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VOL. I. 




9b:(ttnit anti Probtnctal SHESortid, 




Honomy Member of the BotbI Irish Academy: Corresponding Member of the Bojral Society of Northern 
Antiqwies, of the Society of Antiquuries of SooUand, of the Archnolodcal Sode^ of StocUiolm, and the 
Heale Academia di Hrenze : Honorarr Member of the Roval SocietT of lateratore, of the Newcastle 
Antiquarian Society, of the Roral Camorian Institution, of tne Ashmolean Society at Oxford, and of the 
Society for the Stndr of Gotnic Architecture: Fellow of the Sode^ of AntiquBries; Correspondinc 
Member of the Comite dei Arts et Monuments, kc. Ice. 

VOL. I. A— I. 





C. and J. AiUard, Pi inters, Hur'hukiucw Close. 


The difficulties proreibially attending the flnt essay in a literary design of 
any magnitade oonstitate ope of the yery few apologies the pnbUo are generally 
willing to concede an author for the imperfect execution of his undertaking. 
Perhaps no desideratum in our literature could be named which needs this 
indulgence more than a Dictionary of the Early English language, — a work 
requiring such extensiTe and varied research, that the labours of a century would 
sdU leave much to be added and corrected, and one which has been too often 
abandoned by eminent antiquaries for failure to be conspicuous. It is now 
brought to a completion for the first time in the following pages, in some 
respects imperfectly, but comprising a yariety of information nowhere else to be 
met with in a coUective state, and forming at present the only compilation 
▼here a reader of the woiks of early English writers can reasonably hope to find 
explanations of many of the numerous terms which have become obsolete 
during the last four centuries.* 

So fur I may be permitted to speak without intrenching on the limits of 
criticism. A work containing more than 50,000 words,t many of which have 
nerer appeared even in scattered glossaries, and illustrated, with very few 
exceptions, by original authorities, must contain valuable material for the 
philologist, even if disfigured by errors. With respect to the latter contingency, 
I sm not acquainted with any glossary, comprising merely a few hundred words, 
which does not contain blunders, although in many instances the careful atten- 
tion of the editor has been specially directed to the task. Can I then anticipate 
that in a field, so vast that no single life would suffice for a minute examination 
of every object, I could have escaped proportionate liabilities f That such may 
be pointed out I have little doubt, notwithstanding the pains taken to prevent 

* A Glottary of Archaic and Prorindal Words was oompfled about tfty yean ago bj the Rev. 
Jonathan Boodier, l^car of fipsom, hut only a smaU portion, extending to Biot has yet heen 
pobhsbed. Themanosa^whichisinthecustody of one of the editors of the work, I have not 
seen, hut to judge firom what has appeared, it prohahly contains much irrelevant matter. Mr. 
Toone has given ns a small manual of eariy Eng^ words, 8vo. 1832. Nares* Glossary, published 
in 1822, is conSned to the Elizabethan period, a valuable work, chiefly compiled from the notes to 
the variorum edition of Shakespeare. 

t The exact number of words in this dictionary is 51,027. 

I. b 


their occurrence ; but it will be manifestly unfair to make them the test of merits 
or thence to pronounce a judgment on the accuracy of the whole. I may add 
that the greatest care has been taken to render the references and quotations 
accurate, and whenever it was practicable^ they have been collated in type with 
the originals. The great importance of accurate references wiU be fully appre- 
ciated by the student who has experienced the inconyenience of the many 
inaccurate ones in the works of Nares^ Oifford, and others. 

The numerous quotations I have given firom early manuscripts will generally be 
found to be literal copies from the originals, without any attempt at remedying 
the grammatical errors of the scribes^ so frequent in manuscripts of the fifteenth 
century. The terminal contractions were then, in fact, rapidly vanishing as part 
of the grammatical construction of our language, and the representative of the 
vowel terminations of the Anglo-Saxon was lost before the end of that century. 
It is only within the last few years that this subject has been considered by our 
editors, and it is much to be regretted that the texts of Ritson, Weber, and 
others are therefore not always to be depended upon. For this reason I have 
h)id recourse in some cases to the original manuscripts in preference to using 
the printed texts, but, generally, the quotations from manuscripts have been 
taken from pieces not yet published. Some few have been printed during the 
time this work has been in the press, a period of more than two years. 

In ascertaining the meaning of those early English words, which have been either 
improperly explained or have escaped the notice of our glossarists, I have chiefly 
had recourse to those grand sources of the language, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo* 
Norman. It appeared to me to be sufficient in such cases to indicate the imme- 
diate source of the word without referring to the original root, discarding in 
fact etymological research, except when it was necessary to develop the right 
explanation. Etymological disquisitions on provincial words have also been 
considered unnecessary ; but in some few instances, where there existed no rea- 
sonable doubt, the root has been mentioned. 

In explaining terms and phrases of the Elizabethan era, I have had the 
advantage not enjoyed in preparing that part of the work which relates to the 
earlier period, of referring to the labours of a predecessor in the same task. The 
Glossary of Archdeacon Nares has here necessarily in some respects been my 
guide, generally a faithful one as far as his explanations are concerned, but still 
very imperfect as a general glossary to the writers of that age. I have attempted 
to supply his deficiencies by more than trebling his collection of words and 
phrases, but my plan did not permit me to imitate his prolixity, and I have there- 
fore frequently stated results without explaining the reasoning or giving the 
reading which led to them. Nares' Glossary is however, notwithstanding its 
imperfections, a work of great merit, and distinguished by the clearness and 


diflcrimuuition with which the collections of the Shakespearian commentators 
are arranged and discossed. To find him occasionally in error merely illostrates 
the impossibility of perfection in philological studies. 

Haying had in Tiew the wants of readers unskilled in eariy English rather 
than the literary entertainment of professed students, 1 hare admitted numerous 
forms the etymologist will properly regard corrupt, and which might easily haye 
been reduced to their original sources. I may have carried the system too far, 
but to have excluded corruptions would certainly have rendered the work less 
generally useful ; and it is not to be presumed that every one who consults a 
manual of this kind will despise the assistance thus afforded. There are, too, 
many corruptions the sources of which are not readily perceiyable even by the 
most experienced. 

So many archaisms are undoubtedly still presenred by our rural population, 
that it was thought the incorporation of a glossary of provincialisms would 
render the work a more useful guide than one restricted to known archaisms. 
When Ray in 1674 published the first collection of English localisms, he gives 
three reasons for having undertaken the task : " First, because I knew not of 
anything that hath been already done in this kind ; second, because I conceive 
they may be of some use to them who shall have occasion to travel the Northern 
counties, in helping them to understand the common language there ; third, 
because they may also afford some diversion to the curious, and give them occa- 
sion of making many considerable remarks." It is remarkable that Ray seems 
to have been unacquainted with the real value of provincial words, and most of 
his successors appear to have collected without the only sufficient reason for pre- 
serving them, the important assistance they continually afford in glossing the 
works of our early writers. 

Observations on our provincial dialects as they now exist will be found in the 
following pages, but under the firm conviction that the history of provincialisms 
is of far inferior importance to the illustration they afford of our early language, 
I have not entered at length into a discussion of the former subject. I have 
spaj^d no pains to collect provincial words firom all parts of the country, and 
have been assisted by numerous correspondents, whose communications are care- 
fully acknowledged under the several counties to which they refer. These com- 
munications have enabled me to add a vast quantity of words which had escaped 
the notice of all the compilers of provincial glossaries, but their arrangement 
added immeasurably to the labour. No one who has not tried the experiment 
can rightly estimate the trouble of arranging long lists of words, and separating 
mere dialectical forms. 

The contributors of provincial words are elsewhere thanked, but it would 
Jiardly be right to omit the opportunity of enumerating the more extensive com- 

viii PREFACE. 

municationB,, I may, then, mention my obligations to Ciq[»tain Henry Smith, for 
his copious glossary of Isle of Wight provincialisms ; to the Rey. James Adcock^ 
to whom I am principally indebted for Lincolnshire words ; to Ooddard Johnson^ 
Esq. for his valuable Norfolk glossary ; to Henry Norris, Esq. for his important 
Somersetshire collection; to David E. Davy, Esq. for his MS. additions to 
Forby ; to Major Moor, for his collections for a new edition of his Su£folk Words 
and Phrases ; and to the Rev. J. Staunton, for the use of the late Mr. Sharp's 
manuscript glossary of Warwickshire words. Most of the other communications 
have been of essential service, and I cannot call to mind one, however brief, 
which has not ftumished me with useful information. My anonymous correspond- 
ents will be contented with a general acknowledgment ; but I have not ventured 
to adopt any part of their communications unsupported by other authority. My 
thanks are also returned to Mr. Toone, for MS. additions to his Glossary, chiefly 
consisting of notes on Maasinger ; to Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, for a few notes on 
hunting terms in the earlier letters ; and to Mr. Chaffers, jun. for abrief glossary 
compiled a few years since from Chaucer, Lydgate, &c. But my chief obliga* 
tions are due to Thomas Wright, Esq. M.A., whose suggestions on nearly every 
sheet of this work, as it was passing through the press, have been of the 
greatest advantage, and whose profound knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and Ang^o- 
Norman has frequentiy been of essential service when the ordinary guides had 

been ineffectually consulted. 


Brixton Hill, Svaiunr, 
F€b. Ut, 1S47. 


RoBBKT of Gloucester, after describing the Norman Conquest, ihos alludes to the change of 
Uofoage introduced by that event : 

And the Nonnau ne couthe tpeke tho bote her owe speche. 
And ipeke French at dude atom, and here chyldren dude alio teche. 
So that hey men of thii lond. that of her blod come* 
Holdeth alle thulke ipeche that hii of hem nome. 
Vor bote a man couthe French, me toith of hym wel lute, 
Ac lowe men holdHh to Engljf9»t and to her kunde §p9Ch§ yitt* , 
Ich wene ther ne be man in world contreyet none. 
That ne holdeth to her kunde speche, bote Engelond one. 
Ac wel me wot vor to conne bothe wel yt ys, 
Vor the more that a man con, the more worth he ys. 
This extract describes very correctly the general history of the languages current in England for 
tbe first two centuries after the battle of Hastings. Anglo-Norman was almost exclusively the lan- 
guage of the court, of the Norman gentry, and of literature. *< The works in English which were 
written before the Wars of the Barons belong,'' says Mr. Wright, *< to the last expiring remains of an 
older and totally different Anglo-Saxon style, or to the first attempts of a new English one formed 
upon a Norman model. Of the two grand monuments of the poetry of this period, Layamon 
bdoogs to tbe former of these classes, and the singular poem entitled the Ormuhtm to the latter. 
After the middle of the thirteenth century, the attempts at poetical composition in English became 
more frequent and more successful, and previous to the age of Chaucer we have se^^ral poems of 
i very remarkable character, and some good imitations of the harmony and spirit of ihe French 
versification of the time." After the Barons' Wars, the Anglo-Norman was gradually intermingled 
with the Anglo-Saxon, and no long time elapsed before the mongrel language, English, was in 
general use, formed, however, from the latter. A writer of the following century thus alleges his 
retaon for writing in English : 

In Englia tonge y ichal 50W tell^ 

5yf fe so long with me wyl dwelle t 

Ne Latyn wil y speke ne watte, 

Bot BngUich that men utes matte. 

For that y> joure kynde langage. 

That je hafe here most of usage ; 

That can ecA man untherstondo 

That Is bom In EngUmde ; 

For that langage ys mottschewed, 

AU wel mowe lereth as lewed. 

Latyn also y trowe can nane, 

Bot tho that hath hit of schole tane t 

Som can Frensch and no Latyne, 

That uaeth has court and dudlt thcrinne. 

And som can of Latyn aparty, 

That can Frensch ful febylly ; 

And som untherstondith Euglisch, 

That nother can Latyn ne Frenich. 

Bot lerde, and totrd^, titd and ^ong, 

AUe unthentondith Bngtisch tonge, 

Therfore y holde hit most siker thannc 

To schewe the langage that ech man can ; 

And for lewethe men namely. 

That ran no more of clergy, 

Tho ken tham whare roost nede. 

For clcrkes can both se and rede 

In divers bokes of Holy Writt, 

How they schul ly ve, yf thay loke hit : 

Tharcfore y wylle me holly halde 

To that langage that Englisch ys caldc. US. Bo<U. 48, f. AH. 



The author of the Cursor Mundi thought each nation should be contented with one language, 
and that the English should discard the Anglo-Norman : 

Thit ilk bok it es tnuulate 
Into iDglU tong to rede. 
For the love of Inglit lede, 
Inglis lede of Ingland, 
For the commun at undentand* 
Frankit rimes here I redd 
Comunlik In ilk tted. 
Matte* it wroght for Franklt xtun, 
Quat U/^MmnaFrankUeanf 
Of Inglaod the nadon 
£• InglltinaB thar In oommun ; 
The tpeche that man wit mast may cpede» 
* Matt thar wit to speke war nede. 
SeUtH woa fiir ani ehane* 
Praittd IngiU ^ng in Franet / 
Gi9§ w» Wean thart Imngage, 
Me tkmk tot do tkam imm outrago, 

JfS. Cott, Vetptu. A. Ui. f. 2. 

In the curious tale of King Edward and the Shepherd, the latter is described as being perfectly 
astonished with the French and Latin of the court : 

The lordis anon to chawmbur went* 
The kyng aftur the acheperde tent. 

He was bro5t forth fkiUe sone ; 
He chiwed his hed, hla hare he rent. 
He wmde wel to haTe be schent. 

He ne wytt what was to done. 
When he French and Latyn herde. 
He hade roerrelle how It ferde. 

And drow hym ever alone : 
Jhesu, he seld, for thi gret grace* 
Bryngme fkyre out of this place ! 

Lady, now here my bone ! 

MS. Cantab, Ff. T. 48* f. 56. 

In the fifteenth century, English may be said to have been the general language of this coun- 
try.* At this period, too, what is now called old English, rapidly lost its grammatical forms, and 
the English of the time of Henry YIII., orthography excepted, diiffers yery little from that of the 
present day. A few archaisms now obsolete, and old phrases, constitute the essential 

Our present subject is the proyincial dialects, to which Uiese very brief remarks on the general 
history of the English language are merely prdiminary, — a subject of great' difficulty, and one 
which requires far more reading than has yet been attempted to develop satisfactorily, especially 
in its early period. Belieying that the principal use of the study of the English dialects consists 
in the explanation of archaisms, I have not attempted that research which would be necessary to 
understand their history, albeit this latter is by no means an unimportant inquiry. The Anglo- 
Saxon dialects were not numerous, as far as can be judged from the MSS. in that language which 
have been preserved, and it seems probable that most of our English dialects might be traced 
historically and etymologically to the original tribes of the ^ons. Angles, and Jutes, not forget- 
ting the Danes, whose language, according to Wallingford, so long influenced the dialect of 
Yorkshire. In order to accomplish this we require many more early documents which bear upon 
the subject than have yet been discovered, and the uncertainty which occurs in most cases of 
fixing the exact locality in which they were written adds to our difficulties. When we come to a 
later period, the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, there being no standard literary form of our 
native language, every MS. sufficiently exhibits its dialect, and it is to be hoped that all English 
worics of this period may one day be classed according to their dialects. In such an undertaking, 
great assistance will be derived from a knowledge of our local dialects as they now exist. Hence 
the value of specimens of modem provincial language, for in many instances, as in Robert of 
Gloucester's Chronicle, compared with the present diudect of Gloucestershire, the organic forms of 
the dialect have remaiiied unchanged for centuries. The Ayenbyte of Inwyt is, perhaps, the most 
remarkable specimen of early English MSS. written in a broad dialect, and it proves very satis&c- 
torily that in the fourteenth century the principal features of what is termed the Western dialect 
were those also of the Kentish dialect. There can be, in fact, little doubt that the former was 

* Anne* Countets of SUflbrd* thus writes In 1438* I «« ordeyne and make my testament in English tooge for 
ray roost profit, redyng* and understandyng in this wise.'* 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


kmg cmrent throiighout the Southern counties, and even extended in some degree as far as Essex.* 
If we judge from the specimens of early English of which the localities of composition are known, 
we might perhaps divide the dialects of the fourteenth century into three grand classes, the 
North^, the Midland, and the Southern, the last being that now retained in the Western coun- 
ties. But, with the few materials yet published, I set little reliance on any classification of the 
lend. If we may decide from Mr. Wright's Specimens of Lyric Poetry, which were written in 
Herefintlshire, or from Audelay's Poems, written in Shropshire in the fifteenth century, those 
counties would belong to the Midland division, rather than to the West or South. 

The few writers who have entered on the subject of the early English provincial dialects, have 
advx>cated their theories without a due consideration of the probability, in many cases the cer- 
tainty, of an essential distinction between the language of literature and that of the natives of a 
Goonty. Hence arises a fallacy which has led to curious anomalies. We are not to suppose, 
merely because we find an early MS. written in any county in standard English, that that MS. is 
a correct criterion ci the dialect of the county. There are several MSS. written in Kent of about 
the same date as the Ayenbyte of Inwy t, which have none of the dialectical marks of that curious 
work. Most of the quotations here given from early MSS. must be taken with a similar limita- 
tion as to theu' dialect. Hence the difficulty, from want of authentic specimens, of forming a 
cbasification, which has led to an alphabetical arrangement of the counties in the foUowing brief 

The dialect of this county has been fully in- 
vestigated in Batchelor's Orthoepical Anidysis 
of the English Language, 8vo. 1809. Ew takes 
the pUoe of ow, m of a, 010 of the long 0, oi of 
iy &c When r precedes t and e final, or t and 
other consonants, it is frequently not pro- 
nounced. Ow final is often changed into ^; 
pe final, into dge; and g final is sometimes 

The Berkshire dialect partly belongs to the 
Western, and partly to the Midland, more 
steoDg^y marked with the features of the former 
in the South-West of the county. The a is 
dianged into 0, the diphthongs are pronounced 
broadly, and the vowcds are lengthened. Way 
is proDOonced woye ; tMJt and thai for this and 
that ; ke for him, and §he for her. 

The language of the peasantry is not very 
broad, although many dialectical words are in 
general use. A list of the latter was kindly for- 
warded to me by Dr. Hussey. 

There is little to distinguish the Cambridge* 
diire dialect from that of the adjoining counties. 
It is nearly allied to that of Norfolk and Suffolk. 
The perfect tense is formed strongly, as hit, hot, 
atf sot, fpartf spore, e.g. "if I am spore," 
Le. spared, &c I have to return my thanks to 

the Rev. J. J. Smith and the Rev. Charies 
Warren for brief lists of provincialisms current 
in this county. 

The Cheshire dialect changes / into w, Winto 
WOT oOii into oi or ee, into tt, a into 0, into 
a, If into i, ea into yo, and oa into iro. Mr. 
Wilbraham has published a very useful and cor- 
rect glossary of Cheshire words. Second ed. 
12mo. 1836. 

Extract from a Speech ofJudm Iscariot m the 
Play qfChritfM Entry into Jeruaalem, 

By deare Ood in magittle ! 

I am 10 wroth u I maye be. 

And some waye I will wrecken me, 

At sone aa ever I male. 

My mayiter Jeiui, aa men maye see, 

Was rubbed heade, foote, and knye, 

With oyntroenteof more dalntle 

Then I see manye a dale. 

To that I have greate envye. 

That he suffired to dettroye 

More then all his good thrye* 

And his dames towe. 

Hade I of it hade maiaterye, 

I woulde have soulde it sone io hie, 

And put it up in tresuerye. 

As I was woDte to doe. 

Wliatsoever wes geven to Jesu, 

I have kepte, since I hym knewe ; 

For he hopes I wObe trewe. 

His purse allwaie I bare. 

Hym hade bene betur. In good faye. 

Hade spared oyntmente that dale. 

* Thte is stated on sufficiently ample authority, but Verstegan appears to limit it in his Ume to the Western 
CBOBttes, — *« We see that In some seTerall parts of England itselfe, both the names of things, and pronuntia- 
tlons of worda, are somewhat diffinvnl, and that among the country people that never borrow any words out 
of tlw Latin or French, and of this different pronuntiation on6 example in steed of many shal suffice, as this : 
for pronouncing according as one would say at London, / would eat mon ehtese if I had it, the Northern man 
sdCb, Jy tmd eat more rJteeee gin a^ hadet, and the Westeme man saith, Chud eat more eheeee an chad U, Lo 
hccM three different proDOuntiations in our owne country in one thing, and hereof numy the like examples 
t be alteaged.".- Verttegan's Reetitution, 16S4, p. 105. 


For wrocken I wilbtiome wale 

Of wute that was done their ; 

Three hundreth penny worthes it wai 

That he let spill in that place ; 

Therefore God geve me harde grace. 

But hymselfe shalbe soulde 

To the Jewes, or that I sitte, 

For the tenth penye of it : 

And thb my maister shalbe quite 

My grefllB a hundreth foulde. 

Chetter Piaps, li. IS. 

It is almost unnecessary to observe, that the 
ancient Cornish language has long been obso- 
lete. It appears to have been gradually disused 
from the time of Henry VIII., but it was spoken 
in some pafts of the country till the eighteenth 
century. Modem Cornish is now an English 
dialect, and a specimen of it is here given. 
Polwhele has recorded a valuable list of Cornish 
provincialisms, and a new glossary has recently 
been published, in ' Specimens of Cornish Pro- 
vincial Dialect,' 8vo. 1846. In addition to these, 
I have to acknowledge several words, hitherto 
unnoticed, communicated by Miss Hicks, and 
R.T. Smith, Esq. 

Harrison, Description of Britaine, p. 14, thus 
mentions the Cornish language : " The Cornish 
and Devonshire men, whose countrie the Britons 
call Cerniw, have a speach in like sort of their 
owne, and such as hath in deed more affinitie 
with the Armoricane toong than I can well dis- 
cusse of. Yet in mine opinion, they are both 
but a corrupted kind of British, albeit so far de- 
generating in these dales from the old, that if 
either of them doo meete with a Welshman, they 
are not able at the first to understand one an- 
other, except here and there in some od words, 
without the helpe of interpretors.'' 

In Comwat, Pembr. and Devon they for to milk 
say milky, for to squint, to squinny, this, thicky, 
Ac, and after most verbs ending with consonants 
they clap a y, but more commonly the lower part of 

LhupiC* MS. Jdditions to Rap, Athm, Mum. 

(1) The Cornwall Schoolboy, 
An ould man found, one day, a yung gentleman's 
portmantle, as he were a going to es dennar; he 
took'd et en and gived et to es wife, and said, 
'* Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, I suppoase 
some poor ould shoemaker or other have los'en„ 
tak'en and put'en a top of the teaster of tba bed, 
he'll be glad to hab'en agen sum day, I dear say." 
The ould man, Jan, that was es nearae, went to es 
work as before. Mally then open'd the portmantle, 
and found en et three hunderd pounds. Soon after 
thes, the ould man not being very well, Mally said, 
*' Jan, rave taaved away a little money, by the bye, 
and as thee caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to 
scool" (he were then nigh threescore and ten). He 
went but a very short time, and comed hoam one 
day, and said, <' Mally, I wain'tgo to scool no more, 
'caase the childer do be lalTen at roe : they can tell 
their letters, and I caan't tell my A, B, C, and I 
wud rayther go to work agen." ** Do as thee wool," 
ses Mally. Jan had not ben out many days, afore 
the yung gentleman came by that lost the port- 
niantiej and said, '* Well, my ould man, did'ce see 

or hear tell of sich a thing as a portmantle ?" ** Port- 
mantle, sar, was't that un, sumthing like thickey ? 
(pointing to one behind es saddle.) I found one the 
t'other day aackly like that." «• Where es et >" 
** Come along, I carr'd'en en and gov'en to my wife 
Mally ; thee sha't ar'en. Mally, where es that rotil 
of litlier that I givM tha the t'other day ?" *' What 
roul oflither ?" said Mally. " The roul of Utber I 
broft en and tould tha to pufm a top of the teaster of 
the bed, afore I go'd to scool." " Drat tha empe- 
rance," said the gentleman, «* thee art betwattlcd« 
that was before I were bom.** 

(2) J Western Eclogue, 
Pengrouse, a lad in many a science Mest, 
Outshone his toning brothers of the wctt : 
Of smugUng, hurling, wrestling much he knew. 
And much of tin, and much of pilchards too. 
Fam'd at eadi village, town, and country-house, 
Menacken, Helstone, Polkinhorne, and Grouse ; 
Trespissen, Buddock, Cony-yerle, Treverry, 
Polbastard, Hallabassack, Eglesderry, 
Pencob, and Restijeg, Treviskey, Breague, 
Irewinnick, Buskenwyn, Busveal, Roscreague : 
But what aTaiI'd his fame and various art. 
Since he, by love, was smitten to the heart ? 
The shaft a beam of Bet Polglase's eyes ; 
And now he dumpUn loaths, and pilchard pies. 
Young was the lass, a servant at St. Tiny, 
Born at Polplsa, and bred at Mevagiszy. 
Calm o^er the mountain blush'd the rising day. 
And ting'd the summit with a purple ray. 
When sleepless fh>m his hutch the lover stole. 
And met, by chance, the mistress of his soul. 
And ** Whither go'st i" he scratched his skull and 

" Arrear, Ood bless us," well the nymph reply'd, 
M xo Yealston sure, tobu^ a pound o'backy. 
That us and measter wonderfully lacky ; 
Ood bless us ale, this fortnight, 'pon my word. 
We nothing smoaks but oak leaves and cue-terd.** 

Arrear then, Bessy, ty aloane the backy. 
Sty here a tiny bit and let us talky. 
B«My, I loves thee, wot a ha me, say. 
Wot ha Pengrouxe, why wot a, Bessy, hm ? 

Ah, hunkin, hunkin, mind at Moushole liair 
What did you at the Choughs, the alehouse there ? 
Whm you stows eighteen pence in cakes and be^. 
To treat that dirty trollup. Mall Rosevear : 
You stuflb It in her gills, and makes such pucker, 
Arrear the people thoft you wld have choack her. 
Pmtgro u se. 

Curse Mall Rosevear, I says, a great Jack whore, 
1 ne'er sees such a dirty drab before : 
I stuflfk her gilb with cakes and beer, the hunk. 
She stuffs herself, she meslin and got drunk. 
Best* drink sure for her Jaws wan't good enow. 
So leckerf makes her drunk as David's sow ; 
Her feace Is like a bull's, and 'tis a fooel. 
Her legs are like the legs o' cobler's stooel ; 
Her eyes be grean's a llck,^ as yaflters big, 
Noase flat's my bond, and neck so black's a pig. 
Bet Polgtate, 

Ay, but I've more to say ; this isn't ale. 
You deanc'd wy Mall Rosevear 't a sartin bale ; 
She toald me so, and lefts me wy a sneare — 
Ay I you, Pengrouse, did deance wy Mall Rosevear. 

* Best drink implies strong beer. 
X Green as a leek. 

t Brandy. 


> Now, BcMy, lure me, Betty, vtth and soale. 
Hire me, I says, and thou shat hire the whoale } 
One night, a Wensday night, I vows to Goade, 
Aloaae, a hottback, to Tresouae I roade ; 
Sore Bc«y valh, diat hire me. 'tis no lies, 
A d — mnder bale was never teed wy eyes. 
I hire* sum mlxsiek at an oald beame doore. 
And hf rea a vroodrooa routing on the floore ; 
So In I pope my head ; tays I, arreare ! 
Why, what a deril't neame h dobig heare ? 
Why doancing, crlea the crowder by the wale. 
Why deaodng, deandng, roeaster— 'tit a bale. 
Dcaadng, tays I, by Gam I hiret turn preancen. 
Bat tell ua where the devil be the deancen ; 
For fy the dutt and ttrawae so fleed about, 
I could not, Beasy, tpy the hoppen out. 
At latte I tpiet Rosevcar, I with her dead, 
Who meako medeanceall nite, the stinking Jade. 
Says I. I have no thoose to kkk a foote : 
Why kick, tays Mall Rotevear, then kick thy boote. 
And* Bet. dlat hi|p me. for to leert ut ale, 
A farthing candle wink'd again the wale. 

Ah, hunkin, hunkln, I am huge afraid 
That you b laughing at a timple maid. 

Deare,dcarett Bet, let's hug thoe to my hearte. 
And may us never never never pearte ! 
No, if I lies than, Beasy, than I withet 
The Shackleheadt may never close the fbhet ; 
That picky dogt may eat the tccane when fule, 
Eat'n to ragi, and let go ale the schule. 

Btt Polglat*. 
Then here't my bond, and wy It teake my hearte. 

Goade bleiB ut too, and here it mlnei, odt hearte ! 
Ooe boaa, and then to Pilchardlng I'll packy. 

Bet Poiglase. 
And I to Yealttonefor my matter*t backy. 

(3) A Cormth Song. 
Come, all ye jolly Tinner boyt, and Ils<«n to me ; 
rn tea cc of a ttorie shall make ye for to tee, 

f Boaey Peartie, the ichaamet whkh he had 

To atop our tin and copper minet, and all our pilchard 

Be fTrTn">**wH forty thousand men, to Polland they 

did goa, 
AH for to nA aad plunder there you very well do 

Bat lan-tbon-MiMi were killed, and laade dead in blood 

And thirty thousand ranned away, and I cante tell 

where, Pm sure. 
And should that Boney Peartle have forty thoutand ttlll 
To maake into an army to work his wicked will. 
And try for to Invaade ut. If he doent quickly fly- 
Why, forty thousand Cornish boys shall knawa the 

Harea for tin and copper, boys, and fisheries likewise ! 
Horca for Conlsh maadens — oh, bless their pretty 

Horaa for our ould gentrle, and maf they never faale ! 
florca, hurea for Cornwall! hurea, hoys, "one and 


The dialects of Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
KorthTnnberiand, and Durham may be consi- 

dered to be identical in all essential peculiari- 
ties, the chief differences arising from the mode 
of pronunciation. According to Boucher, the 
dialect of Cumberland is much less uniform than 
that of Westmoreland. In Cumberland, wo is 
in frequent use instead of the long o, as will be 
noticed in the following example. A glossary of 
Cumberland words was kindly forwai^ed to me 
by Mr. Thomas Sanderson. 

(1) Love m Cumberland. 
Tune,-^** Cuddle roe, Cuddy." 
Wa, Jwohn, what'n mannishment's 'tis 

'At tou's gawn to dee for a hisxy ! 
Aw hard o* this torrable fist, 

An'aw'tcum't to advlte tha', — 'at it ee. 
Ifun, thoull nobbetlwose teegud neame 

Wi' gowlin an' whingln sea mickle ; 
Cocktwunturs ! min beyde about heame. 

An' let her e'en ga to auld Nlckle. 
Thy plew.geer't aw llggin how^trow. 

An' tomebody't ttown thee thy couter ; 
Oh faikt ! thou't duln little 'at dow 

To fath theesel iwer about her. 
Vour Seymey hat broken car ttang. 

An' mendit it wid .a dog-coaker ; 
Pump-tree't geane aw wheyt wrang. 

An* they've tent for auld Tom SUwker. 
V'oung fiUy't dung oure the lang stee, 

An' leam'd peer Andrew the theeker ; 
The9 mudder wad suffbr't for tee. 

An haw hadn't happ*n't to cleek her. 
Thou't tpoilt for aw manner o' wark s 

Thou nobbet titt peghan an' pleenan. 
Odtwucke, man ! doff that durty tark, 

An'pretha gi'eway git a clean an 1 
An' then gow to Carel wi* me,— 

Let her gang to knock-cross wid her scwomin. 
Sec danken at market we'll see. 

All np'od ta' forglt her *or mwomin' I 

(2) Sorifft by Miu Blamire, 
What ails this heart o' mhie ? 

What means this wat'-ry e'e ? 
MThat gars me ay turn pale as death 

When I tak' leave o' thee ? 

When thou art far awa*, 

Thou'U dearer be to me ; 
But change o' place, and change o* folk. 

May gar thy fancy jee. 

When I lit down at e'en. 

Or walk In morning air, 
ilk rustling bough will seem to say, 

1 us'd to meet thee there ; 

Then 111 sit down and wail. 

And greet aneath a tree. 
And gin a leaf fa' i' my lap, 
I's ca't a word frae thee. 

I'll hie me to the bow'r 

Where yews wi* roses tred, 
And where, wi' monie a blushing bud, 

1 strove my face to hide ; 

ril doat on Ilka spot, 

Where 1 ha'e been wi' thee. 
And ca' to mind some kindly look 

'Neath ilka hollow tree. 

Wi' sec thoughts i' my mind. 

Time thro* the warl may gae. 
And find me ttlil. In twenty years. 

The same as I'm to-day } 


Tls fHendship bean the Bway, 
And keepi fHends I' the t^t ; 
And gin I think I eee the ttiU. 
Wha can part thee and me ? 

« This dialect,'' observes Dr. Bosworth, ** is 
remarkable for its broad pronunciatioii. In me 
the e is pronounced long and broad, as mee. 
The / is often omitted after a or o, ta aw for all, 
eaw, call, bowd, bold, caud, cold.- Words in ing 
generally omit the^, but sometimes it is changed 
into ii as ihmJt for thing, hvin for loving. 
They use confer can ; eomitfr for cannot ; Mhanner 
for shall not ; woolf wooner for will, and will not ; 
yo for you, &c.*' Lists of provincial words pe- 
culiar to this county have been kindly forwarded 
by Dr. Bosworth, Thomas Bateman, Esq., the 
Rev. Samuel Fox, the Rev. William Shilleto, 
Mrs. Butler, and L. Jewitt, Esq. 

A Dialogue between Farmer Bennet and Tummut 

Farmer Btimti, Tummus, why dunner yo mend 
meh thoom f 

T^tmnuu Ltde, Becos. mater, *tlf so cood, I Con- 
ner work wee the tachin at aw. I've brockn It ten 
timet l*m thur to de— it fteeses ao hard. Why, 
Better hung out a tmock-fh>ck to dry, an in three 
minitt it wor fronen at ttiff at a proker, an I Con- 
ner aflbrd to keep a good Are ; I with I cud. I'd toon 
mend yore thoon, an uthert tow. I'd toon yam 
turn munney, I warrant ye. Conner yo find turn 
work for m*, metter, thete hard timet i I'll doo 
onnytblnk to addle a penny. I con threth— I con 
tplit wood — I con mak tpart— I con thack. I con 
tkower a dike, an I con trench tow, but it flreeset 
so hard. I con winner — I con fother, or milk, if there 
be need on't. I woodner mind drivin plowor onny think. 

Farmer B. I banner got nothin for ye to doo, 
Tummut ; but Metter Boord towd me Jitt now that 
they wor gooln to winner, an that they thud want 
rombody to help 'em. 

Tnmmui L. O, I'm glad on*t. I'll run oor an see 
whether I con help 'em ; bur I banner bin weein the 
threthoM ov Metter Boord't doer for a nation time, 
becos I thoot mitset didner ute Hetter well ; bur I 
dunner bear malice, an so I'll goo. 

Farmer B. What did Mittet Boord sa or doo to 
Hetter then ? 

Tummue L. Why, Heater may be wor tummut to 
blame too; for her wor one on *em, de ye see, that 
Jawd Skimmerton, — the nuk-gam that f runted sum 
o'the gentefook. They tald 'twor time to dun wee 
aich Utter, or tich ttuff, or I dunner know what they 
cawd it ; but they wor f^nted wee Hetter bout it ; 
an I tald, if they wor fhmted wee Hetter, they mid 
bee fhinted wee mee. Thit tet mittet't back up, an 
Hetter banner bin a charrin there tin. But 'tit no 
ute to bear malice t an so 111 goo oor, and lee which 
we the winde Uowt. 

BoewortKt Jnglo-Sasm DUtimmyt Introd. p. 31 . 

The MS. Ashmole 33 contains an early ro- 
mance, written about the year 1377, which 
appears to have been composed by a dergyman 
living in the diocese of Exeter. Several extracts 
from it vnll be found in the following pages. 
The MS. possesses great interest, having part of 

the author's original draught of the romance. 
See farther in Mr. Black's Catalogue, coL 15. 

" A Devonshire song" is printed in Wits Inter- 
preter, ed. 1671, p. 171 ; the " Devonshire ditty" 
occurs in the same work, p. 247. The Exmoor 
Scolding and the Exmoor Courtship, specimens 
of the broad Devonshire dialect at the commence- 
ment of the last century, have been lately repub- 
lished. The third edition was published at Exeter 
in 1746, 4to. Mr. Marshall has given a list of 
West Devonshire words in his Rural Economy 
oftheWcstof Enghmd, 1796,voLi. pp. 323-32, 
but the best yet printed is that by Mr. Palmer, 
appended to a Dialogue in the Devonshire 
Dialect, 8vo. 1837. A brief glossary is also 
added to the Devonshire Dialogue, 8vo. 1839. 
My principal guide, however, for the dialectical 
words of this county is a large MS. collection 
stated in Mr. Thomas Rodd's Catalogue of MSS. 
for 1845 (No. 276) to have been written by Dr. 
Milles, Dean of Exeter, and quoted in this work 
as Dean Milles' MS. I have been since informed 
that it was compiled by the late Rev. Richard 
Hole, but in either case its integrity and vahie 
are undoubted. Notes of Devonshire words 
have been kindly transmitted by the Rev. John 
Wilkinson, J. H. James, Esq., William Chappell, 
Esq., Mrs. Lovell, and Mr. J. Metcalfe. The 
West Country dialect is now spoken in greater 
purity in Devonshire than in any other county. 

The following remarks on the English dialects 
are taken from Aubrey's Natural History of 
Wiltshire, a MS. preserved in the library of the 
Royal Society : 

The Northern partt of England tpeake guttu- 
rally ; and in Yorkthire and the bithoprick of Dur- 
ham they have more of the codenee, or Scottith tone 
than they have at Edinborough : In like manner. In 
Herefordthire they have more of the Welch cadence 
than they have in Wales. The Westeme people can- 
not open their mouthet to speak ore rotunth. Wee pro- 
nounce jwa/, pale, dcct and especially In Deronthlre. 
The Exeter Coll. men in ditputationt, when they 
allege Cau$a CauuB est Cauea Cautati, they pronounce 
it, Oaza, Catm eet Gasa CaaUi very un-gracefully. 
Now ^contra the French and Itallant doe naturally 
pronounce a fully ore rotundo, and e, and even chil- 
dren of French bom in England : and the farther 
you goe South the more fully, qd. NB. Thit mutt 
proceed f^om the earth or aire, or both. One may 
obtenre, that the tpeech (twang or accent— adiantus) 
of ye vulgar begint to alter tome thing towardt the 
Herefordthln* manner even at Cyrencetter. Mr. 
Thorn. Hobbt cold me, that Sir Charlet Cavendith 
did tay, that the Orceket doe ting their wordt (aa 
the Herefll doe in tome degree). From hence aroee 
the accentt, not uted by the anclentt. I have • 
conceit, that the Brltont of the South part of thit Itle, 
e. g. the Trinobantet, &e., did tpeak no more guttu- 
rail, or twangingt, than the inhabltanto doe now. 
The tone, accent, Ac, dependt on the temper of the 
earth (and to to plants) and aire. 

(1) A Lwen? Diahgue. 

Hob, I love dearly. Bet, to hear the tell ; but, good 
loving now, let't tell o'snmmet elte. Time tlips 

Bet, I, fegt,thatltdith. I wamlt our voket won- 
der what the godger*! a come 6ine. Ill drive home. 
I with thee good neart. 


Art. Wliy then aov. Oh, B«C I yoa gncM what 
I ha to ten ahoot, and jfm warnt haar me. 

Atf. 1, aayo, CO t—a iidd l e-de-dee - b Und mare 

Raft. There ageo f — did ever aojr boddy hear the 
Uker Well, toce, what be I todo ? 

BtL I whh. Rab, yoo'd kave Tettloff me. Plthee, 
Icc^ hen DomoreoTlat. 

Bmb, WoU, I aee how 'tis. Youll bethe death 
&wm, that'! a mre thiof • 

Bee, Dear hart, how yoo tell 1 I the death o^ 
tfiee t— BO, not vor the woild, Rab. Why Pd nefer 
the heart to hurt thee nor any kindeet thing In all 
ny bom days. What whinulee yo« have I Why do 
yo p«t youndf In rach a pudcer ? 

Ra6. Why, because the mhmct I go about to 
bnak any macnd, whlpiooe, you be a-go, and than I 
CDod bite my toogna. 

JM. Why than will you reeai me away when you 
know I ean't alnde to hear o*at ? Oood-now, donVee 
■ay no more about et. V* have always been good 
frtenda— let ue bide lo. 

Jtflft. I'Te now began, and I want let thee go till 
thee hast a>heard me out. 

BiC Well, I w(dl, but don't'ee cream my hand lo. 

Ite6. I don't know what I do nor what I say ;— 
■uny many nearto I haVt a teen'd my eyes vor 
thinking o^thee. I can*t live so, 'tis never the neer 
to tdl o*at ; and I must make an end o*at wan way 
or fodicr. I be bent upon't ; therefore don't stand 
shiUy-shallf , but lookeedeaee, W thee dlsn't aay thee 
vfd ha me, bevore thicca doud hath hcal'd every 
ebasn o' the aaoon, sure an double>sure I'll ne'er 
ax the* agen, but go a soger and never see home 
ao more. Lock! lock I my predous, what dist cry vor? 

B«c I be a cruel moody-hearted tiresome body ; 
and yon scare wan, you do so. I'm in a sad quan- 
dory. Iv I say Is, I may be sorry : and If I say no, 
I Bsay be sorry too, itmmet. I hopyou wkln't use 
mo badly. 

Raft. Diet think, my sweeting, I shall e'er be 
na^d anew to claw out my own eyes ? and thee art 
dearer to BBC than they be. 

RM. Hold not so breach now, but hear first what 
rve to aay. Yoo most know, Rab, the leet money 
I've a eroop'd up I be a shirk'd out o^, but 'twill 
never goodee way an« 111 tell thee how I was 

Ra6. Good-now, lovey, don'tee think o'at. We 
shall fiidgee and find without et I can work, and 
win workf an all my earklng and oaring will be for 
th#o, and everything shall bee as thee woud ha'et. 
Thee Shan do what thee wld. 

RM. I say so too. Co, co, Rab, how you tell I 
Why,pithee, don't'ee think I be such a ninny-ham- 
»ar as to desire et. If'tls ordained I shall ha thee, 
m do my best to make tha a gude wife. I don't 
sranttobecocker'd. Hark I hark I donti hear the 
boU lowering for alght?~'tis, as I Uve. I shaU ha 
oc wfasa I get home. 

Ra6i. If I let thee go now, wUl meet me agen to- 
morrow evening In the dimmet ? 

JM. No. To-morrow morning at mUkhig time 

Rs«. Sure and sura. So I wUh theegood neart. 
Bab. Neart, neart. my sweeting I 

( S) John Chawbaean and hit wife MoU, emn tip 
fExtter touethe raUway opened, Mayl, 1844. 

«« Lor Johnny ! lor Johnny ! now whatlvver es that, 
A vniiv along like a boss upon wheeb ? 

*Tfa as bright as yer buttons, and black as yer hat, 
And Jist listen, Johnny, and yer how 'a squeals I" 

"DashmybuttosM, If oil— ru be damM l/Iknowt 

Cs was vools to come yerr and to um Into danger , 
Let's be off— 'a spits vire I lor, do let us go— 

And *a holds up his head like a goose at a stranger. 
" I be a bit vrighten'd— but let us bide yerr ; 

And hark how 'a puIBi, and 'a caughs, and 'a blows ; 
He edden unlike the old cart-hoss last yer— 

Broken-winded t— and yet only see how 'a goes i 
<* 'A urns upon ladders, with they things like wheeU, 
Or hurdles, or palings, put down on the ground ; 
But why do they let *un stray out of the veels f 

'Tis a wonder the? dont dap *un into the pound." 
" 'A can't be alive, Jan— I dont think 'a can." 

•« I bafait sureo* that, MoU, for Jist look'ee how 
'A breathes like a boss, or a snlvell'd old man : — 

And hark how he's bust out a caughlng, good now. 
'< 'A never could dra' all they wagglns, d'ee see. 

If 'a Uved upon vetches, or turmets, or hay ; 
Why, they waggh» be vUl'd up with people— tbey be ; 

And do 'ee but look how they're larfln away ! 
<« And look to they ehlldem a umlng about, 

Wi' thdr mouths vull of gingerbread, there by the 
And see to the scores of vine ladies tum'd out ; 

And gentlemen, aU In thdr best Zunday dothes. 
*' And look to this house made o^ canvas so smart ; 

And the dinner set out with such bussle and fuss i — 
But us brought a squab pie, you know, in the cart. 

And a keg of good alder— ao that's nort to us. 
** 1 un 'ee what 'tb, MoU— this here is my mfaid. 

The world's gone quite mase, as sure as you'ro bom ; 
'Tls as true as I'm living— and that they will vind. 

With thdr bosses on wheels that don't live upon com. 
* ' I wouldn't go homeward b'mbye to the varm 

Bdiind such a critter, when all's sed and dun. 
We've a travell'd score miles, but we never got harm, 

Vor there's nort like a market cart under the sun." 


" The rustic dialect of Dorsetshire," observes 
Mr. Barnes, *' is, with little variation, that of 
most of the Western parts of England, which 
were included in the kingdomof the West Saxons, 
the counties of Surrey, Hants, Berks, Wilts, and 
Dorset, and parts of Somerset and Devon." The 
Dorset dialect, however, has essential features 
of that of the Western counties which are not 
heard in Surrey or Hants, as will be sufficiently 
apparent from the specimens here given. The 
language of the south-east part of Dorsetshire 
is more nearly allied to that of Hants. 

*• In the town of Poole," according to Dr. 
Salter, " there is a small put which appears to 
be inhabited by a peculiar race of people, who 
are, and probably long have been, the fiisbing 
population of the neighbourhood. Their man- 
ner of speaking is totally different from that of 
the neighbouring rustics. They have a great 
predilection for changing all the Towels into 
short ti, using it in the second person,but without 
a pronoun, and suppressing syllables, e. g. cot'n 
ear^t, can you not carry it, &c" Mr. Vernon, 
in remarking upon these &cts, observes, " the 
language of our seamen in general is well worth 
a close investigation, as it certainly contains not 
a few archaisms ; but the subject requires time 
and patience, for in the mouths of those who 


call the BeUeroi^ioii tnd the Ville de Milan, the 
Bitty Ri^Jlam and the WheeUem'Okmgj there is 

** But doth tnffier t lea^faange 
Into Knnething new and strange." 
This must be received with some limitation, and 
perhaps applies almost entirely to difficult mo- 
dem terms not easily intelligible to the unedu- 
cated. Many of the principal English nautical 
terms have remained unchanged for centuries. 

Valuable lists of Dorsetshire words have been 
liberally sent me by the Rev. C. W. Bingham, 
James Dayidson, Esq., Samuel Bagster, Esq., 
Dr. Salter, and O. GoUop, Esq. ; but my prin- 
cipal references have been made to the glossary 
attached by Bfr. Barnes to his '' Poems of Rural 
Life in the Dorset Dialect," 8vo. 1844. The 
same work contains a dissertation on the dialect, 
with an account of its peculiar features. The 
change of o into a, so common in Dorsetshire, 
completely disappears as we proceed in a westerly 
direction towards Worcestershire. 
(1) ^ Letter from a Parith CUri in Donetehire 
to an absent Vicar, m the Dialect qf the 
County, From * Poems on several Occasions, 
formerly written by John Free, D.D.,' 8vo. 
Lond. 1757, p. 81. 

Meuter, an't pleMe you, I do send 

Theai letter to you u a yriend. 

Hoping you'll pardon the indiling, 

BeoM 1 am not ui'd to writing. 

And that you will not take unkind 

A word or so ftom poor George Hind, 

For I am always In the way. 

And needs must hear what people aay. 

First of the house they make a Joke> 

And say thechlmnle* never smoak. 

Now the occasion of these Jests, 

As I do think, where swallows nests. 

That chanc'd the other day to vaal 

Into the parlour, sut and aal. 

Beside, the people not a few 

Begin to murmur much at you. 

For leaving of them In the lurch. 

And letting stralngers serve the church. 

Who are in haste to go agen, 

Zo, we ha'nt sang the Lord knows when. 

And for their preaching, I do know 

As well as moost, 'tis but so, so. 

Zure if the call you had were right,' 

You ne'er could thus your neighbours slight. 

But I do fear you've set your aim on 

Naught in the world but vilthy mammon, Ac. 

(2) Asen Maidens to goo to Fiair. 
To-manra work so hard's ya can. 
An' git yer Jobs up under ban*, 
Var Dick an' 1, an' Poll's young man 

Be gwftin to flfair ; an' soo 
If you'll tiake hold ov each a yarm 
Along the road ar in the swarm 
O* vo'ke, well kip ye out o'harm. 

An' gi ye a fialren too. 
W« woon't st&y liate ther ; I'll be boun* 
We'll bring our shiadesback out o' town 
Zome woys avore the sun is down. 

So long's the sky b clear ; 
An* aoo, when al yer work's a-done, 
Ter mother cant but let ye run 
An' see a little o^ the ftan 

Wher nothin is to fear. 

The sun ha' flow'rs to love his light. 
The moon ha' sparklen brooks at n^ht. 
The trees da like the pliysome flight 

Ov ayer vrom the west. 
Let some like empty sounds to mock 
Ther luonesome v&lce by hill or rock, 
But merry chaps da like t' unlock 

Ther hearts to maidens best- 
Zoo you git ready now, d'ye hear ? 
Tho's nar another fialr so near. 
An' thiese don't come but twice a year. 

An' you woon't vind us spiaren. 
We'll goo to al the sights an' shows, 
O' tumblers wl' ther spangled cloa's. 
An* conjurers wi' cunnen blows. 

An* raffle var a fialren. 

(3) The Woodlands, 

spread agen your leaves an' flow'rs, 
Luonesome woodlands ! sunny woodlands 

Here underneath the dewy show'rs 

O' warm-lir'd spring-time, sunny woodlands ! 
As when, in drong ar oben groun', 
Wi' happy buoyish heart I voun' 
The twitf ren birds a-buUden roun* 

Your high-bough'd hedges, sunny woodlands I 
Ya gie'd me life, ya gie'd me jAy, 

Luonesome woodlands ! sunny woodlands I 
Ya gie'd me health as in my plAy 

1 rambled droo ye, sunny woodlands I 
Ya gie'd roe freedom var to rove 

In Airy meid, ar shiady grove t 
Ya gie'd me smilen Fanny's love. 

The best ov all o't, tunny woodlands 
My vust shill skylark whiver'd high, 

Luonesome woodlands I sunny woodlands ! 
To sing below your deep-blue sky. 

An* white spring-clouds, O sunny woodlands ! 
An' boughs o' trees that oonee stood here, 
Wer glossy green the happy year 
That gie'd me oon I lov'd so dear. 

An' now ha lost, O sunny woodlands! 
O let me rove agen unspied, 

Luonesome woodlands t sunny woodlands ! 
Along your green-bough'd hedges* side. 

As then 1 rambled, sunny woodlands ! 
An' wher the miss^n trees oonce stood, 
Ar tongues oonce rung among the wood, 
My memory shall mlake em good, 

Though you've alost em, sunny woodlands ' 

(4) The Weepen Uady, 
When liate o* nights, up<Hi the green. 
By (Alk wold house, the moon da sheen, 
A Uady there, a-hangen low 
Her head's a-wak-en to an' fh> 
In robes so white's the driven snow ; 

Wr oon yarm down, while oon da rest 

Al lily-white upon the breast 
O fAik poor weepen Uady. 
The curdlen wfai* an' whlslen squall 
Do shiake the ivy by the wall. 
An* miake the plyen tree-tops rock, 
But never ruffle her white f^k. 
An* slammen door an' rottlen lock 

That in thVk empty house da sound. 

Da never seem to miake look round 
l^ik downcast weepen Uaday, 
A Uaday, as the tlale da goo. 
That oonce liv'd there, an* lov'd too true. 
Wer by a young man cast aside 
A mother sad, but not a bride ; 
An' then her father in his pride 


An* anger ollln'd oon o* two 

Von bitter things to undergoo 
To thxk poor we^pen lisdy. 
That the herntf should le^ve hb door. 
To darken it again noo rouore, 
Ar that her litUe pliyaome chile, 
A*aat awoy a thousand mile, 
Should never meet her eyes to smile* 

An' plAy again, till she in shiame 

Should die an' leAve a tamish'd niame, 
A sad Tazsiaken Uady. 
" Let me be loat." she cried, « the while, 
I do bat know var my poor chile ;" 
An' left the huome ot al her pride, 
To wander droo the wordle wide, 
Wl* grief that vew but she ha' tried. 

An* Ilk' a flow^ a blow ha' broke, 

She withered wi' Mik deadly stroke. 
An' died a weepen Uady. 
An' she da keep a^^omen on. 
To see thXk father dead an' gone, 
Aiif her soul could have noo rest 
Avore her teary chiak's a-prest 
By his Targiv-en kiss : soo blest 

Be they that can but live in love. 

An' Tine a pliace o' rest above, 
Unlik' the weepen iiady. 


The Dorham dialect is the same as that spoken 
in Northomberland and the North Ridiiig of 
Yoiishire, the former being more like Scotch, 
ud the butter more like English, but each in a 
very slight degree. The Durham pronunciation, 
thongh soft, is monotonous and drawling. See 
the * Quarterly Keview' for Feb. 1836, p. 358. 

No glossary of Durham wotds has yet ap- 
peared, bat Kennett has recorded a considerable 
Bomber in his MS. Glossary. I have been en- 
>hled to add many unknown to that author, 
derived from communications by the Rev. R. 
Douglas, George B. Richardson, Esq., Miss 
Portus, E. T. Warburton, Esq.,and Mr. S. Ward. 

If the following anecdote be true, Southern 
Enghah is but little known amongst some of 
the lower orders in Durham : 

" John,** said a maater tanner in South Durham, 
Om 9tim day, to one of his men, " bring in some 
'ud** John walked off, revolving the word in his 
"liBd, lad returned with a pitchfork I *' I don't 
*xnt that," said the wandering tanner ; '< I want ftiel, 
Joba.** *< Beg your pardon," replied the man, «' I 
tttoDgfat yoo wantod something to turn over the skins.*' 
Aod dr he went again, not a whit the wiser, but 
Miuaed to eoofess his ignorance. Ituch med luting, 
^ Bcxt pitched upon the besom, shouldering which, 
iKretonied to the oountlog-house. His master was 
Bov ia a passion. *• What a stupid asa you are, John," 
be eicUimed ; «* I want some sticks and shavings to 
ligbt the fire." « O-b-h-h \** rejoined the rustic, " that's 
*lut you want, is it 1" Why couldn't you say so at 
flnt, master, instead of using a London dictionary 
*onl ?* And, wishful to show that he was not alone 
ta hb ignorance, he called a comrade to the tanner's 
PRwooe, and asked him If he knew what *' fuel" was. 
** Aye I* answered Joe, •• ducks an' geese, and sike 
^^ ^"Gtteahead Obterver, 


The dialect of Essex is closely allied in some 
puts of the county to that of Kent, and in 
others to that of Suffolk, though generally not 

so broad, nor spoken with the strong Suffolk 
whining tone. Mr. Charles Clark has given a 
glossary of Essex words at the end of * John 
Noakes and Mary Styles, or an Essex Calfa 
Visit toTiptree Races,' 8yo. 1839, and I am in- 
debted for many others to the kindness of the 
Rev. W. Pridden and Mr. Edward T. HiU. A 
list of Essex words is given in the Monthly 
Magazine for July, 1814, pp. 498-9. 

(1) From a Poem qf the fifteenth century, by the 
Vicar qf Afaldon, 
Therfor, my lelfe chyld, I schalle teche the, 
Herken me welle the maner and the gyse. 
How thl sowle inward schalle aqueyntyd be 
With thewis good and vertw in alle wysse : 
Rede and consey ve, for he is to displce. 
That redyth ay, and noot what is ment, 
Suche redyng is not but wynde despent. 
Pray thl God and prayse hym with alle thi hart, 
Fadir and modyr have In reverence. 
Love hem welle, and be thou never to smert 
To her mennys consayle, but kepe the thens, 
Tylle thu be clepid l>e clene wlthowjt offence s 
Saly w gladly to hym that is moor dygne 
Than art thlselfe, thu schalt thi place resygne. 
Drede thl mayster, thy thynge loke thu kepe. 
Take hede to thy housold, ay love thy wyff, 
Plesaunte wordes oujt of thl mowth schalle crepe ; 
Be not irons, kepe thi behest os lyff. 
Be tempryd, wyjte, and non exceasyff ; 
Thy wy ves wordes make thu noon actorit6. 
In folisclepe no moor thanne nedyth the. 

M8, HaW.971,f. 96. 

(2) Cock-a^Bevia Hill. 
At Tottum's Cock-a-Bevis Hill, 

A sput suppass'd by few. 
Where toddlers ollis haut to eye 

The proper prltty wiew ; 
Where people crake so ov the place. 

Leas-ways, so I've hard say ; 
An' frum Its top yow, sarteny. 

Can see a monsus way. 
'Bout this oad Hill, I warrant ya. 

Their bog it nuver ceases ; 
They'd growl shud yow nut own that it 

Beats Danbury's au' to pieces. 
But no sense ov a place, some think, 

Is thU here hiU so high,— 
Cos there, full oft, 'tis nation ooad. 

But that don't argufy. . 
Yit, if they their inqulrationa maake 

In winter time, some will 
Condemn that place as no great shakes. 

Where folks ha' the coad-chill ! 
As sum'dy, 'haps, when nigh the sput. 

May ha* a wish to see't,— 
From Mauldon toun to Keldon'tis, 

An' 'gin a four releet. 
Where up the road the load it gooa 

So lugaome an' so stiff, 
That bosses mosly kltch a whop, 

Frum drivers in a tiff. 
But who^d pay a boss when tugging on i 

None but a tetchy elf: 
Tis right on plain etch chap desarves 

A clumsy thump himself. 
Haul'd o'er the coals, sicJi fellars e'er 

Shud be, by Martin's Act ; 
But, then, they're ray ther muggy oft. 

So with um we're not sact. 


But thtutiiUf 'hapt. to let um otf 

It wrong, becot etch carter. 
If maade to smart, hb P*i and Q'b 

He*d mine for ever arter. 
At Cock-a-BeTis Hiil. too, the 

Wiseacres show a tree, 
Which If yow clamber up, besure, 

A precious way yow see. 
I dorn't think I cud clime it now, 

Aldoe 1 uster cud ; 
I shudn't warsley lolke to troy. 

For guelch cum down I shud. 
My head 'ood swim,— I 'oodn't do'it 

Nut even for a guinea : 
A naarbour ax'd me, tother day, 

«• Naa, naa," says I, •• nut quhmy." 
At Cocka-BerU Hill, I was 

A -goon to tell the folks, 
Some warses back— when Ibargun— 

In peace there lived John Noakes. 

It has been already remarked that the orga- 
nic forms of the Gloucestershire dialect have 
remained unchanged for centuries, and are to be 
traced in Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. 
Many Anglo-Saxon words are here preserved in 
great purity. " He geunne it him,'' he gave it 
him, the verb geunne being in genera) use 
amongst the peasantry. The dialect is more 
simihir to that of Somersetshire than of the 
af^oining counties, though not so sUt>ngly 
marked as a Western dialect. They change o 
into a, t into z^f into v, t into <f, p into 6, short 
a into t or aoy, long e into eea^ long i into ey, 
long into ooa. The A.-S. termination en is 
still preserved ; thee is UJied for thou and you ; 
thUk is in constant use ; A«r is put for she, she 
for her, /for me, and ou for he, she, or it. Com- 
munications of Gloucestershire words have been 
received from the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, Miss 
Shipton, and Mr. E. Wright. 

George Ridler^s Oven. 
Thestwons that built George Ridler's oven, 

And thauy qeum ftom the Bleakeney's quaar ; 
And George he wur a Jolly old mon. 

And his yead it graw'd above his yare. 
One thing of George Ridler I must commend, 

And that wur not a noUble theog ; 
He mead his braags avoore he died, 

Wi' any dree brothers his sons ss'hon'd seng. 
There s Dick the treble and John the mean. 

Let every mon sing In his auwn pleace ; 
And George he wur the elder brother, 

And therevoore he would sing the beass. 
Mine hostess's moid (and herneaum *twur Nell) 

A pretty wench, and I loT'd her well ; 
I lov'd her well, good reauson why. 

Because Bshe lov'd my dog and I. 
My dog is good to catch a hen, 

A duck or gooie is vood for men ; 
And where good company I spy, 

O thethcr gwoes my dog and I. 
My mwother told I when I wur young, 

If I did vollow the strong-beer pwoot ; 
That drenk would pruv my auverdrow. 

And meauk me wear a thsread-bare cwoat. 

My dog has gotten altch a tridc. 

To visit molds when thauy be sick ; 
When thauy be sick and like to die, 

O thether gwoes my dog and I. 
When I have dree sispences under my thmnb, 

O then I be welcome wherever I come ; 
But when I hare none, O then I pass by, 

•Tis poverty pearts good company. 
If I should die, as it may hap. 

My greanre shaU be under the good yeal Up ; 
In vouled earms there wool us lie, 

Cheek by jowl my dog and I ! 

The romance of Octovian, according to Mr. 
D'Israeli, " is in the Hampshire dialect neariy 
as it is spoken now." Although somewhat 
doubtful as to the literal correctness of this 
opinion, an extract from it may be compared 
vrith a modem specimen of the dialect. A short 
glossary of Hampshire words is given in Warner's 
collections for that county. The dialect of the 
west of the county is similar to that of Wiltshire, 
/ being changed into v, and th into d; and un 
for him, her, it. It is a common saying, that in 
Hampshire every thing is called he except a tom- 
cat which is called she, 

(1) Extract from the early romance of Octoman 

The knyftys logh yn the haUe, 

The mantellys they yeve menstraks all* ; 

Lavor and basyn they gon calle 

To wassche and aryse. 
And syth to daunce on the walle 

Of Parys. 
Whan the soudan thys tydyng herde. 
For ire as he wer wod he ferd ; 
He ran with a draweswerde 

To hys mamentrye. 
And alle hys goddys ther heamerrede 

With greet envye. 
Asterot, Jopyn, and Mahoun 
He alle to-hew with hys fachoun, 
And Jubiter he drew adoun 

Of hys autere : 
He seyde, hy nere worth a scaloune 

Alle y-fere. 
Tho he hadde hys goddys y-bete. 
He was abiited of alle hys hete. 
To sende hys sendys noMe he najt lete, 

Tho anoonryjt. 
To Babylooye after lordes grete 
To help hym fyjt. 

Ma, Cott, CtUig. A. iL f . ». 

j4 Letter to the Editor qf the Timet, from a poor 
Man at Andover, on the Union Workhouse. 

Sir, — Hunger, as I've heerd say, breaks throu^ 
Stone Walls *. but yet I shodn't have thought of let- 
ting you know about my poor Missus's death, hut 
all my nelbours say tell it out, and it can't do you 
no hum and may do others good, specially as Par- 
liament is to meet soon, when the Gentlefoke will be 
talking about the working foke. 

I be but a farmers working man, and was married 
to my Missus 96 years agone, and have three Chil. 
dem living with me, one 10, another 7* and t'other 
3. I be subject to bad rumatia, and never earns no 
more, as you may Judge, than to pay rent and keep 


oorbodlci and souls together wheo we be all veil. 
I was tended by Mr. Wettlake when he waa Union 
Doctor, but when the Ouardiam turned him out It 
WM a bad Job for ail the Poor, and a predout bad 
Job for me and mine. 

Mr. Payne when he come to be our Union Doctor 
tended upon me up to almost the end of last April, 
bat when I irnd up to the Union House as usual, 
Mr. Broad, the Relevlng Officer, send back word 
there was nothing for me, and Mr. Payne wodnt 
come no more. I was too bad to work, and had not 
Vittals for me, the Missus, and the young ones, so I 
vat forced to sdl off the Bed, Bedstead, and fuml> 
ture of the young ones, to by Vittala with, and then 
I and Minus and the young ones had <mly one bed 
for all of us. Missus was very bad, to, then, but as 
ve knowd twere no use to ask the Union for nothink 
sept we'd all go into the Workhouse, and which 
Mi«is oouUn't a bear, as she'd bin parted from the 
diOdem, she sends down to tell Mr. Westlake how 
bad we was a doing off, and he comes to us directly, 
and tends upon us out of charity, and gives Missus 
Mutton and things, which he said, and we know'd 
too well, she wanted of, and he gives this out of hb 

Missus ccnnplalnt growd upon her and she got so 
very bad, and Mr. Westlake says to us, I do think 
the faardians wouldn't let your wife lay here and 
starve, but would do something for you if they 
kaowed how bad you wanted things, and so, says he, 
111 give you a Sertificate for some Mutton and 
things, and you take it to Mr. Broad, the relevlng 
officer. Well, I doee this, and he tells me that bed 
give it to the guardians and let me know what they 
said. I sect him again, and O, says he, I gived that 
Scrtiilcate to the Guardians, but they chucked it a 
ooe side and said they wouldnt tend to no such 
thing, nor give yon nothing, not even If Missus was 
^1^* if you has anything to do with Mr. Westlake, 
as they had turned him off. 

I told my Missus this, and then says she we must 
try to get their Union Doctor, Mr. Payne, as we can*t 
fo (m for ever taking things ttom Mr. Westlake*s 
Pocket, and he turned out of Place, and so good to 
many poor folka besides us. So we gets Mr. Payne 
•fter a bit to come down ; and he says to Missus 
yoa're very bad, and I shall order the Union to send 
you Mutton and other things. Next Week Mr. 
Payne calls again, and asks Missus did she have the 
tbings hc^d ordered for her to have ? She says I've 
bad a shillings worth of Mutton, Sir. Why, says 
^* yon wants other things besides Mutton, and I 
ordered them for you In the Union Book, and you 
ought to have them In your bad sute. This goes on 
for 5 or 6 wedia, only a shillinp worth of Mutton a 
Week being allowed her, and then one Week a little 
Gin was allowed, and after that as Miasus couldnt 
ftt out of bed a Woman was sent to nurse and help 

I didnt ask Mr. Payne to order these ere things, 
tho^ bad enof God knows they was wanted ; but in 
the Am week in last November I was served with a 
mnaons to lend afore our Mayor and Justices under 
the Vagrance Actt I think they said twas cause I 
^ not found these things for Missus myself; but 
the Unkm Doctor had ordered em of the Guardians 
at his sponatbDity. Well, I attends afore the 
Justices, and there was nothing against me, and so 
they puu it off, and orders me to tend afore em 
H^ next week, which I does, and then there wasnt 
oof for em to send me to Gaol, aa the Guardians 
*aatcd, for a Month, and they puts it off again for 
aodier WeA,aiKl says I must ooroe afore em again. 

and which I does ; and they tells me thcres nothing 
proved, that I could aford to pay for the things, and 
I mite go about my business. 

I Just loses three days' work, or pretty handy, by 
this, and that made bad a good bit worse. Next Day 
Mr. Payne comes again, and Missus was so out- 
daceous bad, she says cant you give rre something 
to do me good and ease me a bit ; says Mr. Payne, I 
dont see you be much worse. Yes, I l>e, says Missus, 
and I wish you'd be so good as to let me send for 
Mr. Westlake, as I thinks he knows what'd make me 
easier, and cure the bad pains I do suflfer. Mr. Payne 
abused my Poor Missus, and dared her to do any- 
thing of that sort, and so we were feared to do it, 
left I should be pulled up again afore the Justices, 
and lose more days work, and prhaps get sent to 
Gaol. Bight days after this Mr. Payne never having 
come nbt us, and the Union having lowd us nothing 
at all, my poor Missus dies, and dies tnm want, and 
in agonies of pain, and as bad off as if shed been a 
Savage, for she could only have died of want of them 
things which she wanted and I couldnt buy If she'd 
been in a foreign land, were there no Parsons and 
People as I've heard tell be treated as bad as dogs. 

Years agone, If any body had been half so bad as 
my Missus, and nobody else would have tended to 
her, there'd been the clergyman of the parish, at all 
events, who^d have prayed with her, and seen too 
that she didn't die of starvation, but our Parson b 
In favor of thb here new Law, and aa he gets 60/. a 
year f^om the Guardians, he amt a going to quarrel 
with hb Bread and Cheese for the likes of we, and 
so he didnt'come to us. Allho* he must have knowed 
how ill Missus was ; and she, poor creature, went 
out of this here world without any Spiritual consi- 
latkm whatsomever from the Poor Man's Church. 

We'd but one bed as I've tolled you, amd only one 
Bedroom, and it was very bad to be all In the same 
Room and Bed with poor Missus after she were 
dead ; and as I'd no money to pay for a Coffin, 1 
goes to Mr. Broad, then • to Mr. Mijer, one of the 
Guardians, and then to the overseers, and axes all 
of 'em to And a Coffin, but 'twere no use, and so, 
not knowing what in the World to do, off I goes to 
tell Mr. Westlake of it, and he was soon down at the 
House, and blamed me much for not letting he know 
afore Missus died, and finding we'd no food nor fire, 
nothing for a shrowd cept we could wash up some- 
thing, and that we'd no soap to do that with, he 
gives us something to get these ere things, and telb 
me to go again to the Relevlng Officer and t'others 
and try and get a Coffin, and to tell un Missus ought 
to be hurried as soon as possible, else f would make 
us all ilL This I does as afore, but get nothing, 
and then Mr. Westlake give me an order where to 
get a Coffin, and 11 he had not stood a friend to me 
and mine, I can't think what would have become of 
em, as twas sad at NighU to see the poor little things 
pretty nigh break their hearU when they seed their 
poor dead mother by their side upon the Bed. 

My troubles wasnt to end even here, for Strang to 
ten the Regbtrer for Deaths for thb Dbtrict dont 
Uve in thb the largest Parish with about fiOOO loha- 
bitants, but at a little Village of not more than 400 
People and 5 Miles off, so 1 had to walk there and 
back 10 miles, which b very hard upon us poor folk, 
and what b worse when I got there the Regiatrer 
wasnt up ; and when he got up he wouldnt tend to me 
afore bed had hb breakfast, and I was aforced to wait 
about until bed had done breakfast, and It seemed as 
'twas a very long time for a poor chap like me to be 
kept a waiting, whilst a nutn who b paid for doing 
what I wanted won't do such little work as that 


afore here made hiMelf comfortable, tho* I telled 
him how bad I wanted to get back, and that I should 
looM a Day by hit keeping me waiting abont. 

That this is mostly the fault of the Guardians 
rather than anybody else is my Arm beleif, tho* if 
Mr. Payne had done his duty hed a been with Missus 
many times afore she died and not have left her as 
he did, when he knowed she was so bad, and hed a 
made un give her what she wanted ; but then he 
must do, he says, Just what the Gua r d i ans wishes, and 
that amt to attend much on the Poor, and the Re- 
leving Officer is docked if what he gives by even the 
Doctors orders amt proved of by the Guardians 
aterward, and he had to pay for the litUe Oin the 
Doctor ordered out of his own Pocket, and, as the 
Newspaper says, for the Nurse, as this was put in 
our Paper by Pm sure I don't know who, but 1 be- 
lieves tls true, last week. 

And now, Sir, I shall leave It to you to Judge 
whether the Poor can be treated any where so bad 
as they be In the Andover Unlon« 

The pronoun a is used for he, she, or it. Strong 
preterits are current, climb, chmb, heave, hove, 
pick, puck, shake, shuck, squeeze, Mguoze, &c. 
The dialect of this county must be classed as be- 
longing to the Midknd division. The word jutt 
is used in rather a peculiar manner. Instead of 
saying, I have but just returned, tliey say I re- 
turned but just A Jist of Herefordshire words 
is given in Duncumb's History of Hereford, and 
a more extended one has recently been sepa- 
rately published, 8vo. 1839. I am indebted for 
many words not to be found in either of these to 
lists given me by Sir S. R. Meyrick, T. W. Lane, 
Esq., and Mr. Perry. 

(1) From Masimon, a tale in a MS. written in 
Herefordshire of the time of Edward 11. 
Herkne to my ron, 
As ich ou telle coo. 

Of elde al hou yt gos, 
Of a roody mon, 
Hihte Maxumoo* 

Soth withoute les. 
Clerc he was ful god. 
So moni mon understod. 

Nou herkne hou it wee. 

Ys wOIe he hevede y-noh, 
Purpre and pal he droh. 

Ant other murthes mo. 
He wes the feyrest mon, 
Wlth-outen AlMoton, 

That seththe wes ant tho. 
Tho laste is lyf so longe. 
That he bigan unstronge. 

As mony tides so. 
Him con rewe sore 
Al is Wilde lore. 

For elde him dude so wo ; 

So sone as elde him com 
Ys boc an honde he nom, 

Ant gan of reuthet rede» 
Of his herte ord 
He made moni word. 

Ant of is ly ves dede. 
He gan mene is mone ; 
So feble were Is bone. 

Ys hew bigon to wedei 
So clenc he was y-gon. 
That heu ne hade he non : 

Ys herte gan to blede. 

Care and kunde of elde 
Maketh mi l>ody felde. 

That y ne mai stonde upriht ; 
Ant min herte unbolde. 
Ant mi body to colde, 

That er thou wes so lyht. 
Ant mi body thunne. 
Such is worldes wunne. 

This day me thinketh nyht. 

MS. Hart. 8853, f. 88. 

(2) Prom an English translation of Macer de 
virtutibus herbarum, made 6y John Leiamour, 
scolemaister qfHefforde, 1373. 

Mowsere growith lowe by the grownde, and berith 
a yellowe floure. Drinke the Juis with wyne other 
ale, and anoynte the reynes and the bak with the 
biode of a fox, for the stone. Abo starope him and 
mylfoly togadyr, and drinke that Juis with white 
wyne, and that willc make one to pisse. Also drinke 
the Juis with stale ale, a seke man that is woundid, 
and yf he holdithe that drinke he shalle lyfe, and yf 
he caste hit he shalle dye. Also drinke the juis of 
this erbe for the squynancy. MS. Sioane 5, t. 35. 

There seem to be no peculiarities of dialect 
here which are not common to the adjoining 
county of Cambridgeshire. They say mort for 
a quantity ; a mort of people, a mort of rain. 
To-year for this year, like to-day or to-morrow. 
Wonderful for very; his pain were wonderful 
great. To get himseff ready, for to dress him- 
self ; he is too weak to get bimself ready. If a 
disorder or illness of any kind be inquired for, 
they never say it is better or worse, but that*s 
better, or thafs worse, with an emphasis on that. 
The Rev. Joseph Homer kindly favoured me 
with a list of the few provincial words which 
may be peculiar to this county. 


The dialect of the native inhabitants of this 
island differs in many respects from the county 
to which it is opposite. The accent is rather 
mincing than broad, and has little of the vulgar 
character of the West country dialects. The 
tendency to insert y in the middle of words may 
be remarked, and the substitution of vfoi /is 
not uncommon among the peasantry, but by no 
means general. The pronunciation may gene- 
rally be correctly represented by the duplication 
of the vowels. 

No printed glossary of Isle of Wight provin. 
cialisms has yet appeared, but a very valuable 
one in MS., compiled by Captain Henry Smith, 
was most kindly placed at my disposal by his 
rehitive, Charles Roach Smith, Esq. f.8.a. It 
has been fully used in the following pages. Use- 
ful communications have also l^n received 
from E. J. Vernon, Esq., Dr. Bromfield, and 
Dr. Salter. 


%tecmen qfthe Isle qf Wiffht dialect. 
Jan. What's got there you ? 
WUI, A blastnashun itriuldlebob craalun about In the 

nammut bag. 
Jm. Straddlebob I Where ded*tt leyam to caal'n by 

that neyam f 
WtU. Why, what thoud e caarn ? tea the right neyam 

era ut? 
Jm. Right neyam, oo ! why ye gurt aote rool* casn't 

see tei a DiunUedore ? 
Will. I knowB tea, but vur aal that Straddlebob*! so 

right a neyam vom as Durobledore es. 
Jm. Come, 111 be deyand if I doent laay thee a quart 

o' that. 
Will Done ! and I'll ax meyastur to night jrhen I 

goos vhooam, bee*t how 't wool. 
(Accordingly ii:6>astur was applied to by Will, 
who made hJs decUion known to Jan the 
next morning.) 
Will. I say, Jan I 1 axed meyastur about that are 

last night. 
Jm. Well ! what ded *ur ay ? 
Wiu, Why a sed one neyam es Jest so vittun vom as 

tother, and he lous a ben caald Straddlebob 

ever sunce the Island was vust meyad. 
Jm. The devyul a bar I if thafs thekeeas I spooas I 

lost the quart. 
wm. That thee has't lucky I and we'll goo down to 

Atverton to the Red Lion and drink un ater 

we done work. 


The modern KenUsh dialect is slightly broad, 
indeed more so than that of Surrey or Sussex. 
Day, pkiyt waiy, for day, play, way, &c. They 
ity who for kowt and vice verm. Mate, instead 
of boy or lad, is the usual address amongst 
equals. The interchange of v and w is common 
here ss well as in the metropolis. As in most 
jnrts (rf England, the pronunciation of names of 
places differs very much from the orthography, 
e.g. Sitmmck for Serenoaks, Datmfor Darenth, 
Inuum for Lewisham, &c. No glossary of 
Kentish words has yet been published, unless we 
may ao style a short list <xf words in Lewis's 
Uiitory and Antiquities of the Isle of Tenet, 
1736, pp. 35-39, but I haye received valuable 
communications from the Rev. M. U. Lloyd, 
John Brent, Esq., the Rev. Thomas Streatfeild, 
the Rev. L. B. Larking, John Pemberton Bart- 
lett, Esq., the Rev. Dr. Hussey, Thomas Wright, 
Esq., Miss Cotterell, J. R. Hughes, Esq., and 
A J. Dunkin, Esq. An early song in tlus dia- 
lect occun in Ravenscroft's Melismata, 1611. 

We have a most curious specimen of the 
Kentish dialect of the fourteenth century (1340) 
in the Ayenbyte of Inwyt, a MS. in the Arundel 
ooUection. An extract f^m it will be found at 
p. 801, and another is here given. The change 
of/ into p, and t into r, are now generally pecu- 
liar to the West country dialect, but appear at 
this early period to have extended over the 
South of England. In the next century, the 
broadness of the dialect was not so generaL At 
lost, a poem of the fifteenth century, in a MS. 
It Oxford, written in Kent, is remarkably pure, 
iithoQgh the author excuses himself for his 

And though royn Englith be sympill to tnyn entent, 
Hold me excufid, for I was borne in Kent. 

jr&Laiid. 416, r.49. 

The principal peculiarity in this MS. seems to 
consist in e being the prefix to the verb instead 
of tor y. For a long period, however, the dia- 
lect of the Kentish peasantry was strongly 
marked. In a rare tract entitled, "How the 
Plowman lemed his Paternoster," a character is 
thus mentioned : 

He was patched, tome, and all to-rente ; 
It semed by hit langage that he was borne In Rente. 
RaWpUm AntUjuWt vol. i. p. 46. 
The following very curious passage from 
Caxton will further illustrate this fact : 

And oertaynly our langage now uied varyeth 
ferre from that whiche waa uaed and spoken whan I 
was borne, for we Bnglysshemen ben borne under 
the domynacyon of the mone, whidie is never sted- 
faste, but ever waverynge, wexynge one aeaaon, and 
waneth and dyscreaaeth another season ; and that 
comyn Englysshe that la spoken In one shyre varyeth 
■ ftom another, Inaomocfae that in my dayes happened 
that cerUyn marchauntes were In a shippe In 
Tamyse for to have aayled over the see Into 
Zelande, and for Ucke of wynde, the! taryed atte 
Foriond, and wente to lande for to refteahe them. 
And one of theym, named Sheffelde, a mercer, cam 
into an hows and axed for mete, and specyally he 
axyd after eggys ; and the goode wyf answerde that 
she coude speke no Frenshe, and the marchaunt was 
angry* 'or he also coude speke no Frenshe, but wolde 
have hadde egges, and she understode hym not; 
and thenne at laste another sayd that he wolde have 
9wr«n, Then the good wyf sayd that she understod 
hym wel. Loo, what sholde a man In thyae dayes 
now wry te egges or ewrm I Certaynly It Is harde to 
playse every man, byctuse of dyversit^ and chaunge 
of langage. Castm't BMifdott \ASO» 

(1) Extract from the Ayenbyte qf Inwyt, MS. 
Arundel 57, flf. 86-87. 
Me ret Ine lives of holy vaderes thet an holy man 
tealde hou he com to by monek, and lede hou thet 
he hedde y-by ane payenes aone, thet wes a prest to 
the momenettes. And tho be wes a child on time 
he yede Into the temple mid his vader privellehe : 
ther he yae5 ane gratne dyevel thet set ope ane 
vyealdlnde stole, and al his mayn^ aboute him. 
Ther com on of the princes, and leat to him ; tho he 
him aksede the like thet aet Ine the stole huannes 
he com, and he ansuerede thet he com vram ane 
londe huer be hedde arered and y-mad manye werren 
and manye vljtinges, ano thet moche volk weren 
y-ss]a5e, and moche blod ther y-sscd. The mayster 
him acsede Ine hou moche time he hette thet y-do, 
and he ansuerede Ine thrltti da5es. He him cede, 
Ine zuo moche time best auo lite y-do ? Tho he 
het thethawer rljt wel y-beate, and evele y-draje. 
Efter than com another thet alsuo to him leat ase 
the verste. The mayster him actede huannes ha 
com. He ansuerede thet he com vram the se huer 
he hedde y-mad manye tempestes. vele ssipes to- 
broke, and moche volk adreyct. The malster acsede 
ine hou long time. He ansuerede Ine tuenti da3e8. 
He xayde, ine auo moche time best auo lite y-do ? 
Efterward com the thridde, thet ansuerede thet he 
com vram ane c\U huer he hedde y-by at ane 
bredale, and ther he hedde arered and y-mad cheastes 
and strifr,8uo thet moche volk ther were y-»laje, 
and thcr-to he hedde y ■ slaje thane hosebounde. The 


maister him aciedc hou long time he wtte thet vor 
to done. He ansuercde thet In e ten dajeiu The he 
het thet he were wel y-byate vor thet he hedde luo 
longe abide thet to done without more. Ate lasten 
com another to-vore the prince, and to him he beaj ; 
and he hVp acsede* huannet comtt thou ? He 
aniuerede thet he com vram the ennitage huer he 
hedde y-hy Tourti yer vor to roadi ane monek of 
fomicacion» thet it the senne oi ledierle, and luo 
moehe kh habbt y-do thet ine thite nyjt ich hlne 
haU)e oreroome, and y-do him ralle Into the senne. 
Tho Ihlp op the mayster, and him keite and b»- 
elepte, and dede the coroune ope his heved, an dede 
him sitte beside him, and to him sede that he hedde 
grat thing y-do and grat prowesse. Tho sayde the 
guode man thet hoanne he hedde thet y-hyerd and 
thet y-soje, he thojte thet hit were grat thing toby 
monek, and be tho encheyioun he beoom monek. 

(2) Extract from MS, Laud, 416, written by 

a native of Kent about 1460. 
Also use not to pley at the dice ne at the Ublls, 
Ke none maner gamyi uppon the holidais ; 
Use no tavemys where be Jestls and fablis, 
Syngyng of lewde balettes, rondelettes, or Tlrolals ; 
Nor erly in momyng to fleoche home fresdi mals. 
For yt makyth maydins to stomble and faUe In the 

And afterward they telle her councele to the freirs. 

Now y-wii yt were wele done to know 

The dyflin'ence by twene a damsdle and a maide. 

For alle bene lyke whan they stond in a row ; 

But I wylle telle what experience said, 

And in what wyse they be entyrid and araled ; 

Maydyns were callis of silk and of thred. 

And damsellis kerchevis pynnid uppon thet hed. 

WyflUs may not to chirch title they l>e entyred, 
ElHridyltld and paytrellid, to shew her aray, 
And fetyd alle abowte as an hacony to be hyred ; 
Than she lokyth aboute her if eny be so gay ; 
And oon thyng 1 comend, which Is most to my pay, 
Ther kerchef hanggyth so low, that no man can 

To loke undlmethe oons to threw her eie. 

Jangelyng In chirche among hem Is not usid. 
To telle alle her howswyf^y of the weke byfore ; 
And also her hu$bondis shalle not be accnsld. 
Now crokyd and crabbed they bene ever more ; 
And tuche thyngges lo ! they can kepe no store. 
They bene as close and covert as the horn of 

That wylle not be herd but from hevyn to helle. 

(3) From Dick and Sal, a modempoem in the 

Kentish dialect, 
Ya see, when Mlddlemas come roun, 

I thoughtdat Salandl 
Ud go to Canterbury town. 

To see what we cud buy. 
Fer when I liv'd at ChaUock Leys, 

Our Secont-roan had been : 
An wonee, when we was carrln peas. 

He told me what he'd sin. 
He said dare was a teejus fkir, 

Dat lasted for a wick ; 
An all de ploughmen dat went dare. 

Must car dalr shining stick. 
An how dat dare was nable rigs. 

An Merriander's Jokes; 
Snuif-boxes, shows, an whirligigs. 

An houged sights a folks. 

But what queer*d me, he ted 'twas kep 

All roun about de churdi ; 
An how dey had him up de steps, 

An left him in de lurch. 
At last he got into de street, 

An den he lost his road ; 
An Bet an he come to a gate. 

Where all de soadgers stood. 
Den she ketcht fast hold av bis ban. 

For she was rather scar'd t 
Tom sed, when tuMt he see 'em stan. 

He thought she'd be a-fared. 

The dialect of Lancaahire is principally known 
by Collier't Dialogue, publish^ under the name 
of Tim Bobbin. A glossary of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, written in Lancashire, is preserved in MS. 
Lansd. 560, f. 45. A letter in the Lancafhire 
dialect occurs in Braithwaite's Two Lancashire 
LoYcrs, 1640, and other early specimens are 
given in Heywood's Late Lancashire Witches, 
4to. 1634, and Shadwell's Lancashire Witches, 
4to. 1682. The glossary at the end of Tim 
Bobbin is imperfect as a collection for thecounty, 
and I have been chiefly indebted for Lancashire 
words to my father, Thomas Halliwell, Esq. 
Brief notes have also been received from the 
Rev. L. Jones, George Smeeton, Esq^ the Rev. 
Dr. Hume, G. R. Spencer, Esq., and Mr. R. 
Proctor. The features of the dialect will be 
seen frx>m the following specimens ; o and ou are 
changed into a, ea into o, al into att, g into it, 
long into oi, and d final into t. The Saxon 
termination en is retained, but generally mute. 

(1) Extract Jrom Tim Bobbin's Dialogue 

between ISimmut and Mearg. 

M. Odds-fish I boh that wur breve. I wou'd I'd 
bin eh yore Kele. 

T. Whau whau, boh theawst hear. It wur o dree 
wey too- to ; heawe'er I geet there be suse o'clock, 
on before eh opp'nt dur, I covert Nip with th* 
•leawt, ot eh dioy meh nese weh, tiet him see heaw 
1 stoart her. Then I opp'nt dur; on whot te dule 
dust think, boh three Uttle tyney Bandyhewiu coom 
weaughlng os If th' tittle ewals wou'd o worrit me, 
on after that swallut me whlck s Boh presontly 
there coom o fine wummon ; on I took her for a hoo 
Justice, hoor so meety fine: For I heard Ruchott 
o' Jack's tell meh meastor, that hoo Justices awlua 
did th' mooast o'th' wark : Heawe'er, I axt hur if 
Mr. justice wur o whoam ; hoocou'd naw opp'n hur 
meawth t' sey eigh, or now ; boh simpurt on sed iss, 
(the dickkons las hur on him too) --Sed I, I wuddld'n 
tell him I'd fene speyk, to him. 

(2) A Letter printed and dietributed in the 
procession that was formed at Manchester m 
commemoration qffree trade. 

Bary, July 15th, 1<M6. 

To MB Lawnn Jhow Russbll,— Well, me 
Lawrd, yoan gctt'n ut last up to th' top o' th' lad- 
thur, un th' heemust stave asnt brokk'n wl yo this 
time us It did afore. WaystseeT t'neawwethur yo 
kun keep yur stonnin ur not ; awm rayther fyert ut 
yoan find it slippy un noan safe footln ; but, heaw- 
sumevvur. thirs nawt like thryin. 

But wofr yo fur dooin ? Yo seemn to think ut o 

BNeusH PBoymouL dialects. 

VMt dftlothlDftwaattiiitDdhi, on yo thfnka net, 
IbrtlMfydnB;— butkoayonuuinldgeiim? Y.orftut 
Job ll be a twoff an t no tho mi be o tweet mtdd^ 
ItH he Bum teevr ttnffobeewt it. But teewr ur not 
70 muo stick likebrcdi, un not let thet centin, 
leewiy etuS obeewt "tUTe^rooa un free-groon" 
•top yo. Blees me life, moo I iu anoof togie won 
tb' belly wretch to yer o set o gewnblins uu beyyin, 
on epinnin, on weyTin. un werin tlave-groon kottn 
eiteh dey o thir livce, tawk obeewt thir konehunena 
not lettln urn iweetn thir ftybry pie fur th' chllthur 
wi o Mt o ileve-fToou ihugur. It's oe humbuf , me 
Lewrd, un tell um ew sey so. Stick yo fast to the 
ekAme tf havlnc oa th' dewtlce olike t but yo may 
•Up eewt tbooe twothrey yer ut yore fttr keepin up o 
dlAfunce, ue soon us yna o mind. We kun spere 
om wen wer biny. 

Sam o yur skamca ur wcel oooof i but th' main 
thing 11 be for yo to ta care to spend us little brass 
a« yo koo, un gir us o gud thrade. 

Voan lettn Sur Robbut (yoa knoan he's a Berry 
oinff un we're shaip chaps)— aw say yoan lettn Sur 
Robbot get howd o yur tools and wurtch wi um 
wooet, wi not bcdn sharp onoofC He made o gud 
hoodliii 00 um, too uns gettn tMn^us for his wark, 
tboT t'ekame wuryoers, un It yo dnnnut mind he'll 
4o fkaaM ogen. Hc^ let yo get th' patthums reddy , 
end makis t^iestiBs. an fbowt^, un fskrews, un 
•Itchn s but hem put fmoeheen togethur, an dray 
th* wage ut th* Sethnide neet, iv yo annnt yur een 
bbcAwt yo. 

DnmioC be fyert. mon, but rap eawt wl awt uts 
raet, un ns Berry foke 11 elp yo us ard as we kon. 
Wayn hdpt Kobdln, un wayn dp yo, if yoan set 
obeawt yur wark gradely. 

Wayre havvin o greyt stur to day heer for us 
wnnriiln Ibke, un wayre to have doance o Muuday 
BccC Aw nobbnt wuab ut yo k'd kum deawn un 
•ee us— yoad see eitch o seet un yer sitch sheawiin 
yon BcTcr seed nur i yor lift. They konnut sheawt 
I Lunnoo— itt nobbot gradely bntthcrroilk un pot- 
rttch Lankcshur lads ut kun sheawt woth koin 

But yo mun nsfer heed, Lawrd John. Dunnot 
be fyert, us aw sed ofore, but ston up for wots reet. 
oa iv f parlymcnt winnit lei yo ha yer oan rode, 
kum eawt, un let f gangway kawres thry how thay 
k«B aeawk t' public pap. 

Awm noan yust to ritln, un aw feel tyert, so aw 
noa Iyer awt moor ut aw av to say tell me honst's 
roetat itseL So aw remain, me Lawrd, 
Yours for evvur, 


(3) ALaneoMkire Ballad. 
Now, aw me gud gentlee, an yau won tarry, 
Ue td how Gilbert ScoU soudn's mare Berry. 
He aoudn's mare Berry at Warikin fair t 
When heel be pade. hee knows not, ere or nere. 
Soon as hee eoom whoom, an tond his wife Grace, 
Boo op wi th' kippo, an swat him ore th' fkce ; 
Hoo ptckdt him oth' hllloc, wi sick a thwack, 
That hoo had whel nl a brokken his beck. 
Thou hooer, quo hee, wo't but lemme rise, 
Ue gi thee auth' leet, wench, that imme lies. 
Thou udgit, quo hoo, but wher dus hee dwel f 
Bdakin, quo hee, but I connan tel. 
I tuck him to be sum gud greslmon's son ; 
He spent too pense on mec when bee had doon. 
He gin mee a lunch'n o denty snig py. 
An shankdt meeMth' haundt most tovingly. 
Then Grace, hoo prompdt hur, so neeat an so nc. 
To WarlLin hoo went, o Wensday betime. 

An theer too, Ikw stade Ail Ave marklt days. 

Til th' mon, wi th' mare, were coom to Raunley 

As Grace was restin won day In hur rowm, 
Hoo spydt th* mon a ridin o th' mare down the town. 
Bounce gus hur hart, an hoo wer 10 glopen 
That out o th* windo hoo^d like fort lopen. 
Hoo staumpdt, an hoo •tar'dt, an down stairs hoo 

Wi' th' hat under th' arm, an windt welly goo. 
Hur bed-gear flew olf, an so did hur snowd, 
Hoo sUumpdt, an hoo star'dt, as an hoo'd been 

To Raunley's hoo hy'd, an hoo hove up th' latch. 
Afore th' mon had teed th' mare welly too th' cratch. 
If e gud mon, quo hoo, f^end, hee greets yau merry. 
An dcsiree yau^d send him money for Berry. 
Ay, money, quo hee, that I connan spare : 
Belakin, qno hoo, but then lie ha th' mare. 
Hoo poodt, an hoo thromperdt him, shaum't be 

Thou hangmon, qno hoo, lie poo out thin een : 
He mak thee a sompan, baud thee a groat 
He oth'r ha* th* money, or poo out the throat t 
'Tween them they made fueh a wearisoo din. 
That for f intreat them, Raunly Shaw coom in, 
Coom, fy, fy, naunt Grace, coom, fy, an a doon ; 
What, deel, ar yau monkeen, or ar yau woon ? 
Belakin, quo hee, yau lane so hard on— 
I think now that th' woman has quite spoildt th' 

Coom, fy, (y, naunt Grace, coom, fy, an a doon ; 
Yaust ha' th' mare, or th' money, whether yau won. 
So Graoe got th* money, an whoomwardt hoo's gon, 
Hoo keeps it aw, an gees Gilbert Scott non. 

The dialect of this county has been entirely 
neglected, with the exception of a few brief 
remarks in Macaolay's History of Claybrook, 
1791 ; but it deserves a carefol study. A valu- 
able glossary of Leicestershire words was given 
me by Bfr. John Gibson, but too late to be used 
in the early part of the work. 

The dialect of the common people, though broad, 
is suflldently plain and intelligible. They have a 
strong propensity to aspirate their words; the letter 
h comes in almost on every occasion where it ought 
not, and is as fluently omitted where it ought to 
come in. The words Jln«, min; and such like, are 
pronounced as if they were spelt yWne, moine t place, 
fu0f &c as If they were spelt ^«m«, feaett and in 
the plural sometimes you hear pttacen t ehten for 
etoM* t and many other words in the same style of 
Saxon termination. The words ihfM and wher9 
are generally pronounced thus, th^eM^ whevre ; the 
words mercy, detervt, te. thus, nuarey, demrve. The 
following peculiarities of pronunciation are likewise 
obserrable ! us, strongly aspirated, for *u, toar for 
UNM, meed for maid, ftithw torftHher, t'ery for «v«ry- 
hrig for br\Ag9y thummgh for furrow, hawf tor ha(f, 
cart-HI for rut, mal^ctwrif for manHfttetonft inae, 
tiotu for OMiHoiie. 

MaeauW Ctayftrvoir, 1791, pp. 1884» 


The river Witham may be considered with 

tolerable accuracy the boundary line between 

the Northern and Southern dialects of the 

county, which differ considerably from each 


other ; the fSomier being more nearly allied to 
that ojf Yorkshire, the latter to the speech of 
East Anglia, but neither are nearly so broad as 
the more Northern dialects. Many singolar 
phrases are in use. They say, Very not well, 
I used to could, Yon shouldn't have ought, &c 
The Lincolnshire words were partially collected 
by Skinner in the seventeenth century, but no 
regular glossary has yet appeared. This defi- 
ciency, however, as for as the present work is 
concerned, has been amply supplied by as many 
as nineteen long communications, each forming 
a small glossary by itself, and of peculiar value, 
from the Rev. James Adcock of Lincoln, to 
whom I beg to return my best acknowledg- 
ments. I have also to acknowledge assistance 
from Sir E. F. Bromhead, Bart., the Rev. Dr. 
Oliver, Robert Goodacre, Esq., T. R. Jackson, 
Esq., Mr. E. Johnson, and pxpen Idndly inserted 
at my suggestion in the Lincoln Standard. 

(1) Esiractjrom MS, Digby 86, written m 

Lhieobuhire, ten^. Edw. /. 

NliUngsle, thou havett wrong, 
Wolc thou me Mnd«D of this lond. 

For kh holde with the rijtte ; 
I take witnesM of sire Wawain, 
That Jhesu Crbt jaf mlft and main, 

And strengthe for to fljtte. 

So wide so he herede i-gon, 
Trewe ne founde he nevere non 

Bi daye ne hi nljtte. 
Fowel, for thi false mouth, 
Thi sawe shal ben wide couth, 

I rede the fle with mijtte. 

Ich habbe lere to ben here, 
In ordiard and in eriiere. 

Mine songes for to singe ; 
Herdl nevere bi no levedi. 
Bote hendlnese and curteysi. 

And Joye hy gunnen me bringe. 

Of muchele murthe hy telleth me, 
Fere, also I telle the, 

Hy llveth In longinglnge. 
Fowel, thou sitest on hasel bou, 
Thou lastest hem, thou havest wou, 

Thi word shal wide springe. 

Hltspringeth wide, wel ich wot, 
Hou tel hit him that hit not, 

This sawes ne beth nout newe ; 
Fowel, herkne to mi sawe, 
Ich wile the telle of here Uwe, 

Thounekepest nout hem, 1 knowe. 

Thenk on Constantlnes quene, 
Foul wel hire semede fow and grene, 

Hou sore hit son hire rewe : 
Hoe fedde a crupel in hire bour, 
Andhelede him with covertour, 

Loke war wimmen bon trewe. RtUq, Antiq. 

(2) From •• Nfddy and Sally ; a Lmcolmhire 

tale,*' by John Brown, 12mo. n. d. 

Cum, Hull, Us time we started now, 
Yoii's Farmer Haycock's lasses ready, 

Ami malster says he'll feed the cow, 
Hr didn't say lo, - did he Neddy i 

Yees« that he did. so make thee baste. 

And gU thee sen made smart and pretty« 
We yaUer ribbon round the waist. 

The same as ood Squire Lowde^ Kitty. 
And Illgo fetch ray sister Bess, 

I'm sartin sare she^ up and ready. 
Come gie's a bos, thoa can't do lets. 

Says Sally, No, thou musn't, Neddy. 
See, yonder's Bess a cummin cron 

The fields, we lou & lads and lasses. 
All haim be halm, and brother Joss 

A shooting to the folks as passes. 
Odds dickens, SalL well hev a spree. 

Me heart's as light as ony feather. 
There's not a chap dost mssel me. 

Not all the town's dups put together. 

The metropolitan county presents little in its 
dialect worthy of remark, being for the most 
part merely a coarse pronunciation of London 
sUng and vulgarity. The language of the lower 
orders of the metropolis is pictiued very faith- 
fully in the works of Mr. Dickens. The inter, 
change of v and v is a leading characteristic 
Some of the old cant winds, mixed with nume- 
rous ones of late formation, are to be traced in 
the London slang. 

The Thimtile Rig, 
** Now, then, my Jolly sportsmen I I've got 
more money than the parson of the parish. Those 
as don't play can't vin, and those as are hef« hamt 
there ! I'd hold any cm you, from a tanner to a 
sovereign, or ten. as you dont tell which thimble 
the pea is under." «' It's there, str." «« I barr teU. 
Ing*.- •• V\\ go it agafai." •' Vat you don't see 
don't look at, and vat you do see dont tell. Ill 
hould you a soveren, sir, you don't tell me vitch 
thimble the pea is under." «« Lay him, sir, (in a 
whisper) ; it's under the middle^m. Ill go you 
halves.** •• Lay him another ; that's right." «• I'm 
blow'd but we've lost ; who'd a thought it ?" Smack 
goes the flaf s hat over his eyes ; exit the oonfedeiates 
with a loud laugh. 

"The most general and pervading charac. 
teristic of our pronunciation,'' observes Mr. 
Forby, " is a narrowness and tenuity, precisely 
the reverse of the round, sonorous, mouth-filling 
tones of Northern English. The broad and open 
sounds of vowels, the rich and full tones of 
diphthongs, are generally thus reduced." The 
same writer enters very minutely into the sub* 
ject of the peculiarities of this dialect, and his 
glossary of East Anglian words, 2 vols. 8vo. 
1830, is the most complete pubUcation of the 
kind. A brief list of Norfolk words is given in 
Brown's Certain Miscellany Tracts, 8vo. 1684, 
p. 146. A glossary of the provincialisms of the 
same county occurs in Marshall's Rural Economy 
of Norfolk, 1 787, and observations on the dialect 
in Erratics by a Sailor, 1809. In addition to 
these, I have had the advantage of using com- 
munications from the Rev. George Munford, the 
Very Rev. F. C. Husenbeth, Mrs. Robins, and 
Goddard Johnson, Esq. 


A Tocabnlary of the fifteenth centmy, written 
in Norfolk, is preeenred in MS. Addit. 12195, 
but the Flnomptorium Parmlorum is a much 
mme vahiable and extensire repository of eariy 
Norfolk words. A MS. of Capgraye's Life of 
St. Katherine in the Bodleian librarj, MS. 
RawL Poet. 118, was written in this county. It 
would ^pear from the following passage that 
Norfolk was, in early times, one of the leut re- 
fined parts of the island : 

I wcodr rlflyng* wara reititiiekm, quod he, 

For I Icnwd B«Ttre rede on bok«t 

And I kan no Ficnnhe, In fdth. 

Bat of th« fmlMita end* of Northfolk. 

PUn PUm^man, <d. Wright, p. 91. 

(I) OU Metuures qf Weight. 

Ttom MS. Cottom dandlut E. Till. foL 8, of th« ftmr- 

tMntheantury, wrltttn at Norwkfa. 

Sex vazpond* makiac 4. Mpound. Ji[|. led- 

p«Dd« J. fotmel. .xzim. fodnel .J. fothlr of Brlt- 

tonwv, ya havcd xc. and jocvi^t*. wexpound. 

Sex vazfnindemaklet.J. leedpound. .x^M). leed- 
pVDd J. leedbola. jcyI^ le«l bolts. .J. fothlr of the 
NorthleoiMlca, yt haat oce. and jdiO* leed punde, 
that beech jdx. hundryd and fourt and fourtl wex- 

icmla, and ya avtt more bl alx and leed 

ponde* that beech to hvndred and •extcoewezpundft. 
Serone waxpund makJet onlere ponde one waye, 
Cveif weycnon fothlr, thiaarelc two thousand and 
.im. acore and fSimi« wexpand, that beeth thre hun- 
dred and tweUVe leedpo un d, this his more than that 
oftte Norcchlandbefbaxeandthrittlmoreofleed- 
I, that beeth fbuTO and twentl lasse. 

(2) NvrfoXk Degrem qf Compariatm, 
Little . Lev . . LeMt 

Ifiitreritill Lcaseet of all. 
Littler . . Littlest. 
Thiier. • Tiniest. 
Titty . Tlttler . TIttleBt. 

A midland dialect, less broad and not so 
similar to the Northern as Warwickshire. Iha^e 
to acknowledge comnranications on the dialect 
of this coonty from the Rer. J« B. P. Dennis, 
and Charles Toong, Esq. 

Northmnberland has a dialect the most broad 
of aU the Eng^h counties, nearly approaching 
the Scotch, the broadest of all English dialects. 
The Scottish bur is heard in this county and in 
the North of Durham. A large number of spe- 
nmens of the dialect have been published, and 
cbe prorindal words have been collected by Mr. 
Brodiett, but no extensire glossary of words 
pecobar to the county has been published sepa- 
iiidy. A short list, howcTcr, is given in Ray's 
En^Sah Words, ed. 1691 ; and others, recently 
toflccted, were sent me by George B. Richardson, 
bq. and the Rev. R. Douglas. An early sped- 
am of the Northumberiand dialect occurs in 
BsDcui'a Dialogue, 1564, reprinted in Waldron's 
I to the Sad Shepherd, p. 187. 

Formerly belonged in dialect to the Northern 
division, but may now, I believe, be included in 
the Midland. I speak, however, with uncer- 
tainty, no work on the Nottinghamshire dialect 
having yet appeared. 

From a Treatite on the Fietuh la «io, 6p John 
Jrdeme, qf Newark, 
Johan Ardeme fro the first pcstelence that was in 
the yere of our LordOS40, duelled In Newerke in 
Notlnghamschire unto the yere of our Lorde 1370, 
and ther I heled many men of JUtuta in ano/ of 
which the first was Sir Adam Ererynf ham of Laxtoo 
In the CUy byslde Tukliesford, whiche Sir Adam 
for sothe was in Oascooe with Sir Henry that tyroe 
named herle of Derby, and after was made Dulie of 
Lancastre, a noble and worthy lord. The forsald 
Sir Adam forsoth sullbrend Jlstulam in ano, made for 
to aslie counsell at alle the leches and corurglens that 
he myght fynd in Gascone, at Burdeux, at Brig- 
gerac, Tolows, and Neyybon, and Peyters,and many 
other places, and alle forMke hym for uncurablei 
whiche y*ee and y-herde, the forsald Adam hastled 
for to tome home to his cootree, and when he come 
home he did of al his knyghtly clothings, and cladda 
moumyng clothes In purpose of abydyng diuoWyng 
orlesyngofhis bodybeyngnyj tohym. Atthelaste 
I forsald Johan Ardeme y^soft, and covenant y-made, 
come to hyme and did my cure to hym, and, our 
Lorde beyng mene, I heled hyme perfltely within 
halfe a yere, and afterward hole and sound he Icdde 
a glad life 90 yere and more. For whiche cure I gate 
myche honour and loryng thurj alle Ynglond ; and 
the forsald Duke of Lancastre and nuny other gen> 
tilei wondred therof. Afte[r]ward I cured Hugon 
Derlyng of Fowlck of Balne by Snaythe. Afterward 
I cured Johan Schefeld of Rlghtwelle aside Tekille. 
MS. SUhuu 563, f. 124. 

The provincial speech of this county has none 
of the marked features of the Western dialect, 
although many of the Gloucestershire and Wilt- 
shire words are in use. The Oxfordshire dialect 
may be described as rather broad, and at the 
same time sharp, with a tendency to contrac- 
tion. Ut is usal instead of /, as in some other 
counties. There are not a large number of 
words quite peculiar to the coun^, and no glos- 
sary has yet been published. Kennett has pre- 
served many now obsolete, and I am indebted 
for several to Mr. A. Chapman, and Francis 
Frandllon, Esq. In the sixteenth century, the 
Oxfordshire dialect was broad Western. In 
Soogin's Jests, we have an Oxfordshire rustic 
introduced, saying ieh for I, die for this, vag for 
fisy, ehiO for I wiU, vor for for, &c 

The dialect of Rutlandshire possesses few, if 
any, features not to be found in the adjoining 
counties. It would appear to be most similar to 
that of Leicestershire, judging from a communi- 
cation on the subject from the Rev. A. S. 


In the modern dialect of this county, a is fre- 
quently changed into 0Te;e into q, co into gu ; 
d final is often suppressed or commuted into / in 
the present tense ; € is sometimes lengthened at 
the commencement of a word, as eend^ end, and 
it is frequently changed intoa ; ^is often omitted 
before A; the A is almost iuTariably wrongly 
used, omitted where it should be pronounced, 
and pronounced where it should be omitted ; i 
is changed into et or e; I into w ; o is generally 
lengthened ; r when followed by « is often drop- 
ped, the « in such cases being doubled ; / is en- 
tirely dropped in many words where it precedes 
9, and is superseded by tf, especially if there be 
any plurality ; y is prefixed to a vast number of 
words which commence with the aspirate, and is 
substituted for it. See further obsenrations in 
Mr. Hartshome's Shropshire glossary appended 
to his Salopia Antiqua, 8to. 1841, from which 
the above notices of the peculiarities of the 
dialect have been taken. To this work I have 
been chiefly indebted for Shropshire words, but 
many unknown to Mr. Hartshome hare been 
derived from Llhuyd's MS. additions to Ray, a 
MS. glossary compiled about 1780, and from 
communications of the Rev. L. Darwall and 
Thomas Wright, Esq. 

A translation of the Pars Oculi in English 
Terse, made by John Mirkes, a canon of lille- 
shul, in Shropshire, is preserved in MS. Cotton. 
Claud.A.ii.andMS.Douce60, 103, manuscripts 
of the fifteenth century. The poem commences 
as follows : 

God leyth hymself , u wry ten we fynde, 

Tlut whenne the Uynde ledeth the blynde, 

Into the dyche they fallen boo. 

For they ne ten whare by to go. 

MS. Cotl. CZaud. A. U. f. 197. 

God seith himself, at writen y fynde. 

That whan the blynde ledeth the blynde. 

Into the diche they falleth bo. 

For they ne teen howe they go. 

M8. Douce 60, f. 147. 

It should not be forgotten that the dialect of a 
MS. is not necessarily that used by the author 
himself. It oftener depended on the scribe. 
We have copies of Hampole's Prick of Conscience 
written in nearly every dialect 

The poems of John Audelay, a monk of 
Haghmon, who wrote about 1460, afford a 
faithful specimen of the Shropshire dialect of 
that period. A small volume of his poetry was 
printed by the Percy Society, 8vo. 1844 : 
Aa I lay leke In my langnre. 
In an abbay here be WHt, 
Thiaboke I made with gret dolour. 

When I myft not slep ne have no rett ; 
out with my prayen I me blest, 
And aayd hyU to heven kyng, 
1 knowlache. Lord, hit la the beat 

MekeU to take thi veaetyng, 
BUla wot I wU that I wera lorne. 
Fore al that ^e done la fore the best. 
Fore In thi defawte was never mon lost. 
That it here of womon borne. 

Merrel je not of this makyng. 

Fore I me excuae, hit ia not I ; 
This waa the Hol4 Goat wereheng. 

That sayd thcae wordia so faythfully ; 
Fore I quoth never bot hye foly, 

God hathmecfaastystforemylevyngl 
I thong my God my grace treoly 

Fort hia gtadoiu verityng . 
B«wa»» eeris, I jooepray. 

Fore I mad thia wiUigood tntent. 

In the reverena of God omnipotoit } 

Prays fore me that bath p r eaeot. 
My name ia Jon the blynd AwdUy. 
The similarities between the dialect of Aude- 
lay's poems and that of modem Shropshire are 
not very easily perceptible. The tendency to 
turn into a, and to drop the A, may be recog- 
nized, as aldtoT hold, &c /is still tamed into 
e, which may be regpuded as one of Audday's 
dialectical peculiarities, especially in the prefixes 
to the verbs ; but the eh for «A or tch, so com- 
mon in Audelay, does not appear to be still 
current. There is much uncertainty in reason- 
ing on the eariy provincial dialects from a single 
specimen, owing to the wide difference between 
the broad and the more polished specimens of 
the language of the same cooitty ; and Audelay's 
poems can be by no means considered as affording 
an example of the broadest and purest eariy Salo- 
pian dialect 

The Parret divides the two varieties of the 
dialects of Somersetshire, the inhabitants of the 
West of that river using the Devonshire lan- 
guage, the difference being readily recognized by 
the broad tse for I, er for he, and the termination 
ik to the third person singular of the present 
tense of the indicative mood. The Somersetshire 
dialect changes tk into d, « into x, / into o, in- 
verts the order of many of the consonants, and 
adds y to the infinitive of verbs. It also turns 
many monosyllables into words of two syllables, 
as oyer, air, booiUh, both, fajfetf ftir, vier, fire, 
8tmfer9f stairs, thower, sure, &c See Jennings' 
Observations on some of the Dialects in the West 
of England, 1825, p. 7. 

A singulariy valuable glossary of Somerset- 
shire words was placed in my hands at the com- 
mencement of the present undertaking by Henry 
Norris, Esq., of South Petherton. It was com- 
piled about fifty years since by Mr. Morris's 
father, at the suggestion of the late Mr. Boucher, 
and Mr. Norris has continually enriched it with 
additions collected by himse^T. To this I am 
indebted for several hundred words which 
would otherwise have escaped me ; and many 
others have been derived from lists formed by 
my brother, the Rev. Thomas Halliwell, of 
Wrington, Thomas Elliott, Esq., Miss Elizabeth 
Carew, the Rev. C. W. Bin^uun, Mr. Elgah 
Tucker, and Mr. Kemp. 

Numerous examples of the Somersetshire 
dialect are to be found in old plays, in which 
country characters are frequently introduced, 
and in other early woriu. It should, however, 
be remarked that many writers have unheal^ 


tatingty aitigned early tpeciiiiens, containing 
the prevailing marks of Western dialect, to this 
coontj, when the style might be referred to 
many others in the South and West of England ; 
and on this account I have omitted a iist of 
pieces stated by various authors to be specimens 
of Somersetshire dialect We have already seen 
that thongh the essential features of the present 
West country dialect may be found, they may 
possibly suit specimens (k the South, Kent, or 
even Essex dialects, in the state the latter ex- 
isted tvro or three centuries ago. 

(1) Tike Peanmi in Lomdm, from a work qfthe 

Onr Tsanton-den It a daagean. 

And yvatth cham gUd cham here ; 
This vamcra* ntty of Longeon 

Is worth an ZomeneC-ihere; 
In wagont, in carts, and In coaches, 

Che never did yet see more h<»se. 
The wendies do shine like roclies* 

And as prondasmy fathers vore horse. 

Fairheifs Lord Mt^onf PugmnU, il.S]7. 

(2) Joka^t aecomtofhit Tr^> to BrittolyOn the 

oeeosUm of Prmee Jlberft tfitit, to his 

UmeU Bern, 1843. 
Nonk ! did ever I tell thee o' my Brister trip, 
Ta see Pumce Albert an' tha gurt im ship ? 
Horn Meary goo^d wi' me (thee's know Meary mi wife) 
An* how I got Trighten'd maust out o* m! life ? 

NIf tts nlver dld*n, *ch 'eel tell thee o't now ; 
An' be drat if tid'n tme iv'ry word, I da vow ! 
Vor Measter an* Miss war bwoth o* m along ; 
Any one o*m ool tell thee nif us da say wrong. 

We goofd to Burgeoter wf Joe's liddle 'oss ; — 
Tbcc^s know thick ua da meanne, tha da call'n wold 

An* s trotted in vine ^1e ; an' when we got there^ 
The voke was sa thick that 'twas Jiss lik a vair. 

We dSd'n goo droo et, tmt goo'd to tha sution— 
There war gurt im 'osscs all in a new vashion ; 
An* there war gurt boxes ta 'old rooor'n a thousan*, 
Za long as all Petherton, an' sa high as tha houien. 

Ther war gennchncns^ sarvants a-dreised all in blue, 
Wr rod-collar'd quoats, an' a lot o' em too ; 
An' nil o' em number 'd— vor one us did ate 
War raark'd in gnrt v^ers, a hnnderd an* dree. 

Hem war nation aveard when tha vun put hem In 
Ta the grutooden box, maust sa big's a com hinn ; 
T^Md two gurt large winders wi' 'olssvor tha glass; 
Tha lodk'd op tha doors, an* there hem war vass. 

Hem had'nbin theremore'n a minnitor aoo, 
Vore mmhody wusseird, an' off us did goo I 
My eyes ! how hem veel'd i— what away vor U ride I 
Hem dnTd in her breath, an' hem thought hem'd a 

Tore ever us know*d et us 'criler'd out " stap I" 
Hem opp'd wf es bond an' catch'd wuld o^ es 'at ; 
AH the voke laugh'd at hem, an' that made hem mad ; 
But thof a' aed nothin, hem veePd cruel bad. 
When vnsthem look'd out, hem war vrighten'd still 

Hem thoft 'twar tha " wuld one" a-draggin, vor sure ; 

Vornarry a'oss, nor nothin war in et; 

ra beduni'd if wvdid'n goo thirty miles In a minlt. 

Tha cows in tha veels did cock up their uils, 
An' did urn vor their lives roun' tha 'edges an' raib ; 
Tha 'ooes did glowy, an' tha sheep glowied too. 
An' the Jackasses blared out " ooh— eh^ooh 1" 
About a mile off hem seed a church-steeple. 
An* in less 'an a mhinit a seed all the people ; 
Us war glowing right at 'em U see who hem cou'd vind. 
But avore hem cou'd look, tha war a mile behhid. 
Thee'st bin to a vare where the conjerers ply— 
** Pristo Jack an' begone 1" and tha things vleeawy ; 
Dash my wig I an' If 'twad'n the same wi' tha people, 
Wi' the waggtns on* 'osses, tha chureh an* tha steeple. 
Gwaln auver a bradge, athurta gurt river, 
Tha drey v*d Jis sa hard an' sa ventersom's iver j 
An' rummeli'd lik thunder; hem thoft to be ground 
All U pieces, an' smash'd, an' murder'd, an' drown'd. 
Oh dear I my poor hed I when us think o* et now. 
How us ever got auver^ hem can't tell thee 'ow ; 
MI hed did whirdlely all roun' and roun' — 
Hem cou'd*n ston' op, nor hem cou'd'n sit down. 

When us got in U Brister—But hem wo'n't teU 

the now, 
(Vor I da see thee art vldgatty now vor ta goo) 
How hem seed tha Queen's husbond tha Pimce, an' 

hes train; 
How tha Piroce an' tha ship war buoth catch'd In 

tha rain. 

Uch '1 tell'ee tha reet o'et sum other time, 

Vor hem promised hem's wife hem'd be woam pvoie 

An' now tha clock's hattin a quarter past ten : 
Zo gee us thi bond, an' good night, Nunde Bee * 

(3) Mr. Guy and the Robbert, 
Mr. Guy war a gennelman 

O* Huntspill, well knawn 
As a grasier, a hirch one, 

Wi' Ions o^ his awn. 
A 6ten went ta Lunnun 

His cattle vor U sill ; 
AU tha bosses that a rawd 

Nlver minded badge or hill. 
A war afeard o^ naw one ; 

A nlver made his will. 
Like wither vawk, avaura went 

His catUe vor U silL 
One time a'd bin ta Lunnun 

An sawld U cattle well ; 
A brought aw& a power o'gawld. 

As I've a hired tell. 
As late at night a rawd along 

All droo a unket ood, 
A oonun rawae vrom off tha groun, 

An right avaur en stood. 
She look'd n pitis Mr. Ouy 

At onoe his boss's psoe 
Stapt short, a wondarin how, at night. 

She com'd In JItch a place. 
A little trunk war In her hon i 

She sim'd vur gwon wf chile. 
She ax'd en nif a'd take er up 

Ancorera veomlle. 
Mr. Guy, a man o' veelln 

Vor a ooman in distress,- 
Than took er up behfaid en ; 

A cood'n do na less. 
A corr'd er trunk avaur en» 

An by his belt o'leather 
A bid er hawld vast ; on th& rawd 

Athout much tik, together. 


Not Tur thA went ftvaar she gid 

A whlMle load an long. 
Which Mr. Guy thawt very stiinge ; 

Br Tolce too sim'd sa strong I 
She'd lost er dog, she led ; an than 

Another whinle blaw'd. 
That ttortled Mr. Guy ;— a lUpt 

Hi« hoM upon tha rawd. 
Goo on. Bed she ; bit Mr. Guy 

Zum rig beglnn'd ta fear : 
Vor voices rawse upon tha wine. 

An ilm*d a comin near. 
Again th& rawd along ; again 

She whirled. Mr. Guy 
Whipt out his knife an cut tha belt, 

Than push'd er off I— Vor why ? 
Tha ooraan he took up behine, 

Begummers, war a man t 
Tha rubbers saw ad lid ther plots 

Our grutier to trepan. 
I sholl not stap ta tell what sed 

Tha man in ooman's clawie ; 
Bit he, an All o'm Jist behine. 

War what you mid suppawie, 
ThA cust, thA swaur, tha drealen'd too. 

An Ater Mr. Guy 
ThAgallop'd All t twar niver-tha-near : 

His boss along did vly. 
Auver downs, droo dales, awA a went, 

'Twar dA>llght now amawst, 
Tni at an Inn a stapt, at last, 

Ta thenk what he'd a lost. 
A lost r— why, nothin— but his belt ! 

A summet moor ad gain'd : 
Thic little tmnkacorr'dawA— 

Itgawld g'lorecontain'd ! 
Nif Mr. Guy war hirch avaur, 

A now war hircher still : 
Tha pluikler o^ tha highwAmen 

His coffers went ta Till. 
In sAfety Mr^ Guy rawd whim ; 

A Aten tawld thastorry. 
Ta meet wi' Jitch a rig myid 

I shood'n,soce, be lorry. 

Kennett has recorded numerous Staffordshire 
provincialisms, most of which are probably now 
obsolete, and would have escaped me but for his 
valuable collections. A valuable MS. glossary 
by Mr. Clive, but extending no further than B 
in the part seen by me, was also found of use, 
and a few words in neither of these MSS. were 
given me by Miss L. Marshall and Mr. Edward 
T. Gooch. The following specimen of the dia- 
lect, taken from Knight's ' Quarterly Magazine,' 
1823, will sufficiently exhibit its general charac- 
ter. The lengthening of the vowel t appears 
very common. In the collieries surnames are 
very frequently confused. It constantly hap- 
pens that a son has a surname very different 
from that of his father. Nicknames are very 
prevalent, e. g. Old Puff, Nosey, Bullyhed, Loy. 
a^bed. Old Blackbird, Stumpy, Cowskin, Spindle- 
shanks, Cockeye, Pigtail, TeUow-belly, &c 

Dialwt qf the Bilston Folk. 
The dialact of the lower order here has frequently 
been noCked, as well as the peculiar countenance of 
the iMl «« BUston folk." We notked ourselvM (up- 

on the excursion) the following i— «* Thee shatn't," 
for •• you sh'a'nt ;" *• thee oostiia,'' for •• you can't ;* 
«' thee host alT, surry, or oH mosh Oiol yed fur thee," 
for "take yourself away, sirrah, at I'll crush your 
head i** " weear hist thee ?" for •• where are yoo ?" 
«« in a casulty wee krik,** for "by chance;" with 
** thee Ust, thee shonna {** «* you are, you sha'D'c." 
A young woman turned round to address a small 
child crying alter her upon the threshold of the 
hovel, asfshe went off towards the mine, '* Ah, be 
seiaed, yung'un if thee dos'n'r knoo* my bock as well 
u thee knoo-ast moy fee^as." Some of the better 
apparelled, who aflfect a superior style, use words 
which they please to term *« dicksunary words," 
such as ''easement, convindated, abstimonloui, 
timothy" (for timid). One female, in conversation 
with a crony at the •* trudt-shop" door, spoke of 
** Sal Johnson's aspirating her mon's mind soo'a, and 
*maciatlng his temper," and ** I never seed a senti * 
ment o* nothbi' bod till it took Tum all at ooce't," 
(sentiment here used for symptom) speaking of in- 
'Wanderingtifa Pen and Pencil, 

Comfertatitm between a Stqfbrdshire Canal 
Boatman and Me W^e. 

Lad^, Don yo know Solden-mouth, Tummy ? 

0«nt, Eees t an' a' neatlon good feller he is tew. 

Ladif, A desput quoietmon I But he loves a sop 
o' drink. Dun yo know his wolf? 

Gsnr. Know her I ay. Iter's the very devil when 
her split's up. 

Ladif, Her is. Her uses that mon sheamful— 
her rags him every neet of her loif. 

Gent, Her does. Oive known her come into the 
public and call him all the neames her could lay her 
tongue tew afore all the company. Her oughts to 
suy till her's got him fthe boat, and then her mit 
say wha her'd a moind. But her taks alter her 

Ladif, Hew was her feyther ? 

Cent, Whoy, singing Jemmy. 

Locdf. Oi dont think as how Oi ever know'd sing* 
Ing Jemmy. Was he ode Soaker's brother I 

Gent. Eees, he was. He lived a top o' Hell Bonk. 
He was the wickedest, sweaminst mon as ever I 
know'cL I should think as how he was the wickedest 
mon r the wold, and say he had the rheumatis so 

The characteristics of the Suffolk dialect are 
in all essential particulars the same as those of 
the Norfolk, so carefuUy investigated by Mr. 
Forby. The natives of Suffolk in speaking ele- 
vate and depress the voice in a very remarkable 
manner, so that ** the Suffolk whine" has long 
been proverbial The natives of all parts of 
East Anglia generally speak in a kind of sing- 
song tone. The first published list of Suffolk 
words is given in Cullum's History of Hawsted, 
1784, but no regular glossary appeared till the 
publication of Major Moor's Suffolk Words and 
Phrases, 8vo. 1823, a very valuable coUection of 
provincialisms. With the greatest liberality. 
Major Moor kindly placed in my hands his in- 
terleaved copy of this work, containing copious 
and important additions collected by him during 
the last twenty years ; nor have I been less for- 
tunate in the equally liberal Umui of most valo^ 


able and nnmeroiif MS. additions to Forby'i 
East Angtii, collected in Suffolk by D. B. Day, 
Esq. Brief lists have also been sent by Miss 
Agnes Strickland and the Rer. S. Charles. 

An early book of medical receipts, by a per- 
son who practised in Suffolk in the fifteenth 
century, is preserved in MS. HarL 1735 ; an 
English poem, written at Clare in 1445, is in 
MS. Addit. 11814; and Bokenham's lives of 
the Saints in MS. Arundel 327, transcribed in 
1447, is also written in the Suffolk dialect 

(1) Extract Jrom a MS. qfEngtitk poetry (f the 
fifteenth century, written in Si^ffblk, in the 

qfW.S. FUch, Eiq. 
Herkcth now fortber at this Arome, 
How thii daqperd wolde come; 
To Abraham tb« tydyngus comyn. 
The propbcty* bit undcrnomyo, 
Tbat is Moyaet and Jooaf , 
Abactic and Ellas, 
Ant l)anyeU and Jeronie, 
And DaTjd and I-uye, 
And EllMfnand Samud!, 
Tbd wyn Goddyt coinyng ryjbt well. 
Lone it were of bem alle to telle. 
But berkyntb how Yiay con ipelle, 
A child that it i-boryn to u«. 
And a MMie l^jevyn ut. 
That sballe upbolden hii kyndoma. 
And aUe this shall byn his nome, 
W<MidurfuU God and of myjht. 
And rewfull,and fadur r^ryjbt. 
Of th« world that hereaftur shall byn. 
And Princ« of Pes men shalle him leyn i 
Theae butb the nome* as 50 mowe i>le?en, 
That the pr ophetys to hym Jtryn. 

(2) Fmm BcJtenam*9 Lttet pf the Saintt, written 

in 1447. 
Whylonn, as the story techyth us, 
la Antyoche, that grete cyt^, 
A man ther was depyd Theodoslus 
Wydi in gret state itood and dignyt^, 
Por of paynymrye the patryark was he, 
And bad the reule and al the govemaunce, 
To whom alle prestys dede obecyaunce. 
This Thcodoi)^ had a wyf ful mete 
To hys aatate, of whom was bom 
A dott^tyr fayr, and clepyd Margarita, 
Bat ryht aa of a ful sharp thorn. 
As provydcd was of God befom, 
Growy th a rose bothe fayr and good t 
So sproof Margrete of the betbene blood. 


(3) J Letter in the SuffoUs Diateet, written in 
the year ISU. 


I was axed some stoands agon by BUIy P. 
our 'sesser at Hulladen to make inquiration a' 

ytow if Master had pahd In that there money 

mto the Bank. Billy P. he fare kienda unasy 
sbout it, and when I see him at Church ta day he 
sah tinuny, says be, prah ha yeow wrot— «> I kienda 
weft um off— and I sab, says I, I heent hard ttom 

bqolre D as yit, but I dare sab, I shall 

•fore long— So prah write me some lines, an send 
aewahd, wntba the money is pahd a' nae. I dont 
know what to make of our M uUadea folks, nut I — 
hut soBs ah ow or another, tbeyre alius in dibles, an 

111 be rot if I doat b^gte to think some 00 em all 
tahn up scaly at last: an as to that there fuila— be 
grow so big and so purdy that he want to be took 
down a peg— an I'm glad to bare that yeow gint it 
it em properly at Wickhum. I'm gooin to meet the 
MuUaden folks a' Friday to go a bounden, so prah 
write me wahd afore thennum, an let me know If 
the money be pahd, that I may make Billy P. asy. 
How stammln cowd tis nowadays— we heent no feed 
no where, an the stock run blorein about for wittica 
jest as if twa winter— yeow mah pend ont twool be 
a mortal bad season for green geese, an we shant ha 
no spring wahts afore Soom fair. I dipt my ship 
last Tuesday (list a' me— I mean Wensday) an tha 
scrit^^e up their backs so nashunly I'm afeard 
they're wholly stryd— but 'strus God tis a strange 
cowd time. I heent got no news to tell ye, only 
we're all stammenly set up about that tber* colli 
bill— some folks dont fare ta like It no matters, an 
tha sab there was a nasbun noise about it at NorriJ 
last Saturday was a fautnit. The mob thay got 
3 eQJis, a farmer, a squire, an a mulla, an strus 
yeowrt alive thay hung um all on one jibbit— so folks 
sah. Howsomever we are all quite enough here, 
case we fare to thiuk it for our good. If you see 
that there chap Harry, give my larvlce to em. 

The dialect of the East of Sussex is very 
nearly the same as that of Kent, while that of 
the West is similar to the Hampshire phrase- 
ology. *• In Sussex,'* says Ray, English Words, 
ed. 1674, p. 80, ** for hasp, dasp, wasp, they 
pronounce hapse, elapse, wapse, &c ; for neck, 
nick ; for throat, throttle ; for choak, chock ; 
let'n down, let'n stand, come again and fet'n 
anon." These observations still hold good. In 
East Sussex day is pronounced dee, and the pea- 
santry are generally distinguished for a broad 
strong mode of speaking. They pronounce ow 
final as er, but this habit is not peculiar ; and 
they often introduce an r before the letters d 
and /. A •* Glossary of the Provincialisms in 
use in the County of Sussex," by W. D. Cooper, 
was printed in 1836, a neat little work, a copy 
of which, vrith numerous MS. additions, was 
kindly sent me by the author. Several Sussex 
words, not included in Mr. Cooper's list, were 
sent to me by M. A. Lower, Esq., the Rev. 
James Sandham, Colonel Davies, and M. T. 
Robinson, Esq.; and Mr. Holloway's General 
Dictionary of Provincialisms, 8vo. 1838, con- 
tains a considerable number. 

(1) Tom Cladpole'e Journey to Lunnun, the 
Jirst eeven etamae. 

Last Middlemus I 'member well. 

When barrest was all over ; 
Us cheps had hous'd up all de banes, 

An stack'd up all de dover. 
I think, says I, 111 Uke a trip 

To Lunnun, dat I wol. 
An see how things goo on a bit, 

Lest I shu'd die a fool I 
Fer sister Sal, five years agoo, 

Went off wud Squyer Brown; 
Housemaid, or sumrout; don't know whati 

To live at Lunuun town. 


Dey'hav'd uncommon well to Sal, 

An ge ur clothei an dat ; 
So Sal 'hav'd oathun well to dem. 

Ad grow'd quite UU an fat. 
I ax'd or Ben to let me goo. 

Hem rrm ol* fellur he. 
He flcratchM hl» %»ig, * To Luhnun, Tom ?* 

Den turn'd hi» quid, • I'll »ee.* 
So strate to mother home gooe I, 

An thus to ur did lay. 
Mother, I'll goo an see our Sal, 

Fermeaster layi I may. 
De poor ol' gal did shake ur head. 

Ah ! Tom, twant never do. 
Poor Sal is gone a tejus way. 

An must I now loose you t 

(2) J Dialogue between two FarmUaAimren in 

Tom. Why, Jim, where a bin ? 

Jim. Down to look at the ship. 

7hm. Did ye look at the stack ? 

Jim. Umps, I did, and it roakes terrible I 

2bm. Why didn't ye make a hole in it ? 

Jim. I be guain to it. 

Tbm. It's a pity, 'twas sich a mortal good 'un. 

Jim. Es sure ! WeU, it's melancholy fine time* 
for the crops, aint it ? 

Tom. Ah ! it'U be ripping time pretty soon now. 

Jim. Ah! I shan't do much at that for the 

Tom* What be guain to do with that ere Jug ? 
You'd better let it bide. Do you think the chimbley 
sweeper will come to-day ? 

Jim. Iss! he's safe to come, let it be how t'wulL 

TbfM. Which way do you think hell come ? 

Jim. He'll come athirt and across the common. 

Tmu. What,caterways, aye? 

Jim. Iss. Did you mind what I was a telling of ? 

Tbm. To be sure; but dang ye if I could sense it, 
ootild you ? 

Jim. Lor, yis. I don't think it took much cute- 
neM to do that I > 

The following observations on the dialect of 
this county are taken from a MS. glossary of 
Warwickshire words, compiled by the late Mr. 
T. Sharp, and kindly commmiicated to me by 
Mr. Staunton, of Longbridge House, near 
Warwick : ** The diphthong ea is usually pro- 
nounced like at, as mait, ait, plaise, paise, walk, 
say, for meat^ eat, please, weak, sea. The vowel 
gives place to «, in sung, lung, amung, for 
tong, long, among ; wunst for once ; grun, fim, 
and pun, for ground, found, and pound, Shownd 
is also frequent for the imperative of show. J 
and are often interchanged, as drap, shap, 
3rander, for drop, ahop, yonder ; and (per contra) 
hommer, rot, and gonder, for hammer, rat, and 
gander. J is substituted for d, in juke, jell, 
jeth, and jed, for duke, deal, death, and dead; 
whilst juice is often pronounced duce. D is 
added to words ending in own, as drownded and 
gownd, for drowned and ^oim. E is sometimes 
converted into a, as batty, laft, fatch, for betty, 
left, and fetch. The nom. case and the ace. are 
perpetually and barbarously confounded in 

such phrases as, " They ought to have spoke to 
we ; her told him so ; he told she so ; us wont be 
hurt, will us ? This is one of our most grating 
provincialisms.'' This MS. glossary has been 
fully used in the following pages. I have also 
received communications firom Mr. Perry, Mr. 
W. Reader, the Rev. W. T. Brec, the Rev. J. 
Staunton, Mr. J. T. Watson, and Thomas 
Haslewood, Esq. The modem dialect of War- 
wickshire contains a very large proportion of 
North country words, more than might have 
been expected from its locality. They say yai 
for gate, /mi, fool, sheeam, shame, weeat, wheat, 
Yethard, Edward, Jeeams, James, leean^ lane, 
rooad, road, wool, will, p-yaqper, paper,/e«ice, 
face, cooatf coat, &c. 


" A bran new Wark by William de Worfat, 
containing a true Calendar of his thoughts con- 
cerning good nebberhood,'' 12mo. Kendal, 1785, 
pp. 44, is a good specimen of the Westmoreland 
dialect, but of great rarity. This dialect is very 
similar to that of Cumberland. 

(1) ^ Westmoreland Dialogue. 

Sarmh. What yee hev hard hee yan ev my sweet- 
harts. Lord! This ward is brimful a lee for 

Jennet. Aye, thears lees enow, but I redeem that 

Sarah. Yee may be mistaan as weel as udder 
fowk ; yee mun know I went to Amside tawer wie 
aur Breaady toth Bull, an she wod nit stand, but set 
off an run up Tawer-hill, an throoth loan on tae 
Middle Barra plane, an I hefter he, tnl I wer wdly 
brosen. Dick wor cumin up frae Silver dale, an 
tomd her, helpt me wie her tmh bull, an then went 
heaam wie me, an while ea leev 111 nivver tak a kaw 
mair. Ite sure its a Tarra shamful sarvis to send 
onny young woman on, en what 1 think nicone hart 
is dun ea nae spot but Beothans parish. En £rae 
this nebbors ses we er sweetharts. 

(2) A ** Orahameif* Letter. 


Sur,— Es as sea oft plaagln ye aboot sununut ur 
udder, it maks me freetend et ye'll be gittin oot ut 
o' pashens, but, ye kna, et wer varra unlamed in 
oor dawle, en, therefore, obleiged when in a bit ov a 
difflcultee to ax sumbody et can enleeten us ont. 
Aw whope, hooiver, et thls'en el be't last time et al 
hev occashun for yer advice ; for If aw can manaj^ 
to git hoad uv this situwashun et aw hev uv me ee, 
al be a gentelman oot days uv me life. Noo, ye 
see, Mr. Hedditur, yaw day befowre t*rent com du« 
aw meen afowre t'time et fader was stinted to pay't 
in t for't landlawrd wiv mickle perswadln gev him s 
week or twa ower ; but he teUed him plane enuf if he 
dudent stum up that he wad send t'BumbalUes ta 
sees t'sticks en turn byath fsder en mudder, mesel en 
oot bams, tut duer. O, man, thur landlawrds thur 
hard-hart'd chaps. Aw beleev he wad du'it tu, for 
yan niver sees him luke plissant, especialle et farm, 
for o'its et best condishun, en we've lade sum ut 
this neu-fashend manner et they co* Guanney ont 
(Fadder likes to be like t' neabers). Sartenly, it suite 
for yaw year, en theer's sum varra bonnie crops wbor 
iU been lade on middlin thick] but It we^at i 


f «^ m weel et a good fo«d muldeo. Whi«h, Mr. 
Hoddltiir, m aw was fugim to lay, yaw day afowre 
ftuBo et Pader bed ta pay't not he teot me wid a 
coo CB a itirk^ tar a girt fare, they co Branten Pare, 
Bar Appelby* en aw was to eeU them if anybody bad 
me out, for braas be mud hev, whedder aw gat ther 
woorth «r nut. When aw was ut fare aw gat reet 
iatttlt mkldel av o'at thrang, whor aw thout aw 
codot help but meet wid a awtmner ; but aw was 
was Carely cheete d, for aw stude tbeer nar o't day 
wc^TO me bands w me pockets, en neabody es mlckle 
et azd me what awd gayne aboot, en ye ma be sure 
aw pood a lang fawce, tell a gude-looken gentleman 
like feller com up tuT me, and nea doot seen aw was 
•are grhevd, began ta ax me es to wbea aw was ? 
wbor aw coo tn ? boo me Padder gat his leeven, en 
a dcd man sec like qucstlom. Or oootse, aw telld 
litm nout but truth, for, ye kna, aw nlwcr like U 
lell a lee U neabody, en aw dudnt forgit, et saame 
time to let him kna boo badly off Padder was. en hoo 
it wud put him aboot when aw hednt sett beeas. 
Tgentleman* puer feller ! was a varra feclen man, 
for he seemed a girt deel hurt, en ger me what aw 
wanted for me coo en stirk, widoot ivera wurdov 
bertercn. Kfthro'wassattled, en we'ed gitteneadcr 
a fkMS, aw axed him for his nyame to tak UPadder, 
enhewnyateme'tdoonwid awadpcneel, ootback 
UT M iall green card ; but unfortunatele aw put it 
intnl me wayseowt pocltet en't name gat rubbed oot 
afowre aw gat hyame. Ont tudder side et card, Mr. 
HeJditur, was an advertisement, or which this is a 
wurd forwurd copy: 


A Man or Good Craraotsr, 

At a Salary of £800 per Annum, 

To Mino bis own BosiNasa, 

And a farther sum of £fiOO, 


O:^ For further particulars enquire of the Secre- 
tary for the Home Department.'' 
Bt first aw dudnt tak miokle nouticeont } but sen 
aWve been coosideren that me Padder is sare fashed 
we've sea mooy or us, ca, as aw snppowse, all heir 
M gwdc a chance a gitten a situwashun es onybody 
else, aw want to kna» Mr. Iledditur, hoo aw mun 
gang aboot it. Aw eannct teU what sud ale me gittea 
eat, for aw*Te alias bourne a gude carkkter, en thaU 
fkort UT a chap tliey want« en aw've nea doot aw 
cud suae lam f trade. Aw see It coms U nar twenty 
pund a week, throot yer, en iU a grand thing for a 
puer body. THaborin fowks aboot here cant hardlys 
mak bofo ca mony shillens. O msn, t'fowk hes sare 
shift to git a putten on, noo o* days. But besides & 
that, aw can tell ye summet mare underneath, et 
maks me want ta gang U Lunnen sea mickle es aw 
•uppowae its wbare this situwation is. Ye kna, Mr. 
Bedditur, bm sweethart Nanny (es Uke U sham we 
taOen ye, but ye munnet menshion four agen for 
awt worl> es aw was a taing roe sweethart Nanny 
wuBt up ta Lunnen ta be a Leddies made, eu aw 
sod like vana we'el to see her et times. Es we ur 
ssu far off taen fother, we rite letters back en forrett 
Ivery noo en then es udder fowkdoes; but theers 
laytly been sum queer stowries in oor dawle aboot a 
feUcr they co Jammy Graam. They sa he's been 
peepcn intul oat letturs et gang up U Lunnen, en 
then tetlcn oot en maken oot roischeef et iver he can. 
By gum ! if aw thout he'ed been broken t'seals or 
my letturs ca aw sent ta Naony^Brst time aw met 
him aw wad giv him sic a thumppen es he niver gat 
iu his Ufo befowre. Aw wonder they hev'nt kick'd 
see a good-for-nout foUer oot uv t'Post lang sen, 
hes gilty uv sec like snecken lolif'd tricks es 

them. Me liand't beginning ta wark, en aw muii 
finish we beggin or ye ta tell me o' ye kna aboot 
situwashun, for es detarmend ta heft, en aw duonet 
kna wbea Secretary of t'Home Department is, en 
theerfowre es at a loss wbea ta apply tu. 
Yer elhcshunct frlnd, 

Jacob Stubbs, 

99th July, 1^. fra f Dawle. 

i*S.~T'weddcr's nobbetbeen varra bad thur twea 
ur thre days back, m thunner shooers hev been fleen 


The dialect of this county is so nearly related 
to that which is denominated the West-Country 
dialect, that the distinction must be sought for 
in words peculiar to itself rather than in any 
general feature. The Saxon plural termination 
en is still common, and ot is generally pronounced 
as irt. Instances of their perfects may be dted, 
map, snopt, hide, hod, lead, lod, icrc^, scrope, 
&c. Some of their phrases are quaint. That*i 
maJket me out, puzzles me ; a kindqfa middUng 
tort qf a wag Ae is m, out of sorts, &c. Mr. 
Britton published a glossary of Wiltshire words 
in his Topographical Sketches of North Wilts, 
vol. iii, pp. 369-80 ; and a more complete one by 
Mr. Akerman has recently appeared, 12mo. 
1842. Many words peculiar to this county will 
be found in the foUowing pages which haTC 
escaped both these writers, collected chiefly from 
Kennett, Aubrey, and MS. lists by the Rev. Dr. 
Hussey, Dr. S. Merriman, the Rev. Richard 
Crawley, and Mr. M. Jackson. The Chronicon 
VUodunense, edited by W. H. Black, fol. 1830, 
is a specimen of the Wiltshire dialect in the fif- 
teenth century. It is so frequently quoted in 
this work that any further notice is unnecessary. 
The following clever pieces in the modem dia- 
lect of the county are frx>m the pen of Mr. 

(1) The Hamet and the Bittie. 

A hamet set in a hollur tree,— 

A proper spiteful twoad was he ; 

And a merrily sung while A« did set 

His stinge as shearp as a bagganet : 
Ob, whoso vine and bowld as I, 
I vears not bee, nor wapse, nor vly 1 

A bittie up thuck tree did dim. 
And scamvully did look at him ; 
Zays he, '* Zur hainet, who giv thee 
A right to set in thuck there tree > 

Vor ael you sengs so nation vine, 

I tell 'e 'til a house o* mine." 

The hamef s conscience velt a twinge. 
But grawin* bowld wi bis long stiuge, 
Zayi he, «' Possession's the best laaw ; 
Zo here tli' shaWt put a claaw ! 
Be off, and leave the tree to me, 
Tbe mlxen's good enough for thee !" 

Just then a yuckel, passin' by, 
Was axed by them the cause to try : 
«* Ha t ha 1 I see how 'tis !" says he, 
" They'll roakea vamous nunch vor me !" 
His bill was shearp, his stomach lear, 
Zo up a snapped the caddltn pair 1 



Ael you as tM to la&w incUsed, 

Thb toeCle stwory bear In mind ; 

Vor if to laaw yon afans to gwo, 

^'ott'U Tind theyll alius nr 'e so : 
You'll meet the vate o these here two. 
They'll take your cwoat and carcass too ! 

(2) The Gemtine Remam$ qf WiOum LUHe, a 

fre alius bin as vlush & money as a twoad Is o* 
veathert ; but If ever I geU rich, ini put it ael In 
Zisieter bank, and not do as owM Smith, the miller, 
did, oomln' whoam rrom market one nlta. Martal 
avraldo'thleTesawas, lo a puts his pound>bllls and 
ael th' money a*d got about un in a hole in the wall, 
and the next maxnin' a* couldn't remember where- 
abouts twas, and had to pull purty nigh a mile o' 
wall down befora a' could vlnd it. Stoopid owU 

Owld Jan WUkins used to ny he aUus cuffe stakes, 
when a went a hedgln', too lang, bekase a* cou'd 
easily cut 'em sharter If a' wanted, but a' cou'dnt 
make um langer if 'em was too shart. Zo nys I : 
so I alius axes Tor more than I wanU. Irlgeuthat, 
well and good ; but if I axex tot little, and get* lest. 
Iff martal akkerd to ax a second thne, d'ye kneow I 

Piple say as how they gied th' neam o' moonrxUter* 
to us Wiltshire vauk l>ekasea passel o* stupid bodies 
one night tried to rake the shadow o* th* moon out o^ 
th'bruk, and tuk't vor a thin cheesew But thafs 
th' wrong Ind o' th' ttwory. The dups as was doin' o^ 
this was smugglers, and they was a viihin' up some 
kegs o' tperrlu, and only purtended to raktf out a 
cheese ! Zo the exciseman as axed 'em the question 
had hisgrinat'cm; but they had a good laugh at he 
when •em got whoamc the stuff. 

Owld Holly Sannell axed Holly Dafter to gie her 
a drap o* barm one day. ** I ha'n't a got nam t" says 
she ; *« besides, I do want un meself to bake wl'." 

Measter Goddin used to say as how childem costed 
a sight o* money to breng um up, and 'twas all very 
well whilst um was leetle. and sucked th' mother, but 
when um began to suck the vather, 'twas natlcm 

Measter Cuss and his sun Etherd went to Lonnun 
a leetle time sence, and when um got to their Jour- 
ney's ind, Heaster Cuss missed a girt passd a carr'd 
wi' un to th' cwoach. ** Lard, vather !" says Etherd, 
'* I seed un drap out at Viae !" (Devises.) 

(3) North Wauhirt ehguenee. 
** Now, do'e place to walk In a bit, sur, and rcst'e, 
and dwont'e mind my measter up ag'in th' chimley 
earner. Poor sowl on hin, he've a bin despert ill 
ever sence t'other night, when a wur tuk ter'ble bad 
wr th' rheumatls in't legs and stummick. He've a 
bin and tuk dree bottles o' doctor's stuff, but I'll ba 
whipped if a do timbly a bit th' better var't. Lawk, 
sur, but I be main scrow to be ael In slch a caddel, 
ael alang o'they childem. They've a bin a leasln', 
and whto um coomed whoame, they ael tuk and 
drowed the cam aelamang th' vlre stuff, and so here 
we be. ael in a muggle like. And you be lookin' 
middllnlsh, sur, and ael at ife was shrammed. Ill 
take and bleow up th' vlre a mossel { but what be 
them belliset at t here they be slat a-two 1 and here's 
my yeppum they've a* bin and scardied, and I've 
agot nam 'nother 'gin Zunday besepts tUtiun I" 
Thif elegint Mmple of North Wiltihire elo- 
quence was uttered nearly in a breath, by Mis- 
treM Vaigei, the wife of a labourer with a large 

family, aa the poor man's master entered thi 
cottage to inquire after his health, and whether 
he would be soon able to return to his work. 


In Worcestershire, the peculiarity of speech 
most striking to a stranger is perhaps the inter- 
change other and the, e. g. " her's going for a 
walk with she." This perrersion is even used 
in the genitiTe, ** she's bonnet." As in Glouces- 
tershire and Herefordshire, the pronoim which 
is constantly used to connect sentences, and to 
act as a species of ooigunction. At a recent 
trial at Worcester, a butcher, who was on his 
trial for sheep-stealing, said in defence, " I 
bought the sheep of a man at Broomsgrove fair, 
which he is a friend of the prosecutor's, and 
won't appear ; which I could have transported 
the prosecutor ever so long agoo if I liked." Aa 
in many other coimties, the neuter is frequently 
invested with the mascuUne gender. A more 
striking feature is the continual dropping of the 
tin sudi words as tiair, fmr^ pronounced etar, 
far, &c ; and the letter r is sometimes sounded 
between a final vowel, or vovrel-soimd, and an 
initial one. No works on the dialect of this 
county have yet appeared, and the majority of 
the words here quoted as peculiar to it have 
been collected by myselfl I have, however, re- 
ceived short communications from J. Noake, 
Esq., Jabez Allies, Esq., Kfiss Bedford, Mrs. 
John Walcot, Thomas Boulton, Esq., Mr. R. 
Bright, and Mr. William Johnson. The follow- 
extract is taken from a MS. in my poasetsion. 

Extract firom a MS, tf medical receqtte written 
dySyr TomatJamye, Vicar qfBadtej^e, about 
the year 1450. 

For the skawle a gode medcyn. Take pedylyon 
to handAille «ver that he be Howryd, and than he 
ys tendur, and than take and sethe hym well* in a 
potelle of stronge lye tille the to halfe be soddyo 
awey, and than weadie the skallyd hede in strooge 
pysse that ys hoote, and thansdiave awey the schawle 
clene, and let not for bledyng; and than makes 
plasture of pedylyon, and ley It on the hede gode 
and warme, and so let it ly a day and a nyth, and 
than take it awey, and so than take thy m^ and 
ronnyng watur of a broke, and therof make thrice 
papelettet, and than sprede them on a clothe that 
wolle cover al the soore, and so ley It on the tocw 
hede, and let It ly lij. dayys and IQ. nythtes ever it 
be remeveyd, and than take it of, and wesdie the 
hede welle in strong pytte ayenne, and than take and 
schave it clene to the llesche, and than take rede 
oynownce as mony ate wolle sufiyoe for to make a 
plasture over the sore, and boyle them welle In w». 
ture, and than stampe them, and temper them with 
the softe of calamynte, and old barow grese that 
ys nultyne clene, and so use this tylle the seke be 


There are numerous early MSS. still preserved 
which were written in various parts of Yorkshire, 
most of them containing marks of the dialect of 
the county. The Towndey Mysteries, whidi 


have been printed by the Sortees Society, were 
written in the ndghboarhood of Wakefield. An 
English commentary on the Psalms, translated 
from the Latin work by Hampole,a MS. in Eton 
College Library, was also written in this county, 
the writer obser^g, *' in this werke I seke no 
strange Inglyshe hot the lightest and the comon- 
eat, and swilke that es maste like til the Latyn, 
so that thas that knawes noght the Latyn by the 
Inglyshe may come to many Latyn wordes." 
A metrical translation of Grosthead*s Chaateau 
trjmaur, in MS. Egerton 927, was made by a 
<• monke of Sallay,'' who calls it *' the Myrour of 
lewed Men." To these may be added MS. HarL 
1022,MS.HarL 5396, MS. CoU. Sion. xviii. 6, 
and the Thornton MS. so odften quoted in the 
following pages. 

Higden, writing about 1350, says " the whole 
speech ctf the Northumbrians, especially in York- 
shire, is so harsh and rude that we Southern men 
can hnrdly understand it;" and Wallingford, 
who wrote long before, obserres that *' there is, 
and long has been, a great admixture of people of 
Danish race in that province, and a great nrni- 
Imiiy of language:* See the ' Quarterly Review,' 
Fd>. 1836, p. 365. There seem to be few traces 
of Daniah in the modem Yorkshire dialect. 

So numerous are modem pieces in the York- 
shire dialect, that it would be difficult to give a 
eomfdete list. The rustic of this county has even 
had a newspaper in his native dialect, tiie * York- 
shire Comet,' the first number of which appeared 
in March, 1844 ; but in consequence of certain 
personal allosions Kiving offence, the publisher 
was threatened with a prosecution, and he relin- 
qoished the work after the publication of the 
seventh number, andrefused to sell the objection- 
able parts. The most complete glossary of York- 
shire words was compiled by Mr. Carr, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1828, but it is confined toCraven, the dialect 
said to be used by Chaucer's North country 
schohui. See Mr. Wright's edition, voL L p. 
160. Dr. Willan's list of words used in the 
noontainous district of the West-Riding, in the 
Aithcologia, voL zviL pp. 138-167, should also 
be noticed; and long previously a Yorkshire 
glossary appeared at the end of the Praise of 
Tofkshire iJe, 12mo. 1697. Thoresby's list of 
West-Riding words, 1 703, was published in Ray's 
PhOoiophica] Letters; and Watson gives a 
** Vocabulary of Uncommon Words used in Hali- 
fa Parish" in his History of Halifax, 1775. 
These latter have been reprinted in the Hallam- 
shire Glossary, 8vo. 1829, a small collection of 
words used in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. 
The Sheffield dialect has been very carefully in- 
testigated in an Essay by the Rev. H. H. Piper, 
12iiio. 1825. In addition to the printed glos- 
isries, I have had the advantage of using MS< 
fists of Yorkshire words communicated by Wm. 
Turner, Esq., William Henry Leatham, Esq., 
Henry Jackson, Esq., Dr. Charles Rooke, the 
Bev. P. Wright, Mr. M. A. Denham, Mr. Thomas 
Saaderson, John Richard Walbran, Stq.» Mr. 
Banks, and N. Scatcherd, Eaq. 

(1) A charm for the Toothache, from the 
Thornton Manutcrqitt, f. 176. 

J eharmt /br the Mhe-werket—3%j th« cbamui 
thrb, to It be uyd ix. tymcs, and ay thryt at a 

I coi\}oure the, laythely beste, with that tlketpert. 
That LoDgyout in hia hande ganebcre. 
And also with ane batte of thorne» 
That one my Lordis hede wat borne. 
With alle the wordia mare and Icne, 
With the Office of the Mene, 
With my Lorde and hia xii. poatilica. 
With oure Lady and her x. nuydcnys, 
Saynt Margiete, the haly quene, 
Saynt Katerin, the haly virgyne, 
Ix. tymes Ooidia forbott, thou wikkyde wonne, 
Thet ever thou make any ryitynge, 
Bot awaye mote thou wende. 
To the erde and the atane ! 

(2) Dieiy JHeieaon't Jddreu to*t known world, 
from thefirtt number qfthe Yorhthire Comet t 
pubHehedm IS4A, 
Dbae Itvbetboot, 
Ah aud'nt wonder bud, when some foaka hear 
o' me itartin' on a Paper, they^ say, what in't 
world hea maade Dicky DIckeaon bethink hixsen o* 
cummin' sich a caaper aa that? Wah, if yell nob- 
but hev hauf &t paatience o' Joab, Ahll try u tell 
ya. Ye mun knaw, 'at aboot six year sin'. Ah wur 
i' a public-hooae, wheare ther wur a feller as wur 
braggin' on his lamln% an' so Ah axed him what he 
knawed aboot onny knawledgement, an' he said he 
thowt he'd a rare lump moare information i' hia 
heead, ner Ah hed i' mine. Noo, ye knaw. Ah 
sudn't ha' been a quarter as ill mad, if ther hedn't 
been a lot o' chaps in't plaaee 'at reckoned ta hev 
noa small share o' gumption. Soa, as sooin as Ah 
gat hoame that neet. Ah sware ta oor Bet, 'at as 
suare as shoo wur a match-hawker, Ah wud leeam 
all't polishmenu 'at Schooilmaister Oill could teich 
ma. Varry weei, slap at it Ah went, makkin' pot- 
hukea, an' stroakes, an' Ah hardly knaws what ; an' 
then Ah leeamt spelderin', readin', i' fact, all 'at 
long-heeaded Schooilmaister Gill knew hiasen ; so 
'at, when Ah'd done wi' him, Ah wur coonted as 
clever a chap as me fey ther afore ma, an' ye mun 
consider 'at Ah wur noa small beer when Ah'd come 
ta that pass, for he could fell, boot lukin', boo mich 
paaper it wud tak' ta lap up an oonce o' iMcca. 
W eel, as sooin as Ah'd gotten ta be aa wonderful 
wise, d'ye see ? Ah thowt- an' it wur a bitter thowt, 
tew I— what a pity it wor 'at irverybody couldn't 
dew aa mich aa Ah could. More Ah studied aboot 
it, an' war it pottered ma, Ah'li asauare ya. Wun 
neet, hooiwer, aa oor Bet an' me wur set be't fire- 
side, shoo turned hersen suddenly roond, an' said, 
«« Thoo's a fooil, Dicky !" ** What ! Bet, does thoo 
really meean ta say Ah's a fooil V* «* Ah dew," shoo 
said : *• thoo's a real fooil I" *< Hoo doea ta mak' 
that oot. Bet V said Ah, for Ah wur noane hauf 
suited aboot it. «' Ah'U say it ageean an' ageean," 
says shoo ; '* thoo's a fooil, an' if ta's onny way 
partikelar U knaw, Ahll tell tha hoo Ah maka it 
oot. In't first plaaee, luke what braans thoo hea t 
as starlin' aa onny 'at ivver thease gurt men hed ; 
an' yet, like a fooil aa Ah say thoo is, thoo Uks it 
as eeasy as a pig in't muck." «* Weel, weel," Ah 
continld, •* what wod ta ha' roa U dew, lasa ' Tell 
us, an' Ahni dew'u" •• Then," says shoo, " start a 
paaper i' thee awn naative tongue, an' call it 
t'Yorshar Comet. Ah'li be bun for't Ii'U pay aa 


«eel u Ivw gooW colli dW." Noo. then, u tooin 
M Ah heeard oor Bet's noaUont. Ah wut onomuit 
itark m«d ta carry 'em oot j for Ah thowt. at ■hoo 
did 'at It wod pay capiUl. an' bedde. Ah lud maybe 
be UnprooTin't staate o* sacUty. an't moraU ot 
vlcioui. Ye doan't need to think 'at Ah'a nowt bud 
an Ignarant miwhrum, for, though Ah •ay't mywn, 
Ah«nUUya'at Dicky I>»«>'«~°;; " /^*/. "^j^T! 
ledge as a hegg*! fWl o' meeat. Nut 'at Ah wanU 
U crack o' mysen, nowt o't aoart t it Un^t what Ah 
gays an' thinks & mysen, bud what other ftoaks says 
an' thlnki o' ma ; an' if ye ha' no oltfectioos, ye»s 
Just read a letter 'at Ah gat fto* Naathan Vickus 
aboot a year an' a hauf lin', when aU that talk wur 
agate relatin' to Ottey gerrln' ftanchised. It ran as 

«« Plg-Coit Farm, Octoaber, 1849. 

«• Dbab Dic«y, 
« Ah munconfeit 'at AhNe heeard tome talk 
aboot oor toon tennin' two Membert to Parlement, 
an' if iTver it sud eome to pats, thoo ma be nure at 
Naathan Vickus 11 stick to tha up hill an doon 
daale. Ah'a noane sa thick, Dicky, bud what Ah 
knaws pretty near what a chap b bet cut on hU Jib, 
thoo unnerstonss an'. depwMion't, lad. that's what 
Ah judges thee by. Thoo's a man 'at 'U dew honour 
to't toon whearelvver to goes, an' if ther't onny 
featbert for onnybody's cap. it's Dicky Dickston 'af s 
boon to get 'em. or else Ah's a fooil of a judge o' 
human flesh, thaf s alL Ah hev varry gurt pleasure 
i' offerln' tha my voate, an' oor Toby's in't bargain ; 
an' Ah dew promise tha. 'at if Ivvery pig, mule an' 
cauf aboot my farm wur receavable as coounon 
tense creaturt, thoo sud fln' a supporter i* ivvery 
one on 'em. Wl' a bucket o' complimentt to the 
sister Bet an't rest o't breed, 

<' Ah is, dear Dicky. 

«« Moast respectful thine, 

" Naathan Vickus." 

Ta Mr. Dlckeson, Esq. 

Noo. then, Ah ax ageean, is ther ouny o ya, dear 
readers, as wod hev*t leeost bit o* doot o' yer minds 
noo? Is ther. Ah say ? Noa : An fancies Ah »n 
hear some o' ya chucklin', an' sayin', " Hurra for 
Dicky Dlckeson 1 he flogtaU 'aft goane afore him I" 
An' let ma tell ya, 'at to Ah meeant to dew ; an if 
onny of ya it trubbled wi' teett o' ghoasts or duU 
thowts, Ah'U guarantee to freeten 'em oot o' ya, an' 
that's what noa soul afore ma's done yet. Bud Ah 
mun gl' ower wrltln' tul ya at present, for oor Bet 
tells ma 'at me porridge hea been waitin' this hauf 
hoor. an', as a matter in ooarte, they're stUT wi' stan- 
nin'. Ah can nobbut beg on ya to read f Yorshar 
Comet ivvery week, an', be dewin' soa, tak' my word 
for't, ye'U saave monny a poond i't yeear I' pills, 
boalusses. an' all slch belly-muck as tha are. 

Bet Joins wl' ma 1* luv to ya all. (shoo's a deacent 
lass, b Bet !) an* wl' a thoosand hoapes 'at ye'U in- 

Ah b, dear Ivverybody, 

Yer varry humble sarvant, 

Dicky Dickbson. 
T'Editor's Study. 

(3) A Leeda Adverti$ement, 


Laate Haup'ny Chcceeeaake-Makker tul Her Majesty, 

Begt to inform ^public 'at thoo hes just 


96. Paaatry Square, Leeds. 

Wheare sha carries on 


O' tart-makker, honest brandy-snap baaker. treeacle- 

stlck boiler, humbug importer, splce-pig traadcr,an' 

universal deeaf-nut, breead, cheaae, bunnaA. an' 
giner-beer deealer ; an' tr&t experience 'at shoo-^ 
hed i' them lines o' genius wal wi' her Majetty, shoo 
begs to assuare t'inhabitanU 'at shoo's t'lmpedenee 
to think here's noabody 'U gl' more for tn>rass, or 
tich Inconceeavable qualaty as shoo wilL 

Biddy Bu^iebewit alsoa desires to noatlce, 'at as 
for punctualaty, noabody can be more soa ner her- 
tan ; for thoo awlui hes f oven host, an' whaf t better, 
keept a whedhanow for f es^urett purpote o' des- 
patchin* artidet to aU fpaaru o't gloabe. 

P.S.-I' contequence o't immense taale an' tupe- 
rloraty o' B. B.'t goodt, lott o' unprincapled foaks 
hea been Induced to adopt her receapto like, an' to 
deftoud her ; to prevent which t'Honarable Commb- 
sioners o' Stamps hes ordered 'at all B. B.'s staff be 
figured wl' a WUy-gooaf s heead, (th«n animabbeln' 
trwnendous fond o' lollipop) toa 'at noane i' Aitur 'U 
be ge-nu-ine but what it ornamented as afore parti- 
calarised. Be tuare to think on 

No. 96. Paastry Square, Leeds. 

(4) Scn^from Newtpeytert. 

Fr««Mf.— Felix Flibberton hed a sad roond wl' hb 
wife thb week, caused, as we're teld, be Mbtress 
Flibberton bein' guUty on a piece & roguery, tlike 
o' which we seMom hear tell on. It's said, when 
Felix toasted en hb teea, flast Thursday momtn', 
he fan it oot 'at It wom't ower strong, but, on't 
contraary, wur considerably weaker ner oonraon. 
O' thb fact oomin' to Icet, he called hb wife tut 
scratch, an' axed as lovinly as ha wur aable, hoo it 
happened 'at hb teea wur i' that pickle. Noo, Felix 
an' hb wife's colfee an' sich like, wur aullus pre- 
paared i' separate poU,— Ah meeon tea-pots; an', 
that momln', Mbter Flibberton hevin* ligged ray- 
ther long i' bed, hb wife hed thowt proper ta gulp 
her brekfast afore he landed doon . T'question wor, 
hed t'mbtress to'cn tn>iggest shaare &t taea, as theare 
wur noane in t'canister then ? T'poor wonaan said, 
ther wur precious little to mak' fbrekfast on ; bud 
what ther wor, shoo divided fairly, leeavin' her bus- 
band be far fblgger hauf. Nut chusin' to believe all 
'at his wife spluttered oot, Felix shooted o't sarvant, 
whoa depoased *at when shoo gat up, shoo wur suare 
'at theare wur then plenty i't canbter to mak' six 
rare strong cups. Efter a deeal o' crosa-examinaatlon 
between t'mbtress ant sarvant, t'former began o' 
roarin', an' confessed 'at shoo hed defrauded her lav- 
tul partner, devoatio' tul her awn use three, wal tul 
her husband shoo nobbut left one an' a hauf spooin- 
ful o' teea. Felix wodn't grant noa pardon then, 
bud bun her ower to keep t'peeace for three months ; 
an', suppoasin* 'at shoo brak it ageean, he threeat- 
ened sendin' a brief o't wboale caase ta Mabter 
Wilkins, barrister, an' to tak' sich steps as be mud 

ji Mumficent G<A.— Dr. Swabbs. Physician extra- 
ordinary to ivverybody 'at wanU poisonin', hes once 
more come oot ov hb shell, sn* letten fworld knaw 
'at he's t'saame Dr. Swabbs still 'at Ivver ha wor. 
iy Tuesday neet, wal fdoctor wur smookln' hb 
pipe, an' swUlln' hb tummler o' brandy an' watter, 
a depltotlon o'maad-aarvants, oonsistin' o't cooks an* 
seven or eight hoosc an' chaamer-maads, waated on 
him wi' a Roond Bobin. petitionln' for a small do- 
naatlon l' order to buy amixtur to poison t^nlce wi', 
MM they wur gerrln vsrry impedent i' ther walks in- 
tut kitehen an' cupboard ; 1' fact, as't trustworthy 
cook said, one on 'em hed tlwre-faacedness to come 
an' wag hb tail i* her chocolate, and then as bare- 
faacedly maade hb escaape, wi'oot stoppin' to be 
wallopped for't. T'doctor wur soa moved be thcese 


\M, *Mt he threw doon his pipe* brekkin' on't. 
M tTtooee miiid teld ma, thnutcd hii hand iotul hi« 
pocket, an' drew tizpeoce. What a blewln' wod it 
be if men gcnaially wod nobbut foller Dr. Swabbt'i 
example I 

A Utmrmnr Smeimig.—A LiUrary Sadaty hes been 
Ibnned f Otley be eome penererln' an' common- 
wtaat yonng men, *at't ov aplnion 'at it's nowt bud 
re^t 'at they sud her as micb lamin' as tha can 
afford ta pay for. A committee's been maade, con> 
sbtln* o* seven o't wisest o' thease conspirators tut 
owerthraw o* ignaranoe, an' rules drawn up an' 
printed i'a hazceUent style, varry creditable boath 
tttt author an' tut printer thereoo, Ah's tuare. we've 
Just seen a catalogue o't books they've already got> 
ten, an' as it could'nt miss but tptik voluma V ther 
faavour. we beg tasut^oin t'naames on a to-three o't 
prtedpal warks :— Jack t'Glant-KUler, Tom Thumb, 
Coek Robin, Mother Hubbard, Jumpin' Joan. Puss 
f Booita, Tom tTiper's Son. an' a splendid haup'ny 
edition o' Whlttin'ton an' his Cat. This Is a grand 
opportunaty for lovcn o' soond mathematical, an' 
other litarary pursuits, ta come forrard, an'suppoart 
am* soetaan a novelty tro* which dia ma gather all 
tlnliocinaatioo ther minds b on t'luke oot for. 

(5) Deborah DueiUon*» Jdviee Comer. 

If ya tuke noatice, ye would see, 'at t^atter end 
o' March, t't first quarter, t'mooin wur laad ov her 
back, a suare sign o* stormy weather. Yell all 
kaaw, 'at theare's be«i part ftost an' snaw sin' ; an', 
if my jddgment Isn't awfully wrong, we's ha' some 
more. Wed, noo, i' frosty weather, ye 're aware, 
it's raytbcr daaogerous welkin', becos o't varry gurt 
■lapcnesB o't rooads an't flegs ; Ah'i quite posatlve 
oa't, for even i' my time Ah've seen more ner one 
loog-legged coavey browt ov a level wi't grund, an' 
Ah've seen moony a stoot an'respectable woman, tew. 
Let me prescribe a remady, then, for all sich misfor- 
twas. Sbaadrach Sdieddul, — a celebraated hone- 
sbooer i' oor toon, propoased ta ^arp$n bams for 
three>lunipeoce a heead i lads an' lasses, fro* ten ta 
■istcea year o* aage, thruppance s an' all aboon that 
ofwdncss, whether tha've big feet, little feet, or noa 
feet at all, fowcrpenoe. 

N.B. Iwery aUooance 'H be maade for wooden 
k«s : an' </ tbem 'at honestly doesn't wish ta be 
bkieefl vri't last-naaraed articles o' weear, it'smoast 
re sp ec tf ully requested 'at they'U avaal thersens o't 
sharpenla' invention. Shaadrach Scheddul alluos 
five per cent, off for ready brass, or six months' 
tredlt;— anther 11 dew. 

Ah adTise all laadies 'at doesn't wish U hev ther 
b&sbaads' stork ins ootraageously mucky on a wesh- 
la'-day, nut ta alloo 'em t'privUege o' spoartin' 
kace-breccbca, them hevin' been proved, be varry 
clever philoaophers, ta be tieeadin' cause theareof, 
an't principal recason why t'leg o't stockio' doesn't 
last as kng as f fooit. 

(^6) VisUe ta Dicky Dicketon. 
iy Friday, Dicky Dickeson wur visited 1' his 
stady bc't Marquis </ Crabbum, an', after a deeal o' 
eoqoirles aboot t' weather, an' monny remarks con- 
sarnin' this thing an' that, flatter praceeded u ex- 
^aan what ha'd come for, soapln' an' smilin' tut 
lamed editor, as It's generally knawn all thease top- 
markers dew— when tha've owt ta gerootonhim. 
It ^ipears 'at t'alm o't Marquis wur ta Induce Mr. 
Dickeaon, as a capitalist & some noate, ta Join wi' 
him r buytn' in all t'paaper shaavlns 'at tha can Ug 
Ikar hana on, soa as ta hev all t'traade ta thersens. 

Mr. Dickeson agreed, an' fflre-leetin* an' shaavin'- 
deealin' world Is lukln' wi' roich terror an' int'rest 
tut result. 

Immediately efter t'Marquis o* Crabbum bed 
maade his exit, a gentle rap wur heeard at t'door o't 
study, an' when Mr. Dickeson bad 'em walk forrard, 
in popped a bonny, blue-e'ed, Grecian-noased, 
whi^tooithed lass o* eighteen, an'be't «ay I' which 
t'edltor smacked her roasy cheeks wi* his lips, here's 
na doot bud It wur Nanny Tract. Shoo'd browt two 
ooatcaakes, 'at shoo'd newly basked, ye knew. Mr. 
Dickeson set tul ta elt 'em, an' Nanny set tul u 
watch him i an' when t'first bed finished his per- 
fomuoce on't ooat-caakes, here's na need ta say 'at 
he began o' squeasin't latter ; ay, an' ye ma say 
what ya've a mind aboot t'modesty o't laadies, bud 
Nanny squeeaaed him as weel, an' wor ther owt 
wrong in't, think ya? ShaUywaUy! Bud, boo- 
ivvcr, t'edltor hedn't been long at this gam', afore 
ha heerd another noise,— a shulBin', slinkin' noise. 
Ah meean, an' nut a reglar rap,— ootside o't door ; 
soa, takkin' his shoes oH; he creft nicely tut spot, 
an*, be gow ! if ha didn't fin't printer's dlvll lissenln' 
theare, here's be nowt for tellin' ya on't. Mr. 
Dickeson, ommust choaked wi' madness at this 
turn-up, (for wheare's ther onnybody 'at likes U hev 
ther love-devlns heeard an' seen i) shoved him intut 
middle on his study i an' commandin' Nanny ta hod 
him a minute, (wliieh saame shoo did ta perfection,) 
he went tut other end o't plaace, an' puttin' on a 
mlddlin'-siaed clog, tuke a run pau«e at t'posterlors 
o't Impedent printer's divil, an' theareby makkin' 
bim sing *' God saave t'Queen" i* sich prime style, 'at 
delicate Nanny wur U'cn wi' a fit o' faantin'. 
T* music hevin' ceeased as sooln as t'performer wur 
turned oot, Nanny bethowt hersen U come roond ; 
bud, shaameful ta say, her an* Dicky didn't paart 
wal fower i't eftemooln, at which time tiass wur 
wanted up at hoame ta dam stockins an' crimp 

(7) MitceUaniet. 

Men an' women is like soa monny cards, played 
wi' be two oppoanents. Time an' Eternity : Time 
get's a gam noo an' then, an' hes t'pleasure o* keep- 
in' his caards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better 
hand, an' proves, day be day, an' hoor be boor, 'at 
he's winnin' incalcalably fast. 

Wheniwer ya see one o' thease heng-doon, black 
craape thingums 'at comes hauf doon a woman's 
bonnet an' Csace, be suare 'at shoo's widowed, an' 

It's confidently rumoured in t'palitical world, 'at 
t'tax is goin' ta be ta'en off leather-breeches, an 
putten on white hats. 

Why does a young laady i' a ridin'-habit reserorole 
Shakspeare ? Cos shoo's (offte) rolss-cooated (mis- 

A lad i' Otley, knawn be t'inbabitanU for his odd 
dewins like, an' for his modesty, tew. wun day weut 
a errand for an owd woman 'at tha called Betty 
Cruttice : an' he wur sa sharp ower it, an' did it sa 
pleasantly beside, 'at Betty axed him ta hev a bit o' 
apple-pie for his trouble. ** Noa, thenk ya," said 
flad. " Thoo'd better, WUly," said Betty. " Noa, 
thenk ya," repeeated tiad ; an' off he ran hoame, 
an' as sooln as ha gat Intnt boose, burst oot a-roarin' 
an' sobbhk' as If his heart wod brek. ** Billy, me 
lad," says his mother, " what's t'matter wi' tha r" 
«« Wah." blubbered poor BUly, "Betty Cmttlce 
axed ma ta hev a bit o' apple-pie, an' Ah said, Noa, 
thenk ya!" 


Poftken is like brawlln* tongUM— Just t'things U 
stir ap flr«s wi*. 

Why doeta inland sm resmnmie a linen^lraaper's 
•hop ? Cot it contaans iuxget an' bays (ttrgt an* 

• What's said for thcase xtmarkable articles *" 
shooted an auctioneer at a taale to three week sin'. 
«• Here's a likeness o' Queen Victoria, U'en in eyear 
serenteen ninety-two, a couple </ pint poU,'afs 
been drunk oot on be't celabraated Bobby Burns, an* 
a pair o* tongs 'at Oenaral Falrflut faaght wi' at 
t^Mttle o' Marston Moor, all i' wun lot : ay, ay, an' 
here's another thing U goa wi' 'em, a hay-fork 'at 
Noah used ta bed doon his beeasu wI* when ha wur 
in t'ark, sometime f fowerteen hundred. Bud. 
hooiTver, It maks na odds tut year. Power articles 
here, all antlquaties t what* s said for 'em 1 Sixpence 
is said for 'em, laadies an' gennlemen^eightpence is 
said for 'em— ninepence, tenpeooe, a shtUin's said 
for 'em, laadies and gennlemen, an' thenk ya for yer 
' maguaniroaty. Are ya all done at a shillin' ? Varry 
weel, then. Ah sahn't dwell ; soo thease three ar- 
ticles is goln'." '* Ye're reight, maastcr," shooted 
a cobbler tro*t crood, " they ore goln', tew t for if 
my e*es tell ma reight, theare's na hannles on't pots, 
na noase on't pictur, an' na legs on't tongs." 

<« Hoo sweet— hoo tarry sweet— is life t" as fH^e 
said when ha wur stuck i' treeade. 

Why does a Ud, detected i' robbin' a bee-hive, 
ger a double booty be't ? Cos he gets boath honey 
an' whacks (tmu). 

A striplin' runnin' up tnl a paaver, 'at wur ham- 
merin' an' brayin' soa at his wark, 'at t'twceat fair 
ran docm his cheeks, b^gan o' scraapin't sweeat off 
his faace intul a pot wi' a piece o' tin. •< Hollow I" 
shoots t'man, rubbin' his smartin' featun wi' his 
reight hand, *' what meeans tha ta be comln ' ta 
Bcraape t'tkin off a man's coontenance ?" *• Nay, 
nay," said t'lad, " Ah worn't scraapin't skin off, noo, 
but nobbut t'sweeat, which wur o* noa use ta ye, 
maaster, wal it wor ta me, as Ah've been all ower, 
an' couldn't get na geofae-greesse onnywheare till E 
saw ye." 

IV Fable book, we read at school, 
On an owd Frosk, an arrand Fooyl ; 

Pride crack'd her litUe bit o'Braln : 
(T* book o* me Neyve, Mun) we a pox, 
Shoo'd needs mey tch Bellies we an Ox ; 

Troath, shoo wor meeghtily misUyne. 
Two on bur young ons, they pretend 
Just goane a gaterds we a Friend, 

Stapisht an* starin', brought her word— 
«« Mother, we've seen, for suer. To-neeght, 
•• A hairy Boggard 1 slch a seeght ! 

•« AsMglasblg! cehLoord! eeh Loord !" 
Shoo putt, and thrusts, and gims, and swells, 
[Th* Balms thowt sho' m dooln' summot else] 

To ratch her Coyt o' speckl'd Leather ;— 
«« Wor it as big, my Lads, as me }** 
- Bless us," said Toan, " as big as ye, 

*« Voar but a Beean anent a Blether !" 
No grain o' Marcy on her Guts» 
At it ageean shoo swells and strau. 

As if the varry hangment bad her. 
Thinkln' ther Mother nobbut joak'd, 
Th' young Lobs wi' laughin', wor hawf choak'd ; 

A thing which made her ten times madder. 
Another thrust, and thidi as Hops, 
Her Pudding's plaister'd all their Chops, 

'Mess there wor then a bonny sturring ; 
Deead in a Minute as a Stoane 
All t'Hopes o' t' Family wor gooane 

And not a slx-pince left for t' burying. 
We think, do ye see, there's no «inall cliuncc 
This little hectoring Dog o* Frooce 

May cut Just sitch another Caper; 
He'll trust, for sartln, ol a pod 
Ye,— mortid Tripes can never hod 

Sitch heaps o' wind, an' reek, an' vapor. 
What's bred 1' t' Booane, an' runs i* i' Blooy*!, 
If nought, can niver come to gooyd, 

Loa Mayster Melville's crackt his Pitcher, 
Mooar Fowk are sweeatin', every Lim', 
A feeard o* being swlng'd like him, 

Wi' Sammy Whitbread's twinging swiuh'r. 



A The following are the principal obsolete and 
. provincial osei of this leUer. 

(1) Ah! (J.'N.) 

At twete iire» I adde tho. 

Pien Ploughman, p. 355. 
Af Lorde, he t^de, fuUe wo es me, 
So faire childir aU I bafcde thre. 
And nowe ame I lefte allone ! 

MS, Lbteoln A. L 17, f. lU. 

(2) Hb. j1 far he is common in oar old drama* 
tiits, in the speeches of peasants or illiterate 
persona, and in the provincial dialects. See 
Apology for the Lollards, p. 120; King 
AKsanndrr, 7809. In the western counties, it 
is abo used for the, and occasionally for it. 

By Scynt Dyoys, a nrer it oth. 

That after that tyne a nolde 

Ete ne drynke no more that day. 

For none kynaet thynge. MS. A^molt 39, f. 2. 

Wyth ys rljt bond a bleuid him thao, 

And pryketh ys stede and forth he nam. /6.f.48. 

(3) Thst. Salop, 

(4) J is sometimes used in songs and bnrlesqne 
poetry to lengthen out a line, without adding 
to the sense. It is often also a mere expletive 
placed before a word. 

(5) Prefixed to verbs of Anglo-Saxon origin, J 
has sometimes a negative, sometimes an inten- 
sative power. See Wright's Gloss, to Piers 
Pknighman, in v. 

(6) All. Sir F. Madden says, ** apparently an 
erm- of the scribe for oA but written as pro- 
nounced." Compare 1. 936. 

He ihal haven in his hand 

A Deoeroark and Bngeland. UavOok, 610. 

(7) Sometimes prefixed to nouns and a4iectives 
sonifying qfihe, to the, on the, m the, and ai 
the. See Middleton's Works, L 262 ; Morte 
d'Arthur, iL 87 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 340. 

Xartha fel a-doun a Crob, 
And spradde anon to grounde. 

MS. CoU. Trin, Oson, 57. 

(8) Before a noun it is often a corruption 
of the Saxon on. See Havelok, p. 213 ; Rob. 

And that hli a Lammaue day myd her poer come 
Echooc to Barbceflet, and thes veage nome. 

Rob, Chue. p. 200. 

(9) Havh. Few provincial expressions are more 
ooonmon than ** a done" for have done. So in 

Peblis to the Play, st. 10, ap. Sibbald, Chron. 
Sc. Poet, i 132, **a done with ane mischaunce,** 
which is quoted as an *' old song" by Jamieson, 
Supp. in V. /i, 

Richard might, as the fame went, a gaved hymself* 
if he would a fled awaie ; for those that were about 

hym suspected trecaoo and willed hym to flie. 

Supp. to Uardyng, f. 105 
A don, seris, sayd oure lordynges alle. 
For thcr the nold no lenger lend. 

MS. Rauft, C. 86, f. 178. 

(10) One. See Mr. Wright's note to the Alli- 
terative Poem on the Deposition of Richard II. 
p. 54. In the passage here quoted from the 
copy of the Erie of Tolous in the Lincoln MS. 
Ritson*s copy reads oon, p. 100. 

Hyre lord and sche be of a blode. 

M8, Athmole 61, f. 65. 
He wente awaye and syghede sore ; 
A worde spake he no more, 
Bot helde hym wondlr stylle. 

MS. LincoAi A. 1. 17, f. 115. 
Thre persones in a Godhede, 
Als derkys in bokys rede. 

MS. Ashmole 61, f. 83. 
Hir a schanke blake, hir other graye. 
And alle hir body lyke the lede. 

True Thoma», MS. Uneoln, f. 150. 

(11) Always ; ever. Cumb. " For ever and a" 
is an expression used by old rustics. 

A the more I loke theron, 
A the more I thynke I fon. 

TWmefsy MytterUt, p. S89. 

(12) At. St^oUc, Migor Moor gives it the va- 
rious meanings of, he, or, our, ^, on, at, have, 
and of, with examples of each. 

Have ye nat perkus and ehas ? 
What schuld ye do a this place i 

SkrDtgmant, 363. 
Yb8. Somerset, 

And. Somemt, See Havelok, 359. 
Wendyth home, a leve youre werryeng. 
Ye Wynne no worshyp at thys walle. 

MS, Uarl. 2S5S, f. 121. 
Chapes a cheynes of chalke whytte lylver. 

Morte Arthurt, MS, Uncoln, f. 80. 

(15) An interrogative, equivalent to what / 
JVhat do you »ay 2 Far, dial 

(16) If. Suffolk. 

And yit, a thow woldytt nyghe roe nye, 
Thow shall wele wete I am not dayn. 

MS. H«H. 2252, f. ISO 





(17) In. 

Quod Bardus thanne» a Ooddet half 
The thridde tyme asaaye I schalia. 

Cow0r, MS. Soe. Antiq, 134, f. 158. 
At hy cam to the neyjratende vers. 

As the conynge endeth y-wis. 
That hoe opu» torum 

A Latyn y-clepud It. MS, Coll. Trin. Oron. 57. 
Haromering this In hb heade, on he went to the 
smith's house: Now, smith, quoth hee« good mor- 
row, it thy wife up i No, quoth the smith, but she 
it awake; go up and carry your linnen, a Godt 
name. Coblar qf Cantertmrie, 1O06. 

(18) Sometimes repeated with adjectives, the 
substantiTe having gone before and being on- 
derstood. See Macbeth, iii. 5, and the notes 
of the commentators. It is also occasionally 
prefixed to numeral adjectives, as a-ien, a- 
twelv€j &c. and even a-oney ai in Macbeth, iiL 4. 

Somers be lette go byfore. 

And charyotes stuAsde with store, 

Wele a twelve myle or mcnre. 

MS. Uneotn A. i. 17, f. 190. 

(19) A common proverb, " he does not know 
great A firom a bull's foot," is i^iplied to an 
ignorant or stupid person. Ray has a proverb, 
" A. B. from a battledore," and Taylor, the 
water-poet, has a poem on Coryat, addressed 
** To the gentlemen readers that understand 
A. B. from a battledore." See B. 

I linow not an A from the wynd-mylue, 
Nc A. B. from a boU-Jbot, I trowe, ne thiself nother. 
MS. Dt^41, f.5. 

A-A. (1) Explained by Junius vox dolentium. 
Hampole tells us that a male child utters the 
sound a-a when it is bom, and a female e-e, 
being respectively the initials of the names of 
their ancestors Adam and Eve. See the Ar- 
chaeologia, xix. 322. A couplet on the jo]rs of 
heaven, in MS. ColL S. Joh. Oxon. 57, is (»lled 
siffnum a-a. 

Aal my sone Alexander, whare es the grace, and 
the fortune that oure goddes highte the ? That es 
to tay, that thou scholde alwaye overcome tbynne 
enemys. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 3. 

(2) Frequently occurs in an early medical MS. 
in Lincoln Cathedral for ana, q. v., and the 
contraction is still in use. 

AAC. An oak. North. 

AAD. Old. Yorkth. 

AADLE. To flourish ; to addle. Suffolk. 
AAGED. Aged. Palsgrave has **aaged lyke," in 

his list of adjectives. 
AAINT. To anoint. Suffolk. ^eeAhU. Major 
Moor is the authority for this form of the word. 
See his Suffolk Words, p. 5. 
AAKIN. Oaken. North. 
AALE. Ale. This form of the word, which 
may be merely accidental, occurs in Malory's 
Morte d' Arthur, ii. 445. 
AALLE. All; every. 

Forthy, my sone, yf thou doo ty^tt. 
Thou schalt unto thy love obeye, 
And folow hire wille by aall€ wey. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 50. 

AALS. Alas! 
Suertiet her founde to come agayne, 
Syr Oawayneand Syr Ewayne; 
AaU, he sayed, I shal dye ! SirLaun/hl, Doue9 frag. 

AAN. (I) Own. North. 

(2) Anan! what say you? Eatt. 

(3) On. 

A sterte to his helm and pult him aan. 
And to Olyver thanne a seide. MS. AahnuieZitt.B. 
Do, ooayn, anon thyn armys aon. 
And aray the In syker wede. Ihtd. t. 44. 

AANDE. Breath. This is the Danish form of 
the word, although it more usually occurs in 
the Thornton MS. with one a. See And. 
This MS. was written in Yorkshire, a dialect 
which contains much of the Danish language. 
In old Scotch, it is Aynd; Su. Got. Ande: 
IsL Ande ; Dan. Aande ; Swed. Ande. See 
Ihre, in v. Ande. Aand also occurs in the 
Morte d' Arthur, Lincoln MS., f. 67, but is ap- 
parently a mistake for the conjunction and. 

Thay hadd crestis one thaire heddes, and thaire 
brestea ware bryghte lyk golde, and thaire mowthes 
opene ; thaire aandt slewe any qwiUc thynge that it 
smate apone, and oute of thaire c^ne ther oome 
flammes of fyre. MS. Uneoin A. i. 17, f. 28. 

This aand that men draus oft. 
Betokens wynd that blawt o-IofL 

MS. Cott. ro$pa*. A. iU. f. 4. 
AANDORN. An afternoon's repast, or any oc- 
casional refection after dinner ; also simply the 
afternoon, in which latter sense it is a corrup- 
tion of underUf q. v. Cumb. It would in the 
North be pronounced much like anMfem, q. t. 
This form of the word is found in the Glos- 
sarium Northanhymbricum at the end of Ray. 
AANE. The beard growing out of barley or 
other grain. 

We call it [wheat] pold or pollard, that hath no 
aam«* upon the eares. And that we call the aane, 
which groweth out of the eare, like a long pricke 
or a dart, whereby the eare is defiended fhnn the 
danger of birds. Ooogtft Husbttmby, 1577, f* 2S. 

AAR. Ere; before. 

And when hy ben of thritty yaar, 

Hy ben broun of hare, as hy wertm oar. 

King Aliaaundtr, SOSS. 

AARM. The arm. 

Judas seide. What wilt thou that be joven to thee 

for a wed ? Sche answeride, thi ring and thi bye of 

the aarm, and the staff whiche thou holdist in thin 

bond. mekliff^, MS. Bodl. 277. 

AARMED. Armed. 

Therfore for Crist suflMde in flelsch, be ye alto 
aarmed bi the same thenking; for he that suSiride 
in fleitche ceesside fro synnes. 

WkkliHV* Nno Tett. p. S28. 

AARON. The herb wakerobin. See Cotgrave, 
in V. Veau. 

AARS. The anus. This unusual form occurs in 
the Middlehill mb. of the Promptorium. See 
Prompt. Parv., p. 14, in v. Art. In Dutch 
we have aarzelen, to go backward, which in- 
volves the same form of the word. 

AAS. Aces. See Ambes-as. 
Stille be thou, Sathanas . 

The ys fallen ambes aas. HamwiHg<^f HeU, p. 91 . 
In Reynard the Foxe, p. 62, " a pylgrym of 
deux aa»** is apparently applied to a pretended 

AAT. Pine oatmeal, with which pottage is thick- 
ened. See Markham's English Housewife, 
quoted in Boucher's Glossaiy Iny. Bannocks, 



AATA. After. Snirolk, 
AATH. An oath. North, 
AAX. To ask. 

Whan alie was tpoke of that they meote. 

The kynfe, with alle hto hole aatente» 

Thaune at laste hem aaxeth thit. 

What kynge men tallen that he U? 

Gou>«r, MS, 8oc. Antiq, 134, f. 219. 

AB. The sap of a tree. 

YcC dlvene have aasaied to daale without okee to 
that end, but not with so good tuccesse at they have 
hoped, bicause the ab or Juice will not so socme be 
removed and cleane drawne out, which some attri- 
bute to want of time in the salt water. 

BarHfon'f Dtteription o/SngUind,p, 213. 

ABAC. Backwards. North. 
Ac dude by-holde abac. 

And hndde his ey5en. MS. CoU, Trin. Oxon, 67> 
ABACK-A-BEHINT. Behind; in the rear. North, 
ABACTED. Driven away by violence. Miruheu, 
ABADE. (1) Abode; remained. See Ritson's 
Met. Rom. iii. 268 ; Ywaine and Gawin, 1180; 
Vitioiis of Tundale, p. 67 ; Sir Tristrem, pp. 
232, 275, 293, 297. 
Thia kyng Cadwall his feast at London made; 
To bym all kynges, as soverayne lorde, obeyed. 
Save kyng Oswy, at home that tyme abode, 

Hard^^t Chmnide, t. 91. 

(2) Delay. See Archaeologia, xxi. 49, 62 ; Sir 
Tristrem, p. 145 ; Golagros and Gawane, 311. 
For soone aftir that he was made. 
He fel withouten leoger abode, 

Cuncr Mumdi, MS, CoU, THn, Cantab, t, 3. 
Anoynt he was withouten abode. 
And kyng of tho Jewes made. Ibid, t, 46. 

Wyth the knyght was non a6ad. 
He buskyd hyme forth and rade. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. 1. 6. 

ABAFELLED. Baffled ; mdignantly treated. 

What, do you think chill be dbafeUed up and 

down the town for a meisel add a scoundrel ? no chy 

bor yon: ilrrah, chil come, say no more; chill 

come, tell him. The London Prodigal, p. 21. 

AB.USCHITE. Ashamed. 

I was abatechUe be oure Lorde of oure beste hemes t 
Morte Arthure, MS. Uncoln, f. 66. 

ABAISSED. Ashamed; abashed. 
And unboxome y-be, 
Nouht oboiteed to agulte 
God and alle good men. 
So gret was myn herte. 

Fieri Ploughntan, p. 618. 

ABAIST. The same as Ahaissed, q. v. See 
Langtoft's Chron. pp. 170, 272 ; Wicliffe's New 
• Test p. 261 ; Chancer, Cant. T. 8193, 8887 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 846. 

The grape that thou helde in thi hand, and keste 
under thi fete, and trade therone. es the dtee of 
Tyre, the wliilk thou salle wynne thurgh strenth, 
and trede it with thi fote, and therfore be nathynge 
*a>aUte, Ufe of Alexander, MS, Lincoln, f . 6. 

Hou unstable the world is here. 
For men schulde ben abaiet, 

MS, jUhmote 41, f. 16. 

ABAKWARD. Backwards. 

In gryht oos tette and shyld vrom ihome. 
That txtnatobakw0rd Eves nome. 

ReUq, Antiq. n,i!8, 

ABALIENATE. To alienatiB ; to transfer pro- 
perty ^m one to another. Eider, 

ABAND. To fbnudce ; to abandon. 
Let us therefore both cruelty a6and^. 
And prudent seeke both gods and men to please. 
Mirour/or Magietratee, p. 27. 

ABANDON. (1) LibcraUy; at discretion. (-<^..iV.) 
Roquefort, in v. Bandon^ gives the original 
French of the following passage : 
Afllr this swift gift tis but reason 
He give his gode too in odamfon* 

Rom. i^fthe Root, 23tf. 

(2) Entirely; freely. {A,-N,) 

His ribbet and scholder fel adoun. 
Men might se the liver abandoun, 

Arthow and Merlin, p. 223. 

(3) Promptly. (A,.N,) 

Ther com an hundred knightes of gret might, 
Alle thai folwed him abaundoun, 

Gp of Warwike, p. 181. 

ABANDUNE. To subject. See Gohigros and 
Gawane, 275. 
Fortune to her lawys can not a6andim« me. 
But I shall of Fortune rule the reyne. 

Sketton'e Worke, i. 273. 
ABARRE. To prevent. 

The lustle yoong gentlemen who were grcedie to 
have the preie, but more desirous to have the hcmor, 
were in a great agonle and greefe that they were thus 
abarred from approching to assaile the dtie. 

Holinshed, Hiat, tf Ireland , p. 37. 
Reducynge to remembraunce the prysed memo- 
ryes and perpetuall renowned factes of the famouse 
princes of Israel, which did not only abarre ydola- 
trye and other ungodlynesse, but utterly abolished 
all occasyons of the same. 

Wrighfi Monastic hettere, p. 209. 
ABARSTICK. Insatiableness. This word ia 
found in Cockeram, Skinner, and most of the 
later dictionaries. 
ABARSTIR. More downcast. 

Bot ever alas I what was I wode ? 
Myght no man be abaretir, 

Toumelep Myeteriee, p. 281. 
ABASCHED. Abashed ; ashamed. 
The lady was abasched withalle. 
And went downe ynto the halle. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. U. 38. f. 109. 

ABASE. To cast down ; to humble. See the 
Faerie Queene, II. ii. 32. Among illiterate 
persons, it is used in the sense of debate, 
Harrison uses it in this latter sense applied to 
metal, in his Description of England, prefixed 
to Holinshed, p. 218. 

ABASSCHT. Abashed. See Maundevile's Tra. 
vels, p. 226. This word occurs in a great va- 
riety of forms. It seems to be used for h^red, 
in the Morte d* Arthur, L 366, " He smote Syr 
Palomydes upon the helme thryes, that he 
abaaahed his helme with his strokes." 

ABAST. (1) Downcast. 

Wist Isaac where so he were. 
He wold be abaat now. 
How that he is in dangere. 

Toum^ejf Myeterice, p. 37> 

(2) A bastard. See Arthour and Merlin, as 
quoted in Ellis's Met. Rom., ed. 1811, L 301, 
where probably the word should be printed 
a batt, 

ABASTARDIZE. To render illegitimate or base. 
See HoUyband's Dictionarie, 15^3. 




— — Beliig ounelvet 
CcmmpUd and ahattardized thuf, 
Tblnke all looket ill, that doth not looke like us. 
Dami4f* ifuemet Arcadia, 1606, f. alt. 

ABASURE. An abasement Miege, 

ABATAYLMENT. A battlement, 
or harde hewen tton up to the tables, 
Enbaned under the abatagtmrnt in the best lawe. 

Sifr Gawapne, p. 30. 

ABATE. (1) To subtract. A-batyn» subtraho. 
Prompt. Parv. This was fonnerly the arith- 
metical term for that operation. To abate in 
a bargain, to lower the price of any article, was 
▼ery common. See Prompt. Panr. p. 314 ; 
Davies's York Records, p. 156 ; Kara Mat. 
p. 60. 

Then abatt the lesse noumbre of these tuo in 
the umbre toward fro the more, and kepe wele the 
diltarence bytuene tho tuo noumbres. 

MB. moam, SIS, f . 120. 

(2) Applied to metal to reduce it to a lower 
temper. See Florio, in v. AMcoZnfre. It is often 
metaphorically used in the sense of to depress, 
Tariously applied. See Hairs Iliad, 1581, p. 
125 ; Persones Tale, p. 83 ; Townley Mysteries, 
p. 194 ; Nuge Antiqus, L 4 ; Coriolanus, iiL 
3 ; Sterline's Croesus, 1604 ; Britton*s Aroh. 
Antiq. iv. 13; Hall's Union, Henry VIII. f. 133. 
To beat down, or overthrow. Blount. 
To flutter ; to beat with the wings. Several 
instances of this hawking term occur in the 
Booke of Hawkyng, printed in Reliq. Antiq. L 
293-306. It seems to be used as a hunting 
term in Morte d'Arthur, iL 355. 

(5) To disable a writ A law term. 

Any one short clause or proviso, not legal, is suffi- 
cient to abate the whole writ or instrument, though 
in every other part absolute and without exception. 
Sandereon't Sermmit, 1689, p. 30. 

(6) To, cease. 

Ys contlnaunce abated eny host to make. 

Wrighft Politieat Smgt, p. S16. 

(7) To lower ; applied to banners, &c See We- 
ber's Met. Rom. iL 477; Octorian, 1744; 
Deposition ofRichard II. p. 30. 

The stiward was sconfited there« 
Abated was the meister banere. 

Oy of Warufike, p. 440. 

ABATEMENT. (1) An abatement, according to 
Randal Holme, " is a mark added or annexed 
to a coat [of arms] by reason of some dishon- 
ourable act, whereby the dignity of the coat is 
abased." See his Academy of Armory, p. 71. 

(2) A diversion or amusement. North. See Ma- 
lone's Shakespeare, v. 311; Jamieson, in v. 

ABATY. To abate. 

And that he for ys nevew wolde, for to a-btog stryf. 
Do hey amendement, sawve lyme and lyf. 

Ao6. Oloue. p. 54. 

ABAUED. Astonished. See Abaw. 
Many men of his kynde sauh him so abaued. 

Ijomftefte Ckrun, p. 210. 

ABAUT. About North. 

ABAVE. To be astonished. Abaued^ q. v., in 
Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 210, ought perhaps to 
be written Abated. See an instance of this 
word in a fragment printed at the end of the 

Visions of Tundale, p. 94, which is merely an 
extract from Lydgate's Life of the Virgin Mary, 
although it is ins^ied as a separate productioii. 
Of this terrible doolful Inspaccioun, 
The peepiis hertys gretly gan abaee. 

L^dgateTe mnor Poeme, p. 144. 
ABAW. (1) To bow; to bend. 

Alle the knyghtes of Walls londe. 
Ho made abaw to his honde. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ▼. 4S, f. 101. 

(2) To astonish ; to confound. 
Loke how ;e mow be abawed. 
That seye that the Jewe ys saved. 

MS. Hart. 1701, f. CS 
ABAWT. Without. Staffordih. 
ABAY. At bay. See Kyng Alisaunder, 3882; 
Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis, ed. Dyce^ 
p. 42, divided by that editor into two words. 
See Abbay ; Cotgrave in v. Rendre. Our third 
example exhibits it both as a substantive and 
And where as she hang, thd stood at abajf. 

MS. Lamd. 735, f. 19. 
Thus the forest thay fraye. 
The hertis bade at aba^. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Line. t. 131. 
And this doon, every man stond abrod and blowe 
the deeth, and make a short abag for to rewarde the 
houndes, and every man have a smal rodde yn his 
bond to holde of the houndes that thei shnl the bet- 
ter ateye. MS. Bodl. M6. 
ABAYSCHID. Frightened. Abtuehyd, or a- 
ferde; territus, perterritus. Pronqit. Parv. 

And anoon the damysel roos and walkide: and 
iche was of twelve yeer, and thei weren abageehid 
with a greet stoneyng. Wickl^JBVe New Teet. p. 41. 


The kyng of Scotlond was tho all abapeehette. 

Chron. rHodmn, p. 25. 

ABAYST. Disappointed. 

And that when that they were travyst. 
And of herborow were abaget. 

Brit. Bibi. ir. 83. 
What thyng that je wille to me saye. 
3ow thare noght be abatftte. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 18. 
ABAYSTE. Abashed. See Abaist. 
Syr Bglamour es noghte abapete. 
In Ooddis helpe es alle his trayste. 

&r Egtanxmr, MS. Lincoln, f. 124. 

ABB. The yam of a weaver's warp. VptotCa MS. 

addiiioru to JunhUj in the BoSeian JJbrorp. 
ABBARAYED. Started. 

And aftyr that he knonnyngly abbannftd. 
And to the kyng evjn thus he sayd. 

Legate's Minor Poem*» p. 4. 

ABBAS. An abbess. 

The abba*, and odur nonnes by, 
Tolde hyt full openlye. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1926. 
ABBAY. To bay ; to bark. An ttbbay, or bark- 
ing.— Mmaheu. See Abay. To keep at abbey, 
to keep at bay. See Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
ABBEN. To have. Different parts of this verb 
occur in Robert of Gloucester, p. 166, &c. 
Maketh ous to d<m sunne. 

And abben to monkunne. MS, Digbp 86, f. 127. 
ABBEY. (1) The great white poplar, one of the 
varieties of the popuha alba. Wett. 


(2) To bring in abbey to agnnge, U an old pro- 
verbial expression. See Skelton's Works, i. 
327, and the notes of the Editor upon the 

ABBET-LUBBER. A term of reproach for idle- 
ness. Somerset, It is found in the diction- 
aries of Cotgrsve, Howell, Miege, and others. 
See also Lyly's Euphues; Herrick's Works, 
L 128. 

The most of that which they did bcttow was on 
the ridie, and not the poort in dede, at halt, lame, 
bfinde, sicke or impotent, but lither lubben that 
ml^t worke and would not. In lo much that It came 
into a commen prOTerbe to call him an abbajf-lubber, 
that wat idle, wel fed, a long lewd lither loiterer, 
that might worke and would not. 

Tht Bitm^g9 of Pamlet Church, IM3. 

ABBIGGBT. Expiate ; pay for. 
Alle they seballe abbigget dure, 
Th«t token him in that tide. MS. Ashmoie 33, f . 14. 

ABBLASTRE. A crossbow-man. This form 
occurs in the Herald's College MS. of Robert 
of Gloucester, Heame's edition, pp. 372, 378. 

ABBOD. An abbot. 
The bysiop hym aniuerede, and the mbbod Dynok. 

Ao6. G/<mc.p.834. 

ABBOT-OF-MISRULE. A person who super- 
intended the diversions of Christmas, other- 
wise called the Lord of Misrule, q. v. See 
Collier's Annals of the Stage, L 54 ; Hampson's 
Kalendarium, i. 117; Warton's Hist. Engl. 
Poet. ii. 525; Brand's Pop. Antiq. i. 276. 
Howell, in the list of games appended to his 
Lexicon, mentions the game of the od^/, which 
may be an allusion to this custom. 

ABBREVYATE. Decreased. 

Thy* poetycall ichoole, may tter corrector of breves 
and knges, caused CoUyngbome to bee abbrevifoee 
sborter by the heade, and to bee deryded into foure 
qutfters. HalFt Union, Richard IIL f. 18. 

ABBROCHTN. To broach a barrel Abbrochyn 
or attamyn a vesselle of drynke, attamino. — 
Profupt. Pan, 
ABBUT. Aye but. Ywhih. 
ABBYT. A habit. 

And chanones gode he dede therinne, 
Unther the ak/byt of seynte Austynne. 

Wright's St. Patriek't Purgatory, p. 66. 

A-B-C. Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 398, has printed a curious alliterative alpha- 
bet, called the ABC of Aristotle. There are 
copies of it in MSS. Harl. 541, 1304, 1706, 
MS. Lambeth 853, and MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 
48. One of the mss. ascribe it to a ''Mayster 
Bennet." It is very likely the original of com- 
positions like " A was an apple-pie," in books 
of nursery rhymes. 

A-B-C-BOOK. A catechism, hornbook, or 
primer, used for teaching children the first 
rudiments of reading; sometimes, the alphabet 
in general See King John, i. 1 ; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 87 ; Maitland's Early Printed 
Books in the Lambeth Library, p. 311; Cata- 
logue of Donee's MSS. p. 42. 

In the ABC of bokes the least, 
Yt Is written Deu* charitat ett. 

The Enterludc qf Youth, f. I. 


ABCE. The alphabet. See Cotgrave, in v. 
Abei^, Carte; Prompt. Parv. p. 12 ; Brit. Bibl. 
ii. 397; Greene's Menaphon, 1616, dedication. 
ABDEVENHAM. An astrological word, mean- 
ing the head of the twelfth house, in a scheme 
of the heavens. 
ABDUCE. To lead away. (Lot,) 

Oon thyng I dyd note in bothe these men, that 
thei thoght a religion to kepe secret betwene Ood 
and them certayn thynges, rather than topon their 
whoU stomake ; Arom the whych opinion I colde not 
abduee them with al my endevor. Stmtc Paper*, i.567. 
ABE. To atone for. 

Here he hadde the destenee 
That the povre man zulde ab6* 

Reliq. Antiq, I. 63. 

ABEAR. To deport ; to conduct. It is often 
used among illiterate persons for to bear, to 
So did the faerie knight himselfe abeare. 
And stouped oft his head from shsme to shield. 

Fatrte Quwne, V. xii. 19. 

ABECE. An alphabet ; an A B C. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 12; Rob. Gloucest. p. 266; Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 63. 

Whan that the wise man acompteth 
Aftir the formel propirte 
Of algorismes abeec. 

Cower, MS, Soc, Antiq. 134, f. 193. 
ABECEDARIAN. An abecedarian, one that 
teacheth or leameth the crosse row. Mintheu, 
ABECEDARY. Alphabetical 

Unto these fewe you may annexe more if you will, 
as your occasion senreth, and reduce them into an 
abecedanf order. MS. 0>U, Omn. An, Qson, ISO. 
ABECHED. Fed; satisfied. {A,'N.) Compare 
the printed edition of 1532, f. 132. 
3it schulde I sumdelle ben abeehed. 
And for the tyme wel ref^eched. 

Cower, MS. SocAmtiq, 134, f. 181. 
ABEDDB. In bed. Far, dial 

That night he sat wel sore akale. 
And his wif lai warme abedde. 

The Sevjfn Sagee, 1 51 3. 
ABEDE. (1) To bid ; to Offer. 
Y schal be the ftirste of alle 
That our message schal abede, 

MS. Aehmote 33, f. 23. 
(2) Abode ; remained. See Syr Tryamoure, 374. 
Befyie, with hys felows bronde. 
Smote yn sonder, thorow Oodys sonde. 
The rope above the Sarsyns hedd. 
That he with Befjrse yn preson abede, 

M& Cantab, Ff. ii. 38, f. 108. 
ABEGE. To atone for. 

He wolde don bis sacrilege. 

That many a man it schulde abege. 

Cower, MS, See, Antiq. 134, f. 174. 
Alle Orece It schulde abeggcMora 
To see the wllde best wone. 
Where whilom dwellld a mannis sone. 

Cower, MS, Soc, Antiq, 134, f. 96. 

ABEISAUNCE. Obedience. (A.^N.) 

An hound is of good abeieaunce, for he wol lemeas 
a roan al that a man wol teche hym. MS. Bodl, 546. 
ABELDE. To grow bold. 

Theo folk of Perce gan abelde. 

Kyng Alieaunder, 2442. 

ABELE. A fine kind of white poplar. Var. dial. 
See Prompt. Parv. p. 17, where Mr. Way says 


it 18 '<the name given by hotmistt to the 
popubu alba,** The name is very common in 
the provinces. 
ABEL-WHACKETS. A game played by saUon 
with cards; the loser receiving so many strokes 
from a handkerchief twisted into a knot on his 
hand, as he has lost the games. Grose. 

That he the craft abel^he may conne, 
IVhenever he go undur the sonne. 

Constitution* af Masonry, 243. 

ABENCHE. Upon abench. See Rob. Gloucp. 1 18. 
Horn sette him abenche. 

It harpe he gan clenche. K^ng Horn, 1497. 

ABENT. A steep pkce. Skinner, The a is here 

perhaps merely the article. 
ABERDAVINE. The siskin. Boucher. 
ABERE. To bear. 

And with also good reson, we mowe of hem y-wi« 
Abert thilke truage, that as thyng robbed is. 

Rob. Gtouc. p. 196. 

ABEREMORD. A law term, meaning murder 
fully proved, as distinguished from manslaugh- 
ter, and justifiable homicide. See Junius, in v. 
ABERING. A law phrase for the proper and 
peaceful carriage of a loyal subject. See 
Hawkins' EngL Drama, L 239 ; ms. Ashmole 
1788, f. 20. 
ABERNE. Auburn. See a mention of " long 
abeme beardes," in Cunningham's Revels Ac- 
counts, p. 56. 
ABESSE. To humble. 

Echeone untlUe other, what is this ? 
Oure kynge hath do this thynge amis. 
So to abesM his rialtd, 
That every man it myjte see. 

Cower, MS. Soe. AnHq. 134, f. 51. 

ABESTOR, A kind of stone. 

Among stones abettoTf which being hot wil never be 
colde for our constancies. L^ly*t Mother Bombie, 1594. 
ABESYANS. Obeisance. 
Now wursheppful sovereyns thatsyttyn here in syth, 

Lordys and ladyes and f^ankelins in fay. 
With alle roaner otabeMjfone we recomaunde us ryght, 
PlesanUy to jour persones that present ben in piay. 
MS, Tanner 407, f. 44. 
ABET. Help; assistance. 

I am thine eme, the shame were unto me 
As wel as the, if that I should assent 
Through mine abet, that he thine honour shent. 
. ^»,»««^ ^Vo</iw and Creeeide, iL 367. 

ABETTES. Abbots. See Wright's Monastic 

Letters, p. 206, for an example of this form of 

the wonL 
ABEW. Above. Devon. 
ABEY. Toabie, q.v. See Hartehome's Met.Tales, 

p. 225 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 714 ; Chaucer. 

Cant. T. 12034 ; ColUer's Hist. Dram. Poet. 

il 283 ; Gy of Warwike, p. 169. 
Farewelle, for I schalle sone deye. 
And thenke how I thy iove abe^e. 

ABEYD. Toabide^''**""""-"*-'-*^ 

And to abeyd abstlnens and forsake abundans. 
4 »»«*» - ^S' Douce 302, f. 3. 

ABEYE. To bow; to obey. 

To resoune thei moste nedys abe^e. 
In heUe pcttc cilys schalle they hong. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 139. 

\ ABI 

ABEYSAUNCE. Obeisance. Skhuier thinks 
the proper form of the word is abeuanee. 
Unavysyd derb: soone may be forlore. 
Unto that theef to doone tOeifsaunee, 
MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f . 136. 

ABEYTED. Ensnared. 

Hys fleuhe on here was so aheyted. 
That thyke womman he coveytyd. 

IfS. liar/. 1701, f.2. 

ABEY3ED0UN. Obeyed. 
Ny they oftejrjedotin hem nothyng to the kyng best. 
Chnn, VUodun, p. 97. 

ABGREGATE. To lead out of the flock. Mmaheu. 

ABHOMINABLE. An old method of spelling 
abominable, ridiculed in Love's Labour's Lost, 
V. 1. The word was not always formerly used 
in a bad sense. See Webster's Works, iiL 1 75. 

ABHOR. To protest against, or reject solemnly. 
An old term of canon kw. See Henry VIII. 

ABIDANCE. Tarrying; dwelling. 

Wherein he is like to remain 'Uil the dissolution 
of the world, so long is his abidance. 

The Puritan, p. 22. 

ABIDDEN. Endured. 

He looked wan and gash, but spake to them and 
told them that the Lord, at the prayers of his wife, 
had restored him to life, and that he had beene in 
purgatory, and what punishment he had abidden for 
hisjealouse. Cobler of CanterbuHe, 1608. 

ABIDE. (1) To persevere ; to endure ; to suffer. 
Pegge gives the phrase, " you must grin and 
and abide it," applied in cases where resistance 
is useless, which comes, I believe, from the 
North. It is also another form of abie. See 
Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet. ii. 356 ; Malone's 
Shakespeare, v. 269. 
(2) Often used by Lydgate in the sense of to 
forbear. To tolerate is its meaning in the pro- 
vinces. See Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. . 
120; Topsell's Four-footed Beasts, p. 75. 
ABIDYNGE. Patient. (^,-&) 
And bold and abidpnge 
Bismares to sulTre. Piere Ploughman, p. 413. 

That these had ben with me familler. 
And in royn housolde ben abidpngel^. 

MS, Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 285. 

ABIE. To pay for ; to expiate. " To abie it dear" 
is a phrase constantly met with in old writers. 
Heame explains it to buy in his glossary to 
ABIGGEDE. Suffer. (J..S.) 
The wiche sehal it abiggede 
Thurch whom he hath don this dede. 

Legendet CatholUee, p. 206. 

ABIGGEN. To abie, q. v. See Gy of Warwike, pp. 

49, 129, 138 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 35, 127 ; 

Kyng Alisaunder, 901 ; Amis and Amiloun, 

390; Sevyn Sages, 497. 

The kynge schaUe hyt soone abygge. 
. „ ^S, Cantab, Ff. U. 38. f. 107. 

ABILIMENTS. Habiliments. See Hall's Union, 
Richard III. f. 29. Sometunes written aba. 
ments, as in Archieologia, xvii. 292 ; and abbi- 
liment, as in the Woman in the Moone, 1597. 
But to recouote her ryche abylymeni. 
And what esUtesto her did resorte, 
Therto am I full insuffycyent. 

Sketton** Works, 1.363. 



ABILL. To make able. 

And namely to thame that aWU thaoM tha»>to 
with the helpe of Godd in alle that thay may one 
theaame wyM. MS. Lincoln A.L 17, f. 834. 

ABILLBRE. Stronger ; more able. 

jMOtre thane erer wa« tyr Ector of Troye. 

MorU Jrtkwre, MS. Uneoln, f. 81. 
ABIME. An abyss. 

ColaBpoe and base, upberynf from oMim. 

Cfkmemr, §4. Urnf, P- U0. 
No word abul the! jltt towne. 
TU that thel be £dlen downe 
Unto the •btfmt wlthouten lift. 

Cttrmr MwuH, MS, TVin, Cu//. Cantab, f. 134. 

ABINTESTATE. Intestate. Mhuhetk 
ABISHERING. According to RastaU, as quoted 
by Cowell, is *' to be quit of amerciaments be- 
fore wbomsoever of transgression." Rider 
translates it hjjlteo non reditut, 
ABIST. Payest for it. 

Thou least, be Myd, rile losanjour ! 
Thou it abi4t bi seyn Savour f 

Gy a/ fVarwike, p. 188. 
ABIT. (1) A babit Tbe word occurs in the senses 
of clothing, as weU as a custom or habit. See 
Reliq. Antiq. iL 175; Prompt Panr. pp. 97, 
179; Gesta Romanorum, p. 246; Wright's 
Purgatory, p. 141 ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 105, 434. 

(2) An obit ; a service for the dead. 

Also If the! row hem to bold an aHt, or other ritis, 
and God behitlth no meed for the keping. but ra- 
ther reprove, as he dede sum tyme the Pharisels, 
doutles that is a5en the gospel. 

Jpotoggjkir the Lollards » p. 103. 

(3) Abideth. See Reliq. Antiq. L 115 ; Chau- 
cer, Cant. T. 16643 ; Rom. of the Rose, 4989. 

He sayeth that grace not in him abit. 
But wikkid ende and cursld aventure. 

OccUvt, MS. Soe, Antiq, 134, f . 863. 
Ne haste nou5t thin owen sorow. 
My sone, and uke this in thy wit. 
He hath nou5t lefte that wd oMT. 

Onwer, MS, Soe, Anti>t, 134> f . 96. 
Scynt Bernard tharfore toswych chyt. 
And seyth moche forjyt that longe abift, 

MS, UarL 1701, f. 75. 

ABITACLE. A habitation; a dwelling. (Laf.) 
in whom also be ^t bildid togidre into the abitacU 
c£ God in the HooU Goost. 

meklUIVtNew Teet. p. IM. 
ABITE. (1) A habitation ; an abode. 
And eke abidin thiike daie 
To lere his abite, and gon his waie. 

Romaunt cfthe Ron, 4914. 

(2) To atone for. 

We, yei, that shal thou sore oMie. 

Townel^ Masteries, p. 15. 

(3) To bite. (J..S,) 

Addres, quUires, and dragouos 
Wolden tills folk, mychel and ly te, 
Enrenymen and abite, 

K^ng JUeamnder, 5611. 

Broune lyouns, and eke white. 

That wolden fkyn his folk abpte. Ibid, 7006. 

(4) Abideth. 

And as an esy pacient the lore 

Abite of him that goth about his cure. 

And thus he drivith forth his aTinture. 

TruUue and Creseide, i. 1092. 

ABITED. Mildewed. Kent, 

ABITEN. Bitten ; devoured. 

A thousent sliepi ch habbe abiten, 
And mo, 5ef hy weren i-writen. 

Retig, Antiq, ii. 976. 
ABJECT. (I) A despicable person. 
I deemed it better so to die, 
Than at my foeman's feet an abfeet lie. 

MknmrforMagistratee, p. Sn. 

(2) To reject ; to cast away. See Palsgrave, f. 
136; Utterson's Pop. Poet ii. 7; GiletU of 
Narbona, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 12 ; Skel- 
ton's Works, L 308. 

The blonde of the saied Kynge Henry, althoughe 
he had a goodly sonne, was clerely ai^eted, and the 
crovme of the realme, by aucthorttie of parliamente, 
entayled to the Duke of Yorke. 

Halt, Edward r,t, I, 

ABJECTION. Baseness, vileness. See Minsheu, 
in V. ; Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 
18. It occurs in Skelton's Works, L 345, ex- 
plained by the editor to mean there odfeetion, 
ABLAND. Blinded ; made blind. 
The walmes han the abland. 
And therwhiles thai boUland be. 
Sire, thou ne schalt never i-se. 

The Seewn Sages, 8462. 

ABLASTE. ^1) A crossbow. The Prompt. 
Parv. p. 9, IS the authority for this form of the 
(2) Blasted. 

Venym and fyre togedir he caste. 
That he Jason so sore ablatte. 
That yf ne were his oynement. 
His rlnge and his enchauntement, 
Whiche Medea tok him to-fore. 
He hadde with that worme be lore. 

Oawer, MS, Soe, Antiq. 134. f. 150. 
ABLE. (1) This word has two distinct senses, 
the one to make able or give power for any 
purpose ; the other and more remarkable one, 
to warrant or answer for, as in King Lear, 
iv. 6. See also Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit, 
p. 118; Nares, in v.; Middleton's Works, 
iv. 223. 

(2) Fit ; proper. 

Noye, to roe thou arte full able. 
And to my sacrilice accepuble. 

Chester Pia^s, i. 65. 

(3) Wealthy. HerrfardMh, 
ABLECTIVE. Adorned for sale. Cbeieram, 
ABLEGATION. A dismission ; a dispersion. 

ABLEMENTES. Habiliments. 

He toke a ship of high and greate avantage, 
Of ablementes for warre, and ordinaunoe. 

Hard^g's Chnmicie, f. 145. 

ABLENDE. To blind ; to dazzle. (^.-5.) As 
the early translations of Vegedus vrill be occa- 
sionally quoted, it may be as well to state that 
the one made at Berkeley's request, 14 08, from 
which the following extract is made, is not by 
Trevisa, as conjectured by Tanner, but by a 
person of the name of Clifton. This fact ap- 
pears firom the colophon of copies in MS. Douce 
291, and MS. Digby 233 ; the last-mentioned 
one having baffled Strutt, Reg. Antiq. ed. 
Planch^, p. 77. Manuscripts of this work are 
very common. For examples of ablende, see 

ABO 8 

Piers Ploughman, p. 377; Rob. Glouc p. 

He schal both abhnde hU enemyes sijt. and aitonye 
hit mynde, and he tchal sodeynlich wounde hit 
enemy. M8. Douee 291, f* IS. 

ABLENESS. Power; strength. SeeMiddleton's 
Works, iv. 519, and the example quoted by 

ABLENT. Blinded; deceived. See Piers 
Ploughman, p. 388 ; Wright's Political Songs, 
p. 330. 

Stronge thef, thou schalt be ihent. 
For thou hast me thus ablent, 

MS, Jddit, 10036, f. AS. 

ABLEPSY. Blindness. Coekeram. 

ABLESS. Careless and negligent, or untidy or 
slovenly in person. Line, 

ABLESSYD. Blessed. See Tundale, p. 23, 
where, however, the a may be merely the ex- 
clamation A ! 

ABLET. The bleak. West, 

ABLETUS. Ability. This seems to be the 
meaning of the word in an obscure and muti- 
lated passage in MS. Ashmole 44. 

ABLEWE. Blew [upon her.] 
As won tho sche overthrewe, 
Wawain sone hir tMewe. Jrihuur and Merlin, p. 315. 


These mowe ablUhe be chosen to chyvalrye, for 
hereynne stondeth al the helthe and profiit of the 
comynalt^. MS. Douce 291 , f. 10. 

ABLIGURY. Spending in belly cheere. Minsheu, 
ABLINS. Perhaps ; possibly. North, 
ABLODE. Bloody; with blood. See Gy of 
W^arwike, p. 315 ; Arthour and Merlin, p.333. 
Olubrius sat and byheld 
How here lymes ronne thblode. 

MS. CoU, Trin, Og<m. 57. 

ABLO Y. An exclamation used in hunting, bor- 
rowed from the French, and equivalent to 
On ! On ! 
The lorde for blys abloif. ^ Gawaynet p. 44. 

ABLUDE. To differ ; to be unUke. HaU, 
ABLUSION. A chemical term, meaning the 
cleansing of medicines from any drugs or 

And also of ther induracion, 
Giles, abhuione, metall fusible. 

Chaucer, ed, Uny, p. 1S3. 

A-BLYNDEN. To blind ; to dazzle. {A,'S.) 
Why menestow thi mood for a mote 
In thi brotheres eighe, 
Sithen a beem iu thyn owene 
A-blpndeth thiselre. Piers Floughman, p. 189. 

ABLYNG. Fitting. See Unys Chaucer, p. 364 ; 
Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 148. 

Wherfore what tyme a man dooUi what he may in 
abltmge hym to grace, hit suf&cith to him, for God 
askith not of a man that he seeth impossible to hym. 
Caxton'e Dhere Frujf^ful GKoetlp Maters, 
ABNORMETII. Disfigureth; disguiseth. 
Al frainith he in luste that he sojoumeth. 
And all his chere andspeche also htabnormeth, 

Troilus and Cresetde, I, 388. 
ABOADE. Abided; suffered; endured. 
For all her maydens much did feare. 
If Oberon had chanc'd to heare 
That Mab his Queene should have beene there. 
He would not have tJtoade it. 

Drajft<m*s Poems, p. 173. 


ABOARD. (1) To i^iproach near the shore. (/V.) 
Cockeram has abbwrd^ to approach near the 
shore, to grapple vrith a ship. See also Cot- 
grave, in V. Abord^, Arrw^e, 
Ev'n to the verge of gold, aboardingSpsAn. 

Sotiman and Pereida, 15091 

(2) In many kinds of games, this phrase signifies 
that the person or side in the game that was 
either none or but few, has now got to be as 
many as the other. Dyche, 
ABOBBED. Astonished. {A,'N,) 
The messangers were aborted tho. 
Thai nisten what thai mighten do. 

Artkourand Meribt, p. 74. 

ABOCCHEMENT. Increase. Prompt, Parv. 

ABOCCHYNGE. Increase. Prompt, Parv, 

ABOCOCKED. A cap of state. 

Some say his high cap of estate, called abococked, 
garnished with twoo riche crounes, whiche was pre- 
sented to Kyng Edward at Yorke the fourth dale of 
May. BaU» Edward IF,f,%, 

ABODE. (1) Delay. SeeGyof Warwike,p.46; 
Croke's Tlurteen Psalms, p. 19. 
And so he dede withouten abode, 
Swiftliche horn he rode. 

Arthour astd Merlin, p. 10?. 

(2) Waited for. 

Y thanke God that y was borne. 
That y abode thys day. 

MS, Cantab, Ft. ii. 38, f. 53. 

ABOFE. Abode; dwelling. 

Wolde God, for his modurs luf, 
Bryng me onys at myne abq/h, 
I were out of theire eye. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. v. 48, f. 55. 

ABOFFE. Above. 

Be Jhesu Cryst that is abqffe. 
That man aught me gode loffe. 

The Cockwolde Jkmnce, 217. 
Thare was a ryalle roflRs 
In that chambir ab^ffe, 

MS, Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 136. 
ABOGEN. Bowed. Bailey. 
ABOGHTEN. Suffered. (A.^S,) 
And that aboghten gultles, 
Bothe Dirianire and Hercules. 

Cower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 76. 
ABOHT. Bought. See Kyng Horn, 1402; 
Chron. of England, 854; Ritson's Ancient 
Songs, p. 7 ; Harrowing of Hell, pp. 17, ^5. 
Nou thou hast In that foul hous, 
A thyng that is f ul precious, 
Ful duere hit ys abeht. 

Wrighfs I^rie Poetry, p. 103. 

ABOLETE. Antiquated; abolished. 
And dare use the ezperyens. 
In there obsolute consdens 
To practyve suche abolete sdena. 

Skelton's Works, ii. 48. 

A-BONE. Excellently; welL 

Spurres of golde also he had on. 

And a good swerde, that wolde byte a-bone, 

S^ Gawayne, p. 217. 

ABONE. (1) To make good or seasonable; to 
ripen. Blount, 

(2) To dispatch quickly. Sinmer, 

(3) Above. See The Grene Knight, 513; Richard 
Coerde Lion, 4361 ; Lybeaus Disconus, 1816. 

Tho thei seiche a litel hem abone 
Seven knightet y-armed come. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 128. 


ABOOD. Remained. 

Into the bath I acholde goon. 
And in I wente anoon by gnce. 
And there abcod but lytel space. 

MS. Cott. Tiber. A. vii. f. 85. 

ABOON. Above; overhead. North. 
ABOOBD. From the bank. 
As men in summer fiearles passe the fbord. 
Which is in winter lord of all theplaine, 
And with hit tnmtdingstreames doth beareeteorrf 
The ploughmans hope and shepheards labour valne. 
Spetuet't Rutmes <^f Rom«, IfiOl. 
ABCNDT. Beaten down. Skkmer. See Jboie. 
ABOOVE. Above. We9i. 
ABORE. Born. 

At Taundcanelond I wos atere and abred. 


ABORMENT. An abortion. An unosual form 
of tbe word found in Topsell's Histoiy of 
Pour-Footed Beasts, 1607, p. 21. Abarsmeni 
occara in Higins' Nomendator, p. 17; and 
aicrt in Florio, ed. 1611, p. 2. 
ABORTYVE. An abortion. It is also an ad- 
jective, as in Rich's Honestie of this Age, p. 6. 
The diUdre that are abortyvea, 
Tho are that ben not bom in lyres, 
8hul rise in thritty 5eer of elde. 

Cvnor MuniU MS. Cantab, f. 136. 
ABOSTED. Assaohed. {A.-N.) MS. Douce 104 
reads and hotted^ anld MS. Douce 333 has 

A Bretone, a braggere, 

ji-botUd Piers als. Pitrt Vhughman, p. 126. 
ABOT. An abbot. The occurrence of this form 
in early Eng^h shows that the new ortho- 
graphy abbat, which one sometimes sees, is 
incocreet. See Legends Catholicae, p. 19; 
Plnmpton Correspondence, p. 84. 
ABOTB. (1) Beaten down. 

Of whiche sight gUd. God it wot, 
Slie was abashld and abote, 

Chaueer^t Drtame, U90. 
(2) About 

With ordlr In the bateyllys arayed. 
They cum the towne abate. 

Reliq. ArUiq. il. SI. 
ABOTHS. Above. 

jibotha half lay mani on, 
The hered fko the nek bon. 

Artheur and Merlin, p. 18. 

A-BOUET. This word, which occurs in Mr. 
Wrig^f 8 glossary to the Dq^tion of Richard 
II*, is perhaps a misprint for a bonet, a kind of 

ABOUGHT. Bought. Sometimes, atoned for, 
from dbiggen; and it is occasionally the ortho- 
graphy of abfmt. Jennings gives the Somerset- 
shire proverb (Dialects, p. 80)» 
Yur vaught. 
And dear abau^^. 
See Gy of Warwike, pp. 72, 155, 355; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 2305; Lybeaus Disconus, 1979; Kyng 
Alisaunder, 898; Sir Cleges, 43; Thynne's 
Debate between Pride and LowUnes, p. 62 ; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 31 ; Hawkins' 
EngL Drama, L 13. The proverb given above 
seems to be derived from an old one, ** Dear 
bought and forr fett, are dainties for ladies,'* 
which Howell gives in Ms collection, p. 8. 


ABOUGHWED. Bowed; obeyed. See a read- 
ing in the College of Arms MS. of Robert of 
Gloucester, in Heame*s edition, p. 106. 
ABOUN. Above. 

They said that songe was this to sey. 
To Ood aboun be Joy and blysse t 

TuntkO^t Vieione, p. 158. 
ABOUNDE. Aboundmg. 

Ry3t so this mayde, of grace most abounde, 
A peerelle hath dosid wlthinne hire brestes why te. 
Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f . 3. 

ABOURA. Protector? 

And if thay have any mete. 
Parte with them wole we. 
Or elles strokes thay shal gete. 

By God and Seynte Mary, myn abouri, 

MS. Douee 175> p. 69. 

ABOUT. Circularly; in a circle. See Macbeth, 
L 3. It is singularly used in the phrase, " about ^ 
my brains," signifying, "brains, go to work," 
as in Hamlet, iL 2. In the eastern counties it 
is current in the sense of near, as, ** this horse 
is worth nothing about fourty pounds." 
ABOUTEN. About. According to Cooper's Sus- 
sex Glossary, p. 12, it is still in use in East 

And in this wise these lordes all and some 
Ben on the Sonday to the dtee come 
Jbauten prime, and In the toun alight. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 2191. 

ABOUT-SLEDGE. A smith's great forging 
hammer. See a note in Beaumont and Fletcher, 
ed. Dyce, iv. 289. 
ABOUTWARD. Near. See the Plumpton Cor- 
respondence, p. 201. 
But than syr Marrok,hys steward. 
Was fute abowteuforde 

To do hys lady gyle. MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 71. 
ABOUYE. To bow. 

Alle londys stole abou^ to by Weste and by Este. 
Rob. CUme. p. 215. 

AB0U3TE. Part past of abie, q. v. 

Or it schalle sore ben abou^te, * 

Or thou schalte worche as y the say. 

Oower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 55. 
And that hath Dido sore abou^te, 
Whos deth schall ever be bethoujte. 

Ibid. f. 104. 
ABOVE. In old stage directions this word ge- 
nerally refers to the upper stage, the raised 
platform towards the back of the stage. See 
Webster's Works, i. 314. Above^ in common 
speech, is equivalent to more than. As above 
a bit, exceedingly, a very common phrase ; and 
the slang expression above your hooks, i. e. too 
knowing or clever. 
ABOVEN. Above. 

With spardes and smeke coYcred tdtoven. 
As hit were a brennyng oven. 

CureorMundi, Trin. Cod. MS. f. 19. 
Hlr queynt aboven hir kne 
Naked the knightes knewe. 
Sir Tristrem, p. S46. 

ABOWE. (1) To bow. See Kyng Alisaunder, 
188 ; Rob. Glouc. pp. 78, 309. 
To Roland than sche gan abowe 
Abnost doun til his fete. MS. Aehmole 33, f. 37. 
Tharefore ech man heom scholde abowie. 
That guode 5eme tharof nome. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. ). 




(2) Above 

Into thatt reygeoQ where he yi kyng," 
Wycbe abow« all othur far doth* abownde. 

«Aarp'0a>*. lCy«f. p.83. 
It was bulked abowg 
With beMutes fuUe bryghte. 

MS. Uneotn, A. i. 17, tlS9, 

(3) To maintaiii ; to avow. This may be a mis- 
take for twowe. See Artbour and Merlin, p. 
193, and the example quoted under Andowe, 

ABOWEN. Above. See ReUq. Antiq. L 54, 
189 ; Prompt Parv. p. 179. 
Kepe hy t therfore wyth temperat hete adowne 
FuU forty dayet. tyU hyt wex black abowen, 

Jthmole't Theat, Chem, BriU p. 171. 

ABOWES. Abbots. [Avowcs?] 

God and Seinte Marie, and Sein Deoii also. 
And alle the abowti of thii churche, in was ore ich 
«ni ido. Ji06. Gloue. p. 47«. 

ABOWGHT. About. 

Jbuwght the body he hyme hente. 
As far as he myght last. Twmnt <ifPortugolt P* 9* 
ABOWTIL Bought. 

And therfore God, that alle hath wro5th. 
And alle mankynde dere abowth, 
Sende us happe and grace. 

MS, Douce 84, f. S3. 
ABOWTYNE. About. Cf. ReUq. Antiq. i. 7; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 168 ; Songs and Carols, xL 
He dyd them in a panne of brasse. 
Also bote as ever it was, 

And made fyere abowtpne, MS. Jshmole 61 , f. 5. 
AB05EDE. Bowed. 

Wei corteysly thanne alxf^ede she. 
And to help hure gan him praye. 

Jf^. AshmoU 33, f. 27* 
AB05T. Bought. 

These bargeyn wyl be dere 06051. 

MS. Doue9 302. f. 1. 

ABRACADABRA. This word, written in a pe- 
culiar manner, was formerly worn about the 
neck as a cure for the ague. See Pettigrew 
on Medical Superstitions, p. 53; Archieolo- 
gia, XXX. 427. 

Mr. Banester sayth that he healed SOO in one yer 
of an ague, by hanging Abracadabra about ther 
necks, and wold stanch blood, or heal the toothake, 
alth(^h the partyes wer 10 royle of. 

MS. Addit, 0006. 

ABRAD. Withered? 

The gode burgeis on a dai, 

His ympe thrirende he sai. 

Fair i'woxe and fair Lsprad, 

But the olde tre was abrad. The Sevpn Sages, 610. 

ABRADAS. A Macedonian pirate, mentioned 
by Greene and Shakespeare. The commenta- 
tors have fSuled in tracing any further notice 
of him. 

ABRADE. To rub, or scrape off. See Richard- 
son in v. The word is still in use as a sea term. 

ABRAHAM-COLOURED. See Abram^cohured. 
Cf. Hawkins' Eng. Dram, ii 276 ; Blurt Mas- 
ter Constable, 1602. 

ABRAHAM-CUPID. The expression occurs in 
Romeo and Juliet, il. 1, and is conjectured by 
Upton to be a mistake for Adam Cupid, and 
to allude to Adam Bell, the celebrated archer. 
See his observations on Shakespeare, ed. 1748, 
p. 243. The coi^ecture is very plausible, as 

proper names are frequently abbreviated in 
early MSS., and it suits the sense and metre. 

ABRAHAM-MEN. According to the Fratemitye 
of Vacabondes, 1575, ** an Abraham-man is he 
that walketh bare-armed, and bare-legged, and 
£iyneth hymselfe mad, and caryeth a packe of 
wool, or a stycke with baken on it, or such 
lyke toy, and nameth himself poore Tom." 
They are alluded to by Shakespeare under the 
name of Bedlam Beggars, and their still more 
usual appellation vras Toms of Bedlam, q. v. 
According to Grose, to *< sham Abram" is to 
pretend sickness, which Nares thinks may have 
some connexion with the other term. See 
also Aubrey's Nat. Hist. WUts, MS. p. 259 ; 
Harrison's Description of England, p. 184. 

ABRAH AM'S-B ALM. A kind of vriUow. Ac- 
cording to Bullokar, English Expositor, 1641, 
it was used as a charm to preserve chastity. 

ABRAID. To rise on the stomach with a degree 
of nausea ; Applied to articles of diet, which 
prove disagreeable to the taste or difficult of 
digestion. North. This may be the meaning in 
Troilus and Creseide, L 725. 

Instead of nourishing, it stimulates, abradet, and 
carries away a part of the solids. 

CoUUu^ MiaeeUanitM, 1762. p. 7». 

ABRAIDE. (1) To awake; to start. Palsgrave 
has " I abrayde, I inforce me to do a thyuRe." 
f. 136. 
And if that he out of his slepe abraUU 
He mighte don us bathe a viUoie. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 4188. 

(2) Explained abroad by Percy. See Reliques, 
p. 44. It more likely ought to be " a braide,'* 
a start See Ritson's Anc Pop. Poet p. 19. 

(3) As a slight variation of our first meaning, it 
may be mentioned that the word is particularly 
applied to the action of drawing a sword from 
a scabbard. 

ABRAM. A cant term, according to Coles ap- 
plied to a naked or very poor man. C£. 
Middleton's Works, iii. 32. 

ABRAM-COLOURED. Nares considers this ex- 
pression may be a corruption of oif^tim, and is 
in some measure confirmed by a passage in 
Coriolanus, ii. 3 : *< Our heads are some brown, 
some black, some abram, some bald, but that 
our vrits are so diversly coloured." The 
folio of 1685 alters abram to auburn. See 
Middleton's Works, L 259 ; Toone, in v. 

ABRASE. Smooth. 

The fourth, in white, is Apheleia, a nymph as 
pure and simple as the soul, or as an abnue tabic, 
and is therefore called Simplicity. 

Ben Joneon, ii. 36G. 

ABRAYDE. (1) Started; roused himself. 
Iporoydon with that stroke abragde. 
And to the kynge thus he sayde. 

Ipomtfdon, 1149. 

(2) To upbraid. See the True Tragedie of 
Richard the Third, p. 22, where the editor has 
divided the word. 

Bochas present felly gan abra^fde 

To Messaline, and even thus he sayde. 

BoOkOit b. vil. c 4. 




ABRATDEN. To exdte. 

For theyt comodiUt to mbr&trdm up pride. 

Ufdgmkf»mmM' Foema, p. ISl. 

ABREAD. Unconfined; exposed; spread oat 

ABRECOCK. An apricot. Gercard. 
ABRED. Brooght up. Wett. 
ABREDE. (1) This word is explained to up- 
Iffaid, by Skinner, who refers to the following 
passage. Hie meaning is obviooslyy ** ran out 
of his senses." 

Hofv TroUus nere out of hia witte ubred§. 
And wept fall tore, with visage pale of hewe. 

'ne Testament (^ Creeeide, 4S. 

(2) In breadth. North. See Chronicle of 
England, 808, in Ritson's Met. Rom. iL 303. 

(3) Abroad. YorJM. 

Thine annto shalt Uiou iprede abrede. 
As man in wane were forwerede. 

Ranmum 9f 1M Btm, S583. 
ABREGE. To shorten ; to abridge. 

And for he wold hit hmge tale obrege. 
He wolde non auctoritee allege. 

Oumeett Cant. T. 9S31. 
Largane It is, whot privilege 
Ther may non ararlce ahregge, 

Gower, MS. Soe. AMiq. 134. f. 90S. 

ABREKE. To break in. 

And }if we may owhar abreke. 
Fie we hem with gret reke. 

jirthour and Merlin, p. S92. 
ABRENOUNCE. To renounce utterly. Taylor. 
ABREPT. To take away by violence. 

his nephew's life he questions. 

And questioning, abrepte. 

BUlingtti^e Braeh^Martprologia, 1657, p. 40. 
ABRETDE. (1) To upbraid. See Abrayde. Ex- 
probrare, Anglice to abreyde. — MS. Egerton 
829. f. 72. 
(2) Started. 

Tllle at the laste he abreyde sodeynely. 

J^fdgate, MS. Soe. Jntiq. 134, f. 4. 
ABRIC. Sulphur. Cotes. 
ABRICOT. An iq>ricot. See Harrison's De- 
script of Brit. p. 210 ; Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
Rider calls an apricot tree an atnicot-appte, 
ABRIDGEMENT. A dramatic performance; 
probably from the prevalence of the historical 
drama, in which the events of years were so 
abridged as to be brought within the compass 
of a play. See A Mids. Night's Dream, v. 1. 
It seems, however, to be used for the actors 
themselves in Hamlet, ii. 2. 
ABRIGGE. To shield off. 

Alle myscheflte fh>m him Xoabrigge. 

l4fdgat^» Minor Poena, p. 5. 
ABRIPTED. Ravished. Cockeram. 
ABROACH. To "set abroach," to tap. It 
is sometimes used metaphorically in the state 
of being diffused or advanced. Cf. Prompt. 
Parv. p. 52; Chaucer, Cant. T. 5759; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 164 ; Colyne Blowboll, 3. 
Ryjt as who sette a tunne abroche. 
Be peroede the harde roche. 
And sprooge oote watir alle at wille. 

Cower, MS. Soe, Jntiq, 134, f. 137. 

ABROAD. Broad. Minaheu. Spread abroad, 

widely distended. See First Sketches of 

Henry VI. p. 97. 

ABRODE. (1) Abroad. North. 
Admyt thou shouldst ahyde abrode a year or twayne. 
Should so short absence cause so long and eke so gree* 
▼ouspayne? Romette and Juliet, ap. Cottier, p. Ut. 

(2) Spread abroad. North. 

ABROKE. (1) One that has a rupture is said to 
be abroke. Kennett's MS. Glossary. 

(3) Tom. Hants. 
A-BROKEN. Broken out ; escaped. 

And saide the! wer no men. 

But devells a-broken oute of helle. 

iStr Fertmimu, MS. 
ABRON. Auburn. 

A lusty courtier, whose curled head 
With abren locks was fairly famished. 


ABROOD. (1) Abroad. (A.-S.) 
To here bisshopes aboute 

A-brood in visltynge. Piere Ploughman, p. 38. 

(2) Sitting, applied to a hen. See Baret's 
Alvearie, in v. The term is still in use in the 
Like black cur scar'd, with tail betwixt his legs. 
Seeing he sate afrrood on addle eggs. 

Oober^e Divine QHmpeee, p. 105. 

ABROOK. To bear; to endure. The same 
meaning as brook, with the a redundant. See 
2 Henry VI. ii. 4. 
ABRUPT. Separated. See Middleton's Works, 
ii. 151. Abruption, a breaking off, is found in 
Minaheu, and TroUus and Creraida, iii. 2. 
ABRYGGE. To abridge. 

My dayes, make y never so queynte, 
Sdiullen abrpgge and sumwiut swage. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. Ii. 38, f. SI. ■ 

ABSINTHIUM. "Wormwood. See an early me- 
dical receipt in MS. Lincoln A. L 17, f. 285. 
ABSOLENT. Absolute. 

And afterward, syr, verament. 
They called hym knyght abeolent. 

The Squ^ of Lowe Degri, 630. 

ABSOLETE. Obsolete. Minsheu. 

ABSOLUTE. (1) Highly accomplished; perfect. 
See Pericles, iv. 4, and Malone's note, p. 134. 

(2) Absolved; fireed. Chaucer. 

ABSOLVE. To finish. See a somewhat pecu- 
liar use of this word in Topsell's Four-Footed 
Beasts, 1607, p. 89. 

ABSONANT. Untunable. Cockeram. Hence 
discordant, disagreeing. Glanville has abso- 
noui in the same sense. See Richardson, 

ABSTABLE. Able to resist. 

He thanked God of his myraele. 

To whose myght may be none abetable. 

Cower, ed. 1538, f. 36. 

ABSTENEDEN. Abstained. 

Siche myraclis pleying not onely pervertith oure 
blleve but oure verrey hope in God, by the wliiche 
seyntb hopiden that the more thei abeteneden hem 
fro siche pleyes, the more mede thel shuld then have 
of God. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 47 

ABSTENT. Absent. Warw. 

ABSTER. To deter. 

As the other fixed upon the door maketh me to 
rejoice and to put my whole affiance in Christ, so 
this in like manner should abeter and fear me and 
mine from doing evil. Beeon'e Worke, p. 63. 

ABSTINENT. Abstemious. Minsheu, Absti- 




nenqr, which is not given by Richardson, oc- 
curs in Harrington's Nugae Ant. it 247. See 
the quotation under Abne^futte, 
ABSTRACT. A separation. See Anthony and 
Cleopatra, iiL 6 ; Donee's Illustrations, ii. 93. 
The yerb is used in the sense of taking away 
surreptitiously, and sometimes by the Tulgar 
for extract, I was once asked by the porter 
of an ancient college whether I was come 
"agen to-day to detract some of the old 
ABSURD. A scholastic term, employed when 
false conclusions are illogically deduced firom 
the premises of the opponent See the Broken 
Heart, i. 3. 
ABTHANE. A steward. Mhuheu. There is a 
dispute about the exact meaning of the word, 
which is generally said to be the old title of 
the High Steward of Scotland. 
ABU. Above. Devon, 
ABUCHYMENT. An ambush. 
Y-lelede jond on abueh^ment 

Sarasyns wonder fale» 
In the wode that jonder stent. 
Ten thouunt al by tale. MS, jishmole 33, f. 10. 
ABUDE. To bid ; to offer. 

And in the fairest manere that he can* 
The message he gan abude, MS. Athmote 33, f. 24. 
ABUE. To bow ; to obey. 
Ne understonde hou lather yt ys to do eny outrage, 
Other wemy out the noble stude, that al the world 
abu^h to. Ao6. douc, p. 193. 

ABUF. Above. 

Methoght 1 showed man luf when I made hym to be 
Alic angels ab^f, like to the Trynyte. 

Towneley Mytteriet, p. 82. 
Dere lady, graunt me thi lufe. 
For the lufe of Hym that sittls aXn^fe, 
That stongene was with a spere. 

MS, lAncolH A. 1. 17, f. 119. 
Me thane to luffe 
Alle thynge almffht 

Thow aughe be fayne, MS. Laud, 330. 

ABUGGEN. Toabie,q.v. See Wright's Lyric 
Poetry, p. 112 ; Walter Mapes, p. 341 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. n. 276 ; Kyng Horn, 1081. 
Ac let us and oure ofspryng 
Ahuggt oure mysdede. 

MS, CoU. Trin, Oxon, 57> f. 11. 
Help me, God t and this day 

He sschal abugge, jef ich may. MS. Douee 376, p. 36. 
ABUIN. Above. North, 
ABUNDAND. [Those who are] abounding in 

Pil not the pore peplc with your prechyng, 
Bot begge at abundand and at ryehe aray. 

Judelai^t Poems, p. 30. 

ABUNDATION. Abundance. Herrfordsh, 
ABURNE. Auburn. See Florio, in v. Albumo, 
Auburn colour is translated by citrimte in the 
Prompt. Parv. which would make it an orange 
tinge, rather than the brownish colour now so 
called. It is also spelt aboume, as in the 
Triall of Wits, 1604, p. 255. Another exam- 
pie of abume occurs in Well met, Gossip, 4to. 
Lond. 1619. 
Her blacic, browne, abume, or her yellow hayre. 
Naturally lovely, she doth scomc to weare. 

Drayton's Poemt, p. 233. 

ABUS. The river Humber. 

Foreby the river that whylmne was Ught 
The ancient abiue, where with oourage stout 
He them defea t ed in victorious light. 

fberie Queene, II. x. 16. 
ABUSCHID. Ambushed; in ambush. 

That was aXtutchid ther bldde in a brent greve. 

WiUiam and the Werwolf, p. 131. 

ABUSE. To deceive; to impose upon. Sec 
Cymbeline, L 5; Beaumont andRetcher, L 
169. The noun occurs in Measure for Mea- 
sure, V. 1. 
ABUSED. Vitiated ; depraved. 
Such as have cure of soule. 
That be so fiirre abueed. 
They cannot be excused 

By reason nor by Uw. SkeUonU Works, i. 155. 
ABUSEFUL. Abusive. Herrfordth, 
ABUSHMENTLT. In ambush. Huloet, 
ABUSION. An abuse. (A,-N,) See the Fterie 
Queene, II. zL 11 ; Wrighf s Monastic Lettm, 
p. 141 ; Hawkins' Engl. Dram. L 154 ; Troilus 
and Cresdde, iv. 990 ; Palsgrave, f. 17 ; HaU, 
Henry VI. t 62. 
Moreovyr wys right a gret abusion, 
A woman of a land to be a regent. 

MS. Soc, Antiq, 101, f. 98. 
Marke weUe thys condnsyon, 
Throughesuche abusyon, MS, Rawt. C. 258. 

ABUSIOUS. Abusive. 

Even on the very forehead of thee, thou abusious 
VUlalne I therefore prepare thyselfe. 

TanHng of a Sifrew, 1607. 
ABUSSHEMENT. An ambush. 
Full covertly to lay abusshement. 
Under an hyU att a strayght passage. 

MS, Rawi, C, 48. 

ABUST. To arrange? 

Wei, said he, y knowe ys wiUe, 

Fairer thou abust thy tale ; 
Let another ys message telle. 
And stond thou ther by thy fale. 

ABUT. But. North, 

ABUTTAL. A boundary. See a quotation from 

Coke, by Boucher, in v. 
ABUY. (1) To bow. 

Tho he was kyng y-mad. ys best he made anon. 
That danUche to Vortiger ys men abuyde echon. 
Rob, Gkme, p. 106. 

(2) To abie, q. v. See Cotgpave, in v. Enchere, 

ABUY3E. Toabie,q.v. 

Thi ryot thow schalt now abuy^e. 
As othere that leeveth uppon ure lore. 

Waiter Mapes, p. 315. 

ABVERT. To turn away. Cockeram, 
ABVOLATE. To fly away. Cktcheram. 
ABWENE. Above. 

Thane come of the oryente ewyne hyme agaynes 
A blake bustous here abwene in theclowdes. 

MoHe Arthurs, MS, Lincoln, f. 61. 

ABYCHE. To suflTer for. 

Ther start in Sander Sydebreche, 
And swere, be his fader sowle, he schulde ab^ehe. 
Hunttyngqf the Hare, 179. 

ABYDDE. Abided. 

Some hope that whan she knowith the case, 
Y trust to God, that withyne short spase. 
She will me take agayne to grace : 
Than have y weU abydde. RHiq. Antiq, i. 24. 




ABYDE. To forbear. Cf. Urry, p. 113. 
Coosideriiig the best on every side 
That firo his lust «er him better altjrde, 
Thaa do so hie a diorlishe wretdildnesse. 

Chauctr, US* CanUib, 

ABTMB. An abyss. See AUme, 

ABYN. Been. 

Lord, and thou haddyst byn here, werely 

My brother had natt aififn ded, I know well thysse. 

ABTSM. An abyss. Shak. 
ABTT. Abidetb; continiieth. See Kyng 
AliMxmder, 3638; Uiry's Chancer, p. 542. 

ABYYD. (1) Stay. 

Abm/^ ^rx e m per o ur, yf thou wylt ! Oetovian, S48. 
(2) Soffer. 

Hast thou broke my comaundement, 
Mpwd fttl dcre thou fdialle. tUOq. jintiq. ii. 91. 
AC. Bat (^..5.) 
ACADEMB. An academy. Shai. 
CoiDe, bnve spirits of the realine. 
Unshaded of the oeademe. 

Ptmehatiifi Jltalkf* Banquet, IdM. 
ACAID. Vinegar. HoweO. 
ACALE. Cold. (^..&) 

And eek he was so sore aeale. 
That he wiste of himselfe no bote. 

Cower, MS, Soe, Antiq. 134, f . S33. 
For blood may suifre blood, 
Bothe hungry and e^caU, 

Piere Ploughman, p. 393. 
ACARNE. The sea-roach. Keney, 
AXAS. By chance. Sir Tnstrem. 
A-CAST. Cast away ; lost. 

And weoeth for te kerere, and ever buth a-eaet. 
Wright » Poi, Songe, p. 149. 
Hy purpoi is y-failed t 
Now is my comfort a-eaet, 

Piere Ploughnuai, p. 457. 

ACATER. A caterer; a purveyor. See Sad 
Sheplierd, iL 2 ; Rutland Papers, p. 78. 
He Is my wardrobe man, my acater, cook, 
Butler, and steward. Devil ie an Aee, i. S. 

ACATES. l^ctnals; provisions purchased. See 
Hocdere's Poems, p. 40; Cotgrave, in v. 
\, and all chiMce that plenty can said in { 
Bread, wine, aeatee, fowl, feather, fish, or fin. 

Sad Shepherd, i. 3. 

ACATRY. The room or place allotted to the 
keeping of all such proTisions as the purveyors 
purchased for the kmg. 
ACAtS. Agates. 

or aeate and of amatistes and adamants fyne. 

MS, JO^mtle 44, f. 91. 
ACAUSE. Because. St^oUt, The following Suf- 
folk lines are from Migor Moor's ms. 
Yow mussent sing a' Sunday, 

Aeauee it is a sin ; 
But ycou mah sing a' Monday, 
Till Sunday eome aginn. 
ACAWMIN. Coming. SomeneU 
ACAZDIR. Tin. HtnoelL 
ACAZE. Against. 

The barons it bispeke, that it nas nojt wel 1-do 
Jcaze the pourveanoe, Tor hii nolde Frenssman non. 
Boh, GUmc, p. 53ft. 

ACCABLE. To press down. Junhu. 

ACCAHINTS. Accounts. Siqfordth. 

ACCENSED. Kindled. 

Although thei perceved their company to be «c- 
eeneed and inflamed with fury and malice ynough, 
yet to augment and encrease their madnes, thel cast 
oyle and pitche faito a fyre. Hall, Henrg VIU f. 41. 

ACCEPCION. Reception; acceptation. 

Ther Is nothing rl5tlidie bygunne undir Ood, hot 
the emperour 5iTe therto Aivorable ooospeton and un- 
dirfonging. Vegeciut, MS. Douee S91 , f . 4. 

There Is a second aeception ot the word faith, put 
either for the whole system of that truth which God 
hath been pleased to reveal to his Church in the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Tesument, or some 
part thereof. Sandenon's Sermona, 1089, p. 61. 

ACCEPTILATION. A verball acquittance, when 
the debtour demandeth of the creditour, Doe 
you acknowledge to have had and received this 
or that ? And the creditour answereth, Yea, 
I doe acknowledge it. Mimheu, 

ACCERSE. To call together; to summon. 
{Lat) See HaU's Union, 1548, Edward lY. 
f. 26; Henry VII. f. 40. 

ACCESS. Augmentation. 

Brought thereunto more aeceeee of estimation and 
reverence than all that ever was done before or 
since. Lamhardt/'* Perambulation, 1596, p. 301. 

ACCESSE. (1) A fit of any illness. See Florio, 
in V. Jccetso, According to Blount, " the ac 
ceta of an ague is the approach or coming of 
the fit ;" and " in Lancashire they call the 
ague itself the access.^' See Jxet, 
(2) A fever. 

A water lilly, whicbe dothe remedy 
In bote aeceeeee, as bokes specify. 

Boehae, b. L c. 15. 
For as the grayne of the garnet slceth 
The stronge aeeee, and doth the hete avale. 

I^dgate, MS. Soe, Antiq, 134, f. 13. 
ACCESSIVELIE. Accessoriam^nte, aeeesnvelie, 

by his own seeking. Florio. 
ACCIDAYY. An affidavit. North, 
ACCIDE. Sloth; indolence; more especially 
applied to religious duties. (Lai,) 
Vayne dole, perplexity, and pryde, 
Iikyng of gode and aceide, 

MS. Coa. Ston. xviil. 6. 
Swydi synne men kalle accifde, 
Yn Goddys serryse sloghe betydc. 

MS. Harl. 1701 > f. 29. 
Aeeide ys slowthe in Godcs serrise. 
In which y fynde many a vice. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 135. 

ACCIDENT. A symptom of iUness. Rider. The 
situation of a too confiding girl, when her 
swain has proved faithless, is sometimes thus 
politely designated : 
" When lovely wooum stoops to folly. 
And finds too late that men betray.** 
ACCIDIE. Indolence; sloth. 
He hadde an aeddie. 
That he sleep Saterday and Sonday. 

Piere PUnq^man, p. 99. 
ACCIPITRARY. A falconer. Nath. 
ACCITE. To call ; to summon. SMaJt. 
ACCLOY. To cram ; to clog ; to overload ; to 
cloy. Hardyng uses this word very firequently. 
See his Chronicle, ff. 47, 59, 82, 94, 137, 140, 




And who to It doth, full foule himself uecto^eth. 
For office uocommltted ofte annoyeth. 

Oumeer, MS. Cantab. 

ACCLOYD. A wound given to a hone in shoe- 
ing, hy driving a nul into the quick. See 
Topsell's Four-Footed Beasts, 1607, p. 414. 
To accloy originally meant to drive a nail in 
shoeing a horse. See Prompt Pair. p. 6; 
Cotgrave, in v. Mclouer. 
ACCOAST. To sail coastwise ; to i^iproach the 

coast. Spenser. 
ACCOIL. To hustle. 

About the caudron many cooket aecoifld. 
With hookei and ladles, as need did requyre. 

Faerie Queene, If. Ix. 30. 

ACCOL. To embrace round the neck. See 
Surrey's Virgil, quoted by Richardson, in v. 

ACCOLADE. The ceremony of embracing, for- 
merly customary at the creation of knights. 


When this knyght that was aceoidedt — and hit was 
grete f^oste, — and he saw the /yre, he descendide of 
his horse, and yede to the fyre, and warmide him. 
0€$ta Romanorum, p. 83. 

ACCOMBEROUS. Cumbersome; troublesome. 
A Util tyme his yeft is agreable. 
But ful aeeombemu is the usinge. 

ComplaiHt of Vemu, 49. 

ACCOMBRE. To embarrass; to bring into 
trouble; to overcome; to destroy. See 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 56, 94 ; Piers Plough- 
man, gloss. See Acombre. 

Nay, knave, yf ye try me by nombet, 
I wyll as knavlshly you aeeon^er. 

Ptaye catted the Fbure PP. 

ACCOMMODATE. A very fashionable word in 
Shakespeare's time, ridiculed both by him 
and Ben Jonson, the latter calling it one of 
" the perfumed terms of the time." The in- 
definite use of it is well ridiculed by Bardolph's 
vain attempt to define it in 2 Henry lY. iiL 2. 
Justice Shallow has informed us just previously 
that it was derived from the Italian aceommodo. 

ACCOMPLICE. A partner, associate, or com- 
panion. This word was not formerly applied 
exclusively in a bad sense. See 1 Hen. VI. v. 2. 

ACCOMPLISH. To equip, to dress out, to adorn 
either in body or mind. See Hen. V. iv. ch. 

ACCOMPTE. To tell ; to recount. 

Syr, to aceompte you the contynewe of my consayte. 
Is fh)m adversyt^ Magnyfycence to unbynde. 

SkeltoH** Work*, i. 305. 

ACCONFERMENT. A confirmation. Rob.Gloue. 

ACCORAGE. To encourage. 

But that same firoward twaine would aecorage. 
And of her plenty adde unto their need. 

Faerie ^eene, II. II. 38. 

ACCORATH-EARTH. A field; green arable 

earth. North. 
ACCORD. Action in speaking, corresponding 

with the words. See Titus iUidronicus, v. 2. 
ACCORDABLE. Easy to be agreed. Minaheu. 
ACCORDAND. Agreeing. 

For the resoun of his saule was ay aeeordand with 

the Oodhed for to dye. MS. Coll. Eton. 10, f. 30. 

ACCORDANT. Agreeing. 

Whiche saying is not aeeordaunte with other 
writers. Fabian, 1559, L 18. 


Whan my fellows and I weren in that vale, wee 
wercn in gret thought whetlier that wee dursten 
putten ourebodyesinaventure, to gon in or non, in 
the proteccioun of Ood. And somme of oure fellowcs 
aecordeden to enter, and somme noght. 

Maundevile*e Tra9ets, p. 888. 
ACCORDING. Grantmg. 

To shew it to this knight, according his desire. 

Faerie Qmeene, I. z. 50. 
ACCORT. Hcedy ; wary ; prudent. Mmtheu. 
ACCOST. Exphdned by Cockeram ** to appro^ 
priate." It occurs in a curious manner in 
Twelfth Night, L 3. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, ezpUdns it ''to trie, to attempt;" 
Minsheu, to ** draw nearo unto one ;" and the 
author of the New English Dictionary, 1691, 
says, "wrestlers do accoti one another, by 
joining side to side." 
ACCOUNSAYL. To counsel with. 
And called him without fall. 
And said he wold him aeeounea^p 

Richard Coer de Lion, SI40. 
And the thh-de sorte halth their Iftes to be aeeoun- 
eeiU with thehowse, and yet the greatest nomberof 
theym hath no lemynge. 

Wrighet Monattie Lettere, p. S89. 

ACCOUNT, To count; to reckon. S^tetuer. 

To account of, to esteem, as in Tarlton's News 

out of Purgatory, p. 59. 

ACCOUNTANT. Accountable ; responsible for. 

ACCOUPLE. To jom; to couple. See Hall and 

Bacon, quoted by Richardson, in v. 
ACCOURTING. Courting. S^ninaer. 
ACCOWARD. To make one a coward. 

I thought that al the wordes In the world shulde 
nat have accowarded the. PaUgrave, f. 137. 

ACCOY. To alarm ; to daunt ; to render diffi- 
dent, shy, or coy ; and sometimes to soothe, to 
pacify, or make quiet. Spenser frequently 
uses the word. SeeAcoie. Cf. Pede's Works. 
iiL 152. 

Forsaken wight, she verllle believde 
Some other lasse Ulysses had aeoyde. 

TurbevUe'e Ovid, 1567, arg. 

ACCOYNTED. Acquainted. (/V.) 

The people, having so graciouse a prince and 
sourerayne lorde as the kinges highnes is,with whom, 
by the conUnuance of his regne over them thies 88 
yeres, they ought to be so weU accosted. 

State JPapert,L 475, 
ACCRASE. To crush; to destroy. 

Fynding my youth myspent, my substance ym- 
payred, my credyth aeeraeed, my talent hydden, my 
foUyes laughed att, my rewyne unpytted, and my 
trewth unemployed. Queen'e Progreeaee, 1. 91. 

ACCREASE. To increase; to augment See 

Florio, in v. Accreacere. 
ACCREW. To increase; to accrue. Spenser uses 
this word, but without to or fiim, which 
accrue now requires. 
ACCRIPE. A herb? 

Some be browne, and some be whit. 
And some be tender as accHpe. 

Rehq. jlnUq. L 94t. 




A(XIBOCHE. To increaie; to gather; to en- 
cmatAu See PalBgnve, f. 137. 

And tjte, whaa it to tow approcheth, 
Tbo him tnon the strragthe aeeroeheth. 

OotMT, MS. Soe. Jntiq, 134, f. Ifl2. 
H« ntrer aeen^ed treasour nen nor ferre 
Toiwarde hymselfe. Boehmt, b. t. c 18. 

ACCRUMENT. Increase ; addition. Tayhr, 
ACCTECLOTHB. In an old inventory, dated 
1586, in Reliq. Antiq. L 254, mention is made 
<rf " accteclothe of j. yerd." 
ACC UB. T he footmark of any animal Coekeram, 
ACCUITY. Top; summit. 

Th« cause whie, as telleth autors old, 
b that tbeira aceuitg Is duld with cold. 

JthtmoU^a Thfot. Ch«m, BrU, p. 77. 

ACCURSS. To cone. Skinner. 
ACCUSE. To discover. 

The entrees of the yerde aeeuseth 
To him that in the watir museth. 

Rom. «(f th» Rote, 1591. 
ACCUSTOM. A custom. Simner, 
ACCUSTOMED.TO. Acquainted with. Donet. 
ACELED. Sealed, 

The kgat, tho It was aeeltd, wende vorth over se. 
Rob. Gloue. p. 517. 

ACENTE. Assent. See Rob. Glonc. p. 96; 
Prompt Parv. p. 15. The latter work gives 
the verb aeentyn^ p. 5. 
ACENTENDEN. Assented. 

The dousxe peres acentenden thereto. 
To hide tU winter were i-do. 

MS. Ikme§ 376, p. 27. 
ACERBATE. To make sonr; to sharpen. 
Tis this, said he, that aetrbatet my woe. 

BiUingMl^g Brathp-Martvntlogia, 1057, p. 53. 

ACEROTE. Brown bread. Mimheu. 
ACERTAINED. ConjQrmed in opinion. 

For DOW I am aemiained throughly 

Of every thing I desired to know. 

TodtM Gower and Chaucer, p. Sfift. 

ACESCENT. Sour. AHmthnot. 
ACESE. To cease; to satisfy. See Reliq. Antiq. 

Al wo and werres he schal aeeee. 
And set al reams In rest and pese. 

MS, Douce 309, f. 99. 
And Utel thlnge 30wre nede may aeeaen. 
So that nature may have hire sustenaunce. 

Bcetiue, MS. Soc Jmliq. 134, f. S95. 
ACETHE. This form of om/A, q. v., occurs in 
Prompt Parv. pp. 5, 182. The quotation given 
by Mr. Way from Piers Ploughman is scarcely 
applicable. See Atteth, 
ACH. Smallage; water-parsley. The word oc- 
cora in an old list of plants in MS. HarL 978, 
£. 24, ex|dained by the Latin apiunu See 
also Prompt Parv. pp. 6, 246 ; Reliq. Antiq. 
L 51, 53 ; Wrighf s Lyric Poetiy, p. 26 ; MS. 
Med. Lincoln, 1 280. 
ACHAHI. Alum-water. Adiemicalterm./Toffftffl!. 
ACHAMECK. The dross of silver. HowelL 
A-CHARMED. DeHghted. 

Ther ben lorame that eten chyldren and men, and 
eteth noon other flesh tro that tyme that the! be 
a-cAoniMd with mannys flesh, for rather thei wolde 
be deed ; and thei be deped werewulfes, for men 
shnMe be war of hem. MS. BodS. 540. 

A-CHARNE. To set on. {A.^N.) 

That other resoun is whanne thei a-^utmeth In a 
contr^ of werre there as betayles have y-be, there 
tl»ei eteth of dede men, or of men that be honged. 
MS. Bodl. 540. 

ACHAT. A contract; a bargain. See Uny'a 
Chaucer, p. 362. 

Cursed be he, quod the kyng, that the achat made. 
MS. Cott, Veepat. B. xvL f. 83. 

ACHATES. An agate. Mnuheu. 
ACHATOUR. The person who had the charge 
of the acatry ; the purveyor. 
A gentil manciple was ther of a temple. 
Of which a^iataun mightcn take ensemple. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 57D. 

ACHAUPE. To warm ; to make hot (A.-N.) 

Whanne the hert hath be xt. dayes at the rutte 

skarslyche, the bukke bygynneth to ochaM/^ hymself 

and bolne. MS. Bodl. 546. 

That swollen sorow for to put away. 

With softe salve achaufe It and defle. 

BoeHue, MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 990. 
And be-sete In that settel semlych ryche. 
And acha^/M hym chefly, and thenne his cher mended. 
S^ Gawaifne, p. 34. 

ACHAUNGED. Changed; altered. 

Whan the emperke that understod, 
Ai odboiifiged was hire Mod. 

The Sev^ Sagee, ^G6. 

ACHATERE. Gere; array. 

Scho was frely and fsyre, 
Wele semyd hir aehayere. 

J^r Degrevante, MS. Lincoln. 

ACHE. (1) An ash tree. This seems to be the 
meaning of it in the Plumpton Correspond- 
ence, p. 188. 
(2) Age. 

But thus Oodis low and he wil welde. 
Even of blod, of good, of ache, 

MS. Douce 309, f . 3D. 

ACHEKID. Choked. 

And right anon whan that Theseus sethe 
The best achekid, he shal on him lepe 
To sieen him, or they comin more to hepe. 

Lag. cf Ariadne, 123. 

ACHELOR. Ashler, or hewn stone used for the 
fsdngs of walls. A contract for building 
Burnley church, co. York, temp. Henry VIII. 
specifies " a course of achehn.*' See Britton's 
Arch. Diet, in v. Ashlar. 
ACHER. An usher. In Archaeologia, xxvi 278, 
mention is made of Loys Stacy, " acher to the 
Duke of Burgoine.'' 
ACHES. Convulsions are called ** pricking 
aches*' by Rider. It was sometimes used as 
a dissyUable. See Hudibras, III. iL 407. 
ACHESOUN. Reason; cause. Heame, gloss, 
to P. Langtoft, explains it occatum. 
And all he it dede for tralsoon. 
King to be was his aeheaoun, 

Arthour mnd MerHn, p. 6. 
A-CHETYN. To escheat. Pronqtt. Parv. 
ACHEVE. To accomplish. Urry reads ocA^i^ecf. 
And through falshed Uier lust oeftevetf, 
Wherof I repent, and am grered. 

Rom. of the Roee, 8049. 

A-CHOKED. Choked. 

For he was a^choked anon. 

And toward the dethe he droufh. 

MS. Laud, lOe, f. 166. 




ACHON. Bicbone. 

The lady tok her nmydenys aehon. 

And wente the way that sche hadde er goa. 

Lau^fia, 1018. 
ACHORN. An acorn. Che$h, 
ACHRAS. A wHd choak-pear. Ker$ey, 
ACHWYN. To shun; to avoid. Pronqtt, Pan. 
We have also, **aekuynffe, or beynge ware, 
precavenSt titans.** 
ACISE. Assizes. In Archseobgia, xviL 291, it 
is used in the sense of assize. 

Ther he tette his owne meite. 
And made bailifii, and justices. 

K^ng AlUminder» 1423. 
ACK. To mind ; to regard. North. 
ACKE. But. (^.-5.) 

Ack9 that ne tel thou no man 
For the sothe thou hast 1-founde. 

MS. Laud. 106, f. 1. 

ACKELE. To cooL 

But rerray love Is vertue as I fele. 
For verray love may freile desire aekele. 

Courts </ Love, lOTS* 
ACKER. (1) A ripple on the surface of the wa- 
ter. So explained in the Craven dialect, but 
Huloet, in his Abcedarium, 1552, has ** aker 
of the sea, whiche preventeth the flowde or 
flowynge, impetut maris" a more precise defi- 
nition, preventeth being of course used in the 
sense of preeedeth. In the Prompt. Parv. p. 8, 
akyr occurs with the same Latin that Hidoet 
gives. See Eager^ and Higref ramifications 
of the same term, which appear to be applied 
to commotions of more violence that the ge- 
nerality of Huloet's explanations necessarily 
implies. Mr. Way has a good note on this 
word in the Prompt Parv. p. 8, and makes 
the following extract from MS. Cott. Titus A- 
xxiiL f. 49: 
Wei know they the reume yf It a-ryse. 
An aker is it clept, I understonde, [wytstonde. 
Whos myght there may no shippe or wynd 
This reume in thoccian of propre kynde, 
Wytoute wynde liathe his commotioun ; 
The maryneer therof may not be blynde. 
But when and where In every regioun 
It regnethe, he moste have inspectioun ; 
For in viage it may bothe haste and tary. 
And unavised thereof, al myscary. 
This extract scarcely bears out Mr. Way's 
opinion as to the extended meaning of the 
word aker. The third line probably refers to 
the reume, or tide, and mei^y means to ex- 
press the great and then necessary impor- 
tance of the tide to navigation, not any 
particular commotion or current implied in 
aker. Jamieson has aiker, ** the motion, break, 
or movement made by a fish in the water, 
when swimming fast,'' which is similar to the 
meaning of the word in Craven. Lily men- 
tions the agar, but this seems to be the higre, 
not in the sense of a tide, but a sea-monster. 
See Nares, in v. Agar. But, after all, it may 
mean the double tide, called by Dryden the 
eagre. The word acker is also used as a verb 
in the north, to curl, as the vrater does with 
wind. See Carlyle's Hero Worship, p. 30, who 
says the word is still applied, on the river 

Trent, to a kind of eddying twirl when the 
river is flooded, which is often extremely dan- 
gerous to the bargemen. 

(2J Fme mould. North. 

(3) An acre ; a field. Yorksh. 

ACKERSPRIT. Said of potatoes, when the 
roots have germinated before the time of ga- 
thering them. Chesh. See Acrosphre. It is 
also used among masons and stone-getters, in 
reference to stone which is of a flinty or me- 
tallic quality, and difikult to woric 

ACKERT. Abounding with fine mould, applied 
to a field. North. 

ACKETOUN. A quilted leathern jacket, worn 
under the mail annour; sometim^ used for 
the armour itself! (A.-N.) 
Hys fomen were well boun 
To perce hys ocfcefown. L^beau* Discomu, 1175. 

ACKNOWN. Acknowledged. North. See Ha- 
rington's Ariosto, 1591, p. 418; Lambard's 
Per. of Kent, 1596, p. 461 ; Supp. to Har- 
dyng's Chronide, f. 75. 

ACKSEN. Ashes. Wilts. This fonn of the 
word occurs in Kennetf s Glossary, MS. Lansd. 

ACKWARDS. When a beast lies backwards, and 
cannot rise. See the glossary prefixed to the 
Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 1697, p. 89. 

ACLIT. Adhered together. Devon. 

ACLITE. Awry. North. 

ACLOYE. To cloy; to overload; to overrun. 
See Accloy; Wright's Political Songs, p. 335; 
Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 201. 
And told hym all the cas unto the end. 
How her contrey was grevously adoytd 
Wyth a dragon venoms and orible of kend. 

MS. Laud. 416. f. 65. 

A-CLUMSID. Benumbed vrith cold. Wicilife. 
ACME. Mature age. 

He must be one that can instruct your youth. 
And keep your acme in the state of truth. 

Ben Joruon'e Stap. ofNewe, frol. 
ACOATHED. Rotten or diseased in the liver, 

as sheep. Dorset. 
A-COCK-HORSE. Triumphant. See Ellis's Li- 
terary Letters, p. 265. A somewhat slang ex- 
pression, not quite obsolete. 
ACOIE. To make quiet. 

Sith that ye reft him thoquaintannce 
Of Bialacoil, his most joie, 
Whiche all his painis might aeole. 

Rom. of the Aoce, 3564. 
ACOILD. Congealed. (^.-A^.) 
Al to michel thou art afoild ; 
Now thi blod it is acoUd. Ov cf Warttfike, p 20. 
ACOILE. See Levd-ooU, a game which is men- 
tioned by Brome, under the title of letell Acoile. 
See Beaumont and fletcher, iv. 215, note. 
ACOLD. (1) Cold. Dr. Forman, in his Auto- 
biography, MS. Ashmole 208, informs us that 
when his master " vras aeold, he wold goe 
and carry Ms faggots up into a lofte till he was 

Thus lay this povere in gret distresse, 
Jcotde and hungrid at the gate. 

C0Wer» MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 183w 

(2) In the following quotation, which is put into 




Jotqtk'i mouth after he had made the disco- 
Toy of the Virgin Mary's preaomed guilt, Bfr. 
Sharp explains aeoldf called ; hut the ordinary 
interpretation, as given above, will suit the con- 
text, implying that his powers were impaired. 
Hotebood, in feytbe, and that aoM, 

Skarp*» Cbv. Ifyst, p. 87* 
ACOLDTNG. Getting cold. 

The tyknetse of the world thou idult knowe by 
charyt^ oealdt/ng, and elde of hyi feblenene. 

PUMUMMt** Sermm, 1388, MS. Hatton 07* p. 24. 

ACOLED. Cooled. This is the reading of the 
Herald's Collie MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
^keoiherhdngaielde. See Heame's edition, 
p. 442. 
ACOLEN. To embrace. (^..M) 

Then mcoleg he the knyjt, and kytset hym thryet, 
Aa aaTerly and ndly as he hem sette couthe. 

SifT Oawaifntf p. 71* 

ACOMBRE. To encumber; to trouble. (J.-N.) 
Cf. Arthour and Merlin, p. 26 ; Depos. of Rich. 
IL pp. 29, 30 ; Skdton's Works. L 298 ; Kyng 
Alisannder, 8025 ; Prompt Panr. p. 6 ; Chau- 
cer. Cant. T. 510; Piers Ploughman, p. 31. 
Atmrnbrtd wat he for to here 
Aake of eo mony lettreasere. 
OHTjer JfttiMtt, J£9. Cotf . IWn. Cbnloft. f. 7& 
A4X>M£LYD. Enervated with cold. Prompt. 
Pare. We havealsotheforma-dbrnmyiie, which 
woold connect it perhiqps with the provincial 
term ckemtiCd, 
ACON. Aix la Chapdle. 

At Atm It was brought to pas, 
As by myne avctor tried it was. 

Skatorit Wwktt il. 48. 
ACONICK. Poisonous. Bider. 
ACOP. Conical ; ending in a point. 

Marry she's not in fashion yet ; she wears a hood, 
but it stands ocop. JlehtmUt, ii. 8. 

ACOPUS. Either a herb or stone, introduced 
by Middleton, in the Witch, as an ingredient 
for. a charm. See his Works, iiL 327. 
ACORDAUNT. Agreeing. (^.-M) 

Sadie thynge wliereof a man may lere^ 
That to verto is aeardaunt, 

Gotoer, MS, So€, Jntiq, 134, f. 41. 

ACORDEND. Agreeing. (J,-N,) 
Nowe myght thon here next sewend 
Whlche to this vyce is aeordttuU 

Oower, ed. 1632, f. 38. 
ACORE. To sorrow; to grieve. {A..N.r) 
Idi am a man: ich schal go flfore : 
Tlum ne aujtest nowjt mi de; awre, 

Hartshom^s Met. Talet, p. IIS. 
At Olouccstre he deide, ac eir nadde he non ; 
That acnrmfs al this lond, and ys men echon. 

Rob. Otouc. p. 76. 
ACORSE. To curse. (^.-5.) 
Calkde hem eaytyves 

Aemned tot evere. PUn Phughman, p. 376. 

AtmttA beo that me bar. 
And the tyme tliat ich was i-bore. 

MS. lMt$d. 106. f. 107. 

A-CORST. To buy. 

Dem Imudem it is y-depud ; 

This sahne the quene radde 
For to o-eeny here lirother body, 

Andalletbat him Udde. 

MS. Call. Trin. Oxon. 67. 

ACORYE. Same as Acore, q. v. 

Btt a peyre of a marc, other thou iMlt beoeonw 
•ore. Rob, Ohue. p. 390 

Art thou, he seide, on of thulke ? 
Thou it schalt ocoHe sore I MS. Laud. 106, f , 198. 

ACOST. On the side. (J..N.) 

No schal [scape] non of this ost s 

Siweth me thus al aeon. K^gAlUaundtr, S144. 

Forth thai passeth this lond acott 

To Clarence with alle her ost. 

Arthomr and MerHn, p. 981. 

ACOUNTRE. An encounter. 

With hard aeountns hym agayne. 

MS. Hart. 99G9, f. 106. 
The acountn ot hem was so strong. 
That mani dyed ther among. 

Or </ Wanaikt, p. 991. 

ACOUPE. To bkme ; to accuse ; to inculpate. 
(A.'N.) See Piers Ploughman, p. 272 ; Rob. 
Glottc. p. 544. 

Alle ys pryde and vanyt^ 
Of al Shalt thou aeouped be. 

If5. lIiir/4 1701, f. S3. 
ACOUPEMENT. An accusation. (A..N.) 
Wlthouten answere to acoupemmt. 

HarUhome^t Met. Talee, p. 109. 
ACOUPYNG. An onset. 

At the aeoupyng the kni5tes [speres] either brak on 

Swifkli with here swerdes swinge thei togeder. [other, 

WUliam and the Werwo{f, p. 194. 

ACOVERD. Recovered. 

BeUsent, withouten Icsing, 
Jeoverd and undede her eyin. 

Arthour and Mertin, p. 316. 
ACOW. Crooked ; obliquely ; awry. North. 
A-COYNTEDE. Made his acquamtance. 

Heo a-ouyntede hym anon, and bicomen f^ndes gode, 
Bothe for here prowes, and for heo were of on blode. 
BMt. Gloue, p. 16. 
ACOYSYNG. Accusing. 

He is forth brought, and tlie kyng 
Oereth him aeoyeyng. Kyng AUeaunder, 3973. 
ACQUEYNT. Quenched. 

The more that my herte drynketh 
The more I may, §o that me thynketh 
My thurst shall never be ae^uepnt. 

Oower, ed. 1639, f. 19S. 
ACQUILL. A term in hunting. See Reliq. 
Antiq. L 151. It was applied to the buck and 
doe, the male and the female fox, and all ver- 
min, and corresponds to the French term 
enquiller or aquUter^ a form of accuelUr, for 
which see Roquefort, in v. It is nearly syno- 
nymous with the more modem word imprime, 
which was afterwards applied to unharbour- 
ing the hart. See Sir H. Dryden's Twid, 
p. 26. 
ACQUIST. An acquisition. Militm. Skinner 

has it as a verb, exphiined by acquirere, 
ACQUIT. Acquitted. I^muer. 
ACQUITE. To requite. 

O, how ill dost thou aequUe the lore I beare thee, 
and that which, for thy sake, I do nowe forsake I 
The Shepherdeee FeHemena, ap.CotHet'e Shah. Ub. p.98. 
ACQUITTANCE. (1) Acquaintance. Skwmer. 

(2) A receipt. North. 

(3) RequitaL See Othello, iv. 2. It is also used 
by Shakespeare in the sense of " to procure an 
acquittance, to acquit" See Richard III. iii. 7. 





ACQUYSE. To acquire. 

Late to go to rest, and eriy for to ryte* 
Honour and goodes dayly to aegypte. 

Maitlan^t Laf$»b^h Bookt, p. 281. 

ACRASED. Crazed. Grtfim, 

ACRE. (1) A field. The word at first signified 

not a determined quantity of land, but any 

open ground, especially a wide campagne ; and 

that sense of it seems preserved in the names 

of places, as Castle-acre, West-acre, in co. 

Noif . See Aher ; Kennett's Glossary, p. 4 ; 

MS. Lansd. 1033; Gloss, to P. Langt. p. 


Pople with alle tho reehesie, and akret, aU the! 

Tborgh. ther douhtinesie, the lond thotgh thel 
ronnen. Peter Lttngtt^ft, p. II A. 

(2) An old sort of duel fought by single com- 
batants, English and Scotch, between the fron- 
tiers of their kingdom, with sword and lance. 

ACRE-DALE. Lands in a common field, in which 
dififerent proprietors hold portions of greater 
or lesser quantities. North, 
ACREME. Ten acres of land. A Uw term. 
ACRE-MEN. Husbandmen. (Dut.) 
The foules up, and tong on bou^, 
And acre'tnen yede to the plough. Ldy le Freine, 176. 
ACRES. The town so called ? 

Armede hym In a actooe« with orfhues fulle ryche» 
Aboven one that a jeryne of Jeree owte over. 

Morte Arthure» MS. Lincoln, f. 63. 

ACRE-SHOT. A kind,or charge. 
The said in-dikei should be carefully maintained 
and repaired by those dyke-reeves, out of the com- 
mon aere-ehot, a s sess ed within every of the said 
towns. Dugdal^t Imbanking, p. 975. 

ACRESTAFF. The plough-staff. //«A>e/. Howell 
translates it le curohr du coutre. See also 
Cotgrave, in v. Curette, 

ACROKE. Crooked. 

Who so byideth after every man his howse, hit 
schalle stonde acroke, MS. Donee 52. 

ACROOK'D. Crooked; awry. Yorksh, 

ACROSPIRE. When unhoused gram, exposed 
to wet weather, sprouts at both ends, it is said 
to acrospire. According to Kersey, the aero- 
»pyre of com is ** that part which shoots out 
towards the smaller end of the seed.'' (Gr.) 

other willhaveHhe sprit drowned, and most of 
those whidi come without extraordinary pains, will 
send forth their substance In an veroepire. 

Aubre^e Wilte, Ropat See. MS. p. 304. 

ACROSS. (1) A kind of exclamation when a 
sally of wit miscarried. An allusion to joust- 
ing. See All's Well that Ends Wen, iL L 
(2) On cross. 

When other lovers In arms oorew. 
Rejoice their chief delight. 

Surret^e Comj^aint o/Abeenee, 

ACROSTIC. Crossed on the breast. 

Agreed t but what melancholy sir, with aerottie 
arms, now comes ttom the Family ? 

Middleton's Wurke, il. 179. 

ACROTCH. To take up ; to seize. Huloet. 
ACSEDE. Asked. (^..^.) 

The kyng Alesandre aceede 

H wan sail that be. Reltq. Jntig, 1 . 30. 

ACT. To behave ; to conduct S$sex. 

ACTiEON. Shakespeare has a dassical allusion 
in the Merry Wives of Windsor, iL 1 , applying 
this name to a cudcold. The commentators 
have not noticed that Blount remarics it is so 
used '< in a waggish sense." 

ACTE. The sea-shore; also, the elder tree. 

ACTILLY. Actually. Tim Bobbin. 

ACTIOUS. Active. 

He knows you to be eager men, martial men, men 
of good stomacks, very hot shots, very aetUme for 
valour, such as scorn to shrink for a wetting. 

Webeier'e Works, 11. 228. 

ACTON. A leather jacket sometimes worn 
under a coat of mail ; a kind of tunic. See 

His acton it was all of blacke. 
His hewberke and hh sheelde. Sfr GsiiHfie. 
To Jerusalem he did hym lede. 
His aetone and his other wede. 

Torrent ^Portugal, p. 9& 
ACTOURES. Governors ; keepers. (Lat.Med.) 

See glossary to Saber's ed. of Wickliffe, in y. 
ACTRESSES. In explanation of numerous pas- 
sages in our old plays, it may be well to ob- 
serve that actresses were not generally intro- 
duced into English theatres till after the 
Restoration. In Shakespeare's time the female 
characters were personated by boys. There is a 
curious letter on this subject in MS. Tanner 77. 
It would appear .from the following anecdote, 
written in a copy of the Memoirs o( the Count 
de Grammont, that this practice was continued 
to a later period : 

It Is said the fleet which went for the queen 
[of Charles II.] stayed six weeks at Lisbon, without 
any reason given. Some suppose a change in the 
queen's person was the cause; to which William 
Davenant alluded when the king, one night at the 
play, was impatient to have theplay begin, — ««Sire,*' 
said Davenant, " they are shooing the Queen r 
ACTUATE. To put into action; to produce. See 
the Roman Actor, iv. 2 ; florio, in v. Attudre. 
ACTURE. Action. 

Love made them not ; with aetvre they may be. 
Where neither party Is nor true nor kind. 

A Lover's Complaint, p. 240i 

ACUATE. Sharpened. (Lat,) 

Oryndyng with vynegar tyll I was fatygate, 
And also with a quantyte of spyces aeuate, 

AshmottTs Theat, Chem, Brit. p. 191. 

ACUMBRE. To encumber; to worry. (A.-N.) 
And but thou sone amende the, 
Ttuurfor majrst thou ocwmftred be. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 96. 
Oil of Warwike mi name Is ; 
Ivel Ich am aeumhred y-wis. 

by of Warwike, p. 217. 
ACUNTRED. Encountered. {A.-N.) 

So kenii thei acuntred at the coupyng to-gadere. 
That the knljt spere In speldes al tD>schlvered. 

Wmiam and the Werwolf » P- 190* 

ACURE. A chemical term, applied to a drug 
when its power is increased by the addition of 
some other. Kersey. 
ACURSEN. To curse (A.^S.) 
Which Is lif that oure Lord 
In alle lawes acurseth. Piers Ploughman, p. 375, 




ACTCB. ABsize. RU9on. 
A-CYDEN ANDYS. Aside; oWiquely. Prwi^L 
Parp, TheKing'sCoUege MS. reads aepdiumde, 
, and Pynson's editioii aeydenam, 
A-CYNBN. Toaatigii. Pron^t. Part. 
ACTSE. Manner; custom. 

An halyday tjl, as ys the a^f§§t 
Mea to go to Goddyt wrryie. 

MS, Hart. 1701, /. 81. 
And of tb«M bcrdede bukket alio, 
Wyth bemielf thy mocb« myido. 
That leva Crysten mennyt aeift. 
And hauBta al the newe gyte. 

MS. BodU 415. f. 21. 
AD. Hath. 

Lo, hou he ad me to-rent, 
Mi bodi and ml face Ipfchent. 

Tht Seoyn Sages, 480. 

AD ACTED. Driren in by force. Mmtheu. 
ADAFFED. Daunted. Junius refers to this word 

in Chancer. Urry reads adassid, q. t. 
ADAM. (1) The following is one oif the most 
common early English prorerbs, and John Ball 
took it as a text for one of his revolutionary 
sermons. SeeWrighf s Songs andCarols, songL 
When Adam delv'd and Eve span* 
Who waf then the gentleman ? 
(2) A seijeant, or bailiff, was jocularly so called. 
See the Comedy of Errors, iv. 3, ** Not that 
^dam that kept the paradise, but that Jdam 
that keeps the prison.'' 
ADAM-AND.EVE. The bulbs of orckif macu- 
lata, which have a fimded resemblance to the 
human figure. Craven, 
ADAMANT. The magnet ; the loadstone. Early 
writers frequently use it in this sense, and oc- 
casionally the Latin adamat is so interpreted, 
but not in Prompt Parv. p. 6, where the syno- 
nyme is '* precyowse stone," meaning of course 
the diamond. Cf. Mids. Night's Dream, ii. 2. 
ADAMATE. To love dearly. Mhuheu. 
ADAM-BELL. A northern outlaw, so celebrated 
for archery that his name became proverbiaL 
Percy has a ballad concerning him. 
With loynea in canvass bow-case tyde. 
Where arrowet stick with mickle pride : 
Like ghosts of Adam BeU and Clymme, 
Sol sets for fear theyn shoot at him. 

]/A9ahanf» Work*, ed. 1673, p. 991. 

ADAMITES. A sect of enthusiasts who are said 
to haTC imitated the nakedness of A^m in 
their public assemblies. They are alluded to 
in the Merry Beggars, ii. 1. 

ADAM'S-ALE. Water. Var.dial Jamieson 
giTes Adam*$ADmet ^ similar phrase current in 

ADAM'S-APPLE. A kind of citron. Gerard. 
The nob in a jman's throat is also called by 
this name. 

ADAM'S-FLANNEL. White mullein. It may 
have obtained this name, says Carr, from the 
s<^ white hairs, with wMdi the leaves are 
thiddy dothed on both sides. Craven. 

AD ANT. Daunt; quench; mitigate. 
Ageyns heom thy wraththe adant, 
Qtt heom mercy and pes heom graunt. 

K^ng AlUauMler, 8853. 

ADARNECH. Colour like gold. IfoweU. 
ADARNED. Ashamed. Colet. 
ADARRIS. The flower of sea-water. Howett. 
ADASE. To dazzle. 

My clere and shynynge eyen were all adated and 

derked. Carton** Dioar* Fruitful Ghoatly Mater*. 

The glittring therof wold have made every man's 

eyes so ada**d, that bo man should have spied his 

fidshed, and fonnden out the trouth. 

Sir r. ifore** Work**, p. 409. 

ADASSID. Dazzled; put out of countenance. 
Beth BOt a^bu*td for your imiocence. 
But sharpely take on you the governaile. 

Chaueer, 9d. Urrp, p. 106. 

ADAUDS. In pieces. Yorkah. To rive aH 

adauda, Le. to tear all in pieces. See Kennett's 

MS. Glossary, the glossary at the end of The 

Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 12mo, York, 1697, 

p. 89, and the Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 4L 

ADAUNT. (1) To tame. (^.-iV.) See Rob. 

Glouc pp. 61, 372 ; MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 4L 

His flesshe wolde have charged him with fatnesse, 

but that the wantonesse of his wombe with travaile 

and fastyng he adaunteth, and In ridyng and goyng 

travayleth myghteUche his youthe. 

Bob. douc. p. 4as. 
(2) To daunt. Daniel. 
ADAUNTRELEY. Same as avauntlay, q. y. 
At last he upstarted at the other side of the water, 
which we call soil of the hart, and there other hunts- 
men met him with an adauntrelep. 

Hawking BngL Drem, liL 298. 
ADAW. J'o be daunted, ^tenser. 
ADAWE. (1) To awake. Palsgrave has, " I 
adawe or adawne, as the daye dothe in the 
momynge whan the sonne draweth towardes 
his rysyng;" and, "I adawe one out of a 
swounde." Cf. TroUus and Cresdde, iii. 1 126. 
But, sire, a man that waketh of his slepe. 
He may not sodenly wel uken kepe 
Upon a thing, ne seen it parfltly. 
Til that he be adawed veraily. 

Chaueor, Cant, T, 10274. 
For thb is Spica with hire bry3t spere. 
That toward evene, at mydny3t and at morwe, 
Downe fro hevene adaweth al oure sorowe. 

I^dgate, MS. Hatton 73. 

(2) Down. The MS. BodL 415, £ 26, reads 
** do adawe," in the following passage. Cf. 
Cot. Myst. p. 294. 

Eutycyus the abbot, hys felawe. 
Herd sey hys here was so adaw*. 

MS. Hart. 1701, f. 27. 

(3) To kill; to execute. 

Some wolde have hym adatae. 
And some sayde it was not lawe. 

Richard Co*r d* Hon, 973. 

ADAY. In the daytime. 

For what thing WUlam wan adav with his bowe. 
Were it fethered foul, or foure-foted best. 

William and the Wertvolf, p. 8. 

ADAYS. A shorter form of the common phrase 
** now-a-days." Eatt Anglia. In the follow- 
ing passage it probably means the same as 
adatf, q. v. 

What useth the corl adapt* f 
Hontes he ar revayes ? 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 85. 

ADAZ. An addice. KennetVt MS, Glow. 




ADDE. Had. 

And he byhet hym and yt al Kent rer and ner, 
Al that Hengytt adde wule wythe kyngee daye 
Vortyger. Bab, GUmc. p. 281. 

ADDEEM. To think ; to judge ; to determine. 

And for rerengement of those wrongful! smarti , 
Which I to others did inflict afore, 
jiddwm'd me to endure this penaunce sore. 

Faerie Queene, VI. viii. 22. 
ADDER-BOLT. The dragon fly. Var, dioL 
ADDER-SAY. I dare say. Yorkth. 
ADDER'S-GRASS. A plant mentioned by Ge- 
rard, of which the generic name is cynotorchii. 
See his Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 205. 
ADDER'S-TONGUE. A description of this com- 
mon plant is in Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, 
p. 404. IGerard. 

ADDER-WORT. The bistort or snake-weed. 
ADDICE. (1) An addled egg. Huloet, 
(2) An adze or axe. This is a common form 
of the word. Nares quotes Lyl/s Mother 
ADDICT. Addicted. 

To studies good addict of comely grace. 

mmmr/or MagUtratee, p. 173. 

ADDITION. A title given to a man over and 
above his first, or Christian, and surname, 
showing his rank, occupation, &c. or alluding 
to some exploit or achievement A law term, 
frequently occurring in Shakespeare. 
ADDIWISSEN. Had I known it. North. An 
expression nearly obsolete, though still retained 
by some old persons. See Marshall's Rural 
Economy of Yorkshire, iL 315. It seems to be 
merely a corruption of the very common old 
method of expressing repentance for any hasty 
action, had I witt^ had I known the conse- 
quences. The following extracts give forms 
of the phrase very close to the provincial term. 
This dredfule ded I drawe me tylle. 
And alle ys tomyd to adiftayet, 

MS. Uneoln A. I. 17, f. 51. 

AddUppet yt wylle not bee. 7U4. f. 51. 

ADDLE. (1) To earn. North. Forby says **to earn, 

to profit gradually." It occurs in the Townley 

Mysteries, p. 195. See jidyld. 

With goodmen's hogs, or com, or hay, 
I addie my ninepence every day* 

Richard C(f Datum Date. 

(2) '* To addle his shoon" is said in the North of 
a horse that hSla upon his back, and rolls firom 
one side to the other. In the South, when a 
horse does so, he is said to ** earn a gallon of 

(3) To grow; to thrive. Ea»t. 

Where ivye embraseth the tree very sore, 
KOI ivye, or tree else will addte no more. 

Tiueer'e Fiee Hundred Points, 1673, f. 47. 

(4) A swelling with matter in it. Somerset. 

(5) Labourer's wages. YorJtsh. 
ADDLE-HEADED. Stupid; thoughtless. Var. 


ADDLE-PATE. A foolish person. Kent. 

aDDLE-PLOT. a person who spoils any amuse- 
ment South. 

ADDLE-POOL. A pool or puddle, near a dung- 
hill, for receiving the fluid from it. South. 

ADDLINGS. Earnings from Ubour. Yori$h. 

ADDOLORATE. To grieve. See Florio, in v. 

ADDOUBED. Armed; accoutred. (J.'N.) 
Was hotter than ever to provide hlmselfe ot 
horse and armour, saying he would go to the island 
bravely addombed, and shew himself to lUs charge. 
Sidne^e Aremdie^t p* ^> 

ADDOULSE. To sweeten. This term occurs 

in the dictionaries of Minsheu and HowelL 

See Adulce. 
ADDRESS. To prepare for anything; to get 

ready. {Fr.) A very common use of the word 

in our old dramatists. 
ADE. To cut a deep gutter across ploughed 

land. Salop. 
ADEC. A vinegar milk. HoweO. 
ADECOUE. On oath. Perhaps an error of the 

scribe in the following passage, the other MSS. 


By a token tbou me trone, 
I breke a solan adeeoue. 

tU^teen** RamancUt p. 8. 

ADELANTADO. The king's Heutenant of a 
country, or deputy in any important place of 
charge. Cf. Middleton's TVorks, L 241 ; Min- 
sheu, in V. It is a Spanish word. 
ADELE. Added; annexed. So explained in 
the glossary to Unys Chaucer. It should be 
two words, a dele, a portion. 
ADEMAND. The loadstone. This form of the 

word occurs in Maundevile's Travels, p. 161. 
ADENT. To fasten. Mhuheu. 
ADENYD. Dinned; stunned. 
I was aden^ of that dynt. 
Hit stoned me and mad me stont 
Styl out of my Steven. MS. Douce 302, f. 12. 
ADEPCION. An acquirement. (Lat.) 

In the adepcion and obteynyng of the garland, I 
being seduced and provoked by sinister enunsall 
and diabolical temptacion, did commyt a Cscynorous 
and detesUble acte. HaU, Richard ill. f. 3U. 

ADEQUATE. To make even or equal. Mhuheu. 
ADERCOP. A spider. More generally written 
attereop, q. v. Araneus, an adercqp, or a spyn- 
ner. — StanhrigH VocabulOf sig. d. iL Palsgrave 
has addircop. See Prompt Parv. p. 16. 
ADES. An addioe. Kennett. 
ADEWEN. To moisten ; to bedew. 

Thy gracious shourys lat reyne in habundaunce. 
Upon myn herte tadewen every veyne. 

I^dgaUTe Minor Poenu, p. 2S1. 
The hie hevynes doth your grace adewe. 

MS. Mhmote 59, f. 174. 

ADGE. An addice. North. 

ADHIB. A name given to the herb eyebright, 

in Dr. Thomas More's MS. additions to Ray. 
ADHIBITE. To admit. In the following example 
it perhaps ought to be adhibited. Cf. Rhomeo 
and Julietta, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 89. 

To which counsaill there were adhibite very fewe. 
and they very secrete. Hatl, Edward V. f. 13. 

ADHORT. To advise ; to exhort. 

Julius Agrlcola was the first that by adhorting 
the BriUines publikely, and helping them privately, 
wun them to builde houses for themselves. 

8tow*» Survatf c>f London, ed. 1S9S, p. 4. 




ADIHTETH. Adihteth him, Le. fits himMlf 
AdihUth him a gay weocfae of the newe Jet. 

Wright* PoUtieal Songt, p. 399. 

ADIN. Within. Suaex. 
ADIR. Either. 

It b agreld that the nkl Thomaa Wrangwyih and 

William Wdle* shalhe eepteni of the toghen for the 

said cite» and that adir at them shall haveU^. to. of 

the day. AnrfM"* York Raeordg, p. 1S6. 

ADIT. A songh or level in a mine, generally 

made for drawing off water. Derbysh. 

Two Mmdy princes^ together aiSopnate, 

Ib an the world waa none theim like alowed. 

Hard^^M Chronicle, f. IM. 
AD JOYNAUNTES. Those who arc contiguous. 
The adjective a^oynaunte occurs in the Dial, 
of Great MoraL p. 192. 

Sought and praetlMd walei and meanethow tojoine 
hlmadf with forefn prtocei, and to gre?e and hurte 
hda ne^ibors and o^foynawfi/M of the realme of 
Ei^land. Hail, Henrv VI. f. 53. 

AD JOYNT. A person joined with another ; a 
companion, or attendant. See Daniel's Civ. 
Wan, iv. 69, quoted by Nares. 

ADJUBIENT. Help ; succour. Miege, 

ADJITNCT. United with; immediately conse- 
quent. See King John, iiL 3, and Richardson, 
in V. Adjoin, 

AD JUTE. To assist ; to help. See Ben Jonson, 
as quoted by Richardson, in v. 

ADJUTORIES. The arm bones. Vigo tr, 

ADJUVANT. Assisting, See Aubrey's WOts, 
Royal Soc MS. p. 109, for an instance of the 
wOTd, the same with that taken by Richardson 
from Howell, Diet, in v. Je(fute, 

ADLANDS. Those butts in a ploughed field 
which lie at right angles to the general di- 
rection of the others ; the part close against 
the hedges. Salop, [Headlands ?] 

ADLE. (1) Unsound; unwelL Eagt, 

(2) To addle; to earn. Skinner and Kennett 
give this as a Lincolnshire form of the word. 

ADMERALLYS. Commanders. See Admiral. 
He tende aftur lordyngyt, 
Fyftene admerallpt and kyngyt. 
And armyd them to fyght. 

M8. Cantab. Ft, U. 88, f. 183. 

ADMIRABUST. Most admirable. Accented 
on the antepenult. York$h, 

ADMIRAL. This word, which the reader will 
find under other forms, did not always imply 
its present acceptation, but a Saracen com- 
mander, sometimes a king. According to 
Kennett, the term admiral was not introduced 
before the latter end of the reign of Edward I. 
See his Glossary, 1816, in v. Martnaritu; and 
Admyrold; Richard Coer de Lion, 5042; 
Maundevile's Travels, p. 38. Robert of Glou- 
cester has the form amrayl. See Heame's 
Gloss, in V. According to some, the word was 
obtained in the wars with the Saracens of 
Spain, from Ernvr-ahna^ or emir of the water, 
which readily resolves itself into the other 
word. See Warton's Hist. EngL Poet. Introd. 
p. czcv. 

ADMIRATIVE. Minsheu calls the note of ad- 
miration, the admirative point. 

ADMISSION. An admistion, as when a prince 
doth avow another prince to be under his pro- 
tection. HoUyband, 

ADMITTANCE. In general the same as ad- 
mttffton, but used by Shakespeare in the sense 
' of custom, privilege, or prerogative of being 
admitted into the presence of great personages, 
Ford tells Falstaff he is a gentleman "of great 
admittance,*' See the Merry Wives of Windsor, 
u, 2. 

ADMONISHMENT. Admonition. Shak. 

ADMOVE. To move to. (Lat.) 

ADMYROLD. A Saracen commander, or king. 

Tho fpec on adn^trold. 

Of wordet he wet twythe hold. K^g Horn, 95, 
ADNOTE. To note ; to observe. (Lat.) 
In thlt mateir to hee adnotod. 
What evyl conniell withe prynqn maye Induce. 
BrU, Bibl, iv. 204. 

ADNUL. ToannuL 

Shal uttlrly stonde voide and adnufUd, accordyng 
to the olde cuttume therof hadde and made. 

MS. Bodl, 9 Mtu. 920. 

ADNYCHELL. To annihilate. Seeanmstance 
of this form of the word in Skelton's Works, 
ADO. (1) Done ; finished. Somertetah, 
(2) To do. 

I wol that thel toglthir go, 
And done al that thel han ado, 

Romaunt of tho Rom, 9080. 

ADON. (1) Adonis. Cf. Troilus and Creseide, 
iii. 722. 

For thllke love thon haddett to Jdon, 
Have pitee on my hitter teres imert. 

Chttueer, Cant, T. 2226. 

(2) Done away. Cf. Morte d'Arthur, ii. 29. 
And what with Venus, and othir oppression 
Of hoosls. Mars his venlme Is adon 

Leg. of Hwpei^n, 32. 

ADONNET. A deviL North. In Yorkshire 
one sometimes hears the saying, ** Better be 
in with that adonnet than out." 
ADOORS. At doors ; at the door. 

But when he sawe her goe forth adores, he hasted 
after Into the streate. Riehe'e Farewell, 1581. 

But what, sir, I beseech ye, was that paper. 
Your lordship was so studiously imployed in. 
When ye came out a-doore } 

IVoman Pleased, Iv. 1. 

ADOPTIOUS. Adopted. See All's Well that 
Ends Well, i. 1. The commentators do not 
furnish another instance of the word. 
ADORAT. A chemical weight of four pounds. 

ADORE. To adorn. See the Faerie Queene, 
IV. xi. 46 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, quoted by 
Nares in v. 
ADORNE. (1) To adore. 

The tonne, the moone, Juhiter and Satume, 
And Mars the God of armes they dyd adome. 

Hardynt^s Chronicle, f. 66 
(2) Adorning ; ornament. Spenser, 
ADOTE. To doat ; to grow silly. 




It fUleth that the moste wise 
Ben utherwhlle of love adoHd, 
And §o by-whaped and anotid. 

Oitwer, MS, Soe. Antiq, 134, f. 177* 

ADOUNE. Below;dowii. {A.-S,) 

So lette thy grace to me discende sdotme. 

L^gtU9, MS, AAnude 39, f. 27. 
And when the gotpel yi y-done, 
Ajayn thoa myith knele odown, 

ConttUutUmM pfMaacmrtt p. 3ff. 

ADOUTED. Feared; redoubted. (^.-M) Cf. 
Morte d' Arthur, iL 69. 

He wai con^otu and gode knight. 
And michel odoiKeil In everich fight. 

Qy tuf Warwike, p. 120. 

ADOTNGE. Going on. 

Alle the whyle the turnement was adoimge, the wai 
with Quei\e Guenever, and erer the Quene asked her 
/or what cause she came into tliat countrey. 

JTorto 4r Arthur, i. 361. 

ADPOYNTE. To appoint. See Wrighf 8 Mo- 
nastic Letters, p. 194. 
ADRAD. Afraid ; frightened. (A.-S,) 
The lady wase nevyr so adrad. 
Into the hale sche hym lad. 

Torrmi qf Portugal, p. 13. 
ADRAMING. Churlish. Kersey, 
A-DRAWE. (1) To draw away ; to withdraw. 
Awey flro hem he wold a-drawe, 
Yf that he myght. OetovUm, 357* 

(2) To draw. In the Dorset dialect we have 
a-draen, drawing. 

The 5eant, tho he ley hym come, hygan yi mace 
adrawe, Rob, Glove, p. 207< 

ADRE AMT. Dosing. This is the provincial mean- 
ing of the word in Oxfordshire, and probably 
other counties. " You see, ma'am, all this 
time she is adreamt, between sleeping and 
waking," applied to an infeuit The phrase ** I 
was adream'd,'' for ** I dreamt/' occurs in the 
City Night-Cap, act iv. Cf . Webster's Works, 
i. 139. 

I was even now adreom*d that you could see with 
either of your eyes, in so much as I waked for Joy, 
and I hope to find it true. 

Wits, Fittes, attd Fancies, 1895, p. 94. 
ADREDE. To dread. 

So mightl strokes thcr wer given. 
That strong sehaftes al to-driven ; 
No was ther non in that ferrede. 
That of his liif him might adrade, 

Qy of Warwike, p. 47. 
Ganhardin seighe that sight. 
And sore lilm gan adrede. Sir Trietrem, p. 288. 
ADRELWURT. The herb federfew. This name 
occurs in an early Ust of plants, in MS. HarL 
ADRENCHEN. To drown. (^.-^.) 
The see the shal adrenehe, 
Ne shal hit us of-thenche. Kyng Horn, 109. 
ADRENT. Drowned. See Rob. Glouc. pp. 

Ixxxiv. 39, 384. 
ADRESSID. Dressed; clothed. 
Of vajme glorye excuse me. 
That y ne have for love be 
The bettre odreMidand arayed. 

Oower, MS, Soc, Antiq. 134, f. 56. 
How here jelow heer was tressld. 
And hire atire so wel adreetid. Ibid, f. 225. 
ADREST. Dressed; adorned. Somersetsh, 

ADRETNTE. Drowned. Cf. Sevyn Sages, 1486; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 198 ; Gesta Romanomm, 
p. 104 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 229 ; Minof s Poems 
pp. 58, 60, 62. 

So that he gan to swymme forth. 

Over for to wende; 
Ac his rociter so evele he oouttie. 
That he mdregnte atte ende. 

MS, CoO, IWn. Oson. 57. 

ADRIANS. Ariadne. 

The plaint of D^aaire and Hennlon, 
Of Adriane and Ysiphileo. 

Chaueor, Cant, T, 4487- 

ADRIHE. Aside; behind. See Jamieson, in 
V. Adreich, 

The kyngls doujter whiche this syje. 
For pure abasohemenc draw hire adrike. 

Cower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 112. 
The kyngys doujter woche this syjt. 
For pure abasschyde drow hyre adry^t. 

Ibid, MS. Cantab. Ft, i, 6, f. 6. 

A-DRINK. Drunk. See the example quoted 

under Anrnvje, 
A-DROGH. Drew away. See the Herald's Col- 
lege MS. of Robert of Gloucester, quoted in 
Heame's edition, p. 241. 
ADRONQUE. Drowned. Cf. Rob. Glouc p. 430. 
Tho fond hue hire sonde 
Adronque by the stronde. IQmg Horn, 988. 

ADROP. A species of aurichalc, mention^ by 
Ben Jonson, in the Alchemist, iL 1. Ashmole 
alludes to it in his Theat. Chem. Brit. pp. 135, 
151, 333. 
A-DROWE. Drew. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 307. 
Hure swerdes than thay a-drowe. 
That wem scharp y-grounde. 

MS, Aehmole 33, f. 30 

ADROWED. Dried. Dewm. 
ADRY. Thffsty. Var.dioL 
A-DRYE. To bear ; to suffer. {A,'S,) 

In alle thys Umde ther ys not soche a luiyjt. 

Were he never so welle y-dyjt. 

That hys stroke myjt a-drye. 

But he schulde hyt sore abye. 

MS. CanUib. Ft, ii. 38, f. 218. 

ADULABLE. Easy to be flattered. Mmtheu, 

ADULCE. To sweeten. {Lai,) 

Not knowing this, that Jove decrees 
Some mirth, t'aduiee man's miseries. 

Herriek^e Work*, ii. 47. 

ADULTERATE. Adulterous; felse. Often used 
in the latter general seme, without any refer- 
ence to adultery. Cf. Richard III. iv. 4 ; Co- 
medy of Errors, iL 2 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, 
iv. 240 ; Rider's Diet, in v. Aduiierine for 
adulteroui occurs in the Mirour for Magis- 
trates, p. 85. 
ADUN. Down. Cf. Wright's St. Patrick's 
Purgatory, p. 55. 
Sleilich is this vers i^ld. 

Hit wer harme adun i-lelid. Reliq, Antiq, ii. 175. 
ADUNATION. Union. Taylor. 
ADUNCITY. Crookedness. Rider. 
ADURE. To bum. Bacon. 
ADUSTON. Adustion. This form of the word 
occurs in Greene's Planetomachia, 1585, f. 11. 

With ther coppentante 

They lokc adutante. SkeUon'e Works, ii. 429. 




ADVANCE. To grace ; to give a lustre to. See 

Tbnon of Athens, L 2. 
ADVANCERS. The second branches of a back's 
bom. See the Lexicon Tetraglotton of Howell^ 
and Avamten, 
ADVAUNT. A boast. 

And if y« wyn, make none MdtmwU, 
Fot you arc rare of on* yll lenrauiiU. 

Play« ealUd thtMrt PP. 

ADVAUNTOUR. A boaster. PaUgrme. 
ADVATLE. Profit ; adTantage. 

In any wbe to do. 

For lucre or advaifie, 

Ageynst tbyr kyag to layle. 

Sketton't Work*, ii. 439. 

ADVENTATLE. The open and moveable por- 
tion of the helmet which covered the mouth, 
for the purpose of resi^ration. 
Hy* miwmtmifU he gan unlace, 
Hya bed he smoot of yn the place. OetovUm, 1153. 
ADVERE. To torn to. 

And doo then accompte their good tervlee had 
Cindy out of rememberaunce, whlche ttirreth theym 
and other*, fordredeandthdr awne tecuritiea, tocdveri 
in maner In way of alleglauDce to th Erie of Kyldare, 
ocnyttlng vele nigh their hole duetie to the Kingia 
Uighnet. 8UU0 Paptr*, U. 108. 

ADVERSACYON. Contention. 
Dcayringe lo a caatell in to dwell, 
Hym and his men to kepe frmne all otfMrMcyen. 
Uard^ng't ChronieU, f. 65. 

ADVERSE. Be nnpropitions. 

And leeyde how that was a presage, 
Touchcnde unto that other Perse, 
Of that fortune him schulde advert*, 

Gowtr, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 73. 

ADVERSER. An adversary. 

M yn adotner* and false wytnet beran agaynste 
mo say that they hard Prate saye that I shuld call 
my very god lorde Chauncellour knave. 

JrthmHogkh xxiii. 46. 
ADVERSION. Attention. 

The aoul bettoweth her ado^rtUm 
On something else. Mvnf* PhU, Po*ms, p. 894. 
ADVERTACYONNE. Information. 

Of your good herts I have advertaepann*. 
Where thorow in sowle hoU made 5e be. 

Digb^ tfytteritt, p. 106. 

ADVERTASHT). Advertised. North. 
ADVERTENCE. Attention. 

Although the body sat emong hem there. 
Her odMfttfnce is alwale ellis-where. 

TroUtu and OeMide, It. 698. 
ADVERTISEMENT. Admonition. This is the 
original meaning of the word in prefatory no- 
tices. Cf. Mach Ado about Nothing, v. I ; 
Harrington's Nag. Antiq. L 46. 
AD VEST. To put a person in possession. See 

Cotgrave, in v. Adheriter, Jdietiir, 
ADVISEMENT. Consideration. 

Thereto, if you respect their position, they are 
•itnat bi maner of a cirde or ring, having an huge 
lake or portion of the sea in the middest of them, 
wbkh Is not without perill to such as with small 
ad9i»emeni enter into the same. 

HarrUon*9 De$eription o/BritaiH9, p. 33. 

ADVITE. Adult. {Lot.) 

Fyrste such personcs, beyng nowe advite, that is 
to saye, passed their chyldehoode, as wci In maners 
as in yerct Sir 77k<M. Elyot'* Governor, p. 85. 

ADVOCACIES. Uwsuits. (A.-N.) 

Be ye not ware how that false Pollphete 
Is now about eftsonls for to plete. 
And bringln on you adooeaeiot new f 

TroUvs and Crottide, il. 14G9. 

ADVOCAS. Lawyers ; advocates. 

As shameful deth as hcrte can devise. 
Come to thiae Juges and hir advooat, 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1SS85. 

ADVOCATION. Pleading. SAaJt. 

ADVOCATRICE. A female advocate. Eli^ot. 

ADVOID. To avoid ; to leave ; to quit. ** Void 
the bar^' is a phrase still used by the crier at 
the courts in Westminster HalL Cf. Wright's 
Monastic Letters, p. 198 ; Hall, Henry IV. f. 
27 ; Supp. to Hardyng, f. 83. 

ADVOUCH. To avouch. 

Yet because it hath beene by us experimented, 
and found out to be true, we maie the better adwmeh 
it. S^nthuref* Deteription of Ireland, p. 30. 

ADVOWE. To avow; to plead. See Palsgrave, 

So that I male sale and adeowe that never prince 
bearyng scepter and croune over realmes and re- 
gions, hath found or proved more faithfuller coun. 
sailert, nor trewer su^eetes, then I. 

HaU, Edward IF. f. 00. 

ADVOWTRY. AduKcry. Cf. Cov. Myst. p. 216 ; 
Hardyng, f. 194 ; Supp. to Hartfyng, f. 67 ; 
Percy's Reliques, p. 120 ; Apology for the Lol- 
lards, p. 78 ; Rom. of the Rose, 4954. 

We gilTe nojta oure bodyse to lecherye { we do 
nane advowtrjfe, ne we do na synne wherefore us 
sulde nede to do penaunce. 

Jf^. Uncoln A. L 17, f.3S. 

ADVYSTON. A vision ; a dream. 

O good knyghte, sayd he, thow arte a foole, for that 
gentilwoman was the malster feode of helle, the 
whiche hath power above alle devyls, and that was 
the old lady that thow sawest in thyn odvyuyon 
rydynge on the serpent. Morte d* Arthur, ii. 245. 
AD WARD. Award; judgment; sentence. Spenter. 

This poet also uses it as a verb. 
ADWAYTHE. To wait for. This peculiar form 
occurs in Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 202. 
ADYGHT. Dressed; adorned. {A.-S.) 
The terys ranne on the kingis kne. 
For Joye that he sawe Bors adyght. 

M8. Harl. S25S, f. 105. 

ADTLD. Addled ; earned. 

He has adytd his ded, a kyng he hym calde. 

Tmoneley Myeteriee, p. 195. 

ADTT. The innermost part of a temple ; the 

place where the oracles were pronounced. 

Behold, amidst the adifte of our gods. 

Green^e Works, 1. 114. 

ADYTE. To mdite ; to write. 

Kyng Rychard dede a lettre wryte, 
A noble clerk it gan adifte. 
And made therinne mensyoun. 
More and lesse, of the raunsoun. 

Aidbonl Coer de Um, 1174. 

ADZE. An addice. iftiitAai. 
AE. One ; one of several ; each. North. 
AER. An ear. Ecut. 
AEREMANC^ Divination by the air. 

He tempteth ofte, and eek also, 

Jerenumci in Juggement. 

Cower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 185. 




iESTIVE. Summer. 

I must also shew how they are likewise ingendered 
out of the dust of the earth by warme, mttive, and 
summer shewers, whose life is short, and there is no 
use of them. TapmlTt HiHorg ttf SerptnU, p. 178. 
AEWAAS. Always. North, 
AEY. (1) Yes. Var. dial 
(2) Always; ever. 

Oiriewtyng, welle y wote, 
He bare the pryes iMy. MiS, OuUalb, Ft. i. B, f.80. 
AP. Of. 

Fore as possebU fore soth hit is. 
With a tere t^fthyn ye. MS. Domet 902, f. 19. 
AFAITEN. To tame. (^.-M) 
It nfMtelh the ilesth 

Fram foUes fUl manye. Pier* PUmghman, p. 991. 
A-FALLE. Fallen. Cf. Reliq. Antiq. iL 272 ; 
Gesta Romanormn, p. 472. 
Lordynges, wel je wyteth alle. 

How Charles the kyng of Fraunoe 
Now is oppon my load a-fttU«, 
With pride and gtet bobaunce. 

MS, Athmole 3S, f. 20. 

AFARE. Affairs; business. Skinner, 
AFARNE. Afar off; at a distance. 
Al thay wald wlht hym qfitme. 

Qujf of Warwick^ MiddMtUl MS, 

AFATEMENT. BehaTiour; good manners. 

Theo thridde him taughte to play at bal ; 
Theo feorthe qftitement in halle. 

K^g jMMunder, 061. 

AFAUNCE. Weber conjectures this word to 
meanq^Mce. The Bodl. MS. reads ovatmce. 
By anothir mon thou knowest ufaunee. 
And by the steorres telle his chaunce. 

Kiftig Alitaundvr, 732. 
A-FAYLE. To fail ; to be wanting.. 
Two hundurd knyghtys take the 
The Lerons boldely toassayle; 
Loke yowre hertys not a-/i^le, 

MS, Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 178. 
AFAYTY. To tame; to subdue. (^.-M) 
As sone as somer come, to Yrlond he gan wende, 
Vor to t^fitift^ that lond, and to wynne ech ende. 

Rob. Qlouc, p. 170. 
AFEARD. Afiaid. Var, dial. This form of 
the word is a common archaism. See Merch. 
of Venice, ii. 9. 
AFEDE. To feed. Chaucer, 
AFEFED. Feofed ; gave fiefs. 

Thei lete make a guode abbey. 
And well yt c^/VM tho. 

jimi$ and Amiloun, 9486. 
AFELD. (1) In the field. 

This brethren wendeth q/hld 

To witen here fe ; 
Ac Josep levede at hom. 

That hende was and tte. MS, Bodl. 652, f. 2. 
Ant hou he slob q/ftlde 

Him that is fader aquelde. Kyng Horn, 997. 
(2) Felled; destroyed. (j.^S.) 

That lond destrud and men aqueld, 
And Cristendom thai ban michel nftU. 

Off cf Warwik§, p. 96. 

AFELLE. To feU; to cut down. (A.-S.) 
The kyng dude onon t^feOe 
Many tbousande okes, ich telle. 

Kyng Atitaunder, 5840. 

AFENCE. Offence. Prompt, Parv. 

AFEND. To offend. 

Thi Ood thou schalt nojt qffmtl, 
Bot bryng thiselfe to good end. 

Jf& Douee 309, f. 2. 

AFENGE. Received. (^..&) 
Seinte Hartha guod was. 
As je hereth of telle, 
Hy ^fh»g« oure Lord in here hous. 
As it seith in the gospelle. 

MS, Con. Trin, Oton. 57. 

AFEORMED. Confirmed ; made fast (^.-iV.) 

Have who so the maistry may, 

4/^ormed fkste is tlUs deray. 

Kyng AliMounder, 7386. 
AFER. Ahorse. Northumb, 
AFERD. Instructed. (^.-AT.) 

And hoteth him sende, fer and neie. 

To his Justices lettrea hard. 

That the contrais beo ^/brtf 

To frusche the gadelyng, and to bete. 

And none of heom on lyve lete. 
. Kyng Jliaaunder, 1813L 

AFERE. (1) Afiaid. As Tyrwhitt does not ex- 
plain this word, I give the French original of 
the passage in which it occurs. 
Mine hert for ire goith ttfore. 
That I let any entre here. 

" Romaunt nftk^ Rooe, 4073. 

Trop yr^ suis au cueur du ventre. 
Quant oncques nul y mist le pid. 

L» Roman de la Rote, 3887. 

(2) To make afraid. (^.-Sl) 

Ye have with yow good engynes, 
Swilke knowe but few Saresynes ; 
A mangenel thou doo arere. 
And soo thou schalt hem wel ttfere, 

Richard Coer de Lion, 4104. 

AFERID. Afraid. (A.^S.) 

Ha I cowarde herte of love unlerid. 
Whereof arte thou so sore q/Md, 

Gower, MS, Soc Antiq, 134, f. 107. 

AFERRE. Afraid. (^.-5.) 

jytte sohe that is ttfkrre lette her flee. ' 

Riteon'e Ancient Songe, p. 77. 

AFERT. Afraid. (A.-S.) 

So grysUch thei were wrought, 
Uche of hem a swerd brought. 
And mad hire q/trrt so sore. 
A i>nfnT^ «. The Kyng 0/ Tere, All, 

A-FETID. This term is applied to deer in the 
follovnngpassage, and apparently means well or 
foil shaped. {A..N.) 

And wel a-fstid is whanne the bed is wel woxen by 
ordynaunce after the highte and the schap, whan 
the tyndes be wd growe yn the beem by good me- 
««*^ MS. Bodl, 546. 

AFPADIL. A daffodil A common old form of 
the word, found in Palsgrave, Minsheu, Florio, 
and Cotgrave. " Flour of affadiOe' is recom- 
mended in a receipt to cure madness, in an old 
medical MS. in Lincoln Cathedral, f. 282. See 
also Archaeologia, xxx. 382. 

AFFAIED. Afraid; aflrighted; affected. Zana- 
toft, ^ 

AFFAIES. Burdens. Langtqft, 
AITAINED. Feigned. HaU, 
AFFAMISH. To femish with hunger, ^tenter 
AFFAYTED. Prepared; instructed; tamed! 




He hadde a clergon yonge of age. 
Whom he hath io his chamber tiffkUmi. 

Qmoer, ed. 1S3S, f. 43. 
Hk coohes ben for hym t^ffiaift^dt 
So that hk body Is awayted. ifrtd. f. ISO. 

The jooge whelpe vhidie is tufted. 
Hath oot his roaytter better awayted 
To oouche, vhanne he sayeth, ** Goo lowe !" 

09W9r» MS, 8oe. Jntiq. 134, f. 46. 
And edie of hem his tale ^^faytetA 
AOe to deeeyre an innocent. 

Ibid, f. 61. 
AFFE. HftYe. 

That mcMer 4|^ to wynne theem mede. 

Biltm** Jndmti Song*, I 47. 
AFFEARED. Afraid. Shai, Few prorindal 

words are more common. 
AFFECT. (1) To love. This word i» used both 
as a substantive and a verb. 
Trae worth mores few : but sure I am, not many 
Have for bare Tertnes salu q/ffteferf any. 

Wither'* Jbu***» p. 34. 
(2) A i >r op e rty of the mind. 

Yea, they were utterlie Toid of that tUT^t, which 
is naturallle isgraHkd in man, whidt is to be pitti- 
fttH to the hnmbte and prostrate, and to resist the 
prood and obsUnat. Holim*h*d, Hi*l, tfJr*Umd, p. K, 
AJ7ECTATED. Aflfected. ♦♦ A stile or oration 
to much qfeettited wyth strange words." 
AFFECTATION. A curious desire of a thing 

which nature hath not g^ven. Rider, 
AFFECTEOUSLY. Affectionately. See A/- 

After hys death, his life again was daily wlsshed, 
and *i0bet*om*l9 emong his subjectes dcsyrcd, but 
wishyng served not, nor yet their desyre toohe 
nosie efllBcte. Hali, Edward IV, t, 61. 

AFFECTION. (1) Affectation. Shak, 

(2) Sympathy. See a curious passage in the 
Merch. of Venice, iv. 1, and the notes of the 
tommentators. Parson Hugh» Merry Wives 
of Windsor, L 1, makes a verb of it, to love. 

AFFECTIONATED. Attached. SeetheCobler 
of Canteibnrie, 1608, sig. E. iiL 

And albeit he trusted the Englishmen well 
iiKMigh, yet being borne on the other side of the 
seaa, he was more q^bcNofurtmi to the people of those 
peoriooes there sutject unto him. 

mHn*hed, Hist, qf Ireland, p, 65.* 

AFFECTIONED. Affected. Shak, 

AFFECTUALL. Effectual. Such seems to be 
the meaning of the word in Archseologia, xxv. 
90, while in the same document, p. 89, qfeC' 
huUfy occurs in the same sense as qff^eetu- 
auMisf, q. v. 

AloMo failed not with qffhetmli and manifest ar- 
gamcDtes to perswade her that her housband had 
now no more right or title to her at alL 

RieM* Farewell, 1081. 

AFFECTUOUSLT. Passionately ; affection- 
atdy. C£ Giletta of Narbona, ap. Collier's 
Shak. Lib. p. 10; Harrington's Nug. Ant. i 19 ; 
Writ's Monastic Letters, p. 99 ; State Pa- 
pers, L 827. 

1 hare sought hym desirusly, 
I have sought hym e^jj^Ktuo*!^, Beliq, ^ineiq. ii. 157. 

AFFEEBLED. Enfeebled. 

In the zestreJDiog of naturall issues, strengthening 

the ^ffkebled members, assisting the livelie forces, 
dispersing annolous oppilatioas, and qualifieng of 
sundrie griefes. Harrimm** Deec of England, p. 21 4. 
AFFEER. To settie; to confirm. See Macbeth, 
iv. 3. Affeerours, says Coweli are ** those that 
be appointed upon oath to mulct such as have 
committed fruilts arbitrarily punishable, and 
have no express penalty set down by statute." 
AFFBNDE. To offend. 

Lawe is nyje flemid oute of contr^. 
For fewe ben that dide it to tf^f^nde, 

Oede**, MS, See. Jntiq. 134, f. 867. 
But now to the mater that I be-lfore mevcd. 
Of the gomes so gay that graoe hadde qJJUmdid. 
Depoeition ef Richard IL p. 21. 

AFFERAUNT. The haunch. (ji.-N,) 

He bereth moo tyndes then doiih an herte. His 
heed may noht be wel derysed wlthoute payntyng. 
Thei have a longere tayl thsn the hert, and also he 
hath more grece to his ti^i^raunt then the hert. 

MiS, Bodi. £46. 

AFFERDEDE. Frightened. 

Me thoghte sdio hade no powere, for the Pasiyone 
of God comforthed me { but the grysely syghte of 
hir t^jl^rdede me. JT^. Uneotn A. i. 17, f. 251. 

AFFERE. (I) To belong. (Fr.) 

He was then buryed at Winchester in royall wise. 
As to suche a prince of reason should offere. 

Hanfyng'* Chronicle, f. 106. 

i2) Countenance; demeanour. Gaw, 
3) To terrify. 

The flom the soudan nam, Richard for to ejfere. 

Ijimgtofff* Chronicle, p. 187. 

AFFERMID. Confirmed. 

And whan that lawe was confermid 
In dewe forme, and alle ^jf^smtid, 

Gower, MS. Soc, Antiq. 134, f. 60. 
Among the goddes highe it is tffbrmed. 
And by eteme word written and confermed. 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 2351. 

AFFBSED. Frightened. The following extract 
from Browne is given by Richardson, in v. 
Pheeie, but it is, perhaps, the same with 
fetyne, Prompt. Parv. p. 158, explained io 
make qfrtnd, and which has no connexion, I 
believe, vrith either phee2e, or A.-S. fesiaUf as 
Mr. Way seems to intimate. See Feee, 
She for a while was well sore qffiued, 

Browne'* ShepheanT* Pipe, Eel. L 
AFFICHE. Toafllrm. (A,'N.) 

Of that they sen a womman riche, 
Ther wol they alle here lore qfflehe. 

Qower, MS. Soc, Antiq, 134, f. 142. 

AFFIE. To trust; to rely. See Rom. of the 
Rose, 5480 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 7347. 

AFFINAGE. The refining of metals. Skinner. 

AFFINB. (1) A rehttive. Shakespeare has it as 
a verb. 

Howe heynous or detestable a cryme sooever he 
had committed, treason onely except, shoulde like* 
wise as atfine* and alyes to the holy orders be saved* 
and committed to the bysshoppes pryson. 

Halt, Henrp F/J. f. 50. 

(2) To refine. Skinner, 
AFFIRE. On fire. 

And hir to love liche as I desire, 
Benigne Lorde, so set myn hert t^ffire, 

l^dgate, MS, Aehmole 39, f. 12. 
AFFIRMABLY. With certainty. 

I cannot wryte of suche a0irr*atty. 

Uard^g** Chronide, f. 58. 

APF i 

AFFLIOHT. Flight. 

or tiM gripe he had a tight. 
How she flew In t^UUgkt. 
Tunrmi nfPortugoi, p. tt. 

AFFLIOIT. Aflicted. Maundetnle. 
APFOND. Have found. 

A moneth after a moo myghtt* bom ^fbmd, 

Lyand atyll on the grownd* 

HuHttifng tf t/u Hmv, 8S3. 

AFFONG. Same as Afimffe^ q. t. This fomi 

occurs in MS. Arund. Coll. Arm. 8. 
AFFORCE. To strengthen ; to compel 

Gorge upon gorge to qffbree hys lechery { 
The looge daye he spent in glotony. 

BochoM, b. T. c. 8. 
Swa tulde we do agaynes derellet that affurte* thame 
to reve fra ui the hony of poure lyfe and of grace. 

US. Umcotii A. L ]7« f. 194. 
AFFORD. To afford to sell. iVbn patmm 
iantulo vendertt I cannot qffMl it at so little 
a price. Rider, 
^FFORE. To make effective. 
So that thou ous tykerye qffbn 
To help ous In this dos. MSU Athmole SS» f. 27< 
Heete and moysture dlrectyth ther passages. 
With greene fenrence fqffare yoog corages. 

l^dgat^M Minor Poem»t p. 244. 
AFFORME. To conform. 

Ye serrauntes that wayte upon the table. 

Be ye honest and dylygent ; 
To hym that is most honourable 
4ffwm» your maners and entent. 

Boct, cf Good Servaunitt, p. 8. 
AFFORN. Before. 

And alle the Sarsyns thay a-slowe. 
That thay affbm him founde. 

US, AshmoU S3, f. 9a 

AFFORST. Thirsty. 

Not halfTe ynowh then^ he hadde. 
Oft he was e^ffbrtt, ne Freremndtke Boif, iv. 

But yet I am in grete qffixUe 

Lest thou sholdest nat doe as I sale. 

AoiN. <^fthe AoM, 49D7* 
AFFRAMYNGE. Framynge, or qffiramynffe, or 
wynnynge, Lucrum, emohnmenium. Prompt 
Parv. p. 176. 
AFFRAP. To encounter ; to strike down. 
They bene y-mett, both ready to etfrap. 

Faerie Queene, II. i. S6. 
AFFRAY. (1) A disturbance. (A.-N,) 
Who lired ever In swiche delite o day. 
That him ne meved other consdenoe. 
Or ire, or talent, 6r som kin ojfmy. 

Chtttteer, Cbnf. T. 5557* 
(2) To frighten. (^.-iV.) 

Needles, Ood wot, he thought hire to q^Voiy. 

ChoMcer, Cant, T, 8331. 
AFFRAYED. Afraid. 

And whenne Kynge Bdwardes hooste had know- 
lege that Sere Perys le BrasUle with the Scottes- 
menne were comynge, thet remewed ttam the sege 
and were q/^Voyatf. Warkworth't ChronMe, p. 9. 

AFFRAYNE. To question ; to ask. (^.-A) 
Byfore the amyral thanne he goth. 
And bygan him for to cUfroyne. 

MS. Jehmole 33, f. SB. 
I iufBhrajfned hym first 
Fram whennes he come. 

Pier* Ptou^man, p. 347< 


AFFRENDED. Reoondled. 

Where when she saw that crusU war so ended. 
And deadly foes so IkithfuUy qffrended. 
In lovdy wise she gan that lady greet, 
Whldi had so great dismay so well amended. 

Faerie Queene, IV. ili. 50. 

AFFRET. An assault; an attack. (Fr.) 
And, passing forth with lUrioos a^Wf, 
Pierst through his bever quite into his brow. 

Faerie Queene, IV. iU. ll. 
AFFRICTION. Friction. Boyle. 
AFFRODILE. A daflbdil. Che$A. 
AFFRONT. To meet fiu^ to &ce ; to encounter. 
Cf. Troilus and Cressida, iiL 2 ; Hamlet, iii. 1. 
** On aflh>nt,^ £sce to face. Ben Jonson, iv. 
51, has the word as a substantive. 
The brigge ys of fair enUylle, 

On brede fourty fete : 
An hundred knyjtes wythoute faille, 
Ther on qt^ront mowe meet. 

MS, AehmoU 33. f. 82. 
AFFRONTEDNESS. Great impudence. Skinner. 
AFFULDEM. Struck down. {A.^) 
Roland is an haidi man. 

So strong man and so wljt ; 
In no batail ther he cam, 

Ne fond he nerere knyjt 
That ooys a strok him astod. 

That he on him leide, 
That he ne q^Wdsm were wod, 

Onther slowe at a bndde. MS. Aakmele 33. 

He shrove hym with grete repentaunoe. 

But of Goddys mercy he hadde none e^jF^munioe. 

MS, HarL 1701, f. 82. 

AFGODNESS. Idolatry. Skinner. 
AFILE. To file; to polish. Cf. Troilus and 
Creseide, ii. 1681. 
Whanne he hath his tunge eJOUL 
With softe spedie and with Icsynges. 

Qower, MS. Soe. AnHq. 134, f. 48. 
For wel he wiste, whan that song was songe. 
He must predie, and wd qfile his tonge. 

Chaiteer Cant. T. 714. 

AFILED. Defiled. 

Alas, heo saide, y nere y-spilled ! 
For men me deputh queue a/Ued. 

K^ng AHeaunder, 1064. 

A-FINE. Wel a-Jlne, in perfection. See 4fyn. 
For no man at the flrste sUoke 
Ne may not fd adoune an oke. 
Nor of the reisins have the wine. 
Till grapes be ripe and wd a^fine. 

Rom. t^the AoM, 3600. 
AFINGRET. Hungry. Cf. Wright's PoUtical 
Songs, p. 342 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 133, 176, 
283, 403. 
A vox gon out of the wode go, 
A^ingret so, that him wes wo ; 
He nes nevere in none wise 
Afingret erour half so swithe. 

RMq. JnHq. iU 878. 
As by were on a day sore ti/^ngred. 
To the bord by sete. 

MS. OM. Trin. Oxon. 67, f. 3. 
AFIT. On foot. North. 
A-FIVE. Into five pieces. 
Sir Gii to him gan to drive. 
That his spere brast a-fiee. Gp of fVarwike, p. 305. 




AfLAMING. Flaming. 

The ttiag of tonfoes the t^flmming fin doth feed. 
Jppend, to W. Mape», p. 991. 
AFLAT. Flat Bacon. 
AFLAUNT. Showily dressed. 
Al ^flamnt now vannt It ; 

BfSTe wench, caat away care ; 
With layea of love chaunt It, 
For no coct aee thou tpai^. 

Promo* and Qutandra, L 2. 

AFLED. Escaped. 

He thokc his eares. 
And ttook grete f earet 

He thought hym well qfUd, 

Sir Thomao More* Work**, 15S7* 

AFUGHT. To be uneasy. {A,-N,) 
Upon thif worde hir herte ojiight, 
Thynkende what was best to doone. 

Oower, b. 11. 
Tho wai the boy qfii^. 
And dont not ipeke. OetooUn, 191. 

A-FLORB. On the floor. 

And over kereryd with a pal, 
A^kr* when she ttfmdei. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. Q, f. 90. 
AFLQ5BN. Flown. 

And were s/lo^on grete and nnalle. 
And eke the amerd. Mi8* Mhmote 33, f. 41. 
AFLY5TB. Same as 4/liffht, q. v. 
Upon hb worde hire herte nfiy$te, 
Thcnkende what was best to done. 

Cowor, MS, Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 66. 
And tho for fere hire herte ^fi^t*. Ibid, f. 112. 
AFO. To take ; to undertake ; to receive. 
Thempereur that was so fre. 
With hhn G^ than hulde he ; 
Castels him bede and dtit, 
Oret worthachlp and riche fee ; 
Ae he thentf nold e^fo, 
For nothing that he might do. 

Qy <if IVarwik*, p. 94. 
BI mi Lord Jhesos Crist, 

This message khU t^/b. Ibid. p. 133. 

For nought that y might t^fit, 
Y nfl bitray theri Tirri. Ibid, p. 199. 

AFOAT. On foot. Var. dkiL 
AFOILD. Fofled ; casi down. 
Felice hadde of him gret rewthe. 
Gii, quod sche, thou lovest me in tiewthe I 
Al to michel thou art e{/bild; 
Now thi blod it is acoild. Or </ Warwike, p. 90. 
AFONGE. To take ; to receive. " Afonge hem 
who so afonge,'' take them who will take them. 
Ct Wright's Middle-age Treat, on Science, p. 
140; Bob. Glooe. p. 91; Arthour and Mer- 
lin, p. 126; Kyng Alisannder, 606, 972, 7289, 

Alas ! sede seinte Cuthberd, 

Fole edi am to longe 1 
I neUe this schep no longer kepe, 
4/bmg* hem who so «tfbng«/ 

MS. ColU THn. 0*on. 57* f- 9. 
AFORCE. (1) To force ; to compel Cf. Kyng 
Alisaunder, 789; Rob. Glouc pp. 121, 323; 
Skdton's works, i 31, 308, explained to mean, 
to attempt, to exert one's self. 
Thoghe men aforcod hym, for drede. 
To aey that that man dyd that dede. 

MS, Hari, 1701, f. 25. 
For jif a mon qforce hym ay 
To do the goode that he may. 

Jit may his goode dedus be so wrought. 
That par durance God aloweth hym nought 

MS, J*hmol« 41, f. 31. 

(2) To force ; to ravish. 

He hath me of vilanle bisooght ; 
Me to q/bre* is in his thought. 

Arlhotsr and Jferijn, p. 88. 

AFORE. (1) Before; forward; in time past. 
(ji.'S,) It is used in the two latter senses 
with quick speakers ; especially in the northern 
provinces, and in Norfolk. In MS. Digby 40, 
f. 19, is the proverb, " Hec that will not be- 
ware qfbre will be sory afterwardes." 
And when the lyenas hungurd sore, 
Sche ete of the gryfiyn more. 

That t^fbr* was stronge and wyght. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. ii. 38, f. 84. 

(2) Gone. So explained in a MS. Somerset- 
shire glossary, lent to me by a native of that 
AFOREN. Before. Chaucer. 
AFORE-TUZ. Before thou hast. Yorkih. 
AFORETYME. In time past. Still in use. See 
an instance in the DiaL of Great. MoraL p. 144. 
AFORE-YENE. Over against ; directly in front 
of. Somerset. 
And sayid, nece, who hath arayid thus 
The yondir house, that stante afnrimt* us i 

TroUu* and Cr**eid*, li. 1188. 

AFORNANDE. Beforehand. Pron^t. Parv. 

AFORNE. Before; formerly. West, 
AJbm* provided by grace of Crist Jhesu, 
To were y. crownys in Yngland and in Praunce. 
MS. Hart. 2251, f. 4. 

AFORNE-CASTE. Premeditated. 
By liigh imaginacion afbrnt-coMt*, 
On a night thorghe the hoggis sty bee brast. 

Chaucer, ed. Uny, p. 171. 

AFORRAN. In store; in reserve. North. A 

corruption apparently of ({forehand, 
A-FORSE. By necessity. 

Than flblle it O'jffbr** to ffllle hem afeyne. 

Depo*Uion of Richard If. p. 88. 

AFORTHE. (1) To aflford. (^.-5.) 

And yaf hem mete as he myghte ajbrth*. 

And mesurable byre. Pier* Ploughman, p. 199. 

(2) Continually. (^.-5.) 

And here and there, as that my litille wit 
JJbrth* may eek thiolie I translate hit. 

Oedev*, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 363. 

A-FORWARD. In front. 

Mid thre hondred knyjtes, a dull, that hct Siward, 
Asailede Corineus hymseif a-/brward, 

Rob, Cloue. p. 17. 
AFOTE. On foot. 

Whenne Adam Abelle body fond. 
For sorwe o^/bt* myjt he not stond. 

Curtor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab, f. 8. 
It felle they fou5ten bothe t^fbt*. 

Oower MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. II7. 

AFOUE. Avow. 

Jake aeyde, y make t^/bue, 
Y am as redey as thow. 

7%* Frere and the Boy, st. Ixvl. 
AFOUNDE. Discovered. 

And tho the Sarsenes ^fimnd* 

Her lord was slayn, 
Everych to fle away that stouude 
Was fcrly Xayn. Qctovian, IGTO. 




AFOUNDRIT. Foundered. 

He waf ner ttfomndlryt, and coud none othir help. 
Chaucer, «d. I/ryy, p. 609. 

AFOUR. Over. 

This men, on the klnges sond. 
Went ^fow half Inglond. 

Jrthowr and Merlin, p. S4. 

A-FOYSTE. In Prompt. Panr. p. 7, this is trans- 
lated by Uridaf the meaning of which may be 
seen in that work» p. 163. The a is pro- 
bably the article, although Mr. Way informs 
me the Winchester MS. reads affytU, 
A-FRAWL. For all; in spite of. Svffoik, 
AFRAYE. Fear; fright. Cf. Prompt. Panr. 
p. 175. 

That other rode hit waye. 
His herte was in grete afra^. 

8^ Tnf^momre, 1382. 
AFRAYET. Afraid. 

The (teson was <tfra9«t, and ferd of that fere. 

Rubton** Romance; p. 15. 
AFREED. Afraid. Derhyah, 
AFRET. Fretted; placed crosswise. {A,»N.) 
For round environ her crounet 
Was ftiU of dche stonJs ^fret. 

Rom, of Rote, 3801. 

AFRETIE. To devour. 

Spedeth on to spewen, 

Ase me doth to spelle ; 
The fend ou <^firetia 

With fleU ant with felle. 

WrigfW* Pol. Songe, p. 240. 

AFREYNE. To judge. {A.-S.) 

But evere we hope to Thin goodnesse, 
Whanne Thow schalt this werde afr^ne. 

HampoUfe SHm, Conec. MS. 

AFRONT. In front. See Bemert. 

Least his people should be assailed not onlie ttfront, 
but also upon everie side the battels, he caused the 
ranks so to place tliemselTes, as their battels might 
stretch farre further in bredth than otherwise the 
order of wane required. 

Holinehed, HUt. England, p. 50. 
AFRONTTE. Abreast. 

And worst of all that Tundale fand, 
4fronUe unnethe thd myght passe. 

Tundal^e Fiiione, p 32. 
AFRORE. Frozen. Somertet, 
AFROUGHTE. Asked? (A.-S.) 
The bysschope spake withoute Ciyle, 
Thoughe he were nothynge a/^roughte, 

MS, Harl. 2252, f. 114. 

AFROUNT. To accost; to encounter; to at- 
tack. (A.-N.) 
An if a pore man speke a word, he shal be foule 
afrounted, Wrighfe Political Songe, pi 337* 

And with Nede I mette. 
That afrounted me foule. 

And faitour me called. Piere Ploughman, p. 425. 
AFRY3TE. Frightened. 

Hire herte was so sore «^ft^fp«» 
That sche ne wiste what to thinke. 

Gower, MS, Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 161. 
He be-helde jif the hinde evel hurt were. 
And fond sche nas but a-frii^t for fere of that dint. 
WUL and the Werwolf, p. 100. 
AFT. (1) Oft. Percy, 
(2) Behind. Generally a sea term, but it is in 
common use on the banks of the Tyne, and 
occasionally in other places, in the sense here 
given, without any relation to nautical subjects. | 

AFTB. FooUsh.> 

Hit nis hot trewth, I wend, an e^f^. 
For te sette nego in eni crafte. 

WHghfe Politieal Songg, p. 210. 

AFTER. Afterwards; according to; according 
to the shape of. " After that they ware,'' ac- 
cording to their degree. So in the Common 
Prayers, ** Neither reward us <^er our iniqui- 
ties,'* L e. according to our iniquities. The 
word occurs apparently in a peculiar sense in 
Ritson's Ancient Songs, i. 40. 

Thoo othir ladies e^/ter that they ware. 
To knyghtis weore dclirerld there. 

K^ng Alieaunder, 2S03. 

AFTERBURTHEN. The afterbirth. This word 
is often used in the curious depositions relating 
to the birth of the Prince of Wales in 1688. 
See Croft's Excerpta Antiqua, 1797. 
AFTERCLAP. Any thmg disagreeable happening 
after all consequences of the cause have been 
thought at an end. Hartshome, Salop. Antiq. 
p. 303, says, «* the consequence, issue, result, 
generally received m malam partem." Cf. 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 77 ; Collier's Old Ballads, p. 94 ; 
Holinshed, Hist EngL p. 197. 
To thy Arende thowe lovest moste, 
Loke thowe telle not alle thy worste, 

Whatesoever behappes ; 
For whane thy frmde ys thy foo. 
He wolle tdl alle and more too ; 

Beware of ttfterdappee / MS. Laned, 782, f. 100. 
So that hit was a sory happe. 
And he was a-gast of ttfter^dappe. 

MS, Deuce 236, f. 14. 

AFTERDEAL. Disadvantage. Cf. Reynard the 
Foxe, p. 149. 

For otherwise the partie ys dryven to a greate 

afterdele, and must be enforced, to his greate chardges, 

to repaire to your miOestie for the same, whiche he 

is not well able to doo. State Paper*, iii. 460. 

AFTER-EYE. To keep a person in view; to 

follow bun. Shak. 
AFTERFEED. The grass that grows after the 
first crop has been mown, and generally fed 
off, not left for an aftermath^ as in some other 
counties. Ojpon, 
AFTERINGS. The last milk drawn from a 

cow. Var, dioL 
AFTER-KINDRED. Remote kindred. 

Yet nathelesse your kinrede is but ^fter-kinrede, 
for they ben but lltell sibbe to you, and the klnue 
of your enemies ben nie sibbe to hem. 

Otawer, ed. Vrry, p. 153. 
AFTERLEYS. Aftermaths. Berks. 
AFTER-LONGE. Long afterwards. 

And nfter-longe he lyved withouten stryfe, 
Tyll he went from his mortall lyfe. 

Raiq, Antiq. L 47. 
AFTER-LOVE. Love after the first love. Shak. 
AFTERMATH. A second crop of grass. Var.dioL 
AFTER-SAILS. The sails that belong to the main 
and mizen masts, and keep the ship to the 
AFTER.3ERNE. To long after. 

God grauntes us noghte ay that we for-pray, for 
he wille gyfe us better thenne we afier-^eme, 

MS. Lincoln A. 1. 17, f.237. 

AFTIN. Often. 

For as <n/Hn tyme as thou scorgediste him with thi 




panyriienMntcs, tot to make him to obeye to thi 
tfommmindmgnttt, he wolde never, hut encline to 
me. Getta Romtanorttm, p. 196. 

AFTIRCASTE. A throw at dice after the game 
is ended ; anything done too late. 
Thus ever he pleyeth an <n/Urem*i0 
or alle that he ichalle say or do. 

G0wer, MS, Soe. Jntiq. 134, f. 109. 

AFT-MEAL. A kte meaL 
ladeede, <iiioth he, I keepe aa ordJnary, 

Bightpeoce a meale who there doth rap or dyne ; 
And dyee and tardea are but an aoceeiarye : 
At ttfUmnln who shall paye for the wine i 

TTkynfie'* Ite 6a/«» p. 40. 

APTYR-PARTE. The behind ride. Prort^t.Parv. 
AFURE. On fire. 

He Hoe ys raerde and grunte, and myd tuch emett 

That the eprong out myd edi dnnt of helme lo there. 
That yt thojte myd ech dunt* aa that heved t^fHre 
were. Jio6. Gh%ie, p. 306. 

AFURST. Thinty. The two forms a-fyngrtd 
and a-fiartt, according to Mr. Wright, appear 
to be characteristic of the dialect <^ the coun- 
ties in the West of England; and a con- 
firmation of this coi^ecture occurs in MS. 
Lanad. 1033, f. 2, where the word Jkrst is 
giTen as current in WOtshire in that sense in 
1697. Cf. Piers Ploughman, pp. 176, 283, 
529 ; Kyng Horn, 1120 ; Affoni. 
A-firat hy were for weryneMe ; 
So lore that nas ende. MS, Cctl. Trin . Oson, 57* 
AFURT. Sunen. Wett. 
AFVED. Had. 

Of G. win I now lef my tale. 
And of hys felaugh tpek I sale, 
That south him al obout { 
Of bym ^Md gret dout. 

Guy <^ Warwick, MlddUhUl MS. 
AFWORE. Before. North. 
AFYB. To trust. 

In thaym thu may the t^fye, 

QUM of Warwick, Middl^ihUI MS, 
Pon ^flftd in hit ttreynthe. 
In bis muchehed, and in hit leynthe. 

K^ttg JHtaunder, 7351 . 
AFYGHE. To trust. 

Who that hath trewe amye, 
Jolifllch he may hym in her q/Vgft«. 

K^Hg Jliaaundm; 47fi3. 

AFYGHTETH. Tames ; reduces to subjection. 

Deiiyns they nymeth, and ookedrill. 
And tifyghtHh to hcore wille. 
For to beore heom to the flod, 

K^ng AHaaumder, 6583. 

AFYN. In fine ; in the end. {A,'N,) QL Soke 
of Cnrtasye, p. 21; Seryn Sages, 1106; 
Maitland's Lambeth Books, p. 307; Gy of 
Warwike, p. 334 ; Arthour and Merlin, pp. 3, 
143 ; Emar^, 913 ; Launfal, 343. On com- 
paring Uiese examples, it seems we should oc- 
casionally read a fine, L e. and fine. So, '*wel 
a fine," well and fine. See A-fine, 

AG. To cut wi^ a stroke. North, 

AGAAN. Against ; again. North, 

A-GADE. In the following passage is explained 
by Ellis *< distracted,'' while Weber reads a 
^ade, a gadUng. 

And aalde. Dame, thou art agade. 
That thou moumeit for the ded. 
That mai the do nother god ne qued. 

Th0 Sen^n Sagn, 2638. 
AGADRED. Gathered. Skinner. 
AGAH. The ague. North, 
AGAIN. (1) Against ; near to. These senses of 
the word are not obsolete in the provinces. 
WhoM lordthyp doutlaa wat tlayne lamentably 
Thorow treeon, oyoln him compaated and wrought. 
SketUm't Works, L 6. 
(2) Towards. 

And praide hem for to riden again thequene. 
The honour of hit regne to luitene. 

Chauetr, CatU, T. 4811. 
Scho felle hir lorde one knees agaiftw. 
And of hit sorow teho ganne hym frayne. 

MS. Uneoln A. i. 17, f. W. 

AGAINST. To ride against, the king, or other 
noble person, signified to ride to meet. The 
term is not unfrequently used by early writers. 
See Fairholt's Hist, of Lord Mayors' Pageanta, 
p. 6 ; Octavian, 1289. 
AGAINSTAND. To resist ; to oppose. 
With cattelles strong and towres for the nones. 
At eche myles ende, to agaifnatandt all the foonyse. 
Hard^g's Chroniete, f. 63. 
AGAINSTANDANS.' Withstanding ; resisting. 
For again9tatHkm§ thi rigthand fleghe. 
Home thou me als shit of heghe. 

MS, BodI, 485, f. 1. 

AGAINTH. Against North. 

A-GAME. In game. Chaucer. 

AGAN. Gone. 

The day hym was AU at} agon. 

And come was nej the n^ MS, Ashmole 33, f. 30. 

AGAPE. On the gape. 

More scdemn than the tedious pomp that waits 
On princes, when their rich retinue long 
Of hones led, and grooms hetmear'd with gold. 
Daisies the crowd, and sets them all agap€. 

ParadiM Lott, b. t. 

AGAR. An exclamation. See the Exmoor 

Courtship, p. 19. 
AGARICK. The fungus on the larch. See 
Gerard, ed. Johnson, p. 1965. Minsheu calls 
it " a white and soft mushroom.'' It is also 
the name of an Assyrian herb. Cf. Topsell's 
Hist, of Serpents, p. 46 ; Clerk's ed. of Withals, 
p. 113 ; Halle's Expostulation, p. 21. 
AGARIFIED. Haying the ague. SuffbUt. 
AGAS-DAY. Agatha's Day. See the Paston 
Letters, It. 426, quoted in Hampson's Med. 
Kalendar. iL 7. 
AGASED. Astonished ; aghast. Shakespeare has 
the word in 1 Henry VI. i. 1. 
In this cittye all aboute 
Was non so steame ney so stowte. 
That up-loked for greate double. 
The were so sore agased, Chester Pla^s, il. (A, 
AGASPE. To gasp. 

Oalba, whom his galantys garde for agaspe. 

Sketton's Works, I. 97<t 

AGAST. Frightened. North, 

He met a dwarfe, that seemed terrifyde 
With some late peril! which he hardly past. 
Or other accident which him agast. 

FaerU Queene, III. ▼. 3. 




AGATE. (1) Agoing ; a-going. To «' get agttc" 
is to make a beginning of any work or thing ; 
to " be agate" is to be on the road, on the 
way, approaching towards the end. See 
Hunter's Hallamshire Glossary, in t. Cotgrave 
has the expressions ** to set the bells a^ate^* 
and *' to set a wheelbarrow a-gate" See his 
Diet, in v. Brimbaler, Bromter, and the old 
phiy called Lingua, iiL 6. 

(2) Used metaphorically for a very diminutive 
person, in allusion to the small figures cut in 
agate for rings. See Nares, in v. 

AGATE-WARDS. To go agate-wardt with any 
one, is to accompany him part of his way home, 
and was formerly the last oflSce of hospitality 
towards a guest, frequently necessary even now 
for guidance and protection in some parts of 
the country. In Lincolnshire it is pronounced 
agatehouse, and in the North generally 

AGATHA. In a little tract by Bishop Pilkington 
called **The Bumynge of Panics Church," 
8vo. Lond. 1563, sig. G. i, ** St Agatha's Let- 
ters" are mentioned as a charm for houses on 
fire. Cf. Becon's Works, 1843, p. 139. 

AGATHRID. Gathered. 

With the griflbn come foulb fde, 
Ravtau, rokit, crowii, and pie. 
And grmie foulli, agathrid wele. 

Chatieer, sd. Urrp, p. 188. 

AGAYNBYER. The Redeemer. Prompt. Parv, 

For wha to ever toumci one the rijte hande, he 
talle fynde many obttades and grevances that lalle 
peraventure lett hit agm i fneeom mi rn g f* 

MS, Lintoln A. i. 17, f. 40. 

AGAYNE-STANDE. To resist ; to oppose. 
For no reaone ne lawe of lande. 
May noghte ther aga^tw^andg, 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17* f. 120. 

AGAYNSAY. Contradiction. Also, a verb, as 
in the following example. 

To which Rogiert daughter called Anne, my mott 
derett and welbeloved mother, I am the very trew 
and lineall heyre, whiche ditoent all you cannot 
Justely agtt^nmtff, nor yet truly deny. 

HaU, Htmy VI. f.96. 
AGAYNSAYYNG. Contradiction. 
They grauntyd bym hyt aakyng 
Withoaten more agatfiua^png 

Richard Coer de Hon, 600. 
AGAYNWARDE. On the contrary; on the 
other hand. 
Reken agvtfnwards how these princet three 
Were full ungoodly quit by thecomont^ 

Bochas, b. v. c 19. 
AGE. To advance in years. ** My daam aget 
fast," i. e. she looks older in a short space of 
time. It is sometimes used in Yorkshire in the 
sense of affecting with concern and amazement, 
because those passions, when violent and long 
indulged, are supposed to bring on gray hairs 
and premature old age. The verb agyn occurs 
in Prompt. Parv. p. 8, and Palsgrave has, " I 
age or woxe olde." 
AGEE. Awry ; obliquely ; askew. North. It is 
sometimes used for ** wrong," and occasionally 
a corruption of" igar," as applied to a door. 

AGEEAN. Against; again. North. 
AGEINS. Towards. 

Atgcina an olde man, hore upon hit hede. 

Ye ihuld arise. Chaucer, Cant. T. 1M77* 

AGELT. (1) Forfeited. (A.-S.) 

Thei he had i-wraththed your wif, 
Ylt had he nowt ogHt hU lif. 

Snyn Saget^ 686. 
(2) Offends. {A.^S.) 

And huo thet agtit ine anie of the Uke heatei, hims- 
•el therof vorthenckcw MS. Arundel. A7» f. 13- 

AGEN. Again. A very common form in old 
works, and the provincial dialects of the pre- 
sent day. It is sometimes used for agamtt. 
Hartshome, Salop. Antiq. p. 303, gives the 
meanings, against, contiguous, by, tovrards, 

AGENFRIE. The true lord, or ovnier of any 
thing. Skinner. 

AGENHINE. A guest at a house, who, after 
three nights' stay, vms reckoned one of the 
funily. CoweU, 

AGERDOWS. Eager; keen; severe. 
He wrate an epitaph for hit grave-atone. 
With wordes devoute and aentence agerdowe. 

Skelten'e Worke, i. 411. 

AGEST. Afraid; terrified. Exmoor. 
AGETHE. Goeth. RUeon. 
AGEYN. Towards. 

Al day wentyn tho chylderin too. 

And tleych fowndyn he mm. 
Til it were a-geyn evyn. 
The diyldwin wold gon horn. 

Songe and Carole, x. 
AGEYN-BYINGE. Redemption. Pron^t.Parv. 
AGEYNWARDE. On the other hand. 
Men mutt of right the vertuout preferre. 
And trlewly labour preyae and bwyneste ; 
And ageynwarde ditpreyte folko that erre, 
Whiche have no Joye but al in idtlneiae. 

l0dgaUfe Miner Poeme, p. 84. 
AGG. (1) To incite ; to provoke. Exmoor. 
A grudge ; a spite. Northumb. 
To hack ; to cut clumsily. Wilts. 
AGGERATE. To heap up. Rider. 
AGGESTED. Heaped up. Qtlei. 
AGGIE. To dispute ; to murmur. Devon. 
AGGING. Murmuring; raising a quarreL Exmoor. 
AGGLATED. Adorned with aglets. 

The third day of August in the citle of Amias 

came the Frenche Iiyng in a cote of blacke velvet 

upon white aatin, and tied with lacet ablated with 

golde. HaU, Henry VIU, f. 162. 

AGGRACE. To favour. Spenter. This writer 

also uses it as a substantive. 
AGGRATE. (1) To irritate. Var. dial 
(2) To please ; to gratify. Spenser. 
AGGREDE. To aggravate. CoU$. 
AGGREEVANCE. A grievance. 

Unlctae they were prodamed traitors, and with 

aU diligence followed and pursued, the event therof 

would be verie evill, to the t^greevance of good 

subJeett, and to the incouragement of the wicked. 

Stanihursfe HUt, cf Ireland, p. 172. 

AGGREGE. The same as agreg, q. v. 

But al dred more lett thei geit therof harme to the 
toule, and tyraung for defaut of tretpase; forthi 
that In twelk the tynne aggregith hi retoun of the 
d^pr^. Apology ytr the IjoU'irde, p. 4. 




AGGRESTETNE. A siGkness incident to hawks. 
A receipt for its cure is given in the Book of 
St. Alhans. 
AGGRBVAUNS. A grievmce; an iiyury. 

Prtm^t Parv. 
AGGKOGGYD. AggniYated. Pron^t Parr. 
AGGROUP. To group. Dryden, 
AGGY. Agnes. North, 
AGHAST. Did fiighten. Sj^enaer. 
AGHE. Oug^t. 

Wd8 9ih4 we to breke the bandee of covaytite, 
and iile to dnde that byndea men in syn. 

M8. Coll. Eton, 10, f. 4. 
AGHEN. Own. 

And made tnie hyt aghen lyknet. 

M8, CM. SUM, xviii. 6. 
That tboa destroy thin enlmy, that es, he that es 
vis* in hia aghtn eghen. MS. Colt, Eton, 10, f. 19. 
AGUER. Either. 

For when y thuld agher go or ryde, 

Y dyghte my herede ryjt moche with pryde. 

MS. Hart, 1701, f. 2S. 

AGHFUL. FeiifoL (^.-5.) 

David he was an agfi/^l man, 
Tal right wiall he regnd than. 

MS. Qftt. Vwpa*. A. iU. f. 44. 
AGHLICH. Fearfhl; dreadfuL (J,-S.) 

Ther hales In at the halle-dor an aghlieh maytter, 
Od the moat on the molde on mesure hygh. 

A|fr Omwaifne, p. 8. 
AGHT. (1) Anything. (^.-5.) 

Whan aght was do ajens hys wylle. 
He cursed Ooddys name wyth yDe. 

MS. Hart, 1701, f. 33. 

(2) Owes ; ought. Cf. Chester PUys, i 233. 

I waa noght than so ares^ 
Ab a damysel aght to be. 

Ywaina and Oawin, 7S4. 
A, Lord, to luf the aght us welle 
That makes thi folk thus f^ee. 

Tofwmlei/ Mv»ttHe$, p. 59. 
W^ aghta myne herte thane to be his. 
For he es that f^rende that never wille faile. 

MS. Uneoln A. i. 17, f. 910. 

(3) Possessions; property. See the Townelev 
Mysteries, p. 11. (A.-S.) 

And ox. or hors, or other aght. 

MS. Cott. Vetpat. A. iU. f. 38. 
Or make hym lete hys wurldly aghts, 
Or ftendys also to be unsaghte. 

MS, Hart. 1701, f. S8. 

(4) Possesses. (ji.-S.) 

The roan that this pitt aght, 
O the heist sal yeild the prls. 

MS. Cott, Vetpat. A. iii. f. 38. 

(5) The eighth. 

Tlie aght es a matoter of lare. 

May bete a clerk. MS. Cbtt, Galba.^E, Ix. f. 70. 

(6) Eight. Cf. Towneley Mysteries, p. 13; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1438. 

And also he wrate unto thame, that thay scholde 
make grete solempoytee lastyng aghte daycs, because 
of the weddynge of Alexander. 

MS. Uncotn A. 1. 17, f. 23. 

AGHTAND. The eighth. 

Do your knave bams to drcumces 
Tlie aghtand dai that thai are born. 

MS. Cott. Vetpat. A. Iii. f. 16. 
Seven dais sal wit thair rooders duel). 
The aghtan sal thai olTerd be. Ibid, f. 38. 

AGHTELD. Intended. (^.-5.) 
The knight said. May I traist in the 
For to tel my prevet^ 

That I have aghteld for to do. Setyn Sagttt 3053. 

And Alexander went Into a temple of Apollo, 

whare als he aghteled to hafe made sacrifice, and 

hafe hadd ansuere of that godd of certane thynges 

that he walde hafe aschede. MS. Une. A. i. 17, f . H . 

For ur Lord had aghteld yete, 

A diild to rals of his oxsprlng. 

MS. Cott. Vetpat. A. ill. f. 8. 

AGHTENE. Eight. 

Thes are the agjhttne vices to knowe. 
In which men falleth that are slowe. 

MS. Bodi. 48, f. 140. 

AGILER. A spy. This is Skinner's explana- 
tion of the word, hut it is probably founded on 
a mistaken reading in one of Chaucer's ballads. 

AGILITE. Agile. 

If it be, as I have sayd, mo«icrately taken after 
some weightie businesse, to make one more frethe 
and ttgiHte to prosecute his good and godly af&ires, 
and lawfull businesse, I saye to yon agalne, he maye 
lawfullye doe it. 

Horthbnok«^t Treatitt againtt Dicing, p. A3. 

AGILT. Offended. Cf. Arch. xxi. 72. (A.-S.) 
Ye wtte wel that Tirri that is here 
Hath agilt the douk Loere. 

Gp of Warwike, p. 209. 
He agUte her nere in othir case, 
Lo here all wholly his trespase. 

Rom. of the Rote, 5833. 

AGIN. (1) As if. Yorkth. 
^2^ Against. Eatt. 
f 3) Again. Var. dial 
(4) To begin. See Agynne. 

The child was don the prisoun in : 
The maister liis tale he gan agin. 

Tht SetpH Saget, 1410. 
AGIPE. A coat full of phiits. Coles. 
AGISTMENT. (1) The feeding of cattle in a 
common pasture, for a stipulated price. The 
agistment of a horse for the summer cost 3«. 4d. 
in 1531. See the FInchale Charters, p. 417. 
(2) An embankment; earth heaped up. In 
marshy counties, where the tenants are bound 
to make and keep up a certain portion of dyke, 
bank, or dam, in order to fence out a stream, 
such bank is called an agittment. 
AGITABLE. Easily agitated. 

Suche is the mutacyon of the common people, 

lyke a rede wyth every wind is agitable and flexible. 

HaU, Edward IV. f. 23. 

A.GLEED. Started up. 

When the body ded ryse, a grymly gost a-gteed, 

l4fdgaUft Minor Poemt, p. 116. 

AGLER. A needle-case. It is the tran^tion 
of aeuar in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45, a Ust of 
words written in Lancashire in the fifteenth 

AGLET. The tag of a Uce, or of the pomts for- 
merly used in dress, and which was often cut 
into the shape of little images. A little plate 
of any metal was ca] led an aglet. Cf. Coventry 
Mysteries, p. 241 ; Spanish Tragedy, iv. 4 ; 
Cunningham's Revels Accounts, p. 42 ; Baret's 
Alvearie, in v. Mr. Way tells us the word pro- 
perly denotes the tag, but is often used to sig- 
nify the lace to which it was attached. See 




Prompt. Panr. p. 8. Mr. Hartshorne, Salop. 
Antiq. p. 303, says, " a spangle, the gold or 
silver tinsel ornamenting the dr^ of a show- 
man or rope dancer." 
AGLET-BABY. A diminutive being, not exceed- 
ing in size the tag of a point. See Taming of 
the Shrew, L 2. 
AGLETS. The catkins of the hazel are called 
offleta in Gerard's Herbal, ed. Johnson, p. 1439. 
Kersey gives them the more generic interpre- 
tation of anihera. See Higins' Nomendator, 
p. 142. 
AGLOTYE. To glut ; to satisfy. 
To maken with papelotet 
To aglotye with here gurle* 
That greden aftur fode. Pier* Ploughman, p. 589. 
AGLUTTYD. Choked. 

And whan the it waking, she anayeth to put over 
at thentring, and it it tigluttpd and kdyd wyth the 
glctte that the hath engendered. 

Book <^8t, JtUtu, tig. C. U. 

AGLYFTE. Frightened. 
At he ttode to tore agijufte, 
Hyt ry5t hand up he lyfte. MS, Harl. 1701, f. 84. 
AGNAIL. A hang-nail, either on the finger or 
toe. Palsgrave has *' agnayle upon one's too,'' 
Cf. Cotgrave, in v. Agaum; Florio, in v. 
GMdndole; Minsheu, in v. In MS. Med. 
Line f. 300, is a receipt " for agnayU one 
mans fete or womans." (A,'S.) 
AGNATION. Kindred by the father's side. 

AGNES-DAY. On the eve of St. Agnes many 
divinations were practised by maids to discover 
their future husbands. Aubrey, p. 136, directs 
that *' on St. Agnes's night take a row of pins, 
and pull out every one, one after another, saying 
a paternoster, sticking a pin in your sleeve, and 
you wiU dream of him or her you shall marry." 
And on tweet St. Anna't night. 
Feed them with a promited tight ; 
Some of hutbandt, tome of lovert, 
Which an empty dream ditcovert. 

Ben Jonaon*9 Satjfr$ 1003. 

Brand, who gives these lines without a refer- 
ence, reads ** St. Agnes" in the first line, which 
is, I believe, Aubrey's emendation. Annes, 
or Agnes, was a virgin who refused the ad- 
dresses of the son of the prefect of Rome, as 
she was, she said, espoused to Christ. See 
Becon's Works, p. 139; Keightley's Fairy 
Mythology, ii. 143. 
AGNITION. An acknowledgment. Miege. 
AGNIZE. To acknowledge; to confess. See 
Othello, i 3 ; Hawkins' EngL Dram. L 258, 
268 ; Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 146. 
AGNOMINATE. To name; to designate fit>m 
any meritorious action. See Locrine, iiL 3. 
Minsheu explains agnomination to be a " sur- 
name that one obtaineth for any act, also the 
name of an house that a man commeth of." 
A-GO. (1) Gone; passed away. Somerset. 
Of felonl hi ne Uketh hede, 
Al thillc tretpat it a-fo. 

Wrighf* Pol. Songt, p. 197. 
To mete with Cocke they asked how to do, 
And I tolde them he wat a-go. 

Coeke Loreltoi Bote, p. 14. 

(2) To go. Cf. MS. HarL 1701, f. 4. 
Wolde je beleve my wrdyt at y, 
Hyt thulde a-go and tokun ky. 

MS. Bodl. 415. 
A-GOD-CHEELD. God shield you ! Pegge. 
AGON. Gone; past. Weet. Ct Harrowing of 
Hen, p. 15 ; Wright's PoUtical Songs, p. 149 ; 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 123 ; Chaucer, Cant.T. 
2338 ; Constitutions of Masonry, p. 24. 
Of brat, of tilrer, and of golde. 
The world it pattid and agone* 

Cower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 184, f. 36. 
Go and lokt wele to that atone, 
TyU the thyrd dey be agone. 

MS. AOunole 61, f. 139. 
AGONE. Ago. Var.diaL 

At, a whUe agone, they made me, yea me, to mit- 
take an honest sealout purtuivant for a temlnary. 
Barth. Fair, U. 1. 

AGONIOUS. Agonizing; fuU of agony. Fabiofu 
AGONIST. A champion; a prize-fighter. Rider, 
AGONIZE. To fight in the ring. Min$Meu. 
A-GONNE. Togo. 

Syr Key arote uppon the morrowne. 
And toke hit hon, and wolde a-gomne. 

Str Qaiaatme, p. lUl. 
AGOO. (1) Ago; since. Dorset. 
(2) Gone. Somerset. 

Evyr lere in thame, and that it al my woo, 
Farewele, Fortune ! my Joye it al agoo! 

L^dgate^e Minor Poem*, p. 44. 

AGOOD. In good earnest ; heartfly. 

The world laughed ogtNNi at thete Jettt, though, to 
tay tooth, thee could hardly affbrd it, for feare of 
writhing her tweet favour. 

Jmirn** NeetiifNinnie*, 1008. 
AGORE. Gory? 

And of hit hanberk agore. 

And of hit aketoun a fot and more. 

Arthow and Merlin, p. 837. 

A-GOTH. Passes away. 

Be the lef. other be the loth, 
Thit worldee wele al a-goth. Reliq. Antiq. U 160. 
AGRADE. To be pleased with. See Florio, 

in T. Gradire. 
AGRAMEDE. Angered. {A.'S.) 
Lybeauut was tore atchared. 
And yn hyt borte agramede. 
Tot he hadde y-lore hyt tworde. 

Lt^teau* Dieeomua, 1916. 
AGRASTE. Showed grace and favour. Spenser. 
AGRAUNTE. Satiated with. {A.^N.) 
Thoghe every day a man hyt haunte, 
3yt wyl no man be hyt agraunte. 

MS. Bom. 415. 

AGRAYDE. To dress, to decorate. 
Thyn halle agrapde, and hele the wallea 
With clodet, and wyth ryche pallet. Lown/bl, 901. 
AGRAZING. '* To send agrazing," seems to be 
a phrase applied to the dismissal of a servant. 
See Cotgrave, in v. Envoyer. 
AGR& (1) In good part; kindly. (A.-N.) 
Whom I nc founde fhmard, ne f(dl. 
But toke agri all whole my plaie. 

Rom. of the Boee, 43491 
(2) Kind. {A.>N.) 

Be mercyfulle, agri, take parte, and tumwbat pardoone, 

Dltdeyne nott to help ut, kepe you ttome dlscencioune. 

MS. Harl. JAM, f. 35. 




(3) To plei^9e. Some editions read angre in the 
following passage : 
If harme mgrt me, wherto plaine I thenne. 

Tniiut and OttckU, i. 410. 

AGREABILITE. Easiness of temper; eqna- 

mmity. See Unys Chaucer, p. 369. 
AGRBAGE. To aUege. 

Neither dyd I ever pat in queetioii yf I iboulde 
doe yea right, as you appcare to agrmge, but <m]ye 
what waa the ndynarye Judgement. 

Bgmrton Paptr§, p. 226. 

AGREAT. Altogether. To take a work agreaif 

b to take the whole work altogether at a price. 

See Baret's Alvearie, and Bloont's Glosso- 

graphia, in t. 

AGREEABLE. Assenting to any proposaL Var, 

AGREEABLY. In an uniform manner ; perfectly 
At last he met two knights to him unknowne* 
The which were armed both iigruabtjf. 

VuerU QvM»«, VI. tU. 3. 

A^^REP. In grief. Cf. Rom. of the Rose, 7573. 
He daaadieth forth overward, 
Thco othres comen afterward : 
He aoughte his knyghtis in mescfaef. 
He tok hit in heorte a^gnf. 

K^ng AH$aunder, 3785. 
And, nece mine, ne take it nat a-grtift, 

Troiiw and Creseide, iii. 864. 
Madame, takes not a-greve 
A thyng that y yow say. Sir Degrevant, 467* 
AGREO. To augment ; to aggravate. 
And sonie tooges venemous of nature. 
Whan they perceyre that a prince is mered. 
To agr^ hys yre do their busy cure. 

Bocha*, b. Ui. c. 20. 
Of raTyne and of sacrilege, 
Whldtt maketh the conscience agrtggt, 

Gowtr, MS, Soe. ^ntiq. 134, f. 175. 
That 5e my^toi my gref thus have breggid. 
As je have done, so sore I was agrtggid, 

Ocel€V0, MS. ibUL f. 234. 

AGREMED. Vexed. See Jgramede, 
Ac the douk anon up stert. 
As he that was agremed in hert. 

Cy of VFaruHke, p. 84. 
AGRESSE. To approach. (Lot,) 
Bebolde, 1 see him now agnut» 
And enter into place. 

Hawkiruf$ EngU Dram, i. 258. 

A-GRET. In sorrow. (A.-S.) 
And gilT je holde us a-gret, 
Shall I never ete mete. 5{r Degrevant, 1768. 
AGRETHED. Dressed ; prepared. (A.-S,) 
Clothed ful komly for ani kud kinges cone. 
In gode clothes of gold agrethed ful riche. 

William and the Werwo{f, p. 3. 

AGREVE. To grieve any one; to vex. Cf. 
Wright's Monastic Letters, pp. 188, 189 ; Har- 
dyng's Chronicle, f. 102 ; Holinshed, Hist, of 
Irdand, p. 80 ; The Basyn, xvii. ; Gy of War- 
wike, pp. 295, 318 ; Coventry Mysteries, p. 
41 ; Morte d'Arthur. i. 9, 377 ; Hartshome's 
Met Tales, p. 189 ; Arch. xxi. 71. 
Syr Befyse therof was agrevyd. 
And as swythe smote of his hedd. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. il. 38, f. 123. 
lie was agretjtd and nye owte of wyt. Ibid. f. 247. 

AGRIOT. A tart cherry. HowelL 
AGRIPPA. Apparently the name of a herh. It 
is mentioned in a recipe for the stone in MS. 
Line. Med. f. 298. 
AGRISE. To terrify ; to disfigure ; to be terri- 
fied. It is both an active and a neuter verb. 
Cf. Brit. BibL L 304 ; Cov. Myst. p. 331 ; Gy 
of Warwike, p. 245: Florio in v. Legdre; 
Plowman's Tale, 2300 ; Troilus and Creseide, 
ii. 1435. 

Other bringe him in such turmentes 
That he ther-of agrine, 

MS, Coll, Trin. Oton. 67. 
Thys man for fere wax sore ogrpe^t 
He spak whan he was rysyn. MS, BodL 425. 

In the ende of hervyst wynde shalle rise. 
And whete shalle in the felde agriee. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. ▼. 48, f. 77. 

AGROMED. Angered. (^.-5.) 

The kyng wes ful sore agromed. 
Ant of ys wordes suithe aschoraed. 

Chronicle ef ^gland, 883. 
AGROPE. To gpope ; to search out. 
For who so wele it wel agrope. 
To hem bilongeth alle Europe. 

Qower, MS. Soe. Antig. 134, f. 173. 

In love agropeth oute the sore. Ibid. f. 144. 

AGROS. Shuddered ; trembled ; was affrighted. 

Cf. Sevyn Sages, 886; Kyng Horn, 1326; 

Troilus and Creseide, u, 930; Legende of 

Thisbe of Babylon, 125. 

The wif agree of this answere, 

And ieyd, have thou no power me to dere ? 

Arthour and Meriin, p. 3D. 
Oil with spors smot the stede. 
As a man that hadde nede. 
That fire under the fet aros ; 
Nas ther non that him agree, 

Gy eif Warwike, p. 49. 
Strife and chest ther aros, 
Monl knijt therof agree. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. v. 48, f. lOG. 
AGROTID. Qoyed ; surfeited. 

But I am all agrotid here befome 

To write of hem that in love ben forswome. 

Vrr^e Chaucer, p. 356. 
Gorges agroteied enbossed their entrayle. 

Bochae, b. v. c. 20. 
AGROTONE. To surfeit vrith meat or drink. 
Pronqtt, Parv, The same work gives the sub- 
stantive agrotonynge. 
AGROUND. To the ground. 

And how she fel flat downe before his feete aground, 

Rumeue and Juliet, 1062. 

AGRUDGE. Palsgrave has " I agrudge^ I am 

agreved, je suis grev^." 
AGRUM. A disease of hawks, for which a re- 
ceipt is given in the Book of St. Alban's, sig. 
C. iL 
AGRYM. Algorism ; arithmetic. Palsgrave is 
the authority for this form of the word, " to 
count by cyfers of agrym." 
AGUE. (1) Awry ;obUquely: askew. North, 
(2) Swelling and inflammation from taking cold. 
East, Shakespeare has agued in the sense of 
cMUy, See Coriolanus, i. 4. In Norfolk an 
ague in the face is said to be invariably cured 
by an unguent made of the leaves of elder, 
called ague-ointment, 





AGUE.TREE. The sassafras. Gerard, 
AGUILER. A needle-case. {A,-N.) 
A sUvir nedil forth I drowe. 
Out of oguiler queint i-nowe. 
And gan this nedlll thrade anone. 

Aom. </ tht RD§e, 96. 
AGUISE. To put on ; to dress ; to adorn. Spm- 
aer. More, as quoted by Richardson, nses it 
as a snbstantiTe. 
AGULT. To be guilty ; to offend ; to fail in 
duty towards any one ; to sin against. Cf. 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 273, 518, 561; Rob. 
Glouc. gloss, in v. {A,-S,) 

Thanne Lndfer a-f«2(« in that tyde. 
And alle that helden witti bym in pride, 
Criat on hym yengeaunce gan take, 
So that alle they by-eomen develes blake. 

MS. Dovce 836, f. 19. 
AGWAIN. Going. Somer$et The same county 

has agwon for gone, 
AGYE. (1) Aside ; askew. North. 
(2) To guide ; to direct ; to govern. 

Syr Launfal schud be itward of halle, 
For to agye hyi gestes alle. Latin/b/, fiSS. 

AGYNNE. To begin. Cf. Ritson's Anc. S. p. 20. 
Thou wendest that ich wrohte 
That y ner ne thohte. 
By Rymenlld forte lygge, 
Y-wys ich hit withsugge, 
Ne shal i<^ ner ag^nne 

Er ich Sudenne wynne. KtfngHom, 1885. 

AH. (1) I. YorHh. 
(2) Yes. Derbyth. 

A-HANG. Hanged; been hanged. Rob. Glouc. 
AH-BUT. A negative, for « nay, but" Var.diai. 
A-HEIGHT. On high. 

From the dread sumreit of thli chalky bourn 
Look up a-height ; the shrill-gorg'd lark to far 
Cannot be seen or heard. Do but look up. 

Kittg Lear, iv. 6. 

A-HERE. To hear. 

Of oon the best ye mowne a-here. 
That hyght Ottovyan. Oettniem, 83. 

A-HIGH-LONE. A phrase used by Middleton, 
i. 262, apparently meaning quite alone. See 
also another instance in Mr. Dyce's note on 
the above place. 
AHINT. Behmd. North. 
A-HI3T. WascaUed. (A.-S.) 

That amiabul malde Allsaundrine a-hi$t. 

Wilt, and the WertPo(f, p. 88. 

A-HOIGHT. Elevated; in good spirits. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Cheval, Gogue; Florio, in v. 

A-HOLD. To lay a ship a-hold, to stay her or 
place her so that she may hold or keep to the 
wind. See the Tempest, i. 1, as expMned by 
Richardson, in v. 

AHORSE. On horseback. North. It also oc- 
curs in Robert of Gloucester. See Heame's 
Gloss, in V. 

AHTE. (1) Eight. 
Ahte moneth, ant dawes thre. 
In Engelond king wet he. Chren. nf BngUindt 1019. 

(2) Possessions ; property. Cf. W. Mapes, p. 348. 
Ah I feyre thinges, Areoly bore I 
When me on woweth, beth war bifore 
Whuch is worldes ahte. Wrighfe U/rtc Poetry, p. 46. 

(3) Ought. Percy. 
AHUH. Awry; aslant. Var.diaL 
A-HUNGRT. Hungry. Shak. 
AHY. Aloud. 

But for she tpake ever vyleyny 
Among here felawg al oAy. US. HarL 1701, f. 11. 
AHYGH. On high. 

And owt of the lond no myghte schyp go. 
Bote bjrtweone rochet two. 
So ah^gh to any mem myghte leone. 
That two royle wa« bytweone. Kin»g^lf*aunder,6236. 
One ii schippe that laileth in the see, 
A egle oAyje, a worme in lowe. 

JfSr. Bib. Beg. 18 A. x. f. 119. 
AH3E. Fear. 

Than it spac Olibrious, 
Hath sche non ahje t 
Alle the paines 5e hir do, 
Hir thenke it bot plawe. Leg. CatM. p. 88. 
AID. In Staffordshire, a vein of ore going 
downwards out of the perpendicular line, is 
called an aid. In Shropshbre, a deep gutter 
cut across ploughed land, and a reach in the 
river, are also oQled aidi. 
AIDLE. To addle ; to earn. North. 
AIE. An egg. 

And for the tithing of a ducke. 
Or of an apple, or an aie. Vny$ Chaucer, p. 185. 
AIELS. Forefathers. {A.-N.) 
To gyve from youre heires 

That youre aieU yow leflc. Piere Pioughman, p. 314. 
AIER.DEW. Manna. See Higins's Adaptation 

of Junius's Nomenclator, p. 106. 
AIESE. Pleasure ; recreation. 

Then sdde the jurrour. Syne I may not by it, lete 
it me to fcrme. He seide. Sir, I wil nether selle it, 
ne lete it to ferme, for the aieee that it dotbe me. 

Geeta Rfimanonnn, p. 435. 

AIG. (1) A haw. Lane. 

(2) Sourness. North. » 

AIGHENDALE. A measure in Lancashire con- 
taining seven quarts. Aih. 

AIGHS. An axe. Lane. 

AIGHT. Ought; owed. Yorkth. 

AIGHTEDEN. The eighth. 

The aighteden dai, ich meselve. 

So the ax pelt in the helve. 

That sehal hewe the wai atwo 

That had wrout me this wo. Sevjnt Sagee, 383. 

AIGLE. A spangle; the gold or silver tinsel 
ornamenting the dress of a showman or rope- 
dancer. Salop, 

AIGRE. Sour ; add. Yoriah. 

AIGREEN. The house-leek. Ker$ey. 

AIGULET. The clasp of a buckle. *'Aiguelet to 
fasten a daspe in." — Palsgrave^ f. 17. Spenser 
has ayguleti in the Faerie Queene, II. iii. 26. 

AIK. An oak. North. 

ML. To be indisposed. Var. diaL Gill gives 
ail as the Lincohishire pronunciation of I will. 
See Guest's English Rhythms, ii. 205. 

AILCY. Alice. North. 

AILE. (1) A vnit that lieth where the grand- 
father, or great-grandfather viras seised in his 
demaines as of fee, of any land or tenement in 
fee simple, the day that he died, and a stranger 
abateth or entreth the same day and dispos- 
sesseth the heir. Cowell. 



(2) A wing, or any part of a building flanking 
another. The term ia niually applied to the 
passages of a diorch, and it seems necessary to 
call attention to the technical meaning of the 
word. See Britton's Arch. Diet in t. 

AILED. Depressed. (ji.-S.) 
Sefacnt war tbo iclii«w«» 

For at the Neril-crM 

Nadea bud tham kode. Mmoea Poenu, p. 41. 

AILETTES. Small plates of steel placed on the 
shonlders in ancient armour, inTcnted in the 
reign of Edward I. SeeArch. xviL ZOO, xix. 137. 

AILS. Beards of barley. Bites. HoUyband 
has, ''the eilet or heard upon the eare of 

AILSE. Alice. North. 

AIM. (1) To intend; to conjecture. Yorkth. 
Shakespeare has it as a substantiTC in the same 
sense in the Two Gent, of Verona, iii. 1. 

(2) To aim at. Greene. 

(3) ** To gire aim,'' to stand within a convenient 
distance from the bntts, to inform the archers 
how near their arrows fell to the mark. Me- 
t^borically, it is equivalent to, to direct. See 
Collier's Shakespeare, i. 167 ; Tarlton's JesU, 
p. 24 ; True Tragedie of Richard the Third, 
p. 27. 

(4) ** To cry aim,*' in archery, to encourage the 
archers by crying out aim, when they were 
about to shoot. Hence it came to be used for, 
to applaud, to encourage, in a general sense. 
See King John, iL 1. A person so employed 
was called an mm^erier, a word which is meta- 
phoricaUy used for an abettor, or encourager. 
See Nares, in y. 

AIN. (1) Own.- North. 
(2) Eyes. 

Than was Sir Amis glad and fain ; 

For Joie he wepe with his aitu 

AmU tmd AmUoun, 2138. 

AINCE. Once. North. 
AINOGE. Anew. Rob. GUme. 
AINT. To anoint. It is figuratirely used to de- 
note a beating. Suffolk. 
AIR. (1) Early. 

I griev'd you nerer in all my life, 

Neither by late or air i 
YoQ have great tin if you would ilay 
A tiQy poor beggar. Robin Hood, i. 107. 

(2) An heir. CL Kyng Alisaunder, 763 ; Minot's 
Poems, p. 14. 

Than waa his fader, iothe to say, 

Ded and Urid tn the day ; 

His mir was Sir Oioun. Qy «(f Warwikt, p. 867* 

(3) Appearance. '* The air of one's face. Sym- 
metria quadam HmeameHtorum vuUu9.** — S^tw- 

(4) Preyiously ; before. See Are. 
AIRE. An aerie of hawks. Miege. Howell 

tenns a well-conditioned hawk, ** one of a 
good aire." 
AIREN. Eggs. 

Aaother folk there is next, as hogges crepeth ; 
After crabben and mirm hy tkippen and lepeth. 

Kgng Jlimunder, 4943. 


AIRLING. A light airy person ; a coxcomb. 
Some more there be, slight oirHmg; will be won 
With dogs and horses. J0nmm*§ QttUint, L S. 

AIRMS. Arms. North. 
AIRN. (1) Iron. Bums uses this word, and it 
also occurs in Mannde?ile*8 TravelB. See Glos- 
sary, in V. 
(2) To earn. Wilti. 

AIRT. A point of the compass. North. 
AIRTH. Afraid. North. 
AIRTHPUL. Fearful North. 
AIRY. An aiery ; an eagle's nest. See this form 
of the word in Massinger's Maid of Honour, i. 
2. It is also used for the brood of young in 
the nest 
AIS. Ease. 

Whanne the gestes weren at ait, 
Tliai wenten horn tnm his paieis. 

The Snim Saig$», 1869. 
AISE. -Axweed. Sthmer. 
AISH. Stubble. Hants. 

And to the contreye that je beoc of 

Seththe 5e schuUen i>wende, 
Withoute travail al aUieUckt, 
Andthareowrelifende. MS. Laud. lOS.f. 106. 
AISILYHE. Vinegar. 

And in mi mete thai gaf galle tole. 

And mi thrist with aUUjfhe drank thai me. 

MS. Bodt. 485, f. 35. 

AISLICHE. FearfoUy. {A.-S.) 
There I auntrede me in. 
And altUcho 1 seyde. Pier* Ploughman, p. 471. 

AISNECIA. Primogeniture. 5:4rtiifier. 

AIST. Thou wilt. Line. 

AISTRE. A house. This word is in common 
use in Staffordshire, Shropshire, and some 
other counties, for the fire-place, the back of 
the fire, or the fire itself: but formerly it was 
used to denote the house, or some particular 
part of the house, chambers, or apartments. 

AISYLL. Vinegar. Minsheu. 

AIT. A little island in a river where osiers grow. 
See the Times, Aug. 20, 1844, p. 6. 

AITCH. An ach, or pain ; a paroxysm in an in- 
termitting disorder. Var. dial. See a note 
on this pronunciation of aehe in Boswell's 
Malone, vii. 99. 

AITCH-BONE. The edge-bone. Var, dial. 

AITCHORNING. Acoming; gathering acorns. 

AITH. An oath. North. 

AITHE. Swearing. (A..S.) 

Pride, wrathe, and glotonie, 
Aithe, sleuthe, and lecherie. 

Arthottr and Merlin, p. 31. 

AITHER. (1) Either. North. Some of the 
provincial glossaries explain it, abo, each. 
Chcae on aither hand. 
Whether the lever ware 

Sink or stUle stande. Sir Trietrem, p. 154. 

(2) A ploughing. North. 
AI-TO. Always. So explained in the glossary 
to the Apology for Lollard Doctrines, attri- 
buted to WickUffie, in v. 
AITS. OaU. North. 
AIXES. An ague. North. 




AIYAH. The fat about the kidney of veal or 
mutton. Suffolk. 

AJAX. Pronounced with the second syllable 
long. A silly quibble between this word and 
a ^'oilret was not uncommon among Elizabethan 
writers ; and Shakespeare alludes to it in this 
way in Love's Labours Lost, v. 2. Sir John 
Harrington was the principal mover in this 
joke. See an apposite quotation in Donee's 
Illustrations, L 245. 

AJEE. Awry; uneven; Var. dioL 

AJORNED. Adjourned. 

He <tfomed tham to lelie in the North at Carlele. 

Langtcfft Chronidt, p. 300. 

AJUGGEDE. Judged. 

The gentileste Jowelle, a-Juggade with lordec, 
Fro Geene unto Gerone, by Jhesu of hevene. 

Morte Arthuret MS. Unedn, f. 02. 

AJUST. To adjust. 

For whan tyme Is, I »hal move and Orjust wch 
thinget that percen hem ful depe. 

Uriy* Chaucer, p. 387. 
AK. But. (A.'S.) 

Ak loke that we never more 
N«fe sette In trew lore. 

Wrighf9 PM. SMifi* p. 211. 

AKALE. Cold. {A,-S.) See JaUe. 
That night be iat wel sore akale. 
And hb wif la! warme a-bedde. 

Snm* 8agn» 1618. 
AKARD. Awkward. North. 
AKCORN. An acorn. Cf. Rorio, in v. AeilSne; 
Unys Chaucer, p. 364, spelt aiehome. (A.-S.) 
He ciambe bye upon a tree. 
And akouma tat hungur ete he. 

MS, Cantab. Ft. U. 38. f. 131. 

AKE. An oak. Ake^ppillea are mentioned in 
MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 285. 

Tak everfeme that grewes on the ake, and tak 
the rotes in Averell, and wasche hit wele. 

Reiiq. Antiq. L 52. 
It was dole to see 
Sir Eglamour nndlr ane ake, 
Tilleon the morae that hegunne wake. 

MS. Uneotn A. i. 17> t. 140. 
AKEDOUN. The acton, q. v. 

Through brunny and scheld, to the akedoun. 
He to-barst atwo his tronchon. 

Kvng AKsaunder, 2153. 
AKELDE. Cooled. (A.-S.) 

The kyng hyre fader was old man, and drou to 

feblesse, [deitresse. 

And the anguysse of hys dojter hym dude more 

And akelde hym wel the more, so that feble he was. 

Rob. Gtouc. p. 442. 

AKELE. To cool. (A.-S.) 

And taujte, yf love be to hot. 
In what maner it schulde akele. 

aower» MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 120. 
Nym jeme that the Airy coles 

Moche a-keteth me. 
And sholle into the stronge pyne 
Of belle brynge the. 

MS. Cott. THn. Oton. 57. 

AKENNYNGE. Reconnoitring ; discovering. 

At the ochir side akennynge. 
They sygh Darie the kyng. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 34C8. 

AKER. (1) Sir F. Madden, glossary to Syr 
Gawayne, conjectures this to be an error, for 
ueh fl, each, every. See p. 53. Its meaning 
seems rather to be either. It may be an error 
for cither, or other. 

(2) The expression " halteaker^' occurs in Gam- 
mer Gurton's Needle, L 2, but is conjectured 
to be an error for ** halse anker," or halse 
anchor. The halse, or halser, was a particular 
kind of cable. 

(3) An acre ; a field ; a measure of lengUi. 

The Frenschemen thai made reculle 
Wel an akere lengthe. Jf^. Aehmole 33, t 13. 
AKER-LOND. Cultivated knd. {Dut.) 
In thUke time, in al thU kmde. 
On aker-Umd ther nes y-founde. 

Chron. i^f England, 16. 

AKER-MAK A husbandman. See the Nomen- 
dator, 1585, p. 513 ; and Florio, in v. Aratdre. 
Ake aker-men weren in the feld. 
That weren of him i-war. 

MS. Laud. 106. f. 168. 

AKETHER. Indeed. Devon. In the Eimoor 
Scolding, p. 4, we are told it means, " quoth 
he, or quoth her." 
AKEVERED. Recovered. 

Sche akevered parmafay. 
And was f-ltd in liter. 

Arthaur and Merlin, 8550. 

AKEWARD. Wrongly. 

Thus use men a newe gette. 
And this world akeward sette. 

MS. AOunole 41, f. 18. 

AKNAWE. On knees ; kneeling. 

And made mony knyght aknawe. 
On medewe, in feld, ded bylaue. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 3540. 

A-KNAWE. To know ; to acknowledge ; known ; 

Bot 5lf y do hir it ben a-knawe, 
With wild hors do me to-drawe. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 42. 
And seyd, Thef, thou schaltbeslawe, 
Bot thou wilt be the sothe aknawe, 
Where thou the coupe fond t 

AnUt and Amilaun, 2090. 
For Jhesu love, y pray the. 
That died on the rode tre, 
Thi right name be aknawe. 

Oy fif Warwike, p. 335. 


Bot we beseke 50W latei us gaa, and we schalle 
mak aknawene untllle hym 50ur grete glory, jour 
ryaltee and jour noblaye. MS. limcoln, f. 8 

AKNEN. On knees. 

Tho Athelbrus astounde, 

Fel aknen to grounde. Kyng Bern, 340. 

Sire Eustas sat adoup akne t 

LoTerd, he sede, thin ore. 

MS. Aehmole 43, f. 172. 

A-KNEWES. On knees. 

To-fora him a-knewee tche fel. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 88. 

AKNOWE. Conscious of. Used with the auxi- 
liary verb, it appears to signify, to acknow- 
ledge. Cf. Gloss, to Urry ; Sevyn Sages, 1054 ; 
Courte of Love, 1199 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 280 ; 
Suppl. to Hardyng, f. 7 ; Seven Pen. Psalms, 




p. 22 ; GesU Bomanornm, pp. 326, 360, 361, 
363 ; MS. Ashmole 59, t 130. 
And he wole In hyi lute throwe, 
Sorov for hys lynne, and be of byt aknow*. 

MS. Cantab. Ff . U. 98* f. 35. 
Be than aknowm to me openly. 
And hide it nou5t, and I the wil releven. 

BoefiiM. MS, Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 967. 
I and my wif are thyne owen. 
That aie we wel olmouwn. 
Cmntr Mwtdi, MS. CoU. Trin. CmnUOi. f. SO. 

A-KKOWB. On knee. CI K. Alls. 3279. 
A-ltm&M he sat, and leyd, mercU 
Mine ow«i swerd take, belamL 

Arthow and Mtrtin, p. 358. 

AKSIS. The ague. 

I lekyn nche a lytfTul toule to a leke man. 
That ia y-ecbakyd and ichent with the aktU. 

Judelaj^a Poem*, p. 47. 

AKSKED. Asked. 

And afterwardee the same Prate aJuhtd me what 
newes 1 hade harde of Kynge Edward, and I an- 
•wered hyme, none at all. Aretmohgia, xxUL S3. 
AKYR. An acorn. 

The borca fedyog is propreliche y-cleped akjfr of 
ookys berynge and bukraast. MS. Bodl. 546. 

AL. WOL Yori9h. In the North, we haye the 
elUptical form a*/, for / willf and in other coun- 
ties the same for he wUL 
ALAAN. Alone. North. 

~~^— • theotoon 
And thy Troyanee, to have and enhabite. 

Hardifng'4 ChnmMe, f. 14. 

ALABLASTER. (1) A corrupt pronunciation 
fsi aiaboMterttASSi common, and also an archaism. 
See the Monasticon, It. 542 ; Wright's Monastic 
Letters, p. 268. 

(2) An arbalest. 

Bat rardy they wer sore assented, and marrey* 

kwsty hurte with the shot of efablMfert and crosse- 

bowes, but they defended thenuelfee so manfUUy that 

tlieir enemlta gat small advauntage at their handea. 

HaU, Henry VJ. f. SI. 

ALABBE. A kind of Air. 

And eke his doke with alahre. 
And the knottes of golde. 

MS. Rawl. Po0t. 137* f. SS< 
ALACCHB. TofelL (A.-N.) 

The Frensche laid on with swerdls briit. 

And laiden doun hur fon, 
Alle that thai than alaeeht mljt; 

Ther na ascapeden non. MS. jUhmott 33, f. 41. 
A-LADY. Lady-day. SuffoU. 
AL-ALONE. Quite alone. 

The hlghe God, whan he had Adam maked. 
And saw him ol alone belly naked. 

Chameert Cant, T. 9S00. 
ALAMIBB. The lowest note but one in Guido 
Aretine's scale of music See Skehon's Works, 
ALAND. (1) On land; to land. 

Where, as Ol fortune would, the Dane with fresh 

Was lately oome aUmd. [supplies 

Draifton'* Pol. ed. 1753, p. 903. 

(2) A kind of bulldog. In Spanish alano. See 

Dvcange, in y. AUmui; Chaucer, Cant T. 21 50 ; 

Ellis's Metr. Boul iL 359 ; Warton's Hist. EngL 

Poet. iL 145. On a spare leaf in MS. ColL 

Arm. 58, is written, ** A hunte hath caste of a 

cople of aUmndjft." They were chiefly used for 
hunting the boar. See Stnitfs Sports and 
Pastimes, p. 19. The Maystre of the Game, 
MS. BodL 546, c 16, divides them into three 
kinds. See further obserrations on them in 
Sir H. Dryden's notes to Twid. 
ALANE. Alone. North. 
ALANEWB. New ale; ale in corns. See 

Huloet's Abcedarium, 1552, In y. 
ALANG. Along. North. In North Hants they 

say, ** the wind is all down akmg.** 
ALANGE. Tedious; irksome. In the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 9, we have it in the sense of itrange, 
translated by extraneut^ exoticui. 
In time of winter atangt it Is i 
The foulee lesen her blis. 

Artfumr and Merlin, p. 15d. 
The leree fallen of the tre. 
Rein dimngeth the cuntrA. IHd. 4S1S. 

ALANGENES. Exphiined by Weber " single 
life." In Prompt. Parv. p. 9, itranffeneat. 
His seijaunts ofte to him come. 
And of atangenee him undemoroe. 
And [bade] him take a wlf Jolif, 
To solace with his olde lif. Sevipt Sagee, 1736. 
ALANTUM. At a distance. North. KenneU, 
MS. Lansd. 1033, gives the examples, *' I saw 
him at alangtun,** and, ** I sawhim alantwn off." 
ALAPT. This is the reading of one of the quartos 
in a passage in King Lear, L 4, generally read 
attoik'd. The first two folios read af fofit. If 
the word be correct, it probably agrees with 
the context if explained in the same way as 
attatVd; and the term aiapatf in the follow- 
ing passage, seems used in a similar sense. All 
editors, I believe, reject akg>t. The following 
work is erroneously paged, which I mention in 
case any one compares the originaL 

And because the secret and priry booiome vices 
of nature are most offensive, and though least seene, 
yet most undermining enemies, you must redouble 
your endeaTor, not with a wand to alapat and strike 
them, onely as lovers, loath to hurt, so as like a snake 
they may growe together, and gette greater strength 
againe. Melton'e Sise-foid Politician, p. 185. 

ALARAN. A kind of precious stone. 
Here cropyng was of rydie gold. 
Here parreUe alle of alaran t 
Here brydyll was of reler bolde. 
On every side hangyd bdlys then. 

MS. Laned. 769, f. S4. 

ALARGB^ To enlarge. Cf. Gen. ix. 27. 

Ood alarge Japheth, and dwelle in ttie tabemaclls 
of Sem, and Chanaan be the servaunt of hym. 

WiekUffi, MS. Bodl. VJl- 

ALARGID. Bestowed; given. 
Sudi part in ther natlTitie 
Was then atargid of beautle. 

Oumeet't Dreame, 156. 
ALARUM. Rider expUiins alarum tobe a " watch- 
word showing the neemesse of the enemies.'* 
The term occurs constantly in the stage direc- 
tions of old plays. 
ALAS-A-DAY. An exclamation of pity. Var.dial. 
ALAS-AT-EVER. An exclamation of pity. Yorkth. 
ALASSN. Lest. Dortet. 
ALAST. At last; lately. Cf. Ritson's Anc 
Songs, p. 9 ; Reliq. Antiq. iL 217. 




Whote hAth eny god, hopeth he nout to holde. 
Bote ever the levett we leoeeth akut. 

Wright** Pol. Songi, p. 149. 
ALATE. (1) Lately. Ct Percy's Rdiques, p. 27 ; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 148. 

Thy minde is perplexed with a thousand lundry 

paitiont, olate free, and now fettered, alate iwim- 

ming in rest. Greme'* Gw^donitu, U93. 

(2) Let. So at least the word is explained in 

a glossary in the Archaeologia, xxx. 403. 
ALATRATE. To growl ; to bark. (Lat) 

Let Cerberas, the dog of hcl, ahttrote what he 
liste to the contrary. 

Stubbe'a Jnatomie t^f Abwet, p. 179. 

ALAUND. On the grass. 

Anone to forest they founde. 
Both with home and with hound. 
To breng the dere to the grond 

Alaund ther they lay. Sir Degreoant, 499. 
ALAWK. Alack; alas, si^olk. 
ALAT. (1) To mix ; to reduce by mixing. Gene- 
rally applied to wines and liquors. SeeThynne's 
Debate, p. 59. 
(2) A term in hunting, when fresh dogs are sent 
into the cry. 
With greyhounds, according my ladyes bidding, 
I made the akt^ to the deere. 

P«iTr** Faer^ PtutcrdU, p. 150. 
ALATD. Laid low. 

Socoure ows, Darie the kyng ! 
Bote thou do us socoure, 
diaifd is, Darie, thyn honoure I 

K^ng AHtaunder, 8386. 
ALAYDE. Applied. 

But at laste kyng Knowt to hym a!a^ 
These wordes there, and thus to hym he sayde. 

Hard^g^t Chronide, f. 119. 

ALATNED. Concealed. 

The sowdan sore them affVayned 

What that ther names were ; 
Rouland saide, and noght alayrud, 
Syr Roulande and sire Olyrere. 

MS. Douee 175, p. 37. 
ALBACORE. A kind of fish. (/V.) 

The alhaeore that foUoweth night and day 
The flying fish, and takes them for his prey. 

BrU. Bibl, ii. 482. 

ALBE. (1) Albeit; although. 

Alb§ that she spake but wordes fewe, 
Withouten speche he shall the treuthe shewe. 

U/dgaU, MS, A§hmole 39, f. 46. 
AOte that he dyed in wretchednes. 

Boefuut b. iv. c 13. 

(2) A long white linen garment, worn by Roman 
Catholic priests. See Peter Langtoft, p. 319, 
and gloss, in v. 

Mon in tabe other cloth whit. 
Of Joie that is grct delit. Reliq. Jntiq, L 262. 
ALBESPYNE. White-thorn. 

And there the Jewee scorned him, and maden him 

a crowne of the braunches of albespyne, that is white 

thorn, that grew in that samegardyn, and setteu it 

on his heved. MaundevUt^a Travelt, p. 13. 

ALBEWESE. All over. 

Take a porcyown of ftesche chese. 
And wynd it in hony albewtse. 

Archaologiat xxx. 355. 

ALBIAN. An old term for that variety of the 

human spedes now called the Atkino. See an 
epitaph quoted by Mr. Hunter in his additions 
to Boucher, in v. 
ALBinCATION. A chemical term for making 
white. See Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit, 
pp. 128, 168. 

Our foumeb eke of calcination. 
And of wateres aib^fieatUm. 

Cfhowcer, Cant, T. 1S273. 

ALBLADE. See a list <tf articles in Brit. BibL 

ii. 397. 
ALBLAST. An instrument for shooting arrows. 
Both albUut and many a bow 
War redy railed opon a row. 

Minofa Toemt, p. 16. 
Alle that myghte wapyns here, 
Swerde, olbUutua, schelde or spere. 

MS. Lincoln A. L 17, f. 115. 

ALBLASTERE. A crossbow-man. Sometimes 
the crossbow itself. 
That sauh an atbkutere ; a quarelle lete he flie. 

Lang^ft, p. 90S. 
With aiblaatrea and with stones. 
They slowe men, and braken bones. 

Kimg AJisaunder, 1211. 
ALBRICIAS. A reward or gratuity given to 
one that brings good news. ($Nm.) 
AlbricUu, Mend, for the good news I bring you ; 
AU has fallen out as well as we could wish. Btvira, ii. 
ALBURN. Auburn. Skmner, It is the Italian 
aldumot and is also Anglicised by Florio, 
ALB YEN. The water, &c. The meaning of the 
term will be found in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. 
Brit. p. 164.. 
ALBYN. White. 

The same gate or tower was set with compassed 
images of auncient prynces, as Hercules, Alexander 
and other, by entrayled woorke, rychely lymned wyth 
golde and atbpn colours. Hall, Henry niL f. 73. 
ALBYSI. Scarcely. The MS. in the Heralds' 
College reads " unnethe.'' 
Tho was Breteyn this lond of Romaynes almest lere, 
Ac albyti were yt ten jer, ar heo here ajeyn were. 

Rob, Glow, p. 81. 
ALCALY. A kind of salt. 

Sal tartre, alealy, and salt preparst. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 16278. 

ALCAMYNE. A mixed metal. Palsgrave has 
this form of the word, and also Pynson's edi- 
tion of the Prompt. Parv. See that work, 
p. 9; Unton Inventories, p. 26; Skelton's 
Works, ii. 54. 

ALCATOTE. A silly feUow. Dewm, In the 

Exmoor Courtship, pp. 24, 28, it is spelt 

alkitotle, and explained in the glossary, *' a 

silly elf, or foolish oaL" 

Why, you know 1 am an ignorant, unable trifle in 

such business ; an oaf, a simple akatote, an innocent. 
Pbr«r« Worke, ii. 212. 

ALCATRAS. A kmd of sea-gulL (ItaL) 

Ned Gylman took an aieatraak on the mayn top- 
mast yerd, which ys a foolysh byrd, but good lean 
rank meat. MS, AddU. MOB. 

Most like to that sharp-sighted akalrae, 
That beau the air above the liquid glass. 

Drayton's Workt, ed. 1748, p. 407* 




ALCE. Also. Sir F. Madden marks this as an 
irr^^ular form. See Jk, 
The kyBg kyaes the knyjt, and the wbene alee. 
And sythen mooj syker kny5t, that sojt hym to 
hay lee. iSSrr Gawapne, p. 91. 

ALCHElffT. A metal, the same as Ale€tmynet 
q. T. 

--_ Four speedy cheraUmt 

Put to their mouths the sounding alchnqf. 

ParwU»9 Lot, U. 617. 

ALCHOCHODEN. The giver of life and years, 

the planet which bears mle in the principal 

places of an astrological figure, when a person 

is bom. See Albumazar, iL 5. 

ALCONOMTE. Alchemy. 

Of thllke elixir vhiehe men calle 
jtleommtfe, whidie is befkUe 
Of hem that whilom weren wise. 

Gotcer, MS. Soc. Antiq, 134, f . ISO. 
ALD. (1) Old. 

Princes and pople, oU and 5ong, 
Al that tpac with Duche tung. Mitwil*4Poem», p. 8. 
(2) Hold. 

Tbof I west to be slayn, 
I sal never aid te <^ayn. 

Qttif of Warwick, iUddtehia MS. 
Cnratus resident thai schul be. 
And aid houshold oponly. 

Audeiaj^* Poems, p. 33. 
ALDAT. Always. (Dam.) 

They can allbrce them atdatf, men may see. 
By singtilrr fkedome and dominadon. 

Boehoi, b. i. c. 80. 

ALDER. (1) The older. 

Thus when the alder hir gan forsake. 

The yonger toke hir to his make. Setyn Sagee, 37S9. 

(2) According to Boucher, this is *' a common 
expression in Somersetdiire for cleaning the 
afleys in a potatoe ground." See Qu. Rev. 
Iv. 37L 

(3) Of alL Generally used with an adjective in 
the superlative degree. See the instances 
onder alder and dUhery compounded with 
other words. 

Of aile kinges he is flour. 
That sufl^ed deth for al mankin ; 
He b our alder Creatour I Leg, Cathot. p. 173. 
ALDER-BEST. Best of all. Cf. Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 9, 33 ; Gy (rf Warwyke, p. 22 ; Dreme of 
Chaucer, 1279 ; Skelton's Works, ii. 63. 
That all the best archers of the north 

Sholde come upon a day. 
And they that shoteth alderbeet 

The game shall here away. Aobin Hood, i.fil. 
ALDERES. Ancestors. 

Of aideree, of armes, of other aventures. 

SifT Oateaj/ne, p. 6. 
ALDER-FIRST. The first of aU. Cf. Rom. 
of the Rose, 1000; TroQus and Creseide, 
iiL 97. 

That sroertii sdial smite the alderfirtt dint. 

WUL and the Werwolf, p. 121. 
Tlie soudan fwthwith alderfarst 
On the Cristen smot wel fisst. 

Oy of Warwike, p. 1S3.| 

ALDER.FORMEST. The foremost of all Cf. 
Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. 76. 

William sihd themperour wdnt alderfbrmetu 

WUl. and the Wenootf, p. 176. 

ALDER.HIGHEST. Highest of all. 
And alder-higheet tooke astronomye 
Albmusard last withe her of sevyn. 
With insdrumentis that raught up into hevyn. 
lefdgat«r» Minor Poeme, p. II. 

ALDERKAR. A moist boggy place where 
alders, or trees of that kind grow. See Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 9, 272. In the former place it is 
explained loots udi akU el tales arbores 

ALDER-LAST. LastofalL 

And alder-laet, how he in his dtee 
Was by the sonne slayne of Thokmi^ 

Bochae, b. ▼. c. 4. 
ALDER-LEEFER. Instances of this compound 
in the comparative degree are very unusual. 
An alder-le^/tr swaine 1 weene. 
In the barge there was not seene. 

Cotter of Canterburie, 1606. sig. E. ii. 

ALDER-LEST. Least of aU. 

Love, ayenst the whiche who so defendith 
Himselrin moste, him aldirleet avalleth. 

TroUue and Creeeide, i. 005. 

ALDER-LIEFEST. Dearest of aU- This com- 
pound was occasionally used by Elizabethan 
writers. See Collier's Annals of the Stage, 
L 262 ; 2 Henry VI. L 1 ; Troilus and Creseide, 
in. 240. 
ALDERLINGS. A kind of fish, mentioned in 
Mufifet's Treatise on Food, p. 175, and said by 
him to be betwixt a trout and a grayling. 
ALDER-LOWEST. Lowest of aU. See a gloss 
in MS. Egerton 829, f. 23, and Reliq.Antiq. L 7. 
ALDERMANRY. "The government of Stamford 
was long before their written charter, held and 
used amongst themselves by an ancient pre- 
scription, which was called the Aldermanry of 
the ^<L''-^Butchef^i Stamford, 1717, p. 15. 
ALDERMEN. Men of rank. 

Knyites and sqwyers ther schul be. 
And other aldermen, as je schul se. 

Con$t, <(fMaeonrp, 414. 
ALDER-MEST. Greatest of aU. Cf. Arthour 
and Merlin, p. 83 ; Legends Ca^olicae, pp. 
170, 252. 

But aldirmoit in lionour out of doute, 
Thei had a relicke hight PalUdion. 

Troilue tmd Oreeeide, 1. 152. 

ALDERNE. The elder tree. Goats are said to 
love aldeme, in Topsell's Hist, of Foure-footed 
Beasts, p. 240. 
ALDER-TRUEST. Truest of all. 

First, English king, I humbly do request. 
That by your means our princess may unite 
Her lore unto mine aldertrueet lore. 

Greentfe Worke, U. 166. 

ALDER-WERST. Worst of all. 

Ye don ous alderweret to spede. 
When that we han meet nede. 

Oy of Warwike, p. 1S8. 

ALDER-WISIST. The wisest of all. 
And truiliche it sitte well to be so, 
For aldirwisiet han therwith ben plesed. 

TroUtu and Creseide, i. 247. 
ALDES. Holds. 

For wham myn hert b so hampered and aides so 
nobul. WUl, and the Werwolf, p. 17 

ALDO. Although. East. 




ALDREN. Eldert. 

Thus ferden oure dUreti bi Noees dawe. 
Of mete and of drinke hi f olden here mawe. 

MS. Bodl. 652, f. 1. 

ALDRIAN. A star on the neck of the lion. 
Phebut hath left the angle meridional. 
And yet amending wae the bctte real* 
The gentil Lion, with hb JUtriatu 

Chaucer, Cant, T, 10579. 

ALDYN. Holden; indehted. 

Mechebefeolftyntothepore. MS.D(mee9Oi,t»20, 
ALE. (1) A rural festival. See Jle-featt, 
And all the neighbourhood, fh>m old recorda 
Of antique prorerba, drawn from Whltsun lords. 
And their authorities at wakes and ai«a. 

Ben Jonson*4 TaU of a Tub, prol, 

(2) An ale-honse. This is an unusual meaning 
of the word. See Two Gent, of Verona, iL 5 ; 
Greene's Works, i. 116 ; Davies's York Records, 
p. 140 ; Lord Cromwell, iii. 1 ; Piers Plough- 
man, p. 101. 

When thei have wroght an oure ore two, 
Anone to the al« thei wyUe go. 

MS, Aehmole 61, f. 25. 

(3) The meaning of the words beer and ale are 
the reverse in cUfferent counties. Sir R. Baker's 
verses on hops and beer are clearly erroneous, 
ale and beer having been known in England at 
a very early period, although hops were a later 
introduction. See Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 27. 
Sir Thopas, L 13801 , swears *' on ale and bred," 
though this oatii may be intended in ridicule. 
Ale was formerly made of wheat, barley, and 
honey. See Index to Madox's Exchequer, in v. 

(4.) AIL 

And laflt it with hem in memor^. 
And to ale other pristis truly. 

Audeia^e Poeme, p. 60. 

ALEBERRT. A beverage made by boiUng ale 

with spice and sugar, and sops of bread. It 

appears from Pals^ve to have been given to 


They would taste nothing, no not so much as a 
poor aUberrif, for the comfort of their heart. 

Beeon*s Worke, p. 373. 

ALECCIOUN. An election. 

And seyd, made is this aleceUmn, 
The king of heven hath chosen 50U on. 

Legendm Cathcliem, p. 63. 
Besechyng you therfore to help to the reslgnacion 
therof, and the kynges lettre to the byshop of 
Lincoln for the aleeeion, 

Wright's Monaetie Letters, p. 240. 

ALECIE. Drunkenness caused by ale. 

If he had arrested a mare instead of a horse, it 
had beene a slight oversight ; but to arrest a man, 
that hath no Ukenesse of a horse, b flat lunasie, or 
aiecie. Ufi^* Mother Bombie. 

ALECONNER. According to Kersey, "an officer 
appointed in every court-leet to look to the 
assize and goodness of bread, ale, and beer." 
CL Middleton's Works, i. 174; Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 163. 
A nose he had that gan show 
What liquor he loved I trow : 
For he had before long seven yeare, 
Beene of the towoe the ale-amner. 

Cobler of Canterbury, 1608. 

ALECOST. Costmary. So odled, because it 

was frequently, put into ale, being an aromatic 
bitter. Gerard, It is not obsolete in the North. 
ALED. Suppressed. (J,-S,) 

And sayde, Maumecet, my mat«, 

Y-blesBed mote thou be. 
For aled ihom hast muehe debate 

Toward thys bamee. MS. Jehmele 88» f^ 18* 
ALEDGEMENT. Ease ; relief! Skmner. 
ALE-DRAPER. An alehouse keeper. 

So that nowe bee hath lefte brokery, and is be- 
come a draper. A draper, quoth Freeman, what 
draper, of woolUn or linnen ? No, qd he, an ale- 
draper, wherein he hath more skil then in the other. 
Diseoverie <^the Knighte t^the Poete, ISSfJ. 
A-LEE. On the lee. 

Than lay the lordis a-lee with laste and with charge. 
Depoe, of Richard II. p. 29. 

ALEECHE. Alike. So exphuned by Mr. Collier 
in a note to Thynne's Debate, p. 20, "his gayne 
by us is not aleecAe." Perhaps we should read 
a leecAe, L e. not worth a leech. 
ALEES. Aloe trees. 

Of erberi and ateee. 

Of alle maner of trees. PietiU ofSuean, st. L 
ALE-FEAST. A festival or merry-making, at 
which ale <4)pear8 to have been the predomi- 
nant liquor. See an enumeration of them in 
Harrison's Desc of England, p. 138 ; Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. L 158-9, and the account of the 
Whitttm-^ile, inv. A merry meeting at which 
ale was generally drunk, often took place after 
the representation of an old mystery, as in a 
curious prologue to one of the fifteen^ century 
in MS. Tanner 407, t 44. 
ALEFT. Lifted. 

Ac tho thai come thider eft. 
Her werk was al up a/</T. 

Jrthour and MeHin, p. 22. 

A-LEFT. On the left. 

For a-left half and a right. 

He leyd on and slough down-right. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 182. 

ALEGAR. Ale or beer which has passed through 
the acetous fermentation, and is used in the 
North as a cheap substitute for vinegar. It is 
an old vrord. See the Forme of Cury, p. 56. 
ALEGE. To alleviate. (A.-N,) 

But if thei have some privilege. 
That of the paine hem woll alege. 

Rom. <ifthe Rose, 6826. 
ALEGEANCE. Alleviation. {A.-N.) ''AUegyance, 
or softynge of dysese, alletnacio.**^ Pron^i. 
Parv, p. 9. Cf. Chaucer's Dreame, 1688. 

The twelfed artede ee enoyntynge, that mene 

enoyntes the seke in perelle of dede for aiegeanee of 

body and saule. MS. Lincoln, A. L 17, f. 202. 

ALEGGEN. To allege. (^.-iST.) See Piers 

Ploughman, p. 207 ; Flor. and Blanch. 692 ; 

Gesta Romanorum, p. 48 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 422. 

Thus endis Kyng Arthure, as auctors aleggee 

That was of Ectores blude, the kynge sone of 

Troye. MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17* f. 98. 

ALEGGYD. Alleviated. See Alege, 
Feraventure $t may be aleggyd. 
And sun of 50ure sorow abreggyd. 

MS, Earl, 1701, t 12. 

ALEHOOFE. Ground ivy. According to Gerard, 
it was used in the making of ale. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 250. 




ALEICHE. AUke; equally. 

Laye fourUi iehe man aleieht 
What he hath lefte of his Uycrvye. 

Ckttter PIO0*, i. 182. 
ALEIDE. Abolished ; pat down. 

Thcf among the puple he put to the reaumet 
AUU0 alle lather lawet that long hadde ben used. 
Wm, and the Wenvoff, p. 188. 
Do Bom also Sdi hare the seid. 
And alle thre solen ben aleid. 

as. Digbv 86, f. 196. 

ALE-IN-COBNES. New tie. See Holoet's 
AJbcedarium, 1552, in v. 

I will make the drincke worse than good oto In 
the eortw. Thertiftet, p. 56. 

ALEIS. (l)Alas! North. 

(2) Aloes. 

Cberise, of whiche many one faine Is, 
Notis, and oleiv, and bolas. 

Bom. nfth9 Rote, 1377. 

(3) Alleys. 

AOe the aM« were made playne with sond. 

M8, Hart, 116, f. 147. 
ALEIVED. Aneviated; relieved- Surrey, 
ALBKNIGHT. A frequenter of alehouses. See 
Cotgnve, in v. Bette; Florio, in ▼. Bedne; 
Barefs AlTearie, in v. Ale; Harrison's Descr. 
of Eng^ p. 170. 
ALEMATNE. Germany. 

Upon the londe of Atema^M. 

Oowtr, ed. 1539, f. 145. 
ALEKDE. Landed. 

At what haven thai alendt, 
Ase tit agen hem we scholle wende 
With hors an armes brighte. 

Rembrun, p. 4S8. 
ALENGE. Grievous. 

Now am I out of this daunger so alenge. 
Wherefore I am gladde it for to penever. 

Cmtptapnte ^fthem thmt bm to late Marked. 
ALEOND. By land. 

Wame thow every porta thatt noo schyppis a-ry ve. 
Nor also oleentf stranger throg my realme pas. 
Bat the for there truage do pay markls fyve. 

Sharpie Gov. ifyet, p. 90. 
ALE-POLE. An ale-stake, q. v. 
Another brought her bedcs 
Of jet or of cole. 

To oBtr to the aie^e. SkelUm** WorJu, 1. 1 12. 
ALB-POST. A maypole. Wett. 
ALES. Alas! See the Legends Catholicse, p. 5. 
ALESE. To loose ; to free. (A.-S,) 

To day thou salt aUeed be. MS, Digbp 86, f. 120. 
ALB-SHOT. The keeping of an alehouse within 

a Uxrest hy an officer of the same. PhiUipe, 
ALE-SILVER. A rent or trihute paid yearly to 
tiie Lord Mayor of London hy those vrho sell 
ak vrithin the city. Miege, 
ALE-STAKE. A stake set up hefore an alehouse, 
by way of sign. SpeghtexpUuneditamajTM)^, 
and hence have arisen a host of stupid blun- 
ders ; but the ale-stake was also called the 
maypole, without reference to the festive pole. 
See Tariton's Newes out of Purgatorie, p. 56. 
Gfose gives ak-post as a term for a maypole. 
See hb Class. Diet. Vulg. Song, in v. and supra. 
Palsgrave, fc 17, translates it by " le moy d'une 
taveme." Prom Dekker's Wonderful Yeare, 
1603, quoted by Brand, it appears that a bush 

was frequently placed at the top of the ale- 
stake. See Bush, Hence may be exphdned 
the lines of Chaucer : 

A garlond had he sette upon his hede. 
As gret as It werin for an tUe-etake. 

Urrj^a etf. p. 6. 

Which have been erroneously interpreted in 
Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet. i. 56. But the 
bush was afterwards less naturally applied, for 
Kennett tells us ** the coronated frame of wood . 
hung out as a sign at taverns is called a bush," 
See his Glossary, 1816, p. 35. Cf. Hawkins* 
EngL Dram. L 109 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 12255 ; 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 14 ; Hampson's Calend. i. 281 ; 
Skelton's Works, i. 320. 

She as an aU-Mdke gay and fKsh, 
Half hlr body she had away e-glff. 

US. Laud. 416, f. 06. 
For lyke as thee Jolye ale-house 

Is alwayes knowen by the good ale^ake. 
So are proude Jelots sone perceaved, to. 
By theyr proude foly, and wanton gate. 

Banelef^* Treatiee, p. 4. 
ALESTALDER. A stallion. East Sussex. 
ALESTAN-BEARER. A pot-boy. SeeHigins' 

adaptation oftheNomenclator, p. 505. 
ALESTOND. The ale-house. 

Therefore at length Sir JefTerie bethought him of 

a feat whereby he might both visit the alf^ond, 

and also keepe his othe. Mar. Prdatt^g EjriHle, p. 54. 

ALE-STOOL. The stool on which casks of ale 

or beer are placed in the cellar. East. 
ALET. (1) A kind of hawk. Howel says it is 
the " true fSeiucon that comes from Peru.'' 

(2) A small plate of steel, worn on the 

An alet enamelde he oches In sondlre. 

Marte Arthure, MS, Uneoln, f. 80. 

(3) Carved, applied to partridges and pheasants. 
Boke of Huntinge. 

ALEVEN. Eleven. Cf. Maitland's Early Printed 
Books at Lambeth, p. 322 \ Bale's Kynge Johan, 
p. 80 ; Minsheu, in v. 

He trips about with sincopace. 

He capers very quicke ; 
Full trimly there of seven aleeen. 
He sheweth a pretty tricke. 

Ga{/Hdo and Bernardo, 1570. 
I have had therto lechys aleven, 
And they gave me medyslns alle. 

MS, Cantab. Ft. 1. 6, f. 46. 
ALEW. Halloo. 

Yet did she not lament with loude alew. 
As women wont, but with deepe sights and singulfs 
few. Faerie Queene, V. vi. 13. 

ALE-WIFE. A woman who keeps an ale-house. 

See Tale of a Tub, iv. 2. 
ALEXANDER. Great parsley. Said by Min- 
sheu to be named from Alexander, its pre- 
sumed discoverer. 
ALEXANDER'S-FOOT. PeUitory. SMtmer. 
ALEXANDRYN. Alexandrian work. 
Syngly was she wrappyd perfay. 
With a mauntelle of hennyn, 
Coverid was with Mexandryn, 

MS, Bawl, C. 86, f. 121. 

ALEXCION. Election. 

Be aleseion of the lordys free, 

The erle toke they thoo. Ib-le of Totous, IS02. 




ALEYD. Laid down. See Jieide, 
Do nou afe ichave the leyd. 
Ant alle thre ihule beo alt^ 
With huere foule croke$. 

Wrighf$ I^He Poetry, p. 105. 
Fiv al love, leman, ache leyd, 
Lete oow that wille be doun aiayd, 

Legtnda Caiholiea, p. S30. 
iOiEYE. Anincy. (A.-N,) 

An homicide therto han they hired 
» Tliat in an oleye had a privee place. 

Chameer, Cant, T, 13488. 

ALETN. Alone. 

Uj lemroan and I went forth olayn. 

Gup tf Warwick, MkUOeMtt MS. 

ALETNE. (1) To alienate. 

In case tliey dyde eyther idle or aieynt the fame 
or ony parte tlierof, ttiat the lame Edwarde ahulde 
have yt before any other man. 

Wrtghfa Mmaatie Letttrt, p. 86. 

(2) Laid down. So explained in Urry's MS. 

ALF. (1) Half; part; side. 

The Brutona to helpe her off, vaste abonte were. 

Rob, OUme. p. 21S. 

(3) Anelf;adeviL 

With hb teth he con hit tug. 
And a^ Rofyn tiegon to rug. 

MS. Douce 302, f. 11. 

ALFAREZ. An ensign. {Span,) The term is 
nsed by Ben Jonson, and Beaumont and 
Fletcher. According to Nares, who refers to 
MS. Harl. 6804, the word was in use in our 
army during the civil wars of Charles I. It 
was also written alferes, 

ALFEYNLT. SlothfoUy; sluggishly. Pron^t. 

ALFRIDARIA. A term in the old judicial as- 
trology, explained by Kersey to be " a tempo- 
rary power which the planets have over the 
life of a person." 

Ill find the cuip and aHfridaria, 
And Icnow what planet 1« in casimi. 

MbumauuTt ii. 6. 

ALFYN. (1) So spelt by Palsgrave, f. 17, and also 

by Caxton, but see Avfyn. The alfyn vras the 

bishop at chess. Is a^yns in Reliq. Antiq. L 

83, a mistake for alkyiu ? 

(2) A lubberly fellow ; a sluggard. 

Now certei, lais tyr Wawayne, myche wondyre 

have I 
That tyche an dtfyne at thow dare speke lyche 
wordea. Morte Jrthurt, MS. Uneoln, f . 67. 

ALGAROT. A chemical preparation, made of 
butter of antimony, diluted in a large quantity 
of warm water, till it turn to a white powder. 
ALG ATE S. Always ; all manner of ways ; how- 
ever ; at an events. Still in use in the North. 
It is, as Skinner observes, a compound of all 
andyfl/e#, orways. (^.-5.) Tooke's etymo- 
logy is wholly inadmissible. Cf. Diversions 
of Purley, p. 94 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 7013 ; 
Thynne's Debate, p. 36. 

These were thcr uchon algate. 

To ordeyne for thcae masonus astate. 

ContHtutUmt of Masonry, p. 15. 

ALGE. Altogether. (J.-S.) 

Sche muate thenne alge fayle 
To getan him whan he were deed. 

Gower, MS. Soc.Jntiq, 134. f. 14C 

ALGERE. A spear used in fishing. It is the 
translation of Jutema in the Canterbury MS. 
of the Medulla. See a note in Prompt. Parv. 
p. 186. 
ALGIFE. Although. 

Eche man may eorow in his inward thought 
Thie lordes death, whoie pere is hard to fynd, 
Algifs Bnglond and Fraonce were thorow saughu 
8k«Um*$ Work§, i. 13. 
ALGRADE. A kind of Spanish vnne. 
Both olgraie, and respice eke. 

Squifr of Lawo Dcgr£» 756. 
Osay, and atgarde, and other y-newe.. 

Morto Arthurs, MS. Uneoln, f. 55. 
ALGRIM. Arithmetic. 

The name of this craft is in Latyn aigoraimut, 

and in EngUs algrim; and it is namld off Algot, 

that is to say, craft, and rUmus, that is, nounbre; 

and for this skiile it is caUed craft of nounbringe. 

MS. Cantab. LI. ir. 14. 

ALGUS. A philosopher frequently mentioned 

by early vniters, as the inventor of Algorism. 

According to MS. HarL 3742, he was king of 

Castile. Cf. MS. Arundel 332, t 68. 

ALHAFTE. See a list of articles in the Brit 

Bibl. ii. 397. 
AL-HAL-DAY. All-hallows day, Nov. 1st. Gaw. 
ALHALWE-MESSE. All-hallows. 

The moneth of Novembre, after Alhaiwemeue, 
That wele is to remembre, com kyng William alle 
fresse. Peter Langtt/t, p. 145. 

ALHALWEN-TYD. The feast of All-hallows. 
Men shulle fynde but fewe roo-bulcliys whan tliat 
they be passed two jeer that thd ne have mewed hure 
heedys by Alhalwentyd. MS. Bodl. 546. 

ALHIDADE. A rule on the back of the astro- 
labe, to measure heights, breadths, and depths. 
See Blount's Glossographia, p. 18 ; Cotgrave, 
in V. Alidade. 
ALHOLDE. " Alholde, or Gobelyn" is mentioned 
in an extract from the Dialogue of Dives and 
Pauper, in Brand's Pop. Antiq. L 3. 
AL-HOLLY. Entirely. 

I have him told al holly min eetat. 

Chaucor, Cant. T. 767B. 
ALHONE. Alone. 

AUione to the putte he hede. Rellq, Antiq. ii, 278. 
ALIANT. An alien. Jiider. 
ALIBER. Bacchus ; liber pater. 
Atiber, the god of wyne. 
And Hercules of Icynne thyne. 

Kyng AlUttunder, 2849. 

ALICANT. A Spanish wine made at Alicant, 
in the province of Valencia. It is differently 
spelt by our old vniters. See Tymon, ed. Dyce, 
p. 39 ; Higins' Junius, p. 91. 
Whan he had dronke ataunte 
Both of Teynt and of wyne Alicauni, 
Till he was drounlce as any swyne. MS. Rawt. C. 86. 
ALIED. Anointed. 

He tok that blode that was so bright. 
And aUedthat gentU knight 

AmU and Amiloun, 2330. 

ALIEN. ToaUenate. Nares. 




ALIEN-PRIORY. A prioiy which was subordi. 
njite to a foreign monastery. See Britton's 
Ait^ Diet in t. Priory, 
A-LIFE. As my life; excesdTely. See Win- 
ter's Ttle, IT. 3 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, It. 55, 
2S5, 309, 351. 
ALIFED. Allowed. Skhmer, 
ALIGHT. (1) Lighted; pitched. 

Opon sir Oy. Uut gentil knight, 
Y.wis mi love is aUe aiight. 

Oy 9f Warwike, p. 270. 
(2) To light; to kindle. Surrey. 
ALINLAZ. An anlace. 

Or afbUas, and god long knlf« 

That als he lovede leme or lif . Havetok, 8S54. 

ALIRT. Across. (A.-S,) MS. RawL Poet. 137, 

and MS. Douce 323, read alery; MS. Douce 

104 has oiery; and MS. RawL Poet. 38 reads 


Somme leide hir legget aiirp. 
Am twiche lotels konneth. 
And made hir mone to Piers, 
And preide hym of grace. 

Pier* FUmghman, p. 184. 

ALISANDRE. Alexandria. C£ Ellis's Met. 
Rom. ii 36. 

At JUtandre he was whan it was wonne. 

CKaucer, Cant. 7.51. 
ALISAUNDRE. The herh alexander, q. v. 
With oHaaundrt thare-to« ache ant anys. 

Wright J^rie Poetry , p. 86. 

ALUr. Alighted ; descended. 
And deyde two hondred jer. 
And two and thretty rijt. 
Alter that oure swete Lord 

In his moder aliit, MS, CM, Ttin, Qson. fi7. 
ALKAKENGY. The periscaria. See Prompt. 

Par?, p. 10; Higins's Junius, p. 125. 
ALKANET. The wild buglos. See the account 
of it in Gerard's Herhall, ed. Johnson, p. 799. 
It is also mentioned in an ancient receipt in 
the Forme of Cury, p. 29, as used for oo- 
ALKANL Tin. HoweU, 
ALKE. llk:each. 

Now, sirris, for your curtesy. 
Take this for no Tilany, 

But alke man crye 50W . . . Tfu FeeH, xy\, 
ALKENAMYE. Alchemy. (^.-iV.) 
Yet ar ther fibicches in forceres 
Of fele mennes makyng. 
Experiments of tdkenamye 
The peple to decey ve. Pi^» Ploughman, p. 186. 
ALKERE. In the Forme of Cury, p. 120, is 

giren a receipt ** for to make rys alkere," 
ALKES. Elks. 

As for the plowing with ures, wMch I suppose to be 

vnlikclie, becanse they are in mine opinion untame- 

able» and alkett * thing oomroonlie used in the east 

oooatrica. Harri»on*a Deter, qf BtigUmd, p. 886. 

ALKIK. AU kinds. 

Dragouns and alkin depenes, 

Flr«» haU, snaweis. MS, Bodl, 485, (1 88. 

For to destroy flesly dellte. 

And aOrt/u lust of Uchery. 

MS, Hart. 4196, f . 108. 
ALRITOTLE. See Jleatote, 
ALKONE. Each one. 

Then Robyn goes to Notyngham, 

Hymselfe momyng allone. 
And lituUe Johne to mery Scherewodc, 
The pathes he knew alkone, 

MS. Cantab, Ff. T. 48. f. 186. 
ALKYMISTRE. An alchemist. 
And whan this atkymietre saw his time, 
Rlseth up, sire preset, quod he, and stondeth by roe. 
Chawer, Cam, T. 16078. 
ALL. (1) Although. 

.<M tell! not as now his obserraBoei. 

ChaMcer, Cant. T, 8806. 

(2) Entirely. Var, dial Spenser has it in the 
sense of exactly, 

(3) " For all," in spite of. Var dial " m do 
ii for aU you say to the contrary." 

(4) "All that," unta that. So explained hy 
Weher, in ^oss to Kyng Alisaunder, 2145. 

(5) " For good and aU," entirely. North, 

And shipping oars* to work they fUl, 
Like men that row'd >br good and att, 

Cetton*e Work*, ed. 1794, p. 187. 

(6) Each. Pronyft. Parv, 
ALL-A-BITS. All in pieces. North, 
ALL-ABOUT. " To get aU about in one's head," 

to become light-headed. Herrfordsh, We 
have also ** that's all about it," L e. that is the 
whole of the matter. 
ALL-ABROAD. Squeezed quite flat. Somerset, 
ALL.A.HOH. All on one side, mite, 
ALL-ALONG. Constantly. Var, dial. Also 
" All along of," or " All along on," entirely 
owing to. 
ALL-AMANG. Mingled, as when two flocks of 

sheep are driven together. Wilte. 
ALL-AND-SOME. Every one; everythuig; 

Thereof spekys the apostell John, 
In his gospell all and tome, 

MS, Aahmole 61« f. 83. 
We are betrayd and y-nome ! 
Horse and harness, lords, all and tome I 

Riehard Coer de Uon, 8884. 
Thi kyngdam us come. 
This is the secunde poynte al and »ome ! 

MS.Dovce90a,f. 33. 

ALLANE. Alone. 

Hys men have the wey tane ; 
In the forest Gye ys aOane, 

MS, Cantab. Ff. U. 38, f. 174. 

ALL-ARMED. An epithet applied to Cupid in 
A Mids. Night's Dream, ii. 2, unnecessarily 
altered to alarmed hy some editors, as if the 
expression meant armed all over, whereas it 
merely enforces the word armed. The ex- 
pression is used hy Greene, and is found earlier 
in the Morte d'Arthur, i. 215. 

ALL-AS-IS. '< ^tf Of tf to me is this," i. e. all 
I have to say about it. Herrfordah. 

ALL-A-TAUNT-0. Fully rigged, with masts, 
yards, &c. A sea term. 

ALLAY. According to Kersey, to oi^ya phea- 
sant is to cut or carve it up at table. Tne sub- 
stantive as a hunting tenn was applied to the 
set of hounds which were ahead after the beast 
was dislodged. 

ALLAYMENT. That which has the power of 




•Ikying or abating the force of something 
else. Shak. 
ALL-B'EASE. Gently ; qtiietly. Herrfordth, 
ALL-BEDENE. Forthwith. Cf. Minot's Poems, 
p. 34 ; Havdok, 730, 2841 ; Coventry Mys- 
teries, p. 4 ; Gloss, to Ritson's Met Rom. 
p. 360. 

Thane thay iayde a/-&ydefi«. 
Bathe kynge and qwene. 
The doghtty knyght in the grene 
Haae wonnene the gree. 

Sir DegrevanUt MS, Ufieobft. 
Whan thai were wasshen al-bedene. 
He set hym downe hem betwene. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. ▼.48. f. 14. 
ALL-BE-THOUGH. Albeit. Skinner, 
ALLE. Ale. See this form of the word in 
Skelton's Works, i 151 ; The Feest, ▼. It 
apparently means old in the Towneley Myste- 
ries, p. 101. 
ALLECT. To allure; to bring together; to 
coUect {Lot,) 

I beyng by your noble and notable qoalitlei 
alUeted and encouraged, moste hertely require your 
belpe, and humbly desyre your ayde. 

Hairs Unitm, 1548. Htn. IV, t. 87. 

ALLECTIVE. Attraction; allnrement. Seethe 
Brit. BibL iv. 390. 

For what better oUeetiM coulde Satan devise to 
allure and bring men pleasantly into damnable servi- 
tude. NorthbrooMi Treatiu, 1577* 
ALLECTUARY. An electuary. 
jiileetuary arrectyd to redres 
These feverous axys. Sk^ton** Work*, L 85. 
ALLEFEYNTE. Slothful; inactive. Prompt.Parv. 
ALLEGATE. (1) To allege. See Peelers Works, 

iu. 68 ; Skelton's Works, i. 356. 
(2) Always; algate. (A.-S.) 
Ac, allegate, the kynges 
Losen ten ageynt Km in werryngea. 

Kvng Aliamtnder, 6094. 
ALLEGE. To quote ; to cite. 

And for he wold his longe tale abr^e. 
He wolde non auctoritee allege. 

Chttveer, Cani. T, 9538. 

ALLEGYAUNCE. Citation ; the act of quoting. 
Translated by aOeffocio, in Prompt. Parr. p. 9. 

ALLE-HALWEN. Allhallows. 

Here fest wol be. withoute nay. 
After Alle-halwm the eyght day. 

Con*t. t^Mawnry, p. 38. 

ALLE-HOOL. Entirely; exactly. See Reliq. 
Antiq. L 151 ; Sir H. Diyden's Twici, p. 38. 
ABe answers to omninOf and strictly speaking, 
cannot grammatically be used in composition. 
Ane if, MS. Lincohi A. L 17, f. 24. See 

ALLELUYA. The wood-sorrel. Gerard, 

ALLE-LYKELY. In like manner. Prompt, Pant, 

ALLEMAIGNE. A kind of solemn music, more 
generally spelt Ahnain, q,v. It is also the 
name of several dances, the new allemaigne, 
the old, the queen's allemaigne, all of which 
are mentioned in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108, and the 
figures given. See Brit. Bibl. ii. 164, 610. 

ALLEMASH-DAY. Grose says, L e. AUumagc- 
day, the day on which the Canterbury silk- 
weavers began to work by candle-light. Kent, 


Therfore Jacob took grete jerdls of popelers. and 
ot attemaundi*, and of planes, and in party dideawey 
the rynde. WieklfJIHi, MS. Bodl. 277- 

ALLEN. Grass land recently broken up. Suffolk, 
Major Moor says, ** unendosed land that has 
been tilled and left to run to feed for sheep." 
ALLE-ONE. Alone; solitary. 

JUe-ont he leved that drery knyghte. 
And sonc he went awaye. 

MS. JJneoln A. f. 17. f. 109. 

ALLER. (1) An alder tree. A common form of the 

word, still used in the western counties. See 

Florio, in y. Abto; Holinshed, Hist Ireland, 

p. 178 ; Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 1469. 

(2) OfalL It is the gen. pL 

Adam was oure alter fader. 
And Eve was of hymseUe. 

Pier* Ploughman, p. 342. 
Than th^i it closed and gun hyng 
Thalre aUer seles thareby. MS, Coll. Sion. xvUi. 6. 
ALLER-FLOAT. A species of trout, usually 
large and well grown, frequenting the deep 
holes of retired and shady brooks, under the 
roots of the aller, or alder tree. North, It is 
also called the aller-trout. 
ALLER-FURST. The first of alL 

Tho. aUer-fUrgt, he undurstode 
That he was ryght Icjrngls blod. 

Kifng JUiMundtr, 15<S9. 

ALLER-MOST. Most of aU. 

To wraththe the Ood and paien the fend hit 

serveth alltrmoet, Wrighf* Pol, Songs, p. 336. 

ALLERNBATCH. A kind of botch or old sore. 

Bapmoor, Apparently connected with allerg, a 

Devonshire word for an acute kind of boil or 


ALLERONE. Apparently the pinion of a wing, 
in the following passage. Roquefort haso/^rion, 
a bird of prey. 

Tak pympemolle, and sumpe it. and Uke the 
Jeuse therof. and do therto the grese of the atterono 
of the gose-wenge, and drope it in thyne eghne. 

MS, Uneoln, Mod, f. 283. 
ALLES. Very; altogether; aU; even. See 
Rob. Glouc. p. 17 ; Ritson's Andent Songs, 
p. 7 ; Reliq. Antiq. u. 176. 
ALLESAD. Lost. {A,-S.) 

BiselL him wij milde mod. 
That for ous atteoad is blod. 

MS. Egerton ffl3. f. 2. 

ALLE-SOLYNE-DAY. All Souls' Day. See 
MS. HarL 2391, quoted in Hampson's Kalen- 
darium, ii. 11. 
ALLETHER. Gen. pi. of a//. 

Than doth he dye for oure alhther good. 

Coo, Mpst, p. 14. 
ALLETHOW. Although. 

Torrent thether toke the way, 
Werry attothow he were. 

Torrent <ff Portugai, p. 10. 

ALLETOGEDERS. Altogether. 

Into the water he oast his sheld. 
Croke and alletogedere it held. 

Torrent i^ Portugal, p. 68. 

ALLEVE. Eleven. 

Ethulfe in that like manere. 
Wonned at Rome alleoe jere. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. ▼. 48. f. VO, 




ALLEVSNTHE. The eleTenth. 

TtealfaMNfAe wyntur wis wlttUTlr 
Tter aftfr, m tellech us ro« to dy. 

Cmnor Mumdi, MS. Coll. THn. Qmiab, f. 13. 

iLLE-DTELDAND. Omnipotent. 

Thst I before Gods aOewMani 
Wcme fell the Uht of liryend. 

M8, Bodt. 425, f. S7. 

ALLET. The condnsion of a game at football, 
when the ball has paased the bounds. Yorkth, 
Achoice taw, made of alabaster, is so called 
bf bojk See the Pickwick Papers, p. 358. 
ALLETD8. Alleged. 

Whh sDe hire hcrte sdie hhn ptejdt, 
Aad may another cause allude, 
Tbat he with hire at horn ahide. 

GoMMT, MS. Soe. Antiq. ]34« f. 115. 

ALLB.5IF. Altbongfa. SteAOe-JkooL 
Y wyl make 30W no Teyn carpyng, 
JUt fV hit myjte som men lyke. 

MS. Bodl. 48, f. 47. 

dUUFOOLS-DAT. The first of April, when a 
NemtoDi prevails of making fools of people by 
ndiag them on ridiculous errands, &c whence 
k sboTe name. See further in Brand's Pop. 
m. L 76. Hie custom seems to have been 
pvwed by us from the French, but no satis- 
iery account of its origin has yet been giren. 
ALL-FOUBS. A well-known game at cards, said 
by Cotton, in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1 709, 
pi 81, to be ''Yeiy much played in Kent." 
ALL-GOOD. The herb good Henry. Oerard, 
1 Henry IV. i 2, it sunply appears to mean an 
old man with youthful passions. 
ALLHALLOWS. Satirically written by Heywood 
as a sLog^e saint. See his play of the Fonre PP, 
1569, and the following passage : 
Here Is sDOther relyke, eke a preeyons one. 
Of jiB-helowM the Uenyd Jaw-hooe, 
Which relyke, without any fayle, 
Agaynst poy son chefely dothe prarayle. 

Fardoiur and the Frere» 1533. 

ALL-HEAL. The herb panax. See Gerard's 
Hertnll, ed. Johnson, p. 1004 *, Florio, in v. 

ALL-HID. According to Nares, the game of 
hide-and-seek. It is supposed to be alluded 
to in Hamlet, It. 2. See Hide-Fox. It is 
mentioned by Dekker, as quoted by Steevens ; 
but Cotgrave apparently makes it synonymous 
with Hoodman-blind, in v. diffnefmuaet, Ctine- 
mueette. CotgraTe also mentions Harry-racket, 
which is the game of hide-and-seek. See 
Hoodma»^Und. "A sport call'da/2-Auf, which 
is a meere children's pastime," is mentioned 
in A Curtaine Lecture, 12mo, Lond. 1637, 
p. 206. See also Hawkins' EngL Dram. iiL 187; 
Apollo ShroTing, 1627, p. 84. 

ALL-HOLLAND'S-DAY. The Hampshire name 
for All Saints' Day, when plum-cakes are made 
and called All Holland cakes. Middleton uses 
the word twice in this form. See his Worics, 
iL 283, Y. 282. 

ALLHOOVE. Ground ivy. Mhuheu. 

ALLHOSE. The herb horsehoof. See Florio, 
in ▼. Biekio* 

ALL-I-BITS. All in pieces. North. 

ALLICHOLLY. Melancholy. Shakespeare uses 
this word, put into the mouths of illiterate 
persons, in Two Gent, of Verona, It. 2, and 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4. See Ck)llieT's 
Shakespeare, i 148, 197, where the word is 
spelt two different ways. 

ALLICUTE. To attract {Ut.) 

Yea, the very rage of hnmllitJe, though it he 
most ylolent and dangerous, yet It is sooner aUiekatd 
by ceremooy tlian compelled by vertue of office. 

BfU. Bibi. ii. 18& 

ALLIENT. An alley ; a passage in a building. 

See Britton's Arch. Did in y. Alley. 
ALLIGANT. A Spanish wine. See AUcani. 
In dreadful darlLcnesse AUigant lies drown'd. 
Which maxryed men invoke fbr procreation. 

Pampiir* Palinodia, 1834. 

ALLIGARTA. The alligator. Ben Jonson uses 
this form of the word in his Bartholomew 
Fair, iL 1. 
ALL-IN-A-CHARM. Talking aloud. JFiUi. 
ALL-IN-ALL. Everything. Shakespeare has the 
phrase in a well-known passage, Hamlet, L 2, 
and several other placea. 

In London she bnyes her head, her face, her 
fkshlon. O London, thou art her Paradise, her 
hearcn, her aH-ln-aU I TMw on PstoHiv, 1016, p. 00. 
Tbou'rt oil in tM, and all in eVry pert. 

CMmw't IMHfM QlimpM; p. 7a. 
The phrase aU m all with, meant very intimate 
or ftmiliar with. See Howell's Lexicon, in ▼. 
ALL-IN-A-MUGGLE. All in a Utter. Wilte. 
ALLINE. Anally. 

Wisdom Is Immortality's oOiiie, 
And immortality is wisdom's pdn. 

ALLINGE. Totally; altogeUier. (if..&) C£Const! 
of Masonry,p.37; Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 7; 
Rob. Glouc p.48 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 189. 
For hire Ikired snd hire chere, 
Ich hire bon^te aUinge so dere. 

VUar. and Blaneh. 674. 
Ich bote that thou me telle, 
Nottthe thou art alUngUM here. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 127. 

ALL-IN-ONE. At the same time. 
But all te one to erery wight. 
There was sene conning with estate. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 670. 

ALL-IN-THE-WELL. A Juvenile game in 
Newcastle and the ndghbourhood. A circle is 
made about eight inches in diameter, termed 
the well, in the centre of which is placed a 
wooden peg, four inches long, with a button 
balanced on the top. Those desirous of playing 
give buttons, marbles, or anything else, accord- 
ing to agreement, for the privilege of throwing 
a short stick, with which they are furnished, 
at the peg. Should the button fly out of the 
ring, the player is entitled to double the stipu- 
lated value of what he gives for the stick. The 
game is also practised at the Newcastle races, 
and other places of amusement in the north, 
vrith three pegs, which are put into three cir- 
cular holes, made in the ground, about two feet 
apart, and forming a triangle. In this case 
each hole contains a peg, about nine inches 




allaying or abating the force of something 
else. ShaJt, 
ALL.B*EASE. Gently ; quietly. Herefwrdth, 
ALL-BEDENE. Forthwith. Cf. Minot's Poems, 
p. 34 ; Harelok, 730, 2841 ; Coventry Mys- 
teries, p. 4 ; Gloss, to Ritson's Met Rom. 
p. 360. 

Thane thay sayde ai-bydent. 
Bathe kynge and qwene. 
The doffhtty knyght in the grene 
Haae wonnene the gree. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Linooin, 
Whan thai were wasshen al-bedme. 
He set hym downe hem betwene. 

MS, Cantab. Ft. ▼. 48, f . 14. 
ALL-BE-THOUGH. Albeit. Skinner, 
ALLE. Ale. See this form of the word in 
Skelton's Works, i 151 ; The Feest, t. It 
apparently means old in the Towneley Myste- 
ries, p. 101. 
ALLECT. To allure; to bring together; to 
coUect. {Lat.) 

I beyng by your noble and notable qualities 
aUeeted and encouraged, mocte hertely require your 
belpe, and humbly detyre your ayde. 

Hair* Union, 1548, Hen, IV, t. 87. 

ALLECTIVE. Attraction; allm^ment. Seethe 
Brit. Bibl. iv. 390. 

For what better allecHoe ooulde Satan devise to 
allure and bring men pleasantly into damnable servi- 
tude. NorthbroOc^t Treatiu, 1577* 
ALLECTUARY. An electuary. 
Allectuary arrectyd to redres 
These feverous axys. Skeiton*a Warkt, L 85. 
ALLEFEYNTE. Slothful; inactive, Prompt.Parv, 
ALLEOATE. (1) ToaUege. See Peele's Works, 

iii. 68 ; Skelton's Works, L 356. 
(2) Always; algate. (A,'S,) 
Ac, alitgattt the kynges 
Losen ten ageyns Km in werryngea. 

Kyng Aiuaunder, 6094. 
ALLEGE. To quote ; to cite. 

And for he wold his longe tale abrege. 
He wolde non auctorltee aUeg9. 

Chaucer, Cant, T, 9538. 

ALLEGYAUNCE. Citation ; the act of quoting. 
Translated bv attegaciot in Prompt. Parv. p. 9. 
ALLE-HALWEN. Allhallows. 

Here fest wol be, withoute nay. 
After Mle-haXwen the eyght day. 

Conet, t^Maeenrv, p. 38. 

ALLE-HGOL. Entirely; exactly. See Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 151 ; Sir H. Dryden's Twici, p. 38. 
ABe answers to omninoj and strictly speaking, 
cannot grammatically be used in composition. 
AOe if, MS. Lincohi A. L 17, f. 24. See 
ALLELUYA. The wood-sorrel. Gerard, 
ALLE-LYKELY. In like manner. Prompt, Parv, 
ALLEMAIGNE. A kind of solemn music, more 
generally spelt Almoin^ q.y. It is also the 
name of seTeral dances, the new allemaigne, 
the old, the queen's allemaigne, all of which 
are mentioned in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108, and the 
figures given. See Brit. BibL iL 164, 610. 
ALLEMASH-DAY. Grose says, L e. Allumage- 
day, the day on which the Canterbury silk- 
weavers began to work by candle-light. Kent, 


Therfore Jacob took grete jerdis of popelers, and 
of tMemaundis, and of pUnes, and in party dide awey 
the rynde. WUkVJBfe, MS, Bodl, iTl. 

ALLEN. Grass land recently broken up. Sn^olk, 
Major Moor says, '* unenclosed land that has 
been tilled and Idft to run to feed for sheep." 
ALLE-ONE. Alone; solitary. 

jlUe-one he leved that drery knyghte. 
And aone he went awaye. 

MS. UneolH A. f. 17, f. 109. 

ALLER. (1) An alder tree. A common form of the 

word, still used in the western counties. See 

Florio, in v. Jbto; HoUnshed, Hist Ireland, 

p. 1 78 ; Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 1469. 

(2) OfalL It is the gen. pL 

Adam was oure alter fader. 
And Eve was of bymselve. 

Piere Ploughman, p. 348. 
Than thsJ it closed and gun hyng 
Thalre aUer aeles thereby. MS, Coil. Sion. xvlii . 6. 
ALLER-FLOAT. A species of trout, usually 
large and well grown, frequenting the deep 
holes of retu^d and shady brooks, under the 
roots of the oiler, or alder tree. North, It is 
also called the aller-trout, 
ALLER-FURST. The first of all. 

Tho, alier-furst, he undurstode 
That he was ryght kyngis blod. 

Kifng Jlieawtder, 1569. 

ALLER-MOST. Most of all. 

To wraththe the God and paien the fend hit 
serveth aUermoet, Wright** Pol, Songe, p. 336. 
ALLERNBATCH. A kind of botch or old sore. 
Bapmoor, Apparently connected with allerg, a 
Devonshire word for an acute kind of boil or 
ALLERONE. Apparently the pinion of a wing, 
in the following passage. Roquefort has oilprion, 
a bird of prey. 

Tak pympemolle, and sumpe it, and take the 
Jeuse therof, and do therto the grcse of the atterone 
of the gose-wenge, and drope it in thyne cghne. 

MS, Uneoln, Med, f. 883. 

ALLES. Very; altogether; all; even. See 
Rob. Glouc. p. 17 ; Ritson's Andent Songs, 
p. 7 ; Reliq. Antiq. iL 176. 
ALLESAD. Lost. {J,-S.) 

Bisek him wi5 milde mod. 
That for ous aUeead is blod. 

MS. Egerhm 613, f. 8. 
ALLE-SOLYNE-DAY. All Souls' Day. Sec 
MS. HarL 2391, quoted in Hampson's Kalen. 
darium, ii. 11. 

Than doth he dye for oure taiether good. 

Gw. Mpst, p. 14. 
ALLETHOW. Although. 

Torrent thether toke the way, 
Wcrry allethow be were. 

Torrent qf Portugai, p. 10. 

ALLETOGEDERS. Altogether. 

Into the water he cast his sheld, 
Croke and aUetogedere it held. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 68. 

ALLEVE. Eleven. 

Ethulfe in that ilke manere, 
Wonned at Rome aUeve jere. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. v. 48, f. U). 




ALLEVSirrHS. The eleventh. 

Til* aUmr^wthe wyntur was wttturly 
Ther attix, a« telleth us me to dy. 

Ckrmr Mundi, MS, Coll. IWfi. Cmtab, f. 13. 

ALLE-WBLDAND. Omnipotent. 

TlMt I before Oode alUweUtmd 
Wane In the Uht of llTyand. 

MS, BodI, 425, f. 27. 

ALLEY. The conduiion of a game at football, 
when the ball has passed the bounds. Yorkth, 
A dioice taw, made of alabaster, is so called 
b y boys . See the Pickwick Papers, p. 358. 
ALLETDB. Alleged. 

With alle hire hcrte idie hhn preyde. 
And many another cause tOle^de, 
That be with hire at horn abide. 

Cower, MS, Soe, Ataiq. 134, f. 115. 

ALLB-5I7. Although. SeeJOe-hooL 
Y wyl make jow no veyn carpyng* 
Jlle 5if hit myjte iom men lyke. 

Jf& BodI. 48. f. 47. 
ALL-FOOLS-DAT. The first of April, when a 
.custom prevails of making fools of people by 
taiding them on ridiculous errands, &c. whence 
pe above name. See further in Brand's Pop. 
Miq. i 76. The custom seems to have beoi 
trowed by us from the French, but no satis- 
iory account of its origin has yet been given. 
ALL-FOUBS. A well-known game at cards, said 
by Cotton, in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1709, 
p. 81, to be " veiy much pkyed in Kent." 
ALL-GOOD. The herb good Henry. Oerard. 
1 Henry IV. i. 2, it simply appears to mean an 
old man with youthful passions. 
ALLHALLOWS. SatiricaUy written by Heywood 
as a singile saint. See his pky of the Fouie PP, 
1569, and the following passage : 
Here ia anotlier rdyke, eke a preeyoni one. 
Of AU-hOowf the bleMyd Jaw-bone, 
Which relyke, without any (liyle, 
Agaynat poj^ran chefcly dothe pvevayle. 

Pardoner and the Frere, 1533. 

ALL-HEAL. The herb panax. See Gerard's 
Herballf ed. Johnson, p. 1004 ; Florio, in v. 

ALL-HID. According to Nares, the game of 
hide->and-8eek. It is supposed to be alluded 
to in Hamlet, iv. 2. See Hide-Fox. It is 
mentioned by Dekker, as quoted by Steevens ; 
but Cotgrave apparently makes it synonymous 
with Hoodman-blind, in v. CHgnermutett CUne- 
mueette. Cotgrave also mentions Harry-racket, 
which is the game of hide-and-seek. See 
Hoodma»-bimd. "A sport call'da/2-At</, which 
is a meere children's pastime,'* is mentioned 
in A Curtaine Lecture, 12mo, Lond. 1637, 
p. 206. See also Hawkins' Engl. Dram. iiL 187; 
Apollo ShTOTing, 1627, p. 84. 

ALL-HOLLAND'S-DAY. The Hampshire name 
for All Saints' Day, when plum-cakes are made 
snd called All Holland cakes. Middleton uses 
the word twice in this form. See his Works, 
u, 283, y. 282. 

ALLHOOVE. Gnmnd ivy. Mintheu. 

ALLHOSE. The herb horsehoof. See Florio, 
in ▼. BieMOm 

ALL-I-BITS. All in pieces. Nm-th. 

ALLICHOLLY. Melancholy. Shakespeaie uses 
this word, put into the mouths of illiterate 
persons, in Two Gent, of Verona, It. 2, and 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4. See Ck)llier's 
Shakespeare, i 148, 197, where the word is 
spelt two different ways. 

ALLICIATB. To attract. (Ut,) 

Yea, the very rage of hnniUtie, though it be 
moit ▼iolent and dangeroui, yet It is looner alUciated 
by ceremony tlian compelled by vertue of office. 

Brit. Kbl, li. 18& 

ALLIENT. An alley ; a passage in a 1 
See Britton's Arch. Diet in v. Alley. 
ALLIGANT. A Spanish wine. See AUeant. 
in dreadful darkeneiie AlUgant lies drown'd. 
Which marryed men hivoke for procreation. 

Pa»q^iFM PaHnodla, 1834. 

ALLIGARTA The alligator. Ben Jonson uses 
this form of the word in his Bartholomew 
Fair, iL 1. 
ALL-IN.A-CHARM. Talking aloud. Wilit. 
ALL-IN-ALL. Everything. Shakespeare has the 
phrase in a well-known passage, Hamlet, L 2, 
and several other places. 

In L<mdon the bnyea her head, her Ikce, her 
fashion. O London, thou art her Paradise, her 
hearen, her a0-in-ail / J^Ote on Paintings, l<n6, p. 60. 
Thou'rt eilte efl, and all in eVry part. 

CMerff'e IHeUte GMn^mm, p. 7A> 

The phrase all in aUwith^ meant very intimate 
or familiar with. See Howell's Lexicon, in v. 
ALL-IN-A-MUGGLE. All in a litter. WUii. 
ALLINE. Anally. 

Wisdom ia Immortality's aXUne, 
And immortality is wisdom's pdn. 

Jf*dtfle«efi'« Wvrk$, v. aM. 

ALLINGE. Totally; altogether. {A.'S.) Cf.Const. 

of Masonry, p. 37; Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 7; 

Rob. Glouc. p. 48 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 189. 

For hire faired and hire chere, 

Ich hire boujte attinge so dere. 

nor. and Bkmth, 674. 
Ich hote that thou me telle, 
Nouthe thou art daingtue here. 

MS. Laud. lOe, f. 127. 

ALL-IN-ONE. At the same time. 
But all in one to every wight. 
There was sene canning with estate. 

Chaueet^M Dreamt, 670. 

ALL-IN-THE-WELL. A Juvenile game in 
Newcastle and the neighbomhood. A circle is 
made about eight inches in diameter, termed 
the well, in the centre of which is placed a 
wooden peg, four inches long, with a button 
balanced on the top. Those desirous of playing 
give buttons, marbles, or anything else, accord- 
ing to agreement, for the privilege of throwing 
a short stick, with which they are furnished, 
at the peg. Should the button fly out of the 
ring, the player is entitled to double the stipu- 
lated value of what he gives for the stick. The 
game is also practised at the Newcastle races, 
and other places of amusement in the north, 
with three pegs, which are put into three cir- 
cular holes, made in the ground, about two feet 
apart, and forming a triangle. In this case 
each hole contains a peg, about nine inches 




allaying or abating the force of something 
else. Shak. 
ALL-B'EASE. Gently ; quietly. Herefordah, 
ALL-BEDENE. Forthwith. Cf. Minot's Poems, 
p. 34 ; Havelok, 730, 2841 ; Coventry Mys- 
teries, p. 4 ; Gloss, to Ritson's Met Rom. 
p. 360. 

Thane thay iayde al-bifdene. 
Bathe kynge and qwene. 
The doghtty knyght in the grene 
Haae wonnene the gree. 

Sir Degrevante, MS. Lineoln, 
Whan thai were wasshen ta-bedene. 
He set hym downe hem betwene. 

MS, Cantab, Ft. ▼. 48, f. 14. 

ALL-BE-THOUGH. Albeit Skinner, 

ALLE. Ale. See this form of the word in 

Skelton's Works, L 151 ; The Feest, v. It 

apparently means old in the Towneley Myste- 

ries, p. 101. 

ALLECT. To allm«; to bring together; to 

coUect. {Lat.) 

I beyng by your noble and notable qualities 
alUeted and encouraged, motte hertely require your 
helpe, and humbly desyre your ayde. 

maV* VnUm, 1548, Hen, IV, t. 87. 

ALLECTIVE. Attraction; allnrement Seethe 
Brit. BibL iv. 390. 

For what better alUctiM coulde Satan devise to 
allure and bring men pleasantly into damnable servi- 
tude. Northbrookt^t Treatiu, 1577* 
ALLECTUARY. An electuary. 
Alleetuarjf arrectyd to redres 
These feverous axys. Skaton't Workt, L 26. 
ALLEFEYNTE. Slothful; mactive. Prompt.Parv, 
ALLEGATE. (1) To allege. See Peele's Works, 

liL 68 ; Skelton's Works, L 356. 
(2) Always; algate. (A.-S,) 
Ac, allegattt the kynges 
Losen ten ageyns on in werrynges. 

K^ng ALitaunder, 6094. 
ALLEGE. To quote ; to cite. 

And for he wold his longe tale abrege. 
He wolde non auctoritee allege. 

Chaucer, Cant. T, 9S32. 

ALLEGYAUNCE. Citation ; the act of quoting. 
Translated bv allegaeiOf in Prompt. Parr. p. 9. 
ALLE-HALWEN. Allhallows. 

Here fest wol be, withoute nay. 
After Alle-halwen the eyght day. 

Conet, ofMaeonrjf, p. 33. 

ALLE-HOOL. Entirely; exactly. See Reliq. 
Antiq. L 151 ; Sir H. Dryden's Twid, p. 38. 
AUe answers to omrnno^ and strictly speaking, 
cannot grammatically be used in composition. 
AUe if, MS. lincohi A. i. 17, f. 24. See 
ALLELUYA. The wood-sorreL Gerard, 
ALLE-LYKELY. In like manner. Prompt, Pare, 
ALLEMAIGNE. A kind of solemn music, more 
generally spelt Almain, q.T. It is also the 
name of several dances, the new allemaigne, 
the old, the queen's allemaigne, all of which 
are mentioned in MS. RawL Poet 108, and the 
figures given. See Brit BibL ii. 164, 610. 
ALLEMASH-DAY. Grose says, L e. Allumage- 
day, the day on which the Canterbury silk- 
weavers began to work by candle-light. Kent, 


Therfore Jacob took grete jerdis of popelers, and 
of ttUemaundie, and of planes, and in party dide awey 
the rynde. Wiektijfis, MS, Bodl, 277- 

ALLEN. Grass land recently broken up. Suffolk, 
Major Moor says, *' unendosed land that has 
been tilled and Idft to run to feed for sheep.'' 
ALLE-ONE. Alone; solitary. 

AUe-one he leved that drery knyghte. 
And sone he went awaye. 

MS. Uneoin A. f. 17, f. 109. 

ALLER. (1) An alder tree. A common form of the 

word, still used in the western counties. See 

Florio, in v. Atno; Holinshed, Hist Ireland, 

p. 178 ; Gerard's Herball, ed. Johnson, p. 1469. 

(2) Of alL It is the gen. p) "" -^ , 

Adam was oure alle* '^ 

And Eve was of hym. 
Than thai it closed and gun hyn, 
Thaire alter seles thereby . MS, i . jcvili . 6. 

ALLER-FLOAT. A species of ^ut, usually 
large and well grown, frequenting the deep 
holes of retired and shady brooks, under the 
roots of the aUer, or alder tree. North, It is 
also called the aUer-trout, 
ALLER-FURST. The first of all. 

Tho, aUer-fktrst, he undurstode 
That he was ryght kyngis blod. 

Kiftig Jlisaunder, 1569. 
ALLER-MOST. Most of all. 

To wraththe the God and palen the fend hit 
serveth aUermoet, Wrighft Pol, Songt, p. 336. 

ALLERNBATCH. A kind of botch or old sore. 

Exnwor, Apparently connected with allerif a 

Devonshire word for an acute kind of boil or 

ALLERONE. Apparently the pinion of a wing, 

in the following passage. Roquefort has oiW-ton, 

a bird of prey. 

Tak pympemolle, and sumpe it, and take the 

Jeuse therof, and do therto the grese of the allerane 

of the g08e>wenge, and drope it in thyne eghne. 

MS, Unedn, Med, f. S83. 

ALLES. Very; altogether; all; even. See 
Rob. Glouc p. 17; Ritson's Ancient Songs, 
p. 7 ; Reliq. Antiq. ii. 176. 
ALLESAD. Lost (A.-S,) 

Bisek him wi5 milde mod. 
That for ous allesad is blod. 

MS. Egertm 613, f. 2. 

ALLE-SOLYNE-DAY. All Souls' Day. See 
MS. HarL 2391, quoted in Hampson's Kalen- 
darium, ii. 11. 
ALLETHER. of ««: 

Than doth he dye for oure allether good. 

Coe, Myst, p. 14. 

ALLETHOW. Although. 

Torrent thether toke the way, 
Werry allethow he were. 

Torrent <tf Portugalt p. 10. 

ALLETOGEDERS. Altogether. 

Into the water he cast his sheld, 
Croke and ailetogedere it held. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 68. 

ALLEVE. Eleven. 

Ethulfe in that iike manere, 
Wonned at Rome aXleee jere. 

MS, Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 99. 




ALLEVBNTHE. The eleventh. 

Tte alletmthe wyntur was witturlj 
Ther aftir, as teUeth us roe to dj. 

Cmrtor Mundt, MS, ColL Trin, Cantab, f. 13. 

ALLE-WELDAND. Omnipotent. 

That I before Oode aUeweUand 
Weme In the Uht of liTyand. 

MS, Bod!. 425« f. 87. 

ALLEY. The condnsion of a game at football, 
when the ball has passed the bounds. Yariih. 
A choke taw, made of alabaster, is so called 
by boya. See the Pickwick Papers, p. 358. 
ALLETDE. Alleged. 

With alle hire herte adie him preyde. 
And many another cause alltifde. 
That he with hire at hom abide. 

GocMT, MS, 8oc. Jntiq. 1S4, f. 115. 

ALLE-5IF. Ahhougfa. SeeAOe-hooL 
Y wyl make jow no veyn carpyng, 
Mle tif hit mytte aom men lyke. 

MS, Bodl. 48, f. 47. 
ALL-TOOLS-DAY. The first of April, when a 
custom prevails of making fools of people by 
sending them on ridiculous errands, &c. whence 
the above name. See further in Brand's Pop. 
Antiq. L 76. The custom seems to have be^ 
bonowed by ns from the French, but no satis- 
Uctorj account of its origin has yet been given. 
ALL-TOUBS. A well-known game at cards, said 
by Cotton, in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1 709, 
p. 81, to be " very much played in Kent." 
ALL-GOOD. The herb good Henry. Cferard. 
1 Henry TV. L 2, it simply appears to mean an 
old man with youthful passions. 
ALLHALLOWS. SatfaicaUy written by Heywood 
as a single saint. See his play of the Foure PP, 
1569, and the following passage : 
Here is another relyke, eke a preoyous one, 
or jat-heimpe$ the Idessyd Jaw-bone, 
Which relyke, without any flsyle, 
Agaynst poyson chefcly dothe prevayle. 

Pardotur and the Frere, 1533. 

ALL-HEAL. The herb panax. See Gerard's 
HerbaO^ ed. Johnson, p. 1004 ; Florio, in v. 

ALL-HID. According to Nares, the game of 
hide-and-seek. It is supposed to be alluded 
to in Hamlet, iv. 2. See Hide-Fox, It is 
mentioned by Dekker, as quoted by Steevens ; 
but Cotgrave apparently makes it synonymous 
with Hoodman-blind, in v. Clignemutset^ CUne- 
mueeite, Cotgrave also mentions Harry-racket, 
which is the game of hide-and-seek. See 
Hoodman-bUnd, " A sport call'd all-hid^ which 
is a meere children's pastime," is mentioned 
in A Curtaine Lecture, 12mo, Lond. 1637, 
p. 206. See also Hawkins' Engl. Dram. iiL 187; 
Apollo Shroving, 1627, p. 84. 

AXL-HOLLAND'S-DAY. The Hampshire name 
for All Saints' Day, when plum-cakes are made 
aiul called All Holland cakes. Middleton uses 
the word twice in this form. See his Works, 
it 283, V. 282. 

ALLHOOVE. Ground ivy. Mhuheu, 

ALLHOSE. The herb horsehoof. See Florio, 
in V. Biekh. 

ALL-I-BITS. All in pieces. North, 
ALLICHOLLY. Melancholy. Shakespeare usea 
this word, put into the mouths of illiterate 
persons, in Two Gent, of Yerona, iv. 2, and 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4. See Collier's 
Shakespeare, i 148, 197, where the word is 
spelt two different ways. 
ALLICUTB. To attract {Lat.) 

Yea, the very race of huroiUtle, though it be 
most violent and dangerous, yet It Is sooner altickOed 
by ceremony than compelled by vertue of offlc». 

Brit, BM, ii. 188. 

ALLIENT. An alley ; a passage in a buUding. 

See Britton's Arch. Diet in v. AOey, 
ALLIGANT. A Spanish vnne. See AUeani. 
In dreadful darkenesse Attigant lies drown'd. 
Which marryed men Inroke fbr procreation. 

Paavtir$ Palinodia» 1834. 

ALLIGABTA The alligator. Ben Jonson uses 
this form of the word in his Bartholomew 
Fair, ii. 1. 
ALL-IN-A-CHARM. Talkhig aloud. WiUs, 
ALL-IN-ALL. Everything. Shakespeare has the 
phrase in a weU-known passage, Hamlet, L 2, 
and several other places. 

In London she buyes her head, her faee, her 
fluhlon. O London, thou art her Paradise, her 
hearen, her aU-h^-aU I TMn on ToUsMngt 1818, p. 80. 
Thou'rt a// in off, and aU In er'ry part. 

CUb«ry*9 DiHna GttmpaM, p. 76. 

The phrase aU m oBwith, meant very intimate 
or familiar vrith. See HoweU's Lexicon, in v. 
ALL-IN-A-MUGGLE. All in a litter. WUt$. 
ALLINE. Anally. 

Wisdom is immortality's aOine, 
And immortality is wisdom's gain. 

Middttton** Work»» v. 3D4. 

ALLINGE. Totally; altogether. (A,-S,) CtConst 
of Masonry, p. 37; Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 7; 
Rob. Glouc p. 48; Maundevile'sTravels, p. 189. 
For hire faired and hire chere, 
Ich hire bon5te aOingt so dere. 

nnr, and Blanth, 874. 
Ich bote that thou me telle, 
Nouthe thou art attingue* here. 

MS. Laud. 108, f. 187. 

ALL-IN-ONE. At the same time. 
But all in one to every wight. 
There was sene conning with estate. 

Cfuiucer*9 Dreamt, 670. 

ALL-IN-THE-WELL. A juvemle game in 
Newcastle and the neighbourhood. A circle is 
made about eight inches in diameter, termed 
the well, in the centre of which is placed a 
wooden peg, four inches long, with a button 
balanced on the top. Those desirous of playing 
give buttons, marbles, or anything else, accord- 
ing to agreement, for the privilege of throwing 
a short stick, with which they are furnished, 
at the peg. Should the button fly out of the 
ring, the player is entitled to double the stipu- 
lated value of what he gives for the stick. The 
game is also practised at the Newcastle races, 
and other places of amusement in the north, 
vrith three pegs, which are put into three cir- 
cular holes, made in the ground, about two feet 
apart, and forming a triangle. In this case 
each hole contains a peg, about nine inches 




long, upon which are deposited either a small 
knife or some copper. The person playing 
gives so much for each stick, and gets all the 
articles that are thrown off so as to fall on the 
outside of the holes. 
ALLISON. The wood-rose. So at least Florio 

seems to understand it, in v. AU$to, 
ALL-LANG-OFF. Entirely owing to. Nwrth, 
That I have no chllde hidur tUlv, 
Hit b al-Umg9-om Ooddes wille. 
Cwrmr Afvndi, MS. CM, Trbt, Cantmb, t, 64. 
Therby wist thei it was aU« 
Lange one hm, and not one Landavalle. 

MS. Bawh C. 86, f. 124. 
ALL-LOVES. The phrase qf all lovei, or far aU 
love§, L e. by all means, occurs twice in 
Shakespeare, and occasionally in contemporary 
writers. The earliest instance I have met with 
b in the romance of Ferumhras, below quoted. 
Other examples are given in BosweU's Malone, 
viil. 82-; and Nares, in v. Loves, 
And laide to him the rootte go 

To viseten the prisouerit that daye. 
And taid« lir, for a/to 1000$, 

Lete me thy prifooeret seen ; 
1 wole the glfe both golde and gloves. 
And eounsall shalle It bene. Middtehitl MS, 

Aladi, where are you? speak, an if you heart 
Speak, of mil lovnl I swoon almost with fisar. 

A MkU, Nlghf* Dream, ii. S. 

ALL-MANNER-A-WOT. Indiscriminate abuse. 

ALLMEES. Ahns. East Sutsex. See the ex- 

ample under Atmeue. 
ALL-OF-A.HUGH. All on one side. SufoVt. 
ALL-OF-A-ROW. A child's game. Si^olk, 
ALLONGE. All of us. Somerset. 
ALLONELL Exclusively. Cf. Wright's Mo- 
nastic Letters, p. 1 26 ; Supp. to Hardyng, f. 44 ; 
Prompt Parv. p. 64 ; Maundevile's Travels, 
p. 8 ; Morte d'Arthur, iL 427 ; HaU, Edw. IV. 
f. 12 ; Patteme of Painefull Adventures, p. 239 ; 
Minot's Poems, pp. 133, 152. 
Now wold I fayne sum myrthis make, 
AtU-ondi tat my ladys sake. MS. CanUtb. Ff. L 6. 
We spered no^ the jates of citee to that entent 
for to agaynestande the, hot allantif for the drede 
of Darius, kyng of Perse. 

MS. Uneotn A. L 17, f. 10. 

ALL-ON-END. Eager; impatient. Somerset. 

ALLOTTERT. An idlotment. Shak. 

ALLOUS. All of us. Somerset. 

ALL-OUT. Entirely; quite. Minsheuhasitfor 
a carouse, to drink all out. Gf. Rob. Glouc. 
pp. 26, 244 ; Rom. of the Rose, 2101. Still 
in use in the former sense in the north of 
England and in Scotland. 

Thane come theise wikkyde Jewes, and whene 
they sawe thise two thefes that hang by oure Lorde 
one-lyfe, they brake theyte tbecs, and slewe theme 
oOe-owU, and csste theme Tilainely into a dyke. 

MS. Uncoln A. i. 17, f. 184. 

ALL-OVERISH. Neither sick nor welL Var. 

ALLOW. To approve. A Scripture word. See 
Romans, xiv. 22; Baret'sAlvearie, in v. Perhaps 
connected with ahwe^ to praise. (A.-N.) 

ALLOWANGE. Approbation. ShaJt. 

ALLOWED. Licensed. An « tOhwed fool" is 
a term employed by Shakespeare in Twelfth 
Night, 15. InHollyband'sDictionarie,1593, 
mention is made of <<an allowed cart or 
ALL-PLAISTER. Alablaster. YorJtsh. 
ALLS. (1) Aries, q. v. North. 
(2) Also. {A.-S.) 

Thare was crakked many a crowne 
Of wild Scottes, and oOt of tame. 

Minoft Poems, p. 4. 

ALL.SALES. All times. SufoVt. « Sales" U 
of course merely a form of cele or $ele. See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 65. 

ALL-SEED. The orach. Skhmer. 

ALL-SEER. One who sees everything. Shak. 

game. See Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 238, 
where another game is mentioned called all- 

ALL-TO. Entirely. In earlier writers, the to 
would of course be a prefix to the verb, but 
the phrase all-to in the Elizabetlum vniters 
can scarcely be always so explained. 
Mercutlo's ycy hand had ol-to frosen mine. 

Romeu* and Jtdiet, 1568. 

ALL-TO-NOUOHT. Gompletely. Var. dial 

ALL-TO-SMASH. Smashed topieces. Somerset. 
The phrase is not peculiar to that county. A 
Lancashire man, telling his master the mill- 
dam had burst, exclaimed, " Maister, maister, 
dam*s brossen, and ttw*s to-smash /" 

ALLUTERLY. Altogether ; wholly. 
As yf thy iove be set alluterly 
Of nice lust, thy travail is in vain. 

MS. Seld. Arch. B. 84. 

ALLUVION. A washing away. {Lat.) 
ALL-WATERS. " I am for all waters;' L c. I 

can turn my hand to anything. A proverbial 

expression used by the clown in Twelfth 

Night, iv. 2. 
ALLY. The aisle of a church. Var. dial. 
ALLYFE. Although. This form of the word 

occurs in a letter dated 1523, in Monast 

Angl. iv. 477. 
ALL-Y-FERE. Altogether. 

And hurre lappe was hole ajeyu oU-thAre. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 74. 

ALMAIN. (1) A German. 

Upon the same pretence, to furnish them a band 
Of Atmaitu, and to them for their stout captain gave 
The vaUant Martin Swart. 

Drayton, ed. 17S3, p. 1108. 
(2) A kind of dance. A stage direction in 
Peele's Works, i. 28, is, ** Hereupon did enter 
nine knights in armour, treading a warlike 
olrnotn, by drum and fife." 
ALMAIN-LEAP. A dancing leap; a kind of 
jig. See Florio, in v. Chiarantdna. 
Skip with a rhyme on the table fh>m New-Nothing, 
And take his almain-leap into a custard. 

Devii it on As», i. 1. 

ALMAIN-RIVETS. Moveable rivets. The term 
was applied to a light kind of armour, *' so 
called," says Minsheu, "because they be 
rivetted, or buckled, after the old Alman 




fitthion." SeeTe8tYet]]Bt.p.622;HoIiiished, 
Hist Irdind, p. 56; Sharp's Cot. Mysi. 
p. 195. 
ALMAN. A Idnd of hsvik, mentioned by 
HofweO, and also called by him the Dutch 
ALMAKDIN. Made of ahnond. 

And It was an almandin wand» 
That Ilk frut tharon thai fand, 
Almandes was groun tharon. 

M8. Cott, Vespat. A. lit f . 99. 

ALMAND-MILK. Almonds g:round and mixed 
with milk, broth, or water. See an old re- 
ceipt in Warner's Antiq. Cnlin. p. 5. 
ALfilANDRIS. Almond-trees. 

And trees there werin grete folsoo. 
That berin nuttes in ther se«m> 
Sucbe as menne nntemiggis y-call. 
That sote of savour ben wlthali ; 
And of almandria grete plenty* 
Figgis, and many a date tre. 

Rom. (^Ote Rom, 1363. 
ALMANE-BELETT. A part of armour, men- 
tioned in an account of Norham Castle, temp. 
Hen. Yin. in Archasologia, xriL 204. 
ALMANT. Germany. 

Now FuUco oomes, that to his brother gave 
Hb land in Italy, which was not small. 
And dwelt In JUmanjf, 

Harrington** Jriotto, 1591, p. 19. 

ALMARIE. A cupboard ; a pantry ; a safe. 
See Kennett's Gloss. MS. Lansd. 1033. The 
North country word aumify seems formed 
from this. It is glossed by the French ameire, 
in MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab. B. xiv. 40. Cf. 
Prompt. Parv. pp. 10, 109, 315; Becon's 
Works, p. 468. In the latter place Becon 
quotes Deut. xxriii. 17, where the vulgate 
reads batket; a reference which might have 
saved the editor's erronious note. Howel has 
the prorerb, ** There is God in the ahnery," 

Ther avarice hath tUmariet, 

And yren bounden cofres. 

Pitrg IVoughman, p. 888. 

ALMARIOL. A closet, or cupboard, in which 
the ecclesiastical habits were kept. See Brit- 
ton's Arch. Diet, in t. Armarium, 
ALMATOUR. An almoner. 
After him spak Dalmadas, 
A ridie aimatonr he was. Kimg JUiaaunder, 9042. 

ALMAYNE. Germany. 
Thane syr Arthare onone, in the Auguste theraftyre, 
Enteret to Mminm« wyth ostex arrayed. 

M9rt0 Jrthur«» MS. Uneotn, f. 78. 
ALME. An ehn. (Don.) " Askes of ahne-barke'' 
are mentioned in a remedy for "contrarius 
hare" in MS. Lincoln. Med. f. 282. 
ALMESFULLE. Charitable. It is found in 
Pynson's edition of the Prompt. Parv. See 
Mr. Way's edition, p. 1 0. 

I was chaste enogh, abstinent, and alme^fitUe, and 
for otbere [th]yng 1 ame note dampned. 

MS. Hart. 1062, f. 1. 

ALMESSB. Ahns. Cf. Prompt. Parv. p. 117. 
And thus Ail great a/mesM he dede, 
Vfhaot he badde many a bede. 

Cower, ed. 1532, f. 35. 

ALMESTE. Almost. 

And as be priked North and Est, 
I teUe it yon, bim had «AM*fe 
Betiddeasorycare. Chaueor, Cant. T. 19B8S. 
ALMICANTARATH. An astrological word, 
meaning a eirde drawn parallel to the horizon. 
Digges has the word in his Stratioticos, 1579, 
iq>pUed to dialling. Cf. Brit. Bibl. vr. 58; 
Chaucer on the Astrolabe, ed. Urry, p. 441. 
Meanwhile, with sdoferical instmment. 
By way of ashnuth and olmieatttwmth. 

Attmmmar 1. 7. 
ALMODZA. An alchemical term for tin. 'it is 
so employed by Chamocke in an early MS. in 
my possession. 
ALMOND-FOR-A-PARROT. A kind of prover- 
bial expression. It occurs in Skelton's Works, 
ii. 4 ; Webster's Works, iiL 122. Nash and 
Wither adopted it in their title-pages. Douce, 
in his MS. additions to Ray, expUdns it " some 
trifle to amuse a silly person." 
ALMOND-FURNACE. <* At the silTer mills in 
Cardiganshire, they have a particular furnace 
in which they melt the slags, or refuse of the 
lithurge not stamped, with charcoal only, 
which they call the almond fiumact." Ketmett, 
MS. Lantd. 1033. 
ALMOND-MILK. The Latin amigdoiaium is 
translated by almmd-mylke in MS. BodL 604, 
f. 43. See Abnand-milk. 
ALMONESRTE. Theaknonry. In a fragment 
of a work printed by Caxton, in Donee's Col- 
lection, the residence of our earliest printer is 
stated to be at *' the aJmonetrye at the reed 
ALMOSE. Ahns. Cfc Hall, Edward IV. f. 11 ; 
Becon's Works, p. 20. 

He bad hir lore atmot€ dede. 

Legendm CatMicm, p. 53. 
And therto gude in alle thynge. 
Of almou* dedes and gude berynge. 

MS. lAncoin A. i. 17. f. 115. 
ALMOYN. Alms. 

For fteres of the crolce, and monk and chanoun, 
Haf drawen in o roiee his fees to ther almoifn. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 839. 
ALMS-DRINK. '* They have made him drink 
ahn9-drink" an expression used in Anthony 
and Cleopatra, it 7, to signify that liquor of 
another's share whic^ his companion drinks to 
ease him. 
ALMSMAN. A person who Utcs on alms. See 
Richard II. iii. 3. In Becon's Works, p. 108, 
the term is applied to a charitable person. 
ALMURT. The upright part of an astrolabe. 
See Chaucer's treatise on the Astrolabe, ed. 
Urry, p. 442. 
ALMUSLES. Without alms. 

For thef is rere, the lond Is penyles ; 
For pride hath sieve, the lond is atmwiee. 

WHgkfe Pol. Songt, p. 955. 

ALMUTE. A gOYeming planet. An astrolo- 
gical term. 

One that by Ylem and Aldeboran, 
With the almutee, can tell anything. 

Randolph** Jeabnu Lovere, 1646, p. 84. 




ALMYFLUBNT. Beneficent. 

And we your said humbUe servants shal eyermore 

pray to the aimK/luent Ghkl for your prospenis estate. 

Davie^t York Rteords, p. 90. 

ALMTS.DTSSHE. The dish in the old haro- 

nial hall, in which was put the hread set aside 

for the poor. 

And his alm9»-dj/0»he, as I 50U say. 
To the porest man that he can fynde* 
Other ellys I wot he is unkynde. 

Soke 0/ Cwtaaye, p. 30. 

ALMY3HT. AU-powerfiiL 

Pray we now to God dtmttiht. 

And to hys moder Mary bryjht. 

That we mowe keepe these artyeuius here. 

Con$U of Mtuonrp, p. 31. 

ALNATH. The first star in the horns of Aries, 
whence the first mansion of the moon takes 
its name. 
And by his elghte speres in his werking. 
He knew Ail wel how fer Jlnath was shove 
Fro the hed of thilke fix Aries above. 
That In the nlnthe spere considered Is. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 11593. 

ALNER. A purse, or bag to hold money. {A,-N,) 

I wyll the yeve an alner, 
I.mad of sylk and of gold der, 

Wyth fayre ymages thre. Launfat, 319. 

He lokede yn hys eUner, 
That fond hym spendyng all plener. 

Whan that he hadde nede. 
And ther nas noon, for soth to say. Ibid, 733. 
ALNEWAT. Always. See the extracts from 

the Ayenbite of Inwit, in Boucher. 
ALNIL. And only. 

Sertis, sire, not Ic nojt ; 
Ic ete sage o/nU gras. 
More harm ue did ic nojt. 

Wrighf* Pol. Scng9, p. SOI. 

ALOD. Allowed. 

Therfor 1 drede lest Ood on us wUl take ve^jance. 
For syn is now afod without any repentance. 

Townelep My»terie»t p. 21. 

ALOES. An olio, or savoury dish, composed of 
meat, herbs, eggs, and other ingredients, 
something similar to the modem dish of olives. 
The receipt for aloes is given in the Good 
Housewife's Jewel, 1596. See also Cooper's 
Elyot, in v. Tucetum. 
ALOPEDE. Praised. (A.-S.) 

Now they spede at the spurres, withowttyne 

speche more. 
To the marche of Meyes, theis manliche knyghtes. 
That es Lorrayne alofedtt as Londone es here. 

Morte Arthuro, MS. Uneoln^ f. 79. 

ALOFT. " To come aloft," i. e. to vault or play 
the tricks of a tumbler. 
Do you grumble ? you were ever 
A brainlefs ass ; but if this hold. III teach you 
To coma alq/t^ and do tricks like an ape. 

MaaHngfg'» Bmdman» 16S4, lil. 3. 
A-LOFTE. On high. (A.-S.) 

Leve thow nevere that yon light 

Hem a-4oftc brynge, 

Nc have hem out of helle. 

Piera Ploughman, p. 378. 
ALOGE. To lodge ; to pitch. (A.-S.) 
On that ich fair roume 
To atoge her pavlloun. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 898. 

A-LOGGIT. Lodged. (A.-S.) 

I am a-loggU, thought he, best, howioevir it goon. 
Chaucer, ed. Uny, p. 597* 
A-LOGH. Below. (A.-S.) 
Lewed men many tymes 
Maistres thei apposen. 
Why Adam ne hiled noght first 
His mouth that eet the appul. 
Rather than his likune a-logh. 

Pier* Ploughman, p. 242. 
ALOMBA. Tin. HoweU, 
ALONDE. On land. 

For the kende that he was best, 
AUmdc men he gnou j. MS. (ML IWn. Oron. 57. 
ALONG. (1) Slanting. Oxm, 

(2) Used in somewhat the same sense as *' all 
along of," L e. entirely ovring to, a provincial 

I can not tell wheron It was along. 
But wel I wot gret strlf is us among. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 16398. 

(3) Long. 

Here I salle the gyve alle myn heritage. 
And als along as I ly ve to be in thin ostage. 

Peter langtojt, p. 196. 

(4) The phrases vp aUmg and <2otm oibn^ answer 
sometimes ixi up the street and down the 
street. The sailors use them for up or dovm 
the channel. Sometimes we hear togodtong^ 
the words with me being understood. 

ALONGE. To long for. Cf. Richard Coer de 
Lion, 3049, 3060 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 526. 
Alle thou5 my wit be not stronge. 
It isnoujt on my wllle otongv. 
For that is besy ny5te and day 
To leme alle that he leme may. 

Gou>er, MS, Soe, Antiq. 134, f. 109. 
This worthy Jason §ore alongeth 
To se the straunge regionis. Ibid. f. 147. 

He goth into the boure and wepeth for blisse ; 
Sore he is aJonged his brethren to kisse. 


ALONGST. Along ; lengthwise. Somerset. See 
early instances in Holinshed, Hist. Engl, 
pp. 24, 146; Dekker's Knight's Conjuring, 
1607, repr. p. 46. 
ALOORKE. Avny ; out of order, (hi) 
His heed in shappe as by natures worke. 
Not one haire amisse, or lyeth aloorke. 

MS. Laned. 208. {quoted in Boucher,) 

A-LORE. Concealed. 

Whereof his schame was the more, 
Whiche ou5te for to ben a-iore. 

Gower, MS, Soc, Antiq. 134, f. 132. 

A-LORYNO. A parapet walL See Willis's 
Architectural Nomenclature, p. 33. It is 
merely another form of ahtret <l* v. 
ALOSED. Praised; commended. Cf. Rob. 
Glouc. p. 450 ; Rom. of the Rose, 2354. (A.-N,) 
Ones thou schalt Justi with me. 
As knight that wele aloeed Is. 

Gy <lf WarwVce, p. 64. 
So that he bigon at Oxenford of divinite ; 
So noble aloeed ther nas non in all the univenete. 
MS. Ashmole 43, f. 180. 

ALOSSYNGE. Loosing; making loose. See 
the early edition of Luke, c. 19, quoted by 
Richardson, in v. Alosing, 

ALOST. Lost. Somerset. 




ALOUGH. Below. SeeJkffk. 

And wfllett of briddet and of beettef, 
ABd of hir bradyng, to knowe 
Why Mmi* be tflMv* and tome aloft, 
Thi likynff It weie. Pierg Ploughman, p. 941. 
ALOUR. An alnre, q. t. 

Alisaunder rometh in his toun. 
For to wiswn hit matont. 
The tourit to take, and the toralUf , 
Yawtety atomrU, and the coraerii. 

K^ng JUsaundtr, 7S10. 
Into ber dU thai ben y-gon, 
Togider thai asembled hem ichon. 
And at the akmn thai defended hem» 
And abiden bataile of her fomen. 

Gjy qf WanpOte, p. 85. 
ALOUTE. To bow. {A,-S,) Cf. Picra Ptough- 
man, p. 495 ; Lybeaus Disconos, 1254. 
And achewede hem the false ymagei, 
Ai^ hete hem aUmte thereto. 

MS, CoU, THm. Q«on. A7* 
This gret ymage never hli heed enclyne. 
Bat be aJout upon the same nyjte. 

UtdgoU, M8. 8oe. Antiq, 1S4, f. 15. 
A lie they tdialle atoM^le to thee, 
Yf thou wylt ahwt§ to me^ 

MS, Cantab. Ff. li. 38, f. 38. 
ALOW. HaUoo. 

PiUfoock sat on pUIkock hill : 
jtlew, alow, loo, loo ! 

King Lear, ed. 1683, p. 897. 
ALOWE. (1) Low down. (A.-S,) Cf. Conrt of 
Love, 1201 ; Tusser's Works, p. 101 ; DiaL 
Great. Mora], p. 2. 

Do we, sayden he. 
Nail we him opon a tre 

Ac ant we sullen sdnin him 

Ay rowe. ReUq. Antiq, L 101 . 

(2) Tohmnble. Wyatt 

(3) To pndse ; to approve. {A,-N,) 

Cursyd be he that thy werk alowe/ 

Richard Coor do Uon, 4669. 
ALOYNE. To delay. (^.-M) 
That and more he dyd aUtmu, 
And ledde hem ynto Babyloyne. 

MS, Bodh 415. 

ALOYSE. Alas! So explained by the editors. 
A kind of precious stone so called is mentioned 
in the Book of St. Albans, sig. F. L 
Alette, aUn/M, how pretie it is I 

Damon and Pithiat, 1571. 
ALPE. A bnll-finch. Ea$t, Ray says it was in 
general use in his time. It is glossed by 
fietdula in Prompt. Parv. p. 10. 
There was many a birde singing, 
Thoronghout the yerde all thringing t 
In many placls nighthigales. 
And idpn, and finche», and wode-wales. 

AotN* oftho Rom, 658. 
ALPES-BON. Ivory. 

Thai made hir body bio and blac. 
That er was white so alpet-bon, 

L»g. Cathol. p. 185. 
ALPI. Single. {A,'S.) 

A, quod the vox, ich wflle the teUe, 
On dipl word ich lie nelle. 

Reliq. Antiq. il. 275. 

ALPICKE. Apparently a kind of earth. See 
Cotgrave, in v. Cherc^e, 

ALPURTH. Ahal^nny-worth. SecMonast. 
Ang^ i. 198. We still say htgmrth in common 
ALRE-BEST. The best of aH Cf. Wright's 
Lyric Poetry, p. 104. (A.-S,) 
For when je weneth abrobott 
For te have ro ant rest. R$Hq, jintiq. i. 1 16. 
ALRE-MOST. MostofalL (A.-S,) 
The flour of diyyalarle now have y lost. 
In wham y trust to ab^omott, 

MS, AMhmoleSS, f.31. 

ALRE-WORST. The worst of alL (^.-5.) 
Hon, thou havest wicked fon. 
The alro-uforit is that on. 

WHghft l4rrie Pootrp, p. 104. 

ALRICHE. An ancient name for a dog. It oc- 
curs in MS. Bib. Reg. 7 E. iv. f. 163. 
ALS. Also ; as ; likewise ; in like manner. The 
Dorset dialect has oTf, a contracted form of 
aUthi8, (A,.S.) 

He made calle it one the mome, 
Alt his fadir highte byfome. 

Perceval, Lincoln MS, f. 169. 

ALSAME. Apparently the name of a place. 
The Cambridge MS. reads *< Eylyssham." 

With towels of Aloame, 
Whytte al« the see fisme. 
And sanappis of the same. 
Served thay ware. 

Sir Degrovante, MS. Lincoln, 

ALSATIA. A jocular name for the Whitefriars, 
which was formerly an asylum or sanctuary for 
insolvent debtors, and persons who had of- 
fended against the laws. Shadwell's comedy 
of the Sqmre of Alsatia alludes to this place ; 
and Scott has rendered it familiar to all readers 
by his Fortunes of NigeL 
ALSAUME. Altogether. 

He cursed hem there aloaume. 
As they karoled on here gaume. 

MS, HarL I70I, f. 60. 

ALSE. (1) AHce. In the ancient parish re- 
gister of Noke, CO. Oxon.48 the following entry: 
" Alse Merten was buried the 25. dsye of 
June, 1586." 

(2) Also. (A.-S.) 

The fowrthe poynt techyth us aloe. 
That no mon to hys craft be false. 

Const, of Mammry, p. 83. 

(3) As. (^..5.) 

Fore aUe mon^ as je may myn. 

Audeiay'g Poenu, p. 74. 

ALSENE. An awl. It is found m MS. Arundel, 
220, quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 138. Elnn is 
still used in the North of England in the same 
sense. Mr. Way derives it from French aline, 
but perhaps more probably Teut. aeltene, su- 
bula. See Brockett, in v. Ekm, Jamieson 
gives alison as still in use in the same sense. 
ALSO. (1) Als ; as. It occiui occasionally in 
later writers, as in the Triall of Wits, 1604, 
p. 308. 

Kyrtyls they had oon of sylke, 
AUo whyte as any roylke. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. U. 38, f. 149. 
(2) All save ; all but. Midland C, 
ALSOME. Wholesome. 

Tak a halvpeny worthe of schepe talghe moltene, 





and alle the croimnet of a halp«ny life otaUome brede 
of whete, and a potelle of aide ale, and boile alle sa- 
mene. MS, lAneoln, Med, f. 313. 

ALSONE. As soon ; immediately. Cf. Kyng 
Alisaunder, 5024 ; Sevyn Sages, 2847. 

And Pausamy pursued after hyme» and OTerhied 
hym, and ttrake hym thurghe with a spere, and jltt 
Ife-alle he were grevosely wonded, he dyde nojte 
almme, bot he laye halfe dede in the waye. 

AtUander, MS, Uneoln f. 3. 

ALSQUA. Also. {A.-S.) 

The tigne of pet altqua to bring 
Bltwix William and the tother king. 

MS. Fahrjhx 14. 

iVLSTITE. Quickly. 

Unto the porter speke he thoe, 
Sayd, To thi lord myn emde thou go, 
Hasteli and alttUe, 

Robton** Ramancts, p. 50. 

ALSTONDE. To ^dthstand. Rob, Glouc, Is 
this a misprint for at-$t<mde 7 

ALSUITHE. As soon as ; as quickly as. 
For aituWht ala he was made 
He fell ; was thar na langer bade. 

MS. OAt, Vespa*, A. ili. f. 4. 
ALSWA. Also. (A,-S.) 

AUwa this buke lercs to kepe the ten comand- 
mentes, and to wirke noght for erthely thyng. 

MS, CM, Eton, 10, f. I. 
And, sir, I drede me yit aJnoa, 
That he sold have the empire the fra. 

Seoyn Sag€»i 3945. 
Oure lantames take with us almmy. 
And loke that thay be light. 

Towneley My»t. p. 186. 
ALTEMETRYE. Trigonometry. 
The bookis of altemettyet 
Planemetrye and eek also. 

G<w«r, MS. Soe. Antiq, 134, f. 208. 

ALTERAGE. One of the amends for offences 
short of murder. Heame, in gloss, to Peter 
Langtoft, explains it, ** the profits which ac- 
crue and are due to the priest by reason of the 

Item, the b^inneng and thendeng of the decaie of 
thb lande growethe by the immoderate takeng of 
coyne and lyverey, withoughtorder,after mennes awne 
sensuall appetites, cuddees, gartie, takeng of caanes 
for felonies, murdours, and all other offences, a/tor- 
ag«t, biengis, saultes, slauntlaghes, and other like 
abuslons and oppressions. State Papers, ii. 163. 

ALTERATE. Altered; changed. Palsgrave has 
it as a verb, to alter, 

Undir smiling she was dissimulate. 
Provocative with bllnkis amorous. 
And sodainly chaungid and alterate. 

Test, of Creeeide, 227. 
And thereby also the mater ys alterate. 
Both inward and outward substanqrally. 

Aehmole^e Theat. Chem. Brit, p. 163. 
ALTERCAND. Contending. 

The parties wer so felle altereand on ilk side. 
That non the soth couth telle, whedir pes or werre 
suld tide. Peter hangU^ft, p. 314. 

ALTERN. Alternately. MUton, 

ALTHAM. In the Fratemitye of Vacabondes, 
1575, the wife of a " curtail" is said to be 
called his altham. See the reprint of that 
rare tract, p. 4. 

ALTHER-BEST. The best of aU. Ct Kyng 
Alisaunder, 4878 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 161. 
When y shal slepe, y have good rett{ 
Somtyme y had not alther-beet, 

Reliq. Jntiq. i. 202. 
The barne alther-beete of body scho bare. 

MS. Uneoln A. i. 17, f. 831. 
Kepe I no more for al my service. 
But love me, man, attherbeet, 

MS, Coll, CaU Cantab, E, 55. 

ALTHER.FAIREST. The fairest of all. See 
Rom. of the Rose, 625 ; Hartshome*8 Met. 
Tales, p. 82. 
ALTHER.FEBLEST. The most feeble of all. 
Now es to alther-fkbleet to se, 
Tharfor mans lyve schort byhoves ho. 

MS. CoU. sum, xviii. 6. 
ALTHER-FIRSTE. First of alL Cf. LeBone 
Florence of Rome, 292; Hartshomc's Met. 
Tales, p. 85. 

Jlther-flrete, whanne he dide blede 
Upon the day of Circumcisloun. 

Ltfdgate, MS. Sue, Antiq, 134, f. 20. 
Before matyns salle thou thynke of the swcte 
byrthe of Jhesu Cryste alther-fyrete, and sythyne 
eftyrwarde of his Passlone. 

MS. Uneoln A. i. 17, f. 206. 

ALTHER-FORMEST. The first of alL 
For there thai make semblant fairest. 
Thai wil bigile ye alther-farmeet. 

Setfjfn Sage*, 2726. 

ALTHER-FOULLESTE. The foulest of aU. 
That schamefulle thynge es for to saye. 
And foulle to here, als sayse the buke. 
And alther-fbtUleste one to luke. 

Hampole, MS. Uneoln, f, 877. 

ALTHER-GRATTEST. Greatest of alL This 
compound occurs in an imperfect line in Syr 
Gawayne, p. 54. 

ALTHER-HEGHEST. The highest of alL 

I sal syng til the name of the Lorde alther-hegheet. 
MS, CoU, Eton, 10, f. 12. 
Whenne hir frendes gan hir se 
Upon the alther-hejest degr^. 
The! wondride how she thider wan. 
Cweor Mundi, MS, ColL TWn. Cantab, f. 66. 
This es the name that es abowne alle names, 
name althir-hegeete, withowttene whilke na man 
hopes hele. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17* f. 192. 

ALTHER-LASTE. Last of alL 

And atther-Uute, with fUlie gret cruelty. 
For us he suffreth circumcisloun. 

L^dgate, MS. Soe, Antiq. 134, f. 20. 
Hur own lorde, alther-Uutet 
The venom out of hys hedd braste. 

Le Bone Florence nfRome, 2115. 

ALTHER-LEEST. Least of all. 
Hir lif in langure lastyng lay, 
Gladshipe had she alther-leeet. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin, Cantab, f. 65. 
That of the alther-leate wounde 
Were a stede brouht to grunde. Havelok, 1978. 
ALTHER-MIGHTIEST. See Mker^wisett. 
ALTHER-MOST. Most of all. See the Sevyn 
Sages, 3560. 

The mare vanlt^ it es and althermaete agayn mans 
deed, when lufe is perfitest. MS, Coll. Eton. 10, f. I. 
He dud hym ynto the heihen ooste. 
There the prees was eUther-moost. 

MS. Cantab, Ft. ii. 38, f. 99. 




The finte poynta of aUe thre 
Was thia, what thynge In his degr^ 
Of alle this world hath nede teste. 
And 5it men hdpe it altha>-mete* 

Cower » MS, Soe, Jntiq. 134, f. 5R. 
And to hem ipelM I uUhtr-tmoott, 
That ledeth her iyves in pride and boost. 

Oirsor Mundi, MS, ColL Trbt, Cantab, f. 8. 
And 5it mare fole es he, for he Wynnes hym na 
mede In the tyme, and aUhemuute fole he es, for 
he Wynnes hym payne. MS, Uneoln A. L 17. f . 945. 
ALTHEIUNEXT. Next of aU. C£ Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 20; Le Bone Florence of 
Rome, 1963. 
Or tbon art yn state of prest. 
Or yn two ordrys aUher^nui, 

MS, HarL 1701, f. 18. 
Sithcn aiihtmest hoode. 
M dLO beestis thei shul undirstonde. 

CurwrMundh MS* CM, THn. Cantab, f. 11. 
.\ftir Sampson aUhemsMt, 
Was domes-man Hcly the preest. Ibid, f. 46. 

ALTHER-TREWIST. The truest of aU. 
That althtr-trtwUt man y-bore 
To chcse amonge a thousande score. 

CotPtr, MS. Soe, AnHq. 134, f^ 64. 

ALTHfiR-WERST. The worst of alL 
jnthor-wont then shal hem be. 
That for mede come to dygnyt^ 

MS, Hart. 1701, f. 78. 
And thus a mannls ye flrste 
Himselfe greveth aUher-wtrtto, 

Cower, MS, Soe, Jntiq, 134, f. 40. 

ALTHER-WISEST. The wisest of alL 

Oodd that es withowttyne begy uiynge, and es wlth- 
owtteoe ehaungeyng, and duellys withowttyne 
endynge, for he es althir-myghty«sste and althir* 
mpaaete, and alswa althire-beste. 

MS. Lincoln A. i. 17. f. S09. 

ALTHER-50NGEST. The youngest of all. 
Samuel seide, sir Jess^, say 
Where is thin aUher-^ongeet son. 
Curmr Mundi, MiS, ColL Trin. Cantab, f. 46. 

ALTIFICATION. An'alchcmical term. See 

Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit. p. 97. 
ALTITONANT. Thundering from on high, 
lliddleton applies the term to Jupiter. See 
his Works, v. 175 ; Minsheu, in v. 
ALTRICATE. To contend. (Lat.) 

Bishops with bishops, and the ruigar train 
Do with the vulgar altrieate for gain. 

BiUingekf'* Braeh^Martyrologia, 1697, p. 41. 

ALUDELS. Suhliming.pots without bottoms, 
fitted into each other, without luting. An 
alchemical term. 

Look well to the register. 

And let your heat still lessen by degrees. 

To the aludeU, The Alehemiet, il. 1. 

ALUFFE. Aloof; more nearly to the wind. 
This word is of high antiquity, being noticed 
by Matthew Paris. 
jtUifk at helm there, ware no more, beware I 

Taplor'a Praiee qf Bempeeed, p. 12. 

ALUMERE. Bright one ? {A.-N.) 
Ncrfit may be feled lykerusere. 
Then thou so suete alumere. 

Wrighfe L^rie Poefry, p. 68. 

ALURE. A kind of gutter or channel behind 
the battlements, which served to carry off the 
rain-water, as appears from the Prompt. Parv. 

p. 10. It is certainly sometimes used for an 
alley, or passage from one part of a building 
to another. See Ducange, in v. AUorhtm, and 
a quotation from Heame in Warton's Hist. 
EngL Poet. ii. 300 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 192. The 
parapet-wall itself is even more generally meant 
by the term. Sec the examples under Alour. 
ALUTATION. Tanning of leather. Mimheu, 
ALUTE. Bowed. {J..S.) 

That chUd that was so wUde and wlong. 
To me alute lowe. Reliq, jhuio, i. 101. 

ALVE. Half. 

Thys alve men ^e ssolle wynne wel lyjtloker and 
▼or noft. Rob. Ctoue. p. 814. 

ALVERED. Alfred. See the name as spelt 

in the Herald's College MS. of Robert of 

Gloucester, Heame's text (p. 326) reading 


ALVISCH. Elfish; having supernatural power. 

Hadet wyth an alvieeh mon, for angardes pryde. 

^r Oawajme, p. 87. 

ALWAY. Always. 

Daughter, make mery whiles thou may. 
For this world wyll not last alwa^, 

Jette of the W^ddvw Edyth, 1573. 
ALWAYS. However; nevertheless. North, 
ALWELDAND. All-ruling. Cf. Hardyng's 
Chronicle, f. 162 ; Minot's Poems, p. 21,{A,-S,) 
I prai to grete God alufeldand. 
That thai have noght the hegher hand. 

Ywaine and Cawin, 81 SO. 
Befyse beUjt hym God alleweldyng, 

MS, Cantab, Pf. il. 38, f. 185. 
Oure Lord God al-weldynge. 
Him liked wel her oAynge. 

MS, Coll, Trin. Cantab, R. iil. 8, f. 13. 
ALWES. Hallows ; saints. 
And than be-kenned he the kouherde Crist and to hal 
alwea. Will, and the fVerwolf, p. 14. 

ALY. Go. (/y.) 

Mif I he saide, aly bly ve ! 
No leteth non skape on lyre. 

Kyng Alieaunder, 4870. 

ALYCHE. Alike. 

In kyrtels and in copes ryche. 
They were clothed all alyehe. 

Cower, ed. 1538, f. 70i 
ALYCKENES. Similarity. 

And lyke of alyckenee, as hit is derysed. 

Tundale, p. 87> 

ALYE. (1) To mix. (Fr.) 

And if it be not in Lent, alye it with 5olkes of eyren. 
Forme of Cury, p. 14. 

(2) Kindred. 

If I myght of myn alye ony ther fynde. 
It wold be grett Joye onto me. 

Coventry Myeteriee, p. 145. 
ALYES. Algates ; always. Percy, 
ALYFE. Ahve. Cf. Lydgate's Minor Poems, 
p. 115. 

And he ne wolde leve alyft 
Man, beste, chylde, ne wyfe. 

MS. Cantab, Ff . U. 38, f. 88. 

A-LYGHTELY. Lightly. 

A'lyghtely they sey, as hyt may falle, 

God have mercy on us alle. MS, HarL 1701 , f. 30. 

A-LYKE-WYSE. In like manner. Prompt. Parv. 

ALYN. A kind of oil, mentioned by Skinner, who 
refers to Juliana Barnes as his authority. 




ALTS. Hales ; tents. See the Paston Letters, 
V. 412, quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 222. They 
were made of canvas. See the Archseologia, 
xxvL 402. 

ALYSSON. The herb madwort. It is men- 
tioned by Holoet, 1572, as a cure for the bite 
of a mad dog. 

A-LYVED. Associated. 

And whanne the bycche of h«m it moost hoot, jif 
ther be any wolfes yn the coBtr^, thei goith alle ftftor 
hure as the houndes doith after the bycche when she 
is Joly, but she shal not be o-ltfoed with noon of the 
wolfes saf on. MS. BodL 646. 

ALYZ. Isabel, Countess of Warwick, in her will 
dated 1439, leaves a "gown of green alyz 
cloth of gold, with wide sleeves," to our Lady 
of Walsyngham. See the Test. Vetust. p. 240. 

AM. Them. An old form, and still in use in 
the provinces. See an example in Middleton's 
Works, L 351, where the editor erroneously 
prints it a* nit which implies a wrong source of 
the word. 

And make ame amend that thai du mys. 

MS.Doue9 2fn»t.2\, 

AMABLE. Lovely. 

Face of Abcolon, moost fayre, moost amabU ! 

L^dgatifa Minor Foema, p. i5. 

AMACKILY. In some fashion ; partly. North, 
A-MAD. Mad- 

Heo wendeth bokes un-brad. 
Ant roaketh men a rooneth a-tnod. 

Wrighe» Pol, Song$, p. 156. 

Here was Jhetus i-Iad to scole, and overcam alle the 

maistres with puyr clergie* so that everech heold 

himsttlf amadt for he schewede heom wel that huy 

weren out of rijhte muinde. MS, Land, 106, f. 13. 

AMADETTO. A kind of pear, so named by 

Evelyn after the person who first introduced 

it. Skinner, 


Camillus put on a coat of amail, and went arm'd 
with sword and dagger to defend himself against all 
assaiilts. Th€ Forhinate Lovert, 1638. 

AMAIMON. A king of the East, one of the 
principal devilt who might be boimd or re- 
strained from doing hurt from the third hour 
till noon, and from the ninth hour till evening. 
He is alluded to in 1 Henry IV. ii. 4, and 
Merry W. of Windsor, ii. 2. According to 
Holme, he was *Hhe chief whose dominion 
is on the north part of the infernal gulf." 
See Douce's Illustrations, i. 428 ; Malone's 
Shakespeare, ed. 1821, viii. 91. 

AMAIN. All at once. A sea term. The term 
is also used in boarding ; and to strike amainf 
is to let the top-sails faJl at their fuU run, not 
gently. Waviig amaint is waving a sword for 
a signal to other ships to strike their top-sails. 
See the Sea Dictionary, 12mo. Lond. 1708, 
in V. 

AMAISTER. To teach. Salop, 

AMAISTREN. To overcome ; to be master of. 
And now wolde I witc of thee 
What were the bcste ; 
And how 1 myghte a-maistrtn hem, 
And make hem to werche. Pi«rf Ploughman, p. 199. 

AMALGAMING. A chemical term for mixing 
quicksilver with any metal. 

And in amalguming, and calcening 
Of quiksllver, y-cleped mercurle crude. 

Chauetr, Cant, T, 16239. 

AMALL. EnameL See AmelL 
Upon the toppe an em ther stod 
Of boumede gold ryche and good, 

I-florysched with ryche amall. Launfith S70. 
AMAND. To send away ; to remove. (Lot,) 
opinion guideth least, and she by faction 
Is qnit9 amanded, and in high distraction. 

jr&liai0/.437,f. 11. 
AMANG. Among. Var, dial 

He outtoke me thar amang 
Fra mi fkas that war sa Strang. 

MS, Cott, Vetpai, D. vii. 

AMANG-HANDS. Work done conjointly with 

other business. In Yorkshire it sometimes 

means lands belonging to different proprietors 


AMANSE. To exconmiunicate. (^.-5.) 

And the kyng hymsulf was therate ; hii amanttde 

AHe thulke, that derkes such despy t dude and wo. 
Rob, Oloue. p. 464. 

A-MANY. Many people. North, SeeMassinger's 
Works, L 35. 

If weather be fayre, and tydie thy grainc. 
Make spedely carrige for feare of a raine : 
For tempest and showers deceaveth a-meny. 
And lingering lubbers loose many a peny. 

Tu9$er, ed. 1573, f. 55. 
AMARRID. Marred ; troubled. Cf. Deposition 
of Richard II. p. 2 ; Gesta Romanoruro, 
p. 207. 
Eld me hath amarrid, 
Ic wene he be bl-charrid. 

That trutteth to ^the. Reliq. Antiq. ii. 211. 
A-MARSTLED. Amazed .> 

Hupe forth, Hubert, hosede pye, 
Ichot thart a-mar*tled into the mawe. 

Wright* Lffrie Poetry, p. 111. 

AMARTREDE. Martyred. 

And amartradt so thane holie man. 
And a-sloufh him in a stounde. 

MS, Laud. 108, f. 165. 

AMASEDNESSE. Amazement. 

Not only the common sort, but even men of place 
and honour, were ignorant which way to direct their 
course, and therby, through amatodntate, as likely to 
run from the place aflfected, as to make to the succour 
of it. Lambard^a Perambulation, ed. 1596, p. 69. 

AMASEFULL. Frightened. Palsgrave, 

A-MASKED. " To go a-masked*' to wander or 

be bewildered. This is given as a Wiltshire 

phrase in MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 2, in a letter 

dated 1697. 

AMASTE. An amethyst. Rider, Minsheu gives 

the form amatyste, 
AMAT. To daunt ; to dismay. Cf. Drayton's 
Poems, p. 303 ; Florio in v. Spontdre; Coven- 
try Mysteries, p. 294. {A.-N.) 
There myght men sorow see, 
Amatud that there had be. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. il. 38. f. 101. 
And all their light iaughyng tumd and translAted 
Into sad syghyng ; all myrth was amated, 
Hoywood on Bngliahe Proverbf*, 1561, sig. A. vlil* 




AMAWNS. To excommiukicate ? 
With a panyles pun tot to pleye, 
L«t Mho can the pepiU amtumu. 

Reliq, Antiq, i. 74. 
AMAWST. Alinoit. Wea, 
AMAT. To dismay. Cf. Kyng Alisaonder, 
7243 ; Arthoor and Meriin, p. 86. (fV.) 
With thyn aunCer thon makett heer 
Thou ne nii5t nojt me amajw. 

MS. Athmote 33, f . 6. 
Whereof he diadde and was unused* 

€lower, MS, Soe. Antiq, 134, f. 232. 

AMAZE. To confound ; to perplex ; to alarm. 

AMBAGS. Circumlocution. See the Spanish 
Tragedy, L 1 ; Marlowe's Works, iii. 257. In 
an old glossary in MS. Rawl. Poet. 108, it is 
explained by ** circumstance." See the Brit 
BibL iL 618. It is used as a verb, apparently 
meaning to travel round, in the Morte d' Ar- 
thur, L 135. {Lot,) 
AMBASSADE. An embassy. {A,-N.) 
Aboute him there, th'ambattade imperyall 
Were fayre brought unto hU royal dignity. 

Bardyng^i Chronicte, p. 138. 

AMBASSADOR. A game played by sailors to 
duck some inexperienced fellow or landsman, 
thus described by Grose. A Uirge tub is filled 
with water, and two stools placed on each side 
of it. Over the whole is thrown a tarpaulin, 
or old safl, which is kept tight by two persons 
seated on the stools, who are to represent the 
king and queen of a foreign country. The per* 
son intended to be ducked plays the ambassa- 
dor, and after repeating a ridiculous speech 
dictated to him, is led in great form up to the 
throne, and seated between the king and queen, 
who rise suddenly as soon as he is seated, and 
the unfortunate ambassadorisof course deluged 
in the tub. 
AMBASSAGE. An embassy. SAaJk. 
AMBASSATE. An embassy. See Hardyng's 
Chronicle, ff. 74, 95, 186, who sometimes 
spells it ambastyate. In MS. Ashmole 59, f. 
45, is ** a Gompleynte made by Lydegate for 
the departing of Thomas Chaucier into Fraunce 
by hes servauntz upone the kynges ambasaate" 
AMBASSATRIE. An embassy. (A.^N,) 
I say, by treti«e and ambastatrie. 
And by the popes mediation. 
And aU the chirche, and all the chevalrle, 
That in destruction of maumetrie. 
And in enorcse of Cristes lawe dere. 
They ben accorded so as ye may here. 

Chaucer, Cant, T. 4653. 

AMBERD. Scented with ambergris. 

The wines be lusty, high, and full of spirit. 
And amber^d all. Beaumont and Fleteher, iv. 433. 

AMBER-DAYS. The ember days. 

And suflferagts of the cburche, bothe amber-daytt 
and lentes. Bdlt'a Kjmge Johan, p. 41. 

AMBES-AS. The two aces, the lowest throw 
in the dice ; and hence often used figuratively 
for bad luck. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 4544 ; 
Harrowing of UeU, p. 21 ; All's Well that 
ends Well, ii. 3. Howell, p. 19, tells us that 
whenthisthrowwas made, the dicers in London 
would say ** ambling annes and trotting Joan.'' 

This is also the reading of one MS. in Rob. 
Glouc. p. 51. 

This were a hery case, 
A chaunce of ambemue. 
To se youe broughte so base. 
To playe without a place. 

SkeltoH*» Warki, ii. 438. 
AMBIDEXTER. In familiar writing a kind of 
Vicar of Bray. According to Cowell, ** that 
juror that taketh of both parties for the giving 
of his verdict." See Nash's Pierce Penilesse, 
p. 10 ; Florio in v. Dettregtridre. 

And mony faire Juster corant, * 
And mony fat palfray anMant. 

K^g MUaunder, 3468. 

AMBLERE. An amble. 

But Oliver him rideth out of that plas 

In a aofte amblere, 
Ne made he non otlier pas 
Til they were met in feie. 

Ma. JOtmole 33, f . 5. 
AMBLINDE. Ambling. 

Y sett hir on a mule amblinde, 
In the way we dede ous rideinde. 

Olf af IVaruHke, p. 163. 
AMBOLIFE. Oblique. 

And take gode Icepe of this chapiter of arisingeof 
celestiall bodyes, for ther trusteth wel that neither 
mone neither sterre in our amboli/b orison t. 

Chaucer, ed. Vrrp, p. 445. 

AMBROSE. Wild sage. See an old receipt in 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 55 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 11 ; 
Archteologia, xxx. 404. 

AMBRY. A cupboard ; a pantry. See Aumbry. 
Cf. Florio in v. Gazzdra / Skinner and Baret, 
in V. The almonry was sometimes so called, 
the alms being kept in an ambry. See Brit- 
ton's Arch. Diet, in v. Almonry. 

AMBULENDE. Ambling. 

On fayre ambulende hors they set. 

Qower, ed. 1633, f. 70. 

AMBULER. An ambling horse. 

Sire, said Palomydes, we will be redy to ctmduyte 
you bycause that ye are sore wounded, and soo was 
Epynogrys and his lady horsed, and his lady behynde 
hym upon a softe ambuler. 

Morte <r Arthur, ii. 148. 

AMBUSCADO. An ambuscade. Shak. 
Nay, they have amfttMcodoM laid within thee. 
Self against self subom'd, thereby to win thee. 

Oober^e Divine GUmpeee, p. 104. 
AMBUSION. An abuse. 

But this roe thinketh an ambueion, 
To see on waike in gownis of scariete 
Twelve jerdis wide, with pendant sieves doun 
On the groundc, and the furroure therinne. 

Oeeleve, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 8S2. 
Fy I hit is to gret an atnbueion 
To se a man that is but wormis mete. 

Ibid. f. 966. 
AMBYNOWRE. An ahnoner. 

Pet^ es spensere, that dose servesse to gud alle that 
scho maye ; and Mercy hlr syster saile t>e amb^oun-e, 
that gyffes to alle, and noghte kane kepe to hirselfe. 
MS. Uncotn A. i. 17, f. 973. 
AME. (1) To guess ; to think ; to telL From the 
German ahmen, according to Qu. Rev. Iv. 371 ; 
but it certainly, in middle English, is merely 
another form of aimt q.v. In Palsgrave we have 




**Iayme, I mente or gesse to hyt a thynge." The 
meaning is clearly ascertained from Prompt. 
Parv. p. 190, " gessyne, or amyne, ettimOt 
arbitroTf opinor.** Cf. Rom. and Jul. i. 1. 
Of men of annet bold the numbre thei ame, 
A thouaand and tuo hundred told of Crbten men 
bi name. Ptter Langtqft, p. 228. 

And alle Arthurs otte was amede with knyghtes, 
Bot awghtene hundrethe of alle entrede in roUos. 
Morte Arthur*, MS. Lincoln, f. 95. 
No mon upon mold ralji ayme the noumber, 
Al that real aray reken schold men never. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 58. 
Yes, wyth good handelyng, as I ayme. 
Even by and by, ye shall her reclayme. 

Commune Seeretarp and Jalowepe, m. d. 

(2) The spirit ; the souL (A,.S.) See Steven- 
son's ed. of Boucher in v. 

(3) For a third sense, see Warner's Antiq. Culin. 
p. 14. A dish is there called ** douce ame." 

A ME AUNT. Ellis and Utterson propose ada- 
mant as the meaning of this word. The 
Cambridge MS. reads, " Thys swyrde ys gode 
and aveaunt" (A.-N.) 
Therfore my swearde he shaU hare. 
My good swerde of ameaunt. 
For therwith I slewe a gyaunt. Syr Begori, 105. 
AMEE. The herb ameot, Gerard, 

AMEKIDE. Soothed. 

Ande thenne spake he, Ne was not this yonge man 
getyne by me ? YIs, sir, quod she, dowtithe hit not, 
for he is your lawefiilly bigetene sone. Thenne the 
Emperoure was amekide, ande saide to his sonne, 
Son, quod he, I am thi fadlr. 

Geeta Romanorum, p. 177* 

AMEL-CORN. A kind of corn, said by 
Markham to be '* of a middle size betwixt 
wheat and barlie, unlike altogether unto win- 
ter wheat whereof we last spake, but of a sort 
and facultie like unto spelt, whereof we will 
speake next in order." See Markham's 
Countrey Farme, 1616, p. 551 ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Scourgeon ; Floiio, in v. Oriza, It appears 
from Markham that scourgeon is scarcely 
synonymous with amel-com, and therefore 
Cotgrave's account of it is not quite ap- 
plicable. It seems to be the Teut. AmeU 
kore% explained by Kilian/or candidum, and 
the com of which amydon is made. Gerard 
calls it the starch-corn, a species of spelt. 

AMELL. (1) Enamel. It is also used as a verb 
by Chaucer, Palsgrave, and others. See 
Amiled; Beaumont and Fletcher, Introd. p. 
lix; Cotgrave and Hollyband, in v. Email; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 261 ; Twine, ap. Collier's 
Shak. Lib. p. 206. AmaU is a similar form, 
q. V. See an example in v. Amelyd, 

(2) Between. Northumb, It seems to be the 
Icelandic d miUi, See Qu. Rev. Iv. 363, 
where it is stated not to be used in Scotland. 
It is inserted in the glossary to the Towneley 
Mysteries, without a reference, and explained 
" among." 

AMELYD. Enamelled. 

The froDtys therwith amekfd all 
With all roaner dy verse amell. 


AMENAGE. To manage ; to direct by force. 
With her, who so will raging furor tame. 
Must first begin, and wdl her amenage. 

Faerie Queene, II. iv. 11. 

AMENAUNCE. Behaviour ; courtesy. {Lot) 

And with grave speech and grateful amenatmce, 

Hlms^, his sute, his spouse, to them commended. 

Fleteher'a Purple Uland, zi. 9. 

AMENDABLE. Pleasant. 

That til oure lif is ful profitable. 
And to oure soule amendahle* 


AMENDEN. A kind of oath. Si^oVt. 
AMENDMENT. Dung or compost laid on land. 

AMENDS. An addition put into the scale of a 
balance, to make just weight. See the Nomen- 
clator, p. 337. So the modem phrase, to 
make amends. 
AMENE. Pleasant ; consenting. (Lat,) 
Whan that merqr wolde have ben amene, 
Rightwyssenesse gan lUt anon denyo. 

Lydgate, MS. Mhmole 39, f. 20. 
To thi servaunttis of grace now see. 
And to thi son befor hus amene. Tundale, p. 125. 
AMENGE. To mingle. We may perhaps read, 
" And menge it." 

Amenge it with gres of a swyne. 

Ardueologia, xzx. 357. 

AMENNE. To amend. 

As we be wont, erborowe wo crave. 
Your life to amenne Christ it save. 

Horn. <^fthe Roee, 7496. 
AMENSE. Amends. 

To tell you the cause me semeth it no nede. 
The amente therof Is far to call agayne. 

Skelton'e Worke, 1. 226. 

AMENTE. Amend. 

But y leve synne, hyt wole me spylle ; 
Mercy, Jhesu I y wole amente, 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 17. 
AMENUSE. To diminish ; to lessen. (A.-N.) 
See the Persones Tale, pp. 36, 38. 
His mercy Is surmounting of foyson. 
Ever encreaseth without amenueyng, 

Boehae, b. U. e. 31. 
AMEOS. The herb bishop's-weed. SeeFlorio, 

in V. Ammi. 
AMERAL. An admiral, q. v. The word is very 
changeable in its orthography. In the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 11, it occurs in the modem sense of 
admiroL The word ameralti in the following 
passage seems to mean the sovereignty of 
the sea. 
Cherish marchandise and kepe the ameraU6, 
That we be maisters of the narow see. 

MS. Soc. AnHq. 101, f. 50. 

AMERAWD. An emerald. 
An amerawd was the stane. 
Richer saw I never nane. Ywaine and Gawin, 361 . 
Hb ston is the grene ameratvde. 
To whom is joven many a lawde. 

Cower, MS Soc. AnHq. 134, f. 201. 
AMERAWDES. The hemorrhoids. " A gud 
medc3me for the amerawdet^* is mentioned in 
MS. HarL 1600 and 1010. 
AMERCE. To punish with a pecuniary pe- 
nalty ; to inflict a fine or forfeiture. Some- 
times, to punish, in general See Romeo and 
Juliet) iiL 1. 


And yf tbou kaiute not lete thi i^yntei be, 
Unlawful quard oweih to ben anwMd, 

Bo*titu» MS, 8oe, Antiq, 134. f. 898. 

AMBRCY. To amerce (^.-isr.) 
And though ye mowe am«rep hem, 
Lat mercy be taxour. P<«r« Pfot^mon, p. 119. 
AMERE. Bitterly. So explained by Weber in 
the following passage, where the Lincoln's Inn 
MS. reads, ** and gan him beore." Stevenson 
considerB it a noun, nmehirff damage^ a more 
likely interpretation. (A.'N.) 
Oariadai, Dariet brother. 
He hadde y-slawe on and othlr. 
Tanryn and Hardas he alowe with tpere. 
With tweord ryden he dud amen I 
In this strong fyghtyng cat. 
He mette with Dalmadas. 

Kjmg AUmunder, 4487. 
AMERELLE. The translation of umbracuhtm 
in the Canterbury MS. of the Medulla. See 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 301. The corresponding 
term in MS. HarL 2270 is *' an umbrelle.'' 
AMERRE. To mar ; to spoil ; to destroy. See 
the Scvyn Sages, 2266, wrongly glcMsed by 
Weber. (A,-S.) 

He ran with a drawe swerde 

To hys mamentrye. 
And all hyt goddys ther he amerreda 

With greet envye. Oetovian, 1307. 

That we beth ofte wlthinne, 
The loule wolleth amerre, 

MS.DigbyW, f. 188. 
Now thou hast, sir, alle y-herd 
Mou ich am bltreyd and amerd, 

Q^ of Warwikt, p. 16S. 

AMERS. Embers. Yorksh. 
AMERVAILE. To marvel; to be surprised. 
Cf. Hardyng's Chronicle, ff. 73, 120 ; Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 392 ; Syr Degor^, 932; Riche's 
Farewell to Militarie Profession, ed. 1581, 
sig. P. i. (A.^N,) 
And swiftll aethtbe with swerdes swonge thel to-gider« 
That many were amgrvaiUd of here dou5ti dedes. 

WIU, and the Wenoo\f» p. ISO. 
Then spake Tundale to the angyll bryght. 
For he was amcnwU of that syght. Tunda/«, p. 54. 
The bbshope wo« amerveld then. 
And in gret thojt he stode. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. ▼. 48, f. 78. 

AMES-ACE. See Ambet-M. This is the form 
used by Shakespeare. See Collier's Shake- 
speare, iii 241 ; Nares, in v. 
AMESE. To calm. ''Amese you," calm your- 
sdH This phrase is addressed by Anna to 
Cayphas in the Townley Myst. p. 194. 
AMET. An ant. {A,-S,) 

So thycke hli come, that the load over al hii gonne 

As thycke as amettn crepeth in an ameta halle. 

Bob, QUme, p. 89S. 

AMETISED. Destroyed. Sknmer, 

AMEVED. Moved. (A.-N,) Cf. Chaucer, 

Cant. T. 8374 ; MS. Soc Antiq. 134, f. 4. 

But, Lorde, howe he was in his herte anierid. 

Whan that Mary he hathe with childe i-seyn. 

I^gaU» MS, JahmoU 39, f . 39. 
That grievaunce was him no thlnge lefe. 
He was ful sore ameved, MS, Douce 175, p. 84. 
AMIAS. The dty of Amiens. 

55 AMM 

He ran anon, as he were wode. 
To Bialacoil there that he stode, 
Whlche had levir Id this caae 
Have ben at Reines or Amiae, 

Romaunt of the Roee, 3896. 
AMICE. The amice or amiie is the first of the 
sacerdotal vestments. It is, says Mr^ Way, a 
piece of fine linen, of an oblong square form, 
which was formerly worn on the head until 
the priest arrived before the altar, and then 
thrown back upon the shoulders. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 11 ; Nomenclator, p. 159 ; Dugdale's 
Monast. iii 295. The following quotation 
may also be found in an early printed fragment 
in Mr. Maitland's account of the Lambeth 
Library, p. 266. See Ammit. 
Upon his heed the am^te first he leith. 
Which is a thing, a token and figure 
Outwardly shewinge and grounded in the feitli ; 
The large awbe, by record of scripture, 
Ys rightwisnesse perpetualy to endure : 
The loDge glrdyl, dennesse and chastity ; 
Bounde on the arme, the fanoune doth assure 
All sobumesse knytte with humillte. 

L^dgate, MS, Hatton 73, f. 3. 

AMIDWARD. In the middle. Cf. Kyng 

Alisaunder, 967 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 1926 ; 

Sevyn Sages, 179 ; Ellis's Met. Rom. m, 29. 

He met that geaunt Pinogres 

Amidward al his pres. Jrthour and Merlin, p. 301 . 

AMILED. Enamelled. (A.-N,) See the note on 
this word in Warton's Hist. Eng^ Poet. ii. 155. 
And with a bend of golde tassiled. 
And knoppis fine of golde amiled, 

Rom, of the Roee, 1060. 
AMINISH. To diminish. Palsgrave, This is 

perhaps another form of amenutef q. v. 
AMIS. To miss ; to fail. 

Aurelius, whiche that dispeirld is 
Whithir he shall have his love, or amie, 

Chaucer, ed, Vrrjf, p. 112. 

AMISS. A fault ; a misfortune. ShaJt, 
AMIT. To admit. 

And amytting the Iropossibilitle that their cataill 

were saved, yet In contynuaunce of one yere, the 

same cataill shalbedeade, dlstroyed, stolen, strayed, 

and eaten. state Papere, ii. 329. 

AMITURE. Friendship. 

Thow, he saide, tray tour, 
Vusturday thow come in amiture, 
Y-armed so on of myne. 
Me byhynde at my chyne, 
Smotest me with thy spere. 

Kifng Alieaunder, 3975 
AMLYNO. AmbUng. 

Off lady 8 were they com ryde. 
Along under the wodys syde. 
On fayre amlyng hors y-sett. 

MS, Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 6. 

AMMAT. A luncheon. Wett. 

AMMIS. The canomcal vestment, lined with 
fur,* that served to cover the head and shoul- 
ders. Grey fur was generally used. The word 
is sometimes spelt amice, amyge, ammysj 
ammatt &c In French the amict and aumuee, 
and in Latin the amicttts and almuciumf cor- 
respond to the amice and ammis, as we have 
spelt them ; but it is a grave error to confound 
the two, as Mr. Dyce does in his edition of 




Skelton, ii. 134. See also the quotations Id 
Richu-daon, where, however, the terms are 
not distinguished; and Prompt. Parv. p. 11, 
where. the distinction between the two is 
dearly seen; Palsgrave, f. 17; Lockhart's 
Life of Scott, I 309. In the Prompt. Parv. 
we ^so have " amuce of an hare, almucium, 
habetur in horologio dhina seyfientia" 
And hTin moott lowly pray. 
In hit mynde to comprise 
Tboce wordet hit grace dyd saye 
Of an ammtu gray. Skelton'a Work*, ii. 84. 
AMNANT. Pleasantly (?). See Syr Gawayne, 

p. 31. Perhaps it should be cminant, 
AMNER. An almoner. Not an unusual form 
of the word. See Rutland Papers, p. 59; 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 49; Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 18, 19 ; Cotgrave, in v. Aumotnier, 
A-MOD. Amidst; in the middle. Langtqft. 
AMOND. An almond. Mituheu. 
AMONESTE. To admonish; to advise. (A,'N,) 
Cf. Apology for the Lollards, p. 93; Wright's 
Christmas Carols, p. 31 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, 
p. 201 ; Melibeus, p. 110. 

Bot of thas that he amonestea, the whilke er wonte 
for to thynke lyghtly the vengeance of God. 

MS. Cblh Eton, 10, f. 6. 

AMOKESTEMENT. Advice; admonition. Cf. 

The kyng amonestemant herde ; 
Quykliche thennes he ferde. 

K^ng AlUaundtr, 6974. 
AMONGE. Amidst; at intervals, Cf. Ellis's 
Met. Rom. ii. 387 ; Ritson's Anc. Pop. Poet, 
p. 44. The phrase ever amongj in Rom. of the 
Rose, 3771, and 2 Henry IV. v. 3, means ever 
from time to time, ever at intervals. 
Be It right or wrong, 
Theae men among 

On women do oomplaine. Nutbrown§ Maid, i. 
And ever atmm^, mercy ! schecryde. 
That he ne ichulde his counselle hide. 

Cower, MS. Soe. jintiq, 13* f.S9. 
Thai eten and drooken right i-nowe. 

And made myrth ever amonge : 

But of the sowdon speke we nowe, 

Howe of sorowe was his songe. 

Sir Ferumbrat, MiddlfhiU MS. 
Sometyme thei schul be pyned longe 
With hete, and sometyme coid amonge. 

MS. A$hmoU 41, f. 41. 

AMONSI. To excommunicate. {A.-S.) 
To entredite and amonei 

Al thai, whatehi evir be. 
That laJfbl men doth robbt, 
Whate in lond. what in see. 

Wright'e Politieal Song*, p. 196. 

AMONYE. An ointment wherewith the Egyp- 
tians used to embalm their dead bodies. See 
Wickliflfe's New Test. p. 251. 
AMOOST. Ahnost. Wett. 
A-MORAGE. On the morrow. Rob. Ghue. 
AMORAYLE. An admiral, q. v. 

Two hundred knyghtes withoute fayle, 
Fyve hundred of amoratf It. 

Richard Coer de L<Ofi,6846. 

AMORETTE. A love affiur. (A.^N.) Tyrwhitt 

says ** an amorous woman'' in the second of 
these instances, where it may be merely a di- 
minutive, as in Florio, in v. Amorino. Jamie- 
son explains it, Ume-knotSt garlands. 
For not i-dadde in silke was he. 
But all In flourisand flourettes, 
I-paintld all with amurette*. 

Rom. qf the Bote, 902. 
For all so well woll love be sette, 
Undlr raggis as ridie rotchette. 
And eke as well by amorette* 
In mourning blacke, as bright bumettes. 

Ibid. 4755. 
AMORILY. Perhaps, says Tyrwhitt, put by 
mistake for merily. The old gloasaries ex- 
plain it " amorously." 

The seconde lesson Robin Redebrestesang, 
Hail to the God and Ooddes of our lay I 
And to the lectom amorily he sprang. 

Hail, quod he, O thou freshe seson of May. 
Courte qf Love, 1983. 

AMORIST. An amorous person. 

An nmoritt It a creature blasted or planet-stroken, 

and is the dog that leads blind Cupid. [1614, sig. k. 

A Wife, now the Widow of Sir Thomae Overbvr^, 

AMORT. Dejected; without spirit ; dead. (/V.) 
" What sweeting, all amort /" — ^Tam. of the 
Shrew, iv. 3. See Hawkins's Engl. Dram. iii. 
358 ; Greene's Works, L 146 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
app. p. 131 ; Euphues Golden Legacie, ap. Col- 
lier's Shak. Lib., p. 124. HoweU, in his Lexi- 
con, translates all-amort by triste, pensatif. 
A-MORTHERED. Murdered. See the Herald's 
Coll^fe MS. of Robert of Gloucester, quoted 
in Heame's edition, p. 144. 
AMORTISEN. To amortize ; to give property 
in mortmain. (A.-N.) The word amortised 
occurs in the Persones Tale, p. 22, and is ex- 
plained tilled in the glossaries. It may pos- 
sibly bear a figurative expression. 
Let mellerys and bakerys gadre hem a gilde. 

And alle of assent make a fraternity, 
UndJr the pillory a litll chapelle bylde. 

The place amorte^te, and purchase lilierte. 

L^dgate*s Minor Poeme, p. S07. 
If lewed men knewe this Latyn, 
Thei wolde loke whom thei yeve. 
And avisen hem bifore, 
A fyve dayes or sixe, 
Er thei amortieede to monkes 
Or chanons hir rente. 
^^ Piera Ploughman, p. 314 . 

AMORWE. In the morning ; early in the morn- 
ing. Cf. Chaucer, Cant. T. 824, 2491 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 159. 

Knight, he seyd, yeld thebylive. 
For thou art giled, so mot y thrive ! 
Now ichave a-drink, 
Icham as fVesche as Ich was amorwe. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 324. 
Amorue syr Amys dyght him 5are, 
And toke his leve for to fare. 

MS, Douce 336, t. 9. 

AMORYG. Explained by Heame " to-morrow," 
Rob. Glouc p. 234 ; but the Herald's College 
MS. reads "among," which clearly seems to be 
the right reading. 

AMOUNTE. Smeared? Mr. Wright thinks it 
may be an error of the scribe for anointe. 




And I will goe galtbcr ilycbe. 
The shipp* for to cauike and pycfae ; 
Ammmie yt muste be with ttkhe* 
Borde, tree, and pynne. Chutn- Plaifg, L 47« 
AMOUNTMENT. Reckoning. 

Ezamend tham and cast ilk tmomttt$ient. 

Ptter Lamgt^, p. 848. 

AMOVE. TomoTe. Cf. Dayies'i York Records, 
p. 85 ; Chmcer, ed. Uny, p. 364. 
To Flaundres the fled then, full tore ttmofted. 
To erie Badwyn hlr eoutyn nie of bloodde* 

Hardtmg's CSkronlcto, f. IflS. 

AMOWNE. Gentleness. See an old document 
printed in Meyrick's Critical Enquiry, iL 252. 
AMOWRE. Love. See Flor. and Blanch. 524 ; 
Hall, Edward IV. f. 11 ; Gov. Myst p. 50. The 
tom amoun, intrigues, was introduced into 
England in the seventeenth century, according 
to Skinner. 

He luked up unto the toure. 
And merily lang he of amowre. 

Setyn Sagt*,99Gi, 

AMPER. A sort of inflamed swelling. East 
** An^fered fCarmpiedt as ampred chees in Kent ; 
an itmper or ampor in Essex, is a rising scab or 
8ore,allso a vein swelled with corrupted bloud." 
Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. Skinner also ap- 
propriates it to Essex, but Grose to Kent, who 
exphuns it, a " foult, a defect, a flaw ;" and 
Ray gives it as a Sussex word, ** a fault or flaw 
in liimen, or woollen doath.'' A person covered 
with pimples is said in Somersetshire to be 
ampeiy^ while the same word is used in the 
Eastern counties in the sense of weak, or un- 
healthy. Ampred or ampetyi» now applied to 
cheese beginning to decay, especially iu Sus- 
sex ; and is sometimes used when speaking of 
decayed teeth. An ampre'4mg is said in the 
glossaries to be a decayed tooth in East Sus- 
sex and Kent 

AMPERESSE. An empress. 

The nexte jer therafter, the ampertste Mold 
Wende out of this live, as the hoc ath i-told. 

Rob, Ghuc p. 474. 

AMPERSAND. The character &, representing 
the conjunction and. It is a corruption of 
amdper m, and. The expression is, or rather 
WIS, common in our nursery books. In Hamp- 
shire it is pronounced anyterzedf and very 
often rngteni-and. An early instance of 
its use is quoted in Strutt's Sports and Pas- 
times, p. 399. 

AMPHIBOLOGICAL. Ambignons. This word 
occurs in Greene's Planetomachia, 1588. 
Rider, 1640, has *' amphibologie," and so has 
Chaucer, TroQns and Creseide, iv. 1406. 

AMPLE. (1) To go. Apparently a corruption 
of amble. See Watson's Hali£uL vocab. in v. 

(2) Liberal; generous. Shak, 

AMPLECT. To embrace. (Lat) 

With how fervent heart thonld we profligate and 
duM away sin I With how valiant courage ihonld 
we mmpl0et and embiaoe virtue ! Becon't Works, p. 66. 

AMPOLY. Same as otN/m/fe, q. V. 

AMPOT. A hamper. Salop, 

AMPTE. An ant '* Serpku$, a UtteU beaste, 
not unlike an ampt or pismere."— Cwjper. 

Caldcatret a graver moat notable. 
Of white ivory he dlde hla betynease. 
His hande, hli eye, to Just was and stable. 
Of an an^o to grave out the lyknesse. 

LtfdgattTt Minor Po«mt, p. 88. 
Bote as the audits to etchewe ydulnesse 
In somer Is so Ail of bysynesse. 

MS. ColL S. Joh. Omm. 6, f. 9. 
AMPTY. Empty. 

In o gemer that an^tif was, 

Amorwe hy fonnde andjiome 

Two hondred sak ful of guod whete, 

Thej nyste whannes yt come. 

MS. CoU. Trin. Omon. 87, f. 3. 
My ampijf skyn begynneth to tremble and quake. 
MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f, 985. 

AMPULLE. A small vessel (A,-N,) 
A bolle and a bagge 
He bar by his syde. 
And hundred of ofN^ns* 
On his hat seten. Pier* Ptougtman, p. 109. 

Late it stande in that bacyne a daye and a nyghte, 
and do thane that other that sUndis abovene in a 
ampuUe of glase or coper. MS, Lincoln . Mod. t. 283. 
AMRELL. An adnural. 
Whan he herde tell 
That my lorde amrell 
Was comyng downe. 

To make hym frownc. 8ktUon*$ Work*, ii. 69. 
AMSEL. Ablackbbd. Var.dioL 
AMSERET. A consistory court. 

Thow fals boye, seyde the ttejrt, 
Y Bomon the aflbre the amterep. 

Th* Frer* and th* Boif, Ixv. 

AMSOTE. AfooL Prompt, Part, [Anisote?] 
AMTY. Empty. 

Jmt^ place he made aboute, and folc fleu hym faste ; 
A wonder maister he was on, that hem so kowthe 
agaste. Rob, Ghme. p. 17* 

With nalles thicke al abrod, 

Ase thare mi5ten strikie one. 
That man ne roi5te flnde ane amtie place 
On al heore bodie so luyte. 

MS, Laud. 106, f. 99. 

AMUD. Annoyed ; repulsed. So explained by 
Heame, in Rob. Glouc. p. 524, who suggests 
anuid with great probability. 
AMUSED. Amazed. 

Let not my lord be amu**d* Ben Jonton, iii. 131. 
AMWOAST. Ahnost. WUit, In the North, 

the form of this word is sometimes amyagt. 
AMY. Afificnd; alover. {A.-N,) Cf. Kyng 
Alisaunder, 376, 520, 1834. 

But oon oldeknyjt that hyght Gryssy. 
He lefte at home for hys amtf. 

MS. Qtntab. Ft. li. 38, Mil. 
What is thl name, thou swete umjf f 
Gladly wite therof wolde I. 

CW»or IfwfMff, MS. (Ml. Trin, Cantob. 1. 193. 
Ther was mani levdi 
That sore blwepe her ami. 

Arthmr and Merlin, p. 956. 
AMYD. Amidst. In the Deposition of Richard 
II. p. 1, we have amyddie in the same 

Jm^ the launde a castel he sye. 
Noble and ryche, ryght wonder hie. Sir Orpheo, 341. 
AMYDON. According to Cotgrave, " fine wheat- 
flower steeped in water ; then strained, and let 
stand until! it settle at the bottome; then 
drained of the water, and dried at the sunne } 




used for bread, or in brothes, it is very nou- 
rishing ; also, starch made of wheat." It is 
mentioned in an old receipt in the Forme of 
Cury, p. 26 ; Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 10. 
AMYL. Starch. 

Of wheate it made amifl, the making whereof Cato 
and Dioscoridet teacheth. Googifa Hutbandrie, IMS. 
AMYLLIER. An almond-tree. 

The briddes in blossoms thei beeren wel loude 
. On oiy ves, and amjflUerg, and al kynde of trees. 

The Pittill of Susan, St. 7- 

AMYRID. Assisted; remedied. {A,-N,) 

To help the with my power, thow shalt be amyrid 
As ferforth as I may. CAatiear, td, Uny, p. 617> 

AMYTTE. To approach. (^.-5.) 
Any science that is trouthe, 
Y shal am^te me ther-to. MS, Harh S382, f . 1 19. 

AN. (1) A. 

The king of Spayne and his sones, and here semli 

Went with him on gate wel an five myle. 

Will, and the Werwolf, p. 184. 

(2) On. Ct Piers Ploughman, p. 2; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 3 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 11161 ; Rom. of 
the Rose, 2270; SirEghunour, 906. 

Wanne Gy was armed and wel an horce. 

Than sprong up is herte. MS. A$hmole 33, f. 411. 

Thou olde and for-horyd man, 

WeUe lytulle wyU ys the an. 

That thou folowest owre kynge. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. iL 38, f. 219. 
Sche no told him nought al her cas, 
Bot that sche was a wriche wiman. 
That michel sorwe so was atu 

Oy itf Warwxktt p. 170. 

(3) Prefixed to a verb, in the same manner as A^ 
q. T. See instances in Yirgilius, ed. Thoms, 
p. 13 ; Matthew, iv. 2 ; Pegge's Anecdotes of 
the English Language, p. 180 ; Prompt. Parv. 
p. 172. 

m Than. North and East 

(5) If. Sometimes a contraction of and before 
iff where it occasionally means as {/; (Mids. 
Night's Dream, L 2,) and it is sometimes re- 
dundant, especially in the provincial dialects. 

(6) And. This sense is not uncommon. See 
Jennings, p. 118 ; Octovian, 1078. 

For they nolde not forsake here trw fay, 
jin byleve on hys falsse lay. 

Omet, (^ Matonrif, p. 31. 

(7) To give. (A.'S,) Sometimes as ttnnan in 
the primary sense, to fovour, to wish well to ; 
as in Sir Tristrem, p. 173. See Qu. Rev. 
Iv. 372 ; Sir Tristrem, pp. 168, 264. 

(8) A dwelUng. 

So wele were that ilke man. 
That mijte wonnen In that an. 

rior, and Blanch. 258. 

(9) To have. Lane. 

(10) One. North, Cf. Chester Plays, L 233, 
238; Sir Tristrem, p. 150. 

• And but an yje 

Amonge hem thre in purpertye. 

Oower, MS. Soe. Antiq, 134, f. 41. 

ANA. In an equal quantity. Still used by 

Tak jarow and waybrede ana, and stampe 
thame, and temper tharae with wyne or ale, and 
giirit the sekc at drynke. MS. Lincoln, Med, f. 293. 

ANACK. Fine oaten bread. 

Also with this small meale, oatemeale is made in 
divers countries sixe severall kindes of very good and 
wholesome bread, every one finer then other, ss your 
anaeke, Janacks, and such like. 

MarkhanCe Bnglieh Houee-wif^, 1649, p. 240. 
ANADEM. A wreath ; a chaplet ; a garland. 
And for their nymphals, building amorous bowers. 
Oft drcst this tree with anadenu of flowers. 

DrayUm'e Owl, ed. 1748, p. 411. 

ANADESM. A band to tie up wounds. Mhuheu. 
ANAGNOSTIAN. A curate that serveth ondy 
to reade, or a darke or scoUer that rcadeth to 
a writer or his master. Minsheu. 
ANAIRMIT. Armed. Gaw. 
ANALEM. A mathematical instrument for 
finding the course and elevation of the sun. 
AN-ALL. Also. A Yorkshire phrase, the 
use and force of which are correctly exhibited 
in the following stanza : 
Paul fell down astounded, and only not dead. 

For Death was not quite within call : 
Recovering, he found himself in a warm bed. 
And in a warm fever an-aU, 

Hunter'e HaUameh. Gloee. p. 4. 

ANALYNG. Weber thmks this may be a cor- 
ruption of anmhUating, L e. Idlling. See 
Kyng Alisaunder, 2166, **ttnalyng of stronge 
knighttes," but we should no doubt read 
avalynfft descending from or falling off their 
ANAMELDE. Enamelled. Cf. Tundale, p. 64 ; 
Warton's Hist. EngL Poet iL 42. 
Thay were anamelde with asure. 
With terepysand with tredoure. 

Sir Degrevante, Lincoln MS, f, 133. 

ANAMET. A luncheon. HatUs, 
ANAMOURD. Enamoured. Cf. Emar^, 226. 
A grete mayster and a syre 
Was anamourd so on hyre. MS. Harl. 170I, f. 64. 
Al anamourd on him thai were. 
And loved GIJ for his feir chere. 


ANAMZAPTUS. This word repeated in the ear 
of a man, and anamzapta in that of a woman, 
is said to be a cure for the falling sickness, in 
a curious early English MS. printed in the 
Archsologia, xxx. 399. 

ANAN. How ? What do you say ? It is made 
use of in vulgar discourse by the lower class 
of persons addressing a superior, when they 
do not hear or comprehend what is said to 
them. It is going out of use now. It is also 
a corruption of antm^ immediatdy. 

ANANSY. To advance ; to exalt So Heame 
explains it, in Rob. Glouc p. 199. The 
Heralds' College MS. reads avaunce; and 
perhaps we should here print it avansy, 

ANAPE. Apparently the name of a herb. It is 
mentioned in an old recdpt in a MS. of the 
15th century, penes me. 

ANAPES. Qoth. It seems to be some fine 
kind of fustian. See Cotgrave, in v. Velours, 
It is generally found as an adjunct to fustian, 
as in Laneham, p. 31 ; Brit Bibl. iL 403. 
This is of course the proper reading in Mid- 


dleton's Works, vr, 425, ** set a-fire my fustian 
ami apet breeches,'' which the editor propos<^ 
to correct to Negtlet breeches. To mend the 
matter, we actually find ape** breechet set down 
in the index to the notes ! Fostian anapes is 
also mentioned in the Strange Man telling 
Fortunes to Englishmen, 1662. 
ANARWE. To render timid. The BodL MS. 
reads " an-arewest." Perhaps it means, to 
narrow, to diminish. 

He nukith heom wmy with tcharpe launce ; 

Thy men a$uuwUh thy cootintunce. 

K^ng Alitaundert 3346. 

ANATOMY. A skeleton. Lister tells us he was 

so thin he '* was like an anatomy," See his 

Autobiography, ed. Wright, p. 45. 

ANAUNTRINS. If so be. North, In East 

Sussex the form anaimtrins is in use. It 

seems to be connected with the old word 

aumter; so that anauntrma would correspond 

to peradventure. See Rob. Glouc. pp. 206, 311. 

ANBBRRT. A kind of bloody wart on a horse. 

See Topsell's Hist of Four-Footed Beasts, 

p. 420 ; Maikham's Cavelarice, b. tIL p. 80 ; 

Florio, in v. Moro; Diet. Rustic in v. Anbury, 

In tiie East of England, a knob or excrescence 

on turnips or other roots is called an anberry, 

ANBLERE. An ambling nag. 

The meyr i tod, as ye may here. 

And saw hym come ride up anblere, launfidt 92. 

ANBY. Some time hence; in the evening. 

ANCAR. A hormit. See Anchor, 

With horn in every place I have mocbe besynes, 
and also with an ancar to tliat bowse. 

Wright* MonoMtie Letttr*, p. 212. 
ANCEANDE. Anciently. 

Fm men may oppen and se thrugh this kay, 
Wat has been onceofidff, andsall be aye. 

OavU ScientUt, p. 3. 

ANCESSOURE. Ancestor. 

To the and to thi kynde haf the! don honoure, 
Londes liaf thd gyren to thin anemscure, 

Ptt0r LangU^fi, p. 116. 

AKCHAISUN. Reason ; cause. 

A nd for amehaisun of mi sone« 
The more and for is lore. MS, Laud, 106« f. 1 1ft. 
ANCHANTEOR. An enchanter. 
Ac a$»ehantmr £d wyne adde of Spayne wyth hym tho« 
That oonthe hym segge of ys dedes al hou yt ssolde go. 
Ao6. Glome, p. 243. 

ANCHILATION. Frustration. It is so explained 
in an old (^ossary in MS. RawL Poet. 108. 

ANCHOR. (1) A Dutch liquid measure, or cask, 
often used by smugglers to carry their brandy 
on horseback. See the notes of the commen- 
tators on Merry Wives of W. i. 3. 

(2) An anchoret ; a hermit 

To desperation turn my tmst and hope, 
An ondtor^f cheer in prison be my scope. 

Hamlet, ill. 2. 4to ed. 

(3) To hold like an anchor. In the East of 
England, the strong tenacious spreading roots 
of vigorous plants are said to anchor out. 

ANCHORIDGE. A church porch, particularly 
that belonging to the cathedral church of 
Durtiam ; perhaps so called in allusion to a 



ship, of which some parts gave names to the 
parts of a church. Kennetfg MS. Glou, 
ANCHYRCHE. A church. See Heame's gloss, 
to Rob. Glouc. and the Chron. p. 232. It 
should probably be two words. 
ANCIENT. A standard-bearer, or ensign-bearer 
an officer now called an ensign. The word was 
also used for the flag or ensign of a regiment 
or of a ship. The old editions of the Merry 
Wives of Windsor mention on their titleJ, 
** the humours of Corporal Nym and Ancient 
PistoL" See ^so Collier's Old Ballads, p. 31 ; 
Percy's Reliques, pp. 73, 144 ; Leycester Cor- 
respondence, p. 17 ; Account of the Grocers* 
Company, p. 330. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
has anahentf the flag in the stem of a ship. 
ANCILLE. A maid-servant. (Lat,) Cf. 
Chaucer's ABC, 109 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, 
p. 87. 
Tliat she was doughtre of David by discent, 
Sterre of the see and Ooddes owne ancille. 

I^dgale, MS, Mhmole 30. f. la 
Biholde, quod sche, of God the melee aneille, 
With alle my herte obeyinge to his wille. 

L^dgate, MS, Soa, Jntiq, 134, f. 2. 

ANCLE-BONE. A name given by sailors to the 
prickly lobster. Sec Kennett's Glossary, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, f. 16. 
ANGLERS. Ancles. Salop, 
ANCLET. The ancle. North, Sometimes a 

ANCLIFF. The andc. North, 
ANCLOWE. The ancle. {A,-S.) Cf.Arthour 
and Merlin, 5206. 

In blood he stode, ich it abowe. 
Of horse and man into the anelowe. 

ANCOME. A small ulcerous swelling, formed 
unexpectedly. Rider translates it morbus ad- 
ventitiut. According to Diet. Rustic, "a 
swelling or bump that is hard and hot." See 
Estward Hoe, iii. 1 ; Qu. Rev. Iv. 372. In 
Scotland, an attack of disease is called an on- 
come; and in a curious MS. of old receipts in 
Lincoln Cathedral, f. 300, is one '* for onkome 
one arme," which agrees with what Mr. Gamett 
says of the form of the word in the place just 
dted. See (Income, 
ANCONY. A term in the iron works for a bloom, 
wrought into the figure of a flat iron bar, about 
three feet in length, with a square rough knob 
on each end. See Kennett's MS. Gloss, f. 16. 
In Staffordshire one of these knobs is called an 
ancony-endf the other a mocket-head, 
ANCRE. An anchor. 

Right so fareth Love, tiiat selde in one 
Hoideth his anere, tor right anone. 
Whan thei in ese wene best to live. 
They ben with tempest all for-drive. 

Rom. nfth9 Rm0, 3780. 

ANCRES. A female anchoret, or hermit. The 
term ancre is applied to a nun in Reliq. Antiq. 
ii. 1 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 380. Palsgrave, f. 17, has, 
^^AnchrCf a religious man ; anchretf a religious 
Nowe wyll I ta](e the mantell and the rynge. 
And become an onertMe in my ly vynge. 

Squ^ of Lowe Degri, 956, 




Or for wh«t aiu«e she may no husband havt* 
But lire an anerttM in so strict a roome. 

Ue^wcodTs Grmt Britaiitea Trap, 1009, p. 95. 

ANCYLE. A kind of javdin or dart, or the 
leather thong with which it is thrown. 
AND. (1) U. North. 

So wole Crist of his curteisle, 
jtnd men erye hym mercy« 
Boihe forgyve and foryete. 

Fiert PUtughmoH, p. 96S. 

2) Used redondantly in old ballads. 
Robin Hood he was, and a tall young man, 

And fifteen winters old. RMn Hood, ii. 12. 

(3) Breath. See jia$tde. (IsL) 

Myn ees are woren bothe marke and blynd, 
llyn and b short, I want wynde, 
Thus has age dystroed my kynd. 

ToumeUw My$t«rie*, p. 154. 
Thai rested than a Utel stound. 
For to tak thair •nda tham tlU, 
And that was with thair bother will. 

Yw«kine and Qawin, 3555. 
Ryghte es it by prayere als by draweyng of and*, 
for ever to femyng of oure bodily lyfe us nedis to 
drawe oure oiute, that es, to drawe ayere. 

MS. Uneoln A. 1. 17* f. 850. 

AND-AW. Also; likewise. North, 
ANDEDE. (1) Indeed. So explained by Heame ; 
but see Rob. Glouc p. 320, where it is "an 
dede,'' L e. a deed. 
(2) Confessed. Verstegan, 
ANDELONO. Lengthways. (^.-5.) 
AndoUmg, nouht overthwert. 
His nose went imto the stert. Uavlok, 9822. 
ANDERSMAS. The mass or festival of St An- 

drew. Yorkih, 
ANDERSMEAT. An afternoon's luncheon. 

Cf. Florio in y. Mer&nda. See also Aunder, 
ANDESITH. Previously. (^.-&) 
Affrik that es the tother parti. 
That andoHth was cald Libi. 

MS, out. Vmptu. A. iU. f. 13. 

ANDIRONS. The ornamental irons on each 
side of the hearth in old houses, which were 
accompanied with small rests for the ends 
of the logs. The latter were sometimes 
called dog8t but the term andirons firequently 
included both, as in the proverb reconled by 
Howell, " Bauds and attomeyes, like andynmt, 
the one hold$ thestici»t the other their clients, 
till they consume." Mr. J. G. Nichols, glossary 
to the Unton Inventories, considers the doffg 
to be synonymous with the creepers, q. v. but 
the term was also applied to part of the and- 
irons, and the latter are still called andogt in 
the Western counties. We find in Ducange, 
" andena est ferrum, supra quod opponuntur 
ligna in igne, quod alio nomine dicitur hyper- 
pyrgium ;" and Miege makes the andiron and 
dog synonymous. The andirons were some- 
times made of superior metal, or gilt, and of 
very large dimensions. See Malone's Shake- 
speare, xiiL 85 ; Reliq. Antiq. iL 84 ; Halle of 
John Halle, i. 600 ; The Alchemist, v. 1. 

ANDULEES. Puddings made of hog's guts and 
spice. They are mentioned in an old MS. 
printed inthe Archseologia, xiii. 371, 388. 

ANDUR. EHher. (Don.) 

Thow I me to townwaid drawe, 

Jndur to lurke or to leyke. 
The wyves wil out me drawe. 
And dere me with her doggus grete. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. y. 48, f. 110. 

ANDYRS. Other. {A,'S,) The more usual form 
is endres, as in the Lincoln MS. t 149. See 
a similar phrase in Sharp's Coventry Myst. p. 
113. Jamieson explains it St Andrew's day, 
the 30th of November ; but it is difficult to 
reconcile this explanation with the " mery 
momyng of May," 

As I me went thb andifn day. 

Fast on my way roakyng my mone. 
In a mery momyng of May, 
Be Himtley bankes myself alone. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. t. 48. f. 116. 

ANE. (1) A beard of com. See an account of 
different kinds of wheat, and the ones, in 
Fitzharbert's Booke of Husbandrie, ed. 1598, 
p. 22. See Jane. 

(2) One; a. CI Hartshome's Met. Tales, p. 
47 ; Cokwold's Daunce, 194 ; Ritson's Anc. 

p. 23. 
The kyng of Charturs was tane. 
And other Sarsyns many ane. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. 11. 38, f. 168. 
Thay faht wiht Heraud everilk ane, 
Wiht gud wil thay wald him slane. 

Guy </ Warwiek, MiddlehUl MS. 
And souner to many then to ane. 
That here hath the rljt trouthe tane. 

MS, BodU 48, f . 57. 
Thus was Thow aye and evere salle be, 
Thre yn ane, and ane yn thre. 

MS, Limeoin A. i. 17, f. 189. 

(3) Alone. " Bi hyme ane," by himself. 

And he lighte olf his horae, and went hi hyme ane 
to the Jewes, and knelld downe to the erthe, and 
wlrchlppede Uie hye name of Oodd. 

14/b of Alexander, MS, Uneoln, f. 6. 

(4) A. See n». 2. 

Alas ! thou sell Fraunce, for the may thunche shome. 
That ane fewe fuUaris maketh ou so tcnne. 

Wrighfe PolitUxa Songe, p. 194. 
(b) Own. North, 

(6) To aim at. Somerset, 

(7) On. 

The heade and armes hangynge on the one syde of 
the horse, and the leggeg an« the other syde, and all 
byspryncled wyth myre and bloude. 

Halt, Richard III, f. 34. 

ANEAOUST. Near to; almost. Herrfordsh, 

ANEAR. (1) Near. Somerset, Richardson quotes 
an example of this word from Bishop Atter- 
bury, Let. 50. 

(2) To approach. 

I hyre say that all men that wylbe swome unto 
hym, they shall take noo hurte by hym, ne by none 
that is toward hym ; by meanes whereof diverse hus- 
bandmen aneryth unto hym, for fere of lostys of 
ther goodes. State Papers, 11. 9U0. 

ANEARST. Near. Exmoor, The more com- 
mon Somersetshire form is aneast, Nares says 
aneirst, a provincial term for the nearest way. 
See his Gloss, in v. Jn-heirs. 

ANEATH. Beneath. North, 

ANE-BAK. Aback. Gaw, 

ANEDE. United; made one. At f. 227 of the 




lineolii MS. anede is giyen as the tranBUtion 

We may noglite hafe the ru of hit luf here In ful- 
ftlliQg, bot we may hafe a detyre and a gret jernyng 
for to be proMDt to hym for to te hym in his Uyue, 
. and to be onedc to hym in lufe. 

JtfSr. UnaUn A. i. 17, f. 826. 
ANE-END. Upright ; not lying down ; on one 
end. When applied to a four-footed animal, it 
means rearing, or what the heralds call ram- 
pant. Vttr. dud. In Cheshire, it signifies per- 
petually, evermore. In some glossaries the or- 
thography is anind, Cotgrave has ** to make 
one's haire stand atmend" in t. Jhwir, 
AXEHEDE. Unity. 

For God wald ay with the Fader and the Son, 
And with the Haly Gatt in anehede won. 

MS. Hart. 4196, f.n&. 
Dere ftende, wit thou wele that the ende and the 
■oreraynt^ of perfecdone standee in a verray anehede 
of Godd and of manes saule, by perf yte charyt^. 

3fS.LineolfiA.i. 17, f.919. 
ANELACE. A kind of knife or dagger, usually 
worn at the girdle. It is mentioned by 
Matt. Paris, who seems to say it was for- 
bidden priests to wear. See Ducange, in v. 
Anelacma / HaDe of John HaUe, i. 212. 
At tcMJoos ther was he lord and sire ; 
Fnl often time he was knight of the shire. 
An mmehtee and a gipciere all of sillc 
Heng at his girdel, white as morwe milk. 

Oumeer, Cant. T. 350. 
Sdie schare a-to hur own halse 
Wyth an analasM, MS. Cantab, Ff. ii. 38. f. 94. 
Bot Arthur with ane anlaee egerly sroyttei, 
And hittes ever in the hulke up to the hiites. 

IfoKe Arthure» MS. Uncoln, f. tt. 

ANELAYE. To gape. This word occurs in an 
old vocabulary in MS. HarL 219 of the fif- 
teenth century, as the transktion of the French 
verb " beer." 
ANELE. (1) To anomt with holy oiL Cf. 
Prompt. Parv. p. 11 ; Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 34. See AneUng. 
(2) To temper in the fire. Cf. Ashmole's Theat. 
Chem. Brit. p. 96 ; Baret's Alvearie, in v. 
So as the fyre it hath anelid, 
LIche unto slym whiche is congeled. 

Gower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 194. 

ANELEDE. Approached. {A.-S.) 

Bothe wyth buUec and beret, and bores otherquyle, 
And etaynes, that hym ane/erfe, of the he5e felle. 
Sjfr Gatoajme, p. S8. 

ANELING. (1) An animal that brings forth one 
young at a time. 

Their ewet also are so AiU of Increase, that some 
dos usnallie bring foorth two, three, or foure lambes 
at once, whereby they account our antlingt, which 
are such as bring foorth but one at once, rather bar- 
ren than to be kept for anie gaine. 

Harrison's Dese. of Brit. p. 42. 

(2) The sacrament of anointing. Cf. Sir 
T. More's Works, p. 345; Brit. Bibl. ii. 532. 
These clerkys kalle hyt oynament, 
On Englys hyt ys anelyng. MS, Harl. 1701, f. 74. 

ANELY. Only ; alone ; solitary. 
And that it be for chastiing 
Ano^f, and for none other thing. 

MS. Cutt, Oalba E. Ix. f. 70. 

Wharfore oar leredy mayden Mary 
Was in pryv^ place anefy, 

MS. BibU Coll. sum. xvUi. 0. 
So meilr the Infe of hlr was soghte. 
To dede thay were nere dyghte. 

Worldes men that sees haly men have thaire hope 
anelp in thyng that et nog ht In sight. 

MS. ColL Eton. 10, t, 40. 
Sir, 5elif an an/yUfe, 
We wald 50W rede to wed a wife. 

MS. Cott. GoOa E. ix. f. 9X 
ANELYNES. Solitariness. 

Noghte in delytes, bot in penance ; noghte in 
wantone Joyeynge, bot in bytter gretynge ; noghte 
onange many, bot in anelifnes, 

MS. Uncoln A. 1. 17, f. lSi3. 

ANEMIS. Lest. Ray, under the word tpar, 
says, " This word is also used in Norfolk, where 
they say spar the door anemis he come,i. e. shut 
the door lest he come in.'' It does not appear 
that this word is stiU in use. 
ANEMPST. With respect to; concerning. See 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 167 ; Rutland 
Papers, pp. 5, 14, where it is used in the same 
sense as anenat^ q. v. 

And wee humbly l>eseech your highnes wee may 

knowe your Graces pleasure howe wee sliall order 

ourselves anempst your graces saydcytie and castell, 

for our discharge. State Papers, il. 904. 

In the tother seven bene 

Anemptes our neyhebour, y wene. 

jrS.BMf/. 48, f.63. 
AN-END. Onwards; towards the end. A 
Norfolk down calls to his companion " to go 
an-end" when he wants him to go forward. 
See the Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 4. In some 
counties we have the expression '* to go right 
an-end" i. e. to go straight forward without 
delay in any project. 
ANENDIE. To finish. [Amendie?] 
And thene at then ende, 

Hereaunnen a1 anendie. MS. iXffty 86, f. 198. 
ANENS. Chains ; fetters. 

Now er his anens wrouht of silvere wele over gilt ; 
Dayet that therof rouht, his was alle the giit. 

Peter Langt^ft, p. 167. 

ANENST. Against ; opposite to ; over against. 
"£r opponto ecclena, Anglice, catena the 
cherche."— MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B i. f. 84. It is 
also used in the sense oif concerning. See 
Plumpton Correspondence, pp. 7, 172; Apo- 
logy for the Lollards, pp. 29, 80 ; Wright's 
Monastic Letters, p. 54 ; Florio, in v. Ardnda a 
rdnda ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 298. 

Tak thane and mye it smaUe, and do It alle to* 
gedir, and mak it In a playster, and lay It one thi 
breste anense thi hert. MS. MedUir„ Cath. Line. f. 989. 

ANENT. Over against ; immediately opposite. 
Watson says it is common in Halifax to hear 
the expression oppoaite anent. The Scottish 
meaning ccnceming does not appear to be now 
used in Yorkshire. Anentia occurs in Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 47, in the sense of concemtng ; and in 
Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 170, in the sense of 
agamai. See also Wickliffe's New Test. p. 23 ; 
Plumpton Corresp. p. 77. 

Of that doun-cast we may hi chaunce 
Anent this world get coveraunce. 

Cttrsor MMndi, MS, Cantab, 1 141. 




Abstinence !■ than ryght dere anentfte God. 

MS, HarU 6S80. 
ANEOUST. Near; almost. Var. dial, 
ANERDIS. Adheres ; dwells with. Gaw, 
ANERLUD. Adorned? 
With miche and nevyn. 

Anfhtd with ermyn. MS. Cantab. Ft. 1. 6, f. 84. 

ANERN. See Kyng Alisaunder, 560, where 

Weber conjectures awm, doubting whether it 

should not be an ern, i. e. an eagle. 

ANERRE. To draw near to; to approach. See 


As long as the gale puffbth full in your sailes, doubt 
not but diverse «ri11 anerre unto you» and feed on 
you as Crowes on carlon. 

Stanihurst*s HUt, of Ireland, p. 90. 
ANERTHE. On the earth. Cf. Rob. Glouc 
pp.311, 441 ; Bkck's Cat. of Ashmol. MSS. 
col. 67 ; St. Brandan, p. 3. 
After that God anerthe com 
Aboute vif hondred 5ere. MS. A»hmole 43, f. ITS. 
ANES. (1) Just like; simihirto. Somerset, In 
the same county we have anes-to, almost, ex- 
cept, aU but. 
(2) Once. Cf. Ywaine and Gawin, 292 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. ii. 280. Still used in the North. 
For why thay dide the hot ane$ that dede. 
And they knewe the noghte Gode in manhede. 

MS. Uneoln A. i. 17, f. 190. 

ANESAL. A term in hawldng. See a tract on 

the subject in ReUq. Antiq. L 299. 
ANET. The herb dilL See a receipt in MS. 

Med. Oath. Line f. 286 ; Minsheu, in v. 
ANETHE. Scarcely. The more usual form is 
unnethet but anethyi occurs in Prompt. Parv. 
p. 12. {A..S.) 
Som dansed so long, , 

Tell they helde owt the townge. 
And anethe mey t hepe. 

FrereandtheBov, St. Ixxxl. 

But if Mars hathe be with the lune or mercury of 

sol, it shallbeagretlnfirmyt^, and an«f A« he shalle 

»P«ke. MS.Bodl.m. 

ANETHER. To depress. See a passage in the 

Heralds' College MS. quot^ by Heame, p. 46. 

In thys half there were aslawe the noble men and 

SyreLygerduc of Babyloyne, and another due al-so. 
And the erl of Salesbury, and of Cycestre therto ; 
And also the erl of Bathe, so that thoru thys cas 
The compaynye a thes half rouche anethered was. 
Rob. OUme. p. 217. 

ANE U ST. Much the same. Grose gives the 
Gloucestershire phrase, " aneusi of an aneust- 
ness,** corresponding to the more common 
" much of a muchness,'' though the a is gene- 
rally dropped. Florio has " Jrente, anenst, 
anewt, very neere unto ;" and Grose says in 
Berlcshire it has the sense of "about the 
matter, nearly." In an old grammatical tract 
in MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B. i. f. 82, is "Quantum ad 
hoc, AngUce, aneust that." 

ANEW. (1) To renew. Cf. Depos. of Richard 
II. p. 15. 

Thaonecome the tothlr y. kyngis, and toke his 
body, and aneu/ed It with bysshopys dothis and 
kyngis omamentes, and bare hym to this tombe, and 
with grete derocioun leyde hym therynne. 

MS. Harl. 1704. 

Tuk May butter and comyne, and sUropetharoe 
samene, and laye It on lyre, and thane Uye It on the 
eghe, and ofte antwe it MS. Uneoin* Med, t, 284. 
(2) Enough. Var.diaL 

Take Jws of rubarbe ta\ ane^. 
And as mekyl of eysyl, I the sey. 

jlrcfuBologia, xxx, 355. 
ANEYS. Aniseed. 

Thenne messe it forth, and florissh it with aneye in 
confy t rede other whyt. Forme cf Owy, p. 26. 

ANFALD. Single; one. (A,.S.) 
Therfor is he cald Trinity, 
For he es anjhld Oodd in thre. 

MS. Cott. reepae. A. iiu f. 3. 

ANFELDTYHDE. A simple accusation. (A..S.) 

See Bromton's Chronicle, quoted by Skinner 


ANG. The hairy part of an ear of barley. North, 

Probably a corruption of awn. 
ANGARD. Arrogant. (J.-N.) ThefoUowmg 
is quoted in the glossary to Syr Gawayne. 
Thire athlls of Atenes, ther angard clerkis. 
Than reverenst thai the riche seele, and red over 
the pUtille. MS, JehmoU 44. f. 40. 

ANGEL. (1) A gold coin, varying in value from 
about six shillings and eightpence to ten shil- 
lings ; affording a subject for many a wretched 
pun to Shakespeare and his contemporaries. It 
vras introduced by Edward IV. in the early part 
of his reign. See Davies's York Records, 
p. 168. It is used in the primitive sense of a 
messenger y in Tam. of the Shrew, iv. 2. "There 
spake an angel," an old proverbial expression. 
See Sir Thomas More, p. 6. 
(2) An angular opening in a building. See 

Willis's Architectural Nomenclature, p. 52. 
ANGEL-BED. A kind of open bed, without 

bed-posts. Phillips. 
ANGEL-BREAD. -A kind of purgative cake, 
made principally of spurge, ginger, flour, and 
oatmeal. A receipt for it is given in an old 
MS. of receipts in LincoUi Cathe^isl, 1 291 . 
ANGELICA. A species of masterwort. See 
Gerard, ed. Johnson, p. 999, and the Nomen- 
dator, 1585, p. 128. 
And as they walke, the virgins strow the way 
With costmary and sweete angelica, 

Heywocde Marriage IHumjiA, 1613. 

ANGELICAL-STONE. A kind of alchemical 
stone, mentioned by Ashmole, in his Pro- 
legomena to the Theat Chem. Brit. 1652. 
Howell inserts angelicalADater in the list of 
perfumes appended to his Lexicon, sect. 32. 

ANGELICK. Dr. Dee informs us in MS. 
Ashmole 1790, that his magical works are 
*' written in the angeUck language." L e. the 
language of sphits ; and they are certainly most 
incomprehensible documents. 

ANGELOT. (1) A smaU cheese brought from 
Normandy, and supposed by Skinner to have 
been originally so called from the maker's 

Your angelott of Brie, 

Your MarsoUni, and Parmasan of Lodi. 

The mte, it, 1. 
(2) A gold coin of the value of half an angel, 
current when Paris was in possession of the 




ANGBL'S-FOOD. Apparently a cant term for 
heavy ale. See a curious account in Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 202. 
ANGEB. Sorrow. (^..5.) It is both a substan. 
tire and a verb. Cf. Erie of Tolous, 914 ; 
Prompt Parv. p. 12 ; Towneley Myst p. 99 ; 
Win. and the Werwolf, p. 21. 

Than aayd the lady fayre and tree. 
If 5e be angrtdt for the luflb of mee, 
1 1 gccres me wondir sare. 

M8, Uneotn A. 1. 17. f. 190. 

And at thay went one thb wyte with grete ang^rt 

and diseae, ahoute the elleved houre they saw a litiUe 

bate in the riyere made of rede, and mene rowaode 

therhi. Hfb «/ AUxmtdmr, MS, UhcoIh, f. 88. 

ANGERICH. Ang;rily. 

And angerieh I wandrede 
The Attttyna to prove. 

Pters PUmghman, p. 406. 
ANGERLY. Angrily. ShaJt. 
ANGILD. A fine. Skitmer, 

Bat fnr that he with angir wroufte. 
His angris mngirliehe he boujte. 

Gower, MS. Soe. AnHq. 134, f. W. 
ANGLE. (1) A comer. 

Go, run, search, pry In every nook and angte of 
the kitchens, larders, and pastries. 

The Woman Hater, i. 8. 

(2) An astrological term applied to certain 
houses of a scheme or figure of the heavens. 

ANGLE-BERRY. A sore, or kind of hang-nail 
under the daw or hoof of an animal. North, 
See Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

ANGLE-BOWING. A method of fencing the 
grounds wherein sheep are kept by fixing rods 
like bows with both ends in the ground, or in 
a dead hedge, where they make angles with 
each other. See the Exmoor Scoldmg, p. 9. 

ANGLEDOG. A large earthworm. Devon. The 
older word is ttngMwitch, as in MS. Sloane 
3548, f. 99, quoted in Prompt. Parv. p. 279. 
In Stanbrigii Yocabula, 1615, lumbricua is 
translated t^ angle-touch ; and they are called 
tweyanglyi in Archaeologia, xxx. 376. 

For senowys that be k utt. Take anggwyUtoachi/t» 
and put them in oyle olyff smale choppyd, and than 
ley therof In the wownde, and so let It ly UJ. or illj. 
dayys. MiddUhiU MS, f. 13. 

ANGLER. One who begs in the daytime, ob- 
serving what he can steal at night. A cant 
term. See Dodsley's Old Plays, vi 109. 

ANGLET. A little comer, (fr.) Cotgrave 
AngUdses it in v. Anglet. 

ANGNAIL. A Cumberland word, according to 
Grose, for a com on the toe. Lye says, 
" Northamptoniensibus est davus pedum, ge- 
mursa, pterugium." See ^^not^ which Howell 
explains ** a sore between the finger and naiL" 

ANGOBER. A kind of Urge and long pear. 
Diet. Ru9t. 

ANGORAS. An anchorite. 

And lever he had, as they trowedon ychon. 
To sytte upon a matte of the angwaa, 

ChroH. Vilodun. p. 35. 

ANGROMED. Grieved; tormented. (J.-S.) 
And mi gost angromed is over smert. 
In me to-dreved is mi hert. 

MS. BodU 425, f. 80. 

ANGRY. Painfbl ; inflamed ; smarting. Forby 
says '* painfully inflamed," and applies it to 
kibes, as Florio does, in v. Pedigndni, It is the 
gloss of the Latin molettue in Reliq. Antiq. L 
8 ; and it seems to be used in a somewhat simi- 
Uir sense in Julius Caesar, i. 2. In a collection 
of old MS. redpes, in Lincoln Cathedral, is 
one for anger in the liver, f. 305, meaning 
of course h^mmation. See the example 
quoted under Thomoanges and Piers Plough- 
man, p. 266. 

ANGRY-BOYS. A set of youths mentioned by 
some of our early dramatists as deUghting to 
commit outrages, and get into quarrels. See 
the Alchemist, iiL 4. 

Get thee another nose, that will be pull'd 
Off by the angnf bope for thy conversion. 

Seorn/Ul LMfy, Iv. 9. 

ANGUELLES. A kind of worms, mentioned by 
early writers, as being troublesome to sick 
hawks. In MS. Harl. 2340 is given an ac- 
count of a mededne ** for wormys called an- 
gueUei ;" and another may be found in the 
Book of St. Albans, ed. 1810, sig. C.iii. See 
also Reliq. Antiq. i. 301. {Lat.) 
ANGUISHOUS. In pain; in anguish. Wick- 
liffe used it as a verb, New Test. p. 141. 
I was bothe anguishoua and trouble 
For the peril! that I sawe double. 

Rnn. of the Roee, 1755. 
My wordes to here* 
That bought hym dere. 

On crocse anguyoiuly. New NotbemMe Mayd, 
For hure is herte was angwUehose. 

MS. A$hmole 33, f. 3. 
Herhaud to nim angwieoue thai were. 

G!y ef Warvtike, p. 75. 
ANGUSSE. Anguish. 

Whan he schal with the bodi deye. 
That in strong angvuee doth smurte. 

Wrighfe Pop. Treat, on Sconce, p. 140. 
ANHANSE. To raise ; to advance ; to exalt. 
The holi rode was i-founde, as 56 witeth, in May, 
And anfMnaed was in Septerobre, the holi rode day. 

Hye nou to anhaney us alle, and y nelle nojt be 
byhynde. A06. Ctouc. p. 196. 

And of my fortune, sooth It is certeyne 
That wondir smartly hath tche me anhauneid. 

Boetiw, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 893. 
For ech man that him anhaneet here. 
Mowed he schal beo. MS. Laud. 108, f. 2. 

The mete that thei ete ys alle forlore. 
On the galwys they schold anhaunte. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. 1. 6, f. 133. 

AN-HEH. Aloud. In the third example it ap- 
parently means on high, as in Rob. Glouc pp. 
202, 311 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 8. 
Ther stont up a jeolumen, jejeth with a 5erde, 
Ant hat out an-heh that al the hyrt herde. 

Wrighfe PoL Son^i, p. 158. 
This ladyes song tho TV Deum an-heyje. 
And the sextens rong tho the belie. 

Oiron, FUodun. p. 107. 
Angeles here my soster soule 
Into hevene an-heije, MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57 
ANHEIGHE. To hang? (J.-S.) 
And told hem this vilanie, 
And seyd he wold horn anheighe. 

Arthovr and Merlin, p. 88. 




AN.HEIRES. The Hoet of the Garter, in the 
Merry Wive* of Windior, iL 1, addressing Page 
and Shallow, saya, *' Will yon go, an-heireif** 
So the folios read, and no sense can be made 
of the expression as it there stands. A similar 
passage in the quartos is, '* here boys, shall 
we wag ? shall we wag V* bnt it occurs in an- 
other part of the play, although Shallow's 
answer is the same. Sir T. Hanmer makes 
German of it, in which he is followed by Mr. 
Knight. In proposing a bold conjectural 
emendation, the general style of language em- 
ployed by the Host must be considc^red. Thus 
in act iiL sc 2, he says '* Farewell, my hearts" 
a method of expression also used by Bottom, 
'< Where are these hearUr Mids. Night's 
Dream, iy. 2. See another instance in Clarke's 
Phraseologia Puerilis, 1655, p. 109. In pro- 
posing to read," " Will you go, my hearts /" 
we approach as near the original as most of 
the proposed emendations; or, perhaps, as 
Steevens proposes, " Will you go on, hearts ?" 
Perhaps, however, Mr. Collier has pursued the 
wisest course in leaving it as it stands in the 
old copies. 
ANHERITED. Inherited? 

The dt< of Acon« that In this contr^ is depld 

Akres, florithede and stode in his vertue, Joy, and 

properit^* and was anherited richely with wonhipfuU 

princes and lordes. MS. Hm^U 1704. 

AN-HOND. In hand, L e. in his power. 

Me to wrelten ye schul go 

or a treytour that is ml fo, 

Tiiat is y-come up mi lond, 

Wer he thenlceth to bring me an-honi, 

Oy </ Wanoikct P. 43. 

ANHONGED. Hanged up. (^.-5.) Cf. Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12193, 12209; Rob. Glouc. p. 509; 
Sevyn Sages, 502, 651 ; Launfal, 686 ; Reliq. 
Antiq. L 87. 
That thei schnld bt do to dethe deulAilll In hast» 
Brent in bri5t fur, to-drawe or an-'honged. 

WilL and tht Werwoff, p. I7f . 
And al that he myjte on-taice, 
Non other pes nc most they malce, 
Bnt leet hem to-drawe and an-honghe. 
But certayn hit was al with wronghe. 

MS, Douce 836, f. 13. 
ANHOVE. To hover. Skinner, 
ANHYTTE. Hit; struck. 

The liyng Arture ajen the brest ys felawe Torst 
anhytt0, Rob, Gloue. p. 185. 

ANIENTE. To destroy ; to annihilate. (j^.-N.) 

It is also an old law term. See Cowell's 

Interpreter, in v. 

That wilclcedliche and wilfulllche 
Wolde mercy animte. PUn Pkmghman, p. 365. 
The which three thinges ye ne han not anientiued 

or destroyed, neither In youreself ne in youre con- 

seJllours, as you ought. Melibew, p. 107. 

AN-IF. Used for ff. The expression is very 

common in our old writen. 
ANIGH. Near. Salop. Sometimes in the 

western counties we have anighatj near to. 
ANIGHT. In the night. Cf. Legende of 

Hypsipyle, 108 ; As You Like It, iL 4 ; Gesta 

Romanonim, p. 51. 

Tristrem to Vsoude wan, 
AfOght with hir to play. Sir Tristrem, p. 232. 
H is fader he tolde a swefne 
Jnijt that him mette. MS. Rodl. 662, f. I. 

ANILE. Imbecile from old age. Walpole uses 
this adjective, and Sterne has the substantive 
aniUty, See Richardson, in v. 
ANIME. A white g^um or resin brought out of 

the West Indies. BuOokar, 
ANIMOSITE. Bravery. 

His magnanymyt^. 

His animotiti. Sk0lfH*s Works, ii. 81. 

ANIOUS. Wearisome; fatiguing. 
Then thenkket Oawan fUl sone 
OfhisanJoawTyage. ^ GauNiyne, p. 21 . 

AN-IRED. Angry. 

He sauh Richard an^red, and his mykdle myght. 
His folk armed and tired, and ay redy to fight. 

Petm- IjMtgU^, p. 151^ 
ANIS-KINES. Any kind of; any. 

Withouten anis-Mne» duelling, 
Sche gan Oregori to threte. 

Ij^. of Pope Gregory, p. 26. 

ANKER. An anchoret ; a hermit. Cf. Prompt. 
Parv. pp. 12, 83 ; Robin Hood, L 36 ; Rom. 
of the Rose, 6348. 

Certis, wyfe wolde he nane, 
Wenche ne no lenunane, 
Bot al« an ankyre in a stane 
He lyved here trewe. 

Sir DegrevoHte, MS. Uneoln, f. 130. 

ANKERAS. A female hermit 

Hou a recluse or an attkeras shuld comende hir 
chastity to God. MS. Bodl. 423, f. 183. 

ANKLEY. An ankle. West Suuex. 
ANLEPI. Alone; single. (A.-S.) Hence single, 
applied to unmarri^ persons. See instances 
in Sir F. Madden's reply to Singer, p. 34. 
He stod, and totede in at a bord, 
Her he spak anitepi word. Bavelok, 21C7. 

Anothere is ofanlepi, 
Tlut hase bene filede and left foly. 

MS. Cott, Fmust. B. vi. f. 122. 
Ane ca fomicacion, a fleschl^ synne 
Betwene an anetepy man and an tmetepy woman. 

MS. Harl. 1022, f. 73. 
On ich half thai smiten him to. 
And he ogain to hero also i 
Never no was atilepy knight. 
That so mani stond miglit. Gy cf Wanoike, p. 139. 
Say also quo wos thi fere. 

For wele more synne it b 
To synne with a weddid wife, 
. Then with an anlepe i-vrls. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ▼. 48. f. 86. 
ANLET. An annulet; a small ring. Yorksh. 
According to Mr. Jerdan, " tags, or pieces of 
metal attached to the ends of laces or points." 
See Rutland Papers, p. 6 ; Brit. Bibl. ii. 397. 
Can* says it is the mark on a stone, an ancient 
boundary in Craven. 
ANLETH. The face; the countenance. (Swed.) 
Ne tume thine anleth me fra, 
Ne helde in wreth fra thi hine swa. 

MS. Cott. Vespaa. D. rli. f. 16. 

ANLICNES. A resemblance; an image. 

ANLIFEN. Livelihood ; substance. Verstegan, 
ANLOTE. To pay a share of charges, according 

to the custom of the place. Minsheu. 
ANNARY. A yearly description, filler. 




ANNE. One. The objective case of im. CtRdiq. 
Antiq. iL 272 ; Rob. Glouc p. 223. 
Ac Sairailnf were* bl ml puiDe» 
Ever fourti ogataiec tt$ine, 

Ariktfmr mmi MtrUm, p. 895. 
B« •kra^ thrt ogaiiMf «iMM» 
AndcnkcdmaailMrn-iNUUMb JMA|i.S14. 
Heo nadden with hem bote mum lol, 
Thaieftne heo careden eeh one. 

MS, Laud lOe, f. 1. 

ANNET. The oommon gull, so called in 
Northomberland. See Pennant's Tour in 
Scotland* ed. 1790, L 48. 

ANNETT. Rrst-fruite? 

The L. Govenoar, m touchlnf the workce to be 
taken In hand, noe munickm to be lookt for, with 
some oocununoes of the Englbh and Spanbh fleets; 
for the coming up of Capt. Case, and touching Sir 
John Selby*! meadow, Townsdalts annett, 

Jrehmologia, xxz. 169. 

ANNEXMENT. Anything annexed, or sub- 

joined. See Hamlet, iiL 3. 
ANNIHILED. Destroyed. 

Which els had been long since oimMtfmf, 
With all other living tlUng> beside. 

Lo9es Owte, 18S9. 

ANNOTE. A note. 

In amnote Is hire nome, nempneth hit noo. 
Whose ryht redeth ronne to Johon. 

Wrighi's L^rir. Poetrp, p. 86. 

ANNOY. Annoyance. 

Farewell, my soveralgne, long maist thou ei^oy 
Thy Ikthd^s happie dales f^ee fhnn anno^, 

Firtt Part of the OmUntUm, 1S04. 

ANNUELLERE. A priest employed for the 
purpose of singing anniversary masses for the 
dead. It is spelt annivolor in Skdton, iL 440. 
It^fOodon was a preett, an annuellere. 
That theifB dwdled hadde many a yere. 

ANNUELYN6E. Enamelling. See an extract 
finom Honnan in Prompt Parv. p. 261, where 
perhaps we thonld read ammefynge, 
ANNUNCUT. Foretold. (Lai.) 

Lo Sampson, which that was MMMmetel 
By the angd, long or hia natlTitee. 

Otauetr, Cmmi, T, 14081. 

ANNYD. Annoyed; vexed. [Anuyd?] 
So that King PhiUp wae am^ thor alia thteg. 

Aoft. Gfeue. p. 487* 
ANNYE. Annoyance. Cf. Rob. Glouc p. 429; 
Kyng Atisannder, 10. [Anoye?] 
With sorwe was his herte batreid. 
With caie and eke anive. MS.MhmoUZi,tii, 
Thanne sayde the Duk Terry, 
To Ugge thus her ys gret ofinr. lUi, f. 45. 

ANNYLE. Anise seed. Huloet. 
ANO. Also. North. 
ANOIFUL. Hurtfol; unpleasant. 

For al be it so, that al tarying be afM</bZ, algatca it 
is not to repreve in yering of Jugement, ne in Ten> 
geanee taking, whaa It is raAsant and resonable. 

MelibeuM, p. 86. 


No might do with hlr wlchclng. 
In In«lond aon anoiUtg, 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 106. 

ANOINTED. Chief; roguish. «An anohUed 


ANOIOUS. Fatiguing; wearisome; unpleasant. 
See Hanison's Description of England, p. 214 ; 
Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 360 ; and Jniout, 
Late him be ware he have no delite, 
Ne him rciloyce of his atmepeme plite. 

OeeUee, M8, Bee, Am/iq. 134, f. 866. 

ANOISAUNCE. A nuisanoe. Cowell refers to 
Stat. 22 Henry VIII. c. 5, for an example of 
this word. 

The flsshegarth of Ooldale, and other fisshcgarthes 
within the ry ver of Ayre, Is stondynge as yit, to the 
grelt common aiio<«aMfie« and intollerable hurt of the 
kynges chamber of the clt4 of Yorke. 

DavMe Yerk Reeordi, p. 87* 

ANOLE. Too; also. Yorktk. 

ANOMINATION. An opinion oontrarjr to 
law. (Gr~) 

He that adomes his whole oration with no other 
trope but a sweet sut^cctloo or an anomhtation, may 
be thought a trim man in the ears of the multitude, 
but in the Judgement of the degant orators, he shaU 
be known as rude in his art of rhetorick,as the butcher 
that scalded the calfe was in his craft of Initchery. 


ANON. Whatdoyousay? Yorkth. SeeJnam. 
It is more usual in the sense of hmwudiatefyf 
but is now seldom heard in the southern 
eountiee. The phrase "anon, sir," is often 
found in our old dramatists, put into the 
mouth of waiters, who now say, ** coming, sir." 
See 1 Henry IV. fi. 4 ; Donee's IRustrations, 
i. 427. 
ANONEN. See Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 19, 
and the observations on this word in Warton's 
Hist. Eng^ Poet iL 72. '' Anone" occurs in 
Wright's Political Songs, p. 199, explained by 
the original scribe *' at one time." Mr. Wright 
translates it <'in the first pUce:" 
Tho spek the Uoo hem to. 
To the fox oiMMe hia wille. 
ANONER. Under. North, 
ANON-RIOHTES. Immediately. CI Ellis's 
Met. Rom. iL 332; Erie of Tolous, 193; Kyng 
Alisannder, 170, 824 ; Hartshome's Met. Tales, 
p. 74. 

He hadde In toun t. hundred knigbtes. 
He hem ot sent mntm-rightee. 

Arthemr and JTerlte, p. 88. 
The chyld ansuerd anonryjM, 
He was withouten begynnyng. 


ANONT. Against; opposite. Wiltt. 

ANONXCION. Anointing. 

This was their charge and verey dewe senrise 
Of emonseUm tyme, to done and excersiae. 
Hard^g'e Chronide, f . 7 1 . 

ANONYWAR. At unawares. 

Tho the Bry tons come myd the prisons tliar. 
The Romeyns come ajen hem al anofyruMn'. 

Rob. GUme. p. S18. 

ANOSED. Acknowledged. 

Thanne ther begynnyth all grace to wake. 
If it with synne be not oiioMrf. 

Dtgb^M^geteriee, p. 175. 

ANOTH. Enough. (J,^) 

Jmth, dameseile I quath Blaundieflour, 
To scome me is litel honour. 

jilbHeeajMlAtaimeH^owr, 483. 




And pitOttlielM bigu to crie, 
Anotithe, mord, Loverd, Uiln ore ! 

JfS. Laud 106. f. 1S6. 

ANOTHER. ** Al another,'' in a diflfcrent way. 

But Arelok thouthc al onothtr, Haoelok, 1395. 
ANOTHEIUGATES. A different kind; another 
tort. Lane, 

Wbea Hudlbrttf about to enter 
Upoo anotfmr'gatet adventure. 
To Ralpho call'd aloud to arm. 
Not dreaming of approaching storm. 


ANOUGH. Enough. We$t. Cf. GyofWar- 
wike, pp. 11, 20, 25, 40, 63, 153 ; Sir Tristrem, 
pp. 181. 301. (^.-S.) 

The flichen wer radi atum^ 
To doo hU will that Ich day. 

Legend cfPope Gregmy, p. 80. 

ANOUR. (1) Honour. 

Herhaud onswerd, I dill you telle 
The beat conseyl ich hare in wllle t 
Oif thou themperourt doubter afo, 
Rlche thou beat ever mo ; 
After him thou best cmperour, 
God hath the don gret anour. 

Op of Wdrwike, p. 149. 
Tho was he erl of gret anourt 
Y-knowen in alle Aquiteyne. 

Leg-. OatM, p. 43. 
(2) To honour. 

With this l^e laa out of hit place 
That he amured him In. 

In dlademtt wumred and with palle. 


ANOUREMENT. Adornment. 

lam tonnentide with this blewfyre on my hede, 
fbr my lecherouse anourement of myne heere, ande 
other array ther one. Getta Romamorum, p. 431 . 

ANOURENE, pi Honour. 

With gud ryghte thay lore the for thaire gud- 

nea ; with gud ryghte thay afMttrene the for thaire 

fiUreneti withe gud righte thay gloryfye the for 

thaire profet. MS. Uneoln, f. 199. 

ANOURN. To adorn. (^.-iV:^ 

Whan a woman iaanMirfMrf with dchapparaylot it 
•etteth out her beauty double as much as it is. 


For as alle mtoumementis ben fayredby hem that 

avenauntly uyslth hem, so alle the halowys of heven, 

as wele aungela as men or wymmen, ben anoumedand 

wonehipped oonly thorn God. MS. Tamier 16, p. 63. 

ANOW. Enough. We$t. See Jennings, p. 120. 

He kest the bor doun hawes anowe. 

And com himself doun bi a bowe. 

Settfn Sagea, 981. 

ANOWARD. Upon. See Rob. Glouc. pp. 186, 
211. Heame explains it, ** thorough, onward." 
And anoward his rug ftir y-maked. 
And doth from jere to jere. 

A cold welle and (kir ther sprong, 

AiwwardB the doune. 
That jut b there, fair and cold, 
A myle from the toune. 

MS. CM. Trin. Own. 57. 
The hors hem lay anotpard. 
That hem thought chaunce hard. 

Arthwrand Merlin, y. 123. 


Also ther is fyr of corey tyse, of tho whiche it is 
•eyd alle •nowerpand as cbymney ottyn. 


ANOWE. Now; presently. So explained by 
Mr. Utterson, Pop. Poet iL 147 ; birt perhiqM 
we should read ooomw, as in a similar passage at 
p. 153. 
ANOYLE. To anoint The last sacrament of the 
Roman Catholic church. See a curious inven- 
tory, written about 1588,in Reliq. Antiq. i. 255. 
ANOYMENTIS. This word is the translation of 
limatet in an eariy gloss, printed in Reliq. Antiq. 
ANOYNTMENT. Anointment 
And ther Mar< Mawddayn 

Anoyntet oure Lordes fette 
With a ricbe anojmtment, 

Andhlshedei-wis. J£8l Ointafr. Ff. t. 48, f. 8t. 
ANOYT. Turning? 

That other branche ftil ry|t goyt 
To the lytO fyngere, without ofioyf. 


ANPYRE. Empire. The following is an extract 
from the Metrical Chronicle of England. 
All Comewalleand Devenshtre, 
All thy* were of hys anppre* Bob. GUme. p. 733. 
ANREDNESSE. Unity of purpose. {A.-S.) 
AN*S-AFE. lam afraid, Yorkth. 
ANSAUMPLE. An example. 

Ore Loverd wende aboute and prechedethat folk. 
And seide hem cmmumplsB fale. 

MS, Laud. lOe, f. 8. 

ANSEL. Generally spelt hansel, q. v. It seems 
to be used in the sense of hansel in Decker's 
Satiro-Mastix, ap. Hawkins, iiL 137. See also 
a similar orthography in Prompt Parv. p. 14. 

ANSHUM-SCRANCHUM. When a number of 
persons are assembled at a board where the 
provision is scanty, and each one is almost 
obliged to scramble for what he can get, it 
will be observed perhaps by some one of the 
party that they never in all their life saw such 
an»kitm-9crttnehum work. Line. 

ANSINE. Appearance; figure. (J.-S.) 
Not nomon so muchel ot pine. 
As povre wif that fislleth in ofMine. 

Dome Sirith, MS. DIgbp 8Q, f . 107. 

ANSLACHTS. Surprises. (Gi«nfi.) SeeMeyrick*s 

Critical Enquiry, iiL 118. 
ANSLAIGHT. Surprised. (Germ.) 

I do remember yet, that arUlaight, thou watt beaten. 
And fledst before the butler. 

Beaumont and Fleeter, Mont. Thomas, it 2 
ANSQUARE. Answer. 

Then gaf Jhesus til ham ansquare 
To alle the Jewes atte ther ware. MS. Fair/ax 14. 
ANSTOND. To withstand. 

He byvond vorst an quehityse ajen the Deneys to 
anstond. Rob. Glome, p. 267. 

ANSURER. The answerer; the person who 
answered to the Court of Augmentation for 
the rents and profits. 

At conseming one furme hold, late belonging to 
the hold of St. Robarts, which you know 1 did tpeake 
to the anturer for the use of Uie said children, and 
he permlted not to tuit them. 

Plumpton Correepondenee, p. SS4. 



ANSWBB. To encotmter at a tournament. See 
the Paston Letten, u. 4. Shakespeare uses 
the aabftanthre in the sense of retaliation, re- 
quital, in Cymheline, ir. 4. A Tery common 
OKmgh pecoliar sense of the word has not 
been noticed by lexicographers. To answer 
a front door, is to open it when any one knocks. 
At a £urm-hoase near Sonth Petherton, a maid- 
servant was recently asked why she did not 
answer the door. The girl, who had an im- 
pediment in her speech, replied, "Why — 
whv — why, if yon plaze, mim, I — I — I did'n 

ANT. (1) Am not Dewm, 

(2) And This form of the conjunction is found 
chiefly in MSS.of the reign of Edward II. when 
it is very common. 

(3) *< In an ant's foot," in a short time. A 
Warwickshire phrase. 

ANTEM. (1) A church. This cant word is 
giren in the Brit. Bibl. ii. 521, more generally 
spdt autem. We have also an (mtem-ffwrte, 
** % wyfe marled at the chnrche, and they be 
as chaste as a cow." See the same work, 
iL 290, 520; and Harrison's Description of 
En^and, p. 184. 
(2) An anthem. {A.-S,) 

To me the came, and bad me for to ting 
Thk antem Terally In my dying. 

Chaueer» CtttU. T, ISBOO. 

ANTEPHNE. An antiphon. 

With hool herte «nd dew reverence 
Seyn thU amtephne, and thi« oriton. 

MS, HarL 9878, f. 6. 

ANTER. The following u extracted from an 

That's hee that makes the true ute of feasts, tendt 
an nato their proper placet ; hee It call'd the anier ; 
he hath a monopoly for all butterie booket« kitchinge 
bookca. besides old declamations and theames. 

MS,BodL aO. 

ANTERS. (1) In case that. North. 
(2) Adventures. North. 

Littuos now, lordinges, of anten grete. 

Robton't Romanem, p. 49. 

ANTE-TEME. A text or motto placed at the 
head of a theme, oration, or discourse. From 
the Merrie Tales of Skelton, p. 61, it would 
appear to be synonymous with theme. See 
also Skelton's Works, iL 241. 

ANTEYERT. To avert. HalL 

ANTGATB. An occasion. SiHmer. 

ANTH. And the. North. 

ANTHONT-NUT. The bladder-nut; the sta- 
phyladendron. SeeYlono,mv. StcphUod^ndro; 
Cotgrave, in v. Baguenaudes. 

ANTHONT-PIG. The favourite or smallest pig 
of the litter. A Kentish expression, according 
to Grose. ** To follow like a tantony pig," 
i. e. to foUow dose at one's heels. Some de- 
rive this saying from a privilege enjoyed by 
the friars of certain convents in En^md and 
' Vranoe, sons of St. Anthony, whose swine were 
permitted to feed in tne streets. These swine 
would fellow any one having greens or other 
provisions, tOl they obtained some of them ; 


and it was in those days considered an act of 
charity and religion to feed them. St. Anthony 
was invoked for the pig. See Becon's Works, 
p. 138; and a <iuotation from Horman in 
Prompt. Parv. p. 29. 

ANTHONY'S-HRB. A kind of erysipelas. Var. 
dial Higins says, '* A swelling fhll of heate 
and rednes, with paine round wont a sore or 
wound, commonly caUed S. Anthonies fier." 
See the Nomenclator, 1585, p. 439. 

ANTHROPOMANCY. Divination by the en- 
trails of men. This species of divination is 
alluded to in Hobday's Tecnogamia, 4to. 
Lond. 1618. 

ANTHROPOPHAGINIAN. A ludicrous vrord 
introduced by Shakespeare for the sake of a for- 
midable sound, from Jnthrqpcphoffi, cannibals. 
See the Merry Wives of Windsor, iv. ^. 

ANTICK. (1) Old, 

And Uiough my mtiek age was freely lent 
To the eommitdng of accursed evill. 

NichoUtm'* Jeoltuhu, 1000. 

(2) An antimasque. 

I saw In Brassels, at my being there. 
The duke ot Brabant welocmie the ardiblshop 
Of Blents with rare conceit, eren on a sudden 
Perfonn'd by knights and ladies of his court. 
In nature of an antick. Fitrtts Wcrks, i. 440. 

ANTICKS. This word occurs in a variety of 
senses. Shakespeare has the verb to antick, 
to make antidts, and antiekfy, in an antick 
manner. See Anthony and Cleopatra, iL 7 ; 
Much Ado about Nothing, y. 1. Actors are 
frequently termed anticJts, as in the Nomen- 
clator, p. 530. The ancient sculpture and 
paintings in parish churches Ml under the 
same denomination, and it is even applied to 
the sculptured figures in pavements. 
And cast to make a chariot for the king. 

Painted with mntickes and ridiculous toyes. 
In which they meane to Paris him to bring. 
To make tport to their madamet and their boyet. 
Drayton** PoeiM, p. 43. 
A foule dcfonn'd, a brutith cursed crew. 
Bodied like those in antlke worke devised, 
Monstrous of shape, and of an ugly hew. 

Harrington's Jrit»»tOt 1591, p. 45. 

ANTICOR. A swelling on a horse's breast, op- 
posite to the heart. Markktsm, Miege spells 
it antocow, 
ANTIDOTARY. Having the qualities of an 

From hence commeth that noble name or compo- 
sition aiUidoUuy, called Therlaca, that Is, triacle. 

TopteWs HUtorp o/Serpentg^ p. 280. 

ANTIENTS. Ancestors. Carr gives this word 
as still used in Craven, and it occurs apparently 
in the same sense in the Pickwick Piqpers, 
p. 206. 

ANTIMASQUE. Something directly opposed 
to the principal masque, a light and ridiculous 
interlude, dividing the parts of the more serious 
masque. It admitted of the wildest extrava- 
gances, and actors from the theatres were 
generdly engaged to perform in it. See 
Beaumont and Fletcher, ii. 459 ; Ben Jonson, 
ed. Gifford, viL 251 ; Nares, in v., and an ac- 




ooimt of Mr. Moore*i revels at Oxford in 1636, 
in MS. Aihmole 47. 
ANTINOMIES. Rolet or Uwi, in oppotition to 
some others deemed £idse, and having no an- 
thority. See an example of this word in 
Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 50. 
ANTIOCHE. A kind of wine, perhaps imported 
or introduced from that country. A diink for 
wounded persons, called ** water oi Jnteoche,*' 
is described at length in MS. Jamys, t 40. 
See also some verses on lechecrafte in MS. 
Hari. 1600. 

Jntioehe and bsfttrde, 

Pyment alao and gamaide. 

Squifr 9f Imw Degri, 7A7* 
ANTIPERISTASIS. ** The opposition,'' says 
Cowley, '^ of a contrarjr quality, by which the 
quality it opposes becomes heightened or in- 
tendid." This word is used by Ben Jonson. 
See his Works, ed. Giflfbrd, iL 371. 
ANTIPHONER. This term is freqnently met 
with in the inventories of church goods and 
ornaments in old times. It vras a kind of 
psalm-book, containing the nsoal church mu- 
sic, with the notes marked, as vre still see 
them in old man books ; and so called from 
the alternate repetitions and responses. See 
the ArchsBoIogia, xxL 275. 

Thb UM cfaUdtt his Utd book kmhig. 

At he Mice in the tcole at his primere. 

He ^iM redtNv«oH« herde siii^> 

As children lered hir ofiMfAofMrfc 
Ckmctr, Cant, T. 13440. 

ANTIQUTTT. Old age. 

For fUse Uluskm of the magtstratci 
With bonoWd ihapei of fUse anti^HUw, 

IVoo Dng0He$ in One, 1601. 
ANTLE-BEER. Crosswise ; irregular. Armoor. 
ANTLING. A corruption of St. Antonine, to 
. whom one ofthe London churches is dedicated, 
and occasionally alluded to by early writers 
under the corrupted name. See the Roaring 
Girl, L 1. 
ANTO. If thou. Yarkik. 
ANTOYN. Anthony. Ixmgtqft. 
ANTPAT. Opportune; apropos. Warw, 
ANTRE. (1) A cavern; a den. (Lot.) 
Wherein of amtna vast and deserts idle. 
Rough quarries, rocks» and hUls whose heads toudi 

It was my hint to speak. 0M«0% 1. 3. 

(2) To adventure. 

And, Lord* als he es nuste of myght. 
He send his soeor to that knyght» 
That thus in dede of charity 
This day enlref hys Uf for me. 

VtmilfM and Oeaete, 850S. 
ThouenlwidthiUfliforlaformcw /6M. 3800. 
ANTRESSE. Adventured. (^.-A:) 

Tlianne AUsaundiine at arst tlian onfreMs hem 

tille. Wm. mnd like Wmrwo^, p. 38. 

ANTRUMS. Affected airs; insolences; whhns. 

** A's in as tmirumt this morning," wo\dd be 

said of A rude person as well as of a sldttish 

horse. This fcnm of the word is given in the 

Suffolk and Cheshire glossaries, but the more 

usual exp re ssi on is / wt/ n wi t. 

ANTUL. AnthouvrUt; ifthouwUt YorHh. 

ANTUO. Explained ** one two, a two,*' by 
Heame, but vre should read tm /no, Le. on two. 
See Rob. Gloucp.241. 
ANT-WART. A kind of vnurt, ** deepe-rooted, 
broad below, and litle above," mentioned in 
the No mendator, 1585, p. 444. 
ANTWHILE. Some time ago. Warw. 
ANTY. Empty. Somenet. 
ANTT-TUMP. Anant-hilL Her^fMf. 
ANUAL. A chronicle. Bider. 
ANUDDER. Another. North, 
ANXJEL. A yearly salary paid to a priest for 
keeinng an anniversary; an annuity. 
And henten, gif I mighte. 
An anuel ton myne owen use. 
To helpen to dothe. Pitrt Pl o ugh m a n, p. 473. 

Sadie annueU has made thes flrers so wely and so gay, 
Tliat ther may no possessioners mayntene thair array. 

MS, Cott, Oaep, B. iL f. 63. 
ANUETH. Anwyyeth. 
Modi me eniiitt 

That mi drfvO druith. Rattq, AnHq, iL SIO. 

ANUNDER. Beneath; under. North, To keep 
anyone at ammdert L e. to keep them in a sub- 
ordinate or dependent situation. See also a 
quotation in g^oss. to Syr Gawayne, in ▼. 

Ten sdiypmen to londe yede. 
To se the yle yn lengthe and brede, 
And fette water as liem was nede 
Tlie rodie oiMM^rr. 

Oetmrkm Jmperator,Wk 
The prisone dore than wend lieo ner. 
And putte hure staf oinfiMlsr. 

MS. Mhmola 33, f. 16. 
He fontcn enoiMlsr sdde. 
Some of hem he felde. MS, Laud. 106, f . 319. 
ANURE. To honour. 

Jnurith God and holi diirdi. 

And jiveth the porir that habUth nede ; 
So Oodis wnie ja ssul wirdie. 
And Joi of beven hab to mede; 

Wrighfs Potmeai Song*, p. 80S. 

ANURTHE. On the earth. This vrord occurs in 

the Life of St Brandan, p. 3. 
ANUY. (1) To annoy; to trouble; to harass. 
Hiiefikler was so sore amiifad. 
That he mnste non ende. MS. Bsrl. 8877* t, 9S. 
For thai hadde the eonntrA an mwa d. 
And with lobberie destrwed. Seapn Sagaa, 8613. 
(2) Trouble; vexation. 

Al eselidi wtthouteemiy, 
And there yome lyfende. 

MS, BarU S977. f. 46. 
And for Bon eorthelidi ain«r, 
Ne for dethe ne fledidiie nou5ht. 

MB. Land 106, f. 184. 
ANVELT. An anviL See Rdiq. Antiq. L 6; 
Blalory's Morte d'Arthur, L 7. 
Upon his mna aH up and downe, 
Therof he toke tlie flrtte sowne. 

l%a Drama tffChauear, 1168. 

ANVEMPNE. Toenvenome. 

I am nott wurthy. Lord, to loke up to helbe. 
My syniya steppys m wamp n i f d the grounde. 

CbMnfry JfjfeMrtet, p. 76. 
ANVERDRE. To overthrow. Somer$et. Per- 
luqM a miitake for awerdre. 1 insert it on 
Mr. Holloway's authority. 




ANYIED. Bxplained by Weber ai9lM2,Mrd^ 
in the followiiig peasage ; but we should cer- 
tainly read aiittM;pirt of the Terb amsjfy q. t. 
See also iliMyt, which maj peihaps be a similar 

Orer the taUe he goo tUmpe, 
AMdnoot Lifiu with the eoupe. 
That hefeol doun in the flette. 

K^ng JHtMimdtr, n08. 

ANVIL. (1) The handle or hilt of a sword. 

Here I clip 

The amU of my sword. CorMamu, It. 5. 
(2) A little narrow flag at the end of « Umce. 

ANWABPE. To warp. dihuMeu. 
ANWEALD. Power; authority. Skkmer, 
ANWORD. An answer ; a reply. Verttegan, 
ANT. Bidier; one of two. It usually signifies 
ome qfmtmjf. 
And if that omr of uih*T« more than other. 
Let him lie ticwe, and part it with hie brother. 

Chauetr, Qmt, T, 7115. 
A.NTE. In nine. 

The kyng won Nomundye, and abo god Anngeo, 
And wythynne a-mtt fn al thyt was y-do. 

Bob, Qhme, p. 186. 
ANTNGE. Union. 

By the yertu of thltbiyinille mrve. whilkemay 
noghte be mide ne couayred be manee wit, the 
ttuie of Jhefu renayrede the Atlhede of wyaedome 
and hiflB. 3tS. Lincoln A. i. 17. t S>7. 

ANTSOT. A fboL See Pynson's edition of 
the Prompt. Panr. quoted in the Prompt. Panr. 
p. 11. See Jmtoie, 
ANTWHEN. At any time. South, Rider gives 
amfwhUe in the same sense, and an^Mther, 
into any place. Mr. Vernon tells me anywhen 
is considered a respectable word in the Isle of 

A-ONE. An individual; one person. 

Thereof not a oim of them, but in his house 
I keep a servant fce'd. MoAeth, UL 4. 

AOURNED. Adorned. 

So that he that tofore wcnte clothed hi ctothes of 
golde and of sylke, and oovmed wythpreeyoos stones 
inthecyt^b ¥UmPatnmht9B, 

AOT. High. OUme. 
APAID. Satisfied; pleased. {A.-N.) 
If as fHar, as I am true maid. 
So do I hold me well opald. 

PMls** WorJu, i.91. 
APAISE. Peace. 
Tho tfiai were al at alse, 

Icb went to his In upalm. ArtfumrandMeHin, p. 87. 
APAN. Upon. 

.^NNithexx. dai 
Of AverO, M-forMai. 

RUmm^e Ancient Songt, p. 99. 
APARAELYNG. Preparation. It is the transla- 
tion of tq/parotuty in Reliq. Antiq. L 8, an old 
^oss. of the I5th century. 
APARTL Partly. 
Now wll I schewt oporfi 

Qwy the! aren so grysly. HampoU, MS, Digbif 87. 
And hott ftnil a num is afturward, 
TcOith upturtif Sehit Bernard. 

MS, Athmoleih f. 6. 

He that es verrayly meke, God sal safe hym of 

there, here vmrt^^ and in the tother worlde plenerly. 

MS. CoU. num. 10, f. 40. 

APAST. Passed. Still used in the West of Eng- 
Und. Gf. Gy of Warwike, pp. 148, 457; 
Strutf s Regal Antiquities, ed. Planeh^ p. 77. 
The nyjt hurenejdMde Itets^ 
That the day was Be5 ago ; 
The lordes bath than epoife 
Wy thoute more ado. 

Jf8^.^ia«M»lfas, f. M. 
Apaaiifi be twenty jere 
That we togedyr have lyvyd here. 

MS, Hari. 1701, f. IS. 
To grete disport and daliannoe of lordes and alle 
worthi werrioores tliat ben apesssd by wey of age 
al laboor and triTaniyng. 

r«ecta«, MtS, Jkmet 891, f . 180. 
Tho this li5th apatttd was, 

Huy in the put to groonde. 
There inne of this holle man. 

No thing huy ne seiten ne fbunde. 

M8.lMmd 108, f. 174. 

APATEN. To satisfy ; to please ; to like. {J.'N,) 
Tlierwith was Perkyn apaif§d. 
And preised ban fsste. 

FIsrt Plomghman, p. 183. 
In herte I wolde be wele t^agtde. 
If yghte we do that dede. 

MS, Uneoln A, i.l7, t, 119* 
But never the lees y schalle assay 
How thou wylt my dynte evM^r. 

MS, Cbnteb. Ff: ii. 88, f. 108. 

APATERE. To impair. (^.-M) 

For aile your proude prankyng, your pride may 

u p ai Mr0, SktUonTs Works, i. 116. 

APE. (1) A fool. To put an 4»e into a person's 
hood or cap was an old phrase, sign%ing to 
make a fool of him. Sometimes we have the 
phrue, to put on his head an ape, in the same 
sense. Apes were fwmerly carried on the 
shoulders of fools and simpletons ; andMalone 
says it was formerly a tenn of endearment. 
Tyrwhitt considers ** win of tspe/* in Cant T. 
16993, to be the same with vrndeimpe. See 
his note, p. 329 ; Robert of Sicily, p. 58. 

A ha, felawcs, beth ware of swlehe a Jape. 

The monke pirt in Me moniiM Aodt on i!]w. 

And in his wiliBseke, by Sehit Austin. 

Chaueerp Cmt, 7. 13370. 

(2) To attempt? 

And that sche ners so michel apo 
That sche hir laid doun to slape. 

Arthour mmi Merlin, p. 39. 
APECE. The alphabet Pron^t Pan, We 
have also igtecflemert one who leameth the 
APEIRE. To impair. (J,-N.) See Jjfpnir, Of. 
Prompt Panr. p. 12 ; Deposition of Richard II. 
p. 3 ; Chaucer, Cant T. 3149 ; Hall's Satires, 

And thanne youre negheborss neat 
In none wise apHre, Pitr§ Ploughman, p. 11 1. 
APEL. An old term in hunting music, con- 
sisting of three long moots. See Sir H. Dry- 
den's notes to Twid, p. 71. 
APELYT. Called ; named. It is ^^ossed by 
nominatm in an early MS. quoted m Prompt. 
Parv. p. 315. 




APENT. Belonging. See Append, In the Ches- 
ter Plays, L 131, it is used as a verb. 
Aganippe her lorde was Kyngof Fraunce, 
That grauute hym menne, and good tuffldente, 
And Mnt hb wife with hym, with greate puiaaauooe. 
With aU axay that to her wer apente, 
Hia heire to been, by their bothea aaiente. 

Oar^pHg's Chrofdet*, f. S3. 

APENTONE. Opfaiion. 

Jheiu, Jheau, qoat deylle it him that } 
I defye the and thyn apenpona, 

Digbg ifytttrin, p. 131. 

APERE. To appear. 

To thenexte lemble je tdiul hym calle. 
To optre byfore hyt felowa alle. 

CwMf. qf Jfbaomy, p. 87 

APERN. An apron. This is the usual early 
form of the word. See the Nomenclator, p. 
171. Mr. Hartshome gives appam as the 
Shropshire word, and apperon is sometimes 
found as the Northern form, as well as tgifpren, 
APERNER. One who wears an apion; a 
We have no wine here, methinlu ; 
Where'a thii apemer f Chapman** May Dap, 1611 . The letter A, with the addition of 
the two Latin words, per te, is used by some 
of our ancient poets to denote a person or 
thing of extraordinary merit 

London, thowe arte of townea J parte, 
Soreragne of cities, moit tymUieat by eight. 

MS. Lanad, 762, f. 7. 
Thou schalt be an apenap, my sone« 
In mylys ij« ot thre. 

MS, Cantab. Ff. U. 38, f. 51. 
APERT. (1) Open; openly; manifest. Cf. Kyng 
Alis. 2450, 4773; Hartshome's Met. Tales, 
p. 70 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 6696. 
Me hath imetyn withowten deserte. 
And leyth that he yt owre kynge aperfe. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. U. 38, f. 841. 
(2) Brisk ; bold; free. Skinner, In the pro- 
vinces we have peart ^ used in a similar sense. 
Toone quotes a passage from Peter Langtoft, 
p. 74, but I doubt its implication in this sense, 
althoi^h it may be derived from A.-N, aperte, 
APERTE. Conduct in action. {A..N.) 

For whiche the kyng hym had ay after in cherte, 
Conayderyng.weU hla knightly aperte. 

Hardpni^t Ommiele, f. 198. 

APERTELICHE. Openly. (^.-M) 
Ich have, quod tho oure Lord, al apertelicha 
I-spoke In the temple and y-taujt, and nothyng prl- 
▼eliche. MS, CoU, 2Hn. Qnm. 57, f. 8. 

APERTLY. Openly. {A,-K) 

And forsothe there Is a gret manreyle, for men 
may see there the erthe of the torobe apertlp many 
tymcs steren and meven. MaundevWa TraveU, p. 28. 
APERY. An ape-house. 

And vow to ply thy booke aa nimbly as ever thou 
didst thy master's aperp, or the hauty vaultfaig 
^ona, Apolh Shroving, ie27» p. 83. 

APERYALLE. Imperial? 

For any thyng that ever I sed or dede. 
Unto thys owre securet or aperpaUa. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. i. 6, f. 183. 

APES. To lead apes in hell, a proverbial expres- 
sion, meaning to die an old maid or a bache- 
lor, that being the employment joculariy as- 

signed to old maids in the next vroild. See 
Florio in v. Mdmmola, ** an old maide or sillie 
virgin that will lead apes in helL'' The phrase 
is not quite obsolete. 

But *tis an old proverb, and you know it well» 
That women, dying maids, lead apea in haU, 

The London Prodigal, i 8. 

APESIN. To appease. 

Ye flers Mars, apeaki ot his ire. 

And, aa you list, ye maklnhertis digoe. 

TMlue and Orteeide, iil. 88. 

APE'S-PATERNOSTER. To say an ape's pa- 
ternoster, to chatter with cold. This prover- 
bial expression occurs several times in Cot- 
grave, in V. Barbotert Batref Cremner, Dent, 
APETITELY. With an appetite. See Brockett, 
ed. 1829, in v. jfypetize. 

Goo to thy meUapetUelp, 

Sit therat discretely. Reltg, Antiq. i. 233. 

APE-WARD. A keeper of apes. 

Nor 1, quod an ape-unird. 
By aught tliat I kau knows. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 115. 

Then cast the powder therupon, and with thi nail 
thou maist done awey the letUes that hit schal no- 
thyng been a-aene, without any apeprement. 

Reliq, JnHq. I. 109. 


But whiche thingis weren to me wynnyngis, I have 
demed tbeteapeprpngi* for Crist. 

Wiekliffire New IVtf. p. 159. 
APIECE. With the subjectin the plural, " Now 
lads, here's healths t^nece,** Le. healths to each 
of you. North, 
APIECES. To pieces. Still used in Suffolk. 
Nay, if we faint or fall apieeee now. 
We're foola. The bland Prineae*, v. 1. 

APIES. Opiates. 

As he shall slepe aa long aa er the leste. 
The narcMikct and apiee ben ao strong. 

Legende t/ Hppermneetra, 109. 

A-PIGGA-BACK. A mode of carrying a child 
on one's back, with his legs under one's arms, 
and his arms round one's neck. Var, dial 

APIS. A kind of apple-tree, which Skinner says 
was introduced into this country about the 
year 1670. 

APISHNESS. Playfulness. ItU the transla- 
tion of badmage in Hollyband's Dictionarie, 

APISTILLE. The epistle. 

The lyone made a wolfe to here the holy watir; 
U. urchyns to here the tapen ; gete to rynge the belles; 
foxes to here the beere. The here selde the masse ; 
the esse redde the apietiUe: the oxe redde the goa- 
pelle. Qeeta Romanoruwh p. 418. 

A-PISTY-POLL. A mode of carrying a child 
with his legs on one's shoulders, and his arms 
round one's neck or forehead. Ihnet. 

A-PIT-A-PAT. A term apptied to the beating of 
the heart, especially in cases of anxiety. Var^ 
dial In Oi^ordshire the village children on 
Shrove Tuesday bawl some lines in hopes of 
obtaining pence, which commence — 
•< J-pU-a-pat, the pan is hot. 
And we are come a-shrovlng.'* 




A-PLACE. In place. Gower, 
A-PLAT. Ob the ground. 

And ArotDf with the swtrd aflmt. 

That he threwe of hb hon m-plat, 

Arlhmtr mtd MtrUn, p. SS9. 

APLIGHT. Certainly; indMd} completely. 
CI Wright's PdHical Songs, p. 249 ; Rhson's 
Ancient Songs, p. 10 ; Gy of Warwike, pp. 3, 
6; Warton's Hist Eng. Poet L 94 ; Harts- 
home's Met Tales, p. 52 ; Lybeans Disconns, 
45, 2060; Kyng of Tars, 109, 182, 523 ; Ri- 
diardCoer de lion, 2265 ; Sevyn Sages, 204 ; 
Lay le Freine, 200. Sir W. Scott explains it 
" at once," gloss, to Tristem ; and Heame, 
" right, compTeat." It seems to be often used 
as a kind of expletive, and is the same as '^ I 
plight," I promise you. 
That ir be wol lyre aryjt, 

I dar bote him hele apUit, MS, Addit, 10098, f . 8. 
The chyld antaerd son aplifjt. 
Fro my £ider I com ryght. 

MS. MhmoU 61, f. 83. 

APLYN. Apples. (J.'S) 

Nym flomre and ayryn, aind grynd peper and lafroo, 
and make thereto a batour, and par apfyn, and kyt 
hem to brode penyi , and kcst hem theryn, and fry 
hem in the batour wyth freseh greet, and lerre it 
fortbe. Wamet'* Antiq, CuUh, p. 39. 

APOCK. A small red pimple. Somenet. 
APODYTERY. A vestry. 

I call it a vestry, as conUining the vestment! ; but 
If any other place has that name, a longer word, 
m^ od in r i f, may be taken for distinction. 

MS, LetUr, dated 1788. 

APOINT. Atpdnt 

Maiden and wiif gret sorwegan make 
For (he klnges fones sake. 
That were opoint to dye. 

HHmm*9M0U Rom. Ul. 806. 

APOISON. To poison. See Piers Ploughman, 
p. 326. 

Ah he ne reignedeher 
Bote unnethe thre yer. 
That Bstryld his stepmoder, 
Selde beth thcr eny gode. 
Him mptimudt that he was ded. 

GhrwHcto ^Ettgland, 781. 
Therfor cast awey wyodiecraft and use it never. 
For it a yp sy «ii «> the sovle and slelthe It for ever. 
if&LMM(416, f. 38. 
APOLOGETIK. An apology. In MS. Donee 
114, is a short piece whidi the writer entitles 
^ a shorte q^Atgetik of this En^issh com- 
APON. Upon. 

Have mynd ofcn yxaxt endyng. 

MS, DMfce 808, f. 1. 
And pay them trwiy, mpon thy lky« 
What that they descrven may. 

OmH, ^fMommrji, p. 18. 
APONTED. Tainted. JkntU 
APOPUAK. A kind of herb. See the Archs- 
ologia. XXX. 404. The *' gumme tgppopcnacC* 
is mentioned in MS. Sloane 73, wUch may be 
the same. 
APORET. Poor. 

That oo partle he send be sonde 
To bcm that were aportt in his loode. 

MS. Gifi«a6. Ft v. 48, f. 100. 

APOSTATA. An apostate. The usual early 
form of the word. See Prompt Parr. p. 13 
Harrison's Description of Britain, p. 25 ; Skel- 
ton's Works, L 165. 

APOSTEMACION. An imposthume. 

Then sayde my padente, I hadde a gvsvoos sore 
Icgge, with grcate apoattmaeionM and hollownes, where- 
fore if he coulde have done nothing but talke, he 
myght have talked long enough to my kgge before it 
would so have been whole. 

Hall* EgpottutrntUm, p. 84. 

APOSTHUMB. An imposthnme. This orthogra- 
phy is given by Rider, and is found mnch ear* 
lier in Promi^ Panr. p. 13. In a MS. col- 
lection of recipes in the Libraiy of Lincoln 
Cathedral, t 294, is a '' drynke for the opos- 

APOSTILHEED. Apostlesh^ 

And though to othere I am not apostle, but nettie- 
Ice to 50U I am, for je ben the Utle stgne of myn 
apoHUh99d in the Lord. 

WiOtlifVe New Teei, p. 138. 
APOSTILLE. A marginal observation. Cot- 
grave says in v. JppotHlet ** An answer nnto 
apetition setdowne hi the margent thereof, and 
generaUy, any small addition nnto a great dis- 
course in writing." 

I sende unto your highnea the copies of the same, 
with suche •poetiUee and declaration in the mer- 
gentc8« as in reding of them with good deliberacion, 
came unto my mynde. State Papere, 1. 885. 

APOSTLE-SPOONS. It was andenUy the cos- 
tom for sponsors at christenings to offer gilt 
spoons as presents to the child, which were 
<»lled aposUe-spooDS, becanse very frequently 
the figures of the twelve apostles were chased 
or carved on the tops of the handles. Opulent 
sponsors gave the whole twelve; those in 
middling circumstances gave four; while the 
poorer sort often contented themselves with 
the gift of one, exhibiting the figure of some 
saint in honour of whom Uie child received its 
name. See Brand's Pop. Antiq. IL 52. At 
Cambridge the last person in the tripos is 
called a ipoon^ and the twelve last in the poll 
are designated the twelve Jpotiles, 
APOSTOLIONE. An ingredient, perhaps a 
herb, mentioned in an old mediod recipe in 
MS. LincoUiA. L 17, £ 295. In MS. Jamys, 
£ 9, in a long recipe to make an apMiotU 
eonet composed of franldnoense, alum, and a 
variety of other things. 
I diall you make rtiadoo. 
By waye of mpoelrtfftufoH, 

SkeUem'e Worke, 1 188. 

More than of aUe the remenaunt, 
Whiche is to lore apemrtenaunt* 

Qower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 108. 
Ther was nothyngedesobdssant, 
Whiche was to Rome appourtemmmt, 

ibid. t. 77. 

APOZEME. A drink made with water and 

divers spioei and herbs, used instead of syrup. 


APPAIR. To impair; to make worse. See 




Han, Edward IV.f. 34; DiaL of Creai Mor. 

pp. 74, 76 ; Morte d'Arthur, L 72. (^.-iV.) 
Her nature yi to afpamn and amoule. 
She changyth ever and fletyth to and Aro. 

A«^man*« Ratt, MS. Falr/hs 16. 

APPALL. To make pale. (A.-N,) 
H Ire Ibte not appalled for to be. 
Nor on the monre unfettllche for to tee. 

Chaucer, Oonf . T, lOSTS* 
APPARAIL. To proTide; to equip; to fur- 
niah. (^.-AL) 

Sundry yeomen that will not yet for all that 
chaunge their condition* nor desire to be apparailed 
with the titles of gentrie. 

LambanUrePerambulatUm, 1598, p. 14. 
APPARANCT. Appearance. 

And thns the dombe ypocryiye. 
With hia devoute apparantpe, 
A viser sette upon hii fkee. 

Oawer, US. Soe, Antiq, 134, f. 48. 
Whoee fained gettures doe entr^> our youth 
With an apparaneie of simple truth. 

Brownie BHtamnUfe PatteraU, IdSS, p. M. 

APPARATE. Apparatus. 

The whole English a|ifMrafe,and the English popu> 
lar calculation tablca* with an almanac forsooth for 
the next year, beginning at tlie spring equinox. 

MS. Bodl, 313. 
APPAREIL. The sum at the bottom of an ac- 
count, which is still due. A law term, ^ven 
by Skinner. 

Pride, with apparementle, als prophetis have tolde. 
Syr OauH^fne, p. 106. 

APPARENCE. An appearance. {Fr,) 
That is to sayn, to make illusion 
By swiche an a p pa r e n ce or Joglerie. 

C»<me«r,CtefU.r. 11577. 

APPARENTBD. Made i^iparent. 

But if he had beene in bis aflklres stabled, then their 
fine devises for their liirther credit should have beene 
apparented, Hotituhed, HUt, nflreUmd, p. 89. 

APPARITION. An appearance, in the Uteral 
sense of the word. It is so used by Shakespeare, 
Much Ado about Nothing, iy. 1. 

Wherfore the disposicyon and the forme of the 
dedly body withoute forth is not, as thou supposyd, 
to beholden foule and unsemely, but the moost fayr- 
est and appanfaekandt comelyne«e. 

Caxton*» Divert Frup^fid Otweep Maters, 

APPASE. Apace. 

An actuarie, darke or scribe, that writeth ones 
wordes evpaee at they are spoken. 

Nomenelatar, p. 478. 

APPASSIONATE. To have a passion for. 
Florio has this word in y. Jppoifkmdre, 
Martelldre, Boucher has appankmated, ex- 
plained " Btedfast ;" but see Richardson, in t. 

APPATIZED. A term appUed to districts which 
have paid composition or contribution, in 
order to ransom their towns from military 
execution. See the Ancient Code of Military 
Laws, 1784, p. 14. 

APPEACH. To impeach; to accuse. See 
Warkworth's Chronicle, p. 25 ; Morted'Arthur, 
U.13. (J.-N.) 
How, let furth youre geyse, the fox wUle preche ; 
How long wilt thou me appeeh 

With thi scrmonyng ? 7\fumelep Mgiteriea, p. 10. 

Why doe I appa a dk her of ooincsse, in whom 
bountie showeth small curiousnesse. 

Oreene^e Gwpdonitu, 1593. 

APPEAL. This word appears to have been 
formeriy used with much latitude ; but accord- 
ing to its most ancient signiflcation, it implies 
a reference by name to a diarge or accusation, 
and an offer or challenge, to support such 
charge by the ordeal of single combi^ See 
Morte d* Arthur, u. 25. 

Tell me, moreover, hast thon sounded him. 
If he appaat the duke on ancient malice. 


APPEARINGLY. Apparently. 

Appetuinglif the burthen shortly will crush him. 

BaaMe Lettere, VfJS, ii. 407. 

APPECEMENTES. Impeachments. 

The seld seducious pervones, not willing to leve the 
possessions that they hadde. caused the seid princes 
to lay Buche imposlcions and charges, as well by way 
of untrue appeeementee to whom they owed eviil wille 
unto. MS,Aihmole,lieO, 

APPELLANT. One who i^ypeals. 

Behold here Henry of Lancostre, duke of Herflbrd, 
appellant, which is entered into the listes royall to 
dooe his devoyre agaioit Thomas Mowbray. 


APPEL-LEAF. The Tiolet. It is the tnms- 
lation of viola in an early list of plants in MS. 
HarL 978 ; and is the Anglo-Saxon word. 

APPELYE. Haply. "Appyny," in Weber's 
Met. Rom. iii 279, is probably an error for 
this word. See his Glossary, in ▼. 

And whennehesawehirhede oute, he smote in al 
the myght of his body to the serpent; but the serpent 
drow hir hede ayene so appelye, ande so sodenlye, 
that the strook hitte al upone the vesselle. 

Gegta lUmanorum, p. 197. 

APPELYN. Apples. (^.-5'.) 

Nyin appelifn and seth hem, and lat hem kde, and 
make hem thorw a clothe ; and on flesch dayes least 
therto god fot breyt of bef, and god wyte grees. 

FFoifier's jlntiq. Culin, p. 39. 
APPEND. To belong ; to appertain to. {A,-N,) 
See Hardyng's Chronicle, 1 4 ; Towneley Mys- 
teries, p. 239. 

Tel me to whom, madame, 
That tresour appendeth. 

Piere Ploughman, p. 17. 
When all lords to councell and parlement 
Wentt, he wold tohuntyngand tohaukyng. 
All gentylldlsportt astoaKordajifWfif. 

If & Douce 378, f . 68. 
APPENN AGE. That which is set apart by princes 
for the support of their younger children. 
Skinner. (Fr.) 
APPERCEIVE. To perceive. (^.-M) See 
Wright's Monastic Letters, pp. 145, 183; 
Sharp's Cov. Myst. p. 179; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 178; Chaucer, Cant. T. 8476; Morte 
d'Arthur,L 221, ii. 212 ; ReUq. Antiq. iL 276; 
ScTyn Sages, 1021. 1434 ; Arthour and MerUn, 
p. 30 ; Thynne's Debate, p. 28 ; Rom. of the 
Rose, 6312, 6371. 

This lettre, as thou hast herde devyse. 
Was counterfet in suche a wise. 
That no man schulde it apereepve. 

Oower, MS. Soe. Jntiq. 134. f. 67. 

APPERCEIVING. Perception. 




Wbo coode t«nai yo« tiM forBM oCdumees 
So uncouth, and wo ttmht c o pttn w in f, 
Swidie fubUl loktngt and dlsdmulUip, 
For d wd of Jalom mmam •pp t r tt i w i mg* f 

OtaNMr. Omf.T.10600. 

APPERIL. PeriL See Middletoii't Woikt, 
L 427 ; fi«n JoiMon, v. 137; tl 117, 159. 
LatoMSteyatthliwiSpyfHI. 'nmm^fMh»M,i,%, 
APPERTAINMBNT. That which belongs or 
relates to another thing; to any rank or dig- 
nity. Shakespeare has the word in Troilus 
and Crassiday iL8. 
APPERTINAUNT. Belonging. An astrological 

He b tb« howl uppertlnamU 
To Vemu tomddo dlicordaant« 

Oiwer, 9d. 15», f. 148. 

APPERTYCBS. Dexterities. (^..JV:) 

Orete itroket were myten on hoUw lydei. many 
man OTcrthrowen, harte, and tUyn, and grtte va- 
lysuacai, prowestct and appertifetf Of werre wtra 
that day riiewtd, whJche were over long to reeounte 
the noUeflMtc* of every man. igmrU^jirtkmr,H45, 
APPERTNG. To dedL out ; to appareL 
And ne&t her ooroe the cm p ereiie Fortune* 
To mfpenrng Mm with nuuiy a nohle tlgne. 

Ltfdgmi^t JfliMT PMiM, p. 7* 
APPETENCE. Desire. (Lai,) 

But know you not that crcatnree wantinf ■«■■» 
By nature have a mutual appttmtt, 
MarUMMta Warlu, lU. S4S. 

APPETITE. To desire ; to corct. {A^N.) 
As matire mppetitUh forme alwale. 
And from forme into forme it paisln male^ 

H9Pt^nU«mdM9imt 916. 
APPETIZE. To provoke an appetite for food. 

APPETY. Aiqietite; desire. 
To be alone Is not my mpptOM, 
For oCaU thingctin the world I love mery company. 
Bawkituf Emgt, Drmm. i. Itt. 
APPIERT. Open; public 

That no maner penon holde no eomen eschauofe 
prrivee nor applert in the said citee» ne take any 
thyng for profiite of that eichaunge. 

Archmologki, xt. 176. 
APPLE-CART. Down with his t^le^cart, knock 

or throw him down. North, 
APPLE-DRONE. A wasp ; a terrible deronrer 
of apples, and more especially when they are 
beaten or gronnd to mikt dder. Wett. 
APPLE-GRAY. Dapple grey. 

His head was trouMed in such a bad pUgfat* 

As though his eyes were ajy ls gi wy/ 
And if good learning he had not tooke» 
He wod a east hfanselfe away. 

Tkt King mnd a Poon North0me Man, 1640. 

APPLE-HOGUN. An apple tomoYer. Stifoik. 
It is also caUed an apple-jack, and is made by 
folding sliced apples with sugar in a coarse 
cnist, and baking them withont a pan. 

APPLE-JOHN. A kind of apple, not ripe till 
late in the season, and considered in perfec- 
tion when shrirdled and withered. See 
Shakespeare's 2 Henry lY. it 4, where it is 
stated that Falstaff could not *' endure an 
tfip k - J akm.'* The term is still in use in the 
eastcm counties, althou^ Forby thinks it pos- 
sible the same rariety of fruit may not have 
been retained. 

APPLE-MOISE. CSder. Hnloet, hi his Aboe- 
darium, 1552, translates it bjpomachtm. See 
also the Catalogue of Donee's Printed Books, 
p. 309, where the word is wrongly printed. In 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 13, we hare appmlmoee, 
which appears to hare been senred up at table 
as a dish, consisting of the apples themsehras 
after they had been pressed, and seasoned with 
spices. See Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 16; 
Forme of Cury, pp. 42, 96, 103. 
APPLEN. Apples. 

Upe the hcste bowe tneye arptm he sey« 

JM. Gloiie. p. fSa. 
APPLE-PEAR. A kind of pear, mentioned in 
Higins' adi^tation of Junius' Nomendator, 
p. 99. It seems to be the tankard pear. 
APPLE-PIE-ORDER. Anything in very great 
order. An tg^pte-pie^bed furnishes an artide 
forGrose. It is madesomewhat in the finhion of 
an ^yple-tumoTcr, the sheets being so doubled 
as to prevent any one from getting at his length 
between them ; a common tnck in schools. 
APPLES-OF-LOVE. The fhiit of some foreip 
herb, said to be a stimulus for the tenoer 
passion. Skinner says they ut/hiehu $olmU 
etifmtdam pertffrM f that is, the fruit of some 
foreign species of nightshade. 
APPLE-SQUIRK This word appears to have 
been used in several senses. An apple-squire 
was akept gaIlant,andalM> aperson who waited 
on a woman of bad character. In the Dehnan 
of London, 1608, we are told the apple-squire 
was the person " to fetch in the wine." The 
term was often applied to a pimp. Miege 
translates it, un gratier eeuper de dame. 
See Middleton's Works, iiL 232; Cotgrave, 
in V. CueiUeurf Florio, in v. GuaUrof Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ii 332 ; Hall's Satbes,L 2; 
Doddey's Old Plays, xL 284. 

His little lackey, a proper yoog m pf U mit ir ^, called 
Pandanu, whiche carrieth thekeye of his chamber 
with hym. BulUnft Dialogs, WJ9, p. 8. 

Jp pl 9 Jgn r s Tj^ entyoers, and raTyisheis, 
These to our plaoe have dayly herbegecs. 

Utttrmm*€ Pop, Poti, ii. 89. 

Such staUb the diveU did not tast, only one little 

hellhound, a crooie of myne, and one of St. George's 

ajp/s fqwirst. US. Bodl. 90. 

APPLE-STUCKLIN. An apple-tumover. Hamii. 
In Norfolk it is caOed an apple-twdin. 

APPLE-TERRE« An apple orchard. This word 
was formerly used in Sussex, but seems to be 
now obsolete. Huloet, in his Abcedarium, 
1552, gives (qtple^ard in the same sense. In 
Devonshire, they have a curious custom at 
Christmas of firine powder at apple trees and 
singing lays round them to make them more 
fruitfid. Brand mentions other customs of 
the same kind. 

APPLIABLE. Capable of being applied. 

And therto many of the omtrye of Kent were as- 

sentynge, and cam with theyr good wills* as people 

redy to be •ppliabl^ to sudie leditiotts comroodoiis. 

Arrhali^ Edward ir, 

APPLIANCE. An application ; a remedy rapUed 
to cure a disease. See how it is ined in 2 
Henry IV. iii, 1 




^PLIMENT. ApplictdoiL Jne. Dr. 
APPLOT. To plot ; to oontriTC Tayhr, 
APPLY. To take a certain course ; to ply. A 
nautical term. {Lat) Shakespeare uses it in 
the sense to i^pfy ^^* "i Tarn. Shrew, L 1. 

With Um nextc flodd, which woold be aboute foure 

of the dock Id the morayng, we enteod, Ood willing, 

toffPdw towardee Dover. 8tvt0 Puptrt, 1. 816. 

APPO. An apple. Cheth. 

APPOAST. Tosabom. Mhuheu, SeeCotgrave, 

in V. Appottit A9$(u»bi. 
APPOINT. To impute. Shakespeare, 2 Hen. IV. 
iv. 1, has it in the sense of to arm, to furnish 
with implements of war; and appotntmenit 
Troilus and Cressida, It. 5, preparation. 

If enye of theise wants be in me, I beseeche your 
lordshlpp appaittt them to my extreme state, more 
greerout then disease; more unquiet then pryson ; 
more troblesome to me then a pidnAil deathe. 

Hmrimgton't ff^gm Jntiqum, i. 48. 
APPON. Upon. SeeAporu The Thornton MS. 
constantly uses this orthography, and it occurs 
in Torrent of Portugal, p. 2. 
APPONE. To dispute with. So seems to be 
the meaning of the word as used by Plorio, in 
V. AppottOt though the Latin iqfponere means 
to pawn, to pledge. 
APPOSAYLE. Question; enquiry. 

Whan he went out his enmies to assayle. 
Made unto her this uncouth oytpMcvto. 

BoeHatt b. ▼. c. 82 
Madame, your appotdle is wele inferrid. 

Sktlton's Works, 1. 367* 

APPOSE. To raise questions ; to object ; to dis- 
pute with. (A.'N,) It was also used in the 
sense of to oppote^ as in MS. Bib. Reg. 12 B. L 
f. 66, " I wyl not be appotyd^ nolo mihi opp<mi;** 
and Prompt. Parv. p. 13. See also Prompt 
Parv. p. 144 ; Chaucer, Cant T. 7179, 15831 ; 
Skdton's Works, L 321 ; Middleton's Works, 

Tho the poeple hym appo$ed« 
With a peny in the temple. 

Pier* Ptoughman, p. 18. 
APPOSICION. Annexation of substantiyes. 

But this yonge diUdryne that gone to the soole 

have in here Donetethisquestione, howmanythlnges 

fUlen to appoHeionf Ande it isanswerlde, that case 

alle only that Is alUle. Qfta Rtimanorum, p. 478. 

APPOSITEES. Antipodes. 

For alle the parties of see and of lond han here 
apposUeet, habltables or trepassables, and the! of this 
half and bejond half. MaundevUe's Trav^, p. 188. 

APPREHENSION. According to its literal im- 
port, means laying hold of, or catching, as we 
still use it applied to offenders against the law. 
Thus in Harrison's description of the peari- 
muscle, which is said to have been frequently 
found in the rivers Dee and Don, the manner 
of apprehention is likewise mentioned. In 
Beaumont and Fletcher, iii. 171, it seems to 
be used in the sense of imagination, 
APPREHENSIVE. Of quick conception ; per- 
I fly unseen, as durmert in a mist. 
Grateful reTenge, whose sharp-sweet relist fats 
My appr9h«n9ioe souL Tfce Tnu Trufumt, lU. 8. 

My father oft would i 

Your worth and ▼irtnct and, as I did grow 
More and more opfreAeiwivtf, I did thlnt 
To see the man so prals'd. 

Bmmmont and FUtehtr, i. 808. 

APPRSIFFB. Contrivance. (fV.) 

This good king, by witte of such affpref^, 
Kept his marchants and the sea fhim misdiiefe. 
HaJtlugft NmvigmHom, U», U IM. 

APPRENTICE-AT-LAW. AcounseUor,theiiext 
in rank under a setjeant 
He speaks like master Practice, oae that It 
The child of a professkm he is TOW*d to. 
And serTant to the study he hath taken, 
A pure appr^ntiee-^t^w I 

Ben Jotucn*9 Magnttie Ladg, IU.8. 
APPRENTICE.HOOD. Apprenticeship. 
Must I not serve a long apyrw ifif h mt d . 

RUhani 11. L S. 

APPRESSED. Oppressed. 

Trowth and pore men ben appnsMd, 
And myscheff is nothyng redressed. 

APPREST. Preparation. (/V.) 

Seen the said man's declaration, and my salde 
Lorde Admyralles declaration, that there Is no 
apprett of any ships in Spayne to any purpose to be 
regarded. atatt P^ptrt, I. fiM. 

All the winter following Vespasian late at Yorke, 
making his appretU against the next spring to go 
against the Scots and Plots. 

HoUnOud, HUt. aeot, p. 48. 
APPRINZE. Capture. 

I mean not now th* appHntt of Pueell Jone. 

Mimur ybr Magistrate, ed. 1610, p. Ml. 

APPRISE. Learning. (A.-N,) 
For slouthe Is erer to despise, 
Whiche In deedeyne hath alle apprise. 

GHcar, MS. Soe. Antiq. 184. f. 118. 

APPROACHER. One who approaches or draws 

near. See Timon of Athens, iv. 3. 
APPROBATE. Approved ; celebrated. In MS. 
Ashmole 59, f. 35, mention is made of a ballad 
** by that tgaproiate poete Lidegate, the Munk 
of Burye." Ct MS. Addit 5467, flf. 71, 86. 

Haryng perfect confidence and sure hope In the 
approbate fldelltle and coostaunt Integrltie whidie I 
have ever experimented. Halt, Edward IV. f. 60. 
Nowe yf she refuse In the deliveraunce of hym to 
^lowe the wisdorae of theim, whose wisdome sh« 
knoweth. whose ajrprotefe fldelltee she trusteth. It 
iseasyeto perceave thatfkowardnesselettethher, and 
not feare. Sapp. to Hardpng, f. 48. 

APPROBATION. (1) Proof; approval 
— How many, now In health. 
Shall drop their blood In ap preb aO e m 
Of what your revertnee shall Indta us to. 

Henrp T, L 8. 
(2) Noviciate. 

This day my sister should the doUlar enter* 
And there receive her st^protaffofi. 

Jfeae./lr Jr«M.I.S. 

The Frenchmen whiche were scace up, and thou^t 

of nothyng lesse then of thys sodayn approehement, 

some rose out of their beddes in their shertes, and 

lepte over the waUes. HaU, Henrp VI. f. 81. 

APPROMENT. ApiMTOvement ? 

If It iHease you to asslgneme, send me wmd what 
increseand a/vremeitf ye wyll gyve, and I wyU applle 
my mynd and service to your pleasure and wele. 

Plumpton Cmrespendemce, p. 88. 




APPROMPT. To prompt. Bmhmi. 
APPROOF. Approbation. 

So hit iffprtM/ Ihret not In't epitephf 
Ai in your royal ip w ch . 

jir* WM thai AMf« wm» i. 8. 
APPROPER. Toqypropritte. SeeSirT.More't 
Worket, p. 428 ; Mannderile's TrardB, p. 35. 
Wfthooten hb awvn joyn let and mare. 
That tin hkudf tan be ifffroprifwf thare. 

jrs. Horl. 4196, f. 857. 
MIghte ea uppfo ph i U to Oodd the Fadlw ; wyidoiM 
to God the Soae t gudnet to Ood the Haly Oatte. 

jr& Ub^eotH A. i. 17, f. 190. 

APPROPINQUB. To approach. {Lot,) 
The knotted blood wfthln my bote. 
That from my wounded body flowi. 
With mortal critit doth portend 
My dayt to a j yrt y iwtiit an end. 

HiMUarat, 1.111.090. 

APPROVE. To justify; to make good; toes- 
tablish; to prove. See Baanmoiit and Fletcher, 
iL 384 ; M.of Ven.iiL2;TwoOent of V.T.4. 
APPROVER. An informer. (A.'N,) A per- 
son who had the letting of the long's de- 
mesnes in small manors to the hest advantage 
was likewise called an tqtprwer, 
Thit false theef, thit lompaour, quod the firere. 
Had alway baudet redy to hU hond» 
At any hauke to lure In Eoglelond* 
That told him aU the lecree that they knewe. 
For hlr acquaintance wat not come of newe ; 
They weren hit apfnmn priTely. 

ChoMCtrt Gufif. r. 0B88. 

APPU6NANT. Quarrelsome. {Lai.) 
APPULLB. An apple. This is the form of the 
word in Manndevile's Travels, p. 9; Chron. 
VDodon, p. 25. It is also retidned in the an- 
cient dish caUed appulmoy. 
APPUTED. Suppcnted. Skmntr, 
A-PRATSUT. Pndsed. The Douce MS. reads 

jrr^nafd^ andthe Lincoln MS. omits the line. 
Unr kerchcfet were enrioote, with mony a proud prene ; 
Hbz cspard waa •■ ^imI with prinoea of myjte. 

Jl ofct n ** JtoMMNiett, p. 14. 

APRES. In the inventory of Sir John Fastolfe's 
goods, printed in the Archfeologia, xxL 263, 
occurs the entry, ** j. cover of ajprt% lynyd vrith 
lynen dothe.'' Mr. Amyot conjectures boat'M 
Mtm, and Douce supposes it to be doth of 
YjprtM in Randers, famous for its wooUen 
APRICATB. To bask in the sun. {Lai,) 

Hb lordthip wat wont to recreate hlmtelf In thlt 
place to cpHosM and contemplate, and hit little dog 
with hhn. Aubre^g WUtM» MS, tUtyai Am. p. S50i 
APRICOCK. An apricot Weat, 

Hop In hit walkt, and gambd in hit eyet t 
Feed him with m/iHeoekt and dewberrlet. 

AmdB. Nighft Dnam, lU. L 

APRIL. R^ has the proverb, << April— bor- 
rows three days of March, and th^ are-ilL" 
April is pronounced with an emphasis on the 
last syllable, so as to make a kind of jingling 
rhyme vrith UL See Brand's Pop. Antiq. iL 25. 
The wedding-day is sometimes satirically caUed 
ApnUdayy in allusion to the common custom 
of making fools on the 1st of ApriL In the 
Merry Wives of Windsor, iiL 2, the Host of the 
Garter, speaking of Fenton, says, *' he smells 

April and May;'* that is, <tf ytmth and 
APRIL-GOWK. An April fooL North, 
APRILLED. Applied to beer or milk which has 
turned, or is beginning to turn, sour : also 
metaphorically to a person whose temper has 
been discomposed. Jkwm, 
APRINE. According to Horman, ** swyne vrode 
for love groyneth, and let passe from Uiem a 
poyson called tqiriM,*' See Prompt Panr. 
p. 218. 
APRISB. (1) Learning. (^.-iV:) 
Craffce or onttier q u ey ntyt e ^ 
But fordeddytt hyt eyr te e . 

MS. Harl, 1701, f. 96. 
And that he wote of good oprU, 
To teche it foith for tuche emprlte. 

Gawtr, MS. Soe. JnHq, 194, f. 98. 
But of hir ccurt in tondry wite. 
After the aoole of hir epHse. 

Ooum^MS, Bo4i.9H, 

(2) An enterprise ; an adventure. {A^N^ 
Sithin alle the loce in the lite. 
Thou ichalle tyne thine apHn, 

Hti^mm** ttomamem, p. 86. 
Ac ylf thou IcTett hire letfaig. 
Than the Ctllo a wane aprtm. 
At dede to that aide wiie. Avfn *«•», 1941. 
APRON. The caul of a hog. Batt, The term 
is more usually applied to the fikt skinny cover- 
ing of the belty of a dude or goose. 
APRON-MAN. Avraiter. Cf. Coriolanus, iv. 6. 
We had the talute of welcome, gentlemen, pre- 
aeotly: Wilt please ye see a chamber ? It wat our 
pleature, at we antwered the mprtm-mam, to tee, or 
be Tery neare the roome where all that nolte waa. 
Rowlt^t Smrth far M<m»y, 1609. 
APROVE. To prove. 

Y lelghe It meself for tothe. 
And wil apro99 bifom hem bothe. 
That thai can nought lay nay. 

AmU tmd Jmihmn, 809. 

APS. The asp, or aspen tree. Somik and Wett, 
The adjective iguen is also used. There is a 
fsrm in the Isle of Wight called Jpw. 

APT. To adapt ; to fit. See Mr. Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. 101, ** tqttmgt preparing, 
furnishing, and setting fourUi of divers plaies 
orshowes of histories.'' 

APTES. Skinner proposes to read tqttitMdeM in 
the following passage : 

Thai ban at well dlTen aptea, and divert miner 
utynget, and thOk apiu mowen in will ben cleped 
aAcdoDt* Chaueer, mL Vrry, p. SI7. 

APTLY. Openly. See Weber's glossary to the 
Battle of Floddon Field, p. 235. Perhi^ vre 
should read tqtertly. 
APTYDE. Appetite. 

And lo make her tnth wyth gay attyrit. 
She tparith no oott to yef men aptifdt, 

MS, laud 416, f. 64. 
APURT. Impertinent. Somenet, IntheExmoor 
glossary it is explained, ** sullen, disdainfully 
silent, with a glouting look." 
APTES. Apes. 

Alto fatt ate he myght fSue, 
Pore berryt and of^ts that ther were, 
Lett they wold hym byght. 

Torrmt e/ PortngtU, p. 96. 





And with ther twyrdys •PVg^i*, 
lUd« bur a logg« with bowei. 

MS, Omls6. Ft. 11. 38, i: liO. 

APYUM. Parsley. See an old receipt in an 

andent medieal MS. at Lmcoln, t 285. 
AQUA-ACUTA. A compoeitioii made of tartaric 
and other adds, formerly used for cleaning ar- 
moor. A receipt for it is given in an early 
medical MS. at MiddlehilL 
AQUABOB. Anidde. Kent. Grose gives this 
wOTd, wfaidi seems to be a strange compound 
of the Latin langoage andthe proviwdal dialect 
A-QUAKB. To tremble. 

57f he hadd« slept, hym naded awaka i 
5yf he were wakyog, ha thulde «-««•*«. 

JK8illarl.X701, tftS. 
AQUAL. EqoaL North. 
AQUAPATTS. An andent dish, the receipt for 

which is giyen in the Forme of Cury, p. 41. 
AQU AT. Sitting on the houghs. Somenet, 
AQUATIL, Inhabiting the water. Howell, in 
his Lexicon, explains a crocodile to be *' a Idnd 
of amphibolous cretore, partly agtiatil, partly 
terrestriaL" (Lat.) 
AQUATORIES. Watery places. 

Thaetrologier of heoe mfuaitHm, 
With thattichOmi to take thaaceDdent. 

MS, JMhmoU 50, t 18. 

AQUA-YIT^ Several old recdpts for making 
aqna-TitSB are given in Donee's Illnstrations, 
i. 68-70, where the exact nature of it may be 
seen. Irish aqna-vit« yru usquebaugh, but 
brandy was a later introduction, nor has the 
latter term been found earlier than 1671. 
According to Naies, it vhm formeriy in use as 
a general term for ardent spirits, and Ben 
Jonson terms a seller of drams an ** aqua-vitae 
man.'' See the Alchemist, L 1 ; Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. 146 ; ^tts, Pitt^ and 
Fuides, 1595, p. 128. 
AQUBIGHT. Shook; trembled. (^..&) 
His fet In the ttiropet ha ttrelght. 
The itliop to-hent, the hors aqueight. 

Arthour and Mtrtin, p. ISl. 
The gleumen uieden her tunge; 
The wode aqutlghttt lo hy lunge. 

KifngAtUtumiert 58S7. 
AQUEINTABLE. Easy to be acquainted with. 

Wherefore he wise and aq^niable, 
Oodelie of worde and reiooahle, 
Bothe to leise and eke to mare. 

Aom. qfth0R0§e, 8213. 

AQUELLEN. TokOl; todestroy; to subdue. 
(J.'S.) See Kyng Horn, 881 ; Richard Goer 
de Lbn, 2569 ; Sevyn Sages, 2758 ; Ritson's 
Andent Songs, p. 21. 

And her grtf anon hem teld, 
Hou Fortiger her king offiMld. 

Jrthowr and MtHin, p. 16. 
And ceyd him, lO Ich to-fore teld, 
Hou the Paient his folk aquM. IMd, p. 871. 
And gif y tdial be thtu aguttd, 
Thurch strong hete in the feld. 
It were ogain the skllle. 

Off of Wan9ik€, p. 383. 

AQUBNCH. To quendi, applied to dthertfaurst 
or hunger ; to destroy. See Jquej^nt. 
Nothing he ne fonnde in al the nijte, 
Wer-mkle his hooger agutnehe miitte. 

JUUf. JmHq. U. 874. 
Er thou vane of thl bench, 
Thi jemie aqutneh, MS, Jrmmdet 37, f. 51. 
And thus fordoth hem lyf and lyme. 
And to aqttmt€h0th al here renyme. 

MS. Jddit. 10098, t 30. 
AQUETONS. An acquittance. 
Of the resayrer speke wylle I, 
That flsrmys l e say t ys wyttorly ;' 
Of graynys and honl a qmt i om i makes. 

Sexpons therfoce to feys he takes. 

AQUETNT. (1) Qnendied vnth water ; de- 
stroyed. See Sevyn Sages, 1991 ; Reliq. Antiq. 
iL229. (^.-A) 

As hi stoda mid here li}tt 

As me doth 5tit nou. 

Here lijt etiMinilcoTeral, 

Here nonnoste hou. Jg. (gnotsd Jm B omt km r ,) 

Ac that tut aqu4^ni« son^ 

And ne myjte here hrenne nojt. 

MS, cur. IVte. 0am. 37. 
(2) Acquainted. 

Therfore toke he bapteme feyntc. 
To be with Fhelip so aqtuimt, 

Cunor Mundl» MS, CM. Trim. CmUA. t, 119. 
Heo desirlth nothyng more. 
Than to beo to you aqw^imt. 

Kintg ^ittnmdtr, 7806. 
It Is so marvellous and quaint. 
With suche love be no more aqflitimt, 

R»m.qfth0 Rm, 3800. 
AQUILITT. Agility. Rorio translates alleitire, 
« to make nimble, slie, or quiche, or digfat with 
AQUITE. (1) To acquH. 

Ood wlte in o dai wan It aqmU^d be. 

Rob. Ohme. p. 335. 
I wol the of thy troathe agmka, 

Oowtr, MS, Soe, JiUiq. 134, f. 48. 
Of prisoun shal thou be take away. 
And ben aquit bilbre Justise. 

CWrsor Mundi, MS. CoO, Trin. Cantab, t. 88. 

(2) Requited. 

But how it was to hire o^vlfe. 
The remembraunoe dwelleth 5it. 

Gawer, MS. Soe. Jntiq. 134, t 133. 
He wole aqw^te us ryth wde oure mede. 
And I have lyiens for to do. 

Cwtntrp ifytteriM, p. 333. 

(3) To pay for. (A.~N.) 

Or if his winning be so Ute, 
That his hdwur wlU not aqtiUo 
Sufflciauntly al his living. 
Yet may he go his brede begging. 

Romatmi tfthaRooo, 6748. 
AQUOINTE. Acquainted. 
And he wasofiiolMltfmuche to thequeneof Fraunce, 
And somdel to much*, as me wende, so that In som 
thing [king. 

The quene lovede, u me wende, more him than the 
Rob, Oioue. p. 405. 
I trust we shalbe better aquo^nt. 
And I shaUe stande better yn your grace. 

JfS. Rott^ C. 868. 

AQUOT. Gloyed ; vreary with eating. Dewm. 

" Chave eat so mudi cham quit aquoi** i. e. 




I cm est no more, I haye eaten so much that 
I am doyed. Ray gives this example in his 
Bn^ish words, 1674, p. 80. 
AQUOY. Coy; shy. 

With Uut ihe knit her brows. 

And looklqg all ofway. 
Quoth ihe. What ihonld I havt to do 

Wit h MiypwBtScaboy? OMrfv A«niw«ff,MPr. 
AQUTTBD. Quitted ; made to quit. 
Y am of Paico daaehaigld, 
or Made, and of Awyre a««cytf«(. 

Kj/mg Mimitmitr, 8889. 
AB. (1) Ascar; apodonark. This word is ez- 
tremdy common in the North of Eng^d. In 
MS. Bib. Big. 17C. zviL t 40, written in the 
North about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, we have " cicatrix, «r or wond.'* 

(2) An oar. 

And grop an «r that wai ftd god, 

Lep to the don lo he wore wod. BmfieUk, 177*. 

(3) Or. See Prompt. Panr. p. 83. Hearne gives 
mr the meanings, « as, after, before, ere, tiU." 
See Bob.Glonc p. 617. 

For them had no man dere, 
Rediear pore wcthyr they were. 

They ded ever ryght. Sbr CUgm, 86. 

(4) Before. 

Al thit world, mt thla hook Mynne, 
With Cristkhelpe I ahal OTer-rynne. 

Cmnat MwfM, MS. CoU, Trim, Cantab, f. X. 
Ahottte mydnyght, or the day. 
Whiles he made ooojuryng, 
Schco MW fleo, in hire metyng. 
Hire thought a dragon adoun lyght ; 
To hire chaumbre he made hit flyght. 

K^ng JHmunder, 844. 
ABACB. To draw away by force. {A.-N.) Skin- 
Her also gives it the sense of enue. See Har- 
rington's Nngn AntiqnsB, i 47; Bom. of the 
Bote, 1752. 
And in hire awongh to ladly holdeth the 
Hire diUdrcn two, whan the gan hem cmbraee, 
Tlwt with gretaldght and gret difflcoltee 
The children ftomhire arm they gan ormce. 

Ckmueer, Cant, T. 8979. 

ABACH. The herb orach. Mintheu, Pslsgrave, 
H8,hasara^,q.T.; and a much earlier form 
occurs in a list of plants in MS. HarL 978, 

ABADDB. Bxi^ained. Compare the printed 
edition of 1532, t 4. 

This waa the awevMi whlcbe he liadde. 
That Danielle anooe oredde. 

Gotper, M8. Soc Anttq. 184, f. 84. 

ABAFE. A kind of predoos stone. 
Hlr paytralle was of a riaUe f^ne, 
Hir cropnr was oianjU. 

MM. CamUib. Pf. ▼. 48, f IW. 

ABAfTE. Stmck; smote. 
That peple leyde than, 
Thyi ya fend Satan, 

That mankende wyll foiftfe. 
For wham Lybcatnif t^r^/^9, 
Alter hys fcnte drawghte 
Healepforerermare. Ufbmm DUcmut, 1139. 
ABAOB. The herb orach. Prompt Part, 
ABAGED. Enraged. {J^N.) 

And whanne he had eten hit, he twalle mo tyl he 
htaet, and there aire Patryce felle doon todeiily deede 

sn. Thcnne ertry knyghte lepte flrrnn 
the bord ashamed and mragtd, for wrathe nyglie oute 
of her wyttei. Morta ^Jrthur, ii. 381. 

ABAIN. A spider. According to Bay this is 
the name given in Northamptonshire to the 
larger kind of spiders, but he also gives its more 
general meaning in his North comitry words. 
Aran-web is a cobweb in Northumberland. 
jtrtmffe is the form of the word in the Prompt 
Parv. p. 14. Deiham, as quoted by Bichard- 
son, uses the word araii«ot(t. 
Sweep th'crreiw down, till all be dean, ncer lio. 
Bis hel leank all agye when he comes in. 

YorlUkirt Dialogue, 1697, p. fiO. 

ABAISE. To raise. See the example from the 
arrival of King Edward IV. p. 23, quoted under 
Arrtdy; Morte d'Arthur, ii. 54, 85, 432, 436. 
Swych men eriyiMfi haner 
Aiens holy cherches power. 

Jf^. Hart. 1701, f. 61. 
Anon the boMhop bad ihe ihuld not tary. 
But to areif$9 the bagge and make bym cary. 

MS. Lmd. 416, f. 1. 

ABANEE. A spider. 

And )if )e fynde that the ttramae haTe y-maad 
hure web by the myddel of hem, it ii a tolcene that 
It is of no long while, or at the leett it is of the myd- 
del oTemone of the day by fore. MS. Bodt. M8. 
A-BANKE. In a rank; in arow. 

The day ia eome; Uie pretty dames. 

Which be so Aree and f^anke. 
Do go so sagdy on the way. 
By two and two e-rofi^r. 

Ga(/Wdo and Bernards, 1576. 
ABAPB. Quickly. (Lat) 

Over theo taUe he leop mmpt, 

Kifng jaUawndmrt 4S89. 
ABAS. (1) Arose. 

Or I fh> the bord ores. 
Of my frend betrayd y was. 

MS. MiU. 11867, f. 01. 

(2) Arrows. 

Bomen Uckarte uppone the bent 
With ther browd orw deare. CSIesy OtuM. 

ABATE. To rate; to scold ; to correct {A.-S.) 
And foule y-rebulMd, 
And a-mfid of ridie men 
That ruthe is to here. 

Hsrs FloMglkiiMni, p. S83. 

ABAUOHT. Seized ; taken away by force. From 
Areehe, q.v. See the Sevyn Sages, 895 ; Kyng of 
Tars, 1096. It is used also in the sense of 
Miruei, or seized by the weqwn ; and reached^ 
as in the third example. (A.-S.) 
Right bifor the doukes fet, 
0^ «reiV*< him with a staf gret. 

G^ ^ Wmnoika, p. 996. 
AI that ever his ax mramght, 
Smcrtlkh his deth he luight. 

MS. Jnmd. CoU. Arm. 68, f. 961. 
Criste wroufte first and after taufte. 
So that the dede his worde orawiM. 

OOMW, MS. SocAntiq. 184, f. 186. 
Floriee the ring here armiyt. 
And he him ajen hit ttreauft. 

FtoHee and BUutdk^fhur^ 717* 
So stnme strokes thay o-rojfe, 
Eyther tU other the whyle. MS. AshmoU 39. 
A-BAWE. In a row. 




Thar naa man that ther neye come. 
That hene WM to-corwen mon 
So griteliehe be the englns. 
For to lie the SaitaxiiMS 
Inleh half y-eett o-rew*. 

Or ^ WarwOn, p. 185. 
And dede him tuteknely o-rotM, 
And almost hadde him y-tlawe. 

Jrth»vr a$ui Merlin, p. 834. 

ABAWIS. Arrows. 

Theyr hoked amwtt dothe erer bakward flee. 

I^dgaU^* Minor Poemt, p. 171. 

ARAYE. (1) Order. (^.-iST.) 

The time of underneof the same day 
Approcheth, that thia wedding shulde be. 
And all the paleit put was in arroff. 
Both halle and chambrcs eelie in his degree. 

Ch»u€tr, Cant. T, 8138. 

(2) Equipage. « Man of aray/' a king. 

Y have wetyn, syth y was man of eray. 
He hath ilayne ayxty on a day. 

M8, Cantab. Ff. IL 38, f. 85. 
And to the peplee erea all and lome 
* Was coath eke, that a newe markisesie 

He with him brooght, in twlche pomp and richeme. 
That nevtr was dier teen with mannei eye 
So noble amif in al West Lumbardie. 

ChMieer, Cat^, T, 8881. 

(3) Clothing. 

Som saiden, women loven best richesse, 
Som saiden honour, som saiden Jolinesse, 
Som ridie arra^, som saiden lust a^bedde, " 
And oft time to be widewe and to be wedde. 

Chaucer, Cant, T. 6500. 

(4) Situation. 

Thou standest yet, quod she, in swiche arrmg. 
That of thy llf yet hast thou no teurelee. 

Chaucer, Cant, T, 6184. 

(5) To dress. 

Whan that the firste cock hath crowe anon. 
Up rlst this joly lorer Absolon, 
And him arajfeth gay at point devise. 

Otaueer, Cant, T. 3689. 

(6) To dispose ; to afflict. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 
8837 ; Towneley Mysteries, p. 40 ; Skdton's 
Works, ii 197. Horman applies the word to 
iUness, — ** he was sore oray^f with sycknesse." 
In the Morte d*Arthur, iL 374-5, it seems to 
be a substantive, in the sense of disorder, tu- 
mult; and Bir. Dyce gives quotations from 
Reynard the Fox, in which it occurs as a verb 
in a similar signification. In Maundevile's 
Travels, p. 214, it means to prepare, to arrange. 

ARAYNED. Tied up. 

And thenne he alyghte doune, and aroifned his 
bors on the brydel, and bonde alle the thre knyghtes 
fsst with the raynes of their owne brydels. 

Morte <t Arthur, 1. 156. 

ARATNYE. Sand. So it is explained in Prompt. 
Parv. MS. HarL 221, t 5, by the Latin arena. 
The other copies read arantfe^ aranea, for which 
this may be an error, but not " evidently,'' as 
stated by Mr. Way. 

ARATSINO. Advancing. 

Also, in anijf«<n^the aunqraunt nobles of England, 
the king hath appoynted a good noumbre of noble 
petaones of this his rcalme to take the nrdre of 
knyghthode, and be made knights of the Bath. 

Rutland Papers, p. 3. 

ARBAGE. Herbage. 

Sir, afctf the arbage, dout yt not ; for Sir Henry 
Wcntforth, nor yet none other, can have It, nor 
nothinge that belongeth to David. 

Plumpton Onre^otutenee, p. M. 
ARBER. (1) An arbour. Skinner has ar'berer 
in the same sense. 

And in the garden, as I wane. 
Was an arber fayre and grene. 
And in the arber was a tre, 
A fayrer m the world might none be. 

SquvrefLeweDegri, 98. 

(2) To make the arber, a phrase in hunting, is 
to disembowel the animal, which must be done 
in a neat and cleanly manner. The dogs are 
then rewarded with such parts of the entrails 
as their two-legged associates do not think 
proper to reserve for their own use. See Scott's 
notes toTristrem, p. 387 ; Ben Jonson, vL 270. 

In that eontree Islmt lytlllearbMye, ne trees that 
beren fhite^ ne othere. Thei lyp in tentes, and thei 
brennen the dong of bestes for defaute of wode. 

Maundeeil^e Trav^, p. 866. 
BnhorHde with arbor^e, and alkyns trees. 

Morte Arthure, MS, Lincoln, f.87. 

ARBESET. A strawberry tree. (^.-iNT.) 
Thou schalt fynde trowes two : 
Seyntes and holy they buth bo. 
Hygher than in othir conuay all ; 
Jrbeeet men heom culllth. 
Kyng Alieaunder, €je5. 

ARBITRATE. To determine. 

Thoughu specuUtive their unsure hopes relate; 
But certain issue strokes must arbitrate, 

Macbeth, T. 4. 
ARBITRIE. Judgment. Chaucer, 
ARBLAST. Analblast,q.v. {A,^N,) 
But rise up your mangonel. 
And cast to their tree-castel. 
And shoot to them with arbUut, 
The tailed dogs for to aghast ! 

Ridutrd Coer de Lion, 1867. 
With bouwe and arMaet there schoten to him. 
Four hondret knyjtes and mo. Jlf& Laud 106, f. 183. 
ARBLASTIR. An alblastere, q. v. (^.-M) 
Men seinin ovir the wall stonde 
Gret engine, which y^were nere-honde, 
And in the keroils here and there 
Of arbUutire grete plenlle were ; 
None armour mighte ther stroke withsioode. 
It were foly to prese to honde. 

Horn, of the Roee, 4196. 

ARBOUSES. The dark hard cheny. HaweU, 
ARBROT. A chemical salt. 

Sal arbrot, and aal alkcllm, 

Salgeme 1-myngut with hym. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, f. 94. 

ARBUSTED. Filled with strawberry trees. 
What pleasurca poeu fame of after death. 
In the EUzean arbusted groves. 

The dfprian Academy, 1647. p. 54. 

ARC. A maro's tail cloud, or drrhus, in the 

form of a streak crossing the sky. Herrfordth, 

See Ark, 
ARCANE. Secret. 

Have I been disobedient to thy words } 
Have I bewray'd thy armna secrecy ? Loerine, ▼. 5. 
ARCANETRYKK. Arithmetic I do not recol- 

Icet having met with this form of the word 





Owntrye and a t tmi t trkk k, 
RcCorykk and mtitykk. 

MS, Cantab. Ff. U. 38, f. IS?. 

ARCEL. The lirerwort. Skhmer, 
ARCETER. A person skflled in the arts and 
sdenoes. **Areeter, or he that lemethe or 
techethe arte, or^/a."— Prompt. Panr. The 
other editions read atrcetyr. 
ARCBTIK. In an early collection of medical 
recipes in MS. in the library of Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, t 307, is one '*for the gout arcetik" 
See Artetyka. 
ARCH. (1) A chief; a master. 

TtM nobl* duke, my master. 
My worthy arch and patioo« oomaa to-aigbt. 

KiftgLear, U. 1. 

(2) A piece of ground left unworked. A immmg 

ARCHAL. Liverwort. PkiO^n. 
ARCHANGEL. The dead nettle. See the No- 

mendator, p. 138 ; Cooper! Thesaums, in y. 

Amomiu m , The word occurs in the Rom. of 

the Rose, 915, apparently meaning some kind 

of bird, the original French being metanffet a 

ARCHARDE. An acorn. It is translated by ^iiotw 

in Prompt. Panr. p. 6. 
ARCHDEAN. Apparently put for archdeaeom, 

in a passage from Gascoigne quoted by Nares. 
ARCHDIACRE. An archdeacon. {A.-N.) 

Where archbiihop and ardkUaera 

Y-MOgfai ftiU out the •errise, 

▲ftir the autome and the gulie 

And holie churchis ordlnaunce.C%aiie«i^«2>rMfM,8136. 
ARCHER. The bishop at chess was formerly 

so called. 
ARCHET. An orchard. Wilis. 
ARCHEWIYES. Wives of a superior order. 
Ye arthewkre*, ttondeth ay at defence> 
Sin ye be strong as is a gret camallle, 
Ne sulBreth not that men do you offtoce. 

Chaueer, Cunt, T, 9071. 
ARCHICAL. Chief; principaL 

So that Pannenldes did also agree faa thisacknow- 

ledgement of a Trinity of diTine or arehieat hypos. 

tases. Cudu»>rth'* tntglU Syttemt p. 387. 

ARCHIDECLTNE. The master of the feast at 
the marriage in Cana. See the Towneley Mys- 
teries, p. 207. 

Lyke to the watyr of ArthUad^na, 
Wtehe be merade were tuned into wyne. 

Lifdgai^M Minor Poamt, p. 13. 

Maiatryefull merreylous and arehima$trpa 

U the tincture of boll Alkimy. 

jMhmoWt Theat. Ch«m.BrU, p. 2& 

ARCHITECT. Architecture. 

To flnde an house y-built for holy deed. 
With goodly arehUoct and cloisters wide. 

Brvum^B Brit, PastoraUt 1625, p. 96. 

ARCHITEMPLES. Chief temples. 

And the erchbisdioprkhes as the thre archU«mphu were. 

As y t were of alle chef Cristendom to lere. 

• Rob. aioue, p. 74. 

ARCHMASTRIE. Arithmetic. 

For what strangers may be compared with M. 
Thomas DIgges esquire, our countryman, the great 
ouster of creMMMfrtof 

DawUft Seaman* Secrets, 1AM. 

ARCUBALISTBR. Analblastere, q.y. 

In everle of them he set lint archers and areuba- 
Uetent and next unto thorn pikes and sp«ares,then 
bilmen and other with such short weapom; last of 
all. another multitude with all kkid of weapons, as 
was thought moat expedient 

tUHnehed, HkL Seat, p. HO, 

ARD. (1) High. Used chiefly in composition 
in the names of places. In Cumberiand, ac- 
cording to Boucher, this term is used abstract- 
edly to denote the quality of a place, a country, 
or a field. Thus ard land means a dry, parched 
soil. In the canting dictionaries, the word is 
explained Aof. 
(2) Hard. 

Locye the senatoar In thojt was he sone. 
In such ord cas as hym vel, wat were best to done. 
Bftb, Glaue, p. 213. 

ARDANUD. Hardened. 

And fouly defyiid than for synn«. 
That tbei were than <urdanud inne. MS, Digbi/ 87. 
ARDEERE. Harder. 

Ever the afdeere that it Is, 
Ever the beter it b 1-wys. Arekeeotogta, xxx. SUB. 
ARDEN. FaUow quarter. Cumb. See Ardert, 

for which this form may be an error. 
ARDENE. A command ; an ordinance. 
An aungyl tto hefne was sent ful snel. 
His name Is clepyd Gabriel, 
His ardene he dede ful snel. 

Chrittmae Carole, p. 16. 

ARDENTNESSE. Earnestness. A chapter in 
MS. BodL 283, is entitled, " Of foly fervent- 
nesse or ardetUneste to do welle.'' 

ARDER. A kind of fish, mentioned by^ Verstegan, 
without explanation, in a letter printed in 
Ellis's Literary Letters, p. 108. 

ARDERS. Fallowings or ploughings of ground. 
This is the explanation in the Diet Rust. 1726, 
in y. See also Markham's Countrey Fanne, 
1616, p. 558. Polwhele gires ardor as 
Cornish for a plough, and anfur, a ploughman. 

ARDI. Hardy. 

Orped thou art and of grete might, 
Gode knight and ardi in fight. 

Or 0/ WaruHket P* 37* 

ARDHJCHE. Hardily. 
He sroot unto a Sarraxin, 
No halp him nought his ApoIIn t 
Now thai smitte togkier comooliche. 
And fight thai agin ordUiehe, Op of WarvoQce, p. 100. 
ARDURE. Burning. {A,'N.) 

Now Cometh the remedy ayenst leeherle, and that 
if generally diastltee and continence, that restrelo. 
eth all disordinate mevings that comen of fleshly 
talents ; and ever the greter merite shal he hare that 
most rcatrehieth the wkked enchaufing or ordwre of 
this slnne. Permmee Tate, p. 108. 

ARE. (1) An oar. 

His maister than thai fand 

A bot and anor«. Sir Trietrem, p. 158. 

Where many a barge doth rowe and sayle with are. 
Where many a ship restcth with top royall. 

Ae/Jo. Jntiq. 1. 206. 

(2) A hare. 

Whyl I had syht, ther myht nevyr man fynde. 

My pere of archerye in alle this werd aboute} 
For sitt schet I nevyr at hert, are, nere hynde. 
But yf that he deyd, of this no roan havedoute. 
Coventry Myeteriei, p. 44. 




(3) Before. Cf. Minot's Poems, p. 103. 
The knightb gadrid togedir th«ie. 

And gtn with enfte there csounsdle take, 
Sucfae a knight waa neryr are. 
Bat it were Launcdot do Lake. 

MS. Hmrt, 9Sfi2, f. 90. 
Brly, are the daye gane iprynge. 
He did a pryite his meate to lyogA- 

MS. Umcotn A. i. 17* t 99. 

(4) To plough. Keney ghres this as a pro- 
vincial form of the word. Cooper, in his edi- 
tion of Elyot, 1559, has, **ttro, to eare or 
plowe lande." 

(5) An heir. See Manndevile's Trayels, p. 151. 

(6) Honour ; dignity. See Hartshome's Met. 
Tales, p. 38 ; Maitland's Early Printed Books 
at Lambeth, p. 305 ; Brit BibL ir. 86. 

Dame, he leyde, be Goddyi are, 
Haate any money thou woldytt ware ? 

RUeon'e Pop. Poet. p. 70. 

(7) A note in mudc, sometimes called a4a'mir€, 
the lowest note but one in Guido's scale. See 
Reliq. Antiq. L 83 ; Tarn, of the Shrew, iiL 1. 

(8) An ear. 

She began lomewhat to relent and to gere to them 
no deffe wre, Inaomuche that she faythfully promysed 
to tubmyt and yelde henelfe fully and flrankely to 
thekyngetwyllandpleasare. HaU,Riehard 

(9) Mercy. 

Lord, wide Abraham, thin are/ 
Shal thou thine owoe so forfkre ? 

CuraorMundi, MS. Coil. Drin. Cantab. f.IS. 
Swete Ysoude, thin are. 

Thou preye the Itiog for me, 
Yif it thi wUle ware. 

Of aaiw he malce me fte. &rTrLtrem, p.941. 
An hour. Lane. 
Former ; previous. 

Ooddea werkket for towyrke. 
To ser TO Code and lialy kyrke. 
And to mende hir are myadc»de. 

MS. Uneoln A. I. 17, f. lU. 

AREADINESS. Readiness. Jready occurs in 
the Exmoor Scolding, p. 4. 

Getting therefore hb bag and baggage In areadi- 

nesee, he was going out of Tuniset and as he passed 

out at the gates, he cast hb eye up to the house 

where Katherine was. Cobler if CaMterburie, 1G06. 

It is ordered that the Lord Chamburlayn and Vice- 

CliambeTlayn shall put themselfes in semblaUe 

«r«din««M, and they to appoynte all maner officers 

for the chambre, makyng a boke of the names of 

theym and every of theym. j^tc^adIo^, xxi. 178. 

AREAR. Upright. KtmJt. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 

1033, gives the example, <* to stand ottat, to 

stand uprigfaf 

ARBAUT. Out of doors. NwtK 

It will bring as good blendings, I dare say. 
As ever grew areoM in onny day. 

YmrluMremaUtgHe, p. 41. 

ARECHE. (1) ToexpUdn. (^.-5.) 
Crist and seint Stevene, 

Quoth Horn, ar0eft« thy swevena. JCJrn^ Horn, 668. 
(2) To attain ; to reach. 

For ofte schalie a womman have 
Thynge whichea man may noujtartfcAe. 

Gower, MS. Ac. Ardiq. 134, f. 59. 
jef me nul him forther teche, 
Thenne Is herte wol areehe 

For to leme more. RAiq, Jntiq. 1, 110. 


Al that hys ax oredke myght, 
Hors and manheslowghd 

mehard Coer de Um, 7037. 

(3) To Utter ; to declare. 

Butassoneas Beryn had pleyn kaowleche 
That his eyeo were y-lost, unnethhemyghtoivrXie 
O word for pure anguysh. HUtory ^Ber^, 2909. 
AREDE. (1) To explain; to interpret. (^.-&) 
Of wliiche no man ne oouthe areden 
The nombre, hot thehevene Kyng 
That woot the sothe of al thing. 

K^g Mieaunder, 5115. 
I trowe arede my dreames even, 
Lo thus It was, this wasmyswevcn. 

The Seeim Segee, 1154, (quoted in Botieher.) 

(2) To give counsel to. 

Therefore to me, my trusty fHend, orede 
Thy counsel: two is better than one head. 

Mother HMtber^e Tale, p. 5. 
AREDILI. Easily; readily. 

A He the derkes under Ood couthe noojt descrive 
^rsdtil to the rijtes the realty of that day. 

Wm.andthe Werwolf, p. 180. 

A-REDY. Ready. 

That in eche lond a-redy is 

Whyder so eny man wende. JfS.Cbff. Trfn.Oeon. 57. 
AREED. Counsel; advice. 

Now must your honor leave these mourning tunes. 

And thus, by my areed, you shaD provide. 

Doufnfitn ^ Robert, E. t^ Huntingdon, i. 1. 

ARE6ES. A herb. It is an ingredient in a re- 
cipe in an old medical MS. at IincoIn,f. 286. 
AREIGHT. Struck. 

Otuel, for wrath, anon 
Jreight h\m on the cheek-bone. 

lB/w'«Jf0f.RofN. iL33B. 

AREIT. Judged? 

Whether for to wUlen here prosperity 
Schulde ben areit as synne and felooie. 

BoeHue, MS. Soe. Jntiq. 134, f.888. 

ARE.LUMES. Heir-looms. North. See the 

Glossarium Northanhymbricum, in v. 
ARELT. Early; soon. 

The erle, als ors^ als it was daye, 
Toke hys leve and wente his waye. 

MS. IJneoln. A. L 17. f. 117- 
AREN. Are. This plural is often met with in old 
writers, and is still used in the North country 
dialects. It is the r^;ular grammatical form. 
See Qu. Rev. Iv. 374. Sometimes arene, as in 
Appendix to W. Mapes, p. 347. 
ARENDE. AneiTand;amessage. (J.-S.) See 
Troilus and Creseide, iL 72; Manners and 
Household Expences of Eng^d, p. 154. 
For jystyrday deyde my nobyl stede. 
On 50ure orefids as I 5ede. BeUq. JnHq. 0. 101. 
ARENGE. In a series. It is translated by 
teriatim in Prompt Parv. p. 14. 
And ladde him and his monekes 

And sette hem adoun arenk. 

And wosdie here fetaUe. St. Brandon, ^.1%. 
ARENYNG. See Athenyng. 

We thankyng Ood of the good and giacios arenyng 
ot yowre croune of Fraunoe. 

U/dgatee Minor Poeme, p. 4. 

ARERAGE. Arrear. {J.~N.) CoweU says, " it 
signifieth the remain of an aooount, or a sum 
of money remaining in the hands of an account* 
ant.'' See also Baret's Alvearie, in v. 




f in mm mgw wol fldk. 
And to p«vp*tnel prlsoun gonge. 

MS, Ashmolt 41, f. 77. 

ARERE. (1) To raise. See Wright's Political 
Songs, p. 342 ; Coventry Mysteries, pp. 132, 
215, 240 ; Octorian Imperator, 21 ; Maunde- 
vile's Trarels, p. 38; HoUnshed, Hist. Eng. 
pp. 112, 129. {J.-S,) 

Ther schulethe Mntlen beo to-drawe. 
That her arereden unryhte lawe. 

MS, OM, Jet, Qtmi. S9. 
A prince of the londli wide, 
Shalle barret artrt for her pride. 

Jffl. Camimb, Ft, t. 48, f. 75. 

(2) To rear, as a horse. 

Wen any of hem that hort cam nej, 
A caste behyode and artrtd an hej. 

MIS, MhmoU 33, f. 49. 

(3) A term in hare-hnnting, used when the 
bonndswerelet loose. {A.'N,) Cf. MS. BodL 546. 
That all maye hyra here, he shall Mye arert. 

Book qfSt. Albano^ ed. 1810. lig. D.ili. 

(4) Badnrards ; behind. See Spenser's Faerie 
Qoeene, III.riL 24 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 181 ; 
Soott, gLoaaary to Sir Tristrem, explains it or 
ere, before, [A.-N,) 

Mj blaepheming now haTO I bought ful dere, 
AU yerthly )oie and mirthe I set orwre. 

T H t mm m t qf CrMoido, 35ft. 
Now plncke up your hertei, and make good chere ; 

Thcee tydynge* lyketh me wonder wele. 
Now Tertu shall drawe orere, arere ; 

Herke, feloui, a good sporte I can you tell. 

Uy^o Seomor, ap, Howkitu, U 90. 

(5) To retreat 

He adrant for the icharp, and aehukle haf arored, 

S^ GatcoyiM* p- 7^. 

ARESEDE. Tottered. (A,'S.) 

Thour^ the mouht the fom was wight, 
The tuachet in the tre he imlt ; 
The tre mretede at hit wold fklle. 
The herd was •or! adrad withalle. 
And gan ume on knes to falle. 

Stvm* Sagett 01ft. 

ARESON. To question, interrogate, examine. 
(A,'N.) See Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 189; 
Rom. oif the Rose, 6220 ; Langtoft's Chronicle, 
p. 314 ; Seynt Katerine, p. 181 ; Twaine and 
Gawin, 1094 ; Maunderile's Travels, p. 131 ; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 241. 

Of that morther and that tretoun. 
He dud that traltour to are»oun. 

Curtor Mundl, MS. CM. Trtn, Cantab, f. 7. 
Themperour deped Herhand him to. 
And orwotind him tuene hem tuo. 

% Gy </ fVarwiket p. 158. 

AREST. (1) Arrest; constraint. (^.-iV.) 
They live but as a bird or aa a baste. 
In Ubertee and under non areota. 

Chauear, Cant. T. 9158. 

(2) Deky. (J.-N,) 

Alas, thn oomith a wUde lionesse 
Ontof the wode, withoutln mote ar«$t, 

ThUba i^r Babylon, 101. 
(S) To Stop. (J.'N,) 

And fther oar hoete began his hors arett, 
And aaldf, lordes, herkeneth if you lest. 

(^ucer. Cant. T, 829. 

(4) Rdateat. 

Palmer, ryghUy thou arttt 

All the maoer. 
Darst thou ryde upon thys best 

To the ryvere. 
And water hym that thou ne falle ? 

OetovUtn Imperator, 14S5. 

(5) Randd. Prompt, Part, 

ARESTENESSE. Rancidity, appUed to meat. 

See Prompt Parv. p. 14. Rancid bacon is 

caUed reeety in the provinces. 

ARESTOGIE. A kind of herb? See the Archie- 

ologia, XXX. 404. 
ARETHEDE. Honour. (J..S,) 
Where folkes sittis in fere. 
There solde mene herkene and here 
Of beryos that by fore were. 
That lyilM In arethede, 
Sir Degretant, Lincoln MS, 

ARETTE. (1) Toimpute,a4iudge,reckon.(^..iV:) 
See Apology for the Lollards, pp. 26,85, 104; 
Chaucer, Cant T. 728 ; Persones Tale, p. 63 ; 
Morte d'Arthur, p. ii ; Philpot's Works, p. 350 ; 
Wickliffe's New Test Phiir 

The Tlctorye es no^te aretted to thame that fliet, 
hot to thame that habydes or folowes on the chace. 
MS. Unroln A. i. 17. f. 15. 

(2) Hence, to value, to esteem. " We arretiden 
not him," old MS. translation of Isaiah, liii. 
quoted in MS. RawL C. 155, from a copy at 
Cambridge. According to Cowdl, a person is 
arretted, ** that is covenanted before a judge, 
and charged with a crime.*' See his Inter- 
preter, 1658. Rider translates it by ad rectum 
voeatui. The verb arret is used by Spenser 
in the sense to decree, to appoint. 
AREVANT. Back again. 

The meyn shalle ye nebyUe, 
And I shalle syng the trebille, 
drvoomt the deriUe, 

TlUe aDe this hole rowte. 
7b«cfMlsirJ0«MrlM, p. 319. 

AREVYD. Arrived. 

They oresyd at the see stronde. 

MS, CanUA. Ft. ii. 38, f. 88. 

A-REW. In a row. See Spenser's Faerie Queene, 
V. xU. 29 ; Reliq. Antiq. L 295 ; Rob.Gloac. p. 
338 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 14. 

Firste that myn ordre longeth too. 
The Ticis for to telle a-rewo. 

Gotctr, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 39. 
AREWE. (1) To pity. 

Jhetu Christ artw hem sore. 

Ant seidehe wolde iGscche hem thore. 

Harrowing of Heil, I* 15. 

(2) To make to repent ; to grieve. 

The Cryttyn party become so than. 
That the fyide they my;t not wynne; 
AUemrowyd hyt, kynge and knyght. 

MS, Cantab. Ff. U. 38, f. 91. 
The furste artycul of thys gemetry : — 
The mayster mason moste be ful securly 
Bothe stcdefost, trusty, and trwe, 
Hyt shal hym never thenne arewe, 
Const. ofMaoonrjt, p. 15. 

AREWEN. Arrows. {A.-S.) 

Tweye bugle-homes, and a bowe alto. 
And fyve arotven ek therto. 

KifPg Alltnunder, 5^3. 

AREWES. Arrows. 





, p. 438. 

He bar & bowe in hit lund. 
And nuwye brode mretpef. 

Piert Koug9ututt, 

AREYNED. Arrested. {A,-N.) 

A man they mette and bym mrtifned. 
To bere the Cros they hym eoottreyned. 

MS, Harl. 1701, f. 88. 
AREYTHE. Aright. 

Anon to hem sche made complayntt 
And tolde hem aU areifthe. 

Frtrt and the Boy, it. xxix. 

AEFE. Afraid ; backward ; reluctant. North, 
Sometimes arfUht in the same sense. 
Whatigh, mother, how she rowts I be varra ar/b, 
Sheel put and rlTe my good praneUa icarfe. 

Yorkshire Dialegue, p. SS. 

ARG. (1) To argue. Weti. 
(2) To gromble. Suisex. 
ARG AB USHE. A harqueboss, an old fashioned 
kind of musket. 

Then pushed souldlers with their pilies. 

And halberdes with handy strolces { 
The argatmehe In flethe it Ughtea, 

And duns the ayre with misty smokes. 

Pere^* lUHqiteet p. 101 . 

ARGAL. (1) According to Kersey, ** hard lees 
sticking to the sides of wine vessels, and other- 
wise cdled tartar.'' See ArgoiL 

(2) Ergo. See Hamlet, t. 1. This is merely the 
grave-digger's vulgar corruption of the Latin 
word. Argo is found in a similar manner in 
Middleton's Works, L 392 ; Sir Thomas More, 
p. 24. 

ARGEMONE. The wild tansy. Mhuheu, 

ARGENTILL. The herb percepierc. Gerard, 

ARGENTINA. The wild tansy. 

ArgentUui, wild tansy* growest the most in the 
flUlowes in Coteswold and North- Wilts ad)oyning, 
that I ever saw. Avbre^e WUU, MS, See. Reg, p. 118. 

ARGENTINE. SQver. Minsheu gives argetit, 
a substantive in the same sense. 
Celestial Dian, goddess argentine, 
I wiU obey thee I— Helicanus 1 Pericles, v, 8. 

ARGENT-VIVE. QuicksUver. 

The manner of our work ; the bulls, our ftimaoe. 
Still breathing fire; out argent-vive, the dragon. 

The JleSemtet, IL 1. 

ARGHEDE. Astonished. (A.-S,) 
That arghede alle that ther ware, 
Bothe the lesse and the mare. Sir Perceval, fl9. 
ARGHNES. Sluggishness; indolence. 

The proverb is, thedoumbman no land getith ; 
Who io nat tpekitb. and with neede is bete. 
And thurgh arghneeee his owne self forgetith. 
No wondir thogh anoihir him forgete. 

Hocclevt^e Poemt, p. 56. 
Argneeee abo me thynkth ys hard. 
Fore hit maketh a man a coward. 

MS, Bodl, 48, f. 137. 
ARGIER. Algiers. 

Pro, Thou hast : Where was she bom ? speak ; tell roe. 
Jri. Sir, in Jrgisr, The Tensest, 1. 8. 

ARGIN. An embankment; a rampart. (ItaL) 

It must have high argine and covered ways. 
To keep the bulwark fronts from battery. 

Mdrlowe*e Work*, i. 188. 

ARGOIL. Chaucer, Cant. T. 16281, says the 
alchemist used, among other things, 
Ciey made with hors and roannes here, and oUe 
Of Urtre, alum, glas, berme, wort, and argoUe, 

Tyrwhitt explains argoUet potter's daj, tatiie 
French argiile; Palsgrave, f. 18, has, **argile, 
a kynde of erthe, argUle," but Skinner explaina 
it, ''alcali seu sal kali" Ben Jonson, Al- 
chemist, L 1, mentions, ** arsenic, vitriol, sal- 
tartar, argaile, alkali, dnoper," as the stock of 
an alchemist ; and in a MS. of the fifteendi 
century /7«fi^ me'ua, receipt " to make vrater 
argoilet that ys, aqua tartary*^ in which in- 
stances it seems to mean the tartar, or lees of 
wine, as before in argoL, q. v. This also is 
dearly the meaning of argul in a very early re- 
cdpt in MS. UarL 2253, printed in the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, i. 65, " tac oryv/, a thing that 
deyares deyet with, ant grint fait smal, ant 
seththe tac a woUene dout, ant couche thi 
poudre theron as brod as hit woL" Argul, or 
argal, is the name of the impure salt deposited 
from wine ; and when purified, is called bitar- 
trate of potash, or cream of tartar, a material 
still used in dyeing. Argol is mentioned in a 
list of chemical metals in Gallathea, 1632. 
ARGOLET. A light horseman. A body of them 
were called itrgoletiert. See Ftorio, in v. 
Pisano, take a comet of our horse. 
As many argolete and armed pikes. 
And with our carriage march away before 
By Scyras, and those plots of ground 
That to Moroccus leads the lower way. 

PeeU^e Works, \\, 95. 
The which argtOetier shall stand yon In as great 
■tead as hones of better account. 

Jrehsniagim, xUi. 184. 
ARGOLOGT. Idle speaking. Coekeram, 
ARGOS. The small false toes at the back of the 
foot, applied to the boar, buck, and doe. 

There Is no deer so jong jif he be a broket upward 
that his taloo is more large and beter and more gret 
argos then hath an hynde, and comuneliche longere 
traces. Maystre of the Game, MS, 

ARGOSIES. Ships of great burthen, either for 
merchandize or war. See Merchant of Venice, 
L 1 ; Donee's Illustrations, L 248. Grose says 
the word is used in the North. 
ARGOT. A corruption of argent, silver. 
Good sweet-Cac'd serving man. 
Let me out, I beseech de, and, by my trot, 
I will give dy worship two shillings in good argot 
To buy dy wershlp pippins. 

Beaumont and tletdur, lii. 168. 

ARGUFT. To argue. Var. dial 1 believe I 

have heard the word used in the sense of to 

tign^' , 

ARGUMENT. (1) Conversation. So Shakespeare 

seems to apply the word in Much Ado about 

Nothing, iii. 1. 

(2) To argue. 

Thus argnmenHtd he in hb ginning, 
Ful unavisid of his wo oomming. 

Tronns and Oreseide, L 978. 
But 5it they ai^^wnenten Iktte 
Upon the pope and his astate. 
Whereof they falle in gret debate. 

Gower, MS, Ac. Jnti^ Ui, f. 9, 

(3) A given arc\, whereby another is determined 
proportional to the first. 




Aibeo bis cmtim, and hit argwHtmtm, 
And bk proportaooel oonvenlentet. 

Chaueer,' Cant. T. IIMO. 

ARGT. An argoment. Salop. Rather, perhaps, 
atsertioii in dispute, according to Brockett, 
who says, " the term is generally ^iplied to a 
person who is not only contentious, but perti- 
nadons in managing an argument." 
AIUCHES. The ends of joists. HoweO, 
ARID. Upright ? 

Swa he met the arid and te rerd« 
That bathe thay fel dad to the herd. 

Omrqr Wmnvidi, MUUIeha Ma. 

ARIEREBAN. A general summons from the 

king to all hisTassalstoappear in arms. Simner. 

ARIET. Harriet. North. 

ARIETE. Aries, one of the signs in the zodiac. 

See Troilus and Creseide, iv. 1592, y. 1189; 

Lydgate's Blinor Poems, p. 243. It occurs 

also as a Latin word. 

Or that Phebui cotre fai the signe 
With hit carecte of the ari€t«. 

Ufdgate, MS. Soc. Jntiq. 134, f. 8. 
But modlnrofrth motte gaderyd be 
Whyll the lonne Is In ariett. 

Arthgtologim, xzz. 372. 

ARIGHT. (1) Performed ; made ? 
Such gcstcnyng he aright. 
That there he dweUid alia nyjt 
With that lady gent. 

nrrmt nf Portugal, p. M. 
And fbaad a pun AiUe riche aHght« 
With gold and perils that was i-beote. 

MS. HarU 8SS8, f. 101. 

(2) Pulled? 

On a day she bad him here pappe. 

And he aripue here soo, 

He tare the oon tide of here brest. 

Sifr Qomghtar, 129. 

ARINDRAOA. A messenger. Ventegan. 
ARIPE. Akindoflnrd. 

He chasid aripea, briddei of Archadle. 

MS. Digbp, 2301 

ARIST. Arises. See Hartshome's Met. Tales, 
p. 105 ; Kyng AHsaunder, 5458 ; Gower, ed. 
1532, f. 70. 

The world arttt, and fiOleth wlthalle. 

Oower, MS. Soa. jtntiq. 134, f. 84, 
Fonlea In wode hem make blithe. 
In CTerlch lood atUt soog. 

Jrth<mr and Merlin, p. 274. 

ARISTIPPUS. A kind of Wine. 
O for a bowl of fat canary, 
Ridi AriMififius, sparkling sherry I 
Some nectar else fl-om Juno's dairy ; 
O these draughts would make us merry I 

Middteton'a Work*, U. 422. 

ARISTOLOCH. The pUmtcalled round hartwort. 

See TopseD's Historic of Four-footed Beasts. 

1607, p. 345. 
ARITE. An arrest Skhmer. The word occurs 

in Troilus and Creseide, iv. 1592, for Aries. 

See Ariete. 
ARITHMANCIE. A kind of divination, the 

foretelfing of future eyents by numbers. See 

Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 28. 
ARIVAGB. Shore; landing place. (A.-N.) 
There sawe I how the tempest stente, 
Aad how with alle pine he went. 

And prlTllle toke arimgo 
Into the oountne of Carthage. 

Hmm nf Fama, I. sn. 
ARIVAILE. ArrivaL {A^N.) 
Tho sawe 1 all the arUaiio 
That iBneas made in Italia. 

Bamm ^f Fam§ti, 4kU 
ARIYED. Riyen ; split asunder. 
Well eriU mote thei thrive. 
And oTill ati9od mote thd bcu 

Aom- <t^(Ae AoM^ lOOB. 

ARIZINGE. Resurrection. 

Ich y.lere faie the Holy Cost, holy cherche gene- 
ralliche, mennesse of haljen, lesneae of aennes, of 
ulesse aHs<i^, and lyf erreleatlnde. 

MS. Arundel 37, f. 04. 
ARK. (1) A chest. In the North of EngUmd, 
the Itfge chests in &rm houses used for keep- 
ing meat or flour are so called. They are 
usually made of oak, and are sometimes elabo- 
rately carved. Prom the name Arkwright^ it 
would seem that the constraction of them 
formerly constituted a separate trade. 
And truase al that he mithen fynde 
Of hise, in arke or In klste. HavekOc, 2018. 

(2) Clouds running into two points, thus 0. 
Etsex. ^ 

(3) A part of the circumference of a drcte. {Lot.) 

The ark of his artiflcUl day had roone 
The fourthe part, and half an honre and mora. 
,^. ^ ^ Chaueer, Cant. T. 442S. 

(4) Anarch. 

It were the part of an idle orator to describe the 
pageants, the arkee, and other well devised hoooures 
done unto her. Haifwardr»Annaleo/Qu,BH9,p.l6. 
ARIiES. Money paid to bind a bargain. Dr. 
Jamieson says, " an earnest, of whatever kind; 
a pledge of fuU possession." Kersey gives orfet- 
penny f a North countiy word for ''earnest- 
money given to servants." It is sometimes the 
custom to give a trifle to servants when they 
were hired, as a kind of retainer. See an in- 
stance in Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 11. According 
to Pegge, to orfc a bargain is to close it See 
also Hunter's Hallamjiiire Glossary, p. 104 ; 
Skinner, part 3, in v. 
ARUCHE. Early. See the Sevyn Sages, 204; 
Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 13. {A.-S.) 

Oode tidinges y telle the. 

That themperour sikerliche 

WUle huntte to>morwe arlicke, 

In his forest privellche. Qy i^ Warwike, p. 87. 
ARLING. " An arling, a byrde that ai^ieareth 
not in winter, a dotbyrde, a smatch, aeruleo." 
Baref s Alvearie, 1680. See also Muffett's 
Health's Improvement, 1665, p. 100; Florio, 
mv.Frutdne. ' 

ARLOUP. The middle deck of a ship ; the orlop. 

So Cotgrave has the word, in v. THUae. 
ARLY. Eariy. Eagt. (A..S.) 

And noght orer arip to mete at gang, 

Ne for to sit tharat over Ung. 

Ich wil that ow to-morwen arfy 
Ml doubter at the chirche spousy. 

ARM. (1) To take up m the arms. So Shake- 
speare uses the woi^ in Cymbeline, iv. 2. 




(2) Harm. 

So falle on the, lire emperour, 
Swich arm, and achame, and detonour, 
Yif thou do thl sone unright, 
AU to the greihound dede the knight 

Seo^ Sagts, 852. 

(3) In a receipt for a dish in Warner's Antiq. 
Culin. p. 26, it is directed that ** cranes and 
herons shal be armed with Uirdes of swyne." 
In this place the word means larded with bacon 
fat, and roasted birds when hirded certainly 
may be said to be formidably armed. 

(4) Defence; security? 

Now lokith ye, for I wol have no wite 

To bring in prete, that might y-don him harmc. 

Or him disetin, for my betttr arme. 

TroUus and Creseide, li. 1650. 

ARMAN. A kind of confection, given to horses 

to create an appetite. Diet, Ru$t 
ARMESIN-TAFFETA. A kind of taffata, men- 
tioned by Howell in his 25th section. 
ARMETT. A hermit. 

And this armett soyn can hym frayn 
How he had sped of hys gatt. 

MS. Setd, Arch, B. 53. 
ARMFUL. An armful of hay, according to 
Howell, is as much as can be taken in the two 
hands together. 
ARM-GAUNT. Lean; thin; very lean. So the 
first two folios read, but the correctness of it 
has been much disputed. Mason suggests 
termagaunt, a conjecture supported by Toone; 
but there is no necessity for alteration. Shake- 
speare uses arm-gaunt f as thin as an arm, in the 
same way that Chaucer writes arm-^ret^ q. v. 
So he nodded. 
And soberly did mount an arm-gaunt steed. 

Antony and Cleopatra, i. 5. 

ARM-GRET. As thick as a man's arm. 
A wreth of gold arm-gft, of huge weight. 
Upon his hed sate ful of stones bright. 

Oiaucer, Cant, T. S147- 

ARMIGERO. An esquire. (Lat) See the 
commencement of the Merry Wives of 
"Windsor, L 1. Teste — armigero. 
ARMINE. A beggar. {Dut.) 

Luce. O here God, so young an armine / 
Flow, Armine, sweetheart, I know not what you 
mean by that, but I am almost a beggar. 

The London Prodigal, p. 122. 

ARMING. (1) A coat of arms. 

When the Lord Beamont, who their arming* knew. 
Their present perill to brave Suffblke shewes. 

Draptnn'jt Poems, p. 63. 

(2) A net hung about a ship's' hull, to protect 
the men from an enemy in a fight. See Huloet's 
Abcedarium, 1552. 

ARMING-GIRDLE. A kind of sword girdle. Cf. 
Nomendator, 1585, p. 171; Florio. in v. 
Balteo; Cotgrave, in v. Ceineture^ Balthte, 
Florio, in v. SeOdnef mentions an arming-sad- 
dle, and there are also other similar com- 
pounds. See Strutt, ii. 229. 

ARMING-POINTS. Short ends of strong twine, 
with points like laces : they were fixed princi- 
pally under the armpits and bendings of the 
arms and knees, to fasten the gussets of mail 

which defended those parts of the body other- 
vrise exposed. Meyriek. 
ARMING-SWORD. A two-handed sipord. See 
tfie Nomendator, p. 275 ; Arch. xiL 351. 

Some had their armynge noearde* freshly bur- 
nished, and some had them conningly vemyshed. 
Hall, Hen. IV. f. 12. 
A helmett of proofe shee strait did provide, 
A strong arming^-twerd diee girt by her side. 
On her hand a goodly faire gauntlett put shee ; 
Was not this a brave bonny laas, Mary Ambree f 
Peroit* Reliquee, p. 144. 
ARMIPOTENT. Mighty in arms. (Lat.) 
And dounward from an hill under a bent, 
Ther stood the temple of Mars armipotent. 
Wrought all of burned stele, of which the entree 
Was longe and streite, and gastly for to see. 

Chaucer, Cant. T, 1964. 

ARMITE. Ahehnet. (j1.-N.) Palsgrave (f. 18) 
says that armet is** a, heed pese of hamesse." 
On the Uy . corners of the waggon were iiij. hed 
peces called armitee, every pece beyng of a stmdery 
device. HaU, Henry VllL f. 70. 

ARMLES. Without an arm. {A.-S,) 
And on a wall this king his eyen cast. 
And saw an hand armiee, that wrote tv\ tuX, 
For fere of whlche he quoke, and siked sore. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 14900. 

ARMLET. A bracelet ; a piece of armour for 
the arm. 

Not that in colour It was Uke thy hair. 
Armlet* ot that thou mayst still let me wear. 

Donnas Elegiee, x\\. 

ARMONT. (1) Harmony. 

And musik had, voyde of alle discord, 
Boece her clerk, withe heveoly armony. 
And instrumentes alle of oon accorde. 

Ufdgatife Minor Poeme, p. U. 

(2) Armenia. 

Shewe me the ryght path 

To thehyllesof ifrmofiy. Skelton** Worke, L S8, 
ARMORIKE. Basse Bretagne in France, an- 
ciently caUed Britannia Armorica. 
In Armorike, that called is Bretaigne, 
Ther was a knight, that loved and did his peine 
To serve a ladle in his beste wise. 

Chaucer, Cant, T. 11041. 
ARMORWE. The morrow. 
An armorwe erliche 

Themperour aros sikerUche. Oy of Warwike, p.l 17. 
ARMS. The arms of a hawk are the legs from 
the thigh to the foot. See the Laws of the 
Forest and Game, 1709, p. 40. 
ARMURE. Armour. (^.-A^.) See Melibeus, 
p. 114 ; Lydgate*s Minor Poems, p. 260. In 
the latter instance, the form of the word is 
ARMYE. A naval armament. 

Whiche I thought not convenyent, conjecturing 
that with tho^c streynable wyndes, the rest of 
tharmye comyng out of Thames, and also the Henry, 
with the Mary Roose, sholde be in the Downes. 

State Papers, i. 791. 

ARMYLL. A bracelet ; a necklace. {Lat.) 

The king thus gird with his swerrt, and standing, 
shall take ormyU of the Cardinall, saying thise words, 
accipe armiUam, and it Is to wete that armyll is made 
io maner of a stole wovyn with gold and set with 
stones, to be putt by the Cardinall aboute the Kiuges 
necke. Rutland Papers, p. 18. 




ARMYN. Ermine. "Blacke speckes lyke 
armyntT are mentioned in the Book of St.* 
Albans, aig. A. t. See also Hall| Henry VIII. 
f. 3; Rutland Papers, p. 23; Assemble of 
Ladies, 527. 

They toke a ftirre of arm^rtt 
And wrapped the chyldur theryn. 

MS, Cantab, Ff.U. 38, f. 180. 
And clad them alle In clothya of pryje. 
And furryd them with armifne. Ibid. f. 242. 

Your cote armoure of golde full fyne. 
And poudred well with good ormifM, 

Squ^ of iMwt Degri, 290. 
ARMYSE. Anns. 

Torrent sayd« Be Mair^ dere I 
And I were off armyw dere, 
YowT dowghthyr me leve were. 

Torrent cf Portugal, p. 4. 
ARMTTE. Ahemrit. See Armett, Instances 
of armyie occur in Hartshome's Met. Tales, 
p. 304 ; Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1461. 
On the mome he gane hym dyjht 
In arm^te* aray . M8, Athmote 61 , f . 80. 


Thmne said Morgan, tawe ye Arthur my broder ? 
Ye. said her knyghtet, ryght wel, and that ye shold 
have founde and we myghte have stered ft-om one 
ttede, for by his armyvutal contenaunce he wold 
have causeil us to have fled. Mort« ^Arthur, L 110. 
ARN. (1) To earn. Salop. It is also a contrac- 
tion of e'er a on« in the West country dialect. 
Fore he wyll drynke more on a dey 
Than thou cane lyghtly ame In twey. 

MS, ii«Amof«6l,f.23. 

(2) To run; to flow. (J,-S.) 

Eldol, erl of Gloacetter, also In hyt syde 
Am4*, and kepteber and thcr, and slow a-boute wyde. 
lto6. aioue. p. 140. 
Now rist grete tabour betyng, 
Blaweyng of pypes, and ek trumpyng, 
Stedet lepyng, and ek amyng. 

Kyng Alu€tunder, 2165. 
Anon so sein Joan this i-sei5h. 

He amde aftur anon. 
And siwede bim also stifliche 

Ase his hors ml5htegon. MS,Laud, 108, f.173. 

(3) An eagle. (A,-S.) 

ARNALDIE. A kind of disease, mentioned by 
the early chroniclers without explanation. 
Skinner considers the word of Arabic origin, 
but see Docange, in v. Amaidia^ who con- 
fesses its precise meaning is not known. 

ARNARY-CHEESE. Ordinary or common 
cheese made of skimmed milk. Dorset 

ARND. An errand ; a message. See a curious 
hymn printed by Heame, quoted in Brit. Bibl. 
iL 81, and the Catalogue of the Douce MSS. 
p. 20, which mentions another copy, identifying 
MS. Douce 128 as the copy of Avesbury used 
by Heame. Ami occurs in Tim Bobbin in the 
same sense. 
And sped hem Into Spayne spacll in a while. 
And to the kud king Alphouns kithed here amrf. 
fFUl, and the WeruHff/t p. 100. 

ARNDERN. The evening. SeeAandom, 
When the sad amdem shutting In the light. 

DraytorCe Owl, ed. 1748, p. 410. 
ARNE. Are. Sec Black's Pen. Psahns, p. 51 ; 

Heame's Fragment, p. 298 ; Chaucer, Cant T. 
4706, 8218. 
In Brytayn this layes ame y-wrytt, 
Furst y-founde and forthey-geto. Orphee, 13 
ARNEDE. An errand. 

To his wlf he wentaoon, 

And salde sche most on his amede gem. 

Sev^ Sagee, U94, 
ARNEMELIT. A kind of powder. In the Book 
of St. Albans, sig. C. ii. is a direction to " fylle 
the hole wyth a powdre of amemelit brente." 
This is probably an error for amement. See a 
similar passage in Reliq. Antiq. i. 302. 
ARNEMENT. Ink. See the Sevyn Sages, 2776 ; 
MS. Med. Lincobi, f. 285; MS. Sloane 2584, 
p. 29. (Lat) 

He dud make hym a gamament. 
As black as any amement, 

MS. Cantab. Ft. U. 88, f. 139. 

ARNEMORWE. Early in the morning. {A.'S,) 
Bifor Gormoise that cit^ 
On amemorwe than eome we. 
With fif liundred of gode knjghtei. 

Qy </ WarwOn, p. 184. 

ARNEST. Earnest. See a reading in the King's 
CoUege MS. quoted in Prompt. Panr. p. 142. 
At p. 14, it Is the translation of tfreiia, earnest 
money, hansel. 

ARNEYS. Armour. See a curious stage di- 
rection in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 283. 

ARNS. Aries, q.v. North. 

ARNT. (1) Have not; am not. Wett. 

(2) An errand. North. 

ARNUT. The earth-nut, or pig-nut, frequently 
eaten by boys in the north of England. 

AROINT. A word of expulsion, or avoiding. 
Douce thinks there is no doubt that it signifies, 
away! run! and that it is of Saxon origin. 
See his Illustrations, i. 371. It occurs thrice 
in Shakespeare in this sense, Macbeth, i. 3, 
and King Lear, iiL 4, applied in each instance 
to witches. The print published by Heame, 
referred toby the commentators, seems scarcely 
applicable. SeeArougt, The fourth folio 
reads anoint ^ according to Steevens, a reading 
which may perhaps be confirmed by a passage 
in Ben Jonson's Masque of Queens : 
sitters, stay, we want our Dame ; 
Call upon her by her name. 
And the charm we use to say. 
That she quickly anoint, and come away. 
But as the word is spelt aroynt three times in 
the early editions, we are scarcely justified in 
proposing an alteration. Ray explains **rynt 
yf" ^ your leave, stand handsomely, and gives 
the Cheshire proverb, "Rynt you^ witch, quoth 
Besse Locket to her mother." This proverbial 
saying positively connects rynt with aroint, 
and Wilbraham informs \is that " rynt thee" 
is an expression used by milkmaids to a cow 
when she has been milked, to bid her to get out 
of the way, which is more likely to be correct 
than Ray's explanation. Boucher goes farther, 
and says, aroint is the word used in that county; 
but Ray's proverb is sufficient, and of good au- 
thority, because he does not appear to have 




had the Shakespearian word in view. The 
connexion between aromi and rpni beins thus 
established, it is clear that the compound ety- 
mology proposed by Mr. Rodd, in Knight's 
Shakspere, is inadmissible. A more plausible 
one is given in Nares's Glossary, in t. from 
the Latin avefrunco, the participle of which 
may have been formed into aroint, in the 
same way that punctum has become pohU; 
hmetum, joint, &c. See also Collier's Shake- 
speare, vii. 103, where the same coigecture is 
revived, and attributed to a more recent writer. 
The a may have been dropped, and Mr. Wil- 
braham's conjectural origin from arowma re- 
ceives some confirmation from a passage quoted 
in Ck>llier's Hist Dram. Poet. iL 289, where 
the form of that word is aroine ; but perhaps 
we should read arome, 
AROMAZ. A spice. <' Smirles of aroma^* are 
mentioned in MS. Cott. Titus D. xviiL 1 142. 

The tother to mirre, the thridde to flour. 

The ferthe like to anmate, 

Curwr Mundi, MS. CoU, THn. Caniab. f. 1S9. 

AEON. The starchwort Mhuheu. See Aaron. 
A-ROST. Roasted. 

Theone mot ych habbe hcnnen a-rott, 
Feyr on f^hshe day launprey aat lax. 

Wrighft PiMHeal Songt, p. 151 . 

AROUGT. This word occurs in an old print 

copied by Heame from an ancient illumination 

representing the harrowing of helL It means, 

probably, go ou^, but see Aroute. 

AROUME. Aside; At a distance. It is translated 

by remote, dgtrope, teortum, in Prompt. Parv. 

p. 14. See Book of Fame, iL 32 ; Kyng All- 

saunder, 1637 ; Ridiard Goer de Lion, 464 ; 

Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet iL 289; Digby 

Mysteries, p. 188. {A.S.) 

The geaunt artmmt he ttode. 

Hit hond he tint y-wis t 
He fleighe, aa he wer wode, 

Ther that the castel It. Sir Trittrem, p. S63. 
And drottgh hem wel fer aroumt. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 214. 

And thenne thulde the lord and the mayster of the 

game, and alle the hunters, itoode oroom al aboute the 

reward, and blowe the deeth. M8.Bodl 546. 

AROUN. Around. North. 

Ayxen they leggilh aa a grlflbn, 
Ac they beon more feor aroun. 

Kifng MUavnder, 6003. 
AROUTB. (1) To go ; to move about (Su. G.) 
Lo, seyde the emperour, 

Byhold now aboute. 
And oure Godit honure ich rede. 
Other thou ihelt herto «r<w/«. 

MS. Coil. THn. Own. 67. 
He myjte not wonne in the wonet for witt that he mid. 
But a-nmutid for his ray, and rebuked ofte. 

Deporition o/Riehard It. p. 92. 
In all that lond no Christin durst arcut. 

Ouxucer, td, Urr^, p. fiS. 

(2) An assembly. Gower. 

AR0U3T. Explained. 

Here sweren hi him tolden word after word, 
Josep here tweren sone haveth arom^t. 

if& Bod/.652,f.5. 

AROVE. (1) Rambling about Craven. 

(2) Arrived. 

His navyo greate with many soudyourw. 

To sayle anone into this Britayn made. 

In Tliamli arwe, wher he bad ful sharpe shores. 

Hardjfng'* Chrontele, f. 36. 
A-ROWE. In a row ; successively. 
Thabot present him a scliip 
Ther that maoi stode tMrouwe. 

Legend nf Pope Gregmy, p. 31. 
For thre ny5tes a-rowe he seyje that same syjt. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 61%, 

AROWZE. To bedew. (Pr.) Nares doubts the 
correctness of this explanation, and considers 
it has the usual sense of arouse. 
The blissful dew of heaven does aroicee yon. 

The Two Noble Kinement r. 4. 

ARPETS. A kind of resin, composed of tallow 
and tar. A mention of it occurs in an early 
English medical MS. at Stockhohn. See the 
Archseologia, xxx. 404. 
ARPIES. Harpies; furies. 

Sende out thine orpfet, send angulshe and dole. 

Chaucer, ed. Urrif, p. fi27. 

ARPINE. An acre. (Fr.) 

PriTaqr ! It shall be given him 

In open court ; III make him swallow it 

Before the Judge's face : if Ite be master 

Of poor ten arpinee of land forty hours longer. 

Let the world repute me an honest woman. 

Wehetei'e Worke, 11. 82. 
ARPIT. Quick; ready. Salop. 
ARPSICORD. A harpsichord. So Cotgrave 

spells the word, in v. Harpeehorde. 
ARRABLE. Horrible. 

Fendls led hir with arrable song 
Bo4iynde and 5eke beforew 

MS. Cantab. Ft. t. 48, f. 45. 
ARRABTS. Arabian horses. 

Moyllei mylke whitte, and mervaylluus bestcs, 
Elfaydes and arrabife, and olyfauntes noble. 

Morte Arthvre, MS. Uneotn, f. 77* 

ARRACIES. A term applied to the smalleranimals 
of the chase, which were skinned, similarly to 
the process now used for hares and rabbits, in 
opposition to flayed. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 151-2 ; 
Sir H. Dryden's Twid, p. 29. 

ARRAGE. (1) Vassal service in ploughing the 
lord's land. The terms arrage and carriage 
are frequently used together, as descriptive of 
an important part of the services whidi, in 
feudal times, vassals owed to their lords. 

(2) To go about furiously. {A.-S.) 

I shall sende for them all that ben subgettyi and 
alyed to thempyre of Rome to oome to myn ayde, 
and forthwith sente old wyse knyghtes unto these 
countrayes folowynge, fyrste to arobage and arrage, 
to Alysaundrye, to Ynde, to Hermonye. 

Jtfbr««<rilrl*wr, i.lSft. 

ARRAHIND. Around. Stqf. 

ARRAIGN. To arrange. 

Semfhsoimraigrid: I will set forward straight. 

Webeter^e Worke, H. 261. 

ARRALS. Pimples; eruptions on the skin. Cumb. 

ARRAND. An errand. Simner. The form arrant 
is still used in the North, and is found in Mid- 
dleton's Works, v. 5. Howell, in his collection 
,of English Proverbs, p. 2, gives the following: 
" One of the four and twenty qualities of a 
knave is to stay long at his arrand:* 




ARRANT. Malorj, Ib bit liorte d'Arthnr, i. 
199, &C. applies this word to knights, where 
we say enwU. The term is generally applied 
to any thing or person extremely objectionahle 
and worthless, and wu probab^ derived from 
the lioentioos character of wanderers ingeneraL 

ARRA^NE. ETer a one. WiUi. 

ARRAS. (1) A superior kind of tapestry, so 
named from Arras, the capital of Artois in the 
French Netherlands, which was celebrated for 
its manufacture. In the rooms of old houses 
hung with arras, there were generally large 
spaces between the hangings and the walls, and 
these were frequently made hiding places in 
the old plays. Faistaff proposes to hide him- 
sdf behmd the arras at Windsor; and Polonius 
is killed behind the arras in Hamlet, iiL 3. 
See the Unton Inyentories, ed. J. O. Nichols, 
g^oss. in y. Arytte, Falstaff, no moderate size, 
sleeps behind the arras in 1 Henry IV. ii. 4, 
whrn Dr. Johnson thinks Shakespeare has 
outstepped probability, but Malone has dis- 
tinctly proved the contrary. See his Shake- 
speare, xvi 299. 

(2) A kind of powder, probably made of the root 
of the orris. See Gerard, p. 48. " Halfe 
an ounce of arras" is mentioned by Harrison, 
Descr. of England, p. 170, as a material used 
in brewing, and Webster twice mentions omu- 
powder as having been sprinkled on the hair. 
See Webster's Works, L 133; Markham's Engl. 
Houswife, 1649, p. 150. 

ARRAUGHT. Reached; seized by violence. 
We have already had araught and areehe, but 
this form is quoted as used by Spenser, and 
admitted by Nares, who was not aware of any 
example of the verb in the present tense. 

ARRAWIGGLE. An earwig. Suffolk, ** ArwygyU 
worme" occurs in the Prompt. Parv. trans- 
lated by amriaUs. 

ARRATERS. Those officers that had the care 
of the soldiers' armour. Rider. 

ARRE. (1) To snarl. 

They arre and bark at night against the moon. 
For fetchhig In frech tldef to cleanse the streets. 
Siaiumtr^s Last fVUI and ZWtamefi/, p. 37. 

(2) The letter R 

There was an V. and thre orrcf to-gydre In a sute. 
With Icttcra other, of whkhe I shal reherse. 

JrehMdogia, zadx. 331. 

ARRfiCT. (1) To impute. (Lai.) 

Thcrfiore he mrrtettih no blame of theyr dedes 

onto them. Sir Thomat Mor^n Workut p. 271. 

That this passe you not undirected, as we truste 

you, and as we have no cause Varreete or ascribe 

any default unto you hereafter. 

Davis^t York Raeordt, p. SS9. 

(2) To offer ; to refer. 

Jrr9«tU»g9 unto your wyse examlnadon 
How all that I do Is under reffbrmatlon. 

SktUm't Work*, 1. 378. 

(3) To direct 

ArtctTHg my syght towarde the lodyake* 
The sygnes xlL for to beholde a^arre. 

8k«iton*t Work9, i. 361. 

ARREDT. To make ready. 

And so forthewith they sent at about In Somar- 

BCCshere, Dorsetshli*, and parte of Wiltsbere for to 
arrodg and arays the people by a oerUyne day. 

JrHval of King Rdtimrd IF. p. S3. 
Dcslryng and pray you to dispose and arredis you 
to acoompayneye us thedir, with as many per- 
•ones d^irasabyly arrayede as ye can make. 

Jf& MhmoU, 1160. 
ARRBED. This word is explained awards and 
Milton referred to as the authority, in Glosso- 
graphia Anglicana Nova, ed. 1719, in v. 
ARREISE. To raise. See Jroiie, 

They beyng advertised, mrreitod a greate power of 
xiU. m. and came to the passage, and slewe of the 
Frenehemen vj. c Ho//, Henrp VXII. f. IIS. 

Soone over al this tithing ras, 
That Laaar thus wrt^Md was. 

OfTMT Mundi, MS, Coll, Trin, Osntaft. f. 89. 

ARRERE-SUPPER. A rcre-suppcr ; a coDation 
served up in the bedroom, after the first supper. 
See Holinshed, Hist. Scot. f. 208, as quoted by 
Boucher, in v. Arrtar, 
ARRIDE. To please. {Lat.) 

If her condition answer but her feature, 
I am fitted. Her form answers my aflbction | 
It mrridm me exceedingly. lil speak to her. 

ARRIDGE. The edge of anything that is Uable 
to hurt or cause an or, q. v. North, See A 
Guide to the Lakes, ed. 1784, p. 300. With 
this may be connected arri$t ** the line of con- 
course, edge, or meeting of two surfaces." See 
Britton's Arch. Diet, in v. 

ARRIERE. The hinder part. (Fr.) This foreign 
word was formeriy in use as a military term, 
instead of rear. See Johnson in v. 

ARRISHES. According to Marshall's Rural 
(Economy, i. 171, this is the Devonshire term 
for stubbles or eddish ; arruk mows, which he 
mentions as little stacks set up in a field, seem 
to be so called merely firom their being in the 
arrith, or stubble-field. 

ARRIVALL. A rival? 

On a day he saw a goodly young elephant in copu> 
latkm with another, and instantly a third aproched 
with a dlrdtdl braying, as if he would have eaten up 
al the company, and, as it afterward appeared, he 
was an arrioaU to the female which we saw in copu- 
lation with the other male. 

Topoetf* Vour-Jbotod BeatU, 1007, p. 197. 

ARRIVANCE. The arrival of company. 
For every minute Is expectancy 
Of more arHMNM. OthtOot U. 1. 

ARRIVE. (I) To arrive at. 

But ere we could arrioo the point propo/d, 
CsBsar cried. Help me, Casslus, or 1 sink. 

Julhu Cmaar, 1. 2. 

(2) An arrival 

Whose forests, hills, and floods, then long for her arrive 
From Lancashire. Dra^ton't Polpotbum, p. 1192. 

ARRODE. Herod. In the account of the Co- 
ventry Pageants, 1489, is a payment for ** a 
gowea to Arrode," See Sharp's Diss, on the 
Coventry Myst. p. 28. 
ARROGATION. Arrogance. More, 
ARRONLY. Exoeedin^y. Lane, 
ARROS. Arrows. 

The first of arros that the shote off. 
Seven skore spear*mea the sloughe. 

Pore^* ReHqneg, p. 91 




ARROSB. This is the reading in one edition of 
Hardyng's Chronicle, where the others read 
arove, q. v. 
ARROW. FearfiiL Rider, 
ARROW-HEAD. A kind of aquatic plant. 

ARROW-HEADERS. The making of arrow- 
heads formerly constituted a separate trade. 
Lanternen, ttryngert, gryndera, 
Arowe-htdert, maltemen, and corno'inoogen. 

Ctete Lonltn BoU, p. 10. 
ARROWRE. An error. 

This arrowre had he in hyi Uu^ht» 
And in hyi thoght a tlepe hym toke. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. li. 38, f. 240. 

ARROWY. Abounding in arrows. Milton, Para- 
dise Regained, b. iiL has '* sharp sleet qf arrowy 
showeTf which is apparently plagiarised by 
Gray in the following passage. 

Now the itorm begins to lower. 

Haste, the loom of hell prepare ! 
Iron sleet of arrowjr shower 
Hurtles In the darken'd air. 

Grains liital SUtera. 

ARRWUS. Arrows. This form of the word 
occurs in a strange burlesque printed in Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 82. 
ARRY. Any. Somertet, 
ARRYN. To seize. 

And the Jewys xul cr^'e fur joy with a gret voys, 
and arrj/n hym, and pullyn of his clothis, and byndyn 
hym to a pelcre, and skorgyn hym. 

Coventry Mtfaterin, p. 316. 

ARS. Art ; science. This word was usually em- 
ployed to signify the occult sciences. {Lot,) 
Barounes weore whilem wys and gode. 
That this an wel undurstode : 
Ac on ther was, Neptanamous, 
Wis in this ars, and malicious. 

Kjmg JlUaunder, 72. 
ARSARD. Unwilling ; perverse. Var, dial It 

is sometimes pronounced arset, 
ARSBAWST. A foil on the back. Stqf, 
ARSBOORD. The hinder board of a cart. Stqf, 
ARSEDINE. A kind of ornamental tinsel some- 
times called asaadyt or orsadyf which last is 
probably the correct word. Ben Jonson men- 
tions it in his Bartholomew Fair, ii. 1. See 
also Sharp's Diss, on Cot. Myst. p. 29 ; Cun- 
ningham's Revels' Accounts, pp. 33, 57. See 
Asiidue, Gifford considers it to be a vulgar 
corruption of arsenic, iv. 405. 
ARSELING-POLE. The pole with which bakers 
spread the hot embers to all parts of the oven. 
ARSELINS. Backwards. Norfolk, 
ARSENICK. The water-pepper. The herb is 
mentioned under this name in the NomencUu 
tor, 1585, p. 126. It is to be distinguished 
from the mineral poison of the sam^ name. 
ARSEPUSH. A foU on the back. HoweU, 
ARSESMART. The periscaria. ItiscaUcdthe 
water-pepper by Kersey, and is the translation 
of curage in HoUyband's Dictionarie, 1593. 
Coles, in his Art of Simpling, says, " It is said 
that if a handfiill of arsmart be put under the 

saddle upon a tired horse's bade, it wiH make 
him travaile fresh and lustily." See Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. iiL 165 ; Aubrey's Nat. Hist. Wilts. 
MS. Soc. Reg. p. 139. 

ARSEVERSE. According to Bkmnt's Glosso- 
graphia, ed. 1681, p. 51, this word is " a pre- 
tended spell, written upon the door of an house 
to keep it from burning." 

ARSEWISPE. Rider gives this word, which 
scarcely requires explanation, as the transla- 
tion of the Latin anitergium, 

ARSLE. To move backwards ; to fidget East, 
Cotton, in his Virgil Travestie, ed. 1734, p. 5, 
has arsing about ^ turning round. 

ARSMETRIK. Arithmetic. {Lot,) 

Jmmttrik U lore 

That al of figures is. Its. AahmtU 43, U 180. 
And artmetryki be castyng of nombrary, 
Cliees Pyktegoras for her parte. 

LtfdgcOi^s Minor Poenut p. 11. 

ARSOUN. The bow of a saddle. (^.-AT.) It is 
sometimes used for the saddle itself. Each sad- 
dle had two arsouns, one in frt>nt, the other 
behind ; the former called the ybr^-arxoun, as 
in Richard Coer de Lion, 5053. In the same 
romance, 5539, speaking of King Richard, we 
are told that **both hys arsouns weren off 
yrcn." In Kyng Alisaunder, 4251, it appar- 
ently means the saddle. 

And the armm behynde. as y yow say, 
Syr Befyse smote dene away. 

MS, Cantab. Ff. ti. 38, f. 123. 
On ys stede ful the dent, 
Bydde the ybr^r«oim. MS, Mhmole 33, f. 44. 
ARST. First; erst. 

Tho was made frenshepe ther artt was debate^ 

MS. Hart, 1701, f. 87. 
As thou haste seyde, so schalle hyt bee, 
/trtte y schalle not biynne. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. ii.38. f. 72. 

ARS-TABLE. A table used in magic, probably 
the same as the astrolabe. 

His ar»-tabte he tok out sone. 
Theo cours he tok of sonne and mone, 
Theo court of the planetis seven. 
He tolde also undur heven. 

Kyng Alisaunder, WJ. 

ARSTON. A hearth-Stone. Yorksh. 

ARSY-VERSY. Upside down; preposterously. 

It is translated propositus by Rider, and the 

second meaning is given by Kersey. See Hu- 

dibras, I. iiL 828 ; Drayton's Poems, p. 272. 

ART. (1) A quarter ; a point of the compass. 

(2) Eight. Exmoor, 

ARTE. To constrain ; to compel. {Lat.) See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 14; Troilus and Crcseide, 
L 389 ; Court of Love, 46 ; Hocclcve's Poems, 
in no wise I may mebettur excuse. 
Than sey my wilt, so dul and unperflte, 
AHxih me thus rudely for tendite. MS, Rawl, C. 4a 
A tlrauut wolde have artid him by paynes, 
A certeyne counsel to bewrey and telle. 

Boetitu, MS, Soc, Antiq, 134, f. 898. 

We spekke nojte mekille, hot whene we ere 

nrtede for to speke, we say nojtc hot the sothe, and 

onane we halde us stille. MS. Uncoin A. 1. 17, f. S3. 




ABTEEN. Eighteen. Bxmo&r, 

ABTELRISS. Artilkry. (^.-AT.) 

1 ahal wanmtore min hous with toures, twkhe 
■• haa caitdtfti and other maacre edifloet, and 
azmura, and mrtebriat, by which thinfot I may 017 
penone and myn boui wo kepen and defenden, that 
Diin enemies thufai ben in drede min hous for to ap- 
proche. Tai9 0/ Metibeu*^ p. 113. 

ARTEMAGE. The art of magic. (A.-N.) 
And through the crafte of artemage. 
Of wexe he forged an ymage. 

Gowtr, ed. Ifi38; f. ISB 
ARTER. After. Var. dial 
ARTETYKES. A kind of gout or disease affect- 
ing the joints. Maundevile mentions, "gowtes, 
artetykes/' that afflieted him in his old age. 
See his Travels, p. 315. A preseription for it 
in hawks is given in the Book of St. Albans, 
sig. C. i. It is probably connected irith 
arf Art/it. See Arcetik. 
ARTHOFILAXE. The arctic circle. 

The whiche sercle and constelladonn 
]-called is the cercle arthqfltajn : 
Who knowith it nedlth no more to axe. 

MS. Digbp 830. 

ARTH-STAFF. A poker used by blacksmiths. 

ARTHUR. A game at sea, which will be found 
described in Grose's Class. Diet. Vulg. T. ii\ v. 
It is aDuded to in the novel of Peregrine 
Pickk, ch. 16. 

ARTHUR'S.CHACE. A kennel of black dogs, 
frilowed by unknown huntsmen, which were 
formerly believed to perform their nocturnal 
gambols in France. See Grey's Notes on 
Shakespeare, i. 34. 

ARTHUR'S-SHOW. An exhibition of archery 
alluded to in 2 Henry lY. iii. 2. It was con- 
ducted by a society who had assumed the arms 
and names of the Knights of the Round Table. 
See Donee's Illustrations, L 461. 

ARTICLE. Comprehension. Shakespeare men- 
tions ** a soul of great articled* in Hamlet, v. 2. 
The vulgar sense is applied to a poor creature, 
or a wretched animaL This latter appears 
rather slang than provincial, yet it is admitted 
into the East Anglian Vocabulary. 

ARTICULATE. To exhibit in articles. See this 
nse of the word in Coriolanus, L 9, where it 
means to eater into articles of agreement. 
To end those things articulated here 
By our great lord, the mighty king of Spain, 
We with our council will deliberate. 

Hawking Engl. Dram. ii. 48. 

ARTICULES. Any multiples of ten, a division 
which was formerly considered necessary in 
arithmetic, and was probably the result of the 
abacal system, a gradual improvement of the 
Boetian notation. SeeRara Mathematica,p. 30. 
ARTIEIL Artery. (fV-.) See the Shakespeare 
Sodety's Papers, i. 19. 

May never spirit, vein, or arti«r, feed 
The cursed substance oi that cruel heart ! 

Marlowe* Work*, 1. 100. 

ARTIFICIAL. Ingenious ; artfiiL 
We, Hermia,like two artificial gods. 
Hare with our needles created both one flower. 

A Midi, Vighe$ Drwm, Ui. 2. 

ARTILLERY. This word is often implied to all 
kinds of missile weapons. See 1 Sanmel, 
XX. 40. 

ARTILLERY-GARDEN. AplneenearBiahops- 
gate, where people i»actised shooting, &c. 
See Middleton's Works, iv. 424, t. 283. 

ARTNOON. Afternoon. Ettex. 

ART-OF.MEMORY. An old game at cards, de- 
scribed in the Compleat Gamester, ed. 1709, 
p. 101. 

ARTOW. Art thoo. North, This is a correct 
early form, the second personal pronoun being 
frequently combmed with the verb in interro- 
gative sentences. See Will, and the Werwolf, 
pp. 46, 185 ; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 51. 

ARTRY. At p. 284 of the following work, men- 
tion is made of " al myn armery and aitry 

Al^o y wol that my son Sir Harry hare all the 
midew of my warderobe and of myn arras nat be- 
quethen, and all myn armery and all my artrp, 

NieM/ Ro^ mil*, p. 888. 

ARTS-MAN. A man of art. This seems to be 
the meaning in Love's Labours Lost, v. 1. The 
old editions read arts-man preambulaty which 
had better remain without alteration. 
ARTYLLED. Declared ; set out in articles. See 
Uartshome's Met. Tales, p. 250, where it may 
perhaps be an error for artykilied. 
ARUDAND. Riding. See Gy of Warwike, 
p. 77, amend? 

Abothe half his hors be hing. 

That emne forth wrudand in that thring. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. S22. 

A knight com arwmd [amand ?] with gret reve, 

Y-armed in armes alle. Ihid, p. 3ia 

ARUEMORWE. Early in the morning. {A.-S.) 

See Arthour and Merlin, p. 178, but the proper 

form, I believe, is amemorwet q. v. 

ARUM. An arm. 

And he haves on thorn his orum, 
Therof is ful mikel harum. Bapohk, Kl». 

ARUNDE. An errand. 

And thy moder, Mary, hevyn qwene, 
Bere our amnde so 1>ytwcne, 

That semely ys of syght. Bmare, 8* 

ARUWE. An arrow. 

Ac an aruwe oway he bare 
In his eld wounde. Sir lHttr*m, p. 304. 

ARVAL. A>funeraL North. Arval-tvpper \m 
a funeral feast given to the friends of the de- 
ceased, at which a particular kind of loaf, 
called arval-dread, is sometimes distributed 
among the poor. Artel-bread is a coarse 
cake, composed of flour, water, yeast, currants, 
and some kind of spice ; in form round, about 
eight inches in diameter, and the upper sur- 
fajct always scored, perhaps exhibiting origi- 
nally the sign of the cross. Not many years 
since one of these arvak was celebrated in a 
village in Yorkshire at a public-hoose, the sign 
of which was the family arms of a nobleman 
whose motto is, Virtutpost fimera vivit. The 
undertaker, who, though a derk, was no scho- 
lar, requested a gentleman present to explain 
to him the meaning of these Latin words, 




wbich he reidily and faoeUooiIy did in the 
following manner: Virtus, a parish derk, 
vhitf liTes well, pottfimera, at an arvul / See 
Douce'i lUnstn^ns, iL 203. 
ARVYST-GOS. A stubble goose. 

A yong «yf and so amytt-goat 

Mochc gagil with bothe : 
A man that [hath] ham yn hit clof, 

Rc«te«dialbewrothe. BMiq. AnHqAX, WZ, 
ARWE. (1) An arrow. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 48. 
That wel kepen that cattel 
From arw9t tbet* and quard. 

Curtor Mundi, MS. CoU, Trin. Cantab, f . 63. 
Wepmu of arwes tegfa of men lonat* 
And thar tang tharpe ftwerde in wonet. 

For lome that jede yn the ttrete* 
Sawe arwps fro heveae ihete. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. la 

(2) Timid ; fearfuL See Rob. Glouc p. 457, 
" his hert arwe as an hare," erroneously ex- 
plained iwift. Mr. Way refers to an instance 
in Richard Goer de Lion, 3821, but Weber 
has arranged the line differently in his 

Thou laiit loth, hardy and hard. 

And thou art at arwe coward I 

He is the funte In eche bataile ; 

Thou art byhynde ay at the taile. 

K^g jUi$aund«r, 3340. 

ARWEBLAST. A crossbow. Wehaveaheadyhad 
this word, in t. AlbUut, and ArbUut. For this 
form of it, see Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 2 1 7 ; 
Ellis's Metrical Rom. ii. 255 ; Richard Goer de 
Uon, 2637, 3851, 3970, 4453, 4481, 5867 ; 
spelt amnobkutef &c. 

The galeye wente alioo facte 
As quarrel dos off the arwehUut. 

Richard Coer de Uon, 8S84. 
ARWEI. This word is transited by <2et/oratm/, 
in an early Anglo-Norman gloss, printed in 
Reliq. Antiq.iL81. 
ARWE-MEN. Bowmen. 

He calde bothe arwe-men and kene 
Knithes, and sergani swithe side. 

Havelok, 2115. 

ARYNE. Are. 

For alle the sorowe that we aryne inne. 
It es iUce dele for oure syne. 

Sir Jiumbras, MS. Uncotn, 114. 

ARTOLES. Soothsayers; diviners. (lAit.) 
Arpote*, nygromancers, brought theym to the 
auctors of ther God Phoebus, and oHlred theym ther, 
and than they hadde answeres. Barthoi. AngLTrewiaa. 
ARYSE. Arisen. 

Ryght as be was arpee. 

Of his wouDdyn he was agrlse. 

Kyng Aiitaundar, 3748. 

ARYSTB. Arras. See the Unton Inyentories, 

p. 5, *'ii9.peece8ofary9/0.'' 
ARYSY. SeeAvaryty. • 

ARYVEN. Arrived. 

Wyndes and weders hathe hlr dryven. 
That in a forest she is aryjten, 
Where wylde bestyi were. 

Tbrrmt v/ Portugat, p 114. 

AH5BS. Isfearfid. {A.^) 

A I Avee, quod the qwene, me orjes ot myielfc. 

MS. Ashmola 44, t 9. 

AS. (1) That I which. Var.diaL In the Eastern 
counties it is sometimes used for who, and it is 
firequently redundant, as *' He will come otto- 
(2) Has. 

That hoM cherche a» bound me ti^ 
Grawnt me grace that fore to do. 

AudOa^s ppenw, p. <7* 
A-SAD. Sad ; sorrowful. 

Selde wes he glad. 
That nerer nes o-eod 
Of nythe ant of unde. 

Wri^te VoU 8mg9, p. SIS. 
Y dude as hue me bad. 
Of me hue is o-Md. RaUq. Atdiq, L ISS. 

ASAILED. Sailed. 

Jhon Veere, Erie of Oxeoforde, that withdrew* hym 
ft-ome Bamet felde, and rode into Soottkmde, and 
frome thens into Fraunce ataiied, and ther he waa 
worsdiip(\illy receired. 

WarkwwthU ChromMe, p. S& 

ASALY. To assault ; to besiege. 

Hil bygonne an holy Thorei ere then toun a«a/jr 

Stalwardlydie and raate y>nou, noblemen as yt 
were. Rob. Glouc. p. 394. 

AS2ARMES. To arms! (A.-N.) 
A* armm I thanne cride Rolond, 
Aa ormen ! everechim ! MS. Aahmole 33, f. 38. 
Aaarmeo! feren, nede It is. 

Arthomr and Merlin, p. 261. 
ASAUOHT. An assault. WiekHfe. 

Kyng Wyllam wende »$en, tho al thys was y-do. 
And bygan sone to grony and to febly al so, 
Vor trayayl of the foul 0405^, and Tor he was MAe er. 
Rob, GUnie. p. 380. 

ASBATE. A purchase. Skinner asserts that he 
had only once met with this word ; he does not 
give a i^eference, and believes it to be a mis- 
take for Mhate, q. v. It is perhaps to be found 
in some editions of Chaucer. 

AS-BUIRD. Ashes board ; a box in which ashes 
are carried. North. 

ASCANCE. ObUquely. 

At thb quottton Rosiider, turning his head ossance, 
and bending his browes at if anger there had ploughed 
the furrowes of her wrath, with his eyes full of Are, 
hee made thb reptie. 

Baphuea Golden L^iaeie, ap, Otlliar, p. 15. 

ASCAPART. The name of a giant whom Bevis 
of Hampton conquered, according to the old 
romance. His effigy may be seen on the dty 
gates of Southampton. He is said to have been 
thirty feet long, and to have carried Sir Bevis, 
his '^^, and horse, under his arm. Allusions 
to him occur in Shakespeare, Drayton, and 
other Elizabethan writers. 
ASCAPE. To escape. Sometimes aseht^e. See 
Kyng Alisaunder, 1120; Gy of Warwike, p. 
230 ; Piers Ploughman, pp. 40, 121. 
I hope thorw Godes helpe and thyne. 
We schulle aeeape al oure pyne. 

MS. Addit, 10036, f. 10. 
Whenne the emperoure sawe him, he yaf to him 
his dowterto wyfe, be-oitise that he hade so wysely 
atctpide the peril of the gardtoe. 

Qetta Romanorum, p. lOS 


I A troirae he voile me (tor-tape i 
Hoa txoiistVt Nelde, ich nxme aaeuptf 

I kan bi no eoynty i e kaowe nonj the best 
Bow 5e mowe anbent or harmles oM^ajM. 

WUL and the WmaHf, p. 61. 
Then shulde they do ryjt peoauaoe 
For to a«lugw thys mysdiaunce. 

MS. HarL 1701, f. 45. 

ASCAR. An aaker ; a person who asks. 

After the wickydoes of the a*ear schal be the 
wlckldnet of the prophet ; and I achal ttreke out 
my hand on him» and do him a-wey fro the middis 
of mi peple. Jipologp fir the Lottard$, p. 69. 

ASC AT. Broken like an egg. Somerset. 
ASCAUNCE. This is inteipreted aslant, side- 
ways, in the glossaries, but Tyrwhitt justly 
doubts its application in all the following pas- 
sages. Jscttunt, however, occurs in the early 
quarto editions of Hamlet, iv. 7» where the 
folio of 1623, reads aslant. See also Troilus 
and Creseide, i 292. It apparently means 
s earee fy , as ffto say, as {f; and is perhaps 
sometimes an expletive. It seems, however, 
to mean aslmU in Troilus and Creseide, L 205 ; 
La Belle Dame sans Mercy, 604. 

And wrote alway the namea, as he stood. 
Of alle folk that yave hem any good, 
Aikaunc* that he wolde for hem preyeb 

Ctatieer, Cant, T. 7387. 
And erery man that hath ought In his cof^e. 
Let him appere, and wex a phllosophre, 
AKOuna that craft to so light to lere. 1\M. 16306b 
AMkaunt she may nat to the lettres sey nay. 

Ufdgat^s Minor Poems, p. 35. 
And soo the kynges aetatmee came to sir Tristram 
to oomforte hyra as he laye sekein his bedde.* 

Jferle dTArthitr, i. S68. 

ASCENDANT. A term in judicial astrology, 
denoting that degree of the ecliptic which is 
rising in the eastern part of the horizon at the 
time of any person's birth, and supposed to 
exercise great influence over his fortune. It 
is now used metaphorically. 
ASCENT. Agreement. 

The mimber was, be ryght aecent. 
Off hors-men an hmidryd thooeent. 

JUehar4 Caer de LUm, 3021. 

ASCH4?AKE. Bread baked under ashes. See 
MS. BibL Reg. 12 B. i, f. 32 ; and the Nomen- 
dator, 1585, p. 84. 
ASCHE. To ask. Cf. Rob. Glouc. p. 16. 
The kyng of Ysraelle that lady can aeefte, 
Yf sche myght the see oryr-passe. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. it. 38, f. 69. 
We do na synnes, ne we wllle hafs na mare thane 
rsMue of kynde aeehee. MS. Uneotn A. 1. 17, f. 32. 
ASCHES. Ashes. 

Who so coverethe the coke of that wode undir the 
■■»c*fi there-offe, the coles wil dueUen and abyden 
alio quykn lere or more, 

MdundevWe IhtwOe, p. S80. 

ASCHONNE. To shun ; to avoid. 
They myjte not aecfumne the sorowe they had ser%'ed. 
Depoeition of Richard Ih p. 14. 

ASCIBTH. Enquireth after ; seeketh. 

For he knoweth wel and wot wel that he dolth yvel, 
and therfore man aeeieth and hunteth and sleeth hym, 
and jit for al that, he may not lere hb yvel nature. 

MS. Bodt. M6. 

91 A8B 

ASCILL. ^negar. 

jUeUt and gall to hU dyner* 
I made them for to dighte. Ghes^lsr Pfeye, II. 76. 
ASCITE. To call ; to summon. See Wrighf s 
Monastic Lett. p. 78 ; Halle's Expost. p. 14. 

Hon answered that the inlkat had no propertie in 
the shet, wherupon the prkat aeeited him in the 
spiritual courte. Bolt, Henry VIIL f. 60. 

ASCLANDERD. Slandered. 

But for his moder no schuld aeclmndtrd be. 
That bye with childe un wedded were. 

JoaOtimmnd Ann*, p. 149 

ASCON. To ask. Cf. Roh. Glouc. p. 89. 
Tundale he went upon a day 
To a mon, to aeeon hto pay 
For thre horsto that he had sold. TundaU, p. 3. 
ASCRIDE. Across; astride. Somerset. Some- 
times written askred and askrod. 
ASCRY. To ciy ; to report ; to proclaim. Hence, 
to betray, as in Ywaine and Gavnn, 584. 
Heame, gloss, to Peter Langtoft, p. 217, ex- 
plains it ** to cry to,'* an interpretation adopted 
in the Towneley Mysteries, p. 193. It means 
there to assail with a shout, as Mr. Dyce ob- 
serves, notes to Skelton, p. 152. Palsgrave 
has it in the sense to descry, to discover. 
Bot sone when he herd aterp 
That king Edward was uere tharby. 
Than durst he noght cum nere. 

Minot*s Poems, p. 14. 
Writ how muche was Us m jschief. 
Whan they asenfedon h jm as a thef. 
MS. Addit. 11607, f. 69. 

ASCRYVE. To ascribe ; to unpute. Palsgrave. 
ASE. (1) Ashes. AbrM. 
(2) As. 

The kyng bathe a dowghttyr fsyer ass flowyr, 
Dyseenyr wase her name. Turrtnt ^Portugal, p. 6. 
ASELE. To seal. See Piers Ploughman, p. 511; 
Rob. Glouc p. 510. The proclamation of the 
Mayor of Norwich in 1424 directed ** that all 
brewsters and gannokers selle a gallon ale of 
the best, be measure a-selyd." See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 18j6. It seems there to have the mean- 
ing of established, confirmed. 

That othir the abbot off Seynt Albon, 
That brought hym lettres speciele, 
As^lfd with the barouns sele. 
That tolden hym, hys brothir Jhon 
Wolde do corowne hym anon. 

Ridiurd Coer de Lton, 647t. 

ASELY. To assoil, give absolution, which was 

usually done before a fight. Mr. Stevenson 

explains it, to receive the sacrament, in which 

case it may be only another form of hosely, q. v. 

The Normans ne dude nojt so, ac hil cryde on God 

Taste, y-laste. 

And ssryre hem ech after other, the wule the ny5t 

And amorwe hem leteeet^r wyth mylde herte y-nou. 

Rob, GUmo. p. 360. 

ASEMBLEDEN. Assembled. 

And either ost as swithe fast ascried other. 
And asembleden swithe stemll either ost to-gader. 

Will and the WertPoJf, p. 137. 

ASEMYS. In the Prompt. Parv. p. 289, this 
is the synonyme of laatyne huly, mdignor. 

ASENE. Seen. See Chronicle of England, 44 ; 
Tundale*8 Visions, p. 51 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 
847 ; ReUq. Antiq. i. 109. 


ASERE. To become dry. See the Sevyn Sages, 

606. Mr. SteyeuBon deriTes it from the verb 

to sear, 

ASERRE. Azure. 

Ito ten oMiTi a grype of golde, 
Rydidy beKm on the moldo. 

aa. Cantab, Ft. U. 88, f. GO. 
ASERVED. Deserved. 

Lord, he seide, Jbeau Criit, 
Ich thoDky the wel Cute 
That ich it have aserved 
In atte the 5atit to wende. 

MS, CM, Trin. Onm. 61, 
And thou sorewe that thou atened hatt. 
And ellei it were WOU5. MS. Laud, 106, f. 2. 
ASERVI. To serve. 

Hitheortehim jaf for to wende 
In-to a prive stude and stllle. 
Thare he mi5te beo alone 
To atorvi Godes wlUe. 

MS- Laud. 106, f. 104. 

ASESSE. To cause to cease ; to stop. 
Into Yngelond thenne wolde be. 
And atefe the werre anon 
Betwyxe hym and hyi brother Jhnn. 

Richard Coerde LUm, 6311. 

ASETH. Satisfoction or amends for an injury. 

See Prompt. Parv. p. 182 ; Gesta Romanorum, 

pp. 275, 460 ; Wickliffe's New Test. p. 53. 

We may not be atiayled of tho treipas, 

Bot if we make asith in that at we may. 

MS, Hart, lOSS, f. 68. 
Here by fore he myghte ethe 
Sone hafe mad me a$eth«, 

MS. Unooln A. 1. 17, f. 132. 

It was likyng to jow, Fadlre, for tosende me into 

this werlde that I tulde make euethe for mans tres< 

pas that he did to us. Ibid. f. 179. 

ASEWRE. Azure. 

At the lyrygge ende stondyth a towre, 
Peyntyd wyth golde and atewre, 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 106. 
ASEWRYD. Assured; promised. 

But y take more then y was asewrud, 
Y may not have where no5te ys Icvyd, 

Reliq. JnHq. i. 28. 

ASEYNT. Lost. {A,^S.) 

Al here atyl and tresour was al-so awj/nt. 

Bob, QUmt, p. 51. 
AS-FAST. Anon; immediately. Cf. Prompt. 

Parv. p. 15 ; Troilus and Creseide, v. 1640. 
ASGAL. A newt Salop, 
ASH. (1) Stubble. SotUh, Walter de Bibbles- 
worth, MS. Arund. 220, fl 301, has " le tressel, 
aschc of com." 
(2) To ask. Lane, See Jsche, 
AS HATE. See Asbate. It is so written in Urry's 
Chaucer, p. 5, where Tyrwhitt's edition r^s 
ASH-BIN. A receptacle for ashes and other dirt. 

ASH-CANDLES. The seed vessels of the ash 

tree. Dorset, 
ASHELT. Likely; probably; perhaps. North, 
ASHEN. Ashes. North, 

Therwith the fire (^Jalousie up sterte 
Within his brest, and hent him by the herte 
60 woodly, that he Uke was to behold 
The box-tree, or the athtn ded and cold. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 1304, 



ASHERLAND. According to Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, ** assarts, or woodland grob'd 
and ploughed up." North. 
ASH-HEAPS. A method of divination. 
Ot ash-^eape*, in the whkh yeuse 
Husbands and wires by stnakes to chuse ; 
Of crackling laurell, which fbre-Munds 
A plentious harvest to your groonds. 

Herrick'i Worki, I. 176. 

ASHIED. Made white, as with wood ashes. 
Old Winter, clad in high furres, showers of raine. 
Appearing in his eyes, who still doth goe 
In a rug gowne, ashied with flakes of snow. 

HeytooodPg Martiage Triumphet 1613. 
ASHISH. Sideways. Somerset, 
ASH-KEYS. The fruit of the ash. The failure 
of a crop of ash-keys is said in some counties 
to portend a death in the royal family. See 
Forby, ii 406. 
ASHLAR. Hewnorsquaredstone,readyforbuild- 
ing. See Britton's Arch. Diet, in v. ** Slophus, 
a»cAefer," MS. Bodl. 837, f. 134. Cf.Cotgrave, 
in V. Jttendans, Bouttice, Grose gives the 
word as peculiar to Cumberland, and signifying 
" a large free stone," and according to some, 
it is or was common among builders to denote 
free-stones as they come from the quarry. The 
term is still in common use. In the inden- 
ture for the construction of the dormitory at 
Durham, 1398, the mason engages that a cer- 
tain wall shall be ** exterius de puro lapide 
vocato achiler plane inscisso, interius vero de 
fracto lapide vocato roffhwalL" See Willis's 
Architectural Nomenclature, p. 25. 
ASHORE. Aside. West, It is used in the same 
sense as ajar, applied to a door. Weber is in 
doubt about its meaning in the foUowing pas- 
sage, but the word is common in the West of 
England, although it does not appear to have 
found a place in the glossaries. 
Ever after the dogges wer so starke, 
Thei stode aschore when thei schuld batke. 

Hunttyng t(f the Hare, S&7. 

ASH-PAN. A metal pan fitted to the under part 
of the grate, into which the ashes fall frt)m the 
fire. Line, 
ASH-TRUG. A coal-scutUe. North. 
ASHUNCHE. To repent? 

Mid shupping ne mey hit me ashtmche, 

Nes y never wycche ne wyle ; 
Ych am a maide, that me of-thunche, 
Luef me were gome boute gyle. 

Wrighfa I^rU: Poetry, p. 3B. 

ASH-WEDNESDAY. The first day of Lent, so 
called from the ancient ceremony of the pladng 
of ashes on the heads of persons on that day 
by the priest, who said, "Remember, man, 
that thou art ashes, and unto ashes thop shalt 
return.'' This ceremony was abolished early 
in the reign of Edward YI. See Becon's 
Works, p. 110. 

ASIDEN. On one side ; oblique ; aslant West, 
Rider has asidenam in his Dictionarie, 1640, 
in the same sense. 

ASILE. An asylum. 

Fly unto prayer as unto an holy anchor, or sure 
(uHe, and strong bulwark. Becon'« Works, p. 188. 




ASIN. Mftde of athen wood. 

I wil do that I may* and wfl rttber drinke hi au 
c««n cup than you or yours shude not be toccerd both 
by aea and land. AnhmtUtgia, ztii. 903. 

ASINOS. Baamgs. Sakp. 
A-SIT. To tit against i L e., to reoeiTe the blow 
without bong unhorsed. 
A-kffc he tmot and a-right, 

Nou bit dent a-^it might. Artfumr and Merlin, p. 301. 
No man ne myghte with itiengthe tuiftte 

Hys swordet draught. Oetovietn, 1085. 

ASrW. To foUow. 

AUsaundre wente ageyn, 
Vuyk ogiweth him al his meo. 

K^ngjiliMmnder, 9404. 

ASK. (1). A water newt. North. Floriohas 
the word, in v. Magrdaio. It is sometimes 
written askardt and athel See Asktr, 
(2) Toreqnire. 

Ho so hit tempreth by power. 
So hit atkUh in suche maner. 

K^g Ali$aundtrt 0219. 

A8KSFISE. This word is translated by cit^fio 
in the Prompt Panr. p. 15. Ihre, in t. Aaka^ 
says, "qui dneribus oppedit." See further 
instances collected by Mr. Way, in loc dt. 
ASKEN. Ashes. 

Hwan the dom was demd and seyd, 

Sket was the iwlke on the asse leyd. 

And [led] hhn til that like grene. 

And brend til oaken al bidene* Hav^ok, 2841. 

ASEER. (1) A scab. 

Rob it till it bleede ; then take and bind it thereto 
for three dales. In which space you shall see a white 
asker on the sore ; then take that off, and annoint it 
with oyle of rotes or flrcsh butter untill It be 
throu^y cured. ThpMlf«Fk>ur-/botedBeaetg,ip 402. 

(2) A land or water newt. Var. dial Kcnnett, 
MS. Lansd. 1033, gives this form as a 
Staflbrdahire word. 
ASKES. Ashes. (^..&) See Reliq. Antiq. i. 53 ; 
MS. Bib. Reg. 17 C. rrii. f. 48; Ashmole's 
Thcat, Chem. Brit. p. 129; Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 21, 252, 266 ; GesU Romanorum, p. 456; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 49. 

Thynk> man, he says, cukes ertow now. 
And into oAet agayu turn saltow. 

MS, Cott. Galba E. ix. f. 75. 
Thenk, mon, he seith, tukua art thou now. 
And into aakw tume schalt thou. 

MS. Athmole U, f.5. 
Askes y ete iostede of breed. 
My drynke yi water that y wepe. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. U. 3R. f. 2. 

ASKEW. Awry. Var. dial. See Barefs Alvearie, 

1580, in T. 
ASfiLILE. Aside. 

What tho' the scornful waiter looks aekile. 
And pouts and fh>wns, and curseth thee the while. 
Hairs Satires, v. 2. 
CampanuB prayd hyro stand stiUe, 
While he askyd hym askyle. Ipcmydon, 2064. 

ASKINGS. The publication of marriage by 

banns. York$h. 
A-SKOF. In scoff; deridingly. 
AlisauBdre lokid askof. 
As he no gef nought therof . 

Kimg Alisaunder, 874. 

ASKOWSE. To excuse. Cf. Gov. Myst p. 2. 

Bot thow can askawse the, 
Thow schalt abey, y till tha. 

Awv and tte Boy^ st. xxxv. 
ASKRTE. A shriek; a shout 
And wretchydly 

Hath made askr^. Skattat^s Poems, li. 53. 
ASKY. (1) Dry; parched. Generally applied 
to land, but sometimes used for hxuky. North. 
(2) To aslc 

Roland of hurc gan askjf than 

Of wat kynde was comen that itke man. 

To aski that never no wca. 

It is a fole askeing. Sir Tristremt p. S09i 

ASLAKE. To slacken; to abate. {A.-S.) See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 1762, 3553; Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 231 ; Ancient Poetical Tracts, 
p. 18 ; Seven Penitential Psalms, p. 11 ; Brit. 
BibL iv. 105. 

Fourti days respite thou gif me. 
Til that mi sorwe aslaked be. 

Or of fVarwOte, p. 213; 

ASLASH. Aslant; crosswise. Line. 
ASLAT. Cracked like an earthen vessel Devon. 
A*SLAWE. Skin. Cf. Rob. Glooc p. 170. 
Nay, quath on, the derel him drawe. 
For he hath my lord a^Iawe* 

MS. AshmoU 83, f . fiO. 
ASLEN. Aslope. Somerset, 
ASLEPED. Asleep. 

That other woodnesse is cleped woodnetse slepyiige, 
for thel lye alwey, and maketh semblaunt as jif thei 
were asleped, and so thei dyeth withoute mete. 

MS. BodU 546. 

ASLET. Oblique. Prompt. Parv. 
ASLEW. Oblique. East Suuex. 
ASLIDE. To slide away ; to escape. 

Let soche folie out of your herte asUde. 

Ounteer, ed. Vrry, p. 110. 

A-SLON. Shiin. 

Thar men myjt see anon 
Many a dowjty man a^on. 

MS. Douce 239, f. 12. 

ASLOPE. Slopmg. In the Chester Plays, L 125, 
is the phrase, " the devill qf the eope,** The 
BodL MS. 175, reads askpe. 

For trust that thei have set In hope, 
Whiche fell hem aftirward aslope. 

Rom. of the Rose, 4464. 
This place Is supposed to lie In the confines of 
Shropshire aloft upon the top of an high hill there, 
environed with a triple rampire and ditch of great 
depth, having three entries into it, not directlie one 
against another, but aslope. 

HMinshed, His*, of England, p. 38. 

ASLOPEN. Asleep. This is probably for the 
sake of the rhyme. 

Call to our maids ; good night ; we are all a^open. 
MiddMon, I 257. 

A-SLOUGH. Slew ; killed. 

Gif ich thi sone owhar ashugh. 
It was me defendant enough. 

Cp of Warwike, p. 850. 
That hadde y-chaced Richardone, 
Wan he a-sloto kyng Claryone. 

MS. Ashtnole 33, f. 60. 

ASLOUTE. Aslant ; obliquely. Prompt. Parv. 

Mr. Way, p. 6, wron^y prints aelontej but our 

reading is confirmed by another entry at p. 15, 






And BoUen U-taken Mm no fruyt* 
Ake Mlowem him at the laste. 

MS. Laud, 106. f. 3. 
ASLUPPE. To Blip away. {A.^S,) 
Betere Is taken a comelidM y-ckithe. 

In annes to cuiw ant to duppe. 
Then a wrecche y-wedded lo wrotbe, 
Thah he me slowe. ne myhti him atluppp. 

Wrighft I^rrie FtMfry, p. 38. 

ASLT. ITilliiigly. North, Ray has it in his 
english Wonh, 1674, p. 3. See also Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033, £.23. It is 
sometimes spelt astlep, 
ASMAN. An ass-driver. 

Add ye mott yeve yowre atman curtesy a grot, 
other a giOMet of Venyse. MS. Bodl. M5. 

ASMATRYK. Arithmetic. 

Of calcnladon and negremauncye, 
Alao of augrym and of aamatrpk. 

Coveutnf Mi^Oeriet, p. 189. 

The bor hem gan flil lone oMMlle/ 
Ech he het therof hit felU fi^tyn Sagt, 801. 
ASOCIED. Associated. See Account of the 
Grocers' Company, p. 321. 

Ofte suehe have ben atoeitd and felawsehipped to 
annus, the whkhc hir owne lordes nc luste nof t to 
have in servlse. Veg^Hvt, MS. Dtmet S91, f . 11 . 

ASOFTE. To soften. 

That with here beemes, when she is alofte. 
May all the troubill asuaye and am^e. 
Of woridely wawcs within this mortall see. 

I^dgate, MS. AihmoU 39, f. 3. 

ASONDRI. Asunder; separated. (^.-SL) 
Ther was ferly sorwe and sijt. 
When thai schuld otondH fare. 

Legend qfPi^ Oregoiy, p. 2. 
jieondrg were the! nevere, 
Na moore than myn hand may 
Mere withoute my tjngnn. 

Piere Ploughman, p. 368. 


Heom self luonJiren in ther-mit. 

W. Mapes, App. p. 34ft. 

ASOON. At even. Nwth. 
ASOSHE. Awry ; aslant Ea9t. Palsgrave says, 
'' as one weareth his bonnet." Sometimes spelt 
oihothe. SeeJtwoih. 
A-SOUND. In a swoon. 

They hang'd their heads, they drooped down, 

A word they could not qpeak : 
Robin said. Because I fell a-wund, 
1 think yell do the like. JMta Bbod, 1. lU. 
ASOURE. " Gumme of (uoure^* is mentioned in 
a medical receipt printed in Reliq. Antiq. 
L 53. 
ASOTUNGE. Absolution. 

And to sywi this manstaige, and the oeoifUnge al so. 
We asslgneth the bissop of Winchestre ther-to. 

Bob. Gloue. p. 508. 

ASOTNEDE. Excused. So Heame explains it. 
See the passage in Rob. Glouc p. 539, and 
A99<rine. It is translated by refiUahu in 
Prompt Parv. and made synonymous with 

ASP. A kind of poplar. The word is still in use 
in Herefordshire. '< The popler or atp9 tree, 
pqpuluty''— Vocabula Stanbrigii, 1615. See 

Prompt Panr. p. 15 ; Florio, in ▼. Briof and 
the curious enumeration of trees in Chancer. 
Cant T. 2923. 
ASPARE. To spare. {A.-N.) 

And seyen he was a nygard 
That no good myghte atpan 
To frend ne to flremmed. 
The fend hare his soule I 

Piere Phughman, p. 303. 
ASPAUD. Astride. North. 

The bryfte sonne in herte he gan to oolde. 
Inly astonied in his aapecdoun. 

Ufdgaie, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, f. 2. 

ASPECHE. A serpent SeeCooperiThesanma, 
in V. lynx. 

ASPECT. This word was ahnost invariably ac- 
cented on the last syllable in the time of 
Shakespeare. See Farmer's Essay, ed. 1821, 
p. 34. 

ASPECTE. Expectation. 

The 10. of Jun I was disdiarged fhmi bands at the 
. assises, contrary to the aapeete of all men. 

MS. AOmote 808. 


Yff ye love a damsell yn aepeq/all. 

And thynke on here to do costage ; 

When sche seyth galantys revell yn hall, 

Yn here hert she thynkys owtrage. 

Reliq. Antiq. i. 89. 
Soo that they may too thy mercy ateyne. 
At thys perlament most in aeeepedalle. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. i. 6, f. 42. 

ASPEN.LE AF. Metaphorically, the tongue. 
For if they myghte be suflted to b^gin ones in the 
congregacion to fal hi disputhig. those mepen-teawee 
of theirs would never leave waggyng. 

Sir T. Monte Workee, p. 788. 
ASPER. A kind of Turkish coin. Siinner. 
ASPERAUNCE. Hope. (J.^N.) 

Forthlrir Aeperaunee, and many one. 

Courteo/Low, 1033, 

ASPERAUNT. Bold. (J..N.) 

Hy ben natheles faire and wlghth. 
And gode, and engyneful to flghth. 
And have horses avenaunt. 
To hem stalworthe and aeperau$tt. 

K^ng Alieaunder, 4871. 
ASPERE. A kind of hawk. 

There It a questyon axed whether a man shall call 
a spare hawk or a tpere hawke, or an aepere hawke. 
The Book of St. Albane, ed. 1810, sig. C. Ul. 

Strong knight he was hardl and snel, 
Ther he defended him aeperliehe. 

Ctf of Warwike, p. 84. 

ASPERLY. Roughly. Se^ Skelton's Worics, 
L 205 ; Boucher, in v. Asprely. 
And Alexander with his ost him oepeHg fotowed. 
If 8. Aehmole 44, f . 46. 

ASPERNE. To spurn. 

it was prudente pollede not to aepeme and dis. 
dcyne the lytle small powre and weakenes of the 
«nn«nye. Hall, Richard lU. f. S8. 

ASPERSION. A sprinkling. This original sense 
of the word is not now in use. See the Tempest, 
iv. 1; Topsell's Four-Footed Beasts, p. 8. 
Floiio writes it a^^ergmg^ in y. AbberfoH&ne. 




ASPET. Sight; aspect 

In Cbyn a$ptt ben alle Uelw, 

Tlw porere men and eek the rldie ! 

Gowtr, MS, Soe. jMiq, 154, f. 58. 

ASPHODIL. A daffodil. Florio gives it as the 

traaslatioii of A«ro<M>. 
ASPIDIS. A serpent; an aspis. The correct 
Latin word is given in the argument. 
A lerpcnt, whiche tlut otpidit 
Is depid, ot hk kynde hath this. 

Gow€r, MS, Soe, Antiq. 134, f. 41. 

ASPIE. (1) To espie. (^.-M) See Chancer, 
Cant. T. 13521 ; Gesta Romanomm, p. 201 ; 
Piers Ploughman, p. 350. 

The pepyl so fatt to hym doth falle. 

Be prery meny*, as we ojpye/ 
5yf he procede, son sen je xalle 
That cmre lawys he wyl dystrye. 

Cbtwfifyy MifttwUt, p. 948. 

(2) A spj. See the House of Fame, iL 196. 

Pflate lent oute hb tuplm, 

Sikiriicfaebifele sties. ir& ilddil. 10086, t tt. 

I adial sette enemytees bitwlxe thee and the 

wominan, and bitwixe thi seed and hir seed t the 

shal breke thin hed, and thon schalt sette tupU* to 

htr heele. Wiekiiff^, MS. Boil, 877- 

ASPILL. A rude or silly down. Yorkth. 
ASPIOUR. A spy ; a scout. 

Also that thei mowe the blether loke, and the betlr 
wil foo and oome when they ben send in office of 
uspiow by boldnesse of hir swiftnesse. 

rtgoelut, MS, Dmmw S91, f. 12. 

ASPIRATION. An aspirate. See this form of 
the word m the French Alphabet, 1615, p. 22. 
ASPIREMENT. Breathing. 

Ayre is the thridde of dementis. 
Of whos kynde his tupirtmentU 
Taketh erery llvis creature. 

Gowtr, MS. Soe, Antiq, 134, f. 194. 

ASPORTATION. A carrying away. Rider, 
Blackstone uses the word. See Richardson, 
in V. 
ASPOSSCHALL. AspostoticaL 
Ys not thy* a wondurs case, 
Thatt this yonge chylde soche knolege base ? 
Now sorely he hath aoposoehaU grace. 

FrooentatioH in the Temple, p. 84. 

ASPRE. Rough; sharp. (A.-N.) Rider gives 
atperate in the same sense. See the Hslle of 
John Halle, i. 530 ; Chaucer's Boethius, p. 366. 
And in her atpre plafaite thos sheseide. 

TroUueand Oeeelde, Ir. 827- 

ASPREAD. Spread out Wett See Jennings' 

DialecU, p. 156. 
ASPRENESSE. Roughness. 

Of whyche soules, quod she, I trowe that some ben 
toarmented by aepreneete ot peine, and some soules 
I trowe ben exerc>scd by a purgynge mekenesse, but 
my coaBsailenys nat to determine of thb peine. 

Chaueer, ed, Vrrpt p«880. 


Thlskenred is meptemgu n late. 

Di^ MptteHeo, p. 118. 


But alle the sleyjte of his tretone, 
Hotestia wiste It by mepifee. 

Cower, MS, Soe. Antiq. 184, f. 98. 
ASPYRE. To inspire. See a passage finom Sir 
T. More'sWorkes,p^ 927,quoted hy Stevenson, 
in Ms additions to BouchCT. 

A-SQUARB. At a distance. 

Yf he hym myght fynd, he notbjng woM hym spve { 
That herd the Pardoner wele, and held hym bettir 
iheqtmre, Vrr^e Chmtieer, p. 860. 

The Pardoner myght nat ne hym nether toudi. 
But held hym a>e««Mrt by that othlr side. Md, 

ASQUINT. Awry. It U transhUed hy o^K^imt 
in Baret's Alvearie, 1580, in v. Cair says 
(uguin is still used in the same sense in Craven. 
See Armin's Nest of Ninnies, p. 11 ; Brit 
BihL iL 334 ; Florio, in v. C^Hdre ; Cotgrave, 
in V. OeiL 
The world still looks <wgiriiir, and I deride 
His purblind Judgment ; Orissil Is my brides 

PeHemt Otieeet, p. 18. 
ASS. (1) To ask ; to command. North, 
He said he had more sorow than sho» 
And aeoed wat was best to do. 

MS, Cott. Gaiba B. ix. f . 88. 
ThoQ speke to hym wy the wordes heynde. 
So that he let my people pas 
To wyldemcs, that thay may weynde 
To worshyp me as I wylle aeoe, 

Townelep MpeteHee, p. 88. 

(2) Cooper, in his Dictionaire, in v. ^^f^ntit, says, 
" The asse waggeth his eares, a proverhe ap- 
plied to theim, whiche, although they lacke 
leamynge, yet will they babhle and make a 
countenaunce, as if they knewe somewhat" 

(3) Ashes. North, 

5e hooowre jour sepultoars curyousely with golde 
andsylver, and in Tcsselle made of precyouse stanct 
je putt the a$$e of jour bodys whenne thay ere 
brynned. MS, JAneoln A. 1. 17, f. 34. 

ASSACH. An old custom among the Welsh, ac- 
cording to CoweU, whereby a person accused 
of a crime was enabled to clear himself upon 
the oaths of three hundred men. See his 
Interpreter, 1658. 
ASSAIES. " At all assaies,'' L e. at all points, 
in every way, at all hours. Florio has, 
** Jpidttra armdto, armed at aU ai$aie$t** L e. 
at all points, or ** a tons poynts,'' as Palsgrave 
has it, t 438. See Skelton*s Works, L 

And was avanncyd ther, so that he 
WorahipfkUy levyd there aU his dales. 
And kept a good howsehold at tUl aeeaiee, 

lf&Le«Hf.418, f.4S. 
Shorten thou these wicked dales; 
Thinke on thine oath mtaUaeeaiee. 

Drm^ton's Harmonie of the Churdi, 1501. 

ASSAILE. An attack. Malory uses this word 
as a substantive in his Morte d'Arthur, iL 334. 
ASSALVE. Tosalve; toaUay. 
Thtu I procure my wo, alas I 

In Araroing him his Joy, 
I seeke for to a*$alve my sore, 
I breede my cheefe annoy. 

Oaifrido and BemardOt 1870. 

ASSART. According to CoweU, assart lands are 
parts of forests cleared of wood, and put into 
a state of cultivation, for which rents were paid 
under the name of assart rents. It is also a 
verb. ** Assart," says Blount, ** is taken for 
an offence committed in the forest by plucking 
up those woods by the roots that are thicketa 
or coverts of the forest, and by making them 




1^ as arable land." See also Scatcherd's 
Hiitory of Morley, p. 166. 
ASSASSINATE. ABsassinatioii. 
What hut thou done* 
To make this barbarous base oMtUMinate 
Upon the person of a prince ? 

Danier* GvU War$, ili. 78. 

ASSATION. Roasting. {Lat.) 
ASSAULT. The expression "to go assauir is 
translated by the Latin word catuUo in Rider's 
Dictionarie, 1640. The phrase occurs in 
Cooper and Higins, and is still in use. 

And whanne the fixene be tumut and go!th yn hure 
loTe, and tche secbeth the dogge fox, she cryeth with 
an hoof Toys, as a wood hound dotth. 

MS. BudL 548. 

ASSAUT. Anassanlt. {J.-N.) It is still used 

in Shropshire both as a noun and a verb. Cf. 

Richard Goer de Lion, 1900. 

And by attaut he wan the dtee after. 

And rent adoun bothe wall and sparre, and rafter. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 991. 

ASSAUTABLE. Capable of being taken. 

The Bngltshe gunners shot so well, that the walles 

of the toune were beaten doune and rased with the 

ordinaunce, insomuche that by ix. of the clocke the 

toune was made oMawto&t*. HaU, Bitnty VIU, f. 1 18. 

ASSAVE. To save. 

Ho io wole ia soule mutI, 

He as mot allinge for-leose* 
And ho so leost is soule, he omoms, 

NoQ may ech man dieoM. MS, Laud. 106, f . 1 . 
ASSAY. (1) Essay; trial. 

. After oMiy, then may fe wette ; 
Why blame $t me withoute offence ? 

RU^n't Ancient Song$, p. 103. 

(2) To try ; to prove ; to taste. It seems to be, 
essayed, tried, proved, in the following passage : 

Thow seroyst a stalward and a stronge. 

Amy schall thow be. Robin Hood, i . 90. 

(3) A tasting of dishes at the tables of high per- 
sonages previously to the repast. See Jssayert 
and Florio, in v. Credenza. 

Kyng Rychard sate downe to dyner, and was serred 
without curteaie or ateaye / he rauche mervaylyng at 
the sodayne mutacion of the thyng, demaunded of 
the esquier why he dyd not his duety. 


(4) In hunting, to take the assay ^ is to draw the 
knife along the belly of the deer, beginning at 
the brisket, to discover how fat he is. Accord- 
ing to Gifford, this was a mere ceremony : the 
knife was put into the hands of the '* best 
person" in the field, and drawn lightly down 
the belly, that the chief huntsman might be 
entitled to his fee. See Ben Jonson's Works, 

At th* aatay kytte hym, that lordes maye se 
Anone fatte or lene whether that he be. 

Book of St. Albans, ed. 1810, sig. E. i. 

(5) In the following passage it appears to be used 
in a peculiar sense, the attempt, the moment 
of doing it. 

And ryght as he was at as$a»e 
Hys lykyng vanyscht all awaye. 

LeBone Florence of Rome, 1500. 

(6) Philpot translates contentus ea doctrina in 
Curio, by '< assayed with thilk doctrine.'' See 
his Works, p. 376. 

(7) Trial ; hence, experience. 

Shorte wytted men and lytteO of (UM^e, saye that 
Paradyse is longe sayllynge out of the erthe that men 
dwelle inne, and also departeth firome the erthe, and 
is as hyghe as the mone. 

Notee to Merte ^Artkmt, p. 472. 
ASSATER. A taster in palaces, and the houses 
of barons, to guard against poisoning. 
Thyn oMoyar schalle be an hownde. 
To astaye thy mete before the. 

ir& Cantab. Ft. it 38, f. 241. 

ASSAYING. A musical term. Grassineau ex- 
plains it, ** a flourishing before one begins to 
play, to try if the instruments be in tune ; or, 
to run divisions to lead one into the piece be- 
fore us." See his Musical Dictionary, p. 6. 
ASSAYNE. A term in hare hunting. See the 

Book of St. Albans, sig. D. iv. 
ASSBUURD. A box for ashes.. North, 
ASSCHELER. Some kind of weapon ? 

That kyllede of the Ciisten, and kepten the wallet 
With arowes, and arldaste, and aeeekelers manye. 
MS. CoU. Calig. A. iL f. 117. 
ASSCHEN. Ashes. 

As blan as aa»<^en hy lay op-rljt. 
The Ciois to-fore hire stod. 

MS. ColL THn. Oxon. 67* 

ASSCHREINT. Deceived. (^.-5.) 

A ! dame, he latde, ich was aeechreint,' 
Ich wende thou haddest ben adreint. 

Sevyn Sagee, 1485. 

ASSCHYS. Ashes. ^ee^Askes. 

Aeeehyt I eete in-stede of brede. 
My drynk is watyr that I wepe. 

Black'e Penitential Pealnu, p. 32. 
ASSE. (1) At asse, L e. prepared? 
And fond our men alle at as$e. 
That the Pai^is no might passe. 

Arthour and MerHn, p. 878. 
(2) Hath. MS. Cantab. Pf. L 6. 
ASSEASE. To cease. Rider. 
ASSECURE. To make certain of; to make safe. 
And so hath Hcnrle aesecut'd that side. 
And therewithal! his state of Oasconie. 

DanieTt Civil Wars, iv. 9. 

ASSE-EARE. The herb comfrey. See a list of 

plants in the Nomenclator, 1585, p. 137. 
ASSEER. To assure. YorJtsh. 
ASSEGE. A siege. (A.-N.) See Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 10620 ; Troilus and Creseide, i. 465. 
It is used as a verb in Holinshed, Hist. Engl. 
p. 44, as a subst. in Hist. Irel. p. 51. 
The sunne by that was ne5 adoun, 
The atsege thanne thay y-lafte. 

MS. Ashmole 33, f. 44. 
That host he lefte ate Pavyllounc, 
The assege to kepe thare. Ibid. f. 47. 

ASSELE. To seal. (A.'N.) See Gesta Romano- 
mm, pp. 64, 65, 134 ; Boke of Curtasye, p. 23. 
Withinne and withoute loken so. 
The loket oMcled with seles two. 

Cureor Mundi, MS. CoU. Trin. Qmtdb. f . 105 
ASSEMBLAUNCE. Resemblance. Skinner. 

Every thinge that berithe lyfe desyreth to be con- 
joynyd to his a*»enU>leable ; and every man shall be 
assocyate to his owne symylltude. 

Dial, of Creatures MoralUedt p. 96. 
ASSEMBLEMENT. A gathering. 




Whonw Owrold m<tte with gwtte am mbttm m i 
In tettaite strong at HcTcnfeld, at God would. 

Hardlimg's CAroniefo, f. 90. 

ASSEMTLET. Assembled. 

Piayng and detyring titer the comownes of log- 
kmd, be rertu of thyi present parlement auemyltt, 
to oomyne the seyd mater, and to gy IT therto her 
••■«>'. MS. Rot, HaH. C. 7. 

ASSENE. Asses. 

5if on of onwer oMene in a put fblle to day, 
Nold }• nouft draw* hire op for the feste ? 

MS, Lmmd. 108, f. 9. 
ASSENEL. Arsenic. Proust. Pan. 
ASSENT. (1) Consenting; agreeing. 

Bnt < w r m with hert and hool credence. 
Having therof noon ambignyte. 

l^dgou, MS. AtKimfk », f. ITS. 
Medea, whan sche was autntg. 
Come aone to that parlement. 

OoMW, MS. 9oe. JnHq. 134, f . IM. 

(2) Consent; agreement. 

When my Aulur and y be at Mtente^ 
Y wylle not fiiyle the be the rode. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. U. 98, f: 04. 
The wyfes of fal htghe prudence 
Have of a§§ent made ther avow. 

UfdgattTa Minor PMmt, p. 194. 

(3) Sent. {A.^S.) See Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 
134, t 52, lutenie, where some copies have 
tuenie. Perhaps we should read as sente, I e, 
has sent 

ASSENTATION. Flattery. (Lot.) 

Yet hee, making relation to other bit f^endes 
what I had done, Mt mee not quiet tiU they likewyse 
had scene them, whose perswaalon, as it seemed with- 
oat any suepttiooofMstiifaMoM or flattery, so hath it 
made mee bolder at this present then before. 

Mirour fttr Maglatratt, p. 9. 

ASSENTATOR. A flatterer. Ehfot. 
ASSENTIATH. Assent; consent. 
Therfor yf 50 aurnntkOh to. 
At al perils wU y go. Ma,Mhmol9 33, f.46. 

Shew me thy waste ; then let me there wlthall. 
By the «u»entUn of thy lawn, see all. 

Hmrtek't Worki, i.218. 

ASSENYCKE. Arsenic Palsgraye is the an- 

. thority for this form of the word. 

ASSEORE. Annsher. <* Sir WiDiam MarteUe, 
the Kynges asMeore" is mentioned in the He- 
ralds' College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
quoted in Heame's edition, p. 462. 

ASSEPERSELIE. The chervil It is the trans- 
lation of eicutaria in the Nomenclator, 1585, 
p. 131. CL Cotgrare, in ▼. Cicutairt. 

ASSES-BRIDGE. A familiar name for prop. 5, 
b. L of EacUd, on account of its difficulty. 

ASSES-FOOT. The herb coltsfoot Florio gives 
it as the translation of Cameltuca. 

ASSETH. Sufficiently; enou^ (J.'N.) See 
Piers PkNighman, p. 362, *< if it suffise noght 
for at9etz" where some editions read atseth. 
It is connected with the term attest, still in 
use. Skinner translates it atsemui. 
Nevir ahaU make his xicheM 
i unto his gredlnessc. 

Rom. oftht Roit, 8000. 

ASSETTETH. Assailed. {J.^N.) 

And yf that they be crroure thus contrerid, 
Arayse an ooet with strengtheand us mtmtttth^ 

Bcetims, MS. Soc Jntiq. 134. f. 9M. 

ASSHE. To ask. 

Ryse up, he sayde, and the way oaslke 
To Wyltone and to that Abbas Wultmd. 

Chron, VUodum, p. 77. 

ASSHEARD. A keeper of asses. Rider. 
ASSHOLE. A receptacle for ashes. North. 
ASSIDUALLY. Constantly. 

Gentle sir, though I am omUmtOlv used to eom- 
philnts, yet were my heart contracted into tongue. 
Th9 QfpHmn Jeademie, 1«47. li. 40. 

ASSIDUATE. Constant; continual. See Fa- 
byan, as quoted by Boucher and Richardson. 

ASSIDUE. This word, according to Mr. Hunter, 
is in common use in Yorkshire to describe a 
species of yellow tinsel much used by the 
mummers at Christmas, and by the rustics who 
accompany the nlough or ploughman in its 
roimds through the psrish, as part of their fim- 
tastical decoration. It is used in the cutlery 
manufacture of Hallamihire. 

ASSIL-TOOTH. A grin^, situated near the 
axis of the jaw. North. 

ASSIL-TREE. An axle-tree. North. 

ASSIMULED. Assunilated. 

No prince in our tyme male to your hyghnes be 
either compared or turtmuM. HaU, lUnrp 1 V. f. 27. 

ASSINDE. Assigned. See Collier's Hist. Dram. 
Poet L 32. 
O heavenly gyft, that rules the mynd. 

Even as the steme dothe rule the shippe { 
O musicke, whom the Oods otHndt 

To comforte manne, whom cares would nippe ! 
PnTT*' R9lUiu€9, p. 50. 
ASSINEGO. A Portuguese word, meaning a 
young ass. Hence applied to a silly fellow, a 
fooL Shakespeare has the word in Troilus and 
Cressida, tL 1, and it is not nnfrequently 
found in the Elizabethan writers as a term of 
reproach. Ben Jonson, in his Expostulation 
with Inigo Jones, makes a severe pun on his 
name, tdling him he was an otM^inigo to judge 
by his ears. 
ASSISE. (1) Phux; situation. {A.'N.) 
There ne was not a point truely. 
That it has in his right auito. 

Rom, fifths Ro§e, 1837. 
Pare now forth to thl bath that fklre is kerercd. 
For it is geinll greithed in a god mtim. 

Wm. and the Wenpo(f» p. 100. 

(2) The ** bug asise" in the first of the follow- 
ing passages is conjectured by Sir W. Scott, 
to be a term of chess now disused. Tristrem 
is playing at chess, and he played so long a 
time << the long asise," that he won six hawks, 
and lOOil This, I apprehend, is the correct 
meaning. In the second instance the same 
phrase is applied to a measure of length, in- 
stead of a measure of time. See also Rom. of 
the Rose, 1392. Skinner makes it synonymous 
with fize. 

Now bothe her wedde lya. 
And play thai bi-ginoet 

Y.sett he hath the long oHm, 
And endred beth ther inne. Sir J W s » e m ,r. 128. 





He f«ll« depe or be myght ryie» 
Thntty fote of Imgt oMyM. 

MS. CMtab, Tt, U. 38, f. S81. 

We have another instance of the word in the 
same sense in the romance of Sir Trsramonr 
in the MS. in the Camhridge PubKc Library. 
After this hero has cut off the legs of the giant 
Bnriond, he tells him that they are both " at 
oon assyse/' i e. of the same length. 

A lytuUe lower, lyr, seyde hee. 

And let us tmalle go wyth thee { 

Now aie wo toCho at oon a«yM / 

jffir.QMta6.Pf. 11.88, f. 81. 

(3) Assizes. Hence, Judgment. 
The kyng he sende word •5eyn, thmt he hadde yi 

In yi owne court, tor to loke domee and o»l*«. 

Rak, OUnte. p. 53. 
<ow to teehe God hath me tent, 

Hb Uwyi of lyff that am ful wy«e ; 
Them to lern be dyligent, 
toure ioulyt may thei save at the lact oiyM. 

GvMfKry KyffM'iet, p. 60. 

(4) Commodities. 
Whan ther comeMM»«h«"»<>^» 
With con, wyn, and fteil,olhir other omIm. 
To heore lond any Khip, 
To houae they woUith anon ftkyppe. 

Kpng Mimimder, 7074. 

(5) Regulation; established custom- SeeOcto- 
▼ian/Sl, where, however, Weber interprets it, 
" situation, rank." {A.'N.) 

Sire, he said, bi Ood In heven, 
ThUe boUoons that boUen seven, 
Bitoknen thine seTen wise. 
That han i-wrowt ayen the omUt, 

Sev^ SagM, 8490. 

(6) To settle; to confirm; to choose. See 
Chancer, ed. Urry, p. 541. In our second ex- 
ample it meuiB fised. 

Two eazdinalia he hath amUtd, 
With other lordis many moo. 
That with his doujter schukUm goo. 

Gowtr, BtS, Soe. Jntiq, 131. f. 6S. 
The whiche upon hU hede onyMd 
He bercth, and eke there ben derised 
Upon hU wombesterres thro. 

Gower, ed. 1«S«. f. 147. 

ASSISH. Fbolish. Var, dial Florio has, " ^fi- 
ndgaine, assishnesse, blockishnesse." 
Passe not, therfore. though Midas prate. 

And oMtUhe judgement give. 

GalftUo and Bentmrdo, 1570. 

ASSKES. Ashes. ^ ^ ^ 

Y woide suche damsellys yn fyre were orent. 
That the a$aie» with the wynde awey myght fly. 

ASS-MANUBE. Manure of ashes. North. 
ASSMAYHED. Dismayed. 

Bot he stode alle aumaifhed as stylle as ston. 

Chrm. niodun, p. 43. 
ASS-MTODEN. A beiq? of ashes. Nttrth. 
ASSNOOK. Undcrthe fire-grate. Yorkih. 
ASSOBRE. To grow sober or cahn. 
Of suche a Arynke as I coveyte, 
I sdrnlde oMobre and Care wel. 

Gww, M8, Soe, Mttiq. 184, f. 178. 

ASSOIL. To soiL So explained by Ridiardson, 
in a passage in Beaumont and Fletcher. Per- 

haps we may read astotf. I mJBBtion H as a 
mere conjecture. 
ASSOILE. (1) To absolve. See Lye's additions 
to Junius, in t. Puttenham has it as asubstanw 
tive, meaning confiession. See Nares, in t. 
A890ile ; Langtoft's Chronide, p. 209. 
And so to ben a$$oUled, 
And siththen ben houseled. 

Pi«r$ Phughmmt, p. 419. 
God bring thalre sanies untlll hU bil^ 
And Oodowoyl tham of thaire sin. 
For the gude will that thai war in. 

JHlMf • FssHMb p. 19. 

(2) To w^e ; to answer. (^.-M) 

Caym, come flbrthe and answere m^ 
jisc^le my qwestyon anon-ryght. 

Coventiy Itpsteriet, p. 38. 

ASSOINE. Excuse; delay. (-rf-iV.) See Kit- 
son's Ancient Songs, p. 21 ; Kyng Alisannder, 
1021. Alaoaveib, as in our first example. 
The scholde no weder mo oMoine. 

Flor, mitd Manea. 87- 
Therfore hit hijte BabilGyne, 
That shend thing is withouten oMiyiM. 

Curaor MwidU MS. ColL THh. Camiab. t 15. 

ASSOMON. To summon. See MorU d'Arthur, 
i. 228, 275, 278 ; iL 406 ; Brit. BibL i. 67. 
That is wel said, quod PhIk>bone, indede. 
But were ye not atomcned to appere 
By Mercurius. for that is al my drede ? 

GMirt</£fOM, 170. 

ASSORTE. An assembly. (^.-iV.) *« By one 
assorte," in one company. 
I wole you tech a newe play ; 
Sitte down here by one oasorta. 
And better myrthe never ye saya. 

MS. Dmu$ 178, p. 49. 

ASSOTE. To dote on. (A.-N.) This word is a 
favourite with Gowcr. See Morte d'Arthur, 
L 90, iL 65, 161 ; Cotgrave, my.Bon; Florio, 
in y. In^azxd^; Chancer, ed. Unry, p. 428. 
Thb wyfe, whlcho in her lustes grene. 
Was fkyie and f resshe and tender of ago. 
She may not let the oowrage 
Of hym, that wol on her atrnde. 

So besUlche upon the note 
They herken, and in suche wise 9$mi§, 
That they here ryjt cource and wey 
Fortete, and to here ere obeye. 

Gower, MS. flbe. Jntit. 134, f. 41. 

ASSOWE. In a swoon. 

Hwre modur adoun aatowe duddefaU, 
For sorwche myft wepe no more. 

Chrom. Vilodutu p. 56. 
ASS-PLUM. Florio has " Annime, a kinde of 

aste^lum or horse-plum." 
ASS-RIDDLIN. In Yorkshire, on the eve of 
St. Mark, the ashes are riddled or sifted on the 
hearth. It te said thatif anyof thefemilydie 
within the year, the shoe of the fated person 
will be impressed on the ashes. 
ASSUB JUGATE. To subjugate. 

Nor by my wUl tmrnbiugm his merit. 

TnUmtand Cru$iia» it 8. 

ASSUE. A term appliedio a cow when drained 
of her milk at the season of calTin^. SomeneL 
Generally pionovinced omiv, as in the Donet 




A88UBDLT. OmaeealMtff 

A* 010 men dns day and n jght that «• asnudlg In 
» ^St^ •^ J*** Cbtt. JBton. 10, f. J. 

ASSUMP. Raised. 

Tha nied bUioppe, now bejng Cardinal, was 
aMoylcd of hJf bbboptlcke of Wynchater, where. 
iipoo he sued unto our holy (kther to have a buUo 
*««««»tory. notwlthatanding he was oMump to the 
state of cardinaU, that the sea was not Toyde. 

ASSURANCE. Afltoncc ; betrothing fo/'ni^.* 
riage. See Pembroke's Arcadia, p. 17, quoted 
by Nares. 
ASSURDED. Broke forth. From Smtrd. 
Then he atntrded into thb exdamacyon 
Unto Diana, the goddet faiinoruil. 
. ^^ Sk9tt<m*i Wwtts, L 374. 

ASSURE. (1) To confide. {A.-N,) 

Therefore, as fkcndAillidie in me ojmw. 
And tea me pfartte what is thtne encheion. 
z«N « -. , "IVotfiaiwdawWr, i.681. 

(2) To aiRance; to betioth. 

There loTeiy Amoret, that was mmur^d 
To lusty Perigot, bleeds out her Hfe, 
f^orcfd by some iron hand and fiital knife. 

'Beummmt mm* WUMur, i\,Wl* 
\o) AssQiance. 

Redy cfl* to profro a aewe osMre 

Por to ben trewe^ and merey me to prey. 

Okaueer, «d. Urry, n. 43S. 

ASSUREDLYBST. Safest '^•p-*"- 

A great nnmber of commons, all chosen men, with 

spans on foots, whiche were the most tumridbMt 

hanMsed that hath bene sene. 
. Hatt. Htwnt FIJI, f. 42. 

AS-SWYTHE. QuicUy. This word geneiaUy 
OQg^ to be divided; yet Robert de Brunne, 
in MS. HarL 1701, seems occasionally to use 
It as one word. 

AS6TG6B. A hunting term. 

YeshuU say. Ule^tqme, UUotqm^ alwey whan they 
fynde wele of hym, and then ye shul keste out 
mtttrggt al abowte the feld for to se where he be go 
oat of the psstnre, or ellis to his foorme. 

lUliq. Jntiq, i, 153. 

ASSYNED. Joined. w «* !«. 

Now. by my trouth, to speke my mynde, 
Syns they be so k>th to beoMyMd. 

Plaift eoffed tht Vourt ff, 
ASSYNO. To assign. 

Go thy way and make thi curse. 

As I sbaU •mmtg the by myn advysse. 

JMf^MifMtrtm, p. 41. 

AST. Asked. NmiJL Cf.TowneleyMyst.p.200. 

The sect sdio matt tat hir soancs myght hir thynk 

vde sett M8, LtmcOn A. I. IJ, f. 831. 

The bisscbop tui in qnat stid 

H« shold this ktilce geie make. 

MS, Cantab. Ff.T.48, f.70. 

ASTA. Hast thon. This form of the word is 
giren In the Ckvis to the Yorkshire Dialogue, 
|k 90. Agttm is common in interrogatiTe 
daoses In old Ei^lriL 

ASTABILISHE. foestd>lish. 

I shan at alt tymes and faiaU plsces, whaosoosTer 
I sh albe caDed uppoo, be ledye and gfaul to con- 
tmnam, miefle, and aatabUiaht this my deyd, purpos, 
asyad, and intent, as shalbe devised by the leraed 
coonscn of the kynges said highnes. 

WHilhf$ManaatU LitUn» p. 154. 


ASTABLE. To confirm. 

Lutheries, the Pope of Rome, 
He atUMtd swithe sone 
Codes werkes for to worcbe. 

JK». Caniab. Ff. v. 48, f. M. 

ASTANT. Standing. 

ThemightMmseMtfanf theby. Amndrvn, p. 490. 
ASTAROTH. This name, as givMi to one of the 
deyils, occnrs in a cnrioos list of actors in 
Jubmal's Myst. In^ iL 9. See Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 246; Piers Ploughman, p. 393. 
ASTAT. State ; estate ; dignity. 
Whan he is sel hi his m$tmi, 
Thre therys be brout of synf ul gyse. 

ASTAUNCHE. To .rtWy?^^ '*"^"' '* 
And castethe one to chese tohir dellte. 
That may better BUeMasiihirappettteb 

Xdfdif«<«P« Jfiner ffMiM, p. 30. 

ASTE. As if; although. It is the translation 
of acii in an early gloss, in Reliq. Anttq. i. 8. 
Undir ilc post thay layden, 
A9^ the dereus hemselTen sayden. 
Four yren lores togydtr knyt. 
For to proven of his wit. If5. Cbiita5. Dd. L 17. 
ASTEDE. Stood. {A^^S.) So explained by 
Heame, in Gloss, to Rob. Glouc p. 305, where 
we should probably read on « stede^ L e. in a 
ASTEEPIN6. Steeping ; soaking. 
There we lay'd attatfimg. 
Our eyes hi endless weepii^. Fhtehm; 

ASTEER. Active; bustling; stirring abroad. 

North, See the Craven Dialect, ii. 359. 
ASTELLABRE. An astrolabe. 

With him his oaMOabn be nom, 
Whiche was of fjm golde predous. 

ASTELY. Hastily. 

Or els, Jesu. y aske the reyd 
Ato^ that y wer deyd. mr dmada$, 3W. 

ASTEMYNGE. Esteeming. 

But the duke, Utle iMf«iaim^sach a defect, quick- 
lye after persuaded the kynge to take tyr Rycharde 
agayne to liis favour. Ardmolagia,x»ii SW. 

ASTENTE. Stopped. {A.-S,) See Wright's 
PoL Songs, p. 342; Will and the Werwolf, 
p. 56. 

And or thaj come to Mantribla 
Neverethayneoetenfe. Ka.jamoUZi,tlS, 
And thou that madest hit sotouj, 
Al thi bost Is sone a^lnt, 

Apptnd. ta W, Mape§, p. 941. 
ASTER. Easter. Norih, Mr. Hartshorne gives 
this form of the word as current in Shropshire. 
Ct Audelay's Poems, p. 41. 

And thus this attar lomb apefed. 
GbftM. FUMmn. Pw 88L 

ASTERDE. To escape. (A.^S,) 

Tho wiste he wel the kyngis herto. 
That he the dath ne seholde asCsrA. 

Oowtr, MS. aoe, JnHq. 134, f. M. 

ASTERED. Distarbed. (A.S,) In the foU 
lowing passage, the Lincoln MS. reads 
fHrrtti, Verstegan has oitired. 
For aU here mlehel pryde. 
The stout man was mttand. 

Sit Degravmnta, Comb. MS, 




ASTERISM. A constdlatioiL yiege, 

ASTERLAOOUR. An astrolabe. 

Hit ahnagifte, and bokis grete and imale, 
HU •Mtertagtmr, looging for hit art. 
Hit augrim-tUmU lying feire apart. 

Chauetr, td, Vny, p. SS. 

ASTERT. (1) To escape. {A,-S.) See Hawkins' 
EngL Dram. L 9 ; Lyogate'a Minor Poems, 
p. 183 ; Gower, ed. 1532, t 70 ; Chaucer, 
Cant T. 1597, 6550 ; Piers Ploughman, p. 225 ; 
Digby Mysteries, p. 8. 

Of wiche the coutm m jjta not mgtmrf 
Phllototef, that wa« th« more czperte. 

Ther tcfaalte no worldU good aateru 
His hoode, and fit he fereth almeMe. 

Qoum, MS. aoe. Jntiq, 1S4, f. tf. 
The to lore make meto expert. 
That hcUe peyaet 1 mxA,u$UrU 

ITS. fieri. 8406, 180. 

(2) Hence, to rdease. {A.'S.) 

And imale tltheraa weiea foule y-ahent. 
If any penone wold upon hem plaine, 
Ther inlght «Mrt hem bo peeunial pdae. 

Gkenocr, GoiU, r. 6896. 

(3) To alarm ; to take unawares. 

No danger theie the shepherd can e«fcr<. 

8pttmr*» BeU Nam, 187* 

ASTBTNTB. Attainted. 

Whatdostow here, unwiast goaie f 
For thyn harm tboa art hider y-oome ! 
He 1 lyie a«Mrn<olK>reMme I 
To mlado was ay thy wooe. iCimf Attsamnder, 880. 
ASTIB6NUN0. Ascension. Vertte^an. 
ASTIGE. To ascend; to mount upwards. 

ASTINT. Stunned. (^.-&) 

With io nohle swerdes dent. 
That hem attini Terrament. 

jirthour mnd Mgrlin, p. 800. 

ASTIPULATB. To bargain; to stipulate. HalL- 
ASTIRE. (1) The hearth. See Mtre, 
Bad her take the pot that sod over the fire. 
And set it aboore upon the attire. 

Vtttrmne* Pop. Pott, 11. 78. 
(2) To stir; to moTC. Verstegan, 
ASTIRTB. Started ; lei^. 

jUHrtt tU him with his rlppe* 
And bigan the fish to klppe. fiisMMr, 893. 

ASTTTE. Anon ; quickly. This word is found 
in the North Country Vocabularies of Ray and 
Thoresby. Cf. Torrent of Portugal, p. 28. 
Ful rlchellche he gan him schrede. 
And kpe aatito opon a stedes 
For nothing be nold abide. 

Ami» md AtfOhun, 1046. 

ASTIUNE. A predous stone. 
> Ther Is saphlr, and unlnne, 

Carbunde and osM mim, 
Smaiagde, lugre, and prasilone. 

Coeaifgntt ap, Warton, L 9. 

ASTOD. Stood. See Chron. of England, 62 ; 
Reliq. Antiq. L 101. 

Sum he smot opon the hode» 
At the glrdel the swerd eetode. 

dir ^ Wartoikt, p. 47. 

A-ST060D. Having one's feet stuck fast into 

day or dirt. Donet, 
ASTOND. To wHhstand. See Wright's Poli- 

tical Songs, p. 338 ; Oy of Warwike, pp. 1» 47» 
Rob. Qlouc. p. 20. 
Thou ssalt have thl wil of al Egiptetonde, 
Ssal nerne no man thloe heete ttmtdt, 

MS, Btii, 60, f. 4. 
So korren and hewen with man! h<md. 
That non armour might hem astond. 

Arthour and MtrNn, p. 898. 

ASTONE. Confounded. 

He dradde him of his owen sone. 
That maketh him wel the more attont. 

Cower, MS. Soe, Antiq. 134, f . 187. 

ASTONED. (1) Confounded; astonished. At- 
tonied is yeiy common in early writers, and 
is also found in the Scriptures, Dan. v. 9, &c 
Florio in v. Aggriceidre, has the verb to attony^ 
to confound. See Troilus and Cresdde, i 
274. Urry has also attorned. 

This sodeo cas this man asfonerf so» 
That red he wex, abaist, and al quaking 
He stood, unnethes said he wordes mo. 

Chowcer, Cant. T. 819f. 

(2) Stunned. {A.^S.) 

Vor her hors were al aetoned, and nolde after wylle 

Sywe nother spore ne brydel, ac stode ther al stylle. 

Rob. Gioue, p.aB6b 

ASTONISH. To stun with a blow. 

Enough, captain t yoa have mttmitktd him. 

Hmtrp V, T. 1. 
ASTONNE. To confound. 

It doth in halfe an howre attemm the taker so. 

And mastreth all his senees, that he feeleth weale 

nor woe. JioiiM«s amd JmUet, p. 64. 

Suerly these be examples of more Tehemende 

Mian mans tong can expresse, to fear and ajfetme such 

eryl persones as wyl not lere one houre vaeant from 

doyng and exercyslng cmiritle, mlsdiiefe, oroat- 

ragious lyvyng. HdU, lUekard ilh f. 34. 

A-STOODED. Sunk fost into the gnmnd, aa a 

waggon. Donet, 
ASTOPARD. Some kind of animal ? 

Of Ethiope he was y-bore. 

Of the kind of aetoparde / 
He had tuskes like a boar* 
An head Uke a Ubbard. 

Etti^M Met. Rom, U. 800. 
ASTORE. To provide with stores ; to keep up ; 
to replenish ; to restore. See Prompt Panr. 
pp. 16, 262. 1 Rob. Glouc. pp. 18, 107, 212, 229, 
268. It is used somewhivk differently in Kyng 
AHsannder, 2026, and the Seryn Sages, 956, 
erplainedby Weber, <* together, in a he^>, niip 
merons, plmitiful;" but I am informed by Dr. 
Meniman that he has heard it used in Wilt- 
shire as a kind (^expletive, thus, ** She's gone 
into the street tutore.** This of course differs 
from the Irish word. 

At clt4, borwe, and castel. 
Thai were attorod swlthe weL 

Arthomr and MeHIm, p. 90. 
But as the ampte, to eschewe yddncsse. 
In somer it so ftU of beshiesse. 
Or wynter oome to safe here from ooolde. 
She to-foren ottered hath here hoUe. 

MS. Digtv aast. 

That on he gaf to attort the lift 
Off selnt Petur the apostUle bil5t. 

MS. Canlub. Pf. t. 48, f . 99. 




ASTOUKD. ToMtonishgraitly. Var.diaL 
TU at the Uft ha htard a dmdfuU townd. 
Which throofh the wood loud bellowing did rebowod. 
That all the earth for terror leemd to tbakct 
And Irteadid tremble. Th*e]fe, therewith aHownd, 
' Upstarted lightly from hie looter make. 

The FaeHe QuMtte, I. vU. 7. 

ASTOYN YN. To shake ; to bruise. Pron^t, Parv, 
ASTRADDLE. To straddle. Skinner. 
ASTRAGALS. A kind ci game, somewhat like 
cockalL See a curious account of it in MS. 
Ashmole 788, 1 162. Blount has iuiragaHie, 
** to play at dice, huckle-bones, or tables." See 
his Glossographia, p. 59. 
ASTRAL. Starry. 

This latter lort of taifldeb have often admitted 
those matters ot tm^ which wa Chriattaae call mi- 
racles, and yet have eade a vo o ied to idve them by 
0«</«2opeiadoBs, andother waysDoChera tobaspe- 
clfled. Ba^t Work*, ▼. 161. 

ASTRAMTBN. An astieBomer. Jttromym 
is the finrn of the word in Kyng AlJaanwder, 
136 ; and Chaucer, in his tract on the astio- 
UJie, has m$troiogiemf for an aitndoger. 
Hyt was a gode aiHaiaysfi 
That on the mooe kowthe seen» 

JUi. HarLtSM, tSL 
ASTRANGLED. Strwic^ SeeWilLandthe 

Wcrwolt p» 6» 
For neigh hy weren hothe tot thont 
Ath-mngUd, and ek Ibr-prest. 

To nljht then scfaalt l-wls 
In stJongne dethe mttrtmgM, 
And wiende to the pine of helle. 

JCS. LoMd. 106, f. 166. 

ASTRAUGHT. Distracted ; tenified. 

At her syght be was so mttrmmghi, thatof his own 
vyade oBiequested, he made peace with the Haasi. 
Ueos. GoUMHg'9 JMdne, f. 179. 

ASTRAUNGED. Estranged. UdaL This and 
the last word are taken from Richardsom 

ASTRAY. A stray animaL Pron^t. Parv, 

ASTRATLT. Astray. It is translated by ^pdki- 
kmnde in Prompt Panr. p. 16. 

ASTRE. (1) A star. (/V.) Steevens says this 
word is only to be met with in SonUiem's 
Diana, 1580. See Shakespeare, yiL 184. Mr. 
Boswell quotes another instance in Montgo- 
mery's Poems, ed. 1821, p. 164. See also Ja- 
mieson in t. Florio translates Si^Uat ^ a 
starre, or any of the celestiaU bodies that give 
l^ht onto the world ; also an otf er, a planet." 

(2) A hearth. ** The tuire or harth of a chim- 
ney,'' MS. HarL 1129, f. 7. Lambarde, in his 
Perambulation of Kent, ed. 1596, p. 562, says 
that this word was inhis time nearly obsolete in 
Kent, but that it was retained in ** Shropshyre 
and other parts.'' See Attire. 

ASTRELABRE* An astrokbe. {A^N.) See 
Chancer, Cant. T. 3209. 1 haTcahready quoted 
the passage from Urry, in ▼. AtterlagowTp 

ASTRENGTHT. To strengthen. 

And bygan to attrmgthjf ys court, and to eche ys 
maynye. Bttb. Gtme. p. 160. 

ASTRETCHTN. To reach. It is translated by 
^tmgo in XbA Prompt. Parv. pp. 14, 16, 99. 

His kyje vertn airiwdlsM 

With bokis of hU omat endltynge. 

Ocetew. Ma. aoc dnttg. VH, f . 688. 

ASTRETNYD. Constrained. 

He is m9tr«jfnyd to the thinge that oontenys and 

to that thing that is contenyd ; and he it also a#- 

Ireifnpd to the thinge that halowis, and to that thinge 

that is halowid. MtS. BitrUm 816, f. 177. 

ASTREYT. Straight. 

Forsothe he daasyt the lyrcN aryt. 
And alia the memteyt bMiethe ecifvyf. 

JM<9. Jntiq. U 160. 
ASTRICTED. Restricted. 

As fler being enck)sed in a stralteplaee wil by foroe 

utter his flamme, and as the coarse of water Mtridsd 

and letted wUl flowe and brust out in continuance of 

time, BaU, Hmury VI. f. 86. 

ASTRID. Inclined. Stiffs. 

ASTRIDGE. An ostrich. 

He make thee eate yron like an asfrl^^, and swal- 
low my swoid like a great pinna. 

rM FErtf Parrc/Me OmlefMJMi, 16M. 
ASTRIDLANDS. Astride. Abr/A. See Ray's 

English Words, in ▼. Vmitrid. 
ASTRINGE. To bind; to oompeL (Lot.) 

Albeit your Highnes, having an honorable place. 

be named as one of the principal eontrahentcs, yet 

nererthelesse your grace is not ttrimgtd or boundcn 

to any charge or other thing. StaU Papen, L 119. 

ASTRINOER. << Enter a gentle atM^vr'' is a 

stage direction in All's Well that ends Well, 

T. 1. Steevens says ** a gentle istringer'' is a 

** gentleman frlconer," and gives a reference to 

Cowell that requires verification. 

ASTRIPOTENT. The ruler of the stars. (I«f.) 

The high tulrtpoimt auetor of aUe. 

MS. HarL SSSl, f. 76. 

ASTROD. Stradling. SomerMt 
ASTROIE. To destroy. 

And aspie hem hi tiopie. 

And so fond hem to MUrote. 

jtrthour and Merlin, p. 666. 

ASTROIT. A kind of praeious (?) stone. MinOiem. 
Sometimes called the star-stone. Brome, in 
his Travels over England, p. 12, mentions find- 
ing many of them atLassington, co. Gloucester, 
and gives a particular account of their nature. 

ASTROLOGY. A herb mentioned by Palsgrave, 
t 18, and by Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, 
t 201. It is perh^M the same with the oritto- 
logO, two species oi which are mentioned in an 
old poem in Ardueologia, xxx. 386. 

ASTRONOMER. An astrologer. This sense of 
the term is usual with our early writers. See 
Minot's Poems, p. 85. 

A leam'd aetroncmer, great magldan. 
Who lives hard-by reUrM. 

Beaumont an4 VIeteher, L 160. 

ASTRONOMIEN. Astrologer. 
Whiche was an aetronomteng 
And eck a gret roagicien. 

Gower, MS. See. Antiq, 134, f. 146. 
ASTROPHELL. A bitter herb ; probably star- 
wort, according to Nares. 
My little flock, whom earst I loT'd so well. 

And wont to feed with finest gruse that grew, 
Feede ye henoeforth on bitter mtir^t. 
And stinking smallage and unssTerle ma. 

Spene. Da/lm. 644. 




ASTROUT. Iliit word bstffl used in Somenet- 
ihire, explained by Mr. Norris, MS. Glossary, 
" in a stiff, projecting posture, as when the 
fingers are kept out stiff." Sir Thomas More, 
Workes, p. 98, applies it to a stomach swelled 
by gkittony, '* What good can the great ^o- 
ton do with his bely standing m$trQte like a 
taber." In Prompt Panr. p. 16, - a-^tmt" 
is translated by /MiyMfe; and Palmer says it is 
used in the north-east of Devon in the sense of 
m$tride. The word occurs in the first sense in 
a curious poem in the Auchinleck MS. printed 
in Wrighf s Political Songs, p. 336 ; and the 
following example is taken from another copy 
in the Bodleian Library, unknown to Mr. 
Wright, which is raluable as completing his 
imperfect one. Cowper has atiruif as quoted 
by Richardson. 

Now Oodia toule If al day auoM, 

The knyf ichal itonde a-ttrwitj 
And thow his botea be to-tore, 
fit he wil mak it atout. 

MS, BodX. 48, f. aS7. 
The marynere that wolde haTe layne har by, 
Hyi yen itode owte attme for«thy, 
Hys lymmei were roton hyin flroo. 

Lt Btm0 Vhrtne9 <^f Rtme, 9089. 
He gaflB hym awylke a clowte. 
That boOie hie cghne atode mm ttromt^, 

Mr Inimftnu, Uneolm MS. 

ASTRUCrrVB. This word is used by Bishop 
Hall, and opposed by himio datruetive. See 
Richardson, in y. 
ASTRYYYD. Distracted. 

Beryn and hit oompaay ttood all oaCryvfdL 

Hitt&nf itfBttyn, 84S91 

ASTUNED. Stunned. See Drayton's Polyolbion, 
ed. 1753, p. 1011 ; and Mtotme. 
He fruat doim t o deat. 
That bora and nan a««im«d lay. 

Arthom and Merlin, p. 933. 

A8TUNTB. Stood; remained. 

The barona atttmtt wlthoate tooa bidde. 

And Taire aende Into the toiw to the Uog bor 

That he taolde, tot Oodcs love, him bet uiider- 

And graunte horn the gode lawea, and habbe plt^ 
ofitlond. Jlo5. OlMie. p. 648. 

The other Mtumit and unnethe abod« 
He ne mljhte noothvr for achame. 

M§. Lntd. 106. 1 173. 
ASTUTE. Grai^. Mmthem. 
ASTWARD. Eastward. 

And In a achip we duden ut aooe. 

And tuiumrd erere kenden. 
In the ae of oooean, 
Aa ore Loverd ia grace lu aende. 

MS. Lmud. 106. f. 104. 

ASTT. Rather; as soon as. North. This is 

perhaps connected with tuUt q. ▼. 
ASTTE. To ascend. 

Alfred and Seynt Bdwarde, laatehil fonnea«<iye 
Thorn the due of Nocmaadye, that her uncle waa. 

ito6.0toiM;. p.817. 

ASTTFLED. Lamed in the leg. 

Somtyme aa bound ia yrele aatu^, so that he 
shal aomtyme abyde half a 5ecr or more, or he be 
wel fecme. MS. Bodl, 546. 

ASTTL. A thin board or lath. See Prompt. 
Parr. p. 16, explained frt>m the Anglo-Norman 
** a piece of a wooden log deft for burning.'' 
PhiUips has oxide in the same sense, so that 
the word may come originally from the Lat. 
ASUNDERLY. Separately. Itis tnnsbUedby 
di^funetim, agMira/tm, and dStriitM, in the 
Piximpt. Pair. p. 16. 
ASUNDRI. Aput. See Gesta Romanorum, 
pp. 14, 67, 164 ; Prompt. Panr. p. 16. 
In thia world, hi Seyn Jon, 
Sowlae a num ia thernon, 
Amndri adinld hem kaawe. 

jimi§ mid AmUomm, 9068. 
ASWARE. On one aide. 

Hym had Wn beter to liare goon more ^uware^ 
for the egg of tbo pann met with hb ihynne. 
And karff atoo a ireyn, and the nest ayn. 

Chaueer, «(. (^rr, p. AS0. 

A8WASH. Cotgnmhaa, " Ckamarre, a loose 
and light gowne, that may be wonie amooik 
or skarfe^dse." 
ASWELT. To become extinguished. (J.-S.) 
Ac aot and anow eometh out of holca. 
And brennyag Atyr, and gtowyag oolea ; 
That theo anow for the tayr no malt. 
No Ihe friyr ftir tbto MOW «M0ele. 

K^ng jtlitumdif, 6699. 

ASWEVED. 8tairfiled,asinadream. (J,-S.) 
For lo astonied and &»»o9Md 
Waa every Tirtne in me hered. 
What with hia aoura, and with my died, 
Tliat al my feUnge gan to ded. 

;nkell0i(aef/l'lnM, ii.41. 
AS-WHO-SAIETH. A not unfreqnent ex. 
pression in our early poetry, equtralent to, — 
as one may say, as the saying is. See Dyce's 
notes to Skelton, p. 86. 
ASWIN. ObUqudy. North. 
ASWOOH. In a swoon. (J.-S.) 
jiswogh he fell adoun 

Anhyahynderaraoun. I«r6M«» DiKOfMa, II7I. 

ASWOUNE. In a swoon. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 

3826, 10788 ; Gy of Warwike, p. 17 ; Legend 

of Pope Gregory, p. 48; Rom. of the Rose,I804. 

He fcrd aa he wer mat ; 

Adoun he fel MMPoaMe with tiiat. 

Oy 9f Warwike, p. 18. 

ASWOWE. In a swoon. See Atwogh ; Laun- 
fel, 755 ; MS. Cantab. Ff. i 6, f. 5L 
The king binethen, the atede aboue. 
For aothe air Arthour waa omoomw. 

And whanne the l u yd w ff hurde that, 
A-SYDEN-HANDE. On one side. 

But he toke nat hia ground ao even in the front 
afore them aa he wold have don yf he might bettar 
hare aene them, butt aomewhate ehegden-hmnde, 
where he dia p oaed all hia people in good aivaye all 
that nyght. Arrivei ef Kiitf Btword /F. p. 18. 

ASTGHE. T6 essay. 

Now let aeo gef ony la ao hardy 
That durate hit him «Qfi*«* t^fngJBUmwiiigr, 8699. 
ASTNED. Assigned ; appointed. 
And jemen of the crowne alao. 
That were oepned wyth hym to go. 

JrtkeBelegid, txh 78* 




AT. (l)Tliftt North. See Sevyn Sages, 3824; 
Perceval of GaOes, 150, 524 ; Towneley Mys- 
teries, pp. 2, 87 ; Robson's Met. Rom. p. 7 ; 
Twiiiie and Oawin, 486» 

It M ftaUy my connite that thou recottnielto asmyne 
mto Um my lady my moder Olympiat, and at thoa 
gnN tlM nathynge at tha deda of Ledaa, oa taka 
na haryaea to tha tharfora. MS.Uneoln A. L 17, f . Sk 

(2) To. Constantly used as a prefix to the rerb 
by early En^ish imters. See Ywaine and 
Oswin, 812, 2344. 

Ga hatlkene away flra ma, qnod lie, for thoo caana 
lay noghta to maa, w 1 hafa no^te at do with tha. 
That at at say, wtth golde and anNOce, 
And myxa that thay aOtoda la tU praKBoa. 

JUS. Uneolm A. i. 17* f. 190. 

(3) To. ^ThisfoaluUbedaiBgenMJktnowiif 
adimiiadoaaoni]iiatc#lt." Vmr.ttiA 

(4) Bat. 

Notedda thai ao wftMS w«t. 

No ala that was old. 
No BO goda matathal al. 

Thai haddM al that thai wold. 

JBtt SMttmOfP* MS. 

(5) Wbo;wbidi. North. 

(6) Of. North. 

Scryrpaaad buidon can ha take. 
And toka lara a< hya wyfab 

M8. Gamtak. FtlLSS, f.U2. 
Ha take hit lave at the daya 
At MUdoa tha falre maya. 

Sir DtgrevamU, Umeoin MS, 

That mme houra herly at mome, Maria 

miidalayiia and hir two tlatert asked lere at oure 

Lady, and want with tbeire oynementet to the 

aepukre. OS, LAneotn A. i. 17. f. 186. 

(7) To attack ; to accost. A common elUptical 
form of the expression to be at, or to get at. 
Also, to contend with or take in a game or 

(8) For. 

Jt this eauM tha kny5t oomiyehe hade 
In Uie more half of hb achdde hir ymage depaynted. 
Sgr Oatpotftu, p. 8S. 

ATACHE. To seize. 

And eayde, wt atad^ yow y-wyite. 
For ye fchaUe telle us what he ys. 


AT-AFTER. After; afterwards. North. See 
Chancer, Cant. T. 10616, 11531; Morte 
d'Arthnr, IL 220. It is an adverb and prep. 
I tnist to sea you att-afUr Eatur, 
As oonaing as I that am your master. 

MS. Hawl. a S56. 

ATAKS. To overtake. (J.^.) See Amis and 
Amilonn, 2070; Chaucer, Cant. T, 16024. 
Sometimes it stands for the part. pa. Ataken, 
as in Chancer, Cant. T. 6966, and our two last 

Ha turned his stede and gan to fle. 

And Oy after him, bl mi leut^ t 

Oode waa thehora tbatOwldiard rodoo. 

And io Hut his stede gan goo. 

That 04 might him nought aiaXw/ 

Theifore he gao sorwe make. Gif^Warwike, p. 08. 

And layde, ha ! now thou art a-tak§, 

That thou thy werke myfte nov^ fanaka. 

Oowar, MS. Soe. Jntiq. IM, f. IM. 

And noyt for that a goCh so Cut, 

That Richard ys o-falr* ate last. MS, jithmoU 48. 

AT-ALL. TbeoryofagiiiiiittrAiH^cialiaBd 
spirit, meaning that he wiU playibr Miy smns 
the company may dioose to risk against him. 
See Massinger, iv. 78. 

AT-ALLE. Entirely ; altogether. See Lydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 29; Chancer, CantT. 8921, 
The kynge knew the buigaysa a# oOt I 
Anooe to hym he lette hym ealla. ip om 9 itm,}M9» 

AT-ALL-POINTS. In every particular, a phrase 
applied to a person weU and entirely aimed. 
See instances in Beanmont and Fletcher, 
iv.7; Morte d*Aithar,L 344, iL19. ^/-oO- 
riffhieis a similar expression, of which see in- 
stances in Chancer, Cant T. 2102; Sir 
Peroeral, 1139. See Jt^rmfhites. 

ATAME. To tame. (J.-S.) See Skdton's 
Works, L 135, 211 ; Depositna of Bichard U. 
p. 15; Chester Pkys, L 124 ; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 316; tokdMtimte. 
And aside, thoo cursed Saraayne, 
Thy piouda pride shall he a iawis d. 
By God and by Seinte Qwyatyae. MS. Douet ITS, p^SI* 

ATANUNE. AftenKxm. Si^fM. 

AT-A-POINT. This phrase is explained re«olM/# 
by Rider. In the second example it appa* 
rently means c# a ttoppoge. 
Old Siward, with ten thousand waxlike men. 
All ready ol a point, waa setting forth. Maeboth, iv. S. 
Now let us speakeof the Brie of Warwickas 
doyoges, whiche muste nodes play a pagiaunt In 
this enterlude, or els the plale were at a point, 

Uott, Edward IV, 1. 16. 

ATARN. To mn away; to escape. (A.-S.) 
Manle flowe to churche, and the constable nnnethe 
Atamde alive, and mania were l-bro^ to dethe. 

Rob, Otouc. p. 539. 

ATASTE. To taste. See the corresponding 
passage in MS. Soc Antiq. 134, f. 6, and Digby 
Mysteries, p. 190. 
Ye shullen ataoto bothe thowe and shea 
Of thilke water, to speke in wordet fewe. 
By God ordeyned trouthes for to shewe. 

Lgdgate, MS. MhmoU 39, f . 44. 

ATAUNT. So much. See Digby Mysteries, 
p. 192. {J.^N.) 
Whan that Baehua, themyghtik>rde. 
And Juno eke, both by oneaccorde. 
Had sette a-brocfae of myghti wyne a tone. 
And afterwardys Into the brayn ran 
Of Colyn Blobolle, whan he had dronke ataunt 
Both of Teynt and of wyne Alyeaunt, 
Till he was drounke as any swyne. 

Colgno BlowboU, MS, Rauft, C. 86. 
And he Is a foole that yarithe also credence 

To newe rumours and every foltlsshe fable, 
A dronken foole that sparithe for nodlspence 
Todrynk ataunt tO he slepe at table. 

l4fdgat^o Minor Poomo, p. 187 
ATAYITE. AncestraL 

But trulie this boMnes, not myna owaenature, hath 
taught mea, but your nature, generosltle prognate, 
and come ftom your acavtte progeoltonrs. 

JaiWo lAterarp Lottoro, p. 7S* 

ATAXY. Disorder; irregularity. (Or.) 
AT-BAR. Bore away. 

A wonder thing he say him thar, 

A wolf his other Child a<-tar. Jf&lNSffey W,f.l«3L 
AT-BLEWE. Blew wHh beUows. 




Crtit* fbr-tdiope thamt botlM lythe and Ipne ! 

M8,UneobiA, U 17> 1 188. 
AT-BREST. To biOTt in pieces. 

Hto hert aght u^t-br^ In tbrin. 
Ar fta hit comamentoi tain. 

JUS. out, Vetpat. A. 111. f. M. 
ATCHEKED. Cboaked. Sihmer. 
ATCHISON. A billon coin, or rather copper 
washed with silver, stnidL in the reign of 
James YI., of the Talue of eight pennies Scots, 
or two thirds of an En^ish penny. See 
Jamieson, in ▼. 
I eare nut an they war all drown'd I' th* dike. 
They're nut worth an ofcMfOM, nor twenty sUce. 

YorkshiM Dlmktgm, p. VJ- 

ATCHORN. An aoom. Far, dial. We have 

also atehominff, poking up acorns. 
ATE. (1) To eat Weit. See Jennings, p. 115. 
(2) At the. 

And with a god ttaf , f ul tket, 
Hifwlfatedorenehet. Anvn Avm, SS96. 
ATEGAR. A kind of lance. Jwuiu. \A.'S,) 
ATBIGN. To accomplish. 

Ne hope I noght he wU him feign. 
That he ne Ml Caim dede Meifru 

MS. CMf . Vetpoi, A. UL f. 8. 
ATEINTE. To give a colouring to. {J.'N.) 
Nal, dowter, tor Ood abore 1 
Old men ben felle and queinte. 
And wikkede wrenches ooime s/einle. 
Misdo nowt, doughter, but do bl rede I 

Sevim Saget, 17M* 
ATEL. Reckoned ; counted. (-^.-&) 

The kyng thoru yi oonseyl encented wel her to. 
And god octage of nom, the truage Tor to do ; 
And at4l al her god, and let him al bar wende. 

Bob. Glcme, p. 171. 
ATELICH. Foul; corrupt. {J.'S.) 
The bodi ther hit lay on here. 
An atetieh thing as hit was on. 

Append, to IF. Mapet, p. 343. 
Tho cam thate out a luther wjjt 
Ful atelieh ate laste. MS. Laud. 106, f. 107* 

A scharp face he hadde, and al for-kroked. 
His berd atelieh and long. Jbid, 106, f. 159. 

ATENES. At once. See Chaucer, ed. Urry, 
p. 32. This is merely another form of Jttonet, 
ATE NT. An object; an intention. SeeOctovian, 
104 ; Sir Amadas, 372 ; Joachim and Anne, 
p. 149 ; CJov. Myst. p. 4 ; Syr Gowghter, 617. 
Hymselfe ys In gode atente. 
For every man ys hys frende. 

jr& Cbfited. Ft U. 38. f . 79. 
A riche lettre scho hym sent. 
Bftyr hir lordis commandment. 
And talde bym alle hlr atent. 

Sir Degrevante, Lincoln MS, 

ATEON. To make angry. (J.-S,) 
The kyng wes ateoned stronge 
That Corineus artod so longe. 

Chrontele nfEngUukd^ 61. 
Oogmagog was atened strong 
That on mon him stode so long. 

Jbid. MS, Qmtab. Ff. v. 48, f. 93. 

He was atened of his enemy. MS,Athmole S3. tS. 

ATER. (1) After. Var,d$aL It may, however, 

be a mere error of the scribe in the following 

example : 

And a^ this his modir dide aryw. 
And lyfte him up softely Into the stalk. 

L^dgate, MS, Soe, Anti^' 134, f. 10. 
(2) Attire. 

Ererich man of Ich mester 
Hem riden ogain with fair ater, 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 139. 

ATER-NOON. Afternoon. Somenet, 
ATERST. In earnest. PhiU^t, Coles explaini 

it indeed. 
ATEYNT. Fatigued; worn out. {A.-N.) 
In the hete they wer almost atei/nt» 
And in the smoke nygh adreynt. 

JUdbonf Coer de Lion, 6131. 

ATEYNTE. (1) Convicted; attainted. See 
Amis and AmUoun, 849; History of Beryn, 

Yn feyrt wur d ys and yn qeynte, 
Wyth pryde are swych men ateimie, 


(2) To reach ; to get possession of. 
She seld, Thomas, let them stand. 
Or ellls the feend wUle thttegnte, 

MS, Cantab, Ft. ▼. 48. f. 118. 
AT-GO. Expended; gone. 

Wor his spending wes al mP^o, 
Wel evene he hit oundemom. 

JCar.IHff«y86. f.l94. 

Whet may I sugge bote wolawo 1 
When milif b me at-go, 

Wrighfe I^HePoetrp, p. 74. 

AT-GOHT. Is expended. 

Ther Ich wes luef. icham ftil loht. 
Ant alle myn godes me at-goht, 

Wright^e Ufrie Poetry, p. 48. 

ATH. (1) An oath. (A,-S.) See Ywaine and 
Gawin, 2264 ; Sir Degrevante, MS. Lincoln, 
210; Reliq. Antiq. L 126. 

1 hafe, quod he, made orAe to Darius, that, whUs 
he lefte, I schalle never here armes agaynes hyme ; 
and therfore I ne may no5te do agaynet royne athe, 
MS. Lincoln A. L 17. t, 5 
O pride blcums thrones o thrett, 
Hething, threp, and athee grett. 

MS. Oott, Veepae, A. iii. 1 133. 

(2) Each. 

Thai token oMtulke; 
The roglre raggi seulke 
Rug ham in belle I 

Wrighfe Pol. Songt, p 998 

(3) Hath. 

Vorst ych wuUe therynne do me sulf. vor ryft yt ys. 
And Torst asaylethen falsekyng, and bringe hym to5oke. 
That the gret oth that he suor, so vyUycfae «M to-broke. 
Rob, GUmc, p. 453. 

AT-HALST. 'Vnthholdest. Rob,Gbmc, 
AT-HAND. " At hand, quoth pick-purse," an 
old provcrh introduced in 1 Henry IV. iL 1, 
and several writers of Shakespeare's time. It 
is a frTniii^r exclamatiou in answer to any 
ATHANOR. A digesting furnace, calculated for 
the retention of heat. 
I hare another work you never saw, son. 
That three days shice past the philosopher^ wheel. 
In the lent heat of athanor. The Alchemic, U. 1. 
And ae thy f omace be apt therfore, 
Whych wyie men do call athenor, 

Aekmol^e Theat. Ckem, Brff. p. 149 




ATHEL. Noble (^.-A) See Wri^fg Lyric 
Poetry, p. 33; Black's Cst of Aihmole'sMSS. 
p. 68. 
Hit wall BmUat th»oik$l, and hit high kynde. 

%r Oaumpntt p. S. 
Akzaadir the athia, be aUnn aoorda. 


AT.H ELD. To keep; to retain. Ct Rob. Glouc. 

Thb ctorkM of whom kh teld, 
Wllh the king werenof-AeU. 

JrthourmHtMerUn, p.M. 
He blm might no knge at-h^ld, 

Oif of Warwtke, p. 0Oi 

ATHELE. Thifl word it translated by fio/vra in 

MS. HarL 219. 
ATHELISTE. Most noble. 

Thaae Syr Arthnre ooe erthe. mthMai« of othare. 

At erene at hit aweoe horde aTantid hU lordea. 

Mon« Arthure, MS. Uneoln, f. 70. 

ATHENED. Stretched out Venteffon. 
ATHENYN6. Extension. (J,^,) See a piece 
by Lydgate, printed at the end of the Chronicle 
of London, p. 237. We have already had the 
passage from another copy, in y. Jren^ftig, 
which is probably a corrupt reading. 
ATHEOUS. AtheisticaL 7 

It is an ignorant conceit that hiqulry into nature 
should make men alA«o«M; no man is so apt to see 
the star of Christ as a dUigent disciple of phUosophy. 


ATHER. Either. YorJtMk, See Hartshome's 
Met. Tales, p. 100. « 

At athtr ende he cistef a eope 
Layde downe on horde, the endys plyed up. 

Bott9 ^f CwrUu^, p. t8. 
A-THSS-HALF. On this side <tf. Seethequo- 
taticm from Robert of Gloucester, in y. Jnether. 
ATHILLEYDAT. The rule of an astrolabe. 
Seeke the ground meeCe for your purpose, and then 
take an astrolohe, and hang that npon your thomhe 
by the ring, and then tnme the oiAOIflyd^y or rule 
with the sights up and downe, untlll that you doo see 
the marke. Boum/* /fwrnKontor DMiste, 1*78. 

ATHIN. Within. Skmentt 
ATHINKEN. To repent; to gricye. (^.-&) See 
Troilns and Oeseide, L 1051, y. 878. 
Soore it me «t-thpnktlh 
For the dede that I hare dooo. 

FUr» Phughman, p. S7i. 

A-THIS-SIDE. On this side; betwixt now and—. 

e.ff, *< a this side Christmas." Var.dial 
ATHOG. As though. 

I sehallley on hym, of/kog' I wode were. 
With thys same womanly geyre. 

Shanfs Dim. on Com, JfyW. p. 111. 

ATHOLDE. To withhold. See Hartshome's 
Met Tdes, p. 96 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 62. 
Por-thi Satanas the bokle 
The eoole wine olAelAf. MS. Dteb^m^t 1S8. 
ATHOUT. Without Wett. 
ATHRANG. In a throng. 
Alle weore dryren •throng t 

Ten myle they yeode alang. K^g AiUaundtr, 3400. 

A-THRE. In three parts. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 

2936; Legend»CathoIicc,p.l28; Rob.GIouc 

p. 23 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 22. 

The lialvedel thenne aihrm 

Wei he bisette theo. Chnn, ef England, 515. 

ATHREP. With torture; croelly. {J^) Mr. 
Conybeare giyes no explanation of this word. 
Bisydes stondeth a ftoodcs trume. 
And walteth hwennethe saules oune ; 
Heo hire awarkth al mOwrtp, 
Also wnlris doth the icep. 

Comfbiar^* Oetevfaii, p. 57. 

ATHRINED. Toudied. Vent^fon. 
A-THRISTETH. Thrust ; push ; hurry on. 
Rennyoge houndes huateth yn dyrerse maacres, 
for some foleweth the hert fkste at the bygyaaynge, 
and «-<*rM«ik ahert atthe llrste, for thd goithllght- 
lych and fasta. M8. Bodl, 540. 

ATHROTED. Throttled; dioked. 

And If thou wolt algates with superflultle of riches 
be mtkrvM, thou shalt hastellche be anoied, or rU 
eriiiatese. TmkmntnfUM.^MA 

A-THROUGH. Entirely. 

ji'thnmgh they ordeyned gode and fyne* 
Hys body and bones to berye theryn. 

MS. Camtmb, Ft, iL », f. 916. 
ATHRUST. Athirst; thiisty. 
An hnswyfe of trust. 
Whan she is othnut, 
Suche 4 webbe can spyn. 
Her thryft is fuU thyn. SkBltonU IFoHkt, i. 108. 
ATHURT. Athwart; across. fFett. Itissome- 
times used in the sense of a short cut, and 
frequently also by sailors, with the channel 
understood, e. ^. " He's gone aihurt," 
ATHVERTYSYD. Adyertised; informed. 

Yt shall please yow tabe athvtrt^t^d that here ys 
■n abbey callyd Ingham In Norfolke, not fare fhme 
Seynt Besettcs abbeye. 

ff right* MemuHe Utttn, p. 86. 

ATHTT. Pertiqw this ought to be, af Atf /. 
No storing of pasture, with beggedgly tyt. 
With ragged, with aged, and evel athift, 

Tutstr, ed. 1573, f. 14. 

A-TILT. At a tilt. Also, as a yerb. Seethe 

quotations giyen by Richardson, in y. 
ATIRE. To prepare; to fit out. (J,~N.) 
What doc the kyng of France t mtlm him gode navie 
Tille Ingkmd, o chance to wynne it with maistrie. 

AHrtd ther wendyag toward the Marche right sone. 

Ibid, p. MO. 

ATISFEMENT. Ornament. (J,.N,) 

A pavilion of honour, with riche mti^f^mtm. 
To serve an emperour at a parlement. 


ATITLED. Called ;entiUed. 

But 5it here sterris bothe two, 
Satome and Jobiter also. 
They have, alle-thou;e they be to Uame, 
AtaUd to here owen name. 

Goieer, M8. Soe. Ahtiq. 134, f. 133. 
This Aries, on of the twelfe. 
Hath Marche attUled for hiroseWe. Ibid, t, 199. 
The twelve montbis of the jeie 
j4ttUted undir the power 
Of these twelve signisstonde. Ibid,t,l99, 

ATLED. Arrayed. SeeJtyL 

Hire teht aren white ase bon of whal, 
Evene set ant otM al. Wrighft L^He Poetrp, p. 38. 
AT-LOWE. Below. 

And truly, syn, looke that ye trow 
That othere lord is none at4ow*, 
Bothe man and beest to hym shalle bowe. 

In towne and fey Id. nwiuk^ Jf^eHe*, p. 131. 




ATO. In two. ^teAtwo. 
To the ftlflii beyeder 

ATOK. Took;teiaed. 

Al Uut Fortiflw «<nlr. 

He let to^dimwe end en-hang. 

Arthemrmti JTcrUn, p. 18. 

ATOM. At home. Aiom« it still common in 
the prorinoes. 
And the Normaae m eoudie epeke tho hote her 

owe tpechef 
AndipekeFieneh ee d u de atam , end hew ehyldren 
dude aUo tedie. A06. Ofeiie. p. M4 

ATOMY. (1) An atom. See Borneo and Jnliet,i 4. 
To tell thee tnith, not wooden, forno eye 
Sees thee hut ttendi emeied, end would tun 
Hlf crystel hiuaour into atomiei 
ETer to play about thee. 

Beaumumt and FUtdUr, It. 98S. 

(2) A skeleton. North. Shakespeare has the 
word in 2 Henry IV. v. 4. 

AT-ON. United; agreed. See Lay le Ftaine, 
279-320 ; Prompt Panr. p. 6 ; fmane Qoeene, 
U. L 29 ; ReUq. Antiq. L 167. 
Thou hate oure gude om 
I kede 50 be «l-«n« 

Or there dy any ma. <S6r Jk g itmntet Uttntm M8. 
In that maner they are oi-oA. 

MS. Qmtttb. Ft. U. 38» f; ISO. 

ATONE. Toreconcae;toagree. SeeBeaomont 
and Fletcher, L 141 ; Webster's Works, i. 73 ; 
As You Like It, t. 4. This yerb is evidently 
formed firom €i one. Shakespeare, Merry 
Wives of Windsor, i. 1, has Mtotument in the 
sense of reconciliation, agreement. 
ATOP. On the top ; upon. It is generally ac- 
companied by ^or on; e. g. " I saw Mr. Brown 
atcp of his new horse yesterday." Var. dioL 
ATORN. (1) To-run away. 

Tho Water Tyrel y-iey that be was ded, anon 
HeolomdeaevBiteee hemyjte; that wae byi best 
won. JM. Otowe. p. 419. 

(2)Intam? Atom? 

Thou hatt y-dremed of veneflooe. 

Thou mostett drynke atom. MS, A*hmol9 83, f. 4. 

(3) Broken. Hmte. 
ATORNE. Attorney. {A.-N.) 

The lame menere jit doth he, 
ThatitafkIie#orfi& US. BMll. 48, f. 166. 

ATORRTTE. Authority. This form of the word 
occurs in some verses scribbled in MS. BodL 
ATOUR. About; around. {ArN.) 
Ded buUi my prynces be atour. 

ATOURNED. Equipped. (A.^N.) 
And otherwhUe he might him se. 
As egret ott hi him te, 
Wele atourMd ten hundred knlghtet, 
Ich y-armed to his rightei. 

Sir Orpheo, ed^-Laing, 858. 

ATOW. That thou. 

Loke atwf no more wepe. 
For thl wilf lith f tme on slepe. 

MarU MauiMMn, p. 886. 
AT-PLAY. Out of work. Sti^. 
AT-RAHT. Seized; taken away. 

Such reed me myhte tpaclychereowe. 
When al my ro were me ol-roM. 

Wrifflif* Lyric Poetry, p. 37* 

AT-RAUOHT. Seized. 

Who so ever he a#-rat«M, 
Tombd of hon he him Uught. 

Jrthamr ami Mtrttti, p. 179. 

ATKAT. To trouble ; to vex ; to anger. From 
tray. See the Sevyn Sages, 1867; Gov. Myst. 

He aturte him up in a breyd. 
In liii herte lore a iru p p e d Xjm^ </ Ibre, 605. 
ATRETE. Continually ;distinoti^. It is trans- 
lated by traethn and dUtmcte in the Prompt 
Parv. p. 17. Baber, in his glossary to Wickliffe, 
refers to 2 Esdre viiL for an instance of the 

Hitwatgodepreyert, I id hltofrsfe. 

MS. Femon. JbthMticgia, zvilL 85. 
ATRICK. An usher of a hall, or master porter. 

ATRIE. To try; to judge. 

Chefe Justisehe latte, the sothe to utrie. 
For lefe no loth to lette the right lawe to guye. 

Pai&r Langt^t p. SOL 
The rightes he did attrU ot tho that wrong had 
nomen. Wd. p. 845. 

ATRISTUN. Trust; confide. 

Ther are thowiand fpicei of veyo superttiooun* 
that is, thing Teynly ordeynid and veynly uaid, and 
veynly tliat men atrittun in, and all silk thiogie are 
forbidun 5e in this, that thu tchalt not tak his name 
inveyn. JpologpJiiT^eLoilardi, p. 96. 

AT-ROUTB. Torout;to put to flight; to assenu 
hie. Heame |tlso gives the meanings, to re- 
iistf to gather together. 
So tliat men of purchasoome to hym so gret route. 
That ther nas prince un-nelhe tliat hym myjte atrouta, 
AT-RT6HTTEZ. Com^etdy. 

Luke 5e aftyre evensang be armydecMivMlM 
On blonkes l>y 5one Irascayle, by 5one blyth 
stremei. Marie jirthure, MS. lAneoln , f. 68. 

AT-SCAPEN. Toesci^. 

Jem, thi grace that is so fire 
In siker hope do tliou me, 
Jtseapan peyne ant come to tiie^ 
To the blisse that ay shal be. 

Wright* l4frie Poetrp, p. 75. 

AT-SITTE. To withstand; to contradict. {A.'S.) 
See Rob. Glouc. p. 174 ; Arthour and Merlin, 
p. 68. 

For ther nas so god knyjt non nower a-boute Fi«ac«, 

That in Joustes scholde at-titt$ the dynt of ys launoe. 

Rob. Glome, p. 187* 

Hise bode nedurstehe non at-Htto. HavoMc, 2800. 

AT-SQUARE. In quarrel 

Oft times yong meat do fUl at-oquaro. 
For a fine wench that is feet and fiUie. 

Withai^ DieHonartOf p. 871. 

AT-STODE. Withstood. Gt Rob. Glouc p. 15. 

With sheid and spate out l-dcawe 

That hoere dunt at-Hode. MS. Di^ 88, f.184. 

AT-STONDE. To withstand. 

I ne wende nojt that eny man my dunt MoMe ol-fCnide. 

ATT. To. 

We besekeae 50we that |e chcee jow fong lordes 
and 5ong knyghtes that ere llsty mene wad able for 
to sul&e disesse ibr to be with }ow } for here we giSb 
up aU armes, if it be jour wille, and ftnsakes theme 
for ever. Jf.8. UneoM k. i. 17* t. 3. 




ATTACHBN. To attieh ; to indite. (^.-JV:) 
And iwiiiiwii l i J • c wM ti i ttto, 
Tliat esm at ths flnt»» 

Toaftac*m tho tyniiBtB. FUr§ Pt(mghmm,^4tk 
ATTACKD-BD. Attacked. A common i^rti- 
ciple here, but more eztenilYd j need, 1 am 
told, in America. 
ATTAINT. A taint; anything hartfoL The 
▼erfo leems to be used in somewhat a pecu- 
liar tense in Morte d'Arthnr, iL 266. It was 
also a term in chifalry. * 
I win not poison thee with my aHai$a, 
Sot fold my fkult Ineleeiily ooln'd 

The kyof wie that daye hyghly to be pcayted, for 
he bimke xmUj, iptfes, beeyde oMayniM, and bare 
doone to groimd a man of aimes and hyi bone. 

ATTAL.SARESIN. According to Goweli and 
Kennett, the inhabitants of Cornwall call an 
old mine that is grrenofer by this name. The 
kttcr says, " probably because the Saxons em- 
plo yd the Saracens in those labonrs." 
ATTAME. (1) To commence; to begin. (A.-N,) 
Also, to broach a yessel of liqoor, as in Prompt. 
Panr. p. 16, where it is trandated by attammo, 
And thereupon he scbulde anone attame 
Another of oewe, and for ^e more hononre. 

L^gat9, MS. Ac. Antiq, 134, f. 8. 
Vet, hofte, quod he, to mote I ride or go, 
Bnt I be mery, y-wis I wol be blamed ; 
And right anon his tale he hath aflametf. 

ClflMesr, QmL T, 14824. 
There wis none Mcha sithen Adam dldeciame 
The tntm to ate, for ey ther halte or lame. 


(2) To fed; to taste. 

For sithfai that payaa ww lint named. 
Was ner mora woftill payne ef Canud. 

Chaueei** JDreaeM, 206. 

(3) To hurt; to injure. This is, I believe, the 
mieaning of the word in Chaucer's Dreame, 
1128, which Tyrwhitt coi^ieetmws to be dlif - 

Of hfa Mkokte the swvd glod doon. 
That bothe plates and baube^loua 

He carf atoo y plight, 
Al to the naked hide y-wls; 
And nought of flesche atamtd Is 
Thurch grace of God Almlght. 

Qy ^ WarwOte, p. 38ft. 
ATTAR. After. Sakp. 
ATTASK'D. Blamed. See Akqtt 

You are much more aitotlfd for want of wisdom. 
Than prals*d for harmfol mildness. King Lear, 1. 4. 
ATTAST. To taste. See Dial of Creat. MoraL 
p. 94. 
And to con frute in specyall he had grete hast. 
His aptyde was desirous therof to tUUuL 

MS. Laud 418. f. 81. 

ATTB. At the. {A..S.) 

And thanne seten somme, 

And songen atu nale. Pier* Ploughman, p. 184. 

ATTE-FROBfE. Immediately. (J..S.) See 
Kyng Alisaunder, 5356. 

With that came a sergeant prickand, 
OentO he wa« and well spedund ; 
To Sir Guy Is he eome. 
And him he gret atteftwtu, 

EtH/t Mtt, nom. iL 18. 

ATTELE. Toahn; to design; to co^ieetore; 
to go towards; to i4)proad&; to judge. See 
Sir F. Madden's glossary, in y. and Etile. 
The emperowr entred fai a way ereneto oMels 
To hare brattenet that bor and the abaie seththen. 
Wau mud Ms mtnm^, p. 8« 
Foi^tM an aimt« in erte I oMlf to sehawa. 

ATTEHPERALLY. Temperately. 

That mane as nofto mddUes at rnmwi Ckat 
alwaycs Mte in dlsssss ; bot ha as gretly to com- 
mend thM la raehsi lyAg mtttm^mallg. 

MS, JLiaesto A.1. 17. f. 38. 
ATTEMI^RAUNCE. Temperanoe. SeeLyd- 
gate's Minor Poems, pp. 194, 209 ; and the 
example under Fraitmr, 

And soTaraynly she had oMrayMreimce. 

Igdgata, MS.Jshmat« 88, t U. 

ATTEMPRE. (1) Temperate. (^.-JNT.) In 
Wright's Monastic Letters, p. 189, we have 
a^/em;ir0j in the sameaense. SeeMaundevile's 
Travels, p. 276. 

jittemprw dlete was all hire physike. 
And exercise, and hertes lufflsance. 

Chmtear, Outt. T. 14844. 

(2) To make temperate. SeeTroilusandCreaeide, 

Thar may no weUhe ne porerta 

Oower, JCS. Am. .JnM«. 1S4» 1 47. 
ATTEMPRBLT. Temperately. (^.-iST.) 
OoTemeth you also of yonr diete 
Jtt§mpr9lg, and namely in this bete. 

Chmteir, Cant, T, 13188. 

ATTEMPTATE. An attempt 

As heruoto the kynge manraylith gretly off thyt 
presumptuose attemriat$ usydde by the Frenchemen 
In hys streme, and takyth the same Terraye dis- 
pleasantly. State Paptn, L 3fiL 

ATTENDABLT. Attentively. Palsg^ve has 
atiendabie, attentive. 

Because they scboUa the more aMsndkiMly study and 
werke the more spedyly abonte the thynges that 
myghte cause and haste therddyveraunce. 

ATTENT. Attentive. Shakespeare hu the word 
in Hamlet, L 2. See also Richardson, in v. 
While other msticks, lesse attmt 
To prayers then to merryment. 

Bsrriok's Worke, L HO. 

ATTER. (1) Poison. (J.-S.) Hence, corrupt 
matter issuing from an ulcer, as in Prompt 
Parv. p. 16, where it is translated by Mntat. 
This latter is also the provincial use of the 
word; Forby has it, and Skinner gives it as a 
Lincolnshire word, in whidi county it now 
seems to be obsolete. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, says it was used in Sussex in the same 
sense. See Piers Ploughman, p. 243. 
Of Tych a werm that otter bereth« 
Other It sUogeth, other It tereth. 

Omgteare^e OetawUm, p. 87t 
Thai sharped thar tung als nedder iD« 
Attre of snakes undir Ilppes of tho. 

(2) An otter. 

Take heare cattes, dogges too. 
After and foxe, fllUe, mare alsoe. 





(3) Atdre; uttj. 
la Talewe eke much mora did cost his mothm pell* 
Then all th* mttmr is worth that coveraUi altres tenae. 
AppemL to IF. Mapu, p. f78. 

ATTERCOP. A spider. (^.-5.) It ig tnntlated 
bj artmaa in the Prompt Parv. p. 16, and the 
{nvvincial dotsaries gire it alio the aense of a 
apider'aweo, as Ray, Kennett, and others. See 
Prompt Parr. p. 140, and the list of old words 
prefixed to Bataian nppon Bartholome, 1582, 
where it occmn in the first sense. Stanihvrst, 
in his Description of Ireland, p. 11, says a 
spider was called an ttttereop in some parts of 
that oonntry, and even in FingaL Pegge ex- 
plains it, ''the Tenomons spider," which agrees 
with the etymology from otter ^ poison ; though 
cobweb, whidi was anciently spelt ettpweb, 
may have been derived from the Utter part of 
the word ; Dat Kop, a spider ; Welsh, Cop or 
Cqppm. In the North of England, the term 
is iq>plied to a peevish, m-natnred person, not 
exdosively to Uie female sex, as Bfr. Brodcett 
seems to say. 
ATTBRLOTHE. Nightshade. It b the transUi- 
tion of nutreOa in an early list of plants in MS. 
HarL 978, 1 25. 
ATTERLY. Utterly. SUmer. 
ATTERMITE. An iU^^atiired person. . North. 
ATTERN. Fieroe ; cruel ; snariing. Gioue. 
ATTERY. Pumlent A»/. Irascible ; choleric 
Weit. Clearly connected with attry, veno- 
mous, q. V. Chancer speaks otattry anger in 
the Persones Tale, p. 63. 
ATTERYNG, Venomous. (J,.S.) 

On face and hondls thei had gret nayles, 
And gracte homes and attenfng taylys. 

J\tndmle, p. 9. 

ATTEST. Attestation; testimony. 
An espenoee so obstinately strong. 
That doth favert the oMMf of eyes and ears. 

jyoUmamd CntMrng t. S. 
ATTEYNANT. Attainable; appertaining. 
To Joyne suche a worke, or It to rectify. 
To me it semeth so fknre sette awrye« 
In tyme of yeares, to other dyscordannte. 
That to my dalle wytte it ta not atttimtMt, 
JbManV ChromieU, prol. 

ATTEYNT. Convicted. 

At London thei wer atte^ni, dteti was mad for thate. 
htmgtafft ObrsfHelt, p. 1S8. 

ATTICE. A carpenter's tool ; an adze. Stmtr^et, 
ATTINCTURE. Attainder. 

In what case the righte of the matter was theire, 
and whether anye uMnehtre, tUtute, or alyenadon, 
wen made by aoye of the auncesten of this gentle^ 
man, by whldi his ryghte were extincte. 

Jrchmohgia, xxvUi. 1S8. 

ATTIRES. The horns of a stag. Skinner says, 

" comua cervi adulta, q. d. cervi omamenta." 

ATTLE. Rubbish, refuse, or stony matter. A 

minii^g term. 
ATTOM^D. FHIed with small particles ; thick. 
Whereas mens breaths doe instantly eongoOe, 
. And oMom'd mists tume Instantly to hayle. 

DrajfUm** Potnu, p. 864. 

ATTONE. Altogether. 

And hU f^esh bkx>d did frieae with fearefuU cold. 
That all his fences seem'd berefte oftone. 

Tke Ftrit Qimwm, II. i. tt. 

ATTONES. At once. North. 

And thenne they alyf bt aodealy» aad sette their 
handes upon hym aH am mm , and tekohym pryioaer, 
and soo ledde hymnnto the caaieL 

Mmit £Ar1kmr, L 319. 

Fair qoeen of lore, I lov'd not all < 

P99U9 Wi>rk9, L 41. 

ATTORNEY. A dqmty. This original mean- 
ing of the word is used in the Aldiemist, iL 1. 
See also. Hawkins's EngL Dram. L 40. Shake- 
speare makesa veA of it in Measure for Mea- 
sure, V. 1. 
ATTOUR. (1) A head-diess. (J.-N) 
Nor I nil maUn mencioun 
Nor of her robe, nor of tresour 
Of broche, ne of her itche attomr, 
Ne of her girdle about her side. 

Rom. qftht Rom, 3718. 

(2) Around. (A.-N) See Atour. 
> Miour his belte his liart lockls lale, 
Feltrid unfUre, or flret with fhtstb hoce. 

ATTOURNE. To return. 

For there he woolde no longer make aojoome. 
But with Troyans to th^ lande oMotime. 

BmH9»l^* Cknmlele, f. 14. 
ATTOURNEMENT. A law term, defined by 
Minsheu to be '* a yedding of a tenant unto 
a new lord." See also Wright's Monastic Let- 
ters, p. 88 ; Holinshedy Chron. of Ireland, 
p. 102. 
ATTRACT. An attraction. 

For then their late attraeU decline. 
And tun ta eager ta prick'd wiatk 

Hwdttras, III. i. «B. 
ATTRAITS. Flattery. Skumer. 
ATTRAP. To entrap. {Fr.) It sometimes meana 
to dress, to adorn. See Ridiardson, in v. 

The king accompanied with the Dukes of Someiw 
set and Excester, and other of the line of Lan- 
caster, determined elerely to set on the Dnke of 
Yorke and his confederates, and them by Ibtce either 
utterly to vanquish, or by pollecy to oifre^ and 
bring to confusion. HaUt Ranrjf VL L 98. 

ATTRIBUTION. Seems to be used by Shake- 
jpeare, 1 Henry lY.iv. 1, for comiMndit/toii. 
ATTRID. Poisoned. (^.-5.) 

Archars with arows witfi oMHd barbls. 

MS. Munote 44, t 4». 

ATTRITION. Grief for sin, arising only from 
the fear of punishment See Tyndall, quoted 
by Richardson, in v. 
ATTROKIEN. TofituL (A..S.) 

1 neUe nouft fastinde late htan go» 

That heo beon overcome. 
And attnkien bl the wde for feblesse. 
That honger hem haM>e 1-nome. 
^^ MS, Laud. 108, f. 1. 

ATTRY. Venomous ; poisonous. {A.S.) 
He shal hem smy te and do to lljt t 
He shal hem jyre fill oMry dynt. 

Cursor Jfwndl, MS. CoU. Trim. Cbntab. f. 131. 
With iren, fuyr, or attH beest. 
How that ever thei may hardest, ibU. f. 13Si 
ATTUR. Hotter. 

As owre the glede athtr ys feyre. 
MS. Cantab. Ff.l.«, f. 38. 

ATTWEEN. Between. Var.diML 

Jttwoen too theerys nayled to a tTCb 

l4figat^$ Minor Potmi, p. MS. 




ATTYS B. Toc atiae> 

StfVHHlM^ AVOJpdC tfM COIDpttiy 

Of tiMM that plfty« atcwdctor djMs 
For jithBlym theni baonto^ trvcly 
To thalte than, tbtjjcn mtemmmttim. 

jiHC. P^Hieml n^meU, p. 11. 
ATUGON. Drawn. Ventegaa, 
AT-UNDBRE. Is sul^eetioii. 

Pw ytt hym for Um pat, and profyn fblla largt 
To hafa pati of tha Popa, that pot was at-mtdtrt, 
Mcrf Arthure, MS, Uneoin, t. 87. 
AT.YOKE. Before. Rob, GUme. 
aT-WAPED. Escaped. 

What wylda to at-woped wy^ that tchotten, 
WatB al to-raeed and rent, at the neayt. 
9inr Oawapntt p. 44. 

A-TWAYN. In two; asunder. See Soiithey's 
notes to the Morte d' Arthur, ii. 472. 
And def yi body evene a-twain% 
With that ttioDge tpryng. 

MS, jtOmmU 83, f. 3t. 

A-TWEB. In two. North, 
ATWEEL. Very welL NortK 
ATWIN. (1) Asunder; in two. Sv^olk. See 
Ritaon's Anc Pop. Poet. p. 65 ; Sir Tristrem, 
pp. 152» 271 ; Chancer, Cant T. 3589. 
Sha and her MOM vat departed atiHm 
For he and the were to nye kynne. 

^ Degori, 960. 
(2) To part asunder. 

The ftinte payne of the teran. 

That 5e me lierd byfore neven, 

Yt thegrete drede that the toule yt fame. 

Whan the bodye and yt tchal a-TwyiMitf. 

. JO, hmA 481. 

AT-WIBCHB. To woik against; to do eril 
work to. 

Al that tiewe on Jhcan Cclat« 
Thai food mf^airtht tal wo. 
St^ni M9rgnU» p. 108. 

ATWIST. Disagreement. North. In Somer- 
setshire it is used for twitted. 
AT-WIST. Knew. 

Another dal Clarloe aritt. 
And Blaunchefloar aMeitf 
WW Id made to hmgedemoere. 

awiiibtnif'* Mtt. TBlm, p. lOS. 

For tnliom It worth af'frM the. 

a^t/ WmnpOf, p. 851. 

ATWITB. Totwit; to upbraid. (^.-&) See Boh. 
Glonc p. 33; State Papers, iiL 23. In our 
second eiample it is used for the participle. 

Slrtteward, that wat Wei y-tmite. 
In mworthtchip it worth the arurlltb 

GEr ^f Warwik^, p. Itt. 
He wat wroth, ye tcbul here wite. 
For Merllo hadde him atwiu. 
Arthtmr and Mtrtin, p. 841. 

ATWIXE. Between. See Amis and Amiloun, 865. 
How flrtt thetparke wat liyndled of enrie 
AtwiM Grekyt and hem of Troye town. 
MS. Digb^ 832, f.2 

ATWIXT. Between. Si^olk, See the Faerie 
Qneene, I. TiiL 13. The Prompt Parr, gives 
mtw^fMynt^ atwesyn^ and atwymt ; and atwunn 
ocean m Troihis and Creseide, L 418. 

ATWO. In two; asunder. Weift. 

Av9«tiltiathefrateetthi€lthatmaybe; for it 

It theft of body and of soala, and It is like to homi- 
cide, for It kerreth mtwmnd brekeCh olwe ham that 
lint were made on fleth. Ptnonm Tkk, p. 104. 

ATWOT. Twitted; upbraided. 

The loverd let make a ftet ferew 
And let of-tende a neyghebour, 
Ich underttonde a god harbour. 
And tet hit wlf forth fot-hot. 
And hire mltdedca hire atwot. 

SmifH SagM, ]878fe 
The tondan depcd hem Ibt-hot, 
And hit eonee deth hem afwtt, 

O^^IFerwUre, P.898L 

AT-TANCB. At once. North. 
ATYL. (1) Furniture ; attire. See the example 
from Bobert of Glouccater, quoted under 
(2) To array; to accoutre. (^.-M) 
So that, at certeyn day y-tet, to thyt bauyle hli eome^ 
A lute wythonte Paryt, aii/Mi wel y-nou. 


A-TTME. On a time. 

A-t^me, to tpdie royd hyt moder, to fen^kmd he com. 

An gret folo of Normandye myd hym hyder he none. 

Rob. Chiu, p. SS8. 
ATTB. Attire; ornaments. {A.-N,) 
Thco miifr wat therein te riche. 
In al thit world nyt him non llche. 

Xyng jiliMoundtr, yms. 

AU. AH. North, Tusser, p. 174, has Ju for 
August, probably for the sak#of the rhyme, 
though perhaps from Fr. JoH. 
AUBADE. A serenade. Mimheu. (/V-.) 
AUBEBK. Ahawberk. 

AubtHt, aketoon, and tcheld. 
Was jnaol lo-braken in that fekL 

Jrtfumr andMartin, p. 881. 

AUCET. So the first folio of Beaumont and 
Fletcher reads, in the Coxcomb, ir. 4. The 
second folio reads awkewttrd — ** What awke- 
ward words they use beyond the seas !" 
Mr. Dyce reads tawey [saucy?] in his edition, 
iii 187. The reading of the second folio must 
be preferred to conjectural emendation, but 
aueey may be right, and some form ci mtk, q.i; 

AUCTB. Propex^. 

To-morwen thai maken the Are, 
And atiefe tha yeran, and riche make. 

AUCTOBITEE. A text of scripture, or of some 
celebrated writer. {Lai.) See Notes to Bisl*. 
anger's Chronide, p. 111. 

Bnt, dame, here at we riden by the way, 
Ut nedeth not to tpeken but of game. 
And let ettcrerireer in Goddet name 
To prediing, and to loole eke of dergte. 

GhaiMer, Gonl. T, 6856. 

AUCTOUB. An author. {Ut,) 

By witte of man, al thynge that it contryred 
Standlclie In proporekmne, ptaOnly to oondude. 
In Okie awdewrt lyke at It it ditayred. 
Whether Itbedepnette or longitude. 

Ufdgat^i Minor Poamt, p. 80. 


And alto holy watyr uppon the tonday in dede 
Oeryn by the preltt tliat of the hatha core^ 
Yn tyme of nede it for thy holy atMynltire. 

MS, Laud 416, f. 4t. 

AUDACIOUS. This word was not always used 




by dor earl]^ writeA in a bad sense, but fre- 
qnently meant no more than liberal or com- 
mendable boldness. See LoTe's liSbomv Lost, 
V. 1. 

AUD-FARAND. A term applied to cbildrenwbo 
haTe copied the manners of elderly people. 
Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, says^ " a forward 
or old-growing child, as chilcbren are said to 
be mtd-fwrtrnd when they are witty or wise 
beyond their years, apud Boreales." Kennett 
derives it finmi A.-S. Faran* See also his 
GkMsary, ed. 1816, p. 72. 

AUD-FASHINT. Grave; sagadona; ingenioiis. 

AUDIENCE. Hearing. Ociuwr. 

AUD-PEG. An inferior sort of cheese, made of 
skimmed milk. North. 

AUEN. Own. 

Qui raid I him mttIs yield ? 
Al Ml be At myn auen welld. 

MS. out. Ve^paa. A. iU. f. 4. 

AUFTN. The bishop at diess was Ibrmeiiy so 
called, and is coi^ectared to be derired from 
the Arabic aUfil, an elephant, that being the 
piece which took the place of the bishop in 
the East In the tract De Veiula, fahtHy 
ascribed to Ovid, the following pieces are men- 
tioned as used in chess, — Miki et J^nmtgf 
Roeeui, Rea^ Vhrgo, Pedetque. See Ducange, 
in V. J^Mnut; and jiffyn. 

So yn ft day, at lie pleide At the chetse, and by- 
helde the kyng srtte yn tbe pley, lomtyme hy and 
•omtyme lowe, among atifyna and pownyt, he 
thought thenrlthe that hit wolde be so with him, 
for he shuldedcy, and be hid undlr erthe. 

Oetta Bomanorum, p. 61. 
And of aw/ptu eka also 
On hir fyde she had two, 
Wnght of a stone of grtte fame, 
BUotiopla was tha nam*. MiS. Fairfax, 16. 
AUGENT. August; noble. 

Hayle» cumly kyngia augwi/ 

Good ran, I pray yon whedder ar ye ment. 

Sharps* Coo, UpH. p. 101. 


A man that b here y-hunge and lyght, 
Tho never so stalworthe and wh}ght. 
And oomly of diape, lovely and tajt, 
jiugg9m and ruelles wUl so<m apayr. 

J» 4e Wagtbp {Hmnpole), p. A. 

He covetyd noghtt to dye, if It were plesyng to 
theFadire of htvcne; and Bcrer tbe lesee his aug^ene 
Fadlre molAe noghte here hym. 

MS,Um€6ln A. i. 17, f. 179. 

AUGHT. (I) Possessions; property. {A.-S,) 
Ha highth hem aughite and gret nobleys. 
He scholdes hit hde and ben in pds. 

Kpng dIUmmder, 6884. 

Havriok Us loat ha him tauhto, 

AndhisetwodonhtraSrawlalhiaaaiMtf. HaveUk,9m, 

(2) Possessed. SeeLangtoffsChromeIe,p. 126; 
Sevyn Sages, 1336 ; Ipomydon, 1422. 

King Trlamours elden it laught. 

King Darri sum time it oiifM. Qp^fWarwOff^^ZH. 

(3) Ought; owed. Etut. 

For mi lordes doubter sehe is. 
And ieh hit norl, forsothe y-wis, 
Thertfora ich aught him trewethebere. 

Or i^ Warwike, p. 7. 

(4) Anything; at alL (^.-&) 

And as tbey were In gnat aventne. 
They saw a diowmound out of memre ; 
The diowmo«md was so bevy flrangbt. 
That oMthe myght it sayicn mmgki. 

matard Coer de Lkm, 8460u 

(5) Eight. 

That es at saya, a twelTemonthe and emgfaa mo- 
netlMssaUatlmo lyflRij and tliane he that tboa traia- 
tes ona satte gift thee a drynke of dedd. 

They ocupy ede the empyre ougMe score wynttyrs. 

Jfofttf Artkure, MS. LJfMo/n, f . 66. 


Bevis did on his acquetoun, 
Th^ had aughttd many a town. 

Eltt/t Mat. XoM. ii. 111. 
AUGHTENE. The eighth. 

One the amghtene day of thi byrthe here. 
That the firste day es of the newe jera, 
Cirrumcysede in body walde thou be, 
Alles the law was thane in sere contr^ 

MS. Uncoln A. i. 17. f. 190. 

Aftyr the ai^tenda day, whene undronne es rungene. 

Thou salle be heredede In hye, and with horsse drawenok 

Morta Arthur; MS. Ldneoln, f. M. 

AUGHTS. Any considerate quantity. North. 

This is probably connected with atiffht, q. v. 
AUGHT-WHERE. Anywhere. (A.-S.) 
As wolde God above that I had glre 
My blode and fleshe, so that I might live 
With the bones that he had aught-.ufhereMwife 
For his estate, for soche a lustle life 
She shouldin ledin with this lustie luiight. 

Ifypalpph and Medea, 173. 

AUGLE. To Ogle. North. Kennett gives this 
form of the word in his glossaiy, MS. Lansd. 
1033, f. 25. 
AUGRIM-STONES. Counters formeriy used in 
arithmetic, and which continued to be em- 
ployed long after the introduction of Arabic 
numerals. In the Winter's Tale, iv. 2, the 
down says, " Let me see ; — ^Every leven wether 

tods ; every tod yields pound and odd 

shilling : fifteen hundred shom^ — ^what comes 
the wool to? — leatmot do*t without tKmnterp.** 
His astralabre, longing for his art. 
His a^frifii>«iMe«,layenfUre apart 
On sbairas oooehed at his beddea bed. 
His psesie y-oovered with a folding red. 

Chameer, Cant. T. 3210. 
AUGUELLE. A kind of fish, mentioned in an 
old document quoted in Davies's York Records, 
p. 124. Qu. AngueUe. 
AUGULKOC. This word occurs in some glosses 
from the Cambridge MS. of Walter de Bibbles- 
worth, printed in Reliq. Antiq. ii. 83. The 
French is vn treyn. Qu. Anguikoc. 
AUGURIOUS. Predicting. 

I beleeve the scruple thosa aug%arU»u» people in 
sndi kind ot accidents hare, would have made this 
man have abandoned me to the fury ot those cursed 

A ComUsal BUetorp qfthe World in the Mom, 1659. 

AUGURYNE. A fortune-teller. 

And treuly I hav6 seen of Paynemes and Sara- 
aines, that men depen augurpnee, that whan wee 
ryden in armes in dyverse contrees upon oure en*, 
myes, be the flyenge of feulcs thai wolde telle m Che 
preoosticaciounB of thinges that felle aftr& 

MaundevU^e Travel*, p. 107. 




AUGUSTA. A cut term for the mittieai of a 
home of OkCnne. See Ben Jomon's Woriu, 
ed. Gilfoid, It. 46. 

.^yuoi 9«n BdgarragiMd kyng and sire t 
H« Um te toMlM in Um abbey of OlarteaWie. 

Lutgtc/t* Chroniek, p.88. 

AUK. IiiTerted; confoied. In the East of Engi- 
land, hells are **ning anil," to give alarm of 
fire; and Palsgrave has, *'I rynge anke- 
wurde, je sonne abransle." It was formerly 
the genenl custom to ring hells hackward in 
cases of fire. See Gifford's Massinger, L 236. 
The older meaning is angry, ill-natured, as in 
the Prompt Pary. p. 18 ; where we also have, 
** ovAf, or wronge, umtttr** This last sense 
is still in use in the North of England, and 
Tusser teEs us that had husbandry droops ** at 
fortune so MAe." See the flTeHundred Points, 
1573, 1 58. An auk stroke is a backward 
stroke, as in Palsgrave, 118; Morte d'Arthnr, 
L 148, 284. BrockeU says that the word is 
applied to a stnpid or dmnsy person in the 
North of England. 

5e that llfte baa to lyth, or hiflbs for to hare 
Off aU«i of aMa t|«e, aad of tbeba M(r»e dedyg. 

AUKEBT. Awkward. For. iftdL 

AUL. An alder, ffer^fbrdth. The following is 
a eoanftry prorerh: 

Whan the bud of the aiil b at big at the trovt^ eya. 
Than that firii la to MMoa In the rltar Wye. 

AULD. (I) Old. Var. dial 

(2) The first or best, a phrase used in games. 
••ThatlstheaK/tfbowL" East, 

(3) Great. NoriA, It is nsed in the same man- 
ner as ol<f in the Merry Wives of Windsor, L 4. 
See Pegge's Anecdote^ p. 100. 

AULD-ANE. ThedeviL North, Perhaps the 
more usual term is Juld-Nici. 

AULD-LANG-STNE. A favourite phrase in the 
North, by which old persons e^nress their re- 
collections of fonner kindnesses and juvenile 
enjoyments, in times long since past,-Hbnmor- 
taUsed by the song of Bums, <* Should auld 
acquaintance be f wgot." See Brockett, in v. 

AULD-THBIfT. Wealth accumnlated by the 
successive firngality of along race of ancestors. 

AULEN. Of alder. Her^fardtK 

AULN. AFrenchmeasureof 5 ft. 7m.saidby 
Lewis to be used in Kent. 

AUlLm Anahn. Palsgrave, CIS, has, <*^tifiie 
or BMne, esme. 

(2)Anehn. NoHK 

(3)AttunL North, 

AUMA. A sort of pancake. This is given by 
Boucher as a Herefordshire word, but it seems 
to be now obsolete. 

AUMAIL. To enamel. It is a substantive in 
Syr Gawayne, p. 11. 
All bai'd whh golden bendef« which were enuyld 
With cnrlotts anticket. and Ml fayre auma^U, 

TIU WtuHt ^tuMt, II. liL 97. 

AUMAI8T. Almost. North, 

AUMBBS-AS. Ambes.cs,q.v. 

Ake i-hared beo twata ihasa Crist, 
Huy casten aumb*^-^*, MS. Um4, IQg, f. 107 
SUUe, ttille. Sauna* ! 

Theltfkllena«ii6«M«/ MS. DIghg m, 1. 119, 
AUMBLE. An amblmg pace. (^.-M) 
His ttede waa all dapple gray. 
It goth an aumbU in the way. 

Chauemr, Cant. T. 13814. 
AUMBRE-STONE. Amber. Paltgravt, 
AUMBRY. A cupboard; a pantry. North, 
Sometimes spelt auimiry, or amimy. 
Soma tloTaoa from «Iee|riog no sooner be op. 
But hand lain cauNftrie, and nose In the cup. 

T¥S$0t*» FIm Hun4r§d PoinU, 1079» ft. 5. 

AUMELET. An omelet. Skmner, 
AUMBNER. A purse. (ji.-N.) 

Than of his etiMmsr he drouj0 
A little keie fetise l-nough, 
Whkhe waa of gold poUshid dare. 

Aom. t(fth9 Jloie,S067* 
AUMSNERE. An almoner. 

Seynt Jone, the aafmeaere, 
Sey th Pen was an okerere. 

ir&Harl. 1701, f.g7. 
AUMER. To cast a shadow over; to shadow. 
The substantive is spelt attifierdL It cor- 
responds to the old word mn^rv. Crtmm, 
AUMERE. A parse. Tyrwhitt considers this 
to be a corruption of mtmenert q. v. 
Were streighte gloTia wkh m mm tr§ 
Of sUke, and alway with gode chera 
Thou yava, if that thou have gtchsasa. 

AUMONE. Ahns. Simmer, 
AUMOUS. Quantity. When a labonrer haa 
been filUng a cart with manure, com, ftc he 
will say at last to the carter or waggoner, 
** Haven't ya got your awfioiit.'' Lmc, 
AUMPEROUR. An emperor. 
The Mump mv w Frederic and the kfag Philip of France, 
AUa hii wcndeto JenisaleBi to do gode channel 

Jio6. GlMMbp.488. 
Ore LoTerd wende mid is desdptos 

Into Philipes londe ; 
Cesares brothur the aumparcur 
Gan is desdplca fbnde. US, Laud, 106, f. !• 
AUMPH. Awry; aslant. SiOcp, 
AUMRS. A cupboard. North. 
AUMRT-SOAL. << A hole," says Kennett, M& 
Lansd. 1033, " at the bottom of the cupboard."' 
I laid nm here, under the awmiy-9oal. 

York»hir$ DtolofiM. p. 44. 

AUMS-ASE. Literally, two aces, the lowest 
throw in the dice. It seems, however^ from a 
curious extract in Collier's Hist. Dram. Poet. 
iL 314, an old game at dice was so caUed. 

AUMUS. Ahns. North, Thoresby, in his 
Letter to Ray, 1703, spells it mwimoit. 

AUNCEL. A kind of land-^ale wei^t, prohi- 
Uted by statnte on account of its great uncer- 
tainty. See JMk, Bibl. iL 512. In the fol- 
lowing passage from Piers Plooghman, Ifr. 
Wright's manuseript reads mmeer, which 
can hardly be coixect. ^ Awncell wd^it, as 
I have beeninfcmned," says Cowell, Interpre- 
ter, 1658, **is a kind of weight witk scales 




hangmgy or hooks futened at each end of a 
staff, which a man lifteth up upon his fore- 
linger or hand, and so discemeth the equality 
or difference between the weight and the thing 
wdghed ;" and he afterwards adds, ** a man of 
good credit once certified mee that it is stil 
used in Leaden-all at London among 

Ac the pound that ibe paied by 
PeUed a quatron moore 
Than myn owen« owneer, 
Whowweyedtruthe. Piert PUmghman fTf»^0. 
ilUNCETERES. Ancestors. According to Mr. 
Hunter, this word is not quite obsolete in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire. Skelton, L 128, has 
awmeetry for aneettry. 
So idialtow gete god los and gretli be nientkked, 
Ai ban al this auncetere$ or thow were bigeten. 

Will, and tht Werwolf t P* 185. 
An hondreth wynter here before, 
Myne attfiMMert knyghtet have be. 

Robin Hood, 1. !•. 


The olde auneian wyf hejeit ho lyttes. 

a^r Gawayne, p. 38. 


The prelftei, Judgee, and €nmeienl90 bare cfaelf rul^ 
nd govenied ChepecH»leaa wdlas it would bee. 

lUdman** CtmpMttt </ Ormee, 1554. 
AUNCIENTT. Antiquity. See Skelton's Works, 
L 74, iL 415; Cooperi Thesaoms, in y. Jeioif 

WhMtm mte lm U iM than, it thcyr Portuls and masse 
booke of. Th0 BurnifngB nf Puulet, 1589. 

AUND. Owned. North. 

AUNDSIRTS. Andirons. In the inventory of 
effscts belonging to Sfa* John Ftotolfe, **^, 
ttaundyng mmdeiry^* are mentioned. See 
Archeologia, xxL 269. 

AUNDER. Afternoon ; evening. According to 
Carr, this word is nearly extinct in Craven ; 
Grose says it is used in Cheshire; and 
Hartshome gives it as a Shropshire woid. It 
seems derived from trndem^ q. v. Jamieson 
says that omtren in Scotland is "the repast 
taken between dinner and supper." Cotgrave 
several times mentions aundert-meat as an 
afternoon's refreshment. See his Dictionarie, 
in V. Oouber, Gwuiert RecinS, Reme. 

AUNDIREN. An andiron, q. v. Palsgrave, f. 
18, translates " aundyren" by ehenet. 
With that ttundtren he thret Sir GU* 
And with gret hate slkerly. Op qf Warwike, p. 260. 

AUNGE. AnangeL (J.-N.) 
Eche day therwith 5e xal be content ; 
ilm^aUehowryixal tofowapere. Cm. Ji!r<f . p. 88. 

AUNT. A woman of bad character; a pro- 
curess or a bawd. This sense is common in 
eariy plays, although aunt and tmcle were the 
usual appellations given by a jester or fool to 
all eld^ly persons, without implying any im- 
proper meaning, a custom, according to 
PeggCf generally pursued in ComwaU. In 
a Midsummer Night's Dream, iL 1, the term 
mmt seems to be applied to an old woman, or 
gossip, not necessarily in the bad sense, as the 
oommentatorstell us. 

AUNTE. Instead of «up here annte," the 
Heralds' CoUege MS. reads, ** to-gedere."* 
Heo gederede up here awnle here ost aboute wyde, 
And deetruyde hire loodes eyther in his syde. 

Hob. Glowe. p. 37. 

AUNTELERE. A stag's antler. See Twety's 
treatise on hunting in Reliq. Antiq. i. 151. 

AUNTER. (1) An adventure. (J.-N.) North. 
Rider makes it synonymous with hap or 
chance. In the provincial glossaries, it is 
sometimes explaineid, ** needless scruple, mis- 
chance, misadventure." See Mtele, 

(2) To adventure; to venture. (J.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 382, 435, 471 ; Gesta 
Romanonun, p. 35. 

I wol arise and auntr$ It, by my fay, 

Chameer, Cant, T. 490jr. 

(3) An altar. 

Be-fom his auntet he knelyd adoan. 

aong» and Caroht St. xL 

AUNTEROUS. Adventurous; bold; daring. 
** A castell awiUerout,** in Lybeaus Disoonus, 
279, grossed Jbrmidadle, The Prompt. Parv. 
p. 19, makes it synonymous with doubtful, but 
the other meaning is found at p. 279. 
Thay that were aunftrcms by-ayde» 
In a euntr^ fuUe wyde, 
Thay come thedir that tyde. 

SirDegmmtt, Umcofn MS, 
AUNTERS. Peradventure ; in case that ; lest ; 

probably. North. 
AUNTERSOME. Daring ; courageous. North. 

This is of course from aiiii/«r, q. v. 
AUNTRE. On the contrary ; on the other hand, 
Auntre, they swore hym hool oth 
To be hys mtn that wer thercb 

nUAard Cotr d$ lAm, 3878. 
AUNTREOUSLICHE. Boldly; daringly. (^.-AT.) 
Al ountreowliAe ther hecomen wee. 

Cjf nf Warwtke, p. 83. 

AUNTROSE. DoubtfU ; dangerous. (A.-N) 
Thanne seide Alisandrine, ewnrroM is thin evel, 
Fol wonderUche it the weres, wel I wot the sothe. 
nUI. and tht Wtno^f, p. 34. 
AUNTY. Aunt. Var.diaL 
AU-OUT. Entirely. Craven. 
AUP. (1) A wayward child. North. It is pro- 
nounced AvpM in Craven, but the word is not 
in general use in Yorkshire. 
(2) Up. Wett. 
AURE. Over. [Avre?] 

His gloves and his gamesons gloet as the gledes, 
A-rayet awrt with rebane, rychist of raye. 

tMmn*9M«t, Rata. p. 15, 
AUREAT. Golden; gilt. Hence, good, ex- 
cellent. See Skdton's Works, L II, 77; 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 250; Percy's 
Reliques, p. 26. 

Thys boke was written with letters a«rea<. 
Perpetually to be put in memory. 

AahmoUft Theat. Chem. Brit, p. Sfi?. 

AURE-HIET. Overtook. 

He prekut oute prestely. 
And aure-hitt him radly. 
And on the knyjte conne cry. 
And pertely him reproves. 

RobiOfk*s Mtt, Rem. p. <i8. 




ATJRIFIED. Madft pfore u gold. 

fined alM and made full pa^* 
And aiir{/M be at the last. 

A»kmoU» Thmi. ObeM. Ar«. p. 989. 

AURKUST. Hmrest. Wore. 

AUBSELS. Oonehret. North. 

AURUM-MULICUM. A composition occtrioD- 
all J mentioned in eaily docmnents relating to 
the arts, and folly described in the following 

Here may thou lere to make aurum wmf i e w . 
Take a Tiole of glai, and cute It wde, or a lonfe 
erthen pot t and take J. ponnde of ult armonyac, 
and j. N of tulAire, and J. H of mercurie cm, and 
J.K of tyn ; melte thl tyn, and eaate thl mercarie 
therin, and then alle that other, and grynde alle 
these thinget togidere upon a tton, and then put aHe 
in a flole, or in an erthen pot, and ttoppe al the 
mothe save alio mochel all a paper lefe, or a tpoute 
of parchemyn may ttonde in ; and then set it on the 
fyre In a fomele, and make ftinte esy Here, and 
afturwarde goode Are, the mountance of ij. ouret, 
til tliat thou ee no hreth come oute of the glas; 
and then take It of the fire, and breke the glas. 

MS, 8IO0M 2584, f . 5. 


And then the golden oyle called aumm-potabUt, 
A medicine most menrelous to presenre mans 
health. Mtumd^s TImat, Chtm, Brii. p. 4SS. 

AUSCULTB. To raise np ; to exalt The MS. 
BodL 175, reads «exhalt'' in the following 

Jutadtt yon not to excelente. 
Into highe exsaltadon. Chuttr Flaif»t i. 10. 
AUSS. (1) To try ; to essay ; to promise favour- 
ably, e. g., " He au»e9 well saying's as how 
he*s a young on.'' Salop, See Autt, 
(2) Also. Gil gives this as a Lincolnshire word 
in his Logonomia, 1619. 

And some beyoode ns twentle or thlrtie lange miles, 

that make pure shift in the citie, and in the countrie 

a««e. By/Mii*« DIaitgw, IfTSt P* 4. 

AUSIER. An osier. Sn^gMk. 

AUSNEY. To anticipate bad news. Somertet, 

AUSPICATE. Auspicious. 

Enter and prosper, while our eyes doe waf te 
For an aseMident throughly au»pieaie, 

HerrMt** Work*, H 146. 

AUSPICIOUS. JoyfbL So Shakespeare seems 
to use the word in Hamlet, L 2 : 

With one autpictous, and one dropping eye. 
AUST. To attempt Wane. It is also used as 

a substantiTe. 
AUSTERNE. Stem; severe. In the Testament 
of Creseide, 154, we have the form ausirine 
in the same sense. 

But who b yond, thou ladye foire. 
That looketh with sic an austeme tact ? 

Pvt^t Retiquet, p. 75. 
Thane the burelyche lieryne of Bretayne the lyttylle 
Counsayie* Syr Arthure, and of hyme besekys 
To ansuere the alyenes wy th austerene wordes. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln, f. 56. 

\USTRIDGE. An ostrich. Cotgrave has, 
** Atutruche : an amtridgBf or ostridge." We 
have had Attridffe, q. v. 

AUT. (1) Ought. See Rob. GIouc. p. 452. 

WeU ami I sione lete. 

An neb wit teres wete. Warton'* Hitt, EngL Poet, 1 84. 

(2) An the; out North. 

AUTECER. Parent; ancestor. See the Co. 
ventry Mysteries, p. 88. Should we read 

AUTEM. A church, in the canting language. 
There are several compounds of this word, as 
autem mort, a married woman. See Dodsley's 
Old Plays, x. 372. 

AUTENTICKE. AothenticChaucerhasitasasub. 
stantive. See Thynne's Animadversiom, p. 48. 


Now for the third parte toudiyng rceordcs and 
r^istres, wee have them so formal!, toauttnHquall, 
so seriously handeled. Hall, H«nrw mi. f . S53. 


The flowre is of a gode loee. 

That men callech oiilsose. Rellq, Anttq, 1 19S. 

AUTER. An altar. <North. 

Thanne he havede his bede seyd. 

His oArende on the auttr leyd. Havtlok, 1386. 

AUTERS. Explained, ** strange work, or strange 
things," in the Clavis at the end of the York- 
shire Dialogue, p. 89. It is probably an error 
for anter$, the genuine early form of the word. 

AUTHENTIC. Regularly bred; fashionable. 
Nares says it " seems to have been the proper 
einthet for a physician regularly bx«d or 
licensed." See All's WeR that Ends WeU, 


AUTHER. Either. 

Bot harder the devel bites tham 

Tlut gud dedes has ynojt. 
If Uial erer afterward fkl in, 
jMthtr in dede or thojt. 

MS. CanUb. Ff. V. 48, f . 81. 
AUTOMEDON. The charioteer of Achilles, and 
hence some of our early dramatists have ap- 
plied the name generally to coachmen. See 
Beaumont and Fletcher, eid. Weber, xiv. 53. 
AUT-OPON. Out upon! An exclamation ex. 

pressive of disapprobation. North. 
AUTORITY. Authority. A provincialism, as 
weU as the old form of the word. See the 
Craven Dialogues, p. 330. 
AUTORS. Ancestors. {Lat.) 
V geve yow, Mede, wlthoute assoyne, 
Theo tour, and the cites of Baby toy ne s 
Tyre, Numen, and Pamphile, 
And into Ynde xx, score niyle ; 
My riches, and my tressours. 
And alle hath <lo myn auton. Kyitg JHmmndtr, 4519. 
AUTOUR. An author. Chaucer. 
AUTRAGE. To outrage. 

Let us se liow well we can tnUragv, 

MaUtandTt Lemhtth Bookt, p. SOS. 
AUTREMITE. Another attire. So explained 
by Skinner. Tyrwhitt reads vitrtmite. 
And she that hehnid was in starke stourfa. 
And wan by force tonnls strong and touris. 
Shall on herhedde now werin mttrtmite. 

Chaucer, ed. Urrp, p. 164. 
AUVE. The helve of an axe. Sakp. 
AUVERDRO. To overthrow. West. 
AUVERGIT. To overtake. Weet. See Jennings's 

Observations, p. 184. 
AUVERLOOK. To overlook ; to bewitch ; to look 

upon with the evil eye. West, 
AUVER-RIGHT. Right over ; across. Wett. 







AUVISAKD. On the ibor f 

Atta iMt he hdd him muwtmrd. 

Cp qf nrmrwOu, p. 190. 
AUVISB. Counsel; advice. 

Andiejde, JoMph, tor* thy tuktmf 
And thyn erroure, for it it fbljre 
Wlthouten awtite to deme lodeyoidye. 

I^dgat9,MS, 8oe, Jnttq, 134, f. 5. 

AUWAWNTAGE. Advantage. 
The heghait woclde, that pMMt alle thyng, 
Wm made for nuns eodelM wonnyng t 
Pot ylk mane salle hafe there a plaoe. 
To womieay lo Joy that here has graoe ; 
That worlde was made motte for omnmttwmtmUt^, 
For thaire Mvlkt tobeowre ryght erytage. 

Hatmpole, N&rth C. MS, 

AirWARDS. Awkward; athwart North. See 
Jckwiurds, A beast is said to be mtward$f 
when it lies backward or downhill, so as to be 
unable to rise ; a chrcnmstance often happen- 
ing with sheep that are heavy in the wool 
AU3T. (1) Ought 

Fkrare of herene, Ladl and Quene, 
Atfchea«j<weltohene. Jtt. .^Mtt. lMM,f. A 
(2) Owed. The version printed in Cooler's 
Shakespeare's Library, p. 273, reads ** owhte." 
The wonchipe therof wliiche 1 mtit$. 
Unto the god 1 there hetaujte. 

GMO€r, Ma, Soo, jintiq. 134, f. 134. 

Possessions; property. 
Bitwcne hit chtldre he delt hii mi$t. 
Hit londe to Isaac he bitaujt. 

Curtor MwuU, MS, CoU, Trin, Qmtab. f . St. 
High. Jtob, Giouc, 
iTA'. AtalL North. 
AVA6E. A rent or duty which every tenant 
of the manor of Writtel, in Essex, pays to the 
lord on St Leonard's day, for the liberty of 
feeding his hogs in the woods. PhiOgn. 
AYAILE. Value; profit: advantage. See Cocke 
Lorelles Bote, p. 2 ; Dial of Creat Moral 
p. 123 ; Towneley Mysteries, p. 150. 
AVAITE. To await? 

The which ordeynede for a law, that what tymc 
there was any fyre in that dt^, Uiere sbulde he a 
hideUe y-ordeined for to avaite lilt, and to malie an 
highe prodamadone in the dt^. 

Qtttu RotManofiUN, p. M. 

AVALE. (1) To descend; to fall dovm. {J.-N) 
Cf. Maundevile's Travds, ^ 266 ; Holinshed, 
Hist. Scot. p. 91 ; Troilus and Creseide, iiL 
627 ; Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 394 ; D^ate be- 
tween Pride and Lowliness, p. 9 ; Skelton's 
Works, L 86. 

Then the aeneadiall imot his bors with his spnrris, 
and come to theym, for tlie see was uvaUtd and 
withdrawn. MB. Digb^, 185. 

(2) To lower; to let down. (^.-iVl) This 
term is often qtplied to the letting down 
the front of the hdmet, or the visor oi3y vrith- 
out the ventaile, as in Robson's Met Rom. 
p. 15 ; Morte d'Arthur, i. 152. Hence the 
phrase ** to vale the bonnet," to bwer the 
bonnet, or take off the hat ; and, figuratively, 
to acknowledge inferiority. See Peter Lang- 
toft, p. 97. 
And myjty tyrauntes, ftom here ryalle see 
He kath msW and y-pnt adoon. 

L^dgmte, MS. Soe, AnHq. 134. f. i. 

He nold tmim ndtbtr hood ae bat* 
Neal>iden no man for his curtesi& 

Chnuer, Camt. T. 3194. 

(3) To loosen; to shake. Lord Surrey has the 
expression << vrith raynea mnsgledt* explained 
lootened in Warton's Hist Eng. Poet iiL 31, 
but our second meaning is peih^ the best 

(4) To assault Skmmr, 
AVALTD. Diminished. 

Orete feet and roynde, and grete decs, and the 

foot a lytel mvafyd, smale by the flankes, and Booge 

sydcs. a ly td pynUl and Utd hangyng smale ballokes. 

MS.B0dL 549. 

AVAN. Filthy ; squalid. A Northamptonshire 
word, acoorAng to the Addenda to Junii Etym. 
An^c. in v. 
AVANCE. (1) To advance; to profit (J.-N) 
See Chaucer, Cant. T. 246 ; Troilus and Cre- 
seide, V. 1434; MS. Ashmole 39, 1 12. 
Sir PhUip the VaUyse 

May liim noght avance. 
The flowres tliat falre war 

Er fallen in Fraunce. JfinoC'e Poem»t p. 39. 

(2) Advancement 

He ordaioeth by his ordinaonce 

To parishe priestis a powere. 
To anothir a gretii avaunett 

A gretir point to hit mistcre. 

Chaucer, ed. Uny, p. 180. 

(3) The herb barefoot It was used in cookery, 
as in a recipe hi the Forme of Cury, p. 13, 
which the original, MS. Addit 5016, seems to 
read avante. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 55 ; Pnmipt • 
Parv. pp. 17, 266; Tusser, p. 118; Warner's 
Antiq. Culin. p. 5. Markham, in his Countrie 
Farme, ed. 1616, p. 182, says ** costmarie and 
avens are verie pleasant hearbes to give a sa- 
vour like spice in pottage and salads." See 
also Topsell on Serpents, p. 62 ; Cooper, in v. 
CanqphiUata; MS. Sloane 5, £ 11. 

AVANCSMENT. Advancement 
ThorghcoDsdle of som of hise, revised be that present ; 
Thd said, on .other wise he lalle haf a e an eement, 

Peter Ijmft<ift,p. 103. 
AYANITTE. Thought ; will ; pleasure. 

God and grace es with tliaim wiogfate, 

Tliat with swylke pride dyse gyse tber clothe ; 

Never the lese ylk man may 

Eftyr hys amnitii make hym gay. 

R, de Brunne, MS. Bowee, p. 94. 

AVANSE. To escape from. 

For any cu that may be-tyde, 
Schall non therof mmnee. 

The Cekwcl^e Dmtmee, 16S. 
AVANTAGB. Advantage. (^.-iV.) 

As sooth is sayd, elde hath gret aemteige 
In dde is bothe wisdom and usage. 

Chaueer, Outt. T. 9449L 
AYANT-CURRIERS. Florio has « ^yem, vrindes 
blowing very stiffely for fortie dales together 
from the east just about the dog-daies, called 
of mariners the Jvant'Curriera.*' 
AVANTERS. Portions of the numbles of a deer, 
which lay near the neck. See Syr Gawayne, 
p. 50 ; Book of St. Alban's, sig. B. iv. 
AVAl^MURE. The fore-wall of a town. 
This term is given as En^^ishin Palsgrave and 
Cotgravt. (/v.) 




AVANT-PBACH. An early k&id of petch. 

AVAMTTWABDB. The Ttnwaid of an amiy. 
I mU« haT« the amnttwardt wjtterly mjwAitae, 

MorU Jrthmw, M8, JUnooM, f . 66. 

AVARDE. Afraid. (^..&) 
AYAROUSER. More aTaridoiii. (J-N.) 

An no men amrvm$tr than hil 

Whan thel ben aTsuaced. 

PutM ^WMlfnJMMf pw SB* 

AVARYSY. ATarioe; coretouniess. May we 
read tfn oryiy / 
OuK Lord My to the edder tho. 
Fend, why dyd« thou hym that wo? 
Tha fend anmerd with mMvyof » 
Fofe I had to hym enrye. MS. A$km $ l » 61, t 86. 
AVAST. A Bea term, meaning stop, hold, 
enough It always precedes some orders or 
conTersation. See Tooke's Diversions of Pur- 
ley, p. 573 ; Skinner, in y. Tooke says that 
Dr. Johnson's interpretatk>ns, which I have 
here adopted, are erroneous, but such are its 
<nrdinary uses by sailors. Johnson's etymology 
from ItaL ai^ Span. Boiia is sufficiently 
AYAUNCY. To adyaace ; to raise. 
For I thenke to awaunep myne. 
And wel the more idial be here pyne. 

MS. AdHt, 16036. f. 49. 

AVAUNT. (1) Before. 

The morow came, and fbrth rid this marcfaannt 
To Flaunden ward, hit prcntishlin owninf. 
Till he to Bnigei came AiU merOy. 

Chtmeut, erf. Vrrg, p. 140. 

(2) Forward. {A,'N,) This was an ancient hunt- 
ing cry. See Sir U. Dryden's Twid, p. 45. 

And with that worde came Drede awnwif , 
Whicbewai abaahed and in grete fere. 

Horn, ^f the Ro9t, 3058. 
Sir Dcgrerant waa thane aa nere. 
That he thoae wordit myght here ; 
He laid, jiprntt, banere ! 
And trompb on hight. 

Sir DegmmwU, Uncoln MtS. 

(3) A boast (J.-N,) See Chaucer Cant. T. 227 ; 
Reliq. Antiq. iL 21. 

Than aaid Sir Dcgrevaontt 
TlKMi mile noght mak tliine amnmt. 
That I calle be rccreaunt. 
For firend ne for f aa. 

Ar DegmatiHt, Utuotn MS, 

(4) To boast 

Thia p rorer be lame of me, 

Atumni aerjt of thy degree. Jnttg, Rtp. br. 401. 

(5) DismissaL ** To give her the araim/," 
Henry YIIL iL 3. In the following passage it 
apparently meana leare, departure, or perhaps 
praiae, boast 

Alle thay mad thalr aeotrnf 
Of the lord Sir Degrevaunt 

Sir DegrewmuU, Ltmsein MS. 

AYAUNTANCE. Boasting. 
The irloe depid eemmlance , 
With pride hath take hiaaqualntanec. 

Gowmr, MS, Soc AnOq, 194, t 64. 
AVAUNTARYE. Boasting. 

And thua the woncfalpe of hia name, 
Tborow pride of hia avuntorpe. 
He tumeth IntoTilenye. 

Qo¥f€r, MS. Soe, Antiq. 134, f. 64. 

Rebuke him for that Ilk of that vNNm/rM. 

Peter Utngt^ft, p. 194. 

AYAUNTLAY. Under the old system of hunt- 
ing it was customary to send one or two cou- 
ples of hounds, with a man, to several pdnts 
where it was expected the game would pass. 
When the deer or other animal came up these 
hounds were uncoupled. See Sir H. D^den's 
notes to Twid, p. 44. Relay properly means 
any of these sets of hounds ; but mauaUrelay, 
<Mr, more commonly, mmmtlay, those which,* 
when a hart wasunharboured, were a-head of 
him. See further obsenrations on this sub- 
ject in a curious work, entitled the Booke of 
Hunthig, 4to. Lond. 1586. 

AYE. (1) Have. 

Tfaerfore we must llgfat agayne hym, and we thhail 
aee Tictorye, for he la but feble agayne them that 
wyl withatonde hym. iNot CrmH, MermL p. 97. 

(2) Bvemng. 

The king ther ttode with hia mein^ 
On a palmctonnca ew. 

jtrffmtrandMerHn, p. 900. 

AYEARD. Afraid. Wett. 

But an he hare hit legs at liberty, 
Cham aaeord he will never live with you. 

London Prvdigal, p. 107. 

AYEAUNT. GraceftU ; becoming. So also the 
original MS. of Le Bone Florence of Rome, 
128, reads ; which Ritson alters to avenatmt, 
Ageyne hym came lyr Otet the graunt, 
A doghty knyght and an ovaavnl. 

Le Bone Florence i(fRome, 885. 
Tbys twyrdeys gode and aMannf, 
But I ftight wytb a gyaunt. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. ii 38, f. 244. 

AYE-BLOT. A reckoning; a payment Jlfin*A««. 

AYE-BOORDS. Cotgrave has, ** Aube$, the 

short boords which are set into th'outside of 

a water-mills wheele ; we call than ladles, or 


Quanne he weren alle set. 
And the king aveden i-gret. 
He greten, and gouleden, and goven hem Hie, 
And he bad hem alle ben stille. Havelok, 183. 
AYEER. Property. (^.-M) 

Ne tliel don to no man otherwiie than the! wolde 
that other men diden to hem; and in this poynt thei 
fiille-flUen the ten commandementei of God t and 
thd jive no charge of aeeer ne of riochesee. 

MaundeviWe Traeete, p. 892. 

AYEL. (1) The awn or beard of barley. Etui. 

(2) To tear away. Browne. 

AYELACE. Explained by Skmner, ** the rings 
or gymews of a bag;" but coigectured by hmi 
to be a mistake for tmelae§f q. v. 

AYELONG. EUiptical ; oval. It is translated 
by ttblonffuifiaibe Prompt. Parv.p. 17. Carr, 
in his Craven Glossary, coigectures it to be a 
corruption of obkfng, and a correspondent sug- 
gests to me ha^-long ; but the form awebmge, 
m the Middlehill MS. of the Promptonum, 
seems to vranrant Mr. Way's derivation from 
A-S. Awoh. Migor Moor says, " Workmen 
— reapers or mowers — approaching the side of 
a field not perpendicular or parallel to thehr 
line of work, will have an unequal portkm to 




do— 4he excess or deflcieiiey is called tneliong 
AVELT. In the Eastern counties corn is said to 
be avehft if, when dressed for market, a por- 
tion of the awns adhere to the grains. 
AVEN. Promise; appearance. Salop, Perhaps 

connected with the old word avenant, q. ▼. 
AVENANT. (I) Agreement; condition. (A.-N,) 
Luf hir efter thine avtnttmt. 
And sho sal Im to the tenent. 

Ywaln§mnd OauHn, 3765. 
Th&fmMj nuke to here mmmmntt 
But OTer meeure yt oMt cnmnennL 

MS, HarL 1701, f.SS. 

(2) Becoming ; graoeftil ; agreeable. See War- 
ton's Hist Eng. Poet, ii 229 ; Twaine and 
Gawin, 3885 ; Robson's Met Rom. p. 12. 

And I were to the avenant, 
I weld bethl senreunt. 

Sir Degrewaunt, lAncctn KS, 
When ihe vat flflen winter old. 
In el that lond nas ther non y-hold 

Soecmly on toeei 
For iche was genti} and a u nmm t, 
Hir name wae deped Belisaunt* 
As ye may lithe at me. 

JmU and JwMoun, 487* 

(3) Accomplished; able; Taliant 

The sowdan. that left yn Tenragaunt, 
With hym he btoght a fowll geaunt 
Of Egypte ; he hette Guymerraunt, 

Greet as an ok : 
No dosyper nas so avenawtt 

To stonde hys strok. Octwian, 983. 

AVENANTLI. Suitably ; well ; becomingly. 
Ther were in eche bataile of bumes two thousand. 
Armed at alle pointes and avenantH horsed. 

WUL and the Werwolf, p. 138. 

AVENAUNTLICHE. Beautifully. 

To seche thoru that t\K€ ther nas non stch. 
Of erbei» aad of erberi, so aoenauntliche i-dlht 

PiMtt 9f ammn, 9%, 1. 

AVENGE. The feast of AdiFent (^..^;) See 
MS. Lincoln Ai L 17, f. 215, where a wrong 
reading has apparently crept into the text, and 
I am not sure whether it ^ould not be anenee 
in the same sense as oiMn/, q. y. 

AVENE. An ear of com. This is the form of 
the word aims in the Prompt. Parv. p. 18. 
** Avenes eyles" is translated by the French 
are$t€g, in Walter de Bibblesworth, Reliq. 
Antiq. ii 80. Eikt we have already had an 
example of in t. Jilt, and it is translated by 
aritia in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45. 

(2) Erening. 

Hi iul him and elde folow. 
Both avene and eke a-morw. 

RtHq. Jntiq. i. 194. 

AVENG. Took; received. (A.-S.) 
Vor the folc so tbycke com, the wule he her loverd slou, 
Aboute him in ech alf, that among so mony fon 
He atiang dethes wounde, and wonder nas yt none. 

Rob. aUme, p. 9S3. 

A-VENIMED. Envenomed. 

His armci alle a-9enim«d beth ; 
That Tenim is strong so the deth. 

Op <^f Warwikt, p. 98. 

AVBNOR. The person who formerly, in the 
bovsabold establishment of the king, and in 

that also of great barons, had the care of the 
provender for the horses. The following ac- 
count of his duties is given in the Book of 
Curtasye, p. 25, and it has been also quoted 
from the original manuscript by Mr. Stevenson. 
The avejfner sdialle ordeyn provande good won. 
For tho lordys honJs ererydion ; 
Thay schyn have two cast of hay, 
A pek of provande on a days 
Every hone schalle so muche have 
At racke and manger that standee with etave ; 
A maystur of horsys a squyer ther ia» 
jipegntr and Iteour undur hym i-wys. 
Those jomen that oldesadcls schyn have. 
That sdiyn be last for knyit and knave. 
For ycbe a hors that ferroure schalle sdio> 
An halpeny on day he takes hym to: 
Undur ben gromes and pages mony one. 
That ben at wage everychone ; 
Som at two pons on a day. 
And som at itj. o6. 1 50U say ; 
Mony of hem fotemen ther ben. 
That rennen by the brydeb of ladya idiene. 
AVENSONG. Evening. 

Fram aftemone to ee en ee wy . 
So to knightes he was strong. 

jirthomr and MmrHm, p. 178* 

AVENT. Avauntl 

Jweni, avmt, my popegay. 

What, will ye do nothyng bat play ? 

RU»on*tJneiani Somg», p. 101. 

AVENTAILE. The moveable front to a helmet, 
which covered the £soe, and through which the 
wearer respired the air, *' qua ventus hanritur." 
The term is sometimes used for the whde 
frt>nt of the helmet 

Hto helm he setteth on Is heved. 
And fastnede the aventaUle. 

MS, Mkmttt 89, f. 8L 
For, as he drough a king by thoMntaiU, 
Unware of this, Achilles through the midle 
And through the bodle gan him for to rive. 

1Veir«w and CrmMg, v. 1887* 

AYENTE. To open the aventaile for the pur- 
pose of breathing. See Le Bone Florence of 
Rome, 1941 ; Torrent of Port. p. 66. {A^N,) 
Thai foughten soo longe, that by assente 
Thai drewe them a UtU bysyde, 
A lltil while thaym to evente. 
And refreshed them at that tyde. 
MS. Dtme» 178, p. 8OI 

AVENTERS. Chance. (yf.-M) 

The bowmen, and eke the arbiastert. 
Armed them all at avtnten, 

Richard Coer d» Lhn, 9188. 

AVENTOUR. (1) To venture. 

Nil ieh me nothing avantcmr. 
To purchas a fole gret honour. 

Jrth9ur and MtrUn, p. 0. 
(2) An adventurer. Bokenham. 
AVENTRE. To throw a spear. (Hal,) Spenser 
uses the word, and Nares thought it was pecu- 
liar to that writer. 

Thenne this one knyght awentrpd a grete spare, 
and one of the x. knyghtes encountred with hym, 
but this woful knyght smote hym so hard that he 
feUe over his hore Uylle. Mort« d* Arthur, I. 117. 
AVENTROUS. Adventurers. (A,-N.) 
As dooth an heraud of armes 
Whan aventrom Cometh to Jostes. 

Piert Ploughman, p. 878 




AVBNTURE. (1) AdTcnturc ; chance ; fortune ; 
See Morte d'Arthur, L 289; MaundevUe's 

jtwmture to hath tunied hl« pu 
AgeynM the kyng hU ma*. 

KvngJH$aund€r, 7837. 

(2) Perchance. 

Ac oMntmM, for the fyght, 
Thi» Tlctorie b the y-dyght. 

K^ng AUmunder, 3082. 

AVENTURLY. Boldly. ^ ,, ^ 
Thfa wpiler that hath brought thte h«Ie, 
The kyng had wend he had the dede» 
And avtnturly gan he gone. 

TiKrvnt tf Portugal, p. fiS. 
AVEK. (1) A work-hone. North, " A false 
«»«•," a sluggish horse, a lazy heast. See 
KenneU's Glossary, p. 21. 
Alraa the lothe for to ichewe. 
He lent thame mvtnt to drawe. 

Sir Dtgmmttt, MS, Lineoto, f. 130. 
(2) Peevish. Northumb, 
AVERAGE. A course of ploughmg in rotation. 
North. Carr explains it " winter eatage," 
and others the itubble, in which senses it seems 
to he the same with averuh^ q. v. 
AVBR-CAKE. An oat-cake. 

A fewe cruddet and crem. 
And an aver-cakt, 

MS, Rawt, Po9t, 137* f. 9A. 

AVER-CORN. A reserved rent in com paid to 
religious houses by their tenants or farmers. 
Ketmett. According to Skinner, it means com 
drawn to the granary of the lord of the manor 
by the working cattle, or avers, of the 
AVERE. Wches ; property. (ji.-N,) 
The maistlT of iher pedalle, that klrke* brak and brtot. 
And abbels gan aisaile, monket tlouh and schent, 
Waa bom in Pikardie, and his name Reynere, 
In suilk felonle gadrcd grete aoer$, 

PW«r Langti^, p. 124. 

AVERIL. April. North, 

When thenyhtegale tinges, the wodes waxen grene, 
Lef ant gras ant blosme springes In Jvenfl, y wene. 
WrighfB l^rie Poetrp, p. 92. 

AVERING. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, says, 
" When a begging boy strips himself and goes 
naked into a town vrith a fels story of being 
cold, and stript, to move compassion and get 
better cloaths, this is call'd a»miv, »nd to goe 

a avering,** 
AVERISH. The stubble and grass left m com 
fields after harvest. North. 

la thoe monthes after the comae bee innede, it 
it meete to pott dnughU horases and oxen into the 
tfMrisA, and so kmnge to continue there as the meate 
snfflceth* which wUl ease the other pastures they 
wcat in before. Archmiogia, xiiL 379. 

AVERLAND. Land ploughed by the tenante 
with their avers, for the use of a monastery, 
or for the lord of the soiL 

Quod autem auac vooatur awtrM^, fuit terra 
rastlcorum ejus. Chnm, J, de AraketoMda, p. 7«. 
AVEROUS. Avaricious. 

And also this tyn»e es ogayas avermu m«n, that 
sehvnes and gifet na fruyte hot wh«i it es roten. 

MS. Colt, men, 10, f. 3. 

AVEROYNE. The herb southemwood, men- 

tioned several times under this naiM In ^ 
Liber MedicinK in the Library of Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, ff. 280, 287, 307, e.g. " Take operojfnf, 
and braye it with hony and vyncacre, and 
drynke it." See also Archnolog^ xzx. 350 ; 
Pistin of Susan, st. ix. 
AVERPENNY. Money contributed towards the 
king's averages. See Nicolson and Bum's 
West and Cumb. ii. 609 ; Chron. J, de Brake- 
londa, p. 75 ; Skinner, in v. 
AVERRAY. To aver ; to instroct. 
Thou schalt write that ysay, 
Mani num for to oMrror. ^ 

Jrthour andMtrliiip p. 4A. 

AVERRUNCATE. To avert; to prevent. (Lat.) 
I wish myself a pseudo-prophet. 
But sure some mischief will come of it* 
Unless by providential wit. 
Or force, wk aoerrunetUe it Hudlbnu, 1. 1. 758. 
AVERSATION. Aversion; great dislike to. 
See Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 61, quoted 
by Boucher, in v. 
AVER-SILVER. A custom or rent so called, 
originating from the cattle, or OMTt, of the 
tenants q( the soil. 
AVERST. At the first. 

Joerti byeth the hestes ten, 
Thet lolii ssolle alleroen. 

^ MS. Anmdtl 57. f. 13. 
AVERTY. Mad; fiery. {A,'N) 

The respons were redy that Philip did tham here. 
A linyght fuUe aeerfy gaf tham this ansuere. 

Peter Langtofi* p. MO. 

AVERY. (1) The place where the provender for 
the khig's horses is kept. Skmner, Boucher, 
in V. Avtr^ considers it to be the stable. It 
seems certainly to be derived from <mer, and 
not from Aot^er, oats, asMinsheu supposes. 

(2) Every. 

The i^.'« tokene ys that amr^ meke man or 
woroman ys not eahaunsydd, neyther luive ooy 
lykynge in pieysynge. MS, CarUab, Ff. ii. 38, f. 8. 

AVE-SCOT. A reckoning; an account. Mvuheu, 

AVESYLY. Advisedly. 

Now and.thow wolde wele and aoujflw beholde 
thi Lorde Jhesu, thow may lynde that flro the crowne 
of the herede to the sole of his fete, thare was no 
hole spotte lefte one hyme. 

MS, Uneoln A. i. 17* t, 183. 

AVET. Weight. 

And ys avtt more hi six and thritti leed punde, 
that beeth to hundred and sextene wexpunde. 

Raiiq, JnHq, I. tO. 

AVETROL. A bastard. {A.'N) 

He asked what was his medicine : 
Beir and broth gode afine. 
What than, was he an wutroif 
Thou selst soht, sire, be ml pol. 

Stvpn Bagee, 110?. 

AVEXED. Troubled ; vexed. See Book of St 
Alban's, sig. B. iv. ; Dial. Great. MoraL p. 177. 
The curious coincidence between part of the 
following passage, and the well known lines in 
Macbeth, iL 2, has not yet found a notice in 
the editions of Shakespeare. 
As thus I lay aMtred tvM sore 
In suche thynges, as of right bythe agayae nature, 
1 herde a royce seyyng, sdepe thow no moee 1 

Tod^e JUuotratient, p. 897 




AVETSIl Carefal; wary. {J.^N.) 
Abo the kyng and his melgfii. 
Gladdest wenn and awfifti, Ki/ngMitavmit , 5£61. 
AVIEU. To view. (^.-iV.) Palsgrave has, « I 
evewe, I take sygbt of a thing." 

ThenglyMhmea lawe them well, and knew* well 
howe they were come thyder to aviem them. 

Hot0$ to Minof* Potnu, p. 117. 

AVnS. Opmion. {J.'N.) 

And ieththen leyd hir aviit 

Of God, that Lorerd ww and erer toe. 

Aynf Katmine, p. 179. 

AVILB. Todesj^. The Heralds' Cdlege MS. 
reads, '< ovtfetf hofychirche,thatbyrigfatewas 

And the Souneoday of the Passion amansede all the. 

That awilede to hoU chirche, that mid rijte was so f^ 

Rob, Gkme. p. 480. 

WINTAINE. Speedily. (^.-M) 
Have ich enl so hard! on. 
That done to Hamtoun goo. 
To thempcmr of Almalne, 
And sal her cometh, awintaine, 
Al prest an hondred knighte, 
That ftire hit lore wilen fig hte 
Bothe with spere and with launce. 

Bev09 «f Hamtoun, p. 107. 

AVIROUN. Around. (^.-iNT.) 

Abe a wente him to plaie 
Abottte her in thb contiai. 
In thb oonrt^ aoiromm, 
A mettewlthaTlledragoun. 

Bew qf Hamtoun, p. 96. 

AVIS. Advice. (J.'N.) See Chaucer, Cant. T. 
1870 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 180 ; Langtoft, 
p. 32. 
The kyng at hb av^o sent messengers thre. 

Jjomglmffo ChronicU, p. 980. 

AVISAND. Observing. (J.-N,) 

The herbe she toke, well wrioand 
The lefe, the sede, the stalke, theflonre. 
And said it had a gode savour. 
And was no common herb to find. 
And well approved of uncouth kind. 

Chauett'o Droamo, 1882. 

AVISE. (1) To observe; to look at. (^.-iSr.) 
Heo heom a«y«eel among theo play. 
For he was nought of that contray. 

Kjfng Alitttundtr, 991. 

(2) To consider ; to advise vrith one's self ; to 
inform ; to teach. **Ati9e you well," i.e, con- 
sider weU what you are about, is a firequent 
phrase in the old romances. In the sense of 
" to inform," it is used by Shakespeare, 
Merry Wives of Windsor, L 4, where Mistress 
Quickly says to Simple, <* Are you aMd o' 
that .'" a provincial mode of confirming any 
observation. See also the Towneley Mysteries, 

5 p. 61, 170. «* Aviseth you," Chaucer, Cant. 
'. 3185, look to yourselves, take care of your- 
selves. Cf. Const, of Mason, p. 38. 
He ao]f»«d hym Ml wele. 
Fro the hedd downewarde erery dele. 

JC& Cbirtad. Ff . U. 88, t 196. 

AVISk Circumspect (^.-iNT.) 

Of werre and of batalle he was fUlle ovW, 
Ther wisdom suld avalle was non so trewe ab he. 
LattgteJV* auroHide, p. 188. 

AVI SEE. To look upon. Skiimer. 

AVI8ELY. Advisedly. 

jhUtig, who so takyth hcde therCo. 

L^dgato, MS. Jokmolo », f. 2& 

AVISEMENT. Counsel; Advice. (^.-iNT.) 
Ten schlppes wer dryven, thorgh ille aviotmont 
Thoigh a tempest ryven, the sebipmen hdd tharo 
schent. harngtof^o OtrontieU, p. 148. 

AVISINESSE. DeUberation. (^.-M) 
And Mary fkille mekely Ibteoeth alle. 
And gan mervayle with grec aHHrnesM. 

J^dgau, MS. Soe. Antiq. 134, t 88 

AVISION. A vision. (J^N.) 
A litel or he weremoedred on a day, 
Hb mordre hi hb asMoM besay. Ckm$otr,Cant.T. 10190. 
AVIST. A fishing. Weti. 
AVIYES. A disease in horses, thus described by 

The horse having drunke modi, or watered verie 
quldtly after hb heat and travalle, and upon It grow- 
ing cold, and not being walked, doth b^^et the aviv^ », 
which doe but little dilfer ftom the disease called the 
kingV«Till, beoanse as well In beasts as in man, the 
klng's.evlll commeth of too mudi cooling of water, 
the throat baring beene heated, whereupon the horse 
looeeth hbappetbe to eat, and hb rest likewise, and 
hb eeres become cold. 

7%$ CountHe Forme, ed. 1816, p. 190. 
AVIZE. To see ; to survey ; to observe. 
Then th'ooe herselfe low ducked In the flood, 
Abash't that her a straunger did avfee. 

Tha FaorU Quoone, II. xll. 68. 

AVOCATE. To caU from. (Lot.) 

The time o' Sir Walter Raleigh's execution was 
contrived to be on my Lord Mayor's day, that the 
pageants and fine shows might avoeato and draw 
away the people ftom beholding the tnigedie of the 
galbntest worthie that England ever bred. 

^Mfrrsy, MS. AOmoU, 

AVOERT. The right which the founder of a 
house of rdigion had of the advowsoB or pa- 
tronage thereof, similar to the right o# presen- 
tation belonging to those who buHt, or en- 
dowed, parish diurches. In some instances 
these patrons had the sole nomination of the 
abbot or prior, either by direct investiture, or 
delivery of a pastoral staff; or by immediate 
presentation to the diocesan ; or if a free elec- 
tion were left to the religious foundation, a 
Ucence for election was first to be obtained 
from the patron, and the election was to be 
confirmed by him. Kemteit, quoted mBoueher, 

AVOID. To leave; to quit; to expeL Avoid!, 
i. e. get out of the way, a word used at the 
passing of any great personage through a 
crowd. See Cov. Myst. p. 131. In the fol- 
k>wing passages it means the wiUidrawal of 
dishes from the table. See also Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 161. 
Jwoydet tho horde into tho flore, 
Tase away tho trestes that ben so store. 

Boko qf Cmfatffo, p. SS. 
An the servyseof brede, messes of kytchyn, wyne, 
ale, wax, wood, that b dispended bothe for the kJngs 
bourde, and for the hole messe, and other of the 
chaombre, and as well the senryse for the king for 
all night, as the greete ae«yd«« at feastes, and the 
dayly drinkinges betwixtmelesin the kings ehaumbre 
for straungers, and thereof to make tzew reoorde, 
and to bring it dayly to the oountyng-bourde before 
noone. Ubar Vigor Domm Roglt Abe. /r. p. 37. 




AVOIDANCE. Expolnoii; aToidance. See 
Pnnnpt Parv. pp. 19, 111 ; Wright's Monastic 
Letters, p. 101. 
From tpyttyngt and tByftynge kepe the ako. 
By pnry ovopiaMtot hyt go. 

OmatUmthnt tf Umaoitrift V» ^ 
AYOIDONS. In a general sense means, the va- 
cancy of a benefice by death or removal of the 
incombent; but in Monast Anglic, il. 198, 
quoted in Stevenson's additions to Boucher, H 
signifies the profits during such avacancy. 
AVOIR. Property. (^.-iV.) 

A buzgttowM in Rome toun, 
A rktie man of grtt roMnm t 
Marchsintba wm oCgret avoir. 
And had a wif wat qndnt and fSihr. 

Stnfn aagm, 9806, 

AVOIR-DE-PEISE. Artides of merchandise 
that are sold by weight. (^.-M) Cowell says 
M it signifieth sndi merchandise aa are weighed 
by this ird|^ and not by Troy weight.'^ 
HaU ba 5c, marchaM, with jm giat packaa 
Of dnparia, minir^i» fti t e , and 5ur wol-ttckat. 

B0Uq, d«Hq. tt, 17^. 

AVOKS. To revoke ; to caU away to some other. 

See Rider, Richardson, and Boucher, in v. 
AVOKET. An advocate. (Lat) Wiekl^e. 
AVONGB. To take, ^tt Afamgt. 

So that atta knta, wat halt yt to teUabynge ^ 
Tha kyng bygan and ytfble Criatendom •mtge, 
A06. QUmc, p. 831. 
AVOORDIN. Aflbrding. Somertet. 
AVORD. To afford. ffeH. 

Baoaaa the Ushop aeni miin word, 
A eoold not meat and drink ooorrf. 

Pettr Pindar, ed. 1794, L 886. 

AVORE. Before. Wmt. 

Xy ancertor To-Pan beat the flnt kettle-dram, 
A9or0 bun, heie Trom Dover on the march. 


AVOREWARD. At first. 

And hit, wan bii were i-raore, other sixe toke. 
Gode fourme among bom, of the land to loke^ 
And of the deeeritee, m> that ovoreward 
The bUcop hU chow of Bathe, Water Olflkrd, 
And maister Nicole of Vll, blasop of Wurcetre. 

Rob* Gtotie. p. 067« 
AVOREYE. Before. 

Ich bidde the hit by my neld, 
Jware^ the wyeked vend. Jf9. Anindd B/J, 1 8. 
AVORN. Before him. JTeat. 
AVOTB. On foot. 

Myd fyx hondred kyn5tes, and thre thoutend men awoitt 
Cadour, erl of Cornwayle, a5en hym he aenda. 

Rob, GUme, p. 168. 
AVOUCH. Proof; testimony. Shakespeare has 

this and also avouehment in the same sense. 
AVOURE. Ck>nfession; acknowledgment. 
He bad him stand t'abide the bitter ttoure 
Of bis florevengeaunce, or to make oeewrv 
Of the lewd worda and deedea which ha bad done. 
3^ FaeH9 ^uttn^, VI. ill. 48. 

AVOURT. An old law term, neariy equivalent 
to justificatiop. Nare»» 

Therfore away with these awouriet : let God alone 
be OUT rnnwrpe: what have we do to runne hether 
. or theiher, but onely to the Father of beaTsn ? 

LaHmer** Sermotu, ed. 1571* f. 84. 

AVOUTRER. An adulterer. (J,-N,) Also an 
adiiltress, as in Prompt. Parv. p. 19. 

For in this world nls doggo (bf the bowa. 
That can an hurt dere from an bole y-koowe. 
Bet than thia tompnour knew a slle Icchour, 
Or an avowfrsr, or a paramour. Chmueer,Cant.T. 6854. 
AVOUTRTE. Adultery. See Chaucer, Cant. T. 
6888, 9309 ; Reliq. Antiq. 1 29 ; Hartshome's 
Met. Tales, p. 170 ; Apology for the Lollards, 
p. 78. (J,-N.) 

And be begotyn fai awwtf / f , 

Othir ellys'barayn bastard born. 

MS,Rmtt,p9H, US. 

AVOW. (1) Avow; an oath. (^.-iNT.) 
He sayd, sirs. In 5our curopany 
Myne avow make I. Roboen** Romaneet, p. 61 . 
And to mende my mlsae t make myn avotee. 

Will, and tho Werwolf; p. 80 

(2) To allow; to pardon. 
Wold thou speke for me to the kyng. 
He wolde avow me my slyngyng. 

M8, Cantab, Ft. v. 48, f. 59. 

(3) The term avcwed seems to he used in the 
sense of C09ered, in Orpheo, ed. Laing, 325. 
See the quotation under Bontour, The 
MS. Ashmole 61 reads amefyd in the same 

AVOWE. (1) The patron to a henefice. Cowell 
says the Avow^ is *' he to whom the right of 
advowson of any church appertaineth, so that 
he may present thereunto in his own name.** 
See Ritson's Robin Hood, L 42. 

(2) An advocate. 
And bendely they bysechlth the 
That thou beo beore 00010^ / 
Forgere heom, sire, thy maltalent ; 
They wol do thy oomaundement. 


(3) Patronage. The Heralds' College MS. reads 
aoowery, q. v. 
Vor thoru avowe of him, the sooe bigan that strif. 

Rob, Otove, p. 477. 
AVOWERY. Patronages protection. (J,'N.) 
See Langtoffs Chronicle, pp. 180, 260. It 
also means cognizance, badge, distinction, at 
in the Archsologia, xvlL 296. 
Y tdle on tor sothe, for al haere bobannce 
Ne for the aoowerio of the kyng of Fraunce, 
Tucnti score ant fyve baden ther mesdunnee. 

Wrighf* Pol, aongo, p. I881 

AVOWT. A countenance. (ji.'N,) Perhaps a 
is here the article, but the compound is again 
found in the same form. 

He wcres his vcsere with aoowt noble. 

Morte Arthure, MS. Uneotn, t. 86. 

AVOWTER. Aduttay. [Avowtcr^?] 

Than the aecound sebai be his wif hi r«soun of 

avowter, andheschalbecursidbntifhetak toheras 

to bia wif. Jpologffybr the Lottardg, p. 78. 

AVOY. (1) A cry used to call hounds out of 

cover. See Sir H. Dryden's Twid, p. 45. 
(2) Avoid; leave; quit. 

And in the dark forth she goeth 

TUl she liim toncheth, and he wrothe. 

And after her with his hand 

He smote : and thus when she him found 

Diseased, courteously she said,— 

Jv<v, my lord, I am a maid ; 

And if ye wist what I am. 

And out of what lineage I came, 

Ve would not be so salvage. 

Cower, op. Kni^f§ Shak, zi. 370. 

AWA 120 


AVRIL. April Ntn-tk, 

AVRORS. Frozen. West, 

AYURN. Slovenly in dress. Beds. 

AVY. (1) Vow; oath. 

Thoa hase mad thy onr wyth x^. mm for to tfjie. 
Of al oure 5onder company the alre-bette kiiy5te. 

ACS. J9hmot€33, 

(2) A navy. [A neavy ?] 

Ane aey of ihf ppct tha ipyed f hame before. 
Which when thay mett, tha mygbt well ken 
Howe thay were Troyanet and banished men ; 
Antyoner wa« lodesman, none wordier his place. 
And Corcnltts graunde capUyneof thole race ; 
There was great Joye when eche other dyd boorde, 
Sone was aocordement, and Brute chosen lorde. 

MS, Lansd, 306, f. 8. 

AVYEDE. Showed the way. (-^.-iV.) 
Sir Arthure and Gawayne aayede theme bothene. 
To sezty thosaodes of mene that in theire syghte 
hovede. Jforl« Arthure, MS, lAneoln, f. 92. 

AVYNET. In the middle ages a collection of 
fables from Avienus was called an Avynety 
from iEsop, an Etopet, &c 
By the po feet is understands. 
As I have lemed in JvynaU 

Pier* Ploughman, p. S43. 

AYYOWRE. See an instance of this form of 
the word in the Plompton Correspondence, 
p. 192. 

A-VYSSETH. A-fishmg. 

A-day as he wery was, and a suoddrynge hym nome, 
And ys men were y-wcnd av^tseth, seyn Cutbert to 
hym com. Hob. Gloue. p. S64. 

AW. (1) I. Narthwnb, So we have aum, I am; 
awstf I shall ; awve^ I have ; aw* thar say, I 

(2) Yes. Warw. 

(3) TotaUy. Craven. 

(4) AIL North. 

Listened! now to Merlins saw. 
And I won tell to OK^, 
What he wrat for men to come, 
Nother by greflb ne by plume. 

FForton, Ui. 135. 

(5) To owe. See the quotations given in Ste- 
venson's additions to Boucher, and below in 
V. Awe. 

AWAHTE. Awoke. (J.-S,) See a quotation 
from an early MS. in the Cottonian Library, in 
Stevenson's additions to Boucher. 
AWAIT. (I) Watch; ambush. (^.-M) 
The leon sit in his awaUe alway 
To sle the innocent, if that he may. 

Chaucer, Cant. T, 7239. 
(2) To attend upon ; to watch. (A..N.) 

And this sire Urre wold nerer goo from sire 

Launcelot, but he and sir tavayn awaited evermore 

upon hym, and they were In all the courte accounted 

for good knyghtcs. Morte dF Arthur, li, 387. 

Ther is ful many an eye and many an ere 

Awaiting on a lord, and he not wber. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 7834. 
But keeplth wel your toum, how so befitU, 
On Thorsday next, on which we awa^e all. 

Hoedeve^e Poems, p. 70. 
And so delyrered me the said book theime, my lord 
therle of Ozenford awaiting on his said grace. 

CttMton'e Vegeeiue, sig. S. v. 

AWAITER. An attendant. In the ordinances 
for the household of George Duke of Clarence, 
1493, in ** the estate, rule, and govemaunce 
of the seid prince in his ridinge, beinge de- 
parted from his standing housholde," mention 
ismadeof^'z^. esquiers awaiters, and every 
of them j. persone." See the Ordinances and 
Regulations, 1790, p. 98. 
AWAKID. Awake. Somerset. 
AWALB. To descend. (A.-N.) 

The post ben grete and 110051 smal. 
How myjte the rofe awate f 

MS. Cantab, Dd. 1. 17. 
AWANTING. Deficient to ; wanting to. 

Nothing was ofMnfto^her that might conferre the 
least light or lustre to so faire and well-eompoMd a 
temper. Two Lancashire Loeers, 1640. p. t. 

AWAPE. To confound ; to stupefy ; to astound. 
(A'S,) See Kyng Alisaunder, 899, 3673; 
Troilus and Cieseide, i. 316. 

Fram this oontek that wereascaped. 
Sore adrad and otMrperf. 

Arthour and MierUn, p. 180. 
And he allone awapid and amate, 
Comfortles of eny creature. Jfl^. Dlgb^, flSO. 
AWARANTYSE. Assuredly. It is so explained 

in a glossary in the Archaeologia, xxx. 404. 
AWARD. To ward off ; to bear off. Rider has, 

" To award a blow, ietum inhibere." 
AWARE. (1) To be aware of the approach of 
any one. 

And riding towards Notthigham, 

Some pastime for to spy ; 
There was he aware of a Jolly beggar. 
As ere he beheld with his eye. 

Riteon** Robin Hood, 11. liS. 

(2) An exclamation for making attenduits in 
hirge establishments prepared for the approach 
of some one. 

Come, saies bee, thou shalt see Harry, onekle, the 
onely Harry In England : so he led hiro to the cham- 
ber of presence, and ever and anon cryesout,wtftear«, 
roome for me and my uncle I 

, ^irmin'* Sett t^fNinniee, 190B. 

AWARIE. To curse. (A,-S,) 
Thenne spec that holde wif, 
Crist aicoHe hire llf I MS, Digb^BB, tiej, 

Theres, ye be ded, withouten lesinge, 
Awarid worth ye ichon. Oy </ Vf^arwike, p. 168, 
A WARN. To warn; to forewarn. 

That all our Mends that yet remaine alive, 
Male be awam*d and save themselves by flight. 

The True Tragedie, 139S 

AWARP. To bend; to cast down. \a,-S.) 

That ml schuldren scharplth. 
And 5outhe me hath let Raiiq. Antiq, 11. 210. 
AWARRANT. To warrant ; to confirm. 

Yf the Scriptures awarrant not of the mydwyfes 

The authour teUeth his authour, then take It in 

AWART. Thrown on the back and unable to 

rise, spoken of cattle. North. 
A-WASSCHEN. Washed. 

Seththe [thd] a-waeeehen, I wene. 

And wente to the sete. 
A T.r . mr,« ^ ^OTton'o Hiet. Kngi. Poet. L 10. 

A.WATER. Onthewater. SeeKersPloughman, 




pp. 342, 388. Here it seemi to be a ^irase 
implying disorder. 

But If 1m lud broke hit arme m wd m hit legge, 
when he Ml out of boaven into Lemnoft eitiier 
Apollo must have plated the bone-setter* or every 
ooeapatioD beeoe layde «>tMtf<r. 

Oo$9on*9 SdMle of jUn$M, 1579i 

AWAT. (l) A way. CoYerdiOe translates 
Jeremiaji, xM. 12, '' And shall departe his 
Mpoyefrom thence in peace."— (f. 43.) 

(2) Past. *< This week aiMy." Bedt, 

AWAY.GOINO. Departure. See Baillie's Let- 
ters, L 68,qnoted inthenewedition of Boucher. 
If I re<!ollect rightly, the word occurs in a 
prose tract in the Thornton MS. 

AWAY.THE.BIARE. A kind of prowbial ex- 
pression, apparently meaning, fuewell to care. 
It occurs twice in Skelton, and other references 
are giren in the notes, p. 162. The follow- 
ing example occurs in a poem attributed to 

Jwa^ the mare, quod Walls* 
I set not a whltloge 

By all their writing. DeetaurlkfubbleJle. 

AWATWARD. Going away ; away. 
A-nl5t at he a«>4ytM»tl was. 
An angd to him cam. Jomdk hm and Jtme, p. 164. 
Fatte awamoarde wold thou ryde. 
He it 10 fowle a wyghta. 

Jf& LteeofM, A. L 17, f . 109. 
Hb diere aweytoatrda Aro me caste. 
And forth he pasdd atlaste. 

Gower, MS. 8oe. JnOq, 134, f. SP. 

AWAT-WITH. To endure. See Isaiah, L 13; 
Greene's Works, I 135 ; Webster's Works, 

He was verle vHse« modeat, and warle, being no- 
thing delicat in Us fore, nor curious of bis apparell. 
fie eanlAawaie wUh all wethers, both hot and cold, 
and Ind we anie paines. 

Holbuhed, Cnmuett <^f frabuid, p. 38. 
AWBEL. <' Jwbel or ebelle tre,'' is translated 
in the Prompt. Parr, by ebonut, tfibumui. 
Although scarcely agreeing with the Latin 
terms, it probably means the abete, or white 
poplar, which is called ebbel in the eastern 
AWBLAST. An arbalest. This form of the word 

occurs in MS. Bib. Reg. 17 C. xviL 1 57* 
AWCTE. Possessed. 

Quanne that was sworn on his wise. 
The king dede the maydcn arise. 
And the erl hire bltaucte. 
And al the load he evere awct$. HaeeUlk, 907. 
AWD. Old. North, 

My Maugb did say this hayl be nought, youl see ; 
1 llnd an owdapenow, hes an awd ee I 

YorUehirt Dialogue, p. 55. 

AWDRYBS-DAT. St. ^theldrytha's day. See 
Paston Letters, iL 248, quoted in Hampson's 
Kalendarium, iL 26. 
AWE. (1) Ought. See Towneley Mysteries, 
pp. 24, 55 ; Robson's Met Romances, p. 26. 
I awe thurghe ryghte the to lufe ay. 
And to love the batbenyghte and daye. 

MS. Unetdm, A. i. 17, f. 189. 
Scnwearecomcn toOalvarle^ 
Lat Uk* naa balpe BOW as hym oiM. 

Kariif Miifeteriee, Walpole MS* 

(2) To own ; to possess ; to owe. See Twaine 
and Gawin, 720; Robscm's Met. Romances, 
p. 27, for instances of this last meaning. 

Als I sat upon that lowe, 

1 bigan Denemark for toowe. HswMr, 189S. 

(3) An ewe. 

Jwe Ueteth after lomb, 

Lhouth after oalve ca ; 
BuUuc sterteth, bucke veftetb, 

Mnrie sing cuocu. RUeonfe Amdemi Setigt, 1. 1 1. 

(4) " For love ne for awe/* WilL and the Wer- 
wolf, p. 195, a proyerbial expression not un- 
common in the old English metrical ro- 
mances. See an instance in R. de Brunne, MS. 

AWEARIED. Wearied; tired. 

Heere the nobles were of sundrle opinions : for 
some awearied with the note of bondage, would 
gladlle have had warres: other, having r^^d to 
their sons lieng In hostage with the enimies« would 
in no wise consent thereto. 

HoHruhed, Hiet. i^ Seetland, p. 90. 

AWE-BANB. A check upon. The word occurs 

with this explanation in the Glossographia 

Anglicana Nova, ed. 1719, in y. but it seems to 

be properly a Scotch word. SeeJamieson,inv. 

AWECCHE. To awaken. 

O fjrere ther wes among. 

Of here slep hem shulde aweedte. 

Wen hoe shulden thidere recchew 

Jls/ig.itffiHff. 11978 
AWEDE. To become mad ; to lose the senses. 
{AS,) SeeLybeansDisconus,395,618,957; 
Sir Tnstrem, p. 297 ; Rob. Olouc p. 162. 
And wept evere as it wolde Meeds for fere. 

Wm,am4tlt9 Wenoa^ft^X 
And XidiA bothe sqnler and knight. 
That her quen awede wold. 

iSIr OrpAeSb ed. Laii^ 48. 
AWEI6HTTE. Awoke. (A,^S,) 

The kyng swoghened for that wonnde. 
And hsstiUdi hymself uweightte. 
And the launee out pleightte. 
And lepe on fote with swerd ot steel. 
And gan hym wereswlthe wel. 

K^ng MiMmnder, 5858. 
AWELD. To gorem ; to rule. (^.-&) 
Eld nul meld no murthes of mal ; 
When eld me wol aweld, ml wele Is a-wal. 

neiiq, Jntiq. iL 910. 
AWEN. Own. North. 

Our Henry, thyaicwi chose knight. 
Borne to oriierite the r^oa of Fruinoe 
By trewe discent and be title of right. 

fUUq. Antiq. 1 99a 
Bot to thekynge I rede thou Un 

TowetehisewefUMWille Ar Ftereevo/, 390. 
AWENDEN. Thought 

The Jewes out of Jurselem awsMd^ he were wode. 
RHtq. Antiq. L 144. 

AWENSWERABLE. Answerable. 

To use all pleasures in tuche medlocrytie, at 
should be accoridlnge to reason, mAmwenewerable to 
honestie. ArOetologia, xxviii. 150. 

AWER. Anhour. Xflnc. 

Wake on awyr for the love of me. 
And that to me ys more plesauneo 
Than yff thu sent xij, kyngs tteo 
To my sepulkyr with gratt puysscbaunce. 
For my dethe to take vengeauncew 

Mind, Witt, and VnderetOHding, p. 10. 





AWR. Knofw. 

B«ney horat w« Khali fltMl 

Yeff BolMi Hodflbe Bortiande. 

Maahotte li y-oom now, mjM own dot tonej 

It b tyiM tbow be aw^fntfd of thyn old wone. 

AWF.(l)Anel£ Norik. 

Some silly dotfng bcalneleae eallb. 
That mdentendt tklagt by the ludflB» 
Say that the Ikyrk left thlsaM(^» 
And tookeaway the other. 

Drw9Um'9Fo§mt0 p« 171* 
(2) An idiot ; a noodle. Nortk, 
'AWFRYKE. Africa. 

Lystenythnow, y tchall yoer telle. 
As y fynde in pardiement ipdl^ 
Of lyr Uanowee, the gode baron* 
That lyeth In Ampnflc* In prytcm. 
MS, OamMi, Ft. U. 38,f. tl7. 

AWFUL. (1) Obedient ; under due awe of an- 

We oome within oar ou^ banks again. 
And knit our pomtes to the arm of peaoe. 

8 Amy IF. It. 1. 
(2) FearM;fefring. Jiider. 
AWGHT. Ought. 

The fyerthe es for he es uncertayne 
Wheth ft he saile wende to Joy or payne ! 
Who so wyll of there fowre take hede, 
HymouyMgretly the dede here todrede. 

Hampole, MS, Bow^t, p. 81. 

AWGHTBND. Thedghth. 

The awghtmd has this curssyng laght, 
Als the! that deles wy th wyi^craft. 
And namely with halowyd thynge* 
Ab «rlth howielleor cremyng. 

HmmpoUt MS, J O tw u , p. 7* 
AWGRYM. Arithmetic. 

Than satte suaime, as siphre doth In awgnfm. 
That noteth a place, and no thfagaralllth. 

DtrttUtm^ Bkkmrd 11, p. 99. 
A-WHARF. Whiried rounds 

And wyth quettyng ais j tor / , er he wolde 1 J5t. 

£k^ OeiMiFM, p. 8B. 
A-WHEELS. Onivheels. Vmr.diak The term 

ii used by Ben Jonson. 
AWHERE. Anywhere. See Skinner's observa- 
tions on this word in the fourth part of his 
Etymologicum, who says it means dniderimm^ 
and hence Coles explains it ifenrr. 
5yf thou madatt Msftere any Towe 
To wnischypOod for thy prove. 

For yf my foot wolde awhergoot 
Or that myn hod wolde eUls do. 
Whan that myn herteisthecayen. 
The remenaunt is alio in vsyne. 

Gsiacr, M8, Sot. JnHq, 134, f. 108. 
I knowe ynough of this matter, Pamphagus, not 
thither awhen bat riche. Aeohttm, IMO. 

AWHEYNTE. To acquaint 

Jmht^Hi§ the noght withe like man that thou 
melaatin thestrete. 


AWHILE. Awhilst It U used as a verb in 
some counties in the expression, **l can't 
awhile/* i. e. I can't wait, I have no time. As 
a proposition it means, tmtil, whilst. 

A^WHOLE. Whole ; entire. SormrtH. 

A-WILLED. Wmed. 

That had a-ceiOfd his wyU as wbdon him Uughte. 
DtpmMm^rRMard II, p. SI. 

AWING. Owing. 

And, madam, there la one duty mwtitg unto me 
part wherof was taken or my master deeeased, whose 
soul Qod have merqr, and most part taken to your- 
ariteelnoehedled. P l m mpi m Ca n^s pandmut, p. 41. 
AWINNE. To win; to aooompUrii a purpose. 
See Reliq. Antiq. iL 243 ; Uartilnnie's Ifct 
Tales, p. 87 ; Sir Tristrem, p. 238. 
Ftaral hire wr e nehe, and alheitglnne. 
The wton love sche na might m w i mnt , 

/JmrwiBefs^ Ittt. 
AWIRGUD. (1) Aceursed. Ventegtm, 
(2) Stru^ed; throttled. 
A-WTTE. ToaccDse. (jL^) 

Be not to iMwty on brede fer to bile. 
Of gredynes lest men the wolde «-«etta. 

AWTTH. (1) Ought 

And If the preat sacra Crist wan he blesslth the 
sacrament of Ood In the enter, tutritk he not to 
blewith the peple that dredlth not to sacre Crist ? 

JpotogwM*^ UOmda, p. 30. 
(2) Away. This is Heame's conjecture in a 

paasage in Peter Langtoft, p. 99. 
AWKERT. Perverse; stubborn ;obitiBate;un. 
accountable. North, Tht tAnxb mwiertfy h 
also used. Aw hwa r d occurs in a similar sense 
in Shakespeare : 
Was I, for this, nigh wrackt upon the sea. 
And twice by awktoafd wind fhim England's bank 
Drove back again unto my native dime ? 

And undertook to travaUe dangerous wales. 
Driven by mtkwmri wtada and boisterous seae. 

AWKWARDE. Backward. Shakespeare, Mar. 

lowe, and Drayton, have awkward tat adoene 

winds. See Palsgrave, f. 83. 

The enperour thane egcrly at Arthure he strykes, 

^Afllneenle on the umbrere, and egeAy hym hlttea. 

Mmrte Arthur; MS, Umeoln, f. 77* 

AWLATED. Disgusted. (J,^) 

Vor the king was somdel oidierterf, and to gret despit 

it nom. 
That fram so unciene tbinges eni mete htm com. 
And het It do out of Is court, and the wrecchea 
ssame do. Rob. OfoMc. p. 485. 

AWLDE. Old. Somerset, 

For he that knawes wde and kane se 
What hymself was. and es, and aalle be, 
A wyser man he may he taulde, 
Whetiiyr he be 50wng man or eteltff. 
Than he that kanalle othyr thyag. 
And of hymself hasaoknawyng. 

HcMpofa, MS, Bomm, p. 17> 
AWLB. AIL In Songs ofthe London Prentices, 
p. 62, we read, *< 111 pack tq» my awl$ and be- 
gone," apparently meaning all his pn^ierty. 
Bishop Kennett gives the following as an ''old 
Northern song over a dead corps." See also 
the Antiq. Revert iv. 453. 

This ean night, thbean night. 

Every night andflaeto. 
Fire and fleet, and candle light. 
And Chflit noAre thy sawla. 

JIK.LaiMl.108a, inv.Fir«««. 




AWLUNO. An along; entirdy owing to; aU 

along o£ NmiK 
AWLU9. Always. Lane, 
AWM. A measure of Bhenishwine, containing 
foortj galloDB, mentioned in the statute 12 
Car. ILc4. 
AW-MACKS., An sorts ;aUkittcl8. Nf/rih. A 
Torksbire anecdote is told of a weU-known 
piacatoiy judge from the sooth, who, taking an 
erenkig's walk on the banks of the Oose, f dl in 
with a boy who was angling, and asking him 
what kind of ilsh he was angling for, the lad 
repBed, ** Aw-madu." The word was a poser 
to his lordship, who afterwards mentioning the 
drcumstanoe to some of his acquaintance, said 
he frnded before then that he knew the names 
of eyery kind of fresh-water fish in the coun- 
try, but that he had tried in yain to find any 
notice of awnuicit. 

Now Oy» came flote rydyng* 
On a m«wle wde owmtelEint j«. 

JO. Omiflft. Ff. ii. », f. 153. 
AWMBBERB. An ahnoner. Pron^U Parv, 
AWMBTR. A liquid measure ; a kind of wine 
TCSseL See Prompt. Parv. p. 19 ; Ducange, 
in ▼. Ambra ; Qo. Bev. It. 377. 
AWlfE. (1) A soqpicion. 

Thyi tale was tolde on the Thunday, 
That tbey wolde redly come on the Fryday ; 
And alto In that cet^ waa cayde the tame. 
And thexoff bad owie kyoge an oiiniM, 

ArdmtHogia, zxl. (B. 
(2) To guess. Palsgrave, in his Table of V erbes, 
£. 156,has,.''/aipmtf,I gesse by juste measure 
to hytte or touche a thyng, j€ etme^ prime 
em^piga^ taidjejfretu man etme^ fa^ prim mtm 
etmet prendre man etme, conjugate in^e prent, 
I take. I wyU awme to hytte yonder bucke in 
the psnnche, Je esmeray, or Jeprendray man 
e9MedeJhgipereedaynla,alapance" See 
further observations on this word in v. jime. 

And whenne he li entred his covert, thei oughte 
to tarye tU thei awmt that he be entred two skylftil 
bowkhotea. JfS.fiMtf.A46. 

AWMNERE. An almoner. See Amner. 
The •wnmere by this hathe sayde grace. 
And the ahnea-dyMhe hate aett in place ; 
Thcr in the kcrver alofte achalle aette s 
To Mrre God fyr*t, withouten lette* 
Theae other lofes he paryi aboute. 
Lays hit myd dysshe, withouten doute. 
The smalle lofe he cuttes even in twynne, 
Tho over d(de in two lays to hym. 
The MfsiMfiere arod adialle have in honde, 
Aaofllcelbr almcs, y nndnntonde; 
AUe the broken-met he kepys, y wate. 
To dele to pore men at the 5ate« 
And drynke that leves served in haUe, 
Of ryche and pore, bothe grete and smalle ; 
He is swome tooverse the servis wele. 
And dele It to the pore every dde ; • 
Selver he deles rydand by way. 
And his almys-dysshe, as I 30U say. 
To the porest man that he can fynde. 
Other mllys, I wot, he Is unkynde. 

Boke 0/ Curtatift, ap. Stevtnson, in v. 
AWN. (1) To own ; to acknowledge. North. 
(2) To own ; to possess. North. 

(S) To visit. " He never atratus," Le.he never 

visits or calls upon us. York$k. 
(4) Own. See'Wrighfslfona8ticLetters,p.ll8; 
Hall, Henry IV. 114. 

Kyng Arthour than verament 
Ordeynd, throw hys tuvnt assent, 
Thb tabvUdonnounte, withouten lette. 

Tht GtkwoUt DBttMce, 501 

AWND. Ordained. York$k. Kennett, MS. 

Lansd. 1033, gives the example, **ltm awn'd 

to ill luck, L e. it is my peculiar destiny or 

AWNDERNE. An andiron. Pron^t.Parv. 
AWNE. (1) The beard of com; the arista of 

Linnaeus. North. Ray has, **Ka awn or 

beard, om/a."— Diet. TriL p. 7. 
(2) Own. 

Joodcr, thai said, ooounes his awm sonne. 
That his aire sail be. 

M8. Omtafr. Ff. v. 48, f. 91. 
AWNER. Apossess(^;anowner. North. Britton 

gives this as an eariy form of altar. See his 

Arch. Diet in v. 
AWNSCHENYD. Ancient. Pronqtt. Parv. 
AWN.SELL. Own.4elf: North. So also otent- 

9eU»t own-selves. 
AWNTROUSESTE. Boldest; mostventuresome. 

The mnnbrtutuit mene that to hb oste leogede. 

MorUArthun, MS. Uncolm, f.TO. 

AWNTURS. Adventurous. 

He hath slayn an awntun knyghu. 
And flemyd my quene withowtcn ryghte. 

MS. Cantab. Ft, ii. 38, f. 7A. 
AWONDER. To surprise; to astonish. See 
Gy of Warwike, p. 197; WOL and the Werwolf, 
p. 12. Also, to marvel. 

On his shulder a crois he bare. 
Of him alle aunrndride ware. 
CurtorMundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab. 1. 119. 
Of my tale ne bcoth noght atroMdrerf, 
The Frendie say he ilogh a hundred. 

JfS. Jrttnd. CM, Arm. 68, f. 967. 

AWORK. On work ; into work. 

Will your grace set him awwrkf 

Bird ina Cage, U 1. 
These seditions thus renewing, emboldened the 
commonaltie (of London especially) to uprore, who, 
set awiMrke by raeane of an afflray, ranne upon mcr- 
chauntes straungers chiefly, as they are commonly 
woont to doo, and both wounded and ipoyled a 
great number of them before they could be by 
the magistrates restrained. 

Polydon Vergil, ed. 1844, p. 98. 
AWORTHE. Worthily. See Poems of Scottish 
Kings, p. 25. The following example is taken 
from an early copy of Sir T. More's Elegy on 
Elizabeth of York. 
Comfort youre son mnd be you of god chere. 
Take alle ecoerCIke, for it wol be none other. 

MS. Sloame I8tf, f. 80, 

AWOUNDED. Wounded. 

I was awenmded ther tul sore 
That I was nere ded therfore. 

AWR. Our. North. 
AWRAKE. Avenged. (J..S.) 
Thus the yong knight. 

For sothe y-slawe was tharei 
Tristrem that trewe hight, 

Aterake him al with care Sir TVMrem, p. 904. 




AWRBKE. To avenge. (J,-S,) It is used for 
the past participle in Rob. Glotic. p. 388, as 
Mr. Stevenson has observed. See Rob. Glouc. 
pp. 36, 136 ; Holinshed, Conqnest of Ireland, 
p. 31. See Awroken. 

Quod King Rtdurdt Sith It is to, 
I wote well what I have to do t 
I shuU me of them lo awrtko. 
That all the world thecof shall epeke. 

JUekmrd Coer dt Um, 1771* 
And *« merqT thai crlden him so ewiche. 
That he fave hem respite of her live, 
Ttl he had after his baronage sent. 
To tuorek^n him thourg5 Jugement. 

nor. and Btefidb. 654. 
AWRENCHE. To seize. 

He ne myjt no ferther blenche. 

The dragon cowde so many otcrmdbe. 

MS. Quuab. rt, H. 88, f.lU. 

AWRETE. To avenge. This form of the word 
occurs in Rob. Olouc p. 361, where Mr. 
Stevenson considers it is a mistake for oi^rece, 
to avenge. (J.-S.) 
AWRITTEN. Written. Ventegan. 
AWRO. Any. 

Is ther fallen any affray 
In land oicrre where ? 

ToumOeif i^ftttriea, p. 973> 

AWROREN. Avenged. See Morte d' Arthur, 
L13. (^.-5:) 

That y am awroken now 
Of hym that my fisdur slowe. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. IL 88, f. 119. 

AWRUDDY. Ahready. North. 
AWS-BONES. According to Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, '* ox-bones, or bones of the legs 
<xf cows or oxen, with which boys play at awt 
or yawse." Yorith, 
AWSOME. Appalling ;awfuL North. 
AWT. (1) All the. North. 
(2) Out North. 

AWTALENT. EvUwiU. (J.-S.) 
In sacrylege he syned sore. 
When he wrojht after the fendes lore. 
And fulfylled hys awtalent. 
And dyde the fendes commandment. 

MS. A*hmot9 9l, f.8B. 

AWTER. (1) To alter. North. 
(2) An altar. 

Ais 1 fynde in my sawe, 
Seynt Thomas was i-slawe. 
At Cantyrbury at the awttr ston, 
Wher many myraclys are i-don. 

Richard Ci>er dt lAon, 41. 
Ais so a preeste, al yf he be 
SynAiUe and owte of charyt^. 
He es Ooddes mynyster and holy kyrkee. 
That the sacrament of the awttr wyrckes. 
The whylk es never the lesse of my^t, 
Alle yf the preeste here lyflb noght ryght. 

HampoU, MS. Bowu, p. 118. 

AWTERATION. Alteration. North. 
AWTERT. Altered. Tim Bobbin. 
AWTH. (1) All the. North. 
(2) Ought; anything. 

When mey ftither geffe me oivA, 
Be Ood that me dere bowth, 
SdM ttaiw ya mey fec». 

Wnf mnd tkt Boy« st. %ix. 

AWTHE. Sad? 

Pilgremes. in speehe ye ar fUlle mwtht. 
That shalle I weUe dedare you why. 
Ye have it hart, and that Is rawthe. 
Ye can no better stand therby, 
Thyng that ye here. 

Towntleif Hr f e H es, p. VfL 
AWTHYR. Either. 

Alle these, he saycs, that com of Eve, 
That es alle mene that here behote lave, 
Whane thai are borne, what so thai be. 
Thai saye awthtfr a-a or e-e. 

HMmpot4, North C.M9. 
AWTS. Oats. lane. 
AWVER. Over. Someraet. 
AWVISH. (1) Queer; neither tick nor wdL 

North. Qu. e^h. 
(2) Elfish. Lane. It is often applied to a wag- 
gish fellow; but it is sometimes explained, 
"silly, downish." The acQective awnMhfyf 
horribly, supematurally, is also used. 
AWWHERE. Everywhere; all over. 

Now thynk me what payneis bodies sufflr hera^ 

Thorow maladies that grereth hem awwhero. 

HamfolttMS. f. 8. 

AWYDE. Owed. 

The Archebysschoppe of Cawnterbnry, the Erie of 
Essex, the Lorde Bamesse, and sudie other as 
oMiyfts Kynge Edwarde good wylle, as welle In 
Loodone as in othere plaoos,'made as many menna 
as thci myghta in strengthynge the aeide Kynge 
Edwarde. WmHtworOff Chronielt, p. 15. 

AWYN. Own. North. 

Last of all tliedyr gan aproclia 

A worthy man, hyr acoyn ny oosyn. 

MS. BmaL Poti. 118. 

AWYRIBN. To curse; to execrate. {A.-S.) 
They wolden atoyrien that wight 
For his wel dedes. 
And so they chewen charittf. 
As chewen shaf houndes. 

Piert PUmghn^nt 1^ Wi. 

AWTS. Awes; makes afraid. 
By thys ensample that us aioy«, 
V rode that we leve alle oare foule sawys. 

MS. Hart. 1701, f. 11. 

AW3TE. Ought. 

And namely sy then hym owith to mynystre to alle 
the puple the precious body of Crist, aw^te to ab- 
stene hym fro al ydli playing bothe of myraclys and 
ellis. Rtiiq. Antiq. W. 48. 

AX. (1) To ask. A common ardudsm and pro- 
vincialism. This word, though pure Saxon, is 
now generally considered a vulgarism. The 
form ax9€ occurs in the Howard Household 
Books, p. 361. To ox, in the North, is to ask 
or publish banns in a church, and when they 
have been read three times, the couple are said 
to be 4u^d out. 

(2) Mr. Stapleton conjectures ax in the following 
passage to mean a mill-dam. See Blount's 
Law Dictionary, in v. Hatchet. 

Also ther is a a» that my master clameth the keep, 
ing of ; I pray you let them have and occupie the 
same unto the same tyme, and then we shall take a 
dereocion in every thing. 

Plumpton Corrupondenc$, p. 71* 

(3) ** To hang up one's ax," an ^y proverl^ 
expression, to desist from fruitless labour, to 
abandon an useless project. See Rob. Glouc. 




561, quoted in Sterenton's additioiis to 

(4) An azletree. Ktni. 
AXEN. Ashes. West. (i/.-5.) 

T not vhsrof beth mensopniM; 
Of erthe and tutn, feU« and bone ? 

Wright'* Pol. aong$» p. 903. 

AXEN-CAT. A cat that tumbles in the ashes. 
JDfvoii. See the Exmoor Glossary, in y. 

AXES. The ague. N&rth, Generally, in old 
writen, it it applied to fits or paroxysms. In 
a fcrer drink, described in an early medical MS. 
in Lincohi Cathedral, fl 305, the herb horseshoe 
is to be taken, and hpaternoiter said ^'byfore 
Ihe axef." See Warkworth's Chronicle, 
p. 23 ; Prompt Parv. p. 218 ; Skelton's Works, 
iL 101 ; Qoair of James I. p. 54 ; Troilus and 
Creseide, L 627, iL 1315. 

AXEWADDLE. To wallow on the ground. 
l>€9om. An axewaddler, a term of reproach 
in a similar sense, and also, a dealer in 

AXFBTCH. A kind of pulse. Sometimes speh 
aaneteh and aswort It is the same as horse- 
shoe. See Gerard, p. 1057. 

AXIL-NALIS. Nails or bolts to attach the axle- 
tree to the body of the csrt. See an inventory 
dated 1465 in the Finchale Charters, p. 299. 
Palsgrave has, *' axUnayle, cheville d'aixeuL" 

AXING. Request. (^.-5.) 

And they him aware his ting fayr and weL 

Oumeert Cbnf . T, 18S8. 

AXIOMANCT.Divinationby hatchets. Coeieram, 
AXLE-TOOTH. A grinder. North. 
AX-PEDLAR. A dealer in ashes ; a person who 

hawks about woodashes. Wett, 
AXSEED. Axfetch. Mmiheu. 
AXST. To ask. (^..&) 

Ho that wyll there M«y Justua, 
To kepe bys armca fro the matua. 

In tumement other fyght ; 
Dar lie never forther gon, 
Ther he oiay fynde Jiutes anoon, 
Wyth lyr LaunfU the koyght. 

Laun/bZ, 1087* 

AXTREB. The axle-tree. See the Nomendator, 
p. 267 ; Rdiq. Antiq. ii 78, 83. 
And of theajtfre bitwene the polis tweyoe. 

Ut^gmla, MS. Ac. Antiq, 134, f. S6. 
Thunder and earthqualcea raging, and the roclu 
Tumbling down from their acyU, like mighty blodii 
Rowl'd from huge mountains,auch a noise tliey make, 
Aa though in lunder heav'ns huge astree bralce. 

Drapton*$ Po9m*, p. S19. 

AXUNGER. Soft fat; grease. (laf.) 

The powder of earth- wormet, and as%mg»r, addeth 
further, grouniwell, and the tender toppet of the 
bose-tree. with olibanum ; all theae, being made up 
and tempered together to malte an emplatter. he 
coonaellech to bee applyed to tinnewea that are layed 
open. ThptatTf Hittoty qf Strpmtts, p, 311 . 

AXWEDNESDAI. Ashwednesday. 

So that an Angtdnetdai, al hi the Wette ende. 
To Oloooatrt he wende, mid gret poer i-nou. 

AXWORT. Axfetch. Mm»kiu. 

AY. (1) An egg. 

The IV ia round, and lignefleth 
HetdMlhare the aourmounde, 
Thia b found the myddell erd, 
Botheof lewedandof krid. Kyng AUmunder, ftp* 

(2) Ah! 

jfy I be-sherewe yow be my fky, 
Thia wantoa darlies be nyse all way. 

BM99H*» JneientSomg; p. 101. 

(3) Always ; ever. In the North of England, it 
is somc^es employed as an expression of sur- 
prise or wonder. 

(4) Tes. Pronounced i, as, indeed, it is spelt in 
most old books. 

ATANCE. Against 

At pointe terrible a^fomet the miacreanta on nyght* 
An lierynly myatery waa adiewyd hym, old bookyi 
rehene. Periif't RaUquts, p. 73* 

ATATNE. Again. 

Att Creiae he foughteaiMime, 

The kynge td Berne there waa tlayne. 

Ao6.Gfo«<e. P.5Q9. 
AYDER. Either. 

Whan oiMfer oat gan other anyle, 

Ther b^gan a strong batayle. Oet^wimm, 1507« 

Sche thowth lost, be the rode. 

That dydde the boye eney gode, 

J^der met or dreynlte. Fr«re and the Bo^, it ill. 
AYE. (1) Against See the Heralds' CoUege MS. 
of Rob. Glouc. quoted in Heame's ed. p. 407 s 
and Stevenson's additions to Boucher, in ▼. 
(2) Fear; trouble. (J.-S.) 

Tlii men er Maeged hard in Dunbar with greteoiye. 
iMngtt^fte Chronide, p. 97^. 
AYED. Aid. 

The murren rot is on their lot, 
Theyr helth is sore decayed ; 
No rcmedie, thy must needs die, 
OnleaOod be theyr eyed, 

Lambeth Barlif Booke, p. S70i» 

AYEL. Aforeftther. (A.-N,) 

And whan the renoune of his excellence. 

By long procesae, and of his groat enerease. 

Came by the report unto the audience 

Of hia oyef, the great Astiagca. Boehae, b. ii. c. 2S. 

AYENBIER. Redeemer. 

Knelyng and praienge after thy Lorde thy 
maker, thyn i^enhier, thy love and thy lovyer. 

MS. Bedl, 423, f. 189. 

AYENBYTE. Remorse. 

Thia hoc b Dan Midielia of Northgate, y-writean 

Englia of hia ojene hand, thet hatte jtpenb^e of 

Inwyt, and ia of the bochouae of Saynt AustSnea of 

Canterberi. MS. Arundel i7, f 9 

AYENE. Again. 

He camme i^cfie yet the next wek. 
And toke awey both henne and chelu 


AYE-NOWE. Enough. 

The emperoure gafe Clement welthis fde, 
To lyfe in reches and in wele, 

Aye-nowe for ever-more. MS.Lineoln A. 1. 17, f.l06 

AYENSAY. Denial. 

Ther is none ajfenaap nor excusadoun, 
Tyll the trouthe be rypped into the roote. 

l^dgate, MS. Aehimote 39, f. 46. 
AYENST. Against 

Yea, for God. then sayd Robyn, 

Or ellea I were a fole ; 
Another day ye wyll roe clothe, 

I trowe, Usenet the yole^ JleMn Heetf, t. 74. 




ATENSTONDE. To wiihitand. See Oette 
Romanorum, p. 53. 

And wban ony nidi token was •ejby4ls7orbe 
nyght, than anone alto mancr men of the oontrcjr 
nude hem tedy to a rm t tmd§ , yf ooy enemyet had 
come. MS. Harl, 17M. 


He made a lawe that every ded knyyt tholde be 
buried in hit annour and annyt, and IffiB ony mane 
weere so hardy for to ipoyle him of hit armyt afler 
that he were y-burlede, he thulde lete hit life, wlth- 
oute ony a^etut-stondifnge* Qetta Wmumorum, p. 10. 

AYENWARDE. Bwdt. (^.-&) 
And at he came aifenmMirde privily. 
Hit nece awoke, and aakith who goeth there ? 

Troihu and Cnteidt, lit. 7S1. 
AYERE. (1) An heir. 

And echo wlUe pray hlr tone to ftyre. 
That we may tamene gete an a^tre* 

MS. Uncoln A. 1. 17, f. 99. 

(2) Breed. 

Many faweount and faire, 
Hawkit of nobille ay«re 
On hit perke gunne repayre. 

StfT Degrmante, Uneobi MS. 

(3) Air ; breath ; atmosphere. 

Sothely wicked men corrumpith here nelghborat, 
for here throte it Ilche to a berlel opynyng, that 
tleeth men thorogh evyl aww^, and iwelwtih hem 
Inne. MS. Tainner 16, f. i9L 

The tother world that et lawer, 
Whare the ttemet and the planetee ere, 
Oodd ordaynd anely for owre behofe. 
Be thit tkylle, alt I kane profe. 
The ay«re fro thethene, and the heete of tone, 
Sotuynet the erthe heere thare we wooe. 

Hdmyolf, MS, Bewet, p. 4S. 

(4) To go out on an expedition, or any business. 

There awet none alyenet to oyer* appone ny^ttye 
With tyche a rebawdoot rowtte, to ryot thy-telvene. 
McrteJrtkun, MS, Limeoin, f. 58. 
The Ihder teU to hit tonedere. 
To lawe thu ihalt go aim9$ 
And ooate mexs. markn. 

MS. HarL 89tt, f. 119. 

AYEWARD. Backward. 

And lad me agen into the plaie of Paradlce, fto 
the whidie he ravlthed me, and eft a g e war d he led 
me to the lake ther he raTeathed me. 

MS. lUmL 1704. 
AYFET. CoTet Rob. Gbme. 
AYFULL. High; proud ; awfuL See the He- 
raids' College MS. of Robert of Gloucester, 
quoted in Heame's edition, p. 377» where the 
text reads heyvd, q. y. 
AYGHE. Awe; terror. 

Sum for gret mifght and dout. 
To other kinget flowen about. 

Ar^/our and Merlin, p. 18. 

AYGHT. Height. Ritton. 
AYGRE. Sour. This is merely the old ortho- 
graphy of eager, but is still in use in York- 
shire. See Jigre, 

And with a todalne vigour it doth potteC 
And curd, like aggre dropplngt Into milke. 
The thin and wholtome blood. 

Haml0t,td. less, p. 958. 

AYGREEN. The houseleek. See Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033, t 28; Prompt. 
Puv. p. 251. 

AYGULET. Ana^et 

Which aU above betprinckled was throHhout. 
With golden anultu that gttttred bright. 

Th4 FamrU QvetiM, II. iU.flS. 

AYILD. To yield. In many cases, the a may 
probably be the exclamation A! See also 
Beves of Hamtoun, p. 10, where it is some- 
what difficult to decide, the editor having 
throughout that work confused the pronoun a 
with the prefix to the verb. 
Let now ben al your fight, 
And<Mf<Uthe to thit knight. Rmbmnp p. 4701 
AYIR. Air. Somerset 
AYL. Always. Skumer. 
AYLASTANDE. Everlasting. 

That woman kynde tchuld tuttene the reprove 
ot ^kutande coupablllt^ amonge men, tche that 
made man fall into tynne. MS. Bgwion 849, f. 909. 
AYLASTANDLY. Everiastingly. 
ft aerved never Joye tQftaatmiuUjf, 
For je ftaUUled m^ the warkea of mercy. 


AYLEDE. Possessed. 

Hir t^fleda no pryde. Sir Pmr^ml, KO. 

AYLIS. Sparks from hot iron. It is translated 
by /irrine, in the Cambridge MS. of Walter 
de Bibblesworth, Reliq. Antiq. iL 84. 
AYMANT. A diamond. (^.-iST.) 
To here hutbande a precyoute thyng, 
A bracelett and an ajfmmnt rynge. MS. Rawl. 958. 
AY-MEE. A lamentation. See Florio, in v. Jk ; 
Cotgrave, in v. AaeMe. 

Nor delude the dti^tcX he afltected, and to whoee 
■ole choice he ttood aliyed with felned ay-mtct. 

Two LancoMhire Loven,p. 116. 

AYMERS. Embers. (w^..5.) See Forme of Cory, 
p. 40 ; Reliq. Antiq. L 52. 

Tak the croppe of the rede dok, and fkld it in a 
lefe of the tdvcne, and roulle it in the a^men. 

MS. UiteUn. Med. f.991, 

Tak havremeale, and tawge, and laye hem in bote 

mgmere, and erly at morowe tethe hem In a potte 

with watur and wyne, and do therto oynkmet and 

5olkcK of eyiCDe, and thanne aerve hit (brthe. 

MS. Culin. MiddUhitt, f. 13. 

AYN. Eyes. 

When theri aeye it wat tir Oil, 
Hefeldoun on knet him bl. 
And wepe with both hit eyn. 

Oif ^ Warwfket p. 3Sft. 

AYOH. Awry; adant; on one side. Stiop. 
AYONT. Beyond. NortK 
A-YOU-A-HINNY. A Northern nurse's luDaby. 
See Bell's Northern Rhymes, p. 296; Croft's 
Excerpta Antiqua, p. 107. 
AY-QUERE. Everywhere. 

J]f-quere naylet fttl nwe for that note ryehed. 

Sur Oaweiifne, p. 94. 

AYRE. (1) An heir. See Towneley Myites, 
p. 114; Audelay's Poems, pp.4, 12; DiaL 
Creat MoraL p. 233; Ywaine and Gawin, 
3093 ; MS. Ashmole 33, t 46. 

Myn honoore talnoght patae flra this ge n«aci o u n 
in alle other that eratoome wlthoutcn cyrat. 

(2) Ready; yare. 

Anooe the tqnyer made him aifre. 
And by hym^aelfe forth can he fare. 





(3) Ere; before. 

lite li« M wylte he vfthiPelltABd wo, 
Sebobftdebyin vpewtthhyivtogoi 
Ttas tmUf^ Iw ty^Mi with mekyUe dmto. 
Bow •tJKfne hy* wylto wltlv hyn h« |ode. 
Scho Me bym tomakelle feUte, 
So grette ane ^|rr« he nerer behelde. 

A. d§ Brunnt, MS, Bowet, p. 99. 

(4) Air. 

For the corrupqrowDe of hya body, 
Yf it lolde langt abowne enhe ly, 
Yt moght the ajfre to comimpped make. 
That men thaiof the dede solde take. 

Hampole, MS, Bowe§, p. 37* 

ATREABLE. Arable. 
Thdrehaye, theirecome to repe, bynde,or mowe* 
Sette onte thelre fklowce, pattoret, and lande oyrwoM*. 

ATRELT. Early. 

Of th]« the prophet wytnes beref 
In a tahnectf the sawter thorgh thli Tert ; 
The prophet says thua als wrytcne es> 
Awr^tif a man pastes alt the gret, 
4rr«4r are the begynnyng of the day 
He floryichet and pattea away. 


ATREN. Eggg. IiitbeFormeofCury,p.77»the 
following receipt is given to make an erMate, 
a kind of confection composed of herbs, 
** Take persel, myntes, sairerey, and sange, tan- 
•ey, wervayn, danry, rewe* ditajm^ feneli sonth- 
imrode ; bewe hem and grinde bem smale ; 
medle hem np with ayrene; do bntter in a 
trap, and do the fars tberto, and bake it and 
mease it forth.'' 

Mcntoheom threowe drit and donge. 
With foule mifren, with rotherea lange. 

XjTV Altmundtr, 4719* 

ATRT. (1) To make an aerie. 

Eapiml ng the loftineate of the mountalnet in that 
ahoore, on which many hawket were wont to oyyy. 

Drayton** Poenu, p. 81. 
(2) Joyftil ; in good spirits. Skinner, 
AT^CHELLE. An egg^elL 

The dragon lay in the ttrete, 

Myghu he nought dure for hete ; 

He fondith to CTeope, as y ow telle, 

Ageyn into the aif-tchellt, Kifng JUiaaundtr, 677* 


Mercy mdtelyd&e of hym he oyaefteMff, 

Gkron. FUotfiM. p. 15. 

AYSCHIS. Ashes. We hare already bad other 
fonns of this word, and more may probably 
be met with. See the liber Niger Domns 
Regis Edw. IV. p. 85. The following is a 
carious early receipt for making white 

Tak twey buthelle of wood aptdiia, and a bntchel 
of lyme. and thre buichdis of comun ap9€hi», lo Out 
ther be no <qi»efti» of ook therymie, and brenne thi 
com«n ayOtn twyet, and make a lye in the tame 
wyae as y r^endde Ufore, and put It in a Testel with 
aflat hotrae; and in ij. galoMt of that lye, pat U^. 
n of tatowh, what Calowh tvtfe It be, and evere as it 
icthith, put thertomoreof lye Into the tyme that o 
fakMwba pntyabi tymei, and loke it be wel y-sterid 
among, and tak up therof alwey to it be twich as 
tiKw wilt hare, and eontymw thoflie wel, and thou 
achalt not faile. MB, Slwane 73. f. 914* 

ATSE. (1) Eiie. {A^N.) 

So thatsAwas the wone at 4fisi^ 
Fortche hath thanne noaendscw 

O0W€r, MS. BocAmHt' 134, 1 938, 
Thus may a tray tour baret rayse. 
And make manye men Ail evele at efw 

R$liq.JHtiq,IL 91. 
Thanne was Engelond ath ayM ; 
Michel was snich a king to preyte, 
Thatheld so Engkmd hi grlth I BoMfelr, S9, 
(2) To make at ease. (J^N^ 

I made it not for to be praysed, 
Bot at the lowed mene ware airvetf, 

Warton'9 Him,Ent^ A«r. 1 68 

AYSELLE. Vinegar. **Jyiell, other alegar," 
is mentioned in a recipe in the Forme of Cury; 
p. 56. See Prompt. Par?, p. 143 $ MS. Lin. 
cobi. Med. f. 294; Towneley Mysteries, 
p. 260. 
A ftille blttire drynke that was wieghte. 
Of ^ysetts and giOle that the lykede noghte. 

MS, UtH»tn A. i. 17, f. 190. 
^stsland galle laysed on a rede. 
Within atpounge thai gun hyde. 

MS, mu. cur. Shn, xviii. 6. 

AYSHWEED. A kind of hert> mentioned l^ 
Minsheu, who appears to say it is the same as 
the gout-wort. 
AYTHIR. Either. 

All elere goMe hlr brydille It tdione, 
One^yCMrsyde hange bellys three. 

True Thomtu, MS. Uneoln, f. 149. 
WIthowttyne gyftes 5ede thay noghte, 
A^^ire hadde townnes three. 

JfS: Lineoln A. 1. 17, f. SO. 
Ther aoathe men te to knithct bete, 
A jfihtr on other dlutes grete. HmoeMt, 90S5. 
ATTTENE. Eighteen. 

The golden nombre of the same yere, 
.i^^lfeneaooonntcd inourekalendere. 

I^dgaie, MS, Jthmole 99, f. 50. 
AT-WHERE. Everywhere. See Sir Tristccm, 
pp. 236, 248, 284: Hardyng's Cbronide, 
f. 159 ; Peter Langtoft, p. 78. Aywhore is 
glossed by evermore in MS. Haii 1701, t 43, 
which seems to be its meaning in the Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 115, and in our second example. 
In the following passage, the Cambridge MS. 
Ff. iL 38, reads *< every whare.^ 
He tent ahowte erery «y<MAere, 
That alie his mene solde make thame jare 
Agaynet the erle to fyghte. 

BrU <ir Totmut MS, Lbmin, f. 115 ' 
And gadrad peat unto ttore, 
Asokerefsdone^yieAors. MS, KutU 1701, f. 37. 
A-ZET. Set; planted. Dorsef. 
AZOCK. The mercury of metal, an alchemical 
term. It is used by Ben Jonson, in the Al- 
chemist, ii. 1. It may not be out of place to 
mention that Ben may have taken tids and 
other technical words from MS. Sloane 313, an 
alchemical MS. which formeriy belonged to 
him, and has his name on the first page. Ash- 
mole spells the word azot^ in his Theat. Chem. 
Brit. pp. 77, 89, 375. 
AZOON. Anon; presently. Exmoor, 
AZOR. An alchemical preparation, a recipe fbr 
which occurs in MS. Sloane 1698, f. 7. In tha 
same manuscript is given a curious list of simi* 
lar terms, but most of them are too technksl 




to require a place in thbworic Thus we have 
aiogribaU for Titriol, Cfftmac for ink, &c. 
AZUKB-BTSB. Among some curious receipts 
in iMS. Sloane 2584, p. 3, we are told that 
** 3if thou wilt prove azure-byte^ whether it 
be good or bade, take a pensel or a penne, 
and drawa smalle rewles upon blewe lettres 
with that ceruse, and 5if thi ceruse be nost 
dere whito bote dede fode, then is the blewe 
nojt fyne." 

AZZARD. A sneaking person ; an insignificant 
fellow. Nijrih, We have also the i^jectiye 
ossoni^, poor, ill-thriven. 
AZZLB-TOOTH. A grinder. Crmen. 
AZZY. A wayward child. Yoriahire. 
A5A. Against 

J$a theday of rykcoynf. RM^jHtiq,li, 198. 
A3B. (1) Against 

For 1m thojto al that tTMOur hart, 
Thef it were a^i lawo. 

(2) Again. 

And that hy Be come oerere aji, 
Botobyhlmbrojte. JfS. CUI. TWn. Qcm. 57. 
By Mahoun, talde the kyng«5M, 
Y nolde the Icte lyves bee. 

M8.J*hmoie S3,tiS, 

A5BFULLBST. The most fearful 
Of ane emperour the a^^fMtett that ever arroys hauntid. 

A5EIN. Against 

A^ein him alle, ojcin allehe* 
A woodlr wtjte mon thai he be. 

CurtorMundl, MS, CoU. IHn, CaiUab, f. 17. 

A5BNBOU5TIST. Hast redeemed. 

Thou heldist forth thin bond, and the eerthe de- 
Touridehem. Thou were leder Inthl mere! to thi 
puple, the whlche thou ojtnbouitut, 

Wiekl\fflt, MS, Bodl, S77. 


But many one wyl never beware, 

Tyl fum myicfaaunce make hem ajenehare, 

MS. HarL 1701, f. 14. 

A5BNNIS. Against. 

Mlkil more if he pronounce without autorit^ or llf 
contrarioutly m^ennU the Lordls wiUe. 

Apologp Jbr th« LoUard», p. 8. 

A5EN-RISTNG. Resurrection. 

For the lerende day, withoute letyn^ , 
Is tokneofo5«iiri4yn«'. 

MS. OotL Trin. Qnm. 07* art. S. 

A5ENSEIDE. Denied. 

Thou suinridest hem to deperte fro me, that ii, fro 
my wiUe and myn entent ; and thel hadde me as 
wfiityng, for I a^erutidt hem in her workis and her 
wordls. MS. Tttmer 1, f. 347. 

A5ENSSETTH. Denieth. 

Hna^fnatetfth alle that trenin. 
And tetteth thus hya resun. 

lf5.Harf.1701, f.43. 

A5ENST0D. Withstood. 

Werfor Poole ojensCMl him in theflwe, and redar- 
guid him, for he was reproTable. 

jipoUgwJbrth0 Lonmr40, p.9, 

A3ENST0NDTN. To withstand. It is trans- 
lated by titto and obeto in Prompt. Parv. p. 70 
A5ENW0RD. On the other hand. 

He biddlth not here to curse him that synnith not, 
nor to aaoyle him that bidith in synne ; but aynwoH 
to aaoUehim that levith his synne, and put him ou» 
of cumpany that lastith in his synne. 

Jlpolog^Jbrtf** Lollards, p. 70 

A3ER.(1) Yearly. 
Heo wol rather bi-leve here truage, that 5e hem bcreth 

a5«r. Bob. Gloue. p. 100. 

(2) Over. 

Yffheof Ooddea wordes aght here, 

Theroffhym thynk a hundreth 5ere ; 

Bot yf it be at any playng, 

At the liale-hows or othir Janglyng, 

For to rache with ilk a fyie, 

Ther hym thynk nojth bot a qwylle ; 

In Oode serves swylk men er irke, 

Thatqwen thai com unto thekyrk. 

To mattyns or mese songyn. 

Thai thynk it lastes a^er langyn ; 

Than sal he Jangyl or telle sum tale. 

Or wy t qware thai sal haf best ale. 

A. tfe Brunma, MS. Bawn, p. C3L 

A5BTENST. Against 

The volk of Oywea wyth bowca oomen a^e^nut the. 


Caym say his synne was knowed. 
And that the erthe had hit showed % 
He wist aitifn-Mtifing was noon. 

CumrMundi^MS. Colt. THn. Omtab. t. 8. 
A5EYNUS. Against 

Errour he schal maynteine none 
^jsyniM the craft, but let hy t gone. 

CotuHtutUtM nfMammrif, p.i3. 

AJLBZ. Fearless. 

How that dojty dredlet demely ther stondcs. 
Armed ful a^tttt in hert hit hym lykes. 

8^ Gawa^e, p. 86. 
AJT. (1) Ought 

Thes serene thinges at the lest 

Felle on that Oke daye ; 

For that ap alle holy kirke 

To honour hit for ay. 

MS. CmUab, Ff. v. 48, f. 83. 
(2) Bight 

For if thou be in dedly synne. 

And therof sdul be schrifene, 
Jjt thynges the bus haf therto. 

Or itbe dene forgifene.S.Osnfafr.Ff. v.48.f4». 
AJTB. (1) Possessed. 

I dar notte telle 50, lord, for scheme. 
The godusnow that he a^ttu 

Rob»oH*$Met, Rom, p. 32. 

(2) Noble ; honourable. Rob. Ghuc. 

B** To know a B from abattledoor," an old 
. phrase, generally implying, according to 
Nares, a very slight degree of learning, or the 
being hardly able to distinguish one thmg from 
another. It is sometimes found in early printed 
works, as if it should be thus written, ** to 
know A. B. from abattledoor,'' an instance of 

which occurs in Taylor's Workes, 1630, ii 69. 

Yon shall not neede to buy bookes ; no, scome to 
distinguish a B, /rem a battJe-doort t onely looke that 
your eares be long enough to reach our rudiments, 
and you are made for ever.O«<« H<>me-tedlr«,I6Q9,p.3. 

For in this age of crittickes are sudi store. 

That of a B. will make a battledore. 

Taiflot'* Motto, 16S9,sig A.ilu 




BA. (1) To IdM. See Chancer, Cant. T., 6015. 

Also a tnbttantiTe, as in Skelton, i. 22. 
(2) Both. (^.-5.) 
'3) A ball. Percy. 
BAAD. (1) Continued. Yorifh, 

(2) To bathe. Craven, 

(3) A woman of bad character. Cumb. 
BAAKE. To bake. Paltgrave. 
BAAL. AbalL 

To this houM 1 have deriicd how you inaie lo 
•ecretly conveif h me, that yon male there keepe me 
at your pleasure to your owne use, and to roy greate 
cootentatiOD, where I male st pleasure enjoye hyro, 
more dearely beloved unto me then the baales of 
nyne o«ne eyes. Riches Farewelt, 1081. 

BAA-LAMB. A lambkin; a ipet term for a 
lamb. Var. dial, 

BAAL-HILLS. Hillocks on the moors, where 
fires are £sncied to have once been in honour of 
BaaL Craven, 

BAAN-CART. The body. Craven, The form 
iaan, bone, occurs in seyeral compounds in the 
Northern dialect. 

BAANT. Am not ; are not. Var, dioL 

BAAR. To bear. Maundevile, 

BAARD. A sort of sea-yessel, or transport 
ship. PhiUipt, 

BA-ARGE. Generally used in Devonshire to 
signify a £Eit heavy person. See the Exmoor 
Scolding, p. 9. 

BAAS. Base. In the Papers of the Shak. Soc 
L 50, ** baof daunces'' are mentioned. These 
were dances very slow in their movements. 
See also Nugs Poeticae, p. 2. 

BAASTE. (1) To sew. Palsgrave, 

(2) Bastardy. Prompt, Parv, 

BAATH. Both. North. 

BAB. (I) To bob down. North. 

(2) A baby ; a child. Far, dial. 

(3; To fish in a simple and inartificial manner, 
by throwing into the water a bait on a line, 
with a small piece of lead to sink it. Eels 
and crabs are sometimes caught in this way. 
We have all read of the giant who *' sat upon 
a rock, and bobbed for whale.'' This is merely 
another form of the word. 

BABBART. The "evele i-met, the babbart;* 
are among the very curious names of the hare 
in the Reliq. Antiq., i. 133. 

BABBLE. (1) Hounds are said to babble, '* if 
too busie after they have found good scent.'' 
Gent. Rec p. 78. 
To talk noisily. Var, dial 
An idle tale. Rowley, 

BABBLEMENT. Silly discourse. North, 

BABBLING. A noisy discourse. "Babbling or 
much speaking." Becon's Early Works, p. 169. 

BABBY. (1) A baby. Var, dial, 

(2) A sheet or small book of prints for chil- 
dren. North, 

BABBY-BOODIES. Same as boodiet, q. v. 

BABE. A chfld's maumet. Gouldman, See 
Baby, This may also be the meaning of the 
word in a difiScult passage in Cymbeline, iiL 3, 
where Hanmer and the chief modem editors 

read bribe. Palsgrave has, **Babe that chyl- 
dren play with, pot^fpee,** 
BABELARY. A foolish tale. More, 
BABELAYANTE. A babbler. 

sir Cayphas, harcken nowe to me ; 
This babetammtt or kinge woulde be. 

Ch0»ttr Piaps, li. 34. 

BABELYN. To totter; to waver. Prompt, Parv, 

BABERLUPPED. Thick-Upped. Piers Ploughm. 

BABERY. Childish finery. Webster, Stowe 

has babblerie in the same sense. See Strutt's 

Dress and Habits, ii. 201. 

BABEURY. An architectural ornament. Chaucer 

mentions a castle being ornamented with 

many subtlll compassing! ; 

As babeuriet and pinnacles. 
Imageries and tabernacles. 

Hou*e of Fame, lit. 99. 
Urry reads barbicans, but see Stevenson's ad- 
ditions to Boucher, in v. The latter writer 
wishes to connect this word with babewyns, 
an ancient term for grotesque figures executed 
in silver work. 
BABEWYNE. A baboon. Maundevile, 
BABIES-HEADS. A kind of toy for chUdren. 

See the Book of Rates, 1675, p. 24. 
BABIES-IN-THE-EYES. The miniature re- 
flection of himself which a person sees in the 
pupil of another's eye on looking closely into 
it, was sportively called a little baby, and our 
old poets make it an employment of lovers to 
look for them in each others eyes. See Rich's 
Honestie of this Age, p. 49; Brand's Pop 
Antiq., iii. 25 ; Nares, in v. 

When I look babie* in thine tyet. 
Here Veuu*, there Adonis lies. 

Randolph'a Poenu, p. 184. 
She clung about his neck, gave him ten kis.<-e*, 
Toy'd with his locks, look'd babies in his eyet. 

HfifU'ooa'9 Lu9t*9 MistreM, p tf 

BABION. A baboon. See Ben Jonson, iL 240 ; 
Skelton's Works, L 124 ; Drayton's Poems, 
p. 247. 

B A BLACK. A name given to two free-schools 
at Coventry and Warwick. See Cooke's Guide 
to Warwick Castle, 1841 , p. 93. The term is 
derived from a piece of land at Coventry 
formerly so called, and on which the bablack 
school there is now situated. The boys arc 
clothed in yellow and blue, and perhaps the 
bablack school at Warwick is so called because 
a similar uniform has been adopted. It also 
appears from Sharp's Cov. Myst., pp. 146, 
179, 187. that there was formerly a monastic 
institution at Coventry of the same name, and 
most Ukely on the same spot. 

BABLATIVE. Talkative. 

In communitie ot life he was verye Jocund; 
neither to bablativs withe flattery, nor to whust with 
morositie. PhUotimut, IMS. 

BABL ATRICE. A basiUsk ? 

O you cockatrices, and you bablatriee». 

That in the woods dwell. Loerin«» p. 86. 

BABLE. A bauble. The glass or metal oma- 
ments of dress are sometimes called bablu. 
See StruU's Dress and Habits, ii. 153 ; TUouu' 
Anecdotes and Traditions, p. 19 ; Florio. la v. 




Btibole, Coceoie, Ifiege explains it, ^ to talk 
confusedly/' but that woold more properly 
be spelt babeL In Skehon we have babyltt 
BABS. Children's pictures. North. 
BABULLE. A bauble. An old proverb in MS. 
Douce 52, says, " A fole scholde never have 
a babuUe in hande." 

Lyk« a fole and a fole to bee, 
Thy babuiU ichalle be thy dygnyt^. 

M8. Cantab, Ff. ii. 88, f. 241. 

BABT. According to Minsheu, a *' puppet for 
children." The word constantly occurs as a 
child's plaything, a toy, and is still in use in 
the North for a picture, especially such as 
would amuse children. So in the French 
Schoole-Maister, 1631, f. 98, " Shall we buy 
a babie or two for our children for pastime ?" 
See also the Book of Rates, p. 24 ; Malone's 
Shakespeare, xiii. 108 ; Geaveland's Poems, 
p. 64 ; Brit BibL, ii. 399 ; Du Bartas, p. 3 ; 
Florio, in v. BdmbolOi Bdmba, Cucca, Dihtdola, 
Pyfdia; Cotgrave, in v. Poupeite; Baret's 
Alvearie, B. 7, 8. A Bartlemy Fair doll is 
often mentioned as a Bartholomew baby. 
Compare the Captain, i. 3, — 

•« and now you cry for't, 

A> children do for babiM, back again.** 

Beaumont and Fletcher, ed, Difce» lii. 935. 

Where the editor asks whether the author did 
not write babies, another word altogether, — 
What garet theie habie* and babiet all ? 

King and a Poore Hortheme Man, 1640. 
For bells and bab^eet such aa children small 
Are ever us'd to solace them withalL 

Drayton'e Potms, p. S4S. 

BABT-CLOUTS. A puppet made of rags. 
Cotgrave translates muguei, ** a curiously 
dressed babie of clovirts." 

And drawing neare the bed to put her daughters 
armes, and higher part of her body too, within 
sheets, perceiving it not to be her daughter, but a 
iMb^-douts only to delude her. 

Two Laneaehire LoMr«, 1640, p. 113. 

BABYSHED. Deceived with foolish and child, 
ish tales. See the Towneley Mysteries, p. 78. 

BACCARE. An exclamation signifying '*go 
back," and supposed to be a corruption of 
back there. It occurs in Shakespeare, Lilly, 
Heywood, and other contemporary vrriters. 
Fh>m a passage in the Golden Aphroditis, 1577, 
" both trurope and drumme sounded nothing 
for their larum but Baccare, Baccare" it 
would seem to have been taken from some 
old tune. 

BACCHAR. The herb ladies' glove. A full 
description of it is given in Holmes's Academy 
of Armory, p. 88. 

BACCHES. Bitches. 

The baechet that hym scholde knowe, 
Vm sone mosten heo blowe pris. 

App. to WtUter Mapee, p. 345. 

BACCHUS-FEAST. A rural festival; an ale. 

See Stub's Anatomic of Abuses, ed. 1595, p. 

110; Dee's Diary, p. 34. 
BACE. (1) Tbe game of prisoners' base, more 

generally vrritten bate, q. v. Cotgrave has. 

** Barr€»i the martiall sport called Btirien 
also the play at baee, or prison-bars." 

(2) A kind of fish, mentioned in Prompt Parv., 
p. 20, supposed by Mr. Way to be the basse, 
or sea-pereh. Cf. Baret's Alvearie, B. 198 ; 
Florio, in v. Baicolo ; Palsgrave, Subst. t 18. 

^3^ To beat. Devon. 

(4) The pedestal of an image. An old archi- 
tectural term. See Willis, p. 76. 

BACE-CHAMBYR. A room on the lower floor. 
Prowpt. Parv, 

BACHELER. A knight. Chaucer. 

BACHELERIE. Knighthood. Also expUined 
by Tyrwhitt, the knights. It sometimes means 
a company of young bachelors, and occasion- 
ally, bachelorship. Cf. Chaucer, Cant. T., 
8146, 17074; Rob. GIouc pp. 76, 183. 

BACHELOR'S-BUTTONS. The campion flower. 
According to Grey, Notes on Shakespeare, i. 
107, there was an ancient custom amongst 
country fellows of carrying the flowers of Uiis 
plant in their pockets, to know whether they 
should succeed vrith their sweethearts, and 
they judged of their good or bad success by 
their growing or not growing there. "To 
wear bachelor's buttons seems to have been 
a phrase for being unmarried. In some parts 
of the country, the flower-heads of the com- 
mon burdock, as well as the wild scabious, 
are also called by this name. 

BACINE. A bason. 

That on was rede so the fer. 
The eighen so a bacine cler. 

jtrthour and Merlin, p. 57* 

BACK. (1) Arere-mouse; a bat. SeeLydgate's 
Minor Poems, p. 152; Tundale, p. 41 ; Prompt. 
Parv., p. 21. 

(2) Kennett says, ** along the Serem they think 
it a sure prognostick of fair weather, if the 
wind back to the sun, L e. opposes the sun's 
course." MS. Lansd. 1033. 

(3) In some codnties, when a person is angry 
they say his back's vp, Kennett has, " baxi^^ 
angry, provoked. Oafordth." 

(4) In mining, the back of a lode is the part of 
it nearest the surface ; and the back of a level 
is that part of the lode extending aboTC it to 
within a short distance of the level above. 

BACK-ALONG. Backvrard. Somertet. 

BACK-AND-EDGE. Completely ; entirely. See 
a play, quoted by Nares, in v. In Yorkshire 
obtains the opposite phrase, '' I can make 
back ner edge of him ;" I can make nothing 
of him. 

BACKARDS-WAY. Backwards. Yorksh. 

BACKAS. The back-house, or vrash-house, or 
more generally bakehouse. Var. dial Spelt 
backhowse in the Ordinances and Regulations, 
p. 4, where it is probably used in the first 

BACKBAND. An iron chain passing in a groove 
of the cart-saddle to support the shafts. North, 

BACKBAR. The bar in a chimney by which any 
vessel is suspended over the fire. Var. diaL 




BACKBERAND. The bearing of any ttolen 
goodi, espedally deer, on the back, or open 
hiditpuUble theft. An old law term. 

BACK-BOABD. A large board on which the 
dough is rolled out previously to making it 
into loaves. North. 

BACK-BRBAK. To break the back. FUnio, 

B ACKBRON. A large log of wood put on at the 
back of a fire. Dortet, 

B ACKBY. Behind ; a Uttle way off. North. 

BACK-CAST. The failure in an effort ; a re- 
lapse into trouble. North, 

BACKXAUTER. Cotgrayehas, ^'Cautertdortal, 
the backe-eauteTt somewhat like a knife, or 
having a back like a knife, and searing onely 
on the other side.'' 

BACKEN. To retard. Var, dial 

BACK-END. Autumn. Yorkth, It is applied as 
well to the latter end of the month, week, &c. 

BACKENING. Relapse; hindrance. YorJML 

BACKER. Further back. West. We have also 
haeierly, late, applied to crops ; backer ts, back- 
wards ; baeierier, more backwards. Chaucer 
has docin'rmore, La Belle Dame sans Mercy, 85. 

BACK-FRIEND. (1) A secret enemy. See 
Comedy of Errors, iv. 2 ; Hall, Henry VII., 
f. 1 ; Florio, in v. InimieOt Nemieo, 

(2) AhangnaiL North, 

BACKING. Nailing the back on a chair suitable 
to the seat. Holme, 

BACK-O'-BEYOND. Of an unknown distance. 

BACK-OUT. Aback-yard. KetU, 

BACK-PIECE. This term explains itself. It is 
the piece of armour that covers the back. 
See Hall, Hen. IV., f. 12. 

BACKRAG. A kind of wine, made at Bacharach 
in Germany, occasionally mentioned by our 
old dramatists. Naree, See also Hu^bras, 
UI. iiL 300. 

BACKS. The prindpal railert of a roof. A 
term in carpentry. 

BACKS&T. To make a backtett to make a stand 
to receive a chased deer, and to cast fresh 
hoonds upon him at the latter end of the 
coarse. Holme, 

BACKSEVORE. The hind part before. Detfon, 

BACKSIDE. The barton, or any premises at the 
back of a house. Var, dioL 

No famlMeper, alehouse keeper, victualler, or tip- 
pler, ihall admit or suffer any person or persons in 
hk bouse or b^ckMe to eat, drink, or play at cards. 
OrindaTs RemalM, p. 138. 

BACKSTAFF. An instrument formerly used for 
taking the sun's altitude at sea; being so 
called because the back of the observer is 
tamed towards the sun when he makes the 
observation. It was said to have been invented 
by captain John Davis about the year 1590, 
and it is described by him in his '* Seaman's 

BACKSTAND. Resistance. 

Lytle avayleth outward warre, except there be a 
sure staye and a stedfast backstatute at home, as 
wel for the savegarde and security, as for the good 
goveraatmce of euch an be left behinde. 

Ha//, Henrp VII. f. 3. 

BACKSTER. A baker. North. 

BACKSTERS. Wide flat pieces of board, which 
are strapped on the feet, and used to walk ovei* 
loose bf»bch on the sea coast. South, 

BACK-STOCK. A log of wood. HoUyband, 

BACKSTONE. A peculiar kind of stone to bake 
bread, but more particularly oat-cakes upon. 
The larger, or double ones, as they are usually 
called, are about 28 to 30 inches by 16 to 20, 
and the smaller ones vary in size, 16 or 18 
inches square. Meriton gives the Yorkshire 
proverb, ** As nimble as a cat on ahaite back- 
stane."— Yorkshire Ale, ed. 1697, p. 84. 

BACKSTRIKING. A mode of ploughing, in 
which the earth having been previously turned, 
is turned back again. Suffolk, 

BACKSUNDED. Shady. Doreet, 

BACK-SWANKED. Lean in the flank, a term 
applied to a horse. Miege, 

BACKSWORD. The game of shi^e-stick. WiUt, 
A backsword, properly spealong, is a sword 
with one sharp edge. 

BACKWARD. (1) The state of things past. Shak. 

(2) A Jakes. Var, dial 

BACKWATER. Water not vranted for turning 
the wheel of a water corn-mill, what is super- 
abundant, and generally flows down a channel 
cut for the purpose. Also, a current of water 
from the inland, which clears off the deposit 
of sand and silt left by the action of the sea. 

BACKWORD. An answer to put off an engage- 
ment. North, 

BACK-WORM. A disease in hawks, the worm 
itself generally being in the thin sldn about 
the reins. It is the same as the fiUmder. See 
Blome's Gent. Rec. iL 51. 

BACKWORT. A herb mentioned by Florio, in v. 
Contdlida maggiore. It appears from Gerard 
to be the same as the eoi^firey, 

BACON. A down. Shak. 

BACTILE. A candlestick. (Lot,) 

BACUN. Baked. 

BACYN. A light kind of hehnet, mentioned in 
Richard Coer de Lion, 2557; basyn^ Kyng 
Alisaunder, 2333. This is another form ot 
the word bamnet, q. v. 

BAD. (1; Sick; ill. Var. dial Sometimes we 
hear i^ht bad, or right on bud, 

(2) A rural game, played with a bad-etiek^ for- 
merly common in Yorkshire. It probably re- 
sembled the game of cat. See Kennett's 
Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033. 

rSJ Poor. Var, dial, 

(4) Entreated; asked; prayed. 

To Jhesu Crbt he bad a boone, 
Fayre knelyng on hys knee. 

MR, Cmntab, Ft, H. 9B, f. 46 

(5) Offered ; invited. See Sir Eglamour, 929, 
1080, Thornton Romances, pp. 159, 166. 

(6) To take the husks off walnuts. We$t, 
m Bold. Cov, Myst, 

(8) A bad person or thing. See ted& in Warner's 

Albions England, ed. 1592, p. 58. 
BADAYLE. Battle. 

Of swerde of plate and eek of mayle. 
As thouje he schulde to brndaifle, 

0vw9r, MS, Soe, JbUi^. 134, f. 146. 




BADDE. ElliB roggests either the usual mean, 
ing, or the perfect tense of the verb abide. In 
Reliq. Antiq., u. 101, it means delay, 
A tUf In his bond he hadde. 
And schon on his f et badde. 

Jrthour and Merlin, p. 73. 

BADDELICHE. Badly. Rob, Glouc. 
BADDER. Comp. of bad. North, See Chaucer, 

Cant. T., 10538, and Nares, in v. 
BADDING. Shelling wahiuts. West, 
BADE. (1; Delay. Cf. Sir Perceval, 41, 111, 

484, 666, 1533, 1760, 2128, 2129; and the 

example under Altuithe, 

(2) Abode; remained. See Minot's Poems, p. 20; 
Sir Tristrem, p. 148 ; Perceval, 569. 612, 892. 

(3) Prayed. Rob, Glouc, Cf. Ellis's Met. Rom., 
iiL 72 ; Chaucer, Cant. T., 7449. 

(4) Commanded. Chaucer. 

(5) A pledge; a surety. {A,'S,) This at least 
seems to be the meaning of the word in 
Perceval, 1029, 1305. 

(6) To bathe. Warw, 

(7) In Mr. Robson's Romances, p. 58, the word 
occurs in a peculiar sense ; *' alle of fellus that 
he bade** skins of animals that he caused to 
remain, L e., killed. 

BADELYNGE. Paddling, as of ducks. Skinner 
gives this word on the authority of Juliana 
Barnes. It means a flock or company of ducks. 

BADGER. (1) Apedhir; acorn-factor. Some- 
times, a person who purchases eggs, butter, &c. 
at the farm-houses, to sell again at market. 

(2) To beat dovni in a bargain. Var, dial, 

BADGER-THE-BEAR. A rough game, some- 
times seen in the country. The boy who per- 
sonates the bear performs his part upon his 
hands and knees, and is prevented from getting 
away by a string. It is the part of another 
boy, his keeper, to defend him from the at- 
tacks of the others. 

BADGET. A badger. East, Badget is also a 
common name for a cart-horse. 

BADLING. A worthless person. North. 

BADLY. Sick; iU. North. 

BADS. The husks of wahiuts. West. 

BAEL. Bale; sorrow. 

BAELYS. Rods. 

With brennyng baelyt thel hem dong. 
And with hem droffe to peynis strong. 

Tuntlale, p. 16. 

BAESSYS. See Base. 
BAFFERS. Barkers; yellers. 

Houndet for the hauk beth fljteis and gretc 
hnffer^. MS, BodI, 546. 

BAFFLE. (1) To treat vdth indignity ; to use 
contemptuously. Properly speaking, to bq;ffle 
or bqfful a person was to reverse a picture of 
him in an ignominious manner ; but the term 
is used more generally. See Middleton's 
Works, ii. 449 ; Ben Jonson, v. 127 ; Dodsley's 
Old Plays, vL 18. In the Muse's Looking- 
glass, i. 4, it signifies to beat, in which sense 
it also occurs in Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 13. 

(2) To cheat, or make a fool of; to manage 
capriciously or wantonly ; to twist irregularly 
together. East. Com, knocked about by the 
wind, is said in Sufiblk to be baffied. 

BAFFLING. Affiront; insult. See Middleton's 
Works, iv. 44 ; Beaumont and Fletcher, L 142; 
Malone's Shakespeare, xvL 16. 

BAFFYN. To bark. Prompt, Part, 

BAFT. Abaft. Chaucer. 

BAFTYS. Afterwards ? Cov. Myst, 

BAG. (1) The udder of a cow. Var. dial. 

(2) To cut peas with an instrument resembling 
the common reaping-hook, but with a handle 
sufficiently long to admit both hands. West, 
In Ojcfordshire the term is apphed to cutting 
wheat stubble, which is generally done with 
an old scythe. 

They cannot mowe it with a sythe, but .they cutt 

it with such a hooke as they doe hagge pease with. 

Aubrey*» fVUtt, MS. Roval Soc., p. 1S3. 

(3) When a servant is dismissed, he is said to 
have got the bag. In some parts, to give a 
person the bag is to deceive him. A person's 
bag and baggage is everything he has got. 

(4) The stomach. Hence eating is bagging, or 
filling the stomach, to put into a bag. Cf. 
Cotgrave, in v. Emplir ; Harrison's Descrip- 
tion of England, p. 233. An animal with 
young is said to be bagged. See Perceval, 717; 
Nares, in v. Bag ; Florio, in v. Rimpregnruole ; 
Tusser's Husbandry, p. 104. Nares explains 
it, to breed, to become pregnant. 

(5) To move ; to shake ; to jog. See the Rara 
Matheraatica, p. 64. 

BAGAMENT. Worthless stuflT; nonsense. Line. 

BAGATINE. An Italian coin, worth about the 
third part of a farthing, alluded to in Ben 
Jonson, iii. 219. 

BAGAVEL. A tribute granted to the citizens 
of Exeter by a charter from Edward I., em- 
powering them to levy a duty upon all wares 
brought to that city for the purpose of sale, 
the produce of which was to be employed in 
paving the streets, repairing the walls, and the 
general maintenance of the town. Jacobs, 

BAGE. A badge. Prompt. Parv, 

BAGEARD. A badger. More. 

BAGELLE. Rings; jewels. So explained in 
Heame's Glossary to Peter Langtoft, p. 282. 

BAG-FOX. A fox that has been unearthed, and 
kept a time for sport. Bhme. 

BAGGABONE. A vagabond. Beds. 

BAGGAGE D. Mad; bewitched. Exmoor, 

BAGGAGE LY. Worthless. Tusser, 

BAGGE. (1) A badge. Prompt. Parv. 
He beris of golde a scmely lighte. 
His bagge» are sabylle ylkane. 

MS, Lineotn A. 1. 17. 1 141. 

(2) To swell vdth arrogance. Chaucer. Tyrwhitt 

says " rather, perhajis, to squint." 
BAGGERMENT. Rubbish. Line. 
BAGGIE. The belly. Northumb. 
BAGGIN. Food. Cumb, 
BAGGING. The act of cutting up wheat stubble 

for the purpose of thatching or btiming. Oxon. 

Also, becoming pregnant. See Florio, in v. 

Impregmfggine ; and Bag, 
BAGGING-BILL. A curved iron instrument 

used for various agricultural purposes. It is 

also called a bagging-hook. 




BAGGINGLT. Squintingly. This word occurs 
in the Rom. of the Rose, 292, explained by 
9omt arroffontly. Tyrwhitt's explanation, here 
adopted, best suits the context, and the cor- 
responding passage in the originaL 
BAGGING-TIME. Baiting time. North. At 
Bury, CO. Lane, about the year 1780, a re- 
freshment between dinner and supper was 
called bagging^ while at Chorley, distant only 
about twenty miles, the term was not in use. 
BAGHEL. Same as bagcUe, q. y. 
In toun herd I telle. 
The baghei and the belle 
Ben filched and fled. 

Wright*» PotUieal Songt, p. 9ffi. 

BAGINET. A bayonette. Var. dial 

BAGLE. An impudent woman ; an opprobrious 
term for a woman of bad character. Salop. 
Perhaps this is merely a yariation of baggage^ 
though Mr. Hartshome derives it from the 
French b^gueule, 

BAG-OF-NAILS. The name of a sign, said to 
be corrupted from the Bacchanak, He squints 
like a bag of nails, i. e., his eyes are directed 
as many ways as the points of a bag of nails. 

BAG-PUDDING. A rustic dish, said, in an old 
nursery rhyme, to have formed the repast of 
King Arthur ; but mentioned, I believe, in no 
modem dictionary. It appears, from Taylor's 
Workes, i. 146, that Gloucestershire was for- 
merly famous for them ; but Welsh bag-pud- 
dings are mentioned in Hawkins' Eng. Dram, 
iii. 170. Howell, English Proverbs, p. 6, gives 
this, " Sweetheart and bagg-pudding." See 
also Heywood's Edward IV., p. 47 ; Florio, in 
v. Offa^Poltiglia, 

BAGWALETOUR. A carrier of baggage. 

Howe «hall the cuntrey thenne fusteyne two boo 
greate traynet, aa the kinget majettie and they mutt 
have ; tprcially contideriog the nombre of bagtvale- 
tow9 that shall com with tham out of Fraunce. 
StaU Paper*, i. A36. 

BAGT. A badge. Bemen, 

BAHN. Going. Yorkth, 

BAHT. Both. 

Than tent he many ay mfMenger 
After Sanyns baht far and ner. 

Guy 0/ fVarwick, MiddlehiU MS, 

BATCH. A languet of land. Ray. 

BAICS. Chidings ; reproofi. Tuaser. This word 
and the previous one are from Hunter^s addi- 
tions to Boucher. 

BAIDE. Endured. Northumb. 

BAIGNE. To drench ; to soak. 

BAIL. (1) A beacon; a signal; a bonfire. North, 
Also bailei, flames, bhizes. Of. Piers Plough, 
man, p. 490. 

(2) The handle of a pail, bucket, or kettle ; the 
bow of a scythe. Eatt, 

BAILE. (1) Battle. See Rob. Glouc. p. 37, 
where the Arundel MS. reads bataille, 

(2) A wooden canopy, formed of bows. See the 
RutUnd Papers, p. 6 ; Ordinances and Regula- 
tions, p. 127. 

BAILEY. A name given to the courts of a castle 
formed by the spaces between the circuits of 

walls or defences which suiTOunded the keep. 

Od/. Glo$9. Arch, 
Four touret ay hit haa and kemela fair, 
Thre baiUUs al aboute, that may nojt apalr. 

MS. Eg«rton 937. 

BAILIWICK. Stewardship. Deni. Florio spells 

it baily-weekef in v. Cattaldia, 
BAILLIE. Custody ; government. (A.-N.) See 
Rom. of the Rose, 4302 ; Kyng Alisannder, 
7532 ; Langtoft, pp. 61, 127, 280. 
BAILS. Hoops to bear up the tilt of a boat. 

BAILY. A bailiff; a steward; also, a sheriff's 

Aa &aJ^«, sergeaunt. or reve. 

That fallit hya lordys goodea to reaeyre. 

MS. Hattm 18. 
And for to aomoun all them to thla feat, 
The bmilv ot Roaton thereto ia the best. 

MS. RawL C. 8& 

BAIN. Near; ready; easy. North, Ray ex- 
plains it, ** willing, forward,'^ and Wilbraham 
** near, convenient." In the east of England 
it means, pliant, limber. ** To be very bain 
about one," officious, ready to help. As an 
archaism, it signifies, obedient, ready, willing. 
See Chester Plays, L 69 ; Robson's Romances, 
p. 46 ; Towneley Mysteries, pp. 28, 39. 

A roonthe day of trewte moate ye Uke. 

And than to batayle be ye ba^ne, 

MS. Hari. 825S. f. ISS. 

BAINE. (1) A bath. See Patteme of Painfull 
Adventures, pp. 188, 195; Rutland Papers, 
p. 8, bayn. 
(2) To bathe. 

No more I do my mlrthla fayne. 
But In gladneaae 1 awym and bain§. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. 1. 6, f. 116. 

BAINER. Nearer. North, 
BAINLY. Readily. 
BAI RE. nt ; convenient. Durham, 
BAIRMAN. A poor insolvent debtor, left bare 
and naked, who was obliged to swear in court 
that he was not worth above five shillings and 
five pence. PhiUipt, 
BAIRN. A child. North, The several com- 
pounds of this word are too obvious to require 
BAIRNWORTS. The daisy. YorkMh, 
BAISE. A bastard. In Sir C. Sharp's Chron. 
Mirab. p. 9, is the entry, ** Isabel, daughter to 
Philippe Wilkinson, bur. 30 May, 1633, bai»e 
with another man's wife," firom the register of* 
BAISEMAINS. Compliments ; salutations. 

BAISKE. Sour. {Sh. Goth,) 
BAIST. To beat. North, 

He paid good Robin back and side. 

And bttUt him up and down ; 
And with hia pyke-wtalf laid on loud, 

TUl he feU In a awoun. RoMn Hood« L lOiL 
BAISTE. Abashed. 

Beea noghte baUte ot fone boyea. ne of thaire brygbte 

We aalle bltnke tbeire boate ft>r alle thaire bolde 
prollr* Jiarfe JHhmrw, MS. Unmin, t. 83. 




BAIT. (1) A luncheon ; a meal taken by a la- 
bourer in the morning. Var, dial. In Torrent 
of Portugal, p. 66, it apparently means to re* 
fresh ; to stop to feed. 

i2) To lower a bargain. Var, dial, 
3J To flutter. A hawking term. 

(4) Food ; pasture. North, 

B AIT AND. Explained by Heame, in great haste. 
See Peter Langtoft, p. 307. 

BATTEL. To thrash. Narih. 

BAITH. Both. North. 

BAIT-POKE. A bag to carry jHroyisions in. 

BAJ ARDOUR. A carter ; the bearer of any 
weight or burden. Kertey. 

BAK. A bat. *' The blode of a bak** is an in- 
gredient in a medical receipt in MS. Lincoln 
A.i. 17,f. 282. 

Thane come thare flyande amangei thame bakkn, 
grettore thane wilde dowfet, ami thaire tethe vare 
lyke meiie tethe, and thay didd mene mekiUe diieie 
and burte. I^ 9f AUaandMr, MS, Uncoin, t, 29. 

BAKED. Incmsted. Var, dial 

BAKED-MEAT. Means generally, meat jMre- 
pared by baking ; but, in the conunon usage of 
our ancestors, it signified more usually a meat- 
pie. This signification has been a good deal 
OTerlooked. Naret, 

BAKEN. Baked. 

BAKERLEGGED. A person whose legs bend 
outwards is said to be bakerlegged, Grose has 
baier-kwe^d, ** one whose knees knock toge- 
ther in walking, as if kneading dough.'' See 
Cotgrave, in y. Billart, 

BAKER'S-DOZEN. Thirteen. Sometimes, four- 
teen. Florio has, ** Sergua, a dozen, namely 
of egges, or, as we say, a baker's dozen, that 
is, thirteene to the dozen." See also the same 
dictionary, in v, Aggiunta, 

BAKESTER. A female baker. Derbysh, In 
Pier's Ploughman, pp. 14, 47, we have bakstere 
in the same sense. 

BAKHALFE. Hinder part. See Restoration of 
Edward IV., p. 14. 

There biganne many Taniteet growe upon hym, 
aa bit were upon his bakka{fk, 

Caxton't Divert FruytfvU Ghottly Mmter; 

BAKHOUSE. A bakehouse. North, Seethe 
Prompt. Parv. p. 21. 

BAKIN. The quantity of bread baked at one 
time. Yorkshire, This term also occurs in 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 21. 

BAKING-DRAUGHT. Part of the hinder quar- 
ter of an ox. See Hobne's Academy of Ar- 
mory, iii. 87. 

BAKK. A cheek. Stevenson, 

BAKKER. More backwards. 

with that anoae I went me bakker more, 
Ifytelfe and I methought we were i-now. 

Chaucer, MS, Cmtab. Ft, i. 6, f. 99. 

BAKPANER. A kind of basket; probably a 
pannier carried on the back. Caxton, 

BAKSTALE. Backwards. Prompt, Parv. 

BAL. (1) A flame. See Stevenson's additions 
to Boucher, in ▼. This may be the meaning 
of the vwjpd in Wright's Political Songs, p. 318. 

(2) A -nine. fFest. 

BALADE-ROTAL. A balade anciently meant 
any short composition in verse, or even in mea- 
sured lines. A poem written in stanzas of 
eight lines was formerly said to be composed 
in balade-rogal. A poem by Lydgate, in MS. 
Ashmole 59, f. 22, is called a balade^rogal, and 
several other pieces in the same MS. are said 
to be written *' balade-wyse," Stanihurst, 
Description of Ireland, p. 40, mentions one 
Dormer who wrote in baUad-royal. 

BALANCE. (1) Balances. Shak, 

(2) Doubt ; uncertainty. ** To lay in balance," 
to wager. Chaucer, 

BALANCERS. Makers of balances. See the 
curious enumeration of the different trades in 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, p. 10. 

BALASE. To balance. Baret. Cf. Harrison's 
Description of England, p. 235. 

BALASTRE. A cross-bow. Caxton. 

BALATE. To bleat ; to bellow. Salop. 

BALAYS. A kmd of ruby. See Palsgrave, 
subst. f. 1 9. Balayn, in Richard Coer de lion, 
2982, is perhaps the plural of this word. See 
also Skelton's Works, it 347 ; Court of Love, 
80; Cotgrave, in v. Balag; Ordinances and 
Regulations, p. 120. 

BALCHE. To belch. Huloet, 

BALCHING. An unfledged bird. West. 

BALCOON. A balcony. HoweU, 

BALD. Swift ; sudden. Verstegan, 

BALDACHIN. A canopy, usually supported by 
columns, and raised over altars, tombs, &c. ; 
but more particularly used where the altars 
were insukted, as was customary in early 
churches. Britton, 

BALDAR-HERBE. The amaranthus. Htdoei. 

BALDCOOT. The water-hen. Drayton. Spelt 
balled-cote in Walter de Bibblesworth, MS. 
Arund. 220, f. 301. 

BALDE. (1) Bold. Minat, 

(2) To encourage. (A.-S,) 


This woman wente forth baUUKe/u, 
Hardy by wai y-nou5. 

MS, Coll, THn. Oxon, &7. 

BALDELY. Boldly. Mmot, 

BALDEMOYNE. Gentian. See MS. Sloane 5, 
f. 5 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 22. 

Loke how a seke man, for his hele, 
Taketh baldemojme with can^le^ 

Oower, MS. Soe, dniiq. 1S4, f. 49. 

BALDER. (1) To use coarse language. Bast. 

(2) Bolder. Reliq. Antiq. ii 20. 

BALDERDASH. Exphdned « hodge-podge" in 
the glossary to Tim Bobbin. Any mixture of 
rubbish is called balderdash. See D'lfiveli's 
Amenities of Literature, i. 234. In some dis- 
tricts the term is more restricted to absolute 
filth, whether applied to language or in its 
literal sense. Ben Jonson calls ImuI liquor by 
this name, and it is occasionally found as a 
verb, to mix or adulterate any liquor. 

BALDFACED. White-faced. Yorksh. 

BALD-KITE. A buzzard. In Cotgrave it is 
the translation of buzart and huxe, 

BALDLY. Boldly. Minot, 




BALDOCK. Some kind of tool, mentioned in 
the 51st section appended to Howell's Lexi- 
BALDORE. Bolder. Bob. Glouc p. 509. 
BAJLDRIBl Not the same as the spare-rib, as 
generally stated, which has £st and lean, and is 
cut off the neck. The baldrib is cut lower 
down, and is devoid of fat ; hence the name, 
according to Minsheu. 
BALDRICK. A belt, girdle, or sash, of various 
kinds; sometimes a sword-belt. There are 
several instances where it would seem to have 
been merely a collar or strap round the neck, 
though it was more generally passed round 
one side of the neck, and under the opposite 
arm. See Hayward's Annals of Qu. Eliz. 
p. 30 ; Fabian, p. 540 ; Prompt Parv. p. 27 ; 
HaU, Henry YIIL, ff. 3, 6 ; Malone's Shake- 
speare, viL 22 ; Lydgjate's Minor Poems, p. 8 ; 
Croft's ExcerptaAntiqua, p. 13 ; Cyprian Aca- 
demy, 1647, ii. 21 ; MS. Bib. Reg. 7 C. xvi. 
f. 68 ; Cunningham's Revels Accounts, p. 126 ; 
Stmtt, ii. 50 ; Patteme of Painfull Adventmres, 
p. 206 ; Todd's Illustrations, p. 320. A kind 
of cake, made probably in the shape of a belt, 
was called a bamdriek. See some old printed 
receipU in 4to. C. 39, Art. Sdd. in BibL BodL 
and Wyl Bucke's Testament, p. 34. 
BALDUCTUM. A term appUed by Nash to 
some of the affected expressions of Oabrid 
Harvey. It seems to have been nearly syno- 
nymous with balderdash, and is found in a 
similar sense in Stanihurst's Description of 
Ireland, p. 29. 
BALDWEIN. Gentian. Otrard, 
BALE. (1) Sorrow; evil; mischief. (J,'S.) 
Rfght tbiu I mem, I mak do Iragere Ule, 
Bat 5« do thiM, gretttre growyth oure bah. 

M8. RawL Poet. 118. 
Therwbile, sire, that I tolde this tale, 
Thl iOM mighte tholle detha bale. 

Sevyn 8agu, 708. 
(2) Basflwood. Shtmer. 
(ZS The scrotum ? Stevenson, 

(4 ) Ten reams of paper. Kennett 

(5) A pair of dice is frequently called a bale. 
This term is found in Skelton, Ben Jonson, 
and later writers. 

(6) ThcbeUy. Madden, 

(7) Destruction. Prompt, Parv. 
BALEFUL. Evil ; banefuL This word occurs 

in 2 Henry VL, iii. 2, and earlier in Syr 
Oawayne, p. 105. 
BALEIS. A large rod. (J.-N.) Also the 
verb baleieen^ to beat with a rod, which is 
still in use in some parts of Shropshire. Piers 
BilLENA. A whale. {Lat.) 

The huge leriathsn ii bat a ihrlmpe 
Compar'd with oar &ale*ia oo the land. 

TrageA^ ef Huffiimn, 1631. 

BALEW. BviL (^.-5.) 

BALETNE. Whalebone? Skinner. It is pos- 
sible this may be the same with balayn in 
Richard Coer de Lion, 2982. 

BALEZ. Bowels. Gaw. 

BALHEW. Plain; smooth. Prottqtt. Parv. 

BALIAGE. The office of a bailiff. See Florio, 
in V. BagUuOt Bmie, 

BALIST. An ancient engine, or kind of ord- 
nance, for projecting stones. 

RALISTAR. A man using a crosa-bow. 

BALK. (1) A ridge of greensward left by the 
I^ough in ploughing, or by design between 
different occupancies in a common field. The 
term is translated by terra porca in an old 
vocabulary in MS. Bodl. 604, fl 39 ; but by 
^riMiitf, a heap, in Withals' Dictionarie, ed. 
1608, p. 89. See also Reliq. Antiq. ii 81 
Cotgrave, in v. AssUknmemeni, ChehUre 
Townelcy Myst. p. 99 ; Cov. Myst. p. 343 
Piers Ploughman, p. 123; Nomenclator, p. 
385 ; Florio, in v. Delirdre; Holinshed, Hist. 
Ireland, p. 174. From this last example it 
appears that the explanation given by Withals 
is correct, and Baret has, " a balie or bahke 
of earth raysed or standing up betweene twoo 
furrowes." To draw a balk is to draw a 
straight furrow across a field. 

(2) A particular beam used in the construction 
of a cottage, especially a thatched one. The 
sidewalls and gables being erected, a pair of 
couples or strong supports is placed between 
each pair of gables, and the balk is the strong 
beam, running horizontally, that unites these 
below. This balk is often used in the poorer 
cottages to hang various articles on, a custom 
alluded to in Chancer, Cant. T., 3626; 
Hawkins' Engl. Dram. L 171. A similar beam 
in a stable or outhouse is also called a balk, 
as in Topsell's Foure Footed Beasts, p. 395 ; 
Kennett's Glossary, MS. Lansd. 1033; and 
the term is occasionally applied generally to 
any beam or rafter. See also Prompt. Parv. 
pp. 21, 30, 196 ; Tusser, p. 204 ; Skelton, L 
114; Book of Rates, 1675, p. 24. Huloet 
has, " balke ende whych appeareth under the 
eaves of a house, procer." 

Bynde hit funte with balke and bonde. 
And wynde hit siththen with good wonde. 
Cureor Mfundi, M8. Cotl. Trin, Cantab., f. 11. 

(3) To heap op in a ridge or hillock, in 1 Henry 
lY., i. 1. It seems to have the usual meaning 
of omit in Tam. Shrew, i. 1; Sanderson's 
Sermons, 1689, p. 39. ** Balk the way," get 
out of the way. Downfall of Robert, Earl of 
Huntingdon, p. 80. 

(4) A simple piece of machinery used in the 
dairy districts of the county of Suffolk, into 
which the cow's head is put while she is 

(5) Straight young trees after they are felled are 
in Norfolk called balks. 

(6) " To be thrown ourt' balk," is, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, to be published in the 
church. "To hing ourt* balk," is marriage 
deferred after publication. 

BALKE. (1) To leave a balk in ploughmg. 
But so wel halte no man the plugh. 
That he ne baiketh otherwlle. 

Cower, MS, Soe, Antiq. 1», f. 87. 




(2) To belch. (^.-S.) 

PercMTyng by the grefi of their communicatiuni 
the dukes pryde nowe and thea to balkt oute a lytle 
brayde of eovye towarde the glorye of the kynge. 
Harding, Sttpp. f. 84. 

(3) To be angry. Reynard the Foxe, 
BALKER. A great beam. Eatt, 
BALKERS. Persons who stand on high places 

near the sea-coast, at the tune of herring 
fishing, to make signs to the fishermen which 
way the shoals pass. Blount. 

BALKING. A ridge of earth. Latimer. 

BALK-PLOUGHING. A particuhir mode of 
ploughing, in which ridges are left at inter- 
vals. Ea9t. 

BALKS. The hay-loft Chesh. Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, says the hen-roost was so oilled. 

BALK-STAFF. A quarter-staff. North. 
Balk-»tav9t and cadgeb, pikes and tiuncbeous. 
Brown bread and cheew, that swam by luncheons. 
CotUm*9 Poetical Work*, 1734, p. 12. 

BALL. (1) Bald. Somereet. 

(2) The pupil of the eye. *< Ball, or apple of 
the eye.'' Huloet, 1552. 

Son after, wen he was halle. 
Then be^ui to slak hyr balle. 

Guy of Warwick, iUddtehUl MS. 

(3) The palm of the hand. Yorkth. Also the 
roimd part at the bottom of a horse's foot. 
See Florio, in v. CdUo. 

(4) A name given to various animals. It is 
mentioned as the name of a horse in Chaucer 
and Tusser, of a sheep in the Promptorium, 
and of a dog in the Privy Purse Expences of 
Henry VIIL, p. 43. It is the conmion name 
of a field in Devonshire. 

(5) The body of a tree. Lane. 
BALLACE. To stuff; to fill. Ballatt, filled. 

Comedy of Errors, iii 2. Cf. Hall's Satires, 
It. 5 ; Ford's Tracts, p. 9. Huloet has baloM- 
ien, translated by saburro. 

BALLAD. TosingbaUads. ShaJt. 

BALLADIN. A kind of dance, mentioned by 
Minsheu and Skinner. 

BALL ANDES. BaUances.' Ballandes are men- 
tioned in the Rates of the Custome House, 
1545, quoted in the Brit. BibL ii. 398. 

BALLANS. BaUances. 

BALLANT. A ballad. North. 

BALLARD. A castrated ram. Devon. The 
word occurs in an obscure sense in Reliq. An- 
tiq. ii. 56. 

BALLART. One of the names of the hare in 
the curious poem printed in Reliq. Antiq. i 133. 

BALLAST. A ruby. See Balayt. 

BALLASTER. A small pillar usually made 
circular, and swelling towards the bottom, 
commonly used in a balustrade. Oxf. Gloss. 

BALLATRON. A rascal ; a thief. Minsheu. 

BALLE. (1) The " balle in the hode," a curious 
phrase for the head, occurring in Urry's 
Chaucer, p. C25; Kyng Alisaunder, 6481; 
Towneley Myst. p. 17 ; Arthour and Merlin, 
p. 16. 

(2) Palsgrave has, '* I baUe as a curre dogge 
doihe, Jekurle:' 

BALLED. (1) Bald. "Balled reson," a bald 
reson, a bare argument. Cf. Piers Ploughman, 
pp. 176, 436; Dial Creat. MoraL p. 109; 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 198, 2520; Depos. Rich. 
II. p. 29 ; Reliq. Antiq. iL 179. 

(2) Whitefaced. North. 

BALLEDNESSE. Baldness. See Reliq. Antiq. 
ii. 56 ; Rob. Glouc. p. 482. 

BALLERAG. To banter; to rally in a con- 
temptuous way; to abuse; to scold. Var. 

BALLESSE. Ballast. Hmloet. 

BALLIARDS. The game of billiards. Spenser 
has it, and it is iJso found in Florio, in v. 

BALLINGER. A small sailing vessel. The 
word occurswith various orthographies in Har- 
rison's Description of Britaine, p. 79 ; Hall, 
Henry V. f. 26 ; Egerton Papers, p. 12 ; SUte 
Papers, ii. 76; Hardyng'fl Chronicle, f. Ill ; 
Manners and Household Expences, pp. 222, 
470. Among the miscellaneous documents at 
the Rolls House is one, 1. 187, containing an 

• account of the charges for repairing and rig- 
ging of the ** battyngar nam^ the Sunday," 
A. D. 1532. See also Ducange, in v. BaUn- 

And toke londe nygh to a gret tourroent that was 
called Couleigne, and went to londe In a bmlangvrt, 
he and xxi. men with hym. MS. Digbif 185. 

BALL-MONEY. Money demanded of a mar- 
riage company, and given to prevent their 
being maltreated. In the North it is custo- 
mary for a party to attend at the church 
gates, after a wedding, to enforce this claim. 
The gift has received this denomination, as 
being originally designed for the purchase of 
a foot-ball. Brockett. The custom is men- 
tioned by Coles and Miege. 

BALLOCK-GRASS. The herb dogs'-stones. 

BALLOCKS. Testiculi. (J.-S.) There is a 
receipt "for swellinge of baUokii* in MS. 
Bib. Reg. 17 A. iii f. 149. Cf. Reliq. Antiq. 
ii. 280. Receipts for a mess called balok 
hrothe are given in Warner's Antiq. Culin. p. 
68, Forme of Cury, p. 53. It appears from 
Palsgrave's Acolastus, 1540, that baUocke- 
stones w^ once a term of endearment. Some- 
times spelt balloxs, as in an early receipt in 
Bright MS. f. 14. 

BALLOK-KN YF. A knife hung from the girdle. 
Piers Ploughman. 

BALLOON. A large inflated ball of strong 
leather, formerly used in a game called balloon, 
the ball being struck by the arm, which was 
defended by a bracer of wood. The antiquity 
of aerostation has been absurdly deduced from 
the mention of this game in Du Bartaa. It i^ 
spelt balloo in Ben Jonson, iii. 216. Cf. Ran- 
dolph's Poems, 1643, p. 105 ; Cunningham's 
Revels Accounts, p. xviL ; Middleton's Works, 
iv. 342 ; Strutt's Sports, p. 96 ; Florio, in v. Bal^ 




ionitfre, Cdlcio,Gioc6re, Gtmfiatoios Cotgrtve, 
in T. BaloHj Brtmal; Ordinances and Regula- 
tions, p. 328. 
BALLOW. (1) Bony; thin. Drayton, 

(2) To select or bespeak. It is used by boys at 
play, when they select a goal or a companion 
of their game. North, 

(3) A pole ; a stick ; a cudgel. North, It is 
found in King Lear, iv. 6, ed. 1623, p. 304. 

BALL'S-BULL. A person who has no ear for 
music is sometimes compared to Ball's bull, 
who had so little that he kicked the fiddler 
over the bridge. EMt, 

BALL-STELL. A geometrical quadrant. See 
the Nomendator, p. 303. In MS. Addit. 5008, 
a story is told of a boy who had been for some 
time very attentively watching his father take 
the altitude of a star with his baUa^tella^ when 
suddenly he observed the star shoot, and testi- 
fied his delight by exclaiming, " Ye have hyt 
hir, father ; she is fawln, she is fawln !" 

BALL-STONE. A measure of iron-stone which 
lies near the surface ; a kind of limestone found 
near Wenlock. Salop, 

BALL-THISTLE. A species of thistle, men- 
tioned by Gerard, p. 990. 

BALLU. Mischief; sorrow. (A.-S,) 

BALLUP. The finont or flap of smallclothes. 
Northumb, The term is found in Ritson's 
Robin Hood, iL 154, left unexplained by the 

BALLY. (1) A Htter of pigs. North, 

(2) To grow distended. Salop, 

(3) Ck)mfortable. We»t. 

BALLYS. Bellows. Salop, Tht fonn balywt 
occurs in Tundale, p. 34. 

BALLYVE. A bailiff. 

BALMER. Apparently some kind of coloured 
cloth. " Barrones in *a/m^ and byse." Ches- 
ter PUys, i. 1 72. The Bodl. MS. reads baimier, 

BALNEAL. Refreshing. HoweU, 

BALNY. A bath. This seems to be the mean- 
ing of the word in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. 
Brit. p. 143. 

BALO. A beam in buildings ; any piece of 
squared timber. East. 

BALON. In jusU of peace, the swords were 
pointless and rendered blunt, being often of 
balon^ as it was termed, which seems to have 
been of whalebone, covered with leather, and 
silvered over. Meyrick. 

BALOTADE. An attempt made by a horse to 
kick. Diet, Hufb, 

BALOURGLY. A kind of broth. The method 
of making it is described in Warner's Antiq. 
Culm. p. 49. 

BALOU3T. About. {A,-S,) 

BALOW. (1) A nursery term, forming part of 
the burthen of a lullaby. North, 

(2) A spirit ; properly, an evil spirit. {A,'S,) 
with many aungels aod arkaungeli. 
And other ta/otr«, aU the buke tellei. 

MS, BihU CoU. sum, zviU. 6. 

BALOW-BROTH. An ancient dish in cookery, 
described in MS. Sloane 1201, f. 45. It may 

be the same as ballock-broth previously men- 
tioned, in V. BaUoekt. 

Eyiher arm an elne kmgt 
Balo^gt roengeth al by-mong. 
Am baum ys hire biro. 

Wrighf$ l^le Foetty, p. 35. 

BALSAM-APPLE. A herb mentioned by Florio, 

in V. Cardnza, 
BALSAMUM. Balsam. Shak, Florio has *fl^ 

tamtnt, in t. Evqtat6rta, 
BALSOMATE. Embalmed. 

He made his ymage of laton Aill clene. 
In whiche he put his body baUomate, 

Hardyng's ChronM$, t. 93. 

BALSTAFF. Same as baUk'Stqfy q. v. Chaucer 
has this form of the word, which is also given 
by Ray. It means a large pole or staff. 

BALTER. To cohere together. Warw, Sec 
Btood4>oUered. The word occurs in the Morte 
Arthure, MS. Lincobi, A i. 17, f. 61, in the 
sense of to caper, to dance about. 

BALTHAZAR. One of the kings of Coleyn, the 
three magi who came from the East to worship 
the new-born Saviour. Mr. Wright has printed 
the early English legend of these kings in his 
edition of the Chester Plays. Howell, p. 5, 
has the proverb, " Brave man at arms, but 
weak to Balthasar.'' 

BALUSTER. A bannister. 

BALWE. (1) Mischief; sorrow. {A,'S,) 

(2) Plain ; smooth. Prompt, Parv, 

BALY. (1) Evil; sorrow. 

Bot the! schryve them oTther glotony. 

In hell ichaU be ther teJy. MS, MhmoU 61. f. 86. 

(2) A belly. Aifyd, bellied, occurs in the Hunt- 
tyng of the Hare, 187. 

(3) A bailiff. See Wright's Monastic Letters, 
p. 174 ; Prompt. Parv. p. 22. 

(4) Dominion ; government. (A.-N.) 
\t thou be pareld most of price. 

And ridis here in thi bal^e. MS, Cantab, Ff. v. 48. 
BALYSCHEPE. The office of a bailiff. Prompt, 

BALZAN. A horse vrith white feet. HowelL 
BAL3E. Ample; swelling. Gaw, 
BAM. A false tale, or jeer. Yorkth, Also a 

verb, to make fim of a person. 
BAMBLE. To walk unsteadily. East, 
BAMBOOZLE. To threaten; to deceive; to 
make fun of a person. A veiy piquant use is 
made of this word in Gibber's comedy of " She 
Would and She Would Not." 
BAMBY. By and by. Detfon, 
BAMCHICHES. A kind of chiches, mentioned 

by Florio, in v. Arietini, 
BAME. To anoint vrith balm. 

And bade me bame me welle aboute, 
Whenne hit wolde other water or wese. 

MS, Cantab, Ff. i. 6, f. 4& 

BAMMEL. To beat ; to pommeL Sakp, 
BAN. (1) A curse. Shak, 

(2) To curse. 

And summe 6afi«ie the, and aome blesse. 

MS, Cantab. Ft, U. 38, f. 16. 

(3) A kind of dumpling. Lane, 




(4) To shut ont ; to stop. Somerset 

(5) Command^ precept, summons, edict, pro- 
clamation, ordinance. So explained by Heame. 
See an instance of it in Rob. Glouc. p. 188. 

BANBURY. Howell gives two proverbs con- 
cerning this town — 1. Like Banbury tinkers, 
who in stopping one hole make two ; 2. As 
wise as the mayor of Banbury, who would 
prove that Henry IIL was before Henry 11. 
According to Grose, a nonsensical tale is called 
a '* Banbury story of a cock and bull ;" so 
firom these evidences it would not appear that 
the Banburians were remarkable for sagacity. 
Banbury, at the conmiencement of the seven- 
teenth century, was celebrated for its number 
of puritans, and Ben Jonson calls a puritan a 
JB<mbwy num. It is now prindpally known 
for its eakee. Bardolf, in the Merry Wives 
of Windsor, compares Slender to Banbury 
cheese, which seems to have been remarkably 
thin, for the older Tom Heywood observes 
that he *' never saw Banbury cheese thick 
enough." There is a receipt for making this 
cheese in MS. Sloane 1201, f. 3. 

BANCKEROWTE. Bankrupt Huhet. 

BANCO. A bank of money. An Italian word 
introduced in Marlowe's Jew of Malta, iv. 1. 

BAND. (1) A bond; a covenant; an engage- 
ment. See Percy's Reliques, p. 13; State 
Papers, L 11. 

Here i-gyf I 50W be band 

An c. pownd worth of land. Sir Dtgrevant, 809." 

(2) A hyphen. The word is used in this sense 
in the French Alphabet, 1615, p. 68. 

^3) A string of any kind. North. 
Have thyi rope ys thyn hande. 
And holde the flwte by the bande, 

SIS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f . 130. 

(4) Imprisonment. 

Hb moder dame Alienore, and the baroni of this land. 

For him travailed sore, and brouht hhn out of band. 

iMngtoft't Chronicle, p. SOI. 

(5) A space of grotmd, containing twenty yards 
square. North. 

(6) As an article of ornament for the neck, was 
the common wear of gentlemen. The clergy 
and lawyers, who now exclusively retain them, 
formerly wore ruflfe. See the description of a 
gentleman in Thynne's Debate, p. 19 ; Nares 
and Minsheu, in v. 

(7) The neck feathers of a cock. Holme. 
BANDE. Bound. Cf. Collier's Old Ballads, 

p. 15 ; Ywaine and Gawin, 1776. 
A mawnger ther be fande. 
Come therin lyggande, 
Therto his mere he bande 

With the withy. Sir Percemt, 443. 
BANDED-MAIL. A kind of armour, which 
consisted of alternate rows of leather or cotton, 
and single chain-mail. , 

BANDEL. Florio translates bandette, " side 
comers in a house; also any bandelt." See 
also the same lexicographer, in v. BendeUdref 
BANDELET. Florio has ** Cidrpa, any kind of 
scarfe or bandelet:* See also Strutt's Dress 
and Habits, il 124. 

BANDERS. Associators; consphrators ; men 
bound to each other by the mutual ties of a 
party. Boucher. 
BANDISH. A bandage. North. 
BAND-KIT. A kind of great can with a cover. 

BANDO. A proclamation. Shirley. 
BANDOG. According to Nares, a dog always 
kept tied up on account of his fierceness, and 
with a view to increase that quality in him, 
which it certainly would do. Bewick describes 
it as a species of mastiff, produced by a mix- 
ture with the bull-dog. See Withals' Dic- 
tionarie, p. 77 ; Ford's Works, iL 526 ; Robhi 
Hood, ii. 64. 
BANDOLEERS. Little wooden cases covered 
with leather, each of them containing the 
charge of powder for a musket, and iadtened 
to a broad band of leather, which the person 
who was to use them put round his neck. 
The band itself is also frequently termed a 
bandoleer. See Middleton's Works, v. 517; 
Unton Inventories, p. 3 ; Songs of the London 
Prentices, p. 68. 
BANDON. Dominion; subjection; disposaL 
(A.'N.) See Gij of Warwike, p. 136 ; Robson's 
Met. Rom., p. 1 1 ; Ritson's Songs, L 56 ; Lang- 
toft, p. 141 ; Rom. of the Rose, 1163 ; Kyng 
Alisaunder, 3180, 5505, 7720; Le Bone Flo- 
rence of Rome, 695. 

Merci, queth, Ich me yelde 
Recreaunt to the In this fdde. 
So harde the tmitett upon me krowB, 
Ich do me alle In the bandomn. 

Beoe» of Hamtmm, p. 48. 
At thou art knyght of renowne, 
I do me all yn thy btmdoume. 

MS. Cantab. Ff. il. SB, f. 102. 
But he me put out of his tomiMM, 
And yef to me no maner audience. 

Ufdgate, MS. AH^m, S»,r.». 

BANDORE. A musical instrument, somewhat 
similar to a guitar. According to Boucher, 
bass-viols are often called bandores in Glouces- 
tershire ; and Grose applies the term to '' a 
widow's mourning peak," where I suspect an 
error for Fr. bandeau. The bandore is said to 
have been invented by one John Rose, in the 
reign of Elizabeth; but it is more probable 
that he merely introduced a variation of the 
Italian pandurOf an instrument very similar 
both in form and name. 

BANDORF. A penon banner. Holme. 

BANDROLL. A Uttle streamer, banner, or pen- 
non, usually fixed near the point of a Itmce. 
(Fr.) See Drayton's Poems, p. 11; Percy's 
Reliques, p. 271 ; Florio, in v. Banderella. 

BANDS. The hinges of a door. North. 

BANDSTERS. Those who, in reaping, during 
harvest, bind the sheaves. North. 

BANDSTRINGS. Translated by Miege, ^toub 
de robot. Cf. Strutt, iL 99. 222. They were 
prohibited to be imported by 14 Car. II. See 
Book of Rates, p. 179. According to Jamie- 
son, they were strings going across the breast 
for tying in an ornamental way. 





BANDY. (1) A game played wHh sticks called 
dandie»9 bent and loimd at one end, and a 
small wooden ball, which each party endea- 
▼ouTS to drlTC to opposite fixed points. North- 
brooke, in 1577»mention8 it as a fsTonrite game 
in De¥onshire. It is sometimes called buidy- 
ball, and an early drawing of the game is co- 
pied in Stmtt's Sports and Pastimes, p. 102. 

(2) A hare. Eagt. 

(3) To toss a ball, a term at tennis. See Dray- 
ton's Poems, p. 10 ; Malone's Shakespeare, x. 
52 ; Hawldns* Eng. Dram. iiL 171. 

S4) To join in a faction. Mituheu, 
5) Flexible ; without substance. A term ap- 
plied to bad cloth in the Stat. 43 Eliz. c 10. 
BANDT-HEWIT. A Uttle bandy-legged dog; 
a turnspit. Otherwise explained, *' a name 
given to any dog, when persons intend to use 
ft in making sport of its master." Lane, 
BANDY-HOSHOE. A game at ball, common 
in Norfolk, and played in a similar manner to 
bandvt Q. ▼. 
BANDYLAN. A bad woman. North. 
BANDYN. Bound. (^.-5.) 
BANDY-WICKET. The game (tf cricket, ^yed 

with a bandy instead of a bat. Ea»i, 
BANE. (1) A bone. North. 

Agmyne he wode Uut water onane, 
Nerehand for-nomene on Uke a boM. 

MS, Lincoln A. 1. 17. t, 125. 
(2) To afflict with a bad disease. West, This 
term it not applied exclusively to animals. 

!3) A murderer. {J.-S,) 
4) Kind ; courteous ; firiendly. North, This is 
Kennett's explanation of the word in MS. 
Lansd. 1033. 

i5^ Destruction. Chaucer, 
6) Near ; convenient. North, 

BANEBERRY. The herb Christopher. Skhmer. 

BANED. Age-stricken. Pari, 

BANEHOUND. To make beliere ; to intend ; 
to purpose ; to suspect. Somertet. 

B ANERER. The bearer of a banner. Cl^on. 

BANES. The banns of matrimony. Somerset, 
See Webst^s Works, L 47, and the authori- 
ties there quoted. The proclamations of the 
old mysteries were called banes, as in the 
Chester Plays, L 1. Ban is a French word, 
and signifies a proclamation by sound of 

BANEWORT. The nightshade. Sihmer, 

BANG. (1) To go with rapidity. Cumb, 

(2) To strike ; to shut with violence. Var, dial. 
Hence, to surpass, to beat. 

(3) A blow. Far, dial, 

h) A stick; a dub. North. 

(5) A hard cheese made of milk several times 
tkimmed. Suffolk, « 

(6) " In a bang," in a hurry. North. 
BANG-A-BONK. To lie kzily on a bank. 

BANG-BEGGAR. A beadle. Derbysh, Also 
a term of reproach, a vagabond. 

BANGE. Light fine rain. Esses. 
BANGER. (1) A large person. For. dteJL 

(2) A hard blow. Sakp, 

(3) A great ftlsehood. Warw. 
BANGING. Great ;Uffge. Var. dial 
BANGLE. (1) To spend one's money foolishly. 


(2) A Urge rough stick, jish. 

BANGLED. Com or young shoots are said to 
be bangled when beaten about by the rain or 
wind. A bangled hat means one bent down or 
slouched. East, 

BANGLE-E ARED. Having loose and hanging 
ears, auresjlaeeida et pendukst as Upton de- 
fines it in his MS. additions to Junius in the 
Bodleian Library. Miese translates it, ** qui 
a les oreilles pendantes."' 

BANGSTHAW. A nick-name for a thresher, 
but applied to all the servants of a £urmer. 

BANG-UP. A substitute for yeast Stqfordsh. 

BANIS. Destruction. JUtson. 

BANJY. Dull; gloomy. Essejp. 

BANK. (1) To beat. Exmoor. 

(2) A term at the game of bowls, mentioned by 
Cotgrave, in v. Bricoler ; and also at truck, as 
in Holme's Academy, iiL 263. 

(3) To coast along a bank. This seems to be the 
sense of the word in King John, v. 2. See also 
Vloxio, in v. Corriudre, 

(4) A piece of unsht fir-wood, from four to ten 
inches square, and of any length. Bailey. 

BANKAFALET. An old game at cards men- 
tioned in a little woik called " Games most in 
Use,'' 12mo. Lond. 1701. The whole pack is 
parcelled out into as many parts as there are 

BANKAGE. Is mentioned by Harrison among 
iheprttdia of Otto, in his Description of Eng- 
land, p. 158. 

BANKER. (1) A cloth, carpet, or covering of 
tapestry for a form, bench, or seat. In an in- 
ventory " oflf dothys" m MS. Cantab. Ff. L 6, 
f. 58, mention is made of "iij. bankkers." 
Any kind of small coverlet was afterwards 
called a banker, as in Brit. BibL il 398 ; Book 
of Rates, p. 25. 

(2) An excavator, employed inter alia in making 
embankments. Line, 

BANKETT. A banquet. See Halle's Expostu- 
lation, p. 14 ; Arch. xxiL 232. 

BANK-HOOK. A large fish-hook, which derives 
its name from being laid baited in brooks or 
running water, and attached by a line to the 
bank. Sahp. 

BANKROUT. A bankrupt. Still in use in the 
North. Often spelt bankerout, as in Wright's 
Passions of the Minde, 1621, p. 246, or ban- 
kers-out, Du Bartas, p. 365. It is also a verb, 
to become bankrupt ; and Nares gives an ex- 
ample of it in the sense of bankruptcy. Sir 
James Harrington mentions a game at cards 
called bankerout. See Arch, y'm, 149. 

BANKS. The seats on which the rowers of a 
boat sit ; also, the sides of a vessel Marston. 





BANKSMIORSE. A learned horse, kept by a 
person named Banks in the time of Elizabeth, 
and constantly alluded to by writers of the 
time under his name of Morocco, One of his 
exploits is said to have been the ascent of St. 
Paul's steeple. The author of the Life and 
Death of Mrs. Mary Frith, 1662, p. 75, says, 
" I shall never forget my fellow humourist 
Banks the vintner in Cheapside, who taught 
his horse to dance and shooed him withsilver.'^ 
In MS. Ashra. 826, f. 179, is a curious satiri. 
cal piece entitled, " A bill of fare sent to 
Bankes the vintner in Cheape-side, in May 
1637 ;" and an unnoticed anecdote respecting 
his horse occurs in Jests to make you Merie, 
1607, p. 12. 

BANKSIDE. Part ofthe borough of Southwark, 
famous in Shakespeare's time for its theatres, 
and as the residence of a certain class of 
ladies. See further particulars in Nares, p. 26. 

BANKSMAN. One who superintends the busi- 
ness of the coal pit. Derbysh. 

BANK-UP. To heap up. " It is banking up," 
spoken of a dond gathering before a shower. 

BANKY. A banky piece, a field with banks in 

it. Herrfordsk, 
BANLES. Without bones. 
BANNE. To ban; to curse; to banish. (^.-iV:) 

See Piers Ploughman, pp. 18, 143, 167, 310. 

Bannee occurs apparently in a similar sense 

in the Exmoor Scolding, p. 11. 
BANNER. A body of armed men, varying from 

twenty to eighty. See the State Papers, 

ii. 46. 
BANNERELL. A Uttle streamer or flag. See 

Florio, in v. Bandarwila ; Arch. xii. 350. 
BANNERERE. A standard-bearer. Weber, 
BANNERET. A knight made in the field with 

the ceremony of cutting off the point of his 

standard, and making it a banner. 
Thane the banerettez of Brctayne broghte thame 

to tentet. Morte Arthur*, MS. Unc. A. L 17, f. 78 

BANNERING. An annual custom of perambu- 
lating the bounds of a parish, fot the purpose 
of maintaining the local jurisdiction and 
privileges. Sakp, 

BANNET-HAY. A rick-yard. mitg. 

BANNEY. St. Barnabas. /. Wight. 

BANNICK. To beat; to thrash. Smsex. 

BANNIKIN. AsmaUdrlnkmgcup. 

But since It Is resolved otherwise, I pray you bid 
the butler bring up his bannikiMf and I'll make 
you all lords like myself. 

Account of Grocer^ Company ^ p. 25. 

BANNIN. That which is used for shutting or 
stopping. Somerset. 

B ANN IS. A stickleback. Wilts. 

BANNISTERS. A term which is supposed to 
mean travellers in distress. It occurs in the 
ancient accounts of the parish of Chudleigh, 
CO. Devon. See Carlisle on Charities, p. 288. 

BANNOCK. A thick round cake of bread, not 
a loaf. At Worsley, co. Lane, it is thus 
made — oatmeal and water two parts, treacle 
one part, baked about one fourth of an inch 

thick in cakes of a few inches in diameter. 
Ray explains it, ** an oat-cake kneaded with 
water only, and baked in the embers." A 
kind of hard ship biscuit sometimes goes 
under this name. 

BANNUT. A walnut. West. The growing 
tree is called a bannut tree, but the converted 
timber walnut. The term occurs as early as 
1697 in MS. Lansd. 1033, f. 2. 

BANNYD. Banished. (^.-AT.) 
Mede and Falseheed assocyed are* 

Trowthe banned ys, the biynde may not se ; 
Manye a mon they make Aille bare, 

A strange compleynt ther ys of every degr^ 

MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6, f. 135. 

BANQUET. (1) Generally means a dessert in 
the works of our early writers. According to 
Gifford the banquet was usually placed in a 
separate room, to which the guests removed 
when they had dined. This was called the 
banquetting room. See Beaumont and 
Fletcher, iii. 437; Ford's Works, L 231; 
Middleton's Works, iiL 252 ; Malone*s Shake- 
speare, V. 510. 

(2) Part of the branch of a horse's bit. See the 
Diet. Rust, in v. 

BANQUETER. A banker. Huloet. 

BANRENT. A banneret ; a noble. Gaw. 

BANRET. Same as banneret, q. v. According 
to Stanihurst, Des. of Ireland, p. 39, " he is 
properlie called a banret^ whose father was no 
carpet knight, but dubbed in the field under 
the banner or ensigne." Cf. Sir Degrevant, 

BANSCHYN. To banish. Prompt. Part. 

BANSEL. To beat ; to punish. Staffordsh. 

BANSTICKLE. The stickleback. Huloet. The 
term is still in use in Wiltshire, pronounced 

BANT. A string. Lane. 

BANTAMWORK. A very showy kind of painted 
or carved work. Ash. 

BANWORT. A violet. Dunelm. According 
to Cooper, bellis is "the whyte daysy, called of 
some the margarite, in the North banwoort." 
See Bibl. Eliot«, ed. 1559, in v. Our first 
explanation is given on Kennett's authority, 
MS. Lansd. 1033. (J.^S. Banwyrt.) 

BANY. Bony ; having large bones. North. 

BANYAN-DAY. A sea term for those days on 
which no meat is allowed to the sailors. 

BANYER, A standard-bearer. (A.-N.) 

BANYNGE. A kind of bird. "A sparlynge 
or a banynge" is mentioned in MS. Arund. 
249, f. 90. See also the Archajologia, xiii. 
341. The sparling is described by Randal 
Holme, p. 293 ; but it is also the name of the 
smelt, which may be here intended. 

BANZELL. A long }fizy fellow. North. 

BAON. The enclosed space between the ex- 
ternal walls arttt the body of a fortress. See 
the State Papers, ii. 441. 

BAP. A piece of baker's bread, varying from 
one penny to twopence in value, genejnally in 
the shape of an elongated rhombus, but some- 
times circular. North, 


BAPTEBffE. Btptism. 

BAPTISM. A ceremony perfonned in merchant 
Tessels which pass the line for the first time, 
both upon the ships and men. The custom 
is fuUy described in Bailey's Dictionary, foL 
ed. in v. 

BAPTYSTE. Baptism. Ritson. 

BAR. (1) A baron. Bob. Glow, 

S2) To shut ; to close. North, 
3) A joke. North. 
U) A horseway up a hill. Derbysh. 
(5) To lay claim or make choice of; a term used 
by boys at play when they select a particular 
situation or place. 

S6) A feather in a hawk's wing. Bemers. 
7) Bare; naked. North, 

(8) A boar. (A.-S.) 

(9) Bore. (A.-S,) Also, to bear, as in Percy's 
Reliques, p. 4. 

(10.) Tlirowing or pitching the bar was a com* 
mon amusement with our ancestors, and is 
said to have been a favourite pastime with 
Henry VIU. 

ScarM from the»e mad folke had he gone to farre 
At a strong man will eaa'ly pitch a itarr*, 

Draytm** Poemtt p. 241. 

(1 1.) To bar a die was a phrase used amongst 
gamblers. See Mr. Collier's notes to the 
Ghost of Richard III., p. 75. 

BARA-PICKLET. Bread made of fine flour, 
leayened, and made into small round cakes. 
Diet. Rust. Cf. Holme's Academy, iii. 86. 

BARATHRUM. An abyss. (Lat.) Our poets 
frequently apply the word to an insatiate 
eater. See Shirley's Works, i. 390 ; Fairholt's 
Pageants, ii. 183. 

BARATOUR. A quarrelsome person. Cf. 
Prompt. Parr., p. 23 ; Florio, in y. Imburias- 
tdne ; Reliq. Antiq. ii 239 ; Hardyng's Chroni- 
cle, f. 215. 

One was Ewayne fyts Asoure, 
Another was Oawayne with honour. 
And Kay the bolde baratow. 

Sir Pere«9al, 963. 

BARATOWS. Contentious. Skelton. 

BARAYNE. Barren, applied to hinds not 
gravid. Barayne$ used substantively. Gaw. 
Cf. Morte D' Arthur, ii 356. 

BARA3E. Bore away. 

The ryng and the gloven of the sexteyn he nom 
And borate ; and this lordynget al that tothe tolde. 
MS. CoU. TriH. 0*on. 5?. 

BARB. (I) To shave. See Measure for Measure, 
iv. 2, ed. 1685. Hence, to mow a field, as in 
Webster's Works, iv. 78. Ben Jonson, iv. 
19, has barbing money, for clipping it; and 
according to Bailey, to barb a lobster is to 
cut it up. 

(2) Florio has " BarboneeOi, the barbes or little 
teates in the mouth of some horses." 

(3) A Barbary horse. See Blome's Gent. Rec. 
ii 1. 

BARBALOT. A pufSn. Hobne. It is also the 

name of a fish, the barbel. 
BARBARYN. The barberry. Prompt. Parv. 
BARBASON. The suppoaed name of a ticnd, 

141 BAR 

mentioned in Merry W. of Windsor, ii. 2 ; 
Henry V., ii. 1. 

BARBE. A hood, or muffler, which covered 
the lower part of the face. According to 
Strutt, it was a piece of white plaited Unen 
and belonged properly to mourning, being 
generally worn under the chin. The feathers 
under the beak of a hawk were called the 
barbe federa^ so that there may possibly be 
some connexion between the terms ; and in 
the Dial. Creat. Moral, p. 223, mention is 
made of an animal with " a barbydde chynne." 
In Syr Gawayne the word is applied to the 
edge of an axe, and the points of arrows are 
called barbel. 

BARBED. An epithet formerly applied to war- 
horses, when caparisoned with military trap- 
pings and armour. Perhaps the more correct 
form is barded^ q. v. 

BARBED-CATTE. A warlike engine, described 
in the following passage : 

For to make a werrely holde, that men calle a 
barb«d catte, and a bewfray that shal have ix. fadome 
of lengthe and two fadome of brede, and the said 
catte six fadome of lengthe and two of brede, thai 
be ordeyned all squarre wode for the same aboute 
foure hondred fadom, a thousand of horde, xxilij. 
rolles, and a grete quantyt^ of smalle wode. 

Quton*4 Vegtciut, Sig. 1. 6. 

BARBEL. A small piece of armour which pro- 
tects part of the bassinet. 

His Uwhel first adoun he deth, 
Withouten colour his neb he seth, 

Gij of Warwik9, p. 160. 

BARBENY. Same as RUta, q. v. 

BARBER. To shave or trim the beard. Shak. 
The term barber-monger in King Lear, is ap- 
parently applied to a person dressed out by a 
barber, a finical fop. The phrase barber" 9 form 
feita does not seem to be satisfactorily ex- 
plained by the commentators, nor can we sup- 
ply more pertain information. It is supposed 
to have some reference to their double trade of 
barber and physician. In MS. Sloane 776, is 
a medical treatise, ** compylyd by me Charlys 
Whytte, cittezen and barboure-cirurgyon of 
London ;" and it is commonly stated that the 
spiral lines stiU seen on the barber's pole re • 
present the fillets bound round the arm when 
a person is bled. 

BARBICAN. A kind of watch-tower. The 
term is also applied to an advanced work be- 
fore the gate of a castle or fortified town, or 
any outwork at a short distance from the main 
works; and it occurs in Kyng Alisaunder, 
1591, explained by Weber " a parapet or 
strong high wall, with turrets to defend the 
gate and drawbridge." 

BARBLE. The Bible. North. 

BABBLES. Small vesicular tingling pimples, 
such as are caused by the stinging of nettles, 
or of some minute insects. JSoff. The term 
is also applied to knots in the month of a 
horse. See Topsell's History of Foure-footed 
Beasts, p. 363. 

BARBONES. A receipt to make ** tarte bar- 
bones" is given in Wyl Bucke's Test. p. 33. 




BARBORANNE. The barberry. Gaw. 
BARBORERY. A barber's shop. Prompt 

BARBS. (1) Military trappings. Spenur. 
(2) The barbies. " Barbs under calTes tongues'' 

are mentioned in Maikham's Countrey Farme, 

p. 63. 
BARCARY. A sheep-cote; a sheep-walk. 

BARCE. A stickleback. Yoriik. 
BARCELETT. A species of bow. Gaw, 
BARD. (1) A trapping for a horse, generally 

the breast-plate. 

(2) Tough. Rob.Gloue, 

(3) Barred ; fastened. Towneley Myti, 
BARDASH. An unnatural paramour. Florio 

has it as the translation of earamita. 
BAR'D-CATER-TRA. The name for a kind of 
filse dice, so constructed that the quatre and 
troii shall very seldom come up. 
He hath a ttocke whereon his living ttayei. 
And they are fullams and beurdqumrter-traifet. 

Rowland^ Humors Ordinarig, n. d. 

BARDE. Barred. See Friar Bacon's Prophecie, 
p. 13 ; Brit. BibL IL 621. 

BARDED. Equipped with military trappings or 
ornaments, applied to horses. See Hall, 
Henry VIII. f. 45. Bard is used as a substan- 
tive by the same writer, Henry IV. f. 12, and 
it often has reference to horses' armour. 

BARDELLO. The quilted saddle wherewith 
colts are backed. HoweU, 

BARDOLF. An ancient dish in cookery. The 
manner of making it is described in Warner's 
Antiq. Culin. p. 84. 

BARDOUS. Simple ;fooHsh. (Lat) 

BARDS. Strips of bacon used in larding. Jsh, 

BARE. (1) Mere. In this sense it occurs in 
Coriolanus. In Syr Gawayne, mere, uncondi- 
tional, and is also applied to the bUsts of a 
horn, apparently meaning $hort, or without 
rechate. It is idso used adverbiaUy. 

r2^ To sham Shak, 

(3) Bareheaded. JonMon, 

(4) A mixture of molten iron and sand, which 
lies at the bottom of a furnace. Sahp. 

(5) A piece of wood which a labourer is some- 
times allowed to carry home. St^ffblk, 

f 6) A boar. {A,-S,) See Sir Degrevant, 43. 

(7) A bier. It is the translation of Ubitina in a 
vocabulary in MS. Lansd. 560, f. 45, written 
in Lancadiire in the fifteenth century. 

(8) Apparently a piece of cloth. '* Two baree 
of raynes," Ordinances and Regulations, p. 125. 

(9) A place without grass, made smooth for 
bowlmg. Kersey, 

BAREAHOND. To assist. North, 
BARE-BARLEY. A Staffordshire term thus de- 
scribed in MS. Lansd. 1033, ** naked bariey, 
whose ear is shaped like barley, but its grain 
like wheat without any husk, which therefore 
some call wheat-barley, and others French- 
barley, because not much differing from that 
bought in the shops under such name." 
BARE-BUBS. A term used by boys to denote 
the unfledged young o€ birds. line. 

BAREHEVEDYS. Boars' beads. 
There come In at the l^nte couree, befor the kyng 

Ber^%ev«djf that ware bryghte bumyi te with sylver. 
Morie Arthurt, MS. Uncoln A. L 17. f. 5ft. 
BAREHIDES. A kind of covering for carts. 
See Arch. xxvi. 401; Florio, in v. S^azza- 
coverta ; Ordinances and Regulations, p. 394 ; 
Privy Purse Expences of Elizabeth of York, 
pp. 15, 16, 37. 
BARELLE. A bundle. 

ThentendouTs of suche a purpose would rather 

hare had their haraelet on their baclces, then to hare 

bound them up in barellu, yet muche part of the 

common people were therewith ryght wel satJsfyed. 

HaUt Kdward V, f . ^, 

BARELY. Unconditionally ; certainly. 

BAREN. (1) They bore, pL Chaucer. 

(2) To bark. Colet. 

BARENHOND. To intimate. Somerset, 

BARE-PUMP. A Httle piece of hollow wood or 
metal to pump beer or water out of a cask. 

BARES. Those parts of an image which repre- 
sent the bare flesh. 

BARET. (1) Strife ; contest. Cf. Manndevile's 
Travels, p. 272 ; Cocaygne, 27 ; Reliq. Antiq. 
iL91. • 

That baret rede I not je brewe. 
That 56 for ever aftir rewe. 
Curtor Mundi, MS, CoO. THn. CatUab. f. 26. 

(2) Grief; sorrow. Cf.GestaRomanorum, p. 183; 
Tundale's Visions, p. 55. 
Mykille barette and bale to Bretan tchalle bring. 

Robin's Rommneeg, p. II. 

BAREYNTE. Barrenness. Prompt, Parv, 

BARF. AhilL Yorksh, 

BARFHAME. A horse's neck-coUar. Durham 

BARFRAY. A tower. Gaw. 

BARFUL. Full of impediments. Shak, 

BARGAIN. An indefinite number or quantity 
of anything, not necessarily conveying the idea 
of purchase or sale. A load of a waggon is so 
called. East, In Lincolnshire we have the 
phrase, ''It's a bargains," it's no conse- 

BARGAINS. Contention; strife. Chaucer, 

BARGANDER. A brant-goose. Baret, 

BARGANY. A bargain. Pron^t, Parv, 

BARGARET. A kind of song ot ballad, perhaps 
accompanied with a dance. Chaucer, The 
word barginet seems used in a similar sense in 
Brit. BibL iii 29. 

BARGE. A fat heavy person ; a term of con- 
tempt Bxmoor, Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
has barge, '* a highway up a steep hilL" This 
may be another form of barf, q. v. 

BARGE-BOARD. The front or facing of a 
barge-course, to conceal the barge couples, 
laths, tiles, &c. 

BARGE-COUPLE. One beam framed into an- 
other to strengthen the building. 

BARGE-COURSE. ApartofthetUmgorthatdi. 
ing of a roof, projecting over the gable. 

BARGE-DAY. Ascension-day. Newcastle, 

BARGET. A baige. This term is nsed several 
times by Malory, Morte d' Arthur, U. 351-2. 




BABGH. (1) A boneway np ^ hiU. Norik, 

(2) A barrow hog. Ortut. 

BAROOOD. Yeaat. Var, dial 

BAR6UEST. A frightM goblin, armed with 
teeth and dawi, a suppositious object of ter- 
ror in the North of England. According to 
Ritaon, Fairy Tales, p. 58, the barguest, be- 
sides its many other pranks, would sometimes 
in the dead of night, in passing through the 
different streets, set up the most horrid and 
contidooas shrieks, in order to scare the poor 
girls who might happen to be out of bed. It 
was generally believed that the faculty of see- 
ing this gobtin was peculiar to certain indivi- 
duals, but that the gift could be imparted to 
another at the time of the ghost's appearance, 
by the mere action of touching. 

BARIAN. A rampart. {A.-N^ 

BARIDE. Made bare. 

Hyt hauberk brak with dentct haride. 
That men moht te hys naked hide. 

Gup </ Warwick^ MUtdUMtt MS. 

BAR-IRE. A crow-bar. Devon. 
BARK. (1) The tartar deposited by bottled wine 
or other liquor encrusting the bottle. East. 

(2) A cylindrical receptacle for candles ; a candle- 
box. North, At first it was only a piece of 
hark nailed up against the wall. 

(3) ** Between the bark and the wood," a well- 
adjusted bargain, where neithjnr party has the 
advantage. Suffolk. 

(4) A cough. Var. dial 

(5) To bark a person's shins, is to knock the 
skin off the legs by kicking or bruising them. 

BARKARY. A tan-house. Jacobs. 

BARKED. Encrusted with dirt North, Some- 
times pronounced barkened. 

BARKEN. The yard of a house ; a feum-yard. 

BARKER. (1) A tanner. Ritson, 

(2) A fault-finder. HoUyhand, 

fzS A whetstone ; a rubber. Devonth, 
4) Ray, in the preface to his Collection of Eng- 

Ush Words, mentions the barker^ ** a marsh 

bird with a long bill, to which there was no 

Latine name added.'' 
(5) " Barkers of redd worsted" are mentioned in 

the Ordinances and Regulations, p. 127. 
BARKFAT. A tanner's vat Chaucer. 
BARK-GALLING is when trees are galled by 

being bound to stakes. Bailey, 
BARKHAM. A horse's collar. North. 
BARKLED. Baked or encrusted with dirt, more 

particularly applied to the human skin. North, 

Grose has barkitf dirt hardened on hair. 
BARKMAN. A boatman. Kersey, 
BARKSET E. Same as barsale, q. v. 
BARK WATER. Foul water m which hides have 

been tanned. Prompt. Parv. 
BARK-WAX. Bark occasionally found in the 

body of a tree, arising from some accident 

when young. East. 
B ARLAY. Apparently a corruption of the French 

par hi. See g^oss. to Syr Gawayne, in v. 

BARLEEG. An ancient dish in cookery, com- 
posed of almonds and rice. See Warner's An- 
tiq. Culin. p. 83. 

BARLEP. A basket for keeping barley in. 
Prompt: Parv. 

BARLET. So the first folio reads in Macbeth, 
L 6, where modem editors have substituted 
martlet. See the edit 1623, p. 134. 

BARLEY. To bespeak ; to claim. It is an ex- 
clamation frequently used by children in their 
games when they wish to obtain a short ex- 
emption frt>m the laws of the amusement in 
which they are occupied. North, 

BARLEY-BIG. A particular kind of barley, 
mostly cultivated in the fenny districts of Nor- 
folk and the Isle of Ely. 

I have nerer known any malt made of rye, perhaps 
because yielding very little bran. It is found more fltt 
for bread-corn, nor at that grain which we call 6ar/«ir> 
big, yet 1 hear that of late it is ofte malted in other 
places. jiubre^g Wilt$, MS. Soc. Reg, p. 304. 

BARLEY-BIRD. The nightingale, which comea 
in the season of sowing barley. East, The 
green-finch is sometimes so called, and the 
name is still more frequently applied to the 

BARLEY-BOTTLES. Little bundles of barley 
in the straw, given to farm-horses. This waste- 
ful method of giving feeds of com was for- 
merly in vogue in Norfolk, but is now disused. 

BARLEY-BREAK. An ancient rural game, thus 
described by Gifford. It was played by six 
people, three of each sex, who were coupled by 
lot. A piece of ground was then chosen, and 
divided into three compartments, of whidi the 
middle one was called hell. It vras the object 
of the couple condemned to this division to 
catch the others, who advanced from the two 
extremities ; in which case a change of situa- 
tion took place, and hell was filled by the 
couple who were excluded by pre-occi^ation 
from the other places ; in this " catching," 
however, there was some difiSculty, as, by the 
regulations of the game, the middle couple 
were not to separate before they had succeeded, 
while the others might break hands whenever 
they found themselves hard pressed. When 
all had been taken in turn, the last couple were 
said to be in hellj and the game ended. There 
is a description of the game in a little tract, 
called " Barley-breake, or a Warning for Wan- 
tons," 4to. Lond. 1607. Some extracts from 
it will be found in the Brit BibL L 66. See 
also Fk>rio, in v. Pdme; Brand's Pop. Antiq. 
ii. 236. 

BARLEY-BREE. Ale. North, 

BARLEY-BUN. A " barley bunnc gentleman" 
18, according to Minsheu, ** a gent (although 
rich) yet lives with barley bread, and other- 
wise barely and hardly." 

BARLEY-CORN. Ale or beer. Var. dial, 

BARLEY-HAILES. The spetrs of barley. £bi(/A. 

BARLEY-MUNG. Barley meal, mixed with 
water or milk, to fatten fowls or pigs. East, 

BARLEY.PLUM. A kind of dark purple plum. 




fiARLEY-SEED-BIRD. The yeflow watcr-wag- 
taiL Yorkih, 

BARLEY-SELE. The season of sowing barley. 
Btut The tenn is found in the Prompt. Panr. 
p. 25. 

BARLICHE. Barley. 

They were coostreyned to retceive bartiehe for here 
5eret rewarde. MS. Douc0 S91. f. 16. 

BARLICHOOD. The state of being Ul-tem- 
pered after the use of intoxicating liquors. 
North, Skelton has barfyhood, L 107, though 
not, I think, in the same sense. See barly- 
haie in Nugae Poet. p. 9. 

BARLING. AUmprey. North. 

BARLINGS. Firepoles. In Blomefield's Nor- 
folk, iiL 769, mention is made of " sixteen 
acres and a rood of heath, with the barlings, 
valued at 19». Id.** Boucher erroneously con- 
siders it to be a dialectical pronunciation of 
bare or barren lands. The term again occurs 
in the Book of Rates, p. 25. 

BARM. (1) The lap or bosom. (J.-S.) 
To her be profk«th his service. 
And Uyth his heed upon hir barme. 

Gower,td.l6Sa,t 130. 

(2) Yeast. West. The term is found in Shake- 
speare, liUy, Beaumont and Fletcher, and 
other early writers. 

BARM ASTER. A chief officer among the miners, 
who measures the oar obtained, receives the 
lot and cope, lays out and measures meers of 
ground to the miners, and anpoints barmot« 
courts. Derbysh. 

BARME-CLOTH. An apron. Chaucer. The 
term barm-feUys occurs in a curious poem in 
Retiq. Antiq. 1. 240, meaning the leathern 
aprons worn by blacksmiths ; and barmhafres, 
garments for the bosom, in the same work, 
ii. 176. 

BARMOTE. A bergmote. Derbysh. 

BARMSKIN. A leather apron, generally one 
made of the skin of sheep. North. In Lin- 
colnshire holds the elegant simile, '' as dirty 
and greasy as a barmskm." The word occurs 
in the Prompt. Parv. p. 25. 

BARN. (1) A chUd. (yf.-5.) The word is com- 
mon both as an archaism and provincialism. 
Harrison, in his Description of England, p. 157, 
says *' the common sort doo call their male 
cMldren bames here in England, especiallie in 
the North countrie, where that word is yet ac- 
customablie in use ; and it is also growne into 
a proverbe in the South, when anie man sus- 
tdneth a great hinderance, to saie, I am beg- 
gered and all my bames." 
A man. 

To lay up in a bam. East. Shakespeare 
\ueB the word in this sense in the Rape of Ln- 
crece, xx. 155. 

(4) A gamer. Wtckliffe. 

(5) Going. Yorksh. 

BARNABAS. A kind of thistle, mentioned by 

Florio, in y. Cakatrippa. 
BARNABEE. The lady-bird. Suffolk. 
BARNABY-BRIGHT. The provincial name for 

St. Barnabas' day, June 11th, which has been 

celebrated in proverbs and iiunery*Thymet 
under this name. 
BARNACLES. It was formerly thought that 
this species of shell-fish, which is found ob 
timber exposed to the action of the sea, be- 
came, when broken off, a kind of geese. These 
geese are called bamacles by many of our old 
writers. The term is also often applied to spec- 
BARNAGE. The baronage. {Pr.) See Chion. 
Vilodun. p. 31 ; Gij of Warwicke, p. 2tt5 ; 
Ywaine and Gawin, 1258. 

The king com with his homage. 
And touiies brent in grete rage. 

Arthiiur and Merlin, p. 90. 

BARNDE. Burnt. Rob. Glouc. 
BARN-DOOR-SAVAGE. A clodhopper. Salop. 
BARNE. (1) A kind of flower, mentioned in 

Hollyband's Dictionarie, 1593. 
(2) A baron. See Const. Freemas. p. 14 ; Rob. 
Glouc. p. 139 ; Sir Degrevant, 1844 ; Thom- 
ton Rom. p. 260. 
EARNED. Qosed ; shut up. Oxon. 
BARNEHED. ChUdhood. 

Alto mene cbaunges thurghe dyverse ages; for 
bamehed rejoyse It in sympilnesse, jouthehede In pre* 
sumptuosnes, and grete elde In stabilncti. 

MS. Uncoln A. I, 17, f. 36. 
Thar sal 50 And sumkyn dedis. 
That Jhesus did In hys bam-hedie. 

MS. cat. Fe*pa». A. 111. f. I. 

BARNE KIN. The outermost ward of a castle, 
within which the bams, stables, cow-houses, 
\c. were placed. Hall spells it bamkyn^ Henry 
VIII. f. 101 ; and the unusual form bamekyuch 
occurs in Sir Degrevant, 375. 
BARNE-LAYKAYNES. ChUdren'a playthings. 
In that also that tliou sent ut a hande-balle and 
other bame-ta^kaynest thou prophicyed ri5te, and hi- 
takend blfore thyngex that we trowe thurghe Goddes 
heipe salle falle untllle us. MS. Uncoln A. 1. 17, f. 8. 
BARN GUN. An eruption on the skin. Devon, 
BARNISH. (1) Childish. North. 
(2) To increase in strength or vigotir ; to fatten ; 
look mddy and sleek. The word is in con- 
stant use in the Southern and Western coun- 
ties, and is also an archaism. " Bamish you,'' 
an imprecation found in the Devonshire dialect. 
BARN-MOUSE. A bat. " Bit by a bam-mouse," 

a common phrase for being tipsy. 
BARN-SCOOP. A wooden shovel used in 

bams. Var. dial. 
BARN-TEME. (1) A brood of cMldren. See 
Towneley Myst. pp. 46, 212; Chester Plays, 
ii. 53. 

He and his eldest brother Seem, 
Blessedest of that bameteem. 

Curaor Mundi, MS. Col. T>in. Cantab. 1. 13. 

The flrste ther of this foule bame tyme highte 

Envye, the tother hlghte Pride, the thirde highte 

Oruchyng*. MS. Uneoln A. i. 17, f. 27B. 

(2) A chUd. 

His dame nowe maye dreame 
For her owine bame-teame. Chester IHa^, ii. Al. 
BARNWORT. See Batucort. 
BARNYARD. A straw-yard. East. 
BARN- YOU. An imprecation. Devon. 
BARNYSKYN. A leather apron. Pr. Part. 




BABON. (1) Sometime* used for bmm, a child, 
as in Co¥. Myst. p. 182 ; Chester Plays, L 192. 

(2) The back part cHf a cow. For. tUoL 

BARONADY. Tlie dignity of a baron. 

BARONAGE. An assembly of barons. The same 
wiUi imna^, q. t. 

BARONER. Aharon. 

BAROWB. An ancient vehicle, whence perhiq^ 
the modem term bitrrow is deriyed. It is 
tFsnalated by cemoveetonmm in the Prompt 

BARB. (1) To choose ; to debar. Sakp. 

(2) Part of a stag's horn, mentioned in the ap- 
pendix to Howell, sect. 3. 

(3) The gate of a dty. 
BARRA. A gelt pig. Exmoor, 
BARRACAN. A sort of stuff. MUge. 
BARRA.HORSE. A Barbary horse. See the 

Privy Purse Expences of Henry VIII. p. 204. 
BARRATINO. Quarrelling. See the 2d Part of 

Promos and Cassandra, ii 4. 
BARRE. (1) The ornament of a girdle. See 
Prompt. Par?, p. 24 ; Notes to Chiwoer, p. 150. 
FkMrio mentions the horret of a helmet, in v. 
(2) To more violently. 

In myddlt th« stitne when that tbay wire, 
TiM wawet with wynd« by5ane to barre. 

MS. Uneoln A. i. 17* f. 1S5. 

BARRED, striped. Shiriey, iL 380, speaks of a 

" barr'd gown," and the term occurs also in Syr 

Gawayne. Drayton has barred for barbed, ap. 

plied to horses. 
BARRBINE. Barren. Chaucer, 
BARREL. A bucket. Elyot mentions *'the 

barrel of a well," in t. Sueula. florio, in t. 

Doga, mentions barrel-boards, boards of which 

barrels are made. 
BARREL-FEVER. Aviolent sickness occasioned 

bj intemperance. North, 
BARREN. (1) A hind not gravid. In Sussex, a 

barren cow or ewe is so called. 

!2) A company of mules. Bemers, 
3} The vagina of an animaL lAne. 

(4) Stujnd; ignorant. Shak. 
BARRENER. A barren cow or ewe. South, 
BARREN-IVT. Creeping ivy. Bailey. 
BARREN-SPRINGS. Springs impregnated with 

minend, and considered usurious to the land. 

BARRBSSE. A bar; a gate. Ct Plumpton 
Coirespondenoe, p. 142. 

At th« barretM he habade. 
And bawndonly downe lyghte. 

MS, Umeoin A. L 17, f. 131. 

BARRICOAT. AchOd'scoat. Northumb, 

HARRIS. Fit; convenient. Durham. 

BARRIER. The paling in a tournament. 

BARRIERS. To fight at barriers, to fight withm 
lifts. This kind of contest is sometimes called 
simply barrien. See Cunningham's Revels 
Accounts, p. X. ; Florio, in v. Bagorddre. 

BARRIHAM. A horse's collar. North, 

BABRIKET. A small firkin. See Cotgrave, 
in V. Barrot, JFiOette. The term barrilet 
teems used in the same sense. It occurs in 

Florio, in v. BariUtto, BotdUo; Cotgrave, i;i 
V. Hambour, 

BARRING. Except. Var, dial. 

BARRING-OUT. An ancient custom at schools, 
said to be still prevalent in some parts of the 
North of England, when the boys, a few days 
before the holidays, barricade the school-room 
from the master, and stipulate for the disci- 
pline of the next half year. According to 
Dr. Johnson, Addison, in 1683, was the leader 
in an affair of this kind at Litchfield. 

BARRO. A borough. ** BetUem that barro." 
See the Chester Plays, i 179. 

BARROW. (1) A hillock; an ancient tumul 
lus. It would appear from Lambarde, Peram- 
bulation of Kent, 1596, p. 435, that the term 
in his time was peculiar to the West of 
England. Cf^ Elyot's Dictionarie, in v. Gru- 
mu9, Tumuhu. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, 
gives it as a Durham word for a grove. 

(2^ A child's flannel dout. Somereet, 

hS A way up a hilL North, 

(4) At Nantwich and Droitwich, the conical 
baskets wherein they put the salt to let the 
water drain from it are called barrows. A 
barrow contained about six pecks. Ketwett, 
MS. Lantd. 1033. 

(5) A castrated boar. 

With brcites of barowu that bryghte ware to tcbewe. 
Mort§ Arthur; MS. Uneotn A. 1 17» f. &5. 

BARRS. The upper parts of the gums of a 

horse. Dict.Ruet. 
BARRY. To thrash com. Northumb. 
BARRYD. Paled round, in preparation for a 

And fythen to the felde they farde. 
The place was barryd and dyghte. 

MS. Cantab. Ft. U. 88, f. 79u 

BARS. The game of prisoner's-base. 

Went he on a day to plawe, 

Af children don atte bar*. 

Legmd tifPvf Qr^gory, pw Sft. 
BARSALE. The time of stripping bark. Eaxt. 
BARSE. A perch. Westmor, 
BARSH. Shelter. Kermeti, 

Ther come barownce to that hay with baeattp* bolde. 
MS. Dauee 90», t. 34. 

BARSON. A horse's collar. Yorksh. 

BARST. Burst ; broke. Lane. The word oc- 
curs in Robert of Gloucester, and other early 

BARTE. To beat with the fists. Warw. 

BARTH. A shelter for catae. Ea»t. Ray and 
Pegge explain it, ** a warm place or pasture 
for calves or lambs," and add that it is used 
in the South in this sense.. See also Tusser's 
Husbandry, p. 92. Barthleag, houseless, oc- 
curs in the Devonshire dislect. 

BARTHOLOMEW-PIG. Roasted pigs were for- 
merly among the chief attractions of Bartho- 
lomew Fair ; they were sold piping hot, in 
booths and stalls, and ostentatiously displayed 
to excite the appetite of passengers. Hence 
a Bartholomew-pig became a common subject 
of allusion. Naree. 





BARTHU-DAT?. St. Bartholomew's day.^ 

BARTIZAN. The small overhanging tmnfets 
which project from the angles on the top of 
a tower, or from the parapet or other parts of 
a hnilding. Oxf, Olott, Arch. 

BARTLE. (1) According to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
1033, " at nine-pins or ten-hanea they have 
one larger hone set ahont a yard hefore the 
rest caU'd the hartle, and to knock down the 
bm-tle giTes for five in the game." Wettmor, 

(2) St. Bartholomew. N^h, 

BARTON. The demesne hmds of a manor ; the 
manor-honse itself; and sometimes, the out- 
houses and yards. Miege says "* a coop for 
poultry," and Cooper translates e6hor$, " a 
h€a-t<m or place inclosed wherin all kinde of 
pultrie was kept." In the Unton Inventories, 

L9, pigs are mentioned aa being kept in a 
BARTRAM. The pdlitory. 
BARTYNIT. Struck ; battered. Qaw, Sharp, 
in his MS. Warwickshire glossary, has barte, 
to beat with the fists, which may be connected 
with this term. 
BARU. A gelt boar. In Rob. Glouc. p. 207, a 
giant is described as running a spit through a 
'< vatte bam" for his meaL 
BAR-UP. To shut up. Kennett. 
BARVEL. A short leathern apron worn by 

washerwomen ; a slabbering bib. Kent, 
BARVOT. Bare-foot. Rob. Glouc, 
BARW. Protected. {A.-S,) 
BARWAY. The passage into a field composed 
of bars or rails made to take out of the posts. 
BARYS. TheberyL 

Hlr garthb of nobuUe fOke thei were, 
Hir bocuU thei were of boiy* stone. 

ATS. Cantab. Ff. T. 48. 
BAS. To kiss. SkeUm, 
BASAM. The red heath broom. Dewm, 
BASCHED. Abashed ; put down. 

Sithe the bore was beten and batehad no mor. 
But the hurt that he had hele fhuld thor. 

Roland, MS. Lansd. 888. t. 985. 

BASCLES. A kind of robbers or highwaymen 

so called. See the Gloss, to Langtoft, and the 

Chronicle, p. 242. 
BASCON. A kind of hice, consisting of five 

bows. See Strutt's Dress and Habits, iL 98. 
BASCONUS. A dish in ancient cookery. The 

manner of making it is described in MS. Sloane 

1201, f. 68. 
BASE. (1) To sing or play the baee part in 

music Shall. 

(2) Baret has <* a baee, or prop, a shore or pyle 
to underset with." 

(3) Low. Harrison speaks of the " bate Wence- 
Und," in his Description of Britaine," p. 74. 

(4) The game of prisoner's-bars, a particular ac- 
count of which is given by Starutt, p. 78. See 
also Cotton's Works, 1734, p. 80 ; Harring- 
ton's Nug« Antiquae, ii. 261. To "bid a base," 
means to run fast, challenging another to 

pursue. ,, , 

Doe but sund here, T'le run a little coune 
At boM, or barley-breake. or some such toye. 

Tragvd^ cf Huffman, 1631. 

(5) Matting. Eaet. 

(6) A perch. Osmb. 

(7) The drapery thrown over a horse, and some- 
times drawn tight over tiie armour which he 
wore. Meyrick. 

(8) A small piece of ordnance. B0«t«yt are men- 
tioned in the Arch. vL 216. It occurs in 
Galfrido and Bernardo, 1570, and Arch. xiii. 
177, " boats shall be so well appointed with 
baeeee, and other shot besides." 

BASE-BALL. A country game mentioned in 

Moor's Suffolk Words, p. 238. 
BASEBROOM. The herb woodwax. Florio. 
BASE-COURT. The first or outer court of a 

castle or large mansion. 

M7 lordf in the ha»a-eourt he doth attend 

To ipeak with you ; may't please you to come down ? 
Jtiehard 11. ili. S. 

BASE-DANCE. A grave, sober, and solemn 
mode of dancing, something, it is probable, in 
the minuet style ; and so called, perhaps, in 
contradistinction to the vaulting kind of dances, 
in which tibere was a greater display of agility. 
Boucher, An old dance, called basekma, is 
mentioned in MS. Sloane 3501, t 2. 

BASEL. A coin abolished by Henry IL in 1158. 
Blount's Glossographia, p. 78. 

BASELARD. See Baslard. 

BASELER. A person who takes care of neat 
cattle. North. 

BASEN. Extended. Speneer. 

BASE-RING. The ring of a cannon next be- 
hind the touch-hole. 

BASES. Defined by Nares to be, " a kind of 
embroidered mantle which hung down from 
the middle to about the knees or lower, worn 
by knights on horseback." "Writers of the 
seventeenth century seem occasionally to ap- 
ply the term to any kind of skirts, and some- 
times even to the hose. See Donee's Illustra- 
tions, iL 126 ; Hall, Henry VIII. f. 4 ; Dyce's 
Remarks, p. 263 ; StruU, iL 243. 

BASE-SON. A bastard. 

BASE-TABLE. A projecting moulding or band 
of mouldings near the bottom of a walL Oxf, 
Gloee, Arch, 

BASH. (1) The mass of the roots of a tree 
before they separate ; the front of a bull's or 
pig's head, Herefordth, 

(2) To beat fruit down from the trees with a 
pole. Bede, 

(3) TobebashfuL See an instance of this verb 
in Euphues Golden Legade, ap. Collier's 
Shak. lib. p. 82. 

BASHMENT. Abashment 

And as I etode In thie bathmtnt, I remembred yovr 
incomparable deroeneie, the whiche, as 1 hare my- 
lelfe sometyme leue, moste graciously acoepteth the 
sklender giftes of small value which your highnes 
perceived wereofAred with great and lovinge affcction. 
Gaunt, ed. 1584, ded. 

BASHRONE. A kettle. Taylor. 

BASHY. FatjswoUen. North, 

BASIL. When the edge of a johicr's tool is 
ground away to an angle, it is called a basil. 
Kennett, MS. Lantd, 1033. 




BASmSZ. A tow bow. Decitr. 

BASIL-HAMPEBS. A penon who, being short 
of staturt, takes shcnrt steps, and does not 
proceed very quickly ; a gill whose dothes fall 
scwkwanUy about her feet. Line, 

BASILIARD. A baslard, q. ▼. Stowe. 

BASIUCOK. A basilisk. Chtnteer. 

BASILINDA. The play called Questions and 
Gominands ; the choosing of King and Queen, 
as on Twelfth Night PkUlyu. 

BASILISCO. A braggadoda character in an 
old play called *< Soliman and Perseda,'* so 
popi^ that his name became proverbiaL See 
Douce's Illustrations, L 401 ; King John, i 1. 
Florio has bwUteo, for batiliikf a species of 
ordnance, in ▼. Bavatiuo, 

BASILISK. A kind of cannon, not necessarily 
" small,'' as stated in Middleton's Woriu, 
iiL 214, for Coryat mentions that he saw in 
tiie citadel of Milan " an exceeding huge ba- 
ailiske, iddch was so great, that it would 
easily contayne the body of a very corpulent 
man;'' and Harrison, in his Description of 
Eng^d, p. 198, includes the basilisk in '' the 
names of our greatest ordinance." A minute 
account of the shot required for it is contained 
in the same work, p. 199. 

BASINBT. The herb crowfoot. 

BASING. The rind of cheese. St^ff, 

BASK. Sharp, hard, add. Wettmor. 

BASKEFYSYKB. Fututio. See a curious pas- 
sage in the Cokwolds Dannce, 116. 

BASKET. An exclamation frequently made use 
of in cockpits, where persons, unable to pay 
their lodngs, are adjudged to be put into a 
basket suspended over the pit, there to re- 
main tin the sport is conduded. Gro9€, 

BASKET-SWORD. A sword with a hilt formed 
to protect ^ hand from injury. 

Sword batn anB«? HMt a 1mm eompsDion. 
Alas, I have kaowne you btu* a 6MXr«/-M9ortf . 

Worlnfor OrtUrt, 1615. 

BASKING. (1) A sound thrashmg. Edit 

(2) A drraching in a shower. Eoft. 

BASLARD. A long dagger, generally worn 
snspended from the ghrdle. It was not con- 
sidered proper for priests to wear this wea- 
pon, and a curious poem in MS. Greaves 57, 
cautions than against doing so ; but stiU the 
practice was not uncommon, as appears from 
Audda/s Poems, p. 16. Hall, Henry YI. 
1 101, mentions '* a southeme byl to conter- 
Tayle a nortluren btulard" so that perhaps in 
his time tiie weapon was more generally used 
In the North of England. In 1403 it was 
ordahied that no person should use a baslard, 
decorated with silver, unless he be possessed 
of the yearly income of 20^ It is spdt 
batilred in some of the old dictionaries. 

BASNET. (1) A cap. Skeiton. 

(2) Sameas tofm«/, q.v. 

BASON. A badger. Coigrwe. 

BASONING-fURNACB. A frimaoe used in 
the manvftcture of ha}s. Hokm, 

BASS. (1) Akindofpervh. 

(2) To kiss. Mwrt. 

(3) A church hassock. North. According to 
Kennett, the term is also applied to *' a collar 
for cart-horses made of flags." In Cumber- 
land the vnurd is applied generally to dried 

^4^ The inner rind of a tree. North. 

(5 ) A slaty piece of coaL Salop. 

(6) A twopenny loaf. North. 

(7) A thing to wind about grafted trees before 
they be dayed, and after. Holmo. 

BASSA. A bashaw. Marlowe. We have ^ot- 
$ado in the Archseologia, xxviiL 104; and 
baamte, Hall, Henry YIIL 1 192. 
BASSAM. Heath. Dopom. 
BASSCHE. To be ashamed. Cf. Sharp's Ck>v. 
Myst. p. 103 ; Moite Arthure, MS. Lincoln A. 
L 17, 1 76. 
BASSE. (1) A kiss. Also a verb, as in Anc. 
Poet Tracts, p. 2A. 

Thtn of my moath oona Ukt a bti§. 
Fore Oder foodei have I none. 

MS. Rawt. C. Ste. 
(2'S A hollow pUce. HoOyhand. 

(3) Apparently a term for '< the elder swine." 
See Topsdl's Foure Footed Beasts, p. 661. 

(4) To be ornamented vrith bases, q. v. Hall, 
Henry YIIL f. 50, mentions " howe the Duke 
of Borbones bende waa apparelled and boised 
in tawny vdvet." 

BASSELL. ** Bassell lether" is mentioned in 

the Brit. Bibl. ii. 399. 
BASSENET. A light hehnet worn sometimes 
vrith a moveable front. They were often 
very magnificently adorned. Cf. Strutt, ii. 
60 ; Brit. BibL i. 146 ; Percy's Reliqnes, p. 3 , 
Kyng Alisaunder, 2234; Hall, Henry YIII. 
f. 235. 

Hys ventayle and byt hmnnatt, 
Hyt bdme on hys bedd lett. 

MB, Cantab. Ft. U. 38, f.88. 
On bit baewett tluy bttt, 
Thay bryned it in twa. 

M8. Lhuioin A. 1. 17. f. 187. 

BASSET. (1) An earth-dog. Markham. 

(2) A mineral term where the strata rise upwards. 
Derbyth. The direction is termed bas$et-endf 
or basmtrng, as Kennett has it, MS. Lansd. 

BASSETT. A game at cards, said to have been 
invented at Yenice. It was a fsshionable game 
here in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Bedford, Evil and Danger of Stage 
Plays, 1706, p. 127, mentions a drama on the 

BASSETNTS. Basons. Tundale, p. 54. 

BASSINATE. A kmd of fish, <' like unto men 
in shape," mentioned in HoUnshed, Hist 
Scotland, p. 139. See also Jamieson, supp. 
in V. Baitinat, 

BASSING. Kissing. Baret. 

HASSOCK, Ahassodc BaiUy. 

BAST. (1) Matting; straw. North. « Baste 
or straw hattes" are mentioned in the Rates, 
1545, Brit BibL iL 399. Cf. Harrison's 
Description of Britaine, p. 3. 




(2) Boast 

Sir Oil wyd, thui thou it hast 
Than malM thcrof thi btut. 

Op t^ WmnoOf, p. 8B5. 

(3)Abaitard. See ElHs'i Met Rom., ed. 1811, 
L 301 ; Rob. Glouc p. 425 ; Uttenon's Pop. 
Poet a. 67. 

(4) Assured. 

(5) To pack . 
BASTA. Properly an Italian word, dginifying 

(5) To pack up. Vorih, 

it u enough, or let it nsffice, but not nncommon 
in the works of onr ancient dramatists. 

BASTARD. (1) A kind of sweet Spanish wine, 
of which there were two sorts, white and 
brown. Ritson calls it a wine of Corsica. It 
^tproached the muscadel wine in flavour, and 
was perhaps made firom a hattard species of 
muscadine grape; but the term, in more 
ancient times, seems to have been ^tplied to 
all mixed and sweetened wines. See Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ii. 427 ; Robin Goodfellow, 
p. 7 ; Harrison's Desc of England, p. 222 ; 
Squyr of Lowe Degr^, 757 ; Ordinances and 
Regulations, p. 473. 

(2V< Basterdwier" is mentioned in Cunningham's 
Revels' Account, p. 180. The term was ap- 
plied to different kinds of several articles. 
Bastard cloths, Strutt, iL 94 ; Bastard sword, 
Harrison's Description of Britaine, p. 2. 

(3) A gelding. Pegge. 

(4) To render illegitimate. Hall has this verb, 
Richard III. f. 32. The term bastard is still 
a term of reproach for a worthless or mis- 
chievous boy. 

BASTAT. A bat. North. 
BASTE. (1) To mark sheep. North, 
(2\ To sew slightly. 

(3) A blow. North. Also a verb, to beat 
Strutt mentions a game called Baste the Bear, 
p. 387. 

(4) Bastardy. 

Thii roan was lonne to Jhon of Oaunte, Dulce of 
Lancaster, dl*e«nded on an honorable lignage, but 
boma in hatttt more noble of bloud then notaUe in 
leamyng.— H"{/, Henry VI. f.70. 

(5) A rope. {A,S,) 

Bot 56 lalle take a ttalworthe hatie. 
And bynde my handes byhynd me faste. 

M8, Uneoln A. L 17* f. 1S7. 

BASTELER. A person who bastes meat In 
the accounts of the churchwardens of Hey- 
biidge, 1532, is the following entry : ** Item 
to the basteler, id," 

BASTEL-ROVES. Turreted or castellated rooft. 
So explained in Glossary to Syr Gawayne, in 
V. See, however, Boucher, in v. Bastelie, 

BASTER. A heavy blow. North, 

BASTERLT-OULLION. A bastard's bastard. 
Lane. [Fr. Comllon.] 

BASTIAN. St Sebastian. 

BASTICK. A basket fTett. 

BASTILE. A temporary wooden tower, used 
formerly in militanr and naval warfare. Some- 
times the term is applied to any tower or for- 

They hadde also touret of tymber goyng on whelea, 
that we dcpcn botHUt, or tomer caatell. 

Veg^du; M8. Douee 991, f. 48. 

He gerte make a grata 6M<el2«of tree, and sett it 

apone achippea in the aee, evene forgaynca tlie ceti, 

•o that ther myghte no tchippes eome nera the ba> 

vene. MS. Uneoln A. i. 17. t. A. 

And in thi bait0t fulle of bliaAilnesw, 

In luati age than ichalle the wel betide. 

Bo0Hu», MS. Soe. AnHq. 134, f. 894. 

BASTING. Bourne, in his Inventions or De- 
vises, 1578, speaking of " ordinance of leade," 
mentions ** the batting thereof, that is to say, 
to put in the more substance of the met- 

BASTON. (1) A cudgcL (J.-N) 

(2) A peculiar species of verse so called. A spe- 
cimen of it is printed in the Reliq. Antiq. iL 
174. See also the same work, iL 8 ; Langtoft, 
pref. p. 99. 

(3) A servant of the Warden of the Fleet, whose 
duty it is to attend the king's courts, with a 
red staff, for the purpose of taking into cus- 
tody sudi persons as were committed by the 

(4) A kind of lace, the manu£u;ture of which is 
detailed in MS. HarL 2320, quoted by Steven- 
son. See Boicon. 

BASTONE. A bastinado. Marlowe. 
BAT. (1) A stick; a dub ; acudgeL North. In 
Herefordshire a wooden tool used for breaking 
dods of earth is so called. See Malone's 
Shakespeare, x. 237; Utterson's Pop. Poet 
L 110 ; Kyng Alisaunder, 78, 5832 ; Percy's 
Reliques, p. 254 ; Thynne's Debate, p. 75. 
He nemeth b bat and forth a goth, 
Swithe iori and wel wroth. 

Bevei of Hamtoun, p. 17* 

(2) A blow; a stroke. North. Sometimes a 
verb, to strike or beat ; to beat cotton. 
That xal be asayd be this batto I 
What, thou Jhesui ? ho laff the that ? 

Coventry Mytteriet, p. 296. 

3) Debate. Cov. Myst. 
\4S To wink. Derby$h. 

5) The straw of two wheat sheaves tied to- 
gether. Yorkth. 

6) SUte ; condition. North. 

7) Speed. lAnc. 

|8) A leaping-poat Somereet. 

|9) A low-laced boot Somereet. 
10) The root end of a tree after it has been 
thrown. Somertet, 

Ql^ A spade at cards. Somenet. 

(12) At Wednesbury, in Staffordshire, the last 
parting that lies between the upper and the 
nether coal is called a bat. Kerniett, MS. Lan$d. 

RATABLE. (1) Fertile m nutrition, applied to 
land. Harrison frequently uses the word. De- 
scription of England, pp. 37, 40, 109, 223. 

(2) Certain land between England and Soot- 
land was formerly called the batable ground, 
** landes dependyng in variance betwene the 
reahnes." See Hal Edward IV. f. 56. 

BATAILED. Embat^ed. (J.-NJ) See Rom. of 
the Rose, 4162. 




I w csttcli, I tt dM high towrct. 
Walks of itoiM cfcttyd and bata^lhd. 

MS, Camtab, Ff. i. 6* f. 13. 

BATAILOUS. Ready for battle. Chmteer. 

BATAILS. Proyisiont. 

BATATWYNG. Embattling. This form occun 

in the Forme of Ciny, p. 85. 
BATALE. To join in battle. 
BATALLE. An army. 

Than thir twa htOtUUM mett tamenc, and faughte 
togedir, and thare was Sampsooe slaene. 

MS. Unnln A. I. 17, f. 5. 

BATAND. Going has^y. Langtoft. 
BATANT. The piece of wood that runs all along 
npon the edge of a lockside of a door, gate, or 
window. Cotgrave, 
BATARDIER. A nursery for trees. {Fr.) 
BATAUNTLICHE. Hastily. (^.-iST.) See Piers 

Ploughman, p. 286. 
BATAYLYNGE. A battlement. 

Hoir this temple with his walUs wyde. 
With hiscitstes and bofay^^ ryalle. 

l^guU, MS, Soe, Jntiq. 134, f. 15. 

BATCH. (1) Properly a quantity of bread baked 
at once, but generally applied to a bout or lot 
of anything. It also implies the whole of the 
wheat flour which is used for making common 
household bread, alter the bran alone has been 
separated fixmi it. Coarse flour is sometimes 
called bmtch flour. 

(2) A kind of hound. North. 

(3) An open space by the road-side; a sand- 
bwik, or patch of ^und lying near a river ; 
a mound. Wett, 

BATE. (1) Contention; debate; conflict. Cf. 
Chron. ^odun. p. 83; Boke of Curtasye, p. 8 ; 
Acolastus, 1540 ; 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 

(2) Toabate;todmiini8h. North, 

Whereof his luste began to batt. 
And that was lore is thanoe hate. 

aawer» MS, Soe. Jntiq. 134, f.66. 
Hjt cowntynance dyde he never bat*. 
But kept hym stylle in on state. 

Arehetclogtat xxL 74. 

(3) To flutter, a term generally applied to hawks. 
See Depos. Ric. II. p. 13 ; Brit. BibL ii. 345 ; 
Cotgrare, in ▼. Debatia; Holinshed, Hist. Ire- 
land, p. 21. 

(4) Bit {A.'S.) 

Thare was na qwike tbynges that they taft that 
nealso sooe tt dyed, hot harms did thay nana to the 
oste. MS, Unecin A. i. 17f f. S8. 

^5) Lower? 

To a towne thel toke the gate. 
Men depe hit Bctany the bat; 

MS, Qmtab. Ff. ▼. 48, f. 15. 

(6) Without ; except Lane. 

(7) In Craven, when the fibres of wood are 
twisted and crooked, they are said to be cross- 

(8) To go with rapidity. Also, to fall suddenly, 
'< lete his burlyche blonke baite on the flores.'^ 
MS. Morte Arthure, f. 81. 

(9) A boat. {A.'S.) 

Ther men vy tayled by batt 
That castel with comes. Sir Degrtvant, 919. 
{\0) The old proverb, " bate me an ace, quoth 
Bolton " implies an alleged assertion is too 

strong, or, sometimes, according to Nares, 
<* excuse me there." See Sir Thomas More, 
p. 18 ; Steevens' Old Plays, i 45. 
A pamphlet was of proverbs pen*d by Polton, 

Wherein he thought all sorts included were ; 
UntUl one told him, Bat* m* on ace, quoth Boltoit, 

Indeed, said he, that prorerbe is not there. 

The Maetiee, quoted bv Naree, 

(11) Did beat Spemer. 

BATE.BREEDING. Apt to cause strife. ShaJt. 

BATED. A fish, when plump and ftill-rowed, is 
said to be well bated. Suites. 

BATELLE. A UtUe boat Langtoft, p. 241. 

BATE-MAKER. A causer of strife. 

BATEMENT. That part of wood which is cut 
ofifby a carpenter to make it fit for his purpose. 

BATEMENT-LIGHTS. The upper openings 
between the mullions of a window. 

BATER. Stanihurst, Description of Ireland, 
p. 11, says, " As for the word bater, that in 
English purporteth a lane bearing to an high 
wale, I take it for a meere Irish word that 
crept unwares into the English, through the 
dailie intercourse of the English and Insh in- 

BATEYLED. Embattled. 

A hundreth tyretes he saw full stout. 

So godly thei wer bate^ed aboute. MS, Jehmole 61 . 

BATFOWLING. A method of taking birds in 
the night-time, fully described in the Diet. 
Rust, in V. See Tempest, ii. 1 ; Cotgrave, in 
V. BreUer; Harrison's Description of England, 
p. 240 ; Blome's Gent. Rec h. 143. 

BATFUL. Fruitful. Drayton. 

BATH. (1) Both. North. 

(2) A sow. Herrfordth. 

(3) To dry any ointment or liquid into the skin. 
KetmetVe MS. Glott. 

BATHER. (1) To scratch and rub in the dust, 
as birds do. Warw. 

(2) Of both. (A.'S.) Gen. pL 

And one a day thlr twa kynges with thaire bather 
ostes mett togedir apone a faire felde, and faughte 
togedir wonder egerly. MS. Lincoln A. 1. 17. f. 16. 
The sevend sacrament cs matrymoyne* that et 
lawefulle festynnynge betwyz manne and womane at 
thaire bathere assente. Jbid. f. 216. 

BATHING. See Beating. 

BATHING-TUB. A kind of bath, formerly used 
by persons afflicted with a certain disease. 
Ben Jonson mentions it in Cynthia's Revels, 
it 254. 


BATILBABT. A certain office in forests, men- 
tioned in MS. HarL 433, quoted in Stevenson's 
additions to Boucher. 

BATILLAGE. Boat hire. 

BATING. Breeding. North. 

BAT-IN-WATER. Water mint 

BATLER. The instrument with which washers 
beat their coarse clothes. Often spelt batlet. 
See Collier's Shakespeare, ilL 34. It is also 
called a batlmg-etaff^ or a batttqft And some- 
times a batting-ttt^, as in Cotgrave, in v. Ba- 
cule. Mr. Hartshome gives battleton as tne 
Shropshire form of the same word. 




BATLING. A Idnd of fish. See a curious enu- 
meration in Brit. BibL ii. 490. 

BATLINS. Loppings of trees, tied up into fisg- 
gots. St^ffblk, 

BATNER. An ox. Jth. 

BATOLLIT. Embattled. 

BATOON. A cudgeL Shirley, In the Wan- 
dering Jew, 1640, a roarer is caUed a battocm 

BATOUR. Batter. Weamer. 

BATS. (1) The short fiiirows of an irregulaily- 
shaped field. ScutK 
Cricket. Dtwm, 
A beating. Yorlah. 

BAT-SWAIN. AsaUor. (^.-&) 

BATT. (1) To beat gently. Salop, 

(2) To wink or moTe the eyelids up and down. 

BATTEN. (1) TothriTC; to grow fat. North, 
This word occurs in Shakespearei Marlowe, 
and other early writers. 

(2) A raU from three to six inches in breadth, 
one or more in thickness, and of indefinite 
lengths A fence made of these is called a 

(3) To batten in dung, is to lie upon it and beat 
it close together. Kennetf$ MS Gloitary, 

(4) The straw of two sheaves folded together. 
North, A thatcher's tool for beating down 
thatch is called a batten-board. 

BATTER. (1) An abatement. A wall which 
diminishes upwards is said to hatter, 

(2) Dirt. North, 

(31 To fight one's way. Midland C, 

(4) To wear out. Soith. A horse with tender 
feet is said to be battered, 

BATTERO. A bat; a stick. This word occurs 
in one of the quarto editions of King Lear, 
1608, iv. 6, in the place of bat in another 
quarto, and baOow in the folio. See Collier's 
Shakespeare, m 465. Kersey explains bat- 
terft " t yi^ent beating or striking of any 

BATTID. Covered with strips of wood, as waDs 
are previously to their being plastered. 

BATTING-STOCK. A beating stock. Kermett, 

BATTLE. (1) To dry in ointment or moisture 
upon the flesh by rubbing and putting that 
part of the body by the fire. Kennetfe MS, 

(2) Fruitfid, fSertfle, applied to land. Also to 
render ground fertile by preparation. In the 
index to Markham's Countrey Farme, 1616, 
is '* to battle ground, and wilh what manner 
(Mf dung." The term is occasionally applied to 
the fattening of animals. ** Battleage of wheat" 
is mentiouMl in the Ordinances and Regu- 
lations, p. 195. 

(3) A word peculiar to Oxford for taking provi- 
sions from the buttery, &c. 

(4) To bespatter with mud. Northampt, 
BATTLED. Embattled. Arch. v. 431. 
BATTLEDORE. According to Miege, this was 

formerly a term for a hornbook, and hence 
no doubt arose the phrase to ** know A. B. 
from a battledore." See p. 128. 

BATTLEDORB-BARLET. A Idnd of barley 
mentioned by Aubrey, MS. Hist. Wilts, p. 304 
and said by him to be so called " from the 
flatness of the ear." 

BATTLEMENT. A notched or indented parapet 
originally used only on fortifications, but after- 
wards employed on ecclesiastical and other 
edifices, (krf, Glott. Arch, 

BATTLER. (1) A small bat to play at baU wHh. 
See Howell, sect. xxviiL 

(2) An Oxford student See Middleton's Works, 
V. 544. The term u used in contradistinction 
to gentleman commoner. 

BATTLE-ROYAL. A fight between several 
cocks, where the one that stands longest is 
the victor. The term is often more generally 

BATTLE-TWIG. An earwig. North. 

BATTLING. %tt Battlement, 

BATTLING-STONE. A large smooth-foced 
stone, set in a sloping position by the side of 
a stream, on whidi vruherwomen beat their 
linen to clean it. North, 

BATTOM. A board, genenlly of narrow dimen- 
sions, but the fidl breadth of the tree it is 
sawn from. North, 

BATTRIL. Aba^dng-staff. Une, 

BATTRY.(l) A tea-kettle. Smffblk. 

(2) In the Rates of the Custome House, 1545, 
mention is made of '* battry the c pounde." 
See the Brit. BibL ii. 399. 

BATTS. (1) Low flat grounds a^mning rivers, 
and sometimes islands in rivers. North, 

(2) Short ridges. /.Wight. 

BATURD. Battered. 

And toke h jt itaife grete and Umge, 
And on the bed 1m hym batmd, 

MS,Cimtab, FT. U. 98. f. S46. 

BATTLDOURE. A beetle or wooden bat used 
in washing and beating clothes. Proust. 

BATYN. To make debate. Prompt. Pare. 

BAUBEE. A copper coin, of about the value 
of a hal^nny. The hal4>enny itself is some- 
times so called. 

BAUBERY. A squabble ; a brawL Var. dial 

BAUBLE. A fool's banble was a short stick, 
with a head ornamented with asses ears fon- % 
tastically carved upon it. An old proverb 
says, ** if every fool should wear a bamble, 
fewel would be dear." See also BabuBe. 

BAUBYN. A baboon. 

BAUD. (1) This word was formeriy applied in 
a very general sense. A procurer, procuress, 
a keeper of a brothel, or any one employed in 
bad services in this line, whether male or fe- 
male, was called a baud, Verstegan, Resti- 
tution, ed. 1634, p. 333, calls it a name 
** now given in our language to such as 
are the makers or finrtherers of dishonest 
matches." This definition was in use earlier, 
as i^pears from a curious passage in the 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 432. See also the cha- 
racter of bawde phieiehe in the Fhiternitye of 
Vacabondes, 1575. 

(2) A badger. Blome. 




(3) Bold. Pttvy. 
BAUDE. Joyoua. {A.'N,) 
BAUDERIE. Pimping. Chaucer. 
BAUDKIN. A ridi and precious species of 
stuff, introduced into England in the thir- 
teenth century. It is said to haye been com- 
posed of silk, interwoven with threads of gold 
in a most sumptuous manner. Notices of it 
are very common. We may refer to Kyng 
Alisaunder, 202, 759 ; Richard Coer de Lion, 
2778, 3349 ; Sevyn Sages, 2744 ; Dugdale's 
Monast. uL 325 ; Ellis's Met. Rom. iii. 287 ; 
Strutt, iL 6 ; Planch^, p. 93 ; Gy of Warwike, 
p. 421 ; Test. Vetust. p. 228. According to 
Douce, ** it means tissue of gold, and some- 
times a canopy, probably from being orna- 
mented with the tissue." 

BAUDRICK. See Baldrick, The word is some- 
times spelt baudry, as in Kyng Alisaunder, 

BAUDRT. Bad language. SkeUon, 

BAUDS. Rne clothes? Toone. 

BAUDY. Dirty. (J.-N,) See Skelton's Works, 
iL 161; Chaucer, Cant. T. 16103; Piers 
Ploughman, p. 88 ; Morte d'Arthur, i. 192, 
196 ; PalsgraTC, adj. f. 83 ; Ashmole's Theat. 
Chem. Brit. p. 190. 

BAUDY-BASKET. A cant term for a bad 
woman, mentioned in Harrison's Description 
of Eng^d, p. 184, Dr. Bliss defines it '< a 
woman who cohabits with an upright man, 
and professes to sell thread, &c." See Earle's 
MicrocosnK)graphy, notes, p. 249; Holme's 
Academy of Armory, iii. 167. 

BAUFFE. To belch. Coleg. 

BAUFREY. A beam. SiHtmer. 

BAUGER. Barbarous; bad. Bale, 

BAUGH. A pudding made with milk and flour 
only. Cheeh, 

BAUGHLING. Wrangling. Cumb. 

BAULCHIN. An unfledged bird. Wane. 

BAULK. To overlook or pass by a hare in her 
form without seeing her. Var. dioL 

BAULKY. A term applied to earths when it 
digs up in clots. North. 

BAULMEMINT. Water mint. Florio, 

BAUN-COCK. A game cock. Durham, 

BAUNSEY. A badger. Prompt Parv, 

BAURGHWAN. A horse-coUar. Yorksh, 

BAUSE. To kiss. Mareton. 

BAUSON. (1) A badger. In the Prompt. Parv. 
p. 27, we have the forms bawetone^ Sawione, 
and baueton. See also Brit. BibL i. 20; 
Percy's Reliques, p. 80 ; Cotgrave, in v. Gri- 

(2) Swelled; pendant. Salop, 

BAUTERT. Encrusted virith dirt North, 

BAUTTE. This word occurs in an early poem 
printed in Todd's Illustrations, p. 264. I sus- 
pect a misreading of the MS. for ** in vanity." 

BAUX-HOUND. A kind of hunting dog, men- 
tioned in Holme's Academy of Armory, p. 184. 

BAVEN. (1) A brush faggot, properly bound 
with only one withe. Var, diaL A faggot is 
bound with two. This distinction seems al- 

(2) Bawled. 

(3) A hare. 

luded to in Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 38. See alfo 
Euphues Golden Legade, ap. Collier, p. 11. 

(2) A cake. Howell 

BAVERE. Bavaria. Minot. 

BAVIAN. A baboon, or monkey ; an oecanonal^ 
but not a regular character in the old Morris 
dance. He appears in the Two Noble Kins- 
men, where his office is to bark, to tumble, to 
play antics, and exhibit a long tail with what 
decency he could. Naret, 

BAVIER. The beaver of a helmet. See Mey- 
rick, iL 257 ; Hall, Henry IV. f. 12 ; Excei^ 
Hist. p. 208 ; Planch^, p. 159. 

BAVIN. Impure limestone. 

BAVISENESSE. Mockery. (J,.N,) 

BAVISH. To drive away. Eaet, 

BAW. (1) An inteijection of contempt See 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 210, 419. In the East 
of England, boys and girls are addressed as 

(2) Alvum levare. Lane, 

hS A balL North, 

(4) A dumpling. Lane, 

(5) To bark. Toptell, 
BAWATY. Lindsey-wolsey. North, 
BAWCOCK. A burlesque term of endearment. 

BAWD. (1) The outer covering of a walnut. 


A Scottish term for this animal, 
according to Jamieson, and apparently em- 
ployed by Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, iL 4. 
BAWDER. To scohl grumblingly. S^folJt, 
BAWDERIKWARD. Next to the belt 

And alio that It be at gret and holow dryven ai 
hit may to the leogthe, and that it be shortere at 
the syde to the bawdtrikward than at the nether 
■yde. M8,B<M, 646, 

BAWE. (1) The bow of a saddle ? Gaw. 

(2) A speaes of worm formerly used as a bait 
for filling. Stevemon, 

BAWEL. Bawels are mentioned by the ton and 
the thousand in the Rates of the Custome 
House, 1545, in Brit Bibl. ii. 898. 

BAWE-LINE. The bowling of a saU; that rope 
which is fastened to the middle part of the 
outside of a sail. Stevenson, 

BAWER. A maker of balls. Stqfordsh, 

BAWKER. Akmdofsand-stoneusedibrwhet. 
ting scythes. Somerset, 

BAWKS. Ahay-loft. Cumb. 

BAWL. Hounds, when too busy before they 
find the scent, are said to bawL Blome. 

BAWLIN. Big;Uu^e. Coles. 

BAWMAN. A bowman; an archer. Gaw. 

BAWME. (1) Balm. Also a verb, to embalm, 
in which sense it occurs in the Lincoln MS. of 
Morte Arthure; Malory, L 179. " Bawme 
glasses" are mentioned in Brit BibL iL^99, 
which may refer to the place of their manu- 

(2) To address ; to adorn. North, 

BAWMYN. Balsam. Provqft, Parv. 

BAWN. (1) Any kind of edifice. See Richards 
son, in v. 




(2) Ready ; going. NortK 
BAWND. SwoUen. EoMi. 
BAWNDONLY. Cheerfully. (^.-M) Seethe 

example quoted under harreste, 
BAWRELL. A kind of hawk. Philip, The 

male bird was called the bttwret. See Blome's 

Gent. Rec. ii. 28. 
BAWSE. To scream. SUtmer, Supposed to be 

aformof ^ay. 
BAWSEN. Burst. Derbysh. Bawsen-ballid, 

BAWSHERE. Supposed to be a corruption of 

beau-iire. See the Towneley Mysteries, p. 69. 
BAWSIN. (1) An imperious noisy fellow. North. 

(2) Great; large; unwieldy; swelled. Chett. 
Ben Jonson, tL 278, has the word in this 
sense. See also Urry*s Chaucer, p. 558. 

(3) A badger. See Ellis's Met. Rom. ii 358, 
wrongly explained by the editor. 

BAWSONT. Having a white stripe down the 

face, applied to an animaL North. 
BAWSTONE. A badger. Prompt. Part. 
BAWT. (1) Wthout. Yorkth. 
(2) To roar ; to cry. North, 
BAWTERE. Some bird of prey, mentioned by 

BAWY. A boy. This unusual form occurs in the 

Frere and the Boy, st. xv. 
BAXTER. (1) A baker. North. 

The baxtere mette another, 
Nu Mt novjt to god. MS. Bo42.653, f. 6. 
(2) An implement used for baking cakes upon, 

common in old houses. North. 
BAY. (1) A berry. Prompt. Parv. 

Tak the baj^et of yrene, and stamp thame wele, 
and temper thame with whit wyne, and drynk 
therof fiutande ilk a day a porclone. 

MS. Lincoln A.Ll7f f. 896. 

(2) A principal compartment or division in the 
architectural arrangement of a building, 
marked either by the buttresses on the walls, 
by the disposition of the main ribs of the 
vaulting of the interior, by the main arches 
and piUars, the principals of the roof, or by 
any other leading features that separate it into 
corresponding portions. The word is seme- 
times used for the space between the muUions 
of a window. Oj^. Glo$9. Arch. In the pro- 
vinces the term is even applied to the divisions 
of a bam, or in fact to any building possess- 
ing marks of division. Sometimes a single 
apartment in a rustic house, or the space be- 
tween two gables, is so called, which may be 
the meaning of the term in Measure for Mea- 
sive, iL 1, unless we might propose to read 
day. A compartment of a vault is also termed 
a bay^ according to Willis's Nomendatare, 
p. 43. Cf. Florio, in t. Angra; Arch. x. 441 ; 
Hall's Satires, v. 1 ; Nichols' Royal Wills, 
p. 295 ; Holme's Academy of Armory, p. 450. 

(3) A pond-head made up of a great height to 
keep in store of water, so that the wheels of 
the furnace or hammer belonging to an ut>n 
mill may be driven by the water coming 
thence through a floodgate. Bhunt. The word 
occurs in Prompt. Parv. p. 21, translated by 

obitaeuhtmt for which see Docange, in v. In 
Dorsetshire, any bank across a stream is caDed 
a bayt and Cotgrave, in v. Baye, mentions ** a 
bay of land." 
^4^ A pole ; a stake. SUtmer. 

(5) To bathe. Spemer. 

(6) A boy. fVeber. 

(7) To bend. Wettmor. 
(SS Round. Gaw. 

(9 ) Bay, or baiting of an animal, when attacked 
by dogs. According to Blome, hounds are said 
to bay, when they make the animal ''turn 
head." To bay, to bark. Mieye. 

(10) To open the mouth entreatingly for food, 
as a young child does. HoUyband. 

{IV\ The nest of a squirrel Evt. 

(12) A hole in a breast-work to receive the 

mouth of a cannon. Hertey. 
riS^Tobark. BUme. 
(14) To unlodge a martero. Blame. 
BAYARD. Properly a bay horse, but often ap- 
plied to a horse in general According to 
Grose, to ride bayard of ten toes is to walk on 
foot, a phrase which can have no modem ori- 
gin. A very old proverb, ** as bold as blind 
bayard," seems to be implied to those who do 
not look before they leap. Cf. Piers Plough- 
man, pp. 68, 72, 128 ; Skelton, it 186 ; Tarl- 
ton's Jests, p. 51 ; Halle's Expostulation, p. 5 ; 
Turaament of Tottenham, xL ; Cotgrave, in v. 
Bayart ; Chaucer, Cant T. 16881 ; Keanett'a 
Glossary, p. 23 ; MS. Douce 302, f. 7 ; Aude- 
lay's Poems, p. 84 ; Dent's Pathway to Heaven, 
p. 247 ; Manners and Household Expences of 
England, p. 184 ; Langtoft, p. 272 ; MS. Cott. 
Cleop. B. ii. fi 61; Sir Gawayne, p. 301. 
Skelton mentions bayardye bun, a sort of 
loaf formerly given to horses. 
Ther Ii no God, ther is no lawe 
or whom that he taketh eny hede. 
But at Baparde the blynde stede, 
Tillc he Calle In the dlche amidde. 
He goth ther no man wol him bidde. 

Ootr«r, MS. Soe. AttHq. 1S4, f. 185. 

BAY.DUCK. Ashell^nck. Eatt. 
BAYE. Both. {A.^.) 

Til thai com into a valaye. 
And ther thai gun to rest bc^t 

Arthour attd Merlin, p. 68. 
Into the daaumber go we 6aye, 
Among the maideni for to playe. 

Qg nf Wancike, p. lOB. 
BAYEN. Tobay;tobark;tobait 
BAYES. Baize. 
BAYET. Baited. Robeon. 
BAYLE. (1) A bailiff. See Reynard the Fbxe, 
p. 162 ; Audelay's Poems, p. 33 ; Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 1 7. In both senses. 
(2) A bucket. See the Privy Purse Expenoea of 
Henry YIII. p. 11, *< to the same watermen 
for fowre baylet for the saied barge." 
BAYLLISHIP. The office of a bailiff. 
BAYLY. Authority. Cf. Sir Eglamotkr, 755, a 
district given in charge to a biuliff or gtuvd. 
Y kneghe hym here yn grete 6qr2^, 
He loved veqjaunce withoute mercy. 

MS. HaH. ITM. 1 10. 




BATLTD. BoQed. WHer, 

BAYN. A nmrdorer. (^A.'S,j 

BAYNES. Bones. See Sharp's Cot. Mysteries, 

p. 225. 
BAYNYD. Slielled, prepared for taUe,M beans, 

&c. Proust, Parp. 
BAYRE. FH; convenient. Durham, 
BAYSSENT. Reconciled? 

To ctMM the warre, th« peace to be eocreested 
Betweae hym and kyng John 6qrM«if . 

Uard^nt^s CknmieU, f. 100. 

BAYTE. (1) To avail ; to be usefoL Also, to 
apply to any use. 

Bot with hir tuke a tryppe of g ayte. 
With mylke of thame for to baifU 

To hir lyvet Ibde. Sir Ptrcnal 186. 

(2) Explain^ by Heame, ** baited, fsstened, in- 
vaded," in his glossary to Langtoft ; but see 
p. 276. 
BAYTUE. To grant. Gaw. 
BAYTYKGES. Chastisements. 

He shal hem chastyie with tmert tpeche. 
With smalle tay^yitfatand nat with wreche. 

MS, HmrL 1701. f. 7S* 

BAY-WINDOW. A large window ; probably so 
ealled, because it occupied the whole bay, q. v. 
It projected outwards, occasionally in a semi- 
ciieular form, and hence arose the corrupted 
expression bow-window. The bay-window, 
however, was oftener in a rectangular or poly- 
gonal form. The term also i^pears to have 
been applied to a balcony, or gallery ; at least. 
Coles gives it as the translation of menianum, 

BAYYD. Of a bay colour. Prongtt. Pare, 

BAYZE. Prisoner's base. Skinner, 

BAZANS. A kind of leather boots, mentioned 
by Matthew Paris. 

BAZE. To alarm. North, 

BE. (1) By. {A,'S,) Occasionally /<m« is un- 
derstood. " Be we part,'' by the time that 
we part. This proposition is common in early 
writers, and is still in use in the north country 

(2) Been. The part. pa. occurring in this form 
in Chaucer and Robert of Gloucester. 

(3) The verb to be is imchanged in all its tenses 
in most of the provincial dialects. <* I ^ very 
hungry," &c. 

(4) A common prefix to verbs, generally con- 
veying an intensative power, as be-baih^d, 
Brit. Bibl. iiL 207 ; bebMbered, Holinshed, 
Chron. Ireland, p. 91 ; becharme, Ford's Line 
of life, p. 57 ; bedare, Hawkins' Eng. Dram. 
iL 188 ; bedyed, Topsell's History of Serpents, 
p. 309; brfamCd, Fairfax of the Bulk and 
Selvedge of the World, ded. 1674 ; befogged, 
Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. 323; brfool, 
Brome's Songs, 1661, p. 200 ; Tarlton's Jests, 
p. 37 ; behune, Brit. BibL L 38 ; beltft, Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 330; belome, Florio, in v. 
Jppiaatrieeidre ; bebdied, Two Lancashire 
Loven, 1640, p. 162; b^finch, Brit. BibL 
L 550; bepowderedf Ddoney's Strange His- 
tories, 1607; bequite, Stanihurst's Desc. of 
Ireland, pref. p. 1; berogue, Songs of the 
London Prentices, d. 91; bttcratehed, Gif- 

ibrd's Dialogue on ^^^tches, 1603; beikaJte, 
Cotton's Works, 1734, p. 13; beapanjUd^ 
Bamefield's Affectionate Shepherd, p. 5 ; ^ 
tear^d, Brit. BibL iv. 125. 
(5) A jewel, ring, or bracelet. (^.-&) 
Thereon he latte rychely crownyd. 
With many a betaunte, broche and be. 

MS, HarU S9S8, f. 125. 

BEACE. (1) Cattle. North. 

(2) A cow-staU. York$h. 

BEAD-CUFFS. SmaU ruffles. Miege, 

BEAD-FARING. Going on pilgrimage. Ver- 

BEAD-HOUSE. A dwelling-place for poor re- 
ligious persons, raised near the church in 
which the founder was interred, and for whose 
soul they were required to pray. Britton, 
Almshouses are stUl termed beadhotues in 
some parts of the country ; and Kennett, MS. 
Lansd. 1033, has, ** bed-house, an hospitaL 

BEADLE. A crier or messenger of a court, the 
keeper of a prison or house of correction, an 
under-bailiff of a manor. Blount, 

BEADROLL. A list of persons to be prayed 
for ; a roll of prayers or hymns ; hence, any 
list. They were prohibited in England in 
1550. See Croft's Excerpta Antiqua, p. 13 ; 
Test Vetust p. 388; Topsell's Four-footed 
Beasts, p. 171 ; Florio, in v. Chidppole, 

BEADSMAN. One who offers up prayers to 
Heaven for the welfare of another. In later 
times the term meant little more than tervant^ 
as we now conclude letters. Many of the 
ancient petitions and letters to great men 
were addressed to them by their '* poor dafly 
orators and beadamen," See Donee's Illus- 
trations, i. 31 ; Ford's Works, ii. 72. 

BEAK. (1) To bask in the heat North, 

(2) An iron over the fire, in which boilers are 
hung. Yorkih, 

(3) To wipe the beak, a hawking term. Cocks 
that peck each other are said to beak ; and it 
u also a term in cockfighting. 

^4^ The nose of a horse. TopitU, 
(5) The points of ancient ^oes were called 
btakf. See StruU's Dress and Habits, ii. 110. 
BEAKER. A large drinking vetoel, usually of 
glass, a rummer or tumbler-glass. The term 
is also used figuratively for any thing of larga 
size. Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, defines ic 
<* a round silver cup deep and narrow." 
Fill hia hlf bmktr, he wlU never flloch 
To give a full qnart pot the empty pinch. 

n»wkmd^ Hunurt Ordinarit, n, d. 

BEAKIRON. An iron tool used by black- 

smiths. Hohne. 
BEAKMENT. A measure of about the quarter 

of a peck. Newcattle, 
BEAL. (1) To roar out North, 

(2) To suppurate. Durham, 

(3) A boil; a hot inflamed tumour. North. 
Cotgrave has beating, matter, in v. Boue. 

(4) To beat Apparently used in this sense, or 
perhaps an error, in Robson's Romances, 
p. 108. 




BBALING. Big wiA child. Kemtett, MS. 

Lamd, 1033. 
BEALTE. Beauty. Riitom, 
BEAM. (1) Misfortune. (A.S.) 
Bohemia. See Berne. 
To beam a tub it to ]mt water into it, to itop 

the leaking by swelling the wood. North, 
(i) A band cHf straw. Devon. 
(5) This word is apparently used for the shaft of 

a chariot in Holinshed, Hist, of England, p. 26. 

i6) A kind of wax-candle. 
7) The third and fourth branches of a stag's 
horn are called the beame, or beam-tmtlen. 
See Blome's Gent. Bee. p. 77 ; Howard's Duell 
of the Stags, 1668, p. 8. 
(8) A trumpet {A.-S.) 

And nowtbene heare In hcU fler* 

Tell the daye of dome, teU beam$$ blowe. 

Chegtar Pia09$ i. 17* 

BEAMELINGS. Small rays of light See the 
Two Lancashire Lovers, 1640, p. 7. 

BEAM-FEATHERS. The long feathers in the 
wings of a hawk. According to some, the large 
top feathers of a hawk's taU. 

BEAM-FILLING. Masonry, or brickwork, em< 
ployed to flush, or fill up a wall between joists 
or beams. Britton, 

BEAMFUL. Luminous. Drayton, 

BEAMING-KNIFE. A tanner's instrument, 
mentioned by Palsgraye, but without the cor- 
reqwnding word in Rrendi ; subst f. 19. 

BEAMY. Built with beams. ToptelL 

BEAN. The old method of choosing king and 
queen on Twelfth Day, was by having a bean 
and a pea mixed up in the composition of the 
cake, and they who found them in their por- 
tions were considered the sovereigns for the 
evening. Herrick alludes to this custom, 
as quoted by Nares, in v. A bean was for- 
merly a generic term for any thing worthless, 
which was said to be ** not worth a bene." 
Nares mentions a curious phrase, ^ three blue 
beans in a blue bladder," still in use in Suf. 
folk, according to Moor, but the meaning of 
which is not very intelligible, unless we siq)- 
pose it to create a difficulty of repeating the 
alliteration distinctly ; and Cotgrave, in v. Fe- 
due, gives another phrase, *^ like a beane in a 
monbBs hood." 

BEAN-COD. A small fishing vessel 

BEANE. (1) Obedient (J. S.) 

(2) A bone. TopeelL 

BEANED. A beaned horse, one that has a peb- 
ble put under its lame foot, to make it appear 
sound and firm. 

BEANHELM. The stalks of beans. Wett. 

BEAR. (1) A kind of biM^ley. North. See Flo- 
rio, in v. Fdrro, Z^a ; Cooper, in v. JchiUeiaSf 

(2) To " bear a bob," to make one among many, 
to lend a helping hand. East, 

(3) A message. Such at least appears to be the 
meaning of beare in Chester Plays, L 173. 

(4) To ** bear in hand," to amuse with frivolous 
pretences, to keep in expectation, to persuade, 

to accuse. This phrase is very common in 
early works, and is fully illostrnted in Pals- 
grave, verbs, f. 162. 

(5) To ** bear a brain," to exert attention, in- 
genuity, or memory { a phrase occurring in 
Shakespeare, Marston, and other early dra- 

^6^ A noise. See Bere. 

(7) A tool used to cut sedge and rushes in the 
fens. Norf. 

BEARBIND. Bhidweed. North. 

BEARD. (1) To oppose fisee to face in a daring 
and hostile manner. Shak. 

(2) To make one's beard ; to deceive a person. 
Chaucer. See Wright's Anec Lit p. 30; 
Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, iv. 210. 

^3^ To trim a hedge. Salop. 

US An ear of com. Huhet. 

(5) The following proverb, although well known, 
deserves a place in this collection. Cfl Kyng 
AUsaunder, 1164. 

Mery itisinthehalle. 

When berde* wagg alle. MS. Laud. 822, f. 65. 

(6) The coarser parts of a joint of meat The 
bad portions of a fleece of wool are also called 
the beard. 

BEARD-HEDGE. The bushes which are stuck 
into the bank of a new-made hedge, to pro- 
tect the fresh planted thorns. Vhesh. Also 
called beardmge. See Kennett's Glossary, 
MS. Lansd. 1033. 

BEARD-TREE. The hazel Boucher. 

BEARER. A farthingale. 

BEARERS. The persons who bear or carry a 
corpse to the grave. In Kent the bier is some- 
times caned a bearer. 

BEAR-GARDEN. A favourite place of amuse- 
ment in the time of Elizabeth, and frequently 
alluded to in works of that period. A common 
phrase, " to make as much noise as a bear- 
garden," may hence have its origin. A high 
sounding dnun there used is alluded to in the 
Meeting of Gallants at an Ordinarie, 1604. 

BEAR-HERD. The keeper of a bear. Shah. 

BEARING. (1) A term at the games of Irish and 
backgammon. See Two Angry Women of 
Abingdon, p. 12 ; Middleton's Works, ii. 529. 

(2) In coursing, giving the hare the go-by was 
called a bearing. See Blome's Gent. Rec ii. 98. 

BEARING-ARROW. An arrow that carries well. 

BEARING-CLAWS. The foremost toes of a 
cock. Diet. Rust. 

BEARING-CLOTH. The fine mantle or doth 
vrith which a child is usually covered when it 
is carried to church to be baptized. Shah. 

BEARING-DISHES. Solid, substantial dishes ; 
portly viands. Masringer. 

BEARING-OF-THE-BOOK. A technical term 
among the old players for the duties of the 
prompter. In the accounts of the charch- 
wardens of Heybridge, 1532, we have, " Item, 
for baryng of the boke^ vj. d.," being among 
the expenses of a miracle-play represented at 


BfiAR-LBAP. Accordingto Keonett,MS. Untd. 

1033, *' a barge oner basket to carry chaff out 

of a bam, bom between two men/' See 

BEAR-MOUTHS. Subterraneous passages by 

which men and horses descend to the coal 

mines. North, 
BEARN. (1) A bam. Ea$t. 

(2) A child. North. 

(3) Wood. Colet. 
BEARS'-COLLEGB. A jocnlar term used by 

Ben Jonsoo for the bear garden, or Paris gar- 
den, as it was more frequently called. 

BEAR'S-EAR. The early red auricula. Ea»t, 

BEAR'S-FOOT. A species of hellebore. See 
Florio, in t. Branca Unkutt ConnUgdne, 
Ekioro nero. We haye hearBbrttch and 
teartwortf names of herbs. 

BEAB'S-MASQUE. A kind of dance men- 
tkmed in an old play in MS. Bodl. 30. 

BEAR-STONE. A large stone mortar, formerly 
used for unhusking barley. Brocket t, 

BEARWARD. The keeper of a bear. 

BEAR-WORM. The palmer-worm. SeeTopsell's 
History of Serpents, p. 105. 

BEAS. Ckxws; cattle. North, 

BEASEL. That part of a ring in which the 
stone is set. Mimheu. Howc& calls it beaiil- 
head, in his Lexicon, ai^. Sect. xxzIt. See 
also Florio, in t. Pianizza, 

BEASSH. To defile. Paltgrate. 

BEAST. (1) An old game at cards, similar to 
the modem game of loo. 

(2) Apparently a measure containing a single 
Inr. See Wardrobe Accounts of Edw. lY. 
p. 129. 

(3) An animal of the beeve kind in a fatting 
state.' Ea$t. 

BE ASTING. A beating ; a flogging. Lane. 

BEASTLE. To defile. Somerset. 

BEASTLINGS. The first milk drawn after a 
cow has calved, in some places considered un- 
fit for the calf. A pudding made from this 
milk, called beastling-pudding, is well known 
for its peculiar riclmess. Sometimes called 
beeet, or beattingt ; and formerly applied to 
woman's milk, on of any animaL The word is 
common as an archaism, and also in the pro- 
vinces. See Cotgrave, in t. Beton, Callebout^, 
Laict, Tetmci Florio, in ▼. CoUetra, 

BEAT. (1) Hares and rabbits are said to beat, 
when they make a noise at rutting time. See 
Blome's Gent. Rec ii 76. As a sporting term, 
to search. 

(2) To repair; to mend. Ea$t. {A,-S.) 

(3) To abate. HoU^band. 

(4) Peat. Deoon, 

(5) To hammer with one's thoughts on any par- 
ticular subject. Shak. 

(6) A term in grinding com. See Arch. zL 201. 

(7) " Brewer's beaf* is mentioned in the Songs 
of the London Prentices, p. 132. Qu. beet 

(8) A blow. ''We get but years and beat»;* 
Beaumont and Fletcher, ▼. 239. 

155 BEA 

BEAT-AWAT. To excavate. North. 
BEAT-BURNING. Densheiing, q. v. 
BEATEM. A conqueror. Yorkeh. 
BEATEN. (1) Trite. Middleton. 

(2) Stamped on metal. <* Beton on the moide," 
Sir Eglamour, 1031. 

(3) Stationed as upon a beat Seethe Leycester 
Correspondence, p. 163. 

BEATER. A wooden mallet, used for various 
purposes. Cotgrave mentions '* a thatcher's 
beater," in v. EeehancMe. The boards pro- 
jecting from the inside circumference of a 
chum to beat the milk, are called beaters. 

BEATH. To heat unseasoned wood by fire for 
the purpose of straightening it. Eatt, Tusser 
has the word, and also Spenser. Meat im- 
properly roasted is said in the Midland 
Counties to be beathed. See Beethy. 

BEATILLES. Giblets. 

BEATING.(l)WaIkingabout; hurrying. Weet. 

(2 A row of com in the straw lakl idong the 
bam-floor for thrashing. Norf. 

BEATMENT. A measure. North. 

BEATOUR. Roundabout. (^.-^:) 

BEAT-OUT. Puzzled. JSwer. 

BEATWORLD. Beyond controuL Eaet. 

BEAU. Fair; good. (^.-iV.) 

BEAUCHAMP. '*As bold as Beauchamp," a 
proverbial expression, said to have originated 
in the valour of one of the Earls of Warwick 
of that name. See Nares, p. 48 ; Middleton's 
Works, ii 411 ; Brit Bibl. L 533« 

BE AUFET. A cupboard or niche, with a canopy, 
at the end of a halL Britton, 

BEAU-PERE. A friar, or priest. (J.-N.) See 
Piers Ploughman, pp. 383, 533. Roquefort 
has, ** Beau-pere, titre que I'on donnoit aux 
religieux." Spenser has the word in the sense 
of eon^anion. See also Utterson's Pop. Poet. 
iL 25 ; Prompt Parv. p. 31. 

BEAUPERS. Apparently some kind of doth, 
mentioned in the Book of Rates, p. 26. 

BEAUPLEADER. A writ that lies where the 
sheriff or bailiff takes a fine of a party that 
he may not plead fairly, or a fitting to the 
purpose. Kersey. 

BEAUTIFIED. Beautiful. Shah. 

BEAUTIFUL. Ddic'ous. Var. dial 

BEAU-TRAPS. Loose-pavements in the foot- 
way, under which dbrt and water coUects, 
liable to splash any one that treads on them. 

BEAUTY-WATER. Water used by ladies to 
restore their complexions. Jlfie^. 

BEAVER. (1) That part of the helmet which 
is moved up and down to enable the wearer 
to drink, leaving part of the frtce exposed 
when up. Perhaps more correctly speaking, 
the shade over the eyes; and the word is 
even applied to the helmet itself. See a dis* 
sertation on Uie subject in Donee's Illustra- 
tions, L 438. 

(2) The bushes or underwood growing out on 
the ditchless side of a single hedge. Vonet. 

BEAYERAGE. Water dder. Devon. 




BEAVERET. A half-beaver hat Ketmetf$ 
aiottary, MS, Lantd, 1033. 

BEAWTE. Without; except. Lane. 

BEAZLED. Fatigued. Suttex. 

BEB. To sip ; to drink. North, Also a beb- 
ker, an immoderate drinker. 

BEBAST. To beat. See Euphues Golden Le- 
gacie, ap. Collier's Shak. Lib. p. 5. 

BE-BERED. Buried. See MS. Arund. 57, 
quoted in Reliq. Antiq. i. 42. Verstegan gives 
bebiriged in the same sense. 

BEBLAST. Blasted. Qatemgne. 

BE-BLED. Covered with blood. (^.-^.) See 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 2004; Morte d' Arthur, L 
102, 148, iL 57 ; Maundevile's Travels, p. 3. 
The knmYe h« slew« In the bedd, 
The ryche clothyt were alle (e-Mtdd. 

MS, Canttib, Pf. 11. 9B, f. 83. 

BEBLIND. To make blind. Gaseoigne, 

BEBLOTTE. To stain. ((^.-S.) 

BEBOB. To bob. 

Have you leene a dawe 5«6o6 two crowee to ? 

8t99vem^ Old Ptefw,!. 78. 

BEBODE. Commanded. Ventegan. 

BE-CALLE. (1) To accuse; to challenge. See 
Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 257; Twaine and 
Gawin, 491. 
To require. Oaw, 
To abuse ; to censure. West, 

BECASSE. A woodcock. (fV.) See the Rut- 
land Papers, p. 27. 

BECCHE. Made of iron. 

BECCO. -11 cuckold, (//a/.) A favourite word 
with our early dramatists. Drayton makes 
bteeo the Italian for a cuckoo, a bird often as- 
similated with human beccos. 

BECEGYN. To besiege. Prttmpt, Parv, 

BECEKYN. To beseech. Prompt, Parv. 

BECETTYN. To set in order. Prompt, Parv. 

BECHATTED. Bewitched. Une. 

BECHE. A beech tree. (J.^S,) 

BECHER. A betrayer. (A.-S,) 
Lore it beehgr and lei. 
And lef for to tele. MS, Digb^ 88. 

BECK. (1) A small stream. Var. dial See 
Plumpton CoiT. p. 248 ; Harrison's Descrip- 
tion of Britaine, p. 50. 
Thetung* the braioe, the paundi and the neck. 
When they washed be well with the water of the 6eeXr. 
Bookt qfUmMng, 1586. 

i beckon. Also a substantive, a 
i salutation. SeeOrd. andReg. p. Ill ; 
King and a Poore Northern Man, 1640; 
Decker's Knights Conjuring, p. 17 ; Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 12330, 17295 ; Skelton, iL 280 ; Pals- 
grave, verb, 1 158. A beeJtma a bend of the 
knee as well as a nod of the head. 
(4) The beak of a bird. Hence the protecting 
tongue of an anvil is called the beck-iron. 
Sometimes the nose is called a beck. Harrison, 

L172, talks of a person being «wesell 
BECKER. A wooden dish. Nortkumb. 
BECKET. A kind of spade used in digging 
turf. Eatt, 

(2) A constable. 

(3) To nod; to b 
bow, a salutatic 

BECKETS. A kind of fiutening ; a plaoe of se- 
curity for any kind of tackle on board a ship. 

BECK-STANS. The strand of a rapid river. 

BECLAPPE. To catch. {A.-S.) 

BECLARTED. Besmeared ; bedaubed. North. 

BECLIPPE. To curdle. Maundevile, 

BE-COME. Togo. {J,'S.) The participle ^ 
com is found in Syr Oawayne. 

BECOMES. Best clothes. Eaet, 

BECOUGHT. Seized. {J,-S.) 

Swete Mahoan» what it the red ? 
LoTe4onginf me hath bectmght. 

Bt909 4^f ffewOpim. p. 87. 

BECRIKE. A kind of oath. North. 

BECURL. To curve; to bend. Riehardmm. 

BECYDYN. Besides; near. Pron^t. Parv, 

BED. (1) A bed of snakes is a knot of young 
ones; and a roe is said to bed when she 
lodges in a particular place. Diet. Ru$t. 

i2) A horizontal vein of ore in amine. Derbgth. 
3) To go to bed with. See Jonson's Conveisa- 
tions, p. 19 ; Hardyng Suppt. p. 96. 

(4) Offered. (A.-S.) 

Lord, he myght Aille wylle sped, 

A knyghtet dowghttyr waae hyme bed, 

nnrent if Portugal p. 34, 

(5) Prayed. (^..&) See Warton's Hist. En^ 
Poet. i. 12. 

!6) Commanded. Langtqft. 
7) The horizontal base of stone inserted in a 
wall. York$h, 

(8) A fleshy piece of beef cut from the upper 
part of the leg and bottom of the belly. Eatt. 
Sometimes the uterus of an animal is so called. 

(9) The phrase of getting out the wrong side of 
the bed is applied to a person who is peevish 
and illtempered. Var. diaL 

BEDAFFE. To make a fool o£ (^.-5.) 
BE-DAGHE. To dawn upon. {A,-S,) 
BEDAGLED. Dirtied. Hottgband. 
BED- ALE. Groaning ale, brewed for a christ- 
ening. Devon. 
BEDAND. Offering. {A.-S.) 

So long he wente forth In hys way. 
Hit bedei hedand nyght and dey. 

MS. J9hmoU 61, r. 3. 

BEDASSHED. Covered; adorned. Thisisa|>- 
parently the meaning of the word in Morte 
d' Arthur, iL 366. 

BEDAWYD. Ridiculed. SkeUon. 

BED-BOARD. <<Bedde horde'' is translated by 
tponde in Palsgrave, subst. f. 19. 

BEDD. The body of a cart. Kennetft Gtotsary, 
MS, Lan$d. 1033. 

BEDDE. A husband or wife. (A.-S.) 
BEDDEN. To bed; to put to bed. (A^S.) 
BEDDER. (1) The under-stone of an oil-milL 

(2) An upholsterer. We»t. In some counties, 

BEDDERN. A i«fectory. (A.-S.) 
BEDDY. Greedy; officious. North. 

BEDE. (1) To proffer; to offer. North. See 
Minofs Poems, p. 19; Langtoft, pi» 29; 
Prompt. Parv. p. 28. 




(2) A prayer. {J,'S,) 

(3) To order; to bid. (^.-5.) Also, commanded, 
as in Rob. Glonc. p. 166. See the Taiious 
meanings of bede giyen by Heame. 

(4) To pray. (J*&) 
ib) Prohibition. (J,'S.) 
leS Placed. Skimur, 

(7i Dwelt; eontSnoed. Simmer. 

(8) A commandment. (^.*&) 

BBDEADED. Slain ; made dead. 

BEDEBT. Dirtied. North. 

BEDELL. A senritor; perhaps, bailiff. SMitm, 
TheMS. BodL 175 reads Mt^ Chester Plays, 
L 95, in place of ieydett in Mr. Wright's MS. 

BEDBN. Prayers. {J,^.) Betkt, petitions, 
occurs in the list of old words prefixed to Bat- 
man nppon Bartholome, 1582. 

BEDBNE. Immediately; moreover; coDec- 
tiveiy ; continuously ; forthwith. This word ii 
nsed in a Tariety of senses, sometimes appa- 
rently as a mere expletive. All the above 
meanings are conjeetival, and derived from the 
context of passages in which the word occurs. 

BEDBRBD. Bed-ridden. Pnmqtt. Pmr9. 

BBDBRKID. Darkened. 

But whamie the bUko wynttr n75t«, 
Witlumto mooc and stem IjfU, 
BtitrJM hath th« water atroBdc, 
Alto pdvaly they gone to loode. 

Gowir, as. «w..ilnKff. IM* f. 48. 

BEDEVIL. To spml anything. SimiK A per- 
son who is frequently convicted of vile con- 
duct, is said to be bedeviled, 

BBDEWITH. Wetteth. Chaucer, 

BED-PAGGOT. A contemptuous tenn for a 
bedfellow. Eut. 

BEDFELLOW. It was formerly customary for 
men even of the hi^est rank to sleep toge- 
ther; and the term be^ttow implied great in- 
timacy. Dr. Forman, in his MS. Autobiogra- 
phy, mentions one Gird as having been his 
he^Mhw, MS. Ash. 208. Cromwell is said to 
have obtained much of his intelligence during 
Uie civil wars from the common men with 
whom he slept. 

BEDFBRB. A bedfellow. Ben Jonson has 
bed-pheere, as quoted by Nares. 

That je achulle ben hia owen dere. 
And he schaUe be 50Wie te^/kr*. 

Gow€r» MA aoe, Antiq. 134, f. 180. 

BEDGATT. Command? 

Thre baleAalle Urdea hia brochea they turne. 
That byddes hia btOgmtt, hia byddyng to wyrche. 

JfefM Jrtkitrt, MS. Xinceln. f . 84. 

BEDIZENED. Dressed out. Var.dial. 

BBD-JOINTS. Joints of stone that lie in the 
beds of rocks. Derbpeh. 

BEDLAM-BEGGARS. A class of vagrants, 
more fully noticed under their other appella- 
tion, Toms of Bedlam, q. v. See several notices 
in Malone's Shakespeare, x. 104. They were 
dso called bedlams, bedlam«rs, and bedlamites, 
which came to be generic terms for fools of all 
dasses. ** Bedlem madnesse'' is the transla- 
tkm €i fttror in the Nomenclator, p. 424, 
wfaidi may serve to illustrate a passage in 
2 Henry VL iiL 1. 


BEDLEM. Bethlehem. 
BEDMATE. A bedfeUow. 
BED-MINION. Abardash. 

Caramita, Coneubino, 
BEDOLED. Stupified with pain. 
BEDOLYEN. Digged. Shumer, 
BEDOM. Craved; demanded. 


Wrought ; made up. 
To make to dote; 


A bed-ridden person. Prompt 

See Florio, in v. 


Rob. Glouc 

to deceive. 

Above all I 


he waa there moate htdoutt. 

Hardgn^B ChnmicU, f. 150. 

BEDPRBSSBR. A duU heavy fellow. 
BB-DRABYLTD. Dirtied ; wetted. It U trans- 
lated hy pakidotua in Prompt. Parv. pp. 28, 
283. Carr has drabble-taii, a woman whose 
petticoats are wet and dirty. 
BEDRADDB. Dreaded. Chaucer. 
BBDRAULBD. Defiled. Skmner. 
BEDRBDE. Bedridden. Chaucer. 
BBDRBINTB. Drenched. Chaucer. 
BEDRBPES. Daya of work performed in 
harvest time by the customary tenants, at the 
bidding of their lords. See Cullum's Hawst<^ 
1784, p. 189. 
BEDS. The game of hop-scotch. North. 
BEDS-FOOT. The plant mastic Skhmer. 
BED-STEDDLB. A bedstead. Enex. 
BED-SUSTBR. One who shares the bed of the 
husband ; the concubine of a married man in 
relation to the legitimate wife. See Rob. 
Gbttc. p. 27, quoted by Stevenson. 
BEDSWERYER. An adultress. ShaJt: 
BED-TYE. Bed-tick. Wett. 

To deceive. {J.-S.) 
Towards bed. Naree, 
A birch tree. West. 
An ofilcer. (Dut.) 
Lyare wea mi latymer, 
Sleuthe ant alep mi bed^ner, 

Wright 9 L^rie Poetry, p. 49. 

BEE. A jewel See Cooper, in v. Momle; 

Morte d'Arthur, i. 243. 
BEE-BAND. A hoop of iron which encircles 

the hole in the beam of a plough where the 

coulter is fixed. North. 
BEE-BBB. A nursery song. Yorheh. 
BBB-BIKB. A nest of wild bees. North. 
BEE-BIRD. The willow wren. Var. dioL 
BEB-BRBAD. A brown add substance with 

which some of the ceUs in a honeycomb are 

fiUed. Far. dial SttBee^lue. 
BEE-BUT. A bee-hive. Somereet. 
BEECH-COAL. A peculiar kind of coal used 

by alchemists. See Ben Jonson, iv. 02. 
BEBCHGALL. A hard knot on the leaf of the 

beech containing the maggot of some insect. 
BEE-DROVE. A great crowd of men, or any 

other creatures. Eaet. 
BEEDY. Adiicken. Var.tUoL 
BEBDY'S-BYES. The pansy. Somereet. 
BEEF. An ox. {Pr.) So ^e^e^ a young ox, as 

in Holinshed, Desc. Scotland, p. 20. 





BEEF-EATERS. The yeomen ol the gaard. 
The name is said to be corrupted from beentf- 
fetien. See Boucher, in v. 

BEEHNG. AboUockfitforeUughter. SuffbUs, 

BEE-GLUE. According to Florio, in t. Pro- 
pdttot ** a solide matter, and yet not perfect 
wax, wherewith bees fence the entrance of 
their hives to keepe out the winde or cold." 

BEE-HIVE. A wattled straw-chair, common 
among cottagers. Weit.