ; a field ; a measure of length. 

The I'TtmKhetnen thai made rcculle 
Wel an akm leflgthr. MS. Athmolr 3.1, f. 13. 
AKER-LOND. Cultivated land. (Out.) 
In thiike time. In al thii londc. 
On aker-timd ther ncs y-founde. 

ChroH. o/ Bngtandt IG. 
AKElt-M.\N, A husbandman. See the Nomeu- 
clator, 1585, p. 513 ; and Florin, in v. Jralvre. 
Akc aker-mtn wercn in the feld. 
That wereo of him 1-war. 

MS. Laxd. IM, r. iflS. 

AKETllER. Indeed. Depnn. In the Exinoor 

St-olding, ji. 1, we are told it means, " quoth 

he. or quoth her." 

AKEVERED. Recovered, 

Sche akevfrrd parmafay* 
And waa y-led In liter. 

.^rfAeur and Merlin^ 
AKEWARD. Wrongly. 

Tl)u« uao men a newo getle. 
And thU world aktivard actte. 

MS. AsltmoltAi, f. in 

AKN AWE. On knees ; kneeling. 

And made mony knyght oJtriairo, 
On mcdewc, in feld. dod liylaur. 

K^nf Miauwtlrr, Xt\0. 

A-KNAWE. To know ; to acknowledge ; known ; 

Pot jlr y do hir It ben a-knaurf. 
With wild hon do me to-drawe. 

Jrthour tind MrrtiH, p. 42. 
And teyd, Thcf, thou achalt hraUwe, 
Hot thou wilt be the sothe nknawe^ 
Where thou the coupe fond I 

,<mi< and JmlUmii, MiW. 
For Jhrtu lore, y pray the. 
That dietl on the rode tre, 
Thi right name be aknawe. 

Cy itr Waneilce, f. 33S. 

Dot we beseke jnw latci uf gas, and we achalle 
mak nktwKtrttv untitle hym jour grete glory, ytur 
ryallce and jour noblaye. MS. ZJ/i(Wn, f. ff 

AKNEN. On knees. 

Tho Athelbnii aatounde, 

Fel lUrnen to grounde. K^g Horn, 340. 

Sire Euttaa Mt adoun aknt ; 

Loverd, he aede, thin ore. 

MS. jlthmoie 43, r. 173. 
A-KNEWBS. On knees. 

To-fom him a.kneWN Iche fel. 

Arthvur and MertlH, p. OS. 

AKNOWE. Conscious of. Used witli the auxil 
liary verb, it appears to signify, lo acknow- 
Icilgc. Cf. Gloss, to L'rry ; Scvyn Sages, 1054 ; 
Courte of Love, 1 199 ; Prompt. Panr. p. 280 i 
Suppl. to Hardyng, f. 7 ; Seven Pen. Psalms, 

p. 22 ; Gcsta Ronianonini, pp. 326, 360, 36K 
363; MS. Aalimole 59. f. 130. 
And he wnle In hys Ivtc throwe, 
Surow fut byt *ynne, aoil be of hyt aAti»u>« 

JtfS. Oinra6. Kf. II. 38, f. .*». 
Be than aknowft* to me openly, 
And bide It nou^t, and 1 the wll Tclevvn. 

Boetiua. MS. Soc. Arrtl^ IM. f. SB?. 
I uid my wif arc thync omm. 
That arc ve we) aknowm. 
Curtw Mun.U. MS. Cott. Trin. Cantab, f. 90. 

A-KNOWE. On knee. Cf. K. Alls. 3279. 
^•ttnmtM he tat, and aeyd, merci. 
Mine o«cQ twerd take, twlaml. 

JrlhoHr and MeHlii, p. SAfl. 

AKSIS. The apie. 

I Itkyn uche a lyrifiil »oulc to a »rko man, 
That li y'Klukyd and schmt with the akH*. 

Judcia^'a l*uems, p, 47> 

AKSKED. Asked. 

And afUrwardcf tho Mme Pnite akaktit me whAt 
IKWM 1 hade harde of Kynge Edward, and 1 an- 
taered hymc, none at all. Afthtrot-'gia, xiIH. 23. 

AKVIt An acorn. 

The boiM fedyttg ii proprcllche y^leped aJtyr of 

ookyt beryn^ and bukraoat. MS. tUtdl. Mfl. 

I AL. Will. Ynrlah. In tlie Nortli, wc have the 

cllipiical fomi a' I, for / trilt, and in other coud- 

Ues the tunc for he will. 

ALAAN. Alone. Surlh. 

■ .^ the ataan 
And Ihjr Troyanea, to have and rnhabiir. 

Har^irrtg'i i'ftrrirticlf, f. 14. 

ALABLASTER. (1) A corrupt prununriation 
n( atataalrr.itiW common, and also on archaism. 
Set the Monosticon, Iv. 542 ; Wright's Monastic 
liCllcrs, p. 208. 

(8) An arbalest. 

Bui lurely thry wer lore aaiautetl. and marrey. 

loualy hurte vtth the shot of ttlablaalera and eroite* 

bowes, bur they defendeil Iheniielfea k> maiirully that 

their eoemlea gat small advauntage at their handet. 

UaU, Heart f'J. t. SI. 

AlADRE. A kind of fur. 

And eke hU cloke with nlaUtt 
And the knottea of golde. 

its. Rawl. Potl. 137, r. ii. 
ALACCIIE. To fell. (./.-.V.) 

The Frenschc Laid on with awerdli brlit, 

And lalden duun hur fon, 
Atle that that than alarehe mi;t t 
Ther 114 aacapeden nan. M!t. AMhmatt 33, f. 41. 
A-LADY. Ladj-day. Suffolk. 
AL-ALONE. Quite alone. 

The hlfihe God. whan he had Adam maked. 
And uw him ■/ atone belly naked. 

Chancer, CuHt. T. MOO. 

ALAMIRE. The lowest note hut one in Guido 
Aretine't scale of music Sec Skclton's Works, 
u. 279. 
ALAND. (1) On land; to land. 

Where, a« ill fortune would, the Dane with frt^«h 
Waa lately come aland. [tupi'ilei 

Draylim'M Pol. ed. 17M, p. PII3. 
(2) A kind of bulldog. In Spanish aUmo. See 
Docange, in v. Alantui Chaucer, Cant.T. 2150; 

L Ellis's Mctr. Rom. ii. 359; Wartcn's Hist. Enf^l. 
Poet. ii. 115. On a spare k-af In MS. Coll. 



copic of tt/ounityM." Tlicy were cliieflf used far 
hunting the Imar. See Slmtt's Sports and 
Pastimes, p. 13. Tlic Ma>-stre of the Game, 
MS. ESodl. 5'l(i, c. Ifi, divides them into three 
kinds. See further oliservations on them in 
Sir 11. Dnilcn's notes to Twici. 
ALANE. Alone. \'ortfi. 
ALAN EWE. New ale; ale in corns. Sec 

iluloet's Abcedarium, 1552, in v. 
ALANG. Along. North. In North Hants they 

say, " the wind is all down alang." 
ALANGE. Tedious; irksome. In the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 9, we have it in the sense of tirange, 
translated by exlrannu, rj-olicv: 
In time of winter alangr It It; 
The foulei Icsen hct bli*. 

Jrthour anii Merlin, p. I.'ifi. 
The leTcs fallen of Ihe tre, 
Ilein alanfrlli the cunlre. /OU. 491!. 

ALANCENES. Explained by Wnber "single 
life." In Prompt. Parv. p. 9, tlratv/enem. 

HU serjaunts ofte to him come. 

And of alangrnet him underiiome. 

And [tMde] him uke a wif Jolif, 

To solace witli hll oldo llf. Setyn Sagt; I73R. 
ALANTL'M. At a distance. Sorlh. Kennctt, 
MS. I.ansd. 1033, gives the examples, " I saw 
him at afan^f UH," and, " I saw him alantum olT." 
ALAPT. I'his is the reading of one of the quartos 
in a passage in King Lear, i. 4, generally rtiad 
atlaik'd. "The first two folios read at l<uk. If 
the word be correct, it probably agrees with 
the context if explained in the same way as 
atlaik'd ! and the Irrm alapal, in the follow- 
ing passage, seems nscil in n similar sriisc. All 
editors, I believe, reject alapt. The following 
work is erroneously paged, which 1 iiieniiou in 
case any one eomiiarcs the original. 

And tJecauM the terret and privy bootome vieet 
of nature are most omnaive, and though least leene, 
yel moat undermining enemies, you must redouble 
your endeavor, not with a wand to alapct and ttrlke 
them, onely a* lovert, loath to hurt, loas like a make 
they may growe together, and getle peater strength 
againe. Mrllon'i Site-folit PatUieiatit p. IHA. 

ALARAN. A kind of precious stone. 
Here cropyng was of ryche gold. 
Here parrelle atle of alaran ; 
Here brydyll waa uf reler botde. 
On every side hangyd tieiiys then. 

MS. Liintd. JSa, t. ti. 

ALARGE. To enUrge. Cf. Uen. ix. 27. 

God alarfft Japhelh, and dwelle in the taberruulls 
of Sero, and Chanaan be the set vaunt of hym. 

Hieklun; MS. UMU. !77. 

ALARGID. Bestowed; given. 
Such part In ther U4tlvltie 
Wat then aUtrgid of t>eautle. 

Chauetr'* Drtmmt, ISO. 
ALARUM. Rider explains atamm to be a "watch- 
word showing the neemessc of the enemies." 
The tcnn occur» constiuitly in the stage direc- 
tions of old plays. 
ALAS-A-DAY. An exclamation of pity. Var.diat, 
ALAS-AT-EVER. An exclamation of pity. Yorkth. 
ALASSN. Lest. Vonet. 
ALAST. At last; lately. Cf. Ritaon'i Anc. 
Songs, p. 9; Rrliq. Auliq. ii. 217. 




Whow hath eny gnd, hopeth he oout to holde. 
Bote ever the Icveit we leoscth a/oM. 

fTrifrht't pot, Song9t p. 149. 

ALATE. (I) Lately. Cf. Pcrc>'6Rclique5,p.27; 
Wright's Monastic Inters, p. 148. 

Thy mindc ii ivrplexed with a thouunil tundr; 

pAHloDf, oUitt* free, and dow fettered, alote fwtin- 

ming in re*t> Omtm** GuyrfonfMj. 1A93. 

(2) Let. So at least the word ut expluned in 

a glouary in the Archmolo^a, xxx. 403. 
ALATRATE. To growl ; to bark. {Ut.) 

Let Cerbcnit, the dog or hcl, alatrixte what he 
lute to the contrary. 

Stubba*M Anatomie <>f Jbiuest p. 17t>. 

ALAUND. On the grass. 

Anonc to forest they fnunde, 
UoLh with home nod with houod, 
Tu breng ihe dcrc to the grond 

44laund thcr they Iny. Sir Dfgrtvont, 4tf?. 
ALAWK. Alack ; alas. Sufo/Jt, 
ALAY. (!) To mix ; to reduce by mixing. Gene- 
rally applied to wines and liquors. Se«Tliynnc*5 
Debate, p. 59. 
(2) A term in bunting, when timib dogs arc sent 
into the cry. 

with greyhoundk. aecordlnj; my ladyes tUddlng. 
1 made the o/ny to the drcre. 

Percy'* Fiietjf Pnsttfroll, p. ISO. 
ALAYD. Laid low. 

Socoure ow», Darfe the kyng .' 
Bote thou do u* loooure, 
jfta^ ts, 0&rte« thyn hoDoure I 

Kyttg^ .-itiMMnder, SSSCt. 

ALAYDB. AppUed. 

But at Ufte kyng Knowt to hym alayile 
rhcK wordes there, and thui to hym he aayde. 

Hardyng't Chrviticli, f. 119. 
ALAVNED. Concealed. 

The lowdon Mte them alfVayncd 

What that ther name* were ; 
Routand Mide, and nught ala^ned, 
Syr Houlande and tire olyverc. 

US. />.«<:<• 173, p. .'>7- 
ALBACORE. A kind of fish. (/V.) 

The atlMeort that fulloweth night and day 
The dying flah« and uke* them for hU prey. 

Brtt. Btkl. li. 4H9. 
ALBE. (I) Al))eit; although. 

JUtt that the fpake but wordes fewc. 
Wllhouten spccbe he »hall the trcuthe thewe. 

legale. MS. .ttltmole SI, t, 46. 
^tbe that he dyed In wrelchednrt. 

HochaM, b. iv. r. 13. 
(2) A loogwhitc linen gannent, worn by Roman 
Catholic priests. See Peter Langtoft', p. 319, 
and gloss, in v. 

Mon In albe other cloth whit. 

Of Jole that li grel dollt. tMtq. ,hMi. t. asi. 

ALBESPYNE. Wliitc-tliom. 

And there the Jewe* icoRied him, and madcn him 

arrowne of the braunehei of altif*n/ne, that i* white 

thorn, that grew In that tamegardyn. and aetteii it 

on hli heved. M&undeoUe'M TVatwff, p. 13. 


Take a porcyown of frcKhe ebiae, 
And wynd It In hony atbrvtM. 

ALBIAN. An old tcnii for that variety of the 

human species now calle<l the AlUno, See an 
epitaph quoted by Mr. Ilnnter in his additions 
to Boucher, in v. 
ALBIFICATION. A chemical term for making 
white. See Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit, 
pp. 128, 1G8. 

Our foumeli eke of catdn^tion. 
And of walerea a/6</io8riofi. 

CJiQtmr, OiMt, T. 15fi73, 
ALBLADE. See a list of articles in Brit, Bilil. 

ii. 397. 
ALBLAST. An instrument for shooting arrow>. 
Ooth aJfUtut and many a how 
War rvdy raUod o{ion a row. 

Minimi Poem*, p. 1(1. 
Alle that myghte wapyni here, 
Swerde, aWtoMlus, vcht-lde or t|KTe. 

.VS. LinnJt, A. L 17, f. Hi. 

.\LBI,.\STERE. A crossliow-man. Sometimes 
the crosslKiw itself. 
That aauh an alUatten ; a quarelle Icte he file. 

Uingttifi, p. SOS. 
With ttlbtoMlnM and with ttonci. 
They klowe men, and broken txinef. 

Kyng Attiituntltr, Ifil 1 , 

ALBRICIAS. A reward or gratuity given to 
OHC that brings goo<l news. {Spun.) 
Attirleina, fvlrnd, for the goo4l ncwf 1 bring you t 
Atl hai fallen nut ai well as wc could wUh. K/rlm, II. 

ALBURN. Aiibnm. SUnnrr. It ii the llaliaii 
otbvTiio, and is also Anglicised liy Florio, 
in V. 

jVLBYEN. The water. &c. Tlie meaning of (he 
lent) will be found in Ashmole's Theat. Chcin. 
Brit. p. 164. 

ALBTl"N. WTiite. 

The Mmo gale or lower was set with compaued 
Images of auncicnt pryncci. oi Horcules, Alcnandcr 
and other, byentrxyled wuorkc, rychcly lyrnncd wyth 
goldeand atbvn colours. Hnll, lUnry fill. f. 73. 

ALinSl. Sciircely. The MS. in the Heralds" 
College reads " iinnclhe." 

Tho was Breleyn thb lond of Romoynn almcst Icre, 
Ac altiy»i were yt ten jer, ar heo here a^cyo were. 

Raft. CfMie. p. HI. 

ALC.U,Y. A kind of salt. 

Sal Urtre, o/ni/y, and sail pre|>arBt. 

CImuerr, Canl. T. KHTV. 

ALCAMYNE. A mixed metal. Palsgrave has 
this form of the wool, anil also Pvtimiii's edi- 
tion of the Prompt. Parv. Sec that work, 
p. 9 ; Unton Inventories, p. 26 ; Skelton's 
Works, ii. 54. 

ALCATOTE. A silly fellow. Dmm. In the 

Exmoor Courtship, |ip. 24, 28, it is s|ielt 

alHtolle, and explained in the glossary, " a 

silly elf, or fwillsh oaf." 

Why, you know I am an ignorant, unable Irlfle in 

such business; an oaf, a simple alratotr, an Innocent. 

Foril\ n'orlt; U. Hi. 

AIXATRAS. A kind of sca-guU. {Hal.) 

\ctl Gylman took an alentnuh on the mayn top- 
mast ycrd, which ys a foolysh bynl, but good Iran 
tank meat. US. AiUit. SUOa. 

Most like to that sharp-sighted atvtttnu. 
That Iteals the air above the liquid glass. 

Dntflm't tywkr, ed. I7M. P- W- 






I A1<CE. Mm. Sir F. Madden mvks this oit on 
irregular form. See .11k. 
The kyng kjrwa the knnt. Md >he olienc n/rr. 
Ami ffylben rooay lykcr koyjt, that to^t hym lu 
hsylcc. tfirr Gairayne, p. 91. 

ALCHEMY. A meUl, the Mine u jileamynr, 
q. T. 

Four ipeedy cherubtnu 

Put to their raoulhs the loundllig atcfiemy. 

Piinidifc hMl, II. Sli. 

ALCHOCHODEN. The giver of life and years, 

the planet which bears rule in the |)rinc'i|>al 

phices of an astrological figure, when a pcriron 

is bom. See .Vlhuiiiazar, iL 5. 

ALCONOM^'E. Alchemy. 

or thllke elixir whiche men catle 
Mtmnomi/t, whichc is beralle 
Of hem thnt whilom weren wijc. 

Coirer, SI.S. *,c. ./nti<;. 134, f. ISO. 

ALU. (1) Old. 

Princei and pople, «U and jong. 
Al Ihat tpac with Duchc lung. iTninl'i Pitv)', ]> B. 
(2) Hold. 

Thof I wcft to be tiayn, 
I sal ncTer a/rf te ogayo. 

Ci« 0/ trorwidt, UUilthUl US. 
Curatui resident that ichul be, 
And «/d houthold oponly. 

Mwtelay'a Pocmi, p. 33. 

ALDAY. Always. (Dan.) 

They can aiTorce them oittay, men may fee. 
By ftinguler fredomc and domtuaelon. 

Bxliai, b. I. c. !0. 

ALDER. (1) The older. 

Thua when the aMfr hir gan foruke. 

The yonger tnke hir to his nuke. Stn/i' Sagut 37S9. 

(2) Aecordiag (o Boucher, this is " a contmon 
expression in Somersetshire fur cleaning the 
allevs in a potatoe ground." Sec Qu. Kev. 
It. 371. 

(3) Of all. Cenenlly oied with an adjectiTC in 
the superlative degree. Sec the instances 
nnder alder and alther, compounded with 
other words. 

or alle kltiges he Is flour, 
That suffVed deth for al mankln ; 
He Is our aJder Creatour I Lrg. Calhol. p. 173. 
ALDBR-BEST. Best of all. Cf, Prompt. Pari. 
pp. 9, 33 ! Gy of Warwyke, p. 22 ; Dremc of 
Chaucer, 12"'9 ; Skclton's Works, ii. 03. 
That all the best archers of the north 

Sholde come upon a day. 
And Ihey that shoteth aldcrbnl 
The game shall here away. N<.Mn Hood, i. St 
ALDEKES. Ancestors. 

of otdartM, of annes, of other aventurcs. 

Syr Go UN7yn«, p. 6. 

ALDER-FIRST. The arst of all. Cf. Rom. 
of the Rose, 1 000 ; Troilos and Cresdde, 
iii. 97. 

That tmeitll schal smile the altter^rtt dinL 

Will, nnd thr ffrruvl/, f. 
The sotidan forthwith alder/artt 
On the Crlaten smot wcl fast 

Gy 0/ fVarwiket p. 

ALnER-FOUMEST. The foremost of aU. 
EDit's Met. Rom. iii. 76. 

Wlllliim and lhrm|terour w6nt attbvj^rmutt, 

n'lll. ami Iht tVrruvi/, f. 170. 


. ia.\ 

ALDER-HIGIIEST. Highest of all. 
And nlilff-hifrhei/t tooke astronomye 
Albmusard last withe her of »evyn, 
With instruracntis that raught up liitu lievyn. 
L]/dgal^* Uinw PixMM, p. 11. 

ALDERKAR. A moist boggy plarc where 
alilcrs, or trees of lhat kind grow. See Pronipl. 
Pan-, pp. 9, 272. In the former phicc ii is 
explained loewi uii a/ni rl lalet ariom 
ALDER-LAST. LastofalL 

And ttlthr-tiut, how he In hlsciteo 
Was by the sonne sUiyne of Tholomi;. 

Bocha*, b. V. c. 4. 
ALDER'LEEFER. Instances of this coiniKiuud 
in the comparative degree are very unusual, 
An nttter-tetfir swaine I wcene, 
In the barge there not scene. 

OMtr of Catilerburit, IfiOH, iig. E. II. 

ALDER-LEST. Least of alU 

Love, ayenst the whiche who so defendith 
Himselvln moste, him aUtrlcMi avallelh. 

Tn-Uus anfi CrtMeult. I. ffl5. 

ALDER-LIEFEST. Dearest of all. This com- 

fmund was occasionally used by Elizabethan 

writers. Sec Collier's Annals of the Stage, 

i. 262 i 2 Henry VI. i. 1 ; Troilus and Crescide, 

iii. 240. 

ALDERLINGS. A kind of fish, mentioned in 

Miiffc-t's Treatise on Food, p. 175, and said by 

him to t>e betwixt a trout and a gravling. 

ALDER-LOWEST. Lowest of alL See a gloss 

in MS. Egerton 829, f. 23, and Rcliq.Anli<|. i. 7. 

ALDERMANRY. "The govcmmeut of Stamford 

was long Iwforc their written charter, bdil ami 

used amongst themselves by an ancient pre- 

5cri]ilion, which was called the Aldermaniy of 

the gtiild." — IliiMier'$ Slanfford, 1717, p. 15. 

ALDERMEN. Men of rank. 

Kny;tea and sqwyen ther schul be. 
And other aldermen, as ;e ichul se. 

CiiHir. tifUwrnry, 414. 
ALDER-MEST. Greatest of aU. Cf. Arthour 
and McrUn, p. 83 ; Legends Catholica', pp. 

Out ntdirmo*! in honour out of doute. 
The! had a relicke hlght Palladlon. 

Troilu* nnd Oeariiie, i. IM. 

ALDERNE. Tlic elder tree. Goats arc said to 
love aldemf, in Tnpsell's Hist, of Foure-footcd 
Beasts, p. 240. 
ALDER-TRUEST. Truest of all. 

First, English king, 1 humbly do request. 
That by your means our prlncesa may unite 
llvr love unto mine aUertrueet love. 

(Jreetuft fforkt, 11. IJfi. 

ALDE R.WE RST. Worst of all. 

Ve don ous aldem'tnt to spede. 
When that we han meat nede. 

Cy nf H'arullle, p. I8H. 

ALDER-WISIST. The wisest of aU. 
And tnillicbe It title well to be M, 
For mldlrwUin han therwith ben plcie<l. 

Trt-UUM and CreeeUt, I. M7. 

ALDES. Holds. 

For wham myn hcrt Is so hampered and afdas so 
nobul. n'UI. uHi< the WennV, p, 17 

ALDO. Although. &»/. 




ALDREN. Elden. 

ThUf fetien oorc aldren bl Nocc* dmwf. 
Of mete And of drloke h) fuliioo here mawe. 

U.S. Bodl. (U9, r. 1. 
AliDRIAN. A star on llic neck of the lion. 
Hhebuff hath left Ihc Ktiglc tneildional. 
And yet au-endliig wm the bcstc real, 
The gcntil Lion, with hi* ^tdrinn, 

CAauntr, CaM. T. 1IU79. 

AI.DYN. Iloldcn; inilchted. 

Mcchc tw ;c tittt^n to the pore. MS. Doute 309, f. 90. 
ALE. (1) A rariU festival. See Jle-fnul. 
And all the neighlMurhnod, from old records 
Of antique proverb*, drawn from Whit^un lordt. 
And their authorllie* at vtAkit and o/e#. 

Ben Jpruon'f Tale of a Tuh, prot. 

(2) An alc-hnusc. Tbis is an unusual meaning 
of the woni. See Two Gent, of Vcitina, ii. S ; 
Greene's Works,!. 116; Davies'sYork Records, 
p. HO ; Lord Cromwell, iiL 1 j Piers Plough- 
man, p. 101. 

When thei tiave wroght on ourc ore two, 
Anone lo the o/a thci wyllc go. 

MS.Jthmolem, f. 25. 

(3) The meaning of the words beer and alt are 
the reverse in rtilferent comities. Sir K. Baker's 
verso on hops and beer are clearly erroneous, 
■le and beer having been known in Enghiad at 
a ver>' early |)Criod, although hops were a later 
introduction. Sec Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 27. 
SirThopas, 1. 13901, swears "on ale lutd bred," 
though this oath may be intended in ridicule. 
Ale was formerly made of wheal, barley, and 
lioncv. Sec Index to Madox's Exchequer, in v. 

(4.) All 

And laBt It with hem in memore. 
And to al» other prlftis truly. 

Jwittayt Potmt, p. OD. 

ALEBERRY. A beverage made by Iwiling ale 

with spice aud sugar, and sops of bread, it 

ajipcars from Palsgrave to have been given to 


They would taate nothing, no not to much u a 
poor n/etwrry, for the comfort of their heart. 

Bfcon't n'orki, p. 373- 

ALECCIOUN. An election. 

And fcyd, made is Ihlt otKvitiunt 

The king of hvven hath chosen jou on. 

LepmittK Calfiollnti p. 63. 
Basechyng you therfore to help to the roignaclon 
therof, and the kyngos lettre to the byihop of 
LUuoIb fbr the aieerion, 

IfVl^r's JVi/niiMic LtUm, p, S40. 
ALECIE. DruukenncM caused by ale. 

If he had arretted a mare Instead of a horse, it 
had tieene a slight oversight ; but lo arrest a man, 
that hath no IDteoote of a horse, U Sal lunasie, or 
■l<«e<e. l^/< Mitthrr Bombit. 

ALECONNER. Accordlnglo Kersey, "an officer 
appointed in every court -lect to look to the 
nave and goodness of bread, ale, and lieer." 
Cf. MidiUeton's Works, i. 174; Harrison's 
Oetcription of England, p. 163. 
A noae he had that gon show 
What liquor be loved I trow : 
For he had tjefore long aevrn ycare, 
Bct^e of the towne the ale-rwSMar-. 

I\*ler n/ 0>trfer«<lr<e, KM). 

ALECnST. Custmarv. So called, XxctuK it 

waa frequently put into ale, being an aromatic 
bitter. Grmril. 11 is not obsolete in the Norttu 
ALED. Suppressed. (A.-S.) 

And sayde, Maumecet, my mat*, 

V-blcssed roote thou be. 
For nied thow hast muche debate 

I'oward thyt bamce. US. Mhmoli SS. 1. 18, 
ALEnnEMENT. Ease ; relief. Shtuer. 
ALE-DKAl'ER. An alehouse keeper. 

So that nowc hce hath Icftc tirokery, and is be- 
come a draper. A draper, quuth Fiecmin, what 
draper, of woollin or linni-n i No, qd he, an atp. 
draper, wherein he both more skil then in the oihe-. 
iWicprrie nf thM Knigbtt 0/ the Posie, liVJ. 

A-LEE. On the lee. 

Tlian lay the lordis a-let with laste and with charge. 
Depot, e/ Riehant 11. p. 39. 
ALEECHE. Alike. So explained by Mr. Collier 

in a note to Thynne's Debate, p. 20, " his gayiic 

by us is not aUtehr." Perhaps we shnutd rcail 

a leeehe, i. c. not worth a leech. 
ALEES. Aloe tnes. 

of erberi and n/ees. 

Of alie mancT of trees. Pi/rt// c/Sitjn*i, st. 1. 
ALE-FEAST. A festival or merry-making, at 
which ale api>ears to have been the predomi- 
nant liquor. See an cnuiuenitinn of them in 
Harrison's Dcsc. of Engl.ind, p. l.^fi; Brand's 
Pup. Antiq. i. 158-9, and the account of the 
Uhitrtm-aie, in v. A mcrr)' mectiiignl which 
nie was generally dnmk, often took place after 
the representation of an old mystery, as in a 
curious prologue to one of the fifteenth century 
in MS. Tanner 407, f. 44. 
ALE IT. Lifted. 

Ac tbo thai come thlder eft. 
Her werk was al up altjt. 

Arthvur UMf Uetlim, [i 
A-LEFT. On the left. 

For a.le/t half and a right. 

He leyd on and slough down-right. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. Ilfi. 

ALEGAR. Ale or beer which has passed through 

the acetous fermentation, and is used in the 

North as a cheap substitute for vinegar. It is 

ail old word. Sec the Forme of Cury, p, 

ALEGB. To alleviate. (A..N.) 

But if the! have some privilege. 
That of the paine hem woil atege. 

Ham. t^f the Rjiae 
ALEGEANCE. Alleviation. (.-I.-N.) "Jlli^anef, 
or soflynge of dyscse, allrriacio." — Prompt. 
Part. p. 9. Cf. Chaucer's Preame, 1688. 

The twclfed artecle es enoyntynge, that mene 
cnoyntes the seke in percUe of dedc for tttenMnee of 
body and taule. Jf.'i. f.innWn, A. 1. 17, f. M}. 

ALEGGEN. To allege. (A.-N.) See Picn 
Ploughman, p. 207 ; Flor. and Blanch. G92 ; 
Gcsta Ronianonim, p. tH ; Rob. Gluuc. p. 422. 
Thus cndis Kyng Artliure, as auctors alegget 
That was of Kctures blude, the kynge aonc of 
Troye. MS. UnoJn, \. i. 17. f. W. 

ALEGGYD. iVIlcvialed. See Alrge. 
Peraventure ;e may be a/e^rW, 
And sun of joure sorow abreggyd. 

MS. Hurl. 1701, f. I!. 
.VLEHOOFE. Ground i»7. According to Gerard, 
it was used in llie making of ale. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. '2&0, 


, flUML 




■ li B 




LALEICHE. Alilif!; equally. 

LAyp fourth tchr mftn atiricht 
IVhat he hath Icftc of hit hveroTe. 

Chfiler Plitfi, i. ISS. 

[ ALEIDE. Aholiahcd ; |iul down. 

ThCT among the puple he put to the reaumc. 
^tUe alio luthef lawci that long hadde ben uaed. 
nui. anil Ihf tVcruvtf, p. IJW. 
Do nom alio Ich have the celd, 
And allL* thre tulcn ton ateid. 

SIS. Dlgbr 80, r. IM. 

ALE-fN-CORNES. New ale. See Huloct's 

Alx^dariiim, 1552, in v. 

1 will make the drlncke woric than good atf In 
I tht C'lmoM. Tliert^lifx, p. W. 

' ALEIS. (1) Alas! NorlA. 
(2) Aloei. 

Cbeiiae, of wbiche manjr one faino If, 

INotU, and a/«i». and bolaa. 
Rom. vflht Rbk, 1377. 
(3) AUeys. 

ADe the aM« were made playne with aond. 

tlS. Hart. 116. f. 147. 
ALEIVED. ADeriatcil; relieved. Surrn/. 
I Al-E KNIGHT. A froi|ueiilrr of alehouses. Sec 
Cotgrave. in v. iietle; Florio, in v. Bn'me ; 
Barel's .\lTeaiie, in v. Alt; Ilurison'i Utacr. 
of Engl. |i. 1 70. 
[ALKMAYNE. Germany. 

lipun the londc of Memaynt. 

Cimm, ed. I3», f. US. 
fALENDE. Landed. 

At wh.-lt haven thai utende^ 
Aie tit agcn hem we ichotle wende 
With hors an arinci brightc. 

RemWun, p. 428. 

JALENGE. Grievous. 

Now am I out of thU daunger to atengr. 
Wherefore I am gUdde it for to periever. 

Comptapnte nf Ihrm that ben to Ult Martfed. 
lALEONn. By land. 

Wamr tliow every porte thntt noo tchyppU a-ryve, 
Nor aUo aleund stranger throg my realme paa, 
Bui the for there truage do pay mark la fyve. 

Sliiri/t Cm. Uyl. p, IK). 

|AL£-rOLE. An ale-sUke, ij. v. 
Another brought her bedea 
Of jet or of cole. 

To oflVr to the alr-ttnte. Kketttm'» IVorkit i. 111. 
ALE-POST. A niayiK.le. H>»f. 
ALES. Alas I See the l^rgendic CalhoUca;, p. 5. 
ALESE. To loose; 1 1> free. (.^..S.) 

To day thou lall alnrd be. MS. Digt^ii At, f. I Ja 
[ALE-SHOT. The keeping of an slehoutie witliiii 

a forest l>y an officer of the sanie. PAiUipt. 
I ALE-SI LVER. A rent or trihute paid yearly to 
the iyord Mayor of London hv those who sell 
ale within the eity. Mityr. 
] ALE-STAKE. A slake set up heforc an alehouse, 
liy way of sign. Speglit explained il a maypott, 
and hence luve arisen a host of stupid hlun- 
ders; hut the ale-stake was also called Ihc 
tnay|M)le, without reference to the feslivc pole. 
See Tarlton's Newes out of Piu-galoric, p. 56. 
Gitite gives alf-piml as a term for a mav'polc. 
See his Class. Diet. Vulg. Song, in v. ami supra. 
Palsgrave, f. 1 7, translates it )iy " le moy d'line 
lavenic." From Uckker's Womlerful Yeare, 
1603, quoted hy Brand, it appears thai a biuh 


was frei|iicntly placed at the top of the ale- 
slake. See liiuh. Hence may be explained 
the lines of Chaucer : 

A garlund had he tette upon hU hede. 
Ai gret ai it werin for an ale-nakt. 

Vrrj^t ed. p. (t. 
Wliieh have Ijcen erroneously intcri>reted in 
Warton's Mist. Engl. Poet. i. 56. But the 
hush was afterwords less naturally applied, for 
Kennett tells m " the coronated frame of wood 
hung out as a sign at taverns is called a buni." 
See Ixis Glossary, 1816, p. 35. Cf. Ilawkina* 
Engl. Dnun. i. 109 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 12255 j 
Reliq. Antiii. i. 14 ; llampson's Calcnd. i. 281 ; 
Skeltun's Works, i. 320. 

She ai an at*-atat(e gay and frpxh, 
Half Mr body she had away e-glir. 

US. Lauii. 410, r. M. 
For lyko ai thee jolye ale-hou^e 

li alwayea knoweu by the good alit-Halit, 
So are proude Jelots ione percc-avcd, to. 
By theyr proude fuly, and wanton gate. 

BanMlgj/g Treatltf^ p. 4, 
ALESTALPER. A stallion. Emf SiM»e.r. 
ALESTAN-BEARER. A pot-Iwy. Sec Higins' 

adaptation of the Nomenclattir, p. 505. 
ALESTOND. Tlie ale-house. 

Therefore at length Sir Jcfltric bethought him o< 

■ feat whereby ho might both rliil the ol—tanil, 

and alui kccpe hli othe. .War. Prtlale't Kyintlr, p. 114. 

ALE-STOOL. The stool on which casks of ale 

or heer arc placed in the cellar. Eatt. 
ALET. (1) A kind of hawk. Ilowel says it is 
Ihc " true faiicon that conies from Peru." 

(2) A small plate of steel, worn on the 

An alel enamelde he ochea in londlre. 

Mortt Artkure, MS. Unniln, f. DO, 

(3) Carded, applied to partridgca and pheasants. 
Bnir of llunliru/e. 

ALEXEN. Eleven. Cf. Maitland's Early Printed 
Books at ljinil>clh. p. 322; Bale's Kyngcjohan, 
p. 80 ; Miiisheu, in v. 

He tript about with sincopace, 

tie eapi-n very quirke : 
Full trimly there of fevcn aleven, 
He ihcweth a pretty tiiekc. 

iinlfrldo and B a imu d a i 1J70. 
1 have had therto Icchya a/enen. 
And they gave me modyslnt alia. 

MS. Camab. Ft. I. K. t. 4(1. 

ALEW. Halloo. 

Vet did fche not lament with loude alrw, 
Ai women wont, but with decpe nlghcs and alngulff 
fi"»- Foe,^<i V""-nr, V. »l, IS, 

ALE-WIFE. A woman who keeps an ale-house. 

SecTaleofaTuh, iv. 2. 
ALE.XANDER. Great luniley. Said hy Min- 
sheu to he named from Alexander, its pre- 
sumed discoverer. 
ALEXANUER-S-FOOT. Pcllitory. Skmnrr. 
ALEXAMIRYN. Alexandrian work. 
Syngly wai iho «vrappyd |>erfay, 
With a maunicllc of hcniiyn, 
Covcrld waa with Mmntlryn. 

MS. RMid. c. as, r, Ifl. 
ALEXCION. Election. 

Be aif^rinn of the Inrdyi free, 

Tbc eric luke llit-y Ihoo. iMa of 7\^ut, lIBUS. 




ALBYD. Uid down. See jlUi^. 

Do Qou ue Ichavc the wryd* 

Ant allc ilue »hule bm iii«y4 

With hucrc foule crokes. 

n'rigt,f» l^iU Poetry, p. ua. 
For al loTc. Ivtnsn, schc ft«yd* 
Letc oov that wllle be doun ii/rinf. 

Ijefftimtar CalhoHfO!, p. 830. 

AI.EYE. An «lley. (J..y.) 

An homicide therto han tbejr hired 
That In an oJ«yc had a prhee place. 

Chm/cer, Cant, T. 13490. 

ALEYN. Alone. 

My lemnian and I went forth aUryn- 

Our e/ n'anmck, MUtUshW tIS. 

ALEYNE. (1) Toalieiinte. 

In uic they dyde cylhcT lellr or et^nr the nkme 
or any pnrte tJicrof, that the caine Edwardv thuMe 
htkrt yt tieforc any other mmn. 

n'rIgUft ManoMltc tAlttn, p. 80. 

(2) Laid down. So cxplaiiictl in Uny'a MS. 

ALP. (1) Half; pnrt: side. 

The Urutons to helpc her *lfi votte aboute were. 

Rot. Clout, p. i\i. 

(3) An elf ; « deril. 

with hU tclh he cofl hit lug. 
And ul/t Rofyn begoo to rug. 

MS. Doutvaai, r. u. 
ALFAREZ. An enngn. (.^oii.) The term is 
used by Ben Jonson, ntid BeniiiiioDt and 
Fletcher. According to Narcs, who refer* to 
MS. Harl. 68UI, the word wan in n«e in our 
nnny during tlie tHvil wan of Charlei I. It 
was also written alfera. 
ALFEYNLY. SlottifiUly ; sluggishly. Prompt. 


ALFRIDARIA. A Icmi in the old judicial a»- 
trnlogy, explained by Kersey to be " a tempo 
rar>' power which the planets have over the 
life of a person." 

Ill And the oitp and ntfrUarim, 
And know what planet U in caaiml. 

Albutnaw, II. A. 

ALFYN. (1) So5peltbyI'alBgraTe,f.l7,andalso 
by Cation, but sec Aufyn. The alfyii was Ihc 
bi»hop at chess. Is alfyta in Relit]. Antiq. i. 
83, a mistake for atiytui T 
(2) A lublMTly fellow ; a sluggard. 

Now ccrtri, iab syr Wawayne, myche wondyre 

have 1 
That iychc an alfyne as Ihow dare speke tyehe 
wnrdes. UoDr Animrt, ttH. Unctin, f. C7. 

ALtlAHOT. A chemical preparation, made of 
huller of antimony, diluted in a large quantity 
of wanii water, till it turn to a white powder. 
ALO ATES. Always ; all manner of ways ; how- 
ever ; at all events. Still in use in tlie North. 
1 1 i», ai Skinner observes, a cnm{K)unil of all 
nnil ga/n, or ways. (,/..*.) Tookc's clymo- 
logj- is wliolly inadmissible. Cf. Uiveriions 
of I'urley, p. 94 ; Chancer, Cant. T. 7013 j 
Thynnc's Debate, p. 36. 

These were tiler uchon a^ore, 

1 o ordeyac fur theiH) masonus astate. 

CawfKutlMii <•/ JTOMwy, p. IS. 

ALGB. Altogether. (ji.-S.) 

Sche muate thenne ulge Ikylr 
To geten blm whan he were d«ad. 

Cowrr, lis. &-r.AHllq. ISt, f. 148. 

ALGERE. A (pear oied in lishiiig. It is the 

translation of fiucina in the Canterbury MS. 

of the Medulla. See a note in Prompt. I'arv. 

p. 186. 

AI.GIKE. .Uthongh. 

Eche man may kotow in hla inward thought 
This lordes death, whole pcre U hard to fynd. 
Alfifc Englond and Praunce were thofow taught. 
Skrllim't Worlra, 1. IS. 

ALGRAJDE. A kind of Spanish wine. 
Both atffrwte, and reipiee eke. 

Si/uyr 0/ Ldm<t Defpri, 7SII, 
Osay, and alganlwt and other y-newe.. 

Jtfote Arlhurt, MS. UnnWn, f. &&. 

ALGRIM. Arithmetic. 

The name of this craft U in Lalyn affr»r.i •**«>, 

and In Englls atgrlm ; and It U namld olT .itfp*; 

thai is to «ay, craft, and H*mu«, that Ij, nounbre; 

and for this skllle It if calle<l craft of nounbriuce. 

MS. Canlnl; LI. Iv. It. 

ALGUS. A philosopher frequently menlionc<t 
by early writers, as the inventor of Algorisnu 
According to MS. Harl. 3742, he was king of 
Cnjitilc. Cf. .MS. Arundel 332, f. 68. 

ALIIAFTE. See a list of articles in the Brit. 
Hil.I. ii. 397. 

AL-HAL-DAY. All-hallows day, Nov. Ist, G(ut. 


The monrth of Nuvembre, after yflhatuemtWt 
Tliat wele Ii to reracmbre, com kyng WUltam nllc 
fiease. Peitr Lanfln/i, p. Hi. 

ALIIALWEN-TYD. Tlie feast of All-hnllowt. 
Men ihuUe fyndc but fewo roo.bukkyi whan that 
they be paned t«ro ]cer that thd no haTe mewed liuie 
hecdyi by Altuilwtnlr<l. A/A. B'-ril. iiC. 

ALIIIDADE. A rule on the back of the astro- 
labe, to measure heights, breadths, and depths. 
See Blount's Glossographia, p. 18; Colgravc, 
in V. Alidade. 
ALHOLIIE. " Alholde, or Gobelyn" is mentioned 
in an extract from the Dialogue of Dives and 
Haiipcr, in Brand's Fop. Anli(|. i. 3. 
iVL-llOLLY. Entirely. 

1 hare him told at hullji mln etut. 

CXoiierr, Cml. T. TC/O. 

ALHONE. Alone. 

Alhont to the putle he hedc. Ae/if. Amtl^. iL ! 

ALIANT. An nUen. Rider. 
ALIBER. Bacchus ; liber pater. 
Aliber, the god of wyne. 
And Hercules of kynne thyno. 

A'jmy AU'irundcr, 

ALICANT. A Spanish wine made at AlitMit, 
in the province of Valencia. It is diffcn-iitly 
spelt by our old writers. Sec T)Tnon, ed. Dyee, 
p. 39 ; lligiiu' Junius, p. 91. 
Whan he had dronke ataunte 
Both of Teynt and of wyne ^ttteuunlt 
Till he was drounkc on any i wyne. MS. AwW. C. 80. 
ALIEO. Anointed 

He lok that bloile that was so bright, 
And atied that gcBtil knight. 

AmUciid AmIloUH , >.Vn. 

ALIEN. To alienate ;Viir«r. 





ALIEN-miORY. A priory whidi wm» snliordi- 
nalc to ft foreign nioiuu.trry. See Britton'i 
Arch. Diet, in v. Prinrii. 

IA-LIFE. As my lifn ; excessively. See Win- 
ter's Tale, iv. 3 ; Beaumont and Kletrlicr, iv. 55, 
S.'J.'i, .W!), .151. 
ALIFEO. Allowed. Skinnrr. 
ALIGHT. (1) Lighted; pitched. 
Opon >ir Or, grntfl knight, 
Y-wU mi love ti allc atlifht. 
Git of tVancUcVt V* >70. 
12) To light ; to kindle. Surrey. 
ALINL.VZ. An nnUcc. 
i Or atinlaZt unA god long liDif, 
That all lie lornle icmc or ur. Banlok, MM. 

' ALIHY. Across. (-/.-S.) MS. Rawl. Poet. 137. 
II and MS. Douce 323, read nlery ; MS. Douce 

il04 has oltry; and MS. Kawl. Poet. 3B reads 
Somme Icldc iilr leggei nihi/. 
At swictic iosclft lionneth. 
Aod made h\t mone to Pleri, 
And prclJc itym t>r grace 
Pitf* Vhittghman^ p. 124. 
ALISANDRE. jUcxandria. CC Ellis's Met. 
Rom. ii. 36. 
At AJlMtndrt he wni wllan it waa wonnr. 
ChaucfT, Cant. T. 51. 
ALISAUNURE. The herb alrj-mder, q. v. 
With utUuundn Ibarv-to. ache ont anyt. 

Wrlrhfi Lyric P«€trp, p. M. 

ALI3T. Alighted ; descended. 

I And deyde two honilred ;n. 

And two and Ihrctly rljl, 
After thai uure iwetc Lord 
In lli> moder alip. MS. Colt. THn. Onrn. S7. 

ALKAKENGY. The pcriscaria. See Proinirt, 
Pair. p. 10; lligins's Junius, p. 125. 
II ALKANET. The will! huglos. See the account 

■ of it in Gerard's Herli.ill, ciL Johnson, p. "Ha. 
It is also mentioned in an ancient receipt in 
Ihe Funue of Cury, p. 29, as used for co- 
IALKANL Tin. Hotefll. 
ALK£. Ilk : each. 
Now, tlrrli, for your curtesy, 
Taiie Ihi* for no viiany. 
Dul nVJU mancryejow .. . r*e Frcfr, airi. 
ALKENAMYE. Alchemy. (.4.-N.) 
Vet ar (her flbicrhet In forcera 
Of fele mennca malcyng, 
Ciperimcnta of olkmamyt 
The pejde to deccyve. Pier* Ptou^mati^ p. IBC. 
ALKERE. In the Forme of Cury, p. 120, is 

pvcn a receipt " for to make rys alkerr." 
ALKES. Elks. 

fAa for the plowing with urrs, which I lupiioae to tie 
aDlikelie, becatiKe thry are in mine opinion untame- 
able, and aike*. a thing commoniic u»«l in theeait 
counlrlr*. llarri^nn'M DrMfr. o/ Engtana, p. 936. 

UKIN. All kinils. 
Dragouns and ttlktn depenea. 
Fin. haii, inaweii. MS. IbM. 4J&. C n. 

Fur (o deatrny fle«ly detite. 
And clkint lufl of Ikhcry. 
MS. Harl 4180, f. 109. 

ALKITOTLE. See ^Icatote. 
ALK.UNE. Each uue. 

Then Robyn goei to Notyngham, 

IlymK'Ife momyng ailonc. 
And litullv Johne to mery !>chcrewode, 
The patbes he knew alkvne. 

MS. CoKlali. Pf. V. 411. r. im, 
And whan this nlkymistrt* taw hit time, 
Rltelti up,tircpretttt, i^uod he. and ttondethby me. 
Chancer, Cam. T IliATi. 

ALL. (1) Although. 

JU tell 1 not at Dow hll obwrranoea. 

ChaucT, Caul. T. S90S. 

(2) Entirely. Var. dial. Spenser has it iu the 
sense of ftrac/Zy. 

(3) " For all," in spite of. Var dial. " I'll do 
it/»r alt you iay to the contrary." 

(4) "All that," until that. So explained hy 
Weber, in gloss to Kyng Alisaundcr, 21 'IS. 

(5) " For good and all," entirely. North. 

And shipping oart. to work they fail. 
Like men that row'd /t»r giiud and alt. 

Collm'i Wm*; tilt. 1734, p. IS7. 

(6) Each. Prompt. Parr. 
ALL-A-BITS. AU in pieces. A'orfA. 
AI,L-ABOl"T. " To get aUabmt in one's licad," 

to become light -headed. Hcre/ordtA. We 
hn\e also " that's all abiiul it," i.e. that is the 
whole of the matter. 
ALL-ABHOAD. Squeezed quite flat. Satnn-set. 
ALL-A-IIOII. All on one side. mUn. 
ALL-ALONG. ConsUntly. Var. dial. Also 
" AU along of," or " AH along on," entirely 
owing to. 
ALL-AM.\NG. Mingled, ai when two flocks of 

sheep are driven together. Jfilti. 
ALL-AND-SOME. Every one; everything; 

Tliereof tpekyt the apottcU John, 
In hit gotpi'U ftJJ and mum*. 

MS. Athmote 81, t. 8.1. 
We are ijetrayd and y nume ! 
Ilortc and bamcat, tords, ci/I and tame I 

Bichari C—r 4t Utm, SSM. 
Thi kyiigdam ua come, 
Thit it the tocunde poynt* at and ntMe .' 

MS. Douce »>1, C. 3.t. 
ALLANE. Alone. 

Ilyi men have the wey lane ; 
In the fureat Gye yi atlane. 

M.S. Canlab. Ft. Ii. 38. f. 174. 
ALL-ARMED. An epithet applied to Cupid in 
A Mida. Night's Dream, ii. 2, uiincce»»arily 
atlcred to alarmed hy sonic cilitors, as if the 
expression meant arme<l all over, whereas it 
merely enforces the word armrd. The ex- 
prcssion is used hy Greene, and is found earlier 
in the Morte d' Arthur, i. 215. 
ALL-AS-IS. " .^11 oa ij to me is this," i. e. all 

I have to say almut it. Hrrrfurdnh. 
ALL-A-TAUNT-f). Fully rigged, with masts, 

yortls, &C. A s<-a term. 
ALL.\Y. Acconling to Kersey, to oUoy u phea- 
sant is to cut or carve it up at table. Tlic sub- 
stantive as a hunting term was applicti to the 
set of hounds wliich were ahead after the licaol 
was dislodgetl. 
iVLLAVMEN'r. Tliat which has the power of 




ollaving or tbaliDg the force of (ometliing 
eUc'. ShaJt. 
ALL-B'EASE. Gently ; quietly. Herrfunhh. 
ALL-BEDENE. Forthvrith. Cf. Minot's Poems, 
p. 31 ; Hnvclok. 730, 284 1 ; Ckivcnlry Mys- 
teries, ji. 4 ; Gloss, to Ritson's Met. Rom. 
p. 360. 

ThaDO ttuy uycto di-Cyrfefw, 
B.-ithc kyng^ and qwenc, 
Thf doghlly knyght in the grnie 
Hue wonncnr lite itrcc. 

Hir liegret'onie, US. Linrti^n. 
U'han thfti were woMhcn iil-t'eilenf, 
He set tiym downe bciii tietwene. 

MS. Cunlal,. Ff. T. «. f. U. 
ALL-BK-THOUCJll. iVIhcit. Skimier. 
ALLE. Ale. Soc tliis form of the word in 
Skelton's Works, i. 151 ; The Kccst, v. If 
apparently means old in the To«Ticlcy Myste- 
ries, p. 101. 
ALl.ECT. To allure; to bring logclhcr; to 
collect. (Uf.) 

I t>eyD({ by your noble and notable qualllira 
nlUvlfiti and encouraged, moste hcrteljr require your 
heipe, and humbly deiyre your ayde. 

UairM Vnt-n, 15411. Hen. 11'. f. J7. 
ALI.ECTIVE. Attraction ; allurement. See I he 
Brit. Bihl. iv. 390. 

For wltat tjetter allgrtive couldc Satan deviie lo 

allure and bring men pleasantly into damnable aervi- 

tude. KorllibiuiJc^t TrtaliK, MTl- 

ALLECTUARY. An clcctnan-. 

MUctuai-^ arrectyd to rvdn** 

The« feTeroni any*. Sttelton't n'nrkt, 1. 25. 

ALLEFEYNTE. Slothful: inactive. Prompt. Parr. 

ALLEGATE. (1) TonlUgc. See Peek's Works, 

iii. 68 ; Skelton's Worki, i. 356. 
(2) /Uways; algate. (.'f.-.t.) 
Ac, attegntr, ttie kynget 
La«en len ageyni on in werrynges. 

Kyng jiiitauwttr, OOtM. 
ALLEGE. To quote ; to cile. 

And for he wold hi< longe lale abrege, 
He wolde non auctorlteo alUgm. 

rhavcrr. Cinl. T. HSU. 
ALLEGYAUNCE. Cilation ; the act of quoting. 
Tran.slnte>l hv allegaein, in I'ruiiipt. I'arv. p. <J. 
ALLE-IIALWEN. Allhallows. 

Here fc*t vol be, withoule Day, 
After Atte-halwm the eyghi itay. 

Contl. o/.V«»o«r>, p. 39. 

ALLE-IIOOL. Entirely; exactly. Sec Rcliq. 
Aniiq. i. 151 ; Sir H. Drjilcn's Tnici, p. 38. 
AIU answers to ornnino, and ^strictly speaking, 
cannot grainmatically be uscil in coiu|>osition. 
.ille if, MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, t 24. See 

ALLELUYA. The wood-sorrel. Gerard. 

ALLE-LYKELY. I n like manner. Prompt. Parv, 

ALLEM AIGNE. A kind of solemn music, more 
generally s])clt ,4lmain, q. v. It is also the 
name of several daiicKi, the new alliMiiaigne, 
ihc old, tlic <|uern's ollciiiaignc, oil of wiiich 
arc mentioned in MS. Raw). Poet. 108, and the 
figures given. Sec Brit. Bihl. ii. 164, 010. 

ALLEM ASIM)AY. Grose says, i. e. Allumagc- 
day, the <lay on which ihe Canlerhury silk- 
weavers began <o work by randlc-liglit. ' A'mf. 


Therfore Jaeoh look urete jerdli of popelera. and 
of ttltvmauHdit:, and of piano*, and in party dlde awey 
Ihe rynde. irickl^ffr, US. Budl. 277. 

ALLEN. Grass land recently broken up. Suffolk. 
Major Moor says, " unenclosed land that has 
been tilled and left to run to feed for sheep." 
ALLE-ONE. Alone; solitary. 

AUr-bnt he lered that drery knyghte. 
And tone he went awaye. 

US. Unailn A. I. IT, f. inS, 

ALLER, (1) An alder tree. A common form of the 

woni, still used in the western coitnties. See 

Florio, in v. .iltutt llolinshe<l. Hist. Ircl.iml, 

p. 178 ; Gerard's Hcrball, ed. Joliiisuu, p. HUE. 

(2) Of aU. 

Adam wa« oure atler fader. 
And Eve wai of hyin«eWc. 

Piers Ptoitghman, p. 542. 
Than iliai it closed and gun liyng 
ThalreoUerieleithareby. MS. r«ll. .Vton. ivlll, C. 
ALLER-FLOAT. A speiies of Iroul, usiuilly 
large and well grown, frequenting Ihe tlrpp 
linles of retired and shady brooks, under tiic 
roots of the aller, or alder tree. North. It is 
also called the allrr-lroul. 
ALLER-FL'RST. The first of all. 

Tho, ntltr-furrt, he undurstode 
That he wai ryghl kyngU blod. 

Kjiug JJiMaundet; lUi.K 
ALLER-MOST. Most of all. 

To wrathlhe the God and pairn the fend hit 
tiTTCth mitermo*t. H"W<y,f i PiJ. 5rmf«, p. 33fl, 

ALI.ERNIJATCH. A kind of liolcb or old sore. 
Etrnoor. Apparently connected with altert, a 
Devonshire word for ao acute kind of boil or 
ALLERONE. Apparently the pinion of a wing, 
iit the following passage. Roquefori hosatrrion, 
a liinl of prey. 

Tak pyinprrnollc, and ttampe it, and take the 
jeuse therof, and do thrrto the grc»e of the alUrrpntr 
of the goae-wenge, and drope 11 In thyne eghne. 

.W.V. UhrtAn. MM. t. 883. 
ALLES. Very; altogether; all; even. Sire 
Hob. (ilouc. p. 17; Ritsou's Ancient Songs, 
p. r ; Rcliq. Antiq. ii. 1 76. 
ALLESAD. Lost. (J.-S.) 

Difek him wi; mllde mod. 
That for out atte*ad is blod. 

MS. Kgwtim 613. f. i. 
.\LLE-SOLYNE.DAY. All Souls' Day. Sec 
MS. Ilorl. 2391, quoted in Hampson'i Kalen- 
dariiim, ii. 1 1. 
ALLETHER. Gen. pi. of all. 

Than doth he dye for oure atUther good. 

Cm, Mttl. p, 14. 
ALLETIIOW. Although. 

Torrent thether tokr the way, 
Wcrry nllrthmv he were. 

Torrent i\f rerlugmt, p. 10. 
ALLETOGEDERS. Altogether. 

Into the water he cajt hii aheld, 
Croke and elletngrdert It held. 

Tbrrenr vf Portmgmi, p. fill, 
ALLEVK. Eleven. 

Ethulfe In that like manere, 
Wonned at Rome atUite jere. 

UH. CanMli. Ff. T. 40, f. W. 








ALL£VXNTHE. The eleventh. 

The attrvnthr wyntur WBi witlurly 
Ther aftlr, at tclledi ui niP to dy. 

Cvr/or Mundi, MS. (4)11. TVirt. rii>i(<ir>. f. IX 
ALLE-WKLDAND. Omnipotent. 

Tti*t I tiefore Code altewtldand 
Wtme In th€ llht of Uvyand. 

MS. Boil. *3i, r. ri. 

ALLEY. The conclusion of a game at foothill, 

when the hall luu ]UU9cd the bounds. Yorknh. 

A choice taw, made of alabaster, is so called 

^ hoTS. See the Pickwick Pajwrs, p. 358. 

ALLEYUE. Alleged. 

With alle bin herte tche him prrydc. 
And many another cauw o//«ytf«, 
That be with hire at hotn abide. 

Uotrrr, US. Snr. .4>,ri.(. I:M, f. IIS. 

ALLE-5IF. Although. ?,<x Mlc-hool. 
Y wyl make ]ow no veyn CAtp^ng, 
Mte ^if hit my]te foro mm lyke. 

MS. AkU. 48. r. i7. 
ALL-FOOLS-DAY. The first of April, when a 
custom prevails of making fools of jieoplc tiy 
lendiug them on ridicidous errands. &c. whence 
Ibc above name. See further in llrand's Pop. 
Antiij. L 76. Tlic custom seems to have been 
borrowed by ui from the French, but no satis- 
(actory account of its origin has vet been given. 
ALL-FOURS. A well-known game at cards, said 
by Cotton, in the Coniiileat Gamester, ed. 1 709, 
p. 81, to be "very much played in Kent." 
ALL-GOOD. The herb good Henry. Gerard. 
ALLH.VLLOWN-SUMMER. Late summer. In 
I Henry IV. i. 2, it simply appcara to mean an 
old man with yntithful passians. 
ALLU.VLLOWS. Satirically written hyllcywood 
as a single saint. See his play of the Foure HP, 
ISC'J, and tlic following passage: 
Here if snothrr relykr, ckc ■ precyoua one, 
or JU-KHiwf* the blestyd jaw-bone. 
Which rel)ke, without any fsyle, 
Agtynit poyson chcrvly dothe lirerayle. 

Pardaner and lite Frerf, ISXl. 

ALL-IIEAL. The herb panax. See Gerard's 
Herbal), ed. Johnson, p. 1001; Florio, in v. 

ALL-UIU. According to Nares, the game of 
hide-and-seek. It is supposed to be alluded 
to in Hamlet, it. 2. See Hide-Fox. It is 
mentioned by Dckkcr, as quotetl by Stcercns ; 
but Cotgrmve apparently makes it synonymous 
with Hootlman-blind, in v. CligytcmuMrl , Ctine- 
murrlle. Cotgrave also mentions Ilarrj-racket, 
wbirli Is the game of hide-and-seek. See 
/loodman-liliiui. " A iport call'd all-hid, n hitli 
is a mecre children's pastime," is mentioned 
in A Curlaine Lecture, l2mo, Land. 1637, 
p. 206. See also Hawkins' Engl. Dram, ill 187; 
Apollo Shroving, 1627, p. 84. 

ALUHOLLAND'S-DAY. The Hampshire name 
for .Ml Saints' Hay, when plum-cakes ore uiaile 
and called All Holland cakes. Miildleton uses 
the word twice in this form. See hia Works, 
u. 283, v. 282. 

ALLHOOVE. Grounil ivy. MiwhrH. 

ALLHOSE. The herb horsehoof. Sec Florio, 

in V. Bfchio, 

ALL-I-BITS. All in pieces. A'or/». 
ALLICHOLLY. Melani^hcily. Shakespcair uie* 
Ibis word, put into the mouths of illiterate 
persons, in Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 2, and 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4. Sec Collier's 
Shakespeare, i. 148, 197, where the word is 
spelt two different ways. 
ALLICIATE. To attract. {Lai.) 

Yea, the very rage of humllitie, thou^^h it be 
tnoit violent and dangernnt, yet it \\ fooner aihHated 
by ceremony than compelled by vertue of ofllce. 

atll. Aim. ii. IML 
ALLIENY. An alley ; ■ passage in a building. 

Sec Britton's Ait*. Diet, in v. JUty. 
ALLIGANT. A Spanish wine. See AUciml. 
In dreadful darkeneaae JtUgant lies drovn'd. 
Which marryed men Invoke for procreation. 

Paifuir- l^lloodti. 1634. 
ALLIGARTjV. The alligator. Ben Jonson uses 
this fonn of the word in liis Bartholomew 
Fair, ii. 1. 
ALL-IN-A-CHARM. Talking aloud. Wilt: 
ALL-IN-ALL. EverjtUing. Shakespeare has the 
phrase in a well-known passage, Hamlet, i. 2, 
and several other plactak 

In LoodoQ ihe buyss her head, her face, \vtx 
fashion. O London, thou art her Paraditr, her 
heaven , her atl-tn-ntt I Tukton Pointing, IGIG, p. GO. 
Thou'rt alt in all, and all in ct'ry parL 

rVtftefv'* Divint Gtilnp*e», p. 75. 

The phrase all ia all icilh, meant very intimate 
or familiar with. See Howell's Lexicon, in T. 
ALL-IN-A-MUGGLE. All in a Utter. ftiUi. 
ALLINE. An ally. 

Wiidom ij Immortality's alltne. 
And immortality is wisdom's gain. 

MuUUtm-t n'orUrt, t. 3M. 

ALLINGE. ToUlly; altogether. (.<.-S.) Cf.Const. 

of Masonry, p. 37 ; Ritson's .Ancient Songs, p. 7; 

Kob.Glouc. p. 48; Maundcvile's Travels, p. 189. 

For hire fslred and hire chere, 

I eh hire boufte aUtngt lo dere. 

Flor* Bn4 BtancH. (174. 
Ich hole that thou mc telle, 
Nouthe thou art alllnguea here. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 127. 

ALL-IN-ONE. At the same time. 

But alt in cnt to every wight. 
There was sene conning with estate. 

CAaueer** I»r«iii'-, (iiil. 

ALL-IN-THE-WELL. A juvenile game in 
Newcastle and the neighbourhood. A circle is 
made about eight inches in diameter, termed 
the well, in the centre of which is placed > 
wooden peg, four inches long, with a button 
balanced nn the top. Those desirous of playing 
give buttons, marbles, or anything else, acconl- 
ing to agreement, for the privilege of throwing 
a short stick, with whicli they are furnished, 
at the peg. Should the button fiy out of the 
ring, the player is entitled to double the stipu- 
lated value of what be gives for the stick. 'The 
game is also practised at the Newcastle races, 
and other places of amusement in the north, 
with three pegs, which arc pnt into three cir- 
cular holes, made in the ground, about two feet 
apart, and forming a triangle. In this case 
each hole contains a peg, about nine incites 




long, upon whicli itre ilqKMiteil eiUier ■ small 
knife or some copper. The |ierson p1a)-ing 
gim 80 much for each stick, and geti all the 
articles that are tbrown off so as to fall on the 
ouUiide of the holei. 
ALLISON. The wood-rose. So at least Florio 

seents to understand it, in v. ^IlinttQ, 
ALl.-LiVNC.-OFF. Entirely owing to. Sorlh. 
Thftl I have no cbildc hldur title. 
Hit ll at-ittn/re-on Ooddr* wille. 
Cm-tor MuiKll, MS. Cull. Trin. Canlab. f. 6i. 

Thertiy wttt thct It vu atle 

Lmtgw tme ber. sod not one Landaralle. 

MS, Ratrf. C. MS, f. Ii4. 

ALL-LOVES. The phrase of all loeei, or for all 
hen, I. e. by all means, occurs twice in 
Shakespeare, and occasionally in contcnipnrary 
writers. The earliest instance I have met with 
is ill the romance of Fcrumbnis, lielow quoted. 
Other example!! arc given in Uoswell's Malone, 
\-iii. 82 ; and Narcs, in v. Loen. 
And uide t^ him stie motte go 

To vfietcm the priioueri* that daye, 
And uld, fir. f(ir mile lores, 

Lete me thy |irisoDcra wen ; 
I wole the Rife Iwth itoMe and glove*. 

And r«unull thille It tiene. UkUte^UI US. 

Atack. where are you I tpeali. an If you heart 
Speak, ot att Ivret t 1 iwoon atmmt with fear. 

.^ MiiU. Sl/rlift l>r«im. il. 9. 

ALL-MANNER-A-WOT. Indiscriminate abuse. 

ALLMEES. Alms. Eatt Swaer. See the ex- 
ample under .4tmP9»e. 

ALl^OF-A-IRGll. All on one side. Suffolk. 

ALL-OF-A-ROW. A ehild's game. S^ffolk. 

ALLONCE. All of us. Somentt. 

yVLLONELI. Exclusively. Cf. Wright's Mo- 
na-ilic Letters, p. 126; Supp. to Hardynji, f. 44; 
I'rompt. I'ar\'. p. 54 ; Maiindevilc's Travels, 
p. « ; .Morte d'Arthiir, ii. 427 : Hall, Edw. IV. 
f. 12; PattemeofroincfuU Adventures, p. 239; 
Minot's I'oenis, pp. 133, 152. 

Now wold I fayne sum myichis make, 
<«l»«>iWI for my llldy> take. MS. CnnUU. Ft. L 6. 
Wa sperrd nojte the jates ot cilcc to that eatent 
for to agayncttaBde the, tmt aJiamlp for the drede 
Ot Darliu, kyng of Petse. 

MS. Umccln A. L 17, t, 10. 

ALL-ON-END. Eager; impatieat. Sonurtti. 

ALU-iTTERY. An allotment. Skai. 

ALUJl'S. All of us. Somiml. 

ALL-UUT. Entirely: qnile. Minshcuhasitfor 
■ carouse, to drink atl out. Cf Rob. Glouc. 
pp. 26, 244 ; Rom. of the Rose, 2101. StiU 
ill use in the former sense lo the north of 
England and in Scotland. 

Tliane come tlieiM wlkliydo Jams, aad whana 
tlicy uwe thiK two thefei that bang by our« Lords 
one-lyfe. Ibey brAlie thoyre tbeev, and ilvwe theme 
aite-owu, and autt tbetne vilainely into a dyke. 

US. UKcIn A. I. 17, r. 184. 

ALL-OVERISH. .Neither sick nor weU. I'ar. 

ALLOW. To approve. A Scripture wortL Sec 
Hoioans.xiv. 22; Baret's.Mvcarie, iuv. Perhaps 
connecte<l «ilh «/o«'e, lo praise. (,i.-N.) 

ALLOWANCE. Approbation. Skak. 

ALLOWED. Licensed. An " aitowerf fool" U 
a term cmployvtl by Shakespeare in Twelfth 
Night, i. 5. In Hollyliaud's Uiclionane, 1593, 
mention is made of " an allmotd cut or 
ALL-I'LAISTER. .Mablastcr. yor*»A. 
ALLS. (I) Aries, q. v. Xorlh. 
(2) Also. (A.-S.) 

Tharc was crakked many a crownc 
or wild Scotlea, and al/i of tame. 

Minat't Pneni, p. 4. 

ALL-SALES. AH times. Stiffolk. " Sales" is 
of course merely 9 form of cele or »ele. See 
Prompt. Pan. p. 65. 

ALL-SEED. The orach. Skimtr. 

ALL-SEER. One who sees everything. Shak. 

game. See Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 238, 
where another game is mentioned called all- 
the-fisbcs-in-t he-sca. 

ALL-TU. Entirely. In earlier wrilcrs, the to 
would of course be a prefix to the verb, but 
the phraae aU-fo in the Elizabethan writers 
can scarcely be always so explained. 
Mercutio's ycy hand liad oMd froaen mine. 

Wmkeui amd Juliet, IMS. 

ALL-TO-NOUGHT. Completely. far.diaL 

ALL.TO-SM.VSII. Sinashe<l to pieces. Somervl. 
The phrase is not peculiar to that county. A 
Lancashire man, tcHing his master the mill- 
dam bad burst, exclaimed, " Maister, maistcr, 
dam's bro&sen, and oir's io^mnajih .'" 

ALLLTERLY. Altogether ; wholly. 
At yf thy lovo bo set nlluterlif 
or nice lust, thy travail i> In vain. 

MS. ScM, Arch. B. 94. 

ALLirviON. A washing away. {Lai.) 
.VLL- WATERS. " I am for all tralfrt," i. e. I 

can turn my hand to anything. A proverbial 

expression used by the clown in Twelfth 

Night, iv. 2. 
ALLY. The aisle of a church, far. dial. 
ALLYPE. Although. Tliis form of the word 

occurs in a letter dated 1523, in Mooast. 

Angl. iv. 477. 
ALL-Y-FERE. Altogether. 

And hurre Uppc was hole sf eyu alt-y-fire. 

Chnn. Vitadun. p. 74. 

ALMAIN. (I) A German. 

Upon the tame prrtence, to fumiih them a tiaod 
or .Itnami, and to them for tbclr slout capuin gate 
The Tailanl Martin Swart. 

Dra^ttm, cd. 1763, p. 110!. 

(2) A kind of donee. A stage direction in 
Peeld's Works, i. 28, is, " Hcrcu|>on did enter 
aiae knights in armour, treading a warlike 
almam, by dnim and fife." 

ALMAIN-LEAP. A dancing leap; a kind of 
jig. Sec Florio, in v. Cluarautiliut. 
Skip with a rhyme on the table (Vom New-Nothing, 
And uke hit •Unutln.t—p Into a cutUrd . 

lleril it on Am, i. 1. 

ALMAIN. RIVETS. Moveable riveU. The term 
was applie<l to a Ught kind of annum-, " so 
called," says Minsheu, "because they be 
tiveltcd, or buckled, after the old ,\Imnn 





fashion." See Tc«t. Vctust. p. 622; llolimhcd. 

Hint. Ireland, p. 56 ; Shkrii'i Cov. Mvst. 

p. 195. 
ALMAN. A kind of hawk, mentioned hv 

HovrcU, and also called by him the Dutch 

ALMANDIN. Made of ahnond. 

And It was an almanain wand. 
That ilk fiut tharon tliai faod, 
Almandn »iu firoun iharon. 

MS. CM. fttpat. A. IIL r. .1EI. 

I ALM AND-MILK. Almonds ground and mlvcd 
with milk, broth, or water. SiiC an old re- 
ceipt in Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 5. 
1 ALMANDRIS. Altnond-trcoa. 

And trccf ther« wcrin grcic foison. 
That bcTln nuttci in thrr aeson, 
Sucbe ai mcnnc nutt-mlggii y-c&ll. 
That tote of savour txn wlthall ; 
And of oimanHria gretc pirate, 
Flegii, and many a date tre. 

Hnm. ttfthe RtiUt 1363. 

[ ALMANE-DELETT. A part of armour, mcn- 
tioDcd in an account of Norliam Castle, temp. 
Hen. VilJ. in Arcbieologia, xrii. 204. 
ALMAS Y. Germany. 

Now Fulko comei, that to his brother gave 
lUs land In Italy, which waaaotnnaU, 
And dwelt in Almany. 

Harrington'* AruutOt 1591, p. 19, 
ILMARIB. A cupboard ; a pantr}'; a safe. 
See Krnnetl's Gloss. MS. Laosd. 1033. The 
North country word mmbry ticems foniied 
from tlu». It is gloucd hv the French ameire, 
in MS. Coll. Triu. Cantab. B. xiv. iO. Cf. 
Pmoipt. Parv. pp. 10, 109, 315; Bceon'i 
Toi^o, P' -tCB. In the latter jilace Bccon 
Dcut. xxTiii. 17, where the vuIgate 
boMkrl ! a reference which might have 
Mved the editor'n crronlous note. Howcl has 
the provcrl), " There is tied in the almery." 
Thcr avarice hath otnarieMt 
And yren bounden cofres. 

Pitrt ri*JUghman, p. SSO. 

HLMARIOL. A closet, or cuphonrd, in which 
thr ccdcsiaitical habits were kc|)l. Sec Urit> 
ton's .\.rch. Diet, in t. Armorhim. 
[AI>MATOUR. An aUnoner. 
After tiini spak Dalmadas, 
A riche almatour be was. Kyng AtiMUUMder, 3EMS. 

lAVNG. Germany. 

p vyr Arlhure ononc. in the Auguitc IheraAyre, 
res to Aintaifnt wylh ostei arrayed. 

Jferle Arthun, IIS. Lineuln, t. 7H. 

ALMB. An elm. (Dan.) " Askcs of ahne-barke" 
are mentioned in a reme<ly for "contrarius 
lure" in MS. Lincoln. Med. I. 282. 
ALMESn'LLE. Charitable. It is found in 
l*f uson's edition of the Prompt. Parv. See 
Mr. Way's edition, p. 10. 

t was chaste cnogh, aljatlnent, and atmc^fvUe, and | 
ftarMIWT* Cth)yiiS 1 ame note dampncd. 

MS. Harl. lOHl. t. 1 

ALMESSE. Alms. Cf. Prompt. Parv. p. 117. 
Aiul thu» ful great attucuf he dcde. 
Whcrof he hadde many a bede. 

Gvwtr, ed. 1332, I. 39, 

ALMESTE. Almost. 

And as he priked Nnrlh and Est, 
1 telle It you, him bad atmtrit 
Betidde a sory care. CJtaucrr, Com. T. \3a>9. 
ALMICANTARATH. An astrological, 
meaning a circle drawn ]iarallcl to the horizon. 
Digges has the wortl in his Stratioticos, 1579, 
applied to dialling. Cf. Brit. Uibl. iv. 68; 
Chaucer on the Astrolabe, ed. I'rrj-, p. 441. 
Meanwhile, wkh scloferical Initruroeiit, 
By way ofaxlmuth aodoJmiiantanKA. 

,^6iniMiaar, 1. 7, 
ALMODZA. An alrhcmicaJ term for tin. It is 
iio employed by Charnockc in an early MS. in 
my possession. 
ALMOND.FOUA-PARROT. A kind of prover- 
bial expression. It occurs in Skclton's Works, 
ii. 4 ; Webster's Works, iii. 1 22. Nash and 
Wither adopted it in their title-pages. Douce, 
in his MS. additions to Ray, explains it " some 
trifle to amuse a silly person." 
.U.MOND-FURNACE. " At the silver mills in 
Cardiganshire, they have a particular funiacc 
in which they melt the slags, or refuse of the 
lithurge not stamjK'd, with charcoal only, 
which they call the a/inoarfyiimoce." Kennelt, 
MS. Lawtd. 1033. 
ALMOND.MILK. The Latin amiffdo/alum is 
translated by almond-mylke in tlS. Bodl. 604, 
f. 43. See '.llmaiid-mili. 
AL.MONESRYE. The almonry. In a fragment 
of a work printed by Caxton, in Donee's Col- 
lection, the residence of our earliest printer is 
stated to be St " the almonetrye at the reed 
ALMOSE. Ahns. Cf. Hall, Edward IV. f. 11 ; 
Becon's Works, p. 20. 

He bad htr love almo*c dede. 

Legentia Oitkotkit, p. fi3. 
And therlo gude in alle lh)ngp. 
Of ajmuus dedes and gude Iwrynge. 

MS. Unctan A. i. 17. f. 113- 

ALMOYN. Alms. 

For freres of the crolce, and monk and chanoun, 
Haf drawen in o voice hii fees to ther almnj/n. 

Fcler Langliffl, p. J30. 
ALMS-DRINK. "Tliey have made him drink 
almn-drink," an expression used in Anthony 
and Cleopatra, ii. 7, to signify that liquor of 
another's share which his companion drinks to 
ease him, 
ALMSMAN. A person who lives on alms. See 
Richartlll. iii. 3. In Becon's Works, p, 108, 
the term is applied to a charitable person. 
.\LML'RY. The upright part of an astrolabe. 
Sec Chaucer's treatise on the Astrolabe, e«L 
Unr.p. 412. 
ALMIJSLES. Without alms. 

For thef is reve, the land Is pcnyles; 
For pride hath sieve, the lond is atmurim. 

Wrishfi Pol. Simft, p. MS. 
ALMUTE, A governing planet. An astrolo- 
gical term. 

One that by Ylem aod Aldctwran, 
With tbc altnulti, can tell anything. 

Uandiiliih'i Jnltut Lovtn, IMS, p, M. 




ALMYFLUENT. Ufnelimil. 

And wt' your Mid huinbli? tcmnU «hat evermore 

jiniy to the almnfiuent Ond for your proftpenit estate. 

Davit 0't Yprk Ilecordi, p. W. 

ALMYS-DYSSIIE. Tlic dish in the old bnro- 

nial hall, in which wu put the bread act aside 

for the jioor. 

And hU atmyf-dytahg, u I 50U ny. 
To the porect men iKtt he c&n fynde, 
Otbor ellyi [ wot he ii uukynde. 

Bolce of l^irtav, P- *'• 

ALMY5HT. All-powcrftil. 

Pny we now to Cod atmi/iht, 

And to hytmoder Mary bry|ht. 

That we mowe keejie theie artyeuluc here, 

i.\m§t. vf Mammrtt, p. 31. 

ALNATH. The firet star in the liornn of Arip», 
whence the fint mansion of the moon lakes 
its narae. 
And by his elghtc tpcrc* In his wcrklng, 
lie knew ful wel bow fer Jtnath wu shove 
Fro the hed of thiike Bv Aries above, 
That in the oluthe spere considered 1*. 

Cftaiif IT, Clin/. T. 1 ISM. 
ALNEK. A pnrsc, orbagloholdinoncy. (A.-N.\ 
I wyll ibc yevc an ts/ner, 
■•road of sylk and of gold cler, 

Wyth fkyre ymagct thre. Lai*t%falt 311). 

lie lokede yn hyc o/nrr, 
Tliat fond hym spendytiR all plencr, 

Whan that he hadde nede. 
And ther nas noon, for sotb to say. Ibid. 733. 
AI.NEWAY. Always. See the extiarta from 

the Ayeuliitc of Inwit, iu Boucher. 
ALNIL. And onl.v. 

ScrtU, sire, not ic nojt ; 
Ic etc sage atntl gras. 
More harm ue did ic nojt. 

fyrtghti PU. Sohf, p. SOI. 

ALOD. Allowed. 

Therfor 1 drede lest Ood on us will take vctOancc, 
For syn Is now oiod without any repentance. 

nwnetej^ Mtl*tirHe*, p. 81. 
ALOES. All olio, or savoury dish, composed of 
meat, herbs, eggs, and other in|;redien(s, 
something siniihir to the modeni dish of olives. 
The receipt fur aloes is given in the Good 
Housewife's Jewel, 1596. Sec also Cooper's 
Blvot, in V. Tuctlfim. 
ALOFEDE. Pnised. (A.-S.) 

Now they spedc at the spurres, withowttyne 

spcchc more. 
To the marrhe of Meyes, theU manlfche knyghtes, 
That es Lomyoe nlvfr^n, as Londone cs here. 

Murlt ^rthtirt, MS. Uhc-Ih, t. J». 

ALOIT. " To come aloft," i. e. to vault or play 
the tricVs of a tumbler. 
Do you grumble ; you were ever 
A braiolesa ass ; tnit If this hold. I'll teach you 
To evM« afi(/r, and do tricks like an apo. 

Mai^inisrt'i Bondman, 1024, til. 3. 

A-LOFTE. On high. {A.-S.) 

Leve thow nevere that yon light 

Hem a-ttt/rt brynge, 

Ne have hem out of helle. 

Piera Pl^ugtinutu, p. .7/8. 

ALOOB. To lodge ; to pitch. {J..S.) 
On that Ich fair roumc 
Toali^ her psvUoun. 

ArUutlrmmd Merttt, p. 168. 

A-LOGGIT. Lodged. (A.-S.) 

I am 9-tof^t, thought he, btst. howsoerlr it goon. 
Chauctr, ttt. Vrty, p. W7* 
A-LOGU. Below. {A.-S.) 
Lewed men many tynics 
Malstref thri apposen, 
Why Ailam ne hiled noght first 
HU mouth that eel the appul. 
Rather than hb likame a-togh. 

Pier* Ploughman, p. 942. 

ALOMBA. Tin. Jlmcell. 
ALONDE. On laud. 

For the kende that he was best, 

Alomtt men he gnouj. US. Cbtt. TVtn, Oi*m* fi?. 
AI,ONG. (1) Slanting. Oron. 

(2) Used in somewliat the tame sense as "all 
along of," i. e. entirely owing to, a provincial 

I ean not tell wheron It was along, 
But wel 1 wot gret strlf is us among. 

Ckaueer, CaM. T. Ut 

(3) Long. 
Here 1 salle the gyre alle royn heritage. 
And als oUtng asllyvctobclnthln Oftagn. 

Pttar Lamgt^, p. KM. 
(I) The phrases «tp abmff and dmm alimg answer 
Bouictimcs to up fhe 'treet and dutm Iht 
tirrfl. The sailors use them for up or down 
the channel. Sometiin(» we hear Inyo aUmg, 
the wonls iri'fA me Iwing understood. 
ALONGE. To long for. Cf. Ricliard Coer de 
Lion, 3049, 3060 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 526. 
Alle thouj my wit tic not sLronge, 
ltisnou;ton my wlUea/onge, 
For tttAt Is besy ny;teand day 
To lernc alle that he leme may. 

Goioer, US. S-k. Amilg. 134, f. l(0. 
This worthy Jason soreafnn^fA 
To se the stmunge regionis. /AM. f. 147. 

He goth into the tjoure and wepelh for blisae ; 
Soie he Is alongvd his brethren to klsse. 

US. BaU. Oil,{. 9. 
ALONGST. Along ; lengthwise. Sommtt. See 
rorly instances in HoUnshed, Hist. EngL 
pp. 21, 146; Dckkcr's Knight's Colouring, 
IfiO", repr. p. 46. 
.4L00RKE. .\wr}- ; out of order. (liL) 
nil heed in shappc as by natures worke. 
Not one halre amlsoe, or lyeth atoorkt. 

US. UuMl. »«, {ivottd in OiWcAer.; 
A-LORE. Concealed. 

Whereof hl» schame was the more, 
Whlfhc oujtefor to ben n-lore. 

Coicer, MS. Sue. Anili. 134, f. 132. 
A-LOUTN';. A parapet vaU. See Willis's 
Architectural Nomenclature, p. 33. It is 
merely another form of alure, q. y. 
ALOSEU. Praised; commended. Cf. Rob. 
Glouc. p. 4.50 ; Rom. iif the Rose, 2354. {A.-N.) 
Oaes thou schalt jusll with me. 
As knight that wtleabwd is. 

Of ■)/' Wanatk; p. 04. 
So that he blgon al Oxenford of divinity : 
So noble alottd ther nas non In nil the unlvenetv. 
MS. .iMhimJr 43. r. IMI. 

ALOSSYNGE. Loosing; making loose. See 
the early edition of Luke, c. 19, quoted ))/ 
Richardson, in v. Alotmg. 

ALOST. Lost. Somerift. 




ALOUOH. Below. SteAlcgh. 

Aod wlllot of briddn and of bcMtc*. 
And of hic bntjBf, to know* 
Why *otn« be oiiMgh and lome aloft* 
Thi likyng it WCTf. Pier§ Ptoughman.p.Hi. 
ALOl'R. An aliiiT, q. V. 

Alitaunder romeUi in ht« tcnin* 
For to wU««n hli roatoiu, 
The tourli lo take, and the lorellii, 
Vawta, ofeorO, and the rornrrls. 

K]fng Alitavndtr, 7^10. 
iDIo her clU' thai ben y-gon, 
Toglder thai aferobled hem Ichon, 
And at the atonrM thai defended hem* 
And abiden batailc of her fomen. 

Or <>/ ITarurike, p. &'>. 

LOUTE. To bow. {J.-S.) Cf. Piera Plongh- 
■D, p. 495 ; Lybeaai DiMonns, 1254. 
' And acbewede hem the falM ymjcei. 
And hcte hcai nttmle thcr-to, 

ifS. CM/. Trin. Onin. 97- 
Thif gtvt ymage never hij heed endyne. 
But he oloNf upon the taine nyjte. 

l^dgmu, MS. Soc. AnUq. IM, f. II. 
AUc they ichalle atou-tt to thee, 
Yf thou wylt almetg to me. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. II. 98, C. 38. 

ALOW. Halloo. 

PlUlrocit ut on plllicock hllll 
Mmu, alow, loo, loo ! 

King Lear, ed. 162.'!, p. 907. 

ALOWK. (1) Low down. {A.-S.) Cf. Court of 
Love, 12UI ; Tusier's M'orki, p. 101 ; Dill. 
Great. Monl. p. 2. 

Do we, aayden he, 
Nail we him open a tre 

Ac ar>t we tullen icinln him 

Ay rowc. Reltq. Anilq. L 101. 

(2) To humble. TTi/att. 

(3) To praise ; to approve. (A.-N.) 

Curtyd be he that thy werk alowet 

Richard Cotr it Lbm, *eea. 

ALOYNE. To delay. {A..N.) 
That and more he dyd ata^tu. 
And ledde hem ynto Dabyloyne. 

MS. BoHL 415. 

ALOYSE. Alas ! So explained by the editors. 
A kind of precious stone so called is mcntionei! 
in the Book of St. Albans, sig. F. i. 
Atof/Ut aLn0M, liow pretle it la ! 

Aimoii and Pithha, 1971- 

ALPE. A bull-finrli. Eatf. Ray says it was in 
general use in his time. It is glossed by 
ficrilula in Prompt. Par>-. p. 10. 
There was many a birde tinging, 
Thnrou|;hout the ycrdcall thrlnglng : 
In many ptacU ntehtingalei. 
And «/pe«, and finchn, and wode-wale<. 

tOna. (/ M« HoM, TtSa. 

ALPES-BON. Ivory. 

Thai made hlr body bio and blar. 
Thatrr waa white so a/pet-bon. 

t^g. Cathol. p. 1B.V. 
ALPL Single. (A.-S.) 

A, quod the Tox, ich wllle the Idle, 
On a/;it word ich lie nelle. 

Rellq. Anilii. 11. rii. 

ALPICKE. Apparently a kind of earth. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Ckmre. 

ALPURTH. A halfpenny-worth. Sec Monait, 
Angl. i. 198. We still say hnpurlh in common 

ALRE-BEST. The best of all. Cf. Wright's 
LjTic Poetry, p. 1 04. ( A.-S. ) 

For when je wcncth alrtbeH 
For lehaTcroantrnt. K«H«. .^AMlg. i , ) Id. 
-UiRE-MOST. Most of all. (A.-S.) 
The flour ofchyvalarie now have y lost. 
In whara y truit lo alrtmut*. 

MS. Ai»malt3», f. 31. 

ALRE-WORST. The worst of all. {A.-S.) 

Men, thnu havcat wicked fon. 
The airr-u'orst \$ that on. 

ITrighet Lgrie Potirt, p. 104. 

ALRICHE. An ancient name for a dog. It oc- 
curs in MS. Bib. Reg. 7 E. iv. f. 163. 
ALS. Also ; OS ; likewise ; in like manner. The 
Dorset dialect lias afi, a contracted form of 
alllhii. {AS.) 

Me made calle it one the mome, 
AIm his fadir highte byfome. 

Perctvalf Linnia MS. t. I6S. 

AJjSAME. Apparently the name of a place. 
The Cambridge MS. reads " Eylyssbam." 

With tpwcll of Mmmt, 
Whytlc ali the ace fane. 
And unappti of the tame. 
Served thay ware. 

Sir DefTfrantff MS. Lincoln. 

ALSATI A. A jocular name for the Wbitefriars, 
wliicb was formerly an asylum or sanctuary for 
insolvent debtors, and persons who bad of- 
fended ogaiuist the laws. Shadwell's comedy 
of the Squire of AUatia alludes to this place ; 
and Scott has rciiilered it familiar to all readers 
by his Fortunes of NigeL 
ALSAUME. Altogclhcr. 

He curaed hem there almttmr, 
As they karoled on here gaume. 

MS. Had. 1701, r. 60. 

ALSE. (1) Alice. In the ancient pari^ih re- 
gister of NoVc, CO. OjLon.,is the following entry: 
" .//*• Merten was buriisd the 25. diaye of 
June. 1586." 

(2) Also. {A.-S.) 

The fowrlhe poynt cechyth ua atstt 
That no mon to byt craft be false, 

Conrt. of MaavwTg, p. 23. 

(3) As. (.^.-5.) 

Fore oiie moo^ as je may myn. 

AvAt%m^*t Ppema, p. 74. 
/VLSENE. An awl. It is found in MS. Arundel, 
220, quoted in Prompt, i'arv. p. 1 38. FMin is 
still used in the North of England in the same 
sense. Mr. Way derives it from French alint, 
but perhaps more probably Tcut. aebene, lu- 
bula. See Brockett, in v. FJUin. Jamieion 
gives oiiroii as still in use in the same sense. 
ALSO. (1) All; as. It occnn ooeaaionally in 
later vrriten, as in the Triall of Wits, 1604, 
p. 308. 

Kyrtyla they had oon of aylke, 
AUo whytc aa any myike. 

JTX. Ointab. Ff. il. S, f. 140. 
(2) All save ; all but. Midland C. 
ALSOME. Wholesome. 

Tak a halvpcny wortbe of achepe talghe mollcite, 





•nil Alle the crommci ofM halpeny Ur« otaUom$ brvde 

r whct^i And a {lOLclte of aide alu. and bolte allc ta- 

MS. UhcoIh. tied. (. 3t3. 

SONE. As snon ; unme(Uiitdy. Cf. Kyng 
Aliiaumlcr, 5024 ; Scvjn Sages, 2847. 

And Pauiamy piiriued dftcr hymc, and orerhled 
hym, and ilrakr hym lhurf;he with a ipcrr, and ^Ut 
Jfc-alle he vrrri* grrvuMily woiidcd, he dydc oojte 
nUfme, but he layc halfe dede in the waye. 

Alimitiler, MS. UKColm t. 3. 

ALSQUA. Also. {.i.-S.) 

The slgne of pea atw^wi to brin([ 
BItwIi WillUm and the lolher king. 

US. Fair/at U. 

ALSTITE. Quickl). 

L'nlo the imrter tpckc he Ihoc, 
Sayd, Tu thi lord myn erode thou go. 
Halleli and aUillc. 

Hotfftm'i Rnmantet, p. fiO. 

AI.STOXDE. To wilhsland. Koi. GUmc. Is 

tliia a tnis)>rint for al-ttimAe T 
AI.SIMTIIE. As 90<in u ; ai qaickly u. 

Tor atsuilhn aU be wai mode 
lie fell ; «*a» thar rta langer bade. 

MS. Cell, reqoi. A. Hi. f. i. 

ALSW.V Also. (.i.-S.) 

Jtiua IhU buke lcrt» to kepe the ten comand- 
mentea, and Lo wirkc noght fur erihcly Ihyng. 

tIS. Coll. Elan. Ill, f. I. 
And, air, I dredr me ylt nltwa. 
That he mid have the empire the fra. 

atuyi Sag—i JKItS. 
Oare laniamea take with ua aJtuHQf, 
And loke that Ihay be tight. 

Tmvuett^ Mytt. p. ItMI, 

AI,TE.\IETIIYE. Trigononietr}-. 

The booklf of nHemi'liytt 
Plancmctrye and eek alto. 

lioutr, its. S«r. Anttfi. 134, f. SOt. 

ALTEKAGE. One of the aiuenilii for olTences 
short of murder, lleinie, in gloss, to Pclcr 
Langtnfl, explains it, " the profits which ac. 
cnirand are due to the priest liy reason of the 

Ilem. the bcginneng and thendeng of thedecaieof 
thiji lande growelhe by ihe immoderate takeng or 
coyneand lyverey,wtthou;:ht order ,afler mennciawne 
•cnttiall appeUlea. cuddeet, girtie, ukeng of caanea 
fur felonle«. murdour*, and all other offbocca, allfr- 
agwt bienglf. s.iiiltei. »launtUghe<, and other like 
abuilona and opprrasiona. Stale PAfert, U. 163. 

ALTERATE. Altered; changed. Palsgrave bai 
it as a Terb, lo aUer. 

Undir •millog ihe was dtaalmulatr, 
Provoeatire with bllnklf amoroui. 
And oodainly chaungid and atitrut*. 

Tiut. vf (VeMfde, 127. 
And thereby alto the mater yi atlrmtt, 
Both inward and fnitward aubstancyally. 

Aihnuttt'M Thrat. Chem. Bril. p. ICJ. 
ALTERCAND. Contending. 

The parllcf wcr to felle allfftttud on ilk ilde. 
That non the loth cnuth telle, whedir pea or werre 
tuld tide. rwer Langlvft, f. 314, 

ALTERN. Allemalely. Milton. 
ALTIIAM. In the Fratcmitje of Vacaliondes, 
1575, the wife of a "curtail" is said to be 
called hi* atthnm. Se<.' the reprint of tlini 
nre tract, p. 4. 

AJ.THER-BEST. Tlie best of all. Cf. Kyng | 
Alisaimder, 4H78; Prompt. I'arv. p. 161. 
When y thai ilepe. y havn good real ) 
Somtymc y had not althrr-bttt. 

Rcllq. JnlUi. i. XI*. 
The bame njthff-tujit^ of body tcho bare. 

US. Unc-Jl, A. I. 17, f. til. , 
Kepe 1 no n»orc for al my aerrice, 
Out love me, man, atlhtrtH^t. 

MS. Coll. C^li Canlah. E, Hi. 
ALTHER-FAIREST. The fairest of all. See 
Rom. of the Rose, 625 ; Hartshome's Met. 
Tales, p. 82. 
ALTHER-FEULEST. The most feeble of all. 

Now i'» to allher-fihirsi to fe, 
Tharfor roans lyve tchort byhoves ho. 

US. C.ll. SiM. xviil. (I. 
ALTHER-FIRSTE. First of all. Cf. Le Bone 
Florence of Rome, 292; Hartshome's Met. 
Tales, p. 85. 

^lOtrr-firtttt whannc he dide blrdo 
Upon the day of Circumcitiouo. 

l^/iliratr, MS. S-f. Aallq. 134, f. HI. 
Before matyni talle thou thynkc of the iwrta 
byrthe of Jho»u Cryite allUir-fiirtl; and lythync 
eftyrwarde of hit Patilone. 

US Unro/N A. i. 17, f. Slid. ' 

ALTllEK-l'ORMEST. The first of aU. 
For there thai make temblatit fairest, 
Thai wll biglle ye uMer./brairjI. 

Sn-jm SttgfM, TfW. 

ALTIIER-FOVLI.ESTE. The foulest of all. 
I'hnt tehamefiilte thyngc en for to aaye. 
And foulle lo here, alt sayie the buke. 
And alther'foullf*te one to luke. 

Hampolc, MS. Linnln, f. 277. 
ALTHER-GRATTEST. Greatest of all. This 
compound occurs in an imperfect line iu Syr 
Oawnyne, p. 54. 
ALTIIEU-IIEGHEST. Tlic highest of all. 

I aal syiig til the name ot* the Lorde^lieH. 

US. Oill. Etim. 10. f. 19. 

Whence hlr frendct gao hir te 

Upon the atrfier-hfj^st degr^, 

Thel wondride how she ihider wan. 

CurKT Uundi. US. Call. THji. QinMt. f. OH. 

Thit es the name that ei abowne alle nampt, 

name ulthtr-htg^ite^ withowttene whiike ua mnit 

hopes helo. US. Linmln A. I. 17, f. llU. 


And althirr.ttittff with fulle grel cruelty. 
For lu he tufTrcth dreumcUloun. 

t^'lfiifr, us. StK. Axlli/. 134, f. m. 
Hur own lorde. altlifT.ltutet 
'rlie venom out of hys hedd braite. 

Le Rons Flormce nfRumt, 21 IS. 
ALTHER-LEEST. Least of alL 
Hir lif in langure lastyng lay, 
Gladshipe had the a/rAer-feasf. 
r«r«ir ifiiKdi, US. CaU. THh. CsMaft. f. Hi. 
Tlul of the aMirr-Um wound* 
Were a stede brouht to grunde. llatnitttk, 1!)7H. 
ALTHER-MIGHTIEST. Sec Altker-irunl. 
ALTMER-MOST. Most of all. SeethcSevya 
Sages. 35G0. 

The nisrc vanity It es and aUhermattt Rgsyn mani 
deed, when lufc i> perBiesi. US. Call. Ki«t. in, f. I. 
He dud hym ynto the hcthen oOit«, 
There the preca was nUhtr-maotl. 

US. Cantali. Ff. li. XI, f. Ut. 





The Ante poynte of alle thrc 
Wm thii. whdt thynge In bU debt- 
or Bile LhU world hath nede letlr. 
And ;it men hvlpc it •i/fAcr*mrj/f. 

Gflu«r, US. Soe. Jmti^. 134, f. OH. 
And to hem ipeXc I alttter-tmotMt, 
Th«t Icdcth hiT lyvn in prfde and bootU 

CMraor Mundi, JUS, Coll. Trin. 0$ntatM f. 9. 
And jtt raan folc ci hr, for he wynnn hjrm na 
medc In the tymc. and althermatte Me he c«, for 
hr wjnnnhyni payue. US. Littcoltt A, i 17tf. S4fi. 
ALTllEU-NliXT. Next of all. Cf. Lydgatc's 
Minor Focnis, ji. 20; Lc Bone FlorcDce of 
Kome. 1963. 
Or thou art yn state of prcit, 
Or yn two ordryi alther-nett. 

JUS.Harl. 1701. f. l£. 
Sithen althfrfiejt hondf*. 
Meke bre«tif (hei »hul uudlntondc. 

Curmr Mundt, M.S. CUl. Trin. Cantab, f. 11. 
Aftir Sfimpwn aUhmirtMtt 

Waa dotnc»-man Hrly the precsl. Ibid. t. 40. 

A.LTHEK-TUKW1ST. The truest of all. 
That aUher-trtwUt man y-burc 
To chcae amonge a thouunde fcore, 

Goirffr. MS. «h% Antiq. 134. t. 64. 

ALTHfiR-WERST. The worst of aU. 

AtO*rr'tvrr.t thl-D thai hem be, 
Th«t for uiMlo come to dyfrnytti. 

MS. Hart. 1701. f. 73- 
And thuf ■ mviDU ye fintc 
HlmielTe grevelh alther.wcrttif, 

Caurr, JUS. Sot. Anli^. 134, r. 40. 

ALTHEn-WISEST. The wisest of all. 

Goild ihal es withowttyne begyonyngc, and eft with- 
owttene chaungryng. «nd duellyt wRhowttync 
cndynge. for he c« althiT-myghtytrste and aithtr. 
tf0tf4te, and aUwa althirc-bcvte. 

.VS. UncK^n A. i. 17, t. !U3. 

ALTUER-30N(iEST. The joungcst of aU. 
Samuel aeldc, lir Jeaai-, lay 
Where U thin alther-^trngmt fon. 

Oiricr ilundi, US. Coll. Trin. Canlab. t. 48. 
ALTIFICATION. An alchemical tem. See 

Athmole'n Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 97. 
ALTITONANT. Thundering from on high. 
Midtllrtnn ippliri the term to Jupiter, See 
his Works, v. 175j Minfehcii, in v. 
ALTRICATE. To contend. (Lai.) 

BUhop« with biKhnps, and the vulgar traio 
Do vtth the vulgar oltrlctite for gain. 

BttliHr*!^'. tintchy.Martpmltgtat 1057, P- 41. 

AM'DEI.S. Sublimiug'pots without hotloms, 
ftttdl into each other, without luting. An 
alchemical term. 

l.ook well to the reglfter. 

And let your heat atill letien liy degrees. 

To the a/>l<f<(>. Tht Alchtmlr>,\\.i. 

AJA'FFE. Aloof; more nearly lo the wind. 
This word i« of high antiquity, being noticed 
liy Matthew Paris. 
Atujf> at helm there, ware no more, beware! 

Tbffnr'. PraiM of HfHpteed, p, 12. 

ALl'MERE. Bright one ? (.■f.-iV.) 

Noht may be fcl(id lykcrucere. 
Then thou »o suete alumtrv. 

tVnghf/ L^if Poetry, p. C8, 

ALt^E. A kind of giiller or channel behind 

the battlrmrnts. which served t<i carry off the 

nJn-witer. OS appears from the Prompt. Parr. 

p. 10. It is certainly sometimes naed for an 
alley, or passage from one part of a building 
to another. See Ducange, in T. lilhrium, and 
a quotation from Heame in Warton's llist. 
Engl. Poet. ii. 300; Rob. Glouc. p. 192. The 
parapet-wall itself is even more generally meant 
by the term. Sec the eyainples under y/four. 

ALl!T.\TION. Tanning of leather. Mhuheu. 

ALIJTE. Boweii. {.I..S.) 

That child that wu to wilde and wloog, 

To me alulc luwe. Re/If. ^Ml^ i. 101. 

ALVE. Half. 

Thyi a^•e men 5c awUe wynnc wel ly^tloker and 

vor no;t. fto6. Gttiue. p. 914. 

.ALVEKED. Alfred. See the name as spelt 

in the Herald's College MS. of Robert of 

Gloucester, lieame'i text (p. 326) reading 


ALVISCH. Elfish; baNing supernatural power. 

Hadct wyth au alvuch mun, fur ang^rdca pryde. 

S^r Guieoj/ne, p. 97, 

ALWAY. Always. 

Daughter, make mery whiles thou may, 
For thia world wytl not last aluvy. 

Jesu 0/ t/la IVyditHi' Edyth, \i^X 
ALWAYS. However; nevertheless. S'urlh. 
ALWELDAND. All-ruling. Cf. Ilardyng's 
Chronicle, f. 162 ; Minot's Poems, p. 27.(^.-5.) 
1 pral to grcte God alw^Ulanti, 
That thai have uught the hegher hand. 

Xteaine atiil Cawin, 9160. 
Befyie betajt hym God altewrldyng. 

US. Canlai. Kf. U. 38, f. IIS. 
Oure Lord God al-treldyngr. 
Him liked we] her otlVynge. 

JUS. Oil/. TVin. Oanlab. H. lit (1, f. IS. 
ALWES. Hallows ; saints. 

And than bo-kenned he the kouherdo Crist and lohal 
ahew. Will, and r/ie ffmnolf, p. 14. 

ALY. Co. (Fr.) 

^Ijf ! he aaidc, o/y blyve ! 
No leteth non tkape on lyre. 

K^ng AUtaunder, 437V- 

In kyrleltand In ropes rychc. 
They were clothed all al^ch«. 

Couvr, ed. 1538, f. 70. 
ALYCKENES. SimiUrity. 

And lyke of a/ycAenw, as hit ii devyied. 

TundoU, p. 87' 

ALTE. (l)Tomix. (fr.) 
And If It be not in Lent, alge it witti jolkcs of eyrcn. 
Formo nf Curjf, p. 14. 

(2) Kindred. 

If 1 myght of myn alt/e ony ther fynde. 
It wold be grett Joyc onto mc. 

0>ornlry Mftteria, p. I4S. 

ALYES. Algates ; always. Percy. 
ALYFE. Alive. Cf. Lvdgatc's Minor Poems, 
p. 115. 

And he ne wolde leve .Inft 
Man, bvste, chylde, nc wyfc, 

Af.V. Canlal). Ff. II. 98, f. Ml. 

A-LYGHTELY. Lightly. 

.I'lyghfely they »ey, as hyt may falle, 

Cfod have mercy on u< alle. US. Harl. 17UI,r. .V, 

A-LYKE-WYSE. In Ukc maimer. Prompt. Parr. 

ALYN. .\ kind of oil, mentioned by Skinner, who 
refers to Juliana Barnes la hit authority. 




AliYS. Hales ; tents. See the Paston Letters, 
V. 412, quoted in Prompt. Parr. p. 222. They 
were made of canvas. See the Areheologia, 
xxvi. 402. 

ALYSSON. The herb madwort. It is men- 
tioned by Huloet, 1572, as a cure for the bite 
of a mad dog. 

A-LYVED. Associated. 

And whanne the bycche of hem It moott hoot, jif 
ther be mny wolfei yn the contr^, thcl goith alle after 
hurc u the boundes dolth after the bycche when the 
b ]oly, but the thai not be a-lfttd with noon of the 
wolfea uf on. tIS. Bodl. 546. 

ALYZ. Isabel, Countess of Wanriclt, in her will 
dated 1439, leaves a " gown of green afyz 
cloth of gold, with wide sleeves," to our Lady 
of Walsyngham. See the Test. Vetust. p. 240. 

AM. Them. An old form, and still in use in 
the provinces. See an example in Middleton's 
Works, L 351, where the editor erroneously 
prints it a'm, which implies a wrong source of 
the word. 

And make am* amend that thai du myi. 


AMABLE. Lovely. 

Face of Absolon, raoott fayre, mocst aiMiMe .' 

Urdgalt't Minor INxau, p. S5. 
AMACKILY. In some fashion; partly. North. 
A.MAD. Mad. 

Heo wendeth boke* un-brad. 
Ant maketh men a moocth o-mod. 

Wrighfi Pol. Songt, p. tie. 

Here was JhMut i-lad to icole, and overcara alle the 

roaiitrca with puyr clergle, to that everech heold 

hinuulf amadt for he tchewede heom wel that huy 

werenoutof rljhtemuinde. MS. Laud. 108, t. li. 

AMADETTO. A kind of pear, so named by 

Evelyn after the person who first introduced 

it. SUniter. 

AMAIL. Mail. 

CamlUui put on a coat of aawli, and went ann'd 
with iword and dagger to defend hlmielf agalntt all 
astaulti. Tho Fortmnate I»Mr«, 163S. 

AMAIMON. A king of the East, one of the 
prine^ttl devils who might be bound or re- 
strained from doing hurt from the third hour 
till noon, and firom the ninth hour till evening. 
lie is alluded to in 1 Henry IV. ii. 4, and 
Merry W. of Windsor, ii. 2. According to 
Holme, he was "the chief whose dominion 
is on the north part of the infernal gulf." 
See Donee's Illustrations, i. 428 ; Malone's 
Shakespeare, ed. I82I, viii. 91. 
AMAIN. All at once. A seatenn. The term 
is also osed in boarding ; and to ttriie amain, 
is to let the top-sails tail at their full run, not 
gently. Woring amain, is waving a sword for 
a signal to other ships to strike their top-sails. 
See the Sea Dictionary, 12mo. Lond. 1708, 
in v. 
AMAISTER. To teach. Sahp. 
AMAISTREN. To overcome ; to be master of. 
And now wolde I wito of thee 
What were the b»te; 
And how I myghtc a.mili<rr» hem. 
And make hem to werche. Pitrt PhHtliman, p. IW. 

AMALGAMING. A chemical term for mixing 
quicksilver with any metal. 

And ID amalgamtng. and calcening 
orquiksllvcr, y^leped mercuric crude. 

Cluucer, Ositf . T. 16130. 

AMALL. EnameL See AmelL 

Upon the toppe an em thcr itod 
Of bournede gold rychc and good, 

1-florytched with rycho amatt. Laun/dt, S7A. 
AMAND. To send away ; to remove. (Lot.) 
Opinion guideth leatt, and the by faction 
It quite amamterf, and in high distraction. 

ifS. Rallil.437, f. II. 

AMANG. Among. Var. dial. 

He outtoke me thar amang 
Fra mi faai that war ta itrang. 

MS. OM. VtMpai. D. vli. 

AMANG-HANDS. Work done conjointly with 

other business. In Y'orkshire it sometimes 

means lands belonging to different proprietors 


AMANSE. To excommunicate. {A.-S.) 

And the kyng hymtulf wat theiate ; Ml omanmle 

AUe thuike, that elerket tueh deapyt dude and wo. 
Bab. OUmc. p. 40t. 
A-MANY. Many people. North. SeeMassinger's 
Works, i. 35. 

If weather be fayre, and tydie thy graine. 
Make tpcdely carrlge for feare of a ratne : 
For tempcet and thowert dcceaveth a.m«ny. 
And lingering lubbers loose many a peny. 

Tuuer, ed. 1573, f. S.'i. 

AMARRID. Marred ; troubled. Cf. Deposition 
of Richard II. p. 2 ; Gesta Romanonim, 
p. 207. 
Eld me hath amarrtd, 
Ic wene he be bi-charrtd, 
Thattruitethtofuthe. Rillii. SU. 
A-MARSTLED. Amazed? 

Bupe forth, Hubert, hoiede pye, 
Icbot Hurt a^mantUd Into the mawe. 

WHghtt Lgrie Potbv, p. 111. 
AMARTREDE. Martyred. 

And amtrtrado to thane holie man. 
And a-sloujh him In a ttounde. 

MS. Laud, loe, f. 165. 

AMASEDNESSE. Amazement. 

Not only the common tort, but even men of place 

and honour, were ignorant whlcli way to direct their 

coune, and tberby. through amoMdneue, as likely to 

run from the place affbcted, as to make to the succour 

of It. Lambard^M PenmbulaHon, ed. 1906, p. 69. 

AMASEFULL. Frightened. Pabgrate. 

A-MASKED. " To go a-mathed," to wander or 

be bewildered. This is given as a Wiltshire 

phrase in MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 2, in a letter 

dated 1697. 

AMASTE. An amethyst. Rider. Mlnsbeu gives 

the form amatyite. 
AMAT. To daunt ; to dismay. Cf. Drayton's 
Poems, p. 303-, Florio in v. Spontdrt; Coven- 
try Mysteries, p. 294. {A.-N.) 
There mygbt men sorow see, 
Amatud that there had be. 

MS. CanOb. Ft. II. 38, f. 101. 
And all their light laughyng tumd and translated 
Into sad tyghyng 1 all myrth wat nmalod. 
HfUl—d OH SnglUlH ProHrfrM, IMl, llf. A. vIlL 




. 7*. 


AMAWNS. To excommunicate ? 
with a penylcs purt for to pleyet 
Lat »cho can the pcpul anwwnM, 

Rfliil. Antli. I, 
AMAWST. Almost. ITnl. 
AMAY. To climuy. Cf. Kyng AUsiundcr, 
7243 : Arthour and Merlin, p. H6. (Fr.) 
with thyn auiiler thou makeit beer 
Thou ne inljt DOjt mt amaife, 

MS. Athmoit sa, (. n. 
Whrrvof hr dmddc and was amaprd. 

GMVtr, MS. Sor. ^nrf<). IM, S. !39. 
AMAZE. To confunnd ; to perjtlex ; to alann. 

AMBAGE. Circumlocution. Sec the Spanish 
Tragedy, i. 1 ; Marlowe's Works, iii. 257. In 
an old glossary in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108, it iii 
explained by " circumstance." See the Brit, 
llibl. ii. 618. It a used as a verb, apparently 
meaning to travel round, in the Mortc d' Ar- 
thur, i. 135. (io/.) 
A.MBASSADE. An embassy. {A.-N.) 
Alx>u1e him there, th'amtaMade Imperyall 
Were fayre brought unto hit royat dl^ili-. 

Hardyng'a CAronicle, p. 138. 

AMBASSADOR. A gome played by sailors to 
duck some inexperienced fellow or landsman, 
thus described by Grose. A large tub is filled 
with water, and two stools placed on each side 
of H. Otct the whole is thrown a tar]>aulin, 
or old sail, which is kept tight by two persons 
sealed on the stools, who are to represent the 
king and queen of a foreign countr)-. The per- 
son intended to be ilucked plavH the ambassa- 
dor, and after repeating a ridiculous speecti 
dictatetl to him, is led in great form up to the 
throne, and seated between the king and queen, 
who rise suddctily as soon as he is seated, and 
the unfortunate ambassador is of course delugetl 
in the tub. 
AM BASS AGE. An embaisy. Siai. 
AM BASS ATE. An embassy. See llardyog's 
Cbrouicle, ff. 74, 95, 18G, who sometimes 
spells it amiauyate. In MS. .'Vshmole 59, f. 
45, is " a compleynte made by Lydegate for 
the departing of Thomas Chaucier into Frauncc 
by hes senauntz upoue the kruges amluutate." 
AMBASS.\TK1E. An embassy. {A.-N.) 
I My. by trrtUe and ambastalrif. 
And by the popct mediation, 
Aud all the chirche, and all the cheralrie. 
That intlettructlon of maumetrle. 
And in cncreae of Crifttit lawe dere. 
They ticn accorded »o a* ye may here. 

CAaucir, CaHl. T. 46S3. 

AMBER'D. Scented with ambergris. 

The wine* be lupty, high, and full ot ipirit. 
And itmttrr^ii all. BvaumonI and Flcli-hcr, Iv, i3J. 
AMBER-UAYS. The ember days. 

And aufl^agca of the churchc, botho amtt€r.dai/e» 
and Irntca. Bale' a Kirn ft Johan, p. 41. 

AM BBS- AS. The two aces, the lowest throw- 
in the dice ; and hence often used figuratively 
^ for bail luck. Sec Chaucer, Cant. T. 451 1 ; 

■ Harrowing of Hell, p. 21 ; All's WeU that 

■ ends Veil, ii. 3. Howell, p. 1'.), (ells us that 
H when this throw » as tnailc, the dicers in lyondnn 
^K would say " ambling aunes aud irottiiig Juan." 




This is also the reading of one MS. in Rob. 
Glouc. p. 51. 

ThU were a hery clM, 
A chauDCe of ani&e«(ue. 
To ie youc broughte to baae. 
To playe without a place. 

SkelloH't trtrkt, II. 438. 
AMDIUEXTER. In familiar writing a kind of 
Vicar uf Bray. According to Cowell, " that 
jimir that takcth of both parties for the ginng 
of his verdict." Sec Nash's Pierce Pcnilease, 
p. 10 ; Florioin v. Dettnggidn. 
AMBLANT. Ambling. 

And tnony (kire Juitcr corant. 
And mony fat pal/ray ombtant. 

Kynff Atuaundttt 94fl>. 
AMBLERE. An amble. 

But Oliver him ridcth out of that plas 

In a softe ainhlere, 
Nc made he non other pal 
Til they were met In fete. 

MB. Jtkmolt S3, t. 9. 


V sett hir on a mule ambHnde, 
In the way we dcdc out rtdelnde. 

Cy uf Wamrlkf, p. 1(9. 
AMBOLIFE. Oblique. 

And take gode kep« of ihlK chapiter of arlalngeof 
celcitlall tmdyca, for thcr trufleth wcl that neither 
mone neither itcrrc In our ambotl/k orltont. 

Cftaucrr, td, Vrry, p. 445. 

iUIBROSE. Wild sage. See an old receipt in 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 55; Prompt. Parv. p. 11; 
Areha:ologis, xxx. 404. 
AMBRY'. A cupboard ; a pantry. See Aumbry. 
Of. Florio in v. Ga::i!ra ; Sluiiuer and Barct, 
in v. The alnionr}' was sometimes so called, 
the alms being kept in an ambry. See Brit- 
ton's Arch. Diet, in v. Almonry. 

On fayro amhulondt bor* they wt. 

Gawtr, ed. I«3>, t. (V. 
AMBULER, An ambling horse. 

Sire, nld Palomydef , we will be rrdy to cooduyto 
you bycaufo that ye are lore wounded, and too wa« 
EpynoKryt and hU lady horsed, and his lady bchyndv 
hym upon a softe ambuier. 

Marttd! Arthur, II. 148. 

AMBUSCADO. An amboicade. Shak. 

Nay, they have anSwMadoea laid within thee. 
Self against »clf tutiom'd, thereby to win thee. 

aolitr^t Uclme Gllmj»e>, p. IU4. 

AMBUSION. An abuse. 

ButthU mc thlnkcth an ambnwUm, 
To see on walke In gownli of tcarlote 
Twelve jerdli wide, with pendant kIcvcs doun 
On the grounde, and the fUrroure therlnne. 

OccIsM, MS Soc. Mnli<i. IM, t. aSt. 
Fy I hit U to gret an ant>nulaH 
To *e a man that b but worm la mete. 

I6id. r. IM. 
AMBYNOWRE. An almoner. 

Pet^ cf f penscre, that doae tervcwe to gud alia that 

Kho maye ; and Mercy hir «yiter >alle be atubt/mauirt, 

that gylTcs to alle, and nughtc kane kcpe to hinetfe^ 

U.t. Unroln A.I. 17, f. ITS. 

AME. (1) To guess ; to think ; to tell. From the 
German ahmm, according to Qii. Rev. Iv. 37 1 ; 
lint it certainly, in middle English, is merely 
another form uf ains, q.v. In Palsgrave we have 

AME 54 


-Imfme, I niente ot gesM to byt a thjnige." The 
aieaiiing u clearly aacertained from Prompt. 
Panr. p. 190, " genyne, or amyne, ettimo, 
mrUtror, opimor. C(. Rom. and Jul. i. 1. 
of ncn of anne* bold the numbre thel anw, 
A rtiooMiMl ud tuo hundred told of Crltten men 
M oani*. Peur IjtKflcfi, p. KS. 

MmA alte Arthurs ottc was omede with knyghtet. 
Bee nvghtme hundrcthc of alle entrede in rollos. 
UorU Arthm, MB. Umcoln. t. 85. 
No nos upon mold raijt aymt the noumher, 
Al that fail aray reken Khold men never. 

ffUI. and the WtruKlf, p. 58. 
V«e, wyth (ood handelyng. h I >>•<•*• 
Eran by and by, ye sh«ll her leclayme. 

Commune Sterttary and Jalouitift, m d. 

(2) The ipirit ; the bouL {A.-S.) See Steren- 
•on'i ed. of Boucher in v. 

(3) For a third acme, tee Wamer'i Antiq. Colin. 
p. 14. A diih ii there called '* douce ame." 

AMEAUNT. EUia and Uttcraon propose ada- 
mani as the meaning of this word. The 
Cambridge MS. reads, " Thys siryrde ys gode 
and ateawnt." (A.-N.) 
Therforc my swearde he thai! hare. 
My good flwerde of amraunr. 
For therwitb I alowe a (yaunt. Syr Degorl, 109, 
AMEE. The herb omeoa. Gerard. 

AMEKIDE. Soothed. 

Ande tbeone fpake he, Ne was not thli yonge man 
getyne by me ? YU, ulr, quod ihe, dowtithe hit not, 
for he U your lawefuUy bigetene tone. Thenne the 
Bmpcroure was amekidet ande laide to his Sonne, 
Sod, quod he, lamthifadlr. 

Qnta Ramanorumf p. 177> 

AMEL-CORN. A Itind of corn, said by 
Markham to be " of a middle size betvrixt 
wheat and barlie, unlike altogether unto win- 
ter wheat whereof we last spake, bat of a sort 
and iacultie like unto spelt, whereof we will 
apeake next in order." See Markham's 
Countrey Farme, 1616, p. 5&1 ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Scourgton ; Florio, in v. Oriza. It appears 
from Markham that acour^eon is scarcely 
synonymous with amel-com, and therefore 
Cotgrave's account of it is not quite ap> 
plicable. It seems to be the Tcut. AnuU 
torat, explained by Kilian /ar candidum, and 
the com of which amydon is made. Gerard 
calls it the starch-corn, a species of spelt. 

AMELL. (1) Enamel. It is also used as a verb 
by Chaucer, Palsgrave, and others. See 
Amikd; Beaumont and Fletcher, Introd. p. 
lix; Cotgrave and HoUyband, in t. EmaU; 
Prompt. Parr. p. 261 ; Twine, ap. Collier's 
Shak. Lib. p. 206. Amall is a similar form, 
q. T. See an example in v. Amelyd. 

(2) Between. Northumb. It seems to be the 
Icelandic d milli. See Qu. Rev. It. 363, 
where it is stated not to be used in Scotland. 
It is inserted in the glossary to the Towncley 
Mysteries, without a reference, and explained 
" among." 

AMELYD. Enamelled. 

The fhmtys therwith amelyd all 
With all raancr dyverse amell. 


AMENAGE. To manage ; to direct by force. 
with her, who so will rjiging furor tame. 
Must fitst begin, and well her amenrngt. 

FaeHe t/iteene, II. ir. 11. 

AMENAUNCE. Behaviour ; courtesy. {Lot.) 
And with graTe speech and grateful omtHamut, 
Himself, his sute, his spouse, to them commended. 
rietehet'i Purple IiUatd, zi. 9. 

AMENDABLE. Pleasant. 

That til oure lif is ful proflublo. 
And to oureioule amendahU. 


AMENDEN. A kind of oath. Suffolk. 
AMENDMENT. Dung or compost laid on land. 

AMENDS. An addition put into the scale of a 
balance, to make just weight. See the Nomen- 
clator, p. 337. So the modem phrase, to 
make amends. 
AMENE. Pleasant ; consenting. {Lot.) 
Whan that mercy wolde have ben amene, 
Rlghtwyssenesse gan hit anon denyo- 

Ulilgate, MS. jfehmote ». f. UK 
To thi seiTaunttii of grace now see. 
And to thi son tiefor bus amene. TVnde/s, p. 1S5. 
.AMENGE. To mingle. We may perhaps read, 
" And menge it." 

Amenge It with grea of a swyne. 

Areluenlogiat xxz. 3S7. 

AMENNE. To amend. 

As we be wont, erborowe wo crave. 
Your life to amenne Ciiriit it save. 

Horn, of the Rote, 74D6. 
AMENSE. Amends. 

To tell you the cause me sameth it no nede. 
The aiiwnse thcrof is far to call agayne. 

SkeUon'e fVerke, I. 2SC 

AMENTE. Amend. 

But y kve synne, hyt wole me spylle ; 
Merqf, Jhesu I y wole omeno. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. ii. X, f. 17. 

AMENUSE. To diminUh ; to lessen. {A.-N.) 
See the Persones Tale, pp. 36, 38. 
Mis mercy is surmounting of foyson. 
Ever encreaseth without amenueyng. 

Boehae, b. U. c. 31. 
AMEOS. The herb bishop's-weed. See Florio, 

in V. Ammi. 
AMERAL. An admiral, q. v. The word is very 
changeable in its orthography. In the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 11, it occurs in the modem sense of 
admiroL The word amero^/^ in the following 
passage seems to mean the sovereignty of 
the sea. 
Cherish marchandtse and kepe the amerahi. 
Tliat we be maisten of the narow see. 

MS. Sue. Antiq. 101, f. 50. 
AMERAWD. An emerald. 
An emeratrd was the stane. 

Richer saw 1 never nane. Yu^ine and Oawin^ Xi, 
His ston is the grenc ameratrde. 
To whom is joven many a lawde. 

Cower, MS Sue. Antiq. 134, f. SOI. 

AMERAMDES. The hemorrhoids. " .A guil 
medcyne for the amerau-dtt" is mentioned in 
MS. Harl. 1600 and 1010. 

AMERCE. To punish with a pecuniary pe- 
nalty ; to inflict a fine or forfeiture. Some- 
times, to punish, in general See Romeo and 
Juliet, ill 1. 






And yf thou kjiiutc not Ictc thi playntCf be, 
lintflwful quirtl owetli to ben aittrrMj. 

Botllut, MS. Sk-. Aniif. 134, f. S99. 

AMERCY. To amerce (.^.-A.) 

And though ye mowc ammy hctn, 
Lat mercy be taxuur. Fieri Ploughman i p. 119. 

AM ERE. Bitterly. So explained by Weber ill 
the folloiriiig pasM^, where the Lincoln'! lun 
MS. reads, " and gan him beore." Stevenson 
conaiders it t noun, minchiff, damage, a more 
likely interi)ret«tion. (A.-N.) 
Dariftdu, Dane* brother. 
He hadde y.flawe on and othlr. 
Tauryn and Hardai he tlowe with ipere. 
With sweord lyden he dud »mtn ! 
In thii strong Tyithtyait caa, 
Ho mette with Dalmidaa. 

Kpig AUtavKitr, MIT- 
AMEREI.LE. The translation of umiraetUum 
in the Canterbury MS. of the Medulla. See 
the Prompt. Par\. p. 301. The corresponditig 
lenn in MS. Harl. 227Uis "an umhrclle." 
AMERKE. To tuar ; to spoil ; to destroy. See 
Ibc Servn Sages, 2266, wrongly glossed hv 
Wf bcr. ■ (A..S.) 

lie ran with a drawciwerJe 

To liyt raanirnlryc. 
Aud all hys goddyi liter he dmcrrerfe 

With greet envyr. Oefatian, 131)7. 

That we lieih ofie wlthtone, 
Tlie Mule woltelh amtrrv. 

MS. XM««r M> f- ixi- 
Now thou hast, tfr, allc y-livrd 
Hou id) am bltreyd and a ai a rrf. 

Gy tf WanrOtt, p. \«i. 
AMERS. Enilien. Yortth. 
AMEKV.XILE. To marvel; to be snr|irised. 
Cf. Unrilyng's Chronicle, tT. 73, 120;Gesla 
Romanoruu), p. 392 ; Syr Degor<;, 932; Riche's 
Farewell to MiUtarie Profession, ed. 1381, 
sig. P. i. {.1..X.) 
And fwiflli H'lhlhe with »werde« iwongc Ihei lo-gider. 
That many were amervaUed of here doujll dedet. 

Will, and Die ntnci,!/, p. IS. 
Then apake Tundale to the angyil bryght, 
for he waa amnrvmt/i of that ftyghl. Tunda/#, p. M. 
The biBahope woa amemU then. 
And In gret 111051 he atode. 

MS. Gmcofr. Ff. V. 48, f. 7H. 

AMES-ACE. Sec Jmiet-at. This is the form 
used by Shakesjieare. See Collier's Shake- 
speare, iii. 241 ; Nores, in T. 
AMESE. To calm. ".Imme you," calm your- 
self. This phrase is aildrr^<ed by Anna to 
Cayplias in the Townlcy Myst. p. 194. 
AMET. An anf. {.4.^.) 

So thyckc hii come, that the lood over si hil gonne 

As thycke sa mmcten crepcth in an amefe huiic. 

Rob. C/owc. p. 2)6. 

AMETISEO. DcstTuycd. Skinner. 

AMEVED. Moved. (,.4.-X) Cf. Chaucer, 

Cant. T. 8371 ; MS. Soc. Aiitiq. 134, f. 4. 

Out, Liirdr. howe he wat in hla herte ameKid, 

Wban that Uary he haihe with chllde iteyn. 

LfdgaU, MS. Jihrnole X), I. .ID. 
That grleyaunce waa him no thiuge lefc, 
H* waa ful >orc ameonl. MS. Dmut \V', V- >*' 

AMIAS. Tlic city of Amiens. 

He ran anon, ai he were wodc. 
To BialacDil there that he atudc. 
Whiche had levlr In Ihia caaa 
Have ben al lleinca or j4mi»M. 

Homavitl itflht Hon, a«!M. 

AMICE. The amice or amiVe is the first of the 
sacerdotal vestments. It is, says Mr. Way, a 
piece of fine linen, of an oblong square form, 
which was formerly worn on the head until 
the priest arrived before the altar, and then 
thrown back upon tbc bliouldcni. See Prompt 
Parr. p. II ; Nomenclator, p. 1S9; Dugdmle's 
Monast. iii. 295. The following quotation 
may also be found in an early printed fragment 
in Mr. Moitland's account of the Lambeth 
Library, p. 266. Sec yimmin. 
Utton hia heed thcom^re flrit hclcith. 
Which la a thing, a token and figure 
Outwardly ahewlnge and grounded In the fcltli , 
The large awbe, by record of «cripturc, 
^'a rightwinicaae perpetualy to endure : 
The longe glrdyl, dcnnetae and chaatit6 1 
Doundc on the arme, Che fanoune doth aaaure 
All aobumcaae knyttc with liumillte. 

L^galt, MS. Halton 73, (. 3. 
AMIDWARD. In the middle. Cf. Kyng 
.AUsaunder, 967 ; Richard CucrdcLion, 1926; 
Sevyn Sages, 179; Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. '29. 
He met that geaunt Plno^tes 

Arniilu?ard a] hia prea. Jrlfmur and Mm-Un, p. 301 . 
AMILED. Enamelled. {.1.-N.) Sec the note on 
this word in Wartou's Hist. Engl. Poet. ii. 135. 
And with a bend of goldc taasilcd. 
And knoppia One of golde omileil. 

Hnm. ofihe Rotr. ItWO. 
AMIMSH. To diminish. Palngrete. This is 

perhaps another form of amemue, q. v. 
AMIS. To miss; to foU. 

Aurellus, whiche that diipelrtd ii 
WhUliir he tball have hla love, or otiiia. 

Chaufvr, ed. tfrr^, p. IIV. 

AMISS. A fault ; a misfortune. Skat. 
AM IT. To adnut. 

Aail am^titig lUe ImiKisaibilltle that their calaill 

were anved, yet in conlynuaunce of one ycrc, Ihe 

same catailt ahalbc dcade, dtitroyed, atolen, atrayed, 

and eaten. State Palmer*, ii. 33&. 

AMITURE. Friendship. 

Thow, heaaide, traylour, 
Yusturday thow rome iu amitttre, 
Y-armed *a on of myne, 
kfe byhynde at my chyne, 
Smoteat mc with thy apere* 

Ktng tlUiaunder, 3B75 
AMLYNO. AmbUng. 

off ladya were they com ryde. 
Along under the wodyi ayde. 
On fayre nmtyvg bora y-aelt. 

MS. Cantab, ft. 1. 6, {. 8 
A.MMAT. A luncheon. U'nt. 
AMMIS. The canonical vestment, lined vinth 
fur, that served to cover the bejid and shoul- 
ders. Grey fur was generally used. The word 
is sometimes spelt amice, amyn, ammyit, 
amrnai, &c. In French the atnici and aiimuct-, 
and in I>atin the amiclut and almnciuin, cor- 
rcJ>|>oiid to Ibe amice and ammut, as we liave 
spelt Ihcni ; but it is a grave error to confound 
the two, as Mr. Dyccdocs in his edition of 




Skelton, ii. 134. See ilro the quotations in 
RichArdMiii where, however, the tcnns are 
not distiiiguighed ; and Prompt. Parr. ]>. 11, 
where the distinction between the two ia 
clearly seen ; Palsgrave, f. 17; Lockhart'a 
Life of Scott, i. 309. In the Prompt. Parv. 
we also have " amuee of an hare, almucium, 
kaielur hi horologio divhus $ttpieHtia." 
And hyrn moott lowly pny. 
In hit mynde to compriK 
ThoM- worde* hit grace dyd uye 
Of an vmtnat gray , Skelton't fForkt, H. 84. 
AAINANT. Pleasantly (.>). See Syr Gawaync, 

p. 31. Perbapj it should be avinanl. 
AMNER. An almoner. Not an unusual form 
of the word. See Ruthind Papers, p. 59; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 49; Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 18, 19 ; Cotgravc, in v. Aumotnifr. 
A-MOD. Amidst; in the middle. Lmtglijfl. 
AMOND. An almond. Mituhfu. 
AMONESTE. To admonish; to advise. (A.-N.) 
Cf. Apology for the Lollards, p. 93; Wright's 
Christmas Carols, p. 31 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, 
p. 201; Melibeus, p. 110. 

Bot of that that he amontrta, the whllkc er woate 
fur to Ihynke lyghtty the ucogcance of God. 

MS. Coll. Bl-M. 10, f. «. 

AMONESTEMENT. Advice; admonition. Cf. 
Morte d'Arthur, ii. 270. 

The kyng ainonrtlemml hcrdc ; 
Quyklichc theDDct he fcrde. 

KlfMg AliaautuUr, 6D7i. 
AMONGE. Amidst; at intervals, Cf. Ellis's 
Met. Rom. ii. 387 ; Ritson's Anc. Pop. Poet, 
p. 44. The phrase evtr among, in Rom. of the 
Rose. 3771, and 2 Henry iV. v. 3, means ever 
from time to time, ever at intervali. 
Be It right or wrong. 
These men amtmg 

On troiDeQ do complaine. Kitthnttone Uaid, 1. 
And ever amongt, mercy ! tcbe cryde. 
That he ne Khulde hit cnuntclle hide. 

Gotrer, US. Sx, ..^nlii). 134 f. SH. 
That eten and dronkca right i^nowe. 

And made myrth ever amoHgt : 

Bat of the towdon tpdie we nowe, 

Howe of torowe wat hit toogv. 

Sir Ftmmbnu, MUUIthlll MS. 
Sometyme thel tcbul be pynad long* 
With hetCi and ■otnetynie cold onpftg*. 

ia..A*w(e4t, r.41. 
AMONSI. To excommunicate. (J.-S.) 
To entredite and amotut 

Al thai, whatehl erlr be. 
That lafful men doth rot>bl, 
Whate in lond, what in tee. 

WrifhC* Pvtitinl Songt, p. 196. 

AMONYB. An ointment wherewith the Egj-p- 
liana naed to embalm their dead bodies. See 
WidtMe's New Teat. p. 251. 
AMOOST. Almost, tretl. 
A-MORAGE. On the morrow. Xoi. Gloue. 
AMORAYLE. An admiral, q. v. 

Two hundred knyghtet withoute fayle, 
ry ve hundred of OMoroyfr. 

Kidiaril Otr da Um, am. 

AMOHETTE. A love affair. (A.-N.) TjTwhilt 

says " an amorous woman" in the second 
these instances, where it may be merely a di- 
minutive, as in Florio, in v. Amoriao. Jamie- 
son explains it, tote-knoh, garUauU. 

Fur not 1-cladde In tUke waa be. 

But all in flourltaod flourettea^ 

I'paintid all with amorettei. 

Rum. iif Iht Bate, tHi. 

For all to well woli lore tie tctte, 

Undir raggla as riche rotchctte, 

And eke as well by amontus 

tu mournlDg blacke, aa bright bumettcs. 

IhU. 47U. 

AMORILY. Perhaps, says Tyrwliilt, put by 
mistake for mrrilg. The old glossariei ex- 
plain it " amorously." 

The tecontio letaon Ilobln Redctrrette tang. 
Hail to the God and Goddet of our lay t 
And to the lectom amoritii he iprang, 

liail, quod he, O thou fretbe aeaoo of May. 

amrt4 qf Lon, 1383. 
AMORIST. An amorous person. 

An 'iM>eH«f is a creature blattcd or planet-ttrokeo, 

and it the dog that leadt blind Cupid. [ISK, alg. a. 

J fnfi, now tfm Wtdtiw of Sir Thttmat Orcrbury, 

AMORT. Dejected ; without spirit ; dead, (fr.) 
" What sweeting, all amort I" — Tarn, of the 
Shrew, iv. 3. Sec Hawkins's Engl. Dram. iii. 
358 ; Greene's Works, i. 146 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
app. p. 1 31 ; Euphues Golden lycgacic, ap. Col- 
lier's Shak. Lib., p. 124. Howell, in his Ixrxi- 
con, translates alt-amort by Irule, /lentalif. 
A-MORTHEKEU. Murdered. See the Heridd's 
College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, quoted 
in Heome'a edition, p. 144. 
jVMOllTISEN. To amortize; to give pro|K'rty 
in mortmain. (.-f.-A'.) The word amortunt 
occurs in the Personcs Tale, p. 22, and is ex- 
plained killed in tliti glossaries. It may pos- 
sibly bear a figiirativc expression. 

Let tuelleryt and bakcr>n; gadrc hem a gilde. 

And allc of oueut make a fraxcrnlt^, 
Undir the pillory a litil chapelle byldo, 

The place amorf«y«e, and purchate liberie. 

Li/dgalg^i Minor Vv«m», p. 807, 
If lewed men kncwe thlt Lalyii. 
Thei wolde lokc whom Ihei yevc. 
And arisen hem biforc, 
A fyrv dayet or tile, 
Er tbcj anu>rl\M«de to inoukca 
Or chanont bir rente. 

Pi«ri PItmghman, p. 

AMORWE. In the morning; early in the morn- 
ing. Cf. Chaucer, Cant. T. 824, 2491 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 159. 

Knight, heteyd, yeld the byllve. 
For thou art gited, to mot y thrive ! 
Now ichavc a-drink, 
Icham us frcaclie aa ich waa amorwt. 

Of if «'arn4kt, p. 3i«. 
Amniiii ayr Amyt dyghl him jarc, 
And toke hit leve for to fare. 

MS. l>wr«3}6, r.lL 
AMORYG. Explained by Heanie " to-morrow," 
Rob. Gloue. p. 234 ; but the Herald's College 
MS. reads "among," which clearly seems tu be 
the right reading. 
AMOLNTE. Smeared ? Mr. Wriglil thinks It 
may be an error of the scribe for auoinle. 









And I wUl fo« giltber tlychc. 
The fthlppe for to cauihe uid pyche ; 
Ame%mte yt mufte be with stichCi 
Bordr. tree, and pynnc. Chttltr Plaifft \. 47> 
AMOt'NTMENT. Reckoning. 

Examcod Ibam and cait ilk ammmtment, 

Ptirr Vanglnfl, p f-U. 

AMOVE. To move. Cf. Davics's York Reconis, 
p. 85 ; Chiiucer, ed. Urry, p. 364. 

To Flaundm the fled then, Aill tonamwtd. 
To crle Badwyo hir coutyn nie of liloodde. 

Jiontyaf*! ChrvnMt, f. 121. 

AHOWNG. Gcntleneu. Sec in old dociuncot 
printivi in Me)'riek's Critical Enquiry, ii. 252. 
AMOWHE. I^ve. See Flor. and Blanch. 524 ; 
HiUI. Edward IV. f. U ; Cov. Mj-Jt. p. 50. The 
term amoiiri, intrigues, wiu introduced into 
England in the leventeenth centur}', acconllng 
to Skinner. 

Me lukod up unto the touro. 
And merUy Mng he of amuwrt, 

Seryn Sagti, tSSl, 

AMPER. A soil of inflaiiie<1 swelling, fiuf. 
".Ym^ererf.corniptcd, as ampred chees in Kent ; 
an nmprr or amjior in Essex, is a rising seal) or 
sorr.allso avein swelled with eomiplcd hloud." 
Kcnnett, MS. Lansd. 103.t. Skinner also ap- 
propriates it to Essex, but Grose to Kent, who 
explains it, a " fault, a defect, a Oaw ;" and 
Ray gives it as a Sussex word, " a faidt or flaw 
in linnen, or woollen cloath." A penon covered 
with pimples is said in Somersetshire to be 
amptry, while the same word is used in the 
Eaitcm counties in the sense of weak, or nit- 
bealthy. Amprrd or ampertf is now applied to 
cheese beginning to decnv. especially in Stia- 
aex ; and is somrtimes used wheu itpeaking of 
decayed teeth. An ampre-mig is sniil in the 
glossaries to be a decayed tooth in East Sus- 
»e,\ and Kent. 

AMPERESSE. An empress. 

The neate 5er theraftcr, the aniperewe Mold 
Weode out of ttiji live, as Ihc tioc ath i-toltt. 

Hull. Wour. p. 474- 

AMPERSAND. The character &, representing 
the conjunction and. It is a corruption of 
and prr te, and. The expression is, or rather 
was, common in our nursery books. In Manip- 
shire it is pronounced amperztd, and \cri 
often amptrtf-and. An early instance of 
iti ttw is quoted in Strutt'a Sports and Pas- 
times, p. 399. 

AMPHIBOLOGICAL. Ambiguous. This word 
occurs in Greene's Planctomachia, 1588. 
Rider, 1640, has " am]ihilioIogie," aud so has 
Chaucer, Troilus and Crcseiiie, iv. 1100. 

AMPLE. (1) To go. Apparenlly a corruption 
of amble. See Watson's Holi&x vucah. in v. 

(8) Liberal; generous. Skak. 

AMPLECT. To embrace. {Lai.) 

With how fervent heart thoutd we profll|ta(e and 
ehiae away tin ! With how Talljuat courage should 
w* nmptwet and embrace virtue ! Becon'f Wwk4t p. (16. 

AM POLY. Same as ampuUe, q. v. 

AM POT. Abami>er. Salop. 

AMPTE. An ant. " Srrphiu, a liltell lieasle, 
not unlike an ampi or pismcrc." — Cooper. 

CaJcicatrei a graver uiott notable. 
Of white Ivory he dide hi* besytwaBc^ 
Hii hasde, hU eye, so just was and stable. 
Of an ampte to grave out the lyknesse. 

Lydnute'i Uimor Potnut p. 88. 
Bote as the ampte to etchewe ydulDcue 
Id somer Is so ful of bysynesae. 

MS. Coll. S. Jail. Ojm, G, f. a. 
AMPTY. Empty. 

In o f^mcr Out amptp wm , 

Amorwc hy founde&Dd.noinc 

Two hODdred uk ful ofguod whcle, 

Tbej n)rit« whunn yt come. 

MS. Coll. Trtn. Oxon. fi7, f. 3. 
Hy amptjf ikyn brgynndh to tremble and qu&ke. 
JTAT. Soe. ^ntiq. 134, f. 88&. 

AMPULLE. A aiDAlI vcstd. (^.-A^.) 
A bolle and a btggo 
He bar by hU tyde* 
And hundred otmm^ttea 

On hU hat fctvn. Piert Piou^hrmtm, p. I(i9. 

Late it Maude In that baryne a daye and a nyghte, 
and do thane that other that itandif abovene in a 
(fmpw/^<'orglaKor coper. MS. Uneoln. Med. f.SttS. 
AMUELL. An admiral. 
Wban he herde tell 
That my lordc umrtll 
Was comyng downe. 

To make hym frowne. SkeltOH'g Wmiitt u. 69. 
."\MSEL. A hlat-kbird. Var.dwL 
AMSEUEY. A cons»ton' court. 

Thow faU boye, seyde the freyre* 
V* MBion the afTore the ara#erey. 

The FVcre and the Bo^, Uv. 

AMSOTE. A fool. Prompt Parv. [Anisote?] 
AMTY. Empty. 

j4mty place he made aboute. and fulc fleu hym fasle ; 
A wonder maiilcr he waa on, that hem k> kuwihe 
agaHlc. Hub. GItiuc. p. 17> 

With nallei thlcke a1 abrod, 

Ase ihare mi;ien itnkle one. 
That man oemijtefludc ane am/ Je plac« 
On al heore bodle >o luyl«. 

MS. Laud. lOe, r. 99. 
AMl'D. Annoyed ; rqinlstjtl. So explained by 
llearne, in Rob. Glouc. p. 524, who suggests 
anuid with great probabilitv. 
AMUSED. Amazed. 

Let not my lord be amuMed^ Ben Jonton, 111. 131. 
AMAVOAST. Almost. JTiHM. In the North, 

the form of this word is sometimes amyaat. 
AMY. A friend; a lover. (^.-iV.) Cf. Kyng 
Alisaundcr, .-176. 520. 1834. 

But oon olde knyjt that hyghl Oryny, 
He lefte at home for hyt amy. 

MS. Cantah. Ff. II. 30. nil. 
What li thl name, thou iwcte amy f 
Gladly witc theroF woMc I. 

Curiur Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 133. 
Tber wai mani levdl 
Tliat «oie blwcpe her ami. 

Arihtmr and Matin, p. SBA. 
AMYD. Amidst. In the DepoKition of Richard 
n. p. 1, wc have amyddis in the tame 

Amifd the lauade a caitd h« ayv. 
Noble and ryche. rfght wonder hie Sir Orph^t Ml> 
AMY'DON. According to Cotgravc, " fine wheat- 
flower steeped in water ; then strained, and let 
stand (inttli it settle at the hottomc ; then 
drained uf the water, and dried at the suune ; 




used for bread, or in brutlics, it ii ■ver)- iiou- 
risbini;; aUo, Btirrb made of wbcat." Il is 
inentianed in an old rpcnipt in the Fonni? of 
Curv, ]>■ 26 ; Wnmcr'i Antiq. Culiii. p. 10. 
AMYL. Surch. 

of whrateii made amyl, the mukliift whereof Cato 
and DloficnHila trachcth. Googi^i Ituibandriet liGR. 
AM V LLI E IC An nlraond-t ret. 

The brkddc* io blononiA thel bcrren wel loude 
On olyvn, and Qmyttiera, and al kynde of met. 

Thr PUtiU afKHMit, St. 7. 
AMYnin. Assisted : remedied. (A.-N.) 

To help the with my puwer, thow ahalt l)e amgrM 
A> fcrforth at 1 may. CAourrr, ed. Vrryt p. 617* 
AMYTTE. Toapproaeh. (A.S.) 
Any science that li trouthCj 

V alul amiine me thw-to. IIS. Horl. 2382, f. 119. 
AH. (I) A. 

The king of Spayne and hU tonei , and here leinU 

Went with him on gate wel on fire myle. 

mil. anW Ikr IVrru-e.//. p. 184. 

(2) On. Cf. Piton Ploughman, p. 2; Rob. 
Clouc. p. 3 : Chaucer, Cant. T. 1 1 1 fil ; Rom. of 
the Rose, 2270; SirEglamour, 906. 

Wanne Gy was armed and wel an horcc, 

Than iprong up is herte. MS. MKmoUSi, LVk 

Thou olde and for-horyd man, 

Welle ly tulle wytt ys the an, 

That thou folowest owre kynjte. 

MS. Canlak. Ft. IL 38, t. (19. 
Sche no told him nought al her eaa, 
Bot that sche wa« a wilcbe wlman. 
That mirhtl sorwc 50 was cm. 

Gy of n'ara (*r, p. 170. 

(3) Prtfixnl to a verb, in ihe aamc manner ai A, 
q. V. See instances in Virgilius, e<L Thorns, 
p. 13 ; Kfalthew, iy. 2 ; Pegge's Anecdotes of 
the Eiigli&b Language, p. 1 80 ; Prompt. Parr, 
p. 172. 

(4) Than. North and Eatl. 

(5) If. Sometimes a contraction of and before 
tf, where it occationally means at if, (.Mids. 
Night's Ureaui, i. 2,) and it is sometimes re- 
dundant, eg|iccially in the prunncial dialects. 

(6) And. This sense is not uncommon. See 
Jennings, p. llli; Oclorian, 1078. 

For they nolde not fi)rsake here trw fay, 
Jn byleve on hys falssc lay. 

Ci"ar. o/ MoMltry, p. 31. 

(7) To pve. (.i.-S.) Sometimes as imnan in 
the primar}' sense, to favour, to wish well to ; 
u in Sir Trislrem, p. 173. See Qu. Ilcv. 
Iv. 372; Sir Tristrcm, pp, 168, 264. 

(8) A dwcUing. 

So wele were that like man, 
That mijte wonnen lu that an. 

rtur. a»d BlMi*. IM. 

(9) To have. Lane. 

(10) One. NortA. Cf. Chester Plays, i. 233, 
238 J Sir Tristrem, p. 150. 

And but an yje 

Amoofe hero thre In puriterlye. 

Geirer, Jlf.V. &ic. jlnlli/. 134, f. 41 . 

ANA. In an equal quantity. Still used by 

T>k ;arow and waybrade ■>■<, and stampe 
lliame, and temper (hame with wyne or ale, and 
(iirlt the sekr al dryukc. .VS. Un<^>lH. Mnl. t. 293. 

AN.VCK. Fine oaten bread. 

Abo with this small meale. oatemeale Is made in 
divers countri0 slxeseverall ktndes of very good and 
wholesome bread, every one florr then other, as your 
anaeki, janoekt, and such like. 

Markham'i EngliMh Hirutt.ul/t, I61», p. »40. 

AN ADEM. A wreath ; a chaplel ; a garland. 
And for thtlr nymphnls, building amorous bowers, 
Oft drest this tree with anatlema of flowers. 

DritiiWn'tOwl,ci. 174(1. p. 411. 
ANADESM. A band to lie up wounds. Mitukm. 
ANAGNOSTIAN. A curate that serveth onely 
to reade, or a clarke or scoller that rcadcth tu 
a writer or his master. Mimheu. 
ANAIRMIT. Armed. Coir. 
ANALEM. A inutbematical instniment for 
finding the course and elevation of the smi. 
AN-ALL. Also. A Y'orkshirc phrase, the 
use and force of wliich are correctly exhibited 
in the following stanza : 

Paul fell down astounded, and only nnl dead. 

For Death was not quite within call : 
RecoTcrlng, he founi hlratelf In a warm bed. 
And In a warm fever an.all. 

Hanter'a HaltamMh. G/om. p. 4. 

ANALYNO. Weber thinks tliis may be « cor- 
ruption of onnUiilaliHi/, i. e. killing. Sec 
Kyng Alisaundcr, 2166, " anahjny uf f.tpingc 
knigbttcs," but nc should no doubt rrati 
avalyng, descending trom or falling off their 

ANA.MELDE. Enamelled. Cf. Tundale, p. 01 ; 
Warton's Hist. Engl. Pocl. ii. 42. 
Thny were aruifiieMe with astire. 
With tcrepysaod with tredouro. 

Sir Dfrtimae, Lincoln MS. t. 1.1.1. 

ANAMET. A luncheon. Ilantt. 

ANAMOURD. Enamoured. Cf. Emar«, 226. 
A grete mayster and a syre 

Was amtm.>urd so on hyre MS. Hart. 1701, f. M. 
Al ananwurd on him thai were, 
And loved OIJ for his felr chere. 

Ifif of tVarwtke, p. y 

ANAMZAPTUS. This word repealed in the car 
of a man, and anamzapta in ihat uf a woman, 
is said to be a cure for the falling sickness, iu 
a curious early English MS. printed in the 
Arrhcologia, xxx. 399. 

ANAN. IIow? \S'h»t do you say .' It is made 
use of in vulgar (Uscourse by the lower class 
of persons atldressing a sui)crior, when they 
do not hear or comprelicjid what is said to 
tbem. It is going out of use now. II is also 
a corruption of onoii, immediately. 

ANANSY. To advance ; to exalt. So Ileonie 
explains it, in Rob. Glouc. p. 199. The 
Heralds' College MS. reads arauncr ; nnit 
|>crhaps we should here print it aranny, 

ANAPE. Apparently the name of a herb. It is 
mentioned in an old receipt in a MS. of the 
15th century, penes ine. 

ANAPES. Cloth. It seems to lie some fine 
kind of fustian. See Colgrave, in v. I'ftourt. 
It is generally found as an adjimcl to fustian, 
as in Lancham, p. 31 ; llrit. liibl. ii. 403. 
This is of course the proper rca<liiig in Mid- 







dieton's Works, iv. 425, " net »-llrc my fustiftn 
ami a/im bropcheH," w)iicli tbc editor |propo5t-> 
lo correct lo Saplen breeches. To mend the 
niBller, v: <• MAntiXy ftnA apri iretchea ic\ don-n 
ia the inilet to tbc notes I Fustian anaprs is 
also mi-ntioned in the Strange Man tetling 
Fortunes to Englishmen, 16C2. 

ANARWE. To render timid. The Bodl. MS. 
reads " an-arcwcst." Perhaps it means, lo 
narrow,' to rliminish. 

Hemaklthhcom way with ycfi&rpc Inunrc : 
Thy men onnr^vith thy contlnauncv. 

Kynff .-/ItjnHndtT, SSid. 

ANATOMY. A skeleton. Lister tells iis he was 
■o thin be " was like an anatomy." Sec his 
Autobiograph}-, ed. Wright, p. 45. 

ANAUNTKIXS. Ff so be. North. In Eaat 
Sussex the form anaimtriiut is in use. It 
aeems to be connected irith the old word 
ounlrr; so that onaunlrirui woidd correspond 
ioperadtmturr. See Koh. Glouc. pp. 206, 311. 

AN BEKRY. A kind of bloody wart on a horse. 
See Topscll's Hist, of Foiir-Footcd Ucasts, 
p. 420 ! Markham's Cavclariee, b. vii. p. 80 ; 
Florio, in v. iforo; Diet. Kiistic. in v. .inliun/. 
In the East of England, a knob or excrescence 
on turnips or other roots is called an anbeny. 

ANBLERE. An ombUng nag. 
The mcyr •lod, as yc may here. 
And uw hym come ride u^anblere. Ijtwtfiil, OS. 

ANBY. Some time hence; in the evening. 

AN CAR. A hermit. See jinchor. 

with hom In every plac< I have mocbe bcsyneSj 
aDd alto with an aneur in that howic. 

n'rifltet Umattlc Lttleri, p. ilS. 

ANCEANDE. Anciently. 

For men may oppen and k thrugh thli kay, 
Wat liai ticcn anc^andt, and sail be aye. 

CbfU Belmltm, p. 3. 
ANCESSOURE. Ancestor. 

To (he and to ihi kyndc haf the! don baoourv, 
Loodct haf the! gyven to thin oncoMMirf. 

Peltr Langleft, p. 116. 

ANCHAJSUN. Reason ; cause. 

And for OHchaUun of ml Moc, 
The more and for U lore. JfS. Z,<n><f. 108, f. lit. 
ANCHANTEOR. An enchanter. 
Ac enchantfvr Edwyno addt- of Spayne wyth hym tho. 
That coulho hym Hggc of yt dcdca al huu y t s»olde gn. 
Ri>b. Gl,mc. p. 24.1. 

AN'Cllir,.\TION. Frustration. It is so explained 
in an old glossary in MS. Rawl. I'oet lOB. 

ANCHOR. (1) ADutch liquid measure,, 
often used by smugglers lo carry their brandy 
on horseback. See tbc notes of t)ie commcn- 
lalors on Merry Wives of W. L 3. 

(2) An anchoret ; a bemiit. 

Tod«iperation turn my trait and hopv. 
An mntker*t chnr in priaon Iw my scope. 

llttinUr, III. a. 410 e,l. 

(3) To hold like an anchor. In the East of 
EnglanrI, the strong tenacious spreading roots 
of vigorous plant* are said lo anchor out. 

ANCHORIDGE. A church iwrch, iwrticularly 
that lielonging to the church of 
Durham ; perhaps so called in allusion to a 

ship, of which some parts gave names to the 
pans of a church. Knnett'i MS. Ulau. 
ANCflYRClIE. Achiu-ch. Sec Heame's gloss, 
to Rob. Ulouc. and the Chron. p. 232. It 
should probably be two worda. 
ANCIENT. A standard-bearer, or ensign-hearer 
an officer now colled an ensign. The word was 
also used for the flag or ensign of a regiment 
or of a ship. The old editions of the .Merry 
Wives of Windsor mention ou their titles, 
" the humours of Corporal Nym and AneinU 
Pistol." See also Collier's Old Ballads, p. 3 1 ; 
Percy's Rehqucs, pp. 73, 144; I^eycester Cor- 
respondence, p. 1 7 ; Account of the Grocera" 
Company, p. 330. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
has aiuhent, tbc flag in the stem of a ship. 
ANCILLE. A maid-ser\-aiit. (Lai.) Of. 
Chaucer's ABC, 109 ; Lydgatc's Minor Poems, 
p. 37. 
That she was doughtre of David by di^rent, 
Strrrc of the see aud Goddci ownc attciltf, 

l^folf, .US. ^•AmWr X, t. 10, 
Biholdc, quod fchc, of God the meke aneitta, 
With allemy ht-rte obvyinge to hit wille. 

l^^gatt. MK. .<in<:. JhH<i. 1.14, f. 3. 

ANCLE-BONE. A name given bysailun to the 

prickly lobster. See Kennett's Glossary, MS. 

Lansd. 1033, f. 16. 

ANCLE RS, Ancles. Salop. 

ANCLET. The ancle. A'orM. Sometimes a 

ANCLIFF. The ancle. North. 
ANCLOWE. The ancle. (./.-S.) Cf. Arthour 
and Merlin, 5206. 

In blood he ttode, ich It abowe. 
Of hortc and msn into the anrtnw^. 

Klltyn Mtt. Kam. I. fr9. 
ANCOME. A small tdcemus sweUing, formed 
uncxiMfctedly. Rider translates it morliwi ail- 
venlitiut. According to Did. Rustic. " a 
swelling or bump that is hard aud hot." See 
Estward Hoe. iii. 1 ; Qu. Rev. Iv. 372. In 
Scotland, an attack of disease ia called an ois- 
mmf: and In a curious MS. of old receipts in 
Lincoln Cathedral, t. 300, is one " for ontome 
one arme," which agrees with what Mr.Oamctt 
aays of the form of the word in the place just 
cited. Sec Uncomf, 
ANCONY. A term in the iron works for a bloom, 
wrought into the figure of a flat iron bar. alxtut 
three feet in length, with n square rough knob 
on each enil. Sec Kennetfs MS. Glom. f. 16. 
I n Stalfurdshire one of these knobs is called an 
mcuny-end, the other a mocket-head. 
ANC RE. An anchor. 

Right to farelh Love, that lelde Id one 
Holdcth hit an(rt, for rlf^ht anone, 
Whau thcl In cae wcnc beat to live. 
They Iwn with tempnt all (or-drlvv. 

Jtom. if/ra# fZoM, ,17110. 
ANCRES. A female anchoret, or hermit. Tlic 
tcnn aiiere is applied to a nun in KcUq. Antiq. 
u. 1 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 380. Palsgrave, f. 17, hu. 
".inchre, a religious man ; anchret, a rcligioua 
Nuwi! wyll I take the mantrll and ibc rynge, 
And iKComc on ancriMt In my lyvyngc. 

Hvrr If Law OrgH, IM. 




Or for whmt cmuw khc may no biubAod have. 
But Uv« «D aMrMM in m strict ■ ruome. 

avxKxf' Om< Brftaion 7yo|>, I«W. p. S&. 
ANCYLE. A kind of j»veliu or d«rt, or the 
leather thong with which it i> thrown. 
AND. (1) If. NuriK 

So wolc Criit of hU curtdite, 
Ani men LTyc hym mrrcy, 
Bothe forgy ve aoJ forypte. 

Pier* Ploughman^ p. 969. 
2) ll»cd redundantly in old ballads. 

Robin Hood br wai, artd a tall young man. 

And Bftcni winlcn old. AiiMri Haod, 11. It. 

(3) Breath. Sec jtaiuU. (Ul.) 

Myu M* ar* worm bothe morfcc and blynd. 
Mjm «Hd la thort, 1 want wynde, 
ThuB haa age dyitrocd my kynd. 

Tutcmetep MytttrifS, p IM. 
Thai rested than a lltel itound. 
for to tak thair aiulr tliani till. 
And thai waa with thair bother will. 

Yu<tiine and Cawing 3&&5. 
Ryghtecf It by prayereati by draweyng of anife. 
for ever to ^emyog of cure bodily lyfe ua nedts to 
drawe oure snde, that et, to drawe ayere. 

MS. LUicUk a. i. 17. (■ tM. 

AND-AW. Ahm; Ukewiie. Norlli. 
ANDEDE. (1) Indeed. So explaint^d by lleame; 

but see Rob. Glouc. p. 320, where it if " aa 

ilcde," i. e. a deed. 
(2) ConfesseiL fertteffon. 
ANDELONG. Lcngthwaya. (^..A\) 

jfndeiemg, nouht overthwert, 

lltj note went unto the itert. Mavata*, ttSS. 

ANDERSMAS. The mau or fcMival of St An- 
drew. Yor/tfh, 

ANDERSMEAT. An afternoon's luncheon. 
Cf. Florio in v. .Wmnrfo. See also Aimdtr. 

ANDESITII. Previously. {A.-S.) 
Affrlk that ea the tother p«rtl. 
That mninilh waa cald LIM. 

US. CM. Vmpiu. A. Ui. r. IS. 

ANDIRONS. The omaiiiental irons on each 
side of the hearth in old houses, which were 
accompanied with small rests for the ends 
of the logs. The latter were sometimes 
c*II<h1 dogi, but the term anthrons frequently 
included both, as in the proverb recorded by 
lluwcll," Uaudsand attomryes. like <ini/yroa«, 
tlir imc Ao/rf* Ihfutictt, the other their olienls, 
till they cfinsurae." Mr. J. G. Nichols, glossary 
to the L'nton Inventories, considers the dog$ 
to be snionymous with the ertepen, q. v. but 
the term was also applied to part of the and- 
irons, and the latter are slill called mtdogt in 
llic Western counties. Wc find in Ducange, 
" aiidena est fcrrum, npra qtiotl apponuntur 
liiliia ill ignc, quod alio nomine dicitur hyper- 
l>>I^iulu ;" anil Miege makes the awlinm and 
fffpy M'liniiymous. The antiinma were some- 
times made of superior metal, or gilt, and of 
very large ilimcnsions. Sec Malonc's Shake 
spearc, xiii. 85; Keliq. Antiq. ii. 84 ; Ilalle of 
John Ilalle, i. 600 ; The Alchemist, v. 1. 

ANDl'LEES. Puddings made of hog's guts and 
spice. Tliey are mcnlioned in au old MS. 
printed in the Archicologia, \iii. 371, 388. 

ANDUR. Either. (Dan.) 

Thow 1 me to townwaid drawe-, 

Andur to lurkc or to leyke. 
The wyvea wil out me drawe, 

Alul dere me with her doggus grete. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. V. «8, f. 1 10. 

ANDYRS. Other. (.I.-S.) The more usual fonn 
is endm, as in the !iin(»>lD MS. f. 149. Sec 
a similar phrase in Shaqi's Covenlry Myst. p. 
113. Jaraicson cuplaius it St. Andrew's day, 
the 30th of November j but it is diflicult to 
reconcile this explanation with the " mcry 
mornyng of JAiy." 

At I me went this andyrt day. 

Fast oil my way makyng my mane. 
In a mery mornyng of May. 

Be Uuntiry banke* mytelf aloiir. 

MS. Canlat. Ff. •. VI. {. 11(1. 

ANE. (1) A beard of com. Sec an nccouiil of 

different kinds of wheat, and the anet, in 

Htzharticrt's Booke of Ilusbandrie, ed. 1598, 

p. 22. Sec Aanf. 

(2) One; a. Cf. Hartshome's McL Tales, p. 
47 ; Cokwold's Daunce, 194 ; Ritson's Anc. 
Songs, p. 23. 

The kyng of Chartura war tane. 
And other Sanyni many ane. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. li. 38. f. 188. 
Thay faht wDit Ileraud everllk an; 
Wiht gud wil thay wald him ilane. 

tiuf •/ n'aruitk, MUilthtU MS. 
And tounrt to many then to ane. 
That here halii the rijt Irouthe tane. 

MS. IMI. 48, t. i7. 
Thus wal Thow aye and evcrc talle be, 
Thrr yn one, and one yn thrc. 

MS. Linatln A. I. 17, f. 1B9. 

(3) Alone. " Bi hyme ane," by himself. 

And he Ugbtc olThti hone, and went bl hyme ane 
to the Jewct, and knelld downe to the erthe, and 
wlrcblppedo th« hye name of Godd. 

H/* •/ .^Icjaindrr, MS. Ukcafn, f. 6. 

(4) A. Sec n*. 2. 

Aliu t thou veil Fraunce, for the may thunche ahome. 
That ane fewe fuUarii maketli ou to tome* 

IVrig/ifM Pulillcat SoHgt, p. 194. 
5) Own. A'orfA. 
6^ To aim at. Somernt. 
7) On. 

The heade and annea hangynge on the one lyde otf 
the hor«e, and the legges ana the other tyde, and all 
byspryncled wytb myrr and bloude. 

Hall, lUrhard III. t. 34. 
ANE.\OUST. Near to; almost. Hmfitrdxh. 
ANE.\R. (1) Near. Somrrttt. RicbardMm quiitm 
an example of this word from Bishop ,Vttcr- 
burj'. Let. 50. 
(2) To approach. 

1 hyrc aay that all men that wylbe twomc unto 
hym, they shall take ntxi hurte by hym, nc by none 
that it toward hym ; by meanct whereof diverte hiu- 
tMOdmcn anetyth unto hym, for feie of lottyt of 
ther goodei. »»/• Pai-en, II. Sim. 

ANEARST. Near. Kt-moor. The more com- 
mon Somersetshire form is anrtut. Nares says 
nntirtl, a provincial tcnn for the mearttt way. 
See his Gloss, in v. An-hnn. 
ANEATII. Beneath. A'oWA. 
ANE-BAK. AlMck. Cinr. 
ANEUE. United ; nude one. At f. 227 of the 





Lineoln MS. aiieiie is given u the tTuitlation 
of hAabitapit. 

We may noghlc hafc the tu of hit luf here in ful- 
flUing, bot we may hafc a desyre and a gm jeroyng 
for to be praaent to hym for to te hym In hU biyue, 
■Bit Co be oMcde to hyni tn lufe. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. S«. 
f AXE-END. Upright j not Iring down ; on one 
end. Mlien applied to a four-footed animal, it 
means rearing, or what the heraldn call ram- 
pant. I'ar. dial. In Cheshire, it signifies per- 
petoally, erennorc. In some glossaries the or- 
thography is anind. Cotgrave lias " to make 
one's haire stand amend," in v. Akurir, 
ANEHEDE. Unity. 

For God wald ay with the Fader and the Son, 
And with the H&ly Gaft in annhede wnn. 

U.<i. Harl. 4190. r. SIS. 
Dere ftende. wit thou wele that the cnde and the 
■overaynti uf perfecctonc vtandei In a Terr^y atuhcd* 
of ((Odd and of manra laule, t>y perfyte chary t^. 

US. Uncoln A. i. 17, f. 919. 
ANELACB. A kind of knife or dagger, usually 
worn at the girdle. It is mentioned by 
Matt. I'aris, who teems to say it was fur- 
bidden priest* to wear. See Ducange, in v. 
Amtladtu ,- Halle of John Halle, i. 212. 
At HSiloot thcr waft he lord and lire : 
Ful often time he wat knight of the ihire. 
An Moeftfce aod a gipcicre all of tilk 
tlcnc at his glrdcl, white as niorwc milk. 

aiautcr, oiHi. T. avj. 
Sche schare a-to hur own haise 
Wyltl an analiutr. US. Canlali. Tt. li. 311. t. !)«. 
Bot Artliur with aDenn/a^egerly imyttei. 
And hittrs ever in ttie hutlte up to the hiltil. 

JIforfe v/rMurr, JIf.S'. Unctiln, f.K. 

ANEL.\VE. To gape. This word ocatrs in an 
old Tocahulary in MS. Harl. 219 of the fif- 
teenth centiirj-, as the translation of the French 
verb " beer." 

AXELE. (1) To anoint with holy oil. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv. p. 1 1 ; Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 34. See Aneling. 

(2) To temper in the lire. Cf. Athmole't Tlteat. 
Chcm. Brit. p. 96 ; Daret's .\lvcarie, in v. 

So ai the fyre It hath antlU, 
Ltche unto ilyre whiche is eongelcd. 

CoU'rr, US. *.r. Anllii. 134, f. 11)4. 

ANELEDE. Appmaebed. (.Y.-S.) 

Dolhe wyth bullet and berec. and bom otherquyle, 
And claynes, that hym anttedt, of the he^e felle. 
.Syr Gawajm«, p. 98. 

ANEl.ING. (1) An animal that brings forth one 
jroung at a time. 

Their ewe> als«i are so full of increase, that some 
dm uiualtle brini; foorth two, three, or foure iambes 
at once, whereby they account our AntUngit which 
are such m bring foorth but one at once, rather tur- 
reu tlian to be kept for anie galnc. 

HarriMfm'* Dcse. nfBrit. p. 4d. 
{2) The sacrament of anointing. Cf, Sir 
t. Morc's Works, p. 345; lint. Bibl. il. 532. 
These cletkyi kalle hyt oynament. 
On Englys hyt ys mrltng. MS. Harl. 1701 , f. "4. 

ANELY. Only ; alone ; solitar>'. 
And that it be for chaining 
/inrtut and for none other thing. 

MS. a». Cana E. U. f. 7U. 

Wharfore our levedy mayden Mary 
Was in pryvO place nntly. ^ 

MS. BlU. OtII. Mm. xrlU.6. 
So anetif the lufe of hlr was soghte. 
To dede thay were nere dyghte. 

MS.LiimilnA. I. 17, f. IIH. 
Worldes men that sees haly men have tlialre hope 
antly In thyug that es DOght In ilghu 

MS. 0,IL Bton.\0,t.tO. 
Sir, jelifanan/y life. 
We wald ;ow rede to wed a wift. 

MS. Cotl. Oallm E. ii. f. 23, 
ANELYNES. Solitariness. 

Noghte in delytes, bot in penanee; noghte in 
wantone joyeyngc, Iwl in bytter gretynge ; noghte 
emauge many, twt In anelyne*. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. I S3. 

AJJEMIS. Lest. Ray, under tlie word ipar, 
says, " This word is also used in Norfolk, where 
they say spar the door onemit be come,i. e. shnt 
the door lest be come in." It ilocs not appear 
that this word is still in use. 

ANE.MPST. With respect to ; concerning. See 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 1C7 ; Rutland 
Papers, pp. 5, 14, where it is used in the same 
sense as onetuif, q. t. 

And wee humbly tieseech your hlghnes wee may 

knowe your Graces pleasure howe wee shall order 

ourselves anempjf your graces saydcytie and castell, 

for our discharge. Store Paptr; 11. 904. 

In the tother seven bene 

AnemfiISM our ncyhcbour, y wene. 

MS. Bnrf;. 4a, f. (CI. 
AN-END. Onwards; towanls the end. A 
Nt^rfolk clown calls to his companion " lo go 
an-nd," when he wants him to go forward. 
See the Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 4. In some 
counties we have the expression " to go right 
an-end," i. e. to go straight forwanl without 
delay in any project. 
ANENDIE. To finish. [Amendic.'] 
And thcne at then ende, 

HereiunneD al anenifie. MS. Di^ Bl, t. \SB. 
ANENS. Cliains ; fetters. 

Now cr his arierM wrouht of sllvere wele over gilt ; 
Dayct that therof rouhl, hl> was alle the gilt. 

Pefer LanglQft, p. 1C7. 

ANENST. Against ; opposite to ; over against. 
" Ex oppotilo ecclrMiif, Anglice, atunu the 
cherchc."— MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B i.f.84. It is 
also used in the sense of eoneerHmg. Sec 
Plumpton Correspondence, pp. 7, 172; Apo- 
logy for the Lollards, pp. 29, 80 ; Wright's 
Monastic Letters, p. 54 ; Florio, in v. Arindt a 
rdnda ; Maunde\-ilc's Travels, p. 298. 

Tak thaoe and mye it imatle, and do It alle to- 
gedlr, and mak it In a playster, and lay It one thi 
bresteannurthi hcrt. -US. Mcdieir,. Ctuh. Unc. I.VO, 
ANENT. Over against ; immerliately op|)Osite. 
Watson says it is rommon in Halifax tu hear 
the expression oppotite anenl. Tlie Scottish 
meaning conermiHff does not ajipcar to be now 
used in Yorkshire. AnerUi* occurs in Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 4 7, in the sense of oeweemiii^ ; and in 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 170, in the lenae of 
againnt. See also Wickliffe'i New Tett. p, 23 i 
Plumpton Corresp. p. 77. 

or that doun.east we may bl chaunce 

Aninl this world get eoveraunce. 

cursor Munili, US. Canlmb. 1 14L 




Abftlnence b Iban ryght cJcre anmiutc God. 

MS. HaH. 6S80. 

ANEOUST. Near; almost. Var. dial. 
ANERDIS. Adheres ; dwells wHh. Gaw. 
ANERLUD. Adorned? 
With mlchc «nd nevyn, 

^ner(ii(lwithcnn]rn. Jf5. OinMt. Ff, 1. 6, f. 84. 

ANERN. See Kyng Alisaunder, 560, where 

Weber conjectures anon, doubting whether it 

should not be an em, i. e. an eagle. 

ANERRE. Todrawncarto; to approach. See 


As long u the gale pufTetb full In your uiles, doubt 
not but diverfe «ill anerre unto you. and feed on 
you as crowca on cation. 

.?ltttiO,ur$t't HUt. 0/ Inland, p.90. 

ANERTHE. On the earth. Cf. Rob. Gloac. 
pp.311, 441 ; Black's Cat. of Ashmol. MSS. 
<»1. 67 ; St. Brandan, p. 3. 
After that God anerthe com 

Aboute rir hondred 5ere. VS. Athmole 43, f. 178. 
ANES. (I) Just like; similar to. Somentt. In 
the same county we have anei-to, almost, ex- 
cept, all but. 
(2) Once. Cf. Ywaine and Gawln, 292 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 280. Stili used in the North. 
For why thay dide the 1x>t ohm tluit dede. 
And they Itnewe the ooghte Code in manhede. 

MS. Uiteoln A. 1. 17, f. 190. 

ANESAL. A term in liawking. See a tract on 

the subject in Reliq. Antiq. i. 299. 
ANET. The herb dill. Sec a receipt in MS. 

Med. Cath. Line. f. 28C ; Minsheu, in t. 
ANETHE. Scarcely. The more usual fopn is 
unnethe, but anelhyt occurs in Prompt. Parr, 
p. 12. (A..S.) 
Som dansed lo long. 
Tell they helde owt the townge. 
And aneifu meyt hepe. 

FrwtandtheBofft it. l&axi. 

But if Mara hathe be with the lune or mercury of 

tol, it ihallbeagrainflrmyt^, and anrtAe he ahalle 

>|ieke. US.Btidl.!a\. 

ANETHER. To depress. See a passage in the 

Heralds' College MS. quoted by Heamc, p. 46. 

In thya half there were aalawe the noble men and 

SyreLygerduc of Babyloyne, and another due al-io. 
And the erl of Saleabury, and of Cyceatre therto ; 
And alio the erl of Bathe, so that thorn thys cas 
The compaynye a thes half mucbe antthtni waa. 
Rob. Glouc p. 217. 
ANEUST. Much the same. Grose gives the 
Gloucestershire phrase, " aneusl of an aneutl- 
neu," corresponding to the more common 
" much of a muchness," though the a is gene- 
rally dropped. Florio has " Arenie, anenst, 
aneuit, very neere unto ;" and Grose says in 
Berkshire it has the sense of "about the 
matter, nearly." In an old grammatical tract 
in MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B. i. f. 82, is "Quantum ad 
hoc, Anglice, aneuat that." 
ANEW. (1) To renew. Cf. Depos. of Richard 
II. p. 15. 

Thanne come the tothir fj. kyngls, and toke his 
body, and anewed it with byashopys clotbla and 
kyngisornameotes.and barehym to this torabe, and 
with grete deroctoun Icyde hym therynnc. 

US. Burl. )7(M. 

Ti.k May butter and comyne, and stampe tbame 
samene, and laye it on ly ve, and thane iaye it on the 
eghe, and ofte anttve it. MS. UntxlH. Med, f . S84. 
(2) Enough. Var. dial. 

Takejwsof rubarbeful sney, 
Andasmekylofeysyl, Ithesey. 

Archteologia, XXX. 355. 

ANEYS. Aniseed. 

Thenne messe it forth, and floritsh it with ani!y> in 
confyt rede other why t. Formeo/Cuiy, p. 2(>, 

ANFALD. Single ; one. (A.-S.) 
Therfor is he cald Trinity, 
For he ea anfald Godd in thre. 

MS. OiK. Vetpttl. A. ill. f. 3. 

ANFELDTYHDE. A simple accusation. (A..S.) 
See Bromtou's Chronicle, quoted by Skinner 
in V. 

ANG. Tbehairy part of an ear of barley. North. 
Probably a corruption of atrn. 

ANGARD. Arrogant. {A.-N.) The following 
is quoted in the glossary to Syr Gawayne. 
Thlreathils of Atenea, ther an jtml cicrkia. 
Than reverenst thai the riche sceie, and red OTer 
thepistille. MS. JthntoltU.t.tfl. 

ANGEL. (1) A gold coin, varying in value from 
about six shillings and eightpence to ten shil- 
lings ; affording a subject for many a wretched 
pun to Shakespeare and bis contemporaries. It 
was introduced by Edward IV. in the early part 
of his reign. See Davics's York Records, 
p. 168. It is used in the primitive sense of a 
mesMnger, in Tam. of the Shrew, iv. 2. "There 
spake an angel," an old proverbial expression. 
See Sir Thomas More, p. 6. 

(2) An angular opening in a building. See 
Willis's Architectural Nomenclature, p. 52. 

ANGEL-BED. A kind of open bed, without 
bed-posts. Phittipt. 

ANGEL-BREAD. A kind of purgative cake, 
made principally of spurge, ginger, flour, and 
oatmeal. A receipt for it isf^vcn in an old 
MS. of receipts in Lincoln Cathedral, f. 291. 

ANGELICA. A species of masterwort. See 
Gerard, ed. Johnson, p. 999, and the Komen- 
cUtor, 1585, p. 128. 
And aa they waike, the virgins strow the way 
With coatmary and sweetean^/jm. 

HeywcotfM Marriage Triumph, 1613. 

ANGELICAL-STONE. A kind of alchemical 
stone, mentioned by Aahmole, in liia Pro- 
legomena to the Theat Chem. Brit. 1652. 
Howell inserts angetieaUwaler in the list of 
perfumes appended to his Lexicon, sect. 32. 

ANGELICK. Dr. Dee informs us in MS. 
Ashmole 1790, that bis magical works are 
" written in the angeliei language." L e. the 
language of spirits ; and they are certainly most 
incomprehensible documents. 

ANGELOT. (1) A smaU cheese brought from 
Normandy, and supposed by Skinner to have 
been originally so called from the maker'a 

Vour angttu* of Brie, 

Your MaraoUni, and Parmasan of Lodi. 

Tht tnu, l». I. 

(2) A gold coin of the value of half an angel, 
current when Paris was in possession of the 




ANGEL'S-FOOD. Appurntly a ont term for 
liea\7' ale. Sccicurions account in llarriBon'i 
Description of England, p. 202. 
AXGEB, Sorrow. (J.-S.) It is l)oth a substan- 
tive and a verb. Cf. Erie of Tolous. 914; 
Prompt. Par\-. p. 12 ; Towneloy Myst. p. 99 ; 
WUl. and the Werwolf, p. 21. 

Than tayd the lAily fayre and free. 
If j« bff amgrtdt for the luft of mc«. 
It gtwnm mc woDdtr sare. 

its. UimlH A. I. 17. r. I3». 

Anil a« thay went one t))U wyse wuh gritc angtn 

anddlveve. ahouto ther llevi-d houre thry *aw a lUllle 

lailo lu the rlvere made of rede, and roeae rovande 

lh«rln. U/t of Aluvnitr, MS. Ummtn, t. tS. 

ANOERICH. Angrily. 

And«H|Trf(->t I wandrede 
The Auttyna to prove. 

Pirra PioHShman, p. MO. 

ASGRRLY. Anpily. ShaJt. 
ANGIl.D. A fine. SHmer. 

Out Tor that he with anfir wroujte, 

IIU aocria angirticht be houjte. 

Cmiw, mis. Sx, JnHf. 134, f. 86. 

ANGLE. (1) A comer. 

Go, rut), search, pry In every nook and anifte of 
the ktlcheofl, lardcn^ and pastrici. 

Ttie IToimiM Hater, 1, S. 

(2) An astrological term ajiplicd to certain 

nouses of a scheme or figure of the licarcns. 

I ANGI.E-BEUKV. A sore, or kind of hang-nail 

undtn- the claw or hoof of an animal. North. 

See Kcnnctt's Glo&sarv, MS. Lansd. 10.33. 

ANGLE-ltftWING. A "method of fencing the 
grounds wherein sheep are kepi by fixing rods 
like Imws with both ends in tlie ground, or in 
a dead hedge, where they make angica wilh 
each other. See the Exmoor ScoUUng, p. 9. 

ANGLEDOG. A large earthworm. Dirim. The 
older word is anffle-twifc/t, as in MS. Sluane 
3548, f. 99, quoted in Protni)t. Pan-, p. 279. 
In Stanbrigii Vocabida, IG15, lumbricun is 
tnuulBte<l by amjl*-loHch ; and they are called 
twryangty in Archxologia, xix. 37C. 

I'ortenowyt that txrkutt. Take nrtfrjrie'pltivacfiyM, 
and put Ihem in oyle olyfT tmale chnpiiyd, and than 
ley llieruf In the wowode, and an let it ty itj. or lllj. 
dayyi. Uiddlrkill MS. t. li. 

ANGLER. One who begs in the daytime, ob- 
acrring what be can steal at night. A cant 
term. See Dodaley'a Old llays, ri. 109. 

ANCLET. A little corner. (AV.) Cotgrave 
Anglicisea it in y. Anylet. 

ANGNAIL. A CumbcrUnd word, according to 
Grow, for a com on the toe. Lye says, 
*' Northamplonicnsibtu est clavus pedum, ge- 
mursa. plerugium." See Agnail, which Howell 
explains " a sore between the finger ftnd nail." 
' ANGUHER. A kind of Urge and long pear. 
Diet. kiut. 

ANGORAS. An anchorite. 

And lerer he had, ai thry frowedon ychon. 
To tytte upon a matte of ihe angnnu, 

Otrvn. I'ilodun. p. 3S. 

lANGROMED. Grieved; tormented. {A.-S.) 

And ml gntt angromM it over itnert. 
In mc to-dreved ii ml hen. 

tf& A>.('. *a. r. m. 

ANGRY. PainftU ; inflamed ; imorting. Forby 
says " luinfully inflamed," and applies it to 
kibes, as Klorio does, in v. Pnlignoni. It is the 
gloss of the Latin molettut in Reliq. Antiq. i. 
8 ; and it seems to be used in a somewhat simi- 
lar sense in Julius Cicsar, i. 2. In a collection 
of old MS. recipes, in Lincoln Cathedral, is 
one for an^er in the livm*, f. 305, meaning 
of course inflammation. See the example 
quoted under Thomemge ; and Piers Plough- 
man, p. 266. 

ANGRY-ltOYS. A set of youths mentioned bjr 
some of our early dramatists as delighting to 
commit outrage*, and get into quarrels. See 
the Alchemist, iii. 4. 

Get thre another noae, that will be pull'd 
US' try the atigry bfy* for thy ronveniun. 

Scem/vi Lady, iv. 9. 

ANGUELLES. A kind of worms, mentioned by 
early writers, as being troublesome to sick 
hanks. In MS. Harl. 2340 is given an ac- 
count of a mrdecinc " for wormys called «n- 
gueUn ;" and another may be found in the 
Book of St. Albans, cd. 1810, sig. C.iii. See 
also Reliq. Antiq. i. 301. {Lat.) 
ANGUISHOUS. In pain; in anguish. Wick- 
liffe used it as a verb. New Test. p. 141. 
1 waA bolhe nriirul-AuMir and trouble 
For the petlll that 1 fawe double. 

Rvm. P/thl Rue, I7U. 
My wordrs to here. 
That bought hytn dere, 

OnmytiKnnguyitHMlii. Srw SotbonrntMapHt 
* For hure li herte wat angttitehcM. 

Its. Aihmale 33, f. 3. 
Itcrtuud to nlm attgivtMut thai were. 

By ^ WiruHlU, f. }i. 

ANGUSSE. .\nguish. 

Whan he K:hal with the bodi deye. 
That in strong artguMtt dnth unurle. 

Wrighl't pap. I>wr. en Sricttrt, p. 14U. 

ANHANSE. To raise ; to advance ; to exalt. 
The holi rode was l-founde, m» je wileth. In May, 
And oJiAanjed wa» in Septembre, the holi rode day. 

MS.Jil,m<Jt 43, CG8. 
Ilye Dou to anhniity ua alle, and y nclle no$t be 
byhynde. R^b. Ciw<. p. 198. 

And of niy fortune, sooth it is ccrteyno 
That wondir imarlly halh iche roe anhnvntM. 

Borliiu, MS. SH. ..Inrl^. 134, f. StO. 
For crh man that him atthamn here. 
Mowed he trhal beo. MS. Laud. IM, f. 9. 

The mete that thcl cte y« alle forlorv. 
On the galwys thry schold antwuntr. 

MS. Canttk. Vt. 1. 6, t. \3i. 
AN-HEH. Aloud. In the third example it ap- 
parently means on high, as in Rob. Glouc. pp. 
202, 311 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 8. 

Ther itont up a jeolumen, jeteth with a Jcrde, 
Ant hat out on-luh that al the hyri herde. 

Writhfl Pol. Stmt; p. IM. 
This ladyes song tho T* Drum an-Aeyjr, 
And the Maten* rong tbo Ihe belle. 

Ckron, FUedyti. p. 107. 
Angeles here my toiter soule 
Into hevene nn-Arttr. MS. Cull. THn. Orm, t7 

ANHEIGHE. To hong? (A.-S.) 
And told hem thl» vilanle. 
And soyd he wold hom anhrlghtt. 

.inktvr and Mtrlin, f. m. 




AN-HEIRF.S. The Host of the Gtiier. in the I 
Mcrrj- Wive* of Windior, ii. 1 , addressing P«ge 
and Shallow, says, " Will yon go, an-heirtt V 
So the folios read, and no sense can be made 
of the expression as it there stands. A similar 
passage in the quartos is, " here boys, shall 
we wag ? shall we wag ?" but it occurs in an- 
other part of the play, although Shallow's 
answer is the same. Sir T. llanmer makes 
Oeiman of it, in which be is followed by &lr. 
Knight. In proposing a bold conjectural 
emendation, the general style of languBgc em- 
ployed by the Host must be considered. Thus 
in act iii. sc 2, he says " Farewell, my hfarli," 
a method of expression also used hy Bottom, 
"Where ore these hearttf" Mids. Night's 
Dream, iv. 2. See another instance in Clarke's 
Phraseologia Puerilis, IGSD, p. 109. In pro- 
posing to read, "Will you go, my hearli !" 
we approach as near the original as most of 
the proposed emendations; or, perhaps, as 
Stcevens proposes, " Will you go on, hearts ?" 
Perhaps, howe\'er, Mr. Collier has pursued the 
wisest course in leanng it as it stands in the 
old copies. 
ANllERITED. Inherited? 

Tlir cM of Aeon, ll»t In llili coniri i> clrpld 
Akr«^, florishedc and itodr In hU VLTtiir, joy, nnil 
prcpcrtttf, and wsi onheritnt rtchvly wllh worshtprull 
prinm and lordei. MS. Hmrl. 17V4. 

AN-IIOND. In hand, i. e. in liis power. 
lie lo wreken ye »cliul go 
Ota Ircytour that li mi fo. 
That Is yM:omc up ml lond, 
Wer he thenkelli to bring me an-Hond. 

Oy f./ fTarwilct, p. 43. 

ANHONGED. Hanged up. (.f.-S.) Cf. Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12193, r2209; Rob. Clone, p. 609; 
Se\'rn Sages, S02, 651 ; Launfal, 686; Rcliq. 
Ant'iq. i. 87. 
Thai thcl Khuld be do to dethe deuirulll In bati, 
Brvnt lu brijt fur, to.dTawe oroN-J^m^. 

fTill. and llu nVuvf/, p. 17!. 
And al ihat hemy^teon.takc. 
Non other pes ne mo«t they make. 
But Icet hem tjo-drawe and nfi-honfAe, 
Out ccrtayn hit was a] with wronghe. 

MS. Douet no, f. 13. 

ANHOVE. To hover. Siinner. 
ANHVTTE. Hit; struck. 

The kyng Arlure ajeo the bmt y< felawe vent 

aiiAyne. Hi*. Ulout. p. I8S. 

ANIENTE. To destroy; to oniuhilate. (.^.-.V.) 

It is also an old law term. See Cowell's 

Interpreter, in v. 

That wikkedllcbe and wliruUlehe 

Wolde mercy •nimle. Puri PUmfhman, p. SBS. 

The which three thlnget ye ne baa Dot anlmiiMS 

or destroyed, neither tn yourcMlf o* in youre non- 

leilloun, ai you ought. MMbtut, p. I(>7. 

AN-IF. Used for if. The expression is Tcry 

common in our old writers. 
ANIGH. Near. Salop. Sometimes in the 

western counties we have anighil, near to. 
ANIGHT. In the night. Cf. Lcgcnde of 

Hypsipylc, 108 ; As You Like It, ii. 4 j OesU 

Romanorum, p. 5). 

Trittxom to Vioude wan, 

AHlt*it with Mr to play. .'••V TriHrrtn, p. !33. 

Hi« fader he Inlde .1 nwefne 

Ani^l that htm melte. MS. BoM. Ki, I. 1. 

ANILE. Imbecile from old age. Walpole uses 

this a4iectivc, and Sterne has the substantive 

anililj/. See Richardson, in v. 

ANIME. A white gum or resin brought out of 

the West Indies. Bultokar. 
ANIMOSITE. Braver)-. 

Hit magnanymytr, 

Hll«niaK»M<. Slttllim'lWm-kt,\i.M. 

ANIOUS. Wearisome; fatiguing. 
Then thenkkei Oawan ful tone 
Of hU eniuwi vyafie. Syr Gauiajfn*, p. 21 > 

AN-IRED. Angry. 

He Muh Richard an-irtii, and his mykelle myght. 
Bis folk anned and tired, and ay redy to fight. 

Ptt^ Langtttftt p. li>l. 
ANIS-KINES. Any kind of; any. 

Withoutcn anit-kinrt duelling, 
Sche gan Oregon to thrcle. 

Leg. iif Pvpt Crtifftrn, p. SO. 

ANKER. An anchoret ; a heniiit. tf. Prompt. 
Parr. pp. 12, 83; Robin Hood, i. 36; Rom. 
of the Rose, 6348. 

Ccrlis, wyfe woUlc he naoe, 
Wenche ne no lemmane, 
Bot alf an ankyrr In a stane 
He lyvod here trewe. 

.S^ Dffrrtvanlt, MS. Uncollt, f. \StK 
ANKERAS. A female hermit. 

Hou a recluse or an ankerus shuld comende Mr 
ehastlt« to God. MS. Oodl. 4!3, f. 183. 

ANKLEY. An ankle. Went Suner. 
ANLEPl. Alone; single. (.-f.-S.) Hencetrui^lr, 
applied to unmarried persons. See instances 
in Sir F. Maddcn's reply to Singer, p. 3i. 
He stod, at)d totede in at a bord. 
Her he spak anUej'i word. Haee/oJIr. 8107. 

Anothere Uof an^e^t, 
That base bene Ulcde and left foly. 

MS. Coll. Faiul. D, vl. f. lit. 
Anecsfomlcaclon. a fleschl^ synue 
Betwene an andepv man and an ane/ejiy woman, 

MS. Hurl, lata, t. 73. 
On ich half thai imiten bim to. 
And he ogaln to hem alto : 
Never no watanfepjr knight . 
That M oianl stond mlghL Cy offfarwik; p. 13a. 
Say alio quo wos thi fere. 

For wde more synne It la 

To synne with a wnldid wife. 

Then with an antepo l-wls. 

Jlf.9. Canrali. Ff. T. 48, f. gfl, 
ANLET. An annulet ; a small ring, yorhh. 
According to Mr. Jerdan, " tags, or pieces of 
metal attached to the ends of laces or |ioints." 
Sec Rutland Papers, p. 6 ; Brit Bibl. ii. 397. 
Carr says it i» the mark on a stone, an ancient 
Imnndary in Craven. 
ANLETH. The face*, the countenance, {Su<f<t.) 
Ne turne thine unleth me fra, 
Ne helde In wreth fra thI bine iwa. 

MS. o>ir. F'wpM. D. vli. r. lA 
ANLICNES. A resemblance ; an image. 

ANLIFEN. Livelihood ; substance. VmlepaH. 
ANLOTE. To pay a share of charges, according 

to the custom jDf the place. Miiulieu. 
ANNARY. A yearly description. FuUer. 




ANNE. One. The objeclivf caseof on. Cf. Rcliq. 
Aotiq. ii. 272 ; Rol>. GInac. p. 223. 
Ac Samxlnt werv, bl ml paonc, 
Ever fourti ogaina onne. 

Arlhour attd Merlin, p. SlU. 
He ftough ttirc ogalncs anne, 
And crakci] matil hem-panne. IUiLp.SH, 
llco nadden with hem bote mine \of, 
Thareforc hco carcdcn ech one. 

US. iMtd ine, r. 1. 
ANNET. The common gull, »o cttlli^d in 
Nortbumberlsnil. See Pennant's Tour in 
Scotlsnd, ed. 1790,1. 48. 
ANNETT. Krst-fhiits? 

The L.. Governour, aa touching tlie worket to be 
taken In hand, noc tnuniclon to tie lonkl for. with 
BOme ocmranccs nf the Englbh and SponUh fleets; 
for ttie conilng up of Capt. Case, and touching Sir 
John Selby'f memdow, Towiudalr* annett, 

Arefiwati^a, XXK. t€£l. 

ANNEXMENT. Anything annexed, or gub- 

joiacd. Sec Hamlet, iji. 3. 
ANNIIIILED. Destroyed. 

Which e!f had tM«li long finer a»nihUeit, 
With all other llting thlug> betide. 

Lora Owlt, ISOS. 

ANNOTE. A note. 

In oiiMAfe la hire nomc. nrmpncth hit non, 
Whose ryht redeth ronne to Johon. 

VfHgM't L^rir Ptetiy, p. S6. 
ANNOY. Annoyance. 

Farewell, ray «OTeralgnc, long raaitt thou enjoy 
Thjr fathrr'i happie dalet free from (iMNoy. 

Fim Pari o/tht OmtenHon, IJ94. 
ANNUAKT. Annnal. HaU. 
ANNUBLLERE. A priest employed for the 
purpose of singling anniversary masses for the 
dead. It is tpeltanniroforin Skclton, ii. 440. 
In London was a prcest, an annutUrre, 
Tliat therin dwelled hadde many a >ere. 

Otaunr, dun. T. IMSO. 

ANNUBLTNGE. Enamelling. Sec an extract 
from llorman in Prompt. Parv. p, 261, wticrc 
perhapa we should read ammetynge. 
ANNUNCIAT. Foretold. {Ut.) 

Lo Sarapton, which that was annuneiat 
By the ao^el, long or his natlvitce. 

Chaurrr, Canl. T. UWl. 

ANNTD. Annoyed; tcxc*!. [Anuyd ?] 
So that King Philip was onnyd thor alie thing. 

Rob. GfoHr. p. 4117. 

ANNTE. Annoyance. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 429; 
Krng Alisauntier, 10. [Annye.'] 
" With aorwewas hij hcrte belrelJ, 
With cmie and eke nnnyt. MS. Athrncle 33, t. 44. 
Thanne aayde the Duk Terry. 
To llgge thus her ya grvt anny. nu. f. 4A. 

ANNYLE. Anise seed. HuJoet. 
ANO. Also. North. 
ANOIPUL. Hurlfnl; unpleasant. 

For al be It so. that al tarylng be anti{ful, algatcs it 
Is Dot to reprcre In yertng of Jugoment, neln ven- 
geance taking, whan It li sulBaant and rcsonable. 

MeHbnu, p. 80. 


No mUht do with hlr wlrhelng, 
In iDclond noo amtUng. 

Arthtiur and Meriin, p. I6fl. 

ANOrNTED. Chief; roguish. "An anoinltd 
icamp." We$t. 

ANOIOUS. Fatiguing; wearisome; unpleasant. 
See Harrison's Description of England, p. 214 ; 
Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 300 ; and Aniowt. 
Late him tie ware he have no delitc, 
Ne him rejoyce of his annot/mu pUte. 

OeeteM, MS. Hoc. AmUq. 134, f. MC. 

ANOISAUNCE. A nuisance. Cowell refers to 
Stat. 22 Henry VIII. c b, for an example of 
this word. 

The flsshcgarth of Ootdale, and other fluihegarthes 
within the ryvcrof Ayre, Isstondyngcas yit. to the 
grrlt common nnotMcunct and Intollerable hurt of the 
kyngcs chamber of the dtd of Yorke. 

DarJeir't York Reeordt, p. t7. 

ANOLE. Too; also. YorhJi. 
ANOMINATION. An opinion contrary to 
law. (Cr.) 

He that adnmn hli whole oration with no other 
trope but a sweet subjection or an nmiminiitian, may 
be thought a trim man in the ears of the multitude, 
but In the judgement of the elegant orators, he shall 
be known as rude in his art of thebutcher 
that scalded the cmlf^ was In his crvfl of butchery. 

Btlt. BIM. IL441. 

ANON. What do you say ? Yorkth. Sec Anan. 

It is more usual in the sense of immediatrli/, 

but is DOW seldom heard in the southern 

counties. The phrase "anon, sir," is often 

found in our old dramatists, put into the 

mouth of waiters, who now say, " coming, sir." 

Sec 1 Henry IV. ii. 4 ; Doucc's Illustrations, 

i. 427. 

ANONEN. See Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 19, 

and the obsenrations on this word in Warton's 

Hist. Engl. Poet. iL 72. " Anone" occurs in 

Wright's Political Songs, p. 199, explained by 

the original scribe " at one time." Mr. Wright 

transhitcs it " in the lirst place :" 

Tho spek the lion Item to. 

To tho fox anone his wllle. 

ANONER. Under. Xorlh. 

ANON-RIGHTES. Immediately. Cf. Ellib's 

Met. Rom. ii. 332 ; Erie of Tolous, 193 ; Kyng 

Alisaimder, 1 70, 824 ; Ilartshomc's Met. Talcs, 

p. 74. 

He hadde In toun r, hundred knlghtes. 
lie hem of sent anon.righlrg, 

Arthour and ilerliXt p. 68. 
The chyld aniuerd anonry^ht. 
He wu withouten bcgynnyng. 

ANONT. Against ; opposite. Wilt: 
ANONXCION. Anointing. 

Thia was their charge and verey dewe aervlse 
Otanonttion tyme, to dooe and cxcersise. 

HcrdtKg't CSmirt; f. 71* 

ANONTWAR. At unaware*. 

Tho the Brytoni come myd the prisons thar. 
The Romeyns come ajm hem at anontmitr. 

Rob. (3<evr. p. <U. 

ANOSED. Acknowledged. 

Thanoe Iher begynnyth aU grace to wakr, 
I f It with synne he not aiM«erf. 

DIgtf MftHtia, p. ITS. 
ANOTH. Enough. {A.-S.) 

Anoth, dameseile I quath Olauncheflour. 
To scome me is Utcl honour. 

IfYgncffond /l/ouncA</leur. im. 




\aA ptioullche blg«n to cHc. 
jInoKf Ac, tncrcl* Lovcrd, thin ore 1 

MS. Laud UK), f. 130. 
ANOTHER. " Al another," in a different way. 
But Avclok thouthea/anoMcr. Haetlok, IXiS. 

ANOTHER-GATES. A different kind ; another 
■ort. Lane. 

When HudlbTW, about to enter 
Upon a not her'gnte a adventure. 
To RA)phoca11*d aloud to arm, 
Not dreamlDg of approaching itnrm* 


ANOUGH. Enough. JTatt. Cf. Gy of War- 
wike, pp. 11,20,25.40,63, 153; SirTriitrem, 
pp. 181.301. 0^.-5.) 

The flfchcri wer ndi anowj 
To doD hit will that Ich day. 

LegWHd tff Pap* Gftgtty, p. 0(1- 

ANOUR- (1) Honour. 

Herhaud ODSwnd. 1 chl) you telle 
The t>nt contvyl Ich have In wljlr ; 
Gif thou theinperoun douhtcr afo, 
Rlche ibou belt ever mo : 
After him ihou be«l em|»trour, 
God hath the doo gret atttmr, 

Og of WarwikK, p 1 49. 
Tho was he eri of fret oiwur, 
Y-knowoi Id alt* Aqulttyne. 

iMg. Oathol. p. 4a. 
(2) To honour. 

with (hUheraioutnf hit place 
Tbatheofioiuvrfbira In. 

Af.V. Falryhj-14. 
Ill dlademe Aiumred and with palle 

US. HarL .1809, f. X7. 

ANOUREMENT. Adommpnt. 

1 am turmenlide with IhU blew fyrc on my hedc, 
for tny lecherouM anouremtnt of mync hecre.andc 
other array therono. Getta Homailontm, p. 431. 

ANOURENE, pi. Hononr. 

With gud ryghte thay lo»e the for thaire jnid- 
nc« ; with f ud ryghte thay anourme the for thaire 
faireneat withe gud righte thay gloryfye the for 
Ihalre profet. US. LInni/n, f. IHB. 

ANOURN. To tdom. (J.-^.J 

Whan a woman Uantmrn^d with rich apparayle, It 
•etleih out hec beauty double as much ai it It. 



For ju .lie anmiin^mrnUM ben f^yrfd by hem that 
■ven. unity uy%tth hem, io.llethr Iixlowyiof hevcn. 
u wcleaungiUu mm nr wyninieii,bra.naumpdand 
wnnchlppeU oonly Ihoru God. MS. Tanntr 16, p. 63. 

ANOW. Enough, ft'ett. See Jennings, p. 120. 
He kest the bor dmin hawe. dNnive, 
And con himwlf doun bi a botre. 

SerjfH S-ifn, 991. 

ANOWARD. Upon. See Rob. Glotic. pp. 186. 
211. Hearne expluini it, " thorougli. onward." 
Aad wtMcard hi. rug fUr y-maked. 
And doth fVom jerr to jcre. 

VS. H«W. trn, f. 47. 
A cold wclle and fair thcr .pronjt, 

Antrumrth thcdouno. 
That 5ut U there, fair and aild. 
A myle from the tounv. 

US. 0>ll. THn. Oral, HJ. 
The hort hem Uy anofranf. 
That hem thought ctiaunce hard. 

J-ihour and Urrll.,, ^ . 13\ 


Alio ther If fyr of co'eytyie, ot tho whiche It ia 
seyd allc anowcryand a« chymncy of fyr«. 

jf.v. £^erto« Ml, r. an. 

.VNOWE. Now; presently. So explained by 
Mr. Utterson, Pop. Poet ii. H7 ; but perliapa 
we should read arove, as in a similar passage at 
p. 153. 

ANOYLE. To anoint. The last sacrament of the 
Roman Catholic clinrob. Secacurious iiiven- 
tnr>'. written aboul 1 538. in Reliq.Antiq. i. 2.'>5. 

ANOY.MENTIS. Tlus word isthc translation of 
limalet in an early gloss, printed in RcUq.Antiq. 

i. a. 

ANOYNTMENT. An ointment. 
And ther Mnr^ Mawdctayn 

Anoyntet cure Lorde. fette 
With a rlche onojvntmelir. 

Andhlshcdel-wli. JITS. OiiKak Ff. t. 48. f. H^ 
ANOYT. Turning? 

Thai other branrhc ful ryjt goyt 
To the lytll fyngere, without anotft< 

Rtliq. Anlti. 1. lOf . 

ANPYKE. Empire. Tlic following is on exirart 
from the Metrical Chronicle of England. 
All ComewalU- and DeTcoahire. 
All thyi were ofhyioniif^e. Holt. Otifur. p- 7^- 
ANREHNESSE. Unity of purpose. (J.-S.) 
AN'S-AFE. lam afraid. I'orX**. 
ANSAUMPLE. An example. 

Ore Loverd wende aboulc and pnchedelhat foil,. 
And aelde hem ansaumpta falfc 

MS. Lawi. ine, f. a. 
ANSEL. Generally spelt AoiiteA q. V. It seems 
to be used in the sense of hansel in Decker's 
Satiro-Mastix, ap. Hawkins, iii. I'i7. See also 
a similar orthography in Prompt. Parv. p. H. 
ANSHUM-SCRANCHUM. MTicn a number of 
persons are assembled at a board where the 
provision u scanty, and each one is almost 
obliged to scramble for what he can get, it 
will be observed perhaps by some one of the 
party that they never in all their life saw such 
afliAvm-fcraiicAiu)! work. Line. 
ANSINE. Appearance; figure. (J.~S.) 
Not no mun lo mnchcl of pine, 
Al povre wif that falleth In aiuUtt, 

Dame Sirtlh, MH. D(r«y SS. t. ISJ 

ANSLACHTS. Surprises. ( fferm.) SeeMeyriek'.^ 

Critical Enquiry, iii. 118. 
ANSLAKJHT. Surprised. {Germ.) 

I do remember yet, that nntlaightf thon vast be.ltcti. 

Add Ocdat before the butler. 

Bttmmtmt and Fletcher, Uvtu. ThomiUt U S 

ANSQUARE. Answer. 

Then gaf Jheiui til ham aru^ttart 
To alle the Je»a atie iher ware. Jlf.S, Fatr/ut U. 
ANSTOND. To withstand. 

Uc byrond vocst an quelntyie a;en the Deoryi to 
amft>ntl. Reh. Clouc. p. B07. 

ANSURER. The answerer; the person who 
answered to tlic Court of Augmentation for 
the rents and profits. 

Al concerning one farine hold, late lielonglng to 
the hold of St. ttobarta, which you know 1 did f penke 
to the anturtr for the uio of the aald children, aad 
he permlaed not to suit them. 

PlumftMt fl,rt NIMNiffNce, p, S34. 






ANSWER. To encounter at a tournament. See 
the Paston Lettm, ii. 4. Shakespeare ase.9 
tlie substantive in the sense of retaliation, re- 
quital, in CyrabeUnc, iv. 4. A very common 
though peculiar sense of the woril has not 
been noticed by lexicographers. To answer 
a front door, is to oi>en it when any one knocks. 
At a farm-house near South Pcthcrton, a maid- 
senant was recently asked why she did not 
answer the door. The girl, who had an im- 
pediment in her speech, replied, " Why — 
why — why, if you plazc, mim, I — I — 1 clid'n 
hear'u speak !" 

ANT. (1) Am not. Devon. 

(2) .\nd. This fonn of the conjunction is found 
chiefly in MSS.ofthc reign of Edward II. when 
it is very common. 

(S) "In an ant's foot," in a short time. A 
Warwickshire phrase. 

ANTEM. (1) A church. This cant word is 
given in the Brit. Bibl. ii. 521, more generally 
spelt autrm. We have also an an/em-mor/e, 
" a wyfe niaried at the churche, and they be 
as chaste as a cow." See the same work, 
ii. 200, 520; and Harrison's Description of 
EugUiid, p. 184. 

(2) An anthem. {J.-S.) 

To me chc cmtnr, kntl bid me Tor to ling 
This antcm vtTsily In ray dyin|[. 

CkMccr, Oifil. r. 13S9I). 

ANTEPHNE. An anliphon. 

With hool tiertc AQil drw reverence 
S«yn thit UHtephne, aud thlt oriion. 

JUS. Hari. ss7a, f. a. 
ANTER. The foUowiog ia extracted from an 
old pUy : 

Thjt'i hee ihat nukei the true uu of fruti, KOdi 
all unto their proper places ; hec U call'd the auttr ; 
he hath I iTinniipoly Tor all buttericboitke*, kJtchinge 
Ixmkcf, betide* old dccUmatlous and theiimos. 

MS. audi. 30. 

ANTBRS. (1) In case that. Sorth. 
(2) Advcnttircs. North. 

Lbtunr now, tordinjcs, of nntera gtctc. 

Hobton*t Romnncet, p. 49. 

ANTE-TEME. A text or motto pkccd at the 
head of a theme, oration, or discourse. From 
the Merrie Tales of Skclton, p. 61 , it would 
ap|)car to he synonymous with theme. See 
also Skelton's Works, ii. 241. 

ANTEVERT. To avert. JlalL 

ANTGATE. An occasion. Stinnrr. 

ANTH. And the. North. 

ANTIIONY-NUT. The bladder-nut; the sta- 
phyladendron. Sec Florio, in v. Slaphilodcudro; 
Cotgrave, in v. Bagumaudei. 

ANTHONY-PIG. the favourite or »malle»t pig 
of the litter. A Kcnti.'.li expression, according 
to Grose. "To follow like a tantony pig," 
L e. to follow close at one's heels. Some de- 
rive this saying from a privilege enjoycrl by 
the biait of certain convents in England and 
Itaooe, tons of St. Anthony, whose sw ine were 
pcnnilted to feed in the streets. These swine 
would follow any one having preens or other 
proTiaions, till they obtained some of them ; 

and it was in thoae daya considered an art of 
charity and religion to feed them. St. Anthony 
was invoked for the pig. Sec Becon'a Works, 
p. 1 38 ; and a quotation from Honuan ia 
Prompt. Parv. p. 29. 

ANTHONY'S-FIRE. A kind of ernsipelas. For. 
dial. Higins says, " A swelling full of heate 
and reducs, with paine round ahout a sore or 
wound, commonly called S. Antbonica ficr." 
Sec the Nomcnclator, 1585, p. 439. 

ANTHROPOMANCY. Divination by the en- 
trajls of men. This species of divination ia 
alluded to in Holiday's Tccnogamia, 4to. 
Loud. iei8. 

ANTHROPOFIIAGINIAN. A ludicrous wortl 
introduced by Shakespeare for the sake of a for- 
midable sound, from Anthropophagi, cauuibals. 
Sec the Merrj' Wives of Windsor, iv. 5. 

ANTICK. (1) Old. 

And though iny antick age was freely lent 
To the committing of accuned evlll. 

Nirhitittm*s .JtoiaitHM, IflOO. 

(2) An antimasque. 

I WW in Btuueli, at my 1>eing there. 
The duke of Orabaot welcome the archbUhop 
or Meats with rare conceit, even on a suddan 
Pcrform'd by knlghtf and ladiet or ills court. 
In nature of an antivlc. Fnra't MVA«, i. 440. 

ANTICKS. This word occurs in a variety of 
senses. Shakespeare has the verb to antick, 
to make aniicks, and aniiekly, in on antick 
manner. See Anthony and Cleopatra, ii. 7 ; 
Much Ado about Nothing, v. 1. Actors arc 
frequently termed antick', as in the Nomcn- 
clator, p. 530. The ancient sculpture and 
paintings in parish churches fall under the 
same denomination, aud it is even ajiplied to 
the sculiitured tiguiea ia pavements. 
And cast to make a chariot for the king. 

Painted with nnHrktM uaA rldictiioua toyes. 
In which they meane to Paris him to bring. 
To make iport to their madamcs and their boyet. 
Drat/ton'a Pn«m», p. 4.1. 
A foule dcfnrm'd, a tirutiih curted crew. 
Bodied like thoae in antike worke dcvisetl. 
Monstrous of stupe, and of an ugly hew. 

UarrixgtMi'a ^Huafo. IMI, p. 45. 
ANTICOR. A swelling on a horse's breast, op- 
posite to the heart. Markham. Miegc spells 
it antocffW. 
ANTIDOTARY. Having the qualities of an 

From hence commeth (bat noble name or compo- 
fltion anlfdwary, called Theriaca, that ia, trlacle. 

Tpptclfi HUtmy o/SrrpmlM. p. iDd. 

ANTIENTS. Ancestors. Can- gives this word 
as still used in Craven, and it occMirs apparently 
iu the aamc tense in the Pickwick Papers, 
p. 205. 

ANTIMASQUE. Something directly opposed 
to the principal masque, a light and ridieulonC'J 
interlude, dividing the parts of the more serioiif 
masque. It admitted of the wildest extrava- 
gances, and actors from the theatres were 
generally engaged to perform in it, Soe 
Beaumont ami Fletcher, ii. 459; Ben Jonson, 
cd. GifTord, vii. 251 ; Nares, iu v., and an ac- 




emnt of Mr. Moore's reveli at Oxford in IG36, 
in MS. Ashmolc 47. 

ANTINO.VIIES. Rules or laws, in opposition to 
some others dcemeii false, and having no au- 
thority. See an example of this word in 
Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 50. 

ANTIOCHE. A kind of wine, perhaps imported 
or introduced &om that country. A drink for 
wounded persons, called " water of Jateoc/ie," 
is dcacribed at length in MS. Jamys, f. 40. 
See also some verses on lechecrafte in MS. 
IlarL 1000. 

Mrttioehe and iHtttarde, 
P^enl alvo and gamarde. 

Sijuyr t\f iMce Dtgri, 767* 

ANTIPERISTASIS. " The opposition," says 
Cowley, " of a contrary quouty, by which the 
quality it opposes becomes hcightene<l or in- 
tended." 'This word is used by Ben Jonson. 
See his Work.i, cd. Giffurd, ii. 371. 
ANTIPHONER. This tcnn is frequently met 
with in the inventories of church goods and 
ornaments in old times. It was a kind of 
psalm-book, containing the usual church mu- 
sic, with the notes marked, as we still sec 
them in old mass books ; and so called from 
the alternate repetitions and responses. Sec 
the Archorologia, xxL 275. 

Thli lllel chllde hb lltel book leming, 

As h« Mte In the acolo at hii primcre. 

Ha ^ma ndtmptvrit herdc llDg, 

At children Icred hli antiphtmtre, 

Ouuictr, Cant. T. 13449. 

ANTIQUITY. Old age. 

For faUe iUusion of the magUfntcs 
With borrow'd thapes of CaUe antiquitjf. 

Two Thtg^diain One, 1601. 
ANTLB-BEER. Crosswise ; irregular. Brmoor. 
ANTLING. A corruption of St. Antoninc, to 
whom one of the London churches is dedicated, 
and occasionally alluded to by early writers 
under the corrupted name. See the Roaring 
Giri, i. 1. 
ANTO. If thou. Yoriih. 
ANTOTO. Anthony. La»gt<ifl. 
ANTPAT. Opportune; apropos. Wane. 
ANTRE. (1) A cavern; a den. (Ul.) 
Wherein of untm vast and dnaru l^llc, 
Rounh quarries, roekf , and hillt whoce heads touch 

It waa my hint to apeak. OiAeRo, L 3. 

(2) To adventure. 

And, Lord, alt he es roaite of myght. 
He tend hit loeor to that knyght. 
That thui In dede of charity 
Thlt day oHtfit hys Uf for tne. 

Ynpaine and Gattiin, SS06. 
Thou anierti thi life for luf of me. JliU. 3809. 

ANTRKSSE. Adventured. (A.-K.) 

Thanne AUtaundrine at ant than anfreMe hem 
till*. Wm. ami <IU Werwolf, p. 98. 

ANTRUMS. Affected airs ; insolences ; wliims. 
" A's In IS mtnmu tliis morning," would be 
said of a rtide person as well as of a skittish 
horse. This form of the word is given in the 
Suffolk and Cheshire glossaries, but the more 
usoal exprattioo is lanl-nma. 

ANTUL. An thou wilt; if thou will. Yorlah. 

ANTUO. Explained " one two, a two,' 

llcarne, but we should read an luo, i.e. on two. 

Sec Rob. Glouc.p.24l. 
ANT-WART. A kind of wart, " deepe-rool«l, 

broad below, and litle above," mentioned in 

the Nomenclator, 1585, p. 444. 
ANTWHILE. Some time ago. fTarv. 
ANTY. Empty. Somemfl. 
ANTV-TUMP. An ant-hUl. Hertfardt. 
ANUAL. A chronicle. Rider. 
ANUDDER. Another. North. 
ANUEL. A yearly salary paid to a priest for 

keeping an anniversary ; an aimuity. 

And hcnten. glf 1 mighte. 

An anu*t for myne owen ute. 

To hclpcn lo clothe. Pitrl PUmghmiti, p. 475, 

Suchc anitutU has made thn frert to wcly and to gay* 
That thermay no pottettionert mayntene thalr array. 
IIS. Con. Cioop. B. IL r. «3; 

ANUETH. Annoyeth. 

Hoch me anvolh 

That ml drlvD dnilth. Rallf. AnHf. 11. tin. 

ANUNDER. Beneath; under. North. To keep 
any one at anunder, i. e. to keep them in a sub- 
ordinate or dependent situation. See also a 
quotation in gloss, to Syr Gawayne, in v. 

Ten tchypmen to londe ycde. 

To ic the yie yn lenglhe and brcde. 

And fette water as hem wai nede 

The roche anond^r. 

Octovian Im/Kralort 600, 
The pritonc dore than wend heo ner. 
And putte hure ttaf aMundcr. 

MS. jlihmlt 33, f, 1«. 
He fouten anondir telde. 

Some of hem he fclde. MS. laud. 108, f. IIS). 
ANURE. To honour. 

./tnurith God and hoH chirch, 

And ^Iveth the porir that habhith nede; 

So Godlt wlllc jc uul wlrche. 
And joi of heveii hab to mede. 

}Vrithrt PolUiral Songt, p. Sn». 

ANURTHE. On the earth. This word occurs in 

the Life of St. Brandan, p. 3. 
ANUY. (1) To annoy; to trouble; to harass. 

Hire fader was to tore ofivyerf. 

That he mutle non endc. MS. Hmrl, VTI, t. S3. 

For thai haddc the countrd anuieetf. 

And with robberle dcstrwcd, Srern Sagta, 9013. 
(2) Trouble; vexation. 

Al etcllch withouteaniiy. 

And there youre lyf ende. 

MS. Harl. S277. t- »■ 

And for non eorthclich onuir, 

Ne for deihe ne flcchchie nought, 

MS. LauH m, r. IM. 
ANVELT. An an\il. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 6; 
Malory's Morte d'Arthur, i. 7. 
Upon hit up and downe. 
Therof he toke the firtte lowne. 

TTtt DremeufClMUctr, Hti. 
ANVEMPNE. To envcnome. 

I am nott wurthy, Lord, lo loke up to hofne. 
My tynful tteppyt anwmpntld the grouode. 

Coventry Myttmritt, p. yH. 

AN\'ERDRE. To overthrow. Somerttl. Per- 
haps a mistake for amerdrt. I insert it on 
Mr. IluUoway's authority. 







AN VIED. Explained by Weber «iri>rf, nraj/tti, 
in the following passage ; 1ml we should cer- 
tainly read antueii, part, of the verb army, q. v. 
See aUo jtnnye, which may perhaps he a similar 

Alisaundrt imtltd vu ; 

Over the uble he fon Ktotipe. 

Awl nnol LIIUi with the coupe, 

That he fcol douo In (he fletie. 

Kyng AlltmtiiMltr, l\Ot. 

ANVIL. (1) The handle or hill of a sitord. 

Here 1 clip 

The anvU of my iword. CoriolantUp Iv. li. 
(2) A little narrow Bog at the end of a lance. 

ANWARPE. To warp. ^fi>uAeu. 
AVWEALD. Power; anthority. Siiimer. 
ANWORD. An answer ; a reply. Venlegan. 
ANY. Either; one of two. It usually signifies 
one of many. 

And If that any of lu have marc than other, 
Let him be Lrcwe, aud part It with hit brother. 

CAimcer, Om(. T. 7Ut. 
A-NYB. In nine. 

The kjmc won Normandye, and alao god Auogco. 
Aail wythynne a^nift jer al thyi was y-do. 

tbib. Oloue. p. 190. 
ANYNGE. Union. 

By the rertu of thilblyifulle annnge, whllkemay 
nnghte be uide no conuyved be manes wit, the 
saule of Jhcfu ressayvcde the fulhede of wyMrdume 
and lufc. JIM-. Unmlit A. i. 17. f. 227- 

AXYSOT. A fool. Sec Pynsoii's edition of 
the Prompt. Parr, quoted in the Prompt. Parv. 
p. II. Sec Amnte. 

ANYWllEN. At any time. South. Rider gives 
mywhiie in the same sense, and anywhilher, 
into any place. Mr. Vernon tells mc anywhen 
a ooaiidercd a respectable word in the IsIc of 

A-ONB. An individual ; one person. 

There's not a on« of them, but In hli house 
I keep a senrant fcr'd. MacUth, tU. 4. 

AOURNED. Adorned. 

So that he that tofore wente clothed In clothes of 
j^ldeandof sylke, and tftfwmed wyth precyoui stones 
in the cyli. fiu Putrum, t. (16. 

AOY. High. GIme. 

APAir>. Satisfied ; pleased. (A.-N.) 

Mas friar, as I am true maid, 

8o do 1 hold me well apaid. 

PttU'i tVorlu, 1.01. 

APAISB. Peace. 

Tho thai were al at aiae, 

Idi went to his In apajse. ^rthomr and Merlin, p. 67. 
APAN. Upon. 

jlpmn the XX. dal 
Of ATcril, bl-for Mai. 

AirjonV Antient &»nfft. p. 30. 
APARABLYNO. Preparation. It is the transla- 
tion of apparahu, in Rchq. AuUq. L 8, an old 
(Jota. of the 15th century. 
APARTI. Partly. 

Now wU I schewc eparfi 

Qwy thel aren so grysly. Hempole, US. Dlgb^ B7. 
And hou foul a mon t^ afturward, 
TelUlh niHirty Seint Dcmird. 

t/S. Af/kmaltO, t. 

He that cs verrayly meke, God sal safe bym of 

there, here aparij/. and In the toihcr worldc pienerly. 

MS. Coll. KtoH. Ill, r. 40. 

APAST. Passed. Still used in tlic West of Eng- 
land. Cf. Gy of Warwike, pp. 148, 457; 
Strutt's Regal Antiquities, ed. Flanchf, p. 77. 
The nyjt hure nvjehede faste. 
That the dny was ne^ ago ; 
The lordes bulh than apastg 
Wythoute more ado. 

MS. AritmnU S3, f. 10. 
Apru^tt be twenty jere 
That we togedyr have lyvyd here. 

MS. Hart. 1701. f. 13. 
To grete disport and daliaunce of lordes and aile 
worthi werrloures that ben apautd by wey of age 
a] labour and travalllyng. 

I'egtcitu, MS. Dtmct Ml, f. UO. 
Thn this lljth spouad was, 

Huy In the put to grounde, 
Thare inne of this holleman. 

No thing buy oe Bcl5en ne founde. 

MS. Laud loe, f. 174. 
APA YEN. To satisft- ; to please ; to like. (A.-K.) 
Therwith was Perk^-n opaj/tdt 
And preised hem faste. 

Piert Ploughman, p. tS3. 
In herte I woMe be wele apoyeds, 
Myghte we do that dede. 

MS. Uncoln A. i.l7, f. 119. 
But never the lees y schalle aaaay 
How thou wylt my dynte apoy. 

MS. Canlab. Ft. ti. 38, f. 1(10. 

.VPAYERE. To impair. (^.-A^.) 

For allc your proudc prankyng, your pride may 
epayere. Skelton't IVorks, I. 116, 

APE. (1) A fool. To put an ape into a person's 
hood or cap was an old phrase, signiiying to 
moke a fool of him. Sometimes we hvrc the 
phrase, to put on his head on ape, in the same 
sense. Apes were formerly carried on the 
shoulders of fools and simpletons ; and Malone 
says it was formerly a term of endearment. 
Tyrwhitt considers " win of ape," in Cant. T. 
1 6993, to be the same with tin de tinge. See 
his note, p. 329 ; Robert of Sicily, p. 58. 
A ha, felawes, beth ware of iwlche a jape. 
The roonke put tn the mannee hcdean ape. 
And In hiswifeseke, by Seint Austin. 

CTMHcer, Canl. T. 13370. 

(2) To attempt ? 

And that sche nete iomlchel ape 
That sche hir laid doun to slape. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 39. 

APECE. Tlie alphabet. Promft. Part. We 
have also apece-lemer, one who leameth the 

APEIRE. To impair. (i^.-iV.) See Appair. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv. p. 12 ; Deposition of Richard II. 
p. 3 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 3149 ; Hall's Satires, 
iv. 2. 

And thanne youre ncghebores next 

In none wise apeire. Pieri Ploughman, p. 1 1 1. 

AFEL. An old term in hunting music, con- 
sisting of three long moots. See Sir H. Dr)'- 
dcn's notes to Twici, p. 71. 

APELYT. Called ; named. It u glassed by 
nominaliu in an early MS. quoted in Prompt. 
Pan-, p. 315. 




APENT. Ddon^ng. ficeJjipmd. In the Ches- 
ter I'loys, i. 131, it is used as a verb. 
Agantppu her lorde wm Kyngof Frauncei 
Th«t grauiilf hyra mcunc, aod good luffidcnle. 
Anil Mtit hb wife with hym, ollh grau pulmuncc, 
With All mray that to her wcr apcnir, 
I1U bclrc to bc«o, by their bothcs atiente. 

lUrdl/ng't dronidf, f. 33. 

APENYONE. Opinion. 

Jhcfu, Jhau. qua( deylle U him lh«t i 
I defye the and tbyn apmjrane. 

Dtgbp Mttlfim, p. 131. 

APERE. To «ppcar. 

To the nexte •emblr ;e ichul hytn calle, 
To aptrt byture hy» relom alie. 

OWMC 0/ Maaonrtl, p. 27 

APERN. An apron. Thii U tbe usnal cbtI)- 
form of the word. See the Nomcnclntcr, p. 
171. Mr. Ilartihorne g^ves appam as the 
Shropshire word, and apperon is sometimes 
found OS the Northeni form, as ncU as ajipren. 
APERNER. One who wears an apron ; a 
WehKVG no wine here, methlnksi 
Vr'here's thtl apemer f Otapman't Maff Dajft 161 1. 
A-PER-SB. The letter A, with the addition of 
the two Latin words, per »e, is used by some 
of our ancient poets to denote a person or 
tiling of extraordinary merit. 

I^QdoD, thowe arte of towne* j4 per «e, 
SoviTftgno of citle*, mott lymbltest by liffht. 

U3. iMKMt. TBi, [. 4. 

Thou ichalt be an ap^rxtift my soae. 
Id mylyt ij. or thre. 

MS. Caulab. Ft. li. SO. f. SI, 

APERT. (1) Open ; openly ; manifest. Cf. Kvng 
Alls. 2450. 4773; Hartshome's Met. Tojcs, 
p. 70 ; Cliauccr, Cant. T. 6006. 
Me hath ■mctyn wlthowlcn deserte, 
Aod Myth that he y> owre kynge apcrtt. 

MS. Oinlab. Ff. il. 30, t. Ml. 
(2) Brisk ; bold ; free. Sitinner. In the pro- 
vinces we hare/mir/, used in a similiir sense. 
Toone quotes a passage from Peter I,angtofl, 
p. 74, but I doubt its application in this sense, 
although it may lie derived from .i.-N. aperte. 
APERTE. Conduct in action. (^..,V.) 

For whiche the kyng hym liad ay aAer in cherte. 
Coiuyderyog well hli knightly aptrte. 

Harding', Oininldf, {. IW. 

APERTELICIIE. Openly. (^.-A'.) 

Irh liave, quod tho oure Lord, ai aptrtrlUht 
l-«puke In tlie temple and y-taujt, and nolhyng ptl- 
veliche. MS. Coll. Trin. OnH. S7. t. 8. 

APERTLY. Openly. (^.-A'.) 

And fonothe there U a gret marreyle, for men 
may MM there the erthe of the tombe operllf many 
tyractktercn and meven. MtundtvUt't TittptU, \i.ii. 
APERV. An ape-bouse. 

And TOW to ply tliy booke as nimbly aa ever thou 
rildft thy majiier*a aperu, nr the hauty vaulting 
horae. ApoUe Shrwtingt l&J, p. 93. 

APERYALLE. Imperial.' 

For any thyng that ever t led or dede, 
tinto thyi owre Kcuret or apetyallr. 

MS. Cintoli. Ff. i. 6. f. 113. 
APES. To lead apes in bell, a prorcrbial expres- 
sion, meaning to die an olil maid or a bache- 
lor, Ibat being the rmploynicat jocularly as- 

signed to old maids in the next worliL 
Florio in v. Miimmola, •' an old fnni<lc or 
virgin that will lead apes in belt" The phrns 
is not quil« obsolete. 

But 'tii an old piovrrb, and you know it well. 
That women, dying malda, had a/M Ih AW/. 

Tht London Pndignl, 1 S, 

APESIN. To appease. 

Ve ner« Man, npctin of hil Ire, 

And, as you list, yc makin hertls dlgne. 

TrxiU»» and CrutidOt 111. 93. 

APE'S-PATERNOSTER. To say an ape'a pa- 
ternoster, to chatter with cold. This prover- 
bial expression occurs several times in Cot- 
grave, in V. Barboler, Batrc, Creuiner, Dent, 
APETITELY. With an appetite. Sec IJrockctt, 
ed. 1829, in v. .^ppelize. 

Goo to Ihy mete apetitetjf. 
Sit therat dlacrelcly, Relif. Anilq. 1. 133. 

.iPE-WARU. A keeper of apes. 
Nor I, quod an apt-ward. 
By aught that I kui knowe. 

Piert Ptoughmait, p. IIS. 


Then ca^t the powder thcrupon, and with thi nail 
thou malit done awey the iettrn that hit tchal nu- 
thyng been a-sene, without any aptyrtmmi. 

Hrllq. Anli^. I. 11X1. 

lint wlilclie thlngiiwcren tome wynnynfla, I have 
dcmcd these aptyrj/ngiM for Crist. 

iricWi^e"« t!rw Tal. p. IfiO. 

APIECE. Wth the subject in the plural, " .Now 
lad?, here's healths apiece," i.e. healths to each 
of von. North. 

APIECES. To pieces. Still used in Suffolk. 

Nay, if we faint or fall apircsM now. 
We're fooli. Tlie Maud Princtat, v. 1. 

APIES. Opiates. 

A< he ihatl ilcpe as long ai er the Icale, 
The narcolikc* and apia ben to itrong. 

L*grniU of MppermnvMtra, i(n. 

A.PIGGA-BACK. A mode of carrj-ing a child 
on one's back, with bis legs under one's anus, 
and his arms round one's neck. I or. iliaL 

APIS. A kind of apple-tree, which Skinner says 
was introduced into this country about the 
vcar 1670. 

APISHNESS. Playfiilness. His the transla- 
tion of iadiuage in HoUyband's Ihctionarie, 

APISTILLE. Tbe epistle. 

The iyooc mode a wnife !o bcrc the holy wallr; 
Ij. urchyni to btre the lapera ; gete to rynge tbe bellea; 
fnlita to here tlie beere. The here kIJc the maaw i 
I he anc tedde the apMUIe t the oxa rcdde the gna. 
pelie. Gttta Ramanorum, p. 41U. 

A-PISTY-POLL. A mode of carrying a child 
with his legs on one's shoulders, and his arms 
round one's neck or forehead. Dortet, 

A-PIT-A-PAT. A term appUed to the beating of 
tbe heart, especially in cases of anxiety. Var. 
dial. In Oxfordshire the village children on 
Shrove Tue^lay bawl some lines in hopes of 
obtaining pence, which commence — 
** .d-pit-a-ptii, tbe pan is hot. 
And »e arecone a^ahrovlng." 








A-PLACE. In pUcc Gower. 
A-PLAT. On the ground. 

And Aroaiu with the swerd atlat, 
ThAt bo threwe of hU hon a-plat. 

JrlluMr anil Uertin, p. 333. 
APLIGHT. Certainly ; indeed ; completely. 
Cf. Wriglit's Political Songs, p- 2-19 ; Rilson's 
Aui-ient Songs, p. 10 ; Gy of Warwikc, pp. 3, 
6; Warton's Hist. Eng. Poet. i. 94; Harts- 
hornc's Met. Tales, p. 52 j Lybcaiu Discouus, 
ib, 2060; Kyng of Tars, 109, 182, 523; Ri- 
chard Coer de Linn, 2265 ; Sevyn Sages, 204 ; 
Ijit Ic Preine, 200. Sir W. Scott explains it 
" at once," gloss, to Tristem ; and llcamB, 
" right, cora)>leat." It seemi to be often used 
as a kind of expletive, and is the same as " I 
plight," I promise you. 
Thai If he wol lyre ary^t, 

I dar holF him hrlr npfljf. US. JMit. 10038, f. 2. 
The chytd aiuurrd »on mplfjt. 
Pro roy fader 1 com ryght. 

US. jMhmalt CI , f . Kl. 

APLYN. Apple*. {A.-S) 

Nym flowrv and ayryn, and grynd pcper and Mfron, 
and make thereto a liatour, and par aytjin, and kyt 
hem to brode pcfty*. and kcit hem theryn, and fry 
hem in the lutour wylh fie$ck greo, and lerve It 
fonhe. Wamsr^M ^ittiq. CvHm. p. 30. 

APOCK. A small red pimple. Somertet. 
APODYTERY. A vestry. 

I call It a veitiy, aicoiilalning the reilmrnu ; bat 
If soy other place hai that name, a longer word, 
afod^tery, may be taken for diatioetion. 

US. Untr. dated ntB. 
APOINT. At point. 

Maiden and whf gret lorwegan make 
For ttl«klnge» foneinke, 
Tliat ircre mptlitl to dye. 

muan'i Utt. Rom. HI. SOS. 

APOISON. To poison. See Piers Ploughman, 
p. 326. 
^— Ah he nc rtlgnedeher 

^m Bote unneihe thre yer, 

^L That Eltryld hii >te|inioder, 

^^^^B Md« feMh th«r any (ode, 
^^^^F Blm Mfo l mma d e that he was ded. 

^ Therfor coat awcy wycchecroft and uie it never, 

H Fur It appofnuilh the auule and iJeilhc It for ever. 

^ US.Laud*l6. t. 38. 

APOLOGETIK. An apology. In MS. Donee 
114, Is a short piece which the writer entitles 

I" a shorte apologelU of this EiigLissh coiii- 
AFON. Upon. 
Have mynd apom joiire endynf. 
US. Oeuca 309, f. I. 
And pay them trwiy. upon thy fay, 
What that they deaerven may. 
CnnMt. ofUoMonry, p. IS. 
APONTED. Tainted. Donel. 
APOPUAK. A kind of herb. Sec the Archa;- 
ologia. lAi. 401. The " gumme appoponaci" 
is mentioned in MS. Sloane 73, vrtuch may be 
the nuie. 
I APORBT. Poor. 

That on partie be tcml be londe 
To hem that were uporef In hit londe. 

MS, Ouitet. Ff. <r. W, r. MO. 

APOSTATA. An apostate. The ujoal early 
form of I he word. Sec Prompt. Parv. p. 13 
Harrison's Description of Britain, p. 25 ; Skel- 
ton's Works, i. 165. 

APOSTEMACION. An imposthume. 

Then aayde my paciente, 1 hadde a grevoui tore 
legge, with greate0]M)«<eniad0nj and hollowuet, where- 
fore If he coulde have dune nothing but taike, ha 
myght have ulked long enough to my legge beforv It 
would so have iKcn whole. 

Hatrt Brpottutalian, p. M. 

APOSTHUME. An imposthume. This orthogra- 
phy is given by Rider, and is found much ear- 
lier in Prompt. Parv. p. 13. In a MS. col- 
lection of njciiies in the Library of Lincoln 
Cathedral, f. 294, is a " diynke for the apot- 

APOSTILHEED. Apostlcship. 

And though to othere 1 am not apostle, but nethe- 
lea tu jou I am. for ;e ben the litle ilfpie of myn 
ajioil Uhtrd Id the Lord. 

Hfak/i/fu'* Ketc Tttl. p. ISS. 

APOSTILLE. A marginal observation. Cot- 
grave says in t. AppoitUe, " An answer unto 
a petition set downe in the margeut thereof, and 
generally, any small addition unto a great tlis- 
course in writing." 

I tendc unto your highnea the copies of the same, 
with surhe opattiUu and declaration in the mer- 
gentcs, as In reding of them with good dellberaclon. 
came unto my mynde. Statt Papcrt, i. aifi. 

APOSTLE-SPOONS. It was anciently the cus- 
tom for sponsors at christenings to oflfer gilt 
spoons as presents to the child, which vvtt 
called apostle-sjioons, because very fretpienlly 
the 6gures of the twelve apostles were chased 
or carved on the tops of the handles. Opulent 
sponsors gave the whole twelve; those in 
middling circumstances gave four ; wliile the 
iworer sort often contenteil themselves with 
the gift of one^ exhibiting the figure of some 
saint in honour of whom the child received its 
name. See Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii. 52. At 
Cambridge the last person in the tripos is 
called a tpoon, and the twelve last in the poll 
are designated the twelve Apotlltt. 
APOSTOLIONE. An ingredient, perhaps a 
herb, mentioned in an old medical reci|ie in 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 295. In MS. Jamys, 
f. 9, in a long rcci]ie to make an apotloli- 
cone, composed of frankincense, alum, and a 
Taricty of other things. 
APOSTROFACID.N. Apostrophe. 
1 ihati you make rclaclun. 
By waye of ai/oHm/acUtH. 

Slulbm't Workt, 1. 198. 

More than of alle the remenaunt, 
Whiche Is to love afoitrtenuunl. 

Gowtr, US. Sot. AnIUl. 134, f. 109. 
Ther was nulhyngadesotaalaaaat, 
Vr'hlche was to Rome apptmrUitMmt. 

JIM. f. 77. 

APOZE^rE. A drink made with water and 

divers spices and herbs, used instead of syrup. 


APPAIR. To impur; to make wrona. See 


n«ll, Edwwd IV. f. 34 ; Dial, of Great. Mor. 
pp. 74. 76; Mortc d'Arthur, i. 72. (A.-N.) 

Her nature yi to apparjm and amende. 

She changy th ever and flety tb to and fro. 

RMfTmn't Rati, MS. Fmlr/ax Ifi, 

APPALL. To make pale. (A.-N.) 
Hire llate not uppatitd for to be. 
Nor on the morwe unfettllche for to ice. 

Clmuxr, Cant. T. I0(i79. 

APPARAIL. To provide; to equip; to fur- 
nish. (A.-N.) 

Sundry yeomen that will not yet for all that 
chauDge their condition, nor dctlre to be apparalled 
with the tltlci ofgcntrle. 

lambarMt Ptrnmbulotian, IMS, p. 14. 

APPARANCY. Appearance. 

Am! ihui thf dombe ypocryiye. 
With hi* dcvoute apparantire, 
A Titer iette upon bl« face. 

Cower, Ha. Sac. Jnti^. 1S4, r. U. 
Whoce fained ;e4Iure« doe entrap our youth 
With anaf>parunrteof iilmpU- truth. 

Bruwnir'§ Briiannia't PiuU'raU, 1G35, p. £4. 

APPARATE. Apparatua. 

The whole English apporo/ff.and the Enffliih popu- 
lar calculation tablet, with an almanac fortooth for 
the BMt year, beginning at the tprlng equinox. 

US. Hodl. .113. 
APPAREIL. The sum at the bottom of an ac- 
coimt, which is still due. A law term, given 
by Skinner. 
API'AUEMENTIS. Ornaments. 

I'ride, with a/giareme»ft«, als prophetli have tuldc. 
Srr Oatea^t, p. 106. 

APPARENCE. An appearaocc (Fr.) 
That it to layn, to make illution 
By iwlchc an appareiuM or Joglcrle. 

CAaurer, C<ml. r. 1 1£77. 

APPARKNTED. Made apparent. 

But if he had beenc In hit tfrajret ttabled. then their 
flnedevltot for their further crcdll thou Id havebceoe 
ttppartnted. fitlinihefl, /fijr. n//f f/rimt. p.89. 

APPARITION. An appearand, in the literal 
sense of the word. It is so used by Shakespeare, 
Much Ado about Nothing, iv. 1. 

Whcrforc the dlipotiryon anil the ftinne of the 
dcdiy body wlthoute forth l> not. at thou tuppotj-d, 
to beholden foule and UHKnicly, but the moott fayr- 
latanda/^po'ytaAjifKfr comclynctae. 

Citrren't iNreri Fni^l/ul CkoiUy Maleri. 

APPASE. Apace. 

An actnarie, clarkc or tcrlbe, that writeth ones 
wortlet aptioM as they arc tpoken. 

Nomenclaler, p. 47>. 
APPASSIONATE. To have a passion for. 
Florio has this word in v. Appamtmdn, 
Afarlel/iire. Boucher bas appatnionated, ex- 
plained ** stcdfast ;" but see Kichardson, in v. 
APPATtZED. A term applied to districts which 
have pud composition or contribution, in 
order to ransom their towns from military 
execution. Sec the Ancient Code of Military 
Uws, 1784, p. 14. 
APPEACII. To impeach; to accuise. Sec 
Warkworth's Chronicle, p. 25; Mortc d'Arthur, 
u. 13. {.4..N.) 
How. let furth youre geyia, the fox wille prcchfl : 
How li<ng wilt thou me mp fek 

Witli thi trmoayng I IVitM«(<v Nytlo <</, p. 10, 



Why doe I apfadt her of colnnae, in 
bountie showelh tmali curioutnes^e. 

Greene's CwyttoHitu, la{KI. 

APPEAL. This word appears to havt }>een 
formerly used with much latitude ; but accord- 
ing to its most ancient signification, it impliea 
a reference by name to a charge or accusation, 
and an offer or challenge, to support such 
charge by the ordeal of single combat. See 
Mortc d'Arthur, ii. 25. 

Tell me, moreover, hatt thou tounded him, 
if he appeal the duke on ancient malice- 

JiicJkanff/.i. 1. 
APPEARINGLY. Apparently. 

y/pi>earingl^ the burthen thortly will cruth him. 

Oailli^i Ulttrt. 1775, ii. 407. 

APPECEMENTE8. Impeachments. 

The tcid tcduciout pcrtonci, not willing to leve the 
poiaetiiont that they haddc, cauted the leid prinrei 
to lay tuche Impotleiont and chargea, at well by way 
of untrue oppecenfenrei to whom they owed evlll wtUe 
unto. Its. A-hmole, 1 IfM, 

APPELLANT. One who appeals. 

Behold here Henry of Lanciktrc, duke of Herflbnl, 
appellant, which it entered into the littca royall to 
dooc hit devoy re again tt Thomas Mowbray. 

Unit, Henry ir. I. X 

APPEL-LEAF. The violet. It is the trans- 
lation of viola in an early list of plants in MS. 
Harl. 978 ; and is the .\nglo-Saxon word. 

APPELVE. Haply. " Appytiy," in Weber's 
Met. Rom. iii. 279, is jirobably an error for 
this word. See his Glossary, in v. 

And whcnnehetawehirhede oule, he iroote in al 
themyght of hitbody to the tcrpent ; but tlie terpen! 
drow hir hede ayene to appelye, ande to MHlenl)-c, 
that the ttrook hltteal npone the veuclie. 

Gejta Rnmattufvm, p. 107, 

APPELYN. Apple*. (A.-S.) 

Nym apptJjfn and teth hem, and lat hem kele, and 
make hem Ihorw a clothe ; and on flctch dayet katt 
thetto god fat breyt of t>ef, and god wyte greet. 

Warner't Antiq. Cultlt. p. 99. 

APPEND. To belong ; to appertain to. (A.-N.) 
See Ilardyng's Chronicle, f. 4 ; Towneley Mys- 
teries, p. 239. 

Tel me to whom, madame. 
That trrtour appendeth. 

Pl*rt rhvfthnmn, p. 17. 
When all lordt tocounoelland parlrment 
Wcntt, he wold tnhuotynfrand tohaukyng. 
All gentyll ditportt at to a lord appi^l, 

MS. D«ure 373, f. «. 

APPENNAGE. That which is set apart by princei 
for the support of theii younger children. 
&b'n>ier. (A>.) 
APPERCEIVE. To perceive. (.^.-.V.) See 
Wright's Monastic Letters, pp. 145, 183; 
Sharp's Cov. M)Tit. p. 179; Gy of W'arwike, 
p. 178; Chaucer, Cant. T. 8476; Mortc 
d'Arthur, i. 221, u. 212; Rcliq. Antiq. ii. 276; 
Se>7n Sages, 1021, 1434 ; Arthourand Merlin, 
p. 30 ; Thvnne's Debate, p. 28 ; Kom. of the 
Hose. 6312, 0371. 

Thii thou hatt hrrdedrvyte, 
Watcountetfcl in tuche a wi»e. 
That no man tchulde It aftfrreyve. 

Ih-uxr.MS.H^r.Jnlit. tSI, r.«7 

APPEnCEIVINO. Perc-eplion. 







Who couilc irllen you th* tUmt ordiunco 
Souncouth, AodlofyethccoDtcfiaunevf, 
Swlch« «ubtit lokinff aaJ di«lmulingt, 
For dred of Jaloui mcnnes o p pt r t^pingt f 

CAnuOT, 0>nr. T. lOGDl). 

APPERIL. PeriL See Middleton'B Work», 
L 427 ! Ben Jonson, v. 137; vi. 117, 159. 
Lei me suy at thine apjieril, Timon ofAlhtn*, I. S. 
APPERTAINMENT. Tliat which belongs or 
relates to another thing ; to any rank or ilig- 
nity. Shakespeare has the wonl in Troiliu 
and Crcssida, ii. 3. 
APPERTINAL'NT. Belonging. An astrological 

He li the hom apptntnauni 
To Venui lomdele ditcordmunt. 

Goirer, ml. IMS, f. 146. 
APPBRTYCES. Dexterities. (A.-N.) 

Crete itmkc« were niiytcD on bothe lydef* nuny 
men OTerthrowen. hurtc, and alayn, and grete va- 
lynuDce*. jirowesiea and appertj/eta ol werre were 
that day shewed, whlrhe were over long to reeounle 
the noble fcatet of every man. MorUtf^rlhur, 1. 145. 
APPBRTOG. To deck out ; to apparel. 
And neit her come the emperease Fortune, 
To apprryng him with many a noble algne. 

ll/dgal<ft Ulnor Pvcmt, p. 7. 
APPETENCE. Desire. (Laf.) 

But know you not that rrcaturea wanting acute. 
By nature have a mutual ^tppetenct. 

ifarlowe'i Workt, 111. 3U. 

APPETITE. To desire ; to i»vet. (A.-N.) 
Aa matlre appetUith fonne alwaie. 
And from forme into forme It pauln male. 

Hwpiipple and Utitrti, !IS. 

APPETIZE. To provoke au appetite for food. 

APPETY. Appetite ; desire. 

To be alone I* not my nppeitt. 

Fur of all thingca in the world I love roery company. 
HowMm' Aigf. i>fvm. 1. lU. 

APPIERT. Open ; public 

That no maocr pcraon bolde no comcn caehaunge 
prtiree nor appierl In the laid clteo. ue Lake any 
Ihyng for profute of that cachaungr. 

^rchaotogia, XV. 176. 
APPI>E-C.\.RT. Down with his apple-earl, knock 

or throw him down. North. 
APPLE-DRONE. A wasp; a terrible devourer 
of apples, and more especially when they are 
beal«n or ground to make cider. H^e$t. 
APPLE-GRAY. Dapple grey. 

Hia head waa troubled hi such a bad plight. 

As though hia ryes were applt-grap; 
And If good learning he had not tooke. 
He wod a cast hlmselfe away. 

Tfce King and a Pn^trt yorthtma Han, IWO. 
APPLE-HOGLIN. An apple ttuTiorcr. Suffolk. 
It i< also called an apple-jack, and is made by 
folding sliced apples nnth sugar in a coarse 
omst, and baking them without a pan. 
APPLE-JOHN. A kind of apple, not ripe till 
late in the season, and ronaidcrcd in perfec- 
tion when shrivelled and withered. Sec 
Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. ii. 4, where it is 
stated that Falstaff could not " endure an 
afple-Johii." The term is still in use in the 
caatem counties, allhnugb Forlry tliiiikk it pits- 
siWe the same variety of fruit m.iy not have 
heen retained 

APPLE-MOISE. Cider. Huloct, in hia Abee. 
darium, 1552, Inmalatrs it by //omnnmi. See 
also the Catalogue of Deuce's Printed Bookl, 
p. 309, where the word is wrongly printed. In 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 13, we have appulmocf, 
which appears to have been served up at table 
as a dish, consisting of the apples themselves 
after they had been pressed, and seasoned with 
spices. See Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 16 ( 
Forme of Cnry, pp. 42, 96, 103. 

APPLEN. Apples. 

I'pc the hexic bowe tueye applen he Ky. 

neb. Clone, p. M3. 

APPLE-PEAR. A kind of pear, mentioned in 
Iligins' adaptation of Junius' Nomenclator, 
p. 99. It seems to be the tankard |iear. 

APPLE-PIE-ORDER. Anytliing in very great 
order. An apple-pir-bed furnishes lui article 
forGrosc. It is madesomewhat in the fashion of 
an applc-tumover, the sheets Iwing so doubled 
as to prevent any one from getting at his length 
between them ; a common trick in schools. 

APPLES-OF-LOVE. The fhiit of some foreign 
herb, said to be a stimulus for the tender 
peasioa. Skinner says they tn/ruelwi tolani 
euJHtdam peregrhii ; that is, the firuit of some 
foreign species of nightshade. 
APPLE-SQUIRE. This word appean to have 
been used in several senses. An apple-squire 
was a kept gallant, and also a person who waited 
on a woman of bad character. In the Behnan 
of London, 1608, we are told the apple-squire 
was the person " to fetch in the wine." The 
term was often applied to a pimp. Miege 
translates it, un grottier ecMyer de dame. 
See Middlcton's AVorks, iii. 232; Cotgrave, 
in V. Cueilleur; Florio, in v. Gual<iro; Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ii. 332 ; Hall's Satires, L 2 ; 
Dodsley's Old Plays, xL 284. 

His little Uckey. a proper yong appto-tqulrt, called 
Pandarus, whicho carrleth the kcyo of his chamber 
with hym. Builien't Dia'o^e, lAP. p. 8. 

j4ppte.«ipty«rt, entycera, and ravysshers, 
These to our place have dayly herbegers. 

Vtt«rKm'» Pop. Pott. ii. .10. 

Such stum the dlrell did not tast, only one little 

ht-llhound, a crfnle of myne, and one of St. George's 

epplt-t^uiret. US. Bod/. 30. 

APPLE-STUCKLIN. An appte-tumover. Hanti. 

In Norfolk it is called an applc-twelin. 
APPLE-TERRE. An apple orchard. This word 
was formerly used in Sussex, but seems to be 
now obsolete. Huloet, in his Abcedarium, 
1552, gives apple-yard in the same sense. In 
Devonshire, they have a curious custom at 
Christmas of firing powder at apple trees and 
singing lays rouud them to make them more 
fniitfuL Brand mention* other customs of 
the same kind. 
APPLIAllLE. Capable of being applied. 

And thcrto many of ttic contryc of Kent weraaa- 

sentynge, and cam with theyr good wiUs, aa people 

rcdy to be apptiabU to auche seditious commociona. 

^rrioal o/ Edminl JK. p. S3. 

APPLI.VNCE. An application ; a remedy applied 
to cure A iliM^aM;. See how it is used in 2 
Henry IV. iii. 1 




APPI.IMKNT. Application. Jne. Dr. 

Al'PLOT. To plot ; to contrive. Taylor. 

AI'l'l.Y. To tijic a certjun courae j to ply. A 
nautical term. {Lot.) Sliakcspcore use* it in 
the sense to appfy to, in Tarn. Shrew, L 1. 

With the ncxtefludd, which wot>l<l beaboulcfoure 
of the clock Id the mornyog, weeolciitl, Oud wUliag, 
Utpjttim towardes Duver. Stmi« Paptrtf L 810- 

AITO. An apple. CA«*. 

AI'PUAST. To suborn. Mimheu. SccCotgrave, 
ill V. .Ippontc, .1i»tu»iti. 

APPOINT. To impute. Shakespeare, 2 Ilcn. IV. 
iv. 1, has it in the sense of to arm, to furnish 
with implements of war; an<l appointment, 
Troilus and Cressida, iv. 5, preiiaration. 

If iinye of thclK wants br in mr, I Itcfctrche your 
lordihipp appttint theto to tny extreme stutr. mor* 
fITeevDuc then dlieate ; more unquiet then pryfon ; 
mure IroblcMme to me then a |>ainful Ocathc. 

Hwington** Nuga JntigtuB, 1. 46. 

APPON. Upon. See^ooH. The Thornton MS. 
constantly uses this orthography, and it occurs 
in Torrent of Portugal, p. 2. 
APPONE. To dispute with. So seems to be 
the meaning of the word as used by Florio, in 
T. Appofto, though the I^tiii apponert means 
to pawn, to pledge. 
APPOSAYLE. Question; enquiry. 

whan he went out hit comics to aatayle. 
Made UDto her this uncouth mppomifU. 

BkHom, b. T. c. 9S 
Madame, your appoKlIe t« wete Inrerrid. 

SVeWon'. ITerkt, 1. SO?. 
APPOSE. To raise questions ; to object ; to dis- 
pate with. {.4.-1V.) It waa also used in the 
sense of to oppone, as in MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B. i. 
f. 66, " I WAJ not be oppotyd, nolo mihi opponi;" 
and Prompt. Parv. p. 1,S. See also Prompt. 
Parr. p. lU ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 71 79, 15831 ; 
Skelton's Works, L 321 ; &liddlcton's Works, 
i. 304. 

Tho the pocplo hym appntrie 
Wilh a peny in the temple. 

Vitrt Pttmchmmit p. 18. 

APPOSICION. Annexation of subnaiitives. 

Out this yonge chlMryne that f^one to the arole 

have In hercDooetc(hl»qut<<tlonc, how many thinges 

fallen i<iapptM<it<nt Aode It Uanswcrltje, thatca»e 

alle only that is afallc. Geita Rimamorum, p. 479. 

APPOSITEES. Antipodes. 

For alle the parties of see and or Innd hsn here 
Hppotittvt, hablubleaortrrpaasablcs, and theiof this 
half and bcjond half. UuMtttttvUr^t Traedj, p. Ifi2. 
APPREHENSION. According to its literal im- 
port, means laying hold of, or catching, as we 
still use it applied to olTendcrs against the law. 
Thus in Harrison's description of the pearU 
muscle, whicli is said to have been frequently 
found in the riven Dee and Don, the manner 
of Bf^thetuiim is likewise mentioned. In 
Deauiiiont and Fletcher, iii. 171, it seems to 
be used in the sense of imagination. 
APPREHENSIVE. Of qmck concepUon ; per- 

1 njr unteen, as charmers in a mist. 
Oritefui revenge, whoae sharp-svret relist fats 
My •ppr9Ktr>tivt%mkL Tht True Tn^na, iii, B, 

My father oft would i{i«alt 
Your worth and virtue: and, asl did grow 
More and more Qpprehtwtive, I did thirst 
To see the mau so prals'd. 

Araumor./ nnd FMcAar, 1. SOB. 

APPREIFFE. Contrivance. (/■>.) 

This good king, by wilte of such appteiffi. 
Kept his marchants and the sen from mlschicfe. 
Hiiklutt'i NarigaUam, Itm, I. ;91. 

APPRENTICE-AT-L.VW. Acouusellor, the OMt 
in mnk under a Serjeant. 

He upenkt like master Practice, one that la 
The child of a profession he is vow*d lo. 
And tervant to the study he hath taken, 
A pure itpprentict-at.ta»' I 

Ben Jontrm't iiagnttic iMitif, iii. j. 

APPRENTICE-HOOD. Apprenticeship. 

Mtut I not serve a long u/rj/renlire-Aiiwrf. 

Rtdxird U. L S. 
APPRESSED, Oppressed. 

Trowth and pore men ticn appntttd. 
And myscheffis Dolhyng redressed. 

Krctrpl.HIU p. 300. 

APPREST. Preparation. (fV.) 

Seen the said man's declaration, and my aside 
Lorde Admyralles decUration, that there is no 
appre«r of any sliipi in Spayno to any purpose to be 
regardetl. State Paper*. L fiS4. 

All the winter following Vespasian lale at Vorkv, 
making hU appreetM against the oeat spring lo go 
againtt the .ScoLi and Picts. 

HolUutttd, HUt. am. p. 48. 

APPRINZE. Capture. 

1 mean not now th* ajipHnze of Pucell Jone. 

llTrtiur f.r MagiMtnlra, cd. 1610, p. Stl. 

APPRISE. Learning. (,*.-A'.) 
For finuthe is ever to detplie, 
Whlche In desdeyne hath alle appK«e. 

Cotcer, MS. Hoc. ytnll^. 134, f. IIS. 

APPROACH EU. One who approaches or ilraws 

near. See Timon of Athens, iv. 3. 
APPROBATE. Approved ; celebrated. In MS. 
Ashuiole 59, f. 3.'>, mention is made of a ballad 
" hy that approbate poeto Lidegate, the Munk 
of Burye." Cf. MS. Addit. 5467, ff. 71, 85, 

Havyng i»crfect confldencc and suit hope in the 
apprxtUitti fldriide and conslaunt Integrltie whichc I 
have ever eiiwriracnted. Hall. Kduard I P. f. 60. 
Nowc yf the refuse in the dellveraunce of hym to 
folowe the wisdome of theiro, whose wiadome she 
knoweth, whose approbate fldelltee she trtiswth, it 
ii easye to peioeave tiiat frowardnease tetteth her, and 
not fearr. Supp. lo Hunting, f. 4n. 

APPROBATION. (1) Proof ; approviL 
— How m»uy, now in hc&llh, 
ShaU drop their blood in apprvbatUm 
or whAl yuur revereoce ihaJI toctte u* to 

Htnry r. {. S. 
(2) NovicUtc. 

Thif day my kilter »hould tho cloister cater. 
And there receive her approbation. 

Meat, M ifM*- 1> >• 


The Frenchman whicha were >cace up. and thought 
of nothyng Icsn* then of tliyi *0'AMjr\aptfrochem€ut, 
wine roee out of their bcddei in their thertet, and 
lepte orrr Ihu wallet. //a//, Henry TU t, SI. 

APPROMENT. Approverucnt ? 

If It plea*e you to uilgnc me. tend me word what 
Increie and appntmtrfU ye wyll fryve, and I wyll appttc 
mi mynd and mtvicc to your pleuure and wde 

Ptumtpium Om t H p m dvm ct, p. 8ft. 







AI'PROMPT. To prompt. Baem. 
Al'l'KOOP. Approbntiou. 

So his aypmof Uvei DQC ln*l cpiUlih. 
Ai in your ro7«l ipcccb. 

Atrt trell IHal Kmlt IVtIt, 1. 9. 
APPROPER. To appropriate. Sec Sir T. More's 
Workcs, p. 4iS ; MnuiKicvilc'B Travels, p. 35. 
Withautcn hlf awcn joyn In ftod mare, 
That till hlniMl/ lall be apprfpnitd tharr. 

MS. HnrI *\9e,, f.Si?- 
Mlghtr ca appmi'trdt to Godd (he Fadire ; wyidome 
to Cod the Sonc ; gudnci to Cod the Haly Ca«tc. 

MS. Urmin A. 1. 17, f. IM. 

APPROPINQUE. To approach. (Lat.) 
The knotted blood within myhoae. 
That from my wounded iKxly flowi. 
With mortal criiii doth pnrtcnd 
My dayi to appmptngue an end. 

HtuUbnu, t. 111. 900. 

APPROVE. To jiutay; to make good; to es- 
tablish ; to prove. Sec Beaumont and Fletcher, 
ii. 384 ; M. of Yen. iii. 2; Two Gent, of V. v. 4. 
APPROVER. An infoimer. {A.-N.) A per- 
son who had the letting of the king's de- 
mesnes in small loouors to the best advantage 
was likewise called an approvrr. 
Thi»rAllethcef, thii lompnour, quod the frere, 
Had alway baudt't retly to hl& hond. 
.^i any hauke tu lure In Englclontl, 
That told him all the tecrce that they knewe. 
For hir acquaintance waa not come ot newe : 
They wcren his appmrtrt prlvcly. 

Cliauecr, Canl. T. KKS. 

APPUGNANT. Quarrelsome. (Ut.) 

APPULLB. An apple. This is the form of the 
word in Maundcvile's Travels, p. 9 ; Cliroa. 
Vilodun, p. 2&. It is also retained in the an- 
cient dish called appnlmoy. 

APPUYEO. Supported. Skinner. 

A-PRAYSUT. Prai.ied. Tlie Douce MS. reads 
^nviyiwrf, and the Lincoln MS. omits the line. 

Ilur kerchefcs were curiQuie, with roony a proud prenc ^ 

Uurcnparcl wasii-j)roy«ur with princefof myjte. 

Ri>t»mn'» Rommnott, p. 14, 

APRES. In the inventory of Sir John Fastotfe's 
g(x>ds, printed in the Archa-ologia, xxi. 263, 
occnn the entry, " j. cover of o;/re» lynyd with 
lynen clothe." Mr. Amyot conjectures Aoor'a 
tkin, and Douce supposes it to be cloth of 
Yprrt in FUndcrs, famous for its woollen 

APRICATE. Tobaskin thesun. (Lai.) 

Hit lordihip Wat wont to recreate himtclf in thil 
place to apriratt and contemplate, and hli little dog 
with him. Jubm't tvuit, US. HoyuJ &c. p. a% 

APRICOCK. An apricot. »>»/. 

Hop In his walks, and gambol in his eyes ; 
Feed him with apricncka and dewberries. 

A Midi, fligltl'i Ditant, III. 1. 

APRIL. Ray has the proverb. " April — bor- 
rows three days of March, and they are ill." 
April is pronounced with an emphasis on the 
last syllable, so as to make a kind of jingling 
rhyme with W. Sec Brand's Pop. .\ntiq. ii. 25. 
Tlic wedding-day is sometimes satirically called 
Jpril-day, in allusion to the common custom 
of making fools on the Ist of April. In the 
Mcny Wives of Windsor, iii. 2, the Host of the 
Garter, S|teaking of Fcnton, says, " he smells 

April and May;" that is, of yooth and 
APUIL-GOWK. An April fool. North. 
APR] LLED. Applied to beer or milk which has 
tumeil, or is beginning to turn, sour : also 
metaphorically to a person whose temper has 
been discomposed. Devon. 
APRINE. According to Herman, " swynewodc 
for love groyucth, and let passe from them a 
poyson called apritu." See Prompt. Parr. 
AFRISE. (1) Learning. (^.-A^.) 
Crafte or outher queyntyte, 
But fordeddytt hys aprartt. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. W- 
And that he wote of good opt-U, 
To tccbe it foith for tuche emprlKu 

Coieer, MS. Hoc. ^ittiq. 134, f. 38. 
Out of hIr ccurt in sondry wise. 
After the scole of hir ayrisa. 

Couirr, MS. Ball. K*. 

(2) An enterprise ; an adventure, {/l.-f/.) 
Slthln alle the loce lo the lise. 
Thou fchaUe tyne thine optUe. 

lM4*m'» Homancet, p. B6. 
Ac yif thou levest hire Icslng, 
Than the falle a werse apHte, 
At detle to that elite wise. Sevfm Sogm, 1941. 

APRON. The caul of a hog. Eatl. The term 
is more nattolly ap[ilied to the fat skinny cover- 
ing of the belly of a duck or goose. 
APRON-MAN. A waiter. Cf. Coriolanus, iv. 6. 
We had the salute of welcome, gentlemen, pre- 
sently; Wilt please ye see a chamber ? It was our 
pleaiuro, as we antwered the aprun-man, to see, or 
be very nearo tlte roome where all that noite waa. 
ROKttj/'t Search /tv Monty, 1009. 

APROVE. To prove. 

Y tclghe It meself for lothe. 
And wit apmvt blforn hem bothe, 
That thai ran nought say nay. 

Ami» and Mm^loun, tt>3. 
APS. Tlic asp, or aspen tree. South and tl'ml. 
The adjective apten is also used. There is a 
fann in the Isle of Wight called Apte. 
APT. To adapt ; to lit. See Mr. Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. 101, " apling, preparing, 
furnishing, and setting fourth of divers plaies 
or showcs of histories." 
APTES. Skinner proposes to read <g>tilutle» in 
the following passage : 

Thei han as well divers aptrt, and divers miner 
usyngei, and thllk aplet mowrn in will ben (le|>r^t 
aflVrdDns. Cffnuetr, ftL t'rry, p. r,17. 

iVPTLY. Openly. Sec Weber's glossary to the 
Battle of flodiion Field, p. 235. Perhaps we 
should read operlly. 
APTYDB. Appetite. 

And to make her (Vcsh wyth gay atlyrls, 
She sfurith no cost to yef men apfjftle, 

MS. Ijiwl 4I«, f. M. 
APURT. Impertinent. Somenet. IntheBunoor 
glossary it is explained, " sullen, disdaiufidly 
silent, with a glouting look," 
APYES. Apes. 

Alto fast as« he myght fSre, 
Fore berrys and ofytt that iher were, 
l,ett they wuld hym byghl. 

Torrent »/ IV4iig<f, f, M. 




APTGHTB. Readily. 

And with Ihcr «w)rr<lyt apyghtt, 
Made hur a logge with bowet. 

MS. Cmub. Ft. II. 38, t. 190. 
APYUM. Pinley. Sec an old receipt in an 

ancient medical MS. at Lincoln, f. 285. 
AQUA-ACUTA. A composition made of tartaric 
and other adds, fonnerly lued for cleaning ar- 
mour. A receipt for it in given in an early 
ineitical MS. at Midillehill. 
AQUAUOB. An icicle. Kent. Grose gives this 
word, which seems to be a strange compound 
of the Latin langnage and the provincial dialect. 
A-QUAKE. To trcmhle. 

3yr he hadde ilrpt, bym Dcded awake; 
3yf b<! wrre wakyng, he ihulde a-qwUu. 

MS. Hurl. 1701, r. ii. 

AQUAU Equal. North. 

AQUAPATYS. An ancient dish, the receipt for 

wliich is given in the Forme of Cury, p. 41. 
AQU AT. Sitting on the houghs. Someriet. 
AQU ATI L. Inliabiling the water. Howell, in 

his lexicon, explains a crocodile to be " a kind 

of amphibolous creture, partly aqualil, partly 

terrestrial." [_Lat.) 
AQUATOIUES. Watery places. 

Thaslrnlogicr of heo« o^iM/oriM, 
WiUi thaairelabut to take ihaKmdriit. 

MS. AtliKiott to, r. 18. 
AQUA-VIT.*. Several old receipts for making 
aqua-vitee are given in Uouce's Ilhistrations, 
L 68-70, where the exact nature of it may l)e 
seen. Irish aqiu-vita; was usquebaugh, but 
brandy was a later introduction, nor has the 
tatter term been found earlier than 1671. 
Accoriling to Nares, it was formerly in use as 
a general term for ardent spirits, and Ben 
Jonson terms a seller of drams an " aqua-vitte 
man." See the Alchemist, i. 1; Cunningham's 
Rcvela Accounts, p. 146; Witts, Fittes, and 
Fancies, 1595, p. 128. 
AQUEIGIIT. Shook ; trembled. {A.-S.) 
Hit fvt Id the ttiropca he ftreight. 
The stlrop to-bent, the hori aqntight. 

Arthttut and Jtferfjn, p. 121. 
The gleumen uiedcn her tunge ; 
The wode agueiglnte lo hy (un|;e. 

/Cyn/r.Y/iMwntfar, 6SS7. 

AQUErNTABLE. Easy to be acquainted with. 

Wherefore be wise and afutiniatlg, 
Oodolle of wordo and reKxiable, 
Bolbe to loM and eke to nun. 

Rom. 9f Oi9 Rote, SSUL 

AQUELLEN. To kill ; to destroy ; to lubduc. 

(A.'S.) Sec Kj-ng Horn. 881 ; Richard Cocr 

dc Uoa, 2569; Sc\-7n Sages, 2758; Ritson's 

AndcDt Songa, p. 21. 

And her gref anon hero tdd. 
Hou Fortiger htr klag a^metd, 

ArOtow and Jtfn-JOf. p. 10. 
And teyd hlra, io Ich to-fore tcld« 
llou the Pait'Df hU folk uquttd. Ibid. p. S71. 
And gif y achal be thut aqueld, 
Vhurch itiong hele In the fcld* 
1( were 0|;aln the ikitlc. 

0$ "/ n'atwlki, p. .123. 

AQUENCH. To quench, applied to either tl 

or hunger; lo destroy. See Agu^yni. 

NothiOK he ne founde in al the nijtc* 

Wer-mldc h\% honger aquenrhe mijlte. 

Rjiliq. AnHq. li. 174. 
Er thou Talle of thi bench, 
Thi jenne aqumtch, MS. Arundtl 37* f> Al • 

And thus fordoih hem lyf and Ijrme, 
And so aijuvTichtth al here Tcnyme. 

Af5. Addit. 10QS6. f. M. 
AQUETONS. An acquittance. 
Of the reiayvcr ipeke wyllc I, 
That ferraya raaayvyt wytlurly ; 
or graynyt and honl aqutiona makoa, 
SexpoDi ibarfore io fcyi ho takea. 

Boke 0/ Cwrtaqrc* p.1 

AQUETOT. (1) Quenched with water; de- 
Btroyed. See Scvyn Sages, 1991 ; Reliq. Aiitiq. 
iL229. (^.-5.) 

Al hi ttode mid here U](« 

Al me doth ;ut nou. 

Mere lljt a^eyrtte overaI» 

Here nou nuitc hotL US, {qwtod in BuudUr.) 

Ac that fur agueifnte tone. 

And nc royjte here brrane no^t. 

Mis. CoU. THn, Own. £7. 
(2) Acquainted. 

Thcrforc toke he bapteroe feynle. 
To be with Phrlip to a^wpn*- 

Curaw Jtfundi. MS. QUI. Trim, Cmntab, f. 119. 
Heo deatrith nothyng more. 
Than to beo to you ayuwjnir. 

Kpng Atimtmdor, 7S96. 
U li ao marvclloua and quelDtt 
With luche lore t>e no more aqutint, 

Rom. o/tht itoM* SSOO, 

AQUrtlTY. Agility. Florio tranalatea att^fitv, 
" to make nimble, slic, or quicke, or dight with 

AQUITE. (1) To acquit. 

God wile In o dai wan It oquUed be. 

Rob. Cfoue. p. fiCft. 
I vol the of thy trouthe aquUe. 

fJower, MS, 8oc. AnHq. 134, f. 48. 
or priwon ahal thou be take away. 
And ben eijuit bifore Juitiie. 

CurttT Mundi, MS. OoU. TWn. Ckntab, t. SB. 

(2) Requited. 

But how it waa to hire aqvtt*. 
The rcmembraunce dwelleth jlt. 

Gower, MS. Soe. Antiu. 134, f. 153. 
He wole aqtrytg ua ryth welc oure mede. 
And 1 have Ijaeni for to do. 

Onwitfry MifwieriMt p* SSBw 

(3) To pay for. (^.-JV.) 

Or ir hb wfamhig In ao lite. 
That his lal»ur will not ofvKa 
Sufflciauntly al hit U<iiig, 
Yet nuy he go hit bred* begging. 

nomaum i/ the Rate, OIU. 
AQUOnJTE. Acquainted. 
And he wasa^wofniirmuche to theqocneof Fraunee, 
And aomdel to inu^e, aa me woode, to lliat In torn 
thing [king. 

The queue lovcde, aa me wende, more him than the 
R,*. Gk>ue. p. *Bi. 
I trutt we ahalbe better agvt.yni. 
And 1 ihalle ttande better jn your grare. 

MS. KdiW. C. *B8. 

AQUOT. Cloyed ; wear)- willi eating, Prron. 

" Chave eat so much cham quit npiot," i. c. 







I ctn eat no morr, I liavc eaten so mudi that 
I un cloyed. Ray gives this example ia his 
English words, 1674, p. 80. 
AQUOY. Coy; shy. 

With that ■>!« knit her brovi. 

And looking all q^MAy, 
Quoth the. What ihould I hare to do 

With any prentice boy f Gcvrg* BiimwttU%d Pt, 
AQUYTED. Quitted ; made to quit. 
V am of Peres deachargtd, 
Of Ucdc, and of Auyre aijuj/ted. 

Kfnf MliMtwvier, 3800. 

AR. (1) A scar; a pockmark. This word is ex- 
tremely common in the North of England. In 
MS. Bib. Rig. 17 C. xvii. f. 40, written in the 
North alwut the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, we have " cicatrix, ar or wond." 

(2) An oar. 

And gTop an ar that waa ful god, 

Lep to the dora io ho wore wod. Havelokt t77&. 

(3) Or. See Prompt. Parr. p. 83. Heame gives 
ar the meanings, " as, after, before, ere, till." 
See Gloss, to Rob. Glonc. p. 617. 

For them had no man dcrc, 
Redw ar pore wetliyr they were. 

They dcd ever ryght. Sir Otgtf, SS. 

(4) Before. 

Al this world, or thii book blynne, 
With CrUtUhelpe I »h«l orer rynne. 

Curnir Afundl, itS. Coll. IMn. CaMa6.f. 1. 
Aboute mydnyght, ar the day, 
Whiles he madeconjuryng, 
Schco saw fleo. In hire metyng. 
Hire thought a drsfton adoun lyght ; 
To hire chaiunbrc he made hlf flyght. 

Kfttf MHaamiltr, M4. 

ARACE. To draw away by force. (^.-M) Skin- 
ner alio gives it the sense of enwe. SeeHar- 
lington'i NngK AjitiquE, i. 47; Rom. of the 
Rose. 1752. 
And in hire twough so sadly hnldcth the 
Hire children two, whan ahe gan hem cmbraee. 
That with grct ilcight and giet dlfflcullee 
The children from hire arm they gan arract, 

Chaunr, Canl. T. 8379. 

ARACH. The herb orach. Mbuhni. Palsgrave, 
f. 18, has arage, q. v. ; and a much earlier form 
oocun in a Ust of planta In HS. Uarl. 978, 
ARADDE. Explained. Compare the printed 
edition of 1532, t. 4. 

This waa the iweren whiche he hadde. 
That Danielle anODe arwUt. 

Gomr, US. Snc. Anilq. IM, (. 34. 

ARAFE. A kind of precious stone. 
Hlr paytrellc was of a rialle fynr, 
lllr cropur was of am/tf. 

MS. Cmtab. Ff. t. 40. f US. 

ARAFTE. Struck; smote. 
That prple ftcyde than, 
Thya y» fend Satan, 

That mankrnde wyll fortaiv. 
For wham Lybcauui arnflt, 
AJler hyi fcntc drawghte 
lie ilf'P for evrrmare. L^/bamu Diteanut, i\i&. 
ARAGE. The herb orach. Prompt. Pan. 
ABAGED. Enraged. (.-f.-JV.) 

And whannv tie had clen hit, he iwallc wo tyl he 
braat, and there tire Hatryca fellc douo lodenly decilo 

amongc licm. Thennc every knyghte Icptc frnin 
the bord ashamed and araged, for wralhe nyghc oui« 
of hn wyttas. Morli if Arthur, ii. Si\. 

ARAIN. A spider. According to Ray this is 
the name given in Nortliamptoushire to the 
larger kind of sjiiders, but he also gives its more 
general meaning in his North countrv' worils. 
Aran-wch is a cobweb in Northumberland. 
Jranye is the form of the word in the Prompt. 
Parr. p. 14. Derham, as quoted by Richard- 
ton, uses the word araneoiu. 
Sweep th'arrsfit down, till all be clean, necr lln. 
Elf he'l leauk all agyc when hetnmca In. 

Y&rkthire DialnguM, ICff?, p. 6!>. 

ARAISE. To raise. Sec the example from the 
arri\-al of King Edward IV. p. 23, quoted under 
Arrtdy ; Mortc d'Arthur, ii. 54, 85, 432, 430. 
Swych men orqraan twoer 
Ajnu holy cherdKs power. 

MS. Harl. 1701. f. M. 
Anon the butthopbad the thuldnot tary. 
Out to orenn the bagge and make hym cary, 

MS. Laud. 410, r, I. 

ARANEE. A spider. 

And ^If ;e fynde that the aratw have y.maad 
hurc wrb by the myddel of hem, it It a lokene that 
it it of no long while, or at the lent it U of the myd- 
del oTcmonc of the day byfore. MS. Badl. MO. 
A-RANKE. In a rank ; in a row. 

The day b come : the pretty dames. 

Which be to free and franke. 
Do go so sagely on the way, 
By two and two o-ranke. 

Calfri6o and Btntart; 15}*. 
ARAPE. Quickly. (Lai.) 

Over thoo table he loop ara/n*. 

Kyng Mimwtdtr, 4230. 

ARAS. (1) Arose. 

Or 1 fro the bord aroj. 

Of my frend betrayd y was. 

MS. J<UU.I\Mfl,t. 91. 
(2) Arrows, 

Bomcn bickarte uppone the bent 
With ther browd arai clcare. Cheajf Okote. 

ARATE. To rale ; to scold ; to correct. (A.-S.) 
And foule y-rebukcd. 
And a-rated of richc men 
That ruthn Is to here. 

Pieri FUmghmmHt p. 983. 
ARAUOIIT. Seiied; taken away by force. From 
i<recA»,q.v. See the Scvyn Sages, 895; Kyng of 
Tan, 1096. It is used also in the sense of 
itruek, or seized by the weapon ; and reaeked, 
at in the third example. {ji.-S.) 
Right bifor the doukn fet, 
GIJ anughl him with a ttaf gret. 

Gy V n-ar^kt, p. SU. 
Al that ever his ax aravght, 
Smertllch hit dcth ho taught. 

MS. Amnd. CoU. Jrm. M, f. SCI. 
Critto wroujte flnt and after aujtc. 
So that the dcde hit worde arsujrr. 

Cowfr, MS. Sae. Anlh). lit, f. 136. 
Florlce the ring here nrau^r. 
And he him ajeo hit t)reau;t. 

FUrict iind Btanch%fiour, 717. 
So itume ttrokes thay a-m\tt, 
Eyther Ul other the whyle. MS. MAanli Si. 

A-RAWE. In a row. 



Th«r Ml n)«n Itiii ititr ntye romi-, 
Thst hv ue wu (o-corwpo uion 
So gTlACtichc b* the enf;ini. 
For to tie the Sam<inc« 
la ich hAlf y-kitt a-rax'e, 

Cf <if WarwUce, p. 145. 
And fledo hlni tulM kncly a-mirf, 
AodkllOMt (uddehlm yiliwe. 

Jrthour ami JtfeWin, p. 334. 

ARAWIS. Anovn. 

Th«yr hokod arawi* dothc rrer bokward flee. 

L^dgaWt Uitwr Pimma, p. I7U 

ARAYE. (1) Order. (^.-.V.) 

The time of uuderne or the uroe day 
Approchetb, that tht« wedding ahulde be, 
And all the palei* put w.ta in army, 
Both hatic and chambrea eche In bift decree. 

Oiauetr, Cant. T. SI3S. 

(2) Equipage. " Man of aray," a king. 

Y have wetyn, tyth y waa man of nrityt 

He hath slayoe lyxty on a day. 

JtfA-. Oantoll. Fr. 11. 38, f. CS. 
And to the pepl« ^tei all and tome 
Wai couth eke, that a ncwe niarkiiciae 
He vtth him brought, in twiche pomp and richeiM. 
That never waa ther teen with mannct eye 
So oobte arrat in al Weat Lumbardie. 

CtetKcr, Cant. r. oral . 

(3) Clothing. 

Sora lalden, women loven l>eil rlchette, 
Sora lalden honour, torn aaiden jolineate, 
Som riche arr»i/t aom aaiden lutt a.bcdde, ~ 
Afkd o(i time to be widcwe and to tie wedde. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. OfiOP. 

(4) Situation. 

Thou atandnt yet, quod the, in twiche army, 
That of thy \U yet hail thou no teurclee. 

diaurtr, Canl. T. 6484. 

(5) To dress. 

Whan that the Ante cock hath ctowe anon. 
Up rlst thb )oly lover Abiolon. 
Aoil him mrattHh gay at point devlte. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 3060. 

(6) To dispose ; to afflict. See C'liauccr, Cant. T. 
8837 ; Townclcy Mjiterics, p. M ; Skellon"» 
Works, ii. 197. Ilorman applies the word to 
illness, — " lie was sore aroyed with syeknessc." 
In the Mortc d'.iVrthur, ii. 374-5, it sccins to 
be a substantive, in tlic sense of disorder, tu- 
mtilt; and Mr. Uyre gives quotations from 
Reynard the Pox, in which it occurs as a verb 
in a similar sigiii6cation. In ^laundcrile's 
Travels, p. 211, it means to prepare, loamnge. 

ARAYNEU. Tied up. 

And thcTine he aijghtc dounr, and arffy««rf hit 
hors on the biydel, and bomie alle the thre knyghles 
fkst with the rayne* of tbi'lt owns brydela. 

U;'l' if.lrlhur, I. 1S6. 

ARATNY'E. Sand. Soit is explained in Prompt. 
Parr. MS. llarl. 221, f. i, by the Latin arena. 
The other copies read aranye, aranen, for whicli 
this may be an error, but not " eridently," as 
staled by Mr. Way. 

ARAYSINO. Adranring. 

Alaii. tnaraiwt»f the auncyauntnoblta of England, 
the king hath appoynted a good no<tmbre of noble 
peraones of thii hii rralroe to take the ordre of 
knyghlhode, and lie made knighta of the Bath 

Hutlamd Paptrr, p. 3. 

ARBAGE. llerbigi!. 

sir. afor iKe mtitft, doui yt not ; l^ir Mr Henty 
Wenlfortli, onr yet none other, con have It, ni>r 
nothing* thai betongcth to Uavid. 

Ptumptim OrmwiNHMfener, p. IM. 
ARBER. (1) An arlmur. Skinner has ariertr 
in the sauie Kensc. 

And in the garden, a» I wene, 
Wat an nrfcrr fjyre and grene. 
And in the afber wat a tre, 
A fayrer in the world might none lie. 

S^ltr of LaV9 Degr^, SB. 

(2) To make the arter, a phrase in hunting, is 
to disembowel the animal, which must be done 
in a neat and cleanly manner. Tlie dogs are 
then rewardetl with such parts of the entrails 
■a llicir two-legged associates do not think 
proper to reserve for their own use. See Scott 's 
notes toTristre m, p. 387 ; Ben Jonson, Ti 270. 
AllDEUra. Wood. 

In that enntree [abut lytUlearfterjnf. ne Ifvea t1i.if 
bcren fruta. ne othere. Thei lyjn In lcnt<-i, and thti 
tirenncD the dong of bcttct for dcfaute of ttode. 

MaundetnU't Tra^lt, p-iVi 
Enborllde with artnrye, and alkynt Ireei. 

Umit JrlhMrt, tlX. UnnlK, f H7 . 

ARBESET. A strawlwrry tree. (^.-Af.) 

Thou ichait fynde trowrf Iwot 
Seyntetand holy they buth ho. 
Hygtler than in othir cuntray all ^ 
Jrt—H meo hcom c;.lllth. 

KmgJIImHuMr. t», 
ARBITRjVTE. To determine. 

Thoughu ipeculatlve their unture hopes tdalei 
But certain Utue ttlnktl must orUrraln. 

UaeUlh, y. 
ARBITRIE. Judgment. Chaucrr. 
AKUL.\ST. An alhlast, q. v. (A.-S.) 
But rl>c up your mangonel. 
And cati In their Iree-catLel, 
And thoot to them with nrltltut. 
The tailed dogt for to agliati ! 

nicliarit Oitr at f.ton, IDft?. 
Wllh bouwo and arrhlatl Ihare ichoira to him. 
Four hondrcl kiiypea and mo. US. tjiud lVe,l. US. 
ARBLASTIR. An alhlastcre, q. v. (./.-A'.) 
Men t'.-inin ovir the wall ttonde 
Cret cngint, which y-were nrre-honde. 
And In the kemilt here and there 
Of arblattira grete pl^^nlle were ; 
None armour mtghte ther ttroke witlutonde. 
It were foly to prcae to hondc. 

Knm. 0/ Ihif Itrt, 4I(n. 

ARBOUSES. The dork hard cherry, llwntl, 
ARBRt)T. A chemical salt. 

Sal arlirur, and aal alkellm, 

Salgeme t-myngui with hym. 

MS. Cnnlah. Ff. v. 48, f. !>4. 

ARBUSTED. Tdled with strawberry trtscs. 
What pleaturM pocta fame of after death, 
in the Ellican aftnuttd grovc-iL 

T»e (Vprlan jtivln«t, I<1»7. p. 4'. 
ARC. A mare's tail cloud, or cirrhus, in the 
form of a streak crossing the skv. llrrrfonlth. 
See Jri. 
ARCANE. Secret. 

H<ive t tjccn dttnljedivnt to thy worda! 
Have I tM-wray'd thyftrcnnetecrccy f Locriur, v.S. 
AUCANETUYKK. .Vrillimetic. I do not recol- 
lect Imving uict with this form of the word 



Ccmctry' noJ arcaHHri/kk, 
RctOTtKIl and miuykk. 

M.S. Canlah. Tt. U. 9*. t. I<7. 
ARCEL. The liverwort. Skinner. 
\KCGTER. A person skilled in the art! and 
•ciencei. "Arctirr, or he that Icnethc or 
techethe arte, arlula." — Prompt. Parv. The 
other editions read arcttyr. 
ARCKTIK. In an early collection of medical 
reci|M>s in MS. in the library of Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, f. 307, is one " for the goat arctlii." 
See Arltlyka. 
ARCH. (1) A chief ; a master. 

The Dobte duke, my m«Bter. 
My worthy arch and pattDti, cornea to-nighL 

Kin If Lear, ti. 1. 
(8) A piece of ground left unworked. A mining 


ARCIIAL. Liverwort. Philli/ji. 
ARCHANGEL. The dead nettle. Sec the No- 

mendalor, p. 138; Cooperi Tliesauras, in v. 

Amonium. The word occurs in the Rom. of 

the Rose, 915, apparently meaning some kind 

of bird, the original French being mnange, a 

ARCHAKDE. An acorn. Iti« tranaUtedbyytoiu 

in Prompt. Parv. p. 6. 
AUCUDEAN. Apparently put for arcMeacon, 

in a passage from Gascoigne quoted by Nana. 
ARCH DI ACRE. An archdeacon. {A.-N.) 

Wherv archblthop and archdiaera 

\.*oDfi\n full out the fcrrite, 

Afllr ihr cuitomr and the (uUe 

Anil hnlic churchif onllnaun«.C»<il«<jr»'«D/«im«,!I38. 

ARCHER. The bishop at cheaa wa* formerly 

sn calletL 
ARCHET. An orchard. WiUt. 
ARCHEWIVES. Wives of a superior order. 

Vc arthnrivr; Itondeth ay at dcrmcf, 

SID yc b< ilrong >f It a gret camalllb 

Ne iulftrth not that men do you affenoe. 

Chaverr, Cant. T. Wl. 

ARCHICAL. Chief; principal. 

So that Pannenlde* did also agree In Ihitackno*- 
l«l(cmeDt of a Trinity of divine or archlml hypo«- 
taM«. Cvdu^tirth't Inltll. S^sttm, p. 38?. 

ARCHIDKCLYNE. The master of the feast at 
the marriage in Cana. See the Towneley Mys- 
teries, p. 20?. 

Lyke to the watyT of ArrhidtdifHet 
WIehe be meraci* were turned Into wyne. 

Lfd4rmn'i UlMT Pim—, p. 13. 

MaiatTyefull merveykma and orcAJMiutiy* 
b the tincture of holl Alkimy. 

Mliimilei nttal. Chcm. BrU, p. IS. 

ARCHITECT. Architecture- 

To flnde an houfte y-bui)t for holy deed. 
With goodly arcltlleel and cloilten wide. 

Avirnc'i Brtl. PaXMu/a, IlilS, p. OS. 

ARCHITEMPLES. Cliicf temples. 

And the erchbiwhoprtche* aa the thrr nrchilrmpUn were, 

Ai yt were of allc chef Ctbtcndom to lere. 

nab. Glaur. p. 7*. 

ARCHMASTRIE. Arithmetic. 

For what strangeta may be compared wttli U. 
Thomaa dggca esquire, our countryman, the great 
vt ^rrhmtt^rltf 

0av*/a $ca>n«Mi tBtCTttt, ]flQ4. 

ARCUBALISTER. An all.lasterc, q. v. 

In cvrrie of them be let Ant archrra and areuba- 
lulirt; and neat unto them plkrs and ipearea.theD 
bllmen and other with such ihort wcaponi i last of 
all, another multitude with all kind of weafions, u 
was thought moat eapedient. 

HohniArif, Hit. Sc-it. p. I3U. 

ARD. (1) High. Used chiefly in composition 
in the names of places. In Ciunberland, ac- 
cording to Boucher, this term is used abstract- 
edly to denote the quality of a place, a country, 
or a field. Thus arri lanil means a drj', {larchetl 
soil. In the canting thclionarics, the word ia 
ex])lained Aot. 
(2) Hard. 

Lucye the tenatour In tho^t waa he tone. 
In luch ard caa aa bym vel, wat were beat to done. 
Jicrt. Womc. f. 213. 
ARDANUD. Hardened. 

And fouly di'f>liil than for tynnc. 
That thel were than ardanwd lane. MS. Dtgttit 97. 
ARDEEKE. Harder. 

Ever the ardmt that It ii. 

Ever the t>eter It is 1-wyi. Jrtlutt^Qgia, xxx. 38B. 
ARUE.N. Fallow quarter. Cumb. See Arden, 

for which this form may be an error. 
ARDEN E. A command ; an ordinance. 
An aungyl fro hefnc wai tent ful iovl, 
Hla najne Is cli-pyd Gabriel, 
Ilia dnfene be dode ful uiel. 

Ckrutmu Oanta, p. W. 
ARDENTNESSB. Eamestnesa. A chapter in 
MS. Bodl. 283, is entitled, "Of foly fcrvcnU 
nessc or ardmlnene to do wclle." 
ARDER. A kind offish, mentinned by Verslcgan, 
without explnnetion, in a letter printed in 
Ellis's Litcntr)' Lettcru, p. 108. 
ARDERS. Fallowings or ploughings of gronfld. 
This is the explanation in the Dirt. Rust. 1 726, 
in V. See also Markham's Countrcy Famie, 
1616, p. 558. Polwhelc gives orrfor as 
Cornish for a plough, and anlHr, a ploughman, 
ARDI. Hanly. 

Orped thou art and of gret* might. 
Code kolght and anti in tight. 

Or 1/ Waniltct, p. 37. 

ARDILICHE. Hardily. 
He tinot unto a Sarrasln, 
No halp him nought hla Apotln ; 
Now thai amltlc togider comonllche. 
And fight thai agin anilHrh*. Cy nf WaruVte, p 100. 

ARDURE. Burning. (.^.-.V.) 

Now Cometh the remedy ayenst lecherle. and that 
if generally chaatttee and continence, that reatrelu- 
eth all dlwrdlnale mevinpii that comen of flnhly 
talent* . and ever the gretcr merite shal he have that 
moat realrelneth the wlckc«l eochaufing or ardyrtnf 
thii aloDe. Pffraanef To/a, p. 106. 

ARE. (I) An oar. 

His malater than that fand 

A twt and an art. Sir Trlitrem, p. 153. 

Where many a barge doth rowe and aayle with orv, 
Whne maay a ship teatrtb with top royall. 

Ae'lf. ..inlil. 1. aOS. 
(2) A hare. 

^Vhyl 1 had lyht, thcr myht nevyr man fynde. 

My perc of archerye In allc thti werd aboute; 
For allt Khet 1 nevyr at hart, ore, nerehynde. 
But yf that he dcyd, of this no man have doule. 
Oiranfry Mmtnim, p. 44. 




(3) Before. Cf. Minof» Poems, p. 103. 
The koifhtU gidrid togcdlr tJurr, 

And gtn with crartc there rouniellc uke, 
Suche t knight wmi DCTyr ari. 
But it were L«uDcclot du Lake. 

MS. Hart, nea, t. so. 

Eily, an the daye giae iprynge. 
He did ii prytte hit meiie to syngc. 

tIS. Limcain A. i. 17, f. 99. 

(4) To plough. Kency gives this as r pro- 
vincial forui of the word. Cooper, in liis edi- 
tion of Elyot, 1559, has, "aro, to care or 
pluwc landc." 

(.■i) All heir. Sec Maundevilc's Travels, p. 1 5 1 . 

(6) Honour; dignity. See llarishomc's Met. 
Tales, p. 38 ; Maitland's Early Printed Books 
at Lamheth, p. 305 ; Brit. Bibl. iv. 86. 

Dame, he teyile, be Goddyi are, 
Hutc any money thou woldytt warei 

lUlion't Pn;). PmI. p. 70 

(7) A note in music, sometimes called a-ta-mire, 
the lowest note but one in Guido's scale. See 
Keliq. Antiq. L 83 ; Tam. of the Shrew, UL 1. 

(8) An ear. 

She began wmewhat to relent and tn rcvc to them 
no deflf^ nnr, intomurlie that the faythfully promysed 
to iiubmyt and yelde hertelfe fully and frankely to 
the kyngei wyll and picmaure. HoU, Jlirkard ///. CM. 

(9) Mercy. 

Lord, ictile Aliraham, thin art! 
Shal thou ttiine imne ao forfare ? 

Cintvrjitmidi, MS. Coll. Trtn. OiiiMd. MS. 
Sircte Vsoude, thin art. 

Thou prcye the king for me, 
Tif It Ihl wllle ware, 

of take he make foe tn, SirTri4rtm, pMl. 

(10) An hour. tanc. 

(11) Former; previous. 

Goddes werkkea for to wyrke. 
To teiTe Gndc and haJy kyrke. 
And to mcnde hit iir« royadcde, 

US. Uncoln A, L 17, f. Hi. 

AREADINESS. Reailiness. Aready occun in 
the Exmoor Scolding, p. 4. 

Getting therefore his bag and baggage tn arraiii. 

ne««ff, he was going out of Tunlae ; and aa he paucd 

out at the gain, he cast hia eye up lu the houae 

where Kathcrlne waa. Cottier o/ CaHtrrburir, IfflS. 

it It ordered that the Lord Clumburlayn and Vice- 

CharolKTlayn ahall put themtelfra in aemblable 

artiifuur, and they to appnyntc all mauer ofRcerf 

for the chambre, inakyng a boke of the names of 

Cheym and every of theym, ArchmvUygia, xxi. 178. 

AREAR. Upright Kent. Kcnnctt, MS. Lansd. 

1033, gives the example, " to stand arear, to 

stand upright" 

AHEAUT. Out of doors. North. 

It will bring aa good blcndingi, I dare lay. 
As ever grew artaut In onny clay. 

Yarkihin Bialagut, p. 41. 
ARECHB. (1) To explain. {A.-S.) 
Crtst and leint Stevenc. 

Quoth Horn, artche thy aweveac Kjmg Ham, 668. 
(2) To attain ; to reach. 

FoTofte schalle a womman have 
Thynge wblchea roan may nou5t ArnrV. 

Coioer, MS. Sac Aniiq. IM, f. S9. 
5ef me nut him forthcr tcche, 
Tlwone Is bene wol aruif 

tat u lerae more. RWJf . AnUq. 1. 110. 

Al that hys ax artch* myght, 

Hors and man he slowjih doun-ryght. 

AicAnrd Cutr dt UaH, TN};' 

(3) To utter ; to dccUrc. 

Butassoncas Beryn had pleyn knnwleche 
That his eyen were y-lost, uoneth he myght 
O word for pure anguysh. HUtarr tifBeriM,ailt, 
AREDE. (1) To explain ; to interpret {A.-S.) 
Of whiche no man nc couthe araden 
The norobre, hot theherone Kyng 
That wool the tothe of al thing. 

Kyny AU taimdrr, s 1 1 fi. 
I trowo are4e ray dreame* even, 
to thus It was, this was my awerea. 

Tht Saqn Sagw, 1154, {iimtat b> Si.<Mltrr.) 

(2) To give counsel to. 

Therefore to roe, my trusty friend, orada 
Thy eountcl : two Is belter than soe ha 

Mother HuUier^a Tatt, p. IL 

AREDILI. EasUy ; rwulUy. 

AUe the clerkes under God couthe nou^dcacrtva 
ArttliU to the ri5les the rvnUi of that day. 

irai. and lit nerwt^/, p. IM. 

A-REDY. Ready. 

That in eche lond a-redi/ is 

Whydersocnyroan wende. MS.Oia.THn.0ian.iT. 
AREED. Counsel ; advice. 

Now must your honor leave these mourning tunes. 

And thus, by my araed, you shall provide. 

DMmflilt of Rottrt, K. of llumingdm, i. t 

ARGGES. A herb. It is an ingredient in a re- 
cipe in an old medical MS. at Lincoln, f. 286. 
AUEIGHT. Struck. 

Otuel, for wrath, anon 
Atvlghthim on the cheek-bone. 

euu; Met. Rim. 11, 
AREIT. Judged? 

Whether for to wllico here prospcrlt*, 
Schulde tien areit aa synne and felonle, 
Baetiui, MS. Site. Jnliq. 134, 

ARE-LUMES. Heir-looms. AorfA, Sec 

Glossariuin Northanbvmbricura, in v 
ARELY. Early; soon. ' 

The erir, als artlf als It waa daye, 
Toke hyi Icve and wente hia waye. 

MS. Unaoln. \. I. I7,f. II7. 

AREN. Are. This plural is often met with in old 

writers, and is still used in tlic North countrv- 

dialects. It is the regular grammatical fonn. 

See Qu. Rev. Iv. 374. Sometimes arcne, an in 

Ap|)endix to W. Mapcs, p. 347. 

AHENDE. An errand; a message. (^.-5.) See 

Troilus and Creseide, ii. 72; Manners anil 

Household Expcnces of England, p. 151. 

For lyttyrday deyde my nobyl stede. 

On joure armdt as I jede. Rallq. AnHq. ii. 101. 

ARBNGB. In a series. It is translated by 
teriatim in Prompt Parv. p. 14. 
And ladde him and hlsmonekes 

Intoawel falrhalle. 
And sette hem adoun arenk, 

A nd woMhe here fet alle. SI. Smmlait, p. II. 
ARENYNG. See Alhenyng. 

Wc thankyng God of the good and grados mrtnrng 
of yowrc croune of Fraunoe. 

I^/dgmtt't Mimor PMm. p. 4. 

ARERAGE. Arrcar. {A.-N.) Cowell s»y», " U 

significth the remain of an acconnt, or a lum 

of money remaining in the liands of an accoonU 

ant." See also Baret's Alvearie, in T. 

. f.ias. ■ 
cc the ■ 





. so. 



1 tTowo roonr Id anragi^ wol falle, 
Aod to pvriwtud prfMuo gotig«. 

MS. JiMlHfiQlt 4l,r. 77. 
ARERE. (1) To raise. See Wright's PoliticEl 
Songs, p. 342; Coventry Mysteries, pp. 1S2, 
215, 240; Octorian Imperalor, 21 ; Maunde- 
rile's TniTels, p. 38 ; HoUnslied, Uist. Eng. 
pp. 112,129. [J.-S.) 

Thcr Bchulc the uutlen bco to-dniwe, 
Thol her arereden unr^'htc Uwr. 

MS. CWI. JcM. Qn>n 
A prince of the londlt wide, 
Shjille barret artre for her pride. 

US. Cantnb. Wf. v. 48, f. 

(2) To retr, as > horse. 

Wan any of hem that hori cam ne^, 
A caatc twhjnde and arertnl an he^. 

US. SO. I. 49. 

(3) A term in harc-hiuiting, n»c<l when the 
hounds wcrclet loose, (yf.. A'.) Cf. MS. BoiU. 546. 
That all niaye hym here, he ihall taye artrt. 

Back of SI. Mluini. cd. IBIn. iig. D.lli. 

(4) Backwnnls ; behind. Set Spenser's Faerie 
Qucene, 111. vii. 24 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 181 ; 
Scott, glossary to Sir Tristrem, (aphiins it or 
ere, before, (.i.-y.) 

Ily blaqihemUiK no" have I bought ful dne, 
AU yefthly jole and mirthe 1 fet arffro. 

Ttitamfnl of Crraeidt, SSS. 
Now plucke up your hertet , and make good chcre , 
Thne tyd)Tige» lykpth me wonder wele. 

Now vertu shall drawc arrre, arerr : 

Herke, felout, a rood iporte I ran you tell. 

Hpcke SrxmrTt ap. Hmurkiru, L 110. 

(5) To retTMt. 
He admDt for the icharp, and lehulde haf arcrM. 

Syr Gtttvayne, p. 70. 

ARESEDE. Tottered. (.4..S.) 

Thourgh the mouht ihofom was wight. 
The tuachn in the tre he smlt ; 
I The trr arrttdt ai hit wold falle. 

The herd was «orl admd wlth.ille. 
And g.iD »ooe on knea to falle. 

Srryn Sagra, 016, 
ARESON. To question, interrogate, examine. 
(.■f.-iV.) Sec llaidyng's Chronicle, f. 183 ; 
Roiu. of the Rose, 0220 ; Langtoft's Chronicle. 
p. 314 ; Sernt Katerine, p. 181 ; Ywaine anil 
Gawio, 10&4; Maundevilc's Travels, p. 131; 
Pien Ploughman, p. 241, 

of that morther and that tresoun, 
II* dud that traltour to arciimv. 

Cmrmr Afu'nl^ its. OJ/. Trln. Cantak. f. '■ 
Themprrour clepcd Hcrhaud him to. 
And ar«aowiid hUn tuene hem tuo. 

Cy c/ Ifiiru-lkt, p. IS8. 
ARE8T. (1) Am»st ; consttiint. {J..y.) 
They lire hut at a bird or at a tiette. 
In Ubertee and under non arrjrtt. 

nattccr, dint. T. Dlia 
C«) Delay. (^.-M) 

Ala*, than comlth a wUde Honcaae 
Out of Ihr wode, withoutin more arett. 

Thiilm nfBubtilm, 101. 

(8) To stop. {A.-N.) 

And ther our biMte bejan hii hort ar««, 
rH And Mide, lordcs, herkeneth If you lest. 

I^h C^owoer, Cam. T. 819. 

■ (4) Sdateat. 


Palmer, ryghtly thou .ir#«r 

All the maner. 
Dar»t thou rydc upon tliya best 

To the rytere. 
And water hyra that thou ne falle t 

Odorfan Imperator, 1425. 

(5) Rancid. Prompt. Parr. 

.MIESTENESSE. Rancidity, applied to meat. 

Sec Prompt. Parr. p. 14. Raucid bacon is 

called rees/y in the provinces. 

ARESTOGIE. A kind of herb? Sec the Arehic- 

ologia, xn. 401. 
ARETIIEDE. Honour. (.^..S.) 
Whare folke* Kiltie in fere, 
Thare lolde tnene herkene and here 
uf beryni thnt by fore were. 
That lylTcd In amlhrile. 

Sir Drgrttanl, Lincoln MS. 

ARETTE. (1) Toimpute,adjudgc,rcckon.(.,*..Af.) 
See Apology for the Lollards, pp. 26, 85, 104 ; 
Chancer, Cant. T. 728 ; Pcrsones Tnlc, p. 63 ; 
Morte d'.Vrlhur, p. ii ; Philpot's Works, p. 350 ; 
Wickliffc's New Test. P/iil I 

The vlclorye ei nojte nrfitpd to Ihamc that flies, 
bot to thame that habydcx orfolowes on the chace. 
V.I. Uarofn A. i. 17, f. IS. 

(2) Hence, to value, to esteem. " Wc arrtliden 
Dot him," old MS. translation of Isaiah, liii. 
quoted in MS. RawL C. 155, from a copy at 
Cambridge. According to Cowcll, a person is 
arretted, " that is covenanted before a judge, 
and charged with a crime." See his Inter- 
preter, 1658. Rider translates it hy ad rectum 
Tocatui. The verb ami is used by Spenser 
in the sense to decree, to appoint. 
AREVANT. Back again. 

Themeyn th^llc ye nebylle. 
And I ilittllc synft the trrbille, 
j4reraiit the dcviUe, 

Ttlle alle this hole rowtr. 

Ti>wn«ley Myrttriet, p. 3li>. 

AREVYD. Arrived. 

They oreeyd at the 4ce itronde. 

MS. Oinlab. Ff. ii. 3». f, M. 

i\-REW. In a row. See Spenser's Faerie Queene, 
V. \ii. 29 ; Rcliq. Antiq. i. 295 ; Rob.Glouc. p. 
338; Prompt. Par\-. p. 14. 

Finte that myn nrdre longeth too. 
The vicis for to telle o-rewt. 

Cewtr, MS. Soc. AnIUi. 134, t. all. 
AREWE. (1) To pity. 

Jhctu Christ arew hem tore. 

Ant seldehc wolde vacelie hem thorc. 

Hitrrvwine f\f Hett, p l\ 

(2) To make to repent ; to grieve. 

The Cry»tyn party become »o than. 
That the (ylAe they myjt not wynnci 
Alle areu^i^ hyt, kynge and knyftht. 

MS. Omial,. Vf. il. 311, f. «l. 
The Airite artycul of thyi gemetry ; — 
The inayster maton motte be ful securlf 
Dolhe tti^cfdst, truity, and trwe, 
Hyt thai hym never Ihenne artwe, 

Omrt. <\f MlUiinrf, p. IS. 

AREWEN. Arrom. {A.-S.) 

Tweyc tnjgle.hnmrf , and a bows alto. 
And (yve arait'tfM ck therto. 

iCmf jiliMundtr, SU3. 

AREWES. AiTowi. 





lie bar a bn«c [n hU tuiid. 
And nuuiye brotjc arrfre'. 

Pifr* PtoMghman, p. i^, 

AREYNED. Arrested. (./.-.V.) 

A man they inrttp uiil hym ttrt^fd, 
Tu brrc the Crotthcy hymoonftreyne'l. 

MS. HaH. 1701, f. 88. 
AREYTHE. Aright. 

Anon to hvra tche tnodf complaynt. 
Ao'l toldc hem all ttrrjtth*. 

Frcre and the Bo^, It. kxIx. 

ARFE. Afraid : baclm'uni 1 reluctant. Xorlh. 
Soiiietinies arfhh, rii the same senie. 
Whaugh, motlier. how the towi* I Ita varra «»•/►• 
fihec'l put and rive my good prunella acarfe. 

Yorkshire IMahifV, p. 35. 

AUG. (1) To argue. Uetl. 
(2) To ttrumble. Smtrr. 
ARGARUSHE. Ahorquebuai, an old fashioned 
kind of musket. 

Thim pu»hc«1 souMien vlth ihclr pike*. 

And halber<lc« with handy ftrokc* ; 
The argattiuht \u Ocihc it llchiea. 

And duiu the ayre with tnls;y tmolies. 

/V-ry"" BWijKi'J. p. 101. 

ARGAL. (1) According to Kersey, "hard lees 
stirliLing to the sides of nine vessels, and other- 
wise c^ed tartar." See Argoil. 

(2) Ergo. See Hamlet, v. 1. This is merely the 
grave-digger's \'ulgtu' corruption of the Latin 
wonl. Argo ia found in a similar manner in 
MidiUeton't Works, i. 392 ; Sir Thomas More, 
p. 24. 

ARGEMONE. The wild Unsy. Mintheu. 

ARGENTILL. The herb perccpicrc. Gerard. 

ARGENTINA. The wild tansy. 

Jr/rfnlina, wild tjnty, growdit the tnoal in the 
fallowea In Coteawold and North-Wiltt adjoynlti^, 
that I ever law. Avbny'i H'illi, MS. Soc. Kcf. p. 1 18. 

ARGENTINE. Silver. Minsheu givea aryen/, 
a substantive in the lame leme. 

Celefllal Dian, goddess arg*ntUM, 
I will obey Uiee t— Hrlleanui I Ptridu, v. t. 
ARGENT-VIVE. Quicksilver. 

The manner of our work ; the bulli. our fumaec. 
Still breathing 6re ; ontargtnt-vivtt the drAj*nn. 

r/io ^lr\einitl, II. I. 

ARCIIEDE. /Utouished. (.Y.-S.) 
That ar/rhi^r alle that ther ware, 
tlothe the let^e and the marc. Sir Prrrrml, t®. 
ARCllNES. Sluggishiipjs ; indulcnrc. 

The pnivcrb it, the doumb man no land getlth ; 
Who w nat ipoklth. and with neede U tjete. 
And thurgh arghHru« his owno tetf fiirgetlth. 
No wYmdlr thogh anolhir him forgete. 

HoreUvt'* Pvtnkt, p. 56. 
jfrgnrme also me th>-nkth y» hard, 
Fore hit roaketh ■ man 8 eoward. 

MS. Oodl. 48, r. 137. 

ARGIEK. Algiers. 

Pro. Thou hast; Where waa the bom ? tpeak; tell me. 

y/rl. sir. In Argttr. ThiTrmplH, I 8. 

ABGIN. An embankment j a rampart. (/foA) 
It muat hare high arfiiu and covcr'd ways. 
To keep the bulwark fionti from battery. 

MarlM-ri Workl, i. 198. 

ARGOIL. Chaucer. Cant. T. 16381, says the 
alchemist used, among other things, 

rley made with hori and mannis here, and olle 
Of tarlTT, alum, glaa, berme, wart, and tirgtMt. 

Tyrwhill . . ' ' 
French ar. 
akyndeof ( ;.,. 
it, "alcali seu 

'/i7», potter's clay, I 

ivo, f. 19, has, ' 

...... ..!■," but Skinner explainj' 

sal kalL" Ben Jonson, Al- 


chemist, i. 1, mentions, " arsenic, vitriol, sal- 
tartar, argttile, alkali, cinopcr," as the stock 
an alchemist ; and in a MS. of the fifteenth^ 
ccntur)'/?r»r(e.v inp is a receipt " to make 
aryoile, that vs. nqua larlary," in which ia< 
stances it seems to mean the tartar, or lees 
wine, a* before in nrgal, q. v. This niso is 
clearly the meaniug of argut in a verj' early re- 
ceipt inMS. Harl. 22S3, printed in the .\rchiiK>-ia 
logical Journal, i. C5, " tac argut, a thing Ihatf 
deyarcs deyet with, ant grint bit smal, ant 
seththe tac a wollcnc clout, ant couchc thi 
poudre theron as brod as hit wol." Argul, or 
argal, isthc name of the impure salt deponiled 
from wine ; and when |iurilied, is calletl bitar- 
trate of (lotash, or cream of tartar, a material 
still tised in dvHng. Argol is mentioned in a 
list of chemical melnls in Galhilliea, 1632. 
ARGOLET. A light horseman. Alrodyoftbem 
were called argoMieri. Sec Florio, in 
Pluno, Like a comet of our hone, 
Ab many nrfiJett and armed pikei. 
And with our carriage march away before 
By ^cyra«. and thoae plot» of ground 
That to Morocctu leadi the lower way. 

Poflo't fTorki, II. SS. 
The which argnletitr shall stand you in aa great 
alead aa horacs of better account. 

^rchm^Uigta, xili, 184. 
ARGOLOGT. Idle speaking. Cocieram. 
ARGOS. The small false toes at the hack of the 
foot, applied to the twar, buck, and doe. 

There Is no deer so ]ong ^if he be a broket upward 
that his talt^o is more large and bcter and more gret 
arfifu tlien hath an hynde, and coin u net Ichelongere 
tram. Maytre nf Hit Camt, US. 

ARGOSIES. Ships of great burthen, either for 
merchnndiu or war. Sec Merchant of Venice, 
i. 1 ; Uoucc's Illustrations, i. 248. Grose says 
the word is u»e<l in the North. 
ARGOT. A corruption of argent, silver. 
Good KWert-fae'd serving man, 
Let rae out, I beterch de, and, by my trot, 
I will give dy worship two (hillluga in good argti 
To buy dy wenhlp pippina. 

Oraomonr siuf FIftchrr, III. log, 
ARGUFY. To argue. Var. dial. 1 believe I 
have heard the word used in the tense of fo 
ARGUMENT. (1) Conversation. So Shakespeare 
seems to apply the word in Much Ado about 
Nothing, iii. I. 

(2) To argue. 
Thus argitmtnlid he in his ginning, 

Ful uiuviaki of hia wo eommlng. 

TroiiuM mnd Cnaetdt, I. 378. 
But jit they ar|rs"wenr«n ftete 
Upon the pope and his astate, 
Wheivof they falle In gret debate. 

Gower, US. Sac. <fjirt«. 194, f. 

(3) A given arch, whereby another is determined 
pro|iortional to the first. 






At ben lib (^ntrcs, and hij arfffniMr«*, 
And hb proitortionel coovenlcntrt. 

Oimuy^. Cniit. T. iU8». 
ARGV. An argument. Salop. Rather, perhaps, 
aisertiou in disiiutc, according to Urockctt, 
who »a>5, " tlie lemi is generally applied to a 
per«nn who ia not only contentious, hut pertj- 
□Bcious in managing an argument." 
ARICHES. The ends of joists. HmvelL 
ARU). Upright ? 

Swft tic met the arid and te frrd. 
Tbat bailie Ihav fcl ded to tbe herd. 

Guyo/ Waneick. SlliUnrMtt MS. 

ARIERKBAN. A general summons from the 
king to all his vassals to appear in arms. Skinner. 
ARIET. Harriet. North. 
ARIETE. .\ries, one of the signs in the lodiac. 
See TroUus and Crcseide, Vi. 1592, v. 1189; 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 243. It occura 
aUo ai a Latin word. 

Or that PhebUB entre In the slgne 
With hl» carecte of the itrittt. 

l.yllpitc, MS. Sor. ,/ii(i«. 13», f. ». 
nut modlrwtirth mofttc gadcr>d be 
Whytl the Sonne ii In arui^. 

jirtftmatogia^ xxx. 3/2. 

ARIGHT. (1) Performed ; made 1 
Such gntenyn^; he ariiM, 
That there he dwellid alle nrjt 
Willi that lady geot. 

7bmt»r o/ Purtugntt p. fiS. 
Alhl fotuid a pur* fulle riche nrifhtt 
With gold and pcrlU that waa i-bcole. 

MS. Harl. tlit, I. 101. 

(2) Pulled? 

On a dajr »he bad him here pappe, 

And he ari^htg here loo, 

He tare the oon »lde of here brrtt. 

.Ifr Goirghler, XXt. 

AUINDRAGA. A messenger. Ventrgan. 
ARIPK. A kind of bird. 

He cbafcld oriptj, briddes of Archadle. 

MS. Ditb:,. iM. 
ABIST. Arises. See Hartshonie's Met. Tales. 
p. 105 ; Kyng Alisaunder, SI 38 ; Gower, ed. 
1532. f. 70. 

The world ariti, and fttleth withalle. 

Gotcer, MS. Sat. jlnli,i. IM, t. M. 
Fuule* in wodc hem make blithe. 
In ererlch lond arUI tong. 

Arihour aud Merlin, p. 37^. 

ARISTIPPUS. A kind of wine. 
O for a bowl of fat canary. 
Rich Anttipi>vt, tporktlng sherry f 
.Some nectar eUe from Juno't dairy ; 
O thcM draughu would matie lu merry I 

Middlnon't trorki, II. *». 

ARISTOLOCH. The plantcalled round hartwort. 

Sec Topscll's Historie of Four-footed Beasts, 

1607, p. 345. 
ARITE. An arrest. Stiimi-r. Tlie word occurs 

in Troilus and Crescidc, iv, 1592, for Aries. 

See Ariele. 
ARITHMANCIE. A kind of divination, Ihc 

fnrclrlling of future events by nunilicrs. S<w 

lUrriion's Description of Britaine, p. 28. 
ARIVAGE. Shore i lanrUng place. (./.-A'.) 
There lawc I how the tempest atrate. 
And how with alle pine he went. 


And privilie lok* ar<«M« 
Into the oounlric of Csrlhaga. 

Um— nf ram; I. m. 
ARIVAILE. Arrival. {A.-N.) 
Tho uwe I all the nrivaUe 
That .£neaa made In ItAile. 

AlUVED. Riven ; spUt asunder. 
Well cvUI mote thcl thrive. 
And erill arliwd mote thel be. 

/{•/in. 0/ the Ama, 1088. 
ARIZINGE. Resurrection. 

Ich yleve Ine the Holy Goat, lioly cherche gene- 
ralliche, tnenoeaie of haljen, lesncaae of sennet, of 
uletao oritingt, and lyf evreleitlnde. 

MS. Arundel 57, '. 04. 
ARK. (1) A chest. In the North of England, 
the large chests in farm houses used for keep- 
ing meat or flour arc so called. They are 
usually made of oak, and arc sometimes elabo- 
rately carded. From the name Arktrright, it 
would seem that the construction of them 
formerly constitntcd a separate trade. 
And trutie al that he mithcn fynde 
Of hitc. In arkt or In kllte. Hanlnlr, 9010. 

(2) Clouds running into two points, thus (). 

(3) A part of the circumference of a circle. (Lot-) 

The nrk of hit artificial day had runne 
The fourthe part, and half an houre and more. 
Oaum, Cam. T. 4Ui. 
(4 ) An arch. 

It were the part of an liUe orator to dfitcritie the 
pifeantt, the arXre*, and other well di-vUetl honourct 
done unto her. Hajpioard'« Annntt i>/ 9v, Kliu p. IG. 
AIll.ES. Money paid to bind a liargoiii. Dr. 
Jomicson says, " an earnest, of whatever kind; 
apIedgeoffuU posstssion." Kersey gives or/m- 
petmy, a North country word for " earnest- 
money given to servants." It is somclinics the 
custom to give a tritte to servants when they 
were hired, as a kind of retainer. See an in- 
stance in Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 11. According 
to Pcf^, to arte a bargain is to close it. Set; 
al&o Hunter's Hallamshire Glossary, p. 104 ; 
Skiiinrr, part 3, in v. 
ARLlCilE. Early. Sec the Se^Tn Sages, 204 ; 
Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 13. {A.-S.) 
Cfode tidlngc* y telle the. 
That themperour tlkerliche 
Ullle hiinlte to-morwe urtirhv. 
In hitforcst prlveliche. Cj/o/Wffnri^e. p. H7. 
ARLING. " .\n orling, a bjTile that appcareth 
not in winter, a clotbjTde, a snialch, cimiteo." 
Baret's Alvrarie, 1580. Sec also MuSctt's 
Health's Improvement, 1G55, p. 100; Florio, 
in V. Fnuiine. 
ARLOUP. Tliemidtlledcckof a ship: the orlop. 

So Cotgravc has the word, in v. TUIae. 
.\RLY. Early. Km/. {A.-S.) 

And noght over aWy to mete at gang, 
Ne for to tit tharat over lang. 

M.S. CM. oona E. Is. r es. 

Ich wil that ow to-mitrweD «Wy 
Ml doubter at the chlrche tpouty. 

Cv "f n'arietlfr, p. I.Vi. 

ARM. (1) To take up in the arms. So Shake- 
speare uses the woril in Cvnibcline, iv. 2, 




(2) Hum. 

So falltf OD Lhe, sire imipcrour, 
Swlcl) armt and ichimc, uitl dcionour, 
Yif thou do thi tone unright, 
AU to ths gieihound itde the kni(hL 

Snrn Sagta, 8S9. 

(3) In a receipt for a ilish in Warner's Antiq. 
Culin. p. 26. it is directed that " cranei and 
hcronii »hal be armed witli lardca of swyne." 
In this place (lie word means larded with bacon 
fat, and roasted birds when larded certainly 
may be taid to be formidably armed. 

(4) Defence; security'? 

Now loklih yo, for I wot have no wile 

To bring in prc«c, that ml^ht y^doD him harmc, 

Or him dUcslD, Tor my bftlir urma. 

Trmliu and CreKidc, II. 1650. 

ARMAN. A kind of confection, given to boraea 

to create an appetite. Diet. K<at. 
ARMESIN-TAFKETA. A kind of taffata, men- 
tioned l)v Howell in his 25th section. 
ARMETT.' A hermit. 

And thU nrmttt Miyn can hym fiayn 
How he had iped of hy« fait. 

US. S€U. Arch. n. it. 

ARMFUL. An armful of hay, according to 
HoweU, is aa much as can be taken in the two 
hands together. 
AKM-GALNT. Lean; thin; very lean. Sothc 
6nt two folios reail, but the correctness of it 
has been much disputed. Mason suggests 
lermagauat, a conjecture supported by Toonc; 
but Ibcre is no necessity for alteration. Sbake- 
apeore uses arm-gaunt, as thin as an arm, in the 
aame way that Chaucer writes arm-gret, q. v. 
So he nodilt^l. 
And lobcrly did mount on nrm.gaunt ateed. 

Antoni/ aitd Ctmtpatro, i. 0. 

ARM-GRET. A» thick as a man's arm. 

A wreLh of gold orm-grvl, of huge weight. 
Upon hit bed ulc ful of stones bright. 

CAaHivr, Cant, T. SU7 

ARMIGERO. An esquire. {Lai.) Soe the 
rommencement of the Merry Wives of 
Windsor, i. 1. 7e»/« — armigero. 
ARMINE. A beggar. {VhI.) 

iMC*. O here Ood, so young an armlnt I 
Fl«w, Armtnt, sweetheart,! know nut what you 
mean by that, but 1 am almost a beggar. 

Tht LonrfMi fVedIgm/, p. ISfl. 
ARMING. (1) Acoatofanns. 

When the Lord Beiniont, who their ortnitt/tt knew. 
Their present perill to brave Suffblkc shewes. 

Draylim's Peemt, p. 63. 

(2) A net hnng about a ship's hull, to protect 
the men from an enemy in a 6ght. See Huloet's 
Abc(^darium, 1552. 

ARMING-GIUDLE. A kind of sword girdle. Cf. 
Nomenclator, 1585, p. 171; Florio. in v. 
Balleo; Cotgrave, in v. Ceineturf, Ball her. 
Florio, in v. Settdne, mentions an armmg-tad. 
die, and there are also other similar com- 
pounds. Sec Strutt, ii. 229. 

*^RMING.POINTS. Short ends of strong twine, 
with points like laces : they were fixed princi- 
pally under the armpit* and bendings of Ibe 
arms and knees, to fasten '.he guaieta of mail 

which defended those parts of the body other- 
wise r\-|)oscd. Meyrlei. 
AR.M1NG.S\V0RD. A two-handed sword. Sec 
the Nomenclator, p. 275 ; Arch, xiu 351. 

^ome had their nmi/ngt netariirt rr«st:Iy liur- 
nlihcil, and some had them ronniogly Temyihod. 
Hall. Hm. IV. t. I«. 
A helmett of proofc shce strait did provide, 
A strong aimiugif'»u.ont shce Klrt by her tide* 
On her lund a goodly faire gauntlctt put ihc«; 
Was not ttlls a brave Ixtony lass, Mary Ambrtef 
Perry's Keliqnri, p, lit. 

ARMIPOTENT. Mighty in arms, (id/.) 
And dounward fVom an hill under a tMfnt, 
Thcr stood the temple of Mars urmijwcenr. 
Wrought all of tmmed stele, of which the entree 
Was longe and streito, and giutiy for to see. 

CAaurer, Cant. T. 19M. 

AUMITE. Ahehnet. (^.-A'.) Palsgrave (f. 18) 
says that armrl is " a heed pese of hamesse." 
On the liij . comers of the waggon were lllj. hed 
peees called armitts, every peco beyng of a sundery 
device. Hall, Henrti rill. t. 70. 

ARMLES. Without an arm. (,/.-S.) 
And on a wall this king his eyen cast. 
And saw an hand armlet, that wrote ful faal. 
For fere of whichc he quokc, end sikcd sore. 

OMttixT, OuK. T. I4MII. 
ARMLET. A bracelet; a piece of armoiu' for 
tliR arm. 
Not tliat ID colour It was like thy hair, 
Armtlttt of that thou mayst still let me wear. 

Zkmn^M Klegin, xil. 
ARMONY. (1) Harmony. 

And mtisik had, voyde of ailc diicord, 
Boece hcrclcili, withe hevcnly «rniony. 
And instrtimentcs alle of oon accorde. 

l4f(lgat«'M Jilnw Paemr, p. II. 
(2) Armenia. 

Shewe me the ryght path 

To the hylles of Armonit. Skelttm't R'wkr, t 50. 
ARMOR] KE. Basse Ilrelaguc in France, an- 
ciently called Britannia Anuorica. 
In Armorikr, that cillcd is Bretalgne, 
Therwas a knight, that lovc<l and did his peine 
To serve a ladle In his tieste wise. 

Oinvcer, Cinr. T. I104I. 
AR.MORWE. The morrow. 
An amuH^t'^ erilehe 
Themperour aroa sikeillche. OtafWamrlln, p.II7. 

ARMS. The arms of a hawk are the legs from 
the thigh to the foot. Sec the Laws of the 
Forest and Game, 1709, p. 40. 

ARMURE. Armour. (A.-S.) Sec Melibeus, 
p. 114 ; Lydgatc's Minor Poems, p. 2G0. 





the Utter instance, the form of the word U 
ARM YE. A n&ral ormanicnt. 

Whichc t lhoiif{ht not convcnycnt, cxNijecturinfi 
lh«t wlih thD>c ttrpynnlitc wyndct, the re«t of 
rAonnyrcomyngout ot Th^raci, and tlio the Henry. 
with the Mary Roosi?, iholde bo \n the Dowqm. 

State Pufter*, i.79l. 

ARMYLL. A bracelet ; a nt^cU«c(l. (Lat.) 

The king thut gird with his fwerd. an>1 fttADilIng, 
•hall Ukcaraiyl/of theCardlmilUuylntt thi»r woriis. 
aeclfw armttUim, and it li to wctc th«t arm/til If ma«ltt 
in ni&ncf n( a ilole wovyn with gold ind uot with 
ttonct, to br putt by the Cwdlnall abtml* the Klugc« 
o«ck*. Au/fnnrf Pdp<r*ip. Id. 






ARMVN. Ermine. " Blacke apcrkei lyke 

armynt" ore mentioned in the Book of St. 

Aibuis, rig. A. V. See also Hall, Henry VIII. 

f. 3 ; Rutland Papers, p. 23 ; Assemble of 

Ladies, 527. 

They toke ■ furrr of nrmpitt 
And wrapped the rhyldur theryn. 

US. cai,ii,b. rt. II. 98, r. im 

And cltd them alle In clothyf of pryte. 

And rurryd them with ormyfie. Ibid, f.949. 

Yuur cotoarmourc of ^nlde full fyne, 

Aad pondrcd well with f;ood amytig. 

ABMYSE. Arms. 

Torrent Myd, Be Mlrrc- derc ! 
And I were off orm^ae clerc, 
V'owT dowghthyr me leve were. 

Tbrrenr of PortUfal, p. 4. 

ARMYTE. A hcnnit. See Armetl. Injstnuccs 
of armylf oecur in Hortshorne's Mel. Tales, 
p. 304 ; Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1461. 
On the inome he gane hym dy;ht 
In anDfltM aray. MS. Aihm>le Gl , f. 30. 


ThfDlM «ald Morgan, tawe ye Arthur my brodcr ^ 
Vc, said her knyghlea, ryghl wel, and that ye ihold 
have founde and we myghle have Kered fyom one 
»t«le, for by hit arrnvrmtnt conlenaunoe he wold 
have efluieil us to have flej. .Vortt d^Arihvr, I. HO, 

ARN. (1) To earn. Salnji. It is also a contrac- 
tion of e'er a one in the West country ilialect. 
Fort he wyll drynke more on a dcy 
Than thou cane lyghtly am* In twcy. 

MS. Atlimtlt 61, t. S3. 

(•i) To nm ; to flow. (y/.-S.) 
Cldol. exl of Oloucetter, also In hyl syde 
Amdtt and kcplc her and ther, and flow a-boute wyde. 
lli>6. G/lXK. p. 140. 
Now rlit grcte tabour betyng, 
Blaweyng of pypes, and ek trumpyng, 
Stedca lepyng, and ek orfi^ng. 

Kyng AltMauniir, S16S. 
Anon w lein Joan Ihli l-M)3h, 

He amrfe aftur anon, 
And tlwede him alto ttiltiche 

AKhU hon mljhtegon. MS.IJMA. 108, f.l73> 
(3) An eagle. i-l.-S.) 

ARNALDIE. A kind of disease, menliourd hy 
the e«rly chroniclers without cxplsiiatian. 
Skinner considers tlic word nf Arabic origin, 
Iml KC Dacange, in t. ArnaMia, who con- 
fesses its precise meaning is not known. 
ARNARY-CHEESE. Ordinary or common 

cheese mailc of skimmed milk. Donet. 
ARND. An errand ; a message. Sec a curions 
hymn printed by Heamc, (pioted in Brit. Biht. 
ii. SI, and the Catalogue of the Douce MSS. 
p. 20,whirh mentions another copy, identifying 
MS. Douce 128 as the copy of .Avesbury uscti 
by Ueame. Ami occurs in Tim Bobbin in the 
nme sense. 

And iped hem Into Spayne cpacll in a while, 
Afldtothekud king Alphouns kitTierl hcreeif-rt'^. 
n'ill. and Ihe H>ru^vl/, p. liHt. 

ARNDERN. The evening. Scr AanJom. 
When the lad ntndtm thtitting In the light, 

Drapton'M Oiel, ed. 1748, p. 410. 

ABNE. Are. See Dlack's Pen. Psalms, p. 51 ; 

llcamc's Fragment, p. 298 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 
4706, 8218. 
In Brytayn thli laycs am* y-wrytt, 
Funt y-founde and forthe y-gete. Orphtt, 13 
ARNEDE. An errand. 

To his wlf he went anon. 

And saide sehc raoit on his omcds gon. 

Stryn Sngn, 1(04. 

ARNEMELIT. A kind of powder. In the Book 
of St. Albans, sig. C. ii. is a direction to " ty\le 
the hole wyth a powdre of ameinelil brente." 
This is probably an error for amement. Set a passage in Reliq. Antiq. i. 302. 
ARNEMENT. Ink. See the SevTn Sages, 2776; 
MS.Mctl. Lincoln, f. 285; MS. Sloane 2584, 
p. 29. UmI.) 

He dud make hym a gamemtmt, 
Ai black ai any ornemmf. 

US. Cantab. Ft. U. 38, t. 190. 
ARXEMOR\VE. Early in the morning. (A.-S.) 
Bifor Oormoiie that eile 
On timemonoe than come we. 
With arhuodrrd of gode knightes. 

Cy of PTanrllr*, p. 184. 

ARNEST. Earnest. Sec a reading in the King's 
College MS. quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 142. 
At p. 14, it Is the translation of Wrptu, earnest 
money, hansel. 

ARNEYS. Armour. See a enrioos stage di- 
rection in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 283. 

ARNS. Aries, q.v. AVM. 

ARNT. (1) Have not ; am not. »>§/. 

(2) An errand. North. 

ARNUT. The earth-nut, or pig-ntit, frequently 
eaten by boys in the north of England. 

AROINT. A word of expulsion, or avoiding. 
Douce thinks there is no doubt that it signifies, 
array.' r-Hii.' and that it is of Saxon origin. 
See his Illustrations, i. 371. It occurs thrice 
in Shakespeare in this sense, Macbeth, i. 3, 
and King Lear, iii. 4, applied in each instance 
to witches. The print published by Hcame, 
referred toby the commentators, seems scarcely 
applicable. See^roii$>f. The fourth folio 
reads anoint, according to Steevens, a reading 
which may perhaps be confimicd by a passage 
in Ben Jonson's Masque of Queens : 
Sliteri, lUy, we want our Dame ; 
Call upon her by her name. 
And the charm we uw to say. 
That she quickly arminr, and come aray. 
But as the word is spelt aroynt three times in 
the early editions, we are scarcely jusliAcd in 
proposing an alteration, llay e)!|>lains "rynl 
ye" bii your leave, ttand handsomrly, and gives 
thcCliesliire proverb, "Hynl you, iciVcA, quoth 
Besse Locket to her mother." This proverbial 
saying positively connects rynt with aroint, 
and Wilbroliam informs us that " rynt thee" 
is on exprcssiou used by milkmaids to a cow 
when she has l>cen milked, to bid her to get out 
of the way, which is more likely to be correct 
than Ray's explanation. Boucher goes farther, 
and sayj, aroint is theword ttsed in that county; 
but Ray's proverb is sufficient, and of good au- 
thority, because he doea not appear to have 




IimI the Shakri-peuinn word in \iew. The 
connexion between aroint and ryn/ l)elng thus 
latnblislicd, it is clear that the compound ety- 
mology proposed by Mr. Rodd, in Knight's 
Sbaks|ierc, is inoihnissihle. A more plausible 
one is given in Narcs's Glossary, in v. from 
the Latin avemutec, the participle of which 
may have licen formed into aroint, in the 
same way that jiimctutn hat become point; 
hmcl urn, joint, &c. Sec alyi Collier's Shake- 
speare, vii. 103, where the same conjecture is 
rcrived, and attrihiiled (o a more recent writer. 
The a may have been dropped, and Mr. Wil- 
brahaiu's conjectural origin from arotema re- 
ceives some confinnation from a passage quoted 
in Collier's Hist. Prjim. I'oet. ii. 289, where 
the form of that word is aroine ; but perhaps 
we should read aromr. 
AHOMAZ. .\ spice. " Smirlcs of aronku" arc 
mentioned in .MS. Cott. Titus D. xviiL f. 142. 

The tnther to nilrre, the Itirldtic to fluur. 

Tile fiTthe Mice \o ttramau, 

CurKr Uuiull, MS. Call. Trlit. Canlali. t. 139. 

ARON. The starehwort. Mimhen. Sec Aaron. 
A-KOST. Roasted. 

Tliranc mot ycti hsbtie hraoen o-rotfT, 
Feyr on fyluhc day launprcy ant lax. 

n'rlfhl'M PoliHcnl Sutifi, p. ISI . 

AROUOT. This word occurs in an old print 
copied by Heamcfrom an ancient illumination 
representing the harrowing of hell. It meuus, 
probably, go out, but see Aroute. 

AROUME. Aside; at a distance. It is translated 
by remote, iteprojie, teormm, in Prompt. Parv. 
p. U. See Hook of Fame, ii. 32; Kyng Ali- 
uunder, 1637; Richard Coer de Liou, 464; 
Collier's Hist, Dram. Poet. iL 289; Digby 
Mystcricj, p. 188. (A.-S.) 

Tht ^cnunl arovmp he ttode, 

til* tmnd he lint y-wii: 
He Ot-'ighc, a> he wcr wodc, 

Tlirr that the caitel I*. Sir TrUtrtm, p. 903. 
And droU(;ti hem wcl fer ufH.ume. 

Arlh"*ir and Hrrlln, p. !14. 

And thcnnc ihulde the lord and the mayvler of the 

game, and allc the tiunters, atuode ariiom al attoute the 

reward, and bluwethc derth. US. Bt<<ll 540. 

AROUN. Aniiuul. North. 

Ayren they Irggllti as a gtlllbn, 
Ac they beon more feor nroun. 

K^g MUmtnder, GGKI. 

AROUTE. (1) To go; to move about. (Su. G.) 
ho, fteyde the etnpcrour, 

Byhold now aboute. 
And Dure Godit hoiinrc ieh rede. 
Other Ihou ahelt bertu nrt/ute. 

MS. 0<ll. TtiK. Onn. 67. 
Be iDTjte not wonne In the wonet for witt that he uf id. 
But o-remj/id for hU ray, and retniked ofte. 

Ihrp.yntu,n of Hlrharit II. p. S9. 

In all titat load no Chrlatln durit untut, 

CJumcrr, erf. Vrrif, p. 63. 

(2) All asseiublr. Gouvr. 

AR0U3T. Explaine<l. 

Here twevcn bi him tolden word after word, 
JoMp her* iweven tone haveth nrvN^r, 

M.1. tkxil. 053, r. i. 

AUOVE. (1) Runhliug about. Craven. 

(2) Arrived. 

]]!« navyfv f>reate with many foudyouroa, 

To Kayle anone into thli Britayn made. 

In Thamb arnce, wher he had ful thnrpe ihorea. 

Hmnlyn/t'i Chnnttli, I. 38. 
-l-ROWE. In a row ; successively. 
ThatKit present him a schlp 
Ther that mani itode a-nmwe. 

Lefvnd iff Pi<pe Grripwj/, |k I 
For thre nyjtes a-fwiee he aeyje that tame >y;t. 

Chrvn. VilatluM. p. flB, 
AROWZK. To bedew. (Fr.) Narcs doubts the 
correctness of this explanation, and considers 
it has the usual sense ofarouw. 
The blUiful dew of hoaven docaffrowre yon. 

Th* 7>ro SobiB Kih»m*n, r. 4. 

ARPEYS. A kind of resin, composed of tallow 

and tar. A mention of it occurs in an early 

English medical MS. at Stockholm. See the 

A^chB^ologia, xxx. 404. 

ARPIES. Harpies; furies. 

Senile out thtne arpiet, send anguUlieand dnie. 

Cliavctr, ad. Urry, p. £37, 
ARPINE. An acre. {Fr.) 

Privacy i It shall be given him 

In open court ; I'll make him swallow It 

Before the judge's face : if he t>e master 

Of poor t£n itrptnrt of land forty hours longer. the world repute me an honeat woman. 

HVMer"* trmrlti, II. 82. 
ARPIT. Quick; readv. Salop. 
AUPSICORD. A bariwichord. So Cotgravc 

spells the word, in v. Uarpechorde. 
ARIUBLE. Horrible. 

Fendls Inl hir with arraile song 
Bc-hynde and ;eke before. 

US. Canlab. Ff. v, 411, f. 4S. 
ARRAHYS. Arabian horses. 

Maylln rayike whitte, and bnt«, 
Elfaydej and amtbyt, and olyfnuiitts noble. 

Afi.«e Arlhtm. US. Uncoln, I. 77. 
ARRACIES. Atermappliedtothc smaller animals 
of the chase, which were sldnned. similarly to 
the procera now used for bares and rnlibits, in 
opimsilion to flayed. SceReUq.Anti(|.L 151-2; 
Sir H. Drydcn's Twici, p. 29. 
ARRAGE. (I) Vassal sen-ice in |iloiighing (he 
lord's land. The terms arragf and carriage 
arc frequently used together, as descriptive of 
an important part of the services which, in 
feudal times, vassals owed to their lordj. 
(2) To go almut furiously. (A.-N.) 

I shall senJc for them all that ben sutigeltya and 
alyed to thcmpyrc of Rome to come to myn ayde, 
ami furlhwllhseiite old wyse knyghin unto these 
counlmyei rolowyiige, fytsle to ambagc and amgf, 
to Alysaundrye, to Ymle, to Hermooye. 

Mortt iC Arthur, i. Ii',. 

ARRAHIND. Around. Staff. 

ARRAIGN. To arrange. 

See them nmlgn'd: I will set forward siralghl. 

Il'rt.jfer'. »'«f*», il. SOI. 

ARRALS. Pimples; eruptions on the akin. Ciinsi. 

ARIIAND. An errand. Sldnner. The (ona arrant 
is still used in the North, and is found in Mid- 
dlcton's Works, v. h. Howell, in his collection 
of English Proverbs, p. 2, gives the following: 
" One of the four aud twenty qualities of a 
kiwve is to stay long at his arrand." 










ARRANT. M»lory, in his Mortc d'Ailhur, 
199, &c. applies this word to kiiifclits, where 
wc say errvnl. The term is gciieriilly applied 
to any thing or person cxtreiridly olijcciionaitle 
and worthless, and was pruhalily derived Croni 
the licentious cliaracter of wanderers in general. 

ARILV-ONB. Ever a one. »Ult. 

ARRAS. (1) A superior kind of tapestry, so 
named firom Arras, the capital of Artois in the 
French Netherlands, which was celebrated for 
its uianufaolurc. In the rooms of old houses 
bung with arras, there were generally large 
sijacrs between the hangings and the walls, and 
these were frequently mode liiding places in 
the old plays. Kalstatf proposes to hide him- 
iclf behind the arras at Windsor: and Polonius 
is killed lichind the arras in Handet, iii. 3. 
Sec the llnton Inventories, cd. J. G. Nichols, 
gloss, in V. Jrynlr. Falsi off, no moderate size, 
sleeps behind the arras in 1 Henry lY. ii. 4, 
where Dr. Johnson thinks Shakespeare has 
outstepped probability, but Kfalonc has dis- 
tinctly proved the contrary. See his Shake- 
speare, x^-i. 299. 

(2) A kind of powder, probably ma<le of the root 
of the orris. See Gciard, p. 48. " Hal/e 
an ounce uf arras" is mentioned by ilarrisoii, 
Descr. of England, p. 170, as a material u«cil 
in brewing, and Webster twice mentions arran- 
fmrdrr as having been sprinkled on the hair. 
See Webster's Works, i. 133; Markham's Engl. 
llouswife, IC49, p. 150. 

ARRAt'GHT. Reached; seized by violence. 
We have already had armnjht an<l arrchp^ but 
this fonn it quoted us used by Spenser, and 
admitted by Nares, who was not aware uf any 
example of the verb in the present tense. 

ARR.VWIGGLE. An earwig. Suffolk. " ArwygjU 
worme" occurs in the Prompt. I'arv. trans- 
lated bv aurialU. 

AKRAYEKS. Those ofBcen that had the care 
of (he soldiers' armour. liidtr. 

ARRE. (1) To snarl. 

Thty arre and tiark st nigtit sgatnit the moon, 
For fctcliing in fmh liilei to cIc-iitM; Itie streets. 
Stammer's l/ut Will tvtd Tetlament, |>. 37. 

(2) The letter R. 

Ttierr wu an V. and Itirc arret to^gyilrc tn a >ute, 
Willi Icttm other, of wlilchr I thai rcherw. 

g4reH<t^>tnglat axix. S31. 
ARBECT. (n To impute. {Lai.) 

Therfof* he nrrrrlrtft uo btanie of Iheyr dodes 

UTilo Ibetti. Sir Tf<"mnt Mtxr't tViirkett p. !J7I. 

That thU paaie you not undirected, ai wc trutte 

you, and a« we have no eaun Vorrtett or ascribe 

any default udio jrou hereafter. 

XtoHet'i York Hecordtt p. 8fi9. 
(J) To offer ; to refer. 

ArrtrHngw unto your w>ie caamlnacion 
How all tlut 1 do li undtr rcflbnn.)tloa. 

Skrltun't nWH; I. S7B. 

(3) To direct. 

jim<in*g mycyght towarde the aodyake, 
The sygnet all. for to tieholdc a-farre. 

Slclloi,: Itiirlrt, i. 361. 
ARRBDY. To make ready. 

Aod M forlhewltli they tent al «tx<ut In Somar- 

•elaharci Dorseulilre, and pari* of Wiltalwre fee to 
mrtdr and arayi the people l>y ■ certayne day. 

Jrrivnt i\f King EduMr^ If. p. 43, 
Deslryng and pray you to dif poae and arrrdtt you 
to accoroiiayneye ui thedir. with as many per* 
soDcs dcfensabjly errayctle at ye can make. 

JfS. .^thmole, 11(10. 

ARREED. This word is explained ovarii, and 
Milton referred to as the authority, in Gloiio- 
graphia Anglicana Nova, cd. 1719, in v. 
AUREISE. To raise. See Antiu. 

They tieyng advertised, arreiaerf a greate power of 
xlli. m. and came to the pavtage, and tlewe of the 
Frcnchemen vj. c. Uill, Heiuy Vtll. t. 112. 

Soone over al thli tithing ras, 
That Lacar thus arel/twd was. 

Cumr Afunrfi, MS. VuU. Trim. Omloh. t. W. 

ARRERE-SUPPER. A rere-supper ; a colhilion 

served up in the bedroom, after the fir-it supper. 

See lluUnshcd, Hist. Scot. f. 208, as quoted by 

Boucher, in v. Amar. 

ARRIDE. To please, (iaf.) 

If her condition aniwer but her featurv. 

1 am fitted. Her form aniwcr* my all^tion t 

U arrider me exceedingly. I'll speak to her. 

r/ie ^n^fuory, 11. I. 

ARRI DGE. Tlie edge of aii}-tliing that is liable 
to hurt or cause an or, q. v. North. See A 
Guide to the Lakes, ed. 1784, p. 300. With 
this may be connected nrru, " the line of con- 
course, edge, or meeting of two surfaces." See 
Uritton's Arch. Diet, in T. 

ARRIERE. The hinder part. (/>.) This foreign 
word was formerly in use as a miUtary term, 
instead of rear. >Scc Johnson in v. 

ARRI SUES. AcconUng to Marshall's Rural 
lEconomy, i. 171, tlus is the Devonshire term 
for stubbles or eddish ; arrith mows, which he 
mriitions as little stacks set up in a Celd, seem 
to be so called merely from their being in the 
arr'ah, or stubble-field. 

AKRIVALL. A rival? 

On a day he saw a goodly young elephant in copu- 
lation with another, and Insunliy a third aproched 
with a dlrefull braying, as if he would have eaten up 
al the company, and. as it afterward appeared, he 
was an arrirall to the female which we saw in copu- 
lation with the other male, 

Toftll't fuur/MIti DtvMt, 1607, p. IS?. 

ARRI VANCE. The arrival of company. 
For every minute is ex|>ectancy 
Of moreorWrance. Otfie^tp, 11. I- 

ARRIVE. (1) To arrive at. 

But ere we could erHe* the point propoa'd, 
CkUt cried. Help me, Coaslus, or I link. 

Jii/iu< OaMT, 1. 1. 
(2) An arrival. 

Whose forests, hills, and floods, then long for her iwrlee 
From Lancashire. Itrajfton't Pol^tflbtun, p. llOfi. 

ARRODE. Herod. In the accouut of the Co- 
ventry Pageants, 1489, is a payment for " a 
goweu to Jrrode." See Sharp's Disa. on the 
Coventn- Mvst. p. 28. 
ARROGA'TION. Arrogance. Mare. 
ARRONLY. Exceedingly. Lane. 
ARROS. Arrows. 

The first of amt that the shole olT, 
Seven skorc spear-mcn the slouKhe. 

Vtrry't fUlit/Uf, p. X 




AltROSE. Thii ii the reading in one edition of 
Hardyng's Chronide, where the others read 
flrorr, q. v. 
ARKOW. Fearful. Rider. 
ARIIUW-HEAD. A kind of aquatic plant. 

ARROW-HEADERS. The making of arrow- 
heada formerly constituted n separate trade. 
Lmntcrtiert, <tryngct«,firyDUer«. 
Arrtwt-htit^M, toAiumeat and come-mongers. 

OirAn LmllM Bou, p. 10. 
ARRONVHE. An error. 

Ttils anvwrtj had he in hyi thoght. 
And In tiys thught a »lcpc hym tokn 

MS. Oiiilalf. Ft. ii. 31, t. 940. 

ARROWY. Abounding in arrows. Milton, Para- 
dise Regained, b.iii. has " sharp i/ee/ qfamtfg 
thower," which is apparently plagiarised by 
Gray in the following passage. 

Now the uorai tieglni to lower, 

Hatte, the loom of hell prepare ! 
Iron ilret of arrowy ihower 
Hurtles In the darken*,! air. 

Gnty'i Fatal SUm. 

ARRWUS. Arrows. This form of the word 
occurs in a strange burlesque printed in RcUq. 
Antiq. i. 82. 
ARRY. Anv. Somertet. 
ARRYN. To sciM. 

And Ihe Jewyi xul crye for joy with a gret Toy*, 
aodai-ryt hym, and pullynofhlt elothli, and byndyn 
bytn to a pelcre. and tkorgyn hym. 

CavtHtrit Mttteriett p. 310. 

ARS. Art J science. This word was usually cm- 
ployed to signify the occult sciences. {Lai.) 
Baroune* weore whlletn wyi and gode. 
That tliii art wet uDilur4tode ; 
Aeon Iher was, Neptanauinus, 
WJb Id Ibis ar«, and malii-loui. 

Kynf jIHaaunder, ^i. 

ARS.\RD. Unwilling j perrcrse. Vur. dial. It 
is sometimes pronounced anet. 

ARSBAWST. A fall on the back. Stuff. 

AHSBOORD. The hinder board of a cart. Staff. 

ARSEDINE. A kind of ornamental tinsel some- 
times called aiuady, or ortaJy, which last is 
probably the correct word, Ben Jonsoii men- 
tions it in his Bartholomew Fair, ii. 1. Sec 
also Sharp's Diss, on Cov. Myst. p. 29 ; Cun- 
ningham's Revels' Accounts, pp. 33, 57. See 
jinidue. Gilford considers it to be a vulgar 
corruption of arsenic, iv. 405. 

ARSELINO-POLE. The pole with which bakers 
spread the hot embers to all parts of the oven. 

AUSELINS. Biukwards. Aor/btt. 

ARSEMCK. Tlic water-pepper. The herb is 
mentioned under this name in the Nomcncla- 
tor, 1585, p. 126. It is to be distinguished 
from the mineral poison of the same name. 

ARSEPUSH. A faU on the back. Hoieell. 

ARSES.MART. The periscaria. It is caUed the 
water-pepper by Kersey, and is the translation 
of enrage in llollylioiid's Oictiouarie, I.')93. 
Coles, in liis Art of SinipUng, says, " It is said 
that if a handfull of armnart be put tmdcr the 

saddle upon a tired horse's back, it Trill 
him tra>aile fresh and lustily." See Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. iii. 165 ; Aubrey's Nat. Hist. Wiltv 
MS. Soc Reg. p. 139. 

ARSEVERSB. According to Blount's Glosso- 
graphia, ed. 1681. p. 51, this word is " a pre- 
tended spell, wTiiti n upon the door of an house 
to keep It from burning." 

ARSEWISPE. Rider gives tliis word, which 
scarcely requires explanation, as the transla. 
tion of the Latin aniterpum. 

ARSLE. To move backwards : to fidget. Eaiit, 
Cotton, in his Virgil Travestie, ed. 1734, p.S, 
hasarn«7 about, tuniiug round. 

ARSMETRIK. Arithmetic. {Lai.) 

ttrtmetrik 1« lore 

That al of Igurei is. ttS. MihrnuU tO, t. 180. 
AnJ arwmtiryH, bt cattyitg of oombrary, 
Choei Pyktegoras for her part,'. 

L^igtrt^t ifinw Poem*, p. 11* 
ARSOUN. The bow of a saddle. (.^..jV.) It ii 
sometimes used for the saddle itself. Each aad- 
die had two anouns, one in front, the other 
behind j the former calle<l the /orc-arsoim, aa 
in Ricliord Goer de Lion, 5053. In the same 
romance, 5539, speaking of King Richard, we 
are told that "both hys ortount wercn off 
yrcn." In Kyng Alisaunder, 4251, it appar- 
ently means the saddle. 

And ttie armm Ijehynde, as y yow say, 
byr Befyie unotc clcoo away. 

MS. Canlab. Ff. II. 38, I. ItS. 
On ys slede ful the dent, 

Bv,^lde the for-arKMn. MS. J-hmole SS, (^ 44. 
AUST. First; erst. 

Thu was made frcnahope ther arst wai debate, 

MS. Ilarl. 1701. f. 87. 

A< Ihou haste seyde, lo uhille hyt bee, 
Artlr y trhalle not blynne. 

MS. Canlab. Tt. h.SB, f. 7>. 

ARS-TABLE. A table used in magic, probably 
the same as the astrolalie. 

Hli ar#-(at<^ he tok out tone. 
Theo eouri he tok of tounc and mone, 
Theo court of (he planet !■ fcvi'n, 
Mc tolde al*o uDdur ticven. 

Kl/ng J/Uflwnder, flS7. 

ARSTON. A hearth-stone. I'orttA. 

.\RSV-VERSY'. Vpside down ; preposterously. 

It is translated prapotitut by Rider, and the 

second meaning is given by Kersey. Sec Hu- 

dibras, I. iii. 828 ; Urnj-ton's Poems, p. 272. 

ART. (1) A quarter; a point of the compaaa. 

(2) Eight. Krmoor. 

ARTE. To constrain : to compel. (/,«/.) See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 14; Troilus and Creseide, 
i. 389 ; Court of Love, 46 ; Iloccleve's Poems, 
p. 71. 

tn DO wlie I may mebetlur excuM, 

Than ley my will, m dul and unperttr, 

.<rfUk Die thui rudely for tendlte. jr& lbiiKl.C.4l>. 

A tiraunt wolde have urrid him by paynei, 

A cerlpyne courucl to bcwrey and (elii*. 

BoMidt, .VS. Sm:. Aniiq. 134, t. Be, 

We spckke nojte mekillo, hot whcnc we ere 

nrfWe fur to cpeke, we uy nojte hot the lothe, and 

onane we halde til ilille. Jlf«. U'inlH A. 1. 17. f.33> 






ARTEEN. Eighteen. Ermoor. 

ABTELRIES. Artillery, (.^..fif.) 

1 thAl warticttorc inin hous with tooreit, nrlcbe 
M haa ca*tel(«i alld other manere ocllflcM, moA 
alTDure* and vrtc/HM, by which thtnpei 1 may my 
(uTioneaiMl mynhoua *o kepcn aad drfcndvn, that 
min earmlca thuln lira in divde rain houi Tor to ap. 
prorhp. TaU of M^ifteuj, p. 113. 

ARTE.MAGE. Tlio art of magic. {.1..N.) 
And through the rrafle of arnmagft 
or wcze hv forged an ymage. 

GoKxr, cd. 1531, r. J3S 
ARTBR. .\ftcr. far. dial. 
ARTETVKES. A kind of gout or discue ilTect- 
ing tlu- joints. Maiindotilc incntionB, "gowlcs, 
•rtelykM," that afllicted him in his old age. 
Sec Ilia Travels, p. 315. A prescript iou for il 
io hawks ia given in the Book uf St. Albans, 
kig. C. i. It is probably connected with 
arlhrilii. See Areetik, 
ARTHOflLAXE. The aictie (Hrcle. 

The whtche irrcle and conittttadoun 
l-callcil la the ci-nJe arthefitsjt ; 
Who knowith It itedith do more to aae. 

as. IMt*f no. 
ARTH-STAPF. A poker used by bhicksmilhs. 

ARTHUR. A game at sea, which will be found 
deicribed in Grose's Class. Diet. Vulg. T. in v. 
It ia alluded to in the oovel of Peregrine 
Pickle, ch. 16. 
ARTIIl R'S-CIIACE. A kennel of black dogs, 
followed by unknown huntsmen, which were 
fonncrly behered to perform their iiortnrnal 
nmbolt in France. See Grey's Notes on 
Shakespeare, i. 34. 
ARTHUR'S-SHOW. An exhiTiition of archery 
alluded to in 2 Henry IV. iii. 2. It was con- 
ducted by a society who had assumed the arms 
and names of the iCnights of the Round Table. 
See Douee's Illustrations, i. 461. 
ARTICLE. Comprcbeniion. Shakespeare men- 
tions " a soul of great arlicUf' in Hamlet, v. 2. 
The vulgar sense is applied to a poor creature, 
or a wretched animal. This hitter ajipears 
rather slang than provincial, yet it is admitted 
into the East Anglian Vticabulary. 
ARTICULATE. To cxliibit in articles. See this 
Die of the word in Coriolanus, i. 9, where it 
menii to enter into articles of agreement. 
To tad thow things articulated here 
By our great lord, the mighty king of Spain, 
Wc with our council will deltbcratr. 

Hou'Vifu* Enrf. Diam. II. 41). 
ARTICULES. Any multiples of ten, a division 
which was formerly considered necessary iu 
arithmetic, and was probably the result of the 
abaral system, a gradual improvement of the 
Boetian notation. SceRara Mathematica,p.30. 
ARTIER. Artery. (Fr.) Sec the Shakespeare 
Society's Papers, i. 10. 

Hay DCTpr ipirlt, vein, or artier, feed 
Th« cuncd sutnlance of that cruel heart ! 

Uarlaw^t Wtrlu, i. IMi 

ARTIFICLVL. Ingenious; artful. 

H'e, llcrmla.Uke two arUficial godi, 

Ha«e with our needles cnated Iwtb one Sowet. 

4 MUi, NtgWe Ortma, Ui. !. 

ARTILLERY. Tlus word i> often applied to all 
kinds of missile weapons. Sec 1 Samael, 
XX. 40. 

ARTILLERY-GARDEN. A place near Bishops- 
gate, where people practised shooting, &c 
See Middleton's Worki, iv. 424, t. 283. 

ARTNOON. Afternoon. £sfex. 

ART-OF-MEMORY. An old game at cards, de- 
scribed in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1709, 
p. 101. 

ARTOW. Art thou. A'oW*. This is a correct 
early form, the second personal pronoun being 
frequently corabiucd with the verb in interro- 
gative sentences. See Will, and the Werwolf, 
pp.46, 183; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 51. 

.VHTRY. At p. 284 of the following work, men- 
tion is nuide of "al myn armcry and altry 

AI.O y wol that iny ion Sir Harry have all the 
reiidew of my w.irderobe and of myn arrat nat tie. 
quethen. and all myn armery and all my artrj/, 

KicSoi-' Roini tniu, p. tsa 
ARTS-MAN. A man of art. Tliis seems to he 
the meaning in I^uvc's Labonrs Lost, t. 1 . The 
old editions read artn-tnm prramliulat, which 
had better remain without alteration. 
ARTYLLED. Declared ; set out in articles. See 
Hartshome's Met. Tales, p. 250, where it may 
perhaps be an error for arlykilltd. 
ARUUAND. Riding. See Cy of Warwilce, 
p. 77, ammd! 

Atlothe half hit hor« hehlng. 

That cmnt furth annUxnd in that thriog. 

Arthour nntt itrjUn, p. 929. 

A klitght com orvaiMf [amand ?] with gret rcve, 

Y-armecl In armea alle. JIM. p. 310. 

ARUEMOUWE. Early in the raoming. {A.-S.) 

See Arthour aud Merhn, p. 178, but the proper 

form, I believe, is amtmorwt, q. v. 

ARUM. An arm. 

And he havea on thoni his arxtm, 
Thetof it ful nilkel haruro. BartM, 1982. 

ARUNDE. An crrond. 

And thy moiler, Mary, hevyn qwene, 
Bere our or„«ife »,-> bytwcne. 

That aemily ytof »yght. Emar^, 9* 

ARUWE. An arrow. 

Ac an Af uie« oway ho turo 
In hi* eld woimde. Sir TriMtr«m, p, 304. 

.ARVAL. A-fimeral. Nirrth. AreaUmpper is 
a funeral feast given to the friends of the de- 
ceased, at which a parlicuhu' kind of loaf, 
called emU-iread, ia sometimes distributed 
among the poor. J i vl-inmd is > coane 
cake, composed of flour, water, yeast, cuiniiii, 
and some kind of spice ; in form round, about 
eight inches in diameter, and the appcr sur- 
ttce always scored, perhaps exliibiting origi- 
nally the sign of the crms. Not many years 
since . ne of these arvai$ was celebrated in • 
\illagcin Yorkshire at a pnbhc-house, the sign 
of which was the family arms of a nobleman 
whose motto is, Virliupoal fanera tivit. The 
undertaker, who, though a clerk, was no scho- 
lar, requested a gtmtleman present to explain 
to him the meaning of thc»e I>atin words. 



which he re«(lily ami farcliously did in the 
following manner : Virtut, a purish clerk, 
riri/, lives well, post funtra^ at an arcal ! Sec 
Dance's Illustrations, ii. 203. 
ARV^'ST-GOS. A atubble goose. 
A yong wyf and an airyrt-^n, 

UcKhF gigll with bolhe : 
A man that [hath] ham yn hU doa, 

Rcate achal he wrotUc. Hr/iv- Anti^, li. I IX 
ARWB. (1) An arrow. Cf. Rob. Glouc.p. 18. 
That wel kcp«n that caatel 
From ttrwet ahet, and quarrJ. 

Camr Mundi, US. Cull. Trln. Cni(a6. f. G.1. 
Wcpcni of arufs trgh of men anno. 
Aud thar tung tharpe ftwerde In «unn« 

MS. Boill. Ui, I. rj. 
For tome that ;cdc yn tlie strrt«, 
Sawe arwy* fro herene thcte. 

Jl/S. Harl. 1701, r. 10. 

(2) Timid; fearful. See Hob. Glouc. p. 457, 
" his liert once as an bare." erroneously ex- 
plained nci/l. Mr. Way refers lo an instance 
in Richard Coer dc Lion, 3H21, but Weber 
has arranged the line tiitfercuUy in his 

Thou aaiat mh, hardy and hard. 

And thou art at arwe conrar'l I 

lie U the rur<ite tn echp bjtalle; 

Thou art b)'h)nde ay at Ihi' talle. 

Kyt4g AlUnimtlrT. lOV). 

AKWEBLAST. A crossbow. We have already had 
this word, in v. Alblaal, and .irhlatl. For this 
form of it, sec Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 2 1 ? ; 
Ellis's Metrical Koni. ii. 25S ; Kicliard Coer dc 
Lion, 2037. 3851, 3970, 4453,4481, 5867 i 
spelt arrowbUule, &c. 

The galcyc wentc atioo faitc 
As quarrel dot olT the orwtbtOMl. 

HIclMrd Omi dt Lion, 2024. 

ARWEL Tbis word is translated by defloraunt, 
in an early Anglo-Norman gloss, printed in 
Rcliq. Aniiq. ii. 81. 

ARWE-MEN. Bowmen. 

lie calde bolhe anee-mtH and kene 
KnitheSf aod scrgaiia twithe aide. 

Harttak, 9115. 

ASTNB. Are. 

For allc theiorowe that wo atyne Innc, 
It ei like dele fur oure »yiie. 

Sif Itiimlinu, MS. Linnitil, 114. 

AETOLES. Soothsayers ; diviners. (Lat.) 

j4nfotc4t nygromanceri, brought theym to the 
■urton of ther God Phirbus, and ollVed theym ther. 
and than they haddeaniwtref. Barthut. Angt.Trcvtto 
ARYSE. Arisen. 

Ryght aa he wta aiyM, 

Of bU wound) n he waa agrUe. 

Kmr Mitautidtr, 37411 

ARYSTE. Amu. See the Union Inventories. 

p. &, " iy. peece* of arytte." 
ARYST. See^roryiy. 
ARYVEN. Arrived. 

Wyndea and weilers hslhe hlr dryvea. 
That in a foreit she la ttr^p**t, 
Wlicra arylde beatya were. 
TWranl <i/ /Vf nira'i t' "•• 



Jhon Vecre, 

AR5ES. Is fearful. (,/.-S.) 

A I Avee, quod the qwenc, me ar]« of myaelfe. 

MB. .^<lll,u^f u. r. 9. 
AS. (1) Tliat -.which, lor. dial. In tbe Eiwtcrn 
counties it is sometimes used for who, and it is 
frequently redundant, as " He will come o* to- 
(2) Has. 

That hold chcrcho <u bound mc to, 
Grawnt me grace that fore to do. 

jtudelar'l Pvmt, p. (7. 
Sad ; sorrowful. 
SeMe wcs he glad. 
That never nei a-«ad 
Of nythe ant of undo, 

n-iiglifi Pal. Somtt, p. Hi. 
Y dude aa hue me bad, 
or me hue la a-<aif. Rillf. AnUf. L tB. 

Erie or Ozenrorde, thai withdrew* hym 
n-ome Barnet fclde, and rode into bcottlonde. and 
ft. 'me then* mto Fraunce u/aUett, and ther be waa 
wortvbl|)fulIy received, 

n'arkunrlk'i Chnrntclt, p. M. 
ASALY. To assault ; lo besiege. 

Hll bygonne an holy Thorci eve then toon agalr 

Slalwardlyche and vaale y-nou, noblemen aa yt 
were. AoS Clow. p. 304. 

AS.AR.UES. To arras! (A.-N.) 
.4i armts / Ihanne crlde Rolond. 
M m-tiuif ! overechuu I MH. Mhmoll SI, f. 90. 
jit a rMi£« / fvrcn, nede It ia. 

ArtlUMr and MtHim, fi. SHI . 
ASAl'GHT. An assault. meUUT'. 

Kyng Wyllam wonde ajen, tho al thy» waa y-dOf 
And bygan aone to grony aod to fcbly al lo. 
Vor travayl of the foul luir^t, and vor he waa feblc or. 
Red. Glmic. |i. 3H0. 

ASBATE. A purchase. Skinner asserts that he 
bad only once met with tbis word ; he docs not 
pivc a reference, and believes it to be a mis- 
take for ashale, q. v. It is perluips to be found 
in some editions of Cbauccr. 

AS-BUIRD. Ashes lioard ; a box in which ashe* 
arc carried. North. 

ASCANCE. Obli<iiicly. 

At thU queatlon Itofader, turning hit head tiieauct, 
and bending hii brpwci .« If anger there had ploughed 
the furrowea of her wiath, with hiaeyei full of Brc, 
fac« made thii rcplie. 

Rupltue* Gt*liirn Legate, op. Cctlieft p. IS. 

ASCAPART. The name of a giant whom Beris 
of Hampton conquered, according to the old 
romance. His effigy may be seen on I be city 
gates of Southampton. He is said to have bceu 
thirty feet long, and to have carried Sir Bevis, 
bis wife, and borse, under bis arm. Allusions 
to him occiu- in Sbakespcorc, Drayton, and 
other Elizabethan writers. 
.VSCAPE. To escape. Someiimcs ayehape. See 
Kvng Alisaundcr, 1120; Gy of Wans ike, p. 
230; Picri Ploughman, pp. 40, 121. 
I hope tharw Godn heipe and thyne, 
We tchullc ascupe al oure p>'ne. 

MS. ^dHil. 1IIU3U. r. jn, 
Whinne the emporoure tawc him, he yaf lo him 
Ilia duwtcrlo wyfe, be-caute that ike hade to wyMly 
,i*t.2pltlt the peril of the gardine. 

GvHh ftt^MaiK'ncM, p. 101 



Ich eroour be oollc me tmupt t 
Hou troufttu, Neldr, ich mouc a*tvp*f 

J/.S-.B«j**ll8,f. I«7. 
I kan bi no iMJ)rnt\ie knowe nouj the bnt 
How j« mowe uuhenl or bniinlt'i lurhmpt, 

mil. find thti Werwi^t p. 61 . 
Th»n ihuUlc Ihey do ryjl penauDce 
For to aikitpt tbyi inyKliauncc. 

11 X. Hart. 1 701. f. «. 

ASCAK. An uker ; a person ■who ask». 

Aflrr the wlckydnc* of the o»fitr nchol Ite the 
wlckiilne^ of the prophet ; and t i.rhal stri-ke out 
my hand on him, and do brra a-wty fro the middU 
of ml pcple. -rlpitlogii fiiT lilt VMarii, p. 60. 

I ASl'AT. Broken like an egg. Somiriet. 
I ASCAL'NCE. TliU i« inle n)retcd ailant, tide- 
tray; ill the gloBsnrics, but TjTwhitt justly 
" i it* tjiplicatlon in all llic following pa»- 
" AiKtttmt, however, occurs in the early 
lediHons of Hamlet, iv. 7, where the 
folio of 1623, reads o*<atif. Sec also Troilu* 
and Creseidc, i. 292. It apparently means 
tearcely, <u \f to say, at if; and is perhaps 
somctiines an expletive, it scoiiis, however, 
to mean aManl in Troiliis and Crescide, i. 205 ; 
L* Belle Daiiic sans Mercy, 604. 

And wrote alway the naincf, mi be ttood, 

I Of mile folk tfiat yavc hem any good, 

v^ftounre that be wolde for hem preye. 
CAauccr. CVin(. T. 732"- 
And erety man that hath ought in hit cofrr. 
Let him appeie. and wex a philoiophre, 
AtauHct that ciaJt ll«> light tn Urc. Idid. 163CKL 

JikauM >hc may nal to the Ictirei ley nny. 
L^dgatr^t SlUtor Pottmtt p. 35. 
And too the kynge* atlatmcr caroc to air Tristram 
to oomforte hyro aa he laye Kkcin hii bedde. 
ilorln iTArtliur, i. SUB. 
ASCENDANT. A term in judicial astrology, 
denotiog thai degree of ihc cclii)lic which is 
riling in the eastern part of the horizon at the 
liroe of any person's birth, and supposed to 
eierciie great influence over his fortune. It 
it now uicd metaphorically. 
ASCBNT. Agreement. 

Tb« number waa, be ryght ojrrar. 
Off hor»-men ao hundryd thoutcnt. 

nirlutrd a«r i/e Uim, 3(H1. 

ASCH-CAKE. Bread baked umler ashes. See 

IMS. Bibl. Reg. 12 B. i, f. 32 ; and the NoBieu 
cidtor, 1585, p. H4. 
ASCHE. To ask. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 16. 
Tbe kyug of Ytraelle thai lady can aiekt, 
Vf ache myght tbe ace ovyr-paa«e. 
Jlf.V. randll.. Ff II. 38. f. (V. 
We do na tynnet, nc we wlllc hafe na marc ihiine 
rMoneof kyndr sacAu. ilS. Uiuxln A. I. 17. f.^il. 
ASCIIES. Ashes. 

Who to covcrrttae the coles of that wodcundlr the 
■mcAm Ihrre-oOe.'thc colei wU duelleo and abyden 
aile quyk a jerc or more. 

iltundcirUc't Tnmli, p. USD. 

■ ASCHONNE. To shun ; to avoid. 
Tliry myjte not lueAunn* the aorowe they had aerved. 
Oe(<o»i((..n n/ HlrharJ II. p. 14. 

ASCIETH. Enquireth after; seckcth. 
^ Forbeknowcth wcl and wot wel that hedoilh yvel, 

^H and therfore man ajcicth Mid huntcth and ilceth hym, 

H tai fit foe al that, he may not leve hl> yvel luture. 
^ JfS. Bepdl MC 


ASCILL. Vinegar. 

A'rW acd ^all to hi! dytirre 
I made llicm for to dightc. Oioler Ptay. ii. 7»- 
ASCITE. To call ; to summon. See Wright's 
Monastic Lett. p. 78 ; Halle's Expost. p. 1 4. 

Hun aiuwered lliat the infant had no propertir Id 
the ahel, wherupon the prieat atritei him in the 
■pirllual courte. Hall, Henry I'7J1. f. 50. 

ASCLANDERD. Slandered. 

But for hit moder no tchuld aniAHderd tie. 
That hycwiLh childe unwcdded •eie. 

JfartiiMahd Anni', p I4d 

ASCON. To ask. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 89. 
Tundale he went upon a day 
To a rnon, to ainwx hia pay 

For ihre burilj that he had aold. rnnda/e, p. 1. 
ASCRIDE. Across; astride. Somenet. Some- 
times written aMkrfd and lukrod. 
ASCRY. To cry ; to report ; to proclaim. Hence, 
to lictray, as in Ywaine and Gawin, 584. 
Heame, gloss, to Peter Longtoft, p. 217, ei- 
plains it '• to cry to," an interpretation adopted 
in the Towncle'y Mysteries, p. 193. It means 
there to assail with a shout, as Mr. Dyce oh- 
serves, notes to Skelton, p. 152. Palsgrave 
has it in the sense to descry, to discover. 
Bot aonp when he herd ittcry 
That klne Edward waanere thaiby. 
Than dunt he noght cum nerc. 

Mmot'a Pbtm*, p. 14. 
Writ how murhc wai hia myacbief. 
Whan they aarryedon hym aaa tlicf. 

MS. ^d<HM1307. r. 19. 

ASCRYVE. To ascribe ; to impute. Pahyrme. 
ASE. (1) Ashes. A'or^A. 
(2) As. 

The kyng haihe a dowghttyr f»r«r •« Oowyr, 
Dytet-nyr wa« her name. Torrent ofPmtugat, p. ?. 
ASELE. To seal. See Piers Ploughman, p. 511; 
Rob. Glouc. p. 510. The proclamatinu of the 
Mayor of Norwich in 1424 directed " that all 
brcwsters and gannokers selle a gallon ale of 
the best, be measturc o-nlyd." See Prompt. 
Parr. p. 186. It seems there to haTC the mean- 
ing of established, eonfimied. 

That olhir the abbot olT Seynt AlbOD. 
Tliat brought hym lellrii «i.eciile, 
^trlyd with the barnun> tele, 
Tlial toldcn hym, hya brolhlr Jhon 
Wclde do corowoe hym alion. 

Riehnrd fWr ife U>m,6tlt. 

ASELY. To assoil, give absolution, which wa» 
usually done before a fight. Mr. Stevenson 
explains it, to receive the sacrament, in which 
cose it may lie only another form of hotely, q. v. 
The Norm'ant ne dude nojl lo, ac hil eryde on Cod 
vaate, y'""'- 

An.l Mtyvc lirm ech after other, the wulc the ny;t 
And niiioiwc hem Xcitateln wyth mylde bene y-nou. 
Rob. iiUrue. p. 00tt> 


And either ott at iwitlie fatt B>crled other. 

And oeemWeJcn iwllhe lletnli either oat to-gad»r. 

Will, anil lilt ireruo'/. p. 137. 
ASEMYS. In the Prompt. Parv. p. 2«9, this 

in the sj'nonyme of laalynr huly, indiynor. 
ASENE. Seen. See Chronicle of England, 44 ; 

Tundale's Visions, p. 51 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 

84? T Rcliq. Antiq. i. 109. 




ASERE. To become dr)'. See the Sevvn Sages, 
606. Mr. Stevenson derive! it from the verb 
to Mfar. 
ASEKRE. Axurc. 

He burr {uerr* ft fTTP* *^ golAv, 
Rychcly bctoD on the molde. 

MS. Canfiit. Tl. 0. S8, t. 09. 

ASERVED. Deserved. 

Lord, he tfide, Jhecu Crisf, 
Ich thonky the wel fute 
ThAt ich it hare atrnvrd 
tn fttte the ;«!;• to wend& 

Its. Cell. Trill. Orax. gj. 
And thou torcwe that thou lUfrred hmit. 
And dies It were wouj. US. Laud. 108, t. i. 
ASERVI. To serve. 

Hiiheorte him jaf for to wendc 
In-lu a priT^ itudc aod itillc. 
Thare he mtjte iMO alone 
To uMrri Gtldes wllle. 

M.V- Laud. 108, r. )0t. 

ASESSE. To cause to cease ; to stop, 
into Yngclond thcnne wolde be. 
And oMuwe the werrc anou 
Betwyxe hyn and hyi brother Jhnn. 

Alckont Caar^ Um, 8311. 

ASETH. Satitiaction or amenda for an injury. 

Sec Prompt. Parr. p. 1S2 ; Gesta Romanorum, 

pp. 275. 460 ; Wickliffe's New Test. p. 53. 

We may not tie aauiyled of tho treapaa. 

Dot if we make oaarA in that at we may. 

MS. ttarl. JOSS, f. 63. 
Here byfore he myghte cthc 
Sooe hofe mad me atrlht. 

tIS. LInnIn A. I. 17, f. 139. 

It waa Itkyng to jow, Fadlre, for loiende mc Into 

Ihii wcrldc that 1 lulde make u»ethii for matu Iri-i- 

pa> that he did to ui. Hid. f. 171). 

ASEWRE. Azure. 

At the brygge ende itoodyth a towre, 
Pcyntyd wytb guide and tutwre, 

MS. Canlo*. Ff. li. 38, f. lOS. 
ASEWRYD. Auored; promised. 

But y uke more then y waa ofeterytf, 
V may not have whrrc nojte ya leryd. 

lUlii. ^nlli. I. S8. 
ASEYNT. Uwt. (.y.-S.) 

Al here atyl and imour waa al-M>aae>nt. 

fto^. G/tfwr. p. SI. 
AS-PAST. Anon; immediately. Cf. Prompt. 

Parr. p. 15 ; Truiliis and Creseidc, v. IC4U. 
ASGAL. A newt. Salop. 
ASII. (1) Stubble. Soul/i. Walter de Bibbles- 
wtirtli, MS. Artuid. 220, C 301, lias " le Ueasel, 
ntchc of com." 
(2) To ask. Lave. See Mtche. 
ASHATE. See Atialr. It is so written in Urr/s 
Chaucer, p. 5, where TjTwhitt's edition reads 
ASil-BlN. A receptacle for ashes and other dirt. 

ASH-CAVDLES. The teed vessels of the ash 

tree. Dorset, 
ASHELT. Likely ; [irobably ; perhaps. MwM. 
ASHEN. Ashes. .Vor/A. 

Thcrwiih the fire of Jaluualo np Werto 
Within hit lireii. and heat bim l>y the hirrte 
So woodly, that he like waa to behold 
The tjoa Iter, or the ojVn ded and coltl. 

Omuctr, (»Hl. T \3M, 

ASHERLAND. According to Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, " assarts, or woodland grub'd 
and ploughed up." North. 
ASII-IIEAPS. A method of divination, 
of o«A-Aeape«, In the which ye tue 
HuitiandB and wives by streakca tochuic ; 
Of crackling laurell, which fore^niDda 
A pleotlou* harvest to your grounds. 

HtrricHfl IVorlH, I. 176. 

ASHIED. Made white, as with wood ashes. 
Old Winter, clad in high furres, ihowen of nine. 
Appearing in his eyes, who illll doth goe 
In a rug gownc, wAicd with Bakes of coow. 

Htywoo^t Marriagt Triumplttt 1613, 
ASIIISII. Sideways. Sonurttl. 
ASH-KEYS. The fruit of the ash. The failure 
of a crop of ash-keys is said in some countica 
to portend a death in the royal fauiily. Sea, 
Forby, ii. 406. 
ASH LA R. Hewn orsquared stone, ready forbuild- 
ing. See Britten's Arch. Diet, in v. " Slophu^ 
anheler," MS. Bodl. 837, f. 134. Cf. Colifrave, 
in V. Attendant, lioutlice. Grose gives thi 
word as peculiar to Cumberland, and signifyin{_ 
" a large free stone," and according to some, 
it is or was common among builders to denote 
free-stones as they come from the quarry. Tlie 
tern) is still in common use. In the inden- 
ture for ihe construction of the dormitory at 
Durham, 1398, the mason engages that a cer- 
tain wall shall be " cxtcrius de puro lapiile 
vocato achilrr plane inscisso, inlcrius vero de 
fracto lapide vocato nghwall." See Willis'* 
Architectural Nomenclature, p. 25. 
ASHORE. Aside. iVnl. It is used in the sonic 
sense as ajar, a|iplie<l to a iloor. Weber is in 
doubt about its meaning in the following pas- 
sage, but Ihe word is common in the West of 
England, although it docs not appear to hava; 
found a place in the glossaries. 
Ever .iftcr the doggca wer *-i Starke, 
Tbel tiiyXc lurhort when thei •ehiilil barke. 

Htii,lllfl,g •■/ lilt Han, StT, 

ASH-PAN. A metal pan fitted to the under part 

of the grate, into which the ashes £all from the 

fire. JJne. 

ASIl-TRL G. A co»l-6Cuttle. Xortk. 

ASHUNCHB. To repent.' 

Mid thupplng ne mey hit meaaAUJwAe, 

Nc« y never wycche nc wyle ; 
Ych am a tnaidr. that me of-thunche, 
Lucf me were gome boutc gyle. 

»rrjy<.Ca Ltric ri*<rjr, p. .IK. 

ASH-WEDNESD.VY. The first (hiy of Lent, so 
called from the ancient ecremonyof the placing 
of ashes on the heads of persons on that dajr 
by the priest, who said, li Remember, man, 
that thou art ashes, and unto ashes thou sihalt 
return." This ceremony was alxiUshi'd early 
in the reign of Edward YI. See Bccon'a 
Works, p. 110. 

ASIUEN. On one side ; oblique ; aslant, tf'ett. 
Rider has atidmam in hi> Dictionorio, 1640, 
in the same sense. 

ASILE. An asylum. 

Fly unto prayer aa unto an holy anchor, or lure 
ttillK, and itrong bulwark. Btcon'* tVmti*, p. 1S8. 







A9I?(. Made of ashen wood. 

I wil do ih*t I mny, 11111 irll rather drtakc in an 
a*iH cup tliui you or yourt thudc not be MKCcrd both 
by wa and land. Arclim>tegia, xill. BlS. 

ASINGS. Easingi. Salop. 
A-SIT. To tit against i i. c, to receive the blow 
without being unhorsed. 
A-lrft he fmot and a-right. 

Noo his jL-tit <i-^f mi^ht. Arthour and Martin, p. 301. 
No man ne myghtc with itrengthc ojirffc 

Hy> twordn draught. Odtvimn, 166S. 

ASIW. To follow. 

AlisHundrc wrnic Bf;eyn, 
Vuyk aaiutth hira ol fail meo. 

Kyng Mitaundrr, MM. 

ASK. (1), A water newt. North. Floriohu 
the word, in v, ilagnSno. It it sometimes 
written ttiiani, and otM. Sec Atter. 
(2) To require. 

Ho «(■ hit tenipreth by power* 
So hit n4kith In furhe maner. 

Kynif Aliaaundert G)?19. 

ASKEFISE. This word in transUted by einiflo 
in the PrompL Parv. p. 15. Ihre, in v. .luka, 
saj'D, " qui dncrihus oppedit." Sec further 
instances collected bv Mr. Way, in loc. cit, 
ASKEN. Ashes. 

Hwan the dnm waa derad and aeyd, 
Skct wa» the iwikeon theaiteleyd. 
And (M] him til that like grrne. 
And brcnil til n\kri\ al bidene. Htttttok, f»\l 
ASKER. (1) A Kab. 

nub It till It bleedc ; then Uke and bind it therito 
fSor three dale*, In which tpacc you >hall see a whit.- 
■afcar on the »orv ; then take that ofT, and annoint it 
vilh oyle of rOACs or frttli butter untill it be 
throagbly cured. TvtMell** FuUr-/u4.fnt Btnulf.jt 4MJ. 
(2) A land or water newt. lor. dial. Kennett, 
MS. Lansd. 10.')3, givc5 this form as a 
Staflbrdshire word. 
ASKES. Ashes. (J.-S.) See Reliq. Antiq. i. 53 ; 
MS. Bib. Reg. 17 C. n-ii. f. 48; Ashmole's 
Thcat. Chcin. Brit. p. 129; Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 21. 252, 26G; Gcsta Romanorum, p. 456; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 49. 

^^ Thynk, man, he tay», a«Jbm ertow now, 

^K And into asket agayu turn aaltow. 

^M MS. OM. Chjlha E. ix. r. 75. 

^H Thenk.mon, he Kith, oilriKiri thou now, 

^H And intooj/nif tume tchalt thou. 

^^^^ MS. Aihnuile 41, t. i. 

^^^^^L Atkm J rie initede of breed, 

^^HP My drynke y> water that y wrpc. 

^^■^ MS. CaHitiD. rr. ii. 9)1, r. 2. 

■ ASKEW. Awry. lar.diaL See Baret's Alvearie, 

■ LSHQ, in v. 
ASKILE. Aside. 

What iho' the uomfui waiter looki oaJHfe, 
_ And iKiutt and hownf, and cur»eth thee the while. 
Hairt Sallm, T. i. 

Cuapaans prayd hym itand •tlUe, 
While he askyd bym <u^v'«. //lomyiloti, NS4. 

ASKINGS. The publication of marriage by 

banns. Yorkuh. 
A-SKOP. In scoff; deriilingly, 
AliMundre lokid n^ttkr^f. 
Aa lie DO (cf Bought therof. 

Kynf AUmndtr, flU. 

ASKOWSE. To excnse. Cf. Cot. Myit. p. 2. 

Bot thow can UMkouvt tlie. 
Thaw Khali abey, y cUi ihs. 

Frtr« and IMt Bc>r* St. xxsr. 
ASKRYE. A shriek ; a shout. 
And wretchydiy 

Hath made aa*fv«. Skfitoti'tPnemttii. 63. 
ASKY. (1) Dry; parched. Generally applied 
(o land, hut sometimes used for huiki/. North. 
(2) To ask. 

Itoland of hnrc gan oaAy than 

Of Wat kynde was comen that like man. 

MS. Athmolt as, r. 45. 
To OMki that never no wcs, 

It la a foie ukclng. Sir TriMtrtrnk, p. SMi. 

ASLAKE. To sUckcn ; to abate. {A.-S.) Sec 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 1762, 3553; Lydgatc's 
Minor Poems, p. 231 ; Ancient Poetical Tracts, 
p. IS; Scvcu Penitential Psalms, p. 11; Brit. 
Bilil. iv. 105. 

Fourtl day> mpite thou glf me. 
Til that mi Kirwe atlakeil be. 

Cn of n'am'Ow, p. 813. 
ASLASH. Aslant ; crosswise. lAnc. 
ASLAT. Cracked like an earthen vessel. Devon. 
A-SLAWE. Shiin. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 170. 
Nay, quath on. the dcrel him drawe. 
For be bath my loid m-^tnwe. 

US. AMhtmlt as, t. to. 
ASLEN. Ailope. Someml. 
ASLEPED. Asleep. 

That other woodneue is cirped woodneaae ilepynge, 
for thel lye aiwey, and maketh lembiaunt aa jif ihei 
were aihprd, and ao Itael dyeih witlioute mete. 

MS. Ouf/. MC. 
ASLET. OhUqtie. Prompt. Parv. 
ASLEW. Oblique. Eait Siiuex. 
.ISLIDE. Tn slide away ; to escape. 

Let soche foUe out of your hertc •u^'rff. 

C»»«e<r, ed. t/pt», p. ] 1*. 
A-SLON. SUin. 

Tlur mcD niyjt lee anou 
Kiiiy • dowjty man a-jt/tm. 

MS. Doure 23S, f. ». 

ASLOPE. Sloping. In the Chester PUy«, 1 125, 
i» the phrase, " the devi]I of the tope." The 
Bod]. MS. 175, reads athpe. 

For trust that thci havr tn In hope, 
Wbiche frll hem aftlrvard atfope. 

Horn. 0/ thr Roff. 4464. 
This plscc U Kuppo'^ to lio In the ronBnn of 
Shrup«hlre aloft upon the lop of an high hill there, 
environed with a triple ramplre and ditch of RTent 
depths having throe entrlc* into It, notdlrcetlle oue 
Jigalnit anotlwr, but tutupt, 

UoHtufu4, Htwt. nf EnfUtHtt, p. 3tt. 

ASLOPEN. Asleep. This is probably for the 
sake of the rhyme. 

Call to our nulds \ good nifhc ; we are lU ffaAi|»n. 
Mi^Utntk, L £67. 
A.SLOUGH. Slew; killed. 

Glf teh thi ftone o«her a-ttough. 
It w» me delendant anough. 

Cy n/ irnrwiktt p. MO, 
That hadde y-cbaced Richardone. 
Wan he a-tlnw kyng CUr)'oiie. 

MS. AMhmntg .13, t CO. 

ASLOUTE. Aslant; obliquely. Prompt. Parv. 
Mr. Way, p. 6, wrongly prints tulonte^ but oar 
reading is confirmed by another entry at p. 15, 


\SLOWEN. Slew. 

Ani) noldoi bl-uken him no fruyl, 
Akc milowen him at the Utte. 

MS. tytuJ. IM. r. .1. 

ASLUPPE. To lUp «w«y. (^.-X) 

Betrre U uken a ccmi-llche y- clothe. 

Id arrori to cutae ant to cluppe. 
Then a wrccche y-wertdcd lo wrothe, 

Thab be me alove, tw myhfl him OMlupp*, 

tfrighf Lyric Porlry, (). M. 

ASLY. WilUngly. .\orlA. R«y hju it in his 

CDglisk Words, lG'4,p. .1. See also Kennett's 

Glossary, MS. Lanml. 1033, t. 23. It is 

sometimes spelt tullry. 

ASMAN. An ass-driver. 

And ye mnit ycvc yowre tuman curtesy a grot, 
other a rro'tet of Vcnysr. MS, Bvil. MA. 

ASMATRYK. Arithmetic. 

of calculaiinn ami iipfcremauiicye. 
Also of augrym and of utntatryk. 

Coventry My*l*riest p. 189. 
ASMELLE. To smeU. 

The tior hem gan ful fone armWfe ; 
Ech he het thcrof hi> fcIlK &»yn Sagtt, mi. 
ASUCIEU. Associated. Sec Account of the 
Grocers' Company, p. 321 . 

Oftfl fluche have ben atttcivd and felawaehlpped to 
armut, the whiche hir owoe lorttea ne luKCe nojt to 
have in lerviw. Vegniut, US. Dnuce 891, f. 11 

ASOFTE. To soften. 

That with hc(« lieeme*. when the it alofte, 
Hay all the tnnibill asuayeanU a*^f. 
Of worldcly wawca within thli mortall tec. 

l^pttt, MS. Aiil<mt4r XI, t S. 

ASOSDRI. Asunder; separated. (A.-S.) 
Ther wat ferly aonre and ttjt, 
When thai ichuld aivndri fare. 

Legend ^f Pope Ortgary* p. 8< 
Aevulrp were thcl oevere, 
Na moorc than myn hand may 
Mere vrllhoutv my fyngre*. 

PUn Ptovghmmttt p. 350. 


Heom Mlf ojonlrcn In ther-mit. 

IT. Mapei, tiyp. p. 3«S. 

ASOON. At even. A'orf*. 
ASOSIIE. Awry; aslant. Eait. PalagnTC says, 
" ait nnewearctb his bonnet." Somettmes spelt 
athiuhe. See^nnuA 
A-SOUXD. In a swoon. 

They hsng'd their hodi, they drooped down, 

A word they could not iprfilt t 
ItobiD taid. BecAUKT I fell a.*mtnd, 

I ibink ye'll do the like. Rotin Hood. I. Ui. 

ASOURE. " Gumme of ojonre" is mentioned iu 
a medical receipt printed in Reliq. Antiq. 
i. 53. 
ASOYUNGE. Absolution. 

And to lywl thia maoKinne, and the oa^tlnir* ■) so. 
We aialjnicth the biaiop of WInchntre thcr-lci. 

n'-6. amu. p. Mi. 

ASOYNEDE. Excused. So lleamc explains it. 
See the passage in Rob. Glouc. p. 539, and 
jiuoine. It is tramlated by r^utolnt in 
Prompt. Parr, and made synonymous with 

ASP. A kind of poplar. Tbcword Is still in use 
in llcrcford^Uirf. "The poplcr or tupe tree, 
popalua," — Vocabula Staululgii, 1615. See 



Prompt. Parv. p. 15 ; Florio, in T. BrUti 
the curious enumeration of trees in Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 2923. 
ASPARE. To spare. (,^.-A^) 

And seyen ha wat a nygard 
That no good myghte 
To frcad no to fremmed. 
The fend have bia toule I 

Pim i>l*aif*aim, f. sea, 
ASPAUD. Astride. NorlA. 

Tbebryjte tonne in hcrte began tocolde* 
Inly atlonled In hit lupecrioun. 

Lfit^lt. MS. Sk. Aoti^. 134. f. i. 

ASPECIIE. A serpent. Sec Coopcri Thcsaunu, 

in V. ///Bj'. 
ASPECT. This woril was almost invariably ae- 

cented on the last syllable iu tbe time of 

Shakespeare. See Farmer's Essay, ed. 1821, 

p. 34. 
ASPECTE. Expectation. 

The 10. of Jun 1 was ditcharged from bands at the 

atalseSiCutitrary to the ^apfcte of all 

MS jli 


V'lr yf lnv« a damscU yn atp^e^iai, 

Atiil thyukc un here to do coctAffe ( 

When ichc*ryth galauiy* revrll yn hall* 

Vu hero hf^rt »h« thyukya owcra)(r. 

ItWif. wfnll«. i. S). 
Soo that thvy may too thy mercy ateyne. 
A( thy« perlameiic mo*t in aA*^>fr^//e. 

MS. CantHt.. F(. i. ft. t. a, 

ASPEN-LEAF. Mrtaphoricnlly. the tongue. 
For tr thry myghte tie iuffrrd to bc«ln oau tn the 
congrefarion to fal in ilinputlnf;, (lio*c M^ten-timm 
of thein would never Ictvt wagiiyait. 

Sir r. Mvr^t ITorktt, p* 7^ 

ASPER. A kind of Turkish coin. Simmer, 
ASPER.VUNCE. Hope. (^.-iV.) 

Forthfrlr Jsprrttumee, and many one. 

ComrtM iifLprr, lOKU 

ASPERAUNT. Bold. (^..A^.) 

Hy bra oathelp* falre an<l wlghth. 
And ffode» and engynrful (o Aghthi 
And have boraea avenauni, 
To hem italworthe and atperaunt. 

K^Hg Mi»aU9ta«r, 4K7]. 

ASPERE. A kind of hawk. 

There li a qui«tyon axed whether a man •hall rail 

a i(tare hawk or a kpere hawke, or an ntpert hawke 

The Bty^k of St. Mbau», ed. lUlO. aif. C. III. 


Strong kuighi he waa hardi and mv\, 
Tbar he defended hlra OMpertidu. 

Cif qf Wanpike, p. M. 
ASPERLY. Roughly. Sec Skelton'* Work*, 
i. 205 ; Boucher, in t. ^sprely. 
And Alexander with hit ml him a*pert^fu\o*t4. 
MS. jUhmoie 44, (. 4f!. 

ASPERNK. To sptirn. 

It waa pmdente poUerle not to etprme and dt»- 
dcyne the lytle «mal] powre aod wcAkenet of thr 
eunemye. HttU, Hicltard IU. f. m. 

ASPERSION. AsprinkUng. Thi&onginal sense 
ofthewordisQOt now in tise. Sw the Tempest, 
iv. 1 ; Top5cU'f Koiu'-Footrd Beasts, p. H. 
yiorio write* it atperffii^, in v. AbtttrrfaWiir. 


ASPET. Sight ; nspect. 

In thyn an^t ben alle llvhc. 

Tho povere men and nk I be rlchc ! 

Cowtr, MS. Sef. Aniif. IM, r.£8. 

ASPHODIL. AdaffodiL Florio gives it u the 

translation of hrroiao. 
ASPIUIS. A serpent; an aspis. The correct 
Latin word is given in the argument. 
\ lenKnl. whlrhc that lUpiiU 
ticlrpidr of hij kynile hath Ihi*. 

Cmiitr. MS. .«><■. y»(lf . 134, 1. 41. 

ASPIE. (1) To espie. (J..S.) See Cliauccr, 
Cant. T. l.tS'il ; Gcsta Komanurum, p. 201 : 
Pirnv rinughinnii, p. 350. 

The pep) I to (ut to hym doth falle, 

Ue prevy menyt, a« wc nipfe i 
jyf he procede, ton »en je lalla 
Thai oure la^yf he wyl dyttrye. 

Con-itfry Mflerin, p. »^9. 

(2) A spy. Sec the lIouAe of Fame, iL 196. 
Ptlato *rnt oule hift a*pi*t, 
SIklclkhe bi r<le «]«. MS. AMU. inOS, f. tt. 
1 Khal Mtle roemyleei bitwixe thee ami the 
wonimaa. atid bitwivc thi tt-eri and hir i«eU ] the 
thai brrke thin hed, and thou ichalt lelte utpifs 10 
Mr hwle. It;.kliffi, MS. U«4I. 277. 

ASPILL. A rude or »511y clown. Yorkuh. 
ASPIOUR. A spy ; a scout. 

Al*0(hatth«i mowe the blether lukc, and thebetir 
wll goo and ctnne «hcn they ben lend In iidlce uf 
MafMoan by botdnafM of hir twlflneaae. 

rtftclui, US. Dvna Ml, f. 12. 

ASPIRATION. An aspii^tc. See tliis form of 
the word in the French .Mphabct, 1615, p. 22. 
ASPIREMENT. llrealhiug. 

Ayre ia the thrldde of I'lementla* 
or who* kyn<]e hif <up(rem«nrij 
Takclh every UvU creature. 

Cover. MS. Sbr. ./>irt«. 134, (. IM. 

ASPORTATION. A carrying away. IliiUr. 
Btackstone uses the word. See Richardson, 
in V. 
ASP0S8CHALL. Aspo^tolical. 
Yi not Ihyi a wondun raae, 
Thatl thii yonge chyldr roche knolrge bale f 
Now aurely he hatli aMpoftefiutl grace. 

iVeaenrarinn im the TrmpU, p. 114. 

ASPRE. Rough; sharp. (^.-iV.) Rider gives 
«ugDrr<i^<- in the same sense. See the llallcof 
John llaUc, i. 530 ; Chaucer's Boetliius, p. 366. 
And In her arpre plalote thtu ahetetde. 

Troilut ant Crrttde, 11.SI7 

ASPREAD. Spread out. Wnl. See Jciining»' 

Dialects, p. 156. 
ASPRBNESSE. Roughness. 

of wbyctn aoulci. quod rhe, I trnwe that Mmc b^-n 
tounnented by utpren^utt of paine, anil torae i^iulca 
I (raw* ben exerc> Md by a purgynge mekeiMisa, tmt 
■ij counsaile nya nat to deierminr uf IhU pain*. 

Chauctr, ed. Vrryt p. 9(10. 


Thii kcared la Qtpro»gun late. 

Diftt MliUHu, p. US. 

ASPYEE. Espial. 

But alle the iley jte of hii tre.nne, 
Horrctla wUle it by tuiv". 

Oiirr, MS. «•«-. j^Hliq. 134, t. IW. 

ASPYRE. To inspire. Sec a |>assagc from Sir 
T. Morc'aWorkp*,p. 927, quoted by Stevenson, 
in luB adilitioiu to Boucher. 


A-SQUARE. .At a distance. 

Yf he hym myght fynd, he nothyog wold hym a^re ; 
That herd the Pardoner weic, and held hym l>etcir 
a.tfjuare. Vtry't Cfiaueer, p, AGO, 

The Pardoner myght nat ne hym nether touch. 
But held hym a-Mtjitart by that olhlr aide. Ibid. 

ASQUINT. Awry. It is translated by oi/ifuu* 
in Daret's Alvcaric. 1580, in v. Carr says 
atquiu is still used in the wnie sense in Craven. 
Sec Annin's Neat of Ninnies, p. 11 ; Brit. 
Bibl. ii. 334 ; Florio, in v. Cipiglidrt ; Cotgntve, 
in V. Orrt 

The world tlill lookj nr^uinl, and 1 dertde 
HU purblind Jud^pncnt t Grlaall la my bride. 

yattmtl GiUtfl, p. IS. 
ASS, (1) To mk ; to coiuiiiand. A'orfA 
He said he had more torow than aho. 
And oaMd wat was belt to do. 

MS. C-ll. Ca/tn E. Ix. f. 38. 
Thou apeke to hym wythc wordea beynde. 
So that he let my people paa 
To wyldcnuv, that thay may wcynde 
To a'orrhyp me at I wylle aur. 

Thwnflfy Mytterita, p. SB. 
(2) Cooper, in his Dictionoirc, in v. Jmtu, says, 
" The ai>sc waggeth his cores, a pruvcrlie ap- 
plied to thciio, wliiche, allliough they lacke 
leamynge, yet will they babble and make a 
euunteoatmce, as if they knewe somewhat." 
13) Ashes. North. 

je honotrre jour repultourt curyoutely with golde 
ar>dtylTer. and In rcsielle made of precyoute itarica 
5e putt the 9»m of jour bodyt whenne thay en 
brynned. MS. Untotn A. I. 17, f. 34. 

ASSACH. An old custom among the Welsh, ac- 
cording to CowcU, whereby n penon accused 
of a crime was enabled to clear himself upon 
the oailis of three hundred men. Sec his 
Inleqirelcr, 1658. 
ASSAIES. "At all assaics," t.e. at all poinU, 
in every way, at all houn. Florio has, 
" JpiAjitra artnAlo, armed at all a— at*;" L e. 
at lUl |)oints, or " a tous poynts," as Palsgrave 
has it. f. 438. See Skelloa's Works, i. 
239, 300. 

And wit avauncyd ther, to that he 
Worttilpfully lv%'yd there nil hit dales. 
And kept a good howtehuld at nil oaMlM. 

MS. Jjiud. 41«, f. 4a. 
Shorten thou these wicked dales; 
Thinke on thine oath at alt aanaiea. 

Dnylan't HarmonH of llu Chyrch, 1991. 

ASSAILE. An attack. Malory uses this word 
as a substantive in his Morte d'Artbur, ii. 334. 
ASSA1.VE. To salve; to allay. 
Thu« 1 procure my wo, alat I 

In fr.iming him hit Joy, 
I tceke for to atsalvt my tore, 
I breede my chccfe annoy. 

litilfridtt and BtmaniOt 1S70. 
ASSART. According to C«well, assart laiitls arc 
parts of forests cleared of wood, and put into 
a state of cultivation, for which rents w ere paid 
under the name of assart rents. It is also a 
verb. " Assart," says Blount, " is taken for 
an otfence committed in the forest by plucking 
up those woods by the rcKits that arc thickets 
or coverts of the forest, and by making them 


plain 19 mble land." See also ScatcbenVii 
Hiitory of Morlcy, p. 166. 
ASSASSINATE. Anassiiiatinti. 
What hsvt thou dotiv. 
To make thfi barliaroua bate vmurinait 
Upon Ihe pcnou or a |ir(nce ■ 

/MnlrCl C4tU VTar; til. 7B. 

ASS.VTION. Roasting. (Lat.) 
ASSAl'LT. Tlic expression "to jco aitanll" is 
traniJatcd by the Latin wonl calHlio in Riiler's 
Diclionorie, 1640. The phrase occurs in 
Cooper and Iligina, and is still in use. 

And whanne the Aaene lie n#*uMf and gofth yn hure 
Jore.andtctieicthetti the dogfie fox. stie cryeth wilh 
an tiooa Toyt, u a wood Ivound doitti. 

MS. BuU. M«. 

ASSAUT. An assault. (A.-N.) It is stiU used 

in Shropsliire both as a noun and a verb. Cf. 

Richard Coer dc Lion, 1900. 

And by tufaut he wnn the cllee after. 

And rent adoun bolhc wall and f parre. and raflrr. 

Chiucrr, Canl. T. StII. 

ASSAl'TAHLE. Capable of being taken. 

The Gngliihe gunnen »hol Ui «i')l. Uiat Ihc wjict 

of the toune were 1)eaten doune and raaed wirh the 

ordlnaunce, Inaomuche that by Ix. of thedoclie the 

toune was made aMtautable, Hutt, Htntjf Vlll, f, 1 IQ. 

ASS AVE. To save. 

Ho »o wdIc is aoule uutJ, 

lie a> mot alUiige for leoac. 
And ho Ml leoit U loule, Ite aaaaees, 

Nou may ech man cheo*e- MS. Laud, \CB, f . 1 . 
ilSSAY. (I) Essay; trial. 

After oMy, then may je wette ; 
Why blame }e me wliboute otlVnce f 

KUton'M Ancttnl Sungn, p. 103. 

(2) To tiy ; to prove ; to taste. It secuis tu be, 
etaayeil, tried, proved, in the following passage: 
Thow femyit a vtalwatd and a sironttc. 

Amr achall thow be. Ni'di'i H'oil, I. 90. 

(S) A tasting of diilics at the tftlilcd of high |i<t- 
tonages previously to the repast. See .inntyrr, 
and Florio, in v. Cnpt/e/tr«. 

Kyng Rychard tate downe to dytier, and wat lerved 
wlUtout curleale or auij^e .- be muehe roervaylyng at 
the iodayne mulaclon of the thyng, demauoded of 
the csquicr why he dyd not hii duety. 

Hull, Henry"', f. 14 

(4) In hunting, to take the asimy, is to draw the 
knife along the belly of the deer, beginning at 
the brisket, to di»cover how fat he is. Aecord- 
ing to Cifford, this was a tnere ceremony : the 
ki^e was put into the hands of the " best 
person" in the field, and drawn lightly down 
the belly, that the chief huntsman might be 
entitled to his fee. See Ben Jonson's Works, 
vi. 270. 

At Ch* astirn kytte hym, that lordes maye te 
Anone fatte or lene whether that he be. 

Bislt c/ SI. Alban; ed. 1810, aig. E. I. 

(5) Id the following passage it appears to be used 
in a peculiar sense, the attempt, the moment 
of doing it. 

And ryght a« he wa« al atunue 
Hp lykynf ranyioht all awaye. 

Le Bon* Ftifimrf a/ Romf, ISM), 

(6) Philpot translates conlnlm fa ifoclrma in 
Curio, by " uaeayn/ with tbilk doctrine." See 
his Works, p. 376. 

(7) Trial ; henee, expericntieL 

Shorte wyttrd mt^ and lylteti of MHtpe^ aaye that 
Paradyseii lunge layllyngeoutof theerthc that men 
dwelle Inne, and alto departelh frame the erthe, wi 
ia a» hyghe at Itie mone. 

Koitt H MorU tArltnir, p. 473. 

ASSAYER. A taster in palaces, and the hotiMa 
of barons, to guard against poisoning. 
Thyn atnimr tcliallp be an hownde, 
To aaanye thy mete tjefore the, 

US. Cnnlal,. PI. li. SB. t. MI. 

ASSAYING. A musical term. Grassioeau ex- 
plains it, " a flourishing before one begins to 
play, to try if the instrument! be in tune ; or, 
to run divisions to lead one into the piece be- 
fore IIS." See his Musical Pirtionary, p. 6. 
ASSAYNE. A term in bare bunting. ' Sec the 

Hook of St. Albuiis, sig. 0. iv. 
ASSBUURD. A box for ashes. North, 
ASSCHELER. Some kind of weapon ? 

That kylledc of the Critten, and ke]lten the waltaa 
With arowet, and arbUute, and nMcMrl^t raanye. 
MH. OM. Cmtlg. A. a. 1. 117. 
ASSCHEN. Ashci. 

Al blan at oMvAen hy lay op-rljt. 
The Cioia to-fore hire itod. 

MS. CW/, Trl*, OMH. 17. 

ASSCHREINT. Deceived. (J.S.) 

A I dame, he taide, Ich was a§aehrtinl t 
Ich wenile thou baddctt lien adcalnt. 

StvmtStm, Utb. 
ASSCHYS. Ashes. ^eeAikf. 

AM^tfa 1 rete In ttedeof brcde. 
My drynk is watyr that I wepe. 

Btnck't PtniteMial PMlmt, p. St. 

ASSE. (1) At asse, i. c. prepared .> 
And fond our men alle at aj*4. 
That the Patent no might paiae. 

Arthovr and Mtrtim, p. 97l> 

(2) Hath. MS. Canlai. V(. i. 6. 
ASSEASE. To cease. Kitlrr. 
ASSECTHE. To make certain of; to make safe. 
And to hath Ucnrie luferwr'rf that tide. 
And therewithal! hia stale of Oateonle. 

amlnTa Cii U »'arj, i«. t. 
ASSE-EARE. The herb conifrey. See a list of 

plants in the Nomenclator, 1385, p. 137. 
ASSEER. To assure. Yorhfh. 
ASSEGE. A siege. (A.-N.) See Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 10620; Troilus and Creaeide, i. ie,h. 
It is used as a verb in llolinshed. Hist. Engl. 
p. 44, asasubst. in Hist. Irel. p, .SI. 
The lunne by that wat nr\ adouD. 
The oMsfft Lhaune ihay y-lafte, 

MS. MhmKlt at, t. U. 
That hoit he lefte ate Pavyllount. 
The a*4rgv to ke|)e Ltiare. iUd. f. 47- 

ASSELE. To teal. {.4.-N.) Sec 0«sU Romano- 
nun, pp. 64, 65, 134 ; Boke of Curtisye, p. 23. 
tVithlnne and wliboute loken to. 
The lokca oaieJed with teles two. 

Cueaar Jfitltdi, MS. Cotl. Trim. OaMab. I. IAS 

ASSEMRLAUNCE. RcsembUnoB. SMmiur. 

Every thingv that berlthe tyfc detyieth to be con- 
Joynyd to hit att«mbteabU : and evety man shall tie 
aaioeyate to hit owne lymylltudc. 

DM. o/Oen/wrM Mt—IUtd, p. tC 

ASSEMBLEMENT. A gathering. 







>c Otwold mette with greate aMrmbhmtHt 
1q batuile ilroDg il HeTenfeld, u God would. 

Hmilfng't i/trvnlcU, t. W 

ASSEMVLET. Aisembled. 

Prsyng and dttyring ther the coraownc* ot Ing- 
londt be vrrtu of thyt pment parlement aattmjflrt, 
to coniync the wyd mater, and to g)'ff therto her 
aucnt. MS. Rot. Harl. C. 7. 

ASSENE. Asset. 

Sirooofouwer (iJMfiein a put fulleto day, 
Nold ;e noujt drawc hire op for tlic frftle ? 

its. tjtwt. 108. r. i. 
ASSENEL. Arsenic. Pnmpl. Pan. 
ASSENT. (1) Consenting; agreeing. 

But uMMtnt with hert and hool crtdcncc. 
Having thcrof noon ambigujrte. 

l^iIgM', MS. AMhmiUB», 1. 178. 
Mrdea, whan Khe wal auvnttt 
Comt tone to that parlemmt. 

Ctwcr. US. Sac. Jntiq. IM, t. IMI. 

(2) Consent ; agreement. 
When my fadur and y be at auentv, 
Y wyiJe not Tayle the be the rode. 

MS. Cantab, ft. U. 38, f. 64. 
The wyfe* of ful highe prudence 
Have of otttnt made ther avow. 

Lyd/mte'* Minnr Pomu, p. 154. 

(3) Sent. (.i.-S.) See Cower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 
134, t 52, attenie, nrliere iomc eopies have 
atentt. Perhaps we should read at tente, i. e. 
has sent. 

ASSENTATION. Flattery. (Lat.) 

Vet hec, making relation to other his frende* 
what I had don^, left mee not quiet till they likewyte 
had teenc them, whoce perawatlon. at It teemed with. 
Oulanyiutpltion of (uaenraf/ofi or flattery, fo hath It 
made mc« bolder at this preaeal then before. 

Mirour /br MagiMlmtM, p. 0. 

ASSENTATOR. A lUttcrcr. Elyot. 
ASSENTIATU. Assent; consent. 
Therfor yf je auentiath to. 
At al perila wil y go. MS. Athmtlt 33, f. «6, 
ASSENTION. Consent. 

Shew me thy waile ; then let me there wkhall. 
By the oMendun of thy lawn, •«« all. 

HerrirAr'f fTorki, l.«l(i. 

ASSENYCKE. Arsenic. Palsgrave is the au- 
thority for this fonn of the word. 

ASSEORE. An usher. " Sir William MarteUe, 
■ the Kjrnget aatort," is mentioned in the He- 
ralds' College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
quoted in Heame's edition, p. 462. 

ASSEPERSELIE. The chenil. It is the trans- 
lation of cicularia in the Nomendator, 15H5, 
p. 131. Cf. Cotgrave, in v. Cievlaire. 

ASSES-BRIDGE. A familiar name for prop. 5, 
b. I of Euclid, on account of its difficulty. 

ASSES-FOOT. The herb coltsfoot. Florio gives 
it as the translation of CameU^uca. 

ASSETH. Suffitiently; enough. (J.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughman, p. 362, " if it sufflse noght 
for oMUtz," where some editions read atiKlh. 
It is connected with the term attelt, still in 
uae. Skinner translatps it tummi. 
Nevtr iliall make hi> tlcheuc 
Jtmh unto hli gredlneiae. 

JUm. (t^lke Rum, 50MI. 

ASSETTETH. Assailed. (J.-y.) 

And yf that they be erroure thus contrerld, 
Arayiean ooat with ftreogtheand ututttttalM. 

Botlitu. ms. Sx. Anll^. 1.14, f. mi. 

ASSHE. To ask. 

Ryie up, he tayde, and the way oMht 
To Wyltone and to that Abtau Wultnid. 

Chron. rUwtvn. p. 77- 

ASSHEARD. A keeper of asses. Xitier. 

ASSHOLE. A receptacle for ashes. Korlh. 

ASSIDUALLY. Constantly. 

Gcotle sir, though 1 am asHdvaUn used to com- 
plalntj, yet were my heart contracted into tongue. 
T/ia Cf prion Mcadmir, 1647. ii. 4«. 

ASSIDUATE. Constant ; continual. Sec Fa- 
byan, as quoted by Boucher and Richardson. 

ASSIDUE. This word, according to Mr. Hunter, 
is in common use in Yorkshire to describe a 
species of yellow tinsel mudi used by the 
mummers at Christmas, and by the ruiitics who 
accompany (be plough or ploughman in its 
rounds through the |>arish, as part of their fan- 
ta!>tii'nl decoration. It is used in the cutlery 
muuiifncturc of Hallamshirc. 

ASSIL-TUOTH. A grinder, situated near the 
axis of tlie jaw. North. 

ASSIL-TREE. An axle-tree. AorfA 

ASSl.MULED. Assimilated. 

No prince in our tymc male to your hyghnei be 
either compared or animultd. Hall, Henry I »', f. 27. 

ASSINDE. Asugned. Sec Collier's Hist. Dram. 
Poet. i. 32. 
O heatenly gyfl, that nlcf the mynd, 

Even at the tteme dothe rule the ahlppe I 
O muklcke, whom the Godt attntia 

To comforte nianne, whom care* would nippc I 
Percy't Reh4juet. p. 00. 

ASSINEGO. A Portuguese word, meaning a 
young ass. Hence applied to a silly fellow, a 
foot Shakespeare has the word in 'Troilus and 
Cressida, ii 1, and it is not unfretjuenlly 
found in the Eliiabelhan writers as a term of 
reproach. Ben Joiison, in bis Expostulation 
with Iriigo Jones, makes a severe pun on his 
name, telling bimbewasin lut-inigo to judge 
by his cars. 
ASSISE. (1) Phicc; situation. (J.-ff.) 
There ne wa* not a point txuely. 
That it hai In hit right assist. 

Rtan, of th* Rotf, 1237* 
Fare now forth to tlil bath that falre U kevcred. 
For It la geinli grcithcd in a god atiaa. 

nUI. cuiif Iha trtnralf, p. lO). 
(2) The " long uise" in the first of the follow- 
ing passages it conjectured by Sir W. Scott, 
to be ■ term of chess now disused. Trislrcm 
is playing at chess, and he pUycd so long a 
lime " the long asisc," that he won six hawks, 
and 100/. This, I apprehend, is the correct 
meaning. In the second instance the same 
phrase is applied to a measure of length, in- 
stead of a measure of time. See also Rom. of 
the Rose, 1392. Skinner makes it synonymoui 
with rite. 

Now bothe her wedde lya. 
And play thai bi-glnnei 
Y.aett he hath the long aH$t, 

And endrad beth ther lone. Sir IVMram,r*1u(. 




He Wl« iJep« or he myifl\t ryie, 
Thretty (ote of hngr atapat. 

US. OmMIi. Vt. II. 38, r. »l. 
We bare urotlier insUnce of the ytori in the 
Hme wnie id the romance of Sir Tryamour 
in the MS. in the Cambridge Public Library. 
After thia hero has cut off the legs of the giant 
Burlond, be telli him tliat they are both " at 
oon assysc," i. c. of llie same length. 
A lytulle lower, lyr, icTde hce. 
And lei u> imalle go wyth thee ; 
Now are we bothe at ood ouum I 

MS. Ointab. ft. II, M, f. Bl, 

(3) Araizea. Hence, judgment. 

The kyng he wnde word ajryn. Ihal he hadde y» 

In yi owne court, for to lake doma >nd uIm. 

H-b. Clauc p. U. 
jow to leche God hath tnr Knt, 

Hli lawyf of lylT thit am ful wyie ; 
Them to lem bedjIlpTit, 
joure KHilyt may thcl save at the but xut/t. 

CtMntfy UfHtrtet, p. 60. 

(4) Commodities. 

Whan Iher comet marchaundlte, 

With com, wyn, and iteil, othir other oj/Im*, 

To heore lond any ichlp. 

To hoiue they wollith anon tkyppe. 

Kgng MlMunier, Til?.*. 

(5) Regulation ; eatablisbcd custom. Sec Octo- 
Tian, 81, where, however, Weber interpret* it, 
" sitnation, rank." (A.-N.) 

Sire, he uld, hi Ood In heren, 
Thiw boUouni that boilen KTen, 
Bitoknen thlDc aeven wlie. 
That ban i-vrowt ayen Oia ojtlM. 

Seryn SagM, 9490. 

(6) To aettJe; to confirm! to choose. See 
Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 541. In our accond ex- 
ample it mexasfited. 

Two cardinalii he hath aatUvt, 
With other lordb many moo, 
That with hli doujter ichuldco goo. 

Cover, VS. &x: Antl^. 134, t. BS. 
The whiche upon hU hcde aatytd 
He bereth, and eke there beo devlud 
Upon hli womhe tlerrea Ihre. 

Goierr, ed. IS38, f. U?. 

ASSISH. Foolish, f'ar. <fia/. Florio has, " Ai- 
nijUfine, assishnesse, blockishnessc." 
Paaie not, Iherfore, though MIdat prate, 
Aod aj>«4Ac judgement give. 

Galfridc and BerffHt, XSIO. 

ASSKES. Ashes. 

Y wolde niche damiellyt yn fyre were breol, 
That the auia with the wynde awey royght By. 
Refif. Ataiq. I ». 
ASS-MANURE. Manure of ashes. North. 
ASSMAYHED. Dismayed. 

Bot he Mode >lle o«<ii>«»*«<( aa ilylle a< «on. 

CHrrni. riMiin. p. 43. 

ASS-MIDDEN. A heap of ashci. A'orf A. 
ASSNOOK. Under the fire-grate. Yorkik. 
ASSOBRE. To grow sober or calm. 

Ofluchea drynke a> I coveytc, 

I Khnlde oantri and fare wel. 

G«e<r, US. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. ITS. 

ASSOIL. To soil. So explained by Richardson, 
in a passage in Beaumont and Fletcher. Pcr- 

B additioa^H 


ares, in *iiH 



haps we may read atmL I menUon It at s 

mere conjecture. 
ASSOILE. (I) To absolve. See Lye's additioi 
to Junius, in v. Puttenham has it 
tive, meaning confession. See Nares, 
Anoik ; Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 209. 

And to to ben ataoUted, 
And lilhthea ben hooseled. 

Pivr* PtoUfchm* 

God bring thairc uulcsuntlll his bUs, 

AndOodaMoyJthamof thalie «ln, | 

For the fude will that thai wu in. * 

MincfM PatmM, p. It. 

(2) To solve ; to answer. (A.-N.) 

Caym, come flbrlhc and anawete roe, 
jKfle my qwcstyon anoa-ryght. 

Onwttry MyMerim, p. 38. 

ASSOreE. Kictue; delay. (.y...V.) See Kit- 
son's Ancient Songs, p. 21 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 
1021. Alsoaverb, as in our first example. 
The tcholde do wedcr me aMoine. 

rtm. ajiH Bianth. 9f\ 
Thcrfore hit hl;te Babiloyne, 
That ihend thing U withouten oaaoyfir- 

Curwr jruaifi, US. Coll. Trln. Cantab, t. II 

ASSOMON. To summon. See Morta d' Arthur, 
i. 228, 275, 278 ; ii. 406; Brit. Bibl. i. 67 
That if wel uld, quod Phllobooe, indcde. 
But were ye not aaaotmmed to apprre 
By Mercurlui, for that li al my dn-de > 

OmH €ff Uim, 170. 

ASSORTE, An assembly. (^.-,V.) " By one 
attorle," in one comjiany. 

I wole you tech a newe play ; 
Sitto down here by one aawte. 
And better myrtbe Derer ye laye. 

US. Dourt IT*, p. 49. 

ASSOTE. To dote on. (A.-N.) This word is a 
favourite with Gower. Sec Morte d'Arthur, 
i. 90, ii. 65, 1 61 j Cotgrave, in v. Bon ; Florio, 
in V. /mpaiiiire ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 428. 
Thi* wyfe, whiche in her luite* grene. 
Was fayre and frenhe and tender of age, ■ 

She may not let the courage | 

Of hym, that wol on her OMutte. 

Goirtr, ed. U3B, f. II. 
So bnlllche upon the note 
They hcrken, and In luche wise iMate, 
Th*t Ihcy here ryjt cource and way 
Forjete, and to here ere obeya. 

GoKwr, Ua. «K. jHti^ IM, r. 
ASSOWE. In a twoon. 

Hurre modur adoun a«<me< dudde fall. 
For lorwc he myjK wepe no more. 

Caraa. Vilodun. pk 

ASS-PLUM. Florio baa " Arinine, a kinde 
ant-phtm or horse-plum." 

ASS-RIDDLIN. In Yorkshire, on the eve of 
St. Mark, the ashes are riddled or sifted on the 
hearth. It is said that if any of the family die 
within the year, the shoe of the fated penon 
will l>e impressed on the ashes. 

ASSUDJUGATE. To subjugate. 

Nor by my will OMUbjugate his merIL 

TnUut and CrttMm, 11. X| 

ASSCE. A term applied to a cow when drained 
of her milk at the season of calving. Somenet, 
Generally pronounced azew, as in the Dorset 











ASSDBbLY. Comeentivdy ? 

At tilt mm dm day and nyght thai a amettg \a 
wtia and wa. its. Co//. EtuK. in. f, 9. 

ASSUMP. Raised. 

The Micd bUhoppe, now beyug Cardinal, was 
aaaoylcd of hli bifthoprJcke of Wyncli«ter, where- 
upon he lucd unto our holy fathrr to have a bullo 
declaratory, nutwlthtlandlng he wai auump to the 
itate of cardinally that the tea was not voyde. 

Hall, Hnm 17. f. 01. 

ASSURANCE. AllUnce ; betrolliing for mftr- 
ruge. See Pemlirokc'a Anad'ut, p. 1 7, quoted 
by Narct. 
ASSURDED. Droko forth. From Sourd. 
Then he aunrdtd into thU eicclamacyon 
Unto Diana, the goddei InmoTtall. 

Sktllon'i Wortu, l,S7«. 

ASSURE. (1) To confide. (A.-S.) 

Thercroro, ai freodfuUichc In me atntre. 
And tell roe platte what li thine encheton. 

TnUutmti4Crttiii, 1.6(1. 

(2) To ilBaDce ; \o betroth. 

There lovely Amom, that was iuiur*it 
To luity Pprlgot. blt*cd»out her life, 
FDrc*d by wme iron hand and fatal kntfi>. 

acmiumimt and FUtthtr, 11. 107. 

(3) Anuruice. 

Hedy efte to profVe a newe Msurg 

Por to bcu trewe, and mercy me to prey. 

Outucer, ed. Vny, p. 433. 


A (Teat number of commons, all chosen men, with 
on foote, whiche were the most oMvredt^eit 
that hath bene senc. 

Hall. Henry VIll. f, 42. 
AS-SWYTHE. Quickly. This word gfcncrally 
ought to be divided ; yet Robert de Uruniie, 
in MS. UarL 1701, aecms occuioually to use 
it as one word. 
ASSYGGE. A huntiog term. 

Ye ibull say. i//<*o«v««, Ulpot^ue, alwey whan they 
fynde vele of hym. and then ye shut keste out 
odtaffg* al abowte the feld for to se where he be go 
out of the pasture, or clIJs to his foorme. 

Kellii. Anilti. I. lU. 
ASS^TiJED. Joined. 

Now. by my trouth, to speke my mynde, 
Syns they be so loth to be ossyned, 

ftaJM cnOed (Ae Fbwrt PP. 

ASSYNG. To usign. 

Go thy way and make thi curse, 

Ai 1 shall OMMj/ng the by myn advyss& 

bight MynlnTiti, p. 41. 

AST. Aakcd. North. Cf. Towueley Xlym. p. 200. 
The scet echo lufe for hir sonnes myght hlr thynk 
wcleiett. US-UncuIn S.\.\7,l.13\. 

The blssebo)) oMt Id quat slid 
He shuld this kirke gerc make, 

MS. Cantat. Tt.r.U,t.T». 

ASTA. Hast thou. This form of the word i> 

pven in the ClAvis to the Y'orkshirc Dialogue, 

p. 90. Attow is common in inlerrogatiTe 

clauses in old English. 

ASTABILISIIE. To establish. 

' I shall al all lymet and In all places, whansoocver 
I ahalbe cnlled uppon, tie redye and glad to con- 
Came, ratefle, and attahUiMht this my deyd,purpaa, 
mynd, and Intmt, as sbalbe devised by the lemed 
oounsell of the kyngm said highncs. 

irrtf>,f, ilcnanlc Isllen, p. 154. 


ASTAnLE. To confirm. 

Lutherlcs, the Pope of Rome, 
He lutafJed iwlthe sone 
Oodes werkes for to worche. 

VS. Cmlab. Ft. v. 48, t. M. 
ASTANT. Standing. 

The might him se aslant the by. Aemfrrsm, p. 479. 
ASTAROTH. This name, as given to one of the 
devils, occurs in a curious Ust of actors in 
Jubinal's Myst. InAl. ii. 9. Sec Townclcy 
Mysteries, p. 246; Piers Ploughman, p. 393. 
ASTAT. State ; estate ; dignity. 
Whan ho la set In his a#rar, 
Thre thevyi be brout of synful gyse. 

CuKenrfy AfjrslsHef, p. 19. 
ASTAUNCHB. To satisfy. 

And castethe one to chesc to hlr dellte. 
That may belter lutaunche hir appetite. 

Lyigntt't Minor Poema, p. 30, 

ASTE. As if; although. It is the translation 
of acti in an early gloss, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 8. 
Undlr llctmst thay laydcn, 
.4iite the clercus hemselven saydcn. 
Four yven ievcs togydlr knyt. 
For to proven of his wit. MS, Cantat/. Dd. 1. 17. 

ASTEDE. stood. (A.-S.) So explained by 
Hcame, in Gloss, to Rob. Gloue. p. 305, where 
we should probably read an a tiede, i. e. in a 
ASTEEPING. Steeping ; soaking. 
There we lay*d aittrpitig. 
Our eyes In endleai weeping. Pletehtr. 

ASTEER. Active; bustling; stirring abroad. 

North, See the Craven Dialect, ii. 359. 
ASTELLABRE. An astrolabe. 

With him his attellatire he nom. 
Whiche was of fyn golde precious. 

Gouvr, MS. Sx. Ailll<l, 134, f. 168. 

ASTELY, Hastily. 

Or els, Jcsu, y aske tht reyd 

Aiiety that y wer deyd. Sir Amodu, 3U6. 

ASTKMYNGE. Esteeming. 

But the duke, title atlemifngt tucb a defect, quli-k* 
lye after persuaded the kynge to take syr Rycharde 
agayne to his favour. ^rchmolngia, xxil.iX. 

ASTENTE. Stoppctl. {A.-S.) Sec Wright's 
Pol. Songs, p. 342 j Will, and the Werwolf, 
p. 56. 

And or thay come to Hantrible 

Nevcre thay ne aliHtt. MS. ^ihmoU 33, f.lS. 

And thou that raadest hit sotouj, 

Al thl host is sonea-«f/fir. 

Jpptnd. to W. Mapea, p. 341. 

ASTER. Easter. North. Mr. nartsbome gives 
this form of the word as current in Shropshire. 
Of. Andelay's Poems, p. 41. 

And thus this aster lombspered. 

Ckron. n/odiin. p. KB, 
ASTERDE. To escape. {A.-S.) 

Tho wUte he wel the kyngls herte. 
That he the deth oe Khulde OMterdt. 

Gowrr, MS. Soc. Anlij. 134, f. M. 

ASTERED. Distiu-bed. (A.-S.) In the fol- 
lowing passage, the Lincoln MS, reads 
tlimd. Verategan bos attired. 
For all here mlchel pryde, 
The stout roan was asttntd. 

mrDttmmtu, Omb. Ml, 




ASTERISM. A coiiatellation. ifiegt. 

ASTERLAGOUR. An astrolabe 

HU alnugiftc, and boktc gTtXe and «nule, 
HU tut^Httgour, longing Tor hU art, 
Ulf augrim-ftonU lying felrc apart. 

Otauetr, 94. Vrry, p. 95. 

ASTERT. (1) To escape. {A.-S.) Sec Hawkins' 
Engl. Dram. L 9 ; Lvdgate's Minor Poems, 
p. 183; Gower, ed. 1532, f. 70; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 1597, 6550 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 225 ; 
Digliy Mysteries, p. 8. 

Of wiche ihc counc myjte not astrrtt 
Philototca, that was th« more experte. 

Thtfr ftchalle no worldt» good aitertt 
Mia honde, and jit he jeveth almcaca. 

Cotcer, .VS. Sx. Jhll,). IM, r.49. 
The to loTc tnikc rae w expert. 
That hellc pc>-ncs I mot twtfri, 

US. Hart. 3406, f. 8G. 

(2) Hence, to release. {A.-S.) 

And itnale tlther«t weren foule y-ahent. 
If any penonc wold upitn hem plainc, 
Tber ml^ht airerf hem no pecunial peine. 

CAcfurer, Caftf. 7*. G8SG. 

(3) To aUmi ; to lake unawares. 

No danger there the shepherd can artrrt. 

S/mttr't Bel. Nor. 187. 

ASTEYNTB. Attainted. 

What doatow here, unwrast gome I 

For thyn harm thou art hlder y-come ! 

He I fyle aslnfnt" horcsone I 

To mlato was ay thy wooe. Kim/f AttnHwttrtBOn. 

ASTIEGNUNG. Ascension. Venlegan. 
ASTIGE. To aieend; to mount upwards. 

ASTINT. Stunned. (A.-S.) 

With to noble swerdes dent. 
That hem o^rlMl verrament. 

Artlumr and Uerltn, p. 3W. 

ASTIPULATE. To bargain ; to stipulate. HaU. 
ASTIRE. (1) The hearth. See Attre. 

Bad her take the pot that fod orrr the fire. 

And sec it atx>ore upon the <uf irr. 

Vllrrmn't Pop. Pott. U. 711. 

(2) To stir; to move. Verttejan. 
ASTIRTE. Started ; leapt. 

j4fltr1e tU him with his rippe. 
And btgan the fith to kJppe. Havelck, KU. 

ASTITE. Anon ; (|tuckly. This word is found 
in the North Country Vocabularies of Ray and 
Thoresby. Cf. Torrent of Portugal, p. 28. 
Ful rlchelich« he gan him «chrede. 
Ant] lepe oMUg opon a itedo i 
For nothing he Dold abide. 

Amit and AmUtmn, 1046. 
ASTIUNE. A precious stone. 

ThtT Is taphlr, and uniune. 
Carbuncle and vatiun*, 
Smaragde, lugrc, and praatluoe. 

Coeuygnt, ap. Warton, L 9. 

ASTOD. Stood. See Chron. of England, 62 ; 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 101. 

Sum ha finot opon the hode. 
At the glrdel the iwerd attode. 

Or 0/ ITarit^ilre, p. 47. 
A-STOGG'D. i laving one's feet stuck fast into 

clay or dirt. Dorttl. 
ASTOND. To withstand. Sec Wright's Poli- 

tie&l Songs, p. 338 ; Gy of Warwike, pp. 1, Vft 
Hob. RIouc. p. 20. 
Thou •ull hare Ihl wll of al EgipMlondr. 
^tal nevrre no man ttiine hc«te mttimiU. 

MS. B-dl. Hit, t. 4. 
So korven and hewen with mani hood, 
Ttiat non armour mif;ht hem attond. 

Arthour and Utrtin, p. 328.' 

ASTONE. Confounded 

lie dradde him of hU owen lonc, 
That maketh him wel the mure a«fone. 

Goicrr, MS. Sx. Anliq. 134, f. 187. 
ASTONED. (1) Confouuded; astonished. A: 
lonied is very common in early writcni, and 
is also found in the Scriptures, Dan. v. 9, Ac. 
Florio in r. AijgriccUre, has the verb to lulony, 
to confound. See Troiliu and CrcteidCi i. 
274. Urry has also attained. 

Thla Mxlen c*m thti man ajlontd lo. 
That red he wcx, abaitt, and al quaking 
He stood, unncthes said he wordes mo. 

CAnucer, Cant. T. 81M. 

(2) Stunned. (A.-S.) 

VoT her hors were al lutoned, and nolde after wylte 
Sywe iiother spore ne brydcl, ac st«ide ther al stytte. 

fii>6. Giimr. p. ape. 
ASTONISH. To stun with a blow. 

Enough, captain : you have seMilMKl him. 

Mmry r. V. 1. 
ASTONNE. To confound. 

It doth in halfe an howre nttonne the taker io. 
And ma«treth all his sencLt , that tie feeleib wcate 
nor »'oe. Rnmnu and JutUt, p. 64. 

Suerly these tie examples of more vehemeiiciii 
th^n mans tong can expretse, to fear and ajtantse lutdi 
cryl pcnones as wyl not levc one houre vacant fVtnn 
doyng and exercysing crueitle, miichlrfe, or out- 
raglous lyvyng. HaU, Richard III. f. 34. 

A-STOODED. Sunk fast into the ground, as a 

waggon. Dortt. 
ASTOPARD. Some kind of animal .> 
Of Ethiope he was y-tiore. 

Of the kind of ottnpardM t 
He had tuskes like a bfMr, 
An head like a libbard. 

BlMt Ma. Rem. li. WOu 
ASTORE. To provide with stores ; to keep up ; 
to replenish ; to restore. See Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 16, 262. ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 18, 107, 212, 229, 
268. It is used somewhat tUflerently in Kyng 
Alisannder, 2025, and the Seryn Sages, 956, 
explained hy Weber, " together, in a heap, nn- 
merous, plentiful ;" but I am informed by Dr. 
Mertiman that he has heard it used in Wilt, 
sbirc as a kintl of expletive, thus, " She's gone 
into the street attorr." This of course differs 
from the Irish word. 

At dt^, Imrwe, and caste]. 
Thai were attortd swithe wd. 

Arthour amd Mtrtln, p. 9". 
But as the ampte, to eK'hcwe ydelncssc, 
In somer li lo ful of iMstnesse, 
Or wynter oome to safe here from cooldr. 
She to-fortn astomd hath here lioldc. 

M-1. tUtlV. 
That on ho gaf to lurwe the lift 
Oir U'lnl Pecur the apmlllle l>ri;L 

US. V^uuali. Ff. T. 48, f. 





ASTOUND. To attonish grcElly. Var. diet. 

Till at the lut he heard a dreadfull townd^ 
Which throufh the wood loud bellowing did rebownd^ 
That all Che earth for icrror leemd to khakc, 
Andtnodld tremble. Th'clfe, therewith atoumi, 
Upatailcd lightly fiom hit too«er make. 

The Faeri9 QMrene, I. ril. 7- 
ASTOYN VN. To thakc ; to bntinc. Prom/it. Pan. 
ASTRADDLE. To straddle. Skinner. 
ASTRAGALS. A kind of game, »omcwh»t like 
rorkall. See a curious account of it in MS. 
Ashmolc 788, f. 102. Blount has tulragalize, 
•' to play at dice, liuckle-boncs, or tables." See 
lii] Glotsographia, p. 59. 
ASTRAL. Starry. 

Thti Utter lort of Inlldela hav* often admitted 
lhcM« BUIIcn or fact, which we Chrllllani call mi- 
racle, and yet have i-ndcavourwl lu •olve them by 
•Ora/ operalloni, and other wayi not here to be ipe- 
rllled. Boflf'd tForkt, v. 161. 

ASTRAMYBN. An astronomer. .Iitromyen 
it the fonu of the word in Kyng Alisaunder, 
136; and Chaucer, in his tract on the astro- 
labe, has aitrologien, for an astrologer. 
Hyt wa* a gode attmmjftn 
That on the mone kowthe leen. 

MS. Bart. EHO, t. 31. 

ASTR.\NGLED. Strangled. See Will, and the 
Werwolf, p. 6. 

For neljh hy weren bothe ftir thuni 
Aaemngttilt and ck for-pretL 

To nhht thou Khalt i-wif 
In fltrongue dethe oMtrangttd. 
And wiende to the pineorheile. 

MS. LauH. lOe, t. 1«6. 
ASTRA UGIIT. Distracted ; terrified. 

At her ryirht he wa* *o aitntught. that of hU own 
mynde unrcqueited, he made peace with the llaaii- 
llmv CoUrne'' Jftlnr, f. 179. 

ASTR-VITNGED. Estranged. Vdal. Thia and 
the last word are taken from Richardson. 

ASTRAY. A stray animal. Prompt. Pan. 

ASTRAYLY. Astray. It is translated by pafe- 
iiimic in Prompt. Parr. p. 16. 

ASTRE. (1) A star. {Fr.) Steevcns says this 
word is only to be met with in Southern's 
Diana. 1580. See Shakespeare, vii. 184. Mr, 
Borwell qaotes another instance in Montgo- 
in«Ty*iPoems, cd. 182I,p. 164. See also Ja- 
miesoD in v. Florio translates Stttia, " a 
Marre, or any of the celestiall bodies that give 
light unto the world ; also an atler, a planet." 

(2) A hearth. ■' Tlie o»/re or liarth of n cMin- 
Bey." MS. Harl. 1129,f. 7. Lambarde. in his 
Perambulation of Kent, c<L 1D9C. p. 562, says 
that this word was in his time nearly obsolete in 
Kent, Imt that it was retained in " ShmpshjTe 
and other parts." See Ailirt. 

ASTRELABRE. An astrolabe. (A-N.) See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 3209. I have already quoted 
the passage from Urry. in v. ^iilertagour. 

ASTRENGTHY. To strengthen. 

Aad byitan to oWrexffky yl court, and to eche y> 
maynye. Bttb. Clwc. p. tau. 

ASTRETCHYN. To reach. It is traiislalerl by 
attmffo in the Prompt. Parv. pp. 14,16, 99. 

III! hyje Tcitu aitrtcclMH 

With bokli or hl> omat eodityngi'. 

Oednt, MS. Soc, A«l*f. \M, t, SOS. 

ASTRE YN TO. Constrained. 

He i« luireynifti to the thfnge that contenys and 

to that thing that li conteoyd ; and he la alao oa- 

trtminl to the thingc tlut halowU, and to that thinpe 

that U lialowid. MS. BevrUm IU>, (. 177. 

ASTREYT. Straight. 

Fonothe he clanfyt the lyrere aryt, 
And allc the mcmbryi benethe ocfrwy r. 

Rtliq. .datii. I. IM. 
ASTRICTED. Restricted. 

A f fier iKing encloted in a itraite place wll by force 

utter his flamme, and as the course vrwat«*r iutriel9d 

and letted will flowe and brust out in continuance of 

time. Hall, Hnry fl. I. M. 

ASTRID. IncUned. Suffol*. 

ASTRIDGE. An ostrich. 

lie make thee eate yron like an attridge, and swal. 
tow my iwurd like a great plnne. 

rae firMt Pari •/ tha Cmimitm, ISM. 
ASTRIDLANDS. yVstride. North. See Ray's 

English Words, in v. Unutrid. 
ASTKINGE. To bind ; to compel. {Lat.) 

Albeit your Hlghnes, having an honorable place, 
t>e named u one of the principal eontrahentet, yet 
ncTerlheieate your grace b not artringtit or boundeo 
to any charge or other thing. Stata Paper/. 1. 119. 
ASTRINGER. " Enter a gentle attringer" is a 
stage direction in All's Well that ends Well, 
y. I. Steerens says " a gentle astnnger" ia a 
" gentleman falconer," and gives a reference to 
Cowcll that requires verification. 
ASTRIPOTENT. The ruler of the tiara. (Lat.) 
The high oafHporrnr auctor of alle. 

M.I. Harl. tUl, t. ;«. 
ASTROD. Stradling. Somernt. 
ASTKOIE. Todestitjy. 

And aipio hem bl tropic, 

And H> food hem to iutntt. , 

MrtlioMr ami Mtrlln, p. S90. 

ASTROIT. A kind of precious (.>) stone. UituMeu. 
Soinetiuies called the star-stone. Brome, in 
his Travels over England, p. 12, mentioi^ find- 
ing many of them at Lassington, co. Gloucester, 
and gives a particular account of their nature. 

.iSTKOLOGY. A herb mentioned by Palsgrave, 
f. 18, aad by Guwcr, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, 
f. 201. It is perhaps the same with the aruto- 
logii, two species of which are mentioned in an 
old poem in Archicolugia, xxx. 386. 

ASTRONOMER. An astrologer. This sense of 
the tcrni is usual with our early writers. See 
Minot's Poems, p. 85. 

A icarn'd astronomer, great magician. 
Who llvei hard-by retir'd. 

Bri.iimcnl and fUlchar, 1. IM. 

ASTRONOMIEN. Astrologer. 
Whiche was an oMtrtmomifn, 
And erk a gret magidcn. 

Coicer, MS. Soe. Aitllq. 134, f. 146. 
ASTROPllELL. A bitter herb i probably star- 
wort, according to Narcs. 
My liltle aock, whom earn I tov'd to well. 

And wont to fretl with Rneat graue that grew, 
Fecde yo heneefonh on bitter a^trnflAI, 
And itlnklng tmallage and unaaverle roa. 

S^>. XtafAff. 344. 




ASTROUT. This word is still used in Somerset- 
sliire, explained by Mr. Norris, MS. Glossary, 
" in B stiff, projecting posture, is when the 
fingers «re kept out stiff." Sir Thomas More, 
■Workcs, p. 98, applies it to a stomach swelled 
by gluttony, " What good can the great glo- 
ton do with his bely standing lulrote like a 
taber." In Prompt. Parv. p. 16, " a-strut" 
is translated by tnrgidt ; and Palmer says it is 
used in the north-cast of Devon in the sense of 
aatriilr. The word occiu^ in the first sense in 
a curious poem in the Auohinleck MS. printed 
ill Wright's Political Songs, p. 336 ; and the 
following example is taken from another copy 
in the Bodleian Library, unknown to Mr. 
Wright, which is valuable as completing his 
imperfect one. Cowper has attrul, u quoted 
by Richardson. 

Now Godll loulc is al diy tuore. 

The kDjrf Khal itonde a-atntut ; 
And chow hlf IxMn Iw to- lore, 
)il be wll Buk It stout. 

MS. Bodl. 48, r. iStl. 
The mkryoere that woUe hove Ijyne hur Vf, 
Hyi yen stode owic oMtn^te for-iliy, 
Hyi lymme* were roton hytn froo. 

L« Bon9 Vlorenet of Rumtt 8099. 
He gafe hym swyiko a clowte. 
That bolhc his eghne ttodc ont ttrvwir. 

Sir Intmtim, Ltncotn MS, 
ASTRUCTIVE. This word is used by Bishop 
Hall, and opposed by him to dalruetive. Sec 
Richardson, in v. 
ASTRYVYD. Distracted. 

fieryn and hii company itood all awhyvyd. 

Hitlom n/ Btryn, HH. 

ASTUNED. Stnnned. See Drayton's Polyolbion, 
ed. 1753, p. 1011 ; and .Itlmne. 
He frutt duuD at o dent, 
* That hon and man artunei lay* 

Anhvur and JVarlin, p. 233. 
ASTirNTE. stood ; remained. 

The baront attvntt withoute tnuo bitlde, 

And ratrc (code Into the toun to the kinf; har 

That he uolde, vor Oodca love, him tict under- 

And graunte horn the gode Lawes, and habbe pitd 
o1 tft lond. Rati. Otouc, p. 5M. 

The other oMtvnte and unnplhe abed. 
He nc mljhte no othur for achame. 

ua. Lnd. loe, r. its. 
ASTUTE. Crufty. Mnuken. 
A8TWARD. Eirtward. 

And to a Bchip wc duden Ui tone, 

And aHicard evero kcndeni 
In the le of occcan, 
Aa ore Loverd ia ^ace ua aende. 

MS. laud.\t», MM. 
ASTY. Rather; as soon as. AorfA. This is 

perhaps connected with tutt, q. v. 
ASTYE. To ascend. 

Alfred and Seynt Edwarde, laatehll gonneojfya 
Thorn the due of Normandye, tbat her oncle was. 
Rot. Clour, p. 317. 
ASTYTLED. Lamed in the leg. 

Sofntyme an hound ic yvcle attK/letl, to that he 
•hal aomlymr atiyde half a 5eer or more, or he tie 
wri fkTfflc. MS. Bull, SM. 

ASTYL. A thin board or lath. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. IC, explained from the Anglo-Norman 
" a piece of a wooden log cleft for burning," 
Phillips has aricle in the same sense, so that 
the word may come originally from the Lat. 
AS U N DE RLY. Separately. It is translated by 
dujuncdm, teparatim, and dirinm, in the 
Prompt. Par\. p. 16. 
ASt'NDRI. Apart. See Gcsta Romanorum, 
pp. 14, 67, 164 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 16. 
In thli wtirld, bi Seyn Jon, 
So wise a man li thernon, 
Aitutdri fchuld hem knawe. 

AmU and AmiloUHf 90C9. 

ASWARE. On one side. 

Hym fu(l bin beter to hare gnon more nrfv«re. 
For the egg of tllepAnn^1(^t with hl» ihynnp. 
And kmrffatoo a vryo. and the nfxt tjm. 

Chaurer, ed. t 'rry, p, 509. 
ASWASH. CotgraTc has, '• ChatHorrc, a loose 
snd light gowiic, that may be wornc turwath 
or skarfcwise." 
ASWELT. To become extinguished. (./.-&) 
Ac tot and snow cotncth out of holes. 
And brennynf (ujr, and gtowyng colet ; 
That thco snow for the fuyr no malt. 
No the fuyr for theo mow tuweft. 

ASWEVED. Stupified. asinadrcom. (^.-5.) 

Fur to a.4tonied and aswewtd 
Was every virtue in me heved, 
What with hit Mmn, and with my dred. 
That al my felinge gan to ded. 

The Htmse m/ FUmft ilr41. 
AS-WHO-SAIETH. A not uiifrcq»ent ex- 
prwaiou in our early poclry, equivalent to, — 
as one may say, as the sajing is. Sec Dyce's 
notes to SkcItOD, p. 86. 
ASWIN. Obliquely. Korih. 
ASWOGIL In a swoon. (,^.-5.) 
jitwogh he fell adoun 

An hyi hynder araoun. Litbenuf ZM«ronw«, 1171. 

ASWOUKE. In a swoon. Sec auiircr. Cant. T. 

3826, 10788 ; Gy of Warwike, p. 1 7 ; Legend 

of Pope Gregory, p. 48; Rom. of the Rosc,l804. 

He ferd as hu wer mat ; 

AdouD he fel ottcotint with that. 

Gif nf Wmrwtke, |v 19. 
ASWOW'E. In a swoon. See Anpogh ; Laiui- 
fal. 755 ; MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 5i. 
The king binethen, the atede aboue. 
For tothe lir Attbour was<uicH»rf. 

Mrth'mr and Mertin, p. 1S3. 
'And whanne the raydwyf hurde that, 
Zhe fplle a-*ieowe thar ahc lat. MS^Done* 236« f. SX 
A-Sl-DEN-HANDE. On one aide. 

Eut he toke nat his ground ao even in the frocit 
oTore them aa he wold have don y( be might t>ell«r 
have vene them, bult lomcwhate o-iytfrn-Aandv. 
where he dispoaed alt hii people in good amye all 
that nyght. Jrrivaio/ Kimg Entutcrd IV, p. tEL 

ASYGHE. To essay. 

Now let leo gef ooy ta lo hardy 
That durate hit him tupghf. Kyng AtUaundm; 3B79* 
ASYNED. Assigned ; appointed. 
And jemen of the crownc alao. 
That were a<jrNi*rf wyth hym to go. 

jtrx^^oltfim, itai> 79. 






AT. (1) That. North. Set Se^7n Sages, 3824; 
PcTCCTil of Galles, 150, S24 ; Towneley Mys- 
teries, pp. 2, 87 ; Robion's Met. Rom. p. 7 ; 
Twaine and Gawin, 4B6. 

It r» fully my coDiailr Ihat thou rcGOunwUeafftrne 
unto the my Udy my moder Olymplu, and at Ihou 
frcfe the nathynge at the dcde of Lctlaa, ne take 
aa hcryBea to the iherfore. VS. Unntn A . i. 17, f * S^ 

(2) To. Constantlr used as a prefix to the verb 
b)- early English writen. Sec Ywaino niid 
Ga^n, 812, 2341. 

Ga hetbene away frm me, quod he, for thou canne 
say Doghie to raee, ne 1 hafe noghtc of do with the. 
US. Lincoln K.\.\l,t.\. 
That ci mi say, with golde and enience. 
And royre that they ofTerde In thl pretence. 

US. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 190. 

(3) To. " This roal ull be daingerus jist nov, if 
■ duniu doa •ommat at it." Var, dial, 

(4) Eat. 

No haddc thai no wlnea wat. 

No ala that wai old. 
No no goda mete thai or. 

Thai haddcn al that thai wold. 

Sir Trtatrtm, p. 8ft). 

(5) Who ; which. NorIK 

(6) Of. Karlh. 

Serypiteand butdon can he uke. 
And toke lere a> hyi wyfe. 

MS. Canlab. Ff.U.38, f.US. 
He luke hi> lere at the dayo 
M Mlldor the falre maye. 

Sir Dcgrtvantt, Uncetn ITS, 
That lame houre herly at momc, Marie 
ne and hir two ■Utcn asked leve at oure 
and went with thelre oynirmentet to the 
its. Uncoln A. 1. 17. f- 186. 

(7) To attack ; to accost. A common elliptical 
form of the expression to ie at, or to get at. 
Also, to contend with or take in a game or 

(8) For. 

Jt thif oauae the knyjt comlyche hade a 
tn the more half of hJj icbclde hlr ymage depaynted. 
Sirr GaiM^ne, p. 23. 

ATACHE. To seize. 

And ecyde, we ataehe yow y-wyaae. 
For ye achalle telle ui what he yt. 

MS. Canlab. Ff. II. 38, f. 133. 
AT-APTER. After; afterwards. North. See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 10616, 1I&31; Morte 
d' Arthur, ii. 220. It is an adverb and prep. 
I trust to aeo you at1.^/tar Eitur, 
A* coonlaf ai 1 that am your matter. 

MS. Bawl. C 1S8. 

ATAKE. TooTcrtake. (.li.-S.) See Amis and 
Amiloun, 2070: Chaucer, Cant. T. 16024. 
Somctiuca it stands for the part. pa. Alakm, 
■a in Chaucer, Cant. T. 6966, and our two last 

He turned hit itedo and gm to fle. 

And Oy after him, bl mi leut^ i 

Code waa the hon that Owlchard rod on, 

And to t^t hit itedc gan gon. 

That Otj might him nought alakti 

Tberfore he gan torwemake. Cp nfWmrmlk4,p, 62. 

And teyde, ha I now thou art a-talre. 

Thai thou thy werke myjie noujt fbnake. 

Oxeer, MS. Soc. Anti^. 134, f. IM. 

And no^t for that a goth to fait. 

That Richard yi o-Mlie ata latu MS. ^Otnolt 411. 

AT-ALL. The cr; of a gamester full of cash and 
spirit, meaning that he will play for any sumi 
the company may choose to risk against him. 
See Massinger, iv. 78. 

AT-ALLE. Entirely ; altogether. See Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 29; Chaucer, Cant.T. 8921, 

The kynge knew the burgeyte at attt I 

Anone to hym he letce hym calle. /pofmfdoii,13QB» 

AT-AI,L-POINTS. In every particular, a phrase 
applied to a person well and entirely armed. 
See instances in Beaumont and Fletcher, 
iv. 7; Morte d' Arthur, i. 344, ii. 19. Al-all. 
riffhttia a similar expression, of which see in- 
stances in Chaucer, Cant. T. 2102; Sir 
Perceval, 1139. See Jt-ryghttei. 

ATAME. To tame. {J.-S.) See Skelton's 
Works, i. 13&, 211 ; Deposition of Richard U. 
p. IS ; Chester Plays, L 124 ; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 316 ; and Attame. 
And talde, thou curted Saraayne, 
Thy proude pride thall be atnmnt. 
By God and by Sclntc Qwyotync. MS. Jkmet 176, p-SS. 

ATANUNE. Afternoon. Suffolk. 

AT-A-POINT. This phrase is explained rttoMt 
by Rider. In the second example it appa- 
rently' means at a ttoppage. 
Old Hiward, with ten Choutand warlike men, 
All ready at a point, wai tetting forth. Macfteth, It. 3. 
Now let lU tpeake of the Erie of Warwiekc* 
doyngct, whkhe mutte nedet play a pagUunt In 
thb entcrlude, or ela the plale were at a point. 

Hall, Kilutnt IV. f. 1«. 

ATARN. To run away ; to escape. (A.-S.) 
Manie flowe to churrhe, and the conttable unnethe 
^rarfide alive, and manie were throat to dethe. 

Rol,. Glouc. p. 63S. 

ATASTE. To taste. See the corresjionding 
passage in MS. Soc Antiq. 134, 1 6, and Digby 
Mysteries, p. 190. 

Ve thullen atatta tx>the Ihowe and thee 
or thllke water, to tpeke in wordes fewe. 
By God ordeyncd trouthet for to thewe. 

l^dgate, MS. Mhmolt 33, t. 44. 

ATAUNT. So much. See Digby Mysteries, 
p. 192. (^.-A'.) 
Whan that Bachua, the myghll lorde, 
And Juno eke, both by one accorde. 
Had Mtte a-tirorhe of myghtl wyne a tone. 
And afterwardyt Into the bnyn ran 
Of Colyn Blobolle, whan he had dronke afavnf 
Both of Teynt and of wyne Alycaunt, 
Till he wat drounke at any twyne. 

Colime Blou'MI, MS. Rawl. C.Wt, 
And he it a foole that yevltlie alto credence 

To newe rumoura and every foUltthe fatde, 
A dronken foole that tparithe for no dlipcnce 
To drynk laynt Ul he tiepe at table. 

L^dgMe't Minor Potml, p. 167 

ATAVITE. Ancestnd. 

But tmlle tblitioldnet, not myneowne nature, liath 
taught mec. but yuur nalurr, geiieroiltle prognate, 
and come from your a/aWreprogenltoun. 

ElliM'o UUrarp LHfr§, p. 7(. 

ATAXY. Disorder ; irregularity. {Gr.) 
AT-BAR. Bore away. 

A wonder thing he tey him thar, 

A wolf hit other child at-6ar. MS. Mftr M, MO> 
AT-BLEWE. Blew with beUowi. 




Thttottrmestoun atblfwt it liymr ; 

Crifte for-fldiopc thamc bothe ty the and lyine I 

MS. Lincoln A. I. 17, t. liH. 

AT-BREST. To burst in pieces. 

Hti hen aght nrat-brrtt in thrio. 
At fra hU comamcnlef tuin. 

US. Cbtl. rwpu. A. IB. t. M. 
ATCUEKED. Choakci SJtinner. 
ATCHISON. A billon coin, or rather copppr 
washed with tilvcr, »truck in the rcigii of 
James VI., of the tdJuc of eight pennies Scots, 
or two thirds of an English penny. See 
Jamieson, in v. 
I care out an they war all drown'd 1' th' dike. 
They're nut worth an afrAuon, nor twenty kike. 

Yorktttire Diatofrue, p. fi'. 
ATCHORN. An acorn, far. dial. We have 

also atchoming, picking up aroms. 
ATE. (1) To eat. Weil. See Jenning^p. 115. 
(2) At the. 

And with a god ilaf, ful ikel. 
Hit wif ^xfedore netjet. Sevjm Ssjw, SS96. 
ATEGAR. A kind of lance. /i«i«f. \a.-S.) 
ATEIGN. To accomplish. 

Ne hope 1 noght he wU him feign. 
That he oe sal Cairn dede ofrlgn. 

US. out. r«|Hu. A. IlL f. 8. 
ATEINTE. To give a colouring to. {A.-N.) 
Nal, dowler, for God atjOTe I 
Old men t>en fellc and qucintc. 
And wikkcfle wrcnchei conticafefnf*. 
Uhdo oowt, doughter, but do bi rede I 

SnfH SafM, I7M. 
ATBl,. Reckoned ; counted. (J.-&) 

The kyng thorn yt conteyl enrented wcl her to. 
And god Oftage of nom, the truoge vor to do ; 
And atal at her god, and let him ol t>ar wende. 

KM). Clout, p. 171 . 

ATELICH. Foul; comipt. (A.-S.) 
The bodi ther hit lay on t>ere. 
An tttelieh thing a» hit wai on. 

j^ppend. 10 tf. JCvei, p. MS. 
Tho cam thare out a luther wyjc 
Ful alrllch ate lasle. MS. Laud 108, f. 107. 

A aeharp face be hadde, and al for-kroked, 
111! berd aMicit and long. /Md. 108, f. Ifi9. 

ATENES. At once. Sec Cliaucer, ed. Urr)-, 
p. 32. Thii it merely another form of JItontt, 
ATBNT. An object; an intention. See Ootovian, 
104 ; Sir Amadas, 372 ; Joachim and Anne, 
p. 149 ! Cov. Myst p. 4 j Syr Gowghter, 617. 
Hymselfe yt in gode ottntt. 
For every man y« hyi frende. 

US. Qmlab. FC a 38. f. 79. 
A richc Icttre icho hym aent, 
Kftyr hlr iordii commandment. 
And ulde hym alle hlr atvnt. 

Sir Drfrrronit, Lincoln MS. 

ATEON. To make angry. ^.^.-S.) 
The kyng wca atennfd stronge 
Tlut Corlneus ailod w longe. 

Chrtmiclt ofKngtmn4t 61. 
Gofmagog was attn*d strong 
That OD moD htm alode so long. 

IbU. MS. Cbniai. Ft. t. 48, f. 9& 
H* was rUeiMd of his enemy. MS.Athmolt 33. f J. 
ATER. (I) After. Var.dial. It may, however, 
be a mere error of the scribe in the following I 
example : 

p. 139. 


8131. ■ 

And utyr thtt his modlr dide aryse. 
And lyfle him up softely Into the italic. 

Lyilgolc, MS. Soc. AHH<^ 134, t. I& 

(2) Attire. 

Etrrlch man of ich mester 
Hem ridcn ogain with fair ater, 

Arthour ami Merlin^ p. 139. 

ATER-NOON. Afternoon. Somenrt. 
ATEKST. In earnest. PhiUipi. Coles expl 

it mdtfd. 
ATEYNT. Fatigued ; worn out. (A.-N.) 
In the heLe they wer almoft mtcj/nt. 
And in the smoke nygh adreyot. 

Wrhard Coer de Lton, 
ATEYNTE. (I) Conricted; attainted. See 
Amis and Amiloim, 849; History of Berrn, 

Yn fcyre wurdys and yn qeynte, 
Wylh prydc are swych men atnjmte. 

MS. Hart. 1701, Ml 

(2) To reach ; to get posteision of. 
She seld, Thomas, let them stand. 
Or ellis the feeod wUle the alvo'*- 

MS. Canlab. VI. T. 48, f. I ML 
AT-GO. Expended; gone. 

Wor his spending wes al a(.fD. 
Wcl evenc he hit oundemom. 

MS. DItit 88, r. lU. 
Whet may I sugge bote wolawo I 
When mi lif is me at.go. 

Wrigur, i^Hc Pottm, p. 7«. 
AT-GOHT. Is expended. 

Ther Ich wes lucf. icham ful loht* 
Ant allc myn godea me at-goht. 

WrtgWt Lfrlc Puttry, p. 48. 

ATH. (1) An oath. {.4.-S.) See Ywaine and 
Gawin, 2264 ; Sir Degrcvante, MS. Lincoln, 
210 ; lleliq. Antiq. i. 126. 

1 bafe, quod he, made athe to Darius, that, whlis 
be ieflVx, 1 schalle never tiere armes agaynes hytne ; 
and therfore 1 ne may no5te do agaynes myne «rAe. 
MS. Uncln A. I. 17, f. S 
O pride bicumi thrones o thrett. 
Hethlng, threp, and a/Am grett. 

MS. Coll. rapmt. A. ill. t. lU. 

(2) Each. 

Thai token oth tuike ; 
The rogire raggl sculke 
Rug ham in belle 1 

IFWgM-s Pol. Sonp, p nt 

(3) Hath. 

Vorst ych wulle therynno do me sulf, vor ry5t yc ys. 
And vorstaaaylelhenfalsekyng,andbrlngehymlo|Ok», 
That the gret oth that he suur, so vyllyche alh to-broke. 

Rob. Glouc, p. 483. 

AT-HALST. Withholdest. Rob. Glouc. 
AT-HAND. " At hand, quoth pick-purse," an 
old proverb introduced in 1 Henry IV. ii. 1, 
and several writers of Shakespeare's lime. It 
is a familiar exclamation in answer to any 
ATHANOR. A digesting ftimace, calculated for 
the retention of heat. 
I have another work you never saw, son. 
That three days sbice past the phlloeophn's whed. 
In the lent heat oTattenor. Tin ^Icluntiit, U, h 
And se thy fomaoe baapt therfore, 
Whych wyttinndocaUalAmor. 

.<sk>Mie'< Th—l. CVkam. BrU. p. 149 





ATIIEL. Noble. (J.-S.) See 'Wriglifij Lyric 
PiMrtrr, p.33; liUck'iC«t.of Attimole's MSS. 
p. fi8. 

nil WAli Eonln lbeaM>/,*nd hlihigh kjmdr. 

S^ Gawc^Htf p. 3. 
AkuDdir Ihe aihill, be allun icorilr. 

US. A'kmolf **. r. II. 

AT-IIGLD. Tokeep;toretiin. Cf. Rob. Glouc. 
p. 62. 

ThU clerkn of whom ich teld. 
With the king weren al-htld. 

Arlhrmr ani Utrlbl, p. M. 
He him mlf ht do lenge at-held, 

Gv of n'ortrUre, p. 60. 
ATHELE. This vord is translated by nalurn in 

MS. Ilarl. 219. 
ATHELISTE. Most noble. 

Thuie S) r Arthuri; one erthe, atheluie of othcre. 
At crene at bteawme bordeavaiiild hit lordea. 

Uorlt Artlmrt, MS. UnctilK, t. 70. 

ATHENED. Stretched out. Vmlegan. 

ATlIESrNG. Extension. (.y.-S.) See a piece 
by Lyd^te, printed at the end of the Chronicle 
of London, p. 237. We have already had the 
passage from another copy, in v. Arenyng, 
which is probably a corrupt reading. 

ATHEOLS. Atheistical. 

It U an ignorant conceit that inquiry Into nature 
should make men <uhen%u .- no man if m apt to tee 

BUhop Hall. 

ATHER. Either. Yorkth. See Hartshorne's 
Met. Tales, p. 100. 

At acAer code he caitei a cope 
Layde downe on borde, the endyt plyed up. 
Jlotr« q/Cbftoj>e, p.S8, 

A-THES-HALF. On this side of. See the quo- 
tation from Robert of Gloucester, in v. Annlher, 
ATHILLEYDAY. The rule of an aslrolabe. 
Secke the ground mcote fcr your purpose, and then 
take BO utrolobe, and hang that upon your thombe 
by the ring, and thi'n tume the atfiitlfi/day or rule 
with the lighla up and downe, untill that you doo aec 
the marke. Bomrn^M Jnv«itiontor DeviMtt iBJBw 

ATIIIN. Within. Somertet. 
ATHISKEN. To repent; to grieve. (/*.-&) See 
Troilus and Crcscidc, i. 1051, v. 878. 
Soore it me a-th^k«th 
For the dcde that I have doon. 

PlfTM PltiugSman, p. 374. 
A-TUIS-SrnE. On this side; betwixt now and— . 

r. f. •' a this side Christmas." Var. dial. 
ATHOG. As though. 

I '^tlatl ley on hym» nthPff I wode were. 
With thyfl tame woniaoly geyre. 

Sharp'' I>i". m (W. JVyrf. p. 111. 

ATIIOLDE. To withliold. Sec llartshomc's 
Mel. Tales, p. 96 ; Rob. Glouc. p. G2. 
for-lhi SaUnia the holde 
The Mule wlllc aUxUdt. MS. IMftt 86, t. IW. 
ATHOUT. Without. HW. 
ATKKANG. In a throng. 
AUe wcore dryrcn mlftrmng i 

Ten myle they yeode alang. Kyiif ^titaundn-, 3*m. 

A-THRE. In three parts. See Chaucer, Cant.T. 

2036; I.egcDdxCatholicc,p.l28: Rob.Glouc. 

p. 23 ; Chancer, ed. Urry, p. 22. 

The halvedel thenne atSrHt 

Wei b* bisell* thco, CJkreif.e/CngfaiHf, 113 

ATHREP. With torture; cnielly. (^.-A) Mr. 
Conybcare gives no explanation o{ this word. 
BUydes ttondeth a feondei trume. 
And walteth hweone the »ule« cume t 
lleo hire awajleth al alhrtpt 
Also wulvet doth the acep. 

Omybw^t OcMrian, p, A7> 
ATIIRINED. Touched. Verittgm. 
A-THUISTETIl. Thrust; push; huny on. 

Kennynge houndet hunteth yn dyrene maacres, 
(or »ome foleweth the hert fute at the bygynayngr, 
and a-ihruleth a hert at the Srite, for Ihel gottb light- 
lych and faltc. MS. Bodl. M<i. 

ATH ROTE D. Throttled; choked. 

And if thou wolt algatci with tuperflultle of richca 
be athntted. thou shalt haatellche be anolcd, or eU 
eirlll at CM. Ttlamenl ■>/ L/m:, p. iUB. 

A-THROL'GIi. Entirely. 

A-throngh they ordryned gode and ^e, 
Hyf body and bonei to berye theryn. 

MS. Canlab. FfclUa, f.Jir.. 

ATHRUST. Athirst; thirsty. . 
An huswyfe of trust. 
Whan the U athntu, 
Surhe a webbe can apyn, . 

Her Ihryft It full Ihyn. Slelton'/^frnt; I. tl(3. 

ATHURT. Athwart; across. H'etl. It is some- 
times used in the sense of a short cut, and 
frequently also by sailors, with the channel 
understood, e. g. " He's gone alhurt." 
ATHVERTYSYD. Advertised; informed. 

Vt fhall please yow to be alhiterttKyd that her« ys 
an abbey call) d Ingham in Notfolke, not fare fiome 
Seynt Benettca abbeye. 

n-rigMt UoncMlc Utttrt. p. (W. 
ATHYT. Perhaps this ought to be, al Ayl. 
No storing ot pasture, with baggedgly tyt. 
With ragged, with aged, and evcl ath^, 

TUMtrr. ed. Ii73, f. 14. 

A-TILT. At a lilt. Also, as a \-eTb. See the 

quotations given by Richardson, in v. 
ATIRE. To prepare; to fit out. (.^.-A'.) 

What do4 the kyng of France I atim him gone nav le 
TtUe Inglund, o chance to wynne it with maiatrie. 

Pilar Langl.ifi, p. S07. 
Atind ther wendyng toward the Marche right M»e. 

IIM. p. MO. 

ATISFEMENT. Ornament. {^..N.) 

A pavllloD of honour, wllh riche att^jtmemt. 
To serve an emperour at a pailemeou 

Ptirr Lmflifl, p. IM. 

ATITLED. Called ; entitled. 

But jIt here sterris bothe two, 

Satonuf aud Jubiter also. 

They have, alle>th(m]e they be to l>tame, 

AtitUd to here owen name. 

Cinitr, MS. Sor. AnlUi. 134, f. ISS. 

This Aries, on of the twclfe. 

Hath Marche altilltd for himselre. Ibid. f. ISO. 

The twelve monthiiof the jere 

jtlHtled undlr the power 

Of these twelve slgnli stonde. tbl4,t.\m. 

ATLED. Arraycfl. Sec //fyf. 

It Irc teht areu while aae bon of whal. 
Evme set ant uMeif a). tTHghfl l^rit Pottrf, p. aft. 
AT-LOWE. Below. 

And truly, syrs, liioke that ye trow 

That othcrv lurd is none at-hwe, 

BdIhe man and beest to hym shalle bowe. 

In lowne and feylU. niientfry MftirrU', p. in. 




ATO. In two. See Ahro. 

To the fUfle* he yedc, 

And even mto hem irhore. Sir Trutrttn, p. ISO. 
ATOK. Took ; seized. 

Al tlut FortlgTT aluk, 

He let to dnve uid uihong. 

Arllumr ant Merlin, f. M. 

ATOM. At home. Alome is still common in 
the pro\"inces. 
Aod the Normtoi ne coutbe tpeke tho bote hei 

owe ipechc. 
And ipeke French u duite afevn, end hete ehyldreo 
dude aUo techc. Rot. Clone p. 364 

ATOM Y. (1) An atom. See Romeo «nd JuUet,i.4. 
To tell thee tnith. not wonden* for do eye 
Sec* thee but itandi flmoxed, and would turn 
H\% cry»t«l humour into utomiet 
Kver to pUy about thee. 

Beauninl and Flelrhtr, It. 883. 

(2) A skeleton. North. Shakespetrc tuu the 

word in 2 Henry IV. v. 4. 
AT-ON. United ;' agreed. See Lay le Fnlne, 
279-320 i Prompt. Panr. p. 6 ; Faerie Queene, 
II. i. 29; Rcliq. .\ntiq. i. 167. 
Thou base ourc gude mene tltne, 
1 rede je lie at-ant 

Or thare dy any ma. Sir Dtgmanttt Unooln MS. 
In that maner they are at.em. 

Ma. Cimtoli. Ft. U. 38. t. IM. 
ATONE. To reconcile ; to agree. See Beaumont 
and Fletcher, i. HI ; Webster's Wqrks, i. 73; 
As You Like It, v. 4. Tliis verb is evidently 
formed from at (me. Shakespeare, Merry 
Wires of Windsor, i. 1, has atonrment in the 
sense of reconciliation, agreement. 
ATOP. On the top ; upon. It is generally ac- 
companied by o/oT on; e.g. "I saw Mr. Brown 
atop of his new horse yesterday." far. dial. 
ATOUN. (1) To run away. 
" Tho Water Tyrel y-«ey that he was ded, anon 

He atomde as vaste ai he myjte ; that was hyi tiest 
won. Rol>. G/ovc. p. 419. 

(2) In turn ? A turn ? 

Thou bait y-dretned of vcnesonef 
Thou Rioilett drynke otani. MS. jithmolt SJ, f, 4. 
(3> Broken. //oii/». 
ATORNE. Attorney. {.i.-N.) 
The Mroe manere ;Il doth he, 
That U a fall atomi. US. Ba4l. 40, f . I6G. 

ATORRYTE. Authority. This form of the word 
occurs in some verses scribbled in MS. Bodl. 
ATOUR. About; around. (^.-AT.) 
Ded buth my pryncc« be aiour. 

KfngJiUaimttr, 4111. 
ATOURNED. Equipped. {A.-N.) 
And otherwbUe he might blni *et 
As a gret oat bi him tc, 
Wele atoumtd ten hundred knlghtcs, 
Ich y-anned to his riglitei. 

Sir Orphtt, «l. Ixl<iv. U3. 

ATOW. That thou. 

Loke atom no more wepe. 
For thi wiir Ulh itUle on depc. 

MarU Jtawlalelii, p. 930. 
AT-PLAY. Out of work. Staff. 
AT-RAHT. Seized ; tAken away. 

Such reed me myhte tpaclyche reowe. 
When al my ro were nie mt-mht. 

tVrifhrM LirHc P—trp, f. 31. 



AT-RAUGHT. Seiied. 

who fo erer he at-ratight. 
Tombel of hon he htra taught. 

Arihmtr and Merlin, p. 179. 

ATRAY. To trouble ; to vex ; to anger. From 
/my. See the Sevyn Sages, 1867 ; Cof, Myit. 
p. 350. 

He thirle him up In a breyd. 

In hlf hertetorcori-ajrveii. Ktmg^T^0,mt 

ATRETE. Continually ; distinctly. It is trana. 
Ittled by traclim and dittincte in the Pmmpt, 
Pan-, p. 1 7. Baber, in his glossary to Wickliffe, 
refers to 2 Esdre viiL for an instance of the 

Hit was godepreyets, I iel hit a/rere. ^1 

JV5. reman, ArchaxUitla, xvlU. SS. H 

ATRICK. An usher of a hall, or master porter. 

ATRIE. To try ; to judge. 

Chefe justlae he aatte, the sotbe to afrte. 
For lefe no loth to letle tbe right lawe to guye. 

Piter hangp^, p. MX 1 
Therightnhedid attrii of tho that wrong h^ I 
nomeo. Ilrid. p. t4S. 

.\TRISTUN. Trust ; confide. 

Ther ^n thowtand apices of rcyn tupentlcoun, 
that If, thing veynly ordeynid and ve)'nly uatd. and* 
veynly that men atrittun \a, and all litk thlngil are 
forbidun je in IhU, that thu trbnlt not tak hU name 
in veyn. 'tpoli'gv M "" l^tlanU, p. 98. 

AT-ROUTE. To rout; to put to flight: to assem- 
ble. Heame also gives the meanings, to rr- 
lul, to gather together. 

So tliat men of purchai come to hym so grei route. 

That ther nas prince un-oeihe that hym myjte acrwtt. 
Hob. Glisuc. p. 78. , 

AT-RYCHTTEZ. Completely. I 

Luke ;e aftyre evenaang be armyde at.rjighttet ] 

On blonkes by jone butcayle, by ;one biytl 
•tremci, MorleJnHure, MS. Lincoln, f.m. 

AT-SCAPEN. To escape. 

ievi, thl grace that Uiatn 
In alker hope do thou me, 
^/-Mupen pcyne ant come to the. 
To the bliss* that ay thai be. 

WrighVt l^ric Poetry, p. Ji, 

AT-SITTE. To withstand; to coulrndict. (y/.-S.) 
See Rob. Glouc. p. 174 ; Arthour and Merlin, 
p. 68. 

For ther nas so god kny^l non nower aboute Pnuue, 

That in Joustes »cholde at-tltto the dynt of ys launce. 

/• Koli, CUmc. p, 137. 

HUetmdo nedurstehe non (ff^elrte. HeeeMr, fiSOQ. 

AT-SQUARE. In quarrel. 

oft times yong men do fall ot~»^are. 
For a Sne wench thai i> feat and tiin. 

WilhaW VicHonarle, p. tTI. 

AT-STODE. Withstood. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 15. 
with sheld and fpere out Mrawe 
That hoere dunt <U.mdr. MS. Dlgby 8A, f.tS4. 

AT-STONDE. To withstand. 

I ne wende no;t that eny man my dunt oolde ml «l«ii i< «. 
Bot. Olomc. p. 300. 
ATT. To. 

We bcsekene jowe that je chrse }ow jong lorde* 
and 5ong knyghtes that ere Usty mene and able for 
to suffye discsac for to be with jow i for here wc glfft 
up on armea, if It Ik jour wllle, and forsakca thame 
for erer. MS. Uneolm A. 1. 17, f. 3. 






ATTACTIEN, To attach j to indite. (^.-A'.) 

Atul comaundftl b cooiUblt, 
Ttuit com tt the Ante. 

To aftncfirn Iho tyrauntt. PUn Pliitighmant p. 4<*- 
ATTACK'D-ED. Attacked. A coaunon jiarti- 
ciple here, but more extensively used, 1 am 
told, in America. 
ATTAINT. A taint; an)-thing hurifu!. Tlie 
Torb leenu to be used in somewhat a pecu- 
liar senae in Morte d'Arthur, ii. 2CG. It was 
also a term in chivalry. 

I will not pottoD thev with my attaint. 
Nor fold my fault In cleanly colo'd czcuici. 

Skakapaar^* Ltirrect. 
The kyng wu that daye hyghly to t>e prayied. for 
he brake mllj. tperetp betyde attaytttttt and bore 
iloune to ground a man of annes and hyi hone. 

Hall, Htnryrnt.f.U. 

ATTAL-SARESIN. According lo Cowell and 
Kconelt, the inhabitants of Cornwall call an 
old mine that is given over by this name. The 
tatter says, " probably because the Saxons em- 
ployd the Saracens in those labours." 
ATTAME. (I) To commence: to begin. {A.-N.) 
Also, to broach a vessel of liquor, as in Prompt. 
Pari', p. 16, where it is translated by allamiHO. 
And thereupon he tchuldc anone atlame 
Another of aewe, and for the more honoure. 

Lfdgale, .VS. .Sof. Anriii. 134, f. 8 
Yet, ho«te. quod he, to mote I ride or go, 
Dut 1 t»e roery, y-wli I wol be blamed ; 
And tight anon hU tale he h.nth attamrd. 

Oiourer, Cant. T. I«i4. 
There was none luchc »Ubrn Adam dide afam« 
The frute to etc, for eyther halte or lame. 

US. SK.,lnUq.\H, f. 1. 

(2) To fed ; to taste. 

For ftlthln that payne was flnt named, 
Wa* Btr more woTull payne mttamrd. 

C/Muc«r*i Orranw, AUG. 

(S) To biirt ; to injure. This is, I believe, the 
meaning of the word in Chaucer's Drewne, 
1128, which Tyrwhitt conjectures to be din- 

of hb icholder the cwerd glod doun. 
That tiothe plate* and haubrrjoua 

De carf atuo y plight, 
M lo the naked hide y.wb; 
And nought of fleachc atamtd Is 
Tburch grace of Cod Almlght. 

G> •/ frannOn, p. 325. 

ATTAR. After. Salop. 
ATTASK'D. Blamed. Sec Alapt. 

Vou ate much more atto§k'd for want of wisdom. 
Than prais'd for harmful mildnctt. King Ltar, I. 4- 
ATTAST. To taste. Sec Dial uf Great. Moral. 
p. 94. 
And to oon fVute In ipecyall he had greie hast. 
Hit aptyde wai desirous tticrof to altasl. 

US. Laud 416. f. HI. 

ATTE. At the. (A..S.) 

And thanne seten toraroe. 

And »ongen atte nale. PiVri Ploughman, p. 124. 

ATTE-PROME. ImmedUtcly. (A.-S.) See 
Kyng Alisaunder, 5356. 

with that came a sergeant prickand, 
0«dUI he was and well (peakand ; 
To Sir Ouy is he come. 
And him he gret atte frame. 

KIliTe Uct. itoM. IL Id, 

ATTELE. To aim ; to design ; to conjecture ; 
to go towards ; to approach ; to judge. Sc« 
Sir F. Madden's glossary, in v. and Ellle. 
The emperowr entred in a wey eTciie to attele 
To have brulleoet that hot and the abale teththcn. 
Win. and the Wenmlf, p. I, 
For-thl an aunter In erde I aft/« to schawe. 

Brr OawajfHS, p. 4. 

ATTEMPERALLY. Temperately. 

That mane fs nojte mekUlcs at commend that 
alwayet lylTet In disease ; bot he cs gretiy to com* 
mcDd that in rediea lylfts attempvtally, 

MS. UltcUm A. i. 17, f. 35. 

ATTEMPERAUNCE. Temperance. See Lyd- 
gate's Minor Poems, pp. 194, 209 ; and the 
example under Fratour. 

And soversynly she had attrmim-aunea. 

Lydgate, US..1thmal€ 39, f. II. 

ATTEMPRE. (1) Temperate. (^.-A'.) In 
^'right's Monastic Letters, p. 189, we have 
attcmpreii in the same sense. See Maunde\-ile'i 
Travels, p. 276. 

Attempre dlete was all hire physlke. 
And exerciic, and hertes fufflsance. 

Chaunr, Cant. T. 14S44. 
(2) To make temperate. SceTroiliu andCreieide, 
i. 954. 

Ther may no welthe ne poverto 
Attemprt hem to the decerte. 

Cower, US. Soe. Jntlq. 134, f. 47. 

ATTEMPRELY. Temperately. (.^.-A^^ 
Oovemeth you also of your dietc 
Aitemprely, and namely m thii hete. 

CJtaveer, Cant. T. 1310. 

ATTEMPTATE. An attempt. 

Ai heruDto the kynge man-aylith gretiy ofTlhya 
prcsuraptuoicarfmirrare usydde by the Frenchemm 
In hys streme, and takyth the same Teinyc dl*- 
pU'Mjntly. State l^pert, I. JS, 

ATTENDABLY. Attentively. Palsgrave ha* 
atlmdaile, attentive. 

Beeauie they scholde the more attendably ttudy and 
wrrke the more spedyly atMute the thynges that 
myghtc cauwand tiasle ther delyveraunc«. 

US. AraKdll 14S. 

ATTENT. Attentive. Shakespeare lias the word 
in Hamlet, i. 2. See aUo Richardson, in v. 
While other rusticks, lose atlenl 
To prayers then to merrymenU 

Htrriek'e WotIcm, 1. 140. 

ATTER. (1) Poison. {A.-S.) Hence, corrupt 
matter issuing from an ulcer, as in Prompt. 
I'arv. p. 16, where it is translated by iranie*. 
This latter is also the provincial use of the 
word ; Forby has it, and Skinner gives it as a 
Lincolnstiire word, in which county it now 
lecma to be obsolete. Kcnnctt, MS. Lansd. 
1033, says it was used in Sussex in the same 
tense. See Piers Ploughman, p. 243. 

Of vych a wcrm that after tjerelh. 

Other It itlngeth, other it lereth. 

O'nySeare'ff Ot-taeton, p, A7fl 

Thai sharped that tung als neddcr so, 

Attn of snakes uodir lEppes ot tho. 

US.BiM. iat, 

(2) An otter. 

Take heare cattes, dogges too, 
^ffer and foxe, fillle, mare alsoe. 

CI>e1rrHaf,i i\ 




(3) Attifc; tnaT. 

Id T&lewF ckv much more did co«t hit wrach«* pall, 
ThcD all th' »U9r i% worth that cuvereth altm Imne. 
Apiiend. to W. Mapett p* S7S. 

ATTKRCOP. Atpider. {^.-S.) It U trvisUted 
by aranea in the Prompt. Pu-v. p. 16, and the 
prOTindal glouariet give it alao the bciuh: of a 
(pider'i web, a» Ray, Kenoctt, and others. Sec 
Prompt. Parr. p. 140, and the list of old words 
prefixed to Uatmao uppon Bartholome, 1582, 
where it occurs in the first sense. Stanihont, 
in his Description of Ireland, p. 11, sayi a 
spider was called an allcrcoji in some parts of 
that countr;-, and even in Kingal. Pegge ex- 
plains it, "the venomous spider," which agrees 
wilh the etyinologr from allrr, poison; though 
cobweb, which was anciently spelt coptret, 
may have been derived from the latter part of 
the word ; Dut. Kop, a spider ; Welsh, Cap or 
Coppin. la the North nf England, the term 
is applied to a peevish, ill-natured person, not 
exclusively to the female sex, as Mr. Brocketl 
seems to sav. 

ATTERLOTHE. Nightshade. It U the transla- 
tion of morrUa in an early list of pUnti in MS. 
HarL 978, f. 25. 

ATTERLY. Utterlv. SUnner. 

ATTER.MITE. An'iU-naturcd person. North. 

ATTERN. Fierce ; cruel j snarling. Gtoue. 

ATTERY. Purulent. Ea$l. Ira.scilile ; choleric. 
IVttt. Clearly connected with altry, veno- 
mous, q. T. Chaucer speaks Ofatlry anger in 
the Peraones Tale, p. 63. 

ATTERYNG, Venomous. (J..S.) 

On fM« and hoodU thci had grvt nayici. 
And gtftte homes and aturyng taylya. 
Ttirtttattt p. 6. 

ATTEST. Attestation; testimony. 
An ctprraiice ao obtttnatrly itronK, 
Thai doth torcrt the otteMi or eyn and can. 

Tnittti and Crrt»ida, T. 9. 
ATTEYNANT. Attainable; appertaining. 
To Joync tuch« a workc. or It to rectify. 
To me It semrth lo farre fctt^ awrre. 
In Ijrme of jrcares, lo other dyaoordannte. 
Thai to my dullo wytic It la nut ollrri'HI. 
Fabian't Onniir/e, pnS, 

ATTEYNT. Convicted. 

At Loodoa thel maattfynl, decr^ »ai mail for Ihate. 
^^ LoHflo/fa Ctironiele, p. 1«. 

ATTICE. A carpenter's tool ; an adxc. Somertet. 
ATTINCTURE. Attainder. 

lo what caie the righle of the matter waa theire, 
and whether anye a/rffir/iire, atatute, or alyeoadon, 
wvr» made hy anye of the aunceaten of thla gentle- 
man, by whidi hU ryghte were rxtlnctc. 

Mnhmoh^la, xiTlH. 198. 

ATTIRES. Tlie horns of a stag. Skinner iayi. 

" comua ccrvi adulla, q. d. cenri oniamenta." 

ATTLE. Rubbish, reftue, or stony matter. A 

mining term. 
ATTOM'D. Filled wilh small particles ; thick. 
Whereas meni breaths doc liutaolly congeale. 
And aitom'd mUts tumc Inatantly to hayle. 

Dniyton't Pocmt, p. 964. 
ATTv')NE. Altogether. 

And hif fmh blood did friesewlth fctrrfull cold, 
TlKt all hli Kocea wem'd berrfle •!>»••. 

Tht Km^nt ^etfu, IM. 49, 

ATTONES. At once. SorlH. 

And Ihcnne they alyghl audenly, and aelte thdr 
handea U|ion hym all arfunnr, and toke bym pryaooer, 
and auo ledde hym unto the caaleL 

Uarf gjrtkur, \. S19. 
Fair queen of lore, I lov'd not all attonrm. 

Pnlt't »Vr*i, I. 41. 

ATTORNEY. A deputy. This original mean- 
ing of the word is used in the Alchemist, ii. 1. 
Sec also Hawkins's Engl. Uram. i. 40. Sliake- 
tpcare makes a verb of it in Measure for Mea- 
sure, V. 1. 
ATTOUR. (1) Ahead-dress. {A.-N.) 
Nor 1 nU makin mencloun 
Nor of her robe, nor of trcaowr 
Of brfKhe, ne of her riche atlour, 
Ne of her girdle almul her aide. 

Rum. iif au Hit, 37in, 

(2) Around. (A.-N.) See Atour. 

Attuvr hla belts hit liait lockla late, 
Kdtrid unfatre, or fret with frotlJi hore. 

TVfTanianr nf OtMtde, 169. 

ATTOURNE. To return. 

For there he woulde no longer make anjouras^ 
Out with Troyansto their lande a/ti*wnt». 

Hanlrng'i Omnldw, t. 14. 

ATTOURNEMENT. A Uw term, defined by 
Miuaheu to be " a yeeldiog of a tenant onto 
a new lord." See also Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 88 ; Holinshed, Chron. of Ireland, 
p. 102. 
ATTRACT. An attraction. 

Kor then their late attracU decline. 
And turn aa eager aa prick'd wine. 

HuiMnu, 111. 1. aU. 
ATTRAITS. Flattery. Skinner. 
ATTRAP. To entrap. (Fr.) It sometimes meua 
to dress, to adorn. See Richardson, in v. 

The king accompanied with the Dukes of Somer. 
act and Exccatcr, and other of the line of L«n- 
caatrr, drtermineil cicrrly to act oo the Duke o( 
Vorke and hik c<infedcratea, and them by force either 
utterly to vanquUb, or by pollecy lo attmp and 
bring to ninruaiun. Ha//, Htrtry y /. f. 09, 

ATTRIBUTION. Seems to be used by Shake- 
speare 1 IlenrvIV. iv. I, ioi commendatmn, 
A'nRin. Poisoned. (A.-S.) 

Archari with arowi with nttrid tMrbla. 

MS. Atkm^t 44. f. 49. 
ATTRITION. Grief for sin, arising only from 
the fear of punishment. See Tyndall, quoted 
by Richardson, in v. 
ATTHOKIEN. To faU. (A.-S.) 

I oelle noujt faulodc late him go, 

Thai hen t)eon overcome, 
And «rrrnJH<rn bl the wpie for fet>leaae. 
That hoog«r hem tubtie l-nome, 

MS. laud. I0(, r I. 
ATTRY. Venomous ; poisonous. {A.-S.) 
He thai hem amytc and do to 11511 
lie thai hem ;yvc ful tutry dynL 

Curiw Jfuiu/I, MS. Call. TVIn. OutH*. t. 131. 
With Iren, fuyr, or MM becst, 
Huw that ever the! may harden. IbU. t tSft 

ATTUR. Ilulter. 

Aa owre the gleilc alhtr ya feyre. 

MS. Outlmb. FT. I «. r. U. 

ATTWEEN. Between. Tor. dial. 

^iluttn loo theeeyt nayM lo a tnt 

L^itgmtt't Mii*vr /V 'mi, p. SO. 







ATTYSE. To entice. 

Srrrnuntift, jivoyde the company 

Of them that pUye at cardea or dyw i 
For yf that yr them hauote. truely 
T« thefte fhftU they you toone attj/se. 

Jne. Poetieat TmcU, r> II- 

ATUCON. Drawn. I'mtegm. 

AT-UNDERE. In «ahj<!<-tion. 

Prayea hyrit for the pea. and proryr* fulle Ur^e 
To h«fe p«<^ of the Pope. tJiat put wa> a(-«nif#riF. 
V(ir<> ^rtliurt, MS. Lincoln, t. UT. 

AT-VORK. BefoiT!. Rob. Glouc. 

AT-WAPED. Escaped. 

what vyide »o at'iooftfil wyjea that ichotten, 
Wats al to-raced and rent, at the rcsayt. 

Syr Gauvj/ne, p. 44. 

A-TWATN. Id two; asunder. See Southey's 
notes to the Morte d' Arthur, ii. 472. 
And clef ya body evene n.twayn 
With that Itionge apryng. 

MS. Athmeli 33, f 30. 

A-TWBE. Id two. North. 
ATT^'EEL. Very well. North. 
ATWIN. (1) Aautirler; in two. Suffolk. See 
Rilson's .\nc. Po|>. Poet. p. 66 ; Sir Trislreni, 
pp. 152,271 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 3589. 
She and her aonne waa departed attdm. 
For he and ihe were to oyc kynne. 

Syr Dct«ri, MO. 

(2) To part astinder. 

The funte payne of the feven. 

That 5c me herd byforv ncven, 

Y» the (rate drode that the loule ya Inne, 

Whan ttie t)odyeAnd yt Khal a-twynur. 

MS. laui. 4M. 
AT-WIRCIIE. To work against j to <lo evil 
work to. 

Al that trowc on Jheau Criit, 
Thai fond at.wtrrht fu\ wo. 

Styml Itfrgrtir, p. 101. 

ATW I ST. Disagreement. North. In Soraer- 

sctsliire it is used for twitted. 
AT-WIST. Knew. 

Another daJ Clarice ariat. 
And Blauncheflour at-taitt 
WhI hi made w linge dcmoere. 

Harlihomt'M ttcl. Talei, p. IDS. 
And thou In thine halle me ale. 
For tralaoun It worth at-wtit the. 

GynftVartctkr.p. 831. 

ATWITE. To twit; to upbraid. ( .^.-&) Sec Rob. 
Glouc. p. 33; State Papers, iii. 23. In uur 
second example it is used for the participle. 
See yittrot. 

Slrateward, that waa ivel y-imlte. 
In unwortlxachip It worth the mtwiti^ 

Oy nf WarwOtt, p. ISS. 
Ha waa wroth, yeachul here wlte, 
For Merlin hadde him atwite. 

Arthime anil Merlin, p. 341. 

ATWIXE. Between. See Atriis and Aniiloun, 865. 
How Atat theaparke waa kyndled of envic 
Atwiat Grckya and hem of Troye town. 

MS. Digby tX. t. i 

ATWIXT. Between. S^ffoUt. See the Faerie 
Queene, I. viii. 13. The Prompt. Parv. fti\cs 
aitpyrynr, atwrryn, atid attcytl ; and atvUin 
occtin in Troiliu and Creseide, L 418. 

ATWO. In two; asunder. Wnf. 

Aygatrte la tiM (retnl thifl that may be ; for It 

Is theft of body and of aoule, and It fa like to homi- 
cide, for it kerveth otuto and brekelb ofwo hem that 
Grat were made on flcah. Pertonta Tale, p. 104. 

ATAVOT. Twitted; upbraided. 

The loTertl let make a grtt fere, 
An<] let of aende a nt-yghebour, 
Ich underitonde a god harbour. 
And ael his wif forth fct-hol. 
And hire mladedes hire atwot. 

Sevyn Saga, 1B7& 
The soudan cleped hem fot-hot. 
And bis sones deth hem ahvot. 

Oy (if Waneilie, p. BDfi. 
AT-YANCE. At once. North. 
ATYL. (1) Furniture; attire. Sec the example 
from Robert of Gloucester, quoted under 
(2) To array; to accoutre. {A.-N.) 
Sothat, at certeyn day y-sct, to thyt liatayle bll come, 
A lute wythoute Par)-a, atytt^ wel y-nou. 

Rat. 0/e«c. p. l»l. 

A-TYME. On a time. 

A-tymm, to apeke myd hyi moder, to Engelond he com. 

An gret folc of Normandyc myd hym hydtr he nomc. 

Rub. Gluuc. p. 3:^. 
ATYR. Attire; ornaments. {A.-N.) 

Thco aiyr waa therein a* richo. 
In ai this world nyi him non Ilche. 

Kyng Alltaunttgf, 'JfVS 

AU. All. North. Tusser, p. 174, has /fuftir 
August, probably for the sake of the rhyme. 
though perhaps fiT)m Fr. Aolit. 
AUDADE. A serenade, ilimheu. (/>.) 
AUBERK. Ahawbcrk. 

Avtierk, aketoun, and ichcld, 
Waa mani to-t)roktn In that fcld. 

Ailhour and Merlin, p. 931. 
AUCEY. So the first folio of Beaumont and 
Fletcher reads, in the Coxcomb, iv. 4. The 
second folio reads awkncard — " ^\■hat awke- 
ward words they use beyond the teas !'' 
Mr. Dycereaila mery [saucy?] in his edition, 
iii. 187. The reading of the second folio must 
be preferred to conjectural emendation, but 
aueey may be right, and some form of auk, q.T. 
AUCTE. Property. 

To-morwen thai raaken the fVc, 
And aKrre the yevon, and hcbemake. 

Hapefolt, S31. 

AliCTORlTEE. A text of scripture, or of some 
celebrated writer. (Lai.) Sec Notes to RisU 
anger's Chronicle, p. HI. 

But, dame, here aa we riden by the way, 
Ua nedeth not xn ipeken but of game. 
And let nvrtoritret ill Goddpft name 
To prerhing, and to tcx^le eke of dergle, 

C%awcer, Cam. 7". (IMt 

AUCTOUR. An author. {Lot.) 

By wilte of man, al thyiige that is conlryvnl 
Mandiihc in proporcloune, plainly to conclude. 
In olde auciouri lykc ai It is diseryred. 
Whether it be depnease or longitude. 

Lydgal^t Minor Pvemt, p. SOy 

AVCYNTURE. A cincture. 

And also holy watyr uppon iheaonday In dcde 
Gevyn by the prelat that of the hathe cure, 
Yn tyme of node la for iby holy aucynturt. 

MS. Lam 416, f. 41. 

AUDACIOUS. Thif word waa not always tiaed 




hf OUT evly writen in a bad lenie, bat fre- 
quently meant no more than liberal or com- 
meudiiile boldnesi. See Lore's Laboun Loit, 
V. 1. 
AUD-FARAND. A term ajiplied to cliildrcn who 
haTB copied the manners of elderly people. 
Kcnnett, MS. Lansd. 1033, says, " a forward 
or old-growing child, as childirco are said to 
be ttud-farand when they arc willy or wise 
beyond their years, apud Borcales." Kcnnett 
derives it fitim A.-S. Faran. See also his 
Gloaary, ed. 18IG, p. 72. 
AUD-FASHINT. Oravot sigadoui; ingenioiu. 

AUDIENCE. Hearing. Chaueer. 
AUD-PEG. An inferior sort of cheese, made of 

skimmed milk. North. 
AUEN. Own. 

Qui sultl I him M!T«it yield? 
Al Ml be St royn aH«n wellrf. 

US. Coll. rttpat. A. Ul. f. 4. 
AUFYN. The bishop at chess was formerly so 
called, and is conjectured to be derived from 
the Arabic al-Jfl, an elephant, that being the 
piece which took the place of the bishop in 
the East. In the tract De Vetula, falsely 
ascribed to Orid, the following pieces arc men- 
tioned as used in chess, — MileM et .llpinut, 
Rocctu, Rejr, Virgo, Pednquf. See DuCJmgc, 
in T. Jlphintu; and .ilfyn. 

So yo a day, af be picldc at tlie chciue, and by- 
lielde the kyng tf ete yn the pley, Mmtyine by and 
•omtyme lowc, among attfyiu and pownyt, he 
thought therwlthe that hit wolde be so with him, 
for he ihuldedey, and be hid uitdlr erthe. 

Cvtta Ramatxiiunt , p. Gl. 
And of atejmt* eke alio 
On hlr iyde ihe had two, 
Wroght of a itone of gretc fAine, 
EUotropla wa« the name. J/5. Fair/aif IG. 
AUGENT. August; noble. 

Hayle, cumly kyngia outt^ntl I 

C3ood lun, 1 pray you whedder at ye mrnt. 

Sharp'! Con. Mftt. p. 101. 


A man that it here y.hunge and tyght, 
Tho never so nulworthe and whlght, 
And comly of ftha]ie, loTely and fayr, 
jtuggwrta and rucllc* wUl icon apayr. 

J. de Wafibt {Uampolt}, p. t. 


He covetyd noghte to dye, if it were plesyng to 
CbcFadireofhevenei and never the lease hlf ev^Sene 
PmUiv wolde noghte here hym. 

MS.LiMxlH A. 1.17, r. 179- 
AUGBT. (I) Ponesiions; property. {A.-S.) 
H* hlgbth bent avghtte and gret nobleya. 
He schuMen hit bete and ben in peU. 

Kyfif ./fiaauiidrr, 68H. 
Hsretok his Hoe he him uuhle, 
Andhiae two douhtrea, and al biieHAfa. HMmtak,t2M. 

(2) Possessed. See Langtofl's Chronicle, p. 126; 
Sevyn Sages, 1336; Ipomydon. 1422. 

King Triamouia elders it laught. 

King Darri sum lime it aught. Gt tf WtrwOlf, p. 313. 

(3) Ought ; owed. Eait. 

For mi lordes doubter iche la. 
And ich lili norl, fotmolhc y-wli, 
Tbcfcfure Ich uughi him trewethebere. 

Or ff "VieUrr, p. 7. 

(4) Anything; at all. (A.-S.) 

And at they were in gr«at aventure. 
They taw a drowmound nut of meavrci 
The druwraouud wat to bevy fraught. 
That unetbe myght it taylen ttnght. 
Richard Cotr dt 

(5) Eight. 
That ea at aaye, a twclvemoDtfae md 

nethes talle tbon lyffe. and thane be that thoo InUk' 
tcs one talle giOe thrv a drynke of drdd. 

MS. Uitculn A. i. 17, r. 40. 
They ocupjede the empyte aughte score vynttyra. 

Mono Mrthurr, MS. Llntoln, t. K. 

Oevtt dill on hit ao^uetoun. 
That had aughleit many a town. 

Klltyt MM. Am. il. III. 
Al'GHTENE. The eighth. 

One the aughttne day of thl byrihe here, 
Tliat Ilie Ante day ea of the newe ]ere, 
Circumcytede in body walde thou be, 
A lira the law waa thane In lere contrtf. 

JIfS. Unnbi A. 1. 17, r. IM 

Af tyr the oufchientle day, whene undronne et niligeDe, 

Thou talle behevcdcde in h ye, and witli borate draweoeu 

Morle Artburt, MS. Uaixin, t. tS. 

AUGHTS. Any considerable quantity. North. 

This is probahlv connected with might, q. v. 
AUCllT-WHERE. Anywhere, {.i.^.) 
Ai woIdc God above that 1 had give 
M y blode and flcihe, to tlial I might live 
With the bone* tliat he had awf'if-icAarva wife 
For hit estate, for toche a iuttlc life 
She thouldtn Icdia with thli luttie knight. 

Itppaipylt flfid MfdM, l7X 
Al'GLE. To ogle. North. Kennctt gives this 
form of the word in his glossarv, MS. Lansd. 
1033, f. 25. 
AUCRIM-STONES. Counters formerly used in 
arithmetic, and which continued to be em- 
ployed long after the iiitrbduction of Arabic 
numerals. In the Winter's Tale, iv. 2, the 
clown says, " Lot me see ; — Every 'leren wether 

tods; every tod yields pound and odd 

shilling : fifteen hundred shorn, — what comes 
the wool to.' — leannot do't without vountern." 
Hit aatrelabre, longing for hit art. 
Hit aufrim.«l(rn««, layen falrc apart 
On thelvct couched at hit bcddit hed, 
Ula presse y^overcd with a falding red, 

Oumre/-, C^xl. T. SIO. 

AUGUELLE. A kind of <ish, mentioned in an 
old document quoted in Davics'sYork Records, 
p. 124. Qu. Anffuellf. 

AUGULKOC. This word occurs in some glosset 
from the Cambridge MS. of Walter de Bibblcs- 
worth, printed in Keliq. Antiq. ii. 83. The 
French is un treyn, Qu. Am/*Utoc. 

AUGURIOUS. Predicting. 

I beleeve the trruple thote tiugvriottt pcopfe 
such kind of aecldontt have, would have made thlt 
man have atiandoned me to the fury of those ourted 

A Comical ttut-ay o/lhc WurU in the Maim, 16M. 

AUGUttYNE. A fortunc-teUer. 

And treuiy I have teen of Ptyncmrs.and Sin- 
slort, that men clfpen augurynca, th«t wtiaa wre 
ryden in armct In dyverte eontreet upou out* ene- 
myea, bethe Q)i.uge of fnuUt thei wuMv trlirtist'te 
prenottlcaclouut uC tblngcs that fcilo afln. 

MmindcirU^s ZVdM/a, p. 107 










AUGUSTA. A cant ttim for the uiistrm of * 
hooM of ill-fuDC. See Ben Joiison'i Worka, 
ed. Giflbrd, ir. 46. 
AUHTBN. Eight. 

jl^m jm Edgar nfoti krng ind tin ; 
H* l>« In tombe ta the abbey of Glaitrnblre. 

iMngt^fl't CJirtmicte, p. 36. 

AUX. Inveried ; contused. In the Kut of Eng- 
land, bcUs are " rung aui," to give ilam of 
fire ; and Palsgrave has, " I r>'ngc luke- 
wardc, je tonne abnuslc." It was formerl)- 
the general custom to ring bells backward in 
cases of fire. See Gifford's Massinger, i. 236. 
The older meaning is angr>', ill-natured, as in 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 18 ; where we also have, 
" rnrir, or wronge, linitter." This last sense 
is still in use in the North of England, and 
Tusscr tells us that bad liusliandn, droops " at 
fortune so ante." See the Kive Hundred Points, 
1&73, f. 58. An avi stroke is a backward 
•Iroke, ai in Palsgrave, f. 18 ; Morlc d'Arthur, 
i. U8, 284. Brorkett says that the word is 
•ppUcd to a stupid or clumsy person in the 
North of England. 

5« that lute ha« (o lyth, or \uttH for to here 
OtTeldcn of aide tymc, and of Ihcire aaclrff dedyt. 
ilvrte jinhurt, MS. Lincoln, f. M. 

AUKKRT. Awkward. Var. dial. 

AUL. An alder. Ilerrfordth. The following is 
a country proverb : 

When the bud of the aw/ u a« big as the trout's eye, 
Tbaa that flih is in teasoo In the liTer Wye. 

AULD. (1) Old. Var. diaL 

(2) The first or best, a pluase used in games. 
" That is the auld bowl." Eait. 

(3) Great, fi'orlh. It is used in the same man- 
ner as old in the Merry Wives of Windsor, t. 4. 
See Pegge's Anecdotes, p. 100. 

AULD-.\NE. ThedcviL \orl/i. Perhaps (he 
more usual term is Auld-Nick. 

AULD-LANG-SYNE. A favourite phrase in the 
North, by which old persous express their re- 
collections of former kindnesses and juvenile 
enjoyments, in times long since past, — immor- 
talised by the song of Bums, " Should auld 
acquaintance be forgot." See Brockett, in v. 

AlfLD-THRlFT. Wealth accumnlatcd by the 
tuccessive frugality of a long race of ancestors. 

AULEN. Of alder. HerrfonUh. 

Al'LN. A French measure of 5 ft. 7 in. said by 
I.«wis to be nsed in Kent. 

AUM. (1) Anaim. Palsgrave, f. 18, hu,">^i(nie 
or marke, esme." 

(2) An elm. North. 

(3) Allnm. North. 

AUMA A sort of pancake. This is given by 
Boocfaer as a Herefordshire word, but it seems 
to he now obsolete. 
AVMAIL. To enamel. It is a rabstantive in 
S^ Gawayne, p. 11. 
All bar'd wtth golden bendM, whl^ were entayld 
With cutIoui antlckef, and full fsyre avMM^/d. 

JTit Farrit (futmt. II. IIL S7, 

AUMAIST. Almost. JVorM. 

AUMBES-AS. Ambes-as. q. T. 

Alle i-bered b«o twete Jheau Crist, 
lluy casleniivm»«».<u. .Iff. laiMf. lOS, f. 107 
Stille, itlllc. Salanai ! 

The Is fallen aui>6uu / MS. Ogtif 80, f. 1 19. 
AUMBLE. An ombUng pace. (J-N.) 
H U itede was all dapple gray. 
Itgoth an aymbte in the way. 

Oiaucrr, Cant. T. 1.1914. 

AUMBRE-STONE. Amber. Pah^rate. 
AUMBRY. A cupboard; a pantry. North. 
Sometimes spelt oumery, or aumry. 
Some tloveni finm sleeping no loouer tw up. 
But hand is in iiumbrto, and Doie in the cup. 

Tuutr't Flee HwHlrad IVinU, 1873, li.S. 

AUMF.LET. An omelet. SUmer. 

AU.MENER. A purse. {.^.^N.) 

Than of lUs oumener he drough 
A little keic fctite Inough, 
Whiche was o( gold polLihid clere. 

Rom. c/lht RoKiVaKI. 

AUMBNERE. An almoner. 

SeynlJone, the numenere, 
Seyth Pert was an okercrc. 

MS.Harl. 1701, f.ay. 
AUMSR. To cast a shadow over ; to shadow. 
The substantive is spelt aumerd. It cor- 
responds to the old word timbre. Cmtn. 
AUMERE. A purse. TvTwhltt considers thii 
to be a corruption of aumetier, q. v. 
Were ttreighte glovis with avmere 
Oftilke, and alway with gode chere 
Thou yeve. If that thou have richcsce. 

Rom. t/iKt Bam, U}1. 
AUMONE. Alms. SHnner. 
AUMOliS. Quantity. When a labourer hia 
been filling a cart with manure, com, Ac. ho 
will say at last to the carter or waggoner, 
" Haven't ya got your aiimotu." Line. 
AUMPEROUR. An emperor. 
The aumpenmr Frederic and the king Philip of France, 
Alte hii wcnde Co Jerusalem to do gode chaunce. 

Ao6. almic. p. 486. 
Ore LoTerd wende mid is dociplei 

Into Phillpct londe ; 
Cetaje$ brothuT the numperowr 

Can b dndpla fonde. MS. Lewi. lOt, f. I. 
AUMPH. Awry J aslant. Salop. 
AUMRS. A cupboard. North. 
AUMRY-SOAL. " A hole," says Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1 033, " at the bottom of the cupboaid." 
I laid um here, under the au'ni/y.Ma/. 

Yorkthire Dialogvtf p. 44. 

AUMS-ASE. Literally, two aces, the lowest 
throw in the dice. It seems, however, from a 
curious extract in Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet, 
ii. 314, on old game at dice was so called. 

AUMUS. Alms. A'orfA. Thoresby, in hii 
Letter to Ray, 1703, spells it aicmost. 

AlfNCEL. A kind of land-sale weight, prohi* 
bited by statute on account of its great uncer- 
tainty. See Brit. Bibl. ii. 512. In the fol- 
lowing passage from Piers Ploughman, Mr. 
Wright's manuscript reads simeer, which 
can hardly be correct. " Awncell weight, as 
1 have been informed," says Concll, Interpre- 
ter, 1658, " is a kind of weight with scales 




hinging, or hooka fut<>nc(l al »cli end ot a 
itoff, which a man lifteth up upon hii fore- 
finger or hand, and so discrruclli the equality 
or difference iKtuecu the wcigiit and the thing 
neighed ;" and he afterwards adds, " a man of 
good credit once certified inee that it is stil 
uicd in Leaden-all at London among 

Ac the pountl ihst the plied by 

Pelted a quAtron inonre 

Thin myn ciwcnff auncfr. 

Who M wcycd truthe. Pl«r« Pfov|rAm0A,p.9O. 

AUNCETERES. Ancestors. According to Mr. 

Hunter, this word is not quite ohsoletc in the 

West Kiding of Yorkshire. Skeltoa, i. 128, has 

auncttry for anceffri/. 

So Khkltow gete god lof mnd grctll be meniklied, 

Aahanal thin MviMwrerefor thow were blgelen. 

irill. and llir tTtrifolf, p. I8S. 
Anhondrcth wynter here t>crore, 

Kotin Hixxt, 1. 10. 


The old< aaiMtaii wyf bejett ho (yttex. 

Sifr CouM^e, p. 38. 


The preUlct, Judj^, and aunclenttt bare cbcfrrule, 
and fuverned the people aa well at It would bee. 

tttdman't Complaint nf Grace, 1A&4. 
AITNCIENTY. Antiquity. See Skellon's Works, 
L 74, ii. 415; Cooperi Thesaurus, in v. Aetat, 

What mundentue than, !• theyr ForluU and maase 
bookc of. The Bumpnge ti/ Puvlee, 1A63. 

AUND. Owned. North. 

AUNDEIRYS. Andirons. In the inventory of 
eflfecta belonging to Sir John FastoUe, " ij. 
•taondyng anndeiryt" are mentioned. See 
Arciusologia, xxi. 269. 

AUNDER. Afternoon ; ereniug. According to 
Carr, this word is nearly extinct in Craven ; 
Grose aaya it is used in Cheshire; and 
Harlshome givei it as a Shropshire word. It 
seems derived from undent, q. v. Jamieson 
aays that omtrm in Scotlanil is " the repast 
taken between dinner and supper." Cotgrave 
•ereral timet mentioni motdert-tmeat as an 
•Aemoon't refreshment. See his Dictionarie, 
in V. Gouier, Goutirr, Recmf, Rente. 

AUNDIREN. An andiron, q. v. Palsgrave, f. 
18, translates " aund)Tcn" by chenel. 
Willi that a>iiM(lr«i he Ihrct SirGIJ, 
And with grct hale tlkcrly. Ot nf Warurike, f. int. 

AUNGE. An angel. {A.-N.) 
Kche day thervith je xal t>e content : 
Awxge alle howryf xal to 50W apere. C»i*. Jtfytf. p. 68. 

AUNT. A woman of bad character ; a pro- 
cureu or a bawd. This sense is common in 
eaiiy plays, although aunl and uncle were the 
usual appellatioiis given by a jester or fool to 
all elderly |<erBons, without irapl}'ing any im- 
proper meaning, a custom, according to 
Pcggc, generally pursued in Cornwall. In 
a Midsummer Night's Dream, ii. 1, the term 
aunt aeems to be applied to an old woman, or 
gossip, not oecesaarily in the bad seme, as the 
ooaunoiUtonteU ui. 

AUNTE. Instead of " up here annte." t]ie 
Heralds' College MS. reads, " to-gedere." 
Heogederede uphereaunia here oal mtK>ute iryde. 
And destruyde hire londe* eythar in hU »yde. 

lto6. GUfve. p.97- 

AUNTELERE. A stag's antler. See Twety's 
treatise on hunting in Rcliq. Antiq. i. ISl. 

AUNTER. (1) An adventure, (A.-S.) North. 
Rider makes it synonj-mous with hap or 
chance. In the provincial glossaries, it is 
sometimes explained, " needless scruple, mis- 
chance, misadventure." See Allete. 

(2) To adventure; to venture. (A.-N.) See 
Pieni Ploughman, pp. 382, 43S, 471 : Getta 
Romanomm. p. 35. 

I wol arias and aumtrt It, try my fay. 

Oimmctr, Com. T. tKl, 

(3) An altar. 

De-fan hli mmttr he knelyd adoun. 

Sniff and CarelM, aL »L 

AllNTEROUS. Adventim>us; bold; daring. 
" A caxtell awi/eroiu," in Lybeaus Uiiconus, 
279, glossed formidable. The Prompt. Part, 
p. 19, makes it synonymous with i/&kA04/, but 
(he other meaning is found at p. 279. 
Thay thai were <iwnr«roiM by.«yde. 
Id acuDtr^ fuile wyde, 
Thay come thedir that tyda. 

Sir DegreranU, Unrobi MS. 

AUNTERS. Peradventore ; in ca»e that ; leat ; 

prubablv. North. 
AUNTEKSOME. Daring ; coungeona. North. 

This is of course from ounler, q. v. 
AUNTRE. On the contrary ; on the other hand. 
jiuntre, they aworehym hool olh 
To tie by* men that wer there. 

Rickard Cber de l.t-m, HCit, 

AUNTREOUSLICHE. Boldly; daringly. (A.-N.) 
Al muntnemeikht Iher he comen wca. 

Cy of Waru'ike, p. 83. 
AUNTROSE. Doubtful ; dangerous. (A.-N.) 
Thanne seidv Alluiidrine, auHtrnee ia lh(n evel, 
Ful wonderlicbe it the were*, wel I wot tlie a«th«. 
trut. and <a< tftntvV, p. 34. 
AUNTY. Aunt. lor. dial 
AU-OUT. Entirely. CVoreii. 
AUP. (1) A wayward child. North. It ia pro- 
nounced Aupi in Craven, but the word » not 
in general use in Yorkshire. 
(2) Up. n'at. 
AURE. Over. [Avre .>] 

His gloves and hi* gnmesun* glnet as the gtadas, 
A-rayet aure with rebaiu, rychist of raya. 

Hebeim'e Mel. Htim. p. Ifi. 

AUREAT. Golden; gilt. Hence, good, ex. 
cellent. See Skelton's Works. I. 11, 77; 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 250; Percy's 
Rehques, p. 26. 

Thys boke was written with letters «MrM(, 
Perpetually to t>e put In memory. 

.4ihimile'e TVkeiU. Cllrm, Brtl. p. gS?. 

AURE-HIET. Overtook. 

He prekul oule pmtely. 
And Hurr-hiet him radly. 
And on the knyjle cunnecry, 
And pertely him rvprovca. 

<i«6mi'< Mtt. nrnt. p. ai. 





AURIFIED. Mode pure u gold. 

Fined alto and made full pure, 
Aod aurifttd be at the lajt. 

jtthmol^t TStat. Chem, BHt, p. 389. 

AURRUST. Hanest. Jlore. 

AURSELS. Ourselves. AorM. 

AURIjM-MULICL'M. a composition occasion, 
allv meutiuucd in early donmicnts relating (o 
the arts, and ftilly described in the foUowinj; 

Here may tbou lere to make aurum mylUum^ 
Take a violc of glu, and culc It wcle. or a longe 
erthen pot; and take j. pounde of itJt nrmonyar. 
and J. li of sulfure. and J. ti of mercuric cru, and of lyn ; meltc thi lyn, and caite till mercurle 
thnln. and then alle that other, and gryndc alle 
these thingea togiderc upon a >ton, and then put aHc 
in a d<-le. or hi an erthen pot, and atoppe a1 the 
luothe (ave alio moclicl alt a paper lefe, or a iiiouta 
of parrhrmyn may itondc in ; and then >et it on the 
fyre tn a furneic, and make furtle csy flere, and 
■rturwarde giiode Hre, the mouuLancc of IJ. ourca, 
Ul that thou ie no tirtlh come oute of the glai; 
and then take it of the Ore, and Invke the glas. 

MS. SiMiit 2584, r. 9. 


And then the golden oyle called ourum-pofaMfe, 
A medicine moft mervi'loui to pmerve mani 
health. jlt>im,Jt'i Theal. Chcm. Bril. p. 412. 

AUSCULTE. To raise up ; to exalt. Tlic MS. 
Bodl. 173, reads "exhalt" in the following 


jhuruU* you not to excclente. 
Into highe exaaltacion. Chr9ttr Ptapt, 1, ID. 
XrSE. (1) To try; to essay ; to promise favotir- 
ably, c g., " lie man well saying's as how 
he's a young un." Salup. Sec Aunt. 
(3) Also. Gil gives this as a Lincolnshire word 
in his Logonomia, 1C19. 

And lume beyonde ui twentte or thirtle lange milet, 
thai make pureihlft in thecille, and in the countrle 
«««•• Bultfiit't Dtabt^tt ISTi* P'*' 

AUSIER. An otier. SuffolJt. 

AUSNEV. To anticipate bad news. Somrrwt. 

AUSPICATE. Auspicious. 

Enter and proiper, while our eyca doc walte 
For an asoendefit throughly autpir^tte, 

MenlrJk'j »'»,>», Ei. 146. 
AUSPICIOUS. Joyfid. So Shakespeare seems 
to use the word in Hamlet, i. 2 : 

With one auapiclbut, and one dropping eye. 
AUST. To attempt. Wane. It is also used as 

• (iibstanlive. 
AUSTERNE. Stem ; severe. In the Testament 
of Crescide, l.'it, we have the form atulrine 
in the same sense. 

But who U yond, thou ladyc fdlre. 
That looketh with lic an auHeme face ? 

Ptng't RthqutVt p. 7^. 
Tbaae the burclyche beryne of Breuyne tlie ly ttylle 
^Coupaayle* Syr .Vrthurc. and of hyme tieaekyi 
^f o aniuere the alyenes wyth awrfrrr ne worde*. 
* itorttJnliure.MS.Unn^n.t.SS. 

4USTRIDGE. An ostrich. Cotgrave has, 
" Auilmche : an mulriili/e, or ostridge." We 
hive had .Mridi/e, q. v. 

AUT. (1 ) Ought. See Rob. Glonti p. 452. 

Well «u< I slniM lau. 

An neb wit teres wet*. tTarton't Um. KmgL Patl. 1. >4. 

{^) All the i ottt. A'or/A. 

AUTECER. Parent; an(M!stor. See the Co. 

ventry Mysteries, p. 88. Slioald we read 

anceter f 
AUTEM. A cliui^, in the canting language. 

There are several compounds of this word, as 

aulmt-mort, a married woman. Sec Uodslev's 

Old I'lavs, X. 372. 
AUTENTICKE. AuthcnUcChaucerhasitas asub- 

stantive. See TUyimc's Auimadversions, p. 48. 

Now for the third parte touchyng recordca and 

reglirrcs, wee have (hcin tofottnAlI, ioaultnliquattt 

M fcrioualy hnodelcd. liajl, Ht„t^ ¥111. t. M3. 


The flowre ii of a gode lose. 
That men cailelh auloow. Reflj. jtKllf. I. I9J. 
AUTER. An altar. Wor/A. 

Thanue he havi^dc hit bede teyd, 
HIa olTrende on the nwler leyd. Havtiok. 1388. 
AUTERS. Explained, " strange work, or strange 
thing!!," in the Clavis at the end of the York- 
shire Dialogue, p. 89. It is probably an error 
for anirrt, the genuine early fonu of the word. 
AUTHENTIC. Regularly bred; fashionable. 
Nares says it " seems to have been the proper 
epithet for a phrsician regularlv bred iir 
Ucensed." See All's WeU that Ends Well, 
AUTHER. Either. 

Dot harder the devel bites tliam 

That gud drde* ha> wrojt, 
[f thai ever afterward fal in, 
Auther in dede or thojt. 

US. Cantab. Ff. T.4n, f 81. 

AUTOMEDON. The charioteer of Achilles, and 
hence some of oiu- early dramatists have ap- 
pUed the name generally to i^oachmen. See 
Beaumont and Fletcher, ed. Weber, xiv. 53. 

AUT-OPON. Out upon I An exclamation ex- 
pressive of disapprobation. North. 

AUTORITY. Authority. A provincialism, u 
well as the old form of the word. See the 
Craven Dialogues, p. 330. 

AUTORS. Ancestors. (Ul.) 
Y gevc yow, Mede, withoute aaaoyne, 
Theo tour, and the cite* of Babyloyne : 
Tyre. Numcn, and Pamphile, 
And into Vnde xx. score myle ; 
My rlcbci, and my treatoun. 
And alle iuth do myn aurora. Kyng AHaxumJtr, 4818, 

AUTOUR. An author. Chawer. 

AUTRAGE. To outrage. 

Let us te how well we can avmr', 

UttUlanifi Lam'ieth Bwikt. p. 808. 

AUTREMITE. Another attire. .So explained 
by Skinner. Tyrwhitt reads vilremite. 
And alie that helmid was In ttarke vtouria. 
And wan by force lounlf itroiig and touri*. 
Shall ou hcrhcJde now wcrln autremtte. 

CJiau-^, td Vrry, p. IS4. 

AWE. The helve of an a.\e. Salop. 
AUVERDRO. To overthrow. fJ>«/. 
AUVERGIT. To overtake. H'm/. Sec Jenningt't 

Obscnation.", p. 18->. 
AUVERLOOK. To overlook ; to bewitch ; to look 

upon with the evil eye. Wett. 
AUVER-RIGHT. Right orer ; acrosa. Wnl. 





AtrV'ISARD. On the visor ? 

Att« iMt he held him awi*{«anf. 

Gt of WarKOn, p. 190. 

AUVISE. Coumel; aiivice. 

Andteydr, Jo«eph, Iprethy fanlciye 
And Ihyn erroure, for It U foljrc 
Wlthoutcn amiit to deinc iodeTD«!lye. 

L^galt.MS. ».r. Antii). 134, f. 4. 
AUWAN^'NTAGE. Advantage. 
The hcghest worlde, that pana aJJe thyng, 
Wu made for mini endelee wonnyng t 
Pot ylk mane lalle hafc thare a plaoCi 
To vonoe ay In Joy thai here has gfaoe ; 
That worlde waa mademoate for owreawMiwiiMfe, 
For thalre lawUea to beowre ryght erytage. 

HomixiU, 'Sarih C. MS. 

AUWARDS. Awkward; athwart. North. See 
Ackieardi. A heut u Mid to be autoarda, 
when it lies backward or downhill, so as to be 
unable to rise ; a circumstance often happen- 
ing with sheep that are heavy in the wool. 
AU5T. (1) Ought 

Flour* of hcveoe, Ladl and Queoe, 

At Khe ai/]i wel to bene. MS. JMit. 11036, f. OS. 

(2) Owed. The version printed in Collier's 
Shakespeare's Library, p. 273, reads " owhte." 

The worachtpe therof wtilche t avyt, 
Unto the god I there bctaujir. 

Cower, MS. Soc jinllq. IM, t. SOL 

(3) Possessions ; property. 

Bltvene hif childre he delt hi> au^lt 
Hb londe to Ilaac he bltaujC. 

CwKT Mmti, MS. CM. IWn. Cunub. t. SS. 

(4) High. Rob. Gloue. 
AVA'. At all. North. 

AVAGE. A rent or duty which every tenant 
of the manor of Writtel, in Essex, pays to the 
lord on St. Leonard's day, for the liberty of 
feeding his hogs in the woods. PhHIipt. 

AVAILE. Value; profit: advantage. See Cocke 
Lorclles Bote, p. 2 ; Dial of Creat. Moral, 
p. 123; Towneley Mysteries, p. 150. 

AVAITE. To await.' 

The which ordeynede for a law, that what tymo 
there was any fyre In that dtv, there iliulde tie a 
bldelle y.ordeincd for to avaita hit, and to make an 
high* pro c l am a c iooe In the cltt. 

G«Ma RomanontMt p. &9. 

AVALE. (1) To descend; to fall down. {A.-N.) 
Cf. MaundeviJc's Travels, p. 266 ; HoUnshcd, 
Hist. Scot. p. 91 ; Troilua and Crcseide, iii. 
627 ; Chatioer, cd. Urry, p. 394 ; Debate be- 
tween Pride and Lowliness, p. 9 ; Skelton's 
Works, i. 85. 

Then Che lencachaU imot hli hors with hit cpurrli, 
aod cone to ihtyra, for the k« wa« ovatitd and 
withdrawn. MS. iXg*y, IBS. 

(!) To lower; to let down. {A.-N.) This 
term is often applied to the letting down 
the front of the helmet, or the visor only with- 
out the ventailc, as in Robson's Met. Rom. 
p. IS ; Morte d'Arthur, i. 152. Hence the 
phrase " to vale the bonnet," to lower the 
bonnet, or take off the hat ; and, figuratively, 
to acknowledge inferiority. See Peter Lang- 
toft, p. 97. 
And myjCy trraunte*. ftom here ryalle »ec 
He bath mo/U and y-put adoun. 

Uftt^f, MS. Soc. AMIq. IM, t. «. 

He notd avnten neither hood nc hat, 
Ne abidcn no man fur hU curleile. 

Ooyrrr, Oi»f. T. It: 

(3) To loosen ; to shake. Lord Surrey has t: 
expression " with raynes apai/led," explains 
lontmed in Warton's Hist. Eng. Poet, iii 31, 
but our second meaning is perhaps the beat. 

(4) To assault Skinner. 
AVALYD. Diminished. 

Crete fc«t and rounde, and grete eleea, and lh« 

foot a lytel avat^, Hnalc by the fiankea, and longe 

tydea, a lytel pyntcl and Ulel haagyng imale ballnkM. 

MS. a.4L MA. 

AVAN. Filthy ; squalid. A Northamptnnsliirs 

word, according to the Addenda to J unii Etynu 

Anglic, in v. 

AVANCE. (1) To advance: to profit. {A.-N.) 

See Chaucer, Cant. T. 246 ; Tmilus and Cns. 

seide, v. 1434; MS. Ashmolc 39, f. 12. 

sir Philip the Valayie 

Hay him noght acanee. 
The flowres that falre war 

Cr fallen ill Fraunee. Minoi't PaeflU, p. SB. 

(2) Advancement. 

He ontaineth by hla ordlnaunoft 
To parlshe prtratU a powere. 

To anothlr a gretll arawnce, 
A gretlr point to hit mittcre. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 180. 

(3) The herb barefoot It was used in cookeiy, 
as in a recipe in the Forme of Cury, p. 13, 
which the original, &1S. Addit 5016, seems to 
read avanlt. Sec Rcliq. Antiq. i. 55 ; Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 17, 266; Tusser, p. 118; Warner's 
Antiq. Culin. p. 5. Markbam, in his Conotrie 
Forme, etL 1616, p. 1H2, says"costmarie and 
avens are verie pleasant hcarbes to give a la. 
vour like spice in pottage and salads," See 
also Topsell on Serpents, p. 62 ; Cooper, in v. 
Cariophillalai MS. Sloane 5, f. II. 

AVANCEMENT. Advancement 
Thorghccxiaeilcof aomofhUc, rcfwied he that pr aj sat ; 
Tbel uJd, on other wlie he uUe haf cvanremanr. 

PMrr Langivft.f. 103. 

AVANITTE. Thought ; will ; pleasure. 
God and grace ca with thaim wroghtc. 
That with iwylke pride dyke gyte thcr clothe ; 
Never the lea* ylk man may 
Eftyr hyl avat%UU make hym gay. 

R. deitruniM, MS. Sow**, p. M, 
AVANSE. To escape firom. 

For any tu that may tie-tyde, 
Schall oon therof aranM. 

Tht Ga4ru«'tf*« ZtoNitce, ISS, 
AVANTAGE. Advantage. (A.-N.) 

Ai tooth b tayd, elde liath gret aponcagv 
in elde b tiothewiadom and uiage. 

Olaiinr, Cant. T. MMk 

AVANT-CURRIERS. Florio has" AV«ii,windea 
blowing very stiffely for fortie dales together 
from the east just about the dog-daies, called 
of mariners the Avanl-currien." 

AVANTERS. Portions of the nuinbles of a deer, 
which lay near the neck. See Syr Gawavne, 
p. 50 ; Book of St. Alban's, sig. D. iv. 

AVANTMURE. The fore-waU of a tomi. 
This term is given as English in Palsgrave tad 
Cotgnve. (/v.) 









AVANT-PEACH. An early kind of peach. 

AVANTTWARDE. The vanward of aii army. 
1 •alle luv( the <n»nrficard< »)rtt«ly myiclvcne. 

ttorlt ilrfkan, MS, Lbtealn, t. (6. 
AVARDE. Afraid. [J.-S.) 
AVAROUSER. More avaricious. {A..N.) 
Are DO mm atvirDiMtfr than hii 
Whan thd bm avaunced. 

PItra Ploufhrnan, p. X. 

AVARTfST. Avarice ; coTetousneu. May we 
read an aryty f 

Ourc l.4iril toy to thp ediirr the, 

Ymi, why dydc Ihou hym that wo? 

Th« fciid atibucrd wlthnf<arr«y> 

Pure 1 had to hym cnvyc. MS. AahmoU Vit (• B5. 

AVAST. A sea term, meaning stop, hold, 
enough. It always precedes some orders or 
conversation. See Tookc's Diversions of Pur- 
ley, p. 573; Skinner, in v. Tooke snys that 
Ur. Johnson's interpretations, nbich I have 
here adopted, are erroneous, but such are its 
ordinary uses by sailors. Johnson's etymology 
from Ital. and Span. Biuta is sufficiently 

AVAUNCY. To advance ; to raise. 
For I tbmkf lo at^unci/ tnynp, 
And wcl the more Kha] be hrre pyne. 

MS. MM. lunw, r. m. 
AVAirST. (1) Before. 

The morow came, and forth rid this nurchaunt 
To Flaunden ward, hit prcntU him amunr. 
Till he to Bruges came full mrrily. 

Chaucw, ti. Urry, p. UO. 

(2) Fbrward. (jt.-ff.) This was an ancient hunt- 
ing cry. See Sir H. Dryden'sTwici, p. 45. 

And with that wordc came Dredc ar,tuiir, 
Whichc waa aUuhed and in frrete ft-re. 

nam. «/ Iht lloK, SOM. 
Sir Dt^erant was thane sa iiere. 
That he those wordis myghl here ; 
He said, Arvnt, tir.ncre! 
And Irompls on hight. 

Jtir Dffmmuni, LjnnWn MS. 

(3) A boast (,y.-.V.) See Chaucer Cant. T. 227 i 
R«Uq. Antiq. ii. 21. 

Than said :^ir Degrevaunt, 
Thou »alle noght mak thine aeawnl. 
That I saUc tie recreaunt. 
For frcDd oe for faa. 

Sir Degmauntt Lincoln MS. 

(4) To boast. 

This prorerbe leme of me, 

Atmmni ncvyT of thy degree. Amtiq. Rep. Iv, 401, 

(5) Dismissal. " To give her the arovHt," 
Henry VIII. ii. 3. In the following passage it 
apparently means leave, departure, or perhaps 
pnise, boast 

Alle thay mad Ihair avauni 
Of the lord Sir Degrevaunt. 

Sir Degrrvaunt, Ltneetn MS. 

AVAtmTANCE. Boasting. 

The vice clepid ODawnlantw, 

With prtde hath uka his aquelntance. 

Ocatr, M.I. (or. JkIU/. 134, f. 94. 

AVAWTARYE. Boasting. 

And thus Che worschipL. uf his name, 
Thorow pride of his araunrwye, 
lU uinetb Into vilenye. 

COKW, MS. Soc AMIq. 134, f. M. 

Rebuke him for that Qk of that apauntne. 

Pftrr Lanf^ofl, p. 194. 

AVAUNTLAY. Under the old system of hunt- 
ing it was customary to send one or two cou- 
pies of hounds, with a man, to several points 
where it was expected the game would pass. 
When the deer or other animal came up these 
hounds were uncoupled. See Sir II. Drydeu's 
notes to Tnici. p. 44. Relay properly means 
any of these sets of huuuds ; but arauntrelay, 
or, more commonly, arauntlay, those wliich, 
when a hart was uiiharboured, were a-head of 
him. Sec further obser^'atioiis on this sub- 
ject in a curious work, entitled the Booke of 
Hunting, 4to. Lond. 15S6. 

AVE. (I) Have. 

TherfotT we muit fight agaync hym, and we shhail 
AM victorye. for he ia but fcble agayne them that 
wyl wilhstonde hym. DiaL CrtGi, Moral, p. P7. 

(2) Evening. 

The king ther stode with hia meln^ 
On a palmcaormes atv. 

Jrlhmir ant Mtrlin, p. iOO. 

AVEARD. Afraid. Wett. 

But an he have hli legs at liberty, 
Cham aaeortf he will never live with you. 

handan Prxtdignl, p. I07. 

AVEAUNT. GracefiU ; becoming. So also the 
original MS. of Le Done Florence of Rome, 
128, reads; which Ritson alters to atenaunt. 
Ageync hym came syr Otea the graunt, 
A dughty knyght and an avtaunt. 

Le fione FJorenn 0/ Rom«, 0G9. 
Thyi swyrdeys gode and npmunr. 
But 1 faght wyth a gyaunt. 

MK. CiinlaA. Ff. il 38. f. !(4. 

AVE-BLOT. A reckoning; a payment. J/iuAru. 

AVE-BOORDS. Cotgrave ha», " Auiet. the 

short boords which are set into th'outside of 

a water-mills wheele ; we call them ladles, or 


kXEDEJi. Had. 

Quanne he weren alle set. 
And the kinf; arfdrn i-grct. 
He gretcn. and gouleden, and goTsn bem Hie, 
And he bad hem alle ben stille. HavtMt, Id 
AVEER. Property. {.-f.-N.) 

Ne thcl don to no man otherwise than thel woMa 
that other men diden 10 hem t and In this poynl thel 
fulle-fillen the ten commandemcntes of (iod : and 
thel }lvc no charge of aveer ne of ricchcsac. 

MuuniterHt'e Traveit, p. 991. 

AVEL. (13 Tlie awn or beard of barley. Etui. 

(2) To tear away. liroirne. 

AVELACE. Eiplaiued by Skinner, " the rings 
or gymews of a bag;" but conjectured by him 
to be a mistake for anelaee, q. v. 

AVELONG. EUiptical ; ovaL It is translated 
by o&lonffut, in the Prompt. Parv. p. 17. Carr, 
in his Craven Glossary, conjectures it to be a 
corruption of oblong, and a correspondent sug- 
gests to me half-long ; but the fonn amlonge, 
in the Middlehill MS. of the Prouiptorium, 
seems to warrant Mr. Way's derivation from 
A.-S. Jvoh. Miyor Moor says, " Workmen 
— reapers or mowers — approacbing the side of 
a field not perpendicular or parallel to their 
line uf work, will have an unequal portion to 




do — the eiceu or deficiency is called atfllotu/ 
AVEI.Y. In the Eastern counties com is said to 
be aveli/, if, when dressed for market, n por- 
tion of itie awns adhere to the grains. 
AVKN. Promise ; appearance. Salop, Per}iaps 

connccte<i with the old word atmani, q. t. 
AVENANT. (1) Agreement; condition. {A.-N.) 
Luf hir rfier thine avtnnnt. 
And iho sal tM to the tenant. 

Ytvxtint*nA Cawln, 3703. 
They may make to here avmnunU 
But over meiurc yi nat cumnaunt. 

US. Hart. 1701, r. !9. 

(2) Dccomitig ; graceful j agreeable. See War- 
ton's Hist. Eng. Poet. ii. 229; Ywuinc and 
Gawin, 3885 ; Kobson's Met. Rom. p. 12. 
ADd 1 were to the aeenanf, 
I wald t>e thi aervaunt. 

Sir Dfpfvaunt, Ltncotn MS. 
When the wai fiflcn winter old, 
In aJ that lood nat thrr eon y-hold 

So aeraly on to «e ; 
For ache waa geulll and areMAvnr, 
Hlr name waa cleprd Beltaaunt, 
Aa ye may little at me. 

^mit and jtmitoun, 47?. 

(9) Accomplialied ; able; valiant. 

The towdaai, that left yn Tervagaunt, 
With hym he btocht a fowll (teaunt 
or Egypte ; he hetle Guymerraunt, 

Greet ai an ok : 
No doiyp«r nu lo oFeNounr 

To Blonde hyi atrok. Octorlan, 023. 

AVENANTLI. Suitably ; well ; becomingly. 
Ther were In eche iMtallc of trames two thousand. 
Armed at allc pointca and acmantli hon«d. 

Wm. and Iht n'truxiV, p. \X. 


To icrhe thoru that cll6 ther n.ia nnn tich. 
Of ertxa, and of crbcr), *o aptnauntlUhe l-dlht. 

PUliU 0/ Siuan, it. 1. 

AVENCE. The feast of Advent. {.i.-N.) Sec 
MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 215, where a wrong 
reading has apparently crept Into the text, and 
I am not sure whether it should not be anencf 
in the same sense as aneni, <j. v. 

AVENE. An ear of com. This is the form of 
the word oicn in the Prompt. Par\'. p. 18. 
" Ayenes eyles" is translated by the French 
artttez, in Walter de Bibblcsworth, Rcliq. 
Antiq. iL 80. Eilet we have already had an 
example of in v. jiiU, and it is translated by 
aritta in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45. 

(2) Evening. 

Hi aul him and elde folow. 
Both atvne and eke A-tiiorw. 

Rrlhi. infill. L 1!H. 

AVENC. Took; received. (.^.^S.) 
Vor the folcao thyckc com, the wulehc her loverd alou. 
Alioute htm In ccli air, ttiat among «o mony fon 
He AMfi^ dethcs wouode, and wonder naa yt none. 

HiA. atnuc. p. iSS. 
A-VENIMED. Envenomed. 

HU ftrtnrs alle a'Vtnimt4 beth ; 
That venlm li itrong to the deth. 

Ov of fTrtnW**, p. 90. 

AVKNOR. The pcrwn who formerly, in the 
bouMhold CktabliBhnient of the king, and in 

tlut also of greiit barons, had the care of ibe 
provender for the horsea. Tlic following ac- 
count uf his duties is givon in the Book uf 
Curtasye, p. 25, and it has \tcf*.n aUo quoted 
^m the original manuscnpt by Mr. Stevenson. 
The aveimT (challe ordvyn provanda good woo. 
For ttto Itirdjrf honJs orcrychon ; 
Thay ii-hj'n have two cast of hay. 
A pt'k of proband* on a day i 
Every hone ichallc i-o murhe have 
At rtickeiKid raanger Lhatstandci with itave 
A mayitur of honyt a Kjuyer ther iti 
Wrryner and fkrour undur hym i-wy». 
Thote 5omcn that olde udcit irhya have. 
That tchyn be laat for knyjt and koave. 
For yche a hort that ferroure schalle wcba$ 
An halpcny on day he takes hym to: 
t'ndur ben gromet and pAget mony odc. 
That ben at wapr everychono ; 
Som at two pons on a day. 
And »om at lij. ob. I ;ou vay ; 
Mony of hem foterarn ther ben. 
That renncn by the brydel* of ladya tdiene. 
AVENSONG. Evening. 

Pram aftemoae to arienmmf, 
So to knlghtei he wai tirong. 

Arthour mnd Mrriint p. I78L 

A\"ENT. Avaunt ! 

Avent, nrenr, my popagay. 

What, will yedonothyng but play? 

Uirpim'a .4nrient Songt, p. ]0]. 

A\'ENTAILE. Tlic moveable front to a helmet, 
which covered the face, and through which the 
wcjirer respired the air, " qua veutus hauritiir." 
The term is sometimes used for the wbol« 
front of the hehnct 

His helm he cetteth on U heved* 
And faitnede the anntailte* 

MS, Athmale 33. f, k 
For, ai he drough a king by tfuirtntait^t . 

I'nware of thi*, Achillea through the maile ] 
And through the tMxilegan him fur to rlvb 

TrvituM and Cf»€idt, v. lU?. 

AVENTE. To open the avcntaile for theptir- 
posc of breathing. See Lc Bone Florence of 
Rome, 1941 ; Torrent of Port. p. 66. (^.-A^.) 
Thai fuughteti coo longe, that liy astcnto 
Thai drewc them a titil byiyde, 
A lllll whik? Ihayin to oreMfe, 
And refreshed them at that tyde. 

MS. Dvuot 17s, p. 90. 
AVENTERS. Chance. (^.-.V.) 

The bowmen, and eke the arblaiterti 
Armed them all at armfrr*. 

Hiehard Cver Ht Uon* SlIR. 
AVENTOUR. (1) To venture. 

Nil ieh me nothing arentour. 
To purcha* a fole giet honour* 

Jrthaur and JMrUn« p. 9. 
(2) An adventurer. Bokenham. 
AVENTRE. To throw a s))car. {Ital) Speuser 
uses the word, and Nares thought it was peca- 
liartotliat wTitcr. 

Thcnnc thli one knyght avefifryd a grete rp^^* 
and one of the x. knyghtei rncountred wUh hym, 
but this woful knyght imote hym to hard that bt 
felle over hi* hon taylle. Mor9t d' Awihur, I. 117. 

AX'ENTROUS. Advcnturm. (.^.-A^.) 
Ai drtoih an heraud of armea 
WhaU nv«ntrtm» oumeth to Juitea. 

IHtra IVwux^HMft, p. 370 







AVBNTURE. (1) Ad>-enliire; chxnce ; fortune; 
See Mortc d'Arthur, i. 289; Maundoilc's 
TnrHs, jip. 185, 282. 

^9€Hhirt tn hath turned hit pu 
Agrynei the kyag hit mai. 

K^ttg.itUnutider, 7837- 

(I) Perchjuicc. 

he inmtutt, for the lyght, 
Thii victoric li the y-ilyght. 

Krng AUaannitr, 3B!2. 


ThU ftquler that halh brought thii heUe, 
TlM« kfng had wond he had the dede, 
Aod avenfwr/y gao he gone; 

TWrffnr fif Pitttu/(nl, p. 5£. 

AVER. (1) A work-horae. North. " A false 
aver," ■ sluggUb hone, a lazy beast. See 
Kennett's Gloasary, p. 21. 

At«ua the sothe for to Khewe, 
He Irot ihame at>erfi to dniwc. 

Sir Of gmante, US. LJnoo/n. f. 130. 
(t) Peevuh. Northumb. 
A%1BRAGE. A coiincof ploughing in rotation. 
fforlh. Ctrr explains it " winter eatagc," 
and others the tlubble, in which senses it seems 
to be the satue with artrixh, q. v. 
AVER-CAKE. An oat-cake. 

A fcwa cnjdde* and ctem, 
Aod an atvr.caJre. 

MS. Rov/. Put. 137. t. U. 

AVER-CORN. A reserved rent in com paid to 
religious huusea by their tenants nr fanner?. 
jfrnnrtt Accortling to Skinner, it means corn 
~ iwn to the granar)' of the lord of the manor 
the worlung cattle, or avers, of the 
A^'KRE. Riches; property. (A.-N.) 
The matMlr of ther pedalle, that kirkei brak and brent. 
And abbfb iran aaaalle, roonke* tlouh and schent, 
Waa t»m in Pikardle, aod hU oainc Rejrnere. 
Id Miiik fejtmie gadred grete «vrra, 

Pfter Langtoft, p. 134. 

A\'ERIL. April. Sortb. 

Wbro thenyhlegalc kingr«, the wodei waxen grene, 

txt ant gnu aat bloame fpringct io Mrmyt^ y wene. 

Wriglil'4 L^rle Poetry, p. 92. 

AV'ERINO. Kennelt, MS. Lansd. 1033, says, 
" When a begging boy strips himself and goes 
naked into a town with a fsls star)' of being 
cold, and stript, to move compassion and get 
better cloaths, this is call'd atering, and to goc 
a arrring" 
AVBRISH. The stubble and grass left in com 
fields after harvest. North. 

la Uieae moothea after the comoe bee Innede, it 
la inaelt to putt draughte hottua and oxen into the 
m mu ttht aod to loonge to continue there as the meate 
aafllmh, which will eaae the other paaiurea they 
went io before. ^rrhmttofta, xiii. 379. 

AVERIAND. Laud ploughed 1>y the tenants 
with their avers, for the use of a monaster}', 
or for the lord of llie soil. 

Qund auiem nunc voeatur ai*er.and, fuit terra 
ffvaticorutn ejii*. ChroH. J. tfe Broketonda, p. 75* 
VBROUS. Avaricious. 

And alio Ihli tj-mc es ogaynt arvrvuM men, that 
«rh)mcs and glfc* oa fruytc iMt when It ea mten. 
SIS. CM. mm. 10, r. 3. 
AVEROYNB. The herb southernwood, men- 

tioned sereral times under this name in the 
LilxT Medicins in the Library of Lincoln Ca- 
thcitral, IT. 280, 287, 30", e.g. " Take arrroynr. 
aiid fpraye it with hony and ^-yneacre, and 
ilrynkc it." See also Archcologia, nx. 350; 
I'istill nf Susan, st. ix. 
AVERPENNY. Money contributed towards the 
king's averages. See Nicolson and Bum's 
Mest and Cumb. ii. 609 ; Chron. J. de Brake- 
londa, p. 75 ; Skinner, in v. 
AVERRAY. To aver ; Io instruct. 
Thou cchalt write that y say, 
Man] man for to avwrray. 

Arlheur and tttrlin, p. iA. 

AVERRUNCATE. To avert ; to prevent. {Lai.) 
1 wish myielf a pseudo-prophet. 
Out sureiomc mitchief will come of It, 
Unlcai by providential wit. 
Or force, wcuFeminrore it. Hudtbmt, I. i. 758. 
AVERSATION. Aversion; great disHke to. 
See Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 61, quoted 
by Boucher, in v. 
AVER-SILVER. A custom or rent to called, 
originating from the rattle, or arer», of the 
tenants of the soil. 
AVERST. At the first. 

Avtrti byeth the hettei ten. 
The! loki Dolleallemen. 

MS. ArmM 37, f. 13. 
AVERTY. Mad; fiery. {A.-N.) 

The reipolu were redy that Philip did thara l)cre. 
A knyttht fuile aterty gaf ttiam thiaaoiuere. 

Pe/irr Langtiifl, p. MO. 

AVERY. (1) The place where the provender for 
the king's horses is kept. SUnnrr. Boucher, 
in T. Aver, considers it to be the stable. It 
seems certainly to be derived fruin arer, and 
not from hater, oats, as Minsheu supposea. 

(2) Every. 

The lij.d* tokenc ya that avtry meke man or 
woinman ya not cohaunaydd, ncyther have ooy 
lykyngc in preyaynge. JIfS. Canlali. Ff. II. 311, f. B. 

AVE-SCOT. A reckoning ; an account, ilhuheu. 

AVESYLY. Advisedly. 

Now and thow walde wele and arttyiy beholde 
thi Lnrde Jheati. thow may fynde that fro thecrowne 
of the hcvcilc to the aole of hia fete, tharc was ou 
hole ipoite Irfte one hjme. 

MS. Unccln A. 1. 17, f. IK). 

AVET. Weight. 

And yi avet more bl »ix and thrltti Iced piiiule, 
that beeth to hundred and sextene wexpunde. 

KoTlf. J»hi. I. :n, 
AVETROL. A bastard. (A.-N.) 

He aaked what waa hIa medicine t 
BelT and broth gode aflne. 
What Uiao, waa bean avtrvtr 
Thou selit aoht, aire, be ml pol. 

Stvyn Bmgta, 1107. 

A VEXED. Troubled ; vexed. See Book of St. 
Alban's, sig. B. iv. ; Uial. Great. Moral, p. 177. 
The curious coincidence between part of the 
following passage, and the well known Uoes in 
Macbeth, ii. 2, has not yet found a notice in 
the editions of Shakespeare. 
At thut t lay avtsed full aore 
In tucho thyrtgca, at of right bythe agaync nature, 
I herdc a voyce aeyyng, tclepe thow no more I 

Tiidd's llhatratiiiiu, p. Wf 




AVEYSfe. Careful; wiry. {J.-N.) 
Abo the kyng uid hli meigoS, 
OladdMt WCTCD and avty<- Kfg Altiiunit , Sifll. 
AVIEU. To view. {A.-N.) Palsgrave has, " 1 
aeeve, I take syght of i thing." 

I'ht'nglyubmen sawe them wdl, and knewe well 
howo they wen come Lhyder to avIeM them. 

N«M loMinoft I'ormi, l>. 117. 

AVIIS. Opinion. {J.-S.) 

And teththen aeyd hir aviit 

or C!ad, that Lovetd wai and ever In*. 

Stynl Kalnlni, p. 179. 
AVILE. To despise. The Heralds' College MS. 
reads, " atiiled holy chirche, that by righte was 

And the Sonnenday of the Paulon imananle all the. 

That noUidt to holl chirche, that mid ri]te waa io fre. 

Rn6. OlMr. p. V». 

AVINTAINE. Speedily. {A.-N.) 
Hare irh cni w hardi on. 
That dorre to Hamtoun gun. 
To thrmperur of Almalnc, 
And lal ber cometh, orfnrafne, 
Al preal an hondred knighte. 
That fore hi* love wilen fighte 
Botho with ipcre and with lauuce. 

BtV€M ^ HamtoUHt p. 107. 

AVIROUN. Around. {A.-N.) 

AUv a wcnte Mm to plale 
Aboute her In this concrai. 
In thin conrti* ar4ro«fi, 
A mette with a vUe dragoun. 

Btv** of Uamloun, p. 90. 
AVIS. AA\\(X. (,A.-N.) See Chaucer, Caul. T. 
1870; MaundevUe's Travels, p. 180; Ijuigtoft, 
p. 32. 
The kyng at hii aiya tent meuengen thre. 

Lang«\fl't Chnnicle, p. 885. 

AVISAND. Observing. (A.-S.) 

Thr herbe >lie toke, well ari^and 

The Iffe. the mkIp, the sulkc, thefloure. 

And iald It had a gode Mvour, 

And was no common herb to find. 

Aod well approved of uacouth kind. 

Ckaticer't Dreamt, IBSS. 
AVISE. (1) To observe; to look at. {J.-N.) 
Hco heoin arjfMtd among theo play. 
Fur he waa nought of that contray. 

K^ng ^liMUndfr, 221. 

(2) To consider; to advise with one's self ; to 
inform ; to teach. "JtUe you well," i.e. con- 
ftider well what you are about, is a frequent 
phrase in the old romances. In the sense of 
" to inform," it it useii by Shakespeare, 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4, where Mistress 
Quickly says to Simple* " Arc you avu'd o' 
that ?" a provincial mode of confirming any 
observation. Sec also the Towneley Mysteries, 
pp. 61. 170. " Ariseth you," Chancer. Caiit. 
T. 3185, look to yourselves, take care of your- 
selves. Cf. Const, of Mason, p. 38. 
He avpttd hym full wclc. 
Fro the bedd downcwarde every dele. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. U. 3B. f. IK. 

AVIS^ Careumspect. {A,-N.) 

Of wene and o( balatle he waa fulle uv'ui, 
Ther wImIooi luld availc wa* non to trcwe aU he. 
Ijmgto/r* ChftiUie, p. \i^. 

AVISRE. To look tipon. SMnttfr. 

AVISKI.Y. Advisedly. 

JviMipt who IO takyth hede therto. 

L^gatt, MS- .4rtme2# 30, f. S& 

AVISEMENT. Counsel; Advice. {J^K) 
Ten tchlppci wcr dryven, thorgh llle arigrment 
Thorgh a tempest ryvcn, the tchipmen held thnm 
achcnt. Langta/t't Chnmiclf, p. 148. 

AVISINESSE. Deh'beration. (J.-N.) 
And Mary fulle mekely lifteoeth alte, 
And gan merrayte with gret avitOteM»». 

l^dgaie, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134. f. ?8 

AVTSION. A -wsion. (^.-A^.) 
A Iltel or he were mardred on a day, 
HU mordre in hit avMon he uy. Qmmca;C»ml,T* ISlftk 
AVIST. A fishing. W>W. 
.WIVES. A disease in horses, thus described by 
Markham : 

The horae haTtngdrunke much, or watered vrria 
quickly after hli heat and travalle. and upon It grow, 
hig cold, and not being walked, doth beget the artr'#, 
whlchdorbut little differ from tbedUcaaecalted the 
klng'i-evlll. because ai well in beasts aa In man, the 
klng'teTlM conkmelh of too much coolinf* of wattr. 
the throat having bccoc heated, whereupon the bortc 
lootelh his appetite to eat. and hi* rest Ukewlac, and 
hit eareat)ecomeeold. 

The OmtitrU Forme, ed. 1616. p. l.'B. 
AVIZE. To see ; to survey ; to obscne. 
Then th'one henctfe low ducked In the flood, 
AbAbh't that her a straungcr did otisw. 

The Faerie QufitrMtt II. xli. OS. 
AVOCATE. To call from. (Laf.) 

The time o'' Sir Walter Ralcigh'i executJoo wtk* 
eontrlved to be on my Lord Mayor's day, that the 
pageants and fine shows might amm/* and draw 
away the people from t>fholdlng the tragedie of thr 
gallantest wortlite tliat England ever bred. 

Aubrett, US, ji»hmole* 

AVOERY. The right wliich the founder of a 
house of religiou had of the advowson or pa- 
tronage thereof, similar to the right of presen- 
tation belonging to those who built, or en- 
duwed, churches, la some instances 
these patrons hod the sole nomination of the 
abbot or prior, cither by direct investiture, or' 
delivery of a pastoral staff; or by immediatei 
presentation to the diocesan ; or if a free eleo 
tion were left to the religious foundation, a 
licence fur election was iirst to be obtained 
from the patron, and the election waa to be 
contirmed by him. Kennett, quoted in Boucher, 
AVOID. To leave ; to quit ; to expel. Avoid ! 
i. c. get out of the way, a word used at tha 
passing of any great personage through a 
crowd. See Cov. Myst. p. 131. In the fol- 
lowing passages it means the withdrawal of 
diahen from the table. See also Harrison*! 
Description of England, p. IGl. 
^Hfiyde* tho t>orde Into tho flore. 
Taw away tho trestet that twn so store. 

BfAe of Curtatyr, p. 3S», 
All theiervyseof brede. mcisesof kytchyn, wyne*; 
air. wax, wtwd, that \% diipendcd bothe for the kings 
bourde. and fur the hole meue, and other of the 
chaunibre. and as well the H.'rv)sefor the king for 
all nifiht, as the grtelc ar«iyrf<r« at feastei. and th« 
(laylylrinkincca tHMwUtmrletin thcklngichaumbra 
for ktraungcrs. and therc-of to make trew teoonfe, 
lod to brUtg it dayly to the rountyng-bourde bcfnra 
DOOOt. LiifT Kigvr Dumiu /lrgi« JMhs 37< 







AVOIDANCE. Expuliion; iToidance. Sec 
Prompt. P«rT. pp. 19, 111 ; Wright's Monaatic 
Lettcn, p. 101. 
Fran •pyttTDge ud mftlfoft kcpe the also. 
By praTy « «»*■■« lat hyt f a 

OiMMUteiM 1/ Matomy, f. 36. 

AV0ID0N3. In • general Miue means, the ta- 
cancy of a benefice by death or removal of the 
incnmbent; but in Momut. Anglic, ii. I9B, 
quoted in Stevenson'i additions to Boucher, it 
■ignifiei the profits during such a vacancy. 
AVOIR. Property. (J.-N.) 

A burgeis wu In Rome toun, 
A Ilch« mAD of gnt mouD ; 
Marchsuot be wu ofgret awoir. 
And hid a wif was queint and fair. 

ScvmSagf, ttos. 
AVOIR-DK-PEISE. Articles of merchandise 
that are sold by weight. {A.-N.) Concll -says 
" it signifieth such merchandise as are weighed 
by this weight, and not by Troy weight." 
Hall t)e ^e. marchans, with jur gret packei 
or diapcrle, avcrfr.tfe.peJM, and ^ur wol-iarkei. 

Jiedf. ^nllq. II.I7S. 

AVOKE. To revoke; to call away to some other. 

S«e Rider, Richardson, and Boucher, in v. 
AVOKET. An advocate. {Lai.) tlickliffe. 
AVO.VGE. To take. See A/imge. 

i>o that atle lasu, wat halt yt 10 telle lonje t 
The kyng bygan and ys folc Crlsteodom aimtge, 
not. CfoiK. p. m. 
AVOORDIN. Affording. Somerttl. 
AVORD. To afford, flett. 

BccaaetliebUhop sent tnun word, 
A could not meat and dhnk av<rrd, 

PtltT Pindar, ed. 17M, I. 286. 

AVORE. Before. Wetl. 

My ancestor To-Pan l)cat the 6nt kettle-drum, 
jlierff bun, here vrom DoTer on the morrh. 

tnUii/a Tub, I. t. 
AVOREWARD. At first. 
And hii, wan hil were l.auorr, other tlxe toke. 
Gode fourine among hom, of the land to loke. 
And of the dcMrrllci, 10 that oeoreK'tfi-rf 
^m The bliaop hIi choie of Bathe, Water GXrard, 
^B Aad maktet Nicole of EU, bUsop of Wurcetre. 
^F Rob, Giouc. \i. 507. 

AVOREYE. Before. 
Icfa Mdde the hit by my neld, 
Jvoreye the wyeked vend. Jf5. Amndet 07, t. i. 
AVORN. Before bim. Ifeil. 
AVOTE. On foot. 

Myd eyr hondred kynjte*, and ihre thouicnd menamtf, 
Cadour, crl of Comwaylo, ajen hym he sende. 
^K Hud. GiMr. p. ISB. 

H AVOUCH. Proof; testimony. Shakespeare has 

^M this and also avouchmeni in the same sense. 

^a AVOURE. Confession ; acknowledgmeut. 

^m He bad him itand t'ablde the bitter iioure 

^m or his tore vcngeaunce, or to make tiroure 

^^ Of the lewd words and deede* which he had done. 

™ Tlie Farrte 9ii«n«, VI. III. 4a. 

AVOURY. An old law term, nearly equivalent 

to justification. Nam. 

Therfore away with these avourit* : let God atone 
be our arouTifff ; what have we do to runnc hether 
or thether, butonely to the Father of hoaveo .^ 

Latimtr't Sermoru, ed, 1571, f. 04. 

AVOUTRER. An adulterer. (A.-y.) Aiao an 
adoltress, as in Prompt. Porv. p. 19. 

For in this world nii doggo for the bowe* 

Tlut can an hurt derc from an hole y-knowe, 

Bi:t than this sompnour knew a slle lerhour. 

Or an apoutrtr, or a paramour. Oiaiiefr,Cunt.T. 6B54. 

AVOUTRYE. Adultery. Sec Chaucer, Cant. T. 
C888, 9309 ; Reliq. Antiq. i. 29 ; Hartshome's 
Met. Tales, p. 1 70 ; Apology for the Lollards, 
p. 78. (J..N.) 

And he tiegolyn In awutrytt 
Othlr ellys'baxayn bastard tiom. 

MS. AaiW.PMf. II& 

AVOW. (1) Avow; an oath. (A..N.) 
He sayd, sirs, In jour cumpany 
Myoe avow make 1. AaftasN's Romamcu^ p. g] . 
And to mende my inlsa« 1 make myn aeviet. 

Will, and Uit fTcnectf, p. iO 

(2) To allow ; to pardon. 

Wold thou ipcke for ma to the kyng. 
He woldc anM« me my ilyngyng. 

MS. Cantai. Ff. T. 48, f. U. 

(3) The term avowed seems to be used in the 
sense of coverrd, in Orpbeo, ed. Laing, 325. 
See the quotation under Botuour. The 
MS. Ashmole 61 reads amelyd in the same 

AVOWE. (1) The patron to a benefice. Cowell 
says the Avow^ is " he to whom the right of 
advowion of any church appcrtaioeth, so that 
he may present thereunto in his own name." 
See Ritson's Robin Hood, i. 42. 

(2) An Bdv[»catc. 

And hendely tliey byiechllh the 
That thou bco beore avoui ; 
Forgeve heora, lire, thy maltalenti 
They wot do thy comaundement. 

Kint^ .itUauntUr, 31G0. 

(3) Patronage. The Heralds' College MS. reads 
avouiery, q. v. 

Vor thoru avoioe of him, the sons bigan that itrif. 

Rob, otoiK-. p. 477. 
AVOWERY. Patronage; protection. (A.-N.) 
See Laugtoft's Chronicle, pp. 180, 260. It 
also means cognizance, badge, distinction, as 
in the Archieologia, xvii. 296. 
Y telle ou for sothe, for al buere bolMimcc 
Ne for the avowerie of thekyngof Fraunce, 
Tuentl Kore ant fy ve haden ther mcschauucc. 

Wriglift Pol, Son^i. p. lUSl 

AVOWT. A countenance. (J.-N.) Perhaps a 
is here the article, but the compound is again 
found in (he same form. 

He wercs his vesere with arotct noble. 

l»..r(e Aniiurf, US. Lincoln, f. M. 

AVOWTER. Adulter)-. [Avowtcrc.'] 

Than the lecound schal tic his wlf bi resoun of 

arotrter, and he Khal t>e cursid but If he tak to her ns 

to his wif. Afologffitr Ihe ljolliirtt,f.'a. 

AVOY. (1) A cry used to call hounds out of 

cover. See Sir H. Dryden's Tvrici, p. 45. 
(2) Avoid ; leave ; quit. 

And In the dark forth she goeth 

Till she him toucheth, and he wrothc. 

And after her with his hand 

He emote : and thus when she him found 

Diseased, courteously slie said, — 

.Vroy, my lord. 1 am a maid ; 

And if ye wist what I am. 

And out of what lineage 1 came, 

Ve would not be lO salvage. 

GMrar, ip. Knighfi na». Ki. SMk 




AVRIL. April. North. 
AVRORE. Frozen. fVeit. 
AVURN. Slovenlv in dress. Btdt. 
AVY. (1) Vow ; oath. 

Thou hjt» mill thy ory wyth xlj. mm for lo fyjte. 
Of «1 oura Toaderconipuijr the >ln-b«le knnti-. 

MS. Jt>>m>le33. 
(2) A n«vy. [A neav^- .'] 

An« «pr of thippes tha fpyed Ihame b*fnre. 
Which when thay melt, tha myghl well ken 
Howe thay were TroyannaDd banithrd ram ; 
Antynner wai lodciman, none wordier hll place. 
And Corcnlui graunde captayne of thole race ; 
There was great Joye when echc other dyd boordc« 
Sone waa mccordement, and Urute choien lorde. 

MS. L/Mifd. tm, t. B. 

AVYEDE. Showed the w»y. {.I.-N.) 

sir Arthurs and Gawayne avyede theme bothene. 
To ae&ty thoaandei of mene that ui Ihelre tyghte 
horede. Uofl^ Arthurt, MS. Lineuln, {.93. 

AVYNET. In the middle ages a collection of 
fables from Arienua wu called an Avj/net, 
from jEsop, an Eioptt, tic. 
By the po fc«t U undentande, 
Ai I have leraed In Jr^tt. 

Pitra PIfrtighman, p, S43. 

AVTOWRE. See an instaucc of this form of 
the vord in the Pliunpton Correspondence, 
p. 192. 

A-VYSSETH. A-fishing. 

A-day aa he wcry waf . and a luoddrynge hym nome. 
And ya men were y-wtnd atywrrA, »eyn Cuthert lo 
hym com. HoS. Gtuur. p. 3C4. 

AW. (1) I. Norlhumb. So we have otrm, I am; 
aiFil, 1 shall ; oirr;, 1 have ; aw' Ihar <ay, 1 
dare sav. 

(2) Yes. ' Warv. 

(3) Totally. Craven. 

(4) All. 'North. 

LUleneth now to Merlins taw. 
And 1 woll tell to air, 
What he wrat for men to come, 
Nother by greA* ne by plume. 

nrarlim, Ui. 13S. 

(5) To owe. Sec the quotations given in Ste- 
venson's additions to Boucher, and below in 
V. Au>e. 

AWAHTE. Awoke. (A.-S.) See a quoUtion 
fn>m an early MS. in the Cottouion Library, in 
Stevenson's additions to Boucher. 

AWAIT. (1) Watch; ambush. (A.-N.) 
The Icon lit In hiaaM<al/ealway 
To lie the Innocent, if that he may. 

Ctoitcer, Cam. T. Ti3!>. 
(2) To attend upon ; to watch. (A.-N.) 

And thia aire Urre wold never goo frtim sire 

Lanncclot, but he and tir Latayn arpayted evermoic 

upoo hym, and Ibey were in all the courte accounted 

for good knyghtn. Morie dr Arthur, II. 3117. 

Th«r is fill many an eye and many an ere 

Aieaieinf on a lord, and he not wher. 

OiaHctr, Cam. T. "834. 
But keepith wel your toum, how ao befall. 
On Thondiy next, oo which we awayit alL 

Hotdnt't Peffnu, p. 70, 
And to dilyrered me the laid book tlunne, my lord 
iherle of Oaenfurd du/aj^ling on hit laid grace. 

Cumn't rtgeciu, tig S. v. 

AWAITER. An attendant. In the ordii 
for the household of George Duke of ClareU% 
1493, in " the estate, rule, and guvernaunee 
of the acid prince in his ridinge, beinge de- 
ported from his standing housholde," mention 
is made of"xij. esquicrs avaiters, and every 
of them j. persone." See the Ordinances and 
Regulations, 1 790, p. 98. 
AWAKID. Awake. Sommel. 
AW ALE. To descend. {A.-N.) 

The pott lien grcle and noujt tmal. 
How my5to the rofe awate f 

MS. Camah. Dd. 1. 17. 
AWANTING. Deficient to ; wanting to. 

Nothing waa atcaming her that mtght confcrre tha 
leoat light or luttreto to faire and well-compoted a 
temper. TVo tjnnfruhire Ijirert, 1640, p. 8. 

AWAPE. To confound; to stupefy; lo astound. 
{A.-S.) See Kyng Alisaundcr, B99, 3673; 
"Troilus and Creseidc, i. 310. 

Fram thl» contek that were atcaped. 
Sore adrad and atcaped. 

Arlliimr dKd Mrrllm, p. )tO. 
And he tWoatnumpid andamate, 
Comfortlrt of eny creature. MS. DIgbp , tSO. 
A^YARA^TYS1■:. Assuredly. It is so etplaiiicd 

in a glossary in the Archieologio, xxx. 404. 
AM'.^RD. To ward off ; to bear off. Rider has, 

" To award a blow, icium inliibrre." 
AWARE. (1) To be awaie of the approach of 
any one. 

And riding towards Nottingham, 

Some pitiime fur lo tpy ; 
There waa he aware of a jolly beggar^ 
As tn he beheld with hit eye. 

tUlim't Roftm Hiwd, ii. Its. 
(2) An exclamation for making attendants in 
large esl4iblishments prepared for the approach 
of some one. 

C^ome. laiet hee, thou thalt tee Harry, onckle, the 
oncly Harry in England : to he led htm to tlie cham- 
ber of pretenee, and ever and anon cryeiout,^uitre, 
roome for mc and tuy uncle [ 

Artnin't Sett q/ fk'tnniei, 1GU8. 

AWARIE. To curse. (A.-S.) 
Thenne ipac that holde wlf, 

CrUt atoarie hire llf t US. Dlgfv K; f. ll>7. 

Thevea, ye tie ded, wilhouteu lettnife, 
Jwatid worth ye Ichon. Gi/ rtf tVarwike. p. 1G6» 
AWARN. To warn ; to forewarn. 

That all our fTlendi that yet remaine alive. 
Hale be mwn'd and tave ihemteivc* by flight. 

n« True Tragedie. 15U5 

AWARP. To bend ; to cast down. (A.-S.) 
Eld me auvrpeth. 
That mi tchuldren tcharplth. 

And ;outhe mc hath let. Il£liq. .tntU/, U.flO. 
AWARRANT. To warrant ; to confirm. 

V f the Scriptutra mwarmnt not of the mydwyfca 

The authour wllelh his authour, then take It in 
tportc. Chetler Plate, 1. 4. 

AW ART. Thrown on the back and unable to 

rise, spoken of cattle. North. 
A-WASSCHEN. Washed. 

Seththe [thei] a^waaecAen, I wene. 
And weote lo the tcte. 

H'arfm'i Hiel. Ktxl. Poet. I. 111. 

A- WATER. Oulhcwatcr. SeePicrslMoughumn, 

I and 







pp 3(2, 388. Here it Beemito be a phnse 
implying disorder. 

But if he h«d broke hli trme u wd n his \tg$e, 
wbeo Tie fell out of hovvrn into Lemnos, either 
Apollo muftl hAve pUled the bone-ivttcr. or every 
oeenpAtlon hemo Uydc a-u<arfr. 

Oenan't Schoolt o/ Mun, ItTSl 

AWAT. (1) A way. Coverdale tnnsUtes 
Jeremiab, xliii. 12, "And thidl departe bit 
cramyefrotn thence in pence." — (f. 43.) 

(2) Part. " This week awat/." Bedt. 

AWAY-GOING. De|)artnre. See Baillie's Let- 
ten, i. 68, quoted in the new edit ion of Boucher. 
If t recollect rightly, the word occun in a 
pru>e tract in the Thornton MS. 

AWAY-THE-MARE. A kind of proverbial ex- 
prcscion, apparently meaning, farewell to care. 
It occur* twice in Skelton, and other references 
are given in the notes, p. 162. The follow- 
ing example occurs in a poem attributed to 

jivap the morv, quod Walls, 

I ict not a whltltifte 

Bjr all their wrillag. D(Ktvur DouMe ^ti. 

AWAYWARX). Going away j away. 

A.|lljt 11 be SKHiyicorrf wu, 

Ao angal to Mm cam. Joachim and Annt, p. 164. 

Paate atcaytdsnte wold thou ryde, 

He b to fowie a wyghtc. 

XtS. Unnin, A. L 17, f. lOJ. 
HbehcreMffdruforde fhi me caite. 
And forth be puaid at laate. 

Couwr. MS. Sae. .Ynr'i. 134, t. 39. 
AWAY-WITII. To endun:. Sec Isaiah, i. 1 3 ; 
Greene's Works, i. 135 ; Webster's Works, 
ii. 112. 

He vai rerle wUe, modest, and warle, being oo- 
tMngdchcal In his fare, nor curious of his apparel!. 
He routd awate teith all wethers, both hot and oold, 
aad Indiuc ante paines. 

HtfiinMhetl, OmquMt of Ireland, p. 38. 
AWBEL. " Avhel or cbcUe tre," is translated 
in tlie Prompt. Parv. by rlioaut, riiumwi. 
Although scarcely agreeing with the Latin 
t4frtu», it probably means the aic/c, or white 
poplar, which is called eibel in the eastern 
cou nties. 
IJIFBLAST. An arbalest. This form of the word 

mean in MS. Bib. Reg. 17 C. iviL f. 57. 
AVTCTE. Possessed. 

Quanne that was sworn on his wise. 
The king dede the mnyden arise. 
And the erl hire biuiicte. 
And al the lond be evereutccte. Havelok, 3<l7. 
AWD. Old. Korlh. 

My Miugh did uy this hayl be nought, you'l see t 
1 find ao dft-d ape now, hes aa awd ce 1 

Yorfuhira DUtoguw, p. &5. 

AATOR YES-DAY. St. iEtheldrytha's day. Sec 
Paston Ix^lers, ii. 248, quoted in Hampson's 
Kalcndarium, ii. 26. 
AWE. (1) Ought. Sec Townclcy Mj-sterics, 
pp. 24, 55 ; Robson's Met. Romances, p. 26. 
I am* thurghe tyghte the to lufc ay. 
And to loTC the bathe tiyghte and daye. 

MS. Ltncvin, A. L 17, f. 1B9. 
Sen we are eoraen to Calearie, 
Lat like man hcipe iMW as hym auw. 

SaHp Wyrterln, n'alpolc MS. 

(2) To o«ii ; to possess ; to owe. See Ywaina 
and Gawin, 720 ; Robson's Met. Romancei, i 
p. 27, for instances of this Uist meaning. 

AU 1 sat upon that lowe, 

1 bignn Denemark for to atee. Karr/uA', 1S92. 

(3) An ewe. 

itm bleleth after lomb, 

Lhouth after calrecu; 
Dulluc ftertctli, bucke verteth, 

.Muric liog cumi. H>r«>fi'«.<^ne<ail aamtt, U II, 

(4) " For love ne for aire," Will, and the Wer- 
wolf, p. 195, a proverbial expression not im- 
common in the old English metrical ro. 
mances. See an instance in R. de Brunne, MS. 
llarl. 1701,f. 18. 

AWEARIED. Wearied ; tired. 

Hwre the nobles were of sundrle opinions : for 
some aiciaried with the note of bondage, would 
glaUlie have had warrcs: other, having rcgaid to 
their sons lleng In hostage with the rnimict, would 
In DO wise consent thereto. 

HnliniHfd, HImI. •/ Scotland, p. SO. 

AWE-DAND. A check ui»on. The word occurs 

with this explanation in the Glossograpliia 

Anglicana Nova, ed. 1 71H, ia v. but it seems to 

be properly a Scotch wortL See Jamieson, in v. 

AWECCHE. To awaken. 

O frere ther we* among. 

Of here slep hem shulde atoteche. 

Wen hoe ihuldco thidere recche. 

Miq. Mntiq. IL «78 
AWEDE. To become mad ; to lose the sensea. 
{A..S.) See Lybeaus Disconus, 395, 618, 957; 
Sir Tristrcm, p. 297 ; Hob. Glouc. p. 162. 
And wept cverc as it woide awtdt for fere. 

IVUI. and Ihe Wnwtf, p. 3. 
And told bothe Siguier and knight. 
That her qucn awedt wold. 

Sir OrjAeo, ed. lvalue* 49. 
AWEIGIITTE. Awoke. (J.-S.) 

The kyng swoghencd for tiiat wounde. 
And hastillch hymielf awfiffhilr. 
And the launce out plelghtte. 
And lepe on fute with swrrd of steel. 
And gan hym were iwlthe wel. 

KtnfAHmauUr, H3S. 

AWELD. To govern; to rule. {A..S.) 
Eld nul mcId no murthcs of mal ; 
When eld me wol awtitt, ml wcle Is a-wal. 

RiHl. Antii. II. }I0. 
AWEN. Own. North. 

Our Henry, thy airen chose knight. 
Borne to enherile the region of Fraunce 
By trewo diicent and be title of right. 

Hrliq. Aniiq. 1. 218. 
Bot to the kynge I rede thou fare 

To weic hli auOTins wille Sir Prrmal, JU. 

AWENDEN. Thought. 

The Jewes out of Jurielem awemtrn he were wode. 
ftr/iV. AMIq. 1. 144. 

AWENSWERABLE. Answerable. 

To uic all pleasures in suche medlocrytle, aa 
should be scrordlnge to reason, aod awwmaittirmbU to 
hunettie. Arcltmalptt»,xflUi.l»t. 

AWER. An hour. Lane. 

Woke on awyr for the love of me. 

And ihat to me yt more plvsaunce 

Than ytf thu sent xl). kyngi free 

To my tepulkyr with grett puyischaunce. 

Fur my dethc to take vengcaunce. 

Mind, mil, and VndrrtlandUif, p. ID. 




AWET. Know. 

Be mcy horne we Khali outH 
Yea Roben Node be aechude. H9»in Heed, I, !U. 
AWEVNYD. Weaned. 

Manhotlc Ii y-com now, myne own derc vmc, 
It U tyme thow be awtynifd of Ihyn old wooe. 


AW?. (1) An eU. Nortk. 

Some lUly doling ImlnclciM callk. 
Thai uodenundi thii^ by Um halfeb 
Say that the CiyrlaMt thboMOk, 
And tookeaway the other. 

Druytm'e Amdu, p, 171. 

(2) An idiot ; ■ noodle. North. 

AWFRYKE. Afncft. 

Lyfttcnyth now, y ichall yow taUe, 
Af y fyndc in parchement ipelle. 
Of cyr Harrowee, the goOe ttaron. 
That lyeth in Awfn/kt in pryion. 

MS. Cannt. Ff. Ii. 98, f. «17. 

AWFUL. (1) Obedient ; under due awe of au- 

We oome within our atr^ banlu again. 
And liDli our powers to the arm of peaoa. 

iHmtylV. iT.l. 
(2) Fearful ; fearing. Rider. 
AWGHT. Ought. 

The fyerthe ei for be et UDcrrtaync 
Whetbyr he lalle wcnde to )oy or paync ! 
Who eo wyll of there fowre take hede, 
HymatrgArgretly the dede here lodiede. 

Hampule, MS. Bowu, p. 61. 

AWGHTEND. The eighth. 

Thevtrghtaid has thii curuyog lagflt. 
Ah the! that delef wyth wychcraft. 
And namely with halowyd Ihynge, 
All with howiellc or cremyng. 

Hampult, MS. Bmcu, p. 7. 

AWGRYM. Arithmetic. 

Than »alte Bumtne, al aiphre doth In aiffrym, 
That Doteth a place, and no thing aTaiUth. 

Drpotilion nf Rlclmnl 11. p. 29. 

A-WHARF. Whirled round. 

And wyth queltyng a^urhar/, er he wolde lyjt. 

Sifr Gawayne, p. 8S. 

A-WHEELS. On wheels. Var. dial. Tlie term 

is lucd by Ben Jonioa. 
AWHERE. Anywhere. See Sldnner'i obicrm- 
tioni on this word in the fourth part of his 
Btymologicam, who says it means dniderium, 
■nd hence Coles explains it denire. 
3yf thou tnadeat awhert any vowe 
To wurftchyp God for thy prowe. 

Jff. HaW 
For yf my foot woldc owturr goo. 
Or that royn hod wolJe cllis do, 
Whan that myn hertp lithcrajen, 
The rcmenaunt i* alle m vayiic. 

CvKtr, M.<!. Soc, ,<ii(l«. 1S4, f. 168. 
I knowe ynough of Ihii matter. Pamphagul. not 
thither avhero but riche. Aeoia^tiu, IMU. 

AWHEYNTE. To acquaint. 

Anheynte the noght withe Ilka man that thou 
meleal in the itrete. 

Hoirc tfi^ gvcHe n'{f thought hir Daughter, p. 9. 

AWHILE. AwhUst. It is used as a verb in 
some counties in the expression, " I can't 
mwhitu," i. e. I can't wait, I have no time. As 
a prepoiitioD it means, until, whilst. 

A<WHOLB. Whole ; entire. Stmtrwt. 


That bad o-tetUcd hii wyll aa wlidom Mm uughte. 
DtpMitim p/ KIcAord ii. p. Si , 
AWING. Owing. 

And, madam, there il one duty aie(^g> tato me 
part whcrof was taken or my maater deoeaaed, whoae 
loul God have mercy, and most part taken to your, 
selfe since he died. i>/lMipAm CDrreJjMndencw, ^41. 

AWINNK. To win I to accomplish a purpose. 
See Rcliq. Antiq. ii. 243 ; Hartshome's MeC 
Tales, p. 87 ; Sir Tristrem, p. 238. 
For al hire wrenche, and al herBglnne, 
The more love iche ne might oseijine, 

AWIRGUD. (I) A<^cnI«ed. Vtnttgal^. 
(2) Strangled; throttled. 
A-WITE. To accuse. {AS.) 

Be not to hasty on brede for to bite, 
Of gredynea last men the wolde a.wita. 

HelUi. Anll^ I. 187. 

AWITH. (1) Ought. 

And if the prcst sacra Crist wan he blesslth ch« 
sacrament of God In the autcr, avith he not to 
blettltb the pcple that drodlth not to sacre Cnst 1 

Apotogp^ tht LottattU, p. SO. 

(2) Away. This is Heame's conjecture in a 

passage in Peter Langtoft, p. 99. 
AWKERT. Perrcne ; stubborn ; obstinate; un- 
accountable. North. The adverb avkertty is 
also used. Avhuard occurs in a similar sense 
in Shakespeare : 
Was I, for this, nigh wrackt upon the sea. 
And twice by evlriearrf wind from England's bank 
Orore back again unto my native dime 7 

i Hmiy >'/. III. t. 
And undertook to travalle dangerous wales. 
Driven by oulrward winds and boisterous seaa. 

Arsiyfan's Poem*. 

AWKWARDE. Backward. Shakespeare, Mar. 

lowe, and Drayton, have atehpard for adverte 

winds. See Palsgrave, f. 83. 

The emperour thane cgerly at Arthurehestrykes, 

JwkuMnUoa the umbrere, and egerly hym hittes. 

JferM Arthm-e, MS. Uncoln, t. TJ, 

AWLATED. Disgusted. (A.^.) 

\ot the king was soradel ifcAtferf, and to gret dospit 

it nnm, 
That fram so unclcnc thinges enl mete him com. 
And het II do out of Is court, and the wrrcchca 
ssame do. Aoft. Gluue. p. iOA. 

AWLDE. Old. Somerttt. 

For he that knawes wele and kane se 
What hymscK was, and es, and salte be, 
A wyscr man he mny he UuMe. 
Whethyr he be ;owng man or owt4t. 
Than he that kanailc olhyr Ihyng, 
And of hymself has no knawyng. 

Uampole, MS. Bovo, p, 

AWLE. All. In Songs of the London Prentices, 
p. 62, we read, " I'll pack up my avh and be- 
gone," apparently nicanini; all bis pro)>crty. 
Bishop Kennctt gives the following as an "oUl 
Northern song over a dead corps." See also 
the Antiq. Repert. iv. 453. 

This can night, this can night. 

Every night and aie/e. 
Fire and fleet, and candle light. 
And Christ receive thy sawle. 

MS. Lmi*. 1033. In v. FTeet. 







AWLUNQ. All along; entircljr owing to; ill 

■long of. North. 
AWLUS. Alwuys. Lone. 
KVi\. A nie*6ure of Rheniah wine, containing 
fourtr gallons, mentioned in tho itatute 12 
Car. il. c. 4. 
AW-MACKS., AU aorta ; all kinds. North. A 
Yorkshire anecdote is told of a wcU-known 
ptocatory judge from the south, who, taking an 
erening'a walk on the hanks of the Ouie, fell in 
with a bo7 who was angling, and asking him 
what kind of fish be was angling for, the lad 
replied, " Aw-macks." The word was a poser 
to his lordship, who afterwards mentioning the 
circumstance to some of his acquaintance, said 
lie fancied before then that be knew the names 
of CTery kind of fresh-water fish in the coun- 
try, bot that be had tried in rain to find any 
notice of uwmackt. 

Now Gye cunc faste rydynge 
On s mewlv v«le awmbtljfngt. 

Ma. Outfod. Ff. li. 38, r. IK). 
AWMBRERE. An abnoner. Prompt. Parv. 
AWMBYR. A liquid measure; a kind of wine 
vesscL See Prompt. Parr, ji, 19; Duconge, 
in T. Antbra ; Qu. Rev. Iv. 377. 
AVME. (1) A suspicion. 

Thys tale wu tolde on the Thursday, 
That they wolde rnlly rtimc on the Frydsy { 
And alto in that ecu- Wi«» -Aydv ihe sajne, 
Aod thcToir tuul owrc k } nge an awme. 

X>-M«i)J<'^A, xxl. 03. 

(2) To guess. Palsgrave, in his Table of Vcrbes, 
£ 1 56, has, " / momt, I gesse by juste measure 
to hytte or louche a thyng, je etme, prime 
confuga, tadje prnu mon ermt, fay prim man 
time, prendre mon etme, conjugate mje prem, 
I take. I wyll strme to hytte yonder buckc in 
Ihe pauuche, Je exmtray, or jeprrndray mon 
m mt de f rapper ee dayn la, a la pance." Sec 
farther obscnpBtiuiis on this word in y. Ame. 

And whennr be U cnlred hla covert, thei oujihte 
to tarye 111 thci awmt that he ttc entred twockyirul 
bnwkholn. MS. Uatt.tte. 

AWMNERE. An almoner. Sec ^mner. 
The awmHere by this halhe Mydc grace. 
And the alfne»-dy»ihe ha.e Ktt in place ; 
ThcT In the kcrver aloftc lu-halte icltc i 
To aervf Gmi fyr>l, wlthoutcn lettc, 
Thae other lore* he pary«ab(>ute. 
Lays hit myd dyuhr, wllhouten douto. 
The unalle lofe he cuttca even In tvynnc, 
Tlio orer dole Id two Uyi to hym. 
The oinHefiere a rod achalle have In houde, 
As office for almes. y undurttonde ; 
Alle the broken-met he kepyt, y wate. 
To dele to pore mm at the ]ate. 
And drynke that level acrved In luUle, 
or ryche and pore, tiotbc grcte and imallc : 
He is fworne looverac Ihc aervtt wrle. 
And dele It to the pore every dele ; 
S«lvcr he delea rydand by way. 
And hii almya-dyuhe, aa I juu say. 
To the portM man that he can fynde. 
Other aUyi, I wot, he la unkyndr. 

Bokr tif Curfo/ye, ap. Arvenaon, lOT. 

AWN. (1) To own ; to acknowledge. North. 
(2) To own i to iKisscss. North. 

(3) To visit. "lie txevtr awiu us," i. c. he never 
visits or calls upon us. iorlah. 

(4) Own. SeeM'right'sMonaaticLctten,p.ll8; 
HaU.Henry IV. f. 14. 

Kyng iVrthour than verament 
Ordeynd, throw hyi atm« aaacnt, 
Tbb tabull donnounte. wllhouten lette. 

TAe OkmUs Dmtoux, 60. 

AWN'D. Ordained. lor*»A. Kcnnett, MS. 

Lansd. 1033, gives the example, " I am aum'd 

to ill luck, L e. it is my peculiar destiny or 

AWNDERNE. An andiron. Prompt. Parv. 
AWNE. (1) The beard of com; the ariMla of 

LinnB:us. North. Ray has, " an aim or 

beard, aritta." — Diet. TriL p. 7. 
(2) Own. 

Sondrr, that uid, commea hla Mrae looaef 
That hii aire aall be. 

MS. Cantab, rr. r.«8, 
AWNER. A possessor; an owner. North. Britten 

gives this as an early form of attar. See his 

Arch. Diet, in v. 
AWNSCHENYD. Andent. Prompt. Parr. 
AWN-SELL. Own-self. iVorM. So also i 

lelU, own-selves. 
AWNTROUSESTE. Boldest; mostvcnltu 

Tb« mwntmutttt mene that to hla oatc Itngedc. 

MorleJrUnin, MS. UKnJn, f 70. 

AV^'NTURS. Adventurous. 

He hath ilayn au awnturt knyt(hte. 
And flemyd my quene withowten rj'ghte. 

MS. Canlai. Ft. II. 3», f. 75. 

AWONDER. To surprise; to astonish. See 
Gy of Warwike, p. 197; Will, and the Werwolf, 
p. 12. .Mso, to niftr\cl. 

On hla ahulder a croU he bare. 
Of htm alLe awiMHIrtd0 ware. 
CWrKir Jfwixfi, MS. ToJf. IVIlt. Omtmb. 1. 11*. 
Of my tale ne lieoth nogbt tHowidrerf. 
The Frenihe uy he slogh a hundred. 

MS. Mruitd. CM/, ^rm. M, f. !(I7. 
AWORK. On work ; into work. 

Will your grace aet him awcrkf 

ainlinaCa/rc. I. I. 
These ledltiona thua renewing, rinboldciied the 
commonaltle (of London eapeclally) to uprorr, who, 
aet sMTurJIre by racanc of an affVay, ranne upon mer- 
chauntca auaungen chiefly, u they are commonly 
woont to doo, and both wounded aod ipoylnl a 
great number of them tiefore they could be by 
the magistrates reatrmined. 

Pitlyll«rt rtrgit, ed. 1M4, p. M. 

AWORTHE. Worthily. See Poems of Scottish 
Kings, p. 25. The following example is taken 
from an early copy of Sir T. Morc's Elegy on 
Elizabeth of York. 
Comfort youre son and be you of god cherCt 
Take alle aworthe, for It wol be none other, 

MS. sinnni laas, r. ao. 

1 was awtmndrd thcr ful sore 
That 1 waa nrre dad thcrfurc. 

MS.^MU. leOM, f.37. 
AWR. Otir. North. 
AWRAKE. Avenged. (./.-S.) 
Thus the yong knight. 

For BOthe y-alawe waa tharet 
Triitrcin that Irewe higbt, 

Atrnkt hira al with care Sir Tritrtm. p. SM. 




AAVKEKE. To ivenRc. (J.-S.) It U used for 
the past iiartidple in Kol). Glouc p. 388, u 
Mr. Slercnson ha> obsmed. Sec U»h. (iloiic. 
pp. 3C, 13G; Holinshcd, Conqucit of Ireland, 
p. 31. Sec Airroten. 

guod Kioi; Richard : Sltll it ii lo, 
I wolc well whal 1 have to dot 
t ihuU me of them lo awrtket 
That ail the world thctof ftliall tpekc. 

Rleham C.ntr dt LUm, 1771. 
And "mercy" thai criden him «o f«lc)»* 
That he ;avc hotn tnj>\teot her live. 
Til he had after hii barooai'e icnl. 
To awrtken htm thourg] jugement. 

Kfpr. amd Blanch, 651. 
AWRENCHE. To seize. 

tie nc myjl no ferther blenche. 

The dragon cowde fo many awrenrht, 

MS. Cmtab. Ft. ii. S8. f. lit. 
AWRETE. To avenge. This form of t!v« word 
occurs in Rob. Glouc. p. 301, where Mr. 
Stevenson considen it is a mistake for aicreee, 
to avenge. {J.-S.) 
AXMIITTEN. Written. Vfnlegan. 
AWRO. Any. 

Ii ther fallen any affVay 
In land awro where i 

Townrtey M^tteriett p. 972. 
AWROKEN. Avenged. See Morte d' Arthur, 
i. 13. {.i.-S.) 

That y am awroken now 
Of h)-in that my fadur ilowe. 

MS. Canlib. ft. II. 3*. f. 118. 

AWRUDDY. Already. A'or/A. 

AWS-UONES. According lo Kcnnett, MS. 
LtnBd.1033, "ox-bones, or Imnes of the tegs 
of cowi or oxen, with wliich boys play at awt 
or yawse." YorAth. 

AWSOME. Appalling; awful, yorth. 

AWT. (1) AU the. North. 

(2) Out. A^orM. 

AMTALENT. Evil will. (,^.-5.) 
In aacrylege he tyned core. 
When he wro^ht after the fendci lor?. 

And fuiryllcd hyi mctaleni, 

And dyde the fcndet cummandinent. 

MS. .uiimoirm, 
AWTER. (1) To alter. North. 
(2) An altar. 

Ala 1 fynde lo my tawe, 
Seyut Thomai wai 1-ilawe, 
At Cantyrbury at Uie atvter ttoo. 
Whcr many myraclyt are l-don. 

RIelianI Omt da Ltan, 41. 
AU fo a prccsie, al yf he be 
Synfulleandowte or charyt^. 
He «s Goddei mynytter and holy kyrkca. 
That the aacrament of the micter wyrckrs. 
The whylk e» never the Iciae of myght, 
AUe yf the pree«te here lyfTe noght ryght. 

Hampolt, US. Bumtt, p, 113. 
AWTERATION. Alteration. North. 
AWTERT. Altered. Tim Bobbin. 
AWTH. (1) All the. North. 
(2) Ought ; anything. 

When mey father gefl^ me au-tht 
Be God that me dera bowth, 
Sche lUrta yn mey face. 

P^tpf «ntf Iht Bift tt. aU. 

AWTHE. Sad? 

Pilgrvtnpf, In •pf4'lic ye ar fulle awrAtf, 
That iltalle I wclli' d«cUre you why. 
Vo have ll hart, and that Is rawthe, 
\e fan no bct(i>r itand therby, 
Thyng that ye h«re. _ 

Toivntte^ MgtteriMt p. ^A, 

AWTHYR. Either. 

Allethasr, he saycia that com of Eve* 
Thatcs alle mctie that here brhofoileve, 
Whane thai are borne, what ao thaJ be« 
Thai layo airiAjrr a-a or •-«. 

Hampole, fioHh C JA 
AWTS. Oats. Lane. 
AWVER. Otct. Somtrtet, 
AW'N'^ISU. (I) Queer; neither rick nor weU. 

North. Qu. ffyUh. 
(2) Elfibh. Lane. It ia often applied to a wag- 
gish fellow ; but it is sonietiines explained, 
" silly, clowiiish." The adjective awruAi'y, 
horrihly, supcrrnBttirally, ift al&o used. 
AWWHERE. Everywhere; all over. 

Now thynk me what iiaynela bodleaffuf&r hert. 
Thorow maladies thai greveih hem awwh^n. 

Hampole, MS. t. 0. 

AWYDE. Owed. 

The Archcbyuchoppe of Cawntertiury, the Erie of 
Essex, the Lordc Bameue, and auche other as 
awyils Kyngc Edwardo good W)ile, as welle In 
Londone as in othcre placos, made as many mmne 
as thel myghte in atrengthynge the selde Kynge 
EdwanJc. fVarkwor«h'§ Chrvnid*, p. Ifi. 

AWYN. Own. North. 

Last of all tliedyr gan aproche 

A worthy man, hyr awyn ny cosyu. 

MS. RbwI. Pit0/. MB. 
AWYRIEN. To curse; to execrate. (^.-5.) 
They wolden awtrrien that wight 
For hU wel dedw. 
And FO tht'y rhewen charittf« 
As chewra »haf houndn. 

IHer* Ptoui[hman, p. 49**. 

AWY3. Awes; makes afraid. 
By thy« enuunple that ut atrs/t, 
Y rode tlut we leve atle oore foule aawyi. 

JV.V. H«r/. 1701, f. II, 

KyrjTE. Ought 

And ojimely sythen hym owlrh tomynystretoalle 
the puple the precious body of Crist, atr^tc to ab- 
stene hym fro al ydll pleying bothe of myradyt ami 
ellis. Reliij. Anti^. W.AH. 

AX. (1) To ask. A common archaism and pro- 
vincialism. This word, though pure Saxon, ts 
now generally considered a viilgariam. The 
form ojTfe occurs in the Howard Household 
Books, p. 361. To ar, in the North, is to ask 
or publish haiius in a churchy and when they 
havt; been rt'Ad lliree times, the couple are said 
to he oxV on/. 

(2) Mr. Stapleton conjectures or in the following 
passage to mean a mill-dam. See Blount's 
Law Dictionary, in v. Hatches. 

Also Ihrt U a«x that my master clamelh the keet>- 
Ing of ; 1 pray you let thrm have and oecupie Hie 
came unto the same tyroo. and then we shall take a 
dcrecclon In every thing. 

Plumptun CbrrMfWfMfcftee. p. 71' 

(3) ** To hang up one's ax/' an early prorcihial 
expression, lo desist from fruitless Ubour. to 
abandon an tueless project. Sec Rob. Glouc 










p. 561, quoted in Sterenion'a idditiotii to AY. (1) An egg. 
(4) An axktree. A>»/. 
AXEN. Aihes. Wnl. {A.-S.) 

Y not wturof beth men so prate; 
Of enhe and artn, felle snil bone } 

IfrigHr't Ail. Sungi, p 803. 

AXBN-CAT. A cat that tumbles in the anhcii. 
DeroH. See the Exmoor Glossary, in v. 
AXES. The tgne. fforlh. Genenlly, in old 
vriten, it is applied to fits or paroiyims. In 
a fercr drink, descri)>cd in on early medical MS. 
in LincolnCalhcdral, f. 305, the herb horseshoe 
is to l>e taken, and a pater noater said "hyfore 
the <UT»." Sec Warkworth's Chronicle, 
p. 23 i Prompt. Parv. p. 218 ; Skeltou's Works, 
iL 101 ; Quair of James I. p. 51 ; Troihis and 
Crescide, i. 627. ii. 1315. 
AXEWAUDLE. To wallow on the ground 
Devon. An aicwaddlcr, a tenn of reproach 
io a similar sense, and also, a dealer in 
AXFETClt. A kind of pulse. Sometimes spelt 
mxveteh and axwort. It is the same as horic- 
ihoe. See Gerard, p. 1057. 
AXn.>-NALIS. Nails or bolts to attach the axle- 
tree to the body of the cart. Sec an invetilnrj' 
dated U65 in the Finchale Charters, p. 299. 
Palsgrave has, " arU)uit/le, chcrille d'aixeul," 
AXISG. Request. {AS.) 

And they him tvue his artit^ fayr and wcL 

Chaticrr, Canl. T. IBJ8. 
AXIOMANCY.Divination by hatchets. Coc*eram. 
AXLE-TOOTII. A grinder. North. 
AX-PEDIi.\K. A dealer in ashes ; a person who 

bawks al)out woodashea. Went. 
AXSEED. Axfctch. Mimheu. 
AXSY. To ask. {A.-S.) 

Ho that wyll there any justoSt 
To kepc hyg armes fro the nutui« 

Id turnemFiit other fyght ; 
Dar he nerer forlher gon, 
Tber he may fyode juste* anoOD, 
Wyth lyr L.aiiiifal the knyghl. 

Uiunfiit, IWl. 
AXTREE. The axle-tree. Sec the Xomenclator, 
p. 267 ; Rcliq. Antiq. ii. 78,83. 

And of the axtrt bitwene the polls Iweyne. 

Liidltalt. MS. Sue. ^filig. 134, f. SS. 
Thunder and eantiquakcs r.if{Inf!, and the rocks 
Tumblini: down from thrlr tcytt, like mighty blockt 
llowt'd ryom huge mounlaina.tuch a noiie they make, 
As ttiottgh In sunder Keav'nt huge attrte brake. 

Drtiyrtm't Pnemt, p. 919. 

AXUNCER. Soft fat ; grease, (iaf.) 

The powder of eartli-worme*, and asunftr, addeth 
further, graunswell, and the tender toppes of the 
taovc-tree. with olibauum : all these, tieing made up 
and tempered together to make an emplaster, he 
cvunkcUeth tot>eeapplyetl loslnnewei that are layed 
open. 7bp*fi/r« HittcHvo/Serpenfj, p, 311. 

AXWEDNESDAI. Ashwedncsday. 

So that an Arictdrtadal, al bl the Wote ende, 
ToOloueetre he wcnde, mid gret poer l-nou. 

II06. Woue. p.Mi. 
AXWORT. Axfetch. Afimheu. 


rounil. and signefleth 
He tctial hare the lourmnuntle. 
This la round the myddcll rrti, 
Bothe nf lewed and of lerid. Kj/nf AltMunder, !>0^ 

^1/ I t)e-»herewe yow be my fay, 
Thii wanton Clarke* t>enyfe all way. 

HitMon'i /4neient Sttitgf, p. 101. 
Always ; ever. In the North of England, it 
is sometimes employed as an expression of sur- 
prise or wonder. 
(4) Yes. Pronounced i, as, indeed, it is spelt in 

most old books. 
AYANCE. Against. 

At polnte terrible ii^anc* the mlicreants on nyght. 
An hevynly myilery was ichcwyd hym, old bookyt 
reheise. Pnxr'i Rtliquu, p. 73. 

AYAYNE. Again. 

Att Cre**e he foughte ayaynt. 

The kynge of Beme there was slayne. 

il<,6. Climc, p. COI. 
AYDER. Either. 

whan a^dfr o*t gan other aaayle, 

Ther tx^gan a strong batayle. Oetevian, 1507, 

Sche thowth lObt, be the rode. 

That dydde the Iwye eney gode, 

Ayier met or dreynke. Frfrt nnd iht ftojr, st. ill. 
AYE. (1) Against. See the Herolils" College MS. 
of Rob. GIouc. quoted in Heamc's ed. p. 407 ; 
and Stevenson's additions to Boucher, in v. 
(2) Fear ; trouble. (A.-S.) 

Thi men er blsrgcd bard in Dunlur with grete ii|f«. 
ljutgi'ijf§ Chroniet^t p. S7S. 

The murren rot la on their tot, 
Theyr hellh Is sore decayed ; 
No mnedle, thy must neads die, 
Onlas Ood be theyr aft, 

haintMh Earitf Sookt, p, 

AYEL. A forefather. (,A.-N.) 

And whan the renoune of his excellence. 
By long proccsse, and of hU great encrcase. 
Came by the refort unto the audience 
Of his eyrt, the great Astiagil. Bochot, h.\i.c1S. 
AYEMtlER. Redeemer. 

Knelyng and pralenge after thy I.orrie thy 
maker, tityn oyenbier, thy love and thy lovyer. 

US. BiMll. 483, f. \K1 
A YEN BYTE. Remorse. 

This hoc Is Dan MIchrlls of Norlhgate, y-wrltean 

Knglis of his o^ene hand, thet hatte A)Mintiytt t>f 

Inwyt, and Is of the boehouse of Saynt Aitstlnca ofe 

Canterbcrl. M.l. Arundel 57. f S 

AYENE. Again. 

He camme alette yet the next wck. 
And toke awey Iwlh henne and chek. 

R>/<4. Anllq. 1. 1 

AYE-NOWE. Enough. 

The empirouregafe Clement welthli fete, 

Tolyfc in icchcit and In wcle, 

.^iM-miU'e for evermore. US.UntolnA. 1. 17, f.lOfi 
AYENSAY. Denial. 

Ther is none oyenMy nor exeusacjoun, 
Tylt the trouthe be rypped into theroote. 

I^idealr, MS. Almole J», f. 45. 
AYENST. Against. 

Yes, fnr Ood, then sayd Robyn, 

Or elles I were a fole t 
Another day ye wyll me clothe. 

I trowe, niferut the yolc. Rebin Hoed, \. 7i> 





AYENSTONDE. To withsUnd. See OesU 
Romanuruiu, p. 53. 

And whan ony such tokca wu iry by day or be 

nyght, Ihaa ODonc ollr nuner men of the contrcy 

nude iMm redy to ajwMfMHto* yf ony enrmyes hod 

com*. MS. Hart, 1704. 


He made a lawc that rvcry ded knyjc thulde be 
buried in hi» armour and ann>-*, and lOe ony mane 
wccre 90 hardy for to »poyle him of hU armyi after 
thai he were y-buriede, heihuldc Ittc hU hfe, wlth- 
outeony offtnwt'Mttmdyngt!, Gesta Romumorum, p. 10. 

AYENWARDE. Back. {J.'S.) 
And as he came ajwiuKinf« privUy, 
Hit necv awoke, and atkith who goeth there t 

TVtfiTui and 0«MJd«. Ul. 751. 
AYERE. (1) An heir. 

Aad »cho wille pray hir loncao fkyrc. 
That we may lamene getc anayrr*. 

MS.LincotnA, I. 17. f. 90. 

(2) Breed. 

Muy fawcoum and tkin, 
HawkU or nobille a^rr* 
On hUperkcgunnerrpayre. 

Syr Dtgrttnntf, Uneotn MS. 

(3) Air ; breath ; atmosphere. 

Sothely wicked men comimpilh here nelghbom, 
for here throtc li liche to a berlel opynyng, that 
tlerth men thorogh cvyl atftre, and awelwlth hem 
Innr. Jf& 7Vmn«r 16. f. 291 

The to(hcr world that e« lawer, 

Whar^ thettemctand the pUn«tCB ere. 

Godd ordaynd anrly for owre bchofe. 

Be thi> tkyllc. aU 1 kane profe. 

The ayere fro thethene, and theheete of ton*, 

Sotuyne* theerthe heere thare we wone. 

Hampoie, Jtf.V. Bowen, p. iS, 

(4) To go out on an expedition, or any biuuncsa. 

There awe* uooe alyenet to ayerv appone njrghttys 
With fyche a rebawdoui rowttc, to ryot thy-iclvcne. 

M-rfe yfrlhure, MS. Linci^ii. f. IS. 
The fader aeld to hii lonedere. 
To lawe tha ahalt go a|wn-* 
And OMte nc xx. narke. 

MS. HarL 1381, f. ItS. 
AYEWARD. Bickwtrd. 

And lad me agen into the plaae of Paradlce, fh) 
the whtche he nvUbed roe, and eft oyeuiarrf he led 
me to the lake ther he raveiahed ine. 

MS. RawL. 1701. 

AYFET. Covet. Rot. Gloue. 
AYFULL. High; proud ; avrfuL See the He- 
• rilds' College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
quoted in Hcame's editioti, p. 377, where the 
text reads heyvol, q. v. 
AYGHB. Awe; terror. 

Sum for gret oyf Ae and doat. 
To other klnges flowm about. 

Arlhaur and Merlin, p, 1& 
AYGHT. Height. Silnn. 
AYORB. Sour. This ia merely the old ortho. 
graphy of eaprr, but is gtill in use ia York- 
shire. Sec jtiyrt. 

And with a fodalne vigour It doth poiaet 
And ctird, like «|rffir dropplngi Into railke. 
The tbtn and wholaom* blood, 

Uamltl, ed. 1(93, p. IAS. 

AYGRKEN. The houieleek. Sec Kennett'a 
GlOHarr, MS. Luisd. 1033, f. 28; Prompt. 
P4iV. p. 251. 

AYGULET. An aglet. 

Which all alMiTe beiprlncklnl waa throughout, 
WUh gulden ap/ruleti ihal glittred bright. 

The Forrie VutTM, II, HI. 20. 

AYILD. To yield. In many i;ases, the a may 
probably be the cxcUmation A I See also 
Revet of llamtoun, p. 10, where it ia some- 
what difficult to decide, the editor having 
throughout that work confused the pronoun a 
with the prefix to the verb. 
Let now ben al your light. 
And ayiU the to thii knight. Reni6nin, p. 47s. 
AYIR. Air. Somertet. 
AYL. Always. SUmtrr. 
AYLASTANUE. Everlasting. 

That woman kynde ichuld suilene the reprOTe 
of aifltulandg t'oupsblllltj amange men, «chc that 
made man fall Uilo fyniie. its. Kimrtan B*3, f. 909 
AYLASTA.NDLY. Everhistingly. 
;e icrved never Joye aplaMtandlp, 
For )e fuiaUed no;i the warkea of mereir. 

MS. Kgarbim B97. 

AYLEDE. Possessed. 

HirapMg no pryde. Sir Perrrval, ICO. 

A^XIS. Sparks from hot iron. It is translated 
by firrtHt, in the Cambridge MS. of Walter 
dc Bibhlesworth, Reliq. Antiq. li. 84. 
AYMANT. A diamond. (^.-.V.) 
To here hutbandc a preeyouao thyng, 
A bracelet! and an aj^naiir rynge. MS. natel. S.'tS. 

AY-MEE. A lamentation. See Florio, in t. .^A ; 
Colgrave, in v. ytachit. 

Nor delude the object be alTected, aad to whoM 
sole choice he itood aSyed with felned«. 

Two L«iM»«Atrt Loeerf, p. 1 IS. 

AYMERS. Embers. (>*.-S.) See Forme of Cury, 
p. 40 ; Reliq. Antiq. i. 52. 

Tak the croppe of the tcde dok, and fald II In a 
lefe of the iclvcoe, and roulle It in the nymtn. 

MS. LiKcv<n. Jfa/f. f.S9l. 

Tak havremcale, and lawge, and laye hem In hot. 

oimert, and erly at morowe aethe hem In a potic 

with watur and wyne, and do therto oynlone* and 

jolkca of eyrene, and thanne terve hit forthc. 

MS. Culm. MUdlehUI, f. 13. 

AYN, Eyes. 

When therl teye It waa sir GU, 
llefeldmin on knei him bl. 
And wrpe with both hit upn. 

(.» ../ n-aruUre, p. SIS, 

AYOH. Awry ; aslant ; on one side. Salop. 
AYONT. Beyond. ATorfA. 
A-YOU-A-HINNY. A Northern nine's lullaby. 
See Bell's Northern Rhymes, p. 296; Croft's 
Exccrpta Antiqna, p. 107. 
AY-QUERE. Everywhere- 

Ait-qvtrt Baylet ful nwc for that note rychod. 

.*^r Gawaifnet p. 94. 

AYRE. (1) An heir. See Towueley Mysteries, 
p. 114; Audelay's Poems, pp. 4*, 12; Dial. 
Creat. Moral, p. 2.13; Y'waine and Gawin, 
3093; MS. Ashmole 33, f. 46. 

II yn honoure aal noght paaae fra thli generacloun 
In atlc other that cratcome withoulena^ra#. 

MS. Oil. itran. 10, f. I«. 

(2) Ready ; yare. 

Anoncthc iquyer made him Ofrre, 
And by hym-aclfe forth can he fare. 

SquiT^Loutt Dtp^, 001* 








(3) Ere; be/ore. 
Iltl» he DC wylde he with wcltouid wo* 
Scho h*(le hym upe with hyre to ^ ; 
Tlioi tellyi he lythm with rnckylle dredc* 
How agayne hys wylle with hyre ha jeile. 
5cho Icde hym to makcllc felde, 
&o grcttc aae uynr he never behelile, 

R. rfe BrMRn0, MS. BoutJ, p. fiS. 

(4) Air. 
For (he ei>rrupcyowne of hy« bO'ly, 
Yf It soMp langtf abowne erthc ly, 
Vt mught ihr ayn to corrumppcti make* 
That men tharof the rfede lolde take. 

Uampolt, US. Uuwe*, p. 37. 


Their* haye, thcjrecome to repe, bynde, or inowe» 
S«ttcoute Ihelrc falowe*( pajturec, and lande uyrAi/*/).. 
MS.A>lmol>»>, r. 19. 

ATRELY. Early. 

Of thii the prophet wytnel beres 
In a ulmeof the aawter thorgh thli ven ; 
The prophet lays thus alj wryteoe ea, 
Jyrtlit a man pauea all the grcs, 
A^rtly are the begynnyng of the day 
Ht florytchea and paaaai away. 

Hampolt, NorUi C. MS. 

AYREN. Eggs. InthePormeofCiiry.p. 77,tlie 
following rircfipt is given to make an erbnlale, 
a kind of confection composed of herbi, 
" Take persel, myntes, saverey, and sauge, tan- 
ley, Tervayn, clarry, rewe, dit.iyn, fcnel, i^utb- 
miwode; liene hem and griudc bcm smale ; 
medle licm up with ayme ; do butter in a 
trap, and do the fara therto, and bake it and 
mcste it fortb." 

Men to bcom tfareowe drit and dongc. 
With fouleairrtn, with rotherea lunge, 

Kynf AtiMHndtr, 471S. 

ATRY. (1) To make an acric. 

Eitpresilng the loftineue of the mountainea in that 
ihoore, on which many hawkei were wont loayrv. 

Dra^tnn't Puenw, p. 91. 
(2) Jovfn] i in good spirits. SUntier. 
AY-SCHELLE. An egg-shell. 

The dragon lay in die •trete, 

Myghte he nought dure for hete; 

He fondlth to creopc* aa y ow telle, 

Ageyn into theay.«<Ae//«. Ktrng Alttaunder, fl77. 


Mercy mekelyche of hym he ai/tchetle, 

OtroH. niodiM.p. t>. 

AYSCHIS. Ashes. We have already liad other 
forms of this word, and more may probably 
b« met with. See the Liber Niger Domua 
Regis Edw. IV. p. 85. The following is a 
corioui early receipt for making ithite 

Tak twey buahelleor wood aptcklt, and a tnijrhel 
of tyme, and thre tmachelU of comun a>'«chi«. to that 
ther be bo mtrtehU of ook therynue, and brt-nnt^ liii 
cofQun oyaeAac twyea, and make a lye In the aame 
wyae aa y rehenide blfore* and put It In a vesael with 
a flat botnie ; and In ij. gnloT>e« uf that lye, put liij. 
11 of ulowh, what talowh everc it be, and evere a« it 
aethlth, put therto more of lye into the tytnc that o 
galone t)e put yn bl tymea, and loke It be wcl y.«terld 
among, and tak up therof alwcy to It be twich aa 
thou wilt have, and contyouc the fire wel, and tbou 
achalt not fail*. MS. S/ooiu 73,'l. 

AT8B. (1) Ease. {A.-N.) 

So that ache wai the worse at oyae. 
For iche hath tlianac no aervlie. 

Cover, US Soe. Jnti^ IS4, t. m. 
Thua may a traytour turel rayac. 
And make maoye men ful crele at ayte. 

Thanne wai Engelond ath ay«e ,* 
Michel watsuich a king to prey^. 
Thai held lo Englond in grilh I HaMlak, U. 
(2) To make at case. {./.-A'.) 

1 made it not for to be prayaed, 
Bot at the Icwed mcne were airteif . 

H'arfim'i Uitt.Bngt. hat. i. m 

AYSELI.E. Vinegar. " AyttU, other alegar," 
is mentioned in a recipe in the Forme of Curv, 
p. 56. Sec Prompt. Parv. p. 143 ; MS. Ui'i- 
coln. ^fcd. f. 294 ; Townelcy Mvsterics, 
p. 260. 
A fulle bltttre drynke that wai wrtjghte. 
Of oimUe and galle that the lykede noghte. 

US. Um-oln A. i. 17, f. ion. 
jty»9tt and galle rayied on a rctle. 
Within aapounge thai gun hyde. 

US. Bikl. cml. SIcii. xvill. 6. 

AYSHWEED. A kind of herli mentioned by 
Miniheu, who appears to say it is the same as 
the gout-wort. 
AYTHIR. Either. 

All dere golde hir brydiUe It acbone. 
One aythir lyde hange bellyi three. 

TVue rAomai, US. Uncain, f. 140. 
Wlthowttyno gyftea ;ede thay noghte, 
JifOiirs haddetownnea three. 

US. Llimlii A. I. 17. f. M. 
Ther mouthe men le to knlthcs bete, 
.lyrAer on other dlntei grcte. HaiwMr, 9685. 
AYTTENE. Eighteen. 

The golden nombre of the lame yere, 
J^ttene accounted in oure kaleiidere. 

Lta/calt, US. /t>hm«le 30, f. SO. 

AY -WHERE. Everywhere- Sec Sir Tristrem, 
pp. 236, 248, 284: Hardyng's Chronicle, 
f. 159 ; Peter Langtoft, p. 78. Ayw/iore is 
glossed by evermore in MS. Ilari. 1701, f. 43, 
which seems to be its meaning in the Townelcjr 
Mysteries, p. 115, aiid in our second examples 
In the following passage, the Cambridge MS. 
ft. ii. 39, reads " every whare." 

He lent abowte every ay.ieAffre, 

Tlut aile hii mcne lolde make thame jare 

Agaynei the erle to fyghte. 

Eriee/ TWeui, US. Umnim, f. US. 
And gadred peni unto ilore, 
Aiokercndoneoyiehorr. US, Hart, 1701, f. 37. 
A-ZET. Set; planted. Dortel. 
AZOCK. The mercury of metal, an alchemical 
term. It is used by Ben Jonson, in the Al- 
chemist, ii. 1. It may not be out of place to 
mention that Ben may have taken this and 
other technical words from MS. Sloane 313, an 
alchemical MS. which formerly belonged to 
him, and has his name on the first page. Ash- 
mole spells the word ajot, in his Tbcat. Cheat. 
Brit. pp. 77, 89, 375. 
AZOON. Anon; presently. Ermoor. 
AZOR. An alchemical preparation, a recipe for 
which occurs in MS. Sloane 1698, f. 7. In th< 
same manuscript is given a curious list of simi- 
lar terms, but most of them are too technical 


to reqmre a place in this worlt. Thus we have 
aTftgribali for \itrioI, asirnac for ink, Ac. 

A2UKE-BYSE. Aiuoiig some curious rcceijitt 
in MS. Sloanc 2584, p. 3, we arc told Ih&l 
" 3if thou will prove azure-byte, whetlicr it 
be gooc) or bnilc, take a peoscl or a penne, 
and drawc smallc rewles upon lilcwe letires 
with that ccnise, and jif thi cenue be nojt 
clere white Imtc dcdc fade, then ia the bicwe 
nojt fync." 

AZZARL). A ancaking person ; an insigniticant 
fellow. North. We have also the ot^cctivc 
asznrdly, poor, ill-thriven. 

AZZhE-TOOTH. A grinder. Craven. 

AZZY. A wayward child. Yarkxhire. 

A3A. Against. 

A]ii the day of rykcnjrng. RtliQ. Jnltq. U. tlO. 

AJE. (1) Against. 

For ho tho^te aj that treiour have, 
Thej It wrrv 03^ lawe. 

MS. CVI. THn. Qnm. SJ. 

(2) Again. 

And that hy neromc nevorcajt', 

Boi* by him brojle. MS. Cuit. Trin. Oson. ft?. 

By HahouQ, ulde Chp kyngajee^ 

Y oolde the Icte ly vei be«. 

MS.^*hmol« 33,r.4B. 

A3EFULLEST. The most fearful. 
Of Aoceoiperour theajq/bVlrW that rvrr Arniythiuntid. 

A5ErN. Against. 

Aitttn htm bUc, a-^ffln atle he, 
A wondir wljte moo ihal he he. 

Cursor Iturtdl. MS. CoU. Trin. Cantab. 1. 17. 

A3ENBOL'5TIST. Hast redcemea. 

Thou hrldtit forth thin hond. and the eerthe de- 
Touridehem. Thou were ledcr In thI mercl to ihi 
puple, the whlchc thou a^cnbiiuyi»f. 

WU:kl\ffb, MS. Bodt. 277- 


But many one wyl ntver beware, 

Tyl turn mytchauncc make hem a-^enchan. 

US. Hart. 1701, M4. 

A3ENNIS. Against. 

Mlkll more If he pmnounce without autorit^ or Ilf 
contrarlouily a^tnnii the LordU wllle. 

^polfgw /»>r th» LnltardM, p, 8. 

A3EN-RISrNG. Resurrection. 

For the tevende day, wlthouto lesyng. 
Ii lokiieofa}«nri«ynf. 

MS. out. Trin. Onm. S7, art. ff. 
A5EN8EIDE. Denied. 

Thou BuOVMc^i hem to deperte fro me, that U, fro 

my wlUe ant.) myn cnlcnt ; and thrl hadde me a> 

wlntyn^;, for 3 ai^uride hem In her workii and her 

wordli, MS. Tanner \, f. 5i7. 


Heo;rn««ffWA alte that trciun« 
Aod Kttcth thu* hyi rcxun. 

Jtf5. flaw. 1701, f.43, 

A3ENST0D. Withstood. 

AVerfor Poule a-^enatod him In the £w«, and red«r< 
guidhim, for be wa» reprovable. 

.Mpahgj/ fhr the Lottantt, p. 

AJENSTONDYN. To withstand. It U trans- 
lated by iristo and oMo in Prompt, Pan-, p. 70 
A5EN\V0RD. On the otiier hand. 

He biddlth not here lo curie him (hat aynnith ni 
DOT to asoylc him that hldlih in lynne ; but ii;«>n 
t*i asoile him that Icclth hit lynne, and put him ou^ 
of cumiMiny that iaatlth In hii tynae. 

Apology ^ the Lottardji, p. 70 
A5ER. (I) Yearly. 
I [ CO wot rather bi-leve here truage, that je hem bereth 
afer. Rub. O'/owc. p. lODi 

(2) Over. 

Vff he of Ooddet wordet aifht here, 
Theroffhym Ihynk a hundreth jcre ; 
Bot yf it be at any plaj'ng, 
At the hale-howi or othir Jangtyng. 
For to rachc with ilk a fyie, 
Ther hym thynk no;th bot a qwylle 
In Oodo ferrc* fwylk men er irke, 
Thatqwen thai com unto thekyrk, 
Tomattyni or mew iongyn, 
Thai thynk it lailetajn- Unfrya ; 
Than lal he jangyl or telle aura tale, 
Or wyt qware thai »al haf beat ale. 

It. df. Brumn*, MS. Smm*, 
A3EYENST. Against. 

The Tolk of Oy wee wyih bowci comen i^tymH the. 

RHig. Amttq. U. 28S. 


Cuym aay hi» lynnc was knowed. 
And that the erthe had hit showed t 
He wist tt^eyn-sajfing was noon. 

Curtor Mututi, MS. CvU. THn. Cmtab. t 

A5EYNUS. Against. 

Krrour he tcbal mayntdnenone 
Ayepnut the craft, but let hyt gone. 

Coiutituticna i/JtfaJMiry. p. 
A3LEZ. Fearless. 

Ilow thatdojtydredic* dcmely therslODdes, 
Armed ful a-^lez; In hert hit hym lyki-a 

Syr Oawntnt, p. M. 

A3T. (1) Onght. 

Thn sevene thioge* at theltsi 

FelK> on chat like dayc ; 

For that fl^f alleboly kirkc 

To honour hit for ay. 

MS. Qmfab. Ff. v. 48, f. «S. 

(2) Eight 

For If thou tic In dedly lynne. 

And therof ichdl hcsrhrlfetie, 
^y thynget the bus haf therto. 

Or itbe clene forgifene.5.0iNrifI*,Pf. v. 
A3TE. (1) Possessed. 

I dar node telle ;o, lord, for achame. 
The godusnow that he a^te, 

RotiMm'i Mitt, ibMS. 

(2) Noble ; honourable. Rob. Ghuc. 




B" To know a B from a batlledoor," an old 
phrase, generally implying, arwirding to 
Narea, a very alight degree of learning, or the 
being hardly able to distinguish one tiling Crotn 
another. It is soraetimes fotmd in early printed 
works, as if it should be thus written, " to 
know A. B. from a battledoor," nn inttaocc of 

which occurs inTujior's Workes, 1630, ii. 59. 

Vou shall DOt neciie to buy bookra : no, aconiefe 
dUtinfftiliih u B. from a battU.4itere ; oorly Inoke thM 
your care* be lonfi enough to mwh our rudlmcnu 
and you arc made for evvT.Gfih Ilomf ltiMik9,)9U0,p.ti 

For in lhi> a^^c oT crlltickca arc «urh ftlorc. 

That of a B. will niikc a lulUcdorc. 

•fatliH't WWte, l(i(S.>l( A. 






BA. (l)Tokiu. SeeChaueer, Cant.T., 6015. 1 

AI»o B (ubtUuilive, is in Skelton, i. 22. 
(2) Both. (J..S.) 
'3) A trnll. Perejf. 
BAAU. (1 ) Continued. Yorith. 

(2) To liathe. Crarm. 

(3) A wun^aii of bad cbaractcr. Cmnb. 
BAAK£. To bake. Pakyrmf. 
BAAL. A ball. 

To thii huuftc I have dcTlied how you male to 

iccretly convcigli mr, that you mair there keepe me 

at your iilcasuie to your owne use, and to my greate 

contenLation. vheru I male at pleasure enjoye hym. 

inore dearcly twloved unto me then the baaUw of 

mync owne cyea. Richif't Fiinwrtt, 1581, 

B.^A-LAMB. A lambkin; a pet term for n 

lanib. i'ar. dial, 
B.V.\L-HILLS. Hillocks on the moors, where 

liro arc fancied to have once been in honour uf 

Baal. Craem. 
BAAN-CART. The body. Craren. The form 

iam, bone, occurs iu (everal compounds in the 

Northern dialect. 
B.\ANT. Am not ; are not. I'ar. dial. 
BAAB. To bear. Maunderile. 
UAAKD. A sort of sea-vessel, or transport 

ship. Philtipi. 
BA-ARGE. Generally used in Deronshire to 

signify a fot heavy penou. See the Extnoor 

Scolding, p. 9. 
BAAS. Base. In the Papers of the Sbak. Sue. 

L 50, " baiu daunccs" are mentioned. These 

were dances vcn' slow in their movemeuls. 

See also Nuga: Poeticte, p. 2. 
BAASTE. (1) To sew. PaUgrave. 
(2) Bastariiv. Prompt. Part. 
BAATH. Both. AorM. 
BAB. (1) To bob down. Kurlh. 

(2) A baby ; a child, lor. dial 

(3) To fish in a simple and inartificial manner, 
by throwing into the water a bait on a line, 
with a small piece of lead tu sink it. Eels 
and crabs arc sometimes caught in this vvuy. 
M°e have all read of the giant who " sut u[ian 
■ rock, and bobbtd for whale." This Is merely 
another form of the word. 

BABBART. The •• evcle i-mct, the bahbarl," 
are among the very curious names of the hare 
in the Rehq. Antiq., i. i:t3. 

BABBLE. (1) Hounds ore soiit to babble, " if 
too biuie after they have foimil gaud iiceut." 
Gent. Rcc. p. 78. 

(2^ To talk noisily, i'ar. dial. 

(i) Kn idle tale. Rotrletj. 

BABBLEMENT. Silly discourse. North. 

BABBLING. A noisy discourse. "Dabbling or 
much speaking." Bccon's Early Works, p. 169. 

BABBY. (1) A baby. Var. dial. 

(2) A sheet or small book of prints for cbil- 
drcn. North. 

BABBY-BUODIES. Same as boodin, q. v. 

BABE. A cliild's mauinet. GouUman. See 
B*kf. This may also be the meaning of the 
wwd in a difficult passage in Cynilielinc, iii. 3, 
where Haiimcr antl the chief luotlern editors 

read *r»4e. Palsgrave has, "Babt that chyl- 
dren play with, pou/ipe*." 
BABEL.\R¥. A fooUsh talc. More. 
BABELAVANTE. A babbler. 

sir Cayphas, hareken nowe to me ; 
Thii babtlamntc or ktnifc woukde be. 

Oirrtcr Plnfl, 11. 34. 

BARELYN. To totter; to waver. Prompt. Parv. 

UAUEKLUI'PED. Tliick-lipped. Pirn Pkiughm. 

BAUEKY. thilihsti finery. H'ebtter. Stowo 

has babbleriF In the same sense. See Strutt'a 

Dress and Habits, il. 201. 

BABEl'RY. An architectural ornament. Chaucer 

mentions a castle being ornamented with 

many SLibtlll compastingt; 

As tMtttnirift and pinruirles, 
Imagerlei and latMrrtiacles. 

Huufe e/ Fome, id. 09. 
Urry reads barbicatu, but see Stevenson's ad- 
ditions to Boucher, in v. The latter writer 
wishes to connect this word with babneym, 
ail ancient term for grotesque figures executed 
in silver work. 
BABEWYNE. A baboon. Maunderile. 
BABIES-HEADS. A kind of toy for children. 

See the Book of Rates, IG7S, p. 24. 
BABIES-IN-TIIE-EYES. The miniature le- 
(lection of himself which a person sees in the 
fhipil of another's eye on looking closely into 
it, was sportively called a little baby, and our 
old jjoets make it an employment of lovers to 
look for them in eacti others eyes. See Rich's 
Honestie of this Age, p. 49; Brand's Pop 
Antiq., iii. 25 ; Nares, in v. 

When I look bcMf <n Ihltit vw. 
Mere Venui, there AdonU lief. 

Uni'dolph't PMnu, p. 1S4. 
She clung about hla neck, gave him ten kU»c«, 
Toy'd with hh locka, look'd baitlea in his eyej. 

Htytiova'g lAfvt't JUtMtnM, p S, 
BABION. A baboon. Sec Ben Jonson, ii. 240 ; 
Skcllon's Works, L 124 ; Dravton't Poems, 
p. 247. 
U A BLACK. A name given to two frce-schooU 
at Coventry and Warwick. See Cooke's Guide 
10 Warwick Castle, 1841, p. 93. The term is 
derived from a piece of land at Coventry 
fnrnirrly so called, and on wbicli the hablack 
school there is now situated. The boys are 
clothed in yellow and blue, and perhaps the 
bablnck school at Warwick is so called because 
a similar uniform has been adopted. It also 
a]ii>cars from Sharp's Cov. Myst., jip. 146, 
179, 187. that there was formerly a monastic 
iustitution at Coventry of the same name, and 
most liki'lv on the same spot. 
BABLATIVE. Talkative. 

In ronimunitlc of life he was verye Jocund ; 
nerlher to ttabtativt withe flattery, nor to whust with 
morocltk-, PhUvttmut^ U6S> 

BABLATKICE. A basilisk .' 

U yuu cockatrice*, and you babtatriert. 

That in the woods dwell. Loerin*, p. 98. 

BABLE. A bauble. The glass or metal orna- 
ments of dress are sometimes called bnblti. 
See Strutt's Dress and Habits, ii. 153 ; Thumj' 
Anecdotes ted Traditions, p. 1 9 ; Floriu, is v. 




Bi'bole, C'-eeele. Miege explains it, " to talk 
confusedly," but that woulil more properly 
be upcll ittieL In Skolton we have babylt, 
DABS. Cliildren'i pictures. North. 
BABULLE. A bauble. An old proverb in MS. 
Douce 52, says, " A fole scliolde never have 
a bttbuUt in hande." 

Lyke a ia\t a»d a fole to bw, 
Thy hobutlt ftchollr be thy dygnyl^. 

.V.V. C>i«lab. fl. il. .18, r. 941. 

BABY. According to Minsheu, a " puppet for 
children." The word constantly occurs at a 
child's plaything, a toy, and is still in use in 
the North for a picture, eipccially such a» 
would amiuc children. So in the French 
Schoole-Maister, 1631, f. 98, "Shall wc buy 
B baUe or two for utir chddren for pa»linie I"' 
See also the Book of Rates, p. 24 ; Malonc's 
Shakespeare, xiii. 108; Cleaveland's Poems, 
p. 64 ; Urit. Uibl., ii. 309 ; Du Burtas. p. 3 ; 
Florio, in v. Btitndota, Bdmda, CiiccOf Dtmdota^ 
Pipilla ! Cotgrave, in r. Poupelle ; Buret's 
Alvcarie, B. 7, 8. A Bartluiuy Fair doU is 
often mentioned as a Bartholomew baby). 
Compare the Captain, i. 3, — 

•• antl now you rry for't. 

As chlldrrn do for habits, twck afain." 

Beuui»'tnt and Ftflrhtr, tti, Oyee, hi. $35. 
Where the editor asks whether the author did 
not write baUet, another word altogether, — 
Whil gam ihcu imibln and »aU« all f 

Kl''f and a i^Mrre Kcrthrme Mnn, 1640. 
For belU anil tttibyiv, luch lu rhlldrcn imall 
Are ever u^'d to s^ilace them wiihall. 
^ Dntylon't Putmtt p, S43- 

BABY-CLOrTS. A puppet made of rags, 
Cotgrave translates mvfutt, " ■ curiously 
drcued babie of clowts." 

And drawlnK neare the lK<d to put her daughten 
annet, and hlfther part of her body too, within 
kheetJ. percelviug it not tu be hrr daughter, tiut a 
bQli]f.flotiti only to delude her. 

Ttco Lanmshirt Ijuvtrg, 1G{II, p. in. 

BABYSHED. Deceived with foolish and chihl- 
ish tales. See the Towneley Mysteries, p. 78. 

BACCAKH. An exclamation sigmfjing " go 
back," and supposed to be a corruption nf 
back Ihert, It occun in Shakespeare, Lilly, 
lleywood, and other contemporary writers. 
From a passage in the Golden. \phroditis, 1S77, 
" both trurape and dnimme sounded nothing 
for their larimi but Baccare, Baccare,'* il 
would seem to have been taken from some 
old tune. 

BACCHAR. Tlie herb ladies' glove. A full 
description of it is given in Holmes's Academy 
of Armorv, p. 88. 

BACCHES.' Bitches. 

The bacchft that hym icholde knowc. 
For lODe molten heo blowe pris. 

A tip. (o tVallrr Uapu, p. 34S. 

B.\CCH11S-FEAST. A rural festival; an ale. 

See Stub's Anatomic of Abuses, cd. 1595, p. 

110; Dee's Diary, p. 34. 
BACK. (1) The game of prisooers' base, more 

geiieraUy written baju, q. t. Cotgrave has. 

" Barrel, the martiall sport called Btnierf 
also the play at ^acr, or prison-lnra." 

(2) A kind of Ash, mentioned in Prompt. Parr., 
p. 20, supposed by Mr. Way to be the baaMi, 
or sea-|>erch. Cf. Barct's Alvearie, B. 198 j 
Florin, in v, Baicolo ; Palsgrave, Subst. f. 18. 

(3 J To beat. Duron. 

(4) Tlie pedestal of an image. An old arelii- 
teclural term. See 'Willis, p. 76. 

BACE-CIIAMHYR. A room on the lowerfloor. 
Prfjmpl. Parr. 

B.\CIlEI.EIt. A knight. Chaucrr. 

BACI IE I.ERIE. Knighthood. Also explained 
by Ty^^vhitt, the knights. It sometimes meant 
a company of young bachelors, and ocoaaion> 
ally, bachelorship. Cf. Cliaueer, Cant. T., 
8146. 17074; Rob. Glouc. pp. 76, 183. 

BACHELOR'S-BUTTONS. The cainpiontlower. 
According to Grey, Notes on Shakespeare, i. 
107, there was an ancient custom amongit 
countrj' fcllons of earning the flowera of this 
plant io their pockets, to know whctheT they 
should succeed with their sweethearts, and 
they judged of their good or bad succeaa by 
their growing or uot growing there. " To 
wear bachelor's buttons" seems to liave been 
a phrase for being unmarried. In some parta 
of the country, the flower-heads of the com- 
mon burdock, as well aa the wild scsbioui, 
are also called by this name. 

BACINE. A bason. 

That on was rede so the fer, 
The eighrn fo a Inrinf cicr. 

Arthnur ttttit Urriin, p. fi7. 

BACK. (1) Arcrc-mousc; a bat. SeeLydgatc'a 
Minor Poems, p. 152; Tundale,p.4I; Prompt. 
Parv., p. 21. 

(2) Kennctt says, " along the Severn they think 
it a sure prognostick of fair weather, if the 
wind bad to the sun, i. e. opposes the iud's 
course." MS. Laosd. 1033. 

(3) in some coimtics, when a person is angry 
they say his baek't up. Kennctt has, " baxvp, 
angry, provoked. Oifurdth." 

(4) In mining, the hack of a lode is the part of 
it nearest the surface ; and the back of a level 
is that part of the lode extending above it to 
within a short distance of the level above. 

BACK-,VLONG. Backward. Ifomerift. 

B.\CK-AND-EDGE. Completely ; entirely. See 
a play, quoted by Nures, in v. In Yorkshire 
obtains the opposite phrase, " I can make 
back ner edjff of him ;" I can make nothing 
of him. 

BACKARDS-WAY. Backwards. lor*»». 

BACK.VS. The back-house, or wash-house, or 
more generally bakehouse, t'ar, dial. Spelt 
tackhotrtr in the Ordinaures and Regulations, 
p. 1, where it is probably used in the first 

BACKBAND. An iron chain passing in a groove 
of the cart-saddle to support the shafts. Norlk. 

BACKBAR. The bar in a cliimney by which any 
vessel is suspended over the fire. Vai . 








BACKBERAND. The beiring of any stolen 
goods, especially deer, on the back, or open 
indisputable tlich. An old law term. 

BACK-BOAKD. A large board on which the 
dough is rolled out previously to mulling it 
into loaves. North. 

BACK-BREAK. To break the back, florio. 

BACKBRON. A large log of wood put on at the 
back of a fire. Ihmt. 

BACK BY. Behind ; a little way off. A'orM. 

BACK-CAST. The failure in an effort ; a re- 
lapse into trouble. North. 

BACK-CAVTER. Cotgrave has, •• Cautere dortal, 
the tacte-cttuter, somewhat like a knife, or 
having a back like ■ knife, and searing onely 
on the other side." 

BACKEN. To retard. Var. dial. 

BACK-END. Autumn. Yorkth. It is applied as 
well tn the latter end of the month, week, &c. 

BACKEMNG. Relapse; hindrance. Yortih. 

BACKER. Further back, ff'ett. We have also 
/xirirr/y , late, apphed to crops; baektrtt, back- 
wards ; backerter, more backwards. Chaucer 
luuiuciKmiore, La Belle Dame sani Merer. 85. 

BACK-FRIEND. (1) A secret enemy. ' See 
Comedy of Errors, iv. 2; Hall, Henry VII., 
f. 1 ; Florio, in v. Jnimieo, Nemico. 

(2) A hangnail. North. 

BACKING. Nailing the back on a chair suitable 
to the scat. Holme. 

BACK-O'-BEYUND. Of an unknown ditt«nce. 

BACK-OUT. A back-yard. Krnt. 

BACK-PIECE. Tliis term explains itself. It is 
the piece of armour tliat covers the back. 
See Hall, Hen. IV., f. 12. 

BACKRAG. A kind of nine, maile at Bacharacfa 
in Germany, occuionally mentioned by our 
old dnunatixta. Nam. Sec also Uudibras, 
III. ui. 300. 

BACKS. The principal rafters of a roof. A 
term in carpentry. 

BACKSET. To make a backtel, to make a stand 
to receive a chased deer, and to cast fresh 
hounds upon liim at the latter end of the 
courM. Holme. 

BACKSEVORE. The hind part before. Devon. 

BACKSIDE. The barton, or any premises at the 
luck of a house. Var. dial. 

No Innkeeper, alehouM; kerp«r, victualler, or tip- 
pler, ihati mclmit or tuflVr any person or penon» In 
his tiouie or baekfU* to eat, drink, or play at cAttiii. 
Crindari Renalnt, p. UU. 

BACKSTAFF. An instrument formerly used for 
taking the sun's altitude at sea; being so 
called beciuse the back of the observer h 
turned towar<ls the sun when he makes the 
obiervation. It was said to luive been Invented 
by captain John Davis a1>out the year 1590, 
•nd it is described by liim in his " Seaman's 
BACKSTAND. Resistance. 

L)tle avayleth outward warre, except there tie • 
■utc lUye and a tledfait baikrtanttt at home, as 
wel for the uvegatde and sccurhe, as for the good 
^fOvrmaunce of such as ht left tietilnde. 

Hill, Hm<y VII. f. 3. 

BACKSTER. A baker. North. 

UACKSTERS. Wide flat pieces of board, Trhich 
are strapped on the feet, and used to walk over 
loose beach on the sea coast. South. 

B.\CK-ST()CK. A log of wood. lloUybmul. 

DACKSTONE. A |>eruliar kind of stone to bake 
bread, but more particularly oat-cakes upon. 
The larger, or double ones, as they arc usually 
called, are about 28 to 30 inches by 16 to 20, 
and the smaller ones vary in size, 16 or 18 
inches square. Mcriton gives the Yorkshire 
proverb, " As nimble as a cat on a haite bsck- 
stane." — Yorksliirc Ale, ed. 169", p. 84. 

BACKSTRIKING. A mode of ploughing, in 
which the earth having been pre\iously turned, 
is turned back again. Suffolk. 

BACKSUNDED. Shady. Dortet. 

BACK-SWANKED. Lean in the flank, a t«nn 
applied to a horse. Miege. 

BACKSWORD. Thegameofsingle-sHck. WiU: 
A backsword, properly speaking, is a iword 
with one sharp edge. 

BACKWARD. (I) The sUte of things past. Shak. 

(2) A jake«. lor. dial. 

BACKWATER. Water not wanted for turning 
the wheel of a water corn-mill, what is super- 
abundant, and generally flows down a channel 
cut for the purpose. Also, a current of water 
from the inland, which clears off the deposit 
of sand and silt left by the action of the sea. 

BACKWORD. An ansvrer to put off on engage- 
ment. North. 

BACK-WORM. A disease in hawks, the wonn 
itself generally being in the thin skin almut 
the rcius. It is the same as the filander. See 
Blome's Gent. Rec. ii. 51. 

BACKWORT. A herb mentioned by Florio, in v. 
Coiuotida magginre. It appears from GerOd 
to be the same as the comfrty. 

BACON. A clown. Shak. 

BACTILE. A candlestick. {lAt.) 

BACUN. Baked. 

BACVN. A light kind of helmet, mentioned in 
Richard Cucr de Lion, 2557 ; baayn, Kyng 
AlisHunder, 2.133. This is another form oi 
the word lia»3inet, q. V. 

BAD. (Ij Sick; ill. Var. dial. Sometinicawe 
hear rtght bad, or right on bad. 

(2) A rural game, played n-ith a bad-ttick, for- 
merly common in Yorkshire. It probably re- 
sembled the game of cat. See Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

(3) Poor. far. dial. 

(4) Entreated; asked; prayed. 

To Jhetu Crtst he bad a boone, 
Fayre knelyng on hys knee. 

JUS. Can'u''. ft. 11. 38. l. M 

(5) Offered; invited. Sec Sir Eglamour, 929, 
1080, Thornton Romances, pp. 159, 166. 

(6) To take the husks off walnuts. Wes/. 
(?) Bold. for. Mgtt. 

(8) A bad person or thing. See iorfA in Wainer'a 

Albions England, cd. 1592, p. 58. 
BADAYLE. Battle. 

Of twerde of plate and eek of mayle. 
As thoujc he scbulde to bmiiaj/le. 

Omnr, MB. 9m. Jbill^. 134, f. IM. 




BADDE. Ellis sag^gcsls i-illier the n»uiO mean- 
iug, or the perfect tense of the verb abide. In 
Reliq. Aniiq., ii. 101, it means delay. 
A lUf In lili honil he Naildr, 
And «cl)oD on hti frt ttaddf. 

Jrthavr and Merttnt p. 73. 

BADDELICHE. B»dly. Hob. Gloat. 
UADDCR. Comp. ofbad. Sorlh. See Chaucer, 

Cant. T., 10538, and Nares, in t. 
BADDING. Shelling walnuts. Weil. 
BADE. (1) Uelav. Cf. Sir Perceval, 41, 111. 

484,666, 1533,1760, 2128, 2129; and the 

example under AUuilhe. 

(2) Altodc; remained- See Minot'»Poems,p.20; 
Sir Tristrem, p. 148 ; Perceval, 569, 612, 892. 

(3) I'raycd. Hob. Glouc. Cf. Ellis's Met. Rom., 
iii. 72 ; Chancer, Cant. T., 7449. 

(4) Commanded. Chaucer. 

(5) A pledge ; a surety. (-^.-5.) This at Iciat 
seems to be the meaning of Ihe word in 
Perceval, 1029, 1305. 

(6) To bathe, flonr. 

(7) In Mr. Robson's Romances, p. 58, the word 
occurs in a peculiar sense ; " alle of felliis that 
he bade," skins of animals that he caiitnl to 
remain, i. c., killed. 

BAUELYNGE. Paddling, as of ducks. Skinner 
gives this word on the authority of Juliana 
Barnes. It means a flock or company of ducks. 

BADGER. (1) A pedlar; a coni-faclor. Some- 
times, a person who purchases eggs, butter, &c. 
at the farm-houses, to sell again at market. 

(2) To beat down in a bargain. IVir. dial 

BADGER-THE-BEAR. A rough game, some- 
times seen in the counlrj'- The boy who per- 
sonates the bear performs his part upon his 
hands and knees, and is prevented from getting 
away by a string. It is the part of anotlier 
lioy, his kec[>er, to defend lum from the at- 
tacks of Ihe others. 

BADGET. A badger. KomI. Badgct is also a 
common name for a cart-horse. 

BADLING. A worthless person. Norlli. 

BADLY. Siok; ill. fforlA. 

BADS. The husks of waliiuU. Wert. 

BAEL. Bale; sorrow. 

BAELYS. Rods. 

With brennyng boeV t^e* *^em dotift. 
And with hem drolTe to pcynli ilroiig. 

T<if«<>i/r, p. 16. 

BAESSTS. Sec Bau. 

BAFPERS. Barkers; yellcrs. 

Hounila for Uic hauk twth Bjum and grrte 
l„jf„, US. Ball. M». 

BAFFLE. (1) To treat with indignity ; to use 
contemptnously. Properly speaking, to kaffie 
or bttfvl a |>crson was to reverse a picture of 
biin in an ignominious manner ; but the term 
U used more generally. See Middletou's 
Works, ii. 449; UenJonion.v. 127; Dodsley's 
Old Plays, vi. 18. In the Muse's Looking- 
gtass, i. 4, it signifies to beat, in jvhich sense 
it also occurs in Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 13. 

(2) To cheat, or make a fool of; to manage 
capriciouslv or wantonly ; to twist irregularly 
together. Katt. Corn, knocked about by the 
wind, is said in Suffolk to l>e baffled. 

BAFFLING. Affront; insult. See MiddlrtoB^ 
Works, iv. 44 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, i. 142; 
Malnne's Shakespeare, xvi. 16. 

BAFFYN. To Iwirk. Prompt. Pan. 

BAFT. Abaft. Chaucer. 

BAFTYS. Afterwards? Cov. Myl. 

BAG. (1 ) The udder of a cow. lor. dial 

(2) To cut peas with an instrument resemblitig 
the common reaping-hook, but with a handle 
sufficiently long to admit both hands. Jfetl. 
la Oxfordshire Ihe term is appbcd to cutting 
wheat slublilc, which is generally done with 
an old scvtbe. 

Thej cannot move it with ■ •ythr, but thqr cult 

It with tuch ■ boolti* a» they doe hoFf peur with. 

Aubrey' • Willi, MS. floyal »>r., p. liX 

(3) WTien a servant is dismissed, he is said to 
have got the bag. In some parts, to give a 
person I he bag is to deceive him. A person's 
bay and baggage is everything he has got. 

(4) The stomach. Heuee eating is bagging, or 
filling the stomach, to put into a bag. Cf. 
Cotgrave, in v. Emplir ; Harrison's Descrip- 
tion of England, p. 233. An animal with 
young is said to be bagged. See Perceval, 717; 
Narcs, in v. Bag ; Florio, in v. Rimpregn/uoie ; 
Tusser's Husbandry, p. 104. Nares explains 
if, to breed, to become pregnant. 

(5) To move ; to shake ; to Jog. See the Ran 
Matbematica, p. 64. 

BAGAMENT. Worthless stuff; nonsense. Line. 

BAGATINE. An Italian coin, worth about the 
third part of a farthing, alluded to in Ben 
Junson, iii. 219. 

BAG.WEL. A tribute granted to lie citizens 
of Exeter by a charter from Edward I., em- 
iwwering them to levy a duty upon all warei 
brought to that city for the purpose of sale, 
the produce of wliich was to be employed in 
paving the streets, repairing the walls, and the 
general maintenance of the towu. Jacobs. 

BAGE. A badge. Prompt. Pare. 

BACiEARD. A badger. More. 

BAGELLK. Rings; jewels. So explained in 
Hcame's Glossary to Peter Langtoft, p. 282. 

BAG-FOX. A fox that has been unearthed, and 
kept a lime for sport. Blome. 

BAGGAUONE. A vagabond. Bed: 

BAGGAGED. Mad; bewitched. Eimoor. 

BAGGAGELY. Worthless. Tvtrr. 

BAGGE. (1) A badge. Prompt. Parv. 
He iHTii ofgolile • •cmriy Jightt, 
till bagfti arc sabyllr ylkine. 

US. Lincoln A. I. 17, t. 141. 

(2) To swell with arrogance. Chaucer. Tyrwhitt 

savs " rather, ]>erliaps, to sijuint." 
HAGGERMENT. Rubbish. Line. 
BAGGIE. The IwUy. Northumb. 
BAGGIN. Food. Cwnb. 
BAGGING. Tlie act of cntting up wheat stnbblc 

for the purpose of thatching or burning. Ojron. 

Also, becoming pregnant. Sec Florio, in v. 

Impregruiggine 1 and Hag. 
BAGtilNG-BlLL. A curved iron instTumeut 

used for various agricultural purposes. It it 

also called a bagging-hook. 



BAI 133 


BAGGINGLY. Squintingl]'. ThU word occurs 
iu I be Rnin. of the Rose, 292, cx|ilaiDed by 
some arrogantly. TjTwhitt't explanation, here 
•dopled, best suits the rontext, and the cor- 
mpondin;; passage in the original. 
BAGGING-TIME. Bailing time. AVM. At 
Bury, CO. Lane, about the year 1780, ■ re- 
freshment l)ctwcen dinner and supper was 
called bagijiug, wliilc at Cborley, dist^it only 
about twenty miles, the term was not in use. 
BACIICU Same as bageUe, q. v. 
In toun hcrtl 1 tellp. 
The ba^lirl anil tlir twlle 
Dni fllchd mad flod. 

(♦■riir*r'» FMIietil SoMfW, p. 307. 

BAOINET. A bayonettc. Var. ilial. 

BAGLE. .\n impudent woman ; an opprobrious 
term for a noamu of bad character. Salop, 
Perhapii this is merely a variation of iaggagr, 
though Mr. Ilartshorae derivei it from the 
French bfgvnde. 

BAG-OF-NAILS. Tlie name of t sign, uid to 
lie corrupted from the Bacclmnali. He squints 
like a b,ig of noils, i. e., his eyes ore directed 
■> many ways as the points of a liag of itails. 

BAG-PUDDING. A rustic dish, said, in an old 
nursery rhyme, to have formed the repast of 
King Arthur ; but mentioned, I believe, in no 
nuidem dictionary. It appears, from Taylor's 
Workes, i. 146, that Cloucotcrsliirc was for- 

rh aerly famous for them ; but Welsh hag-piid- 
Pdiiigs are ineotioned in Hawkins' Dug. Dram. 
'yi. 170. Howell, English Proverbs, p. 6, gives 
this, " Sweetheart and bngg-pudding." See 
also Hcywmd's Edward IV., p. 4 7 ; I'torio, iu 
V. Oftt, Polliglia. 
BAGWALETOUR. A carrier of baggage. 
Howe «hall the cunlrey ttieone tuBtryne two too 
greale traynra. as the klngc» majestic and theymu*! 
have; S|*rci.itly couKitlerlng the nombre of bagu-att- 
tourt that «lul) com wllh them out of Fraunce. 
AWM Faitrrt. i. £36. 
BACY. A badge. Bemm. 
BAHN. Going. lor*»A. 
BAHT. Both. 

Tlian krnt he many ay mctaenfter 
After San)-nB baht far and net. 

Guy </ nVru-irif, Midillcltilt M.i. 
BAICH. A Ungiiet of land. Hay. 
BAICS. Chidings ; reproofs. Tiumer. Tliis word 
and the prenous one are from Hunter's addi- 
tions to Boucher. 
BAIDB. Endured. Norlhumh. 
BAIGNE. To drench : to soak. 
BAIL. (O AlMracon ;a.iigna];ahonfire. North. 
Also bailt; flames, blazes. Cf. Piers Plough- 
man, p. 490. 
(2) The handle of a pail, bucket, or kettle ; the 

Imw of a scythe. Eail. 
BAILE. (I) Baiilc. See Rob. Glouc. p. 37, 

wheiv the Arundel MS. reatls kataille. 
(2) A wooden canopy, formed of bows. See the 
Kutloud Papers, p. 6 ; Ordioonces and Ilegnhi- 
tions, p. 127. 
BAILEY. A namegivento thecourts of acaallc 
formed by the spaces between the circuits of 

walls or defences which surrounded the keep. 
Ojf. Glou. Arch. 
Four toures ay hit haa and kernels ratr. 
Thre laittU* a] atxnite, that may nojt ap&lr. 

ua. KgrrlM M7. 
BAILIXMCK. Stewardship. DmI. Floriospelll 

it baily-veekf, in v. Catlaldia. 
DAILLIE. Custody ; government. (X-M) Se« 
Rom. of the Rose, 4302 ; Kyng Aluaunder, 
7532 : Langtoft, pp. 61, 127, 280. 
HAILS. Hoops to licar up the tilt of a boat. 

BAILY. A baililT; a steward; also, I ■berifPi 

A* Mfye. terneaunt, or rerc. 

That follit bys lordyi goodes to reseyve. 

MS. Hattlt II. 
And for to fomouu alt them to this fe*t. 
The boilf ot KostoD Ilietelo ii the IkiU 

MS. Haul. C. as. 
BAIN. Near; ready; easy. North. Ray ex- 
plains it, " willing, forward," and Wilbraham 
" near, convenient." In the cost of England 
it means, pliant, limber. " To be very bain 
about one," oflicioiiS, ready to help. As au 
archaism, it signi6es, obedient, ready, willing. 
See Chester Plays, i. 69 ; Robson's Romances, 
p. 46 ; Towncley Mysteries, pp. 28, 39. 
A mimtlie day of trcwae mo«te ye talie. 
And than to tMtayle tie ye boyne. 

MS. Hmti iau, r. lu. 

DAINE. (1) A bath. See Patternc of Painfull 

Adventures, pp. 188, 195; Ruthuid Papen, 

p. H, bayn. 

(2) To bathe. 

No mora I do my mlrihlt fayne. 
But tn gladoCMe 1 twym and tiaint. 

MS. Oinlal. Ff. I. «, f. 116. 

BAINER. Nearer. North. 
BAI SLY. Readily. 
UAIRE. nt ; couvenient. Durham. 
BAIRMAN. A poor insolvent debtor, left bore j 
and naked, who was obliged to swear in court 
that he was not worth above five shillings and 
five pence. Phillip: 
BAIRN. A child. North. The several com- 
pounds of this word are too obvious to require 
IIAIRNWORTS. The daisy. YorUh. 
BAISE. A bastard. In Sir C. Sharp's Chron. 
Mirab. p. 9, is the entry, " Isaliel, daughter to 
Philippe Wilkinson, bur. 30 May, 1633, iaite 
with another man's wife," from the register at 
BAISEMAINS. Compliments ; solutatiooi. 

BAISKE. Sour. (5«. Goth.) 
BAIST. To beat. Norlh. 

He paid good Robin back and Bide. 

And Scflaf htm up and down : 
And with hit pyke-*Ufr laid on loud. 

Till he fell In a twotm. JhiU,. Hoc4, I. 10*, 
BAISTE. Abashed. 
Dee« nofthte baistt of jono boyes, ne of tbalre bryghia 

We ullc tdenkc tbeire bofte for alle thelre tiolile 
proflre Aferte ArtSmt, MS. UhixIp, r. S3. 




BAIT. (1) A luncheon ; » meal Uken by a la- 
bourer inthc morning. Far. dial. In Torrent 
of Portugal, p. 66, it apparently means to re- 
fresh ; to stop to feed. 

(2) To lower a barpiin. Far. dial. 

(3) To flutter. A hawking term. 
(< ) Food ; pasture, North, 

BATTAN'D. ExplainedhyHeame.ingreathaite. 
See Peter Langtoft, \i. 307. 

BAITEL. To thrash. North. 

BAITH. Both. North. 

BAIT-POKE. A bag to carry prOTisions in. 

BAJ ARDOUR. A carter ; the bearer of any 
weight or burden. Kerwry. 

BAR. A bat. " The hlode of a bak" is an in- 
gredient in a medical receipt in MS. Lincoln 
A. L 17,f. 282. 

Thuic comt thftrc flyondc amanRex Ihonie i>akkr», 
gretten* thane wilde dowfc*, and thairc tethe ware 
lyke meac tethe. and thay dtdd meno mckille difcte 
anil hurte. i^ af AU^unittrt MS. Lincoln, f. 39. 

BAKED. Incruatcd. I'ar. dial. 

BAKED-MEAT. Means generally, meat pre- 
pared by baking ; but, in the common usage of 
our ancestors, it signified more usually a meat- 
pie. This signification has been a good deal 
oTcrlooked. Nam. 

BAK EN. Baked. 

BAKERl. EGGED. A person whose legs bend 
outwards is said to be baktrlegged. Grose has 
bakrr-kiKtd, " one whose knees knock toge- 
ther in walking, as if kneading dough." See 
Cotgrave. in v. liiltarl. 

BAKER'S-DOZBN. Thirteen. Sometimes, four- 
teen. Florio lias, " Srrqua, a dozen, namely 
of cgges, or, as we say, a baker't dozen, tliat 
is, thirtcene to the dozen." See also the same 
dictionary, in v. Aijjiiinta. 

BAKESTER. A female baker. Derbyth. In 
Pier's Ploughman, pp. U, 47, we have tckttere 
in the same sense. 

BAKH A LFE. Hinder part. See Restoration of 
Edward IV., p. 14. 

There t>lAannc many TanlteM grow* upon hyra. 
as hit were upon tut bikhat/i!. 

Ou'oii'i niivrj f run/til CkoMl0 Hater,, 

BAKIIOUSE. A bakehouse. North. Sec the 

Prompt. Pan', p. 21. 
BAKIN. The quantity of bread baked at one 
time. Yorkihire. Tliis term also 0(>cura in 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 21. 
BAKING-DRAUGHT. Part of thchindei quar- 
ter of an 01. See Holme's Academy of Ar- 
mory, iii. 87. 
BAKK. A check. Slermmn. 
BAKKER. .More backwards. 

With that anooe 1 went me bakker more, 
ll7»elfe and I methought we were i-now. 

r»<iucer, MS. Omlah. Ft. I. 6, t. !». 

BAKPANER. A kind of basket ; probably a 
pannier carried on the back. Carton. 

BAKST.VLE. Backwiuib. Prompt. Pare. 

BAXi. (1) A flame. See Stevenson's additions 
In Boticher, in v. Tliis may be the meaning 
of the word in Wright's Political Songs, p. 318. 

(a) A Tiine. fTnt. 

BALADE-ROYAL. A baladc anciently 
any short composition in verse, or even in mea- 
sured lines. A poem written in stanzaa of 
eight lines was formerly said to be compowd 
in baladf-roj/al A \ioexa by Lydgate, in MS. 
Ashmolc 59, f. 22, is called a balade-rei/al, and 
several other pieces in the same MS. are said 
to be written " balade-vy»e." Stanihtirst, 
Description of Ireland, p. 40, inentioni one 
Dormer who WTote in ballad-royaL 

BALANCE. (1) Balances. Shak. 

(2) Doubt J uncertainty. " To lay in balance," 
to wager. Chaucer. 

BALANCERS. Makers of balances. See the 
curious enumeration of the difi°ercnt tradei in 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, p. 10. 

BALASE. To balance. Baret. Of. Harrison'* 
Description of England, p. 235. 

BALASTRE. A cross-bow. Carton. 

BALATE. To bleat ; to bellow. 5o%». 

BALAYS. A kind of ruby. See Palsgrave, 
.tuhst. f. 19. Balayn, in Richard Coer de Lion, 
2982, is perhaps the plural of this word. See 
also Skelton's Works, ii. 347 j Court of Love, 
80; Cotgrave, in y.Balay; Ordinances and 
Regulations, p. 120. 

BALCHE. To belch, nnloet. 

BALCHING. An unfledged bird. Wat. 

DAl.COON. A balcony. HoveU. 

B.VLI). SwifV ; sudden. Veritefian, 

BALDACHIN. A canopy, usually supTiorted by 
columns, and raised over altars, tombs, 8cc. ; 
but more particularly used where the altan 
were insulated, as was ciutomary in early 
churches. Brittoit. 

BALDAR-HERBE. The amaranthns. //uloel. 

BALDCOOT. The water-hen. Drayton. Spelt 
tiallcd-cote in Walter de Bibblcswortb, MS. 
Aruntl 220, f. 301. 

BALDE. (1) Bold. Minot. 

(2) To encourage. (.•/.-&) 


This woman wenle forth ImUtlMu, 
Hardy hy woi y-Dou5. 

MS. CW/. Trln. Onn. .17. 

BALDELY. Boldlv. Jl/ino/. 

BALDEMOYNE. Gentian. See MS. Sloane .'», 
f. 5 J Prompt. Parv. p. 22. 

(.oke bow a ^ekf* man, for his hele, 
Taketh battkntvime wflh canelle. 

Gou-tr, M.I. Hoc. .dnlii/. 134. f. 49. 

BALDER. M) To use coarse Unguagt:. Eait. 

(2) Bolder. Rcliq. Antiq. ii. 20. 

BALDERDASH. Explained "hodge-podge" in 
the glossary to Tim Bobbin. Any mixture of 
rulibish is called balderdath. Se« D'laraeli'a 
Amenities of Literature, i. 234. In some dis- 
tricts the term is more restricted to alwolule 
filtti, whether applied to Unguage or in its 
literal sense. Ben Jonson calls bad liquor by 
this name, and it is occasionally found as a 
vcrU, to mix or adtdtcrate any liquor. 

BALDFACED. Whitcfaccd. >or*»A. 

BALD-KITE. A buzzard. In Cotgrave it ia 
the transUtion of biizarl and buie. 

BALDLY. Boldly. Uiwjt. 







BALOOCK. Some kind of tool, mcntioocd in 
tlic AUt section appeudcd to HoweU'ii Lexi- 
BALDORE. Bolder. Rob. Glouc. p. 509. 
BALDRIB. Not the same u the ({lure-rili, u 
generally stated, which ha* fat and lean, and is 
cut off the neck. The haldrib ia cut lower 
dovrn, and i> devoid of fat ; hence the name, 
according to MinUieu. 
BALDRICK. A belt, girdle, or usb, of various 
kiude; sometimes a aword-belt. There are 
several instances where it would seem to have 
been merely a collar or strap round the neck, 
though it was more gencridlr pasted round 
one side of tlie neck, and under the opposite 
arm. Sec llayward's Annals of Qu. Eli?.. 
p. 30; Fabian, p. 540; Prompt. Parr. p. 27 ; 
Hall, Ueurv VIII., ff. 3, G ; Malune's Sliake- 
tftatt, TiL 22 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 8 ; 
Croft's Excerpta Antiqua, p. 1 .1 ; C>'priau Aca- 
demy, 1647, u. 21 ; MS. Bib. Reg. 7 C. xvi. 
f. 68 ; Cuimingham's Revels Accounts, p. 1 2C ; 
Strutt, ii. 50 ; Patterne of Painfull Adventures, 
p. 206 ; Todd's Illustrations, p. 320. A kind 
of cake, made proljnlily in the shape of a bell, 
was called a baudrick. Sec some old printed 
receipts in 4to. C. 39, Art. Seld. in Bibl. Bodl. 
and Wyl Bucke's Testament, p. 34. 
BALUl'CTUM. A term applied by Nash to 
some of the affected expressions of Gabriel 
Uaney. It seems to have been nearly syno- 
nyisuius with batderdatk, and ia found in a 
aimilar sense in Stanihunt's Description of 
Ireland, p. 29. 
BALDWEIN. Gentian. Gerard. 
BALE. (1) Sorrow; etil; mischief. (A.-S.) 
Ryght Ihut I mene. 1 uuk oo Icngcrc uile. 
But jr do thus, grvttcre growyth oure ImU. 

MS HnwI. PtW. lie. 
ThrrwbilF, >lre, thai I loliic Ihli Ule, 
Thi »on« mighte thoUc drtha boU, 

amtm Mtfti, 708. 

i2) Basil wood. SUmifr. 
Si The scrotum ? Stecennon, 
4 ) Ten reams of paper. Kmnetl. 
5}^ A pair of dice is frequently railed a tale. 
This terra is found in Skelton, Ben Jonson, 
and later writers. 

(6) The belly. Maddm. 

(7) Destruction, fnmipl. Parr. 
BALEFUL. Evil; baneful. This word occurs 

in 2 Henry VI., iii. 2, and earlier in S;t 
Gawavne, p. 105. 
BALEIS. A large rod. (A.-N.) Abo the 
rerb taleiten, to beat with a rod, which is 
■till in use in some parts of Shiupshire. Pirrt 
BALENA. A whale. (Lat.) 

The huge Icviathjin Is but a khrlmpe 
Coapar*d wlih our baUna on the Und. 

BALKW. E>-iL (A.-S.) 

BALEYNE. Whalebone.' Skinner. It is pos- 
sible this may be the same with liatayn in 
Richard Coer de Lion, 2982. 

BALEZ. Bowels. Gme. 

BALHEW. Plain ; sraoolb. Prompt. Ptarv. 

BAI.IAGE. The office of a bailiff. See Horio, 
in V. Bagtivo, Baite. 

BALIST. An ancient engine, or kind of ord- 
nance, for prujcrtiiig stones. 

BALIST AR. A man using a cross-bow. 

BALK. (1) A ridge of greensward left by the 
plough in ploughing, or by design between 
different occupsncirs in a common field. The 
term is tranilated by ^errir porca in an old 
vocabularv- in MS. Bodl. 604, f. 39; but by 
grumut, a heap, in Wiihals" Dictionarie, ed. 
1608, p. 89. See also Reliq. Antiq. ii. 81 ; 
Cotgrave, in v. AttillomiemeHt, t'heinire; 
Towneley MysL p. 99 ; Cov. Myst. p. 343 ; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 123 ; Nomenclator, p, 
385; Florio, in v. Delirdre ; Holinsbed, Hist. 
Ireland, p. 174. From (bis last example it] 
appears that ilic explanation given by Wiihalt J 
is correct, and Baret has, " a balke or bankaf 
of earth raysetl or standing up lietweene twoa^ 
furrowes." To draw a balk is to draw t 
straight furrow across a field. 

(2) A particular licam used in the construction 
of a cottage, especially a thatched one. The 
sidewalls and gables being erected, a pair of 
couples or strong supports is placed between 
each pair of gables, and the balk is the strong 
beam, running horizontally, that unites these 
below. This balk is often used in the poorer 
cottages to hang varioos articles on, a custom 
alluded to in Chaucer, Cant. T., 362G; 
Hawkins' Engl. Dram. i. 171. A similar beam 
in a stable or outhouse is also called a balk, 
as in Topsell's Foure Footed Beasts, p. 395 ; 
Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033; and 
the term is occasionally applied generally to 
any licam or rafter. See also Prompt. Parr, 
pp. 21, 30, 196; Tusser, p. 204 ; Skelton, i. 
114; Book of Rates, 1675, p. 24. Huloet 
has, " balke ende nhych appeareth under the 
eaves of a house, procer." 

Bynde hit furu« with teflrK and bondr, 
And wyndc hit tithlhen with good »uude. 
Currur ItHndt, MS. Coll. THn. Camriilt.. t. 11. 

(3) To heap up in a ridge or hillock, in 1 Henry 
IV., i. 1. It seems to have the usual meaning 
of omit in Tarn. Slirew, i. I ; Sanderson's 
Sermons, 1689, p. 39. " Balk the way," get 
out of the wuy. Downfall of Robert, Earl of 
Huntingdon, p. 80. 

(4) A simple piece of machinery nse<l in the 
dairy districts of the coimty of Suffolk, into 
whicli the cow's head ia put while she is 

(5) Straight young trees after they are felled arc 
in Norfolk called balki. 

(6) " To be thrown ourt' balk," is, in the West 
Hiding of Yorkshire, to be published in the 
church. "To hing ourt' balk,'' is marriage 
deferred after publication. 

BALKE. (1) To leave a balk in ploughing. 
But so wel hallcDO man the plogh. 
That be nc SalArrr* olbirwUf . 

Ooum; MS. Sue. Axltf. U4. L 17. 



(«) To belch. {J..S.) 

r«rv«ftTynf by the ^cfe of their cominunl»U>int 

th* duke* pryd« Dowe and thoo to tntik* oiitc » Ijrtle 

bnyd* of eoTyc towudr the gloryc of ih« Kyiifc 

Ha'^ytg, Supp. t. IM. 
(3) To be ingry. Repnard Ike Foxt. 
HALKEtL A BTot beani. Eiul. 
UALKEKS. Persona who iitanil on high places 

\\e»x the >ea-oout, at tlic tiuic of herring 

ii»hiiiK, to make signh tu the fi&bemicn which 

way the thnala pa». Bloml. 
BALKING. A ridge of earth. Latimer. 
BALK-PLOUGHING. A particular mode of 

ploughing. In which ridges are left at inter- 

Tals. East. 
BALKS. The hay-loft. Cheth. Kciincit, MS. 

Ijiiuid. 1033, laj's the hen-roost was in called. 
BALK-STAFF. A quarter-staff. Sorlh. 

Iinlk~*tave» tnd cudg«U. |)ikes and tninchcoiu. 

Brown tirwd iLnfl chccsv, that swam by luitrhcoiu. 
CUIim't Pottlml JVorla, ITU, |>. 12. 

BALL. (1) Bald. Sommet. 

(2) The pupil of the eye. " Ball, or apple of 
the eye." lluloet, 1562. 

Son after, wen lie wat halle, 
Tlum t)cgan to ftlak hyr M//«. 

Guy •/ lt'»rtctck, MulriUhtll US. 

(3) The palm of the hand. Yorktii. Alto the 
round part at the bottom of a horac'i foot. 
See Florio, in v. OlUo. 

(4) A name given to rarioui animala. It i< 
mentioned u the ooiiic of a horse in Chaucer 
and Tusser, of a thrcp in the Proiuptoriuiu, 
and of a dog in the Privy Pur«e Expences of 
llciiry VIII., p. 43. It is the common name 
of a field in Devonahire. 

(5) The body of a tree. Lane. 
BALLACE. To Huff; to fill. Ballojit, filled. 

Comedy of Errors, iii. 2. Cf. Hall's Satires. 

IT. 6 ; Ford's Tracts, p. 9. Huloct baa iaUu- 

ten, traiulated by jta&tirro. 
BALLAD. To sing halladi. Skak. 
BALLADIN. A kind of dance, mentioned by 

Miusheu and Skinner. 
BALLANDES. Ballancet ? Ballandea are men- 
tioned in the Rates of the Custoiiie Uouae, 

1545, quoted in the Urit. Bibl. ii. 398. 
BALLANS. Ballances. 
BALLA.NT. A hallad. A'or/A. 
D.ALLARD. A castrated ram. Deeon. The 

word occurs in an obmire sense in Reliq. An- 

tiq. ii. .'ifi. 
BALLART. One of the names of the bare in 

thepurious )>ocm printed in Reliq. Autiq. i. 133. 
BALLAST. A nihy. See flo/uyt. 
BALLASTER. A amall pillar usually made 

circular, and swelUng towania the bnltoiu, 

commonly used in a balnstradc. Oxf. Glou. 

BALLATRON. A raseal ; a thief. Mhuheu. 
BALLE. (1) Tlie '■ bolle in the hode," a curious 

phrase for the hcail, occurring in Urry's 

Chaucer, p. 625; Kyng Alisaunder, 6481; 

Towueley Myst. p. 17; .Arthour and Merlin, 

p. 16. 


■ I balle as a curre doggc 

(2) Palsgrave has, 
dothe,_;> Aiir/e." 

BALLEU. (1) Bald. "Balled reson," a bald 
reson, a bare argument. Cf. Piers Ploughman, 
pp. 176, 436; Dial. Great. Moral, p. 109; 
Chancer, Cant. T., 198, 2520; Depoa. Rich. 
II. p. 29; ReUq. Antiq. ii. 179. 

(2) Whitcfaced. North. 

BAI.LEDNESSE. Baldness. See ReUq. Antiq. 
ii. r>6 ; Rob. Glouc p. 482. 

BALLERAG. To banter; to rally in ■ con- 
temptuoua way; to abuse; to scold. Var. 

BALLESSE. Ballast. Huloet. 

BALLIARDS. The game of billiards. Speoser 
has it, and it is also found in Florio, in v. 

BALLINOER. A small saihng vessel. The 
vrord occurs with various orthographies in Har- 
rison's Description of Britaine, p. 79; Hall, 
Henry V. f. 26 ; Egerton Papers, p. 12 ; Slate 
Papers, ii. 76; Hardyng's Chronicle, f. Ill ; 
Manners and Household Expenccs, pp. 22'/, 
470. Among the miscellaneous document* at 
the Rolls iloiue is one, 1. 187, containing an 
account of the charges for repairing and rig- 
ging of the " ballyngar itanied the Sunday," 
A. o. 1532. See also Ducange, in v. Balhi- 

And tokr londe nygh to a fni toannent that araa 
railed Coulclfne. and went to londe In a baJmmgm, 
he and Kxl. men with hym. MS. DlfblfiW, 

BALL-MONEY. Money demanded of a mar- 
riage company, and given to prevent their 
being maltreated. In the North it is custo- 
mary for a party to attend at the church 
gates, after a wedding, to enforce this claim. 
The gift has received this denomination, a* 
bifing originally designcil for the purchase of 
a fool-hall. Brockelt. Tlie custom is men- 
tioned bv Coles and Miege. 

BALLOCK-GRASS. The herb dogt'-stonct. 

BALLOCKS. Tetticull. (A.S.) There is k 
receipt " for swellingc of ballokW' in MS. 
Bib. Reg. 17 A. iii. f. 149. Cf. Reliq. Antiq. 
ii. 280. Receipts for a mesa called Imtitk 
hvtHe are given in Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 
68, Forme of Cury, p. 53. It apjiears from 
Palsgrave's Acolastus, 1540, that baUocke- 
*toiut was once a tenn of endearment. Some- 
times spelt ballosi, as in an early receipt in 
Bright MS. f. 14. 

BALLOK-KN YF. A knife hung from the girdle. 
Pirr> Ploughman. 

BALLOON. A large inflated haU of strong 
leather, fonuerly used in a game called boUotm, 
the ball being struck by the anii, which was 
deiended by a bracer of wood. Tlie antiqtuty 
of aerostation has been absurdly deduced from 
the mention of this game in Uu Bartas. It is 
siK'lt halloo in Ben Jonson,iii. 216. Cf. Ran- 
dolph's Poems, 1643, p. 105 ; Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. xvii. ; Middleton's Works, 
iv. 342; Strutt's Sports, p. 96; Florio, in y.Bal- 






», dido, Giocdre, Gonflaliio ; Cotg:r>ve, 
in T. BaloH, Briutal; Ordinaoeos and Regula- 
tions, p. 328. 
BAJ.LOW. (1) Bony; thin. Drayton. 

(2) To select or liespeak. It is used hy boys it 
play, when they nclect a goal or a cunipanion 
of their game. Sorlh. 

(3) A pole ; a (tick ; a cudgel. Norlh. It it 
found in King Lear, iv. 6, cd. 1C23, p. 304. 

BALL'S-Bl'LL. A person who has no ear for 
mucic i> somctiiueii compared to Ball's bull, 
who had so little that he liiclced the fiddler 
over the Ijridge. Eatt. 

BALL-STELL. A geometrical quadrant. Sec 
the Nomcnclator. p. 303. In MS. Addit. 5008, 
a story is told of a lx>y wbo had been for some 
time vcrj' attentively watching his father take 
the altitude uf a»lar\vith \ih balla-ttrUn,\\\>cn 
suddenly he obscncd the Mar shoot, and testi- 
fied bis delight by exclaiming, " Ye have hyt 
hir, fatlier ; she is fawin, she is fawln !" 

BALL-STONE. A measure of iron-stone which 
ties near the surface ; a kind of limestone found 
near Wenlock. Salop. 

BALL-THISTLE. A species of thistle, men- 
tioned by Gerard, p. 990. 

BALLU. 'Mischief; sorrow. (A..S.) 

BALLUP. The front or Hap of smallclotbet. 
Sorlhumb. The term is found in Kitson's 
Robin Hood, ii. 154, left imexploined by the 

BALLY. (1) A litter of pigs. Sorlh. 

(2) To grow distended. SaU^. 

(3) Comfortable. »«»/. 

BALLY S. Bellows. Salop. The form bal^t 
occurs in Tundale, p. 34. 

BALLYVE. A bailiff. 

BALMER. Apparently some kind of coloured 
cloth. " Barroncs ill //o^/ierand byie." Ches- 
ter Plavs, i. 1 72. Tbc Bodl. MS. reads bamier. 

BALNE.VL. Refreshing. lluvelL 

BALNY. A bath. This seems to be the mcan- 
iog of the word in Asbmolc's Theat. Chem. 
Brit. p. 143. 

BALO. A beam in buildings ; any piece of 
(qtured timber. Eaul. 

BALON. In jusis of |)cace, the swords were 
pointless and rendered liUint, being often of 
baton, as it was Icnncd, which seems to have 
been of whalebone, covered with leather, and 
silvered over. Mtn/riek. 

BALOTADE. An attcmjit made by a horse to 
kick. Did. Hutb. 

BALOURGLY. A kind of broth. The method 
of making it is described in Warner's Anticj. 
CuIiD. p. 49. 

BAI/)i;jT. About. (A..S.) 

BALOW. (1) A nursery term, forming part of 

the burthen of a lullaby. Norlh. 
(2) A spirit ; properly, an e\nl spirit. {A.-S.) 
With many aungrli and arkiungsU, 
Afi«l olticr balout, nis the bukc trlla. 

MX. niN. Call. Siun. KVUI.H. 
1 BALOW-BROTH. An ancient dish in cookery, 
dflMvibed in MS. Sluaue 1201, f. 45. It may 

be the same as ballock-broth previously men- 
liuned, in v. Batlockt. 

Kyiticr arm an clDc long, 
Batujmgv menffelh al by-roong. 
Aw lAum y» tiire biro. 

rVrighft t^rtc Pprtry, p. 39. 

B A LSAM-APPLE. A herb mentioned by Florio, 

ill V. C'ariin2a. 
BALSAM U^I. Balsam. Shai. Florio luu taJ. 

tamini, in v. Enpaliiria. 
BALSOMATE. Embalmed. 

tie mailc tiU ymagc of latoo tuU cicoe, 
In whkhe tw put hii boily bnttmmute. 

BALSTAFF. Same as balk-nlaff. q. v. Chaucer 
has this form of the word, which is also given 
by Ray. It means a large pole or staff. 

BALTER. To cohere together, n'arw. See 
Blooil-iollrrrd. The word occurs in the Mono 
Arthurc, MS. Lincoln. A. i. 17, f. 61, in the 
sense nf to caper, to dance about. 

BALTHAZAR. Oneof the kings of Coleyn.the 
three magi who came from the East to worship 
the new-bom Saviour. Mr. Wright has printed 
the early English legend of these kings in bis 
edition of the Chester Plays. Howell, p. 5, 
has the proverb, " Brave man at arms, but 
weak to Ballhasar." 

BALUSTER. A bannister. 

BALWE. (I) Mischief; sorrow. (,^.-5.) 

(2) Plain ; smooth. Prompt. Parv. 

BALY'. (1) Evil; sorrow. 

Bot thel ichryvc thrm of thcr f(lotnny. 

Id hrll arhall be llicr N>Iy. MS. yfilimole 61 , t. M. 

(2) A belly. Hali/d, bellied, occurs in tbc Hunt- 
tyng of the Hare, 187. 

(3) A bailiff. See Wright's Monastic Letters, 
p. 174 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 22. 

(4) Dominion ; government. (A.-N.) 
ir thou be |)Mri'l(l ntofll of price. 

Ami ridli here in thi (»/yr. MS. Cantab. Ft. r. 48. 

BALYSCHEPE. The office of a bailiff. Prompt. 

BALZAN. A hone with white feet. IlMcell 
DAL5E. Ample ; swelhng. Gaw. 
DAM. A false tale, or jeer. Yoriih. Also a 

verb, to make fim of a person. 
OAMULE. To walk unsteadily. Eatt. 
BAMBOOZLE. To threaten; to deceive; to 

make fun of a person. A VC17 piquant use is 

made of this word iu Ciblicr's comedy of " She 

Would and She Would Not." 
BAMllY. By and by. Devon. 
DAMCHICHES. A kind of chiches, mentioned 

by Florio, in v. Arielini. 
BAAIE. To anoint with balm. 

And bade me bame mc wells atioule, 
Whenoe hit wolde other water or woe. 

M.I. Citntab. Ff. I. 6. t. M. 

BAM.MBL. To beat ; to iximmcL Sato/i. 
BAN. (1) A curse. Shai. 

(2) To curse. 

And •ummc b<utH€ the, and lonie blcate. 

MS. Canlab. Vt. II. », f. I& 

(3) A kind of dumpling. Lane. 




(4) To shutout; to rtop. Somertrl. 

(5) Command, prccrpl, summotn, fdict, pro- 
damatiou, ordinance. So explained br Ilearne. 
See an instance of it in Rob. Glouc. p. 188. 

BANBURY. Hovfcll gives two proverbs con- 
cerning tills town — 1. Like Banbury tinkers, 
who in stopping one hole make two ; 2. As 
wise as the mayor of Banbuiy, who would 
prove that Henry III. was licfore Henry II. 
According to Grnie, a nonieusical tale is called 
a " Banbury story of a cock and bull ;" so 
ttata these evidences it would not appear that 
the Banhurians were remarkable for sagacity. 
Banbury, at the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century, was celebrated for its number 
of puritans, anil lien Jonson colls n puritan a 
Baniurjf man. It i» now priucipally known 
for its caift. Burdolf, in the Merry Wives 
of Windsor, compares Slender to Banbury 
cliecse, which seems to have licen remarkably 
thin, for the older Tom Heywood observes 
that he " never saw Uanbury cheese thick 
enough." There is a receipt for making this 
clieese in MS. Sloane 1201, f. 3. 

BANCKEROWTE. Bankrupt. Huloft. 

BANCO. A bank of money, .^n Italian word 
introduced in Marlowe's Jew of Malta, iv. 1. 

BAND. (1) A bond; a covcaaiit; an engage- 
ment. See Percy's Ileliques, p. 13 ; Slate 
Papers, i. 11. 

Here i-gyf I ;ow tie hmd 

An c pownd worth of land. Sir Dtgrevnnt, 009. 

(2) A hyphen. The word iu used in this sense 

in the French Alphabet, 1G15, p. 68. 
'3) A string of any kind. Norlh. 
Have thyf ropr yn thya haodr, 
And holde the fute by the tandr. 

MS. Oinlab. Kf. ll. M, f. 130. 

(4) Imprisonment. 

HU moder dame Alieoore, and the ttaroni of thU land. 

For him travailed ftore. nnd brouht him nut of b,inrf. 

Lan^iifi'a clirtmtvU, p. £01. 

(5) A space of ground, containing twenty yard* 
square. Norlh. 

(6) As an article of ornament for the neck, was 
the common wear of gentlemen. The elergy 
•nd lawjren, who now exclusively retain tlicui, 
fbniierly wore rufh. See the description of a 
gentleman in Thjiine'i Debate, p. 19; Nares 
and Miiuhru, in v. 

(7) The neck feathers of a coek. Holme. 
BANDE. Bonnd. Cf. Collier's Old BaUads, 

p. 15; Ywaine and Gawin, 1776. 
A mawngrr ther hr Tande* 
Corae therin lyf[j;ande, 
Therto hl» mere Ite handa 

WIUi the withy. Sir Pmxml, M3. 
BANDED-MAIL. A kind of armour, which 
consisted of alternate rows of leather or cotton, 
and single chain-mail. 
BANDEL. Florio tnnslilea bamMIe, " side 
comers in a house; alio any iatuMg." See 
also the same lexicographer, in v. BetuleUirf, 
BANDELET. Florio has " Cidrpa, any kind of 
searfe or tatulelrl." See olao Strutt's Dress 
and HabiU, ii. 124. 

BANDERS. Associators ; conspirators ; meal 
boiiinl to each other by the mutual tics of k 
parly. Bouchfr. 

UANIllSH. A bandage. North. 

BAND-KIT. A kind of great can with • cover. 

BAN DO. A prochimation. Shirley. 

BANDOG. According to Nares, a dog alwa; 
kept tied up on accouut of his Gerccneu, aodf| 
with a view to incrciuc that quality in him, 
wliich it certainly woulil do. Bewick describe! 
it as a species of niastif)', pro<liicixl by a mix 
ture with the bull-dog. See Withols' Dio-i 
lionaric, p. 77; Ford's Works, ii. 526; Robiaj 
Hood, ii. 64. 

BANDOLEERS. Little wooden cases coti 
with leather, each of them containing thi 
ch.irgc of powder for a mmkct, and fajtenoAl 
to a bruiid band of leather, which the |i 
who was to use them put round his neckr 
The hand itself is also frequently termed K 
bandoleer. See Middleton's Works, t. 517; 
t'nton Inventories, p. 3 ; Songs of the London 
PrentictJs, p. 68. 

BAN DON. Dominion; subjection; disposal. 
(.1.-N.) See Gij of Warwike, p. 136 ; Kobson'i 
Met. Rom., p. 1 1 ; Ritson's Songs, i. 56 ; Lang- 
tofl, p. 141 ; Rom. of the Rose, 1163; Kyng 
Alisanndcr, 3180, 5505, 7720; Le Bone Flo- 
rence of Rome, 695. 

Mcrci, queth, Ich me yelde j 

Rccrcaunt to ttie in thii felde, V 

So horde the imitest upon me krown, ^ 

Ich do roe alle In the baniUiuH. 

Beer* of Himtoun^ p. 42* 
As thou art knyghl of renowne* 
I do me all yn thy handowiui. 

MS. CanlaK Ft. II. », f. IIM. 

Cut he roe put out of hii tonrftMne, | 

Aud ycf to me no maner audience. | 

Lvlfatc, US. ^thm. .10, f. SO, 

BANDORE. A musical instrument, Ronirwhat 
siniikr to a guitar. According to Boucher, 
bass-viols are often called bandores inGloucei 
tcrshire; and Grose applies the term to * 
widow's mourning peak," where I suspect 
error for Fr. iandeau. The bandore is said 
have been invented by one John Rose, in the 
reign of EUutbeth ; but it is tuore piubiilde 
01:11 he merely introduced a variation of the 
Italian jiandura, an instrument very similar 
both in fonn and name. 

B.WUORF. A pcnon banner. Holme. 

BANDROLL. A Utile streamer, l>anner, orpei 
non. usually fixed near the point of a lani 
{Fr.) Sec Drayton's Poems, p. 1 1 ; Percy' 
Rellques. p. 271 ; Florio, in v. Baiidereila. 

BANDS. 'The hinges of a door, .\orth. 

BANDSTERS. Those who, in reaping, during 
harvest, bind the sheaves. North. 

BANDSTRINGS. TrausUted by Micge, glaaib 
de rabat. Cf. Strutt, ii. 99, 222. They were 
prohibited to be imported by 14 Car. II. See 
Book of Rates, p. 1 79. According to Jimie> 
son, they were strings going across the breast 
for tying in an onumental way. 











BANDSTROT. A charm. 

BANDY. (1) A game plajcd irilb iticlu caileil 
bondin, bent and round at one end, and a 
■mail wooden l>all, which radi party endca. 
TOUTS to drive to oppusllc fixed points. North- 
brooke, inl.)77,mentionsita»afavouritiegsme 
in Di'vonihire. It isMiuietiuies called bandy- 
ball, and an early drawing of tbe game is co- 
pied in Stnitt's Sports and Pastimes, p. 102. 

(2) A bare. Eatt. 

(3) To tou a ball, a term at tennis. Sec Dray- 
ton's Poems, p. 10: Maloue's Sliakeapcare, i. 
52 : Hawkins' Eug. Dram. iiL 171. 

i4) To join in a faction. Mhaheu. 
5) Flexible; withont substance. A term ap- 
plied to bad cloth in the SUt. 43 Eliz. c 10. 
BANDY-HEWIT. A Utile bandy-legged dog; 
a turnspit. Othcnvisc explained, " a name 
given to any ilog, when persons intend to use 
it in making sport of its master." Lani:. 
BANDY-HOSMOE. A game at boll, common 
in Norfolk, and played in a similar manner to 
bandy, q. T. 
BANDYLAN. A bad woman. North. 
BANDYN. Bound. {A..S.) 
BANDY-WICKET. The game of cricket, played 

with a bandy instead of a bat. Eait. 
BANB. (1) A bone. North. 

Agayne he wode that water onaoe, 
Nercband for-Domene on illic a bane. 

MS. Lincobi A. I. 17. f. 129. 

(2) To afflict with a bad disease. Wnl. This 
term is not applied exclusively to animals. 

(3) A murderer. (.Y..5.) 

(4) Kind ; courteous j friendly. North. This is 
Keoaett's cxpUnation of the word in MS. 
Luud. 1033. 

S5} Destruction. Chaucer. 
6) Near ; convenient. North. 

BANEBERRY. The herb Christopher. Skinner. 

BANED. Age-stricken. Park. 

BANBHOUND. To make Wieve; to intend; 
to purpose ; to suspect. Sommet. 

B AN E RE R. The bearer of a banner. Clifton. 

BANES. The banns of matrimony. Somertel. 
See Webster's Works, i. 47, and the authori- 
tieB there qiiotccL The proclamations of the 
old mysteries were called banes, as in the 
Chester Plays, i. 1. Ban is a French word, 
and signifies a proclaniatioo by sound of 

BANEWORT. The nightshade. SUmer. 

BANG. (1) Togo with rapidity. Cumb. 

(2) To strike ; to shut with \nolencc. Var. dial. 
Hence, to surpass, to beat. 

(3) A blow. Var.iliat. 

U) A stick; a club. North. 

(5) A hard clieese made of milk several times 
skimmed. Suffolk. 

(6) " In a bang," in a hurry. North. 
BANG-A-bONK. To lie Uzily on a tiauk. 

BANG-BEGGAR. A beadle. Derbgth. Also 
k term of reproach, a vagabond. 

BANGE. Light fine rain. Kaer. 
BANGER. (1) A large person. Far.ditt. 

(2) A hard blow. Saloji. 

(3) A great falsehood. Warv. 
BANGING. Great ; large. Var. dial. 
BANGLE. (1) To spend one's money foolishly. 

(2) A large rough stick. Anh. 
BANGLED. Com or young shoots arc said to 

be banglcd when beaten almut by the rain or 

wind. A boMgledhAt means one beut down or 

slouched. Eaxt. 
BANGLE-EARED. Having loose and hanging 

ears, mtrtMflaccida tt penduUe, as Upton de- 

fines it in his .MS. additions to Junius in the 

Bodleian Library. Miege translates it, "qui 

a les oreilJes pendantcs." 
BANGSTRAW. A nick-name for ■ thresher, 

but applied to all the servants of a farmer. 

BANG-UP. A substitute for yeast Stqffordth, 
BANIS. Destruction. ^iVmii. 
UANJY. Dull ; gloomy. JSuer. 
BANK. (1) To beat. Krmoor. 

(2) A term at the game of bowls, mentioned by 
Colgrave, in v. Bricoler ; and also at truck, at 
in llolnic's Academy, iii. 263. 

(3) To coiuit along a bank. This seems to be the 
sense of the word in King John, v. 2. See also 
Florio, in v. Corriudre. 

(4) A piece of unslit fir-wood, from four to ten 
inches square, and of any length. Bailey. 

BANKAFALET. An old'game at cards men- 
tioned in a Uttle work called " Games most in 
Use," 12mo. Land. 1701. The whole packis 
parcelled out into as many parts as there are 

UANKAGE. Is mentioned by Ilarnson among 
thcpradia of Otto, in his Description of Eng- 
land, p. 158. 

BANKER. (1) A cloth, carpet, or covering of 
tapestry (or a form, bench, or seat. In an in- 
ventory " oflf clothys" in MS. CanUb. Pf. j. 6, 
f. 58, mention is made of " iij. bankkers." 
Any kind of small coverlet was afterwards 
called a banker, as in Brit. Bibl. ii. 398 ; Book 
of Hates, p. 25. 

(2) An excavator, employed inter alia in making 
embankments. Line. 

BANKETT. A banquet. See Halle's Expostu- 
lation, p. 14 ; Arch. xxii. 232. 

BANK-HOOK. A large fish-hook, which derive* 
its name from being laid baited in brooks or 
ninning water, and attached by a line to the 
bank. Sahp. 

BANKKOUT. A bankrupt. Still in use in the 
North. Often spelt batikeroul, as in Wright's 
Passions of the Minde, 1621, p. 246, or ban- 
kerii.OHt, Du Bartas, p. 365. It is also a verb, 
to become bankrupt ; and Narcs gives an ex- 
ampli^ of it in the sense of bankruptcy. Sir 
James Harrington mentions a game at cajrds 
called bankerout. Sec Arch. viii. U9. 
BANKS. The scats on which the rowers of a 
boat sit ; also, the (ides of a vessel Marilon. 





BANKS'.nORSE. A learned liorsc, kept by a 
pcnon named Bauki in the time of Elizabeth, 
and constantly alluded to by writen of the 
time under his name of Morocco. One of hi» 
eiploiU U said to have been the ascent of St. 
).Paal'a steeple. Tlie author of the Life and 
Death of Mns. Mary Frith, 1662, p. 75, says, 
" I shall never forget my fellow hnmourist 
Banks the vintner in Cheapsidc, who taught 
his horse to dance and shooed him with silver." 
In MS. Ashm. 826, f. 1 79, is a curious satiri- 
cal piece entitled, " A hill of fare sent to 
Bankes the vintner in CheaiK'-side, in May 
1C37 ;" and on unnoticed anecdote res|)ecting 
bis horse occtirs in Jesti to make you Merie, 
1607, p. 12. 

BANKSIDE. Part of the borough of Southwark, 
famous in Shakespeare's time for its theatres, 
and as the residence of a certain class of 
ladies. See further particular;, in Nares, p. 2G. 

BANKSM.W. One who su|)eruileuds the busi- 
ness of the coal pit. Derbyih. 

BANK-l'P. To heap up. '• It is banking up," 
spoken of a cloud gathering before a shower. 

BANKY. A biniiy piece, 8 field with banks in 
it. Utreforilih. 

BANI-ES. Without bones. 

BANNE. To ban; to curse; to banish. (.f-jV.) 
See Piers Ploughman, pp. 18, 143, 167, 310. 
Bonner occurs apparently in a similar sense 
in the Exmnor Scolding, p. 11. 

BANNER. A Ijody of armed men, varying from 
twenty to eighty. See the State Papers, 
ii. 46.' 

BANNEKELL. A little streamer or flag. See 
Florio, in v. liondaruola ; Arch. xii. 350. 

BANNE RE RE. A standard-bearer. IVrber. 

BANNERET. A knight made in the field with 
the ceremony of cutting olT the point of his 
standard, and making' it a banner. 

Thane the bonerfttez of Urctayno brughto thalnr 
to trntn. M-rlr Jrthure, MS. Line. A. I. 17, f. 78 

BANNERING. An annual custom of perambu- 
lating the bounds of a |>arish, for the purpose 
of maintaining the local jurisdiction and 
privileges. Salop. 

BANNET-HAY. A rick-yord. iri7/». 

BANNEY. St. Barnabas. /. mght. 

BAKNICK. To beat ; to thrash. Siutrr. 

BANNIKIN. A small drinking cup. 

But fflncc It If retolvrd otherwise, 1 pray you bid 
the butlpr briiif* up htt bCHnUtint, and I'll make 
yoti all lords likt lujrfelf. 

jfefvuitt pf Gntctri Oimpanif, p. 23. 

BANNIN. Tliat which is used for shutting or 
stopping. Somertet. 

IIAN.SIS. A stickleback. WilU. 

BANNISTERS. A term which is supposed to 
mean travellers in distress. It occurs in the 
ancient accounts of the parish of Chmllejgli, 
CO. Devon. Sec Carlisle oo Chanties, p. 288. 

BANNOCK. A thick round cake of bread, not 
a loaf. At Worsley, co. Lane., it is thus 
made — oatmeal and water two ports, treacle 
one port, baked about one fourth of an inch 

thick in cakes of a few inches in diaroef« 
Ray explains it, " an oot-cake kneaded wit! 
water only, and baked in the embers." MM 
kind of hard ship biscuit sometimes goecj 
under this name. 
BANNUT. A walnut. WW. The growin 
tree is called a bannut tree, but the conven 
timber walnut. The term occurs as early as 
1697 in MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 2. 
8ANNY1). Banished. (//.-A'.) 1 

Me^lf and Falsrhpcd anTK'yi'd arr, I 

Trowthc banned y«, the biyndc ntay not le; 1 
Manyi* a mon they make fulle lure, 

A strange coinpleynt ther y» of every defrA. 
MS. Cantab, ft, I. A, t. 13 

BANQUET. (1) Generally meaas a rf««<.r/ 
the works of otir early writers. According ( 
Gifford the lianquet was usually placed in 
separate room, to wliicli the guests remove 
when they had dined. This was called the 
banc|uetting room. See Beaumont and 
Fletcher, iii. 437; Ford's Works, i. 231; 
Middleton's Works, iiL 252 ; Malone's Shake- 
speare, v. 510. 

(2) Part of the branch of a hone's biL See the 
Diet. Rust, in v. 

BANQUETER. A banker. Htiloet. 

BANRENT. A banneret ; a noble. Chip, 

BANKET. Same as banneret, q. V. Accordii 
to Slanihurst, Des. of Ireland, p. 39, "he i 
properlic called a tanrel, whose father was no 
carpet knight, but dubbed in the field unde 
the banner or ensigne." Cf. Sir Degrvvantf 

BANSCHYN. To lianish. Prompt. Parr. 

BANSEL. To beat ; to punish. SlaffordMh. 

BANSTICKI.E. The stickleback. //«/oe/. The 
term is still in use in Wiltshire, pronounced 

BANT. A string. Lane. 

BANTAMWORK. A very showy kind of painted 
or carved work. Aih, 

B/U<WORT. A violet. Diinelm. According^ 
to Cooper, beUit is "the whvie daysy, called (>i^| 
some tlie margaritc, in the North bamroort." ^ 
See Uibl. Eliolx, c<l. 1559, in v. Our lirst 
explanation is given on Kcimett's autlioritT, 
MS. Lonsd. 1033. (A..S. Ban»7rt.) ' M 

BANY. Bony ; having large bones. North. ^| 

UANYAN-DAY. A sea tenn for those days oo 
which no meat is allowed to the sailors, 

BANYER. A standard-bearer. (-^.-JV.) 

BANYNGE. A kind of bird. "A sparlynge 

or a banynge" is tnenlioncd in MS. Aruno.^ 

249, f. 90. See also the Archsologia. 
341. The S[iarling is described by Raodt 
Holme, p. 293 ; but it is also the name of I' 
smelt, which mav be here intendcil. 

BANZELL. A loiig lazy fellow. North. 

BAON. Tlie enclosed tjiace between the ex^ 
tenia! walls and the Iwdy of a fortress, 
the State Papers, ii. 441. 

BAP. A piece of baker's bread, vivying fron 
one penny to twopence in value, gencrully in 
the shape of an elongated rhombus, bnt some* 
limes circidar. North. 




BAPTBME. Baptism. 

BAPTISM. A ceremony performed in merchant 
veneU which pa»s the line for the first time, 
both upon the »hips ami men. The cu'^toin 
is fall; described in Bailey's Dictiouar}-, fol. 
ed. in V. 

BAPTYSTE. Baptism. Bitton. 

BAR. (I) A baron. Jioi. Ghuc. 

(2) To shut ; to close. Sorlh. 

(3) A joke. Sorlh. 

(4) A horseway up a hill. Derby h. 

(5) To lay claim or make choice of; a term used 
by boys at play when they select a particular 
situation nr place. 

i6) A feather in a hawk's wing. Bemert. 
7) Bare; naked. North. 
f 8) A boar. (J.-S.) 
(9) Bore. (A.-S.) AUo, to bear, as in Percy's 

Rehqncs, p. 4. 
(10.) Tlirouing or pitching the bar was a com- 
mon umuscuiciit with our ancestors, and is 
said to have been a iavourite pastime with 
Henry VIU. 

&can« from lh»«p road folke llail tie gone so farre 
As I urong man wtll riu'ly pitch a 'torrf. 

Dm^lon*! Pormt, p. 341. 

(11.) To bar a die was a phrase used amongst 
gamblers. See Mr. ColUcr'a notes to the 
Ghost of Richard III., p. 75. 

BARA-PICKLET. Bread made of fine flour, 
leavened, and made into small roiuid cakes. 
Diet. Rutt. Cf. Holme's Academy, iii. 86. 

BARATHRUM. An abyss. {Lai.) Our [loets 
frequently apply the word to au insaliute 
eater. See Shirley's Works,!. 390; Fairholt's 
Pageants, ii. 183. 

BARATOUR. a quarrelsome person. Cf. 
Prompt. Pair., p. 23 ; Florio, in v. ImburioK' 
tint ,■ Reliq. Aniiq. ii. 239 ; Hardyng's Chroni- 
cle, f. 213. 

One was Rwayna fytt Atoiire, 
Anotlicr waa Gawaync wittl honour. 
And Kay ilie txilde ban$9w. 

Sir rtrtnmU (63. 

BARATOWS. Contentious. Skelton. 

BARAYNE. Barren, appHed to hinds not 
gravid. Borayitui used substantively. Gatr. 
Cf. Morte D'Arthur, ii. 355. 

BARA3E. Bore away. 

The rynR sn^t the gluvcn of the «exteyn he nom 
Ami bcra\9 ; and thit lotdynuea al that iulhe tnldr. 
Jf3, cut. TriK. Omn. b^. 

BARB. (I) To shave. See Measure for Measure, 
iv. 2, ed. 1C85. Hence, to mow a field, as in 
Webster's Works, iv. 78. Ben Jonson, iv. 
19, has ^oriin; money, for cUpping it; and 
according to Bailey, to barb a lobster is i<j 
cut it up. 

(2) Florio has " Barboncelli, the barbet or little 
teates in the mouth of some horses." 

(3) A Barbary horse. See Blome's Gent. Rcc. 
U. I. 

BARBALOT. A puffin, ffolme. It is also ibf 

name of a fish, the barbel. 
BARBARYN. The barberry. Prompt. Part. 
BAROASON. The supposed name of a ttrnd, 


mentioned in Merr)- W. of Muidnor, B. 8; 
Henry V., ii. 1. 

BAKDE. A hood, or muffler, which covered 
the lower part of the face. According to 
Strutt, it was a piece of white plaited Uneo 
and belonged properly to mourning, being 
generally woru under the chin. The feathers 
under the beak of a hawk were called the 
barbe /ederi, so tluit there may possibly be 
some connexion between the terms ; and in 
the Dial. Creat. Moral, p. 223, mention ia 
made of an animal with " a barbydile chx/nne." 
In Syr (iawaync the word is a|>plicd to the 
edge of an axe, and the points of arrows are 
called barbes. 

BARBED. An epithet formerly applied to war. 
horses, when caparisoned with military trap- 
pings and armour. Perhaps the more correct 
form is bardnl, q. v. 

BARliED-CATTE. A warUke engine, described 
in the following passage: 

For to make m werrely liolde. that men calle a 
tMrb¥4 enttf, and a bewfray that that havi* ix. fadome 
of lengthe and two fadome of bicde. and the taid 
calte lU fadome of Icngthe and two of bre<tr, thai 
be ordeyned all aqiurre wodc for the lame aboute 
fouie hondred fadcim. a thouund of twrde, xxlllj. 
rollc*. and a grctc quantyt^ of amallc wodc. 

Oulori'* Vfffritu, Sig. 1, 6. 

BARBEL. A small piece of armour which pro- 
tects part of the bassinet. 

Hif barbel flril adouii he delh, 
WUhoutro colour his nrb he aeth. 

Oi> <|/ IfanoUf , p. ISO. 

BARBENY. Same as Silt; q. v. 

BARBER. To shave or trim the beard. Shai. 
The term barber-monger in King Lear, is ap- 
parently applied to a |>erson ilresscd out by a 
barber, a finical fop. The phrase barbrr't/br. 
feiti docs not seem to be satisfactorily ex- 
plained by the commentators, nor can we sup- 
jily more certain information. It it supposed 
to have some reference to their double trade of 
barber and physician. In MS. Sloanc 776, is 
a medical treatise, " compylyd by me Cliarlys 
Whjite, cittczen and barltoure-cirur<)i/OH of 
London ;" and it is commonly stated that the 
spiral lines still seen on the barber's pole re- 
present the fillets iHiund rouud the arm when 
a person is bled. 

BARBICAN. A kind of watch-tower. The 
term is also applied to an advanced work be- 
fore the gate of a castle or fortified town, or 
any outwork at a short distance from the main 
works; and it occurs in Kyng Alisaunder, 
1591, explained by Weber " a para|>et or 
strong high wall, with turrets to defend the 
gate and lirawbridge." 

BARBLE. The Bible. Sorlh. 

BARBLES. Small vesicular tingling pimples, 
such as are caused by thv stinging of nettles, 
or of some minute insects. Eatt. The term 
is also applied to knots ijj the month of a 
horse. See Topsell's History of Foure-fboted 
Beasts, p. 363. 

BARBONES. A receipt to make " tarte bar. 
bona" is given in Wyl Bucke's Teat. p. 33. 




BAHBORA>f?fE. The b«rbciTy. Cote. 
BARBOIIERY. A barber'n shop. Prompt 

BARBS. (1) Military trappings. Sptiuer. 
(2) The burbles. " BarbK uniliT calves tongues" 

■re tnentioncdin Markhum's Counlrejr Fanne, 

p. 63. 
BARCARY. A sheep-cote ; a shcep-tralk. 

BARCE. A stickleback. yor*»*. 
BARCKLETT. A species of liow. Gam. 
BARO. (1) A trapping for a horse, generally 
the breast-plate. 

(2) Tough. Hob. Uloue. 

(3) Barred ; fastened. Toumelef Mytt. 
BARDASH. An unnatural paramour. Florio 

has it as the translation of cnramiUi. 
BAR'D-CATER-TRA. The name for a kind of 
false dice, so conslnicled that the gvatrt and 
trail shall ven' seldom come up. 
Be hmth a ttocke whereon hli living itiyes. 
And tbcy are fullaml bdcI bar4qvartrr.tni]/a. 

Rowland^ Human OMinaHg, B. d. 

BARDE. Barred. See Friar Bacon's Prophecie, 
p. 13; Brit. Bibl.ii. 621. 

BARDED. Equipped with military trappings cr 
ornaments, applied to horses. See Hall. 
Henry YIII. f. 43. Bard\% used as a riibstan- 
tive by the same writer, Hciir}- IV. t, 12, and 
it often has reference to horses' armour. 

BARDELLO. The quilted saddle wherewith 
colls are backed, flowell. 

BARDOLF. An ancient dish in cookery. The 
manner of making it is described in Warner's 
Antiq. Culiu, p. 84. 

BARDOUS. Simple; foolish. (Lai.) 

BARDS. Strips of bacon used in larding, Jiih. 

BARE. (1) Mere. In this sense it occurs in 
Coriolanns. In Syr Gawayne, mere, uncoiufi- 
tional, and is also applied to the blasts of a 
horn, apparently meaning t/iort, or irithont 
reehale. It is also used adverbially. 

(2) To shave. SAa*. 

(3) Ban-headed. Jmuon. 

(4) A mixture of molten iron and sand, which 
lies at the Iwttom of a funiace. Salop. 

Ch) A piece of wood which a labourer is some- 
times allowed to carry home. Suff'uUr. 

(6) A boar. (.f.-5.) Sec Sir Degrevant, 4.'?. 

(7) A bier. It is the translation of Ubilitut in a 
rocahulary in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45, written 
in Lancashire in the fifteenth century. 

(8) Apparently a piece of cloth. " Two bare» 
of rayncs," Ordinances and Regulations, p. 125. 

(9) A place without grati, made smooth for 
bowling. Keney. 

BAREAIIOND. To assist. North. 

BARE-UARLE Y. A Staffordsliire term thus rtc- 
•eribed in MS. Lansd. 1033, " naked l)arle>-, 
whose ear is shaped like barley, but its grain 
like wheat without any hn»k, which therefore 
iomc call wheat-barley, and others French- 
barley, because not much differing from that 
bought in the shops undt^r such name." 

BARE-BUBS. A term used by boys to denote 
the mifledged young of birds. Ume. 


BAREHEVEDYS. Boars' heads. 

Ttki-re come Id «i the fynte course, befor the kyof 

BarmHrfftdna that ware bryghte burnytte witllfylver. 
tfor<e Arlhure, its. Uiimlu A. L 17, t. ii. 
BAREIIIDES. A kind of covering for carts. 
Sec Arch. xivi. 401 ; Florio, in T. S^asza- 
corrria ; Ordinances and Regulations, p. 394 ; 
I'riv? Purse Expences of Elizabeth of York, 
pp. 15, 16,37. 
BARELLE. A bundle. 

Thcnlendoun of vuche a purpote would nthtr 

have bail their harnetct on their baekcs, tht-n lo have 

bound them up in htirrtlet, yet muchr part nf the 

common people were Ihurewlth ryght wcl salliryed. 

Hall, iUiriirtf r. t. 7. 

BARELY. Uncontlitionally ; certainly. 
BAREN. (1) Thev Iwre, pL C/uncer. 
(2) To bark. Colet. 

BARENllOND. To intimate. Somrml. 
BARE-PU.\IP. A Ultle piece of hollow wood ( 
metal to pump beer or water out of a cask.^ 

BARES. Those parts of an image which repre- 
sent the bare flesh. ^H 
BARET. (1) Strife; contest- Cf. ManndevileJB 
Travels, p. 272; Cocavgnc, 27 ; Reliq. Aatia^ 
u. 91. 

That 6arer rede I Dot je brew«. 
That ;c for ever aftir rewe. 
Curtor 3lundl, MS. Coff. Trin. Onlat. t. SH 
(2) Grief ; sorrow. Cf.GcstaRomanomm, p. 183; 
Tundulc's Visions, p. 55. 
Mykllle t^rtlKi and bale to Breun Khalle brtof. 

Il«&*en'« RirmmnetM, p. tl. 

BAREYNTE. Barrenness. Prompt. Parr. 

BARF. A hilL Yortih. 

BAHFIIAME. A horse's neck-collar. DttrAam 

BARPRAY. A tower. Gaw. 

BARFUL. Full of impediments. Shai. 

B.VRGAIN. An indelinite number or quan(i(j 

of anything, not necessarily convejiiig the id 

of purchase or sole. A load of a waggon is 1 

called. Eatt. In Lincolnshire we have til 

phrase, " It's a bargains," it's no coo 

BAKGAINE. Contention; strife. Chamerr. 
BARGANDER. A brant-goose. Baret. 
li.\KGANY. A bargain. Prompt. Parr. 
BAKG ARET. A kind of song or ballad, perh 

accompanied with a dance. Chaucer. 

word barginet seems used in a similar lenae j 

Brit. Bibl. iU. 29. 
BARGE. A fat heavy person ; a t<Tm of 1 

tempt. Ermoor. Kennett, MS. LansiL 103 

has harge, " a highway up a steep hill.' 

may be another form of barf, q. v. 
BARGE-BOARD. The front or faring of , 

barge-course, to conceal the barge couple 

laths, tiles, &c. 
BARGE-COUPLE. One beam framed into u- 

othcr to strengthen the building. 
BARGE-COURSE. Apart of the tiling or tbatcH- 

ing nf a roof, projecting over the gable. 
BARGE-DAY'. Ascension-day. NeweutU, 
BARGET. A barge. This term is used terenl 

tiroes by Malory, Morte d' Arthur, ii. 351-X. 




BAKGH. (1) Alioraeway upihai. fforth. 
(2) A barrow hog. Orltu. 
BARGOOD. Yciut. Var. dUU. 
BARGUEST. A frighlful goblin, trmcd with 
tctth aiid claws, a «ii|iposiiioo8 object of ter- 
ror in the North of Knglaiid. Aci-orcling to 
Rilson, Fairy 'I'alcf., p. a», the barguest, he- 
sides its many other pranks, woubl soiuctinics 
in the dead of niglit, in passing through the 
different atrccU, act up the most horrid and 
continuoat shrieks, in order to score the poor 
giris who might happen to lie out of lied. It 
was generally believed that the faculty of see- 
ing this goblin was peculiar to certain indivi- 
duals, hut that the gift could be iniparted to 
another at the time of the ghost's appearance, 
bv the mere action of touching. 
BARIAN. A rampart. {J.-N.) 
BARIDE. Made bare. 

H;> haiibctk brik vllh dcsto baridt, 
Th»t men niohl •« t)y> naked hide. 

Gay 0/ W<inoUJt, MUtUhUt US. 

BAR-IRE. A crow-bar. Deron. 

BARK. (1) The tartar deposited by bottled wine 

or other liquor encrusting the twttlc. Eatl. 
(2^ AcyUnilrical rccepUcle for candles i a camlle- 

boT. North. At first it was only a piece of 

bart nailed up against the wall. 

(3) " Between the bark and the wood," a wetl- 
adjnsted bargain, where neither party has the 
•dvantage. Suffuli. 

(4) A congh. Var. dial 

(5) To tiark o person's shins, is to knock the 
•kin offthc legs by kicking or bruising thcni. 

BARKARY. A tan-liouse. Jacofm. 
BARKEU. Encrusted with dirt. iVurM. Somc- 

lirnct prouoimccd harkened. 
BARKEN. The j-ard of a house ; a farm-yard. 

BARKER. (1) A Unner. Ritto*. 

(2) A faolUflnder. Hollybmd. 

(3) A whetstone j a rubber. Dmmth. 

Xi) Ray, in the preface to his Collection of Eng- 
lish Words, mentions the barkrr, " a manh 
bird with a long bill, to which there w»a no 
Latine name added." 

(5) " Barkcrsof redd worsted" are mentioned in 

the Urdinanccs and Regulations, p. 127. 
BARKFAT. A tanner's vat. Cliauetr. 
BARK-GALLING U when treea are galled by 

being bound to stakea. Bailey. 
BARKIIAM. A horse's collar. North. 
BARKLEU. Baked or encrusted with dirt, more 

particubrly applied to the human skin. North. 

Groae has iariil, dirt hardened on hair. 
BAHKMAN. A boatman. Kertey. 
HARKKRI e. Same as tm-tale, q. v. 
BAHKWATER. Foul water in which hidcahavc 

l>een tannid. Prompt. Parr. 
BARK-WAX. Bark occasionally found in the 

body of a tree, arising from some accident 

when young. Eatt. 
BAKLA Y. Apparently ■ corruption of the French 

par M. See g;bs*. to Syt Gawayoe, in t. 

BARLEEO. An ancient dish in cookery, com- 
posed of almonds and rice. See Warner's An- 
tiq. Culio. p. 83. 

BARLEP. A basket for keeping barley in. 
Prompt. Pan. 

BARLET. So the first folio reads in Macliclh, 
i. 6, where modem editors have substituted 
martlet. Sec the edit. 1023, p. 134. 

BARLEY. To bespeak ; to claim. It ii an ex- 
clamation frequently used by children in their 
games when they wish to obtain a short ex- 
emption from the laws of the amusement in 
which thcv arc occupied. North. 

BARLEY-HiG. A particular kind of barley, 
mostly cultivated in the fenny districts of Nor- 
folk and the Isle of Ely. 

1 have never known any msU miite of rye, perhaps 
bwauM yielding very little bran. It U found inorvfltt 
fiirbrcad-com, nor of that i^ln which we rail barley. 
Mir, yet I heat that uf late II li ofte mailed to other 
plaee*. ^ubrey'a HiHi, MS. Sx. Reg. f. 304, 

BARLEY-BIRD. Tltc nightingale, which cornea 
in the season of sowing barley. Bant. The 
green-finch is sometimes so called, and the 
name is still more frequently applied to the 
BARLEY-BOTTLES. Little buniUes of bailey 
in the straw, given to farm-horses. This waate- 
ful methoti of giving fee<U of com waa for- 
merly in vogue in Norfolk, btit is now diaoaed. 
BARLEY-HREAK. .Kn ancient rural game, thus 
described by tiilTonl. It waa played by six 
people, llirc'j of each sen, who were coupled by 
lot. A piece of ground was then chosen, and 
divided into three compartments, of which the 
middle uoe was called hrlL It was the object 
of the couple condemned to this division to 
catch the othen, who advanced from the two 
c\tremitiei ; in which caae a change of sitiia- 
lion took place, and hell was tilled by the 
couple who were excluded by pre-occupalion 
from the other pUccs ; in this " catching," 
however, there was some difficulty, as, by the 
regulations of the game, the middle couple 
were not to separate before they had succeeded, 
while the othen might break hands whenever 
they found themselves hanl pressed. When 
all had been taken in turn, the last couple were 
■aid to be in hell, and the game ended. There 
is a description of the game in a little tract, 
called " Barley-breakc, or a Warning for Wan- 
tons," 4to. Loud. 1607. Some extracta from 
it will be found in the Brit. Itibl. i. 66. See 
also Florio, in v. Pume ; Brand's Pop, Antiq. 
ii. 236. 
B.\RLEY-BREK. Ale. North. 
BARLEY-BIN. A " barley bunne gentleman" 
ia, according to Minshcu, " a gtmt. (although 
rich) yet lives with barley bread, and ottaar- 
wise barely and hardly." 
BARLEY-CORN. Ale or beer. far. dial. 
BAKLEY-KAILES. Theipeanof barier- Aa/A. 
BAKLEY-Ml NG. Barley meal, mixad with 
water or milk, to fatten fowls or pigs. Eatt. 
BARLE Y-PLL'M. A kind of dark purple plum. 




BARLBY-SEED-BIRD. The yeUow w«ter-w«g- 
tail. Yorith. 

DARLEY-SELE. The season of sowing l)arlc.v. 
Eatl. The term is found in the Prompt. Parv. 
p. 25. 


Thry were coiutrcyncd to reaceive toWie^tf far here 
jnn rrwardp. JUS. ilnuce S9I, (. IS. 

IJARLICHOOD. The state of being ill-lcm- 
pcrcd after the use of intoxicating liquors. 
North. Skellonhas barlyhuoA, i. 107, though 
not, I think, in the some sense. See barly- 
kale in Nuga; Poet. p. 9. 

BAJILING. A lamprey. North. 

BARLINOS. firejioles. In Bloniefield's Nor- 
folk, iii. 769, mention is made of " sixteen 
acres and a rood nf hcalh, with the tartingn, 
valued at 19«. Id." Boucher erroneously con- 
siders it to be a dialectical pronunciation of 
tare or barren landt. The term again occurs 
in the Book of Ilalcs, p. 25. 

BARM. (1) The lap or bosom. {J..S.) 
To hot he profr«th his »crvlre, 
Aod Uyth hil heed upon hlr barme. 

Oowtr, eJ. 1S33, r. I». 

(2) Yeast. Wett. The term is found in Shake- 
ipeare, Lilly, Beaumont aod Fletcher, and 
other early writers. 

BARM ASTER. A chief officer among the miners, 
who measures the oar obtained, receives the 
lot and cope, lays out and measures mccn of 
ground to the miners, and aopoints barmote 
courts. Derbyth. 

BARME-CLOTH. An apron. Chauetr. The 
term barm-feliy occurs in a curious poem in 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 240, meaning the leathern 
aprons worn by blacksmiths ; and barmJtatrei, 
garments for the bosom, in the same work, 
ii. 176. 

BARMOTE. A bergmote. Deriyih. 

BARMSKIN. A leather apron, generally one 
made of the skin of sheep. North. In Lin- 
colnshire holds the elegant simile, " as dirty 
and greasy as a barmskin." The word occurs 
in the Prompt. Panr. p. 25. 

BARN. (I) A child. (/f.-S.) The word is com- 
mon both as an archaism and provincialism. 
Harrison, in his Description of England, p. 1 57, 
says " the common sort doo call their male 
children barwn here in England, espcciailie in 
the North countrie, where that word it yet ac- 
customabUe in use ; and it is also grownc into 
a proTerlM in the South, when anic man sus- 
teineth a great hioderance, to aaie, I am beg- 
gered and all my bamft." 
^2) A imin. 

(3) To lay up in a bam. Eatf. Shakespeare 
otei the word in this sense in (be Rape of Lu- 
crece, xx. 155. 

(4) A gamer. IfieUiffe. 
ii) Going. YorAth. 

IrNABAS. a kind of thistle, mentioned by 

Florio. in t. Calcolrippa. 
SARNABEE. The lady-bird. Suffolk. 
BARNABY-BRIGHT. The proxnneial name for 

St. Barnabas' day, June lltb, which liai been 


ned ^1 



celebrated in proverbs and niuxery-i 
under this name. 

B.ARNACLES. It was formerly thought that 
this species of shell-fish, which is found on 
timber exposed to the action of the sea, be* 
came, when broken off, a kind of geeae. Tbeae 
geese are called barnacles by many of our tiA 
writera. The term is also often appUed to tpeo- 

BARNAGE. The baronage. {Fr.) See Chroo. 
Viloilun. p. .11 ; Gij nf Wanvicke, p. 205 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1258. 

The king com with hif homogt. 
And rouues twvnt in grete rage. 

Artlntur nnd ilertin^ p. 

BARNDE. Burnt. Rob. Glouc. 
BARN-DOOR-SAVAGE. A clodhopper. 
BARNE. (I) A kind of flower, meotioned 

llullyband's Diclionarie, 1593. 
(2) A baron. See Const. Freemas. p. 14 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 139; Sir Degrevont, 1844; Tboni. 
ton Rom. p. 260. 
HARNEI). Closed ; shut iiji. Oron. 
BAR.NEHED. Childhood. 

Al«u Riene rhaungri thurghe dyverae ages; far 
bamthtd rrjoyae It In aympilneuc, 50uthehede to pre* 
tuniptuoanei, and grcte eMe In lUtnlnet. 

MS. Uitmhi A. L 17, f.36. 
Ttiar a-il je find tumkyn drdlt. 
That Jheiut did In hj-a bam-Anlu. ^H 

MS. 04t. rofni. A. ill. eM 

BARNEKIN. The outermost ward of a castl^ 
within which the b.-u-iis, stables, cow-houses, 
Aic. were placed. Hall spells it bamJryn, Henry 
VIII. f. 101 ; and the nnusual form bimekynch 
occurs in Sir Dcgrevant, 375. 

B.\RNE-LAYKAYNES. Children's plarthings. 

In that also that thou acDI ui a h^nde-tNUle sad 

oUicr bam«-itt]fkapnet, thou jtrophicyrtl rijte, and til- 

takend bifore Ihyugei that we trowe t)iurghe Goddcs 

helpeMlleralleUDtille ua. ttS. Unmin A. I. 17, f.B, 

BARNGUN. An cniplion on the skin. Devon. 
BARNISH. (I) Childish. Norlk. 
(2) To increase in strength or vigour ; to fatte 
look mddy and sleek. The word is in 
stant use in the Southern and Western con 
ties, and is also an archaism. " Barnish yon," 
an imprecation found in the Devonshire dialect. 
BARN-MOUSE. Abat. " Bit by a bara-mouse," 

a common phrase for being tipsv. 
BARN-SCOOP. A wooden shovel tucd 

hams. Var. dial. 
BARN-TEME. (I) A brood of children. 
Towncley Myst. pp. 46, 212; Chester Play*. 
ii. 53. 

He and hit eldest brother Seem, 
BIcsMdest of that Imrnrteitn. 

Curmr Htumll. US. CiJ. T.ln. Canlah. f. I 
The flnle ther of thU route ttamr tytnt higll 
Enrye, the tuther highte frlde, the thlrde hlgh^ 
Gnichynge. ttS. Uncaln A. 1. 17, f. 17a. 

(2) A child. 

Hit dam* nowe maye dreame 
For her owlne bams.leame. Chtgter Fi^f9, It W. 
BARNWORT. See Bmaort. _ 

BARNYARD. A straw-yard. Ea»t, 
BARN-YOU. An imprecation. Dnon. 
BARNYSKYN. A leather apron. Pr. Pan. 












BARON. (1) SoDietimea used fur bam, a child, 
u in Cov. Myst. p. 182 ; Chester Play), i. 192. 

(2) The back part of a cow. I'ar. dial. 

BAKONADY. Tlie dignity of a baron. 

BAKt)NAU£. An assembly of barous. Theaame 
with bamage, q. T. 

BARONER. Aharon. 

BAROWE. An ancient Tcliicle, whence perhapn 
the modern term barrow is derived. It is 
translated by cmoveclorium in the Prompt, 
Parv. p. 25. 

BARK. (.1) To choose ; to debar. Sahp. 

(2) Part of a stag's born, mentioned iu the ap- 
pendix to Howell, sect. 3. 

(3) The gate of a city. 
BARRA. A gelt pig. Ejrmoor. 
BARRACAN. A sort of stuff. Miege. 
BARRA-HORSE. A Barbary horse. See the 

Privv Purse Expences of Henry VIII. p. 204. 
BARRATING. Quarrelling. See the 2d Part of 

Promos and Cassandra, ii. 4. 
BARRE. (1) The ornament of a girdle. See 
Prompt. Parr. p. 24 ; Notes to Chaucer, p. 150. 
Florio mentions the barrtt of a helmet, in v. 
(2) To move violently. 

In niyddlf the itreme when that thaf ware. 
The wBwei with wynde byjsne to barre. 

MS. LIne-Jn A. I. 17, f. IIS. 

BARRED. Striped. Shirley, ii. 380, speaks of a 
" barr'd gown," and the term occurs also in Syr 
Gswiyne. Drayton has barred for barbed, ap- 
plied to horses. 

BAKKGINE. Barren. Chaucer. 

BARKEI.. A bucket. Elyot mentions "the 
barrel of a well," in t. Siiinila. Florio, in v. 
D^ifa, mentions barreX-boardt, boards of which 
liarrrls are made. 

BARREL- FEVER. Aviolent sickness occasioned 
by intemperance. North. 

BARREN. (!) A liind not gravid. In Sussex, a 
barren cow or ewe is so called. 

(2) A company of mules. Bemert. 

(3) The vagina of an animal. Line. 

(4) Stupid; ignorant. Skak. 
HARRGNER. A barren cow or ewe. South. 
BARREN-IVY. Creeping ivy. Bailey. 
BARREN-SPRINGS. Springs imjiregiiated with 

mineral, and considered injurious to the land. 
BARRESSE. A bar; n gate. Cf. Plumpton 
Correspondence, p. 142. 

At tlM bnrrftt^ be hatisde. 
And tMwndonly downe lyghte. 

MS. Uncttin A. I. 17. t. ISl. 

BARRICOAT. A child's coat. Northumb. 

BARRIE. Fit ; convenient. Durham. 

BARRIER. Tlie paling in a tournament. 

BARRIERS. To fight at barriers, to fight within 
lilts. This kind of contest is sometimes called 
simply barrier: See Cunningham's Revels 
Accounts, p. I. ; Florio, in v. Bagordire. 

BARRIHAM. A horse's collar. North. 

BARRIKET. A small firkin. See Cotgrave, 
in V. Barrol, FiUelte. The term barritel 
Mcms used in the tame sense. It occurs in 

Florio, in v. BariUtto, BoMh / Cotgreve, t:i 
V. Hambour. 

BARKING. Except. Var. dial. 

BARRING-Ol'T. An ancient custom at schools, 
said to lie still prcralcnt in some parts of the 
North of England, when the boys, a few dayi 
before the holidays, barricade the school-room 
from the master, and stipulate for the disci- 
pUne of the next half year. According to 
Dr. Johnson, AdiUson, in 1683, was the leader 
ill an affair of this kind at Litchfield. 

BAKRO. A borough. " flethlem thai iarro." 
See the Chester Plays, i. 179. 

BARROW. (1) A hillock; an ancient tumu- 
lus. It would appear from Lambarde, Peram- 
hulation of Kent, 1596, p. 435, that the term 
in his time was peculiar to the West of 
England. Cf. Elyot's Dictionarie, in v. Ont- 
niiu, Tumulia. Kcnnett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
gives it as a Durham word for a grove. 

(2) A child's flannel clout. Homertet. 

f3) A way up a bill. North. 

(4) At Nantwich and Droilwich, the conical 
baskets wherein they put the salt to let the 
water drain from it are called harrows. A 
barrow contained about six pecks. Kennelt, 
MS. Lansd. 1033. 

(5) A castrated boar. 

with brcttei of barowM thatbryghte ware to schewe. 
Mom ArlHun, MS. Unailn A. i 17. t. U. 

BARRS. The upper parts of the gums of a 

horse. Did. Rutl. 
BARUY. To thrash com. Northumb. 
B.\HKYD. Paled round, in preparation for a 

And lylben to the felde Ihry Tardc, 
The {ilsee wa« barryd end dyghte. 

MS. CuNUk. Ft. U. 3t, r. 79. 

BARS. Tlie game of prisoner's-base. 
Went he on ■ dSy to pUwe, 
Ai chltdrco don atte 6orj. 

Leftnd nf Pvpt Gregory, p. 9ft. 

BARSALE. The time of stripping bark. Eatt. 
IJARSE. A perch. Ifeflmor. 
BARSH. Shelter, Kennelt. 

Ther come turownce to that tiay with harileijfa bolde. 
MS. Awe* SO*, r. S4. 

BARSON. A horse's collar. Yorlah. 

BARST. Burst ; broke. Lane. The word oc- 
curs in Robert of Gloucester, and other early 

BARTE. To beat with the fisla. If'arv. 

BARTH. A shelter for cattle. Eatt. Ray and 
Pegge explain it, "a warm place or pasture 
for calves or lambs," and add that it is used 
in the South in this sense. Sec also Tusser's 
Husbandry, p. 92. Barthleu, houseless, oc- 
cnrs iu the Devonshire dialect. 

BARTHULOMEW-PIG. Roasted pigs were for- 
merly among the chief attractions of Bartho- 
lomew Fair; they were sold piping hot, in 
iKKiths and stalls, and ostentatiously displayed 
to excite the appetite of passengers. Hence 
a Bartholomew-pig became a common subject 
of allusion. Naret. 





BARTHU-DAY. SI. Bartholomew's d»y. 

BAKTIZAN. The small overhanging turrets 
which project from tlic angln on the top of 
a tower, or firom the parapet or other parts of 
a building. Ojf. titogt. jircfu 

BARTLE. (1) .Acc-ording to Kenuctt, MS. Lansd. 
1033, " at nine-pins or ten-bancs they hate 
one larger bone set about a yard before the 
re*t call'd the barth, and to knock down the 
tarth gives for five in the game." fVnlmor. 

(2) St. Bartholomew. North. 

BARTON. The demesne lands of a manor ; the 
manor-house itself; and sometimes, the out- 
houses and yanls. Miege says " a cooji for 
poultry," and Cooper translates coHort, " a 
barton or place inclosed wheriu all kinde of 
pultrie was kept." In the Unton Inventories, 
p. 9, pigs are mentioned as being kept in a 

BARTRAM. The pellitory. 

BARTYNIT. Stmck ; battered. Caw. Sharp, 
in his MS. Warwickshire glossary, has barle, 
to heat with the fists, which may be eonne^lcti 
with this term. 

BARU. A ^It boar. In Rob. Gloue. p. 807, a 
giant is described as mnoing a spit through a 
" Tat te baru" for his meul. 

BAIUUP. To shut up. Ktmiett. 

BARVEL. A short leathern apron worn by 
washerwomen ; a slabbering bib. Krnl. 

BARVOT. Borc-foot. Hob. Glouc. 

BARW. Protected. (.Y.-S.) 

BARWAY. The passage into a field composed 
of ban or rails made to take out of the posts. 

BABYS. The l>cr)l. 

HIr irirlhlt of nobulle lUke the! were, 
Hir boculi ihrl were of dai" stone. 

JUS. CanUt. Fr. v. 411. 

BAS. To Uss. Stelton. 

BASAM. The red heath broom. Devon. 

BASCHEU. Abashed; put down. 

Sithe the bore wu bcten and totchtut do mor. 
But the hurt that be liid hcle thuld (hor. 

Rofoirf, MS. LoFud. 380, f. 3KS. 

BASCLES. A kind of rol)bers or highwaymen 

so called. See the Gloss, to Langloft, and the 

Chronicle, p. 242. 
BASCON. A kind of lace, consisting of five 

bows. See Strait's Dress and Habits, ii. 98. 
BASCONUS. A dish in ancient cookery. The 

manner of making it is described in MS. Sloauc 

1201, f. 68. 
BASE. (1) To ting or play tlie htue port in 

music. Sliak. 

(2) Baret has " a btae, or prop, a shore or pyle 
to underset with." 

(3) Low. Harrison speaks of the " ban Wence- 
land," in his Description of Britaine," p. 74. 

(4) The game of prisoner's-bars, a particular ac- 
count of which is given by Strutt, p. 78. See 
also Cotton's Works, 1734, p. 80; Harring- 
ton's Nugie .Antiqun.', ii. 2CI. To" bid a l>ase," 
means to run fast, challenging another to 

lloe but tund here, 1'le run s Utile courkC 
jlltaw. Of b<fley-l>fuke, orwineiuch tore. 

(5) Matting. Katf. 

(6) A perch. Cvmi. 

(7) The drapery thrown oyer a horse, and »«me< 
times drawn light over the armour which ha 
wore. Afeync*. 

(8) A small piece of ordnance. Bofni/t uie Uxeii- 
tioncd in the Arch. vi. 216. It occurs in 
Galfrido and Bernardo, 1570. and .\rcli, xiii. 
177, " boats shall be so well apimioted with 
lnunn), and other shot besides." 

B.\SE-I3ALL. A country game mentioned in 

Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 238. 
BASEBROOM. The herb woodwax. Ftorio. 
BASE-COl RT. The first or outer court of • 

castle or large mansion. 

My lord, in the boKMrntrt he doth mteiid 

To ipeak with you ; msy't plcue you to come ilown t 
RKhnri II. III. ]. 

BASE-DANCE. A grave, sober, and solemn 
mode of dancing, something, it is probable, in 
the loiouel style; and so called, pcrhops, i: 
cnntraditlinctiontothevaiUtingVind of dances,, 
in which there was a greater display of agiUty. 
Boueher. .\n old dance, called baielema, it 
mentioned in MS. Sloane 3501, f. 2. 

BASEL. A coin abolished by Henry II. in 1 1S8. 
Blount's Glossographia, p. 78. 

BASELARD. See Batlani. 

BASELER. A person who takes care of neat 
cattle. North. 

I5ASEN. Extended, .^eiiser. 

BASE-RING. The ring of a cannon next bc-j 
hind the touch-hole. 

BASES. Defined by Narci to be, " a kind 
embroidered mantle wliicli hung down from 
the middle to about Ihc knees or lower, worn 
by knights ou horseback." Writers of the H 
seventeenth century seem occasionally to ap-^| 
ply the term to any kiud of skirts, and some- ' 
times even to the hose. See Donee's Ulottrm- 
tions, ii. 126 ; Hall, Henry VIII. f. 4 ; Dyce's 
Remarks, p. 263 ; Strutt, iL Z43. ^ 

BASE-SON. A bastard ^ 

BASE-T.\nLE. A projecting moulding or bud 
of mouldings near the bottom of a wall. Oirf. 
Glota. Arch. 

BASH. (1) The mass of the roots of a 
before they separate ; the front of a buH'a ( 
pig's head, Hfrrfortith. 

(2) To beat fruit down from the trees with 
pole. Bed>. 

(3) To be baibfiil. See an insUnce of this verbil 
in Euphae* Golden Legade, ap. Collier'* ' 
Shak. Lib. p. 82. 

BASHMENT. Abashment. 

And u 1 ilode In tbb biuhntntt I remrmlircd your 
ioconiparable clvmcocie, thewblche. si 1 have my- 
■elfe M>mctyme seiic, moateg racioualy acr«'|ttcll) tl>e 
■Klendor glftea of small value which y.'Ur hlt,>hnr« 
perceived wcreolTVed with great and lovlngeafft^lion. 
Cower, ed. UM) ded^ 

BASH RONE. A keUIe. Tttylor. 

BASHY. Fat; swollen. North. 

B.ASIL. When the edge of a jninet's tool i(| 
ground flway to an angle, it is called ■ bariLj 
Kmnrll, MS. Lamd. 1033. 



r* orH 
ith •■ 

lier'a ^ 






BASn.EZ. A low bow. Dectrr. 

BASIL-HAMPERS. A person who, being short 
of suture, takes thort >teps, and docs not 
proceed very quickly ; a girl wboie clothes fall 
awkwardly about her feet. Line. 

BASILIAUD. A baslard, q. v. Stove. 

BASILICOK. A baxibsk. Clmucer. 

BASILINDA. The play called Questions and 
Conunands ; the choosing of King and Queen, 
u on Twelfth Night. Phittip: 

BASILISCO. A bnggadocia character in an 
old play called " Sollman and Perseda," so 
popular that his name became proverbiaU See 
Douce's Illustrations, i. 401 ; King John, i. 1. 
Florio has biuilhco, for baiiluk, • spedei of 
ordnance, in t. Bavalitio. 

BASILISK. A kind of cannon, not necessarily 
" small," as stated in Middlcton's Works, 
iii. 214, for Coryat mentions that he saw in 
the citadel of Milan " an exceeding huge ba- 
siliske, which was so great, that it would 
euily contayne the body of a very corpulent 
man ;" and Harrison, io his Description of 
England, p. 198, includes the bosiUak in " the 
names of onr greatest ordinance." A minute 
account of the shot required for it is contained 
in the same work, p. 199. 
BASINET. The herb crowfoot. 

BASING. The rind of cheese. Staff. 

BASK. Sharp, hard, acid, ft'ettmor. 
BASKEFYSYRE. Fututio. Sec a curious pas- 
sage in the Cokwolds Daunce, 116. 
BASKET. An exclamation frequently made nse 
of in cockpits, where persons, unable to pay 
their losings, are adjudged to be put into a 
bwket suspended over the pit, there to re- 
main till the sport is concluded. Grate. 
BASKET-SWORD. A sword with a hilt formed 
to protect the hand from injury. 

Sword bew snnM ? Hee* * t)Ue companion. 
Alai, t hsv« knowne Tou Iseare a tnuUit-iworit. 

rVtirkg /or Cufleri, 1615,. 

BASKING. (1) A sound thrashing. Eatt. 

(2) A drenching in a shower. Eait. 

BASLARD. A long dagger, generally worn 
suspended from the girdle. It was not run- 
tidertd proper for priests to wear this wea- 
pon, and a curious poem in MS. Greaves S7, 
emotions them against doing so; but still the 
practice was not uncommon, as appears from 
Audelay's Poems, p. IC. Hall, Henry VI. 
f. 101, mentions " a southeme byl to conter- 
▼ayle a northreo batlard," so that perhaps in 
his time the weapon was more generally used 
in the North of England. In 1403 it was 
ordained that no person should use a baslard, 
decorated with silver, unless he be possessed 
of the yearly income of 20/. It is spelt 
inelrrd in some of the old dictionaries. 

BASSET. (1) A cap. Stelton. 

(2) Same oa bauenet, q. t. 

BASON. A badger. Coljrne. 

BASONING-FURNACE. A furnace used in 
the manufacture of hats. Holme. 

BASS. (1) A kind of perch. 

(2) To kiss. More. 

(3) A church hassock. North. According to 
Kcnnctt, the term is also applied to " a collar 
for cart-horses made of flags." In Cumber- 
land the word is applied generally to dried 

(4) The inner rind of a tree. North. 

(5) A slaty piece of coal. Salop, 
(a) A twopenny loaf. North. 

(7) A thing to wind about grafted trees before 

they be clayed, and after. Holme. 
BASS.\. A bashaw. Marlove. Wo have bae- 

»ado in the Archicologia, xxviii, 104 ; and 

*0Ma/e,,Hall, Uenrv VIII. f. 192. 
BASSAM- Heath. 'Devon. 
BASSCHE. To be ashamed. Cf. Sharp's Gov. 

Myst. p. 103 ; Morte Arthurc, MS. Lincoln A. 

i. 17, f. 75. 
BASSE. (1) A kiss. Also a verb, as in Ane. 

Poet. Tracts, p. 26. 

Then of my mouth com« take a boMe, 
Fore odfT goode* have t none. 

US. Kauil. c. ua. 
(3) A hollow place. HoUyband. 

(3) Apparently a term for " the elder swine." 
See Topsell's Fourc Footed Beasts, p. 661. 

(4) To be ornamented with bases, q. v. Hall, 
' Henry VIII. f. 50, mentions " howe the Duke 

of Burbones hende was apparelled and batted 
in tawny velvet." 

DASSELL. " Bassell letber" is mentioned in 
the Brit. Bibl. U. 399. 

BASSENET. A light helmet worn sometime* 
vrith a moveable front. They were often 
very magnificently adorned. Cf. Strutt, ii. 
60 ; Brit. Bibl. i. 146 ; Percy's Reliques. p. 3 , 
KMig AUsaunder, 2234; Hall, Henry VUl. 
f. 235. 

II;i Tenuyla and byi kannrti, 
Hyi belme od hya hedd aett. 

its. Canlob. Ff. Il.», r.88. 
On bil baetnt'l thay bell, 
Thay bryued it in iwa. 

MS. Umcalti A. I. 17, t. 137. 

BASSET. (1) An earth-dog. Markham. 

(2) A mineral term where the strata rise upwards. 
Derbyth. The direction is termed batet-tnd, 
or battelinff, at Kennett has it, MS. Lonsd. 

BASSETT. A game at cards, said to have been 
invented at Venice. It was a fashionable gome 
here io the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Beilford, Evil and Danger of Stage 
Plays, 1706, p. 127, mentions a drama on the 

BASSEYNYS. Basons. Tundalc, p. 54. 

BASSINATE. A kind of fish, " Uke unto men 
in shape," mentioned in Holiiished, Hist. 
Scotland, p. 139. See aUo Jomieson, supp. 
in V. Batrinat. 

BASSING. Kissing. Bortl. 

BASSOCK, A hassock. Bailey. 

BAST. (1) Matting; straw. North. "Baste 
or straw battes" are mentioned in the Rate*, 
1545, Brit. Bibl. ii. 399. Ci. Harriaon's 
Description of Britaine, p. 3. 




(2) Bout. 

sir Oil tryd, thin thou It hut 
ThRO make Iberof thl &a«r, 

Cv "/ n'artnik: p. StS. 

(3) A butard. See EUu't Met. Rom., «L 1»1 1, 
L 301 ; Rob. Glouc p. 425 ; Utteraon'i Pop. 
Poet, ii 67. 

(4) Assured. 

(5) To pack np. North. 

BAST A. Properly an Italian word, signiiying 
U it moogh, or kt it ruffice, but not uocoiiimon 
in the works of our ancient dramatists. 

BASTARD. (1) A kind of sweet Spanish wine, 
of which there were two sorts, while aod 
brown. Ritson calls it a wine of Corsica. It 
approached the muscadel wine in flavour, and 
was pcrliaps made from a iatlard species of 
muscadine grape ; but the term, in more 
ancient times, seems to have been applied to 
all mixed and sweetened wines. See Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ii. 427 j Robin Goodfcllow, 
p. 7 ; Harrison's Desc. of England, p. 222 i 
Squyr of Lowe Degr^, 757 ; Ordinances and 
Regidations, p. 473. 

(2) " Basterdwier" is mentioned inCnnningbam's 
Kevels' Account, p. 180. The term was ap- 
plied to different kinds of several articles. 
Dastard cloths, Strutt, ii. 94 ; UasUrd sword, 
Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 2. 

f3) A gelding. Prps/e. 

{*) To render illegitimate. Hall has tliis verb, 
Richard III. f. 32. The term ioi/orrf is still 
t term of reproach for a worthless or mis- 
chievous boy. 

BASTAT. A bat. Norlh. 

BASTE. (1) To mark sheep. North. 

(2) To sew slightly. 

(3) A blow. North. Also a verb, to beat. 
Strutt mentions a game called Baste the Bear, 
p. 387. 

(4) Uastardy. 

ThIf man wm tonne to Jhon or G^iinle. Duke of 
LaDciAtrr. dhcendvil on an linnorable ItgDage, but 
tx>nie In t^axu, more noble of bloud thea notable in 
leirnyng.-H'f, Hrnr, VI. f. JO. 

(5) A rope. (./. A'.) 

Dot 5e uille take a ilalworthe tmtlr. 
And Uyndc ray bandpf byhynd me faste. 

MS. UncolH A. i. 17, r. 12*. 

BASTELER. A person who bastes meat. In 
the accounts of the churchwardens of Hey- 
bridge. 1532, is the following entry: " Item 
to the baiteler, -id." 

BASTEL-ROVES. Turretcd or casteUated roofs. 
So explained in Glossary to SjT Gawav-nc, in 
T. See, however, Boucher, in v. Uattelie. 

BASTER. A heavv binw. North. 

BASTERLY-OULLION. A bastard's bastard. 
Lane. [Fr. Couillon.] 

BASTIAN. St. Sebastian. 

BASTICK. A basket. ne»f. 

BASTiLE. A temporary wooden tower, nied 
formerly in military and naval warfare. Some- 
times the term is applied to any lower or for- 


They haddeal>olnur«ori)rnl'j«reo)-t>gOD 
that *t clepen 6a«fi;c«, or iomeraiKtell. 

Vegiriui. Mi. DiMceKl, t 48. 

He perle make a grcie boMialU or tree, aod aett U 

ai»onr fchlppca in the aee, cvenc forgaynca tha c«t^» 

fto that ther myghte no schippem come nere the ha- 

vene. US. Uncaln K. 1. 17. t. k. 

And in thl hatttl fulle of blUfulneiee. 

In luiti age than acballe the wel betide. 

BoeHui, IIS. 5M. ynrl(. l^^, t. tH. 

BASTING. Bourne, in his Inventions or De- 
vises, 1578, speaking of " ordinance of leade," 
mentions " the baiting thereof, that is to say, 
to put in the more substance of the met- 

BASTON. (1) A cudgel. {A.-N.) 

(2) A pecuUar species of verse so called. A •] 
omen of it is printed in the ReUq. Antiq. 
174. See also the same work, ii. 8 ; Langtoft, 
pref. p. 99. 

(3) A servant of the Warden of the Fleet, whose 
duty it is to attend the king's courts, with ■ 
red staff, for the purpose of taking into cus- 
tody such persons as were committed by the 

(4) A kind of lace, the manufacture of which is 
detailed in MS. Harl. 2320, quoted by Stcvea. 
son. See Batcon, j 

BASTONE. A bastinado. Marlowe. 
BAT. (1) A stick; a club j a cudgel. North. In 
Ilercfordsh'u-e a wooden tool used for breaking 
clods of earth is so called. See Malone'i 
Shakespeare, x. 237; Utterson's Pop. F( 
i. 110; Kyng Alisaunder, 78, 5832; Percy' 
ReUques, p. 254 ; Tbynne's Debate, p. 7S, 
He nemelh U bat and forih a goth, 
Swithe iorl and wet wroth. 

Beeft of HamttfHHt p. I7< 

(2) A blow; a stroke. North. Sometimes m 
verb, to strike or beat ; to beat cotton. 

That xal be ai.iyd be thli iMlf I 
What, thou Jhcsuil bo laff the that! 
Colienrry MrUcria, p 

(3) Debate. Cat. Mi/tt. 
To wink. Derbyth, 
The straw of two wheat sheaves tied 

gcther. Yorkth. 

(6) Slate ; condition. North. 

(7) Si)eed. Line. 

(8) A leaping-post. Somenet. 

(9) A low-laced boot. Somerttt. 

(10) The root end of a tree after it bat been 
thro«Ti. Someriet. 

(11) A spade at cards. Somerttt. 

(12) At Wednesbury, in Staffordshire, the l»st 
parting that lies between the upper and the 
nether coal is called a bat. Kemiett.MS.Lantd. 

BAT.ABLE. (1) Fertile in nutrition, applied 
land. Harrison frequently lues the word " 
scription of England, pp.'37, 40, 109, 'IIX 

(2) Certain land between England and 
land was formerly called the batable 
" landes dependyng in variance betweoo 
rcalmes." See Hall, Edward IV. f. 56. 

BATAILED. EmbatUed. {A.-N.) Sec Horn, of 
the Rose, 4162. 



» m 

>, p 3M. 
iicd tofl 




I w cutcU, I K rke high towm, 
Willei of tloac ciotyd uid Uianlled. 

MS. Canltti. ft. i. 6, f. 13. 

BATAILOt'S. Ready for b«Ulc. Chawer. 

BATAILS. Provision*. 

BATAIWYNG. Embattling. Thia form ocean 

in the Forme nf Ciirj'. p. 85. 
BATALE. To join in battle. 
BATALLE. An araiy. 

Than thir twa htiialtet men unnrae, «di1 faughte 

tognllrf and thaie wu Sampsonc tlarDr. 

MS. Linnln A. I 17, f- 5. 
BATAND. Going hastily. Langloft. 
BATANT. The piece of wood that nms all along 

ujiou the edge of a lock&ide of a door, gate, or 

window. Colgrart. 
BATARDIER. A nursery for treei. (Fr.) 
BATALNTLICME. Hastily. {A.-N.) SeePien 

Ploughman, y. 286. 
BATAYLYNGE. a battlement 

How thtl Itmple with till wallil wyde. 
With hi»ci«t» «nil baunlytfe ryille. 

Unlgalf, MS. S>'e. Jiiliii. IM, t, IS. 
BATCH. (1) Properly a quantity of bread baked 
at once, but generally applied to a bout or lot 
of anything. It also implies the whole of the 
wheat flour which is used for making common 
household bread, after the bran alone has been 
separated from it. Coarse Sour in sometimes 
called iaich flour. 

(2) A kind of hound, \orth. 

(3) An open space by the road-side; a sand- 
bank, or patch of ground lying near a river; 
a mound. H'ril. 

BATE. (1) Dmtention; debate; conflict Cf. 
Chron. Vilodun. p. 83; Soke of Cuitosye, p. 8 ; 
Acolostus, 1540 ; 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 

(2) To abate ; to diminish. A'or/A, 

Wherror hit luXe bettao to bau. 
And that wm love Uthannc hat«. 

Cotctr, J/.t. S>K. jtKllq. 134, f. r& 
Hyi coirnlynancc djdr he n«iet iMtt, 
But kfpl hym itylle Id nn flatc. 

Arch'toti.gia, xxL "Ji. 

(3) To flutter, a tei-m generally applied to hawks. 
SeeDepoi. Ric. II. p. 13; Brit. Bibl. ii. 315 ; 
Cotgreve, in v. Debalu; HoUnslicd, Hist. Ire- 
land, p. 21. 

(4) Bit {A..S.) 

TImtc w» oi qwikc thyniira that they talt ll>.il 
ne alu lora it dyed, tnt liarma did ihay nane lo ihc 
iMU. MS. UhcvIh a. 1. 17. f. ill- 

's) Lower? 

To • lownc Ihol toke the e*U, 
Men clepe hit Octany the ta(e. 

MS. Quifat. Ff. V. 48, t. IS, 

(6) Without ; except. Lane. 

(7) In Craven, when the fibres of wood are 
twixt«d and crooked, they are said to be crou- 

(8) To go with rapidity. Also, to fall suddenly, 
" let* his burlyche blonke baile on the flores." 
US. Morte Arthore, f. 81. 

(9) A boat. {A..S.) 

Thrr men vyUyled by ktn 
That ca«lci with cornea. Sir Brfrtram.Vii. 
(101 The old proverb, " bale mc an ace, quoth 
Bolton " implies an alleged assertion i> too 

strong, or, sometimes, according to Nam, 
" excuse me there." Sec Sir Thomas More, 
p. 18 ; Steevens' Old Plays, i. 45. 
A (latnphlct wa« of protcrbs jieu'd by PoUod, 

Whi-reln be thought all &orti included were ; 

Unlill one told him, Bate m' an act, quvtii Bi>tto», 

Indeed, lald he, that proTerbe is not there. 

TheMa*:iee, tjuvted bv Saru, 

(11) Uid beat. Spetuer. 

BATE-UREEDING. Apt to cause strife. ShnJt. 

BATED. A fish, when plump and full-rowed, is 
said to be well bated. Sutter. 

BATELLE. A little boat Langtoft.p. 241. 

BATE-MAKER. A causer of strife. 

BATEMENT. That part of wood which is cut 
off by a carpenter to make it lit for his purpose. 
Var. dial. 

BATEMENT-UOHTS. The upper openinga 
between the mullions of a window. 

BATER. St«nibnr>t, Uescriplion of Ireland, 
p. 1 1 , sayi, " As for the woril bater, that in 
English purportcth a lane bearing to an high 
Wttie, 1 take it for a nicerc Irish word that 
crept unwarcs into the EngUsh, through the 
ilaiiie intercourse of the English and Irish in- 
habitants." J, 

BATEYLED. Embattled. 

A hundrcth tyretct he «aw fuU stout. 

So godly the! wer tMrylti aboule. MS. jlthmalii 61 . 

BATFOWLING. A method of taking birds in 
the night-time, fully described in the Diet. 
Rust, in V. Sec Tempest, ii. 1 ; Cotgrave, in 
T. lireller; Harrison's Description of England, 
p. 2tO; Bloiuc's Gent. Rec. ii. 143. 

BATFUL. Fruitful. Drayton. 

BATH. (1) Both. North. 

(2) A sow. Hertfordnh. 

(3) To dry any ointment or liquid into the skin. 
Ketmetfi MS. Glott. 

BATHER. (1) To scratch and nih in the duit, 
as birds do. fTarv. 

(2) Of both. (,Y.-S.) Gen. pi. 

And one a day thIr Iwa kyngea wiih thaire ballirr 
oftei mett to((edlr apone a fairc felde, and faughtc 
tngedir wonder cgerly. MS. Urteutn A. 1. 17, 1. 10. 
The wvcnd lacranKUt ea matrynioyoe. that e« 
lawefuUe fcitynnynge bclwyx manne and womane at 
thiirc bathcre asMmte. IbU. t. 916, 

BATHING, SeeUeating. 

BATHING-TUB. A kind of bath, formerly naed 
by persons afSicteil with a certain disease. 
Ben Jonson mentions it in Cynthia's Revels, 
Ii. 254. 

BATIGE. A pearl. 

BATILB.VBY. A certain office in foresU, men- 
tioned in MS. HarL 433, quoted in Stevenson's 
addition* to Boucher. 

BATILLAGE. Boat hire. 

BATING. Breeding. A^orf*. 

BAT-IN-WATER. Water mint 

B ATLE R. The instrument with which washen 
l>eat their coarse clothe*. Often spelt battel. 
See Collier's Shakespeare, iiL 34. It is also 
called a ballifig^tuff', or a batttaff, and some- 
times a battim/^taff, as in Cotgrave, in v. Ba- 
cute. Mr. Ilartshome gives baltleton as tnc 
Shropshire form of the iais£ •<r<«\- 




BAILING. A Wind of fish. See i curiom enu- 
meration in Brit. Bibl. ii. 490. 

BATLINS. Loppings of treet, tied up into fag- 
gots. Suffolk. 

BATNEIl. An ox. Jth. 

BATOLLIT. Embattled. 

BATOON. A cudgel. S/tirleg. In the Wan- 
dering Jew, 164U, a roarer ia called a bat toon 

BATOUR. Batter. JTarner. 

B.\TS. (1) The short furrows of an irregularly- 
shaped field. South, 

(2) Cricket. Devon. 

(3) A Iteating. lor***. 
BAT-SWAIN. A sailor. (J.-S.) 
BATT. (1) To beat gently. Salop. 

(2) To wink or move the eycUds up and down. 

BATTEN. (1) To thrive; to grow fat. North. 

Tliis word occurs in Shakesiicarc, Marlowe, 

and other early writers. 

(2) A mil from three to six inches in breadth, 
one or more in thickness, and of indefinite 
length. A fence made of these is called a 

(3) To batten in dung, is to lie upon it and beat 
it close together. Kennctt'i .\fS. Glouary. 

(4) The straw of two shcAres folded together. 
North. A thatcher's tool fur beating down 
tliatch is called a batten-board. 

B.\TTER. (I) An abatement. A wall which 
diminishes upwards is said to tatter. 

(2) Dirt. North. 

(3) To fight one's way. ifidtand C. 

(4) To wear out. South. A horse with tender 
feet is said to be battered. 

BATTERO. A bat ; a stick. Tliis word occurs 
in one of the quarto editions of King Lear, 
160S, iv. 6, in the place of bat in another 
quarto, and balloic in the folio. See Collier's 
Shakespeare, vii. 46S. Kersey explains bat- 
tery, " a violent beating or striking of any 

BATT ID. Covered with strips of wood, as walls 
are previously to their being plastered. 

BATTING-STOCK. A beating stock. Ketmrt/. 

BATTLE. (1) To dry in ointment or moisture 
upon the flesh by rubbing and putting that 
part of the body by the fire. Kennett't MS. 

(2) Fruitful, fertile, appUcd to land. Also to 
render gn>und fertile by preparation. In the 
index to Markham's Couutrey Forme, 1616, 
is " to battle ground, and with what manner 
of dung." The term is occasionally applied to 
the fattening of animals. " Battleageofwhpjit" 
is mentioned in the Ordinances and Regu- 
lations, p. 195. 

(3) A word peculiar to Oxford for taking provi- 
sions from the buttery, &c. 

(4) To bespatter with mud. Northampt. 
BATTLED. Embattled. Arch. v. 431. 
BATTLEDORE. According to Micge, this was 

formerly a term for a hornbook, and hence 
no doubt arose the plimse to "know .K. H. 
froin a battledore." Seep. 128. 

B.ATTLEDORE-BARLEY. A kind of barley 
mentioned by Aubrey, MS. Hist. Wilts, p. 30i 
and said by him to be so called " from the 
flatness of the ear." 

BATTLEMENT. A notched or indented parapet 
originally used only on fortifications, but after- 
wards employed on ecclesiastical and other 
edifices. Ojif. Gtotn. Arch. 

BATTLER. (1) A small bat to play at hall with, 
See IloweU, sect, xxvili. 

(2) An Oxford student. See Middleton's Works 
v. 514. The tenn is used in contradistinction 
to gentleman commoner. 

BATTLE-ROYAL. A fight between scverU 
cocks, where the one that stands longest it 
the victor. The temi is often more gtoerally 

BATTLE-TWIG. An earwig. iVort*. 

BATTLING. See Battlement. 

BATTLING-STONE. A large smooth-faced 
stone, set in a sloping position by the side ol 
a stream, on which washerwomen beat tli 
linen to clean it. North. 

B.VTTOM. A board, generally of narrow dimei 
sions, hut the full breadth of the tree it 
sawn from. North. 

BAITUIL. A batlilng-sfaff. Lane. 

BATTRV. (1) A tea-kettle. Suffol*. 

(2) In the Rates of the Custonie House, IM 
mention is made of " kattry the c. pounde 
See the Brit. Bibl. ii. 3'J9. 

BATTS. (1) Low flat grounds adjoining riTcre, 
and sometimes ishinds in rivers. North. 

(2) Short ridges. /. Hight. 

BATURD. Battered. 

And toke hyi itaffc grHe and longe. 
And on the hcd he hym baturd. 

Ua-Caiaab. Fr. u.M, r. 

BATTLDOURE. A beetle or wooden hat used 
in washing and beating clothes. Prompt. 

BATYN. To make debate. Prompt. Pare. 

BAUUEE. A co)>|>er coin, of about the value 
of a halfpenny. The halfpenny itself is some- 
times so called. 

BAUBERY. A squabble ; a brawL Tor. dUU. 

BAl'BLE. A fool's bauble was a short stici 
with a head ornamented with aoscs cars fai 
tastically carved upon it. An old proverl 
says, " if every fool should wear a baubltt] 
fewel would be dear." See also BabuUe. 

BAUBYN. A baboon. 

BAUD. (1) Tliis word was formerly applied ii 
a very general sense. A procurer, procure 
a keeper of a brothel, or any one employed 
bad services in this line, whctlier mole or fi 
mule, was called a baud. Verstegan, Rest: 
tution, ed. 1634, p. 333, calls it a 
" now given in our language to sudi 
are the makers or furlhercn of dishorn 
matches." This definition was in use earlii 
as appears from a curious passage in tli 
Gesta lloniaiionim, p. 432. See also the c 
ractcr of bairite phuicke in the Fratcmityc 
Vacabondes, 1575. 

(2) A badger. Bhme. 










BAUDE. Joyous, (.i.-fi.) 
BAliDEBlE. Pimping. Chaucer. 
BAliOKlN. A ricli and precious species of 
stuif, introduced into England in tlic Ihir- 
Uentb century. It is said to bare been com- 
posed of siU(, interwoven with threads of gold 
in a most sumptuous manner. Notices of it 
are Tcry common. Wc may refer to Kyng 
Alisaun'dcr, 202, 759 ; Richard Cocr dc Lion, 
2778, 3349; Scvyn Sages, 27-14; Dugilolc's 
Monost. iii. 325 ; Ellis's Met. Horn. iii. 2H7 ; 
Strtilt, ii. 6; Planchc, p. 93; Cy of Wanvike, 
p. 421 ; Test. Vetiist. p. 228. According to 
Iluuce, " it means tissue of gold, and some- 
times a canopy, probably from being oma- 
mcntrd with the tissue." 
BAIUKICK. Sec Daldrick. The word is some- 
times spelt iaudry, as in Kyng Alisaundcr, 
BAD DRY. Bad Ungiuge. Stelltm. 
BAUDS. Fine clothes .' Tome. 
UAliDY. Dirty. (/t.-X) See Skclton's Works, 
ii. 161; Chaucer, Cant. T. 16103; Piers 
Ploughman, p. 88 ; Mortc d' Arthur, i. 192, 
196; Palsgrave, adj. f. 83; Ashmolc's Thcat. 
Cbem. Brit. p. 190. 
BAVDY-BASKET. A cant term for a bad 
womaii, mentioned in Harrison's Description 
of England, p. 184. Dr. Bliss defines it " a 
woman who cohabits with an upright man, 
and professes to sell thread, &c." See Earle's 
Microcosmography, notes, p. 249 : Holme's 
Academy of Armor*-, iii. 167. 
BAUKKE.' To belch.' Colei. 
BAL'FKEY. A beam. Skinner. 
BAUGER. Barbarous ; bad. Bale. 
UAL'GH. A pudding made with milk and flour 

onlr. Cie»k. 
BAl'CllLlNG. Wrangling. Cumb. 
BAl'LCHIN. An unfledged bird. JTanr. 
BAULK. To overlook or pajis by a hare in her 

form without seeing lior. Tor. ilial. 
BAULKY. A term applied to earths when it 

digs np in clots. North. 
BAULMEMINT. Water mint Fbmo. 
BAl'N-COCK. A game cock. Durham. 
BAUNSEY. A hadgir. Prompt. Parr. 
DAURGHWAN. A horse-collar. Yurkuh. 
BAl SE. To kiss. Mantim. 
BAUSON. (1) A badger. In the Prompt. Parr. 
p. 27, we have the forms tawtone, hatcfrme, 
and liaiaton. See also Brit. Bibl. i. 20; 
Percy's Keljqucs, p. 80 ; Colgrave, in v. Gri- 
»<Trrf, spell ioaiion. 
(2) Swelled ; ]M-ndant. Salop. 
UAUTEKT. Encrusted with dirt. North. 
BAUTTE. This wnnl occurs in an early poem 
printed in Todd's Illustrations, p. 264. ' I sus- 
pect a misreading of the MS. for " in vanili5." 
BAUX-IIOUND. A kind of hunting dog, men. 
tioned in Holme's Academy of Aniiory, p. 184. 
BAVEN. (1) A brush faggot, properly bound 
with only one witlic. Var. dial. A faggot is 
bound with two. Tliis distinction seems al- 

luded to in Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 38. See alto 
Euphues Golden Legade, ap. Collier, p. II. 

(2) A cake. Hoirell. 
BAVERE. Bavaria, ijinof. 

BAVIAN. A baboon, or monkey ; an occasional, 
but not a regular character in the old Morris 
dance. He appears io the Two Noble Kins- 
men, where his office is to bark, to tumble, to 
play antics, and exhibit a long tail with what 
decency he cnuld. Narei. 

BAVIER'. The braver of a helmet. Sec Mev- 
rick, u. 257 ; Hall, Henry IV. f. 12 ; Excerpt. 
Hist. p. 208; PlancbiS, p. 1&9. 

BAVIN. Impure limestone. 

BAVISENESSE. Mockery. {ji..N.) 

BAVISII. To drive away. ImI. 

BAW. (1) An interjection of contempt. Sec 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 210, 419. In the East 
of England, boys and girls are addresaed an 

{2) Alvum levarc. Lane. 

(3) A hall. North. 

(4) A diuiipUng. Lttite. 
(a) To bark. ToptelL 
BAWATY. Lindsey-wolsey. North. 
B.WVCOCK. A burlesque term of endearment. 

BAWD. (1) The outer covering of ■ walnut. 

(2) Bawled. Yorkth. 

(3) A hare. A Scottish term for this animal, 
according to Joinicson, and apparently em- 
ployed by Shakespeare, Romeo and Jidiel.ii. 4. 

BAWDER. To scold grumbllnglv. Suffolk. 

BAWDERIKW.\RD. Next to tlic belt. 

And lUo thx it lie u gnt and holow dryyctl if 
hit msy IO the Inigthr, and that it be ihorterc at 
the iyde to the buudrrikuMrd than at the nethrr 
>;de. MS. BudL 546, 

BAWE. (1 ) "Hie bow of a saddle ? Gate. 

(2) A specie* of worm formerly used ai ■ bait 
for fishing. Stevemon. 

BAWEL. Banels are mentioned by the ton and 
the thousand in the Rates of the Custome 
House, 1545, in Brit. Bdd. ii. 398. 

BAWE-LINE. The bowlitig of a sail ; that rope 
which is fastened to the middle part of the 
outside of a sail. Stnemion. 

BAWER. A maker of balls. Staffordth. 

B AWKER. A kind of sand-atone used for whet- 
ting scythes. Somertet. 

BAWKS. A hay-loft. Cumi. 

BAWL. Hounds, when too busy before they 
find the scent, are said to bawL Blome. 

BAWLIN. Big; large. Cole: 

BAWMAN. A bowman ; an archer. Gatr. 

BAWME. (1) Balm. Ahio a verb, to embalm, 
iu which sense it occurs in the Lincoln MS. of 
Morte Arthure; Malorj-, i. 179. " Bawme 
glastes" arc menlionrd "in Brit. Bibl. iL 399, 
which may refer to the place of their maim- 

(2) To address; to adorn. North. 

UAWMYN. Bahiam. Prompt. Pan. 

BAWN. (I) Any kind of edifice. See Richard- 
son, in V. 


152 BAY 

(2) Rcadv; going. Sorlh, 
BAWND! Swollen. Kaiil. 
BAWNDONLY. Cheerfully. {A.-N.) Sec the 

exmniple quoted under barmie. 
BAWRELL. A kind of hawk. Phillipii. The 

maie bird was called the bmcrtt. Sec Blome's 

Gent. Rec. ii. 28. 
BAWSE. To scream. Skinner. Supposed to he 

a form of ioy. 
BAWSEN. Burst. Derbyih. Bawsen-ballid, 

BAWSIIERE. Supposed to he a corruption of 

betni-tire. See the Towneley Mysteries, p. 69. 
BAWSIN. (I) Au imperious noisy fellow. North. 

(2) Great J large; unwieldy, swelled. Cliful. 
Ben Joiison, \\. 278, has the word iu this 
lense. See also Urry's Chaucer, p. 5&8. 

(3) A badger. See Ellis's Met. Rom. ii 358, 
wrongly explained by the editor. 

BAWSONT. llanug a white stripe down the 
face, applied to an animal. North. 

BAWSTONE. A badger. Prompt. Pan. 

BAWT. (1) Without. )'orX»/i. 

(2) To roar j to cry. A'orM. 

BAWTERE. Some bird of prey, mentioned by 

BAWY. A boy. Tliis unnsual form occurs in the 
Frere and the Bov, st. xv. 

BAXTER. (1) A baker. North. 

The basirrr mcttc anollier, 

Nu hit nau;t fO gn<l. US. B'M.Kii, (. S. 

(2) An im|)U'mcnt used for hakuig cokes upon, 
common in old lioiues. North. 

BAY. (I) A berry. Prompt. Parr. 

Tak chE? hayai o( yvrnLS siitl iljfnp Ihame wric. 
and temper thamc with *hU wyne, oud drynk 
thcrof ravtjindc Uk ■ day a porclonc. 

U.S. Lit,c:iln A. 1. 17, f. 2m. 

(2) A principal compartment or division in the 
architectural arrangement of a building, 
marked either by the buttresses on the walls, 
by the disposition of the main ribs of the 
vaulting of the interior, by the main arches 
■nd pillars, tlie princijials of the roof, or by 
any other leading features that se|)aratc it into 
corresponding portions. The word is some- 
times used for the space between the mullions 
of (Window. Orf. Glon. .^rch. In the pro- 
vinoes the term is even apphcd to the divisions 
of ■ bam, or in fact to any building possess- 
ing marks of division. Sometimes a single 
apartment in a rustic house, or the space be- 
tween two gables, is so called, which may be 
the meaning of the term in Measure for Mea- 
sure, ii. 1, unless we might propose to reait 
day. A compartment of a vault is also tenncd 
a Aoy, according to Willis's Nomenclatiire, 
p. 43. Cf. Florio, in v. Angra; Arch. \. 441 ; 
Hall's Satires, v. 1 ; Nichols' Royal Wills, 
p. 2<J5 ; Holme's Academy of Armory, p. 430. 
(3) A pond-head made up of a great height to 
keep in store of water, so that the wheels of 
the furnace or hammer belonging Ui an iron 
mill may be driven by the water coming 
thence through a floodgate. Ulouiil. The word 
occurs in Prompt. Parv. p. 21, translated by 


obttaculum, for which see Ducange, in r. I»l 
Dorsetshire, any bank across a stream is coRe^ I 
a bay, and Cotgrave, in T. liaye, mentions "i^l 
bay of land." 

(4) A pole ; a stake. SUmter. 

(b) To bathe. Speiuer. 

(6) A boy. n'etier. 

(7) To bend, ll'etlmor. 

(8) Uonnd. Gaw. 

I'J) Day, or bailing of an animal, when attacked ^ 
by dogs, .\ccnrding to Blome, hounds arc said fl 
to hay, when they make the animal " tura ^1 
head." To bay, to bark. Mirge. 

(10) To open the mouth entrcatingly for food, 
as a young child does. Hollybmd. 

( 1 1 1 The ncj>t of a squirrel. Eatt. 

(12^ A hole in a breast-work to receive thoj 
moulh of a cannon. Hemty. 

(13) To bark. Blome. 

(14) To unlodgc a niartcm. lilome. 
BaS'ARD. Properly a bay horse, but often tp- 

plied to a horse in general. According to 
Grose, to ride bayard of ten toes is to walk on 
foot, a phrase which can have no lundem ori- 
gin. A very old proverb, " as bold as blind 
bayard," seems to be applied to those who do 
not look before they leaji. Cf. Piers Plough- { 
man, pp. 68, 72, 128 ; Skelton, il 18C; Tarl. 
ton's Jests, p. h\ ; Halle's Expostulation, p. 5 ; 
Tumament of Tottenham, xi. ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Bnyart i Chaucer, Cant. T. 16881 ; Kennctl'a | 
Glossnr)-, p. 23; MS. Douce 302, f. 7 ; Aude- 
I.iy's Poems, p. 84 ; Dent's Pathway to Heaven, j 
(1. 217; Manners and Household Expenccs of] 
England, p. 184 ; Langtoft, p. 272 ; MS. Cott, J 
Cleop. IJ. ii. f. 61 ; Sir Gawayne, p. 301. 
Skclton mentions bnyardyi bun, ■ sort of] 
loaf formerly given to horses. 

Thrr li no God, IhiT i« no lawe 

or whom thai he takoth cny hede, 

Uut as Baimr^e thr biyndc ftede, 

Tille he fallc In the dUhe ainidde, 

He goth thcr no man wol him bidden 

Cnucr, US. Sue. ytitllq. IM, I 

DAY-DUCK. A shell-duck. Eatt. 
BAYE. Both. {A..S.) 

Til thai com Into a ralayv. 
And thrr thai gun to rest 6a|w 

Arthttur and UtrltM, p. 
Into the chaumt>rr go we 6ajw, 
Among tJM maidens foi lo pUye. 

(3y af trarmkt, p. U».. 

DA^'EN. To bay ; to bark ; to bait. 

HAYES. Baize. 

BAYTIT. Baited. Robion. 

HAYLE. (1) A bailiff. See Reynard the ?oie, 

p. 162; Audelay's Poems, p. 33; Townelejr 

.Mysteries, p. 1 7. In both senses. 
(2) A bucket. See the Pri^7 Purse Expencei of 

Henry VIII. p. 11, "to the same watenoea J 

for fowre baytei for the sated barge." I 

BAYLLISHIP. The office of a bailiff. 
BAYLY. Authority. Cf. Sir Eglamour, 755, a 

district given in charge to a bailiff or guarcL 
V kneghe hym here yn grete btij/ljf. 
He loved veqjauoce wiihoute mercy. 

US. Hail. \im, U 10. ] 

. IW. 





BAYITD. Boiled. If-eber. 

BAYN. Amunlerer. {^.-S.) 

BAYNES. Bones. Sec Sharp's Cor, Mysteries, 

p. 225. 
UAYN YD. Shelled, prepircd for tabic, as beans, 

&c. Prompt. Parr. 
BA)K£. Fit ; convenient. Durham. 
BAYSSENT. Reionciled ? 

To ceuu the warre, Ihe |>«ce to be cDctouMd 
BdwoM h}m u»l kyng John hannnl. 

Haritng"! Cltrcniclt, I. ISO. 

BAYTE. (1) To avail i to be useful. Also, to 
apply to any use. 

Hot with hir lukc ■ tr)'pi>« of gayiCj 
With mylkc of thAmo for to boyf* 

To hit lyvM fodc. Sir Perenal 188. 

(2) Explained by iieame, " baited, fastened, in- 
Tadcd," in his glossary to Langtoft ; but see 
p. 276. 
BAYTHE. To grant. Gmt. 
BAYTYNGES. Chastisements. 

He »hKl hem chutyK wilhftmcrt •pcche. 
With tmaWv Ifo^^Hgn va6 nst with wrcchc. 

JUS. Hart. 17(11, f.7S. 

BAY-'WINDOW. A large w-indow ; probably so 
called, because it occupied the whole bag, q. v. 
It projected outwardii, occaiiionally in a semi- 
circular form, and hence arose the corrupted 
expression bow-window. The bay-window, 
however, was oftcncr in a rectangular or poly- 
gonal form. The term also appears to Imve 
Been applied to a balcony, or gallery ; at least. 
Coles gives it as the translation of menianuni. 

BAYTD. Of a bay colour. Prompt. Pan. 

BAYZE. Piisoner's base. SJUntwr. 

DAZ.\NS. A kind of leather boots, mentioned 
by Matthew Paris. 

BAZE. To alarm. Aorth. 

BE. (1) By. (/f.-S.) OcctLsionally /ime is un- 
derstood. " Be we jHirt," by the lime that 
we part. This proimsition is common in caily 
writers, and is stili in luc in the north country 

(2) Been. The part. pa. occurring in this form 
in Chaucer and Robert of Gloucester. 

(3) The verb to be is unchanged in all its tenses 
in most of the prorincial dialects. " 1 be very 
hungry," &c. 

(4) A common prefix to verbs, generally con- 
veying an intcnsativc power, as be-bath'd, 
Brit. Bibl. iii. 207 ; beblubbered, Holinshed, 
Chron. Ireland, p. 91 ; becAarme, Ford's Line 
of Life, p. 57; bedare, Hawkins' Eng. Dram, 
ii. 188; hedged, TopscU's History of Serpents. 
p. 309; brfann'd, Fairfax of the Bulk and 
Selvedge of the World, ded. Ifi74 ; ie/ot/yed, 
Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. 323 ; befool, 
Brome's Songs,' 1661, p. 200 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
p. 37 : betnave, Brit. Bibl. i. 38 ; belrfl, Gesta 
Romaoorum, p. 330 ; belome, Florio, in v. 
A^OMtrieciire ; behilM, Two Lancashire 
LoTcrt, 1640, p. 162; bepinch, Itrit. Bibl. 
L650; bepowJrred, Deloncy's Strange His- 
tories, 1607 ; beqHtte, Stanihurst's Desc. of 
Ireland, pref. p. 1 ; berogue, Songs of the 
London Prentices, n, 91 ; befcratched, Gif- 

fbrd's Dialogue on Wltcbes, 1603; bttkakt. 
Cotton's Works, 1734, p. 13; bapoHjIed, 
Bamefield's Affectionate Shepherd, p. S ; be- 
lear'd, Brit. Bibl. iv. 125. 
(6) A jewel, ring, or bracelet. {J.-S.) 
Thereon he Mtte rychely crowoyd, 
V\ llh mjuiy a beMuote, broche and 6*. 

tin. Uaru asa 
BEACE. (1) CatUe. ^orlh. 
(2) A cow-stall. Yorkth. 

Small ruffles. Miege. 
Going on pilgrimage. 



, r.iu. 


A dwelling-place for poor re- 
ligious persons, raised near the church in 
w hicb the founder was intcrrctl, and for whose 
soul they were reqiiircd to pray. Biitlou. 
Almshouses arc still termed beadhuusct in 
some parts of the country ; and Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, has, " bed-house, an kospitsL 

BEADLE. A crier or messenger of a court, the 
keeper of a prison or bouse of correction, an 
under-bailiff of a manor. Blount. 

BEADKULL. A list of |)Crsoiis to be prayed 
for ; a roU of prayers or hymns ; hence, any 
list. They were prohibited in England in 
1650. See Croft's Exccrpta Antiqua, p. 13; 
Test. Vetusl. p. 388; TopscU's Four-footed 
Beasts, p. 171; Florio, in v. Vhiiippole. 

BEADSMAN. One who offers up prayers to 
Ilcivcn for the welfare of another. In later 
times the term meant Utile more \himtervttnt, 
as we now conclude Icllrrs. Many of the 
ancient petitions and letlers to great men 
were adilrcssed to ibeiii by their " poor daily 
orators and beadmien." Sec Doucc's Illus- 
trations, i. 31 ; Ford's Works, ii. 72. 

BEiVK. (I) To bask in the beat. Xortk. 

(2) An iron over the fire, in which boilers are 
hung. Yorluh. 

(3) To wipe the beak, a hawking term. Cocks 
that peck each other are said to beak ; and it 
is also a term in cockfight ing. 

(4) The nose of a horse. TopnU, 

(5) The points of ancient shoes were railed 
beak: See Stnitt's Dress and Habits, ii. 110. 

BEAKER. A large drinking vessel, usually of 
glass, a rummer or tumhicr-glass. The term 
is also used figuratively for auy thing of birg> 
size. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, defines ii 
" a round silver cup deep and narrow." 
Fill hlin hit beaker, he will never flinch 
To give s full quart pot the empty pluch. 

Rou-lantW Humor§ Orittnarie, n. d. 

BEAKIRON. An iron tool used by bUtck- 

smiths. Holme. 
BE A K M E NT. A measure of about the quarter 

of a peck. Neweattle. 
BEAL. (1) To roar out. North. 
To suppurate. Durham. 
A boiJ ; a hot inflamed tumour. North, 

Cotgrave has beating, matter, in v. Boue. 
(4) To beat. Aiiparently used in this sense, or 

perhaps an error, in Robsou's Romances, 

p. 108. 





DEALING. Big with child. Ktnnett, MS. 

Unul. 1033. 
BEALTE. Beauty. Ritton. 
BEAM. (1) Misfortune. (-■/.-&) 

(2) Uobeinia. See Heme. 

(3) To beam a tub is to put water into it, to stop 
the Icaliiug by swelling tUc wood. North, 

(i) A band of »traw. Devon, 
(b) This word is apparently used for the shaft of 
a cliariot in Holinshed, Hist. of England, p.2C. 

(6) A kind uf wax-candle. 

(7) The third and fourth branches of a stag's 
horn arc called the beanu, or bfam-anlUri. 
See Blome's Gent. Kec. p. 77 ; Howard's Daell 
of the Stags, 1668, p. B. 

(8) A trumpet. (J.-S.) 

Aod nowc bene hcnre In hell fier. 

Tell the daye of dome, tell b^amet blowe. 

Clt*tltr Ptayi, i. 17. 

BEAMELINGS. Small ray* of light. See the 
Two Lancaihire Lovers, 1640, p. 7. 

BEAM-FEATHERS. The long feathers in the 
wings of a hawk. According to some, the large 
top feathers of a hawk's taiL 

BEAM-KILLING. Masonry, or brickwork, cm- 
ployed to flush, or fill up a wall between joists 
or beams. Brilfon. 

BEAMFUL. Luminous. Drn\/lon. 

BEAMING-KNIFE. A Unner's initniment, 
mentioned by PaLsgravc, but without flic cor- 
responding word in French ; subsl. f. 19. 

BEAMY. Built with beams. Toptell. 

BEAN. The old method of choosing Idng and 
queen on Twelfth Day, was by having a bean 
and a pea mixed up in the composition of the 
cake, and tbey who found them in their por- 
tions were considered the sovereigns for the 
evening. Herrick alludes to tliis custom, 
as quoted by Narcs, in v. A bean was for- 
mejly a generic term for any thing worthless, 
which was said to be " not worth a licne." 
Narcs mentions a curious phrase, " three blue 
beans in a blue bladder," still in use iu Suf- 
folk, according to Moor, but the meaning of 
which is not very intelligible, unless we sup- 
pose it to create a diffictilty of repeating the 
alliteration distinctly -, and Cotgrave, in v. Fe- 
bur, gives another phrase, " like a beane in a 
monkes hood." 

BEAN-COD. A small tubing vend, 

BEANE. (1) Obedient. (,/. &) 

(2) A bone. ThptfU. 

BEANED. A beaned horse, one that has a peb- 
ble put imder its lame fool, to make it appear 
sound and lirm. 

BEAN HELM. The stalks of beans, tfenl. 

BEAK. (1) A kind of barley. SoHh. See Flo- 
rio, iu V. Fiirro, Zca ; Cooper, iu v. AchiiUian, 

(2) To " bear a hob," to make one among many, 
to lend a helping hand. £01/. 

(3) A meaiage. Such at least appears to be the 
meaning of brare in Chester Plays, L 1 73. 

(4) To " bear in liand," to amuse with frivolous 
pretences, to keep in expectation, to {lersuade, 


to accuse. This phrase is very common 
early works, and is fully illustrated iu Pals-, 
grave, verbs, f. 162. 
(5) To " bear a brain," to exert attenlioo, in- 
genuity, or memory ; a phrase occurring in 
Shakespeare, Marston, and other early dra- 

6) A noise. See Brre. 

7) A tool used to cut sedge and nubei in the 
fens. Norf. 

BEABBIND. Bindweed. .Vor^A. 

BEARD. (1) To oppose face to face in a daring 

and hostile manner. Shuk. 
(2) To make one's beard ; to decdve a penon. 

Chaucer. See Wright's Anec. Lit. p. 30 i , 

Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, iv. 210. 
n) To trim a hedge. Salop. 
\i) An ear of com. Ifuloet. 

(5) The fnllouing proverb, although well known, 
deserves a place in this collection. Cf^ l^yng 
AUsauuder, 1164. 

Mery it li In tlichaJlc, 1 

When berdei wijig alle. MS. Load. CSt, t. O, I 

(6) The coanser parts of a joint of meat. The 
bad (lorlions of a fleece of wool arc also csUed 
the beard. 

UEARIJ-HEDGE. "Uic biuhes which arestuckl 
into the bank of a new-made he<lge, to pro< I 
tcct the fresh planted thorns. L'httA, Also 
called bearding). See Kcnnctl'a GloMarjt, J 
ItlS. Lansd. 1033. 

BE,VRD.TUEE. The hazel. Boucher. 

BEARER. A farthingale. 

BEARERS. The persons who bear or carry ■ ] 
corpse to the grave. In Kent the bier ii some- 
times called a bearer. 

BEAR-GARDEN. A favourite place of unnie. 
ment in the time of Elizabeth, and frequently 
alluded to iu works of that ]>criod. A common 
phrase, " to make as much noise as a bear- 
garden," may hence have its origin. A high 
sounding drum there used is alluded to iu the 
Meeting of Gallants at an Ordiiiarie, 1604. 

BEAR-HERD. Tlie keeper of a bear. Shak. 

BE.XRING. (1) A term at the games of Irish an4] 
backgammon. Sec Two Angry Women <if| 
.Abingiton, p. 12 ; Middleton's Works, ii. 529. 

(2) In coursing, giring the hare the go-bjt • 
called a beanng. See Blome's Gent. Rec ii. 99.1 

BEARING-ARROW. An arrow that carries wclU| 

The foremost toei of ■ 


cock. Diet. Riat. 

BEARING-CLOTH. The fine mantle or cloth 
with which a child is usually covered when it 
is lalried to church to be baptized. Shai. 

UEAUING-niSHES. Solid, substantial ilisbcat 
portly viands. Matiinger. 

BE ARING-OF-TH E-BOOK. A technical tcrml 
aiuuiig the old players for the duties of 
prompter. In the accounts of the chnrciv-| 
wardens of Heybridge, 1532, we have, " Ifc 
fur bari/mj uf the boie, vj. d.," being 1 
the c.xiiciises of a luiraclc-play represented at j 





BEAR-LBAP. According; to Kcnnclt.MS. I.tnsd. 

1033, " B Urge osier basket to carry chaff uut 

of a bam, bom bclweeii two men." Sec 

DE.VR-MOliTllS. Subterranecus possagei by 

whicb men and honet deaccnd to the coal 

mines. North, 
BEARN. (1) A ham. Eatt. 

(2) A chUd. North. 

(3) Wood. Colei. 
UEAUS'-COLLEGE. A jocular term uaed liy 

Beo Jonson for llie bear garden, or Parii gar- 
den, OS it was more freq\icntly called. 

HEAR'S-EAR. The earlv red Biirioula. E<ul. 

BEARS-FOOT. A species of hellebore. See 
Florio, in v. Branca L'nHia, foiunttyitue, 
Eleboro nero. Vie have beargbrtech and 
bforneort, names of herbs. 

BEAR'S-MASQUE. A kind of dance mcn- 
<ione<l in an old play in MS. Bmll. 3U. 

BEAK-STONE. A large stone mortar, fonnerly 
used for unhusking barley. Broeketl. 

BEARWARD. The keeper of a bear. 

BEAB-M'ORM. The palmer-worm. SccTopsell's 
History of Serpents, p. 105. 

BEAS. Cows ; cattle. North. 

BEASEL, That part of a ring in which the 
(tone is set. Mim/icii. Ilowcll calls it ieonV- 
hfad, in his Lexicon, app. Sect, xxxiv. Sec 
also Florio. in v. PimUzza. 

BEASSH. To defile. PaUujrmt. 

BEAST. (1) An old game at cards, similar to 
the modern game of loo, 

(2) Apparently a nicosnrc containing a single 
ftv. See Wardrobe Accounts of Edw. IV, 
p. 129. 

(3) An animal of the becve kind in a fatting 
state. Eatt. 

BEASTING. A beating ; a flogging. Lane. 

BEASTLE. To defile. Somrrut. 

BEASTLINGS. The first milk drawn after a 
cow has calTcd, in some places coniidercd un- 
fit for the calf. A pudding made from this 
milk, called heAstling-pudding, is well known 
for its peculiar richneu. Sometimes culled 
*ee»/, or bratlingt ; and formerly Bp|>licd to 
woman's milk, or of any aniniiil. The word is 
common a* an archaism, and also in the pro- 
vinces. See Cotgrave, in v. Beltm, Calltbottli, 
Laiet, Teline ; Florio, in v. Cul"»tra. 

BEAT. (1) Hares and rabbits are said to bmt, 
when they make a noise at nitting time. Sec 
Blomc's Gent. Uec. ii. 76. As a sporting term, 
to search. 

(2) To repair; to mend. Btul. (AS.) 

(3) To abate. lloUyband. 

(4) Peat Dmm. 

{b) To hammer with one's thoughts on any par- 
ticular subject. Shale. 

(6) A term in grinding com. See Arch. xi. 201. 

(7) " Brewcr'a beat" is mentioned in the Songj 
of the London Prentices, p. 132. Qii. beet 

(8) A blow, "We get but yean and bratt," 
Beaumont and Fletcher, v. 230. 

BEAT-.^WAY. To excavate North. 
BEAT-BURNI.N'G. Denshciing, q. v. 
BEATEM. A conqueror. }'or*«A. 
BEATEN. (1) Trite. hUddleton. 

(2) Stamped on metal. " Beton on the moluc," 
Sir Eglamour, 1031. 

(3) Stationed as upon a beat. See the Lcyccstcr 
Correspondence, p. 1 03. 

BEATER. A wooden mallet, osed for variotit 
purposes. Cotgrave mentions "a thatchur's 
beater," in v. Etehanilalf. Tlie boards piu- 
jecting from the inside cirmmference of a 
churn to bc^t the milk, are called beaters. 

BEATH. To heat unseasoned wood by fire for 
the purpose of straightening it. Font. Tusser 
has the word, and also Spenser. Meat im- 
properly roasted is said in the Midland 
Counties to be beathed. See Ueethy. 

BEATILLES. Giblets. 

llt:.\TINCi.(l)WBlkingabout; hurrying. Wnl. 

(2 A row of cum in the straw laid along the 
ham-floor for thrashing. Noif. 

BEATMENT. A measure. North. 

BEATOUR. Round alMjut. (^.-A^.) 

BEAT-OUT. Puizlcd. Euex. 

BEATWORLD. Beyond conlroul. Eeat. 

BEAU. Fair; good. {.i.-N.) 

BEAUCIIAMP. "As bold as Beauchamp," a 
]iroverbial expression, said to have originated 
in the valour of one of the Earls of Warwick 
of that name. See Narcs.p. 48; Middlcton's 
Works, ii. 411; Brit. Dihl. i. 533. 

BEAUFET. A cupboard or niche, with a canopy, 
at the end of a halt. Drilton. 

BEAU-PERE. A friar, or priest. {A.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 383, 533. Roquefort 
has, " Hcau-pere, titre que Ton donnoit aiu 
rclipeux." Spenser has the word in the sense 
of eomjianioH. See also I'tterson's Pop. Poet. 
ii. 25; Prompt. Parv. p. 31. 

BEAL PERS. Apparently some kind of clolb, 
niditioncd in tlie Book of Rates, p. 26. 

BEAL PLEADER, A writ that Ucs where the 
sheriff or bailiff takes a fine of a party that 
he may not plead fairly, or a fitting to the 
purpose. A'ersey. 

BEAITIFIEI). UeautifuL Shah. 

BEAUTIFUL. Delicious, far. dial 

BEAU-TRj\FS. Loose-pavcmcnts in the foot- 
way, under which dirt aiid water collects, 
liable to splash anv one that treads on them. 

BEAUTY-WATER. Water used hy ladies to 
restore their complexions. Mirgr. 

BEAVBR. (1) That part of the helmet which 
is moved up and down to enable the wearer 
to drink, leaving part of the face cx|iosed 
when up. Perhaps more correctly siicaking, 
the shade over the eyes; and the word is 
even applied to the helmet itself. See ■ dis- 
sertation on the subject in Doucc'a lllnstn- 
lions, i. 438. 

(2) Tlic bushes or underwood growing out on 
the ditchlcss side of a single hedge. Dortet. 

BEAVERAGE. Water cider. Devon. 




BEAVERET. A hmlf-beavrr hat Kmnetfi 

Ulomary, MS. Lantd. 1033. 
BEAWTE. Without ; except, lane. 
BEAZLED. Fatigued. Swufj-. 
BEB. To tip ; to drink. Aorth. Also a teb- 

ber, an Immoderate drinker. 
BEBAST. To beat. Sec IJuphucs Golden Lc- 

gacie, ap. Collier's Shak. I.ib. p. &. 
BE-BERED. Buried. See MS. Arund. 57, 

quoted in Reliq. Antiq. i. 42. Vcrstegao gives 

brbirigtd ill the same sense. 
BEBLAST. Blasted. Gatcoignf. 
BE-BLED. Covered witli blood. {.1.-S.) Sec 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2004 ; Morte d'Artliur, i. 

102, 148, ii. 57 ; Maundcvile's Travels, p. 3. 
The kuiive he tlewe in the bcdd. 
The rychc ctothjr* were alle bt^btrM, 

MS. Omiab. K. il. 38, f. BX 

BEBLIND. To make blijid. (iateoigne. 
BEBLOTTE. To stain. {(^.-&) 
BEBOB. To bob. 

Have you feeoc a dawe behob twu crowei lo ? 

SreetwiM* Old Fita^t \. 78. 

BEBODE. Commanded. Venlegan. 
BE-CALLE. (I) To accuse ; to challenge. See 

Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 257 ; Ywaiuc and 

Gawin, 491. 
f2) To require. Gim. 

(3) To abuse ; to censure. WnI. 
BECASSE. A woodcock. {Pr.) See the Rut- 
land Papers, p. 27. 

BECCHE. Made of iron. 

BECCO. A cuckold, (//a/.) A favourite word 
with our early dramatists. Drayton makes 
becco the Italian for a cuckno, a bird often as- 
similated with human beccos. 

BECKGYN. To besiege. Prompt. Parv. 

BECEKYN. To beseech. Prompt. Pan. 

BECETTYN. To set in order. Prompt. Parv. 

BECI1.\TTED. Bewitched. Line. 

BECHE. A beech tr«e. (A.-S.) 

BECKER. A betrayer. {.i.-S.) 
Love If becher and let, 
Anil lef for lo (ule. MS. Diibi/ BB. 

BECK. (I) A small stream. Var. dial See 
Plumpton Corr. p. 248 ; Harrison's Descrip- 
tion of Britaine, p. 50. 
The lung, the liriine, the paunch and the nerk. 
When Ihey wuhed tie wcU wllh the vater of the 6«r*. 
Boolit nf HuKling, IBM. 

ft) A constable. Haman. 
3) To nod i to beckon. Also a substantive, a 
bow, a salutation. See Ord. and Reg. p. 1 1 1 ; 
King and a Poore Northern Man, 1640; 
Decker's Knights Conjuring, p. 17; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 1 2330, 1 7295 ; Skclton, ii. 280 ; Pals- 
grave, verb, f. 158. A beck was a bend of the 
knee as well as a nod of the head. 

(4) The beak of a bird. Hence the protecting 
tongue of an anvil is called the btck-iron. 
Sometimes the nose it called a beck. Harrison, 
p. 172, talks of a peraon being "wetell 

BECKEIl. A wooden dish. Northumb. 
BECKET. A kind of spade used in digging 
tutf, Eatl. 

BECKETS. A kind of fastening; a place of 

curily for any kind of tackle on board a ahip. 
BECK-STANS. The strand of a rapid riter. 

BECLAPPE. To catch. (.Y.-S.) 
BECLARTED. Besmeared ; bedaubed. North. 
BECLIl'PE. To curdle. MatindeTil*. 
BE-COME. Togo. (A.-S.) The participle fte- 

eom is found in Syr Gawayne. 
BECOMES. Best clothes, hut. 
BECOVGllT. Seined. (A.-S.) 

Swcle Mahoun. what U the red ? 
Love-longlng tne tuth bervught. 

Btrtt "f Humlimm, p. 37. 

BECRIKE. A kind of oath. North. 

BECUKL. To curve ; to bend. Richardton. 

BECYDYN. Besides ; near. Prompt. Parv. 

BED. (1) A be<l of snakes is a knot of youiig 
ones ; and a roe is said to bed when she 
lodges in a particular place. i>ic^ Slut. 

(2) A horizontal vein of ore in a mine. Verbfih. 

(3) To go to bed with. See Jonson's Coavcna- 
tions, p. 19; llardyng Suppt. p. 96, 

(4) Offered. (A.-S.) 

Lord, he niyght fulle wylle tpeil, 

A Lnygbtec dowghttyr waae hyme hed. 

Torrent lif I^ortufenl, p. 54. 

(5) Prayed. (A.-S.) See Warton'a Hist. Engl. 
Poet. i. 12. 

(6) CommandciL Langlifft. 

(7) The horizontal base of stone inserted in a 
wall. Yorkah. 

(8) A fleshy piece of beef cut from the upper 
part of the leg and bottom of the belly. lHut. 
Sometimes the uterus of an animal is so called, 

(9) The phrase of getting out the wrong aide of 
the bed is applied to a person who is peevish 
and illtempcred. Var. diaL 

BEDAl'FE. To make a fool of. (A.-S.) 
UE.D.\G11E. To dawn upon. (A..S.) 
BEDAGLED. Dirtied. HoUyband. 
BED-ALE. Groaning ale, brewed for a christ- 
ening. Deron. 
BEDAND. Offering. {A.-S.) 

.So long he venle forth In hys vef, 

Hit bedc* bfdnna nyghl and dey. 

MS. /iMiwhtn, r. 3, 

BEDASSHED. Covered; adorned. This is ap- 
parently the meaning of the word in Morte 
d'Arthur, ii. 360. 

BEUAWYD. Ridiculed. SkeUon. 

BED-BOARD. " Bedde horde" is transUted hy 
tponde in Pabgrave, iiibst. f. 1 9. 

BEDD. The body of a cart. KntnetftGlonrrg, 
MS. Larud. 1033. 

BEDDE. A husband or wife. {A.S.) 
BEDDEN. To bed ; to put to bed. {A.-S.) 
BEDDER. (1) The under-stone of an oil-mill. 

(2) An upholsterer. JTet/. In some coiutiea, 

BEDDERN. A refectory. (A.-S.) 
BEDDY. Greedy; officious. North. 

BEDE. (1) To proffer; to offer. .Worth. See 
Minot's Poems, p. 19; Laugtoft, f, 29; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 28. 




(2) A prtjer. (A.-S.) 

(3) To order ; to bid. {A.-S.) AlM,conim>ndcd, 
■X in Kob. Glouc.^ p. 1 66. See the vuioiu 
meanings of beiU given by ileame. 

(4) To pniy. (AS.) 

(6) Prohibition. {A.-S.) 
(6\ Placed. Skinner. 

(7) Dwelt ; continued. SUtmer. 

(8) A commandment. {A.-S.) 
BEDEADED. Slain ; made dead. 
BEDEET. Dirtied. Norlh. 

BEUELL. A senritor i perhaps, bailiff. Sifllon. 
The MS. Bodl. 175 reads A«/W, Chester Plavs, 
i. 95, in place of krydell in Mr. Wright's MS. 
BEDBN. Prayers. (A.-S.) Bedet, petitions, 
occnn in the list of old words prefixed to Bat- 
man Dppon Bortholome, 1582. 
BEDENE. Immediately; moreover; collec- 
tively ; continuously ; forthwith. This word is 
used in a variety of senses, sometimes appa- 
rently as a mere expletive. All the above 
meanings are conjectural, and derived from the 
context of passages in which the word occurs. 
BEDERED. Bed-ridden. Prompt. Parv. 
BKDEBK.1D. Darkened. 

But whftnne the blake wyntcr nyjte, 
Wllhoutf mone and »(errc lyjte, 
B**trritid hath the water itrODcle, 
Alle prively they gone to londe. 

Coteo-, MS. Sx. .inllq. 134. t. M. 

BEDEVIL. To spoil anything. South. A per- 
son who is frequently convicted of vile con- 
duct, is said to be bfderited. 

BEDEWITH. Wctteth. Chauetr. 

BED-FAG(JOT. A contemptuous term for a 
bedfellow. Ecut. 

BEDFELLOW. It was formerly customary for 
men even of the highest rank to sleep toge- 
ther ; and the tenn bedfellow implied great in- 
timacy. Dr. Forman, in his MS. Autobiogra- 
phy, mentions one Gird as having been his 
M/elUm, MS. Ash. 208. Cromwell is said to 
have obtained much of his intelligence during 
the civil wars from the common men with 
whom he slept. 

BEDFERE. A bedfellow. Ben Jonaon bos 
btdfhttre, as quoted by Narcs. 

That ]e ichulle ben hU o»cn dere. 
And he tchallc be jowre le4fert. 

iMWer, MS. Sic. .,<|<H«. )M, t. 1S9. 

BEDGATT. Command ? 

Thte balefulle birdei hli broches they lume, 
That byddei hli bedgatt, hti bydilyn^ to wyrchc. 

Mint .4nl,un, MS. UnrtJn, I. M. 

BEDIZENED. Dressed out. Tor. dial. 

BED-JOINTS. Joints of stone that lie in the 
beds of rocks. Derbyik. 

BEDLAM-BEGGARS. A class of vagrants, 
more fully noticed under their other appella- 
tion, Toma of Bedlam, q. v. See several notices 
in Molone's Shakespeare, x. 104. They were 
■loo called bedlams, bedlamcrs, and bedlamites, 
which came to be generic terms for fools of all 
elosses. " Bedlem madnesse" is the transla- 
tion of furor in the Nomenctator, p. 424, 
which may serve to illustrate a possiif in 
2Ilenr) VI. Ui. 1. 


A bed-ridden penon. Prompt 

See Florio, in v. 


Bob. Gloue. 

to deceive. 


BEDLEM. Bethlehem. 
BEDMATE. A bedfeUow. 
BED-MINION. A bardash. 

Caramila, Concubino, 
BEDOLEU. Stupified with pain. 
BEDOLVEN. Digged. SUnner. 
BEDOM. Craved; demanded. 

p. 143. 
BEDON E. Wrought ; made np. 
BEDOTB. To make to dote; 

BEDOUTE. Redoubted. 

AtWTe all men he wa« there moate bedtmtt. 

Hardrnn'i ChninMt, t. IS9. 

BEDPRESSER. A duU hca\7 fcUow. 
BE-DRABYLYD. Dirtied; wetted. It is trans- 

lated by paludotiu in Prompt. Parv. pp. 28, 

283. Corr has drabblt-taU, a woman whose 

petticoats are wet and dirty. 
BEDRADDE. Dreaded. Chaucer. 
BEDKAliLED. Defiled. Skinner. 
DEDHEDE. Bedridden. Chaucer. 
BEDREINTE. Drenched. Chaucer. 
BEDREPES. Days of work performed in 

harvest time by the customary tenants, at the 

bidding of their lords. Sec Ciillum's llawsted, 

1784, p. 189. 
BEDS. The game of hop-scotch. North. 
BEDS-FOOT. The plant mutic Skinnrr. 
BED-STEDDLE. A bedstead. Ekut. 
BED-SUSTEK. One who shares the bed of the 

husband; the conrubiue of a married man in 

relation lo the legitimate wife. See Rob. 

Glouc. p. 27, quoted by Stevenson. 
BEDSWERVER. An adultress. Shak. 
BED-TYE. Bed-tick. Wett. 
BEDUELE. To deceive. {A.-S.) 
BEDWARD. Towards bed. Nam. 
BEDWEN. A birch tree. »ett. 
BEDYNER. An officer. {Dul.) 
Lyare wca ml latymer, 
Sleuthe ant alep ml brd^ner. 

I»'rly(.r. /.yrfc Foetry, p.4>. 
BEE. A jewel. Sec Cooper, in v. Monite ,• 

Morte d'Arthtu-, i. 243. 
BEE-BAND. A hoop of iron wliich encircle: 

the hole in the beam of a plough where the 

coulter is fixed. North. 
BEE-DEE. A nursery song. Yorkih. 
BEE-BIKE. A nest of wild bees. North. 
BEE-BIRD. The willow wren. Var. dial. 
BEE-BREAD. A brown acid substance with 

which some of the cells in a honeycomb are 

filled. Var. diaL See Bee-glue. 
BEE-BUT. A bce-hive. Somertt. 
BEECII-COAL. A pecuUar kind of cool uied 

by alchemists. See Ben Jonson, iv. 52. 
BEECIlti ALL. A hard knot on the leaf of the 

beech containing the maggot of some insect. 
BEE-DROVE. A great crowd of men, or any 

other creatures. Eatt. 
BEEDY. A chicken. Var. dial. 
UEEDY'S-EYES. The pansy. Somtrtel, 
BEEF. An ox. (Fr.) So^ie^e/, a youngovaa 

in llolinsUed, Dck. 'ScqVXiM., v- '^^- 


nEEF-BATERS. Tlie yeomrn of the guard. 
The name it »aid to be corrupted from bfttvf- 
frliert. Sec Boucher, in v. 

nEEFlNTf. AbuUock fit for slaughter. SuffoUr. 

BEE-GLUE. According to Florio, in ». Pro- 
polio, " a aolide matter, and yet not perfect 
wax, -wherCTrith beej fence the entrance of 
their hives to keepc out the «indc or cold." 

BEE-HIVE. A wattled slraw-choir, common 
among cottagers, n'ol. 

UEEK. A rivulet. North. 

BEEKED. Covered with dirt. North. 

BEEKNE. A l>cacon. Prompt. Parr. 

BEELD. (1) Shelter. North. Sometimei a 
ahcd for cattle is called a beeldmg, and it said 
to be beeldy. This is merely a Utter form of 
tetd, q. V. 

(2) To bnild. North. " Decldynge" occur* in 
Prompt. Panr. p. 35. 

BBELE. A kind of pick-axe used in acpanting 

the ore from the rock. 
BEE-LIPPEN. A bee-hivc Somentl. 
BEEM. See Beam. 
BEEN. (1) Decs. {.i.-S.) See Chaucer, Cant. 

T. 10518; Pien Ploughman, p. 493. 
f2J Property ; wealth. Tmnr. 

(3) Tlie plural of the present tense of the verb 
to l)e. Sometimes, have liecn. In some 
dialects, it is equivalent to becaute; and it 
also occurs as a contracted fonii of iy Aim. 

(4) Nimble; clever. Lane. Grose has bienly, 

(5) A withy band. Devon. 
BEENDE. ' Bondage. 
BEENSllIP. Worship; goodneu. 

BEER. Force ; might. Chnh. More, KIS. ad- 
ditions to Ray, has, " to lake beer, to goc 
back that you may leape farther." See also 
Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

BEERE. A bier. Prompt. Part. 

UEEH-GOOD. Yeast. Eait. 

BEERNESS. A becr-ccllor. North. 

BEERY. Intoxicated. Tfarw. 

BEES. (1) " To have bees in the head," a 
phrase meaning, according to Naret, to be 
choleric " To bare a bee in the bonnet," is 
a phnie of similar import, or sometimes 
means to be a little crazy. Toone gives a 
Leicesteithire proverb, " as busy as lioes in a 
bason." See alio Jamieson's Suppl in t. 

(2) The third person sing, and all the pi. future 
tense of the Tcrb to be. North. The ten- 
dency of this dialect is to change th (A.'S.) 
into f . 

(4) Fliei. line. 

(5) Covrs. North. 

BEESBN. Blind. Line. A cemmon expres- 
sion, " as dnmk as a beeim." " WuUo brezen 
the vine zight," will you be bhnd to the fine 
tig^t, Fajrholt's Pageants, ii. 101. Spelt bet- 
fom* in the early editions of Cortolanus, ii. 1. 

DEESKIP. A bce-hivc. fTett. 

BEES.NEST. A kind of flax. Skinner. 

BBESNUM. Be they not. H'etl. 


BttttaiU ttici hod ;nou{e I wot. 

ClirMr Jtfundi, US. Trin. CM. Cmrnl. t. IS. 

BEET. A beet of flax, translated by linifrangi- 
bula in Skinner. For other meanings sec Bete. 

BEET-AXE. The instrument used in bttling 
ground in denshering. Devon. 

BEETHY. Soft, sticky ; in a perspiration. Un- 
derdone meat is colled beethy. Duucumb ex- 
plains it " withered." Ilerrforxiih. 

BEETLE. A heavy wooden maUet, oied for 
various purposes. A " three man beetle," 
says Narea, was one so heavy that it required 
three men to manage it, two at the long han- 
dles and one at the head. lioUyband, in his 
Dictionarie, 1593, mentions " a bccile which 
lauiidren do use to wash their buck and 

BEETLE-BROWED. Havniig brows that hang 
over. Shakespeare luea the verb beetle, Ham- 
let, i. 4. Cf. Piers' Plouglunan, p. 88 ; Da 
Bartas, p. 65'2 ; Howell, sect. 21 ; Rom. and 
Jidici, i. 4. 

BEETLE-HEADED. DuU: stupid. Sh»k. In 
Dorsetshire, the miller's thtuub is called a 

BEETLE-STON. The cantharides. Florio. 

BEETNEED. Assistance in the hour of distress. 

BEFAW.V. To surround ; to seize. {J.^i 
And yf [;e] iw ■ Kbnipe of pilm*. 
Then fyllc to them btfitwn. 

its. Cantab. f(. U. an. r. M. 

BEFET. A bufl-et ; a blow. (.1..N.) 

BEFFING. (1) Barking. Line. 

(2) Burning land after it is jMircd. North, 

BEFIGHT. To contend. Surrey. 

BEFILIN. To defile. 

BEFILL. Befell. (A.-S.) 

BEFLAYNE. Flayed. 

Outt of hU ikyn h« wu tujiaynt 
AUc quik, snd to that wjwtUjrne. 

GCKTR-, M.^ Sx. JnlUi. 134, t. Slit. 

BEFLECKE. To streak ; to spot. 

Why bluih fou, And why with rrmillloD taint 
BeJIecke your chcrki ? TurberOt't Otid,iStt2, t, ISA. 
BEPON. To befall .> Totmeley Mytt. 
BEFORE. To lake before one. " Shall I take 
that before me .'" that is, " shall I take it with 
me when I go there ?" Kent. 
BEFOREN. Before. (^.-S.) nrforti is com 
men in early works, and in the dialects of 
present day. 
DE-FOTE. On foot. Prompt. Parr. 
UEFROSE. Frozen. 

Over Daunby thllke flood, 
Whicho alle i^nm thao Hood. 

Ooictr, Ita. ae. Jmllf. IM, t, IS. 
BE FT. Struck ; beaten. Gow. 
BEFYCE. Beau fils. See Prompt, Parr. p. 88, 
pulchrr filiiu ,• and Rit»nn"» Met. Rom. tii. 266. 
This generic name is often adopted in the old 
BEFYLDE. Dirtied. 

I pniye you tberfora hertyly, 
That you wyll take il picintly, 
For I am all l--fyldt. Tht Vnlmtkie FbmenMt. 


ram- ■ 
rtbe ■ 


BEG. To beg ■ peraoo for a fool, was to aiiply 
to be bii gnardiui, under a writ dt idiola in- 
fuirendo, by which, if a man wa> legally 
proved an idiot, the profits of his hind and the 
custody of hit person might be granted by the 
king to any subject. Nam. The custom is 
frequently alluded to by our old dramatists. 
BEGAB. To mock i to deceive, 
BEGALOWE. To out-gallop. 

That wu a wy^t a* any twalowe, 
Tb«i my5t no bon hym b€galuvc. 

US. C^nlith. rt. li. 311, r. 114 

BBGARED. Adorned. Sktiltm. 

BEG AY. Tomakegav. Beaumont. 

BEGAYGED. Bemtched. Drrom. 

UECCIilS. Bitches. Cov. i/yt. 

BEGE. Big. Caw. 

IIEGECK. A trick. Kitmt. 

BEGENELD. A mendicant. Piert PtoughmaH. 

BEGETARE. A begetter. Prompt. Parr. 

BEGGAR. " Set a beggar on hor>cbark,an(l be 
will ride to the jakes," a common proverb ap- 
plied to those who have suddenly risen in 
wealth, and are too proud even to walk there. 
So that tlyvcrs of our uylon wrr* much ofTftiilrd, 
and uyd, let a beggct on hontucke and h« wy) 
ryde unreafonablye. Jlf.v. M<lit. aiOO. 

at cards. The players throw a card alter- 
nately, till one throws a court cani, the ad- 
versary giving one card for a knave, two for a 
queen, three for a king, and four for an ace, 
this proceeding being interrupted in the same 
manner if the other turns up a court card or 
an ace, which generally makes the game an 
unreasonable length. 

BEGGAR'S-BUSH. According to Miege, a 
rendezvous for beggars. " To go by beggar's 
bush," to go on the road to ruin. Beggar's 
bush was also the name of a tree near London. 
Clcavchtnd, in his ilidsuiumcr Moon, p. 188, 
•ays, "if a man be a tree iiivers'd, bee's beg- 
gar's bush." See also the Two Aiigrie Women 
of Abingdon, p. 80. A similar phrase, " we 
■re brought to beggcr stafle," occurs in the 
Plumptnti Correspondence, p. 199. 

BEGGARS-ULTTO.NS. The burson on the 
burdock. Drvon. 

BEGGARS-NEEDLE. The shepherd's needle. 
Midland C. 

BEGGARS-VELVET. The light particles of 
down shaken from a feather-bed, and left by 
■ aluttish housemaid to collect under it. Eatt. 
The term Irggart' -boUi, stones, is of a similar 

BEGGAR-WEED. The com spurry. Dedt. 

BEGGARY. FuU of weeds. Eait. 

BEGHE. A crown ; a gulaod. {A.-S.) 

BEG I LED. Beguiled. (.1.-N.) 

BBGINNYNGE. A principle. Chmuxr. 

BEGIRDGE. To grudge. Somerttt. 

BEGKOT. Foolish. (,Y...V.) 
B*skol an Inhlc. 
Hade him at ride 
In the dlimsle. 

ITrifAr'l Pulllual Ikmfi, p. 3M. 

BEGLE. Boldly? 

The !>era>yni «ere swythe ilronge. 
And hclde Tyght begle and Umge. 

US. cuhtai,. tf. a. a), r. lot. 

BEGLUED. Overcome. Lydgate. 
BEGO. To do ; to perform. (,/.-&) In the 
following passages, used for lirgon, part. pa. 
And tolde him how hit ws> Ufa, 
Of U wcle and of ii wo. 

Beits ti/ /iomfown, p. 77. 
The cnhe it U, whicbetvenuo 
WItli mannii Utioure Is a«g«. 

Cower, US. 5pr. ^nlii. I.Tt, f. SO. 
BEGON. Adorned. Frequently used in this 
sense. See Rcliq. Anliq. ii. 19 ; Illustrations 
of Fairy Mythology, p. 59 ; Rom. of the Hose, 
943. 'Then we have, vfl ifgon, in a good nay ; 
u-o begvH, fat gone in woe ; icorse btgon, in a 
worse way, &c. 
BEGONE. Decayed ; worn out. Eail. 
BEGONNE. Begun. (A.-S.) 
BEGORZ. A vulgar oath. Somrrtet. Perhaps 
more generally pronounced ltryu4h. " Bcgimi- 
mcrs" is another oath of simihtr formation. 
BEGRAVE. Buried. {J.-S.) 

Into the grounde, where alia gone. 
This ded lady wu b^irrwee. 

Cower, US.Soc.Aiili>l. IS4, Ml?. 

BEGREDE. To cry out against. {A.-S.) He- 
grod occurs in Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. 51. 
Ljiuncelot of treuoo they Ae-^redde, 
CaUyd hym (aU and kyngys tiaytoure. 

MS, HuW.83S9, r. ion. 

BEGRUMPLED. Displeased. Somernl. 

BEGUILED. Covered with guile. Shak. 

BEGtlNES. A sort of nuns. Skinntr. 

BE-GYFTE. Gave. 

Tbcfe, where haste thon my oxen done 

That y the It-stfu. US. Canmb. Ft. II. 38, f. 8C. 

BEGYN. A biggin. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 74. 

BEGYNGGE. Careful. (A.-S.) 

A ttgufgrt gome, garocllche gay. IMif . jKllf. il. U. 

BEH. Bent ; inclined. (A.-S.) 

BEHALT. Beheld. tTeifr. 

BEHALVE. Half; side, or part, (^.-i) 

BEIIAPPEN. Perhaps. Salop. 

BEHATED. Hated i exceedingly haled. The 
term occura in the Morte d'Arthur, ii, 82 ; 
Stanihurst's Description of Ireland, pp. 34, 44 i 
Palsgrave's Acolastus, 1640. It is the syno- 
nj-me of Ao/y, and translated by exomt in 
Prompt. Parv. p. 222, the former of which has 
no connexion with jV.-S. heobc. Sec Haly. 

BEHAVE. To manage; to govern, generally in 
point of behaviour. The substantive behariovr 
seisms used in a collateral sense in King John,* 

BEHEARD. Heard. See Percy's RcUquea. 
p. 23 ; Robin Hood, i. 123. 

Ful wel 6<A<nl now Khali It be. 
And sUo tjclovcd In many contrr. 

US. C. C. C. C M, 

BE-HELIED. Covered. {A.-S.) See EUis's 
Met. Rom. ii. 258; Richard Coer dc Lion, 5586. 

BE-HERTE. By heart ; with memory. Pivmtit. 

BEHEST. (1) A promise. {A.-S.) Sec Chaucer, 




Cant. T. 4461 ; Miundevile's Traveli, p. 1 ( 
Harrowing of Hell, p. 27. spelt byhihtta. 
(2) An order ; a command. 
BEHETE. To promise. {A.-S.) See Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 1816 j Chester Plays, i. 31. 

The ffmpctowrf modur lei oille a knave* 
And hym btKtIl grctc oicdc to have. 

MS. Omiob. ft. II. 38, r, 83. 
Hshad a queue that hyghte Margaret, 
Trewe a* ttele, y yow frMi^r. Ibid. f. 71. 

BEHEWE. Coloured. {A.-S.) 
IJEHIGHTE. To promise. {A.-S.) Behighteo, 
pa. t. pi., Chaucer, Cant. T. 11639; Maunde- 
vile's Travels, p. 3. 
BEHINT. Behind. North. 
BEIllTIIER. On this side. Sunex. It is 
also an archaism. See Nares, in t. Somerset- 
ihire carters say tether to their horses, when 
they \rish them to move towards their 
BEHOLOINGNESS. Obligation, irebtter. 
BE-HONCYD. Hung with tajieslrv. »>4fr. 
BEHOOVEFULL. Useful ; profitable. See lUy- 
wood's Apology for Actors, 1612 ; BriU Bibl. 
t 20, Ash gives the form behoovable. 
BKHOTTO. To promise. Prompt. Parv. 
BEHOTYNGE. Promising. Mavnderile. 
BEllOUNCED. Finely dressed; smart with 
finery. Eitex. Kennett says " ironically ap- 
plied," MS. Lansd. 1033. 
BEHOVE. Behoof; advantage. {A.-S.) 
Her l;cglnnclh the I'rlkkc of Love 
That profllablc U to loule h^hftvt. 

rvniMi US. r. iu. 
BEHOVELY. Profitable. {A.-S.) See TroUus 
and Creseide, ii. 261. 

U ii bcAiHtWy for to here. 

MS. Sx. .4r,lll. 194, f. 53. 

BEHUNG. Hung about, as a horse with bells. 

Kmaetl, MS. Lamd. 1033. 
BEIE. Both. {J.-S.) 

Agein to tiataille thcl wenle. 
And foughlen harde togldere M«a 
Never on of other ne ftod cle. Otutl, p. 47. 
HEIGH. A jewel j an ornament. {A.-S.) This 
word, which occurs under various forms, 
sometimes has the signification of a ring, a 
bracelet, or a collar for the neck. 
BEIGHT. Anjlhing bent, but generally applied 

to the bend of the elbow. North, 
BEILD. (1) See Beld. 

Land o live, o ro and rest* 
Wit blU and bttU broldeo Imt. 

MS. Colt, yapat. A. Ul. f 7. 
(2) Aliandle. Yorbh. 
BEILDIT. Imaged ; formed. Gaw. 
BEING. (1) Because. Far. dial. 
(2) An abode ; a lodging. E(ut. 
BEINGE. Condition, fffber. 
BEIKE. (1) Of both. Sob. Gloue. 
(2) Bare. Ibid. 

BEJADE. To weary ; to tire. Milton. 
BEJAFB. To ridicule, make game ot {A.-S.) 
See Chaucer, CanL T. 16853; Troilus and 
Creseide, i. 532 ; V. 1119. 

But covertly ye uf your dewbitnea 
Ajfipen bem thu*, al day ben men blyndyd. 

MS. roir/u \t. 

Ha waa laat worth In lovU ye, 
And moat btjapul in hit wiue. 

CoKtr, MS. Soc. Anlli. 134, f. S& 

BEK. To beckon. {A.-S.) 

That he fcle on hii hon nek. 
Him to heveden thai gan to t}*k. 

Jtnhvur and Merlin, p. 193. 
UEKE. The brim of a hat or hood; anything 
standing out firm at the bottom of a covering 
for the liead. The term has not yet been 
explained. The above is conjectural from the 
passages in which the word occm in Sttiitt, 
ii. 212; Phtnch^, p. 231; Ruthud Papers, 
p. 6 p Brit. BibL iv. 27. 
BEK.EANDE. Wanning; sweating. Ritton. See 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1459; bekynge, Morte 
d'Arthur, i. 139. 
BEKENE. A beacon. {A.-S.) 
BEKENEDEN. Beckoned. IFicUife. 
BE-KENNE. To commit to. {A.-S.) 

Thii Irttte («-«rend< Aleiander to the knyghtis of 
Dariua, and the peper al>o, and bad Ihami bcr« 
thame to the emperour : and he galTe thame grate 
gyftci and rlche, and tent thame furthe. 

MS. Ufimta A. i. 17. f. «. 
And thou, his derlyng, 
Hla modir In kepyng 

To the he Itkimdt. ItM. f. 131. 

BEKERE. To skirmish ; to fight. Spelt bekire 
in Syr Gawayne, another form of biektr. Sec 
also Prompt. Parv. p. 36. 
BEKINS. Because. Doml. 
BEKKYS. Begs. Tovmeley M^il. 
BEKNE. A beacon. Prompt. Parv. 
BEKNOWE. To acknowledge; to confen. 
{.i.S.) See Catalogue of Douce MSS, p. 7 ; 
Chaucer, Cant. T, 1558, 5306 ; Richard Cocr 
de Lion, 1700; Amis and Amiloun, 1279; 
Octovian, 1810. See Ui-tnoirrn. 
And thaline, yf y be for to wile, 
1 wolle btkniwm what It i«. 

Gowcr. US. &r. Afliif 134, f. 41. 

BEKNYNGE. A beckoning. Prompt. Part. 
BEKUn. Fight ; battle ; skirmish. 

And yf he myght of hym be aekure. 
Odur In tnlell or In bekur. 

MS. Conlab. Ff. U.SJ, f. fl7. 
And jyf y Be that ychc brkfr, 
Y hope than y may be Bckyr. 

US. Barl. I7»|. I. H. 
BEL. Beautiful. {A.-N.) 
DELACOIL. A frieudly reception. Sipeiurr. 

Cluucer has bialacoil, q. y. 
UELAFTE. Left ; remained. 

At hyt waa Ooddyt owne wyllr. 
Thelyenaa btlafu thechylJe ttylle. 

MS. Cantab. ¥t. II. 38, f. M. 
Whan he for luite hti God refuaelh. 
And took him to the dcvclla eraftc, 
Lo what profit him It l<rlufte. 

Gvwcr, MS. Soc. Antta. IS4, t. M. 


BE-LAGGYD. Dirtied; wetted. Prompt. Pan. 
BELAM. To beat. See Cotgrave in ». Cka- 
peron ; Famoiu Victories, p. 320. 

A country Ud had alept aaide with a wench, and 
done I know not what; but hli father mainly t<- 
lomt'd him for the fact, the wench prnovlng mtta- 
ward with child. 

»»'i«», ruiiu, and ranrit, law, p. IN. 







BELAMOUR. A fair low r. Spetutr. 
BEL-AilY. Fair friend, (./..yv.) SeeHnrts- 
borne'i Mrt. Tales, p. 107; Che«ter Ptay», 
i. 151 s Wriglifi Pol. Songs, p. ZOO ; Towne. 
ley Mviteries, p. 70; Chaucer, Cant. T. 
12252; Ywaineand Gawin, 278; SirTristrem, 
p. 161 ; Rob. Clone, p. 390. 

Bthimp, he K^dc, how lon^ 
Shcl thy Mft r-lMie I 

US. CMI. Trim. Onn.n 
Setamye, and thou co«dy«l hjrt Uyoe, 
A cownftellc y woldc to ibe uyne. 

MS. Canlali. Ft. U. 38, t. 03. 

BELAPPED. Surrounded. 

Owtr of the woile they cune anon.