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Full text of "A dictionary of arts, manufactures, and mines"

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THE i'.r.W Y^^.K 
r I. -. i_._ LI- 11. -..1 [ 

242015 

T1LD;N F;Lv-.3*T(tll». 
IGOl 



DICTIONARY 



or 



AJRTS, MANUFACTUKES, 



AXS 



MINES; 



OOKTAIBIKe 



A OLEAK EXPOSITION OF THEEB PRDTOIPLES AND PRAOnOE. 



ANDREW URE, M.D., 

r.B.e. K.Q.B. JLA.B. U)ND. ; H. AOAD. S.B. PHILU). ; 8. PH. BOO. K. aKBH. 
HiJlOT.J KIIUI. XTO. EIO. 



limsiEATBD vrrn hbaeli shteen husbekd hsomtinos ok vooa 



■XFKimcD emu noM tsi un 
CORREOTED AND GRFATLT ESU.KQED ENGLISH EDITION. 



IH TffO VOllJMES.-yOL H. 



NEW-TORK : 
D. APPLETON & COMPANY 

S4a A 348 BROADWAY. 



/ 'I '^o 



L&BOfUiAVINa MACHINES. 



LABUilMIM or Lintvitv, u an uuotimnt rt^n, of •■■ ag^M^blc iMkr, Toattd hik 
mittriB^liFleaTu auJ tvi^ -1 l\i^ tjtfu tnti^i,* fUnt wkioli grmn i* Uia I*Ub4 
urCasilu, •ui] w tiyiik. It I* uiurktljr > dM-k-tirovn MiA mbaUnoc; bat ilkard«M 
on ki«]>itt;- lUtffifivicrRTil/id-lM. It luu • liUUr U«U. Il* ohto/ um i* b mh^ 
gtry firt iiioLiuir ■•liKIcnt. 

MIKilt-.SAVlNtJ UACIIIN'Bf |\ nil liuir Flxninnw*-— /'hn/iny d»/ Bvmlrnmf 
tiinh. — ll v'ill Ik rrmviiiliirij, Uut ill tbr lAHyrU^-t at tniltuy tmrvllinj. Uic liah«l 
■filcin llion iiiToi(n*ai the virinuB Mation* wMa iwdtivc kukaaoo: utverr tlek«i 
M(i>r« it «•■ dvliTnr*! lo a iWMrBrar had l« l»« lUinpfii aMi torn out of a Iwok.— 
thtu MMiiw thi> loM of oaiiMdorab^ limt to ln>ell«r> wtion moajr fAiM«(pr* wcr* 
a>«,tr<^E*>'^ Bui iLit wat Uio lea<l •lil; for iIm nulvaj- iliivotor* lia.l Unit or no 
<k«<k iliioD tli«lr aL-rrants. nnd th*r4fn)ot rMiillnl nanv iugvuiouii and xiMvufal 
fraiiils. T}u firtt Id rr nii''ly llita Wiu Mr, KdinandMi^ wbo (onalTiWteil an iMciiitnu 
apfuratui fir jiriniiiiK llii- (tclit4« with conHOKivo Minibrni. and also datiait ih« 
•ainii. tliii gave Krval bnlilin ht flicckint; Ihr aocnint* of lli« atntiou clerkii I 
AwiD|( lo tli« iBptrfnct mannor nf inki»);, M>nio<|OFnt on Iha tvnitrurtiaii of tha <_ 
puaiiis llw (Hetion lo vliwK ili« li<l-i-ii wetv unKwod, Uforv the}- won iMitpfC- 
iii\ in a gtiM tanfurr nblllvi-rtifl Ox.- iiriiitini^ ana oocMMoaally r«ad«Nd thttn ijuit* 
{lWF)ti;. Py Mown. Cfaunti iin<l iiwlinr\T* machjna far priatinjb uBinWrinii, wli-, 
t'l iikf^ and pockinu miivny ili'lH*, ilitu dllEtnlty uto It rMnOTol aniTRrai 

•j rnsj in iiianaiiK'tuhiit;' lli>' t^'Viti^ iv> the icvrral oppration* vhich « 

haic -'.Ui- ^ritodam >in,Hllii(imm>lv ji«rf.irfml. I'ailcbaardml iiitoMrip>bjni« 
af rotlvrt, u alKita rip1aiiip<l. i- If'i ir.I<> iKl- iiiarliiiKv lij bain^ laid ju ■ troiigih. i 
bnWjlkl und«r ihf i>inii|r>< ufa tnk (icorkin^ milh as inl«nnit(iag noTtiBttitlL *li. ._. 
piwhot lliv tln|H iiKMvuaittlr Torirar-I bvlwoon tk« lint pair ofa Hfica uf cui<i« or 
oarryii'it rollnn. Tlii-rr nr« lour ;uiin •>( rollvn^ plaaud i» ni to doihIuiI lh« itrip 
thronsh lliu Ibaffhiii* IB a horuunlol liue; uad au iiitortnitlciit movoinvnt ia prea 
lh«Di fur t^ {iiiriiot-i uC uTrj-iDi: thr itrip* f^rvanl a iliiirt iIUtaiiM at iiitcri ali. 
TlM*Ua<)«r>ltvf lhoniavliiiii>ra>TV'.>l ili* lob a btufk, Ivrnivij ih« "f>lnttJMi,''iuit ncla 
tk«[<a>t of ihf |iri>M )>c»l in ihr coiiiiiinn [•riuliiig iiinvhiiii!, — iKntiona i-f il projoi:tliig 
■iBWnvatiia bttvota tli- ii)-p«r roUi'n ol the linl neil kKMii-l. awl ti-uund ainl lliin^ 
pk]|* uf uarrrinc roJU-r*, lu-arlir li> III' hotituuia.] ]i!iinr. i'l vhit'h (In.- juitl'^laiariJ liML 
ao aA lu awtatn it aT tK<'«'(i fiOint# vliili« ii n^i-rlvt^ lhi> (in^iirv of Ihi- (rriiilLiiic lypoa 
■II' I iianib<TiBf di><«i linroaliir rrrirrvd tn. TImi l}*p» loduaiirnala Uie nalan of tha 
ti-'k>t, ai "Birnungham. Fml rlnna,' nr# tuciircJ in n "tfauap, ujMm a mnlal pint* or 
tat>)i.-, wbitti abo varrin lliu Biiialicting dim for iiBi'rintini; iho figorti uj»ii iho 
vardi; aod tho table br a fUru iv^tton in atter«ato1}rFai>''<l lo bring llio l}-p« Uid iisa- 
barintt diMa la euuta«t with tbo fuiltboard, and llim loirvtnd iutu a niilaUo poaHJos 
III ailtiili uf A* iiikioa roll*r tnovliijc nT«r tlio tjrpn and naiiibirinB dinov and applying 
Ink llwrrtoi Tlia t*liU llk«wi*o carr^M at mo *»d a knif^ whim act* In ovniiuoli<M 
wilb a kblfp^dce pmjMliiip dnwnwanl* from tk# fiipd h«ail of tha naohmi^ and 
tiiurvbv iptM iBo cnui ant (o Ihc •I.ri|it bitvccn (li<t ihinl and f»uilb pair* «f carrjT' 
in|{ roftAri, — t&m KTcriuc taeh into a given' nnmhr^r nf tickvln. The atrip of patl«> 
biiard vbicb it M into Ibc tiiachin* tlojn ou nrrivini; at llio uhtoiiJ pair o( ourylng 
foUi'p"; and, JO lb'- ■■—■■' ■' Ibf print inj;-t able, ilii" try-L* piint on ilint pintloa wliIoC 
la b«tv<«n lb* rir- ■■■■i |>ntr> of iiilK'n. Tb'- i>ifl]i ilii-ii puwu onto lh«tblrd 

polf of rotlrtn. *h ' '. < , nii'l, <>n tlii< labl* nunin ni'vii<liiij^ tbo Diiinb«rln|; diaa 
imjirint lh« prnjwr iiuiuljt<r ii|H>n tbr pulc-lioaril lictKwi thn (Otvnd and lliird pain; 
Uie tjpr. in the iniaavhTle. printini^ wliat i« lo b« lli« ni>xt Mh-Kiue Ii«kf1. On Ihc 
DMi aKvntof Ibo table, tht itrip biu adtantpd lii the f»iiiih p)ir Of rollon; and tha 
kniTAabalaf nov brougbt into (ontaut, tbci j>riolcd and n u in bt rod portion of the atrip 
ia wirtr^d. Thaoov compUtoI lii-kut ii \aaX]y dplivcrad bj the foiirlli purof rollon 
intnn boUov rnidf i>i<c<'. and ouiiduvivd lua hoxbaloo', providrJ irliti apl*tun, whioh. 
to ffti'ililalc t£a )iiii>kiuK "t lli.> t]ok''t< in tbo box, eaa tw? ndinitlfd tii anv liviabt to r*- 
oeii'ntJict.ickfUBillK.v frill. Toaiold Tbimrrnuity nrbair!>^laoounlt6wti«ktUaficc 
Uinf ar» laktn from Ibo ri^nri ring box. a counting nj'paniliiK (onnvct^il witli the work- 
ls|[ pnrli lit ihi> 111 lU'bi III!, ij made to itrike n h(ll on Um completion of cT«rj bundndor 
mer* tirkoti, hi v Ti> wani the attendant lo rnmore Uictn froin the box. Hie inkia| 
appamtui la aHimilntud in ohnra-^MPIOHlf-noliBslnkarain ordinary printi>n prwaw ; 
•nd the Biinlwrinp ditot ar* worktdin aninnii4irrory •imilartotlifuaiorpaainabookik 
A«niiil*«niiocDnieiilnrapparBUiifor]irJattn|[andBii>iby!n^«ard*VM«LdiibllMlby 
MtBFK llarrild A »o^ Thr tfjM* arw tixwl in a ripUI rrain*. whit'h olito carri«i the 
nuaburuiit di>«> lUi frnuio u movnlcd ou a iockti>|{ rttan, and ia fiiroiab«d vilh a 



LABOB-SAVIN'U UACUINES. ft 

Modlo, wiMMbj It It r»ak*<l bo bHo^ dom Um IfpN Mtd 4lwi apvn Ibe oari, l« {ni^ 
4uue (be ill) |ir*ui<>», Wlipii lli*friiii>f >■ laiwil (iM^n, (kriiiiitM /Cite irmoTfil lor«*nl 
■Me6iIB>v. aiiit lilt ij'[S4an iiikrd by aa'iull ri'lItT, wliirli tsk« iUaiijiplj' of Ink biilU 
aa iniing lablf^ ihat (um« Ui« top of Ibc fraino. 'DtH ■■ a OHtfal dMctiption uf uw 
cbtnc; but ((id ifioii««i in (fao Exb!bi<i«n doe* not appoor to linvobeM prnprrlyHl- 
Jnitod. m iiiL' iI.-ii'M uf llio Biinib«nnB diK* have • uiicUntv to cut tkraucU iliuo^ril. 
U. Do I l'«ri*. exttibilB a mwhinu for firiiituiK and iiumb*hn^; Iichrtl^ 

Mid alto I III ittitiiVf^r t'riiii>'iL Ttiv Iy|iu And DmabHriiic ditnt atK I'ftmwl 

by a li'mijiuLui . <>' i'" ' .ii If ' I'll ivhii-li, itufii' ujir.ii fii<l (lirrpu^ m • mtiiil fliMi; 
and iijmn tliii [>. ij I., r ■ .ii i h .. .1. -, » m-ial fiiitunia kUlx^J, wliirh cnrrin tIjFli™* 
■Unl BuualHiriiig; .i""^ »ini .-..nw-ipuii-li in v«ft Jl>ir» willi ih* i«I(M irf llic liitoi. Th* 
tf |m for iitiuttnc the iiiMri|<tiuTi iipcn lliv ticki^t aru arrvn^ivl at right iingl« to Ih* 
l«»glh oiuioAui, v|ii<h ]iowtiAn nilmitii offline liu«*of tli«riiti>ii|itioii Mng prialod 
ia on« wlur, and lli« reiuaiiiidei' in anollMr onlor. In the t}'|Jd rramo ailot or opcoiim 
ia funned Udf^hwix of thpshofVi anil b>?binJ tliU«|iiuiinaarDt]irc«nuiiibcriii|{ dli>i^ 
■Dd tlirot dwea IW indicaiinu ilic .jiuutitv of ii«kcu nunbercd, — all ttaodinit in Ui« 
tani* tow. Tb« itumliuriiiir dixi nit tnnilc with raiMil fipir**, whioii proiiwl ihrviiDJi 
til* *Ii>t, In ortUr to print tii>> iiuiii)»ir iitioii th-: rieltfrt ; nnd on Uiu pwri|<rwrin< ot tlis 
NgMlvtioiC dMi» (wydi iiic-vu •ititnltuiiiuutlv wtth iWir voi'rMpodidln)( iiumbCTiaK 
ditMK iIm iSf iirM ari> rniti'ari.J. 'J'tm tii'licla lu I"' |>i-inW and niunlHivd arc plaoed 
la a rMloMgular box or iiwtivur, li.ivinu at ilm liotiorn n dai ali4iii|- )iiw«, wliti^h Lm 
• n4l|niHialin)t inollon f'>r tliw |hiif)KM« nf |ni»li<Tip lli« lowml tiak«t aul of Ibr box, 
ihrouKli kii •>ii''iiiiii.' ii^ U>u fnml hhPv iJiorvuC ^viicalli nii "laMic prosne'roIlM ot In- 
•tili-rDbtiar ; II)-.- Iyf><.-fr>mu(«rilli thr lv|i-^t und li);iircii |>ivii|ieiHj' ink^J). la at the aaina 
time lifv>ug)ii. \-y liir ri'Iuliuri uf IM ibiil\. iiilu omlaot with lli* IjvktC bcuc*lli ill* 

trTuiafE-ToElm', aiiJ iit it ron1inut« iLi motion, it oaui«a Uio tii^kft to iriovr U'fWnri 
onvalli itiv piviiiii^ roller, and lu be pioperly pflntcd and nnmbcivd. Tlir tiiil(*t 
tJtnn fi|ll> from tli<> nuuliin*; and the type frames carried on by lliv roiolulina of tlia 
aliaft. bhnn (lul Dumbur on tlin r(i(titl*nii]t diaci. whicli irarrMpoiiiU wltb ill* nain- 
tisr |irlatf>d on iliu itrki'l, unitur a ■iiintl oiidiiinK lu tho eata, •mtireii willi glnM; 
ohirrtliy the Biiinb^'r of ti-:k--4jt |<iiitt.-il will Lu ind>eal(>d. 

BaettHy ihott. — Nut (I'm- 'I ' it lun lullii-H>it>^(>rlnr{>rintiu|ji»tli«o«ntrllMiliM 
of Ur, (.', btar, cf New>Yiir :.'<i>-s wlii> •'tli<l>ii>i two niaaliiiiEi (ot iMokMlleiV 

■■■V — tlwi '/Dt IxriuK (Oip'tJ^ ■ '• ' [i^.-.aiid ttic other for lisiiLiujJ Unt hacki i-f boolo, 

He two ninidiinca arn ailniiiir tu ckIi utiior. at n^card* tJio nabordlnabi paru. btif iliir«r 
in *aiii« utlinr r«t|tMbi. In tlio b«--kiii)[ inucliiiic, thnititdiMt iihiu-l*. roniiiiiK I'l" IxiO^ 
ardxiMl i'l H palriirirDai:Iuiu|i*. ■uinuwUntlniV'rthnii ''" ' •■li Tli .li;i»|>i»n( 

noualnJoi) liuriiomlul pivoti^ i»id faniiilt'il villi ii i>-'ii''. . in. h i^i . .<> thrai a 

tandfi*<*y tolnuVitoiit df tiii* vri^lir'i' i ^ tl^-^rotiy t-rjiit, >'»' i-»t'k \-t Uh* jh>v4^ vliUll 

Mosd* np abnreili'i od(^ i>f tli>< < < fiIli- n-;ii<>i'uf nnnoolb metal roUeT. 'fliia 

MitMtuni* ill b«flriii|p whioli *r< i -lidiucT virriifadyintbelliilDia^; of tliuma- 

obiae: and the bearing* arc prnBnl upi-ii L>y two weighted lovcn, vWn lliociatbin* w 
ia jue, •> ai to caoM Uio roller to boar dnwn (oivibly npon tho liook. Wliil.- iliv rollor 
ia ia tfcli poilion, (be vtwhtcJ lever of lh< elunifd •.'niua tlir bui>k to okIIUI'. and 
tlia* til" Toundinff of tba tioek ii tffecl^d. Tlir uiDvi'iitni-'. uf lli^ <?l>iiu|« iinilui' lb* 
rotlor in rriiulaiol by tba workiann iIitoiikIi u tuol lr>-iidle, cuTmc-iitd oiih ttn- Invar 
la III* iiiacliinc for nnUllinc Iho borki ; Ui.i roll^-r ii> rntrrnvod v itii any uiiloUo do- 
tl|{n; and ttif eron paona wbUli tupjiuru i|* iKMrtn;^ it iiiiflitlii'tliiTr. mil i4^'nl•d by 
(Uwni. fai tlio pU'tioiM of •.'onuniiuiailtiiK lii-nl tv tilt' ruit-ir. Moti-ui iii IliU oaie if 
givan to llie ctmnp by a sini'li-bauitk'. iixtvad "f lliu we>|;litfd Itvev, and lh< )>atl«ni 
on tli# rolUr ia tlicrcbv emtKtnod uy»i the ti*«k af il>i< buuk. — A'nrlim'i Jimfnal 

IViiiAiiif and itanfUitf. — Tli« Itnii>h p-irii'mnf i)ie Gml Kxhibiliun contninol ait- 
morout example* of the applicaLion of uincbiui'ty to eooaomiM latiar Id the yrocMiai 
«f vrn*bla^ vrringini^ and maiiijling. Tha wnibing mAcliiiiM may bi> dIvliltJ Inlo 
tJirM daay^ vit. first, tfaoae winch bave a rolarr action ; uroindly, tliwa wb«T«lB 
vibrating OMt^m ar« omployei; and thirdly, tiam in whldi vptllcal bMl«ra om 
u1liniat«I]r Taited and jmrmilli-J to (nil iipoii ilia dotlit-x 

la tho tint claii^ Ur. V. IVici\ <■! Watdoiir StniTl, Solio, haa a aimjil* ma«hiu^<all- 
■bling od n oyliiidur i>r dritn>, to roiilaiii t1>u rltillw*. nvolvloe borizoalall}' in * alnia 
wooden vc«ol, or oulor man vliiv-h liuldt tlio soap-dLidg. Tile dnuu ii made with aulM 
coda: but (in order thnt the KiBp-*iida may have freo oecaa to tlic nlothca), the 
iwriphcry or body thereof is pumiHised of wooden baia or ■pokp^ extuodioK from on*- 
and to tlia oilier, with a (pae«K<Qii.-what ^calor Ibon iJie Ttdllx of a bar botWi^rB tlw 
ai^iacaii! ban, ao ai to rcaembla kIihI i^ knowu to eQ^tnecra at a " laiilarri Jruiii.~ tlu- 
cloUina aro iiitr*Jii>wd by i^ruiiii; ■ door in tli« ildn cf tho dram ; aad on rotary m*- 
Ilm btjng fATm to llio diam bv a liandk^ Iho (Oaj>«(i>U will b« ja tt arf to act «poa 
I ami tboroacUy «Uau»« the oloiiuit. 



LABOEtSAVWO MA< 



Un J. Muim,<^ Salby. rlhiMtqd a bmcIiIm, In vh'Ax |1>a artlotM tn t"' wntlitl 
«tr« jitefwl tn a -ivrfumlv-l wunlcn barr*1 ar o<4a. '. rolnlliiK I 'j 

In an oul«t-nue. AliotP (!»•«<«■ l"rown™l»n roll-- i:'-l, oiivui' r; 

■•d the rIotlMt, wkm ■ulllaicntl}' wmIu' ' ' .1 L<L,'tvv<[i tiirh nillmt. .i- 1.; |a 

•qoctM ■•■It the Mikp^u^l^ inatniul of " il* H^U^w bj haiij. TIk-m roUcn 

Mmj Iv «ibMi]iicuti}- Qtod (iv manglini; [•.- ^^y.i.r*. 

Airuiiicr rai«r]r loadiuii^ txliitiii«>l bv Mr. Pcoria^ ef Lrrdi. t«n<i>ta of a lab or 
w'.i.iJmi touuI, ill wliich llio elutbe* urn l)iniB-a ; nlid Ihu TiijaUilr »^liition for <iriuti> 
Inyur dlMhanciiiK tliii dirt ii dT«c1<d liV iniiaiu »(>□ upriffhl liiiklfT, wkiiih rolal^ln 
Ibr Kill lollii-HicDn Riann«r wtl» " ■li*lisr " uf ati ■ijinK"' lolnrjcburn. Iliik ajijMf*- 
Ilia in nti'i |ini>i<!i'J irllh B yinir «f rollrrt for urinirtni; niij ra«ii|[1iDe th* clathw. 

llir nxE iiincliiriefl oT llm Voliirr --Iom vhirli w<> •rinll DOtU*. aiD tlinM of UMtrtL 
llmil'Vi', MIldII, a>ryti£, vf l.tutiii Workf. Niiltinj-lia'D. In th«H tiiivhiiiM tlw 
■i[-r.>ll»'i> '■[ wii^liing Bti-l ilij-ing art (<<Ii'Ctcl by cciitrifucnl foroe; llml U «« tli* 
nttvii'uii-lliug |>ri»fijit«. 11ia utilltv nf thit boiittrUElioa of mnrliiDn^ bolliforwMb- 
tiis ■■ii<l 4(yi»g Aibric^ ia Bn<]ii«*ii(in«bla ; nnd, vtiier iljgbt moJifiratic^t. thry An 
ettuiiHveij Mod for tlie r^?linii>|t ot iiiji;*!- R^-h nM>iitM may bi! <l«cribt^] ■■ odd* 
aktiiiK •itaplj ■if R dmm, haviiii; ii m.-il of vim. an4 bfin;; fixod to * 

ttrtlAil iIibI^ Thi«hrot«t<u in tin > livul muUlcuw. T)ii'Kou>Ii(uIm 

VaahsJ Br« pst into Ihv dnini. itiiU »..:■< i- -i.) |i.>..j tlivri'to tliiixifth k hollow vMitral 
*Wt. nil raplill V r«tDtJng ili« ihimi. tb« wnlT j> cbim^i]. li^ c(i>tnfii|tnl riHvr,iopM« 
OUIvanLa ihrnu^h tho gD»iK kii^I lliroti)-)i lh<> irir« ]>crli>lirrv or lh>) dnin^ Into tJ>» 
nnlrr fon, from which it i> ■>>i^<lutt-Ml rntity. To ilty vuha^l or w<it ^omb, thfjrare 
plnnol III lhi< drum witliniit iifccvt t'f wstvr, and by tov miiid rvlatinu of Ihv ame lh« 
DIMlurB to thu clothn i> di»:hirgrd. — tlio t'lwtr rtquircd for dn'iuj> in no «h<i ex> 
oiM^iilt fi** ininnln. Tfacie Riavliiiiii aft cnitablc for wiubing and rinaing dyod 
BoOibt; DUttliuyareTiui ii]ij>li{»lili! lottie «r»«liiiig<rflJioii»ogliljJirty«lot]i«: tbcymaj. 
howrvur, b« uHd fur riiiiii^^ Ilii> •aiuo aftor iJtiry liar* bvtn wMliad tiy other inoaM^'i' 

Mr. RobiMua irilitbictil a mn<hin« for dtyln; wdt dullivi^ wliii-hacta u|>oii thvMr ~' 
(Win«i|'t> n> Ih* sboirc. Iliv >lruiii tlml rvorirva llm wut rloltiM ii fiinurd of ruimd tr 
lar*. whli )MiM« bMwccn tlivin. nud iiiouiii><d on n boriMiilal ttinfl. hy iitinu* nf a 
rov of ban Ili« druiu ia dJvidi^l into t«ocompurtin«ul*,wbirti ivroivv the i^icii]' IbfnUKb 
adoarf»niMdintItedruiii-rndii; aud the vhole ia*aoIa*ed in a i-irrulor irvn ratr,«hich 
i( npcn briow. Tlin Hioiji buvin^ facoa pat into lliodruln, it in camed lorrvolvu witb 
i^oi ni[>idity, and tlia iiiuiiluiv u (•xprwuud frain the |[oo<)t bv oeDlritOfial foro; and 
DtoafiiMi tliroDttb th« oiM'iiiiii; in tliv buitoiii of Chi' fair. Sm llYiiau-irvnuimin. 

AtmiliKf roliir^' watliinii; innrliino i* vibibit^d by )lr. Nniin. It nifntinl* cf a \nrga 
dnitii^ wbii'h m uioualpd upunaboriiontol ■baft, williiu ikcK^od Ti^idur en^r, aad ^tr^ 
n««BiiiBM«u*«naUmllcrf all nnind ilii p'RjdiTry, tucb roLlanboiuscupitlilfof inrBlny 
fri»-)j and ind^pMldiintiy of nicll otbur, >in<l ibMr a**a btSag paralUl ti> llm bit* of tii* 
d/uin. Tits 0B9C eoaUiLiu vatcr or loiipdods in whicli the iIturi ii ini'iiurafd to tha 
•Xt«ut Dfaboul Da«-lin,li or uni>aistbo(it<diain«t«r; Ibo clothcn arv k»pl in nontact vtlli 
the dram, u it m-olvt* bv wvcrnl cDdlna tii[ioi ; aud u* lli>? clulhci (nce«aiT«Iy w- 
t^ircat Uic upper p'lM »rtbi> dniiii, tbrv are act«d upon by Rvii Haled rolloln abiwcit 

Jlr. Nniia conl.rtbuli'd atiulliiT oiiivl^ncv vh!«h ajicwan to bn draigiMid for rtiiaiag 
aoil vriii|(in|{ only. Two Iltitnd r'^tUis, ona ahoi4 Iho otliar, ar* monntnd in Ihn tip- 

Cv natt of n wnod<a vcwet ur in^iiKb ; nn «ndl«M band |hww« ot(v tli* lov*r rollvr, 
rinp niir)K>wof conducting thv clMbit tvtwMn t)iefu1«d mitcr*: and tlivmUauo- 
Llivr ibdUwi banil brlciw, immvne'l in liic wnlor which tbe tmwI colllai^^ and [<«••' 
tngvlcr a rollvr at «ch*nd cf UwTtaM'I, ila apparont UM bcin|{ to rccriv<>llii>i>MhM 
H Ibcy full from thn Ural band, and bring Ibuin aeain la tbal end of tb« t«mI wliore 
tbrv wtrr iatroducad. 

llanliiiimof tlioiccond «1aaa. vlt. thoar «h«ralti ribmtins bnlera RraoiDployFd, ««!« 
•xtiibiied by Mnaia. Pry<r. Tajkhvr, Mamdua and Rdd. In Mr. Vryor'a inacnin**^ on 
Bfirigbl baud or bralt^. liaTiog; varlWl "tnu or opvnine* In it, la tiaiuvd*lo Tibtatv 
•rawinK In and f<o tu a *iv<ii*Ktn1 vi<muI (i-nnlaiaing lliv i.'Ji'lhM tn b* i>ra«li(>d an4 B 
•oitabla quaiilily ul hintynxi'ii], kii<I beat tlic rlollioa ajoiiitt tbs aide of Ott Tn*f1 
nittjl th«y ara lli<nyiuj:ldy cIvATiaed, 

111 Mr. Tnak«r'g rnailiiiir, a bmtcr, with TcrtiOkl tloU or opening* in it, TibratM in 
n tmngb nr ichoI haitiiig a arri» of pNJocting Kin at encli aidt, corraapMiding Kith 
tlw «p<iuug* in Ibo boater. 

Tb« brator ill Mr. Slaradta** machina lia* a prajpcllni rib afflxtd to It on fa«k ijda, 
b«t*«<i th< tovi'ra] alot* or iipruiuiti; and at pavh ti& of ihif MCiiWilal trougib or 
t«aMl. ill wlilch Ihc btntiT worka, l(tvr« it hiii^rd flap y (aba aidei with tiniii«roiw 
hori»iii>ta1 atota ur ap«ulnf* in iL 

Tliv ilirif« latl-ntenUiHi^ maoliines ar« nQ proridtd vlth roltMi for wrin^ng and 
unngltng iko clollica. 



ron T 
>f a 



L&itoR-SAViNti maciuhsSl 



•l«Talnl . 



Ut. BaLT* aanhlM aoadita at > lug* iqnsr* boi; the btMtm of wtileb tako* III' 

liKiB <^ I ' t :v. ' T .. I IbratUg bau«r nupoDiled tB Ibn Ikix. TbSB*- 

(ltir< )■ w a DMfcmxI JBta ■ ba^ lintine »n i>pial>|[ 

t -. . iit<; w«L ebiliaB; and at eanli piid nf ijbu bw Uicr* 

upo* It. hy oa* of vlikk ibr |ia^ u to be wirvrod In the 

r ili« aihcr It U D<iaD*Dtrd I'l ■ rTkDk.irbinh. o« hiHuc 

•e iiwe, ■<i<l tlivr^jr MpifM Ilia waUr froo iboctolliiM. At th* 

f t-cnil n>!lcn or* isicnialail M»a abova tbv oUicr, for thii purpoat 

Mr. W. llBc«lpii>(% ••r lUiiunanaiitli, eihibttvH ■ machini! eS tlia Ihird rlaia. mm- 
«(yvM~( -.i>, ...... II. Lii.' Kill iI.-..-M<iliiif> bcotoni ll DUniiila dl a ryllmlfival inHal 

r^i. : nils und i> i<aiii«l ta ratals bj auilablo wbMl- 

warl. " I- c- Th» rtucl it nailu with |iarfnralBJ falaa 

baUou aiijAiilAi —• « :•' i-niii i l»il!uir ca>iii|[. in'o nhivli u-'otn may Iw a^iuiltad. 
ttt4 oaf thitMc paM tkrungih tli* pcriWatliwv nb^ u( iii<<>ii ili* nauraoiltkc fwbrlfa 
tab« wxti ' :-<riN«M<>rai^Utlu|; or urnitilbK'tlw hbrita it «tfaolt>l br bIm or 

ttprii iniaeail iDanva(Tiita(b<lnUrj«rof tb*vat*o1, a*ilan«niat«lr 

' ll.,f..l! ..-..riiKeabrict 

, ICnrsUni, and olhcn. tililUtsil «ia/<l>ivN flir 
._■ onlj: but U llim^ vhalcicr llivir nvpfctfrt 
1- i|i|>tiMUana of nachiaury for (coDoaiiaiiff Ubor. 
^\ ■ 'II oar proTinoA. 

VrHii <'-■' aiiix ' lii'vii-' 11 u Ili Im loan tJiat raaaidoraUo attontioii bai bom oirt« 

lifls makan tu tbal tiiu4t laipurlaut branuh of domaatie ceoaamf — vaahing^ 

<i.-t. ■■•iLuii iiti- •'( Ihr maeUDaa afaoTa JataribNl. vhivh Would uolaiaffoet' 

>• Ibu matt fiiMidiuiia (■cuild ilMira; aivl jtt wb iliU 

I l»T tlic nibUnf; an<l wrioa;iui; ••{ (Icvq mi>ri'lInH m* 

I .'jiili: uv<; luapMiu-Vi anil allnw thmi lu t-r lrantfonii"d inUi Ilot 

.ij - lu altfliupt at rtenovinf till' aiinovnar-? : inilrcil, to JiiTrtvnMii 

irvjuiur^ <'- 1> iii>- w KtlKTWOBBn laay jeAunk W a loag l*a«i of ttirt pror«4dnn, a> 

I laakflj loM'baa utiun bo attabtulwil Miaaaraclar«L 

~*blWi-ii ih« tiitntvtof va*UB<(. TcisaydiTavt *tta*tig«l«aiaBohno«>zlubite4bv 

Parmv, otfittM IVacr •trvii. tar waifalnK liultlaa. In IliU imaeblBV a borf- 

in'<>il*ivn'1l^o«r^iaB b Imitl-'brii'liBl OM&fnd, lt*aBMd Ui wvnlr* l>f bcl^f 

filr. % bAillu it jniiliol aver parh bni*li hy tile o|iarBtar. who 

ID (aril biiid. vhilit lij* mvamt <-t liia foot ha wof ki tbc (r*adl* 

'1- -n of Ui4 liru«b<« 

K^Jt- ~|<««lBinuoriliaM very uufnl inachinea which baTa latelT Iwm 

l*trwlar- till knlvoi an J fnrki ar*ta Iw f'lunJ in tlu' haildin^ and JiriiiaMd 

Mr. KfUt't niMbiBo •vnaiaiii «f B Iwi or e4Br, eoiibiiiiii^f a oouptoof 

*i\f\ wntet In rai'h ntbi-r U[-tiii ii buriuxilal iron ro>l or *|>liiillii, which 

' v*<\ arul lA r4ii>it<| til rolalB \,\ niriiriA M a wlnrli-KaiidlA Kavh 

< •"fiiurrh^ nf Iho aroa "f il* iriniir fi^'i*. ri>virt*'l Vitb allimat* 

•nil ctrijo nf lialbtr: n»>l llir r-.-Riniiiini; fmirlh |'«rt ■• ri>rrT*<) with 

Tba kBl(e-b(Bd«f to btclcnn<"l ar-' ii>Ir<"|i>.'til Ihn-iiich i-i-fninif in ika 

, li^wwn tlio nibbioK lorlarva uf llie dimi nod rvTntiN'j tiii>tH>(i Iwiiiit ||;iTra I* 

tlia <]•*« 'it a wiiwh-b4Widta, the k!iiv<u an> Ta{ni|]y cloane-I nu-j politbrd 

'nt' fnii'-VtTiiM «lbltiit«d It Ur. JUiInn ara eoaaltiMted ia|iaii tliu MWIO pUn •) tha 

' <iiB.a (urhoeofaaoh diw it forinod of itn (•• «f biiS 1«alli«r, «tlb 

i>r briail««ar«uaidlb«a<l|ivaJ(Nch mrruci^ to oloan Ui« (bonUloTa 

..I .11, ..,,.~. 1 bnnhaa arw difad h — aaui tlivbolM in tb« aH4\ Ibran^ whlah 

tba Kltd'^odlMknimBraitwrtad, to praroiitthD ciito<<)iM from the B|>|iBratw. 
y» ivir^ .'iWbileil B madiinf (or r(<iuiinii kiiivt*. »iiJ another fiw eltanini; fork* 
Til- .n(Tean«i»taa<a hoiitnalal dniin, rOT*«0 wilh pitwa of l«llieroT WU 

an.l ' . in aaother dnun or Fir«iiUr fmaiuj^ linad vitb leotber or foil. The 

]rai>'> ntr iiitrad*«eil ibroiugb ot>eniiig^ in a movabU (troular plal«i at Iho (tant of 
tbaeuiT raalaTtaO'l •Bierbrtwim iha lorfBcnof the t«<i drunu. Tli* plate Ufixad 




Wwid-- .t-™^ I 

ET 

Wdte* I'uljr. 



qpnu a ln»ii»'-i' 
vilb a bafrJ' 

IIP f t. 1-MiL"i 



, 1J,[...I, . 
tlhtbtu'i 

tH TUlrii 

«ltJi In- 

lU.- 



"'litb axunda throinb tho OBHL aad iafuniiihod al llie baok 

I f *hi<l> Iho JI*o u oanwil l» rMaw and car^ roirad the 

in (.hotidc^ boliind wliiik two braahfa an fiii'il fiiv to farn 

r prottg* of tlia (uA* are inlrodn'rO'l. annl thu tiandlea ar* 

'ii w Riode lo adtanoe and reontn all^niati.lT by mean* of 

- -ii*t tlMpronin into a»il .Iraw Ihenl out of oontael Titk 

'■ o( t vo iopIbI platdK I hd li'wer ono «arr]iH[ a cuahtM 

I <■ '.-rk handle* lori»l n|"in. nad Uvf appar boiBg llnod 

iiLT at u»* i-nd, and arefnniienleid at llie aUiOf. 

I l>«iwt*n tboin, by a lluinib-«r«v. 



LAB0B-8AV1NG MACniHZ& 



CKtffiMf' kn i^t. — Th« Mma ciliitiitar kIw (Mtlribolfd • ohmdnr-luiife for the r» 
divliuaofMUt, A«., ial«MuU paKidca. ItconwUDf thKnUMMDndaidabyt' ' 

t» the lc-v«rMr^eafa flat iiwUI (nunc, wblvU ialuMod at <Miii end to ■ 6m4iu 

lullar or annport wid M Um oUmt b praviiUd with * ImdiUc; wberebv Iha IiMm bn 
•Honiatcly hruil akd bmuglit dawn u|)«ii Ibu «iat or oUicr HiliitoiKc lu be tlioftpaij^ 
vhich i> \iiA ii[ua > nMaliir woodoli di>h or olu]|ipia|^bIoek. Cacli limo Uial lh« 
ludfpl>Mii« i> niiod, alwokTd rod. iWMiKlsd thwAiMii, eatohoa iaUi Ibu taglh of ■ 
ntdiol bImpI, nod turM it jnttty rooM ; oa Um axk *f tkli ra tahat wliovl i* a mall 
eoc-irho*^ wliieh take* into tlio l«eth ot a airouUr tuk or vhaol, <Md lu tk* undor- 
aId«oftb«ohQti[iiDfbiiMb; and tliu^at «MkaM«M«f tbc luiUit-6aui«.lb*blo«k wQl 
ba moraJ paHJy rouad, and inad« to piKct &««k portiMii of «mM t« Uia aolion af 
ili« ilQao«odiuKMiT«L—.VnMpn'( /■!«««( saix. IS'i. < 

AWvft^ybMiaf,— iBthtaMVulgpofoldlDs TrMfhtn* of JImus. DelaKu«A Ctkcaob 
place of paixr ptcriainlf est bjr a Qy praa into Um proper tana, lor in&kint{ an «■■ 
valOfM (and baruifc tha cBblwnaileal itamp or wabr >paB il), b laid bj lb* •UoDdanl 
an a atgaare or lactaafular nMal Awna or Ixui, brniad vitb a than prcjoctioa piago 
•taaAaorMT. laa«rT««a|wd«t(ilb« pii|>«r. aBi) fursliked wUk a notaUa Mlaa, 
wkioli r«>(i> UQ boliual apnnc*. A prtatar at iba vod of a corvod Doaifwiiad arm 
^vliirb iiioi'M la a totImmI jiunc), Ums diiaMnda anil |ir«iuui lli« i>nj«r duwo tsLu Uia 
IHU — Ibo )»>ll«in tlMr*uf ywtding lu tha proniT*; amf llarK'li) |i>u (uiir *c<l* or dapa 
af tiic pime of [■■p*r arr uiiku to lljr up ; lliu frt—rr Toay ba uld 1o ooiitiat of a m- 
taaguUr nxtnl finativ Ibc cndi of wliich arv attaehoj In Uiu outer jwrt of Uia <urr«d 
aroi, and tboa>d«tlior»artullieinBcrtKirtigoortlMam;eotbatUia«idiaad>idcaor 
(lis pTMaar «aa botc uidefiond«*lljr of oacL otbat. Tfaa end* tt Ui« ptann tlicn tito, 
laavuig the tw»*ida*«f itidkllbal4in|t dowB thafuipari ttra1iUlela|Htat]iit<iaiKat 
fold «vur lli« lw>> fulii fla^ ot tb« taT*lap«; and inunediatrlf ■ badMatal ann a^ 

«lurM«d I'll Jlrai i>nnil)i aad n(^il>M tlia wim tu ttio tvo Bai<«. A Ibinl lappet ptaaan 
doHB ll>« tliirJ flap of ike anvelop* apua iku two ofopntpd lUp*, aad tburvby eaiMaa 
it loadliaro tJiaralo: awl tha* a pranin^ioca of tli» uiooatin aa tbc iuuliad ««t*- 
Iap<^ Mdi Ofor tlie lad flap and ptaaaa Uw «h<il* llaL Tlia ftual opnalMin la lo ra- 
MOT« tlia aaialopc, and tbia ■• aRMlod by • pair of iu«Cal fliig*t«i witK ludik'fubbor 
anda. whivli Jufpibil upon tbo lavdopc^ awl, luiiring *iJ«vayK dmw Ibo tmvalupc 
off Ibe bolluni uf lli« \*ix (Ilia prMMntc-piMo luvJiiK rno(*d aray and tlia bolttiu of 
(he Ik>i runii lo tbn Isval uf tha ^lotforai of tbe maohiuaj on to a alowlr uoriiig cmI- 
t«M tiaixl. wliicb icradually nuTiM Uio finUfa«J tavalojiM avay. A nvah pioca af 
paper la Uid B|>un tJa« b'^x or tnme, and llic sbota opiratiaoi ars rojieatod. 

Tltw workiuf urihiiinKPiiion* niaohine app<ar*dt«ba««iaortlia(bi<f attrMliDUC 
Ilia Kslilbition, but nnoUier, fur lli>! Mjnu objaol, iavcaloil by ilr. A. Brwnn^ ■ 
BimiB^bani. and ihovn in opvmliun bv ItoHn. Watarloir X Hoot, of LooJon Vall^ 
lrai*ituallydM«rTiU{[HttDOtw«. Tliedialia^ulun^SwIuraoftJiiaaTraniKBiontU tba 
«nBluyin«u(ofata»pbpn'cpr«u«r«lu(cttdin tbcpoptf DbublitotsnatkaeikTaloii 
ami lodedeM tha Oopa of tlia (>iit*1oi>< into iaetioM puilion^ to iMlIltata tbo acti«a I 
a pluag«r, wlikb daaecnid) lo ixanplato tbo folding. Thv |>i«oa tS paper, ml to 11 
pMfwr fom, araUliionB plaUomv wkioli UfumUiad «itli a pin at path«omen 
•alar tba noiabcain tha p>«aiurpa]ivr. and rvtauittioB iu Ihejiropcr )i»itMn, — 
•uuh plnl^rm b «aiiat4 oliofiialalv U> liv and brinic tlio upptr pio« ot pn)>rr in ■ 
tact wtik thu iBcUsoMat that fMila tlia fold iii(( part of tli* luoubinc, an<J thsn lo da 
ownd nntil ■ fradi pioM i* lo be nmovaiL Tliv lei-diiia: ii»truiiif iit ooniiiu of a hori> 
untol hollow ar«^ vitk two liolca in tlw tinker •iJc. ami bnniitc a rMiprooatiu ] 
nMTaaotal. Vben it mom oTir tkn a]m«r |iioea of p*p«r uu tha ptutf^ui, a partial 
TMawn is prodoiwd wllliin >l. by n loitablo axkauMlng BMMitBUi< and tbo paper b 
Ikerobr tsuKd to adlurs tu it at ike bolaa in ita undor anrlaoa by (ha prowaro of tba 
atmiMfilMra, Uio iwtraincni cam** (be papar uvtr a rNtAugulor rsccM «r b»x, aaii 
■hw. tke VMDUoi viikln il hiAa^ daaCrej*'!. il dopoaila iko paper betwera four pln^ ( 
fixed at Iha auitlo* of llid box. iin>l n^oriu fo< anotbar piaoo of |Mp«r. Aa the IMpar 
Hoi on llio loji uf iba Iwi. ili<! flap, wliifli will b* UDdemoat in tlia finiiliixl cdtc- 
lopr. b prMMd by a amaJl bar ur itntmr on (« tke apper edj^a of two An^tulnr feed . 
en. tonmunioaliof witk a ree«rvnir of ctaMatM aiU«>Ive uiattar. and tliiircby b^J 
eoniBt toalol vitb ocnient : and, at tke aanae liouv (k« outtnuoat or taal dop may ba ' 
■Umptd vith any rotiairtd deyici^ by dice, oa tlie other «J* of lI>o Btai^liiao. A roe- 
taneular franw oV planar now daacanda and earrioa (be Mimr down iuio iha box; 
On plumor ri•o^ liuTini; tlia flapa of the wralope opHgLl ; alrtaint of air, iaaiiin( r 
fraw a atot lu o»li aldr of Ibii bwi, theo twuo tbo flap* to tnrlino inwBr>l< ; and tliaj 
foldlac ta oMvpinlvd by tbe plaiiKer B|t«ia daMuudlB]^ Uia ialefior and «u-lrt turfuce 
ef auoli ptunicfr I'riog farnii<d witk pvajeotliv; patUv agitable for oaiuinft Ihi' *?vcrai 
flap* to fold IB the pr<i|ier order. The boUon of Ike Wt (whitk u binned) opeuib . 



U.DOR4AVIilO MA0niK£3. t 

i»d (UiNi«nt«* III* auv«ki|ia ilown a tboot omUim Ub1« below ; tlu feeding iMtranMBt 
tfcM biinu> (uriranl Mii>Ui«r piocaof p«ptt: tt*d kivpoUtmaf llie«lKiT«niaTtaMMi 

A ■Mtliiaa fur a mimd ImI ilmilar imrpou to III* above «■> •AlUud bf Ur. J. Bliuk, 
of BdiMbMr^k TW otgMl of Ihia bim4iI«« u ta fold jiriuUd alioMitOil )>»p«r. and jl 
i« |it<i>pani>in«il to Md Ibfco to Ilia «c(aro fiv; bnl MitdiuiM luav bv mitilr, om th* 
■HM pHBci|ili\ t« «ait booka vr |iaia|>hl«t« of oth*r tititt. To fbl>l iMvl* fur as «vUT0 
book,(tbr«>tDa*«mtMaarcr«)i>iiyil, vit.: fin)l,lortiJdili«ili4cl UilialfidM: xaondly, 
la ikiiibia It at rlalit aiib1«: and tliirdlj, M dinibla it •gain at riHitt wU* to llir lad 
MiL lu t>wi iiueluii* l&«M moTotaant* are effected by Uim bUiUaur Knivoi^ whioh 
■t*fii«in*il wilb MriBtad odfiM, to jiravnoi tlM> |Huicr >liptun([. Th«bUd«*ar«alIu«d, 
■t an« (mL t4 t^iianU tb*ft« or if^iadUa. whldi iiimunan.)au>l]r jwrforiB jwrt <4 a 
nrolu^ii in (nth** diractloD altvr&atol)', aod wi oaiua tlio oalvr («il of («<b blada 
t* d«acrib« aa ar« of nbont tli« bottb pftrt of a uitviv : and lu iIl« ocIIihm cf tlia 
knirM ar« aJnullMioau*, (bo nwiefaiae aantaiiia Ibrcv tJiMti, ia diffumit AlaltH of pco- 
fnt»ipD al Ills aama tiam, TIm (itiMt of iMper » laid on a horioHilBl pUlform, in 
•neli a (HnilliM (kat tba flnt blad* in dwocndinff will oono act«M Uiat fMl at Uia 
papar *1i«ra tbo flnl fold U lo b« rrcada. — ilraw tli« ahMl tkrougb a alot or opcMog 
tnadc in t^« {'l"'^'"'"- ""'' ■^»''J' 'I duwii iuto a nairuw Tortl<aI pMMne, oreMnbct! 
Mr wbidi ninnt il will b« foldvil in lniK. mid lull ia a vertioal [Hwition. Tlio avcoM 
liUdo ( wliicb ribraUa tii a liorixoiitiil |>l>ii<t\ lti«ii vijium in conlavt witli Ihr cnolral 
part M tke doQbl*d Bliacl, and foltia il Ht llint I'Uil. Ii}' drawing it iiilo a<unrri>w koci- 
Eontal poHag*. — Iniviag aiMh fuld in n line at rigbt aoftl** to Ui* Terlitnl paMi^ 
Tbv tbird Uade (whii^li Tibrat« in n vvHiiral plunc paraUal to lh« fint blade) draw* 
t^o ifavoL dovn B Toiiioal paHOgc, u> u ts fold it i^ain, and bring* it lu a pair «f 
variJcNl tlalivvring T«lUr«, wbieb pou il from (b« nuKhinfti Aoenracj iu Uynu tjio 
■hoalB «|>o(i llio jHatfonn I* ioiiut>i hf an arraoKoainiit, ooa«i*linK vt a ibort a-l/oita- 
bU aUaiiilit fin Mt paralUl lu iliv tint blodiv and «f a pnilcclii^t not, lul in tho 
a*B« parallel litifs Tlu atlcadaiil, who le<<d* tlm niaaliiiic, tatM hoU of tlin sliaot M 
Ibo tint of tt>« lott^r-prtai^ aad tbn* Uj'b IV iin tiiu iilalfurm in micb a nuun#r that 
bir* 6nK<«v t«me in eontaot with llic Blraiglit-cdits and nob.— whvrvby tlie central Um 
«f Ibo abMt will ba caimcil to lie exactly ortr Ihc mdImI alnl in lew plalfunni tbe 
tMiilioo of tlio nob alao tnditatoi tliv pi>tDt wlici'i tlio i-amrr ol iIk lcttor^>rc» ibould 
bt, In ordoT llmt tli* *u(i*«c|iM«il f<>Idin)[ in Ilm i>p|«>»ilc ditntioa may bv aocuratWy 
p«tfforni<^L I1ii« ia a T*ry ingcajout and <Aioi«nt oontrivaooe, and ia «tJI dtMrviug 
tlia aUcnliun it buvkbindcn. 

J'ufiM AmJu. — A srlf-nplin^ mniiliifia for pacing book* lUid numbering doounienta 
WW Bxliil>tt<J liK>I'--"rii. \^'rii>;i'Iow A ^ua, and bIiovii in opttnlion. Ai thia «law <^ 
inaaliinisbni'ufkLc coioo iot« oxtcnaire iWAOwiTT" ■-' <li" "mtcrtion wliicli i* afforded 
to tbe i»>f<.'liaiic and tlu tradewnan by Ilia c«n>< ng of aorouiit aaJ ntbar 

ina»nMri|>l bouhi. It may bawati to<<xplain lli*i;- Lrnrltuiiuf lli>> niuoberinff 

•pfwralua^ and it4 imxloof oparalion.inor«««p«viaIl>'aiiil fomiinninip'ittnnl a^jmM 
la W i l l ma'blim wliicb weclinll bcrsafUrkavoooraaioDtoiiDlipci The nutaborintf ap- 
panlii*(»<*<i(Ucf liTcdiaM^ wliidi areraoTidod witlinJ«cd6gurcaon diHr pcrlpuorT', 
mnali'if flora I, V.1, An., toOi nndtliEa(nurM*crr«(lik«)ott«t-pr*aatj-|'u)topiiat tlio 
nanibrn r<>qtiiici). THediuwamnodntcd at llieontoroodof aTibnitiBcrruiio<>r arm 
no n <<:-<iitson iliaft, l» wbioli tt:>fir*torunila<liiuiia pwmanrnll)' Axi'.d; nsd Ihculhor 
foui ilitci (lii.. (Iiotefnr makinK iPBt. liundrrdt, tliounandi^ and tuni uf tlii>uMnd\) »n 
uiMinir<l Inotrlv llivr^-nn. f tliui tli«j ntoil iiot, of nwMiitly, niuva nhpii Ihe tlia/l it 
rotatiiiui but iii<:vur«ii(>t'i:ra1l^i^iinurd iainur« in tli* f(iU'>wiiii;nr4pr:—4liotcnBdia« 
pfrfamtaDP-lHRllioj a ruvniiili'xi f<>r vivry ruvolutiou of tho aiiita dix, aad *o<-i>. Aa 
lboi)iiMn«r from llie pai<cr ultiir every iiuprcuiDH, IliaaniUdBe iatnuixid lu iHirfana 
M»1*»ih of a revolution (in ordur that tbc next nnnbcr priaWd mn,v tm a mi it u:rMl«r 
lh«n Uxe prweding oncV by a driving cli«k takiag inUi tlio ii<«,iti Jl a niclift-whMl, 
Axed on Ibo left liniw] end of tlio thnft. Thir nnreineut ■•( tttu nllior die:) ia tSacMd, 
at Interralii, by ntfnai of a aprlnc-oaleh. afKjud to the fide uf tbe nnila disc and ro- 
talin/ iK.'rcwitli ; wbieli ealeli, oovh lima llial tlie anilB di« (omplctc* a rovelullaB. 
b rii: t''^'j'^' '''■'" <"' 111* iniivr •iirfnivurtheTibratinK fniRi* lu piej'cl beliind 

0»* i liituiv- OH til" tun diio, und mitv il miind oii«-tf iilli uf a rrvoluUoa 

o*l<<' ' ' I- ••' nl-if till.' lUiitaJiKtiikiiijt plucn; ml rTiTi. tTi- -|it li liaifnj[ j-iiiiiiiil 

■way r".r" Hi' [it>yc-lii>o. no fuTlher incT*nid 111 tho iiiiiiilwr iiti|>rii>tr'l In tlie tone 
diM will liv T'T'vlf i until tliuimiladiaobaa pfrformwl anutlicr rcnl'ilii^. V^vcrvlime 
UiBt lb" I'M diw oMaplvtoa a reTi>lii1ian, llm ■|iriiii(-niiiili mam the buadrel* diM to 
novo (Wward ono-tentb ol a lavolntl'jn, an<l limilur uiovMnruta ace ini|iannd to tba 
nnalaiat; diw* at BiiitabU lini*a. TU* ikift la prevented from EDovinx on>«pl wImm it 
b ut«>l OB b}' tlio driving alM. bj> a apriag detent, ot pnll enlorlnu tb* Aoh^ !■ 
V«i-U. 



10 



LAO, LAO DYE. 



the omjiherj ^ a whr'l fltwl m Uib ri)[ht-hMid t»6 et Um •taaH; ud ibu Ih* (U«| 
iireldil •!' ' ' ''•-'(•t. lod R rl(«r nnd ovoi lapraiMda diho (iffi>"*^M 

oiWur<il I ' '■»k to tii> TMftoJ vr ntiialiorAd or* Iniil ou Lbr r»ibi>l|idH 

of <h' tnlitu -^ :i N. , .dvt-rrid vrtlli raUaaltxl Indta-niblMr. wul ■• *>Db (agt'lP 

uumb^rM It i» tiiriivil «vpr by lb« MUodanI, «o •• la pM*<nl ■ froili paga *ii ihoir 
ufit ilfitMcit. At ihv dim »Nnd >ift«r nimbtriaf «Mh T*l!^ ■■■ inkiiiK ■t>|>nraluj 
|<vm-ii>liag^ «f tlin^ rallun. MOnalMl in > tvini; fnim« nnil reToliini; to contact «iUi 
fdi'I] "lllfr. to *• ii-> (liurilwln tti<> ink vliirh ii fed M Ihc lirat roller BTaaty *• Ui lli« 
third or Int.': i- <l ink* tlie fisuNa irfautt on Wba braagbt inla m- 

tlon vli*n ''■ I' nrtldfHfML RvUiiaMMaibookiordomiBMili 

taty ba nil.' ....jin-MmtiraBDmbgrw: far priMingdiipIJcBUiKtauf nvia- 

btri. a> r-T . -Imiifaand laynriaicmilriraiiatwdiipl*-!- Tliit i^oniiMs 

in lli>'-'n[ : .i'.:«nnlrBtcti(iI-wh»«I,«rUohl*aet«daDbvUi*<lriviD|(olkk 

'1 'W i-aliiiiil-vlivi.-l abavo fnmtlansiL nsd ■• prniidvd villi n likv nunikcr <J 

' >' wh*«l. tint Ih* diameter of ihn R<lditi«a«l nichcvwiwvl !■ ia*t*u(Kl m 

■itE':ri ni ilii! (o'Ui b«ln^ m rrrmcil Ihat tha driTinf: oliek vill lie Uipr«l\v licU baok 
&<nn pnotnCt rilh cTct^ idlvriintr liiuthurthe fintnienlioa«d im<<b«*>'wbF*l ; aiidltiM 
lli> ■■^.ii.-.rfitjit ofthc nmnbunnii dim tritl rtnurin unphanged. togir*, oa thpir>nt 
<I ipJrcatfl i*i[>rtMiiiD ottb« aimbar timiouil; jirintnl; bue,oiilli*r*iuc«uid- 

i! ii':<Db(tiBK ■p^ralnn, llio dick will act oil a Icutb of Iwlli nUkt4-*lM4)a, 

ir Ak rorward on*-t''ntli of a rtvalutlan; and n< tli* iliiUl »ei>ai»|>aiiW tha 

1 1 «h«*l In !t«n>»vrm«DlM. th« auiD)>fr wltl «aii*f^u«Nll}' bn <luuii«d 

.1 - 11..: :.r .'iCn. alM exhibit ■.hI n pnuing iiiiK>h!u«, iJi* (afahtliliMof vhU 

>' I ''. but nam«vha( difffnTiitlir oblaiiurd. Thi> aiinibaKiigi disotlC 

111- 1 iii-i .ni . ,>i. j.ri Liil«4 with ten tt<Ah. with nruitod figure OBiheondofaMhlAoUlt 
and liieytcrrivt ilie «fa«iig* iBotiap (rma <Q^-wliccl>moiwladlidowlli«ni «■ IbeMmB 
frawf. Ai <M':li .Icw^nt of lli« fnaat a itatlonarv «pria)t«nicli or hcwk-pJcM dttvM 
I'liutrd the H'IkcI iin« tonth. Uint gnn into tliA iMlh of Iha iiniti di». and th«r*bj 
i!Dn*i-> the aiiiN dW In briiiK forwat^ a frtuJi flifunv The toatlinl it)>db14 arv aomv- 
what imnrowiT I'lan Ifin niiIDb<<riiiicdift«. nut Oii« tO"lh of i-Brli ■'liDct lipiiUrttud 1*I«- 
nKy to nf-"i( .l.mM.- i|i« tjxr of tlio Oilier tpelh; «' IhM at tlio i-i>tii|ili'l»n at ertty 
niv.<iii'<i<<i . ■' Til - nlttd iIk proJKlini: looUi thnll avl uiian n totilli of Utv arxi difc, 
-■ Forward onu Ipnth of ■ rr vnlulion. liy iJiii nipaii* tKo r<<i)uirila 

II'- dicM for tffrotinii tli4 r^ltular prDiimaion of the BiiRibiin nr« pn>- 

ilu^-i-l . LIx' llr*l wlir«> drtvin]; it* owd dlx:. and oouimtiRinalintt ni'illon al inltrvM* l« 
Ihv iiirxt iliiv, and tha iilhtrr vhvi'l* rath rvi-'ririex iiiolion nl liiliriali from lb* dita 
with vhich it if cnnnMtcd, and InLimnilting motion, al •till gr«atur inlirvnl* o( lime, 
i» the ncil dii^ • 

Tlir aaiehin* i* muod lu prtnl iba 6pirM in dnpliealo br draviniftba tpring-Mtch 
om of OL-lion al •'■fry Bllemnto diiomt cf the fram^ an'd ihcrtby proTtatiBS any 
nhknur «f tha Ajarai lakinc ptii<^c until aAit tho nnX iinpr»iiiia. 

Th« nninhi'r* nmy ba lMr«n*nl twn iinlu at t-ti-h iiii|<ivMi(in. to a* t» prisl all f TM 
orall o-ld BiimlH^ by brln^lai; a ■vdoih) »Ich inl" adtinu. whivh 'laiuwa lb* «nit dlM 
10 •dTEtnoo e*^ al^'diirinic Ihe nMffidlnB movftiiMil of Ilia tmin(\ in oddltloo tol)i« 
•dnwiM dnHnc tba dtMwnt of tke latiH. — 'AVvion'i Jounuit, xxxriiL 43a 

LABRADOHrrK, ofalinc, at Lahivdotv feldtpar, Lu* btaulUU inional, with hriUiHrt 
(bauin* colim, Mnr, red, and tiem, &c. >>pcr. Rnv. S-70 la 2-7fii. Seratohe* cku*| 
•flbrd* no nicT by calciaaliou ; fniiildi; al lli'- blevpipe into a Ihalhy brad i lolDtila ia 
lauiialic aeid | Mlalkm oflbul* a copiDm [irreiidlnte itiih uxalate of DsiDionio. CImv- 
a^ al' 93|* and BHJ' i one af which t> brtUiaat and peaily. lu eonititueati ai« nika, 
SB-'ai al«inina.2S>ft; Ume, II; *oda,4; on^of iron, l-2ft; water. 0-S. 

LABYKIKTII, la mecallargri OMMna • lortta of maal* dlfiHbuuid in tha wqurl of 
a tiai»jiiiu!4nlll : Ihrvaah which eanab « stiram <it walw la ttnii«inin«il for mtpMid- 
inv. ntriyiue ciT, and deponltiny, nt diffarral diitancct, lh« pvund om. Sec Mtrai^ 
(:i>ai.v. 

LAC, LAC-DVE (£«(«ft Pt. I lo.:*, Zorfr/ortfa. Gctiu,). ShV*-teii prodoeed bj 
the puaMuie t.( n pecaltar leinile inacci, ollol rocrui lacr^a at jtcat, upon lim lii-anelm 
oT ipvnal plaaU; a* Ibe fleiu nUgiiita, lh« firm indiat, Uio rftamMu mi^Aa, Die (ToMa 
latt^fintm, and lh« Mtm /nmioia, wbkh grow In SIbu, AtMin, P<«n, Bcniral, nnd iM- 
ohar. The twit tvirnnm th«rtby iacraslM with a Rdi&h manunclattd itdn, haring a 
cryMoUinr-lookinir frnPliim, 

Th« rcmnie Inc ituevt ia of the aiiB of a Ioum; i«I, ronnd, flat, with IS abdomEiial 
circlet, a untreated tail, anleoa*, and 6 tiawii, half lh« leneth of Ibc body, Thr nalo it 
t«k« the oboTC tlxa^ and hat 4«tns»i Ihtvf U nn? of Ihein ta 5000 frrsalr*. In Novas. 
buer l>t«tin)bi*r tbf jpowif brood maktt lit nca pi- from Ibr ffip, l)in«beneilb the dead 
bofr <^ th» noahtri thtj crawl about a little u-iy, and lail«n ihemuUii to tbc tark of 
the thtuba. Abuut Ihii pt^riod the bmuchu otti-u twaim to *ueh a dc^ee irilb Ihia vo- 
am, ilHit ibey «rem mvcrcd with a red dust) in thlt eotr, Ihcy m a|4 (« dif 
*r being exhamied tS Ibtir Joirm. Mmtij tit ibnc lootctf, bawevur, 



''^ZZ^ 



IrfcrttrtCAi. Table of Ltc-I>irK and LAc-Ljixr^ ppr Ikvot of June* WDkinua, Eiq- 

of LodenliaD (Ired. 





iBpOd. 


Eipon. 


lt«H 


PltM 


Su*. 




lb. 


lb. 


fl». 








IB09 


3&3 




none 








1803 


l,T3a 


none 


■cebiiDt bumrd 








IftM 


031 


. 










l«W 


l,9»T 












ItMG 


M*» 












IMT 


3SJS0 












uoa 


S,T31 












iBog 


Mjaa 












1810 


239, IH 












tSit 


nT8,»3A 






• 






IBIZ 


I9II,2M 












1K1J 


1S9,«U 












18M 


3T8,8M 


I^OTl 


I33,9» 








1815 


50«^ 


IM41 


137.916 








18IS 


3Cun 


27.412 


183,814 








1817 


38I.1KI9 


MvWl 


S34.7«J 








ists 


ai3,5T2 


32,079 


323,t» 








I8I» 


I7B,MI 


21, TOT 


I0-,0«3 








ino 


44l.4ft() 


4»J19 


S-'£,»U 








1811 


6II,7IU 


9I,ȣ9 


322,»1 








lait 


87S,MT 


»,a7S 


349,3$! 








I8ZI 


atiisa 


:3fiS0 


4]4,7H 








18S4 • 


6M,S«> 


53,813 


483.339 








t8» 


5IMO 


ei,$09 


S8dv7U 








I8M 


7«o,n» 


«8je03 


39^806 








l«Z7 


756,310 


76,R75 


448,370 


19 4 


ii,a3« 




I8:» 


513,874 


61^9 


397,857 


13 3 9 


II.IW 




ie» 


47^832 


39,344 


433,851 


13 S « 


i],ni 




I83D 


034,341 


7i*/l99 


a4&»6» 

591^ 


9 3 3 


1IA4 




tS31 


»i3,a«t 


1J&,717 


4 2 R 


12,659 




1831 


9n^o 


69fiAi 


S»l,155 


4 2 3 


n,4W 




18» 


33C8H 


WMJ 


4S8^ 


9 8,4 


11,4117 




ISM 


V»fiSi 


89,229 


3M,83S 


11 2 4 


ll,ftH 




18U 


a>8,5«l 


VAMO 


stvm 


11 3 


10,4M 




18K 


fita,4M • 


500,876 


e. IJ.fi IS 


10 4 


9r4K 




isn 


1/111,074 


133,9^9 


r-'T.sw) 


) 3 9 


8.7B0 






Tl 


e stodt Inelui) 


M l^ttO chMb of I.«e-Ukc 







LmDw^ DBumm^ mo Siwn «f Ioc DTta. 



Tw. 


I— M. 


IMn.1,4. (wk In^tHMV, 


lBl>M*B»triai 

la IS niDDUa lill 

l*« 
IMS • 


4*4 dial* 
OM 

Tin 
tm 
nw 
inr 


4T4I TTn 

4««f tm 

*IN KM 

KW ttll 



Xhc iniirkcl priMs un Sth Jan. IKSS «at# fniai Sd (« £*. 44 pvrlK 

LA<,'i:lt; A< 'Ii> cTjulktlioH. tun ■ winc-7«lluw color, a Mur ImI'^ U tolaUo la wnWr, 
kiroli' ' ' ' !i T, 11 VM cKlractnJ fivm »liuk-lac bj" I>r. Jolio. 

t.:\ < iio portion of •holl-lnc wlijdi I* InaolubUIn lioUInK Alcohol. It u brown, 

brill. < . lit, oonai»Un{! ot tfglomorauil |»tni«l«A liior« lik* n min thftn anj 

tiling; <!>b It i> tiiat'lvibU ill rthvT anil allR. It lias not hera npplicd tu unj ute. 

LACK itOBItlKET. Uitliorto tli« IUivimU of lUk, flax, vr («ttoD. iwcd lu Out «b*iu 
nr vai-p in iLe manuCwtOTO of lat« or nvl, have bom warpo^ or -nugod Ndo bj ddc, 
•nil In !)riii tUtd wound npon a oytinder, vhioh bainn monitUd nnno an iuli> or AaA. 
'I«livi]rt tlic vtkTti thmadt aaiocli nwib ofthooot la formed. Bjllit piitml«<d atrws*- 
»tnt of Mi. W, K. N«irt«o. vhatoror luov Ijv 111* dUruranoe In lli« r<m4Utiip4K>ii iflh« 
Mtcral llirt«dt to prodsM III* liibri«, (a «oi»|:>«rIiuo with nthw nurlioni of Iho warth 
(lie (jlinder will alwaya dcllTar tli« *ame ^UAothj i« leni^i of ««ab tliNod. Thla 



H 



IJtOE MASUFAOniRE. 



give! Hm UifrMBt iwonvMiicaM. AcMtdtog U> iIib pieMat innalinn. fercTor^ thrMd 

bobbia ii |K«vi>i«d hr rp)(ul>tiiig iu uaaloa; And llio* nch Rptralc ilirvwl cr 

BMbaFttllliraa^auif, wiiliuut jpcoateni orn, flaokb apo^Uf or Iru Un^tfaof wa/p 

- MV bo roquired t>tu Ux d«taili^ vlib flpiNi^ In Itntlem't LtitJim JavrmU, 

ht. itvl. 

LACK llAMIFACTURE. The pilloir-vaile. or beM-Urr, wlikl raraatr pn« 

tUMIinn to nnllilndM uT women in llicu on hniixo, biu, ia ihc prafms nT bc- 

tMHsi inneiilkm, bna anriy lupvnntnl hy the bubbiu-nei la«c, iiMiinraeliirtd ml Unt 

ham1-M««hine», ■■ Moekingi ate knii upon tinmrt, bul rmnllf bf ihp ("tci of 

ili-r oi nlMiu. Tb'a decuil ICUnie potwun nil lie ftii-ii^h antl irruliuiijt b'' Ih« 

t BudJuhim Ibcc, and I* Ikr aupniar id Ihcj^c inj'rcu to ilic |H)iai-i>ri mirl «Mp lac«, 

Rhich but piFCFdoil, and iu tone mennuc paT«(t tlio way fur tL B<'Miin-nri entj be 

Ffkid tu >un>a** FVci^ Mlicr bt«neb (^ hmian induain' in lli« tomflti inKvimii)- of it* 

■inachincfT ; one of fitber'* (polling AamM bciim ai moth bryonil the moM curious 

ychTanomwiet, la nultipUoIijr of ucchaiuTaJ deviet, oi ihst is beyDiiil a comvoQ raariing- 

jaek. 

Tbi.' IhtniilB LD bobbibuel late fonn. by ihot inlet ivutin; koA dcccuMniioa, legulw 

heM);Dnal bulei or metfie*, of o'lijcb lie two o|i|iQsiie uilei, ihe upper aoA under, nr« 

AcMled •long the biewllb of ibe piece, or at tight unglci la IW idvaao or h«nin'. 

gjj F'g. iMi fhcw» bow, tqr the miif>\m^ and 

liriMins of [he ibtT«da, the rv vaiar tii- 

liilod dirah ii predueed, anil Ihii ilic ic»- 

tuiv rewlls IVoin the oaiun of iKiec lep^ 

rate ku tt tkraids, at whkb one tri p«» 

eeed* dawnnnrdi in letpeniinc linrf, a 

leeoail *el piucpedi ftam llie kA Co thc 

nsht, uikd a ihiid tmm Ibc right to Ihe 

kA. both in tiauiing dirtclinii-. Tbeie 

oblique Ikitad* IwiM IbomMlie* n)iuid the 

Tertical con, and bImciom cncb^tbcr to- 

twiit ibem, in a peculiar niDoner, wUtk 

mny be readily nnderKno) by exanlslag 

the repn^ientniian. In Goiniiuing bobbin* 

net trllh a commnn vrb, Ihr |H-i|icldlcuIu' 

thno'lt in the ligittc, which ore panlld ut 

the bolder, mny be rcicauM na ihe wai;^ 

and Ihe two »rt9 «f tloaling Ihrtadt, at the 

wvfl. 

Thne war)t Ibttadt nte exiendpd up and down, iu tbo otiEinitl movnting of ihe piece, 

twrvn a lop and bottoni hcitixuDial roUtr or bcua, of which one li ralln) the wary 

n, and ihe utiier the lace beaci, bcvuiaw the wvp and fiaiihed lace nie wound npoa 

n rc«i>Hiivvly. These ilraichi warp Ihreada icccite llieir eaiitortion Troin (he trTuiui 

he win thmda IwiitrJ obliquely round Ihem alleiBtli't) Id llie figYA and Ibe Icfl 

il. Wtn the warp Ibreada w Uthlly drawn thai Ibvy hecnme influililr, MJet 

\iintt, Ibra ibo lace wontc] n»nine (be ■tpcatonce ihown in fig HA ; and 

;fc this madiUon don nul teally enat, it uar actve to itliulnte the alructur^ of 

..eh. The warp Ihnada tcand in the poiitbina a a, a' o', and o" o" | the one half 

thc wen i>iocr«dii in the dirrelton h bybl), and ii'; and ilie umiid cmuo the 

fliv tn ninning id the <tiiecllun r. i, m 
t tf, towariL) ibe oppculir tide of the laV 
ric. If we piintui the palh of a wcA 
thienil, we Ibid it son on lill it reacha 
the Diiliftiniiit or IbM «at[i Ihreiif, which il 
Iwbti olwul ; nol on«e, ai «iih ihe olhtn, 
bill twice: and ihen ^luinin; l^iinilda the 
elhu bolder, prococdii in a rercTH direc- 
tion. If ia tor that double tivbl, and by Iha 
relnrn oflhe weft threndr, that the •d*a|e 
b made. 

Thc ordinary material of bobbin-nel ia 
two cotton ynrot, of from Noi. 180 1» Ko. 
SM, m'MtA iaio otn tliroad \ but mwc- 
lime* tlronicly iwialcd linitle j-am bat be«n 
■wd. The beauU of Hie fabric dtpcndi 
upon tile qniUilJ of thc malciial, a* well a* 
Ibe icpiUatity uul MnallncM at the ninkca. 
Thc nnmbci' of watp Uifoada in a yani in 




CACE MA.NUFACnniB. 



tt 



biMAh blVm6M U>900; which a tuoivabnl to from 90 !« 30 w a* iDFh, The iiIm 
at lhi> Mfo fMsnM b« naMljr lnl«tml Iniiii tIM nrcsnuUnoc, ni il imui» pull/ upoa 
Ike oU>,iiu IrwtiiM of Ike Iknwln. The brisdik of the |iKce» o( lK>bU>-iwt rariM 
QoM nician of ■ qavlcr of oa iikck, in wcte 1%, or eren 20 auaiun , that ih It raid* 

ll»Min-ai>l tace U niaoslheMrcJ by M*aa« ti tci; cottlT and coaplkalcn idmUow, 
CilM framtt. The Usils oT ihii l>klioaaiT ">" mloul or on cupliuialian oj* no Bote 
Uu Ih? ueniral prinf ipha tf Ibe BUUliMtuiV. The UuiMb iiir ctotalDg and IwWas 
Touad the warp, beUc iverioiulr gHMJ, (bat u. Tend fhiin Inwe flbccs bj tJACtani wUti 
pa, arc wuiuu rounJ umU |)uil«]n^ oalM babbiat, nliicli arr, irlili UU view, dcep^ 
froovtil la (hWf ptniiherf. f igt. MB. SMt uhibil ilw Iwbbui aluni;, and with in cairlagt. 





la 1W Melios of lb» bobbin a,fi$. esi. the dnp iroore it abovn in which tke Ibrr*! it 
mMnd. Tltc bobbin eomixs of iwn ikln dim of teaaa, c»l out la a >UBp-|tfem, in lbs 
■MtdilkorFichDfwbichlhereiaalwUuwBpacec. Thoediie^anirivcWil locrthci, iMTion 
Ml Jaln-nil hi-ttrrpn Ihcir edce all nranil, In aiileh Ibe tbiwad ii euilnl. Tb« tonal hate 
hi Ih' c^iilrir. Willi ihn little notch at la|i, invca Ihr ipittlnf Ihvm u|iea n (ccilhwcd nd. 
in ufdrr to hp bW/rA with thread bjr ihc rotaiion of thai tod in n spocia of rrd, *alM 
Hie bobMn-DUInc maotaiMh £wh of Ihmo bobbint (about doobli- tli<: auo of Ik* 
B^iaiv), b iMcmed into the <naM (pate c, «f the earrioco, /ir. gSG. Tlil* it a woall 
bna finne (alM dooblo the >iM of iIm fli|iu«>, which, m t r, rmbmciri tliF nnoval 
bontrr of ikc bobbin, and bf Ibp \attt*ttt! of ihe ffrinit at /, iitevenii ii fiom lilltng ooL 
likli tprio; •cTTM bitewiie to apidjr BUlSciml friclioa to Ihc Iwbbin, en u lo prevral ll 
Ihim nirtnt; off It* Ibnod at f l^ ili rolaiinn, unless ■ ectlun noall force of uaction ba 
tMpki<ii<l I'pon Ihe thrrad. The f^rriliBmr zn*ere A h, •iinlc in i-nch tatx or (*k ef 
Ihe outiave, baa the lUfith ihown in th« iieclian al h. Thin xrocnf'cnnBpunli to th4 
tatcrral bvlnen the tMlh of iha oomh, or ban of the boll, in wbkh each oarriagtc it 
tdaefd, an>l ba* ila motenivni. A |<orlion of IhnI bull or ocmb la nhown al «, fig, H3T 
m >i*n> and one bor of a eirralsr bi><t nmcliino ai b, ia ■cetioo. If «t wppoM <w« 
•adl toaiti* or botu plscnl wilh iIif' eodi of ibe irr'th oppui^ie tB<h uih«r, biM a UtUe 
apoTt, to kl the wnrp llimdi be icrcWibed, In one viTtiical pJaiuv beltrvrn Iheit ondf or 
lips, we than hava an Idto of the skelolan of a bobbin-nn uiarikine. One of lh«M IKo 
oomb*, is Ihe ilcnible boll amehine, ha* aa oeeaaiooal lateial (ESTtineni oslled ff^otgiaf^ 
•qiMl to Ike inlcri-al of one lootii or bolt, b)r which, nA«r it ha« meitcd Ihu bobbing 

with IJicir cnnlacM, Into ila (e«lh, It 
oan ikift Ibal •Blttinl to ibe one 
udfv and thenfcr m Into a itoMlxs 
to rclirn IW tobUn*, with lb«lr 
oaniaiini^ luo IW next mnt* vt is- 
loallc** or RBim, tn Ihv otbrf bolL 
Bj tbM mean* lb* whok Hiiet uf 
oarriaccB icecltos miweSHVv ijde 
tfefa to the rishl In ono boll, and (a 
Uie kd ta the other, o u l-i fn- 
Uam a ifecio* td' coiuilcrwaich, ia 
the ruuno uf which thr^ nn nade 
to crou and twitl loixid about the 
terlira] warp ilirvadi. aad Ikii* to 
fom Ibv nMliw of lb« net. 

Tbc aiiiobcr cf moTcuicnt* la- 
quired to Ibna a tuw of innhea b 
U«tloDb)«lkr BaeMoe, iteiii,ia ■ 
Ihnse with two conibt or ban, and 
X row* «f bobbiu, I* aii i tbat h 




IS 



LAOS UANUFACTL-RB. 



IbBwbnltoTlbKMnlagn' (wUb ihm bobbiiu} pmb fromciM buwoaiob lo tWatbet 
«ia UfflM. during «tieb mmmw Hi* rfUhtoU dirisioiu of bobUn aad waip Ihmdi 
Hm^ tbdr tPblit* potiUDM 18 Uoio*. ' 



TIlU islnrhaiiKe m Inmsiag of iIib Mrriacn vilh liirir boMnni, wbkh t> tha i 

MRcull IhinG lo rTi|>lnin, but »i tlv« ninv tlint Ibr mMl ««*«&tU pnneipio i^ iIip loe^ 

BMUne. Jna) be luknibly well undentuxl b; a ciitrAi) Uvdj oT /r. ttt. in wliicli IW 

123466789 

U8 



Fin 
I . 1 


i 


.1. 


I 


i 


11! 






'W 


Hull 

iff 


"ti 


T- 

M 




1 


[■■■ ft 


f 



■impk line | reprocoti Ukc bolu ot tmih, the ;ign f Ilie bock Uuc of cairu^^a, mad tJi« 
dgn f iIm ftoai Line cf cwrUsM^ ii in the Traiil eumb n bolt bar, ami ■ the bock Mt 
mi. The foriaw ramaln* alwap ^**^ "< tuliunaijr, tu neriT* lbteiUTi«3*t uihcynMT 
b* pre*cnttil lo it bjr the uliiiititiiv of the Inlier. Tltnc MUl if alwayi one odd caniafe 
U Uie end ; Ihr ml bcinit in pain. 

No. ] lepreienu l3tt nrriai;<^ in lh« Oont eomb at bar, the old earrinte Mac al Ike 
kA Mil. Tbc back tinr of urriagei U firft moved on (o ihc back bar i, ibe o4l 
earrinte, u urn in No. I, haiini; bem left bvhlnil, ibcre being no Mrriagc oppoMI* ta 
drii-t il oirr I'l tlie othar comb or bar. The earrian then ftand ac la No. 3: The b«r 
t now *hiA« 19 ilie Irft, as (town In No. 3 1 (he &onl twriagn ihen fo ma Into the 
(ack bnr iif cnmh, ai b repmrnud bjr Nu. 4. The bnr i now tliifti lo thv riatit, and 
Itim the pMilJun Ko. 5. Tlie front eormsB bit Ibca iliJTen orer lo the IWml bar, and 
leatc llie «U earrnce on (he back bar at the riabl ead. for the tame ttoaoa u bcArt 
doKdboJ, nnd ttc earrio^ci Hand hi ibawn tn .No. i>. The bar t neu ihill* to tkc lUt, 
and Ilie cuiiuget (land ai In No. T (tbo odd eartiiute being ibercbf en the back bar lo 
Ibe lett.) Ttir baek cHrringM now oome over to Oi» front bar, and ttand a* in .Vo. 8. 
Tile imk bcir ur tninh I khifl* to the n>M n lera ia No. 9, whieb complete* the trarciM. 
The vliul'.' riMTstttf with iheir bobbins hnrr now cbanited thrb pDaUan. a* wiU bt se«a 
hf <ompnrini! No. !> with No. I. llie odd carriage, No. I ^ has ndtoneed one >top IA 
Ike rigtil, nnri bav lii>.-ome one of tha llroni lieri one «( the back tier or Una « bu 
•dwietd one vi-p tu ihe kit, and ha* become the odd earriace i and one <<f the front 
««(■< > has qune oier lo the back line. The bobbins and carriaKei throuirlioul Ihe vbote 
widlb of lta« DUehine hare thiu eroiaed meh oiher'i couth, and completed ibe nuah oif 
ael. 

Til-! eania^ea with their bobbio* are drfrcn a ctrcnln wn; 0am Ihe one conib to tbc 
other, by the iirasnte of two tani( bar* (una fWenoh) gilnen] aboiv Ihr Icvi:! of the eomb, 
■■HI Ibcf ecunc into tiich a fKuilion that their proiFdinv beeli orealdiM ii,fit. I!li,ar« 
■»Tcd «ir bf ivo nilirr luag fliit bu* below, callnl Ihe locker plalef^aad Ibeteby cnrricd 
oenpleielT n*er the inteml bciwven the two eombK. 

"ntn are kx dtllurent «y«emt of Inbbia-nel madiinea. 1. Ueiihcoale's paleni 
Maohion. 2. Browa's tnveru viarp. 3. Uorlojr'a atnigbt bolt. 4. Clarke'a pusbft 
prinoiidv, *ingU li«e. & Liar cr'i moeliini^ ainale tier. 6. UorUy'scitvulurboli All 
thaalh«rs mn meta Tartatioiiii in Lbe oonctrucuon of aomo uf their part*. It ii o r«- 
narkabt* facl, liishl/ tionoraUa to Iho mwhaolMl Ju^taant of Uia luir Ur. Ubrlojr 
of Derb;. tbit no maehinM exeept thuia U]»n liii alreular bolt ptinciplr bavo Imcb 
fDnnd (Bfiabls of working •ncoeHhiUy by iDcchnnioal power. 

Hie virouUrbdtiBaobiM(eonb with cnrTodl«cth)waa uiedbyMr. MorlejT, foriaak. 
lnK&>rr»w brMdthaor adgiap of U«( inmieJiBicly after iiiGniC inrcntloD,an3it hw 
M«n rofularlj UMd bj the lrad« fur thai piupcua errr unoi\ in coDieiinenoo of iha 
tnfenlor liarlnf daoUnoJ to neauio tJiu moe«poly of it lo liinmelf by puleoit. At that 
time Ike Wkar ban for driTUix aunrn Uie carriogM had on ly one plato or blnd«i A 
raaehiD* •» momUtd ia aow ealted "Ihe wubIo look«r cireular bolL* Id tbeyear 
WU, Ur. Hurley added aiMtlicr platv to eupli of the hieker ban^ wliieh was a KN^t 
lnpnr«MMl on tbo nuwhiuea (or making plaiJi n«t, but an olMtruolian to lJi« nuiiing 
of lurrow hrvndLiu apoD them. Thi« macbine ii now dZiUngtuhtd froiu tb* fotwar 
by lit* Unn 'donlilo kKkor."* 

Araok oriaeo. iaaoertAin Uimthot work oount^d neiTKndUularlr, and contain* 140 
■nwlio* nr holoi. W«IJ.aMdo Imo hai the motliaa a littlo Joogatail In Uie dirsMion ol 
th« teUagn. 

• ITt rMlanTtmlHTilrTlnf ir-m' itf B-hHn nift in owtttellan vllh Uw niMtdMilltA 4«oMtaa 
i/lil*HrOiirTD9i)tAimwTeuur6aMtTBaR*j)i.* M<nIiljclcaromeopUaiatU*iuiar*gflBk 
InUIMU mnAdon Aar he bUmmL 



LAOnC ACID. 



IT 



TW l*fin notrc. In the lnw nanoAMiiTc, meaiu th« immhcr or mini iQ**, or in- 
ImticcK, to <«ii inrh i>r the boU-lur or comb i and eomsponilt ihrarfore In the aiiaibeT 
ef ioblrinii in *n iarb knrlk of tliir iliiaMc tiff. Tlmt, whi-n wi: 'n^ " eBai>c nl*e 
(NilnKi* w<! mnn IhMI thrrr Hrr' niiii- niQ« wi'ih ninn hubUni in out' ini-li or Ibc raok 
or (ah-lnir. VMit ef skIi bnbbint wilh ill mnia^ic it Ihcrclbre no mon.' llinn nn« nJMh 
«/ III Incli llilcb. The rommon |iniporlion or icaut« up nnd iloim the ina?liiii« if 16 
bolct in il"" inrli ftt Un tnbbios irninvcfHj;-. Clicnlar bolt donlilp tier nmdtinu «■« 
tarn oir by tlrua [uwer fully i6o mckt nch day cf tf) hour-, willi n rrlo; of MperiB- 
Koikats. 

The DuiBt«r oT new NNhaairal contriniaci^ lu vhkli thii bmnch of BMnubdait; hat 

BRn litp, ■( nllMivllWT unpatnllrlril Ld nnx ulhf^T di^purliiicnl of Ihp srlt. Sinof Mr. 
HUirot«'t Snl nioensfiit pnlrnl, in IS<X>. n e'eil mnnj' olbct imlrnli baVF bRrii irranWd 
fiv swkiag lAcc. la thv ytnr i)ttl, iMr. Morlcy, ihcn of Notilnzhiun. invrnird bit 
•tntRht belt ftainc, inner ^liiTitiir in <i3n<>ln]Ction, bflirr combinH, mict mvir: nuy in iU 
SMnm'^nti, llwn tlii? pHTi'fini( mnchinra; h«t iIibihocIpm imcnii" iliil (ml si'tuii; il, m 
he ncittlit hato dunr, hy pittnt. Thv iiiikIiit (nni;hiiiH wtu invpntnl in thv tumr jisr, bf 
Ehmufl Mart anil Jnmiri Clirk, alxi of NotlinKhimi. The followinc ytMt it mnitkatite 
ia llic bjnoer of Uir )*ce trade, for the jDi-enlian ef the circular biilt machine, bj Mr. 
Mortry — a ntrhanjim poMoiitng all IheadnDlBgnoT hi* Rtra%hl bolt maeUnc, villicmt 
tia diiHvanlAfc*. 

Neatly nt tbr uunc tlw Mr. Johr f.raTPr bronght I««vai4 the Ir^r machine, mo- 
joilltl]' iriih uiii- Tnilon, biilli of Hryl Rnitlurd, nmr NoltinKbam. Abcnil (he yoar lSl7 
or ISIS) Mr. Ilntlifute appliiij the rvltUiTj moTemement t» th« (imilar boll rnachia^ 
a*d moanlcd a maaafwttay on that plan, bj meAojiical powo', al Uroton, after he and 
Ucpartncr, Mr. Suden, hnd bc^a drii-en iTom Longbbonmgh, In 1810, by the atroclaac 
TMcnoe of Ihc fnunir-iUflmylnE I.iidiliUf. 

SKh Hm IrtTii the jiro^'tTM of iiHimiviimonl awl npooomv In Ihi* inanuftclaff,th>t the 
BMI of hWr ill iiiakini; « roiA, vhicli iras, twenlv yi-in seo, :t>. fief., or 42 |>«nc(v ■* now 
not iDDie than 'im? p<i>ny. Tlie pncn of thii bniiliful lobric ban Inllen in an aquallr 
icmatlcahle nocacr. At Ihc Ibnaer period, a i4 tack pKtr, fire (luortcn broad, fHdica 
t7l. Merlin;, In the vbolcmtc nuufcct ; the Mac i* now kM for :•. '. The «Mwami«ie> 
h, that in lace decoralion, the maid wrvnni may be nov more *u:ii|iIiioiij«ly arnyM tbrni 
btr Riii>t!f«i comld aHorl to bn tvealy yvari o^. 

LACI^ER, i> n (nmi^h, roaustinl! chkAy of a aolatioa of pola shellac in alcohol 
liniml wilh mlTrtin, innoll^, or other eoloria; moMei. Sc« Vakrkk. 

LACTIC ACID. (.Yfiit /luf/ijiK, Fr.j Milihui'irr, (hna.) I1il» acid waa dlKovcrcd 
by Schnic in buitemtik, wherr il cii't* mcul abnndniiily ; but It is prtarnt alw la (Mb 
BiBIt la nnall quoMHy. ami mmmiiiiitnie* Ii> SI ilie praperly of tt<l>lenin|t litfinm. La«tf* 
•eit any b« dMcctrd in ntl llip fluvis of the aniuuU body | rithcr free or wtunted ^Ife 
■Inliae maii'.-r. 

Scbetle iibtniacd this leid by erapontin; the «iir whey rf clotted inllV (o bb eighth 
part et iti bnlb, aaluraliai! thii remainder wilh ^Inlliit Time, in order la throir down Ihe 
(iibphDt{)luiIe of lime hcliTiTiaotnllan, liltrrinit Itir li'iTinr, ililutinj il with thrif il' wrighl 
ofw^i' < < ' ''<«lplt«t[ni! the lime cireain«tiecily> by the tradaa] additioa of nnllc *M. 
IT' :. I. fivnporatrd to drjantt nii a wnbtr bal£, and d)fall«d tba raaljiiiim 

1b k'.j . ., - . jI, which diitolved til* Initlu .-utiX and \*tt ttia amRor of tDtlk. Oa «VS> 
poratiiiiif <-ff !>"• ali-idi«1, lb* avid waa tdi1nl<>iil. A* tliiut prucnrrd. It r*<iiilr»t to ba 
porlfleil t.j- holumli-Jii willi eailwrifli* oDi.n'l (imn- wliit.- h'ail), and ]ircclr>ltaUnic tb* 
•"Inti'.u 'if Mx liiflftl* with ■iil|pb«lo •>( airi-. n-it n-idyd iti tiiV— t Snljihale ofload 
faUi. aii1 'bv I'liivmatont IxtaU' (rfthiv t-riii^c»|M>tnt«il affoMtrrvttal'i at fint brown, 
but • ' ' 

Uic 

wh«i. .. 
liw no'l ' 

Oi tbOBC *'i illLi. 

a)-!nh(il, Uiituii 'I 
hjriropn^ ^B■a.l 



< !Mrli!» oa being diMolrfl and rMrjglallii«if ta-ioaor thrKo^ If 
:h#dii>otrcdaalt be thrown down bv wat<r of barfta, tli« Unuld 
■pomtcd fialda a purs laftic aciil. of a aj-ropv roiulat'nr'e, oo1«r- 
It Iiaa a pungent arid tvle. which jl Iimui iiimiHt tnllri'ly wh<MI 
ill 'n-aii.r. It <i('M nut crv'talllw. It* tnti", with the exrviiUaa 
I uiic, ha>f n gtiuiiiiy >ppcnrane(\ and ore rrry aolnlMe in 
I rxsrn of l<Ase. Ltctic ■ciJ couii»l« «f 4 r91 e^rbon ; t'it 
;,-£'!'■ H contain* 9TI3 per efiit. of watar. It haa not hilharto 
tma a|>|i)ir>d to an; hm ia Ih* art^ *wopt b;- tb< TiutcJi la UmJp aid ptiM«a« of bUacb- 
la^ linca with Miit milk. Sto Foniavrtnox. 

AVw ivtAnf n/ jirrparity. — The followlag proe e <>i for ['roi'iirlnf; lni'i!i' oold and the 
ImjlBlta l> (o tini)Of. M to merit • ]>rerem)oe oter all uthern hiiNtofor* pronotBil ; 
il il aa f<1l'rv>: — "Tnke 8 or 4 (litre — I'ta pint) of nillk. into wliioa rou 
punr B "itiiiion of rrom IVM to SOU i^mtnca (cromtDC ■— • IS'isS gn, Tmjr) of 
BUtfar i>r iiulti; tho li^aor ia eipoacd to the air in an 05100 T«a*«l fcraonwdayi^ at 
> t«i»]fraliirv of froiii H^ to Qtl^ Fahr. ]t Will thai bo found to hafo bMotaa vory 
Mad, and ia to b« Mluralad wllli ble«rl>ouat« of aoda. AfUr III* lap** of U ai 
Vol.. U. t 




H hxf* it km M mi M ■gab ami, tai — * W Mt i li l — »». wphiw lh« |>«Mi% 

aiUWiailiiirinn -- -.■■ ■^- -=»■ ....>i,,. ||| h i| 

»[ lfc«li9wab>ttoh«atewwf—d«« i yw M iitelW»iMi^iM » <f>irwfc 

ilW»IWliiP | a i l wilw io JigtU. nanmt«cti<«raMnliMMUkMaB 

k W, «U«fc 4kMltM tba hctato of Mifa. late tkk iV -^ ''r aeUilM •■ 

ifvaMUI/afMlphnnsMUatoUpMrad; •'T-inhfniil|faJi iftmUha 

•d lb* hffiir ^ Htwlina uhI •■uomtiaB aCiwdi krfi* bM ■linil pta^ 

TW itiili it i» *»«1« M ^lol p^ty. itn>j be aktantad «tlb «Wk ; lk*lMUi«il 

ll ii t'ribM ik* iMti* mU naj W MlwaMd with ujr ediar bM<i aad aOanl bz^ 

LAOfoiriEat i» Uw nauw •< u laMraUDl (or olimliii^ tb* quGty of ■U. 
mIU4 alt* ■ i/a l t t -mt^ir. Tkt nort omrcqiMl (h» •( apfaMtu* vmiU Iw k 
Hti* «f ftwt taw* «a«k abgal I inch in Ji an wOr . a*d IB uobM l«a«!t, gradoatsd 
IfclWB f li ■ naca al 10 inohah to Untlw of aa iac^ haiiof ■ tlaptt h at tht bMIom, 
aa4 t|iMlii ■(•rtclit la a fra«M. Hi* bvmso ixDk a< Uw cow Maw poafsd i> to 
tta bauht «f lu tneW, m mmR b« Uw cnaui ha* all anyralaJ at bn l£a ihintaiaa i^ 
tl* tiadjr ma; )w incatsreJ bj Iht kkIs; and thra Uia 4kinwiulc naj ba nin af 
Waw (Mo a hj^ratadar glaas ia onla- (u dctcTKiM ila dooHlf, or ralaliva rwhai 
!■ MaaMB mMti, unl dtloiiM wiUh watar. 

LAII& r«d« Ok title ar« coapritad all dwae colon wkkh ccanM oT a rqvtaUB 
ift, atHttead ItT >na|*lBliia wilh a while taithj baii*, wUrh ia awwll) alaniaa. The 
fwani nottod oT |i|af«i8a ia lo add lo ihe aihni iafoiita a mIdUmi <€ cenapiB 
akni, v fuhn a •olatbn iiT alius talunicd with pctash, CffcciBllf wlKa the inAuita 
kaa bMM naAe with Iha aid af acMt. Ai inl oolf a th0\ ptecipitale Ihlb, conuHiat 
(ir alaniaa and Iheeoloriai mallni buinaddinf potaah, a coploca pKrifiiaiif tthw«^ 
dt Ihr alaawa MMoaled wiU (he dia. Whn U* d>« a/r nol iBJanrit bat are nilhcr 
hrMUacd bl alkali*, Ibe abore focna ia rctcnnl i a dtcocUco <£ Ibc dj^Miir ia nadc 
witfc aaa8iaUMliiaac,a*l whMiiiafit«ttd,a»DlMia*ara]ii»i»po«r«diatoiL n* 
ihlnl Maihod b pradkaUr onl) with aobrtaaM* hana; a mat abut; for iwbailpbata 
oT alumina i it coatiiu in a^italing rcotallF tncipOaUd afauntaa wllh iLc draocUaa «( 
IbadTV. 

FmVm* lofcu ■>• Made viih ■ d««clian oT Pmian at FVeacfc bcfriea. lo wUch tone 
POUahaa tola U ubbd; iala itw niutsrr a hIbUod of alwn !■ ID beMOrTd as loof at 
an; aracifilale &a*. T^ prr«i^late Bnut he Bherod, waahc^ aad focaanl iaio cain, 
ud iried. Jh lifca war he made la ihc n«w wajr wUli quctclUoa, laUnf Iba pmaaUDa 
tSfwrliiy ibe dceactiaii tl lUr dfr-tAwS with buUennilk oi rhie> Aftrr fikcnajt the lake 
II m; he WtblcBtd wiih ■ solution of Its. Aaaotto Inlie i* fanned b]r dinolrui; iba 
4l*4Wf ia a waak alkaline ley, ud addinii bIom wbIm lo the aolaiioa. GJntion of (in 
|0«W lUi lake a Wsm jtUow ca»i acidi a fod&h linl. 

Ai< Mcu. — The AmM of IheMr i> mrnnnr. 

TWt btaatilhl pimMM «a* aotakMally ditoownd b; a Fiwnoiioan nonb at Pita. Be 
(bnaol s« eilraci U oaehinMl with I4ll oT laitar, la ordrr to anptor it a« a ntfidii^ 
Ml nhiained, on the addilion of aa acid lo It, a fine nd precipllale. H«aihtn pnldiifefla 
a t«om* fur ptryatmE It, in 16d$. Cnmine ii the coloring laallct of ccchincal, ft^ 
painl br pieniiitaiKin from a deroelion of Ibc diwr. lu (omyNMoD tbiIh atouidiaf lo 
Iba tnoJa of makins ll. 1'be onhnaiy camlna in prppa r ed with aium, nnd eontnla of 
Mnnfalam (•n CocHiKKAt), b lillk aoliDal aatler, dnouna, and tnlphuric acaL 8m 
CoaMiKi. 

Va-mhaltd Ink*, callol lalu of Florence, rniii, ar Vienna. For innSiinE thii pigncwit 
Ulc li/gac ii umally oajitaftd which i* dc<nnted from l)ic ouinine procn^ Into Ihlii 
MWlf mclpftaMd ahrniiaa ti |-ul : ibt mixture I* ttirred, and heainl a lutle, Init not loo 
^(fc. WfwiMTvr ihe alumm* hut ahturhed Ihc oulor, Ihe uiiluiv ii aHowid lo teUfci 
■Od Ihc Uqaat ii dfBvn off. 

Btnatilne* alum i> diaiolvcd in the deeoetinn of oochincal, and potndi 1* then adde^ 

tlolh/avdown ihr alumina in coinbinolion with the coloring matte*: but in thi* way as 
tndilltmt |d(nwnt laoblained. Oecailaiiallr, tolutlon of Hn la«ided, m tfighten th* 
■tje. 
A lahv may be abtainad tt«m ketinta, in the aamc wajr u (him rochinnl i bat aow it 
to B i bhwa bad reoonrtc lo. 
ftari l waml UkM.— BraiU wood U to be boiled in a priprr qnuililx of water fer U 
■ia 111 ill I Ihtn. alnrn and lolaliaD «f tin beinit aildcd, il>e liiuor It lu be lllterfil, b>I a 
wlnUoa (d' potath ponrod ia at loni at It OMauona a pfcciiillate. TUi ia icfatatN b] 



I 




ir 

(ho WtTf, w«d)(d to pan w«Mr, mltnl viUi ■ Unit ^mn wittpr, and inMir hlo rakM 
' Or, Ifae Bra&l wood »»; b* boUcd aimtf with ■ linl« fincBir, die d^recbon Bttftpd, alim 
■■dnil oTtin •ddol.Bml lh«a pottnh-l«y ponrtidin la prtdpbaM (he Ukp. For 1 iwand 
■f Bmiil word. M to 40 iwnnilt orwal«r, snd IVam I) loS pounds <4*k1iu>, mvf be laktA, 
in pradufin; ■ cinp iH lake i or Ihe tninc prDportion* with half a pooliil oT wlMlM ■if 
lin. If tht F«M>I> hr sddcd in ficc», the lint will bMonie liolrt. Citvsi oT ur1«i 
Mcwiont « IkqwdMi cuI. 

MaidtT lakt. — K Bof Ictce maT br obMintd turn vitwUfr, br wathinn it in n>td water 
■■ Ion); Bi it ^m^ out color i th«n tj^nltling mom lotnlion oT tin over It, ond tellinR h 
ujde fnr loine dan. A stsUe heal mar alto be applied. The red liquor tnuit be Ihen 
anaMted bf the Bim, sad dcoonpoaed b) tbe addilioi] of caibonale tS ndn, aben a Ana 
red jiTMlpiuie will be oUained. Or, the leddWi brown eolortng mailer or a dMoetiott 
of muMer inaf bt flnt Mpanlfid hr aenol« of lead, and then the rofe-rrd color wUb alusL 
Or, madder linl up in ■ b*c i« boiled in vrairr ; to tlie dreoctJc<n, nluin it tdded, and then 
poUA. The pretipitale shuuld be washiil with buliii([ water, till il ceum lo linR* it 
I«llovi audit it UiFo lo bedtiird. 

Tlie fulliiwiiig n«ec« merits a prefereace : 

DillW 3 ptmod* oT iitonnd mndder in 4 qnutt tt wnier, anil aflcr n maaiaiion of lO 
ulMleti, nnln and fqnt*3C the gronnda in a itrrw. Keneai thii mncriniion, kt. twioa 
vpon ihn tamt portion or inaddet. ll will tww bavr n lltic rote enlitr. Il mutt then bt 
inii«d wiih .^ or ponnd) of wnirr and half a pound of brui*nl a)uin, and Ixntcd upon 
a water balh for 3 or 4 hours, ifilli llifl additioa of water, aa i[ pvaporBMi, aflrr whith 
the whole mtit be throon upon a Itltpr rlulh. The liquor whirh pauei ia lo he Gherrd 
Ihionfh par**! ■0'' "h"! rfecipiloint by coibonmc of poliuh. If the pola*h be added in 
thK9nicenil*e dote*, three diflprent lokei ivtU 'be ohinlned. tt laectialicly dfmlniahiag 
baiuK]r. The pieelpllatn Di»t be wn>,hn! till llir walrr comet olf tohtrkM. 

Mat IdJku MD urdly evr prernrdJ, dh tnd<ijc>, Hru^uin hlnr, cohaZI blur, and tillia<- 
BWriM^ answer evenr ptirpoiu of bJnn picnieiiUb 

Crtra UAn are niade br n miiiure <rr yrllow Inbra wiih Mue riptienl* i bntt^rama 
veHuwi mixFd vitb blue* produce almoil nil Qtv rrqniiile shade* m creen. 

LAMIKABI.F Is Htid M a meial whieb may be extended by pasnns belwtea He«l V 
hardened (ehillwl) cml-lron rolleri, • 

^□r n detciiplinn of inelal rolling gicetsei. fsr Iton and Mikt; and 

For * lutile of the relalivc lamina Ivlity <^ metalt, arc Dcctilitv. 

LAMIl'M ALEt'M. or the dead nettle, is said by Ifuchi to aflbrd in ill learn* 
fTTeoiih-yeliow dyr. l>te L. putpuremn dyn ■ reddish-graT with «all eS tin, asd a 
freenish tint with iron liquor. 

LAMPS dIAor *o miirh in prlitclplr, fonn, and enndruetton, nn to render iheir deacrip- 
tioM i)itpo>»iUe, as a wnen) tohjeri nf imnnfhelttre. In Ihei, Ih* ot'raiionn tf the 
latnplal, lilie those of |he binekpiniih, eobuiet -maker, <T>oppr, (vjiprrunlih, llnmnn, 
iwner, *e.. helooR lo a treotiie upon handirran trade*. I shall here, hownn-, Inlro- 
d«e« a labnlar view of the relative light and eoeamnr of the lampa moal cennall? 
faMwn. 



KMlsTLuipt. 


iDiiniii) "f HiM Annut 


M«anr 
T hiiui*. 


hiniF ■■ 


IMauti 
nlM. 




1 


* 


> 


i 


» 


• 






liirjf 


FikFhn 


he* ft 


t-'Vtt 


immt 


knn 




tnBibH. 






1, HihHiiical latnpoC 






















Caitel 














100 


4S 


SSS 




1. Feontain lamp, 






















1 and a ehiinney 


100 


w 


98 


97 


96 


96 


IS5 


II 


113 




with Hal wiek ' 






















3. Dome ar^nd 


103 


DO 


72 


CI 


43 


M 


31 


Sfl-7U 


116 


' 


1 A. Slnuinbra kinp 


102 


91 


113 


SI 


T8 


« 


K 


37- 14ft 


190 




ft. Do. with roonuJa 






















above 


100 


90 


70 


K 


41 


32 


8B 


43 


IW 




9. Do. with aaulhet 






















hcsli- ■ 
' 7. Gitwtd'ahydrouaiie 


100 


87 


05 


92 


89 


Sfi 


<1 


18 


sn 
























... Uiiip- 


IDl 


91 


S4 


81 


76 


70 


eaoB 


34-714 


183 




,1 TUkrin'tofPar. 






















Ifsknp . 


106 


103 


100 


94 


92 


90 


107-e6 


M-I43 


lie 























M 



LAiirS. 



to Ik tUtow labtc^fi* Ibe parftmcf emiafUg ihe nenHivt <lrfTef»«r nlMMM 
too i*|«Twnb llw mMA ikUiiMir iir Ugbl (bring Iki ini hMi. TV qMnlitf oCoU do 

fMWitiiy of Ufbc |«>ilaMd viUi « tilw otliiwp l ioa of oil, wliwh <nu ju all ciwn 1« 
fiftiuiiiM. S«B CJimiu*, 

Tkv follOKins Uiblr or tit. l>edM !• pcihaia nun ifiMtiKIIfc :— 



Kmw* (4 A« l«l«. 


lirtiBlllj. 




Cdi 


PMfW 

MdHlka 

■hI«Ii1 


. 

CkM 




•(l%M 

ft MU. 










/.-«. 


omtl. 


g'mmait. 


(nil. 


i 1. McdiMiiesl lainp 
t. Flit-wIck Rirfhan. do. 


100 


^l 


1-40 


5-8 


%2 


0-S 


12-03 


II 


1-40 


l-S 


es 


U-9 


3. II«mbph«iical dome 














lamp . • ■ 


31-0 


S6-714 


1-40 


W 


89-111 


12-0 


4. 9)i<iiir>br« lamp 


8S 


43 


1-40 


M 


n>^5B 


7-0 


(^ On. wilb ■ laloml Ton*' 














loin i/t nue • • 


41 


IB 


1-40 


^9 


43-M 


«■! 


0, Do. wiih • A>n»tatD 














atOTc - 


90 


4a 


1-40 • 


M 


47-77 


«-0 


T. GitajifH hTdrmiatlc 














huap ... 


ea-€9 


34-71 


1-40 


4-1 


stu 


^\ 


8. TMorio'iorPafkert 












laiBp ... 


lOT-ee 


51-143 


1-40 


7-1 


47-S 


6-e 


9. Candk. S la tU 


IOCS 


6-51 


1-40 


1-2 


70« 


9-8 


19. Dv. S Ir lb. 


B-74 


T-&t 


1-40 


I-O 


l»92 


12-0 


II. 0»- SvithnnaUaf 














witk • • . 


?■« 


7M2 


S-40 


1-7 


BfrM 


23-7 


U. Wax Mndk. 8 ia lb. 
n. S|«fiii autUe, do. 
II. Simiiinc <oMle, do. 


la-fli 


8-71 


7li0 


5-7 


64-04 


48 6 


H-4a 


e-M 


7-BO 


S'S 


61-M 


«•* . 


14-30 


fl-35 


C-00 


5-.V 


G5'S4 


3M ' 


IS. Cnalma - 


IS7 


131! litre* 




*0 


lOTIiUf* 


3-S • 


10. Oil CM - 


in 


1.16 d#. 




5-0 


30 


3-8 



TV l^loltli* iMcliaiiio'l Uiup I* gr«atlf 9rpr-nu*d rvUUrclf to ttMtof^Mi The 
ooa\ «1 lEc bnnsr u at l<-ivt |i) liiiua gTMUr Uiaii of tliv Utter, iu Loodca. 

IVc t«i.lid|{ iiuveltjf uuilur tlili litlr, if llw (OMtruiilon of lamni b>r bumiu Milrito 
of liirptnlini^ iii lliv fdui-c a( tliv tal fill whidi alr-Of hme Wo In UM frufn Ui« nu^ 
remote aft* d««D to tile procal time. 8uv«ml |«liiiita baTc rt^vnllf bwa obUiMd 
loT Ili<-*o lunpa, under Ifan fnnlutic lille of Camf.Jiiv ; uD* bf Ur. wDliani TuiuiK 

ajid another by Utaam. Ravncr an.] i^ai't*r. lu tliD invaiitioii of a wwrkinf Dainar R*- 

b«tla. Ilavinu baan tfiii|ikV"<l by ilw [<iitj-.-iiilan of lliea* [uil*at« In fzantiiv 1^ pofk 
(!wnia4iiv~< nt tbeir rMprctivo Inmjio, t lidrc iiiK-rt tiM twd uH'Otit Aimmt up 1>j ma on 
tlwM) wcBiinua: — 

"Tliv i'niii Lvp, burning whh ita utniott brilliovn, wil}i«nt tmakt, *BUa a ligbt 
oqiial to T«rv naarly IwcItd vai or ijivmi caihIIi'* cT Inji* or four to iLa ]>o>nil ; a>d 
M *o dolni^ It MAtumea »stMy oat inijii^rin! I'rut ft >i>ir)t* uf InrpMitioe (ralao iix- 
P'- '" t^''':''^ En tun baun-. Ueiiie tliF o-i [ivr hour fi>i aWbl i>i|iial I* ten mubcanJIa* 
I- i "nay; «her«ai that from woi vii»dlo* wanld bo naarlr mx|Hiaiiai bmu 

ij' <<-.lt4 firtpeooc: from ■luriuc diltD^ f><uliKMC ; fnnii IWlMn^ ^irc*dlM 

Bj.'L iliil^ neari^v thr<^■pt«ct ■ tuna tallow nwuld*, a}4 ; bom *|>«rm«[l in Ctwc^ 
Urelianioal Preiu-h Lainj^ 1)^ 

'i)o« peculiar ailvantago vf tbo VmIa Ijunp ta llio nowj whltsnoM of ila IMii, 

Jcb I* tueh w lo dltnlay Ilia mom iI'<11'-nto roI»r« of natnTnl aad artiifioiol o^oot^ 
b«r«rf, palDtlogi, A«, in ilx.-ir tru* linta, iaaUail of tbo dfgradeJ biioa rialbla lij tbo 
Ugbt of oandlo* and ordinnry oil lani ik 

"Tlic riu of lh« nnm« fium wliirrh la moeh liftht ia emiltcd in Iho Trats liun|\ i* 
gTvatljr amallar than that of oil orgu Argand flaindior (qoal tnlvnaity ; • firC'nniatanieo 
t* br aceonotfld for ttom Ilie dtSeroioo in clmniivBl ctininotittoo b*tv4en apiritaof tiif<- 
pMiia* and ht olU TIio tpirit* coualtt *ntlr*1j of inrbiia nml livdrogt'O ; in (bo pR». 
p«rtIon a(S9(of tb« (unacr vltfiMBl. and UfuttlisUltfr. in lOdparta; and tbcy «oa. 
awM >M pnruof oinra; vhoroM aHnn and otb0 sncluoiu oua«OD^tof 78 nana 
nf urboo. 11) of hjrdragtcb aad lOjcd oxygon, in 100 pom; and Uim« «oH«in« only 



LAMP OF DAW. 



U 



tttl oT «xjgra, in b«fng liant; bManM lh« nxygta itraadv prtatM In th* ail nitu- 
tnKM* Sit ]Mrti of t]i« mrboD anJO-l nflli* hvdrotna, (hui Imviax onlj Afl^ p"rtii ol 
Ulo «oinbiiMibl« sloatela for tb« Mmoapbdrc la Ixam. Far (bit r*uan, s';^ |>afU lij 
«*l^t of ■iWriu «f Mrpentia^ vUl niaaai»* u rouoh oxjvnn m IW jwrt* a< •>)>•»• 
«il ; u>) will nSnr^ morMtor, k mon ririd i%h), b«aaiM« tliey mbIuii' im oxid*. w M 
•jitdft wkloh Hrvtw 1» ilxDp ib« oouhiiMlan. In Ui*«iiiriu*f Inrpcntinr, thoiiiliMlT 
•f tbi tltsif^U fi>r oi^ftn !• •nlint vliar«u b bt ml llic ■ffinity u porlullv nvutnu- 
iMd by llu oiidM il (ODtaiDt; MiiMi>li>t a* the S*nii) of (ptritj c<f wioo m «okkui*d 
hj Vbtir ditution wiUi water. 

" Anoac tli« tMar appliMtiiini of irienM to tlu omAiI uu, for vhleh Ihit jwoMut 
•g* (* ao bonoralily diatiii)tuuh4dl, few an mora moritarioni than tlia <J«mj>Kln« iaapis 
by vlikltwa MB prodim annov-wbJI* flame fMm thi) cUanly, volorlon tniriin of tnr- 
IMiitiue— « pura oonitiudllit* fliili^ <u plaoe vf tJia tnt»Tj nak e!iU whicb Kntain • 
MTontfa pari of iDcoinbUBUl>l« Riatl«r. Stiug »o rich in bydn>-<arban, tha «piti1a r*- 
qvjre pnoliar •rtiG«« for o«inp1c(o oonwunnlion and the davdopwMilaf ui«ir Aill 

towar «f fMUiag light witliout ainol:! nr nnol). This poiat nf jurftcljall mutn* to b« 
apfilly altainaa by ihf jnveatian of tli« two panillal flat riiiKi >n Ih« Para^Mi la>n& 
a UtK*T and NBalitr, fomilai; it cosi: rouiui Iha mar^nof tli« irirk, «lil«h canMarapU 
r«t«ncmtioa of III* air a^tJiut tlipHamii: llmii cocaumla^ trery ]>*r1ioioof vo^liliMd 
vapor, B«d adding Miri^y to thv iumiiioin und«iat!on& tl«aii9 Ibo palpal Paragea 
lamp in flill atlJan cinit« n li(;ht i<'[Unl to thai o( *ix(<*D wnx-iandlu, thrcs to Iha 

(lOVD^ but of bctlfir qualily, Approaching in piin'ly to thai o[ Iho >DD-lwua. — (h<**- 
iir« tapabUof diiplaytaft nituriil niid umlieiiiJ objt«t«iii llxlr tnuioolont BatUiaaa 
'lampa an Tety »pt lo Hnakr. 

"On* Itnpvrisl prnt uf nclilitd ipirita of turprn'''" ■- !'!r< Art rHail. will barn fM 
lw«lvehoiini in IhU Ump, alTordini; all IbollnMlli :<inor<Jev«D wax-mndlaa. 

"The Parogoii CaniphirM lamp i* nttandtd vit'L r m um. 

"IIm Coat, aa oomparod will) olhar lampa er CaiiiUoa^ ii w follow*: Ti&— 

rjOL BOCB. 
i^u«(t<'" Camiihin* lamp (oquj U> 1 1 « ax ouiJUaX l«i tbaa One Ualfjioiiity. 
Wan C*n.il*i CK 



, Bpermantti tlitto 

AdiiiiflUltna Wu (SUario Atid) 
Palinpr'n Siirrj-l-Wiik L'ondlta 

(.ViOM Not t'ulldlf* 

Ui»i1<!> (TbIIuvj 

CaRvil'ii J^in]', niili^iKirTn oil 

Dmi IixuvriAitnK, Cort of. for a dofriptio* of an omtJiaM ol lionp. 
TiAMP OF nAVY foiiklitt or • coumian <dl lamp, mtmonnwd wtlh a covprH 






839 




cj'lindrr at win ^u»s fiir Iranonltling Iljlit lo lli« minFr wilbonl 
vndaiiitrtai! Iha kindliiin nf thr aimotphen of Dri;-danii> which 
mnj furroimd him; hMaufic rarbiircldl h)ifao(ta, lu v''**^''^ 
tlirouxh ihe inirthet of ihi- cylindric oovr, ifti moI«iI hj Ibe mn> 
duclint pow« of ihe mtinBie gnutP, btlow th« point of *l» 

Tht ojirmfrt ill Ihs i;niiv ilioiiM nol lip more Ihui IMlh of 
nn iiii-li nijitiin'. Hiicr ilic llrv damp i« nut Inllnmcd by i^nitoi 
wit ft the ililclinr" "f 'In- wire i» nol orimi'irfunci", biii wife from 
Mt'Ili t(i IJiOll' (jf an iiirll in 'liamoler is llic inoiil ronvpTiiriil. 

Thp fne? nr cylinrjpr ihoulrl bv miiJe bj doulile joiiiiilr*, Iha 
KBUie bcine roldpj over in such a manasr n* to Irnvc no apcitum. 
Winn it is ci llnifcical, it shoulit not Iw niorr than iwo im-Iiffi in 
dinciptcj- ; hrenin' in lnrs<'i ojlinflcw, ihv •■omliu'liun iS tUe flrc- 
ctttlHIi riMl'lctD fht lop iiifwivoniriilly liol [ « liuiil)!* \op i« nlwafK 
a proper prvraulioo, fiml ( or ( nf 
an inch above ^e finl lnt% 8h 
jTf. 834; 

The |[itnM eirUndcr »hoald ba 
TiMlonad I* the lamp by a wtrw t, 
fif. 840, cf four or At* liinia, and 
ntltd lo Ihe Fcreir by a liit?>l rinit. 
All )>iiitinzi in the lamp 4houM it 
niaJe with hiRl soU«r i a* the Mcn- 
(liy il^pcnfb upon Ihe rircnmuanaa 
Ihiii III) ajirrturc rx\M in the appt- 
falnn larier than in lhewirei[«UMi 



81(1 




LAMP OF DAVY. 



^ 1. Tha br*» ciMmi •, d,fiii. 8W, wkicfc amiMiDa lh« (dU II ii fjvctd al one tUcT 
§<lbc MMre wiih ■ vMtital ni row lab^ noarlf tlM vilb ■ aire vkieb » RCiincil aba**. 
Ml Ibe tmloTthc bartwr. Id uib ihe vicli,b)' aelinfMi tbelmor cadofllic aiic isili 
b-th« fijkKcn. ]|-U oallad tkc Mtcli-Uimmer. 

X Tbe IBB b o IW »ttrw nock to fijang mi iW irauw eyUato, In «Unh Uie «ri(«. 
I (a«c oont 1* &ta], aoJ which 1* Oulanwl la Ibe elMcra b]r • tcnw OlUtl lu i. 
b ' 3. An ■iinlarD < tb* mippl)init oil. '■ » All«<l wilb a Mnw w • Mci, and coumiuu 
ram with ibr bMIoin uf the ciMara bj ■ ''>'" ''/• A mitral apartaiD for Lbs wick. 
4. Th« wirc^aiiM orUndOt^s^ 8>t, which thoold noi bai-c lew tbaa Ctt apnurcs Is 
. the NDBR Inch. 

^ A. 'nc •ctond lofi, { of an inch nbovo ihc finl, luiKeuiital b]r b bnw oi corpw plaU^ 
Mn whkh Ihu nn^ ol' >Hii|>eiiuan mnl be hxul. ll a tortrvd with a wiic cap ia iba 
r *«■'•■ 

^ • (i. ycmt or *ii thieli vri Ikal wirax^ f' f' f* ( , joinifif tha riuun bdaw iritk iW Wp 

. ^tr, and tcrrinK a* prow«linK pillar* f«und Ihe mxc ( ia a acrcw.fu to fix the wrct, 

MO Ihu il aboil nol becona bwaencd Itr Occident ci canltaaniw. TW oil-cistria fig, A40 

Mdnam npoa a bnR* Kale thiui^ir- 83U, to »how ■!■ buuuiu fwl*. 

M Wlipn UiF virEsgaiue wJe-lamp a ItEbicd uid inlrodaccd into aa atMUMribcir iiaduallf 

"Vfacd with fiip-damj^ the Am elllrcl ol' ibe Gic-damp ia lu iacmuo iba Itiniitli nad uar 

oTihp llama. Whm ihr intuunahl* go* (mum m Kindi a« 1-I2ih eS the t«Jiunn cd' ibr 

otr, itr olindt/ brvoinn flikd with • r««ble Uun lUma, vhiJe tba flame vS \br w>ch 

' BfifieDi* bomiiig briiUlr wilhia iba hl«e Babk. The Ihbt uf Ihc wick ancniniU lill Ihe 

\ Cn~d«mp iDctiain to l-£ih ti> l-fith, wh«n ii is lost in the fiamc of ihc fiiT-4aiiip, which 

in Ikii oua 6Ib ibe crtinder with a jumIt iWonG lii^bl. Ai lonK u vifMfivurr ciiitim 

nT tnu ciiM* in cQDlMi with ihelunpitoloDg il will ciic livU 1 and when ill* eiiiiii-utihaid, 

which hai-iin* wLiiK-i'Dr th* Ibul ait colwtMntn id nucli uii |.Jd uf tliv iuIuk* v{ (ha 

ntminphata. Ihu air ia ui> lunBar proper Ait rripiraliQii ; A>i ihouch animal liRt will con. 

Sniie wbarc llaBi« ii cilinuuithnl, yri ii \> alwnjt wiili tii/Tniug. B] IbinR a ceil tf 

> pbtiniini wire abotr Ihc widt, licuilion ma; be aniiiiUJnc] in Ibr luftal whan Ibp lMr|i 

klui'ir it rtiinifuiihcd : and IVoia Ihji isnitvl wire the wick mailvafain tthindlcd, oa 

Cnrrylnc il inio a Ipu Inflammable nlnKBphare. 

•■ Wa havR Aequcntly lurd Ihc bunps wliFte Ihc Mjilwita mltlnre wat id h%h aa la 
he«l Ihc wiitstauic rcd-hol ; bui on cumioing a lamp which ha* bran in conjtant om 
blht ibter mantha, nut oocaiuonnlif ■ubjcclcd l« ibik drf;r(ror tint, 1 eannvt pamira IbM 
L tba Eotizp erlinder c^ iron wire ia at all impaired. I hai r niil, howpTar, lhc>uititl II prw- 
h^Bd, la DUT praiml ulatc of axparianca, to pvr^l in usnit Ihc lamp* nndar luch circoB- 
Lwnnfrr, bccnuw I have cbiMtrd, thni in luch ulaniioa* Ibe particle* oTpsbI dntt Boatbig 
rin Ihc air, lira al llw f;M bumiiut within Ihc e)linder, and Af olf in mall luminou* K|aik)L 
I Vki( Bppcat«ucp, I muM conrn*, alanucd mc in Ihc tax inilanci^ bul npctiencc toon 
hyioiwd thai il WHS mil daiitrrruuii. 

■ Beaiile* the foriltliea alEuiiIed b}' ihi» invention 10 the winking of eoaI-niiat« aboand- 

faf ■ Ci«4lanip, Il biu aaabtrd Ilia ditacliut and luiD'unU'iiilcnU 10 atcartain, with tht 

MiUiM*l |ii«ci>>Dti and cipcdition, boih tha prtarocc, Ibr quanlilj, and corraci ulualion of 

Mhr K**- Inupwl o( crraplns inch bj Inch with a candle, at ii iinuiil. nloni; iha eallcfk* 

b«f n minmitfclPd In coiiUln fltf^nmp, in oidtr le oscarlaln Iti piaKDCi;, we walk fimiT 

tm» wilb Ihc uifa-laB>t», and, wiib Uic uiniott conGdcnci-. ptDve the acl'inl iiaia nr (be 

nine. Br Db»(rinil alteiiliiHy the 1.1:1 pinl appparniiCPii iijion Ibe flune of the Uinp, in 

laeuiaiaaiiDnorihii kind, Iha raDteuracriili.'niit which ba)>|>''nc<l 10 ihacit»let|>eiienenl 

■nd eanliaai niiuera it cumidetel) dcrrlupitl ; and Ihit l»u hiihcii'> bem in a (ml niMa- 

■rc MBtUc of mcie conJecUue. 

•■ It ii obt naCCHOiy thai I A">nV\ enlnice apcm tile nallunal advuiUgM which moat 
TCWMrily tc»«ll from na inTeiiiiidi colculsicd lo prolouE out BUppljr of minerat coal, 
bacaiiK I lliink Ihnn otniout U> avcrf reflcclinf; mind ; bul I oinnol costbide witbmil 
mfroHinit id/ bi|the»i •eiiiimenU of adtnirDtlDo for Ibofc inlcnU whl*b have dcittoped 
Ibe prope i tiBa, and amlrt'Ilnl the |>'<vcr, of oneof IhamciFl dan^eioui ah-mrnlf uhich 
lamaa eatotpriaa bu bilhujtn bad to riimiinicr.'* — tici'Ij^itprtuSir II. I^ovy, In Jnunial 
DrSelenca, wl. i. p. HQ, by John Buddie, K*i|., frnrrnlljr and JMIly «Ma«n«d one iJ the 
piaat Mitnliillc aoal-mlaen in ibe kinedom. 

' Mt. Buddie, in a latter dal«il SUI Anguil, 1B)S, whteb i* pnUiihed in Dr. Datj** lift 

vf hi* brotbcT Sir Huisphtpy, uji : — 

" la the eiideocv tiien in my Ia*l aiamlnatlon bdbre • committer of Ibe K<ni*r tt 

nConiiiHmt, I at^led that aArr nearly Iwaniy yean' riperiance of ' the Dnv>' with ban 

ISnO to lUO laM|B In dsDy uaa, in atl the nriely tJ cirmmuaiice* InaidaBtal to 

, wlibonl a aingdc accldaal haviiiK bappcncd which cnuU hn a'lribuicij 10 



LAMPATES. 



U 



aMhM in-W^Mttj^t^ot rtm h ih* nrim ftr lu (vmcikil >|!pUcatica, m IbU daw* b; 
flir Ruinfkir*^ ■■TnMlMal ihni • ili* l)*Ty' •[•iiraximaidl p«)ft«lcD,«i nnrlj ■» an; 
ImUimihiM ni* humui intvniinn ronlil bt- pxpr<ted to dix We kava unrtuncd dutlMtly 
thai ihe taie ptftotiaii did not haprirn in ihal pari of Ihc minp whrrt llie Ont^a wtrt 
wnl. Tfcri wm all rmind in ■ pctfret >ui« afltr ihe opciilcDi — nnaf of tbtw ia lb* 
haida ofiliF dtail buKn of the tiiaprrn." 
t,AMiM1I.A{.'K. !4k B(.«ca. 

LAiMrATI-:^ and I.ANPIC ACID. Whrn a iqtiril t^ widp lunp ha* il» <otl«n wlok 
Mnnnuiit«l uilli a t|>init n4lr^ plalinnni iriir, n/ltr litthtinc it for a lilllp, H majr br 
Mavti cnl, viibMl pmnne to bum the aInJitd : tor th* r<oil rcintinDci iunilnl, and a «»- 
KDI (i kM vapor continan to rue, ■■ Ions at ibc ipiiit litiu. Thii vapor VTM flist eon. 
dcwml and rxMnlocd bjr ProAioar Daakll, who «allrd li lompic acid, ll hiw a prtullar, 
Mnm^lj atM, tamlnit (aiip, and a tjrn. fT*\. •/ I-OIIV. It )iia»ni*M In an (mtnoni de. 
fit* Ihv f«of<rtjr «C rwhirintt emain nttalbc (olution* ; nuch n» IhciM^ of i<lattnuDi, (told, 
■•daihin. Tint tomjMliM mark prFpartdbftatmalinic thpabinT arid with tbvalkalinr 
amt nrthy eatboootct. 

LAPlUAIty, jtrt r/. The on of lhi> lapidary, or ihni of mltiM. polishinc, and 
m^ravln; |rrau,tin* known H> Ibo onctcnta, Biany orvhcadhnirlrfladmiTablr Fiwcimcn* 
•f 1hf4r *hiil, Thp Ornfca vent paMlonaln lorri* (if novo nod nifiraird ilonri ; and tbc ' 
tnott T«ntnK>niD)itainoni|1lK-hichrrela*ti^orthi.- TyiFnianf ui^nid to hate worn rfaigi 
oTtlw TaiUffofti-n ininv (about 30J. of atir cncinrT<) Bt far thr ErpalPTiun of lh«aiitii|M 
fan* Ibal hnie icuhcd modirm timn. may hp contidcrrd u to many Bodcls fur fonnina 
the ta^lf ft ihr iludral of the ftno oil), and for tntpbrins bl* wind with cotimi Mt>» of 
whol i> Kiily timutlful. Wllh tbc mlliiiE (d' \Ue diamotiil, bovcior, thr anoipols mtri 
nnarnaolntcil, anil hrarit ihry v<ir« it In it> natural ttair. t'.yta bi ibv middle Mca, tl^i 
ait wu Mill nnlHiown | ftir the four inrw diatsond* vbirh nirirb Iho daap of the nparial 
maUletif Choiirmcnv, a> now i^rvwrvvd in Paris, ore unml, octahi^nj cryttali^ Bm 
the art oTwoikiiiit iliomondi wat probably known in Dindotinn nnd China, in very remolo 
perkili. Aftpr Louii df Hcrplirn*tdi«o«ry, in l4H;,<if polisliini two diBmondi by ibdr 

DwI' nil thi- nnm diamonds wrrc iral to Hullnad to be cui and polished by 

■he 1 1 -, wlio Iniif relalnf4 a niprrinrtty, now no U>nfrr ndniiltod by the laplda- 

ntnui i.iinwiTi mid Paris. 

the opcmtiun of KOi euttinn ik nbriiliml b^ l«« mrihodt; I. by clcavacpi S. by ewt- 
tiM! Ut >I)cc< with a fine winr, coDti^ with dlnmoml powtrr, and Ainl in tkr Mock ot a 
baiid^aw. Diamond Sa the iinly ]irrcicjii> titiini> which i* «ul and t^lithoi wilb dloauMd 
ftrtntnt, wakwl wiili o!it? nil, iip"!! a mill I'latp of wry wd m^I. 

Oricnlat rubi'.'t, •npidiim', nnrl li'[inf ck, nrr rnl wilb diamond powrirr fnnkH with oKvc 
gil, im a coppri wlxv). Tbt foccl^ tliDB foinnnl arr anotwnnl* politbed on aoMtm cop- 
f»r wheel, with iiipoli. lempnTil with w«i»r, 

ENmUs, liv>dni)i(, amrilijiEiii, ffomilik, aimlr*, and other wfln- nloiin, nrc ml at a 
Ind whtfl, with rtiinyai>d wnlri; nnd ore |K>liiJ>nl on a tin wbrwl with tlipoll Bttd 
«M»r, or, Hiill bfiirr, on a nine »'h"-l, with putty of tin anil wntft, 

IV Biorn ti-ntli-r {vnitun Biciin, iinl <trn thr pniln, arr ml un a mm*whr«l of haid 
wnod, with pmory and wato'; and are poliahed with iripoll and watpr, on »nolher Wbnl 
of banl itDwI. 

EinoF the lapidary onployi ajwnyi Ihe (am* tonlii, vhalvrtr W the none which he oiti 

or polMin, and ilnee the wheel diae* alone iaiy,a»nl(Oth«fuh*i«i>er beutet wiihlhcoi, 

wv shall ileiiCiitip, ltn>t of nil, his ap|«rKta*, and then lh« manipulnlioni Ibr diamand-OTt- 

Un;, wliifli iirr iip]>lli'»lilt In every 'iitcIpi. ofttone. 

Tlie lupiilM)') mill, or wherl, la tkovn in pertprclive in /Ik. Bf I. It rantiata of 

tttl a tirang frame miidc of ook enrpeolry, with 

icnon and inorii>«^ joini** boand ic^ihn 
with Dlronft bolt* anil leretr nwU. It* Ibnn 
is a |Miii]le1opi|>r4ar(}iHnSlo9ft«t kmtTjby 
ftODi t 1« T bifb) oitd about S ftt\ broad. 
Theae diowoRctu an iatwf enooRh lo r<m- 
tals tvo enHlnf whcd* atangvlitr of (Bch 
other, aa rvprawnird in the fisure. 

Btaides the Iwo f >Ir Imra a », we |>«f«rfvt 
in the bmidlli, 5 erou ban, r, r^ a, r, o. 
The IWD e:ttnune ban e anil a, aie a yvri of 
Ihr IVamo-worli, and lerve lo bind it. The 
twu CTOM-tmr* n nnd r, mrry each in the 
n^lr of their lenilh, a pieee of wood ai 
thick as thentNTh-es bttt only 4^ idehnt long 
(•ce lig. M!},jdnnl tolidly by nottlM* ami lenonf with Ihni eroM bar, ai w«B wf 




M 



UIFIDABY. 




with tte «M litorO oppcptfta M Utt 411m jmnOti Aw. Tkne two ffaN* Mc mIM 
HMn»n(Uiitek)i IJhe «M ptaMd M » ia Uw *ppari Iba OM «l r, iW towsr. 

U At- Mt ibU &M •■ Aowo iMUe, in ari«r lo cqdala Ww iba mUI wfecd h plaM< 
■»< Mil>tBt(4. nc *MM leuen pouit Ml ibe (uds ofefccto, bMb te tb»p««aita(*ad 

Ihp fclJnwinK liii«(*«» 

la caeh tf ihne *iiniain ■ tquw* hot* b m OM, Mactly «p|«)lre ■» Ibr uUieri to 
vkich u« •djatlid by &iotte|«*qa>n>t*K«^ «•!>■> •'->'(• 
643. whaw ntnmilw* w« |i«ifcmc4 wiU ■ m ii wj M^ 
vhicb tcoein* ibe no enl« «f ihe ubor h W ih« wbcd i, 
obI TMn* iU loekM. Tke a^Mn b«r it a^iutod M • conv^ 
•ieni hcisbt, bjr ■ donbl* wookn wcdgr i t- 

no crow bar la iha oiiUla a ta{v<*<* >>■« ofck •- 1 , a 
atrouK plank of oak. ll hpittccdwjiklvro largo bdlMwhoH 
conlna coincide vMh Ibe nntie o( Ite conical baJaa boUoa- 
(d oai ai ihc end ef tbc iqaarc fin*. Tbeae batta, «f abont 
C inebca dbuneter neb, nfe iatcnded lo kt 1^ aibor t*aa 
fmlr lbfa«tb, baarini lu miicctite vlwd. (See one t( 
ttM«» boles al I, In fig. MS below.) 

Each wberl b compcacil of an ma aibor ti, /(. MS. of a 
l^niliax-wliMl I, which diflera In anbaunce ncaordiBf W 
(iiewnMnace^ as olrradT >talc!d, and «t Ike puIlFjr i, fainiii 
oJ witb KTitiil ^rnova (kc pg. H<(), which hai a aqaaft 
fil uiun llw afbor. The ■ibur cnnin a eidlcl d, am wbkk 
arc 1 ija« ptic* or piM that cnier into tha vbed to ftalas 
il. 

Tbe wbeel plate, aC vhich ilic Eniiuul rlan ia abown ■■ w, 
it hollowed OKI lovaria ili. cekUc ui hnlT ila tliickntn ; when 
it U in lU pouiiun on the oibor, a« Indiqalrd In jtg. MA.* 
wwbrr or Itiiulr ul' wtdiiitM li»n it pnl a*cf il, and laound 
In iU pine* br > d(riibl« wohr. In fit. M4 the whrrt^plata 
U tcprMcnlal ia trctinn, that the connniMt of the whole 
parll taaj be wen. 

A board r (rrcAg. HI and/f . Ht), abool 7| imAe* Uth, 
•■ liinl 10 the fan at th« tnatt oppose 10 IW tbla ai whicb 
Ikr loiiirlnr)' worht, and i< iirereaia ih« MibMoncra made Me 
of in ilip rnllinu nnd poliiliinic. (nm bclni; tbrowi to a £>■ 
Iniii-c bv itir (rnirifural furcc of the wbcel-plate. 

Bi'liiiiil ihii ni>|>aralii> i% inountetl fm rneh rrin>lin;.fi1ntCL 
akicc vUenl L (tec fig. Mtl),iuinllai to a «uilcr\ bat plaeaa 
huricon tally. 'J'hl* wheel it trooveil rcund iu cUeuaAnv 
eaee to receita an ndlcM eonl or tunJ, which paun rtniml one of the stoat** of the 
pa]l<-y I, IUe<l below the wlKel-plaii-. Hence, on innlnc the Br-whed t, the pbte m> 
vul>e> with a Telocily reUlive Iu lite I'rluciiy catnmualealcd to Ihc vhcel t, aiid In Ibe dif^ 
Icnoee of diameter of the wheel i. ami Ihc pullny >. Koch wheel i^ u nounted o* as 
ij«n oibor. Willi a erenk (lee h, fig. >ti&.) 

The lower pivot of Itiai aibur h u conical, and lumt in n tocket fixnl in the I1™r. Tbt 
ipaat wheel l rutU on the cnllet i. furniidi^ with ita 4 iron (>in>, for Wtfnriuii the aofr 
OMiDK. Above tbt whwl an trun wuher u laid, and the whole ii faed by n doohlu wediet 
wHcfa «Dtcr> into tbe motilte I, fi%. BIS. 

Piq. MS. exhibit* a ^roand-plan eiew of all 
|[iii aMeniblaca of pam, la eiphiln Ibc (tnienire 
ft the machine. Every tbinR that lUiida abora 
the apper tuNinwrJor hat been mjirrefvid In ihia 
n-preienlatina. fine we vee Hie labte r ( t th« 
upper luniirier m i Ihe one wheFl-plnle I, IliC Other 
haiini; been rcimirod to ihaw thai Ike enillaa ooid 
dnei nul croH j the Iwa Inr^e vheeta i. L, laiawl 
in <och iiinchioe, ihe cranW bar «, trtn »npanle 
in fig. 9tT. which wne* for tsmins the whool i. 

\U1 






Thb bar u ftnnod of 3 Im plain, >, • .- p. v ; uid f, r { ifig. M7.) Tlw tni u 



LAPIDABV. 



fcou TCNinil ■! tlio poial m. to ortrtw Ibe Mud t ; ibe tnoiul, p f , ii of the nuie brcadtb 
ud IkkkncMi M Ibe 6nt| and Ibe iJunl MaljuaUd lathe taUertriUi ■ bia^>Mnt,al 
Ihc point 4, whtre iIwt •» faoUi t>im«d toM a ditnlir Ibnn, to nnbnca ibc craak U. 
Wbr* aU Ihcfc fMCC* ut eMnoetnJ, Ibc; ve Aiod M Iba prepar Imitibfi b^r Ihv bartlM 
or K0>" I Ins* I 1 1, Tbict tmttoec tbete plocn m i* «tu)«'u in fi^. M4i 

Tlia ttud I, tTEU in Jljr- Ml. b Axiid to Uic pciini c by a ■H'eiiiv key upnn tb« arm r, 
nptMnilcil Mparaul)', aaj lu penpMlita iii/|. 848t Tbe laborer Kixins ibe iwd n^ 
I^ht pw or IibiuUm < X, by Uie allnnale fcnrani and haokwanl motkin oT tot ana, ba 
enuMiiuoalet tbo lane rnpliua lo llie craok rat, vtieh trvnwilu il to Ihc ciaok ef tb> 
arbor m, aod inprtaaM on that arbor, and ibc wbt«l wklch It betrt^ o rotaMr not*- 




»4P 



tl 




««U 



J1^. 849. thorn piMA-oieKl and w penpec4ire, a part or tbe laptdoiyi wbcd-oiilL 
Tbcrc vc Mc the table c '.ibe Krind'plale i, whOK axji i> kept In a vertical poallloii b) 
At iwu »iaarc idug* a «, fixed ulo tbe tiro Mmnrrt by th« tr<ilge* bb. (>n Ibc im 
tiitrft of iho nhevl-plaii: ire peicclte an iinponaiil iDcUunctit called a iiai, vhii-Ii mftm 
lohi>t'l ih« iiotte during tlw cuitiofftuid paUslung. Thl* luiraiiienl hat receivtil laielT 
latiKirtnni ainvliofaliotu, lo be dueribnl in fif. Kit). Tbe hpiilnry holdK Ihii initrumenl 
btUt han'l, be rr«t> It Dpon UiC irfO plna ■ a fLidl in ;he Inbli', l<-tl he ahould be alTtelcd 
If Ihr vi-torilr of the tcTolnns whecl-pLnie. He lu*di it KXiiriime* wUh wclabta i, 4, 
to naki- il I-tV■^ bHWf hold of the grioiliD^ idile. 

Our iifiKc ii»M expert lapMailci of Gcni'va worka by tncniu nftbe following ImpmMd 
ini>r>iiiTii.m. if hii unn invcalion, whereby he «uis and yolUu* ibc faccit with cxtivat 
<(«<klirit>,cunTettiiiit il inia a iritclia). 

Fif. ^3<l ihovi Ihit isipfivi'iiiini. Eiti-1i »r 111',- iwo jnwi bean a 
loice condiaidiU caiily, iiilu w)ii-*li in lillnl u lun>h bull, nbich curin 
on ill upper jari n lube r, luvhoie c>ir«'Qiiiy u fiied a diut-clote yA 
eneniYo] villi &^Ternl rvoceoltiedrtlri, divided iaio e^al pwti, IB* 
Die looUiol-vhiYl euUin; eagine-pl*le, acconjin^ lo ibc noinbcr ti 
ftceU to be placcil in each culling nnse. Tlic lube rrorirr* wltk 
inodtmte />>ctlao ibe liondk uf Uie c«irienl rul, Hhivli ii iurA at Ibe 
pro|>er jeinl by a UiouilbMrcv, not (ihova in ihe ll^tc^ beiai; omi> 
otalnl by the iviijcal limb if, about in Iw dttedlml. 
A Medle ur index ;;, placed with a sciiiKrc lit f>n Ihr lail uT the miirnt ro', inaria t7 
iUftJiM Itic diniionson tbedialplate//. Uit Ihe )ii4(' ni n if tbe jnw a, tbcrc ta find 

5 two wirwt, n liinb if, fivriniae a quudnnt whrne crniie is lufpoted to ho ot iboeealic 
Ibr tiill, 'iliii iioadinnt ia diridcd u uiual inlu 90 dcfTeei, whote hjghett poial It 
maiknl U. aud ih? k/«c^l voulA matk olnul 70 ; for Ihc rcmalodet of Ibe arc dowo to 
Ikl is c-jiifealed by the jaw. The Ivo gnduotod ptnict arc uwd a« feUiiws ^ — 

Whi-i, ihe Roieol r»l cniicMl* itro nr or the limb, it i* then rvrlien], and lerrea lo 
cot Ui-- Ubte rf the liriUliint i or the point i>p]iciBtte lo il, anil parallel to Ibe table. On 
mokiiu i1 i)t<i><' D lilllc, 5 drneea fut exoBipli-, .-ill Iti? laceln will now lie in Uie taaK 
(one, frtn iJid Ihui the IneluiBlion be not allowed to ■my. On luinini; louud Iba 
otncDt nid the jadez ( miuki Ibc difiilooa, m Ibnl by opostin; on the cicclo^tlh 16 
diiitionx, ttopplnj fbr aoinc time al eact, 16 faceu will tare been foniml, orprrftrt 
aqnalilT, and at r<|Ual diUaaeei. m *oon ai Ihe i«i-ololioa Is oompleled. 

DiMDonda are cut at Ihc preMat day in only two model j into a tom diamond, and i 
hriniant. We ihall therefore eonSnc oui anenlion lu IheM two fonni. 

The me diamond » flat beneath, like all weak tlonea, while Ihe iipstt Ihec ritc» ibIo 
fAnCi and i* eui Into (hcda. Moti uraally tix flwtu are pot on the otnuaJ rcflBii, 




sa 



LAPIDASY. 



I an in Ike km tt trkoclM, uil oailc >1 iWir a«aalb , iWtf hue* abul «f^ 

didrbwMtotbiw,«hikllieitninaiil*tnniinaleBlUie>lnrya»rflntftt«**aiw, Ite 
hlKr Irta>clc9i InTD «paMc bWwcf Uinn vkieb arr libvwe an tMli iM» tw fccMb 
Bjr thb diwribalkn (he raMduuBd taoM ial»M fawti; Ihc turtNccuT tk«4iaM««l 
bcin iKvidtd iaia Iwo po^Ucm*, tf whitk lb* ii|ipw ii nllttf iha ttvww, »»i Ika) brafiic 
th« (iMlirai, hiflh tha fbmnr, b ealM dtmltiti (lace) br thv Frvnth artisli^ 

AMardw to M(. JtAks, in Ui TMbImc on i>lMno«U, ibc nfntUr rear djasoDd ta 
fwnteil bf uutnbing a tcnukr ocugmi in Ihf crniic oT the uUf n<e oT tbr fleact «■! 
bowlwlng U b]- cioh> tigbl-agled lilan)tt«. ihe liutscT wbtAcomifMHl wkhlkeiila 
oTUm ocUcoi>< berwd lh«*e ttaduitnor a ua|Hi)uni^ nad anotbcr of 16 triM^iL 
Tho eoUct aiil* alw eentiitf af • Dilani* ccniral ociaseo, tram ovtn ancle of wbkh rn- 
Media ra] l« lh*<d|»«f Owfinllc, latninit UifWlwIr ratftM iDloe Inprnamt, MCk 
oT wbicb B again nibliviiUd ^ ■ nlicM anele (whoM apa hiuchf* the f iidle) itila om 
brt^ar palagon anil inro Iriajiglei. 

To iMldcn a rough diUDond Inio* tviUiant, Ibe Brut Mojib lo modify the btta «f tha 
oririnal Ml«hedi««, n (hal llio plant fenptd t^ the junction of lh« ivo pyramU* than 
be an eia«t Biuart, and Uio axii of th« ontf"! picciicl) mire IW )M>K1h of on* of tlM 
lido of Ike iqiuuv. The actahrdnm brini{ lliiit tcdifid, a «rclion iito be mnile i«ib1M 
(o (he MOdiKin baie ec pritt, w a* la cul off 5 eii^lcenliit oT llic -aiuAe heuM from Il« 
ipper pjrcaDUd, and 1 aehipenih Croin the loner one. Tha nifntOT aad hu%a pkae 
IM* |iriidoecd b call«! Itie lotrti, and Ibc InfeciOT and tTTlltr one it caBnl Iho r«ncl ; in 
thb *iaM it b lemint a eemflttt if Hart (oik diainomd. To eoniect it into a btiUiMA) 
twu tiianftvlar Ibeett are ]d*Md on neb ible of Ihc laUe, Ihiu ebansiaf il fran a aqMn 
loan ocUgoni a lotrnKr-iliapcd faect b alw placed at «aeh of the liinr eoraenoT ft! 
table, aad aaolhrec luwiwe uiradiDg leneibwitc along Ibc whole «f each ndc tS ihe «a^ 

e' al oiaarc vt the tntilt', vbicti vjlh two trinngnlai Acirla wl to Ibc ba>c of eatk 
mge, eDiii[>leir* ihc wliuk numbpr of fam> on lh« lablf kidr ti the dlasond ; t!k, 8 
iMenito, unci 31 iciatiflet. On the cnllcl siitc art fonoed 4 irnciihr iH«la|xn)*, akor- 
uatinf Miih as manT iirtinibir kizeuvn radiniiiuc fram th* coTItl at a rcniir, slid bonlerad 
br 16 Inangalar faeeli adjaiainic ihr girlie. Tbe briSiaiil bcinc iliui mmpleted, b Ml 
with Ibe (able aide •ppnnnoit, nnd the collci dde bnplaaled in the caiili made U> item* 
tte dbcDond. Tbe brilliant b alwny* iti/tc (Imti at IhUk a« Ihc me dBonond. In 
WhliM^ lh« lUokiirM of ibe bHllianl U »e1 oil' into two iu«iina] portion* | OMe Ibitd 1( 
imtiul for tbe upper pan ot table of tbe diunoad, and the remainini; tvc Uiinli for the 
ImKr fail or colM (niAtiM). The table bu eb;hi p1a»M, and il> citeumTeienec tt «nl 
M« Ibevt*, of vrhidi lome arc tiian^ln, and otbni loieiigc*. Thr nllel l> nbo eut iMo 
Aeet* calhd patHlo**. It ■• of e«n*ni<nt«r« IhM the pavlDovt lie'in the mc apttr at 
the -offft Aim<i, and Ihnl ihey eorrevpoml lo eoeb other, ao that Ihc irinineirT b« pnrfetl, 
(bi olh'mi'*' Ihe pla^ nf the liiihl vonM be (alie. 

Aliliu'iicli ihr me-duuDDod project* bright bcanii <£ Uuhl in morv eiteariTc proporlloii 
^Aealbnalhe brilliaal, Tel the bl((« >&(nr« aa tDrolni«rBbl]r cT»let iiloT, fnm the dif gr- 
^Bee nf <u euKiiit. 1 n ciernibif; ihif, (here arr furmrd 33 fi>rc» of diilltrent fl}[un>i, aal 
^BdlDDd Dt ddlentni an^lei ell tniTnd Ihe table, on the uppn udo nf lh« done. 
■Nbr feiili l e) M other lb«« are made nnind a maTI lable, which conTCrts Ib« 
MM ft trnoealetl pyramid. Thnie34fac«ls.likelbe33ab(n-e,aied)iretentlir ineliot^ 
Bteimt diffenmi fienteiu It is euentiol that Ihc fnen tX llir k>j) nnil lite bo(i«s com*- 
^gmd lagelber In luBicicntly rxnci proportkau lo umtliply lb* ti-Ilrction* ind irfniclkinit 
M» •■ Id prodwe Uie colora of the piiMaalie 9|>re(riim. 
1'be oilier piceion* DlonM, ai veU ai their ailifcW imitation*, ealltd puln, ai« ««l m 
[Jfce WUM fwhion an the briUiaM: tbe«nlrdilfmMeooa(bu in the matin eondkalks 
MBI MS thevbc*) plate*, Mid tha grinding nml polinbinf powtea 

n^^ at already •taled. 

_^^— _^9^ In culling ibc ttoari, ihty ut DMwnled on the (ttal 

^J^^wit^^f\ red n.fie. SSI, who4e ftcm il «el upricbl in a Miebrt ptaeeJ 
in ih* miilille of ■ sole pi«e at *, whieh twcife* lh« it«B 
of the Mmeni-TOil. The bead of the rod filli the enn of a. 
A melted alloy of tin and tend b ponted inlo the btail of the 
ccnral^ral. Into Ibc middle vf whi^ the «la«e b immcdintcly 
tdungadi iind vbenrvrr ihetoHerbai betvsr folid, a for- 
tbB of il il pared off from tbe lop «r Ihe djnnioad, to fiTe 
tbe pyramidal foiw ihono in the 6cure at •■ 
Tier* il *» iaoUnment mpkijed by the iteel Mliihen for piece* of dock vodt, and 
f the manuAclwros ct waleb-clavca for poliiihint Ibcir edcra. It contbt* ot ■ 
pbl «ake« table. Jig. SSI, Tbe top b t^ribraUd with two hole*, one foe pUiW 
|mgh the faOer and the aAer tt Iha whad-plate », made ciibn of leaid or of haid 



rcud 




LAPIDABY. 



97 



4, atoanUns ta eircviMtoODc* ; and the oikcr s A( rMCtrtng tlw uripiv pw. oT Iba 
■rvT thw UriQ puUsf e. The uppri ^lloy of th* wbed pUlc i> wjipoikil I17 lain* 
prop K, £u<l tn tW IsU* by ivrn wixjilrn mcpv*. 'IV inftriur [avola af l)l« Iwa piNM 
! iMi-iDrtrd bit MTev-wickrtt, workmii in as iron icrw-ani mnk inlo the ■unMctubkr 
Th« km i>r ihe loU« nn; niodc !cin(>rr ur ihodFi, ncrooliiiK u Ihe workBoa «hoaHl 
» Hand ur u\ a\ hu (inploiiarnl, Emcr; wilh oil it him) Tor minili>C dcnrn, and llft- 
f^lMtt)' or rolCDihar Tw pcjiiJiiot. Tbc woikmu laji llie (uecr on the tkl iif Ibe wbert' 
l,Bh(« Dilh <•( baiul, awl preua ll duvn willi a liuuii of cerll, fhile be tanui riMDd Ifet 
hWiuUr mth tbr othrr bkad. 

1'hv Sayti\ut, K<Jiy, Oritalal ^mithft, OrimUl EmurmU, ani Oriafal Tafta, tn 

(f emi nvK in lajuf and bartlnaM l« diaouHul 1 uul lh«7 all omiM «f-n*arlr iHire ahuidM 

^urelay, wiib a mkouta purtiaii cf inn a> the tnlvnnt maiwr. Thii fullowiaK anatrM* 

itikow Uw allMitr in <*Nnpo(iti>» of Iha imt i>rt<cieui b«diaa with other* is liule rtlaim 

tatiiiuuipa. 





SapptiLi^- 




tm^. 


AliinunaMflay • 
Siiio* ... 

OiTde of itOQ • • 
Lime . . • 

1 




»8-S 
00 
I'D 


19-bO 
fi-W 
1-SS 


4-0 
0-0 


0-a 


0-00 


lOO-O 


sS'iO 


B3-0 



Wdmi'Mt i* a tarietx «hi«h roniiM* of tmnll tranipatcnl errtlolii ||aacrall]r tiiMet 
iffltRiH, of T '- r. 'vri nnii bluixh colori. The Ci-iundoniid'BaUaKammanii is f(T<^anllj 
' fuunJ ill I I ' il lui^m^ ; il to eonmonlj of a bruwn color, whenoe il ii calleil bj 

lb? naiii > ~'iJI'> dniitiDion (toDf. The haii-brnvQ onu rediUih-brown rrjvlab 

are <.< 1. 1 < iinMniinc ni>«r. ^pphitv nail ulaciitone bic chieltr mrl wilh in Kcundary 
rtpoiiiii !■ •. ■' I'l ilic «ind of rivers, kc. atcompaniwJ fcj trjilBlt and ^inint of oclabe- 
itra) ifi<ii-4if mid of tcTeral 'iKViH of Remi. Coruoiilain h found in ImbaJdcd torital* ia 
k rock, conti'tin; of Indiiinlte. Adamanlinc fpar ooeur* in a wri mT Rtaollc 

tie fin'.-"! wri'iirs i>f wiiiphirt eiimi; firini IV(t«, whtr* Ihejr occur in Ihn Cnr^bw 

nnlaiu near S;-riin, Soini; haie ttva Ibuml uImi al iloWialfin in SalnnT, Bilin in 
uheinia. Puy in f>ancr, and in wrrml other eounlries. Tlii? red rariel;. the niby, it 

il hiehly rajued. Ili color i.i bct*c«n a bright wnrtct and crrimiou. A perfect rutir 
above J>t mrnlt il nore unluahle than a diamond of the nunc weight. If il weigh 1 
il !• wDiih 10 !!uineM; 2 rarat*, 40 guineasj 3 eamli, 150 (nuncu; t oiratt, 
*B |l>nO iruineai. A derp Colored nhj, CXCCtilina SO cnrnu in Velgbl. in feDeialh 
a caibiinele ; of whieh IflS wejc mid to t>i> in the ihrcnr iif Ibe (7rnil M<tfn^ 
mlgbfaiit IVom ion lo 200 earatf mch; but ihit iuii'iik'ui if pri-bahlr iiicntieri. 'iW 
Incnt ari«nlal rvhy linivwQ to lie in Ibi? worM wiu brouilit fr<]ai Cbinft 10 Prince Uar- 
gam, covernur of ^beiii. It came aflcrward^ iniu the poMeiMoii b( Prince MrnsiVcd^ 
■nd eoniiilule* now a jewel in Ihe imperial rmwn of Ruuin. 

A cond blue uippbire of 10 mraU is «alual nt iO c^ainen^. If it wviiht 30 carala, il* 
value Li '!'I0 tiuinens : bal under 10 ciialx, Ihe pder mnf be cMlmateil by iiiiil[ip1)iii!{ llie 
■innrr of 11* vetiht in oarad into half a niinen : tliu.i, one of 4 ca[nl.> woiilil be <r«rlb 
41 X 1 (!. -~ ** fiilncu. Il bai been lala llist Ibc hiac tappblie ii iiuperiot in hoidneM 
10 Ibe rrtt, hut ilii> i* pTobnU)* a miiTahe arWng Duin con/oundinit the eorundom mbf 
wfth ihr tpinrlle ruby. A aapphirr of a barbfl blu« ocdnr, wrtjliin^ 6 enralt, wnt dl^ 
pwed of in Pnrii bj public Bole fot 70i. sI'rIinKi aad nnolher ofan indivo b!<ie, wrighinf 
eanili ami 3 ftn>>ai> brouvbl SOI. I bolh ofwhieli t-nmn much ciceFil vilinl Ihe rrcMiIinf 
rale aulcn*. from wbich we bidt pereei*e how fnr tnacy mny 1:0 in luch muItrT!!. The 
•apphire of flrnill U inerely a blae tourmaline, as iii ipeciAe Eiatity and inferior bant 
BMt (bow, fVbite inpr-i't'ei nre HHnelimca Ml pVTc, that vbrn properlf cut anil poUshod 
lh*7 have Wen |M**nl t-ir ilinmunda. 

The vHlow HTid ifreen mjifibin-H are mueb prlnd under the namrt of Oriental lopox 
md eiB'-niM. The fpeeiiwii* whieh eihibit all Ihew enlora aMroclattil in one iwoe an 
bifbly t'lln-^l. ai ihey prore Ihe minermlofical idenlily of Iheie Tarielin. 

Beiiiln the>e nhiuln of color, Mppbim often emit a benolifiil plaf of colony tt 
CtoroieneaJ. when held in dilTercnl pwltton* reUlfv« lo the efc or incidrnlliitbt; and 
•one Ukcwiae present itar-Iike mUalioM, vbence (bn are enllid Flnr-slonen or atten*ti 
■Mdlnv flirib <; or eriw 12 Tan, that dunRn IheEr place with Ihe potilion of the tloMb 
nu prnpertjr, *o remaikable in certain blue npphlreii, Ix not, bowcrer, pccQllar to tbn( 
II Molu l» bdons lo umoafwvai minaralj wklch hart a rhoiuboid fiir llMdi 



ts 



LAPIDARY. 



, and artMa ftom the etmbbAtim of fntaja eireomsluim in tWir ranikf «nc 
Mnelarr. LaiUnim «n«a npMi Uie liclu-4ilue \*hrtj of uppkirF to IIe ttMiM (I 
Srf, in onin l« irarfM it «UM a*J mot* brilllnni; hut wilb Kpu4 lu II>m« fouaJ U 
£lp*iUy, in prancf, fin: d(ep«i( tbrir tnlor. 

3. Cltr^uitfrfl. talitd bj tlndTi CpDophonp, >nil bjr other*. Prbmiir eorumliim, nuki 
omt in lionlikna lo laiiphile, bpinit 8-5 em thcnniF icnlcornliniHlian. Itt ign'riOc tt"v- 
U]p i* 3'7M. It uiwallr ooaat In rounlH pJFMi nboni the lUe of • pen. bill U ii nlM 
faooj cn^UIIiirid 10 muiT tanm, vt vbich tttiilcd i>ii>n» rtiih S^Uri tiLUdii are Mr- 
lup* Lbr mott Trc^iMnt. LuMrr viirMiUf, rolca naparagas grMn, Muntn; iaio gi<c«*h» 
vhite and olirt-Krna. Il Ainrt ■ blobb opalncrnn, n Ushl unilnhiis;, m It vtn, ia 
Ikie tImF. irhon TiMrcJ ia <ettnin dimlionsi which propnlf fotMlitiilri >t4 chin M* 
tnction to the jeweller. When poliibcil, it hai been «afM4iinn motakm tor a j'tIFOW 
dUmonil; aiui (ram iu honlneiK ond liuiic i> caniJilvnUf nlDcd. Good ijiecinitni 
of it arc tmynrc. Ilhai bcoa found onlf In the nlluttal deponte* oT riTrn, abmEwilh 
olhct spccka t^ ftna. Thnt ii necim in fiiiuMl, along with dinnumd* and fiiunaltc I» 
pu ) abo in Cejiaii. It* «anittli>rata ate alwninn, fiS-6S i ^uoina, 16-00 ; silica, 6-00 
prolas^de of inm, 4-7 1 uyde of litaninm, 3-Bd i nwislnrc, 046 1 acoHdiru la SnbtftH 
■nalrvi* or a (t>*ciiaea ftom Br«ril. It ii ttiOicnltlT bni pvfecOj- hutde kroK the bhnr 
ptiw, viih harax and *ait cf pbatpbonia. In coioinHtion tl dillm tMbrtj'fttiin MpfiUie, 
or ih« rhtinibuhedni eomndua. 

4. tfpttitiU iMvi oilttd Dadcnhrdnl crrnindnm, bj wtne minenloetalR, aad Balit 
rehy, by lapidnii^ lu haninen i> 8. S|;<eciSe craTk)', 3-533. Its fandainrntaJ fora il 
the heui»fiiwt, but 11 occtm cfr*UiIli3ed ia mangr iceondarj fbnnf i odabcdrona, ictn- 
hadwtts and rli«nbcihedmi(, Fraelnrc, eoneholdal ; luitre, *itreaa* i eoloi, ral, paitte 
ioUi blue and rrccn, Tellenr, brown, and Mack ; and (onieilmen it ia ararlf while Rtd 
i^noUf contitti. ot ■Jiiniiiin, 74-S; silica, 19-A) Riagnstua, 8-£5i mtOf oT iron, 1.5 . lin^ 
v-lb. Vrni'iuetin diirovcn^l 6- IK f*r tmt. of chrnniie aeiil in the re<l «|iineltc. thm 
nd taiicllei u)»H>d lo hcnl benae bbitk and opnqueg on cooling, tlicy Hiipi'nr fim 
peen, then Blmotl ealorleu, tiul nl tut renine ibeir red eo\ot, PI<oaattt ii n i^iiel* 
«Ud) pdii a di-rrp ereta glotnle with bom. 

CiptaUor ■iiiiifllr Tram Ceylon haia bevn obcrirfd iinhi-ddrd in llmctlcine, nbcod 
wilb mlra, or in rurlii coniainint adnlartn, wliieh •.e'ln lo hair belonged to u piialtfvt 
dialriel. Olbi-ivarii^ietlike the p1>!Di»)le occur in the druiy coiiiie* at iwki (Reeled 
br Veiurina. Ctytuii oT tl arc cd^t« linind in diluvinl and alluvial mnd and Kninl, 
alMK vilh tmc nppblre*. pyramUa] xiiron, and other gruui ; a* alio villi oclabtdml iroa 
etv, HI L'cylnn. Rtar and |w«rl-cny Tarlrltn occur in ^lidtrmAnnlnnd, in ^edeo, Ira- 
MhM in f ranalar liinnlone. Pleonaile it fuel with also ia the ditiiTial tandii of Ct?. 
koi. CImt oad finely cotorol tpccinient ef vptnelk are highly prized «a umiUDcelal 
Monn^ When the weichi of a »md ipioeHe exceed* 4 ranis, it b injd to be lalucd al 
Wf the price of a dinmond of the une vetebu M. Bnud ho* teen one at Pari* which 
wciebeil 2I& ^raint. 

i. Titem or HyarMh. Iti IVindamenlal romi i* an boacrln 4.*jdcil pnifliid ; «id 
lh« ntondary forma haiw all a pyrami'lBl character. Fraclunv conelioiiMl, uaeitsi 
lattre, tnoreor lf«t iici-Tcctly nctamiutinr cdun, ml, broirn, yellow, wray, erten, white| 
wliich, with Iliir eicepliiin of iwise tcil itnii. ate not briilht. Dardneii, 7'5. Spetifit 
^vily, -Vi. ZiiToa atuJ hrncinlh cmifiM. according to KlDprolh, oT olmosl cincily the 
Mmeeoniitlluontti nnnie!;, zlicunln, TO : tillea, 3A; oxydc oflron, S. In Uio wtallt 
■Immia Iheic it leM Irvn ami nMirr tilicn. Belorc Ihc bluwpfnr (he lijaclnlh leaca llf 
color, bui duca not tiiull. The brifhlw xireons are ofttn worked up into a tnltinnl fon^ 
li>r utiinmeiiilnic woich catea. A* a fem, hyacinth hna no hi^h value, ll hoi been oHet 
eos/'iuniM with other itotiK, but Jta very ereat specific (raviiy uukes it lo be naiOf 
ntaetiitri. 

a, Tofwi. Tbe AiFidamcntnl Cartn it n scalene 4-«idcd pyramid j bal llio seooatey 
(bniu linvc a priunallc cliaraclcr t and are fteqneody nbaerred in obliiue 4-sidcd prim^ 
•rnniiiiBlrd by 4 plaoes. Th« hieral pUncc of Ibe prion are Inniritudinally striilHdL 
Fncluie, o»irlii>ida1, uneven ; luslic, viireoui ; color*, while, yellow, ^rcen, Uuei gm- 
eralt) nf pale iIid'Ipi. Hnnlneia, S i ipcrific ^Tarily, 3-S. Prinruttie lopai eontUli, ae- 
conlini! lu llcncliiu, if alumina, fi'-tb; silira, it-'ii; llnorle add, i-TO. In a ilronf 
heal the fiipii" of cryilalliinlion, bul noi ilime of clnvafe, tuw eoveiKl wilh unall Ui»- 
ten, which howevef Imiiinlinielr eiBck. With borax, tl mellB slowly into a tmiuparcal 

Slikht. It> priwdcr clois llie liiicliu-e of vlolett i^reeii. Those cryitala vtuch posfl 
jlfrtent fncei of enilnlliiniion on oppoiiit ciuIk, ncqiiire the oppculle dcculdliea «b 
beinc hcnicd. By fiietioft, il aei)iilrc* poiiiiie ^liy|iieit|r. 

Heal perfeei erj-sloU of loi*i hnee hern found in SilicrU, of srcen, blue, stid whllt 
colon, slon^ with beryl, in Ibe I'ralian and Altai mDuntaisrt, »> also in B^amc^lka i ta 
flfaill, where liey gcficnlly occur in la«M eiriials, and ptbbk lomu of height yd- 



LEAD. 



lew ealor* : itii in Mu«l>, In A»1b MIim4, In V*]c ttrew-Trllmr imlu ojtMt. ThVf 

ar ' ' -hr sniulM dtuiiiH vt CninqKnin, in AbtnUFniUiv. The Uai 

\ ' •lirtl crimlal afaiWHiriM, by Iat>utarie4. IT txtpotei to liral, tlit 

^ I "lor and bMnmm vhiiv; lhiMl«:p jFllnr BiaiUian (niitiim ■»■ 

[■RoicMi :air pink boci ami an Uwn Eomntmn mjunkcn (ot >|>incllr, to wbidi, howcvn, 

pthrv nt<- iiTnru'hnt ialtrior in hnnlncH. Topnx ii bIw ditiingiJihabk liy ilt double 

1' i>. Tavvfticr iiicntlooi B loiiu, la tlwpoMMaioD c'' the Crral MoKUl, 

I ' I' caraM, an! r«n QtifiOOl. MriUiig. Tbvn b • qitcinivn in lltrtiius««» 
ni Til. ' t'.irii wiiicli waRh* 4 <ianon 3 itroa. 

T<, < L-c enouirh 10 be notb laloed br ibc landtir- 

7. /-. i\' are (Ipuribnl ia Ikeir alpbabrtical pinH*. FjncrmU koM lU 

Innlrt by tannUc-bshl ; but u il nppcBin ie mwt advant&gr vlicn in Ihr ci<in|aii; <d* dit* 
vondi., It l\ ftoqucnllj tu/ioiindcd vilh taiUianU, and occatimall} with |>i«[l». Bt>]l i* 
L Ihe A^Binnrtoc oT Ikw jcw*Ui>ri>, and haw vers liltle ftliiulicD aiDOUH kpidniin. 
I B. Gantt. S^t Oun Mani; in itt kIpbnbitirBl |JacF. 

S. C^MJtfr, nflod Ptndof, b]r UaAjt) fvobabljr Uic lofaioTibe oacicnlivwinirlDpu 
«■■ ibdr cbtTwIile. li Ji the •wtcrt cf Ibe pKciooit (Ison, being imMelicd bjr ^uam 
. utd the file. It Kbact* doohle, 
ft 10. ^ord, larladln;, ai •ab-tpcelnt, JtmMft, A>dMry>f«i, ihuc-faun, , i>fAM, « 

L5arao«|w, Ac. Lrutcf, cilttwB*, incUninpt •un>rliiTm lu tfsinsu | coku*, wry lariMit 

Iftattnr*^ oootlioidal i hnidnoa, T i ■pccidc itsviljr, £-69. 

11. 0/nJ, or un<lTDiab]c qunfU. riadiirr, coDchoidBl ; iusire. ntteoui oc rfrinotw^ 
eitlan, wbllr, yrtlov, itd, biovn, grcpn. imy. Ijvi'ly ft*)' iiC lifihi j bntdiKu, b-i to 
0-9; tpctific grainy, 3-i>9l. Il o«uiii in inialt kldncy-fhayed ami Malinliic diajK^ 

liIDd lus* iut<nMr ooncmiont. Th« pbraMa*wt if ibn plaj of eoloi» in |ii<«iou 

|«PbI has tMil b^rn MiiBractorilj 0X|>lnijinL II kitrw to be ttmntnti with Ihr icvulu 
Hraehuc ut the niincnl. Hidiophanc, or vculis laundi, it a farii-lf of uf«] wilhuul 
tnMBpniPD<j, but acqninag it when ioimettcd in wntrr, or in any timn>f(U«ii BuU. 
Pretiovt v|«l van (bund bjr Klaprolh lo contiil orsi)in,90: wativ, JO; wUoh ii « 
wtj euiioua combimlion. Hang<kf]r ha* biwn lonit llic oaly locality of iitecknu opa^ 
«IMk it occnri- nrar CaKhau, alooc with cnninion and Min»<^, In n kind of paTphyif. 
FW vati<tipt havr. bnwcivr, bMnMrly<]ihr<'Vi'ii>l in ihvFiin>«itlBad«i Bad mutt bean* 
liib) o»n, suxiclinir* (|uitc IreDtparml, near Gr»ria> a Dioa, tn the (itDrinci: oi* Ilondn- 
n^ AiDciiia. The red and Tallow bright cotorHl vnrirlicii of £iP-oiaI ntc found new 
Viu»y»u, ill Muirih Prndont opal, when OiAhiuiiPd U-t a gtiu, 1* >tii*rnlly <(il with a 
contn ^<>rfiic<'i nnd if Inie*', puce, and nxhiliilliiR a )»i?li< ii1:i< ol'cplcirn, it nf riiuM> 
enblr vulw. In taointt liiiici, fine <i|«b of muilrt.iiu bulk linv« been frtqnmlly add 
■t Ihr jTiici' of dinnuinilii of oinal tat s (he Tuckt brini; vmrlicularly fund nt Ihriii. Tba 
ntiinatiixi in which offll wot held by the anrirnls ii lnudly Dfditilc. They tailed it 
PaidcTH, o[ Child bcaniifiil u lovr. Naniiii, ihe Somnn Konlor, pitfened buiiUuncnt 
■o partinR with hi* favorite opal, whirh traa cinclcd by Maik Ant«ny. Oral wbkL up- 
patn quitr (nl wlifn lifld ngaiixt thi^ tigh], la called gaatet by Uic Franch; a aaine alio 
glKt* t" ihi^ (api'huT ot mrunduiD a>l«iiu or Uar^lonv. 

17. TnniMii or CalaUi. Minenl Uinjuoia uotvn maatiiei line-|nviiici), impaltaHf | 
ft«ctuie, coiichoidal; color, lietwcm a blue and aeieen, n>ft,Bad rather hrixbt i o|*<ni*l 
lantaua.fit tyicr. eiav., SKI to 3-0. Ii> eoniiltuenit ur alumina, T3 : i:<i;de of ropier, 
4-&1 oiyilc of iron, -li wottf, IS; ncioidtDg to Di. JcJm. But b)- Denetiu*, it CDwint* 
of |di«]i!i«if o[ nluraina and line, >illca, oiyil«a of tappet, and iron, vilh a lilllc wolet. 

II hui' Ix-'ii ftnind only in llir nciglibciliaod of Kieliabour ia Uic Khoiaiioa, in l>cr»Uit 
■Md b tti] hiiilily iniicil n> an oinaainMal aton* in Ihal oouutry. Thtvc ■> a lutnlly dif- 
brtal kind uf lur^iioii, called kn* fttryuoi^, wbkh atraiB lo br photrydiatc cf Unir nihirtil 
«ilk oxyd.r of ro|ipH'. When th« orirnUl Mone i* cut and poli^l, il fannt a |>lcMing 
RDi of infriior (nlur. italaiKiti, oj numntoin green, a compact carlxwDtc uf cvt-ivr, 
Hf Ima vibfliiuli^d scruM'tlineii foi iut>|uoi«, bol their f>badex aio ilfLflcicni. .XUIiirhil* 
yjfhh a ^ii-i-ii >ir<Hk, anil iiu<iuui« a white o&p. 

l:t. f^ii'ii ttinli in ft iililc taluo, on acciiiuifor ila MflncH. 

1>AZ). I-ITE (liliiK. anJ Iff.; LtuMtKOvna.); i> a blua TtUoonR oainaral (rjhtaikiii 
ioi; in ttiunibaidal dod*oah«dniu ; tprt. tpt/i. i-t& lu S'BI ; atnUitkm ijt>m; affonli 
a littlo water b^ oaloiaation; fuaible into a whit* glawi diMoivoa in and* witk lea* 
^ iif ivlor ; kiIhIiob loare* au olkatiuo rBidunui, aftor bcias tr«alw>l «itli uarbonata of 
amnioain. lilterfl, cvnporatoJ, aod foloinod. Il ««au<la of nlicn, 'iit; ■Inmlaa.MB; 
Eaud^ tt-l; (ulpliDr, Ml; •lorbonato uf lim*. 3-i. Thi* btoslifid •liriii' alliitJ* Uia 
nBti>« H/'runuriiu pisiuienl, whioh WM iiir^ vutU^UU a raodcol iDakui); il arlifioiBll}' 
»M latolj' dBKOTf^roir 1^<« ri^nAUJUxi. 

L[i.iU. (Pl^mk. Fr. : BIti. Uirin,) ThU it una uf Um (uohUa okhI aiKWUf ksowB 



btiBf ni«irilanMl l« Umboolwof Mo*m It Iu* ■ |T*.r Uoc anlur. «llb a brigl.l naUl. 
U« Iwtra vlwE •e*lj' «ai. but it Ixovma* luoii iMsialiml aai MiUiy l«okiB|[ iu tim 
•tr. IM Uxtarciaclo*^ witlioalpsrBeptiUaolMvagvor ippcHMWcaf atowtairc; 1^ 
wmMc itntTily of ga ui a w load ii ll'MS: but lir tbo par* natal Iraai ll-XV t« 
il-44. It ia T/n- Eualleabla Mid dodjl*. but «A •nd deatitnte lA olaiticily ; (kalUa 
4 (13° Culit. tv Vc-if^tou, at Ml** tij KapUr, aad crTitaUiubla uu oMltn^ !•(• 
ovlali'drno* tmpUatod Inte <*cb oUwr aa u to fmn au MMuvlibg^ o( (bur^dcd 
pjTRiniiU. 

There kiv fimr csjd«* of kad. I. Tha wboxfdfk «f • p«jit)i4ila» color, which 
Ibrint ■ kM of erofl uvon • *i^o of lead loaa urM*^ *• 'ho air. Ii U proawod ia ■ 
pwftti uaia bf ealdniiuc oialMe of lad in a reloit i the datk fray powjcr wkich (t<- 
uainii, b (hr piuv mboiydp. 2- Thr pMoiydp is nblaiacd by etpoiiiui iDcJled kad M 
*b« auaMpbcTr, 0(, morn raadtly, by eipeUiai; ibe a^id (rota Ibc oilralc oTttad br hnt in 
a plnltaniD rrunhlr. ll to T«Uaw, and waa at coa laoa prepared a« a pqiaatM t^ eaU 
ciain; >tad ; hul U aov luperavdnl b]r ilic eluroniiile ot Ihto cnttaL Lilhaige U inatif 
lUi aiyile bii the rorm of nimll ipantjea, fiom havinff uaddfoaa famm t il ia toors or 
leaa Mntanlnated with inm. e>f>p«r, and •gmetioiea a Hole tilTet. It eontaina likeviM 
•DOW carbnnfe aciil. Tlie above atyie conaial* of lOt of inelBl, and 8 of (uygvi, |la 
priiDF Tr|aival«nl brinir 112, ufoa Ihe^nlro^ni mbIo; and h te Ibo toao of all Uw mIm 
of |p»l. 3. The pluinbrooaaoroxTdow Btn>Uaf,llieocaiBioky4eof80iD«Br>liih cke» 
i»u, i* llie wU bnDwn pivmenl called bis ix*b oe niafaiR, ll etmntU of 100 fvt% «C 
iii'Ml and 10 of (oyfen. 'I. The plumbic tuxviyie of Bntdiiu, or Uie ycroKjrde <f IM 
Brilitfe f hecniat). It obialacd by putliag ltd li*l ia diloiine vater, or in dilute nilik aaUL 
tl i> of a dniii bruwn, alnuHl blnek eobir, whteb pvn «ul uxygon whan hcaud, aad b^ 
immfi v'ii->w Dtyde. It kindle* aolpbaf utacai Inlaraud with iL Thia *i7il* ia nanl 1^ 
I' I themial to npamr^ by eandnMatioiH tho fulphmouB acid exiaiiai ia k 

i; .['ire, 

AittiMi ihe om cf lead acme bare a Metallic avpeet; ate blatk in aabdancv, •• 
well Ki when pnWcriird ; others bate a atotry appcannei, and are varioualf oulon^ 
with Binnlly a Tilnnut or V*'"! bnl"^ The apaeUc ^Ttty cf tho latter area is 
alwoyi leu than 6. Tbe whotr a thtai, rcoopUii ib« dileride, tMaomo mote or Im 
(pentilf black, with nilphnieted hydmnen or villi hi dioaulilnireu i and ue eadlj 
minrni lo the inclallie ilale upon chartoal. with a flui of cnrbonnle of xdn, aflct Ihcj 
haie bwn nK-pwIy rooMnl. Thi-y diffuB* a vhilith or yellowiNh ptnnler otM th« 
charcoal, which, aceurdiac to the manim in which Iho ^aano of the blowpipe ia directol 
upon )i, hecooita jcllow or redi thoaimliealinsUielwvchacaotarialiceelmeftlictttjdca 
of Ifad. 

We ahalt not rnler hecv Into the amtrnTercy cmicciaing the ciiilonce of aalive Im^ 
whirh Iiai tiren handled at length by M. Urongniul la the J>lcliionaai>« da SdraMa Mt> 
arWJ<t. atlirle Flo-nit, Mimralcfiit. 

The lead otei inpil intemtiolt 10 the alttarei — 

I. Galina, tiiliihiirrt of lend. Thli ore hai ibe metBlUc tuitrc of kad with a tryital- 
line ttnieiuic deritable frMD the cube. Whrn bcalcd rnniunialy at the blowpipe It it 
dMDtnpeMd, the lulphur Aid olT, and tho lead ia left aloae ia ftuJon ; but If tbe hnt W 
eonltnued, tbr colored aurl^cc of iha charcoal IndieaWo [bo conv«nion of the lead ialo 
■la oTydei. Galena 1* n tonpoond of lead and nlpbnr, in equivalent proronioaa, ami 
Ikrrcfarv ctmiist*, in 100 part*, of 86f of ai«tal,and ISlofaulphur, with which nuaben 
the Dnnt^iia of the cakaa of Claiuthal bjr Weatnunb naclly axieta. Iu apteiic grM.*- 
itj, whrn pntt, h 7-U. !<■ color ia blackuh fny, wf tbout any afaade of red, a«d tU f»«- 
der I* black, dUnicIett which dlatlogulAh It Inm wraJt or lalphom of line Ita Ui«t 
lure in rriau ii lanidlar,panin|KiniotiaieBinloih*MiT«nforfTBnulaT,ander(««innpaib 
ll b brink. The i^aMdar |alena, lo faBnl fraa ila b(i|thtlT polkhed atpcU, U itMd^ 
able for TiirminK Ibp tUrkeiiMtt &[ Drrbyibir^-Uun uama, which eaplodo wkh a levd 
noi"- when acciilfntolly sCTntchcd in tbe miDC. 

Thi- ai^enliTemiia fnknn ha> in renenl all tlic aternal chntacl«ti of pure Kalena, 
rhr pmporliont of allTcr vaiy from on« flAh jiafl «f the whole, ai at Tamovili, in Sile- 
■ia, lo lliree ptirl^ in len thotmnd, aa ia (he ore called by the Gcfouin nuncn Wcii^d- 
gm i bat it muii be obterreil, that whenercr lU* lead ore cootaiM abMC A pi« cent, of 
MiTcr, vreral other metal* are ataociatH with it. The mean propotlton of lilTcr In 
galraa, or that wWch miikcf it be cowiderad praalcally ai an anrentilVroii* era, btoaiMC 
tlie nli^r nmy br profllsbly niractad, 1* ab««t (wo part* in the Ihouaanil. See Sktvaa. 
Tlie nbiire nth lilrer nrta were Aral obterTol in Ibe Preyberfi mino, cnBed Himiiiela- 
fufii nail 6<»hcrlcluch, cotnhioed with lulpbiuetcf anliiDiHtf I bullkty have bcea aa- 
tioed «in«e in the Haitz, in M«atco, and arTeral ocbor plaeei. 

Tbe nnliuionial galena (Pmnianitt) eihole* al the bJowpip* \Ht odoT ptcwlior loanll 
oony, Bs4 coata Ihc cbareoa) with a powder partly whitv and partly red. Il tuaaUr en 
lain* •omc aramic. 



I.EAD. 



81 



5. The .WndMitf ^ Itad ntrtahln iniletia, bM lia tint i* Man. lu ahemiMl chw 
aeUn sre Iho oolf odm which oui be dt|icnd*cl on (or dtMjBfiuabMf iL At Uw 
HMn4p« H oxh*k* • wf prac«ptibto trndl «f pouid nufuhei. NlUk wU llbvniw 
Ito wbniam. Wha btalol is a IuIk^ Mtrdo of telenhm at a nndnt ml riM« aloof 
with Mftnic acid, while naj deliqacwcni. Th« ■pedAe RniTity et Ui* ora variM Ihiai 
*«to7-«». 

3. UttliTt miiumm «r h4 Itad hit an canhr aapKi, ot a ]iv*lr and nmrijr iwe ltd 
color, but Mowtlmoi incIfaUag la onm^. I< oreun putrcrvlenc, vA alM (Oiapwl, 
irjih a (Vnclurv Mmewhal taondlu. When hcalid ■! the blowpiji* upon cbaKoal, M U 
readily r(^ducet id inelallle had. lu iiwclllc gravity railrt fiaai 4-6 lu K'!). Tbit on 
lanu*. 

4. Wiart j Waw. — Thit Itod or, a» tin>iil>t in app^arag^p m in roin|««ilii4, » 
jf a diny brownbh or oranpr-j^Uuw, and occnn undt-r thr rnrm o( (lobular tn tiun-like 
oeiMTMiona. Il hn* abo the luslre and translu«riiFy of Kami *riili Mmcwhol of a 
porl; afpcci It lunrs. Il li hankrlhiui lluor ipar. II naiiutt of oxyde cf )iad, 40| 
^pnina,8T; walcr, 18^; fitnifn nnuera and liw, 4'<N>| in 11% Hllbciui it hat 
NM ftiuad Mly at Huel^t, Wt Poalhon^n, in Brittany, tanting with il* Wan or 
•mall (oncrclkw the om of whilv iMd and talcoa which <iimfo«« Uio vtitit of ikal 
liad Biinr. 

IV. tt'hil4 ImJ, antatale if horf.— Thii ore, in iu ]nimt alat^ ia «dcslia and Inu- 
parent like ;(asa, with an ndoniaBline lunn. Il may te rtngnited by th« foUowlBg 
ebwacimt— 

lu ifnfiAc trnvity i* from 6 in &7 ; it dinelTn with mora or leu okv, aai witk 
•ArTMCMwe, » nilric arid i twcomt* iminnlialrly UmIi by Ihv ankm of *u)|)h«rMed 
bydrasm, ami melu on charrocil brforv (he blowpipi! into a bullon of Irad. Atcuidinf (o 
KJaprvlb, Ibi- nibonaie of Lcndhilb coninins 82 poiti of oxydc of Ifu], and IG *S eat^ 
bonic arid, in !<H |>*tl). Ttiit mincinl it Icndri, icbiccIt kidItIipi cnlc-ipor, anil bnaka 
enxlly with a warnl cdnftiniilnl fmrlitrr. It pntuun Ibc do* bin TpOitlin^ pioiirrty in* 
Tory hifh dtrtfrrc i ihiMloiibl'.' Xtm^r. bring very viMibl« on lookms ihrtiuoli ihc llai faoaa 
«f (h* primnatic P^lalf. Ill Fryitnllinc furma are irrj niunerouB, and ale rcipiiiUe M 
liw octahedron, and llir pynmidol itiidi. 

A, yUnaHi Irad, or xi/jAoJc o/ liad.—'mt mlncinl elowly reaonMn paibonalc of 
lad: M Ihal lh« rtlrrniil fhorattTi arr innilviiialr ■» ditlingviili Il>c l««. Hut Iha 
roDowiM are mlKcient. Whrn pure, il ha* the wime irnnFrnrttiCT anil lut'trr. Il dot* 
not elffrvMrr wilh nitrie ni^id s >■ i* but fi-rbty bladmic^l by tul|>hurrtrd fajilrpzen | Il 
fiM dwrep'tliini and lh«a ntriu bdbic llie blowjiipp iaia a trans|«rtsl gliu*, u'liich b» 
ma>M milky ns ll ooola. Kir lli<' rombinnl nirtiun U hi-nl niul chalccol, it fmue> find ialo 
a Ml) pDlrenilmt oxyde, and ll>i*ii inin nirriiliir Irnd. li contiiu, Mtotding la Klapralk, 
of 71 egtrdeor tend, 2i^ •<il|>Iiiuic acil, 2 woirr, nnil 1 irun. That *pecim«n wa> (Km 
An^letM I Ihc Wanlodihead minera) it liec fioni iron. Tlie rtetaitinv fiDOi uT cryuaU 
■taatioa ii th« rrttan^lar ocUliHnin, vhoip anclei nnd oJue* ar« *wianflr inodiiBL 
The aulphato-paibonntr, and tmlphiKo tri-rarbonale of lead, now called LMdKiliiU, «n 
rare mioirmls wliicb brlong la ihla brad. • 

7. Phorfhatt «f Iiwd. — Tliit, tike all the eunibirinirorit uf lead wiib an a«iit, nblbilaM 
owtatlit latin', bul a v*riMy td" ctdurt. Bcfuiv iht blo^i'ipe u|<(in rbaicotl, it niell* loM 
a lilubidp exlernilly cryilalline, which, by o roniinunDce of the hcai. nilli lh« addition of 
'mm aad boncic acid, aflbrdi nelnllic Inul. tu cnnililiirnls are dOoajded' lead, 18 iJku- 
pbork acid, nnd 1-tS mtuintie b<U, aecording lo Kla|<nitli'a analjiu* of the miaenl froa 
nBldocklirnd. TIi-- mnilant iKetrncr of nioiintio aeid in Die isiioui iipreiiMM rxMn- 
Im<I la a rcinnrUnble ciiriini»IHn(:e. Tht eryaialline fonna nie diriicd from an eUuM 
rbonibotil. niio!iphnte of Irad ii a little hnnler than white lead; it » m^ily KrawM, 
■nd lb poH-ilrr i> nlwayi nay. lis t{ieeific ^nnly is frV. Il hai a rilreoua luure. loine- 
whnl odnnuinlinp. In lainrllar trxlnre ii ool vtry diMlnrl i ha ftaOiire it wrnty, nnd It 
ii rotlly rianiilil'-. Th<- p1ioa.[ihork nnit nn4nie ncidn bcins, acctxdinu lo M. Miucher> 
lieb, iHiiniKpliiiiiii bodieii, mnv rtplnce t«<h iillirr in cbroilent cambinalvuii in exry jim- 
porlivn, M thai Ihe phtaphnte of lead mar include any pntiMHlinn, from lh« unaUnl nno 
tk* of artentc aeU K> the unnUesI riaction of iibospborlc aeiil, Ihna qrtHlflaiinR Indrf- 
ailely into arseninlc of lead. The yeflowidi variety indinUet, fo* Ihe moM port, tbe 
(Maenee of antcttic acid. 

6. Hurialt af Itad, Han-lnti, cr marfo-oartanafr. — Tbii ore ban n |iale tellow color, 
ia rtilanble fi metallic lead by the axeney «f Mda, and kt not alloitd by the hydroaut 
pbawts. At the blo«rpipe it melts flrtt into a pale yeOow tmnqttjml plc^lo, wilb wb 
of pboopboruiuid oxydcof ciQpr«'; and il mninlfciu Oie prtoentie of fcur<atie add by a 
bluish diouic. Ii it fragile, tvndrr, Miner than eaibonalo «r kad,and ii Mmelimn almoM 
«alatlc», wilh an ndauiaiiline liuln. Spec, tnv., GOO. Its eoniiilnenU, aceantinB 10 
BvMlloa. «re lead, SS'B4 1 osyde of lend, 57-07 1 earbonaW of lead, O-Si ; cbkrine, 8-M | 
•UiM, l'46i wata, D-S4 1 in IDO ru1<- The mtenate It an accidental ia^rtdical, not 



m LEAD. 

Mng la »)uivalFnl propadinn. Kbrn«h ItaiKl tklorln*, U-f7 1 kml. »lHlt ; getiije el 
kH a-il 1 MrtODM* or Ind, S3-TA. 

P. ^<niM* «f lied. — lU toht of « pvliy piirt jtUov, bnnlnlnc «llsk1)r mi Ihi 
BCtnuh, Biut iu pVfiMtj <4' exhalinc b; ihp joinl nelion of lirr anil ctarrmt ■ *a; 
■WbcI ■rtpnical ote. Die ike onlf thanclcn nhich diiliimith Ihit orr rinm Ihp fko^ 
^■leor l«nil. The {ntmot iheanrniDlcnriroil.vlicn il it F[)*iiilIlirHl, l> ■ iirinii viib 
•is rnrm, nT ibc ub« dlmeiukiat n tbol 1^° |tw»|ihalr or ImL Whta pBrr, It b rrii»' 
dblc iipnn elMmal, brfcre Ihe Uowpipf, l»to Dwiallic ImJ, villi Uia «aflcu nhalt^M 
(< OTMuknl flwmi bnl only in put, tnd Imtliig ■ cmuoIlM tfcbiil*, watn tt cMlaiiM 
nr phMftetf of tmd. TV uwoul* of lead It IcMrr, IHibIt, MnHlmM ertu pulre- 
runi, niM or fptcitc traTIIj 0-04. TftBl or Jotowi-Ctoffciuudl mndili. areonlMig lo 
BoMi, oT oiyii U lead TT-IVi annit mM II-Si pbofpherit aol T-A| uhI MWteic 
aail J-0. 

10. IM Uai, or Cbwiwlt ^ Uad—Thia mixnl b loo mrc to ctfuiR nMidcnlim 
h Ihc prv>pnt work. ' 

It. Plott* va^mtNntitk nnmaU of .nd aW r«pf*r. 

13. YiUoirlnd. Uvl)UiM^ lead. • 
ta. TvMilaft <if t4«it. 
tbvi>( ihss cnuDmA(4 Iht wtrral hr(>ci» of iMd ar«, wp mj lemuk, Ihu 

U Ike oi^T one Kbieh oaiin in ■ullicientl)' gn»l maMca lo bt«aine the (Aqwt <f _^ 

and DKtelhugj'. TIih ntneni u fouad in until quality nmaog ihe etyiikltin« priniiihv 
nikt, a* (tanilc^ Il i> Iidwcvci anonf; the oldcri laltxehioU nod elay *lali«, thai it lua- 
Mf oonn. Bat pdak* it mach mon atniitduit amons Uw ttaoMlioii irwit, wiii; In 
priadpal tecaUy, when 11 tikHa In ialairipwd hott, iniatv^ ami more iwij . in TctMb 
The bkckitJi ttwuiliaa Bncnoac it of all roclu that wUch nmtain* b«I galnia i aa M 
PitHw i Ue i» WormacilT i alClBualfcal.ZclkfiTUl.anilmiMi tuinuofiliellant otPaUn^ 
laSirtdMit in D«(hy«hircandNor1hambetb)id. fcc. !■ the inuiaiiiDa grayvirbe of Ite 
of Seotlaail, Lh« sileaa miMS of Leadhlllt owiu. IV snlcnn (^ li» pranldi* 
Ina ooataint moro iUmt than that at Ik oakaiMiu. 
prineiral lead sdaM at prcacni vorktd tn ihc wotld, areHbe CollowinBt I. 
Iliaupn nnil HaclgdoE ii«ar Caihnix in I'lanci^, ilF|«rUii-nI at Finwknr, brinit niM 
' falena, nUeb IfBTccta a day ■'"'o Kflins upon Eranile. Tbry havr hr«n knowv Ibr 
|%p«;anli of thxn (eotanet ) the woiIum:! prnetmlo lo a doplh of apnnnli of SOO yafda, 
ikrf'in I!>I6 rnrnithcd BOO ton* of lead pc/ aimutn, out rj" which 103J poumit ■roarthi* 
poll of siltcr vm rxtracteJ. 7. At Villelbrtp anil VlBllnt. <It|.« rrmcnt ot tlit Loadn^ 
arc gokoa oiiacn vid lo produce tOO t«n* of koil per a*mn>, *ilh 4C>0 kilottaaMea or 
^rihtf (81*0 Ua. OTuinL). X At Pney und Matol, lo the cut of UoMim in ^"niy, a 
~ mi Mini! 0x1*1* In taic-sduil, which hu produced annually 200 loiu of lead, ni 
■1 COD kilMpampM uf lilnr (nao Ilx. aiolnl.}. 4. Tlw aiine of T^ln, near 
nnr in Ihe Ixv Coontric*, U u[irnrd upon a trin of falena, liavpnins eompacl lime* 
! (/ n Innuiion diilrin ; it hni fimishnl WO ton* of Ind, from which 380 |>nuod« 
ird. of lilTct were attsFlvd. 6, In Suony ihv pnlcna minei arc to lieb in iilvcr a* 
laio the l«d be nluMul oTcriooknl. Tbry tic cnuntnlcd nndcr ulTn(ir««. I>. Tbt 
mn» of the Han have been likowitc conciilcnd ■* lilm omt. 7. Thoie of lllry- 
: ia till) Kifd an in the ome pndicaiDcnl. 8, Th« galvna minn of Blcyhorf Md 
Kh iaCorialhia, in oam|iacl llmnlont. 9. In Bnhpmin, lo Ihe Miith.trni of Ptamc 
The mtne* of JoochinMhal, and BlcyiUdl, on Ihe louihcrn alope <f ihu KrxRobSff^ 
Imc areeoliferaai ^cna. II. There are nnincrout lead ninci in S|«in, Ihe IDMt 
urlaai Wing i« the cranile UUi of Linu^i, npoo Ike touthcni dope of dr Stnu 
, aa4 in Ihc dirtrici of the uoall (own of Caajanr. SnMtimn enonnonx nMtiit 
la V* mnded ft«n Ihc loinn of Linatj*. Tlicte mit alto adnei cf gnhaa bt 
a, Onaad*>HDtaB,a)iil AlBitria,lfa«oioor the last locnUlr Mnt: Gcncmjly pow 
uver. 19. Tkeleailsune«of SiredeDaietetTar;entir((oiw,a4idwwkodchietrwilk 
e« lo ifce ttlvn. 1,1. The lend mtnea of Daonria are nwMmii and rich, ^'tof is ■ 
siilon linieiiune, which fetti on prtiHlhc rocki i thnlr bad it atclrcwd un acMMI 
it the lilier. 

14. Of oO Ihe coumtic* in the world, GmX Britain ia that which ananallf prnduen tb« 
•MMt quoMitiref load. Aecoid'ig to M. VQUfoate, in h\> RidHtH Uimralt, puhlitlicd 

I8l<l, we had fliroithed every nr 13,500 ton* of lead, whilil nil ilic ml uf Karope 
lian Ueelher, did not pi«dTic« m bbc^i hut ftoin more leccui documcnu, ilmi Mtimate 
Menu to hate In-en too low. Hi. Taylor hfu rated Ihe tola) produsl of Ihe U niicd Kia^ 
dmn ftt mmam a1 31,000 (ooi. a qnanlity fbUy 2^ UmM irealet thas Ihe eiiioiateif 
Villelowc {vx Conybearo and PbiDipA Geology, f. SSI). Hr. TOjloi duiributa Ihli 
pcodul luaoait iho dilbrenl dtitrleb at AUow* >— 



LEAD. 



Wala^(F)1Tl<J.^[r.. i.iidn(>ubl);li*tilri-) 

8e*tli)B<). ' "II i^mvwftolca) - . . . . 

I^rluiiii, I I, ABtl Voikoliirvk (La onbaouforoiu lime) 

li<rl>}oliir.', i,jirui>ii>>ljr in oubmitatiiu lime) • ■ . . 
ivliri'i'sliire ---....... 

I><tim iiuil CofuwBll, (tntoution niiJ i^iiiulivn rooki) • 




ToUl 81,1100 

fs Utui ••' liial riicili-irlBiiJ.audllMa^B'Mnt pftrUcJtbc toantiasorDiuliAiaMid 
Y(irk. furiiwti lit Uj..ii.f...|..» ni-arljr ikrcc-Gltlu o( tha t«Ul prmiurt, I>Krt>)i>l>tra WM 
loruifrl}' niaib iii-n' |>iii<luaUtc In Comvall u>d Uvrontliirii. Ilis Ica'I ur-i i* fonnd 
Ea vuioi in tillm, • olay-Bl>t« pouing iato tinywtiv^i-. In .V'^^tli Vi'alii um] ili« My*. 
a«iil. toinittH, H Kvll utia<AuBb4rlaa4ndl)wrb;»litr(', lliu ImJ ixkuo in UieiiartMiU' 
IcroQi liiaMtvna. 

In lUi tiM tutat prnjacrd wiu Mtlumlol, br Mr. Tftflor, at 46.113 tons; (^wki«b 
19ta;!il v«rii funilkhi'd ty Nonliuiiiliurlonil. Dorhun, uid CutDbcrUnd ; Diamine* of ilr, 
~ kumuul ■ioNov JiK'I'lin^ M,■X)L^ lu IMT, the loul prodoM wm u follona :— 



Wolr* - 

tloaUud 

utoniM 




The Enclikti b^qj-minon disliniinith Ihrer diiTasBt kind* of dvpOiltn vT Icail oni 
nkt-mim, f^w-^n'w, aad jU-tviu, Tbs Eof tid wonl vein cormpond* to liie Fregrb 
lennjUoii: bul mincn D&ke nic «f it indiJ(creiill]i in EasUad and Fnnac, lo iniUwt« 
•U (h* daiKallm of Iblt ««^ MldiiiK nn csilbct to ^iaia^midi thediflcrcnt fomiti Ibiu, 
ink wAu Bra true vnjna in th« Hcologioal a«c«iMalb» of tbc wi»d Tvin ( piiit'rti<a we 
n«HM luuallf very nanoir, and of oblonic Umih', uuoI rrciiKnlly iwrallel l« lliv |>1*dc 
of (he (otk) itrau; null ,^'-n><u nre tinaU bRU*(iroT«>i inletpixcd in the tiiiil<ilu ot 
tkoeimia. 

Adbi-criBt Rra tha ouM camaMA fom b whkli lead on oeeun in Cunhcrlaad. 
Ther Bro in Kraoral nurromr in Ibc MnditoAe vhich eimn lAo luncitone, (ban la tbr 
calcareoua ixidr, A LUckncM of kw ihnn n luot id ibc (bmcr, bccontc* nuddciilf 3 e« 
IfoM ia the hiteri in Ibe ridi vrin ul' K>iil|;iliburn, the tblcknnn i* II fnt in Ibe 
GntI liiMiloa/, whilr it ioti not eice«>l 3 (mt in the oifirlyinz ii'n/rrriU or tandsloBC; 
Thi* inllncucc ciccritol on the mm br Ibe notu/t of the rD«linini- rod', ii ioBlnielirei 
il dFlcmlnn oi Ihr tame time klinod naifamly their luhnru in lead ore, nn Dbsemtio* 
tlmildr la vLal hna boon nuidc in other counliica, eiprcinlly in the rrini or Kongiborg 
•a Xonvay. The Cumberbtnd tcIm arc auulnnlly iich*r, ibB mure poweriUl iJwj arc, la 
li Uw porlinni wliich Iravpne the enleareona roekt, iluiii in Ibe bed* of landnono, and laoi* 
ikalBi-ly Ihe lehUlote rodu. II it rare in llxc ivck railed pUtt (a aolid ilMy claf) 
Ibe rein in indudr uy ore | it It ooaunonly Tilled oilb a «)iecie* of potter^ eaitb. 
r nnvr enlcArrou* IW* art aba in general more prodnotire llian tbc tower oat*. Is 
t or iliFi« minek, tb« vain) were not vroikrd till Iniclgr bdow the fiflb ealcireoux bod 
' ri>tii-rntliam limMlobe), which it 3(tT ynnic Ix-ncnih Ibe mitl-itone grit ; and na the 
Immlime ttraltiia b IM pnis bencelh it, it TuUewt ibat Ibc iblekaM* of iIm pan 
I gTDuod where tiu rma are rich in lead doea sol ia cea«ral nce«l SOO yvdi. It 
n boneter Dial tcini bate been mined in Ibe noiEliborbood of Alston Moor, down, 
dti lo ihe rineiith catraii-oni ilrniTwi, ofTynu boiiomliniejlonc, whiob in diS ivi% 
01 the iiii]!'(nn''-)[iii at tin; ri>*l Turmntioo, iuunodialrly nbovc tlic whln-xiU; and UnU 
ibR]- likvv hei-n f^'il^wiij nbi've thr llr«l liinotvne Mratum, at high nx Ibo grinilKonR liD, 
which (1 only 83 yudi fcebiw the nme Mraluin of iniU-Mooe irit i *a Ibol in Ihe total 
_^uck»aa of the iJumbirerou^ formntion tbse ii more than 33S yardi. It hu been 
_ I that liod vein* h*vc been Incd erea IIwIIkv dmrn, iota Iho Jtf(mtr4y Rar Im^ 

'lltoae ; bnl their bar* nnl boon nin^. 

Tbo «(-tl«M eoriobaMM of a vdn Hkea plaeo commonljr In the poinU where lu two 
(kl**, bi-iiut not far unnder, bnloiui to the eaine rook ; aoil 111 tmiiovciiahinrnl oceun 
I one tide h ealoimii and the other a achiitme clajr. Tb* minuralt whleb moa 
Vou II. * 



[AafUMdr aecBtoptmi ib« plena, bk eaibcniMc of limo, Auue ef Bln^ MJykMa «f 
hBMrno, qnoni, anil p/rHnt, 

r "ne pipc-rnni (ataat in Fimch) are telilooi «S S}rtat l«ntlb | bu< •umn hav« • ecn> 

ridiirable widih; uicii oompoiilKni bcins MnuPwhal (imOnr U> Uial i^r the ralo-wbu. 

Tbejr »ce[ f ntnnunlr in the angbkoikMd ct the t«o tf%1aia, aometiaua bcia^ » «fUm 

coomwalcation lamlhrr; Iher mn eccuionnllT barren; but vhen ■> wide ptfe-vcto te 

pttaUUtnini, It ■« Mb! lo bt vrry produeliTP. 

I Tb* JUI n>at, or wniia reini, irpni tu hr enihin; citt Ihnn wcpuirioti* oT lb« malHt 

of the TCLii betwwn tbe ptanr* ^r Ihr <Init> ; iinil conlun ihc mn« ofm m Ibr nins in 

Ibeir *)ciiitlr> Wben tbcy arc DMlntlifbroni, Ihcy m wnrksd alaag wilb tbe aiJJMMI 

rake <iria ; and ore pmJucliTe to onlir a certain iliManee IVem tbal nin, nttltw tbey fd 

I enriched br eraulax a rake vein. Some exunple* haVD btca bUocoI oC oilvaab^tMB* 

I wackin?* in Jltt rtiiu in tli« t'^f timeUime of ConArrlanil, parlleabvlf in (he bHms of 

lipaaldeuih mnd Pfenthoad. Tbo nkt Mf**, ho*«T«r, forniib Ibe (rtaipr pan ef the 

Enid iriiich Cwnberlond and the ailjaprni eountie* *md erery year inUt the market. Mr. 

I VDrMer En'ret a lixt of lt(3 lead mtnei, which hare be«n Ibrmerlj, er are now, trorkcd j^ 

' that dwtrin of Ihe klm^don. J^^l 

The DWtalliferoDi; liinL-^iane oceitiilci, ia DerbyvblM^ a It^lh of abiKii SS adka M^l 

Lwnh'Wrifl t« MKlb^au. under n very variable breadlb, vhicb loH-anli the mMh, 

'■nonntt to SS milM. Caallelon lu tho north, Buxton to Ibe north-«nt, n»l Stnilotk 

U the ■onlh.eait, lie nearly ui»in itJ> Biniu. It ii turnranded on abnotl all aiitn bj tke 

mOI-atone grit which eawn it, and wbi^ b, in ill turn, carered bjr the eool tutut, 

■uinrc of tbe rotki brncnth the Unetlono Ii not knom. In Cnmberl*nd tW 

limAlone inrludei ■ ltd of tniit, deatfntled nndcr Ibn nnme oC idktmiltt, 

I}erbj«blre the trap U mneh more abondant, and n b Ibrtec (nlvrponed betw«ra Iht 

flmoioEiK. ThMO two rook* «on*titnto of tL«D«eIvca iba whole mineral idm*, ibroogh a 

tbukncai of about UO yardji. meutirin^ from tlie nllUtone ^rlt ; oiilj in lb« tijijiw 

Lportion, tbat i> near Uiu milltlone grit, lh«re la a pretty eontidarnblv tbiokkeat of ai^ 

[tpUo-caloarooui MhiitK 

I P«ur great bodio or bed* of liuiMlon* arc diiltnd^Uhablc, wbjeh >]lernat« vith 

[ifcrra Miwn of ttmp, eolled (oaditone. Uto lead rciai nxut in the eaUar«oa« tlrat^ 

but diwppMr at tlie limits of lbs t«a>btana. It bw nuw bcca a*oarl*iu«dL havoTer, 

lliat tli*y ttrar In the lluioilana lUidernFaib. 

LEAD n T«x HuuumoN. — ttefiwbh Tlioniiw F. K. &, A«. Allrohetd^ KaitbiiiBb«r- 

^lland, inrenloraad prodoMr. 

SpccinacAi of lead orei and oasoaaltd mineralK <Hlh exaiaploa of llie tarionf MoMi 
'ftlftiiptm from tlieir being oKraratod Id tbe mine and mried tbrougb lii« mvvi«1 3(- 
parlBiuiiU of irotbiufi and ■uiitlUn^ until fumiahod and tttdy tat the market In tho 
ijwnn uf a eak* el tilror aad a |ii|t »r piei.'o of lead knowD «• W. 0. lead. 

Itie (ptcimnw of ninrral* niiialljr nvexiiilfd wlih lead orM are cotledted from ra- 
''~i minei, and ara fitted toeelbcr in a <w[araU e•ii^ under th# direction of lb« «i- 
aiWtnr, bjr Umn*. Cain and Wnllare ^f Xenlb-Tnil, atid others 

Hh general artwuenient of the *iniliiin wliii'h thoM nrei and iiiinEinli are favoA b 
wthibitod bj a ocelion of port of Uia lond miiiiiiii •iirtrirl b«loncio); to VTeutsoflh 
Blaekott Beaumont. Eiq., nl AUenfaeadi, in tliu cquDtr of N'orlJiouiberUnd. and frodi 
wbeat mine* tho (pedmoiu of lead em nml L'utnplri of prooeu daring ««t«««Iom 
Into lead and lilTer are taken; and a further illonlntiuii of tlii> ^ojtntpbieal ttme- 
Mn of Uiia part of Kngtand ii ipven bj an iMnwtriool plan and jbeIjuii hj t^ exhibli- 
'^»t, aboving a eonriderablo trnet of niiaiiig grotind in ilic aiaiior uf \\ni»a Moor, ia 
' le county of Oumbraland. 
Tlie pnndpal phcnoniena of mineral vain* and di*pla(>eniant of Ihe elrata ia whUh 
' ore in iil)ifliii«t in the north of England are ahown b/ diaeetcd moikli^ JaTtatad 
Diliibitor. nnd riatn]d« of thefiniihed prod uita ar» son tain all in oHparatat 



Dvin Hr. HrAunioat'* iiuelt'Uiilln. under tbe direction of tuao^l, Ur. Tboiaaa SImL 
ThU colloetion, the eeneral nalurs of whieb li here brieBj indicated, i* intendeil le 
L':IUua<rate the nol'fieul poiiiion and uMialprodactiotthonortliof KnKland lead mloaa 
I Tbe following U tlie onUr of the At* oareral portiont, and whieb are mora partMV- 
'lariy daaoribed nndM' the** tenral ht«d« in the MqutL 
I. Sactiooa of atnta at AII«a)ie*d* and Alaloa. 
1. Hudel* 10 DItatmIe mineral vetni^ fte. 
t. Miiietnl* onoedated with load area 
4. ExampU* of the loiioiu atagea of prvgrMi from Ihe mine to the markeL 



S. Load aiid*llrtr |ir*parod furiolr. 
1. Aa Ibe ri|>T«M alijeel of Ibti calle 
Ul« principal (raturM relatiie lu Ilia ctUnaiTe and luiportaul dcpatlincnlA of BritiA 



1. Aa Ibe ri|>T«M alijeel of Ibti caller^n U to olTurd at^nucriil view of the wboleof • 



lartry eonnoMed witli lead miain^ and a* tbi* infonnalion b iuor» exprMvljr intsnded 
"l* uM of ihoM whoare not too^ly oonvanant with the phytioal oonditMoia «adar 



LEAD, 



wUek iMd OTM BTft wnall; obtain«^ the oihiUtor kkt b Uio fint imtaiiM Ihonsfct 
H n»t»M«ry M prcMot «l««r «»d diitinct Tiniri o( the ceolotcioal tlrnctur* of th* dia- 
trlMa Id w&lch Ui« chUdoftdtniMtt of Ihdncrlh of RagUnd arA liliiiitoil, in ordnrthal, 
widKiut uaBf Into pumljr Weholcal i)«t)Ul>, Thieh an only nf loTkl iiiter««(, lh# wt- 
cral alnU uiil onlar of i<ap«rpaiiiO«a mav Iw Tfiuiilj nadantood. 

Aa iia appr«xisMt« ooaif»rntiva vi«T uttlii- |iro(luc(% it tsij be con«id«r«il that iba 
iMd Tnu*<] in Mr. BfUKooala inin«s amoiiiila lo about onu'lbartli of tke •jnaoti^ 
niMd HI Eniiilaail. about a«D-Mxth of tbo prodiMo of Gr«at Btiub, and abcvt mm- 
ta«lh ol Uiai of tho whole of Buropi:. iadnding Ui« BnUiti Mm. Tlicr ha*n bmi 
•sl«D*If dj vorkad froia timo iiumcinonal ; part «f lh«m aro i>iliiat«>I iii lli* nianora 
b«1oa<tiaR U> Ur. B«ai»iioiil, In tho datea of Kait and Wwl Allun. in tlin •uulli-irart 
nail of Nonlmnbfrlaod. aii<l ol,li«n art •ilaat«d la tho «iU dUUicc of moors viiiah 
lonni tlia WMtem axUttnlty of tti« nmotf of Itariatp. 

This |iart of tho oanalr^ liap|>eaa t« ba at ohm tbe evntrc of th« iaiand of Grt*l 
BrtUia,aadbY Gu' Uia mult etuvatcd part of it vlii«h ia thitklf DopaLitK]: (■tr.ttat 
%mi «*er bOu aad dalta, «hi«b |>raaoat aa aieocl of verdant cultiralioa mixtd with 
boaUiy mont*, an to bo found Mms tbonaan^ of iohahiCaAU. nfarlj- tb* wbala ot 
thara •Itbar aMplajfd in lead oiinoa op HtuJluirnilb^ o* Indlraellj' Joriilni; a IItiJI- 
hood tnm «o(Da eoonoetion with Inad-minloK buainMi. AHanboaJa fumi* a oMtnl 
jMulioa U Iho midit of th<>M uiiiin ; and tli« BK«al'« houBt, thown on tho MotioD, (i 
OMtUr IWO fool abova tbe Urol of the ata, and it lb« bi|;b«Bt hoiuo of ila iiia^l' 
tnila in Onnl Itrilaia ; nor are roonf ctf the oMtagaa of ahcphcrdi and olhrr moor 
land babitalioaa of grtMtr cltraiion. 

Tho datum or bue line ot tli« Allcnhfadi amtion ii 700 fwt above the Icrt) of tk* 
aca. l%o drawing, 16\ f<ot in Icnj^b, ii on a trve Male of 100 foot to an Inch; hj a 
tfOD aeala banjc into nt. that tha IcnKihi and haighla are prnJMtAil ta tbo teti< or pro- 
portico, ao tlial a Iras nunialuro ]iratllt> of Iho tountry It tt'""- ■" **" <>■ i revroct 
(•duolioa of the ralMiva aiio of tli* rarlou* radea Tliavxtfrnt olroantrj lliut thowK 
■a not iiuil* 4 iniloh baiog 8 Rillaa 1S30 jard*. 

TliA ajHKtatoT ■■ oappoiMd to be looking to the north, and (.h< aeplinn cninmonoea at 
a point about lialf a mile *aatvarJ from a plae« eallnd Kilh«|>o Ilcnd. vhicb ia oon- 
•pieiLoiulv marked in all Eneliih mapi^ inaimnehoathe Ihrtc oountiuatof KottbuabeT' 
land. Darham, and Cumberland oil tntet in one (pot. At about three qiinilcn of a 
taile Ihmt tho point of conimeniyini<-iil, the trclion T«nrcti>nt« tlio liill rallcl Kilho^o 
Law 1 it MOD tbo boundaiif liui'uftli.M'nuntlMof \iiKliriiiiti>rlHnd and Durham, nnd 1* 
thaUgktatpoiatcf land in iJi" liu'-nanxd oouatr. h«>nf: 1300 foM abovo the lnv«l of 
tboaa^ Botont of tho liiiiitJi of this Motion, and abo'it 10 in!li» aflii1b*«nt fromKi]' 
bopo Law. tJie raroe tlrata vhi«h are here delioeated rpaeh aa a11itu>]n of tfii feet 
•boTc the Bto, pod thii ii the higheat elevation attained bjr tbo rocka whieh furm tbt 
•arboaifcroiu at nonniaan liineitonc of tho north ot EnDland. 

Sad) Imiu)! the atraliieation of the eentral portion uf tli< narrow pact of tlio tdaad 
of which tiiaeoolllaldt cf thoT^neand Wmr form tho aatmnity on tb* naat bordtf- 
la( on tbo Qarman Oooan, for aoma diatano* north and acwih ot Kowcavtiiv white a 
•tmilar coal fleld it found a( tho vealam eitrnnlly i>i>ar Wbilvliav*ii. It may he ob- 
tarrti with r«fFr<<Doe lo tbaac ooal Raid*, lluit Ihi'v Ii' uvrr or upon Ihn ii'onntaln 
hiiwatonu furrnatlnn. Tho «oal bad* m eitemiTelir workeil in tlm XvwpMitv aiid Dur- 
ban ci>al miiiea a* eoltUriei^ smdnnllir riie In the wMt, and one liy oi»> rrop out or 
baaaelt according to the uadnlationa of tlie eouQlrr, At len^^h. nt about tO loila* 
v«M of the German Sea, tlia lowni o4 the coal bedi er»|ia out, noil from beneatb it 
■mtdaallj' appear thu limcatons Mrata, which eontinuo to riae nearly eoin«idaut wiQi 
O* ceneral rue of theoountr}', nnl'l they reach the luminit of Crost Pell (S90I feet). 
And ilila Kvueral and vcr^' ftndnnl incliaation of the atmto, a fcatnra of Ih* iirMtaiit 
Inportniii'V iu praelical niiuinit; U clearly and aoourntely delinontod in thin aection. 

In a tbiiJcneat of about xooo feut of tho ■l(i>malin|i h«dt of Mtidiionr, elav. and 
ll»a)l«n«^ wliinU forni the atnala of thv iniuioc dialtiela of Alladalr. Alutirn, aO'l Wedr- 
dal« there la our dlnKleMratiiiiiiiriiiiieetun^s vailed thc'iirval lime«lonf\''thv vnnaln 
wUch bavD pr^Hlutfwd iirnrlr. if n<>t '{uilv. a* mnoh ore nt alt the other ilrata put to- 

S ether, Tliia gtrnluin it •jrlineuted un the aevlion, and may be obaerved lyin^ at a 
tplll of abiiut Hbd teeC below the anmniit of Kilhone Law. Sontewhot eaeerKlinii; tw» 
mUea ooatward ot tliii, at AlleIlhea•l^ the top of tkc icreiat Umeeiono ia ^0 feet Cram 
til* lop afailinft railed Gin-UillSlinft, tla tliickneia. which la tolerably mnifotw over 
oevvral liimdrcd >i|uaro milt* of countFy. ia about dO fvet ; and it ia from tliia itratnm 
of liiiivftuni tJiat nearly all the apoeimena in tliia rjilloctioii have bren oblatneJ. 

Tliadlelocationaof (trala wliiohoonatltiitafbrlbemoet pari imimitaiit niiintral veint^ 
are axhiUled more la detail Iu the aarloe of |;euloi[iual fno<lul> wliieh furui a part of 
Ihia onlleoliun : but aoine of the i^roal feature* ut ditplaocramt may be nottoed on Um 
Mrtiau. 



DO 



1.HAI). 



I 



Atiib>iitki|uui«rotatsil'ti>''.tiB wMioCnrldkhuiddhMUmafroMKlllu^LBN 

Um KTfat liiBtetane. aiiiliill ntliir ■«wt4sb4 li«iIiL Vt thlWn iI"U!i i' ti-i'lli .-falM^fl 

la^fivt Tor ■ tf««o«f nurty TWhc; an.) kcnln,*! tli« <)lti«rir 

AlUali vU. a rut dU<K«ti«0 tkkiM |:Jm*, ■•> irlii^hlhc|n^aClii 

U bron^l nnrly to tlu lurflKo, ihi mwiubi <■( ili*|il»MiM»l U li 

bik thcim«t llmMtaaf tlutbj far th* neal aiUiiMTd portion < '^f Al- 

'-r^"-1'''—' niaM antltiiatad, anj tha calleri«dT««B on tbi ^- . . '.-><- 

•hdidoDflb* potllion ot ih* miiiiML Id a|[ri<al thlcknoai oftim.! 

lialMUio^ oolj t*'> bedf of lh*1 rook ar< feuml Onn of IImu ■•(■>' 

■toOA" It i) rroBi Id U> l j rent llnck, knj la 71t fMt sIhiv* Ibc luii wt iln- . 

atOIW. Tlio oilier u aliU inatr inoi.>Diiilctiib1^ bwn; only 3 or t U^l iWL > 

CMlalHiTC thcgrot lituottooc. Iti* im>Br)ml>l4< villi vlinl vXnclUi'-- 

(bun J nrar tlio kununlc of hilU. the iolvrtfoiiig tpuet hni i ii); ni>[ian r ', '■ \ 

bjr iJMiiiilitiun. Ki a* l« toria ia oou cii«ta (^[i of HI inilca. aodla w^U.^. u. ., u.,.. .^ 

ia whiph lh« Toll Top lineiUiu* l> viiurrlj out olT. 

But lMa«atli(lMgn(*t lluiMtoii*. ■• will Iw mod by Um Una* oI tiloo oolur, ari) Mnre- 
m1 b«iU of tbo Mme ilcMriiiLiun ofriMk, ii«., nt i|j>(un?ut roap«otjT*l]r ofSiX I*^ IVO ' 
W^ naJ:ift]fMt,aadtliotlikkn«M3,a4. 11). ls.ai»l H& fucL TlMMBra known by dd 
•orijilli-r local namcn, at)il eomjiriH 1^ tlialaiooif liguiiraMVMngwdilci ' 
Opnralioiii. 

The Atlunhpaib mini* Winu litanteil f-ir the moit i>arl M ilejith* from tka aiirfi 



Tkryiuic fi'uin VOU l<> •••it foci, arn dniiii«>I. i>nnly liv ovitinory walvr-wliM'It, *ania of 
Vkicii iin- •lio'rii "ti th<' HPllnn. anil partly liy Ihc Dfv bydtoulw Micioa* in«al«il lij 
Uf. W. 11. ArMitt.-Dii^'. and four of witicli aiv now uatJ fo'r draioluK anj Mbrr nilniag 
|HHpO*M al AI1«itlivuili ndnc*. 

SnmifJ'i ■/ <V wiriout Sfagn of Pnyfttfratn th< Mint to tlv Jfantrr.— ThJt i. 
of the TuUivlion i> arTikntrvi] in fiv« mtt, •Wa udntaiuing ux liuxca of mo hiumo I 
aatb. bnUf in all lliiny boii*. 

FIflMo ■rrthiii4 b.'ii-v ill Ik lini riirtbeit froiu Iba (rvol etieoof thseannttr, ocqilalo 
•pfelBiMa nf Unil-nunintc ftuai tint rxcanUo* of the ora in th» mia^ aaid ahoirinic Ui« 
MT«ral *laKv« "f prvcrvit ualil r«ai1y to wad Xo tba •oiclt mill ; noil Uu) olbir (ItlvcD 
bcOM, in nlina ^ parett ta llip front of th« oxaiUr, Ponlain •.penmen* of (he ore oa 
piwtf(d fnrimclli^ and ita vartou* aU^M of pr<igr«M nntil maaafartiirnl intii l<ad 
aoiTUir iiXtrt (cpamlofli the** finubol iiraduoU being aoutainiHl In diviaion Nn t, ol 
Iht. .v,|i,. n.-rt. 

— l/taii OK, oa Alat wparalod from tlie vun in wliicb il it fuiuiiL i 

u I .1' ^UU l« called "Ihium Inthunoilbof EDiiland luoil minM, and lli« pin 

i'> - .■ di.'p'HilriJ 111 tliv Mirfai-ft an- rnlli)!! liiiiiH) t«aiDik Thv df^ltiag of Ika 

Ki' I ' << < -'larn ii ^rtntlt fui.-ilitati?J al AllunlioaJ* Iijtli« iiMof lippin|(^niinn of m 
ii< ' ..,. ),_v Mr, W. !'■. Amiilronic.of 111? Kl^wirk Vjunne Worfa^ near Kci 

. Ini •xaiiipl- i< from u "dot*' Vvin in Alli>uli<flila tninca in tlie ^ 
I ....... totli liir-mt llu ourioiuli- Inmintitvil niiiltii irilb wblcfa lhi> .v- 

ill. i>r«aad rvvk tbm iclt'iniutJ rsqitirr tu bi: icparntni uiinliil. 

i„ .. . lamiila. By a (Int win. or "fluta.' i* nicniit a boriiontal < i .if) 

nunumi •utittnucr* to a i:oiiii')(ifnbla diitaooa ftata Ui« ordinary vertical ur tlvtiity- 
indlnvd >«iii*, wbiuli fxlvnil in tliu innnaarof fUaurr* tiliniiiith tlicraciou* brJtof rod: 
rMining Ibc diatricl. Tlio rritiilar luninntiou of Ibu i>n> ii noi Iby <i( alt^ntie^ ■■ laardir ~ 
lo tji«v<ilalii<na on tho origin of iniDi>Tal win*; a lubjct^t of i[[t«l i-inctii'al impartani 
T\u» uiaui[>la bdrs uliown » lakm from a jiart of Ibu "flat vcrkiiip" nt a itutaMM 
abont SCI (gel £hcim Ibe pritidtnl ot otnrly Tnrlirnl pari uf Ibo vein. 

Orm So. &— Boom, or toaa orv. u fxtraet^'d from tbo r«ia. onil ihowinn anannij 
of tbo curinu'ly [lotuhi'il Mir£iot\ whlcb >i a rroijuriit clmmoltHtio of Trina. and wb 
irouLl a|i|.<nr nt tint u^lit lo liai* tMnn ytn carrfnUy potiibpit by arlitldn] Bin 
naaujiif tha •urfaciM lioina MifGcibntl y dwfti* (o rrRnoc lliu uiiaffvi ofoliioil* in a laleiw-^ 
bl; daflaltr funn. Tli« IomI umo of luoh brl|[lit aud hirli^iu'l turlaM* ii "*(icA«t- 
MU:" and Uiu auitgMtioii mmliontd in tho DOtiMoftbo Iii»l afwciiatii ■• lo the Tala» 
aiC>intnti&« bquiry uppUcanilb ilill (-rcater (uruu lo tUecIaMor|)honanicu<if wlii«li 
tlii* iioao of luc mci< mrioiu iudioalioiu. 

Caw Ko^ X. coiitain* a jortinn of Urn ordinar]' borne or oni na nawly worliod frow 
tbo v<in, an'l imicb Intormiiod with lbs malttiali coulalnod in Catv* I. and 3.,** vail 
ai wltli oibvr «irll<j' and (fiarn conUoU of v«iiw, Tlio iimduoo of ralntral vctn* ra- 
A*» fiuui porf nJcnn, of wUith tonia apaolw ar« thown, lo maaMaot rock Inapar, ia 
whii'li iLoora uao thinly diuninlnnUd n* not to npay Iha tnnibia of oitraelion. 

CaM Ko. 4.~'nH) intcnnixtd rocki and area iliuim in pmeding eata uc fini cab- 
JMt«d to "picking' and Umb to "wubin^" on npito. Tbc lint of tbcao oyefntlBM 
•MMatoa frwD lb* Ktnfral tna* nil audi pit«o* of KalaoA n* an aillwr not nalxed wUb 
Mttr iub«laaoath or wbJoli eiui Im madily KparatiM withnhaminar no wliat aravBUod 



LEAD. 



87 



' kkaekiii^ Xmm ^" aoA Iha H<«au>'. hu th« ^Itpa. ot ulMrlhg owav all twifcj nalter. 
tW** ij*«ioira^ fitukod fnuii tli« ht*)) iHi4 WMUng-ytaU', ttn tfij for MneliUit alUr 
b*M|| rvilarc-l viUia linwiiicr tothauMor lli« «>* OMiUi net) in Coat Xo. (i 

Com ,Vi>, S omitntiii or>tin«n twii» or Iml nrc Uktn (ram (ke Iraniiiif-t** nfUr 
piMiatt thr«<iirh lliv iMit^'yyrj^'. Iwiti^. >" (■<*■ <■ pr«aa of aiM/kuy tfnrfilii^y wilh 



■ *l*v to ilia'fsrtlM'T opcraliviM «x)iibil«il in Iho (olloiring i 

Ckm Na. « cfliiUina fpMMiivn* nf uriGiiary boow^ wtuuli, (rii« thailuaf tlk«iila«wa 
akil i»i*4tiiiitur« of r«efc •o'l ote, rHgnirD Ifl Im jHwuid throiif[h tb« r4ll«T<) a4 Um 
'.. iihIL 

T.— t^oeinieaB of (Iw ■Una boiua or <irv aftcl' baniiy pMMil lhn>ii|;li tfa< 

: :» crmltin^nulL 

9. — Ci(t Ikr tliD propMiM bava <«o«i)tvil umi'l^ of axtnatiM of tha at* 

1 1 , -aca in tlia niiix^— af Ilia para aauiplm of or* being pUted oat and — iijrj 

■•■i (ucJ nvlj fur btii^ amttlailat onov viilvml furili«r npumboD*.— of Uio ramaltt- 

4ir atf poorar tawplai bemg wathail aad •cparalMl t>^ nn iron grata ot aioTa inio two 

rfpan Ibi.- laicer bating laea graand (H-twcpn ntllun lo mlo«ii it to the laou mm a* 

Uw *Btit\Ut, vbii'li hod paausri Ibe gratv : and when nduovd to thii •tagdk tJiu wlw4a 

•a Mutf IVr an o^tniliiin oallad ' bolcliiiix." vbicb toaiuta in pUcius Iha ur« in a lob 

«rltb Wkirr TlMb»ttoni of ihii lul>i>a Mai-i^ — and tiM wliola u iD^jactoil lo a n^id 

Tl^Imo^Y vortieaJ tuorMDuut or tliaktiij;, by which atuiiaratiunodlia oralaiiM plaoai 

•a&r lauaua tha wdulil a»i;n»tW t"(B<-]liiaUttia dovnvard inoTtaiant ol 

irh o(aunr»«Umii<'liliMvivr tliaii i.liu njinr and olhaMnaUrialr (?oiiu«el«d 

Iha libniMy wortniRil rs aiinelimct gircu bj nianunl labor i aluoigtm 

' L' ' -<'i a fpriog la Jarkod up anddoirn by ■ilranti lad jatiipin^on a raiioil *t«iid 

*^ u u. itnHluao llm muirad inociDD. I'lio aiuna nwilu niaf be obtoinal by tuaahin- 
cVT , and a modal of a liotf liiu^t appnmlai a(«onipanii« tliwa tpaubMuii. Il iapr» 
MM tha moda in wkich t&« lioicltmi; ui\^ at* worked la naan of Mr. Bnainual'k 
Utina* la Wait AUouJol*: aed tiuUi Uiir iiio>la vf applying tlia maHiiaarT. aad tba 
nanntactiir* or liin in>-l«l niirmcnlin^- i), an^ due lu (lie iofCOiiuilJ' of V(r. Jeat|ili 
IJttfaati^tOA, one <rf tlia rDginiYio or uri4:liT<<.'ni|'Ii>yi.>d at thain lulnoa 

Hi* oni ia prepared a* baa alivadv bL-cii di-»rd«:il. und after bciuK (l>a]i«n in lh« 
■■ i...(..«..rv« t,-r, " .1., »;>p«rpart i» rnriivly vatlv or refiiw, and U callod "cuHiiig*,'' of 
•wnlaini aljiti'imtiL 

loadort ■• oblnliK'd froni thr tiolloniof tint liatobiog-tub, and la 
•uiiJln]. 

-.laina what » oalliid " uodraurd tmaJdum,'' bulng what ho* nawod 

i< iiiiTc of the hotching-lub into tli« box oroaseuf vatcrin wlii«h Uic lioteh- 

inlra. 

II u Uia " amoddiun," aft«r being dr«M«d or cleared from all Ibrvign <«)>- 

,liai wlotatljeallad a "buddltv and the ore b being lo waaliod ■■ aoid to 

' 11. In all '-pniti^iii wlivrv ■ >lr«ani of TiiuiiinK vat«r a tiiip1aT«l lo 

'n-, il u ubtioiit tbut uiuny •■S th-' •iimllvr fiarlieW will bo ou'iicd awnj 

: i< iTi" •ircain. TViaa puliolva are nllow«dln wttluby lliiir *lMoiGcgTaTily iu what 

'•Jlad iliuic pits buog QKrtly rcMnoira in wbioh lliu irakr paatoa oTar a long 

■"'H a very tnuqai) nioicmcnl. In tha Cow Xo. IS ii an exaxi|>la ci tha 

<:[«ail in llLt.«r *Uni* prtfl undrca^vd. 

n <x>ulaiiu a ipedinuQ of whAt iM valM alimt ur«. haTiug bncn ailniolod 

''IL tbu ■tjuit tbowii in C«uo No, 12. Tli« hj|>arsition iavirKlixl by ntaaii< 

iL» irillpd " nlckiuft-trmiks" and in luudu noily for a final uailiingor 

■ :ij-.tub," 

' tlluM obiainvd. not by lusnual latmr, but by tneana nf a ^ 

■ r. Rruion'*, by n)ii«li t'l* •iltiiit. biiiiK flrnt frtsly miifd rilh 

. rrvulribi; i-anTM vlolli. in*lln«d al a iiiodffraU aogW, aod spoa 

writer arv (onitaiilly dlliiii; K> ai l<i k*a|> tli« *urfiii:ii well watt«4. 

Li-siiar iHhiii-:Ls, In'iiig ihi» froT (u niuic. arc ■■arrivd up tlie «ti)i;hilT in«ltned anr- 

(xu uf th* aia*ai. an-1 puai round aiirtlvrlv a ciiti?ru bolow. ia vliicn lliay ara d«- 

fmOfiX ahda tha licbttr ]iartiDl«« of carlhy nalter and uiai-areat uii«« carried davD 

tka<wuiaj bv Uiatlfeauof walar. nworetkuaoblaiuFdreiiuira finally tobn vwb- 

..i ,- II.. .1,. f, .i„l. »fi.ir uliltli U U lit for being nAoUed. 

>"< erf a« lahva (tain the iloUy-tub, wluoh iaili* lait opct*- 
~-iiin^ au-l draM^g of load orei m uauatly mnetlood Ib the 
' twl<ib(;iji^ to Ur. Btaamoul, and id ikit Uitd BilDta genendlj ef thit part 
.-dim. 

' ''' ia alao ««oaaioB^ly u*ed ia drains tlLuia oraa. Ac(nuid«T«U* 
l# bitliMapp>rBluaBbo«tt]iiilj)'eart ayoby Ur Rot-ctl Siagig, 
_ i > ^, ula. 



n 



LEAD. 



Com No. te «xhibiti a ipecimsn of " »e1ect«d' or BQparior luad ore in the firm in 
which it is gent to and depoiited at tiie saicll mQl roady to bo smslted. 

Cue So. IT aontaiaH »a eumplo of the ordinary or conunon load ore •■ preparad 
ftod Tcadj fur unelting. 

Cues Not. 1 B and 1 B contain Uie «ame ore> (selocted and common), after having Ein- 
dei^ne the operation of being " roasted," or «iposed to suitable temperatun in ■ 
reverberatory furnace, the object being to tree, it from the sulphur oonlained in the 
galena, pure specimens of vbich conaiat of lead 66'fl and lulphuT IS'S. 

Bj this process the ore ie rendered more easily redodble. 

Case So. 20. Oray elags formed in the process of ore hearth smelting, and &om 
vhich the lead is aflerwardq obtained at the elag hearth. 

Case No. £1. Black ^egs being the reaiiluum obtained frmn the elsg hearth, and 
whioh Buame the granulated form &om bebg made to Sow, whea in ■ melted state, 
into water- 
Cues Noa. 23 and 33 contain ewaples of the crystals of selected and eonunon 
lead as formed in the process of separating or deeilvermg the are: patented by Mr. B. 
L. Pattinsoa, and fint brought into operation at Mr. Beuumont's smelt mills. 

Cases Nos. 24, 2C, and 26, contain spei^iiiieDS of the fume or deposit in the long flues 
connected with the emctt milts; that in No. H being the ordinary fume colloeted in 
the flue ; Ka 25 the same, after being roasted foi' the ore liearth, and No. 26 the same 
misled for the alag hearth. The flues or chimneys are built of stone, 8 feet by S feet 
inside, and npwal^ of B( miles long. 

Caaes Nos. 2T, 28, and -19. Jjtharge in the ordinary round state, and two varie- 
ties of linseed litharge which have been passed through a eieve. 

Case No. 30. Sldmmings from the Burfoce of meltedlead, showing iridescent haa^ 
which are frequently of great intensity and beauty. 

A brief statement of the quantity of coals consumed per month in a few of ths 
principal mines will show the extent to whivh steam power is now employed. 



Fowey Consols, 1S36 
Godolphin, 1S3B 
Fowey Consols, IS40 

United Hinea, 1843 - 



101,248 

' - 12B,801 

203,69U 

• 84,862 

The lead mines of Cornwall have produced of the argentiferous snlphsret, during 
Are yeais, the following number of tons of ore : — 





K». 


lug. 


IHT. 


IBW. 


IMS: 


Gollington ... 
Buel Mary Ann 


eeo 


1,188 


1,249 


9C7 


626 




166 


192 


834 


873 


Coroubion ... 


4S0 










E. and W. Haven 


16 










Uuel Tralawaej 


980 


B29 


883 


413 


1.806 


Camelford ... 


ISO 










K Huel Boee 


l.ass 


5,191 


6,424 


e,33S 


4,768 


W. Unel Base - 






84 


30 


78 


Cargo! .... 


56 


SOS 


954 


964 


605 


Omama .... 




188 


47 


470 


269 


Huel Rose 


ST 


875- 


378 


399 


107 


Hael Penrose 


116 


11 








Holmbush 




13 


60 


164 


103 , 


New Quay 


73 










Forthleven 


S 


82 








Fentire - ■ 




34 








Cubert .... 




186 


364 


68 




Leman 




80 


78 






Uael Concord 




80 


SO 






Hael Trehane - 






813 




459 


Herodsoomb 






37 






Herodsfoot 






875 


721 


1.030 


Oreat Callestocli Hoors - 






109 






Cullestock 






116 


179 




Treyorden ... 










38 


Huel Penhale - 










60 


Huel Golden 










80 


E:ii'lhen Consi'b - 










45 



LEAD. 



89 



Uiam were worked >t an eu4j period in ths Isie of Uan ; but the neighborhood of 

I^iey first attniut«d uttantioD at the commeDcement of the present centarf, In 1811 
only three hands were employed; in 1S48 there were at least 800 in the rnine. The 
mine is situated about a mile and a h&ir from the sea, up the L&iey Valley, wliere an 
adit ia driven 400 fathoou into the heart of the mountain. From this otiit the shaft 
baa been sunk about ISO fathoma. The returns oFlesdore for the last five years hava 
baen aa follows : — 



This. 


Lud Oro. 


Laid. 




Tout. 


TOBl. 


iS4e 


82T 


ISE 


I84S 


220 


104 


18*7 


87 G 


247 


1848 - • • 


6U6 


461 


184S 


8Ifi 


54A 



In addition to this, about 200 Ions ofthe sutjihuret of zinc arc annually railed. 

The Cardiganshire miaes were worked at a very early pcriiid, probably by the Bo- 



Heary VIL encouraged mining by several grants involving privilege! to 
those who would work these mines. In the reign of Queen E^zabelb there waa a 
grant made of sll these mines to Thomoa Thnrland and Daniel Uoughsetter, Qerman^ 
who worked them for some time. They eventUBlly passed into the handi of Bir 
H^h MiddletoD, who realized a lai^e profit by working them. 

The present value of the Cardiganshire mines will be seen by the following list (rf 
their produce : — 



Mines. 


Leid On 
Eo tarns. 


Lad 
ttotanis. 




Tons. Cwta, 


Tons. Cwla 


Lisburne Minei . - - - . 


2,788 


1.804 


(;wm-j-8twyth ..... 


G83 


S33 


Esgttir-hir ...... 






Cwnnebon ...... 


es 


33 


Llanfair Clydogan ..... 


206 


134 


Ooginnn ,,.,.. 


1.160 


766 


Gogerddan Mines ..... 


131 


87 


Nanty-y-ereiau ..... 






Pen-y-bou[-preii . - . . . 


12 


7 


Cefn-owm-bnimo ..... 


10 


7 


BwUh Consols ..... 


635 


42G 


Kanleoa ...... 


177 


los 


Aberystwyth (small mines) .... 


SI 


20 


Llanymaror .---.. 
Uanbadarn --...- 










Bron-berllan ... . . 






Brynarian ...... 


10 


28 


Cwm-erfin ...... 


116 


78 


l>aren -...,. 


it 


20 


Kisteddfodd ...... 


40 le 


14 


Llwyn Maiys ..... 


S2 


21 


Bwlch-ewm-erfin ..... 


IS 


IS 



IVtatment of the Orrt of Lead. 

The raechsnical operations performed upon the lead ores in Great Britain, to bring 
them \a the degree of purity necessary for their metal lurgie treatment, maybe dividd 
into three elneses. wtiosa objects are, — 

1. The lotting and eieonnnj of tht orei ; 

% The grinding; 

3. The teaehing^ properlif to called ; 

The a]ipnratUB subservient to the first objects are sieTe\ running budles, and gmtings. 
The lai^e sieves employed in Derbyshire for sorting the oie at the month of the mine 
into coarae and finepieces. is a wire gauze of iron ; its nicahea are wjuare, and an inch 
long in each side. There is a lighter sieve of wire gauie, eimilar to the prei-eding for 
wadiiag the mad from the ore, by agitating the fragmenta in a tub Gllej with water. 



40 



LEAir. 



Bat in Oorbjwhirfv initMd of luiag lU* ilovr, tht pi«CM of etc an MowUniM i 
Hined about vith ■ (boTol, is a Uoofh lUod Milk wilcr. TV* is i»ll«d b lUuuliuf I 
■ mml deActivB pUn. 

Tbe rammimg AdtUfc *en«i at once to wit and <h«n*« lh« ore. Il contiiU e( a pkn 
twfaot node oT (lab* or plank^ rt>T iligblljr ioelinod forwafd*, ami prorUol bdUad 
aad OS lb* «Id« wilh nprigbl Itiffi*, tbo bock onii bnvim; a nolcb to ai^l n iticaio at 
water. Thv ore it merely >llrTed utwul villt a thorfl, and upMcd on tbo ticf* to tbc 
itraaoi. For Uiu ai>p>ialBS funiinl]! tbt only odc umiI at Uo iniftoa of AlMoe Mocr, 
the lblti>winK bni bn^n sobttilalTila csllcd tbe K^itd- Il n a grid, emajHMci of w|iiani 
ban of iraii, an inch Uuck. bjr Ihan 34 I« a» indic* lane, ptacnl borUaalnllf, a«4 
paiaUdtr to each olhtr, lui ineb aroit. Tbcrc is a woudea enaol Bboi-e tbe loalc, wUck 
eonducU a (trnui) oT watct ovot lU middle ; aad an iaeUnad plaiw b tot twM«tb It, wbfck 
Ifkil* to n bQmi'iihrrical batlo, about 24 tndiH in itlamtWTi ibr coUMllnf lb« Battallte 
powiler wubrd oul of tbe otf. 

Tim appanluM tubtcrvienl (u Krimlinjc Ibc ore art,— 

t. Tbr ivdtfT, or bc«ler, rormol oT a cail-irtm plale, 3 inebet *qDiu«, wilb a aoclHt 
Ui 111 uppc^ lurlbcp, fur rcccinug n wooden handle. la the Bciahbortkond of AliUw- 
MoDT, cniihtng cfliadim hare born mbitituioil iiir the bcaling tnickof i bat ovca nvw, 
in DcrbiiihLrt, backer* are s«n«rally emplojed f<x breaking Iba pkcM oTiniuil nrv, calM 
Inatk-ileai-iinff, 

At tbe minea of thW counlf, Ibe knoeiet'i wDIllshoI^ or tlrikiae floor, u proviAld 
either wllh a Miiiof «Kil, or a imll 3 feel hieh, heyontl irtiicb there ti a flat are* 4 ftd 
bvod, and a Ulllo raited behind. On ihii area, baundnl, cKcptln (hinl, bf «aall 
walU, Ibe ei« ta be bntiicd is placnL On tbo kIooI, or vnll, a very hard tUwe idab, or 
eiut^ron plait H laid, T (nn \ati^, 7 indic* broad, and It inchet Ihieli, oilbrd a twik 
ifMr. Tbr worknra mtod bi-rorvii, brtnk the piece* of mixed ore, called hnnr iBOer> 
b)'*hirr', with the bnelier. 

Cnii<biiii,' lunrkiVr are in general n*o at Abloa Moor, In break Iha nln^ed otK 
which they peifimi n-iih gi«ni aoofminy of tlma aod labor. Tltcy ban bean oopIefM 
there (br ncail; fuity jeart. 

nil ainehinoi>(omii««tJoron4 pairorilnled cylindn*,3 i-.^E. RGH. andof two i^n 
of tmootb cylinders a t, z* >', which aerve nllocclher fhr cmihinE the orv. Tie tw* 
«rUniler« ot each of the three pnira tnra mimulUinecFiiiIj in an tnvepte dirMiioD, tn 
aeuia cf I«d toothed wheel*, ai ai m, jlji. iH, u|>oa the thnfl uf evn-y rstinder, vrhieD 

US Dft-l 




, wwkbr pair* ia one anolbcr. Tbe motion I*|(ivenb}-aiuit[le waier^whtHof vliltk 
''haeinilo a a«ropr«unia iIib oiitvr cituitiurercaM. One of lliv rinVel cvlindrn 1* 
I In llio pTOlMnlion of U» tUall ol ihie vheel, whleb o*rriv« h«i,in.*n nml-inm 
bwl wlio«r (r«r<il will, tliw IwUivd whicls r t, 6i*4 U|wn tiie eii-l> o! two of the 
llttootb ejllodert. AUi>ve ilw Auii.'-l cylisdcn titorn i« n hc-piirr, which di*cli>iwM 
Tdownliclwcta tlii-m.ljjr meMuuf a panwular mtDlianitni, tlte ore brousbl forwiinJTiy 
(Uiu Wk^uua^. Tlttw va^na adranoe upua a rulwaj', Mop above tbo bapjHir, and 
I vofflj tbidroontciita ialo il through aUajr'lioU, wluehupem outwardly In tbo middle 



LBAa 41 

of lluir bottom. B«><iw Uia bopP" ^"f* '* ■ "■■>') bwknt caUitl ■ *h«v tnta *bi«l> tli* 
itfu u ihakra iirwa, nod whioh tkrom it vltboui oMtlitg ii|>eai llio cjliiiJcnk Icoumo- 

JMBftf "f thf I'liiittaal jotu ipmi It by « vrank-rwl i ijlg. SM) ntlMlitKl lu It, niul 
ii<i.-<l 1i'. it:,- I. 'lK<>f ill.' nliHr) a. ^W tbM lo M rfgutaUJ, tli«C t«u iiiurli otu diM 
•. viil atiftriirl thHr inavciiMnl. AwdbU ttraani ofnUr 
, wliirJi t|iri«d*<iv«r llirv^vlinilenv and pTcviiiitdliinn from 
gMHmi^ !ii>L 'I"^.:: i.rr. Mur pumng liclw«ni Ilia llultil rallun, Ub opon the indUnl 
jibtatH y, n, wliicli Iiiib i[ uicrta one Mother ofUio pain alnnootb rolU. 

ThneMclh«e»«l)*l|«il»(4'(hbnMelUB«| tiiey ■ranade <^ iron, •nd the imoalJi 
IRM mte mii twjtiml, a> <*aff<ir^ b; b«iiv cwl tn icon monU*. Tlic guiL^toni of 
both kiml* Rkon in kcwa buibts fixed upon iron (Upporli ft, made &tt by ^loiv> \o (h* 
Mtonit weed-work tuii oT ibe vhidc inadiinr. Hhtli of lli« bbiiiontul bat* has 4a 
oblM)[ iM, al on* oT wtatc cndi U tobdlf liicd <«« of th« rlutnirifT-blucbs or btwim 
of onpoTlbo erlindnt /, and in tli« nM uf (h« tlol the iilnaiinrr-blurk uf the oihu 
Cjriindcc i; lUdcai a oentUuclion vbkJi rtmnU tiie la*o Cflindirni to ccmir mlu Con- 
(M, or lo r««idc lo anota a ditfance Awn taeh other, ta ciieumalaDW* «■■)- le^utic 
IV DiotnbU cylinder 1* •ppngiiiMtcd to Ibe ixcd one bf newu of Ibe iron lovnv x z* 
vkloh earry ol Ui«lr <ada the wricbU r, nnd nM upon trrdftcc k, «hleh mar be *liiU«a 
tpon the iaclincd plane k. Time wiilm* ih«n picu (he iron lor o, and malut it a^ 
{VOH^ the Bjonobte cflinder Ity luti'iiiciBf Ibv plunmiEr block which luppcvU it* aiia. 
When (nitiFra are » •tnuc'd, ihould a Tprj Inine or bud piece |ir«ii«ai iucll to one nf 
the pain ol cslimlnri, aacortheieUenn-oald inoTC awa]-, and let lb« picc« |«tiwilbDiil 
doing iajury tn thr nwchaiiiinL 

BMtdFkllir ilireopainof cjiUndcn which ocwtltnieMMntially «a«h cnubins machaci 
(kere i> H>tuFliQic« a fawlh, irbleh leni-* in tnuh the on when nul in lanre ftaKneHih 
ftrcnnjilc, Ifac Muli and (W(iiii;i (Ihe modenil«l} rich and poorvt |iiec«), ^voductii 
bjr Ihr BhI lifting with the brake liciir, to be pteaenllf deieribod. The cjliuden Mm- 
poalag that oecraury piece, whieb, on acoonnl (tf their otdinarr omv ar« railed ctalt-nU^t, 
mw amootb, and rimilar to the nllcra 1 1, awl e k'. The ono of thcio it utmillr plMcd 
iipoM the pdiloncntion of the khaft til the w«t«t-vl>eel, oT the aide oppoeilo lo tbe prinei- 
pal mnohine i and llie other, whieb ii placed alonKiide, receii-es ill nolion ftoulhe inl| 
by MCBM id" looihnl wheeUwork. 

Thei<iimp miU ■>■ empioytd in conctinetvc« with the ouduag evlindm. U*errat)*t- 
tkalaily o> inilT«fize ttLow om vhoM nivpi* it too hard to yiru rAdily ta the rtdim 
tad alio those which beinK already pulTctized lo a certain dcirree, require to be cnnud 
<I01 more finelr- The siomfn employed in the neitbborhoad of Aliton Moot are moTod 
hf water wheela. They ore liimloi to Ihoae deacribed under Tin. 

Prvftr ii/tin; or J'XK''* "ppatatMt. — Tbe band (i«*e mode id" iron wire oitabc*. flf 
tttrioon •lie'', i* khftken with the two baBd* b a tub of wal«r, tho on tal, brlait nrb) 
MMMiaM hurrzonlnJIy, and at other* in an inclined peaition. Tbi« tkrvt it now in 
Itennal u*e only for Ibe ruilintii that baTe poned thititith the cnlinii nnd wliich Ihouuh 
HM poor enoach to teqiiire finrr riindtnc, ore loo poor fur tbe brake licte. When the 
worbnan lin> rnlleeied n (ullieient iiwaniity of these ■mailer pireo, he put) them b hi* 
niund kind tirii; 'hnkni !l in the ore vat wilb maeb rapidity and a dederoui loiu, tHI 
ha ha* crpnmtpi the very poor porliooa calM nlUngt, ftooi Iba mingled fortf colled 
dWt^aii u-<4l as ftom iha purtote. He then reaiO'VH the 6t«t rwo qua liilt*. with a 
lhM(-inm «t*p«r called a Umf , and b« IIitdH bmeaib them a eet tain poniun oT ore whieb 
to RHiLoni to be pure. 

The bni)a lurt vt rectaniTRlar, a* well u the eioetn tii which it b atibtled, Th« 
mriVn arc made o( tlmait iiun wire, Ibtee eisblhi of an inch w|Uaib This nciT is tufr 
findnl nl tho cviiemily of n forked lever, or brake, turoini; npun ns nus by menai <\( 
two upright armt abont !i Ikfi lonir, vhicb ate pierenl with holei fm eonnfciiii? \heai 
villi Iwlii or pin«, V'lli to tlic «ioi'&4hutie and lo t!>c cad< of the two bmiiebei' ul' Ux« 
tortr. Time tW( Rmw nre made of wmight iron, bm die lever it nuule of woodf at it 
rMeim Ihe )all. A child placed noar its end, hy tbe action of leapln)!, jeilu it tuuinly 
on and dom, ao u to shake edrcltuilly the sieve mupcndnl ■[ the other eiiretnltf. 
BKh Jolt Bot only make* Ihe fine porta pan ihmuicb Lbe mefbe*, bal chaiiTc* lb? tela* 
liv* (KMiliiin of Ibuse which remain on Ihe wires, brini;in; the purer and heavier piceta 
a*tnlually in Ihr bollom. Tho mii,i!lril rmi^inenti of gnleno, and Ilia tlony nabitancM 
eallnl Hiufi lir :ibore ibemi wbBo tbe juor oBfl light piccn ealled ctlltng*, nre at lop. 
"Ome »iv Grit Mmpmlcirby th« (imp, next th« mixed liimp>,or<A«fi^aiid Ufily Ibe piira 
on, wUch i( corriol to the bing hrap. Tlie m/tiaci ate handed to a puliculat rbua of 
wgAmcn, whu by n new nIUo^, divide tbent >ol«iacn;itonei^or *econdcWlia5i,nndintO 
irixod orr a'lnlo^u* to Aal». 

Tie jDir ore, calLnl eW>, it earrM to a etualiiag mai^iae, where ii 'fi bmiwd 
bMween iwotyllnder* appru|Kinted lo tJti* pnriwae onder tbe naaiied'rA«r> n>ll'iii oAtf 

" 'i il li aineil nftesh. Dnrini tbe fiAjn|[ many panel* of wnall ore and slony *ab 



^^idiii 




41 



LEAD. 



* 



ttancc* pui (htiMisli tbe ikre, and nenmulMv al Ik katUM of Ike «nt«ia. VThrm k 
!■ IWD lUrd» filkiL mttt m ran ilamij over it, aa4 (he wdboeal eallcd Hniaam tt lakcp 
OUL and eJlol *l< fiilmpi^ More baofjml iMo the lab, a ehiU lifla nriiin imiMum, 
■BdlttTiltonlhrum, whl«hr«luiuMBaiittiiM*hciihalaYer«ffliwer«. Thvi/lm 
now nuilni'-* In Xltr wnlcr ntatly u •■ Anl. from Hmn lo liiiii? mnovlnc wiik ibe Jnap 
the liK^irr iMliirrt n* tlip; tnine la iha tiitfrw; irhicb bclnv Cl roe vruhrnj; tim\j m 
bom, ari^ enUnl haJJUr't t,ff-il, uid wv Urvwn intn t)i« huUb ko/r. 

Mr. P'lliriii^b, ihr mnBiivr of Uiannt and Ik Fomy Conml mMn, liu oonirind 
ut biMttluun jb^in'j iMcUnc, lo wbkh ■ ttva tS 8 ucva are flxcd in ■ datiooary <k 
ealar iHinr, mnnrrtvd with it nlutuor or iiu^ii working ia ■ hollaw eyltnder, whtxbr 
a body at wntnr i> altFinBtrly fiiroed ap Ihrauch tbc eniahtd an in thn u^rw, Aod Ibea 
lellluitnci^ad. tn Ihis wnj oroiwrallng, Otr indiieriniinalv ur pmraliti« poanjircd'thc 
Urntr puIrrralFnl milter lhron(h Ih* oietlx^ i* aioiil^, because n reeulaird Unmn ef 
walrr 1( madr to irnmM Ihc pojlicln op nnd duvn. Tliiimode ha* proTod |ac£i>blehi 
Wa»liiii5 lilt cui>|n-r ok* oflbe aboro niFnlionnl copper Ininei. 

Proper inudi'w tjifiDrafw. — Ferwadtia^ l^orc kQer nflliis ii, Itao ro«nfa| buddl^ 
tlnaiy dotcribeil li CDiployed, olaag with MTOral tkwl* or huMtJ of other kind*. ^^| 

I. Tbe IntaV AaiUli ia a «p«o!n <if Gan»i> «kM (*m Mn-itu-uaot and Tix) co^a 
pOMil of two pait«i at a cialrra or box into irhich a Utmid of «ml«r flcm, and of ■ lai^ 
latk mtb a fmuoili IcvpI betiom. The eve to be IraaM bdng placed ia the bui. tin 
irvrktma fnraithed with a (hovel bent up at iu (id«, acilatn ii, and trinwn tntta limt 
1« lime th« eonntr porilont ; while the unallcr are iircj^ aS hj iti« wntrr aiid iW fnwiwj 
opOQ Ihrki^I area. 

3. TV ilirrint t^UU, or chew (br (V«elas Iko tthlamrru «■ alimj doff fton clay, b 
•naloEoo* lo Ibc GeroiaB che)l*,and cantnUaTltfo portsi nundr, 1. alcoiigb nUcb 
nccitu a ulrMm of water tbrmisb a pluc hole, which is lempervd at plcaaurcto adnata 

Kattr or le» current ; 2. o seliUni! Unk with a boriionlnl bailom. Tba metallic tlkm 
III) llnii dontnl in the vjtier cif the traoqh, then flowi out and ii dAporiud in Ibo Uak| 
Ih* piinyix pnri> taliiag fint near the beginning orihenia. 

S. The BifJkMg baJdJt b analogoua lo the lablM tallol rfonnanhj or /uiiMMt* bf th> 
French miner*. See Mbt«l).i;ii)v. They have al titit opper end a eroM eana] or 
(poni, F^unl in leniih to th« bmdih at Ihe table, vilk a (dug hole In il* mihile br 
•dMlllins Ihr nnler. AlontSuJc of thii chnnnel Iherp Is a iligblly inclined piniik, celled 
mttkinf haunt, carrt-iponding lo Ihe head of thf ruin taUt, and Ihere b a nrnitr lc**l 
flane beb>w. The operation eon«i«t* in tptrading a thin lajer of the flinic span tba 
■MJac toorj. and in ruaninBt ora id snrlaee a slender ahret of wntcr, which ia il» tn- 
great b tobdividol into rills, which nado^ carry olT the miidily iiiuiitnk, and Mmf 
them a*ar Ih* lower ll.il tutlWeof the taoik, in lb«ardpr of their dtiiwi>. 
34* L_ 4. The doOf ;*A or linting buekef, fit. 6i&, hat an upriiiht thnfl wbieh 

bean the nne or doUf a a, liirnni by ihc wincb handle. Tbit atqnialaa 
•nrvet to hrin; Into a mnu of tuspruiion in wnier, the line ore, alnady 
nearly pure : Ihi- seiiaratioa of Ihe metallic parliclu froin the PBilh|r onw 
by repote, bcinit promoleil by the ndei of tbe tnb bring ttruck frnj^iMlly 
dorinsr Ihc nibsidencc. 
0. Stime pUi.—ln the «Tcnil operation* of clMnnni: area from invd. 
Id frlnilinf, an'] wanhing, where a iirram of water u oiad, It it impoHthle to pievaat 
•cane of Ihe finely atlniuated portions of tbe Rakna nUed iMgt, fliiilbg iu lae wun. 
frMn br'iiis eaiTieil i-ll with it. Stitm fiit or labgniiHi, called huUIt JMct ia DerbnUii^ 
ate einpIojFd lo colleit Ibal mailer, by receiiing ihc water lo wlllc, at a liltle illilMe» 
from the place of airitnlion. 

Th*M hniins or merroin are about 20 feel ia dioaetor, and ftnin 24 to 10 indw* 
dMi>. Here the siupcnded ore >> depusiteil, and ■lottuntc bol dcai water it aJowed to 
MOape. 

The woikmcn employed in tbe mechanical prcparalioi cf llie (DW, are raid, in Can 
btrhintt, b) ibu (nrce, and not by day'i wagei. A ccflaia qoantily of emde ore i> dellv. 
errd to them, and iheir work it TalonI by lh> Hag, a incaaan tonlaining U cwu. uf ora 
irady ftir smell inK- TbepiieonrinaMardlaK tollieriebiiwaoflbcore. C«riaiB quaJt 
ties Die wnihni at the rale of two and mp«ne«, or three tliillia(B the bInK i while oCbtn 
arc vtifih al lead ten shilUne*. The ridmm of the ore vario* ftom 2 to SO bioca at 
galeuK per ihi/t cf ate; the shift eorroronding to 8 wagon loailfc 

I. Tlir clean^nit and nonms of the ore* ate well poAmed in dunbcrluid. TIibm 
oprratiout sran howenr to he infrrior to Ihc cleanaing on the grid iltpt, griOt* « (rmH^ 
orSair>ny (See McrJiUt'NCT). an ttpiauatut whirl) ia clraiiing iho OTM^ koa the admw 
la^ of ETuuiiins ihern in kiu ofdilTcTCnl qualitiet and dimenMunt. 

' 2. Thp briaking or brcdoBf by meuii «f the crmAt^ maMitt, I* touch moec expedl- 

tiou* thaa the Ucibfthirc ffeee** bj 5whwi t for Ihe iwbinc iatraduce« not only great 

Monomy into the bnalting oparatlMi, liul it Hkewiae dhoiniabet wosaleraUT Ihc Im* of 

laitaM/ /ertUmpeJ ortt moT bo efUo nibjceltd to the action of the eylisden witboal 




LEADi 



48 



mtu, wha* Q poriinn if ihcm would have bern loM with tha mwr that niM ftaa Hw 
•Uap bUL The wa of Uiom nOtn isiiy ihortfura be eoiMUcnd m ms <f Urn bppbid 
tawmlioo* UiliFTio moite in ibPBWclianinl|nTiBnlioft ef on*. 
■L Thi! biakt lifMt ■tiptai' to br i<ernal>lr to lh« bund odv*. 
"^ The (yiicni c^ vaihlMg lUed in Cumberland dilTcn (>«riitiaD]r ttam Ibkl of Bm- 
IMa;. 1*lin •■iiatr pin *rc conMnKtnl wMh iritich li-tt rair tban tu t'liUK* aocl GrnmnTi 
ThtJ never [imHil, m in Ibnr (ouniirr., thiii>r Inns viinltnit* badiwda ««d fonrnid^ 
vhMM ll^ karc b«m nOod Inb) rialli^ i ivobiiUy brcatiw ilio bat depssius, wUcb uc 
«ubnl with proBi in Fnince nnd G<rtnnuf, cuiilil nul be (o in CuoiMrtukd. Then ii 
nation to bclicrir, bowercr. that lli« inttodaetion oT biakt latUt {taitu d ittxmaft, IM 
MKyAU-cucv) woald enable dqicMln lo be Mred, whkh al prcsem rontomKtcia 
Sacbind. 

Si Prtioi what wt have now miiI abonl Ibe tiyMWD of wajbioc, and the baiin* ot d*- 
pMile 01 Hllliati cittmit, It mnit be inrrrreil that the operalioo foUawcd iu Cumberland la 
inon nprdilioni than that mod in Biillan;, but U (tintiabnt hu pure om, and crco^kina 
HMteeoHMdenUc waste: albel nilEcieaUrobrioa^ lintt ihr leruiFitulTal PanllaouMi b 
eAcn re*umnl, and pruHiablf •ubjoetcd lo n new pirj'DTslion. Wt ttuiuA however vcD- 
tun lo blame thii melbnd, beeau*c in England, fuel being «brap, imd labor dear, Ibere 
mar pooiblT bemoteaitnuilafeinuneltinit amore wmtwhatinipurc.anilinlofiBga Ultle 
galtma, Ihan in mullipljiiic Ibe noinber of wasblns iimceuet. 

ft. LmUT) ibe iMhr AiA onghl lo be kdojiled in all ihe ntobliihinenb where the galena 
lamliad wlu mtiobHcndcfmihdiunt ed'iine>i for idkJitA (incIaUic iilinic) which appoan 
*«f7 elnn to Ihp c)'f, givii ott a ccmtidrrsble iinanlily of blende by mean* of Ibe dcd?^ 
Atk While the vnnc i* niiiiill]' whirled, ihe dodiw !* |fradual]]r Jet down into Ihe nevelT- 
in<K watT, lill Ihe r(>i>»liiy in tnlEeienlty gtenl. W]ieite\-n' the ore is Ibnruui^hly itbn ii> 
inalul in iho liriuM, \hr dollf Ja withdrawn. The v<oiknien Ibcn drUic on Ibe tide* of 
the lub for n cm.iiilvTnblc lime, with malUti or ivoodni bilkti, to uaLe the ilime fnilAM 
lo Ihe bolldm. The lighter porlioni, eontitting aloosi entiirl} of refute mnilrr. fall oolr 
■fUr the bncching ho« erated : the wale r Ic nnw ma anj ; thea Ihe icry ixxir kIiiiic upoa 
Ihe Iff of Ibe iti'iMi>iii.> i« ibimmed off, while ibr jiuie ore found ai the botluni of the tub 
n liRnl out, mil liiiil on the Unnff't- In t)ii> way the blende^ irtiioh alrajB ateompa- 
Dim EnlcDi in a ri niier or (Mailer r[tianiii]t, u well teparateil. 

.ViwITitig tf lr,i.i i<r(). — The lend am it Dcifeydxire sad Ibe north of Enelnnd wrr« 
aoeimlly imelliiJ in iny rude fiimsrefs or tolw, urged bjr Ih* natural (vnv cf the wind, 
■ad were Ibneltire plaeed on Ihr siimmilB or wcMeni abpM of the liiijIiFil bills. More 
lecenllr the** furaaee* wm replaord by Mart hearth*, retcmbliui- imitlij' fcrgc*, hot 
lariicr, and were blown by ■Ironp bellows, moved bj looa or wnlcr.w heels. Tbe 

Cinetlial ngMralion of uneltlns U at nreienl alwafs elernlrd la Dcibyhhite in rtter. 
■aJory ytinaru, and at jUiIm Moor in IVirnaon ilmllar lo Ihoac known in Oanoe bf 
Ibe aame uf Sciilch farnaees. Bcforr enleiing iolo the detail of the fuundini; proteate*, 
we ihall give a ilmenplion of Ihe fumacM esMnlial fur both the imellinE and aecEiMry 

OpetBlioDS. 

I. 1'hr merboraloiT' IVurtiace called enpolo, now excludvelT nied in DcibT*Mrc An 
the imetlin^ of Irad oroi, wn* Imparled thither fturn Wales, about the fear IT47, bT > 
company nf Qnal^or*. The ftrn e«taMi»hii>ent in ihi* eonnlrr was built at Kaliledc*. Ir 
the •■*!> iet of Athover. 

U the work* where the conitniction of iheec funmeea ia ma*t Impiwrcd, Ibcjr arc 
iMteiiorly H fed lone by 6 wide in the miilille, aad two (ret biKh at tha ceolie. Tlie 
fire, placed at one of ihc eitrcmiliea, in Kporaled from Ihe bod; uf the furnace lij a bodjr 
of vktonrr, colled the ylrw-tridge, which a two Act Lbick, lenving onif from H Iu 18 
iac^ between ila upper tnr&ee and the vault. From tbix, Ihe bishal poinl, the vauJI 
Sndnally Kink* lowarih Ihe ftirther end, where It Mandi unly G inche* abcne the tole. 
At llii>> exueroity of the fumoee, there are two opening aeparalcd by a triangular priia 
of yin-afmr, which lead lo a flue, a fool ami a half wid^ and 10 feel lond which is 
mutvcd toward* Ihe top, and ruiu into an uprii;lil chimaey 5A feet hiRh. The above 
lue ii cotertd willi Ltone ilabs, CBrefuUy joinled wiih fireclay, which may be icmoved 
when Ihe depoiilc tormed under them [which ii njil lo melt] lequiro ta be clouie] cuL 
Om of Ihc aldet of the fbmarc 1> cnlled the labaren' tide. It ha> a dooi fur llirowing 
cMal Bpoa the Urc-fraie, betide* three nnall npertom each shoal 6 Inches iqiurc 
TWw atoclo«*d wilhrnoTraUeplaieaorcadlieii, which are laltenoif when Ihc wothiil| 
rai«lN«n fte«r eireulalion cf air, or for the ilirrinf up of the material! U|Kin ihchearlb. 
Ok tile oftnsile nde. colled Ihc working tide, there are fireapertureai D*jndy, Ihice eqaal 
•ad oppoiiie to Iboic juit dcieribcd, tbutliiie b like mnnner with caa iron r'niei, and 
beneath llinn two other opening*, one of which i% for running out tbe lead, and anolhcr 
fbr Ibe •corlic. llie a»h pit b «lM OS Ihit aide, covered with a IllUe water, aikd *a di>- 
p aaaJ m thai the irnii«-bar« may ba SMilf cleared tnta Ihe dndcc *lag. 
rTh* hearth oT the IWnaM ia compoaed of the roveibenlory ftaiiiaeo tlo^ to wUcb a 



M 



LEAS. 



proper tliape has been given b; besting Ihem wilh a Strang tron rake, befbre their 
entire wlidifi cation. On the laborers' side, this hearth rises near!)- to the surface of 
the three oixnings, and Tails towards the woriiing ride, so as to be IS incbeii bElow Ite 
middle aperture. In this point, the lowest of the furnace, there is a tap-hole, IhrcMfp 
which the lead is ran off into a large iron boilef (tea-pan), placed in a recess left ont- 
slde in the masonrr. From that lowest point, the sole giadually risfs in nil direction^ 
fbnnini; thus an inside bnsin, into which the lend nins down as it is smelted. Ai the usual 
level of the metal bath, there is on the working side, at (he end furthest from the £re, an 
aperture for Ipltini; off the slag 

la the middle of the irched roof mere ts a small apenure, called the cnncn-holr, whidl 
fa covered up during the working with a (hick east iron plate. Above this aperture • 
Urse wnoden or iron hopper stands, leading benenth into an iron cylinder, through 
whirh the contents of the hopper may fall into the furnace when a trap or voire il 
opened. 

2, Tht roasling famaa, — This was introduced about 30 years ago, in the neigh, 
borhood uf Alston Moor, for roasting the ore intended to pass through the Scotch furnace, 
K process which greatly facilitates that operation. Since itsGrst establishment it hassao- 
eessively received conBklera.ble improvements. 

^g: BSn, 857, 858, represent the papola furnace at the Marquess of Westminster** 
lead smelting works, two miles from Holywell. The hearth is hollowed nut below the 
middle donr of the furnace ; it slopes from the bock and ends towards this basin, "nie 
distance from the lowett point of this coneaviljr op to the sill of tho door, is nsuallvSi 
idblics, but it issometimos a little less, according to the qual ity of the ores (o be ameUed. 
Tliis fumaoobosnoliole for running off the slag, above the level of the top hole for t])e 
leoil i. like the ani^tting furnace of I^o, near Ualloch, A single chimney stiilk serve* 
for alt the establishments: and receives all the flues of the various roasting nnd reilncilig 
furnaces, fig. 85S gives an idea of the distribution of tbese fines, n a a, dc are ^a 
fiimsoes , 4, the flues, 18 inches square ; tlieso lend from each furnaee to llic principal 
ondiiit c. which la G (ect deep by H wide ; if is S fei't deep by 8 wide ; e is a niDDd 
chamber 15 feet in diameter; /is a conduit 7 feet high bj S wide; g another, feet 
high bv ^ wide. The chimney at A hns n diameter st botlom of 80 ^t, at (op of IS 
feet including the thickness of its sides, fiimiing a truncated cone 100 fcethi^li ; whose 
base stands upon a bill a little way from the fumai^t^ and 6i feet above their levcL 
Ofjigi. S5!>, 8GT, is the grate; b. the door of tlie fire-place; r, tlie tii'e-bridge ; li I'he 





858 



MMMMM. 




arched roi>r-. r. the hearlh ; /// ie, the working doors ; g g, flues running intA on* 
conduit, whieb leads to the >nbtprmncan ci>ndcn?in([-chamlM:r t, and thence to tha 
(Ceneralcliininpy; A, a hopper-^hnivd m.ening in the top of (he furnace, for ammlviiw 
It with malcrinls. ' ' '^ 

Thi^niacnificent structure is U"t deslined soli-Iy for llie reduction of the orea, hot fw 
tosipating alt the vapors which might prove noiioua to tbu liuslih of the workuoopte 
■nd to vciietation. 

3%*orea melted at Holywell are very refractory galena*,mixed with bIeDde,eaIuiiiD(, 



LEAD. 



4ft 



oTilUs, nTbonntc of Inw, ft«L, bac wilhout nj nnoie <£ time. Th«T Mtt* mMMllr u 
A«XM to one ■noilwr. Th<! coal ii uT ifil>i4or qnilUr. Tbf^ oole of ntch fuTh«o« i* 
ftnp' J (if ulnvK (ihulocd in Iho nncltiiis, and the? nre bU of one kind, la coiulnieun; 
it, 7 or 9 Ina* u( thp>i' ilasn atr ArM of all th/own d|iop Ibn bitck uca of Ih* hoMlh ; ore 
maik lo tnell \>y a bti-k Hrr, aiul is ibtk itiffrninjt >Ule, m th«nr '*>"l> (htjr p«nniii Um 
buRoiti lo be >Ii>pnI I rul holloirmi uMo llw dMtraJ shape. Four vmLdko, two al cacti 
.idilc nTifc" ruiniKc, pcribnD Uiitaik. 

I'lii; <jv>li>iiicr chaigi; oT ore liit one imoldiig oitcratba U 30 cvl*., and il b btroioMd 
ibroiieh ihi* Iii>|'ppr ; RK Carrui,^ir. 3TS. Ao amttant plu«d a4 the back doom iipnadi 
Il (i|<ull! oTvr IV whe^ hranh wiih a rah*; lb* rornaci! btin; mcanwUlii hcaWl onljr 
with ihedceliainv dreof theprccciliDEoiieraUun. No riKular firs ii made dnriaf Iho Gnl 
tme bcnm, bnl a mitle heal merely U li«pl up by ihrowinx one cv two iliinvlfiib uTunaB 
<oal upon ibc sraM IVom time loUno. Ail Ike don* «m ctoacd, andUicregMlcr-plaieof 
(kr ehimnrir U to*»f*d. 

The oalrr bcuin in fronl of lh« farnaec i* «l Ihb llmc lllW with Ihc Ifad iliriTod rton 
a ronnfT praceM, the nwtal bvuw oornnl with ttatt. A kcUiiruIm' tlil aboiY Ihc tap 
hole il kA open, and mnuu so durinx the whole lime of Ihe opention, uaku the Irtit 
ibooldrHc la tlMMIcriorbana above the lercltd* thai oriAcet ia which eawnUltlemotud 
nuai b* railed bttorc ii. 

ti* iwo Joan in front Atnhnt IVom the Hit bcln^ toon opcnad, tho haad^mriwr 
tkrows in thiQURfa them, upno the aolc of tho (tonMce, the tIaitK (wimininR upon Ihe balll 
of haiL and a lilUc whik aJUrwvdi he opciu Ihe UpJiole, and ruai nlT the metaUiB 
lead icjacod from Ihctc ilac*- Al ihc lainc time hia aauaUiil tumi ivrer the otc wMn 
hl« ptddle, Ihrouffli the back donr*. I'lirtr b>^in« a^n eloMil, while Ihc above Iwn Ooal 
doen art oprn, Uic smeller throw* a tViiflfu) of finall coal or cokr elnittr upon the lend 
bMk, anU vrdiks the whol« totelher, liimiiiv orrr Iha ore wiih Hin paddle m iron oar. 
About Ihree •luurlvrs of an hour atiit ih- cammencearwnl of ibv operation, he Ikiowi 
back upon the lole of ihc hearth Ihc fmh t\as* which Ihea lloal u[roD Ihe balh of Ibe 
o«ter bonn, nnd which are mtied with eoalT- Ruitiei. He ncil lamt oter Iboe iilago, at 
well ai theorc wtth ihc luiditl?, and ahiiu all the door*. Allhii time Iho amcluv mitt off 
the leail into the piit-nioiiid«. 

The nMiitanl now tiirin over Ibe ore once more IhmiRh the bnolt doon, A Bltte 
More Ikao an hour oAct the 'operation be);nn, a <tuanllt^ of tewl proe eodJns fmoi the 
tdag loal mncllHl, 1' nin off by ili« |iip i hrinii iitually in nch qnantilf a* to III ooa 
b>lf of lite oiim liiiDtii. Kolh Ihe wiirliinen tlipn I'lm over the on viih Ihe poiUlM^ al 
Ihe *errml clfinri oT Ihe fntnnce. Id inlfrior ii at thi< lime of a ilull rod heat t the 
nMMJni! bfiiiit niiried on rather by the comhoilion of ihe tiilpburoui initfirfienti. than 
bj Hie aetion of Ihc mnnll qiianlity of conl In the pule. The unipllrr. after Uinlllng 
Ibc front dno^i, with the rvcpptlon nf thnt neni the Hrf^brld^, tlflu ulf Ihe fmh «k«i 
hiiie upon Ihc »iiif»fc of the oiiHiJe bnih, dmin« ihem, and lliiows them bncit into the 
ImtaM. 

Ab boor nnd a half aAer the eommenecniml, the tend tx-i^ni la ootc oat in imall 
VnaBlilM* ftom the ore i but lliile thoald be miffCTHl lo flow before two ho'irn hnve t* 
pired- Ahout Ihii timo the two woiknien open all the dou™, an-l Mm ovr-r ih» ore, 
cneh at hU own aide of the farnocr. Aa haar and three iguniirni afti'r iJi^ bi-iiianla*. 
IkcK arc few npon in Ihe flimaec, lla lempenlur* beint \tTj tbodcrale. No matt 
lead il then teen to flew upon the ilopfai; heiinb. A tittle coal beiag ihmwii inlo the 
mic to ralu the heat xligibily, Ibe worlnaen rum or** II10 ore, and then dote all tk( 

At Ih* end of two hour*, tha Jlrit fin or rontlinji beiaf mmpleled. and Ibe dooiv 
ibiil, 1h« reciiler ti lo be Med a Ultlir, and conl Ihrown upon the frale to ritc the 
trrml firt, which Init* duiinf; SSAitnules. When Ihe doora are now opened. Ihe inNde 
of the (Vimaen it of a fittXtt Tivtd red, and Ibe Itad flow* down ftom ceorT aid*! towards 
Ihe Inner liuin. The MDdlet with bii rake or paddle pn«ho« Ihr »I*^ upon that baain 
baek tuwntdt Ihc upper part ef the Mtc, and hit auidint aprcndi then) iiailbnnljr 0T«r 
th» nurfane Ihrough the back ilootiL The tmelicr nrii ihrcn-H iti b; his miildle door, a 
few shoralfiiN of iinlckliine Upon tht laad bnih. The irnainnl cnponwhile, for a quarter 
of an liuiir, irnrlii Ihe ore and the )to|t* togellier Ihrongk Ibc ihre? back doors, and then 
(fveaidi them oui, whUe the metier pnihea Ihe ilnB* ftam Ihe turiiiee of ihc inner boiin 
back to Ihc upper jiails of Ihe mk. The door* bcins OJW left open for n liltle, while 
Ihc lalerloc remiiiu In ie\Oie, Ihc mclnllie trad, whteh had lieeii pufhed bock wllb tht 
imgtf Aow« down Inlo ih« barln. Tliii ocentloniil footitig nf the fprnaev b> thought lo br 
■natmiT (br th< better vei-rLmilon of the prodnd*, ciptciany lit the tints, ftvm Ihe lead 

hub. 

In a short time Ihc workmen reottme ihcir rake*, and turn over Ihc slaei "Iodr with 
the ore. Three hour* aflrr the comincnccincut. a lilDc more fuel (5 pot into the 5t»ls 
nettlj 10 keep up a niodcraic heal of the ftitnaec during the paddling. After Ihrer 



M 



LEAD. 



boiin niul Irn tnlauic*. Out jrdie bciag eluu8«d with flitl b> ih* fUnJ firr, lb* (i(|M«v i 
■I wmplPlrlT oprnnl, tk« iloi>» arc aD tiliM, kihI ihoAiraacct* tr-A in Ihn tlBtcTo* thrM 
qnaiiri' rif an huiir. In nvartf tOar liovn (ram ike cooiinFncrinfiil, nil ilir dunn belnc 
ofKiinl, iltF utiiinBl l«Tcl3 the tuifiiOfS wilk Mt rake, in ur>li-r lo (atot the iSmccmi of 
an) Ai-y\ -.i iMii I anJ then iprvndi Ihe alaKi. which ue fiiuhni bade K>«*nli hiB hf 
Ihp tiiirlii^i. Tlie Uitcr noiv thravi io a Cnsh iiitanUiy of lime, with tb« utw aDt 
mrtrl) iif coifriai; Ihe Itad bolb and preventing its otrdiicneu, tmliirreaileflag l}ioala|) 
ICMlIilnJ. 

IVn nilnulM olUr (b» lUrd fiM b completod, Iho cmcUrr pul* a ni?w rtdtgr of tkel 
in Ibr vmii^ ami ihnla (he dcron of tbp flunac* to gm ii ibtr /•.■urfh fin. Id fnur boun 
anil (ii(l5 MtnuUa fram Ihc ManmoncrmMil, thia iire beinic Buiitin], ih« doon wtv 
aliened, ih« welln' ptotc* the lap hole lo diMbann ibe lead into the ouUc baiia, »aA 
thrnns tome qoiekliinc apan the ila«a In tb« inotr boan. He tbni putkc* Ike dag> 
Ihohifritrlap toward* the upper pDnvfUirbcarihiiindbltMBlflaiil raka them out bjllK 
back dciock 

Tb* tthul« vp^tatlon uT a tmtlliiig Aift tabn about bar hout* and a bolT, or at ■•■< 
tn bonr*, in whjcli four peited* maj b« dklinBuiabcd. 

t. Tkt fini fin for rooilinit the ar«*, r«(|Uiira vrrj modtnle fiiini- aid loMt tva 
boon. 

2. Till! »catiif>irt,ar ihc uncllinir. roiniiMa blither heal, with tbul icons ■< ib«tMl 
the ilngk arc ^rud up with lime, v)d lh« Ibraaec a. nbu allowed to cool a little. 

, 3| 1. The tut IW4I pniadf, ut Ihc Ikinl and ^TbarU fini, air likcwlM two UD«llilip ot 
nuodinot. and ililfrr tmm ibe llnl onlv In raquirinit a hi^cr (ODperatiir^. 71>c baU 
b freatBl b the Inil. TItp tona and iUni«iuian« of the furaao* are calculaled m caoM 
■ uniform diMnbutiun of h<ot oi-rr Ihr whole ■nrfoce of Ibe hearlb. SooKllMn biHtto 
of treoa wood are pluninl inlu the inrlalUe load of ihe onia baiia, cnuiuic a* cboUldoa 
wbicti fbtMi the irpnniion uf the %iw, aod conicqiienllj llie produclion of n purte loai; 
bBI nn niorv BMtallie outlal i> obtained. 

Ten cwtt. of eoal arc eonnamrd at HolfwvU in luinlting on* Ion of (ha lcaA-o<t tAHA 
or tbulv I hut nl Umtiuflon, near Slcipton in Ynikohire, with a alinilar Airaace worked 
with a alover hen). Ibe orenlion ukinff ttam leven hour* to Kven boors anil ■ hal( 
instead of Hte, flniT "H ewti^of cool are coniumMt. But here lb<? oruare led rriinciory, 
hare Uie tinl*M«f lluar «p«r oi a Jlux, nnd an: uiorecihauttcdof Ihril loetal, bdnc wdl- 
ed oiNin n let* *loping beanb. 

T^«in> ^ 'iVf oicM tferatim. — Al HolTwall, GnHrington, and in <.'»miraU, the 
rCiuU nf the lint E^odaaled rmttlinit hnnt, it > mixlurc of undeoompojrd Miljihurel of 
lead, will) lulpliale and caple of lenil, in projHtrlioni whjf h Tury with ihc iltiiTev ot oare 
bellowed upon tlic ytotrst. .\(\rr Ihe roaslioi. Ibe hnt is raised lo nmvctl the sMga 
Into B tia.'ty mats ; in which lb« oijije and tulphalc roict upon the vulphufet, *■> h (o 
produce a aiilhfiulpliurrt, which paiti wilb llie ni<*lnl by liquation. The cep/lag qf Ml -< 
yiiniuN GieDitatet the lliuatlon rrcrj limi- ihni iln- Mib-niiliihiiiel i* fiitmed, and tboon i 
bM laioed br increuae nf teinpenliirr fram iho jaily intii llie liiuid lUte. Cotlmg 
brinn hick Ihe tliidce to llie poitjr ron<tiiiun, and ia Iherefore neeemii] fur the imr 
•epnralian <rf (be diflerrnl boilie*. The itr)in> up of the thin ilat* by lime ii inlehded 
lo UUrmle the oiydL- of lend, and allow it lo react upon any sulpbnlct which 1007 hare 
naislal toatliniior decompoaition. liiaolM n*cdUla«*(hfrlE«M>',in a mediknicol point 
of view. The iron of Ihc tools which wear awnr mr t^li b alia Ht\ii;»Bblc in i» I 
doeing the mlphaiel of lend. The small cual tddnl ahiii|C witb the :im« al Uiswiagtoi^ j 
uid alao wmvlimM at Holywell, aid* in irdueias tb« oiyde of lead, and in tisniibmHDI I 
the Milphal* iaio lulphuret. I 

3. TliUHieUinf/tinatii orortlinrth. — This fnruace. railed by the Kiench tcUHoiji It] 
from 22 Ici M incbta in bwhi and 1 fuut hy 1 1 in nna luside 1 but its boiiuininl KKtlon, | 
•hrap rMtaninilar, rarin much in iti dimensions «i dtlfciBiii lovobi, at tbowa wl 

Ag. 808. 




LEAD; 



47 



'nl^h«utb•nd tb»iidiWM«of CMlif«a; IkeMkls^au Aviaalioof «aitiran.3f mthM 
Ihlek. hniini; on jtf baek Mid two iU«* an upn^hl Mge, jl <, 3) in«h« Diick and ii 
kiiih. In Tront of the htmnh Oim a &nalhn' nst mo platn >i k, calUd tli» ««r£ 
tfuijr, luribiindcd on ifien *idc <a«q>Un]^ towwdi the dole oT lh« Aimocc, b< n lcili« 
onp inrh in llticknos u»d bcJcht. The plalc nlopn fVom IhIiImI TorwardK, unit iia pm- 
Iciitir l>>ili;i>, wlucli It shout 4| tnchnt Kbovc the *ui&n of the hcinlh, it M>|<iinitftl rrom 
il b>' B vdkJ tfacp 9, whitli t» nUtrf with a miitiir* vf hotm nA ■d'J ^1«(ui, bolh in llnF 
powder, nwitivnvd asil preuetl down luffvlhcr. The nirllol tend oinnol penetrele int* 
IhU badj, bnl aAet fillinie Ihe baun •! Ihc bolloin of the IWnnee, Rom natuntlly out 
b)' Ihc cotlcr lacwlj an inch dHji) IhronEh n croove in the vvrfc-^Jm* ; and Um* 
|iM*i)* iala n Mldron of (vecpUon r, ttyUd Ihn mHllng-pol, piatfi brlow the fronl edge 
ntlhv irofk-Mmr. 

Thir iivntfTioT l«d|tc of Ibn via li Munioiinlol br • pipes of raM iron c k, calird th« 
baek-irimt , S^ inch«i lunc, an'l A| liicb i on which the leylrr or blai(-pi[w it pland. Il 
mpporii another pipce of cati iron >■, nDo] pipt^me, Mooped out bI ila undn )«r1. in 
tbemiildl'T iif ilt katrth, for Ue pouureof Ihefnyir*. Thi* plnn advanpra 2 inch«lnln 
the IniriioiT «r Ilir fuinacc. Ihe Iraek wall of which i> Hnally crewncit hj anciihfr pltvraf 
eau iron s >i. callnl nl«o tatk-*lau. 

On tlM l(dc«i nf the two aidn of Ihe ti>le, aru plncnl two pie«n cf nut iron, calM 
tktarrri, eatk of whidi it 5 inclkea in breadlh awl height, and 36 inehet Ions. Thfj 
advance aa inch or two above the poslcriar and tiiKtu^i edge of the worb-tlDw. and eoD' 
Iribatr Fflecimlly to iii il tolidl]- In >U nkce. ThrtR hearer* mi|>poi1, throuch the.in- 
lerveniion of nei-cnU ringcs of Ilrc-farlcM, a pltwe of <B(t Iron wM aybr(dtpM,whlch 
ha* ihc unie dtnimalcmii a> Ibn place (nlled llie b/Kk-ttent, <m Which Ihp boM nf ttio 
Uowiiii'Ri9«hin<- d»u. Thit plc«« ia in contact, nl caebof ita extmnil lea, with onMher 
na** c>r «>t lion. 6 inrh<'9 cuW, Called Ibe fe«y-<fo«r, mpporte d on tbemuonty. Lattly, 
the viiici ^^llf-Bi•■(^ between the two Ivy-irMri and the tnMlc parloftbefViniace nre fitlcd 
np willi Iwo muHTt of caal iron cioclt}- like the Jier-fftDnra. 

The IVeai of the fWnocc ii open fbr about it inehn fhiRi ihx lowrr iwrt of Ihe IVont 
«rQ»»-pl'^e odM/nn-itont, up to the superior part of the uwfe-atcw. Il in thron^h Ibii 
opiMiin? lliui Ihe tmeltcT opernim, 

Thr gnHtoua producl* of the eombnalion, on ctoapinc ttvm thit ore-beailh, arc ftt^ 
iinrnilf mode to paia Ihrooffa a lonR fhte, doped vcrf tUriilly n^waidt, in which Ihcy 
derotiienD th«partie)oa«f ontlutlheymar hnvcntvpl alonf:ihotollam,wha'e length 
iatomaUiMa men than lOOrardih are ntually Sftet high and 1 foot wido in Ibninajd^ 
uid alwava tnrmlnala in a eltinnev aialk. Tlie mailer* deiioiited nur ihe fomninnee- 
oiOHt uf t'i<i 1^l^- iv'iiiiire lo be waihed; bai nnt Ihv oibce iiiuly dvpoiiti. Tho wbola 
may lln't l>i -I'l tlciI bank to lh< renating furnagiv to be cnlejnedand rc-afrRlutiiialed, oe 
inlroduct-J iMitiiiul nay pioporatioa inls the aFoy kiaTtK. 

< i\f. BAC^HIII rapreKntaalag-hearlli. lha/«ru*H doMai^v (elb<TwfarnHnt)orihe 




n 




i-''! 


-- 


rV 


1 


1 

1 " 


k) 



rrMteli n"dlh=*Tiiwme/r«(«root«dfurn«w)oflheG«rtnni«: moh » i«ii..d al Aliton 
Mmr in ComUrlond, for lA" mJuction o* the Uad-tUg. Il rewmibW ihe Scrtte* 
hn>^ Tl,e«l,«(li.a «r»ll«Ui'lr«*«'''««e*'^'»^''"'^'-' ' t.!«..«d 

whwfl »«ieht i» S feet ; Ihe aole-plut* •, of «wrt II*". alop« iI i . ' ■> bawB 

•fr«^liwi.orth.fore-heartl.i. Uponbothoflhelo«erfjla.<i l ■ •;'««;• 

Mrt Ir^n beam wHed *«ref*ec. of gniatttpength, wil.l.wppon tlir..de ""« ""Wl 
of a o.»f»« Kt»iued *ajuWone.o*woU a« tho enaC iron plate d (/>«-»«.■«' 1, *li.«h (urtm 
tiie front oAhc thafL Tlut ttwdt 7 indiea o« from Ihe «ol*.plnle, lc*vir.f n" ««i'pty 
■pae. belwcm thora. Tl.» back tide i« mad* o* cut irun fr«fli ih* .nie piitt t.. ih« 
liin-sBUl uy''" i" i" «i"l*ll«! »■>« abo« iW. pomt il i. .node ..f «n.i.l"i«. Iha 
luv.f* it frw" I i "> a '»»''•• '» diameter, lit froal of the ft^-hearth ^ n n.tern » i* 
pl^oc-L thronah wWcb w»t«r coi.linnalW flowfc ao that. tJ.o alapa wliKh .iwntiuioondjr 
«t*rilo» ifceWhwrthinay b«..n.#!nlt.led and tliatt-red. "'■•"bjih. u'!ll!!t^ 
luted lhi»«l> iUm» nM.y be readily wj>nt»t«.l by waeblnj. Tl.e lead it.»lf flowa^ 
tke for**o2rth k tknwih an orihe^ mlo an tron pot/, which it kejd hi.1 over a fiw. 
Tfc^ mTunbUiaed toZ tiua .lag UeaHh Um«»iliipnrelUan that exlracled dirwrtly 
fMcnUieor* 



tf 



LEAD. 



The whole hoUa* nT ihe Atruco b filed la • httehl of 17 incho*, ibl i% H 
vlUiU 2 or 3 iitrht* of Ite liqire, wiUi th« rihbi»h of cuke itducal to coanc prnn 
U4 brat ilron^l) itoini. Al Mcb tmdliitf A\/t, ibu Iml iii»fi be madp anrw, ami Ik* 
intwior <S Uir HiromM above IW luvjjc nfiatiel, iriib itkc excci-tinn ct llie ftoai. coo- 
tiitinf III' n>>t iron. In nivtncvof Ihe fiiiaicp Uipre it a, tuuin nf tecciilica, wlitch ii 
alio 6!W wilh coke nibbuh. Farliirr oil' it u [lil, fiifl of walei, «i>leiii»liBl hj a coU 
Unsauii which inceiHiatlv lam in Ihinuich a pii".'. Tiic trorid', in llowiu oal lit iho fuN 
Uce, (n» oTrr tke eobe bc<l in the baiin tif rt'cepliiin, nuiI thi n fill inio Ihr water, «bo** 
CMlaeu makn. ihtin df into cinBil piccei. o/lcr irliicL ILei ue oaiily walked. Hi at ta 
Wponile thr li'dil Uiil iiiay bo cMBU^td aawni; Ihccn. 

TtUK tvuMf we uix«d. In goncnl, bjr wooden bcIloBs ; fig. Mi. Sut at liir Muelthif 




wtrKt of Ln, otnj Matlock, tbt Uoviaf-naehiac euauati of liro coila^ which 
Vpon borltontal aiei. t^ach of IhcK tau> ia dirtied into two equal pari* hj a Aad 
pfanalhiUpaMCAihrouith iuaiB, and ii Oiled wUh waUr lonouialn hvicbl. Tliewaur 
er one nUI^ oim(niinient#B with Uinl irf* Ihn olher by hii o|i(<nint( in Ibe U>wet f»it ef ibg 
divition. Ench rank poMtwcB • «iOT«n«nl c( citcillnliuit, prcdiieeil b)r a rnd nllndied W 
Koroak of n buck el- wheel. Al racli 'Irnii-wieilUiiani oneoTllie coinfinilBeat*, being li 
tomniuainliun witli the nleninl tiir, ii fillcil i while Ibc olher, on Lbc cootr«r7,«OMMliat 
cues with IW miule. ond lupplic* winil U> the fuTDAce. 
Sl R^nini or eupiUiUim/krmaet. Sec Silvk*. 

Cl Smitltnt by lif nmU r alor^ /•matt it adoptud exdnuvi'Ix in l>erh)^hse, osd n 
' work* 'I Abrfon Moor. T)ir> charyi! in Ibe hopper eonsiMi comioanl) of III ewti^ 
I vekhiwc 120 Ibt. aroirduiwu, eonipoied of an iolioial* miiliuv of 6, 0,7, ov «iia 
$ klail* nf ore, derived fnun diJfeienI mines, awl prcpornl in dilbrenl wap. The ft» 
poeliimicf ttic coitturearodelonnintd bjrexpenaeciBndaracd'gnaltDaMqaator tolh* 
naeeMof (he wmk. 

Th«are la tntber to (he formof Rnint thanurallnf^irAJieh] il b«m«liine« veryporat 
and aHbida 75 jur nut. i but uiiinlty il ii initnl up wiih • laree propoftion of cotboMU 
od HwIc of bine I and iu proincl varin (rum 6f> lo 23 prr teW. 
After tonpine Ihn ikuKy malten out of Ihr furanec, a fteih imeltiog utiifl I* latf*. 
dOOtd al an inlerral of n (ivr minulo; and Thus, by menni of (wo nllcmale wodb 
caOD, whii rtlirve eaelt other i.-very levrn or eiirhi hour', Ihn weekly operniioiii contiinw 
wilhoLiI inti-imriion. Tho ni»niac produei in leail of iho reverlwralory nirnneei ■■ 
Dnbyihiir. 'lurini •everal y-an, hn* liten lili per oonL of the or«. Very line ore ba», 
however,' atronled 7S, 

1. Smisltiiv of tht i6wn tlaf, a» Ot* titfmHi htarA, — The block *kic of Ibv revetb*> 

nMry (WaocB b hrokea by hamuien into imnll {iiecea, nnd nujinl in piopci )<r< parUMH 

wilh the i:<«l cindcra Ibat Call Ihiough Ibv £>■■? of the reveibcialcir) /lie. The Intel 

inu;ri iliHt lloal on Uie lurfaee uf tbo bniti, and the dutt 4cr"^lvd in lbc ehiinacjr, 

•le adiletl, aluiuf wilh Mnie pixir ore containing a giuii[ue of lluur ipar and limcstotu^ 

which hail bees pal atide diinnR Iho aAchonlcal pKiauatiiiii. Willi luch ■ miiluir, ibc 

tloK-hcanh, niraulj di«ijbed/(j;«. 6GD. SC I . it cbnrced. Bj lbc acljwi of heal and t<»\, 

I Itie land ><• rciitetl, \bt earlhy mattrn llow into very liquid KoriiE, and the whole b 

I Bade to iiiis* ncroe* ihe Iwily uf fiie iaio a baun of receptuin iilacnl briienih. Tbc 

MoriiD nr« thickened by Uiiowins iiuicklimc upon Ibom, and lliej aic Ihea tai«d 

KWay. Al lbc end of Ite opcrniiun ihc -laiHt i* out (i>l» pin or tngolt of a pi«uliar 

(bna. Ttiii i* cnllnl tJ&^-li'ad. It u harder, more aonoroiii than the ttad oblajsej fnua 

[.die rombffMury fumoee, and ii piefeiieil fur the BiBnufactiirc of luiniuiD, Icnil thoi, and 

, famtfilher puryioseB. 

& TnatmnI y hoi #rri ly) iSt Sfvtch /uraafr, or on-Aiarik, — Hii* fwrnirc i> |t(«er- 

ally anployod i> tlic eauslit^ of Nonhuinhcrlaod, Cuir.bcilund, nail UuiliAiii, (in the 

I HMlinit of lead ocMt wbich were furaicrty ranicd to thorn without ojiy ptcporaiiMi, 



LBAfiL 



« 



in 



■(■*MtI> 



bol MW IhcT are npoui 1» a prtUmiBry nlclnotlM. The roMlfd on jMfc in lh« 
Hrottli n>ma« ■ noir cnnudtniUp pruduci iliin rhr cnitc orr, tMYaonr ii liirm* in th* 
fkrnitr* ■ more |u<njiui in«". nml fiI the isalc Iimr U treriu dritr, lu »*c Uir (onadri't «». 
inuiiin I Ihal If, il iill>i-r< iin lY ntr isiprlln] b]- lb« brllnw* lo diOiiic tIMlf DNitc 

MMU'I'I''!' '(^f*"* Ibp D ' ' ' 'inj in tb'- ratnirr. 

■"■ •'- • •'■ "^ »w 1 ...."ic>s.. lai, l>»2,633, is (ram 9 la II «t». ai vr, 

f >-«)thoi>1 nnTaililitirjij. Thrmvupbtkifti ure unwUt' foiatd lkrt>D(b 

■n rh« fitv hIiiiuU he urc^il in inch a moauFi at lu pK«iic« eonminilf ■ 

iBiulic, Biiixnil IrtUBU any pui or the lur inpll and fona a *!■(! an acciirw 
wixibl lOnicd )>■■' I'lo-'ii'*) rtttrtthr yiott**-, vhirh i* to burn iiiribpiiilpbliraoil 

' ' 3(kI oribombonBtroflMil. Tbcoiv niuEii br iVp. 

I .r= tlir Ixiilfte ID the Mhrr pnd and badi arnla. To 
pf— - .. .i.rii' .<.«>. .11. 1 .iiIt tii««*naA il cuols >t i* cindc Ic Inil odI uT Uivlbiaat* 

it. I «(wMttr, pla«tilWloiron«<f Ike Initial dnui. 

</ lit barf am te Mt StvM /imHift,~Vt'hea • Hii^'nc Mi^ hJk bm 
fcilifcwl III UiR ItrotrJi IVmar*, a pc<iiii>n of the off, nUnl troinr, rrmatn* in a >cnii> 
w Jbc«J nat^, mitnl wiih rekr aod rinilrm. Il It liiand nf nmn! airanlaEP tii prciprre 
tha browf for lirvniains ibe fiillcrsinir (iiM'minn. Ihna to laLe raw nr wen n:n>ir4 
erv. T<> (H (III' ramB<y in artinn, ihc Inti'iior uf il It HUnl nilb jicbii. rut Intu ihr 
lira of brivbt. The pc«U loaanU the povtrrior pnrt dip bcnprd up thlhnnt uidtr, 
%■« ihow a«ar the Owkl are piM np triib rare in ibc fbnn iiT a wall. A kindlrd prai 
1» Ma« plnPnl bHocc the noulr uf (he briknn, vliicli nrn ina4p lo blov, ani Ihe blui 
l^rndt iliF fMsbii'iliin rapldlj Araurh the vholp EHt>*. T« inrrcoM the hrai. Bad w 
Rtidrt i!>' fiir RiMir nlfnilr and dnniblf, a (rti i>lic>THfnlflorNal(>Te Ihrown oitt iW 
mC A rrilain qvantilyoftke bTi><*w latobeimt ininidiicrd; nnd Ibra (m kihip- 
Umeii biCirv nil Ibe tauuae ii |>al in) Ibe smler pan or Ihr maltpn fonloionl in the 
flMiia«« tdlrawBm-rraa the uerfe-iJni^ bj-'tDnnHora laixr rakecaHnl a ^mrrJadri Ike 
wttlmt <f Ibe aee nllnl Rmy iJof, whirh a tL-iirnl tnirlitt biiuw> hy Ml Mnlae 
tt* tmivM, it tabfatdT with a iihovH, and thmim lolhr ritElit bBaJ into a 

of ibr fbrnaee. Ttir hrowie IpA iin ihe irnrk-Uone » lo he now ihio«m badi 
iMatbe ninuo^, wi1fa Iht aildition of a titlk roal. If nitttwrT. If Ihe biowte be nM 
■•1) '■t'1'it-l I'"-!- ihF ilsc. vhieb I* pmeiied by the wkaje wai i beine in a «rA Mate, 
ud 'Ij' '■.ii:; ri r'Ti'li-iic)- In Tusr, quickliMC niQil be odtlcd, vhlcb b^ >!■ allinitj fur the 
annUacn><>>. •I'ls<lm^ nnd ft^nshtiat nitnlance^ drWi up the nwlerialt, a* Iko 
iMJIen »nr, ind i-<i n lo lb* MOlhj pan* tke ptnperty of nncrelinr inla IiiBp* m 
Wb j fctii if, on Uir (ithcr hasd, the illicfcMt, BrKiUamm, m (ermiiiaonii piiti eon* 
Mteed Ml tkr «ee iiebin rrft*MuiT. liTie ia alM M be nddoi. lull in ■mnlJn' lusnlil):, 
■kkb, trr n-mlrrfni (bm Biora fiiilWe, MnunoahaiH the [eopeitj of coDcrpTiac inlD 
-A, ealM rnj kUc, rontaln timet one Iralb U> one flnprnili c4 Ibe 
■ ' . I •Fnt in tW ore. Thef mnul bo mailed alterwani* al a buliei lem- 

•natarr in i ' M>r hrvii, 10 eitraei their l«Bd. After the brmw ha» been ihnm 
Ucb Into the fiininfp, u has been nnl, a few *hn>reirb1t of nrv are to hi ttmred over 
Hl kat t-rf-irr it. 'iHjt ihit. and aftn nmorrne Ae icorts. Ilitre moil be alwaia plated 
• irnpeat, a >utntiiii«p vhicb hotni; rxIipnielT p OtBM »at cwrtnttfiWe, 
.1. iiy iMnf Aom rarerin^ Ihp nnixl^ of Ihr bflloWB. hot Ifttmi M Ihf hlatl 

all Ibc i»n>»l (■Ut'i nf IhP furnnri-. Afler an Intonnl nfAvin 10 lo lA mjanleih 
In rircnnutinepi. Itiv iniit''rinN in lb* Aitsite are drawn n(H«h uroo Ibr wmlh 
the pay aUii it mnoteil by llir mke. Atwlhn peal !■■ ' '" ■ "■! More the 
',aad eoal aad mlcUiinc beJat in(roda«4 in initaUe pt. '<>■ bnwv i* 

Ai-w» baefc into lAe nir»>ee, a fVnh ptjriloD of ore it ebaraed -~ i ■ '- UO ii> Iht 

- (br the abwe-owalioDcd llaw. 
mnte nt wotklag, coMiniMd for II or 15 hotut, fooM «kM n called • tmtmn 
' rk tlmr flmn 9Q lo Wcwu, of kad, and even riore, are prodoeed. 
■ .■?ea» Ik-! puraw jiartrf Ihtkod, ni well aa the t 'tier, nre iwnted ovi, •* ii 
■I'll Ike maloiaU wWi whifli theraio ^led, wilkoat anylhia* onteriK lirir 
•wpl Ikeae noo HeUU in Ike Male cf aSoi. II i* proteUo IIM the Bsdpiaii 
^:t.„t .^mLvrH in Ik* 5ee4ch furnara la Ih* mis eaoaa of Ike parilfcd' Uic kad 

. ':( tetrU ^M( Sc<itA/unatt m At rfo^ hrara.— BHbre pnlltnit Are tw 

UMth altradf deicriVd, Afi. ini!V, 1^(1, iu r«pl) tpoee i» lobe Ulol with [MM, 

_titi| ^te bani; placed kelort llii* loyrie, Ihe bellon arc made to play. A Hier 

■■ lake now thrawii upoAihtf Ininiiim paaijs and a* toon as the heal ii ialhe>ewll> 

. lam U the gray abf b to be jnlroduMd, or of any mbpr xurix ibai are W 

^loJ. Fnnn ttnv t» dne, at tbr Al mcoiral nnirt*, nHunwie tuaia <<r enln a»d 

1 10 U mii^. la tbi* o|>rmti..n. ihottck the tlait and ibe lend aie br«*tht lu ■ 

lif p*(fr<tauuUi),lkcn>aU0c(1> iciwMod b> filtetinf ilov* Ikiwuiib the bed of 



» 



LSMk 



bcconM* euTEfcd aitk Auil (kg. Ihc wefknuui dMkn > hok h II, U* abool aa fech 
I itaarter, bj: meww of ■ liacti) rdW i anil luos il alT bj Ihia orill«c^ v ll i:«nMI *i«k 
Iduwii iMo the hud imininDd cimlcn, whkk fill the buia of rccqilira. The rlni tow* 
I 0TUI il ill ■ glowlug Hreairi iuio the fil £lkd wlih mm, irbdc il p^ eraauUiud siri 
f TMili' fur vuhtaf. 

Whnii leal » Dbtaintid from fal«nu without ilii' «dili>ioii of ccaJmiihle r.>*n«r, wt 
h«w u> cumfk, on ihc i^rnl tcatr, uf Ihr mutml d«eoui|m«iIiaa of 1^ oi)i)n >ih| miI- 
L fli^Ua titBtei dniiai thernaMa^ hisl,b) i)i« ilill umjKontfoMd (•leiia,nt«cwa)t when 
1 |U» Mtioii il I'uiliMud bf wadtMl u» and ikilTullj nuoeling the ««riwua baImvi, •* hut 
FpcMin the itTwhwMorj- mm! StoMfc lin— m. I( u ibcrrfiiic thcinlphurcltirlewl lucif 
rwhidi KrrM u th« agent of ralactioa in nscudlo Ibr oifde and lolphtir, sbra Mute 

1 In (hi? inrtbctBiar)' houth, il bceanc* necauai? l« ihio* is loma wMd or liiaraaa], 
I bnan)^ llic osj^lUauicnl h>vi>c bcome loa oooi^lr, Ihcre ilon Mil nsoin b wdBrinW 
I Viij of nlphiBti oT kad to eOecl tbc ile(map«Mllpn* aitd ndadko* joal intailioned, and 
l^lferdbre il Ii icuuuilc to mfrnaut tamt takoa hj ■can* of caiboMacevw nialMf. 
IvUeb InunediaMj cooi«rt» Ibc ntlphotc of lead into (be nl|tainL Th« (Ulpbsr au 
f Hnoi an cnalwJIi aU MyoiainJ in iho fonu of loljihurow acU. It onrtoi salnw 
rwnlalna MUMiiMS ao Ina tboa 77 pit not. of totphaic of kad. 

A( Vicannito, ia ibe VaLut, Ihc iirocoa of Nnoltiof kad ore in the rcTcrbriatafT fmr^ 

Met, with the nddiUon of inn, <u pnuUtel at Vienne^ tm (he Ikic, aai uiiradnoed; 
lIMI tbe diffienlf]r cf procoiing n (ufficjcot *uppli nf M icon bM led to oa iiilere*lni( 
LtwdtBeaik*. 

P 0« tbc bcanh of ifao nrvnbvmonr funaca, 10 qainula of mtitnuiy rkb urc an 
ElPKad i tbm* an: hoalnl l«»ii«ald]! for MM* lime, and ninol aboat to pncMlc Uir 
riahlhMiion of ibe aalphM. Afl«( lbn« or four tnon, when ihe <m Man* to be mfr 

dantbr 4c«dpliBtned, Ibc beat it laiMd to •• Id nell lb« «bole loaWriab, omI wb<»- 

mtr IMT Sal inta ■ mctollje ^aw, a few *ha««lfub of b«ai>«d diamal « dnden «■ 
LIhrowo Is, vblcb toon lUdea (he liqoid, aail eauae mdallie kad la appear. B; iMi 
Evcan* (btat fcunhf of lb« Itad M«Uined in ibc ate ore uwaUj nliacud ; Imi a( Icuch 
I flu labMano^ bcdamnf ka* aad I«m Dual, jitUt ao lour* m«uL StaBffd and vrand 
levbonale^iroa (wtvrj iivo ore) it aow adiltil, in Ihr proponioa of abool lO^ceoiL 
Oat tbe kad mt priiurily inVadMed. 

I On iliniaf aad wotkias i««ither ibii mLitare, ii tovwnca Ibe voaiialeoeo of a Miff 
■ putavvhieh il talxd ootU'Un fi uaa et. When IhirhoabaoMW c«M,it iibrokta iate 

Jiaat, and tbcnaller mellfd in a tiar^«aith, wilhom tba aaUitioa </ ttu, Bjr Ud* 

cptnAm alnori tbc «b«le lead pneieat ii oblainid. lAO fanUk «f tdHA field 4ft 
I «f arreaxUawm lead ; aad in (be prodottioa of 100 quiaial* (cwUb) of matJuiaUe kad, 
I HO cnbte Ibcl oT bcMb-wood, and U7t qainliU* of ttaicoal are tOMWrned. 
r Tbit iiiae«M ta mnatfaaUv Car (he bh: of iron.«rc (o mdllos galraa. 

10^ A^wlfcnia lb rtmtmOcry funma o/ tht UMorfc At i i ni i ta ibr r^SaMg^ 

laodL — Tha hihoic* cf Alaiaa Hoar b MUani told aa tatb, bnt tt aaallr Mavoud Into 

Ita^ IB n tcrnbaatorr fvnace. 
In riiwiiarinr tbii redMtioii, a btd «f coal about S inchc* (hieb u firtl of aU laid 
I «a(bvbMrtb; wbieb b MNm kiadM bf tbe da»e of the fercTlaea, aad in a liiikvhik 
I ll (vdani to rfd ho( eladnv Upon Ibnw a cettaiii qaaaljtT of a mtdur* •;f ti(harx« 
r ud laall coal b oniforaty irvfad : lh> boal of the ittftata briai Bitaawhile to laaa- 
t aiad ■> lo mainlain in tbv fsrnaee a *D(taMr i M peiatuw liir enabUng (be emnt«tSda ta 
f dcfnre Ihr liiharce of iu oxjeen, aad toRMvert il inlu kad. The mFtal it nia ml to 
f'dMtapJiole totooa inopot; aodbtinic cast inlopici cd* bUfa handrod «*i$hi, tt aali 
1 aadR Ike nasi* vt retard I«*d a) a iDaerioc foice. 

I Tbe vnaatilr of Mall coal niud wicb tbe lithanie *booU be toBewba* kaa cfcan chat 
I Vft be aecmarr to dTeel the ndaetka, becao-e if ia tbe coune of Ibe moccu d tlefi. 
I eieacT of it ii perccired ia aaj put ff Ibe funuce, moic oaa alwafa be aiUedt wtcicai 
I K redoadaaci of eoalnerenarilr iocteaicalhupaotilyrf ji«fc»rhicli,at the cod of (h« 
I ribift, ■■»( be naoted ftom Ibc Amiacc Mbrc a now of*tB(ion ii br^ua^Bbcirb) had 
I ia loM. In ibe irratbantay foiaace, lix fodden cd" kad may b* irvind la nla« or Ml 
I fcoani dutwg the tnl «ix M laUeb the Biiiiute of liibaice and coal ia added al ibon 
' hurvak. A. M»m m fton 11 w H cnt. 

Udcatma to be ronadtcd tbat tbe work dot* bm cd on w nil oor m viick «bei 

lbs nal and Nlbafge ate in a pohtraleot brto ; bcEaow tbe ndaelion in (bii cat* 
Llnhca pbare oalr al Ibe anifSker. ikc ai/ aot IrrjMillr l« pcnatnle inio Ibe bod)-, and to 
phRf ip lb (OMliMlbn, aad the uruluol aelioaw^tbo tilbiuiasDd eatboa ia the ialiicb*. 

Bal, aa tbc albaa haaJ, wbta itac btfcanc b la (Ordai pitMi^ aa laafe aa a brn'i en^ 

Om aaitaa »«cT«faa Ibe aMc bodj, and ibo moot ftimm cf (be coal atfoct tbe loiuetMa 



LEAD. 



81 



ttn III lb* nnira «f the (hanrtm ol Ik^ IIiIibi^*, renttradnB into tmy turn* ud 
oarrriftR olT Ait asjtev. Tbe heal mKhi dctct M be ui]tM to &r ■■ to moll the 
liiliariie, 

The |T<n>ndii ef Ibc cupel, «nJ Iht flag of ihe rolwtlon ftimnec, lieinp b mulure tt 
Nnfill eoke, cottl wb, tnd oxy^ of Iidii, moie or le« iinj > <gi)<>t<^ *i<b l''*<'i ■■' nndled 
ill»)n Ihe ifof A«TtA, along villi coke, and, b] «n; iiriliii, villi a ccilain ijnonTitT of Ihe 
block HVTriir atitKia«<1 ftoiii Oir tamr fnpi-w*, iirTpiif<l for lhi» piiri<»*', by ninnlng U 
out in Ihin platn, ■ml brmJiinf il inio •snnW jAivrr. The lend iKu* obtidtitil i>> ntunlljr 
very » liilp, very hatil, iin'J nnl lOBCti'tililc of irlinnnenl. 

MM. Dvfitnoy nrni B^numonl eoiitUrr llie «ncl1inf of leiul or« by the rmrbrratorj 
ftinwce, »• practuwd In Dfrbjiliire, at prcilinhh pirfemblc to Ihnt wlrh IIic rise beaitli 
■■ rairied on hi Brlllany; n promt ulnrh iiIiIdri gilet uniform prtnlucu, while it octa- 
iten* n innr* eotitU'nthli- wii>ie of Icnil nml ttKUtamiition of IbrL 

TIm iirUed proef*t emplnyeil in ('urulii-rlinil (if roMtitinii the ore, aod tdermrdl 
nnelliDi; it in a mmll ftinince rereinMiiiE iliat called (he Srotch, apiareolly jiddi ■ 
little leji lead tbnn if bolli (T*nition» mte eieeuUil in the tevetheralOTf f^ID.icc i Gut 
HeotdlBc l« Mr. Korrtcf (lee hit Trtntitt on a Stttitm ^ IKt Simla /rem Sev-tattU 
toon Ttffx, kt.), this *U|hl lou i« more than tnmpi-nMled by llir tninlliT tcii-umplkni 
W tat\, tb* increawd rapidity of Ihr orKiMim, ■nd i«i"rint!ir by ihc mucli i;r«1fr 
purity of the lead obinintrf from Ihe Broieh fumnre. \\'hi>n it cumei to be trGntil, the 
lou is on))r aboul one Iwrinb or one Ibiilemlli, whereat the lend rci'lved in Ihe rercr- 
beraioiT' ftmoce loiej freiiuentljr n ninih. Mortoicr, the lead fliinlilicd by Ibc Si*l 
ncthod ■doiitj of beina: rcfinrf with pttAi, when it yieUn onlj 5 ouiims tS liliri pet 
Ibdder of 20 iiiiinliitt, jxnit lU marc, while ilmt t'^oducrft hf l)ie mi rbmtur} riimaee 
tumot beeupelleil iiwlew it fivt* (IJ oimefn per foddrii nnd n* in ihe Entl>»h ciip«l- 
Ittlon iMd ia eoii-inntli milled anew trithoul fhintminc, (he littiar);!' obtnineil in th( 
wieonil rase can never be broufht into Che aiarlet, wheitas Ibe litbanie of Ihe le«d> from 
>he .Scoleb fnmaee i> of sood quoliir. Bee Ibe new method of enrltjting lead for eupd- 
Iktion, under EtLVEK. 

At the MuJrinfof HklmL the principal ore of lead, ii d« a lilUe OMuplei, Ihe fotlov- 
lif tabidar view of Uie diflerent proecH«« niay pioic acccplJiblc (o the metidtuiiHi >— 



I. CU». 
TWktcd la tt- 
TBrberatorr 
fitnwce*. 



n. CbiM. 

Uminl in the 

health, Ihe 
fimntmm A 
iniarte, or 
Seouk Air> 
naee. 



A 

DHnlpbw 
tioab]r natt- 
inc. 



DMnlphim- 

tioD bT iron. 



Fonndui; after 

ranstini; In a 
heap, (i; in a 

rcTCTtem- 
lorr* 


rouoding with 
dircel lit- 
lulpbumion, 
by maiollje 
iron. 



TmtcniM i4 Vncmml 

1. PunortH. P(MTi8pabi,ltc 

2. OrM mixed «itb ) KnitbtRd, in am- 
Hlinc pujniek \ etal. 

IVioenafo, in 
Italy, and B«it 
ruth, In ConW' 
w«U. 
A. Ore* mixtd with J,~„„h,[„_i _ai. 
^^ .uiphu- j^^S^'^Ef^ 

ft. Orr» wtlh tanbr, \ 

Mline, aiul Ml- I 

phuiotu Ran- f 

miefc j 

& Orn with mallei, iVienne, PonlU- 

a* ai Vicnnr, in > otieu, and TaN 

Daophinj. ) aowiti. 

7. Ore. p™l»e««f"^ "*""■"( 

•^™™ WorhaW lead, 

\ without niattra. } 
fMattfaDa<l work- > 

8. Om piwtBrinit able lead. { 
M(n|iagnd sib- 
cate >lag*. Workable lod. 



■Ian:* 



9. Ore* produeins 
•Ugf eOfapoMii 
ef dlioaim and 
wifcaiatec 



Malte* and worfc-i 
able lead. j 

Pmt matte* and , 
weriiable lead. < 



Many (te- 

OM. 

ViUtfon. 

Scv«Tal pla- 

cr». 
PontCihand 

andSootdt 

IWnaee. 
»aad-Klitt 

Haiti, 

TamowIiK 

Tamowita. 



^r LEAD-SHOT. V 

Tba OMul iMdwInB of Iml M Euro^ mar bt MllmUcJ at '^""^ 80,000 toui of 
LMkkfeiirwTOrtbsan pmlucfd in E*tland, tw« lefenOa in Spain, the irmilaJff ib 
[Vcnnanr nnd Roiut. Ftuicc don nol prnduM nxirv Ihnn me fiT^-hmdrtitlb pait of ttt 
I Vbulc; Kwl (bIt Due fllUtUi of itt cooiiUMliea. 

^ Sr* UiKnttii., Mimvti, or Iir4 Ijad, Soldo, SMtAii vtJciloU or I.U11. Tm 
' HvTit, anil IVidvi: Ijil). 

BO<t of Iht^ i3ii>rifi.cl>an( in Ihr ciiMirMtiiti; uf k*d-*liM i« the loo laidd eoollax rf (te 
ffih«fali:i h) Ihcii NiQt dippjinl lou hot inUi Ibr WdIpT, vktnttj Ihtlr furftcM htm i 
lotji enul, vhilr Ibrii inlniol rciimicii fliiid, oiul, in ill luhMqamt MUCrttloB, iferiiilai 
I 10 u lo (iMiIctc the uitgiibiilia of the ahoi. 

I Th* putt^t that towt-n urisinallr eonKtmcieJ In riiclonit obviate Ihit ml br aporing 
I Ibo Tiunl tpbrtuln at\tt Uipf pu* thrDU^h llic coll'^nJirr, to ■ kPfC boiy of air UtbM 
I SwIrdMcml into ihr> wnirr lub iilimil nci the eTOiim!. Ttic Erratot etcttian et tkiiUM 
I h pMbtblj at vninch, in Caiinthin. biinit 210 Vinnn, <>( i'O Kn^Uk ftet Ugh. 
[ TV qiiantit} uf anmic aililvil In lh«' man vf nicllnl kad, rarir* Bccar£nc to the 
I qualti; of IbU ncol 1 ifac hnnlrr nn'l ku iluclile the Inul is, Ihe more ancnie vwt be 
I added. About S ronndi of cither while BiHrnK or orpimcnl ii enoUKti for one IbouMMl 

rt* of aoA lead, and aboot 8 toi (he cuaiMr kiji<]i. The lMi«' arc innplajr^ prdcnUf 
•hot, ai Ibn an- chnjiitr an<] aiiiivrr •uHlciciilIy wcIL The araoiical aJlor i% mijt 
oilhor bf latriHucInG toim; ff ihii lutatmire at rach mdiing;, a* bj tnaLint; a iiuaniliy of 
du eompounJ oenililrtiililT •tmnvvr ai cnire, and lutilinq • OBrtala pedkin oT ilib to ra«h 
L thane >r k-ail. If Ihr [urtklr* of ihi! ihol npiirar lent Uia|>Kl, it i* a proof llint lb* 
[ prOfunion of nnxnie hai hcFn (00 iircnt 1 but if Utej art Aatltncil upon on* tid«, if 0>et 
I Bie hnUowol in ibor taiddle, enU«l cappitf bjr the voilninn, or drac with a lul hchM 
I than, Ott proportion oT antmie in loo imao. 

I Tlw fbDomn; a the proem* prpvrihml by the patcotm, Aeker«aa and Mnnin. Mfh 
Irft M of (oft Iml, nnil t^nklr nninil itt tidi!*, lo the iron pot, about iwo tJiOTrtrnVi ik 
\ *Dod oibM, IqklnT rare In Init* thp ccnirr tknr ; th«n put inin the miiUlo obonl 40 

Cnil« aT nitriiit: i|i foroi a rjrb nllny inth Ihe trad. Corrr Itir- piil with an iron lid.and 
■lie joinln 'jnirklT wilh loam or omrtar, to nafine Ihr anniicu] v>p<ir*, keeping up 
' a tankfate fitc tu taaintain Ihe miiture fluid Ibr three or four hoorai aflerwliith ikim 

earvlliilT, and run the nUajr into monlda to ftmn in^uti or pin. The <«mp»iiion (has 
, Dade it l» bt iinl In (he pKiporlinn of one piK or inKui into 1000 poundi of mcllctl oidi- 
[ Mff Icnil- Whi*!! Ihf xrliiilc it well eombiaMl, lake a peilbraled ikimiMr aiuT let a ft* 
I tnjfi of H Alt! froiB wnti^ height inio a (ub of water. If Ibcy do nol appear globoto, 
I aemt more arataical aUnr mutl be added. 
I Lsul whkk oontaini n iRnd deal of pewlcr or tin imKl be rejected, becaiue ll (««d> lo 

predoee etmiAicd Aopf or tail*. 

From two io ibrce ten* air atnailv kkHM ni one" in Ihc lar^o nla1i11i.hinrii(ii. The 
. mrfkee of ihe lead f*M eov* ml wiUi ■ cnm of oxyit el a whili- upoocy n«iuM>, m«b« 
I tbna eaUol nmiin by (liii wnrhinrn, wliicli 11 of use lo i^oat ovrr ihn boitom of Ihe cnt 
I likder, brtanu^ wltluiiii tufh n bnl (tie lin>T mellnl lead would nin (oo rapidljr ihroii^ 
I'tha holei fur the fmiiulating proire^, anil would form oblonic ii'tif^roids. The monnlinf 
I Of (hit illter, or tiiiiot of Ihe ciiHeiider, ii tecVonn) to he n nice openlioii by Vut VDlV 
I Mn. and ii reiianled umnlly » a mtunble wctpI. 

I The enllenderi nte hoUow hcinitphertM of ihTi in.n, about 10 inchn In diameirr, p«r- 
" Ibniled with holo. whidi •houM be imrTeetl/ riiHni! anil ftec ft«n bun. ThfM dqu ba 

of a untlomi ilxc in each i-nUi-iidir; but 'rf* coiiiae a vriei of dillnenl tultendenv wltk 

aonod holn fur t>ny <liir'rQnt >iie nf )m] rfiot, uinit be prepareJ. The heir* km 

ncail; thi' tbUowlni diameten Ibr the annmed nuntbcn tS thot- 

Ka.0. • • • - - -jLtfaa itxti. 

L i '■'-'■'■ '\ z 

^^^P 4> • • * * n "* 

Fnn K«. b to No. 9 Ibo diameter docTraiM I7 repilar indalioni^ the latler beinic ontj 
: |J— of an inch. 

I The aperadon it alwiyt eanifll on with IhrM nllendnn ai a tunr j wfaleh are nq>- 
LpoiMl uiio« projreliiig CTnt« of a kind of eboJinK di»fa oinde of Kbrrt iron Mooewhal like 
E-a tftanalr.. Thi« rhartnit diOi ■hi>i]tr) W pbctd i»T lin— Ij- abOTS (he falli while al iu 
rhnm there dkhI t>e a iiih ball' fillnl with Water tbtreceinnit the panulated lend. TIm 
mHenden are aol in eontacT, but iniirt be iwrted by buminir thoieoal. in order to kecii the 
leiul eoMlanllj dI the leofier tempeniiuic, and to pineal iU lolidlfying id the Uliei. The 
L Utveratnre of Ihc lead batb should Taiy with the ll*c of (ho shot ; for (ha laiftM, tt 



LEAI>. 



03 



^ fen 



ikmU be naeli Ihu « Ut cf tfraw plnaEod Inlo k will be Manwl; broinied, bal Ibr nil ll 
[jkoulil br »lorfr nguUlnl. 1'hr hciglii fltim whtth Ibe T>tticl«( thcvid be l«l (k!l mUt 
' ;rw<t* with Ihasiwi'T ihr klx'!; .ix iln- ccnftlatjon ii the mciv tapid, Ihi; nnalltr ifcer 
•TF. n'ilh a fill of S3 ;uTiIk or 100 firt, from No.4 (o Ko. 9 ma}' fee niidoi bal Af 
bnCM •*»», 150 r*et of hcivhl will U tnpiirtd. 

tirrry IhtnE bcintc ■nnnri'l n* abovir iIcuHIkO, ibr worknun ]inf» tbo liller-ilBlT tiitw 

le <DlIml«-, preuitig ll «cU agslnM Ihr tidtt. Ht mil pouts tMd into >l wiih an iron 
Ir, Mil DDl In too grtnl qiuutUlj ai k tini^, Ittt ii vhuiiM rvn thiuufh loo Tul TW 
I Ihi-rrhr (orjMii and ToumJ in \ht Ivli rt« nut all ointl. 

Tbc rmirr of IhP cullmdrr l"'inir hvs hoi aDIonU Iiirt:tT ttiot ikan the fide*, whlrli mtt 
ennitaiiily nitrDUiided wjih burDifi)- rlinicoal. Oeusjonally, Bbo, llic ihint culltndm 
emiJoj'nl lo^cllitf max Imtc holci o( diffcicnl nz«(, !□ vlikh cbic the tub laty contaid 
iduil of vrif varloua inagnitDilc*. l'hr*c are wpantird fToni tnch other bj iquua 
alevM ot aSmm Cnrnnt, in inrlipii btnad and 16 lnehi>» lon^i, lhi>ir botlomi Mat ot 
(hwl tKin, pircnd ^iih holn <'f Ilic )<unicdi*iii«lti«as thow nf the cuUnidtn. TWot 
•ierca are Mapenilnl by meam of lu\i bands abotw boxc* for rtceiviriK ilic ihci; ona 
■ievc bcinf umwUt kI abore anolhrr in conMCutiie niunberi, fcr imttncr, I anil -l. Tli« 
ibol bnia? put info th« uvprr riirrr. No, will mnam ia ii, No. I vil< imialn in the 
lower (iryr. and No. 2 Will.nilh nil Iho olhcn, pB»» llirotigh it into the chrM hflivir. I| U 
obviout ill*) by ■iilnliluling »t«'tri> of iiiccnure llnmev, thot of any diinrn«icTn may be 
nrtod. 

In the pNceding prottts tha ihol has beon toMecl l« *lta i M nuwl neat be anted If 
fyno, *o a* la separate all tile (pheroid* which ore not truly round, or are defeclive in an* 
pcct. For ibii piirfiMe a bcanl ia made ii*e of about 27 inehe* lonft aad III bread, 
nithMl isiiIbUt niih uprinht lederii upon Ihii tray a handful ralvo of the ibol lobe 
Htrlnl bring laid, it ii inrtlncd recj itichtly, and gently ibnlen in the boiiKonlal dtteclion, 
vben Ilia RlobnlDr parliplci ntn down by one cdir, into a tlieit tei to iccriie tlwin, irhite 
Ukoae of irreEUla' foini* irmaln on llir (idea of the tiny, and are inrrrftl la bo mnelted. 

After beinK kiiI«iI in Ihia way, ll^c xhol T«)niii-t tiill lo be nnooihed and polJUied 
hri^bl. Thii abjccl ia efferted by pulling it inlo a winll octaGnual easli, Ihroiigh a door 
In il* tide, Inrniaf upon a borixontal iron aiii, which mti in phunmCT iotet at il« ntdt, 
WMl I> made to rcrtdTC hr any meehanicaj power. A ecrlain qnantily of plnmba^ ot 
klack Iml ll nil In alang with the tbot. 

Lain nflrj on ty purt icattr la lu la natt U wiavMiu, — ]>r. H. Qnnaodo Huiay 
VM auiumon'it !■> Illairiiivnl in ibo Inviniiing Ji Oelnbor, IMS; and on hit arrird 
WMtfeowu lull) tliD rnciiu of <>n« ofthp in*<iil>«ra of llie ei-royal famllv of Fraiwn, who 
had li™n ri>iiitinK llitro liavv llie prtctJini; Mari-li. Ho found bim lyi'iB dom. wiUi 
aa ajiii»U! ^oiintfriiRicp. the eoajuniiti ra <A a jrellovitb color, anil lli« dpab flabby, 
■'inlviilj/ j>roria^ n leva of iDbftanoc, lie tuld bim be liad bpen lalTtriiitC fur *evwi«l 
il*y« from violent toliei, vliicli bad boca relierril after a eonilipation of twii ilnyt by 
abuuttaat ajiino oracuationi^ i<lo<iiict-i lij a purKallrn draochL TU* won ihv IkiN 
•Itaok of thii >itiii« nature dMtiai; llw 4f>«t'n of Am wevki. ttoni* lime before. lowanli 
the end of Julv, hv hnd b«a >utfvrin|{irom colic, with nauaaa, froi|aonl MucUtione an4 



ifraeularily of (h* bovrli^ 
"1 ttami I 



-.- llintabtiotbtiTof my patient had esp«rieuae<l theaama kyiuptoiM: but no 

«D« w» uiuniglied at It, a* it wm ■uppotod ht wm lufferiag under a livar eeanplaint 
mnlrartcil »□ lli< wmem tonic of Africa. 

" A ikird pntitnl. c.( fortytii^ht jf-trt of agR who wai aliu tntyeM to> ooiwtipationt 
had liolvnl a>lio a few ilajrK bof>ir«, nltoiidhd with iiaatoi and even *omilitifC. 

"A few ilaya ekptuJ, and nu ba<j «}'mi>loinii rlliturbti) onf (eenrity. My paUenla 

bad rMiiiiii-i| th^ii uMial oceuputiun*, auiJ good af-pulil*a and [iretly bir duj^ration, but 

v«r«iili1l Krv MT^'flk; an<l ]>alv sallow oonnpleilom* b*d iwplaeeJ t£e ioterie oolnr. 

Uy <tftiuioD> did not Intt long. About ten ilay* after, a new aoecM of *ym)>loma 

M, will) ■ ptinAil wtnMU'oD of coattrietiun nbont the ept^^lrje region, anxiety. 

lO, and eructalionai' 

After dMcrUdttfc iJio «ym|>lo7iiii and the Imalment rworl^d to before tli* lyal cimc af 
the dixordor wm *u*pMled. tli" dwlije mi'i]Iiui4i the eireumitniwrt whioli Ind In tbo 
dlHuxrv. which induood htn toadni!ni»l«Ttu|aliurin combination with iron tnli'roally, 
and U> ordvi' lulphuroui und aoapy bathiv He prorendc. — 

"'llivi-licmiFal action *boweil itwlf nlinaW Immedinlely by tbe block diicolorallon 
■>f 111.; iiiiiti of tbe fcit and baadi, and by the ap[i(«Tauoe of UDiilar apoCa on diftermt 
pan* u( ili.> iklc- _ ■ , i. 

"Oar iif ibu I'uiH'uU mini- out from tbe wcond tmth wilb the abdomen eatirely mack, 
^la (fiativ fripiiuiif aii-1 imtJn uionlly vaabcd mrny tlie apola from tbo akin.lrot not 
" I ofihe uaila. TIm ap[>MMu<:0 of Uiia ruction, which ti very contmon with man 



h*di 
[ w*r« 



M 



UAD. 



bta*Uoa of ««l)>tiar with tb« Mtnraia* id^mimm •4h«rinf to lb« ikia. 

"U tbcMCMMil raarUMt UuUUmImJ WMbmi^tutWUMaariavtaf Ui«b«4j 
kj mMu eitkMf of lubdaminkl or fclBanW •xh«lati<nw, anil nvrlun bj boUi. 

"Ha DiDUtl i* flinuiialeil uiil Innlfmiwil intn (illpbuM M Ittii bj 1^ (sljiliarMU 
batln and then takta ctf b;r the mapy (riolian* anj tiatha. 

"Tliao vent Mrt ill(»^ lot aHlkoiit Ibria tlie lokd d*fwi(it«J on tbc nirfftM tnij^l 
iMva bvm cBiritd NgBtn bf ahxirpliun iato tho (vonomjr. 

"Bat ibe akin WM aot Uiu ool}' meuu of giring cat to tkc powon. 1 diieaT«n4 It 
in th« uriat lijr a Mlutioa «f lij^roialphatc ef kiiunoniB. Smos pbyuttalu and i U laild* 
look on *ulpbur m iIiu onljr Bflluiiolaiu nnudj ; oUwnv ^ "■> contraiy, aiirt that il 
h vttbouC any cCmL 

"Whtttl can Ull jnuk thai tb« •aowM wai beyond mj hopM. AlUriwoertktw 
v««ki 1 bad (h« naliilkMJDn of aotins inj juii-nita pru|crMaio|{ tapldly and tiir* Ij to 
wda Koovory. Tliu hapiij raanlt l&doDitd nin lo try tb* lama iiinam wiib aiiulhct 
paraoa, oMor and of a wmxct conatitDtion, and omta^iMndj fcr vbom 1 waa M«at 
VBtaiT. and ibo rtault «aa aa aaliifactorj. 

" Oao oC lay p^i«Bt« waa aecnflomod to drink Viuhy water at tablh Ihii waa ■ Tttj 
unlbrtanata prediapariaa rarcunulancc -, it ia t)roliiil)le that llie ult of Vicbj- val«, L r, 
UoartioDalc of aoda, omtpd lo tliu bod of Clomoont iratvr, hod muoh tu do with lb* 
itolono* o( lb* atlaok undir vhicb b* mffcrol. 

**A1 tha lima of my arrival at Claraniont, thero w«n Uiirlf -debt uihabltaata. 

"TbirtMn uf thnn had bNu olUckad. aUvaa mem and two wom«n. Fuwr of ikaia 
had Mine <i;ni|i|oin> Iwn monUu provloualy to inj arrival, tha otlivr «a*a* noviirred 
ludar ay own cjrtaL i^miia (iron alUr tha jiIim* had b*«a out off wara afl^lcd, aai 
on the rcolinaot a week aftar lea*iu£ Kmclnud. 

"Six ehildrca in lh« lioua«Lold, a^d froin thno to aeTco ycan^ hare b«cn excmfit 
from it. Only half nf the naticula have bad the guma marked villi tlie«lato-Dolon<lliiia 
and auota of the aMDo tMfor on the niuaou* mombnine of tlio nioatb, aad tli<*e ipc4f 
■nd the bluiabliDaof iboguii^wervDbHrTtiloaaotaraloiliDnwbodid not asi<rri«DC« 
I or vzbibit anythins alai^oad thoae axguof ttie pouonhnviucE bion taken tnlo tiio econ- 
omy liBTB not jot dkappaarad. Tiiu murbid caiuo baa aotod In thoao naii^ a* il oHm 
doM, with caj)rice,and aoaordiotc to Individual dlspoaitlon* whiiU di'fvtvfry hMiw>nin^ 

" The malady lua iihowD no rtapcet for oohditiau, and atlacked in Jiaci-nninstely aur- 
vauij. aidc»4«-campa atid prinoea 

-The apring that fimiUbca tb* pnlaae of Clammonl vilh water uaoea &om a aand 
bod at about two milea diataaoa It waa cboMU fof ila uoeummon purily from nmnng 
I a p«nt many othora in ita vidnilj, aod lbs waUr waa tbirtjr jean ago eonducled lo 
tha palaco llitouKh leadnn ppva. In tho praaaotday aomo other metal would priham 
bar* be«D Mlootod, tot oxparionoo ha« taoghl iu Uiat pure walor, and aapMlally dM- 
lilM water, ada rapidly on l**d whaa it comM En eoataot wIUi iv 

"ItinaTiQUdliin i>TOvad that tW ioliabitaal* of AnMlordam ««r« indebted loth^ralk 
water, kept ia leaden datema, for the colic tbey wn< ao much mbjeel lo in liia tianch 

"Tbe purily of the Clarcniunt water boconiea a moat dniig«roui propcrtj:. and sot 

oniT to il but to other iprio^L Whilst 1 via eombatbg ita pcrnicinui elTeet^ I heard 

tlial lliun had been aevurai uinllar ciuci in dUTcrriit parU of Knglaod : tbaT era aol 

I MnocDiiuaa to thaeoaotv of ^uirej. aud oiwuially in Uip neighborhood of ClarniDoart. 

' Bv^d^* lli»««Ma pnbliabad by I>r.Tlioin[uoi>, 1 kiiuwofaevoral oIh#r*BtVpybridgiv 

WiniUur, and in <li(rerenl other pUt'e*. 

'' I ahouid infumi you tliat IV>ri.-*i>>r UijITmuii hna aarerlaineJ the (juaatily ct mt- 
lAllia l«ad coulainud m (he water cxnaiined by him. He hiu found that it amovMtd 
to a grain per gallon, nn ouormoua quantity wlion wt eoniidor Ihat the paiaone<l waler 
WM uied in all cixliuarj and tabU porpoHa; and, yrtriinniy lo the ibacoTcfy al ita 
dalelcriou* eharacter, even in the preparation of ptiaani and laTemcnta.' 

Lain Saoi boa been raimufactured in tlio Unltod Stalta in low towenk |ir«v(dod 
with all aaeonditiK ttr«ani of air, drawn iiii by a fan worked by unti'r |n>wer, wh*r*by 
a Uk* fouling cffeet la ablninud oi by loltiOK the malted load Jall friini ■ )iii;li tiiw«r. 

LIUTUliK,(CVir, I'r.; />Jrr, GMin.)i it Ibc akin of animal^ aomudifiedbr cbnB- 
loti rnaann aa to han* bveuina u tin I tc table by tlis eiteraal ogmta which tenil t« d«> 
wmpoae b in ila nntural uato. Hit preparation in a rado aDanner of Ihia valuabU 
•uhalanM haa btan known from the moat ancient timai^ but il vni not till the end of 
, llio laal, aad Ilia beginning of the preaenl oontDry, tliat it brjtan [o bn moaufaelurod 
opoa rijihl prineiplci^ in oonaujnoaee of lb« rarwurrhw eS Maebri-lv, Dtvens, St^uiu, 
and Davy. There ore avreral Tarietioa of l*aib«r: anch a* aole iMitbvr, boot, oriippai 
, laalher. iiiaiuiiv teaiber. kid or ifluTa laathfr, &f. Skin* may be ooiivorl«d into fea- 
Ihor aitlirr wlt^ or wltbunc their hairy eual. 

Wo ahaU treat fint uf >uJe and uppec leatbon^ being Ihe meal bnportant, and moat 



w 



CMIIjr B«d (liffi««1l to prepara in ■ prnpct lUMMir. Thmt kind* eontiei of or^BBicad 
Obroiw crlaiin* or ikin, camWn^ wiih t)i« iimiinilo reirMMp pnoaple, toBniB, and 
prohihlir alui mom. Tc^lablt? cilinciivp. UwUr the artifln Gaijji anil TjinMin, will 
bo ItxMMl on ncTDmil ofiht pn>p«tic« oTllilii nibulanei!, anti thv mcnui of obuininii li in a 
aUtt cipnii%f. CalT Iralhcr i|uiri:l;r lonnnl hj >n Infotlon or i±ih. ran^^li d* (II |tuli 
'f kkia, and 39 nf Vf^vtibli* rantlrf tn ino l>f urirhl; lii •nliiljui "f mlirhn, il MoaiM* 

■ if 80 at Am, nM 30 <<( tf«fiii1i1« mniln i hy inl'mu)!! o( I.rii-nirr witliiw. of 71-S tkin, 
■.nil U-lk VFlEPlaUp mnllCTi i>n>l br infiinoa uf ciolc batki ur73-i *hiii, nml 3H-8 intclaUi 
Tiiillrr. Bf the "low p(o«w of Innnini;. *on linili«l f-jr ihrep ouinlhv (he u«rnw «f 
wrlt;l>i 'ipun ihc iikln b •!■ oanvcrnan into Wlhn, i* cmlly \en ; ibr leffninUr ooniti 

■ •i-nt* brinj hum Ixlcnur villav imlf [;l IH^^ ri^ni. nP ihr Intilirr. nml ftnm uak bnrb 
t3 pn CPnl. tiblP trnlhor, hnwriRi, ^Punnilli f(in13iii>< nn li-it llian 40 im ri-nl. oTrrfiv- 
labl« niUlCT. In pvi>r)r imliinic'ol baih, (!>•■ iniinc whiti* rnrt bftI In Ihr nJ^miiift, Km. 
uln* tllP Un;F4l <|iinntit;r t-T Unnin, •»<! the iniilrllr colnrcil ihiH ivinlatni iiiuil Pilrnctlrc 
niathr. Thr oula lurAice or ('(■iilninii ifUam fitrniilin rilhpr tannin ur (^traelivr 
nwtlrr, Vonn^ trca nbound ninti in ihe wliiic toriical la;«*, wl nte hi-ncr murr prw> 
dualitr of laMiin uiulrr ntoil nl?hi«, than th* barln «f ild Iran. In no rn" U ilient 
«nr m*on I* bf-lifvf ihnt Ihr gnUic Bi-iil of nwirngvnl m-^iUUet U »h«nrlK"d in l^r pn>- 
oew if tniliinj" li-illn'r; hrnfr Swnin'i thmn of Iho *iwicy of IhnI *nbiilniii;r in ^Miiy* 
^enitin'j ikia. fiilli Lo Ih^ rrovnil. The iliffFrenl iiunliiirt nf knihi'i nimlp wiib the 
Mine kJoJ of ikin, twoi tu ilppeod vni' maeb upon the •liHi'ivM qvuniitii-i oC fxiociIvc 
nitllcr ll uit]' linTC abtarheil. The )(«l)wr iiwd« «iib inn»ion pf ksIU, ia fli-neraUr 
hanln nnil marc Labk Is cnek Uiin Uib Icklhor obloineil Ihan tnfn>>ian> (J* h*ik* i and 
■I alvMi > cnntsifts a innoh lniB« prnponhtn of Innuln, and n inwllrt proportion uf oilix- 
live nin'itn'. 

Vfhen rait ikiu i> ilowly tanned in wn\c loTaliani ef the bnik, or uf entMkn. U e<an> 
bind witli • EOtt> ifC of Miraclire nmtier, and ihoneh (he innfaw of ike weiirhi cf Ite 
tkin bi! w-ui paint i«ly (ranll, jel it hnJ become pecfteUy iniolBble in umler, fniinlng n 
mA, but nl ihr uiine llnw a <i(iDn^ leather. Tbc aaiiiralrd InfcK^lont of Mliiniti-nt buk* 
conJala much Irta exirarthf maiii'r in [fK-ixiriinn to their tiiniii», tlinn th«' weak tnl%- 
fioos) and when ifcin i« itiirkit tnnnml iti tb« fi>nn(r, ii i^rxliicrt a want and Im> 
dollMe Imher limn when ihnd)' lunnnl in Ihe latter, tn i)ni«k lanninv, a fDmidBrable 
■toanllt) uf vntlBlile exlmclive nuitltr ii thus hxt b> the numafiictnier, whitk miifkl' 
luTv Wen mitile tn enter ni a ntcftil eonitjtuent into (he leather. IIwiip nbKnnliona 
«hn« llinl Ihere n tTilli^jnnl ronnilalEon Ibr (he opinion of ihi) roDiiDDTt wiirknipn, eon- 
wmlnR *hni il tcrhnieally riilM firttinf of Itntber, in the tlow mHhod uf lAoniMfi 
•art IhonicHi the proee««7> of thit ait have been nnntcvnaiiJy prnlrarteil by defaelivt 
MMhodt dfiifpiDr. and want of profretuve infiltrntinn nf the ■iirintrent liqaor Ibroagh 
tbe ikini. yet in srneml they ajipcnr la hnre nrnvnl. In Nn«e<(nenrcof old eiperlene^al 
a denrec of perfeelian in Ihe iguolity of the Icnlhcr. whicU eannol be faf cuecdcd by 
MrtM of any Ihmi'^liml KusgmtionK vhlrh Irnvr hei'ii mlinnp-rd. 

On lh# il'rsi vie* U inajr apprar mrprivinB, ihnt in thiM* *ai4« of quick ta ainR, 
vhnr4> extr»eli»n matter fonni a certain [Kirtiun n{ ili" IrnihT, lh< inw^nsr of in'idfct it 
baa tlian whtn the nVia it eombinvil wilfi the pun- tnnnin i linl the fori is eatilr aixoUDl- 
«d for, whfit n r «i>n.>i(lf [ 1I111I the nttnction of uliin for Innnin ni<»l be pTo1»bI|r nab- 
ened by jii uiii>in ihth airnclivc maltcr; and wlicther we iuppo« Ihni Ihe tannin and 
eitnclive nmiitr enter tocetber Into oorobiftatlan with the matter of ikio, or unite with 
•tparale |>iiiti(in« nf it, dill, to either cnm, the pimnrr allraetlon of iikin for Ion moM tw 
t« a orrtain extrni i1lniinii>bril. 

[n ciAniininir nMriniient reitrtablm in relnllon to (heir power uf nakinf leather, it ti 
MeuMniy 10 lake inla nccoant not only (he quanlitj tbef majr eonnis of (he lalttaaef 
pmifilaUe by eelatjne, but likewise Ibc (^aantily and llionalsxeof theciirBtlJTematleri 
naJ (nensMnfMDpariaon, It is cHOnlial to tmplay infuaioniof the mme decree of eon- 
eenii*U«n. 

or all oMrlngonl tithtlanm hitherto euuninpil, rairelru i* ihnt whieb eontaina the 
ImsmI proiHMion of tnanini and in mpponnu, sMurElin-iC to the umni etiinuiiion, that 
Own liiat to fire poumls of common oak bark aie ruiniied to pmdaco one pound of 
leather, il npimn, from llie T*rionii qnthFtieul experinienti, lluil about half a pound of 
oairchu would aniwer Ihe nine itaqiou. Mr. Piarklii fonnd. by the retnltt of dilTeratl 
areunile experimenlii. Ihnt I pound of caltchii wnii njitlvHifnl loT nr N of oak barit. 
Kor Ihr foiiuwin piit]inti-* of ih« tannvr, I pound of it would be oiuirnli^nt alto to i\ 
poudplt offalli, 111 7| iif llie I>r)eett«r willow, to 11 uf Hie haik nf the Spannh rhrslnut, 
to Itj vt Ihe lajk of the eommon elm, to 21 of the bark of the eommon willow, aad to 3 
ponnih of anmaeh. 

Various menitrtii Ivive been proposed for the j.i' rjHiw td" expoditing find Impnn^ne the 
pToeeo* of tanning, aimiiiH oth^n, liini> water, nnil Kiluiion odT poarl-4sh i Inil ai lhc»e 
two infananto* Ibrm ooni|ioiiiida with Innnin whirh are not decnnpoaaUe by ^elaline, ll 



M LEATHER. 



fatlom tbU Iheif cd«cta gam ke ivquiUcial. There !■ tr»$ link ttMoa U lunwM thai 
Mf Indkii «tU be latai vbieh. m Ibc hudc limr ihm Uirr iucrvBM IW wUlulil) sf la*- 
Kia in Miler, vIU bm llkcwiM! du&inuh lU niimciion Tot ikin. 

to Ikit M«ntrT all Uaned Imibcr ii- ditunftuuhcd iulo ivo kind*, ealUd W» ani 
drtiuf ItiF fiinncr Ictm lieiii^ ■|i|it«priiiutj u> itini MdlcOoathe Inivnr kniinal*, » 
Mb. bullolon, men, and c«w^ iiiUi ihgrli tlrvii( ttil* kalhiTj ani] Ihc Imlii-f ID thai 
Hule IHuD eiilim, mli, 1^., into ikinoer aad man ItcKiUa vpiitr I^ilha. ^niriimn 
the bldci arc hivaght into ikc mubci mcrdy drifll, aa Gran BueniM Ayreii ur dried and 
«aj|«d, at teaia Bahia and Pcnumbucei liul ihc p*ua |«f1 arcfrnh fiom ikcikIt 
•lanahtaNd animal*. Tb« WaTicH <»-hldca are |infc(Tnl for ronaiDg imlU of Audio 
wbi^ arc Diaaaraalortfl «• IbUow* i — 

Tb« waibia;; lirocns mud be mure or It* elabiiralr, ac««fdint lalbastalvoflbctkiaiw 
Thuc Ihal uc nlicd niid dry rpquin lo b« deeped, beaten, and i«bbcd (evcral luaet a). 
Mraalcl}', to bung llicm to Ihc Tradi coadiuon. 

Afln rdDiiiine Uht honit, ilia KdlFiipd oc rtcnit bide* an: laid in a 1m*p Ibf iwu ur 
thr«e iIbt*, aller wb^ Ibn) ai« »iu|iriMlt>d on |io1m in a elo«a raum ntld a iMn>» 
boiue, bcaied umcwluit aboic (lie c«tiiiii«a leBpenuui* bj ■ monldtriac liir. Iii tbow 
wcuinaliiMO. a tUshi pnlrWaclkiri auprimie*, whieb bmcnt Ibe cfudenai*, and rrndm 
the hair eaall) driachable by (lie ^fidisf Ini/e i a Inive IVD himdlrd implenicnl, With a 
tduM (dftd, and btnl lo mil Ike curvnlurc cd the ronndul bcnm uT Ibe wooiIcb hcoe u|MiD 
which liir hide Ix (craped. Sec Ci'iaTinc. 

'Hie not fUp i* iinmvrwan Ui a pit coiiluiniac vaier linpitgaated with about a lOOlhb 
Ittfl of niphuric acid. Thh |u«c*w i« cailed rsioBf , brrnii^r il dtMendi :hp pcvrs ami 
nnfca the fibm nnll, lo ai to raulci Ihc aldin nore i>in>rei<lible at Ihe nctMn oT llic la*- 
itiiig jnfiuiaoa. Poity-cighl hour* in general ntfflee foi Ihit opaalion, bat mun liioc amy 
be aaEHr taken. 

When Ibt bide* are fininit M be flifflelcnllr laivd, thcf arc tranrfcrml to a tdl, in 
whieh (her '"^ »Uiiti£t?d vtlti oak baik, fltound by a pmpir mill inl« a coum |>a<iindcv. 
The pit i% then fillnl up with an iiiruiiori of oak bnrk called imiie, nail the hidn ate 
allowo] to rumJn in it l<>r atxxit a iixuiih or lix tveeks. B>- ihii time the tannin axd 
extraWiic inallcr of the lark liiivine minhiiicd inliinalH)' with tie aninnl Htffc, (ho 
pit in ohiiaitnl o{ ili rtduc, u'l inuil he nuicwod, bj taking niil ihc upcnl bark, aad 
' iobjminic th? okiat to a fmh dote of oak hark an^l um^. I'be liidn which wot 
plaMd noar the lop of the Am pit, must be placed nvoi Ibu bitloin of tliv n«il, In lliil 
ainl>rc ihcy tmuiiii, U|un the old pTMlier. about ilirec monilu. The InM piutBM 
bi'inf; r«f<*ied ivicc ur lliricr. perfectly inanod Icnlber in the ranlt. The Udts are Miv 
FMnoved tmm the pjt, and hunf up in a thed. In the pro^mi of drying, which thooM 
be alow, lh«7 ar« ocmprMMd irilb a ttwl tool, and bmien amooth, tu rmdrt tkon moi* 
Hrm and daue. 

Some ■Miiifa<Mii'<i i4acc on the bottom of ihe pil 5 or 6 inrbe* of ipcnt bark, orcr 
it 2 incha of ftah bark, then a nkin ; and w, nllcniaicly, a la;er of nnr lark and a ddn, 
till the pit i< neorly fhlt. rcHTvini; a Mnall tpac* at top lot a thicker layer of bark, otW 
whtrh weiifhitil board* are laid, lu crinilrnni the whole down into the lanmnK iftlWm. 

Tlie oprtaiion ef tannint talc Inlliri in Iheabo** way, laatk n }caroi a jt*!- aiidll 
half, aorardins to the tjualily wanted, ntir] the nature of the bidet. 

A perfccl lotther ii rccattiufcd hy iti HCtion, wUch ahould have o eliileaing HiatUed 
appearaiicr, vlihoat any white airBtka in Ihe iuiddl& 

Cnp AiJri arc mBnariiclurfil by iiomtnioD, during three or Ibur dayi, in pU* ooniaiik 
inc Malk of lime i >a whioh Ihcy ore oceuaunally inui-cil np wid down in order l« cxpMi 
tbam niuolly lo the action of tUt mendrniun. Tliey arc then removMl. and clwed 
flwn hair and impuriliea, by unng: Ihe Bediine knife npon Ihe hone ; oAcr which Atf 
tnuM be Mmptetely frei^ IVoTn Ihe line by a thortraEb mihin^. Tlicy are next 
pi— gnl in piti conlaini>i; a w«ak ooxe or iafauoo of oak bark, from which ihry an 
*u«cnBUTply U>n'r»rml into other pit» with alronsei ooxi-; all thr wliilr bcio« dailj 
hamitii, Itiitt it, moved up and down in the infn«iun. Thin pniclier? is cnniiaiied for 
about a month iir tii net^ Thry ore now rendy to be mbjerled In a mutnrcorKroWld 
oak baik anil ittontiei ooxe in olbci piii, lo a ictici of which tlicy are progieHirriy t^ 
leelal itarinf t«« or three monlba. 

The hide* kN max put into Urge m>, called taftn, in which (hey arc laoothly Mt«^ 
ll«d with mora oah bark, and a itronier infution of il. After tlx weeki they w« lakec 
DUI af Ibtse TaUt aad aulyMUd M a ntw charge of the tame malerialt for two moMka, 
Thia Minple pi«CM la reinatcd twice or Ihiioe, ni the opiicm of the mansfliclDrrr, liD 
thn hide* a/e thotaiighlvunnrd. Tlicy nrc ihrn ulawlydrml. uideoodenKd in the ma*- 
DPI above dcterlbcd. TTiear crop hide* form ilic principal pan of the lotc knihar UMd 
for home coMumplion in Kntboa. 

The proMM of tannin it ikmi (oi of cairn, moIi, fee.) it in loine mpect> peculiar. 
Tli«T are leA in the lime piu for about twelve da;*, when they an fuippei «f ihdr 



\ 



LEATUEfi. 07 

udr, wuhod la traler, then ummmei in • laJTMn «f ptgcod*' doag, tslUd a fMimr, it 
■n alktUnA aalucc. Ucrc Iker icinaia (hmi olqM lo l«a ilaj*, •eoMdbkS !"> ^' »<■*<■ ■'' 
(lie MDUMphnr, ducing which time Ihey art r(p|iKnll)^ hMiled, *ad wnitisl on bulb 
Mn upoa a oaavtti wveiUb tua m . Tbis kcni'inc or Korkinf, u it it leraitU, jMncd lu 
Ibc aclion of tiie trammt, MTVM to Wporalo the \mt, o\i, anil EluiinoOB «All«rr, aai lo 
nndcr Uir *iia |iluai, tirfl, aad radj lo imbibe ihu unitinii prlnciiilr. t'hpy air with 
tbni tH-w iiujikfcmd inU ^caotaffliikt a woak Mluilun of Uik. in olilcb Ihrj iKuler^o 
■Marly l>>i> uim IteaMeM ■* JWtribtd aboTir tot frvf \iiMt ; liwl iliry aiv riu* miii- 
■uxily BiiHlifit*! ■» tlin biycn.' Tboliiet uMupivJ In laniiiiiii iti(^m ii luimlly liuulad 
lo ihrtc niantlii. lleT ato Ihnt dried, anil dupuaixl of lo llie ruitici, wlw dnsM* and 
bla«IiMU Ihi-m Car the upper Ituhcn oT boots and »hi<», Tw In ram, anul olbor 
purpMca- Tlie light and thin MrC* oT cow and horte bide* aic oAca Utaiol like ealf 

Im all the above proct Men , a* Ihe animal dhrra on llie tiirract I'f thr rhiii aUuib miwt 
readilj thu loaniM prioclplt*, nn>l Ihcr^-b) ciliilroct, in a cpilain drvicv, Ibrii |«Ma||e 
into ilie inlvrior nm^ wpaelaUj uf Ihick hiilt*, it bevwua nn ubjMi oi iui|<w(tanc« to 
o>iiirivR (Dioe mMbadcf <TOwnnni{ ilial obiiMle, and pnaDoting ibe pcMtration of 
Ihr Ian. 1'hc ftni naauActDm who appmrn U> hoT* cinplofcd tiHeacloui mechaiueat 
cnvarit of farufini (he eWinlcaJ aclioa van FranciR G. iiiiihbur)', whu in April, IKCl, 
oblaioiHl a palmi I'ur ihv l^uwint oprralion :— Alter the bidt-H nte tnvi tnim Uw 
Iiaijra, bi. in ibi* itinal iray, they ar« ininubrly in9|xfcle<l ai lo their Miuivlnn-, and if 
anf hdlo be found, the)' are cardiilly anred up, » ■> la be wntei ticht. Thiec Iraawa 
til wood ate piotUhI of «qaia3 dimension*, flilRl to eoeli other, with the nini of 
Iba &«mei held tu^Uier bf lercv bolu. A thin abonl to be Uanvd c miw Uid npoa 
the IVwiw, and vlrckhed over iu tdg^, ilirn thr itr«and fmme it in Iv pincnj upm 
it, Ml Ibai Ibe ^Kui of ths iux> fruiirt ran;' pinch the akia nil munil nnd hnbl it t*eur«)]'| 
•nolher cncb thin i^ lUvn Blntchi^l over Ihe nppcr lurfaee of the aeeonil fninF, in Ukc 
maaAcr, and a (IukI frame bdni; wi upon tliii, confion thi^ >e«ond iLin. The lhrt« 
fnm' I arc llm pini^Iiol lightly tocclhu hy n *eric* of *errw bttha, ;*Hiu; ttiruni;>i eun 
Ml ruuad ihrir uutis od^ct, wbichBx liic tkiii In a (irapcr manner for liein; opcratol upon 
bjr Ihe taniunii luiaur. 

A space bas been thtit IbrmMl bp^twofn t)ie Iwo vkiai, inio whieb, when :he frunn 
ate cet upright, ihc inlWion is inimduenl by meant of a piiic from the eiitfrrn above, 
whik the air it permiilnl la tutnpc by a flopo>ick below. This eork mujil of eoame be 
^M wbeiii'ver the lav ii llllt>l, but tli>- one ahove h left op^n to inaintnin a coininuniea. 
tie* vilb lilt Itiuur ciilem, and to nJluw llie hjdnMtalio pminn lo (yrvv 1h« li'|tio> 
(bivoch the cutaneoui pom by n bIuw inGltmiion, ami thus tu brio; the tniuiin into eon* 
lael wilh all tbe fibm indiscnminaleir. The nclion <d'thii preuirrc la evintal by a o«i> 
alaat [vr^ptniliiin on Ibc outer (Ur&uei orihciikin*. 

When the tuiiiiiug i» Qompletcd, (he opfer tilop««li '» el»«ed, and t^ uttAa it opennl 
to tun od Ihe li'ioiir. Tti« tlwan ar« now removed, the bolla are nntcrewed, and tb« 
pionbe't rAtv\ uf the Nkim pattd oil'; aA«r whieli Ihey oie to be i^rd an) finitM in the 
lUufll loaancr, 

A miirliCLi-Tiiion of thii ingenlooi and eSe^tunl pnscnu wot made Ibe snbjrcl of a 
pateni, by Willi >in Drake, of BcdmbtlaT, tanner, in Oetober, 1831. The hid«, afler 
the mull p(f|>aiatoi7 prooeowa, aro ImmerMd in a weak tan li'iuor. and b> ftvqueni 
liaailiat or tuniinc <raer, receivo an iaeipienl lanaini; before beini dibcnliml i« tho 
inflhiWion plaa, Two hide*, ai aeortyofthe ntme ttee and iibo|ie u poiiibl', are plaend 
nun la khud, when ihetr oarrdimnilin^ cdim arc tewni lirnily toeelbFT all round 
E( ahoeinnkeni* waxed tbrcod, » at to form a ba; luHieit-ally it^hl to hold Inn liquor. 
"nln bof mu'.l then be •tuix-ndr'xl by mean* of Iooih *rw(il to ils ahnuMer rod, npw 
gtf^ ia luch ■ iiiiiiinFf iJuit it muy banR within • wooden-bairvd radf, and be eonMod 
latemjly into a \*«ii fuim. Abuiil an io<h of Ihe ba* ii lefl aowwed at Ihr upp" end, 
lor Ibe purpoic of iniruduein^ a (Unnel thruu(li which the eold tnn liquor ii pcniipl inU> 
Ac taa till it he full. After a e«riain inienml which rarln with Itir iinatityof the hirlef, 
Ike outer 'tirfire breninn stolal, and JroM begin 10 finin al lli« bnti^nn uf ilir ba>. Thne 
■TD rrC'^iiTil 13 u |itu|H;r tmmI, and whoa Ihey aeeomuUtc mllici'-ntli I'lay be poured 
Indt into ilie fiunrl | lite bnf beinit Ibua, as well ai Vy a freib supply (turn above, kept 
■MMntly disieniM. 

Wbea the hole* ore obMrred to feel hard and Arm, wliile erery part of Ui*m feali 
•fHlty daui|i, Ihe air of tbc tanning apxtiment haviag hero alny* well rentiloledi i* 
asw lo br hmtnl by pinpet means to a lempemtniv miltmlly irfrewltu: boat TO* 
to 150* of K»lnenhetf« *u3k. Tliih be«l il to be inaintaiaeil till the l.id»» hemnie 
flnKT nn>l harder in ali part*. Wliin Ihey bcRin lo n»nnie n blaek npii'iinKK^F In hiib« 
porti, mil u-ni-n tl" tiin li^iuur uo^erton little diniiaiiiion. the bulr* mn; be tumdlertd 
la be Mririis', > lit Ihe >n^ may b^ enptled byeuiiinit n few iiitcbm at ili Intleat. 
T&a oulor c .itei bcin; (ored olT, the bidu ar* (o bo llaiihed in the utnal vray. Dnitag 



W LEATHER. ^ 

dwlr mvcmjon wiibin tW laelo, (be Ude* •bouU be (liiAcd a UuIr tldmr*, t> 
■rmat lb« Ibnuadan of furon br tkr likn, and M ftciUuM ihc otiwMc acijun tf Iht 
bqaa*. 

Bl Ihi« itfnWM the patmltc )ar*f IkU ■ bU« BUif be Uwi«4 m eanplc(i?l]t in MB 
4iT***l(MiiU Win ICO moMlWbTl^Miialinnhat. 1 ba»MonB piMri/ulirlmlMt 
Itn* rarUl]r laiiMiI, a*d U wt d lo be fcrf^i- Haw it ■■) «r«w. Mimvucd witfc ibat 
niMk ia (kc old wa) , [ riuiniit iiri^rad lu drienninr. 

Hmsk. Kbuu-I; <i 'ii'il l>unhury ubuliwd • paifM hi ABfuM, 11121!, ftw MCCtl ti mUa|| 

IhF Ini'ri-eniKlioi tJ' -^iin viik tanaln, bji *utf«iulM ibrai in a ekaa tmteU dim wUtE 

I Ibr ait t> 111 W ciMcwI bf na ttif pvmp. ami Iho tb* laanint Mauam i> lo bp aitmiiud. 

, In Ibit way, II ii mppoKid to pt*Mrate th* hide m ftfKtualljr as lo lu it BniTDrvdjr w ■ 

(ho«t Unip. 

Abuui 32 fMi* ag<^ ■ Mmikr t««nMni lAane me twplortd lo Impcpsnaje with 
oaTCT** pMI^OT Wareb, llic cop* of rolinn wtfl, fa Ihe dandy Ini—orMwwv HaddiC 
•ad Rom, of Stadtroft. 

Dani^ iMtbs b Made b; lanoini lamb and kid •kin> with wiUuw baik, whence H d» 
rtwn aa a«i««aMe MaeO. ll ii dueflr worked ap into itlaTea. 

0/ At fauiaf or ilreut^f y iMi* ybr glan*, and uAilt *h«;i ImAit. 

Tbeoperalitaucf thiaa/t are: 1. WMhinii lhffliiiL*i 9. pKiintj (realtng tbaa witb 
tunc; ). lakiaK offthe lleMei 4. iicaUoriil in ihc li.-«I1i(i sli^rp. 

A (kRl crated ufOM Ibe «ide oT a Riiram, niih n <uicm of vbIit fir trubliig tW 
LaUna: wooden bcncsfa elconins Ibcm with Ibe back of Ihe Orthiit^ LiiiA-; |ilk««n 
^Ar reiDOtins iho flbrr* oT damagnl wool; a ftaugerfor dcii)w*»Jni Ihf <^iii' la Iht 
(A* I a time pil -, a polo with a hat linl lo llie end of !l j ■ lwi>-haiul«d llnhjni knife ; 
• n>tli*f pin, from 15 to 18 inchn Ionic Ihickent^l in ihi; middle i tuch nrc some of the 
aMtibof a uwiac oubliibincnL There noil be proiiided alto a labIerornpi>tjia( the 
•UlD Ifae^nn; arolUn; miU, woriied tf ■walcf-wheel or other power; ndreutni- pr^; 
m prcM far Miuoniag out iIigIIiIIt Ulh; a itorc; planlis moODlM apon kg*, (or 'irTtch- 
laK^lhe diiiis, kr, 

Fmh ikini mutt ba warh«d immedisl*!)' nnrr Wiog wakhrd, and Ihra ilfini, others 
wice Ihcjr flmncnt, and touttncl f itlier iiidclililc ipolv tir tri lruil«r in orrtain poiol^ ao 
U to open uv anil l«ar under Ihc Iool». When received in the ity stale Ihi-) ^odU 
bcitaepeH in wntef fat iwudajrsand ihenircitlnl ufmh tkioK Tliry an- iioxtiiran^ 
nibbed on (be conTex horse-brain with a rounil-citv'nl knilV, in order lu make them jS- 
aM. The loaBh part* we removnl by the flettiiiu: kntfe. Odo woriiman can ia ltd* «^ 
prapare MO ikW in a dav. 

Tfae Beth >ihi o( each ttdof mbfted with a told eieam of lime, [be ikias are pUid 
loiMber with the woolly tdde of each pair ootrnnoal, ami the lltdi rHat in roelaeL 
Tbey arc Itti in ihi> aCale tot a few dayt, till It U fuund Ihal the wdbl may be eaMly r^ 
■neil by plutking, 

Tbey aie ncii wnibeil io running waler, in iiriinnile the umtri port iT ikr Vae, 
Htipped of the wocl bf miiill iiirin; IwerTiera, anil then ileeced unoolh bj- mena* d* the 
raUW'pia, or noinelioirt b) nibhins with n wheUlonc. I'lilcu Ihey he Drreiil tOM 
■fler Uie trmimenl with time, liicy do vol well odniil ot thia opcmlion cDbM-ijuially, a* 
Ibn are apt to let hanl. 

Tbey are ao« steeped in the milk of lime-iql, in order lo iwell, foUrn, and draxie 
tbcm; aiUrwanbi In a woji pit of old Ume-walei, from which they nrr lakrn oM aad 
4iBhMd. TWt Meeiiiflg and draining apon inclined table*, ore rcpenLT'l fiiNiui'iiilydwlBg 
ibo apaee of 3 treekk Only ilie *klnti at youtig animoli, or Uiom of infcrrui ntae, an 
tawtd. Stonvlimca Ihe wool Ia tcfl un, oi (lir hoiikln;*, Ht. 

The ikint, after hatinG been wcU lodi-iiriJ in Ibc Klepps, are nibNil en the ouUiAr 

with a whelnlone lel in a nuDdcn caw with two liandin, in ordvr lo tmoolh then 

cen^clelT by icmoving any remaining tUninenli of wool. Lamb Aha nie robbed 

with the pia In the direction of Uirir breadth, to Eive Ihem tupplcni-M j IidI UiiYp Ait 

am fliUnJ ailh waitr njiae. I'brj are now mdf Ibt the b'iKmu-g, uhlrh b dune b} 

.miiinii 40 Ibi. id" bnui with 20 aallons of water, anil keepin; them in iliii fmnrntabh 

■nbtore for three weeks — with the addition, if iminible, if Mme "Id ^mn wiiler. Htn 

■kor m»t be IVeiiuenily turned oeer, onil eorrfully wmched, a\ it ia a ileticnle oremiie«, 

la Oit coorao of Iwo dnj* in summer, aiid eizht in winter, Itie iJ^ini are mH lo be 

rtnUtd, wh«« they tdnk la tbo water. On coining out of the bmn. tlie)' are ready 

lor Ibe whke (tulft whieli ii a batn romiioacLl of aluni nnJ fe^uill. 'IVelri-, fonrteea, 

Mid mnietimea eiiibiecn jiaunds of al-ini for 100 »kiiit, rittni tlf ld>i>- of the bath i tti 

whieh two and a half pound* of tail are niUlnl in winter, mid llitc in •nmnipr. Thn« 

iBptdhnUaio Introduced into a copper with twelve cntlonsol vnlpr. The mil aid> 

b Um whltaalug actioiu When Ihe lolution a abuut lo boil, three gaUon* of il an 



LEATHEB. 



n 



jMirf thnnuih ihc ciiamdN into s bwin ; In thai it «klM on wotfcdl am aflci tMUicr, 
mhI, iiflcr Jraiiun|>, tiuej are pM lonMlici into Uif \mUi, miil IrA in il <k>r inn minom to 
Imkibc the t«lb. Tliq are sow nwl; lo rcn-iw the it*)*, fur l(KI skins '■*>" 13 10 
IS poanil* i>r vhtsi flair at« uxti klunir with Ihtr yolks •■{ M rtta. Allri luinnii wantwd 
1^ aluifl iBib ili;(>it;b wliieh Ihc fkjni Imrc b«n puioi, lh« flower ■• dnitcil inlc it, 
with nrifui hliiiin;. 'llu; |iul* in Wi^ll kiii«il«l by llie gnidaal tiddillon of tiie idIhUqii, 
Uii pa<><il tlirvU:li Ihr CaU'ndtf, wlirrr)-) il bicuinr^ a* chu a< h(inc]i. To Ibii th« 
jolkt itiai; adJnl, the vbcde i> tncwiKiintcil villi murh inaniul labcv. I'lii' tkini u« 
wotkeil one nlltr luoUm n thi* paUr i nml aTlvrwnnli lltr vbolF tUHFllicc am IfH im- 
msnti in li for a daf. TlMf arc no« ttrettlMd anil dried upon pol«s in ■ ri«i«[ npart- 
nml, during IVoiii 8 lo 1ft darii, aMordini; to the icawn. 

Till' FifiirM of Hit prMn aro lo whiten Ihc nkini, la Kiftrn Ihom, and to pTolcct Ditn 
Aum llic )i>Lnl(iunt innufnet of Ihe ntinwiihTir, which would nalorally mndni Ibnn 
tnilllP- Thr; would not brai worbiiit upon lh« KifttHng item, but lor Iht- tmwliim 
wliich liai b«n intcodurcd into their luhslaTm. With Ihii Tiew lbc7 aie dipiK"! in n liib 
of ch«r mier dwlns ftvc m ux nlnaief. anil th«n ipmd and iroiked upon Ihc hoaid. 
thtj are tncmurd bf thb iman* in IrnirUi. in the propoilion of S to 3. Ks liaid poiAta 
■ml W lpn in llifm. The whittmrii'- \t nl<ii> bviler broughl out by Ihit op^^ulDn, nbtdi 
b pcrfbrnipl 'ipini th« flrth tiiiv. Th» i-iit)niinfl tool it an iron plal«, about one feot 
tnad. revnitnl •in.t nbovr, mounti.-l upiin an upri^hl bram, 30 ia«lirt biu^wMtk 
i* Gml lo the Mil of a utronE horiionlnl plonk. 3| frel lone, aid I bmod. Tfais plank 
il bcaril; 1m>1«I, to make il iimnovenlili- upon llie floor. Sameliinn Ihe tkini arc n«U 
(ptcad orer an nndwwcd cicnn akin U{ii>ii Ihe hni-e, nti>l wntknl irelt with Ihc tvo-handlcd 
knife, fiir Ihe purpOM of removing Um lli>l nml mTOnd i-fmlriiiiiv, valltd llir ^nr and 
arriirt-jlnr \ty 1h« Kreneh iMj(iiiitri. Tliry Hre ihrii diivil wbilu tlrolchtid b} hock* and 
Mrinit<. Whi-u (II) (h«)* are wotktil on Ihr itrtlMft iroa, or llwy arir ocmiioaallT pot- 
utaed with iiumicr iionc. A deli«alF I'^lliiw tini b sitcn if a eompMilion mndi* td" two 
fouU of irhilenins. nnd one of ochie. ii|ipliiil in a moiilranl "late, and well wurk«d IB 
■pon the "(Bia iLflv. AHer bring po<i<heil villi iiuitiice, Ibc) arc fmcolhod vilb a hol 
faon, at Ibe InanJmtM Jo linen, wti"i''l>)' Uiry acquu« • dogro: uT lurtlir, and aie resdf 
10 be <l«Uvrml to thu tlortr, 

For tMninn: llii> bnl 4htep*kia> arv virclnl, and fapli ■* nn^coTVrcd with Ihe lon|M 
awl in-ill ^nllll(^lll llceev. They are steeped in vnter. in onter l<> b« deanxd and nft- 
eMil: aAcr irliicli ih«j arc thinned inudr liy the flefhing knifr. Tkrr are nov itreped 
in an obi bmn pil f»i' 3 or 4 do)*, when llii')' aie takrn oul and wai>hriil. 1'het are nejl 
pnHeckd lo the whil« or alum balh, the wixil beini carofnll) t^liled wiihiii ; nbniii IK 
nouBib of alum beioc vsol for lOO ilun>. The paste ii made as for Ihe fleemi ikin*, but 
It b (snvlj •prend upon lidt flmh liile, mid left upon theip for 16 hoan, hi m to slilfen. 
IVi are ihen hnni; np lo dry. Tbej nre nMt mniiirned by tpnnhtins eold water 
apoa them, fot<lt<l up, pilcil in a bcn|i, and rnvrini villi bnard* wd^tblcd vttli brarr 
(toneij in whleh tiale they n^niain fof lit<j dayii. They are ni'tt opened wilb a round 
ina a^n iht honw, oul tobjeeiel lo Ilir tin'leliiiic iion, briai- workcj braadviM. Tbej 
arc drir<l nilh tbe (leeM ontertnMt, in llie lun if poiiibte i nad are finished upon tbo 

Calf and lamb dtioi wilL Ibejr hair and wool nre vwhod oewly in Ihe laoie mannct i 
only the thicker the ikin, Ihe utron^r the alum baih nuuhl in b^. One pound ot ntan 
and one (if mil me rc|aired for a ilnitle calf (kin. Il i» Irfl f>>"r day* in lliit lialh, after 
vbkh it ji woiknl u|ion the ilrtSftttt, 1h<n fntlnl i wiivn ^Ill^ iliy Ihe tikini are optnod 
Cpod ihie hurte. In eigbi dnj* of opiinary weuther, they mnf be eompleleir drtiMt, 
Lainb iJiin* are wwellmet (tp^ml durinK eiihl day* in a bath prepand with anboUet 
Tj* lluiir and olrl valei, in which Ihry aie daily moved about two or thtrc limea. 
They nre llieii dried, slJtlclied upon the iron, ami avilehod Span Ihc fleeey Mde. 

r\ .■..ill . Shamm/ Itiilhti.—Aihit Mat arc firrt watbed, limed, !ieec<tl, nnd branncd 
u< -libnl. Tlicf ore nnit {/^oiKrcif, thiif It, deprivnl nf their n'iJ''ri'>ih by a 

tun I ir'. bliinl in it* niiddlif part, upon the cuni'ei burvc-bcam. Th> ciiltinc pari 

ivtM t" I'iiiDi'i- nil txetforiinee<, anil lo e-iunliie Ibe Ituckneia, wUle the hluat pari 
h» anil luioiiilit. The *kin< of sentt. dt>e«, and cbamolii, are alwap treated U Ihi* 

\j. They are next subieeled lo ihe frnnenting hinn «leep for one or ivo dny», in 
OftSiiJir? we^rber; btil in hol weilhiT fi^r n mqi-l. thurter lime, "iinelimM uiilj mouing 
Ihctn in Ihe tour bmn lifjiior fiir a fi^w inlnultn. They are laally vrnnit ol (he peg, and 
nlrieeied to tin' tullinit mill. 

when Ihc (kins luivr been siiffieienlly nveHeil oadiupplnl by the bnuinini, Ibey may 
rrreii'r the finl oil as &tloWi i > doten ikiru being (Ketched a|>an Ihe table, the flngcm 
are dippeil in Ihe oil, aad ihaken ot-er the nklnii in dilli'rrnt placn, mum Impwt 
mouGh of it to irobae Iho whole iturfkee tlithtly, by friction with Ilia palm* of tlw 
handi. Il il lo the ouuMc or (rota thai the oil n applied. The skioa ai« Added Ahw 
(cifelhier, m n* to fbnn ball* of Ike llm «t a hog^ bladder, uul thrown inir the ti«u(b 



tun ■ 



LEATHER. 



•f ihc fnltinf nriQ, M the titiBlbn of twtit* dotra •! «•*». Hmc lk«T iHnalD i unmH 
I lk« Waicf til iwD, iliicc^ 01 (bat boon, accMdinR to iWir aUne «»I (be u«m af At 

Mha. The} an uken ooi, utij, aiM, aai ■^io fnlkd. tht tMaic anil fnllw 

I nfaalnl •etoml Uiii», ttilk autc or Icm ftefuenl ciUa^i. Anj 4kcMji uiim] aitS 
MBploial, 

AfUi Uiu* oparaiJM*, ilie •kioanqaln I* bo fatffdtd la • (ii**«BiiiiR inoMM, la AIM* 
Vitit peats, bbI to frcitUiic ihcir coBlinaUon with tbo dft. Tloi •> pcifofwed ia n thMb 
l«r on); 6 feet high, anil IA «* 12 ftci sqinra, P«Im are mp«iuM h«riMiaiBD< • fra 
Inrttn flom tba rriliaj^ wliii bodu facd ia Ibem I* wUdi ihi? diiBi arc Mbrlic4. A 
wnwthl «t«Taw4 >f iWH « w » te — rhitiliwl, and bjr a norc if nctd Iw. TM« opn*- 
Hon nvuintcMt ■kiUandMrarimea. 

TV raiuiBdn tiT ibc (fafctaa* i> n«xl tviiioTc4 by a blml tMicai* IniTe and tftr 
h«no; wb«cb]t the wrface boot cat, but ralbn foreiblr Knrri. 

Tb* *b>n> aic mw tcoond to eatr; «tf ibe RibntdaM oil ; wbkk it rfTmnl bf a fot- 
\tk b?, Dt iwud'errrt BaiiBt, bmlM no iMtter thaa Ibe band taa bear. In li-nikvyan 
(Ufml bri^lr, tlMT<^ Tor an hour, aaid lattly wnuf al (he pcf . Tbr foofy li'juoi UMt 
npctlcd ii uMil for inErrior pntyaack Tb« ckaa lUat, aftn- brinK dried, aip falihnt 
ftnl on tbe ilr(/(Arr4m, aDd tlM oa th« ttm or Mn*ciiia|; Irame. 

Zaankcr n^ Utrngmry. — Thk u oiaainlbetiired bf to i mpaaling tlraaR biit«« «ilb aIniiL 
Ilia am HI Mil, aad nirl ; hj a npii nroeen whkk Ii nfMltf e«a>pleud (a Ibc «|*c« <C 
nw BWMh*. Tb* irotkabop 1* «fiitad lalo two faiH : 1. A ibnl on ih« <h\f of a 
Mnan. rntnubcd viib VMdtn benta, lUibinf fcnmi, aati «lWr tnuiD Woh. In eac 
MfneruafataaMwitfaabtdln'rarifinalrinirlbaaluM, a tvl for inwr--'- - tv^ h^ei 
h the MliilkM, aad Mraal nbadjaiy lubi. 7. A dambtrr, S fret )i ' irrt 

tqaan^ capable ■I' faalag Made vctf tj^, l«r pnami m tb« fctM. In oii < ; i- t 
-Mn*f bailor, af aolDcknt liu to eonuia ITD pauaAi of lallov. In the siddtr of Ite 
ttOTO i* a Miaan *Mine «lBb, opo* «bicb an Iran gial« bi plact<] abool a yaid wjvan. 
Tbia it covrml witb rharrcol. Al nrli tUrct tli« ttorr a.\r Uirt* UVit^ whkli cempgr 
its whoir Irncth, and on whjcb Ibr Irallierii Iprrad lo IT<i!iiF \hr C'rait. TIif Oi^tt 
pad bvlow ibc crUtnc b flUnl inili t«l<3 lor boniinic Ibv Icallirr nt«n to be bt«I«d, 
Tbo door it madf to liiol pcrftclljr t]o*c. 

Tb* lirtl opnalfoM ai* anakfcom lo ibnu cf tanning and lawlng ; thr ikjni being 
wa*l)«il, ml in balvn, (batnl, niul tie<'T<4 fur :;'l boun in ibe ttrtt. Tb«f arr thee 
drannl with or 6 pmindt of alum, and :t) po»ti>tfl of tall, tot a r<He t( bidr vrhiek 
wi-ichi t't'itt TO to 80 poiuid*. Tbc <x«iinon nil ioflrn!i tlip tUtet cf the alBBi, ninxti 
Die niiii-into of Ihv ait, Knd fimervrt tlie nipplpnr» of ib« ibin. Wben the alt^m and 
MUandsaulTml, bolmttiifiiPtiird niit-ulhobul^t^awd in mat, and OiejantmoT^i 
OfB* bf a votkmaa valkiaK («r«iiU>l}t frton one «n>l of tlw ni W Ib« c(hn. Ttttj an 
Obi tranfA-md inlo ■ iindlai val rvulaiuint torn* hot water, and nmflnrij iranipvd upok. 
Tber Bt« ni-nl ^tivpcd lor «;hl dajr* in alum waUr. Tlw uaie rannil of opoaiioni ft 
repralrd a cr^onil lime. 

Thr >kiii> a" now driird ^illirt in Ihr air, or a •lor* rorm; bnt MoN* t^inv ijalloA]^ 
lh*T atr donhl^l loffrilii.T, wrtl fiidrhrd lo fkt oiil iIif minklrt, and pilnl iit>. Wbei 
iltT, lb(T '"^ nsnin Inunpcd lo apvn lUc porn a« w«Ll u to render tbe ikia plinnt, aftd 
■rhieh ihrr are tabateneil b; opoivre lo ibe mn. 

IUIowdT inftrior •rnnliTy ir raniloyodfor rmrins Ibe Italher. Whb Ibb ilrw tba 
Udca ar* liiuie n]"in llir {lolni in Ibc elrnr tiote rixim, then taM Upon Ibe table, and tic> 
■ntared witb Ibr tnll'iw ini-M'il lill i( Win< la riackk, Tliif pkce i* tati om annibt* 
table, ii Ihcie eirrml wilb a teond, •imilnrty jnmhed, nod wi Ibtth. Tbrec ponnib of 
tU are eumniunly «in)>I<iycil IV one pirrp of Wlher. 

Wben ir* ihirly Mtipi, or fiflcrn biiW [iHird ihroncli the (-Tente in one oprraltw 
are <ntn|ileted, i«a wiifkuicn inki- tbe lint pivrc in their btin'li. nBil itretcb it oTer t)N 
Imnlng cbarcinl on ilie jiatc fur o minute, wilti the Orth lUe lo rtc Are Tbe nu 
■npmrdoier Ibe flnne in like nmAner. After /imi in f, ibr piri'rt nre MKerahlll 
Irid <ai an incKnrd Uhle expntc^l tn Ihe Hre, where they ire enverni wilb n cbtlli. "nef 
nt flmlly boa; upon polei in Ihe air to •I17 : antl if the irenlbrt be vuiin. tbej ut 
Hapendnl oalrdurfaie the niihi. vi ii< tu fni'or ITke hnnlf ninit <f the cir**e. In>lni4 
of Iht aHm loth, M. Corauilaa but feploynl with ndnnlore a nrvji of ililute Milphntit 
aold. 

ltiidtial*^bfr,—'C\»y Rinoi*n* linvc hoe 'i«v" !"■■ « *« »d of a mall.i.t .:f fi-.l.Mi; a 

Kentiar Intthrr mIIoJ fiy them ifflrn. A\r4 nvl irilli tTic aromati" •!■' • li, 

m arllilo hu Xtt^a Toiicb iKniebt after, on dcooiibI '<t not )i*ing «nil<ii'< ' I'i ia 

dantp ■itiriili'*i'4. tkrinjf pro^-f i[?ninft lsa^^i^Ij^ nod even typi'llin^ tbeni Irriiu ?^ii> «4<^i»i1f 
•f il« inUv. Til* tkint arr Intd (rom (be bdr or f ocmv l-r »tei:piD(r in an ub'lve IsW 
w*ak Iv ai I n|i«a the uiivol Abroa, Thuy are then rinipi^. faUtii tot a loogvrft Ji<-rt*f 
|1|B4 oMonliag tolhdr aatiir*, iwd feimeaU-l in n jipopT ■!«[% oltT bntii t Krwu 
vathad to hot walar. Tliejaralabeuoutatiboaiidofa week, bnt lliryinaj'boteefMil 



LKATtlER. 



• MnoJ tinu U dMwMl MOMMnr, t» open their pona. Th«f arc mw fUiuioil lij 
wwrktiig UiaiD m Um Ii«m# m twli iImi dMh aad snun si-lat 

A put* H DGXl cstapcMdL Ibr 1100 (kiiut of 18 pound* of tya flour, whicli ii tal 1« 
Icmnl wilii IcBTio. TWdDOgh bwarluil uji vKh a (iiilliaiiml qmuitll; uf wMer tn 
ttrm » baih for ib« ikiaiv In vhith Lhrj ant woji") 1^ M^ lio«n i lli*-| aia Ibrn limn*- 
rwml into aeuU tuts, wknaUiefivniaiii durini fiDvfn <lii;r,gkllmHlircti Ihn; ■ivautie4 
M 1^ f i<Tt. 'Dmw opcnliMU *ctvb M pr«pwe Uic BLuia Tut ilMOitiiait thv utnnsMt 
JBRu wjih uniTunailj. A^Mction of wilkiw bark (laJu iiwrnu nnil lalii <«proi) t» 
M( aurte, Uii- •kin> «» imnmed ia Uw boilct whraetcr (be lompemlarc o( llw liitu* >• 
*alScK*U) Uivrvred nol to Jajiue ibe wuiDal AbiM, and handled aad pnunl Tur half n» 
haw. ThU isBiuiiuktioo u repeated twice dul; daring the period uf a week. The 
lanning liUui^ou it ihnn isnewod, and apfiliiil tu Uic Hma tlline fur another wixk i alUa 
which, Ix-iiis '•ii'"«J to Ihcoir lodr)-, llitf nri' rtwlj fiw banad]«l, and llivn ourlni 
wiUi III' ii^tic oil of lli« tvk of Ibe birch tree. To Ihli lutsiuiKir ilie Kntxia 

ttallKi I '*<iliariliei. Manj inodn have bten pmenbcd for pirpminK lit hui 

(he IbUou ii>:c LI ifle one pracliwd la BumIb. 

The whilnb menhnuunu eutennb of tlio birch, ibipped of all woody j^ctt, a inlra 
dnenl into an iron bailer, whirik, when itnlEtd fatl,l*ci]Tercd light wlih a milled ItonUd, 
baring a |<1|if riung from tin ctmlic. A Htiotul Mlcr int» whidi Ihlt pif" iiaiiei viilumt 
tCMliing itt l<MU>in, w twt over the inl, mhI 1* Mti l» U M Ita etleri, nflrt thn iwa an 
boUoi tesvlhn. Tbcy aru \htn invarteil, ao Ibal the upper one oontalna (he hiich Iwrk. 
Tkc under balT ef Ibis apjontua to nnk In (he «aiih, tlie >uifue «f the upper boilv i« 
e«alpl «tcr with a clay hilci then loionniled with a firrr of wood, and eapewd I* a ml 
hast, ilU tile ili>liUalicia be oooapleted. Thk opcialloa, (hoog^b rude in appeaiHuw, aal 
wasteful i>r HiuJ, oniwen tli pUTfiosc perftetly w«ll. The mm cylinder apaualw ittri 
in Utitaia far dittlUioi irood vinegar, tuuM, bowviT/, bt much more cdilvtcicuI and pn>- 
4ettire. ^Vhvn the obaic badnn uie nnlulnl, Uircr !■ luund in thcnpFCt oat a t'cry Inbl 

KKdct uf clUKiMl, and ill th<i under une alilch •>'rv>4 ■> h [i^i*i«i-i, llvnn in ua ally, 
iwii,«ropjnunuitie fluid, cf a itTT»Iniii|[ rmril, whirh iioiiioiuiili iti^iur,niiil whxfc 
floau utpi a mull iiiinatity of crude vineitar. The fonni-r mailer is the oU tii>tJ<^«l W 
Impreviiatc Ihe skint, by working ii iata the fleih ililc wlih lh« rurriei's loolt. II U dlA. 
nil tu mukc ihii uil pcKiraic with uaifamlly ; and the RuHinu do not slwap suocenl 
ia lUii prtKcu^ Air liicy turn nut many akint In a tpolled tlalc. Thit oil ii «i prc«enl 
«blaiuod in Franec by dtsUlluiR the birth barb la Appei tliU*, and coodeoMnB th' pro. 
ducts bf uwan* of a pipi pluniod in eobl waUr. About 60 per osnl. of the weight of 
Ihe bark it nirscM, 

Thv tkiut imbibe Ihb oU mwl equaUy bdam they ate fully dfi> Cure muil be lahco 
BOI to apply tou touch of it, tor frar of itt paMiaf: ltiM«gh aM Ualoing Iht- Kmiu uA* el 
the [•nit.rr. Clxrvrcal ha* intatigatedlhnf^cinleBl nature td'lhli odoriTeniusiubtlaaeei 
ail I to be a peculiar oootpannd, bu cnUoi It MaJlat. 

iklia ln*titut«(>r F«bTuaTjr. 1843, Mr.Gidoon LoeluapubliBhedaonuJa' 

^inAi vtflurratioai on (be pr>K«s of taiiiiini:. H<> bcIluT«i that much of llie ori^itial 

Slslina of liic hiilw i* ncTcr eombiuoJ willilhv Unoln. hut i* wnttcd; for be tlunka 
at 100 Iba- of Di^rfMlly dry hido, wheu vlnuiii"! Iiiiiti cxiiiiiivniii inaiUr, ahuuld, oil 
nfcumlinl iiHiiiTipIii*. elford al Icaal Ifo lilt, of UatliM. Tli< >i>u«l f>rupHmtioo od lb* 
Uda G>r luiniiiK hv bvlluTot to be a vailcful pr«G«m In the limtiiit and bntlBjE, or 
tb*«nbalriii); and Ihc vlMiuing, tliti Kcaeral phut it firal tu «U«» tku bidva in iniU of 
lima far oni!. (wc^ <n ihrtu WMk^ Botordiof to llie woalliur naJ tiulnrc of tliu iktn, 
IMtil till linir and vpidcriaU l>* »0 jauMwrd M to lia nudiljr ranut*d lijr nU-laa down, 
by iBvani of a kiiir<v ii[<on a bsam or block. AaoHiir luade ii to >uip«ii4 tlio bidt* in 
a eloM «^iulM>r. boated allghtlj by a ■moalderioD fire, till th< epiderukii unit lootanM] 
b* Inoinlunt nutre&elkin. A third proi.i>«, nlUd ntaUn^ uard ia tiftv»uy, omiaU 
b layluit titv blikua in a pock or iiik torm-i vltli tan, lo j>r«ianotc tenuHilalir* htal, 
Md la luoien Ui-i r|ii<<pT>ni> and lialra. "Dicae plsn^ capNuU/ the lw» bufatr. are apt 
M injure Ihe iiuolity of Ihu hidaa. 

Tlu iait, •.■omiita in >l««i'lail tk* haired hid** In a •olntMn <J |>i|[e«o'« duBK. t^M^ 
tainiBC Ur. Ice wy<k muriate of ainDicinui, muriate of toda, Ar.; l>iii nieal protttbl,* 
pbmphalMuf ammonia and liw''. with ura|i- of animuniii. and tm^ fHiiiantflbts aaiinal 
matliir. Iti" iln- liidtt ur-- "flm ■iityi-'iLMi flml of all tu lbs !>p.!ralii>ii (>f ilif fii'llitf- 
•tiMkii. whiHi cjiliiw (he jwn-s, l«il al llin Mirv llinu piel»rM tWiiWlhn nolioiiwf lli« 
li'iiin- and taU- ; t» nlac 1"t tlii im»i<i!ii.-liuii </l llw taunine iiiaUur. Wlirii thu hilt 
iu|i IS tria *ii)l.!iil, tliii leatlivr ■• a\* to be luiJ limber nnd thin. Mr. Lb* runeeiiM 
that Uie tiuiin,- i" iriiuiiuujs l>r carrying nlT morv or !»*« uf the golnlim- i>ii>! nltxlinvli 
al Ih* ikin. Ilij^li-litH.J Irallinr U hHW, wM,rh> llitlil, and Wean o«l i|ui.kl> Tl.» 
Mbx.iuval funuealatiuii in tli* baling aeuravalv- Hut *vil. Aa«thcr yi-e^tf hut |Ii.;r- 
iMe Wen ailopited in Sow Vo»k, Ibiinc. flrw Ilniuinhink and t^iuJ pwh of Pbila-lul- 
phk, oeUsd, bot inoorrcctlj. mvl mtt*ttn$, which nuMisIa in luspeodiog tJi* liiilaa b a 



«l 



LEATHER. 






mU«tt«w«b thII. fa ■ iMBpeMUm) of M* Ttbr, k*|it mtCiXIj ittof, br the Iriifr 
li^ofMtcl>|>rlng|*at«rfimti|MiiiUinUMi«(it Tb* Udai Map inl Mkkot, are *«» 
|Miiihd tn (Kit tmU from 4 lo IS dim^ wlwa tk« titir I* v*U liwft^ bj the ner* 
•rfteoiw (Asft o( mea^nn, whhuut (cmMolatinn. 

LEATHER, MOROOVO. (Jtfararan, Fr. i Safin, G«nii.) Moracro lmli« oT 
» Ae tntr qstlitj u made Irom covtakina tuintd with niniich : infrrior mnno Intho' 
. ftoM •hecptkiu. Tbe pMiAiaa u unportFd »tf «ivFrr4 with kkir i lo icbovf whiob 

ar art Mokod i* valcr Tor • «enaia time, ani IheT nrc lliim labjeclnl (o lh« operBlMn 
•d bf«akia(, vhieb ronuiti in lernpuie tbrro dean aad hdooUi ob ih* flab iM% 
, Ud th«7 V* Dan florpH i% limc-pU* (niilk of Umr) br Mf«nl 4*jt, iarws wMh 
' bhM tbrr an ilnva oaf, wUb a b#ok, from time lo limr. laid om Ibr •ide of Uk fit Ift 
■Mlft, and replanirtd alt^niattlT, aiUtnit octa^ioakltr a little II»r, Thcn-bT th«T H* 
CTMlDillr •('T'i**'! of their bail. When thu baa bwMneialSrlnitl} loot*, tli*«l>lM ate 
MkfrnoDtonr bf one, lauloa coDm bncu, ibevOTk-b«n(b^^«hiThtt>nd in an biclinet 

Cltiun.rnlinic o« ■ itool at thtirDpper t*d,at a heqbl conTmi«ai for the workman^ 
ul, who tcmra otf the bairvilh ■ ocnnve ateel IMe or VoiT^ baiine a kaaitleU 
Mch end. Wbts Mibaired, tbe Aim ueonec atort toakcd in miUc of lime for a tew 
dars *n>l then tttmfet on the fleib »de la nndtt rrrt *nm. For raDoitng ib« Una 
Vhidi obainrU their pern, and vonbl Impidr thr unamic pri>c«w, an wril a* to ofM 
! fhew ]>ore>, the ckiM we stcept^ in a wann H«ii-|iulr*l alkaline lii»or, made wtlfe 
!* ptftMrn** aaj ben«'dBVdil'nB'<l >* ^nlrr, PrabablTaMBemjr weak acid, Hch aa<to> 
f Benled broa-vatef, wonll antwrr u veil, and boI be >o oCewJTe Is Ihe w fod tm c 
['tis Gcnuaa)' the win* are f t«> watbed in a barrel W^ a r«(«lnng ule o»l dues.) Tber 
■re aflal* aoaped, uid then aewed inte b*;*, the fntn onlcrMMt, like Vadder*, kari ~ 
• nnll orinen, into wUch tbc M«k «t • fbnkel li tnwrtcd. ftnd ihtvnsb vbieb 'u 
C c^nin 'luantltToTa tPow g Inflniaa of ibc tiusach ; and tbey arc now rendem 
RMnil lliv oriGcn, ohtrbidntlllled out with air, like a blown bladder. AparerioT' 
kllaied ikins nrt ihn>«« Into * vtrrlari^ tub, eonlaininc a weaker i*fB>i«a of famadi, 
rbere iher ate rolled aboni in the midtl cf the iJijaoT, to eaiue the infouM wilbla to 
■n apon Ibcit wbole (orlbee, a* well u lo eipoie tbeir ontiidei mifamir to ibe Um. 
•tng aeliaD of the bath. Altet n while ih»c bl■dde^4kte> are Ukcn oat of the bnth. 
Mi plkJ oT«f each other upon a wrvden rnrk, wherebr tbey nndei^ «aeb prmure aa 
le fl)re« tbc eneloaed infufiDn to penrtnie Thinu^h their pom, and to brisr ilir unai« 
oT the avmach lato fslimate eonlncl, and lo rorm a chemienl mmlinatloa wrlli ilie skim 
Ibres. The laoDtn; it completed by a repelilion of the proeeu, of inln>durrini; mmk 
' htfonon or deeMtioa into them, bloirin; them up, and Boatint item with atiiiiiu* i* 
. Ibe >«th. In tfcl* way matabini majr hr well tanned la tbe eouMe of o*e inr. 

The boji^ «f« ant nndolM by Ktoovinf th« lewfaiKt the me«d akini ar« tnspcd m 
bcTere oa ih« eiirrier*! bench, and bung up in Ibe dryinit loft or ibtd i ther are tud 
■pw lo be " in ihe rtiul." They are nRttin moistened and nnootbed with a rabbiaf- 
lool belore t-eini; lubjeeted to the dieinjE opemtioni, in wbieh iwu ifciDa are applied Ibca 
lo lace lo confine the djre lo one o( ihcir ■urTnea only, Tor the nkc oT eeooanuiiag tht 
dTdnKaalerkb which m*j beof levmldiflrrtnl eoloiw. Tbedyi-dikiui nre gtatnol 
I I7 bcng mnt^ rabbol with a hull nf boi-wood, Aoelr groavi-d on iia lurfnce. 
[ PnpoiMorf to MnK djred. itvli akin b lawad tagelb«T*<lcrwiai!, with Ihe i;raia •■ 
Ifaa oMalda. and II U Iban monlttitfl nlbar with ■ aolution of tin. or wiib alum nUr. 
Tba eotor ia giren b^ tuohineal, of which fruin |i> in It ounets are recjuired (tjt • ilimn 
ofahio*. The eoebineal being boiled in wMeralnng with a littlo t«rtBr or aluis for a 
Cvw uinetM^ fiirMi a r«d liquor, which ■■ UlmA IhrouKb a linen olotb. ned pat lato • 
olnan eaak. Tb* lUna ara iaimen*d in Ibia bath, and acitatcd in it for about balf an 
Iwir; tbi>v ara taken oot and bea(«n, and then aul^Mted to a aaoond imniemoa in lb* 
OmUomI I'uUt. Aftar iiiAaif Ihu* dyad, tbM ara nuMd and lanacd with iiiciliaa war 
aia«b, at III'- rsUi of tws nonridt Tor ■ aldn of Modetat* dn. 7%i* ai m nwa ia pcrfomal 
h a lat^ loll Biaili! of wliite wood. In tha llijuor of wliloh tlie akina are ttoalud lika 
W maay blAdder^ nuH reoved aboul bv manaal labor during fnnr honn. Tlvty are 
ikan taken out, dnine'l. «n<l agiiin •u1>]*ol«d tv the ta«niiig liqnor; the whole pra- 
MM Toqairing a tpao* of twcnt^roiur tionm The akina are now niu<ilelifld. rlaaad. 
fkiDed with bocllcit dnunod, rubbed hud with n copper UaJ^ and lavUy banf 'Op In 



no nnnuhutnrM* brigt>l«n the color bir op|ilviu|{ to ika aarfiua of the tklaat !»■ 

i'4amset4t«, a aolnUon of carmine in inimi-nin with a apoaite: olhar* aiifily a detaetiiB 

' «f awfron to etillven the •onHat liaL At Purii the moroooo leatiier it tanned by aglla> 

lien with ■ di^oellon of aomoeb in larco tarkt <&ado Is revolvn upon a hoeiKoilat axi^ 

like a barrel eharn. White finUt are •aiiii-tiinea aubatitiiled Tor tumaeh ; n pnnad bcinf 

■aed fir ■ akin. THt akia* muM be Cnally eltaned witb the utmoit earn. 

lliti hlnvk dye ia given by applying with Uie hriMliBaalutionorred oMtaloof irna to 
Ibagtain aide. Btn* ia ooaniMUNoatM br tha MMnBHin ooldkdif^vaL; lioleu, willia 



LEATUKU. 68 

light Uii« MhmtA lif «o«hlnMl ni : CNvn, l>y Sfexan blue fullnwv-l hf ■ jtilow <lya, 
immUj iamIo wiih til* elinpiMd roeU of llio barlinry. Tliit |'1>. ' Jiu fbr ytl* 

bwt. ToiIjavUvv, tlM dtllMU* Ant p—ti tbrt>nf,-hnVMk >' ' rnau vltolo^ 

•ad then th/uugli tie ittoMtiao «f Wbarry tnot, ooutAiaiB); ■ 1> : . . . PilM 

oolor b ««nisiini«al«d fcj logvoad willi k little nlvm; wlijuli iB*y )- i<} U>e 

•il4iti«iii«rMliltl« BraaTwiMd. In all Ui«(a cmm vlMii«v«r lliaM:»kiii _. i, tli«j 

■hoiild Iw K'-iei). vrnng, or ralkor draiKbl, MroUliaJ tifau • MAt, tlMa bnauDariod <>■ 
lb* Kriun •■•I" vitK ■ 6Ua of )!mm>1 «<■ apiiliiJ by intaM •( av^oaft^ in prd«t (« pra* 
motr (btlr fiinMcn* whmi ourrlttJ, nnd M prevent Ui<nu bac««wg hornj 1^ too npM 

<ltT>>l|C, 

TV' lait I'rofM in jmpiriiie mupMHw leather ii tbc curryiac, vbt"'' )-;< - .,ii< (Jm 
l^re, »>»] >i«lvr« Uiv Arlginnl lUpplinna. Hiii opuratkrn U [tt ' < 'utDnl 

lUkiincnL Mourdiiip to the |iurf>(«e tLf (kiiu ar« toHrvcL For paskt: < ''ftili««k 

■nil ea«t-iu*klag id gvaor*!, tbty miul b* ihiiinad m tuttdi u {lOHitiU u|>u<i ilio A«ali 
*I^ cauiaUinoil ttiiil't'r. thrji ilrotL-ltuJ upon lli« UbU, to aiDMlb llicui ; Jri«') iifiin, 
' tuolitnuuil. mJ iMlly puiud Iwo ortlirM Liiuoi ikruosh th« ejrUmleT pr«M in itllTarMit 
(Ur««(u>i>t. t'l nradno* (Im iKSMln^ «( tlic grviik Tlic Mum inttadod lor Uio Hliwuiakw, 
tba taiU1<r, tli* boohbinilFr, A«., rriiuire mote plian«)r, sd<1 mmt b* dlfforMilly currMi 
Afl*T bcisi; Iliiiin*-V tliejr aro itland with ■ p«Uibcr wbilc kIUI idoIiiI, and ■ i^niin li 
IbmMd upon Uie fleab «ulc vitb ibr rouglwMd Iciiil (iliiu or ictmiMr at iIm vuiitn. 
ealled in rrtaxii ponmtUt; Ihty ara cloMd aa»» to r«mo«« lliu rvi^thnc-i praaiieaj 
bjtbapoMmel, kodfittallytinunvdon tliff Srab lidairllliaMirtMvofitorkBiii'bediindtr 
« ponnti of wbii« Tooj. 

TAWinn or Gkiki. (iftgfucrit, Fr. i W«»ft>t*rrl, Gnrm.) The hid, »)>Mp, ul 
Inoib Aiuf, arc «lcuiuod u ba* been d«>cribed ondm Intlbrr iu ikr Uit<ioa»ry. laaMM 
iWtloriia tlivy runnvn Ibu tuming ^ir«r uf tlii- »utiiiiuriiil<' oi ■laiiiuia (from a toJlitiOM 
of alam ■»■! casinou i«ll) la a laigv butnUcburn uF-|«ntu« ; in vhich ib«7 »« nb> 
Jaelml to violrnt *K(Cation,ai>d ihvrabir liikr lb« alumiitf in llic coimi'ol'a rtwBiinaW*. 
In alh«i' CHX'i, wliHa Iho jolka nl rtOi* are addrd lo the ahurc lolntion, Ike niitUTc. 
wilk Ihc ikini, i> put into a larire tub, Biid IbH wbolc Iruapled itranfjy \rf Ibe naked 
r«e1 or till- QHTaloi, liU ttie cmuluon uf Ibc einc be lonvd into (he par«* of Ibc tUn> 
Tb« tawori lb in*. «h«n diy, an " Maknl," that ii, (trclcbol, icralxd, and NiMiolhfid, hj 
IHdioti uyariifl the blant odge of a ipmieircular knife, iLtrd to ih* top of a ihoft b(«ni 
otwotri >eturricbL TbeworknUo hoMinit Ib« »!rcii)iiji'g cif the skin with botb bnnda, 
pnlU il in nil dkte<tiorks fonihlj, but skiirullj:, BUi'iiuil tlie imoothinE " rtnke," 

Iu oa caicitoinini; niiitte on tauaiac in tbe I Hh roruine of llie Penn; Migaibic, at 
pft^c Hi, ibc foUowing detariptioin i> cinn of one cf (lie gical tawng cnabUibmrnt* 
tut Loudon-. — 

** In the production of 'inilatloa' kid Icniber. tbc nktn of lunb* It r«i|do]tdi ukI 
for Ibis purpOK tambakina ars imported fioni tlie sbor«> of thr Mnliti'rrasnn. Tb«T 
■» iiiipoftad with lb« wool t*I mi Ibnn i and as ihit wool u valuabtr, Ihp k«tbr>^ 
Maati&claTcr temorri Ihii btfure tlic operaliiin* on tbe pell comaiciicr. Tbc vool ii 
of a qualilT tboi would be (;icdII) injured b; tli« coDtatt of lunr, and ibcrrfoir a kind 
od'aBiBral femwalnlioii i» binugbt abuui at a uieaiu of looseniDS Ibe wool from (be ncli. 
At Ibc iVffftiaytmlabliabnicnl of Mcwri. Bevinslon nnd Co., BcrmoDdxr)', one oi the 
boildint* preteotn, on Ibe ground door, n flii:ht oi' none iitcp*, leading dows lo a ran^ 
tt fnibiirinnrnn vault* or eknc room*, iolo wbicb tlic lambiklei are inuodBred in a 
wet «tate, nflrr barinff b(«n ttecprd in wnlcr, ' biokcn' oa Ibe ll(»b tide, and drainrd. 
Tba Icaapi'tiilnrpuribtte room* U nearly Ibo aaau ftU Iheifw round.* mult obtaiaet 
by baviat ihrm excl>dtd aa inn«'h M powible rrcu tbe tariatioiu of tbe nitnal aUno* 
ipfcnc I iud Ike Toall i« ibat tbe tkiiu undent^ a bind of potrofaciive or lenncaliaK 
pmeit, by wbicb tbe wool beeancn hnaened frc4ii the pell. Dwrio; tbi« cbeButU 
(tenaw amnuinia i> emhed In great abunda&re i tbe odor •« alrong aod diiagreeabte ( 
n Uflited mndle. If inlrodnted, vonld be iuiantly extinsuifhed, and injurlnui tfleeU 
woold b» Mteelvtil by a pvnoa rcaauning lonp in one of tbe tooiu*. Kacb lOom k 
BbiKii ten fr*t square, and b pmvidfiil wilb aoils and bar* irbm«n to baait the tanN 
sbiaa- Tbe doors from all ibe rooma «pen iai« OAe eMDinon paasage or tanll. and are 
kcpl <l°ae> ei<epi when the akian are inapceted. Il it a point of much nicety lo deter- 
mine when ibe fementaiion baa piooseded U> rach an eileni ai lo tooMS tbe vool frtnn 
Ibc pelt i for Ifil be allowed In Mocecd beyond thai ttage, Ibe pelt iladf would become 
Injured." 

When the fennencalioa la completed, geneially In about ftrc dO)*, Ibe »kin* arc m- 
■wved l« a beam, and (b«re'»limcd'— •lliat to,*crapod un Ibe Ocjth Htle, to rrmnir • 
dbny snbttanre wbicb exudes from Ibo poraa. The wool is Iben (akrn oJf, i-l^noed, 
■ad soM lo tbe bailen, for iiiakin« the bodie* oreonunon baU. I'bc iirippnj pells are 
'Jipiiit in lim^wam for about • week, lokiU the gceaari and are next ■■ Seibedontbe 
I." AfU* being plaerd in n "drencb," or ■•olnltom of Ipnr biwi lor tome days la 



LEATHER. 



ranoTc the lime bdiI open tbe Fom, the iXhn are bIdbtiI, anil *ab)RI«l lb neul; 
themnc praccMOBf diutrtrkidakini. (Sh' LriTiini.) TIhm Hofiltnawiui )<iutk 
•kiMdoaot in ftns*! iiiMu«tT tnorr ihnn nboui 30 iiichci b^ Hi uad (««b out fui~ 
nUici IrailKr Artwo pain ef (mall slorts. Tkuo UndioTlMlbrrgrMienttTlnielN* 
lealhn-dnfirr lii ■ wh(l« *Ut« ; bM BtideifD a procrw of djcing, tonmini;, " tTrokim," 
tie., btfcro ivinit em ap fnio kIo***- 
K The raoninc of one avrTaee-ait**! iiliin ttiigfiirr* nbniil I) lb*, of Rood SicQiat 

■ jmnaehi but Tor Wth«r which bio rrcpiir n bntht leaikf d;r, ftrim otir hoiriolkrM 
B quutm of • poaad of nIMniU aie nniilo^pd in nrcfav»n. Intniat cotuLIni ai« 
H ABBtd villi • willow-ban: Ikfluion, in pria, in vhicK ihcr art lumril irprttritty. and 
' hid «nt 10 dnitt, a* In laantni (olr-Ieiithcr. The Hnni *tii>i Tor th« tirigbitsl htmiUl 

are nrrd wlib (aJt, lo mnrni Ih'ir rrcrivini; itenincr in ibe tniniTort, B>d arr iSf«d 
bcTorr hriiig laniMd. TbI* nirthdd ir TTscilxd in (!rnn>ny ub) Vraice. 

Ltalktr ef ittr and (heev*^'''* '* pr^pniyil wtlli "il. fur thr piirpMe of nukiaf 

bncebtv, Jcr.iaad for wa«h-1«lher, ninl in cininini* plnlr. AArr iWrr nn oomHetdf 

waabed, limed, aad bfsinad. a* abnTt devcnbtrf, they have tb*ir " Knii>'*-«tiHBce rr> 

mond, (o give tlten ^KMer wdtnaw ud plikbiUir. Tbi« remotal oT tW tra^ >* 

_ eall«d " O'iiing," ond n U daiw either with Oir roviid rdini </ a blunl halfe, or with 

■ W»it» gloa*. After bcint! ff cnl frDiD lli« time hy )lep|iinc in frrmriitn) hroaiWila^ 
V ttef an prewol a* dry u may be, ami nn iben imprai^ixiierl itiili nxl-oil. by WaIbB 

with ilocki ift th« iroush or a kind of ftillin;-Bil]. Prtnoiul; to Ihe applicnilna of 
[be «>l, tJtey axe uaoally fatal l%T«oin«tim« aloD« to open Ihctr whatinee. Tb' a>l«il 

■ (kJM are ntnrichfd, liunp np for aome time In ll)e air, Ibeo falM with oU u Wfan — ■ 
Bipmeu which i« 8 ot 9 time* repeaMl. Th# oU ia alowly aad crtnly ponrvd upon th* 
' dciai ia the tinMib, dnhng the artion of the beaten. One hondred »klna imaUyuke 

«|i in tbii way Tram two to Ihrer calloniofoil. The fulled oiled fklBf arc ttrown Inia 
brso tnht, onil lel\ fm bodif lime to rcrmmi, nnd thereby IA eomblne m<Hr iniimatelf 

■ viUi Ihe oil. Tbey nrFlnitlyiubiecled (o ■ wmit potntb ley talk, (o alrip thrm of the 
B looMly adhuiiig oU. They arc then bun; up in th« air to dry, and dmiRl for die 
K narket. 

■ Tbe c)Banlilf of hidcf and nkia* convoled iniii leatlm ynrly in Knclani! ii alsMt 

■ incrediWy larve. At Mn«it. Bcrrln^teo'* otnlilishment akinp there nre alioui tiO.OK 
H Aim aaniull; cunrmed Inl* Imher by the ntumint or tnwini; prorrti ; 230,0(10 by 
■' iha nnaeh inaninn pioMu ; u obo n nnnll aumbFt by tbe <al.djenrtn3 t<r«mt. Fw 

the laqKoIiitian anil eipottntioii of tkni, uaiaaned and Innnal, ew Hid". 

Lnlhtr amt tHi»i in ihi A'rAiA^><u>' — Thv |<rtMiiit claM iiitduilvR ■ rsni>tj of tnant- 
fkiturinK praauniM rvlMiiia t« tlia cnmuieittal i'iv|'nrailiMi'Df animul tulwiniM*^ i» Ika 
fniiiiuf i^alber, tkini^ for, uir. and feallier*. I'nlil within n rr>'<!iitji;riovl. ripcriMIM 
raihvr Ihoa acioMa hii diTMl«d the lDlwr> of muiurnGlurem in their D|Mrmtio*« ti|MM 
tfaaa HibttaacM, And at |iro*Bnt tbe rules (aUf(ht hx exprriunco are. in laanj MMK 
*till Jiuniud in ptaati<:«v WItli, howniar, aiu'h uodifiootioiii a* nn inIiJlii;i'nt ttOOfn- 
bMifion of tha ofxffatioea <if tb« olieiuiiul aotl otbre philoici|ihl(nl law* jiul into mtm 
Ib tlu MuocMM wonld aug^L 

TlmTiiniTliiii aiili iliwiaai n i if iij.aiii 1 in thitcla**: A,lMtk<>r.aaraughaBd lann«i 

mirric'l, enunelUd, dj«d: oD-l«Kther, a* buokakin, dowfcin, ±r.i wUteaad klnniW 

tli«r; *b«cp oad akin rum p«r«)uii«Bl anJ vellijin; i^ aaddlorj, and l«ni«w i t; ■!«. 

eallaiMoa*; i^ diliik and fun cf all dncripliuoii lor peraotuU and dcemalieaw: i. te- 

tlunb M thota «f ostrieh, fiiarabout, Ar. ; r, hair, Drnamontallj and Baanill; applftA 

^ 1^ localilie* in which llie iiinnnfMlore* ooneeruod in llu* eduM are rarnad en, aad 

B^iBn wbeoee articla It* exhibition hnv* diiefly been <kdf ed, ara BermowU«)% wiMra 

Hilha wrpaMtion of loather ha* bot* aaootaaftil^ eonduoted diirioK a tct; long (Mrio^ 

VHnli Swrniuaa. Brittol. Cork, LirMfioo], BdJnborgh. nnd Folnioiitli. 

W Tlia OMMufiictura of loallivr Ium bcon aatJmatad ai oaiy fourth in impoelanoe MBMig 

the TiBtioiiat ia*niitivt,ur'« of OreAl llrttoin. A Inr^ amount of capilat t* amployai) In 

lt*pr<iitii(iiuii,ATi>l Ihenuniliertrf arliauwsn'l olhara djraotlv *up[«rtwl brlhubraBcIl 

of iiKlD'trj ha* Lern token to ouionnt (o M«rly a qiiaflar oi a aiJIion. Tli? total a^ 

nual latiHof the Irathur manufaulutni ia nuntiulcd at atwut tuUTl<«u niilliniuMcrlia^ 

• It ap|Kmr* probable that in th* men arUoIo of boota nnd idoo^uiiwajdi of uren tnBlkw 

MarlinjcamanauallyrznandedbirthBinhabfiiinUoftliimsntry. IfiibacoDuderadtliit 

ntlMe iDore (ban half the leatlier tiroduotd 1* llintappli«d, tlu remniodrr ii einployad 

In the finiduetion «f liamcM, tadiirerf, |;IoT4h. aixt tlio niiiltifnrii'ua Tuiri'OMa for wbkh 

lealhceMappliaabt*. Oflate.eho(nialrjhMb«n«[Tidi<4«ti«nlietly byiho«edcp««d«el 

K li|>on tkii bfancb of indiuliy. and inMcaaTu] twitla haxe oiuned. A rnriclj of pat(«t 

B jwotaaMa wdit by wliUb tbe enormotu amount of time involrtJ in tanning on ibo cU 

Bayatau i* abdJ^vd t« a *UT(irial>f «tl*9L With iMne •fwriuMaa el loalher h baa noi 

■ Men unutuflt to derote «^bte*n nonilu or upward* to Uidr oombinatiao vitk IW 
BsatlT* prlMipha of the bark. A lew waeki or* nSMmH, muitt aeveral of Um mw 



L£ATI1£I{. 



(U 



•yttoiiK to ell«ct the *wii»ol^^L Bill It biUlvd thai thr Ualher jiroduMd rapMlj 
fifttn from Ihtl [xroJuvad b; Um tlower ptwow ol vuuiLiiMliun U it* dnraliUity uis 
wUdit;. Aiid U iiomudcrMlliTWHK^ tlitt timoit an Macatid oUnail in th« niaau- 
dKliirr, nitl tlut il cannot be aJtantagcoiulj ^orUneil t« any ooMidornblc «xtenL 

LMithrr i' ti(ii|<K')tion*bl]r • clivntical MaojKiuod, and thin mid«r« il iirolwtili! tl»l 
a »\ov ftttil Ki''*'l<i'^ |il'OM«« ol rombinaticQi brtirmi thii |C«likllno of Uic ikln uiii tbo 
uanic Mid id lli« bark mftf prodoR* ■ lakilwr [•> Mine mUuI of dilftnut prapartiM 
to tlint Cfriiicd \if ■ quiuliar «(>«nticin. A rvtr Urtrc amcant of loMlier n. bow^Nr, 
inuulwlurvj by llie rapl'l |•^(r'p1^ fmin vliif h il may bo conaluiji*! Ibal tiM pnidiHl 
pomMCt ifTCAl fomnicrviHl laluc. A ^cv-jil vnrivty <^ Uathtn in all tondilMM and 
•talM ot manofoctnre u uliibitcl, wiiii iiiiiniciiTu'wrica tUuatntiS|t tho peciUiaritica 
<tt dilTuiyiit molhoili of nuu>uCiclur«^ aoeonliiiit la ib» diSanno* of Iha purpoan for 
wliirli U>'.- |>t«p«rDd akin it lo bo nfl*TWArdii appli«<i. 

Ai> v.tU'iiiiv" luid Ibtoiwliii); oolUuUun of fur* i* txliIliiUiL Prnfcablv llio appor- 
tonlly \mt D«trt l-of»ra proMJiled iuotf (at ■ cuii)j>lDtc dudjr otUiia alan odnaaafM- 
torr. Fun uf tho nio*L rnra dncriptloa, devoted only to Uio um of doiutiiIm, bm 
■tnnnu tlir** ipMJScai. To iho naloraliu dtaromi ti MocrUining |}ie jpaora and 
•pocim J H-ldinu tltf fun of «ointD«Me— ■ aubject on wUob much conSicbog o^iiiuOk 
ci!>U — (linw i>U<etji, sliich arc ful)v and coiTMtl]- douribod in tlic (uIa1<vu« m Um 
cIoM^ will b« hl||hlv inUretliufc and iDklmotivc. FvaUiiire nnd batr at* hImi iopr» 
•rated bv variiiiK iutrriuliiiK olijocUi poaMmHig (hair prculiar mprii* and allrnoUoa. 
Tb« DuiDbtT of I'xbibuli'n lu Uii* aUnt M aoiiald*rabl«i but n'mnv it inctnd** bviU and 
aboct, an'l ollicr arti«lcaof |)«tiilnal wid donMitM UM in odililion lu aaddlcry, Ac, tht 
DDiDbir of pcnon* attgaU; appealing in tlia «apa«i(,v of manufaclnren » (a li« diaUn- 
gu»ho I from thi! propritlora. And. m ia Uw eominon rtle, tbo «laat «f pn>d«cen «V 
mauufuturarii butn onl/ a email proportion to tliatof uojiriatorti or, lu Ibc ownmaf- 
«!■! tv'i-'. iTndom <4 maunfactumd aniclM. 

Jl^irjni JI'Liy I'empamif, |>Todo««n. — t^talnifn* of fWm from lb* Awtlo r«eio«k^ 
belun^i'ig lu tb'- lliii!(vit'a Ray Company, aclc^'ted f'^r ibo KiUiliUinn Inim tbj'ir Im- 
portaiiuu of leM. prc{«red and arranged by lb* exhibitun fivm Ho. L li> N<a 3i. 

Tv itDWiMU* Lracta of countiy or«r whiw the U«daoa'« Bay Oonpaay baa conlMd 
OMV b« oMaidcrud a* vait baittag^|toiiD<K affording a Tari«d and exhMUtlcai ntcply 
of fur*. Tilt tC'riiltirial goaNMon* of thu Coni|-aD; covor Deul,v ono-dgbtli^t tna 
habilaUv |i;loW. [iutfija If ottXt inonbrand iinporUiioe iii Uii» f«ip««1,bat witba 
diScrcnl ruto of aniinala. Ttie fur prodaoc of Sorlli Ainenn and tbo CBMadat iHnW 
iMpottnaL A< we ipproaeli tbo tixipica and the warmer n^iicnui tba ulky fur with 
vhKh ttia auimali are clotbod ia tho DOrthorn otimca diaappcon, and far of a totally 
dUTcfont oharaelitr ia not with, whicli, altboogh uplrndid in appearance, i> not 
■dapud iot waraith or (tonatal vm. 

Tablk or iMrtocn Ann Kxcokh^ 



Raooon ■ ■ • > 


Tottl 
ImMTIaUoo lain 

8n(lui4. 


bivtot 


CHuaiBHlIn 
Xa(liB>L 


915.000 


fias,ooo 


bono 


Baanr ■ - ■ ■ 


dOiOOT 


13,000 


'tS,0UO 


ChinubillB 


».00D 


MtOOO 


SCDOO 


Bear .... 


«,eo(p 


8.(K)0 


1.600 


riiter ■ 


ILOM 


11.000 


uona 


Vex, r«d - ■ • 


Stf,Wi 


dXOOO 


non4 


•' cro»« 


4,S00 


4,G00 


nan* 


•■ wlTer 


1,0m 


I.OOO 


DOU* 


- tfhiio 


1.EO0 


SOO 


1,000 


- gray 


wood 


1S.0O0 


&00i> 


lAn» 

Mutin . - ■ . 

Sink .... 


U.IXKI 


10^000 


1,000 


ii.<\tm 


1»,000 


108,000 


£41,000 


7fc000 


HftOOO 


U'jtquatL ... 


t,D0i\OM 


iei\ooo 


ȣOiOOO 


' iMlI .... 


n.fioo 


tT.SOO 


uoae 


fur, *«*l 
' Wolf - - - . 


Mjim 


IS. SOO 


SLAOO 


15,000 


10.000 


noiM 



vod-a 



LEATHER. 



tiAnia, (Um- *»•) baam 


IX^OUO 


^OOO 


ltfi,000 


^Irrcl . . - - 
Fneb .... 


^3Tl.tS8 


TT.iao 


3.IM.0t< 


«5.0«t 


S8.9T* 


96Mi 


K«nuki 


ftMlO 


MO 


Aa,!IO 


IfalMllg . » - - 


m.llH 


DOM 


tar.iot 



1. Orovp of Uadi «■■) •ikt'r (Un ( TuU* p«M4 var. ■rymtatw). 
1 Ot«Dp of loMa ( Valpit/mlriM. TW. ^WHWoAai^ 
S. Oranp oT r»J aod illvw faxn ( VitifUfnlrUy 

*. " kiu - (rJjj.»Ai»). 

Til* hiapk and dlvor bs w tii« mo«t Ta)uaM« ttf kii Irilw; thcr u« niwnll; pur- 
, ihMnI for tha Rimian anil aiiMH tDsrkel^ being luehlT pritfd in i£»ii eosnUittL 
ilie onM* ae4 ivd bz u« iwrd by tlu Cl>ini'><>, litvok^ I'munik Ac, fi.r ola«li't!ftlc^ 
I IKJ fix Irlmniint; ilrr M n. TIio wUt« anil bliM fox ■• u**il in llii* ii»d oUirr (oontric* 
_br Mi<a' wear. In llx' •itui]<t»ar]r Um pMNdin tb* rtign of H«ftry tIL. tli« f<» h 
' naoMd vitli oUicr fiir* thru in ui>& 

7> Grovp of bearer (Oufor ^mm<«nwV 

Til* bcaTCc in farmer jtatn wu one of tbe HiulMn'i Bbj Companv's nioit talnnbl* 
M«4ucti(>ii* ; but (inM Ki iub bai bcun almoat coUrvlj dti«aaUnae4 in liw maaiiAMi 
twv vf b•t^ it Imu Iom nuub of iU taliM Exptrimcnb bavc. boveror, bt«a iiMd^ 
ud vlib nroapMt of motan, to adapt lU Ina and dlkj wool to vraviu pt]rp<N(a, 
TIm kkin of iW btanr b tirppMrvl bTaBawpiocMK aft^r vlikbtboMrfilM U rutbr 
• n«w and inicnlau* (aariilac. and tK* TMalt \* a bciautlful far fur UMot w«ar. Il n 
AIMTtrd in ill |<r()Hred itale Xo variom pari* of Eur»f^ ain) Ibv l-Iul. 

1W rich vliil* vool from tbe ondcr part of IheboaifTM tat)**!; vxpirif] ti>I*ranc«. 

a. Gr«Qp of IfDx (Ftiii CamaJmi*\ 

», ■■ ly»» cat (F'lh rti/a). 

Both tbc above fori. vh<a dyi>d, were fc«in4r)jr aiuh uaed tt b ttill djr«d aad 
prvpuffL as<l (iportnl '\a taruo niiuibiM for Ilio Amcrioon uurkeL la i\a natnrd 
atate, il U a cravioh whiK villi ibirk tpot* and I* uard by t1i« rbiii(iM\ Or«i»k*. Vtr- 
■au Biiil othtrn. (or rloaku, liking, bctti^ ^ ; tt U ttry aoft, warm, ami l^t 
Hk rat Cormetlv nallcl thr )u<.-efn M tlie Ij^nt, 

SI. Group d'lilack hiu IVntu Amrritmioy 

si •• broim llr-W ( Uintt, TM. jlM<r^lMllllt)i 

U, " f™y '"*' ('''■•vi/'mr). 

n* lar^ Xorth Aaxrii'mi l)lni''k tirar 1* tochnloall}' t<'nnod the aniivbear, bfoaoM 
itk^vralli' umH At n^ilitnry T<tir|>ii«iv In tlil«an<l otliomuntrir*, forM|i*. pialalr 
kolMeii^ ni^ nrriii|C« ha^uIn?^^lo(lI^ tilnitf k.cnTeriniC^ A«. Ttui dnv bUrk mb bt t tl 
iN motli wiwht nhn in Rii«ia for luakinK ■Iiube.tiningi^ eoot-liiitiigf, Iriinmingiv 
; f»"'"C^ Ao. liiG otbnr forta witli Ibo Xtrgr rnj bcan^ for t1«j£l>«ciTMin0h and •*■ 
eompaiuiiMnt^ &v. Tbo vbilc polnr boar. Ine *npp1}'^ of wbiph ii T»rv linitcd, i* 
nnvrall]) nodo into rtiK*. vli»b ore ofUn borden-'d vith tbo bla«k aad my baifi 
TIm br«iTB or laabcUa u al tbu pmcnt time niwd for kilica' wear in AmorMa. 

tOlk Niehelay, J«An Aty, A Son, 83 OiluriUtriKH. CoUoctoM, Iniport4t% 
MaiinCn'tuTSi^ A*. Sol«ol«d nvm Cauadian importation, witli th«awI«Un«oof (XII. 
Lamjitnn. Etq. 
18. Oroup of racoon {Proei/on latarX 

Tlia fin«*t renooii fun arr produced in Nortli America and arc iiupoitod inlu tliit 
eouaUpr in immonio uumlitra. Tliey are purdiaiod bore bj tlie uanhaot* who at- 
tend the pcrtodioal (ur udr*, and vho diap»o of lareo qaaatitiia at Ibo grot fair at 
LtlMJoi uier arc primolpally mod la Roiaia and thraoffhont OcnDanf, for linlnf 
•hiibca and voatJ^ and arn aioloitirrlj oen&ned lo ^Dll«in«n'a vtar. Tbo dark aklna 
ar« tba obolciut aud ar» vprv valvaolfti 
M. Group of Mai, {Fkora), (3<r'>r|:iB, Sliollaod Uica, KalkUnd lalei^ LoRiar'it lalaad, 
and Cnpn 
** plurktd mid prvpnrfd leitl. natural color. 

" ptiiekod and pit'uartd ■ful. dytd. 

" CirtenlantI and ><Twfoiindl«nd a«Bl. 

" On>oulaud and >'nwtjiiiidland leal, d]r«d. 

" apottvd and tilrn iital. 

IfcaMalbanlihabitantof niu*teouatrini; it uifuiindiiilb«h)f[hn««'ll><-n> UtiliidM 
in taiMwao nambtw ; iblpt arc purjwMJ;^ fitted fir lUvniiiure: ihosil prndin'.") lijtha 
mimal, tognlher vil^ ita akin, render il loonniicled u it it witli the alialv 6Atrj* 



m. 

S8. 



LEATHER. 



unpiKtaat ia the trMler tad iaI«rMliog to th« lularaliM. The aktiw «r« MtM m4 
pMkdl in umktt ia wbicb aUI* Uicj an wnt la U>ia ooiutry : tb«y 4re lh*n wirtcd 
Mid Ml«ot«d for variMit puipowa; thaMiuilAblo Tor lotlMr paa* into llw launen' 
band*. Mid nak* a bxaiiuhl iMthfr, whidi it lueil for Iodic*' diMa, Tli* blue hack, 
Ik* Wr aad Ui« *itT*r Mat xn •inmad au4 u»«d in ihvlr natuHl aiaU. bii<1 alio (Ij«4 
•ad oxpOTlcd in larg« iiuaiiiiiiiM, Ttie fur am^ Uio *np[il,v o( vlikli » a|K>va imall 
oaui|i«rtfd with di* <-iJii<r kiiida^ undergoM a praocw to pnpara tt for iu iaioixlod nttL 
It i* bfouiclit at tK« iKvaciit lime to • ^nat wgrr* of )ii-rt>Hiuii in llila eaunlfy : wkoi 
divMldJ (>r III* 1-Mic, K«no hair <vhieh prat«ei« il iu il* native •iMnont) th«r«'r*- 
main* i)iu rick ciit^, ailkjr, jrctloviih dow^, in vhivli alal* it wai formirrljr naa>l tM 
Iraviilliiig tapi anJ oth«r purpoatt. It w dow •eMuiii nude iim af in that aUl^ bat 
djtd a MiKitiful Van^j-k* brairii, t;lving it ilio appsaraucs 0( lb« ri«b«at rplrol, aii4 
ia nianufaetwrod in ercry *ari*ty of iliapn ajid fonu. aa aKiclo of 4roa fur India*', 
(oalleinaii'a nad duldraa'a wi>ar. 

SmKA .JaafWM*— 7«. Ursnp of clilocliIlK Bvanoa Ajrie* (dkJndilfo lamifm). 

1\. Oroop of ebiadiilla, Arica (rAincAii/a foai'^rral 

IS. Otwup of bA«lai>! ahinclnlla <>t l.inin {t%tv\il/a Imniftr^). 

Tit* vbitttiMi, ia UMluardy n SjdIIi Antrrii'aii auiinal, and waa llllr«duo*d iota 
thia oountT* and Praoco about fortf yeun aiaeo. 

Group of cmiiuo {Mtulfla frniinM). 

Tbe aniinQ ia |>rodu<?«d ia moat oomitria^ but dio bait i* (nan Rmm^ Swede*, and 
KorvBjr, and u killed in o-intirr wknri llie fur i* pure *l>it* {cKe|it the tail, vilh iu 
jot bl*ek tip^it bcina iu that mokui in ila Kraatoat prtficlion; ID (umnaar and ifirii^ 
u I* |iT>y> and of littln or net laluu. It ia tlio voaaiJ of more MtltbaTii dlmoa. tkt 
armine i» tha roval fur of Itiinia, {ifnniiny, S|>atn. t'otloKal. Ilalj. A«, In Kngland 
at llin eoi-onation uf tlia auttrtiiiii, the niiiieT<tr, a* lli« ermiao I* aljfliid In lieraldlr 
Uli);na|(«. la tMod, being jMiwdr red. that in gludded irith blaok *|iOl«. Tlio ajiota or 
pOvderM ban on tliv minever eapri of tlio pecra and twcrnwn boiii); in Toln. and tho 
DBnibar of roa^ or tinra denoliiij; ihclr varioni degri>« of nuik ; Ihe aoTtToiBD alooo 
•ud Ibe blood royal baring llio mbavDi' of the coronation tMb«e purrdered all orer, a 
btask apnt being inier1«d in about tttry aiiaaro beb of the fur. eriuiioii velvet batog 
ua«d on Ulat oeouioo. Tha <ro«n !• alao adorned witb a baud of minever, wltb a 
•iii|;U ran- of ■|iai' ; tha eoroneta of tha pears and p<«raaia« having a aiiuLlBr aivanf^ 
BMol. Tba klfecli 4]Hit« ara nude of tba bUck Aatraoaa lamb. On Kata ovoaaioca in 
th* HouM uf I«(d^ the peen ar* arrajed in their rotMa of atala, ofaearlet dolli and 
golil Ia4i% willi bun or ratn of pure nuiever. moro or Ina aeconling to tbeir 'Icgrew 
uf mok, Ihv tovereign alone woaring Ilia tojtX nunevev ptxrdered all over. Tha 
Jadf^ in Ibeir rvbis of afflco ara clad in acailul aixl pur« crmina. Tbo ermine, with 
Ifco tail of the aaiiual ioalrtad Iharein, ia ntpd ai urlii-loi of dfcaa for ladic* in ovaiy 
variHy of ihapaaiiJfDrm,a<tc(>nlia(Etutlii.<dIiil«lntof faibion, ami alto ai cloak lialagtt 

Tit* mitrnvrr can only be vrom on aUte ocroMi'ii* by ttiotu wlu b^ llktiir rank are 
•Btltlod \o iu U1I. but a* an article uf fathiun for ladlo*' otar ilKva u no nroliibilion 
Ib forci^ In Ibe irign of Edward III, fur* of ermine wetv alriclly ferbiddeti to b> 
wora by viy b>iC Ihe royal family, and ila general ii>« i* pTOhibil«d in Aiuiria at Ihe 
preaent tim*. In tntnanliU Inuiiaetioiu, emiine ia alvayaaotd by the limber, vhii'b 
eonaitta of forty akinfc The ninevor hr of a former era was tli* wbito belly of Ibe 
gray aquirrel 

36. Iir^ritp of kolinaki {itimItU &lririt»\ 

Th« kotioaki OF Tartar lablo i* pr«dueed fton Kiuaia, bnlong* 1o tba waaaal Iribc^ 
and id ill culor a bright jallov ; it I* much uaed In lit natural rtatu iLiid alio dyad M 
imitalu tbii chitnpur Hblmk 

87. Qroup of aiiulrrnl. black [Seiuntt ai^rr]^ 

S9. " aquii-rvl, blue (.Srinriv^ ear. nij^vri 

■9. " aquirrel. kuau (^cturai. tat. ffmcaa^ 

40> •■ squirrel, red ISriiruf rulynri*y, 

Ike a^uirrd aConn'li iu Itmala (wheco It m prodtwad In the gTMtaat i>ar£»cUon) 
itt auch itnmenae nninUn na would nppaar almoat btvadihla: Ida importation fnm 
tbciK* to iliia country nloim lut year Meaadlne S.01NXO00. Tits eriobraltd Weiaen' 
fvk lioioK '•* mtuU' from tli* white |tnrt of III* (lark l>lue aquirrel. A full-aiitd oloak 
llniiii; wni)*!!! unty 2i uuuiwa; it ii known aa tlie p<lii grit. For colder clinial4^ tha 
lininj^ are made from the bo^ or plain ^ay part of iJioiquirrol, the beat having 
part of tha tail tefl on caeh akin RuHia pradneea abont £S,Ui)i>,UOO aantutUy. 

4l. Oniup of iiteb or polecat [Puiorint/iHUM). 

Aboqt 40 yean ainoa Uiia fur wu more lai^y uiad than at praaont II la pro- 
iaetd in ih* grvaUat perfactton ia tliia oouatry. 

41. flroiip of Crimea jcray laoib. 

48. " Ukraine blaek lauk 



LEATEfKR SrUTTIKO. 



44 Orvap at Artnomi bUck UmU ^^^H 

4& jUUacwi umj Uuib. ^^^H 

40. - rcruMi Ukck lamb. ^M 

41. PMiIan itnT haU ^ 
4& fiiiaiHiJi Unili. ^H 
M lliiiiiikhiiu luciibL ^1 
M. " KngUih lAinli. 

Tbe gr*y uhI blftck I'nnwn lainli n awMlr tucd for g*atlcni«a'i Gl««k and «>at lia- 
[ ngph tot it<^<l■K^ fcJIarK «a|«k Ar.. and rIm ro-knoy purpwM The AatMcon l*iid»b 
[ ■ ri«h, wmTjr. Kla«7. black ikiii, lery iburf ia tbofor, having (IioanpcHanceaftwMi- 
I lUU watorad Kilki in ordn- Id obui'n Uii* «hoifo ikiii, it U atartod that tba par«Bl 
1 iM^P M dMlrajtd • o»rtaiii llm* bcfoM tJia birth of tbti Unih Tbc Frnian gray oad 
I UmIi lamb 1* fovorvd with t«tj ■iitn«t'> turht; tlut U prodiiod, it 1> *ai<l, bj tb* ojii- 
I tntJ bring a* toon w bnrn •vviti <i|i ilithilv in a l<«[lirm rkin, whl<h prrvrata lih« awrl 
I npandiiiK. The Uaiigarian buob it pf-tiit'i-ct in that ooiiiiltv iii imnicim nmnba*; 
[ afit Ibcnttiadnl coot, vallvd ttiu JiiIiak Kiiii-Ih. U mndp. In Uio iiinuiivr or vol ««•■ 
I tlior llic fur ur vooll v part ii vom onlii-Ir ; in winTrr. Tbf n oannlh it TnoiNil^ il 1* 
I roTcnnl; the tkinii t&nncd Drdtnuod in n vav pnonliar lu ihoeountrfi aiid decorated 
I Biu] eaibrviidurad ia afcordoncu with thamwuiaiid iMtfortltcv-carer- JnS|>unlki 
[ liuiiUidiiuikiMedbTUiDTiilI-kiiawni'bBnutfriativikaitjiarkctotftbatoaDBlry. wkloh la 
I •d^riuid with fillcTM allTWT butlant; tho uoornor kinihi of holh enlon am mod for ovr 
I MTalrj, and la ako wiployvd fur moiinUng and burdvrinu *kin«, aa laopanU ligcr^ 
I *<i, kr 0niani«nt«l and doonnlio ]iiiii>o«m. In thorcigntlRit'luLnl IL, th« iwrgaaa^ 
I M^iv WOT* a rvbc furrvd intide vitli wliit« lambakiu aud a tope ot tlio aanie 
I BI. OT«np o/ Prrevattikl. 
L 52. ■* Uamilcr. 

' Th* (iba>« ara fraoi Rnuia; Ui« fonnrr ti wed iy Udi«« ; tbe latUv n mado lale 
«)oak linism «liieb arc oxoaodiiiffly bjthl, duniblf^ and eliniji. 
63. Ofaii|> of eolortd eat. 
H- " UtMk MX. 

I SB. " blark Dutch, 

r VS. " mloredDalch. 

The nat. pmprrij attciidpil to and br«d purpondj' tor iti (kin. lafipilo a most m*. 
fill and dnnthla fur: in IlolUnd it ii brc^ and kept m a oonlinod itatc till th* fat u 
ill lUfri-IVat pvrffutlon. and in Efd vutircty Ml AA, loolhoreaantrinfind mxx^ally 
■u uur uwii. it !■ |iri>>lii(iF4 in liif;* numher*. Tfan wiM rnt i* inudi liu|tar and Iod^ct 
in 111* t«r, and i* intt with In *it«iiH«B forvu*. nrticuluHy In Ilitngnry : tlio coltrr » 
gtmy, tpoUed with black, and Ita aotlncw and darabilitjr rcndm- it tnitable for floak 
•auooat liuDci. for vlucli parpoaca it is maeb uanL Th* Uaok tpcdiM m alio ntnah in 
L Mqaait, and ninilarly lurd, and with iho ipotted aad *lrip«<l Tsnoticii >■ tnada into 
twrappff* for opcD cairiaK*^ aloti;b mtrriiigi, and railvay tmtelliDg 
I v£ Group ol d jed lynx, «* N'o. H. 
I W. " ptnipiin {Spttimtt afitefHt^a). 

M. " gntnf {Poiierp* mtUMV 

'On gt«b* !a an Aquatio bird, InbablUnK tDoat of lh« lar^ UAm la EwTop« The 
•Mom a^oitntDi ar* from Uenava, llalit, and Hnlland. Hit fMtben nn of ritk 
vliitf. lioTing tha appfaraiiuc of )>oliahiMi riliflr, tho pluniag* on thooal«r cdgoof ilia 
tkiu IxiiiiK a ricli dark bmwn : it ia mod by IndJM and fonna a boantifal artiola «d 
draa^ and la wont aa triiniuiniji tor llio train* of murt iind drnving-roon dr w t*, 
lar BOff*. (lilb, Iroaa, An. It it vrn- durabto ; ths ^xquitlt* ■nioottuiaai of Ita fM- 
tbei> prorcnU it* tuillu|; with woar. 
BO. iJpgcIiDaa of awan foaUMriL 
VI. " pioiui fBathoTiL 

VS. '■ fidor down, 

Tho Inrd frani which tho dona i* taken it fminil in lai^ numbora in IcdaniL n«r- 

•rar. Strodon, tin.; ita «oIor ia dark (cny. and ita dartidly. litthtnou, and rvaiatanec 

to wot. an) protninant tmaa^ ita othor advantagMi it i* niad for tha ioaid* ituffii^c 

■at malh. On tho contineut tho wolI-knowB aidf^down qutlu aro lamly naod. 

I IW— lit. SiuUot Riuaia aablo ; lliidum'i BayMbU; tablo tall, lulnk; tihincUlto; 

rpebo; (MOtwr; Sihorliiniiquirivil. vlthtnil*; kulin*U: DtlDOToc; eTUtio«i noUaklB; 

'natDMl bcaTcr; dyod b<«vor; *»al: awan; eoa«*.doirn. 

The down cf tha OMto ii manofaotiirtt) by btdns acwn on l«itit* (hbrka. ft la a 
apecimrn of IrJih iixliiitrv, and hot boon {wtniniioa and wild in England cilcDnToliF 
Itr tba boiirflt of Qie Itiiii foinalo poor, by whom It lua boon made Up. llii- titieck 
goQipmrcl viUi the Irua awaa'a down, U Tory loodorala. Ooinj^ town upou olutb, U 

■aan Iw wiuhad. 

l.KATHtR aPUTTUCa nia oporaiioa U omplofad aeiMtJmM ujwu oarUla 



LEATHER SPLnTlNG. 



09 



•oris ct l««tfa«r for (loTOHk br bookbiadm, ilnMUi-lnkktn, uiit alwajv (a glr* • mi- 
tftnn Uikikii«M to Ui« iMlbtrdtttinad br Uui«gUon Mil voo) Mfd-aaktn. 

JiV*-8"i8S4,MfC9M^ rffiNMnlawtJI-MiiUlvediniiobinebTlkttiiiiipoMiclwUali 

if' fl0S thow* th» Eronl ritir, jtf, B44 a rlaw rrom Iht left aide, jf^ Set a grtnuid ptoa, 

nijiff. 9M a vMlieal •««(i(m wnM tb« omkiab « >■ ■ strani; UbU. fumiilMd wiUi 

[Mg8 A, vlujh to tb« right ukd laft hand bou* tvo baiimnul pjcoca t. bdi tif 




"TXTTTrr 




[ lli«M pl«cM is (rut DVl in Trout; *o u to (ona in iu •ubataoM * ImU-toiuxI fork, that 
LmmItq* k ojIlDda 4 iorrjiag od il> cqiI n IwoOied «pnr-whMl t. Motion u com- 



SdG ■- 





mluiratnl to tlic wheel bjr ncvis of ike bwiiUo /, uiion whcMeaui lh«piBl«i,<|l»iu4i 
WOTUbk lito the wheel d, mad4 ft«t (o lb* ond oTlbv cT^i^^" ronnd whirl) lb* lolkai 
la railed. 'Dtc leather i»ix»d at osaof it> siub or <d|K* to ibe o!lii»t»,«iihttwith • 
wedce prMied into a ittoove, or bj m oioifoble MRmmt of iIif cjltoda iticlf. 

Tlo labl':^, a, ij tot out lni|nhvit« with a nloi, (hal ii widened b«law, aa *hMrm m 

flg- ««• 

Tbi knife h ( /fgi.BeSasd MS) ii ^cd flat iqioii the laUa witb »cr«w bolt*, whow 




TO 



LEG1IMI>fB. 



ke*li krao<ninl«t*tmklDU>Ui«Uli1c and •MDnd with laii* b«Q>:ith f iTr. MS), the«dp 
'itlhr Vnifc brinii; jilknul li<>rtn>!ilaliy orrt llie opunini^ nail | S it. 

lb A^, Hot, lh« Unlhcr, i, ii •tiown adTAnoin); a|;iiin»t Ihc '• i .' ililil, bdi) Iim 

■ porUou foiled round Ih* cj-lindur, whieli li >SM« lo nrvori-.- ir jiioimrtion u tb« 



l««lb»r udrft T\t aiip»T iiortko of lb* Iwtlwr U roUod a|ian Ih* c;ll»d*ri( wtiQv 
W imJit halt. I. fall* uiruii|{li Iha DUonK opmiBK upoii t)w ground. 
t* rq^Ling th* lliiokiicM uf lli* •pill lMtli«r, llw Iwo •ujiponi. m, *ol ; titrj trt 



unit fMl to th«MMaa(iniaD« tooh nA* at thn fcnlfo), kiidirr ni(>rti><d into ll>o taliU 
hy Iwo lononi ■(■cored bnaMitli. Hiotc »ipp«rl* nrr fiirnUlifit noAr thvir top* vilh 
keyed ilol*, bjr ra«a»t of which the horiioiitiil iruu rod ( J^*. ^<t^. i^^A.) <<> aMoml, a>d 
outvidc of the iipriffhlj Ihcjr urnaBponthoipriDn p^ whirli tend to niiM Ibc rod. o, in 
It* tw««Md (loU: but the aajaalin^MTcwij, wnicb puidowo tliriHuh tkitotaoftlM 
aafipoiia into the nK>rtiM ■ y<j^ MS), nnd pivH upon lh« upper batf of Uio dindfj 
l«Dun, (oaattnwt tho ipriait*. anil •Mar>lia;ily knep Iha rod, ^ exuvlly at any ilnlrsd 
1i«l|()it or l»T(L The iron rod, •>, oarrlM aiiuihur truii bar, r. bonvalh it, p«r<>l]rl attd 
*\to rttUogoivr.fy. SflO. Tlil'lowart*!'. wbirbi* rnundvd at It* und«r fun, liat t 
and pfBMB* tho lMlh«r, \tT tbg a«tl»n of tv>> '■ti'w*. wbicli paM ibrn-u^^h twu upr 
pJMM iU(g*- BAS. Mid BA3)) niadu f«tto Uic tablo; Ibu* Ibf inin Wr, f, mar be I 
t* pros Torwarda Ih« Micaof lliekDif«, aaditnufbcMtjuftpd in iu lUgmof j'FM 
tMMding t« tlu daairad thielcnca of the lanf of aplit Intlior, that jiiuMt llir 
indar iu 

^IfL 8flS, aliowi tknt the alant or obliiiiiity of ilie knife it din>t^«il dowoward*, »T«r 
Xia of til* tdgai of the oblong opaelnn n \ tlio otbor edg* uf Ihit 0|>Miaf i> prvridod 
with an iron |iUU ( (jC;*. 63Sb SS91 whiuh trrrt* U> ^uiil* th« btada in aullii^ Ui« 
]HUiertot1i«pr#p«Td('pih. Far thit piirpiKMthtfplBii; h niulo aiQuttukl* by meana«f 
lbel(roT^rTiisiii(|f;;i9Uk snn), let into lli« tabl^. vhi>-h prcu it davnvarilK Fmif 
Mr*w^ », paM dovn lliroiiyli (lis tnbtc, «aeh boloni^ini; (i) ill rc<i>uctiv« ipiiii^ h aad 
iiy menni of thcio wrcwi ih« pint?, 1, mar ba rai>«>l in nny dmirod doirr«. Eatfa of 
tbs«<rvwi^ii.bMbuid«aannaU roctangnlBr notch tliroiigh vbich a wrow bolt. <, pM**^ 
^j vbl«h tlia tftlnf, I* nudo fut lu lliv tabl«. Tblu nliia Iha plata^ I, may be ni*da to 
•|ipMa«b to or rae«da l^om thn knlf^v 

If, infyt. MS, ttnd e<A, it a Hut biMrd. laid npon iht Ipalbrr a IIUl« behind Iha «da;« 
of Uie plate I; Ihi* board \i ]>rnAr<I by lliv rylliidcr t, (hiil liM np^n it, and witaw 
toaofu reit in mortiic* cut out in the I'no luppott* n'. Tlie eyiindcr. i, ia held in i(a 
poaitiOD by a vcdaa or pin b ( ;(^ 863. and aniX vhiob psoos tbronirb (bs mpport^ 
Wlmn tho katbor ha* been ipfll. Ui«a pin> am rvniorpj, and lb« i^yliuder rim llitB 
bf mAanj of tbo two tonnwr wci|j[hlA not thown in tlic fignrt^ 

The optntlon of thi inacbin« u at fuUnva; — The (ds' er end of the ItAtlior brteg 
Monrtd to tiia njllnd^r d, tl># Itathvr ItMlf haviti|t the dirertion Upon tbo labU ahowii 
Safy. BAD. nntltlia bar, r, iU pn-pvr pmporlinn ovvr t)ii'linifn, tUo «d(ii bwlni to tntar 
tDlhii poiition into the Irathvr. whiU the cylinder, d^ iiiiior*d by lh« haiuUaorvlMK 
■■d tb« iiicce g«t< iplil liFtviil tile blodf and th« roller d. Wtipn Iho olhtfr vnd of llie 
iMther. i. ndvaaeoa to lli« koifp. thcrr ie^ tonuiniently. •>»' half nf thv iMther iqilit; 
th«*kia ii to be then rollt'd off Ifac fvlindi^r d; il it liiriied; llip nlrvndy aplit halt m 
the and of 'lir IcAlher 11. ia made fait into the icood of i.hc cylinder, uid tiie olh«r hall 
M next aplit ; whUa tbo luiife now aeta from lulow, in an oppoiite dlrtclion to vhat ]t 
did at fint. 

That lbs UDroning of the leather tnm the ejUnikr, 1^ may not be obitraoled by lb* 
pinioii i, the ilo^-v«i)g« f{fyt.%tA, 9M)\* removed (rom th« teeth. Id tb«pro«M(li( 
■pf ittin^ the grwn aid* nf the leather it njipermott. and i) lh*re()>ra cut ef an anippna 
tnlekneai. bDt the Dndcmdde *ar)e* in tbickncta vith tbi> inequality of the tkik. 

Tb( quantity of leather sloTnotFor«wnpMduclioa riporied in \ti&, wa* 401,009 
palr^ nnd In IS&l, 107,931 pain. Sae Tlmtt. 

KxpoHa of i«*tli«r of BritJih I'roduFe and Uaniifnetii 



Qoaolltla. 



tnre. 
t>«lar*«TthH 



' LMlbor, nswTonsbt, ewta. 
Wniii|hl, ric glon^ Ibc 
Of aUi«r aorta. lb« 

t and na 



C 

ISAa 

IBl.Ttt 

I Mil 



t 

184 1. 

1»,7B1 
288, H« 

is&in 



leso. iMi. 

II.IM »,I41 

. i,si»,4«i i,«A6,eeG 

SaAllcfy and hameia, value £ — — 

L6DUJI PELiraTRE. Thla pknt U employed in Ruiaia to too tlie tk!a ef goat^ 
«atT«ia, and ali«i^ inlo a reddiah leathr* of an agrcniMc eniell ; a* obo la the prepkra- 
tian of the <a\ of birch, for nuking what it eonimanly ealled Riiaaia InaUicr. 

LEGUIIINE^ i« the Dane of a T«gHo«lk^ enppoaed to oiiat in leguminoiii 
planta. 



UHBSTO!fK 



fl 



LKMOXS. ScGCrmc^cii>,udO<u,EM»rriAL. 

LKVIGATION 1)1 ilut niMkwtiMl i^occw whrrubf haid iiitMMaee* w« raliiMd lot 

icrj !m' iMiwJrr. 

LlvL't'lTlv it > hud VoMviaa lunotDl, eonBiUnu of tilin,Mi Rltuniiw, XI | pot- 
ub,£l. 

LEI'CINE it a whiK crriUDiac hUeIodcc pmlnccd hj BClin); upon Heih with anlilni. 
-lieaelcl. 
K LEWIS I* Uic iwake«f one kind of thean ntod ia croppiof wooUtn dolh. 

LLAS ii 1 Gnc-^rtlncd aigiUMcoai Uinutoac, «lKn« geological pmiiloa I* under ihe 
oolllcj ii !• the iiroprr UUuigiBiiIiic tloiKi. 

IJllAVll/S, Li«nnar,i«tiio bwUciridoof tin, infjiutil byiliMoWin; [hm inrtal^wllli 
■Ilia kill of bMI, in afiHi rcjciir, or bj pMaing oUurinc gu Ibrouih ■ tolulian of maruiM 
vt tin till no Diaro (u b« alHorbed, erapoiMin^ Ihe iralalion, ami ittliBg it iwide lu cif^ 
falliie. Tli« iiolifdnnii birhtoridp a b«t prcpnrcil by miunji faur paili orcorroiiTe s«V 
liooW vilh one pari nf tin, picvioutty uoiilganikltd vclili juM » much Dwrcurx m (o 
renilet il puJmiiablc : and bj- d^ulling thit miiturc with ■ gratif hcai. A eoIorlMi 
fluid, the ilrr bichloiiili' or lin, or the proper IWnlii^ U(|uor of libavim, conus mtr. 
When It it iniMd wiih one third uf its w«i<ht of walcr tl twoome* toUd. I'he iiM 
bicIiUii ilIf III* tin M Drrd in csiicu-prinlinK- 

LICIJO. SnAKCHiL. 

JJOKEOIS MATTER is rcwcUble fibre. S« Finoni MAnaa. 

UGJJirE i> oar u( the Qwl rrcenl godogiFil romuilion*, beias the ouboaMMM 
renoiai f>r r>n->t irrci, Fiam thiit wbalnnee, aa found tn Ibc nnghbocbood oT Cologne 
the brivn cdIoi~'. called timier and tartk of Ctlogit*, ain prepared. 

UL.VCH 1>\IL See CAUorvrairrriNB akd Dvsimc-. 

U!iesTOSElCaiMin,FT.(Kal$kiMii,Oi!na.),mkj be ekned under the rrxJowioa 
heoclii— 

1. Cii/cunoHi ijiur ocean in eolorU« crritali or eiyttallinc uiaiuit diiulrn vntb 
cffcrrocvneD In inariatic acid ; ii «cmte)ied b; toft iron, but nol hj the noil ; (pedfie 
— ariif 2-T ; lotct 16 per conU by ^o cipiilikion tiC enrbonjc acid, and tmlciiwa tnut quiek- 

Cak»M<r, or iMatlilit tarkmali o/limt, mlled abo eonovt ioniur Umnlme, 1m«bum 
I of loan more or hsa undulalod, and Mailf panUcL Thtae wnM hnvf? n IlbroM 
elvre, nmln; from the lueeeaiire depoiitei of lite erjrtuHIne limnlane (ivtn ils tot 
vaUr, Tbii liini; cunkol pieen nJlod iloliiriiirt, «how flbre* (onter^ni[ to the 
Thv iub''ifiil<ir roDsixiE of inci;ular lumpaeAen nn'inhltd over with imoll crydal*, 
1 wHoeiited Ml M to mhibit il>c appcaraoee ofeauJillirwer. Tb« imiiGino, cosunonlf 
1 aCMaimite, oi alabaster liioMlone, raprvKUts eonei not v^ noenlric, but t>ptcad onl, 
■TinE, and pninllcl ; its tviture i«sonPltiiM« lonicllaT, and Mimetimm fihroat. Thnr 
nring slrnta ore diiliniriii-'<bnble twm vae anolhrr by tlieir dilTeTent ilfnnilin, and hf 
Ibai decrees oT Imnslueency. This flsUEmilic mnH brinthe nojneof orienlal ilaboxter, 
when it II reddiih'yrllow irilh diiliaet Konc*. and i> initcrpillilc of n flue polish. Slalne- 
lilci aii.- roriiinl in ilie |ar]ie cxcavnlion* of calcanKn.^ nirk>> Thr waler f«rcalalln> 
down iliioiif II tlif-iD. and i|ioppIn| t^nm llie rouft uf 11>e cai-rru, ii usually ^haignl wllfi 
oaibuiiai'' >ir hme held i«iu»peiMiun hj *a axons oTcurbonie arid. Theetpotu/a ioalf, 
' iDi'l iixi , mid llir GMMO'ineal diininution of pmnurr, tnune the t^tcipitntiun of the cw* 
lie of time in lht> wild Klate. Each drop of vnler, on fhllins ilirouiili iti'^ vauJt, >1*B- 
I a ttniill lilm of limOBtune, which enlnine* bf dcgiret, nnd fonni rilhrr a cjlinderor 
' aalid iDiui. Thii nlabailer differs from marble in iu parallel and waving layers, oiul iu 
bitti decree of irantinrenq'' 

"ma alflbnMer *niTC> for Ihe decoration of public bulldlnn, and li occkiinnnUy inin>- 

■tawad into ecriain plter* oT flimlhire. The One Egypban abbatlci miH mieitatljr 

krauslit from Ihn auiuntnini of Ihr Thrhaiil, belvnn iJie Nilo and the Rnl lira, near 

I town mlletl Alabattron, whence pr<ib«b1y liie nnine. ' Very fine reil alabadet, of Kreat 

'iMidncM. waa Ibnnd al one Unie ia the quarrin of Honlmnitre, bnl the >K>ck ni aeon 

eithauslf^. 

Thi inermili»g rannWioaary timtilme differs little from the pretcdinc cMcpI la 

.Ifec rapidity of lu fonualioo, and in being nouldnl upon tome body whofe >hapc ll 

P.^MUme*. Theao depotilc* Ihim ealcamnu *priiii;i, Ivjrin equally on rcottablo bodini, on 

■taiiM, inetnU, wlihln plpM of caM iron, wood, at Icwl. "Hie ia<ru*tatioii» on segriable 

and aaiawl tabdtnnoM arc mltnrti' catlH polrilWetions, as the ortanic fibret aro rfplaeod 

by Hluor. One of Ihe most curious springt of litis nature ii nl the balhii of GhinI PhDlp, 

, pi TuKiny, where the water Hows in almost n bulUni' itslr. over an enonnotis mats ol 

llhbaster whicli it has produced. The mlmiiie iif lime seems Iu be brW in lululkin 

fcero by lulphutri'.il hyrlrptrn, which die* oS when Ihe water Usues to the day. Dt, 

Tegay liii inl^'^n nclvntiis;'' of this preiwrtf of the oprlng, to obtain bowo-rclleto figvet 

fgrtat wliilcneu and K>lidiiy. He Bukca dm of wnlphnr monU*. 



^ 



UMESTONE. 



Calturtvu mf eourau tt tdmilBr huniffMloM m*A( bf jiMriMn^ ri<nim \ _ 
Mid, VHtMable riwnlM, Ik. It h ponMii, ma oriluM, mnrwlial 
pptrp, aiul oT a dirl]r icmf nlar. Ill •urftrr U wniy, rcRiih, nnil Ut«nl>r. Th«w 
enintaUont or ilrtnntct are, hnireva, winvcinM* to alninilnkl. anil the mnllini twrny 
lUcn Ki k»n] ihnt buililmi.1 niajr li« comtniotcd irUh them. IIip iIoiip vith «ki<h the 
I tX PmU, in IuIt, U biiili hfin bwn tsJM p^^MMm faf the IaUoui anit U ba* ap- 
IftnMlf dcrlTBl iu oriKUi fiKn ini^ruilaliiini upon laffc mdJL 

■ The ImrvniMi. wUob kttwJ io cniuuucl all the maaOBtau of RMat, appcw* ta 
)M*e knn funno4 by th* dcpMllca of IW Anir> nnil ibv wtblBra oT TiToli. Th« MBplM 
of Pmciiin, wliirh u* oT cxirfnie nnti'iiii(>', limvr b««a built with n Irnmlna IbnMd 
bf the aalimcat of tha wMen whieb Hill to* in Ihii unilatj. AH IhoH' Mmim aofaav 
gnat htrdoes ia the air, and hi. de BcvUlalc Hunks Ital U ii in thv lapiiy sniea tf 
BmcdbiaaadiMimabnantka wne ipot, that tW nwaiiaatW* or Rnme owe ibdr sHat 
llry. 

I IhnutaM, auiaUr caBcd .fpirlr arfa«r«^ atoM niartav, lu:^ bolonm to lUl 

i eriurinntian. [I hu a very while ootor, a ^*ti luif. itnin, I* kA M (Ii» lamtk, rnr 

icr, and Utht nuuKh u> float <far aa tamoii on wal'.r. It ncctin in ralbn thin 1a]rcn^ 

I the creviwi at mkiuMiu rook*, and h to eomuiiHi to Swiltarlaui ai lo be rMfiapA 

tt wUitnioft botnca, 

3. Comport limtdimi, ii of a craiu Bore or kia fine, does not peUA, aor aJ&ml taft 
rUoek* trvr (ram luium, Tlu a raneboiilBl, ot uanra kcbIt IVaelnri'. Colon itr7 
imrloWL Iu *B(icti«i am ; a, Thr •■ManuUor, compact, with tumo apptnTanw af ■ 

leilure. b, Campatl /Iiu-rnmi4 liauMnt, fbn aoebitcia «f tl>* GnrnaM^I* 

lirhM M. Itruigniul rcTen ibv tlihographk MoiMln hiicl*«rirte«tioii of tacks (DMil^ 

I ^ SciMtw !ialnT*ll*»), bat tli» EniBdt ftotovtau itee* tte looBtr ot thi lunoa* 

■phk iiwriT of SdaibofcB much Uxher Ea the plaat of iMonduy (ai«r^i«aillaa. 

tturc ii coDcbDidal ; mlot from fnj to whltiib i c, CmnpacI oimtMn Hmnkm, 

^Aaiii oT tidddtc dxe; caithr ospRI; iuictgd fVoclarei peiftctlr opaqne; nlor, 

dltib to (de giaj, yrllow, or inUiih. The limMMiMof ih« Jam Ibmlinn an- 

1 totii* hnd,B« wrilaimo»<o/'ihoi»iEU'r»pcr«ii miaoag the roalrtmta. rf.TIl* 

I Mmpoer, or CombrBiki lexlnre kiiik'vIiiii i>]ii-ii, iiiUiy lujircl, ruiiiih i<> the lourk, 

''linnl (htclnTp, Rilor frtlow, tnj, or iliicy ri'd. t, ComrKKJ MCater, Ibr Ranchekalc 

awl Itolckalk of the Gertnam, on ucminl of the uamcroua holei ot nT«rai diUiibaMl 

ibrvugh il. 

4. Oolift Of nX'ilmt, — It «intt»l» of f]<hrricol |^iii> of rrtrioiu tixr, ttvm a ndlH 
wed, in a r«a, or «Tvn no «vK I Irilnrr cnmgiacii fnicliirv n<ra i «oIar*, whitidi, ydlMT, 
ftuj, trddiih, htovniik. The l<uct< balls hB*c alioost alwaji o fonirn body Ibt ibek 
centre or nneti-ni^ 

6>. ChaMr ; t«xTur« eartbr g ^nin* Giia, tender, Uablc i colom whitr, paybh, or f«le 
rell»«Mi. 

6. C^4rM-frm im d Nncttow) an nrihf IMtnrr, in Urjie pa'Iicles oflni InoMi fVa» 
lun Aliue^ aneven i color rale and (Unjr yeflaw. Coan* liu faaa been riArTn] to thii 



7. Msrlj/ ftmofoiK { 1ak« and ftcih watcT liinnloiie farmntion g t«xtnrp Gne-craltied, 
Borewleudiuuc; apt lonamblcdovii In thr air; enlar while or pale ydlcTr: fractiirt 
tangb^f rainfrl, nomcllnm tundiot^nl ; Fonirwhnt tcnndou*. n'plluic octanloiisUT eatna 
mil; with r)'1iiidri(o1 windinit rnriiiii. 'fliit icvt liint^tnne mutt not be tonfuuiiilRl widi 
Ike lime-tanrl, «iinpo«nl of mlran^ua miller ourl ciny. 

8. fi(/rnoa> /iriKfitonc ; of a teinpiMi Imnir; icnitFliiniE ileet, aiu) icratrfced It It | 
leavM n tllieioQn raiduiini iTer the aclinn of miuinljc ocid. 

9. Calp! Iriluit Coni|iCti fliic-Bmlnrd ; tcbiMote dnlPtiirr; ban), u the yr*- 
aattaq; noifcninihti into ([ukklimi?, nnuiding lodiluic niurtniic aciil a tnpinut rrMiInum 
of clay and iinic* ; rolor blnckishi Ibuod in bnit in '.he tranulion district near 
ItabUn, 

10. /uniffiVr or ftinliiione; fxiim (ompoct or ■ub-)anic[lnr, color myixli: rtniu Ike 
wwtl of iiitithuninl h]dn>t,-cn l>> fiiciion or a blow. Ii occun al Attynti iu Sutherland* 
tbirei in Uerby^'fe: couniiHi>rKilkKiiny, Cork, and Gnlwny. 

11. miuminout limtitoni ; binck or blsckiili cciloi ; diflbsing by the action of fire • 
bftnmlnon* nlcr, and bvconuns nhite. 

Of all mninnn limestonra the pnrily may mutt rmdi]y be drlcmlnril by the qaoatltT 
[y tarbnaic actd which ii evolved during Iheir mlotion In ditutn nitric or luurisllr oeU. 
fTerfeel nrtnnale of time Iomh in ihlii way M ptf ctnt. ; and if an)' [^riicular linNlODB 
LImc* only 23 jwr «a/., wp mny tnffi rtnl 11 cimWin* only out half in weijht d tolearaow 
jteariioaai*'. Tliia mrihott it cqimll) applicable Io moHi, which nre mixltina in varioiu 

Cpotthmi of mrbonaie U lifiiF, clay, and Mail, and may all be noogaiitd by Ihdr effcr- 
dng with arid*. 
The chitf uae of ealeareoua done* b (br jiroeniltiK quicklime by colcfnaifon in iiropn 



mcmoNB-t li 

tmmtmi anil ihcf an all atttni <o iMi ftufom pM«tM titty v» nM BJml wlih too 
lat^r ■ p^liviio*! «t wnd ajnl Ana^tlaou* rJoT, wlrnvbr tlwr ■ovoi" ■ iIitmmU 
lexiatr Ui ■ hifli heat, aad <*fll ml buiti Mo hmr. Limi>ti<mc owd lo be Mlcaned in 
a lery iiiilr LiLn, Ibrmrcd t^ Enchnuuc a ciitular ■!«« cf 10 o< IIV f^ci iliamttn'. by tuAn 
lUoAe walli 4o>&fe«l hieh, oad lUlMf; liie cjlinilrioal oaiilrwith alimuir InTctitf 
Urf «i eo«] and UrndUAc bnicGn kito modiawle pjcco. A Iwd or hiiithwnal was 
tMMj pliKni •! ibo bnum, W iuilitaic the kindling of the hlln. WliMirTn ihr nnn- 
bMdon wan tmilj TniiiB>w«ai<i Ik* lup, pikil inio a cnnleal fiinn, w>t nivprnl tn wiih 
«iA, Ui txnilT ih« cakimlkni nhiw ami rrvular. Thi» mnOiai brinr found >clativ«lf 
iMonYcniiRit tinil incffmlval, wna Hi<ccnlnl bj a iiermBnanl kib built nT iiDnpt <a brick* 
WtiriE(iaih« iha^oT ft truncated oonc wjih the aanrnrmd iinilprin»i, and tlofoi M 
iNMon b]r as Iim fiMe. Idlo lU* kiln, Ihc htl and limnionc uttr lotrnduciil al Ihe 
loll la alt<nwl* lB)oni, baglnnlB^ et ooune villi Ihc Ibnntr ; and Ihp chaicn in* ollhar 
•Uow«l lo bun out, wlien ilie lime wm altoveltitv cmTioTrd m i dncir nnif itir boiiom, or 
llw kib «u tOKeairrij M with TrMb nmtflrialt, in s]t«rtialc b«ilii,B« lh« r^nnvr mpftj 
Miak down bgr th« ni)riiM.lian, wliilc Ihc Ihoroinuhly bunil limp' al Uir iMIom mu «Dn;nb 
*i*«)y mkod out by a tide door iinmcdiaiplf aboveihe gintc. The ulterior of the liotckila 
ha* been rbaa^ oT bile )rr*r« ftoni tbe eonknl to Ihe dliptltaj farm ; and twnbabljr Ibe 
ktM U thai nT an tm fiM«i with It* namiw anil undcnnoM, and trwncaled bolh abora 
■nd titbM ; ih« Rrnnnd plot or bollom of Ihp kilo briaif timjite»vl *n a« lo Bir* as 
tttplieal anlion, wilh aafftea dnA-tnlp inward* Mch uttd oT ihil <-lli;*p. A kite 
Ihwi anhod in above Rirca a rcvcrberolorT '>™' to the upper materia]*, and alao Ikmn 
Iheir lUlioc rcreJ]' down in proponion u the finiahed line u rakrd out brlov | »d«aii> 
(af« Bhick Ihe conkal farm Mr* not aJTonl. Tbe bIm dT thedndt-nom Tor exIruIiM 
du qwoklime. thouhl be prapetliooale to the itixe of tli« kiln, in otdi^ lo sdmii u wUIl- 
dam omn*! t^" air to Mcniil vtib tbe unokf nnd Oiune, which 11 round lo faeililalc 
Ihe ennmioaoTliiF carbonic aeid. The kilni atf mlled jirt^vii/. bmntc UieoiioMiM 
li enrrifd CD MAIinuouilT m lonff ai the bnihtinit loiU: ■nd^niiP^ih»,(Voralhe»adecf 
Matkoitine Ibrm hj raking onl the lime into earii placed nffainii the dran-koln. Tbrfe 
buaktli of ekleincd Ituufloncy or Iiiii'^-iIifIU. me proliieiNlon nK aTerai^ for every biuihel 
ff foaU euii^iiinrO. Such kiln* ■hoiiM l>o huili up aniiitt Ih* Ace nf n rlilT, •« that raaf 
■tMM (Day be nined M lk« mouth fur cluuciiig, by moving n floplnfl rwrt icad to the top 
•f tbalMk, 




74 



LDOSTOKB. 



Kf. ICT, M. Mf^ SKI, r«pr<MBL Uie iMw-MTa of Radandorf nur BerUn, «p>>« th« 
•OMikuiM* piMi,ffitecll*Mlv«oaalnuu<lfor«eoDaniuiD|t fu*L Uiitnpk<,»>lTi<rl-)>s 
> thlWoToM pivdiiFl /^. SHlMb vitvoMl w*itm tnta tAtor^; fy. S7l>i lb* rl<t«Uud 
■nd ^Boeru app«raai« (^ ona fUo ; j(a. sa7. a Tratieal Mvtian. aatljfjr. Mli> tlia ur^'Mil 
pluiiiih'liitc.iacDarjC^MT. llHlknoriNft^.llllK faiMUia brm«f lwntrui>cnt»l 
oou«(t willi (tafir Inivff c*rmlareail>N{>|>Uoiltaeubotliar; il ho* Uii? graaliM <■ i>)lh lA 
Ih* l*T«I uf lk« fir(-4i>or (, wb«r* il ii 6 l(«t Id dJaUielM' ; il ■ narmwrr hclnv nt IIm 
dltoharn door. >n4 al liie tnp orifiec. wh»rc il J* nboqit it feirl in diamrlrr. IW iiilcriar 
mil d, nribr njipcr diaA, ia bmit wUh iievii ttnno to tha hngbt «< U fa<4, iin4 I mi tw 
Ikit fi>r^Afcct, withfit«4makid'ir,lu<l!<ti-|i*uc Tbii innar wall burraondodwilb 
a nuDtlc r. of liiuaaliia*. bat bvtvtoa tlic tuo tlM(« I* a tmali tbouI m<k< «f a faw 
iuelut fillol with lulins, En oHor ta allow a( Ui« azniulon of thv iiil«ni>r witk baal 
tahlkft jiIbi-'i' v iiliuut ohiill^aK th« mnia of Ilia l>lllMhl|^ 

Hn firr |>rnl-', A. »ili»itt* of are-tilM, wliicli al IIiq inidillc. vherc th* linitlt piaos 
pr«Mlo^*lir'r, lip iin»uan nrebed aniifHTrt / Tlic lii'iw|->or itnlw>nrrhcil,anil laK^vnd 
bj ire-trtcf. y iiUieiroti door in (laslof Ihatoriflor. Tli* tilca vUinh form Uw gnta 
ban tor I >litaoraiiiiioh«i<I«fcTadinitIiii|>tli«ur, vliichcnlon iliniii)(liib««a«al&. 
Ike under |i.irl ottbo iliaft Irom Uia Bie to the hmrtb It? fml. and the miT.r ^n^lmlu 
v«)l 1* cmjiInieUrl of 1 irantouft th* llikine twlnf of Aiv-1hI<]1i>. litre >r Iti, 

tbo dlwIinruKiMidcia. and lliooanali. InTront oftbromk-t. Karha*h-{< ' -itb 

, U Iron dour, wliivh ia n|>i<>ifl iniiv wbrn lliu •tuon • bmunM* lill«d iritli ■>)»:•. Tboae 
toJuJ nf* alluw<>d to »iii>in tilf tKey ^vl wxil cii»iigli Ui Iw reinixtil wilheiit tnoon- 
nBl«aa& 

Tha ducbar^e oullcrta or* abo fuiiibvd witb inn doon^ wliicb are opMiuJ o«ly In 
lakHiK out IlK Mac, and ira caitftiilT luted witb Inam dnriaf Iht bniiuDc. The ouhi 
mill I m 1 at ihr ](iln, *>e not «»*ntUlr nMOMair, but convriiimi, brraiitr Ittn aMdii 
rocuorcr Ui<t liiac lolic in th« loww Boor, and Uieflid in thvireood. HH-xipraliMki 
OR Ibnnnl of Eroinnl nrrhn o, anil plnlforniajt, rtmni cntr with Uuintonp alnta. In 
Ibe (bird nod fomtb Uorin ihc wiukmen lodee at oigbL Seejfc. VIO. ^ii»> ciiTi-i thrif 
aparliiienli by the uppci dooc 7 1 olhcn b)^ thir lower door «. r u one tl llii' idiuiint}* Ibr 
tbn wvpral flre-placc* of Ihc worfcincn. fan are ilaira. 

At Ihc liumion* it inlroduccd al in]!, llic inouth cX the kiln i* fumDndvd with • 
ttronu ircn bnluiuad? to |ifpv7ni tlir ilaiuftr t-t ilie p■^upll• liiRiblinK in. Tlif vioironn ia 
Iniit villi niS V, Ibr the wncuni i>r liinittunu, ilimrn bj hunet. In run upfin. t I* 
■nnlbcr mit-wn;. Indint lo another liil>. Sucb Idlni Mv nanioi afirr Ihc irniTihi-r uflileir 
tn^oan, *iBf,tt. tvoroM. ilirednld,r]utf<ih), Ac.; ftom thmlcfivi'bpins ihr mi«t utna). 
The out'''' lliiRi id' the kiln alia b determinrd bf the number ul' ihc fuikaori ; htiae • 
IniHCnl"! piia^Jurrqoil Mdiij and In the middle of cacti nlfrnalr lidr tlirn- it a Ib^ 
I>ltit:c, nuil a dtfclinige tmili-T. A cubic Iboi of llmeilanr re<|atwi fnr buruinic, one aitd Cvc 
twclhtuufn cubic Tuot iirwuod, and one and a hntrnrinrC 

When the kiln Is lo be fel lu actioo, il ia lltM nilh rou(h limntonn, lo the hejglll 
C i^ or to the l('i<?l of Ihr fi>in;i a wood Sir i* liindlcd in n, nnd kept up <ill the linie ia 
calcined. Upcn Ihii mimor lulckliine, a freih qunntitgr of UmeMones b inticducpd, not 
thruwu in at the moulh, bul lel down in buckeU, lill the kiln be i;iiile full ; vliile over 
the lop n cone of limetloooi b piled up, nbont 4 (bri hisli. A 1iiif<6ii- iv n.,w lindlod 
in Iht riiinnec* t. Wbcnera the nppci atonet am weli rnleiiii-il, llir liiiii- imilrr Ihe 
fin-level it taken ont, the lupeiior column lUU iii, n ni-w cone i' i'il<-iJ up, nud the 
poceHrtmon thnpi withnut inleiriiptiun.aiid wiUinol ih»- mci-^-ity iXonrr r'ntint n tre 
tnta a ; for in the ipnrc c B, the lilM lnu»l be alwnyi well colciiieil. Tb^ ili-rbarRe of 
Kme laLet plnri ever; 13 houni, nod it amnnnTs al mch time in a thn-cfolil I1 iln. 10 fiom 
30 to 21 Pcutiiim laimei of 6 imiieriitl biiihelt eneh; or lo 1311 builieU iTni-fiiul npun 
Ibo BVerare. lliifonnd by ejperiener, Ibal fresh-broken limeilone nbiih cMiiainii ■ 
Illlle moisture, colcliirt more rcrutily than what hai been dried by njiotuir It.r *iiDt 
tine lo the ali; in contcqucncc of the vapor of wnlcr pminaiinK Ihr exapr ut Uie 
taibonic acid gu; a lael w«II exempliflnl in diillllitig tsaeniuJ tulu, a* nil of t«r- 
p«nttne and nnpttia, which eonie over with the Meam of waU-r, al upwonb of 100 decree* 
F. bdlow Ibrir nainial term of ebullition. &x huahelt of RuderHlnir qnirklioie weigh 
from aeo lo 306 iwni]!]*. 

When coalt are u>ed (br filel in a well-contlrueled perpeinn], or draw kiln, about t 
Incaaure of llicia iJioiilil inflice Ibr I or 5 oflitimtDne. , 

The iiMul nti-niire emrtojmcnt nf qniekliine u in azrieuliurf, on whitb tubjeti ib- 
•truclive dulnilA aieciven in Loiulon'iEneyeli>i>Kdiuar Annoiitliiie and Gatdvni»t. 

ijuifklimt it cuiplovcd in a nullllade of pTepuratiiini •iiluervleiit lo the aiti) Cbc 
tkrif^iUK Ihc juice of the iDgnf-CMin and lh<- tu'rt.iiHii ; fur piiifyinit coal tnii dn 
mdrrrni! Ihc pobuh Mid *odn nf cominerrn eautiie in ibr nap iDunofitelure. and in the 
bleaeliirik: of linea and eotlon 1 for puriiyinv aninal maltcn before ilitwilitnc out their 
gelatine; lor clearing hidei of th«ir hair in tannerirni for entaclint; the pure volalB* 
tltmU &oai aamXe or nilphate of nmmoiua | for renderintc conlaol portioiu ot *ir 1 



UQtJATION. 



78 



drj; (brMoffiioa ItwlMkagtofitniicroMrTcjn, when mixed wHli elu; nid Utrovn 
tti{i>lti« vDtrr ; for making • powerful lafc with vhile u( tog or MrniBof blood; (oi 
prei»riD|i; ■ ilr|iiliitary {Kqnmndc villi till pha Ml of tnonic. Ac Umewatoi iauMdlo 
■nvJiiinp, nvd qaiaklineitoffMiiinl tue in d>nni«*l narantiM. Hfxt ta aKricuUfirt 
tho mori citciwire applitMilkii) of quicklime I* to Uostar tteimm, vLIob •*«. 

LINEN. S«e Puit aud Trxtiiic P^inm 

I'Um diiiitffnitlitA fivm «lt*n. — OUoii may h^ Avn'm^xi^AmA fnim tli]«<iorl)iixt>x 
ilnmvniitir It>i: ('.<niifr, v«tl wnilivd aii-l drii-il. tBrnUMit ■ iiiiniil? in nlnme iiilfJiuna 
ki-iil. It i> Ihi-n tu Ihi vilhdrawii •lul wuhnl will) Water voiitniniiiic a )(llls nlkali 
11i« niton vlll diwulv* u ■ (tniiin}' maw, whil« Ih* Uimb will rrtain iln thnadr 
tc»ttir*. 

l.liVSKKl>(Or«(nr dt tin, Fr, i Leiittamr, Germ,): eonUina in iU d)^ ■late. ll-SOfi 
of uili o.llt cd wax; 1488 <•( a loll rciin \ ftaSD of a coloring Tiainoui matter: 
O'tSB or* vcIt<>«inh«u(»taa««anftloKaiu to tannin; 6')&l oTgnm; ISlSofvantaUa 
tniieilage:'l>«8af lUrtfli; Ij-tas of gluttn ; 3.7S:! ofaJhuniinc; lO'HlM of 'luhearina 
citTftotivo ; U'38S of enrdof ea. inclu<ti»K ■^'""OTr^ntablv muoihjir. It cnntainDalM 
frcoKnIii; Mtd: Mmoacolatr. >ulj'hal«\ niUliiiiirial' of poUali, jihunjihat* aiid talphnw 
of Uini : [Ji»pt>iit« of mainintiii ; and tXVttia. Stv UiL\ UMOtvoM. 

I.lNSiaU) AM) KI^.\SKI-:i». liHi.'.itf.l. for tioiM «oaloni|>Uon, in ISSD^ 
BOS.Bftt .loanm ; in ISfll. fiW^«l .|ni,; 'Jut,v frr*. 

IdKlrt'^Kll nil. itri/imy mthiml kml. Whrn liaxfd oil i* narcfully agitntrd Titfa 
Tiucgnr of Ii.-ifl (triliaiio iirulaU' of ltui])BQd Iho miKluro allowed to dor bjHtltliiA 
a oopioui whiiv >'l'^»i<)y [>rp<i|ii'.ntc furmi, a>utaiiiina wrida of lead, wliilit t£e ntwcMl 
U conTcitcJ into n Aiyia^ vW of a julc Mraw valor, farakiiut an eioflUnl *nrniih, 
which trlii'ii siiii'icj in I'lin Uy^rh dri** p*rfoelJy in Iwontr-fenr houni. It coataina 
from fbnr to Me pL-r eont. of oiido ct l*ad in Motion. Tho blloviDit proportion* 
appear lo hr ilio m«l adTaalaffooni for il*]ir*pam1lou«. 

In a lioiiln TonUimng 4( jiIdU of rain warn. IHouneM of neutral ni-ptnle uf Inidarc 
placrd. anil wti"n ttiu tolxtioii ix I'nm |il«te, 18<'iini<i«<>f )llll*r]i« in a tTv tSrii- pi>iiid«r 
■naddixh llivwiKilnliliipn ntlowL-il to iiand in nmod?rai*>iy wnnnHnoi^ frpiiuwnlljr 
K^latiii^ it to nuiil thi> ■nltitiou nfthi' lithargA. Tliia ndnliou Inaj l>««iinaiil«r*d oa 
rampli'ti' vlxn ua nmtii xniiil) tpului arc apparent. The di^pixit vl ■ tliinini; vliil« 
rol'ir (■■'ituaiv i,<-«tn'e of Icnil) uiajr be «nt"irBt'<1 ^J fillrntioii, 'lliif ri:>tiiti>uii(i of 
thu iittMiriil oi.-iitali' of Uii'l lul') vintfcaroi lead, by mvana of lithirgD and water, ia 
elfMtf'd ill atii'Ul n qnarlerof an hour. If Die Wiilurv be bvtttcd la cWlilion. Wlion 
h«at la Dot apidinl. th« pnuwaa will luuallv lak* thrto or ftiur dayt. Tho tolotion ol 
vjnvgnr of l-'Aii. <>r Iriliiuir ni-rtiit; of It'sd. ihiiatiim]«d.i*<i>ffieiont'fnr lli' prriinraliao 
irflSllA of ilrjiii[;..i!. For thii piir;«<«(; iWvdation t* diltll«'!i willi uii <<iwa' vulom* 
l>f rain valf r, and lo it ia giodually added, with tonalant agitation, i'iHit. nt m\ with 
which \« ouD«M of lilhargD have [iraTia^y bcm mixed. 

Wlirn lli« pointa ofoontatl bctwMU the lti*d aotntion and the od hnrc bmn tn- 

Snentty renewed by agitation of the miilarellirre or fMirtinvnadaj'. and the raiiturc 
Jowf'I to lAitle ia n warm jilaec, tti« timpld ■itaw-ooloNd oi] rim lo the lurbM, 
baviot; I' L-upiou* wliltiih dupotil. Tliu WHtnrv Miluliun ntndeted el«ar l>v filtrabon, 
i«ritsin> lutuor all the oenlat^ of hud fir»l snipU'Vod, niid may tie utvd In the next 
opfialiiio, afirr llin adilition toil a* Iwforeor 18 ouiii'M of litliarn. 

Ity fi[lri»i<''i> llir<>ni;h P>Ptr or Cotton (ha oil mar be obUinad aa limpid m water 
■nd by f-ti^wurc to ihf !i|iiit of thf tun it may alio ba bleaolieiL 

Shonlda drviiigoilh« r«c|iiir»d iib(«liitvly frHfrorn Ivad. it may boabtain«d bjtk* 
addition of dHute (tilnhnnc noid to Ibe abiira. whim, on boini allowfid to alAndt • 
dapoait of lulphatuof lead will lake ploN, and theclear oil Riajr ))• *titaln«ilfrt« from 
alitniwof Itftil 

Lint /t mrgtru. Iioi bpen made tlio anbjeet of a patent by Mr, ThomM Roaa. of 
Oolainan Str**!, vUtti ooniiMi in lli« nmi<1apncnt of ])o<;utiarly vonitrueled aorB&tn 
for braiding llie mirAidii of thn liiinnulolb, oiid producing a pile or aapupon iL The 
Mrapun ar* wnrkt'jbj' a rotary inbtiaii. 

Inttead of rotarY ter^i>erfL,ii rvcipfTK'altuB^iHHntluloaamoTMlont la aofiutimol applied 
l«a Binjfle (Fraprr. <1iiBcl-fi>rtTj«d Mndra are clalmeil by thepatontot a* •nrabertfar 
raiidng uii- niU, )>j working with tlieWiel rAea* rorwRn]*,>o ua to verajionnd not to 
eat Uic fabric. He lioi tn the rotary f>rui a ^dga or bed oonoentrle with th* axia of 
tlia avraper, wbioU lie aW daima; both of whioh aeeni lobetertieMliI*. Tho ildaib 
and fliturt* nisv b< loan In llmiBm't Jmmal, xatrii. 301. 

I.IilVATIii.s' (Kn,f. and Fr.; Saigeniii^,Qtna.); it tbcproMa* of aw-ati'iK uut,bT 
a r<i{;alBt>>d b'ot fniui as alloy an raaily fiuiblo mvtal from the intenlivn of a meUu 
dMouh ot funnn. LMd ftml nalimony ara tli* metal* dmI ««mnioaly aubicetcd lo 
li^ualioa ; Um Ibrmor Ibr tho purpoM of oirryl^ off bj » toparior afflinty tba *il*ar 



W LIQUATrON. 

1 In any ooiufil^z alloj, • untjott iUw«w«d uaiUr Sa.rm ! Uia lall«r «iU bl 
ui*N«l kvr^ M r«r«md ta from tfcs utuU AiniMOinr. 



ft^, 87). STt. A1S r«pre«eBt tbe Mlebral«d knliinDninl liquation ninuet!* of BUIbOM^ 

in the depBitmcnl of AntMhr, in FnBC*. K%, 
8TI ii a eroiiiul iilan Inktii ol Ihc Irvniaf Iki 
dnnght hala g g, fiq. »1* nod or thr dottaJ 1Im_ 
>= r I Jtf* S1> !■ * TcrtltAl (Minn ib/^ngb 





doited line A a, or.<(. B3t ; and fif. 619 k m 
veilkai iwloa ihrMigli Ike doUi^ Mbn cott 
fit. H7I. Ill tbo iIlic* Mui<.t, Ibt Mntc Ictlcn 
dcnolc like nbinu. a t c aiv i1ik« sraln u{«* 
Ibu unio Irvvl nbuve tlie Dciiir of ibc KuAk 4t 
fhl luni.-, by 10| taebu biuod ; belwcsn wkk£ 
lire inro reclonsulu pUIeris, il (, whioh fMB 
traniTcncly throi^h lb« vhijlc (Wnaw, and He 
at B level vt 12 incUc* aboTC (be grtiiiod. Tbey 
VI' »r|«inici| by Iwu wnili riuiu Ihe ihrce llir-j'lacit. Tht w«IU hare Uitpc open- 
\tu!Sfli Ai •ItniiniTly [ilnfd fui Uir llneui lo pUf thtouith. Tbit irndtcflkae gallerie* 
are (dui in wlili i/on iloon i ■', containing |>«t|i boldi. Id tneh gmWtrj atv lm> toftiM) 
BMt-kiui crucililp* fc <c, inlo nhldi ilig f/ifM(ni(t tnliiliaii:! of ^Mrnivni Atof. Tbrir 
heithi it rroiii yi lo 14 lneb««, ihc width of Ihe awuth i> ID iiielio, ilini ei< ilii- Ml««n it 
9, aad llio thiclinn* ftiui lonUu uT on inch. Tbf? aic eonUd uvoi wiili Gic-tl>], lu fi^ 
TCM Ilia uttjiliuirt IVciiii nciiiii: ui>on llivm i anJ ihrj* tiand upon nHt-irau peintnh villi 
fnaotliac am, ii> ratilitalv llicir miii'ial Irom ihe goUcty or plnilbrDiu Bolb vt Uxsc 
Blitric* Wc lined witii tiln of fiir-clny / 1, vhir^ nku uric u mpieiti lo Ihc lettleal 
Uquatlon IdUs m m, tnaulv of Ibc loinc dny. 'I lie itlvi an- iMDivwliut curvnl t<:ivaiilt tfaa 
Baddlt, for lb< piir|«i*c of recvivini the Iciwri rmlii uf tlinir lubi--. mill have a unall bob 
At *, thtuuitti whirfi ibe llqiiiil Mil|>l»irt'l Auui •Ic.wn iiilo Ihr emcilik. 

liie Ui^iialJOD liibn aif Cdtiicnl, [be intrninl diiuiclFi at lup brint 10 incb**, U 
bolloin S i lljc icniifh rnlly -10 inches and Ihclliiclineum Itnllinnf nii inch. TbeTt*^* 
M their lover ends noKbet or tUu p, fig. 8T3> fiom 3 lo S ini^tin louir, which look oat- 
ward*, lo mlic Ihcm aeceHAlc fram Uie Troul nni! bni^ lail or Ihc iurnsm llimiiih 
■nnll conical opcninpi p j; in Ibc noJIi. Thne aic rlfxnl duriMC the opcialkui trob 
dnf ■toppcn, uul arc opcDnl only vticn ihc run^'ue, lutibiih, and tiiideii air lo lie lalnd 
aut. I'be ti'iuattMt lubei pMa ncniu tbo oreh ot Ibc fumace g {, Ibc tpace cf the utb 
bring wi^rf tkui the tube* ; they are tliul in at lop with dre-ccteis r r. i ', thr nlddla 
part fif ihe vck, iinuicdiniely undft ibc niddU ftsic, fi barrel -tliiiinl. u tbai bolb 
•itbea an: obuttM l««eilie/. The ilaine*, after plojinit tounil ahniii ihr tiilr* i-( lb« 
ttqauion tubes pua uir thmuitb three openinK* and lluet into Ihr chuunc] t, about IX 
ftcl lii;;h : n beini! ihe one npeniiut. and t the Ivd oUicn, which are provklotl wiib 
Rgiiler plnu*. la IVial or Ihe riirnace i* a UDokc due v-, lo tanj olf the siil|*iiieona 
'npor* cibalcd diirinn Ihc clnuing out of ihs rubhiib and ila^t and her, j. bccina 
orcryii^at the lopoi' ibe lubeii a vail i, wiparalci the Nnokeiuo Ulo bUi**,** 
Ibal Ibc workmen Ufoa ibr hoc nidc aiay not be IxoanKMled hr Ibe funta nf ibc (rtkw. 
m* wail connect* al Ibc wme linie ihe fruni Bun ur wilh Ibc chiiiin«r (. a" a' and 
kf atr iiun and woodea ttttttr beam* and rodi for ttrmRlheoliig Iht imokt-llvv. c" t 
art MTciea upon toli tUtt of Ibe fimace,~which bteome nanowtr from without Inwai^i, 



LiquEUKS. n 

■M tiAet upon both rido* «f tli« fnmncc. wbicli bcoitDa ii>n«var (row vIUmui tawutl*. 
ua4 an clouid with «rJI-fltt*J plaU* J </. Ttivj Mrvti. in partiniUr «ivuBiMn««<^ 
to kllow Utii iiii*rlortob#liup««t4il, uid uwdf riU>«ri>f tliv Iii|uutle« lunuium ImmC 
<rforJ«r 

e«cli tubt Ixiiijt clist^eJ Willi about 5(WIW of ik* anliiuonial or<% i>r<ri«ail; 
WMlBcd upon Um r«if «f iIm runil«<^ ia n itiort tiiua Ike Biilpliurnt at ■ lilua (o(«f 
tncloii Co S«w uul. VrbcacTrr llic liqiuliun coMca, the oimkn ua nilu<l a«t hf lfa« 
(tds af>«lUli!^ Bud I be lubn atv diargtd almh. lie Inlwl tmn Dnuililw am anAlMwl 
to bsconic Ihnw'fuaitlu faU, arc tibon ilrawn onl trwa tha gtttUrin loft, to moI, anJ 
oniptictl. Tliu in|t«l» w«ifth about U poo&dtL Ilia «haii|iiiK i* raiivwnl veary Uurisa 
bgiir*. aiiJ wbpn iha prvoMa !• In booJ train, loolb*. of avlphanit uf aiitiuiinj' ara 
«bt«iii*d flTcrjr hour. I1i« Bv«n|tfi JurnllDD of tlia tiib«* i* 8 «l■■«h^ tlitiu^b in aouM 
■aar* it auj it 10 Jnj^ Tli? {•iihIucI fraai th« on ia trvsn 40 ts a>> esr ucnU 1b« 
>bovi> plan of ufi*ntian is maarkabli for Ibu vraull cowumpliun of fni'l, the ««anoaij 
of lalx>r. and tbe ouropU ta Mth outtJoa of tb< ore. 

LigrErita, LIQCORISTE; nuov givoa bv tbc Fk«ai«h to tiiiuan eonpoundad of 
•Uohol, voter, togar anil diArrenl aroMatie Mihataiiw* ; aiul U> ibe jienoa wlio eoni- 
poanJi tbAin. [tholllnHH here a £>* u( their Rio*t apprornd roeipo*. 

h/miem nftkr fuli i^/niil: — TIik oulrr akin ixrv.l off wllb o abarii kuitt, i* tu ba 
(ln>pp«il iDio a liaril k''**^ J*"* •Mntaininic klmibol of R4° If., dlluivi) wlib hull >t* bulk 
of«al«r,ati'llliu wb<)k>iab)'lMiU«uii(M-r«dirituw*il-«orkedcart>o]rt. A(l«r n* iatuaion 
of Ux WetXt, witli uoUdional agitalioa, Uiv aroinBtiatd (pirit I* to be ilulitleil olT. [u 
thia tray are ]irT[>areJ Uio liijuon ot oeilral. lemoui onugetk lim^Utt (a wrt of avtel 
Ulmoti), jtmttirf (lli>> large eiUon), bergamoti^ Ae. 

Jn/uBtn e/eroniaiit ttrjt. — lfc«M mou b* pcundod, put inta a caibor, oloni wHb 
■icoftol dilHteil w alwra, Ufuaad vilb i^plalioo for *lx voalc^ ami than dli^UoJL 

A/Wi«it o/ armimtin imoJ* ara mad* tn tbo aain* way. 

Thd liijouriit th^-til.) uul bring; hU Itifuaiuiui tni (CneturM intii Ui* inarkoL UQ lix 
moulbii afli'C Ibi'ir ■)i>U1Uti<in. 

I.I'jTii'im Iiav* •lilTrniit lUiaa, avOGrdiug Ut their mode of fabrloatioti, 

Th\:f •pBifrt, are litjuora app«reiiU)r devoid of Tuoidil)' ; rraaM* and oi/a [mate* ilia 
a hi2)i •legtH. 

Water of cnlrar, U made by dJaMdiingtix pound* ofangaiiKaevenquirtaor wat«r, 
•ddintc two tinarl* of ai'lril ot fdral, ud ma of nwit t-f eitrun. Soil Uio whole 
fcr s niinutf, aad filter Ml lliroti^ a prosier Uhg, ?4t !l fwafoiitidaniUotJuuatida 
la a eorked carbi^, ht^re it bo bottled. 

Oil or nvMia o^tfJrai.— Take ml-IiI ouatta of river water, two <■! aplrlte uf eedrat. 
one uf ii|nHl*<J eilnoi, ami ai luooE rieb *f^P •■ >> neceuarjr to eivv Ibe iiitil<ir« an 
oily 4»it>itlenee. Stir il veil and tct It uidc in earbojrtL Should K be at all aloudei^ 
it cnaat be filtereJ till It he f.crfoolly pelliicll 

£«fm o/ Jtatittii, U uiiiild by bfriiiiiK for ten day*, in a enrboy eapubl* of lioldiM 
Mly fiiiir |{»U<iitt. in jioiuiila at ajilrltii of Je" B., i pcmtidi ot whit* lUffur, 4 povnda m 
Tivor WBt'i'. .( •liaebtn* ot )>au*dcd elovt^ and 4S imina of pounded bmoil Tba tuuc- 
tore \f t" b» •■baken S or l^timea doily, oajorad wlui oamm«l (burnt fUfarlL Blterad at 
the «ad of ten davJi nud Mt aside in boUlta. 

Ttant/ ilt€ iriJoie tfHoMar, are eom pounded willi the prtMdiogqnantity ofapirlt^ 
aUgar, and wit-^r. addiog four draclima of ground rinoamon, 49 grain* of uIotiu, and • 
like iiuantily orniiii>i^ l-oth in pDWilcr. tt may be •lightly ppWed wilb i-Amtarl. 

TV dtJi^'hi of tlir J/if uiIiiriHa.-'Take imric, augM and water, at nbov^ addin); 4 
dnKhmi i>t uni'iuiu f'kiHa{(li»ffi\nmMiSimiAr^ta (acedaof the AiA■'anu•I£(ll■M«rAul^ 
linj all ia [lowdvr ; S drnolina c^ aafllower. 

TV dtkt uf liM-r. — Take apirita. walnr, and augar, ai above. Perfume with ttfennt 

(otto) cfroMe : i;ivnav«Ty r>al« pink buo with tineiuniorfeochtneal, filter and bottleniv 

Criiiu Ai m.Kvroiit, — Xdd lo the acirit, ant.-ar, and water •• above, half a pound of 

bitter aInInlld^ blan«h«d and pounifed: cIotv*, olnnninon. nud maee in nivder, of 

,aMh t8 crarnn. A violet lint i> given by the ttuclurfll of tnmaaU aud roohinoaL 

Arafou.— E^iit inta a Inr^e I»tik' nerutv fol) <>f ainebol of franinais {M* Baiiiat]t 

''tta pock of »ix tmouth Puii'i/sl omnRe^ (r'cvill'' I) and lei ibain infis* for Ift daja; 

llian put JDln a eartioy 10 pound* of ipirita of IK° It.. 4 iwunde of white ><>i;nr, and 4 

indi of river water! Wlien iIik ttiKiir ii diMolved, add a aufficicut <jnaiility of lb* 

ornc-iia nafri to itiv.- flav^. ibpn ii'lce the whole with i6 grnim of i-iiiiiBtimn, aaJ 

aa musb maw, bolh in jmwiW. t jutly inlrudaoe an ouiiee ot ground Braril wooil, and 

■hMdoring indayi, agitaliDgS orfout iim«ad«lly. A prMtydoephneougbltob* 

iren with caraineL 
SmJM tttmti v/cnrMweoot i* coin|>ouniI«d ao follow*: — 
^jM"ttbp ubiinlhinat m^fua 4 pounibi 
Dittii, abtiaibium raiDaa % pouada ; 



T8 



UTnooRApmc prbsses. 



C*l*lBUi ananatinw 

LmV(* •)( Ui« •lltlany of Cr 
AInliDl i>( tO° II. four calkm* Imp. 



1. 



«*ak k (*« (nlu a piMmm 



AA*r Ml II rating it Dearly Wtlh 
Thh lincluro mucod rilL tbal 



• lUteralc tlicM aubalMMM •luriofc (iKht ^5X tbeo dinit far • fcnti* Irtf; 4i«v off twc 
^■•llooi or*tnril«, and »dil to it S •Irvdia* of oiMntial oil of MBU^^vd. lMtvog«UuM 
. Mt la Uh7 Mdl larTc for pn>(«ring (hr wJm m u y «p<ri(nn«ii <Ml*r. 
Of eulorinf tiia /Jnniri. 

i'riliM U Riven ntb Ub yalloir tolnring tDa(t«r of •uoflqvM- {nrtlt^-ut\ mhitk h 
raailllj- Mlnct^i] bj «aUT.' 

fluM it )(ivan by mromrJ. iniidc bf iMeting graviil vhil* mgar ia no irmt •po«n 
OV«ir ■ vharMal tire, till it auiuno* tb* imni tint, ud UiM poufiof It lM« a liulo 
Mid water. 

nt4 u pT*a bj (««biii«al alono, or with a litllo alom. 
Viairt M ci*cn b; good litmni {loratol*). 
Am amagm*. — Hnlpbatoof iudieoEiTMllift IriL 
'tUk, alotihol bting digrsUid ajiaa it, becomM bluis 
of aarlbaukut rami* • gvod ima. 

1.|IJL'I1>A1IDEK, u »b(«Jacd tram the fijufiiantap myrarijlin, a tre* vliitli grawt 

L.tn Mfxioc^ [.ouMiaoa and Vlr^ilnla. Soma ■[■tviniuni are tbi>, like oil, and otkera arc 

UiMiiJi, like 1 11 r[>tn line. [| In traiuiiiirvDl. nmlMr mloK-l, boiau n^rMnbluaail povor- 

fcl unell, aod an artnnatLr tntle, wliiuli UfU piiaK«nl ia ll>« iLtwat. Btdling alcohol 

' iitaoWca it alnkoM «tir«1y. It maUin' n giici il4al of bmioia add, *MDa of wMA 

«fflorcMe> •bmFT«r the IkiDidanilwr hordciit vilb b*opInff. 

UTUAItORiEng. and Pr. ; Qfaitt.GcrmL.); ia Ibc futcd rvllow nrotund* of \mA, 
wbieb UD ciHiUuu jiouo into a mua conHtling ofxnall -it-iidi-d pJtlc*. of a r«4didi 
frtluvcutt'r.aii'l *vnii-lniaii]iamiil. It g<n<nl1f cantBinn inc>rn or li'«> r«d Irad, whmM 
the TarutiuiM of It* ralor; and rarbonic add. r*[)«ciallr whuii H 1>n« Ivrn ei[iUod to 
th« air Ua Mine time. Svp l.lui> ainl SiLvia. br Ita mud* of projxration. 

LITUIA, ia a (impla nrtliy or alkaline M)b«tanc<^ dlaco)r«r«d nut man)' ytt.n ago In 
I UioniinFrBli callnd pelalite and ti|)liane. It U wlill^ t«ry(ai»tie, reddtat llUna*, aad 
rod cabbage and latuialM acids with Km% farnilv. Wlivn eapotod to lh« air it 
> attract* b nuiidi IT aad cnrbonie acid. It U morn tot ubtn in wAlartbu bnrjla; and ha* 
r(u«ba*lroo)( affinity Cwft aa toba ol&inod only in tho tCnU> of a hvdrals. It It^nw 
LMstnil Mita wilh all Ui« aoida It la moat r*ma»kabl« fur It* povrr ofnoiiDKupon or 
aaTTodiM platjnnm. 

UTUIUM, ia the tn«t*Ilie batia of lithia; tlia latter lubatonee «onai>la of 100 of 
matal, aad Isa of ovyno. 

LITIIOOKAI'IIIO I'R£^. The lithomiihie pttat in conunon □•» Iia* low ba«a 
rasa'd'd a* a Tcrr iuadoijnalc toachina. na amonat of mnnunl po*«r reqttirad la 
Wovk 11, anil Iho (low apotd at whiob, under the moat faTorable clrvilmloaMa, eoplM 
^«ui b«jiro<luaa4. dUabla* lltho^raiibj in Ita competition vlth IvtTcr-pma. A nutw 
«f brtibani »aocvM hn* allimded tli« riTurt* of toiaatifia men lowanla (p««d and |i«r- 
betiun in ibii \*i',-:r briiiioH of the art; and tlw proMal printing maohlaM •■»««• Ae 
liaad'pma •ecnuohhl in llie aamc ratio, a* doM anr exptw nfiord th* iof liot of our 
brafatlion. The onffrnTing* Annexed will lervo la iflnitrat* Uoaara Kapior AS«n^ 




iniproTmnenta npon lh« IHIiographif pm^. IlieiTit'liiiin l> arran^pd to badnTra br 
[M«ainpnw«r; liaa Iwlt^ "en^Md'and -open.'tj; , 1 . I.« infounr^on wilh the 
Itlae, and tfl run npan Ilia puilcya a,i^o. l1ia,:i.-ML ^^i.jI.>i. a, i* ftaed oa llm aprvif 



LITHOGRAPUV. 



79 



eTG 



epanJU D, Kftd Ui« Oilier two work l«owv or " d«ad,' on tba tama npinillo : tlwtv baad* 
Willi th«ir ilrikins forloh ». Bfe Brninit<d •□ a* to lie limuKliC kltrtnorrlir npou tli« 
fiseJ p'lllr.v. n. nail thai n rtrcnJnK moUuii i* <>v(ui U> thi> rttfw. Tin DQi in which 
the KT*ir iiotlii U flifil to a cniMI"'» ti. whivh lirHiVK llin *lil^ friiiiiair, r. loi^ctlicrHt 
baltoin. vhiln lliuliura, norfunuK (tin uiiu" ollicv ul ^JJ' ; (U<<t-'ni]>rr liix. k, i> <u>tiiiii(J 
WwtdCllhrM rnrii<.>« at Variuvi (.nnJ )» «■ fittiicl lu (« work frtcljf, Tomfip'jrl t1i« 
fr«am and icrntxt Iwx iuJvpfutlpnl of tb« kkv, uid ninintaiu iLoin tii [lailiiuu, allow- 
ing Ay^iliMn "f Bction, lli« rollcn i, i, aru proviiicti, wliieh run In llic plnUfi) r«rvuM^ 
K, alni'i; I'lr t'lp <-f tho main ftaQilnrJi i. 
Tlii; mt; III Hit ii fIioth with lU tyiii|ii>n down, m^fforilartiDt; ; (his >s rfltrlK) hy 

C<t\n)i tii;lillT upon Ihr Xevur. h. nltldi raUa a catiih, an<l allowi Oic orJL'ht ■, t« 
ruiA in |1l^^.tin■t(i^'H v( il* pnMcnt I ncll nation, and ««t upontlin connc'lioiis «itli lb« 
BlT'ikiiiK (i>rLi, di u III liriii); oti« of II14 lunib npun tlio TMC pulUv n, anil make lh« 
■cnifir mill ilji trunr* inovv Itinrunl. Ttia Tvlum !« cianMil Xiy t1i# Intuit r, wmlog is 
coiilfc-i * [111 a i.to[i !\ whivh j'i*l(tinp acts iipou tlie alrikinp forh \tj it« har rf, oroD 
whlrli 1! innv li* uiljimlr^ IO(riVf I liv travel required. On 111* return bciiii; in-nimpllin*!) 
Ilf nii'liiriv »Uy il'vlf hy n itrikin)* DdJca (fCaiutt »tOp t. tbc Cttfli i, (iilli'i|; In 1« 
pTcvvol iln- Wi-ijilit (!.-»eeHilini£ tfilt fulltliroT, nni) thut r»t«iiiiii([ Uiclwo l.iun-i^ u|hjd 
Ih* two Ji'Hii jiiill.'j». luiid c. wliilii ihi' tiidfliipi'- i» t-nj>(iT«d for aiK'tliir imptcMion, 
Til'' B'tii"! ..f [(in MTUMtfr i< [■rnilinr mi.) n<>v«l ; it ir lialAEi(*-I, auUiol iU Icnjcnyf it 
/h!ly iiiMril. linl in il« ferwiinl inqveincnl. and nt lli« prniit doirvil, It i* 
'xTiil liy n itiip fixpj upon tile top uf tba main ttumlanl. l, iulo a poiiljoa 
ik^dHv III. ill wtiicb poutioD it iirvlainciJbjr its own onward )>ro|:r>*'ania*t 
'iiciiTsprnj«>]lingfrom tbc frame*. t\ on lb« return it innmm !U rsifod pMJ- 
'inefc Ttilhuui iiapcilimanT. Tlio ■ciapcr maj be aJmitrJ l.i [rft* lb* 
r ih.i iiiMc on wliicb ibo dtcoio i< |iiac«d rt|[uklM by Mr«wa. 
- i-in)i>^ilii'i| in Ibia lnal^)1in# will bo at one* TiMOKniiKd 'by Ihoto in- 
Th' I'll ill utf iloKii i-f (k« •vinpor, un-1 tile Inlior mid luciiiirriiiunco nllrn'lint 
U|N>a (bit n{>iifnli<in, iir« iiiilir<<ly tiiin'rK'Ifl bv llie »iinpl« flni! uiri<p'Iiin1 vitir-IJk« 
fBomiii'iiT jiiii 1 tptnliifd. wliii-h fornii iLe groundwork of thi» fiiml.iiiiillon.iillhongh 
It will nlikii nj'|<1}r la tliu pTC4*-work by liuid, oad ii tLc m<ut »lrikini{ nuiflt}' in UM 
■Bacbliii'. 

MI'IIOGRAI'IIV. TboDgh thii lubiwt bclon)^ ratbor to lh< arU of ttuili and dMkn 
thas to proiliii'tit? mBnnGKluini,iticli«nxi«alprinpipIufBll wiIbinlb«prcn'iuc«of t£la 
IMrtionary. 

Til* trFin IU)itympltji\* d^rirvd IWn AiSot it ^imi, and yfaif^irrUitig, and dfUgnalM 
le atcur tliriiwlnitaff iinprMii«a*ujiou|iati<>r, of llg;urr«an<l writing prorioiulftraved 
ijM'Ti 'I- <i>'. Tlif- pnvatnnftftbiaart are fuund«tl: — 
1. I'liuii iliit BillMaton U> * ■miKiUiljr'poliibed limcalone, of ui «a<*aii(tw fat wbleh 
bmw liiv linn or tr*Mfc 

Sl l'|<Aiilbii powor iteqaircid by tbo paria iieaelraicdbylKii DnoanMic^ of attraollotf 
lolbimtrlvM. and bMaauag«evorod witb a printer'* iak. Iutjbk linwodoilfor ita taal*. 

% Upon Iba JDtcrpnltloDofn llliu of whIvi-. wblob pravonlB tba adbnioo of tliolnJl 
Jo all Ine MTU of tbc (otGuo of llio atono n«t ImprvtlualiHl with lb* oncftuiiin. 

l.auM)', upon a iirtesurc applied by the Blan«b nipli m to Imniir^r to paper lh« 



to ro'u.iin 
nin4e t-i ■!- 



tcr>»tTiL 



i. 



• If- 



■'■' i>f ilie ink wbi«h vovorr lli« ffrcuj trucinei <A llii.- iinraniAliv 

^tiipliie ilonci of Hie beat qunlily are itill proeiiri'l fri4ii ilie (inarry of 

' ■ viltuto Hi no Kroat di'tanif froio Muuieli. vlier* tlii« inoil« uf prinllnff 

l>. Tlivy rrvtinble in tb»ir naiwel (lis jellowltli while liuofltntli, but their 

,iliwa I* inuftt liIiiliDr lliBO tlir lue> .VIiMidanl qwa'rlct uf lbc« 6a«-^niiBe<l 



80 



LITIIOORAPHT. 



UmwhiM* oocnr iu lb« Montjr of PaHieohaiin, liof III* ba«k> of th* DuntM, pre- 

Mating ^1n of '' ' Tpi) >!f|rTM of UiUkniM parted bj rmlw >—ib^ m J ^^^ 

IbcrtaoTkl Willi violvnca Hio goo4 qMlkv «f m lUCpmpklo tlon* iina- 

<nlly ilonoud 'ij i . :i' > iu^ ehnrioton: lU hnolica ■ nHoviui f rty, am) ■nifanB 
llwoaebaiiti it u (ra* fntm rttn*. fibnn, and i|mU ; a ftiMi iiolht mufa an inpnindon 
m k Till) diOeullj : and Ui« «ptlnUn brokan oS fro«i it b; Ui« h«nitner diiptay o ooB- 
, gboidj fractura 

Tlia UiinluU (IMica arc nUiled on tht ipot is aUba «r h^n of rquaJ IhktcBMiE 
Um]' am ijnarrind wKh Iho §id of a law. *i> a> t« McriSeo aa littln aa pOMilil* of Uie n^ 
Nfwar«dcBi^lhor*aUaj|fnlartBblMorplaMi Qaa of tiia broail Uert ia th«a dr— ej. 
Mid coaradjr Miiootbrd. Tbo thioknfM af lh«M atonaa tt ii«ar)j prvpottianol M Uitir 
Mbar dtmoiujoiu 1 and TafUafroa II lnvb«< to R ineh^A. 

In woh litbogniphicHUblialiiiicnl, tlicttonaarwelro IhcirfiaiaiAinit ^'^■■''S ■■4 

LfoUihiiic; wliicli or* tiDrToRDodlikclbo grinding aod noliihiagofmlmir p1al«. Tit* 

I ;*ranl li dono by banl far rabbisf ttwnlaf It > maTMblo alab «rer nnatbrr com«*l«d 

In a h«vl»»aUl (KNitioii, iith flao «(Ud Mod aad nter intarpoaail ltftv««B tha twa 

TliB ((jrle «t •nrl thitt tho atoiio It Intcndtd to prodoeo dg(i>reiln«* iha kiail of fmliik 

Uiat {Liboulil D«t. Pcv rrayoa drawlni; th« •tnan abuuld Iw m«r<'!r enin*d men «r 

[.liMjCaf awormng In (lie fanrj of th« draught' mnn. Tlic hf^jlier Ih'ii fiauh of tba tmr- 

|fcMk tiM ralXM are ihc di awiii)^ ; biit tli« prinliuic nroo«f hccomt* loonn- ;ioi<ji aad • 

JbrnnniWr of bopcTHiotu can bu taken. K'irit in InA tvoiiiFi' iliv n-mv to fca 

rotolUfttildowa, aodfiBallj fwlialied vilh pumicaneii a llttia wnivr, IIk «(om* 

tbu* propATtJ arp pMkpd for uro willi vhltJi p*|i«r Inlvrjiowit brta'-'o tfaiir faoca. 

LitlttynflUt cra^lu. — Flo4^lithrrc;ni[i)ii?|irln!i oaonnt im otil*iri(<i) iinli-t tbo mynw 
poaeai erwjr rwjjiititc i|nkl!ly. Tli« h^^rflicntfl ctnnpoiinic ihtm oii);l>t tu be of nioli 
■ lulur* 01 Id udlivre flr'nclj to tha (toui% both after the drawioa bm undcrjcciia tbt 
(Tcpiiralion uf Lhc aeiJ, and duriiuc the prMB-vorlc Tbey ihauld bu hard uniiugh l» 
admHof a Sua point, nndtrae* daUoatc lines without riili of braaldkf. Tlio folio »{iy 
MniMultlou li*> biioQ tmecwrally auployod for etuyoia hf MM. Bwaard aii J IMmw, 

Pure wa^ (liral qunllly) ...... < 

Ttry while tallow itoap ...... g 

Tkiti^ tallow 3 

nuni U* U 

Lamp-blMk, enoocb to cIta • dark tlot - I 

OMaiionallf cttpar*arnr«li 1 

Th* wax ii ti>be ndlcd over u grntlr fire, and the toe brokan into bit* h tlioo Ui be 
•ddod by.drKrti^ (Itrriiivnll the while iritb a ■patiila : tho *oap I'l next introdDcol ia 
flaacbaTinip; and whi'u tfio'iiinunof tho*i' lUbttancniiTcry intJmiitclj'aceO[»pIudia>L 
tlia copal' vuiiOi, !n(tcir)<urnli.<J with lh( Uinp-black, ii poared in. llio b*nl aAu 
■itltaliun arp eontinucd till th« pattc h«* ovquir^d a toltablo cnniil*toncv ; which uaV 
b« reMgiiitod by Inkiii); otit a lilllo of it, letting it vool on a i>Ibi«, and Uylaa iu 
4ulHy with apunknife. Tliit eoin}KMitioii, On Cotng tnl, ■huuld nnbrd britlU (Com 
Tlu boiling may bo qui tkencd by atttins tho riling rapon on lire, which inereoMillw 
UmpwatuTiv and nndtn Uio etbalolionileia offonMve. Wbca MAdv, it u to be |iovr*d 



I 



bito'a bniM moulil, mail* of two Mini.<Tl[ndcn Joined togetliar by olatpo or rilg^ 
ylLiidrio lubo of ihi* rraj'i'u niio. Hio niuuld Rhoald b* prt- 
floualj uamlhed with a groaay clolb. 



Glroiing bc4wevn tlic4n a «ylLii< 



ipra- 



U. Luiteyrie preutibto a nor* liinple cooipwitioii, aald to bo equoTty fit for iht 
Utb<^gnpluT'* Ota : — 

Dried whit* tallow aoap pari*. 

Whilo wax « — 

Lain)>-blnck ■ - ■ 1 — 

"nil* •nip and UUow aro to bt put into a analt goblat and eorcrcd np. Wliaa Iha 
vh-Ar 1- iti-rnii[[hljAini1 bj'hiat, mid nn nlntiTninnin. thiil1«nlfi«grii Anally tfrinlrMI 
b Willi oardld atlnrln^ 

Utliogniphio iak ia tarporcd nearly oa the aane prisclpto: — 

Wai lOpatta. 

Tallow • — 

Hard lallow loap . . . . • g ^ 

Bbelllaa IS — 

HMtie En l««r« % — 

VcDioc tarpantiiit .-..-.1— . 
l4Unp-black ....... 4 ^ 



UXnOORAPHT. 



81 



> mwlie uid Uo, t>r«TloU9lf f ronad l<«elh«r, nr* (o Iw limtoil with <ut« in Ilia 

„•;«... .),.. wuaadUltow MK lobeidddlnftor IharnraMk^nolFUioflft^ iiad 

<n U «flMt«>l. lliQ nxip nhniinft nr*Ui b4 thrown in. Lartlj tha lunp 

rbi ^ 'U i"M*iiiliel Wl.ciwTir fhit iitilMi b AoronpliilMd In- hc*l. th* 

0|>Mat(Mi M IIiim1i*iI : Dio t^nor u l*n to oool ■ lltU«, than rxnimt out on UUm, uid, 

wk«n m1<L ««l tnta Miiiiiy< rait, 

UtbflUMphia ink »ri.-""'l •lu.ilitv ouitlit lobe (UMwptible of fisnuing na Moublos •• 
■IUiiimM^I. thai it mav Ni'V^rtoWilUMlvailvhcn nib)i«i] npoo • btMboily tn •tii- 
nlM or rivw wairr. Ii tftuuU bcU^wina in th« pcB,nnl tprrniJiTiK on ihv done) capa- 
bte cf (unmiti <Mi<«le Irac**, nndaci? black to ibow li* •li'Iim-nilnni. Tht di»i r«cn- 
tlal iioalilir nJ* Oie ink w lo (Ink veil into tbe ilonr, m at is n'-rnHtufc \he moit ileikcalc 
iiutliiin o( ibc dcBwme, and to aSori a firal many iBipRMiuni. It mMl Ihmtbsc bt 
aUi! lu milt the acid «riih uUch Uin Mimo It moiMmtnl in liie pivparubfl, KtUwnl let. 
tics aiijr of lit crauT nutrr cxapc. 

M. dc lAfWfnc xiatra t^ni after having tried a (real manf oofflblnaliion*, he givea Ik* 
ptafcrtDce lo tko foUowiag i — 



TbUdv aoap, dried • 
HaMie, in lean 

While Kldo of niDDSTM 

Shellac . . . 

IjiDiii-bladc . . . 



SOparu 
30 — 
» — 
ISO — 
IS — 



The mp Ji flr»i i>ui Into ihe ;i<li]rl and larilpd ii»er ih* 6tr, to wlilrh iln- Uc beiiu 
a4l(d AiM» i milled i file W ; Ihft i>«ln it- tlicn intiialucnl, Rt>iI nv>l the nin^lir, •liiiini; ^ 
Ih* wbilV with a i<[inliila. A l<r»k iirr it ni>jili»l litl all ihcic uialFmls bv mtUrtl com- 
pletrtXi vlicn Ihv whole IK pniuol out iiilu Ihc iduuIiI. 

The iiihs new prFicrib^U tnay be cmjiluinl cinnltr with ihc pen and ihc hair pnetl, 
lit wtitingi, black-Irod drawingn, e^va lii-ta, mixH dmvingt, thote which Tt'|ir»Fii[ cn- 
p«>in)>i on weal (wood CBI>), 4c. ll'htn the lnt> it lo be H»cd il ii lo he nihbcd down 
wllh WBIrr, 111 ihr ii.nnnrr of Clilnn ink, till Ihr thndc be of Ihc reuuititc drpih. Thp 
Ictn^iniiitf iif Ihr ylate <'\ifiii lo he friiiii t^V la SO* Pahr., or the foarcr in which iho 
>ali-«tick ix inlibt'd thuiiM L* *cl in s hcninl |>l>ic. Ko m<af ink 'hnuld he djfxolved 
thoD b 10 be <uod ot th« ttnic, for it ratriy \iff pt in Ihe liiiuid ilatr fur SJ hours ; and it 
ibouU be toiretcil ot cotkcd U|<. 

JnlegrOfMe paytr. — Antograph}', ot Ihc opctalion by whkh a wiiiing ot a drawing; v. 
iranafttred from papa to Mone, prctcnU not tncrrlj n nirnna of sbrvt^inf; liboi, bni nlao 
it cf rctTrtiai the writinx* or drawing* inia tlie dircclion In which they were tnicrd, 
ibi.if eiccnlcdditDCllTuron thetlunr, IbolniprfMinn vit'n bjh ibiatettiil. HrnCf, 
railinic upon llone mnkt be intencd fium ri*^]il lo It^l lo obtain direct Impmaiaaa. 
Bol Ifee an (d* wiiiini! Ihua ii tcdlbut and itifficnll to aciuire, while, b; ineana ef tbe 
aslootaphie l*pei atul ibc tranifet, prooii are obtained Jn the aame Arectioa with Ibe 
writing and drawlnf . 

JtUograsAit ink. — Il moM be fatter and (ofler than that opplteil dlracl]; ^ 'Im bIcmv 
w ihat though diT upon Ihe p*per. It BMf Kill prcwrrp anffleicnl TlMidilT to *(iek l« the 
Moa« b]r mere prsHiirc^ 

Tn oeoipcsi; Ihi* inti, we lake — 



I 4*1UIH 

LgLio 

^Biibi 
^^>fTii 



White eoap ... 
WUte wax of iha be*i<ruilii; 
Mutton tael . - - 
Shellac .... 

MmUc .... 
lADip-bladi . - ■ - 



. lOOruta 

100 — 

30 — 

SO — 

. M — 

Moras — 



rb««e BiAtetiali u« l« be nelled aa abotc deaerOtd Ibr Ibe UlheKiaphie ink. 
li^togiafAit int andfu/«r.— The followtng recipet have been much eomm ended*— 

' Virgin or while wax 8 pnit» 

WMt* Map -.-..- 2 — 

SlwHae S - 

I.anp.Uadl .-.--• 8 IBbl«.a[iDaiiitui. 

'priftfratttB, — The wax and eoap are to be inrilcd toecther, and before thn become m 

H M lo lake fire, the lain|>-bUek it lo be well jtined in with a ipaluln, and then ihc 

tabtnic li lo be nltowtd \a btim fut 30 K<ond« j Ihc flame being estioEui^cd. the Ue i* 
lobe aiided by de^ce*, '■^t"'"!' •■"■i'^S '^ ^^' time; th« tnacl i* lo be put u|«n thCa 
Are Mwe more ia oeder lo complete the comUnniion, and UII Ihe maleiiiilt nir eiihei 
UbAoI or nritty wi. After Ihe flame ia exljngvfthed, thv inti iuum bt (wiftnd W too) a 
Utile, aad Ibi-n imi into the mouhb. 

Vou 11 • 



U UXIVlA-noN. 

a 

Villi Ih* l>k dmjvmUiih anil*!, liii«*ataj1>«driivau&MM*lUi IbajK^I «f Um 
gntvvr, AiiJ M full n e4B <•• iImIkJL vilbout riak u( iU sprMdiaii la Um Mrriac^ lit 
&«cai will tvoniri nii'titiii;..! •.■) pnfvr fiir jr#an brim OMiiiftrMiArTod. 

Sonic ti>n} iLikk ii •linnj:<' U^i ilivr* U no n*l hi lb itbwvo conpaulion, bsl it liM 
bHntnuii.l iliHi ink <'i<niaiit>iiiMi ii ontvf!0«l«li*nu'«<lHiani>n4rltu iuwl«, MidwhM 
ImoMduitrly iiaii>d(:i .-nl to tbt ttaav, whltr Inert ilra«B On fapa wilh lh« *tiet nk !>» 
MBB ihlcGliTa (Act 4 or A dar>> 

mfag wfp Hc fMptr.— L*j a« the r^cr, 3 tneenwrc owU of *lMep4'^ i*(lTi 

I kfCT of while tbutk, 
I )»}'« or pimboR*. 

The Ant Infer ia appli^ vith > tponqv ilipi>n] in lh« solution c( Iht liel jcltr, vsr} 
•fnaUji ov«i* the vliote mriiKr, bul thin i nnil if (he \et( be ittclcbnl vpon a card, the 
nliitiiM wOl he more vniAicPi. The nvil Ivo conii arc la be Uil on. until vnch u dif. 
Tbc lajor uf lUrch it then to be applied with a ipoaee, and il nil) alw bo ret; Ikia nii 
•qiul. The tiMl lit punbose a ImiIj (o be B|iplial in the tunc vnj. When Ihe ft^/a 
U drr. It iRiKt be (ni'Millinl bjr (aMiag it IhniuMh Uic liibcfraphic |>rt>*i uiJ Iht am* 
patiihe<! ii is the brllrr data il Ukc on the ink in £nr Itiim. 

Tra<i'/tr. — When ilie paper is mulaleneil, thv Iniiiaferof thv ink fnon llic taalHfc it 
peiftet and inroUibh. ilie itarrh leparalvi fmni the eelatine, and if, allFr taking Ilie 
paper oif Iho ilODe, we ploce it oa ■ «hite *lab at lAoac, and poor hoi water ^rvr it, il 
Wul rwume its primitive ttalc 

Th« euat of gamboye oufhi to be IniJ on the wsc day il m Jitwlied, at bf keqiinf It 
beWDiM tit an oily niiiurr ; in Ihit iiole li ioc* not obfiruct Ihe lran«rer, but it tirea • 
|1oti lA the pL)iei'Whicti rrnJcn i)i>^ dnwing or tracins more ilillicull, ei^Mrialljr to ptf- 
MMia little hnbiloateJ lo litbocraplir. 

The itaKh patle can be entptoycd unlr when cold, Ibo day after il ii node, aoil aAei 
harias the lUn roiuovnl from ilx tnrlhec. 

A b«r of tsch liiliL>i;ni|<hic paper way be tonde in lwi> nlnuit*. 

In ti>n>f''rnmc ■ wrilinir, an ink diairing, ora liihamphie crayoai, cvea |h« impnwM 
«f a cupper-iilale. In tliu slunc, il ii necF?«iry, I. Ihnt the ioiiirvutoui br nioile upoa a UiB 
and tlnulra body tike eoinmon papvr i i. ibni (hey uiu; be delnehel oo'l Cinl lainlly aa 
the (tone by 110111* of preuure ; but lu ihe ink of a dmnnv link* to a cntnin deftk ia 
paper, Bod uUirrM preily ><raniily, it would bo dilfieull lo detJich all iUjpan>, were there 
not previoosly pot lietmi-n the ittper and Vtr tracM, a budy eafteble vt hv'mic wponud 
Ihiin the paper, anil of Iniitit iii ailhetinn lo it by mouaii of [lie wiler iriili whidi tl it 
lamped. In order to produce iliiii edMl, llie paper iteti a ceruin pii|<uiiii»*, wliieh een- 
riili In oooling il met with a kind or piulc icady to receive ecery ditliKolloa vilboul 
(offering il lo pMielrate Into Ihe pitpcr. TlicrearcdifferenliuoLlr^.J'eomniwnicalinglUi 
property to paper. Bctblit* the above, ihi; (Ulowtng loay bv Iriud. Take an uuiM' 
aaper, ralhor ilrang, and covm it viik a varniili ouicuNMed of: — 

STareb ..... lao parti 

Gmn aiabie • - • • • 40 — 

Alam SO — 

A paMe of uiodcntte ooniiileace miul be made with the tiareh and wine water, wM 
the aid of heni, into which llie i^iiiii and alum are lo be thrown, each prevlnii>i]y diswlrc^ 
in Mparate itrisrl*. Wlipn thi; wlii^le ii well Riixnt, it li U be np|>Iie<1, "til] ht't, oa the 
leaTc* of paper, with a llal vno(iUi liruth. A tini of yellow color mny W virea U the 
taniih, vii& a dceoelina of l^e berriec of Avittnoo, CDnunonly calleil Ftencli bnrin by 
oar dyen. The paper b to be dried, and tmoetbod by pataing under llie K^ui-ri of the 
Ulhe^aphie preaa. 

Sled t'tna are employol for wnting and drawing wlUi Ink on the UltioerapUe 
Meoee. 

LITMUS {TcunHtol, Fr. 1 la^ftmat, Grnn.) ■* prcparel in Ilollaiid from ihe ipttiH 
of Ikhen eatled Lunnoni tarlirta, Kofftlta imlaria, by a ptoecn which I1 n bten kept 
wcret, bat whioh li nndoubteilly ennlogoiu lo that fer making archil and ciidbear. Tbc 
ground lichens are fint trcateil w^ih urine eanioininp a lilllc poia*h. and aOnwiiI lu fyt- 
Bent, wtierebv they produce a [■undC'rrd; Iheculur^ liiinor, lr«nte>[ willy <iulrii line and 
man mure iiriiie, ii tcl atain lo Armenl durint two or lliice week*. Ilirn it ]• iniied wtik 
ehalk or uyii?'"'! iitc n patle, which ii fonntil into nniill eutaicnl pieeet, ond dried in the 
■hade. UtJiiui lia^ a violet-blue eob)r, b oaiy lo pnlTeriEc, li peitiiUly «i|uUu in w«l«« 
and dilute nlcnhol, Inrins a rciiJoum oonniliuc of carboimla of lime, nC day, aitica, 

apaom, end oi)ile of iron combined tiitb the dye. The nf]ot of liiuiiu it t»>l altered In 
calb, but b Nddencid by aeidt; ami 1* Ihrrefore esed in diemittryaa niletioie teat of 
aeblity, eiihi^ in the itoteorteJulioa orofuailicd paper stained with it tl itenplofat 
to dy iniirMe blue. 

• LIXIVIATIOX ^Lt^^ivast, Fr. 1 Ailastn, Q^na.) ilgnlllce the ab*ti«elK>n ky waM 



I.nBRICATtON. 



ta 



[<th» Milnbla klkaliac or u1bi« satlcn proMiit (n ■nr f«nby aihiiLxlunt; m fjvtn 
K of ^wehltan •nil polathM lo ntk* polMh }jr, frvm thai nf cfflorfMHl klian 
Sid t* iMab* ftldtniBoiia llnann^ A« 

UnSTOMt llAOXmr IHOS-WTUNK (At- o/jAJ*. Pr.i Mifmrttit^Mfin. 

n.>: an (roa or* MOititing tiT tlia pin>laxi<]i> uid p*Toxii)« of trfln lu « ilat* of 

llX>An (Trm /iiiinimv, Pr. ; £iAir, Gprs.); n naliTe cU; nutod wiUi ipwrti*Mi4 
1 Iron wlirr. avi '•ccoiionRlIv •rilh vnat MrtonalH of liiiw. 
<H'K(nASK SAFTT^ Th»'pMulUrlt_v of ttiit IopIi caiiniiiU in *■ fM^ixl-o of the 
' ■fltr It ii iiurrlod in IW |r"'k. ami * i^t*!. (.■iiim-iinii ti.T[n**n tht intrfi"r 'T llie 
■ >Bi1 iwo uf tbo (>la}'i<r*, Tin- tiro iiwIiM-il jil.-ui™ "iMlii' iinilrr aiilF trflJtL' wori 
«pMi DT *hiit IIm> pxuntlnn nf (Ix kr_v n< H |m>ir« nrcr tl>pin : tb« part of thr \ry tfau* 

Aim time lliB nain part ollhckcrvorluiotlior Iwcplartn, •thirix an) attain o|)srat«il 
_vm br the PAirct appvratui in ttii> joUriar of tli* key. ' Tlii* Hvrvi npi<aratiii> ran b« 
•uvfj tl pltanuiv, anJ ibc jiropur L«y thru liMnmM unfit to sark tlin tiH'k, anJ 
Jr(«o k'j-^ liowovor will fiiti-rl t<i |iiiu th<< wards vltl mil mivrato on Ih* plaTen- 
t W>IlK t» <lnr nam* kivbh hy llie riTiii*h miiir-i* I" n ufln. wlielhor it bp fiftpdwilii 
IMalllr u nirthy matter, 

LOOWiioDfAou A fSaa;)»rV, Acri Kf'*. Tr. ; Btaiijiolt, n«nn. : in [hpvoca of th« 
ffrwt*iif^ftn f^^n'pf^ltHintr/i, a ncitiv-f trtc orcf^ittnl AMii?ri<'ii, ip<ovn in Jamaica alttoa 
l;i^ !■ wiiifinfiatiridiKriJ inio K'ifUnil id lliu reijn nf EliMtwIli. tiiitn* It afTordcil 
1 :lfu! 'ijM» fif St limr a fii^rlnvi- color, il wot nol niily frriiliilMl*<l ffom 
.! rijr-r •fTen? |«<iin!liM, Uil *«- '■i-'lrrprl to W liiinii'il «ti«rrTrr foiinil. by a 
p»"--<i mlW 31il jrearvlhi-rrvi^ 'ilii' ■mri" [-njiidiw .ni»t*"!, ami lltrHunn law 
I mavtml a«ain*l odwa. At length, nft^r n (Oitiiry iif nl'iiril j>n>liilnti«n. tbcio 
I niM4 taliiMile linot*rial mating liy vliir>ii all nor hatn. niitl ihe Krcalor part of 
' wmlleii ftatha arn dvei, rett aUnwerl lo bo uird 

>M ir«od. wiiti bUck liark aii<I with Httlf of the white gHigmtiin. ia preferr*^. I^- 
) I* .Ihimt lliaa Water. v«ry bard, of a fine fompatt grain, and alinoil imlMtriK't- 
(bU by tbi- atmMpt>*ni: ptvni*nta; II baa a iwMt and a*trin)t*Dl tuta, anil a prciiltor 
■at looffvndv* tt»M, 
Fiir iu "lienioal oompmitinn, ri>>> ilnn trm. 

I obippod Idgwoayd i> for loni* lini« «|i<Mo<l lo lh« air, h loaea a portion of It* 

nil tbpn n<i]iilm 



It4 dnroKioti abdHrba tbe oxr^O of tho utzQcuphorr, an 

«rly of i.piolpliatinjt witli yiilatin<>. wKieii il lind not tiffor*. Tiii- Jry c 
iiia'f* frvm an oUI dvL-ouIIon. alToi^J* only a fugftllvo tolor. 



Xtrnot 



■> it* apiaKniiMM ill dvi^nfL •CI' RtACK Ilia; IteovN Dti; C*uoo rKmiMi; 
■J**; H.T ItTKix;, ir. 
TW ini|Hirt4 r.f I"i;H'ciwl wore in I8M. 34.090 toni ; in IBAI, SI.MOIoiit; of tvliidi 
»ni aad n.OI'l loni ro*pcrlitc|y veru to-i>xparteil 

{M'liir n fiurr, Fr.; H'rfifTafiiAt Gonu.): it the andont ani! woli-known 

I Aw vraTiafi tlolh by Ibe •Icoiiwatton of atoilmif jinralUl Ibrradi, whlidi run 

\.MUnd til' wnrpor oliaiii. villi other tlirvailn tUniwn tran*Trr*«ly vltb 111* 

1 tlio woof ur well. Sre .lt<ijl,-JKI> l.iH>ll WLttDIil. 
ITtOX. Tb« fi.lloTlriii -iiii|.(p and 'fli.'ucioiis jdaii of Inbritatilig Ui* 
ag* of ma^bi'H^rr bv i«i'illiirv iintiiiiinn, bm bwn kinJIy (ouiiUDni- 
I bv ir. -ticpiiloiii iavi;ntm', Mq-jir<I WimiIboj-, E*^. : — 
; r 1 tia evp. wbkb bat u kiiihII llii lube *, obicb ]>iim^v Ibroagh 

', the dotted linei. It mny hmCfl tin cover to keep nut Ibc iluit, 
il u ^lua vl the inaie. 
*ia tn-tloa at iliu *amc. Oil ti poar«d into Ihe tnp, ttio ona and of a 

■■•Hi vail'-" '!■ ■ i>fih« 

'.■., -.,|. ri». ; J ■■ ■■■ ^ !.■ tlie 

'iL 'rerj yATii*'W i't oii j» «inw? "vvr by tbia 

■ i w bi-niii i»iotli< (.(nriiiu* ■?^^ba^^ Af., and 

iiiL uiaj' bi: v'iibed. If oil, or nlb«r Il^aiib, it ilct'ivil to b< 

lone or olbcr (Htbee, thii Cup enn liave a hantlle l<i it, or b« 

Mf *^* 't ** (■^""nlK' iT<iiiir>-d to atop the enpillan- actbo wbdo Ibe i»ailii»eij 
'" ' ;; az-i il.g> liaa'bffen effvvtcJ by maaBt ef a tiskteakig acrcw, which pMaca 
I Ibc cover nf tbr cup, nad prtaat a a^ut tbe iatcToal oriAea 
F ] _ lh« oil frvta |>aA«Dg. 

riid nbsn lliew wrr* •Bpa(;^ 87t\ af* ntod apoa baama of en)cto«a 

11]^ that Ibe xrcs it apt to be tighl«scd by tli# motion: and alio at. 

luisc im k"ti.ip of Ilia Hr«w )• iiaHitaio. fmm tbe workman n«|llt«tin|; to wrew II 

^K9* aMibiaatly. it aa««*r« beat lo tako ovl lb* on^lbuy tbrsad wban tlM hxbri«aUo& 



tCPULINE. 



b oat mqaind »aA to cn««t tbb amUy, I h*To ■ tin lop l« tin «*p, viU > r«D»i 
DIM volihnd Iw it: ttau miM! hw a titi In tt, like ■ iwiwil mm, ud ■Uor* • twU k 
to tlid* Molly In il. la Jif- 681. Ih« bolt k down ; id fif. 86S, lk« boll, whloh U a 
tioM of bnjB wJnv b dnvD nn uid tli«r* ■ no cnnitlaiy notion bctvots ilio lkr««4 
•nJllM oiL l*Jlf- 8S2. It will be obMncI, tbnt llioboltia kopt inita ^no« Lt iu boa) 
e, rating in n latonl tJIt in cjie pips, and it i'moboI Iw drnvn oat oo acofliint of th* 
pin L Oa« mi of U)0 tkr(*d i* bcUftcd to ilia ayo Iiolc U tbo boUooi of tha Wit, 
ui4 tlif utbor «Bd U tied to ■ tnall wire vliM etMM* tbo lawor orifioe of Hit inW at 
i^ and vhloli i* fhowa in planjC^ S6S. 

By Uiii tioiptii aoDUiraBM (Im vaplDary aotloo OUi bo ttoppod «t rtsowod In * 
Moo^ without rumovioc the l«p of lb* lubtkator, 

Hi* aariiill by thit plaiv inslMdorponriBBoQinU tbebMrtngi^ ia IgnlloMbiilal 
>, vUlc Uio liMrlai-»aro bott«r ail«<L 






h n 



EC 



K 





* I (end jvn the drawings of the lubrieatort, whh * detailed npltuialion. I turn 
omitted to *lttlc, that Ihc lavin^- in labor i> roniidcraUe where there nre mnnf joint* 
to ko^ eUod ihuN or foot times n iaj ; and that the worlonan doei not witk tUi 
apvuaui, ran lh« riak of being CMighx by the machlnety. Perhap* jour fricnda nu 
b« at ■ loM how to tie on the tntton nr worsted Ihrtad. I pan a lonir thread Uiiwm 
Ilu eje-Jioie e of the boU, and then ilniw the two endi llirough iho tube by a fine wm 
wilb % hook to il, one end do one liilc of the cross wire d, anil the other eud on the Mhci 
aide. I Uim put iIif coicr ua, nod (he bolt in the peailion aho-en in fix, 651 ; when bf 
drawinic Ilio (wo cndi of the thread, and tying thcin ncioea the wire v, yon hate the emtS 
ttaflb required- When you with to tee the qunnUty of oil remaining in the tntiri«Mv. 
tht bolt nnal be dropped a* In /(. fiSO, end you can then liA the cover n Uille way Vt, 
wllboul breaking the thread, and repleniili with oil. The cott of jIg. liOO, In tin plMe, li 
M. The fiicBiea la the wood eoti are one Ihinl of Uie foil xiie. 

" BeLeie me to be yonra linecrely, 

" E. J. Woo(«T." 

LOTIN1XE, ia a tubatance o( a jnmsiy appMnnoe, ao oamod by M. Cotaols, bwomt 
Il \M* obtained Aom Lnpinca. 

LOPUUN^ (ram Hwmtbu Lnpiiiti ,- u the peetUiu tMlta ■romUic princlptt of the 
bop. SeeBm. 



MACKRATION. 



BS 



LUTE (from lutum, oIbv ; liM, Pr, ; JTitli, BittUOff, UeraL) , it • pmly op loamy 
IfttKr «<Bpto)ro<l Ui *imi Uis jninM of cIiviuwhI >]ipH>Mii^ or la «au tliclr MirvuM, 

riMt ikMi) rnini (h« (HtmI action of flantc, MiUadiffoTMOordioy to tli<- ttalUM 
mpon which \iuyT« dMUno] ta(«iifia(^ and t)wd«gN«af Imm vbitii lli«f 
aM l« b« «xjkMitd ta 

I. jMltoftiti—tdmuil, moiJe into a hiA jilaallo iloiigh vith vnt*!*, and immciltately 
■{ipllcd pmlty thl«k to Jnoctiniin «r |t1iwi or itonv war4v make* Ihcia poifMlly lighC 
haTd«iM ■iwv'llty, rvMiU artel an<l aminoiila<>a| yup^n, m alio a moderalt dogK* of 
h«*C It bcpotnca itroDgcr when t)i« mnl ii kneMod wilb ndll^ ItiiM-walvr, at mId- 
llaa (rf gitiii. 

1. lAit<? of thi«k gum-vattf, kseadtd with «Uj, anJ iron filiag)^ HPtm wall for p«r- 
■naenil jnQotioni^ u >l ba<!i>m«a nxtranalv aolid. 

8. 67 (oltuniDK ill wni^r a ptoc* of Uilek brown |>«p«r, kn«adiag ll 8Mt with T7«- 
(tMr peaW, and thnn w!tli •■Hn« polt*r'ii «lnv. till it a^ijnire Iha [irDptr aaiin>t«ne<s " 
Into u formed whlrli diiM n>>t ma'lilf <ra«h'or iKal« off. 

4. Liitu, ooiuiollbg of a •ttoag t<>lulion «f glue kn«a<Ied into a donsli with iw* 
■Iak(>l Wiao, ii a jwwerftil cement, and with the additioD of whito of am nim* Uia hit' 
d'aiif ,- — a tompoaitioo adapted to mend broken toboU of noreelain nui! itene-wwe. 

5. Bkim-mOk chceir; boiled fi>r wnie limn k water, and tbnn lritnr«ttil into paato 
with b«Kh-alaked lime, fermi alio a f;nod lute. 

0. Onlelned fyj^em, lUffiutd through inltk, toliiiion of glue «r elaroli, is a raluable 
Inte In manj omnu 

t. A lute made with tineeed, melted eaontehone, and jiipe-clav, ineoipomtod iBt« ■ 
mooUi douffh, maj bo kept long loft, when eovered in a eelhr, and Mreee adml- 
raMjr to onifine aeid itfort. &» it doc* not harden, it may lber«»r* be applied and 
taken oFF u tiRea ni we ploaen. 

8. Caouteliouc iUnlf, aftitr being melted In a *pooni may lie adranta^nuiilT luvd for 
•eonrlaw ]«jnt« aeaioM ehloTine and ant<l VAponh In vinerg:enriea when D0tbiu(- eW 
would S« eSeetual. ll bean the heat at wbirli lulpharie aud boil*. 

9. The beet Into for joining erntiblM inrerlod in each othor, ie a doDsh matte with 
a BdiitureoffrcahfireJay and gronTidlln)-beioki,workod with water. That eomeiit, it 
made with aolution of bonx, anawera itill bettor, upon eomo oeewiooi, a* it become* a 
oorapncl vilreoua bum in the Arc. Sec Oeucctt. 

Ltin/pr ton/Sniitg atidi. I part of taoulehvuo diaMileeJ In two part* of hot Imteeil- 
oil, aQ<l woili<4 up with jiipa elnv (3 part)) into a (ilutie mam. IJnieod meal and 
water KDrmji the I>mI tiite f<-r l1iiii'»tliDie aeid. 

LirTEOLINE. ii B yellow eoloring matter diwoTered hf Ohevronl ia weld. When 
■nblmii'il. it crvitnlHu* in n«dl(«, 

I,YC"H'<ilHi*.M CLAVATCH. Thii leod* of the Ij-wpodiitin ripen in Septenber, 
Itiey ani einployoil, on niy'oiint at tbolr grtiat eombuttihilitr, lu tlieairi.<e, to laeltate 
the tudJen tluh of lightning, bjr throwing a ijuaotily of Iht^ia fruin a powder psl^ ot 
bcOovi, neniea the flamo ufa oandle. 

LTDI&K 9T0K% Hfltnt«laIo. 




'AOARONI. Ie a Ao'atth of flne wheat AnuT, made Into a tubular or pip« lorto. of 
ttio Ihiekoeee of i|;i>i4r-f|uiU>, vliivh wna £rM ptwparotl Id Italy, acni inlroiliieed into 
coatmeree under the nnme •>f Ilalian or Genosee paMo. Tlie wheat for llii< j^iirfHitD 
met bo around intoaeoam flour. r«II«d|rrwMior«moWe, by the Freaeh, liv means vt 
a peilr of lisht milt-etoikHi, plaecd at a eomewhat frealor ifiitanee than umibI. Thii 
MHiex/r !■ the entataneo cmpiuyed for making the dough. For the mode of maaufiw* 
twinK it into piptw. aoe Vxiunccix 

UAOB. it a (omewlial Ihirk. luuirh. uneliioni membrane, reticulated or rhepl, of a 
yeUowitb' brown ororani;* rolut. [t funni the onrelopeot ihe'holl of the fruit of tbe 
mvtlitiea moecAsM, whirh eenloint the nutnieK- It >■ tlrled in IliO "in, nft.-r t>rin|( 
•ll^I>]vil In brine; eoniotinm it is Bjirinkled cner with a liltte brine, h*f>ir-> pnrkliii;, 
to i^r<'**nt thariik ofmouldintt. Mao* hMo more ninenMe lUvor than "nlin<'t;: *ith 
* emrm and imn<nst ineto. It oijniaina t<rakind«of oil; !he oneof whii'h it unetnoa^ 
bland, and of tlio coituilcnee of butter ; the other i* volatile, oromntie. and Ihinncr 
"Thi- laembrane if umul •' a eimdimoiit in eookerr. and Ihw aronmtie t.il in raedjeina 

The quantity in]u>M><l in ^»,W nni 7T,anTltit.; in \Hb\, 74,H>I3 lb*. ; entered t«t 
«i(i..iminion. I8«\ il.Hnn lU ; IHM, SI.OBO Ib^ : duty recviTfJ. nupeeiivnly. %tVli 
and S.««7' 

AlAt'KHATlOS (Bug and Pr. finiene^u. i)eTnx\ •« « prepamiorj' mmp t>i 



M MACIIINKS (SKl.rA(TUta). ^^| 

wbiA mrtMA *a|t«liiblt> mi>I uiiuial >aWUna>a RM aatoilltml, «itk tk* Tie« ai <ll> 

'|«*diii|t lk*trliliw» iw |>vf»s Kud vaiMinf lli«ni to b«po(iolrn'-' '•'■ ■■' '*■ ■.-■■■.-.( 

kart tnt ai]«i'l<4 lo ultMt (bair hIhUs |wrt& Water. bI'k 
■ llkfllk oih'u: bIivW uiil oUwi, w*|Im UqoiilaiunAllj'i'Bi 

lido a/ Uatkintfif. It i> iiurlv liolT a ('Utnry wmw I fitsl btcamc awii !■ 

_tlM oiigicMahan mfuMiMi, anil ai tkal Uiii« dia iiwOarMii of •nr DMalias"'iil <>iwi»* 

Itioo* wuru douclw liAnd Ou nij ficM onlrMoa laiio UsMkaXar Umre w«r« ao mU- 

k^oling tool*, and Ihc whaloaI««fca(ui«iiginMrin|{ortuadiiDa«*b>liKikia«*tPiiul>CI'« 

^MUlneil U{> ill II Tiiir lll-«o«atn»rt«il latlwa, ■ r«vdnlk aiiJ l>nn<ii{ nmrhiiiB) i4 mJ* 

LCMMtmctian. ^Kvcaupanaajt o<UMpraMtwork> willi «1ibI tlwv vera la Ihoaa 

daj^ an-l vou will lind a ravoluUoo of ao atUwirJiiiorv n rhanwti-r, a> to appear la Uiuia 

^ttnatuiuuutad villi tliv*ulij*stUMal«*l]r«iit<llAllc>'cr*-lit. The v'liaii|[* tliS4 «0«r|aiL 

add Uis iiajiravuiiMal>intMdi>r«dint>>ouroaa«lr«tti*e inaolHB«Tir, ara uftL* Ii^JiMt 

bipartaii«« \ aixl it v^f n\v ploaMrv U> aiU (hat IhaV cllicdjr bd«mg la MaB'tic*l«r. 

BMotMaadiwtvrgTiiwtlkan-lfroiit U virbMtvr lli«f karc lud tlwir Dr>i-'« i< •'■•v 

kbalolcraUo); toknoir Mincilu^<irihcarturtuul-niaki*c.>°'l°'''"''^'' 

prt^rw uT macliiiiat which hare i»iDtributol tu Inrucly to inalti|>t]r tbc m. . 

M wttll « tha ijoiMtniclMiB of atber nuchiiiM Hnfiloyol iii iimulual nivliu^i-,*. lu 

Hanelifitur Ilia at t or*alico-pHniiuK vaiin itainfuicj-rorlr \'<-u>b|i«i ikudat [•ruu^ 

^04 ou* or il Uio tawt Iwn (olorM maohiDo^ wtre all lluit xrr llian in em* : Ui« 

'^timlNr of thoac macbliiM St no* Krsally multliilinl. anj Kimo of llifio ar* caiaUiU ol 

VpriaUag aiKhl tiAon at uiwa ; anil tbo aria d UamUdk. djrdu^ wid fiiiMhinit, liara 

iBttdttyou* aqiul Ftl«uiuii and inprortvnnt. In Out mannbetiin of rtcwn-a^miBM 

phtin v«r« only tliroc or (uur rdabliafanHnU UmIcouM coaka thca, and llioar «««• 

fSoHon and Watl,orS>faa: I'niton. Hanrav anil Wood, vf I'Mib.aadHMan.^tx-rnUa 

"Of ihia torn. Tha (ttjiiiiM of tJkal dnj- raDt(<il tram 1 to M uT at ttta matt 7'j Iiotmk' 

power: aow theywc madaaahiRh a* too. or in jnura fron t.OOOto l.Souburw. An 

*rd«r hi a (inglo M^tno at lltat liina wa« couAidtfcd • Kr«*t woirk. and froquoaUy 

l««li Ud or twdvomontbtto«x«eui«i wow thayaraatadabydoacaihanil that wilka 

|>d*Krroo{-lHpatoh atiiirMnltiitnoiuioAiuaon oavurrmo* MMafiTo or wt <*^in«*a( 

cunaid*rBU«pc>«tarl*aTaaai^Ua*taUIaliinmt in a niMith. Ib inaaliin«ui*k>n|{tka 

HiDO pDVvnof prodiKlioQ are apparvoL I> Uiiidvpaitnunit wr 6nd tUo •amc iKtiiHtT, 

the lUD* MrUiutj «4a«tMii, a»d craatJy inorBaMd prodiiitHni ta ttte inaBufadurt o( (as 

Huallcr maokine^ than <au noaiibly b« attalnail in tha tarKar and bant i>r ihB<ri|ili«s of 

wvrk Tlia Mlf-8cttii|r. turnintt. ]>Unin^, icmaTmir, tiid*lut(in|tiiiachui<aba<tcair<jriM 

i» auch arcuraat and fuili» Uir cooattuctiou, oa \o (iiabL* Uia niKhaDioal practitlowar 

t» turn, tiortL Mid •hapawithadegtiv of rerlaiiitjr nlintwCntuoUBlintf to inallialiwlinl 

prvciuoii. Ttio ■ncaliBsical oparBlioniof thoiircuntdoyeuutd wot kava b««u acMim- 

pliiluO bI DB J coit Ihiitr Ttati affo, and whatwaionaidari-d iiBjKWMUt at tlial tini*^ 

u au* ptrfoTinod wiihad(«r««allint«llisniuaaodaxa(iitudBUiiitncTt'r£aiIluaMuai- 

ptiali the «nd iu tIow, and rvduca ibamoatobdumto inoMlo iJia roqailcd conuiloMJ', 

la all iImoc foniu wi MriMsuly ai^nipllCed In Ih* worLthop* of oneinefnand maoliiniibL 

TntbeintflliftcQt andobatrvactwmngarwboTUiUtlitfM'MtabliiihnuDti.llurfirittMitff 

11iatitrtk«Bli»alt«n(ioaii^ Uia mecbanimn of thaMlf'avliif toul*. tlionaMwith vliM 

llMiynt iJiA hvdnt JraoaniditM't.and thaBath«Dialioalac«nra<rT wltii whlvlialltka 

^rta of a maohinc ar« hrvugbt into ihapt^ Whin IIicm imploinenU ara rarofiiUy 

aiainincd; it pcobh tab* a woodor that our ■t«Bm-iinf[inciaiid niaahin«*ar*aaboai»- 

liAilly aad «arraoUf auouUd. We pnvairo tho matt mrioiw and ingaaioni oonUi- 

naoH adafdcd lu ty«rf putpow. and maehloary which oaly roquira* tha atUtiiWnoo «1 

■ hoy %ii *il|ip)y th* matcHol nail ajipljr Uia powtr, whlrh i* alvara al band. In Msda* 

Hon, I w-iui<l ob«#rTu that il m an honor to tUi> vuuiiirT, llmi * •• kIboiJ at Ibv boa4 <t 

Iba i-iiKiiiPorlni! niid iiiBohanioal profcanoiL It i> an iirl — 1 wuuld call it a teieoiM— 

wkidiliBj oNupitfd the atlFntJonotlhegr— t««l«i»n from tha dayiofUaliloo and Naw- 

Ion down In llioiv i-f Walt and )!B)«iilon. and it now r«c«irca attcnlira oanwdomtiaa 

freuttc'itieot lh« altkataod loattdiatiniKiuihfd manor tlioi>r«Mnl (iiDo. Audoflba** 

ItOKy laalUM* Ponoclol, Uorui^ IIauiboldt,Itr*«iler,Babba|t*> l^r-I^buoo^Cof Ac 

iiM(dil.WilliaaBd maoyolhan^ to (how tha IiiKrMttliallAlalianby thoaognatMaa 

la til* Bdianeeauiat of mwhattioal fittt^A A craat deal ban bauo dont^ but a kt«M 

deal mor* may yat b* •Mompliahad, if by iiritable inatniftica «a aarafnUy Uwo tha 

tniadi of our nfunon Bnd ojwritiTai with otpful knowlcdg*, and afford Uiaut tlioa* 

iWartaBiliM «M«ntia1 to iU aoquiaUa*. Wo ntiut try to unito theoc>- with tira«tl«^ 

iU bring tbt philoaophur intocloaceontniBtw-itbtbapraatiaal maohanih WoaiiMt 

toy to r^BOTO pc^jadictok and la onoonraff* a aounikr anion ot nMutgcMont in tha 

■iBii(Ml«ra^do*iirti,aniI prcjeata of tbo uavfd aria. tfbratJbi* I* aooooiplialMtL w« 

ahall Q« longer wltnou abniilotia in oouMruclivn, 1x>t afarrrolly voll di^vitodayaUwi 

vt oficnlioMh fonikd «n tha uoorrlng tewa of plijalaBl trutk— K*. AirMnt.' Hf. 




UAD1>£R. tH 

UACHINBRV roftouifiucao. Aaavtl ■BtthododcMWtnuitlaf cAliik liarral^and 
"•. vaweU Mnk«l«il wiUi «ooptnf*,tnAj b* Man k optmliae ■! tlia Cntanl Oatntt' 
I Worki ill \V<Bl«ck lt«ad. CHjr IU«d. By tha tai|il»vm«i>l of llie »mMt-«am»t, 
Ee tirvular •!!«, and a r*ata I ly-ui* dated Jointing ainj bnukliie niiuliiiHv a oMk of Ihe 
hrnt diiuxwlow «aa ■■•«oai]>l»i*ly fonnad miiI a>ad«aruily for iim In tliDBhonipnuf 
«4' nvp inliiutM, (roai,lli« raw mnlvrnl, tik, a p4<<n «( oaL Ilia iUtm of lli« Mak n» 
lint mt wltli -trai|{kl miIh, I]ii> ciiviiUr lav bniiig: {>la«pd nt a tifbi a"|:l« villi th>>' 
oak |h'«iik. Iliw gUTg ii lh«n pliu'vd hi'tUualiUlv. aod beat into a tarrf bj a poapr- 
ful iiUHrhuii^ n»d lw«U|;lil inte nantaol irilk « oirauiar taar on e*ch aid* uC il. jitat«d iil 
M an^ln, Tlib firoMw gtru the nroper «hap« to |]i« Mmra, ih« iJitM iwia« i;r«iillMllv 
I lapand at th« on>l^ and in*do lo bol^ in tlic nuddlc Ttao Jointing and liovJiii^; ma'- 
aluMk th« 1WV InTcntUMi, i* aUo mod lav lliii purpoaa, aod it nior« rajiid in iu «tfcn- 
lion than ttiu aiijcnlai aawa; it in lact voika lilii tha in«M marvolloua rajiiitity aud 
preeiiion. Tha MitTn awl cmo «4id ol iLo catk am than plnocd in a inauhine foniiod u( 
INM roilh mIM a tnuainit marfcliM; Moh riNl acta qJiod a •aparaio ttovn, aad ihi 
wlial«»( thaUavM being aquaUy vaupnaaed iutakalnle, thalioupaar* plaon) aniuwl 
tktm, wm] the «B«k it oompMU. Tha nrMaa* and fiiiiah ot tJka vatk aia «<l""l to wlint 
a good aab>»ct*aiaktr can produce crtry part being tni* and •«urnt«. Tli* laleuto* 
Iie4i it, tkal l» irorhnMii. wilh the diu of thii nuMhia« «an nuka ISO raak* a (laj ; 

I vhonu* UiB MMc nainbrr of p«rai>a>, uaing onlj' nuiiiiul labor, iiould Miar«vly wodiMi- 

^■K •ovanlh (urt «f that aiMmbte. Tli* iia|>arlanoe of tlia JBTaotioa and tli« aiiirllcatlou 

^^■f Maani power to li, n»y bo inutrinod fnim tba faat that tba iiroal bravi^E finna M 

^Htt* nMtro|K>lu aloap oxpcixl nmnv Itiounand noiuid* annnally lu evojientciii that tln- 

^^Wfioniiltiiro of tlio Navj' i« slill grtMvt, and thai Uia iIoumimI uf tli« Tuiiitfc« M tit' 

BKontincat U *n great that ■ unnt d*al uf viii« i» toat from lh« diJE«iilt)- (•( IurnUhiii|[ 

VMacUliiliuI'liL Th« proraMof liii^inoiiiiico will repay th«liia«o(aTi*iltotlir Wcrkii. 

UACI.£, il i^e namcof nttnindiu^uiil Uaek ipt^a iu nuiMfali, likv llMace Dfitaa- 

annd* tn ranit, iiijifuHl to ptoMod fima ttmc 4i*curbanco «f tho pattioUa ia 1h« Ml 

of vryilullioItoiL 

MAlJIiKU {{/itniiut, Pr.; f»brrrlitit, norm.), a luUtaaoD vory «n«oilvcly uMd In 
tfyoiai;, la Iho mot of Iho Jtu/na limttOTvn, a )>laat -it whluli two «|)o(aM ar« diiliB- 
sUhM by Ijinninio. 

fltr iMal ivotii ON tbsM* whlob hava tli* )iio of u vriiiii^; quill, or. at iiirtst, uf llio 
' lafOffcr, Tluv nni aamj-tnnipATcnt, and nddiili; have n lUoni; odar.udaauiooth 
. k. lllov ahonld be of two or ibnu ycanT mwtb. 

Iba inadiW, taken from thu Rrouud and lackcdi, miwt b« dried inMildrto bvgnniMl 
iBJ praoMTtii Id warn ebmaiiu It i> driod in tho open air; but pliowbDro iLovai 
miHt ba ainployad. 

Tlw »tnti^i uainpntt «ad (^dcrmi* arc M be leowvod, nUcd nwJb ; u alio llw pit^ 
«> at Id ]'••« noihini bill ihe ligneoni Hbiaiu 

The |>(c|iar8iiiin ol' niaddnit to cairitd on ia tha <lc(«iUiiml of ihc Rhone, in the fit- 
bwinn mansin'. 

thr root* mre drinl in a alme bMlcd by [imn» of a furaao, froDi whirb iIm air te 

•Bowed tu ittup only ot intwrala, al U>e notntnl when it is jndcnl lu bt aatnialcd with 

BMialufi!. TliiT r<irnac«dlae MCDpin a RTcat poition of Ihr door i above an Ihrcr doac 

liBgi, on whith ih« fool* an diatifbalol In Ujen of oboul two drdmetrw (iMaxly 8 

m). Al Ik end of 24 bourn, ihow which are on the lini ;i*lnl floor ditcttlir above 

Mtm atcdrr, when thcr are token away and rrplarnl by llioocof the cnpcdut floon. 

' oprraliun a (i.-tmlnl whcnrvtv ih« raoia uvc ihi' -Uivr mr. diy. Tti« dry n<ot« On 

' wilh a Uail, jintK^d tlimiigh Htititn Kmiliir ii> il»<tr (ni|ilD)til for coni,and ihen 

upon n if-iy «inr*t titir. What pnnn ilxouiib iafiuthur orinnovol and aiftcd 

tlunni>h a TirKt tlcTp than thi- lirti. ThMu oTwralinna nn repaalad Jive limM, piunedinc 

meMHdvrly lo licrai lUII liner and lia«r, and ■riiine oaide rveiT lime what icmaina on 

tbealftrc WhoiiMiaca thron^li the Mlb sieve Li rc)r«tnl aiund and ilu*t. AfWf Ihae 

Mllona, the whole Bbron* nutlcn mnaiuin; on Ihc lii-ie nK cb:ancd wilh common 
M, and noaun aapaiaio nU the foielgn molten which had not been tnDi>tcd bcfcrc 
IridiBf lb* root*, aAerwaida, into diOetent quatiliat, a btM* *i«T« is made n>e ttl, 
I methM ate from til lo Ihm milliiat'trei in diameter (ftoin jib to |lh inch E.) 
'Vhal ■««*» tkraoRh the fineil la rejected i and what loaan thrensb the toartsti b re- 
gM>M at if tlie bait ^athy. llitse rools, Ihni anianled, are canini inio a aloie, «f a 
oontl'iMtlaii aomewhat AifferenI fccim the linl. They aie •prrad out in Inyi-n cf ahont 
N dedniPlrv \m thlekncM (noaily 4 incbei V..\ on larae loitloe wuik IVameK, vid the dry- 
h; b kBuwn lo bo eoBi|iJa(r, when oa taklni nil a liandfiil ami >i)iic<-*iinir it. the nob 
brirak n»h'. On •gaining the iiuvr. tlm maddor i* ourii'il. I'till hut, into n mocUae, 
wbirr il l*inia«ed*Ball,an<t a I'iritJtrpaniiiiiheparlionoir ilii< bukraduccd luiuenltt. 
Thit opfTBtion Is repeaMl lliir* ut four lime-, and Ihen the IwUer i* hod rranitat to. 
Utreufh the never or the braia wmheiof Ihe bollcTf la manded ■twin- 






n MADDEB. 

iiwn»4*tri Ad*rtwiliM«ilibecMi«mMT(d' theboherbutlal ih^ flour. L<ML)r. 
ibamadilM whit^fUHi Ihniuak tht boltcf b Ktound in aatll withTctlicoI ■looes,**iu 
Ihin pBMd ihwiigh 4loV4a<4'dlff«ranl<itei> Wlial miuiiuBlwTetialiTafilwtm iIhb 
wbu SOM Uuonith. 

Tba nwitdor uf AImm ti r«4iia«it 10 • TOT flo* pcmdM, oad lU Mloriu nolln it m(> 
inwIcO lijr a much Innii^r fboUilion lb«a it awwnaij ttt ihm Ifnri <f Ibe Laruo. Tke 
[Wfnd BwUen mghl la be carcrully ritaemi fiwD hmnidltf , Efcaiu* tW («>^r iaD- 
Ube nmMvn^ in wbitb cue r«nn<!niaiJiin tpaOt iliar color. 

lyAiiitiiiuntcr noil D«claiua bare aneilc^ tbot il ■• mar* ■ih-uilucoiu (o taqiio; Uh; 
ftwb root uf DAddcr than tIioI hM been tobmilud ID iloiculion, csprcMllj bf lueuw 
cf *lDv««, Hul in li* *UU* of IVeakncttt It* ToImnB hcMmoi lr<iDbIeioa.« la iW djtim 
bttth, and BntTonii obHTvalion SHtiif to ptuvp IM li aiui'liorvlts bjr ■!«. B wilw, U 
Ban be nindFml tucc|il>t>l* "f bmpiM and cuiyiiiit mily. 

Il appaui that miuMer nny be oomidcrDl a* coiiipoMd ef lw« odorinf mbuanecB.OM 
of whUh » don (tawnr), uul tke olLrr U mL BoUi oT Ikmr MiUtaaeot BUT co*biac 
wilfc the Muff. Il i« o( eonmtucnce. bowevcr, ID lis only lh« rot port. The dm ptelicw 
aiipcnrt u bomoruKilulilr, but iu Hiiir on ilulEi nay pcwibl)' be inercaird bf UtcalSiiilT 
»Ueb It hM Air lb« inl ponion. 

Tba Alltmil xMllinm mailo la auuUrr, and Ihe mnllipUcJ |uci«tr> in vbleh 11 I* 
tOIDvUaiaa tajpomi, bar* pnbaUr lh{* Mparation ftr Ihrir eliirf objrcl. 

The red portion of imddar b aolnlil*, but In mdoU quantitTi to WKl«r. Utat* bql • 
lindRil coaoentiBlioii oan be giTon lo lli aolulion. If Ibe iionion of Ihi* mbtlaac* be 
100 miieh nertoard, *a Ar fran oliUiiniiie a rrmtn t^Mt, we mertl)' auipncnt Ibe pKk 
fOMion or the dun i<ait. vhkh ji the moic mlublr of the two. 

la coniofuancc of the ftjcioii- IndunricUc o( Mulhauwn bavin; oficmd la IW jeu 
ISM largt ironluui* to (bv autbon oT ibc bcal analilicnl intoClgDlioa or maildrr, elgll 
momolr* utr* baoiBiitol to it in the year 1SS7. Tlip)' wic cxaninod wiih dia (rraUM 
eua hj a committee ooa*iM{B( or aUe aelentlfie and praeiital utea. Nunc <it the <bw. 
ptfitora howeVH fulfilled Ibe condiciooa of theproBfamineiMUcdbT thiiocidjrt bul ttm 
tX tbcMi received a uibute at nteem and cralilnde frum il i HM. ftoUquft and Colla at 
Patis Kuhbnano ai I.UIc, nml lloiiion-I.ibUIaidUt*. Flwah tienuanu trcte uOmd tat 
nut yru, to Ibo nawunl of UltM finnci. 

Kncj mJ dlioortiT made cDnconiln; lUt fvedoiu root, wonU be of ml co«>o)uenot 
todyrnaa) caGco-prmiert. Bolk H. Knhkaann, anil Kobiqnel ant) Colin, conreirad 
tbai Ibejr had dimvend a new principle in medder, to which thtr itavc the namr 
olkiicDBia. "ne latter two eberoiaU innlrd ihc powdered madder with »nlr4nric add, 
tnkhifi eare lo let it bail a> litUe ai pouiUc. Bj ibis action the vbole ii earbantMd, 
a(*p< Dcrhaiv Ike tod nailer. Tbe cbateoal tbnt ofctaincd is pnlvoited, adxed with 
muor, Ikrown upon • ftll*r> aud woU waahcd in the cold. It i* oMt dried, fivwul, aad 
tlifflttcd llransb OH} puu of water, eoniaiainf m rnna.<f alma. Tbia ■*««<) i> Ibm 
beOad (or oae ^oaitet of an boui, aud thrown Ufoa a tiler clolb while kolinf b«t. Tbe 
ttitdDUm it once more liratnl trilli a llltk wniu alum vntiT. Tbe Ivo ^asn are lo 
be niiitil, and one pa/1 of mlphuric ncul pouml inio them | 'rten Ikcr are aUowtd lo 
tool with oomnonal aicilntian. Flocki aow make Ihctt arpeannce; ibc clear lp)uU U 
dnulcd, aai the Hnninds bd; thrown npon a filer. Tlir prt<ipilalc it l« bt waihaH. 
tnt with Bcidolalcd water, theu with pure water, aiul iln^, when Ihe tolorini amlttr 
U oUaUed is a rtd cv purple Uaic. Tikia purple wbilaoctr, when bcnted drr. trim aas 
aliiariae^ aari na empn**>si*lie oil, bavinc an odor of animal maltei i wbile a cbanod; 
mallei rtmaia*. 

N. Dan. f—*'™! tbe jnalb celebrated calieo.tnnler cf Mnthaoaen, hai ao laitli in 
aliiaiiae » tbe dfdng principle of madder t and tbinka moreuvcr Ibal, were 11 of nlae, 
it cuiilil BiA be ettradeid on Ibc ^[roal acale, an ncconnt of tbe ibainxlioe baot wkich 
would rviull Oimi ibe acid acting upon a cooalderaUe body of tbe inNod maMcr. Tbeir 
aUtnrinc a not a ualfiwn rabataneo, aa h ougM lobe. If n pmtiMalc priaaidet racaan. 
pbaof il ottabed in dilttrenl lepelilieM tt the inetaa bare prodooed trti vnnaUo ct 
no* in dr*!"*' T^ madden of AviKaaa, Ibeosh rkbec ia color Iban IboK of Afa^g^ 
adbtd bowarer KUIa at no aUtaiine. Ia fcci, jmrpmriat, Ibe enie lubMaaec turn arUdf 

Ltb«T pmrns to exInM aliiatine, it a tkberdycthaa tUapart wibrtaaca tUttf. 
Madder (oniaint m beoalintl and to fait a color, that it hat becoma of alacat 
oniwnal tsplnfmcnt ia djcw;; bat that color b aMOBpaniaf with ta maaf otbtt 
■uhOBBcei wblch niatk and degnulo It, Ibal it can be bniintbt out and fixed ool; aAer i 
•arle* af apnatioBa owre er ka* 41dk«ll and precariona. This iy* ia beridea ao Uulo 
•eluU^ thiic amcA <f it ia ibtMra awaj in the djebeair; the psnioa anpfioari ta b* 
Bhamialbdnf aAcnai rich a* other Ireab madder t haneeil wonU be a moM vmkiaUs 
OBiicaTCDwal ta tki* ate^aat an U innlaU thb tiaetarial body, nal make it a arw prodaM 
of manolbrtafe. 
Bdbre the tlac af UiuManano, aa apodwoary at Celmar, iba MaAlat baib waa ««4ecl 



i 



MADDER. 



W mt»r rltkn. which that thllfU chraM lasihl ijtn bov to Rwrd a^intt, lif Inlro- 
datins a enuin qaaatiiy «f eb»lk iaio th« balh. A ehaa^ of rwld««M led llnMiww 
to thu (arluimlB Twnll. AiWr hntiiut nadv rny San nd* at Roaen, ha cneoaaumi 
Uw frolFSt obsUuln io dTaiiiB the Mine i«ili at Locdbooh near Colnuu, wherv he went 
to lin. Numctoni triab, ondctliikra with the t'ntr of obtainiaic (lie lonie niceett In 
U) n«w ntnUitbnicBl, proved tbat the ciia*e of liji IkvenUe re«x)u at Roncn ciincd in 
Uw wkMt, irhich eontninal eubannte of lime in loluilon, irhllM th* w>l«t of LogtAKh 
VM iinriy pun, K« then tried a factilioa* enlenrcaii* w>t«r, bjuiiLiRS chalk luhis 
djc b«th. HnTintc obOkinod tha nioM lUMkaorf mvlu, he <rM nut lon^ ef prodoeinf 
hWc as bnulifu] mat u Mill r«d:« as he had doa* al Rou«n> Thi* pnctice becaow 
nan catcral anwnc the nLlico-printn* <it Abnce, thonih in man; dre-wili* tlie oballt 
i) now irplamd briiaiG, poluh, or lodi. But when llie nuidda uT AriEnoD i* mc^ 
all theic unlAcid carrooliveii bcrome uanciieuarT, became It contuos a nllieient ipiantltr 
of <Arbm>(c of lime; an Imporliuit f*a flnl analylicallT dcmontlinlnl by that aceotata 
dMsiist M. Hanrl Khlombcrgcr of Mulhau»en. AviKaoD uailder inilicntci llie pr^ 
Moe« of carbaMla <f lima in il, by aJTMrcfdng viik dilaw aeidi, which Abaca madder 
40(anM. 

M. KnUoian (cnmd a (tm acid m«mbliae Ihc mnlie, in hu aaalTaia <€ nadden. Bat 
liii uperimenli wvir coniini^ lo tbow uf Aliaee. The loadden of A*igtHin ate on the 
flOBtrarr aBcaliae, m nay be iafeiTcd fiom the Tiotel tint of i3i» frath of their innuion*) 
whereo* that of the AUocc madder* it r<=II°*'*l>i '"d It tironvlr raddrat Uliaua papal. 
Thi* ImiNulanl difTcrcnce brlwrcn Ilia plaaU of th«fe two dituieU, d«pc«dt enllrtif upon 
tha aatl ; fei madder* irova in a ealeateout ihelly toil iu AlaaMi hat* boen found to ba 
paf*«wc<l of (he propMtiea oT Ibe Ari)(Don m*Mer. 

The«Mdu]a«tion{if Ibeearbcmaleaiut thephoiphaieof lime in the imddefof ATj^ol^ 
eiplaini Qrliy innildera irealed with add* whieli remove their tnlcareou* nJU, wilbonl 
lakin; nvnj ibeir cAoring isaltfT, Iom the properl} of forming but djca. Maar maan- 
beinicra are in the babil of miijag together, and with adnuttagr, dillcrtal mta of mad- 
der. Thai of ATij2:non eentaini w mueh etioutnaa maltoi that, when miMd with tha 
naddcT of Abacv, il can eomiiesule for its deficiency. Bona <i( the (alter la to d«£danl 
M la adnni colon nenrtr oa (^lire aa Ihoae of BmnI wood and <nKr«>mn- The AIhm 
naUn* br the addition of elialk to Ihdr bailu, become oa fit fbr dreins Tnthey rtda aa 
fbsae of Avijraoo. When Ibe viier u rery pun, one part of challi ou«lil (o he umJ to 
ive of Al>aee madder, but wlirn ihe wnler* ere Mkaitout, the drallc thovld be omitted. 
Lime, the neuiiwl pho^pbale oTItmr, the tarbtqialr of mamnia, oijite ami oarbonale oT 
■Eoc, and HtrenU cAher avbslaaeta, have the pioperl; of muiinc madder lo form « (M 
dn, U tike QiK oner at ihtcarbonauof lime> 

The leni|<c(niure of from BO' U W ft. (141P to 157* F.], ti the beii adapted to th* 
aolalian tif the coloring matter, and lo It* eombinalion witti the monlastt ; and thus ■ 
boitinc hriit iiiov be r<-|i|ac«<l adviuiUfleomlj by the long coniinuanec of n lower tvmpn** 
lure. A laiue rxei-ti of the iIje-Alnff in Uie bath ii unlbrorabU in two poinlH of itiew | 
it faasM a waitc uf coloring matter, and render* the tint dull. It ii tqjuriDUi lo allow 
the katb to cool, and to bent it again. 

In a memoir poblUhed bf the Sodciy of Mnlheuten. in Sepunnber, lS3i, wmt 
bUrttting rcpenmeott upon tha (irowth tit madder* In laetlllDUs loDt arc reJalad hf 
KM. Kmhiin, Pertoj, and ftUnmbergar. A patch ol itrcnind «a« jireiwred eonlaiiu 
ing from 50 tu SO per cent, of ehalkT mailer, nnd nearly uno finii of its balk of (wod 
bwteJunit. Slips of Aliace and Atijpion nadden were jdnnled in March, 1834, and 

■ pan of ilie tDoid were reaped in Korcmbn following. Thne toots, Ibougb of only six 
Bonlhn grnwth, ;imduced tolcmbly ful dyn, nor was any lUTcience observable bci«<cn 
lh«Abi«e and the Avignon *pedni( wbilit lumilar alipa or cnujags, pbunled in a nalitral 
■on-ialnreous soil, alougtide of the oibcii, yielded toot* which fare nigUite djes. 
CMktn ««re planted in Lbe soil of Palud, uansporled from Aeignen, which eonlained 
nore ihnn 90 per cent, of corbonnle «r Ume, and they produced roou that caYC still faster 
ih«a than Uie preceding. Three years ate requisite to give the fnll calcarconi impiegn*i- 
Ikm ti' tb.- indx;t-nnu« niadden oTAvIenDn. 

At to ibi: I'linclion at the chalk, Tiiaabtc obaratralion*, mnde long ago by M. Daohd 
Kachlin, hai-e convioced Iiiui. Ilial Uie combinationof tiro dtdcicnt liav« niiU a colwing 
■latlcr, i!H«e much aiorr tulidity lo Uie dye, in conwqiH'nei, undoubtoUy, cf a greater 
wwlukility In lbe compaarul. Experimenls rrcentlT made by him and liia colleague* 
■boTC named, prove thai In all oso of madder dyeing under lbe inDuence of (balk, a 
Ctrnia <(uniitity of Umc bceomca added lo the oJuminoni moidanL In ihe subitiineat 
dearing wilh a Map bath, somv of the aluminc it removed, and. there remnint vpon the 
Bhn of Ihc ekilh a combtnaiiun of thete two earths in alMnic proporliiaK. Tbut tkc 
^Ik ts bot for llir purpcxe of nlurating the acid, at had been *iipBowd, hut of fatsdos 

■ dcdnile eDDii«und a-itb aJumins, and pmhably alto with lbe btty WiM, and the nkt- 
loc Matter Itadf. 



M 



HADPER. 



crnaiim 

■ tm^^H 



TbEtvd n««ida»tt m frtrwcd Newwolr in AImct, attbllMrt; — Tbr «c«th«d ■!>■ 
Md M«U1« tt )nd bei&X wdahil, Ihr rormer ik pal M» a 4wp lub^ aa4 divolrnl to 
iJ>lii|L ■ |i i|n ijiiaiilil) lifliril waur.whca about uw tralkof iU«ci|Alaf nd* rryMaM 
ll iMrodoecd Id islaralc thcrienBitfand ia itealum. Tbr Mvlilroflnul It noirinl& 

t ■! In ; •nil ■* ihln ulc diicotm nr^ quickly, Ihr lonciinn ukn place alniMi tntlaMlr. 

'^Omp n)u*l be ukrn la *tlt fat an hour. Tlio vrurl tlioulil nut be coTcnjd, Iral ili mo- 

t'lnti dioiilrl mol loo tlovtr. 

I TliF ilifTrrenl rounlaitli nuNt SmpmllT nnplo)tl<t fin ntaddcr, mre dtUulBd andot CVilon^ 

' Ib Ctiicf~Piiiin]io and ManrAHr. 

Much mouthuil ihenid nol be prrjiaml at tincc, Tor looncroT hlrr It vlll d«7»il« mmm 
tu^rrtair oraliiiuina. ThitilMwmiitaliiun lukn [Jbccftfd la cncktil visit in the a)U| 
ud thr |>rT«i[rilati!iU>«*iint nadilTilUMli* BKaininacfUcu'id. AU piuctical mm know 
tkal neitein alaininoiu mordant* ntt dcmmposfd hy hnllnc thrm, nad toiioird on f^lng, 
MCar LufMc b» pointed out. Hf Dl»rTVfil,lliat bf adding to t«tr atFtBtpiiralunina, 
(omr uluui c( nilphate oT poluh, Ihr: ntiiluip >i;qiitrpi tbe ptnpntf of fonnliig a irrrtfk 
taM with a Imt ■ppK«ehiug llin tuUlnfi polat, aul of re-dbwlTinfi on cooIIm. li* fVfr 
dpiiaif JA aliiniina DMTlTpur«,a«coiding to M. Gay I.tuMac! bill, b] M. Ko-cblin^ laon 
twtail mmrchr*. It \» «huwii lo b« anWulphau- of aliunjoo, CDnUinins eifi* timet m 
nMdl bur at Ihe n«iitinl mlphnli. 

MaiUir <iyf.~ On acconni of III* IVebIc tolubilily of iU rdotlnf mailer faiw«t«r,«l 
Mniiot dye vilh it> dptociian ; but «c muit boll thr drc>«tuff alon; viih ih'- Rn-ili l« ht 
dycdt wiicrchy Ihc walri dlinolvn A^h ixntlonii of the ^r, and imptiitt il in lilrrraiM 
to Ibp mtllr- Hbt««^ In <l)«in){ with msiUcr, nt muM ndravoi lo Ox ni lilllP of i 
nailer aa ptmible npon the dolb. 

Dfifng on tiW. — Alomnl <nKi] takt*. tn Ibp madder baih, a r«d eubir, wblrh 

I wbrjshi ■! Puchinrol rnl, bui it ii ra.«Icr: nnd an i< Ii fir rbi-iipi-r, il U murh ' 

' Xnpland lo d)i- KiWii-n' dolb. A nmidaiit of uliini and luitnr in cinptn]«it -, lh« I 

Bidder, ni liv nir of rnmi lo l6 ouncn for th« (loiinil nf vloth, ii bnln) lo nich a ^ 
p«« Ihnt -Hv run i<M hoM (iiir hiud in it, and Ihr cool* n>« I^Fu il;^ by l>-e winrr, wtllt- 
oM hcalinR ibc baili mote till the (olotins malier Iw txnl. Vitnlii ptPierlbpt at a toON 
(bM, one ioutih of alum, and one niiireDih oriariai; nnd fur dyfing,onp|hin]ofwddtr, 
Vilb the niblilkin <Sa 3-tlh oTwInlion of tin dlliitnl villi ilt wcik'ht tfttrtlnr. (t* nlMt 
dW MTOprraliirf in lli» «poM oT an hour lo Mf, «nd nni-rwiritx hi.- boiU for 3 i>r J mln- 
trte* I • cinnmilance which U bellfTwt lo eoiilribiile lo Ibe fiulion rf the iKim. TW 
balti, RfVr dyFini!, apprnni much loaded villi yi-Uow mailer, bccauar lhi> hn.' Ir^i aHlmlt) 

' tbr Xh' nhiin monlnnl Ihnn Ilic rnl. Somttlnt* n liltle artbil It nddtO to Ihe maddcTi U 
0vr It"^ dje a pliik lingej bai thij u fugilivr. 

Sllh i- vtilom dynl iiith naddgr, boeauic cocbirml uffiir^i brishler linl). 

Dyrmf o» celfaa mJ liatn. — The moil bntluinl and flulcil mndder rrd i( the Taik«} M 

Adrinn(r|>lr. The«omman innildir c-Jii nir jiirii In the r<dlnwin; «»yt— Tk* )«in «a 

elolli it tioilel in a venk nlkaltnT balh, wnthiil, diird, nnd (inllnl, b] "erplns Ibr culloa 

Iti a iettKtloB ft bruiMil nlU or ufniDinch. Allrr diyinv, il n ivicr alutr^l -, (or whick 

fsrpaw, fiir cvi^iy 4 imru of thv (inuds, one pari of nliim i« Inlipn, iximt iriib l-ir.ih if 
t wi'ii,')<i of chalk. Tbe ^oodn nr« dtjipol inio a warm loluUon i^ Ihe bIdui, vruaf mA, 
drwil. kikI fllumisl ofVeih, «rllb half ihe quantity. The ncelaLc of mluuina mor^nl, d*- 
acrtbvil sl-cvp, nniwrr* mnch belief than oemmnn &lnn lor coIUib. After (he rixtb U9 
drkd and riit<irJ, Ihcy are iwued thmnch ibc ilyi^bslh, nhirh in formed of Ittt. if t"ot 
mdder fur erery pound of colinn ; and 11 it raivd lu ihr lHnlin( r^^nl by dri,-ri>4», in tb« 
■jMM of 50 or GU minntet. Wheneiyr llie ebullilioii hm <unlinned n few nnnuici, the 
pmU mnil lie reinovrd, «ai>bt4 ulishtly, and dyeH ■ tetoTul lime in the »ame wn) , wilh 
U much noddnr. They arc Iben iruh»j and paticd through a unnn aoap bnlh, wkieh 
, icmoi-m ibe don eoloring mnltrr. 

KulterliolT {imctibn for nnlinary madder rrd itic liUouiiig ptoporlbMii: — VO powub 
«f eoiioii }ami 14 imiindB of Uutcb tnailderi 3 |Hiiindi of uni-RnllBi ft |Miundi «f ahnii 
to which ) lb. ^af •crtnle of lend hat bven Bnt wliUd, and ibrn i c|unjler t{ n pound Of 
ehalk. 

la the enGcD-print work* Ihe madder good* ate puiod throv^b a bran lath (int, Im- 

ncdintrly after dydnci neit. niter teTeial day> npoinre (a Die air, when Ihe dnn dye bu 

bervii"' "vjitiKd, and b murr cjiiily miinvnl. An oddiliun of ehnlk, on ihe prinrlilM 

L nplnin'il nbOTe,iii*omrlimt»u!iffui tn ill tf madder lalh. If bran beaddnl lo thf m M a 

I iMh, thf color Vcnme* much Gghler, and uf an niirvMble thnde. Somolimrs b>«D-iratn 

[ b added lo tlie mndiler bath, initead of bnui. 

I Mriauortt or 7'urtoy rof. — Thii il the mod eoniplieBlcd and Inliou* orTntiun in iba 
r*fl fd* dyeing; but il ptodnro Ihe ^a^Ictt color which i» known. Tklidir wbji disronrer- 
[•#1 in India, ami remained long a prociit [rpcnllnr lo ilini country. II va< afl'inaRl* 
CiWtMJMrf tn Other |i«r1* of Au'a and in Crrfri-. In IT-tT, Fonjuel and (ioiidm.l biKuxbl 
Ortck dym into France, nod mouolvJ new Kouen, and in LauiKucdiK, TuiLcy.»d 



^^P MADDER n 

d]>« vorl:*. In 17SS, lit* Fnneli ganrniMiil, ocavtoMd of Ibo imponuicc (J lUt 
taiiiB*, nawd die pnttiaiet to be mitiljthcd. In 180S, Itebrr, at Muiakinli, fliniidk- 
ed Ibc finot |ara uf Ibu 4jt, mod Al. KocUis bvoune odebraUd for Ui Tntkei-rtd 
eliMb. 

Ptueeu /t>r Tuiit^nd. — Tke tnt Mpp coomiU In clraiing Ihc x*ni or ilolli in •Uck- 
liiic l-uiht, iiid ili|i|iiii(i Ihtrn ia oily liquors to vhicii tliccii^ iitai Msa roruinljr *Mei. 
Tlu> oprinlien it ttpm*^ tctfrxl limn. Hip itochJs bi-ing dilnl utur tntU iauntnicai. 
ni«re ncil roUan* Ihe dtaoBing with •Ikolinc liquor* lo rmiov< ll>e cmts of oil, i1m 
nllinc. Ibe nlnmint, the maddcfiniti >lic bn'thlrnina or nrnioiiiiH tht dun |«rl of Ihe dy4 
br boilini. Dl a hicb inn ncrn lair, willi nlkalinc liquid, ami llip luiinit by boilinn in ■ bath 
of tnll of lin. A'e tholl sivc wme dclaiU cuncnninK this Icdioiu niani|<iilDlii>n, ai>d 
Ibe dUl'Rrtneni whilcli tt-M in il in tho |irinci|al dir-vDJlii. 

Al Houcn, wWo lh« proctt* wu Knit brixight lu pctfcclion, Ivo mcllradt »n purmtd^ 
called (lin xr*]' aaJ the rellov court* or moieli. In th« gray, (he dyo I* glren iiniMinWij 
aAcr the (ollna hu mfivod Qw oily moidnat. the KstI, •nil (be nluin, u il hu then • 
gnj color, (n Ihe yellow rota«e, il ia paupd Ikrougb litsh oQh tliuo, aad %nU* before 
the madJrrinr, ihc cultoii hoTJni; llico a yellow linl, 

UilTcieiii ■tietn haic beco iiien o( the p[indj>l« at lUe Turkey-rtd dyr, aai Ihc ob- 
jcvl and utillly nf ibc rarlouf «I(|mi. The nioiil niipirnl notion n that of nnimaliiilig 
Uio coUuii by d-iDi{ and bluod, but nptiivncr lia>' proicd that villioul any nninml mailer 
the linr-I eeilor may be oblainrJ. AeconlinK lo DinKlei, lh« coltan i* iiiiburil wilb oU bj 
tlcfpi.iir ii in (oaibtaalioiu of oil and aoda i Ihc oil i« altered by i^peawddryiniiBnl • hich 
l«iiipeTaiurr | (I mliMU axyceo from Ibc air, nuit thetrby oomUnn intimalely wilb lh« 
cotton fibrr, k> a> to inemii* the weight of Ihc »luff. The dun«, by a bind of fcrnneiil*- 
' tioa, acerlernlei the oiLydixeiscDl, and henee emdc oil It )>rrferible to pure. Ill EncUnd, 
the miicilainiiDui oitt iS (intlipoU *n iirffecinl, and In Malabar, oilt innie or Icm 
nnctd. Tb.-drjiiii; oilt doncit anrnnr. The BulMcquenI Ireoljnent with tlir ulkaliaa 
lii)V'«- riiniiiri' ll><- rxe<*« nf Oil, wliich hni not b«ra oxyditcd and e^uibiiin! ; a hat4 
di^inK l■ullll^U'l('ty chHUiii-B that which rrmaiaa ia the fibreai the aliiiiiine ohirli (iiltovs 
cmnhinei uliimian viih Ibt cotton i, the inUtni tan* the Bbrea, prmliiciiiE n triidccom- 
pouoil of oil and ahua, whkb fiiet the oolorin; tnatier. The object of the other ilepe 
b obvioui. 

Ac/:ordinc t'l ^Vuiiieh, thr irratnicnt wilb oil open* tbc cotton to ni to ailinil tlw mor- 
ilant Fiml ih<' culoinia iiinilT, but the oil and toaii da nut cvmMnc viih the flbrcf. 
■n Ine nnnlii".' bsihi which foUow, His oil ia trantfonned inlo >on|< nnd icmoTtJi 
trheiicc the cnllnD thuald sol inemwe in wdfbt ia thc|pdKngnnd aluininsi Ibe co'.U* 

Jen a. kind of taanini, and Itie Mllae p*rls of Ibe Uuod asslit in Ituiig the inaddOI 

r^* fltnnim jnmiMi imprervt, acconlio^ U> Dint{ler, coaaiiU of the fuUowinf opn*- 

nt > m..rl-itkl(if anoBy map or « loaiiy Ualmcni, hud drrutgi allutline bnth, dijlng 
ateeiiinL.-, ijiiMns awny of the uncombinod moidani, dtyiogi gatline, drvlu; aJnmlHi^ 
g, Uecf IDR in water containing chalU, liming t maddcting, air£n|!, Tinaing; briglil- 
j with an aUutine boil, and aflcrwants in a biaUi eiintaining talc of lin ; Ihra waab- 

; and dryin;. 

*r)iv ;aii> or Ibechitb mn»( be linl iroLI wuiked in a balh of ■beep's dun i and oD, coi^ 
p('iir:ilr>l n>> fiiltitwi : — 'U puunda of ahc«p's dang ore to be bnuwd in a lulutioa of 
pure ciuitic iKitaih of bydromeler alrtngtb 3*, uid the mLud li'inor ii \o be pn»ol 
Ihrontth a aicvc. Two ponndi ofllneoiJ are now to bciKioml into Id poandi of ho Uj, 
after which 30 poiuuU of coonc oil are to br nddrd, with asilation for { of an liour. 
Ol&ef 4 ponoibi of hoi Icy arc lo be w<-II ttixial in, till Iho wluJ>: ia liomagpiitvufi. ThU 
proiMirllon of mardant i« mlficicnt Cor IW jnui^dk of cotton yvn, Cut 90 |>ouiid* of va- 
ilearhp] ur 100 iMiiait* of blrached colloa tiooili. The cotttin matr, aAer bcinx well 
arrimx out, is la be laid in a chcil and coierud wiilj a liit Innilfd with wnehti. In wbidi 
alate il tbould remain lor Eve dayi. At Itie end of 2t hour*, the eoilon bcivjiniTi )ioi witti 
fenaenlalion, i;eli imbual with the mordant, and the oil brrumci miiiill]' nlii.-ti'<l. The 
coeds Die ncvl exiwied freely to the air duriog iJic day, aail i» Ihe rvi^nintt ihrr are iliiiil 
Ilk a boi chaiiibei. e([>o>cJ to B tcmiicraiara of IAS" r^ foi 6 cii H hoiiis, wliich iinimulM 
tbc oxydi^einnil of the oIL 

1'h-: i^mU aic now {awed Ibe weond time Ibrougb, a aoapy^ taordanl timilnr lo the 
itm, Ibi'n ^liil in th4 air by day, and in Ibe hoi stove by night. The thinl onil fouitb 
oil-toap iteepa BieEiven in Ibe (ocae way, but vilhonl the dung. The M\h iiccp ii com- 
IKacil of a ley at S^ aRer vbicb the coodi mwt aho bo driad, Inilred, fiom the lint la 
the foarlb Mecp, the eotlon *tuff ihoutd be pal cKti time into a clioinbcr liealnl tt li3^ 
P. (it 12 or )& bourn, and during; 1^ huor* alter the STtU ileep, 

Thf aaeoinbined oil muiI, in the »ri,t plate, be withdrawn by Uic diEnuiiugt, whkb 
Boafdtla in >i<-i.'pliiK lh4 (oodt fuc 6 h'iur>i in a >ety weak alkaline ley, Afler riatioc aod 
VTJncInVi they arc dried U tbe air, and tbcD put into the hot itovc. 



rrw^ 




H MADDSS. 

Th« tMd* ■!• now gaBed i» s tMh fcnnrd oT 3S poundi of SieffiM tnnmch, boBttd to 
9 hean laiSO ttmnAtot wttei, aad filtcicd. Tbe raUonia b trailed wjA 190 fifik 
woDilt of vMer. Tfab decMtlon It t>«(rd viih IS fenaim of pooadcd Mn^^olb la the 
noi&DK point, flowed to tool diutii; [lit nifkt, uut Med imiI nonihc ut hot w the hoMt 
e*n bmr i the eMd* b«inc mil vorkdl ihranth ll. IVf u« agfin cfjcd It tkc «li, oad 
•ftenrud* plnwd in ■ WOTe miMlenilf If hnlnl. ThcT are ncxl parted Unrath a I 
•lum balh, ocoUuniac ft Ull]e Ohalk i left ofl^rwnid* in a heap dniinR the aitht, dtf 
the air, Hnil nut in iba ilSTeb The di; koo'1> arc finaltf paind thransh hat wal«r t 
tdbbi a tillle chaDi, wnme «Dt, rinaed, aod then naddered. 

For djatne, ih« eomer u AUod with water, tb« lite it Idndlcd, and no oqhm and a 
kalT of rinlli 1* addra fl>r ctery pound of naiddcr ; a pound and a itunrter at na iliWf 
beint tnkcn T'^rivvry pound aTeOKonrarn. TbegoodiaranoirpaMed Ikrougb ihc halh, 
w that thr; T)caetrDt« Ui ntar Itt bottom. Th« Hn maM be an i«c«1bi«1, that the tetV* 
aritl )>c^*iTi lo boil in the mvrtr i<( fmnt i\ to 3 hount and tba ebullition mnt to 
eoiiilnofvl Tur an hour; nfter which the jim ii aired and rjnied, Cloih tboohl he | 
Into the dyc4ath when it* temperalnrc ii 77* ami wineird at a hnt of from U) 
i& duitng the Ont hour ; at 1ST* dartag Ihc >Mon<l : and at the boiling point i 
lUrd hour bcgiak It bto be kept boiling for bnlifan hour; <o Ihitt the a 
luia four boiua. Dingier dom not add (utnaGb or falli to the mmld^r lath, I 
iMr elTect H de«trOT«d In tha tabaojucnt brig^tcniair, and h« baa no ftitli iii the i 
of blood. 

Aflo betnf djrod, Ihc foodi are waibed, pnaied, and tnUevlod lo ■ «oai>!' alkaline hHb 
M a high bml, in a elo*e boiler, by which the dun miU of the k^i and the madder are 
ilMotiaJ awar, aad the rod color rpinainii in atl It* ln«lre. Thli opt«stiea i< «1M 
bri^ttning. II i< repealed In a timilar bquor, lo wbieh aome mottate of lin l« added 6» 
Ibo pnntoH nf Mlivi?ning the color aad tMat U a ntj tial. Las! of aD, tha goodi m 
tfMM, aad drteil in the (diade. 
ThefiliOWprooeaeonutlifbr 100 lbs. of then1lI(I«ing■lepa»— 
l. Cloadn; the eotlon by boitinE it Tor four houri in a weak alkaline bath, eootinf aad 
dntliic. 

S, Woiking It thoraugUr 'but limn orer in a *t«ep, eontliling of 300 poondf of w«er 
IS pounda of polaah, 1 pailfbl of «tit*i^ iangi and 12| inund* of olive oil, (fl which ft 
ttonid rrmiun duiing the night. Nm dajr it is drained for nn hntir, wruns out and Mti. 
Thii Irealiaent with the dune sl«ep, and dr^'inf , i* rejwated 3 tima. 

S. It h nuw wrotkcil in a bath eoniaining 130 ijuaiti at vnter, IS poiKid* ^^ |>otadi. 
mis qnartiof olive oII| then wnia^ out aad dried. Thi> itevp is alw rtfimtnt 4 
Hmm, 

4. Steeiiiii)! for a ni^ht in the river •• Ihc next prootst ) a t%bt rindng without wriilff- 
bii aad drying in the air. 

5. Bnih muilr of a Warm dccoeilon (100* F.") of numnrh ami nut.^lt9, in which lbs 
geodi icuiaiB during Ihii aighl ; ihcf arc then itronitlr wmn|;, aad dried in the air. 

0. Atucnini; iriih nildiiBoa of pnluli and rhalki wringing; working it wdl [hnwjll 
|U« balh, wliriF il in l«n during the ninht. 

7. Draiiiinv, and itran)! tiniin;{ the foltowin; dnyi piling up la a water eJHom. 

8. Riiitiui; repeated nut day, and tlecpiiu! in water lo remove anr oeeaaof aJoat 
final the fibre* i the coodi eontinue in the water till Ihej are taken to the dietn|>.balh, 

9. The maddcring fa made with ihuoddiiionorhlood, 9iiinni:li, nml nul-gnUi; tli« both 
h bronght 10 the boil (n I hour nod I, and kept boQinu for half an hour. 

10. The yarn ia tinted, fined, boiled from 2d lo 3d houn in a coveted copper, with aa 
•Uratkalinr li'iiiid] Ihea rinird Ivir-, laid for two da^ in dtnr water, and ib-iud. 

1 J. Finally, the greaieat bri^hiae^ l» obtained by boiline fot three or font houri in a 
■oap balh, ooalajnlns nuiiale of lin ; aAn which Ihe yfttn ii rinml twice orrr, tieepcd 
in walcr, and dried. 

Proc€ii of /fuuimonM. — He treat! rallon Iwire or 4 time* in a wlutlon of alvudnalid 
poUuh, mi(«l with one Ihirty-eif'hth pnti of liniecil oiL The Kilnlian b made bj i 
eaunie polniih to alum. He dtjes nod riatet each lime, and dries ailUr thclnM o\{ 
H« then tinata and prDceedi to the madder balli. For the r«ae color, he Inkn o 
of ouulder Tor one pound of cotton j fur careiisa rad, he lakn rmm 2 to 3 puu 
fer the decpcit red, no Ita* than 4 punnda. It ia mid that the color tttui oMil 
fasMa Tiukcy red. 

TItt Fnm* proeut, ty Filalu ^ Rmm.— PIrtt operation. tomiiiiK will 
ley, of I" Baniuv, lo which there U tKaally adilcd Ihc remainder of tlie nAiff ] 
tlaa boih, which coamt* of oil awl K>da with wal«r. It ii then waibed, ' 
dried. 

In Ihc Kocmd 0|)etatlan, ha tM*» that froui 33 lo 30 poundt of ibi^ep'i 
only uaad Ibr TOO pouiwl* of oolton yam. Ttiv dun; 1* HtM tlttju^ !vt j 




MADDER. 



W 



MB ttioT (nda,ar £P la !0* B. TM> i* tOnrwui* dilulol wilh nbiMt WOplliU«f • 
wotker Iny, uxl ol Ihc MUh: time brulMd irilli the Iian4 in « Mp|H>r bmtin «bMr bettOM 
u piOTMil witb mall bdw. IW Hquor b (btii pooml iMoavtl oonUininv S«r6 
ponnda at Tsi cil (OalllpoU), anil Um wbol* an well inixed. The odMn i* wuheil w 
IkU. and the hankioryarn nrc then ttrelchBl on ptrrchM in Ibc optn air, ■ml taroad ft«a 
dnw io lime, to ■■ to make il tlir rquablr. Adcr rweimg thus ■ Mrtain dc^m at ile- 
litlalta. Il il carried talo the dtyiag houM, wtuch ii bcatnl Io 50* RnauKiiir OVfi 
FkhnmMl), where il kivr* the ranaiadcr of (h molilDro, which «t>uld hnv' I'levenled 
it from combiitiiis wilh UwoLbv inoRlanu which ii h Bftrrwnnl» to recuie. Whal m 
loA <if the bath ia eaUol OMMn, aiul It ndtlnl lo Ihu rolluiKmi; bilh. Two, or «ten three 
dnii; buhl an |th«i b> iha eoiton, irh«n il ii u-itbcil to hn«e very ridi colon. Wh«a 
IJh) eouaa hiu reenved Ihe duns bathi, caie mint be InJien not to leave li Ij^v In litaja 
Sat any length of lon^ leal A ihoultl lake fiicj an accldenl which bat occasionally 
liqipancd. 

The white Mh i* prepond by pmring S pmnd* «r fal oil into 50 pint* of aodn walcrj 
■I P or KnuKiua* Itw, aecMdiaf as, bf a pnlimiaBiT trial, Ui« ml nqoim. Tbi* balb 
oogbt to be repealed nra. Ihwe, or erca a gnmtK namber «t lime*, u more w leaa bodf 
la to be nvtea to Ihe eolor. 

To whnt lemuni of the while bnUi. and which 1* alw atyl«d maaaett, nbonl IW ptatt 
of *«l« Icf of two or throe dcsreci are added. Threnffh Ihi* Ihe fotlon ii pMtrJ u 
«nal. Fomerlj i( wai the practice to sIt* Iwo, or three, or crra four eal*. Now, two 
are ftmnd lo be suAoionl. 

Tbe eoMOli i* ateeped lor Arc or ri honn in a tepid aoktloa of Mda, ef ]* al msM ; 
)l U (et to dnua, ia then sprink lol with walcr, nod al Iha end of an hour it «B*bMl, bsnh 
kr buk, to pvr^ il catitelT from Ih«! oil. Whal ramalDt <d! the water cd" derraiHag*, 
atPftt (ut the Monrias or AnA opoallon. 

Foe too pounds of eotloo, fraxa 20 to 33 poundi of tatli tn torts mun be laken, whieb 
«n tniBt>l and boilnl In abont 100 pints of water, Ull thrj crumble eotilf brtwem Ibe 
Bigcfa. Tbe uallinii nay be done al two opcralioni, diriding the nbm-c qunniiii affalli 
Wweon then, which i> thought to give a riebcr and more unlftoin color. 

Tha alumlns of 100 pound* e( cation roqnlm tVon twenty-Bve lo Hdrty peond* 
ef ptBW atnm, that i*, ainm entirely ftto froin fcmutinaui ralli^ The alum ihonU 
be diMcdvad without boilln?, la nbout 100 piols of rircr or rain water. When Ihe 
ataoi k diMOtred, there it to be pourvil ia a aoluiion of aodn, made with the aiiuenth 
pari of the wdfht of Ihe nlum. A tooood pwtloil of the alkaline Boluliun muat not 
bo poarad lo IJIl tbe cffenYMcnce cmikfd by Iha llrtt porlion hat enlirrly ceaicd — and 
ea ta «acc«««ion. The bath of taiumUd ahnn bdng merdj tepjd, tha eoiioa i« pained 
Ifeicasb ><t u in the sail talk, to aa to Imprtfnnlelt wdl, and it it drif4 w4ih the pri^ 
OtMkm ircomoiended abore. The drcrtwho gallal two timet, alnn alto twice, (hr 
Vke teaions. 

For 25 pounds of eollon. III pints ef blood are prcseribal, and 400 phtla of wnier. 
mwnercT the balb bcgint lo wann. M) pound* oT madder are diflWd through Iha 
bath I iboD^h taroMlin<« the maddcrin; is givcB al two operationt^ br dlTMiafi the mad- 
der into two poitlon*. 

Tbe brifihtcning lalh it prepsred always for ]00 paundi of coltcn. with ftmn Ibor to 
ftre ponndt oT rich oil, til pmmda of Maianllct white nonp, and txn lure* of toda walci 

Tbf roiinit it p*en with aolntioii <f tin, moad with toap wntci. 

The Taiiuj-nd dye of Hoan. Monlcith and Co., of Olatsow, It celebrated a8 Otat 
the world, and mcrlu a brief deteripiion b«re, 

Tbe oalioo b lakan a* it comet IVom the toon withoul bUachfnK, for liir aalural a>h)i 
of the cotloB wocd hormonint well willi Ihe dye about t« be Riiren i ii it tuhjeewd to u 
Airmenlnliie tleep Ibr 94 hour*, like that preliniioary lo blaadiinf , alU* which II it wanh 
■I al Ibe dash wheel. It it Ihcii boiM in a ley, ecmtainin)! about 1 pound of tods cry*- 
lak ibr IS iiounds ^ clolh. The <'iliii|i proccm now beguw. A balh 1> madn wilh 18 
pUons U GaUipoli oil, li nllon mraantta «r theep^i duag not InduraUd t 40 jtaUmt of 
BeJalioB uf toda cryiiolt, of l-Od ipecific giaTily ; 10 galteat of tolutiun of pcarUaah of 
nee. giav. I-OI ; and 140 nllont of wamt cnntliiutlng a nllk-wbile, toopy tolutinn of 
uont tpee. giav. I-0I2, "fhi* liquor it put inloaltiva cylJDdrioal vat, and eonslnnily 
■gUalcd by the rotation of wooden laoct, wkioh are b«tt conttruclcd on Uie plan of Ihe 
jMihiliii npparalut ufa brewery, but (br tliKbter. Tbit taponneeoii* campouod is lei off 
H wanwil by n itopcock into Ibe trongk of a paddinv naehiae, in order to imbac aivry 
ibM of the doth in ill loiaase. Tbit imprecnolion it tUll more Ailly enturcd by hiyiag 
Ibe paddfd cloth aiUe m wooden troovb* ditilne in or 11) da^a. The tbeep^ ilanii ha* 
bee* <d'l>i« yean dbnted by taany Turk e}> ml dyer*, bolh in Katlondand Kraacr, bal it 
ia fonad to be adTaalageout In produrini; the vi~i) •uiiciior color et Ota Glaatow eilab 
Uahmewl. ft b aappoMli ^KN *0 promote the lube^ucnl Moartlnf dariag the etpeaur 



H MADDEB. ^ 

«n the gma i vbMi ta iW «m !«««•• in thMnUo tttatbcr, bnt la M veaibcr a* 
leoda aiw itiicil orei • h«(4lap. 

TtiS doth it padilrd »faiii with llif mponacrous liquor ; and k^Ib *pmil nn thn rn*, 
cr drM hiid in ibc Moir. Thu all«nmlion if TriMlal ■ lUfd tinir, uwl unaiiuullf, 
n«a « feurtli. 

Tlic cloih by thic tone b nmiiAed a* it >«» with «fl, kOd miut br dtwued la a aar 
loin dciirrc by bi'lii^ pancd Iknniah a wtak nlulion at pml-atb, at the tenipriafara vt 
aboui Iv*:;* K. ti Id ihen •qnemcd bflbe rdlenandiricd. 

A Mviinil tywrio of uDinit now tommcnce^ wteh thp IbUowina Hqaor: — 10 nBina 
(f GalUpoli oil I SOnllonioT teda rrrnala Icy, cf >pM. vrav. 1-06; nnd IOf«lDH4r 
cawlir poin>k 1^, oT njiwific cravitr l-M, IhrnonchlT dUfOMil ilirou(li ITO (aOencW 
water. H'ith thin npannecont ligiior the cloth itwMvi at b«&)«, and thm ponol I*- 
Iwm •gvtTiinE-rDlltA, which te(iim Ihe tnpnlnioiu li^ttar iMa the paddla^-irm^h- 
The rlclh aiay be now laid on the fta« if courenivTit i bol at aaj' rate it ttnm te hut 
dried ill the iiuve. ' ' 

ThMo tapotiUying, graaUsB, nd dntng ftoetmn, dc rcpratiid tkrte tloiM : ir|wnl9 
Iba cktb bfctunM once mere Ttij oimttnam, and twMi be clteintd enia Vf motjA^ 
b a Mtnponml tej of tods crrHal* and p«arl-*ih ef the fipK. Rniv, l-OI'J, nt ih^ ttBp((» 
tore of 133^> Tlie dolh is laVen oat, •qoMMd bfiiwrtn rollCTf lo nt* iht- li^or. and 
wiuhed. A connilenitile poriJon <i( the minjrled alkolii dimniNr i> lh» ni-pniton, a* V 
Quj enlcrol into cambinailan with the c«l in Ibe itneiior ot the eciton fllnrwart*. Hh 
clolll U now tiorJ ilriul. 

GaUfac la the nai great (tep ia tin TnrkfT-rod (neiaintlon ) and ftr lis luccna all ||w 
oU KbMild tiBTe hem |>nA'etlT aaponlSnl. 

Fnm tf to SO poundi of Aleppo valb <ror each too Ibii. of cloth) are to be tiraind 
anil boikil fur 3 or 1 hoiin, in ZS callont of waler. till S ffalloa* be evapntnled i aai 
Uic decoction iilo be then paned thnmiih a leoice. Two ponndaef nimneh tna^ha 
wt MitMeJ tof etpry ptmoi <JealI». The canli piiibi be well paililnl with IhiiitfnMllea, 
keplat 9a*F^[iiHed tlitoiigli>itueeiinE-ro|]en.aDddriril. T)>er"d)>eD|iaiM^ thraaKh 
■ Mlotion of alum of tbeapM. frav. 1-04, to which n nrlaiii portion of chall: li added *• 
•alufaio the ocid cxmm of tbal tnpenali ) bdJ In iht> eii'incroiK mliture, hraieJ to I M*, 
diaeleth i* wiae(4«)rfalenp«dfar 12 bnun. ItUtiien iia«tedbttu'r''n «i|i>i-erinr-r»U(i^ 
■nd dried in the tWn. 

ne tiMuUmaf coma* nerL 

From two lo itirce pouful* of madder, eraanil to iiowder in a praper mill, are tilim 
Ibi evriy loundof elalh. The eloib, ai d*uiU ia maddcrintci* entered mio iteeoM 
faaU^ uid winced br 0>e anlountic red duriac oik horn thai the bilh iBhen lo hgil, aad 
Juria; a» cbnllilicm of Ivo houn oflemanlih One rallon of bullock'* bluud ia added U 
IbecoU balh for errry 3A poimdii of cloth i beiac IhequoniiiT operated upon inonebMk 
Till' utility iif llir blood in imrrcninK the enlor hni been niicribnl to ili eoloriut fwrlMkai 
bat It u iiioir ;<iububl)' Dwlei to ii* albominous mBtta couibiiiiiig wilb tbe iiinrgaiaxm <f 
•oda and potiub rondcngirrf tn the flhrr«. 

Aimadrlvi ninimn* s dtniry biowii culorinR maltrr auocininl with the Kne rod, Iba 
CMd* mwA be lulijrctol lo a cleaiini{ proecM to remove Ibe lonner lince, whieb ia nm 
AtgHive than the latter. Kvery hunilm) pouada of dolh are therefore faotlod doriM! t9 
bann at leait, wilk waier oiatMinin« b pounds of aoda cryiioJs, S poundi at wwpv aail 
li kbIIom oI the mUunl Ticnil-atb and hhIs lef of the ]a<l clrantin^ opcialiOD. hf Ihla 
pownfu] m«an« the dun mailer u well ni«b rcmmed; hut il 1« oamplelcly *o b]r a tewi 
bsil, at n heal of 2)0° 1'., in a ti(hl (lobular oopper, alimti with b poundi tS ndf, and 1 
pound of luurinte of liu cryitalt, diMoIvnl in a aulGeienl body of water Cor 100 |iiiuadl 
cf clolll. The ninrinle of tin aervea lo raiae the muliler ml lo a learlet hae. A laai- 
garate of lio u protublj llietl upon the eloth in Ihii uijenitioii, 

Wbcn tlie wistbcr pcrmili, the coodii shoold be ngw laid out for a few daj* on UW 
gru*. ^imc uiBnofaclurcn gin Uicm n hnal bii^htctilsg wllb ■ Vroak bath t( a ohtorida 
of lime ; but it it apt to iiBpove(i>li ilic ralur. 

Acroiilint to the latal linproicineiit* of ibo Ktench djen, eneli of the four pcoMMca 
of oaliac, nordantinff, ijting, aud hri(htenin|[ did^rs. In some reipccit. fr««n Ibc 

•bOtB. 

). Thrii tut Mep n bcdlins the cloih for four hour*, in water conlBliiinii oae faand el 
aoap fuT ever)' four pieon. Theti upounceoua hath of a cicuoiy aii|ircl a uted at fl ttm- 
peiMare of ^W t'. : nnd ii It applied by the padding machino li limcs uith the sraMing 
anddninit "If ■■■■■tio"*- '■> w>n<«r, when ihe gooii eaanot b^ i-ipcanl oo UieEian^aa 
Ina thaa t^ altenaliona of Ihc Mponaoroui or white bath ale empbye^, and 8 in tfmt. 
They eonnider the aolton of lie wm-hmaa lo aid rieally in briKhknini; ihii djie : bal al 
mldninuner, if it be oantinued more than 4 hoon, the scarlet color tcrtJaced bcniia Ut lit 
iM^rad. 

They cooGclre Ibai the olUng opEialion imprcgnBIn the khn» wuli anpa-nargaraM tt 






MAGNESIA. 



pMMh m mU. iMdabk Mfe> whkh atinci aad c«odn*« lb« •huaiu, ■ad the ml <i>ki> 
iac |«iii"li'* oT tl>« nwUt*. *d flcintf ilwl ilicj can rati*! tlio cbwmc toil, 

3. TVii *vvi>n>l M)>|i, liie nntdaUiari cenaiMi fini in ratUiat the pictn ihrnu^ a de- 
eattiun ul ontlt Biixid ailh atetulion of unequal wfitihtoT abni; ami aflcr <lr)ing b 
tb<! liMl-Har, i,'^., uEnia puliline Ihciii in i roliitiun uf an ncelule of aluinlna, sirulc ^ 
4c(on>(ettfii: ■ (oluiiiia of tt Us. of alum wiUi 14 Hn. oT acclaic of Irod, fur « fircM or 
flIolJti raoh Iti tiuari long. 

8. Ilii^ innililvnnti ii ^ivcn at two aacccHire oporalibn* ; Willi A i>aunds el AvifBCa 
raaddrr ftr rwxt at «ac)i tin*. 

4, The tviiE&ffiiiMit it pcrfarninl bjr a IS huare' bail io valcr wilh sola cr)«lab, aMi^ 
and mII of lin i and llie nuiaf br a 10 hiiura* boil wilb aoap and ult ot tin. Occaslaik- 
^y, Ihc tooil% art \iMiei UkiUeIi a u-cok mlutiun ol chloride of polaili. Wh'it ■hi' rrd 
ka* loo uiurh uf a oimtoa out, ihc |>ic<:ci aic cipoacd tor iwo da)a on the kibm, wUcb 
gife* thmn a bria:bl icailct^lnJ. 

Pn>C€n of M. WntlM l« Aye braadclolk and wuol bf madilnr ; — 

* Praramisa Air 34 pound* ef wciurtd wool > 

"Take 4 J pounds of crraoi of Urlnr, 'IJ ponnila of pure alum) boil lh« wool |tcnl)y 
Atr 3 honn, transfa it iaio a cool i>lnce, snd wafli it next tiny in clear water. 

"Dijfiit^.— 12 ponniUof ATi«;noQ nuuliler, iofQMd half an houl al '.tCf R, (100* F.) 
Put Inio 1l>« hath 1 pound of moriatc of tin. let [hit color roac fur Ihiiv iguutten uf aa 
iMiar a[ the mmik heat, and drain or aqact-i^c llic mnrhli-r lliruuttlicaninu. Thr vk«le Vt 
llw tr4 ilfo will lemnin upon the lllti't, Imt ilf wnter wl.icli Iib> |<at»ci] llinxxih win b« 
aatteep a ytHow as a weld bath. I'liv boiler wiili ilii> J}a miul ai>v br filial up vilk 
dear riier wilet. nnil bnted to lOO' F, Twu ounc» of Uie lolntion cf the loitar aaA 
alan mm bi- pouml into it, and Ihc wool muit be luncd oter in il (m an houi ood a 
knlf, wfcUe the hrai li mndually rouod 1» (be boiUng point. Tbc wool It Ikm nmnoi 
aai waahrd. Il niiial bu ruwil thn following day. 

•■ /toiiHtf.— DlMolvo In bat wator 1 pound ofwUl* MarfelUn coap j IpI ihi> bath cool, 
nd paM IbF waol tbton^ It till It ha* a«quLrtri tbadcaltad aliadri 10 or SO isinutea ate 
•oSeient. On -lominit out of this both it khuiild he araabrd. 

" Stiulim Iff dtuto^mtriah tf Im , — 

" 2 ouneet «f pure imtialic acid ; 4 dtaehmi ot puc nilrte acid ; I ounce <4 AutBiti 
«*Ur. I>ifsalT« la It, by amall poninni at a lime, 2 drachma of gnwn l)n, in a larna 
boUle of while rlan, thattiog il aftor pultinK In the tin. Tliit aolulion maybe pmenel 
fiir yon, without loiin; its vinue." 

I ha* I' inwrtcil ttii |MCKei«. u rfcectlji rHOtnuwuded liy the Frvncti lninitl«r of MB. 
narev. aix) publulwl by M. I'aitiUct in vuL i of liit totU/ruiUt Miutriil, tadioor wbai 
^Kiiwl iiBiiixiant-n it MEnctinua f[l*«n hy our ucighbora t» Um moat Irivoloiu tbin^ 

MADltKCORKS ore calcanooa inenulaijona pc«da«ed by patyfi contained in ccUa id 
grvaicr or li^a depth, placed at Ihc loifacc of caleareaiu nmincationt, wlilch arc fixed at 
Uicir bnsc, and ptrloralol with a (rvat many pare*. The modi' of Ih' infrraio, tct«<k 
dnction,anil ilmlh uf Iticae animala U Mill uoknown lu naturalint-. I.iviiiK oiadreporaa 
«re now-a-ilay* tu be obicrTed only in Ibo Snub Ainnrjcan, the Indinn, and Ihi? lied waai 
but although their polypt aie not fcond in our climalc al ptCKnl, tliere can be no dooM 
«f thcii huvini eiinled to Ihtaenoitham lalitudn in farnier liioc*. tincc fauil uuulrcpotca 
oeeiic III b<ith ihc oUcr and newer accondaty stiala of Enmpe. 

MA'il^l'KKY i* an old chemical leim to deaignate whil* pnlTcrtUrat aubilancciu 
tpanian^uuilji pnwipiiatad in nnkias corlain melallic (oluiiunti oi iita^iiltry at 
bwnulh. 

MAGISTRAL, in the laBKBa«a of the Gpanlah amalter* of Alexioo and South 
ABrrira, ix Ihc noittd and pulTvrixnl copper pytilRi, which ia aildnl lo the ^totlttd 
ora* of ■ilvi-r in Ihetr patio, or atnnlKaination ma(ma, for tlie purpose of deeompaabiB 
dia Wn tlltcr prtAcni. Sec Silvkh, for no aeeounl of Ihii euiioua provoN Of 
raduelion. 

MACMA i* Ihc Kcacric name of any crude miitura of mlBan) or ongaaie naiicra, to 
a tKiii iMity *t*ie. 

M \<:\A.NIER b the name (ivcD tn ibe aoulhrra deiiorlmenta of France to Ihc pro. 
piKti't (if aniuMry inwhiehulk-woiouacr rcarc<l upou the gtcal aoaJc, or lo llie auoater 
af lh« mlabUihinant. Tba word i> derirnl fron «a^aaa>, wbteh ripiUtca aitk'woniu ot 
Ihc tanauaoe of (ha munuy people. See Su.r. 

MA(;N'r.3IA (Entc. and Fr.; HiltirtrOt, ToMvfdt, Ocrtn.) it one of the pninitiva 
MUtht, Hut iiroiied by Sf H. Dary to he Ibr oiyde of a mcul, which Im mllcd iita|- 

iam. U inn line, liirhl, white )K>inl«r, withonl tail* or smell, nhirh iv|iiirc« SIM 

I of fM lantcr anil no Icsi than ;<l<,000 giaiu ol builin; wnlcr for 111 solution. Ila 

_, dSe ginrlty la !^>. It la fkiiiblc only by the heal of the hydioxjcen bli>w[4i>r. A 

Mtuiril b)>iral« ia hU lo ail* t which eontnint 30 per ccnL uf water. HagnciMa ehangea 



H 



HAGXET NAT! re. 



rmcr ir!1l ^^H 
or Ihe apa^^ 



Thk 

^^^~ WraWlii 
^ Bach I 



the r»q>l» inAMion cf ni t t M a g t t» * bdght gmn. It ■Itntti wkowc aeU Onm uu 
■ir, Wl muFh more iknrif IIibd qnlekllms. Ii coimIjIi et Sl-lt put* of mclallk bMii^ 
■od SS-7!I of oxf^tmi kirf hiu, (hwHbto, 80 ftr it* prime eqvinledt aaon the bTdrafvi 
IMle. lu onlr enplD^Pient in the *tt» i« Tor Ihe puiUcatioii oT flue (dl, la ihc gn 
ttan ef (unUi. 

Mmwfle mar be Dtuiiud bf pmipiiBiiom villi jMtuh or toil*, ftnin in %n]r_ 
moalr CEdlcd Ep*oni mU; but it ii uiuall) procured bf calrintnv the «nili^ or 
inl carbonate. The femur it, propo-lir ipeolitBg, a uibearbooalv. conniUii; H* 4i-aO 

la^tNi. XS'SO rarlwnicneiil.BaJ l!)-'l& Taler. II U rreiiaTtil bj adding to the wlMttoa 
ol Ibeiulphdp, or Ihe marial((lh«M(rnaaf ten.4«lt enparalian aroHu].a eolation nl 
(BibotiDle oT Hdo, or ot earbonatc of aniniDntk dulillod Iran bone* <n iron CTlinJen. 
The Milphuc or nwiTMU* >> aeneroII)r maie hf aettn| ntiOA >naipie*ian iimetlofte with 

oawbal dilute tnliilmiie add. The milphale oT Ume jsecipilate^ while Uie loliUiatt 

na^eaia renuunt in eolalion, and loaf be nude lo crrvtall^ in quadtangular prtan^ 

■nitable eTBpomtion and Hat oooUas. Where muiialic arid nif be hod in pralMoo 
tbe tnnible of eolleotinf it, u in the asda worki in vhieh lea toll U dee«npo«ed bf 
Nlpfavrie acid, the tna^niaD limealone ihould be flnt netol upon with oe snich ot the 
Aram acid oi will dttaolve ««! the lime, and then, the rolduvn bttng lr«a(cd wi^ 
iMteracEd, willallbnlaRaliihaieat UieehcapniroulMemiai Trcan whkh flMfne 
dl ito ether preparation! mar be mdiljr made. Or, if Ihe equivalent fpmntiljroTe 
na^eaiiin limnlone be boiled for msic Ume in bilKni, tb« limr of Ihe fanner ' 
plBce the iaa;ne»ia from the miriBlIe acid of the laller. Thi* i> the aotl teonc 

proecBi Air manofaeliirine macneiia. The nhcarbonatc. or irumfriaaOa of ihei. 

•snr, boa bet* propoacd bj Mr. E. Oary io be ndda] l>r the Hkcr to dinued Aoiii V 
eomtetmet It* ac M c w ey. 

HAOKESIAN' LI1I»>T0!^ (Dolomk. EV. ; BiUtrMk, TUfapKA, GeRn.X b « 
miDem) whiuli <tj»Ut!ti<i in lli" rliombolMilrBl irfttom. bm«. pae. IM; •crstebM 
ip«r; doeinnl AUI •poniBRcninlv luti>i<airdiir,wh«n««Mned;**aonunoa1iinnMna 
It <«iHl*taor 1 prime ci|u<viiWt nl carbonate uf line ■« SO^ owoeiated tcith 1 

oarbonaleof mngwaia ^ iX 

Ifmtfitr laiijnweiiHi limtttoHr, it vvllcwiah-brewn, oream-reliov, and yclla«iih>«fay: 
•HUleL IL diaaolTM (hurl]: and willt trcWo eOerTeeeenec io dilnt* nanatic acid ; vmm* 
It I* oallcd Oolemirt Imt dalamU by the Prendi mincralogieU. Speoiflo ipVTilv H 
MS'?. 

Near Sunderland. SI In found in fleuhlt tiabi. The ptindMl range «f UU* <«»- 

iicig tbia ^(dlofticBl lonnaliein in En^tlnnd extend* b«ni Snnderland on the northeail 
'ilMI l» Nollinsham, and iu bed* are dtKtibed aa being •bout SOO ttti thick ea tbc nM 
«r Ihe cool iM in Derbrdiite^ which ia near iU •euthtn cxlnmii}'. On the weMm 
*tde *t I he Cumberland monniaJn* maneMan Itmrslone overlie* the coal moMona Hir 
WhllehnvcD. The itrallAMiion uf Ihu rock is rer)' duliixi, Uie indiiidual eonnev (f 
Monc not eicerding In genual the ihiclmcM (d* a cotmnoa brick. 

The iunc multiag litim the ealdnallon oC magnriian liioatone apimn to havewt 
bgitflouit nciinn on TMelation, tuilHs applied in quiuitilin cooKidrmbijr !«■* than ecm* 
■nan lime, when it ii (ound lo fertilize the wEI. A&ti two yeare, iU kurtlU iofloaefl 
on the cronnd aecmi lo become nlmuMed, even nhea nicd in undue i)uaiililf. Omt 
anonlitie* of il etc anniiall} faron^l frean Sunderland lo Scotland by the FlftaUlt 
Brmen, and raplored bmcBcinJlr by then as a maniur, iu preference to ether hbdi 
of li»e. It baa been nnfalilf denounced, b)' Mr. Tcnncnt and Sii B. Davy, a* a 
McnIIrrr. 

Tbla rock it wed iu manr ptacMfiir bnilding; lndcGd,oar most splendid noinuDeMd 
Oolhic arcbileclarr, YorV HiiialMr> ia cooKmcuid td' tmgnninn liniaionc. 
' lUGNESIA, NATIVE (Aacilci OwhMMfacriei, Pr.; ll'oMnfaJlr, GctH.), It a 
'bile, lamellar, peoilT-lookinE nuntaal, aeft l« lb« unich. Spec. grav. X'33A| Icnderi 
WraWliMl by cnle-ipar i aflbrdijriK nler by calcination i Iraring * while aabalanot wbkh 
browas tnnDcrie paper; and, by catcinnlion \rilh nitrale of coball, becannn of a 
Bach hue. li coiuiiii of bfr-'ti magnrain, and 30-9S imter. li oceun in lein in Ibe 
aerpcntine at Dobuken, In Ki-w Itnej, a* alao at Svinnsna, in the Ulnnd of UmI, 
dhellond. 

UAONCaTE, GUbrrtUr ; native carbcnalc of mngneaia occur* in while, bard, Dtmt 
BiaM**, in llifi prciidencf of Madrat^ and in a few oihcr loeallUct. Il dtstolrri lerj 
•lowly in murialie ncid, and giita oul coibMiic acid In ihr pr«|iorl]on of 2S jail* oj 
waitht to -tS of Ihe mineml, accordins lo hit expcrimenu, and it ihctcfMc on Btonuc car- 
honaic. Il fuTBis nn excellent and beaiiiirul nwrtor ccDirDI rorumcc*) ap3iT««cte 
■tbirli il has bpcn benofieinlljr BMdieil in India by Dr. Hacleod. • 

MAGNET, NAI'IVE, Is a ininetBl conusling of Ibc preUarde and perosiilc of irca 
ewnbiacd in oiuitiilenl ptoi<oelJoni. Sec Ibok. 



HAi/r. 



MaOALRB. Th* butt «r tUi dmb affvr^ ■ violat dj*, u ««U w ■ ferwwUJ 
Uaaor I'ti' rTrk-liHUMr. It ii aqxcio ortbarrv onltivatoil in our MrdMii. 

M.\: : •»««£«■ yrcns WBitiTo c>rt«iiitloi>t tapper or* bMUlUU gr*MI 

(vIft. vJ ndiatioiu ud ioii»: ■iwt. icrav, I-S ; it DcnwIiM (alMMf, but 

n-' ttaiMu it iffonli wjilxr aixl tuian black. . lUooUtion In Ifio mUi 

■!< . ,'OD ■ pi*U of in» |itnucnd lalo iL It«un«iMioratrb««ioa«Mi 184; 

iliui"^ '.IS-!; w^Ur. »■*. 

HA I .-iliii* (ODiMUDila with Uio twMtt wilti 

UALl' iJ<iM miUi^t, ». : Atp/tlmur», Otrm.) Tbk and ciisla m tli« 

]«l(t(« of miMijr freiu and (lUntA ■loi>«tOra*Mii.'iat«>l willi tlieeilrM. lularic. aAilitnli* 
ar4f1< ; nml t-MMiooally roaiNn«d vitb polaahDrliine. I'atipeappJo^tlue^ b«rbarri(ii^ 
1> ' ■< tl»ma«Dtaina<K*'<lwboiriM<iiTnntiVgo<)Mtorna^*ttnwbem«i,ra«ci- 

tr rrio. bmnbUbtniM, whortUlwmM eli«rrio^ uia|iM^ afford malin add; 

Uw D'.u-'i<. k and panhno eantain the molato of litno. 

"Dm •<U nuj t* obtained OMat MDToiiiontljr from th« juio* of llu barriaa »f lb* 
novnlalu a*)>. or tarbarric*. Thi* tnn*t bo olanftud by mixing with whic* et ofo, and 
ba>tii4 lb' ritiiiarrt ts abnUitiou ; thtn litt«riiii[, dl»tt(aj[ Ilk* »)Mr liiguor wllh oa^ 
bonat* vf k^il till il bcaccnei nuulral; and*Ta|>ontlBKth«aaliao*olaliun.UllofjaIaIa 
tf iiuilat« or I*b4 b« t>td*In«d Th4M ar* lu ba watbiid witb void vater, andpuriM 
hf r«cryBUIItiatiMi. On <liHolvlD|[ ih« whii« ult in «ai*r, and pOMog a itNaia ol 
(n*-' ---•■>) hjdrogMi llir«ug;}i lb* MlutJoit,Uio)Md will b« all wiiarated intkoforn 
.>r L, aftd Ui4 liquor, aR«r filtralioa and eraponlion, vill jidd yallov gra- 

ni I 1. nr otuIiflowN' eonctwiioiui at malic a«id, vhiah may be bbtnnlwd bj tt- 

diaMiiitivn uid digalm witli bon^-lilavk, u>d r»<rjrstallintioiL 

Halt* arid luu no uuell, but ■ voiy innr tutf. dpIiqaMOM by abiorpticn «l moialora 
frvn lb* mr. M wloblo in alooliol, fui« at l£n°Fabr, ii dwoinpoavdatalicatvf MB', 
•ltd alforli by ditlltlatioQ a pwoUar add. tbo pyroQialic. It i!0uii4la iu lOO parU of 
tl'l? v«>buo; S'tl hydron**; and SG-tVi uxjitoa ; bann|{ ooaily llivaunofooipoaitioii 
aa nlrio acid. A crmt* nulio acid lnij{Iit Uk rDouoiatoally oxtra«(ml rtum Hid Imlt of 
On ri .nir.lala wV api>tl«ablc to many purpow*; but It kM not liithcrtobovn nmnnlae- 
1 'i-.c crni ■'>b1«. 

:llI.n'Y, h Ilia projvrtv bc)uii|rinK to MNalii uelak of bnog axtaaAad 
«D-)> ' i';t >iiiRnnor, A lablo o( ina'l<abi1ily it uivon in Um arUcln DuonUTT. 

MALT; (Eaig. and Ft, ; Mot*. Gcmi.) ii barloy-oorn, whi«b hai hem nilgMtad Ut 
as artiAfiaJ pru^rM cT gcrmjuitiaii. S*o Bua. 

Tba Qii«ndIT of Mall conrsmnl bj the un.lmneiniontil Bkm«*h of LonObn tut n> 
TkWtT. from lOlb Octobff, 1331), Ih lOih Oebtber, Ifttt. 




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QnMUlf of Udt wlilt*i p«M Dutjr, uil Amount of Ihity. In Uia r««n 1913 


toiBta. H 




briMd- • 


Quiixr. 


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INfc IM. 


ISU. 


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«4.nH 4M.n>i 


4I8JM9 


iwtM aiwRi 


•u,tafi 


oKtn 


mpM^ 


^B Irdud . ■ 


WlKI tttJKA 


luuns 


ii«^ ui.uM 1 i:mv 


inwr« 


w^a 


im 




TM.I . 


<taMia 1 MWjm ; c«iT.»fr 


t.isrMt 1 4,e»,ni 


•.!ti.»i 1 Mn.iu 


BkOTa.11 


' 1 




Omali 


tj of MiUl «ptt«<l in Pulili« Brvwiag in the tJiutod EingdoM in 


the 


1 




ubdcrm«iiliunc(l j'tar*. 




r UN ■ - 


«vin«a.| «v*nBK| aiT4*nM 




U S8- : 


tfieam\ Mt ' um,tn tut - - t,uuu 


i*)«,i>3^lia 



MAtT. 



09 



Aa AaooiuiL of tlio Quantitioa «i Hall brQWcdbrthoTwolmpiiadpal Londen pBfttf 





iMl 


ittn 


UM. 


»a 


tm. , 




Qn^ 


<ini. 


ttr* 


Q"* 


ftn. j 


Bwijliy 4 Co. - 


IOf.U» 


nine 


I1&.MI 


106.StS 


114.01)0 ' 


llnnhign' A C«b - 


»<XI<«> 


•i.oea 


OMIO 


««;l8t 


V14eB 


Wliiil-rnwIACo. 


4a,(«i> 


«l.»7» 


a3,(IVl 


H.4t!l 


ii.<m 


•H*ul A Co. 


HviS 


11.010 


4(^1S0 


n.wt 


taiw 


*Msux A Co. 


HS.IIGG 


»M«s 


H(l.TB7 


X9,1V) 


4t'^*0 


Cfimbc i Cd ■ 


43JM 


iii.'iitf 


Iti,MS 


»A.Mf> 


M.Mt 


CnlTrrl 4 C* . 


.tl.J^V 


XI.IISX 


>(\«?S 


3l>.«ld 


Ki.uoa 


ll.>araACo. ■ 


31,2IS 


II,«IH 


tOlSlO 


iv.tts> 


»ii.Hn 


Klliat A Co. ■ 


stijurt 


as.ii»o 


u.sts 


th.NVe 


ST.WO 


1 'liArrlMlon A 0»> - 


S(i,Myi) 


i^ii« 


18.333 


ll.HIU 


X<^433 


JT.MU 


;iA.u6a 


SI .300 


VI. 4M 


IH.&SO 


C<nirm«AC«k - 


1<\7U 


IU.«M 


11,1)33 


tXKt 


IXOK 




* ThOMOUT 


tid tbm * bm porUc obIj. 







Qiutrten of Udt oontma^l in tl]« lutlcrmcntioTiod Yean. andiiiK lOth OotobMV 
tj th* Dnwffii of Lnmtrw ud W Tlclatt]'' 



ua «HtTT 



ISM 
1»4 



« 



Mini I IMl 

mBJM llSH 



(ttllV I I'M 






num lisN 

lUWT llM» 



Rj tUaTmiaprtndiiil BnnnnofLnnitaa. 



uuar I itu 

4t<i,l» I ISM 






4M.I» 1 1! 
BIT.aN I IM> 



tSt^m I IHI i TUMt 
RUU I tW UI.«M 



atMH I IHI aiTjn 

IMT.SM I IMt HUnO 



TtbU of th4 Quaotitr cf Halt (rom Barley, wlii«h pkid Dutj in 

iMtad. 




ISM 
18U 
I»M 



11*1} 
IMl 

IHt3 



1834 

leso 

1681 
l«8f 
1833 
IS3t> 
l»40 
lUl 
l«43 



34,449,M« 
Slt,l»a,8M 
ST, 1*6,998 
38,«M,3Jt« 
S3.8S8.M8 
8M33.01t 
HAaS.44) 

sc^un,8»4 
so,7»a,sa3 



MBV,aH 

4,903,18? 

4,Ge3,04a 

4,419.141 
4,8«0.3e3 
4,8»7.3I>4 
4^0B8,:4» 
8.78«.4:S 



Amousl <J DuUm Paid: 
£ I 4 

4,444^1W 803,387 



4,M0,IU 
t,80«,«IS 
4,3AI,n9 
4,3«8,M1 

4,uv,tn 

4,»41.S» 

4.1VMU 
*.176,74S 




asl.iMA 
BII.OIO 

fiST.OlS 
BSLIUT 
813,544 
BSS.ft7> 
M8,Ba9 



isal;648 

3,37E>,347 
l^MS^MO 
1,144,S30 
l,4dG,]tG 

1,1-111.6112 

i,i:as,oia 



£ 
371.S9I 
9S3.«0!> 
33S,8A7 
180,470 
184,984 
118.803 
178,708 
lBI,al0 
108,009 



KxfMKlj In 1880. \%X4»0 bomla; in 1881, IS1,«3« bwrdli J««lu«d nlM, 1880^ 
MB.7MJ.. la 1S81. S77,«74i. 



24ii(n5 




lOU 



MALT. 



, nrnlBtkuu •< u> the niBiiiifactuT* of mall tn anboilJ*d in Ike >oU IAS CIm. t, r. 9t 

[■M II Gnx 4, r. 17. TTiit rorincr Ml u iBftdaiinlil* nwaniBrtof logulkliTc iiyuMlte; 

f tim Lftllf r «'« iiilitnJnl tu *m<'ti»i-aU ibc firoTMlDat «t U* pmhoator. bd-I Joe*. I* a 

dogrvv, iplT(>-t lliut ot^''i'L TI'V llnl fonUiiu no !«• than S3 eluwni ; anil the T»g«I*' 

lioiii i> il, lti"U^'l> frenui-iitly rpjmiciinut to 111* plain«M pnnclplM of rouimou *nim, M^ 

[■evvnfctlai, cnforr«<l by lull pfvaltiM amoanlinB in tbr a^|[r(fsU< to lh« InorfjiU* 

nun uf IS^OMl. Uuv luutfli ur Uiia ■■ n«g>liT«l W tbo aab*«limil act it I* not rvrf 

Ftuy hi dclMinitiii tLougli. M far aa il goen, tbc aSoit oC Ka 3 la tu itullify lb* rtgola 

Ltioiwvf No- I. Woe Ui tlutl IDBD. bowervr, who broia* tbem*nitla«tur«flf malt wllfa' 

ra^it liaiiuK iluly iliidiml thM« iitcompatiblu ad*. llariacboMi farorvd with a |Hruaal 

of Ibv ■•iiiuiiiv "iailructinnn for aHliym vho lurtuj maltitan.' a dtar ia>i(;lil inaj' b« 

bail inlu llii' lulxal firarliua bf tiia «icim: fur our cujiy it July paiblainnr-l villi (Iiv 

ami* of fUi){laiid, luiil mubtil ~bj ■nlborliy ;' — btinj;, ioar#u**r, ef ao lat« a ilaW •■ 

IMX it sflur* aDcicpiitionnblf vviiIpiim. TIi* iiwuarj' a|ipBnlii* br tbe phxlBPlka 

af malt i* nilrcnialy midiiIc, — ttial 'n To taj*, a dftorn for *t«eping Ibe ^rain; a floor fai 

which ti innj bntufferrd lo h»l and vivbIaIb; and, butlv. a iloTc or kihi i> wbipbtlic 

asvly-furiuoil nuUt nisy Im JrioH. &peci&c iiie. of foroc. oc otiier arran^MDoul. Umtt 

L Mtda non« ; and tocb u actually Ihc ouii'litioo of tho malt owDuftMlDTv la raoit co«l»- 

f Mm Bt lliio dar. With lu, lu>w<Trr. a «oiy dllTrnTiit ay*l«m pr^all*; — tbc tiitBrdor 

■.•tM]>iag vcMtl'inuM Iw o(n doWrniiiiati! funn aiiJ vi'ii»ruvI.i<>D; It mutt bdvo brcii ap- 

Iftated «f by ■ tniicrritiogofBeeri it* oubioal voalrni' iniiM have hota *ui7 aoouraii^ly 

■ HMTtaiuedi by actual adin«a*iir«tiiFTil, and il niiut b« pliMvd in 4uah a aitnalioo lliat 

Ihe oKctr nuging it maj have lufficicnl liglit, and a ritar open uiaca of 48 iMlia^ al 

Ibe Uaik aboTB crcry part of nob ciilcrn.^c the pitrpoa* ol facilitating t^ pt««CM«f 

k ftogiug ; and. loitly, I'r inch light bt an iniiwuibilily. from local obitAcle*. At malt- 

WVmt oiotLium' iutoau tiiitaaoinoot t« kovji. oi hi* nun ri)>ea>u^ laiujit or taodln bona- 

I log. for Ihir cumtmiUbm oI uio afflotr. From whiii wo baT« now uii<L iu v'oll aa Inm 

(th* ODIoriou-ly iiMcnalii i4iara«tar of |r''i>'i>> i' "iiKbt uMurally Iw ii>r>'rr<>d, ihnt tb« 

rMM of it<.>q>lii|; wvuU b« )«ft eotinly tn Ibv Judfcinvnt of the tnalutor, wbo wouM 
(rmiae acronting lo bii experience, and the natuniotllie Tdtlilline phmonena, wbca 
Klb« gnia Itid been atceped iong enough in lb« water and vh«B it bail n«l. IIm law. 
r however, allou-a hini nn tuoh priTiU|[«; wheihur the Krnin be old and drr, or new and 
[■tain, it M imn. — "uialtaten atit inquired to kii|> tlicir corn or rrniu cnrtra^ wiUi 
I Wnlor [or lb" full tynuo oflU bout*, under Uie ptnaltyof IHO'." Nor wilt an}' «bi 
I'Mii'Uinii^ in iH'' ii|>j>«nntievof tbegnun, and iMniiiw to rvqnireilfiniiDedialcreiDi 
r jlulify ur exciKu Ilia iiialttter iu *o doio^, tinleae in<&f>l be Bhnll bare anlteipated 
I Oocarraiec. br |p*ini{ anlioB of bii iiiloiilion to do >o In liii uriginnl nolicB "to tul'— 
t whiob mint <rBta 34 hoim nrerioiuly to eomiiionvia)! that uperaiioii.-HiDd give the ilar 

and hour of lli« daj for bogiiiDina tlio >i"rn, — all oiider lb* luiial penalty of lool. 

Nvrtnay bo "bi^atu wetataoy alh«r liiiiv ttian hetwton tba bonn of t in tbomorniaf 
Land 3 la the aflumonn," iindfra |i<<naltyof Hx'l,. iiuruiny be take com arffrala ftwm ujr 
Ealatern al any oth«t titnii llian biitwven the limmEifl In the morning aaiM Uilbeaftar- 
[■ixaL Tu oiii|ity oum or grroin oiituf any <:iilcni iiutil the expiration ef PO liowra ttnu 
rlhc tlino of the faat praseduig tmptying etf anj oiteto in the catabliabmeal inroHca a 

pcfMlty of tOuL ; and the huhb iofliotian oecim, " if tho eorn or orain be not oinnUod 

Oiit of all ineh eiilerna at ooe and the Mine tim(^ or Within tJirte houn allcr tbe elgar- 

big uf ibv Unt ciitern wa* otnamoTicciL" 
I UalMert are not lo mix. oither on the floor or kiln, auy iiomor vrainof uoo woUing 
VwUb oora or gnin «f aiMlb«r watlinv, iiader a p<>iialty of lOOf. Whnt it termed tb« 
ptoluti. or plsfe in wbloh the grain, after being etoepoil, it laid togelhcrfor theporpwe 
I »t fEomiiuation. it a aappUinciilarr appiuatuii of e.teiau iu^nnily, and no way ne«a« 
r Mry to the iiicuoH (4 the maltiug'pnioeia, Ifoie the grniD, after liavinR been ffstind 

in til* ilceii. i< a^itia lo bf |(au)tii<l willi Rroal ears; and If the malUtor ehould Imuiar 

eotDprea* the eouoli, t,i a* tu iliiiiiiiiab it* hulk, a fivnalty of lUOl It impotod. tbi-uifh il 
I it olivioui ibat B fiowrr of loiuviiiuif or eoinprettinn; tbl* ooneb aouonlinit ta lia i«tB[«i- 
[ mlur« would Krcad) llllp^<To the fonnalioa of inalL Uowever. 'alleom or (train 
' emptied into ihe •'iiiuh Inmr it lo be Uiil flat and level by tho mallBtsr, aad au kepi 

(br iA hour* nl the IraaK* and ■iniilarl;; tho floor* ore all to be plueod level on pain of 
,10M lini!. to Uiul aiiy ei|;erinienlBl <.i*av nl lni|>rov<'nieut ji vorjl likily to ond iu tliv 
I Court of Buheijner. &<aiii. it frequently bnpptna. or i«lli*r wo aliootd lay it SeMt' 
I ally liap|>wnjt. ttiDl toi> liiile uatar i> abeorhed br the i^min durin(c the opatauon «1 
rfUtping; the «onui(iiruc>« of which i^ thai after being r<iDOved fhim the caitA lo Ilk* 
|;floor, iDo grain ^MivoaUi^ sod. eoniu to germinate, apeodily erajrea a ■Mblyodor. oftd 
" liMMiwa ni'^nldy. — Iha innpieni raditlm at the lame litne arfiog and ibrinnna up for 

want «if lUDtiliire : in bet Ibe grain withan eud imrlihi'i Iroa thu effect of ^roiiglit. 

Hut eoudiUoo i> veiy troqaont about the third and fouKh day fro«n the aoML 






MALT. 



101 



■ttd b tatllratKloirM'tually nutaMufi tofaythtiapptivBlionora titllevaUr. Bui now 
ooDta B ratlwr awlmrd dilenima forth* malistor: if Ui« grain »oaliaii» on tb« Soar 
without bcjng ■priokt*!^ H !• gnaUy danuiml i<r ilto^her apoill ; if waltr be i|irinkl«d 
upon It lo iwtoro riialitj, tlip law mv>, iIiaI -vonat grata, nuiking into maJl, niut 
nol be wtt[*<l or imrinklcyl «i[h n iilvr before tiie (XplrKtMS dlS (laja,Dr ZHH hoari, 
«lltrtli««unr ■)iiillh«v»ljcuii tAkciifromortiutuf lli« t3tteni,uidepaj<eaaltt-o(!(Ki'. 
Wherr. bowcTcr; ihr tirrp haa laitnl fur lli« full prriod of SO hour* uid where, ooam 
quenti;, the want of Whler iiUu likdylo bt f*lt, tin- mitUtcr mnT tptiaklc al iheeud 
of *ix day*, or 14-1 haun : buc in na tote l*«* than tbK— tbongb, a* w* harn vlaMd, 
■k« grtat ur^onej' fet tbe •prinklJait |iroM«i occur* genaralljr od UiollunJ dari ■■■■Itt 
la an nnilmiiabia &c^ Uiat in iplln oi tho bwiTy n»k tneuTtwd, malut^t* d« alniod 
Invariablj tprinklothoirnuonalHljautthi* p*riai1,aiid an Iha4 driven tolha ncoMiily 
nrtmtilaK in Ih* cood faiili aixl illtcroiinn of Kini* fivoriti wurkmcn, to tbn luSnit* 
iiljory of both partlri. llitt IJm va>l diwrimliiitliix |M)iv<reOiiA4ad lo rxrl** ofllMl* bi 
lh««v inatt)t« I* puiaitlnty iiu'rf.Iiblh "Wh-'iifxrlWro nhall b*r«MOlltO■ll»Jlt«^ from 
tho ajmaraup* of tlin ^rain on (he il"or. Ilmlii \<»n Iwi'ii ttI«|pD|- v«tl«t or>{irinbl*4 
tho office rniiut givr iiniii-^dUtv ii<vii<.'v i<> ihi^malitt-^r, or hieMrvant, of taeh ttufnei^B, 
•od ma^e a Bemoraiidtiin I)i''Toi>C ufn'ii lh« t|<ri:irnFii paiier, and ia the meiaoraadnn 
bo^ DtpnlionJiig whi*th«F aiivlliin^ and whnt vus tlaleil by eui'h inulUlor. or any 
ptraw on hit bohalC" A(% Kay. lhejnandici>d i-icwaof lhcnlfi«rraroi>nlen<1lobepul 
onraoord, u to an immcoM nnoibemf fortuiioiit (ircniiialancn, all of vhii>lt, of counv. 
rtetito an unfavorablo tieaitisniioD I f^•^ initaaor. "bow tlic kiln «aa load^l. ncd 
«h«lher fed by a bri<k or alow Hrr. I— wiirtlicr ili* liou«e Hanwil in a uiat* for mntiing 
or wKUnR. or' (wtnmilliiig any other ami vlmt fmndl— what Ibcttttder Mya. nod « hat 
«liBncti>r he beari in liii c&n«Ti» with llin nirnuof" — and lO on, In Uio nio*t arbi- 
Irary and anconttiluiional npirll imaclnablo. Indned. I«t any doubt diaiild aldal 
ounon-iiIiiR ll'u opinion vhlfli tho •xcIia nnthariliui riiln-tain toiraid* lh« trad* in 
f;*iivTal. tlip alHi--'t l« tprclolly iimti-iii-iKiI to niak* aiiddon and un*xpMlad r«liima 
or vlail*, at iiaii«iiil jivribdii, "whii'h vi<>ciill doiibllnji on tliam," ao ■« I« di*i-OT*r any 
(iiFfiirio'uiiidloAlioiii. Ajcaiii, «( Uii< thtr<< rei'iral* (KUgM of Diall whirh ho may take, 
whelhoriii Ihrontt'Xi. lii Inn pOHoh.or I'n thiitliKir. tMolReer niml *iJiwl ihnlaryctt for 
<barijinj;<liily iijuin, 'I1iii>% if in lh< tUlfrn h« fiii<l«T8t bu*h<Uliidi''»tivl in tbr («i]0h, 
aubwi^ucnllv Bl | indioalod, and on the door 83), Ihvn tlio liillvr ■• |ir(ri-rn>d ; and (•> 
with I■>)tn^{ to the hi^h«>t whrrever found — I be order bcioj; thai *'i(hen (bcFittonior 
ni-jcli ffvix' ■> oifitul loorenwedi tho floor Raagt^ tfa on tho bolt oiil^TD orconcb 8**1$* 
will )>!' i!i<' rtinrg«; but ir ibal be !«■ than the floor c*UK<^ th«D tbo Door g«a«e vill 
bf (h«<'h,irK-'-~ Any acKi-Uiil or loMnriaing after tho ruteriinaite.iatliorrl'orctiirovil 
wholly on tUn iiiit1t<ior, who, hr from bdnc abto to ticploy hli iiiicrnuiiy in th* 
iiBpiviTiinnnt of fai> 1-u*lnKU ptVOeMt*. Andthinwtlt mora than fallv or^'llpicd^U npiT- 
patual pIFort to |irot«el hi* int«Fo*t4 frcoii Ihu rapaoinu* ifra>i> ol flxsl togulatfont 
da«o<ivod In lb* inott huitile t(-ir(i to thai indtiotry by which ilonii tbry mui. Tli« 
Minhrc. «arvle«*n««<t or linoranee of eonunon workman may at anj' inuin<iit kuI^kI tha 
oiDit honval malMtar in the kingdom, sot aiarcly to vban^ea nf dmhonrAty but own to 
praaliiifliplioniii whioh hare eeaaed to earry moral dceradii lion with I hem. onty beoauM 
of tbr |<"piili>r ho1i<<f of Ibrir ijnHa iT^jiuIiw- Itwoald br impniAibte. nor in i1 rr^uaiitv. 
In follow out or rrrnpitiilnlc lh« innniiiernblo annoyanonto vhivh tberruiQiifaoturtvaf 
mail ia •abievU'd at. j<n\>(<nl : ve hoTe thm bH(fly noted dovn a few, in order that lbs 
adi<iir«r» of BaTarinu aad oilier foioign been okay take into oeoonnt the very diffir^Mt 
nntc nf tho malt maDufoelure in thii eonntry. m tonpartvl with Ibat hruught aboM 
by an nnrfatrirted liberty to nio or apply any IttMn* wbieh the nalON of the gnih, 
Vm eondblloii of thu atmoiphera or otliar atvidtintal MTonniataucak may r*i|iilTe diirf ng 
tbr prooaaa of )[«rmlntl>aii. 

Htforv qailltn^C ll>>> unihjiwt, th(rr«an\ howariT. twoeoniMorallunji ttml r«i|nir«no- 
tirv, til" Ant nf lli^tH in Iho jxioiilinrty iinwii« n>Eii Intluti of allnwinj^ no drawback of 
tbr oinlldiity iirioo i>»[mrt«itole or beer, unl.-(a the ■aine •hnll liar* been hpewtd from 
VOrt al a apefifio gravity of nol leca thnn IvH, Nov. in m'<«l of our eotonita, and in 
■U Varm e^inaUa, faenr. to be agnoabic and refrrahinc, alioutd ho weaker than Ibia 
•ninimnm f(ravity. In ^t. a aptcifie (•rniity of ! V|7 Taniit bv far I ho b«t hevenge 
fnmpottalion lo alivpieul ouUDtry. ai 11 ii not only leH heajyin ila cflWta, but (n^ 
iiionii mora kindly and coniplvttly thMiiiiaheBTircwurt,and w'bcn w«IMiopDi>diino4 
llabin to Mcondary fenDrnlatlon. NeTrrtheliaa, beer of tbit kind, brewtd is tbia 
eo'intry. and vxportod. anflcn undur ihxotpuiia* of Ilia malt duly, aiidhaa to i-olBpotv 
in Ibe markeiaof our umeolonink aa wHIao in Iboni^utral Tntrkii* of other itiuntrii^ 
WLtl>>ilmbn<wod by Aiiuft^ean brvwen. who nay nodncr. Thori'uli. ofooiirM, iattlial 
tli<? •npplyoflht«f'w«Hkboflnihat|>aaaiKlontirrly oulo) llxhiindx of bnglith hrcwera 

Tlie emplojmonl of tnnlt in the roarinf of «ntlU ji the other eon-iJrralion lo whi«b 
*a alluiMd. Thia bat born hitberlii Uitally pre**uled by tbe exoeaaive dwty ; (i>i\ 



IM 



UAI.T. 



Uiou^ *oni« rtiy ohiutd u|wruD«nU h«t* b»ni moil^ with ■ *i*w to daeiilc Uia t>«* 
]imljva usiiU uf mnlt ki><l liarlaj m aiitrltlva a^MlA yti (li« only <)B>«tkia whidi 
fUytiKiogy [loaiila'iiil luiiilfrtBtJnKaniltfDvlSoial, rciBMn*«>tboul*vtciOiaaff»b)>BC* 
of « trial. lUII. ill a -fry iiLiu^ differ* Iiul« or nuiliioft livm barley, curpt In Ui^ |>m- 
»Mi*iDn of All cxtivmi'l} minulr qunntil)* of > t>itialiiB<.'* ^tfd JioiinK; but u diNUAM 
Miinol txiri its prviilinr [iiiicvis. Diccfil.Jiig iiadct Uia ■ lit) 1:01 en uf aal^r antl a Ki||»r 
wliat hifli l((s)>triiluti-, tliu odIv cDOclniiou lo It drniTH froui the eip'Tiiii<>nti> amAt 
■n fcediue fattle do Dinlt, i* Ihnt the cli'fiiiivriilBligta •/•ctv prrJoiiMli iuoornal m 
|^CPl4iij{ iUf^ Ui^^^ iiDpoi'laiit tLtinDUtfinvolvi-din ih^A idvci ligation. ]f *^ ' '' ^ -^tHi 
cKprriiuviita TjaTc juovod that Inalt i* po tti^llf^r than !ta cijuiTalcnt in '. ^4 

buoniiig ofoltli-, wo fan ouly ujr thnl lliU fullj>![|ualaoUi»ptvlati<>n-. Fin 

be DO Joubt Ibat lli*hi>al vTofrad iluriiix th« Inolliiiff JiroocM Lu robbed ibu grain «f 
a |iarli<ia of cnrboii, wbieli i^ ouiMijnvatly loal to lh« f<r*<d«r of nula Hall <«iiaal 
•qaal iu r^uivklBnlof bfrloj innnlrtlionapovtr, tlaleM wo t«lu adVMilap of lhcifiM> 
IBM it oiiiiiniat lo raador «otuUiii, and Ihurrfont tnora (mv of HalniilaUaa, not ontv 
■taowii •lari'h. l-utattotliefulNatnoiuiagradioDUorotliarViiidao/faod. Vb«k|ir«miil 
ault, ur a (lottiuiiof J iaaiaw and «al«r, IM dImMed With atarvh, or wijitlunB coulAUi- 
lu)[lt,aln (•iii[i>^rii<iri>or liij" Fahr,. t^»t«w6 wjildly dl«>olT«», mJ (ii^itafijr |— *c^ 
tnt.lntu|;um>irij'>iirinv. aiidllivniiitoaaenr. lliiusbrcsMnpl^ifiiutBturabr mUnJ 
■ritli a ti-ntb 'if tbcir wuiglil ol i-owdrnd nidt, and th« whc>ls aBl>jp>n4-l lo ibt bvUdB 
of valtr. tr<al4>l niabiitr. (h* r«ii]liug nrodiicta alll b« asm and BUi:flr in a MllaUc 
■tut* ; KinL 0>'iii-:4>iriillj-. ia that I'on'litlon bntl of all (uitcd lo rrlictc "T oxtUt nj 
iligMlivv iHiiivtfi.'iT'ioii in Iho aiiiiurtl ««in(iaiT. indeed, the ptovoia of di|catio« inaT 
Uii-Q be Kild [iiluiiv cunimpuced. <T«thr fooj had nnclicd the itomach bf tlv< oniM^ 
aad tliD uffi^i^tj of ■liiMlaw, bcol and Tnoi»turf, appli^ evtcroaUy, lubalitiite tbe *rtWfl 
of the iptol'if jiiiou vitbin. For joantc or aickl)' animal*. orllioivBhH'h il ii dnirod Xa 
briegfai-TaHTifitudilf lo porftoUun. tUo tue of nialt, njtpli^il thui^ cODnnl ^il lo MMn 
lllciu(Htb<jn«Sdiatt<-*u1b. Thviiulrilixiiia'i'nof Ram Biid(U|[aTar*T<r}r vtll knoirii 
to ph)«JoIo|t<*t*i th» fint brliiic luiv'ty iixil ii> food br tht Moon, Bctjuiniiii iT South- 
•m Afn'oa, and ilig inliabilniiU uf tviidnr in I )ii<n|toliK ; aniunKK whom "lix iimueta 
of Ifuiii aru toiiud mHlrii'nt forth* dnilj' iiii]i|"-il u7 an silult," ni'i'urdiii^ to JaiJcuft; 
will III iu [Vj>fH<c't If hu^far, it iautiilo ncitiiriua* lliat, llioiij^b Ih'^ bib<.ir tolK^^ £ri^r^>r'. Ju- 
rinjt t)iu»ui:ar MOiton. la oxni>«i>e, Ihej- □pvvrt.tit'lntbar'Oine rtlri'iiivlv li.' m* 

troniUieiiutiiltTo^wlitTof IhcRUgMthvjcuiieutiic. It tIi«rcforr.ilia'i- -> 

tail thf tnie value uf nuM, id aiding UiodiaettiT^powDTofwiaDiinal, itiacioii inai iliia 
ean Lt •Ions unly by taking ndvnulu* of thttalJjilitifa'aey of th* diaalnto it cuMaiiu, 
•nd wbidiiouii*UJvlaMljrtoro*MnbtDl]iDanlmBlpTlni;ii>lo ftptitu-,' lo tli« iaitnvnr* 
of which th» action of ttMttiuiricJnlrn in nuv sliniwl uiiit'ntxlfynMfibcJhy I'lwmitla, 
^<T wonld chnro b* tlio al^hU't dilUnutly in«nrryiii){tkiJtiiu|'rvirniBiit into praotlta 
M UUMt Wt;^■^n^l^M« nuv i-nnani hul inDiUe* tut ttirir rallli-i ibi^OKb tbMO iti*, bt 
iLfr Biwt jurl, uiiwiftrU'miiilr fniEnfnrrot^ liirni|tf^ and 'tucbllKo v«]fDtahU* naroftlAls 
guinand tn^nr rvady foruiad by nalure ; wIiptcbi tlie inJiualiun iHjinU to tliua> of • 
Manbkiud, wliarv tun nutritiTe matlrr is iaaol'ibloaad thvrefi>ra tiaUo lo p»* attay 
frotD tha auimal uuoMiuiiliiteiL Trui^ indeed, the matt duty oITfT* an inipnliinvilti bot 
iLp adniiltixl tuffcrinit of the a^iiMillural inturni ii a t'ownKiil inilruniciit ol liaaoly 
inn juM DBiuv, and a draw back unoii»rf:|iy t'l llio lUvfwqiigr. Thciv i^ howcvar, an 
objacEion of a aoeiol and moral (baractvr la be urged agnuiil thu malt dot] whMt 
Ui|Hiar> alla{*thrr nnajniwonblv. From whni wo bav* alatcd concerning tb< action 
oriliaiiat^. It DiiMi ha obtiouj that a miilurr of barlri' and malt Would luali* ikniira* 
gorA a Hurt, at mall alono; that i* lo «ay, imk' pnrl of lualt and M«ou poH* of lurlvt 
niaaUsrI ttvdhtr would affoni a wort cxactlt rmciibttnit that fram «Ulil parti •>! uiBlt 
alone Iho*. tlim, by laklnf; adtantage of liia K-i>>iilil<g koawlodgo, tag brtWrT itufbl 
dimiuihU bin niail duly t^onc-cightlh or cienlm: bill tbit tbi> law will iio4 allow, 
tliaiigli. iu (i>r«ien ri>unlnM. it may hi' and it done, pven lliviitfb the dllT- 1 >-it 

brtWf-in barlfy andmaltii W Iriflin^iii iiucli [ilaH*. But. ttruitt-c Iv- . 4 

Iho lr/i>laliirv dcuita to the brawor. it frrply ■c?D^I1 to Ihc di>lilUr, wl<'. n... — c a 
Diiatiirv .if tiinit and barley, la any |>r>poiliun ho ploatca : lhu< indicating Ijiai nrdco I 
■pirit* art it« jnjurnuji ut xiio koi'ial ttttrut of llm lownr ordci'* than liccr— a iwrin^ly 
IIBlDUiiblelinai-fBrguniunt, but dli iiig which, nci'MiuIalM th« toncluiion that Utile ktd 
if Ink'H t'f Hie MuTiiJ taiilty •>f the iiniiun, tu hiu|C a> ihe VMM uf lb* pcoiilc Itsd la 
rvpienkh (he viiheijarr, llnTlii^t Ihut llirown l<w«tliar a faw ranuirka bueolatod Ir 
axplniu ili-f iixidr 1» wl.lth thu eiri«o duty en oiall inlartona w!th the loduatrlal ilo- 
i«lup' iiii'iit of (ifMC HniaiB. we rribr to the articlv Bna for Ilia ti<<i-ulinr chaacta 
whl-'h <>c<-'ir fnim Uir riuiili liiii Iu III? Iinuli«l prodoet, aa linud f->r ibn mnrllaL 
Latv* btrr, liiiwiTcr. iiuliivlhe fael, that mall dislm (cry IiU^aly in<t<vdinthcrnluii|Ult 
of ilw avatlablr ronilitimnt*, which, by an&lyiii, miy bo ihvwu to range from aboni 
111 to !■' el iirI<iUe extract |>or ccnL-^lM ateraga cumpgnliou bnnit w luidiir*-- 



HALT, 



10* 



Moirtnr* ■ 
Iwoluhlc nuIUr 
flohible tatraot 



Ml 
«e-8 



R»i* it i* a nnurkabia iJliulnitiuu «r the btmiunbing cdbel «f uchm uitsrMMnMb 
, UioukIi thcM pr>Ml diffaniioM riial, yet ao pra<«M of aaalnii w nkniod brf mj 
~ r«ftb« prwmt day, other Ilmn the un«rt«in indicatjoii cf Usl«. and th< itUfmoM 
gaMAMO «1 vcight iwr btuli*l,^rair Jl oannol bo cillol njiucilk- Kravllr. 
^ altkoD^lk U Mmoofour tiirea bna-eriM not Um Uian, iwrtkuix, lOo.OW 
I iif Duilt are oied rvcry }'«ar(aungl« pctvriitaKA jtpoa wbirh w-iulil ■•lufll tli* 
ilu* of l.iM>i i|iuHcr>). yot na iilt«mpt in maili'. by ilirvcl ,nxp«riin«i>i bcfuru i>iiyli>^ 
'lii dri- : '' ' iiu* worili dC tho aniula iiDbinitu>l far mIx. tIid •vi»i-.|ti(-iia(ir4ilut 

■y«t- !li<'<ili tu \i» furMoen; ln» rut niftjonljor mtv* ■ l>l|:li«r i>riap in pro- 

utiitji — . »i . -I (>>r liiiil dun (ur it<>od inalt: aiid ttis propec jiclJ Ir'nn llic niiub tun 

.uiiiii; tiilirviv uakTU'irn. llivH' it no |>u«»ibility of d«lurniiiiiDg wbolliei- (t-.it 0|>cntii>u 

tkod lieni W'U "r iJl'{'i'rf>>nTi«ii, A Hlrikiiig exataulc uf th* erron tndu«il by tbi< tnu- 

Ldoiu la-Ac •>! taliiiiif* uult ta uov b'forii lu, Of llxnv nunplis msrkaii rcap«<4ivaly 

iViM 1, -i, Add 3. ihc «i«oibl wu Talu«d h Hi. bettor Ihaa tbg ihiriJ ; aikd llio liMt m 

I a boUer tluw the ■c'Dad, the eoliiiiatei being tliow of an emiiietit Lomloa brcwM 

bo foUowiag table, however, whlah fb«w* Uuir reiki value, m foand by aDuljiiik d» 

aoutfalM tk« total iQ«arro0lncB« «f the above method : — 

No. I vieldad - 
No.8 - 
Nat • 

I tiiat tlic ucnple reported to bi* the wormi ii aclnBlIir thtl«vliiuh nffordi tbe Ureeat 
_ rteant of eitriwt, lhau);h it »Mnn that Ha i it the I)mI mult; Uit, beinu a twelve- 
moolh old, '\\* eontentof loaittore ii tar)^ Tile mode of ftalimklio^ the true value of 
malt l» vrry ■■aty ; and. biitfortlin etrvuiniilaiioa that briiwer* arr afraid of I he very name 
of uhxiiliuy, from Iti vuIkoi' OMOciation witli drnn^ Ihwe 1j llttir daubl that, In comnkM 
with crrry i>tl>or inriabl* artlcl<^ Ita Worth woufil b« delAnninod by the ouerrlnK nilo* 
of (eiuiioiv Tl>e iliiy inu*l, hownvfr, tpv-vIUy eonw, whvn th!^ coynoM can no TnnKcr 
prov« tiemjiiililile w'lh th« birwini; liil-Ti"! ; an-l, theruf'iM. W» prtHw-jd t-> •WteHbo 
the lucdiod of cxMuliD); > «h«nii«(il nnnly>i>i of mall, llaviug fp^cmnd a iinnntity tJ 
liie nialt ill •luoilion lo powder (uaJ for tliii purpoie, an ai-dina'y coITk mill aniveni 

Eerfottlv). weigh oni luo graia* of thp powdor. »n<I eUpoie it for half on bonr lo tlto 
(at of bc>iliiii{ wnt»r. ill lui oren or voiijiartnient tiiiTOUnded by that Aaid; atthaen4 
of ibit iini.! wi?i|;li It 111,-nin; the la«< iniRvatei the quantity of moinura prMtal in tlio 
BialL Wliitit thl> n{>L'ntcl»n U Koinf on, 100 i^nliinof thn HOnf pnwiler are tobap1ao*4 
In a (agi, villi abuut nix ouncai nf eotd va(,<r. iia<t tln-ii |ix|ii.<>irtil Tu iKu heaJ ufa ticaiii- 
batli, vIlU OiTidAJi'iial (IrrtlTix. 'Dilt opviMtiun tiinv ■■ontlnuo >Wi for half nn knur, 
IVhoL th# n^h^'Te it to he thri^vn upHn u i-t<Vir liiKn fill^^r; HitJ. n* at^n ah the vort or 
, livid tin* dr«in.il awnt'. the re-iduu inuat bo w*-ll washed with hoibiip itatCT ; then 
I and wuiichiiiL 'll>« vi^ht rtj-nucnt* the amount of inioliihlv iiiBlC^r. nnd, ir"n< 
|ll«nt1v, if, from llin total wmi,'hl = l'.iii. «r deJmrl thol if the moirtiire and inwi'iible 



Uobura 


tuaiublii Diatler. 


KttnKC 


«•» 


27 4 


IIS-I 


e-i 


Ml 


Cfi-0 


M 


ST-I 


S7-* 



iMi: 



Uter, the rciiyiiiniloi iti«.1 ri^prmpnt lhej>mporlion of jolublp eximtt, or, In irtlxr 
ordh the we('barin4 valuo iif thn wait. Tlii^ u ve bave itnted, may hr taken on an 
erogv nl M yvr <vill. ; arnl if w< aMtinie the i^UBrter of mult at :\-H IIh wfj^ht, Iher 
le total aavi'lmrinu *Tlrai't from tlie iiiisrtvr tfcamoa 'J1.1.S4 IIh. BV>i<r<lu|i"»: but u* 
HI takinj; on the forai uf (piia and xij^nr. cliranioalW eombines with the elenieata 
rater, to tile eclraet, if evaporated lo drynei^ Would reach veir oriuly Zil lb*. ; 
tnd tUii reduetd lo thn toiia of a barrel, of ta ^Uoni^ becomo. in the Iaoaiu4;eof tlia 
T<rtt. H7 Ibf. per bari'«l, whieb, liowevcr. meiraly i»e«i^ tlial th* wort fcitn a duar- 
ll«r uf ninll. if (vaperaled down to lh« bulk of a bariol, or M italloiM would wai^li 97 
iiiuiv th.111 a butrel of waIm. A* a rutr. R'H Iba. of aaceharine «iltnet indiiuilH Sl> 
._ rer*' |ll•und^ iir pv« a barrel of wort, haviiijf a •poellW eni>lly=I'(<IlS'l iKttrly. 
Jh»M niv -iiiiii'i .loiihlK aa to thn rllcrt of r>tainlnjE malt In a Lniwi-) ur V'''«'darfd 
ito t'-t anv ^^ixi-Jrh.Hntbtr periled prior *'^ T:in--tori^ Ity a fvw hr^u-'T* thiq ti diioiaod 
.nKful, th..iia;h Ihp mnjrtfilv arem to r- l' ■ l ii ■■ inififf-r»nt Wr har* made n few 
'- 'tkid <'i]H-rTmnnt-c nn thiiaiibJMt. O'l.t (uni 'lii!, wilhi'i n ttry rxleiitivp rniiK*, tbe 
eo*'^ ;i>Hihiii-; i* rather in|>Ti>v->d Ihan'jtliFiwiH by rtp-^'ni; I he ninll tiithfiwilpn 
the air. a>. by thit itien.t. it i<ol "iiW iillinci' uiiiidiirf fimn I he alni'Hphtms nbl ii 
er^bv luiire vaiity L-oniir.irLtfled wi*U Tho valfii' in llu- mii^h tiiFi. ^lUi a piirliort «f th* 
rlvt'ii »(«■»* h1»> ovii1it-<il hv thin expiH<^rr; and bent'^ u tirer nr^d i/lf^iirvr wort ia 
III'-' ' 4 •'"' r... . hi,..' ^.,-|'^i.qj„ 4^ h'vi^'d luxlt ha-1 not nl all irgtiml either the 
III i<t our «i(«Trim''iil«. It mik'hi he tiippoi-.) that the 

Ir-' ' I 'nluoof mall would b' tu ma>h H [wniiiii witb ear« 






XAU EIUE. 




iW JlriilMii ■*»** «Ui h«n ami M » ^ hK» m> 
M«*M. ar — r^T ria««r Wan iJaa^ Aar wt «<UhiaC 



Aaj«<vt« 






W«MM«lk.M4 Ckei(nM«lfcaniliwita«(««hMlU. 8mm (f the ■««« mJ 

«W W «W4 MT sl*M Mnk af ab •• Wn am b* la ih ■ I <■•■>• !■< r— 1 h- 
BMlf Ute T>«b( «f tW a«rt »*« «hM ll •> W««id. Al paMfc WawtiK «■ 




I tOTm sv aUMltM 1* lb *i«t at MirtMf 1« aaj fc*i«K I 

! vsT.atBW MniflNaW val«r«« fca I^M tar«f«n kMMatfi 
ki M4.aftw*3nilti4dtoiw»i-p«h<r. iW«fc-l>Ai^4 Wa 
aftrlfanahB«n^«««aTati«af*iiB^(li»jT»v«f tWntt. |il»1 

I wfca(k«A«*a*nWaiUt4ta&*iHh.<rlk*BBh WtkcvM**: bat 4a 1^ 

tl; W, Inviuar. IM** vfll fct raifoWte a* ik Mdl «ka ra<l*4MCB 
lavwHahMt MBnlkateMmaw: h rilhtr tamt, Ih* li^i uifn, aaarwtriMfc 
4kMUMi«MMlM«UI«MkAMtW U«*ralir. JUllKcipInlMaWlkMh*^ 
lU* vart Bar te vllUnva late • p raa i t raaaal, or uaAftrnk, «h*M H omM ba 
krft wmtm. lu if.dit ^•(t* AooU b* aboot t«tL «T ««^ SI Iba. pOT bnni 
nor* iha* *ae<« Sa aooii w iV irK wort bM bean wttbdnva (aai iW ^walitjW 
■bM ■> mUbs aara lh|B |(lw of tk! v»(«r (SploToJI aiwtbtr portias af water watt 
ba p«itf»4 Bp«a 1^ aaft is Ibc nlio af tbatA cidAt falkau Ui Uta bobal «f mall <^ 
pbyad, aoJ of • Umfiaralww aeoawbal Uriber tbaa th« BnL AAar rtanijiBg l«« 
bauta ibiaitibalMi avaj. liU Um fnt, wbeaaqMOtilf of boiEac water l> aivwh 
I>UiImI 4aw* Hpoa tb Btaia* Asm aa apftantaa ealM a *>{)a(cer. vntil tha ww( 
•blfli Su«i a*>y, i>ura to iiu^'aa aoj afifimiaU* (ravitj bcjoDdtlial of watar. IW 
wvria arv llm )uii>^ toit*'^*'- "■ tbaM ruo, wbar* tab)* bvar ii wit nuda, lad tha 
•Will rolHiwd, by b*{|ia|t> tu Lbs iScair^ cr**i*jr of tba baar naaat ta b* UvwaA 
Wh'n U>iU hrar, hvwaTar, i* maoulMlareX Iba atroag wwttt ar* k«p( fti\ ibiI thv 
wMib onaa aloaa ar« l*n»isU>l for tbj* prnvsa* la b«>li m««i tba alreaf bean ar* 
braWad frao* waata harlng a Urtnial va^"* ■■' ^ra" SO to H 1b& ptr baml Ii ba> 
linill Wo awpinwJ. iliat wort, aa noHlljr OMMibatBrad, eaariatcd ctiittj of *a««r ),->t 
ibJiba KTM( arrar, (or Uiera i* MUcan aa OMck aa oaa4kiit3 or all ilia ixtnet ir 

NAI.T KllJt (Parrt. tienn.) Tic Biprorcd aah iiln c/^PWorlM » ntmaaMe^ 
|l(. tM, in ■ tup*irwiy;(. 8M,ia a loarllnJIaal ricw asd •mieaj and^c. M4, ii 
InaRanic icAlaa. • o an two ^uadraofwlar f aak* Boa*, mn(niet«d al En-*att, <r 
ar»a«oiies m< tvtttwi with in<n [daua. ovn whrdi a penl-liDa» rooT la hid ; ik 
«Mt booad 1; U« oww-rircn b ijift. t«B, M4.) Thr» flan air boQt abore » craiinf 
< r, wlM caMBraam al c'l m TiDiit c<' f Ihm a a biidcr or Uklu. ImicwI of mcb d 
biMfc he eonrad with r^ak*. iran taps in>]r be ukiI, toicml wiik fciBa-F/lta- 
Jrlral (ilix. In r'rtrnt ll-r chIi thai mar bappcn to lUl frooi bains lionud. dd an 
Uip liiniil wntl* o( ihc litii, 3 Trcl bl^h, fnnlflied wtih two apfflntn Uiui witk inM 




be 



UANGANKU: IDS 

4oor^ (liT«nah irlii«b Ui« n<*h tlial drop* dovn may 1m rtmortA from tima to linae. 
f tikmI tjiag aa tliv br«M> *all. ajpiiiit «bi<h Um hurdlMam liiil dnwn 
raril* tlCc back vail of Ihc kilu; // ato tvo vertioai duo left in Aa 
IhE iHnlli, ihrnuuh vhivli tlir hot air, diaebnr^d lif opMi pip« laid ID a 
:} <i»cr. ritn into ihi- fpufr btluirn ihc jwitl-bDiuc niCif and Uiv ilon plain, 

rJ I ' [Ul(irc<l \o iviic Ihiauih ajinliiiri in Ihc ud(«. g ii U>c dif<bai3C flue is 

iW ■■•ck wall ot Ibi- lulu fiit the Bir now mlniolnl with inaiMun' ; A It ttic wiiutip-tiipct, 
fnm vhrS Ikr unoke paun into llw anlrcmr llur a, |iitivld«d wllh n klidt^i'lalr, (<> 
§w ' lUauiiht; ihc tmokc IhcDcr duwt ofl' iliiougb a lluv intd ahu irilli a 

Ai rniii I'hr rhimnry f. It i* ihe Mm>kr-pliK' cif a luliaidiory fire, in caM ao 

Miu'T I"-"''! lum |}iriiiiiili k. The iron pipn are 1 1 inchr* in diamcln', Ihc air.diin/, S 
fauknw and the imokr-iiipe A, 10 incbra iqutire ; ih« brick fluci 10 inchca *ide. and the 
oaoal Wiehl of bkk*. 

MALTHA J ItJtimtGlMtimr.otaioeni pilch. It li awn El»tinou>>ubi.Iaucc,willi 
Ikr •mrll f>f ('iipli. Il dluDlvca in akobul, but Iraift a bituminous iriiduum ; at al*o in 
B"< ' '■' 'uri-ralior. It (ccini lo be iniiiis^Dlnl ]M-ifiilruin. 

KnK- Bad I-V.; JVuBpiN, AniuiidiiniiiifaJ, (imn.) it a cniith^wbiW 

Btui, • .rsiiinl riacdir', Yrrj bud, vcj) tiiillk, wilh t>on>idcraU*- lutCrc, d 

Mc cni<'- fl'i'l'l. and rcquirlnR fur fusion lh« ulrcmv h«al vf 100* WcdCFuiood. It 
■Mda W kri-t in cloaFlj Mappctcd bollln. unilrc naplhn, like potauium. Iimiue willi 
eoMtart U air k tpetdOr erii oxjdiipd, and lalti into powder. |[ ilccoinpaKa twer 
tl-rmtj at piunnuia lanperatumi, and lopidly oi a rrd beat. PutP oiijdc or inaneaacsc 
ran W Rdar*d Co Ibc metaltic iitoic only m tmall quantitici, hj miiing il mili lamp 
Uark aad ail tela a dnu^b, and ripotiiiK 1h# oiixlBie to llic intrnw litnt iif n unilb^ 
fagr, in a Htri ciuribtc: which mutt lie aliakra Mcaiionallf lo Taior iht aa> 
gluflKruiim oT Ibc rvticlM ialn • bulton. Thii* pioeurod, il roBlain*, howcv«f, a liltw 

MancatiBC u (UMvplIhlc of Gvr dnmi of oaTK^BBtion. 

I, Thv fnt»ty<lt piB) be obinini-d froni a*oliiiion of Ibc sulphale by preeipilalion wilh 
Mfbcnair id" Htaali, and cipdliag (he earhonie acid from the vratbed and dried coi'- 
bgmuc, by nirrnaltoD in a elotp rrucl Ullrd «itb hydrogen gai, taking coie Ihni no 
fit hara amM duiiH the coaling. Il l<- a pale given powder, which ilowly aliraela 
aiR** ftam lh« ua, ami hitutuni titown ; on whirh aenuni il uioutil he krpi la ^laat 
IMV, (aalalakg hydrogen, and hemteljcnlly miliil. It contiaU of 77'ST metal and S3*4t 
i^pn. Il liinn* nilli 24 per cent, of wnler a vhile hjilratei and vith neidi. inline 
Oi^a«Mbt which nrr vtiilf, pinlt,ar amelliyil eolored. Th^y have a billrr, acerb laile, 
Md alTatil «i>b byitmirnalfd nilphuitl of ammonia a flob-red precipiiaic, but wilb 
WtMt aSMli*, line vhirb iMti liirnn hrown-ird, and evenlnally blsek. 

1. TV' ii^aiyi' i/ iR-rafUBiH cxitla nnlivo in the intneral called Brmntitt ; but II niajr 
lafn*uir<]riU>eibT<alclniitg,Bl a r«<l hrat.lbc pn>ic>.nim(r,or by apcinIaoroMi>xydix»> 
BOit bC tbr pri>t(ii;de m ihe air. It i< black i when flnelr puhfriial, dark bnmn, aad 
b eiQirrliM'-. ' •> f--i"- liralcd in Midi, into prDlaiyd«,«ilh diunjtaccmcnl of oxygen cwh 
ft «fn.i>(- ■■<•.'• T.". .-j-il, and 30- ii oxygen. Il roTDU.inlli 10 p«r CODL of valer, a li»ef- 
■ 'r, which uccun aailvc unitcr Ibc name of XangaaiU. Il dtuolvo readflf 
1 citric BCidt, but ill fvw other*. This oxydc coniiiiutta a bionac giound in 

r»/ffi>-7 < J r n I n J." ■ 

X. l^fTuifli ■■! ■naiiciiaiic J firaaMftCn, occurt abundanlly in natun'. It gii«a not 
«rt#B ftn-t; «!,>■ Iipiiied, BDd becom«> an oxydatatcd deul«tyd«. Ii tonajata of (340 
«Mal, and :«(>&) uivcfn. 
(. Vn«dBCitr drU form* ^roen-rolornl aalU, bat hu not hitherto been inaulaM IhuD 
.><^ It eonifana ofM-M ntlal, aad \£-\i> omen. 
if^rmMf^mtie a<ii oooalsU of 4D-70 nwUl, and M)-30 mygen, 
.,„, tf maacaaM.—T^ra are two piineitwl ««• vt thb metal which oocni in gmal 
^1^ 1 UM i«iwii>d« and (be hydraled oiyde i tba Itnl of which b ftcquaUly l^nd in 

•cUli** runMlMU* 

Tilillbtfl Mfdr »f >niaca<Hir ; ^'ynOiuiJr. or fray DaaganCM ore ; bM a metaUie 
. B tfaal 9*y «*■, and affordi a black powder. Spec. |i»». d-8S. Scmiehci oalc- 
tf*t. l(T<cn«K«briiklrwithbor«Lial IbaMov.piii&intanatqnenceoflbailiicnnia- 
MM at vvnmk f«". Thi» U tbe nmt conuwrn on of nu^BBCW. and a T«y taIii'Im^ 
^p, WMt Iks aabuaaee BwtUy nnplayed in the a*nuActa(c tt ehtoiMe of li*e and M 
ibt.cl«M. b n (ha peroxydc. Ui«l quanliUea ai« found near l^yiMoch, In Devon- 
1 litiinoetfoa, in Cornwall. 



t tlm%n. 11 B larlc brown iulula»eb«f a gluay oftnllic Intfjc. aOndniK * prawn 
r««d^. ^-t •int. 1-8. Il ■cratclMO nldtpa/ ! but i» Mraicbed Vy qoort*. l&ni*tble 
«lbc U>«-;>u'e. and ederrnoea bnl (licbllf wh«« flucd wUh ibaaoT boral. Uulha 
fcrtui' li ei(a«ouiataTelh«aton>r 3 pcKcmt-ofotyct*. 

J. JTa^ntC'.cr h)^ruirleoriiwnvw«Mi ia bro«iiali4lwk v Iran.falM!lE, powdar 



I«6 



MANaANESF. 



niMP 



. with wiwWl of • DHMlUe luMr*. Spot. Rtar. 4*8. Ser«lfh«« flw tpan 
■dbrti «•!« br Mkldaittm Jm ■ tlu* nbe i InfbtiUe at itm MMr^pim i anJ •If u r v ai At 
crilgUIr whcnfbied iriih (lus of borax, tl oodiM* <f ■kml Wtf drvtmjil-, ■«< |0 
Sfw^tcr. 

4. //nuiMpnite, MiK-Jt trroMMiKj it brawnUi-lilBd:, BlTudli • trddlih^Towa pow- 
der. I^c. Krar. 4-7: xnltlin floor afar; InAitMe MIhe )ilaw-i<i|w: don bm ttfet- 
tT«ci^ vhi-nfWuil «1lh boras. Il la a dcutoiiite. TkU U a me mbarral, andof no nlac 
to Uir an*. 

6. B-trjtit oxydf^ mnafiMMt,- Jtbow (mJ. It ia > tombinalion of dpnlotfde md 
pCTKjde. with iobc baryta- 

k fl. JbifiitMf Nrnip, or inlpbuivt of aoatanne | ku b mHallu; n<p«ol ; ii Uadta or 
mnV ilrifl ijriij ipcc. Erav. 3-ftS| huooelnraKPi oannolb«nli iniuiubl<;,bai aArrda 
pwer belag maitDl ditliiiclcTidrnccoriiiBiixanpM. bf gii-inin violci lin^c lo tola atlha 
' Uow-fipau Salabl* la niuic add ; MiJation f kidi a wUle piodpiutc with Ibr ft rT» C Tft 
1 BUaoTpalaMlam, ll eoniiaLiortnlphiu MAA; mkaftaiiMe GS-SS. 

7. CaritmU a/ m«a(aMM ; dialtilU. Spec. (crav. 3M ; «flbt>li a tr(«a fKl tj 
wilh earbonole i^ wida ; I* wlnU« with lonia tSnTMconrt ia ailiic acid t nlwtim 
Itrtd fram iron hj tuccinat* or ameimia, vitM a whitn prcripilale, with flrrruFiwiii 
puliuniuni. I> ciitiiiiii or 38 faitamii: arid, 56 pcoEoiyitc of imuigaaeic, b-i of lime, 4-i 
proloildi! uf iion, anil 0-8 ma^llMUl. 

. 8. ttfdraiilUaU of matpnttt It a Uock niciBlIk hnkins aababinee, which TttUta 
I j«IlowliJi<brav>n powder, and water bf coiTeinnlidii ; tt acted upon b]r narintic acid. M 
•Snrd* no tkiorine. 11 oantfaisoTiQlmU; |iroioi)'di> td'tnanvanucSDi wnirr IX 

9. ftttifmiu fSotflimtt of nutntnimt b brown or Mark. Spec grtT. 311 ) *craldH» 

fl«0Ti nObnl* hTCilcInalioD* Tcry Untf of aa Bcid wnter which roitodn]i)sM[ mj 

IWublsallhe blow-piiw into a black mrtallold najnietic bMj) i it oclfd upon bj nRrtc 

•till ; loluiion >[< fnii a blue precipitate wilh rcrrocjanide oT poianiam i which inttl 

bjr aoila i> ibawn to b« nun^uieae. It nnsili of phoipboric acid 3^'TB ; proloK)4* <f 

, Into 31-90; TVMoipt««riBaafatie*e3X-l)0; pho«phnl<!or Iiine3'2. Anoibrr phot^iu* 

\ caUed hanautilt, ooolaini 39 of phoaiAorIc add ; II ■ [0 of proUorde cT Iron ; 3i-D oT 

I pw w p l * rf PiangamM^ and ISorvaier. * 

WMk im^ i« lbs old Ragliith nnion of ilie h)dratrd pcraxrdit of mannneie, R 
OMon in Tariona imilaliv* tliapr>, in frt-tli-Uku ccatinn upon olhcr miamLl*, a* alw 
maoiTe. Some r«rielie« pouns imperfn:! mcltllie lusirc. The eileroal «olsr b 
Innra of nuiaai ihiulef, nnd f imilur in the itmlt, onlf ibiiiln;. It in of<mr, thj 
mMIIis aoilt and nriio. lit ipccijlc aravlty In about 3-7. MlttU vrith linwed oil into 
• 4onth, black wad farmi a maia that «ponianKRHlir iiHtanie*. .K tari'.tjr tnm (he 
Hkrti, anaJjicd b; KUpKilh, aflcndol pcmjd* of BaoKancM SSt oxjitr of iron IHi 
wafer n-h ; carbon 1 1 barylM and tititn 9. llie loralilin of Uarlf wnd nrc pailieo- 
lailr Ccrnwnll and Dcronthire, the Ilnrli, nnd Piedmont. I hai« an^yinl BAaf 
(aneiMn of the blavh wad lolrl lo the nnuiufDclnrpri of blenching hII iu<i flint flan, 
and kave Iboni few of (hem id lidi in peroiyde of min^ne^ w Iho nlsoT. Very 
(ciiTmllf ihef^ eotiioiMd no len Ihun "ii per ccni. ot oxyAi of iton, 8 or !> of «irir«, abonl 
7 of wuier, and the rcraainder amonntin; to otilr <W JX'' C"'- oflbpmTDijdc 

M. tiaf LnMoe bat pnipoMd to dolermin« the emunercrn] vafiie of tninenavae ore, 
bf the iiuantlty of chlorine which il atTcnll wbcn Irtotcd wilh liquid inurialic nrld. He 
plaofBlJio manggawa pi-w Jrr in a vmall Trtorlcr mnlnu^ |<oiiri«vrril(heaviJ, oiidtbe 
oblorine b«ia|{ di»cnga|(e>l with llic nid of a Eentlc ht«t, in Iramniillnl >nli' n tc^w^l eon. 
taiuiogf milk of liniri or potaih imter. Tluf lii'juoT t> aft^rwnrdf putirv^l irilu a dilnto 
aolution uf><i1i>halKotindi)cu; on<l llitnuaoiiiyofchlonin' i» iaforr*-! fiwrn llw ijunaOtj- 
of Clic blue •uIutLiin which i» diat«lart<d. 1 |uih llie chlorin* f nlu teat ■alutioo dI iotliKOL 

Tlin niaiinfaelurvr of flint kIi'I ■■■n a anialt pro]iDrUan of ih'^ block man|nnr*t irro, 
to coir<Et lb* frM>n ttiicn which hi* ^lax 1* *|^I tn ili-rivi' from tli* Iron prMenl in Iha 
Mnil ha "iiijiloj-*, To hiiii il ia nf er»at ronK-qUfni,-!- lo fei a nulir* iiuii|;*n««* nw- 
t^nlnc a* liltl« iniii uii<U nt |i(i»ililr; liutii- iu fai't the eulor or li[ii|adilj( uf hi* pro- 
duct will <1i-|»'(id nllo^rllirr npon that eirciimtlanec. 

^Iphnt(<<if iiini\ij;ii»n" kiuibron cT Tale Veui intruduc^d inla eatitia pr{nttn||^t«cl'ra 
ft obvcotat* or broiitc TDiDr«aiau. Il ia ouil; fOFined by bentine llie black ond^ 
Blard witli a littta ground eoal. witli lulr-hiirle ooil 8oe Citico I'nnriML 

HiB jwTuxido of tDongaiiMB l< u««d aliio In tlio iDnnatiou of kIm* l«•tc^ nad i» 
■nakini; lliv black aoaAiel of pottrrj. IS(« Oxnuc Actu 

TIk- V.rovvry «f inaB)^nau in tin dato of jieioMda for Ihu ohoiniral oiia. In wlikk 
It i* to ciVnnvfly <oiMuinri), luu b«m long ■ daiiilvralum in iiuuiufiu-lim«. 

U. At SoBei prelendn tu reconvert the midawm thai i> left nflrr ilir diitoneac*- 
nent of thloriaa or av^u from maof^nDMe, an<) wbidi i> a proJort of IKtla af 
so Talao; into a lutHtance of fretX, laluiv namely, that npcniiide of moji^UiM^ 
vhiob ia pwnliarly fitted, by tlu larfc pvpoitlon of w^u It conlaiii^ t« mmm 



UA,KaANEaB. 



itn 






k* parp<»« «[ affordUig aithcr cUorino <a <fKjTK«u gM ■gMO, aMMdlng la Uiv ptot«M 
%)■ iiub*pqu«aUv lubjoetMl ia. Ih* Mid rcudiurj tcntUn bO** Ibo «jdriu>tiaQ of 
iLa aliUrinn in lh« inuiiiracitQnof <hlarida of limi^ or blanching pav<lv. atiil uf cMo. 
it« or tijjHTAXjinarial* of potnih, coiwit pKncnpallj' of ohlomla a»i *u1|iliala of 
n^niioau : l"il u tluM rMiaunnia nur uid liiiv* bMn ooMwionnll; c«nT(rit<) niiirc 
liisi iiiTc Miliihiiivt «{ nuuiiisAMi' whtn ili«j ar« utnl ID pnritf c<oa1 i^iii from iU 
•iilnhiir or aiilptturtrtlvil bydni^n, (hi! pal«nU« iuclu-iai not <uil}r tlic iibi>VG Milphal* 
■II J i-liIorid«. bill alB«Uic»ilphiintof oiangannr, amoncthe waits i-r tpfuae prodiUFta, 
ttbinli li«ooav*ru iota a loliiablc pcn>z>iU«f thBtiaoUl. 1I« applin. moreover, tbi* 
invMUan la th« caaronion of all oiiiioa, cattMiuiM^ aud olb«r Bomhinntion* of maa- 
gBikana wliBU^flT, vhoUiar natiTo or factltioni, whieb rootiua (b« OMinl lu an inbtior 
' tu iif i>x<<liit><-n, iBt<> n nupiiroiijc of maonnM*, adaplnd to prwhir* oMorino by 
' ■)|Kiicj'<it l>j<truvlil'>nc bTlJ, mkI oiyR^n bj th« ttfO'J •Itlivr of limt aloiifb orol 
jDt aloni; witli *uliihiiriv aei<L 

Tlic inmnrr in wliirh the aaiit invation it to be oarried into eifvution it n* fi>1k>fra : 
Tbo ounrcnMin at ntangancMv wholbar «om1uiHiiJ or uiuooibiDvd from b lo«<r aUU 
oxldaltoa into lb* btehar ■UU«f aupervxidc^ ia«ffeetod b_v cvodutinct operatiMM. 
■at. It h T«ll luawB that vboD pemida of rnaDKanae, r«ll«d in it* pomt batlv* 
M, ]>)'rolwlt«k aJiil alt" cntj inanKaiioao orr. Ja oiKirdDd witb hydtvi'lilorio ta lun- 
.tio liai, Iba uxyp>ii of tbq motal combliMa triili ttrn liydrogan of t)ii< aolil to form 
atcr. anil Ivnvr ili« rliU>rin# of (Im acid frn«, wlitl« Ilia man^ndar, tbnn paKlallf 
ri|>p«J ofiu oxvgf n, «')niliiii« wich Ilia ml nttlu bydniahkiiio avid to fonn a ma- 
IbU of iiiangaDwc liliewifn, wben more or Ina dilula milpburio said, ooinmuD aall 
liluride of aodiiwi]t and perouds of Bi*iigBi>«a^ ar« >o miEcl and tNatad m to b« 
_ia<!<r (o roast oo vna aaotbor Iba hydtoehbric add, which ■• diMinngtd, la coavortod 
b)' <>i" oiyii*a of the maacanaM into wator and cblorine, wbila both (he lotla pn>- 
diU'-.tl IVon tlio roiiimali aalt, and tba partialljr daoxidJMid malijcuiMr, o<inibina with 
tile Miliihurin anld into uilpbato of mJb and (iilphalo of nianguKaa. 1I« niDtorU 
ailiirr ili<^ cbloridfv tulpbabv tHliihiirM, nr carhnnalt^ inlo ■ iMqiiliHdda er doiitiMDilc 
f DiugaaaMt hj mu or olbar of the ttir«o fullewiug proocaaM: — Fir«). he «iib}*«U 
hM fluoride oflnaagjaDnie (o a itroug h«nt, prodiMM «itli«r by lli« imiipJ nclion of 

J tad, aad« j*t orjela of bd o\y-hrdtv|Mn blovpipa or of a iircnm of ilaoa. 

Sttrii nir thnsD ui»n the burtilng fuvl bv u fan or otht-t initnblc tini>uliivc power, 
but f>iriiun|E a kind «f blownlpa or bIiii<t-furDiici\ in wbii-li tliti fthmnioat •kTompcM- 
'en aud ranoliun art r<nd»ri>il quicker and inurv nomplele. 11i<)fiirnn(<t<it(mi-Iri-tl»i1 
k* as erdlonry rvr"rl>cnl(iry fiirDaff. wiUi Ibu addilioii of a 1h>x or rhi-il ^( iron 
«u at \ttf, (ol iu the lirf^plnc*. clota to llic bridgv, which box ii lilloci with iron 
miti^ boring!, or clhcr fmall (roKnicnu of ircm. ii|>c<n whieli. in their (trongly ig> 
pilad vMc, water U ntloved to triekU or droti down iluvly from o pip'. w> ca aa to 
I doconipiMod, and Ui diionaa^o b ilrcam of hydrufpin, whkb ii impelled over Uu 
4d|te o( tb* fumac* upon tho honrth by luwin* of a ta.n or other hlowini; mMbtsfl 
ling at Uia antrauuo or door oif llm fliv-|ila,.'tL Tli* manner In whic^ Ihu fumaM ia 
slated ia u foMnWt:— Tli* lui^l, •illiur (miiuoo eual^ ouk^ aoUumkCite, wood, lutt, 
t ftnt llKliIdd npMi UiH gr^Uft aud boin^ tntiisctod to the blMtofnir, *iKintTmtaa 
ytvmpaTBturt aa ta >aia* Um bm of iron tarniiifca to n red-white heal, in whidi 
Qw water bolng oll^vad tu trinklo do«u into thv wud box, is dooompofod with 
i (O|>iou4 dlienmei^nient lit hydrocra sai. 'tb* chlorido of maoganoM may b« «■• 
Ion tliD bennhuf the rertrbvralory (umaoa oitbar in a inoraorlawiconecntnUd 
ItfoU, or in a dry (late. t« the aetioa of tb4 IbImimI)' powerful tanu, iteneratBd 
nr«daKr)bad, aM bocMoac tbtTobr dtoompoaoil by tha kydroKen, vlih tha dia- 
ItiMilof It* chlorina in tbt atato <n hydroenlodo Mid orm<iriiitK> and gnt, wbiU 
nuniiiji pn>tozid« ot manKaoMa bo«oravs at Iba taiu* ilniii oi>i|it,><l into th« 
dd>^ IbH hydroelorio aeid gut (Vaensa^td i* aondsiucd by iiunnii of ira«lta 
largv cliiiiiaryk <niii>iniiig w«t oakc or Hint nodulaa in the way «i(ton ptvctiiod 
I ■uda manufaciorirA. Itislnid of the Bbove-diaeribed hvdlOg«0 ftuno, he employ* 
HMimica ButDple roverberatorv funmen with oi'diaaty fiul. aiibcr with or wltbont 
'; Ib wbiob Im naolrei the oblorid* of manKaooaa iulo bydroehlDrie aold and im- 
>«if maafpinMOk but be prafanttboeomjiuunddaiMeit bydrogau and ordinary foel. 
In hi* MiAooil proo«aiv tiiataad ot acting on «Moride of maagaueae by lb« dainv of 
unbnuibla inaUHr un tlia bvartbof a fumsor, b« tubJMila the chturidoof fna■^|)*«|^ 
111 ialo firo-ohy reU>rl«, tu an intense licat. by vhieh be eiptli the ehhirino l<*rtly 
_i lh« (late of faydrofhlerie add, and partlyof ehlorine. and tu« mannnefe leA in tka 
■torta Bay be afterwnnU pcnucidiKd by a procea lo ba pireigntlT dewribed. 
Vln lii* Uiird proecu lieau»atog«ther cblorfdaof aninganoaaaadearbouiite at lima, 

Juidliuio, ia tha prupar njuiraUnt proportiun* t<rf iiialual d«aam)<oBiii(ni. Bnd lie 
aola that mulure to the nroiig haat ut the ab»r*-d«aarib«d oamixnind liydnigaa 
1 wbarobj b* obtolni b inislUTe nf cklwide of oaloliim (niiMJata m Itine), and oxida 



10B 



UANGANEaS. 



•f MHWiMW. wU(4i hs ptmedima hy ■ prvcoa Bbmi to b« dtwribod. Haniw^ Mr 
■■ttfiMiaa biiiMt«>< iiuj be labaltaM fee lunis ar lu nw bonsKw In l)ib pmniM 
When Ihc carbonUa of Umo B utd with ntlMr loa low • Iimi in (ha rnrBacA «arbo»' 
Me al niBBgaouM nikf bn fnrnrad la nil <■<«•, tii« miihing iiiiitorr of rklvriiU «f 
ealciiim or inn(tii»>UB^ ud oxiilc of vmii^DMii it to bt troucd with water, ■>■■■» 
iIumIto out tlifl niil dhloridiM. tad Iraro tha onir of maaguirH. 

The fbllowiDg it th* plan of dccomponng inlphate of maacancuL however fDnn*d, n 
>• lo obtain from it no oilitcof mangaaeac, to bo pirraii-liMd bjaa after |irt>«aar-~ 

IIo aolaM tilt tolpliatB of nuiKanMii with wwdual, niound coin or eliaitiaal, •*- tuj 
lUw ccabiuttblv QuU4ir, onlj In *iioh profiortJoo u lo br fapabia of ill rnmiiniJM llw 
talphtiriv mtii preunl, whcu th* lalxlur* I* •nb)*Qt4<d lo a ttnat ealtlnlBicfaMI in (•■ 
lorv uf Imn. or prefnrebljr of llrc^laj', wb«rtby h« vbtaini • aiiljihnr*! of nungwiM^ 
nUeJ with more or l««aoiiiI« of minifpiiKMi He fiaitlic* lliin otwralian bj intnadwa- 
tag into the wajfi mi-Iuary inixlurr, fmgmeiila of oike, chanwal or coal, aad rontia*- 
lag lb* iDiiliaatioa of heat for tomo time, whiU the moulh uf the rvtort >■ left "ft*, 
WMraby lu lUaulpburafaa tito manganeae in a ipvatvr ur Ua* da|[ro<^ and conrerti Ha 
■alphuntinloonnxiilci !■ cneokf wit, or oUier com pound of toila, tlioaM havabam 
toixed with tlio (ulpliata cf nuin|[aBai«i tli« wda eampounil it lo bo Mtiaratod froB 
the nuin|tanaa« by roaau* of wator, afUr Ilia alKivc-d«*arib*d «alcdnat*uo la tlia raUrta. 
Th« (ii1|iliiir«t «f manganasa aonietiniM pvHnotd to «aal pu wnrka, a* a raekloani of 
the pun£aUii>n of tlio gu\ maj Iw (l«ul]>liiimlei] in raloria aa abovo daaeribod. or pr*> 
fcrably by cipuunic it mixed wilii piH« of coke, chareoal. oaal or wood, on Uia hvarth 
«t llie abovcJoMnXed rDverbcratoiy liydni|[<n fumooa. The anktv i«>, tbonM be aaad 
aM in povdar. bat in dUtin<.-i piBett. wherabjr It uaj ba rtttdD* at|araled froin tha 
wtUo of tnaneanwa aftorwiirJs miliar bj a *io*« nr other anitabla ueaM. 

Tint bllowlnB 1* hi* iTtnDiivr uf jiorlbnnlnB the aeooiid utHTaiiun. or mtio* of opora- 
tiout whurcby aa etntmrU Ih* <l«u1«xido <« maof^aocao pnidiiofd in tlie b«5or»d»- 
arlbMl prneewta, aa alao all lower undo* and titf carbonal^d oxide of msaMnaau whe- 
ther itntnral or faolitiona, into a (uporoiide fit G>r aflardius «)ilariiio by Ua aetioa <it 
lljrdtwUaris acid, and on-ffen bjr heat; nncl he nniducea the *aid pcmiridticnMAt in 
atiaor other of the Ihroc itiflowiilK wayi. Fint, he coovorl* the liiiJ >i\i'l<«"r <«rlHi*- 
alOa from their lower lA tba much hSahvr italo of oiidalion of aa acid •■( numgieiua*; 
by ailbjcutintc a uiulnra of Ihean with alkalino nuttuns inch oi potaah or aodn. eitbar 
eaiiMic i-r i-ubunaiad, on the h«arth of a rsr#rlior«tury fiiniao^ to tlio juiat •VoiicT <# 
hiMl and ■(nioa|>hcriaal axyavn, which may Or may not ba ini]iell«il aad dlAiaed hy 
nieclmDiFiil mennK Ho finib that about nno part of the oxide or carbOBato <S laao- 

EJicic uiincd with about llifeo part* of klkdlnie matter, form* a auitatila oroportm 
r tlie prodaetiou cf an add of nunganeaa. Tbo wid tnisluro fuH wilb the pRMhi»- 
lion i>( iiunganata or pirmanKanat* of poiaah or aodo, aeoonting a< one or oUier al- 
kali bu boan mad la tbo mixlurt^ Tlie niM«l muM ii iiin or laded out of tlM IWmaHi 
w>d whwn couU'l iidluolvod in hoi waltr, Tlii* •utuliun, of iihiit li iome<Jni«« oulled 
•baaialoon miaeral, on bsicifc ei)»a<>d frvely (•> the air, UevoiiU'' dociinjiuud, by ili* 
aJbaMJtllon of oarboola aa'il gm, into peroxide of inangiineM'. wliiidi iiivripatalv* is a 
blaak powder, aod oarbonated alkali which rnnniti* in ■otiiiion. whvre rarboaia 
■cid OMi be tonveniantJy proonnsl at a tery cheap ratr, tha stioTe dcavribcJ duuuui 
poaltloa of the ehameleon nisoral mav bo uruinotv J by a tiao applicalioa ct tbo aaiil 
c«id CM- Or, otharwiae, the ■Utolitie bicortonain obuiinvd from n prccrdiag deeom- 
pMluOD of oliiun«lea& minoral may ba employed (»r dccuniHikiatf atioli made MilDliaii 
of tha aald obaniDlaon, whurchy a nrrvEpiUl* of nrroildi- of mantcaatae i* iumedl- 
ataly obtaioed. Tho *n|>cniatii»t hIkaIIik liquor » in all «u>ii>it deoaiiT^d or run oft 
and itaarvad for «ubae(|upnl uae. He alan dMompoara cluiiielFi'n mineral witk IIm 
produelioii of peroxide of nuuiganeai! by the oetion of vorioua or^iuiio timduob^ Ituk 
aa atarchy or Kummy mattery but he greatly preCtra to eifcct tlie diiirfd Mvdofr 
tiaii of peroxide of niBnaanaMi by oanmnio' acid gai^ or ui alkalino bi<?nrlinaata 
lUi aocond melhnd of produdng poniiido of manipuioM fimn Ui lower ogddc or car 
bonate, vonuata in aulnccting a mixtBiw uf about nna equivalent ehemlcol pHNportiaa 
of ellber of ihcae, and about ono oqiiiiiili'ia i^f lime, to the ohJorioe enialled hf 
heat fi-oin dilorid* of maiiiCBniwe, oontjiiiii'd in tho retort, at huretofora dcacrJbai 
Or, by tr«alln|; ono ■•iiuivalciii iiroporiion uf tbnl lower oxide of mangiiiMf^ called 
by ehomiit* MMiiioiiili! »r deuluiidr. with iiiie-half of an equiraleol propMlion of 
aqocuiu or li<|ui<l hvdroohltiric ai'id. ho obtain* liinultanDauily ODclinlf of an c'lulr*, 
lant proportioD of prirtochlaride uf mansiinaa in ■olution, and one-half nu ei)ui>aleDt 
of peroxide in the aUt* of a bloek poa^tr. A lilio I'caotioo, with the prodnolioo aC 
a aolution of pmtocblorida of mangaaoaa, and black parand^ may b* etfoMed hj 
Inwtlnit tile aaJd lotiiaiiorxida with aiiuoona hydrocihloria odd id one vcatol, oad Iraok- 
MltUnc thoreftviri tha dilorlao diiangaged Into anotbar raaaal, oonlalaiag a lilu ••» 
«ainMa la a moiit atal* 



I 

I 




HANFAOTUKINO INDCSTRT. UW 

Uiird tnoUiiHl of ■■nnicrlluK iiiio iJor«xl4> of muiiianM* ilx lair<r niiilr or rftr- 
lie MiniMl* ill iliNrlliii; u«*r tlu aurhMi of vIiIibt ■» Am. !ii > tuoUt alalT, tb« 
dtntoiiilc ot iitoi«, frviiuciitljri'alM nllrou* ^»*, vlituh ii iibi^iiod »• a wntis |>r(>itu>ct 
In t*rt«!u (JiDinluul u^rKliouA, w in (ti« inaiiufii<(Iaf* of oiulii- nri'l, or riilrnlcuf Ii-wl, 

In Uiit «aH, th« nitrmu gta beeomtt rtduori] U> « lowur data of oxidalinn, Bud by 
tmjiartiiiii; e%yt*n Is the lower oxMcofmuigkacHv eoavcrUii into ppi'uxi<1ii 

MAXi)ANF>'K, oxide OK; fur n Hmp(* HMtbod of uecrtninin); (lie vahts of UiM 
wImUiicv in Uifl jimhiclion of chlariiM-. DDd tb« muiulavliin! of tbu vliloiidu and 
eUoratea, tef- Camiiai .SiHrunii<. 

MANGLE. {Calaiijft. Vr. ; .Vnnmf, Oram.) Tliia i* k ir*U knovn maddii* lir 
wmooQaatf tabla cloUu. tahia napkiwi, a* w«ll at linon and cMtun hmitutv. A* 
umall/ Diadi^ itoemJaU of aa ouWii^ mlatwular woimImi cIimi. iWri wllli >ti)n««v 
wUdi loaJ it to a dcKrvii of proaura tliat it •lioulit («•»!«« apan ih« twu ryUiul«r« 
on viiUhilrwIi^an.l wlit.'li, Vij n>lliii({ backward* and forward* nv<r tfiu lltirii t|jrt*d 
upon a poUtlud tnblr uiiJemMtli, render it unoolh and Ivt«L T1i« iucivii>c- wliuel. 
btinx Inrni'hei) witli Iccth BpODbothaurfatieiur ill pcripbri}', anil linTijiij; u imtuli cul 
o«t nc »nc psrt. ollcin-t a pinion. uaifornilT 'lii'^au >» "ft dircpliun. ti> act allErimtcIj 
opvn it* aiiuitlo and inndc, ■oailooaiuo Uio reciprocating nol ion of llip cLul. Thit 
«lcaaiit and nuoh admired RnxlUh invuntioi^ otiUd tho man^lcwlicet. ho* been is- 
trodaord vith j^rcnt ndvanta)!* into iho maolilnory of Ilio t«iulc maunrwium. 

Ur. Wsrcup. of iJartfuri). odiaiuiiil a pat<<iil Mimral ycnn afo tor a nuui((lt. in nkicli 
th« lin«li hviag rollxd ruuiiJ a cyllnil^r r«viilvliij{ in atatiannry bra^iog^ U pmard 
dovnirajdi by httuTy v'i>ii:1it' limii; upou Ici aiM^ aicii>n>l u curved bad, mod* tualida 
ta andfre. or iravuri^ It'nii riulit' <o lat, and 1«(t (O rislit iittf^riialiily. 

Uf. llulii« of Yurl^ [Hil«Blcditi JuDtv 1W& aiiatlior fonn of tiul>Kt<', ccaiiKlinv of 
tlirt« rolUta jiImcJ Qua abore aaoLlier in • vertical fram*. the aiUof I)it< upper ri>tlni 
bdnii prtaaw downward* lijr a powerfni aprins. Tha arlid'.'* inlcndwl lotio •nioollivJ 
' — )iitri<diic4d intv tlie nmvliine br pauins tSoin undor tliv Tuiddle rolll«r, vhieli ia 
lo revolve by me&Bi o( A\ wli»I; the pinioQ uponubosd axis vol k* in a larg* 
i wKccI tiicil In Uio (liaft of tiin miuc roller. The linoUk Ae-iiilapiMilai unial 
, . eeliiiff vlolhi. Tliia riiAp.liitin i* merely a nnali CaUC«UKU. 
AKIfOLD ltKIJy['l.'l.L. (£iA(ii(ion.j 46 Brj^tn at>4 Simt, Rott Stttfl. mii>- 
4uriA, /iivna/vra aitd Jfnnii/'iu^Brm. — A inaiiifold Mtl-pnll tonilmcled ofion an rii- 
\ltAf n*w plan, bir wbioh on« pull i* made t<< ting built in any uiimUfr of roi>m«. 
Wlirn 111* p44nl*r i* jilaood iipj>aiile to any nauie on Ilia dial pialc, and kimb ]iull«d 
out, (li« bell la tben rung in Uig room in Jieate d. 

All improved cimiliir telegraph litll liavisi; two dial*, nnmbare'l in (hi- •HOii-iuaii- 
ii«», by mrans of whieli eight different clerlu or workmen may bo eallwl. 

An airaigiul mouth piaceand boll, br Uowine liUi the moutb'pieon the bell iBmin)(, 
al any diitaneo lautlian 1,000 faet. llil-i i< un Improvvd method of ringini; n hell in 
place* too diatant or not aaitwl for workiiii; iTniika and wirco. 

Aiingl* Toiiu lube mnuth-pjeca and b"ll-pull. Whnii drawn mil the lube oriAc* i> 
opened, uid the tlgual Iwl) builig run|i, the nltendaiil ii ealUd tu iLv other eud of Ihw 
tube. 

A ndTolTlnir miiuth-pieo* Tor i-oieo lube*, «i^ b«U-pull combini-d ; oontrlvad •» 
Uiat onr niouUi-jiieep ounneeu wiUi aii or any gitAter number of vinvi) liilir*. nud nt 
lb* umr time- wilh n •iiiillBr number of bella 

HpMiineii of a bi.|f4>lu*]iig valve ninuth-pieeo for Vole* tnbe; aiidof a opting eUTMtd 
nioi:(h-|)iro« for vuii-e Inbe. 

IIAMOC, it the Indian iianio (4Uie nultiliDOB tnatleT of the abmbjitfrsfAa ntMiif- 
kol. Train whieh emuata ami tapion* aro madf in the We*t Indie*. 

U.\NN.\. ii ilie (oncpi'Ie tatu.'hailn*jnien uf Uin ftmriinu oniu^ a tree much onlll. 
rated ia Sicilr nitd f'ulabri*. It i* now Uttln ufoil, nnd Ihnt only in medinniv 

IIASIIPACTLKINC; IMM'.-iTRV, wmoiMi l.i.t uli. 1'iii.i.%t lV»nir.v. by Win, 
Fairbaim. Ew|., V. K. S,, Memlivr of th" lIl■litut^- .rf FTBiiei>. — If wv liiki.. t witl uot 
May a italiitiDal. luit a ivry cunury view uf the miont potltion ul llaiiii heater oiid 
lh> •ttrr<iundi»K diilrii't*. nnd eninpnre il with whul H wa* at the eloieof tliv lu'l ami 
tbv e«uiiu«iieeiii«nl vf Ihe prnent vcntun'. we tliBlI find thai Bt thai periwi lb' ni*- 
fill and todailri*) art* were eonij-dJulivrU of liltle iinporliini.'e. IVo nknll elf linJ 
Ibat th« gralta of a new, audalioTa all olh'un an iuipotliuil branch uf mnimfri'tiiriiK! 
indoalry tpringiitg tntoexittaio*. IliavrDorolnnituftlK' •ininof oui'inanufiK'Hiriiig 
inijuatrj Bt that period, bnl til* writiiiir* of One of '/av ■•■tltnl and niott inlelliL-i-nt 

rloMen. to whom iliJi euuutry Ik ind-ibledGirmBny iinpruvenieul* in maehiiiery, Ur. 
ll* Konocdy, iuC^ima uk, tliattli.' igiiniiinicof nullify am antevvdetit to Ilieyeirl70t^ 
WM ol an cxcaciiiuK^y limiip-l deti'iiptlon. lliat Keultomaa in hitaecoaiit of tlie rit* 





^U 



uo 



MANlfPACrURI.VG INDITSTRY. 



OMiii oi wnicu n jouog parKm coiua worK mm itn u ivaniy ipinaiaa ui«uiia m 
tue\ thftv w>i Mtilf or no i^han)^ bat > Tirv iiintcHnl allmtlios took iilan thnnlj 
ifUrtlwiiitruJnvtioii uf ihnA iriipraTtfUMiiTi^ wIiiHi vi-rr iniinoKatnlT fotlovoil bjr Uk 
\>k«rtzlit'< iiiii<iliiii<-rr Tor luiMIiiir >n-l rovini', 'llxux nrciininBni''l I'v lli<- IntroJoo- 



lUiil pti>[;rFM ot Iho cntun lr>dp, MMtJ that Dm iMOil'loMa u • iDMhIiH rwntlari 
■uiiiiiiar^ (or It crM'. number of ytin wiilifUt injr attempt at rtn[iniT«nkrM nnlil ITM^ 
vlieii )Ir. .loha Kay, ot Boltoa^ flrat mtro-lnotJ Ibc l)}--abMttA, alid Ikat the «pinillll( 
of cutton van from tliat prrind, and for iimat vcan ntvrioii^ w almoat eotinlr 
IwirumicJ bj* thr (uniljcf iliumanBrnctntcr M nu ovn booae liuonitfd an-Jdapl* 
pRVMi vtvl on till it «w round DcuMHry lo dirUr (h«rr labor*, oiul lo wfurat' Um 
WKivir.i; from Iha •filBntaff. »ni Ibal a{tata fran th* eardtBe and atbor [nvjiaralan 
liroi-n-'i-'^ Tlili dlvulon (J labor u Ur. R«a««df truly *aj^ trd to ttiipni«>«a»rMa ta 
iliifiir'liKit kn<l mlanine. 'tv (!n>l introduclfcf •ifs^fi'' "i'f>roi*«DM>t» in »!■■> I.ncil i-.im. 
lnunl^ Willi nliiWi tli'^j jn'rlumivil llifx <■)": it t^acth Ui< . 

«hinff, "hii'li. tlit'ii^b rnAt Bii'l i!l><vni»tri".'l- : ilieni ponu-l< i ■ ■ 

tli'^ir pro-luor." Thui it wan t^t iiiij-tnTtniFiiU. aiitl (bu iIlTMioa of labvr. lin: Iwi id 
Uie fni-tvry (j-ilrm. aDiI that iplrnJM anil fitctmave proeeaa which at IhvpnsiaA nH 
luent Bii'j'for Dianr yean to nMii« oil! afftvt the il«a(>ni«a of nalimii Fnnn 17M> Wr 

' ITI'^ irliTn Mr. IU^rna*ai^ «f Bloclibiirn. firrt introdaMd hi* ^>ning mubt. (by 
•ooBiii of which n jvuDg parKm could work from l«n lo twanty apiBiflaa Inataid M 
vue\ tlw 
afUrtlw 

Aik^Hzlit'i iiiii<iliiii<-ry [or iuiMIiik an-l rovini; 

tion of Mr. Crumfaaii'a miilc, ib i;^ inaf li« jiiillv (onudfrvXto pnn-ti'tui<T thvirtelll 
o( the (Mti-ry *y*lrni, which ha> now Eforn lo auoli oolaaMl i)ilBtwinn(k natorrndiir 
it oiifl nf tbo niotl hnporluil and mott cxtcnaiTe antem* of manufacture rrer bn«vii 
in the liirtory of aacienlor modem Umc*. Mr. Ark<iTi){ht buHt bii flnt wiill nl Oaoa 
tbniin l><rIir*hirt(taffatiiqiuite&om Mr. RflnoeJy)*"!!! t'TI. It vaidrimi by water, 
but it WB* not till i'Dt), or fomatime afW'r. whtnlhc •Iiibiu i'Iik'"'"'^ Wattcan>c into 
ain, tkit Ihc cDltoQ tr«dii advaneod at aui'h au aocrloralcd fpn-d. a* to Te*d«r ii< in- 
creoiD anJ pri'hiiil lna)(nitiul? almdat bfyoiiil eononpllon. Tbia imncnae ntcauun ia 
■«l only a ■iilii<<ri of ileeji inicrtat to llii> phllmujilu'r aad iiIalfiMnan, but one wbi'h i« 
llkf ly lu fnrnUh s Ut^ £('M rj nbtomI.i->ii f.-r the fatur« hialorian of hla ooaniry.* 
1 win ii'iT. tn-utdn you with the ttaliicict "f the cotton trade m It now ai^t*, )int 
dmiitt obxTVi^B* mnav of yon are donbtli^a better inRinii-duuthi*tiil>j<>ct than loy- 
MtU, Oinl I am within ilieiiurk. vhen I iIbIr that no lc« Ihna SI.Si.''' bale* of cotMo 
ore conoiinci] weekly, in the two kiuK'I"n». KiiiiUnd and Scutlatid : Ihnt neariy 
Il,tii.K^oiHi (piodlrt ar« almut toniUiilly in iiiollwi, (pinninu upwarili <4 I'JA.OiM^OOO 
banlu.'T'ii'.IKHI.DIKinilUtDfyBTiipcrdHy — in Itnpth •um^ !•'»< lu L-irMiii»ctilHi llw fflrihm 
tOOO lini»^ Out of tbia immenae prodnction Sttonsi lSI,'"jri,':ioi:i [niundi of yam art 
«i|iort'<t: iht remainder u eoDvcitvd into^lolh, la«e and atliiT t«itile fnhri*^ Thia 
1)1 a tvc I lull 11 rucreuw. tU> ioinwDaa extent ofprodaclJoi^eauIJ not be elboled • illinot 
coitiideinble fhans'* ■" Ihc proipocCi of the moral u well ai ih« phriital <oi»dit>o« 
of (i>.'ivly. It hai eniinilycban|{nd ilie poiition of the mident r>o;ru1atian of iIk Am- 
triel ; aiul the aculudcd TOlleyn. farrn'hooim and coltajim. tlio bcauliea of a LAna*>- 
■111 re luudicapo of ihir laat gttieratjon, ar* mrldlj RiTiiift vay to the conTorvion of' 
rilloffea iiiio |io[i»K<ii« town*. w(lh ludnintrBliI* rnreijana which ruonnd with ihi 
buay nam of ilw i|>)ndl« and the ahuttlft. Aliiitj; with theii« chAaf^*^ wo tea a nov 
Mnitration ipnnicing into ollttenCe. tacl'iriea, ■l'ani<enu:Tiina. and toll ehimnty* r^olng 
in even' direction, nod the nolle anri <mnke wliiuli nient the vyi> noil lh« ««f of th» 
atranf^'r at cTcry itep iprc etide^(^e if the acliiily niiil jirorp<T<ty of the l»dMtr(oiM 
lure, which at ■omu fiilur<> tiinv in Edglitli hinl/iry <ri11 annoonce 14 tiiCOrvdlB^ j; w « 
rnti'inn the JDrtmlioni and ihc diieovcrioa uf llie iiincteenth t^ntilfy. 

Ill ihi* nttem|>l to place before you a ahorl aci^ciDnt uf llic ii» and progrtaa ivToar 
iiatiunal iuduilr)'. ( iiiiwl not forfnl that vain, howci-er finely or ilexteroialr ifiin ia 
notdolli; and hvnt we cuter li)Hin annlher, arid eijiiiUly iii|tenioai prroeoi, 'Hieyara 
nii«t bo wutrii bofore il in At for uk, nnd wi- •tmll lie wmTinic on= of the matt intcnft- 
inilB« ».'l lu 'laburaleoprnilinnaciriha u«ef«l art*. I need iiui iuforui you that th* 

' anrleiii lliii-lu'j^ C(i^iilian(^an<l probably the cftrly fhiiift.' niiiverlivl Ihnrynrn inta 
cloth. The liiJinri nndOriculaldciiBrtnicntifllipOivftl Ktliil'iliiiii i-thiliilnl thoMod* 
tmd prinitifr character of th<'ir loomiaudolhrr iniplement'v vbii'h hnTefi*ei> liaiiiM 
down from EcnviBtion to ecncratioii from lli< tarlieit pcri'>ili. wiih-nit rhniig* or inv 
lintvi'Tneiil t'>tlic prrunt dny. Loom* oflhii rude coiiitrntlion Bore iulrodiiceil nM 
KufOjie dutinj Ihu firit nHmpnaof civ ilita tion, and formntiv ecnlurica ore« Ihanwlt 
B-lvaiir-'d nalioni were conttnt to am the tma* !ii«lni>nenti. alnioit without imptM*^ 
Rieiit. 11 til i! ihir Introduction of tlie ftylngiahutUa and tht «il»ei]ii<'nt inrention uf Hall 
and Arknni-ht uptnej bih'W nnd iintnii1il>-ii field tor Improvniiutili in ariry dtpM^ 
nieiitff art iitid mnviifa-.'Iuriv FoWL'rKiKm- nt Ihal period wrr^ anksown, and oltboi^p^ 
alUinpt* Wft>! made by Mr. CirlwriMhl, il. early n* n"«. tii «anven th* hondlflMI^ 
into a muhine tobotno'v<>d by [luwcr. it witanot until the be^innlnenflhe prvaatitnM- 
torr Ibat tbc [lovor-ldoni aaiumod ita pivsent form, and prcacut«d lliat inteUigoioa ol 



UANUltE. 



Ill 



■IrnrtiiM vliieh reodend it Hir-««Uni;, anil 4iMblcd it to MMpvtewiUi (Ii*luuid-1««IB 
vta«er. Frum iImi time (about IHIVur IBIVX » maj d>l4< the oommeoMnMot of 
tkat iiicrisMfl til sliirJi tlint iaiDorUU branch of uur manufacturf- triwexteii3»l Hi* 
inipnivitiuriiU lEiiuiiiiHii bv At. B«BDct Wuodcmft aiul otlior for miriog (villtuid 
liiDitar r.>l>ti.-> <:n'iit--i! iiov ^xpodUat* an') Kpplioatiaiu. and (fruity i urrnunl tli« d«- 
nwnil nt th'i' il<-vn|>li>jn a! iiiaauHMIurM. wliilnl tbc inT«nlioiiii of Jacijiianl fur wcaV' 
iaaHgiiK'irliilbiMrUtdevorVouo wlllilMtDllrv>ii«lii|t«nuitvandb<<u<ilv. ui<l**o(inl- 
pli^vd thc]irrCE<tiono(niaoruaoiTfiirth« |<r«>Iiialiuii<^tKRfl4 hbiiiu. I>i« iiivrvue 
and DXl^tit of cloth oiaaalKOroJ from power-loiMm niijr tis ••l.liunt'.'d fr««n oRicial 
NtUTD^ kiDitly fiirDultcJ by Mr, IjKinar>l lloriicr. Tlicri are now ul irork ia Uio 
l/ait«d K>n<-loin aliova Slt^UUO povcrlooniL Now ai en^it lu-HU will iipou tlis aviir- 
■(•futui 6fr< loslxpioMa of cloth pet VkcV. null |)ic«« M yanla loii);, wj ti r«nl« 
• Jar luir luuiii. ws liav« Ui),<>oft vliUh iniiltiplic<) by iS gii« A,3i«\u(iu jrai'ilii. or 
ILSAI Kii)iI><'> 'iiili* «l«lolli pec day, the diklaiKt* b<itw««n Liverpool aikd Stv Y(>rk. 

Uiily [bulk '/l iho Inportaaoo aad •itsntof anunnbotur* that amptujr* iifwunUof 
llkO)''' butt-li III WMvia); aiomv ■ujif^f'ng fram Uial toitro* (iJio pow«r-louiii) nn an- 
onat prwl'irp of cIoiJi thut would «at«iid over a aurfam in a dlnrl lino of upwanlanf 
IjOOlXOOU iiiilea. 

But ellhoagh much b« bf«n don<\ muoh hoa ret to bo Aeton)|>Ii>lM?d luffoni ibe 
aupply c^oal* Iho Jonund. It niuat appear obTloua to thoac who linrc itudin) aud 
watcntd ik« unwcariod iavcDtion and owlianod aidranowaenl whirJi ha* li'jniiliiod 
th« oxortujiu uf H'lr *D|ilii«*riiicnad modiaQioBl indintrr. But nailh«rdiffi>^iilii<-* iinr 
daMftor, liuvTir (onnidabl*. can itand aaairwt tho iii>)aiiulabl« tpliit, idiill, »»d pur- 
Mvoraorr i>r tliii Ka^UthoaalBaw; nor will it b«d«iii(d Hint lliviiiiciiuitv mid nrvoi^ 
Ullag rp«iiinv»i o( 4ur ««gli*nU«l popnlalion arc not only (h* 4iu»w* i>( our inaiia' 
laeMtvi, ni'lwa^'f. and aUainboal*; but iIm pride and glory o( our >jwn ctiiiiilr)'. 

It it for lliia KiiporlanC ebu*, that 1 have jrvntur«d hi addrvn yoit, and I tmit tb* 
liiiM i* ■!■>: for dittant, when re ■tinll witnw* o*UbIi«liinonta luiUblc f«r tliar cduiM- 
tioo, audi ai will tvucli tliani t« rcwcn and In Xbaak, and t» inpart that fcnowlod|[« 
«MMtial to a inorii cDrr«it ac-juaiotanac with pknicol trath. and a doaivr coaccplton 
•f tho rarivd inaiiii'iiUtidai of ilioa« art* In which loniiit tho troo tnturcaU or tJi« 
MiuliY. — I^vttax •( ilitncAttirr. 

UA^CKK A patpiit fur an ruvllvnt srliclo of ihia kind wat obtalnwl iu Hay, 
10(1. by J, LL Lawfl*, Jmi), (or a full dM»rl|i(Ion of which tlio r«ad«r ia roforrtd lo lb* 
ani«Ua C<ir»iil.tnB. lie dnMUIpotaa bt/uft. apulitiv and oclior aabphoipiiatiM of limo 
bj miking Ibcnl in nowdvr withMmoch KilpUuricaciiTwwiU libnrato tti'nigbcJtha 
pMlplionc lo diwoive the ph<iapbat« of liuii'. Tli« frt* phoipharie aoid ii thereby 
fMdy U> i'tiinUno wlUi lh« varioua atkallno earth* nntalacd In the *eili whllo III* 
phoaphaU uf lima i« bivucht to a tinio of mora nunitta division than it puMibU by 
noehanlMl uieaii*. Mr. LawetaUo nrujiotMUiinix tlioabomolubUtuiiorphoi^haU 
wJtti iueb alkHlitot are doAdeiit initio ooil, and thiu tofl>TnalnaauI«adBpl«d1oftr■ 
litlM Ik llh third iinptiiVTiiiFnt in niaiiiirf in Ihi? r<>nn>l><>n and appiiaalica ef a 
liijaor of flinlik (oraurh tuiln at urti Oi'iioitiil in ti'liiHv nilinL Tlio loit noaipDDnd ha 
WualiUn to bo valuabLe fir eruundi mii'.-h cri>ppgd witli wlioit nud otli«r Mreala tbat 
Mquira a guod d«il otwlica (or tlieii i-rowlh. 

llMfTMllj to bs ii^nltcd, thac Ilu9 moil impottoal iinbjnctof adentUk reaMt«K 
haa hitherlu bucn tmtodloo much in nonc^lded miiitiier: that 1% either by uidividailt 
little «->ii v.'iodni wiiJi practical famjnji, or by fAriitiir- liule aoiuiilnl*] with the natara 
«f4oili.aAdlli4'.'haag«ipn>dncedontbMibj|rtheeiLltiviitlanof4)IC»raatordMiof|ibiDta. 

ITudor Iha aofpieos of the Britiah Aaaooiallaa, VnttMot LlebiK, iu tliu ji-±i lS40t 
flim ]imR>ut<t*lO" bia vUv* on ajtricnltniw, from whiob jal« «« may Inion a Diiirit of 
lnv«uic*tinn into ll, nuoh m had not preiioiwly eiiiil«d in ihit toontry. Anmg 
ulbM laborur* in tbia fl«td, w« mutt itale that Mr. J. B. Lavra, of ItolhatMlcB^ ia 
UanforHahir^ waAOomipiod aaTMal raan piior t^ tha fint edition of I'rofa<aor Liebig'ii 
work, ia invnliKaling the aolioa ofdilEcrcol eh«taioal cotobtnationa when apptit-l aa 
mwurcB, Iu th« moot important «rotu of the farm: and barini; ever tince ronti&ucd 
bn oxMriinental rvwaroliot witli all llio iJ^hla of xacttca, wiui which ha i> familiar, 
aided by Dr. J. D. Gilbert, a iikilfa] analyticitl 'chomiat, bo hiu botu able lo arrive at 
coacluiiuTii of grciirr valae and prtuiiioD Iban lh« inertly tlieor«tieal d<'t«rminationa 
of tlK fiei'iiutD prvfoMior. In. the oonrM of ihit iaiiulry, the wholo tenor of Ihs retulta 
of MnMri. I^avA and CHWrl, aO'l alt» of iufuriiialiem derived from inl-'lli|tiiiil a||ri- 
onlturat friend*. Ui>on ov<t)' vnriiiiv (■( lund In Orcat Itritnin, ho* fuii^vd ii|i»ii them 
opUilou* different iroin llowe uf I'rofi-u'jr IJi'lirjt. mi Mine imuirtant puiiii*: niiil innr« 
aapaclitly. in relaliun Iu lii<io-ca)lcKl " Kiiiinrnl tiv-inr." which la c«ibi»li(>d in (he tollow- 
Im; Mntenor lo Iw found ui ixHit 2tl, »f t.)ii ibini edition of his work on Ai'iionllural 
OlMMiit'y; wlierehcuyg "thrvr4|iaou ativlddimiiiiiih uriitorHi* mruiftproporlioa 
to Uio dt>ii<aut*ou or iner*a4e uf Ihe niinciDl labat^icci •'onTrycd Ui it in mannra.* 

both in a wieniificanda praetieal poial of viev.aftarreoL;] 



lis 



MAKURE. 



iiImi an tkc MbjMt tisra kl iHiK k ju(l|{BiMil Mkj b« fanntJ bvm Ui* MMav It 
wliicli th« |W4ifa*or hiiiual/ ipuila ■>( tkc noiiiFrml tofurjr ia Ih* iivw iiliUon ofbi*!*!- 
Un uii rlieiiutlr]-. Hiiii at piu* iXt, lio uy> of Ihc agneakari*U cf Bncfeoil thai 
"MKMiurtx laWr tliiij[mii>t kx that in llie h>-q«I1<J miiieral Ui««r)r in Ha dvT(l«p>n«M 
md altUBsIc pcrbitjou lita the wkolo fuiara «f if licvlUBc" 

" LcraUiif apou Uw tutgntt in ■ gh-tmiud poial of tuw o«ly, it WDuliI H«ai Uiai wi 
MMljii* af lh« Ml! ujic-n whirli eroiu vara to h« •iporimonUllr urown. u >bU at • 
' kauirMco nf itii' i.-ainj»i-<li»» of lliv ero|i difald liv tli« flnt jMimlit iur«ruinc4i vilh 
''UMTicvofilMi'liazlii Willi* iv>i»iiiuvnt>ilii*uil»iu<lit4c><<Dti aiblai llu ca«oi»gno» 
. nunlofourKioronttiiuticrunnc nf SvM rtjxriinciitA, tlif iiii|iortan(« of UiFMfioiBli 
WU carefitlly rontidfnnt. When wo rvlWt. honrvcr, tliBl u Kire of Mil *■! (Mbn 
Atcp nu}* bg wmputoil [■> *<i|;L aliDUt I.Utt.UUU ib\ ((buU({h lh« riMta of pUnta Uik» 
tiutKh (rider miigcthiin ilii>\ nn^l lakinj; tJic one coiulita-int of ammonia «r KitrofM 
■I an illiutmtiou, tlut in uJiliiif; iu ihuqauiUly uf loiloqiiaiililyiif aniaioDi*a*l*Mt| 
conlaifliuii lixi tW of unmoaia, vhiuli «oiil-l beta ■iniunally buavT uid tntT ol^tlr* 
' dr«uiii){. wn ihoalil cnlj iuurviuu th* jhc t«nta^ uf uumonla Iu ilia >ai1 l<j OVOOT, tl 
* b a*K]i>i.t tbnt our ini>ili»<lii of aiiiilv'l* vonid Im qilil* liiiminptftvol It a|i|u*ciatc lb* 
tIi(T«(vni'c tivtVT«ii tlif •nil t>i'tt-iv »iiil nftor tho apjiliratinn. — I lint it tciMJ'. in it* •Ul* 
«f till ail it i VII. an<l "( IiiuKlv iirwIiiTlivn condition, iq (mru that n'tKliUxal M «»- 
Ctruoj; and fn-nioiir knowM^- of lliu cCeula of ll^ laln taiwo uo wh««t. vcmay «••■ 
lidontly B»trt that the '(iinntilr of it uppoHiI aboTc would hitve )(■'''■■ ■> pfoduoa at 
leail double tliat of the unmaiiured land. Tha ume kind uf aii^in-iitt mignti IBiUnd, 
lie aLlofjUd in ivftrenen to tlie tnoru im|iortuBl of tlii>u otuutlliHol* of a anil wklch 
arv fouuil in llm vhi-* of tlie jilaal* froirii u|Htii it. und v» ilcli'nain'il. tbvrrfunii t« 
Mek one n-iull* in nniitlier tiiannrr. liidred, Uio impi'tfvrtiun 'if cur ku»«le-lc«uf (Im 
produrtivp i^iiality uta K"I, a> d<-rit«1 frv<iii ita |iureFnta|[«eiini|<'iwtiou.l>at bMnaMK 
ply proved by lUe retultt nf annly--^ vliii^h har« bmn inibtithci) during tha lut ten 
yoart; nnd in corrnburatian wp nrlvl only refer ti> the opinioni of Pnifeonr Slafanaa 
till* iiitiject. vlii. in hli Ofl[<Kilv of cbomiit to tll« * Landea Ookonoinie KdlepHii ' of 
rniMio. Iiu piibliihfd tlitr riaiifti of many Mkalyve* of h^Iil Tim Iriilb ii. ihAl Illllt 
b a* yol knovn of what a aoil nithvr 'u, or oagbt l« bo, in a eliPini^nl poiat of TJ«« ; 
but when We eall la Blind tliii iiii»!iitotioii* of Profevor ItiiM-rr. in relalloa ta ifca 
ail^aalu aoiila 6>und in mi\i^ Hiid uf Mr. Way ntid otber*, lu f> tb* olieiiiiial a»d pbj- 
f'alml gTOp«rti«tof (i^ilt, la r«lntl<.-ii l<>(hi'Ulniiii)ili<'t-'. and (o Mlina MiWaMWaiMMd 
t* tbrw action in aolntioiDt, Be tanv hi l?ail nnlivipnte iit cliemiitry that slie will or* 
tunic Ihrijv irnprirtAnt li^ht on tbii Intvrviling bill Intrieatu mibjcct, 

"Inonrflehl eiiieriiDenla, tbi-n, «« bar* Wt-u laliiAed with jimii'i'riiiKtpeeinpnaiit 
the •uli' «lii-^U wi're %•> be the •iibji'cU of them, and lmi« •'Xiitht tv Bu-ct(«in tlwlr 
drfiei-invy m refaM to tha proiliichoii of ilifluroiit ri'iiiis by meant vhiah Br«uac«(*v 
to be not only far aiom tiianai;--'al'l', bill in etery Way niiiie oaiii'liiMvv and laliifca • 
lorr in Ihei'r mulu Toillntirate, — wlint it Itnued a i'>'taii'>ii -I rroji* UallaHB'tf 
■uuh univcnalitj in the farming; <r1 lireal Brilain. that nnv i'lreetif^allon In wlatiwi 
In lilt a^icull^rv of that eoiinlry may aafcly be grounded on (he ■■HMritk4i nf Ita 
•duptioiL LfI u<^ then, direct attention for a' moment to lomo of the ehief foalnr^M 
latatioM. Vhat ia called n conru of rotntion i> the period of yrnri sliieh ioiloda* 
tba clreila of all the dilfereat eropi f;roirn in thai louiiuu or a)liirniiUt>u. The onipt 
whioh thna •iiextad oaeh etli«r. and oannlitiit' a rulntion, niny bo two. llirM, font, «r 
mnre. vurvinif wltli Ilia nnliirx nf iIin toil and thx Jnd)[iii*til uf ih* famer; ImI wbat- 
etnr eourM tii.'adnp14d,Iioindivli.lnal <<ro)>— wlt>^at, (or •'U'n(d4^ ItKrovn Inlneillal^lj 
■noeecding one of tho aame dcacription. but It it •cirii atpiiii only afV-r «nni« i^bfr 
ervpt liATe been Brown, nod at taeli a period of llw rotatiuu. indiml. m by eiperieiMn 
it It kiiiiv n that the toil will, bv direct mnnurs or other mean^ hare reeuieeod tto 
oiiMibility ofiitudtK-insfn prolititlilu quantity of the crop in qoeation. 

"On caraftillv roiiiideniift tli**u aalabliihed and voll-known fiMta of a^entlurr, H 
appMMd to ui'thai. by Inkba lolU dllier at the end of tha rotation, or at ImM at 
tllBt period of it whun the oralaary cunrae of fanniiiji turui-yard tnatiUfe woald h* 
addM brfur^i any fiirllier cpop would be ([""■<)■ ''"' ''honld th«n huT'lhr ujIi in wIm4 
may Iw terns") a •mrmal, or. j>«ihiti>t Cutter alill. u pratii'raliy and ayrirultmriUlg Ml- 
h»Mled ilale. 



"Nov, if il it (mind, in llie ei]inriflncr of the farmer, that land of any ci*^m<|Ballty«>tb 
he i« well fi^ nil in led, will not, when in thin eonditiwn nf pr- -ti -' -■ttniutt.^ 

jdoMUf 



wUuh 

Sold tbe'iniin lit T ^iriiniinllv obtfllntfioniiiofanT pAitioiilnr eri>].\ * 
C fumi-^anl liiiiniipi* i1 vill do v\ it ia evident that if we iiipplv r< , 

lltitffiknu(ft]lriiitJik''eun*tltn<intjufbrin.yardinafiU(«bulh iadivtinnliy flbiUombinail, 
■nJ if by tlip tdio of ilii^'n [ilol* w» alao ^av Die crop bolli without iiiiin<itn ■•( »«J 
kind iiiil wiih f.irin yatil 'iiAiiurv. wu thill, in tbi>eoinpira1ivn rntnll* ob: 

l!»r ni->r- •Jti-fi"i>iri •"Irs' >rili«>i)»tv>liiin uto wbal n-utliliMcla v#(>, 

ar) <>-iit-av uf Hi; iiiiitDre, m'at in ditfevt in rMjitVt to ibe piuporttoBof 0. 



• a 
viae 



UANDBE. 



IIS 



jtaxpof^MDUd opon, tbu maj analj^ oftb* toil «mI(1 Iibt« |^(«a m. to Mbw 
ord% v« abonld haT« b«Aira a« vtr^- cood gfonnd for dModing to wUcli of Ui« oca- 
CtltwaU at the hrm-fMil muturc th» hicnucd podvM wm nuinly dua on Uia piM 
proridci) vitli it, in I hu irate of tlin |»rti««iiir ctof* ; notM^ hovcvor. uii)«h llio toil nad 
MM M lar cxhaiislrd by prvvi«u( croniittg u to b* c«li*id«r«dj»ra<flMl/y unHt for tlin 

Girtliof the prop without msmire, »« la)' piirti«Qlar«tr«vanUii* pniai, 1i<i«i(aii|i w« 
ev* that the Tut dixmiaiKr in tlia roauU* of caaij«nitlve triiib •utth iii^rtU 
nunuro, by ilifTamit «xp<Tlni*sli>, krlMinarv from ltT«piIanlj in vttaul may beciiill«i) 
Uu iTMtiH^ rapitoJ of lh« loU Uian from im^Urities in Ihc ongiiinJ --luracter of tfa* 
Mil itMiC or from ftoy other «»IIM^ iidIom wo iaotuil* tko CrcqiMat bulty UMtfaodt of 
ipplioation. 

"ItitUiun, by lhi< (yslAff ■■< rather thun by the Analytic iu(tliodthatv«)iftv«toUAbl 
oar rtonlla; and in IIm catrrying out of our obj(«l wo hnvniakiin •*&««(■« tba lyp« 
<rf llio«cml aoM,ji(nUp*>f tlMlyiMOf th«rMl«rafd^ and bdan* aa tho r<fir«*«nU- 
tira of the IfyumiavHi mm enp Boat baqnanUy ODIarfng into iMallon ; and hafb^ 
•e)««t«] foroadi «l Ihoaa • flald whteh, ■grioulturaJly <ieiuid«r«4 wta ttMtntlf4, wa 
bavapoWB tlia«UBcd«MTi|>t5oD oforopupoa th« aanie land, yearsA^r y<*r, wilh dlf- 
AmM tlicmi«*l tDRBurc^ anil in aadi oca with on« plot or more poDtinnooBly onoia- 
Mur«^ and oa« >u|i(ilie>l erct^ ytar with a fair ((uuitity of tann-rurd uiuure. la 
thi* way II acr«i baf o beca d«irot«4 t« theeontiiMaiiagTDWtlKif wbat liun IStS, 8 
auret to o«Dtii)a«ii» ipowlh of tvmipt from tho aaino dal^ and, 5 to d aom (o that ot 
ItgmniiMiii* Mrn crop* tlno* 1M0. Ami of Hold •Knerlia«nt^ beuJa Ihcw wbioh 
■MOUD(inoa«hy«arti>ErDni80lotn vn wheal, tipwai^ctf Vfiuu turnipi.aBdSOt«M 
«D b4a«\ otbert k>rn boMi tn*(1a,*ii;, Monet-n the growth of clover, iWiIm>iu« inrala- 
tjon to ihBohemioalciTenniMaaflm involved in as oclualeounoof rolutrun, oouiffiBlliK 
laml)w, bailey. ctoTor. nod wheot. crown in tho otivT in which Ihoy are here •talMt 

"It may bBitated, io<\ that b aJditioato tbu« nxparimciiti on wheat, and tlteothor 
•npawually crown nfiontlio farm, a<aborai«forr«d1o. Wit have for loTcrBlyganlMcn 
■ackoecaplM alio wilh thoiubjcctoftho fotdlnf of animalt, vitbulloelK waa[vnnd 
p%ik— «* well M in larMtlnting tho funotiotul acUuiu of tli* urowmg plant in rola- 
tlan to ibi- wJI and atniotpheTOi and In coaoootjou vithoadi of thoaaMbjceta mnch 
bbOTBlnri' InboT huoontlantly Deen in yTn^t» 

'The fojie und objoet of our inTratigotion haa bton IhenflEae to amunlno In lb* 
Aehl, tile tivilinK ihod. And the IntioralorT. into tho ebomiw] dmnwuuiaca oonoeoUd 
with tbi^ J;:i'ti'iiIiiirD <^ Qroat Qrltaloin ila four inaln fmtunsi namely — 

"FirtU lh« jirwluoll'iii of tha rarailKtitU crop*; teoondly. that oJ rooteropa; thirdly, 
lltat u( iliv 1<ipiuilnouii oorttMd foddarcropi and fourthly, and lastly, that of \b» 
oonnomj'iii'ii uf food on thofann for ilk d>inul« produot u( trixnt h»'1 nioaurc 

"S-i miioli tUfn ('r the rationale aoid general plan of Ihe I'Xjivrtiiiuiiu thonuolvoa, 
•ndwv n<jw propoteiaettll aU«ntionl»>omeof th«rfsulUwhi«hlliey hate ulfirJod na 

" Uilhvrio, only pari of tha rwulte of tho wheat cKpciimrut* of the harrmU of 
tttll, 1B4&. and I tM«, and of IhnM Muon* only, have boao puhliihwl i thoMOu ttir- 
oi^■^ only (or the Moiion* IMS, 1S4(. and ISU; thoM on tho It^nnunoworop* not at 
all i>i yt 1 and t]io*o onfovdin^, only at far ai •ba«i> aro ooneomod, and ohiefly loo 
in r<Jftlion to tha nn« point only of the intraain of /rm uright obtoluod from a givm 
^ntiitily of food, or !u eonittluiaiila. Of tlio laboratory nault^ but fov have baen 

t;ivvn In ralation tn (AT of thoMbrsnohtianp to the prnwnt time. Tho rait aceuaiu- 
alion of multe. indeed, will neMeoorily atillfurthorpottpooetli* publieaiioa of thua 
in any extended tmnii; and henDaitMom* tbomoTcdcairablo lo take udvaulogoof tlia 

SrMont oppottunitjr to all«iDpt to brio^ tomthcr into one view aoiiio of tlw goa»ral 
idioationa whioh fiore btcn ■rrirod at w ralation to ■ few imporluit points 
'■With nil view, illi !o tlic fluid cxporiinentit on wliasl that we«biill jlilofly TOulioe 
OUT atl'ntiuii ou ihU ori'Mlon ; for wliMt, whldi uouititulM the ]irii>iil>nl fmi) of uur 
popiiUllnn, !* with thotariixr iheiuotl important nop in hi*fwUtion.all clhcrabning 
«omi>)ered more «r lea* tubterrioiit lo it: nail it i*. uio,la refn*nDrt to Iho production 
of tbi« crop tn aenoull oral quantity that the minonl theory uf Bnrou IJnbigii porhapi 
Ri<>re promineiEitly at fault Ihon in Ihut of ony other. It in Inie, lliat iu tbo euc of 
Tege^atK-n in n nolirc kiI. manured by art, the mineral eoiutilucnt of the jJutla bsjng 
fimuilicdfroniilio i^iil, the otnKMpbcrniifoutidtoboani^VMMiaroe of (heniti^^a 
and carbon; and ll U tho tupponltl^in ihat IliaiKclr«uni«lane« of oorurof Hj/riMim apply 
•({lully In tho varioufctvpt whrinj^rown uiufiri-u'd'niA'Afi lluit hoi Ivd Itnr^Ti l-mliiift" 
Inifjiiit lliiir if by arlifl^!iiiMnstf>;ncnininUlf within Uio toll ilwlf oaiinii'iniilv lil> 
aralKupply of thntoconatituento foiiii'l in lh« uheiof Ihe pUnt, ••tionlially aoil 'Hoittiia 
ent^ vcthallby tUainennahaableiiialleiiaastoinereaiathiTrrby ilioaaiimiUtiunofiliv 
Ttgot«W» or atmwpherio eomlitnpnUina degree nufficienl f"r airrienll«r»l purpo-ua 
But Bgnpullnfc r« molf an iirfrTiVij/procfM ; tnd il will !■<■ ("^iid t>i»l, a«;n(ant>tliu 
Dtodnclionof wIienluiorflMimoially, itiBonlyby IheoBeumiiUiiou wllhlBthotoilltwIf 
"^ Vol II. "^8 



lU 



MAHUBE. 



«f nltTii(ou nabirally 4ar{**d ftmn Uia slincciilurci Mlior Uud or tli« (Mvuliul; mB 
•oaalititral^ thai oui- onptol ii ma be tncvcoMd. llia«ral lubtUnoot *il), laiM^ 
I BMUtialljr ilaTt)o|i<i Uw luiniinnlAlMii of VBceUbUor almatiilMrlfl onoilitaenU wImb 
•ppdiMl lo wnu' (if tbn trap* of rotmtian ; •atlii ii thut ahi<Uy (hat tb«tc eioju beomM 
ffubMrriMil t» tK«gnmifaorUiBterMlnBiMliiitoT«a is IbtMOMU il i> Dot Ui»*aii' 
•tilUunl^ at/i/ind tttlluttMi;/ aa Ua dMM of Uie flaitit l9 U gnmt, tlmt ar« tke mot 
tftdoDt in tail mpcat ; uor eau tha dtouid which wa fiud ihua made tor lli« |in>dMe- 
tinn at arofM iu oyriaillurM ^/uoMlUf ht acooiuitod tot lijr tba MMa* tJM «# •oiiplying 
tIu«tiiiiiIsciii*tiinaut«of (b*<q«pk It wuutdMan, UwrtlonvtlMl wcMnoolj uriva 
M eorract Uiaa Ia wrivulture b; b oIom axamlnation «t Uia Ktual ciniUBfUoMa of 
grgwtb of •■di partimiLir orvji wbeii ^towo under Qullirtfim. Ww no« torn ta Um 
■waidaration aS our <i|>critncut(i upon ihiiiubJMit. It baa bnn aaid that nil thu ci- 

BrfaaanUI SDldamre irlocted vhon thuj itck is hiUtaet agricultural pihkuuwn. 
• wbaat fi«kK liDw«Tcr, after baiiiix bn«a namiMd ia tbeiMDal waf for (■»> 
oipa at tba oommiiaiMiuciit at tlm preiioiu rotaliM, had then grawu li*ri*3r. pca^ whM^ 
uuloaK witlioutui; furthormanuriii^; M>lliatwh«nl«k4alOT«ipoHBioDtia )M4b 
vai^ u a |nJn-nro4usar, oonMJorablr mura «xhau*t«i] ilun woald cnliiiiirltjr b« tka 
«aar. It wa*, tlior>ror4^ in a mott lavorBbl* condition fur the pntfwtM of our oipMi- 
amUa. 

"la tlia lint HperimciilAl icuga, the field ot Ii acre* ««• di*id«d ialo about 30 pM^ 

ndit woa bf tin miiitrai Ikfirg that wo w«c« mainlr gutded tn thaaolMUooolin*- 

r OBioa: nineral nuuiatca <r«roUiorofbroampl«yed in tnc Majority of cMoa. ^imw«m'^ 

, CD tbo oUior band, baiajc th*a ooiuidorad a* of Um boporaiAoa^ wac nacJ l« ■ Ctw 

ioaUaeaaonly, and isLboii* !ni*ry Intifoifieantqnalilllifi*. Baji04alwa»bcm|{a woD 

nmnbod aiAiiun^ and prilvulau'd to •oppi)'. bcaidw Mm* nuooraU and itiinigM^ a 

I Mrun qiiaabij iif (nrlHiaauL'Out tubatano* ia wbkh both ooni aadtfnw ao maA 

abound, aa* olfo Hildol tn unu or twu vt (h* ploti^ 

Tabli I.— non-fOi 11M4. Sanunarj. 



DoMrlldaD at Oia Ujuum 



Flat >. Dnaiaaurfd .... 
" 1. 14 (oiuof Cum-fard mannro 
" 4. Tbo afhaa of H tana of fana nnwnro 
" 8. Hinimnni produce of B ploli^ with nf 
taBdal roiocml manaro* - 
SnpcrnfaoiphBto of Umo S50 Ibi. ' 
I*h(wphn1« of potaMlM iba. 
Plot 1 Ii> Maiimiiui jirodiico of 9 ploU with ar- 
tificial nUntnJ nuauroa - 
Snporuboiphato of lime >C0 Iba 
Pbotoliato of Magnena IM Iba • 

du ymiaaa IGO lbs 

KUoato do. 112 Ibt. 

Hoan ot tb« B ploti with ardfioial (nia«rnl liiiv 
nura .,..-... 
Moan of t ploli with nilnmtl iiinnurw^ and 69 
Un. Mohui lulpUntcf-r luiiiiiiiiMA 
K«aa of t ploti witli niiDDml irinii»r<-ii, and ISO 
IU. and ICO Ibft, of rapc-aak« mpeotivolv 
Plot liL With coinploi mineral moann^ £S Iba uf 
*iilphat« of aiomoaia, aod ISO Iba. of ra|><i-cak« 



DrHMdCon Voul 

Mr AcMl I Osa 

fa Boihth I tmAoK 

and Vaelt. ' ts Tlo. 



boah. paoka 

111 

S3 U 

IS 



13 1 

1* S} 

le H 

31 

18 It 

SI Si 



tta. 

B3> 

1370 

S»8 



B80 

10B6 
lOOB 

1U« 



maar 

-Sir 



Iba 
1130 
1474 
IIM 



IIVO 
IMD 

iisa 
uss 

ISOI 
17«g 



"Tbo indiealionacJ tbo table ara aoaa to bo most concliuJTtv a* aliowlai; what waa 
Uw oharaotor of the oxbamlioa which had been tndneod by tlig paorioiu baaTy orof- 
fln^ and what, llioraAn^ abouU bo the peculiar natura uf the aupply in a ntio4Ml 
fljeiain of tnanntio^ Iiitio aaliantUoa bad bMnaoaneotcd with a d«iici«ae v o( 
mineral touatitneota, v« mlglit rcaaoiubljr have ovpeotcd Ihat by anoM o«e at loMt 
of Uie Line lanoeral Mnditiont,^<ip|Hi«iug in aoue oaane nii abundanoe o(«t«t]F nfai- 
aral oonitiluoot whieb Iba plant nould require — Ihla deBciuncy would Iibto boao inaiW 
op; but it waa not to. 

"niaa,takiB|[tb4eolufiiD of buabeUpcraeroaegiTctiinUiiiagBunary aaourgofilft 
iiwillbaecaatbatwbllat waharo without maanrvoiitjr 10 bnabela of dmaad com. v« 



KANims. 



lift 



bars by fara-ranl wmiira 93 basbclt. Tli« oaKut «f fsnn-y>nl inaaiir« gJT^ h«WBf «r, 
■» iiM««u« wfa>t«*«r »t«T lK« «iuHui«rad plol SsBta, out of the e pteta nifiplicd 
wUb •Ttificul (niiitmd moivr**, w« b*ve in no ««*o kd inorewo of a bWicU by IM* 
■MB*: tbo produce of Ibo avenge «[tba V being Dot ^uito 17 busbabL OaUiaoUi«r 
hand «« MO thM tbfaa wMUmii to MOM «f tb« pwrdr mine»l ttaniina ef 0& lb«. uf ml- 
phdle ofanunoaia — a mr MMall drSHlaf <tf that aiiMlaiit«^ and eoDtaining only about 
14 lb* of aimnoalN — baapna a* an nrtifp prwdoo* of HI bntbolit An ToeiRnillaanI 
■lUltloa at r«pa-««k« too, to niaMirM otherHiw IneAwtiViv ^"^ P^*i^ >* about I9| 
bn^«U: iui<) vhon, a* in filot 18., wa have addwl M lh« IiMAcdaiii miaeral namirw 
H lb«> ef acnmoBiaoal aalti, and a IHUo rape-uka alas, va h*T« a giroduee grcaUr 
than bj the It loni of ftnn-jani Bunoro. 

"Hio quBittitie* uf rapa^oakauNd were itnall, und tbd incmue altribvtablatolt 
aho (aMJl, hut it aovAKnUMwaa much w)iat wu thould ciptet vbcn sMnparad with 
that frcoD the anuaoaiacal aaltn, it, m ve btliove i« Ifao cau; the oCTtot of rape^akt 
on yrwJ»<r«^ I* doe t« tb* nitrogen it tunlalna 

** Inileoil, lb* oolHldooo* ta ib« eli^bt or noii-efieet tbrouchont the miaewl acrifa 
on ibo onu haiid. asd of tb« markeO uid ntailyutilfaFmrMaTtof lliaDitrog«DOiiiaK» 
ply on Uia nibor, waamoalatTiluiigin Ibe fitvt yoar'a Mtpcvineutal prodneSiUid auoh 
aa to load ua tosive to aitwgenom mnnurei ia'tbawowid a ta ion oven groater prMid> 
nemo* than ve bad done to minenla in the prcvuma on« Thi* ii is •ome ir^ipaetiv 
parittp^ to bo recrottod. ai had w« ker>t a ■criei «l pluU Tor •me jroarn eoatiQUooeW 
nndor nioorali bIodo, the *Tii!rac«, lhoQ((h al proaent ■nUeieatljr eonoluuro, voala 
bare earrieJ wilb U MinowbM more of (jwMnafit proof 

" la lUiU 11. «-n ba*« given a few reeitlU teleoted from llioae obtained at the bar- 
veatoflftM, tliu M«onJ of the enterhnontal wrica. By the lablr it i« tueo tliat «« 
liav^al the haTTWtof IMi, aprodaoeoT ni(b*T more than it buslivli wilhout moauM 
of aaj kind, iiulcad of unl}' Ifl lu in IKit; and in like manner tLiv fnnn-yan] maaitra 
giti^a-i buihclB in l!li.S, aodonlT H in IM4- Wc bave ibown in a former number 
of t^e Journal biTflcnrtv throe cuScrencea can bo tmoeiltfl Tarintiona in the dlmatie 
oharaeter of the anjon, but thia ia not Ibe point uudor «oD*idoratioD Juat nov. 

Taulk II — IlanMt JSts. Selected rerolu- 





VTBWdOoni 

l»rAa* 

lOllBdMb 

aadreoto. 


TeUI 
On 

1431 
173S 

MSI 

teso 


toaw 
lieiAcf^ 
^albiL 


DwotpUon and <Iii(|i|IUm cf tlie Huiium pa Afn, 








So«tjon 1. 
" % M tona of farm-yard mantiTa 
Seetloo X. 


b^ p*«a 

U 01 
32 0| 


IM. 
£713 

suit 

94H 

Si99 

4069 
4M6 


" 6( 


. lopareMaa «iui xav ibt. «r oartiODate 
of ammonia (dia«olv«dX at 8 time^ 
during tb* apriag .... 


SA I) 


"10. 


SeotiouS. 
SiJpbateaTainnionialSalbh ) top4rea^d 
Unriato of ammonia les lb*. { at once 
Sulphatootammoniaieslbt. i to[i-dr«M'd 
Muriate of amnuniialiislbt. |al4liiiie«. 


SS 11 

M H 



** We aMvnM, then, S3 buahela or thcr«ab«ula to be Uu (Undanl prodoM of the *m1 
and MaaoDiVitboulmanura, during t)iiet«con>I exti«riiD«atal}'**r; aodeajiart ofplot 
$. (previianilyfnaniired vitlieupcrphMphaleof liin*),andwliioh ianow.alotsiritboat 
mannro, i;it(fl rath«r moN than 82t bnihfla uf droMeil corn, tb« corr^tiicM of tli« 
raault of plut fL. the p«raia»tEntij cnmannrcd plot, i« thereby Aillv ronlinueiL 

■•Thill plot KaSi. pnvioiuly two'thirda of as aero, waa.inthii sppomlyiar, divided 
lnl<> two «|ual portion*; onn of theao ('plot So') being, a* jvut uid, nnmannred, nad 
ti^ other ('plot 6i') baring anpplled to it In aolutloo, by top^reatin^ during the 
■prini^ UieaMrfwnof rwtoMilf ■/oMinanni.at tbarateof tSOlbe. per ami: audit it 
BMn that w» have, I>t thia pure but higfaly volatile uamoaiaMl aalt nkmc^ tlie prodnee 
niaed Ifita iH bniliDl* lu very ncariylii buabelal 

•■ ta Ibe n«it eeetioa of the uibloare giv« the remlta ef ptoU ft and 10, thafcomar ot 



lis 



HANCHE. 



•rUdi hait in Ui« ]<ntteiw jraar b«on nMMural by nlptfpbc^ihal* of l(n* si J « i 
((■•DUtf a<Ml|ihiitaa(a>MnaRi%Mil lb« Uu«r ^r«Bp*(fliaif'liatcallu»«MKl •Uleal* 
vtpaUmt, To otch of Uio ptoU I|Pwt. of wilpkaUMd It owl. uf munau of annD* 
dI* wera now *a|ifJi4(L upen plot B. the «LnU nf the ninnur* iru topdrvMadi M 
*)ur, ciirlviBiioafinM; baton plot la the ultiwcr* pat anal lbi«rUMMa>i*«Mti 
mU, T&a i>rD3B<« obt^a^ tij ihcM tulta of ■mfliaiii* alonB ii tS biubrii •a4 tnrt» 
taitblh*, MsDiowBaltaioacc^ MidBi«rlva2bii>licl*vhaa*»wiiBtfctir4i0arcat tina* 
— qqaatitiM wbicb anouM to abuul JO biubol* per aora more tlkaii wa* «bUia«d vtlk 
munuMUnt In tba cat* of ^a v., iDiU«J. lbs prodiMO UMod* b; 1) buAal IhM 
■{««■ br hra-^ard nuaur*. aad Is tliat gf Na Ift It in oil bat Idaatkol wHli iL Xai 
If «e lake (h« wcichti of total cum, iu*U«l of tha axaww <f tk« dra u wd evr^ to 
«bivh l^t«r wo di«ll7 nfar, mvraljr a> a ttaaibud nor* oaBTontiopaUr aoiltrUooil, 
Ka lU, bj- ammowa oaljr, haa firaa both mora oora and mon aUkV tWi lb* Eit<» 
jard maaut^ with all iu mioMwU aad carboaaoea** MbataooA 

" Lat in ae* wbotbor thi« alKiCML •psoiflo cSmI of Bilrag«iw ■> natoriofc fn Um r» 
ftrodnetion of corn, a com-«^uii>tad aool, b born« oal bj (ba rondia of ■nrniwiti>|, 
Tear*. 

"WathottU bar* aiDltl«i all roforrne* lo lliu r«nluotil4un6ilvitkllio«bc«lB»- 
mift of Pr o ftiM r U*Uc, had not thm prataMor. iu tba uaw oditlos of Ui 'LatUr^* 
whilM (ally adiuiUingUMbihiraof tbamaoiir*— tbaeompoaitiuD ofvbkb.to oMbH 
WD word* whan comoieDting upon it, ' could ba no immL d^c* ntrj tilant tbowtd 
by iu o^ea tbo dna proportion of th« fonatitttrnta M awtial to Ha growth' (paga tSt), 



--Mit axprcMod aardanbt aa to Ibe prineinl* inToIvoil !n aatSa nuatUA bulna 
iha otfcdF hoad, iufiliad thai tbe fulum su dau to a yd iniper1«i>tlmov1«4K«<if th* 
IBinhiwnal km and cbMoieal ^nalilia rnqiiirod tolio giTen lo tba Bceaaaaiy mo- 
atiwoato in orilcr lo fit tbnn for tbcir TMartiou ami tintiiliT« aoUaa oa tbo idaak 
titkar llion to any fallacy in lb* tboorr wbii^ would rMonunoodlopTBolltal i^lir 
oDinira lb« anjiply by nrlifidal lataa* at Ibo conUiLuanla of Hid aahaa of pluMM 
■aasre^ 
"Tba folloiriiig labia giT*ao«r*eIoetion of tbenaolt* irf iha Iblnl Maaao, IBIIi 

Ttmx in.— Harroil IStO. Selaetad RantU, 



DMcriftttB Ml Qnamifai aftt* MnaM p« Asa. 


SMaMdCWa TMiI 
mtf*AM. nlha 


tall* 




SoatioD L 

" 2. 14 tontof lann-yard maunra 

SaetionS. 
" 101. No mnnnr* ... 
" lOo. Solpliata ufaminonJaSMlb*. 

SMlionS. 
* to'. Alb af t load* of wheal ttraw 
" Bo*. A*hoftb>aibof wheat •inw.aniitop- 
driawd with SU lb«. of inlphato of 

S»Mian4. 

" flu. LloblK'o *b(ut mnndn 444 Ib^ . 

" <A. LMiih'ii wbMt niBMira 446 IU. with 
tI3lb& taohnf lulphatoandmurlala 
ofanunooia 


boA. p«(b 

17 HI 

27 P| 

17 H 
M U 

l» 0| 

ST 

»} 1| 

SO 01 


Iba 

laoT 

ISIB 
ISM 

1400 
I«7 


Um. 

IBIS 
MM 

USS 

tm 

IU] 

nan 





"At thi> (hiplMi>ciriinentalhaiTMt wo have on tba oontiauoDtly uamannrod cdaU 
MUMly, No. a., not ^ntt« 18 budiaU of draMod cor^ aa the nomtal produeo dMba 
•*a«nu; andbyita uclo vi ha*o on plot lOfr— aoiapfi^ oa«-balfof tba pb>t 10. 
af Oh protkm joatv, nod w Ughly tnannrad by asnuonfaonl Mlta in IM, b«t 
UDw tinuuinQNd,— mibvr moio tbsn 17 1 bnihrl*. Tbu iioar aptiroaa^ aeaia. to 
Uanllty of rfaolt IVom th« Iwd iiiuna&iir«<l plotii, at oncu eiraa eaufldeftM in tha 
•wiir««y of Ihi- fijrfriimrBt*, niol abewa ui b"ir ufl«alnaUy tbo prccadlnir aroii hai^ 
[ |uapraolleal pouilof tmv. rvduFol Dm plota. praTimulyaodilhrwUyolNBmKaiiead 
footti N lo nwonrB and produce. To tomMbiiig liko an anilom alaadMd a* ruatda 



MANURE. 



117 



Ifcdrgrais'pTiHlaoiMijvJiilMi W«iak« tUt oppottanilf of partbularijr calling MUtt- 
(ion to ibtw ooiMMo*M» in (ka anioiiiit of prodnM la tlie two BunanurFd pWl> at 
tha dlffornnc jimrt, bouimc it haa b««ii olgvetad apiiuk our «ip«riro«ati\ aa alnadj 
pubUalwJ, llint conArwatuta wu wanting aa to th« oatsni] vMd of aoil and hmoil 

" Hot S liai, as licrorr. 14 looi at rarm-yard mnauif. a&d lh« pr«ilaca b 37} iHtbala, 
or Wtwm II 9 aiiil 10 tiiiihctt ntoFo than without lanuurt o^ taj kiniL 

** Os plat IfWt whirh In l)io prvriona jcor Rare Itj unaMiiikaEa] talla aUoio a pro- 
iloMeqiaFto tfaM<4ili>j fann-j^nl inaimiT. wn liaviiaoalnnalailUrrvaiilt; (drSowL 
of a«ljilkat« of amuioslo Irna ai>WDi(OD ISAO Iba. of IoIaI ooro, Initead of 1830 IW, 
whifh ia the prnlnoa on plot 1. ne aUniiT of Uie Ulki it, bovcver, aliglrtly bmvitr 
IImu Ikat br Ui« ammoniabil a«lt. 

" Axaia, plot ia, whieb wh In tho preriona a ««aw> umntmuti, waa »ow mbditidtd ( 
onoua-kalf of it(aaiaal<r. Sa') voluifo Ikaaahaaaf whaat^tnwaloiu, by whltb tliara 
I* an UirTvaaii of ratbar more than 1 boahol paracraof droaaod corn; on tb* <Aliar 
hdf (or i*) w» hnra, batldei tha atniT a>hai^ i evU, nt anlpbat* of aoinMiiia put on at 
a tat»dr«at>Bg ; S ewi^ oT *alpbjat« of annuala have, in ibta OMk onljp IncrMtad the 
projueo bajotid that of Sa'br 1} bitslicla «f m*o and 168 Ibaofttraw, iaialaadof by 
B( tnuMtof eorsMiil TW1b>.otamir, which vaa tb«inanaa« obtaaod bylboaama 
■nimot of uiinMniaeal aalt o» \0a, aa oonpareil with 106. It will ht oliMri'Kl. how- 
•Tar, Uiat to Iho fbranor ease tb« anuaoniaMl aolta ware t«|>Jr««Hil, but ui lb* lauar 
Ihay waradrillod o« iho tituo of aowing tbaaoid; and it will b« nni«nib«rcd tkat la 
IMS tba rMotl waa bxter <n(o <«n* on plot SLwh«r« tha tat la war* aownawUOT, 
Ibao on plot 10. whara tbo i«f>.drMiliig aztandail far Into tba tprlu^ Wo bavo had 
antaral dirMt ImIvioo* of tlila Uiid la oaar oqnrionai^ aad wa WMitd «!*« it oaanig 
faation. ia nuMC oaam aptill«ab[t\ tbat maaura br wKrat. and uauvriaTir anncailaoal 
onai. ahontd be applied btCare or at the time Ibe teed it sown; lor a^Uioiiisb tke ap. 
ptMt lunirianoe of tbeeropi*i^ntc«, and thn pKduee of alnw really bcavicr. bj 
■{migtslbarthaiiaiitQinttamriogiofrtnimn ipunoaiidolboTainiDDiiiacal IaaMlPel^ 

I at wo baliara that that cf the turn will not be iaerrawd in on niiiiT«lenl dbgwa. 
•dead, tbo aueeoM of the «t«n uodonbtaillj' degteda \<fj inatariaU;^ "'^ *^ prograai 
of tha wiid«rp«nnd growtb dnrintj tlie winter moittlui ; uid tbia wolu, otbev '■bIW 
baing eqaa^ u|>on tlie qi»iit!ly of uvnllnble nitrotfraeua ennotltuenu wll^iu |]i« toiL 
with'iit a libvral piwioinn uf wliii^li, the mii^ of tlie Rbrout feedun of tlie yiaAt wQl 
not be audi at to take up tbe minsrnli wbich tbo aoit i« coinjiuUnt to luppiy. nud w 
aneh qaasIitT an will lt« roc]airod dniinf Iba altar prog* naa of ika plant mr iu bealtbj 
Mid fitrDrahla growth. f 

■*!%• ft«*l rroult CO be DoUead ia that oblainad on plot 6, now alwdivldad into tw* 
•joat portioni. ilc*l|^ated ra*|iNtiT(lr ta and tli. Plot Kv. C had for Ibo crop ol 
1»M anperpbogpliale uf lime and the pliaapliaUi «t magnaaia maniir*^ and fi>r (hat of 
IMS aaperpheopbate of line, mpe-cabV, and amuioalBwd salUi For Uiia tbo (bird ex 
penmental •en«n, it woa doTot<<d to the trial of tin wheat mannr* mauufaetorod 
■ader the aanetioti of Pnttm<ir Liebis. and patontod ia thU eeuntrj-. 

"Dpoa rdot ad4cw1a. per nurr of ibe patent wliaat-B>an«ro ware iih4. wbieb gnvo 
Ki bwboV er rather more llinn B buabeli bajond the prodvea of tba uanuuiuNd 
plot; but aa the manvaeODtainod, baaldea tba iniDatMli jwonllar to It, aoma &llrO||en- 
»na ooinjHjunibi, |^rinf( off a T*rv peroaptlUo «dar of lUiiniuiiiB. aomo, at loaal, ollba 
Iftcmwe wonid bo dun (o that aoMlane*^ On plot tli, howortr. tba further adilillea 
0^1 «wi. Mirhof lAilphulxaiid inuriiLteef mnniuniatalhi>a»4Btl«d "luinoral couisra* 

EWvt a pioiliiw >>( Xl'i LikIi'^Ll In oCliw worda, llie addition of nninianiiUMil aalt t4 
iebii^'< miittrnl iiiaiiuru lin» iIll^^<'aMd tlie produce by Terjr nearly t biuli«l>i pcraerv 
lieyeiM Ibal of the niineml manure alonei wbilat the inercaM obloiaed orer Iho ua- 
■umnrcd plot, by 11 tons of fann-yard iaaiiw(\ vaaoiil^ Vj bnalieU 

" If, thoo, the ' modiBuioBt fono and ehemioal quolitiM ' ef the a»-ea]led ' mlnaral 
naaura ' were M fault, tha nilpliata of ammonia hia. at Icwt. oompoiuaUid tat tlio da- 
iMt: an4 arni auppulnjc a min^nd mnnnrv^ biiudnd on a kaowltijfa of tlia eomporf- 
tton of tbti nilvsorilia (^iinl, W iiiill lb* ^rrat dmiiltTktum, the funner tiiay rmlMn. 
IMt«d, uii^oiiwbtlv, Ibiit h.i liflc ill uniuvnia, aupplic'l t'> him by Peruviaa guanOt by 
MSaiObiaoal ults, and by Otbt'r oiitc-n. to i,>oad a aulMlitotn 

"Ilsuretyitneedlcea tvattempt tnHhsrlujiwlify, bylhe rtanlta of individual Tcar^ 
Mir aaacrUun, thHtinpraetienl tcricni1iiiiviiilrej!«D0u>inanur»urepcc<iUar[yadafil«d 
to (be KTOWtb of wheat. We tlmll thnrrforv couiluile Ibii pari of Our *at)}o«t by di- 
r«<tiTiir nl(i>nt>on to Ibo 1111(017 uf a Siv u( the ptuu llimti^h-kni ihn mtjra tortaa oi 
yaBi-< [ I'J with (hat of Ih« <iii'iaaiiur"d plot ilui II c p«rioiL 

" III ( ili>! ci«w that li.-i!<iiiiia<>uii ptmil'tdif y- ior power Of reli- 

anC" ■■ - .. 1. - !■ ■ ''■ ■!■ -trojtfo. and. '■ ' 1 . .- to Uaia pra]ierty 

thai 1 IS rotation 1, wv may refer to (be 

,^ ii.ialrj of a^ri t U. Botuaiaffwalt. Itia 

awcver, have not nvnired (be atteitliva whiek Ibtv miiAl. Itovn ^ 



UB 



UAKURE. 



l«1«tillitri«Uar thlie«imtT}': ptotiablj on uooonl of Um^mU UMnBta of |w«Abm 
whiob htobtaiuod. Bui It niiulbomisiiiborwd UiM lua iii*«atigiitiM h>dmiti«^ 
|m( Ui explain th«prMiJ««* of mrieiiltnroM 1m fgoadUiHii in liM«WMlMKlilf,b«loN 
•M«m|)llnff to d«*laM from it« MUbt!<h«4 rnlM M. BooMlmult (tatm tli* raUIlM 
waaDr ailc>iit«d «t BMlielbroon. »nA Uiraiijcliant Uiv grMlw pnrt of Abu<^ lo ba m 
foUDwa 1 — 

"PolatoMor biHt-nmt;" "Whi*l;~ "Clo***;" "WhcM;" 
■md thnt Uia arerag* of wheat m obtainod ij^ aftor pnuioaa lt| boahoUf alUr baM- 
KM 17 bnihek, a(Ur oloror M biuhoU, Now we Hnd bjr rtfeninoc to hi* table thai 
thcbMor«porwb«at. Krali>.>i>d >tmw roiaoriid nlli*.iirpho*|>bi>rieafiil a>il MHm. 
of potaili ani •oila; tin folio viug cloTtr crop. 18 lb*, of phoapborio Mid and IT Ilia. 
MUwb and *oda ; and ftlW Ihit rrmaTal of aJkolia and plioaplwtc* by tlia clortr • 
Ijtyfr orap of wb«t ia obtained. Sanij it would loam ImiKMalblo to PaooncO* |U» 
raautt wiUi a tJimtt which •upnoua the p«idnp« of wli«at to rito nnd Etll with Lha 
^|UaD(i)y of minerals atailablu within the toil. It hawetur, wo admit Ihat tlii> firiit «rop 
A vhMt oould not take np the mineral niatten cxiatinK in th« aoil for want of nilro- 
ganou* lupjklj, and that the clorer ervp, not being to £ptindant v\>oa lUfrplinl nluw- 

BD, wat aolo to take up t!i« loinDrali required fof ita growth, and tlut il morooTer 
t in the loH lofflDleiit amuionl^ or It* oqniTnloot of Mtrqt*B in (ome form, to clTe 
the ukcnuMJorotiof u'lieat,we hriTn nmiTnhmnntnnnaiitnnlianil praliabletalatianottha 
reaalU Thare la little doubt that U. Bouatingault eoidd hare iuoreaafd bb pcvdoM 
of whaat byiiteansoCanimoniacnluilta: whether boeould haT« ilnnn to ernnmntiMlly 
ia anotliar nueition, d*p«a<Ung of eoime npon the rdatife tiriciM of cnitnond BRnDvaW 

'The UTikingeOwt of phoephorie a«id npan the giowtli of the tnrnip. indoed, U a 
bel to well known to oror; inuOif ant Ofriealttiriat ia Orflat Britain, that It would 
•eem quite laperSiiaii* to attanipl t« lUuvtralo il by any direct cipcrimeal* of «v 
own. Uiiwever. a> I^ofoaKir Lteiblff hat ajiain, in the rvccot eiljtioa of hi* 'I^Uet^' 
«xpr«H»d an opiiilnn rntiiviv iiirnnKi^lful with mi"!! n roaull, wo will tvftr to onaMV 
two of tli« fMulle i)bliiiord IK our cTiwriiii'^nlal turulp-firld, whl(4i h*at npo* th« 
cvialoQ ho haa r«iter»t*d w followi: thus, tyvnViue ol tJiu exhAu«tlon of pho«[duto 
otbmeaud alfcalioo |^a*ph*lea br the ule or dour, oottle. Ao.. ho (aya: — ' It iioenaia 
that Uiii ineeatant rttnotal of Iho phixphatc* mtiit tmd to cihanit Ihe l.uid and 
Jlinlnlth ita capability of prailuaiug ffrala. Ttio field* of Great Britain nr« io a *tat« 
«f pngnHive «iliaiiatlon mm tli!« omum u in proved by tha rapid oibtninoti of (ho 
'Onltivailon nf turnip* and mangold-wnnel, pknia wliii^h cunTaEii the Uoil nimioDtof 
' the phoepliBti.1, AHu timufou aEQuan tuk *h iu.ut oitt^nr rcn nisia DcvaLornavT.' 
Kow wo do not boitato to Mjr that. howeTcr email Iho qiiantit}- of pbMpbatea od« 
Ulncd in the lornla tlia f ueomaAi] ouIUration of it ii mora dependent ujioa • large 
•upply of pbaepborte aoid In the manuTo than that of any other ctopi 

~Iu ttio following Idblo, the*. \» ^y*n the omounta of bulb, alnoo 10tS, of— 

Ural, the (aiillnu«ii*ly uuinaaurod uJol : 

Soeondly.lliniwitlin largo amount of iboauperphoepliBlo of Ifane alone oaohyaariBBd 

Thirdly, llmt willi a very liberal euppWof irotaali with tonie eodaand tna|:Baala 
alm^ in addiliim (o mpetpboephato of lime 





eoaOaDoaalr Ca- 


riot 


Ftot 


Tmh. 


with &u|i«rphDaiiriBto 

of Umialnit inirf 

Trtr. 


Alblk 




T*H owla qia Iba 


Tmt. VKtt. m DMi 
13 8 3 8 


Tosh. evta. an. Ba 
11 17 9 


IMS 


4 8 8a 


1SI4 


! 4 1 


T H 8 


fi IS a ft 


IMS 


18 i M 


IS IS > u 


13 13 a 8 


I84« 





1 18 


8 10 1 10 


IMT 





6 11 1 


a 10 


1645 





10 11 8 


e 14 s 


IMO 


— — — — 


8 Ifi 


8 u > a 


t8£0 


— — — — 


II » 


S 1 t IS 
BS S 1 to 


TolaU. 


_ _ _ _ 


GG 10 1 1 


Ueooa. 


— _ _ _ 


• « » « 


T IS 1 M 



~It ieiocii lliea. that In the thin! louon, vix. IMS. the prodnoeof the iwiit«nBtw4' 

dotUreduBfdlOBftfwbuiiJrod vriKltli. oiiit •iuoc that pceiodtbaiiaeed'tbelmlbalMJ' 

HNB Mth ilial llioy have not been (touuIJpK'd worth weisbinK. Oa the otber hand, 4fe 

r^liieblot with miprrpiiiUpkiitfO/linuaUtt forel^cht Hsotwti'eyeaT*. we have an arfiran 

OrwtfMr af»botit $f tone of bclb I Torrinir. Iiowover, ewM^ngly. year hy year, aeni^ 



UANtlBC 



1I» 



iag to the louMi. W«>M,too, iLitb; Hit oddUtou le *<ap«rnb««phaM of liou otk 
large qMnttiT of tb* olkaiLs »ueli fftmUa Uiao eoulil b« u)i*a oil is iJio «rai. Uw 
vrtngc pndaeaU aal to grttubj naulyhftlf ston oiby Ui«toi>arplio*)>lM(«el]iina 
•loM^ II aiUM b« Kdatliud Uist ibi* extnardinary pUcot of (u^wTplKmiliaU of line 
oaBBol 1m luoauBtAd fiir by tbo iiUft U meralv mip|)t,v>''j "■■' t)>° artoiil vunttiluvnU 
of Uie W4>pi but iliat il i* diM to aonw ifMcial agviicy la dovclopioff ibo nuimilativc 
pf«t*uot •>( Ilia pUat. 'rhif opinion la £i(uiv<l by lh« fnct thai in tlie au« wktn 
tlM *a]>«ri>li4»filiBt« <f lima u at un«o noutralucd Ii; nlkalii iiiificially mppUod, tha 
alHoacy or tL« manuro voold tctia to bo thereby reilaotd Aud from Uiia again, wc 
would );athcrt)iattho (Scat of ihopfawpliario acid, aa *iuh, oaonot be dnoincc^ to 
tbc libcroiion witliia the wll of ila alkalK or we *liould «uppOM thai Iha arliaoial 
■u|ipW of thew vonld at laait ham ticeu attendad with aomo inereatn of pnutiisig, 
Bat thu u Dot the o*m, notwitUataudliiK tbat by moaui of •np*r(>hui|i)iut« at liniu 
•lotia thuro hai boM taken Cram tlw lauJ nu>r« uf the alkaUt lu wlncb lltn aA ol iha 
lamip aa paonliarly abouixl^ tliaii ir\>iild linK btcii loal fri>ni It ui ■ cmitur}' andtir 
thoonlioaTf oonna of rotation aud h>uua luauiiriuf;! ColUuml Ki|ioriiiiui>ta alao 
dtarly pron tha ioiportaiicu o( a liberal tapj-\y of oT)^io aubaiaim rirl> in ntriM 
— whioli alvay* oostaiii* a toniidctabln qountitjr of nitrogoo alto — if w-> would is 
(irMtival ^ffriouttiira inprmu tho }'i«l<1 much beyond the amouDl whipli onn b« ol> 
lainad by iiiuidral manutM alone; aodthooooaditloiMboiagfutlillod, the ilitrclsntiply 
«f nitT<^en.<ai the otJier hand, i* by oo inoaii* aa gaDerolly etaenlial. Au4itiiwiiM« 
wo hare |>roTid«*i a liberal iupplr of oooa titnaota for organio fnimation^ in addition 
to (he mineral niBiiur«, tbatv* havofoDndthoQtaof alkalia notlobe without offeet 
" liut i t ia at any ralo coctais that phoaphoiic adil, thuunh il formi to unall a proportion 
of thfl nab o( tha toraihhiu a very utrikinf affoot uu iu jtrt'Wih wlua api'titoaaiua- 
iiiira: and it ia oqaally aorUUi that lb* oMcndad cultivatjun of luot cr>ipa iii Gnat 
Britain ttfiinot ha dno to th* d«fid«nay of tliia aubaiauoe fur tha ui^wili >if corn, and 
totbe low dt-|>«udpn()D upon itof tharoot oroiw, aaaumMa«d by Itania Livbitc. 

"Tli«*»<arioua and tntamliog &<3U in relation to uiagn>wlti»riiii'iiii>s uvvlla* 
thoao wliwh bare b«en mreo in refcrvaae to wheat and tn the l(-|iniiilH<iu» rropf. ar« 
nfliownt to prove huwiinpoHible it i*t« form DornvtopiniouioDu^ricnlluraNlirmiitr^ 
without the gaidaiiccordiractoxptrinient in the flela And vo arc tMnivinotd thntif 
Baron LieUghad watched Ibo exptrimenta which wf hnvohad in progrMs during the 
last Mcht yoara, h« would lonE a^ hav« ariiTod at voncluaiori) in the uainafcreolBf; 
with tnoaa to whioh wa bare bera irmiatibly Ud; and wa ar« dlapOMd to baUav* 
that bad ha avan »atn tbunor« deUil«<) Moounta of our rcmilt* pwa in c-nr own 
paper* >n thin Journal, instflB «1 tlic ui«rc rofertuM to tliani inaJ* by Sir. F<u*y, ba 
wouM rather hare a<vc|>tcd them, ua ito|i in an inquiry ■<• wliioh hi* own rattarobaa 
nnd wnlings had giTeo iixih nuiinpatui, than ba<re d<ai){aa(ed tbMn,Ba hi> baa d«n^ 
aa entirely without Ttlne. 

"So moeli, thoD, for tho roinlU of ripDrimmla In the liald. and for the <Dtiai(Ur*- 
taooa in relation (u tb« (□nutiatinl actlonji of plant*, aa bwrinff n[<on the di«ra«t«r <4 
tho nanore rcqnirail tor th«i^t(^>^vth iimcuun-i of praoticol aaricn}liini. Lot n* now 
eoniider (be a law monii'ut* what rvally iiru the main and eharaclerirtio faaturca of 
practical agricultnri^ a* niott i;t>afr»lly (ollowud ia Ibl* country. 

" L«t ua anppoio tliat tha mlatinn adoplod it that «f tumi]it, Darlar, doTor, wbaat; 
that the tutnipa andclovtr ar* momaied npan tho farm by (toek, and that tli« niaal Ihw 
fvodnoaii 40 tnuhsla of barlej and SO bu^di of vr beat,are all the axporia troBi tfaa bna, 
the nanara fVom the Eontuuicdtumi|>ianrl clorcr, andtbeatraw, trathuf barloy aodol 
wheat being rvljuned upon the farm. Wd ImTcintbiaeaathbTlheMleotgrBm, aLiaa 
ofniistral* toBaehnoreoftho farm of only It't to UpoiudtMpftaiaMid aotKandM 
to SO pound* of phoapborie acid, in the eooraa of the rotattM^ or an arera^ of S to6 lb*, 
of poUua itnd «oila,ai]da) to7)l'>* of pboapborle arid Mr acre per annum. latbeaala 
of tlia anlnuila thera would of oourta b« wi Additional loaa of phoaphorio acid, tbonab, 
' eapMiatIv if ii» bieadlog atooh we kspt. tbit would bg uTen inuch Iom oonrldarable 
. Ihaa in that of the grain ^ and tbcamount nf lb" nlkatlt tlina »ent oK Uia bnn wotiUL 
■eoonUnff to dirwt expariinentt ^ our uvn upon calvM, bullMlu lamU^ ahet]^ twiil 
pigi^ probably be only about one-faui'th thntnf the iiboaphorie acid. Ilbaii bowerar. 
long been decidfil in practical agricnllnri: I W phcHphoric ocidniay beodrantaf^ualy 

Crovidcd in the porcbaie of bona* or oihor plicuphntio manure^ tliough in praetlca 
lea* ara not foand applieabloaa a ditoci miuuro for tho wheat crop; and at v« bar* 
atrmily aaii^ eren when employad for the turnip, tt< atQcaoy ia Pot to be acMiuMcd 
for ravrvly at aupplyintr a ■ufndenoy of that nabulArice to \n iitor<<d up in the mnp. 
k "III coiiduiiim, ifi'it: iftlio iliaory of Baien Uobig; • imply implioi that the growing 

Eiilanl )t liaTcKitliiiiitf rtai'banuffioiancy of tli^mincnirooiiuitnnnta of which It u 

Llw be bciilt tipi vo fullvasd ciitirvlv aMcnttoto rriJeiit a trtiianii but If, on tbaMhor 
Cliaii>l, tiu would hare I'l ondf ntood that il it uf tlir miutral ronatituentjv lu woiiM ba 
Iflltfitrrlf fuund in the aalm«f tbesxiuftr^ prodooi', that •■nrtoili are 'iHtWien^i-A* 
Ftivclj tii nihtr conl^tnent^ and that, in thepreaenteon^liuai^ a^cw<u\v>Te \n ■.'^noA. 



uo 



MAKOUC 



BrlUin, ' wa owiaol immbm tha fartiUlj of ou tM* bf ■ (Bpiplr of iJiMCwilwd p» 
Jiieljb or \ty iaIm o< umBOBiB bIoiu, bnt ntW Ibat tlktir nnMaM iMfvwM ordual- 
I Kitluii in a <iir«al ntio, with th« unpjily »t miutrti «*«»ii<iili —pwbb «t ■wimMtiw,' 
VII ilo not Iwailal* lutajtliM OTory Hwlvdllli wkiob va ■NMOOMatMLinralalioaM 
|U« poinli fa uaATOniMa to aiuh • tiow. Wt bai* bcfcro MaU^ Uiat if a rAaa^ 
Wfoa of anuaoDM were at ootBtnaiiJ, tlia aTsilabla miiirral <oaMit««nl> might u 
(koiF turn Wonio oxbwutod by U* exoMtirc «■» 

■ " ' I whal I wrot* in tnt laM' 
uido to tba OH o4 Baawa 
_ ...■■"' ''^ aboajaiio* whlrb lit 

anlliuT liw i-uUic^ axi>r«ia«i^ a* 1 am loU, at IboM warti Ib caMioailag th» 
fXwU«kfann«r«g4WU«li«l«««in«d lom* • dBiifftrau* orrar. 1 owtaUy cndaaTand 
Lto oo jiiitini to th« nmi dkoo*iv<M<if Uaron Lialil)^ iKno* tha otptriMrat^ bow- 
B*«r, rf Mr. L«wea and Dr. OUbcrl htTiv ■* I huar, bMn ilnpntMl [ am bnud )• Mv- 
(bal mv coiiftdeiwa in Um ■orupuloua ■nniracjr of Ukmc gtnlhBan baa b«so «mf 
alr«BCtbas«d by B «ab*«<}aont ridt lo Bolhovutod, in eonpMiT vitb that ainiiirai 
^Uoupbor, MontL DnMarb Tbr oiUntorUiDuxp<Mn>cBtal|n«n«d--ihi)<s|i>i 
at wbipli il baa bocoi kipt B|i-~tha jHtrtdicranvo with vhw^ J«ar afl*r ]'<ai. 
been nnhitaluti^ arv audi a* might rntlicr be i-xfwctail froin a iwUic UiMltiitiuu Uiiu. 
a |>r>»t* Uuiduwiior. anil fonder Ratfaaiiui«d, at jirrMut, ih* pnniiipal •ourtwot InM- 
«Dt(hv Tiviitillv iitfurT. - - IL •criuultamt Chonittry." — rK fiary. 

MA^l'KK M.V\n Tha liocalnuttaraoabundaiiUyeollMtedaaa dried 

ill I'ani. to form lliftr , , il'lo niaailra,aaII*dpoWrr(tr, iaouw niusnl In Ha jiro' 

Clalion wilb a amall nartian of a lotution of lulpliutv uf iron (fopptn u ), whcmliy it 
a iu oir«a«Te bdcQ. and may be nvaponit-iil viihout Datuiag a nniiaiicu to tba 
Mieliboibaad. Tbo «Mmo«ia, a* wvU aa ihe aulpliurMtnl aad i^mapbui-EUod bjrdtfr 
nil. vlikb tosMbor oooenr to jiroiliiw i^o naiuwiu iiSuvia, aro at ooen ronJaMtl 
>Ky IbU *all; IM onunonia hy i>« aeiJ. and tha Kataa by iU oiido. Wban tbo paliU 
IhWnUnla or a c wapotJ «ra imxod with a bttla tm^tnt, ili«y wan bfoono Muiy h- 
I Monnih 111!! vkenfi tnotalllo oompaiiiid «hoDld bo aft^livL under tb* odnifaiUlMliM 
uf till- iHiliiMv li^nll Ilia mataaaof puUvfylof dua^wliicbarail^ioallvJiulbafMriiani 
of LoikIou. BU'l of tlio uthar lar^ Mwn* tn Urn L nilid Kingdnm. 



I Hem laLiiXM 



R«ttTn liLASiDa, or 1mm 



SUimttid QuoiUilift 0/ Prmrwa Omno. 

blaada DglMriu la Tttt. 

fChipaaa . * 

Uaanilloa 
' Punla Ae Lolxw . 
PoboUaa du Tioa 
i'ucrto I14I4B . 
N'crlh lalud . 
Middlo dn. 
South do. 
Lobo* <1« Tiorr* 
Lobs* do AiWera 
GaanBiM . 
Foirol 



• MMhWO 

to.ioo 



t,Ul. 




I8,S«),000 



Ta-vira ItUndm Total S1,l»4.498 

Tbo imporlAtlotM of Poruviau guaoo iulo Grunt BHtain, Mcordiog to Ibo Parltk- 
noator; Kuturai^ have boco, — 

IMS !!!!,41'J ton* ISI9 7S,3S1 ton* 

IMS ST.Tdl ISBO VS,0S3 

IMS ei.oa6 lUl ISSLTS2 

■hwintc no «nonnou* iin>Kro*>iT« ioorMM. 

HARbLE. Ths\ liili' cmlirotc* tuch of tie prtnlllTr, liansitlon, and pnirr cocDittct 
Smtatonet ofiiccoriilan rorniDtiun, a> may l>r quarrird la wild block* wjihoiit fi.-ntiirs, urf 
•re MtfCCpIibliT oTa (ini; polished lurfnco. Thi* Hiirr llic whilr, or idotc bpnulifiill]- Ttrtt- 
galol lh(r colon of Ihc tloDe. the nxne Yotualilc, tiltrit /larilnu, i> ilie maiblr. In gcn- 
I ml chamclen aic the fDllovifiR : — 

UaiMi' rlhtjtitn wiih ariili; nlTcird* i)aifliliini^ by cnkinnliiui 1 hn> n coiitlioali] 

' Mftly fiaciurc i In tmn^ucnni unlf on ihc very til^« ; U tnii'ly icnlclicJ l>y ilip tiailc 1 

ham intc. iUBc. c^3'~ ; odlnitt <■( brinii tavn into >.1iil», and mrltrt a IiriltlsBt loliik. 

Thtar ^unliliea occni oiiilnl in onl; ihii'r print-i|i*l rniii-iinur limr'iiinri in ibc mo- 

Nod limnlone, ae oallcd from i<4 flnr sranulnr ininrc n-x-mlilini: llial nt loaf nigaj. 

whkh Mutilates nodcrn atntuni; mnttilv, like that of Cnimm i S. in ikt fiiilMt«4 

v, RintfiiUfiir t^ a Rialllluilp oT tmnll tareit fornird of lillle [Jatf « njij'ti") <o «n« 

riacTBf7jN>MJliledifeclion, coULilnlJng the antutnc ualuarj maiblc, tiJie ibat of 



MARBLE. 



in 



Httn I 9. tn iiiMr oT th« traujUui wid carfcanlftrouf, or McrtaiVtf tiint«iont«, mbortb- 
nta 10 lk« n«l fomniion. 

The taeebuniil and iMoellw, or imiodit miibli^i, belonf vnlirelT lo jwtoilllTo nod 
tnuMitian dititicu. TIm irrralcr pan oT tM etoirmniMd Mdorcd mtiihln bf)«>iK alto 
10 Ihe Mm* geoloflnl loc>1llle« ; aiul btcomr v rare tn the uoondiiry lioiMlonf for. 
DWIlon*, thai IniBitnar tTMU of Iktar oteur wftboM a rinf\r M tn'ffi^im))^ cniin 
«Bd comiioft lo oonttilute ■ wvrlmbk matblr. Tht llmMOnc ly'ani brlvcFD Ih* 
ealnrM».«liGiauB Mndi and urittlaiH) of Ihe nndrr <<c>)iir, and vbkb ii oallcd Fomrl 
■■rbic in Rniiland, bnnff iw m ptlblc oT ■ loI(nb1« poliah, and tajirimlnl villi imbeddnl 
MmH*, hoi cMDctiinn botn workH Into oranmi^ntal ilibf in Oxfard(hlr«, wb«r« If 
OO tw In Iho i>c*rhborho<4 oT Whtehvood foreri : bul Ibi* e«ic nn honHr 1* ran. 
MAmd u an rxcvplinn lo Itir ^nnal tiUr. To «onii>tDtc o prKf!t>h|p Ria(li1i--iiiatiy. 
Oi*n miiM hf a Inrt* pxi.-hi of hoinc^-^titaiui limctlonr, and a IbclHlr nf imn-rr-iiinc 
the blodn after lk«T ■» iog. On «i«i<iinia( Ibfw natural adTnMaftii of lh« bnis i>f 
Oamra naible, «• nay rmdilr nndmiaad bow Ihe MalnNT narUM AwovtnO in ihe 
Pjnmt*. Savor, Canift t'*- ^^ """^ l"^ "I*'' *" <°ibc Mft eompetiiioo with it in 
Ut H>rlitL In (km, Iha tvo oidM or the vaUcr of Carrara may b* rciinnird an mnua- 
MIm ef UaUHT miutle oT Ih* Oami lonliijr. 

OnMeoH* atatetlnr may b« rendiiy ditiinftoithnl rnon marble*, bearaiw ii dim not 
cferrotM with asidt, and iawflcaoutth to bo trislch«il b> lhi-tinil| Mnlastnilic ulnbuin 
il wmoirbal hai4(T tlian awblsi lntndu«Til,anil mricKntrd with n^ilar>tn|>niit uii>l«- 
laliDns- 

Same ^laMilar marUt* on flaible in Uun ilabr, or, at Icut, become m by btiae dnid 
ct the ire i which thowa, •■ Dolctnlon maMCMd, that tbii proitrty ariici from « dimiao- 
1km of Ike atWactiTC ibroe arooag the patUcla, by the loit ot Ihe molMure. 

TbR *aiiaM tlnu of cnmMnUU nwrbbn cewMaJly proOMd fnmi oitf^tn of Inm ; boi 

Um bloc and fTMB tioia ate HHOoliaMa eaiiiod by miMlt (MutidM of hotnbltnd?, ai \m 

lk« ltBll^MulT nuirly called TuMhino, aad b> tome Br««ik tnublea of Otmtmy. Tho 

, Uaek m■Ib^M arc colored by rtarraal, mixn) oesniieMUy with anl^r uul bilamon 1 

when Ibn oonuiwie ttiokuooe. 

Btrnrt dMJMi wartloa, aeeoritag lo Ifcdr tocaliii^*, into cla»»t», eaali of whjeh eoMaiaa 

Ktht (abdlvUona 3— 
1. UBl.co1atcd DBftilra; Inelodinfi only the whlu anil ilm blark. 
k Variifaled mrbln 1 Uioic wttli [irf^lv ipoti or iroin*. 
8. Madrvpurifl mnrbln, pcmruIinK viinn] ranaiiu in Ibe iliapo ej" white t p«y tpolat 
lb rrCDlarly diapoird doli and slnn in Ihe ceolre. 
4. Shell iDiublei; with only a few ihells intcnpcrMd in Ihe calotrcma ba«e. 

5. Luinnchpllamaiblef, onlirclyeomTOMdof (ImII*. 

6. Clp«lin uuirbloi, coiilainimc rtutt of gretnUh lalf^ 

7. Bioecia maiblt^ forood tt a numbCT of angular fragmcola of dlScnni ciublst, 
wiiMd by ■ eomioon ennoal. 

S. foidinflneiM matbleii a eoniAomerBlo «t toonded plooet. 

vfaiimo nw6II>b — Tbe tnoK rmmrkaUe of lh«« w« tho ftUowintt -. — Parian tnarilr, 
c«Ual (ftJtnUt by Ihe aneitati^ becaun its (|narr>ra were WDiktil by lonpt | il lyw o yel. 
bnriih-wliilH colon and a lenture emnpoanl of fine shioina tcalM, Irinit in all direolieat. 
The celebialed Arandeliaa lablei at Oxftm] oiiuiil of Pnriitn omrlde, u well aa tin . 
Mediemn Venus, Pattlu maihlt. from Mount Penlelei, nenr Alhent, rrsemblea IIm 
ftfiaa, but i* iBMncwlu.1 denser inil Gner pvnoti, wiib ccentionml cTeeiiiab Konea, m^ 
dand by Erocnnb laic, whence il is called by ihc lioliitni CipoliBO italmriii, no 
fl U w iwn, Propylcum, the Hipiulrome, aod other principal uiooinDcntt t£ Atboni^ 
ware «t tVntdic marbln ; of wUcb fine specimens may be seen nmonx the CjoiB Ooi> 
iMiOK, In lbs BfitiKh Miiuum. Manno Gttee, or Uieek ubltn maitM4, la «f i Mrf 
Ihdy aaow while color, ralher harder than Ihe preeeding, and auKrplIbie of ■ Terr ^^ 
pofeh. It wai <>blaini^ QvoD oeieral iaiand* of the Arebipila(o, *v tkiii, ^inut, Lesboo, 
ftc, 7raatJa«nJ iiAili morMi. Ifarmo riatuaria of the Ilaltiuu, ii very mueh like ibe 
Parian, only noi so opaque. Colunai and altar* of this marble ctiii in Venice, and 
HVcral lowna of Lombarayt but tho ^artica arc quite ualinowa. FknUf a*ih KfrbJt, 
«f whkh Svwor *lx labk* an fecserrod Inlba house of Prince BorehrM-,il Koiar. llit 
hAU< taaiUt tf /.aa^^on the eooil <A Tuwany, was pieferrcd hf liic Crreh Kculpton M 
iMIli tho Parinii and Prnlelic. Hidr taaiUt of Corrara, between Specio auil Lucca, ia 
«f a fine white color, bot sAen travonul by fray nin*, m iIibi il it dillicult to pioeitra 
moderately Inrue pieces free fcoui Ihmi. Il it not fo apt to turn jellnw nt Ihc Pariaa 
BMrUe. This quarry wa« worlud by the ancient*, baiiniE been Dpun(^I in the lime of 
Juli*s CSMr. Many antique tiatuea icmain of this marble, lu two principal qnaniM 
al the pieMM day ore thoM of Pianello and Polraxxa. In llie oeiiire of ils blodis very 
'Inpiil iori-.4tyitat> are loairiiinei fomaJ, wLich ore eolli-d Cnimn diauonilt. At ibo 
jUaUief arc beomning cieeiiiret) nuc, il has rifcu i> price to aboal 3 ^Innui the 



WAABLC 



iant film i— fc ■■ BiwM, — » aM ofa twtj 
The tttne «f Milwyi. n the Fxntk IS<tm 



<armm,h 



«Wt*, Wi lMllm4 • Mk In D«T- 
ef thnnuU*. 

Uiul ..HfM Mwik, Ik JTtrv syinrildie ItaUM. TM b Mn IdIbwIt bUdt 
dwi msf of oar BodoB huUm; il la naxmitit acaccr, acnRiac e^T ia «e uH*W lJ 
piecw. n- rrfT Y i|-i r iTTi-fr r. "nfrii'l't'^^ irrtTii i . i l l ft- ft i - *" T ml lMi . 
baktaMiM ■a>M*i/«d(«p HD«Uvd mIot, Mt«n|MMd vitb vklu Ttini biwI vftk 
f«7 Mllal* «Wte dau, aa if tttvvad ant wiA pait of Had. Tbn« n ia Ihe Gl(> 
tal Yaaiw.a tilnial MMacaf Uvcw AfripfateroMO aarim, which ma 

< IbiacfiT pt MgfwJ ia the PanilitgB U Baac OraH m^ign mariJt, rrrit miiro, ■ a 
I kM <if Wirrh. wlwac paxic is • aaxtaie af tak aai "— — ^—r. «kil< (be 4aik pMD 

I ef anrrnidae. ToTbcMtifld tpcKtacMaf iiaftpnaerradai Pank. 

)ni bMl^aaQir haa a n w gre«« pMtbvAk Hade i^ata cfaaUc awpautiiia. ta< b 
r miacM with rel ifatt. iWiptfM(*aHa>ifWamUi,lMatek«n»«nfflod 
—ill III vkh anaU nd ud bl«A apMa, wM ftacnma af mfraeU cbaaaad intji vMic 
■wfilc II i* k»a«rn OMly in imaB UUfU. LaitmnUi; a iw« nrittr «/ Ihal adoTt 
arvhirhlhcrcttauUvtollMMlMalPaffa. JfarnOfO* fiafNaeMtooraiBUiMrtlb 

I iNca color, «nil ia r««nd oalf In the rakta tt aneirnt Roue. C m a lii iiM/Mr «f s 
Deep rt<l, wiih n—rai (nr aad wUu Ttint, n Mid u be fnead ka Aftks, bdiI hiitUr 

'' nil 111! to cDouiince. l'«BMr onfifM uMifh, rioll* oaMo cd" d»a IuIbmi color ed" 

b Iba ]P0lk of aa cgf , dther mUotb oc marlnd vitb lilatk ar dtcp T^ldar am*- It ia 

faa*, la> bmit ba wphetd by gaa na Mriile. Hud nd wUN mtiifmt l aarthi , fcuad oaly 
J dw rolM of andmi Raaei Groad «■>>}•', a bneda naobk^ wlalaanff -TiJIi. 

' rniiitiii of krfo AagBtoU «f a Uack natW^ trannod bf niaa «t iaM of a •bniaf 

' «U>f. Thera tn fav eataoiaa af It to lh« ftluaiiB at Pane JMjm dpaUao —mtk. 

I'Cipalia i« a nameciTta toal auch marUnaa ia»« gnaaiifc aoaa* fjadaaad t^fraM. 

I We I Uwir rractan ii ^laualir aad (hWnc aad diafJa}* bare aad lltrta plaica «f talk 
Pai^ oafiaaa Imcw HorMt, is mj TaiiaUa in Iba nlar aad tin of iU afokb 
jliit tf m ,^nim% Ireeria ba* a black Kmond, Taricftled wiih km fiagmeiiii at a Bay** 

. Wwwliite, deap rad, «r |«rplt>h <riae Kdn- ; and i> oa« if ibe ncrt baMliTal aaiUaa. 

f 7b(t« >r« Tariout otiMr Umh oT aatkni brKciu, which it wonld be tedioaa M pa«> 
UCDkrinr. 
ttoitn tnarUrr.— I. BritUb. Black inatbia ti fEFoad at Aihftfd, Uatlacft, Hi 
IJHoaaaUak in DerbTibfaa; bladiand wbUc ia (be nonb pan of Deraatbire; iba TCfla> 
psalel aarble* cf DaronAIrc are MawallT reddUk, faNvraiib, aad gtarU, nainmlr 
I vabwd with whiM aad r«U«*t or »' <alon a>« oA«n laUmaicliF UmM ; tba maiUai 
ffton TMbar aad Babbaeombc, iB4|ik]P a fraat Tarktr ■» tba Mixtnra of tbHt ntoni 

< tta Pljnooiitb maibk ii dlbn aih-«ob)ced wiih black ntea, at blaehi>h-«ia; aad wfait^ 
' ifc a dad wilk Uack Teiasi the cliffi near Mui'barek akiUl macblo ^airici aM oalf 
liHT (nat eileal, bat oT anpeilor btanly lo any olbrr in Demuhirc, brine nibrt of a 
F,dom««i)oml ^roaad with raUMb-poriile and Tellaw nlni, or of a Uack greand aadllnd ■ 
t «Ub puflith flobnka. The green aurUa of Aagtii a a ii noi antlka ife* and* aadkaf 

lb Mkiy bekli neanUb-Uaek, leek-greea, aad aamatiinea dall paffllth, imxakrly 
bkadtd wtib wbka. The while |<art t* lioicataar, Ibe ««*a tkadaa prac«ed (nm 
•aiiiiuUne aad aAaMot^ Tbtt* ara iinvral One varielia vt moitle ia Dertvdiire t Ilia 
tDOllled-fra* in Ibe a«ichbatbood «r Mooprmh, tti« litbt cm)' btifif ratdtred cztriaM^ 
baaatifiiiby Ibe aiunberof pmpleveiniwhieh tftaui ufun iu fioliifaed nrifaee In fk^tt 
branalnr ka atfcm M il* drieT ocumtnt fa Uie mtilblnde oT 'ofmoll, wUb wbkfe lUi' 
liaaiition llmaiioa* marMe abcandjL Moeb of iha trauiiioii aad i iilii'iilfliaaa Hn^ 
ilOM«f Watte aad Weatmwaknd ia canabk of bdns warhtd np into 0Kr<«aUe dnk 
anWei. 
In SeolbiBd, a paninlaTlT fine nrit^T of wbiw mniUe ii fonnd m immenae boda, at 
^AMfnt in Siitbarlaiiditlure. A bniitiful nih-craj mniblc or n rery nnifonn grain, ani 
itabk of a flne iwliak, oteaii on the nortb tiAc o( the fcrtT of BaUachaUKb m In- 
noaaUrcL Oa« of \he moo. bcantiAil tarietiei is that &om the hill of DekpbMxick ia 
, one of Uia Hebridet. lu ecdora are lala blood.««d, ll^t lleth-rtd, aad nliU^ 
«bite. wHb dark cre«i partlclM af hnmbltnde, «r rtihtr aablilo, dilhtcd throngb iba 
laneml biie. Thr cuinpacl Rinrblr nf Iniin U of a line Enun, a dolt wbila lolor, mm^ 
whal rrwmbUn; pore cmiocl rcMtrnr, Il 'a mid by Bonmon, 10 eoonit of an iadaala 
■tilmre oT iremolile aad earbonato of lim?, •om'^liinM wiih rellowiih or erN«iib-Tdkw 
■poiB. Tilt cartionirtroa* limtaloae of monj' ot ihe coal buiiu in Ihc lowlnndt >f 8eal> 



t may be wuriicd ialo a lolerablr cood marble Tor cbimncy-piore*. 

[^b liekad, iha Kilkenny marble i* lh« one btal baaiwn, having a blaok troand mta at 

Imb varied wiih while marki produeol bf pMrllactinn*. The apar wbieb oreuidea Uw 

plaee of iha ihelb, lometiEKa aunmn a K^W'nith -yellow tolnr. An ei«Mdingi|r tea 

Uack marble kaiolnbceaniinlalCmylcaDi in Ihecooniy of Down. At LoalhkulMr* 

'nrte rauniT-of TJppcrarr, a fine purple martile ii Ibmul, wblch vbea poliilMd Toob 



MARBLE. 



Itt 



The ooiuujr o. KeRj aUbnl* mtcoI T«riii«kted tnwUt*, not nnUke Ihe 

Fnmot pintnKi k Kraat manj mtrbl* qu*iTi«i wbkli bare bwa draeribtd bv Btud* 
Mi of which • cOfuoH alBiniel w prcn ondcr th« afliclc muble— ii«u' C^dtft i ia. 

The rcrritnry oT Oenan flirtjihw nTernl btMiliftil Taii«lwt oT miuUfv 'ho moM re- 
■unable of vrhirh It lh« fultmia 4i Ooua, calkd in Frcocb Ihe i>«rt iP£i!ypf4 luul Kr{ 
dt uMr. It i' * mixtur* of |r»Dlar limestone villi a Uleoac nni ttxytaUDC mbttmca 
dM|iuW in vi-h^ I and it ii wnMUmoi iniind irilh a ivililljih half. Thi* mniblc wm bi^ 
mwlT murh irniplat^ in tuljr. Fraitco, and KnHltuid, Tur ehiinney-pivco*, but Sis «ombM 
lyptnranet faai put il onl of hriiian. 

Cnnicii [oucHca a Enod italonrr imirble of a fine dose eraio, and pnre milk} vrhiia- 
BN^ qnartiol ai OraJolHot it will bnr comparison with Ihai of Ciirnin ; alio a tp*J 
name (Annfi^), n elpcdin, and *iime oilier vnrtPtin. The iilnnd of Elba hu ioun^nM 
qunnlci at a whil> marble villi MBckish-KTcea vein*. 

Amonc Uiii inaumnnble rati^iica of ItaHan marble*, Uia following deiem «miic^cini 
ootkc. 

The raricio^ a wbke marble fouutl a[ Pailuni lh« white nuirUe of E(. JiUlcn, at PIm, 
irf which tMCnthednl and eclcbrolpd slaniis;: umrmiv bnilli the Biancone maibl^ 
wUla with a linsc of ^ray, quarried nl MnEurrcn for atUira and Iamb*. Noai Margom 
the wblla oalinr maiblc with graj- rcim it found ; wilh which the caihedml of Mibut U 
boill. The bbiek marUo of ^r^amo 1* calM parajoac, from it* black olr.r, lik« tonch- 
Monei it ha* a jmn intense Uni, Bad i« dOMrplibli of a Soo poliib. Tlic i<urc blarlc 
nMiWe of Coma ii aloo nueh tttcenwd. Hie foUtroto of Piiiojo, i> a black maiUe 
(prinUed whh dots ; and the beautlfUl while marble with bbck ipoli, fiuni Ihc Lago 

iHMJiiii.liail mI iji il fii ill iiiii»liii|i llii iiitiiiiii iif n ; it I Itn Mitiiiiii 

The MarfoirainaibUlotind intcrr.ntl poris of ibc ISIilnnriv, i> MuiOi vrinni villi brawn, 
ui MMpmn |»rl nf Ihcdamcof llkccalbnlml of Milan. TUe hi-c'dii int>l>luof Flotonee 
own iu color 11 a mpioiu adaiiiitn of ■tcaiiU'. Another (civen marble, cnllvd ctrdr Jt 
Ptmde, occun in TnicanT, near Ihe little town of Pnuio. Il is muked witli hiiois of a 
ieu BT Biwa Hun Ihe rasl, iiaMinf evon into hlaekuh-blue. The bnailfnl Sienna 
amMt, or brveatella di Sink, ha* a j*Uow color litie ihc loiit of an em, whirli it di»- 
poaad in large iiretrnlar ipot*, nuTOinndRl villi Tciai of b)ui«lMeil, pau-in; u>mtllaM* 
Inlo pnrplr. Al Irfontntenti, two lengnoi flom Sienna, another yellow miirtde i> MM 
Irilh, vtiich if iranrwil bf Mack aiHl poTpUsb-blnck reins. The Brema marble i* ydkiw 
wilh white «|>oti. Thr lunMote «f the Italians ia a IiEbl rrd tLOibJe with jeUowidi- 
white spoU, foond nl LugiesiaML in the Vcroncic. The red mnrblr of ^'nnna ii of a 
ted ralhcT inelining to jrdiow m hftteinth ; a seoood rorlci; oT a dark tod, compotei tb« 
raM amphilhcolTc of Vcronn. Another marble is Ibund near Verona, with InifO wUl« 
■poC* In a rtddiah and nirvaiih pa«tc. Very fine eolutnn* hare bo<ik made cf a. tht 
MdUo dt ;«n«i* i* an ItaUflA sludl marble, in which the sIipIIh form Lorte oibioular ipoU. 
nd, while, and bluish. A madrepario maihlo known undrr the name of pirJra iIiIlBria, 
DWcl emplofod in Ilaly, it entirelT campoaal of star modrrpore*, eonrerled iulo a gnj 
■nd white iDbUanceiaud i* suKCplible eC an excellent poliili. The vilhigcof Bretonietk 
n the Veronese, fuiaishei a splendid brecda mnrblc, compoted of icUow, stocl-giBir, and 
Wie colored apola. That of Becgnmo eomuxls of black and ^rar fnjtmonta in a ptenith 
MBKnL FlorcncG marble, eaUcd alw rain and landtnape marblt, ia oa induiMed eale^ 
rlOu* marl. 

Sicily nbiiiind* in mublo, the moM raluable of which i> that called by iho Engtiah 
Mme-<ull«T«, liieilian jatperi It fa r«d wiOi lu^ Mripe* Uke tibniuls, white, red, and 
MMKtfmet ETten, which nu t^ftag with prsMy acme a^le*. 

AmmE ^^ <'<^nar44 nnibles v« may notice Ihe hishly esteemed variety called porlor, 
mi account of Uie brillinni yellow veins id a deep bUek ^und. The raort bauUlU 
hind MHDoi (Vom Porto-Vencs^, and Lonii XIV. enu^inl a gieai dcnl of il to be worked ap 
ftr Ihe dccoralion of Vervutles. It oasis now two pounds per eabie toat. 

Of tuUiuf sod patitSing ma^lr. — The tnotblo aaw is a thin plate of soft iron, continu- 
ally MppIiM during its aawing motion, with u-alcr and Ihe sharpen sasd. The tawing 
of moiknte pieoe* b petfoniicd by b'tn.l, but Ihal of large sUba h mon economically 
tele by a proper milL 

The Srtl tabilance used in Ihe polishlne praems ia iho ibarpott sand, which mutt be 
worked with till Ibc lurfaec becomes i<erfcctly (lot. Then a seeoud, and even a third 
■and of (ncreiuin; fincnnt i( lo be opnilrd. The next luliitanee ia emerrof pr ogrw ai re 
J^raM of flneneu, alter which tripoll i> rmploynli and the lait polish ia gfrenwilh 
lln-polty. The body wilh which the aanil 1* nibbed upon the nuuUe, is usu^y n plnia 
tf iron ; but forlbe •nbMtiieot ptocfM, a plate of lead is used with fine nnd and rmetr. 
I&e polishine rabbm are (Mr*r linrai tbNhi, or bag^in^, waJsed llghl into an iroa 
plawian lo(d. In evay siep of the optntioa, a conMani trickling iapplj ef water H 



IM 



iUTCUES. 



Hilton or Durhy n«* InT* in offrntniAtj d laqMcliiiK Brow*'* tgOmdmi 
aIuD«i7 fur aiitUii|i (marCl« law nuafamoMMiUl G3niw«hjiiTiha*be(B*cl)<' — 
in Rtt^t C\itlojKt3ia. 

9ir Junn f<U puiettUi^ in mt, ■ eambn»tio« «f nwAiatfr b* oiltinK ut* d» 
pfriMion or^nllel iDoaUian upon iaarbl« ■hb^ far «nMm«ntM puputu; In wUlJb 
toobk Mppbcd tKUi wnd tai vatsr, tra made lo tnirvno (>> and n«, 

itt, TuOofk olitainod • patcol. to ISM, lot imiirovananto ia uwihiacrr hr tmiAaf 
> Md grD^lva mmiAa ; the ]>«««r bdta| ^ipIUd by aa«M of Iwlhcd wheiit Iwiirii^ 
anin^ whi^ ipm th« m*4BW motMn to ili* ealuog tnn platw. 

In "tttrMnbcr. IBft Ur. Qlbba *«iouT«d, b; ]wtenl. «« InTmtlMi for workinc antr 
■enul ietief in wubt*, bj idmm oT • t»T*ll!nK driU. niiiM hj a moatd of waocL 
*&, in coiiuUr rdief; ud tn April. I8S8, Mr. O. W. Vil£ obUiiMd a uUot fat ■» 
obinorr, oliwh eooiiata of a Mri» of circular ruttor^ for aupanitiE^ itaMfKnn * Mack 
I of maihU; Uio block b«ag ndntuotd bIowIj t« m*^ tba mttefti by th« tiMigni 
'MOTonMat of kj^latlbnncpan whtabkdriraabjthaagaaqr ofamek'aadiiliiioOil 
tha o^llndnr bonog moehiM of tho iteanvongina mannfacnircr 8*d>1 aaJ vat«ri 



ba aappli*^ ot o«>ara«, tttnn a hoppor, to ILma ■moalli-«nulDg 4lMa ttf iron or teppw. 

8a* OiaM^Omnxo. Ha pronoan alio la 

rotalnrr vhwl or eyUndor of any ahapo to It, (n Ita ur^iag frana. 



mould and p«IUB naitila, by apflyiog ■ 



ID. i( ono of Ibd a«id falA prodiKod bjaaponi^u t«U«vi 
1 dDootnpotiiig Ike aoap vriUi iKI«l« add. Ilia tmn Harf arf*)) 



UAtEcA'^iTE^ U a inristy of Iron pyrilta, containing ccesimUj a li(tl« nrsattte. 

UAItGARATG^ an> naliiie coiapomda of naigario acid witli lb* baua. 

MAltGAitlC AflD. " 
■Iknliac nmtlcr, mil < 
nltc* PKAIU-T-IookUlg. 

lb* plijijcnl propcMJa* of the marmria andalMrie ndda ara tmv ilanllar; tba l 

dUTorfUi^o i' Ibat tbe fomwr ii nor* railblo, nalltniF at IVi" P. Tbo r«*dU*l'tnod*«f 
obtainintc t'ur* mnriMrio a<^d, U to dJwolvo «tlT« oD «o*i> tn «-al<^, to pour into tli« 
aolulian n *oIuUon «( noutral MM»ti! nf Ipiul. lo waah and dn- tli« prf«ii<itat«v<u><ttki« 
f toremoTf iti oleat* of load l>y ollivr. w)i!<>b <lo«a not allMt it*inaifanu«o(1««4, lb* 
V iwidmm bring dorouipiMtd by bmhiij; lioc niiuiali« acid, affbnbjnarenrie arid, WkM 
■luBlod ia a retort tlutacid bmU It la inwIuUu in waltr, vdr}'•o^abI« ia alMbotud 
\ miua i it raddnn* Utina* papa-, and doemnpoH*^ viih tLo aid of boot, tb« enrbooilai 
al aoda and potaik. 

MAROAUIC ACID in obtnined taoit mMj br tlu dUtiUallon of alMrio add. 1h* 
' hmnidltr iil (hi? I>vi;iau!iig of II14 ]ir«««M tnuat M axpollad by ■ imart beat, othmrta* 
' erjilooi'te rl>ulliiit>na ara apt tt> ooeur. Wb«a«r«t tha cbolUtion b«Miii«a aniTom^ th« 

St* ii Id bo uii>d«rated. 

MARIS'K acid. Soo MirautiD Aov aad HnwoniuiKni Ada. 
JIAIU\ES.\LT. 8««8*tT. 

MAItl. (Jfarv, Ft.; Uenit, Gvn>).\ U n niliod oartliy anbatasta^ •owbtla; «f 

«arli'>iiAi* nf Hm*. day, and nilicoani tand. in c^ry variabfo proporUana: It it iiiiiw 

UsiM doinpaqt, aonMIiiiua* palnruJant. Aoeordis|t to tba prcdondnaart of oaa or 

I Mber of lb<*e tliTM main lagndlcirtiL nwrlitnaj badiatribntM intocwleanoiui ^y«T> 

ami **i^> i^ Ijmmtoms. 

llABQli'ETRY. U ^ iiwiiliiir kind of oabint4wark. in whieh the lurfooe of vood li 
anaiMal^ trilli inlnid piccca of Tarioui colon and form*. Tha nurvurttur |iiilaMoM. 
■IlTrr. ooppvr. torliJae-elirll, mothorofpeavl. irory, horn, tbc, vndar njolrilnaliaB. 
Am* nlMtaiiaM bcii^ reduced <o laninm of praper IbianaMt ara ont mil ibIa ib« 
dtalrad funn* by pnachw, vbich prodnee at onea Iho Aitl patUra orin«uld, and tha 
^MDpty <>ii«v Khicli rta«loKd It; and both aarva Uioir *a|>ara;tc purpoaaatn naniuctiy, 
I Tar &u natlioil* of dyriag th« wood*, A«, mo Ito«t. 

UARTIAJU aigniiiM IwloDging to iraa; from Hnn^ lh« mytbologiod ■aoM of ttiia 
matol. 

MAt^eilCOT. ia the yellow oxide of Ind 

M.VST1C (Eng. and Fr.; Manlir, G*-niLL ii n min produced br maUnff iacialoMlft 
the Pittacia Lmtitcvt, a tree coltivatod Id the Luvont. and ehlony in lb* lalaad •( 
-Chioa. it coniH lo ai io rctlov. brittle, trniifparont, round*d t«an: which tUJim 
bciwten (be trotli : with biit^risli lut^ and aromatie nnrlL and a KMolflo CMvtty af 
1^. Uattio enutxtU of two r«aln* ; one tokbla in ililula olnobi^: but botk dinolra 
ta alrana nUcJiol. It* aalntioa tn aplrit of wina «onalilut«a a goud raraiafa. It ■!•»' 
totvoi abo in iil of tiirpGal.iu«. 9*t VABniau. 

kIAl'CI!E!\ CIIEMK'AL, Put <0 graiai of pboaphomi into a wide-nonlfeei 

kMtlp. Add cQocgUoiJ uf Inrj-cntinc to covtr ihephoapliorvi; then nUx in lOmof 

' flower of anlpbnr. Put the bollte intahol waicr until th* pbwphoruaU cntlrtSf 41^ 

aotvod; Klop lh« inatith oi (h« bottle villi a lyrk, aiid voll ahab* Iha wbula will H 

^iMabaaono i-'old: aflarwardi ponr off th« luparnatanl oil of twfHndiBak IieIo Ik* 

* Ur« ot pbo«phoru« vblch r^analn* tn lb* Mttlodip ihBaxtrMDillaacf Ihantaloha^ 

', *A«r teae tirati vhan tbay hare bvoome a Kttle dried; dip Iham again Into Um 

ttalximn- 



^^r ltATCU£& IW 

DlHotr* M p*\aa ct kQB ambio tn m imatl iinoniUy of v>l«r; aJJ to It M m e( 
«hlor<rtiiiiriH>liwli.B>(liriiSib<nialinMl«lTUiEelliar; ikMagilaoiM 10 t''*- "Ma4 
pmiowly iiiix^ wiili * fuw drtiin <f (poritM uf wiii«. 

la about IS KMir»(kv oiaUtiM will li« pvrfMtljdtj, when tliair viQ i{piiI«on rub- 
bisR Xkt<m over a tuiikIi lurfnea. 

3bl'CUmiSVrA]NTA.\'EOII8UOin;«VA«><A.^a.-a>>tfin'aaiir.VaiM. Boatt. 
ehtf lu* ptibliiilicd lb« MlowJof fermala tm tha praparatjan of tlicinioa) matduih 
vhkb i|put« wiUio«t Doim; — 

TalMofOainAMtuii ..... Itparta, 

Plio«{i)iaru< - t — 

NlttaU nT potMb • - U — 

UoaigniieM: • It — 

ilk*, ao aa h> form a ptrf««(lr lKKniw«D«oi» maw. 

More raecoUf, tUatlianiiat.'WagdwImiiot Baking a maaa «^aally good, bat at 

• l»wer priea. Iisad «• tlia foUowIug fonuda ; — 

Taka of PhMphMua . . . - . 4 parla. 

NIlniM of potaih ■ - ■ 10 — 
Oaipoutar'a glua ■ -6 — 

MiniDiD, or mJ ocliTa - - - 5 — 

Smalt • • • • . 9 ~ 

Tha gloA u oat and aoaktd hi a littlo vator for ftt hovra; it i* thca pat Lato ■ 
pMealaa in«nar. prcvionily bcaud, w> at to camo it* li(|aafacliaiL Tlic pDoiplioroa 
u tbaa tMoA, aftarvarils Iho nilrata of potOJili, anil Icutily tlia mbiiuiti aiTil amalt, 
Sallliift tbo lnirTodi«Dla «oa*iantlv with the p(ntl>.\ tiiilila perf^oUy Uauiutl''»^u> bIx- 
t*n i< formoil whk'h maj aliuoat b« drawn out in llirMiiu. 

Dnrini; tlii« optratlnci tike tainporaturo niiut avvvT Iw (Jlo««(i to rito abovo 161* 
F.. tu [iravtut llie iallaiiimaliaa of tlio particlot of phiiipbcnta. 

nil fHiBlu mu}- ba apjiUcd la wotx] prepared for the purpoac, or lo amailou prCTi- 
oiolj dried for eigbt or twclro houra. 

Paper nwt«h«a otaj be madtv wbieh wUl afford an agrMablo odor on igniting, bj 
watlUR >lipa of Mpor on botb tidca with tiuotaro of IwoioiD, nad tbcn applyuig a 
ta»X\ quantity of Uia abora eooipoaitlon to llielr ailnniitiM^ by mratis of^a amall 
bnub. On rabblagcneof iliMnoiiarou^li eurfiwis tlia nuM inflnuMnnud ignltwtiM 
p«Mr without tlie mttrvuntioa of a cuntiiii; uf idfjiur. 

abtcliot of wood may bu inade tbnt will iailamu wilJiout ■aliihnr, by aligbUy oar- 
beuiiijig Um end* of thorn, by placing tbom agaiiut a rod bot plate of iron, anu tben 
dlpviac them into taelUi wax 

M. I)i«hI, ot KbmdorL papil of M. Waekonrodttr, baa analyaod an sxcolteat iaflo^ 
aaablu matv and tonnd tha loUowinii proportionii of ia|[radiaiit« in 1W> parta:— 
Pboaphomt ■ ■ - 17 

KUra(*of potMb S8 

Mlnl«n - • M 

Oliw SI 

HATCHES, LUCtFEIt. Aeoording to Dr. a Bocttgar, i* AiuttttH Jrr O^mii wirf 
Plurmaei^, vol. slrii. p. XM, talo 

rkoaphomi -4 parta, 

Nlti* 10 — 

Kn* glua • ... -4 — 

Kad o(^hr^ or rod InA • ■ - S — 

Snaall ■ ■ - ■ ■ . ■ 3 — 

Convert lb« glaa witb a link wattr by a iceiiUii beat iutu a unnoth Jolly, pot it iota 

• aliffbtly vatiu pomlwu mortar to liqa«fy ; nili tbe ]ibo»uliorua ilowa tbrongfc Ibia 
falatuio ai a tnopcratore of about 14<i° or 100° Fahr. ; add tbo nitn^ tbon tbt red 
powder, aad laaUv tha amalt. till tho wholo (ortaa a imifann paitb Tb ia*ke writing- 
papor niauh««^wbiclibnni Willi ahriitbt flaoia and diffnaa an agrecahla odor, inoiatoo 

l<la of lliit pop** with tinctuioof bansoJB, dry it, cnt it Intotlipiv and anioar on* 
: ' and* with a little of tlia abova pailo by mmiut i4 ■ hair tHiioiL (hi rubbing 
<■■■: ai.td and alWr it la dry apiinit a rooi^h antliboa tbo paper will lake l!t<v wiUioiu 
tba iiit«ri«nlifln of tulphur. 

To fann lucifpi' wood ipatiihee, tlial act without aulphur. melt in a flat-bottonie^ 
tin pan u mush white wax m wilt «land oue-tentlt cf an ineh dnp; t^ku a biindla of 
vaodon toatchM free from rcun, nib thair «ad« aaniDtt a rod bot iron plate lill the 
wcol bo (liptitly charred 1 dip them now in Uio noltad wax for ■ moment, ■hakeibunt 
w«Ji >in takinff iham o«l, and finally dip thunaaparataly ia the viMid put«. Wbaa 
dry, thay wlU kindia raadlly by frielioa 



MATClIKd. 

' tar llio Mnl<l inuiifhAteK of the woodm iplliiU far huittr mtt^m, ■ ptf •m «« 
»MM*i to Mr. IU«b«i P«rtrid«ft im llMsk 1841. a« «»p*«T« ■ i««fcr»udio«Uittta 
plal*. luring a tlMl f«oe. »lriiii«UiMiod by ■ WlJncUl t«elt; ««e/M S», wa 1M 
MM of th« mrforatiaii* nium JsiiMd on UiBt of lb* iW*A ■pUntfc brt Ifcr; moA U 
M elo.0 logrthor u po«l.l*. lli»t Uip« in«y b« a «iy mdl bknk ■!>•« IkIw»« 
Uwu. iiUicrviw tbu plate wouU aflbrd tou rreat iwiuuc* to tfc* ptMago M Ib« «Mii 
Br ibis ooiuU*(ti«a. the wfcoU u«> of Um blMk of wood na; b* eoinr«M*fd laUrtl^ 
into ilia cottntorMOik optMog^ and TotcviI tbrongh lbs helM wUA ars (licktlv eM» 
tenniib tu bvur du tMnuwo koil irparation of lli« womIoo flbrc*. 



es7 






MS 



ninniMffrrinmnfTT 



^. SST r>rprt*rriU thn fuo«of oiKuflbMerlaU*; <HtiJtc. B88 It • rnUngultr Wttic* 
tLrou^ tho pl>t«. A MAVenUol the of plala la UirM iiipbn br«ai], six tiiolii!* la^^ 
and cue thick. Tho mode of priming it bj fixing tli« baek of the plate a^ainit ■ SnB 
iwutJug block ur bcariiifp hariug ■■■ aiicrture eqnd to the (ft« of tbe nrfbratiiMt ia 
the platu, and Ihon plaeing lU« end of lb< pio«e or piece* of wood in Uio dirMiIoB tt 
the gwn •nioit tM due of the plate iritliin tho an* of the perfbtated portion. A 
plunger orTorer or othvr *aitablo tnoobiuiieal agaat baing then apjilivd to the batk or 
rererse uiid of iliu nlaoa of vooi), it itta; ht toteti through th« purforalioui la tW 
plitte, bciott fint ipfit aa it admuvtii hj ibw ouitJnfliidgMof tlio bul<.«, luid aflerwarli 
wwaprtwed aud drivvn tbrouj^h lli« pnrfomlioiui Entli* (ilate, comiiiK out od th> oppiH' 
■ltt«Id«orbaako( tb«pUt« in the form of a niuttitnde of di*tlnel*di]il^a^-;«bly to 
the ahapta and dimeniiunt oTthe pirfornlioDi. — .Vriel'/H'tJmintel, C. S. toL nil IAS. 
JViMit^KloM 1^ LucifiTt. The firtl alagt iu tba nuLniifnctun; of Ineifora It tiw <iil 
ling the wood; wbfob u done acgordin^ lo Uib detent of lb* niaDufaeUirj, ciUict by 
hand er by niaehinciy. Thi^ •» well lu tbo mbuiiiiiiiit proeen of oounting wi>l | 'laeiog 
ths uut«hcM la fnuno^ b in itaelf netcaMtih- fruu fhiio any inmnnnionc* or tvil too- 
•tqnon«e; nordor* it appear that tho third (tagi\ which ooatipta In Disltinfltbir lulpkOT 
and dijiping tho beadii <■( th« inatube* in it, product* any lnoonV40if^l'•^ Tliv (bcrtl^ 
fiftV nitb, and wrrnlb ttago* eompriuft tho grinding, in ulleriag and im---'-- ' ■'-- ei- 

C{«e coispound : the prectn of dippinK tbo matohM In It, ihe eountii' iig. 

dippiiifc, couutlofL and Making, «pp«ai- to b«L Miordinit to Mr> Qi'i- ' > 

partiBenU m whii'h tlie workpM[ile ar* in ntiy wav nlTMled with peculiar eomplaiatc, 
«« would evoii limit the appearanoc of the jaw dlscue lo thuo engaged m d!|ipia^ 
M iMUt all lliat wo hare rauninod on tba aobjeol were nnanimotu w to the bet that 
£p])«raanl^ were attAoked. There ia a eertara degree oreeerMfobaervodivlBtiniltt 
the proportrona of the eomiMiitioa ; and tbcmixtureof the rsBteFiabugeDenin'rpar- 
fcniitdby tboproTirjttorofthoniaiiuractoTy. or bvaconfldontial worbinBA, Cliluraio 
of potwh ueo«Mi{cr(dB<i«a*eiitialiDiir«diDnt in bisUnd; but tntboBUUiiib^toi-iMat 
Kllrabota it baa notbaen employtd for a number of yean^ w It* •iplo»lvf pvopWtliM 
nneh ondaagavod tbaaafely of tho building* and tbn liinliaofthe worlemok 

TIm oomfHititleo uaed In KOrnberg eooMte of oue-third of phoaubonw, of gnnt 
arable (vJiieh it eachewad br Kagllah naaa&cloren on BM>ianI of lU kygrorrietria 
fMtxirtjX ft water, and of oeloriug tcMtter, br wbaoh either miniBm or Ptmuu Um 



UEA1», PKESRRVED. 



IW 



!• «D|^1o)-ed. If ^nitioa b* rA^niivd witbont ■ flam^, Ik* ({UBnUif uf |ilii>spbi)n» b 
dlliuiil*kf<^ or nitTBlu «f ImuI u aiUdL Ifce niixiiig u oanJualcil la h Wither htitb, 
•ml during Ibii iiiVtfoM^ KOil lu luu^ ai Ilia|k1io«nliuru*iat>«iii^|cruUiidor "luullurod," 
Mfrioai (limci *t« evolved. Tlic dipj'iitii it |>erfamodia Uic r>lluwuigtaanaer: — Dm 
OMlU<lix>iui<uut(oaU>pr«a-l np>NiaboiiTdtiOT*nJ wiUi oluUi iKtcaUKir, Mid ihv vovk- 
oua diat til* Iwu cudii d( ttic ouCchw alt«ri)*l<'ly Uiat aro fiz«i) in iIm fnunui iinJ m 
thai i* dua« with t[r>>at ra^jiililj'. th* <liMUgii((aiiMrit uf fumM U very Eaii>JJi<ni1'l(\ nnd 
til* nMN liabLf t« tw mjurkiu*. u llirj* aie evulrtJ ill » T'ry cciivu'ntnWil (iinn •'luM 
to tlin (aocot lh« worknit-u. Tlii* JcjinrUaoDt i* utaariilly iift lu a ninyU w«ikiniui : 
and Um >T«r<gD numlwr (hut be ouq dip in ad nour, luppoMng oMk frauu to liola 
■^000 motcbca, woold b« I.OChaOdo. 

Afttf tJia inaUliG* hftvo baoa di^Md, Uiay rMinira to bo dried. ThU U RtnvMlI; 
ioitn Id llw r»oii> In whldi tli« fnmar prooM* i* eorrioil on : and u a t«ia»ralure of 
lti» 80° to »0* Ftttr. it (iMMMry, Utu eroUNt qiisnlilj of faou* I* evolvoil at thU 
it«gfc Wh«i tlio aiaUtkM nr* driei tlie frauMs arc rcowved from tli* dniag rooio, uid 
Um taailcn atv nnir ready to be eoiuil«d aul isUi buxeii As tbi« it Jum* w>Ili grtat 
n^iidity, tUt'ir &*quEiitlj take An, and, although iiulant)^ uttinipiiibed im Ibu mw 
4iut or the water wbielt » atliaaf^ tha Muurreoca givua rue to an addilionol and Ire- 
^uent avolatiou of IkmoL 

ilA'I'KA:^ la a bottla trlUi a thb «gt['«bap«d boUom, mtiGli oaod for di|[«iu<ini In 
ckBtnieal raMar<; Iw*. 

lU'OK i* a crude blaek tapper reduct^ but not reSneJ fram aulpliar and otbat 
heienweneou) >ulMlan«ea. 

MEAIX)ff ORE, ii «onelioidal beg iron ore. 

ilE&ns, rnO^EKVEU TIi« InUrwl wluoli ha* ot laU allaebed to tile (Bb]Mt 
of uithmcata, warriutt* utiabrintcioaundoraiaiiiinattonthajiraieiplca nodpiaotioii on 
«Ucb tbia tinpurtant Itraneb nf induatrj Ii baiad. Tlia art llaalf U of madam inveiiUon, 
urf dUTiirs in ovary r««p«ot rruiti tin- old or oommoD iuo-Ivk of praMrviog animal food. 
lb«a«t M it wall known, dep«ud on tlie use uf culbar/ mlt, Mlljiatrtv »ii^, or limilar 
■nbaLuioi!*, which, whan in •olution, do not pimeeaUiD power vf nhn^hitif BXjg«n gu, 
and llicnfore caloffcffcotuallyaU aocou of air lo the nealthej prvlecL It might be 
imagiiKd that icater alone would aniwor tJut purpOM; but tbccaatrarjru the <«ac, tor 
pon water aluorlM oxi'iRn, and ilk tlutrtfjiv. all tual«Madapt«drorpro*«rTin^inaat,in 
prepoction at it i« free rroiii taline uiaUar. aiueii it it tiiita m innoli the moru i^pabla al 
oouibiaiu^ with oxygen gu. Thiu. tEiiMr, ohioh tapurv water o-yttalliuil, lu« a puwar 
of prodDHLngthu panarjfemeDtatiMi when inued with floor; and thiiH wablalod» 
in oonieqiKaee of thalarseiiiiantitvartcaMaaamtyitiai whieli iteontaina Similorlv, 
Tain water; and aapedally daw, wIllbrlnK on ilio pntmfaction oF animal matien mnoh 
•OMinr than (prin^ water ; and tli« rnlgar pr«}u Jiou r«*puelln|t the offret of tlio mooa'a 
fajra tn a<colaratingth« earmiitioDof nioat, u\ twyood doubt, daitand^nlapocthaboli 
Hiat daris(eUarlllallaUahtnlKhti^Ul«^e ianlwayaalargedepiMitionof d<iv; and thJa 
barioff fallon in a ininal^y dindcd atato, pOHoaMt the largWt amou&l of frea oman, 
whl''Ji piirv nr dittiUad water iaaaoabla nf abtoi^iiiis Ikwm tha atnM*ph4r«, and, Uiare- 
ton, hd> a pro|H)rtiuiiate power if dawwi nnajny, —yatl a* it alio hat cl blendiia^ 

Thua fat "iir rrmark* have bunn appliaJ aolel* ta raW or aneoofced nMli; bqt tlM 
pnetienl biiirinu of thoobjoct which wa liavoin nand roily poiulatAtliow) which an 
mwa vr iiwiiookcd orproemd. ItikwitlirefvFcnM toi>roTiiiiontof lhiikind,tliat a 

Crliamentary inquiry UDow in progren; ami waoanaotdu battar than ahow the great . 
poitaneo of tuoh aaubjaot to a maritiuiH nation Uk« Qraat Britain, by itallD^t tlurt 
lltwo proviaionfL wh«a aaaad, are an absolute ptBVanltv#orMit-a«urry, — aditeattial^ 
on irow authority, lo have datroyol mora life, and to have duno mora dainatfe to out 
ila'V. thui all tile ruimifs nnd IciDpcab wliioh thai navy ever eaoountered. We need 
not ^u Car ill iMrcli of evidelHe to prove the fearful havoooauieJ by thii diaeate: for wo 
•r« Well furniahed by thohittorvcf Adniltsl Anncui'amamorableBxpedJtiaa, tadamaga 
Iheislartala ofSpuin in the PaoftoOeaao, byiatvivupling Iha aojiual tniaanr»«bip er 

SallrononliarratnrntoEiiropt. In BpitaofcveiT thine thalgareaadaiperienoe anU'ld 
Ok Amm tallaualhathahMMnall, fnllyfour-firihe of biipeapla by acurvy. Of 400 
naa with whom tha " Canturion' departed fmm England, anly SOO lived to reach Iha id- 
and of Juiiu Fumanda^ and no more lliau a of those were eapablaofduint^dnly ; nod 
bo) for a tupiily of ulhen at St. Uolciin, ili«r« would not have boan atrenglli lumun- 
lof toearry tfaoehiptoheraiivhoraiir. Afli^rdoMiibiiiii. In tlio moet patbetie mansoF, 
Iha druodfiil aaTerint^iof hii fr«'U',aiiilrijmuiii|i ntllw imiirovantantcauiodby theao- 
glMlra al .liitn Famand*^ th« writer innieludai, — "I theruloreRball emn up the total of 
■far Uf •4Ui-e our dfpaitura (rwa England, diabiitl«r tueunvor aomaidea of uurratt 
^nFriir(» aod inir |ira»aiiC ttMSKth. We liad buried on board tli< 'C»ntDrion,'aina« 
^BTiog St Heleaai 'ttt men. and had renLaiainj on board Hi. Thit will, doubtlca^ 
^Hpaar a nM*l extraordinary murtalily; but yet, oa board Ilia 'OloiKctter* Ill's otliar 
nElp of war) It Iiad bten mnoh groUc'r ; for, tun of a uueb voallei evaw Unatt (nm, 
th^ hod burlad tb« aama nombar, and bad only 83 rMaaining aliv^ U tav^^' Mm- 



1» 



MEAn^rlEiMKttVED. 



UlaiiM AaMO, " ban bMncxpHUd Ui^t, on Um<I iIm ' Ttyy (■ (Kotuioa ■faipk Ui« 

'■Ui^Uf wouU b,>va ban motl, WrriUe ; hm il luuponed otWrwiN, lor «1>« (MAiitrf 

nwr« Civonlilf Ihoa tb« rMt, hum tha o>^^ buried 411, an4 hM bow SV moinlii^ 

TIm fmI ubJMt of Um TO^ige VMk hwvover. not jrot «anui«na*d ; tfaoogb «al oi HO 

DMK vith (rhicb tha thMo tomU toft Ei^U»d, OM wwo dtaJ InCaM iGk linM. 

ll U dnbMt inpcrflooiu to iniillipl7 lafUnca* of Uia laifto kind i Ifaoufh, in ■■Hor 

t» dmoiutraU iIm gniKt BttUtv or proMrrtd touU la Ibe naTjr, v« iWI - «r 

['llit>wothur«xamBl«o,MUiar«Mendont)f *dMlr^ in otMaia qoartori^ i' ■ 

I triQiDshbcir Bad tMpwinbilflr, by oxdudiac tluxtancf nroTltivn* nlii.^. ,..-, ..^m 

L«ur vlaluaUiDitd«]HirtmcaU. luOiilober, Um, UuOcolvf AilMiralK«ppalloana iau 

llurbor, nuJ, behn thodndor Oennibcr Lad toDt LOiMdok to ibebotpllal at Ua*- 

I l>r. In HTS. tlMchauullloMiuidi^Sira Uardf.Knl&SOOto thoboipiul. and rr 

I UiikM) mora Uuta 1,000 on boanKor wuil of bofpital •coommodNlion. Witliin 4 

i nwiUit dnrioK a aDbioquuil ymr, i.Oi* wgn ataL to Daalar. anil Sk H. tbrkin* 

I^Mcrti, thai. w(UunUiat|Ma«of lOftar^ taki«awnkaoirl«d|t«iDollou than laouo 

MM had dioJ of tdurry. WfaMi Admiral Ooarv'a lU«b roUunad 1« FonunonUi, allar 

a tan v««ki' craiaa in tb« Baj of Bueay. ^-lOO man wan ill of Ike mutt j i aad (fc« 

SroM naoibor ofailmiBuona into tli« hoipilal that jrear w« 1 1,TS% of vhoin OOt dUJ. 
aw tho tiigbcct madied authoriljoo b tbi* kinitdani, aad abo «• tba «iatnient. hava 
■II cqirawad tko opnion tbat tbia barfiil djaaaaa and mortality ia nltogrther caoaad 
hy iba luoaf «alt proVMloo* ; and tlu ovidaacaofabofiof naTjr «ni|i«oaa a»doAleoB 
oan bo addooad b> aorroborala lh« trot)) of tb)* viair ; tbororar« aot aoly noltTi* of 
banauitjr, but al»a of ««ir-luteTWl, impFntival; doiuand tlial, vbatonr nnialtad f»o- 
1 rUona ran bo otod, Uioir ciu|>loyiiiout aliaald bo inaitad on, hj ibo talea of Uio a*- 
I tir* natloa. Socli hting tho <nMk >t b«eaa«a ncMMarj for w to iBquIre lidw tar (to 
^ Vl of pr«acT<riag uuallod pporiiiooi hw roacksl tboi dc^tvo oduuromih}', ud ««^ 
r Uinly of roMilt, which ala*o con wuraat tbair tottodnaUaa Into tlie oavy. 

The im nioMMfDl attomnt at tho proorvatlon of unialt^ maata it of Frcnoh orl^ 

and doo to tba inTaativ* ■killof )L AjiparL Tklifaotlonan.aolonyagoaB tb«n«r 

101iX r«c«{T«cl (roni tliu bcois] of Arta and Ifaunfatturaaof RwU tho ««n of l^OUO 

ftwaaaferbUdiMorcry of a inoJa of praatrvi&g animal and r«plablo*ub«lan«M. tW 

naoha of which had bnco Ifaen amplj atteatad. bv a pro1oag«d «a[j>eri«nn in tha frvnab 

navy. tvbaRly afhr tliU poriod, Appcrt jnduoed aMr. DoranttOTuilLooidai^ fur tha 

pvijiowi of lakinjt out a pial«nt ; ami thi» wa* aaaDrdin)>lr dc«o tawaid* the and uf lb* 

yinr I fill, [a viit palcBt, bowcvoT, tba rlainu woro ndiouloualy wldis ao innob k^ 

ibil tho patanlrrighlwaaaahatqiunilyinrriagodwilhiapnnity. TliarlalnMiiMiliBdnd 

all ki>d* uf fniiti meat, and rcgolkbla)^ wboa (u1]jieC«dto the action of lieat t> >laa«d 

I VMmS imon or la* fraod Itom oir. A*, bowovcr. iho Soiuoiy of Atu in Landon ha4 

' pmaaatod in 1907, apranuiuataaUr.J.SoddinKton, for "omatAodaf pnaervi«)clMI 

witliowl augar for hoatn or Na atoraa"— wbioh niailiod ia oxaotly tha «aiB« a* tbat af 

JL Appcn, — lh« Taliili ty of DaraM'a palanl wa> at onoa eallad in qnaatlvn. Ncvcrtha- 

' Im* w aalkAwlMry wafa tba reaallik when appliad l« nnlntal (oo^ ar mixed praraion^ 

I that Iha palant wm armtiuHy purebjMcd from PiiranI bj H«an. Dnikio, UaU and 

' OacobiCbferlhaMmof lDOOIL;»nd tbe Snn, tbu catablirhad, baoame at oneo thaaola 

■an'rfirlnriin nrrrfunml maata in tU< aaantry. Tho ^iroceia of Apjiert waa, baw- 

aTM, axtronoly ithvlii* tn a mamtfiutnrlng point of view. Notbin|{ bat itlaai bat- 

tba weralobo aiA foroonlaJnioittJio aori^anilM. Appwt rvmarln — "I obooaa ctaM 

. lur tliii purpoae, m boiub; tlu moat hnpanaCrabla Ia air, and Iwra not vcnliiroil to 

makaaiiy cxMriinaot with a veMal mado ot any other tabM«ii«*." Of Maran Ika 

fruiltCj of lai* matarial. and the ^roat diflBoulty of boniHtiaaU;- aealin^ the bnUlc 

wlUi auifc^ thraw an inoilaulabia uapaiUuant in tho wny of tha proeaM aa a «a«niMt> 

I aisl mdariakuw Nor wm it uatUaftara lana icrioi of diffleiutaBd cxponaivaat» 

I parinwiria tliat Utmtai Donkln. HaU and OamUt^ wera ablo to oTarwraa loa jiil— ij 

I dilBanltUa of tbi) iiiTcntion, iml in inliiiin [niiiiliiiiin aiiiiiiiriillji proaorrad in iln fdatv 

vaiaali. Aiaoi that tiioa but httU nltaration. and Iau bopiavamant, ha* baan nadc 

\a tha art. though Ita prin«ipl« ar« far mora complot than baa hitherto tw<«m aappoaad. 

I Ftvun tha rataorttiei of SL Gay Lunach it appeared Uiat tho nbaence of oxygon wa* 

ragjauita l« pravau fcnnontatloa ; but it b now otrtoin, that oxygon may be prcMml 

viUt Cscmantabk mattan without prodnung anr olbot whatof or. Ai than ara uab- 

•t«noea and aanditiona wbieb aaoM oir ocoalanta Mnnontatton, to thora araolhat« wliMh 

oravaot or rolard it; and thia ia Inin, uhatovor bo tha uatnra of tba farniauiatla*. 

Altbmtfh, tharatbn^ t)ia axaluilon of osyfon ba a mcana of pravantln^ pvtrafoolioK It 

I* iivi iFia oulj maaMb aor ■* It, iudteil, Us aa«iast or aimtilMt In appllaation. Tba 

|ii»ieH of Appert oerlainly doaa »ot diepend npon Um aauoiion of itxygv» froni tha 

pruviaiuoa ho proMrr«4 aor ia tbit pirinctplo inalitdod in the improved proecH atUI 

Cff ti»cd, with aadb «a Aod •Deani^ by tho wolt known finn of Gambia, at Cork. Wa 
ra had oa opportonity of examining tba air ooalalMd fa Mrfaotly awuid aaaliMn ff 
I 0*mbla'» pnrinom, anil faata eooatantty (ound it to aflM diMlnot ariilMoaa «( Oil 



UEATSs PRESERVED. 



1M 



poMMkM or oxygen gu, vreo ia ««*m mv*m1 y»w* old. ^o ^ttantjty u, i»dcMl, niMk 
Uh IhMi that n atMotpkorie air, but tu «xbleno« u elaar and ondiiiiabla. Hmeg wa 
oraaltoak (iMr*ain«o(k<TlkoonU*ii ihalvhUh r«An pstralSwlioti (oik* pnMnMof 
iU(i>mbiB*i eajrgto, if we vl«h lo cpM^liiti) njiaii lli« noJtu M«randi of CIi»)U«1b 
DiathoiL AmwrtMviiwwbBTv hai]ii(I'^'-i<l<?il(1uobt ut^tlierafficieaaror thaoiygtn 
Ui«0rT, tor be lolta lU that "fire bu u peculiar pr«pertj, ool mljr cJ <tianging the 
•arablnatioia of the Mostitiwot parta of vci-ctablfland aaimal pt^diMtioiu, bnt alto at 
rManllnc. fo'' monr j'Mraat lout, if notof dHtK>]ringali«([oUicr,Uianat«r«lt«ndoDc; 
of Umm mu« proinal* to dacompotitian." And thii opimon li eonflrmod (Kan tnaay 
•tartlikg fiwW, wtiddi eauoot ba T«coaeili<d tn tharajmoutioD thatoi^MiU tlia tot* or 
•van pnact]ial apotsf davompoailton. Ttiii* milk, whidi baa bam tatnij tetldad, viO 
kMp nneh longer from iho ttknt of thi* jimwm, ortn thmigli fr«elj expoaod l«^ «i 
parnaacljr impregaatad irilh, oxrgou gat. All kinda of mvat exhibit a (imilor rMiilt 
Acatn. tory minitl* qii^iti«aoraame niincr>l luUtanM^ aa aracnid mid eorrotiTe tub' 
IfaiiaU, or of organio natter*, saeh •■ trcoa^^*, uaphtlia, and the volnti1< o^\^, h«ve ih* 
aaota •Mian whoti apptiod to uaM or vef otablw; and [raornllf apaakin^ nay thinf 
«hieh will ooaffnlate albiUMM hnaprawrratlT* power upon or^anJoaabatancm, So 
lllat oH|inn sppaaca to auN a dtoompoalB^ Hon* onlj wlian one or o(h«r of lli« fonna 
nf aoLqlM* albamaa it prowot Now, the nielhnil of Appert, lU improTpd hy (Iambi* 
(far tke firm ct Donkin, Hall, and Oamblc no longer exiilal ia to mnder the nlbnaien 
of the nkMlev vegMabla intolnblck and therefore aoantely. if nt M, BUHMplible oftb* 
■dian of atmoapherie oajrgen. By thii moana the total cxelonon of air from tb* (in 
n««ia ii Trmittrrnl unatrrmtarj' Csvarecif aooall qnantttf of air renwn iaifc* t«*4 ik 
frill *x*i« no Mora iaftaeooe thaa hapipen* to aiMecoof «oaffitlal«d albiimMi,«r haH 
balled wtill«o(a|i|i,whieb,a*M well luiown.iiiajrbaexpoacd to th. irfaryaMavftbont 
aenfible i(1l«ratIaa,tfaoU(h is 11* iuin>agiii»l«d «t*t« (t lmm«d.itely pntr^Aea. U, 
therefore, w* were dotlred In a fow word) to exprvM th* oaaentlal ehnnuil«rittlet of 
Oamblc'a procee*, it vonM net be by refirrin^ to theaiduiiotiof air, but lo the tbo- 
TWMeh eoagnlatiuii uf the albiunen, that we ehould look for a Mtisfaotory dearriptioiL 
b tfti* pr»e*M tke meat, more or leaa ooolced, ii cloMd, with a ^uantily of grarr, to 
alia vaMcl, tkpahleof being bormelieoJI y aHiled with wider: il ■• then batted, for 
MnetlnwinabatbotmiiTiateofliine, and 'thoapertare neatly (olderedap. After Ihii 
itiaagalo expeaed to the aetion of tlin heated hath far a porioil, which Tarie* with the 
MoaJKl nat«reof theoooMnttof lh«Te«Mt«; and U) prore that Ihii latter f^vniiioD if 
r«aUy the moat imporl«nt of t)ie whole, it tometimee h^pcn* that omm wbieh baT« 
b««iia lo deeompoK ar* o|>eDed, rmoldored. and ac aia nbmttted to the murinte of 
l)ui* bath, with the moet perfoet loeoca^ m regaMi the altimatn ronlt Thete ii^ 
boweeur. oa littl* dincnltyio ofbeting the thotvogbcoairalalion of albnroon by beat, 
when ihp quantity of albamon ia ■mall In praportion to Ilio water pronrait. A leaf 
OMilinned and ratliorhifh temporalum In tlirn iie»ded: mora eepadally If rlnogar ur 
InoIio aeld be prtaanl (n the Bald, m th<w> i^nd to reuin lb* albtimen in (olutltia ; 
■■u*hniMlliet«fer«dep«ndupanpriiali<'al4«|ieHtnm; Kndii lanul imnrubDMu that a 
haatiatlie balit bM littts higher than tliatof Imi II ii^ water, would aflord mora imibriM 
reaitlU, than wonld be obtaiaed with a boiling Mtunricd aotution of mmiata of lime. 
TbiaeubjeolwilL howsTor, be more fi^ydieeiuaed whan apeaktngofOoldncr'apreoMaed 
Although by no tneana free Iran oeeational failuToa and eettalnly rei^mring im- 

Khmdl, the (viltm of Gamble hat in praelioo worked well; and nroriiioni hare 
kept in tliiaway, for a periodof more than twenty^elx yr-att. witbout tlw tlighl- 
aai alteration in Ihetr partiFuUr (|Uiibti«; and » wnH i« tli» luH k»own and ajmrv- 
OlMii < by TlrilUh naval offloAr* ia i^coernl, that few tmuI* iiaw Innvn oar portji mth' 
ont at leaat a pvoper aopply for eabia v** It wat faand by !^r Jolia Kota that a 
nwober of tttoae oaeaa oi thata prtaerred prorttimit left tor many yeaia upon Fury 
boaek aitd exmned toeMevtive Tariatioos or temporalnN^ were, nerertboltae^ porfael^ 
aoDDd anil wbolenomo aa food when opened. 

GuidoJ probably by throretioal oriiniderBti«ait. and too inneh impreaaed with tha 
DOHMitr of c««lndinc oxii^n. a Mr. (loMnor, •oma hiw yoara tv", aaontiHl the Idni 
ont;inaljy conottvcd by Sir iluinphry iJarr. <•! emXittkng oookiid proritioD* In a rom- 
pit** TMvnnt. For tKi* purpoM liio prortaionn, tlighlly ooolied on tba au^fu't^ wer* 
«aola*«il in taaittori^ timilar to the** of Gamble, but airvnnr, and prorideJ with s 
Hull opMiiti; In the eoTer. At thii moment a flight condeenation waa elToeloJ by 
the appuMllon of a raid and damp ng or tponm and (imultaneiiuely with thi>* the 
iMall opening wat aoldered up. Id Ihcory. noUiing eoald toem bolter adapte'l to in' 
■ore lueena: bnt, hma the lata Mrtiameiitaty dik>^Hirei, tl ii ovidonl thai Iho pmc- 
lical wurWa«of the invantiemaAirdaHiytliiii); liniaMtiifactorymnlL Koriilhnra 
mui'li diAMilty in tOMviviag how iMa may anto^ •■ in the flnt pUeo the appllrativo 
of ■ ■iiddun boat to Bon-eoMvotlng matetlaki i* alnual «artain to eir* riiwi to that 
DMullar coadition of water called tC* aphamUal flata and by whirh tbt i'.tertot of 



IM 



IXKA'nj, PK^KUVED. 



ttM mMt will bo H (botau|>hIy pr«U«t«d tram lb* affMl ct iutt •* If mo MM ' 
apftUod. lleniM^ hv«d Uiouiib at**!!! in BlMadueD may uMa fiODi ih* Mitll miilM 
!■ tha «aT«r, tliM » iu> {iMul Uiul (l>«ouat laUiOMBtMOf tbevctulb t*aii wanaa^ 
Hi4 Mill Im* Jow it vofrnat tbs tttpjxiHlioa that Ui« •olnUe albuaiaa i* thoMiudi^ 
•ii«KtiUled; kud vitlmit wbich, m w« bar* «talc4 pMSHVRtiOD i* aauM^jr iinwHih. 

' B«t. is MlJiti^^ Ui thiiv tbtapplieatiaDof BiktDnra)t,iBUiawaV(l«>erfb(Hl.V«fall 
MlMn, UiBti by «rbMlka|>ortiai>af ui b niocl lik«ly W badravn iiiuUia vwiul abUiB 
VMj nonMai vli«ii iu t«Ul a«(>ul*i<in ii luktm ior pmnt«il; and bolh th«e uireuM- 
•tanoM are nuc* Labia to happen vilb Ui^ clian inUi ainall oaoMten K bcwawr. 
Uia inaat ha* bwn but pattiallV eook^d, in coiucqaencc of the «ntcr in it aaaiHiiuii Iho 
qkbaniikl ooodilioii, and. at tho (Mno ijino, almociibcris osf||>4nii iDoIaiUil,lWwcna 
tw DO maonor of doobl that putrdaotion viU «»«nr, aod run ita couno wlih Um mbs 
npidily •• if DO pfuotaa ThatoTarbad bocfl eaplo/dd loprartintlt Tliul wni«r*o<iM- 
■t«d in liw •lafaaianee of dcah ii ulrguMlf prona to tak« on lbs forw aalltd iphanj W 
[ satd* 00 otbor pNof than that lh« human hand uiaf b« dotlbtmtelj' aaucJ tkroach 
I ooU«ii braas or iron vith jMrfiwt iiu|iiinity, niij witbuul «roD aauubfy wanaitig l£» 
fia^iii M iUiMirBlftl by H. Buuticuj. Il U not, thrraforc^ mougb to «xp«M Umm 
Mantrtt of ptvoiHona U> heat, uulcu lliat hunt bv so icradaallj amiod aa Iu pravaab 
tha MuinHitMa «l a aphoraidot tUXe by Uto watrry portion of the load ; and w« aaa- 
nolhalp tbialdoic that niuoh of tha dkappoiiitDuint uid Iva. o>natqu*ai ui-jmibjafclBj 
of nMaidaetBN; baa ita orifta in a vant of alUolioa to tha ab«va urouDiitaar* 
Wbarv all f^tmut of oiroulalloD I* jintvant*-], aa in tlio in>Un«* of Iheat aoni-Milid 
OMab^ Ilia tandooy of tli« pait in imuoibata oontaal with Ibe «avre« of beat to ae- 
miitra a toiuianilan oapablo of iu^ltMint; ''" spheroidal mnditioa, muai bv verr k^*^ 
wdeed ; and banoa, in nioaldng of Iho muriata of Ubc bath, employed t^- <iiuiibl« «a 
Uiok oecaaion Ui hiaU that more uniCam rotulto nu^bt perhape be obiauiad by • mo- 
dtrala lluta by a liish tempnalnrek Tha probabiltly i^ ifaat no adTaaia«o U nined 
by awaadlsK HtSfi rahr. ; and viawing tha nitijoet eheisically, «van tfaia ae«ba laa 
Ualh wk«P* tloela law an objuittban portactMin of maQoGwIUK 

It DOW ramalna «aly to od«r a few ptmarka on tha cooking of animal C>m), aait ill 
tpplieatioa to die wuta of buaanity. If llaah b« di^««U-d for a ahart time in eald 
WMor «« brai« it part* with aevanil of i1< motl important ccnatitacBta^ and UwrafM* 
Ibe prairUaii of luge and ropeatod waahiog iaannnvitennd fooliahly fartidtouaupM*- 
lion. Cold water diatolrta frooi toaat ill aolabla photpbate*. iU botio neld. it» kr*- 
tiB*,and fcreatiainA a« voll aallaalbumvn. Whbont Ui««a ooaelitunlA liowcTcr. Ilw 
Btaat oaiUur i* nor aan be BlUd to enpiily lh« muaoulor wear and tear <4 the hiwaa 
ftaaaci Iu bet, on* of the** •abalaneo* (knatine) boa errdently anngubur comaetiaa 
wUh miucular enrrgy, m it esitla in greatot qoantily in tha fleab of antoi^ Ma* 
ranarkabls for iniueulor power and aetiTily. Tn nirrliidr it, IhfTirfnm !■ roinrroilana 
an eleuiant eJ woafcnaw iu the dietary of oar t^iato, IhM citnoot fail, ui tha leaf ra^ 
lo ahuir luelf; and bicnoa Iho enormou* proattuldoa «f Areniith vlijeh aoeonpaaiaa 
Iha taa-wmrvy ; tor It bappan* that, a* kitatine u lolnbto tu bKne^ bvl little of tbia 
valuaiile •lenient ramabu in the oontraeled and eoliilifled aut, koown hy the mmdo 
of Mitl juab. and *ni]i)oyed a* (uod la Ibu ^avy, tipoo muoh the uiine |«iaripl« oa 
that aacribed lo alligaton^ who awatloer alone* to appea*a Iho craving* of an eaipty 
itomach. It however, there i* an error in tlie eotameneemcnt of oor Kav^TMnat 
Unf, thera ia atiU BTealer lo the Uratment of aalt jonk be ita prejndind and lUi^ 
(onnad ooMUinoca. Uaviag bad ita nlbotnau and oUiitf valuable oultera rtiaored \tf 
a eold (alulioii of eummaa *al^ tlie Junk ia next di^rtved of tin itelallau aad eaataaav^ 
by Ibe aotion of beilin|( wntar ; and tbi* gelatine, whieb, with (be kveatlBa aad biMa 
Mid. would Kreatly faciiitata the urooea* of diMtlion, la thrown away b> wortblcMt 
aad oatbiiig hut nbard maaa of fibrino, taarofi^, if at all iiieeeptiblo of auianilatleo 
bj tlie powar* of the animal aoonomy, remaina to give tbeappeBranecaf fiwd to Iba 
proJuel, and, aa it <ren^ keep the word of promiM; to the eye, " to benak In to tlia 
hope," The fcUowinK qaotation froa Liebig"* Ritarchtt on tit CSrMUttfv/ Aod 
may fitly ocenpjr a vlaoe bere : " It i« obviooi^ that if Qeih employed a* food b ainua 
10 ueeouie Aeib in the body — If 11 i* to retain tha power ef reprKdueinc Ittelf in il* 
effitfinaleonditiea— DODO ol the oonetltiieala of raw n«*b oiuht to be witbiinivn from 
it daring Ita pe«|inraUea for GMd. If iti ooiMUtDplion be aVtored in any way — if uoc 
of tha fMHtitueola wbleb belong oBcntially to ita eonititutiou be removed-^ cnrra- 
nndiac vsriotioa tnoat take jilaec in tho power of that fuoee of lleih lo NMaaint^ la 
ueUviiMl liodv. tha oriKinal lerm and quality en which ita propottieaio tb*Uriagar>' 
niunn ilepaaa.' It foUowa from Uui. that boiled fleab when oaten wfMew tbo aonp 
nrmtd labulliac it, iaiomuohtho feat adapted for oatriljou, the|p«ailarlbaquaiiti^ 
of w«lar ia whi^ it ha* baen boiled, aad llo lonner the duration «f the boiltne. 

UedarfuahairenmatanOM, waoauAutwundertiiallnipilovrtbaaakBowlodeedparily 
of Ma-watee, diieaae to a large exteat obuutd prevail la our Nevr. and that when aaj 
artrVtf Dufadj makM iu appoatsuce, the mortality should C'oally oxocod that af tha 



UELLITIC ACID. 



lai 



•imvimAm ilrrilar ulrniwUnen, Hut u BmnrciMtiirtl »«qnBU«coftl>tij»tiwpii» 
•OMvillkr^knltopfioTMoai; a*d>orw(r<«kb>»iloDiiig •ll«g«tb«rtha*«pk>)rniMl 
•fpMMmdMeata hon lb> omimI tMtrdk«b'(w of afewcaM^ it tmim to n» Hurt ■ 



t |Mtr«lk«b'o« of ■ few tat—, : 
t gat w awrtt wooM nUivrnakMruBBUtUainaanvviiMooCkliToaUlBgia t>i«Bli) 
oftciraea, tbaa hit Wek intaii tujiln* coadHio^ wImo iIm lat«r«U of Uxnaiien m 
iMdl* «^ br wiiTtlf. AA*rall,how***r, v« Oka flail MOf>raof(hatluMpmrrr*d 
mwmmwImt* (■ll«L*x««p*!a UiutaMaTOoMnar; CMlhancremaaj'oUirrinaDn- 
LitarMi^ both Ib Ui^ ftntMy ani) In FMa«« wboM ptodutUoiu no mvre vamat 
tiM baa of «3c1iiiia4 lliaa k trifling Mcidint Aetarrm to b* ittaui ± d«lilwriii« 
«flaM U lUtnn ba a ivfflcMtil reaxni Tor intordwtnig firtlier opcntionii, tune ihiill 
WMMlsiMI kT lb* perMVtrina Mtidnll}- ol <Fiir dooRjaM anlboritw* in ra>p»et W 
MptaBdtagI Wr ■jnc«nlj Kopa that tlM parliamtatair ««iiiiiBit(*<^ now (litiiifi, 
wBI Mt acparale until tha wboU aab}*** irf pTw^xyd pra*iilaiii baa bam tallj and 
iaputuDr teT«iiMla4 in all lu dMalla. 

IIKDaCs For (bo(r«oai|Mi*Uian, *M B«MW and Oorm. 

Hi* InduOn*] BskiUUon of lUt bai oUltd into reqniiitlMt, aoiong otliara. Ib« 
■Mlto4 Ufcar «f iha nwUIlut <li«4iskar. &■ a aoMyiai^ modalt of all kindi uiil 
(■kiaaafvMn^pQilooed AnudaldioM tium IbniMd t— 6Im1 of an nnifonn tialurp 
md kl»d Wng lolactcdl H*t rontMi,wncn«d by aananliiig, anJlbtrawandohMlcraT 
ikaoollar Inrnod. Th«d(aU[Dapj>rov«d«(Uia di««L<iWr procotda to cot tMujtboiB 
part* of til* oniatfst duptb br niMoa of ■nail ehixili : iho laoni miiiiila datati* aio 
ttknoq* bjCMvci^ g!u*4J.«>^^ and Miia»i]«(««l kH>!< dllod tulo wood hiiidliu vi-r)' 
di«tt,aarfWBttb*paIn>o<Uiotnind. AaUia work pt«M«dikprDofii>r«Ub«niu (rax: 
«baa ildbMlva in fom Um oottinB it (Mnvtoi, donticnt in nll«( H It *Mik ilMpar. 
UvUI tj eaan« be boraa in ntiad llul, what will be i«bev» ia tha Medal, u ia* 
taUo ia tl» •lie. The inKriplioo ii intrcluvod by maaai of amatl lettoiMiDBpIieiii 
Tbaa feUawt U10 hardraioB of the dif, aitage of tli* bndnaai tba mint oriUeal. as a 
Mb* ta Ibo rtcal irill at oao« b« made ^iparoDl tbornb^, mai the lobar of noodw 
MMUndaafUaiaabvolnaUa. If thodM«nd«r«■thKllllIuaal)■■Il«r||la^Ua^vil, 
Ifci —Maa vf a~bnh,'orM^a(lliadiafBato<l, aadoaed for the carrodwu of lb* 
kattMbacopiMoftboiUai Tbadn^artiityicaaaaritwfraiDlbawnBlaf ualfurmity 
4iai<fc«K If tm^jMlar, oaejioition nf tbodUnaetraffor, aodboMaoTalvolMak 

HaJal-lnaldag or atMOpins >■ tbnt carriad on : — 'llio praaa aonaiila «f a latf* and 
dM«llir«adBilt«r«ir, t* tliatopojwbiolia largawhaol ia attaohad boriioatall^. Tlw 
M ailh* imm b flWad witb awawi lo aoeata iho dla ia ita jJaoo ; «h«n thia b don* 
lh> irullar vhicb |[it«a tba tblakncM of tha tatdMl b Ittod oo, lh« dio (onninii th* 



' «< tba uiadal It attaahad to th«tor«w; •bUsk(aal«ooof matal nit out to 
fena tha nodal) U thaa tntrttdOMd. Uotioti biMMrtodtoIhavliaal. vfakboftrfat«a 
■ Ibaa ara w; a blowkgivon, and if tbe iniprcMMn b toft and ahaltow, • niadal b 
pa d w aa j ; bnl if dctfv npcalod Uowi •ro flren to Maa tha lapcealoa Ofv When 
UaMaa*ailrtrb tb««M«n«l in wbicbtbenadalbtobeproduoedlaiHanraaaOM- 
iMa M hlvm aw naoMttfy. The modal b tboo taken out of th« pra« Ike edg* 
(Waal, aad tho operatioa u •.■onipUt* 

Bf atUar dia, m naani Ikat finUm wUoh sivaa Ibo tbickuMt 10 ibo tacdal or ooia 
Mb*«tt«A AUtnadaldatafaof thNoparU, Tli.,tfco rcToraa,obTon^ aad eollan 
1ka«BalhraUHaf diMBNonllaalaal aaliraly, tht laiv«r klada for bM« foandry 
«■! alfcar pwyotat an ■ laid ' nr MT«nJ with Kaal on a fouailatlon of iron. Wh*a 

iritt oraur, Ihe die it vliat b oallad ■* (odlani* ot hollowed, and Uu Heel 

I tha tana in a panUol tluekocia. 

. BftaUDH (Gonn. : MyVolA. Eng. ; Snm» A Mw Mofniti. t^riomaU, Mi~ 

^fiw, ri.\ b a vtulo mtoantL of a aoinowkat earthr ajipeannoi^ alway* acdt bat 
dif la tkt toatli, and adhaviag t« tho lonffuc SpteUe gratitjr. t-« t» W; aCotib 
Vatar by calHDation : Amo wfthdllBmlly attbaUowpipo iotaawhkaaaaanal: and 
baetad iy«a b^ oeU*. It oonabU; an^rdiiiK to KUpri}th.of tilba.'tl-ft; aiofnaai^ 
IMS; watarsndmrboiuiacid.Sll. Oih«rai>iily*U|pT*tiili<!aMMnagnanBU.«B(«* 
n ll «*ort IB Teiat or kidBtv-ahoped m-JnlA anicait reek" "f lerwiitine. nl Egri- 
hw tn tW inland of Scgrotn4it,'ijki«<lu!liiT in .\nalolla, Btium at rfac foot •■! Ununt 
ufnBra< at naldlMiim iariiiiliaiml. In llii ■miiniiliim TaibiufUunivall, Ac 




■ laBav. than io wni. aod finally by polltkitu tbio with ■han-frM*. 



'ilBJJTX (Eou. aiii Fr. : llmifitii». Oana.) tV» Ilosncnnins. 
WttUTia ACIDi whiGh u aiaooialMl whh ahmlna la tito praNdlaf Hiawal, 
■MUllvM ki twaU ««tari«M bmJIi^ U witho«l HndL ot a ttroaafy aoii laala, panm 
>«~><-ikab-, aolnUaia«al>r«>id aleohol. ai alae in baUiB( Eot •onaanlraled tal- 
^4 Inti b dooompuKd br h«t nitric mM, aad eanku of 6Q41 MAoa. »M 



JfERCUBV. 
El b cubokiicd Ml « nd heat, siilMut ifce (■vdadjoa of uijr i 



in 

40*noxHto. 

u«uii. 

MKLLON It a n>w Mmponiid «f cution and bmIc, discmwnd hj M. Li«bi$, br 
ti«ilp.ii><-ranideornMioury- Tb* incllaii Tunuu at Ihn ballom n( the nlofl mdcrilM 
I ftnBof > yellow |>oinlirr. 

HEN'ACHAMTE, ^n on oT fitonHm, bund in lli* b«4 of • nvukc wbidt fiom Me 
Uie ndin Menanaji, in Comwall. 

■lEBCL'RY or QUICKSILVER. Thu melal ii iliKfiwiiahD] bj ill ll«id>IT al mm- 
BMB UMpcntun* : ll4denialT=l3-(ii iu ulvrr ldu« Itwln i and ill eiU«iH iMhiliI|r. A 
I eoU of 3S* brlow vrro of Pobrcubdl, or — IC CriiL, U rotuind for iU MWgcUUoa, In 
whldi SUM lit deniii) U increuod in the iiraporlicD of 10 lo 9; of it beeoMci of ifie, 
|r«*. ie-0. AlkMmiHinluicurtiWF. iiboUiuiddiiUUaflrinMielutieTBpotiWWAt 
bdDS oundcucd bjr told, fonu putlBod nrreiuy. 

U«r<sury coiubinn wiiti itrf«t rcadiueu witb enUin inttBli, m teU, iSlrrr, tint, IU, 
•nd Utmuih, rocminjt. in ccitoin proiioitiona, fluid wlulioiw of Ibne mettlt. Such Bier- 
curial kllo]* uc Mlifd amtJsnH*. Tbi*|««ip(»t]ii* EMmiTcly midojrednnuiTUtii 
I >i in I iii»ni«ci''lil»niliilTnrfrnnii>rirnrni in filflinf. pliiinf. nnVmir Innkiar twf>, 
Ik. Uumboldi cttiowtnai le/XKI qainla^ of lOO lb*, rack, the iiauiiiT cT tnercmj 
■mumUj nkploTcd at hii tiiIi to Aocrie*, to Iho trcalacol «f the inlnct of Nnr I\mIii i 
IhfM Ibuith* fd^ which came lYom European iniata. 

The axrcurUI otm may bt divided inlo fouf tprdea : — 

1. ifol^ fnifbihrr.— Il occun la noil of lh« uidm of the other uerturial ortl^ ii 
the ftnnef »nBlldro[iiBtlach«d to the rotka, or hxliicd in the oeTica of other otSh 

2. Jrgtnial ttamry, or HofiM tUnr amai^am. — It hoi a lOra while eobx, ud it 
OMR or kai ion, aceordina lo Ihe propoition which the loFrcuiT bean to the lihtr. 

L Iti dcniitj is wmolimci aohlgh a> H. AtaoirmXc heal diwi|«te> the nicreuir, aaA 
' karei Ih" ulvcr. Kbprolh ctatts iU oovutilacols nt lUvcr 3(i, and uieicuy £4, ia lOOi 
but Conller make* ibca to b^ ZTJ RilTer, and 72^ mereucY. It occur* erntaSixi'd in a 
varlelj ol fona*. It hoa been Ibnnd In the Irntloiy of l)eux>P«nu, at Roirnaa a«l 
Kidotlaaa, in Uonfftrr, in a taalon of Trtol, at SUilberv in S*re^, at Kolpraa iB 
SA«ria,and at AUbhodI to Danpliinyi in mall qoantil; *l Akoaden k Spainiaadat 
Idria in Camiola. B; Uie chemical uition of Ibe mcrcurr with the nlrer, the fnlgn^ 
■iueh (lioald h/f calcuktioo have a qiec. fnar, of onl; l<-&,aoqiura that of l4-il,w- 
eoidin; to M. Oardicr. 

3. Sa/fAar*/ of mrrttry, eonmeolj enlkd Cinnabar, I* • red miser*] «t 
luteal bnmi^ al Iha blowidpe with a bine llaint, TulatiliiinB enlinir wilb the 
of bnninc sulphur, and Ki*iufl a quieliiilter ctaline tu a plnie nf copper held im 
flimri Kven the poader of cinsaliar rubbed on capsiet whiicni it. lit 
(reoi S-S lo 10-3. Il btetonn ne^livrly el«ctncoI by friclion. Annljuid bjr 
it WBi round lo coniiil of mercury &I-5. lulpbur li-li, Iti compoulioo, Tiewed aas 
bi«atpliiiicl ot nierenrr. i>. mFrcntr SC-2, lalphor 13-^ The £no>l eryitaU of «Bl|4nirtl 
of met i m i tamt Own Ckinn, and Almndcn in Spain. Thcee conuin, according to Klat^ 
Kib, U per cent. afmcrcurT. 

A MIMintMBi nfptorrt ^ mrrcvy apptar* to b* the bate of tho great aiikealion <i 
Idriai Ubafadarklivee-redfaac; andoTatbily lextnte, with itraiKhlortwitfedplMek 
It exiM* in Utfve ma»ci in Ibc bilumiiioa* Mhitli nf Idria. 31. Beniaid Mcationa ain 
tbe bcklilT of MnnMer Appel, in (he duichy of Dmi-Poou, wheie the ore iMlodea hfe 
IfwdtM U fiahe*. coiioDdf ipotud with eiooahar. 

The compacl Tukly of Ihe Idria ore seotti rcfj eoofdei in eompOMtioo, accoediBC 

to Ibe fbDowiog aaalni* erDaprothi— Uereoir, fll-8; nilpbiu, IS-J&i carbon. Mi 

. diokO^i alnnitaa,0^;«STde of itmi, 0-20; copper, 0-02; waier,0-T3i in 100 facia. 

blLBennniiMalku another varletj' flxw the PaUiinaie, wbieh yiddi a lariT ipunlitf 

*<f Uunmbf dliliUaUoii; and It wa* proMat in all the apecimeiuaftheeeoresajialjni 

t^mrCx the Oennan Minn Cumpan;. Al Idria and Ahnaden the nUphortli we »• 

innelj rich la mercutj. 

4. Var^olal iMmry, or the CUndc ^ mrrcary. eeonMnlr called Hm tnctean. 
Tbii on oecnn in wj uiall crrMab ef m pearlHtrwr or greeni^-gny color, or in ndl 
Hpflee whkb ilnd, Ufce cryitd^ Ihe caTJiiiv, Bnaita, or node* ■■inn Ibc Ccnu^aou 
ynfueicflbeotlMroniofncrenry. ' li Ubniilcandtniirelj ntatikat thebbw.|liti% 
dMnelcn ^licb ^irtiiyiiih it ftom horn m}v«. 

ne sfglegkal padlkn of tbe merearial ona, in all pan* tt Ibt wixU, a in the mala 
•IM eom«raee Ibe Mriei of locoaifaiT finvatiom. SonttlMta they an fooad ia Ibc 

L r«d eandatone above (he ccaJ, a* ti McniUet. in Ibc old dulcby cf Deui-PottU^ tt 
finraiao in He3ieo<at Cuen(« in New Gnaada, nt Cerroa de Giuiaa ■»! Ut«rlB 

tf«ra I in Ibe nboi«nat« potpbjriea, ai at Deu-Font*, Su Jnas de b CUet in Pan, 
•Ml at CentMUUPnle^ aear the town efSu F«Upe| ibcToeeu titaimeaf tbaecnii 
mIov, or MbanlMie (n the MleaKWM fctmulon, eaOti aidbMi^ la QtaaMa^t 




m 



MKRCUHV. 



183 



■moDB Ike MMonFaAiliig UWnriBOQi MhltU, m tl Mria In Ctralol* ; knd, htnlj, (licy 
ftcm hmum in Ibc EMhiNciK tUtlC Tlmi, U appfan Ibtl Ih* mnTiiria) dviWKitv* mtA 
confined williin nrr nurow fnlosioal Kmiu, beimcn ih<- tatcMvmis bcd> ot lecliitnii, 
■nd Iha nd samlMon*. Ttej' okut al timei in catb«iiacniu« tioihilet, ilniiftl rroin ihe 
dtcompoution of inuMn «r tariooi kinds ; aad the whole tncrcuriat deiioiite i* occanoa- 
titf (wrered wiLh btdi oTftharont, a* at Dnnuno. 

Thef are even anmetiae* McompuM with the remabs of arpnnic bodict, mch as 
enaU it Sshtr, teall thdh, dUtUUd «cod, and liuc <o«]. The )aM htt hu bres 
•tecTvtd Rl PoU!>eTS, in Ihn wnilH oT Dn^-Kiirni^iaug, lij M. Bmn^nlart. Theae 
MmhwoM, hlluisinoBi Mhlalf, wM tuclucaltil c1ii)b, «nnuin mi-irury buth in \lit tUir uT 
Mlphurtt and in the satiie form. Thvy arc inure or ten i>Mirl(a(«<l wilh the <<ie, fbrnb 
inf Mmetitim MuMnniB bnliof Ttiy gnrni thiekatWi wtiile, in tbe more anrioit m 
th« primilire fomattona, theie aic* exiit only in very (b«U quantity atsoeialed with lin. 
Mervary it, EcnenllT (peaking, • mclal Rparinglf dlritibnlcd in cMorr, and tu mlDca are 
Tcnnlre. 

The srfat n|doilBllan» iS Mria in TriuU, in Ihe tannly of GotIIi, wcig ditcovein] ia 
147, acd the prineipa] oie nijiint Itictc is tiie bitaminoui tulphurtt. Tte workint* 
cf iMi siine bare been pushed to the de|<lh of SN yntdf. Tht r't'dKet in quickiilm 
uiKbl ntsilr ninannt annnnUr to 8000 mctiic qaintali =SO0 loiu Btitish i but, in order to 
u^otd tbe price of the neld, the Annrlan govecnEnent hu mlrirted tbe produelion la 
150 iDtiiL The nmnoinblc £tc of IMS wa* mott diMttroot to llieae niiae*. It wu ci- 
tjn^bibtd only bf ^rtnrnioa nil Ike Dndergrountf «rarbiiif >. Tbe nblimcd inercnrj in 
■kit catattropbe oetuloned dlMMM and nnvmit Imnhiingi to morn than flOO pcTaco* in 
llw nrigtilxohoad. 

Pliny bai rrciirdcd Iwo inlerertins fiets i I. that Ike Gmha tniporUd latdnnalw 
Oom Atmodcn TOO yrai* before Ihe Chriiiion nm i aod 3> ibat Htvn^ in hie tine, anno- 
«Uy received *00,000 paunili Aeen Ike Mine mine*. Snee 18ST, Ikey hare produced 
31.000 e«t>. of mtreaiy every year, wilk a corpi of TOO mioert and SOO «mell«T« ) nnd, 
liBfud, Ike rrina ore hi mifanrly rick, that liioiifih tkry'hnre br«n vorkod piMtf cou- 
tlantly during w many cnnturtn^ the minea hate hnnll; rtncbed the d(^ oT 330 yard*, 
or Mimrtkinit Ins than 1000 IM. lie ]odc aeiually under espleraiios ti fr««n H to IS 
yardi tliick) and it bmtnei Ikidcer alfU bI IheaDuinRof Ihe rtint. The totality of the 
ore is exEraclod. It yields in their imelline works only 10 pn cent, upon an ai-enfc, 
but tlu-rr is no doobi, IVom tkt analj-sji. cf ikn nr», Ikal neatly one half of the i|Ui'duilm 
It Una, and ditpemxt in the air, lo the trtttt injnry tf lk« workmrn'* health, in eunt«> 
^uenci^ 'it Ihe barbnraui nppnratus of nludelx employed in it* sublimation ; an sp|«ialu« 
wbkh bni rRnsined withoul any nmltrial chantv fur tlie IwlleT Binee Ihn dajv of Ilia 
Hborish tluninion ia Spain. M. LePtaf.ihe en)*ment fnp-ninir (f<« jVm(4,who puhlidied, 
in * (Ment tolumc of Ike Annalni dr* Mine*, his IlitUritit< lo Almaden, ta;^ llml Ike 
BHTcuiioI contents of Ike orr« arc MTaUnnnW pint tlnlti than Ike pioducl. 

Thew 1-rins niand all th« way ftvni the town «f Ckillon lo Almadencjiw. Upon 
Ihr lioFdrrs of the ttrtamlel Balde Aiatfue*, a black ilate li rIm tnincd «hieh i* auia- 
dantlr iinprT)tnal«il with metallic mercury. Tke arm are Irealtd fn 13 double ftir- 
aacc), nhifh I tkall presmtly describe. "Le mcrcnre," tnj* M. Lena;,"a lur la 
nntr lies utiTriprs la plus fnneste inSnoice, el I* on nc peul se drrrndrc d' un i^niimcsi 
piniUe en voyant 1' empressinnent axrc kqnel d» jcnnci En«, (ilsini de force ti de 
wni6, *c ditpnicnt la fkreur d' aller eheichcr duis Ic* mlne^ dei tnaladies emellei, et 
•ODTcnl unc mon pn^molur^e. La pnoulnlion drs mlncnn d' Almoiten n^rilent Ic idus 
faMI iniFirt." Thet* Ticllmf of a deplorublc miunanaEOnnit arc detcribed at bcin^ a 
laboricus, liniple-imnded, virtuous race <<r beings, who an) lhu« condcmacd l« brnllia 
•a atmosiAere imprrfnaird far and nnr with the fnmet of a vulatile f^KC, vhicb 
tb» kcscms at tdtnce, as 1 thaS nmt&Oy demonMnie, mi«hi rtmlily rtprtw, wilk Ike 
efleet ef tiot otity proCseiing Ike keollb of tke pcpulaiion, bul tf rasily augsientiag Ike 
rcTtnuo of the itale. 

Tlinr rvlrlii'slKl mines, near to wkirb lie lliosc of I.ai Cuibai and of .UnailnH^ai. 
were known to the Roman*. Aftn kflviiiK hrm the pruprrty of Ikr rrtlgicmt knighla ol^ 
C«Wranr, wlio bad nttiiltd in»|irllinK llic lUcoit, lliey scirfstiiicdolfto Ihr celrbraird 
f^ffir mcrrlisnti of Angsfcoorf;: and aflerward* rtpU<ml on acconnt ofthe Koifrnrnriit, 
ftMDihedateor liUS lllf the {iroirnl time. Tkeirproduee waa, tiH rtry lalclj, entjrvly 
Bpfeopriaiiit to ihc irtntmrnt of the jrold nnd silrrr oro of tbe new world. 

Thr Rtln« (if till- Pataliiwlr, niluotHt on Ike led bank of the Rhine, though ihcy donot 
ajipmach in rirlmit* nn>l iiiipvirtaner lu thotc of Idtfa and Almndrn, mciil, kowcrer, aU 
tit nii«iiii(inr>f Ihe covrmmenl Ibnl fiictnii them uut. Tbty are nujnrmui, and varied tn 
|«okMcinl position. Those of DreT-Koeaietiu^, at PotiberK, n*»t EomcI, dcanva par- 
tienlar notice. The worfcinos hsvc rracliTd a depth of more than !90 yard*; Ikr ore b«- 
ne a samUlonc strooglf imnrr^atnt wiik snlphnrct of eiereuzy. The produce oT ibcse 
ninas b wtfaaaud al about 30 tont per annum. 



iM 



MEBCUBY. 



Tba«BnalMifiBoenif, Bolica)i%*nd ■inml nilm iwiiriiirfiiiiiwi, ii«nii tnf««i 
Mambte fStMUOloM of MirtiiiT, ihc iOla) ireihKe «f Weh U vaImmI U •boiN M or « 
WW on an •TDtife «f MTttal jrtara. 

The MlnM cf aaaaeavelka, i* Psu, «r« llw more inmniltnt>, u Ikdr pndacu •!« 
I'ArMllr aapUrfti in liMtinK lh« om Af (old uid iiIict, vkich Bbouad ia ikal ^MtiM 
of Ammo. Th(«« quitkrilrtr minei, nplond uace l&IO, (ndD<ed, up lo ISOD, IVI,1II 
lOM s^ that atui i bvl Ihe oeiml iroditce of tbe cqdmUuu of iltcie cDUDtric* •*!, 
MConllaf 10 Belnu, about iho btfinaing oT Utii Manuy, Ihiin UO in ItU) lao* pw 
WMom. 

In IT82, iMouna irat bail by chp Smi^ American miMrt to iha mtvcuir niracdid in 
lbs (nxTinrc of Vnn-nan, in Ckino. 

The mBlallarpe Inabnoit of Uio qoickMlrr^ ont is loIffaUr limiilc. In MSni, 

'vban ttie fulpbnnt of meronrr, Ui« noil nnunon occ, bu beta poJTeriMi^ anil •ame- 

doe* iiaafacd, k b ialMduoed intu ictatti of oul-ucn, ihcct-lroa, et era ttaueirwo. In 

mixliira wllb an vqnal weight oT quicUimc. Thoc rctortg arc anaiijci] in rariou 

war*- 

Prior to l&« ITth century, the mnthod cntlcd jxr i n e u aiam wai llift onlj oM >• «M 
fcr 4utilUii(ii>«ieiU7i ami it wm «-ll(<tnl by naanief twnesnhRi pat* aifatUi 
(■di Other. TTie nppet pal. lUlnl wilk ore. Mid dowil at \he top, vna corerej am 
bafAiaJC ftael : and Uie mercnrial tapora eipnIlMl by Ibe knii, paunj doim llinnuli 
Mm m Uic bot^uin of Ibe pol, tO be cnn<lcnB«d in nnolber >md plaecdl 
HbvcTcr cDnicnicst thii niipmiui miKlit be, on nceauM <if ibo facility vC Uaa*p«tiii| 
IL w bc 'cwt the oi« KB* faond, id iodEeirncr and the Iomo ti oceaucafd w«re nreoBi. 
Wf ncoKn!*nl' Hrncp, bribrc ii!3n, toiDt: imcllint,' work* of the Palatinala lad girti 
Bp tta (aMbod ftr iuttuMum, which wan, howncr, ttUl rouinait in Idiia j ami tkcj f«b 
(tilaled At i( the nnaoM callod fallout. At Art>, ttanboowne rMorli were cs^oytd 
ik IbeR fhrnaeoi tul Ibe; were mod tucModrd by iron lelorti. In Uie PalniioBic tUa 
mode of opcratinE ti iliU in use. At lilrin, in the year 1750. a ^x«a( diAnialory appa- 
run* waa ntabUibcd far Ihc ucatmcnt of l)>« mercurial om, in tmiuiion oTlliotc wbidt 
prcTioiidy milled at Alnutdeo, in Spain, and ealJnl aludtl.flimaa*. Dal, riacr tTM, 
nine nluiMt haea been lumircMcd, and new diiliUaUry oppunin* bam been «oii*ttMtc4 

[■■ Mrm. mMrknUr only kit Iholr ranzailudci ccccoding, in llut rrapecl, rxttj ouicr 

[ mclaltiiiric emlXFO. 

Thi^rc eiiii. Thctrfore. Ihree kind* ol' apjiajaliw Ibr the (UtiitiatJaa of merrurr': t. Iha 
Ihtnacc eollad a g^tltryi 3. the farnace niih oMtUi and 3. Ibc iargi appmit* «f 
Idrla- I ahall dnciibo eaeh of Ihcic brieA;, ia lUCL-cuion. 

I. Funtan tnlM dtlltTii ijf Iht Patalt^ali. — The Fcrnilruclion tX Ihi* rsmnce i* d>» 
pOHd Ml ni to cvnlain Ibur tan^ea, •! u ,bb,<S\ia^r reioilt, •lylol riicurbilj,of casl-imo, 
in vUeh the ore of wercuty ii tubjrcltil Ui ditUllalion. Thia ansngemcot ia abowB ia 
Jlf. W9, whieb ptefcnla a retlirnl vclion in Ibc line a b nfthe sraoiw ^aa,Jb. SM>. la 
ua powid plan. Ihe roof e t of ilie furnace {fif. S89) i« (oppmcd to be lined ttl, (a 
onder lo ilmw the ditpotition of the foui nnget ol' encuTbiti upon the ^nlc c /, 
fit*- ^% HVO, whtch recdvo Ihe pil-coal rmploycd •> fuel, llndci thb (laie cilea^ 
an aah-pll i. Fif. 8P1, which cihibila an cleraiim of the romae^ poiou oM tUa 
ufc^l> aa well aa one or the two doun r, by which the Diel h thnrwn apon the gnto 




< /. Gpcninv) 



8»«,> are 



Idt ovtT Ike lop arcn «f Ibe fttr- 
naer, whereby the dnugbl of air 
may rtcdro a mllablc JirceUon. 
The grate of the Aft|>late ciltada 
i^i-er thR whole length of Ibe hr> 
iiaec, fif. 81)0, Iran (he done r to 
Ibe duor ff nluBUd at Ibc opponta 
ntremiiy. The fonaoe oalkd m(> 
Iny iiieladcB eoauDtnily 30 encnrtlU, 
end In aonfl ««tabli*b«enu evta 
OS. Into aaeb an Inlroduerd ittxn 
Mi lo 70 ponnda of ort^ and 15 lo 
IS potinda of quidflJBcv a miitare 
which filli no nore than two thifib 
cf Ibc cucurbit; lo Ihe oeek a 
jitincirsre receiver ia lulnpltd, eon. 
Uuniiig walcr lo half ill beichl. 
Tbe fiir, nt flr»t uwTrmle, ia ovi :.'.■■<. .W-. " I,. ,( uil ihc cueu/biu are roj hot. tW 
.Bfamtion b-ing eunelodc^the MintntMir ilie rKeiiwr* are pooKd ovi into awood^ 
^towl plaool upan a jJoiifc abere a bucket; ilie quiekailmr falU to the Unhm af 
' tt« ^tm), and the wniec draw* m*t the Made mntvy, for ao tbe tubHaaee that «e^ 



BIERCUBY. 



18S 



Ike intidc of Ida wccltw t b mIM. Thii ii MoaUtrtd to be a tnliclim! oT Mlpbwtt 
Ud «sTi]« of meroarT- The U»A mtratrji, tmltta onl of Ihe Mb uid diinl, i> diiitllDd 
Mew nilh csMsi <f Umc | after which the rmidanin in the rclom U thniTrn away, ■> 
Wdaa. 

M»dil /unid«ff q^ •AmadfN^^nK*. S9S aad 891 i c ptttm the prM ftiniBen with 
■Indeb in uc u AmmIm, aid •BcUntlr In Idrai ; Ibr bciwri«n tht t«ra «tl&bli*hinraU 
tbtn wu In fuel liltle dUbraiM btfnc Iho Jtu 1*94. ^i. 8DS and fiVS prvM-nl twu 
vtnkal Mclioni ; fif. «iPS toil 8M «n nre iduii cd* two aimUu ftumitm, cnnjoianl in 
' one bedf of brickwDrk. Id ibe foiu 

AgvrM Utn ralWving o^ecls are lo bf 
lunwkadi a door n, brwhidilhe wood 
iaiMMdnecd intoiho firc'plncc b. Thii 
it pnforaled with holes (ai the pattue 
of air I Ihe B*h-pll c 1< Ktn btnc*.lh. 
An ap9et ebainlicr, i^ contiiiu tbc mer- 
turjal orn diitrlbalM upon open nccbc*( 

lUt chamber, Immrdialely mtt iboa 
ardieii, there aie piled ixf, in a dooH 
form, UrKe hlodii of ■ UmMloti*, Ttnr 
pool in iiuichtilnr oce; atnTe thete 
are laid bliiclii of a usnllcr tiie, tlien 
oivf at raihei intWin quolll]', ami 
alampnl mtt mind with richer wine- 
nil. t«iUv, ibe wholn It «oTanl up 
with n>H brichi^ fmmnl of elar knmdoil 
with icAUch, and with ■cnall \wxet of 
»iitpbuirri of metcory. Six ntocn of 
nluddt (ir Uonewaiw luba*//, <J'a pcni 
ihapo, Jutol Lofclher with ciny, art 
mounlcd in froal of Mcli of the ivo Tnr. 
naoca, on a Jjonblr ntDplns lenaer, having 
ia iU loveit muldlE line two uutlns I r, 
K Ultle Inclined (avaidt the intmnediale wall m. la each nnse ihc alndcl placed a) Ihc 
lla« r m e cif/g. SyS Ihal i* lo lay , at the lowest potnl, f, fift. B9», 8«B, ia fkreed with 





ftahk Tbeieby the mncury which had been volaliliKd in d. If It be already OMdfniwd 
r Ihe cooling In the aerie* of aludels /g, naiy ran iMo Ibe eoRetpondlng gutter, neit 




ttto hole at, /If . S4S, and aflar liat into ihe wooden pipoa A h'.fig. (>92, which i._ 
iKaermt die maKary of the terrace into ciilena filled with wateri see j,jl(,8M, 
vbteh i» the plan of.iiB. »VS. 

The poriiun if mrrcuri not eondentcd in the raose of alndeby/ g, which m th« mow 



186 



BIERCURY. 



pMi tn ito ftota oT npor, tnU a «hamb«r k ,- but in r***^ e"il«r a 
hptrtltipn I !,'• nntin yimion !• depMiit4 in * e'Mvn >, filled with mifr. TW- gns»r 

K«<' Ibe Tipora diffmcd in Uie chunbrr Ir i% Ibmb? wadnMd. ani) tbr i:>miirT 
d»w> upon (he two incUneil (iIukv vhich fats iu totloo. Wk*i mny tiill um 
At vapor puMi iaio an upper chamber If, bjr n imiJI cbteDPf o. On mc oT the nln 
pvT ihu diambcr Ihcr* i* n thnliei' whlcb in«T be opened ai jilFMure fkMnbtkiw upwatdt, 
■od btneoth ihii ihatlrr, there it • nuMn kM vhkb a nolable qn>atjt]r W Bicnuii 
^beollecl*. Moebofit iinlM) found eondmiKd in the alndHf. Thne fact* proTc thai thi* 

C«M ba* in«onrciuenca which hnn brcn Irinl to be reianlinl bf the b«« nt«ftuT« 
raUier nnebomlcal grand ti^iaratui of Idrio. 
IMii]> of ih« alodri npi«ra(uii : 2a arc >cl ta each of the 12 ninre*, wen in fig. SM. 
itilutinf; 3no peu^haiwd slonovare irwwli, open al b«lb imdt, brine uioely lloxM inl» 
niiolher, and Iol«d with Iram. What a niilliludc of joinli, of which a gitol imbj 
Ciuil be canliniinlly ciTini; way by Ih« thrinliBfEP of the luting!, whereby tbe ancBtial 
Aimu wilt tttnpc with cinkl toM of product, lo poiron Ihr aii! 

o^ b the daa of the Hre-piaee ; c, the pcrfonied arehn vpnn which it« ore is pled in 
■he ohajnber «, tbioagh the door li, and an oriilcn at top ; Ibr Inilff beiny clocnl dacag 
■bedirtOkluni t //*>? vtnit Ibr Mindiicliiie the nirrccriol rajion into Iwv chai^st i, 
Rpualei by o trinnuulnr body of maMnty mn ; h'n liie miukc chimney orihelljeflact) 
DO^arefhc lanflaof nludrb, in connnion wiib theehunbrr i, whith arc laid diatin^ 
tatwardu the gutlet f. npoB tke double inclined plane lenaer, and iFnuinale ia ibc 
thnnihrr A 7 1 thli being ntmioafttcd by Iivd duiiinc]ii I. The Bcreury h collecltd in 
Ikne nlndelt and in the baiiin« al g and f, fig. SM, r ii a thin uone jnrlilion lel up 
between the Iwo piineipnl wall* efneh or liie fUrnan*. r it the itair of Ibc aliuM UT 
facF, leaditur to the plotlbm which Mnnouota the fiiniBce 1 - ia a ^ller fat cotidacliiii 
away the lain* which may fall upon Ihe bnildii^ 

Onn' ufpantliu 0/ Idria. — Dcfort eaiering into detaD» of tbii htboralc>Ti it will not 
b« MrfcM to rteapiiulat* Iho nuitallnisii; claiafleationof the ore* ireatml ia it. 1. the 
ma in larfce block*, f^amncnl*, or ■liiren, nboac alae rnrCt* tV«im a cubic fool tu thai at 
a nnt. i. The tnioller om, fhom Ihe diir oranul 10 that cd* traina of diut. 

The ItRI cbua of/drgf orei comptian IhrM aubdiriiiont, nninelf ; a, blocka of asMak 

UAatnit rock*, which ii the inoit abondiul and lh« poomt (pecia it ore, aOoidiiif <aitj 

*au!pirrfKl. oftncrcury; b, th«inMai*c*u]pburetorinerciii7, Ihe r^chcMfeod nreMOI^ 

yieldinn SO ytr ent. when it >• pirlcrd ; r, tho b^gmtnU or apunters pi»ceedin|! (ten lh» 

tiKiiIiinK and ■□rtint;. and wbJcti I'ary in valnr, (him I to '10 ptr nnt. 

Till- ircnii^I clou of niioll oiei compriics : i/, the ft^fniicati or ituTen entntcted bom tl* 

, oUnc In the Mate of tltUt pieces, afTotdlD^ frani 10 lo 12 j>cr rent, j t, the kemda at «fe 

Mimmtod on tho ufvc, yl-'ldioi; 32 ptr etui. 1 f the Mud* and tvala caUnl ttUi'd, obtain 

«d in the Iientment of Ihe poorval «t(«, hy menna of Iba nampi aait «aahiii( ttUci| 

100 puu of this i(Alf«h givenllcftit Sof iiilrk'ilter. 

The general aipcct of Ih« apptrataa b indicated by /if . 8911, Wi, and BUS. Fia. n^ 

reprtsents the exterior, but anj oM 
haiir, which i> cnaii^, a* il rtMuUl* 
exficlly the other, whlcb ii not thowik 
In Iheie three llRutta (he fuHowio^ ok 
jcet Enay h« difitinpiiahed t fi%u 6My 
tai. It, door of the fite-idaee; fr, the 
nimncc in which tieeeh-wood bi buntd 
niinl nilh a little fir-mwd; r, deor 
of the oih'pit, ctlcndtil beneath) ^ 
• (pace in which Ihe oro are dcpMltod npon Ibe tcvcn uclii'*, I to 7, ai indicated in 
JIf I. SOB, and 8»p ; ( <, brick lunnela, bjr which the »mok« of the (Uel and the rapon </ 
■DHVUi; paa^ on thi onodde, into BoocottlraebaBibetii/fc. 





MKBcuay. 



187 



aptidniw an Mek aide ol ibe widc fuioucc, atul in Fneh hair o( lbs afptxtxi*, «hlch U 
Mblct MjAj. St] *iiuw» ; Ihc tpaect nriihuul IciIpis bcina in e<ec]r ru>|i«cl unuUr to tLe 
tpKW awntiaoid balow. '''I't. B91 u duuUc Uic t-cali' oi'_^g.81>6. 

M ■('■ jtf ■ (l07iB(« b«^n* (if rccciitiun, iJi'Uibutiitl btlWc the diwn of «Bch c/ llie 
ektjnh(n/lr/ kf. Theouniluateil loitcui; which lluwi out oTihu duunbcn it convejed 
IMlhur. N n' is a U-rnch ibIo wliich the iiicrciir), iiltcr U'i»s liT'i^' '"lo the buins n, ii 
poural, (o that it may run towsnli a cummua chumlm' u, in llu) blopUt^ lUnclkm 
inilicntfll bjr the airoWf. o Ic&Jt lo llir chojubrr wtictt ihr iiirrctjc)' L> nmvoil inU n 
porpIijTf Uou^b; vulorvhieh it ii InJnl soil imclial up in porliooa of 50 ot 100 lbs. 
Ul taK|>-«Un* pniwrad «i1h •Um. pji , fig- ^Vi, nic vaulted nicbesi UtfonKk which a 
EiTouhttion maj fo oa nnuid Um fumnee a b t d,oa the groand tcvd. f q' arc tlw i>ulU 
oTih* uptwr felottM^ ff'tfiS' 8Ve(TUilM which pcouit acecu lo llie tuuicb i' <", 
/f. 894. 

> t' uul ( C.jlf. 8Vl^ ue tbe iloi>r* ef lh« chamb«r«/)c suil/ Jc . I'hcic o)K'nIng» ara 
tlint durinE the diMiUtlion bf wacxkn dom* focnl with irun, and lultd will) a uirvtnr of 
dar and lune. ■ a' i> Lhc door of Ihu nolb I lo 7 <if the fuioacc ip|i(ru:il<0 in 
fig. ^G. Tbew opening! arc hermeUtBllT ibnl, lili« the (irMoiliag. v t , }i^. gS4,an 
luptrior opcsinga of lti« chautbnn, dotod duing Uic operation lo' lulcd pluiis i Iher are 
openod afUrwnnli lo flicilitntc ihn oKiling uf the Dppnralui, and 10 collect the mercurial 
•o«t "It, Jlf, BM, arc Ution which cocmpund to the diiort <■ h' of the nuU» I to 7, 





c^ll 






'fif. fiOg. Theae Hoore nre reached t>T *tair«««t up in IhedUfenol parti of thrbmUlnfi 
whirl) contain* the whole amnratn*. 

On the lowrr archn the larf cat block> trt moialltrerouii reek am laid j otcr Ihtae iImi 
Icn tmlicT fref menla an mnvistd, which am eovc-rrl with llir <<iiiv(-rt and piece* of teaa 
tUnmflioD. On ths middle nulb, tbe Moall uru i« plncol, dii>liibiil>?<l into cjlliulrioal pip- 
kininf nnhcnirnrF, of 10 inchn diajnclrr nnd 5 inchn depth. Tlie upper raulu receive 
liki.'wito i<i|>ki»i (llled with the land* nnd pailc* called idilieli. 

In 3 honri, bjr the Iftbor of >10 mM- the two double leti of apparatus am ehojsdl, aftl 
•n the apertnrca are dosoL A qnldc Are of bonh-vtiod It iben kindloil ; and when tha 
whole t»a«* ha* become aallieienlli hcaltd, III* milphuml of mrmmy brjtin* lo vopo^ 
Iw i eoRiinif lata eonuicl with the ponion nf o;ijg?n which hail not livn iTnrbunntnl, 
br coinbUHlJon, lu lulphor burnt inm Dulphuna* acM, while the metcutii bfcomn I1rt«, 
pai»n with the 'jthvr Tnpon into the rJimnbm for rondrotintt il, and prKtpitatea in the 
Bqnid (ifBi at a crral<rr ur lt«t ditunc^ fnim thv lirc.plncv. The wnlU of Ibe eliaRibrn 
■ad the floor*, with which their lown iwriion ii oovrmli are loon coaled ovct wiih n 
Uocb mercnrJal toot, which, beinc treated anvw, fanuihc* 90 ptr mil. of mcrcu/r. T)i« 
dialillutlon latufrnm 10 tu 12 houri; dnrins which time the whole furnace U kept at 
a ehi-rry-rcil hral. A eumplptc eliui^e {in the tiro double appiiratiif, toruivti of frain 
1000 lo 1300 •tntntal* of ore, which produce ffoin flo lo DO <|uintal» of ruBninv mprcu/y. 
Tbi- fiimace inltH ttma S lo S daya to eunl, according to the ttite of Ibe weather; and 
if 10 tbal period be added Ibe line lequiaitc for willidrawinc the miduunit. diuI allend- 
inf to uch reiiain a« the fbrnace may nerd, il in obvioni Ihal only one diilllbulon can be 
peHbcmed In the coorveof a werk. 

tn the worktof Hria, in t61!t,M,6S6qaininli and a half ofquicktllver orti* wera diB- 
llllnd, alTer anilerxoini; a ver;' cniefal caccbBnieal piepnialinn. They adonted 4833 quta. 
UU nf rmiainitmereury: >i<|iia.QiilT cormpondintt lo abuuti^ ptrcnJ. of the ore. llieK 
MMJliae werlct arr about ISO fort loni; and 30 ftti hifh. 

UpDS the pr«Mling three fyiteia* of amellinc mvcujial «ret, I ihall now moke •OH* 
•beernilioni. 

It bat brcn lioiR wil known, tlint qu'rekiilTcr tnar be matt readily ettneted ftom 
lUmahur, by beatiiig it ia oodUkI with quIeUiMC. The tnlphu/ of the clnnabai ouUh 



MERCURT. 

[Ubm^ br '(to* •f * Mptrior alSolir wIUi the Umn, to ibe wBliiahw <f ik* < ufc > M a*« « 
[(» ftm «gl|ibiirtU of Unw •ml (oMan, hoU t^ whitk bang (bad <h9>n, nBMte >■ iha 

I tte iron rindcTi Jrivcn off rma Ibc bloomf b; Ibv I^Una temmor, bu bom Mol iMUa4 

f O^llmr in the rcit««ltonor(hiini»t«ri*l ore, «ti«tb<r nlifciumM mcid aadanlphutMof 
Iron >re rotmnL 
The nknant pniAMMa of tbe BtnrtMi Rhine invnace* bu been cMHAUd ■> ftoai 

I 400 to MO qninUJ* ; thai oT Almwlrtt, In the jrcu 183T, wb* ISjOOD ^piknMb ; aid «f 

f-IMa, Bl pf«eni. In nni roorv Ibu 1000 qoinUli. 

All ihr plant hiihciio jntKribtd for dWIItag Ibe we tlmg wHk fokUla*, biv ns 

I Btritnblf till)'. In thM practiud ■■ l>ndtbeiV bf ObumDccbd, ibcre b ■ cnal *mI« 

f. af labnr, in chirtiiUE t>i« noBtToiM email nicntbEu t Ibcr* 1* • peal mu* ot fuel in Ibe 
taaJn ot hi-ntinc tbcm [ a (cmu wa*t« of mimiirj hj Uie trnptnett Imliac ct lh« retnru 

' lo IhF TMciicri, ai well u Ibe impetleet condennlioa of (bt Kerenrial varon ; aitd 

! prolablr a cuDiIilcrablc Idu by pitjerintr. 

The iiiDdn pianbol at Alniailrn and Idm nn, in the frnUH defnc, bAiborom ) Um 

[stM briiii bnlfd upon open artbm, and tbe vnpon allemptnl U> beoondeaaod bf «Mb>> 

tgatt Ihrm within brick or none and mortar valto, wbicb taa Bern b« r — j «» ii oibar 

I WfliFienllir livhl or end. 

ta obviali? all ihrM rnoouveniencn aad Mam« nT kaa, the proper cbesjoal anBaM- 
iDFOli mitsl lo i)ie preteni improved (tal« vt Ibi art* onfbl to be ad^nl, b} wUcb 
labnr, rurl, and TncreurTi miqhl all be eeonoDUHd to the ntmocl client. Tb« Mlf 
apparatiu fit U> be emplOTCd It ■ ncrie* of CMt-iron eflinder retorU, aomcwbat 
um ampl9T«d \m tbe eoal gu worki, bot wjtb peealiarlUc* nitcd to Ibe coadenae 
of the inorcuttt] vapora. Into eacb of iboc rclorti, luppoacd lo be at leaet one 
•quai* in ana, anil 7 Tenl lonit, 6 cir T ewt*. of a tnUtura of ibo sround on wilb Ibe 
quicklime, nutj be mily inlnidiicf^, fruin a mvomrtid h«ap, It mran* cf a iteicL 
^e fpeei£c irntilj uf ihe cinnabu beinc mnn; Ihna 6 lime* that of nier, n enhic Com 
tt h «ill Welch more ihnn 3| ewti. | bn( ■uppoiini' ihe miilure nf il viili ijtiicUiMe 

Citn Ihe arc dots not DoniBin the ealcueoui maita ilsrV) to be onlj ibiicc the 
(itf of walcr, then four cubic feet might be pnt into ench d the above iciutt^ and 
ttlD leave 1| cuUc (Velof •cnptjr iiiaccfiir the rx]«iiilMi of volume nhkb maj lake place 
b the deeamtxoiilnn. The iire lAoald eertalolr b« grannd to a modcraltlj Sat powder, 
hj Hnnpt, iron cjlinJcrt, or nn edee whi^cl, Mlbal when miitd wilh ttuieUimeilWete- 
■•btfaur bebrnaiihlinioiniininicconiael with ilidceompoier.olbeiv'uemiicbof )i will 
> be MMlpalal nnpradactlvelT In fomei, for it 31 nticnielT volalile. 

fift. SOO, 911), an?, repreunt a cheap and powrrlU appai*Iiu which I contrived H 
the requnl of (hr fioman Htties Company or tendon, and which a now mownled M 
Landtbenr, nenr Ober«0Mhel, in Ibe Bavanan Bhein-Krei«. 

Fit.VQO, ba (Mtion pnmtld to tbe fnml elenlian of thr*«anh<Kl bcndmoTretotl^ 

POO 




of lb» iiza above ipeciflot Gaeh bench eoftliuDi 3 rclorti, of tbe form repmcal(4 b} 

• « a. I, it Ihe sinRle Gic-plaee or Ibmace, capable of Kiviai; ade<]Datc Ifnitim tf 

eoal or wood, to Ihe lhr»« rctoru. The relorti were buih up in an eicellrat maJMB', 

by an Englltli nuiKin perfectly acnniiinted vlih the bot mode* of erMtiag ee«i«M 

JteMrla, who wai Kni over on purpoie. Th* pulhof Ibe Same Mid tmokoli rn^atlj 

FlbiUar lo Ihat reTrewnled in jSj. BTO, pin;.. k47, whcrrty the appermott retnti b 

PhUMrvdd In a balk of uniforaiI]r ignhtd a!r, while Ihv enrrenli rererbefaled IVoa lh« 

Lftfk PiV '**■■>' tl>o <^ ualniMRl Mwla. in the^ way (o Ibe Tifl iM a beaaath 



MERCURY. 



189 



dwn. Th« bottom of the vpftnno^ tviofi it [iMerted Ihxa ikt dbrcl imfnlie erf" tbe 
fcwe hr fiie-iDo. "ne dotud linn k x, ihov the pailu or the chlnnpTs nhich iim w 
Ab bMK «Dd)i oT ilic rttaiU. 
b tto MVIion, Jif • tOl.o It tbo Mr <^ th« mart; lu maulbal Hit right hand rad 
MI i* •hot, D* usual, t^ ■ lute! iron lid, Hvurtil 

with n en»a-bnr And focv-boli* ; its olhn 
«nd it fiolixi^ i>f t >li>i>itiK I'iix uf (oM 
iron, J incbn in diMnrltr, runii'htd with i 
nonle held ftt t., cliit«d with ■ tcrcw piqg. 
Tknmgh I)ii> hnlr ■ wite tiiiMDiFr mBj 
be IntToducdl, to itCicTtDin thtii itin lubo ii 
pCTYimui, and to clMnic it tmin ihr niv- 
«iiri«l tool, wlipn Ihouihl m^cftMu-y. r, ii 
• croM KciioD of the Rinin Kiixlf ntcr, diovn 
in * lonflmdinol wclion ki e c, jif. DOS. 
Tki* pipe h m incliFs in diiniPkr, and 
Bbonl iO ftni Innr. Ai a a, (w., the buck 
mil* cf llii^ rrtorli ue ri-Fn, miih ibc 
•Innttng lnUi A li, tit., ilr^rcnillnir thraii^ 
orillcn in tlie iipprr nitdn; of the ron- 
Aenset pipe, nnd ilippinK Ihcii i^nd* jnA 
Vlow the irntiT-Iin? h i. g, U the can «f 
a VBtrr mlvi', utiich removet all rltk Ihiln 
■uiMcn rxpaii>iii?D or mndcntallun. Tht 
tondrnMT i» pInMil within • r«Un^)itr ttvanii, inwir ciihrr of wood ui it-mf, through 
which a »«ffiorBl Mrvam of watM paiurt t" Keep it pt-tfccilv cwil, «nd reiirew enrj 
UMii cd" mfTcuriil »npor, and it l» laid with n tliuhi inclinnllon fn.m i in It, w that the 
eemlMittd •luicktilTFr mar aponlanMntaly lluw along iti botion, ud |>a>a ihron^h the 




3 



tr-n — □ — □ — n — P Hi 



31 



=az 




vcdiul labr D inta tha lodctd up tran ehetl, or nu^iinc t. Thi> lube r> i* ftom the 
boKion't'S eteced at bolton, bf imawnlan In a abaUoW iron mp, nlir*y]i filled wlih mrr- 
e«ry, Jt i*a{;radual(il ng^rad,MindieaU thepragrawivRaceaniuliitlvnof qnir-hail*«e 
In the ehvsi, vjihoui Ixiaf nndec the neofuitr of unlocking It. 

Thi* uit-tiulil anamloa ma SKCtad aboal • ycai a|to, and ba* bom found to ad 
ptifKltr well ; i legM, hawatar, that aj pr«fenieaal «nEaitemanti at bcmie hati! not 
kilherto permilled me to eondngl ila opecationt penunnll; for Kmio dayt. The avervgt 
HUptM of clmabar ore A«m ObennMchel are ten lime* poorer (ban ihoie of AloiaJwi. 
Wm lueb aa appaiMna a* the above, with Mmc *U^tit modifitotiooa which have lola^ 
oooomid to me, mooaltd for tha Spaniih niine*, I nin eonfident Ihnt their pradaee in 
vnidkrilTcr mif hi be nearlr doobltd, with a vait cconomj of Aicl, labor, and humin 
ufr. Tie whole m«I of At 9 larice mortt, with their eondoniinit apptuatni, irea 
■■CWtiiie, *e.,wu v«T lillle more than lwv'ia"dr«il]w«ni'>/ Attherelorli are kept 
la ■ ilate e^ nearly uairorm icnilioia, like ihoae of the Raa woikt, neither they nor 
lb* faraaeM era liable to be fniiirod In their joint* br the nllemotc eoalroelirm and 
OxpaaaioiM, which they wonid Innitably tuffer If alhiwcdlo cmI; anit bfins nlwayi 
ready healed to the pi«pn pitch for ittamfmias the merenrlal ore*, they *>« eaiable 
of workiti; Dir a thutt, under ihilful OAiwireinmt, io the eottrie uf 3 hoar*. Thns, 
Ib S4 hnan. with a relay of laborer*, 8 chu«n of at leatt 6 cvti. of on oMk, 
ml^ht br- unicltodsS toni, with 3 reiorla, and S loiu with 9 retortxi with a daily 
produel Oom the rich we* of Almodeo. or even Urla, of from 13 cwii. lo 30 cwW. 
IiM|ail of 3 benchM «d' 3 vMorta caeb, 1 wottM rceomtDenil li facnchct, eontalnlng 41 
r«totii, to be ervcied fbr either lha*Aloiadon or Idria nine* ; which, while ihey wooM 
■nell all Ihnr orei, eonU be (ot flir a *im not mwb euedUng lOOOt, an ontli^ wbick 
Ibey wonU leiaikane within a month or tw«. . , . , 

Tbo fallowiag letter ttwn Dr. ToUa ^rct an bterwtfaig Mooosl ct Uu viMvstvi. 
niambi C.alifenua' 



Ua JIBBOORT. 1 

"UmI Mrt of C«ll/aniA « heN I haT« b«*n milling Mild that whidi I baft' j«M *i|U«4 

•onauu <iitlir*< long mnKM u( U>|>|> naiiauifu^ viw two wiil«T*llen diiidia^ t^Ms 

tlia valluy or tho San Jonijuin, and the vallcjrof Saata Clank Naar tbia laal plaoo an 

UiA^uicluUvcr lainMar^rv AlmaiUn, vWrr I hara bMn vortinf. Tb« caauix of tfaa 

«l>ital«r av« U dho unie trnjip of whick tliu moantoin nw|^ wo eoiD{iii<>-d, qsiI a* jM 

nnlv mil' t;rtfac iltpciailof tliu or« luu boca faund. tb«li|A rnieMof qnirLiilvporuhM** 

, I' . - r«d in oUur plaoca. 11iaonaDr«oaiiip<«ed Ki)«lyi>(nil)'l>ur<'C of uorvufTi 

I ( ..£ {>i>r e«iiL), nd ozldaof Iron and ailiua ; auil bail llw num- Im-d f-iofvny 

[t <•<<!.--. u i'lTi llM(oraiu«n««iii«uI almott aaj ^uaiitltv oton nugbl li« I'liiniqUHl ; U now, 

t%oMerrt,mor<!nte<nhivtagiguaiiim\MfK»mB Ihaaamioa. TlMowBanbaTclaulj 

Ijbtul out an old Gurtuao miner, an «xj«riuionl and praolkia] maa, wbo^ if b« Mua bar& 

IVill ovcntunlly piit it into lumgkind ofvrdfr. Ita jirMlat ilcpt}i ii aliovl IM ftcL ana 

Ijifcc weekly extrooiion nf ores roHci fioni 10i> la IWtooat L'pou amviag h*r<il fdniid 

Hb« mncL-rn in lU'^li a ilato of disor^iiuil/nlHiii. tliiit. ufttr vatting tbr«« moiitlii in T^n, 

nnd unt liuTiug noi'kvcd n lingle cvliii^kT a- j-iucD c^ machinvr^r, I raUrnt-l lo McTOea 

Ku fvU'li u|i ouK of tlie proprietonL Duving mjalMenco tla« C»iii*r dir«oU>r, vbo in hi* 

tliru liail ii'-vorMon a mlii^. mnoh Iim* nnoltinx wotlo^ pal np four of tli* oytindarh •»- 

r^riiii^ 'iiucn tolvlj ujiou their two end* TJthout an y UrO'brict g;ttAT<U or jiillan. Of 

couni\ w)i«n lioaUiI iliov *uiik i.r Micgtd ia Iha icldjl^ Upoa my r*tnrii with on* (4 

Ui< owiifni, KuncUiiuj^ lik* ohUr wot Mtablidied by liim, atid I gut 14 cTl<nd«» ri 

Lvurk. pn>dndii^ U0<^ to UOO lbs iluily. Tlie rwult to tur vu salitfaotixj-, but not 

I1k> To tlic t^ruprielor, on avcouatnf the vxpttui of fnel and labor; fac BMordinf^Iy got a 

^ blaeluinJtii, who hail boeu »eul here U> jput up Ili« vntor-vhcel to build hini a tatJt 

ttnana, without oouulting meat all. Tbi*iaaoMiitsfh'«iidclfaii^ttat liking to eoou 

himaelt; lo look at tho plan* I tini of iha fiiniaen of Idria attd Alaaden, and Umm 

urocted n (lualt nrnl intaarablo furniif « lo hnUI oao Ion of oni, upon a ditiatfniKit plaa 

at thoM uf IdriiL With lliii he obtained tmm lh« richmt or« (U to 73 |>«r eaut.) U 

Gi <«al. nf mercury', iif«tiima vlih iLo eonaunipllon of vvn Uttlovood Mid vitbllitla 
nir; (lli« Iom of ptr eraUM vu not ttiouEhi atmutl) 'the praprtotor iiuwiiialaly 
determined to have lii •iinilar furnaoM buili, and witli gnat regnt nllowod tat la 
crMt Due good fumoce, and alt^nranti a *<<'(>ud on*. 

~ Now Lake the rMultaafthe rearV work, and joa caiiju4g4 wheUior the report cMt ywa 
u ITIM or aoU that Ihe Vuoltn blackaniitli hiu lUfwranlM mo or noL Bcfefo tbc ya«F wot 
half out, hcfiot liNdof alUoiptiiig to oompele vithnif funaanand Ml in oiftut 
Tk* Djrbndcr* pcoduMd .... S5],A14 jba. Uarturj 

(but v«r« ttopped in XoTtoiber uu oMouat 
of •x(i«iwa « wotUno] 
Tlie finl fumao^ worbini; Mily tram ."(oT«inb«r lU lo 

July lit, 1891. gan «3C^II 

Tlic Hiioiij furcMM^ working only Lmn Uoreh 18Ui to 

July lit, gavo . • . . . SSa,9Sft 

Total l.!Sa,1IM * 

" The product of tlio Tankoc'* iii fnrnaoa^ sorkInK tat a Bueh lonpr parfod, M 

thay v*nt into oparatton long bafera miu^ vm only (44.000 Iba., OBakb^ ■ taUl piv- 

dael far the year of aliuut 18,000 quiotaU." 
Qdckailver i* a Mibttooeo of paramount taluo lo nionot. Ita gnat iknaily anrf ila 

nf idar rata of aqmniion and coutraelioo by iacraac and duolnutioa <4 l^uiporaln^ 

Sro it tho TVcfercneD oirar all liquida for filbng baroniatrioaiid tli«nnonwtric lubot. In 
lomiati'y it fiamiiliet th* only meiuiioreollacUngud imaipuUliiiit in tlio piM«owlta 
''troDKb, audi aaaeout baiUa aa arc oondeniTblo otpf nt«r. To iti aid, in thia rwpaifc 
tha nunam aidTaDcaiDant of chamieal ducuTcry i> pr«-<Qiin»<ntly duo. 
lUi malal alloyod with liu'foil loniu tlic rrflnvtinit *urboa of t"htllB; tlinfa. uA 
bf iti i«*dy ulnljon of icold or ulrcr, an<l tuUniiivnt ilimipiatioa by a ui'ihIi ral« h«a^ 
^K bMOBca iha freal tn*tniui«at of ih« aria of tilAine and nirering cop^'cr and tiiia 
^Dm mow pr«fiarty nakct it «o availiLble !ii rKtrovtin^ tlicae pndoiu nattak bom ikor 
ljbr«. Th« BBtfoniat af^iM it *)eganlly trtdiatend aiiiidiapUy themiautor roMlaal 
^Dm Ijinphatia (yiCem. and Mcratoty lyMeuu, byii^eolingit with aiyrinKathniUKkill 
tluir oonToIutiona It i«llie baoaof many rwy powerfnlniAUei ■><->.' al pT<ti,.nl proba- 
bly too indiwriminately mti. lo (he ^at dotnmant of En([litli •ucity; hir it U Car 
more «parin|;lv preienbed by practitionen upon th« continent ot Kurupt^ tiol ulher- 
aim aiqiarior in akill or Kienee to tho>e of lirmt Britalm. 
L H' nilnteuf mpronry ii cmjiloyvd fur theM-nd^uf rnbhitaud haNndcisik thai ia, 
nr eonwaunicalii^ to lor of theae and other qiiodniiitda the £i#iilty of MUo);, whiok 
■Muy do not nnlsrolljr V''^""'- ^'^ ^*'* **"' *^ loliltion of thai aall ii apfditH to 
(&«ai li^h'lf <" "'I" dirf>-liDa wllb a *poiis>'. A «aai])ouiid oMalgwn of line om tin i» 
nnibab^ the bt*t eiriicr whteh oan be applied to tbo cudiion* <i cleetiiual oMtiiiaa^ 



UETALUO FDHBS. 



141 



Tka only OMNvml oontpoandt whkli m eilenuTtlj'iueduillie artai arc halitiou 
d>a^wr or VRUtaMK, wai oorrwiTo tidilunAU. QiMiilitf in^MrMd tm hotve «««• 
MmpUoB in lilA, UB.079 pomid* ; in lUl, 37.170 p«anda. 

A tuKO <iiiaallljr «I iii«(«iuy or ^ttidodhrer la BtuiakUi- pMdtiHd in tdrja, a tow* 
tn Um diiehj of dmohi, tbe lohabitDnla of wUtli ■r*v£l«ftr oo«np[«d In lta«xtnM- 
tjoai. Hie ^nickailTer mioo* aro •itramalrprodwilirc. The einoabar or« jrlald* 
whon vary nek, su |>ar ceoL of tlii* meuL Tliu ore ia a aolphunt of auavury, and 
([*« up ibe latter matal tif tulilImaUon. 

With the qaicluUtarniinaaof IiliiaueonnD«t«dainainifa«t«iv»f r«raulion, vhieh 
Br«dii««d, b tlio JMT IMT, Ml «wL of that pj|{inant. Ho rgaidoa «f th* nawluUrat 
Hwad U]i (o aoiuo amaU exunl, about tOO evL, for tcotmini porpotaa and prejura- 
deoa; but tha graalar portion of it U eont abroad. Tlie axporta of i|utc]EUlv4r 
■Hooal*!] t»an annua) aT«TaMof 3,841 ««t (in thvjMr IMO they r**cli«il 0,478 
awi-V and of |>r«iianitit>ii( derived from it. auch ai onmMiTa lubliinati', mlomiJ, Ao, 
to 41 ewt. lij- tliE wiiiumptioii of quickniinr, for tho maiiufacturo of rennilioa and 
for oUmit Icehoical purpoao^ tlie *atue of tbo annoal ptodoN of tlie raw nintcrial ia 
graally incraaaod. Tha mtnw baie boon worked tot upwarda «f Ibree NuturJaa and 
m hal( and vara origaaUr diMorercd by an aceldaot 

HERCURr, BICHLORIDE OF i Corrorim raWoutc ^LmhMeivn dt mertvt, Pr. i 
Jtfiarfri fwefciiikr tuilimu/, Gaia.), a mndc br mblioung a ninarc of ttjna] paru of 
parwlphaM of amtan, ittcpwod at abore dtscribcd, and itaaalt. In a itonewaic cncnr- 
bil. Tb« Mblinate liaia In vapor, and Jneniau the (lobtdaj glaH eaplud wiilx a white 
mMaoTamall piiunatie nwdlet. lu iiiirelfiefntvlty It 5-14. lit taato b aciid, itnMo- 
mrtiWIr. and cxeecdiaglr uoplratant. li it aoluMo ia SO paita of wHer, et ttw onliiitu; 
temptnUute. and in iu own wei)[lil of builing waler. Il dJattdtM in SJ tunra iu weight 
of cold alcoliol. ll b a vvT deadly poiaon. Raw white of rK^ iwnllowtd ia piofiuiioni 
la Ihc b»t antldate. A lolutian of cofroiiTe tublimnte ha.i bnn Ions emploTM fir pre- 
MPriag mA ftnalmnicnl prcpnintiau. Sj tUa mean* the corptc of Coloael Morland waa 
•BbabBed In ardci to be brou^-lii I'nim the ml of war lo Paris. Hla Ikalwn rcfoajned 
■natUred, only hid tkin wai brown, aad hit beitr wet tn baitl as In aonnd Uka a piece of 
WDud whirn tlrarJi with a bammer. 

In ihe lalvable work upon tivedtr roLpnUiahed bjr Mr. KnowlMi atcreMiy of the 
ionunilM of intpoetora </ the naTjr, in 1811, corroiive cablitnale •> enumerated amonE 
thecbemicol (abtlancts wbicb had been preaertbed flir preventing the dry rol in timber i 
Wd il It wdl knoVD Ihni Sir II- Daiy tuul, Mreral year* bcAre that dale, usrd aad 
ttgODunieided in Uic A'liniinliy and Kavy Boanl, oemaive tablimale at an aali-dry rel 
Kpp?icalir)n. It link iKm tiinc« cxlentirely emjiloyed by a jnaUalodi eooipany for the 
nni'; porpow, uiiilrr Ibfl title of Kyan'l palenl. 

MERCIJHY, PKOTOCllLORIDE OF; Calonuli <PnKodUsrw« di mtrttm, Fr.| 
riri.nfri .jnrfkiittirT, Gmn.) This coiopourul, no mueh uacd and abuaed by me^eal 
pracUlioQcic, ii commonly prepared by idluniilng ibur paitt oS eorroalte anbliroeie along 
with three putt of mnniii^ quLckiilrcr in n nimble inariar, till the mctalUe globnlea 
•Btlrdr diti^PWt ">»> Ibc produclion of a hlntk puwder, whieh it U be pDl iaU> a glaia 
teHoon, and oqieaed to a tiibllmiag hi-al iii a Kaiul bnth. The calomel, which ritea in 
vapor, and UUuGhea ittdf tn a e^'tlalUue cnuC (o the upper honiaphere of iKe balloon, 
It to bo deiaebod. ndnecd to a Ibn powiler, or leviisntfd and elutriated. 300 lbs. of mer- 
euiy yiobi SM or ealomot and 2TS o[ eorroiivc mbiimnle. 

The (Ulowioi more eeonomieal proeesi is that adog'led al tbc Apolbeeariei' Hall, 
London. 140 poundt of coixcentialfl arilphitrtc ifM are boilnl In a eail iron pel upon 
IW panada of mercnn^, till n ilry prnutpliaii! it obraloAl. Of thik toll, 124 pouodi nre 
hritonueil with 8l pounds of mi^rcury. lUI t)i<- ^bibule* ditappear, and till a proteaalphate 
b» fbrmod. Thi* it to b<? inlimntrly injxrd vrith 68 ponnda of irrt ftilt. and the mliinrt^ 
bclBR put iaio a laig« (lone-wnro curmbit, tx to be anbnuiud to a tubliming brat. Sea 
CAiAwaL 

frtim IVO to 2UU pound) of oaloniDl nte In a orj-italline mIhv a« in the former pr»- 
eeat, i&lo the MpltaJ; while lalphnlo of aoda remain* at the bMtom of the aleniMft 
Hie calomel mnil be ground to an impalpable powder, and olatrlated. Hie Tapon^ 
hutead ef being oondeaaed into a eake wltbia lb* top of the globe or in a eapftal, may be 
■Uawod to dilTuie themtelvM into a dote veteet eonUEaing water ia a ttaie of ebnlll 
tiea, «h«r*bv th« ealomiJ ia obtained at oneo in the fbnn of » wetbed ImpalpaU* 
powder. ('aJomei it lastalen and intuluble in water. Itt ti'Mifie gravity U 7'lTAi 

for tba oempouad o( mereur^r with fulminie aeid, e«e Fvu<i»*nt PrriadUt trf 
attWiWy it a br>|[iit but hgitive redpigmeoL bit eaiily prepared br drepping a to- 
ItRioei of iodide ef potaaaaum inloatolutteaef eorroalreinMitDNte. at long at aiiy|ire> 
eipitallon lake* fUKV, d^caotbiK elf the tuparaatant ntiiriate of potaeb, woahing and 
dryiag ()•<■ piMipilat^. 

WnccaT : wa mi fat, bf Mr. Marfan of ttMin. If a ilrooa aolatioii of iodide «f 
polwituaD be added l« n minnte portioa of any of tbe aalta of mcrevty, ^Aacai «ft ft 



^rETAU>IC STATISTICS. 



bftgli(*l«M pUt« of copMr, tk* M wwMy i* InMnJkt ily dtptriudia Ui« neiallivrtM^ 
M K ulT«ry itahi tipon Uw voppar. Xa aUbMr duUI (t Kparatod by Itlu ui«n*k 0* 
tlin method torrOHVa tvbKnwl* may Im 4i)t«elcil m ■ drop of aMglioD unafiKWd 
(MMrVjaMcieimtMb i(pi<idUBa(pafa«ium. In ■ luUture of odomol aadHicsr.U 
ills profiortioM M«Da tcnun la 300^ a dutioitt mouUic tUin vill be nbUiiKd wiUi oas 
Uraln, wblcbof«oar>>tM<uUini t|(orBHTa)naroiiluiD«l. InIiliamiui»Brilgor*icato 
of |>«t«xU4 cf tnenuTjr may b«detacwd. altbouijlh Ilia laixtvr* vitb Mwar u noi id lia 
I IciMl colored br (L WitJi IliO prvparnllun* of mvreon' in iho UDiUlMei) iiatr. thip 
praocM BtU «ntb r«ia«ri:>b1e ■oramay, iho *in>Uml qMoiity of e«la«id or iwraaU^ 
■ilBcodoa wpptr MBbovt^ vill ^*«*itbiod>dncf pMMdnin adlatinMnitUIUa^^H 
Mr. MorgBB mppowi* that Ike iodidonfjinuniiini fonntBwiluUo MiJL«Ukl)M*MiiB 
mII* njiuErvury, <rhiah » tuilr deconipMnl — Fh. Jvam., ¥tb. ttUitb 

M»rTAI.LIC AN'ALYSLS, frofaatar LitAtlg Iim luUilv vnriohcd tbk mnt pmAI 
(l«^tiiii#ui (if jirutiul ohainiitFV. by Uia amfJuyiuiiDt 'of tbe cyanide of pafaunuB 

KftjMTt'l in bit vooMomiod malhoi (wo tbii artiaU). Thii ult ia'the b«st r«*K«nl lit 
t«tti^ nckvl in «abalt. ThoMlDtioii of the twonoUti b<uu acidulated, Uio««aaUk 
it W tw adcUd nntn tb« mdpllatothM AntUaurodisolToi Kioto •olpfawM^H 
U then added, and the mutorc boiiig vtnatd and IbA I« repcNe, a pndpttatc mm^^H 
bll lo npncnr Monor or later, «hkh m a eonpoaod of niekil. Cjinide ot FolU^^| 
Mrrnw*]] to toparale kod, bi«inulh,radiDiu(ii.Bnd coppcc.lbiu nctab often '**'^M^| 
la«ra. On adding lh« cjanldo in eieca* l« tbenaluiieoef IbetonrtaU la nttrlo^^H 
lead Bad biimnDi Hill ai mbonatct, and mar b» pwtod fiom aaeh othar bjr tstph^H 
add. Siilphurclled h)i!rojFn ii paued in nxcMi throwth th« KBadaarj ai>tuiiiM,i^H 
the lalilan* bring heated, a «bbU qtualiljrof craniile is added: a jreUov pt«c«pilall^H 
dMBiFi fadmium i and a black pttciptlnte faUi oo the addition of hjlracklam kciOB 

Mppcr be practlt. 

If into a crucible (ednlunini! (he cyanide tattd by beat), a Utile of atty netaltic wt- 
Ide b« Ihrown at interralt, it will b« alnoat immedialaty reduced W tha ri^llac *iaU 
When thu fluid m«m i» afterward dvoanUd, the ualal will bo faund Miiod with ik« 
white <nlrn« mnttrr, from wbirli it may bv icpaiatnl by wnler. 

Evtrn metallic BulphutriB ntr teducol to Ihr ilalc of purv tnelali by bciajt proiecMd 
in a dale of fin« powder inlo the fuKd cjnnidr. Wlicn nn iron ore i> thua ioucdoMiIi 
■loaai with cartion>ici of poiuh at ludn. sod Ihv miiiurc 1* heated lo fouon, wbieb i» 
foirv* a (trong red bent, the nlnniinii and tllicaof lhvor«fbipfalo«alW; frooi wUoba 
on coeUn^, Iho meUllio iron nay br •n'liralcd by Ihe action of wnier, and ihenveiglHL 
If moafaatM eaial is tbe orr, il rcBaiu in the flats of prolaiidc i to be detemiaed tf 
• MpanW.proceu. When mUe of coprm' ii tprinUed onllte nrfaiw of th« AmbIi^ 
onide, it is imDiriiinlvIjr ritlucfd. uitL ihc: dioen^Ecment of bnt nod light. The mi» 
ton betas poured <"it of ibe enicible und caacrolnl, lilo be gronnd nnif raibrd. wfcn 

■ ^nire n^uliu ef topper will be oblaiiird. 

The ptoccM of raduellon la pecutinrlT liilrrMllnR with tbooildeof a*'imonyaadtlitf 
bdn^ aeeomplI«bed al a low red beat, hdnlly viiible in dnylitibt. Ewnihe-MlplMVMi 
oflhea* nelaU an ImineiUalvly itripped of their aolphnr, wiUi lliefonBatiGMAf m)ipk» 
eyaolde of potwrium. 

Cyanide of potaitdiioi, mixail nilh cnrbonnie of Hdn. iian eicelleotr&aKcnt iubhiw^ 
pipe operalioni for dialiiiKniiliinic meinli. The rnludiana take place with the atmoM 
fncilitr, and the fuied miiture don not sinli into the ebareoil, u rirboAaio of aoda 
alone ia apt lo do in aueb eniei. IIcoci: Uie gnini or bead* of mttd are more fklbl^ 
and eaa be bolter exnmined- 

Wben the cynnldoia beatrd nlonitwiihlhenilniiMaadthlanieafof pot«ih),ileaa 

■ i«pld derampiMition, actonpaniml with lii:li( and «X]doiion>. 
Anonic may b# nndily detacleil in the c'iuiEJt>rcLiil lalpliuret of aniimuay, by f« 

Il wilb throo fuurllu of iti weight cf tlie eynnide in a pomlain erueiMe oTc* a M 
lamp, when n rcBului of nnllmonT i-i obmined. Tbc melal may ihco he rnaily l< 
At nr)«nir, aincr none at thii volatile lubiluioc «an have btm lofl, owing lo the^ 
IMnperalUTa employ o). 

When ancaioui acid, or ornlnient, oe any of the nnrnialrt, aiv mixed wtib lii limn 
Ibeir wricbt of the mixture of cynaidn and earbonale of emln in a Inbf with a 1 
one end. and heal applied with a iipirii lamp to the rIom, very beautiful rinn 
talllc inirror ore fbtmed by the rrdiictil araenic. The aneniiiei of lead nnd | 
of Iron, b0W«Trr, do not anrwcr to lhi> i«rt. 

When mlpbata of Im'1 and bar)-!;*, alons with aihca, are miiol with Ibiu or l*« 
Untra tb«r vriiiht of the above miied cyaniac nad earbonatts and fuitd, the Milptela 
I af l«adiiTvihie»} to the metallic alale. the aulpbate of baryietbeoomta a carbeaaia^asi 
tte *iliea cela eomUned with the alkali inlo a Mluble glaaa. 

UETAlXlC niMlS rCONDKNSTATIOK on «y tJkt IMa »/ ButttMfk^lD tU 
fmn Bmoltiiig worka of loail a»d topper, Uio miMM Mail bvm the ftiniaoo b higbljr 
rtiafyird wftb tiin moet Mfsroiif va)<nix eoiilAtning^ beiAilN ochar poinoncau uauar. » 



UETALUU STATISTICS. 



Iti 



Urg« ijiiBatHr ot l«ad. Muj atunpt* bar* bMO nwid* l« nbvUt« Uiu nutBuicc ; ud 
Um tf^kwi KlDfilcd by ill* Kthiltttor n«bMufuuuJ tob« rcrir •occcwful. 

Ab oUbb^ buUiliag >n Mliil'inuoDi7, aXutW 30 fuel in li«i{{lit, ii dinJcJ by a p«rtl' 
Ueti wall inM Iwoalumben, hario^ ■ toll cluiuii«y or tovrci- iu^^ii>*0(& ^'■^<'> counra- 
oiMta* with one ot Ihc chiiDiban at iLo bottotn. Th« tmoko ftwa Ike i-arioug fumaee^ 
<jgbl in nuiaber. ami abuut loo vardi dkUso* from tlia condftOMr, in oMricJ liv acpM> 
•to flitn lata a tMj[« diafubor: (rtm ttktiua bfkUrfptr du« It cnMii tb« first cliunb«r 
«f Ui* condonMr at tb« tmj bottom, and I* InVfl upward* iDaiigui^toiiTfp toranta 
iha top, puHiiiK toar ttmm IhrM^ a alioww of water eomtantly jwreolatiDS Trom a 
pianail nMCrruirat theomiiiutMt llMl«w«r. Tbtanioke i* agMaeomncIlM tofllttr 
a flfth tiin«. Ihruugli a oub« of ookiy aonie 1 Tcct M{UBr<. throu^li vhioli a itrMni n( 
VMn tjltrn J'xniwaiJi. aad wbi«h U lonfiacd tu it« pro|>cr timiti be a vrtlfvul frM- 
\ag of wood. The Mioka baring roachad tho top, U uijw oppoiita tlio poaw^a into tbe 
•Moad or vacBtun ohambor. 

Diia M tarmnd ihe oxhaottla^ eliambor, and la aliot* S fott tif 7 fevt Inside ■nd SO 
or nraro trH In hai||[bt. (Jo lU luininit is tiud • Urm Tcan-vnlr, *appli«d b; an ompla 
•troam of wal»r, alway* inaintainuig a doplb ofd to lO Inobua. 

TIio bottom oT Ibii tank it o( iruo, having atrcral opcuinga or slot*, II in number, 
abotii an inob in w^th, and etteaAiaa otrroM Iba wlinia area of tha rcMrroir, «oininii- 
nicalikf dinKtiir witb the cboiobcr bcneatL On Ihia inn plato worlu a bvilmullo 
alide plat*, a-itb opcniafta cocTMnoudinK in on* |io«!tlon with tboM in tba rtiitrvuir. 

UtiJi plato rMMVaa a hofixralal r*oii>nicw(iii^ inoliua from a w>tar-«b«ol or tilbor 
fow««, driT«n by in«an» of ■ coaiXHilInii'rwl and ensile. 

In lb* mbldlq of ovary tlnibe, lh« opcnina in th« plnlc vortoiMnd witli Iboao in tJi« 
bottom of tho r«Mrrair, and a powerful body of val«F fall* ■laabowtr-Latb tbe vhol« 
b«igbt of tbe vaouiun cbuinboT ; and. in dobg no. *«Mp« tbo ontlra inside oiyii, carry' 
■ng witli it cT«ry partielo of JaaoIubU Diattvr, bvld aiiiqioiulcd in tbe Tn)](m coming 
liom thii turnocca. 

Th« aIniMtjiKrio prwwaro, of ooinra<^ aula in »liurnat« ttroko* a* a blatt at th« fur- 
•»«« niuiiibf, mid uitaaM a draft aivlioitntLy atron); tu fune tliu fupun rapora tlirougb 
Bib varinii* chansflt in eonoMtioD witb tKo water, tbo w«t colt* and oxbaMliog vham- 
ben. until It pii»«>v puiiB«d and in«rt, into Um open nlmovphere. 

Tbc voter laturatod witli partidciof Uad, <tc^ bcIJ in mcqbanicol MlMion, finally 

CiKt ioto pvdt dyk«l or ntttrain fXcoTaled for the pUTpoar ; and tli«n AtfotiU at 
lire ii« [K'h vhurK* of niotaL 

Kiinuvrly tlii> noxioui fcunoa jiauing thom tha ahafU of the fumotnt potaancj tlin 
nM^bborliowl ; tbo boatbor waa burnt U{^ vegetation dMlroyvd, and no animal could 
gra» or bir>i feed near tbo apot. 

Kow. the man h«aIlioriaaD*einallit« native loxurianeeoloao around tlia Mtoblldi- 
tnaui ; and Ox *b«ap ^r4M witbin a •Can«'« titrow of the ohimocy'* boae, and gamo <» 
ftll >idw takt iilielter. 

iirr,M,I,!C KrATIOTICm Tbc poontv of Curawnll I* tlio mo«t imporlant rainaral 
di<irii-l (4 thu I'nittd Kingdom for lit« t»iniU>r >if ilo invtsllifuronii lnlll«^8l^ many ol 
which are not tirunA in any otbor pari ei uur idaiiil-i. At a vvrr mrly pi-riud of our 
Uatory. mioea were worlind around the ten-ci'iuU dt Cornwall ul which thv ctiiIimr'uk 
•ro Mill ta bo «eeo at Tol'pcddon- Pen with, ucnr tbc Lond'i End; in Qvrnuap, noar 
Tnirv; and at (;adgvilb. near tbc Liiard Toiat, Tli« Iraiiitionnry itnicuienta tliat tho 
Fknniolika* tnuUd tor tin with the Briton* in Cornvall are very fiurlv aupportiM by 
Oprroboraiivu fiict4; and it It not improbable tbnt tbc Ictet or Iktiiof uic aneimla wm 
8b Uicbael'i Mnunl, Hoar I'uniancK 

Is tbc reign of King John, llie nifa«a of the vMlern poriiou of England aj^>«ar to 
btva been prindpally in tho hand* of tho Irwt. Hie modM of workUe muat hove 
baan vrry i-rndn. andthmr mctallungical jiroo t o wi a rawedtnKly rough, nwo limu to 
l|lD«1bpr-'maii<aurf<iruiic«*, catlod Jew's houic*. hiLVe beenditouvernl, and small lilocka 
of tin. known u Jcw'a tii^ have not nuft>c<|ueatly be»n found in the mining looalitica 
Tlli n tompnmllv^ly rac«nl date, tin wa* tUconly mclal which vuaongbt tor: and 
inmnuy ^aHa. the iiiina«w«re ahnndunol whiin Ibo minor* tame to thcycTlowivlliatJi, 
tbo yellow lulphurct of copper. Hie grenU^ ipmntltj of l!n lini Uiten pn;<)u«id by 
(tr«amuiK(a* waahisg tbo debris in the vslleyt is termcil); and tin* variety, tallod itrtaiii 
tin, I'ToduoMi tho lil|tha*t price in the market. 

*l*li" <-"aditiuu(i uu'tur wliioli thou dopoidta ooeor are ouAouasod icatnictiv*. At lh« 
Cniii <n Tin Stream Wnrk*. nortli ofPolniautb, tb* rnaaded pchblnof tinar^ found at 
• dci-tb of about iOfoetttom lhc■nT4M>^b«nnalb lb« bouomof an eetuur^-. whore tr*M 
are diHsTerDd Id Ihoir [daoco of growth, together wilb himian iknlls, and the rfimaliu 
'•I thd vegetable aoeumulalion* which iiuinedialoly eovrv tho ktanolToroin 
liiiK U> Ur. JIutiwood'* meamrtment. the aeutioo prMenta flm about fiO 
..el 1 ... .ail uravvl; thoii a b«dof IS iiuhca U thicknoH of woo«L ItavO), nnta, ^a, 
roOing on tiM tiQ ground, coiBiKMwl of the dibriaof ^aairtt, «Iat«,»nd|(rKnVle,«.n\>&M 



I 



IM 



JtEATALUC STATISnOS. 



tia ON. At tti« P«Dliian Worlo, n«*r At. AiMt«I1, ilmOar daporft* etaur. paiiM « 
bmIctIbI kltftntlonh) Ui« I«t«I dui'loelh* period MptniM In i}i*fi>n**iiiMiir Uikd*- 
{m«iL l^n ii iilto WMkcil ont of ll<* IchIc in niMBj paKa, IW um oMmvlif both la !)■• 
uat« ka<t Ili« grkoilc fomiailMDi. The inoJoa of (lr«Ming tk tJa or<^ pnporiiig it G>r 
tilt ainvlter, uii) lli« pro«ou of micltSiif^ arc iDiulratnl id tbr EiliiliitMc 

Thcro bu bosD a ramarlubU unifbmiHV hi Ihe qnautiiyofUn [•tixlupw) In Cornwall 
during o loDjf pfriixl, u wilt bo laon from th« foUowing tabU: — 



Hm imcItid* < 



r*»n. 


Toiift 


PitaapH(*L 






£ a 


IIAO 


I.Aor) 




nut) 


I.^On 




mo 


J.I^W 




n«o 


l.BUI) 


S 


179(1 


!,(t|i" 


a ts 


1800 


l.tlKI 


B O 


1810 


1.4IIU 


1 


ISSO 


l.Ti-JU 


« « 


leso 


3..'i00 


1 


IMO 


ft.OJO 


S 18 


li* uwtal v!UiIu tho )a*t fav 


your* Imb baM at ft 


TwB* 




T'M 


1S44 




7.501 


ISM 




7,7a» 


1M4 


- 


8,»46 


1847 






K1.072 i 


1M8 






H>.iT« 


1849 






10,TII> 



Tht VToiofa at nno ii not oadlj Btt«inBU4 liut it ii nov Bomowfaal eonaldoisb. 
iiaboUialof annnio.itndutUitu'aii pyritM^ 1U«0 in llitniiiDufiwluroaf nilphurial 

Th« nnniWr of in jiviJuiiU omplo^ in M Corimli ci>p[ier mint* wta tonp 
Sir CfaaHca Lomoa in 1S87, lo b*— 

Xm ... I(ltaS4 

Womou - ■ ■ t^SOl 

ChUdMn ■ ■ - ^490 

Tha nian aloaa work undagroiUKt ; tbe voinen aoil c1iililr«u are cmploTtd «i thl 
•arbeajplekiny bii4 drtMiiiK tbo ore, 
Mr. W. Btnwooil Mtimatf* tlio DDiiilior «mp1orod at — 

Man ■ - I8^47S 

Woman - SJOi 

CliUdnui ■ -. - S,7M 

80,000 
Tin appMia to Imto bocro Tnii«<I in ConiwoU ENnn b rerj onilj perioil IVaJiUoi 
•vUtii««k anpportod bj itcvng corrabontivo faota, appeftn to pnivo Ibnt Ibc kingd 
aroanii Ilia Ueililcrrnnean Sea wurr tnpplii>d villi IJn fmin Conivall bv tile Phfiniclaa 
aerobBiita at a Tei^ mrly iB,\<i. Tliu lurciinutuiuu of Uiin mcital bcinn foakd ia tbk 
b«di or •trmmi^ and in <Iopo«lu at lh» buc o( tbu |iriniBrf roofak (tom wbfch ll «0(iU 
be obUin»d viijioiit inuoh laW, may hav« bi>on Ilia eaUM of iit being oarif kaown to 
ike Rritont; 

T1i< oKiJo of tin a nniBlly toani dcptinlrd iu bodi la watcrvoru pnbblra^ aait nixed 
vith Till! dtbi'a of tlii noifibboriuji buU' Tbarc «an bo bat tttil< doiibl tbirt Uicm tin 
dcfwail' arc tbe rceult of tbo diiiutqinitiiiK actton ot tho atmoaplime eavaoi and ctf 
iralnr. tii-iae of the tin budi^ S(J or fiO foct nma tha jirMnil lurfiwo^ contain rtwicbl* 
naUar, aa bnnohaa of tree* and lai^ 1a« of wowl -. and at Carnon SUtiam n'ork% 
kiituan akiilU wma dIa»o*4r«d atniiLil Uie <Ubrii,S8 feet bdow thoiorhc*. Unlaalan 
toiud In tlie lod«, oitliara* jwroxidr, ounr«oui-(ulphur«C of tin, or tin pjrrite^ iIm 
MiaJpu «t tbe perand* giring peroxide of tin. D6'iaa ; titiea, O'lOO; (leroxide of jran 
■■d Mannumo, 3-991. 

Urnny iadJtfalJDna of early ttn-mintng ar* to ■>« foiled in CotuwdII. ni ilalod In pn- 

MdiuBiiolc. Kor Biany ataiuiio the [>tik( of Corswall drtv a Inrf n rtvtaoo from l|i 

(in. Tlip tin. vh<n nui>!t»(l ii>ti> blurkt, wm furwonlpd to Ibe noan*! e"laaKO town, 

I tbero t.i liv tiampnl by tlivduJiy vfficciv, whooutapiMv i>f the comer uf moIi bloo^ 

(vUcib viw rrlaiuod u* Ibu tliicby a doe* In tS37, Edvard the Black frinee waa e*^ 

r Dakr et CbmwalL nnd tlirn the avotufo \t<Ai of th* ocnnagt «» 4,000 anarlM 



MBTALUC STATISTICS. 148 

ptr uioitm. tn 1S14, lb* ntmiiim to Ui« doehjp from tin wm About 8,600'., aad U14 
■v«rag« tin rarama from IKSO M th* abolilioa of the OMnAsM In 0«Uib«r, 1U8, hu 
hMaMUiBat«il&t 11,0001. MpaonuEn. In 17^), bbout 9,000 l(uuartiaiT«r«piv>lu(«j 
■■ Ceravall. uiil in 19M, ihout (.OOIX Sinca tlint period tliu qowiUtj «su be Mini- 
r»Uly«M4rt*ln«d,llMtn<I«[nlIn Uing to tIkebiiad*of a(ew, and tliui>ar«h«B«a«f cm 
b«iag wumlly mmte by privacu tuatntot. 

Bv Uie return* to nvu wrinl anim nude br lti« Huum of OommonA whir-h vrrc 
vblaiBad lir tlio cxerliOBa aad MnevtniDee of Sir J. J. Ovl(1l^ Sir C. Lemon. >diJ Mr. 
BvaiM (M. v. for Sorth DeH)jHiir«). wo an enabled Iv Iny bcfort our readen a moat 
aonnlaCtfuualorihcT«riaU»«jq>orlflaDdilopi>TtiOfiion&t>JirciiiciiY. lLirdvar«,CDtUl7, 
At.. «ap|>er on. lin. MBe, llad orts and loa^ ^ the fear cndiag Jan. Z, ItU, 

Cwnmanaing with iron, it ((ipeat* thora wa« imported in tKo yttr, iron or*. ISl 
lent; ^r<Mnal4 of iron, tItSS tana; pig-iron, £4) tooi; nnwronglit iroQ in banv 
li.TVB lona; bloom, MS ton*; rod-tion, IS toai; old, broken, and caM-Iro^ vit 
tona ; sut-lron, oaif 8 (OM ; ateol, itowTOufltt. Ills? tone— of tlwM, VT tcoi eBlj 
wore MUTed by waldi^ tba remainder by value, ItOasX. 6*. M Of the MT«ral 
ooualrin (ran wUoh thcM importatioiu oame, tba prlndpal b Svadtn, vh<no« w« 
bare revelved of Iroa 10,000 Umt, and atetl ISftB ton*, Itaring but a wtiall fwrtion to 
divlda bvlwoMi tveotv ulhcr pLuwa. Oar Biporta of foreign inn hare been, iin wrought, 
la bar% B9HB loni; rod. lu toni: hoop^ S torn; cait'HTon, 11 rwt. ; Btcal, unwraaght. 
14A0 toaa. Hie total qnanlily of foreigo irKn retaiaed for bums oonBUmption vaa 
14783 tons open wUoL tba net anoont of dntv vaa U.SSU. The cipotlniioD of 
tiut ttapla prodnoa of our ovn oonatry, BrttUti iron, wu u folloir*: — Bivr-iroo, 
ITC^Iitl tone: bolt and rod, ii,tiS tent; pitt-iron, ISI.ITo toiu; cait'iron, U,44S 
toni; iron wln^ JS08 ton*; imught-lron, oaiial*t>n|{ of aucliora, grapnels ^"-^ K0B8 
tone; hooper 14^91 Ion*; ualla. BOSO toim; and all other eortik «icoDt or^ance^ 
44,617 lone; old Iron for maanftwturt^ SOU loae; aad oawTOOght iteel, BlOV ton*. 
That* plaoM which hare lAkon the groalat noftion* of thia produoa are — Rud^ 
1(XOOB tone of bar-Iron; Denmark, 10,447 Urni bar.and 1010 tone (ilg; Prniida, t8;C08 
tou bar, 17,460 tout pig ; Oemianf, lB,3t)B tout bar, BSS3 tona plg^ 1339 tons obM ; 
Holland, I'.AOa toiMlM>, 7fi,0Ba tOBi pig; 4311 toneoaeC; Bolgmm, 4370 tone anet: 
FkiMMk 4SV7 tone bar, tl,10> tone pig ; lUly. 31,630 lone bar, 3»«3 tone bolt and 
rod, 80M ton* pig; Turkey, aod CanUoaalal Greece. 04)3 loaa bar; Ea*t Indie* 
Md Ceflon, 10,61i') loBH bar, 39BT trni* boll ; Itritiah North American Colouiei. AU7 
ton* fcMv IBVS toos eaet; foreign We*t Indixe, SOlS tose bai^ 1844 lout oa*t; and t« 
til* United SUM*. 31,9)8 iona bar, and 1148 tout fig. llie largMt (juaiitlt; of 
unwrougbt eCecl hw been 1« tie latter place — rib 183S ton*. 

0( Bntiib bapdwore and euUery, wo exported m tli* year IT.I^B toot, talued at 
1,711,^181.: the printtpol of whloh ba* been-— to Gennany, 1311 tau^ ralue 189,S8V( ; 
Eait Indies 1401 l«n^ valtia I4i.«07Jl ; Britiab Kortli Amarioan Coloniee, USD tont, 
value 102,3«Ot ; BritUh WMt ludiei. BS7 lone, value 80,0401. ; Ponign Wett Iodie«i 
8&7 tcm*. raltio 4S,eOPf. ; United SUtM, 4183 ton*. Taloe 448,84 K.i BranI, 943 tooa, 
mlue, SC^070JL ; and ^Ter* elber plaoei. Tailing from 100 to BOO too*. 

We now eoue to copper. Of roreign eopper or**, vo liave imported SMlO too* , 
Ud of metallie oo|^>«r. unwreughl and wroiwhl platei, and eolna, BOB too*. Of the 
ora«h the gronl^et quantllio* bate oomo from Onba and ObUL 

Vt have exported 1810 tone of Brttieh, and «fiO tone of f^reiKn tin — el whfafe 
Franca ha* taken 838 tone. Bu**ia 480 lone, lUly 188 tuo^ Tarkuy ISO ton), and Um 
remundcr duitriliutcd amuii^ IwetitTeeTea placea 

Of foreign iin<?, wo hnT« unported m follow*: — 

Oeonlrti* ftvm alwaM ImpoMA. Toaa Ovt Qie. lAfc 

Denmark 188 19 1 31 

Praitia 68B0 IS t H 

Onnunj 8000 1 S 11 

Holland 10 X S 1 

Btlf^sm 31 * 8 

Sjnii and PaloMino . ■ . . ■ 1 If 19 

Total import of for«gn nns ■ Tana 10^173 4 3 j3 
Of tbie, we retained for homo oontomption 4101 ieou, on wbioh the nett duty wta 
SW1>1* lOA; and wekaTeeoierMd ItOE ton* of Briliih, and 044filMu of foreign ajwiier. 
Of foreign lead, va have Imported ISflR toni — of whioli 17TG tons were pig ■ii4 
(baM, 68 ton* ore, and IS tone whit* lead; lil Um* were rftaiiioil for homo cod- 
flB|iliirtTi on whlththe dot; wa* 1B5£; and we Imparted Oou tlw lale of Man, duty 
ftiea.]MIB tuna of lead OTK Our exportation of foralgn toed amoqntad to S1S9 ton*— 
wUlo cf Brilldi, we eiported, 176 totii of Ore, l4,SlO ten* jig and tbcel, 878 ton« 
Uluuca. 107 Ivna rcJ lead, and t!'14 torn white load— tnaking a total o( Vifft\ Vonh 
-.Adeiway »nd 0«mm*reial OoMU. Mar IB, 1844. 
Voi. \l JO 



KKTALUC STATISTOXL 



■ «i|ni] D) aiiQ <I<pl 



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[186] 



XETAUJO BTATianOB. 



Importo «f Foreign Copper and Copper Ore into the United Kingdom from IStS to 

1M9, ioelotiTe. 



FaAlfCE. 



fl 






P-rt 




Coin. 


1M. 


On. 






























Wilekl. Viha . 


1SSS 


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T. 



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8 98 


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T. 


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1,780 8 8 


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4 9 18 


1,888 8 1 


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19 10 


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17 1 T 


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148 11 t 


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118 




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1844 


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I 8 T 





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ITALY. 




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to 





1 T 190 


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1S8« — 




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1 • 14 


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1B8T 18 18 1 I> 




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1883 41 1 OK 




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80 19 Oil 


. 


IBM a 


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8 90! 


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MPALTJO STAXDXaOBb [Ot] 

Importe of Fonjgn Ooppw and Ooppw Ora— oanfuiwii 
RUSSIA. 



Jtmr 



un 
len 

IBU 

]nj 

UM 
1B8T 
IKS 
UM 
IMO 
IHl 
tWl 
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18M, 
IBtG 
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ISO 



Copp« 



r. eL qr. lb. 



B 1 1 > 

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O'O 811 



D I 
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FUUiad 



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I 
r. et. ar. Dl T. eL or. Si. T. cL or. lb. T. St qr. lb. 
— , — D a IS — 



— ; S 



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1 1 B a 
8 on 



1 

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IM 

1 8 t 



OU 8 
10 



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T. It «r. Ik 



B OU 
a 8 ] 11 



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H0IJ.A1ID. 



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1H1B 


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1 11 9 7 




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— 





1 811 



111 



1 t 

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1 



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8 0» 

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T 

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10 



I 1 

o"bii 



48 18 OKI 



CT 8 

80 18 

88 

u 

40 

M 1 

18 D 9 

88 IS 1 14 

St 18 Bia 

110 B 8 11 

o: 1 U 8 8 

- . TS 10 » 

IS 8 1BI 10 10 1 1 



8 B 



018 B 



ISBII 




_ 




IHM 




—m 




Mm 









i»n 









IHW 




^ 




IfMO 




_^ 




1H4I 




— i 




IMI 




_ 




1U8 


1* 


> 110 




18U 




_ 




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140 


S 8 I 




1K4B 


80 


(111 




1H4T 




_ 




lN4tt 


niT 8M 




IStt 




— 





NOaWAT. 



- < B 1 1 Bl 



IIS E BID 
SOI 11 018 

lai IT 1 10 



- _ I 4 BIT 

- IB II II - 

- - 118 IB 

- SO 10 B 
4B1< BUnll I 1 



I* IB 4 - 

81 IST 8 11 - 



B lU 



818 
4 T 



II IS 

iiTiio 



C a. A 



710 
41U 
4 
B 



8 

tt 

48 IB 

in 
««is 

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8 

14 IS 

810 



4 S 
St 8 

B B 

10 18 



1 
3 

nil 

88 1 

IB S 
IT B 

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14 10 



S» 

tss 

1S 
II 



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8 18 
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B S 

IB 
8 8 
10 




8 
1 

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100 

ss 

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114 
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8B « 1 « 
BIO ISO 



1 « 

in 



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884 10 I 



pwi 



VXrALUO STAHBIiaB. 



Qiurtorif SiIm oI Copper Ona in Cornwall for tlia Ks Tmh ending tha Slit of 

Daoanber, 1S49, 



Qaut«r SDilliig Uueh SI. ISU, 

„ Jaii<SO,lUl, 

B«pl«nba aa, ISU, . 
, ]>MBmbarSl,19«,.. 



Ti*!,- 



4i>itsr«odlB«HBch81,iei6, 

- June M, 1S4I>, 

BsptamtMiTSO^lMI^. 
„ December 11, IBtB,.. 



Tottl,- 



QnBtv ndlnc UBcb n, IStt; 

JnoaSaiMS. 

, BeptHnb^SD^IStS,. 

. Ottttaba 81, ISte, . 



Total,. 



QouHr rndlnc Uunta 81, IMT, .. . . 

June SO, IStT, 

„ SaptenibaW IStl, 

. D«»mber 81, IBtT, 



Total,. 



Quite' andtai* Hndi 81, 1S<8, . 

. joDcaaiMa 

- B«taiDbsr8(i,lSi8,. 



Total,. 



QiiKtar«aiJlii|HB<liSt,1B41, 

- JUMS&lStt. 

. Baiitamb«r80,lSU,. 

a Dtttuima,i»a,.. 



ToW.. 



Toaa 

S8,BT« 
8TM8 
aa,OTS 
■T.Tlt 



UHM 



«,BS4 



IBIJIOT 



Mga 



SI.IM 



IHM) 



SfSIB 



1B8J» 



HUM 

tT,KIS 
8«J8T 



in,TOi 



tr.ioe 



lUfi» 



£ t. d. 

ntfia ■ 

la&m a o 

ita,«M IT • 

mvMtu 



SOMM t t 



■UJM ■ 
SKBTB ■ 

Mu^ 1 a 
mwis « 



*i«,ni • 



Mo^mi 
it^iwia 

lSt,l«T • 




• 






TMkUS • • 



SUM « 

Kt,va 4 e 



SIMM 10 



MUnT t 

IT^nSIT • 
INMIO < 

iTiw e 



IKMWIT • 



i8aMT a • 

IST,18T IB a 

lOMWIl ■ 

l>^4Mlt I 



Te^Mu • 



Qnartarlj' Sales of Copper Orea in ComwaU for the Tear 184SI 



^MWaUlt, 


On Id Thh 
of n Cwk 


Tbrn OovF*T. 


Aunlot 

Hour. 


Cnb 


ATtnn 


rm Tm. 




atfim 
•Tjm 


«;«81 11 
iJM 14 

1,010 a 


ItOfil/! a 8 
IST.IOT IE B 
1M,4»U I 
lfV40U ( 




£ t. <L 

ten 

M18 > 

IT 14 1 
104 10 11 


6 4 B 
B « 1 

• 410 
B fi t 


BeptamtMr M^ 




lum 


11,«M 4 


T«B,ei410 D 


S 


MIB S 


B 4 > 



^^^^^^BP UETAIXrO 8TAT]fiTI0& p99] 1 


^^^|{^ loporti of For«it'Q Coir|»r ui4 Copper Or«-^0»<MiinM£ ^^| 




SWEDKN. 


' 




Tmt 


Oopptr 

OBirroiiiilit. 


F«rt 

vfsmbL 


rwMuri 
out. 


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iniiiialWtaiii. 


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WalEbC 


T*l»k 






T. otflr, lb. 


T. W. ^f.lh. 


T. ct qt. lb. 


T. et qf- IK 


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ChU Oopp«— p«r Tw, 


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m la u 


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■ IM 


M* • 


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» 10 


8S Id n ID 


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Dtdand V4l«« «t EqwrU of BrilJib and IrUfa M«Ula for the T«ftt« sidlog thu Sdi 
of JanuiT, imT. 1818, I8l«t U"! lUa 



Uid 

tntiMM. 



liU. 



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llI.ISl 

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usa 



1 
Mfum 

UHJUI 

mm 
■•un 
nt.«ii 



£i(iort* of fia^Uh aoil Irfsk MeUlt and Minenlki 

Wf Mu"IH'F*'^IT»^*"'* rxtn(t*dh«nminaaM>i(lb*uponi(rf<Ii«Ci1iiclI>*l iRltlu aTlblUib 
M IM I<»*M* « ■■aab«n*at U lb» IvciT* maoOa uidlBt un (be Ml uf Juwjr, ISAMT. IWk 



<Mh.«g(ni 

ati*nt».mtimT 


ittk 


INT. 


U4& 


C 

moil 

UMLU* 

nun 

lULur 
iiM« 
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UM 


mm 

■Rltt 
•MJMI 

MH*u 

«0,«4 
4lk-TT 
■■MM 
HUM 


S 
0TI.1I4 
T«l.l4a 

uewoT 
UT.in 

•MKO 


tH.Ul 

vtm 

tMOJH 

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t9i,m 


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IJWJ4B 

W.Ut 

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TkkUWtaitM .. ... 
TtelUM 



i.4*l«nBM«<rnpM«ilH*T-l>UMC,}lJMLI»iL:UilW.IURjMILi In tML n.»:.1MCi I* 



M 



HETALLURGV. 



METALLCRUY (Erafan^ Geim.) b the Bit cf exUMiian Biel«b ftom Ikcir «m. 

IWt ■(% nhi«ir «appli« iodviby with ttc tniiraMcnu mod Mctntail lo itt viats b 

mllkr drpeiulanl uron Ibo acicDcn cf chendaui' and Mubtuiitwi «p(n Ibc Tofncr, « 

, JlNeliaf (bo tmclliag {irncpun, bnl adapWd lo diKoUnslo each neWl (Kua lb taiMcd 

UWi upOD Iha talUr, at nirnlrhiiig (ho means of gTiadlns iIib mc*, and wpantlag Ihr 

pUsbl tbjtij pa/t* IVom Uic nrh BiriKllic oiBtl«i. 

Nolwiltulanilinic llie MrilunH aoiiiogy which riiiU bclwten cammoii cb^sioal Mrf 

inFtallureic optniJoaK utic« bolb air <in(>lajcd lo inmlal* tftlaiii bodin [iDm otbcn^ 

I Iknc arc cHcnlial AlTecmcea vbicb ihould be cuefullir aotod. [a Ibe fiM pl«Mt tb« 

rfowUiljr of naUriil* bdag alvajr* tccj pt«l in melajluini nqotre* corrMpoodiag ailap- 

[ Mien* of -apparuni, and dUn prodocei peculiar pbrnamua i ia the ■«cand t^mtr, tfal 

•genu 10 bcemploViMrat uvatiu gijeal iaaMe«,iniiu be idcctal wilb aiicw lomano^, 

U well ■* to ehMSlcal aelion. In anal; Heal chemiHry, the mala objcci brinu cimImm 

«f nnlt, and pntily of product, liltle attcnUou in bcnlowcd opui iht laluo of iJie n*- 

|aiu^ on aecoonl of Ibe raall quamiiy roiuired for any partjcnlu procM*^ Bui i» 

BBflltint BCtab iqioii Iba ipcal tnic, fvolil being Ibc h|« «)o«el, eboap nntoiaU «ail 

■aCT apemioM alone are aibnii>lbl«. 

Tbe radallie ores at prowninl bj nature, arc almoil alvai* bImJ wiili a cantidecatd* 
■umber of ibrci^ »ub>ianc» i anJ coiitd nol Iharfote hv ad>~aiiInK«)i»]f lubmiitcd Ut 
mdalbuflc opcntion*, lill Ibcj an pndfitd and coDCruiiaicd In n ccruiD device k^ 
tvicau mubod*. 

or TR> rKEPAiuTioH or o»t* roil »» *xia.nKa hook. 
IVreaie iwo kinilt of jnvporafim; Ihoooi; Ivrnicd Rircluiiucal, fiDDi Ihc meant «■!• 
ftond, and lh« mnlli obt^M, con^t* in prticeiaei for brealiin^ and (lindiui; ihe on% 
ana fur wsihiai; Ihem w na U aepsmir the nin-iionet, ganguet, or olhet miicd eanbf 
■Ulcn. in Older Id iniolatc or eoneirnlmtu ihc mclallje port*. 
L Anouicr klni< at pre imrn lion, called chemicnl, hoi for lU object (o wpt'Dlc, b; Dtaaaa 
a of Itrr, Parinuii volatile lulnilniiees eomtiinnl la the orcr, foii vbteh il in Tei|uiBW M 
' dear away, at IvatI in a ccilaia device, \.chte uyjng to osmcl tbo moial* Uiry naf 
oonMun. 

Lamly, an indispCDMblo ofcmtion in kcrtrnl eiroutntuneet, it lo diwover, by simple 
L aiul choap methodt, called anayi, Ihe (tuaiiiily of melal contained in the diirerent ipeeiet 
F (f ore* (o be ueolcd. 

TbU bead of our niibjrct, Iherefnre, fall* under ihf ce nubdlt-iiiona : — 
{ I. Thv mtdiaoicnl preparation of ar«f, ineludiiiif pifking, itamjiins, nni dUrritOI 
ncilM «f waofainii. 

i S. Tbe cbeiiual pteparalion, coniitling wpedally ia tbe routing or cnlriaalion of . 
Uwoirea. 

4 3. The auay ororR,coBipn)liondinit Itie niechanidnl part: ihal ii, by vaahingi ike 
themicol port, or utnyi by ibe rfry nay i and Ihe oibji hj tbe rnoiil inif . 

Siclin 1. 0/ lU nuehanieal jr^antion or drtuins b/ oru.— 1. Tbe fiiil luckiac ot 
■cnlng uJic* place in ihe interior, or nnderfraund irorliingf, and cuntCRi in tcjiaratlng 
the fti^eali of rocks that apparmlljr eontalu no aielallic maticr. Awn thu»« ibM M*- 
la!n noK ur Icttof il. The cxieinal ujiect pildat Ihia tejiaration j as alio lb* (Wins 
«f denaily in the band. 

The nibsloncM, when lurnfil oul to the day, nndorco anolhet n>rftn(, wilh Rrniter or 
leu care, according lu the value of tba lucluded metal. Thii opemiion dmsiiU ift 
betaking ibelmnptofore with Ihe hamawr, inlo frainoentioTeteateror Iru ««, umallT 
ia large ■• the lliit, whcreb; all Ibe piece* may be nieked ool and thn^vn nsny Ikri 
eontain no luelal, and even *ueh as eonUtn loo tilllc to be tmeltrd witli aiti-aniaflb 
Tberc i>, for Ibe moat part, ■> bulldinc creeled near the ouipul of llie mine, i» which tba 
brcaldns aM fiddnf of th« ore* arr |>criuiini:d. In a covcitd fi^rtj, ot utidi-r ■ thni, 
banlu ot canb are urawn Dp, and dirided Into *«paial« bedf, im nch of which a tbielc 
plalc uf ca«( iron b laU. Un (hi* plato, cldady worlunen, women, and cliildnn, drtak 
Iba urn wllb band hammers, then pick anil lorl Ihein piece by piece. The milten w 
iTMUd, an luucdiy >*rpnmied into ihm: putt| 1. tlie lock or sicrile cancue, whieh is 
ibrown amy I 2. Iheoivfor the tdtmping mill, whieb preienU loo Inlimntcn taiiiac* 
of rock nuil uieiallic tubiuincc to ailioil of leparallon bj breaking and picking; and 
$. the pure ore, or al lean the very rich portion, eillod Ihe mrttd miiH nt the /al 4M. 
On the Miiing floor* there rcmajni mucb aioall rubbiib, which nigbt form a foanb 
(nbdieition of ore, rincc It la tickled In ■ poeiJiar matUMC, hj »ifling,B« win bo pmcnlli 
I Bmlioned. 

■ The diilribolion of fragDDnu more or loa rich, ia one dan or anolher, it rdalivc u ibe 
ItnloFir Ihe iacluded metal, taking into acconni IbeexpenuM accettory for tu exl(»etic« 



5 



HfiTALLUROY. 



147 



nnvfn fTtMlnleail siia<»,;pK««ef lh» (sncue* mm throw* nw«T, whlrhindcMl hj\hm 
ri ■ . ii'iitn 3 per «t«L ot ivlcH, brcauw It l«kninra thnt the frolter imniaa «f 

th kol III Ibn •uhia(> nquirvd Ibrtrpainlinii Ihe$r7 imrlioT the fKQ^pWi 

•au ii.mi -'ic iiMiiiiiilrr wduU iuX p»i ihe Fxpeiuci^ 

n. The TSfy MDpte €iptt%tioia ot piMng asr comnuin lo tilmon all orM; but there 
■m olhM «fi«ntlaii> rafniriiig marc tklll. etie, ami txprme, vhleh w* cuiplo)ral ta ibdr 
Kim] «ldle nf pf fVvtion only opon um uf mclati pouiadng > eul«lii raliv, m IboM of 
l»d, *llr*f, &(. Wr •liudo M lh< mitliinK of am. 

Tbe DiMI •imptt •nd Monamkiil WMtunRt «ro (hota lh>l nrtaJa fron m«^ pwtimlafta 
the •lIitTU, are *attKI«d lo, ai Ihcy are (bund near Ihe fU(&oe«i' tho ^roand aiiNhill- 
neiril l« rt*«l ot tiitlc piM«s. It ii crftni nnful lo rlou thete p>rM*i iti iMer to jdoc <iiil 
thv nrthf luoipi. whKh irouU br ilioErtbpr injurious in ih« furnaevB. 

Thb crude waihin; ix pnrronnnl lumcUina b; mrn mtirriiii: in Ihe midit oC a Urtaa 
af WBtff, Willi iroa rake* or thoTrlM, Ihc lnm|» of ore plated in lar^c eho<t*, or ta«taa of 
wood or tfvn. 

In Mbiv tilaatioas ihu washing ii txrrulfd mora ocnnnmlcall}r bf a mnchinp callml 
■ taiWIr ocdollj-lah bf our aincra. A Irouuh of wood or iron, with a concave bollom, 
IcIUed wttb (be ore lo b« waahRl. Wiihin Ibe labor tiougih, arm* or iron handles 
a(c BOvelraiiBil abant, beini utachcil lo the irbor of a hrdmiilie wlicel. Tho iroufh 
b kept atwaji flin oT water, which u ilB rcnowtd fnrriMolf thenuthf mailer)^ dlfl^uod 
Hummh it by the motion of (he machine, anil tho friclion lUBon^ Ihc pieco of ihe ore. 
When UiF wuhinit it llai*bod, a door in onooTtho tivtoior Ihu iraiijh iMipeiioil, ami Ihe 
cnnval remoT-'i ihc or« tato « more tpaciODi buin, wli«re li to (ubjfcled (« a bind of 
pKhwv. [( 19 rrNuenilT iodnd poacd lbroiit[h lieiee in dilTerenl modest 9*t Lkaip ud 
Tnt, Tot fifBtea oftwldlcj and doIKr*. 

ni. Slaaapt^f . Before deacrifaint! tbe ttSnot metlwxli et naiUin^ ihr more raluatie 
ofta of topper, cUter, Icftl, &&, (I ii proper to point oal the lucont of redncing them 
lalo a powJer oTfrtatrr or leu lincnr«, \if ilnmyirtg, m calleilfniin tbr nunc iroaip) of 
llw pMllea rmplojod tbr thai purpwe , lu uL«fulntw b not rvtirlrlot lo prrporioB (ha 
Ii (br hii CBplojrtil In almott rrery ameltlnt houic for iwundintt days, ehaieoal, 
fee. A MaiDpiAf nUl or poaadinf maohine, fig. 90S conuits of i«nnl 

moveable pillnn of wood Ilk 

— ^—^-^— flaeed Terncill;', and supponed 

UM _ UHMIHI in thli poniion bolveen Aamai 

ofearpFntir k x v. Thovr c4ms 
ar« rocliaruicl al Ihcir nnilrr end 
wilb a mnia of iron ni. An arbor 
or axk a n, moTnl by n-ntvr, and 
fnminii horisonlaU]!, (o»n ap 
Ihcie wooden peitlei, Ii) meant 
of W[|im or eama, which laj 
bolif uf Ihe ihonldcra of the p«ji> 
lie* at 1 1 1. Thoe are raiu^ ia 
ftuccttiun, nnil frill into an otr- 
iMit iiouvti bdow mn^Mooped out in lh« erouod, havini; itiboiioiii eovertd cilher 
altb phue« of iron o* Imm aloaei. In this lroni;h, bpncnih Otar pnlle*. (be ore lo be 
AHped b allowcil lo Ibll Ctorn a hopper aborr, which ii kept cuncUMlr titb. 

Tbe irongk ii tknni is al the midei br iwo purlilioni, and incladcn thfec or Aur pec- 
tin i whkh Ike Fmeh miners coll n hallery. Thcj are ao di^iofcd thai tticir aiccnl and 
iweent lake plaec ai e^unl inlemU* of lime. 

Oeiullr a «tampi*jf maehine li (omi«>«cd of tevNal baRerlet (iwo^ three, or (bar), uA 
Uw •rran^pcoMloT tho wiper* as tho arbor of tho bidtaolic wlieel bnich lint Iheivb 
OMotastlj ■ tika aomber «f penlti lifted at a limc i n circainita.nn important lt>r nuUiw 
MbU>; the a»ifom toini of i^ oiachine. 
TlkF maUert that are nol Is be expoaed to tubiKqueat wnthiog are tumped dry, that 
''<v<iile*>Sn( waleriatolhe ttoottb; and Ihe Mine Ibing ii •omelitoot done with Iht 
: >■, iriKite lishier rwU might olberwtie b« loR. 
n<nt muNllr, emeiaU* Ibr oce« of lead, ailvrr, cvfpet. &e., (he irouih of Ihe Munpcr 
■jlaenl la Ike mudle or a corrent of wrater, uf greater or teta force ; which, fwt«T<ng 
m Uht ponaibd lubdaneel, depotitet (hem al a ttnalti ur leia diitanei; onvDirlis in Ihe 
•ate of the lis* aad tfchaw a of Ihe f lain i wnilitulio; a finl «wbi>g, us ihey taeape 
Ihnn beneath lb* pMtlet. 

- iby Macipini!. tht fineneas c^ tbe pewda dfpcoda on the wettbt of the pmrtw, 

i^bt of their toll, and Ihe period of tbeb aetioa open the ore i but in tho ita«p(n 

a^ami M a iiMam of water, Ike rvlontlon et the matter* in the troagh b longer «t 

' akr, aeoordioff to itao fbdlUr given for their cKape. Somctimea ibeec Hatun Sow 

1 cf the ciMat orer iU edge*, and the heiKbl of the line ibey eiuil nmnoiint bu •■ 

I tm tka tiiC (f lb« (rein i ot other (ioio^ the waler and the puundnl 




Its 



HSTALLUROT. 




Whkh k ekrrlei oft, ate uwde u> put liuouti ■ t^rntin^ cnuioi • ktnil ot *>fU>w tt Ufc 
, nnu limi:. IVrc uc, hnwetrr, uiiic dilTctencpi in llw renilto of tliwe two WOlmiB, 
\ hitHXy, Ihf iliiiinlilr or vairr Ikit unri^itei tht ln)iii;h, ax WcU w lu wtodlj, !*■ U 
L Wluencr on Uic ditcliargu oC Uic pnundol iiwuan, ami eanMquenlljr oa lb poJacu of 
> Ihe vlajBpoi. 

I Tbe liie of Ika pulicleB oT lb« poundtd on bolut dilferenl, aceanlinH W tb* nrikUa 
f huilncH at tbe malltn trhieh conpox Ihein, sucsnt* tbe nmiM of cliniat thi-at, and 
[ dtolifbutuia ibcm ntarlf in tbe oriltfr of Lhnr lite and sprtiGc zrarily, hf makinx Um 

f MwMt, where li «lo|iciiilcs iDoeiMivdr, in nroinrlioii u it liun iu rclacitf, Ibe «Wtkf 
ua nuiallie nailer* tl bad floainl along. Tboe iiioiolltfaiout purtioo*. cipaciaUi' whM 
tlUJ hart a trral (iwdlla ;nirit|r tike icaltrna, vunlil bo d»piMiud In ih* UtA iiiMgw. 
Win it nol Ibat from Ihvir hanlncM ti«inf inlVrtoT Ut tbat oCXtie CMiP"! lb«T are roAncM 
to a noeb Hner powder, or inln thin plains wbioh uem to lulhirre to both 11m mf^ and 
Mtlhjr p&niclet i whrnn thvy bair in lie loOKbl dr unans tlic llneil portion* oTtli* pul> 
ttriod ^ngue, eolled ■limi', tMirh, or KUammc. 

There are •eienil mctboiii of eonilurtine ilic iiunpt; m icfcrraee to the *ue ttC Ike 
(nio* vi«bal lo be oblainol, nod whicb h prrvluualy drMrmin*-* •■'—■— My tr. the 
aalvre of Ibe at*, and «f tbe gan^ej iU ricbnew, he. llie hn ' ii<l 

tau the paundnl oultwi ateape, or liic diamttrn of Ibe bulei in IfaB t[t 
the qunntilT of valer flowinf in. It* valoeiljr, lio., modiiy tbe reHoll aClim ManiiHaiE 
•lion. 

Wben it i% rninirite lo ofaiain powdor of w (streme Anenc■^ n» da «r« ihat ar« 
mliicttnl lo tbe praccM of amilgwMtinn, Ibejr an [laiiril tindef nllbuoe*, ai in 
com millt 1 and aflcr grinding, they arc balled m a* W Ibnn a *pMie« cf fcnr i '■f 
we ernnlitil belvcen rollt. &ie Liad and TtM. 

Waihing'ef omi. 

TV, Tbe «<t* poonded under Ibe tlnni|it are neic rxpotfd W t«ry delkate i 

Imb taUo**«nd cully, whicb are cftlled Iht muAtnei. Their pBnxi*4 Uw 

' SMhanieallj the aanby BtnlU-r* from the mMallic imriion, whidk niut Lbcreftra J 

L Boeh bivbrr siiMiSe tratity ; IW olhtrwite. the «a.i)iin£ would be impmettenUcL j 

[ The lIl<^liunI einploi'nl to dimiiiisK Ihc diilerence of upceiflc gmvjl)', and Id I 

Ih* liahi«it mnllera, it wnici ; wbir^h i* mvlo to flow with ^rtaler or Icmi t __ 

ibuMiinee over Ihe «cMlcb or putf mud fprnad on a table of rarimit indinalioi. j 

flul a* lbi« opnrailan nlway* ticc«(iunt, ant only conaiderable cxpen*e, hot i 
Ion eTmvtal, it i» riifhi lo c&leulalq whnt S* Ibe def ne of riehncB bebnr wb~ ~ 

N nnprofitflble) and on Ibe mhvr hnnil, wIai if tbe deitrm prnarification off 

■feloh il a propCT to nliip, bi».*niiK icx> mnih metal would be lo»l compam'l—l' ■ 
T"* "^ Aulngn unall adcUitDnal ciunniiti' of tnngii'>. Thrre cannot. 
ilH rule la tMi retpecu >>nee the demcnii of llntc olciilntiona Ttiir tot • 

Benxo dctcribinq Iha diSerenl inolcii of watbinc, wt liiUki Inat or 
liddliag, whiwc piii|Kitc, like Ihai of ilie Inb^riiitb lUcnvilinK Ihe slnmio, > 
•ad M ttpamto the om (wlilch iiuic nut pMS«d Ihnufb the water ■ i 
«r theeosrteaFttof vrain. Tliia nperalion la f«a«t4ied patiienkil' 
Ibe mine, and the rabbith prodiicud in breaking ibe ore*. Tht-i' ■" ' 
a riddle, nrfpodeaorroilador iqnare sierc. whose bptlon b f ' i 
of n plate of metal pierced with boirs. Tlii> riddle k idonpil 
Into a lab or citlpm fillol with watrr. Thin liquid entm lh(uu«h iLu I 
the min«ml jiailii^kii, tepamlM ibrm and kMp« them mipnuled Ibr 
which lh<y All down in nearly th« order of their ipecifie crariljca, and 
^th a eurlBin dcttire of reipilarity. Thi^ lieve ii tamFiunca dipped by tta t 
eflbrt of Ihe wuhen >umetime* il it «i(|wnil(il lo a nrin$ wh-''* <'■" '^nrV 
tn order Ihsl Uii- ruldlini; maj- be riitbllT done, the tlcvo >n. 
faoT«menl fmm below aiiwafli ; io ihl* cue the ore n viyni < 
If there bedilTerenlapetri^o sravitin, ilinrc are formed in iWti' 
which the warkman ean «ui1)- tnhc ont with a ftankt, Ihrc-.'. 
when il it loo poor 10 he rr^tiltod. Tht* operation Iqr Ihe kuid-Mci?, it 
in W( (ll^, or riddling by dcjioiitr. 

Wc ma) ohwrre, that diirini Ihe linin;, the particle* wbicb can [uu* i 
of the botlom, fall int<xllic tub and tetllc down then ; whenn tkey are i 
•ltd out, and ei]>o««l to waibini when they are worth Ihe irosble. 

Sumetlmo, an al PaullOooen, ihe alevci are conical, oarf hdd by niragu tt I 

by a workman i and inUoid of rtcelvlas a ain^ mnTemeati «« in iWi 

the lilU* himtelf «ivra them • mriHy ofdeiierooi moraMDU la NMon^aon. 

U 1« lepante the fO-ic porliona of the on bom the liehtr; in aim lo nhiw* 1^0 
lA the tlimp mill. 

Amoaia lh« fiflingiiand waibin;* wUck oroaare aaJ* ioaata|«i weniMt» 



METALLURGY. 



IW 



J the BUM nstfy «■! fagtabn*, ihow prntiltnl br irtt rrofra;*, nlled on tha Cofr 

to«Bl fnJVu mflaJMi, tad the *(fp.initiA<iu-i of Ifiinniy. 'o>n^ri A vnufiiu. TlMH 
■KtlxM* of CtMins the or«* ftiim ibe palvrrnltat ntihr mnticn, conutt In pinclni tlma, 
■I ifcMr oat^t Dvtn thv ■nn«, opon Efnti*!*, nnd lirlniing niri thrm s »Tfnm t}( wain, 
whkkMtrttF tak«*dinni lhnni3)i Ihp ban tht unnUriiRnrnI^liut CBiripfolTth- piiln*. 
ideiil poftiona. The Uiiiv arc rMtrrol ju fi»leru>, vWi* rlipy nrv oUownl lo ml k>a; 
■unuik la •Mile U> (Jm bviloin. TV mikhiaff bf ttn* ik an i>tirniii>n of the |irt«cdlii| 

RK. To fomi an lilna, Irl ii* imatinie a t«ric« of inalM plnml luirmaiTrlf ii iUfttt»t 
*la, K Ital tlis nlor, arntnx an ItiF bichcil, nhcrc Ibr an for washing li», rarrlM 
•IT ■ partkin of iu throarh ilii* liral iitnic iiptm n wcond cbiter in iu han, &pnn lo • 
lUri, kt , anil Haill} iniu librrinth' or FlHcrni nrdrpoilUini. 

TlM(riJlf>>n<liiiw4nieiiiniliirio ihr ilnpinKl-iHautciMlAriH. TUttyariBotliKar 
m yail i iai n M^iaoBlcd in/f. UiM. Tliera ar* h such f]r*Wnt ia lb« wurki at IiIth, ftr 

9041 



/ 



Ij 



.; of the iomII «Dni«!* cf ii«iduilT«' wv, Inicailci] (w the ■laming milL ThcM 
nti am b«l nxilecntplr rich in metal, and w« [nckcil up at nndooi, of varioiu tittt, 
It of the fill lo n crnis cf iliisl, 

t era an [Aic«1 in ibc ebctl n, bdow the IptfI of which T irala are dislnbuml^ 

al ihc Aafnii^li which prus ibraiTCb the Itnl b, procMd bjr on inclbr<l muduii on to 

' (ecoiul gnSe e, and to in (OccrMioD. (Ser Uie eoniluila ', o, p). Id fiuni, niid on a 

'rl ullh tafb of tilt gntt i, (, J, Jtc., a child (r lUtioncd m one of ih< Roon, I, i 3, 

nrnl of water, which lUli into Iht rhcil a, earrii the fn|B)«ntt of ore opiin Ibe 
Tbe plecn which moain npnn Ihe two sratn b iinil e, are lhr*va on the ailioin* 
' lablr r, whetcthcf nndrrxo aiotlingby bund; Ihere Ihe piccetaie diMified, I. ioEo 
ii;;ue lo be ibiwn away i ^ into ore for the danp mill ; 3. into ore to be tent iliivcllf 
ttp fbrauc. TTl* piecrt which leuAin en <och of die inicocKlms pratct, 4, i,/, g, k, 
ikpa«led on time of Ihe Soon 3 tu 7, In front of eacb. Bv/bic every one uf tncM 
Ina a 4(T«>dle^RTe b ettablisbeil, (see I, u,) and Ifae wurbtnen in chain tt it tUaul 
c of tbe eorropondine ^yo3K*. mivlced S to 12. The tieve u repmenteJ only in fronl 

■ Atn A, for tlic mlic of dcarocM. 
eb cf Ihr worlonrn placrJ in \ 9, 10. II, 13, operotet on Ihe heap before himi (ha 

■ tajrt of ibe deiKiiilr tbnnnl in U* tt^rrc, U tenl to the (laoifinir boaw, and tlwlii> 

■ layer *re«lj to Ihe Ibranre. 
iloihe tjnim which, anrr imvercint Ihe Itn gnte*, liave airlvnl al the chert ^^ 

wa«heil in the two rhnl^ ^, which are BDaJe(ei]> la the Oennan cbnii lo ba 
nlly drtenbcd. The u]i|>er Injcr of nhil ii dcfMW«led in y it MM to Ibr funwM) 
It ii iruted nnrvoiilbrce tabic* of pcieiiuiDD, uniilnr lo llie Engliiili bral(»<tiov«i, 
I be pnvrnlly deter ihrd. 
Iter leveral lucccMivc ninn!|>ii1nlinni on tliff Liiblu,an upper iintnin of (cUkA ■ 
Ined fit Ibr the flirtoce i an iiiininctintr tirDtiim, whicb n wu-'^btil inew by ihe (aine 
t'-*; *:i'l oa ihlWim r'^n'tirT!, tint f- ■■■nt 10 llii' |i]tIainof sUuniri.j^^. 9C'B, 



n<ta 



! 



U' 




.m: 



Thi»fawgit prM* a m hegaiienil siwtnd |J»n <f a 'Inwpinc i mAL The 

.,. r. ,- ..,. r empo te J of two toteriw «in>ilar lo,)l>. Boa. The l ninccfuion 

;atla of eatf iron, ench of which 'it heavier Ibe Difarer jl n to iW ahm 

irii thcMaJoc ponadeil mttier c«eiipet. 

lu Ibe un«f part of Ihe fiirnre we >ee iuuint IVoai Ibe Hainp*, two condnit* 4Min«i 

W meive Ibe anorr and ibc me>allifer««< land with which h It baded. The flitf. mntktd 

<r. t,a,a osod oly when a oenaia quaUl; td* ore it Hat»piJ, rldwr ta BK»i than if 



180 



METALLUROK. 



■nwUjr ui«lcd \^ mcaft) «t Ih* teoonil ectidalt, the Hnl beuis cloaed. The wconi «aK 
doll, cr (hKI cmplorM Tor ordinur mantpiiLKlUia wben the olfaer b dat. b Inditnlal If 
r, 0-T, ■; Iticn br 0-S6 uul 0-19, Thiw munbcn ispica* tbe depth of Iht aomsjinattig 
P^nicii* of thJB eonduit. Prum r l» a, the conduit «i waler-eoorw U dlvid^l into ihfM 

Eirtioni much shalicrvci, <b1M ih« ritk eauhtii, tin mtiiti nwfui'f, >nd Ihs <yMp 
7pnil ihF basin >, 'hr conduit Ultrt iht nonicor hbfnntli. T^pr* ihc buiIl^ wdl 
mentt d/ ore ore dripasil^ beiof llie finer the nirlbrr Iht; njv Trom th« Maiat* r. 
Darts indicate iW itiiKtioiinS||g^ECB>ii in Ihr Inbyrinlk. On Ihr Cohmh ilMti, (danri 
al 3, iLr tami derived fmin IhiTii^n^^'iiddk cotidniti i* (rc«t«d, in onler wclMll 
lliitc duiinct '[ualiiicKir iMJict, m jliBMBC£^<^ ' b a cloih-totcml uUi^Ar 
ttcalini; iJn- lirpoijic t,i the <!< riuu chSuntSTniyir' '"" »«'Cp laUf* (d ktiaifX Kr 
iriBitng Ihp die esUccin! in ilio low» conduK whkfe lAiltF^^' ^^ i»I'linMI at ih« tine 
OcnMncbuil*. Ci«n Uii-Uimnniih/iulili . v < % ..r.> iKgggI in hko monncf ih« M«lk 

dCpOMlricrftliebbfrtaili, which ronut .1.1 r. i < ilM rl^tLji"" ^'■<'M*i<<i*Mtf M^ 

Ml thown for mm of room in Die (•/..,.. ...„,.'.rr.| ,„ iiira|Uf"SuIv *lf>V 
•rilh each olhcr, ax wrll as by a traniv'ttv titnncl. lu ili« r-jinu 0-7 «»Jt *' *• "If* 
pari of U.CK flv« .wwp lobl«. ihr .mii«rinli wWch atr to undcrco wiJSiP "* •BilliW 
IB Iwo boil-» o u, by KKiall |iuldlc-wli«clK, \ 

Vr'f thall ii..«- .Irwribc the jwr»...Ofc/aWr, uMd in lli« Hart*, for trtaiii,^'"' '^'' 
ore ubioiiinl frnin ihc tuniluiu rtfreunttd nbuvp. 

rif. Mft. 907. uhI m, whibii a plan, a verlica] urclion, and dcmi 




5-;i3P' 



-1— a 





oT Ihuc Inbln, Ukrn^ 
riiirtliop of its tuiiKlbJ 
mW or (treal kbnd in p- 
liun fVom the iiauipt tnL 
•hown in swlioa pBr|icn>lic(S 
10 iU Qiii, at A. The Mn 
wipon are »hown round iUi 
eumruente, one of (ham ha* 
laM acted on a. 

Thcw eaio., bj the twi 
Ijon of (lie aibor, eauie t 
altcniitinit nioveoicnls of | 
horiioDtal hu of wood o, 
which strika at ihe p 
ttgaiaat a tahia J. ft, f, ». x 

IBhIc is iiupcntltd by two cha 

', at ib »ii|iDrior cnJ, and 

IWD npd» at in lower cij 

Afler hnvinit licen puth 

Ihe piece o, a, ii r»boiinrJ«, 

strike ngaimi a blork or bm^ 

a. A I*vcr ft J, BFrvi-Hi) ml/ 

the indinaiiuii of ilic uiovra 

InWc, Ihe pIvDU q bctiig 

of antiieajcW. , 

The are^and h> be wailj 

ii plMod in the «bM[ «, 

which a cunrent of muer 

Tlie ore ao«i«d oawanis 

vrnler. is carried ihroni 

Mevc on a klopiiif; t^a)|, 

*, noder whicli is conel 

the hi^er end a( the movl 

laMe d, ^ c, u i and It W 

falls on thii table. difl.Wnit <1 

nnlAiIinlit ov^r its iiirfiirt. 

wnicies .lri«>*itcd on this 

torui ui oblona jo/u («lo 

upon it ; I he succensive 

cuxsjon» that li rvceirc*, i^ 

mine |h« weightier mUUn, i 

conaeqiienllr those ricbe-l 

nwtal. to RCFiiaulate tiiwanls' 

tti upficr did nt u, Nnw y,, 

workiniui bj means of the lever 

f, ralie* the lower md d a liii(i> 

ID «nkr lo piRN-riF tbc tsmr 



^^ 



METALLUBGy. 



m 



I <f iadhiatloa U> the *wrkc« gn which Ihe drpoiile U vrcvtd. Atrording m tbf 
■uao ir« anvpt alM; hj' ihc wiicr. he ii cifrnil la rcmorc them fhuD iho niiUlKJ 
oTthr IsMr (nirinl( Ike lop, hf infiuucif i voodcn roller. With Ikit inli'at.hr wallu OS J 
th* lafalr <f 1 r ■, «b<rc Uic Hud; Kiliincnl haa lulhclcnt eonnuiciiet la Imt him. What J 
dw nblv b abuailMi If charged with Ihs viiJinl ore, the depcnilo UdiviJnl iniathrMl 
b«»b «r t^meiiU dh,6t,c<i. Ea«h oT thcte tanilR it removtd uraralrljr and tbniva j 
Into lUi pailicDlaf hvip OMl^rd lo it. Kvcry ont cf lh«^eKp« Ibui fonnnl btvomal 
in*rgriirdi the object «fa trpaniie Rianii>al*iii'iii>ii ■ p«mwffan lahl«, but alwar* icwni^ ' 
I >>? Miue procedure. It iitulDetonl in t«a«ra] loptiMtwireciTtrthUUbletheBiT- 
raltwdia the heaps pnicmdiac l(i>mlbD luiiorior banildi, in ordmn obUun o pan 
mo^ I Int the hop rtocvedini IVoa Ibc iaiennedinle brll b r, leqiiim nlwDj* a gtttba 
'■■■bv of nuuitpolationi, aiul Ihc lower bond <J A Mill more. Thi-se iDeacMive mnlpv- 
ilkUoM are louwejalod thai crtnluallT each heap rurniaho pure icUiVAiWhichuobtalatd 
flvn ih* M|irriar baod en. As In the liiihtnl pnrticlei whidi (he water iwecpi anf j 
brrow^'lhe lortr cod of the pcnuuion Inblc, they full inia caDduili ; whcuce [hef art ' 
Ufiad la aaii n i a new BaAlpalalion. 

Fif.909 Ii a profllaof a p!nn which hiu been adrsntagcoiulf inbtiiiuHiJi In Ibr 
Batta. (W Ibal part of the prcct'iltnc appointiu which caiuoi ibn Jolt of tbr picw o • 
aniwl die taUeiltea. ttyteeamot thii plan, li la eoiy lo (iir},afcunlinK tu the 
urepltitai rf a manipiilminn nlu'aj^i deiicaU-, ilin Toree of |H^rc<i<<i"ii whirh a bar 
c y, iHiMky to (owBMnicale by it* eiircDii]' y. With ihit viuw, ■ -ilrnilcc ni«ee uf wood 
• t> inade to ilile in an upriiht pircp, v i, ailju^io;] upon an atii nt t. Tu the piece « 
a nd of irnn in connetled. by Meant of a hiac* : ; Ibi* lud is capable of rnteriai: more 
iMa a eaic or iheAUi in Ihe middle of Ibe piece p i, niul nf brinv Moppnl at ifct 
polal, bj ■ ihiunb-terew which pr*M«» a^oii Ihji piece. If it lie oriihed U 
Ibr fiircf nf [>rrcu»ian, we muil luwer the point t ; if to tlunliiioli >l, wn nnut J 
la tlie Itttt ckte, the eilicDiily of the piece u, a>liiuic«i no miidi flirther undor 

«1« 
MS 




«f lh« 4riTiu ibaAl; In the areond, It $oea m much Inafbmrd*; vhtttlir 
InUWnt l> proMwd. 
•10 and 911 ivpreaeul a Mtnplfte <f«leiD of tirtjmig riUr*. UfJ. ■ dormanif i 
Otl mth a* »tt mDunltil in tdrta. 

Fig. 01 1 i> the jilao, and fig. i»IO 
lertieal Motion. 11i(inereurtalen%] 
reduce] lo ■ ootid hj ilampa lin] 
Uioat of fig. too paM bio a acrittj 
uf conduit) a a, £ i, c c, which ftmf 
three tucct^vc floon below thclnvdj 
of llio floor of the work). The msi j 
lakm oul oftheic eoncluitt it throws I 
inio Ihe celli qi whriici' Ihey arvl 
iraaiTemd into ilii' \nni<i\i t, ond 
water it run upon ihem by turninit 
two tlopcoelu for each trouKh, The 
aand Ihut dilfuud upon caei tabl^.. 
I off with Hm valor br a eroovf /, come* upon a «ifve k, gprcailn itietf upon Iha { 
[d(, and tbcaiMraU* latu the>lanlinlchnt,nrilee|iiaf table ih. The nnilet surface 
I (Bit <fc«M i* piorcQil Willi bolei, which any be atopiwit nl pleunie with wooden 
Tl-rc b a csaidDil m, al the lower end of each table, U> caleh ike li|^ par- 
I -8 bf the water nut of the ch«l ■ i:, tbmneh (he fcolo ptnpedy opened, 
< XT t>alts nrc depoii'.nl upon Ihe bollom or Ibii ehett. A pencral Conduil 
■rt •170U •> the fool of alt the eheiM i Ac ( it lecelTci Ihe trHue of the waiUng ' 

■ Ot! I* a )ct of itampln; ami wn<fcln« wntin fur lh<r otet of ■rgcntifWoiK galen^ j 
•Muled al B*eliiri/M, in the ibiiiiri << Zrllrrfcldt, In tbnilaili. 
i* Ike oiaap oull and itt tubudiaiy |i>tMi auoac which are a, the drlvfac «| 



AIBTALLUBGT. 



■■to ihtft 1 h lh« wmhul wuot-vIimI; « r, M Mronff rta||* m hMfa d( oaM km, 

Ibr tMcitint rach • cui or tap|i«l| C| th« brakcoT Iki nucbiaci k,li,k, Ihc ItoM 

(Uftdard) of Ih* Utinpi i / r, Jcc. tii pnllcs of plii 
vrood, (hod with Innips or cait iiun. Thae ■■■ 
two diwt^ ool 01* irhick \he oc W be ^tvnA Ikli 
fpootanMuit]! into ihe two uoo^h* oT tb« mini 
or t>I« i'cui, honvpi, itie ore U dumiI; (upplM 
tf bnail; Ihe wmcT'Couric lEimlnnlH a tihort dt^ 
lance abort ih« mldiUc of ibc vliscl k. 'Hisra it 
■ *lnuo cd* wMCr fcr (be Mrrloa «r th« tfuam 
Bod QNulaiti prtictcduig fmn ft, l» iMd Uir nta 
iBia Iha 1VO sUmp tTaugbtt tha aodoit of du. 
diuft fs conunmi lo lb« two laUcrin or tea or 
•lampi Ibroo^li vUeli the nla «anin bB tha 
Niid or ilw^ed tm, Tbnc w ■ morraUc tabic 
of ■epamtioD, Dgonnttd viih two licta. Tbt 
•and* pan ia>io«IiaicIy into the eondull placod 
upon • IfTcl wiih ihc Oooi, and xpuBltd utu 
t«o compnrtiiicnt*, (he finl of which Mipiin iu 
vMet Intii \hr tt«oad. Thwo are mo baatdtof 
BtpnratiMi, or tablim, iKiil vpen Un irroani^ mlh 
A vri7 fJiKliI dope of untjr ]5 iniAea froiD tluii 
top to Ihcir boilom. Each of Ihne bo«/di b 
diTiilnl iulo Tour taat* ■miHi etsMi tlw whole 
bpinK armni^nl » Ihol il ii popMtile, br ■>■>• «f 
a Hik>5mPi1c or itutce, lo ciiue the utpvflBMa 
inter of tliE cue M |ia«* Inio llie rdloni^ eaoa. 
Ttiiii Ihe work eaa go on vilhout iiitrrrui'licoii 
and allcmatsljr upon Ihc Two board*. Tbne are 
nindias canals in th« labriialli, x, », », ia which 
ai« jspotited tha i«rticlM carritd alonic bv the 
vater which hat poaud upon (be bow^*. TV depth 
of Ilicri- canals giDdualljr inereaiti (nan \i lo 20 
locbet, lo Eivo a mluble deteent Ibr inaialauung 
Ihc *«lcr-no«. At D, two peitiuoiun ubloi mc 
placed. V o arc [wo German cbciU. >i J arc !«• 
DMcuatlan lablvs which are driion b)' ihveaoMx^ 
Ibicd u|>on Iht main abaft I y. Kx'ar«i«oalofuig 
Vimp tabic* {i 6a(ai)- 

The G«niMM ih**U are lertanfidar, bcini: 
abcnl 3 jardi long, half a jnrd brond, with n\tr* 
bnir a raid hq|fa| and thcii inclinalioD b (ucb 
that Ibc lower end ii about \h inch« benealh 
the lerel of the upper. At their appcr ca^ 
uiaaUy called the boUicr, a kind of Imogk tr 

box, without an) nl^ HI Ihe »iilc nut t^e chut, b placed, coutaimug Uic urc to bo iri>fcnif 

The water i* aliowfd to fall upon Ibe boliter in a thin thoM. 
The t!i*yi»g taUn have upriiibi edvni tbej- are ftom 4 loSyaidtlone, Qtoftr 2 joidi 

wnle, and hare Mlj a yui^ of incllnaliun. 
The preceding labia dic wnnetimei coveitd with cloth, psrticMlaTlx in WAlin; w«a 

thai eonlnin tM, on a mppotliian thai ilie wooUen or linen fibres woulil ntUD mil* 

tanlt Ibc meiallic larlicln ; but ihb method npjtCBn on trial lo merit no conBdcnc^ Ibc 

il Towtneei i very Impure icUicA. 
F^. 013 a a tvmg-tloec »mplo)«d ia Ihe Harix, for linins the unnll f>a^*Ma ef 

■tie ore of ariienliriiouii lead. Stidi an apparatui ii amall; *fi np in th* ooutdc «f 

QBOp^^ a ilamp and nshing mill; iU place being denoted 

•'* I "^C I by tlic kner a, Injlg, BOS. Ttie two moveable eheau cr 

I ^^^^m I boxei * a, of the tiirvt, an connerted inHclher, at thefr 

^^^^^^K I lomr endt, wWi an upriithi roil, nliirb irrminalec at 

A^^^^l^^f I one of Ihe aim oT a unall balnncc beam, moanied b*- 

k^^9^^^^^l I (treen Ike dnving •hafl of the (lamps aod (he ilct^ 

|T^^^^^|h^^L perpendieularly lo the leaph of bolh. The oppuitf 

11 ^^^^^^^B^^_ *"" "'' ''''* '***"' °*"^™ another upright rod, which 
l^^^^^^^^^^^gBE eara (eamtor MMtoanifi), nbctil on pnrpoae upoo Ikn 
I^^B^^H^^H^^^ iiliiat than, mar path dowa. During Ibb move, 
ffinil the Iww lower eadi a, a. *n nUed( aaii whtM Ike tcg<«in of the ^cA qwt) Ihe 
rol wWeh it b«) deprcHa^ Ihe (wins ehcaU Ml br their owa wdcht. Ttai ihet 




UETALLORGV. 



in 



w rlbniM •iMnwMlr *paa iMcir am. TV ttwU arc it im iota tha >pp*i 
Mrt of lh« chart », oirw whiob a Mrtwn of water Ui» I>aiu oa ailiaiiiiiic modiiti. TlM 
|l«UiMiiri wkidi ouuiot imm UuDaRk a roM iron end ja tke boiiom cf Umi chcit, uc 
1 117 hand ajwa • table in font or .«, and thcf nro (laflcd b; tk* vDrioBUi, talbcr 
J the OTM Is bo lUiapcd, whvilict dcf 01 net, or BUiaiig the rabbiab lo be thmwii 

■ITi Of woons th« Mppcf ore* t« be uncll<<t b; tbematli**. A* ta iho uiwU putkin 
vbkb All tiumisb Uia tM npm Ute etaou ■, tuiiplM •!■) wiOi n ttmin of wmicr. Iter 
■ff— * ■acKWitel; ttpm ivo otbor bm* win wtm, ittd >lw Ihiuuith Uia inm wire r, 
iathebMUmefa. 

In oeiBn niaei «f tbe Hut*, taUea ealkd 3 iaiait, m tunping labia, are enivdiijel. 
The vinir or the pcoecM eouiMi in Iciiltig flow, over the doioiig ttbic, in Muecadf* 
ihMlwili. ■■Ill iboigiiil with Iho on^ which b depotittd at a IcMorgrMMf dl*laM%M 
■bo TIMS wanr tat iho puipooo of wubing the drjwsllfd am, aftcrwwd* canfad off bf 
flMUi of this ■WMpinc operation. 

M Uw nrT"' endef Ibest riettpJabUt, the mnllvrglbr vuhinit ai* acitaltd m a 
tfcwt. Iff • (mull wheel with tur, ot Hai^lKrarTls. The TOorluU or the muUdj watcn 
•fCMMOvea Bute UUe or iholf I Ihe c<mdnitor|iurcn>at«r,«-hichiuljoiMtheprEeeding^ 
Ofcns below IL At the Iowa pnri o[ oath or ihcie tabic*, there ti a tnuiiterw Hit, ctn- 
ti«il bj • agmll ikwr with hingr*, "[fnlns ooiwnnllr, b; hUlng bock tonaids the toot of 
lb* nU^ TW w«i<« tfimiding oi-rr th« lablp, maj nt picMoro bs lei ioio thia ilil, to 
laUac a Ul of Iratber which is naUri to the table, to as 10 oovcr Iho unnll door when tt 
tt ■■ Ike ahol pmiltoa | but when thi* is opened, the iiiccs of leitliec then hane* down 
bMa il. Ottennse the water may be nllowol to pass fh^tj- abcrre the leather, when Ibe 
4oor is slnL The Hune thins aa,j be Jane viih a iiioiloi opening placed abave the con- 
Ml By ■nattsef Ibex two ^li, two dLnmcl qutlllieiaricMcA maj be oblolneil, which 
Ml jn"wtl««l lata Iwodlttiact conduiu or rniinlt. The refiiM of Ibo ofwslion U turned 
InM aAolfcw eenhiit, and alWwatilt into uJicriur tMorvoln^ wheaee it ia lifted out iu n»- 
tefo a nrw waohfoc. 

Ia Ibe perciiidOD lahlsi, the water ror wa*Un; Ihe ores h somelimea apttad in ilendor 
Miiainliii MmeiuDw in a fuU bodr, » ni to let two culua feet esoape per minute. The 
■■abei of ihocLt ooMfouniCBled per minute, vniia troia li lo 3(t; and the loblo may be 
^*bed out ofilsKUled pcaitlon ot one time, three qxuuten of an inch, at another aiauij 
Diaehr*. 'nc coorte or»4aaJ it>|airc« tnneacrallcw wulor, anil IcMdlopf of table, Ihaa 
lb* Aaa aad paaty sand. 

The mochrawa/ open lions which otn uaderito, lake pWe cottunonlT at their out>paC 
ft<M the nsne, and wiihout any intenncJiate apeniiEin. Sometimes, however, Ihe hoM- 
■■n<i(eBnalafa^M«<veia-«toncs), anil oT eeitniii Iron ore*, is diiu!aii.hcd by sutyecting 
Am 10 eaktaaoon prcvloa^ 10 tha btraking and stamping prucewe*. 

When it i( ial««M to wash eonaiu area, an optiation Ibundnt on Iho dilbrvnce of Iheir 
^aMe |cra*itiM| it may happen that by sliRhlly chnnRinit the chcmieal itatt of the »nU 
MBOn tlMt (ompoH the ore, the rnnhy patts insy bei^onie more easily Btporable, as also 
Aa other rortifn mntlers. With iliis view, the crci of tin are subjctied 10 a roniItn(, 
■Wdlby MvanliaK Iheat*enie,nni|oi}iIime the copper which aielntcnnlxed,flirDkbea 
Aa (Man* ofobtnlains, by the lubtR) uent wuhing^ nn uxydo of t£n nneb piuer tban eonld 
btMbvwiie procnied. In gtnfntl, however, thcac ara tareeaMst so thai the washing 
itaeit always Iwidlalaly nceetUt the picking and ilampiaR i and the nHulin; come* 
MU, whan it needs u b« eogployed. 

Tbo opRalioB «r rawtinx b in Vfwnal neculed by varion* prooewn, idalively to tha 
Mtora uf Ae area, Ihe quality of the fiii'l, nod to the otgeol is Tiew. The gtcaMM 
MBam) on«ht to be staditd in Ihe fad, as well as the labor ; two most inpottant <t^ 
e>miiJiii«.->. DO ■fooOBtef the great masaeaoftemtod upon. 

Tbrrr pitncipal nelboii my be dlsdn^isbtd ; I. the roaoting In a heap in the opon 
Mr, the ao*( tunflt of the whole ; S. Aa roasting oecnMd belvten tlltir nalli, and 
wlkidi mar bt called easfr^Dastiag (rmf^attcln, in Gorman) 1 and 3. roasting in 
hraaoot. 

We nuiT mnuk, as lo Ihe description about lo be given of these diBerem proccMes, 
Au In the ttnl two, the l^el is atwa^s in immediate eonloel with the ore lo be n«sl«d, 
■UUt la (kraaces, Ais eooinel may or may not lake place. 

I. Tb« traitiair in lbs Ofen air, and la heap* more or loss <<onsidtr»blni Is ;caeti*ed 
tfm iron ora,awl<ucha*aro|i)Tilau*orhiiiiuilno[iii, TbeefMrationcontlnaingcaeta] 
b Hiwdhsg OTCt a pUni; aiea, often b;?tlon)rd wiA bralen cby, biUels of wood ansngid 
B* tha ban of a giidu^n. and sometimn laid cnMSWjae oeer one another, 10 a* lo fem a 
■tfiiai fliT lied. aMKtianwtioilchinioaliiBeBtlcredin.MiaaloflllapihaiaiarMleai^ 
lal (» prevent the ore tnm blUn; between the oAer pleeea of Ae fueL Coal it also 
■■laywl tn niedentely hmH loMia; and en« oeeat^onnlly inif. Tbeorc^eiAertiBplf 
bwn Into pieen, or rrnsemctlmnDnderlhefbriDoriM/iiA, is (nludapomlheftdi 
MM asuUlr allaraale Wd( ef fM and ore are Ibrioed. 



lU 



HETALLUBGY. 



The ire, kini1t«il in fmicnl ■! th^ low*c pan, biU ■wpttlnm, lumttv, al ik« aMHi 
' Mmaej, npitub IVom ipot to apoi, pouiav the opnstion in Irabu Th« ttiah 
I BUM be *o ccDdnPleJ u [o be ilow and niAaatti^ to pMlont tlw uuuktM, aai I 
I viole mBU bo tqnAb!)- |imctmltd wiih bmt. The dwbd* rspkiynl lo diMOl 1^ I 
^■R t»M>rct ontinnllf tviih rarlh ihp portioni where lao much Mtititj i* diiiiUit 
> lad M fkrcE irtih hole* or lo givn air lo Uwh irhnv it ii DDpcrTcclly ilrvduped. Raiiiw, 
' wind*, varifihk mmoim, and (vpcciaUy good primoiy arrmagcincntt of a ialcii>ntiiia, hne 
BiHb inlliirni^c on this pmcns, which rtquLici, bcudc*, n> nlmiwl iocuMal iiib{>c«1KiB U 
Iht hvKiniiinii. 

Nolliinii in Kcneml can b« niiil as to lh« conrnnplion of lliel, Vuum' it varka wtik 
ils <|uslii)-, m wtQ u viih the oro and Ihir |iur|<MF in *iew. Bat it nay In laid ito*! 
•a a guxl rulp. lo rniiilof no more fijcl thnn ii BlricUr nec«<aary for lb« land of calci- 
natlou in hasd, and (at lupportln; the comboition ; for oa nteu of fud wii«U rmdoM, 
btsldci an Fi|irnito uwIcmIt Incurred, Ihe incoarcnicocc, at timci ivij wrio*^ d* mA 
ft heal a* naj mHl or Tlltify the ortv; a rttnll mliicty Ihe mcne al a weU-coadactcd 

FigM, 914, VIS, 91(1, tcpreicnt Ihe tvatling in tnoanda, a« ptacliwd acai Goalar In lAc 
BH 016 






rnunnej, 

boiwig 



ttoiUt and at nieny In the d^pariment of the Rhone. Fig, 014 ii a vertical araia 
In U» line A c ofjdgi.VIS and UlC. tn fig. Dlfi there ii ilmrn is plan, onlr a IMe 
nine Uian one hav ol the iiundnmcular Innrnled pyramid, which coniiitiitet the bMft, 
Ftp no ihowR o Ittllo more than one fourth of a bed of wood, arranged at the boneat 
cf iha pyramid, ai thowa Vr^ a, Jig. 914 and e gh, fig. 016 c hi a wnodcn rlilmner, 

formed wrtliin the heap of or<v ai «b«av bou 
9IC iheie It a IIiiIp pnirrl of chnrtoali 4 d arv 
lump* of or? dinlritiiiled apon (he 
a a; 1 1 ore unnllcc fnumenls. Id tonr the brra ; 
//i» nilibish nod elny Iniil mioolhly In a dope 
mrr the whole, p, /le. 918 a [•I'^'Bv'e fiir air 
Irfl under Ibe bnl or (il11rt>; of uliirli there it 
a umilu one in eaeh of Uie font Mitn of Ihe base 
a a, ■> thai two prlnripRl curmilsof nir crountdcr 
the Bprt^hl aniii c c, of Ihe truncated pyramid indU 
calH in;t<. 914. * 

Thp kIndliniE ii thrown to by the eUnnvf b. 
The charcoal c, and the wood o o, take It*) Al 
lUlphureoui ore* d t f htp. heolnl lo nch a VtA 
temperalnrc u (o vaporiu ili« fnlphur. In M 
Lover Ilnriz, n hea|) of thi» kitiil eontinan raanllng daring Jbur tnoolht. 

'i, Tlie Hfond mcUiMl. The dlfticulir of iDimagins Ihe Sre in the roostlnf ef nb- 
itanra conloiuing llille lulpliur, iriih Ihe gtvMer dSfllcully of amneinE and sopportinf 
la their plncr the tihtiehi la tie loulnl, and la*t of all, the uecrnity of eirinc aaoeeMm 
Brolo Ibc tatDOorcVjOrtotneoniidenihleqbnnlilinal ■ lime, hare led lo theconlriTaMe 
«r nrroondiog iha area oa wtilch the looatinic Inlit^ pinee with three little valla, ar wilb 
fbnr, Imeing a door in the one In front. This ii whal ii called a valhA attit, and i 
time*, improperly roouvh, n roailine fumnce. Indde of thCK litde wnllii, abonl . 
Ugh, Ibetc are often Ttrtical conduiii or cliiinaeya intule to cotcnpond uriih on sfi .. __ 
on Ihe inuuii'l level, in onlcr to exelie a dnufrht of air in the adjacent lartn. Wlieo tlbe 
fMutinc i> once set oroiae, Uicae chiinncyt tan be opened ot *hnl at their upper enibi, w- 
tording lathe neee*«iljta of the proeeM. 

Seveml aueh foniioe* ere lunally nveied in eonnnlon with each other by their bicra) 
walls "B(I atl terminated by a eonnnmi wall, which forau their poilerior port ; noaDetiinM 
I they ai« vanrvA with a abed tupported patlly by (he baelc wall, buOl mflckndy h^b fo 
I Ihn purpoae, TheM diiipc«ilion* ore nilijible tta the roaallng of tcMldtt, and fn Rncral 
|<f tU DMllen which ate lo hntc icTeml Itrcai a circuia«l*nM often la^pniMUeiaa 
[<Am MHUUlon of llie nilphur, orHiiJc, Ac. 

1 The fbraaeet doploynl Ibr roatliog the ere* and the motrn differ mneh, OMMdlB^ 



BfETALLVBGY. 



1S6 



, anil ih« ibM of the Inmp*. W« tball eoaicnt oanelvM witb 
nftniof m Ike p(wci|a) fbnaa. 

Wbca Iron wes n« to be roMled, wk^idi require >ial ■ ample talcin&lioD In <)Uenga^ 
Ac nnbtecd waUr and carbanic mM, rze-«hapcd nunacB, dmilar to Ihou in vUcb 
Hill Ml 1 1 II I it bittne4 la oeWacI with fuel. maT be convcaiciiilT Fiiiii1o;pd; and ihay pr^ 
MM th« adtnlafc of an o|mnlUin wtiieb U cuntinuoiu Hiili a aevM-cnoUag atipaiaiiM, 
Til* aAakvT ■■ "■' '<I(cU t» be pmducnl ti ta pnifMl, Ibni lb* tarn* Aintcc mf he 
0^ (<>( ritlipf otijrci. Orealu UlnuBMOM miy, huwuver, ba givnn lo llioae dralioed for 
:<■ Ilia or iron ana. Bai ii muai bu nmrmbercil that this pi»en> U applicable 

I ' Mvktm inui lamps awl ao( lo om in ttraini or powder. 

II iin.1 l>orn attempled U> emplor 1b« tame mrlhwl a Utile innlirial, for the ruaxiaear 
orei uTtiiliiliuiet of oopperand iiyrites, vilh the i-iewofniinciini; a pun oT thctulphur. 
Mmc at lia* (ueceo ba> ewuei, but iritbout cTer lunDDunlinii all tbo obMadc* arWng 
ftun tb> Kitai ^laibUilj oT the ntlpUurrt oT iron. For TCmcilmca it lun* Into ono mh^ 
oral iMil into luinpi a^^lntinnud togrthci in certain pan* of the niroaMi and iha apart. 
Uga ia cidMr U«ppe<l altajMher, or b4«imn more or Uh languU t the ait not bdng aUe 
to penelnle inlo all Ihe pari), the njMIni bfcanMaeoaMqucDtly imperfect. Thia uiec>n> 
TMieMe i* cien matt Miiau* lluu mi^hl al lirat liKhl appear | for, u Uie tU-roaMed area 
aam ernlato loo Utile sulphur lo nipporl (heir conbutUoo, utd ai Iber lomeliniM QUI 
faiio anas fl^ments in the eoolinii.iheT cannot be pas»du:uatlirDiighibeMmcfuriia«, 
tai ii fcaCMPt* a«cetw7 to finiih ihc nxutios in a rcTcrberalorT bcanh, which it uiueh 
nore etpMrirc^ 

Id the Pn«ae«s Ihe niadinR of iraa om b PHcu(«d la a cirenlar Airnnro, to diapOMd 
Am Ibe mc) 1* caninninl ond burned In a kind nf inlrrior oren, alnvA whidi He the 
flacea of ore to bo ealcinal. Sometime* the vault <it tbia ixTdn, irluch auitaint lU ore, 

■ lunaeil of brido. leavioi between them opening* for Ihe paaaaie of the Daine and the 
■Doke, aad Ike appoialui then reumblM cerloin pottery kilni i at other times the ranll 
kl tlirmmd ot Utrtr Inmpi of ore, lurefulljr omuv^nl ds lo Ibe inletvnii rc<iii»lte to be idl 
liir ilnHSbl ovn thenich. The broken ore is then dislribulnl aboTc ihliaicb, care being 
taken to ptace tkc Ur^rr piece* andi-rinosl. Thli proc^i i» tlmplo in the rnniiUiictlai) 
ti Ike [Wroacr, and eoJuoiuileit, nt hrenchn of tiepi, without valua in the fomi, maj b« 
MWtotod tn Ike lOHiins. 8k Limt-kHn llgurc*. 

b aome olko countrieii the ore* ars roMled io fumacn very like Ihtne iu which 
•— '-'liin is tabed i that i) to say. the fuel i) placed exteriorly lo the body of Ihc famBce 
. I >d cJ* t(kk shuns, and Ihc Himc tmraics Ihc braken ore wilh which iht nimooe 
I In fuch an apiiaralut the calcinnliun ii eanlinuouii. 

' pr'>pcHci1 to enraci the sulphur ftum the iron pjTltra, or Otm pyrlloiia mln- 
I 111 fiimoiFt may be eiu|>Ioycd. among which llutt DMd in Hnngaij imt n ta 

OMt,.:-; II It a roctangular patsllelopiiinl of four walli, each of them bring perlbratad 
wilk hotm and veitlcal comluils wliich InJ iitia chamber* of condennttoa, wbtra Um 
bur b c-)U(C(«<l. Tile ore placed bclwcon Ihe Ibor waQ* on hilleu of wood axranfled 
I fif. U14.Vl9^9lil, for the meat rooilLO<s in the open air. is eijciaod with Ihe i^ 
laeneal ol' auch mlphor, which finds more facility in escaping by Ibe Intrtnl taoduil* 

■ IVc walls, (hiui up through the whole moss, nr acrcsa Ihe upper nttlhce covered over 
wKk raiih i whence l< |ikucs Into Ibe chafflbcrs uf cuiidenution. In Ihii wny D[r>ntd* 
tf ■ ihoMaud tons of pyriie* may bo roasicd al oncc^ and a Inree quanlliy of sulphur 
•Uainad. — Stw Corpca. 

(^ PyrUu. — Figf, 011,018, tcprcMnt n nimncc which hns been longem- 

.^1, ployed at Pnlitun in O ww hn , tod 

017 ,^ln sernnl other pnrls of that kiofdam, 

fur roostios iron pyrim in aider lo 

oliiuin sulphur. Thiii nppnmtiu wat 

connructcil by the celcbnited Gohn. 

Tif. 017 is n vcrttcnl section, in Ihe 

41B , line k d n o c( Jig- 91$ whteli is 

a plan of Ike fumaco) Ihe top betas 

fuppoied lo be lalien otf. lo how 

fifmrct the condoil may ho Imagined 

Id be htaken ett at «■ its Mlire 

Icnslh In a itraifihl line ■* 43 f«M 

I Ike doited U»r,(a^b«bre the bead, wUeb b on eiicn>i<iii of this eonduil. Dpcm 

I « t of a biUodc oil (, lump* r (4 Iron pyrilei aic piled upon the piecM of weed 

ijn^ A ewdiiil d/i forms the eonlinuatinn of the *pac« denoted by r, which 

TUoaeilak* wfarai/; and ftom this paint to Ihe chamber k It isconstmcled 

At the bt^aaiDg of Ikii conduit, there is a redpiant f . "Hie cbambet K b 

I five dlunbeis by katitoalal pattilions, wkieh pemdl tko eireulalkin of the 



IM 



METALLXJEGY. 



npor* ftDm on* eomrartacnl 1o utochcr. Tlw an* r Wif ditttnun! ohm tk. Ulcu 
. cf wnod i i, whcneTcr thew are Tuilir kindlrd, Ouj kr« eorertd wtt inalf arc, vuX Am 
■Britli mnned coith J i. Towaitli Ilio potol m, fiir m *|aee of a fc«t •qiure, th« om Wt 
UDTend Willi aovcnble Mane iIbIw, by mnia <it which Ibe Are tt»f te nruUlal, br Iba 
UiiplncunFDi cTone timOTc,unqr bedMMtd nMonvri-. The 11i|nM nifiibar nuitlalo 
ijfcc rmiiiciii s. whence ll it Udcd out from time 1o lima. The tuhlinwl tBlphui [«iki 
Ddio ihp enncluii / r and tic tfeUsbcT h, from which ti U lakm nul, and wadied with 
nrUer, l« frt* it rmm lulphnrio acid, wtlh whif h ti it tonx-rhni imintmalid ■ it n aAd- 
MKtdi diilillrd in Fut-iroa rrloTts- The rtvidiiUD at the |<yriln it ttonrd lo komwiI k 
F ftreden, for tlic prcpuatian of a commoD itd rolirr much nini n> a pi;»«M Tet woedo 
rbnfldlnoa. 

Hie rtretbiTMoiT flnan aOieifdi one of the bent loraiia d* wtlnlatlon, when ll b 

ff^nUit* toemploT the tinnllaaeoai Ktion of Wat and MmMphnlal air lodwpt^ 

LMttiik combinationi^ ixl W deeoinpoM the tnlphnreta, aneniurat*^ fee. It in Iftewvc 

brident thai Ihe fcinlitjr tliiia offeicd at ttirrinit Ibe malltT* iprrW out on the tele, ta 

^mitr M nkcw Ike •urfoeca, <d' obienine Ihdr ap[T«iran«e«. of amnnrnlinrc or dJmlnlA- 

Inf Iba ibgree of btU, *«., pramUc a tucf m much mm, n roulinf ftr belter nocstad^ 

Dan bf anjr olhrr procew. It b known, bniJa, lint HiiniR minjlcd with mnch 

ean p cawl air iannint ftnni tW Ainiacr, io bighly ocjditinKi and H irri (St for 

afflrajp the tulphnr, and oirdixivR the DMlnli. Finally, tki* it nlmovt Ibp nnlj' moll 

li^lf loaitinic om which arr in a veiy fine powder. If il be nol employed 

■Dd Ibr crcry kind of ore, il is jiiat hccnuwr more economj' ii found in laaclidwg < 

, tion in benpi, or on arcnn cncloacd by walli ; b»idn, in ccrliiin minn, n rrty rrcal i 

I kcr of thaw fanmeii, and monf ivotiunni, would be required to rcax the amy ' 

Lkody of ore* thnt tnn<l be dnily Hnplinl. Hence Ihcrc woidd result ftom th» cona 

■if fuoh apraratui and ils mninlcnance a very nolabie outla], wtiich it MTtd in Ibr olftcr 

w' Bnl in every cttie where it it derired to hare a very perfm roiutin):, a> Ibr bkwdn ftOB 
I '•fcieh rinc ii to be curneted. Ibr mlphurel of aniiinonj, ftc, or errn flir o/ta TtAieel to 
r • *ery flne inwdcr, and dettinnl fbr amiUgunatiaa, it U [roptr lo perfonn the i 
In a rpveibfralnry ibmBcf. When Tory f^wlbleanlphaniuorei arc traied. Ibr 
chorgn! with the enlciastimi nmtt eniT'lDy much tm «i>d (OpcTinice, rkirdy in tbe I 
L A^rwirnt of the fire. Il will tometimes, indetd, hamittr, thai the or* partially f 

■ viira il liTMiinea ■['cetuiry to withdraw the mnterinb mno Ikt Ainiace, lo let ihcn < 
and rrind theui hacv, in hHit to n'rommrnee the opcnulon. Th« conatiwctM* of the 
fiimncec drmnndt no nihT niii-ntion ihnn to <tiv lo the wle or hbontory Ibr (MIBhle 
alee, and to to pniporiion to tliit Ibr rmlr nnd the chimney thnt the braliog aay b« 
cllKNd with tbe irrrnleil economy. 

The rerettierBtory fumnce ii always employed to roatt the ores of precio** inetMla,aatf 
aapetialty Ibafelliramalgatiintion; at the Intleroflen contain anenic,uilitnony,aadodiB 
Kdatile «nb*tancti, they mnst be diipoted of in n peealinr inatmer. 

IJie mle, luoalty vetj upaciDiii, It divided Into two imrtt, of vhlch the <«e fiulbM 
eff from the nimacc b a lUUe hlohpr thnn the other. Above Ibe nalt there U n *fat« 
orrbamber in which thaoro it depo«il*d, and which coiDmunicaiei with lh« kUiraUn 
by a 1 >Ti leal pamge ; Which •ctvm to allow the ore lo be puthed down, when h b drin 
and a litilc bralcd. Tbe flame and Ibe nnoke whtcti ncape Horn Ibe sole or IthcirBlotf 
paw into condeniinB; chambf^n, before enterini! into the cldoiney of dranght, so at lo 
oepoitte In them the oiydc of anenic and nlber mbauuicu. tVhen Ibe ore on the put 
of the «ole l^nbeit from the Rrale hat mlferod *a mucli hrnt hi tn brgin to be T(*il<d) 
baa btcnme leu fii^ible, and when the roaiUnf of thsi in thK' ntflrrr jiart of tbe tole b 
cemPlMdl, the (brmcT it mked toward* the Arr-hrlilgr, and itt uMiiIniion 1* flnlthed I7 
Mfrrrnf ft over freqiicnily with a paddte, thilfiilly wrirhril, ibtoueh one of the doon left 
in the tide for llut pnrpoHr. The opemlton is r<<iitiiivtFil lo be finiihcd when the vapori 
and the nnell hare alinoat whonyceaiei); itidumiion depending obviouily an tbe Dnlun 
of the orea. 

When Ihi* fanwcc li employed lo roaiil very nrteniail ore*, oi tbe t;n orc« <€ SeUatk- 
rnwald in Bohemia, and at KhrenfrirdenKlca'r in ^imny, ihennrnlrt] pyrlln of CtTOf 
<in itaxony), Jte., the ehimbera of ronHenmlion t'ui itie arseniuiu aciJ an ameb non 
tcimiive than in ibe fumacet commotity lued Ibr ruaMinc (alcna, copper, or even itlver 
oeeiu 

flgi. 1>1B, 9S0, 931, rejTesrnt a revetbemtory fntnace cmiitoTed in Ihe nneUItig 

weeln of Lantcnlhnl, In the HarU, fbr roatfini the tclillclif of Irad cm, which contala 

I BDcti blende or tnliJiarct of *!ne. In jl(. 719 we «* llinl the two jajU a a, a c, an 

liKbRohitrly Ukr, lh« ivofhmacn brinit biiill inonn body of bricbwork. Fig. MO k 

^Oie plan cf the AinMCC a c, taken nl the Icrel e r tit fig. *1V. f'i(. 931 in a veninl 

■ JCMion of the almtlar ftrnaoe k », taken in the pcoton^ilon of the btie a 11 in 



mETALLURGY. 



m 



• !■ Ui« ai«-rJ»M «r tlie fnnucp, iU gnic knd wh-pii, A b Ihc Mndait of Mpcnin- 
Nta. iWob a»nii»»iiir«i*» wUh tbe duunbcn c ,- f, t^amben ulo irhkJt lie rsperised 




(vbUaca arv i!r^--iiinl } 4, chlM^Ff lot the cMspe of tbe moki? of ihc flru nlara a, 
•fWr It hw nsr tlitvMli Ihi' iioeo Ace; r*, U Ihe fbarfing ioot, with a luxjk lunicina 

in ftint lo re« ihr Ions iron mkc iiijoii, wiili which 




ttit Riol<rinIk Ml- liiiiiml ov«T| /", rhamber comnin- 
int: a <|unniiiv (if >'htlch ilniinrd fur loiuiin;; Ibii 
(hnmbcr communknln villi the vBaliod conitkw 
(GoUcrj) D, KTu in Jif. SIB t g, atitte IhroD^ 
which Ibc tchlicb w thrawd into Ihc AiraMrj k, 
km or hcsrlh of Ihc rererberaiory fanueii,<if •hieb 
th« («of i* oritainlf much loo hi^h ; i, fhanaoli for 
the (Scape of lli« walrry vapon; k, I, fltint arcade, 
betWFvn which anJ tbt lWnn«?, properif iprriinB, 
arc the two orifica of Ihe coiuluitt, which iM^t 
nalc al Ihc chiuipcb tn. m\ m ii the channel Tor 
corrriac loward* the cliiinni7 J, the vipcn which 
«»ca|ic bf >'>* ^00' *'■ " '• I wallol-iip door, which 
ii opcncj fttim ILmc to lime, to tnbc oal of the 
chamber* t, t, Ihc >uI»udc« that tsaj be depiwllad 
in Ihem. 

Al ih* imrlllns worV* of I^uIcBlhal, in swh a 
roaMit]^ (Urnacw, (Toio G to 9 qulnlal* (cvu,) of 
■cblirli acp Imtfl al a limr, and it it *titT«d frviMBi* 
1] vilh aa iron mke u|Wn Ihr nkarA. The poriod 
a( ihii opcniJon ii fnim <l lu 1 1 hours, accoiding ai 
Ihc tchlich may fac more or leu dty, more or loa 
rich 111 lead, or more or ln» chargod with hlenda. 
Ih* Mnt nbfLancc It •bundnnt, thw iiruccM require* 12 honrii, villi about flO 
oMc fnd af clift blDrts lor ftl. 

b nch tkmaoe* nrc touted Hits cobalt ore* of Schneebers in SuoiiT, the tin ore* of 

khhrkeawBld is Bohcmio, of Ehrmrrinlcrwlorf in Soionr, and ciMwhctoi u abo the 

mimjaal riritca at Gtici in Saumy. Bui there arc poison lower* and ciMnaiTa eOB* 

tailB$(tJunben atuebed in the latter cue. See Aukric. 

fif' ttL tS>, 9ti, iTpre*<«t the rcTcrbentory ramacr ^cnciallf emplojcd i* the 

^^^^^ Haiti, in the diilna of MaaiKbb, binnr, 

Kt ^^C^^^^^ Hunfcaiy. Axw, for the ticatiiwfit af black eop- 

^^^^^^^^^ per, anil for rHIning ro«e coppv *poa the gnat 

~4 ^j - ^.Tj^F^^ *nle. Anana1nitoujfUT9Ac*Mn*NalAnilta«»- 

I mJI >^8^^^~| '*"* '''" '''^ '■■l<"^'''''>i<^ o piiriflralion of ihn 

^^■1 fljf O^I^BKl^K niaiio, and lor workabtp lead wlien il i* moeh 

^H1 Bl al^^MS^B badod with oncaic 

^■f Wr^^^"^^^! ^- '*- P"*""» ""= cictalion of Ifce fin. 

I I II ^ ^Bj nareparallel loihnlinclK,of iht-plan/f.MSi 

i li r^~^'^ S=^Mi whjth [dan i> lakn at the krcl of ifcc tujirc », 
■ Jte. «Mt Jlg.b34 111 tettical atelMninlhv line i. h, ytc. 933. * repment* m* of 
t^ baoaa o/ rttcpUun. bnaifDalwIth tU]r anddwKoal i n. ■, two lujurrs ibtou^ wUeh 
W ua Hi* UaU(< two pair* of Miom, like thoMthown at CiiiwUiiionof Sti.vt»| 9, 
<■ M sUdt tte «ali*r to be meliod b bid npon the tole of the fururc t <% *• t«ii 
llfaMi *b«c« tW lob la pBftraled. when acrranaq la na off the melleil inaller lata 
(Mv of iW taitai A { <, door Ifcroagh wbkh the ilagt or rini'cn floolla; upon the «iu- 



UETALLUROV. 



(hwoTthpiMlKdiDHalanrdwrfaaii |i.4Mtorthafln-plaw. The hd i« tail «pM • 

n abate OB uh-pil, iMd Mow Iktamof » wim Lwa tiirr whkbucaiili^aoiUloUH 
or ca|> of lUc l\iniB» p[vpnl5 ta««lkd. la lie KCIkin, jlj. 924 the (cdloiring 
' pKtu iiuy br iiDinl; I, 2, 3, duna-araik (tf the roanduion; -IgTapor dKUBcb oreoft- 




933 



*U 



i 



doiU^ Av (be »cape of Lbo hiuaiiliiy 

ehnrcual, which Airik ihc concniiT7 of Itic hrui lli. 



lay I 6, bratqiM cMnpoMd nr day i 




n« 




Vit 



Figt. 930, 9*6, 9^7. ihov ibe 
fumnec ctIi|ilo)'«il Ibi li-|naliun it 
□nc of Ibp jviacipal wiirliinK WDcfct 
or (lio Hatu> f ■>• 9t1 eihibiu 
IhD worbiiif ar«n cliarcnlnith the 
li'liialion rnke* uiil cbntcoal, tup- 
pntwl b} ihcfrU of vroas^l Iroa; 
bcin^ aa imaga oT lhi> proton >d 
nciion. Fit. B9S i* the plaa, ia Uw 
line r a, el^g. 9£S. 

A liquoUon cake if oanpaaad 
af— 

Black topper bolding «1 Irail S 
or < Uti (2| or 3 oi.) W tilv«t p«r 
tin., and WEishbiR 90 to M Ibt. 

LmJ obtained Omd lithai^c^ S 
cwlB. Lilbuge, I 0*1. 

Pmn SO lo 32 tAet are ow- 
oca(iv«I]r worked in one opcistion, 
which lailK about a hooMi ih«to> 
naoe U brought into aetiu^ at uMil, 
with Ibenid of ikc*! Ibvna linte 
UlbajTfc i> added I -when Ike kad 
begins to How, ilie copper b wb«- 
doeal, nnil when the copper iovn, 
lead CI lulilnl, to llini the niUtun 
oT the mctaU rnny befffceud ia lit 
ben wnjr p^niblf. 

FiMn 9 to 10 oT thtm caliir* ( piiiu) are unallj pitted in the liqtiatioo rumuv, jfji, 
tU.fl34. B3T. The operation loM* 3 or 4 bout«, in which liineobuut l| quintnlxir <li«r- 
OmI are couumed. The cobea are rarcred oilli bncniii; ehutool, rapportcd, at I hat* 
nU, by Ihe irtin plates. The vorhnblc Irnil olitnlncd Bowioff lomirdt the iMia in Ooat 
of thn rnmncc : whence it ii lailnl out into mouldi >cC aliiii(;»»k. Ken ^f. 9M If thi 
lead Ibu obtained be not nllidcnll]' rich in idva lo be wonb cupcllntion, ii it tmplDjul 
to fbm tKor UquKlion enkn. When it eonialaa f^on 5 lo 6 lothi cf •iker i>« c«t., U ■■ 
nhmillal lo cnpeUatioa in the nid ttuvliinG work). Sue Si-vn. 

Th" (raAVM, or water blowin|t«neine,/^>. i^^H. r;9, l):io. fij. DtfHii IbeclendMli 

Jbr. PSUiiBiertlcnJ(CCIioi],a)adeBtriKM nnclH toiheelrvntian. TlictnacWneI>fornM 

K Iwo eyllndrln.! ppHi ibc bodiouf Ihe rrontjif b 6, icl nprigbt, called tbcAiniwls which 

, taaninatc abova in a waut dnern u, and bi-luw m a elate baiifi Btdor c, called Uif tub m 




METALLURGY. IH 

4>*m. TWcoiuMlpuin«ftteriiuelliubot«MU^(lraa(WDM,bdiig««rMvh4u 
h ven^ in otder thai ito walcr diMkqi«a iqto Iha body oT lh>r inmipc ■boll x-t U tlM 




r (k Mliaftt fall be 4l*Uel Into man)' ^ttttunltt*. Brbw tUi lurnno «rf, ciglit Uale% 
f f we ptmoMd obliqudT Ihim^h tbn ti|^Bac« cf the Uompp, called ihe vcnUtolei 
tranCrili^ IbrwMltlnclbeatr, whi«h tlieimvrMTTinvilhiliniHiliMotal. Tbe kir 
dtnvardt ywto fran 111* vslrr, b^r liaihinu upon n aul-iran lUb, pUced in the drkin 
l|M the pgiMUl J. An aiKMtun! /, il tht? batiam of the dnun, allow* the waif t lo ttow 
■■•T iilrr ill ftH ; bal, lo pnivni the nil fiain uToping aloiiit with il, thv vntpr at it 
■Mi k n«*iT«d In a cbal I mno, divided inlo twu jxirit liy a i-crtifa] ilidc-plato b»- 
(■ftn mm, II7 nudng or lawtaian ibto pbtlv, ib« wkUr nwjr be muniaincd ai anr dtal- 
■J Irttl wttUn tbs dnwi, 10 u to gw* lb* inelndfd ilr Hr detenninue degtM of prcMBiVp 
TW mrcriliiovs watw Uwi flotnnlT b; (he buk o. 

TllF •Ir-pqc (. fit, i'l'i is fitlnl IM the niipcr iian of Ihc drum ,' ll it divided, U the 
fate /. laM Iknc lubts, of which the prineipnl one ii doliiiR] fur the furnace of oapd- 
JKbo, whie Ihc other two > g, serve far different roetlin; fnmaoM. Each of thcH 
lihca cat! la • IcalJier pocket, and an Iran OMe-pipc k, luljiuilcd in the tafAre of 
>■ tanMt. At Pnvj, nnd fa the whale of Savoy, • taoifue b Sttod inlo the nppet 
Ann a, In refmkle the aihaleaiaa of vaier tnto the iiompe i bnt in C>iniala,llieflmQel 
tit elOMd witk a woode* ploff, •ntpendiil lo a eord, wfaidi (raes roun) a polley meanied 
(fsa « hofueabd osiS) u shown in fig. (ISO. Bf the plus a beiiu rni*ol moie or leu, 
Mfclr >be qmtitr of water requirtd for the operalioa b •dnillcd. The ploE ia piet^ 
ed Itia^ih •»•■ with en ohliqoe hale t c, in which the mall tobc t it inicnod, viih iu top 
tmm war abuvc ttie water level, through which air ■hj bt tdmltUd bito ibchout of the 
Mbem ilwtiiid iaf Into Ibe trooipc p ^ . 

IW mUamrj beijM of the Irontpe ai'iHtraRm i* about ffi or ST feel to the npper Icrd 
i| lia total len^h to It ia«ira (SBdNt Snehea), and ll* widlbSftel, 




tao 

t« giva 



HKrALLirRGT. 

.~— ht III* •Jrami^ It l> tituaUi 10 nuUw (>31 UM fWim tho R«. 
Thklf Ui«aM«atUi«uaellIiigiroFlsorjaa«ri>«rft (stTppfr 0«niCoU 



'1 



I or nis JWMT e* ouvt ^ 

P Ammji aWEht to OMUji}' ui ioipiirUnt |)Im« Iii nwtallurgle ItmLnwtloM^ tMl Umm h 

t nHos to IwucTc that Utc kuo«lM|^ ot Muyieg ii sot luflioiMtlv tlilTiiicd, (ikm it« 

IfncDM it to ofltn MThtl*)! ia untrltiiiS bon*n. Not on|f ooBhl the OMuiy^ ct ito 

OCM andcT irMUnral la b« fr«^u«ntlT rrpmkd, bKtUK tlirir natUK li fabJMI to tut I 

bm lb* dUTovnt projocli of the furnacn thould be lubjeciol lo mtimed aiaaji, at IW 

MTenJ |)eTiod> e( the opcralion*. Whni tilvrr or cold ota ait ui qatstioii, the 4oci- 

• Buuiii: optialioni, then iodiipeiuablc, urf >:i*c a tnluioiy conUol over tb« Dieulhafgic 

' pracmcK, and aflbrd » cleat indioiilioD of Ibe quaniilici of ptMioui metal whitA tuy 

aa^ lo prodUGC. 

Br Ibc tillc .i>iayi, ia a meUUiu^c poiol of *icv, U meant the melliod of a«c«rtal» 
Ing for nnj tubtiiuice wfaalrvn, aot only ilw |ircii)nc« anil Ihe nature <f a mcUl, b«lto 
ptniKvUmnl luaniitjr, Hracg th« ojiriaiiiini which da noi ItW lo ■ preciw drtrrai* 
nalitm of ihc mrliil to luMlion, aic nol id br amkogDil among Ike aaaajn boic under 
wntiilvmlian. £i|n!nmvnU tnadii nith the blow-filpt) althouKh fapablForjicldingnori 
nccTuI inilicnlioni, arc like llie louchitonc in ttgui U> goU, «na do not coaiiilate gctMlne 
MMn- 

Tbrce land* of bimr* muj he pracliKil in didcrent euenmitancc*, and with more or 
len adrantk^ upon dlttrranl urta. I. TLo ntseluulMl bimi ; 2. the ncMj b; llie dry 
wajr ; 3. the ■»■)- br the huioid mf. 

I. Of nuihanital AMoy). — ThcM kJniI* of tnafi conibl in lh« Mparatioa of iht 
subilann't meeUuucall; miinl in Ihe or«*^ anil are prrfurmed by • haml-waskinc, ia a 
tmnll linuirh of an ohiong ihnpc, ciUInl a utHla. Aflvr imlYetiiinic with more or tas 
pnini ibc mallen lobe aanjedbr tbitprocrai, a dulerminnle wdghtof than is pat ials 
thii u-ooden bowl with a liltlo water; and by ineans of certain moTemenu oM 
precaution*, to be Imracd onl; bjr pnelico, the ligbleil lubKooMS maT b» prrttt cx 
fepai«ed,DaiDel)^, Ihe caiihv guigaa*&om th« deiuei matter or mclnlllc particle*, i 
out looing any *ratilil« fonlon of tbtm. Thua a tMuk of groelcr or 1cm parity 
sbUlocd, which inny alloni Ibc nieani of jud«ing fay it» quoUlj' of Ibc richnsw Vt I 
mjti em. Slid wbich mar UiercoAcr be rabiecivd lo uwn uanother kinl, whercb 
«Iiul« mclal may be iniulated. 

Waihine, ai an onaf , in BroetlMd on aurilWoui wndt i on all ore* from Ihe ifom/u, and 
eren on tehttchi already niuhed upon Iho grsal Mole, to appreciate more aicclT Ihu dopw 
cf purily Uiey hare •c<|iuitd. The at«« of tin in which Ihe oxyde b oltn dittcnJaattl 
m uuch miihy sanitu«, ar« wril odapUd lo thi* tpeeln of Mtay, bxcav** Iho lia aqde 
li Tcry dense. The inrchanical anay maj^alto be cmploj'nl in RftrcnoeM Iheoni 
vhoM melollic portion preienii n uniform campcaition, providvd it alao peacaK* ctui- 
•idenble apccllic craiily. Thni Ihe ore* of nilpburcl of lead dnilrnn) beine Ma cmli M B 
et becomini; nlioDtt pure lulphuTcU (wilUa I mi prrml.) by mtiu v&ihing *"'*■% 
condneted. the lichncu of Ihat ore in pure nlent, and eoniequcnLly in lead, majr b« M 
encc coneludcd I dnce ISO of galena coalala lOtof ]c*d, and 16 of vnlphnr. Tbenfr 
pbur«l ef antlfnonT ndngled wllb ll* gaiura* may be rabjectod to iba taoM node of aMBj, 
oad the ranilt trill be itiU morv dirccl, tincc the tnide antimony 'a bransbl iaio the nuj> 
IiM after beiaa freed from its irnnouc by a litn;'^ fiiiion. 

The asmy by wuhiog it alto bod recoartr lo for OKcrtaintni; if Ihr uoria <a othet 
pnidiioti oT the l^l^nnee• eentdn come melBlUe grain* wbieh miichi be eitraeled bom 
tbem by (lamping and waahlng on Ihe great teale ; n proccn employed eonuderably wkb 
Ibc troria of iin and copper weAi. 

Of lutuy* tjr |A« itry irav. — The tMajr by the dry way hai Ibr it* object, to diov 
the nalnro and proportion of Ihe mulala cittteiaed in a minenl oubdance. To make a 
feed Mwy, however, il ii indiipcnnbly neetMafT lo koaw what ii the metal amocieHd 
Hflh i^ and even wilhin critiua limili, Ibe quanltly of the limign bodice. OtUy Mm 
■wial il commonly iDokcd oflcr ; nntoa in the oaie of certain argcniifeTona era*, ne 
■inemloinca] euminutlon of iho robKianec* ludci tttaiment, i« noel ootmioaly enttdwB 
loafliifd'dalainlheMtrenweUi bet the eMajeniMralwayx be nrled with dllAml *!««■■ 
before *(upplng at a defiaite retull; and la every lafianoe, only aneh aataye can be c«a> 
fidfti in, oa b«ve been variOed by a Uoiiblv npeivlion. 

Tbi* mode of oenylng nquim only a liltle nperiener, with a nmple appamue | aai 

lief (och n nature ai to be pracliMd currently in Ibe mnellin); worlci. The ajr faraaee 

and ornclbic* employnl aii' dcieribed in all eooi elemcniiuy ehemital book*. Thtm 

■any* arc niually iitrl'urined wilb Ihe addition of a flux lo the ore, or (omo agent (far 

k •epajaling the earthy Grom Ibe molallle lobitanccs ; and Ihcy po*i ei » a peeulkj' arira*- 

1 li(e rehllte le the Nndting operationi^ beeawe thcr oSbr maay antbgln bdwcen 



UETAIXCRGT. 101 

ra«BlU «■ Ui« grMt •fkl* AUil nxp^BMnU on llio imalL Tliii aoy «raii «n*bb ■■ 
•Aaa td Jadaet^ btm th* maaiivr tn wfaicL Ihe wmjt Iuu *ii«ci<*d«d «nl) ■ outaJd in^ 
•kd •■ • eortain d«grM of htM, ikliuLU l><liviiti«n> •• fa th« tr«eln>nt at tko vn la 

In Ui« mifUiBg ho«*M vhioli poraliuc 111* orr. a* in Ofrnuiny, It » ntonMr^* to 
bvtloir uiatlt ittestion ufcv tlii>H>ji,bc«iaic tticy Mrro lo r«KiUat« tlie ijiialitj uii) 
ih* fviea iif tliu Mhlkki In be ilflirprt^ Thmo nxan ue lift br nny iii«uit frM 
fru*n diBi:ulii«^ w(«eJBll]r wlun oth M>ii[iuuini;»v«i«liu«Ail DiHBli>ri.'(tHlT>I,Knil 
wliicb uw lube doted or ]ir«^i1ioat'l : on*. lorextmpU,iiKi»^gaimuMeq-wuutxlj 
of Uwl, Mipqicr, koJ ■il<rar, oixoil to);«ihrr. 

I* ih* ccKira] woibt of Ihe IIbiu, bi «cU oa in ihou et BucMijr, Uw iMitkt M d*- 
Ihrm] oir xatqettei t» datimMlic **tny, whtch >i« TFtifird ihicc tin^*, anil b] Ihrre 
dillmal pCTMan, one of whom 1* toenzrd Toi tie intEmii of ih« inisinii (oiintn, 
■■olhcT for Itel of Ik* imdiln; tinu-, (liiiI n llilnl aa nrhilFr in rup o( a ilifii7TM«. If 
the fint tn-o nnlU </ >t»yinK •lillir by ( Kh |nr J ounce] i>r lilrrr prr e«t. of tdLHdt, 
IheofcniilDn* mull be rr»unirJi but llii> rsir); hai'i>rnv. When out orthi?ihn»niMn, 
IfcCCBi iIKpib fkum tb« Mo oUiin by no nicur Uinn { loth of ailnr )vr c«l^ Inil bf 
Man bonr,u>l brlna in nnolliir, i)i« mnn mmll i> nilogilnl. At lolhr tunirnUof Ultf 
wMuA b Imd, the iiit«a mntla of llit^ uaji nuil bp Uhcn, Thr iliflii«ncn nlIo«td 
■R IhiTe prabd* Tm the ifAJiiA. nhoi ii MHiniiK rtom 13 To 30 jirr crnl. of Irvl, iaotW' 
(■9 10 ttk paaaih for mHJicA, wfpn iI nnlniBi Inu than 66 pn cml. uf Iliat r«>iiiI. 

Anajinc Ann. in qnot ntablifhinriiu, an ini|Mirlnnl objpct in rtfrrrncc l<> lime utt 
eipnuF. ^Dnii^ k Uif *mglt mxk or t'tanrLrnnchain, in the tloMi, no kn Uiait TOO 
•UBp hare u tt mnde in • lhr««ti:Jtl wbi, rvrrr Mondiiy, vithoiil taliini; into atcoiiDI 
IW MTcnl *—;■ of Ifcr Mncllinx product* whirh Inkf (ilncr «Tcry Thnndnj. Fonnnljr 
tart matt nr b^u romtaiiBd nerv taidoj^il (iii tWiir furjotrt, and tttrj »uaj m*4 
■boat fiAvfn f^ncr. At pmcnt all Uii-ae BUBn nit mtitr mon litni'l]', hj mnth chcop«r 
MtboL^ krul totl B r'nay fwlhioE Mch xtfon an •rrrmcr. 

(^ Hu atAiyt Ay M^ ^mid wy. — The iu«i]^> by ilic huinii) wa}, not rrdoriblt (o (er7 
riBfl* pticFUFi. are IniP thrmwol aalJl'm, which tcaj ia fart he applinl with Dnrh 
t4<ntB0*,Flihcr toorri. '>r lo IhF |Ttid*ctiof thcfamacci but which t«nnot befi[rrl«d 
1* W prnrilicd in isiPliiiitt-honw^ on nccoont of the complicailon of appniniut and 
fnmi> ilipy rn{«ir«. Morrvrtr, an rigivrl chcmial i« nrceioBn to obtain rr^ilti ikal 
«ahv di p u iti ott. Tb(rdiivctoricl'>niFlIi*e-biin*e^bowt\Yr, ihould nrvpr nnilerl anjr 
ifpoititnilir* ibat toaj' orearof ntteiliine the mntninh oppntrd njvn, m'htII n> Ihrir 
tndacU, to a DHirD tboTDUgti rtaminnllrm than the diy i"? alone mn rtli-n. (>i.r nf il>» 
(Ml •dvnslaza of limilnr rrwarcbc |i Ir. ctliravn and affircdaw lh« niiniKc iiiinulitin 
irhiiiiftoiun'blBsePi whlrli imiiair ibc o^nlkabilliycf ihcmeuT*i wideh k'ivc ihrm ^rrf 
nl iHl i|«BlilU>, ahnni whntr naiurr and conir ir>r'r« or Int onor atd iiacFrininij' pnrrafl. 
Clvninl analj^ risMtr applard lo n)pl*11i>r|;y, cannoi (bit to Intiudiicc trmrknUc 
hofoinn'nu lata Ibt pmnao. See the diirctrM nrinl', !n ihrir alpbibclicnl plneu. 

Fur «■«■<• in lb* dry «ny, both of »ionj and mttnllic BiinrraU, Ihf [ncci-u ef Dr. 
llkb irrrrtn tmoerndnliun. Il contiili ia mUinV the pu1vfiiz<i1 Biinrt*) "ilb -1 or 
titan iti wei^ orcaibooatec/ borrta in powder, Ibiina tbe miituit tl a uliiti; b«at, 
Md UMi dlTtTllig II, nftrt It «oolf, 01 dUotc moriUie acti. The mutt ivfiactory mine- 
lib, «Fn twoaJum, cjaxite, ilauroliic, lircon, and Mdt|>Br, yirld rcndilj to tbia irMt- 
Mai. TbI* prawM Maf br nnploynl irilli adiuiiofc upon poor rdtnclory ore*. Tbr 
|(>li«iiK rruoiUr, jaM itKih Itie laitn] Rinurialt arc j>ut fiir fluion, ibonld be- placed fr 
> Knuaa «T«nble, and inmiindnl with food coke. 
T\« maaaneM! rantd ia Eacland ncecda 3000 (oo). 

M. lUran do TillaCMM taMrtrd in Ibe latl nnaber of the .*iaaJti J*t Mine* (br im 
Hw hOirmiatt autialical liew of the mrtallic [vodaeia of Ptmiic« r— 

Tai. 

Lead in rip <aaaawiu] ...... |03 

Utbarr* 513 

SaJuboKt cf lead, nound nicea (alni/OBi) - - • ItS 

Blackoitra 164 

Awlinonr *' 

M*n(M>*tc ^....... 70& 

CrnlrcwMnu iAfitXi 

Ikr iron 173AM 

Ifarl S,WO 

Stini ia in^T'iti ....... U 

I Vol a n 



GAS. 



i n III « lll M_ 



.xmMt 




M^ rf &« ak* •< tlartiul^. 



k« mMk to ih* MlMriK ■■■Iw: pH Ml; thrfiM. 9S\ I atnt. an; 
fJifMr, UO; f^ H^; lOra-. TM; MK 






l«! Il«, 



TW MUla «WA bt«T, tf at 4 



Ju l riu l y . u« 



ttanaf I 
' anidmalMthtbeUMt. KaD^ oxtok bma* aAb bjr ■ raOoicnt doM << 




•i^ «M1« vU ■ aBaHar 4ea«. lUj loaOitHii Mlifiilik I 

I Ma <f tbMa w BMtcvT, is wUcfc <M8 tba mm i— < b (tjM m Mndgwn. 

ft, t%ar awplAn iriUt kjirofta. irto i p »»f<i ; «nh «•%•■. iaMcarianA; with 

•tfniMr, lata MMand; vitb phoaAarWL lalo pioaaJWrt*; vitli mImibii^ M* 

wkri-r^; *itk bona^ lato bran« (brUuO: with cUaria^ lato dUsr^^ .- wKh 

;MlMk iHoMUu; vlUnfaMCM.iatacjmuiiu; vnh»ai«an.iiiWHfw«ii*;Mawtah 

T. IbUIUa mHa ar« J «*a« l a MttpMaiK niMtlT crnlalliB^ of the fB«laUi« onda 

Urm>IUT19\(.dtr«l>an^Pk.Xara*tan«a «f * pacoEor Mp«A ani campanltHV 
vKlrh hiva fallfa frntn tbe air- 

Mrniit. riAH. Slae* tb« oilMlfl Gm vh fvialtd I hara haid McmIob lo «anlM 
I'ly ' 4r-UI1f Oia MMtractian. ncrfonnanos^ ud toaapanUT* ntrita of lit* foar g«»- 
m*i>n n'xi |{«B«rBU* Wad in lTr*at Bhula^ and hara htm lad M couluik that A* 
■ ■r i ai iMiBai fa bttbaenrwatnaiwof thabiBaaUonaofHTBralof thfi.lrat too vtO 
\ iM^dad. Tlio lnalran«nU «• whi«h Bf obwrratiinw mc mad* war* a.11 bow, ami 
)m> Ml «f lU knfc ofthHr Ntpa«llv« palenteea, 

I. Tb* iMl«r of Mr. Waal i^ n* itnU. ■wiirala wliil« tba waUr-Uaa u richtljr aO- 
JwM; li<it w I flndlkalH win *d«it an exlrajiint ofwattf.it najbaramUrnlBii- 
lHt tawanlt iLn luintunim of uu ; and Uieo if il Ncoir** a IMUa nofc walor bjr ao»- 
' ianwilnn iif ita|.»r. or t>T accidciit. iu Mpboo nta Bllod, irfal«k oawM th« fxtinctioii 
•( lb* UKkU 

ft Ifc* unUr d( Mr. Ra«laai haa aUu wTcral dcfMU 'nd occmnoDB Ro'iMnca by IctUng 
tW awtwllam wRl*r trlokln span Ilia Rotir 

iL Hm nMt«r of lir. CraaUy may b* laail-p to fn in its mcuursmcnta rullr 90 pM 
aML tty daxUfuu* r*(>latiDn with «*i<r. and Ihat in Tavor of tlio gu vompaDloi. 

Hmh Ui riv niolen iir« ntmiihod willi ilie rcrtMal float raWf. «> apt lo r»t noi aUok ; 
th*y •!•• allow )[■■ to oiMjia al Uu> dlMharge pl<w. Ut tho [mmlnout ri*k of ot«aiaoa- 
ioff Am vitli liinorani or oartlNa •rmnU ; and ioally , ' 



)<mU IndaSM^ M liabl* to ini*appreliaonaii. 



. Ih«y hnT« Uls oonplex d»k 



MILK. 



loa 



C Tb« mtUt of Mr. Sdm. Ifci* iii(tr«m«iit 1* <pit« «x#ii>pt from all Uio »tioT« 
JliM^ Mit •• iNlaallj- daliMU Md Joit la lu indlcuiUoi)*, beiiu mounted irltb a Uret 
Ttlre of frcsl mobility, •nd a injw iDdiT. whSfli «civ one vho linow» iiinuh«r» nWDot 
mumant. I Larc lali^MWd lliia muUr tu «vvr)- kind of UsI, aail flwl ibnl it «imQot bo 
Mode td icivu ttUa iB<)>:ai.iaiui, (.iihtr by awkntnlnpu or intoullon. It* biTcator ii 
thmtot* M(ll riicitUd li> ilM-uxnii (■■tmiiiigs both of (bo public and all gn«oiBMMiM 
vbo loTii fnir •!< nling. 

UCTIIVi.L N't;, a )M«iilUr liquiil compound (^ euban aud b vilntgni, <xtneU4 from 
pjraittio (iiirit. whiM (« ivcfciDed to be a bl-lijdrat* at mitSjIiuf. 

HEiKIOAL measures. The phrato " iMtrloal mnaura ' appears to an e«^ 
■Unarf rrA^or to mtof of taotoloiij. It I« ivallj oot w\ hatttrtr, to the prewot 
iaMaiiM ; tor lb* otpmii»n idoiply mMD* u ilvI of tDvaanr** Aranded on th« ^tandinl 
•kllod Ihn " m«trt," wbirh WM Mont^d bj the cniernmeut of Fnioa* at tli« ttmch of 
tb« flrat rcvolntioo. Thi* (Utndsrrl » tbe ten-mjlliondi pnrt oftha oiiadmnlnrilieter- 
rtatrial nivriifian, and rrom lh« mtnuaremenla and eoloaUtioiu wbidi w*r« mnde al 
tL*t period on aa ar« of tliv m«ri<liiui wbieli i-iten.]tM] from IU>t«1orr Id Dnukitk, It 
«Bi r«dUaed to be 8937 1 iaehta of the r.Diiliili tliin.Unl yard, Khich wiilniiii^il 3II 
tiMltcA noa tbc Fnnch iDitra, vhicli ii lou|{#r lliall tlie l^iiglitli ynrd bj- 3^ ui«li(^ 
or mora aec«ral*ty by R-ST inobo^ I* Uia tUiidanl of all Ihu tnouiim and woUliU 
of FnnM. It* ikeisial cauIUplM arc anooMalteljr il«fiot<id bv tha yivixm Am, Ibaa, 
ehlUt, Ar.. whacb ttgnliy 14h VXi. IWD). ir.. time* r»«p*etire]y ; and ila doolmal mi- 
mulUiilM ct frBdioM BnM«uin]ly by the prefima Ac< cnfi, milll, Ac, wliloti npii^ 
iV< I J» tAv ^' r*'** rMpectiTcly. llio metre itfelf wei made tlia unit of Un«al 
OMnire and itinerary dutaucM 

Tbe rfiM ndr* uinartd, wkltiL ira« caUcd tlw an^ and comrqiieiitly cvnt«iaa VM 
^oar* netrc^ vat mtin tbe nnll of luperlicial or l«n4 cneaaurc: it* Mntoimal iml- 
tiple hnUart coalaUa 10,000 tqiiars nunr**, and Ita ceDt«*lmal *ubmii1tiple mw/om ] 
If nar* tn*(r«. 

Hi* Jffimttr* cubed, whicb waa palled tho litr*, and tlisrefare contained a tbauaandth 

■art oflli* metra cubed, waa made tbe unit of npneily tir tii|uida: iti deeimol mntUpl* 

mi* l i i n codtaiai 10 cnbid doeimotrta, and lU decimal lubmnIttplD diriliir* onw-t*nlh 

'-:■• ' f itiir (ublc dadiDftl*. ThK litre oiid It* »noeMijvo inDlli]ila* ili<ea/jfn^ AeefoUfr^ 

[-« alio cnaiU tba ru«a*Qrii fur <\iy (tnuiU, lueh ai oom. ic TIic cubic metre 

>• raiule the unit of lolid iiii^nsurci^ nn-J mlled llie tl-^t ; ita deeimal ■abmullfpl* 

oataining a tenth pnrt of the cubic metre. The werght of n cubic tenii- 

. : L.Icd water at tho moiimtnn deniHy wai callod Ihe i/riimnv. and mnde th« 

1^1 uf ail uuaturot ct irdcbL Thi> unit k-ai fnud by Dareftil ««portni«aT* to ba 

•^h-aleal to IS^4M j^ralni of EnKtioh troy vuRkt; benoc the kJloKnuaiua; llie iwal 

■ut hr Mnomcnilal purp«*e« in Fntficv. wiitli* a trifle more than S'S jianndit of Kng- 

lidiMelrdnpoa weight. From ibv dtielmal nlationi «h][A*nb*i*taraon|tIhi<*cililIer«i>t 

vtight* and meaiam, it plainly ajipcitr* Uint Ihc (ili^irdininr i* equal lo tJic weight of 

aaoUe AeiiHlrr at «*£or. or of a lifr* of the nmc limiiJ nt lli>> mnaimum deoiity. 

IWfapadly of Ibefifrf iiljicrcfore alrilte niurc Ihan 61 Eiijflloh ckMc inchca. or about 

■ < .ill* of aa Eii|[ll>k jtalkm diminiihed by a tiundrcdlh tMrt of the two-ninth*. 

V it a flaety Miated mliicnil. of n peorij metallic luttre. It i> harder than 
£jii>.tii, but not M hard a* Mlo^par; flvnbta and *1**li«; *p*c gmr. 11«£. It i« an 
■■(nnllMt ofgraaite wad kh'i*'^ ^^ largo aboala uf mica oxpoaad Ibraalein Loadoa^ 
•« neatly bvougU from Sboria. Tlicy are uiod, <n«l«id of (laait to «iioki«a tlio Am; 
«ttti>«t «oeomluu the I1am<% ia certain atovei. 

n« mica of FoElau, analncd by Eoae, allbrde<l cilica, IB'Sl; alumina, MW: par- 
mUcF of ino. d-Ot; potaJi, 813; mogneaia, witb oxide of manKan«t\ 311; fluodo 
ati-L 149; vator. ODS. 
UCXOCXISUIC SALT: a t«rm given to a nail extracteil from homan nrin^ 

tan T*a regarded by Uie aloliumiiil* u a miniature of Ihc worbl, or tho m{- 

Iti* a pbcaphatfl of aoda and animoniai and ii now pro|>nrcd by minag 

iraleet projMttiont of [hiwphatc of eKda and pboipliate of ammonia, onch in talil- 
^atajHiratiajt nod cryftalliiing the mixture- A, un&ll uxcbu of ommoaia ojd* tba 
"^' alkoL 

ilait, Fr.; MIUlu, Gano.) ovu ilK vhit««ieM and orwclty to an emnlnoo 

^ tj Ibii (a««oua mattor and bailer, with mgar of milk, oxtraoli** mattery 

_ jMidfrMlaatleaoid; thalatiar of which eaaae*&«*h milk to rcddaBlitOMU paper. 

1BL U (eoeral. («ntain* ftviu 10 to 13 per eont. of tolid matter, on btlug oTapoealed 

■tt by a'tteam litat. Ttic mean opeeiflc gravity of cowa* milk la IDIQ bat It 

■.t tiM tnilk be ritli is cream, "hio tpooiflu gravity c4 llie ikinMoad milk UlOXtj 

■^ uf the onsui i* l-OUt. 100 porta of croanwil milk coDtaia:^ 




IM MILL AKC1I1TI:CT(7RE. V 

I OiMOiu MBtlOT. «ai(Uitua(t tome b«tlar, ■ 1400 ^H 

SMgarirfnillc - . t-MO.^1 

ALeohoIic citnd. lacUc atji], ud ImUIm^ ..... O^On^H 
8*lu; nomicAltd pfaiHphatK<if |ioU>Kandplio*jib«t<of lloMb ■ O-tV^H 
W«Ut, tl«7 ^^ 

I CrMn eonibia «r— 

Bntur icp*fmi«d bj cliiaruiMt ...... 4-^ 

CHMua natKr pred(»tat«d hv th« «cMguktiM «f the milk of llu baUer. St 
Buttohcallk, -..'........ 934 

Vb«a nitk oonuiiMd in wiro-coriu<J boUlr* i* li«at«d m iko boUicui polal la • 
r iratartMUl, tbo oij^oii ortliv ImIuiM niiuU ]iorlian of air tt»d«r tlu mt£ nimi lo b* 
cntionUad, and Um uiilk viU aftwwanl* k«a|> fnab. it it Mid, br * year ot Ivo; u 
|rMn (tooMbcfriw anil jmm dii bv llw mbb trMtiB«iiL 

UUk liM b««a •dnitcratod wilh a KJutioii oT potalo aUrcli. bom wbwh it darlvMa 

, trcaaaj ooiui*t«De«i nfa fmul ■■>/ be ilcttalvi) bjr po«na(( a fcv Jrop* ■>( iodiu 

.Water intaiu whwh Iwmadiately taaaw it t» awin* a blon of porpi* tini. Euokbtt 

fVlrmttt almoaiia, witk wbi«b tbo nQk at Pari* bai b««D a4ii)lMiit«d, mtj br wadfly 

dvt«<4cil bv t^ j^rtn 

MILL AJtCIDTECTUR^ b a wioao* of r««wt orlriii, wliieh arM at thi* iW b 
littte BadMRAoJ bojonJ Iha tMlon jweciaaU. It IibiI Ktua ably b«[iin by Mr. 'W'ail. 
bnt till it trl\ Into th« haa<d« of VrMn^ Poirbaim aii'l Ullie, falUet riiKJnvan ol 
ltaiieb«»l«r. It wai too lulyMl lo tdn wIisd* ot Hit Hionl indiiidaalik dUa ultctlv 
lynoraM of ttatiw or djnaniioi^ or Iht lam of cquitibriuB and (mpulM, «liu haa 
•niital lo lay out in buildii^ aniill Eadt hod Ua ovn Mt of oamicM and prgu^Ma^ 
wbmIi Ii« (oiubt to catfaodjr m lui edifice Utllo awara baw n>n«B th« diKivcDt ordai 
•f mathino dopendod for th« proihielJTniUM and prcdMon nf Atir parformaaoa «■ 
Ibe right magailadoa, proportions aa4 a^uMmtnia of tha nwin tlianing auil «bg«I 
goarinfi. Tfataa ai« la laol tlis gnai n«rva> anil artaTlM wUeb tnatmit vitality a*d 
Tolitioo, to 10 ipo^ vilh diM •UiuUaiM dnlicaoy, osil iptol lo iho aotoaaatic orgBd^ 
lloncc, if lliDT b« Ul-mailv ur iti.ilitlr{buWii nothing can qo ir<1L 

Ur. Pnirboira ha* fvi laanj yoan onlercd largely into tb« liiM uf a fiototy architcd. 
fur wliioli lu« tlicti-Mil f rttat worfciliopa ate adniirablv adaiitcd. Tb« capJullM hat 
nervly tu statu tliu extent of hU moaKta, tbo naturo ol his manafiteturc, ita iat«*dcd 
dto aiitl focilitioi of poiitiou In rvbnnoa to vatar or toal, nbcn he win b« fiinuib j 
vitb doiiipii^ utlimalot. and oSvni on tl>« mott (oon'nalcal turaii caoaittcEat with «to*l- 
len««^ aceonlluK ti> ■ plnu ouiablnin^ i-Ivi^um o( «M«Tna1 aapcvl villi aolidity, eon- 
vonUnei^ and Mfiiitrnxint in tli'f iDt<.'>TtnI^*irui'tur«. A* (-111.-1 '> at' r, h< l>r«>tn«* ropim- 
dbla for tbr iiiiKDry, oarpteltj-, and otlwr work of the builJiDu, tor tlie croKioa «f k 
aufldaot power, whether oraatcuu-cnguiD or water-wheel, to ilriTi! OTory nia<Uiia i| 
it to ooauiii, and for the mountuii; of all the iliofta and grval wIimIb by wbkli tb« 
]>i>ver of llio flnl muTer i* diitrl Luted. 

The rMMit innaTatiooi In propaitioDma tlin nioa, regulating th« cann*eti«na, aoS 
•i4jiutia« tbo movmncnt* of tho ijalt-m uf iiliaA-g«ar!a|t fona a fia< f«alur>s in Iha 
pulMOphy of manubetiim. Thui not otily an liiipi'<iT«iiiiiut bo* been n)nd« in tlia 
rtgnlanty of ImpaUion. bat a coniid-irnbla inertoa* of jiowor from Uio unie prim*- 
moTM liai bMO ohtalMd ; aniouiiliui; in »<iiue aaui, of old mllU remouiitod bv Meau*. 
Pulrtiklm and Liltiv, Id fully !■) per cml. Tlie durability ofahafC«K>i'Xquia1ttily lursad 
ami poliaheil i* annlhcr htuI ndr&ntngi^ Tlir npinning factory of Mcmm. AihworiK 
at fi^«noD, which baa been ut Wi^rk for itrotul Tciti, inhibits OH ticolI»al (lallom of 
ttio «tigiaeerin(( jn*t doMribcd : for it hu tonui ■ubordinulo thafix, himllr Ihivkir Ibaa 
Ibabuioan vnil, which oonT<y tha iiowtrof tcnhatwsauJ reroli-* wltH^rMtipotil, 
iritliaul the alwhtfat rdIm or ribmtlon. Tho primo-iuoT«i' of the witola i> a gi^ntt* 
wat«r~wh«*l onto fwt diainel«r, and 100 bun«4' power I Iiavb frequrntly b««a U ft 
lOM IB valkbg throDKh HTtnl of the mill-wri^bt IkIotIok to know w'bethcr Ih* 
MJulivd ihaflt thnl inrt the nutonalio lalhea and planing iaa«hin«a w«m> at n*t qr 
ui motion, «u Iriily imd tilmtlT did they ravolvo. 

Tbo invlliod ft tnnnMiwd vdoeitic* io the driving amtor ohafta of faoturiM la uu. 
doubUdly ona of the rooil rvnmrkaldq Improraintati in prsetical draaiuiM. 1< dlml- 
iklttiMffrMlly tho inertia of thnmaM to bo mortd, by giving to miiofi ligblcrahalUaad 
wlwcltUiaMiuqBHnnantitin; and It patuiU tha polity* or drnns wbieb Imaitdlattlf 
linf>ellhi!UiaH>bwby(inpa, lo b«r*iluo«d loaciiomiiehiiaiirBr to thatof thcUun 
pBll«yaAicdun the main axM of ihaw maoluDM. About thirty Tean ago tbo reloeitUa 
of the main timlta prooeciliag from tbo moriu pDVor, wh4to«r of *t*an or vattr, 
utoaiitod to no more than from 30 lo 40 rcrolunona jitr minut' : and of the wfiallti 
•ad rem-rtpr ihafK to only 40 or M At tlia laiao pwiod the dninit wtr« Imvy lsh% 



MIHINO. 



1«9 



•ad from SO (o npwud* of HO inch** to ilia(a<it«P. TM( hnprvrtd lytuta ia atnin 
it*p obKgatMiu £» ill Mtual (tato of pdrfaclion to th« «l>ixire-n«ntJ (^naon, lboU|{h 
it twd MmuBBiictJ. U1TC liBiu ilaitd. barer* Uiolrtiiac. In llie mill* monntoil liT tti^a 
KMllenKCi.ttiiinltruHsx i« uc *lfwl«r diiilV lik* miftlj i9)t(-u>y nrnu, Mpidly Irajw- 
mittiBif T«*l nuufr llir<iii|tti M i>if r&niillcatinua of a grvnt fncioVr. 

1h« Ibltowi^ >Ulail* «iU |>liiiw thia nuiu-r in tho olMiwt light :— A mill pr(>|i«IM br 
« ateam-Mg^M of SO bonair {>ow«r. waa farmcrlf tcedNd with ahafta, faavfng an avtr*^ 
ti«»iT*FM*MUanalUM)Dare jiiehef,orvnryin|{ la aiufraai4lotin«hM*aiiara. An 
«lgil«af like pvKcral xir priitrnl dav viti. In eana»qa«nD« of Uia tncmacj T^o«i(i« 
thatt tkatrihc-l, work witii eylindrii^iU iliaAa iiotcucoMiUncai. iui<l uftca onljr S iodtga 
in iliaiaetcr; jioiHuinK. tkrrnfort^ all araiaKO aiva of Only 1 3 nuara inuhca. luitaid of 
M. Tlio lioriionUl ibnfu tlinl luii uniUr lln' I'uilinfW pf liio iliffurciit wtprking-roomt 
arel inch**, nod Mtdom movcI 1) indlani«t»r. Ilcnea tlia maaa of gMhug bai hvoa 
todoMJ hilly «rn«-halt Uiit tliu thUta noir mako from IS0 1» ISO rovalationa !d a 
■ImUv i^ ooMtlonally. u vh«r« Ihrocllcs nrc tamed, u mAD)* ■• 100 in th« «atn« 
tiwA "nim ir« »M the requisite mumcalum ii ffniaui] irith ii lii^lit thud, «lill<< tlie 
frMf'-n i« j-roportioaallj dimJaiilici). bdiI tlio driviuit->lruin rvvolvo witli a velociljin 
«" ''itli the ■ccclTralcd pac* <if the raadeni laadiiiiM. Ilia aavcnl tipeucb 

u' liitenuiiig th<ir i«(ieollve Mitjaeta. 

I w i-oiiraofJiy of oittDufaoluM* tuvmlJMt^^ la the next plae*. th« nuM eeotiuinical 
Had eii«if<tl« tnodaa cf apfilylnif tha inMiT«fbree to Uia rarimuworkir^orgaaa; tha 
tanliDC en gl w w. tha Jnwla^ hwtia. the raviing (raiBe^ tlia throatlM^ t£o muloa, tho 
javM^oom*. tli« <]TaH!nB'Uiii<hinca, Ao. 

Tlie Kfftiw eafduliat m rigorouiiy iMaDdad by the Britiah cacinair, anil n««il not, 
tk» tbe conAinotAl wIvMiturer, lanra hi* fufid* l«ng •laraiant, nflnr an ofinor-lunily of 
lUastkom |iro6tably !■ factory olerpTiaeoocnn. Knirluiini't inillwriglit valabliah- 
ttMt itt UaMfcoaUir toraa mil (ram mo t« 4O0 rani* of (haA-ncring «<(Ty wiwk, 
flaoly litlthcd at a vnty moderala prier^ baomteauuottc'tery tool ia now njorc or 1m* 
attwiaallft and perton u a U« vsrb more aheoply ami with gnnter prediivo lliau tha 
hand Mold poaubly Jo, Where manveuiuiierjiartaiwiiniilarpicMaeDtariiilDmiiaiiBg 
•foaraliMi my an «ll made en pDncetly identical in foriu an-l liie, by the aBlfAatina 
lOoUs inch M the planing and kty-|rrc>vu imltinH mitfliiriH. tlmt any one of ihem wiO 
■t aan tit iol* the ponUoa of any of Iti followt in iW uenoral fnuBt, 

MILL-STOKE, « Si<>ia-Sin)ir„ Tills iii1-iT->Iin!.' fonn of liliro, which OKorti In ifcral 
■■an, Wt ■ mturv nacnimllT ciflliilnr, lliv eclli ticLiii; iircL'ulni in nurnhvi, •hatiF, nad 
«iit. ai^il ''(■ oAea crauAt by Ikin iflntn, or coiitc iibrcs of filial. Thr Bvhr^Ii'ni.' hai 
> r-iare, Inl it ii uul k> t-riltlc nt Itinl. ihoush iln hardncis i> ntnrly ill* umc. 

tl .i^ioUdixbI i lit eulor* art [uile and '\iti, »( n tchitiah, payiih, oi }cllowi*h 

Mat, iuuit tim-.-v wilh a lint* of lilur. 

Tlie Bnhi-iion« •tnalljr occur in hed«, which arc aonirtim** conliuuon*, anil at othan 
iMtrraptoL Thne bcdi arc pinccd amid dcponk* of nnd, or urgillactDiM anil IVrru- 
Aon* mail*, which pcncuntc bclwctn them, Blling Ihdr fiuurnanil bane}ciiuib cariiica. 
BihTi^uaoa oaiuiiiDle n very rue acological Ibnmtion, bcini; found in abundance onl; in 
A* Morral bwin tt Faiii, and a few adjoining dittricu. In place of nipcvpcwition ti . 
Mil aarrrtoined i tl rem* a xm» of Iht lacuttrinc, or finJi-waltc fuimailon, which, in 
Ac iuotlll] ■DiiHrI lOilielnboTe Ihi- fgaul-bjae np*uui, ao'l tlie tlntniii uT wnd and 
■•riae aaodUDnc whkh ooren it. Buhr-slone conilituI», Ihcrcforc, \ht u|i|iriniaf I aiilid 
MHbnaf Lkccmtof thci;lobci for nbcne it there tiaoihjiiK bal alluvial Mil, or dduvial 
paid, mini, afbd Joun. 

Bat«-«IDaM aoeMtiiDC* (Alnin no oignoic forro*, at olhcn ihcy atna a* if atulfrd Tall 
if Anb-VBlcti^llf,<qkanhdl>«nJTe«Mnbl»arinlui<]|{rovlh. There ii po cxccp- 
(■■■knaw* Is thiiamnctumli hat the ahellt have afaaoicrj a ulicioua ootiuc, ami theii 
wvju* at* oAcB bejedied wilh rryiilnts of ijuaiti. The bcki Ituhr-ftoact for rrindias 
^tm, haTc about an e^nal ptoponiun oT wlirl niatirr. and of vacant ipaer. Tliv Anc*! 
fHTTT «f ttano la npoa the hi$h airouod. acoi La Frrla^mu-Jauim, Thv ^loiir* are 
^11 1 lilt tm the of«a air, ami are eal out In eyiindeia, fno one to two janh in ilinmrtc^ 
hf a lartw «t irae aad woedea ved(t9, cradually but cquallr iiucricd. The iriccc* of 
la*i aliiilia are oHerwajd* cut in pBrallelopipcitii, callrd paiui. which ue bcntnd with iron 
iMifa 1M« hu«e DuUMonck Tbcw piecm are eii>ariod chu-lt)' lo Kn^Uul and Acufrica. 
liawl Biilht—ri of a lilo^ vUle color, with a revulsr proponiMi of crllt, when >ix fett 
mt ■ half in diatnrfer, (Wch ISM ftue* a.picce, or 4Sil, iteTliaii. A coorac eonslom- 
'"■-• '>nibta»r a lirrechi la. In tome eaic*, lucd u n aubMiiule for hahr-Moac*j hul 

LU«COIK'. 

< R At. WATERS. SeeSoDA W«Ti*,and Watdu^ MiHXMt. 

fWrgwrrh, Germ.) Aniidtt the rorjet) of bailc* appatmlj ittBaiK, wUd 
etmtt oTthc Elobe, seokigiU* hern denonitml«d the pRTakoce «f a r«* 



IM 



MINES. 



MMnI tyitenu oT rocLs lo whicb Itcy likre riven tkc ume of firmio/imu sr < , . 
A ht^ pcnpaitiaa tf Uicm ninenl i|vlcm> ooniisU at panlltl pbnM, vbow lenflk and 
bnadikqrcatljr cieMdUMirUiiekiiew) onnhich accoiuu ihcf are <•■« fUaiiSol todui 
nlhei* oeenr In fnT tUek bloolu^ wiUwul nny pusUcl cUkUficalMii, « hotiionul icmm 
oT contidmbla cstenL 

Th* UiUibrm <Igv««lw« ut uibdiTUod into ino gtwat etannj Ifae prtmuf wbI iba 
Mesivlur. Thp formprMmn l» lutiw bom called inUnkUaei bdbta ih* crntk* tt 
ocsanic M>liFt, ber«uie IbcT conlain na udtm of MtoloUe or oiunial briiist i aUtc 
Um Ultor ncr DiDtc or le» CDlenponol, and somelimm replete with ontanic teuu^^ 
I Tbe primary iirntn *rc ehaiaeloind, jncxivit-r, b; Uic anuly vertical or b^hlir tnd|^| 
tomaau of llicir plaan i the tecoaimtj lie Tor tbc matt [aLTl in a Mwljr koiis^H 
poiilJaR, 

Whi-it llii> prlmilivr nwuaiainii gnulualeilawa inlolbo plabt,n)cki of aaintanDcMau 
Aharaclet appmr, wbicli, thmitib poM««untt a nwly vcnieal potUion, mniaia a Crw 
VMlinsoranuniilbeinit«.e(it>«ci«UrihdlB. Th»ebsveb(eaoalkd(minl*e<Stai»iioUe 
their brine the inuinii Lnkn lietwota the £raC and letDnd (T«enu oT aaocBl dtpoiilea) 
tbc7 im fiiiiincuiibal bf Ihc fractiutd and eemoiled iciliue oT Ihcir pl«n«*, (cu vhld 
rcoion ihry mo wniciiinu tniM cmuclomeraUi. 

Bctwwn lhc(« awl the truly KconiUrj todu, another Tcrj vahuble §mn m b W trawd 
in OMtain dblrioa or th« qialw ; naniRlr, the coal-uit«iur«i^ the faramouM l«<inaliaa U , 
Oiaat Britaio. The ciwl (Iraln antiliipotcd In a baiiaJwm, and allrrnate wiih fC^riife 
bed* of nudtlcme, itnlcT'.ai, iriin^lCDC, and mKavonallT limeilone. Some Fcah^^l 
have calM Ibe coBl-tncuuru the medial rormatlaa. ^^^ 

In e^try mtneni plane, the inclination aut dixtclicm uc lo be nolcd ; Uur fomttr btlif 
Ihc Muk trhtch tl tanan with the horiion, Ihc latter tlic iwint uT the aiiDiuth ot bntltim, 
lowanu which il dips ** wml, narlh'Ciut, loalh, &e. 'rh* din«llun cf the ti«d i* tlwi 
oT a horituncal line ilni«n in tut plane ; and which it alM denotnl by tbe puinl uf Ott 
goBwata. Since the linct v( ilirertiun and incliDatioa are at rigbl ani^ea In each «4lH 
t'Iha jitsi may alwayi be inrrrml (tam llieaecondi Tor vheaaMiatiiniXBid todipl^^^ 
«a*t or WMt, this implin Ihal iU ilirtetian i* north and «autb. ^H 

The tmaller ainnaltiei of tbe bed arc i»t inken into account, juu ai^ tkt windfaii^H 
a rirn aie neglected in (latins the line of iu connr. ^^| 

Jfiiii^i ate uiinnral ilr|<"*llrt, nut nteiiviti'ly Kiimad in iiaralli'l pUnr^ but tirenlw 
beapi, mundeO or uvnl, enietovi'd in u lii-te or In a ureal iiiFnuurT' b; totk% iif a (UTetent 
kind. Lenticular mat*a beina ftequcnilir plaerd between iwd hotiiontal or Ifilmid 
■Irata, hare becnl unnctinin tuppOKd to be ilinlirarni IhcriKrIvn. and bate been aMHlt 
ioghr dennmiaatcd by the Grrmiuii tiegtnJc tloda, lyinK lu-ipi or blwli: 
. TAe tiibienlar matatn oflen occur In Ihc interior of uaairaliAnl inoanuia*,«r in ibe 
boacm of one bed. 

Nnt; rMcnf idu, aujtjft, are tmaU maite* founil in tbe middle of ttmla : tbe £nt br> 
Inf (ommanly in n fritble stnle; the ncond ciAcin kiilne] •shaped, or labcious; tlie ihinl 
aeaily round, and ineroxled, like the kernel of an almond. 

Laitt. at tnrce relni, are llatlened moiK*, with their op|io*lto lUiftce* nM rarallel, 
which conw^nenily lermiiinlr like a wedgc^ at a srtain n* Icm dlttanetj aaJ ia ool tni 
piraJbl wiih ih' rochy tlraln in vbleh Ihcy lie, but citM them in a direction not At 
B«m the pvrprniliriilnri nhen iisTtnini acrcnl diflermt mineia) planes. The MaiafC 
KMn«timn dumnccd in Ihrir course, *o *• lo purtui' for a little way Ihc tpaco batwna 
two fonticuoui itraiBi nt other tiiaea IbeydiTJde into levrml bmnchca. Tb« taallM 
whifh nil< the lodH i> for Ihc moil part entirely different ficiin the rock* tbe]- paM 
Ibrouith. oi at IcaM It pouMiei peeuliiu ft^ature*. tb 

Tbis mode of rii'tfiir^, exlubil^d by M-rcral mtoerar tulHtnncn, but which Im 
beea loni; kiiowii wiih rmard to mclollie ore*, aacccala tbe ideo of clelU or mu 
faavintt been mnile in the itnlum putleriur to ill eonaolidaljan, and of the taeslttM 
haHnit been nilrd with fiireinn matter, either immodialely or allrt a ceilaio luternL 
Then- can bi- nu iloubt a> lo the Jutinesi of the Hnl part of the ptopoiiiian, fut Ihara 
(nay be ninervod round many tndei undeniable pTOoft of Ihc movMneat nr dtftlocalkM 9t 
Ibc rock I lor cxnmple. upon eneb aide of ilin mit, the laaw ilrala are uu touKcr lUvalal 
In tbe mine plane as brforr, but make ICivalrt or nnnller anvle* with tl i at tlw MntUfll 
upiin iini^ lidc of the lodr in raifttl wntiderably nboir, or deprciMd cotuUenUy b»taM>, 
lit ruuiitiTiwrt tipna the nihcr aide. With reeatd to the manner in whkh the rtal hai 
baan Clled, dil&r«nt opinion* rnny be entertained. In the lodca vtiiek are vldett naai 
lb« Mirihce of the ntnmd, nwl itroiliiaie into > thin wadgc betuw, Iba fbtvitn mauct 
wonld ipotn lo have been inlroduetd oi Into a funnri at ihe taf, and ta bare eartM 
alonB with il In lU fluid iinlc poriiont of rcunildl iinml and nrvnaie mnainfc In 
aihei enm, aibt* eonccntlonn tnem lo b« more probable ; linec many Indes arc hr^Ml • 
•I ikrir under port, and bt<enme pro f rc Mi veiy aanower m the; apiiroaeb thcaaiAeoi 
frdi. wblch ciicumitanee it hai hnn inferiad that the rent hn> been canxd br aa i 



unuBs. 



147 



noil 



■ f-nte Mihf lto«ii wilhiii t)i« nnh, >nd (hat ib> fintin maticr, hann; beta 
ill ' Said ital«, hai altrtmi^s ■lowly a]i;iiilllxpd. ThLs bypollurw kcraoMi 

t.. ibn Ibc oUipr for mm nf Uio phPtiniueDa olwrrvable In uiiirral TPinn, tOt 

It, III Dflbc rodi >l iliclr liilrf, for the cfTiuIliuiion «f ttie <)iir<mnt rabtMncn* 

ii' :a il>iea,foT ihfl cAviiii:» bmntUril wilh litilF cryKBln, ■n'l tvrmtnj ininuie 

K'.iiiTiiin. Tlut^ IW tiirpr rt^Mtl* of n'rinin tuhlanm whjcb liar Ibe imllt d 
low Tcin*, hate Me«tim«s Ibrir wndfT tuifacrt brcprinklol wjtb unall Fi^ali of 
Ipharrti, aneninrHi, Jif.. wbilt^ ihrir oppFt suriiicis are qiiilc nniHiibi (iucer«in( 
Uen '-r n ilow iiibUmalion of lb«M volnlilc Bnlltn rrom bdnw. by Ibc rruilliai 
_ il, aail tbt-li (vnilcnniion upon Ihe unrkr Caret of the crynalUne holiiii, nlrcoil) 
MOlei. Till* pbcnatDuiun aflbrds a Mrone iadicalion of the Igncoa* drigllt of melalU- 

In ihc lodra, Ibc priKiptI matin* vhlrh Ail tbcin ara to b« di^iia^niriied Cmm th* 
aerr^uiry (uUlaaNi: ibr lottti bFin(dlHribiil«diR«vularlr,UBidil (hemoHof Ihi- llnl. 
in rryiUJt, >odain, (mint, Mnm*, lit, Tbn noa-iacUJUrennia ellerfor pLiliiin. which u 
oAen Ibc laivnl, it called c«"f<>r, fniin (be Gcnnaa fmg, ttio. Tbe potilion of n vcio 
b driio^cJ. '>Vr ihni of Ibc iitaia, bf ihe flnik of iovUnatiaa, and the point of ibchDrizon 
t«w«r'i- -v diji. B-hpnce Ibc diicction i> dtdnecd. 

fn-i ly mull Ioit». vtiich uiinpliiiiet tnvcne Ibc great one*, nunifyini; » 

Tvriovt luTTKi'ini, and in dilfciriil drgic« of IcDuiiy. 

A ntUiKtnm* Mh»i*tir<- ii tjiid t" bi' iliitcminaUd, whan It It ditpnMd in «y»talt 
rpaulea, wain, (lotalcs &c., IbTviigb n Inige mineral nam. 

Ccrtai* ora irbirli conlnin the melall moil indiupcn tabic l« htlinon neMMillc*, have 
been ireaMied up b; ihe Crenlor in lerr bonnlifiil depoiitni coniUluling nlhei ijrcal 
marr-i In itek* of iliOetpni kinds, or duiribiitcil in todrs, rein*, n«L>. concrelion*, or bedi 
wiiii >Uia) aad eatth}^ admiiiiuo i the wbok of whicb beeomc Ibc ubjecu ornuocml ci- 
ftonlMi. Tbetc prctsoui turn oMiir in ditrecent ilara of the fXvlDgloal fomationa ; 
lot iMf nwln mtioo, afler hntin; »iitnl nbundnntly in the senml otdcn of tbc jin- 
RRT itrvta, ainUenlT otair lo be luimd luward* the middle of the •rconilarr. Itnn urg* 
•re tbc o«l7 on«« «hi<b ctmiinuc anioiiR Ibc tnora modem dciKoittf, even i<> hiph a» thr 
iedl tmaMJialr?r beoenlb ihe chalh, when ibty sIm ditappMr, or cxiat mcrelr aa color- 
Mt MBiiei* of the lerliar} Mirthj bed*. 

tlK Miitu of ^cJM and wca-ilalc conatitule in Europe the p«nd mclallic doowiB. 
TVrr U h*<<ll)r an^ kind of err nhicb docs nol occui Ibpre in lullleient abunilanee lo 
bmnie tha ot^l of mining o|iprallQn>, nnd manj' are found mnthere rtic. Tbe inn- 
illlon rocks, aid ibr Inwrr |<>n of ihi- iierondarj (inr*, ate not ao rieb, neither do Uier 
contain ibe nine vniiel)* of oret. But thb onltc of ihinv*. wbieb it prcacnled by Great 
Bhiain, 6cr«aay, France, Sweden, nn<l Korwajr, ia far fnim formiiiit a general law t tiaee 
tecqainnclial Amcrien (be meiu b but lit lit inelDlUfcroni i vtiilc tbe (apcmv atxitt*, 
Neb •• Uir «Uf-*rbitla, the lienilic porph; riet, tbe liineilone*. which eomplcle tbc timn- 
ritioa aerka, a* alio (cvDiml accondari depoiitu, inclode tbc greater ponloa of tba luiinrnir 
■taecal vtalib of thai ra^on of Ibc pxibe. 

All Ite Mh«IBnee* of wbleh the ndHiorr nrialt form the but*, arn not eiiUBtly •biiiiiianl 
h nalnct > V^f pmportim of the noinecon* mincnl *peri(vi wbrch Srure in our elii«i- 
leaiionsMe mere inrietie* acallrntl u|> and down tn the eavilin of the smt mtraes W 
Me*. The VQikable om are few in number, beinn motlly siilphnrrls, lome oiydea, aild 
■iboMle*. Thoe octaikmally form of tbemtelTH very lurec manrf. but tnoie liequeM- 
■fiber '^ blended vilb lompaof qtiattx, fcldipnr. nnd earbooaic of lime, which fotm Ibe 
■tis bod; MTthedopodtCiaabappcnt alwnyiin iiropcr kulc*. Theorcatn thai um arc 
wnofnl ia tmall Injrora inrtllal lo the giraia of the lonnalion, or in anmll vein* wUeb 
tofww lb« rock in all direction*, or in onM or concrciiona ataiiiinad iiregttlailr, or 
tmUj 4iMf«iiaa(aI in banllv viable particle*. Tbne depofitea laineliMn contain Bff«- 
miij only a*e ipecieB of ore, aometimet ncrenil, which miikt I<r mined lofcther, aa thay 
■((■ lo be of ooatcntpoioueouii fbrmDiion; wliilf<i,iii other caxis they are leiitnble, 
Iwrlag been (cobiUv (iMmoi at diflctent tiuiclik In iieatinE uf like icTcral Dietala in 
ttb alphabetical onler, I bale token cnrc lo dewribc their pcenliar geoloeieol po»ition«, 
wi (ha roekj which aerocni«Dy or mnieialiie tJicm. 

In iakiiS»g, *» ui aifbittcture, the bi'al melhod of iinpanliii; inntmeiion t> to diiplay 
A* i«aM(f>fMcn of tbc miiretiie art), which »peak ciculy to the mind tbroni-h the 
■aedinm of ib« eye. It it Bot lo eaiiy, however, W repTMcnt al ones Ibe geneml efleet of 
ft none, oi il il of aa edifice i became there i* no point of aicbt from which the fomiM 
«• be (lieicbcd at once, like Ibe Inltcr. The niblcmiiMlu (tJiiolnraa catUinly aircm) 
Mtte oT (be Imm oumpka of the tuefal kbora of bm, continwd Ibc ageti, nnder thf 
fiMaaee of •elence and in^nuity ; but, howcTcr eniioiit, bcanliAil, and ftud in them 
■dva, ihry raanol beixmr nb^i* of a panoramie view. It b only by tte lichli of f»- 
■■tin and «(akif> Ibnl iniMS can br CODlemptalcd and furteyei, cither as ■ wbole or b 
Ailr AUib t aa^ ihcrcfute, Ibete macrcllnui Mbt«rranoan rcitioiia, in which nwla an col 



■ 



!•• 



MDOS. 



mamf baadMd diBm laa& *i« •iMMher vnkaowa or d>*rmi4cd br am «f tW «MI 
ShosM itiT ef ihMn, pmluM*. mni oariwiir at iautcM, dctccad mio tWM tak 
rotcMo nf ihe Bulk, ihrjr «v pirfiwcd M dncotcr oaly ■ tew fatoilninl ubi«<t* «fcl(k iImi 
may tkink oran^ or pouiUy hulDoot i bot ilwT «aasoi reeogftiir 'iibrr ilw ipnmwiM 
dbfMkian of ninenl htiiet, or the Um which (ovoni (Mloincal pha»oni*n«, ml 
•rrvn •> mv ^Im (o Ifac akiUbl ntaer in hU ailnnlimat uatch. It b \iy rtaa 
l<iaiH ami •r<tiiiii« nf «utilenaa*iMM voilnac*^ l'**^ * knowtedge of Ihe «Uiu», oWL 
«iii| •tilth bill inn ot i»inB.'«l wealth can be aeqaircd. 

Vll. .f ffMT^ eitir of mimlaf aptmHau. 




\t Ihnr ir ni> cmialry in 1^ wurM h> inily lidi nit ' -• loTfiil. Iif inluc ti Ut atiami 

I •t*iF«, •« Grot Btllnin, *o iMre »rr nil |>cTiplf «■! M i t tko ■ ilnpw tntmwt la 

Ihrif •rii'nlifie iltnt(ralinn. f hav* rt>(l™i'oi«l it, iin [m -mi articlv lo (o1U«l IVm 
the mtni nnlhmlic tonrcva Uic nml ininrviinr anil iiinlruelJTC namplt* of miolic 
DiientionK. 

1\i ihp rauniHTCnl mnit of Vtllv-FoiM, Sur la ftidutm Atnerol*, ao IcAccrcn ad^ 
I hare m ackamrlt-l^ welgfal]- obUialiani! niBiigr ot the Sgum being csfieil Aom Irb 
(TMt Alia*. 

L»l*i or miami veln» are unuIlT Hiilingni'.hwl by Eni^lith minen into u !«»« fc« 
fpcdti. I. ThP rake vein, S. Thr pipe vein. 3. Tl^e Dm oc ililateJ rtini and 4. 
The inietlncnl man (tlMJt-ifTrJt<). indicniine the union of a mullilwle of tmaU folM 
mitfl in rvery poMible diwelion with e«rh olhcr. nnit wilb the rotlr. 

I. Tlir riiJlrr Vein {• a |icr|<en(liculat minEial livKirr ; and n 1h« fecm Wit fcaMIB 

■moni* iir«r<l>?n1 minprt. ll rftniTiiimly rnn> in a itniizhi tine, bn^inninic al tba MpV- 

Sri'* r>i^ thf ifnin, and eitlinK Ihrin donavrardt, i-enenltr fttnhcr ihan oan be n^ehad. 

F Thi* v"lii >.im"iiinM itandi qiiilf p+rpendimilnr j bin it more usnnlly indiiiet iit haaft 

MM al 4 K''eaier or Mnnller nnt:le, or «lnpr, which ii eii]li<il hy ibe miaen the htiA « 

hiiding <it the ni>. The li>e or ditrelion in whioh Ihe fimire ran*, ii ealttil Uie A>«ri^ 

i/ tht Mia. 

t. The pip( vein mcmblei in inniiT reipeclt n liuif irrcirolnr cnvern, fniklaf ftir^ud 

[ bh) the bndf of th? Mtib tn n ^Ii'iiitii; i1inrtii<n, un-ivr tnriout inclination*, ftalD an 

■afle it a Ihw degree* to the hurixun, U> a dip o( ti'', or innie. The pipe rioe« wtt In 

Beiiernl enl ihfitnia aetnM liWe the rehe rein, bill iniinnnle* itieV biriirten lh«wi m 

that irihe plane of the tinin b« nearlr hoiikintal, the btarinf; of the pipe vein will br 

• MofttsMblei but if the (trnta tlond np nt a hiah anirle, the ppt iboou down neartf 

I'badlon; like n ahnn. Some pip« are very walr and high, othen are vcrr low aad 

fiMmw, (omelime* not larrei ihan a enaininn fninr or iMft. 

3. Thvjm iw 4UtUJ vein, i> ■ <pir« or oprniiu between two MrttU or bed* of ••ume, 
Iha one tif wbiob Dm abote, and thv nlJier bebw this tein, Blta a alratua of tt>al 



m»E& 



tttwrca Ui roof ood parCHtatt to thai the t«m ud ike drala we placol in Ibe eame 
dMo uf iMcliaBiloa. Tbcw vdiu ore nibjcci, like cmI, Io t* iiUciT«i4ed, bnik», ai4 
inwA Bfi <■ ilowa br *tip*, lUlet, or aib*r inUrruiiUoat or ib« n^aldi MnU. lii tii« 
■ur of • inrtBlllo vgin, • »lip often iocmoM th* ehuica of dmiing iiwtn UaMiutb Sacb 
tnoa ih> iiui poMTTc tbs parsll«lt»m of Ibtlr bwlt^ olwrartcriUic iif m«1 mumi but 
fwy nemirdx m IhicknoB nilhin q moltnl* ipoee, Kbil iciiia oar«r fKqiMntl; nt 
liMeaiMr, riUici in > boiiuiniiil at dctliiun|[4irMlioiu TbedM or urate vda* upon urf 
elMr, •* tlic nke Tcint also ilo. 

1. Tl^ uilNlwtd ni>Ki hM been •Ireadr ddlaed. 

iSi thr*« majr bo aiklcil Ilia oofiinittlafei vein, or iinfraiM nun (MimiMrfei), ■ gmat 
dtpoMlp piiced vilbout nvj oMicr tn tht butomof the rack*, ■pporaiitlj AJJiuf np««T«ni. 
Hiipu**. 

Tbn intrrlaetJ nUMci wa Oion froquanC in primiliw tomUiaait, Idiui in Ibc alberti 
■b4 tin u ilie ore «yfk OMit ixioiiUDnljr alTceU tliii Imiililj. Sec firare uT Ti» luiiic. 

Tbr (iwl) of tbe niaeral nbtuncn, called caHcnd or rcuMiouci, wliicb luuallf 
oroatDpaar ItedlXmal am, u indi>pe**ablc in Ihu inmlicnlioD nnd wwkinii of luioMu 
TbsB finvt*, Mek u qiioru, calcaieoui 'por, doer •par, beivf >|iu, ItC., anil a gmi 
llMrtMiT «(«4b«r MbUAac**, allbough of lllUc or no value ui IbciuiclTci, become of great 
MoaaVIMn to the ■iii«r, riUwr br poiutioi out by theu pnteoee ibat eif cnlato omM 
■liiwai^ or hf obsr«cl<ruinic in ^vtr errtnl aMoeiationt, dillntal 4«poMlc* of orat ot 
wbMiil Mijr be pDojble li> roUutr tb« iis«a*,aiul lo diMtiioiiuto IherebaiontieAciaf a 
«D«apUaaNit bi*A. pronled *e obtenrn aniiloouslj Ibo acaamfoaf ins j^mgan. 

AUaoral niat are fubjrcl to ilcnumtBenti in ihcir cuune, which are called thifU or 
bulla. Th'W. wbm a inuverte nin Lkiom oai, or ia.1etoeT>(>, ■ lonailwIinAJ one, «c 
BNU romnoatj loali lor the nyocicil vein on tbe tide of Ibe obtuie angle Rbidi Uw 
dinEtfan of Iha lallai OMkCt wllb thai uf Ibe brmei. Whrn u l>n] of oif a iteiangcd 
Iifaf(..1i •» >n'-i obMnvvhtlbtr ihe>Jir<>rih« (train bij ngiwaiiUot'tuw-nwanU; for 
aaicr, it it onl; 1>) ixiituiiiK llie 'lir>xliun of the fnutl llial we can 
1^ Ike Ibrmcr c»u by inuuiilin):, in llie UlMr bf dnceiiiliuK bcvond 



W Ml>- 
rport"' ■ 

III 



aoiFl TJt !■ ■- ' 



vein* inleriMl each other, the direclion oS (he i^eail ia a nibjKt of lalereal, 
alner and Ibe ^cologiit. In Saxony ii ii fi)UKi(kr«t at a renemt fatl thai 
lb> |>arlinn ihronta iwl it nl<rap apaa the lide uf ilie uhiute aiick-, n circiuii*lancp wtiicli 
Ml( alac 10 CMBwall ; and Ibe nor* obtnte Uie astilfT tlio oiil-lbruur u llic mote eon- 
Moabfe. A vnn iiai be thiniiu oul no EiTliug oimllivr xein, in a IW nbieh BI>t>ruadip« 
•Uni WnBiib iu iaiclinatian or its dmcliun. The Coiwih ininei* uae iwo dillMenI 
MBS la ikaolc Ikoc two mode* of lejcctioa i fot tbc fiist eoie, ibei aaj the veia u 
bani/i fi^ llie teeonil, il i> ilarUi, 
71* float cappw lodeof Cnrhanck.rf.jlf. 9B3,iB the |iaii>h of Gwenn|^ U one of the 

mOKl Intlruetive oiainplat of inlcnmllon. The nover 
oi thickucw of Ihit vein in t CtM i ll» direction ia 
noailT due caal and vtsi, and il di|i* luwaiiS ibe 
north al an iadinaiiDn of two fe«4 pet fmlioiu i il* 
Bpper pari hein;; in Ihc killai iS cn«niib day-altia) j 
ib lowtv pari in Ihc Rmailc. Tbe lode bai lulferad 
Iwo intcneellonn ; Ihu lint produced br Beelini: tbe 
vein A. callnl SIntii't yluchaa, wkicb run* Aum noiib- 
csfl 10 toulli-wutt, and nhieb Uuowji the lode 
•cveral ftlhom* outj the Mcond b piiuiiic^ bjr 
_rrd* t, al«Ml nt n^bt angle* vilh Iho llnl, and which eceaaioat naoihnr oiii< 
• of 30 Iblbuau to ilw rii)ht Hile. Tlic r«tl of Ihr vtrin nccura thiriefi:>tc in Uir onr 
CM* Id ilir tigbl, and in (he other to the IcA i Irnl ia bolb it U lowauli Uie siili* of tho 
aUw* BOfle. Tbn dUuibotiuu ii rcr; tin vulai l for one port of the vein appcan to 
hate mouMcil white Iba olhei hai ilLtcf^wlnl. k. *, denotes North and Soolb. <f >i 
lb* («pp«r lo4e lanaine e«M and iri-tt. i, i, are tyHouu of dny-alatc Tela* called 
luiVin* ; ll« line over t, nrpretenu the di>wn ftiil), and d' Ibi- up-tibift. 

Ctwra/ tt nm t(«iu «n CW latalUia ^ oni, and on Iftt inditadViu </ mcl»ltic mtma. 

L Tltt piiUi prlncipallf in prlmilive tnek*, appeartnit eilbei ia tnlarlacad Mntirryh 
tn!<, nr a< a raaUlIaeol pan of tbe nwk itwif, aad more ntrely ia disliad vein*. Tin 
B> :• fuoad iMlnd MmMiinn in allurinl land, filling up low lituation* belwrea loftf 

nrvintailM. 

:. OtU otcmn nthet in bods or in veiM, ficaitentif in piimitiTe rDcka; though io 
Mba Gmwlion*. aad panjcubulT in allavlat eatth, it it also found. Wbea Ihh melal 
rtnti in tba buaom of joiiuitite iodE<,ii !• FaiticuUilrlaacbtfU: il it not touod in ■o^O' 
"-■'. but II u nMt a-illi in xnra-aeke ia Tniujltnaia. Tbe gob! U aUatinl cILstncu. 




in 



EflNES. 



•allol ifoid of tmhn; or lnaip<in, oeenn, u ml) u tfiaviil tlai aoMC Ike dcliii #1 
■he inoip nacitnt todtt. 

3. SUiif i> Ibund partlcDiartj In vHnt »n<\ b«il*, in ptiiDiliTe mi tnuiltM fcraMUioM ; 
Ihougli liiiino ni*t of Uila mFlitl oernt' iit *Miiniliir7 itralB. The mek* tkbM Is ll ur 
(Mils miaa-tUte, elsr-^latp, it«t«bcIi*. ami old nlpine Kmrataat. LMaUiki «f •Uvtiw 
OK tlnlf ire nal ntimrrout, al kail in E^uropr^ lunons tmoaitrf fcnnsUnut bal ll 
«eean in comhiaation ailli the om of eopprr or of kwl. 

4. Coji/vi rii>i> i II [hr thrt<! nuOTTol <'poohu t I- in primilin n>cV*, pincipallr iaUn 
(lBt« af I'jTilaiu copper, 10 M*, n mMMi or in voiai) 9. in cniotitian diMiiMi, Mm*- 

I linn ill mauu, KimcMme* In veintof coirperpjrrleii 3. la iteondBij Mni*, «pc«Mllr 
In bo4i nf cD|irvcn< tchUl. 

5. £An( orriiri ol«n in toeh oT llic thrw minenl craeliMf ; ahmndln; portlcularir la 
primiiiic ami tnuiitinn itrounit*, wlicrr It niunllir a>n«iliittM Trio*, and oecaiioaallj b«d* 
of laljihuinvd trad (nleaa). Tli« mnr or* la fbnnd in Mrata or in veiai 
tMDnJni)' rockii nnocintcd l)ov and Ihtn vjlh oohreoua irDn-ai)>4e and 
(caiboualB of Klnc) | and it i« aonutiiBM diM«ii^at«l in fnioa tliroagb mace 
fliata. 

S. Inn It met wiih in four dWerent inineral rroi^ Inl is dEflacnl orei. Amtat ptkit 
(ire (Mkt, eu^rlle iron ore and (prmlnr iron ore otcar ehielly in Iwlf, (aBttiMMtf 
monnont liirt; tbe am of icil or brown myclc cf InKuhcniMJW) mtuaad g^awllf la 
««fn*, or occaiionally in ina«ni with i>{iarr)' iron, bhih in priDiitire and Uaniition rewti 
a* alni totnetioM^ in wcondnry iilraMi Inil inon> ftrqiiFnllr in Ihe «arm«anirc •baUiM 
bttia orclnT->rt>n>lonr,i>rKlolinlar iron oxjrdr.and catbiAuiteof iron. In allDTJal diMncli 
we Had cm of (lrkT-ii<m>tnne, prantUar iron-oro, boc-or«, iwamr-otp, and Mcailow^n, 
The IranoienvliiFli belong 10 the primiliTe period bare almoit alwn;i IhemelallioaipM^ 
wtlh n rii'IincH oaDUnliiig ore* to 8D per eeni. of iron, while ih* mr* In Ihe poMorior 
(brinnlinnt beeoine in ^enenil more and marr nrthf, ilotrn tn thoae in nlluvjal (o>b, mm( 
of which iircwnl ihi- apiivantnei; nf n eommnn Monv, and allbnl not more thus 30 per 
cefiL of metal, lliniitfi i\t qiulil}' i* oflrn exK'llfni, 

7. Mfrnty oeein i>iinciiiiiUy lUOOnK tecondn;} ilinta, in iliBUmnaled tno! 
«rilh nmbuiiilile lubiianeai ihon^h the meial U met with oeniianaIt<r is 
eonntrlai. 

R. Ctball Vlon^ to IV ihnte ouneral opoohu ; iti moti ttnndant dopotlln »n 
» pHmliirc loeks; tauill velni emudntas thla metal ar« Ibiim], bo«Krcr, in 
(ir«i&. 

0. jtnllmonf oocnn in reint or bpds Hmonit primilive and Iruiiliion meka. 

10, II. Biunnth and niekrl do not apprnr In ronttilole the predominatlBf MbMUM 
of any mineral de|>axltci ; bnl ther often nteompony eoboll. 

\1. XiwKietan in llie tlitee urTeml fornmiioii* : nntiidy, at >ulphur«i or hlciwlf,paMk 
uloily in primilive uiil Imadfion rocki; ■■ cnlnmim-, in terondiUT Mrala, UsnallT alwf 
with nxydf of iron, and vtmrlimot wiih mlphniei „( imd. 

An ne'iniinlaner with ihi- uenerol ronltt eoU<^ieil nnd claniflol bj RmIwt mom te 
our fitil ciiide in Ihe inveiliunliun of minn. Thi* enablu the obMrror U jod^ wtislkci 
■njr pariiiriilnr diiirid ihoiild, ff mi Ih* nal<ir« and amn^ment of iu roclti, bn auawptfc 
bbof includin: iritlun rli bosom, bnli of workable otci ; it indicalH alto, to a miria 
dOfrti^, wlisl inhtlsucn mnj probnblv be met with in a iiiien ■«riri( or toelu, and wlal 
locslily tliAW tnbitanoH will prcferabV affect. For want of a knowlnl(« of theae GmI^ 
many persons hsra t[onr blindly Into lencnrchnt ti]uBl1y abtnnl nnd ruinous. 

Fomerlr, indicaliona of ininrt <trcir taken team very onimporlant circiunili 
IhUB IlieFmal w*lc^^ Ibc heat of whirh waa iralailouily refetred to the deeompoaili 
nritca [ ftom intnerni waters, vhoK conn* a liowerer often ftom a flit diatnnl m 
Dom vapon inenmlirnl over parlieulu mouniuin iiroiipi ; from Ihr fnowi inrliinf loiter 
In one fntneral dlairirt ihnn another ; frnin Ihe ctilfeient iperirt of foml trre*, nnd fram 
thegrmier or lr«t viforof TeErlnllun. ke. In ceneral, all tueh indiealioni are oonaBy 
AllaeiaQi wiih iheilirininR rml, anil theonmpiiK innde of > lumporpiritesiuspeniudt* 
• thread. 

Owynoflie obwnraiian has rabstitutol inor« rationni eharactcra of metallic iltpoalu^ 
■omo of which mny U? enlled nrcnfiR and others foiiJirr. • 

The orgofiit imlicntioni are derived from Ihnl jiccolinr scoIo^icbI eonirtitiilton, whkh 

(tarn riperienee or crnenil prlneiplm excludn certnin mplallic mittlet*; lor eiamplt, 

pranitr, and in ifeneml every primillrc rorniniion, furhidt the hope of llndini,' wilhin thm 

eomliukiilde fouih (pil-eonl.) onleu li be Iml^ ofiuiihrncilei iheiealw ll would bt< nJa 

< to onk for Ml t^m. tl w rcrr (cldom that rranilc rucks include lilirrr; or ItoitalMo^ 

■ tVM of tin, Volranie irTrliDrir* never aSori any melollie ores wntth the workingi nor 

I do cxlcDsiTo vrins unally run into arcondiiry nnd allu'riBl Ibrmnlioni. The richei oroc 

ef iron do not dmui in secondary Minis ; and Ihe ore* of ikl« mntal pvenliar to 

hcalilico, do sol ojft among pritnarj rocks. 



a 



MINES. 



IW 



petiSirt inilkaiion*, (an« are praxiHBle anil othen remote. Tbc praiim«i« 
, an rtHoracenot, to 10 ipw, of lh« nibjuceni mMaUic maw:*; niBgiiclJc BltracIlM 
for Iron orit i liinuninoa* i(aiie,Dr laflauiiiuiblc gnufar pit-^caal; Uic HmuciiI ocearronoe 
of ftaunWQtt lit [MilleiilBr an>, Ilo. The icdoip inillcalioai ckdhIiiI in the ffnlonkal 
•pocha. anil nniiii* or tha roeka. IWo tke vxniriiilci [irvnuu^ljr actdHCcd, lanrki at 
tkii kikd a<>)iii>r new imfottancv •km in a iliiiltici iiori'ptibln ol* incliiiling d(i|<i>9itc< cf 
worfcahle ore*, the Koa^oa or Tcin^stonn anr nicl wilb rbkh luiiall)' acoonpuif anj 
paittculair siriaL The ^eoeral aipvcl or mounuins whoM Hank* prricnl genllc aiid 
OoaAiauoiia UopcBi, tW fraqgcot)' of nienli; vi-im, Ihc prMrnoc of mecalllrcnnu taml*, lli« 
■eitkborhood of tcmt kaown h>nallty of an ore, for inUancc, thai of iron-tiuno io 
rvfrrrnrr lu tnnt, h^ilr, Ihn nuirnfir of «alt aixing* and minaral vnitr*, maj' lUmiab 
•oni'' io'lkaliuni; Imt whrn trrruuirjouH or cu|>rMUt walort iHU«ft«iii •ondaoi olsi*, 
•Dch (^aracicu mriil in KCnvral litllc alU'nlioa, Iwcauacthc walen maf llowfroiD a great 
twanee. Ko vreala Mponance can be altachol Io ineCaUiferau* wniU and taliae 

tn ipaaUnn of mnaic inlicsiions vc may remorlc thai In icToral placM, and partto- 
•larty mtvt Clamnhal in (hr Hntu, n cniiu c-rc of ral oxjdc of Iran ocean abOTO iha 
■su atnmtant iteimailrsof thciimof Icivl and filvorj whanec it hat bc«n natntd bv 
■he GuMaaa (hp irAtJtiiJ. It ap|<tnr> IhnI the iron or« rich ia allvcri irhiea ii worbd 
ia A»erira ander the name of puDt, haa tome analucf with Ihi* vobilance i but iroa at* 
h in ec*ml to fMalilUlly dUTiual on the luifacc of the soil, thai Ui ptftcate enn be ro- 
gardol ai oalf a rcaMic iDdlealtQa, rclntiie to olhrr mineml nibitoncct, eiceiii ld the 
(aw of clar Ima^lonc with moI. 

Oif thf imMrtitimU amt optraliom of tMirtataan VpaaHooi. — II U by lh<' aiil of fa> 
OWtr; ia th« llr*! placv that thv miuar atudita lb« tituation of lh« inlnrcii] dcpoulei, <m 
theMirloce and in llie inirrior of the (rouul i datemiom the Mtrral rclationi of Ibc 
nina and the lucki i and bciNHnei eapoUe ofdiivetiiis the pm forolionii towarda a •ailaUe 
Md. 

Tbv iaanaowali arr, I. tli« magnetic eompai*, which Ii emflayat to meaanre lb» 
dbMion of a Dirtaltic ore, wherever the nolghborhood of Inin doci aot jnlcrfere wilb Ila 
llnctiana i ■). ihp cnuluntpd •«mt>drGli^ which icnin to maaimc tbc Incllanilon, wliieh ia 
(ho mital the elinometer. 

9. The thaia or coni for loMuarinE the ditlanct! of one point from aaotbnr. 

4. When ibr arifbhoihood of iron tondera the uw of tlie magnet nneerlajn, a fdale or 
plajH' uU» ft nntiloyad. 

TW Jnh of tlin eonimaet fcnamllr in«d io the umI eriobmKd minea, are gradoaicd 
Malwiirti nml oimmonlr Into iwieo ISbonn. Thu* lhi> whole limb la divided Into 
M •!•»■, T*eh of which eont«ina Id's! hour. Each hour b lubdividad into B 
fWta. 

MtMa tf fi»rlttn»a iitlo l/tt inttrior ef iha turOi. — In older to iivnelralc int« the inie* 
liar of the earlb, and to riinict from it the object* of bli toiU, tbc mina has at hii di^ 
t««al tvTona iniwn*. which majr be diildad inlo three Glavca; I. maniMi loolr, %. (alb 

Tbe mala mmJ bf the miner* of Cornwall and OevonAirc arn ihc follawin^ : 

fif. MS. The piih. It ia a lithl toot, and aomewbat vaHrd in ^hape aeooMing lo elf' 




Vt^ 



Daa liAr uiol lu n liammrr i( cnllol the polt. and i* emplorel 10 drnc ia 
I, Wlokeoen and delMk prominence*. TbepoMit of >teel, earefhllT teapetcd) 
'dram cnder tW bama«r Io the proper (bra, Toe French call it pofnlrroKfa 



iHt 



MtHSa 



jng.nt, Tb«^a4. It it ■ mine t/t »<«ri, Mm blo n u rto w rf wflo, <e lai» i 
tHiiftfi nwAc wKh the paini «f the pidc. 

A|. ttS Tbe mlatr't tltavl. 1* hu a pcnnled brm, U maUe h M pMetnilv ainnii 
Ibt Mane out t*Td fta^meiita cf litn Biia« rabUih. lu handle bring mnewbal bent. ■ 
ntn^ power nmy br fnintalMdr OD^o) wilboul bending Im boif. 

ne Halting ur •Aa>riiir loolt «• ^- 



A ited^ or mallet 
Bonr 

Olkjia; bw 
ffeedlo or nail 
Semper 
T*mpins bar 



— 987. 

— 9W. 

— Mfi. 

— tua 

— Ml. 




Beiida tbMc tool* itia miner recutita a pewder-hom, ni«he« to be SUnl with giup*»- 
do, ila eottrideei ftir oeoMional me in «rM ftminil. aad paper rubbed <rm with fa»pam- 
dee or freuc, foe l>ie im^flt or fnm. 

He lerT, j4c. wn. it Kn iron bar Upprd •ilh MmI, (brnied tUiealbIck ehi*c],a«l 
I* mod br one mm holillnv it imisht In tbe hole witliacnulaalrolBlicai on Htaiiii, while 
another drAei the heed ofit with the Iron dedge«rMallet,lIf..OM. TheholeistleMed 
«BI dnm lime to lime by the trrapi!i,fig. H0| which ia a Bat iron red tuneJ ap at ooc 
ead. If tha cmiul be my m-U anil the bole get* Aill of mod. It k eteaiMd out by a Mick 
beat si the end into a SbNUt briuh, enUnl ■ neak-ilick. 

Fig- M'i n-proMMlg the plan of blsitinK the rock, anil a etetioa of a hola 

tuinf. The hole muM te ren 
dry as pmsible, whioh ie effretnl ertr 
limply by fiUiat; il portly vith tcned- 
ous elay, nod then drhSne into it a 
lapcring iicn red, whieh n«iilT GII> lU 
calibre, called (he fiayia^ S«r. Thit 
bcin^ Torent in wilk ercal Tioleneiv 
eoni!fB«e* llir (lay iaio all llie ererfc e a 
«f the rack, and wenrea iha drraesa %€ 
the hole. Should ibit plaa Ail| n- 
toanr il had to tin eartnd>ea (bmb^ 
n] triihariem or tabe,(teiiJlf. MS,) 
Ihrouflb vhlch the powder hm be la- 

aanitd. When the hole l> dry, and 

I i« eharfe of (unnler intnxtucol, ihn luiU, a imall leper red of copper, b inotrtad m aa 
lo laaeli Iha betMm of tbe hole, irbicfc ia now lendy for Imipng. By this diAenh and 
dannroue pneeM, Um fonpotrdcr ii confined, and ihe diiruptiTe effect prodoeel. 
DiJIerml eabtlanca* are employed for lompinf, or cnmmin* Lbe hole, tke moM uaari 
one beine any eoH (pecira of rock free from iiliciona ar ttinxj pattidta. Snail ^uaa- 
Ijlits of il only are intnidae«d at a time, end ramiMd vny fuird by the 
>Mih a held aleodjl) by one man, and *lniek wilb a dedgc by anolhcr. 
brfog Ihut filbd, the noil li withdrawn by pnllini; a bar threagli iU eye, a _^ 

It upwnrdi. Thu a nnall prilbrailon ur vent i* left for tha ni& vhich cotnmnnitawi 
the fire. 

Boaidrt tlie improved tainpinit-bar faced with bard eopperi other eonlrieanee* baee 
bean reeorted to lor diminiabinit the n'ak of theae dreadTol aeeidcnl* thai l>c<|iicntly oeenr 
in thii opeiaiion. Dryeaad is tomeiiinei n*ed ai a laminn; material, bat there aremaa* 
iMka (or the blutlng of whi«b il i* tncfleeiire. TOugh elar will anewer balls in Meeral 
aitnationa. 

For eoavr)init Ihe Are. Ihe lorite and lonp frren rnihct which frow In iiiMtbf 
Itroood are H-Ipcttd. A till it iniule in one lide or tbe inth, aliinic which lh« abaip 
«ad of a bii of ktteU ■■ drawn, lO a* lo trxltaei ihe I'ilh, when lbe *liin of the n»h oleaea 
afain by it* own alaUieily. Tbi* tabe fa filed up nilh pmponrder. dropped inlo the 
eent-boil*, and mado Meady arilh a tnt of etay. A paper im\/l, odjaittd lo bum a profct 
line, u then fixiil to the lop td'Ihe mah-tobe, and kiuUed, when lhenenofllieaiiwi» 
lUe Id a *«fe iliiianee. • 

In /c. 9H the portion of the roek whleh would be dI«lods«l by the expluiieei, la 
ihjti incliiilR) hciwcoi A and >. The churw of powder i* tepieMnied by the while pan 
whieli Atl> ibi' hole up lo c ( (hno which point to the lop, the hole 'a filled with Imtnfia^ 
Thf iMr/l n ihown al r. , 

I'ig. Mt ii an iron buekri, or m it >• called in Corawall, a kibble, ia which tbe or* 
b taiaed la the ihafln, by touchlne* eallul uArnu, worked by bonei. Tha b«M kibUea 






MINES. 



m 



I ol ibett-inii, ud hoM each at««i Uirc« hwaJwi ««ght e( «w i ISU itIbUa 
! loppoKd M ckoT a esMe ftiihoM oT n«k. 





f If . MD ftiHoraU ihr whctibarroir ufoI iiiiilcc gr»uEKl foi ranTvyins arc •nd WMIt 
Aikcfoetaf Ibeihana. Il Umadeof lighldm], mept the wlicel. whicb Iiubiikkow 

Fir. IM0 npnwnl* Mr. TajWi {n^eniiin]! vontllalor, or imchliw Tor renrwine &c*k 

iiiipc*. Il ■■ lu Bimplc in coiiKruclion, >■> cuinplMc In it* o]ii'niiiun. [cgiilMi m 

' vo to wurk ill and » to liLtle liaUr tu injur; fltan wmr, Ihnl nolhiai; Airltiel 

. luit can 1« dnirpd in otdifiorT melalUi: niiiit*. The *tial^ of the mine U rcpi*. 

ti x; ni riilicT (he Inp or boltmn of wbich llie machine mnf tx plnetd, u It 

>«in^ nwM eontTwni, bnl the Ibul ait miut be diachnrgcd iuUi a door, (utiiiA»i tiritb 

■ ikltisileer Is ptrrrnl iu ttiun into Ihc mine, n i» ilio air-plpo (Vom the odiw> paw- 

he thnnwh the bottom of Ihr fiinl tvanrl or etlinder c, which u Ibmird of lindier, and 

I kilb imo hootM. II a Glled vtiih wiiU'r neatly lo Ibc to|i of Ihe tape a, on whleli 

hfcaJ « *nl« opennut upwatdi «l v. e, thv air, or cihanalinti n'inder of caul-Iron, 

id ■mpondcd orn the nir-pipe. but inuncnni KUne ini) in Ihe Hater. 

t «tlb ■ wimden Uip, Imving an npcfiure filled with a I'aln- likewi«n opea- 

I •! r. ThitekhtuiiiiasciTlinilw i*Bo*«dapaiulil(>wa by ilieMso, hmugbl 

icnaaMhinviik aa]mfine,(^ the heriioatol red h; ihs weiibtof ihe cytiodei 

J Waaoal, H necnanyi br the eoiiTil«rtioi»e i. The aotioa i* n* rollowi i — Wben 

I ijUwkv ri>e<, Ihe sir fron tlie mine nialin np IbrouKh Ihe pi|H- ami Tnlre d i and 

I It dMCitndt. tki* Talie ihuu. and pteTonl* tne retun of Ihe nir, nhich is expelled 

|h lh« Tnlvr V. With a cylinder iwo Icel in diuneler and lix feet 1on)r. worklntt 

Aaa two lo Ihire Hti>kM per minvie, £00 gnllom of aic nmj be ditichatgn) in ihe 

■Be time. 

On>pow<k( b Ibe Kou lalunble sirrnl of ncnTaiinn ; powOMini; n power ohicb baa 
aabsU. and wbieb can act eTerrwheie. erea under wMcr. Il« introduelion, ia 1619t 
■■III • frrat revolutiDo Ib Ihe mininc art. 

n u etopkiyed In intkn to dllfcrcnt ouinnen, and in didtteni quantltie*, accordiniE lo 
ANMuatanee*. In ail etM*, howcrer, Ihe pmcea* molva) Hulf iQin borins a bole, and 
•riMto^ a cann'djte in il, vfaitb it anarwanli mad* to mptude. I'lio hole Ix alwajrl 
qliwlrinl. and is uiinDy made by inmni of ihi- hntt.fit. U37, n Mem of iron, termi- 
} liy a Uual-ol)K>l cqImL II nmeltmrt rnd> in a erom, rormtd by iwo ehlwU iM 
«>Iy. 1'he iTorkBMi hold* the ilem in hii left band, anil •trilcea it ailh an Inm 
1 hdd in ki* rif h(. He it enreriil la lam the piinrh ■ vciy Ullle roond at ever] 
Several pttnebe* iir* ei»i>li>f «l in ractfeiwcin, to l)ore nne hole i Ibe inl shorter, 
'lanet 9*1* lonrer, olul mnewhnl lliinni-r. The nibbUh (• witlidrawn n> it nreumn- 
n^ at tfc* baimn nf the hole, by meaiu uT a pirker, vWeh i> a tauHl noun m di«e 
rf bw Aiftl at Ihe ••□d uT a tleajer iron tod. When bolM of ■ larffe me ore to V 



1T4 



MWES. 



I Miid^ MMn] HUB BOII In PMiptor^ ; one la bold the piinch, and onr a« niorr lo «mB 
the icDD maUM. Ilie pf rfonivmh ain wUmd tna than an inch ki ilia iMtei, and IBiodiS 
4w|i| fcul ilKJ arr Himelimrt iwo inchn vidv, vtlh • dcplh of SO indxv. 

Tht tunioiria, vlii-n usnl, U most ciunmonti' pal np in pojicr oniilR*. Into Iki 
(Uf oT the taririt^, a aniall ctlindrieal f pindle or pttrea m punbrd. In iliU naif iht 
(attriJge [> fiirMd down lo lheDanaffl«f Ibeliolr, which b tlita HuBlnl, tif nirnn^ •< Ibr 
Unipuig bar,/;. Vll, with bits of itf dar, or fiiaUo flooN ecwMtr t«<">d4il-' Tba 
pIcm-T i* now wiihdmirn, vhich lna*« in )u (lUrv a channel tLroDUb stiirh Hn naf ht 
ConvF;Til In ihr rliarcc. This tSMMQlfdriiliPT bjrpourinEGiuipDwdn into that puiiagi^ 
or bf interline into it rt«il>, *tiiiw •Innt, 'inillt, or lubn of paper fillcl with cm i cwi fc T. 
This i* ciplwIi^J by a loni- mnlrh, vliich Ihc voAfDen kindli:, and Ihcn iciicc lo a |>bue 
oriBrciy. 

Ai. Ilic plcrar inQSl DOl only be (lender, bul itllT, ro as lo \ie mi\j vlihdran 
Lhc hulr u lunppd, iron (pimlles are umally tlap\aytd, Ibuugli ihey oe»>io*allr 
titit l0t|iBrlu, mill canwiventlj lo dangdanii aceiilniU, li)i Ibdr iVIrlion ofalnM llit 
cf the bolt. BnM plrrcrre haw btvn noinnJinc* l/icd i but ih«]r l«i(t and famh U« 
readily. 

Encli holir bornt in a minci *houId lie lo placed in rd w ncc la the uluiMBe nrndm 
of (lie rock, and to iu nnlnral llnum,a> loatloek and blow up ilic Iran rrMMtw ■•«(>• 
SoiiiFiinin Ui« rock u preiartd beforebanil for upliTling in a crriain dinetlini, Kr IMUI 
ofa nnirow chnnnrl ncavnini "ilh ihe uimll hniriiiur. 

Til'' iinnmit) uf Kun|i<>ai!cr ihunld be luocoiliiinnl Ui the ilr|>lh nf llir hOir, and ilia 1^ 
iMUncofilir iock,anil niFirly (iiDlcienl lo^plil it. Amtlnnc mliJitiunnl woiiU Mvrtai/ 
other jiiirpote tban lo throw ihv IVaftnenl* abiinl ihc mine, witbnui incitBuaR Uw mmM 
elTcFi. Into ihr hole* ofabonl an iatb ami n luancrdiaiiieltT, and ISi»cb«a deep, oalj t«B 
Dunen of cunpowdet are jiot. 

It B|.prar-. iliBI tbc effect of Ike cunpuwdEr may be aumcnlFd by Inirinf an 
■pnci- lUivi'. in the middle of, or bennih ilir eRdritlEf?- In the minci td'SUcHa, IW 
■uii>plii:in cd ganpowdn hai bren i-vrnlunll) icduci-d, without dimliiiibtag tlir pf»> 
durtnrilirbtui*,by miiing (swduii with li, in certain jinijiortiant. The hole hii*al«ih(M 
Hllnl up wilh MBd in tome ea «w , aeeordinc to Mr. Jn#op> plan, inMead of 
lnfliTil with (tone*, which b«« rcninTed liie dannr of the IninpinE operation, Tht 
IHriini-nls made in tliii way bnr* tri^en reialti very odtanlkicoiii in n^^tT UMffl 
wtib smi rhuvn of gunpowder) but leu fauffmble in the imoll '.ha^fx* Mnptofal 
in nilnc^ 

Waierilai-> not oppoaean UiannaiintahkobclBetc to theemplojnent cf canpoa'deTi 
bvl wben the hole cannot b* madr drT,a eartridm b*t impeTniDable to watn ■niil bcM 
reeoDrKe to, proviiled vilb a lube slto imiiermeahlf, in wtiich the pirritr ci planed. 

Ann Ibc tiiilonon of cacb miiunc chnroe, wedites and leven are ncplojcd, K> dnR 
■wny and bimk down what hu been ifiDllercd. 

whemwr the rock i( tolerably hnnl. ihe uw of ttuupondcr it more rcononiieal aad 
mort rapid than any lool-work, AJid it ihcrribre alnayn prrfirred. A isUify, tot 
• CMmpIe, a yoid and a half hiirh, anil a nid wide, the pirrcinK (d* which by (he baoiOT 
beiMilr COM (tmn flfe l« ten i>oandi> ■lerlintt the ruaninit )■■»], In Otnn«nr> It 
eiRuted at Ihe prrtent dnf by nunpowdiT at from two to thr«e pounds. When, hoi^ 
peer, a piecioun man rd" ore b lo be drlacheil. wben Ibe rock is oavFmuiii, wbieh neulr 
inlUBei the action of gunpowder, or wben there ii n«Kin to apprcbeud thai the Aack 
u an»ed by the dplosion may jiTcduce an injurioui fall of nibbith, bnnd-icol> alone 
ba CBiTdoyMl. 

Id emain toA* and am of oMMne bardnem, Ihe ntr baib of l«oIi and ^ai 
' beeosMM rery trdimii and ocMljr. Eiainple* in tbl* rtTrci arc wen, in ibc luaM 
■inam minrlnl with copprr pyriln. workeil nl Kairnneldbem, in the Harii. in He 
mauet of ntaanileiDui Rmnllv of Ge)rr nnd Allrnlwrt in Ihe Eizti'bittic of ^kuiny, 
kc. In the*e cireainilancn, fnitunntel;' 'n^ rare, the artion of fire i( vied vffk 
adiDntni-e lo dMnbh the cohrsion of the rorki and the orK. The cni)iloynt«l </ tUa 
nccnt it not neeeManly miiicitd tii ihne dllEciill catM. It «a« forncrijr applied tot 
often IU Ihe wuikinz of hard •iil>ttniic» ; bul the iolreiluclion of gungiowder ialo llw 
luntnR art, and Ihii incirn''' in ihr priet of notd, oc«Mion lire '« b« litlk aMil u am 
onliaary menu of excavation, except in places where the tcantinen of the |Nmluion hu 

« iir Ri** Pn'« timQi»4 t rvf uf bnHicr bILit. I" Up i^t Lvivflr <ihJ oT iit* 11^ tiri i ■ aaAunaiM 
IMM t"ii"rBl';i ^"■'J "* CiiriiwAK, lltfiirv 1hi< tivtfltpai S«l<^ '^ l^f ruuni; -lllWarc4 lU* in^HUtv 
HM prw'^rm- •f^nvl; 4 miinTli dIdi^i'iI v^iSobii ma,» iirvadful np\imiun Mitilirqr 1^ imar %*!■ ^a> 
UBiitr r*"' •" *■ ■niuxna Um b^ liloHiiif 1.41 hn •TH.n ttuB/rnf ho l>nM.u M ii»*ii tiia • 
aMmUi i*iHi irf v*uil)r Rii Uii> wufl !>!• i]m Vamlj' \m tut ttodau tltaw* ••» IKt >•■ 
ployaMAi lit ii« btv uiiimnc.i4r' WI.pb th« wOAltKr «> vkd* of iIib ita aad vpfa iMnn n nuat- 
pnm. lod iiil Id tonit t Iriilkc non rol l-pped •rilli ih> )m«i> ii liolli ilmp u4 rftdut. ia latiM 
fOMmiBvai. obIIiO lb* ihiA«n| fwlndfe. wai itT*viii«J WMr niihbOi, aiiiS ki jBarrAd^ todivl^i 



MINES. 



ITS 



hA • P«U MlFDl oT Ibmt tkibn, •• bapptiu U Kant>k«r( w If«rway, at DanMnora 
ia 9*«di9, ai FHtobaara In TtaaqlnMa, lie. 

Tkc utioii dC fin mar te apffifd Iff l&e pietciac of a callccy, or to the ailTBbrMnenl 
■f • liMiuAlnl n«, «( l» (he cnunUinc ilona of a mnu <>r ort, b) llic kucrntlTC 
«pnWHii« of U« roof (4' a gallcty alieaily pirrcnl. In any of tlmv Mti->. il>c ('rcxen 
M*M»t( la ruriuing bntllfm, the flame of nhlrh U imute lo pUjF U|ian llir iiiuii< lu b« 
aUwitd. All (lie vxnliiipn uiimI bo tnnuvnl rtuin ihc irine, ilurint, aixl evi-n fu 
Bomc limr aAcr, lh< cidtiliiikliuii, IVIicn Ih* rxcatnlioni hair IfccnuiF wilticicntljr cud 
IB ■Ihi'* ilitm M ml(r, ihuy hraali itown wilh Itrvrn ami vrrdEn. ui mn li; iDcnni of 
fiMpavnIiir. the MaMti which hnn beea tpnl nnd nltctvd b) ilic fiie. 

To mniiiMr oar ancnni of (he muincr in which innn mav pputDale into Ibc inlcriof 
of IW raith, «F laau poinl uui the f<:inD of Ilit cicavaliGni Ibal bif thoalil iiiak<' in it. 

la nimn, Ihrre |in»a^ apcdcii of eunmlifmit lukj be i]i*linic»kh«d ; %>t.,i\a/lt, 
fallinit, anil ih« (oitiiu uf i(t»I«r or lua in»||pitiide which remain ia the looin of lli« 
oU wn(ikin;>. 

A (Ai^t oi pti it » priimalic or rjUnilrieal hollow •pace, th« uis of which ii (ilba 
Tcrtleal or much inctin«t (o ihc hotinm. The dimcDuun tT ihc pit, whceh is nci-M ItM 
tb>B 3t incbts in it* Buiovni dinniFTtT. Dnounls loinEtiaic* to xTrral )anli. lit doplb 
mi-t rilaod to 1000 ft*l, ami inorr. Wbrncvc-r a iibalt U openod, mrsiii iiiii<<t bn pro- 
fUnd la eitfwt Ibr tiibbi>.h wbirh toniiniiallj irndg lo nccumulata bi lu buiioni, a* wall 
u ih* waMrt wMrh inny iH-rcolnte ili'Wn iiiU> it; ai also to faciliiate lliv lUtoml tat 
•«c«nt aC Ikt wtKkmen. Tor tonir liini- > wl>i«l and oils riFCIrO oti-t the moulh of the 
Apenins, which icrre lo elmic unv cr mo bucki-li of proprr dimcnsiom, maj be loffi* 
CMsM f<K iBoal of tbeK rvrpciKii. But tuch ■ innchinc brcome* erv lona inadequalc. 
Bill Ml wHllM. 01 powrrftll cIcaiD-enrinH, uiuM llicn be bod recouiTC la i and etTectua] 
MtbaA* of forpwt nuul be emplDycd Ifi prrvi-nl ihe ftldn of llie thoA IVom crunbUag 
«■! flblBM lown. 

A GalttTf if a primalio spacr, lire tlmivhl or wiuilinii axil of which 'h«-' noi iHuall; 
dniilc aiich from the horizontal lin^. Tiro principal apecin are di*i(iiiKui*h«l i lbs 
fUtetim ot doufQlioa, which follow the diiFCtioii of a bnl or a veia ) anil Ihe franiMTM 

ffplk<. wUA inlencct thii direction under an anule not imch diflcr«nl fnm Hfi. 
' Boat utiliauy (timcnuoni of gnllcrici arc n rani wide, and two yardi hieh ; but 
■■■f tliU Urfrr m»j be iFca travenin); thick dt^pouic* of ore There arc few whoM 
vlM h IcM llran U inchn, and heiuht len than -lO i mch amall ilrifla kcti« merely ai 
tfminnui uinlienti in wockinu- Some Eillcrin me leven] league* in Icnicih. We 
ibiji 4— Jrlbf in (he Hf|uel tlie laeani wliieh arc for ttic tnoal peri ocecuari to mpport 
ill' ' I ibe wall*. Tbe rabbiih a rrinorcd by wagon* or wheclbatrowi of 

Sre;l«. MS 
i.t>- matrftne* the bonne of ■ dian ur gallery beyond a ccrlain rate, becaoN 
I f workoaeD can tie iiindr to bnr upon it. There ant Kime gnUnlat 

' I more than 30 yean lu perrornte. Tlie onl; expcdimt for aceeletntliu 

inre of' ■ caDery, is to eommencr, at mcml potnl* of the line to be punucdi 
. ^ (f Eillum which may be joinnl lomiber on their completion. 
HbtilMr took oa funpowder be med in making the eienmloni, Ihcf Uioiild be w 
4flM aa to rrnder the laboi on eoir and <|ulck a* iwrutble, by dlaensitEin; ibo maae 
talof Ike rott al 'worn ihied of ii> &cp». 1'he effect of tunpowdt-r, wnl|ieii,or pick*, 
ifAm aneh Bote noweifnl. Tli" vrtnier the rxraialion, the more imtionanl h ii lo 
tkimitr ikit nUe. With thii intent, llif^ worLinic it diapoanl in the foroi of titpi, 
(frWiarf), placed like iboie of a itoir i each step bcinv rcmoveil in iiiccnsiie ponioDti 
tt* wbalf of which, except the Inst, ore diiensaseil on iliiee lidei, al the inslani ot Iheit 
kiac attaclinl. 

TW *atiuancn> la be mined occur In the bonom of the earth, uttder the form tC 
llaijal drfitilrt, tied*. pit^vrin*,or maun, ihrradt or hinnll rein*, and mkcicins. 

Wkew thr exi'tcnee of a depoall* ot ore it mrrrty iniipcclnl, wiilionl pulllfa prooA^ 
MMn* mwi be hod (o labort of rtaeaieh, in onlcr lo Bvecrioin the rirlintM, naluN^ 
■al diapaalluii of ■ (uppowd mine. The*« are divided into three kinds t 9piii aorkiitft, 
■IfcrrMwaw worjlriari, and hor^; aptralioni. 

I. Tbr iHulLiiii,' if ita oftH Irnrh, lin> fur iu object to d)*eorer the ouleroppins or 
taaael *4:r- iC -iiala or veint. It romi'tK in opcnlnit n rome uf Tintler or Ich width, 
■Udi, anei fin'.iintt the rcEetahle miinid, the oiliiriikl dcpotltta] and Ac ninlleu ilb- 
IW0Uiri bf 'V fiUDOtpbere, dlKlotci the natife rocks and ennblm u> to ditllaeuiah 
Arlcdt oMrli ■,!' iairitinwd, ni Well ai the rant that Irarerte thcin. The trench ousM 
I' . n illicctlon pcrpendimlar to the line of the »iip|ioinl dcpoiltc. 

T I'l mUf liiilr, hot it leUDni pivei much intiiiht. It u eUeflf 

ti. ■>- I i.Knee of a mpposed bnl ur vein. 

Tk< .*'■. aOind mnch moro iniiifaetory linowled^n. Tbcy an 

lol t/| .i.iip.Ti.. ..!.,;■ .1 petfcraiion* I eii br iMfUtdimal falJcKcj boUmed oul 



m 



MINES. 



of Uio mM( dT th* bed* or Tciiu (tetOKtvo^ ia lolbxTM^ Uieit eowwi bf trauKTM 
ga/Jrrkj, piiihrd &I tl^lil angle* (a tlic dirMlnn oT the tviM; bf iMNotri •i*/!', vUcb 
fV*ua ibr tlope of the dfponle^, aad ue dcainUil IB their diu*; cr, kiUy, ti; ftrpw 
dk%l3r yili. 

Ifft niuocbod anvcll* kwlftiri ilir tiniik of n KimiitMbi,SH mar boaxplof»d,aoMnfi^ 
U Ibc ^natfi or Ion *lop« of it» incliiiniuin, I'lihrc b]t ■ tansMiMJMl taU«T opeMd ia 
h* man. fVom ihr ontFroppinii siiifacc.'.U' bj a liautvcne gallcrjr (bUiac apon it wk co- 
laiD poini. from which rirhvi an oblong Raltny or a dopi^ ahaft ma; be opmoL 

ir om cIfjki Iii^ Id rccovnoiiic n hiclil} inclined (Inlmi, or a Tein in • IfieI oema/Uj, 
arc (hnll obiain ii with »ilH<?icnl prceiiiou, hr mmnt or ahafts ^ °f I" Ta"l> derp, dac 
al 30 ]anU ilulanfe riom one ancilber: cxcarolcd in the maM of ore, ia Ibc dirreuon si 
it* d^lMHite. If the bod U nut very audi incLnol, onlf -1^, (br cxamplr, Tcitiea] *haA> 
orail be o;i*n«I in th* dimtlon of It* moT, or or the •Diwijaeeni nti-j ttntan^ mi 
BtUeriro muii be driven fttun (h« i<olal« in which thejr utvi the ore, in (he lia« of ib 
OKetioD. 

When the roek* whieb covci Tolaahle minerals axt not tit very jtmi bnnUcM^ u 
bappcD* iienerallf with the coal fonnation, with fiyritniit and aluminon* ilile*, mI gm^ 
aad tome oitier minemU of tfae secondary itnln, ihe borer U eceplo^ with adTaMagt to 
■*ccrtalD their anturr. ThU mode W invdlieBiian U eronotnieal. and kIt**, In Mil 
flirr. a lolerahli cuict InHghl iolo the rielici of the inlcrior. The Dieihod of Ming tkt 
boc«r hat b«ca i(eterlb«d siidor Aaraiiic Willi. 

or HnnNO m fjuinccLii. 

The mode of working mj»ct U twu-luhl ; b; <>;>«« uenntffoBi, aad MtM^-rrnwwa. 

Workints in the open air pr«t«nl few dilDeullics, and octMkm Ulile npcnir, nnlcM 
■faett puthsl In a treat deplh. T1i«T ■>* alwaf* iireferrod lor worhinif ileiioMte* Utllt 
duUnI from the nufncei nliere, in fael, other methodn cannot he mortra lOi If dit 
•■btianre lo be nuMd be covered with ineohercnt tnaiicn. The only mk* to bt 
obtecvecl air, (a ornniic the working in lerram, >o oi to fodliuilc the eotling ilowm of 
the eaithi to ttnatpail the ore* and the mbbijji to their daliniition al the leau pOMittc 
oxpenM j and lo gnard agaiMt the cniinbling down of the tidni. Willi ibc Uller tkw, 
Ibey oDf ht to hnv* a miitablc datM, or lo b« |ifu|i(ici1 by timbcn whrnever thrj ore not 
qnlUaoUd. 

Optn warkiait are emplojeil for lolnblc clay*, nod*, »t kUo lor the alliiirial moU tt 
diamond*, noM, lud tar^r of tin. bo; tran orta, ke., Umcslona, rypiDini, twUding Monw^ . 
mofla;; ijatei, mouc* ofroclt rait in lorae liliintKini, and certain de|iotltei of ors*, putio> 
ularly Ibi- tppeiilar iron of the lilnnd of Klhu; the maun of iituniiifRoa» gtukitecf 
Olive, JUnbrif, ami Sejiff'tn, in iliR Rrtx^obrisf, a chain of nountain* between Saitooy 
•lid Bahpmin i Xlw thick veino or nutne^ of black oiidc uf iron of Noidaarek, r«Mr 
mora, Jtc, in Sweden | the ma» of eiii^rcoui pyritm of BcrMt*, ne«r Dnmihelm ■ 
Nonray i MTcml laiac* of iron, copper, and gotil in Ibe I7ral mountaini, Ice. 

fialMrmwM udrkingi nay be eanreniently divided into fir? clauct, vii. : — < 

I. Vein*, or bed*, much incJinod to th« noiiton, having a thiekaca* of at Icait tm 
rifdi. 

S, Bed* of iliEhi indiniilao, or nearly horitontol, the power or ihldaon of whiA 
dOH not exceed two yard). 

S. Bed* of great Ibicknc**, but all^lly laclinol. 
* 4. Veint, or bad* highly inelinad^ of snat thickntit. 

G. &faB«( ef eoniideniblo mogjulode in all their dimenBiooi, 

Suhtfirantan nu'ang retnirM two very ditUoct clantj* of woridog*) the prtptn^orf, 
and tho«« Ibr irlradion. 

The invfaratarii eoniiit in gnllcricn, or In pit* and gallerici deallnod to ecodwt the 
miner lo (be point moil proper for attacking the depoulo of on, Ibr inicin> it all iimill 
Ihii foiai, fur preparing chatDben of cienvation, and for concetting Dcasum wilb ■ 
new (o the dreuUtioo of air, the diKharge of water*, and tho tranaport of ib« eitractad 
loinertdi. 

If the vein or bed In qncti ion be placed in a moantain, and if it* dlrtelion (ben* « 
very obtute an^lo with t:!ie liue of the ilope, tho minec be^o* by openbg in ilt tUr, •! 
lite lo«e*t poitible I«ve1, a inillery of dongalion, which (civa at once lo (ivc Imim to 
the wslcn, to explore the ilepontc Ibroogb a oonuderable eiieni, and then to follow il 
rn anolher direction i but lo commence the teal mining opcmliou, be piortaa dibir 
■hnfli or iriUev*, aeconUni- to the ilope of, tho depotile, aeroM the Dnt itallnT- 

For a tlratniQ lilUe inclined lo Ihc horixon, placed bimoalli a plain, Ihe first Ihias b 
lo piecee two venlcal ihnri*. which are utunlly mnd« lo arrive at iwo puinti in Ihe t 
Uae of idope, and a sallery U driven to unite them. It is, in ihe Gm pUec, for the i 
ef ditnlallan «f air thai lh«te t«a pitt are «unk| one of ibcm, yhich ii bIhi d«i 
4tf the dnlnase of the wsteia, ihonU rcMh the Iove*t point bf tbe inlcfiiled woci 



MUTES. 



ITT 



tt» tcId k tninircinl Kr imnwM mrt, ttt* t'afi* u« flMcd m m l» Allow, or, bI 

|lM<,larar thinc-li --flioiit. \\ ' iwnil on* lin In itm\j verijral 

iMMiii. il U rii;hi ' Air at |>" nk pit* into ihnlf iatirrior. ThMc 

■fciriM miti'i be |irr)'>i<iini m rnii^ li'leDfthi'i: ix-n, ■'ii-n at mirii> tMMnlcralile 'tittODM, to 
woii\ n'l iHm iir<ranibliai: Ihr orninton hcapcif rubbish, (ndoiemhclmin^lliewofluiiea. 

WiUi I r«ta (^ Jen IkAn hro yvrdi ihkk, *• tooa u the imranlory lalnn bavw 
bn>««lii lk« iiiincn lo the poial oi' the vein rrooi which Uip ultpricrr WDikinu nrt (n 
nmif) , ^MkrMjyn m cireulilion cfT air ht* bcvn KCnicd. and lo outlet to Ibc watpr taiS 
Ike nisllrrt ouaod, 1^ Bx>t ohjwl n lo dii idi' ihrr niu* of ore into Urg« |«niUrlo|ii- 
pvdi, ti) mnnt of oWons vallvriM. pii'Tct'l 30 ar S5 yanb bolow one aniitlitr, wiiti piL« 
orcammuaiDalka opnttd b|>, 30, 10, or SO fartb uiinder, wtiirh f<illi>w thv ilopc ol 
tkc (cin. Thnr tnllcrin and shoOi aic uMftllr oT thq ttmr brrndlll m Ihr vrin, uoIiim 
vhcA il b ray aarrov, in whi«h ease il U rcqnin1« lo cnl mil a iH>rliDn oTlhe roof ut 
thr Huor. Swh iroikitu;! wrvp al once the purposM or mininc, h^r alTonllnf a fwrlioii 
oTotr, anil ike eoinplele invcstii;alian of Itie kaluie and richer of the vein, a cenain 
cUMiI ef vbieb li iha< ptCfoMil bofma remodng ihe cubknl mouet. It U prn|>n' la 
adnuM* Itnt if all, la ihli manner, U> the fmirtt Jiilance (rein the cmtml ixiiiit vhieb 
SB lit miacd Willi mani>iiiy, and aner«->nl* lortniore the |iarallrlopiiKil hlorkt, in not\t- 
bwtotk to Ibal [«tftt. 

TU( IbUb oponlion ma; be eartinl on In two diOerenI ways ; ct which one eoniii^l* 
I* allarkioi Ike urc from abore, and anoihet frola below. la either enic, Uie eiata- 
tioAt are tlispoied lo itept liinilar id a Malr apoD IhoJr upper oi under lide. Tlie lloi » 
itjlod a (TOrilriag la di(i<fi ot dewtndins flepK i and iho Kcood n uorking 1b rtrtrit, oi 

L Safpoae, for em>pk. thai lh« |idU »,fis. 041. indidtil briwr<-n the horuMlal 




pBtfy A c and Iha ihafl a «, i* M ba OMSTwied bjr dinct Ueft, a workman iialioned 
tfmi a tcalToU at llie point a, which form* Ihe nngtld brtwMn the shnR and the elans- . 
Mul diin. aitatki Ihe roek tn rmnl of him and bnnenlh hii feet. Whenever he hu ewl 
ml* pwxllrluplpcd (a rretanfular maia), oTCtiin four lo *ix tnrdi broad, and lwoT«rd» 
Ud^ * lee^*' mUMT It *et to work Qp«n a itaflbld al a'. tw» ynnli brneaih the Umi, 
«ka, tn Uke maanr/, raeatntn Ihe melc onder hi> feet and hefori! htm. A* won ai Oit 
netai HlneT Ian tvmtiffi ■ pO'l of funr or >ii yard* In widih, by two In heiKbt, n ihM 
halBt D^n ■ waflblri al a" to work out a IhinI iilep. Thu», at many workmot wr 
aqilnyn) •■ llwre are ilefa to h"^ mnile belween Ihe two ohlons bcrizonlal j^lkriw 
■kiek ruriul oborc ami bdow ihc man to bt nearited i nnd nnee Ihry all proreod 
rtwilaniiliiiil] they eootlmc wetkia: in nRllar p^Milions, in doon, over eoeh other, w 

CB Mkir with Tttf losg wide utpt. At Ihn adnnee, Ihe mlnen cnnilrucl befbr* 
woedn Aeon eeee, ftir the puipMe ar (OpiwrtEni; ihi? nibbtth whii^h t*ch 
— ^iiiaa ealfWtt ftiN* hU own *lr^ TIU Aonr, whieh ihnnid b* tery folii), ttrrtt 
thn fbr wh««lln|! vfl hia barroT ItUp) with im. The nund billei* whir)) tup- 
part tW plaaki toalaiD the roof or Ihe wnB of the mineral vein cr bed iindet 
•f-Tstinn. If Ibe nbttih be very toasidorable, m i» Gammonlr the caae, the floor 
*rp loni. Howerrr ilmn^ly ihe; may be e«de, a* they wnnot be (epairtd. 
- «er or later (iti? wny under Ihe enonnoDi pmanrc of the rwbbub ; and at rB 
.-hi it b«mr by Ihr roof of Ihc obi on; falWry undementh, Ihii liiati be nifli' 
liMkieif Rv iliii inrraioo". plan, n ([real many niin'Tt mnf iv lo wnei 
■ Br** a vein wiilmiit mutual interference i at Ifce |«ittlon» whicb Ibey drCaefc 
1V0 face* at lc»I fr«e, they are cometiuently mote eatll; Mpamble. rithn 
It 



vn 



M15ES. 



with gvnponnler or wilb Ite jiOi. SbnuU Ibc Tein b« own ihu ■ yari Otkk, " 'iu 
nbUance be nrr itAacWty, two uincn are ttl upo* eacli iUjl HH initiaLU Ihs 
pwdranfCBlK mutnlkM an cui <iui KWcrMitrlT dcnniwmr^sj Mul I l,IS,33;ra«. 
(L-udi; ihe tin«* of tOMll firtki orr tl]v tcctioruoTibe cndioribcblllctB wfcicli Mpport 
[be Boon. 
S. To auack • nuua t,/;. MS, a wdTold m u oectal in coc of in lenniHl [iiH f p. 




Ml Itie lertl ti the neiYmf of the fsUery h m , wlicic U ii-tmuialu Vlov. A 
f/btcti Ml Ihii >calIblJ, CUM crfT al the iliii:1« of this mus a iiuaIlclopi|<al J, Avn .__ 
to two r«rf« higti, bf lii or ticht lonv. IVhrn hr hu (uItudmiI thtu fiv, Iktn ii 
flMfd io (h« Kmp piU upon ancitfao ifoiTotd m, n tKomJ mioer, who •ttncln Uie win 
■Ibore Ib« Toof of Uic finl CQltin^t, aad hcwi dovo^ shore the parBllelofqiixt t. k pand- 
Idopipedof thi^ umo ilimcniioni 1', vklle Ibr Am ulailnit oui mmtliFt 2, in niltanccof 
I. When the tecund niinrr hn> (erne forwud 6 or H )aTil<s » ihifd it placed ubo in (W 
tunc pil. He eonuDencM the thint Mep, while Ihc flnt Iwo miner* arv piuhiag fanmMi 
Ihcin, and to in incanioD. 

* In thli mode of warkiof , •• wellai in lh« precedinc, il h rvqutiite to nipf«rt the 
nbbi^ and the wall* of die T«in. For the Gnl olqeei, a nnulc Dcxir ana, may be 
fldcBI, c«n«tiiieltd aboVE the lower ^cry, tubalaniial cnDogb lo btv atl the nibl 
*• well mt Ibt minen. In Mnnln ea*», nn nichoi roof maf be mbtlitulnl i ni 
Otbert, (crenl noon are laid nt lUlhrvnl helnhii. The udM of the tcui arc nupi 
tif mean* of piccn of wood bnl bclneen Ihtm perpendicularly to their iiloiien. Sani» 
time*, in ihc middle oflbu mbbinli, nnaU pit* ate leA at reeulardislnncci ajwrt, thmu^ 
wfcMi the workmen throw the ore eoarielT picked, ilowo into the tower itailciy. The 
ntbUiti oeiiKiuually fomu a alofc///, lo hifth Ihni minen plncnl upon il can wotb 
(wnveniratly. When the rich ponioni are w) abundant a> lo leave too little lubbiih ta 
nake tuch a tloiilug plaifbrui, the miner* plant ihcin»elTc» upon moToable floon, wUck 
thev carry forwanl alunR with the nearaiiuntt 

These two mwln of wurkini in Ibo iltpjbmi, have preiitinr odTanUfta nnd diiwliaii 
Uifrt ; and each i> preferred Id the nlher acfonlinit to circumatnnee*. 

In the J*Krndi«g iBOrkmgt, or in dircrt tltfi.fig. 714, the ininer 1* pkeedoa Iha ttn 
mata or lubtianec of the rein ; he u-aik* CKuiinoditnuly before hiin i he it not crpMtn 
lo tha aplindin which may fly ofiTnun the rooT; but by ihio plan ho te obli||Dil lo onplcj 
• Reat deal of limber to luctain tbe rubbith j and ilie wood li lljtd ibr mr. 

hi the airrnAmg trorltinti, or in rrrrrwl atju,fie. T1&, the miner is cconpelled to wwk 
In the rc-mlcrin^ nnale tanatA belwern the roof nnd the ftont mil ofhii exeacaUo^a 
poalorc tomelimo oiipreMiTe] but the weiiibl of the ore oonipiin with faii dlbttt W 
make ii lUl. He emplort ktt timber Ibaa in the iiiorfcinf[i with dirtd titpt. The lort 
iag of the oM It tnorc illilifuli tlian in the Jtirmdivg uorfrtac, becantc the rich ore i* 
•ometimci confounded with the heap of rnbhith on wha'eh it lUb. 

When icaroi of dklarium or gravel-niud occat on one of ibc aideinr tkt vein, or at 
both, thry rendu the quarrying of ilic oie more ouy, by ajfurding the meant oTuACcnd^ 
iii( the Riaiit lo bo cue down, apoo an additional face. 

Should Ih« Mia b« very narrow, it is neceMnry to rrinore a portion of the ilcrilo ntk 
which enclcan it, [a order to rIvc (he work a MitTlricnt width lo enaUc the ininrt lo ad> 
ranee. If, in Util eaie, Ihe vein be quite disliiicl rr»m the rock, the Inlior nin) l,e ra«iU> 
latcd, n> well at Ihe r-paralinii af tlie ore, by (liseiuni;iliS Ibe vein, un one of it* foc«^ 
Ihroagh a crctoin aicnt, the rock beinE aiiaeked upoiralelf. Thit oprxalion iaodlM 
iMppng tfnttin. When it is thai uncavcinl,B *hol of gunpowder iaauffieioil to i^tiarli 
■ ((real mat* of it, unmlii'd with iicnli- •lone*. 

By the melliDdt sow drKrihnl. onl) tliotc parallalDpiptdt are cot out, etlkcr in wbob 
«T in pari, whirh preteni indiealinnt of richaew adequate to yield a proipcct of bentfiL 
In olhei eiMn, il ii enough lo fnltciw oui l}ie thr(Bdt«f ore which occui, by workiiiai 
laade to tltcir dirtclicuii 



MUIBS. 



ITS 



!%« nlMr, ta teanUng wMhIn tiie «rut of ih* MHb br Ihr rtehM vrhkh fi concMl*, 
Mdlo iiiwiT(Ung*n. TIk rockt amiiltl whlth hecltn ort-ivUomet ne^m enllrv, 
I aliaMt alwnT* trmrcnpl liy flrn>> in vkHoiu dimtion*, id (hut impcniliaK tru^- 
«mu tkmitm to (Ul nl cfiib him >l mr; jiutint. He ■■ evvn oUitcd u liinci lo cm 
Ikraa^h niltea TrinUe i«dfi nt alluvial Inaint. Pntb ttnunphnic aii rulJon-s bioi niili 
ABkvltj in Ik narrow cbanndi whidi be Itfsopcn btfore hUn; imI tbit vaii'n irhicl 
dKokle In Ik nbtCTTmacan Kami and flinirn fliri r Inrrowntljr Inrn hii tirairntinn. «n'l 
tvad to Alt h, I^ iM now lake a Tiew oT the inunR h« ompli)]r» l» mb«|>« TiDin Ihuc 
Out* ihwn «f d«nit«r*. 

1. 0/ H« ftmttrmg (f crenqTi'Dat. — The mnnlioni of mlnei are <lm*ible inU 
Iftne pnnei[«lip«an; Aif/li, galtrrio, mi r^amberi. When Ihr wiilih nf thev raen> 
TDtiooa u iaoaawikraUe, a> is eonmoaly Ibc cue viih ihnfU and ciltcrict, thi-lr iMv* 
oia Mxacliinei itand ipri^hl aC thKnualvts; but more fVcquenily ilic)' in|»ir>- U/ be 
ptn y fiJ or Hajed by blUct* of wocri, or bf yn&t buill irilh hrirk* or (loiu- ^ »i t'v«n 
Djr ftQflLng the ipaec with rvbldih. Thne three kiiufa of mpport are ollr-l firuMnue, 

Timhtrif U mort u*e4. It (nrinin Ibnn for lh« three ip«dM of etcwaliuD*, *eeofd- 
ini to itoioliilkT d'lhG walli which it ii dmUiiFil lo tuiinin. 

In ■ ipHnif f^ examplr. ii mn^ hn tiilfirii'iii to gLiijigHin merely Uid rool^ by rnMM 
' r tOiliU plMW acran, bcuinc «l IhWr two i*nrl> in IN-- rxch ; <>r the lauT and the Iwn 
*klb braa«H«f an npiwr jobi *,/(;. 949, wliieh i< Ihen ctiWxA 9 raf at eofnin btitm, 
mtinic on Ilea Inlpral uprirlil p(nl« ur ilauf\ietit,ab, 
lo which a tliuhi inclination towardi neh uiho it sinn, 
■o that Ihcf appruach a litilc at the lop,niuI rcii enUrel| 
npon Uin (tout. At time*, only one of the wnlb anil Hie 
roof neni *iii'|ior(, i'hl» c«Mt n of fftiiufnl uecnrrenoe 
in i>i[>c vi'ini. Pillon ore then wt nii only on one sidc^ 
nnii on the olhrr Ihr joiali rat in holn of Ihe rodt. It 
may hagip^n llial ihc floor uf the miUery ihall ool be 
cDincicnlly firm lo aAonl a unre Aiundalian U> the Mand- 
unli 1 and Ii may be npcraMry lo make iJiein cr*,t on a 
hofimntnl piece enllfrf the tnlt. Tliin is liDibrrinit with 
Mm/'/rtr /mmfj. The uprirhl i>o»ts arc niually set 
directly on the aolc; bnl the eitinnitin of the 0^ Ot 
ecilinsi and Uio tipper •odi of Ihe ilawlanU, are morliMii 
in <uoh a manner thnllheaeeannot rouje nearer, whereby 
the rup (bnll jw«*ew in whole Ibree of rCTiitnnre, In 
Aktfc and (hirery rockn (here b p<il bvhinil (hntr hcami. both upon Uif ceilini; and the 
Mtt,f»rint toanfi, whleb aifi plnnki placed horimntally, or ipan of deft Bood, lel lO 
dM» lo^rther as to ttsTe no Inietval. I'hcy an ullefl/uirinri in liVnch. In ordinal? 
' , Ik miner puti up tlietc ;>JiiTillrt in proporlinn a« he n&et fumanJi; hut in a Ioom 
, nwh aa tand or (travel, h* mu«i mount them a litlle in advance. He then drivw 
iM* Ik maM behinil Ihe voodcn (Wme-wnrb, thick bnl ihnrp-poinled planhi or staket, 
wd which, in faci, fDim Ibc lidci of the cavity, which he proceed* lo eteatDtc. Theii 
■* •stfenuly ii ihai lopportrd by Uie caiih in which it li thruil, and ihdr other end bj 
ttrkrt IVamlnK. Wknevet Ihe miner tcti lufncienlly on, he tualaini the vnlli by a 
Mw frwoe. Tk file of ih« llmher, a* well n> the ditlanee between Ihc frain« or ilaa- 
d^M<, Mftmtt «« Itie dec've of pretuire to ht r«ti*le4l. 

WliM a CaB«T it to icTTf at once fttf MT«ral diilincl pnrpoieta a grenlrr kight b 
ftvoi U tt I aad a ADorinE >« laid on it nl a eerlain level. If, for eunple, a gallery fi 
tt be eoKplofed, both for the tmniporl of the om and ihe diicharee m the wtiieia, • 
Ah( t *,]>$• 7I5| t« eontlnictcd nbuve the boiiDm, over which Ibe earri^Ka are wheeledi 
lad aader whiek the waien are dlachantod. 

The tiah«Ting of ahafta varlet in form, m well a* that of fallerie«, aeeordlng lo the 
Mtere aad the locality d tbe crtmnd which they tmvene, and Ihe pnrpoie* whieb 
Ihey arc neant lo terre. The ihafli intendnt lo be (tared with timber ate umaUf 
^Mr« or reetaaenlor, becanw thia (ana, in iticlf inorr convenient for the miner, renders 
Ik ^eeiillon of Ihe liMbcrins more «se. Tfie wood-work eanii»ii nenerally of 
lanaavnUr Oamoi, the t9ar> of which are about ej^ht inchet ia diameter, and plnrcl 
V a •flKaaee atander tt ftom a ynnl lo a yard and a half. Hie *par* are never placed 
h tuatacl, ritept wh'n the premure of the earlh and the waters i* vety ^reaL The 
(iwei coBpoiaiit Ihe fremei are commonlir united by « half<herk, and Ihe tonrer rj 
Ae m pieea etiendi often beyond the nncle^, lo be rtated In the rock. Whriher iho 
Man l« eenleal or iaelinol, the fiame-wcrk ii alwayii plaoad «a that it* pinnf- mar be 
(ft^nilinikr to the oiii of the pit. It happeni tomelime* ta Ineliaed ihnlti Ihni (here 
mvmii two (idea, or even « (in^le one, wkleh nee4) lo be propped. Thew are itayed 
I «f eroM beam*, which rett at their (wo cad* in the roek. When the Aamea 




I 



mvEs. 



4a BM MKh OM anMbo, ilroii| pUnlu «v Milua ai« hiMied btbW lk«« ttt i 
the tTMod. Tn ibcK j'iuli ilic fiamta «rt flr*tf coniwcltd, m llal ihqr twmot i 
la ihb ewe Ihr t> buk liinbrrin'; sill bv taffoitri, when Ibn t6W«f b*B)c U (uliil]]r find, 
M wbtD tbr (lirco fniei nboic |*u by iu oMtc* lo bv aksllnj mpoa the grouad. 

In Ihc Uii,-<' nclmkguki dultii, wbitb mrr at <*itr(vr niitidinE ibr oiMi,(Di lie ilifr 

tfcMUr ef (b4- wstrr*, anil ILo ilnMM orUir «oikini:ii, ibv >pacr> >lr»ii»«l (dtIIifm- hv. 

[ flnl pur | *»ci arv in senn*! wpwaltil b} laniliqns wkicfc aUo tnTe lo ncnuc (^ 

f Rnafflk «f Ito tUnWraw, br Mti«g a* bultmw* lo tb« pbiaki n IW taaig tide* oT Iht 

ftanr-wrk. Ocnuonallj a T«nitiDD iiTruatn Ihc nxTwIin; TrMu tht ilaxendlng ba*- 

feel, hi prcTcDt ilidr j»Uinir.~Ixil>', i<ariii:*ilar |««sagaan Idlliir tcntihiion. 

A* ll u dctiiiblc Itul Uk vonJ uiall rcUin il* whole fcfcc, dhIt Ibow fl(t«* an 
qoDtDd vhlcli abuiliilri) fn)ulra it. The iport ot ibc fta»M ia abnll* Md B^leriM wv 
ilrpiiint ntctt}} nl'ibcir boii, wbicLi hj huldinu inuinUrr, «««U atcekralc the diMMipo- 
iMioii of lb* woDil. The albumiin of («k i» alto rMnmnl. 

Bmohiui voodth like tlie pine, but much *hoi1er ihiui ibc oak, ibe btccb, ami the 

thtTT) -UM I Ibc^Eh diF larch 1* u*«l with adranUuic. The otic hoi b*cn knoirn lo latt 

unmtiU oT J(l jtan i wbDc Ikr tciinoui wood) dtcaf /requcnllj* i> 10. Tbo lmb«r (hi- 

kit in nunc), tbc More duiabtc ia Ibc limlicitng. 

Tlio aaarslnaljlg). »Q, 9S1 nprtMnl Iwo vmilc*) tccilou of a abaA, the om at ri|fcl 

»ai> 




upiiehii 



[•atl** l0 Uio «lb«, with the ntw uf ahovini (be mwle of iuMaiuing Ihe mil* oT it* 
f^noavalion by Utabtflnf. Il it M|ria) fioin «n *rt<ial mine in Ibe UitU. TVre we bmj 
abKttD the fpocet nlliHlcd tn Ibe iluwni of Ike mincn b) 

IMder*, 10 Ibe lirainaar of Ibc tralfn b; piun|s p, and nda t, 
and 1« the eitiucliuii uf ibn niinnnl *uteianem by Uie I 
B. a, i, r^/, ll, k, tniiuui emu limlii-n ; *, c, r, up 
n, pouip culcm i v, w, conr-wayt. Tbc ihnfte taire i 
arc excavated i> Ibc Ibcof thciein iiwlf,— tbc rock i 
it bring lecn in ihv tccond hiruic. 
'In B gnat manj minet it i> found ■dranUgMui to auppoil 
ibe exmnlion* b; brick or wme huJldingi, oouAracicd 
ettlier vitb or without mortar. Tkca* MtiMruclJan* an 
ohrn mora coatl; liiMi wooden on», but they bsi tnoeh 
b>nsrr, and nrot tt»a n\<iun. Tliry nre emrtof cJ ioiirad 
of Iimbtrinni to auppari Ihc wnlli nnd nio{ o( ^atlrrin, lo 
line the tide* of thalU, and to btur up Ihc rouh of rxcai*- 
tiont. 
fCotnetinici llie two litlcs of a Raller)' *t« Iin«d with Ter- 
bnl walli, and ili roof ii fa]i|>ui(<d bjr nu o^ec tsbIi, m •• 
arch. If the lidr* of the mioe are iwlid, n umpk arcb ja 
Mfficiesilo «uMBiR iha not, and n( olhrr limm tbc whole nufaec of a ^cty i> Anncdof 
■ ^inJrie elliptic vnall, the xtntX n.ii* of which h vcnicni ; and the boHom U nnKmnlcd 
tqr a wocMlen plant, untlri whieh tlic wnlei* mn (ill'i *ccj!f. QM. 

Walled •Wta nbo ar« viincilmci eonitruettd in a cireolar or eIli|Mie lisnn, which it 
MIcr «)attifil t« ir«.iti the t>i»<iMFr of Ibc eatlb and waloa. Reclaii(ul«r tlnA* of all 
dtWliiilH. bowcvpr, are fr<'t>i<'n|li nailed. 

Tbe aide* of an deatnlioii inny alwbr iiipportcJ b; lUlio^il eompletelT with rabMak. 
Whtfrcd Uie nilea need tn bn Hippniud tor fomc lime wfttiool the neccuit) at iiasuof 
almc Ibrv, il la cAeo inon cnmomiaal In ilnIT ibtn up with mbhifb, than to keep m 
Ihtir Mi|iiKirt>. In Ibc lenllotf of Ucsc for exam;ile. then have bc<a than* tboa iDed 
wp for aeirnl eenlnrtcai and which an? Ibund to be quite entire when they are emptied. 
TllernUiib iialaoaaefBl foi fonomir road* ainangitoepatrata.for dosiiiE air.hotoi, aW 
IbnniBg MBali of TenlDation. 

Ftp. 9H.0s*.i>H i«T>T*eol the priacipal kind* of maMin-work CBploycd in the 
SaUrrlt* and iholU of mind. Fit. Oii exhtbitt tha «ftllia| In of tbc ca^ of an over- 
ihM water whMl, ai loouBied witbie a wne. Bdbre bt^oalng to bsild, an cir» 




MINES. 



191 



•Mton ltrf« «nini^ wnU b« nwdt In IbC' nUcrr to t«nT« a ipaee Arte ten oAil ■ ImK 
Ugb foe Uw warlCMC* ia fluid in, after tkc liriek-irork It colfiptMnl. Dclwfrn lll« 
tW> •ppodtv ibIh, cnw bp*in* nT q-aoil iduiI Iw Qinl nl Cnlain riUlOMct, «i rhiitdl 
oT tW Tvialt, ctT^ which tbr rock iiiu'l be hoUowcd oul la iwulvc thf oreh-iujan, 
wrf t*» «ml[int mutt lh«ii bv pliie«l. aivoird with dniH to r«i-ivB the fMunirt, 
hnJaainir al ike CmiIii •nd tndiny will) ih« livr-Monu. Whro the null ta nniihcd 
thmuch ■ cFrlain ntcol, the inlvrnO bctvrrn thr arch ■nil Ih* rack mnK be mmmed 
Ad if niW«h, Icariv |waace, ir nnrtNirr, ihruuvh il and llw arch, fur GniiDnti 
of waicr. 

In waDisg f'U*'''*- ntlcniion miul b« paid to ibe ilinclian oT the iirMrarvt ami la 
MU VottlcallT nr with a •lop« nMonlinelr. Shoulil the ptettun W «qna1 ia all 
AraMhnu, a clo*«d vanll. like fig. Vi'i, ihouti) be ronnol. For nulli noi far firmi tha 
twtk«l. Mll«n( nr batlrt<M«l aitbra nrc cni|ilofeil, ai *tit>va iu fig. 9t>3, called in 
Gemu) UrnfTiuftndi (vfta ; tit ullicr oitpi, loln-archct are rrrfwrea, WTIk a> uprittl 
■all btlwpm. 

fit. 9it il a IraiKTcrrw wotioa oT • valM ilml»-8an«rT, Onn thi ^rand ^cty ol 
tilaitt I wFBlHiyti;, psa. a la the rook, wUch nctda t« be *upport«d onlyal the tidn 




I (o|< ; ft, the nKiBonirciTk, n eurre AmDol of the lhrr« eirtnlnr are* uaou onn levil i 
(, dir toor IVii the wata-wnrie. Fig- 'ii'l It ■ crots section of n wallnl galirr]'. an al 
SctenWi^ Rotbtaliuiv', Mrii, ke. : i, ii the rock, wlueb U not wlU tilh«i al tlie Hankiy 
im( or floM ; r, the elli^c iiiuinmork ; /, the wooden floor IW the wagons, which ia 
mbmIhmi, bomrer, archnl in buck l« aUoir of a w«ter<aunc bciiMlh il. 

Tit. MS thowt Wa rerlicaJ prajccliun» tif a |wr|j»n «f • wallnl iImA with bnllrcma, 
m y%&i U tha aine Vattt Ah^tiam, nrar Marii-nlirii!. J U a MCttua in (he diitclion «( 
in ; A^lo tbow Iheioof of the thaft. i, n aKiion nblbilikjc Ite slope of the vei> 
' '• whtck the ihaft u rank i ri it Ihc mill of Ihe vein i k it the iwif of the mmt 
•ra -, a, fcaUr t i u B i mtilig Bpon tlie flnnki xX the iball ; x> criai arcs an vkich the bnt- 
IMM4 hwr I *> vertical wwcwwDtk l i, a vmll which ilivida the thaft inlo two eompan- 
iMili. of wWc^ ibr lamt. p, U that for exlrullni; the ore, and ilic uiialler (or the drain' 
ti( ao] jHcent of the olnen. 

J'If. Mi, c » ia the ikalt In which the vertical eranh>rad* < e, « d^ dm>** up and 
Am. r, I* adoablo bTdrauIlc whod, which nn b« (topped al plcatutti by a htaki 
— aiol nc«n tha ntaehmc of ninrtion. «, i« the drum of the pf m whini G« raiainff 
fe* nnn or tub* (tamatt) i m, ii Ihe Imtl of tke irann), with Ihe eafpentrr which mp- 
fwr;a Ike vfaini ana iu r<>Bf, Jt, it Ihr kc]r.*loae«f the mcc uch wkkh cuvrn ibe 
mla-ahcel i u, ii ihe oyeninfE or winilow, trevcncd b)' the curanitr of the driviiut 
*i/t, tmm ••ch tide of the wnler.irheel, through vhlch a wDikmin Din^ mlcr to ndjaiii 
m «apur (I i • ^ Boe of coodniu Ibr the lUeaiii* ef water which ftll upon the h]r<lniiUi( 



MINEt* 

wtttl , I, i;, Jouble orank villi mit, whow* uauas U lafaM off lk» hft nie of tk* irtMl i 
(i, rf, the nme npon tbc tithi iMc Th? ilnloncc IVotn h lo r b abMt 32 fud*. 

Figi. 9bO,vaT incMal (woTcnical teclions t/tJkc *)i>nufaiuinc tr*Unl, l(k« IBcmof 
of • caipiii, comuiuiucMlii; with Iho cnllciioi of Huf ttioT ooJ Uic wall of ihc iria, and 
>rcll itrraiH^Nj fyr both Ihr wtmciion of Ike on, aiul IkcdtKc*! oT the nncn, TW 
r«riicil paitiiion dI* Ihc thoA fur •o|>nnllii£ llie (:«««(« (br the tMra m lab froa tW 
iMidcn U oiaillod ia tlir Ceiitv, (ot the Mke cd'cUuiic>«. 

In ifjE. VGH, ji, Rnn ihc s'idr wnll* *ui>poi1nl <i|iaii Ihr baltmutc uyl ti; in fit. W*, 
K ■« the maHinrj of the anil, borne ii|H>n (h« Kivh r at Ihc Fnimncp to a fallrry i 'lit 
Continnntion bcinf at a, wkirb ii iiistniripJ by a umilnr uch built Inwrr. 

I, ii the lautl Bicb of Ihc TDor. iU|iporlFil upon anolhrr vnuU M, which p(n«at> a douhk 
ciuvalnrv, ai ihe tairanrc of n cilk^ri ; ill » is the font in uni ion of Ihe anji or raolt t, 
*lllob Dad(m«ath is >iii'|>i<iln! in Itkr manlipr al tiie ciiliancr nfa lover gaUcfy. 

a tv r djfif. tit, ar* mall uprlRhl |tuidc-ban or toilt Tor on? cribc cwtc*, « kibMai. 

'/• f ^1 "" noiQar Koidc-linr* fiir thv olhn coif. 

I I, are (roa-ton ef wood, wliicb tnpiKirt ibv Kafi of the Inddart oTdoMnt. 

fc k, are also cnaxt-liir* by which Ihe euiJc-rodi are *ecnrrd. 

I, a a/r/, ur I'lmcliun kibl>lt',fli[ni'<hetl «iih fKeiioo roUrni ihe oUier «iirf UfnppMad 
W b« drawn u|i lu a Iiigbcr kTcl, in Ihe olhcr r«7tteal paxa^t. 



M« 




Figt. 9S8. Gft9 icptvicnl in a venirai tcotion thn modeof limberins Ihr mlli-ria «rilte 
dlTcr and tend mitien at Arul/eatbei* in thn Hartx. Fie. SRK showi (be |)lan rinwd 
fnoi above. Upon ihe nvit at Iht? limbrtinp, Ihe uarknisn throwi the wntie rabUili, 
and in Ihe emvlj tl^nei- lirltrw, which it ibaded blneli, lie Hnniporu in bis wagOMW 
■Imlbannvn Ihe orei tnwsnlt Ihe month of ihe mlnr. Fig. 9Rt h lli« ?rot* >«<«!«■ of 
(h« gollefT- In <he laro liinire!<, a rcprefntt Ihe rock, and b Ihe timb(>rini j rouad Vh>d> 
there in a mminitr uf (mnl] ipnra or lalbct fur the porpnte of drainace aad ventaatJoa, 
with Ibr virar of pT>'«nc>tiii; tb« dnrabllilir of Uie«ood>work. 



MtN-ES. 



163 



Tba wwUa« of «in«m]i br n* man » wpII annplififd a IVw Imvofs lo the nwtb t£ 
Rttfca. i>««r Ihr vBlag* of Mnicn, u a mine ot iron sjid oihrr mcUlV, nIM Sttli>itrg. 
wkitk !%•■• tlic naia malth of Ike eouniij. The r>kn of wArkinn it l«ni»<d Ou umm- 
Nm ^ a iftmt or rraiurwir man. Ii (horn, m It* upi'iT |m" ''"* <liinvcr of bad mining, 
ud IB iti iafcriui luition, the terulnr w.tikitin*, hf whuM (ii''n»\ ni- h» rrcntuall; pfCti 
ai»l«J Ibr dnUuclKn t£ ■ pri'ciont ininmil ilviiOMlv. 
~ , Fig. VtO In a terlini tMtion ot the bed uf ore, which U a Arref onus of t|>«ino<« 




(Oniaintd in (tantiUon rack (irayvftckc). a, a, o, an pHlsn of ihe «pBri) ore, 
T«d W Buppoii ihe Bue««aaive atajM or noon, which are numbereil !, 2, 3, tx. ; 
kl|t,ai« eicaTBiioni worked in the ore; which exhibit at Ihe prewiit day Mtvral 
Mm ol n/ftie*, of Eieaier or le» mnxniiude, aecontins to the loolitict. It may ba 
KBMrlwd, Ibal where ibe melallie do[K>«ito fiinni one entire tnau, tieli in ■pallinar iron 
an of (Dod qualit), tlirre i* generally given to Ihe viultt a brii^hl of ihti-f ralhumii 
leannff a Ihtebam over Ihr roar of two fathoin*, (in nernnni of llir nuuivroui fioom 
wbidb pcnndc Ibr mais. But nbcie tbii miu ii divided inld llin*' ptinripiil branches, 
Ua toofof Ibe Ta«ll> k** only n fathom nnd o bnlf of thick nnt. while tkr eitaTatiun i* 
Ikn« ftthiw and n half bigb. [n the (ciual ilile of the workinB*, it nay be «(a{inBi(4 
tkat fran all ihit dtrrct man, ihrrr n nhininnl nu iixure out of every bni thaa ent 
third of Ibr nenrml. Tw« thinla remain as lnbor« of rnoire, which tnaj' he rtanmed 
Bi >nfn« fntiirc day, in oonwqii«nw nf the rt^lnrity and ihe cunlinuation Of the Mbler- 
laamn woihincit. e n a ihnit Ibr extraction, ecmuiiunicatint hrlov with the rallery of 
aflnx 1 1 A i« an upper snUerj- of dninniie. which mnn in difTereni direnions (one only 
ttiac twIUe ill thii (eclion) over a lenstli of 400 fathomi. The lower Eollerr h nin« 
CttlblbiMBi in ■ (liniihl line. The mine of Slohlbeie hns rumitheil annualTJ on an 
at*r*(« alncc tT6i) about 2a,(JU0 ciiliie fi-el (Kinnch) of an cxctlh-nt tiitlhoM- ore of iron. 
niBi, nuMm u tbomaie nl'a|uirTy iron. 
Ftf. m. V03, Das rvpretcnt tb« eroM fyMem of minine, nKicti eon^iitt in faraina 
^^^^^^^^^L flDeriei throoeh a minenil drjiotile, from iti vrall at floor 
Ml I^^^^^^^^^HI loworda il> roof, nnd not, ni niiinl. in the diienion of il* 
Inifitb. This mode wat contrived tonnrdi [he middle ot* 
the I8ih ecnlurj, for woikln? the very thick rcinicd' Ibe 
Sehcmnlti mine in Hunenry, and it if now employed with 
■dranlasn in iimny plaeei, particularly at Idrin in Cimlola. 
In tba lwoiKtionn./l». SSI, D4>,aa well a* in the mnind 
planjff. 943, Ihe wall JitdpnotMl by n> rn,and the roof hrtf. 
A Grit (nllery of praloneniion r. r, fig. 9it, beint fanned I* 
tta mO, mHTerw cnti, a a, br next »inblishtd nt litthl nneln lo Ihii rallery, wi thai 
brtwt«n every tWD there moy be roDmenoueh to plncethrw other*, A, c,*./?. Mi. Frtnn 
Mrh of tke cnli d, ore In iiroeured by nrivnnelne with the hclri of limbenaK. till the 
Naf I be leacheil. When ihi* I* dcme, Ih'te flrit cuts a, are filled up with rubbith, laid 
Ifaa |rtl iln a of tinbrr wilh whidi Itif irriximl i* covervd, no thai if eveniuiilty it thoutd 
b( *Mit«l to muM nndcmcatti, no downfnli of detritus |i lo Iip fraird. Thnc heap* 
tt rvbbUli (be only tn within a few ioclrn of Ih« lop oT the cuik n, in order that ibe 
wcekinp of IW npptr ilorj may be caner, the btd of oie bcina Ihere alreadj' laid opea 
tfam n* lowrr face- 
la inviMKiiin n Oit cut* a, ol the llrwl alorr r r, bi« thu* liUcil up, the gtraler |iail 
if iW Mberiaf b wiihdnwn, and made n>« t€ ebrwhere. The inlermediilc cutt 
V(,i>*)« *tn minfd in lilie manner, either lie* i mi in i: with the cut i r, or lhe<au>,W- 
I in the hMsUtln. From fit- 1>« •' appeart thiit the w«>tinc may be tn ar- 
, that la caui of oeecuiir, there may he alwayt between two eau ia nctivUy tk« 




tM 



MINE& 



^,i W thm *au, tUbet not anle, or flUnl up vuh nibbulii Beaot, •■ IW panM" 

•ftbelittl iir«[iPinajberamov0t,>hickGorraroaiUloftint M0()rsr.j((. ll«l.«L«lUiU 



Mf 




Tbe viplonilion of th« uppw monM k' r", H rl. «» r*, » wtoa prcpaieJ in n simLa 
BUineri mlb which Tiew ihafU A lU^ k IH^ arc formed froin below ninnnji in llw vail 
ai of Ui« depodle, and (Vom thMc ■haft* oblonc gulkrln praeccd, tauUiiAtil lueeusiTdT 
on a IcwJ with the ttofie* Ihiu riiMil o»»t oiw •nolhpr. Brrfig. 9«. The rollowina 
«fa]Mi* ouy be (pcelfled In Uie figure* : — 




• «, lilt fira cau fiUfd np with niUiih, ujwii the Snt hmt t 
i J^ Mlicr eou (ubtequenlly Al!c4 op, apoa (he mne ttorr. 
c. i)u cut MlnKlIr worlitDR. 

J, the fioot «f lb« oul, or ii]*F» of aetuA) exovalion of Itir mlaml ilrpoutb 
^OMMncf tbebairen tnoh, morvol in tb« euitinc, w pillars of MfiitT. 
>{ gkllerie*^ br megint of irbidi the wotknien mty turn raoiul the niMi i. In ordor It 
fcrm, in the nxiff, nn ciufniion in thedicccliDnof tbedcpoiile. 

I, rubliiih behind the mnu e, 
k, (wo UiolU li-mliii^ fcoin the flnt flori' c p, to the appet dcric* of the woritn^ n 
[ kbcMf *taud. 

R, tlio wall, and I the roof of iht miitcnil bed. 

In the wooiid morftr r', ibegallan'of proloiui*ljonr',Jt(*.0dl>>n(l9AK,i( nol eolMj 
peribtwi wl i but iliifiulh^r odtanMd linn thai of the tturd >I<it}', wliid), in it* tun, l« 
more th«n Ibe xxUery of Ibe fourth. 

From thli nrmni^onuini then; ii [irodiiecd uinn^e. OCA (hegcnNolnpciclof a wstUog 
b7 i«vrkJ<I«p*. 

Wlimover the warkiogi of the coti t In Ibe Arti M017 arr llnlshni, thoiv uf Ibe MCMd, 
a* •', may br b«tun In tli« tecond ; and ihui by mounlinu from iIott I« Mory, tbe «M* 
depMil« of urn mai be taken out and rriiUwed with rubbikh. One craU ■dTwnta^cof this 
■Ktbod it, iliat nolhiaii is lost ; bal il ii not the only one. Tbe ibdllliM ollimil \fj Ute 
1 flfiten) of trou irorkiHet for diipocini; of Ihc nibbiiji, rooit l>«|npTilI)' ■ nnlMiiM 10 the 
' Binet, and expcniive to nd riil uf, ihi? wlidiiy which il procuio by llir haatiiat up, lie 
eoMequeni Monom; of liaibetinit, and tanng of eipeni* In ih« tveavation of tbe radL 
nckoniai: fnim Ihc icecnd Morj, ate w manjr tmpoilBnl drcumiMncn wltieh n -imwi J 
(hi* modo of miniriE- Stnotloica^ tadeod, nibhiih ma* be wanltd M till up, bni ibi* 1 
almjn be procured by a few aeeeHurr perfuralionii il bdiiE muj lo ettibliih tn 
viduily uf Ihe working « vau eieaTatinn in Ibe form of a rnuli, or kindnf iitib(«i4n« 

aantrj, wiiicb niaT b* atli>»vd 10 fnll in with proper proaiutiani, and where lubluh «!D 
iu( aeentnuUte in a thott lime, al lilile eo«t. 

Fi'ir. tfl repmrntt Bflcclion<rf'iheee)ebTnird tmit Riin^'ii of Bl^btif b CaliiUUa,Mt 
(r from Villocb. 
i, e, i« Ibo fidgc of the UMualAini «f enm|ie«t limtatone, in «ha*e bowm Iba «anan(i 
I He oarriod on. 

t H Ibo sMtaUifcfoiu nll«T, rantung l>oin eait W wen, bvlwMn th« tw« paitiial 



Mntcs. 



m 




vaBffp at ll« Out «■! tlw DiaTe, but bI • Iml couUenbl; above Uie wuei* <J lht»» 
rivtn. 

/ y ii the duKlion ef ■ nnt many rtrticnl bed* of nMallilVraiTs UmeilODO. 
Oh <on«Mwin^ ifce 4ircction and dip of the maitr tchial, aaJ mclaiyerou* llnwutw 

la ibc tpaec >s us lo lit* mat M 
nt --^*^ » tb* lioc 1, 1, U noiild aiqieu QmI 

a rrval porlioa of Ihii tyitoa oT 
monaUini ha.i imiTctral n ilip between 
Ji f, aoil a pmllcl one lownnli (lie 
cut; whereby, probablf, lliai Trr- 
ticfti potilion of (ho iiUaU ha* bcm 
produeod, nhieb exiatt ihmutli % 
enatJileri^U umt. The maiallifBr- 
oui limeilone is covend to a criiua 
ttiicknea* with o luailjr ithisi, nod 
Dlher mare raccDi rocks, li U In 
ttiWMliiit that the flne marble known 
under th« name oT the luiiuuhtilo tf 
Blet^trf I* fuatrinl. 

The talena ocean la Ibo bcum at thi* tdcIi ia flstleneU nMM«*^ or Mnckt of a con- 
iMnraMa iroioaie, which aire doI •cpnratnl rtom Itie nnl uf the raJcareucit bril* b)' anjt 
It i* MtomiNiakd br tine ore (I'ltutni'w}, HjiMiallf in the upper pailiof'ihe 
iUi». 

hveni of the vockablc muies are indiented bv r. ri ; each pments iiiclf a* a 
■Ud •nnlo^ou* lo a Tcrjr ekinsatal cUipte, whute axu dir*T not nccor'llna: to the incUno- 
ttM t4 the tunvamling rotk, Ml to an obUijiie or fnl«tmr^iitie line bciwern IhU Inclina- 
lia%and thvdlrBCIion of tho Wd*of limetlone) «• ihonn bf riu,r'«. Ettry thinf 
Indhwtca Ibt couainraraaeoiu fcrmallDn of the limertoaei and the Ii^nK bed* <if the 
bad ore. 

"Tic aMadenuocbaltiealloil Itli^fi {ml) ni Bleyber; are liiiblcoa Ibr lutfnee of the 
pwnd. Eiperioeed mincti haTe remnrknl ihai the rich inuwi ocear more fn^uentlr 
n Ibc dirretina of ihnc aecldenti than rljvwbrrr. 

It i* in ^cnerBl hj gotleruM cut horiMiitnlly in Ibr bodf of the mountain, and at differ 
M( krrb, >, f, ■/, that the miner Bdrnneei lowardi the manei of ore r, rX Many of 
tteaa callcnw are 500 falhonii Ime before they reach n worknbb maM. The H-vcrij 
faOeriea arc ploeod in comuiiiniealioa bj a few thnft*. lueh a> f t but frw of thrae are 
de«per Dun th« lerri of the vnlier e. 
"the teUl lextth et the minct of Blpybcrtt U about lOfM |ian1'> ixunllcl 19 iha 
«< in wUch tpacA there are SOO coocenion^ Rrantfd bj the ffaremBnil t9 varioua 
or Joiai nock wdeiioi, either by ihemwiTM «r aMoeiaied wtlh Ibe Kovcm- 

Tie nttallif^iu valleiF eontaint 5000 inbnhiUnU, all dertiint; cubtatence fhiin lh« 
din ; 300 of whoo) are occupied in the gDVcrnmcnt work*, 

I narcnon hai • niuobcr and a nainei na Antani,Chri>taph, Miithmji,Ot«aIdi, 
>. tut. 
>'■, ««Si«a»eetloninlheqa!ck>llTerinlne<<rMria. 1. i* ihe^ray Iini«»lon«i 3.il 
ihUcUak dale; A. i* • rnyith *late. ImmeiJiBtHly above Iheto li«Mitio« roehtltiMlht 
M eflolainlag the or* mlled tonlUntr:, vhieb coniUI of an intimalf mfstiu* of fi^ 
ifesniarEDiicaryaadarpUaceouJiUinMtonei in which four men con cut out, in ft dmil^ 
If liiaii cube oT rock. 

fM I ■ P**- •*" repreienta a leetiM 

of Toit of the copper KJne cf 
^.-..,-..1,. containing ibe oHIolw 
I'llllnl roacAeuirW, Bl- 
ili>- fiiTiiiitci niari-taM- 
< . ihv cupre- 
.'•itfert the 
mill iif Lii.ijL'h -'lu;'.' iandMona^ 
callt.-d l"!- irniii !ir;--ii'(fi and the 
wnll of rr-l mmlitone, or tht 
rtilKiIti gmdr. TbE thin dalltd 
itmtam nt lop tt i-crcinble mouUt 
ihp larm dMt«d portion to tlie 
liihl of the flsnie i> oolite: the 
«ttaMteild«b«andi ■eiiiir«B<AtiMctc; utul laitly, the nain body of fetid IfantMen^ 






»» 



Hmn. 



Fit- MT tntmoKM MB of Ihe HamleUl tmfiftt nUiI ^dm in ae ditbkt 

I. VtfMaHe mmU, with tfUoMU KMvd, 
I: FMiutiauw ekf or loMii. . 

3. Ctel, viik ftngminli oT qawu. 

4. iUd d*r, a bc4 of vw utfctr thickscM •« veil u the lower (tnU, acnniins h ih ' 
eopremu tdital I* Msrer m nulhn- IVi« Uw fuifac*. 

Bl Oeolite (mffiHlnn). 

5. Kcwft T«ric«al«l luiilsidnv (taaffr loaMtia). 

7. K<w<r (TP>«ni ; brlow wUcb, tba« to 

8. A bluith mulf «!*>'. 
0. SlinkaloBc, or iueBlUc 
10. PrioUe grajith motl. 

II. OUec g]r|<«-'B. a tMk lotallT w«nli>e in Ibt olhar diUrieli oTlbe mint* rf 1 
bwB : toi ibinimlinc ia ftion MaaiAldl, where fl Inclvln tbh c*tcn» fcnawB I 
lk« miMn it! Uir mbf of nAMtn, ai imllmiJ ia the fiture. 

JL The MlranoM iwlc c«ll«d ttdUMm. IV low«r part cf lU> itniliia khowv' 
q»pl«aM of the rapHftrou lefaitt thai tie* nndmtwth. It prpirnu (hm- ihin toad*, 
diflptmit); nMaliflc^, which ihv nilncc diitiiMrnahB u lie dr^ccnili by t^ •aoin of tlic 
MwilcMtviirni/flillOrMk] the rDor(iIa(AIIM>); and ikcnaiarvell ((i(rl«rT.) 




]«0S 



^ss 



IS. Ia ■ brd of eaprifcroui tchiil {W>/(TKA{t/(r), bI«» «atM Ik* 5{nH]|fiio-m«rl) 
wUil, in Kbirh tnaf be noted, in loinii ilown, but not marked in Ibt tfun t-^ 

«, Uie lottttrg. a laam 4 Mchni thick, 

6, tha ftomoudlal^ j of an incb [hick. 

fl UiG tni/iAati, Dn«' itich itiick. 
Thcat team* atr noi wuiUi Mnclllng; th« following, however, are: — 

d, the xAif/rr Imp/, the miiiii copper BcMir, 9 in^M thick. 

t, a iBjer odlod todin, oiif inch thick. 
14. The wall of nmditone, mlini upnn n pori>hfry. 
jFVf. 96^ i* a iMlitm cf llie misa of Kici^rtidorf in Hnaia, prtauiting— 
I. Vrsclablo niould. 

3. LimMtnnc dlHlueUjr itralUin], Ooinently of a yellowish cotor, caOcd /ufrrhjfto 
haJkiKtra. 

3. Clay, MnDctimM red, lomelinica Nnc, wmRtimf* ■ miiturr of ni, Umc, aid 
ftllaw. 

4. The orllular llmntona (raaAkoft). Th[> rtick differ* loth in nstuir nml porilba 
from the rock nf Iha lome name al Mantfclili. 

A. Clay, oaaally red, conlsinas Vtuni of while gypnini, and fine etynalt of lela- 



d, Mauiv* fypntm at recent (bnnatioD. 

7. Fetid litnnlone, eocnpact ai»d hlaokkh fray, or cellular and yrllowiili |mr. 

8. palreraknl InneMone, with mlid ftapDcnls inlenpentd. 

9. rompocl niBil-UnicnoDc, or itoUna, which chon^ei from a browniah color abora 
lo a blncktth tchiit below, at it eomn nrarcr the cnprroiu uhial, whteh tenut to Ann • 
pannfiL 

10. Ckpreon* tchni (ltiif/trKiiifftT\ of which the bolloDi portion, Ann 4 lo B kttkm 
, k tiiat Klertcd for melallartic operaliont. Beneath tl, it fbuii'l the maal waO m 

I oT lantlMone. A vein of cobalt ore ■, wblch ii rich only in Ihe (tm^iih. while aand- 
no <iNUM higaiit), tiATfries and denncei bD th« btdi whnmt il cnnie*. 
Of vorkins tniMj i$ fin. — The celcbraifd mine worked rince the tenth cenrurr tn 
tb mountain caUtJ AaiiimrM«r(, in the Harix, lo the irealh of Goilnr, prffteott a sm 



inNK 



1ST 



t «f on*, kmoOB iba bnU of the rock wUca conMUnte tbai nouotain. Tbt 
Blacnl dfpoMr 1* uiiuHd ia tin earth, liko an monnoin tDierUd wtdpv M (hat in 
ttfakasM (pave), tKaoBiilenUe nnr the lur&M of Uie ntiaiMt ioenMM m it ilnnwb. 
Al aboal HM puiU from iti onlcrop, rcckonins in Ike dinctitm of tli* tlope cf the d^ 
PHiUv it is iliridnl inio two portion* or branches vliich bio icparatcd from t««h otWr, 
rtiiii1.h«wit Ik whole boovn dcjilh, by ■ man of vrry hard clay tiate, vtiicli pa»ct iDtO 
flinlj *la(P- The mbdantei mnpcniiig (he wnkable uibm aie copprr and iron pfiite* 
with MlfihuriTl of Inul (galena), acmnf aaied by ijuani, CMbonaie M live, eoiD|<ael ed- 
pbaie of barrla, anil MmetiuiM gr%j otippti ore, »ni[ihiirr[ uf linc, and atMoical pjrilea, 
Tlio M*s of (nil lad oopprr caniain litiei and fold, bul in imall praivrliont pattioslarir 
MlolWIaat. 

A toine K> aacienl a> thai of Rammrltbcri;. nnil wlikh wb> foimrrly diTided nDHing 
vnl advenlutDni cnai|wpics, cnnnol fnil la piwot ■ greal innjiy ihafli and exeav»> 
1 1 but out of the IS pit*, onl; tvo are emplofcd Ibr the proxail workinn i namelf, 
> Buied A ■ and e r, in /{. 0A9. bj wliich the whole extraction and dminaGe an 





.«i(lv 







exmleil. The iteneral irt(«in<d' exploilelion b; dr«, at praelJMil in Uiii min^ eoniM* 
«( the fcdiowtng opprallon* : — 

I. An adiane* U kiiuIc lonnrdi tbc dcfioiiie* of nre, tucerKtivdj at dillffreDl levedi^ 
bf tra»(T«ne nllerief wliif h pructeil IWn the nhaft of exiracllun, and tcrioinate el ikr 
wall of Uir ■Inlifotm maM. 

i. ThiTc ii fotnwd in (he lerel to be worked. Iotieg vnulto in the heart of the ot*, kf 
■nu of Qrr, ■> wp ihnJI pmrnlly dcteribc. 

1, Tke floor of Ihoic vnulit i> nkiinl up b)- meant of tei races formed from the nibbiil^ 
b Hejiorlkin a> Ihc toof is ■couped oal. 

i. Tkt ores delarhni liy the Ox fton thtlt bod, ate piaked and Ralhered | MmctlnMa 
Ac hriter block* atr blnoted with canpawiler. 

5. Ijutljr, Ihe ores thus ohUunod are wheeled lomids the shad of eitrnclion, and 
tnned onl In the daj-. 

Litt ■» no* see bow ihe ucaration br tire is pcnctised i and in that view, let us eon- 
Mn ite stale <£ the workinipi in the mines of Kammelubcrg in 1S09. K'e msf temaril 
la fit. M9 the rrgvlniit; of ibr vaoln previouidr scooped out above Ihe levtl 9 c, and 
At e«h«T vanlls which are in Hall aeUvit]' of opcntkut. It if, iberrlbre, lonrda tli* 
iMvt Irreda (hot the new workingti musl be directed. For this iiurpote, iht tranevftsc 
pBny battjE alrradr eompleled, Uieic it prepomd on (he Bnl of Ihese Soon a vault of 
OlUtailoa at K which cventaoiljr ii to become umilar lo lliese of the luperior leicla. 
ll die M«iB time. Iboe is cotmoenced at tlie ilartine point b«Iow it, reached br ■ niall 
mK dns III >l>r line of the mhleml ilr;>aiile, n inuuvcne enUerf in the rock, bjT meana 
^ Ue*ilBR «iib suiircder. The rock n alui etUcked al ihe stniling-painl Iqr a ilmilar 
rmt, whirli BilTanm i'> meet the fmi perlbrailan. In ibii vaf, whenever ihe vaults of 
i%r. Irrrl [ ate rthiii'ipl of ore and Itxiaced Qp with rubbith, tluMe tf the level btMUh 
<<F in fiiU aclivil)'. 

' > Witt iken be prepvcd at n lower levd i and the eiploitation mnjr aAerwards be 
ttntn below this lerd bj fanning (he nine plan, bv which the aeinal depth of excavbi 
dN bu been iMlMd. 

b woektnxs by Are »• ami dirthigtilsli, 1. The case where it I* neeceuBi? lo open 
■ TCBh jmMutiaWlj fnm the fioor; i. 1^ fM where ihe laali having already a 
MlfcJM UuaTka. it is neeoMnrr to fatichMi iU roof. In the Ibnnn eoM, Ihc wall oi floor 
tf (ke nlnetal depotiM is first penetrated hf Usilins with cnapowder. As toon as |U» 
ra<laa t* effected Ofor n certain koirlh, parallel lu tW diKCItos of the fluost 
M hapi<«*> al k there Is annmzed oit tbc bottom n koiwiata] layer ol bsUels tt 
\ ««TT vlibh other billeU are piled in neartr a vcrlkal ptaiiion, which leat upon 
• tn, » ik« lb* flame In its upnosion oomca to phy agniiM the nuncial inasB W be 



i«e 



HINSa 



teMhei. Wlin ■fler torn* dmikr openUm*. the fluw «t Iha pfls caa la U^H 
naeb the orr «f 0>e root on BMaani of iu hmriii, • muU Unace at -nbhlah MJ^H 
Rbed «n Ibc Oaot tC Uie depMtW i aad ora tbU Mrmm^ • mm fOt ot tt^au *^^H 
t*ap(d «!> M >btiTo rfnmM. Tliit ftnclcnt minen rnmmiwJ tic raoji of ceori^H 
plndng tnrh l^mtN tloM lo the HMt, >tu1 contotaentl; arTanclkc Ike ficali arateN 
thn rorfion of lh« on, to lh«t the flBinr cirenUled fnm the loof dovn to Ue Coot. 
The muh of mich proeedore viu the inalieniii( of Iho RMf,aa4 the lowof Bnch atttn 
an which caulil aat ht rxtnarA (rom » aatlkble « AAfk i «ad beaUea, tnadi ■«■ 
wMd mu btmeil than at ihc (irctenl doj. bcciwe the latoa et Ifce flaw* wm ^**^WBt 
in part agiin*! iho whc4e aai* of thn roof, Inttnul orkelnf equeaatreil oa IhapMll^^| 
tk« ore which it w(u dnired to clUI»<sc'. Kciw, tli>' llnma it tt«iMl.ty ooib M dn^H 
Own ihr floor to At roof, in commirneinc a ti»w vasli. ' 

When lh« TOnlt hu alrmilr a «eruin hcit^t, rarp ii alwap token IkM hi WW lh« 
ioor<if llie votiU and the rubbuh on whk h the pile i* mntavti]. no Btora tliaa two jmtt 
tt afww kboold tiit«rT«n«^ la oriet thai ihe flune may eiolnneL- «|ually the wIwIp e«». 
esTitjr of the vnnlt, and prodatc a nntlbnn cITmI on all iU puis. Xtre, Uie piile ii 
fermot of horixoDlal btd«, dlapotod CManrltc aboTc one atiotha, aod prnrnl* (bar Aw 
T«rllcal faei-«, whcnw il hai been o^od K i^til by tb« minora. 

It ii iiitt&llf un Baiuntiiy (hni the ltr« ii api>{i(>l lo all the pile* of faffota dttiiibvwd 
thmuifb Ibc MiUM of Ihc week. Thoio in thi; appi-r Hoorv of cxploiialion an GiM 
boMaJ, in onler that the inferior pi1«« may not obstruct, bjr ihdr *iuucd atr. ihea^^ 
bnalion of the Anncr, Thiu, •■ A o'cloeb in the inorninz, the fitc* ucldailed l^^l 
apper ranwa ; from pile to pile the fireman and hii niKiuni de*entil lomida l^M^I 
6oors which occilpid Ihicni till 3 o'clark in tkc nnprnonn. Vainly ihould «c vM^I 
lo dewrlbe tlie majatic anil terriltc ipririnrlii winch thi.- fire prcwntt, u It imfU^^B 
winEt under it* metallic nnlit.aoon fillrJ wilh tdk voliuaM«rima1u and tune. MW 
mark Ihtt nwful eiSKI wfijcli ti produces. 

IVhen the flame ha> bent lor n frw inilaati on the bodi of ore, a ttroa^ odtttf 
•nlpbar, and lameliaiea of nnenic i< pi^rcrivril i and icon thetcaner lottd dcHUttSM 
are heard in the vau1t<. Suddenly Ihe dome ii «cen to a»iimR a bine m!or, or eves ■ 
wWlei and at Ihli prriml, after ■ A\gt\\ explonion, dnlin of ihr era, of rmtcr or ini 
■•nitude, niiially fiUI down en the flrr, but tlic rhlKf portion of the hmted mana) 
(Ull reinaint Itii^ to the vault Thf or*« pan now tnio a tlutlered ami dirlM 
eondition, which nllows them ndenrnnli to lie dFlnchod by Ions forks of bxn. la itni 
manner the fire, mlniilixing entiinly tome pnncipln. inrh oi mlphnr, ilnr, ancai^ ud 
water, cliatu;ine the •ti^zMian of the ennttUucnt pii(< of the ore, and eawHS Ihiiiiia 

SIhcIr unnqtuil cipantibilitim, rteiliialet Ibo cxcaTalian of tnrti malmab ■* redK tv 
sir IcoAChy the aetion of (riinp"wil'^. 

The eombnilion ton on witlioiil any iierion entering (he nuno fl«m SatDnby cfi^ 
tare till Mnnilny morntni;, on which iUt. the fireman nnd hit aM{tlaBl« pmoeol U 
exlini[iiith Ibt rcninint nf the bonlicci. On Monday »)an loine pilei am cOtUtnMtal ii 
llin pnrli where Ihc cirecl of the former one* hat been incomplete i and lliey aiekindlBl 
al^er Ihc worlunrn hoTc i|ulitnl the mine. On Tiieslay nil tAndf are emfioyelli 
deinehiae thearc«,in (ortlng (hem, tailing Ihem ont,Bnd preparing new piteia^nMtb* 
next Salardny. 

Thn h)>or of a week con*iill fl>r ertry man of flir pcala during the Aiy, eneh af t 
hour*, and nfone post of bur hour* (br Sntnnlny. Morenrer, an minaUoamnco ttnadc 
In tnch workmen u employ (hemielTa tame poiit dnrinir the nivhi. 

The Inbor of one eompartment or alil'tt of ihe mine roniislt therrfiire in arrnaclnf 
ttie faiDtn, In detaehlns the ore whieb hn> alirnrly eiperieneed the aclion of Ike fir^ i» 
breaking the bloeka oblninrd. In upnmiing the are from Ihc ithrU «f the pile, and^ 
vheneiir it mny Ira praeiinUe «r nin|\il, in hoiine holm for bluiins with fnniwwder. 
The heal a to gml in Ihif kind of nine, Ihat Ihe men are obli^cil to work ia it w<iho4 
cJodilnf. 

W« nave already remarked, Ihat betMet Ihe workin;i by fire, which It duefly uted hcr^ 
reronne it someliTnei had lo blostin)! by i!un;>oiT>ler. Thin in done in oidor either (a ■» 
cover Ihc botloni part or sionm! of the vnulli on which the (Ire ean net but imp er ftcll y , 
to tint Nway lome iiro;i'eiiiina whirh would inietfere trithlhe effect cftlie pHiL or Innb 
to ttrip the (iiimiiiniiini; rurk from ihe mnu of Ihe ore, and thence to obtain adim peopM 
Ibr Ihe ooniUnclion of [hi; rnhblih-termcn. 

The blaillnr prneen h I'mpltTyed when Ihe tbrnnm of the workihop or miaa 
dunnber Jndire IhnI n hole well plnecd mny lepnrste enoiivh of ore lo pay the tiia^ dw 
npair of tnol*, and the i^iapawder eipended. But this indemnifieaiion is tardy ohuln- 
•£ The tbllowln; itnlemcnt wiil ^rlve on Idea of the lenoeity which the miaeral 4epodu 
rfl«o prMf nu. 

In iSM, in n portion «f the ttoaimeUbrrg mine, Ihe on, conriOinf of «xttc«ely oeo- 
paet iron and mpper pyrites *■■ xtaelud by a olaglo mas, wlw bond a mt^g bol* 



MIItBBL 



U* 



AlW tl p«A tS obHUme lakor, oMUpring klUcMhcr 8$ boon, the mfciMa, W^ 
*ldUiitl]r nperiaicirfed, bod Wan able to wiruM ths bole i« n ricpih td no more tbu 
4 Wbn; Is ib^ which he hid renJncd tntirelgr uiuciTireaUt I2il ininchii oi bar<T*, 
bMi»l>ii it nihrn whldi tmA b«M i^lippei vilb *i«cl, ami Su) whtcb had beitn tbsr^ 
tmnA i 01 rnand* oT ojl hid been eonuuncd in ^vin; Iilm lahl ; awX Iwlf n )<cr*nil U 
fMpowflrr «M raqnind tu hlMliM; lh« bore. Il wu ftiunJ {Km a titlrulolion mule 
■|wi Ihew &(M br the aiWnUtntion of Nana, IhnI everjr ineli i}««p vf Ihis hrile ooil, 
U Uii'H )•* jott of Ubor, onilT • Boria, vain* Iwo ibillins* uid tiipenw. 

Il in IhereJoir cTideiit Inl Ihuogb the liinbor, o( which theconminplii'n i> {•iKrliirioud]' 
|nal, wvte miieh IcMabnnilAU and dfom lion it dill i* at ItamnicUlK-ir. »<>iitai,' bj 
In wonkl be pttferable la fttti' o>b«T inod« of riploiution. It a eien cciiuu, thai 
a« 4IIT MiipMilioa, the cinpla;ini^nt oT ^unpowilct roulil iiol be |>iBctI«ablr for ernj 
pan ««I1M miae; ami if fuel came to Tail, il would be renaiiiic to renounce tb« 
■naliiHi u RaauDdtbcrf , althoiish Ihii mouaiain Hill ooniatu a large qnniiiliT ef 



m> 



If u all mina Ibt fre« ciienlttion of air be an objnct <S the hifbeil im|iinian<p, «c 
■Mt pocciTc how indi<iientable it miul be in ctri} pari of a mine when? Ihc mode of 
tH>ltTtMtrn tnainliin- "r l>fiTipeTBiun! of ihenir ai M^ F«hr,, whi-n the vorhmca reinin 
iMo II Aniof Ike eettbouion cf <>>' \n\n, sni) in uhich besiilei il ii ntta-ticj tlml Ihb 
miiUnliiin ha (Axial with scliviiy in their ibM'nrr. Bat in cannqnenw of ihc eiirbl 
aad mMval raaddcation* of the wwriiiun, Ihc aninbcr of th« ihofb^ galletiiu, ami their 
J M a w nw at \mfri, the ecnliUtiDn of Ihc mine ii in n mnnccr ipontaocou*!)' (Bkintained. 
Tbe Uffc tMOfwraturi! i* t««il»rl]r (bTorable to ii. The aid of ul eojubu fueni; ia 
plMmc name Aaon judietMil;, which cur be opened or thut al |iltauir«v (o canj' on 
Dm nrmkliaa of lb« tie. 

Ia «MuUcrii« Ihe Rl— '**t*"*C from ttt tuaimil, wbirh iims abDiii -100 jaxl* 
abow lb* town cf Gotlu, w« ftfawrve, trv, bed* oT *lnly uaJitone, whicli become the 
■an hailcunkl the ooatu ikoj approteh to the tutfew. At abovl lilO taids bch>w 
IW lop Incl Ihctc occuni, in the hmom of Ihe ilal) |ra}waeke, a powrrfbl Mraluui of 
Acllt ioipaMtd in ■ ftrrutttnao* laaditane. See i>, Jif. Mi. In dMceiidin^ toward* lbs 
bee of the on, Ibc |<niiillrl iiialiUottion (>!' Ili« claf-alaM 
whieh fiiTVu ill mUi and rouf (trow* mure ami mmt 
manifcft. Ilcie the tialc ii Unck, ooospMI, and Ihinir 
Iblialed. The iiielinntion uf ihc dilTeRnt bedi of rock 
il iDdieated at n. The tubktaace of the VDrtisblr iiiaM 
il copper and iron pjriin, along with tnliJiucci tit lead, 
•eeoupanied \ii qmxrtt, fubanale of lime, oMopMi hi1> 
phale «f barjrU, and oeeuionaUj sray eopptt t./Mtn), 
loljdiuTcI of line, ami ameoieaJ pirlus. 

Ibe ore* ue aqttitltoau* md avUcnmi, bet Ten 
(lif hUjr to, tspeelall; oa lu the teld. It b Ihe ore* oT 
!iq>l aaJ copiwr which eouain the rilrcr, and ia Ibe Uller 
ibr eiJd i> found, but without iB bttng well oxeEfialncid In 
wlint mineral il ia depotilcd. ^TMlm^ Ihc (opfw 
xecuri in the natire >tal<% or a> copper ef ermruuiien. 
Di-anlil^it crjsiab at *iilplial« of Umc w* found In Ihe old 
wdrkiaiu. 

)<i >.(■. SSfi DTO, A B ia ihi ihoft of extraciion, cnllnl 
■be A'ahrunJiaMtr ; M \ft th« vtnlilnlir'n ahan. callol finU< 
lnt*r<"lltriduidil i r i« Ihe eilia<(iun ihafl, tailed hmrr' 
triUitr. 

K r, il n new exlmelion-shnft, called f/ruer Irtibitkadit, 
faf which alio the wairr it pumped np i b]^ a •, nod a r, 
ibc whole enraction Dnd draining w« earried on. Tba 
•na are ruied in ihc*c ihani to ibo krel of the mgpm 
calleiT (fttri* de malagt) 1, by iho whin* I, f, protiM 
wtlh ropMBAd bueket*. I, 2, 3, 4,j<c. 9X0, rtfeMenl 
Ibe (loution* cf four water-wheeli for mixinf (he wbinai 
Ihe flnt ivo hcint coiplojreil in eMnctiaf the orM. tW 
loit two in dmiaitut. The drirint; ilrrun ■• led to Ihe 
whod I, alonir the drift It whenM it falli in luceenion 
The scleral tT>iem of workini cDiiiutii of Ibe fallomiii 

e h«dcfot*i*gotat bjiha IraxeeiMgallerioa, m,a,iik9, *.', wUcfa bimneli 
« lii-o (be utnetion tbafl, and Irnrinale al thv waU cf the iinIb bed; 
L Gnat Tank* arv icooptd out at the leve'ef Ihe wakief*, bjr minpf Mwi 




fM 



KtifBr 



>. OlMlfMilamMoopedMlM thslvnloriha wariiiiis*,kr ntaiuof iKi 
3. Tha nnfi ofilicM tmIu tn ftogt * m n \j propped viui moua^ tf nbbitbi 
4> Thi ocea thiu deucbMt, a bf biwling «iiti gunpasdm, an ifc«a coIUcimI - 
S. LmiIti 'her "« wfaetlMl oDt M the dty ; and wuh«d cie«r ■■ 

Omriunvi TASta of Mtebraud Mom in Eintore and A»ni». By f. Buir, 
(,<)uarUrlf MMitg Jtteigir /or Juiy. ISSS. p. 6Q.) 



Km3t* tt Lh* 






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IJTM. 

iloellMi VMt il 
IM iMMa^aJ 

IMf UI Mil) 
— IMd, slid pvfU 

iTHdlifvaaiid 



TtBTiMTioii or xum. 



Whn 



panMnla br nirraw pw a gc* into ib« lolarlar of tho MRk, iknr nipir- 

0tm, jclMil to ihe oomboMliin of candlv 4nd gimpowdor, ai* not loos of ridaliif 

fc •>. The ilecctapotUeo of vood ocnuibutM (o lb* moid ofleol, m lb* ikt 

ml bed iucir. ovceiallr in cnl mioM, bf iha nrt>UT«tt«d hrdfogcD and tMbouf 

n«lt«d, anil from iba alaarpiioQ td' oiyBM b]r pfriua. In nuf cum, mmum 

Tvpoun are iitintikgcd. Ueaot Ihe oetembr ot miiiwrinlia in idlk 



IMMMI- ' A IHn* KIUA 



IM 



Mf»T. 



trmnMn nHltn ■ Mntmoal rbvuklkn of >Jr, whkh ■■; icncw Ike RUMNphen mnd 
the fniam. Thv wliok oT tb« mMm emiilorcJ to pradoor Ihit dTect, ooMtitnlca whM 
b catlol (he rmriAf/tm *^ iwfart. 

Ttane meaiu n/e diriaed into nii(iir«I nod arl^ficiat. The m^m»l atoai «re iKe etu- 
■c*U prailaccd bjr (he dlOtnacc c^ dnxit)' bdwwn Ike il/ of alno anJ tbe eilcna) 
I lir ! tbo artiAiiiU vr alc-eiktottm or eondcnicri, Alt*, A«. 

The innjicrmiun' iir ihn ulr ciT Ibc mblonnean vafUa(« iiiryiwti th« niraa imt- 

Kralorc i,i' ihe ulacr in whicfa tb« oitat b 0^(0(4. UtMC U it UfbUf is wintat 
t lu loiDiner o(l«n bvuticr tbas the air of Ihe aunof phen. For Ihio rmoo, vbav llw 
• nlAe (rrvMnu two opcnliin «1 ilifleranl Vida, tbc air tiotmlli flow* out bj tLe bimI 
^•hTfttM in wintu, vii by Ue lowot ta BuniiK-r. We mijr take adraoUKe lif tUs 
ticeiinwisaw. lo Iom the ur inio the boiincn nf ernn a vrj lone imUtri', opmibf tab 
tbs nte of Ihe mounlain, bj pierdng • ihaH inio lis root at tome diiunee Itom iIh 
oimner, and dMUng the EaUerT br b boriiania] floor Inio two poiU, «hkk ban a» 
DtDIiut communleallao, dcejA •< llic Turllii'i.i r^iiiccail; — die uppts fUl rnmmiioilf 
tinf mlb ibo ubift, and the tinilct wiih tlii' mouih of ihe gnllciy. If the two fjmfttt 
menti buve iliderent ilimrnfioiig, ih« *ir in ihe MUiUer toootti eouM into oa «q«iIih(iOB' 
of Icuiprniiure wUb Ihe rack ; and Ibo ililtoroneo of lempenlwe of the tai« Bawp i fr 
nenta n f>flicient to produce a current. If a ■lieamlel of water dom thfoorii Mt 
giUeiTi il fneililatei llie lloir of ibe air aloa^ tbe lower eompoiiinent. IT a uoe hm 
Mteral openinn ulvued oo Ihe mudc Icvd, it rarely happens hot aainc peculiar elsvim- 
Mauce d«ui>y>, during tbe eoUx of «io(«« and (be faesti of nimmer, ibc equllibriaiii «f 
the air. But la iiprin; and oatunn, when the eatonal air it noarly uf ibetone liM- 
pcialure wilh Ihai <4 llic iaine% Ibe nhote-eaniRl cdufa are almttt always too IVrbl* It 
txoite an iuuinii curredt. Thi* dlVei it, bowrvrr, frti|ueotly ablaiaeil by nuunic at«t 
eae of ihe Uiafli a ehinrney SO or 3i) )niiLt hiitli, whkh alone prodncw Ihe edTeet at m 
Openint at a diiTereiil Icvd. Il hat been rmarkr'l IIihI Monny wenlher nsuaDy drrxqpi 
ncnintcin of venlilaliLin. See PirtioAL and V'tHril-aTiolt, 
UlKES^ BLASTING. II bu been ofMn naUced tbit ainee Ilia applJeBiion «f p*. 

Siowdtr for bloitiiiic. fuir if onvimproTcraontahaTotMoDisido fatbeM«tbuiba>l(^i(«l 
ur oiiiiiit^ i.lir<jii|j;1i Imnl roclu; and lli« gront exponiu of mBiataiDtns •iii^itr imv** 
far I'ltinpi iiK >»>l irli^lln;; •luring Uic lonK period r«quir«d to Mnl *haiu (liroo)!ti Mcfc 
ivelw h]w bi'eii. mid •till I* Iba wle eaiiM of torn* of tti* btal and ridivtt tract* «t 
IDlo<nl> 111 (-rtnllfritaiii lying liUoasd unprodaeUvi^wdtital'eeu tbe j'riiivipal caut* 
of Ihe l(-H of Iif« (o loricnu an<} often oeiiurrinu from n^oooii id minci, 

Thoimpr«Toiiieiiti^or rather the new^tem dow Inmdticed, trill be liuttar mdi^ 
ftood afkr a nvjew of tiie inethod* and locdt liaretoforotuod. 

11iauld**t uieUtod of niuBpin^ or (iikiii)(U{>tJic wat«r IVoui ibe bottom oftliatlMft 
dnrliifC oirikinu wiu t>ii> Uuptt (•■j'Oi llil* wm abuiil t t»4t in laoarlb, maile of U*tlur. 
■ad (tiffviieJ bj ring! of inelal: the eiinatant dainaut IbU wnt Uablo lo in blaatlog 
oauatd il lo be iiIidobI abaiidoucil, and in iu place Ibo at/xsk and ilide piif wa* bntn>- 
4a«eil. Tliiii voDiiiita of two cut-iron (dprs aUding into each other a* a lelMrajta and 
brpl tight in the jaiut by a ituffing-box; tbia oontcJTMiceiillotonlvczpenBve in tnt 
eut^ but liable to brenkagc and licavj to handla. Both thotc nodes of paiD|-iug are 
cnl^a'^t to a alill ^renter ddCoot; tbe pump can only bo mada Ciiarly nivder tbe puiap 
triMa, M llial donng a loDv tinio of tlie iluUn^ It often oecon that only tvo or Ihtoe 
, noli ean be olfcetBtltj cniployad in th«ahaft; tlilt La torn* of th« bu«e ikafta ftay ok 
• Minmotiiiixeuatrf lo HouUi WaU*^ IS feat by lOfott} oauatt M«l«at dtUy to ubepio- 
graaof the work. 

In boKng it hue been eustoninry to use a borer, llic b<>dy of vhich wae made «l 
wionghl iron, and tbe bit or end of Iho borer «4 shtai >teul woldoilon tbe irotk So 
Mtemjits nppciar ever lo bavo buen mnilo to fix any dcfluitu proportion bctweeN tbe 
•iie of tfao utotk ur Imii'llx anil tbe breadth of tha Ut: and from thla (*ni« a ttitj 
great portion of th* puwor of tho atrlkor bos boon luelcualy expondeil 
, The UM of uiut ttoij borem i^ la aome retpoott^ aatireJy new s* amlieJ lo (al»lD|^ 
■ad by ihe niperieir honlnen of oiitl at«el aa ootopaml wlui thtar*t«ol,yTaally espo- 
dltea tbe piuoena of boring tui asrea apaow; l£ay bare atto •■ advantage iti traMt 
mitliii); tlie furue of tbe hanuner to tho bit, on aecount uf their •tiffnss or rigidity; 
and furl her lo prnvrnt luu of powpr, it 11 of iiDJKirtatiCD tlint the Int ihonld be aopM- 
iiorliuniM] to the Landte or Atoek at to work fttely In the hore-boUt and at tho mmm 
lltne nj-ringarbond as little at pottibleunder the Uow of tbo bommor. Tlie foUowiag 
pTiijiariioiii a])]ivarto untwor tliM* coiiiUtioat. (S«e ton of n«n pace-) 

"nio Miction pipe novaneJ by the Mih<hit««-, about SO »«t la length, la mode ofgnUa 
Mnli% an J enpemedM Ihe utaofth* leather ilogar. and Uiottoek and altdai it 6ao| 
luMe<oaO(ident,iiad(«ab«rep*lrcil coaly: itviablea the pump ttlila tab«iaad«lii 
any partof tlieaban,andagr«atcrnaniberofn««i to wcrkH in toe abaft at dq« Udm 



ULNB& 



m 



0«tatwii Can SImL 

I inch. 
It . 
M .. 

II . 



BwJthof 

Uw (Me ot liiL 
II inch. 

H . 

« - 



■i » St 

Til* lain)<liM41a« of rtKlridtj- u Ui« po««r for btoMing in oamoctiaii with Uit 
Iw^iiuniiiwif bt fc w PKplBined, mav be ind to ooutHiita ■ now ora In the hutotv ■>( 

He >p]«r»tiii M prvMDt aied (lor blutietr >>nrava1ihnt«fTofSuiiifae*w|Dir«:Uib 
b jtlweil i> (oac MOTcBieDt poniion titnr ih-i loji of Uio ibkft ; two oopfxir w&ov «oal«<] 
Willi ^sttn f>«rBba,at«earri«d down UiaibiiOj^ and tboN or* connMMd vlth lh«atlMr 
>" ' '4 in aarullfartiidi* wUehU placed la Uie<har)t*o(|K>vil«r forUauln^ 

TkrtniMr, in finkinitistolhp nuth>MM)ni>penei]pnnmEroiuiiprin$^v)i(iM 
vUciv, (cicnlnlini ialo Ibi' cxravnliuni irliii.''i h« iliici. conalilntn one oTllie nealcM 
ObilicttH 1^1 nolarc oppoin to bii toil*. Whvn his vorkinri etc nbovc Ihr kvi'l of 
MmtTallfTa*^ ■lno;pEBl<UtUa(e,ilu|<auiblekiint liJirUiuvaleribj IciuIlnxthMa 
aian$ ■ trt»dt or a gaUen/ tf tfflax. Thii fonnt nlwaf* ihe (uniet nmni nf ilRilna(e{ 
Utd n«withilaa4iBg Iho grcal oniUy which il involvn, H it onun Ihe umI ecunooiica]. 
Th« onM advnniacM acenikig tiam Uieta eallerlM, lo«d ru Ihcir bciait nlvnj-s niah- 
IWia^ and withoul ruk, ia mian which prcnite « IcinE oonlinuancc. There aic ta«af 
priknea aercral leaKiiM in iNigth i and toniKiiniet thej uie so coalrired u lo di*charge 
iht Wttm <i i^renil oiinu, aa mny ht irrn in Ihe environf of Picybeti;. Ucrdf nieh 
• llope afeouM be airrn thtta lu ii bncrl^ siUStieot to init.'- iho water run, ai the nl- 
■Ht (hm vlx to T^r,' *" *" '" '^a'" 1'"^ mine at the lowoi poMlblo lovel. 

Whwertr the worhini-s ait AiUrn below Ibe natural meani of diatDage, or below 
Ike lerH of ikc julnla, [Moone muil be hod to mecbaaical aid*. In the Ant place, the 
^anlilr of percolating wAter a diminiilied ur much on poMibln bj [Janhln^, wnlliiig] 
•r o^ias Dp with ihr itmtMl poafUilo care ihem pilt and axtavalioM wfalrh liavtri* 
OewaleflcTcb; and ilio lowar working* eneio arraoced that all tbeiirateil may unite 
kMwetli ptoeed at ffcebollam otf'the shnflaor inclined KnllctJeti wbenoe thejr may be 
fWap*4 up t« the daj, or to the IctcI of Ihr f<il/«ry c/^fflux. In mMl nuntt, aiinide 
fuxiac pDEap* are cMplufed, beoiuvr (hey are lr» lubjecl to gitt wa;, and Diorr «aff 
of rppo'' 1 ao' •■ monir of Ihcie me pineed orrr each olhor, at the (haft U ii-n jrarda 
Jri>, brlu* the point wbrre the waler* hare a nntaral run. 

r d/HJaiat; niadilar* ai« *ct in otalloD by Ibil cnachaninl i<otrei which happeni 
I jr- leaM eo)tIr in Ibo jtlaco Where th«'r art ntabUthol. In lUmoct Ihrr whole of 
Ci^ivl, am) over moW of Ihe ooal-intnta of France and S3e*in, the work ia dane ht 
itmm-)miitir* -. in the principal tnelallie miaea of Prance, and in almoil Ihe vholc M 
Ctrmasr and llukfarr, bf hjdraulio machine* i and in oilier plncn, by niMhliMs 
wnd tiy horan, tan, or even by mra. If it bo Tequ>>il<? lo ltd the wbIch merely to 
te te**laf a fatUryt^tjPlitt, advantage may be dcrlTtd fmni Ihe walcni of the tipper 
|al* «f Ihe mine, or tvca I'roni water* inrnnl in from the antftMs in tntablishimt ia th« 
Mhe of the ■aUerylatd, WBier-prfMurr ciochinef, or ovarthot waltr-whccl*, for pump- 
tap ap Ibe tower waitr. Tliia mirlhnd ii employed wHh luoteti in f eecral mine* of 
Haafary, Oohomia.Germnay, DnbyihirriCorawall, in those of Poullaoacn in Brittany. 
kt. Il Ika* bean maaiked, however, that the copious tprings are fonnd rather towarit 
Br mfbeo of the aoil ihui in the grealesl depths. 



nAKtroar or o«t* to the fitnrAcB. 

Tike oro bclo; TTirac^ from lis bed, nnd baring nnderEoo^ when reqnisife. a Ann 
Millar. It be fen' < oKnifary to liring It to the dny. nn operation petfomed in dilWeai 
way* accanttOK lo rurumtiincrt and looaliiic*. bitl too oflaa aceonlinji to a hbnd 
nwtinc. There are mlura at ihf pietent day, where Iha Interior tntneport of OTte It 
tMvwMrf on the backs of men 1 a pnicliee Ihe mn«tdiMil*Bat*fciMMpoH{Ue,bni wUob 
lttf»l«*UT wennnti out. The rarrinup nionii galleriee fa ntuallyeirceteJ by ui«bv at 
ktrflfi. bittivwi. in. ilill better, by little wniionf), Tliese eomitt of framei rettittC on 
har **"!• ! 1*0 tarvtr, whi«h ar* placed a lillle behind the erntte of irrevity, and two 
^Hl^r. rturril li"for«- i(. Wh^n thUcnrrioire is at reii. it bmri oa iu f>iarwherl<, nad 
itum* forwatd. Bat when the miner. In punhlng it before him, rests oa ils posinioi 
laeler, ha mtkrt il h«riiontaI i in which cue il roll* only upon Ihe two larver wheels, 
T*e:a. ihc frtetioa due to r<iur wbeek it BToidtd, and the tvller or driver bears no pari 
I'^nlro, ■> he vuuU do wilfa ordinary wheelbarrows. I'o rojir the drauvhl rtUI 
: *o paiatlel mill of wood or iron are laid along the floor of the fallerr. to which 



IH 



UtNES. 






■he wheel* of Die wtii^e uw ibtjwicd. It u npccioUr in nwMlUe bUm*. where the on 
U licaTT,uid tbo nlbric* flnughl, thui Iheic prcolwr w«goM uc eophifcd. Ib cwd 
■Inn, oiriingM lanncn] viih a much Ut^tr tiuiirt, Iximc un a railtoad h]t I'uiu cqial 
whrdsir* pirftmd. bviiicliiiiv* the ■Uivvuaiii.iialMunibr Continent a digldiiai), 
<* nrrrly ■ sitniilc fntnw on four whri-la, on which a linsLtl u act. In ilic irmt nuMa^ 
nch ma mnnj ofthv real anil nil minn orCml Britain, Ihc sill iniiici ul Gatlicia, lh« 
co|iper minu oT Fnhlun, Ihe Imd nitnri of Aliton-Uoor, harx* ao4 uk* uc iaiialunJ 
into tilt workino U> dnu bcvvicr wnironi, cr rather o Inia of wi^u ailachtil to 
■tw nnoiticc. Thoc animal* ofttn live many jtnn uitdci Brguiul, wilful viar i*vmi(* 
ing Ihc light ofilay. In otbcr mine*, luch an ihouc of Wortlrf, Ia LuBCuhiiP, auUir 
nOfBB toniil* uf cut, upon which llm un: it irnniiporitil Lo hMt«. 

Whw Iko wakiaic* of a miiu *n b««lnnia|, wh«n (hojr vn *t\H «f littW il>|>t)i, and 
mplOT '** hand*, ll i* •ulEeint to plnce over the shaft a rimiOe w1m«1 aju) ailc, b; 
ocww of which a few man may niar Uw waler-pall*. and Ihe boMcuta o( tobi Allnl ■ itb 
oe I but (hi* tDcibod become!) foon ioadeqtmte, and ahould be replaced bf motr |iowtr- 
ftit iMi*hin*f ■ 

ACEIWOaV CETAIU. 

Few mine* ran Iw peaMrntrd mtirel)' by meoni of nllEric*. More wiudlr 
ttere are abafti for tnounlin; and deieendin;. In the pili of mnny itapv. thr work> 
mon ga dmm and come op bf meani of the machines which fcrre U> elevate Ihe 
Nt«. In levera] mine* of Mexico, nad the nonh of Korope, pieces of wood, Axel 
M each aide of the pit, form the nid* *top* of a ladder hj which the wnrkme* fmm Of 
mddown. In other mine), ttep* nr* cnl in the rock or the ore) u in Ihe •juiekailrtr 
miors uf Idriu nai Ih« Pnlnlinntc, In ihf lalt minca of Wieliciko, and in looie of Ik* 
lilver mines of 5Inico. In the kui Ihcr serve for Ihe Ixanaport of ihe ore, which ia 
sutied up on men't baekt. Ludy, certain mine* are entered bj mean* of 
Mme of which IiaTc an incUnnlioa of more than 211', The workmen ii|i4e d»wn 
M a kind of »l«dge, whote velocily of dcaecnl they regulate by a oord F^ly Ki' 
Qic upper tut. 

Miners derive lifbl ft«i»candlet ortarop*. 'fhey enrry the candles in n lump of toft 
riiy, or in n kind of Bockel lermioalnl by an iron point, which icrtn to Ri it to ike 
rock, or to the limberina. The lam[a art made of iron, tiennctiealty eloird, and 
nupended, lo that the)* can not draoii, or invert and spill the oil. The]- are uauajly 
ttODg on Ihp thumb by a hook. Miiien alio employ imnll Innicins, ■iitpcnded tit then 
fMlBt. Many precauliont an<I murh Pi|ieri«Qea are rcquiM* lo cnnble Ihem id cbttt 

[ &CM VfiU in a current of sir, or lu a cltlaled atiMMplig*. It ii e«peciaUr >n coal 
mine* liable to ihe diien^Kemi.'ni of cnrb incited hjidrocpni that meaaurea of **lety ore 
iniliapcnnble nsalnit the explcniinii. The appearance of any hnln loand the fliix 
tboaU be carefully watched u indieaiina damrer; nad die liubu ibould be e«rrie4 
near ihe boiiomofihc gnltny. The grenl pmleelDra^unit ttiacdepbMnbleatciileDIi^ 
ia Ihe iBfrty lamp. A:e I.juhp or Daw. 

We eon nut ronelude thi» tenemt oiillioe of the working of mine*, wilhuui clvinf 
•Mil* account uf llie minerr. Mmi men iinte ■ horror at the idea of buryinu them 
telree. even for n ahorl ppriol, in ihe*e tfloomy rcoewKv of thv eorlli. Hence 
operniions were al Gni lo much dreadisl, ihai, oinonu the ancicnta. ikey vtre a. 

I« ilave* oa Ihe punishment of Ihclr erimei. Thlt dialike lina diminiabed with 

ptOTcmcnla made in mining ; and finnlly. a profiUble and leepectcd rptcie* of laker 
uu clven minlnB it* proper rank amoay the other departmcntj of induttry. Thi- ttfiril 
it torfi, 10 euntpieaon* anonB frainim, hia alao aliaea wnonE mim-rr, oad has tins 
dignity to their body. Lik« viety Hciety of loen Bafafod In perilous enterprnea, ud 
eharUhinx the hopes of vresl fuece**, Miner* |el attached lo tbeir prvfeMloa, talk oTk 
vllb pride, and evvntuolly In llieir old ofc reuaid othei occupations with cmlmpti 
Tfary farm, in eertain coontriei. mch oi Germany and Sweden, a body Iccnlly coiM>> 
IBled, which enjoys consldeiaUe priiilcEcs. Mlnejs woik ufuoUy 8 m 8 hoata M % 
tfane. This period li called a joumty Ipoift, in French}. 

Miners wear, in eeneral, a peculiar drcai, th« purpoee nf which i* to |iroter1 tkta» as 
■Meh at poMlhia, Cmn the anaoyancM eauMd by wain, mad, and tharp •tonea, wkick 
oec«r in the plaee* where they work. One of the hmmI enenlinl pnmof Ikcdreaacf ■ 
Gmmnn miner I* nii npnin of leather filled oo lieliind, so as to ]iiOI(-t'I Ihem In *iUH( 
on moisture or nukiilnr robbiiih. In Eni-Iuid. (be inlnets wear nothiDK bui floaiiclat 
Ihongb ibcy rr«|uenlly itrip off nil their clatlici except their IroTscn- la HiBBy CO«Ii- 
Utea Uie mnllel nnd the pick, or |>'>lnf<iciU< (enlird id nermon, Mc/iigiV and £um>, dia, 
pra*d in n liaint Andrew's eroaa, nte the tuuI<o of inlarrs, und are cngraied o* tkril 

Nntloto, and on etefyDiinc belooglnt to mine*. 

I Several of Ibe eale q irisea eiecnted in mine*, or in ■nlisenirnc)' to ihem, ment a 
diBtlBfuiihed rank amonn the hiiiory of human labors. iSeveml inibes n/c worked 10 

[ Kik^ofiiioretliBa GOO yarda, some even to a thonwnd yards below the fojfaee of tlM 



(Mian^ 

.ih?^H 



uwss. 



to& 



toS. A gmt Muif deMead hcnmib tbe Icrd of ihc OMm i ud a few cv«n ttttal 
oadrr III baton, uulttr«)ep<tntHl rrom Ikm bf* ihln |Wflitim«tf'n>ck,vMcli ■llooi 
Ihcl/ nu^ oaJ Ike rollinK »r Iha prbhifs, l» b« hMril. 

In 17M^tterv wai nrvai^l.nl Val«wiana, ia M«xkii, Hn oi;t>|>DDa] pitilallr?! jwri* 
««le. ilntincil lo have • ilcfU «f EMO rarda, to ocenpr 23 jtmn in dimlag, and to CM 
S40AKN. 

ThcS^coidraiaa^e eallirryorihFininHorrLmithiil.ua IbcRarur, li II^TT fanl«,or 
■h uid a haJTBlIa lon^.anil )>uifi upward of 300p>rd* bcIow ihachurrhof ClaiMlhaL 
ll* aMavatleti laitcd ft«m lb* yrnr 1771 tiU 1900, and coil nbaal €6fiO0t, Srmal 
oUmCalloriMof dbutnitlit aJwi be oddBO«d,a«(«n«ihablororlh«ir crmi trauthand 
expeatv of fomaUon. 

Tbe (xial aurl iron ininea mbanrvwnt to the iron workiofMr. Cramhnf, ai Mcrthyr- 
"nrdvU, ia WbIm, have Binn biith lo the Btablishmenl, iotctioft; and obovo iround, 
at itm railway*, whoae total lengih, muir yean ago, wai upward or loO knclbh 



Th* eatriag* of the eoal cxlniel«d Oom tho minea in the netphborhood of Ncwraille 
ID Ikeir poiau of emboilcBtioa, I* exocnlid altnott pntircly, both und«r provad and on 
ibr lUTTaGeiOQ iron laitwajr*, poMewiniaa rxlt^t of n|nrard of 500 inile*. 

Tliera •• att apeciea of labor which call* Tor ■□ rml a developincal or power ai thai 
«( tniaeti asd accotdinnlri '■ mny be doubted if man has ever con>titieted inselunct to 
pawwfnl >• Ihoac wbi^li are non- employ <d for the working of tamo mloeta) Axearatfenai 
XIm waleri of tcvcral mioca ot Cornwall are pumped out bf moans of flWftm-enslMiL 
I force b vquiralcal la some in«tancM (oliieaiaioliAnooutBeltaaof nanrbvadrea 

MiXt$, GKrtTJtM. StTMNKnt or. 

Nfaea Dujr beditrUed niolbiee ^renteloiiei: 1. Hinei Jntbe geaJoaieaironnalioaa 

utlcrhit to tltc coal >Unta i 2. Mioea in the teixailarf foroialiona ; 3. Mine* in alluelsJ 

dlMncu. 

Tht Bnt «r« otwncd, Ibr th< nofi |>art, upon Toin«, maiMw. and raetalllfetoaa bade 
The aaeoMdi on Himta of combiuitible*, aa coal; ruid iB«lallUWuu> or nxJifenna b«b> 
Tbe tMttOBilepoaiUaod'melaUicoref.diiueounatoiliaclays, nutit, and otber alluvial 

T"1 — . wnallr lupcrioT to the dmlk ; and even of fu man receat ronnaifam. 
Tka uImi of tboc three ela«ie>, placed, for the moal part in very diflcnot pbjrutal 

lOtaBtia*, dilfi-r no Itaa rtlaltvdjr lo Uic modn of working them, and Uieir uechoaica) 

BVOKOli Itea tn a Rcalogleal twiai of view. 

HIKE* or roRHiriiwa AXTEaioa to thi coal. 

Tbave nine* are Hluated in a fewmonalaiiiou*reRiani,andl)ipir«bolciitBouiitl%nni 
IM a aaall poctioa tt the lorfaec of Ibe earth. The mm rcqinrkiblr^ of tboc arc— 
AaCoedlllcnu uf South America; the mountains of Hnngarf ; Ilti.- Aliayan mounialna; 
■■Ural BooaUias; Ibe Voago* and the Black Foro*t; tlie Hart/, and the t««t or 
flanoaax i lb« eenm of Fianeoi the sorili uf Purtumli a^d the ndjaceat iiortiani of 
Indai Brltanay i Ike eotreapaadinit cuaeltuf Ureal Britain aad IreUnJ i (be north of 
farapei (ke AUettaajrebaini tbeualh of S[aia; Ihe Pfrenen i the Alpf i ibeiehittoM 
• AbtMa on Ike banks of the Bkine and the AideniiFii Ibe ealenreous mountsiiu of 
fcflr"* a*d of Uaautia. 

Mticu or TKK ci»Dii.uiU or »oirni Aiituiiu. 

Frw reitioiu are >o crlebrnled for their mine-ral weallb nalhe Krealcbaia trkich, under 
4c lumc of IkrConlillnBof the Aadri.Bkirli Ike ahotr) of the Pacifte ocean, fhm the 
kad of tbe Paia^uniini to near tht □oTthw»l I'oinl of tlie Atnrticnn eontincnl. Wko 
ha* aot hcwd of the miar* of Mi'xlco and Pokni t Tbc mineral wealth «f Pcni baa 
fMMd iau a proverb. 

"nMMMt iMporlanl miftn of llie CordilletM are tlioie of ailvcri bat •svetalef fold^ 
■MtwT,aeF|»r,aad lead, have likewise been openetl. Tbcaonouolaln*ar«aole4iwU|r 
■MaUUMoaa ia their whole extent. The wotkuics oocar aasoeiated in a amall snaiktr 
rf Thxrkia fbrdiiunl fmni cneli other. 

In ifce Andu of Chiti, [inriicnlnrly in the pioviDce of Coqaimbo, tome silver miaea 

*tw ctplartid, which afford chiedy taea ef an earthy or (Wrnglnoa* oatore. miairled with 

l«|iiiHilililii fortiOH of ore* with advarbue.knowo ibcreandtr the name ofpaeo*. 

'T'k- -^ine province alae presents copper mln«* of ronMilerafab Importanee. from wUeb 

lacled native cofipor, amace oiiilu of capper, eniboAate or copper (Dalaeh)l*)> 

l<rT pyriles, auocialed with aouic muriate of copper, tn a few mijte*, aaMM 

rettpMi of eitraoidinary ntuoiluile have bcm found. 

■eeoM MctaUifttoua tcooo of tbe Aadci oeeurs between Ike SIM and ISlh 
w^fm af •OKlh lolttade. It fnefaidc* Ihe cdebnlcd mouniaio of Poloii, lituMod !■ 



UIMBS. 



nMili tt* SOlh dcftw «r MMh lultirfi!, •• the CMUn dope of (be ehaia, and M T«d 
oOmt 4iKrku, Ukrwli* v«rr rich, wlu«h eit«id priattpaUr lowwd UM itonlisvat, m 
flu-H Ihe tvobimlij of lire Uki-Tttkaeo, kncl oven brjOMd it, Uira«)tfa b (Dial Iraprtbal 
Mwlf IM Icacun. All theie diilrirli, wbicb fonanlgr ih-pradrd on I'cra, verv ■■>ii«<l 
ki I7T8 to UiB tmtnmail af Bacaos Ayrt*. The auot* ef Puiosi wcr diKoicnd in 
l9U,aiiil hitvc ranuthcdiince tk>*l period till ouiilaji, nbodjtoriitviTVkicb it. H>ni- 
bolitl valBM M S3I),(KKI,MKU. ttciliug. The &n( rotnwmlbe noMproduniir. A) 
ilijtl titat on* «F>v often r«nnd whtth allbnicd rroni 40 lo 4& per ornt. of litrer. tana- 
UMbnunuiaiuflbenithmnlheenliary, thf nmagerkbacMMlbcondon net nmd 
above from S 1« 4 pruU in 10,000. Thn* om iirc IhcnCtn very poor at Uie prtaeai 
daf ; UwT hare diminiahnt in rivhoesi in jiropartinii um Ihc eicsTaiiaiu kavc liccoiiic 
daepcT. Bui tbe i«tal prodni:! «{ ibe minn hu not diBiauheil in ibe nua pnfar> 
tiim : abandaaee of ore barinv uiaile up Tor in poralr. Heac(> if ib« taonaUin •/ 
PaliMt if not, at fyiauilf, tbe ilcbcM dcixoite oTore ia lie «rarU, il DMf, bow«v<r, be 
Mil pUecd Immfiilislr]; nncr the flunoua nin oTGaioaiuaU), Tbe ore lies in voai in 
a primitii* «l*T Mat*, vbioh oonpoic* the pnnelfa) atax of Um moantaia, aad ie mi*> 
•fed hy a btd of day forthjij. Tbii nKk rrowni lb* •ummil, cirint! il tkc fcrtn ef a 
biMltic hill. Tlie veini are very nomenius i lenrali aeu Ihrir oaivmp, were alnisal 
vboUr tompated of »alphur«t of tUrtc, anlinoiualed nlphiucl cT uItct, aad mbIIti 
ittm. Olfccn, wbirli alTcral noai the auifacc noTelr lulpliarct oT tin, Imauaa rfckv 
M Ibay datcended. In ITBO, lerrn copptr minei were liniywii la the vkwojmkf af 
BttOMa Ayreai teren of lead, and Iwo of iin ; the lut brliis moriy watUaga at landi 
bood n*sT lb* river Onto, 

On the opponle Daak uflhe rbMLU, In a low.ili'pcn plnui, cnlinly deelituw of mlot 
which adjoina the harbor of lquic|un, anil fornu n pnit of P^m, oeeur the lilvo mtaea 
«f Huonlajnyn. celehrolnl for tlie immense muict of native niter wbicb have Jbeea 
(Dnetbac* linuid in Ib-m. In 1T58, one w>* diaeonrercd wdgbin; ei^ht ewU. 

M. Hnmboldl quote* ^10 cnMon* of Peru a> bcins at tbe prejenl dajr meal fbsaiM 
(tr tbeir *ulil<-rmntati ciplonition* ofuhc-r and gold. Thoat of golil ant foaad ia Ibc 
■nriacet of Huaalla* aad Paiai; the *i]vor 1* ebiefly fumlabod by the diiltiM* af 
taaantajayn, Patca, and Cboia, vhirb far nuptai the atbm ia tbe nbundanee of Ihc^ 
ora. 

Tbe nlT«i miacv of tbe ditlricl of Paieo are litualed about 3D or JD leagna* nuetb of 
UbW) in 10} degrees of toQIli latitude, '1,400 ynnU above the •ea.JeTd, oa the i-auera 
I riopa of ihe Ceiillllera*, and ncif the inurtet of the liTtr Auimod. They were di^ 
kaorend ia I(SO. Tbcte mlacivand etprcinlly l!io*i>ol'(Vruot'YaiiTioocha,area(ndBy 
r Ihcriehml in all Pitu. The ore in an etiithy riiiuttorn rt<l e(>lor,contnininK Buebiroit, 
■dnaled with particleaofuntirFnlver, horn lilrer, (tc., eonalilutini; vhnt ILry mil Pattt. 
Al OTft, oothina but Lhcse pofoi was collcFled i and mueb ^my coppei and ontiBouiaud 
onlphDiel of lilverwerc UiroKu unonif ibr rutibith. Tbe mean product of all Ibeoraaia 
_ _L. ( or Bu ouuee and JUL per ewt. ; nttliouijh mne occur vhldi yirld 3D or 40 paf 
MHI. Theae rich dopoiitai do aol (ten w bo extended to a great depth ; Ihff have Ml 
beea puntued further tkan 130 ya>d«, aod tn the Kreatrr pan of tbo ^roikiift on)} la 
from 33 to 45. Forty yean ag^ Ifane mine*, whith pnxluced nenrly S,000,WO vf pi*»> 
trrm nnnimily. «ere Ihe wotal worked in all South America. The $oB ■ceiacd aa If 
ridilW with an itrnDeiiR number of piti, plA,ccd without any order. Tb« dnlaagv af 
Vif ■uutrn wa* cHoeled by Ihemntiual Intiorof tuen,nnd waa enrcmely etpouJire. Ia 
1816, ■uiiie Kuroptana, anion^ whom were tcterol inincn from Com wall, inouat<idteT> 
an] hish-pmsnre Knun-enginoi, imporird from Kuglnnd, which Introduced a cimtid- 
•rabla imprOTemeDl in tbff woikintn. 

Themiaei of the province of Choia ateiiluated in nbout seven deirrH* oftoMh lall- 
lade. Theprineipal anei nr«thoieuf Gunlcayoc.near Mecnicampa,di>eavered ia I77l| 
llMdr ontcrop aecan tl Ihe heieht of I.SOO yardi above tbe ipat the city ofMoeaiaaiipa 
luelf hni 1,000 yardi of eli^vntion, that is, higher Ihnn the hlEbnl ■umniili of Ihe PfW- 
aeei. The climate l> hener very cold and uneomfortBble- The ore i(BBixture ofnt 
pbaret of xilm and anlimoaiatad fulphurrt, with nntive illver. Ii conMilnin vein 
wbifti the appfr |iortion It Ibroad «f [uinit, ami O'ey ti>nii-ilin>v inivmi- n limeili 
and mnetiaiMa hornilonc, wblch oenii!' in 'ulinnlmnte beds. The anaual produep^ 
Ika Mnei In 07,000 mare* of ailver, nerorrlinc lo Humbolilt. 

In tbe diirtiici* of Hnaailaa and Fniaz, which are at a little diitaacc (hm tbe fonoei 
two, ;old mion arc worked. Thi* metal ia eslraelrd chiellT from the vein* of qitartR, 
which ruaaeroMthc primilive (cbtitone HMrataln*. Ttiedutriclof UnaBQM<MilaiM^ 
betidN, lead mlaea. P«ni jiohcihm, iiioreovcr. Mime mJnct of eopppr. 

ThequiekiilvtrmiBM of HuBnrBvrlieB,tbPonlylinpor1anlinlnoof thi* tipMi«a wUeh 
h»» been worked in tbe Kew WorkI, oc^im on Ihe «a«t«in flook of tbe Andet of Pm, 
J» I) dnrreea of Miatb latitude, al upwarti uf 6,000 yard* nbora (be ICKil of Ibcacs. tl 
dOM not Meinnfa riUe to tbe nme cinia of deponUi Willi tbe mteea hillierto mcailaaH 



UINES. 



107 



tifiMMM of lOHVnrtol Mpotitai har* b«ts vtuerred in aertrml odicr pofaU of Ibc AtdM 
oTtfofthfTii Pm. aarf oTUia MOlh etJit^v OnmnAn. 

LmMIi, iRinn of Ml-ccm *rc hnowa to Tii.il in Pmi, ei[iKinll7 sdu Iha uJm nioM 
of IIiMMaja)«. 

Oa rceedia; riam Iba diitmt or Choi*, ihe ConltlJmi ore *aiT Isdlffpivntlf iIomI 
With iMtellie wt«lib, to Up iithmn* o( Pannnin. Bnd even Tar brjond H. 1'b< kininloa 
of New tiraonilii eSeti tni* vorf inull nnmbcr of (ilrrr minw. Thnrv aic lamv mutit- 
MDitt rein* in ibe pril*inc«of Aniloqala, and in the a^mnlain* of Uunmoco. The prwr- 
Incr «t C&racM, (h* noiiauini of vbicii naf be ean«id«r«d ai a lamiGcaliDn of Uw 
ODa>dlIlnB«, pnM«u at Ami a copprr mina 'irhleb (omiabM annually fhiai 100 co ffOO 
■Mrie ^uiiitali (l>WO u> t,6IK) cwC ) or ttiit mviil. Finallf, vr may itale ia {iMtinif, 
(bat Ikcve i« a ror abaibtani nil mine itl Zi|iiviniia. in thr provinrc of Santa V(, and 
that belMveu tUapMatandibcptovintcof SiaIn-F#-<ti.--Bo^U,nrtratnniof ocaJocton 
U th« esttaofdioatr hcigbl of 2,*0U jranU. 

AHkMgb Medeo pmrau a gnat Tiuiorr of loeolltiof of ore^ nlmMt lh« only mnt* 
wvriud aiw ihoM ofnilm'. Ktorlf tba wbole ofibMC nln«« an iiiiiaiel oa Uie laiek 
or tbi> taoki of the CordiDemf, npeciAtl)' lo Lhc wott of the etain, nearly n tkr hel^ 
of Iba (rtat toble land whJcb uaTprin this nfion of lhc ghhr, or a lilite bdow in 
Icrrl In lhc ^aiai which divide it. Tlicy lie in ceneral between 9,000 and 3,000 yari* 
above iW MB| a very eonaidcnibto elevation, whieb b favornble la (heir pfwporilf, 
bvoaiue in Qua Ulitade there exiiUU thni height amennlempentlure, mild, ulnbtio^ 
BHiil most propitioni to onieulliKR. Tbctc were at tltc time aC lIuiiilKiMt'i visiti ftoB 
4,000 1» OiMO depofiie* of era eipblM. The worhins* conptiiQUd 3/300 diallnet mine*, 
■rkkk wva dbtiflnite4 (Wind 900 head quarter* or AmJm. ThoM ndnta are not, bo^ 
■Tcr, amIforaJf ipmd over tb« whole extent of the Cai4illf m». They nuy be ronnd- 
ated u foradof eicbt iiroapi, whiclx altogether do not inelvde a Rrenter ipaee thoa 
IS,000 iqnan leimui tit., biidlf: MOie than Ibe tenth pan of the «nrfnec of Muieo. 

Thoe ri^bl groiip* are. in (iraeeedinir ft«ra (onlh le norUi, 

I.Thei^totpof OunacD.iliiuted ta the prOTtnee«rihi* nninentlhe loalhniicilreiD- 
itr of UniM properly vo callod, toward the ITib degree of norlh litliiide. Brtiiilea 
■imt ninm. It ««atalna the only valni of gold eipler«d In AUxIco. Them ireini tnr- 
cn« cnriwaAd niM-tloIe. 

J. The iiranp of Toko. The moel iiart of th* mine* whirb c«iai>ate ll ar« ninoied 
10 or 3i leagMci to the HOth weal of Mexico, townnl the w«tern ibipe of the (r«al 
plad-n. 

3. The pionp of BiMaaia, aboal 20 lea^a nonbeait of Moiieo. It (i of moderau 
cUent, ba> il cani|vcfacnd« the rich WDrklag* of Pncbacn, Ron! del Monte, and Motaaa. 
IW ditlritl of Kfo] del Moau oontilnii only a ainirlo principal imn, nani4 V^la BtiL 
«••« of Real del Monie. In which then are •etenl wnrkimtti ; il ii, bowevtr, recliMiei 
«ai>nc the rithefll uf MeLlea. 

i. Tbe cioap of Ziaepon. It la very near Ibe piccedinv. about 40 leairtwa nvrlb- 
oeit of MeuoOitownrd the tdileriiilopeortlie plateau. UoideanuDerouiilrvrminaa. 
il iBcIifdei ab«ndaat depoiiiei of lead, and MNDe mine> of yellow tulphurvt ol' ortrnic 

9. The Cnttitl snni/>,of which the priocipal point i* GviaarauJ^n city of 70,000 in- 
bkUtoAtj, placed at iu *ou(hern ntrcmiiy, and tiU league* N. N. W, vC AlexKo. Il 
wincriM* aaonf ollien Ihe fKouiitt uitiv <ti>triti« of (itanajnuito, Ctiont, Zoc»l*ca*, 
f^mtttfttti the rlcliex to .Mciicu. nud vhii'h alone furnwli mnie thna half of all the 
nlirr whteh (hi> kiniploui bri»);i into circulnliun. 

The dlMricI of Caitasjwto preienti only one main rein, roJInl the Vtbt Main. Tht* 
rtia il enclosed principally inclay.iinte.lo wlioie bedi II mm parallel, but occBaioaally 
a maeioiit of Ibcialo inUmct more modern cocks. The vein is composed cfquniu. 
cajbonate of lime, tn/poeatt of clay dlnte. Ac. : aoit includ'-s ilie inlphucela of iron.ei' 
jM^^ld of line la great qoanliiin, tonu native ulrei, salpborei or allvor, and red 
^^^Hfclt* power (ibickneM of ih* vela) la from 43 lo 18 )BnI>. U it nxacniisH and 
^^^HlhTOUtboiU a leofflh of ujiwaril of 13,000 jard*; aoJeoninin* lit i-iploilaliDna, 
wlir-b pcodoGcd anntially wi^Uori lo i,!00,OOW.ia tUvor. Oneoflheaxploaotiontilbat 
tl Vultociaoa, pradncn 3?0,000/. i belnE •^i,\vt\ lo ahoul one iUltentb of the tolaJ prod- 
act of the S^OOQ mlari of .Mciieo. ^nre 1761, th« period of itji dltcoveir, it* neat 
inoaal prodaet bai nerer been lest ibna rroro two t« IhJve nillraM of fnnca (W,MO(. 
(> -^'i.OOOI.): Bnd ill proptieloi*. at first men of lilll« foTlvne. became, in ten year*, 
Ital individnnls in iHriioo, anil prrbaiM in the whole sLoIk. 
.1' woibinyi of lhl« aunc are very riUnsirc, and poneiiale lo a depth of b50 y«rdi. 
Tbei cmplov a treat many laboren. 

The dlatnrr of ZacMf ea* preaenta in like Banner only a flaiile vein in grerwacke i 
which, bowem, la the sen| ol aeveial worklnti. 

TbedrpONl<a mianlsiCalorceoreinllmeTtanei the mine called iNtrui^msif^Ca/arn 
U« ben riplond to aboat GM yards ia drpih i and yielded, in ITM, nautT M,OO0t 
Ticrr arr aba toine* of aaumoay in the diiuicl <£ CalMce. • 



us 



HJHBS. 



Towd tlw WMMni pan (ir(h«fi«npar wblch wcon now apMldu, nrar/ wiua 

~~> watk«d In tho r>TO*iac<iorVaJtadoliil*iiiIOwiil>hianit ibvoni Wifcwfl; aa^ 

wd af proCoililc of copper (uniutr Mppcr)i nlphsrvl of coppn, oad Mlh* raMO. 

ttuG uiiua priidii<;c about 3,000 mirlric quinlaliof copprt aiiauiJI; <41l>jOOOUia. Kna- 
[lUih). In Ihe mmc diiuicl, otpi of [in nie tollecled in Ihu •llui-iiil Kiib. paniesUily 
■oar Mount tiiconlc. Tlic concriitionarr oiidc of tin, ao nue ia Karvpc. b lierc Uic 
■ML cmuiDon raticty. Tliu curul oircun aiut in vcio*. 

Tbe eonlral pait of Mciiou (<aniaiiu many iudicatioui of oulphoirt of morcury (cte- 
aabai) : bin in liK)4 it waa wofkod onlj' in twu pUcN, aiiil lo an iticouidtTablv •atmu 

C, 7'A'itruu;ri^»(iD(Mlrri«is*i(ualM in tb« pt»rinc«of Ikil iuuii«,«b(nil lOOIcBfaa 
X. W. froui Meirro. It MBipriin tb« minra of Bolanoa, oao of the ridinl diitriFU. 

I. T-u gnmfi nf KarangD amd Sonera, in the intendBncics of Ihi^ Mme mune. Il i* 
verr cKlrniiTc. Tkr minn nrc *itnl«il in p«rt on Ue lablt land, anil in p«rt on the 
wntrro ilopc. Dutanito a 1 10 Ipibuc* N, K, W. of Mciico. 

B. TKt grmp ijf CAiauaAaa. It lakci it* nmiio fivjm thn tuwa of CbinoAliM, sIlaAlad 
IQO Icapita N. of Dontngo. [t Li ricccdlugtf oiuutvc, but of litllo nJuc; bmJ Ur- 
alulM at a^ Iff oToortb lallliiJr. 

Mexico poiowni, bwliW. «cvn»l mintu which are not iiiclud*<lin (br ciKbt pncedinf 
graupa. Tlini Ih* n«w kioedom of Leon, and ibe provinM of NnrSaini-Ankr, pretou 
abonidant mina nf l«ad. New Mnito coataini <o(ipcr nnne*, and maaf <Akea. 

LaMlj, rock sail ii mined in tcvenl poinla of New ^in ; and coal (ccm* to ««citf ta 
New Mriico. 

The richnru oT tlie difletcnt diilricl* oftbe f ifctr mfau orKiifu it cUrcBtjjr wncqaaL 
Kiaeicca twcniicllu «f thcie ttulu do aai fuTnI«h altORetber men than ono twdllh of 
Ihotalaliimluct. Thii inequality liuwinit lolhe eioonlTv ricbacaiof (oinc depwitea. 
The otC4 of Mexico arc principally lyliii ; bedaanil maneenrc rare. The Tcini iravene 
diieQy.anit prrhops only, priiuit ire and Itanaiiion rocki, amons which ccttaia potphjriia 
atE rciHirhcil b> very rich in depU!<ilM of cold and ailfer. The ailf er ores are mmJi 
nhuiei of lilvrr, block anlimDnintcd lulpliurel of aitver, muriate of mItct (homaUnr), 
fray copHT. Many cxplonlion* am cairinl on In connin earthy oiu*, CklW 
■rwb^ fimtlar to the peoM ct Pern. Ijuily, there are otrm cT otber meiali, whkk 
I worb^ piinelii^lly, and lomcliiaet tieluklrcly, fur the lUrer whicb they ceaiaict 
auch arrr the nrcentifcraiin eulphnrcl of lead, oiiantiferouj anlphurel of copper, and 
VRenliferous lulphnrct of iron. 

Otvi ofTcry great riclincii occur in Mexicoi but (lie aTcran ii naly from 3 l» d 
ffoncct per cwt., or from 18 to 16 in 10,000. There are iome, indeed, wfaoie eslimatc 
doeeMit exceed 2J ounce*. AUnoM nil Uic arscntUWouB vein* nnoid a little utM i the 
■UeerorGnanaiualo, brexompLe, rontiting ^1-. The cnonooni product cd'thr Meucaa 
niaaeie to be aicrlbrd raiher to the f real (oeUiiy of working Ihem.nnd the abiutdaaae 
ed'otea, than to their intriniie richncM. 

The an «f ninins wae Utile ndrnnced In this oouniry ai tile period cf HdkImiMA 
journey 1 the worUap prteenttd n tonblnnlionofamall niiim, eaeli ofwhick hadoalj' 
eoe aperture nbovc^ witiiont any lateral communieationn between the dilTerenl ahafta. 

The form of Ihtee nplonitioiit wm loo irtci,Mliir to odniil ofiheiT bcine called iraritHtfi 
rtyifept. T1ic»hniteandtlie calkrinttrrccDucli loo wide. Thtjnlcnartraanortorilie 
•fMUConorally effected ontbchock of tDcnj mrrlr It) mule* . Thcmaebineilor taitiaf 
(!■• Oiwaad drawine oir the WDler are in Ernrral ill combined; and the lionr Rlf* fa* 
MltHt[th«n in motion 111 conMrticied. TJiu IiitiberinKof the thoAt in very impCffenly 
eieciiioli lh«wiiI]c>lpwl]on!>alnncerD well done. Tb^rcnicinmeRBlletiescfdrainaae, 
bnt they arc ton few, and ill direcleil. Latterly, Kndish capiialLtti and miaera have 
fbrmcd companin for worklnii the siU-cr mines of Mexico g which will pfobably ptodaot 
in lime a happy revolution. 

The filTcr orn of Spaniih Amen'en are treated partly by fuMon, and partly by aiMl- 

Cation, bnt more freiiucnily tijr the Inlier mole; beneo the ImiMirtallon cri" mercmT 
* there an object of the liighc*! iinpvdniioc, rf prclally tdnce iheqiiicluilrerndnca' 
nuaiinin'/icd Itll in, and ccotcd Is he worked. This tninc Is the only one in t^panitb 
Ameiica which bdonf* lo the f overnmenl. For the modern state of Iheae mine*, aec 

BILTKB. 

Ttie fnllowlnit lali|e*howii,aoc»nlini;lo M. d« Humholdt. what was tlie annual ft«i- 
net of Ihe ailTcr inlnea of Soiilh America, at the beginning of Ihii cenlary. Ii U 
^ndcd in a ^rcat mMaiire, upon otlieiiil docuramls :— 



Mexico 
Peru - 
BaoBoa-Ayre* 
Chili • 

Total • 



9,196.1-1', mare^ or a3T,»!2 kll., worth j;4,77»,000 

6:3.' j» 140^178 1,200,000 

4n:..098 110,764 M4i«W 

l\9M ifitn 60^ 



3,S5»,iaS 



T»,CSI 



tfin, 




MIMES. 



100 



T» ennyteu o«r fiaim of lh« ntixnl wnllli at ^unbb Ameritt, A r«Mjni la 
«p««k ef iu pritipti fttt mm$M i hat DtMc belong to a |eal(wkal lanltlT, alliirlal n^i 
•ad fmnl. Toy dWerent rnun (hut of our prewatobgcew. TbemMlimpartanloTtheat 
mU ««iiiI* w« w«i)[h«il on the nrettcrn ilopi) of ibe CovdiUamt; vii., in firw Grcnaila. 
DOH tbc pra*ioM «f BuWmoi, to tbr blhoios of Panama, to Chili, and even lo the 
ifcam «Tihe*Eu of Cnlirorni*. Tborr art liknrut tam« on the cutern iloiv of Iho 
C«nlilli'rn>, in lh« htRh V1II17 oTtbu t'ntt Ainuoot. Th« wnihiriK* of New Grtnoda 
ptolucF alvo aome ptalinn. 

Tbp «rii»M, profnljr so cnll«l,niultbewwbinpof SoulkAmrncB, ftirnlth, altocMkcr, 
43^'fi moR*, or 10,418 kQoE-nuniDH (3S,(IS0 Uba. Ede.) of EalU, worth 1,4.1.%I1HM. 

Mnn» or iicwoAaT. 

Tb*m«Ullic infwnef 1hi» kinsdom, inrluclini; IhOK orTriin)TlTaniii,anil ih'' IkuiiMI 
oTTcmochrar. farm four principal y'niup>< which we ahnll denote b]t ilic ^map of the 
N.W., ?to«i> urtb«!I.E.,nDuporiheE., nndirnmnof IhcS.E. 

The tronp aftbc N.W. embram the dinlTicli of SrIiErunilz, Kromnllc, Knrnicitmf , 
N«hw4l, RDil the eOTUupn of Schmn'lnilx, BrIIiIrr, ttotcnan, lie. 

SAtmiiiU, a royal ttrt clly of inini**, and iho jiriiicipal crnlre of the mines oT Han- 
^17, Ilea t> kajon to Ibe north of Biida, SCO jtiia above the les, in 0ie miilirt cf a 
siaaQ (TOupof mMintaiuB rorerril with forest*- The mmt port of these mouDtaia*,ih« 
kiftfanl of which teacha an elevnllon of 1,13'J jrnnls nbore ihe orcaa. are ^imieif of 
buTCn tiartjici ((DUg'' t™P roclw) [ bnl nl Iheir foot below the tnichjtic (brmatian, 
■ roraaiion u ohii'rinl. coniuliiii: of grccn-»fone porpliTrin, connpcleil wiib •fenitM, 
|«s>tns into Einnilc nnd i:nciM, nnd Inclodlng niibardin.il* linlr nf tnicn-ilale and limC' 
none, tt if ID tliii formation tliat nil tht mine* occur. 

It bn« been loaf known Ihot liifl crven-ilona porphyrin of Schemnili hnrc intioMte 
relatiotu with the tnelnllireroiu porpli) rie« of ^mlli America. M. Beadani, on ton- 
parinz lliem with ihoie 1iti>ui:hl hf M. ir HiiinboMi fiom Guanaiualo, Rpnldcl Montf^ 
kc, baa reeoKoiicd an idcnlii)^ in lie uiinmai Jttoilji of color, ilrucinic, compofilton, 
m|)ecliTe siinalion of thedifTcTc^l vnriFticF, Bud eren in the empiricnl cttonicirf of 
*fferTt»ec>ire with acidi. The lorinjliri-ioiij locki nppenr nt Schemnitx only in ■ space 
cf nnall extent, eumpri^hendiii pnnlj ■<> o tniutl Imiia, nf whiHi the city ocrupin Ibe 
MnUi border. 'rbrTaretmviTtcd lij'Ti-iii" whirh, fiirlh>'wiC'f>lpnrt, cnincrois ilienlmj. 
Bealioa, tnl which aim ate tometimai obviou*!; parallel 10 it. Tbete reinji ore in 
geaernl v«y povetdil ; their ihicknen amounlinf even lomoretkan 10 jni\tf, but Ihuli 
euenl to length icemi to he uauoll)' hteojuidmblc. Thej Bre nnmcroiiii and immllel 
M each oAbei. It apjicar* Uiat they have noaiilc pintet of vein- rlottr* {»//'(•"»'''•), bm 
l&*1 tho meullircrooi idmi repotet lmir(*linirly on the rhreliii or Hrciinn* nf Ihe rorlt, 
wtM b cwall; more or leu altered, and iaelodei ntway? luucb I'lritfs nnr tbe poiai 
tfaaMBCI. awl e>en to a diitann of seTcial leel. The )ul<i(ance> which eomtitute tke 
ittj ed'lbeie veiu, are driuy quartz, cnriona igusrlz. ferriferoiu carbonate of lime, am) 
Mlphate oif baijtei. with wlitch occur inlphurel of iQver miierf with nallTe ti\rtt 
MMalnlng more or !«• ^Id. which it rarely in Tiiibleicale*; ■ulpbuTelofi.ilTer, arfeit- 
^roai fBlena, binufe, coppT uml iron pfiitra, Jlc. The anlphurrt of allver ami Ibe 
falt*« we the two mtni BuputliLiil uret. SomolimMthMetwotiah«iancp*are{ni«lal*d, 
■^artiMM ifcry ate anted in <liir«niit OMnneraMu (oflimiih omof evetydesie^of 
lidknea*, fraM anch at yield 60 per cent, of (ilrerdowntolbepeotrMfalrna. The told 
mMoeh oeenn alone 1 it generally aecompnniei the (Qver In a rery rariable praponion, 
«Meh BuHi DiuBlly approaeho 10 thai of I 10 30. 

Tbe on-vofScbnnnil* are all treated by l^iion; the poor calenai at the imetling 
bmi* of licheiiiniiii (blnybt)tU>, and tha re*iilting lend ii neTsl ai workins lead to lh« 
■nrliisf -hoDir* nf Kremaiti, NetMobl, and Srhernowilx, whither all the rileer oroi 
|»ni« rt j in the different fata of the country are iranaparted la order id be nncited. 

The minea of Schwnoiu. opened 800 yean aso, bnve been worliejl ii> a drplh of more 
Ihu 390 yardi. TVr eiploratlon* are In renenil well eonducird. Kicllent ralleriea 
«r eSui iiair Ixen eifaTBlrd : Ihe walen for impuliion nre Collected nnd npfdied 
vilhakill. ll mny be remarked, however, thai Ibeie niinei beoin lo decline from the 
MMc of prmpriity la vhieh tb«y »laad iievml yi-an ngo; aecrcumdnneeiabeiucnbed 
frekahly 10 Ibe um« p«i** Ittmt no lonfV'r hrilowrd on the inrimelian of ibe Dinccn 
HMMted to tiiperiniend them. Marin Thereta entaUiihed in 176(1, at Schemniu, ■ 
MHolvTviMea, Tib acquired nt iit oriain, Ihroutlioul Europe, a great eeleMt), 
%UA b hw •ot bee* able to maintain. 

Irtanlls liet abovt Bre league* N.N.VT. of S;bemnilf, in a nlley Daaked on Ibe 
nthi by a raace of hltlt f<>rmed of roelci quite anoloiioiiii lo ihe mHailHVrouj TMfci 01 
SAemniu. la lb« bkIm of tbr^i' rocht. vrina ore workeil nearly aimtlar 10 thote of 
fthetaniUi hal the ipmiti which fnnnt tbrlr principal mau ia more abundant, and «M' 
; Haliee Hold, tlere alio arebandnlphaTet and hydromlpborelefaotMMiy 



^y HIKES. ^ 

■phiiii to Ml oeeot ■! y-*— "»■'- Tlic mciaUiTcToi** dnirin i* of nty modenie exteoi, 
plinl ii iiinmiwitil hf Ihr rirhjiinliitiirl wfcirh ontllf* it, fiMiDUg lo Ike Hit kM 
Mot Doiurdcralile moiMiMlii*. 

r TW ritjr of CranaiLt b Mic of til* moM an«l«al ft«e tojai rltlM of Mn«* u> Ba*' 

^ftty. ll i) Mul ihst KiiKi wen wurknl Ihtre even in thv iidim dT tW ll«aia>f j bwl 

U i) Uio Gcmuns «ho, lincf ibc middle sum, ksve tiien a gnM <let«l0[i(ni M to ihwa 

r >9LploiloliAt>i. Tberc ctitti al Kicmniu a nuiitAffi«e, to vbkk all the uoU tad mImt 

iMTlha muuaof IIunsuT*rc tarried m onkr tobo iwtM4, aad wberr all tbc cluHio) 

IfproMUM, ancb ■* ihc ubiicallon of aciilf, Jm-, an ouried «n w 1^ Urge way. 

I Aboul idx iMiut* N.N.E. fmai Schemnnl, on Uic bank* of tlie Oraa, lie* Ifcr Uult 

I Tilkcr uf AVummJ, fouiiJctl by a o^onj uf Saxnn iiiin<;rf. The inoiialaia* iiurMife^las 

I (t iaclude mioai VErT lUlTFrGnt ftnu tbote oTwfakb wc bnieb(vn(rraliu(. At Htrrt^ 

I fniW, i«o kasuci fiwD Nnuohl, Knjwaclie tonnt tntty loA; tnniuiiaina ; the nxk i* 

oaversd b; tmuttioit UmnMae, Bod it *upponed hj MCMlnte. Tbe lower bed* c<Mk> 

lam band* of copper «rai, ehitBj ceppcx pjrtiU*. Tbe mca^lnip inelvdu likmne 

Mitn of ore, •ppBreMlf Mnotttatiof veina in U. Thecc om bare bee* ororiied noec 

lh« lltih cenlory. The cot>pcr cnrociod coniaini in a busdred weight (U mncn ol 

■ilVH'. 

EiKhleen or Ivntly lta(ue> i« iha eari of JVamoU, «« mepl vtlh a cuunirr ^'erj lich 

in iion and coppci' loinei, liluuled eblefl)' In the aeijthborhood of Belliki, S^hmo-Iaiu^ 

riniiiitail] Kuienno, kc. Tnlcosu and dar *iBlea fiinti tho prinripaltod) oflLe moo*- 

Uliu ba«. alone wilh kotnebkndc rocks. The om occur mod aiuallj in Mtnln. TbMt 

tt ItoB, or (porrjr ore, nod etpedallr tij^rate of iron, ecniHtM and jn eooerctioti*, 

nOiFaaleJ with tpeeular iron on. Thi^f gite cBpio;mei>t to a grtnl inaaj 

aiMbIas-bou«e(. The coun^ of Gamoi atone cnntaina 12 workf ; and iliai of 

ilao a RTtnit nimber. The copprr mino* Ue chicIlT in the aetubborhood of i>elit»vl 

•nd Gtrtniti. The C'u;>|<(7r eilrael«d contain* about >Iiot »mmouaeMof tiltvrialb* 

bvndred vdghl. Near Zalallina there ii a qidoluilx* none nearly inactive ; and DW 

Botenan one of andmoaj. 

I To maciude our cnunientioD of the mineral wealtli of thi) eoonUy, it r«ioaiai mcreh 

I lo atale that there are o^t mine* in Ihc cnvinina of Cicrreniua, placed ia Ibc lra(fe|1K 

f can<)amcratc. 

anocr or niK kontiillit, nn of nai^iuakv*. 

The niiiM of thii iraup lie in a fomcwhal coauderabte chain of nottnlniai, wUeli, 

WMCediftg ftom the rroDtlenof Bochowina.wbae it li nailed la the C<>Tp«thiiiM.flaal|f 

dtaafipear* amid the Mllfctuu* mndalones bclnrcn Ibu TAeiw, £ofCH,and Nagy Si«m 

I oa 1^ nonbtrn frontivrs of Transylvania. Tbe*o muuniain* are partly coapOMd 

I t«ek« aoolocoui to lho*»orSeli*>ninttC|tr«rHM4b)' reins wUch have muek 

* 10 tbe vein* ofthiscelehraled (poL Into tliese reinn a Rreat moay Btnea hare 

opendi the moit impurlant of which dip ibcse of NBeabanyn. Rapnick, FclKibaaft^ 

MMCbanya. Iji|K»bnnya, Olapaibonya. Ohlolapoi. All lhe«c mine* produce qold. ThoH 

•T LtUtMbtmya Turn uh, likewise. ar«eatifcrou> galena; iboac of Olnpotbonya coMaia 

Mffier and iron i nod Iboic of Kapnick copiirr. tttolgai occur* in the mint* of FpIm- 

bani* ! and orpioicnt u Ibo«o of Olilalnput. Several of them prodaee maaganne mt 

tulphuret of a&tinioay. Lnttly, toward the nonh, in the county of Marmaroabt ta 

the importoAi iron mine of Borichit, and on the franiien of Buchowins Ike kad ^btt 

of Rodmi, in whidi alio couch xiuc ore oecura. 

Tki miau (wofMtiaf M< icrtmp of t\t East, or ^ Jbndbatifo, okiu almort all Inlhl 
Bountoioi which rite in Ibewaiernpnrtof Tiiiniiylvanla,belveea£«pMBad Jf«rM,li 
the eBvironi ot Mrwlbani/a, M. Beadaal nalic«in tliU ri-iclon,limcatODn,«uidMMMi, 
inehylci, baMlt*, and aicnilc porphyrivti, apparently ijuito analogeu* ta the fntmUBM 
porphyiici oTBebtinalu. It seemi lo bo priaripslly in the latter roda that tbe miam 
farming the wmllb of Ihii country oeeur ; but aomv of tbem eiiil nlso in the ■foM. 
■loto, ihcgnywacke, nnd cren in the limotimc. The princijxil minca aiv ai Nagfaf, 
KMMbaDya, VoiDtpaUk, Boiiin, Cierloch, FnizbDf, Alinof, Porkura, Bnticlia*. lud 
Slonitelw- There are, in all, 4(1 cxpio Italian* ; Ibn vhulc of which itrodacesuiifrroni 
wot foKlled at Ike liiiudrT of Zolalhnn. Thetc tninc* contain alio cogiiMr. itniusoay, 
And mangnnetc. ThFyRrecctobraivdfortbeirltJjuriNniori;, which waaptrulinr to tk^ 
prior In tbe dbeovcr; oflhit meUJ a Aw yeota back in Konray. The aurifcroua d» 
poiite* contained in Ihc b-rren«lOBe porphyry are often very itregalar. The mioM if 
KagTV ue liie riehcal and brat worked. The nnneroui vein* occur p*rtl) la tbe 
iitnJlc porphyry, and putly intheurcywnchr. TliRBurifcrouaorei*a<camf*n>ed wM 
nlenn, realiinr, Dianiinnc*v, iron, and xinc. There nn iron mlnr* in (reat beda war 
VndB'Ilnniiid nnd Gjalar. Some Cobalt inin«* arc alao noticed. 
I Tht fraupo/Ike S. B-.t/n/Iki BmimU of TtmuAviat, ocean in the uoualalM wkieh 
block DP the niley of tbe Onanbc at Orxhova, through n namw piife of wkiek tb 
.-.. TMpniieifa]iniMiaNMOia*iln,Moldawn,aindii.andI>og«aMd(t. 



ULVES. 



« 



> p iati n chlodr ucmtilcrau c«vp«r, jieUiaii • nwte of dint (nuulj | pMni) 
b tbc iMnJrol «««l>i, w(tk ofOMloDnUj • tlnJo gaU. Om or kul, sinv, B*d IfM. 
■n Bill) oiel with. The miaw u* funooa Air their bmiiifBj mdmtm ut b1»e ear- 

! oT MeMaw* ndat<b tik«i 



toreoppcr, udTarimotlier mincnli. Tlie muic oT Motfaw* ndotib tik«wiM 
Ml.. t»cM aeUUie depOMUi lie in boli uul tolM; the r«rnier omrriag pu^ 
Itiniliiilj between Uw nuoMkM and lb« luaotone, or HunotiMM bciweou th« tiniMtoai 
aad th« iM«Ue pOTpbrry. WdMefiikai niu bIm ai* kaowa lo oiii in Iho rioilu 
«mI Ibo mtca4t>lfc The Boanat tawP H W inor««t«r hnponani iMD-intnia at Don^ 
knira and RoGlienbnti naar Itambtam auljiliurrt et oiemir u found. Cobalt 
vnm •C(«r ItkewiM ia ikrae twiooa. 

Tie nln** eoMlilntinf tie tour groupa nuv ilcifribnl ate aol thv tot* b«UIIic 
atpM pOMcaMd twHva^atT. A Tn olhcn, bnl nneraUy of liule InironaBc«, are 
tCiUMJ a*0 diffmat partt of thii IciDsdom. Sercral ten booo uiicol in ite 
pgwjaaof IteCajnaihianiwfclch leponlci TnuuylTenIa froin AMilnviiand WallMUa. 
TlMir prtaelislabjeolb thaeiplorattoDof toiue linttuiar liuptuitei of ralvnn. 

BatidM ifca alnM >im Milead, Haa^arT coDtaia* Moe coal otota, aonieKiiiB adnea 
flf l«cll«lt,«BdM««(a]d(vedMBefgoldMiaaBd«^lna(e4ehitfi]r«iDlttebanla oT tba 
Oaaabit the MaroKb, aod Ihe Ntes. 

The tiiMa ot ibe kimsilovi of IlBncary produte anaaail;, oeMiAns in M. Heron de 
VIUdbaM,^18Diiu<>,or-J.SI0 pooaib Engliih of sdU, truith llft^tlf.; uid ahout 
8ByOOO iMitt, or f^.TbT paua<li oriilTcr, n-otth ISii.l32J. The niasi of Tniuryhnnia 
fbraiik BMd} lb* hAtf e^ the wbole qnuaut)- uf ^olij, and ono •evenleenlh of the tilvct 
tMw atalaL The olbtr oin** of ICaropo produce lo^her oMrlf twice a* mo^ ellvcr,* 

■tlile i|untal« (about 4,00OJ0OQ Ubi. EB|[lith) of copper aannoDr, aod ■ freat dMi 
•fire*. 

Tma tbue mine* proceod Ukewive ftom 3,000 lo t.OOO netne qoJntala (600,000 lo 
•MuMU Itln. Edk.) of lead i a qnaalitit not more tbaa it nevded bf the rrfloing JieaNa 
fttiha eiTot of illTcr and gobL 

SttKKl or Tilt JILTjITAM MoncTAtK*. 

Ai tta wciMTD ctireuilT of the diain of Ibe Allainn raountatati, irhfeh leparafe 
Biri> ftgeo ChiaeM Tartwr, thet* eiiiu a number of moialbltaoos velnt. in whieh 
Menal tmportaot week* have bean eatakllahei ttnee Ibe rear IT43. The; eoaitilula 
Ike lucnlil) of Um ninn of Kolrwan i lh« tiebeal ia the precioiu netoli of the Ihret 
doricu uT Uui kiod anliiiE in Liberia. 

Tkeee bush arc openr'l u|i in ih? >':hii(<ne (brmatumi which lunound |a the N. nod 
V.a«d lo the S.W. itc vriiem 'Ir>.-liviivorihF hish itroaltie ehiilii,freni vhieh titer are 
Npanled b; fonaalioa* ecwiMini; of oihcr ptimitirp rockm. Theee lehiMi atlerMe ia 
Mae poinu with ituaiUOM mekj, called by M. Itraoraali hetMtoaa. aad with lini» 
mmt. TfcoT are cvrered ij a liinoMone, rp|>li^ir wHk amomallee. 1W BetatUfennu 
naian Ibmi a letniciiel'', of which the finii loflr eionnlaini occupy thr ecnlrv. 

The MOil important Mplontion of iliii countrf ii the lileer mine ef Zm^of, or 
TMiiiiiganlr. in German Sehlnwtenbeif, litualcd to the N.W. «f the ttieb mououiM 
it Si* tt'S3'N. U and TII*4a'S0" lunl- rail of IHiic II ii oprnnd na n ;real 
Mia, which eootai*! arsenliferoua native «ild, aurifeioai natiic tilirr, rulphnrei tf 
Aer. hoowileer, gear copper, nlpbonl U eopper, green and bloe earbonated copper, 
nd esido of eoppet, eemior PTn>**t mlpbnrcl of lead, aod great nuueee of testaceoM 
enrak el^hilj arseMibioM. There occur Ilkcniio eulphnrel <it nine, iron prrilee, 
ml eomrtiMre areeokal fjilUn. The singiim {ittn.ol«oM) of 1he«e diRerenl ore* are 
ealpbaie of baiTI*, earbmal* of lime, ()>artt, hat rareir dnaleof live. The principal 
eeiB, wMefa i« of Brent power, baa been ihiotU tbrouith a leaRth of Kcenl boMlrel 
ttkmm, aad lo a deplb of no leu Iban M fnthom*. In i(a superior ponioa. It has aa 
Uitoim of aba«l SO deiTceai but lower down it bocooMe nearij TrrtirAl. lie roef 
k atwaia formed of el*r->]alc. On Ike floor of the vein, the *bte all crnate* with bera 
Tkl< ri-ln f7a«keii ml branehi^ in airveial dtrcetiofti; it t* Interaeeied brbama 
.^ ml [trririiti lucceuivo itnce) of dliVcrcnt rieluieM. The Gnl Tcnm were the 
, ;>tn4uetJtv. ITir German miner* cmplorcd rubecqucnlljr by the Rnnian irorem- 
kaee lativduenJ recalaritr into the wamng«| aod bare eicanitil n nnllerr of 
t M3 falfcentf laB|. 

TV MMt iMporlBBt of Ibe other ■ileFrmineaef thiadepartncat ore ihoie of Tekov. 
n--^*^' 3 \tMfv S.E. tf Zmeofi ihoM ef Smanofiki. 10 leann S.C.i those ef 
]Gtalw>ki. VI \mna to the 5.S.W. i awl of Phaipofibi, 90 l«Run S.T.. of Iho 
t^ vl*e* ' The but mine lie* oa the extreme ftoMlkr of Chioeie Tatluy. tl b no) 
kMw wWlber the •e«thern dope of the Akak ehain whbin Ibe Chiacie leeTiloriee, 
•»Uia> MttallUkraw drpeeila*. 

Tk« OTM o»H»qad fteca lliete dtffcrcnt Blnci jield <m aa oTerajte pee itniMal n 



WM MINES. H 

oiiMce of (ilvCTi vhirh contaiiu 3 imccni. of rold. Thar MWiul fnidwt wu Mfl^l 
ITBt, MN-rdinc to M. Pntrin, ifiOO lantet, or ),61A liba. avDintanM of 91M, «MH 
lOKISU. t ud 40,000 mutt, or 31^90 liba. avoinl. or iUttt, waUk iMJSml. ' 

Th« prvcloiu mcloli u* not the to\e pioduci cf thii inln«ral difUkt. Tkra* 1* Hi 
taforUnt copptr'ininn in baCDM N.VT. af ZmtoT, I* ■ ebain of lilll* fann«d af jb^ 
rMc ivcM, •«Iiift>, |>iir|ihrrii«, asd •belMloiMUnr, vnihialiM iolo IW plain, n* 
tCN prtMmi) M|>|Tr piHloi, lulphsrvl ot cepptv, anj sattvc copirtr, dimviiMLcd m 
■qplkccaiu nibstnacis, more or leu CvmiKinou), and otdillrrtmi d<Kren rflwirtw^i 
TMt ninv, whieli bean ihc ume of Aleitki-Loklrftki, Taniuihej aiuiaaUr <U Uic4bU 
of IT8i, 1^00 iju[Dtili (laciric). nr S30,000 Ub*. ■voiid. cd* coppa, wlikh mia etriaed 
lata Bioncy in ihc mrnitrr ilicir. 

At TchskirdkoF, on Ibo tank* of the Ticharliek, trntard ikc aorthcn nunnkr ef 
Ibr BiclBllifvruu* Kinldtde, mentioned alove, tkete U a mine of argfailEmua Mppv 
■nd Iml, oiwnfil In a tcct lanio bni txiramtlT tfcort rvfa. Bctiiln \kf load ^|^ 
copper cm, indodiDS a litflv lilTDr, Ihii mino affordo a (nval ^aalilT of «>li^^| 
(oazbonntc of line). irUeh loimt occanoaaUy fino otolsctiln oTa while or uicui o^^M 

The northern llnnk of ihr Altai mountaiai jirewats few minn. Sotse T*inf tf 
eopprr rx'fl 2.000 IrnRUM Mill of Zmiof, ncnr the rpoi where tbc ritcr Janimci w— m 
ftom ihc SBiuiean mounlnini. which oro a probM^Btion of Ihr Altnjaa ehoin. 

Tbrrc tt n» Irnd-ininc, proprrlf ao called. In the Altai mounlaini. Almo«1 all iko 
load wUcli it tc<|uiriil far U>o IrMUncnt vT ihr ailvor and gM orm U obulaod frooilta 
dOlBnttnilcf Hettdiiask, KilnaUd TOO Itairur* olT, on Iho bordot* of tfc« river .imNr. 
• Tho dnl undlint'hoiitc omrtod in thioditlrici wag In ibsariddtoof thoMctalliOnai 
recion at iToJyiran, Ibe placo ftom which it takn its niuno. It ha* been ininni w(<1 M 
MceouQi of Ibe dcojlh of wood io the neiabborhood of tk« mine*. The principal T ili , 
ia^ fynnitj it Ibnl of Borooonl on the Ob, SO Icagne* north of ZaMl ^H 

MIMU or THK OKAt MOtTXTAJM*. ^^M 

Thi* chnin of mtnintnina, which bciHnt oa the cooiu of the icjr wa, and lonill^H 
(a thr 50ih deduce of latiTiide amid the itcppei of the Ktreui', after hairin; fb^^H 
tbroogli itn ritenl of more tlinn 40 Icnsun, Ibe nBiural limit between Enrofic nl ' 
Aaia, rontain]) very ricli and very rcmarknblc depoiiin of mciBllie om, wbich hate 
gtvrn ri«e l« important mInM of iron, coppar, and cold. Th«e oiF4ornllaa* an 
tfnaMd on Iha Iwo aloiwti but diicd; on th< on* that look* to A»ia, frum ib« m*inn 
of EkairrinbauTg In about 130 or 130 Inune* north of thai eitjr. They cooMitute Ito 
depaitinenlof Ibeuine* of Ekalrrjntianr^, one of llie three beb>np'Dg loSnwria. 

The roppn>.Bloei nre preltr naneroa*. and lie almotl wboUr on the oritntal dope 
«rib«tkaln. Thry aruoprnod into veins of n vrrrpceuUnr notnre, and whieb aitboafh 
nrj powerfol al Iho turlbee, do not mend 10 <iny ronaldcrable dcplb. These TBua 
are ia Korral lilUil with nrtiUoNcua mnllen, ptDriraled with rtd oiid« ofeuppor^Mk 
ndagledwith crcm and bine ciubona led copprr, aolphurct of eopprr, and natire ooq^f 
The mosl important working* are ihwe of TonmM and a>itm«*a/iW. ^^ 

Tbc onl are ainaied 190 Icagnn north of EkatninVntnr, tiinrd ihr 60ih degm 
nt V. lotitado, nt the taotcm base oif the tJrolian monDlaini, neat the hnnka of the rMrta. 
Th«T amouot to three, opened in Ibe aiune vein, which Inrni round an aai^e nrrimllii 
br th« ckaln in thi* place. The sround ia eompaicd of a porphfTT with a fcnrartnia 
kaail of clay-alat*, and of a wUlr ar itraylih llmralonc, which fonn the roof and tern 
oftlwTein- The ore yidda from 18 loSO p(TC«n(.,andihf.Fc mine* prodDcnl anauallr 
in MSB, 10,000 metric qnintab (9,200,000 liba. avuinl.) of cofipcT. 

The mine of GoumKlMftid lie> 12 or 15 lenxun S.W. of KkatrHnbuunr. near a 
lake borilvHvi by primitlre monnlaias, which form in this region the aXM of Ibe chaia 
d the Umli. I'liia mine ia eelcbniled for llic beautiful malachit«i that ocrar in il. 
It bai farniahril o]ii)(iHt all the line opecimeDa of Ihii nibnanc* emplojed in jewdUry. 
The vein, nl' n'i]iFh |bc fidM ore ealcarcous, ii TCTticoI. nnd rnna north and Motlk 
ll don tuA MQk derpfr than about 50 )'ari)», and 11 lilted with n tjitciri of coarw 
pnddlAH-ttMia, coio|io*r<l of miaaea of primiiitr mcka. Tho ore yield* fVum 3 le d 
percent, ofcoppor.and the mine fumishetl about the ifM ITHR, 4,4(>0,000 llbo. btoWL 
nf tliii metal jirr oimam. 

Tho beda of iron ore nenir gcnemlly at a certnin dittanee ftam ili« axLi of the 
nntcal chnili. Tlioae of the wetiera ilope lie tomeiiiDei in a uray CoR;t»(l liniCatonc, 
which cnntnin* mlrothi nnd other pi^trificallona, and whoae ^eoloiinl ane hai not tM« 
Hoertoinrit, bot It appenra lo be much inoru mtidrm than the rock* of the central riniBi 
Both the one and the other teem to form Innte *ain«, which ctleod little in dcptli> or 
nther Gl) trrei-Qlar nnd tliallaw cnriUet. The moM common ore ia the bydmle ofiivK 
(bos ore), bemaUle, or compact iron ore. tomrtimea miud or netnmpnninl wiib h]-drtllr 
of manimneac, and Dccuioonlly wllh ore* of ainc, copper, and lead. Slack o^Ua 
of iron, poMtSfiaf mt^nctie polarity, likewiK (ro>inendy oceot*, panlcalarly la iW 



MINES. 



Xtt 



I of the tmsUTK ilofe, cm sbkb. in r«al, rMin iDounuloi of loadflons iwpote. All 
mt, nUxtd <r>U a ^nuti oc lew quanlilf of cIbj diflntslljr enloNil, tLTo 
worlHii b^ optn ^oairioi, and mart wually wltliout oiiiiK roiipawilcr, or etcn iron 
wcdca. Tbcy yield tarilj Icsi Uin DO ot 60 iht nni., noil £ce|> u leliiio dudctoiu 
^NUinx-b>n>M lilatud o« Iba twv Aanki or ilii; rhniJi | th« nlileal of Uiein bave "betm 
mUhii&ti lince 1628, but ill* yiMler nuinlin liair only Dom the Middle of Ibc ISUt 
•eatstj. The mast cdcbrat«il minu uc tliaic of Batgodal and faltaaor, litiutcd on 
the eulcfn ilope IImd 90 Io 50 len^tucs nnttti of Ekattrk^emrg. In the fosndiic* of 
ifcc coatcm *1o|h!| anehon, otnnoiM. bullet*, &c., arc fnbrlaltil i and in Ilia wboi« • 
MHuidcimblc qiunlitjr of bni iron. The proiducu of the worlu on the wr4ltTn lidv an 
dic«ellr *«bMkcd eo Ibo different fccdcrt of Iba Volga, from wbicJi Ihey arc at no 
peat dinaac*^ That* of Ui« CMUn alopo ok Innaportid diuin^; winlci on alcdga* W 
lb* aama bnlar atitaAi, afl*! crotiing tb« Icnit dented puiogn of Ihc liiali. 

The <|aaalii)' of matvriali fabricnlcd bjr ibe iroorirailta of bolli ilupn, amoualal 
B«n«ally, tomtd ibv ynu 1790, to moic thna 11,000,000 Ibi. ntoird. Thii lounliT 
■a pecoliatlj faTorcd by antUTc fat ihii tpceiei of iodnatrr ; for vul dcnoutc* of exoct- 
iMt inM acta oceitr auiroDDdcd by immonac fotot* of lln, pinn, and birchen ; woodi, 
vbo«c chumal la ajKcllcntlr adapted to the bbrioolou ofiruii. 

Tkc ooppar-Enine* of tha ucallan monnMio*, and Iha srMt«r part of ibe iron inSnc* 
aad foDMnati fom a portion of tha propcrllea of icone iBdiridiuiIi, who nay bt in* 
■lanctil u aBionf the rlcbcat in £1110111:. Th« Rnuian nvenuopni liai ne(rl'^vd no 
Dfirananity ef pnuoolinjc llicve cnierpriici. It bu tataUUied al Touriniliy a couid- 
RmMe coJooy, and at Irbiiz a fair which hn* bcwme edebnted. 

Th«ie i« only one ^oM mine in the Ural Boanuia*, Ihat of Strtiff, ailnoted tbrcc 
kagvet N,E. 1^ ElkatcnnboBrE, M thr fool of ilic irrBl«,an tbo Aiialie lidc. Il ii 
MKiiu fur the chronutLc of load, or rod li'at! otn, illacovercd tbvG in ITTG, and troikal 
la IW foUowiag year*, aa aUn tbt toioo tucc vnrieiieaofRitoeraia. The ore of Bproof 
boeavrrBOUt b;<lralt of ituii (bojt ore), prtienlinu here and there aoma *maU Mrlaltd 
Mba* of hepatic irun, and uc^nsionolly looie pyrilvs. Il coalunt pana of natinr 
attt in 100,000. This deposite n[>pnui lo Imic a L'lcst analogy with the depooilta of 
•M on uf the tame rcBioo. It conitUutn a lorve vein, running from N. lo S., 
<MM«d in a fonoalionof RBciw, boroblcndctcliiiii.and tpqicniine, nrid which don nol 
■Ifoar to dip to anyconudorablc depth. Ii bccomo jtooi in proportion lo iu diitoncc 
Tmai Ibe *uiface. Tbc (iploilallon, which 19 in Ibr open air, hai dujt doim 2i j'ardai 
b««o nriMd on ainec Ihe ytnr 17S6. Tbc ^Id ia airacled from the ore by 
<:!( slid waiUu, In 1766, &00 maivi wen? coUcciedi but Uie precedins year* 
if-. Ti.riuabetl oalj Suu^ becauie tlicy llirn worked fuithcr from the lurface. Gtraian 
niacn «ete coUtd io lo direct the opcrationi- On dome poinlt of the t'rnl moontaioH 
and the oetf-hbarln^ eamitrica, dcpoaltca of an auriferoua clay haTc been noticed 1 but 
Ikn bave aol biltaotta boon workod. 

Bala of (bmnau of boo have alw bc«n disoovertd in thcat mountaina. 

Tha beautiful ploUo ofnita, well known in mineral cabineta, and even in oommetee, 
■Oder the nuare of Umcovy tale, or Iluaiian micai come ftom the Ural*. Thate aio 
Hpfatntuen* for them near the lake Tichcbuikoul, on the cnslern Hank uf tlvtt chain. 
Fnb Ike Mune taatoii there it esporlol n rrcy while day. appuenUj' a kaolin. 

X6 l«a<;n«9 Mitlh of EbalertDboors, ncni the town of Moumaik, there occur ia a 
yaphjo tnnitt, nuneioua icuu, containing aincihyaU, levsral varietiea of bnyl, cma^ 
titt, lapair*, &c. 

TkUeoflfct Production ofthe Russian Minci during the yean IS30, 1831, 1633, 1833, 
and 1 S34 ; by M. Teplolf, one of their olSecn. 

I 



OoU 

nttbuB 

tmrUtnafBjtt 



Caat iron 
CM 



ino. 



6,160 
1,742 

90,074 

»fi6Ofi06 

1ftt,72l,!74 

7,88^04Z 
4,tSS,O0O 



IIOI. 



ka. 
6,aa2 

1,7«T 
tl,5«3 

3,»04,S33 
793,930 

180,043,730 
<2> 

4,853,000 
12 



Mil. 



kU. 

s,9ie 

1,907 
21,IM 

3,020,301 
6SS,3SI 

lfi3,J$0,324 

372,776,283 
6,S»e,034 
4,SA3,000 



Wt. 



kit. 

a.7oe 

i;»i9 

20,Q&S 

(3) 
3,387,262 
7111,900 
(3) 
163,1 1^372 

4St,362,3» 
8,2S7,&2S 
4,258,000 



MM. 



kil. 
6,626 
1,690 
30,666 

t 

I 



904 



UINES. 






Mtns Of THE Town avd yhk m-miic roanrp ^^1 

TlMe aoaauiai mbUud ktctiJ Mnlm ef explomlon of arfMsUTrroiu em cf UM 
Md «»]i[>rr, iiOD om, mnil tome man oT maa{«an« •wl anihnrlu. 

M the Cnit-aitr-matu, deptrliiicat oTlhe Voucs, a tein of Brfcralirnon* hwJ l*t 
beta v«rrif«d, wliiph nest to tbe niu or Spaniih AmiTio, is one ot the ijjeilnt knawD. 
It i* MTtcnJ rnltioiiu Duck, and ha* baen meed aod oined tluousb na ixl<Dt of miiR 
Uan ■ leasuc. It i> parllf filled Willi dcbri*, omnn^ wtiiett ocean tone nr^cDuToaM 
Bkleaa. )( conifiini >lco ptimtibnia of lead, antimoaiatcd (Vlphuirt aT tilver, tt. 
It runtrnxn Pf, lo S, aouf]' pnralld lo Iho line oT jnaclian oT the gneia. and a par- 
phjroid staaxu, Ibal poMSi into sicnilc and porjihyrf. In tevoral points n cat* atroM 
(h«sn«iM; hu( ii prntiahljr otcunalMbciwecnihe tvonichi. It hoaanverbvenvevhtd 
balow tbe level oTthe adjoininx rxOtj. Th« minea op«n«d on Ihfs reia prodiKcd, H 
M Mid, at the end ortbo 16lh eeninrr, WflOOl. per anaunt iher were atill Tpry gn- 
iaciivu in the mlddtr of the lait icniurr, and faniBhrd. to IT56, 3,040^000 Km. avMnL 
offend, oad 0,000 insto, or 3,£30 pounda aTOiid. of lUier. 

The vciM eiploTMl fit .s'->inr< Jlfuru o/ M< mtau, abo tnvenc lh« ^eu* ; bat thdr 
dit«e<[oa [» nearly periirndiciiUi lo lh4I ol'th« nia of the Croix, from whleb tkr; ait 
■oparatod by a Wren mountain of aienile. Thi^jr contain bttidM galnna, Mvtral ona 
or eeppcr, cobalt, aad araenio | all note or leu BT|«Dtiftroua. TVtv fa fottBd alio at ■ 
Ultle uiitance from Sujail Jfory ^ Ot miM* a rein of nipliufvt ct aalinteuiT- 
niaei otSainIt itarit, opened jcrctnl ccntuiic* n|io, are among the bcbI an 
Cancel and yet they hnre hccn worked onlj down to the level of the 
TaUe]r». 

There ba* been opeood npla Ibonvlroni ora<ronia^y,anthe>outh(Tarcrgoortbo 
Ttagc*, a ffreal nnmber oTveiiu, eoniaiainf principally ar^gentiferani ofta of lond aid 
copper. Thoy tun nmt] from N. lo S., and travenic [lorphyriet and c)ay-«UtM i a 
lyKem which boa lome onoloey with the mctnllMerDua dmlrict of Soheoniila. The 
vorltlnxs have been pnihed to tbr ni 410 yard* below the suriVtct. Thcae (niaei wtn 
la a flourishins ttnie in the 1 4ih and Ifiih eenturiei i anil became m once more ■! the 
beKinnini; ofihe I'lh, when iliey weip andcrtaken bjf the bouse ofMazariB. Id |T4S 
Ihey still jinxluccd 100 mnrcK, fully Vl lib*, avolrd. of liWer in the oionlh- 

Tbe mue* of La Croit, of Saiatt' MnrU-antMnimi, and of CirvnMgay, arc now 
■basdoned; hat II b hoped that Ihon of Ih« firtl two loealltie* will be mnmed m 
long. 

ta the nonnlaini of the Black FomI, leparaiuil from the Voii)tn by the vnllvy of tbe 
Rhine, but eompoied of the (ome rockt, tlieir occur at Bfltnweiltr nnd near llocAbiff, 
not far liom Fre) bunr. moiliin?i of Imd in creni nrliriiy. These form m diniael 
Brine), and annuitly ntrord SH.OOI) lib*, ni'oiid. of k-ud, and 200 mmra «C silrer. In the 
Poratenbcrg nuar iro'y^tA, parlicnlnTty nt IVi/ffMeii, there are minej of copf«f,c»tah, 
and tilrcr. Tbo mlani of Williehen prod ueeil, soma yann aio, 1/iOO nare*,or Dtv 
BSD llb«.nv«irtl.of direr per nimHm. Tliey aupply a inanuftelory of imalt, and one of 
anenleal iirnl'iets. A few other inconiiderable minea of the Mae kind tiiM fa Ihfi 
pnad duicliy orBnden,nad in the kiitt^daia of Wurlemberv. 

^veml tinportnnl imn minen nre elphrred in the Votzei i the priBctpnl are Ibow it 
PramiMt, in the deparinieal of the Votgo*, whole ore* arc ted oxide of iroa and htmn 
hemattle, wbieh appear to farm vein* of {[rtM thlekncw, mneh Tamihed, nnd veiT 
iiM^lar, in a dittrlel eoapeted of frcetwtone, UmmoDe, and grcywaeke. Tbe pA- 
lerranoan working*, opened on these depoaitea, have been li[tli(Tio very Inr^iilar. TterS 
hMbaaaditeorarMi lalely in thne mines, an eilremely rii-ti vein uf aiilpharctof mmv. 
At flnUm, a little to the eaat ofFnunont, Ihin reins at rtil oxidt of iron are wvrkedj 
WOMttnie* nufnetie, owins probably lo an odniiiture of protuxidc of iron. These reini 
ru throuib a mnilc, that puiea Inio tienite. At Snuluoi near Belfort, tbeie arc 
Iron mine^ analoeoDi to Ihow of Ftainonl. 

In Ih' neiihbornood of Ihann nnd Maaaovau^ near the source* of the Moiellc, rriu 
are work-il of an Iron ore, Ibat lravn«e fonnation* of grcywacke, cUy^alnle. aad poiw 
phyry. I<ai<ly, in Ihn north of the Vns^ea, noarBernnbera, Eri'|ent>«ch,Bnai<cben«)i, 
(cTaml nine* hnvc li^n opened on very powerful veins of brown hecnaliteasdnapaet 
bo« ore, aeeomimnled with n little enlamme, nnd a creat deni of sand and debris, b 
fome poinU of Ihcae rtins, the iron ore ia rcplneed by vnriotra ores of lend, tbe noat 
•buudnnt being tho ]ihoiphat«, which nre explored M KTleiAaAvaAKnltnthnJ. That 
vdn* tiBveiM the nndaione of the Toasei, a fonnation whote seolopta] poiiiion is iwt 
■Itecether well known, bot wbleh oontaln* iron mitiat aaalogana lo the preerdia| «t 
Lmgmlhal, at tbe fool of Mount Tonnerre, njid In the pnlnllaate. Mnay anal^rtn 
•eem to approximate to thn sandston* of tbe Tosc«ai the aandjlone of th* envinmi of 
Saint Avoid (Moaello), which laduUe the mine of brown hemalite of Crnlsirahl, and 
Iht toad mine of Bleyberc analogous to the lead loine of Bleibrrs, near Aix-la- 



UI£I£S. 



m 



At CrWAkirA and Thtin, 10 Ike aoHh of the Gaircbradi. Mine* ot MansBBCte we 
vvtkfJ, (kmom far the gOM QMlitT «f Uicir pnxlncij. Tbe depatilc «i|iloilM lU CraU- 
•brh K«ai 10 be enclosed iaibeMiidMoiK of the VotcM^uiil is conMitBte • Ttin is ii, 
■n-l-fwlit <B (li' uv Tttiu ttcntiDiied BboTc. 

liicn bu been rectnU^r opened n nungeaoi* minit at litnUii, neoi Xe Cmi><«««- 
M^Mi, la a diitriel of sneiM wilti porpbjry. 

In the Vaft4 nnd the Uaek Fornt there are ■rrcin] dcptiutn of anthneile ()Iim«- 
ea«l>, of which iva nn aclnalljr wcrkiii, (he one at Ziuuwit, bpu OH'onbourc, in the 
terrifut; cf Bailen.andlhc olkerat UTotle,Dear Ceraaf, inlh«de[ienuient (^IheUpiiei 
Rhine. Tkeie arc alio (creral rfepcwtca of the true tool ftmaaiioa on the Uanka of tbe 
Vmcm- 

Mlirn OF niB HAKTC. 

Tbe niuae Ham if itren senerallr lo the eniinirr or forviti, whleh eileniln a treat 
nanf Eilei [oa»d Ihe Brotktn, a mauDtiiiii lilaolnl about 35 niilct W^.W. of MijpJo 
boiuf, and wbbcb riict above all the moaatoiui ol' North Uciumny, Iwini^ ai iit tunuail 
IS36 yard* above the lere) oT the len. Tb« IlaiU in about 4.1 luile) in lenilii fram 
S3JI> lo H.N.W., Id milt* in brcailUi, ami eoatain* about 430 iiunrc milMorioffncc. 
Il U ^aenllT hilly, and «»v«r*d two thtidi overwilb foiefttof oalu, brcehe)i,aad fit*. 
Thi* n^gBl nod piciim«iiie dblricl oatreapandB lo n paction of the Silea Sarfaia of 
muita*. Ai Of ricullDie furnUhea few reaouren llicre, the exploration of inlnM it 
mtmm Ik* ««1]r Dieani of nbiiilaicc lo iia iababiumtjt. wJio amount to about OOfilfO. 
'Tluipria<ifHldxU*.,Jndrtoibtrg,Cli)utOiai,ZtiUr/ilJ,Mlnu>v,lMu!ttiihal, n'iUtautmt, 
Gniih/, aailOatlaribcAr the title of mlac^citio*, and onjoy pvi'iiliiir iiiiTiltun; the people 
deririos thev ■ofeal*tenee IVoin irorkiac in the tninee of lead, ailvcr, ami copiier, over 
which uieir faome* are built. 

The Boat common lock in the Uarta it itrefwacke. Il eneloiea the principal veina, 
Md tt cuvered by a tiantilion limettone. Tbe |,-ranite or which theBroekcn i> farmed 
■■pvorUall thtf ajMcm of toeing foiiniiiff,uil were, theitnudcoa. Trap and honiMOM 
reekt apraaf In ceftaia point*. 

TliF rant of lead, fJivor, nnd copper, which constituio the principal wealth of the 
Hani, donM pervade lu wholeoiioil. They occur eblully ao*r Ibe towna ol'AndKfia- 
barK, Cbnilkal, Zrilerfbld, and Lamrathnl i ar» ([enenllr directed from N.W, to S.E., 
aail dip to t)ie S.W., at an anele of 8CP with tbe horiion. 

Tba rieheal ailTO ■doci OK tbote or the rnviiuai of AndRnibcri;, oniontt wbicb may 
ba dininzuitked Iha »■— x*" and Neirrani; minej, worked to a doiiih of &6fl yanU. la 
Ik* Am of tbom tkero fci the grcnleal i(<p oiploilatlon lo bo mri with in any mine. It 
b HfflJtJ of to ditttt titp; ami it tnor* ibaa AM yatda lonK. Ttitoe mioa wer« 
■nnd la ISSO.and tlie city was built ia 1S2I. They proilucu nntentiTeroua ^cna, 
lAnr am pro|«rly n> callcl, aurh ai red silver ore, and ore of cobalt. 
~ idlrtikt wbkhrieldi moat nrcrotiferoua lead ii thai of CInusthal; It comprcbonde 
KBtUMaay miaet, levernl of which arc worked to a depth of iM yardt. Such of Ike 
warn a* axe nt the |>rD>ont day moat ptodaclice, have been eiplond liaoelko first years 
af lh« «iBbl4«nih ccWnrr. The two moW remarkable onu arc the mine* of Dorothy, 
•adihe Hiac of Carotin*, which aloncfaniiababirtvproportionof the whole net |irad> 
•cC The cnnt of th« Dofolby mine extendi over a leni;lh o( iST yarda, in the direc- 
dM of the veta, nod thronjih a breadtli ofncnrly 33 ynnli periiendiculajly K> thai direc- 
liM. Ont of tktaobonuli.appiiTeTiIlyso rmnll, hut which however lurpaMtboeeof the 
p«BI«r part of th« aMtfrion* ia the Harli, there wu cilmcird from ITUS to ISO! i»> 
dwJv«lT,883,7'J'2maraaf ailTci, TGS.Stiquintaliof lead.aml 2,3Sa lumtoUof copptr. 
TUa HdMi and that at Oarollna have brought to their iharelieiMoti ia llje Mine pOJod 
flifune, BDore than l,no,OOat.i oad havo betMc* powtifnlly eoniriboied by looaawith* 
OOT iaterail to carry on tbe eiploralian of the leea fMduclive ini&eai II waa in order 
lo dieet tke drainn^ of tbe mine* of the diitriel CLfCUiuthal, ud Iboac of the diiirkl 
•f Zellcrfdd adjoinins, that the ereat taUcry of clBiut wa* cttaeatcd. 

Neil lolkenrodhbielaof ClautlialBud Z«Jlcrfcld, ojid Aadraaabar;,coaiwthMef 
CtHtar, tb« BM*t loipeetaal woiktDG in whicU ■• tbe coppri inioa of RBtiitn«llbert,e|MiMd 
tl»r>c the yewr MR, on a laaM or cupper pyriteii dtuamtnateil thtnucli qinrli, and mfn- 
flcd with nicaa aad bleade. It ii wntkcil by diafta and Rallerievi wilh the rintiloymeal 
M lUe tu break down the ere. Thiamine pn>ducet snnnnlly from 1,200 lo UOOmelrK 
taialali(aboal27&.000 lib), aroird.) of copper. The |ral««a exUaetod fVaiii it yieldi n 
^ull qoutlty of aitrcr, oad a rery little ftohl. The lalUf taelid amonab lo only the 
lia milHanth inait of the maai explored ; and yet meant are ftuod to teparoic it with 
•draaMf** "i* ■■<•'■" «^ LamSttbtrjf ia worked •oltlr Ibr tbo copper, and ii fbniiabv 
eBBaally Mar 06,000 lita. avoird. of Dial nieiaJ. 

Beeidet the eutarationo yn** noticed, there nre n sreat nany mine* of iron in dilTer- 
•al parte of ihe B^l*, wUili siv* activity lo unporUal fofSW, including 21 ameUiac 



IM 



MINES. 



.tkin* 



cnpoltf . Tlo priD(i]«) on* arc >i»rr7 iroa, utA trd a»d brawa kmdiei, vUefc aeeu 
la ttlni^ btiAt, ami idmik*. Knnlij' nod ollnTikl orra •re sbn eollMWd. 

Tho Ivrriloiy of Anbalc-BcrnlMniif i>n-«cnti, lownnl Ike loMkfMt ntnaiUT of tfc« 
Hanx, Irad nnd lilvvr miiira, whici. tfiriiiblB cloOT-ly thow of ih* g wMi l dUlriel. Tbq 
I'tDdurv nnniinllr 33/)00 lib*, aruinl. of lend. 

At Die souihcm foolof ibr Hodz, ai tlcf«ld, there ii ■ mute ef auuiDadte. 

The I'xploraiioD of the Kiuls uuua may be tncnl tack for abuul 000 ft*n. Th< 
cpodi ol' tbnlr ^roUeM tiroiperitr ««■ (be nidJle of thcewhtmilkeenliUT- Their ciwa 
■niiual amount wim In IB08 opwnrd of one mUlioa ftcrltng. Lead b Uirit prttcqvl 
pmlQCl, of which th#)' fiunMh oennnlly G,400,ODO lib*. BToinl^ with 36,000 mueik «r 
18,700 liba. mcrird. of lilrer, about IIAQ.noO Ubi. avoird. of copper, a»d ■ *t«i pwl 
quantity of iron. The) in: cdehrDtcd liir the cxwltcncc of the miming opmtioitt; nd 
die wti*ily. pnlirnc'--, and skill, of their workmen. 

The Haili is rdernd lo eapceiallj for the mnnner in whkb the wattra are eoUMted 
ud Monomlied (or Boatinf down tko limber, ond Impelling (be miebinet]'. Vith Ikv 
vtrw, dam* or Ubn>i eoBOls, andnqitaluct*, hare fcfcn conwIniclBl, remaiuUe fur 
rood execution. Thr iini(-r.<oartFt are fonnml either in the open air louiii the n 
lnin.4idei, or tbrouifh their interior at aablerrnaraa itallefin. Tb* open cliannrlt 
lerl the miti. waters, ai well at those pruweilinit from Ihe racltint of isdwii, fium 
Biiriiip and ilrcomleli. or imiill riren Ihni fail in (brii «-ay. The mbleiivnean too- 
ihiiTaate in ecneral the conliaualionof the prccediae, whoie eiieuita Ihey eal*b««1. 
Tbew wvIeT'connet piMeDI a development in whole of IZ&inile*. Thehoiiluof aoai 
of Itio mervain ore of an eitmordinnrj h<JHhl. In the olnitla dixtiicl of ClBwittill 
there are 34 lank^ vhich roiiply mtw to 92 wheeb of nearly 30 feel dumocet ; Sfrctf 
IhMr tern ibr th« dnuBa|« of water, and 37 Ibr iht txiraoiion of ores. 

niKzs or THE CUT or omuHT. 

Wc ibalt (fflbmcc ander tbi« bend Ihe minei opened Jn the ptiioitiTC and tratutaiM 
tertilorie*, which rotiiitflBlc the body of a grnl portion of Bohemia, and Ike adjaeoM 
pUU of Saxony, Banjla, Atitlria, Moravia, and Sileiila. 

Anontc the »«**ral ehaini of wnalj mouataini thai crou (hne eountriea, the ricbMl 
in deposites of ore it the one known niidec Ihe ueme of Ibo Engtinrgt, which icpanic 
BuOBf from Bobemin on the hfl bank of the Kibe. 

The Ertgrblrfi eonudn* a grtat many mine*, whouc principal produett arc tiUrer, (ja, 
■nd reball. The mine*, wboie explomtlon remonnUto ihv twelfth eeniary,and t»r- 
tieulnrif ihoie iltuaieil on ibe northern dope wiiliin the kinedou of Saxony, have W«i 
Inaif celebratoil. The ichool of mine* eMabliibed nl Freylwr^ wu at one time oouii* 
ered ni (lie finl in (he worid. Thii is a (mail cJly ntni ihe mosi jnporluni worido^ 
B Icn^Fi W.S.W. of Dresden, lownnl ibe middle of Ifae northern slope of (be Enfe- 
bilCe, 440 ynrda alioi'c the level of Ilie ica, in an orricuhuml and trading dittrirl, wfll 
eleued of wood. These cirenmiinaee* ha*e modiiled Ibe working of the ■i»fi, r"' 
render it dlffirnlt 10 dniw an exact pamllel lMtW4<raihnnandtbo*o«rih*HutK,«~ 
are llielr timtf in good explomtlon ; they are peculiarly remariioble tbr th« perfei 
with which Ihe eniiinetarvoxMnltd both fur drtiinniie and eKlractionofoie*. all motel 
by water or borsrs ; for the r«<nl&Tity of almost nil ilie sabiemuiean tabori i and fof 
tbe beauty of their walling masonry. In Ibe portion of Ibete noontoinf bcltmtlas 
(o Sastmj, the nndercronnd woridtiiE) einploy dir«eily from 9fiM to 10,000 Men, 
libcir (n more than 400 diitinet mines, all auoclnted under Ihe name plan of ado 

ITBtlQn. 

The H/r«r nines of th< Urtftbirgt are opened on vi'inn which Iravene Kneias, i 
though i|uUe different in this re>pcnt ftoiu the nncenliferoui Veini of Caan<maip, 
9r^rtn»Us, and Zma^, prcteni but a muderntv Ihieknm, nerer exeeedin a few fed. 
They form several emnpi, whose rcltitive importance has varied tcry madi. 

For a lon^- time back, ihoae of the environs of rreyhcrg ore much Ibe moil pradn^ 
lire] andlbnr prosperity ha* been alway* on the advance, nut withMaadlnfi th* incrtaa- 
ing depth of tbe eicai-nliani. The ilrrpfM of the whole i* that of Koluchaekl, wkieli 
peoMratc* to 4S0Ttudi liennnih Ihe 'urraePithat i>, nearly down V> theoM^evcl. The 
nott prodnclive nnil the rimi eelcbmled ittbenineod'Himmelsfarsti (bat of Bescketfr 
Rluek is aJlio very rich. 

AnionK the riplonliuaa at Enoeluntc. there are none which were formerly »o flour- 
llhiniai Ibose ofMnrieribrni, a (mall town sitaalcd T leaKaesSLS.Vr.of Fie)'beTg. In 
the salcenth eenlury, om wrre frBjucnlly found (here, even at a «hoH dittanc< fron* 
Ibe tnrAer, vhicli yieldid Mpcr cent, of aitver. Tbeilkauennf thothtriyytois'war 
pat a lam la iln'ir pru*pcrity. Since that period, Ihty hav« continnaUjr loafpiiahedi 
n»d their moducl now it Btaily nail. 

Oar Hmkt do aM pemlt ti* Is deacribe ia detail ibe rItct mfnai (bni ooch bbu 



■^ MINES. »r 

AmtfVWinifd^, JAi— 1 GMTftMtadt, Jimntm, OitnifueMal, ud Sttantaiv. 
Tkot of ilic liui ihrte lecabiiw ptwIuM abo coWu 

Th* iniar* oT 8uD(4(C0tf«*, not Schii««bcrg,ap«Mdia IbeMwoth wbIuct oj iron 
wtmm, bnauia cclcbtMod aonu liiDo «Aer m uiaM gr (itrcr. Tovmrd llic avl of Ihc 
ftnc**th trni<iry.< inauot omru Coiiud ilwie whidi airoidcd 400qiiiatBUor«11vcr: tta 
llMt Immp, Duiti' Albrrlkvpt UUeM ike bottom of the mnie. 'fhcit richnoi in iilTcr 
feu 4liBini*hal imcv Ihiin j b«l \hirj ti>*p lanrBaml niurv in iin|iwuncc ihirinc Ihn lut 
nwbiwdred i«ara,u DiiMaoTcoWllitban ili?y IibiI tvit biyv m filtvr ainn. Saioaw 
•I tk^^Mnntry wltae cobalt is toincil and ritraclnl in ihc luoM cxinuitr imnnn. U 
katMlMvd aom iheiame tcini vith ihr silver. SinaHi or niball-blue,ui tlic piincip*) 
MhthBce siamn&clWDd from IT. The Iml aad tbe copper are in thii muDtrf only me- 
tmmrf ^rodacli oT the (ilTDrmiMs, from which l2i)^(llb>.BToinl.arihcAMtof IhtiM 
■Milt arr cKlracHiI, which aro hardly lullleirni for Ibc mclaUiunic opcmjesti oad 
Aon 50,01X1 lo 60uOoa Ito. of Mppcr- A llUIs UtMitb b PilTacl^ Tram llic ttiaM of 
Hekacebcni aaJ F^beT|t> Somr mniiuaDM* U (bnnil in thu lilfcr intara of the Eing^ 
Urar, and tMfliraUily •! Johanna- Gcotueiuladl. 

Tbi! min<i« of Gu«nf produce n tlilk nrEcniifcrotu nnlcna, and argentifcraiu gnn 
eoppn; th« inlttDrBbvilh a bate of native uivcrarDihcpriiKipalorci) lli«r "■ ("oUd 
ia ■ RrMl MMnr* t^ analgamolton. All Ihoae of Frcyben ate carried la th* Uod> 
km annillNl biinM of Ualtbrdidf, alnatcd on the Muld«, iiciar ibal city. The aTcnfw 
rictecM or Ike nlTcr ere* throuchoal Saxoaf ■* only fniin 3 lo 4 oi!. |wr quininl : vii., 
nrnttif cqnal M thai of tke oraa of Mniro. and rrry iup«riur to Ibu aciuoJ richneu of 
■bviNCi oTpDWai. The ulicr ntraclid Irum theru contnini n lillip godd. The Saxon 
BBMpro^DcaniiiialljftliOOD niDTf* of lilvct. Ofthne, ihediiinaof FrnbilrsnlaiM 
ftnbhaa UfiOOi and among Ibc numnoui minct of that diitrict, Ibal oflummtMmm 
af itMl/ iffodncw 10,000 man?*. 

■Inr misn oIm abo on Ibe loniheni dnIivUy or the EragvUric, wind) bclonca lo 
BobcMia, at A»AimMal nnd BtivilaiU, in Ihc nortliMM of E«n. ArmntdVrom jralcna 
ItOfcWIy ruiMlet from Iheie. The iniiim of Joachimatbal ha<a been ciplotcd to ■ 
¥<ir OM) yarib. They were formeriy \riy flou/iihinu i but in IS05 ihey wptc iltrcM> 



I Willi aa impending abnadannient. Tin? nndpnl laiarm of KuticnbciG. trtntinl in 
Iha •■«« iritiun, baTe been excavnied, acconlins to A^ricola, to upward ul' IfiOQ j'atda 
ftna tbr piuibec coiL 

Th r. uxni hem slope of llip £rncebirite poiMwci mhajl mina like Ibe norlhcrn alope s 
hot tb«7^r(- vt inuch Iom impoitance. Some ocenr, pnriicnliu'ly in the ncigbtMrboM 
of JoMhlMftbaL LaMlj, «■ tbe nme »lope,*Iight>f-pradDeiite copper nuAttare nM- 
liMiel at rirAUiU, near Joachinulhnl ; al Caihorineherg, 8 Inagum nortborSaals; aad 
M IbaplWfcnt, lyfaw iMween Ibe two. At Grutlitx, Ibo ore li a cnprfW)« pyritaa, ac- 
etapajcunJ by Undo. Tbn vrtt ot Cathatiaeboni *re arnrolireiout. 

H«U tn llie nWmnlnra.ibemcM important Mploralionaoflbi? En^biriK arc tkote 
•f lia. Tbit tiKtal oi'cun in vein^ aatdit, and diHeminaird to maMci of hyalin gnj 
fnsrtf, iJ»lipiUedin thecronilci it iialoefoniuliaallamlinndi. The moat importanl ibi 
BI»e«rUu! Kn^birgo ii tbot orAUntbei^, inSasony, which ho* been under workiog 
Mimrr iltr WWciBih century- Some tin ti mined alio nnr Gayi-r, Khrcnriiodrculurf, Ji>> 
baa nn-dtoftcanadl.Schelbon berg, AanaberH,Srtiren,aniI Mnrirnbent, in 8ttony. Al 
ZiuwaU It it alto Iband ; wh«re Lbv >lannir<tou« diuiirt liulunvj partly la Saiony and 
pMtly lo Bohemia t aa alao important mlaca occur in the loiter lerritory al Sctdaektn- 
waU an>4 Ab«tttans, and »li|klly-productiTC ones at Plaikn «ni) Joaehimitbal. la mv> 
HbI orikeaemaea, parlicvlnTly at Alienberr nnd Gayer. Brc a employed for atiackias 
tkt ore, be«aiHe it i* extremely hnnl. In uIdiiwI the whole of tbein, chambm of Uo 

Cdimnn«ioM ha** been cioaTiii<d. whenee bnrc ari*eo, al dilTcmtt epoch*, Tan> 
•inki«K«ortba|[nand. One of thcM aia; (till bo Men ai AltmberXiwbihb iaISO 
IMdi drqi. and Marly M in btvndtb. Th« miactorAbenkamarv explored to a depth 
4l 350 jnnU, and thoae of Altcnbvtn to 330. The tin minei of the Ertgebirire pradvM 
MHwlly 4S1,000 Ibfc nTidrd. at thii BWlaL 

The tin ore* ur aecocnpcuiied by ni^eaical pyrit:^. whieb, In the rauiin; tMt It *it~ 
tenea, prodnee* a mtaia luuilily of nnroiooa aeid. 

Tie Knu|*Urce pmcnti niao a fnal many iron iiiiur*. partlonlarly in Saionfi •! 
M*al>inc- ■■«■' Cmdorf, in ihr county ol' Htnnebent, where tke woHiingt pentUBW l» 
• d^h of KU> y*tdf, Kod in Bohrmts, at Ptattn, vrh*-rr may be remartirO npeciallf 
Ibc crirol ri^orotiou opmad OO the vein of Ihc IrrgnKg, 

Tl- •'■ !■ alM in the Eruebiire a mine of oalhraciie (tiooe coal) at St^anfiU, near 
Tr I a Saxony. 

I roek-lbtinalioiM which appear in Ibe r^aalndn of Bohomia, and in tba 
■llae^at turtMnaof Baratia, Aoftria. MDmvla.andSnnia,ar« Moek leaari^ in aMali 
ttaa ib« Eimnhnie. N« axploratiaiu of uuch imporunco exiit there. 

Tb« fidulftbirf*, • cro«p «f mnitataiaii imoms al ikc wctiem ulnmtfj tt Ibf 



I 



KUIBS. - V 

En t i « b li ir. bttwMD Hot ud Baynntk, martoliw *adw whw, usMg whick aay te 
aoticcd, iirlAcipilly, nunc* of iMKOMk Uaok axid««f Inn. 

ArmourwoDi ImJ MiiiM hiT« hcs nMaUoned at MU**, S5 iMgan W.6.W. of 
Pneai:. ■( ihr N.E. bawof Ihe WMtBmp»lorAoni«nr«UnMr|4,«tk>iaar«i><UiniH 
whicJi tcpomip Bohfliui from Baiuia- Thc» Br« same ■Iso a) PruiVoa, H Icuaca 
8.W. of Pracor, alihcriticmilToribcDioantiuniwkicb lepualc BtfcnM Iran MoUaB. 
la tbn latlrr, the argeniiforoiu pkaa ii •ccompaakd bf bleadc^ in wkkti Ifce prsMwii 
oTOMbaluw te* brro obtrrfed. Thctc aincii, mad thotc or JoaehlaallMl akd oTMafvliib 

Anbh uounlly •! i i "rnrn tin imlil iiflii I. m I fl f .fffflm n.^llffljMiira 

tt ailvn. Thp ciiTl« sT Behraa, to i)i« S.W. BfPnpte, conlaiat aomo InconaMmUa 
niMi «f mercurf. Tk tastm part et the BomermtdRcbfata. whioh aepanM Bate- 
inia from Aiulhn and Moram, pretcnia lomt lainn on iu aanUMart tfo|Nh Thau tt 
ifce carinia« oT /glsa, in Morntia, and torn* othcrt uinatcd in Amlria, fiyiwet aan»- 
•Ur from 4X00 1* 0,400 marc* of iltrct. TW miaea of tbue t«a «iualri*a jield ate 
Mppir, and ia aafanil tha ooppar ore* an ar^cntUorouji. Murni iu mmpceticad* tr«- 
ttal irao irorlu, which ar« in pMl *iipplM hj Magnnic Inw mm aaAlogoi** to tboa* 

The noctlwaat alopc of the Rioengcfiinre (ciaal numnlaiai). whkh acpanw BohWi»i 
Don SUem, pceienti nlio Mitta] exploraiiou. Tbe argtalilaroai topper mwea «f 
JMoblMr. and of Wnp/iritrg, htre been iraitd ni pradactaB aumiJlr a conaMctaUe 
•DBotilT of eopppr, and fftnn AW 10 TDD natci of *ili-er: a* alao tka eotah wne if 
Harla-anaa Qiirrh*rV, Ibo wh^ In Ik* elrdc of Quarr ; aa^ iko minei of anaakal 
pjrilaa at Rriebmftein, in tlw tMs flf OlaU. A mia* «f chrraoptBM axlrta !■ Ika 
nouMain of Kosaanilz. 

Mixn or nnt coras or nuxcs. 

Th« ancimt formation*, prindpally graaiik, vbi«h eansUhiie ihe jronnd of >«TCnl 
dotwidnimt' of ihr cratrc nnd Kmlh M Fmncp, are hardly aof riehor in vipioratloai 
than ihi- ditiriEIH Rivntionnl at the end of the Black Form. Onlf (ome fawnJaNd 
ta'mrt >re 10 b« obMrvvd hciT, of which a t<it fbw pomaa aay Importance. Thaatal 
occur Inward Ike enMcro border of the maH M |vimtli*> Ibnaalioni, in a lowe diataft- 
Itfiicd bf a Ereat abnndsate of acbialoae roeka. 

At Viilefort and at Tkllu«,inlhedepiiitnient of the Li>zi<te, ami in «mepln«caa^ 
JaJnin?,MTmI veuaoraTtantiftranagalana an worked which liarmeihe fa*tMu4 
the (tmalie. Thrte mlnw, rnnarkablr at preienl tu Ac rcculaiitr of th«fr 4a ' ~ 
nnplnT HfiO taborvr*, and prodaoe an nnallj' about SStVOOIba.atviid. of lead,aBi 
maie* of lilm'. 

The cilf of VIenae, in DaaphinT, t< built on a hSI of pneiM tvinniied by the 
from IliF mnin body of the prunilhe fonnntions, nod in which veini of cakaa 
which UP cow ispcrfccllf mined. Other lead mina of leu importance etc ol 
at HI. JittttM-Afeli»-Moletlt, d^MTlaaent of the Loire, and at Jiaur, dtiiattment 
Rhone. 

Ai CheMTi a *fllac« titnateil 7 lenRitM noithwnrt of Ljenii than orear In a lal 
aehlil very alf*ii*a vrinsof cupreoiii pyrilrs.by no mcos* rich, bulwUeh have, n«i«r> 
tbeleaa, been worlied fueceBfittly during the larlcr paM of tie «ifAl«<M)i ccaKiir. aad 
't«Teralycar)of the im«CTit i at that period, thnewa* foaad inaaaaitatoae which ~~~^ 
Iba lawote *cbi>t, and which appcnn reftrriblc to the red loiidilcuie or the i 
MndaMne, a bed containing n iical <)uflniily of bine caibonnir of eoppfr end , ___ 
<tf eopper, tnihe warkint of which Ihc niinera have alnea dtreetcd Ibafr prlnelpal aitw- 
lion. There eiiiti at Suat-Sellc,! liMRUea tathtaontbaf ChMiy,adnioailaar«nf>pft 
pTnIa lUfe that of Cheny, which vai al on« lime worked, but ia bow atanditut atiB. 
At Romaofcacho. in the dcpattmcnl of Saone M Loin, a very ■tmniaBl depadlc of osite 
at mansanew ia ob*erved, apparently fortrun^ a mass in the granite, or pcahapi abore 
tt. The woritlnn are very IrrcgulHr. 

In the moontnln nf EcuutbMIc*, nrar Cnucbea, in lb* aamr depanment, aa ore oT 
Mlda of chrome hat beea occaiionnlly worked. 

Al Malboor, In the depoitment of the Loitre, a feeble vein of tulphnm of aatlBaay 
,b mined. 

TImtc are also in the e^nt^e of Ptnnee lomc ctploralionii of calma, aotinuMy, wad 
■aaagancae, which appear to be of too little iraiinctance la he noticed in detail. 

Sraio y«nn nco n tin ore wu dheoverod al Vaiibry, Ii leofniei N.N.W. cf LimaBC^ 
Al prcacnl, mmrebu arc mnkinii with a vitiw of diicovrrinR dtpoilu* of inch mafiil- 
tnd* at Id pay Ibe npenie of workinic it. 

• 
tuiEta nr rut uuktu or roantoAi. and rm Anjontnto njit* or bpaix. 

TheCarthatliUan*appt«rlo have worked tiaminei inthiipanof Ibapralarala. Ill* 
«id thai MM* rocanrly ninrd in PortunI in the enTirou «f Viaco, a p i ovbea ofBein, ai 



MINES. 



9oe 



• plM*tMlMB«rraMASto«it». Some VFiiuorit«Mmc»tUl«rTvilUeotct«dlB ITfl, 
uu Mant«-1(«T. in Lhp Mnlh of OttllicU. TUcy w«if liitlr two ^nrd* lluck, bhI «mi 
iMBMd !■ i^raaiu. Thu iirovinu pwn n to «1» ripposim oT imlphont of Anlimonj'. 
Bant aaalu^oos ore* are fg^nil in CMCUle nmi Ettnanaclnrn. I.<fid oiw» writ winked in 
dM Iwt (valu7 tun (at (rota Magadoam, on IW bank* or Ihc S>bor, In lhp ptotik* of 
"iSnit-bv-Muntv), nod near L^nantTB on the lank* td* the Rio-Prlaro. Mine* of pin*- 
kN« ot<<u neni MogBilouro. Thorv are oIm *ome iron aiinn In IhvMUiecounirr ne«r 
Fniiilrm uid Tomden»axarro. Thtf •apply the iraa-worfc* at Cliapa-innha. Tw» 
^ T«T axiMt ntnUitbrnent) of Ibe miat kind niil in Ihc Edremndura of Puitsi-ali 
llMaat in lh« dklrirt of Thomar, anil Ihe olhn in Uial of nfuiero dai VlnhoM: Umj 
•ce *ii|>|>lial by niaeaof nd oiidpofiron, litnaled on the frontien oT Itaii provinen and 
«f Btin< Om drpMiie DTiBirkMlmore oecun ni Counn in Porto^l. At Rio Tinio 
IB Sfain. an the froniicri oiT Porluvnl, there ii a copper mine which produer* aboat 
JSyObO lib*^ avotid. of thu metal )«i annum. The ore i* a copper p^riu*. TheBcmo- 
tauw in the vnriron* of Oporto preMnl everjirheTc indication* «r Ibe onucd' copper and 
Mhar melU* i and ti apiivntit that aJI ihiii put fS thr |wnin»iib< {■ in general rich in ■»■ 
WBe Ircuve*, but that Utc wwit of wood provenu theCr bting mined to advaabi^. 

Acnilw. cBany of the dppoiitea «hieli orlainnUy «i)led there OHUt b« in • greet men*- 
wn eibMUMd. ll WW in' Ihme coonirie* chiefly thnl Ihe ;old and tillrcr ndnc* ky, 
«Meh lb* Cithwiniint ami Robudi iroiked «ilh ao mucb advanlngc, and eoaMUd 
(■ to kMa ■ mnuier. Kcar Loria (the aDcieni Kamimlium), Aiajala, and BnrfNi, 
■■wiMiiiabh vcatifet of the ancir itl vorkiop may lUll be lecn. 

MINK!! or IKITAJIXT. 

ntii*nn<r hu hardly ■ better ibiuv in mineral vcatib than the countri«( wo bate iml 
|.i >>cw. Time ciial in it at thU mMneal only tm important etploitatioiui 

u - lead minri uf Pau\l»oiua and lladgoal, uloatcd near Carbaii. The mine 

«l Its, ,...,1, frlrtiTalol lut Iba plonb-Eumme ^hydto-alnniltintc) ditcorered in it, ii 
ofKnnJ on n triii iif gilvno, which tnir«nr« Iranijllon ruekr. Th« wotklnp haveiab- 
Mttrd ioralioKt ihirccenluiiet.nod haie atloineil loadopthofSSfl yatdi- Thenintf 
IJmIUoiicii. mUr] Ihe New Mine, vtni diicoT-Tcd in 1741. It «u ^vnfiil and my 
nek aear the larfate i bat ll bci^ame iiibiliviilnl nnd impmrerisbed with ll« depth, nolwilk- 
■taadiag whkli Ibe wockibgi hate bctu >uok lo upwani of 180 yonl* Mow the ««r- 
(•f. In thncMinei there ore fine tiydiaulie michiim for the di alnagvofthc wilcr*, willi 
wheel* f(o«B II lo lii yanU ia diajuvtvr i and wutfi-jirraiute nnchineihiive been reccDtty 
eoiMtruriBd. The mine* employ more tkan 9D0 workmen, and rarniibannaally morcUias 
I JOO.OOO lb*, avniril. of lead, iirtrral thoamad pound* of copper, and 2,000 mare*, of 
1,034 lb<. aioiiJ. of Hlvcr. Tbcic arc Ihe mul imporUat lacuUic mlnn of Knnce. 
Setml vriai of gali-na riiii at OiaSiUtdm, near Saml-Briex, hnt they vc nol worked 
■I pntrat. There n aUo odc at Pompcnn, near Reanei, whicli boi been worked lo a 
d«Mk of lli>;>iili, but i* In like mumcr now abaadonnl. It aflbid*, besides Ike 
(uea*. a trry Uruequoaliiy of bI('Jide{iR!phufetorxtne),ofwhich>tlempt*arcinakiQf 
10 take adianuiite. That occur*, at*i>, n lenil mine nl Pii'iTcville, deportment of ik* 
Ckanoel, lo a fLiroiation connectnl with thr -i; itr-io of Brllnnnj. It li opened on a vela 
■Ueb tiriTeiiei a limnlonc pretty nnntououji lo ihnt of Derbytblfe. The *a»e dcpart- 
■cU pceM-nti a depoiltc of tulpliuret of meccuiy at Mi'nildot. A fvw year* ato, ume 
lia ore w*> illtcoreicd at Pyrioe, near Guirande, in tlic dcpaitment oflhe Loire lalSn- 
Ml, bill the rcMarebe* alncc mun to And workable depotile* hnvc been nnioetenih]. 
A mine of antimony wa» worked at Iji Ram^c,iIcuailinentofLa VendJe. Several of the 
cml deiwiJin lately mindl ta the departmcni«ofI.a«aj|he, La Mayenae,andUajenA»> 
C|'l>iire, ou;ht probably lo be logatiUd a» more ancient Ihan the genuine OM]tneaMc«, 
Tail* of the ptodoelioa <d' the Freacb mine*, during Ihe jtmt 1832.* 



^KtMolKInr- 


KonAtrol 

nlDH' 


EUaiit of 
(BrtUa 


Kuoibu sf 1 Pndncllcn H la 
WDitnrtn. lOUu ol • Wa. 


vaiBtofttM 1 

nutapnulact 1 

Intmnt* 1 


AntitDMiy 
C*pP« ■ • 

llMifa»e*e 

am 

t^ad and iiWer 


l« 

« 
131 

8 

1 

33 

1 


KihaLHrrij 
93^M 

«74,IS 

l-OS 1,391 

10,11 
049 

i\4A3 
MO 


IM 

298 

8017 
W 

law 




Heli«l anilai, 

i-OM;n 
Black topper 

i-na 

BMlftQ OTQ 

IS-SfliffiK} 
M«7 

8-W» 


71-235,75 ' 
24T.680 
S,«30-8D6,BI 
C(l'»19.»l 

lu-ui 



Tm.il 



• i^iMbt Ai MSmu. Ion *.. ISM, f KfX 
14 



IM 



IUNG8L 



Tbtwtw fwimiliiwitiiJi«i*iiwetiM«r»«tt— t«J. >, to Cw»a—< Dc witli B, 
4, !■ CwDbnkad, WcMmrIuiI, Hi tteMutli nf Tunr^irr. ■niihi lili iCVm. 

Cttrnwall kad Oct o— hire ftcatM th/ce plMCipal Bukia( JMtktt; tU-, (fa« p«Ml 
i/ (Joruwill uiuiot in IW ■atifooi uul iLW. oT Tntra, Ur MviraM of £i. JMik, 
Md th< ra>W«iu of Tatlawdi. 

The ttM of IhMe dulrku ii tbF MOM inrotUMt of Ike tkm ia the ■■abcr u4 riciMM 
d/iU*inaiof ooppn-.tiBiUdlral. IV am of oivpcr.wluckcawiMataaMCMir^ 
cf nipper rT'itrina^CTW— — IpfcwWaf eBpfg,cwM«iWt«T«tTWnal*r raa* ni^ilag 
BMtti frmcB cul to wcM.cod ■ciariwaat befoailf uiaelM.alalcofatalca*«i>t boca. 
hkaae oaiorc, called fcflUi, aMi acMdlae* ia traiiiln. rtlrh fianii ftaflu laiiiw tatte 
BiUI* of tbc MiiM. The tin oetma piiaapaUf In nlw, wMck, Ufc* tbt vn«idii«^ 
in**n« ik« hilbu Bad ib« CfBkbo. TiMf ai«alMT«rToAr«din«t«iaaarljlninfMt w 
v«W.tntik«TlMT*a4tll'<maiiMliaatka,w dip, froin tkat of iha copper tobi, whkfc 
e«IUb«nacronaadioinnptllu*i,aadan(VMfqwqllTafii»oren«mll«inDatia«. Tkc 
tl» ore fonn* aba maoa, wfaleb appear MM nmallr atlaAciJ to tbc iriiu bj oae ol 
Ihalr pBCOU. LaMlf, h ii foaod In Hoalt reiiw wUch UiTcnc tJie gTsnitc, I'tinflpaUr 
Mw (he pai*l>*bHctkuncfc UDchcetbeUlaa. Cauia reiki pretasi Ike coptMtud 
ll» er<4 lotiMlmr ; a niiilBte wMck oonr* chirif near ibe polau a/ toWmclif «f Ibe 
two mrlnllK 11-iat. C«iatBDl>f«fanikh at e*c« both copper ■ml lin; bnttb«MoatiMtt 
fMnlucv in nt>t<l>lr ismiiiit; only e«c of tboic mrUU. The mott iaportaat rafipa 
BnM an lilaale'l arsr Redralh and CaBbomt aaow which naj be aoltd farncv* 
tutj iboK nUcd C^HtelUtltJ Mni; UmM Miuu. lAeUAMred. Dolculh, PoUImv 
Ite. T^ prin(it«l tin laioe* are ntaaied *tffl Iknbcr in the (OMbwest, ntar HdMO^ 
Stlal-Tnca, fee. Thofe celled IToct Ver, Greet Heat, aic fanicelulT aoUccd. Tbere 
we erreToJ ailaci in Comwrnll of wbieb tbc etMahig *du wkfeh M enoe lsl«r«cct ead 
throw not ibcT«in» of copper and lia, eoelain anirattfetovi c«le*a aal *rverel ortaef 
ailrer. Tbrrr cxlMed formed)^ einr) or arcvntlfrroni leaJ aeoj Heleloa and Tnuea 
There nay be bow *eea near iSaint MkLscl an ore which, melted and cupelled on the 
rpot, yieMi rnNo an ontice and a hnlT lo two ouncei of tirer per qniniel- Near C>t- 
iloek ■ ulict Bine ii wnrfcnl, mllrd Hiul.Seial.ymerml, vbieh hu aflbrOed, it ti i^d, 
in toni<r nontlir, ftotn ftOU to 1 ,00O the. aeoird. of Ikai eictaL The orr, ronixMlaf tf 
bnnMilver and nntire silver, ii iroetrd on the rpol. 

ta the encironi of E«tnl Antlle, the eopper tniaci of Kati Cn'aew anil fFtti Ciiimii 
j t a niv eto be noticed, B> well oiine tin mne of Pol^ooth, opened on a tlateini and (he 
tnlst of Careloine, explored ia ihe open oir oa a Byiteai of imaO rein* of Ibw aieUl. 

Near Taviilork there nceiir muin of empprr. tin. and lend. Aioone the UH tatj hr 
renarhrd partlcoUrl^ ilmt colli-d llml Btlity, of which iho ore* tncltod and cnprlU 
M tbe tpol, alfont nn ounce aod n half «f ^Ivcr per rwt.; and (hat of Bt«rUilM| 
whoHoreii lent to Uriilol to be tmelled there. It jirld* fiom four lo flveovneww 
titver per ewl. 

Therpue mines c^ antimony ol I/vcZ-Jtoyi in Deivnthirc, and at Sillaib in Cornwall. 

Thf tin and copjff-rorei of Cornwall ■re aeeampanied with arsenical pyrile*.whkkii 
Innitil to ■onic aecouni b^ the fnbri<^niioD of wliile ■neoie (anenioiu aeU). 

Cornwitl and DeiDnihin pruduce' naaunllf nboitl ti,lfiO.<)00 Ibf. avoird. ef tini 
llt.700,000 Ihi, •v«IrI. uf <opp«r; pd 1,760,000 lb*, avolld. of lead. See Coma and 
Tin. 

The tin ii treated nt the niine lucalilieti but the copper ares ale arnt fa their antunl 
date lo 9wan>«o in South VTaloa, lo be tmelicd. 

Wood and labor beinir Tcey dear in Corawnll and Deronthire, the mineral Jepoiim 
oftheie eountie* oen not be worked ont to complelcl), nor can Ihe medumienl prcpar»' 
tion of Ihe ore be to Ihr pa»Iieil, at In (everal ulhrr part* ofthe world. Bnt ■U ibcof- 
ention* whleh appeor iilvBiiOiieDuinre ronduetrd in Ihe moil judieiou*, **«"< eeonoatloal, 
ud noet eipoditiou* ninner. STeam-eneine* ate erected there, some of them funm 
jilts the power of r'Teml hunilrrd hariei. Slnny ofthe mine* ore eiptored lo ndopl^J^ 
UliWanl of MO ynrli ; onrj sevetni ore eelebnitcd for Ihe boldD(» of Ibeir woril^^| 
The oae enlled BoMltak Mine, aitunted in Ihe pariib of Si. Jait, near Ihe ConflB 
tape, b opened nmid rocks irhlch form the stecout, and tnrciclici feTenl bandivl 
^nlt under the sea, nnd npw^rd of 200 ynrdg benmlh i» ItvU In witnc poinu ao 
fmoll > iliickaiwsorrock h^ihci-n 1i<f| lo -niTTiinrl iheweiiihl of the water*, Ihai tbonll- 
Ibr of pebbli-a on thfi hnilnin » diitinril; h-rnrl by minen durinc a alonn. llic bIm 
at Tluri'Vcrry, n«nr Penxnnce, w» worlcil by menu of a unete thaft opened oa thra 
Ma»t, ia • fpace teft dry by Ihe *t« only for n few hour* at every ebb. A small wvedtB 
tower was bnilt orcr the monlh ef the shikA, whidi, being cnrefaHy calked, kept OM 



I 



I 



HDOS. 



S11 



&«««Mraof tiM Ponawb«nliialideroM%€sdHrr«dlo»appon thvmaidiineilbminiu 
A* 0IW utd Jninacf. A TeuH driirn Iqr a itann ovvnariMil it during ilw nl^t, and 
pal • fttioi 10 Ihii hiMfdou* mode at mintnit. which ba* not bfta ranncd. 

Tht ■oat oHiaiileiiiy p BinM at Ircinail an thai' nrCronehanc and Tingnmjr, and of 
flUlfflMutigk, tilnlol three Initun S.W.or Wicklow. in Ihr tounljof Iho wnc niuno. 
Thar oli«cl bin work the copper p)triln,Kccnniiinnii!<l with aemr aiberoroaof co|iprr, 
[■liiii. (uJphiiirel oTBalMnoDT, u v«il u piriin of iron, which fbmi* iwrral lliitininl 
MHMi to Ite eUf -aliitc. Ptctlr ciieniiTc vorkiniii have beta uwlp bore i and the on 
WM tmNipurted is lis Balnnil ainic to Swnufca. Vrin* or muiM* of copper n''"'**i'l 
(iIma uc nined liiia»t olherpoinU aflbe ■nithcwl of Ireland, hnl DOOforilirra wiib 
UV BOlabto ndTiiniai*. T%e|uiiKi(iiitii ibe lead mine tiitBtied in (he cannlj ofTipiienrTi 
Mar Ika vUUxr enl]odSilT«rHiiM>,*)>>nnll> rnoach, bocauie, lbo«ithtilTervM*austit 
Jbt ia Ibe lead, sone m» UtmcWd. Many iion minr* an<ieQlt]r rained in Ireland, HI 
dM ilnlnKlkin of the fbreali bin contidnaldf diininirlird llietr nimibcr and aeilrity, to 
dMt onl) • Tew t*aaia an Rilhennj, Wicklow, and Queen'i Counlf. 

Tbs ilk of AoKlneT ■■ cclebralMl for it* oopper minei, the pdacipal of whirh an 
Maaa-«]MaMdFarT>'i°o^>l>in. The<u«i*acDpp«r|>]'rtt«a,Mniietiiiie«arconiiidTrahl« 
«*lMO«.lTte« la iiHHKsiiiarDmalionroataiuneseqtentiiiMnnddtircimit lalcowtnekf. 
For a iaat tUM the frutldog* were earrird on in ihc upen au, bni Ibe exlwior explarv 
lto« baa b«m ihoefar campromiied. The neiRhboiinc coatt* of WniM present *onw 
niuM of the Mme natnrv. All the ore* arc treated in a amcllJDit-lioutr rnlnbtisbrd in 
Ik* kl* af A^Uean* 'I'he fonaaiMin id' fJato^lay and mrwacke, which coniiiiutei the 
Mm l U part of WaWi and kuno «f tbe adJoininH diotncu of EniUnd, inclndn levnral 
■ad nunOiOfwUdiweABllprDXTntlT neab innolioinslhoae nf ArfmlerimportaM* 
■MMhicil in the more reccat liaeataao rornialiona of the nme rr^fieni. 

Pretir laporiant laiiie* of copper pjritei and tvd bemntiiic :r»n are workrd in 
WaMworriand, aad in ihc nin^bornf partt oT Cunberlnnd and I^nrashire. The 
enpfiW otfea, aaJ a port ion ol'ihr jroa oD«,nre em barked for Swaniea. Thcrcai of the 
bni on it mutid on the iiwl la bbvi fiimai^ei laiiptitd with wood charcoal. The 
ial« «t Haa aJTordit indicaliuni of lead, copper, and inn, in the mountalna of Snafle, 
vMak aWMllnila lU onnlir. At Borrowilale >n Wain»anlaad, a mine of nanhiic 
<plM*BCO> baa been worked for a long period. It fanlahea (be block wS or the 
Ba(Iiib tcndl*, to cdtbraUd over llie worU. TliemiDenloecim lanoM ina ioImm 
fariMlloo. 

There or* &moiii leulDaineaio Ihc aoQih of Scotland, at I.«ndliill9 in Liuiarkahite ) 
tb« tHm of which art incSMd in gTejvichr. Soime mangane*!- hat alto hcea bnnil. 
At C'alli, in Kiikcudbriithlihirc, a copper mine hu been latHr dnroTtreil i and a mne 
af antiBon; fau been known fut aotor tine nt Wr^l Ktf k in DnaifHeishire i bat aeitbo' 
ha* been tiuned to irood acoMial. 

la Ike niiddle pan of Scotland, tke lt«d mltMa of Slrentiin in Arcf labirc dnmrc lo 
he notienl, oppoiite lo the norlheasi anitle of the iale of Moll. Tbof are opcn^ on 
•liM which uanne enciu. Acconliai-lo Mr. John Tajlor, lhe>e mineaoad iboteof 
LmdhlO* produce annunllT &,CIO.IH)0 Iba. mroird. ef lead. 

Eiploratioat of manganoe wen- bcinin ni Graniowv an the banli«of the Don, amor 
which lUte lata the German ocean nt Aberdeen. A mine of coarap rraphile bo* alM 
laen woriial el Huallnv 

A CDppev mine wai iliMortrrd tome jcan back in one of the Shetload Um i ud 
ejiTiron m now exiaauvolr worked ihcra i« atrrpaatlna and talb 

Mm* or TRB kohtk or ivbaik 

^b«« Blaeaue til gated for the mo** patt in the nulbof Nurwnj.towajil the middle 
_T9«c4eB, and Is Ibc aoalb of Finland, a little way from the iJiertett tine drawn ftou 
Ae lake Oiieita to 1^ oouthwen anulr ofN'orimr. A fFwrnina occur iathe northen 
dbirirti of Konra}- aad Gwtdcn. The mnia product* of iheM icvcral mioea are in»i 
r onil t(]*er. 
irnn mine* of leeway lie on ibeeouta ofihe ftulf of ChiiiilBnia, and on tliewde 
laeine Jatlaad, ■rincitallT at An-nilal, at Kragonw, aad the at^hborbood. Tbe area 
MBlte almoalaiuclTofldackoiidrofirun.whichroiiDilMdior T«in* of from 4 lo lH>ff«l 
(bU, Ineaatd ia eneias, which ir scc«ii>i>ani<-d wltbppwi{ine(aui>ilr},ei>idoIe*.fanieia, 
ft*. Tbrtr iroa or« me teducol In a tttMomaj laetllnK folfr*, •iluntrdon Iheaama 
MmU, and paitieuladf ia ibc coiialj of Lottrwiit. Tlteiranaaal product ii aboal Hi) 
rtWif*'* of pouadt aiMid. of iron, ia tha (arm of coat iron, bar iron, *hccl Iroa, aaUii 
4r.i of whtcb ear half la cipceied. 

Jtnmj paaMOMo neb capper Biaco, aooe et which lie lowoid IW •onlfc aad the 
N^ivirflbawuatri, but Itc ■eai eomideraMe octar in Ibo iwftb. at Qatfctac, L»ktm, 
■AK.aB4JlatMt,BcaiI>imtb«lm. ThcaifaearRotmaa, IdmilMhnnfinMHkaBi* 



I 



m MINES. 

Um &E. oTthu aty, u av«*ed m a Terr coMidcnUe iddb «( coppo nriuat uil hu 
bew «wk«l in Un qjws ait bqcc tliOI. Il kaa piwnJ imio llw MUkM fniBi Ihu 
lime, till 1191, ;t million* or >«iuiiI> oiMrd. ctKofpa. In 180&,iUa«n«nl{iriMliiettaa 
»M S>1J,60U lilif. I while all Ike otbct oiuc of AonriT lecelfccr iu »at fiuniiti iinlle 
an* tamilh o( Itiai nmimnt. 

Kocwii) cuiu;>r*litait alto Mine cplvbratnl (ilict mine*. Thcj arc litualcil Aon It 
WS9 lMsw>Ii.W.tif ChrHlimiiu, ia n oiauiilaiuaiih tuuniryiwaf ihccltjof K«Dab«rf, 
vUoli OWM (« Uicin 111 |>a|itibliuii. Thai Jurovco S""* back ki lt>r jtv 162), OMd 
tbeii eliJMIi an- v«iii> ul'cuibonuiv oriiMr, accoinpDU«il with ubcUM and oiker Mh- 
tUn^fi in which imlivF lilrrr occiu*. uninlhr in imaU tkrMdt w nrlwocfc*, anil ■ome- 
tiatain coruulnnbk iim>t«, nloDit wiibiulpbunTtorailtCT. TkMe veins an rrrTMi- 
meniiu, aui ran t)in>a|;h a TOOiidcnhlF t'ptre, dividnl inio four diiuins (arrondtMr- 
■unit*), each of which conuuniinorc than ti dblinci c3|4aiilionj. When a ncwBUDcIt 
0|wn*d, an ucav«lii>D in \bt opftn ur >• trtt inadr, wUch ciubrncn icTenl *(iiH, bb4 
Ibcj ibcn |>ni«rcu|i.' ti) tqtiumnmi wcirLUgtoaljtbMalbalajiprartobcofcoBaeqM-nt*. 
The workioKa do buI txeixil l,(HJO ik«t in iltpth. V^tt h nopbifd for aiUcbinK iht 
<nt. In I7S3, Ibc furiDBlioa of a ni-wcaUcrycf efflux WBiconitneDMil,«lMti*«dlotvaT« 

■ Iraph of lOJjOO jnnli. anil lo ran eo^HU. Th«M mins, alnce Ihcif diKorsy (il) 
179%, hive aOflrded a qsaality oTiilrM cqninileot lo C>nr mllUana ef pounili (lulinc- 
Tkejeiu IT6S wuibeoHMprodiieiivc.hiiviuc ricldcd$S,OO0marciof niver. Aii>rt«- 
Cflt tbcr ^ic bul a very dcndci icium ; in 1804 Ihcjr wan Uirc*lc«cd vilb a osMplvn 
■baadonBienL The arc it Utouil bf fiulan; ibe leadDccnnr; forthiiopciaiiOBMM 
(infoflcd IVoni Eagluid. There arc, bowrircr, trad uid tilTct minei In Ike eoanuj IK 
JarUlici;, tiDl Iher aro vpry tlendvrly woikcj. 

Al A.''JiiniJil,au leagnra N. of CIiTl»1iatiiB,«niiacitworktilofaurif«roat fTrftu^wtlb 

■ Tvrj laroiuiilemblv pnxlud. 

Cobalt nliaea caj be uotireil at Mudum or FawuiDi 8 )b*4[M* W. of Cbriitiaaia | thCf 
■n eilciifive. but DflilUp iIe[iUj. 

Lutl];, mphiic h ciplorpd at Englidal i and chrenite «f iron depouMi hare h«c* 
Mtiool in MUDcpoiBls of Norwof. 

Tbc iron> of Svrden enjoy ntncntnl rcputntioD, nnd (ona one oTihc tbief obj<xti«f 
ttt oonunrrre oflbat kin^idom. Frw caunlrlo, indcol, comhdnc >a uiaay vnluabU' >d- 
tanlnfirt loi ihi« t|i'i^'<'-*of "■anufuturo. Inclbaii*liblo<tcpo»itF*ol'ii«n ore tie fdaecd 
unid iinin'-n!>i' forntii afl'ircht!! (tad rtalnaus lrf««,wbote i;hArensl it probably the beri 
(or the rcducliun of iioD. Thi- diffirreni cniupi of iron minea and Ibrta term imtH 
diftricti of venliii and DaiiDniiDn in the midil of Ibeic dnolnte tcponi. 

The pmvinci- of \^\'nncUnd, indudini; Ihc uorih b«nk of the lake Wener, b o*e tt 
■he ficbcM of Sweden tu iron luint.i. The two moil impcntaot arc IhoicofNcodDUTCk, 
i iMguct N. ul' I'hllliiMadt, Buil theme tit Ptn'hvif:. S| leafnin K. from the laiae cilj. 
PhUipMndt It about M lavnci VT. t N.W. ttvm Slorkbolm. Both ininvii an opmri 
MTMU or beds of binck Midcof Iran »Ttn] y>nl« lblck,>llr«clfil from K. to In !■ ■ 
(raiind MBipmvd of honibkndi^, talnnp, and icnnitir lockn. TbrM maaae* arc aeirty 
vertical) uul are nplortil in llir oiica air to a drplh of 130 ^rdi. Fonueily thii ei> 
ploilstion wiu ('ITected by iron wrdica and picknira i but Lbey bare been mimntded by 
aonpowder, lince I6&0. The province of WrriDtlnnd. and Ibal of t>Bbl vhl«h ajjoiM 
11, lorming the imi border of the M'tncr Inke, coaluDcd Ja ITST, 48 MnellkK ttmtt, 
•Ub Rolng ttom 4 to fi monlhi eTerv year. 

Tbv priodpnl iron rainra of Roulngic (pari of the province of Upland) uc UioM af 
JJaanemora, (ilnaleil 1 1 leajtu** l^o<" t'lunl. Tbey *lBiid la ibc ttni innk of Uiom of 
SvedcD, nod even of Kiirepe. Th« maMM worked opan ar« flallnii-il and itrlica^ 
roDoing from N.E. in S.W., anil »tv inruul in a (Toaad Ibrmud of primiliT* rodfit 
■monK which fnciif,pttronlex and tranilFiin.- moat conapienoiu. Tbey amonst lolhrc« 
In nuoibFr, very dUlinec, and pa