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Dictionary of the Bible 





Dictionary of the Bible 









A. B. DAVIDSON, D.D., LL.D. S. R DRIVER, D.D., Lirr.D. 

PBonsBOR or Hebrew, hew cOLLcaE, edimbuhoh hkoics pbofxssob of iizbrew, oxroso 

H. B. SWETE, D.D., Lrrr.D. 




Edinburgh: T. & T. CLARK, 38 George Street 

New York: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157 Fifth Avenue 


V. ; 



First Impression . . . FeJiruary 1898. 

Second Impkession . . . May 1898. 

Third Impression . . . Airril 1900. 

Fourth Iuprbssion . . . December 1901. 

[TA* Rights of Translation and of BeproduHhn arc Reserved.} 




' GiVB heod to . . , teaching/ Perhaps the Church of Christ has never given 
sufficient heed to teaching since the earliest and happiest days. In our own day 
the importance of teaching, or, as we aometimes call it, expository preaching, has 
been pressed home through causes that are various yet never accidental ; and it is 
probable that in the near future more heed will be given by the Church to teachiag 
than has ever been given before. 

As a contribution towards the furnishing of the Church for that great work, 
this Dictionary of the Bible is published. It is a Dictionary of the Old and New 
Testaments, together with the Old Testament Apocrypha, according to the Authorized 
and Revised English Versions, and with constant reference to the original tongues. 
Every effort has been used to make the information it contains reasonably full, 
trustworthy, and accessible. 

As to fulness. In a Dictionary of the Bible one expects that the words 
occxuring in the Bible, and which do not explain themselves, will receive some 
explanation. The present Dictionary more nearly meets that expectation than any 
Dictionary that has hitherto been published. Articles have been written on the 
names of all Persons and Places, on the Antiquities and Archaeology of the Bible, 
on its Ethnology, Geology, and Natural History, on Biblical Theology and Ethic, and 
even on the obsolete or archaic words ocourring in the English Versions. The 
greater number of the articles are of small compass, for care has been exercised to 
exclude vague generalities as well aa unaccepted idiosyncrasies ; but there are many 
articles which deal with important and difficult subjects, and extend to considerable 
length. Such, for example, and to mention only one, is the article in the first 
volume on the Chronology of the New Testament. 

I Afl to trustworthiness. The names of the authors are appended to their articles, 

except where the article is very brief and of minor importance ; and these names are 
the best guarantee that the work may be relied on. So far as could be ascertained^ 

^ those authors were chosen for the various subjects who had made a special study of 

that subject, and might be able to speak with authority upon it Then, in addition 

' to the work of the Editor and his Assistant, every sheet has passed through the 

I hands of the three distinguished scholars whose names are found on the title-page. 

Tliese scholars are not responsible for errors of any kind, if such should be dis- 
1 vU 





Dictionary of the Bible 


Rev. Walter F. Adeney, M:.A., Professor of 
New Test&ment Exegesis in tlig New College, 

Ven. A. S. Aolen, M.A., D.B., Archdeacon of 
St. Andrews. 

Rev. WiLLOCQHBr G. Allen, M.A., Chaplain, 
Fellow, and Lecturer in Theology and Heorew, 
Exeter College, Oxford. 

Rev. John S. Banks, Professor of Systematic 
Theology in the Headingley College, Leeds. 

Rev. W. Emery Barnes, M.A., D.D., Fellow of 
Peterhonse, Camhridge. 

Jahes Vernon Bartlet, M.A., Lecturer in 
Chorch History, Maoslield College, Oxford. 

Rev. L. W. Batten, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of 
Hehrew, Protestant Episcopal Divinity School, 

Rev. Willis Judson Beecher, D.D., Professor 
of Hebrew Language and Literature in Auburn 
Theological Seminary, N.Y. 

Rev. Joseph Agar Beet, D.D., Professor of 
Systematic Theology in the Richmond Theo- 
logical College. 

P. V. M. Benf-Cke, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Rev. William Henry Bennett, M.A., Professor 
of Old Testament Exegesis in Hackney and 
New Colleges, London ; sometime Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Rev. Edward Russell Bernard, M.A., Chan- 
cellor and Canon of Salisbury ; formerly Fellow 
of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Rev. John Henry Bernard, D.D., Fellow of 
Trinity College, and Archbishop King's 
Lecturer in Divinity in the University of 

Rev. J. F. Bethune- Baker, M.A., Fellow and 
Dean of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

Frederick J. Bliss, B.A., Ph.D., of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund in Jerusalem. 

Rev. Robert Masson Boyd, M.A., Glenbervie, 

Rev. Francis Brown, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Hebrew and Cognate Languages in Union 
Theological Seminary, New YorK. 

Rev. W. Adams Brown, M.A., D.D., Professor 
of Systematic Theology in Union Theological 
Semmary, New York. 

F. Crawford Bubkitt, M.A., Trinity College, 

Rev. Charles Fox Bitrney, M.A., Lecturer in 
Helnrew, and Fellow of St. John Baptist's Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

Rev. Winfrid 0. Burrows, M.A., Principal of 
Leeds Clergy School. 

Rev. George G. Cameron, M.A., D.D., Professor 

of Hebrew in the Free Church College, 

The late Rev. James S. Candlish, M.A., D.D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology in the Free 

Church College, Gla^;ow. 

Rev. William Carslaw, M.A., M.D., of the 
Lebanon Schools, Beyrout, Syria. 

Rev. Arthur Thomas Chapman, M.A., Fellow, 
Tutor, and Hebrew I^ecturer, Enimanud 
College, Cambridge. 

Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Biblical Greek in the University of 

Rev. Frederic Henry Chase, M.A., D.D., 
Fellow and Lecturer in Theology, Christ's 
College, and Principal of the Clergy School, 

Lieut. -Col. Claude Regnieb Conder, R.E., 
LL.D., M.R.A.S. 

Fred. C. Conybeare, M.A., late Fellow of Uni- 
versity College, Oxford. 

Rev. G. A. Cooke, M.A., Rector of Beacons- 
field, Bucks, and late Fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford. 

Rev. Henry Cowan, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Church History in the University of Aberdeen. 

W. E. Cbum, M,A., of the Egypt Exploration 

Rev. Edward Lewis Curtis, Ph.D., D.D., 
Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature 
in the Divinity Schools, New Haven. 

Rev. Andrew Bruce Davidson, D.D., LL.D., 
Professor of Hebrew in the New College, 

Rev. T. WiTTON Davies, B.A., Ph.D., M.R.A.S., 
Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament 
Literature in the Baptist College, Bangor, and 
Lecturer in Semitic Languages in University 
College, Bangor. 

Rev. W. T. Davison, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Old Testament Exegesis in the Handswurtli 
Theological College, Birniingham. 




Kev. JAtSRA Desnrv, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Syfltematio Theology in the Free Church 
College, Glasgow. 

Eor. WiujAM P. Dickson. D.D., LL.D.. Emehtas 
Profes&or of Divinity in tho University of 

Kev. Sahckl Hollks Driver, D.D., Litt.D., 
Cnnon of Christ Church, and Kcgins ProfesBOr 
of Hetirow in tlm Univenfily uf Oxford. 

Rev. WcLiAM K. Eddt, of the American Misaion, 

Siiiun, Syria. 

Kev. William Ewinu, M.A., Glasgow, for- 
merly of Tiberiaii. Pftlestinc. 

Kev. Geohge Fkbriks, M.A., D.D., Cluny, Abcr- 


Kev. Alfrkh Ernest Garvik, M..\., It.D., Mon- 
troHe ; Exariiinor in Biblical Lnnfiuogua in the 
Con^Te^^ational Hall, Edinbnrgh. 

Rev. SVDXEV C. Gavporu, M.A., Ext't«r College, 

Rev. John Gidb. M.A., D.D., Pnifcssor of New 
Testament Exegesis in the Presbyterian Col- 
lege, London. 

G. BrcHANAN Gray, M.A, Lecturer in ManaHcId 
College, Oxford. 

Rev. AuEXAXDKR Grieve, M.A., Pli,D., Furfar. 

Feakcis Llewellyn Grifkith, M.A., F.S.A., 
of the Drilish Mut^cum : Sutierint«odentof the 
ArchiEological Survey of the Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund. 

Rev. Hl.nky Melvill Gwatkik. M.A., D.D.. 

Fellow of Emmanuel College, and Dixie Pro- 
fcfttwr of Eccleftlafieii'al Hliitory in the University 
of Cnmbridge. 

Rev. S. T. GwiLMAM, F.R.G.S.. Hampton Poyle 

Rectory. Reivdin;^. 

Rev. Eomx Elmrr Hardino. M.A., Princitialof 
Saint Aidnu's Theological College, Rirketmeod. 

Rev. G. UARFORD-BATTEiLSBy, M.A., Balliol 
Collegu, Oxford ; Vicar of Moiulsy Hill, 

J, Rendel Harris, M.A., Litt.D.. Fellow and 
Lilirwian of Clare College, and Lecturer 
in Palaeography in the University of Cam- 

Rov. ARTHtTR Gavlev Headlam, M.A., ll.D.. 
Rector of "Welwyii, HertH ; formerly Follow 
of All Souls College, Oxford. 

Rev. Archibald nENDESsox, M..A,., D.D,. 

E. M. Uor.MES, F.L.S.. Curator of the Museum of 
tho Phanuaoeutical Society of Great Britain. 

Khitz Homhel, Ph.D.. LL.D., Ord, Professor of 
Beiiutit: Languages in tlm Univerxity of 

EDWAitD Uui.L, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 
lat*i Direetor of the Geological Survey of 
Ireland, and ProicBsor of Geology in the l(oyal 
College of .Science, Dublin. 

Montague Rhodes James. M.A., LitLD., 
Fellow aud Dean of King'» College, and 
Director of the Fitzwilliam MuBuuni, Cam- 

Frank Byron Jevons, M..\., LitLD., Principal 
of Biahup Uatlifld'it Hall, Durham. 

Rev. .\RCUiiiALD U. S. Kknnf.dy, M.A., D.D., 
Professor of Hebrew and >femilic Ixutguages 
in the UniverBity of Edinburgh. 

Rev. James Houohton Kennedy, .M.A., D.D., 
Assistant Lecturer in the Divinity School of 
Dublin University. 

Rev. Thomas B. Kilp/trick, M.A., D.D.. Pro- 
fessor of Theology, Manitoba College, Winni- 
peg, Canada. 

Rev. John LAroLAW, M.A, D.D., Profewor of 

HvMtiMuatie Theology in t-ho New College, 

Rev. Walter I^ck, M.A., D.D.. Warden of 
Kehle (.'Ollcge, and Dean Ireland's Professor 
of New Te.stament ExegoHis in the Univer»ity 
of Oxford. 

Alexander iLvCALisxER. LL.D., M.D., F.R.S.. 
F.S.A., Fellow of St. John's College, and 
Profeasor of Anatomy in the University of 

Rev. J. A. M'Clymont, M.A., n.D., Aberdeen. 

Rev. GfiOBQE M. Mackie. M.A., Chaplain to the 
Church of Scotland at B«yrout. Syria. 

Rev. John MAcniKR.'io.N, M.A., Findbom, 

Rev. D. S. Mahoolioitth, M.A., Fellow of New 
College, and Laudian ProfeMor of Arabic in 
the University of Oxford. 

Rev. John Turner Maksuall, M.A,, Principal 
of the Baptist College, Mandiepter. 

Jon.v Massie, M.A., Yates Professor of New 
Testament Exegesis in Mamtlield College, 
Oxford ; formerly Scholar of SL John's Col* 
legtt, Cambridge. 


Emeritus Professor of King's College, London, 
and Hon. Fellow of SU John's College, Cam* 

Rev. Selah Merrill, D.D., LL.D,, U.S. Consul 
at Jerusalem. 

Uev. jAME.'t Millar, M.A., B.D., New ('uinnock. 

Rev. George, M.A., B.D., Caputh, 

Rev. William Morqas. M.A, Tarbolton. 

Kev. R. Waijdy Moss, Profcf^sor of Classics in the 
Didnbury College. Manchester. 

Rev. William Huir, M.A.. B.D., B.L., Blair- 

Rev. J. O- K. Murray, M.A, Fellow of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge. 

John L. Myres, M.A., Student of Cbrtat Church, 

Rev. Thomas Nicol, M.A., D,D., Professor of 
Biblical Criticism in the Univonuty of Aber- 

Rev. James Orr, M.A.. D.D., Professor of Church 
History in the Uuitcd Presbyterian Hall, 

John Wauoii Paterson, B.Sc, Pb.D., Lecturer 
on A(;ricultural Chemistry in tlie Glasgow 
and West of Scotland Technical College. 

Rev. WiLLUM P. Patrksom, M.A., D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Systematic Theology in the Uui- 
Tcrsity of Alwrdeen. 

Rev. JamesPathick, M. A., B.D., B.Sc., Examiner 
for Degrees in Divinity in the University of 
St. Andrews. 

Rev. John Patrick, M.A.. D.D., l*rofes»or of 

Biblinil ('riticism and Biblical Antiijuitien in 
the University of Edinburgh. 



Arthur S. Peake, M.A., Professor in the Primi- 
tive Methodist College, Manchester, and 
Leotnrer in Lancashire Independent College ; 
sometime Fellow of Merton and Lecturer in 
Mansfield College, Oxford. 

W. FUNDKES Petrie, M.A., D.C.L., Professor of 
Egyptology in University College, London. 

Ber. George M. Philps, M.A., B.I>., Glasgow. 

L A. Pinches, Sippar House, London. 

Theophilus Goldridgb Pinches, M.B.A.S., of 
the E^ptian and Assyrian Department in the 
British Mosenm. 

Sev. Alpred Pluuuer, M.A., D.D., Master of 
University College, Durham. 

Rev. Frank C. Porter, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Biblical Theology in Yale University, New 

Rev. Harvey Porter, B.A., Ph.D., Professor in 
the American College, Beyront, Syria. 

Rev. George Post, M.D., F.L.S., Professor in 
the American CoUege, Beyrout. 

Rev. John Poucher, M.A., D.D., Professor in 
De Pauw University, Ind. 

Ira M. Price, M.A., Ph.D., B.D., Associate 
Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
tures in the University of Chicago. 

Rev. C^*RiL Henry Prichard, M. A., late Classical 
Scholar of Magdalen College, Cambridge. 

Rev. George T. Pueves, D.D., LL.D., Professor 
of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 
in Princeton Theological Seminary, New 

William M. Ramsay, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 

Professor of Humanity in the University of 
Aberdeen, Honorary Fellow of Exeter and 
Lincoln Colleges, Oxford. 

Rev. Henry A. Redpath, M.A., Vicar of Spars- 
holt with Kingstone Lisle, Berks. 

The late Rev. Henry Robert Reynolds, D.D., 
Principal of Cheshunt College, Herts. 

Rev. Archibald Robertson, M.A.. D.D., Prin- 
cijml of King's CoHe^^o, London, late Fellow of 
Trinity College, Oxford, 

Rev. Forbes Robinson, M.A., Fellow, Chaplain, 
and Theological Lecturer in Christ's College, 

Rev. J. Armitage Robinson, M.A., Ph.D., D.D., 

Canon of Westminster. 

Rev. Herbert Edward Rylf, M.A., D.D., 
President of Queens' College, and Hutsean 
Professor of Divinity in the University of 

Rev. Stewart Dingwall Fordvce Salmond, 

M.A., D.D., F.E.I.S., Principal and Professor 
of Systematic Theology in the Free Church 
College, Aberdeen. 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, M.A., LL.D., 

Fellow of Queen's College, and Professor of 
Assyriology in the University of Oxford. 

Rev. Charles Anderson Scott, M.A., College 
Park, London. 

Rev. John A. Selbie, M.A., Maryculter, Kin- 

Rev. John Skinner, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in the 
Westminster College, Cambridge. 

Rev. George Adam Smith, M.A., D.D., LL.D., 
Professor of Hebrew in the Free Church 
College, Glasgow. 

Rev. Vincent Henry Stanton, M.A., D.D., 
Fellow of Trinity College, and Ely Professor 
of Divinity in the University of Cam- 

John F. Stenning, M.A., Fellow and Lecturer 
in Hebrew and Theology, Wadham College, 

Rev. Alexander Stewart, M.A., D.D., Prin- 
cipal of St. Mary's College, and Professor of 
Systematic Theology in the University of St. 

Rev. James Straghan, M.A., St. Fergus. 

Rev. Thomas B. Strong, B.D., Studentand Censor 
of Christ Church, Oxford, and Examining Chap- 
lain to the Bishop of Durham. 

Rev. Isaac Taylor, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D., Rector 
of Settrington and Canon of York. 

Rev. John Taylor, M.A., LittD., Vicar of 

Henry St. John Thackeray, M.A, Examiner 
in the Education Department, formerly 
Divinity Lecturer in Selwyn CoUege, Cam- 

Rev. G. W. Thatcher, M.A., B.D., Hebrew Tutor 
and Lecturer on Old Testament History and 
Literature in Manstield CoUege, Oxford. 

Rev. Joseph Henry Thayer, M.A., D.D., Litt.D., 
Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism 
and Interpretation in the Divinity School of 
Harvard University. 

Cuthbert Hamilton Turner, M.A, FeUow of 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Rev. George Walker, M.A, B.D., Aberdeen. 

Rev. Benjamin Breckinridge Warkield, D.D., 
LL.D., Professor of Systematic Theology in 
Princeton Theological Seminarj', New Jersey. 

Lieut.-General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B., F.R.S., Royal Engineers. 

Rev. Adam C. Welch, M.A., B.D., Helensburgh. 

The late Rev. HENRY Alcock White, M.A., Tutor 
in the University of Durham, and formerly 
Fellow of New CoUege, Oxford. 

Rev. Newport J. D.White, M.A, B.D., Librarian 

of Archbishop Marsli's Library, and Assistant 
Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew in the 
University of Dublin. 

Rev. Owen C. Whitehouse, M.A., Principal and 
Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Theology, 
Chesliunt College, Herts. 

Rev. A. LUKYN Williams, M.A., Vicar of Guilden 
Morden, late Tyrwhitt and Crosse Scholar of 
the University of Cambridge. 

Major-General Sir Charles William Wilson, 
R.E., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.C.L., LL.D., 

Rev. Francis Henry Woods, M.A, B.D., Vicar 
of Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks, and late Fellow 
and Theological Lecturer of St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

Rev. John Wortabet, M.A., M.D., Beyrout, 




A. — This Ict(«?r is uwhI in crUiral notes on 
Cbe text of OT and NT to denote the Codex 
AlexandriiiuH, n, MS of tho Greek Uiblo writt^in 
apiuiretitt^v in V-izyyt c. A.v. iu'J, placed in tlie 
inmiry ot the I'ntriarch of jVlcxandria in Ji/DS, 
prcHentfjd Ijy Cyril Lucnr, Vatriarcli of Con- 
fttanticopic (lormorly of AlexAndria), to CKart«« i. 
in 1028. and now in tlis UritUk Mm«ei)m. U ruii- 
Ullift the wludti I«i]>).! Bxrept Gn 14^*-" I5'*.»'» 
10**. 1 K [1 S] ]-2'*-I4'. Ps 49(50)>'-79(80)». Mt 
1>-26V Jii O'^-S'-', -2 Co 4"-12'. Tlio Psalter is mtro- 
dace<l by a lutter of Atlianaidos to Marct-'Uinus, 
the Hypotheses of Eu.t<?t)iijH, and various tallies; 
and ifi cuucliidcd by a collertton of Citnliules from 
OT and NT, ami a Christian Morning Hymn. 
Rer is followcit by two Epistles of Clement (wanv- 
injj l*^ 2"-*i, both ai.iwentjir still in eocleaiuticaJ 
utw at the tiiiiu u ben thia MS. vaa written. Lwt 
of all, Tnurki.><l an extra-caconioal, came eighteen 
PmIhis of Solomon ; but this part haa disappeared. 
Its ri'Hdin^-B in OT con be most readily atcer- 
taincd from I'rofessor Swete's edition of too LXX. 
Its NT text was publiahed by Woide in 178e, by 
K. 11. Cowper ill I860, and by E. 11. Hansell in a 
parallel U-st. iStW. The whole MS wna poblwhcd 
in Ajihoto^a^ptiic facsimtle by the Curators of the 
Britiah Muaemn in 1879. J. O. F. Mubrav. 

M [Aleph], tho fiivt letter in the Heb. alphabet. 
Thb symWl in crit, app. denotca the Codex 
Sinaiticus, n MS of tlie Greek Bible discovered in 
Uie monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai by 
C. Tiicficndorf, 1844 and 1859. It was written 
towards the middle or end of the 4th cent. 
Fonr icrihes at least were employed on it. The 
fcribe who copied Tobit and Judith wrote also Bix 
canctd leaves in the NT containing Mt 16*- 18" 
34»-2(r', Mk Ui^-Lk 1», 1 Tb *2'*-5», He 4'*-S\ 
beside* varions headlines, titlea^ Bubucriptions, 
and section numbers. Thin scribe Tischendorf 
further identilitH) with the writje who wrote tlie 
NT in CodtfX B, Vaticauus {whit-U soe). The MS 
fthowB mark» of re\i»ion dne to various handx from 
the 4th cent, to the 12U) runt. One of tliuae, k*, 
7tb cent., Jeclarcs in a nuto at the end of 3 Kd (Kzr- 
Nehl and at the end of Kst, that he ha<^l co7n]iaTed 
tho MS in the«e books Mith a veiy ancient copv 
tranMiribed by AntoninuB tho Confessor, and col- 
lated Arith Origen's Uexapla by the holy martyr 
Pamphilod when in prison at Cii-sarea. The cor> 
r«elions introduced by him in tbetra books, though 
VOL. L— : 

of an Origonir charnGter, certainly do not emltudy 
the complete ilexaplaric text. 

TbfTC seems to bo nu clear evidence to show 
either where the MS waa ^\'Titten, or boM' it passetl 
into the {Kwsetudon of the monks of St. Catherine. 
While in Uieir poesoit^ion it fell into dec-ay, and 
long ago the oatude BheetM were cut up for book- 
binilin;; pnrpoiwa; and TiMuhendorf wiu ronvinee<l 
that the nheeta he rescued in 1844 were only wait- 
ing their turn for use in the oven. It is not sur- 
prwinj^'. therefore, that the MS is now far from 
complete. It contains portions of Gn 23. 24 and of 
Nu 5. 0. 7 : 1 Ch V^-\^\ 2 Ea 9»-«'' [V.n y*-Nchl. 
Est, To, Jth, 1 Mac, 4 Mac (3 Mac jierhaps lost), 
ts, Jet, La 1-2*. J I, Ob, Jon, Nali, Hab, Zep)i, 
Haf:, Zee, Mai, Pa, Pr, Ec, Ca, Wis. Sir, Job. 
The NT ia complete, and La followed by tho Epistle 
of Ilamaboa aud part of tho Slioplierd of Hermaa. 

Tho text liaa been publislied m facsiniilo type — 
(1) in 1840, * Cod. Krid.-.^UK'.,' cunLaiuiiig tlte uheeLi 
of OT HBOured in 1844; (2) iit 1862, 'Coil. Sin.,' 
containing, hosides NT, the rest of OT, with the 
exception of a few verw-n Ipublished in an apmndix 
in I»*ii7). Tischendorf also pnblbtlied the Vl' C«xt 
in ft handy volume in 1803. The OT rcadinRs uv 
moot easily a(M3eiisible in Swete's edition of the 
LXX (Camliridge. 1887-95, cd. 2, 18ft»-ft>. 

J. O. V. MtniRAV. 

h. — A aymbol uaed in OT criticism by Dillmann 
to tucnifv tiie Priestly elements of tho Hex., moio 
usually known aa P. See Hexateuch. 

V, H. Woods. 

A is frequently nscd in AV, and somottmcs 
retained in KV,'in constructions that are now 
obiiolete. It is found both aa an adj. (or ludef. 
art.) and as a prep. 1. vl. as an adj., is a worn- 
down form of the Old EnglijiU mJj. an, 'one.' 
(1} In mtHleni Eng. a is used Imfore a con- 
sonantal sound, ftn before a vowel sound. In 
the En|^. VSS of llie Bible this usage is not 
invariaUe. See An. (2) A is found qualifying 
abstract nouns without nHectiug their moajimg : 
Wis 12»^ ' thou art of a full power ' (RV ' perfect m 

iiowor'); 12"* ' to be of a goml hope' (RV 'of good 
iop«'}; S Co lO* 'having in a remlinesa' |RV 
'being in readineHs'); 2 Mac 13" 'commanded 
thoT should bo in a reaiJineMi.' Ct. Guylforde, 
I''/i^ri/rnatff- 7 : ' alwaye in .i reilj'neHtie to not forth 
when they woU.' On the other hand it is Bomelimen 
omitted where it is required for individualising : 
Sir 39*^ 'at time convenient.' (3) In Lk 9^ 'about 



An t'it^ht (layH (KV about cif^lit dnys) vStex these 
BAVingH ' tlic art. in u»e6 as in ' a t:ooii many ' ; tto 
I Sine 4" ' therii npr*; slain of tbL-iii upon a three 
tlioiuMuid men' (UV ' about three thousand '). 

2. In other cxpre«mon« A is h. prep., being 
a ■vrom-dovm form of an or on, ami stsncJs (or 
the modern 'at,' 'in,' or *on.' 2 Ch 2'" 'three 
thousand and six hundred overscvni to net the 
people a work' jRV 'awork'); 1 Co 9' *who 
goeth a warfare (RV 'serreth') any time at his 
own cliarges*' Jth 7' 'horsemen . . . and other 
men tliat were afoot.' Most frequently with a 
verbal noun in 'ing' : 2Ch I if 'wherevriOi Baasha 
waM a hiilltlin^' (AV of Ifill, later cdd. 'was 
buildinc,' RV ' had builded ') : I Es 0* ' Being 
still a building, it in not yet fully ended ' i Lk 8** 
•She lay a dvin;;.' The full form on or on re- 
mained side by aide v>ith this wom-down form ; 
Ac la" 'David . . . foU on sleep' : Mt 4' *He 
waa afterward an hungored ' (RV ' He aftorward 
liunuerwl.' 'An hungered' oceura nJ&o Mt 12'- ■ 
25^n-«-« Mk 2«. Lk 0», and in all these places 
RV leaves it uudianged). 

LmDUTiitB.— Rvnldca the occeaary odd. of th? EiW' Bible, 
SkMtt, Et!/moL Kct. of (Ac Utt^f. Lang.t ; Uiimy awl ilruller, 
ihM. Did. on Uui. I'rincipln (cftUod the Oi^oHt Kng. /Ket.) : 
Whitney. Crnturv Vict.: Wriithl, BiU* Ward Boo»; Mlchle. 
Bible Wordf and thn4t* ; Mnj hrw, 5rbc( Gianarf ^ B\Ut 
ITmlf : Trrr>rJi, Srlrf.i. GltuMtrj/ ; boffetliar with the Ooncxird- 
BDOCt to 8liakcHt)«aiT, Uilton, rl'^ ; AOd tlic Clarendoti Preae 
&Dd Pitt Prcw dbl. ol l)t« Eng. Vi-orlu or tho perirxl 

J. llAsrnios. 

AARON (T^::«, LXX 'Aaptir).— In the narratives 
of tlie ExoduH, Aaron is, after Moses, the roost 
proruinuut ligure. Often appearing as the colleague 
or representative of the tjreal leader and lawpver, 
he IB in particular the. privxt, and the head of the 
IsraelitiKh priesthood. We nuiKt, however, dislin- 
guiah l>et\veen our different authorities tn the 
Pent., for in the priestly narrative Aaron not 
unnaturally oerupl*!8 a fiir more im]Kjrtaat place 
than in the earlier acconnt of J E. 

In (IK, AiU~on in first introiIua;d aH Mokcji' 
brother, and with tho title of the Levitt, in Ex 
4"J, where J", winding Mowji on liia niinHion to 
the Uraelik-s, appoints him, on account of hie 
Ituency in speech, to be the spolceRman of Moses to 
the people tw. "■'•). Aaron meets his brother in 
the mount of God ; together they return to K^^it 
and ansemblc the elders of the Iiiractites, before 
whom Aaron, instructed by Moses, delii'cra God's 
message and performs the appointed signs. The 
|i«cple believe ; but when >ia<U!fl and Aaron ro- 
t|uc8t Pharaoh to grant the pooj>le temiKirary 
leave of absence, the king refu-iie.'f to listen to them 
(Bx 4-6^), III the account of the plagut;-* Aaron 
occupies quite a Bulwrdinatc place, being the 
silent companion of his brother. It is Moacs who 
is sent to Pharaoh and announcca the coming 
plagues (Ex 7'*"- S**-""- i)''- ""f- [J mninlyj— with 
10* contrast 111" ' he turned ']. Aaron is merely 
called in four times along «ith Mo^es to entreat 
for ihuir r«ni«val {H'-^ y" iO'*). Indeed it seems 
probable that the meutlou of Aaron in thuMe 

Iia>tftages is due, not to the ori^nal narrative of J, 
>ut to the editor who eonibiii»d J and E ; for in 
eacJi ca»e Morc.s atone answers, and in his own 
name ; in 8** 9" 10'* his departure alone is men- 
tioned, while in 8" it is Moses alone who prays for 
the removal of the frogs. In tho history of the 
wanderings the fiftasageA relating to Aaron are for 
the most part derived from E, where indeed Miriam 
is described as tlte sister of Aaron (Ifi^). With 
Hur be assists Monies in hulditiL' up the rod of God 
to ensure the defeat of Anmlek (17>o-i3 {j;), ^nd 
together with tho eldern hi- in rHl)i_*d to Jutliro's 
sacrifice ( 18" E), At Sinai, wlnle priests and people 
remain below, Aanin nccompantes Moses up the 
mountain (19** J), together with Nftdal^ Abihu, 


and seventy elders of Israel (24"- ^") : anil when 
Moses with Joshua alone is about to approach 
stUI nearer to God, Aaron and Ilur are temporarilv 
appointed supreme judj;;e3 of the i)eople (24"- " 
£). Moses' absence bemg prolonged, Aaron, at 
the iieople'a request, makes a golden calf as a 
viKihle symbol of J", for which he afterwards 
weakly excuses himself to Moses, throwing tho 
bhini« u|K>n the ]M?-opl<« (32^-»- ""'"). At a later 
jieriod Aaron with Miriam opposej* Mosea, on the 
ground that tbi'y alwj are recipii-ntw of divine 
revelations, Miriam being apparently regarded as 
tho leader on this occasion, smce the punisluacnt 
falls upon her (Nu 12 E). Some further jmr- 
ticulars relating to Aaron arc to lie learnt from 
Dt, in passages an|MLrently based on the narra- 
tive of i?E i namely the intcrccKsion offered by 
Moses on his account after the making of the 
golden calf (Dt 0*) ; the choice of Levi ilb the. 
priestly tribe, probably in conKcqucni-e of tho zeal 
shown by them against the idolaters (!(>'»*■) ; the 
death of Aaron at Moserah (site unknown), and 
the aacceseion of his son Kleazar to the priestly 
office llO"-', tho itinerary probably from E, cf. Nu 
o[iaf. i«. uff.) ii'jip ijLftt, |»jissjige is iniiwrtnnt as 
showing that tho trailition uf a lieroditary priest- 
hood in the family of Aaron was found even 
outride the priestly history-. Cump. Jos 24" E, 
where mention is made of Pbinehos, the son of 
Eleazar the son of Aaron. 

It i», however, in the priestly tradition, where 
the inatitution of the ordinances of divine worship 
is descrilied at length, that Aaron tigurea most 
[jromiutintly as the founder of the Israelitish 
jiriesthuod, and becomes, iudeod, with Moses the 
joint leader of the [tenple. P records several 
details re'»|>efting Aaron's family : he is tlie son of 
Amram and Jwhebed (Ex 8*'). and tlirce years 
older than Moses (i6. V, Xu 3S*}. His wife was 
Elisheba. his Kon.H Nadab, Abihu (cf. Kx24'-''E!), 
Eleazar [cf. Jos 24" El, ajid lUianiar. See Ex 
0** etc. A sliglitl)' difTerent representation of 
Aaron's first ctHiimissioti is given mi Ex O*-?** P, 
from that in the p^irallel narrative Ex 4-6' JE. 
Here Aaron is apjxiintcd the siwkesman of Moses, 
not to the people, but to Pharaoh (see 7'), and it is 
before the king that Aaron works a wonder, 
tuminu; his rod into a serpent. l''rom this point 
onwards the iutportance assigned to Aaron in 
P becomes vorj' marked. He regularly co- 
c[)eratcs with Mo»us at the time of the 
Kgyp. plagues, usually bringing these to jiass by 
niL'an*! of Iuk rod in acrordnnce witli Moses' 
instructions (Ex 7'*'' S"- '"'1. Many coinuiouds of 
God are addressed to both leaders alike (Ex y"'" 
12'", Lv 11' 13' 14» 15', Nu 2'. cf. P"**); 
Ihiqr are consulted bv the people (Nu 9" 15**, cf. 
13^), and against lx>tn of them the murmurings of 
the poople ore directed {Ex 16», Nu 14», of." 
W-*^ cf." 20*). Ail this, however, dues not 
prevent distinct and charuct(.>riHtic parts being 
aHsigned to each of tbem. Thus the nrst phuw is 

fiven to Moaes throughout. He receives the 
ivine revelation on Mount Sinai respecting the 
nppiintmcnt of Aaron and his sons to the |)rieat- 
hood (Ex 28'"* 29**1, and upon the completion of 
tho tabernacle soli^mnly consecrates them, and 
oflers the np|H>intL-d sauritiires (Ex 20, Lv 8. 9). 
Aaron, vn the other band, is .Hjtecially ' the priest' 
(ExSl"'3fi'»38'i, Lv W, Nil 18*), who stays a plague 
by an offering of Incense (Nu HJ*'-*'j ; to his charge 
the tabernacle ia committed (ib. 4»- "»•»"•»), and 
to him the Levites are given in exchange for the 
firstborn {ib. 3*'-). Aaron is di^tinguibned from 
his sous, the inferior priests, bv the anointin<; 
which he roceives (Ex 29^, Lv 8'-. cf. Ex 2tH^, 
Lv 4'-«-«* 6»= 16* 2I"*-'*, Nu 35=*): — poasages 
which speak of hia sons oa being also anointed 






nrobftblT belong to tliu later odditiotui lo the 
Pri«sUy Code (Ex 28" 30»> 4D'», Lv 7", Nu 3»). 
Between the family of Aaron and tlio rc»t of thu 
Levites a eharn ilistinction ia drawn 4»eo enp. 
N'u 3. 4). In this rvnnection it is to be noticed 
that in the main iiortion of Nn 16 Korah's com- 
panions in bis rcbGllioD are called ' princes of the 
congrefratioo ' (16*). i.e. not all Levites (cf. Nu 
37*) ; their complaints aro directed ajj^ainsl the 
exclttsivQ claims of the tribo of Levi, and oil mur- 
niurings are tiDally wlenceil by the niiraciilon« 
budding of the dnI of Aamn, the rfprewKntative of 
the house of Levi (Xii 17'"). But certain addi- 
tions seem to have been iiiude to tlie chapter to 
emphasize a different point, and in tlicbe paaas^ea 
Korali's companions are teganled as wholly Levitts, 
who protest against the superior claims of the house 
of Aanni (Nu l8»-".io-»."-*B). So« further, PlUESTS ; 

also Aabonites, Aation's Hod, Kobah, 

For failintr to show due Iionour to J" at 
Moribah Kadesli, in the fortitfth year of the 
wanderings, Aaron was forbidden to enter the 
promised land (Xu flO*-"). Shortly afterwards, 
accompanied bv Moses and hla own son Eleaxar, 
AarcA ascendeu Moant ifor, on the border of the 
land of Eflom. and after Wing (wlemnly ntrii»pe»l of 
his pricwtly garments, which were put on Eleazar, 
died there al the a^:e of 123 [Nu ^O"* 33*^ P). 
The site oi Mount Hor ia uncertain, the traditional 
identilicacioo with Jcbel Nohi Harun, S.W. of 
Petra, beinfi: very doubtful {see DiUm. on Nu 2(F) ; 
the itinerary of T (Nu SS***} namen six stages be- 
tween MoMcroth (Dt lO'MaseTahi and Mt. Hot. 

In the ohler literature outside the Pent., the 
niifvion of Mosok and Aamn in K^pt in allndetl to 
in Jo» 24* E, and 1 S 12^ * (a paKsaye which has 
alTinities with E). MioAh (6*) names as the leaders 
of the people at the time of the Exodus, Moeea. 
Aaron, and Miriam, but Aaron is not mentioned 
elsewhere in the prophets. H. A. White. 

JUROMITEB (fViQV •» '«ons of Aaron').— Tbi.K 
phrase mii;ht, according to Seui. idiom, denote 
either the members of a class or guild (comp. sons 
of Korali, K>ns of Asaph, sons of the prophets), or 
members of a family couuix-tod by blood»hip. 
As used in OT it was understood iu the latter 
seofee. all the pricstH, at anyrato from the time of 
the second temple, tracing.' tlieir descent from 
Aaron, as the head and founder of the Tsraclitish 
priesthooil. The tonu does not occur earlier than 
the pritwUy portionK of the I'ent., where in certain 
gronps of laws the epithet Aaronitcs is often given 
to the prie«rts (mo eap. Lv 1-3, and comp. 6* 
' Aaron and his ium» '), and a sharp distinction is 
drawn between the Aaronite priests and the 
l.ieN'itcs who wait ojton them (»«c «sp. Nu 3'" 
Itt" IS'"'). It i* doubtful wlietlier any mention 
of the Aarouites or M;eil of Auron was to be 
found in the original H (Law of Holiness), 
tiie present text of Lv 17' 21i-"«-** 22^*-'" 
being probably due to the K. The Chrooicler 
divides the priests into the houses of Eleazar and 
Ithamsr, assigning sixteen courses to the former 
and eiyht to the latter ; nnd. probably without 
good authority, be connects the former with the 
Zadokite priests of Jerus., and the latter with 
the family of Eli (1 Ch 24). though the name of 
one of Ell's sous (cf. nino 1 S 2^'-) would itiiggtwl, a 
eonnexion between thi>i family and Phiiiehas tlie 
MQ of Eleaxar (Jo« 24"). Throughout hit» work 
Che priests are freiinentlr termed the Aarouiks 
[«Hu of Aaronl— vi/. I Oh t)**-" 15' 23=*-" 21'", 
ft Ch 13»- '*' 20" 20« 31" 35'*, Neh 10" 12". In 
I Ch IS*' 27" the or family of Aaron is 
placed on a level uith the other tribes ; and 
simQarly in Kfme tate Psalms, by the side of tlie 
House of Israel and the House of L<evi, the priestly 

cloas is deecril>ed as the House of Aarou (Ps US^"*^ 
U8M35i»). H. A. WuiTE. 

AARON'S ROD.— Aaron's rod Is the centre of 
interest in an imiKirtant incident of the do»ert 
wanderings—time and plaoe are both uncertain — 
as recorded by the priestly narrator (P), Nu 17**" 
(Ueb. text n*"). The passage shoold be studied 
in connexion with the more complex narrative in 
ch. 16, to the events of which the incident in 

?uefltion forms the sequel (see Driver, LOT&Ot.]. 
a obedience to a divine command, 12 rods, repre- 
senting the 12 princes of the tribes, each with the 
name of a prince engraved ujton il, togtither with a 
13th rod (cf. Vulg. fueruntque wgfe duodecira 
absque virga Aarou) to represent the tribe of Levi, 
but Dcaring the noma of Aaron, were de]»osited by 
Moses Imfore *thc testimony,' i.e. before the arlt. 
The following morning it was found that ' tlie rod 
uf Aaron for the house of Levi was budded, and 
put forth buds, and bloomed blossoms, and bare 
ripe almonds' (17' liV), by which it was miracn- 
loufily pro\-ed that J" bad Himself selected the 
tribo of Lc\-i to bo the exclusive possessors of the 
priestly prerogatives. The standpoint of the 
narrator in tlius difTcrent from that of a later 
stratum in the foregoing section, which repi^scnts 
a party of Leeitr-f in revolt against the cxchisivB 
priesllioudof the sous of Aoron. 'Aaron's rod tliat 
budded' was ordered to be pnt back to its former 
place ' bf/ore the [ark of the] testimony ' ( 17"*} as a 
token to future generations of the divine choice. 
A later Jewish tradition, at variance witJi this 
command, and with the express statement of 1 K 8*. 
is found in He 9*, and in tatar Jewislt writers, thai 
the rod, like the pot of manna, hod a place M'itli 
the tables of stone fcithin the ark. 

A. R. 8. Kennedy. 
AB.— See NAMES (Proper), and TtMK. 

ABAOUC. — ^The fonn in which the name of the 
prophet Habakkuk appears in 2 Es 1". 

AB ADD OH.— Til is word is found in ths OT 
only in the Wisdom Literature. When it first 
a|>pear3, the old view of Sheol as a place where 
the family, national, and social distinctions of the 
world above are reproduced, had l>ceii partially 
di.spJnccd ; and in some mea.'>urc the higher (concep- 
tion bad guinf<d avoeptaiu-e, whiuh held that in Slieol 
at all events uiorul dlKtinetions were |mriimounl, 
and that men were tnmted there according to tltcir 
deserts. In Job 31*^ Abaddon (iiigs) bears tlic 

fencral meaning of 'ruin,' 'destruction.' (But see 
)illm. and Dav. inloc,) In the other instances of ILa 
ttcourrencc, however, it is fipeeialiw/l, and designates* 
Ibi- place of tliu lout in Slieul. Thua iu Job M*, Pr 
15" 27*' (miK, in Ker6 pjs) it occui-s in conjunction 
witli 'Sheol' (Si»i»}. and in Ps 88" with 'grave' 
("up). Again, in Job 2!^-^ a further development in 
to be observed. In this i>assage it is linked with 
death (mo), and [tersonilied in the same way as we 
find K-7^ in Dn 4" and Hadue in Kev 6*. and 
atr and c-po in the Talmud. The word is fonnd 
unce more in the Bible in Uuv 0". In thin passage 
it is used as the proper name of a prince of the 
infernal regions, and explained liy the word 'Avo\- 
Xiwi»=* Destroyer.' In the LXX paw is always 
rundured bv AviiXtta, except iu Job 31" whore LXX 
impUvB u dilTtrcnt text. The first two meanings 
above given are found in the Aram, and lat^jr Heh. 
I'inally,in the latter in thf^'Iuiiok llauiineleuli, f. 15, 
II, Abaddou becomes the Iuwe»t place of liehenna, 

K. U. Charlks. 
ABADIAS CAfSaJmT). 1 Ks fl**.- Son of Jezelus, of 
thesonsof Joab, retnme<l with Erni from captivity. 
Called Obodiah, sou of JehicI, K/r H". 


ABAGTHJl (KCi^, Kst !"•), one of tlic seven 
cluunberlains or oiinuclm acnt by Aliaaucrus 
(Xerxes) tu fetch the quoon, Vaithti, to liia 
banquet. TIiG name, which \n apparently Peraian, 
IB proiiaMv akin to the nainyj* Hijjtha (I'*) and 
UiLttian ('-^' }. i'or the derivation, bmjdAna = ' GoiS's 
gin,' liBS been 8iigffe6t«d, bnb cannot be regarded 
as oortam. In the L.VX the namci of the chamber- 
lainB are quite different from Uie Hebrew. 

\\. A. WniTK. 

ABANAH (.ij;h. Kerfi iffp. AV Abana; AVni 
Aniana. UV'in Anianah ; £ K B"). Thin \ river of 
Danift.Hcus.'theChrysorrboasof theGrcekaiisidtinli- 
fiod with the Baradti, to whose -waters DamwcuH 
owes her life. Ki^iD{^ in the uplands near Baalbec, 
it drains the hollow Qi the bosom of Anti-Lebanon. 
'Ain et Barada, in the plain of Zebttt^ny, swells 
the stream, M'liich then plunges down Ibe deep 
pictureaque gorge of Wady Bantda. About 
14 miles N. tV. of Damascus, in a beautiful 
n>mantio Hpot in the heart of tlie hilin, risen ilm 
niighlv fountain el Fijeh (Gr. trtrffi, a ftpring) ; a 
river born ia a moment, which, after a brief, 
foaming course, joins the liarada, more tliiin 
doubling its votuuu. It then flows along the 
Inittoni of n deep winding valley, hhodea by 
l*cautiful and fruitful treeit ; bare, yellow rorkii 
loweriuL' high on either liand abovo the green. 
Alwut half Uie wator iit led captive along the 
eastern bank towarda the city, the Beyrout roa<l 
pocran^ bctiveen the utreams, Juat where tho 
precipitous clilTs advanot) as if to close the gor|;;o, 
it escapes from tho mountains, and, throwing it»ul£ 
out fanlike in many branches, watera the plain, 
t^npplicA the city, and draina off into thn iiortliern 
two of the marshy lakes eaittivard. One bnincb in 
called Kakr Banias, a remmiscence of the ancient 
n&iue. \V, £wi>'0. 

ABARIU {DTSJ??). — A plnral form of tho word 
signifying ' iiart beyond * ; and with rcitpeut to tlie 
Jordan, on tno K. nde of it. It in used as a Proper 
name preceded by vi ' mount' [Nu 27", Dt K^), 
and by "^.^i * mountains ' (Nu 33"). It is also found 
with "J [see IVE abarim] (Nu 21" 33"). In all 
these places the dcf. art^ is used witli Abarim, but 
in Jcr '2^^ (UV Abarim, AV ' the passages ') the 
def. art. is not uaod. For the geo^. i>Oi<itioii see 
Nebo. The LXX translate A. by tA Wpa*-, except In 
Nil 33*^, Dt 32" where tbey have tA (t6} ' \^a{>tl»i,fi\. 
For Ezk 39", and a very doubtful uw« of thi» word, 
?ee Smend, in loc. A. T. CHAPMAN. 

ABA6E, ABASEMENT. — Abase Is three times 
used in AV, and retaiued in HV to trantdato 
^ *h&}>h(l, otherwise rendered ' bring low ' or 
■ make low,' * bring down ' or ' bow down,' 
' humhte ' ; and once to tr. "VV. I* 31* ' he will not 
lie afraid of their voice, nor abase himself ( — be 
cost down) for tho noise of them.' tn NT it is five 
times used to render rv-wu-bw, changed in liV into 

* hamble,' except in Ph 4^^ ' 1 know how to bo 
abased,' and 2 Co W ' Commit a sin in abating 
myself.' Abaseiiicnt, meaning humiliation, occurs 
In Sir 20" ' Tboro is an a. Ijewiuse of glory ; and 
there is tiiat liftetfa up his head from a low estate.' 
Cf. Sir 20*= RV ' A wicked women is a. of heart' 
(AV ' abateth the courage'). Noti{.'e that 'abase- 
ment' and 'basement' (a mod. word) are distinct, 
both in derivation and meaning. J. IIastinus. 

ABATE. — Thia verb occarB only six times in 
AV (all in OT), and yet it tranmlattw hvo 
dillerent Heb. words. The meaning of the F,ng. 
word is, however, the same throughout, io iexscn, 

* Tlis eye was not dim, nor his natural force 
[\bnlc<l ^ [Driver : ' neither had his freshneat lied '] 
(Dt 34'!. ' It shaU be abated (ICV an abatement 

shall be made) from thy estimation* (Lv ZV% 
(See Estimation.) *The waters were abated' 
(UV 'decreased') (Gn 8>). RV tr. still another 
Heb. word 'abated' in Nq]1'(AV 'was quenched'). 
The word Is also found M-ith the same sense in 
Wis 10»*. Sir 25« 1 Mac 5» 1 1« Cf. Shakespeare— 

' Abut* tby run, klntc tby manly nun.* 

-Utnry iT til. iL 24. 

And Walton, 'Lord, abnt« my great affliction, or 
increase my patience,* Lives, iv. 288. 

J. Hastings. 

ABBA. — The Lrauslitcratlon (d^^a) of the Aram. 
word for 'father'; we, for example, the Tar^. of 
Onk. (perliapa of the 1st ctat.) at On ltf» (cf. G. 
Dalman, Gram. d. j'ud.-paitisi. Arafnniif.h, 9 40, c. 
3). It occurs three times in the NT, and always 
in direct address, viz. in our I»rd'B prayer iti 
Gethsomane as given by St Mark (14"), and in 
the ' cry* of the Spirit as referred to by St. Paul 
(Ko 8", Gal 4»). 

The phenomena connected with the form and 
use of the word have occasioned divers opinions, 
the merits of winch our present knowledge docs 
not always enable us to iironounrH n[K>n with 

S<»itiveneHa. It lias betjn nwld, for iuatance [xm 
ohn Lighlfoot, i/oric JJebr. nd Mr., /.r.), that 
whcu »p(3t with the double b and final n, the word 
refers to phy«oal fatherhood; accordinj^ly. our 
lord's choice of that form is thought to inaicate 
special closeness of rolationsbip. But the frequent 
nse of Abba Himpty an a title of honour in the 
Mishna and Tosefta seems to disprove thU opinion 
{SchUrer, UJP % 'i% n. 3(1 ; ct Jg lV\ 2 K 2", Mt 
'l'A% On the other band, it has been asaert^d that in 
Syr. tho word with the double 6 denotw-i a spiritual 
father, with a single h tho natural. But tliis dis* 
tinction a!M> hocids not to be sustained bj' nsa^e (see 
Payno Smith's i*x»«m,*.w.). is noteworthy 
that tlio Gr. equivalent, i xanj^, isapitended to the 
term in all three instancos of its occurrem-e. The 
second Fvangelistjimioed, in other ca.>*K«Hoiurtiinos 
iutiuduues the Aram, terms used by our Lord (see 
541 71I-W); but in those coaes the liddetl Gr. trans- 
lation is preceded by an explanatory phrase dis- 
tinctly marking it as such. Moreover, tne Apostle 
Paul makes the same addition of A irar^p in both 
instances. Had the term ' Abba,' then, beeome a 
quasi proper name? Indications are not wanting 
tiiat it had already taken on a degree of con- 
\'entioDnl sacrcdncss ; servants were forbidden 
to use it in addressing the head of the houHo 
(nnrachoth 166, cited by Delitrsoh on Kotri. I.e.). 
It suems to have been the favourite appellation of 
God employed by •lesus iu prayer (of. Mt 1 !•*■■• 
2ti>^*s, Lk IIP' 22*' 23", Jn ll« 12="-*»_ n'-"-_=^»»). 
This would greatly promote its use in Christian 
circles ; and tliough tiie second worti was probably 
added primarity by Gr.-speaking Jtwa in explana- 
tion uf the first, usage doubtless soon gave the 
phrase the force of an intensified repetition and 
the currency of a devotional fornium. Merely 
im{>as8ioned repetition, indeed, ordinarily adheres 
to the same term (as rt'ywf, KOpit. Mt 7"; *i\ti, 
iJVei, 27") : autih oxpressions, therefore, as j-oi, 
d^ijc, Rev r (cf. 2 Co 1*): *Ameu, So bo it'; 
' ttallelujab. Praise the Lord,' are diwcr ana- 
loguea. Rabbinical examples are not wanting 
of similar combinations; see Schoettgen, Uorts 
Heir, on Mark, /.c. J. U. Thaver. 

ABDA (tt-pi'l, 'servant, ae. of the Lord': ef. namoa 
Obadiah, Abdeel, Ebed.— 1. 'E^pd li, 'A/Sati A. 
' KSpni/i Luc. Father of Adon i ram , master of 
Solomon's forced levy (1 K 4")- 2. 'A;33<it B, 
'ASJcdj Luc. A Levite descended from Jeduthun 
(Noh U"). Called Obadiah (I Ch 9'«1. 
' C. K BtmxEV. 



IBDBBL CJW^WK father of Sliplemiah (.ler 36"), 
one of those oracrod by King Jehoiakim to arreac 
Jeremiah and Banich. Sejtt. omits. 

ABDl (n^ff, porham for .i^u * servant of Yah,* cf. 
Palmyr. *'3;). — 1. umnilfaMier of the inuucian I Ch fi«. 2. Katlicr of Kisli, 2 Ch 29". 
S. A .lew who had married a forei-rn wife, Ezr 10" 
= Aediaa, 1 Es tf"^. H. A WHITE. 

ABDIAS (2 Es I").— Obodioh the prophet. 

ABDIEL (Syi^i * eerrant of God ').— Son of Gani 
(I Ch 5"). See Genealociy. 

ABDON {•^■^S 'scr\-ilc').— 1. Son of nillel. of 
rirathon in Ephraim, the loat of the minor judges, 
Jg 12»*-". 2. A foiniJy of the trihe of Benjamin 
tlweUing in Jenut., 1 Ch H**. 3. A Oibeonite 
fiunily dwelling in Jenis., I Ch 8* 9**. 4. A 
eourtier uf JosiaJi, Q Ch 31* ; in S K 22" his name 
in Achbor. G. A. COOKK. 

ABDON {[^'^S.').— A Levitical city of Asher (Jos 
21", 1 Ch ir*). now (V. d. \e\deyAlHkh E. of Achzib 
on the hills (SlVr, vol. L ilieet iii.J. 


ABEDNEOO (^i; 13:^; ^3j=Mrh. ^j *»ervaiit of 
7iebo*;MKitzig,Gratx,!»chnuler}.— SeeSHADRACH. 

ABEL (S-i, 'A.dfX).— The second son (twin?) of 
Ailnni find live, by occupation a herdsman (Gn 4'), 
otfcicd to Goil a more ('■xcvthmt Bncrilico than Cain 
(lie It*), and out uf jeutoney was stain by hi;) cider 
brother (Gn 4'. See Cais). The currenletyuiology 
i'yy} breath, vanity) has been disputod by the 
Awrriologists, who connect the name with abia, 
ftbnl, '(!on'(cf. Asurltanipal) ; bnt while this may 
weU be the root, it does not follow tlmt it gives the 
otymolo['y in the mind uf tho writer. Tlicro would 
li»ve lieeu no point in naming the yonnRer brother 
• wn' (Kmnz Delitzpuh), and it is better tosuppoite 
that the proper name was here designed to saf^gest 
the idea of tiie Bhort.-lived or powdbly the shepnenl 
(cf. S3;). The representntion of A. as a Khepherd 
coincides with the (YT tradition of tho superiority 
of the pastoral life. The ground of the aort^pUmcc 
of A-'s olToring (Gn 4*) ia not ila iwnfnrniily to a 
revealed command, nor its character of btoo<i, but 
the spirit of tnie piety which was exprej<»»l in liix 
L'inng to God his best, vii. the firstlings of the 
tloiik, and of these the fattest portions. Cain's 
knowledge of God's acceptance of A. 'a oftcring 
implies a visible sign, probably the kindling of tho 
sncriftce by fire from heaven (cf. 1 K ia*l. In NT 
Abel appears as the Hrst martyr (Mt 23*^}, and as 
n huro of faith (He 11*), while his death is 
contrasted with that of Christ as calling, not for 
foTgiTeness. bnt for vengcjinre {cf. Westcott on He 
12*^. The character and tlio fate of A. reflect 
the Jewish consciouaneMof the enduring lUvision of 
mankind into the two classes of the^reopte and 
the cnL-mic» uf God, and of the pcnwcutiona 
endured by His chosen people at the handji of their 
enemies (cf. 1 Jn 3*'}. 

LtrauTrBt— Schndcr, COT; Dfllmuin, Ociwfii; Delltnob. 
Cmetit i mad LiUntore of SACftinca. 


ABBL {'^39), 'mea«lnw.' — The name of various 
riaoe* in Pal. and Syria, situated by cultivable 
Unds. In one ptusage (1 H &^) Xheil stands 
apfarentlv for Eben ipV), ' stone ' (see RV, A Vm, 
I.aX. ana Tar.), applying to a 'great stone' at 
Uettuhemesh of Judah. 

1. Abel-bcth-maacah (AV maaohab) (Ti'S S^^ 
'^.*v). 'AK'! uf tlic KoUHc of Maaolifth ' in L'pjwr 
Ooiilee (2 S 20^*- '»■ "), now AbU Knmh, ' Abel of 
whenU' on the plateau of the mountojns a little W. 

of Tell el-^uiiji (Dnn). It waa taken by ihc Syrians 
in tho lOth cent. B.C. (I K \f^, 2 Ch IG'I, and by 
the Assyrians about B.C. 733 (2 K Iff™} (5 117', vol. 1. 
sheet ii.). 

2. Abcl-choramlm (c'3V ''J?), 'meadow of rine- 
3'ard8' (.Jg 11**), on the .Moab plateau near Minnith. 

3. Abel-malm (c;? S^tj), • meadow of waters ' (2 Ch 
16'), the same as No. I. The mountains in this 
re^oo are well wftterod, and tho site noted for corn, 
oa its mridem name shows. 

4. Abol-mcholah [.ijino >3ij), 'meadow of the 
dance,' or of the * circle' (Jg T"*, 1 K 4« W% in 
tlie Jordan Valley near Bethshean. In the 
Onomasticun [s.v. Aliel Mnula) it ui platwd 10 Rom. 
mileKfmmSfylhopoIis [Bethshean), which points to 
tlie prtwunt 'Aln Ihtweh, or 'sweet spring,' near 
wliirli is a mined mound. See SWT, vol. ii. sh. ix. 

5. Abel-mlzralm rc^s;: ^3i«), 'meadow of Kgj-ptinns* 
(Gn &<>"], or (with different points Vftc for "n^) 
' moumiiig of Egyptians.' There ia a play on Uie 
word in tliis passage. It vas between Egypt and 
Hebron, yet is described as * beyond Jordan. It is 
dithcult to suppose that such a route would be taken 
to Hebron, nor was tlie region beyond Jordan in 
Canaan. The site is unknown (wo Atad). [See 
I>elitz9ch and DiUni. in loc. ; Driver, Ceut.p. xliif., 
and Taylor in Expos. TimeJ (1806), vii. 40"/.] 

6. Abcl-ihittim (D^n ^9^1, 'meadow of acacias' 
(Nn 33**), in other passages ShitUm only (which 
sec). Th(! place is descrilwd as in tliu ]<lains of 
Moab. The Jordan plain E. of the river, oniioaite 
Jericho, is the site now called G/tOr el Seiseoan, or 
' valley of acaciae.' The plain is well watered, and 
still dotted with acacias. (See JSKP, vol. i.} 

ABHORRING.— In Is 66'' 'abhorring' means a 
thiiif,' tlint is abhorred, an abhorrence: 'They 
t«hall Ik) an n. unto all tlei-h.' The ^ame Heb. 
word ^i^trr^^ is tr. 'contempt' in Dn 12^ ' Some t« 
shame and everlasting contempt' (RVni 'abhor- 
rence'). J. Hastinqs. 

ABI {■5«, probably ='(my} father'* j hXX'A^oO) is 
the name of a <iueen-motlier of the Sth cent. 
(2 K 18») who is called Abijah in the parallel 
jMasage 2 Ch 29'. The rending in Kings is the 
most probable, AW wo-s daughter of Zechariah 
(* cf. Is 8-), wife of Abaz, and niutlicr uf llozi'kiah. 

G. K. Grav. 


ABI-ALB0N(j^3H-3»«, A ' Artr\pvp).—A member 
of ' the TliirU',' or third division of David's heroes 
(2 S 23"). In the parallel paa.-mi;e(l Ch 11") wo 
find ' Abiel ' (Sw-ss) ; this is undoubtedly right, 
and is aupitorted by B ([faSJa^ofX) and Luc. 
{[Va\<r]afiitfs). KJoeteriuann lias further conjectured 
that the final syllable ' twn ' (p3) of Abi-albon is a 
corruption of 'Beth' (ri*2), and belongs to the 
following wonl (-nsipn). Wellhausen and Budde 
restore l^wsu). See Ajibathite. 

J. 1'. STF.XMXa. 

ABIASAPH (icrw MMi-''i.fu;/A = 'father has 
gatliervd'), E.X 0^ = EBIA8APH (it:?ti 'Ebh-y(uaph 
= 'fath«r ha.s increa-sud), 1 Cli fi^^^O"; cf. further 
1 Ch 2ti', where Asaph occurn by error for one of 
tho two jireceding f<»Tns; see Berthean, 1./. 

The vTklence (or tfa« &]temiiUr« fomts naj tto Uiiu Hinf 

For AbUuBid)— Hvb. t«xt and Tu^. at £s 0** ; uid powlUy 
Vulgr. MftfciMjut) In ftll pUc«S, Kind LXX ('.\J»<v# or 
'li&mntp) in all pUoat azcapi cod. B tii I Ch (^; btil 
Vulf . Knd LXX sn imUv unl3ii|rumi«. 

For Ebyunpb — Sam. at Kx <l>* ; llttb. Uxt in nH ikumvm Ld 
CbranJcIei. Agslnst ths tniddle h at Ab4iu»|>h, hnA Uwro- 

fore io tsiroar of Ebj-uaph, are it>p Syr. '- O'lf^^ *'*| Ex 

* On Uu iDMDlngs ot this nuD* uid the toUowlns names be- 
glanfair with Abl. ho furtticr art. NAMn. Psorsa. 



6^ I Ob «»; -t7v .m*^ *! 1 Cb e>? &i>) ud LXX, B 

The evidoncc thus preponderates in favour of 

Ebiii>aph is the name of a di%'ision of the 
KoraJiiUt l.«v'iteM, anil is iiirnttunitd Dtily in thu 
genealogies of P and the Chronicler. According 
to 1 Ch 9" 26' (in the latter pasaage rea<l 
Elnasaph for Asaph ; see above), a section of the 
division actod as doorkeepers. On the diflScnlties 
which arise when Kbiasoph in the j;enealogies is 
(crroneouftlv) regarded as an individaol, sec the 
article in Smiths DS. G. B. Gray. 

ABIATHAR Ctc;?? ' father of plenty,' for yc^if, 
or 'The Great one is father' [BUhr]).— A land- 
holder (1 1C 2^) of Analhoth in Benjamin, a 
priestly city {Jo& 21"), whence also spning the 
priest-projihet Jcreniiali. Ho was son of the liiuh 
priest Ahijah or Ahimelcch, and is first mentioned 
in 1 S 22^, where it is iuitdicd that he aluno 
escaped from the inasi?;ncrc of the priests at Nob. 
Accordin;; to the Hob. t*'xt of I R 23", he joined 
David at Keilah, in which caso 22* would ho pro- 
leptic, and 23'-* mijiht be explained by supposinj; 
that David conid iminire of tne Lord by a prophet 
II S 28<). (.ff. Gsd (22>): but according to the 
LXX 'he went dowTi with David into Kcilah,' 
apparently from tho forest of llarcth ; and thia 
seems to harmonise better with the story. David 
felt a special appeal to his atTebtioiiA in the yoanc 
priest's position : ' I have occasioned the death of 
all the persons of thy father's house. Abide thon 
with me, fear not ; for he thst seeketh my life 
seeketh thy life.' The friendship thus ccmiintod 
by a common dBnj:;er was remcmhcied long afL<:r- 
wardu by Solomon when commuting A. 'a death 
sentence into degradation : * thou bast been uClUctcd 
in all wherein iity father was afflicted.' 

The ndhenion of A. was of signal service to 
David, ina.<«mnch as he broaght with him an 
ophod, which, whether it were the high priestly 
ephod containing the Urim and Thummim (so 
Jerome, i,>ii. licb. in-loc, and Joa Ant. VI. x'lv. G\ 
or a sacred image, was at all events a recognised 
nif-thod of 'impiiring of the Lord' (1 S 14^, LXX, 
UVni). In this way A. was able to continue to 
David (1 S 23* 3)/) the services rendered before 
hv his father {i S 22"). Dean Stanley mentions 
{Jewiik C'h. Lcct. 3G) a Jewish tradition that tho 
power of thus inquiring of the Lord expired with 
A- J and posaibly in virtue of lliis« power he is men- 
tioned as one of David's t-ounsM^llun (I C'h 27"). 

In David's flight from Al>»><ilom wo lind A. 
loyal, and only prevented by David's rcoitcst from 
shnring his ma-ster's exile : and his son Jonathan, 
with Ahimaaz, iisf'^l to convey from the priests to 
the king secret intL-lligence of Absalom's plans. 
It is very doubtful if the words of Solomon, 
'Thou barest the ark of the Lord God before 
David my father' (1 K 2*j, refer to the attempt 
made by Zaxlok and A. to carry the ark witli 
David on hix flight (Sljinlevl, or to the commis- 
sion given hy David to\ok and A. (I Ch IS"*'*) 
to Buperintend the carrying of tho ark by the 
I.evitee from the house of Obededom to Mt. Zion 
[l*ord A. Her^'ey). On both these occn-iiona A. is 
not so prominent aa Zodok (see esp. 2 S Iff**- ", 
where (Jriitz reads, ' A. went up ' for * atood 
still,* cf. Jos 3'*). The reference is much more 
general, and alludes to the custom of the ark 
as the symbol of J"'s pre^enp« aecompHnying the 
host to battle (see. e.g., Nu 31*, Jos (<•*', I S 4', 
2 S H"); The attempt made by Zadok and A. 
WHS an instance of this custom, and not a new 
departure ; and David refusea to punnit it, not 
bocause it was a violation of the sanctity of tlio 

ark, bat as being himself unworthy to claim 
the special protection of J'. It may here bo 
noted that a conjecture has been made, ttmt as 
Zadok niinistorcd at the tabernacle at liilwon 
(I Ch IG"), so A, may have been the custodian of 
the ark on Mt. Ziou, On the defeat of Absalom, 
Zadok and A. smoothed the way for the king's 
restoration (2 S 19"). A.'s loyalty did not, how- 
ever, remain proof to the end ; na united with Joab 
in tending his influence to the abortive insurrection 
of Adonijah. Both priest and chief captain were 
[K>s»ibly actuated by jealousj-, the one of Zadok, 
and the other of !«naiali. But while Joab was 
executed in accordance with David's dying in- 
structions, A.'s life was spared in consideration of 
his old loyalty; 'So Solomon thrust out A. from 
beinL' priest unto the Lord ; that he might fulfil tho 
wora of the Lord which He sjMvke concerning the 
house of Eli in Shiloh* (1 K 2**). 

With thedepusiliun of A. the direct high priestly 
line of Eieazar came to an end. It is important 
to emphasize this, sioc-o it has been commonly 
held, on the anthority of Chron. end Jowphus, that 
tho high priests, from Eli to A. inclusive, were 
of the line of Ithamar, and that the lino of 
Elcazar was restored in the person of Zadok. 
Let us examine the evidence on which this state- 
nient refits. 

Tho Chronicler mentions as priests in David's 
time, 'Zadok of the eons of EleaEar, and Ahime- 
lech of the sons of Ithamar' (I Ch 24»-«), tliis 
Aliimeloch being son of A., accordinj? to v.". Now 
' Ahimelech. son of A.,' is ijuite uiihistoricol. In 
2 S IS", 1 K 1", Jonathan la son and representa- 
tive of A. ; and, moreover, A did not lose the 
odice of high priest until the reign of Solomon. 
The mifitjiku originated in 2 S if, where, hy a 
very anciunt error, ' .Ahimelech, son of A.,' is joint 
priest with Zadok. Tho emendation, 'A., son of 
jVhimelech,' found in the Syr. version, is adopted 
by Goscnioa, Wollhauscn, and Driver, and may be 
regarded as certain. The Chronicler not only 
copies the mistake (1 Ch IS'*), with the obvious 
blunder ' Abimolech,' but treats this Ahiniolcfh as 
a real personage. It ia noteworthy that JosephuR in 
hi* pai-apbras«! of 1 Ch 24 (Ant. n.i. 14. 7) mentions 
A., not Ahimelech, and yet ho accepts {viiL 1. 3, 
V. 10. 4) the descent of A, from Ithamar, and further 
dUtinctly asserts that durin" the high priesthood 
of Eli and his aoccesaors the defendants of Elenzar 
were merely private individuals. The Chronicler, 
on the other Liand, i^^iores Eli and his descendants, 
and in 1 Ch 6'-^*- **•" gives what seems intended 
to bo a list of high jiriests from Aaron to the 
Captivity in tho line of Eleazar. Those who are 
familiar with the peculiar tendencies of the Chron- 
icler will not think tho snggt'^tJon unreasonable, 
that here we have an attempt Imlh to vindicate 
tho unbroken succession of the high prie-nts of 
his own time, and to evade wliLVt he would liaye 
eonsidererl a stumbling-block in the earlier his- 
tory. Thus, if A. wore tho lineal successor of 
Eleazar, would not his deposition l»e a breaking on 
God's part of the promise to Phinehas of on ever- 
lasting priesthood! (Nu 25"). Yet the unhiaseed 
reader of I S 2" can scarcely fail to see a plain 
allusion to the promise to Phinehas, and a no lens 
plain assertion that tho promise wajt conditional : 
• I said, imlccd, that tliy house, and the house of 
thy father, ehould walk before Me for ever; but 
now the I.«rd wiith, Bo it far from Me,' ete. 
Theso wunis cannot refer to the general promise 
to Aarwn's family in Ex 2ff, for God's purpose in 
l)mt respect was not altered ; the Aaronic descent 
of Zadok being undisimted. It is iutorcsting to 
obsen-e that the Chronicler does not say that Eli's 
family haii usurped the high priesthood, aa Josenhus 
insinuates; and. Indeed, audi, a usurpation coutd nut 



have been passed over in silence in the cftrlier his- 
tory iiad it ever occturod. Tiio Chronicler, on the 
uLlicr hand, prorides an explanation of another 
tttumbliQg • block — the dual high prieatbood of 
Znduk and A. in David's reign— by tiie statenieut 
witli nliidi 1 Cti 2i oi>ens, (bat •Eleaa'-ar anil 
Ithaniar Bxet-uted the jiriesta' office.* Tbia aeeinH 
an CKceltt-'nt preceilent for a dual prieetliooil, but 
labaars under two difficulties: Lnt, that it is 
{{nite unsupported by the Pent, and JoHh., in 
^vbich Klt?azar alone is hiph prieet after Aurun's 
deotb ; and, secondly, that aJtliough Zadok's name 
always comes first when the tvtb are mentioned 
toother, yot A. was the chief until the rei^n 
of liolomon, when Zodok waa prcmated to his 
place (l K 2"). It is remarkable, too, that the 
prieata who aerve in Ez«kiel's ideal temple are 
always styled ' the sons of ZaJok ' [40* «" M" 
•tS**), as if they could claim no higher antiqaity. 

A. is mentioned in I K 4' as still joint priest 
with Za4lok ; but this is probably a mistake, or 
may refer to the beeinnin^ of Solomon's roi^, jnst 
M, in 2 S 23, Aaahel ann Uriah are enuriii-ratfd 
among David's mighty men. There is a dillicultY 
connocteil wlUt the mention of A. in Mk 2°* KV, 
where Christ is made to sa^ tliat David ate the 
nhcwbread ' when A. was hish priestj' ^irj 'A^dOap 
ipXitpiuf, B, K, Vulg. (* Bub A. pnncipe sacer- 
dotutti '). Tbo words aro omitted by D and some 
Old Latin MSS, while A, C, 1, 33 insert roC before 
ipvUp<vt, ' in the days of A. the high pritat,' i.e. 
in nis liftftime, but not noceasarity during hia high 
pritMlhoud. N, J. D. WHtTE. 

ABIB (s'syrr, alwnya with art., /lipt t&p Piaw, 
menn* novorum or n(»r(inim/r«yiff», Ex 13* 23" 
34", Dt iff). See TlJUi, 

ABIDA (BT3t! 'niy father had knowledge').— A 
son of Midian (Gn 25* AV Abidab, 1 Ch l^\. 

UIDAN ir;"f 'father is jndge*) is a name that 
occuni only m P. According to this document, 
Abidan, son of Oidconi, of the tribe of Geujaniin, 
was one of tlio twelve 'princes' who represented 
their rt'^pective tribes at the census and on certain 
oUier occaaiuns, Nu 1" 2» "*•" 10". 

G. B. GraV. 

ABIDE. — In AV and RV ' abide ' is used 
both tran-itivoly and intranMtively. 1. As a 
tmna. vm'b in two senses ; (a) to await, be in 
store for, a.s Ac 2tf^ * Bonds taid afllictions abide 
mc'; cf. Pa 37' (Pr. Ilk.} "TLicy that patiently 
abide the Lord.' [6) To wiUiMjuiO, endure, as 
Jrr lU" 'The nntioii» shall not be able to abide 
His indignation': Mai 3^ 'Hut who may abide 
the day of Ilio coming?' Cf. 'They cannot abide 
to hcAT of altering.' Pref. to AV lOlI ; * Nature 
cannot abide that any place should Ix) empty,' 
11. Smith (IS93}, Serm. U7. 3. As an intrans. 
verb in three senscii : («) to continue in the place 
or in the state in which one now is, as Ac 27" 
'Except thf.m abide in the nhip'; Jn 12'* 'Ex- 
cept a com of wheat fall into the ground, and die, 
it abidoth nlone ' ; 1 Co 7* ' She is happier if niie 
BO abide ' : 2 Mar 7" ' abide a while, and behold bia 
groat power.' (6) To dwell, reside, as Lk 8" ' And 
wore no clothes, neither abode in any house, 
bat in the tomba'; Ps 01* ' I will abide {RV 
' dwell ') in Thy tabernacle for ever * ; Jn S** 
'And the bond-Hcrvant abidctb not. in the house 
for ever: the son abideth fur ever'; Jii IS" 'Ho 
tliat abideth in Me, and I in liim.' (i) To last, 
endure itf!^\t. iu the face of trial, cf. 1 (A), above), as 
1 Co 3'* 'If any man's work abide'; Pa llff" 
'Thou hast estnbiiHhed the earth, and it abideth.' 
Abiding, as an mlj., is uwd by RV, He 10» >a 
better poaseasion aad an a. one,* and 13'* 'an a. 

city'; aa a noon it is found 1 Ea S^' 'they hare 
given us a sore a. in Jewry.' J. HASTlKas. 

ABIEL Ov'ZH 'father is God').— i. Son of 
Zeror, of the tribe of Benj., waa father of Kiah and 
Ner, and consenuuntly grandfather of Saul and 
Abner, I S 9' 14", Acoorrting to I Ch 8» = 9" Ker 
was father of KiHh ; in this case Abiel would have 
been great-grandfather of Saul. Hut the statenmnt 
in Ch i.i an error, very possi b!y duo to transcrip- 
tional causes ; vU/. Uertbuau on 1 Ch 8". 2. The 
najne of one of David's 'thirty men* (2 S23") = 
1 Ch n*». The form (Abl-albon) nnder which this 
man's name now appears in t he Heb. text of Soinne! 
is due to textual corruption; Wellhausen (on 2 8 
23'') eupiwwjs the original form to have been 
Abibaal j but there seems no sufficient reason to 
doubt the form (Abtel) preserved in Chron. ; of. 
Driver on 2 S 23". G. U. GitAY. 

ABIEZER {•rsi'ys 'father Is help'). — 1. The 
namo of a clan (loci's Jus 17* (P or R) ; •)^(t Jg 
0"] belonging to the tribe of Manasseh (Jg 0"). 
Consequently, in genealogical descriptions of the 
tribal relations, Abiezor api>eara nj a ran or 
descendant of Manoaseh, Jos l7^ 1 CU 7", Nu 
2ti** {V I in this last pnasage the name is written 
lezer, lisf m. LXX *Ax»^iV)- The most distiogiiished 
member of the clan wa.t Gideon, who desuribes it 
{cf,, however, Moore [Intern. Critvnl Cmrttn^nt- 
tiry] on Jg 0'"] as 'the pooroiit in Manasseh,' 
Jg 0", cf. 3'. In the time of Gideon the clan 
waa settled at Ophrab of the Abiezritea (Jg tf**, 
cf. v."), which perhaps lay near Shechem. In any 
case it would DO an«ife, from P's Ktatemcnt that waa a Eon of (iilead (No 26*" : cf. 1 Ch 7^, 
but cf. Jos 17'), to infer that the elan was ever 
hHllled un the E. of Jurdon ; cf. Dillmaun on Nu 
2G". 2t AUezer the Anathotliite, i.e. man of 
Anathoth in Benjamin (I Ch 27'='; cf. Jer I'), 
waa one of David's heroes, 2 S 23"-=! Ch U*. 
According to 1 Ch 27" he waa the acting military 
ullicer of David' Ft army in the Dth month. Ablesrite 
lA Lbo gcutilic form. G. B. G&AV. 

ABIGAIL and (2 S 17° RV) Ablgal (lleb. gener- 
ally V}'5C. 3 timea ^i'5B, once each '?:3'3»<, V}3ij 
' father is |oy,' or, perhaps, if the ' be not original. 
' has rejoiced.' — 1. The discreet and beautiful 
wife of Nabal the Carmelite. Hearing of her 
husband's dismissal of David's me^wngera, and 
rcfufial of their ru<inesU unknown to her husband 
alio wt;nt to meet David with provisions for hini 
and bis men, and in this way ho gainL>d David's 
favour that lie abamloued his intended raid on 
Nabal. Some ten doys after, Nal>al died, and 
subnenuently Abigail become David's wifu : this 
was otter David's former wife, Miclial, had been 
given to Palti. but apparently at about the same 
time that he also married Ahinuam the Jezrwliteis. 
Together with Ahinoam. Abigail shared Ihivid's 
life at Gath, suffered captivity (from Zikla^j) by the 
Amalnkites, and was speedily rescued : later she 
tivL-d snl\\ David at Hebron, and there bore a son, 
— Chileab(2S 3'j ur Djinirl (1 Ch 3') by name,— 
1 S 25 : alw> 27^ 3'P- '" 2 S 2' 3^, 1 Ch 3'. 

2. A sister of Zemiah — and according to 1 Ch 2" 
also of Da\-id — who through her union with Ithra 
the Ishmaelite (se« art. Itura] became mother of 
Amaso. The words in 2 S 17" (rn] na), which 
oasert that f^he waa a daughter of Naho^ih, are 
probably am intrusion from v." {em p = the son of 
Nalioshi ; cf. Wellhauson, i.t. G. B. GiiAV. 

ABIHAIL (Heh. Vo'Ji! 'father is might').— 
According to the Massom the name is rea4l V^aa 
(with .1, not nj in I Ch 2» 2 Ch 11": but thiw ut 
probably the result of a pro-Mas«orutic tran- 



wrilitional error. 1. Mentioned only in Nn 3* (P) in 
(lio nlirtise *Zuriel, eon of Abihail ' (see ZuRlRl.). 
a. 'Wife' vi Aliiwliur. J Ch 2*. 8. Danglittr of 
Eltab. son of Jesiw, and ooiisenucntly a niece of 
lMvid*». The only psBsage (2 Cli 1 P') vrhere she is 
mentioned in si lylitiy corrupt ; but, according to 
ilm niust nroLul>te ememlation, Abiliail was tliu 
tnotlicr of Uclioboam's wife Accordinj' 
to anotbcr intArprutation, Abiliail was wifo of 
l<eholK>am ; but tbii* in not tbe natural sense of tlie 
lleb. text, and is out of hamtony wilb the context ; 
vv."- ■* imply that only one wife hae Iwcn mentioned. 
♦. In thiB ca*p the name occurs only in 1 Ch O"-* 
in a Gadit« gcncnlofrv ; tin's Abibail was apnareatly 
aclattrettidvnt in CUleod. 8. Father of Estnor, and 
uncle of Mordecni (list 2" £P). For the curious 
variunt of hXX, which gives tlie regular hXX 
equiraJeat of Abluadab, it i» dURcuIt to account. 

G. B. Gray. 
ABIHD {m-^K 'he ia father'), second son of 
Anion by Eliabeba (Ek 6°. Nu 3' 26", 1 Ch 6^ 
a4'| : accompanied Mosea to the top of Sinai (Ex 
24'-'): admitted to the priest's office (Ex 28'}; 
slain for ollering strange lire {Lv H)'- ', Nu 3* 20", 
1 CU LM>). W. C. Allbk. 

ABIHDD (-"I'W 'my father ia majcdiy ').— A 
Itcnjamile, son of Bela (1 Ch 8*). See GenhaI-OOY. 

ABIJAB (nrjii 'Jah is my father').—!. King of 
Jndah O-Titt, 2 Ch 13*-"). He ia called Abljom 
(Vulg. Abiam), 1 K 14" 15^-»-»- Nestle explains 
this as equivalent to cp'SH 'father of thopcoplo'; 
bnt fiince Abijab ib rcatl by tliirUcn of Keunicotl's 
and do Howsi'B MSS, »upportu<l by the LXX 
'Affio6, Abijam ia probably a mistake. As beiBp 
til© eldest Bon of Maacah, tlie favourite wife ot 
Itchoboam. his father appointed him * to be chief, 
even the prince among his br«threu ; for ho was 
minded to make him king ' (2 Ch 1 1^). Hie mother'B 
nanie is variounl v given aa Maac-ali the daughter 
of Abii-lialom (1 fc 15') (Absalom, 2 Ch U**-''), or 
Micjiiali tbe dauL'ht^'r of Uriel of Giheah {2 Ch (3*). 
See Maacah. Ho reigned alwut two years, from 
the eighteenth to the twentieth year of Jeroboam. 
There is pral»ably no reign the account* of which 
in Kinipi and ChrouicleK aiu so dittcri'imnL a.<i that 
of Abijah. In Kings there ia noUiing related of 
him except that ' he walked in all the fins of his 
father,' and that ' there -was "war between Abijam 
and Jeroboam'; nnti, in the history of Asa, an 
incidental alluaion to ' things that Abijah had 
dedicated ' for the temple. In fact, as in the easo 
of Jchoram (2 K 8'*), he waa spared by God 
merely on account of tlie divine promise to David. 
But in Chronicles not only ia there much additional 
historical matter, but Abijah eeems to be a great 
and good man, and liu in made the utlerer of a Rort 
of manifeBto of thu theocratic princijjlea of Judah. 
The deHultory warfare implied in Kings becomea 
in Chronicles one decisive pitched battle fought in 
tlie territory of Ephraiiu, in which Abijidi'a army 
of 400.000 slay 5lio,0w out of the 80<J,uOO mar- 
slialled by Jeroboam. The battle is prece<tcd by 
on oraUoa Epoken on Mt. Zemaraim by Abijali. 
After stronglv alHrmtng the divine right of tbe 
Davidic line, lie dwells on the preWous imjiiety of 
Jerolruam's rel»ellion against Uchoboam wiion tbe 
latter 'was young and tender-hearted, and could 
not withstand them ; anri now ye think to withstand 
tlie kingrtnm of the Lord in the hands of the sons of 
havid.' Tliegodsondpriestaof Judah and Israel are 
Bharply contrasted : 'Wliofloever cometh to conse- 
crato hluiself with a youac huHiKik and Hwrn nuiof, 
the same ma^ bo a priest oi tbein that arenogoriB.' 
The ceremonial of the daily worship at Jenisaleni is 
niinntely dos<.^riI«-d, and tiie loyalty of Judah to 
J* is twice affirmed. The battle wlucb follows 


FHails like an echo of the heroic age of larael. 
'JerolKjani caused an ambnsbment to come about 
behind them. . , . the iirieKtH simndud with the 
tnunpets (cf. Nu 10" 31% Joa 6^), then tbe men 
of Judali gave a atiout (cf. Jos 6**) ; and oa the men 
of J udah aliouted. it came to pass that God itmote 
JeroWxuii and all Israel.' Three cities of Israel 
were taken : liethet, Jcthanah, and Ephron. The 
lotit two are ntberwiita unknown, unlcKS Ephron 
or Ephrain (RVm) be the «aino as Epliraim (2 8 
13^, Jn U"). Bethel must aoon have been re- 
covered by Baasha {2 Ch 10*). After this wo are 
told that Abijah ' waxed mighty, and took unto 
himself fourteen wives.* Presumnbly most of his 
thirty-eight children wore bom before he came to 
the throne. The (Chronicler mentions as his au- 
thority for this reipn the commentary (Midrosh) 
of the prophet Idao, who waa also one of the 
biographers of Relioboaiu. 

2. Samuel's second son, who with his brother 
Joel judged at Beeraheba (1 S 8-). Their corrupt 
admintstratioa of justice waa one of the zeasoaa 
alleged by tlie elders of Israel la justiftcatton of 
their demand for a king. The RV retains the 
spelling Abiah in 1 Ch 6"C 

3. A iHin of Jeroboam I. who died in ckildhuod. 
flif* mother having gone diKgidwKl to the prophet 
Ahijah to inquire if he should recover, receivijil the 
heavy tirhngs of the future annihilation of the 
house of Jeroboani, and of the immediate death of 
her child, ' tAken away from the evil to come*: 
' And all Israel shall mourn for him, and Imry him ; 
for he only of Jeroboani shall come to the grave, 
because in him there in found nome good thing 
toward the Lord the God of Israel in the house of 
Jeroboam' (1 K 14''). 

4. 1 Ch 2-4"'. One of the 'heads of fathers' 
houses ' of the sons of Eluazor, who gavo his name 
to tbe 8th of the 24 coureea of prieeta, tbe arrange- 
ment of whom is ascrilied to Dand (1 Ch 24', 
2 Ch 8"). To this course /acliarian, the father 
of John the Baptist, belonged (Lk 1'). It i^ 
probable that this clan, and not an individual, is 
indicated in the lists of priest* who ' m vnt up witli 
Zorubbabcl ' (Neb 12*}. LXX omits this and other 
naniM in Neh 12 (they are supplied by k =■•»-), and in 
the list of priefits who ' wjiled unto the covenant ' in 
the time of Nehemiah (10^) ('A^iui, B, «). Of tbe 
21 names In Neh 10. 13 oi^cur in nearly the same 
order in a list of 22 in ch. 12, while three otheraare 
very bimilar ; and of the nnnies in these two lists 
are found in the names of David's conrses. On 
tlie other hand, 'the book of the ^encalo^ of 
tliem that came up at the first' (Neb 7, Lzr 2) 
mentions only four faniiliee of priests, nor do there 
ceem to have been more in the time of Ezr flO""-). 

8. A son of Beeher, non of Benjamin. 1 Ch 7". 

6. KV retains ' Abiuh,' 1 Ch 2**. Wife of 
Hezron, oldest son of Perez, son of Judah. She 
was probably daughter of Machir (2"). 

7. Wife of Ahaz, aad mother of Hezekiah 
(2 Ch 20'), named Abi. 2 K I9-. Iler father 
Zccliariah is pojtsibly mentioned In la S-. 

N. J. D. Whitb, 

ABILENE CAfiiX^v^), Lk 3'.— A tetrarchy about 
A.D. 2»j in Syria (Jos. Ant. xvill. vi. 10, xtx. v. 1, 
XX. vii 1 ; iVars, 11. xi. 6), the cap. IwingatAbila 
on the N. slope of Hermon. The ruins of Abda 
surround a small village on the right l«nk of the 
river at Sdh JKdrfy Barada, ' the market of ttic 
valley of the Ahana Kiver.' The name has given 
rise to a local tradition (ItaNcd on the Kurau) that 
Cain here buried .\bel, whose tomb is hIiohti at a 
large tank cut in the rock on the tup of a rlilT to 
the south. It ia also preserved in the Latin text 
of Luciua Venia, on toe N. side of the rock-cut 



paange ol the Rom. road W. of the town. The 
region of Abilene is also noticetJ in a Gr. text 
found in 1ST3 al Iturkush on iJcmion, Bho>^ing 
that tho duitrict included the Antilcbanon anu 
llermon, N.W. of Damascas. There is a ceme- 
tery nt Abila of Horn, rock-cut tonibi) on the left 
of the fctrcttiii, M-liich here forms a cascade. Thej' 
are ndurned with ha-i-ielief liiii^t^, and there are 
neveral UimlMttones with Gr. texU, giving the names 
iif Lucius, Arehelann, Phedi^tus, Antonin, and 
I'hil&nder. N. of t)ie river and E. of the town ore 
fonndatious of a imiall Itoui. tumplc. 

UnkAm>.— TU-lnnil, PtUiutinit, n. fiKT ff. ; Roblnwn, tattr 
BR, pp. 4TP-M4: I'orUr, (Hani Cttitt </ finjAan, p. S62(. ; 
Schfirar, njPl. li. 336-3S0: Conder, Tmt-Wartin Pal. p. 127; 
Fnmr, Zrittehri/t dca eUvinAtn I'aUMinn- r«rKiia, viil. 40 ; 
SWPSpmM Papen; Vfmddlngtim, tnterif. Ortt. ft Lit de ta 
5|rri#. $,v. ■ Abdifc* C. R. CONUKK. 

ABILITY.— Both in OT and NT abilitv oceura 
Id two Bcnses, which maet be distingfimhed. 1. Jt 
signifies nuUerial cajmcity, resourcee^ wealUi, as 
Exr 2* 'They gave after their a. (Heb. 'ace a« 
his band may reat-h') into the treaRury"; Lv 27* 
* According tu Uie a. of him that vaueti shall the 
priest value him." Cf. LXX of Lv 25*'' " with Ac 
U* below ; and 

'Ont of my luui wkl low ftbDlly 
I'll lend fou somcUtlne.* 

— ShokespMre, T. S, lil. 4. 

Thif* is the moaning aIi<o of Ac II'" 'Then the 
iliK-iptc«, every man according to his a., dcter- 
inined to eend relief nnto the bret-hron,' though 
the original is a verb, *ro*(ii tvnopuTi tit, meaning 
*acv. as each prospered.' 2. It ai^'nifies personal 
ra]iai>i(T, strength of l»dy or oi rnind. Thim 
Da I* ' Such OS liad a. (73) in them to stand in 
the king's palaoe' ; Mt 23" ' He gave talents . . . 
to every inan according to his several n. {Vivafux),' 
So Wis I3'% Sir 3" AVm. In motiern Eug. n. ia 
ntniuDt conlined to nientnl cnpruuLy, thuugh one 
hvars it locally uwd of ph^miuil i«>trengtTi. In 
the »Rn»e of wealth Iho laU^e^t (-xample found is 
in Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefidd, 

J. Hastings. 

ABIHAEL (^(*?*3(!> J>erhnps = ' father U God,' 
bnt tho force of tho a i» uncertain) was one of the 
JoktonidA or (8.) Arabianft {i^ee art. Joktan), 
On 10* fJ), 1 Ch I» Nothing furUier is kinjwn 
of this tribe, but it is markuorthv that another 
nauie of the wune riecnliar foniiatfon, viz. vvssk, 
haM been found on llie S. Arabian inncriplions ; see 
D. H. Miiller in ZDMG 1883, p. 18. 

G. B. GraV. 

ABIMELECH (nVi^'Stf 'Melech [Molki or Molecli] 
it father').—!, A king of Gcrar mutitioin;^! iu cuu- 
nexiou with the Ui.slory of Abraham, Gn 20^'^ 
2r--« {both E),and of Isnac^ Gn26'-"-*« {both J). 
With all tlieir [Miints of ditr4;rciice, it apiiears im- 
(losedblo to the L-onrlniuon that we have in J 
and £ two variant* of the same story. In botli the 
|ifttriarch renorts to the same method of defence to 
jirotect himself from the same danger (20" •US') ; in 
Ivti) A. is righteously indignant at the <lcceit 
practiwd upon htm (2i>*' 26""): in both a troatv ia 
Lntered into Mith A. 121*"- 2ij=«-): in iKJth Phiool 
(2I«'96*( and iJeershcba (21" 26»j are mentioned. 
In oil prolmbility J lias preserved the earlier form 
of the tradition, ace. to which ItMiac. and not 
Abraham, was the patriarch concerned. The 
Mumllel etOT^- in Gn 12'" ■" (where riiarooh of 
Ecrpt takes the place of A. of G«rar) U alw from 
a Jahwistic source, but Kcnrcely from the some 
pen as 26'-». If the title J* be adopte<] for the 
latter, w« may designate the other J^ wh»'th«r we 
accept or not of Kaenen's theory' that he (Hlited a 
Judaan reoension of J. 

Lrmurma.— Couim. ol Dillm. sod Dsl. oa Gtn. IL bU.; 

Coma, mtuttL* b*t; wud*bow, sal 4. A.r. n, iss; 

KnuLuch u. Soda, Otnttit i W. B. Sultb, Ofi/C* 116; Kucaeu. 
UceattueA. 234, U2. 

2. A king of Gath aco. to title of Ps 34<. Here 
A. is poAAibly a mtntake fur AchiAh (cf. 1 S 21"'*), 
It Iwtter known Phil, name being i!u)>flLitutod for n 
less familiar one, or it may lie that Abimelech is 
Icua a penonal name than a title of I'hil. kings like 
Kgyp. Pharaoh (see Ox/, lleb. Lex. a.v.). 

3. This A. is generally reckoned one of the 
judgtw (ho in Jg liy, but proluibly not by editor of 
nor in 1 S 12^). Ace. to .Jg S" (U) ho was a soil 
of Gideon by a Shechemite cxincubinc. Upon bis 
father's death ho gained over * his mother's 
brethren' in Shcchera, and with the aid of a hired 
troop of * vain and light fellows ' murdered all his 
70 brothers except the youngest, Jothani, who con- 
trived to escape. A. then ascended the throne 
and araumed tho kingly title (9'*^). Jotluun, leav- 
ing his place of concealment, spoke at Mt. Gerizini 
his well-known parable {vv.'"), which was calcu- 
lat«d to BOW duisension amongBt tlie Shechcmitea, 
who were partly of Can. and [>artly of lar. blood. 
After throe years both sectiotw were weary of 
the rule of A., who seeni.o to have taken up hU 
reitidence elwjwhero (vv."''). Gaal, thu leader 
of the Israelite faction (see, however, Moore on 
Jg 9"), made (rach headway in Shechcm that 
USebul, the governor, an H<iherent of A., was 
obliged to feign compliance with his designs. All 
tile while, however, he was keeping A. secretly 
informed of tho revolutionary movcmonti and sug- 
ceating methods of cheeking it(vv.*""). Atlengtl) 
A. advanced to attack the city, and Gaal was 
completely routed, and after his defeat Gxpolled 
by Zebnl (w.*^""). In a second day's li-^lit A. 
raptured Shecheni and put to the sword all tin: 
inhabitants that fell into his hands. A number 
hating taken refuge in the temple of El-berith, 
he burned the building over their head* (vv.**-^). 
Sometime nfterwanlH A, root his dnatli M-hilo 
iM'j-ieging Thebex. Bein" strut-k down by a 
rnill-*tone which a woman flung from the wall, lib 
ordered hLs armour-bearer to kill him in order tu 
e;«cape the disgrace of perishing by the hand of a 
woman (w.**^*). 

The above is a reasonable and in general self- 
consistent narrative, but there are not a Uvr points 
of detail where the course of cventa is Involved in 
i-onxidurabk' obscurity. Zebul upon any theor;^' 
jtlay^t a double part, but it is not quite certain 
whether there wh-i to the last a complete under- 
standing l>otwcen him and A. Kittel thinks there 
was, and sappo3cs that Z. was put to death liy the 
ShecJiemitei* after they discovered his trcatliery. 
Wellhauacn, on the contrary, believes that he per- 
islied along with the Shcchcniites, A. having come 
to regard him as the real instigator of the revolt, 
and refusing to be propitiated^ by the oirering of 
Gaal as a scape-goat. It is tnrther dmibtfui 
whether A. himseli acted in the int«re«t« of the 
Can. or of the Isr., bat at all events Wellhausen 
rightly remarks that 'the one permanent fnut of 
his activity was that Shecheni was destroyed as a 
Can. city and rebuilt for IctbcI' (cf. t K la'-*). 

The fitory of A. in -Ig 9 is the natural ficqucl of 
the version of Oidfon"* hiM.. contained ia 8*"- (note 
aim how tho sentiments of JothamV parnble agree 
with 8**- *•, unletJK, indeed, these latter two ver-sen 
are ati Sth cent, interpolation}. The narrative i-» 
one of the oldest in OT, belooffing to the ttAme typu 
OS the naiTntivtm concerning tne minor judges. It 
is free from Dctitcr. touches and turns of expression, 
and may In itii present form date from the earliest 
Veara of the niuuarchy. Its purpoM Is to show 
bow the murder of Gidoon's sons was avenged on 
A. and the ShechemiteH, wbo were practically his 
accomplices (tf", cf. vv. '• "•**). liudde ailrinates 
the pretervntinn of the story to £, who, howevar. 




liimBelf compoiteri the Jotham purablo. Moore 
conHtdtTH tliut. it i» p(»usiMe to di^si'Dtanglti tnu 
narratives, (A) vv. "*•*'**'•'*'■, r»j),'niilo with wliiuli 
are vv.'«, (Bl vv.»-<*. Tlie iitni <>i iiivm lie wouUi 
amign to E, the serond to J. Tlii^^ M-heme lias the 
ftdvaotace of removing a ^ood many diflic)i]tie« 
lirescnt^ by tho ctioptor in lU prcecot fonn. 

LrfiaATriE.-ComtI!, «iiiW(.a 66; WUtle^wr. LU. a. A.T. 
as, 82, 282; Ifriver, tor ir.T ; \VeUh»ii*en, Camp.d. tlrx. S27(!., 
8U8.: Bwltk-. Huht. 14, Sam. 117ff.: Klltrl, Uitt. itK Oeb. 11. 
Ull.,iaD.,6:in.,&5g.: Moor«, Jud^f*. 237 0. 

ft. A priest, the son of AWathar, at*c. to 1 Ch 
18", where, however, the reading of MT. ' Aftime- 
lech the son of Ahiathar,* b* ohvionsljr a mistake 
for * Abiathar the »on uf A/iimL-luch ' (cf. 2 S 8" and 
notes on it by Dudde in liaiipt's Saertd like, of OT^ 
and by Kittelin Kautzi<ch'aX T.). See Abiathar. 

J. A. SfiLBIE. 

ABINADAB (37;*=*! / father is Reneroos'j LXX 
always 'A^araJdjS (A 'AtuvaH^), except at 1 S 31', 
where B (but not A) reads 'lwi-o^,d). — 1. Owner of 
the house Mhitlicr the ark was broayht by the 
men of Kirjatlj-jearim after tho catafttrophe at 
Beth-Shemvsh (1 S7'lr whence it waa flubsetiuontly 
remove<l by David, 2 S 6*S 1 Ch 13^ During 
ita stay Iii^fh it was ke|>t by Eb>n2ar, son nf 
Ablnauab. 2, The second &on of Jeeao, specially 
roentionctl in the narrative of 1 S 16 as not being 
the elect of J" for the kincdom. He acconi- 
liaiiied his brothers EHab and Shanimah to join 
Snul'H army aj^ainat tlie Philistines— 1 S 16* 17", 
1 Ch 2'^ 3. A son of Saul shun in the buttle of 
RIt. Gillxia. 1 S 31*= I Ch 10*. Otherwi-ne men- 
tioniMlonly in the t^encalof*ieB of ChrunidDH, 1 (?h 
8« ff*. Hilt cf. art. Isiivt. 4. On Abinmlab in 
1 K 4" lAV, not RV), mw Bex Arisadar. 

G. B. Gray. 

ABINOAM (2Vl';»i 'fatlieris pleaMintne^^'). tho 
father of Barak, is mentioned both in tho sonp 
(J;X 5") and the prose narrntive (.Ig 4*'-'=) of the 
ranipai^n of Barak aod Deborah a<'ain!*t thu 
Caaaamtea. G. B. Gkay, 

ABIRAW (0T3K * my father is the Exalted Onc'K 
— X. The son ol EHab, a Reubenite, who with 
Dathan (which see) conspired a;;riinst Moses 
(Nu 16''--^, Dt 11«, Ps ItlU'^). 2. The firstborn 
son of Hiel thu B^ithelite, on whom tho curso 
fell for rebuilding Jericho (1 K 15^}. 


ABI8HAG (i^'St;, mcinlng uncertain ; nosstbly 
•father baa wandered ').— A very benutiful younc 
Shunammitess who was broutrht to comfort David 
in hiti extreme old a;*(i, according to the advice of 
his sen-anta, 1 K 1^-". After David's death, 
Alnsliog, OS hia father's widow, was asked in 
marriage by Adonijali; tlie nt^nest was tefu»cd 
by Solomon, Mho api>e«rt> to have 9e*in in it a 
renewal of Adunijiih'n claim to the throne, 1 
K 2" « i tf. W. K, Suiitb, Kinship nnH Mnrringt, 
p. 89f. G. B. Gray. 

ABISHAI (V'a*!, but -(^h 2 S 10", 1 Ch 2'" !!» 
lyu ' My father is Jesse').— A. appears from 
I Ch 2"^ to have been tho eldeat son ot Zeroi&h, 
I>avad's sister. More inuK-tuous than the orafty 
Joftb, biiteiiiially imiihu-alili'. 'hard' [2 S 3" IB^*}, 
the first mention of Abixhiu (I S Llf) prH>*entH him 
to us asalreadvone of the most daring and devot-ed 
of David's fi,tl lowers. He volunteers to jro down 
with David to Saul's oamp by ni;;ht, aTiu is only 
prevoDted by David's veneration fox the kiu^' a 
sacred office from smiting i>aul ' to the earth at one 
stroke.* We next find him (2 S 2'*-*') with hLs 
two hroUicra at that butttc of Gibeon which had 
Buch fatal rcaulta, tin^t to Aaahel, and ultimately 
to Abner, in whose trcacheruu.'t murder by Joab, 
AbiHltai (diared as joint aven^r of bloiMl (2 S 

3*-»). The victory in the Valley of Salt otct 
Edoni <ef. 2 K 14''), which is ascribed to DaWd in 
2 .S 8'= (SyiiausJ, and t«. Joab in I's GO title 
(1 K ll'"-'"), is attributed to Abi.shai in 1 Ch 18". 
In thu war that was caused by Hanun'ii iuHult to 
David's envcvys, Joab ^ve Abishai command of 
the second division agaLiiHt the Ammonilwi, while 
ho himself opposed tho Syrians (2 S lO'* '•). 
Abiahai's charaeter is well brought out in the stoiy 
of David's flight, whun he retort!) the abn<io of 
Shimei in true Oriental style, and is impatient 
to slay the offender at once (2 S lO*-"). Nor could 
Shimci'fl subftcqncnt abject aubmiit.«iion induce 
Abiifhai to forgive the man that had ' cursed the 
Lord's annintwl '. (19='}. In the battl*? with 
Ab«Ucm, Abixliai slsared the command of David's 
army with Joab and Ittai 0!*^'^")- In 2 S 20« 
the name Joab should probably be sulistitutod 
for that of Abi.shai (so Jos. Ant. vil xL 6, the 
Syr. vers,, WoUhausen, Thenins, and Driver), and 
V.' read as in tho LXX: 'And there went out 
after him Abishai and Joab's men,' etc. It is 
natural to suppose that Ahiatiai connived at the 
murder of Amasa by Joab, 2 S 20**> (so Jusoplius). 
Hit4 special exploilx were, rescuing David from 
iHhbi-Twnob, 2 S 21'^, and Rlaviiig three hiuulreil 
men, 23". These feat« earned for him the first, 

flacc 'of the three in the second rank' (1 Ch U'*, 
tVm), the other two being probably Joab and 
Benaiah ; the first three being Jaahobeam, Eleazar, 
and Shammoh. 

Abishai probably died before tho rebellion of 
Adonijah. If he ha<l been alive, he iniuit have been 
mentiuned among the leaden of either nidt^. 

N. J. D. WUITK, 
ABI8RAL01C.— See art, Absalom. 

ABISHUA (pr'^it, meaning nncertain; perhaps 
'father is wealth.' — 1. According to the genealo- 
gies of Chron., where alone the name occurs, 
Win of Phiuchaa and fath«r of Itukki, 1 Ch fl"-" 
Exr "•; cf. 1 Es 8' and art AcisuE. 2. A Ben- 
jarnite ; presumably the uume wan that of a clan, 
since other names in the context are certainly clan 
names, I Ch 8*; cf. Nu 26""-. G. B. GRAY. 

ABISHUR [-"s*';!! 'father is a wall').— A Jerali- 
meclitv det^ribed as ' son ' of Shammai ; Abihail 
was his wife, oud Alibou and Molid his children 
(1 Ch 2«-). 

ABIS8EI (AV Abiaei).— One of tho ancestors of 
Ezra (2 Ea ]'}, called in 1 Ch U* AbisHUA, and in 
1 Es 8* Abisuk. 

ABISOE (LXX, B 'Aduaal, A 'Xfiieovai) I Ee S*, 
A\' Abiaum, is identit-id wiUi Ahi>hua. 

ABITAL {Sc-JK 'father is dew'), wife of David, 
to whom, during his residence in Hebron, she 
boro Shephatiah, 2S3^ = 1 Ch 3'. 

ABITDB (xtt'^f), 1 Ch S'l, and ABIUD {'A^toCS), 

Mt 1". See GENEALOGY. 

ABJECT, now only an adj., was formerly also 
a Rulmu and a verb. As a Bubst., meaning the 
dregs of the people. abji*ct is found iii Pa 35" 
' The abjecte (D-jj, RVm ' smiters ') cathercd them- 
selves together against me.' Cf. T. Bentley (1582), 
* AJmi''htie God. : which raisest up the abjects, 
and exaltest the miserable from the dunghill,' 
.VofiM. Matr. iii. 328; G. Herbert, 'Servants and 
abjecta llout me,' Temple : SacrUiL-c, 3tJ. 

J. Hastinos. 

ABNER, xsv (U'^i; 1 S U^"), 'my father la 
Ner,' or 'is a lamp.' Saul'?! first oousin, accord- 
ing to 1 S 14^-" (the more probable aci<oiml), 




liis BOD .Toasiel wiui caiitAJn of Benjuniio in David'i 
reign U Ch 27«). N. J. D. Whitb. 

ABODE.— 1. The pust tense of AntDR (which 
see). 2. Id Jn 14^ I' We will come unto him, and 
make our abode willi hint ') a. is tr. of the Hame 
wonl (jMM-4) which in Jn 14^ ia rcixUntNl Mansion 
(which Me). J, HASTINGS. 

ABOMINATION.— Four separate Ileb. words 
ant thus reoderod in OT (soinotimcs with the 
variation abi/minabU thinfj), the aiipltcation of 
whivh i8 in many respoota very dilfereiit, (IJ The 
coniiuonest of these ^vords is t^u^n, which expreaiea 
moHt ^oiicrnlly tlte idea of sometliing loathed (cf. 
the verh, Mic 3*), osp, on religions grounds : thus 
fin 43** ' to eat food with the Hebrews is on 
abominntion to the Ecyjitiana/ — a strong ex* 
pression of the excluaiveneu with which tlie 
Egyptians \iewed foreicDcrs, esp. auch as had no 
re^LTd for their religious scniples ; thuM, on 
account of their vencratiuu for the cow (which waa 
sacred to Isis), they would not uih) the knife or 
cooking utensil of a Grtck, which niiglit have been 
employed in preparing the fleah of a cow as food 
{Hat. ii. 41); tin 46** 'every shepherd is an 
ttbomirutiion to the Egyptians, — ehephorda, viz., 
were ranked, it secm-i, with the ^oukAXw, whose 
occupation was deemed a degrading one. who from 
livinc with their herds in reed cottages on the 
marshes were callexl marshmtn, and wlio are 
depicted on the monnmcntfl as dirty, unshaven, 

Iworlv clad, and even as dwarfs and deformed (cf. 
>cl. 'ad toe. ; HirrhWilkintwn, Ane, Eg. 1878, I. 
2SS f., ii. 444 ; Wic^lcmann. Ilerodotsacettu Buch, 
iSOO. p. 371 f. ; Erman, Life in Anc. Eg. p. 439) ; 
Ex 8^ <-^> the Israelites are represented a^ unwilling 
to sacrifice ' the abomination of the Egyplinnx ' in 
Egypt itself, with allusion, probably, to animals 
which the Egyptians abstained rttigiously from 
oacriHi'ing, though they were sacrificed freely by 
the Hebrowfl, as the cow, which was sacred to (sis, 
the hidl, unless it was pronounced by the prie«t« to 
he KaOapls, or free from the sacred'nmrks of Apis 
(Hr*rodotU8' statements on this point are not 
entirely borne out by the monumenta, but there 
Nueiraa to bo some foundation for them), sheep at 
Thebes, and goata [according to Wiedemann, nu 
error for rams} in Mendes (fidt. ii. 38, 41, 12, 4fi ; 
cf. Birch- Wiik. ii. 4m, in. I0« f., 304/. ; Wiede- 
mann, i.e. pp. 180-182, 183, 187 f., 100 f., 218 f.). 

Two special usages may be noted : (it) the phrnso 
Jehovah i abomination, of idolatry or practice 
conneotcd with it> or of charuftera or acts morally 
dispieaeing to God. Dt 7= 12=' 17' lS»22»23'»tfl) 
25« 27" (cf. 24\ Lk 16"), Fr 3° IP** IS" lfi^»-=« 
16' 17" 20**-*' (comp. in a Pha'n, inBrription, an, 
Orivur, S'tmucl, p. xxvi, the expression *'iVsh- 
toreth's abomination,' of the violntion of a tomb) ; 
(6) «ap, in the plur., of heathen or imninrnt 
practicea, principally in H and Ezk, as Lv is™»-=»> 
*■ » 20»'. Dt 13" i»'t 17* 18»- « 20^ Jer 7" 32». I K 
U«, 2 K 10' 21'- ", Ezk 5»- » 7^ *■ •■ • «•• »»• " etc. (43 
times in Er,k), rarelv of an actual idol, 2 K 23" (of 
MiliHini), Is 44'», anil perhaps Dt 32'*. 

\2) y^yJ, the technical term for stale •taerilicial 
ITexh, which has not been eaten within the i»re- 
eeribed time, only Lv 7" W, Etk 4'* (where the 
prophet proteBts that he has never partaken of it), 
and(plur.} Is 65*. For distinction this mi^hc Lo 
rendered re/ufe meat ; the force of tlie alluMinn in 
Ezk 4'*, la eS*, in particular, iu enlirulv lost by the 
rendering 'abominable thing' of AV, ItV. 

(3) I'ijf, iJie technical term for the ttenh of pro. 
hibiteu animals (see article Unclean), Lv 7*' 
ipo-u. ».».«. « icf. the corresponding verb, v.»»- >»■ *» 
20*) : this sense of the word cives the point to 
Ezk 8>", Is 66'^ xsf would Lo best represented by 

but nncle oeconltn*,* lo 1 CIi S^^H"*"*. Jos. 
Fbltows Chrtmicles in A n(. TI. iv. 3, but Samuel in 
VI. vj. 6. The lati^^ungc tiscd of him by David, 
'Art not thon a valiant man, and who is like to 
thee in Ifirael!' (1 S 2ti") ; 'Know ye not that 
there is a prince and a i^reat man fallen this day in 
Israel T' (2 S 2?^)^ is not inrouHistent with tlje re- 
corded facts of Abner'fl life, altliou^Oi the one 
ppeeoh was uttered in a tone of banter, and the 
other possibly dictated by motives of policy. Aa 
captain of the host (1 S 14" 17"), Abner sat next 
Saul at the banquet (I S 20"), and lay near him in 
the camp (26"- '). A Jewish tradition (Jerome, Qa. 
Meh. in loe.\ states that the witch of Endor was 
Abiier's moliier. On Saul's death Abner secured 
for iHhlNinheth tlie allegiance of all tlie Iribi's 
except Judah (2 S S*'*). Ho placed the feeble 
king nt Mahanaim, while he himself conducted the 
war wich David west of Jordan. One of tlie 
fafttUes— that of the jiool of Gibeon— is detailed on 
Account of its fatal results. Ilere we liave evidence 
of Ahner's c<miparutivo Uiildnoas of character. It 
is posxibie that tlio preliminary enoonoter of the 
cluuupioDS of the two armies was suggested by him 
in onler to decide the claims of the rival hout>es 
without unDOcessary bloo<li«hed. Then we have 
his reiterated relnctanoo to slay Asahel, and, fmally, 
his protest against the nnnaturalncss of the war: 
•Shall the sword devonr for ever? . . . How long 
shall it be ore thou bid the people return from 
following their brethren ! ' 

As the war proceeded in David's favour ' Abner 
made hiinaelf strong in the house of Saul ' (2 S 3'). 
This rendering lencu some plausibility to lahbosh- 
eth's insinuation that he was aiming at the 
oronn by a liaison with the late king's concubine 
[ef. 2 S IV 10", I K 2*»-»). The indi;,niation, 
however, with which Abner rejK'lled the chargo, 
and the absence of self-seeking in his subseeuent 
conduct, support the [laraphrase of AV and RVm, 
*BhnwF>il hirnsolf strong for (a) the house of .SnuL' 

Bo that as it may, the accusatir)n alienated 
Abner, who forthwith deelare<l that be would 
accomplish J"'8 will by making David king over 
all Isrucl. He entered at once into negotia- 
tions both with David and the elders of Israel and 
benjamin. David, on his part.. usUiK^Iv dcmandnd 
lu* a preliminary Uie restituticm of Miehal, who 
wuula be at once a link with the house of Saul 
and a living memorial of Darid's early prowess. 
Uliboilieth's sha-lowy authority was made use of 
to carry out thU condition. Abner was now 
lioapiiADly enteruuned by David at Hebron, and 
had scarcely depart d tofuMil his engagements to 
David when Joab returned from a foray. Asahel's 
death was still unavt-ngud ; here was a plauHible 
pretext for ridding himself of a dangerous* rival ; 
so Joab secretly n*rallefl Abner, and with the 
eonnivnnec of Abishai troachemusly muniered him 
in the gate of llebron, a city of refuge. The 
enonuity of this crime called forth from David n 
bitter curse (2 S 3*) on the penH-'lrator, and was 
never forgotten by him {I K 2*-*'». Abner was 
buried in Hcbrmi, amidst the tniuentBtionn i>f the 
nation. The king himself acted as chief mounier, 
and bononrcl the dead warrior with an elegy which 
liithily exprwees the strange irony of fate by whir^h 
the princely Abner died a death suitable to a pro- 
fane aiul worthless man. (lleb. ' was A. to die [i.e. 
ought he to Imve died! as Nabal dioth*') The dimuay 
caused br Abner's death (2 S 4') seems to prove 
that neitlier Islibosheth nor his subjects in general 
luul realised Abner's defection. The inevitable 
crisis was hastened, and bv a curious chance the 
head of the murdered I^h1)o<>heth was burietl in 
Abner^s grave (2 S 4"). Wo learn from the 
Otronieler tliat Abner dedicated certain spoil for 
Uie repaira of the tabernacle ( 1 Ch 26**), and that 



dctc^totion, or {/(testable thing (cf. dftcst lor the 
verb, Dt "*). Koto tliat in JUt U' abomination is 
R;;ipi, not the technical |^^ need in Lv 11. 

(4) piX", nilii!il in olymulog)' to {^), but in augtr 
coiiiinwIuJiiiuhLexcluRivL'ly t«tibj«utBconneototlwitli 
iiIuUtr\-, and chivflr n rontvmptnous deHignatiun 
oi heaUien deities them^elveti: tintt to Hooti'^'nnd 
becnmerfs/M^aitofw like that which they loTed'(Baiil 
of Peor, named just before) : more freqiiently in 
Mi-iters of the age of Jcr nnd Ezk, \'iz. lit flU'"'"', 
Jur4'7»' ( = 32«) IS*' 16'*. Ezk C" 7» U'*-*' •Jti'-f-^ 
37", 1 K il^'MUcom tlie{/e/<rjfa<Kmof the AmiuOD- 
itop,' v.''T, 2 K 23'»-" (no/ of Milcom), v.**; also 
I»s 66*, Zee »'. In AV, KV, where this word 
Oi'cun* beside ^y:^ (No. 1), as Ezk 5" 7*" (and Ezk 
37", even where it standa alone), it is rendered for 
distinction detestable tkivf^; and either this or 
Uetcstntion would bo the most tniitablc En^;. 
eiiuivalent for it. S. K. Dkivkk. 


&vi\vyfta ttJi is>^iJ<:>fitu}i\ Mt 24", Mk 13'*, 
' »[iokcn of by Daniel the prophet,' the appearance 
of >^'hich. ' fllAnding tV rin^ u-^itf (Mt), or Ur^y ov 
iu (Mk),' id iiiL'nlioncd by Chn»t as the bIj^oJ for 
tlic UighL of Ointstiaits from Judiea, at the time of 
the &i>|ii'oaching destruction uf Jerus. The (jr. 
phrase is borrowed from Da 9^ LXX ySWXi^wi tw 
iprttuLfftur (»o Theod.), U" I.XX ^S4\fytia 
/pTjftukTtut (Theod. pS. ^ipaptanipof}, 12" I.XX ri 
ti£i\w/ieL T^f tproiwvftjs (Theod, f«. (>. I : cf. 8" (LXX. 
flieod.) iiaftafirU). ipif^LMrtux. The Heb. in the firat 
of theRo pa-ssa^'es is ffjb? cvptf, in the second pptfp 
c;ir9, in the third c?*:* ppc', in the la«t c^f t*^. 
\~'p^ \s the word explained under AnoMiXATlON (4), 
oa being often the contemptuous diwiynation of n 
lieathen god or idol, cst-^ and zz^ are, however, 
ditiicijt. c?tfo elsewhere {only Ezr O"-*) means 
horrified; c^b means iisuallTc/»o/ate (na La I**"), 
lliouKh it might also (as pti-p. of DC?*, Exk 26" 27» 
al.) rnt-'au Iwrrijicd nit well; in l)n, however 
{fUppoHin;; the t«xt to be sound), the exigencies of 
llic H<.%nse have obH};ed many eommentatom to MUp* 
iioeo that the I'oel conjiig. ha^ a trans, force ; hence 
ItV 9=* 'one that maUth desolnte' ■ U" 'and they 
bliall profane the Kanctuar^', even the fortrew, and 
hhall tAko away the cnntfniial burnt-otl'cring, nnd 
Ihcy shall set up the abomination that nmkcth 
(h'jtiilatf,' ; 12" 'from the time that the continual 
burnt-offering uhall be taken away, and the 
aloraination that maJxth desoiat« set up' ; bo 8" 
ccf tT?>7 'the transgression that »jMi/:«(Arfcio/'t*e' (the 
foiTU c^fc* miijht ]uat he a ptcp. Poel mth the o 
dioppcd ; t>L>s.-K. ^^ 00 R. 1. 02. 2 K. 6). In spite, 
however, of the unecrtainty as reganla cc*" (or 
ccro), the general t»enao of *11" ana 12" is clear. 
Kn 11"-** deals with the hi-itorj- of Antioclms 
Epiplianca, and v." refeni to the dcttecration of the 
temple by the troops of Antioehu»<, the subsequent 
Euspenaion of the daily bumt-ofrerin;j and other 
rehffioua ser^'ices (whicli lasted for three years), 
mid to the en'rtidn on 15 Cliislev, u.c. IftS, of a 
Miialt idol-aliar l/^oiA^f) upon the Altar of burnt- 
olVerins (I Mac l»-»"). 12^' (like 8") in anothi:r 
reference to the same events. It is remarkable, 
now, that in 1 Mac 1** the idol-altar w ciLlkd by 
exactly the Hune name that is ueod in the Uk. 
of Lta — t^naihuifffo* paXvma iprjfMMtijt irl t4 
ffwriaoT-^pto*' (cf. <&'). uu ^'^ is very dirticult : but, 
as tbe reference in NT is ralhor to 11" and 12", 
it need Dot here be further considered ; LXX, 
Theod., however, it may bo noted, have xat iirl rb 
itpbv fi6i\vyfui TWf </n7MbW€w^. Of the perplexing 
expression c=e ppv, dow, a clever ftn<r plausible 
trxpinnalion han been suggested by Nestle (ZATIV 
1884, p. 248; cf. Cheyne,' Oiitjin nf thr. PmUr.r, p. 
106; licvan, Dan. p. 193), viz, ihixi it in a con- 
temptuous ftUusion to crc '7y3 h'lnl of )uaivtnt a 

title found often in Phcon. and (with i-cv for c-or) 
Aram, inscriptions, and the Scni. equivalent of 
the Gt. KtL'i : at^cording to 2 Mac 6^ Antiuchna 
desired to make tho temple a sanetaary of 7,ri>t 
'0\iVirtor,— a>^ his uoins show (Nestle, Marginrtlicn, 
p. 42, w}io cites Itabelon, Le* Itoia de Syric, pp. xiv, 
xU-iii), his patron deity,— who in the Syr. vers, of 
the saine paaaape is actually called I'M? "Jpn Baal of 
heaven. Upon tliis view, we are released from the 
necessity of searching for a meanin;^' of ccc in 
exact accordance with the context ; the ^ki^ 
(wltli, iKtH.'iilily, an image connected with it) erected 
by the Syrians upon the Altar of inimt-oiTering 
was termed derisively by tho Jews the 'desolate 
jiboniination,' the ' alwrnination ' being the altar 
(and imago?) of Zetis (Baal), and 'desolate* 
[shAmeTJi) being just a punning variation of 
• heaven " [shamaim). The Gfr. trs. of Dn and ! Mac, 
in BO far as they supposed the fixprcf-Binu to mean 
(mXirffta, tp^fuLvKin, no doubt understood the 
idolatrous embiera to involve, by tte erectiou, the 
duflortion of the temple by its naual wor&hipners, 
and ultimately it's actual 'desolation' (see 1 Mao 
4*). IP' and 8" (the pobst. with the art., the 
ptcp. 'nitbout it), and fitill more (if, as h protvible, 
the reference be to the samo idolairou-s nnbliim) 
y^ (the Rubst. plur., the ptcp. sing. ), are giammatic- 
uUy dtfUcuIt ; but tS\e text in these pa^-sagea il 
perhaps not in it« original form (cf. Bevau). 

As to the meaning of the expression in the 
prophecy of Christ, it is very difficult to speak with 
confidence. It woulil be most naturally under- 
stood (cf. Spitta. Ofcnb. dcA Joh. 493-49G) of some 
desecrating emblem, Hiinilar in general chaiiicter to 
the altar or image erected by Antiovhus. and of 
which that might bo regarded as the prototirpe : 
but nothing exactly corresponding to this is 
recorded by history ; tho order which Caligula 
issued for the erection in the temple of a statue of 
himself, to which divine honours were to be paid, 
lieing not enforced (Jos. Ant, xvill. viii. S). Tho 
three mot^t usual explanations are— (1) the Roro, 
ctandard«, to which sacrifices were oflered by tho 
Rom. soldiers in the temple, after it had been 
entered by Titus (Jos. BJ\i. vi. 1) ; (2) thodcsecri^ 
tion of th<^ temple by the Zealots, who seized it and 
made it their stronghold, shortly before the city 
wasinvefted by Titus {ib. iv. iii. G-fi.ef. \-\. 3fnil)} 
(S) theidpsolation of the tcmplc-site by the heathen, 
at tlie time of its capture by Titus (so Meyer). 
The tcnii standing (nhieh points to some concrete 
object) is a serious objection to the second 
and third of thexe explanations ; it is some 
objection, though not perhaps a fatal one, to the 
first, that it places tlie signal for flight at the very 
last stage of the enemy's suoceeses, when even the 
dwellers in Judica (in %iow of whom tlie wonU are 
Biiokon] would seem no lonpertoneed the waminc. 
The eroclion of the imperial statuo in tho Temple 
wa-H, however, only averted in the first instance 
by the earnest repreMntations of thi) procurator 
I'etronius and of Kinj^ Agriinra. I., and atterwards 
by Caligula's own untimelv (leath (Schiircr, ilJP 
\. ii. liyf.ti tlie emperors order caused great 
alarm among the Jews, who even after his dealh 
( 41) continued, to fear leat one of his succeason 
should revive and enforce it (Fflciderer, Dtu 
Vtvliriat, pp. 403^07; Mommsen, /'roil'ncM, iL 
196 IT. . 2m3 11. ) ; hence (as even the tirnt explanatioD 
menttone<l aln^ve leAvea Bomethiug to be desired) 
it may not bo an unrvaaoDable conjecture * that 
the language of the original prophecy was more 
general, and that, during the years of a^tAtion and 
tension which nrecede«l the final struggle of A.D. 
70, it was moclitied so oa to give more definite 
exprossion to such apprehensions : tho mosc. 

* The wrilAT !■ Indebud for thb vupEMtion to hb friend. Prof 





ioniKim, wiiioti in Mk 13'* is the best reading (m 
BL ; 90 KV, ' Btaiiiiingwlivre he ouutit not '), woiiJd 
also It'od itself oioro rendily to this expUnaiion 
Uian to any of those previously mentioned. • The 
Buppotiltiun (Weiets) that tho army of the heathen 
Romaua is referred to, iavalves an unnatural 
Kpplivntion, both ot the expresnimi ' aliomination of 
dwoUtion,' and of the verb 'staadint^.' In the 
puallel passage of Lk (21**) the phraseology of the 
earlier lynoptists seems to have been not only (as 
In »o ni&ny oilier ca»e») re-cost, but also colonreil 
by the bveat ('when ye see Jcnu. encircled t/fi 
armit*, then know that her desolation hath drawn 
iiif*h ') : a paraphrase «uch ns i\uA, however, cannot 
fairly 1x4 ile4*ait»d an authoritative interpretfttioa of 
the exprettHion uited in Ml and Mk.+ 

s. R. Dmm. 

ABOUT.— As an adv. nbout is used in AV in 
the following obsolete expressions: — 1. To lend 
about or ^o about => roam about, circuitously. 
The verb la mostly =37, whlcli simply means to 
'turn': Kx 13'* ' <)od led the people alKitit., 
tlirou<;h the way of the wilderness * ; Jos 10* ' Tho 
border went alnrnt (RV 'tumcii nliout') enstwanl' ; 
1 S 15*" ' Ho set him w^ a place, and is jione about 
and paased 00*; Ec 3'' 'I went about iKV 
* tamed about,' i.». considered my past life) to 
cause my heart to despair.' 3. To go about ^ hero 
and there, up and do^^*n: Jer 31^ * Hov lon^ wilt 
thou go about {KV 'lilther and thither'). U thou 
bacluTuiing daughter?' 3. To go about = to seek, 
attempt : Ja 7" * Why go ye anoat to kill Me ? ' 
RV gtvea •seek* in .In 7'*- », Ac 21", Ho H>», 
'masay' in Ac S4* titi", and keep^t 'go about* in 
AelP. i. To cji-^t aboat=to turn round : Jer 41'* 
*So all the people . . . cost about and returned.' 
fl. Thereabout=about that: Lk 24* 'They were 
much perplexed thereabout.' J. HjLj»Tia>GS. 

ABBAHAM. — The narrative of 1 ho patriarch 
Abraham is contained in On ll'-^S"*, and, as it 
stands before us, consists of a series of con- 
secutive stories or scones from tho patriarch's 
life. It makes no pretence of being a compiote 
biography. It may be doabted whether tho 
compiler of the Hex. hud any intention of pre- 
serving all the ^extant traditions resjiecting A. 
HiH ptir[K>Ke seems rather to have been to aeJoct 
from tho traditions current among the Hebrews 
Btich narratives as would best illuatnite llie origin 
of tlie Isr. nation, and would beat set forth how 
the divine Providence had shielded the infancy of 
the chosen race, uiul had predestined it both to 
inherit the land of Can. and to bo a blessing 
among the nations of tlic earth. As would be 
natural under the circiiniHtaiitcH, the traditions 
relating to A. have special reference to facred 
localities in Pal. j bat unfortimatelj' they do not 
afford anv very precise dnta fur determining the 
age in wliich he lived. The compiler gives n« a 
picture of A. which ho derived apparently from 
thrte groups of tradition. We will first brielly 
■ummarise liie narrative, and then indicate the 

• Hiow cntici who (u Kdm. J'lut (J fiaz. w. {37-230 ; cf. 
HotOmuin. Z/iUuUcomin. i. i!<9t.,£int. funt 3'7^, |i. .1831., with 
tiic RfBreocei) rssMcl Mt W^**. Mk li^*-^. m an tod«pmltot 
J««rish(or J«wUb-Cbri«Uao)ftpockl3m»r ortgiiutuif ibortly bofon 
A.O. 70. which bsi bMQ iDcorpcntca with onr Lord's ducouiM, 
curt, ot cxmrt», adopt ttlll more nwLUr the ntn* ex[ilan&tioo ; 
bul 11 it (UIAcaK to think ttet even uif«c vcnvK, UiaoKh par- 
tlculsr phmMS may bava beea m^llflod in tb» omnM of onU 
tnimiUoo. sn viUiout s nbttundal bads in tbo words of 

I Bouwt <D«r Arm<t>r<jt. 1806. P^ U. 93. 100 r, 141 f.), 
tNXinc Mt S4f <-Uk ISHS-) M ruroly (wAfttAloetGAl, tup- 
pons ttM nrfcmiti* lo be to the tutur« Antichmt. who u 
mqovBtlj dMdibcd (on the bub of 2 Tb dO •* nttlue in the 
Taopl*. uid rtcnlrine dlrine honours (e.g. hy IranaoB, v. SA. 1. 
90. 4 : VM (urthvr pMsacM In B^^uwet, p. lOt f.) ; but (t nujr be 
duubUd vthvUicr Uif rie<« of Ml Zi*^'-, upon which thii «x< 
liUiuUion dependi. Is oorrvA. 

portions which belong to the aeporato sources of 
tradition, according to the generally accepted 
results of critical analysis. 

Abram, >uhor, antl Haran are sons of Tcrah. 
Their home Ls in L'r of the Chaldoee (On ll*'*), 
whero Uuran dies. A. mai-ries 8anii, who was his 
balf-xixter {Gn sS)"). A. and his wife, with their 
nephew Lot, Haran's son, accompany Tcrah, who 
migrates from Ur of the Chaldees, and joumcyH to 
Haran, where Terah dies (Uu 11"- «, Jos 24»). 
Tcrah is said to have had Canaan in view when lie 
set out upon his journL-y (Gn 11*^}. A. in U.inui 
receives the divine commaiid to quit his country 
and kindred, and accompanied by Lot enters the 
land of Con. He traverses the whole country : 
and we are told in particular of Shocbom and 
Bethel being places at which he halted, and, as his 
custom was, built an altar to J " [Gn 12'''). DhVen 
by a famine. A. ioumeys to Egypt, where, in 
covrardly fear for liiii ov^-n life, he says tliflt Sarai 
is his si.ster, and does not acknowtcdgo her as his 
wife. The princea of ICgj'pt bring tlie report of 
Sarni's l»cauty to Fhnraoli kiii" of Egypt, who 
fl4;nds to fclcii her, hoe her placed iu bis own 
harem, and loads A. witli preeent-s on her account. 
The intervention of J" alone delivers tho mother of 
the promised race from her peril. Pharaoh learns 
of the wrong he is doing, through the plague's 
which befall his house. Iu great dudgeon he 
summons A., jiutly reproaches him for the decep- 
tion, and dismisses bun and his bulouginga from 
Egypt (12i^-»). 

A, and Lot return from Egypt to the district of 
Bethel ; Imt tlieir possessionA in flocks and herds 
have greatly increased. It proves impossible for 
two such largo droves to keep close together. 
Constant disputes break out between the retainers 
of the two cliiefs. It is evident that they mast 
separate. A., though the elder, prui>o«e8 the 
separation, and olli'r>t Lot the choice nn to the 
region to which he ednill go. Lot chooses the rich 
patfttire-land of tho Jordnn valley, and departs. 
A. remains on the soil which has l>ccn promised 
him, and receives as a reward for his unselfiahnesa 
a renewal of tho divine prediction that his de- 
scendants shall inhabit it as their own (13). A 
removes to Hebron (13"), and while he is cncam^icd 
there war breaks out in the immediate neighbour- 
IiikmI. The kings of the towns in the .Ionian 
valley relwl against Chedor ■ Lauiiier (Kurlur ■ 
Lagamar), the great Elamite king, The king of 
Elam with his Tassals, the kings of Shinor, Ellasar, 
and Goyyim (!), march against tlie rebels, defeat 
them in a great battle, and retire, carrying otf 
many pnsoners and rich booty frum Sodom aud 
Gomorrah. Lot is one of the captives. A. i^ no 
sooner apprised of this than he arms lux 318 
ret&inerii, and summons to his aid Manire, Eithcol, 
and Aner, the three chieftains of the Hebron 
diMtrict, with whum he is confederate. The com- 
bined force overtakes the victorious army at Dan. 
in the N. of Canaan, surftriscs them by a night 
attack, Touta them, and recovers Ixit and the 
other prtsonerti, and all the booty. On the way 
back A. is met in the plain of bhaveh by the king 
of Sodom, ojiil Melcliizodok king of Salem. Mei- 
chizedek solemnly blessos A. for his heroic deed ; 
and the Heb. patriarch, in rcrogniliun of Mel- 
chizcdek's priestly officii, gives him a tenth of tiie 
snoil. On tho other hand, he proudly declines 
tne offer which the kinc of ^>o<lom makc^, that A. 
should receive tho spoil for himself; he askaonly 
for the shore that would compensate his con- 
federat,eA, Mamre, Eshcol, and Ancr, and their 
men (14). 

A., Mho by ronAon of his childlessness cannot 
entertain ho|>es of the fultiliitcnt of the divine 
promise, receives in a sjiecioi vi.tion oasarouuc uf 




tlie ^ent future of tlio Tina tliat shall Djiiiii;' I'rom 
him. By tho gracious c-oniicsccn.sion of the 
Almighty, a covenant U made by Nu-rilicc V>o(wotin 
tlie patnnrck and God ; and tlnririK tlio Juf^hi, 
wben a de«p sleep has fallen n[>on A., ho loams 
the future dcstiuy of his dc«ccndnnts, and tbc 
virion U ratified by an outward eymbol ( 15 ■""■ """). 
Sarai, who had qo hop*} of having chiJ<iren, ^ler- 
Buadeti A. to take Uagar, ber E^'p. m&idscn'ant, 
na K concubine. Hajjar, finding bersielf with 
child, is insolent tuwanlti Sural, who tliereupon 
treat^ Iter bo burslily that Ha^ar (lees into the 
desert. She is there fltopped l>}' an an^el, and 
sent back, comforted by the promue rospecting the 
child that is to be born. This is lahmacl (Iti). 
Bat lahmael ia cot the promised son. Thirteeti 
iDoro yvnrs elapne before God appcunt again to A., 
and A^in promiacA that his deaccndnnUt will be a 
mighty nation. In pledge of the fulfibnent of bin 
M-ord, be changes Abrum'H name to Abraham, 
Sarai'B to Saroo, and ordains that the rito of 
circumeiaion ahall bo the sign of Ibo covenant 
between Uod and the house of Abraham. The 
promiBe that Sarah abaU have a son, and the com- 
mand lo call his name Imac. prenan^ uk for Dtc long- 
expected cnnsummation (17). But it ia not to be 
jeU Another great scene intervenes, to try, as it 
were, the patriarch 'a faith, and make proof of tho 
character of the fatherof the Heb. race. J", accom- 
panied by two angels, api>eara In human form to 
A. U he alt^s iM^ore his teut by the oaks of Mamre. 
A.'m otfur of bojipitulity bt accepted ; and as the 
three strangers partAke of the meal, the one who 
is J" prumisen to A. a son by Sarali, who overbuani, 
and langbn tncrodulouBly (18'""). The two angels 
proceed to Sodom and Gomomih ; .1" remains with 
A., and discloses to him the ap[iro«ching destruc- 
tion of 'the cities of the pinin.' A. p(itlielicnl!y 
intercedes, nnd obtains the assurance that if but tan 
rigbtPOUA be found in the city it should be spared 
fur tlmir nake (18'*"). J" leaves A.; and then 
ensues the descriptioii of the d«struftion of Sodom 
and Gomorrah, tlie vividness of wbtch Is euhaiiced 
by the brief reference to A., who in the morning 
looks forth from the hill country of Hebron, 
where he had stood daring bis colloquy ^ntll J", 
and sees thence the reek of the emoVe rising as 
fr<im n furnace (10*). Strangely out of place 
Ihougli it seems, we find interpoited at this [Hiint 
the stor)' how A. journeyed to the Houth-Iand or 
Nepeb, and dwelt in the territory of Gerar, where 
Abiractech was king, and how A. once more fears 
for his life on account of Snrnh's l»eautv, renre- 
MntiR her to be bis sister, and t^mixirarily lo^^s tier, 
when she ia token to Abimelech s harem. As in 
the ^ryi>. story, Sarali is kept from liarm by a 
iipfx:iaJ visitation ; Abtnietech is waniv^ by Crud, 
releases Siirnh, and rebukes A. f'-O). 

At length the long-promised non is born to A. of 
Rarah ; he in rircnmrised the 8th day, and reeci\*e8 
the name of Isaac ("21'''). Sarah takes offence at 
the sight of Isbmael playing with Inaac ; and A. ip 
instructed by God to yield to Sarah's demand, and 
dismiss both* Hagar and I^ihrnnel from histcnt(2P). 
A.'s prosjierity and Rucces^ induce Abimeleeb to 
Kevk alHancfl with the patriarch. A covenant 
lietween them is struck: the well, which Abl- 
nn"lH(ih'« wervantH hwd taken by fonv fown A,, is 
re.itored to him. and receives the natue of Beer- 
ShebsL. A. dwells for some time in Phil, territory, 
eucojuitwl in the vicinity of the well (*2i^**). 

Some yeius latt-T, when It-aaa lias grown to be a 
lad, comes the last trial of A.'s faith. God ordei^s 
bim to sarrilice bia only son ujion a lofty' liitl, 
distant throe days' joumev from bin plnwi of 
enciunpment. He does not liesilJite, All is done 
in porfiTt obe<lit'nce ; the knife is raised to slay 
Isaac, when a voice from heaven is beard. God 

wishes not a hair of the lod'a bead to sutler ; He ia 
?atiefied with this proof of the patriarch's absolute 
trust in God, his readiness to sacrilice that v\bii-b 
was most precious m bia eyes. A ram i* wicribced 
in the stead of Isaac ; and tlie holy covenant 
between J" and A, is ratitied anew {2i;'"). 

Then Sarali dies; and A., whu^ie seed is to 
possess the whole land, has to purcliose a burial- 
(ilaee. The field and cave of Maclipclah at Ucbron 
IS the portion of ground which be biivs with 
nil duo lormality from Ephron the Uittite; and 
tboro he buries Sarah (23). 

reeling his days drawing to n close, A. caufteii 
his steward to swear not to let Isaac lake to wife 
one of the daughter)^ of the land, and ^nds bim to 
llaran, where he finds Uebekah, and brings her 
l>ack to be Isaac's wife (24). 

It is Strang next to read that A. takes Keturah 
to bo bia wiie, and beeornos the father of aii sons, 
the patriarchs of Arabian tribes (Sj^**). But at 
the age oi 175 be dies, and is buried in the cave of 
Mnehpelali I'ii5^-"J. 

Tho foregoing outline shows the truth of what 
has been remarked above, that the life of A. in the 
Bk of Gn is not no much a consocutive biography 
AS a aeries of scenes derived from groups uf Heb. 
tradition, and loosely strung together. How far 
the three main groups of patriarchal iuirrati%'e — 
the J, E, and P — overlapped one another we 
cannot say, but the fact that tbe existing account 
is derived from diltcreut sourcea sulliciently 
explains some of the chief difHcoltiea and dis- 
crepancies that strike the ordinary reader. 

J.— Ttio iwmtiv« of J opmrn with A. tieinr fti Bsmo, snd 
miKiutin; with I^ot to O&n. at Utv oouuiuuid orj*. 

It m<:ntion« A.'a notnsdic movntwciU in Oui., uid the kIIjuv 
ftt BaUisl and Shectum. It records tho sfponUon ot A. sod 
Lot, *nd A.'s sojourn ikt Rvbron. 

ItdeaoiliM A.'s Joorosy to Zgyyt, ooit hUrvtnrn to tbeS. ol 

It oontMis ths prtxslsee made to A., and the oovensnt In dL 
15. It F«oorda t^« suurlics with Hb^, Uagv't IIi|;ht,UKl tbe 
llrth D( Isliniacl, 

U fivtt the Itmg «pio n»Trativ« uf thv viiit of Lhr Uir»« men 
|oA,; A.'6interce«loii: and the weithrow of the dlltsof Uie 
pill in. 

li narrst«) the birth ol Isaac, uid the tnlxdon ut A.'i Bervmt 
to llanui. 

J = isi* *.i5*- Ml* lab-W 15. 10* »» 18. 19 (bxc, V.») 21. tpar* 

E.— The iMU-ntJve of B n|>MU wltti A.'e WandvriiiK to ■■»! fro, 
with Lot^ In Cut. It rvproduovm, jterheM from tome ttpuate 
murxv. «n tMxtrunt of the war tietweeo Ch«dor-lAotnvr »nd tbe 
rvbcl ' dti«ft of the plain,' A.'b rescue of his nejOtew, ud He]* 
chiccdck's blc«iliiu, 

It deeuribe* tlie lilntinir pronounced upon the p»trlju^ is 
cli. IS. It rtuurds A.'s etijount at 0«rar, *ocI the peril to wlilch 
SoTfth wne «xpceed kC the court of Ablroelecli (SC>J. It oontkina 
lui iK'ooiutt uf Clw Inrth of ItMK? ; ukI the tneiitiun of thr 
bonljihmcnt ot ll«(,''*r utd lehouel tmplioi tliAt It kIio Included 
an aci^'uiit of InliuiMrt'e hirth. It rcoordi cheaJliniKje ol A. with 
Abimelech el Ikenbebo. And, eo br ss A. is ooDoemed, ooa* 
dud«« wiUi the elury u( Lhe Mwrriflne of Imuc. 

K ~ 14. (powlUy! 1£. (partioUy) 20. SID'S 22. 

P.~The nomtlve of I' b s ihmv ekelvton outliae of facts. A. 
U Tenh's eon. Temh, nltb A. bis son and Lot his ti«ph««r, 
Ic3vc Ur-CiLHlim, siid imt Mit for Can. ; Uic.r »Uy nt [tnran. 
u-hi^n^ Tfruh ili^r*, HlkS jrvars ntd. A., T& j-ean old, anronipcinj«Hi 
hy lyjl, J<ii>niv>^ to C«in. A. ectUc* near Manirw ; hfl ^utt E. 
to the Jordan ralltjr. A. nuu-rlra llA|nr t«n yi-ars Xtlmt rnter- 
itigCan. ; Isbmael is bom iti A.'s WOi tear. In lits Wih year 
(3od tnakMaocxrenant with falm, and onUlns therJwoIdrruTn* 
oision, dianfi'lni; fals oamo to Abraham, ao-l 8aini*s to Sarah. 
A. lanirhe at th« idea of Hamfa havinc a eon ; and the ann to be 
bom to him la to be ualleil Inao. In his lOUtli ycu- A. tua a 
son Imao, who Is droiimeisK]. Kuah dlos at Hebron 127 yoars 
old. nmJ A. porchaaestheoaveol Slaohpelah 
Up hiinii4<ir dies «t the age of 1T&, and Is buried by lauc and 
tshnuM.-! In the cave. 

paaias- lllh IX Ifil'X. 10. i« ITU' 199SI>*L *»S.l it.'". 

Tbe combination of tbe Oma strata ol tnditinn has only in a 
few irattonnn led to appnrmit Inoonsistcni'irs. TiMi J namtlve, 
vrhicb makes llamn A.'s native country (Un IS. S4), contains no 
alluaion to (L'r-Cnsdlm. J's narratlre contains the stAvy of A.'s 
oowaidiCG in EfO'pl ; it is E'snarretive wblch contains tho story 
nt his oowanlict? at the court of Abimr4ech. Thi) nsrratirea of 
J and E, which n>cak ol Sarah's beauty attracting the notice ot 
E^yndaju and Phllisttnc*, do not mention the n^M ol A. and 
fninui. AcoordinfT to J, A. vory prob. bad diod bofor* the ntum 
of the semmt with llsbeknh, sine* i'3M should prob. bo r*ad 





for «K Id U*' ; f»r wv oui tiuilly lupfMMo Uwt Immt^i mounUn^ 
for lib notbtr would hk*« luUd h>r tbrmt yean. Tta* uuDllon 
of A.'s nurrhtsw wlt<li Kclnnh io tbq tuU. m. b dcriTcd Iroiu » 
dlflerant tourc*. 

The foil, are the chief diflicaUiefl arising from 
the Abraham narrative : — 

1. The iloniA t]f A.'s People. — From the fact that 
Tcrah la said to have lived at Ur-C«3dim, and 
tliat L'r luiA been identified bjr Assyriologista vrilh 
Uni, the mudrru Aliij^Lelr, m S. Uah., the con- 
alttnon has very vuiniuooly been drawu that A. 
migrated first frum Choidca. This, liowi:vi:r. 
depends npon the cxirrcctnoss of the idenUficatiun 
of ITr-Caaoim iirilh Uru, which luu been much difi- 
piit«d on the gnmndSf (1) that the genealogy ol Gn 
ll><*brin^ the Sem. race a« f or as Meaopotamia, 
from which the next movement tn the directioti of 
Can. would, be to Haran ; (2) that the name 
CoMlim was appliLii to an ^Vxmcman tribe ; and (3) 
that it dot^ noi. aptiear in connexion with S. llab. 
until much lat*r (upon the whole contToveray see 
Kiltel. Hisl.o/ Hefjrr;u^,¥.Tie. tr. i. 180f. ; IHlhiiann, 
Gcncii*, p. 214 f . As to the pualtiou of Ur-Candini, 
Bce art. UK op tub Cuaidki^). The common 
early Hob. tradition seema to be expressed in Gn 
24, acvonUoK to whi^h A.'a kindred were tlie 
dwellera in N. Mc-^^jutamia ; and it ia this belief 
which also ii> reiterated in the Htury of Jiurob. Cf. 
' A Syrian {i.e. Araiumau) ready to perish v,iui my 
father' (I)t 26"). Wliether Lr-Cosdira is to bu 
jilaet^ in N. Meso[Ktt4i.niia or in Ckaldea, the 
i<iiprL%»iun remains that ' J ' tietieved A.'s home and 
kindred to have been in llnmn. 

2. T/iC Character of Otc Snrrntivt retntcd in Gu 
14. — There amtcars to be no ren«on to question the 
hist, probability of an Elamitc campaign such as is 
here describorl. Thcru ia nothing iutierenlly im- 
probable in the event as has sotiietiiue?, in aonie 
iinarten*, been asaerterl. A. did not duftutt the 
Klamite army in a pitched battle ; he made a night 
attack, fell upon an unauspecting foe, and recovered 
iiriaoDera and bangage,— a very difl'crent exploit 
from the con<iueat of Daraascns^ which late legend 
aaugned to hiiu. The j>r)miti%-e wvajtiou of Chedor- 
Laocuer has been claiiued by HODie AssyriolugiHtt* 
for an approximate date of 2150 (m Hummel, Bitb.- 
Ass. Gtsch. p. 3) ; and the invasion of W. Asia by 
an FtamitJ? will naturally be aiwociatod with the 
Hlaniit^- empire of that remote time. But upon 
what principle the events of A. 's life con be carried 
back to the 22nd cent. B.C. has not yot been 
Katixfoctorily exptiiincd. Uiblical chronolo^jy doc» 
nut suggest the interval of nearly a thousand years 
between A. and the ICxodus. 

3. The PromUct ni'idt to A. are fonnd eight 
lime«repeati-d,(i.)Gn l-J'-*(ii.) lafOii.) I3'Miv-) 15 
(v.) 17 (vi.) IS (viL) 21>^ (viii.) 22>*. The promises 
fall under throe main heads, (a) the land of Con. 
shall be possessed by the seed of A.; (6) the seed of 
A. shall Iweomo a mighty nation ; (c) A. shall have 
a sun bom of Sarah, and the son is to be called 
Isaac. The nuinWr of limt'M that the promise 
appeant xt, du^ tu tht eom]iilers having helGcted thii4 
as Uie ino^t conspicuous feature in the narrative 
of A. in each of the aonrces of trudition. The 
seemingly strange fact, that the narrative in ch. 
17 khould Lake no notice of the mention of the 
same jituiuiMi in ch. 15, Is at once accounted for 
uhcn It lA wiM to be an instance of the manner in 
which the dilferent narratives overlap one anuther. 
The pruiiiiHctf, coutainud in the difTeruiit traditions, 
st^emod to the compilftr bo importiuit in view of the 
general purpose oi his book, that, at the dak of 
considerable repetition, he has incorporated them 
all. These ever ranked among the 
reliifiou? privileges of Israel (Uo 0*). They pro* 
i-launi'd God's otivcnont with His people, according 
lo wliich He required of them simple obedience and 

justice (Gn 18'*) ; they abfO announced that through 
Israel all nations ahoold bo bleaacd. 

4. The Saerijiee of Staac marks the crowning 
event in the life of A. Obviously, it must rank as 
the 8ur]ia<iiiig act of the ]:atriarch's faith in God. 
But a ililTicnity arises in some minds from the 
wickedness of the act which God at first commands 
A. to do. Even though Ho never intended A. 
eventually to execute the terrible oommand. still is 
it cousistent with divine goodness and juHticu tu 
issue an order, to obey which seemed to have the 
ri:Kutt uf pluctog blind trust in a puKitivc command 
above the reasonable recognition of the natural 
demands of love, mercy, and justice? But there 
are two considerations which cnt tlte ground from 
beneath thu* objection. (l)\Ve are t«ropted to 
assume that in the patriarchal oarTatiro tne voice 
of God is an audible oxtcmat communication. Bnt 
then, as now, God speaks in diflbrent ways, and by 
conscience most directly. The f]iiostion put by A. a 
consdenoo was whether his complete trust in God 
extended even to the readinem tu surrender his 
only sou : tt hos in the truest sense a word of God 
to A. (2l That the answer to this questioning was 
given in the shape of human sacrifice on a mountain 
top, illuiitrateB the importance of bearing in mind 
the imperfect development of th« mural conscious- 
ness in that remote ^riod. Human saeritiue waa 
frequently practised m Hem. races. If tJiu wur- 
shipjKtrs of other Sem. deities were ready to 
(incniice their firstl>om to tlieir gods, viiiA A. to lie 
I>ehind Assyria, Ammon. and Moab in devotion? 
The moral standanl of the age wonld not l>e 
shocked at a deed too fatally common. The ideas 
of mercy and justice were, in that period, low, and 
needed to be rnLsed. To propitiate the Deity by 
child murder was ri^ardud as tlic height of n.digii>iis 
devotion. The nanotive, therefore, fulfils the 
twofold object of giving tlin cro\vning proof of A.'s 
absolute faith in J" ; and farther, of demonstrating 
the moral superiority o( faith in J" over tlie 
religious ciiatoms of other .Sem. races. J'' forbade 
the aacritiue of tbc lirslbom : J" upheld the in.stinct 
uuplanted In hmuau nature which shrunk ia 
horror from the act. He taught that J' liod no 
tdeasure in the inllictiun uf sutTering uptm the 
innocent ; that the chanu-ter of J" waa raiwd above 
that uf the heathen gods by higher love and truer 

ii. A. IN THE History of Iskakl. — The 
attempt tios been made to deprive the story of A. 
of all hist, value, and to rcpn3»ent tlie p»triarch 
cither OH a mythical personage or as the typical 
imjiersonation of the virtues of the religious Isr. ; 
but as yet no evidenci) has l>een fuimd to connect 
llie name of A. with that of a tribal dt-ity, while 
the eodoavouT to find in his story a philosophical 
description of abstract qualities seems to pre- 
suppose a stage of literary development to which 
the materials of the Hex. can make no claim, and 
to desiderate a literary unity which tliose materials 
emphatically rontrailict. 

On the uLliLT Imnd, it cannot be dented tlint 
recollections of the nomadic sge, committed to 
writing (in the form that Iiels come donn to us) in 
a post-Mosaic era, and evidently i^trongly coloured 
by the teaching of the uropht-ts uf J , ore likely 
to Imve preserved the tust. facta of the remote 
post in a form in vi-hich personal details are inex- 
tricably intertwined with racial movements, and, 
fur simplicity's sake, tlic dcstinien of a future 
nation are anticipated in the features of family 

According to this \-iew, A. was the leader of n 
great nonuidic movement of the Hebrews (Gn 10" 
M'^), who migrated from M<«iopotamia into Cnnnan. 
Those Hebrews penetrated as far as K^^j't (tin 1-2), 
but for the moA port mtabUahed themselves in tha 





S. of Canaan, and in Uebron and Bcer&heba formed 
friondly relationships witb the dwcUcrs of the 
land t*Jn 14. 21^). Tha story of Lot seams to 
indicnto that the peoples of Amnion and Mo^tb had 
uri^iimlly iKtoiigvd to tbu Heb. migratiun wliic!li 
was led by A., and. lia%-ing separated tbeniseives 
from their comrades, occupied the territory of 
the liepliaini, the i^mim, and the Zanizummim 
iDt 2"- •'*■"). 

Again, it is iniposublo to reaist tbe conclusion 
that some of the references to Isbnmcl and the 
allusion to Keturali conttiiii an Isr. t>i<.'tiirc of the 
relationship of the Arubian tribeM and cIhjih io the 
Hob. stot:k rather than the record of iieraonal 
historj*. The E^jyp. origin of Hagar (Gn Ifl' ) and of 
Isliuiaer** wife (Gn 21") will then indicate that the 
new Kt'ttlers received into their community a con- 
siderable admixture of an Kgyp. element at the 
time when they dispersed thronghout N. Arabia. 
The fact that • the sons of Nahor^(Gn 22»'-»*), * the 
Bon» of Isbmafil' (CJn 25"'"), 'Lhesona of Edom ' 
(Gn SO'^-I"), form groujw of tutli't, and tbat ' the 
aonaof Kettirah* tlinn fonn a half-ffroup of «■«:, is 
on additional nkti of the probability that the 
record ia not only that of Uie donieatic life of n 
family, but also that of the political distxibalion of 
n mce. 

While this consideration muitt modify the aecept- 
aneo of a nnifurm literal hiBtorieity fur the narra- 
tive of A., it in not ineomi^Atible with the view 
that in A. we have the great leader of a raeial 
nioveineiit, and onn who left his mark npon hi«i 
fcllow-tribe?men. not only by the eminence of his 
superior pift3, but by the distinctive features of lus 
reri;;ioua life, the traditional feature^ of which were 
the devotion to one God, tliu abaudemment of llu- 
polytheism of his ancestors, and the adoption of 
circumcision us the symbol of n imror cult. 

iii. A. IS Tim TncoLooY of OT.— The scattenwl 
reniini.'ii'enpeH of the pntvi/irch? were eolleeted and 
ronipiled, even more for tho purpose of illustrating 
the fundamental principles o( the lur. revelation 
than vntii the object of retailing any exhau»<tive 

llie religion of Iwael dates, according to OT, 
from .\., not from Mof^iw. A. *» servnnt addresses 
J " as the God of hia miwter A, (Gn 24") : J* is to 
Isaac the God of A. (Gn 26") ; to Jacob Ho is ' the 
God of A. and the fear of Isaac' (Gn 31"). A. 
never speaks of J" a& the God of hi» fathers. A. ift 
the founder of tlie reli;;ion ; he is the head of the 
family which hod J" for itn God. There is no 
deaignatioa of the God of Israel winch can go 
farther back to the origin of the Heb. faith 
Llian tho often-rupcutud title * the (lod of A.' (cf. 
L Pi 47»). 

The Mf«ry of A. reflectJi tho belief in the free 
•rrace of Goil whieli cho»e tlie jxitriarrh and brought 
liim from n di.stnnt land, and in spite of his failures 
loved him and mode His covenant with him. 
The call of A. and the promim^ iiindu hiiu tJuus 
rcpre.'VL-nt the KIcttion {iK\irr/i} of Isrsiel. A. osthe 
chuiieu MTvant is the pru|pbct, tho iiiKtrtimcnt oj 
J'^s piirpiwo (Gn 20'). He i^ the friend of God (Is 
41*. 2 Gh at'. Cf. Arab. KIKhalit). CckI's mercies 
towardB him are a[>iK'ale«l to by tho propbetw of the 
faptivity (Is 51', Kxk 33") as the ground of con- 
fidence tnnt J' would not forsake the heirs of the 
promises made to A. 

The unique relation in which A. , in Isr. tlicologr, 
itood to the God of revelation is indicated by the 
rcf. of tho prophets to A. as ' the one' (aeo Is Bl'-^ 
Ezk .13"-*, ^tal 2«1. In the Ilk of Sir, A. is spoken 
of aa ' great father of a niiiltitiide of nationx ; and 
there was none found like liiiu in glory ; who kept 
the law of the Mo«t Hi;:h. and w&a taken into 
covenant with Him : in hi.s tlesh he established tho 
covenant ; and when he wa-^ proved he wa? found 

faithful' (44"^ =°). In tlieso words are aummariseil 
tho chief poinu npon which tlie later Jewish 
literature esp. insisted in any reference to th»life 
and character of A. He wa« the founder of the 
race ; ho was uredited with a jierfect knowleilj^e of 
thoTorah: he was the institutorof circumcision: 
be was tried, and in virtue of his faith was declared 

IV. A. IN THE Theolooy OF NT.— In NT, A. ia 
referred to in a variety of ways. The word* of 
Jolui the Baptist in Mt 3», Lk 3», and of St. Paul, Ho 
9^ rebuke the popular Jewish Biip[)usition tbat 
descent from A. carried with it any special claiui 
upon divine favour. Our Lord »peak» of A. as one 
with whom all the partakprH of tlivine redemption 
shall bo privileged to dwell (Mt 8^') ; and as or one 
who is noth cognisant of thin^ on earth, and is 
also entrusted with tho special charge over the 
souls of the blest (Lk 10^). Gur I»rd employj* thft 
imagery of current religious belief ; A. is tho tynical 
representative of 'the right»xnis' who have been 
redeemed ; he is* the father of the faitlifut.' Henco 
He says (Jn S**), ' Yonr father A. rejoiced tocee 
My day; and he saw it, and was glad.' Heobtaine'l 
a viaion of tlie moaning of the promises, and 
rejoiced in the hoj* of their future fulfilment. 
Christ was the consuiniuation of all the aupirationK 
of A., tho father of the race. According to tliu 
Jewish tradition [Berethith liabba 44,\VUn«che), A. 
saw the whole histor}' of hia descendants in thu 
uij'sterious I'laion recordeil in Gn l.')'*-. Thus ho 
is Huid to have 'rfjoiced with the joy of the law' 
(Wcstootton JnS"). 

The subject of the fnith of A. seems to havo 
formed a stock aubjoct of di»euH«ian in tho Jewish 
synat.-ogue. It ia alluded to in 1 Mac 2" ' Was not A. 
found fnitliful in temptation, and it was reckoned 
unt-o him for rightooiuneaa ! ' The ' locus clajBucus * 
for the subject was Gn 15'; and the question 
propounded by tho .lewish teachers tnmcd u]ton 
tlie nature oi the faith which was co^mted to 
A. for righteousness. To I'hilo tho whole liutory 
of A. was merely (\n allegory descriptive of the 
truly wise ni£.n whose inner nature is mode one 
with the diiine hy tcacliing (dtJOHrraMa), as 
Isaac's by nature (.^iiiWit). and -lacoira hy discipline 
(dffFfi^i). In rUilo's trfiilinent of trie subject. 
' faith,' which frees the soul from the dominion of 
the senses, was 'the queen of virtnca' {d« ^AroA. 
ii. p, 30) ; and Philo refers to Gn Id' at least 10 times 
(see Lightfoot, Gal. p. 158, and Uylc, PhUo and 
Hoty Scripture, p. £5) for tho purpose of indicating 
the supremo excellence of A.'s faith. 

Itabbinical Judaism did not adopt the symbolical 
and abstjact explanation wliich satisfied the Alex. 
philosopher. It regarded A. aa inoe^rable from 
A.'s seed, and the tailh of A. as consisting in the 
fnltilment of the law. 

AgHinnt thin Rabbinic int^rpretAtinn St. Paul 
directs bit arjruiiiient in lio 1'* and Gal 3. Faith 
wttli thu iifHJstlo is the motive power of the whole 
.spiritual life, and he lays htrci^s on the faut that the 
niciiliuii of A.'b faith precedes the institution 
of circuincixion. The faith of the patriarch was 
not due to the rite ; it wa.<« only ratiliud und con- 
firmed by it (cf. Ro 4"*" and the notes of Sanduy 
and Hendlam). The same Bubject comeR under 
diaenssion in the Ep. of St. James; and there the 
apostlo of the ctrcnmciHinn wifeguards, as it were, 
the Christian position from a porvemion of the 
Pauline teaching. With St. James 'the faith 'of 
A. is not so much the motive ])ower of epiritnni 
life as the Rettlcd belief, the genuineness of which 
cau only be tested by action (JaS"", see Mayor, in 

Vet another reference to A.'s faith is found in 
He II''", where the patriarch is dcwribeil oh having 
been 'enabled to H-ork towards the fulfilment of 






Goil'ii ctMinKei by his tnut in tlie unMeen ' ( Wiistcott, 
in toe]. The ttiree foalurt-j^ of the natriarcii's lifu 
which the writer of the E|>. selects for the ijlut*- 
tTBtion of this 'faith,' ore (1) sclf-snircaUer, in the 
departure from his home (v.") ; {2) poticncc, in the 
pu^rim's expectation of a fnture ahidiitg plnce 
IVT."'"); (3) inllueiu-e, siiu-e hi» faith, alluuting 
SonUi's £aith, led Co the fultilment of the uromiM) 

X<ater Jewish teaching, dwelling on the same 
theme, sAjv. ' In like manner thou findest that A. 
cmr fathi-T inherited this world and tho world to 
come solely by tho merit o£ faith whereby he 
believe<1 on the Lord' [Mcehiita on Ex 14'^). 

V. Jewish Tbadition.— It was natural that 
Je^viab tradition should bo busr with regard to the 
ffreat founder of the people ot Ifirael. From the 
nict thnt A. received the divine call in L'r of 
the Chftlde*.'?, nnd wr in Heb, meant ' flame,' the 
elrunge »lury \va4 InveuteU of h'vt huvloi; been cahI 
into a fiery furnace by Ninirod. This Ie|;end 
appears in vaiious forma. One of the best koo^v'D 
i» that which is recorded in the Targ. of Jonathan 
on Gu 1 1" ' And it was when Nimiud had coiit A. 
into the furnace of fire because be would not 
worsliip ht< idul, nnd the tire hod no power to hum 
him, that Harati'H heart became doubtful, saying, 
If Niinrod overcome, 1 will be on hid nide ; but if 
A. overcome, I will be on his side. And w*hen all 
the people who were there »aw that the fire had no 

Giwer over A., they said in their hearts, U not 
aron the brother of A. full of divination* and 
cliHrms, and has he not uttered .spells over the tire 
that it !>liuuld not burn Iiis brother 1 Immediately 
there fell lire from the high heavens and conaumctl 
him : and tiaran died id mj^lit uf Terali hU father, 
where he was burne<l in the land of his nativity, in 
the furnace of fire which the Chalda^juia had made 
for A. his brother' (Etheridge's tr.). 

Another versdon of the atoiy appears in JitrtsKxth 
Jiabba, where A. refuses to obey Nimrod's command 
that he iliould worship fire ; and sa^gestB that it 
would be more reasonable to worship water that 
woenches fire, or the clouds that give the rain, or 
ttiewind that driven the clouds; finally, he exhorts 
Nimrod to womhip the one God. Niinrod caosea A. 
ict be thrown into a tiery fomace ; but God delirera 
him from it<> tiamea. For other instancos of the 
Kabbinir Ln-atincnt of A.*a life, see Weber, S^atem 
der Altetjuatjfn}. rnlastin. TheoioqU, I^ipzig, 18S0. 
In Pir^ AhlwtK{y. 4) it is said, 'With ten tempta- 
tions waa A. our father tempted, and be withstood 
Uiem all ; to show how great wa« the love of A. 
onr father.' For the ways in which the Rabbins 
reukoned up these ten temptations, see Taylor, 
Sayinga oftlu Jewish Fathers, p. 94. 

The facta that A. came from Uorao, that he won 
bis vidonr at Hobah, near Damascns (Gn U^'), 
and that bis sen'ant was a native of Damascus (Gn 
10*), seem to have given rise to the legend tliat A. 
oonqnered Damascus. So Josephnn relnt<-» that 
'NiooUina of Pamaecos,' in the -1th book uf his 
Ustoty, says thus: 'A. reigned nt Damascus, being 
4 foreigner, w ho came with an army out of the land 
of Babylon. . . . Now the name of A. is even still 
famous iu the country of Damascus ; and they show 
a village nametl after bini. The habitation of A.' 
[Ant. I. vii. 2). A. 'a native country having been 
ChakUe*, he was credited by the Jews with a know- 
Isd^of secret arts and magic (cf. Philo, de prrnm, 
ti pm, t Jos. Ant. I. vii.) ; and Josephus records 
!'iv tradition that A. firrt introduced into Kgypt the 
Ijk'xvledge of arithmetic and ni>tralogy whicn he had 
brooght with him from Chaldira (Ant. L viii.]. 

fw III* p T— er r tt UoB ol tht*e and other IpRcndi. mc Cnd. 
pmbplffr. Vtt. Ttt.,J. A. rUrtc, lota. 1 flTSS), tnd Bccr. 
UtaJCOSSO). 7%«fV«toin(nrf</>l.(nr«teilIiTjftTnM,'Tfvti 
tad ModlBi, Cwnb. 1(82) dMcms •■padal mcauon u su BpKX. 

(>ppar«ntlr ol KRyp. od|riii) ol apocalvplic clionKlw. lint dhii- 
boirod bv Origan, Ltffimut . . . Jvjtttun tt ini^itatia angrit^ 
miper AonUunni taiuU el infti-ifu ditr^ptMUu, «ta. tin Le. 
UoiD. SAX uid rBCootly br<jueht l>«'If)n> tii« node* of ■tudtots In 
a moot inU'reating lonn by tive ItAnusA editor. 

vi. Thk Namk • Abkaham.'— The attempts to 
discover the etymology of ibis nume can hardly as 
yet be said to nave been successful. According to 
one very prob. explanation, Abram represents a 
contracted form of Abiram or Abarain, just as 
' Abner ' probably stands for ' Abinor ' or ' Abuner ' ; 
while Abraham may have been a local, or an 
Aramaic, dialeciidvl variety of pronunciation. 
Abiram was a fairly common name (cf. Nu 15'- " 
20", t K IG^jin Ueb.; and it iseaid to be a recognised 
proper name in the Ass^t. Inscriptions, under the 
form of Abu-ramu (so Sohrader and Sayee). Tlie 
analogy of other proper names, like vVbi-meIek, 
Abif-'l, Abi-jah, makes it exceedingly doubtful 
whether tho name Abram can rightly bear the 
meanings traditionally aasignod to it, * Lofty 
father,' or 'the father of the lofty one.' For (I) 
it stands to reason that no child, however lofty its 
descent, would have been called ' father,' or 'the 
father of a god, whether Mulech, or Jah, or Ram ; 
(2) the feminine namea Abi-gail, Ahi-tal, show the 
impowtibility of this explanation. Hrobuhly, there- 
fore, the right meaning of tho name ia ' luim (the 
lofty one) is father,' as Hiram would mean 'Ram 
is brother.' of the owner of the name. Even so, 
tho origin of the longer name Abraham remains 
stilt unexplained. The derivation of the name in 
Gn 17* is only a [lopular word •play, connecting tho 
termination -rttluim with tho Heb. pan ' multitude.' 
Halivy (Rco. £t. Juiv. 1887, p. 177) ventured to 
propo»o that Abraham represents err t^i; 'the 
chief of a moltltude,' the hrst part of the name 
being derived, not from ab, * father,' bat from abir, 
' chief,' and the second part from A<tm (root /uimah), 
' multitude.' For this theory there does not appear 
to he much nrohabLlity. The deriv. of the longer 
n&me must De left uncertain, althongh the most 
likely explanation of it in to l>e found in the variant 
pron. of proper names in diffi'rent 1ocalitif>s or in 
aiflcrcnt clans of the mime people. Thua cm may 
be a dinlecticAl form of m-i ; anu Abraham the same 
in meaning as Abram, just as Abiram is tho same 
in meajLiDg as Abram (cf. Ox/, Heb. Lex. p. 4, and 
Baethgon, Bettrdge zur Sem. ltd. Gei(.h.). 

Lrmurrnx.— Besides thavork«m«Qtlone<l above, tK« reader 
is Rlemd to Ihe Cotom. on Geneali by DeUUsKih, ftrid LHIlmAnn ; 
to tbc Hlitorics ol Inwl by Evrsld. Bcius. ukI KIttcI : to the 
works on OT Tbeolofy by Oeblor, Schalts, and DUIcuuib. Var 
Tomkini, 3Vni«f</^6raAam<tll76): Bohrkdvr. OOr3<l%S5>. 

H. E. RylE. 

ABRAHAM, BOOR OF.— A work, consiatinK of 300 
flTixoi. bearing this name, is found in a list of 
Je^tiah npourjphal writings, preserved from a much 
earlier period, in an appendix to the ChoHoynmhia 
Cinnfxniiiiiriu of Niuephorus (c. 800 A.D.). fhia 
Vint IS printed in Credner's Geach. des Kanon^s, 1847, 
OS well us in !jchuri;r's HJP II. iii. 126. The so- 
called S'jnopsis Athctna*ii presents the same list, 
omitttnK, however, the number of o't/^m, which 
is attached to each book in the Stichomotry o( 
Nicenborus. It is likely that this is the book from 
whicn Origen quotes as to a contest between the 
angels of righteousness and iniquity with regard 
to the salvation uf Abrotiom {In Luc. Horn. 35) ; 
and Jamcji is prob. correct in identifying this Book 
with the Testament uf A. {Texts and Studies, ii. 2, 
p. 27fr.). An AjMC. of A. h lucntioucd by £pi- 
phauius as used by the Ophites. 

J. T. Marshall. 

ABRAHAM'S BOSCH.— A term used of the abode 
of the righteous dead, defining it as n position of 
blessedness in intimate n««ociatiun with the father 
of the faitlifu), 'the friend of God,' In Scripture 




il occars ouly in the iiarablc of the Kich Man and 
l.azfl.nis(Lk IG''*-"), wheto it aiijicard both in tlio 
hiugulajT {K6\Tas'A3padn) and iu the plural ^siiXifw 
'A^paifi], Taken truin the practice ol reclining at 
tnble, Hu Ihiit lliu head of thu guest leant back upoD 
the boram of hi» neif^hboiir, the place of Jiiitinctiim 
belonging to him uho vrus Heated in this way next 
t he host, the figure expreawa tho ideas of nearest 
fellowBhip and high«et honour. In the llAlibin. 
literatnre the phrase (•O'zh cttik W ip-n) wiis applied 
to the place rcscn-cd for tho pioua dej^ai-ted, into 
\rkich tticy parsed lninicdi&t«ly aftor death, eind in 
which they dwelt free from tlie woea of hell (cf. 
4 Mac 13"). lb was a Jtwiah Miuf that tho 
intennediate state contained two distinct coinimrt- 
ineuLa— a plaw of relative preimnitorj- reward for 
the goo<.l. and a pluco oi rdutivo preparaton' 
l^«nnlty (or the evU (cf. Bk of Eaoth 22. 2 Es 
,™ff- etc.). Some of the Jewish Ifoo^ks speak of 
certain recej>l«clea [prt^Hpt uaria) into which the 
!*<inU of the tailhful dead were taken (Anoc. of Bar 
30* 2 Kh 4»»-*' 7** etc.). And in tho thiwlogy of the 
3ra i-nsnt. and onward* it w-aa tauyht that the 
rir(;nincise«] itlioiild not he 8ubjc«t to liell. It \\&n 
u saying of Itabht i^vi (of the 3rd cent.), that in 
the world to come Abraham would ait at tlio 
entrance to hell, and suffer no circumcised Isr. to 
pan into it. It haa been nsunllv Kii|>])0)iKd. thore- 
lorc, that in KT the phrase ' Abmlmm'ti bosom ' 
refers to the iDternie<I. state, and designates a 
dii-idon of the underworld, where the good enjoy 
a preliminary measure of ble»scdnc«8. In this case 
it in identitied with Paradii^e. tlie Itfwer Paradise as 
dist. from the heavenly, or in tnken to doschbo a 
condition of peculiar honour in the Hades-Paradise. 
It is uncertain, however, when this idea of two 
i«eparate localitiex within thti underworld came to 

itrevail. It >v]ui ilm idea of the later and mediieval 
ludaiKm. Rut whether it woa in circulation so 
early as our Lord's time is doubtful. There seems 
reason to l>elievc that tho older Judaism spoke only 
of a Garden of Eden for the righteous dead, and a 
Gthinnom. [Gehenna, llelll for the wlrktHl diuid, 
identifying the latter with Sheot. If so, ' Abraliam's 
IxMOni in the jiarabto woTild not be the name for 
a»i»eciftl coiuiKirtiiientof H!uie.x, orfornn iiiteniiwl. 
Cf^ndition of blessedness distinct from and nre- 
liniiniiry to the final state of perfect fehcity. And 
in the parable itself it is only the rich man that is 
expressly described aa 'in Hades.' 

Lmniirriiit.— Wctatfin on Lk icttss; Llirtitfoot. tlor. tttb. 
p. iib\, vtc ; Fritnu.'he u. Criuun, Ji^*0. Oandb. lu d*n AfK>ery- 
pAm. on i Mu: Vfi*\ Schanr,IIJP It. U. IBO: Haiuburvcr, 
KB; W«b«r, Stfrtem drr alUyn. patost, Thfol. p. 3£S ; Mtfjtr- 
Wcin, irom.B p. bi3, etc. ; Salmoud, Ckrisl. Duet, nf Imuwr' 
ttUitff, p. S4S. 

S. D. F. Salmond. 
IBRECH Ci''3«).— A word called out liefore Jo.*eph 
as he passed through the land of Egypt in his 
official cftpacity of prime minister to tlie PlmrnoJi 
(Gn 41*^). ItH exact aigniliciiliim ii^ not a matter 
of agreement aiimiigsi scholnrs. The I., XX f Ai^/iiiffr 
(nwpttffStP a&roO K^ipv^) and the Vulg. {dmnante 

(irfrroTie, vt omnes eumm en genu ^ecterent) arc not 
iteral or direct translation i*. The Tare, of Onk. 
interiirets it as ' fatlier of the king,' on tnc ground 
pof»ihly of Gn 45\ Jewish Bcliolara -who have 
derivwl it from Heb. refer it to the root n; bend 
the hfc, in the Hijdi. Iinv., where, for (lie u»<nal n, 
an H has been sutotitntod (ef. Jur 25^). I-uiImr 
regarded tlie cam fts hofielcKs. in saying, MVas 
ahreeh liei^se, loasen wir iliu Ziincker 'Kiichen bisz 
an den jiingnten Tag' (Ges. Tha. n. 10). Of the 
many prutioMid EL'yp. fand Coptic) deri^Titions, we 
need note only tlie following: — (1) Abrek [avpfK] 
r/innt inctinarf (Ilonsi, Etymot. axiypt. p. I, in Ges. 
Thcs. p. 10) ; (2) rt/>-rcx-»',Aearfq/"/Aeic)M(Harkavy, 
Deri. .Sffypt. Zeitwhr. 1809, p. 132); (3) ai-ret, 
iT^lpiM thou (Cook, Speaker's Cmn. in loco, p. 4S2) ; 

(4) di(H)-re^, thy comiHundnvcni u t/ie objat of our 
desire, i.e. 'we ore at thy service' (Itenouf, PrO' 
Cfci/infja Soe. Sib. Ai-ch. Nov. 1SS.H, iiji. 5-10). Gn 
tlie other hand, several derivations are suggostetl 
from the Asiatic-Sum. side : (1) Sayco oomjMres it 
with on * Accadion' a&riX:, a seer, appearing also 
in tlie Scm. form, on an unpub!i-»he<i tablet, of 
abrikku {Itibbert Lectures, 18S7, p. 183, n. 3); (2) 
rJolitwch compares tho Assyr. abm-nhicH (fem. 
ab{f\)rnkkntii), a tUled personage, possibly grand 
vizier U'aradies, p. 225 ; Heb. lytng. p. 26 ; I'roleg. 
p. 145; and Aasyr. Worterbuch, p. 68 f.); (3) 
Schroder di.'wentfl from Delitweli [CO'n i- 139); 
(4| HaI6\'y derives it from pttrnku {.Rev. d. Etudex 
Juives, 1885, p. 304). Bui of all the snggested 
sources of this much-ubused word, the Heb. and 
the Assyr. above mt-atioiicd seem to carry with 
tliem the least number of difUcultieB. [The text 
of tin 41*"- does not Indicate that there wa.s any- 
I hing more than a salute. ) It itf, in cither event, an 
Egyptianiscd Sem. word, jirohahly carried down 
into E<n*i>t iluriiig the centuriun of Hyknos rule. 
Tliifl opinion receives sui>iK>rt, too, from tlio evidence 
of the Tel el-Amrimn mlilutH that there had been 
for many centuries before Joseph's ilay free inler- 
uatioualconunanieatioii between Kgyjii and Asia. 

Ika M. Pkice. 
ABBOAD. — In ita modem meaning of 'in (or 
' tu ') another country',' a. is not used in AV 
or KV. The nearest approach is Jn 11*^' The 
children of Gud ttiat are scattered a.' On the 
other bond a. is used in senses now ■vrhoUy or 
nearly obsolete. 1. It eignlhes specially outside 
one's own dwelling, the opp. of 'at home.' Lv 
18* 'Whether she ue bom at home or bom a.*; 
La 1* *A. the Kwr.rd bereavelli, at home tliere 
is as death'; Jg 12V 'Thirty dan^htent he sent 
a., and thiKv daughters he brought in from a. for 
his «ms ' ; iJt 23^" ' Then shall be gu a. out of the 
camp'; Lk 8" ' Neitlier anvthing hid lliiit shall 
not be knoMTi and come a.' (ftV 'to light') ; SirSB' 

• A drunken woman and a gadder a.' Cf.— 

' When: ojt be Uy 

lle tiilirbl not come abroad.' 

—air T. Miw. A Slrrr^ Jegt. 

2. On the ontaide of anj-thing : \.v 13" 'If a 
leprosy break out a. in the skin.' 3, In the 
pcncral sense of ojienly, freely, widely : Mk I* 

* But ho went out, and began to publiMi it muoli, 
and to blaze a, the matter' ; Ko 10" ' For your 
obedience is come a. unto all men ' ; 5" ' The love of 
Goil is hlied a. in your hearts.' J. Uastini;s. 

ABBONAH (■'>}'i?U).— A stntion in the joumeyinga, 
occurs only Nu 33=*'' ", AV Ebronah. 

ABSALOM [trtV?**. in 1 K 15'»o^^FZi(Abiahalom. 

'fdlinT is jieace"), the tliird son of iJuvid (2 S y^ 
1 Cii 3^). lie first comes into prominence in con- 
nexion M'itli the story of his nislcr 'I'liniar (2 .S 13). 
Afticr the fuul outrage done to the laltcr liy Aniiion, 
David's eldest son, A. detenuined u[ion revongc, 
but concpnIe<l his pnriHJse for two years. At tho 
end of this period he gave a feast at the time of 
shccp-sh caring, and incited the king and his sons. 
l)a*-id declined for himself, bnt permitted Amnon 
and his brothers to go. While tiic fcAst was at its 
heipht, the Mor\iints of A., iii>on a signal given by 
their msster, fell upon Amnon and hIcw him. 
Having tbtis avengtid theart'roiit jmt ujkiu bissister, 
A. tied to tho court of his maternal grandfather. 
Talnial, the king of Geshur, where he remained for 
three vears. Then Joab, perceinng that DaWd 
longtnf for n reconciliation with his fcon, contrived, 
through the mediumuf 'a wist woman nfTekoah,' to 
procure a reversal of the virtual sentence of bnnlsli. 
meat, and A retnrned to Jeras., but >vas not [>er- 


niittcd to approach the presence of the kin};. This 
iinnatnral condition of things continued, for two 
yean, when A. applied to Joab to use his interiMt 
at ooart to prucnre a fnll recfjncUiation. UaviiiV 
KGoerul had, hu»t-vtjr, for tmuw reason )>econio lean 
nearty in the luntterj and declined even to meet 
A., until the latter rewrted to the expedient of 
unk-rinK Im servants to eot firo to JoaVs barley 
lield. When the ovkner of the field came in person 
to demand on cxplouatiou of thid injury, ho yraa ai 
lun^Hh iwrauaded to intercede w-itli the king on 
Whalf of Iiis Hon, and liitt mediation proved succeu- 
(ul. It is easy to conceive that David, tiy liiA 
injudioious mingling of leniency and tieverity, hud 
completely forfeite<rtlic cnnlidence of his Kon, and 
H was doubtless from thiH occoftion onwards that 
A. began to hatch the plot that proved fatal 
to htm, and which liEUi gained for his name an 
unenviable immortality. He t4K>k advantaj^e of a 
misanderstandin^ that seemx to have cxistetl be- 
tveen David and the men of Judnh, und itet him- 
self sedulotuly to piin the conBdenuc and niroction 
of all visitors to the court. In partieular, thoso 
who come to have matters of lav decided were 
flattered by tlie attentions of the heir -apparent, 
who abo was careful to drop hints that tno king 
miuht do far more to expcthte Uie admtnistrution 
of juBtie«, and that if ho (Absalom) were only jud;,'e, 
a very different state of things would he inaugur- 
ated. Thus he ' Htole the hearto of the mun of 
InmeL' Ho wan j^Tuatly helped in the accomplish- 
nient of his Rcheme by the extraordinary penwnol 
diamis be txnM»>ed (2 S U^^|. 

How lony tliis preparatory KtAge loatcd Is un- 
certain. The /orty years of 2 o 15^ manifestly 
cuinut Ik.' correct, and should pcrbn|itt be Tcad/our 
years. When at Icn^rt^h he judp;d tliat the time 
was ripe for the execution of his relwllious enter- 
prieCi A. obtained leave of aV^^enuo from lii» 
lather, on pretence of having to go to llebron to 

gy a TOW he hod made during his sojoiim m 
lihur. His euuBsaries were at work throuj^thout 
the M-hole land, pret^mng for A general rising, and 
his adherents became dsuly more niuueroiu. At 
the %'iiry outset be gained over David's fnnujut^ 
oounacUor Ahithoitherthe Gilonite, who may \\a\ ■- 
had reoaona of hia own for det^erting the kin. 
(see Bathsueba). So alarming were the report:^ 
which reached Dovid, that he resolved to abandon 
the capital and save himself and Lis household by 
llt>;ht tu the eastern Jonlanic territory. He wa.t 
arcumpunie<l by the faithful Cherethites and I'ele- 
thite«, tu M'hom w«re nddt>d on this occibiion a body 
of Oittitos who had proWbly formed i>art of David s 
followers in the old days at Ziklag. The offer of 
Zadok and Al>iathar to accompany him with the 
ark was declined, and Huafani the Architc was also 
directed to remain at Jernsalcm and do his utmost 
to defeat thn counsel of Ahithophcl. nj^on 
Alwalom's arrival in Jerusalem, Hushai played the 
part of rebel so skilfully that he gaineu the com- 
plete coDlidence of the aspirant to the throne. 
Ahtthopbel lirst of all counselled A. to take a step 
which would make the breach between him and his 
father irreparable (2 S Ht^^'^), and then advised 
that prompt measures should be taken to pursue 
and destroy David before he could riiily around 
him asv coiuiderablo number of troo{>g. Hu.*ihsi 
couniielled delay and ctiutioua meaKure», and his 
advioe was fnllonetl, to the rhagrin uf Ahithophcl, 
who^ seeing that all was lost, went and set bis 
house in order and banged hiniJtclf. The two sons 
of Zadok and Abiathar were despatched by Huahat 
witli in l«;l licence to Duvid of what hud transpired 
at Jerusalem. The young men wcix- hotly pursued, 
and narrowly e->*cn[H.-d luplnrv, but evodiug their 
panniers by strutuj;em reached David, who the 
•uae night with bi« wliolo company passed over 



Jordan. At Mahaiiaiiu, Barzillai the GUi«adite and 
others supplied him liberally with provisions. Ere 
lon{f a snrlicient numlwr or (roujw nna assembled 
to justify the king in ioinlng battle ivith the 
forces of A., which by Inut lime had also pasaeil 
the Jordan. The deceive battle was fought in 
'the wood of Ephraim.' David, yielding to the 
wish of his Buppurters timt lie should nut c3:poiKi 
hia life by takuig the field in person, arranged his 
army in three divisions, commanded re9]>ectivelv 
by Joab, Abiahoi, and Ittiii the iiittite. To eaeli 
oi these three generals he gave the charge, ' Deal 
gently, for my Bake, with the young man,, even 
with Alwaloin.' From the verj' lirst tlie tide of 
liattle set strungly against the rebel army, «"bich 
lust heavily in the engiigcmont, and Ktill more 
heavily in its retreat through the forest. Absalom 
himself was hurried, by his nude undur an oak, and 
boeomiuK entnnulud by the head in the fork of a 
brnucb, hung detenceluss. In this situation he was 
discovered by a soldier, who at once informed Joab. 
The roy&l general, who appreciated the situation 
more justly than his master, nn hesitatingly pierced 
the hapless youth to the heart. Having thun dis- 
posed of the rebel leader, Joab recalled his troops 
from the puranit of the vanquished army. When 
news of the issue of tite battle was brought to 
Da\id, bo forgot everything «l8« in griuf at hia 
son's death, and exclaiiuint again and again, ' O 
my sun Almalom, my tvm, my wm Alisatom ! would 
God I had died for thee, O Absulum, my sou, my 
soul' This conduct, natural enough from one 
point of view, might have had serious results but 
for the sturdy conimon-w;n»e of Joab, who jHiintud 
out that the king hod to think of his sohtiers as 
well as his son. The rcnionstmnco wa.t sulhciently 
rough in its expression, yet David recugtiised its 
wisdom, and. stifling his emotion for the time, 
came out and thanked his troops for their gallant 
service in the Beld. A. was buried near the scene 
of his death, and the spot was marked by a great 
heap of Blones. According to 2 S 14'" hti had three 
*on«, and a daughter nuniwd Tarnar. Thu latter ie 
witli much probability identitled with Maacoh of 

1 K ir,', the viif. i.f HHlinlMiatn {v-i. -1 S 3*, 2 Ch 1 1*'-). 

':js must have predeceased their father, or else 
itnt tradition la followed in 2 S 18'*, where 
v\L- ato Luld that A. had no son. 
The stury of Absaluiu funns ]iart of the section 

2 S 9-33 and 1 K 1-2, which, with the exception 
of a few poosages, comcjt fmm a single jMin. Its 
dominating aim is to trace the progrciisof Solomon 
to the throne. Hence it has to explain how the 
three sons of David who seemed to have superior 
claims, Amnon, Absalom, and Adonijah, failed to 
secure the succession. The style is bright and 
flowing, the descriptions are graphic, and, with 
fill tlic WTiter's evident itartialily for David and 
Solomon, the historical character of tlicao chapters, 
down even tv the miinitesl details, is eatablL»bed by 
proofs that are amongst the strongest in the O.T. 

LiTVRATfRS. — Driver, /itT'Wudfen, [i. ITST. ; Bwldc, RiMer 
H. Stjm^tl, \'p. HT-Ui ; W«Utnuii«ni CtmpaiilUtn du SualnthM, 
tic, t>p. 2&!j-l'4S. sl0O au. <i/l#r. aitd Jud. SOf. 

J. A. Selbcb. 
ABBALOM IN APOCIt. CABttnriXuftot, 'AfdXv^tot 
A). — 1. A was the father of Mattathias, one of the 
captains who stood by Jonathan the Maceabeo 
when tlie main part of hia anuy flod at the be- 
ginning of a battle o^'oinst tin.' Svriun^ at llaxor in 
Northern Galilee (1 Mae 1P'=Joh. Anr. xiil. v. 7). 
It iA|M^rhatiH tlit^ same Absitloin wIuish s^m Junatlutn 
was sent ny Simon the Maccabee to secure Joppa 
after his brother Jonathan bad been imprisoned 
by Tryphon (I Mac 13"— Jo«. Ant. xiii. n. <). 
2, According to 2 Mao 11", one of two envojra 
sent by the Jews to Lytdas when he began to treat 
with tiiem for peace after hU defeat at Bethsuron 




(Beth-xur) in 165 B.C. In 1 Mao 4»*'-=Jo*l Ant. 
xxt. Tti. 5, nomentinnifimiuIeafuvertureH for peace, 
but Lvfiias is stated to liu%'u wittidrawn to Antiocli 
for reinforcementa. It is protmble that the author 
of 2 ^[ac iiiLii tiiade some confusion U.'Lween the 
lirst ii\[iu(lition of Lvxias aiid a eucuiid iur&sion 
two or three years later, when, after f;iiining a 
victory at Itcth-zur, ho modo tRrms witti thu Jews 
in coiisequcnct; of troublcn in Syria. 

H. A. White. 

AB0BU8 ('A^ot^ot, 1 Mac 16"-") was the 
f&tbcr of l*tolcniv, the son-in-law of Simon the 
MoccAbee, by wlioni Siiaon was murdered at 

ABUNDANCE.— ThiH word is used with grejU 
fret'dotn in AV, Lraiinlatiny aWut twenty Hob. and 
nearly n-s many Gr. words. Each occurrence should 
be considered in relation to the orig. word. Here it 
is neoessary only to draw attention to the obe. use 
of a. to eijjnify superjiuitr/ : Mk 12** * All they did 
cost in of thoir a.' (KV *supertluity,' Gr. ri ir<^<r- 
e-tiJop, as opp. to O^TT^piifftt, ' deficiency,' suid of the 
mdow ; BO Lk 21*): fe lOS** 'Their land brought 
forth frogs in a.' (RV 'swarmfHl with frous,' tuth. 
ri^; mKx 8^ and cf. Gn l=»-== 9'): 2 Co 12' 
*thruii(;h the a. of the revelabionti ' (Gr. ii9tppo\^, 
BV ' exceeding greatness"). 

ABUSE. ABUSER. — i. In NT kbu»e >» u^d 

twice (as tr. of naTtxpdoitai) M'heu the meuiihiK ib 
not u. but ' use to the full ' re^rdleas of oon- 
Bequeucea (see Thayer, N.T. Lex.): I Co 7^' 
''Iuo»G that use the world as not abusing it' (RV 
ni. 'uging it to the full'); 9" 'that I a. not my 
power in the gospel ' (RV * eo as not to use to 
the full my right in tlm gospel'}. 2. In OT a. is 
found thriee {as tr. of S^j;) with n person as obioct. 
In 1 a^l* ond 1 Ch 10* the mcauin}; ia in»ult or 
dishonour, as in Milton, Sam. Ag. \. 3G— 

•I, ilnrk in lif^t, vxiwwd 
To doily fraud, eoiit«nipC, abuae, sad vrong.* 

But in Jg 1!P it is the old sense of defile or 
ra.i*i8h ; ' "rney knew her, and abused her all tlie 
night.' Cf. Fordyce, Serm. to Youmj Women 
(1767): * Ho thatabuses you, diakonours his mother. ' 
Hence in I Co (? d/wefoMinji. 'one that Hob witli 
ft mule,' is tr* ' abusers of thcm-ietvcs with man- 
kind' (RV 'men'); and RV gives the name Ir. 
ftt 1 Ti 1^. 

J. Hastings. 
ABYSS.— The translation (in RV, not in ,\V) 
of fl^i'ffffot, a word compounded from a intensive 
and iSwiT^f, Ionic form of fiv06i, depth (2 Co 11="), 
and connected (see Curtius) with ^atfij, deep, and 
the Eng. bath ; primarily and cltisitiuilly an adj. = 
mnj dtcp, or ereu battomtcss ; ajiplicd to the 
yawning gulfs of Tartarus (Eur. Ph<zn. 16051 
and, metaph., to a sea of cAlamLty (.'Esch. Suppl. 
470) : in tirofane Greek used as a subst. by Piog. 
Laert only (iv. 5. 27), on an epitaph, 'the black 
ftbysa of Pluto.' (Comp. Job 41» LXX rif TdpropoF 
T^i ASCffffcv.) Once (perhaps twice) in LXX it is 
an adj. (Wis 10'* the bottomless deep of the Red 
Sea: poRwibly also Job 36" metaph. =6tf(jnrffe:jf*) : 
elsewhere, LXX, NT, and cccl. Gr., a subat. ; in 
LXX the trans., with few exceptions*, of tfh6m, 
the tumuUtwus tpater-deep (some thirty times), 
and, onco each, of mtsulah, sta-deep (Job 41*'), 
of fUloA (Is 44*^), the'd^pjlvod (of Euphrates) 
and of r^iiiabh, apaciaus pCtce (Job 30" if subst.). 
Primarily in LXX it signifies (with teh&m) the 
\oatera beneath, W which the earth was at fin*t 
covered {Gn I", Ps 101*-»), but on which it was 
ait«rwui-ds made to rest {Jon 2"; sec Ps 24^), and 

from which ita aprings ami rivein wetit^d up (Gn 
7" 4^, Dt 8' : cf. Rev !»' iftp^ap). Not unnatiir- 
ally it denoted also the upper eeas and rivors 
connected with the subterraneous waters (Ps lOT"* 
106°), the original notion of tumuUuousness in 
tih&m (Ps 42') being ovurlaid by that of depth in 
a^wrffM jSir 24", Jon 2<, Ps SO"). Secondarilu, from 
the notion of subLt:rraueousness and depth, it ia 
tlie place after d^nth. but Li never in LXX the 
uutual translation of SheU (though this etymologt- 
^^\\y = dei}th. Pa 71*; cf. Ps 80"}; in this sen..e. 
iipparently, it is not juinliliable to eliminate alto- 
;:ether the connotation of raijing waters. [Comp. 
the contrast with h^nven in On 7" (TT^^ii ABi^aov) 
with that in Ps 13»' (Slieol) and in Ro lO'" 
(&&vaaoi)i also Job W^ I,XX. and Job 2ti»-' 
(nSttToi).] The relation to Sheot, with its dull, 
hliudawy nujnotuny and evcu uiistTV, voupled 
with the OT idea of Sheol as a pit aangeoH (Is 
24''''''), and with pre-NT apocalyptic usage (Enotli 
10" ehasm vf fire; aP" nrwoji ./ iKt anfjeU; 18^' 
abyss), prepared for the NT of the word. It 
occurs only twice outside Rev : in Ro 10^ it is 
simply the abod4 of tka dend; in Lk 8** it Li tlio 
prison destined for evii spirits. In seven passages of 
Kev (chs. 9. 11. 17. 20) it is a prison in whiih 
evil powers are confined ['JO^**), and out of which 
they ran at times he let loose (IP 17'), but is not 
tiie lake tif firr. (20^- '") ; nor is Sataji regarded as 
himself cast into this prison, but only to lie so 
cast (20>-») for 1000 yaare, J. Massik. 

ACACIA.—Bee Shittim. 

ACCABA (B 'A«<H9a, A I'a^, AV Atfaba), I Es 
S^.^Uis deaocndants returned among tbo ' temple 
Kcrvants' miller Zerubbabel. Called ilagab (s}?), 
Ezr 2« ; Hagalia, Neh 7^. 

ACCAD, ACCADIANS.— Accad (or Akhud\ with 
Babul, Erecli, and Cainuh, was one of the chief 
cities in the Innd of Shinar. These four con- 
stituted the beginning of the kingdom of Nimrod 
(Gn 10"^). The LXX reads'-YX"**- ^"^"' Bsb.-ABsyr. 
inscriptions are the source of all our information on 
this name- It was at first suppoaed that A^Mdii, 
occurring so fn^quuntly in tne inscriptions in 
connexion with Sumer, referred only to a district 
or province. But it is now known that there was 
a city of that muue (Hilpreclit, Freibrief Neb. L 

col. ii. 1. fiO). Its form ia "^ '^;:[C^ 

and ia lead al Akkad [ov 'non-Sem.' A^nde], city of 
Accad, the uamc under whieJi the city" was for long 
centuriojj kno^vn. It was the residence of the first 
historical ruler of all Babylonia, Sargon i., whoso 
activity dates from 3800 B.C., according to the 
statement of Naltonidu.i (555-538 H-C), an inficrit*- 
ttou discovered in tK8l on the site of Sipiwr. 
Frequent references to two Sippnra, 'Sippar of the 
Sun-god' and 'Sippar of Anunit,' indicate some 
Strang fortunes in connexion with this site. The 
worship of Ishtar of Accad uas replaced by that of 
Anunit of Sippar. lu very early times Sippar 
was the chief seat of sun-worship, and Accad of 
laht&r worsliip. Gradually there was a political 
abiiorjiLion, and all reft^rences stKm to justify the 
assumption that of tho»e two cities lying close 
together, Sinpar with its Sun-god becime Uia 
more powerful, and praoticaJly absorbed Accad. 
The worship of Ishtar, however, did not lose ita 
identity, but was continued under the name of 
Sippar of Anunit (McCurdy, Hist. Prophecy and 
the Monuments, § 94). It is possible, but still 
unproved, tlmt tlie city uf Accad lay oppoaitc to 
Sippar ou the leit bank of tli« Euphrates. Ita 
exact site is a matter of doubt, but it is thouf^ht to 
have been located near Ahu-hnbha, alwjut hftcen 





milea weat of Baghdad. DeliUsch conjectures that 
it mar have beun one of the two cities which bore the 
name of Scpharvalm, but McCunlv locates this 
double t-rity in N. Syria ig MQ). The AVolfe cxpedi- 
lion to Babylonia in lSS4-.'Sf. (cf. Rr/n}rt, nn. 24. 2o) 
locateditut ^n&ar, on ihe Eujihratce, N.W. of the 
rittiuiof Babylon. It wm [trobably the capita] cily 
vf nt4t AkJ;rt-cli. (CoiiBult for greater ftunesa the 
literatnre named below.) 

From ancient tlmea the kings of Babylonia, and 
tb& kin|;s of AsKyria who ruled over this territory, 
uppended to their names mr !ium^i u Akkadi, 
king of Burner and Akkad. Now, what was the 
origui of this double title'! It waa probably not 
itKUcative of the two remons of Babylonia, S. and 
N., aa kings M-ho rtUed only over S. BAbylonia 
claimed it. It wa» alw claimed by conquerors 
who had not advanceil farther S. tlian Nip}jur {cf. 
AVinekler, Untertftth. s. altorUnt. Ue$. 65 IF.). It 
fteem«, Uien, that * Snmer and Accad,' in the titles of 
kinf?4. may have been no more titan a claim to the 
fuicient ttirritor^' and city of Arcad, with additional 
territory (cf. McCiiniy, % HU). fFor other riows 
cif the <ine»tiun. cf. "Schrader, Knlinsrhriften u. 
GfJirhifht^f. p. 533 f.; Delitzsch, Prtrat/iM, p. 198; 
Tiele. tlfJich. Babyl.-AssprUns, part i. p. 76 1.) 

Upon the identification of these names witli 
mtccific localitiea ha? been built up the theory of 
tno BO-collcd Siuueriona and Accadiaus. To the 
oonflideration of tliia theory wc wilt now turn uiir 

It ia mjuntained by a certain school of Orient-ol 
hi«toriaD« and Hngniets, that the lower Meaopo- 
tamian valley wa* at an early day populated ny 
the Accadi&D», who were urijpnallv related to the 
>^iiineriana. They spoke, it is aoia, an agglutina- 
tive lugiuge. In tho of these pcopk-s 
Sem. tribes settled down, and adopted the buiguagr: 
and oustom^of thulr forc&cttlerH. Steuby8ti.>p the 
Sem. Iangiiagt.1 gained ascendency, and aooat 1200 
tLC, the native ton;^e dicil out, except ae a ausred 
and literary vehicle, in which capacity it serred 
until a lat« date. It is claimed that those earty 
iion-Sem. peoples reached a hi^h do-rive of civilisa- 
1 ton, that they left many traces of their culture in 
their nionuincnt« of art and lancua^, and ttiat wo 
ran readily int«rpret them. This suppoMd pre- 
hifltorio peoplo and their langnage are termed 
nmonc £ng. AwyriologiBts, 'Accadiaii.i,* among 
Krencn ana German ' Sumerians,' derived from tho 
mipposedly moeb unjwrtant localitiea M'here the 
mo3t ancient inscriptions are found. 

On the other hand, there is a growing Kchool 
which maintains that tlie Seinitcit, whom we know 
as possessing the cuneiform ctmraotcm, were the 
inventors of theae last and the dovelopen of 8em. 
ctiltare, and that the so-called 'Sumcrians' and 
'Accadians' are but figments of an over-zoalDns 
»ci«nlific spirit. A few only of the points can bo 
noticed. \Ve find in the iuscrijitions of Assyria 
and Babylonia M'ord-liRts which gire a twofold, and 
fometime^ a threefold, explanation of cuneiform 
idco^ams. These ideograms aro found in all 
BtogCB of the Bab.-Assyr. lan^iage. In these lists 
one column of explanationit gives us regular Sem. 
wordx, and another, words somewhat unfamiliar 
in •ound, which are supposed to be of non-Scm. 
'■rigin. But careful scrutiny shows that these 
■trange words yield to Sem. roota, and that even 
the most unfamiliar are simply mode up of possible 
wurd-forms of the same idiom, dkgulsed according 
to regular ascertainable methods. Again, «'Iiat 
can M said of so^aJlud bilingual or unilingiml 
texts? In both cases we meet with an nbiindanco 
of these disfruised Sem. worda, ami of Soin. gmm- 
luatical coniit ructions and modes of thought. Tho 
evidence of the slight remains of prehistoric art in 
I Babylon is iiol decisive. Again, the Sem. Baby- 

lonians never in any way speak of or allude to any 
such people as the sapposcd Sumerian? or Accadiunx. 
Stilt, the same langtuge was uM.>d in Babylon down 
to the latest period of its history, with no name, 
nor even a tradition, of that ituppoRcl great 
find inlluciitinl uataon who^e heritagi.' fell to the 
Semites. Other iieoples who come into contact 
with Uto Babylonians, and M-bo exorcised conuder- 
able influence on them, e.g. the Elauntes, receive 
frequent mention, but there is not the slightest 
alluuon to an Accadian race. It is not impossible 
that new diBcoveries may remedy this defect, but 
it is certainly umaztng that what is osmimed to 
have been thu nio&i inlluentiat factor in early Bab. 
civilisation is eniiiuly unmentioned. ^Vlien we 
find that Sem. dotunientii date from as early a 
I>eriod as the eiirlie<4t so-called ' Accadian,' and 
that this hypothetical language was nsed along- 
side of the regular 8cm. for nearly 3O0O years, we 
are inclined to aak, '^Vhat does this mt:aat' 
In an exniuLnation of the langtinge, we find many 
Sem. woiiIm and values which ul lii-sl tiight do not 
admit of such an explanation. But it is a fact 
Uiat the number which do admit of it is COn* 
tinuallr incrcaeing. Out of 305 phonetic values, 
Trof. Delitzsch namen 106 which ho regards as 
dcmonftrably Sem. {Asst/rische GramTwitik, % 25). 
Prof. McCuiiiy adds more than 40 others, running 
Rp the list to about ISO values. It is not iiui)Os- 
siblo that further investigation may greatly in- 
crease the nnmbor. 

Hut do not the inncriptions from Telloh. which are 
plainly ideographic, furniali conchndve proof of the 
soundness of the Accadian theory* So one might 
expect; but we are already finding in them actual 
Sera, words, disguised tmaer the lormh which axe 
found in later buingual texts. Besides, it is found 
tlmt the oldest kings of *Urof tho Chaldcc^,' the 
founders of the first Bab. kingdom, knew how to 
write Sem. as well as 'Accadian' inscriptions, 

[NoTK ny Editor. — Professor Price has been 
permitted to state hi* view of this qniytlion unre- 
Bcr\-cdly, For he is himself an ncc-omplished stndent 
of Assyriology, ond be has the supjiort of some 
eminent scholars (see especially McCurdy, JJijtort/, 
PropJucy, and the Monumtntt, i. 87 It'.). But t^e 
Kditor thinks tt necesKarv to any tliat the wnight 
of authority is undoubteulyon tlie other side, lead- 
ing As^Tiologists everj'wliere having come to the 
ooncluaion tlmt the view M'hirh Professor Price com- 
bats iasiubatantially true. The reader should, how- 
ever, consult tlio literature which Professor Price 
has given below, representing both sldca of the ques- 
tion, and the arlicloa As£YK1A and Bauvloma.] 

Lnsiufinia— fichrsder, Zur Frag* niuA d. Urtpr, d. ailbab. 
iiultw. US3: UttupUAkkatlittltf und Summseht KtiUchrift- 

(«BtU, ISSK.J i>i* StamrUeh-AkkadittJu: Spratht, FcrA. 

Sim Or, Oamg. li. m>. 24»-«87: />>' .SunwrtaAm 

voL L p. SI4f. ; Zhnmem, B9^t»ni»M Piutpsalmtn, IMs, 
p. 7ir. : nonuno], On. Bab.-AM. lasS, MOir. ; Title, Bab.- A*. 
(Jm. IBSer, S8; Uslirv, Apirfu ffrtmm«tkal dt FAUagnpkie 

at.-bah. 183S ; MiUnau dt eritimi4 *( thiaioift ntitiff 

aux pniptei fAsuKfroM, ISM : DvUtaaeb, At. Gramtnatit, IM), 
i U : ML-Ouidv, Prmb. and JUf. SnUto, Jan. ia»I, pp. es-81 ; 
i/(ft.>r«rA. end Mm. IBM. L. H n-%!>: Horamet, 

SvmrrUck* /.^aMlAaU, UM : Mveml ArtiolM la £ntscAri/t Jfitr 
Auynotoj/U, by BaiArj, Oujiwd. uid othen. 

In A M. Price. 

Besides other rueanini;*, accept is used in the sense 
of 'receive with favour': Gn 4' 'If thou doest 
well, shalt thou not l>e accepted 7' Di 33'> ' BlesA, 
Ix>rd, his substance, OJid a. tlie work of his hands.' 
It is then sometimes followed by 'of: Gn 32" 
' I will a]ipea*e him with the nresent . . . per- 
advcnture ne will a. of mo ' (ItV 'accept me ') ( 
2 Mac 13** 'And the king acceul*d well of Moc- 
cabrctis.' * Accept ' or * accept tue jierson ' is often 
the translation of Beb. c-;^ vvj ' to lift up tlie 
fue,' i.e. to look favourably on : Job 42f ' The 




Lord aiflo acceptotl Job' j Pr 18' 'It is not good 
to &. the person of tLe wicked.' This Ileb. idiom 
ha£ be«n tr. into Gr., and is found in ttic >"! od 
TMdwof \afifidfu. always in a bod sense, ' [inr- 
tiaUty/ 'respect of iit'tsoni.' Lie 20^ * Neither 
accQfitest tlion Lhu iierson of any ' ; tial 2" ' God 
nceujiteth no mna'a person.' Tlien thiH phrase is 
turned into vpcffitnro\Tinim>s (Ac H>" 'rMpottcr 
of persoiu'), wpoju-K oXi^uTrritu (Ja 2" 'hare respeot 
Co persons,' HV *of persons'), and rpmfuTroKnn^la 
Vreapect of pen«ons^ Ho 2", Eph &, Col 3", 
Ja 2'), tliTce worda foiind nowhere but in the NT 
and (thence) in et-cle^. writem. The 
* ac«-pl the pt-'niDU ' itt derived from the eecK-H. I>at. 
aeeeptare pernottam. 2. ARc?]>t:ible in U(W<1 in tlia 
iwnrte of ' lavourahle ' : Is 40* ' In an a. tiine have 
I heard thee ' ; til' ' To proclaim the a. year of the 
I^rd ' [i.e. the year of Jehovah's favour). 3. Ao- 
ceptation=fftvourfiblc reception, is found in 1 Ti 
I'^i^'worthy of all a.' 
Lithratviul— Llv'iULwb oa Gal 2* ; SMtdajr ukI RcKdUm on 

J. Hastings. 

ACOEPTANCB.— .^n;^;;^ and cos;nate \rurd» arc 

u.'ied in S»;ri]tturo to denote Iho relation of favour 

and approval in whidi one man may tttand to other 

men, ajid espeeially to tJod. Of the various 

IifiraseK einpluyMl to convey Uio idea, tboiie of niOHt 
requent ot-eurrence are in OT, Kir) ' to raise/ and 
ifn * to associate with, have plijasure in,' and in 
NT, €<rroi, • well plea«inc.' The conditions of A, 
with God apiiear in OT pnrtlv as ceremonial, partly 
as moral ami religious. I'urrficationsand sfieritiees 
(which mm;) are uei-C2t;>ary in view of human 
t|j:norHnec and sin. Bui the Hacritice« muat 1k) 
offtired in a spirit free from greed or deceit. To 
enforce the moral di^jmsitiou which most accom- 
pany every oflerinc, if one of the ffeeaX, functions of 
the prophets. ^Vhen the covenant has been 
cetabliahcd between God and I.uraul, entrance into 
it becomes a condition of receiving, and cHjiecially 
of liaving a joyful assurance of, the divine grace 
and favour. Similarly In NT, A. is hhI fort h at* only 
in Jesus Chriiit and for His sake ( l^ 1 P 2-'') ; 
and, aa the history of the patriarchs presents ns 
with living pictures of what is accvptnole to God 
under the old covenant, so Jeans is Himself the 
Itclovi'd Son in whom the Father is well plvastHl 
(Mt 3" 17"), and the type of all that GimI n^rr-iveN 
and approves. A. Stkwakt. 

ACCESS.— This word (not found in OT) occurs 
in NT in Ko 5', Eph a"* 3'» as the rendering of 
Tpofl-aywY^. The Gr. word may exjiress either an 
actnal ' bringing near,' or ' introduction,' or merely 
a 'means of nccesw," or 'a right to appnmc]i,' In 
otass. Gr. the idea suggested might l^e that of 
' introdnction to the prasonco - chamber of a 
monarch.' The OT associations of the kindred 
verb trpcaiytiv seem to connect the wonl rather 
with the peculiar relation in which Isr. sCond to J', 
and to give the U:\in a Hj>ecial appropriateness in 
describing the mlniissioii of Gentiles into a new 
covenant relation with God (7i> x'^P^ ravnjr, 
Ro 5', cf. Eph 2"), cf. Ex 19" and I P 3"; and the 
approach ol Cliristian worshiiiimrs to the Fath»T 
(Eph 9" 3'*), cf. Lv 1» eU'., Lv A^\ Mai 1", Ezk 44" 
ete. This la^t idea is M-orke<l out in detail in He 
lQi»-a Our 'right to approach * or 'our introduc- 
tion ' is uniformly dti-rribed by St. Paul (cf. 
Jn H*J as given us by Christ. 


ICCO. AV Aoaho ('iit).~This city, included in 
the lot of Ashcr (Jg 1"), was never t«ke.n by 
Israel, [vno^^n at different times as Pioloniaut 
(1 Mac and NT), St, Jean d'Acre, Accaron, Aeon, 
etc., the old Heb. \2^ 'Arcu survive^ in the Arab 
'Akka. JosephuA calls it 'a moritiuie city of 

Galdeo' {liJ II. X. 2). It was important as coili- 
niiinding the coast road, and affording easy access 
to the great routes crossin" the plain of E-wraelon. 

From thepromontory of Carmel the shore swoops 
northward with a beautiful inward cun-e, formin^j 
the Bay of Acre, on the northern extremity ol 
which the city fitands. From Sits en-A'tikurafi, in 
the north, the mountains recode some miles from the 
coast, leaving a fertile plain, which is Ixiunded on 
the eouth by the Carmel range. It is watered by 
the Kishon {el Mnkatta) and Nahr Nriam/in, the 
anciontCelufi. The plain furnishes Uaifa.Xa/Jireth, 
Tiberias, and S^afcd with half their supply of fruit 
and veji^ctables, sending also much to lieyrout. 

Of the IO,0«>y or 12,ti<K) inbabiliints, two- thirds are 
Moxlem!!, (lie reiuaindur being Greek and CatboUo 
Christians, with a few Jews and Pertitana. It is 
the seat of a provincial governor, under wlioni are 
the districts of Haifa, Nazareth, Tiberias, anil 
Safed. The cluef trade is the export of grain 
broaeht by camels from Ilaurdn. About 1000 tons 
of oil from the olive groves of Galilee are also 
annually exported. Entered from the south by a 
single gate, it ik drfi.:niltKl to landward br a douole 
rampart, to bc-awanl by a strong wall. Tlie ancient 
inner harbour hiLs dij»nppeared, and the outer is 
usyd only by smaller vt-swiU, the neighbouring 
anchorage of Haifa being more safe and con%-enient 
for larger shins. 

t'ow cities Iiavo had a stormier history. Allied 
with Sidon and Tyre in the days of Elulens against 
Sli&lm&neser iv. (Ant. ix. xiv. 2), it was taken by 
Sonnachurib, and mven by Ksarbnddon to the kin;* 
of Tyre. Held in .RUcitjsHion by IJubylun and 
Persia (Strabo, xvi. 2. 2i)l, on the division of 
Alexander's kingdom it fell to Ptolemy Sotcr. It« 
strategic value was proved in the Syro-Egyp, wan, 
Butraved to Antiochus the Great {B.C. 2iS}, it was 
immediatclyrecovertd by Egypt. Simon Macc^b^us 
defcattni and drove tlm Inrce-n of Tyre, Sidon, and 
PtoIemaiHintothBrity (1 Mac 5"; Ant. Xtl. viii. 2). 
Alox. ltala»* took it by treachery, and there niarrie<l 
Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy I'hilometur (^n/. 
xm. ii. I, iv. i, 2). Dcmetriu« Nikalor gave it to 
Jonathan 'for the necessary expenfics of the temple' 
( I Mac ly"*). Here Jonathan was pcrHdiotwly taken 
hyTryphou(./1ni.xul. vi.2). Ilcsiegwl by Alexander 
JannaiUs, relieved by Ptolemy Latliynis(,i'lM^. xiu. 
lit. 4], it was, rttptnrp<l by Chsopatra, who gave 
it to the Syrian niormrehy {Ant. Xin. xtii. 2). 
Tignuies the Armenian having taken the city, 
at once retired {Ant. xill, xvL 4; BJ 1. v, 3). 
Foiling to the Parthians (Ant. Xiv. xiii. 3; BJ I. 
xiii. 1), it nnaJly passed under the power of Home, 
and was raiscdto ttie rank of a colonyi with tho 
title, ' t'olunia Claudii Ca-saris PtolemaiSi.' Uerod 
built here a u'ymnnsLUtn (liJ l. xxi. 11). it ta 
la^t mentionciF in Scripture in connexion with St. 
Paul's visit (Ac 2P). W. EwuiO. 

ACCOMPLISH.— The primary meaning of a. istn 
bring to a successful issue. But tho only examples 
of thisintheAVaroPstW*. Prl3>*, I Es"l",.Ac2l\ 
Sunirtimtrs a. simply means to 'do,' 'perform': 
1 K 5», Jth 2". Is 55" * it (God's word) shall a. that 
which I please.' It is occa-vionally used in the 
olwolote sense of ' to complctu a period of time ' : 
Jer. 25" 'when seventy years are accompHslH-d *-, !i«. 
40' 'her warfare is accomplislied * : Job M" 'till 
he shall a., as an hireling, his day." From this 
arises its most frequent meaning, to bring to 
an ideal or divine cumuktcneaB, to fnllil : i/t) 
prophecy (once only), 2 Ch 36" ; (6) God's wrath. 
La 4", Ezk 0" 7" 13" 2(A " : (*;) Christ's work, 
Lk 0« 12" 18" 22", Jn 1»». The RV has 
sought to reserve this meaning for Uie word 
' fulfil,' but unsuccesafiUly. 

J. Hastinos. 





1. 'Of i "li is uaoil in tim apuciul nemB 

of urxth' ' "■}--nrij in Lv iV 'That wliirU 

growcth ui iu* (ttee ITS) own a.,' «nil in An 12'" 
'which opened to thorn of his ovrn a.' From the 
Gt. in both pnssa^cji |at>r^^rot) wo ^et uur woriL 
'auUnnaticnlly." In 2 Co 8" 'of hw own a. he 
went unto you,' the (ir. {avBalptro%) in lit. ' »i\i- 
eliciaeo,' of his own free choice. 2. In Iti SO" 
*Acc. to their dewis, «cconlin;^Iy hti will repay': 
' ace. to ' and * Rcconlingly ' are tninalfttiona of the 
s&mo Heb. word, and have the aanie ineaninj;. 3. 
In Ezk -li"- ^ ' ace. to ' means ' con-wpondin^ t«-' 
i. As verbal adj. 'according' U fonnd only in Wis 
18'* • an ill B. cry ' td<ri/^^«r«, BV ' in disoord ') : cf . 
In Mtmoriain — 

■ That mind mkI aoul, Moordintr w«U, 
U&y DuUte un« mudc' 

J. Hastings. 

ICOOB ('Acx^^f, 1 Mac 8").— Kuiio]i;miui, the 
son of John, the tun of Acco.i, wns one of the 
enroys sent to Rome by Judon MaccalxruK in 
161 B.C. AccoB repr«Bent« the Heb. Hakkox 
(jV?). which wna the name of a prieetly family 
(1 Ch '2-V^, Err 2"); Eiipolemus, therefore, may 
well ha%-e boen of priestly dceoent. 

U. A, Write. 

ACCOUNT. — Aa a suhst. a. is either literally 
the number uoanted, aa £c 7" * CotmtiDg one by 
one, to lindout the a.' ; onuetaphoricaUy' reckon- 
ing ' (Gr. XiVyot, 'word'), as Ko W*^ 'Every one 
of ns shall give a. of himnelf to God.' As a verb 
a. b lued in rare or obs. meanings. 1. To estimate, 
M Vt 2^ 'That also was a*' a land of pant«*; 
Ilo a" ' W<? arc a** as sheen for the alauchtcr ' ; 
lie 1 1» ' a^ that God waa able' ; He 1 1* IlV 'a^ 
(AV, 'esttirminj;') the rupruuL-h uf Cliiist stouter 
riches.' Cf. 1 Mac G* *Ht: made a. {i\oyiffaTo) that 
he ahould die.' Then it is sometimes (ollowcd by 
' of,' as I K 10" ' It (silver) was nothing accounted 
of in the days of Solomon ' ; 1 Co 4' ' Let a man 
so a. of us as oi the mini8t«r8 of Christ.' 2. To 
' reckon ' or • impute,' as Gal 3* * It was a** (KV 
'reckoned'} tu him for ri^Uteonsness.' 3. To 
*eeem,' or * be reputed," as Mk 10" 'they which 
area** (Gr. ol SoKoinrrtt) to rule over the Geniileii'; 
m Lie 22»*. Cf. Gal 2»-« 'those of repute' (Gr. 
«t 0CHCoFn><t). J. UASTUfGS. 

ACCURSED.— In AV c-v: h^tftn U tr. 'accursed ' 
in Jo-t tV "l"'-^, and 'a. thinj,'' in .Toa O"'-*' 7"^- 
U.O W22», 1 GhS'. In all the*« place* RV give^ 
*dflVotcd' or 'd. thing.' For the h^rem is not 
aconrsed from (fod no that we may msjte what 
eeoolar n«e of it wo pleaao, bat devoted to God, and 
not to be u»cd by us al all. A. is aino the tr. of 
i^$ttta, anrtthfma, in Ro 9" 1 Co IS* Gal l*^". In 
these passages KV simply transliterates the Greek. 
See Curse. J. IIastinos. 

ACHAIA ('Axafti), when Greece was frf>», was the 
strip of land bordering tiro Corinthian Gulf on the 
8. ; bnt. by tim Homans, the miitie Avhaia was 
applied to the whole country of Greece, becanse 
the Atlia'ftu League hod headtd Greek re«i»taoce to 
Itome. Comiueicd and united with the province 
of Macctlonia in B.C. 140,' Aohoia was in li.C. "JH 
made a Mpamte provtnf»! ; and ThcHiialy, JEtalin, 
Aoamania, and some jxirt of Kpinis, to^'cthor wit h 
Eubcea and the wwstem, central, and southern 
Cyolodes, were includwi in it. ft wa** governed by 
an official with the title Proconsul (Ac 18'^), who 
was appointed by the Senate from among the 
*Thi* l>--t. hoU]'fli«]>iir«d for a tiiB««iooe 1S4T, is now gener. 
tU; •<1nii'tnl : but A. wu trratnl mora esnly Uun •om« pn> 
'rtttfo: aUicos (b4u1 Delve, which w«X Sicvon (wMcb rvcrivtil 
pan ot the tnTibonr al (xninth), Spvta (wbicn «u fm from 
uuMion and hcttd of the ElvullierDUkoiies} RecMii( ipsdslly 
isvtiiaUe lenas : sm 1 Use 1S». 

ex-pnctors ; and not less than five vcars must have 
elapsed between hiti pnctorship and his prucomtul- 
ship. Corinth w&s the capital of the province, and 
the prQoonKul'H ordinary rcwdence (Ac 18"). As 
the severity of taxation wax a Hubject of romjdatnt, 
Tiberius, iu A.D. 15, reimiled Aeliaia with Mace- 
donia and M<L-sia under the administniiion of an 
iiuperial ie^atux ; but iu '14. Cluudiuit made it again 
a senatorial and proconsular province. Either at 
this or some lat^ur time, ThcDsaly wa^ divide<l 
from Achaia and united with Macedonia, and 
K]iinis with Acarnania wim made a ^ivjuiirate pru- 
curutorial )>rovinco (a* Ttoloniy III., g 13. 4^40, and 
i 14, dcwnbim llieni}. On 'iiKlh Novyml^r, a.D. 07, 
Nero at the Isthmian games declared Greece free; 
but within a few years Vespasian again made 
it a )^enn.toria.l province ; and, so long as the 
empire lasted, it was governed by a proconKuI, 
nndur whom were a U^hia and a-qturttor. The 
proconsul and his Itfjntna were m^'tihirly annual 
ofliciitlx, and so was the iiniL'ittur alwiiyx, but on 
imperial legatux governe<I tor a much longer term 
(two nileil from A.D. 15 to 44). In ordinary Gr. 
UBOgo, the terra 'Hellas' corresfwjnded opproxi- 
mately to the Rom. sense of Achaia ; and in that 
way EKKdi is mentioned in Ac 20*. But there was 
a wider sense of the epithet ' Greek,' according to 
which Macedonia could be thereby dt^ignateil ; 
and thus Aclmia and Macedonia taguther cuuKtitute 
the Gr. lands in Eunj])*?, and aresomytim'js coujileil 
as a ciowly connectwl pair (Ac 19**; cf. Ro IS**, 
2 Co 0», 1 Th 1«). 

The cxisteneo of Jewish Rottlcmcnts and ayn- 
agognes in Corinth ami Athena, the two greatest 
cities of Achaia, is attested in At; 17" IS^' ; and 
is BHg^stcil elsewhere by the rapid foundation of 
new ciiurches in Achaia (1 Co 2', Ac IS"). The 
presence of Jews is proved in Kparta and Sicyon as 
earW as B.C. 13&-138 through the letters adareesed 
to tnose States by the Rom. Senate, 1 Mac Iff" ; 
and in Hieotia, j^^tolio, Attica, Argos, and Corinth 
by a. letter of Agrippa to Caligula, I'hilo, t^^. ad 
Gaium, § 36 {Mang. li. ^7). Jewish inscriptions 
have been found at Athens, Patne, and .Kgino. 

LmuLATraa.— Tb«re U s good article on AchAl^ in Pouljr. 
Wbaowft, RS: kcsIm Msrqusrdt, Hom,Staaiti<erw. 1. p. 321 f.; 
Xommawi, fravimcH »ff Rom. Xmp. {Rom. Hftfh. v,)«ti- vtl. 

W. M. Uamsav. 
ACHAI0U8 CAxarKir].— The name is Roman (see 
ConiNTH). and appears to have been perjictuated 
in the family of L. Mnmmius, who earned it by his 
conquest of Corintlt and Achaia. n.C. 141). The A. 
of 1 Co \^ may have been a freodmon or client of 
the Mummii' In company with Stephanas and 
Kortunatus he had apt)eared at Kijho^us, and had 
' refresJied the spirit of St. Paul, and, he adda, 
of the CorinthiuUH al»o ; tltey thus * su]>]>lied ' 
sunietliing which ' was laeking ' on the part of 
the Corintliiiini*. This suggests thot they were 
distinct from U) the bearers of the Cor. letter 
(1 Co7')toSt. Paul; and from |i2)ol XX<J^(1 Col"). 
who hod more recently brought bock to Ephesus 
the di.^uieting news, under the freah impression 
of whidi 1 Co was written. (See Stkpiiaxas, 

ACHAN (i?v, in 1 Ch iP VV. Sept. 'Avrf^ prob. 
the correct form of the name, cf. * Volley of 
Achar').—X man of the tribe of Jtidah, son of 
Carmi, also called {Jos 22''"} son of /emh, who 
was his great-grandfather. After the fall of 
Jericho, he coveted and took a portion of the spoil, 
which had been dfvot^ed to utt4>r Afsl nictton. TIiim 
sin in the devoted thint;, invoIviTig the breach of a 
vow n)a<le by the nation as one liody, brought 
wrath upon all Israel, and their first attack up-ju 
AX was repulsed with the loes of tliirty-aix muu. 




Invetitigatioii was made by lut to discover wlio Usud 
sinned, and Aclmn was singled out. He made full 
ctinfcMlon of hiu pitlt, and the titulcn treaourc was 
found tiid under his tent. Instant execution fol- 
lowed. Not only Achan liimmjtl, Init his t<.;nt, ULi 
guodn, Lb 8poil, hiii cattle, and his rliildren, wt-re 
tn-ken to the valley, afterwards tnlleil Ihu vnlley 
of Acbor. There tlioy stoned him, and nit that 
bcloURed to him, afterwards consuming the whole 
with fire, and raising over the ashes a great heap 
of stonoa. This act of vengeance ia represcntea 
oa boiog in eome measure an expiation of the 
crime. 'The Lord turned from the lien-ent'ss 
of His anger.* Tlie suppomiii^n that h'w Umniy 
were uocesBories to his crime finds no sapnort in 
the narrative. The langaage of Joa 7** ('all 
l^m&l Btoned him with atones, and the^ bnraed 
them nith fire') haa been regarded as implying 
that Aclian alone sulTt^red the doatb ponalty, the 
pluraJl number referring to the oxen, aaaea, and 
t<heep, and that iiin mius and daughters were 
brought tu the valley merely aa spectators, tliat 
they might have a terrible warning. It is doubt- 
ful if the text will bear tliia construotion, and the 
sweeping nature of the act of judgment reoordod ia 
lather to be explained by refereneu to the stajje of 
moral development which Israel hud rtruvhed at 
the time (Joa 7'-^). K. M. IIOVD. 

ACHAR.— The form in 1 Ch 2*, 2 Es 7" of the 
name ACHAN (wh. tux). 

ACHBOR {•f^zii * mouse' or 'jerboa').—!. An 
Kdomito (Gn 3(j"). 2. A courtier under Joniah, 
niontionwi as one of the deputation sent b^ the 
king to Uuldah the prophoicss ; son of Micaiah 
(2 K 22'*- "). and father of Elnathan (Jer 2«" om. 
LXX, 36"). Called Abdon (2 Ch 34»). 


ACHIACHARU& CAxtix^pot B. *Axfi\apoi k, ip-pic 
Aram, and Heb., irnKSyr. ), the nephew of Tobit, 
was governor under Sarclicdonus - Ksarhaddon 
(To V* etc.), or, according to the Ariuiuiie 
text, * Rah ovur all that wha his (tlie king's), 
and Shalit over alt the land of Aitayna'; of. 
Dn 2*^. The nearest Hebrew name i» Ahiliud 
C'T^'i). * C*' 8'. J. T. Marshall. 

ACHIAS.—An ancestor of Exra (2 Es l>), omitted 
in EzT and 1 Es. 

AOHIM ('A x^^m).— Perhaps a shortened form of 
Jehoiachim, an ancestor of our fjord (Mt 1"}. See 

ACHIOR ('Ax"ip, i^M'^n 'brother of light').— 1 In 
LXX Ku 34=" for Ahihud. 3. In Jth (5* etc.), 
a general of the Ammonites, spokesman for the 
Jewish cause, and afterwards convert (ch, l-l). 3. 
In Vulg. To 11" by mistake. F. C. PonTKE. 

ACHIPHA (B 'A-xti^i., A *Axi^. AV Aclpha), 
J Eb 0-". — His children were among the 'temple 
survauta' or Nelhiriini who returned with Zenib- 
babet. Called Hakupha, Ezr 2", Neh 7" 

ACHIBH (e^'jv. 'Artofi<)--T]ie king of Gath to 
whom David fled for refuge after the massacre of 
the pricst« at Nob. Tinding himself reoogniBod 
OS the &laycr of (totinth, David feigned nifwiness, 
ojvii so escaped from the Phil, court (I S 21^^). 
{ Tliia incident belonL-s to one of the later documents 
of Samuel.) In 1 h 27' (beJonginc to the i/waldic 
or earliest document) A. is called * tho son of 
Maoeh' (possibly = 'son of Maacah.'l K 2*), receives 
Pavid with his liand of 600 men, and assigns him 
the city of Ziktng in the S. of Judnh. Despite the 
wislics of A., the other Phil, princes refuse to let 

David take part in the final campaign against 
SttuJ. J. l\ STKSfSixa. 

ACHHETHA lit(t;r\}i, 'EK^drara], tlic cap. of Media, 
iiu^nlinncd Ezr 6* a» the \iUwk where Stute di>eu- 
nient« of the time of Cjtus M'l're preserved. The 
Arain. form of the name emploved in Ezr (LXX 
'Afiti&d) closfly resemble* the Pehlevi '.ttron {Bttttde' 
hfsh, p. 23, i. 4), derived from the Ola Peru. hung, 
matana {Hehistan Inscr. 11. xiii. 8), derived by 
Uawlinson from ham and fjam, with the meaning 
'moeting-place.' This Old I'ers. form, accommo- 
dated Ui Lite (ircek prunuucuiliun, gave rittu to the 
name AgbaLana or Eclmtana (To fl*. Jlh I'"*), an<l 
purvives in the modern Hamxuliin {34' 8' N, 48' S' 
£), the cap. of the province of Persia bearing the 
same name, with M-nich the ancient cap. of Media 
is ordinarily identified. Hamodan lies at tho foot 
of Mt. Elwcnd, • whence it derives a copious water 
supply, and in a plain thickly besprmkled with 
vineyards, orcharda, and gardcne, but whose 
elevation is 6000 ft. above the sea ; it enjoys one of 
the finest situations in Persia' (Curzon, Pergia, 
i. 566). This is clearly the EcbaUna of To 6", 
\v|ier« it is represented as lying itiidway between 
N'ineveh and Khagw; and al»u of Straoo, xi. 523, 
M bo knows of it as the summer re.tidence of the 
I'arLhian kings; for wlueli its elevation and con- 
sequently cool climate auitod it. But the luicient 
cap. of the Median empire, built, according tu 
Herodotus (L US, 99), by the first king iJeioccs 
[c. 700 D.O.}, 'with wall.>i uf grciit size and strength, 
rising in circles one within tlie other,' each wall 
I»eing coloured to correspond with one of the seven 
planets, is to be sought, ace. to Sir H. Kuwlinson 
[JUGS X., art. 2, ond ad l.e, Herod.), not at 
Haniadan, but at Takbt-i-SuJayman (30" 25' N, 
47' 10' K) in Adherbijan, the ancient Atropatene, 
dislingiiislied from Media Magna. The Armenian 
historian, Mosos of Chorene (iL 84, ed. Whiston). 
speaks of the ' second Ecbatana, the seven-walled 
city ' ; and in the very learned paper quoted, 
Kuwlinson (1} identifies that citv with the Gazaka 
of the Greeks and Ganzak of the Aruieniaos; 
1^) idcntlficx Ganzak with the Shiz of Mulmniuiedan 
writers; and [31localise.s.ShizatTakht-i-Suluymnn, 
ivhere a conical hill, surrounded by ruins, which 
enclose n Sake that has attractLtl tho ob«>rvation of 
ancient and modern travellers, corre-'*ix>nds with 
the description of Ecbntana given by Herodotus, as 
well as with what that historian tells us of the char- 
acter of the surrounding country (i. 110). Hama- 
(lan, which ties at the foot of a mountain, would 
nut admit of beiu" fortified in the way described ; 
and, though search has been made by numerous 
explorers (see Polak in MitChcUunyen tier M'iener 
UcograpK GeselUcJia/t, lsia3, art. I), no traces have 
been discovered of buihlin^^ such as Herodotus 
mentions. The description m Jth (1^"*), to wliich 
no historical value attaches, would seem to refer to 
the same city as tliat of Herodotus ; and another 
rncord of the impression <ir(;ated bv tlie strength of 
its fortifications is, acconling to llawlinson, to be 
found in the account of Var in the 2nd Eargard 
of the Vendidad. D. S. MAiiGOUOtrrH. 

ACHOR Vallky (1^3? p?B ' valley of trouble,' 
Jos T*^"^ 15', In So'*. Hns 2"*).— In the last passage 
the name may i>erhftp« not bo geographical. The 
valley was near Jericho, but its exact [lOKition in 
not quite curtain. It appears, however, from its 
connexion with the border of Judali, to be 
probably WAdy Kelt, a deep ravine close to tho 
site of tho Jericho of tho Chrifition era. The 
sireoiu becomes a foaming torrent after rains, 
and, issuing into the plains, runs between steep 
t>ankH south of modern Jericho to the Jordan 
(.S'lrPvol. iii. all. xviii.). C. K. Condek. 





ACHBJUi{.-i??U 'anklet,'! ChZ*" A V Achaa).— The 
dAu;;ht«r of Qileb. She wa>i promised in niarriAge 
tiy neT fotlier to the man U'lio sliould eaptura 
Dwbir or KiiiAth-eepher. Othniel, the brother 
(nephew?) of Caleb, iiaxtiniilinhed the fent, and 
tiiiiained the promiiied reward. As the bride woh 
lacing ooaduct«d to her bcme, she lighted otf ber 
)u<M and besoujjiht her father to adu ' spriog-s of 
writer' to tlie dowry ol' a soutb Iwid (Ne^;cb), 
which he had already ^iveii her. In resiiuntie he 
i^uiled ber 'the upper Kpriuga and the nether 
Bi>raigB ' (Jos 16'«-", Jg l'^"'*). R. M. Boyd. 

ACHSHAPH {i»'3(!).— There were perhaps two 
townn in GalUe« of thid name. 1. Noticed with 
tiloces ill Upper Galilee, may bethep^eaent£^&'e»d/ 
6. of the LeoDtes, on the moimtiuns of Naphtali 
<Jo(i 1 1' 12"). a, A city of Asher (Joa 19"}, noticed 
with other towns near the ooaat, is more probably 
the modem £l-yas\f near Acre. This ia aiao 
noticed by the Mohiix, an E^yp. traveller (14th 
cent. A.D.) on hia way down tlte eotut. The loss 
of the letter caph in this name mav be eompared 
with the well-known caso of Acuzib [2]. See 
StyPviA. i. 8heet« ii. iii., and Clmbtis. Voyage 
(Tun Eyt/ptUn. C. K. CoNDEO, 

ACHZIB ( 315*1). — i. One of the 22 towns of Asher 
(Joa 10=* B "Exofo^, A 'Axftif, in Jg 1" B'A*x«f«£, 
A 'A«^irM^ It is idcntilied as £z-Zib on the 
coast between Acre and Tyre, near where the level 
line of fiund is broken by the promontory of Itas- 
en-Nakurah. The present viliagd—a mere huddle 
of j,'Iaring ]kat8 on one of the highest eniinent^its of 
the Kuidj Bea-wall — hoa notUiii},' to iudicat'C that it 
was once a place of bonie note. It is mentioned in 
•Ik 1"^ among the towns and district;! that Israel 
failed to conquer. A. was called Aksibi by the 
Avjr., and Ecdippa by the Greeks and Itomana. 
JoMphua and Jerome refer to it. The Riibbin. 
wrtten, hedfrinc the Land aa they did Ihu Hook, 
roarkea ont three dielriet^, indicated by A., 
Antioch, and Mesopotamia. The^ inDlined to the 
view that A. was on the oatsido of the first 
boundary line. All within was Holy Land, whore 
bread, wine, and oil could Ite founu ceremonially 
clean, and where tho dates of tbc months and 
their fasta could l>e accuiately known in time 
for obsen'ance. 

2. Another Achzib (B K(tfl$, A ondts), situated 
in the Shephelali or ' low-land ' of Judah, is men- 
tioned alonK ^rith Keilati and Mareshnh in Jg 15", 
and with Mareshah and AdoJlom in Mic 1". Thia 
neighbourhood suprg&rits a possible identific-ation 
with 'Ain-Kezbeh near Adullam. The name 
appeura u Kezib (S'l;, Xatr^O in Gn 3$^, and an 
Koz«ba (K?ib, B Iwxijfla, A Xi^^v^d) in 1 Ch 4». 
Some literary int«re»L attacheH to Mic 1", where it 
is Kaid that 'the houii>e« of Achzib sliall i>e a lie 
(Achzab) to the Icing^t of I.irael.' The rexemblance 
M«ms to imply a play on the word. Occurring 
in a paaaaj^ of vehement reproach, such derlBion 
correnponds to the spitting on the jiiround. which 
OriuntalK resort tu when greatly excited and 
provoked — as an expreanoo of uttermost nausea 
and contempt. 0. M. Mackic 

reflexive verb, meaning to make tho acquaintance 
of. is found in Job 22-i, Ec •«. Cf. Shnk.'s 
Temp. II. ii. 31) : ' Misery acquainta a man with 
Btraoge bedfellowa' Acquaintance i? both ain^. 
and unr,. Pa 55^ 'But iC was thou, a man mine 
ennai, my piide, and mine a.' (UV 'my familiar 
fnend'); Lk 23*" 'And all hifl a. and the women 
that followed him from Galilee.' AcquiLtnLe-d, 
meaning ' to be familiar with,' occuni Pit 139^, 
UsaC'a. with grief.* J. Hastinus. 

ACROSTIC.— A poem 60 comjtudcd that tJie initial 
lett-eni ot certain recurring periods (liiica, distichB, 
eto.) follow home detiuit« arrangement. In the 
OT all tho recopnised acrostic* ure alphal«lical, 
».*?. the initials make up the Heb. alphabet. They 
are Tsa 0-10. 25. 34. 37. III. 112. lUl. 14.% Pr3l'^-^', 
La L 2. a 4, Sir 51"-». See also Hob 14-2'. 
The periods asaigne<l to each Iett«r may consist 
of one lino (Pas Ul. 112). two (Ptw IH. 145, etc), 
three (La 3, etc,), or even sixteen lines (Pa 119); 
or the lines may vary in numljc-r, a* es]i. in 
I.a 1 and 2, and to some extent in the Psolmn. 
Whore the period consists of several lincJt, the initial 
letter ia sometimes repeated with each IJiic (La 3) 
or distich {Pa 119). In other respects the acrostica 
vary veir much in style and subject, and, though 
usually fate, undoubtedly belong to very diHerent 
daI«A. Tims Vha 37 and 119 from their didactic 
ttlyle are evidently lat«, while the Jutiwistic I'a 2.^ 
ia comparatively eajly. The acrostic character 
of these poems often tlirows indirectly an inter- 
eating liglit on their liistoiy, showing us unmi»tak- 
ubly the hand of the re^iaer, who sometimes did 
not scruple to disturb their alphabetical character. 
The moet striking example of Ihif4 in in Pd 9-lU, 
originally one njjihabi-lieal pjuilm of usually fonr 
linea to each letter. Tliia thu reviser cut into two, 
in Pa 9 adding vv.*""* as an appendix (comp. 
Pa 25" 34=*), and omitting two or three verses 
after T.'. In Pa 10 the verses represented by &-x 
were omitted to make room for the initortiou of a 
very curious and ancient fragment in vr.^". 
Somewhat idmilar, but less Wolent. alterations 
occur in Pwi 25. 34 and 37. Thus in Pa 25 tlie 
insertion of '.iVk by the ElohiMtic revtaer (see 
Hrxatkuch) in v.* ^ves K in»r.ead of 3 as the 
initial letter. It would seem also that v.u )]as 
been substituted for a p verso, or clao that the 
latter has been omitted. The oniif^ion of the ] 
verse in Pa 145 appears to )>e accidental. It is 
interesting to notice that when thu p^talma are, 
from tlieir style and poiiitiun in Iho P»aiter, likely 
(o be of late dat«, there is little or no interference 
witli tholr alphabetical arrnn-^ment. The trans- 
IMsition of the letters u and s in La 2 and 3 cannot 
easily be accounted for. 

Dickell. Ztitath. fur Kathnt. Theol. (Innfllimck) 
1SS2, p. 326 fT., has shown that the conclusion of Sir, 
(if which the original Heb. in now li>»t, vian alpha- 
l>fticftl, the lett«r8 3-ji, vv.^^^, being evident at once 
from the Syr. vendon. It has also been matatainetl 
that Nah l'-2''* wan originally alphabetical; hot if 
90, the text has been bo altered \xy revision or 
corruption that ver>' few traces of this remain. 

Some critics claim to have discovered a name 
acrostic in V& UM, the initials of 1-4, after omitting 
the introductory words, spelling jycr ; but this 
coincidence can hardly Iw considered canduMive. 

r. H. Woods. 


i, Iiitnjilwciiori. 
li. Tuxt and TmiimiuoioiL 
Ul. U\»nry HlAory. 
Iv. llodwn CritidBD. 
V. PuinoK and ContABta 
rl. Aiuujrtls. 

vIL Authonhlp aDd Date. 
y\\\. Tb« Acti and Jowphu*. 
\x. Tito Blatortcal V«lu« of t>ie Acta. 
(1) i Priori Objc«rtit>n». 
n\ Tbe Acu Mill St, raul'i Ei^ntiea. 

(5) Tho An:h»olo(HctU Bvidvncc. 
H) Tht Period orTnuwilion. 

(B) Th« EArl.v Coiamunitj' in Jcnunlem. 

(6) The Sp*Khc«. 
a. Sources ot the AcU. 
x\. OonoIuMlon. 

ill. Litentun. 

i. The Acts of the Apostles, the 6fth book in 
the English Canon, is uniqao in its character. 

* Tfae venet vn numbered Ln thii vticle At.'twrdlni; Co Ui« 
licb. Ullfle. 





While we have (oar separate naiTati%-es of the life 
of our Lord, anj a very considerable number 
of letters hv dillcrent apostlci, it is the only 
luKtory of tliA early Church that can niako any 
chiim to be iiutlK-utic Sotuo Hxitera indeed, ifucii 
an Koltzniann [JinndkvntTiicntar, p. 307). BUg^'e^t 
that it in to be put on tlie level of other wurkn 
written in the second cent«ry recordinjj the dee*i« 
of the apostles ; but such a position lb qnite 
untenable. Even if some of tncm, such as tho 
Acta of Paul and Thccla, mny rest on an historical 
boa^, that ia the most which can be adniittcd. 
The greater number ol tbem, most notably the 
Clementine Romances, for which there wa» once 
tliumed almoat an equality with tho Ants, are 
now decisively thrown to a later date. The Acts ih 
the sole remninin^ hiiitoncal vrork which deaU with 
tho be^'innini^H of Church history; and thiM 
amongst oiber causea has mode it a favourite mark 
of modern criliciiim. 

ii. Text and Tkansmission.— Although our 
RUthoriticR for the trnn^niis.'^ion of tho Acts arc in 
the main Mnillar to thu»r fur the GoNpi;!^, they am 
fewer in nuni1>er. Like the (•o4{>el^, it ix contained 
In the five leading l'ncial!»(K A IJC D), in the VuIr., 
in tlie IV-^hitta and Harclean Syriac, in tho two 
chief Coptic VSS, nnd there are quotations from it 
in the leodinc I'athers. Two sources are, however, 
defective. We have nothing corresponding to the 
Ciiretonian nnd Sinaitic SyTiac,nordowe even know 
whether sut-h a text cxistod ; and tho Old I<atiii !■« 
T«ry iitodequiit^ly re[irL'«.'iit«d. On th« other Imnii. 
we possass one other I'ncial of considerable im- 
portance, namely, the Codex Lonilianus (E) of the 
Bodleian Library. Oxfonl, a bilingual MS. of the 
Acta only. In later Minuscules it is i^enerall^ 
found forming ono volume with the Catholic 

The inadequate representation of the Old Latin 
and the absence of an old Syri.-»(; text arc to bo 
regretted, owing to (be fact that tho jwrtirular 
textual phenomena which they exiiibit meet n^ in 
hame uutlioritic* of the Acta in a v<!ry conspicuoiis 
form, namely, what Li called tho Wettcrn text (by 
Sandfly and'Headlam, Jlomatu, p. Ixxi, th« S text ; 
by BlnsB, Ada Apostolorum, p. 24, tho /J text). 
Inis is ropresentm move or less definitely by the 
two biliuyual MSS. 1) K, hy the ninripnnl rea^inj;s 
of the Harclean Syrioe, by the Old Latin so far as 
we can recover it (Co«!ex Cigas, Floriacensis, and 
similar friicrmonta, with the Vann MS. Latin 321, 
edited by Nl. Berber), nnd by Western Fathers, 
esp. Irena'ufi, lertnllian, Cyprian, Lucifer, 
Augustine, V'igiliuii, Bedo {some having a mixed 
text). The dioraot^ristics of Uiia text are wuU 
known ; it adds paaiogea of considerable length, it 
paraphrases, it sometimes seema to corret;t the 
HhorLer text : and all these chanict'Cristics appear, 
but in a very much mure marked form, in the Artn ; 
it BonietinieB gives a difTerent aspect to a postage 
by the variations from the shorter text, sometiiU'-» 
its variations give additional and apparently 
aathentic information. The problem of Uic ori;^-in 
of thia text has cau-sed in recent years a t;onaidi*r- 
able amount of discu^ion. Some few critiiv, nuch 
oa Bornctnoiin (1S48), have been bold enough to 
consider it the original test ; but that opinion hns 
found few followern, Rt-ndel HnrriK, in 180L, 
sLarteil a seritfa of niodern dlrtcuf^ions by suggesting 
that the variations of Codex Ueuo were dne to 
Latini»>ation, and implied the existence of a 
bilinKoal MS. at least oa early as 150 A.v. Ho almj 
found signs of Montanist influence. His main 
theory was adequatelv refuted by Samlay in the 
Guardian (18lh ondiJ'jIh May 1S02), wboascritied 
Ihe recension sugges-toil by the Western text to 
Antioch. Knnufay, in 1S02 {CkurvK in Ikntv. Emp. 
p. 161, «d. 2)j fotud evidence of a Catholic reviser 

who Lived in Asia before the year )50, a locality 
which hod already been suggested by Lightfont 
(Smith's DB* i. p. 42), while WH suggest N.W. 
Syria or Asia Minor {Gr. Test. ii. p. IDS). 
L)r, Chaiw, in 1803, attacked the problem from 
another »ide, accepting Antioch as tho locality, 
and lindin^ the principal cause of the variations in 
retranslation from the Syrinc, a position he failed to 
make good. Lastly, T>r. Blaaa lias BUgceflted that 
tho author issued two editions, and that Doth forms 
of the text are duo to himself personally, the one 
reprosonting a rouL'h draft, the other n romion : 
again, a theory which is hardly satisfactory {soe 
Cliase, Crit. Sev. 18»4, p. 300 ir. ; Blaas' reply 
liegiuH in ffermathtna, N'o. xxi. p. 1*22). 

A deTniite solution of the proldem has not been 
allAined, nor has it yet Iteen atlackt^l in a rtwily 
scientitic manner. A careful study of the M-SS. I> 
and E, and their relatione, is necessary in order to 
oliininatc their imiividual iiecuiioritiea. But in all 
probability the Folutiun lies in the direction 
snggestctl by WH (p. 122 f.). If we conipnru 
the phenomena presented hy the text of apocr. 
writmgs we find juat the same tendency to varia- 
tion, hot in an even more exaggemted fonn. 
Topular literature was treated witli grwit freedom 
by copyists and editors. Immediate e*iilicntion or 
oonvemence was the one thing considered. Doting 
tho Urat seventy yeara of tlieir existence, i.e. up to 
the year A.i>. tM>, the books of NT were hardly 
treat***! aa canonical. The t*xt was not fixed, and 
tliB ordinary licvnce of parnphnuiea, of interpro- 
tAiion, of aaditions. of glossee, waa allowed. Thcj*i' 
could be exhibited most eoflily in early and 
popular tran-ilations into other tongunges. It wae a 
process which would have a tendency to continue 
until the book was treated aa canonical, and its 
text looked on oa something sacred. Although 
Rome whole cla.')s«!* of rcading-i may be dno to ono 
delinite plaee or time, yet for the most part they 
represent rather a continuous process, and it is 
not probable that any theory which atlpmp(.H to tie 
all variations down to a special locality or ii definite 
revision will now be made good. 

In one point, however, WII's conchistons wlU 
require mtMiitii'Atimi. It must not be forgotten 
that WeMt<;ni authorities represent ultimatelv an 
independent tradition from the Archety|H>. It is 
finite conceivable, therefore, that in any single 
reading, which is clearly not Wentem in its 
charac-t<.'r, they may preserve a better tradition than 
tho MSS whose text wc should usually follow. We 
must, in other words, diatingTiish Western rcaflings 
from readingH in Western authorities. I*'or 
exmnple, 'EXXij^at read by A U in U** may be 

iii. The T-iterary HISTORY of the Acta is 
similar to that of the great numlter of books of 
NT. In the quarter of tJie swund century, 
when wo begin to have any great extent of 
Christian literature, we lind it iletinitely cited, 
(rented as Scripture, and assigned Lo St. Luke. 
Thl<« is the cave usp. with Irenreus, who cites 
iiASHagcs BO continuous as to make it certain thai 
he had the book Wfore him sulwtantially as wo 
have it, hut with many of tho readings we call 
Western. He lays stress on the fact that them in 
internal evidence for the apoRtoiic authorship, and 
ia followed in thia by the Muratorian Fragment 
(Iren. Adv. H<Er. i. 23. I ; iii. 12. 12, 13. 3, U. I. 15. 1 ; 
iv. 15. 1). The book is also ascribed to St Luke 
by Tyrtuilian (7?e Seiunio, 10) and Clement of Alex, 
[Sfrtmi. v. 12. § 83, p. 696, cf. Sanday, UL. n. 6tS f.) : 
while anduuht«d quotatiouH appear in Folycrates 
of EphesuB (Ens. Hist. Eccl. v. 24). in tho letter 
concerning tho martyrs of Vienne and Lyons (lA. 
V. 1). and a |ios.sihle one In Dionysius of Corinth 
\ih. iv. 23}. By tliia date the work is an 




integml portion of tiio Canon iti idl Chiirclies, and 
tUero are no m^ns of luiy iliirorvnot; of opinion. Nor 
U tbero any reason for arguing tltat bet-auHe our 
knowle<lj;e of it IwRins BudJenly, therefore the 
book dQildenly appeared in the 4.'«non. Wo have 
no UocUWe evidence earlier, because wo have no 
boutu to contain that cndence. Moreover, the wide 
area over which our cvidc^nce extends seema to 
imply that the aitcription to St. Luke is a j>euimiu 
tradition, and not a mere oritiai.1 deduction. 

For an earlier iHjriod the industry of critioa haa 
collected a number of parallels, on which indeed. 
for the mo»t part, do great stress can l>e laid ; but 
two litica of ar'ninicnt enable U3 to take the book 
farther buck. Tho unity of authorship of the Acta 
and St. Luke'fi Gospel must be ailmittod as 
nxtomatic, and it in iiuite clear tbatTatiaa, Justin, 
and Slarcion were ac<{uaint«d rtith St. Luke's 
Gospel. Now, the existence of St. Luke's GokihjI 
implii^ the exiitonco of the Acts, and tliLs *"on- 
clniiion is supported by a numWr of piirjiHHls 
iKitween the Act4 and Justin, wliich would not 
pi?rhap9i bo by themsclvca of great weight (Ac 1" 
~Ap. I flO. 2»=/>»a/. 68, l^=Diat. 16. \V^=Ap. 
ii. 10. '2&^~niai. 3fl, 70). The use of St. Lake by 
Mnn-iun (.■Icii.rly corrie* the Acts liack to the early 
I>art of t he second oen tnry ; but we can go still oarlior. 
Anionj: the aixxttoHc Fatlicni there are saggcatioufi 
01 contfurt with Baniabas, HeTTn&s,and Clement on 
whiuh little stress can be laid, while l*apiaa ahow« 
lilnuclf acquainted with the pcreons mentioned by 
St. Luke ; out in Ignatius ami rolycarp (Ac 2*= 
Fol. 1, 10"=Fol. 1, 20»=Fol. 2, 7"=I*ol. 6, 8=^ 
= Pol. 12. l^^Ign. Mag. 6, G»=Iffn. PA*/. W, 
\\)^=\^n. SmvH. 3) there are resemluiuicm wliiuli, 
althouj^'h Hliglit, are so exact aa to moke the 
hypolhesi* of literary obligation altnot^t necewnry, 
lu Uoltzuiaun even seems to think [Einlcitung,* 
isgs, p. 406, 'there are still more noteworthy resem- 
htaD«'« with JuKtin, Puljatrp, uiiU I;;natiua ). Thta 
la^t evidence in of increasing importance, as nut 
only the gpnoinencs!» but alM> tJie early date of the 
letters of Polycarp and Ignatius is becoming dnily 
better established, and these quotatiomt almost 
compel OS to throw back the writing of the Actn 
into tho Ist cent. — this is, of course, provide*! 
we accept the literary unity. If we accept the 
elaborate distinction of sources (see § x.) which 
has become fashionable lately, no c\'idence at an 
earlv dttte i» %-a)nable except for the words quot«il. 

The luHtury sulMetpient to tlia tiecond century 
need not detain us. Home few heretics appear to 
liave left the work out of the Canun, anil 
Chrj'BOHtom complains that it was not much read 
in Itu time ; but it is always with bim aa with all 
other Church writers, one of the accepted bookn. 
Its place in the C'nnon varies. Tho ordinary 
|K)sitiun it* imme<linlely after the Gospels {Eifv, Act. 
Citth. Pnnl. or AV». Art. Pavl. CtitA.), and thiii is 
(he place it occupiee in almost all Gr. MSS, from 
llie v''atican onwards, in the Mnratorian Fragment 
and later lists, in Syr. and Lat, MS.S. The order, 
Jb'ti'. J'ftui. Act. t'ftih., is that of tho Sin., sonic 
MintLsculeSt MSS of the I'eshitta of the 5th and 
ilth cent., the Codes KuldenMs and Vul^. MSS 
from the 13Ui cent. A third order H Exw. 
Paul. Cath. Art., which is found in the Apostolic 
Canons. ft5. the BohairioatKl iterhaps the Sahidic 
MSS, in Jerome'a BiMe and Spani.'^h Vnlg. MSS. 
The only point uf importance in the order would 
be wbi'cfi<.-r there was an early tradition grouping 
the writin^-s of St. Luke together. There is vorv 
Uttlo evidence of tliis. In (*oine case« St. Luke a 
was plared fourth among the Goitpuls, but this 
happened, as a rate, in uutltorities which do not put 
the Aets next : for example, the Codex Claromon- 
tanas and some Coptic authorities. There seems, 
bowover, some evidenoe fur thinking that in 

Origen's time tho order of the Gospela was Jn 
Mt Mk Lk, an<l that these were followed, by the 
Acta. In the case of Irenwns, however, our oldest 
evidence for Asia and the West, we Had the Gospel 
already septLrated from the Acts and deliuituly 
grouped with the other Go9IK;l-^ (Zalm, Qeachichti 
(Us SeutcH. Kanojis, ii. 313-3S3). 
\y. MouKRN CRiTictSM.— I. By for the moat 

firevalent opinion concerning the Acts has always 
leen, and still is, thnt which ascribes it to .St. Lukq 
the companion uf St. Paul. This is tho opinion, 
nut only of those critics who ore claased as ortho- 
dox, but of Benon, whilst it has recently been 
maintained \Titli great \*igonr by Uumsiiy and 
Btass. It is, of course, com|iatihle with very vary- 
ing estimates of its historical authority. While 
Kenan considers it valuable mainly ns n witness to 
the ojiiniuns and ideas of the author's own time, 
Kaiosay, on the other hand, claims for St. Luke 
a place in the very first rank of historians— i.e. 
amongst those who have good material, who use it 
well, and who write their history with a very clear 
insight into the tnio course of oventSi. Kvon he, 
however, admits that for the earlier portion its 
value isdepttudimt on the valtieof the sources used. 

2. As i*oon as Baur began to dev«lup his theory 
of (riiurch history, it heuune apparent that it was 
inconsistent wit li tlie Acts; ana partly arisinjj from 
ft comparison with the history recorded. In the 
Galatinns and for other critioal reasons, but partly 
owing to a ditTeroot tt priori conception of what 
was the natore of the devclopnif^nt uf the early 
Church, an opinion has widely prevailed that the 
Acts presents us with a fancy picture written in tho 
second c*uitnry in the interests of the growing 
Catholicism uf'the day. This has liet^n the view oi 
Baur, Suhwegler, Zeller (to whom wo owe by far 
the fullest investigation on this side), UilgenfeUt. 
Volkmar, Haiisrath, llotstcn, Liiisius, Davidson, 
van Miuieii, and others. But in ttie extreme form 
in which it was hehi it is gradually tieing given up. 
Neilhi-r the late date nor the exaggerated view of 
the dilFLTeDces of parties in the early Church is 
really tenable. The nnhiatoricat character comes, 
it is now said, rather from defective knowledge 
and insight-, not from dolibcrste purpose, and tuo 
writer ^vrote as he could rather than as ho would. 
Uo represents, in fact, the opinions of liis day, those 
of ' Ileathen Christianity develop'mg into Catho- 
licity' (Hamock, Hixt. // Du^mt. Eng. tr. 1. 5«). 
Moreover, few would care for a inueli Inter dale 
tlian 100 A.D. ' The aothor»hip by St. Luke would 
lie juMt conceivable if some time about the year 80 
were taken as the terminus ad qtum' (Uoltzmann, 
n»ndL-omm. p. 312). 

3. The school of Banr bad the great merit of 
establishing the fact that the Acta is on ortiiitic 
whole, that tlte writer hod a clear conception 
of the manner in which the Church dcvelopeil, 
and wrote with that idea always licfore him. 
In the last t^jn years n scries of writers have 
attacked the iiue^iiion of the sources of the book 
(see § X.) in a nminm'r <]uite inconsistent with thi«. 
Thcv liave inmgined a mimber of writers who have 
gradually compiled the book by collecting and 
piecing together scraps of other books, and by 
altering or catting out such juinsages in the same 
as seemed iueuuslstent with their imrticulnr 
opinions. This view, in anything like an ex- 
treme form, is absolutely inconsistent with the 
whole character of the work. 

A B:ufficient amount haa been said about the 
various opinions which have been held, and it will 
be most convenient to pursue our sui^»*«quent in- 
vestigations from the point of view which we con- 
uder moHt pmbable. 

V.; AND CoxTKNTs. — Tlie pnriioiwi whidi 
the writer of tJie Acta had before him may be 




Salhered from \nn own preface, carre^poDiiing as it 
oes with the i>lnii nn<L nrrnngcmeat of thi; work. 
Tlii*re is inilpoil a sli^^'lit olisciirity. He liepns by 
referring to his [(ruvUms Iwok in tho wonis t6v h^k 
wpCiToy XAycc, and very clenrly 8iini5 up the content? 
of the work as being wtpi rdfTwf iI-f ijpjaro 6 'l>)<ri>Ci 
rtKuy T( jcai SiBiitrKtir ; but he iiuver gives the eucoud 

fiort of the sentence. Ibi purport, however, nmy 
K galhured fruui tlio following venie». Tlie 
apuittlcH were to receive the gift of the Holy Ghost 
and of power, and wcru to Iw witn^JUiefi of the Lord 
ill Jenualcm and in all Jtidii-a and Sauiaria, and to 
tiie uttermost pnrtfi of the eJirth. In other wardtt, 
the subject of Ine book is (1) the divine oreilentiuin 
of the apostles as exhiliited in their poieer, and (2) 
the cxt^'nt^ion of the gospel in the stages marked 
by the words JcrossitcTn, Judoca, and .Samaria, the 
Q(t«rmost parts of the earth. 

Whon we exajiiine the fltnietnro of the book, wo 
tind that it aliiio&l exactly corresponds with the^e 
words. There is clear evidence of tnethiHl. The 
writer begins with the enumeration of the names 
of tliii apostles and the members of the community. 
Then comes the gift of the Uojy Ghost, and ln<j 
immediate outburst of power. Then the preaehin;; 
in Jerusalem. Id this we notice that all signs ol 
the apostolic power and all points which lead to the 
bpruttd of the gospel are specially noted. An in> 
stance of the first is the stoi-y of Auaitias and 
Supphira ; of the la«t, the way in which Uie difTi^rent 
stages in the growth of the t,hurch are continuallj' 
iimphnsised (•2*'- *' 4*). In ch. 6 there is clwirly a 
new start. The appointment of the seven is dwelt 
uri, both because of the immediate exhibition of 
l>ower {6'), and because of the immense results 
which fuUowi^l from the preaching of Stephen and 
the persecution which followed bia deatlu 

In B* tliu Hccund stage of progress is entered 
npon. Thu wi»rd spreads to Samaria (S***). The 
extension of the gospel is 8u;:gi'.sted by the story 
of the Ethiopian eunnch (S-*-*). In »'■** comiw* 
Saul's conversion, an event of extreme importance 
lor the writer's purpose. In 0*' is given another 
summary of the progress of the Church — by tliis 
time thranghout all Judaea and Galilee and Sam- 
aria. A series of incidentu relating to thn mis- 
sionary work of St. Peter now follows (9*'-lI>*), 
selected as containing the first definite signn of the 
extension of the gospel to the Gentilca, 'Apa «ai 
Toil Wcetfiy 6 0tin r^ jj-trdvoiar «if i'wV (tvKtv- In 
11" we reach a further stage. The word is 
preached in Phoenicia and Cyprus and Antioch, 
and the Church of Antioch is founded— the word 
I«ing pre,%ched there to tho-ie who are not Jews. 
In 12'' again the spread O'i the word is dwelt on. 
Another stage in tlie narrative is ended. 

We get in 13' or 12^ what is clearly intended to 
be a new departure. The amount of preparation 
shows us the im]x>rtftnce that the author attached 
to the first setting out of Panl and Barnabas to- 
gether, and from tins time onwards the narrative 
jtrocceda very delinitely forward until the time 
when St. Panl rL^ches Kumc. We may aj:ain 
mark stages in the narrative — 13*-U'* — commonly 
called the first minsionary journcv of St. Paul ; 
in which we notice the emphasis laid on the 
exhibition of SCfofut on the port of tlie apostle. 
In 15'"^ comes the apostolic council ; then 15"- 
21" the farther missionarv* enterpri-ie of St. Paul. 
Here we notice how it is always the [xiints of 
departure which are dwelt on, as, for example, the 
first preaching in Europe and in great and im- 
jiortaut towns. Then 21"-28'* the scries of events 
which ultimately lead St. Paul to Home. Here 
the great fulness of detail arises partly from the 
betttr knowledge of the author, partly from the 
important chanict<!r of the events, — St. Paul 
preaches before rulen and kiogs, Lk 21'",— portly 

liecauBc they ore all events wluch help in taking 
Uiu gospel to Rome. There the author leaves St. 
I'mu preaching, Viecause he has then act-oniplished 
the ])urpo<o of hia narrative. Rome is typical of 
the ends of the earth. A definite puint iw reachetl, 
and the narrative is definitely concluded. (For 
argnmcnta iii favour of Uie deOnite conclusion of 
the work, we Ughtfoot in Smith's DJi^ i. 27, as 
against KaniHay, 6t. Paul, u. 23.) 

The above skcU'h of the plan of the work has, Hi 
any rate, the merit of being an attempt to discover 
the author's puriiose by an examination of his own 
longoage. The fault of other views is that they 
exaggerate point* of minor importance. A soriesof 
writers from Sch neck on burger (1841) onwards have 
seen in the work a book of conciliating tendency, 
based on the parallelism between .St. Peter and St. 
Paul ; and this new in a more or less modified form 
has been the prevailing one. It has, as will 1>e 
suggested, this umch truth, that the writer would 
pass over for the most part iucidente of a less 
creditable character ; he did not. however, do so, 
as this theory implies, because be wished to con< 
ceol anything (he gives us quite sufficient binta 
of the existence oi dilTcrente of opinion, IS^-^'- 
21*"-). but because they did not help in the aim 
of his Work. He looks upon Christianity as 
a iKtIity or society, and it is the growth of this 
society he depicts. The interna] history is looked 
at in so far ns it leads to external growth. The 
view of PUeidercr and some others is that the 
liook was written from an apologetic point of 
view to defend Christianity against Judaism 
and {mganiam. With this oujcut, like the latiir 
Christian apologists, the writer depicts the Roman 
uuUiurilius VLH, on the whole, favourable to Chris- 
tianity, while be represente the attacks as coming 
from the Jew». There is no doubt that he does so ; 
but the obvious reason for doing so was the fact that 
the author was narratin;^ things as tJiey liap{)ened, 
while he gives no hint that his work is intended to 
1>« apologetic. It is addressed to a believing Chris- 
luui, not to any outsider. 

vL Analysis. — A certain amount of discussion 
hiiH taken jdoce as to whuUier the Act^i should be 
divided into two or three main part*. All such 
diflcuasious are thoroughly fruitless. There are 
quite cJenrljr definite stages In the narrative, and 
(lie writer is systematic. Wu must observe the 
structure, but we are at liberty to make sui:h divi- 
sions as seem convenient — remembering that the 
divisions are not the writer's, but our own. The 
following is suggested a.-i a convenient analysis on 
the lintw of the previous summary*. The speeches 
arc italicised i — 


11-11. Tbs ApoMoUc CoTnmlnion. 
Tui CmmoH n Jbuhalbm. 

J>^s<. Tht najua* o( the ftpottlot Kud the cotnpkUoa cl 
llKlt iiiuiiber. 

is-a. SvteeS ^ PtXxr. 

St'U. the xin or lb« Uoljr Splilt. 

<S"t7. IncKAW of tin dlsdplM. 

S>-*i. Mmllnf of tbe Impoient rruui. Sfitt^\ t^ Ptt*r. 

4i'39. ImpritoruuMilolPclernndJohn. Sp»tu> iff PMtr 

b^oit tit* Saivtudrin. 
=**!. Fraytr qf tht Church on Lkeir rrJfOM, 
B-£it. Communion of the «iu-ly Ohureh — PnmitTM. 
Aiinnlui and UapiiliinL. 
lT-411. Second Imniiaonment ol P«t«r otmI John. Svttth 

fit '. The appointment of the Bev«n. 
M*. Tlif preochlnc ol Btepheo. 
71-M. The tpMCh qfSt^htii, 
M-S^. DtaUi oi 8t«[^bleu luid jK-iwcutloa of th« Chorota. 


S-t-^. I'hiliplQSoniarU. Simon Mk^ub. 
a>-w. PhJtip uvd the Ethloptui euuuBh. 
C^'M. Convenlon ofSkul. 

SI, EvtCTiBfon of Uw Chun*. 
>^^. L'ctcrKCLj-ddaiuid Jo'PiA. 




Iffi-ia, Convctaloa at Canultua. Sp»ecA of PtUr. 

Tns CiiciKU ur AwnoGii. 

1I1*4S, ybtuulatic^n of the Churah In Antloch. 
*■■*. Oollfction (or the poor in JcruMlcia. Mi»on 

of i*aul uid Dunabu. 
1S>'1*. PmeouiioB ol Qtrad. fttm Ihrairn Into pri«oa. 
■»B. Dtuth of B«nxL 
K Propvas of th« Cburob. 
l« BaroKbu and 8&ul smt forth from AnUoch. 

FiuTT Uiano<iAar Joeuncr or Paci. Aito BAkXAa<uL 
U<-». CTtmiii. Eljmu and Swirlus Pauliia. 
U^. AnUoch Id PuhIuw ^mmh ((f i*a«( to tAt Jtim. 
141-''. lomlHin. 

••». Lvstn. 5>«c-A «./ PotJ to the OmtiU$. 
»'*. VUt to Ilrrty and rvtitm JoURWj to Antioch on 
th« l>roiil«)». 
Ul-M, Hie BpoatoUo coutidl to Jerusalem. Sfueha of 
POtr and Jame: Utter tv tJ»* Chunim. 

flacoxB Motiovarx Jovxvst or St. Paul. 
Ur«-10S. TbeChurobes revliJtcd. 

MO. Joartici' Into Europe. PhtUppL 
iri-U. ThMaJoninand Bena^ 
'•M. AtlUDC. 5kwMAof /\ni(fntA« Jr«a|Nimu. 
Wi U. Oorinth. 
»». Rtftam to Antloch ia SjrU. 
O. Yiatt to JeniMlKm. 

TDihs UunoxutT Jovurn. 
1S». Vbit toOakttv 
«-M, Apollo* al Ephatui. 

191*1. piiui «i Ephcflui. Katiirbano« in th« Lbcsln. 
SQl-*. Jonmej In Macedonia and Urewa. 
Mr Ttoaa. 
tt>ni*. Joumcv to Janinalam. Spt€iA Is ttdm oj 
Bpnenu at MiUtu*. 

Paul tx JnoaAit k. 

S1>T-M. PlnarbaDOM arla». 

«-2S". Paul beton bb« Sanftadrio. 
I^U. Paul aent to CiaaarM. 

941-v. Paul Mid FoOx. SptfcA** of TrrtuOuM and /"Ruf. 

35-90. Paul and PMtua. Sr**eh bifen AgHpfO. 
ST-ESK. Joomey to Roue. 

pAn. n BoaoL 

S>'~». iDtcrrlow mHUi th« Jews. Paul bectm to pnach. 

vii, AUTHORSRTP AND Date. — The following 
ftrgnmcnts enable ns to [ix M-itli a conMtlera1)Ii> 
Approach to ceI'^amty ihc authorship of the Acts. 

(1) It is quite cortftin that it '\» written liy the 
tathor of the third Gospel. This is sliown hy the 
prefni-*.*. whioh, like that of the Gospel, is addressed 
lu Tht^^'phtluH, and <>hoW8 that the authur claims 
to bavo written anch a Guhih-I, and hv the identity 
of style between the two liooks (ihe be-Ht and most 
recent demonstration is that of Friedrich). This 
fact oiny be t&ken as admitted on all side^. 

(2) The presence of certain portions written in 
tho lirst ]ierson, seems t^o impij'' that the writer 
woB an eye-witueii^4 of some of tho events he 
dttscribtis, and a cumpaniau of St. Paul. In the 
Acts there are certain paosagofi which are tech- 
nically known as ihe 'we' BectionB, \Ki. IG'^^"'' 
eu*-'**21'-«27'-28". Hewi tho writer speakn in tin* 
first person. Moreover, these aectiunH and altio 
the accompanying incidents, in which Iho writer 
does nuL taJce part, hut at which he was probably 
present, are presented with ji^eat falncse and 
exactness of detail, nnd seem to imply that the 
writ«r was an eye-witness. So far there ia general 
a^^eement. But two explanations then liccome 
fiossible. Either the author of these sections woa 
the author of the Act«, who changes the person 
when he becomes himself one of the companioux of 
St. FaoJ, or these passages are one of tho sourei^s 
which the compiler of ihe work mnkes uho of. All 
probability is in favour of tho first view. The 
atyle of the 'we' sections is that of the author. 
It ia perfectly Ime, indeed, that the author works 
up Lis sources in hiu own nlira^eology, as may tie 
aeeoby a study of the third Oos pel ; but it is hardly 
possible to believe that a writer so artistic as the 
author of the Acts certainly is should have left 
tlieac exceedingly incon^;niotis first persons. So 

keenly lia« tins been felt, that it has been suggested 
that the author introduced these Boctious ui the 
(trst person to give an appearance of genuinenetu 
to his narrative— ft mig^estion which ritfuteft both 
itself and i^onie other ihcoriuti. An exnniinaliun 
of the M'ci]>e of these sections lends itself to the 
same view. The first section bcKins at Troas 
jlii'*) and continues to Philippi (16'*); the second 
bepina at Philippi {20^] and continues over the 
wliulo period to tho end of tho book, the third 
person being occasionally adopted, a.s in 16'*, wliun 
the event recorded coueernti only i>t. Paul and 
some of his companions, and not the whole |Hirtv, 
nor the author personally. The most reasonable 
explanation of that fact is that the writer of them 
sections joined the party at Ti-oas and w*ent to 
Philippi; thataft«rnn interval of some years ho 
again joined St. Paul at Piulippi. perliups his 
native place, and accompanied him first to Jeru- 
salem and then to Borne. If any other hypothesis 
he adopted, it is difficult to acc:ounl fur the 
cxoeediiigly fragmeuttuy character of the sections. 
Un the other side, it is nrgmnl that the ' we ' 
sections are no much more historical in their 
oharacter than some of the other sections, and so 
much iulk-r in detail, that they clearly betray a 
different hand, lint the difference is ne%-er greater 
than would be found in passing from the work of 
an eye-witness to the worV of one who, although a 
con tern pornry, is not an eye-witness. It is urged, 
o^ain, that the work cannot be from the hand of 
a cuntemporarj' iHiciiniiD of the inexactness and 
iuconuctncaa 01 Che knowledge of apostolic tijiies 
which it exhibits. iJut this is really begging the 
wholequestion. We have no right to argue tTiat a 
book is late because it Is unhiatorical, unless we 
have objective reasons for stating that it is so, whioh 
overpower the positive eWdence for the early dale. 
Tho balance of probability ia in favour of the 
anthor of the Act^ being identical with (he 
author of the * we' sectionii, and tliereforu of being 
a coni]ianion of St. PanI, but a c<irapanion who 
joined the apostle somewhat late in his career, 
and who therefore could only bare a Kcond-hand 
acquaintance with earlier event*. 

(3) Tho tradition of the Church from the end of 
the Nicond century is that the author wa» Luke, a 
companion of Kt. Paul ; and this exactly mri^- 
Bponds with the circumstances already de*<:riU-d. 
fet. Luke is the only companion of St. Paul, so far 
OS our knowledge goea, who fulfils the conditionn. 
The Acts conid not have been WTitton by Timothy, 
for Timothy was a companion dnring an inte^^'al 
when the 'we' sections cease (Ac 17'*); nor by 
Titus, for we know from Gal S' that ha was vfilu 
St. Paul earlier ; nor by Silu^, who \va.i at the 
council (Ac IS''). St. Luke is never mentioned in 
any of Uie earlier Kpifitles, hut he is in the later. 
Corroborative evidence uf the Lucan authorship 
has been found in the medical terms used (Col A''*, 
LkS**, Ac2t*«etc.). 

(4) The argument in favour of tho Lucan author- 
ahip of both the Gospel and Acts, based on a chain 
of coineidencfcd, baa lieen put very strongly by 
Bp. Lightfoot. (a) Tradition gives to the Oospi'l 
the name of Si. Luke, a companion of St. Paul. 
(A) Internal but unoblnusivu evidence nhows its 
Pauline character. It dwells particularly on tho 
nniverHalilyaiid freedom of the gospel ; and it refers 
to less obvious incidents in onr Lord's life mentioned 
by St. Paul (1 Co ll»=Lk 22« 1 Co l5»^Lk 
24**). (c) The Acts of the Apostles was certainlv 
written by tho same person as the Gospel. (r?i 
An independent line uf argument shows that it 
was written by n coni[>anion of St. Paul, (e) It, too, 
is Pauline in its character (so far as wo are at 
liberty to use that word). It representJi the »anie 
universality and irwdom of the gospel^ and the 



sKnie idea of the Christian Church, hut mote in the 
coucrete (»ee Ilamsay, St. Pant, pji. 12-1-12^). 

(0) Tht> halurice ofar^^ument lit clearly, then, in 
favour of St. Luke n» author of the Acts. There 
is, however, still room for dnuht ah to (he tiniR 
when it was written, (n) One theory plac«s it 
ftlmost inuuediatcly after the close of lliu narrative, 
■nd just hefore tlie oatbreak of the Ncroiiian i>erse- 
catiun. The Ijook, it iit uigud, c-oiiit» to an uurujit 
concluKion, and the only cx|ilanatioQ is thnt it is 
unfiniflhed. An has Iwim pointed out above, there 
is no reul rcwon fur tutyinj; the book is untininlicd. 
The arrival of St. Fouf in itorac formed a «uitoble 
conclusion, and the endine is similar in chnmcter 
to the ending of tho Gospel. In the extreme fona 
this argument ia unt<nable, but it is still quite 
jtoftHtMe to hold that the nftrrative ooncluded here, 
Wrauae not Jiiaiiy more evtnia had occurred. Mnre- 
uver, it niij^lit lie held thiit [be tone in relation 
to tho empire represented the period before rather 
than ufter the Neronioii perRecutiou. Thewirly date 
la Atill held by Hbuis, and the arguments o^'ouiat it 
ore not rery stronif. 

(1) The ar({uiric>]it for a lator date is gcnerallv' 
>wi.Hod oil Lk 21» as compared with Mt 24"*, Mk 
IS'*. It ia f<tat<Hl Uiat lliQ form of the pronliecy 
there ruporded lias Won motUBed by the knowlcdiro 
of what happened at the itiege of Jerusalem. The 
Gofjjcl therefore was written after thnt event, and 
the Acts somewhat later, under tlio t'laviana. Tho 
criticism of Bloss, however, has very considerable 
weiuht, that there is little in tho prophecies r«- 
eonled by St. Luke which yoes mufli Iwyond the 
language of On fH" ; and tlte reawjn piven for a 
Inte datu can hardly Iw conudered demonstrative. 
Neither can that of Bomsay, vho thinks tliat the 
Gospel must have been ^^T^tt^in just after Titus 
was asaociatod in tho empire with his father, so as 
to explain the incorrect date of Tiberius {Lk 3'). 
No ar^'iiments are certain, and the Lanisiia^'c of Lk 
21* would in any raj's iw quite com|iatil>le with a 
dat>e Komu time ricforc A.D. 70 ; bat perhaps on the 
whole the amount of perapcctive contoined in the 
book \(* hardly compatible with the earlier date, 
jnst as the relation of tho third Gospel to the other 
two siicf;c8ts the later dat«, and a period shortly 
after 7n i« the most probable. Whwtlior we can, 
OS Uani'tay Mnjj:'»e»*t*», press the irpiinw of P, luid 
argue that a. third treatise was in contemplation, 
is very duiibtfiil. 

Th« luv <latM la^rcstM hy various wTiC«r», uid are 
lor tliv auni t«rt Ukkvn from UulUuiiiiia:— 04-70 (Uue, A. Moler, 
8cb»w>k«ntnirsv, Ultxlir, Onui, Nda^on, BIjucX a 60 {KwkM, 
Ledihr, Blwk. Romui, Merer, WtlM, BKtnMr), T&-10a (Wenit, 
SpfttoX 00 (KteUia, Uwifrold), 05 (HUdrmfokl). c 100 p'olkmu). 
llO-lSO (ravidcrcrX Tnijan uid Uadmo (Scfawcidtr, Zeller, 
Orvrbook, I>kvl<liion, Keim, ELtumtfa), 1»-U0 l^tnwtmui, 
UcUboom, run Muiicn). 

Ins anrumr-nu for a litt«r date ore prtvco mort fully anionic 
rcucnl wriicrv \ty lloltzmiiiin {EinUUma.* ISSS, p. 40S} m 
Mlawa: — (1) AcquainlAni^e with tho Pkuud* BplnJe* (RoDi, 
GaIiOot, E]>h.Th(«,iuid[Icb>,&lMivriUiJD«ophiu. (2) Detlbentto 
oorractlon of lh« nAtratlvf ol G(J lir-« in Acta tOUO, of OaI 
l'» In lii-u, of ual 2" in Acta 1&»m». (a> UnbUtorimO 
kCDount of aprAlcini; nitti tmiifiii-* {Xc Z*-">, of St. PaiiI'i 
relAtiom vritb Die Uw, &ni1 leiicii'Ury nnrmtlTn rjcta u thnt 
of the ileAth irf Ainiptia. 12**. (*) The writer i* con torn ponr)- Id 
UmBM-llh Die litcnu-y Activity •>( Pliitvch u ibown bf Ibo 
MfttUel Uvea; km) of ArriAR Arid l*M»BniAS (nuntlvea of 
Journey), also ot thv ir(,i.*^M of diUcmit mpoadn. <G} Ataio- 
•pliere ot th« (Inthnlio Church ; twrallHiiaii nf St. Prtcr And St. 
niul ; bmoes «f the birnrchlcu view of tho Church, And evp. 
Ui« ncntncntoJ thMirj- of lAj-inc en of hands. {«,) R«*cin- 
lilAnoM wiUi th« futoral E]tiaUr». C> Itnportoniw HidKned to 
tha polltlis] Ride ol UhriRUAnitr ; th« Itonm BnitlTt sIwajtb 
rcfireaeotcd at tavounble to Chrutionitj'. 

It ia very difficalt to deal with .nome of thpse 
objections ipiite seriously. Even if the use of the 
Pauline Epitttles were proved, it is difficult to 
see what tnnt has to do with the Into date of 
the Acta. The contradictions with the I'auUne 
Kpistles are lar^rcly dcjifiidcnt on li priori views of 
Church history, ^mc i>oints, as tho rcsembtoncQ 

to Plutarch, are purely faneiful. The political 
point of view is exactly that of St. roLnl's EpiitileB. 
Une {loint requires 2>erhnps sliglilly fuller investi- 
gation : anil the remaining pnintu, hi far as 
they are Berioun, will be beat dealt with in an 
independent sur^'ey of tlie historical character of 
the work. 

viii. TuK Relation of the Acts to Josephus 
jiresonts to us, under the auspices of modem 
critici-sm, a curious double problem. While older 
critics, like Zellur, coutuuted thcmKclvcu witli 
pointing out historical discrepancit^, later critics 
since Keim {Gwch. Jaru, iii. 18(2, 134, and Atu dem 
Urchristenthum, 187S, 18} have att«mptod to show 
ttiat St. Luke mode use of Josephus. The crucial 
passage is that concerning Thcudes (Ac 5'*^). In his 
speech Gamaliel Ismadetorefer to a rebellion under 
a leader of that name ; but according to Jos. this 
took place at ten years later, under Cufl)iiii8 
FtuluH, and long after ttiat of Judas the Galila^au. 
So far the prob^m was simple, hut it is now main- 
tained that the mistake arose from the misappre- 
1 lemsiou of a passage of Josephus, In one paragraph 
be speaks about Theudas, in the next of tlie Smts tif 
Jnd<u v/Oaiilte, and this, it is maintained, is the 
urigin of the mistake. The two passages ore 
■luoted thus — 


dficnj fi^K'Sit \iytM 
tUai Tiva iavT^w . . . Ht 

intiQorrti a^r^ J(«\i>Cir- 

ffO**, K.T.X. 

'TovSan i roXiXaiot if rati 
Ijftipait T^i aTvypaifi^t 

Jos. An(. XX. V. If. 

Oft Jat . . . TtiOn T^ 

rXriJTOP ix^"" • ■ • 


tKriv Iwwiuw . . . if' aCiroOs, 
1^lt . . . ToWoj^t ... 

wpit TOlVott ii Koi al 
vaiitt 'loiiia toU FaXiXalov 
dinjvdyjaaj' too rb* Xaic 
air6 Vufialuii irovr^yar- 
Tof KLfiiffou 7-qt 'loi/^o^as 

Now, whatever plausibility thiacamjioriBon may 

have at fir»t sight ii^ very much diniini^died when 
we rcmemlier that the two [HLssages in Jus. do not 
immediately follow one another, but are sejtaratod 
by an interval of 20 lines or more. Kor when we 
come to examine them do we lind any dose 
resemblance in the language. Tlicro are words 
coniniun to both accounts^ but they are none of them 
cliaracteristii; ; it ia not easy to df-Hcrihe a revolt 
without UBing tho word d.inyrr^^rai in some fonn, 
while the details are dilTeront in tlie two accounts ; 
the Acts give 4<KK> men, Jos. gives no number. 
This is recoffnised by Cleraon {AA', 1895, p. 839), 
who is of opmion that the author of the Acts hod 
read Jos. but forgotten him. Is tliis retiemblance, 
or fancied resemblance, supported hv any other 

? assays'! Keim and the author of ^upf.rnnlural 
Ifliffum have collected a large number of pariLltel 
passages, but they are not of a character to bring 
conviction. On the other hand, the argument ot 
Zc-ller (Eng. tr. i. p. 232) on the di»erepancy 
between the Acts and Jos. in the case of the death 
of Herod Agrippa ia quite sullieient to prove inde- 
nendenco ; and this argument has been very well 
uroughl out by Schiirer. Whatever the difTerences 
between the Act.>» and .Icr. prove, they are only 
conceivable on tho BUpjxwition of intfependenee. 
Moat of these do not aft'ect oar estimate of the 
historical clmrooter of the work j the difficulty 
about Thoudns, even if it jidmits of no solution, 
mny rasit doubts on the historical character of 
(Tumaliel's speech ; it dotw nol really Hlluct 
the (|uostion of the Lucau nuthorahip of the 





ix. TUKllisTOKiCALVALtKOFTUE Acts.— 1. A 
firiori ObjMtiong. — In invtistiguiing the liititoriciil 
vaJne of ttiu AcU, n'i> inu^t lir^t uf all clour the 
il^TOJind liy jmlt ing on ime side a nnnibpr of <i priori 
(ilijectioiii. Tu Miy iJiat lht> iloeuiuunt is iin- 
UuttoriciU becaiL-*e it aaiTates miiaciiloua events, or 
liecAOM it contains accounts of angels, is simply to 
W'^ tiie quoAtiun. Even if wo were quite certain 
tbiit such evonta were imposaible and never 
iKx-iimMl, we liavc almniiant evidence lor knowing 
Utafc the L-nrly (UiriatiatiK Imlicvuil in tlicm. St. 
l^Ktl olaiuid [liin^Ktlf tu tiavo worked wliat were 
believed Iwlb by btm and litM rvodera to be iniracltat 
(Itliuai, Ac4a Apostoioritm, \>. 8f.). Again, all Ruub 
rjittienltiea as ariiie from an d priori tbeorT of 
Church history must be banished. To deny docu* 
iiients because tbey contlict with one's theories, is 
Ui argue in a vicious circle. Althou};h there arc 
few aeriouA critii^ wbr> now accept t.he Tubingon 
tlieories, yet imiuy of their a^umptionA liave 
acquired a'traditJonal hold on the minuH uf writens, 
and coDscioa«Iy or unconsciouiily alTcct their arj.'u- 
luents. SiuiiTorly, objeotions Dased on the hier- 
archical or sacramental tendencies of a book assume 
Lliat wo van tlnd the beginning of such tendencies 
in the Chiiruh ; wliich we clearly cannot do. 

Aluclt tlie same may be said of the Ku|iiK>»cd 
liarallelisms between St. Peter aud St. I'aul. 
Acvonling to Uoltzinann, tlie stronge»t argument 
for the critical iKiAition is the CArreMpundunce 
Iwtween the ft«l» of St. Pet«r and tiie uther 
»|Mjstle« on the nne aide, and those of St. Pniil on 
the other. Itoth begin tlicir ministry with tlie 
hcaluig uf u liuiiu man ; both work imraclus, the 
une with bii4 ^liadow, the other with napkins. 
Ucinuns Uee in the naine of 8L. Peter and in the 
name of St. Paul. St. Peter moet« Simon MagiiB ; 
St. l*nul EljTnas anrl the Ephcwan niagicin.ns. 
Itoth raine the dead. Both receive divine honours, 
Uoth are supported by Pbari.4ccs in the council. 
SL Paul is stoned at Lyittra, Stephen at Jeruaalem. 
St. Paul is made to adopt the language of St. 
Peter, St. Peter of St. Paul, and w> on. The 
value of mich an argument is one which can only 
de|Mmd iiiKin individual feeling. It is, of couriM*, 
I'orfi-'ctly true that thoy Iwth occupy prominent 
jilaces. that they are, in faet. the writers heroes; 
but that doefi not prove the unbLstorical oliaracter. 
We mav well refer to P]utar<:h's Uvea. Booause the 
writer nnda parallels lietween the lives of two men, 
it does not t>rovc Diat his narrative is ficrtitiuna. 
But, further, although thvre are resemblances, there 
are very considerable differences as well, and the 
resembfancea arise largely from the positions in 
which the apostles were placed. There is nothing 
unnatural in the i>oiDt« of similarity, and they are 
balanced bv many points of diUerence. 

Lastly, all arguments against the Lncan author- 
ship, or the hwtorical character of the work, drawn 
from the fact that the writer clearly has a definite 
pinn and purpose, are quite henide the nmrk. The 
cistinrtion Mtween a history and a chronicle is 

}'ust this, that a history has a plan. The M-riter, 
rom perwjnal knowledge or other sources, forms a 
conception of the course of events, and writes his 
histutV from tliat [uint of view. In tlic nrewnt 
case tlie writer witihes to illustrate and (u^'v.Til.-c 
the steps i)V which the Christian Chtirch lias 
dorelopwi. I'rom that point of view ho selectM his 
materials ; from that point of vic-sv he describes the 
events and the periods which nro tohiiu imjiortant j 
from that point of view he emphasizes the careers 
of St. Stephen, of St. Peter, of St. Paul. His \iew 
may be right or may be wrong, Imt 1>eoauiu> a 
wnt«r haa a view he is not necessarilv unhistorical. 
Wo hoi»B to mhow that the merit oi' St. Lake lies 
in having brought out just the point of view which 
ways im[iartaut, and that, although there are points 

in which ho is perhaps iucorreet, substantiuiiy hia 
history is trae aud trustworthy. 

2. ikt AcU ami St. I'ttttfa Epijitles. — A coniuder- 
able portion of the luuTativo of the Acts ia eon- 
teni[Hirury with certain of St. Paul's KpistleK. 
Here, tlu'^n. we have some opportimity of controlling 
the narrative, and here we liave to meet a very 
curious combination of arLiiment^ It is now 
maintained that the Acts is late, and its narrative 
unuullientic becAune of difTerenfes from Su Paul's 
Kpislles, and then tliat theae KptisLles are ita souruea. 
To prevent these arguments i-ontlicting, we have to 
KUppo.«e a delilterate falsiKcation of the narrative 
of (^alatians by the auUior of tlio Act«, and an 
extraordinary <'apacity on his part to conceal his 
obligations. The parallols quoted are v«ry slight, 
but most numerous in the case of the Epistles of 
t))Q captivity. Even here they bavo little value as 
ini£tivnig lite-rary obligations;' but if, a» we believe, 
St. Luke, the autlmr of the Acts, was St. Paul's 
companion in captivity, and iio»sibly acted as his 
anuuiaenais, it is natural that Ids phraseology 
should he influenced by that personal contact. 

Then sre three -ptmigtM which demand a oaore exact com- 

(a)GklliT-u=Aa 0)M*. 

<0 o&isur. sAG is»m. 

(a) If we examine the Arrt panwatt we notice quite deBnltelv 
oertikla dlwrepondea The Acts contain no refen^noe to the vUii 
U> AnUs ; «« ahoold not nther from t>ie EutmUv« that thne 
yean had ehpMd before the vltlt to J«niMlem : wbf le Ute sum* 
inent thst be wai unknown hy (ue to the Oliurcliet Uut •rare (a 
Judc*, Is sDppoaed to be utooDslateiu with tlie fAct thU he 
t>r««cfa«d la the wjJMeogti«» of Jenualcm. But how fw do 
tlMM ili*crci«noiea take uaT It b uuUc clear Uutt St. Luke 
■elects what be requirei for hit purpoee, uid it In poatlblc tiut 
tic know ot the jouruer Co Arablu uid did not think it ucvcecMy 
to reeotd It ; nor, eirdn, doee be give exsct Indiwllonj of the 
ttmc rUp-Mnl. Tlicre i> no avceaaary lnoorobl«n':>' ; bjt <U1I Uie 
obrluiu ini]>rcMtou created by the nsnotlve is that th« wril^r 
did iiol lirioiT uf the Arwhtui Jnumey, nor of the tenjiih ut Iuug 
which hod 4:liL}M«d before the JeruuJeiu riiit, nod the two 
tionmtivca glvo s eonicnhitt diflorcct Iniprcuion. 8t. I^uil 
wUhee to emphulM bla lodopvndence of the apottJca ; St. Luke 
wtihes to *bow that Sb Psu wu nocivcd by Uieni. ButMCh 
hints at the other side. 8L Psnl oleorty implies that lis was 
received by thou; St. Luke oe dearly, thai tliere was wme 
hestotioD about doing bo. and St. Luke*! language mokoe It 
plain that eren U he bod imadicd in ■)-iu^opica In Jcnuolcat 
Ite hod not preached in Jiid»a. The aocount« mro different and 
to all appcumnoo Independent, they rvpreseut different poUile 
of Wew, tbey aupplemont one another ; they a» not Inoou- 

(fj)The aome may he nJd in the main (mncemlnff the next 
iinrratlve (Gal 2'-l'>=!Ac 161-*). xhe vrry coietul examination 
of Usbtfoot (Galatiafu, p. lOf*) reprMeata, on the whotc, a very 
fair urtarical ooneluilon. No Miitible penon will Hod any dio- 
oreiMaoy If St. Paul, eivinc his internal motive, atatoi chat he 
went bv reTelation, ami St Luke givta the ektcmal motive^ 
It la quite natural that Bt. Luke should ^ve the yuVAic hiaton-, 
Kt. Paul the pdnt«. What la mare Important to notice la the 
incidental teallinooy tliot each account gi*t» to the other. W« 
iritlier Irom tit. Paul his mat desbe to be on eood tenm 
with Che XbiMag opcaUea— tf be ia not. he leora be will run in 
vain and labour in vain ; we nthor that they receive him In a 
fn^tirily manner— t}iey glvo him the right hand of feltowaliip; 
iilii.odirh they ore looked tjpon bv aome of their tolloweN aa 
Iwiiiu onto^niatlo to St. Paid, St. Paul doea not think ikx. 
Agom, from the Acts *■ (ather that the conduiJon waa not 
carried out wttboat nwA dlanute, and pn«uninl,ly wma not 
ociaepCabte to oil ; and wa eqnally leather, oa we would tram St. 
I'vul. tliac Chooe who hod oouMd tbe diaturhonoe hod doliued 
ttiat they repnaaatod the oplakma of the chief apoaUaa. 

It hM been aaauned that Ao IG refers to Xtir aame event oS 
QqX 2110; tut tlita, alUionvh oommonlv, la niit univenally 
ocoepted. Uliy, It ia naked, doee St. Paul oniit all rrtannce to 
Uia riait raconfad in Ac Il^t Tfait u ^ cenuin* difficulty. It 
hna been auneated tlut there ha« btva a aiMmnrcftient In the 
AcU, and.owinir to a oortfuajon of aourocOiOneot tJie lut'T vi*iu 
l>aa bftn duplieolwl. The anrumcnl aiptlnat tJila ta that 
lUmalMM la mirvaonted as the comjiaitI<»i of St. Paul, and that 
he had loft mm at t U^r date. A mistake in ohronoto^ la 
pm)«hle, liub not a m!«take as to the oomnuilonahip. On the 
other til<li;. tUinmy (St. i'aui. u. 48) Identiflrs the vialt ot Gal 
ZMB with UiAtiif Ac 11=>o. lli> liiya fTMLtatrDea on the difflcMliy 
Involvcd in luppoaiiif that SU I'aul omitted all refmnce to thu 
joiimcy. Riit the reoaonasiven by LivhtJoot— that tim apostles 
wrr« nut in iamaolam, aniT thai therefore thure waa no noed tor 
Ibo yritiX to be mentioned— «re a«oepu^i liy Hort {Judaittit 
CAn'atumify. p. Oi) as auffidoiit. We muat refer tlw roodor to 
RaniM)''a own book forthediaousaaon ot Iho aubjeet, but can only 
say tJub lis baa not succsadsd tn Donvtuoi&v ua A Wsooa b ls 




cfitldRo imut My Uist Uiq two mkrntU« ca w« Ar« vuiuiilvrinu 
nftr to tlra mru cvenU ; that the fenoountx they cciiitAin or* 
Indepenilcnt Miid mipploineutaTy, Lnit nul contRuiitiUirr (»«c the 
diaeusuou tif^twriin Auiiliiy kii<l RunaAy in Espmnlar, Fab. }SOC>, 
Had (oil, nuDitirn). 

{f) Thfl thirrt point necrt nM •Ict&in i» lin;;. It i« noftivly 
thit St. Luka (liMM nut rrtMrU n iiunitiva concern Iuk St. Peter 
nentionod by SL Pau!. K« ni^y luvt; It^tn ij^rtamitof It; he 
■nay havo thotight th^t It did not anawcr his purpow ; ho nuj 
•V«a hav« tlinui;ht it Itcttcr to omit on incMtnt which he Mz 
wfts diacrreditkble. Wh&t is important to notice u that the 
n*miUv« iii OalaUKiw provM oondunvftr th&t cha atandpoiac 
o( the AcU la correct. It vnta ()aiUi impowible that St. Puil 
couW aocuae 8t Peter ol hypi>cri«y unlp«« he tuA already 
adopted his view, ' It !■ clear rrom Ual S^iK that Peter then 
and for Ion; before occ^i^^kS in prindjile the itandpolnt o( 
FWttl'(Hamack, lHat. t(f Bngma, Eng. tr. rol. i. p. 90). 

An oxaniination of these narratives proves tlie 
indepeudunce of ilm Iwo account:*, and each 
corroborates tbo other in variotis points. When 
w6 turn to the general narrative in the Acta and 
compare it with that which can be gathered from 
Ihu Kpbitles, wc llnd three characteriaticB— inde- 
pendence, broad resemblances, and subtle points of 
TOntaot- All the Kpiitttes which correspond to (hu 
«ame period will fit into the nanatlve, while th^ 
minato coincidences which hare bticu bruu^hb out 
by Paley, whose armimont \a not out of dale, — 
more particularly that concerning tlia collection 
for the saints,— ure very substantial evidential 

3. Tht Arcfueatogical Evidence.— A great tesb of 
the accuracy of the writer in the last twelve 
chaiitera is yiven by tlic evidence from archawiogj'. 
Its strength and value are »o great that wo need 
only refer to it. The invest ications of the lant 
twenty or thirty years have tended more and more 
to confirm the accuiacy of the writer. In almost 
every point where wo can follow him, even in 
niinut« details, he is rij^ht. Ho knows that at 
the time when St. Paul visited Cyprus it was 
eovemed by a procounul ; this was the ease only 
between the years B.C. '22 and some lime early 
in the 2iid cent. ; then a change wa.i mailp, 
probably in Hadrian's reign. He knows that the 
maLdAtratOJi of I'hilippi were called trrftaTijvot. 
and were attended by lictors. but that tnoMj of 
Thessalonica were xaXtrd^j^oj. He knows that Dertju 
and Lystra, but not Iconium, are cities of Lycaouia. 
The subject has been worked out in considerable- 
detail by Li;;htfootnnd Kamsav, and it ts suflicicnt 
to refer to tiiem. It ia enougli, too, to refer here 
to the very complete invent i;jation>t of the account 
of St. PanVs voyage and shipwreck made by James 
Smith {Vot/aff* and Shi/n^rftk of St. Paul). Wo 
need not enter into details, us thcv are admitted. 
Wiiat we must emphasize is the W'oring of tliis 
evidence. It proves, in the first place, that in the 
tatter portion of the Acts the writer had good and 
accurate sources of inforinution. It is ((uitu im- 
possible that ho slioiild be correct in all the«a 
points unless he had good material, or was himself 
conversant with tlie events. But it also proves, 
however wc think ho acquired the information, 
that he was acc^irate in the use of his sources. It 
is quite inconcoiTablo that a writer who is so 
accurate in a large number of small and di^cult 
points could have, as is maintained, naed Jose]>hus, 
and used him with iacrediblo inaocurauy. This 
endenre, on the other hand, does not nrovo that 
the writer is nece-isarily aw tnistwortliy in the 
earlier portions of the history, where his sonrces of 
iitfurmaticn were less fjood. It docs goggcat that 
he would i^ct as accuiutu infommtion aa possible, 
and rcprtMluco it correctly. 

4. We pass backward to the transition period, 
which be^iii-H with the preaclunu of Stephen and 
e-Ttcnd^ to the end of the apostolic council. This 
is clearly the most important period in the history, 
Rnd we have few means of controlling it. Wo 
have little independent e\ndence, Wliat wo can 

point to, in the iiret place, is the not uratness of tliu 
whole history. There were the germs of imiversal- 
iHUi iti ChriHlianity, hut ihc^ie nccili»i iipportunily 
tfj dcvu-htp ; and llio whole hihtory shown that llie 
expansion arose from the natural reaction of events 
on the Chrifltlann, not from any delibcrat* purpose 
or from any one dclinite event, Toke first the per- 
secution. ZcUcr (Eng. tr. vol. i, p, 220) lays great 
stress on the fact that in the corly chapters the 
Saddacees arc the persecutor?, in the later the 
Fhariseea, iJut thia incon»ii>tcncy is thoroughly 
natural. At lir^t the ijadducecs oppose the 
Christians, because, Win^: the ollicial hierarchy 
reapunMible to the Rumans for the urdi^r of the 
country, they fear disturbances; the Christians 
art) merely a sect of devout and xenluus •Jawa in 
favour with the Pharisees. But when once llie 
universalist elemeut inherent in Christianity is 
made ajii>arcnt by the teaching of Stephen, the 
devout and zealotia Jews are offended, the Pharisees 
take up the persecution, and it becomes a reality. 
We may notice again tnoidentally how it is the 
entrance of the freer Hellenic spirit in the perion of 
St4>phen which first brings out Uits univtfrHalislic 
element. The perseeutiun leads qnite naturally 
to a dispersion ot the Christiana, more particnlarlj* 
of those associated with Stephen, and consequently 
to the spread of Chriationily, In all that follow* 
St. Peter takes the lead, a iKKiitiou which is quite 
in accordance willi what wu kuow from Galatians 
{aov above, g ix. 2). The stages work out gradually 
and naturally, the prcsKtiru of faith and imLhuoiasm 
leads the preachers of Christianity onwards. Fin«t 
come the anmaritans, then 'de%"out men' who are 
yet not circumcised ; then tlio preaching to 
Cjcntiles; then the growth of a definite Chrtstiati 
community in Antioch, i.e. a community which 
the outer world clearly recognised as something 
diiitinct from Judaism, and which would naturally 
aji^jear firg.t in a place removed from otd^r aaooia< 
tions ; then the iintL teLurded juurnny of St. Paul, 
witli its unexpected and far-reaching developments, 
and its subtle corruboratlonit in tlie Koinaiis (10"). 
Naturally euouuh. there gradually arises a Judo- 
ising party in Jerusalem, and the older apostles 
find tfiemselves acting as mediators between the 
two parties. The j>o»ition which is uscrilicd to 
them by the Acts is always recognised by St. Paul, 
and he claims equally to be recognised by them ; 
while botli the Acts and St. Paul recognise the 
extreme party as claiming their authority although 
without entire justifiration (Ao 15^, Gal 2^). 
The whole story as told in the Acts is natural and 
consistent, and gives a ninth more credible account 
of tlie development of Christ ianity than any modem 
one constructet! on li priori ideiLs. 

5. The Early Commvniiy in Jerxualem, — The 
Crst section of the Ac (l"-5") has been often 
treated as the least historical portion of the book. 
It is less true to say that it has been attacked. 
It is rather the cose that it has bcon set on one 
idde (' the idealised picture of the JeruBalem com- 
munibv.' tloUxmann). And the examination of 
it is ditficult, for we have little that is definite 
with which to compare it. The theory, however, 
put fur^^ard is that this was written from the 
point of view of the author's own time, and from 
that aspect we can examine it. We know Imw the 
writer of the Clementine Ifomiiics reproduces in 
the earliest days of the Church the clootrine and 
the organisation of his own time — he represents 
St. Pettir OH ajipointitig bi.shiipH in every ohnrcli. 
Now, at any rate, the writer of the Acta lived forty 
years later, and at a time when liotli the doctiiue 
and the organisation of the Church were much 
more developed ; yet wo find absolutely uo traces 
of this either in the speeches or in the narrative oJ 
the first five chapters. 




To work Una out in detail would bo l)eyoiid the 
Bcopo of tbu i^rejMiDt. ariiulf, buL it may ho UIus- 
lr&L«d iu iK)ini5 points. Tlio L'hiistulo/fy in tliruu^h- 
out primitive. Out Lord i-t r-allud 'lijo'iiCi X/kcrr^t li 
Naftfpibot (2^ 3" 4'"), a iiiiniB uliirU uccura in lIk; 
Gospols, but elsewhere only twice, wben St. Paul, 
in the later chnpters of the Acts, la referring to liia 
earlier life. So again tbu next iihiase tliot meuU 
us is rati &iov lU'*- '* 4^- '"), whiefi oc-curs tiowJieru 
else in NT of our Lord, and d^wliure is uihhI of 
Uim in tbo tJidaeJi^, which clearly r«prc»enUi 
very early tradilion. A;;ain, wo notice how 
very markedly ]K^uaT</t Ik not a personal namOi rttf 
9/>O€tx*ipi<rt*^>'0f irftiy S/>. *iyfa. (3^), kv^ov aCrrtf Koi 
Xpurrir 6 Otit iirol-ntrtw (2^"). One moro phraM we may 
notice, d^Try6r(3'*fi"), which ocean cUewhere in 
Hebrtjua twice (2" 12^), and nowhere else in NT. 
We (iml nowhere the expression \A6i 0eou. Whereas 
St Paul 'placarded' Cbrint eriualied (Gal 3*), 
we Gnd here, aa we might ux{wct, that St. Peter 
has to take towards the death of Chriat a purely 
defensive attitude (3"). We have no reference to 
Christ's pre-extt»t«nce. We have, in fact, a re- 
preeentation of nhat must have been, and what 
we have independent evidence to show was ttn; 
earliest Chriitiian tuidiini: altout Christ: — (lie 
proof tliat He was the Me^Hiali, atrorded by His 
resarreetion, of which tlie apostles were witnesses, 
and by the Scriptures. Simitar ia the relation to 
ibe universal cliaraeter of the Gospel. We are 
lohl that the Actn was written from a universali»^t 
point of view, and the etatemcnt is quite true in a 
sense; but we find that St. Peter's speeches are not 
alTectcd by it. tiod rai.<ted np Je.in8 to give re- 
penCanco to Israel (3"): Ye are the sohh of the 
prophets and of the covenant |3^). There are 
elements of univensalifm, Xtwi they are incidental. 
The promise is to Uraul lirst (3*) ; so (2*) ' to you 
is the promise and to your children, and to all tbowj 
that are alar off' ; 3^ ' in Israel all the families of 
Uio earth hIlbII be ble^seil.' The standpoint of 
these chaptera is, in fact, that of the Jewish 
prophets. There is the germ from wtUch future 
development can come, but the development is not 
there. One last point wo may mention in this 
connexion is the etchatoitxfy^ It is thoroughly 
Jewish and nrimitive, 'ttiat He may send the 
Christ, wlio liath been appoint«i for you, evwn 
■le.'iuft : whom the heavens must receive until the 
times of the restoration of all thin;;*,' 3"^*'; 
the Mcsi>ianio kin^^om is called tlio Kiupol d.»a.- 
^vfcitft. There is nothing about thu personal 
resurrection, which, of course, ia a point which 
would nut trouble the primitive communit v in the 
iir»t yt-ars of its existence; and it ia ditricult to 
onderatand how a tireek writer who had »een tlie 
Neronian peraeontions, and knew the necdft of a 
later generation, conld have invented this primi- 
tive idea of things. 

If wo pass to tlie organisation, of the com- 
monity, again, it is quite unlike the conception 
which we hliould exj»ect from a Gentile Chnstian 
of forty or liftv vtars laii?r. It is jwrfectly true 
that stress 18 laid on the unity of the primitive 
community, and it may be that this is ezaf^rated 
nith a purpose; but no object could be ^uned hy 
the representation which is given of its form 
and character. There Is no trace of any later 
Drg&nisaliun, nor mention of prc-^byterH. The 
ChrisUajLS have, in fact, not yet m-en ai»t out of 
the ■Tnngoi:;ue». They nre repilar in their worship 
in the temple (Ac 2**, Lk 24»). They take part 
in the morning and evening sncritffcs. 'flicy 
observe the Jewish hours of prayer. They join in 
lh« synagogue worship (G" !p). They are not only 
conforminij Jew*, tbcv aro devout lAc 21^ 22'^|. 
They do not yet realise that they are neparate 
Itou Jodaism. They are hut a seut, tlte sect of 
vou I. — 3 

the SQ.;wjtQ.'iw. (Ac 24^). One more point may bo 
noticed, the eommuiiiLy uf goods ; tlie exact 
character uf this it '\» unneccts lary to diitcusH here. 
It is sulHcient to point out tliat no rfjison has 
t>een sug^cNted to explain why it Hlinuld have so 
much ouipha^is laid on it, or why it uhuuLd have 
been invented if it were not historical. 

it haa been said timt we have little evidence 
for coiTcctiug this. Thu archa'olugieal evidence 
which we found in ch. 13f. heix- fails us. But we 
have a few indirect hint^i. The ponilion of the 
Twelve we may gather from 1 Co &* \iji^; of St. 
Poter from 1 Co IS*, Gal '2?; of St. John from 
tiai 2" ; of the brethren of the Lord from 1 Co U'. 
A certain amount of incidental evidence is ^ven 
by the Ebionito traditions concerning the position 
oi St. James; and tliey corrubjKind with ^^llat is 
aug":(t8ted by tlm later itsrtii uf the Acti>, where 
we Ijave an account of tliy NUt« of airairs hy one 
who is preauiJKibly an «ye-witne«». 

It is oleor tlmt these early chapters give a picture 
of the primitive community wlilch isnuiteditTerent 
from what existed within the experience of tlie 
writer, and wlLich is in itself piububte. Is it then 
likely tliat this should be the re.tult of the historical 
ima^itmtinn ol llu; writer, or is it not morw pro- 
k'tltlu thnt it tx hi>jtorical in character and l»i&cd on 
written evidenry* We have no reawn to doiiht 
that we ]io->!ie»K an historical account of the wurdu 
of the Lord ; and the samo ■witnesses who recorded 
these, either by tradition or in writing, would be 
equally likely to record the spccclies and acts of 
the leading apa^itle of tlic infant Cburcli. 

fl. Tka Speeches. — One more jtoint under thin 
heailing demands investigation, namely, the 
speeches Are these genuine records of speeches 
actually delivered, or were they written by the 
historian in accordance with the fashion of the 
day! We may notice two points, to begin with. 
They are all very ^liort, tuo ^hurt to have been 
delivered as tliey e>tund, and for the muHt part 
the dtyle in which they are written is that of the 
historum. They are clearly, therefore, in a senwj 
his own compositions. Hut the ^amc can also l>e 
said of a conaidorahlo nimibcr of the speeches in 
the Gospel. We can compare St. Luke s account 
in thift cose with of oihrr anthoritii]tt), and we 
Und, indeed, a slight moditication side hv Mdo with 
general accuracy ; we find the style of tlif author, 
but the matter of the uuthuritv. On the other 
liand, there in no reason for thinking dt priori tlmt 
the fipecches cannot be historical. As tias just 
been pointed, out, the speeches of the leading 
apOHtles Would impress thcmselvce on the growing 
communitv, and would be remenil)ercd as the 
words of tlic Ix>rd were rcmcmbcn:d. 

Putting aside ti priori consiilcrations, we must 
08 far as possible examine the oharaoter of the 
speeches tnemBolves ; and we must first see what 
light St. Paul's Epistles throw on the subject. 
According to 1 Co IS"- the main snbjects of 
St. Paul's preaching wore the death and rcHnrrec- 
tion of ChriKt, an proveil by the Scriptures and as 
witnessed to by the apoHtle.'*, and other incidental 
alliLsions in the Eptstlea Hupport this (1 Th 1" 
4"). Now, ii wo turn to St, Paul's speech at 
Pisidian Antioch addressed to the Jews ( 13"-*^), we 
lind that the vrriter has exactly realised what was 
necessary for the situation. The basis is scnptuiAl, 
and the central fart clearly is, the proof of thi* 
TCRurrcction. Just at the end we have a dclinit-cly 
Pauline touch introduced (v."). This shows that 
the writ«*r elearly grasps the RituHtion ai it i« 
hinted at by the apostle tn his oum letters, and 
as was exactly in necordnnco with the demands 
of the situation ; and this is compatible either with 
his ]>ei[ig a writi^r u»ing a ffood source, and ro- 
jirodaciug accurately a speech which ho liadji in 




tlial Miuroe, or with liis being a companion of the 
ai>osOc, who knows the apoetle'it tireaehing wt>U. 
and fi'xvcn a typiml «]M;tK;h snowing the yencrnl char- 
acter of his Rr;;iim«nt. It in very (lifliciilt to ron- 
ceivo of it at* a f'tur fU force of hiMtorirul iina^ina- 
lion. And this ftr;j:ument bucomoe stronger when 
it tH found that it i» ajiplicable to all tke speeches 
in the book. We have already touched od thoae 
of St. Peter, and huvu ttcou how clearly they re- 
produce an catty ata^ of doctrinal development. 
Whatever diHicuItios thoru may b« in the ttjiutich 
of Stephen, it certftinly doea not bear the marks of 
beinu' a rhcLoricft! composition. The fliweohes of 
St. Paul from tirst to last aro singularly hnrtnoni- 
0118 wiMi tliti situation. The transition in tone 
from liiat we have already examined to that 
addreswd to tho heathen at Iconfum or to that at 
Athens, is mont marked. \Vhen wo come to the 
later »pe«jhe8 addre»8«i to tlie Jews, to Felix. Krn! 
to Agnppo, what M'e noth'e at once as very exlrii- 
ordinanr ia the repetition of the narrative of the 
convcrfiion. Now that is comprehensible on the 
8nppo«ition that the norratirc was repeated on two 
ociiu^ions, biit in not to if wc ore dealing with 
rhetorical exercinea. But St. Luke waa, on our 
supposition, with St. Panl during; all these ovents, 
and would therefore have accurate knowledjre. 
Thcac s]>eechc8 titcn, althoii'jh MTitton in the 
author's stylo, are clearly authentic ; and we may 
argue in tlie same way about the other speeches, 
olfof which are, in dilVercnt «ay», suitable to the 
oci-Jisiun on which they claim to bt-eu delivered. 
The pTB(«>n«!of tlmauthnr'w band in IheBpcccbiM 
cannot W denied. Their literary form is due to 
him. IIo niuy possibly have summed up in n 
typical i^pccch the characteriatica of St. Paul's 

Sreacliinjj: before certain classes of bearers. Some 
etatU or illu-stratloiu) may be due to bint, such as 
the nientiuit of Thuudas in Gamaliel's speech, or 
that of Judas in Petcr'n lirst speech. But no 
theory which does not admit (ho poesession of i;:ood 
evidence, and the acqnaintAnco of the author with 
t]ie events and persons that ho is desoribinc, is 
coiiaistent with the phenomena of the speechee. 
They are too lifelike, real, varied, and adapted to 
their circum^tanceA to be more uusubBtantial 
rhetorical exercii*e«. 

jt. Sources of the Acts.— tintil recently, critics 
■eem to have contented themselves witii either 
vftRUc indications of the sources of the Acts, or a 
complete denial of the positibility of discovering 
them, at any rate in the carli^T portions (Weii- 
siicker, Holtzmann, Beyschlag, Flleidcrcr, Bnur, 
Schwepler). Kecently, liowever. the problem has 
been attacked by a numlwr of schoiars, mostly of 
inferior rank, who do not sectntoliaveattaineaany 
sacoesH, and whot^e method is not likely to lead to 
any sulMtantial results. Of these. Sorof considers 
tliat Timothy, the UTitcr of the * we ' sections, has 
combined a genuine WTiting by St. Luke and a St. 
Peter source. According to r'eine there was an 
orifjinnl JeruMilt'in Christian source, which was used 
in tbp Odt^i't?!-! and )!xtHmlpd to ch. 12 of the Acts, 
lint which knew nothinf; of the missionary jour- 
neys of St. Paul. The latter portion is partly duo 
to the Re<Iaeior (R), partly to other sources. Snitta 
distin^-uishes an A source, the work of Luke, wliich 
contains about two-thirds of the Acta, t\.w\ ih 
also uKcd in th<> CiOHpct. and a It source of Jewish- 
Christian ori},'in, which runs ]>arallel with the 
first through the whole of the Act*. Van Mancn 
distingiii^^hcB a third document, which contained, 
however, onlj' the 'we' sections, and these very 
much edited, a Paul biography, and a Peter bio- 
gra[ihy. The most elaborate theory is tliat of 
C. Clemen. He distinKuishea an ' t'rL-iiristliche 
Prwiigt,' an * Krste tlemeindcgt^schicht*?.' and 
'ZweiteGemeinde^pwchichte,' and HiHtoria Helleni- 

Btamni, which has been worked into an Hi.storia 
Petri; this was combined with an Hi^ttoria Pauli 
which included the 'we' Rcel-ions (Itinerarinm 
Pauli) by a R who was free from jiarty bijis, 
then came a Judnising R, and then an anti- 
Judaiaing K. JUngst distinguishes an A source, 
apparently the Mork of St. Luko; a B stmtcc, thu 
Work of an anti-Jndaisor and a It. It may be 
added, tliat Uitli Clemen and Jiingist consider 
that the original sources have Iwen very much 
rpArrnngcd by the dtflerent redactors, and the true 
seiiucnco of events destroyed. 

A very few words arc necessary concerning these 
theories. The statement of them \^ really a bqIU- 
cient condemnation. There is no harmony in the 
results obtained ; and the method is so d priori 
and unscientiTio that no result could be obtained. 
The unity of style of the book and it*t artistic 
coMinleTeiiewt nialte any theory iiiipoiciible which 
considers that It arose from piecing together bits 
oi earlier writings. Somewlmt more on right lines 
are the atteiupts of B. Weiss and HUgeufcld, in the 
fa<c:t that they do not consider that more tlian one 
situree is ntted in any separate pa<txag<-. Weiss 
thinks there was one early liiMton' which coutaine<i 
an account of the early conimunity, of Stephen, of 
Philip, of the journeys of Peter, of the council. 
Hilgenfeld has threo sources, A Ac l^-S*" »"~" 
121* B Ac ti-8« C y* n"-^i and both pro- 
fess to be able to distinguitih what is due to the 
source and what to thu author, the method being 
for the most part absolutiily arbitrary. 

A studji of St. I,ukt?'M fJn-tpHl 4iowft us tliat 
the work is quite cerlainl}' a Jit<?rary whole pro- 
ceeding from one author, that this author made 
use of materials partly written, partly probably 
oral, and that he reproduced them probably largely 
in his own style. If wo compare a section from 
this Gospel Avith the parallel onu from SL 
Mark, which clcJirly represents very nearly the 
original source, we shall find that the difference, 
altnough one not affecting the main sense, is 
of a ciiaracter which would make ic quite im- 
ro&siblo to arrive at one document from tlie other. 
We may notice, again, that allhough there is a 
certain uniformity of style runniny through the 
whole Gospul, yet the character of tlic source used 
RPt'mK to a certain, although undefined, extent to 
have modified it. 

Now, in the Acts there ia admittedly n certain 
difference in style between the earlier chapters and 
tbi! later. The later, like tlie ]>rohiguu to the 
Gospel and Acts and the 'we' sections, being 
written in a purer Greek style, the earlier Iwine 
more Aramaic in character. Stated vaguely ana 
generally, this is true, although no investigations 
have yet mode it dcrmitc. The utmost it is at 

i^resent safe to assert, is that there appears to 
>e adifferoncc In style in the earlier chapters, which 
suggests n wTitten source. 

Starting from the conclusion that the author was 
St. Luke, we mn<tt nwribe to him the eoncention 
of the history as a whole, and nresumably, there- 
fore, all the framework whicli is part of that 
coDoeption, Uie object of the author lacing to mark 
the atA^ in the progreM of Christianity. For tbe 
whole of the last section, from 20* onwards, the 
author was either an eye-wilne.'^s or in close con- 
tact with those who were such ; as also in the seo- 
tion 16^*"*", and here we have the fullest and moat 
detailed accoont. For all the remaining portions 
of St. Paul's journeys he could clearly have access 
to the very best infoniiation ; and it is to l>c noticed 
here that generally, although not invariably, the 
inforamtion is per^CL'tly accurate, so far as it eon 
l>e teated. btit not no full as in the lat«r sections. 
Ftir the htoriea concerning Philip in the first part 
of the book it is not necessary to go Iwyond 




persuDol iafunuatioo ; Ikcro is no Bi^ni of great 
vxactacati of knowledge, and the incident rccoril<Hl 
31* will exiilain bow tliat infurmution woa ac- 
quired. Fur tlie onrliur hixtory of St. Paul a 
floorco IB not roi)uireil ; St. Luke hod heard the 
story told at least twiire, prnljaldy inmrh oftener, 
and there is Just that vogncne** concerning chrono- 
lo;srf whirh ta almost invariably the characteriatiu 
ufioionnation dependent u|)on oral tradition. Of 
Mime othpr Bei;tion-<i it is difhcult to >t|iuik dulinitvly. 
l-'or the council tliu author would hu able to 
supplement inforniiition gaineil from St. Paul 
hy informntion gained in Jems, It hoa been 
hiDt«d that there is probably a vritten source 
behind portions of the first five chapters ; we 
cannot define ita Umita in theitc chapters, nor say 
whether or no, aa is possible, it included some latur 
narratives, such as tlio«e of St. Petor (0"-ll" and 
12''*) ; it probably did nut include chH. 6-7. No 
investigationii have been made which authorise uh 
to speak more certainly than this : but it has 
been suggested (see Blaas on 1'2"-") that these 
chapters Imd Home connexion uith St. Mark. It 
is doabtful whether any certain concluAionf; are 
poisilde, although a more scicntilii: and nicire. 
comprehensive Mudy of the style of the Gospel and 
Acta may jwrhapH lead to some result. 

xL CONXLUsiuN'.— It Qov oulj remains to sum 
up the conclusion of wb&t, owing to the variations 
01 opinion, has neceB&arily been a aomewbat coa- 
troveriial article. 

1. The Third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles 
are the work of iliu soino ix-rson ; and all tradition 
and argument suggvst that tiie author wati St. 
Luke, tlie (N>nipiinu»n of St. Paul. 

2. He wrote the (iuspel to d«ftoril»e as apcnrately 
as he could the life an<l preaching of Jesus ; he 
wrote the Acta to describe the growth and spread 
of the Christian Church. 

3. He had formed a clear iden in his nilnrl of the 
steps and course of thia growth, and urrauged hi?* 
work w as to bring out points, Tlie object. 
he had in view would inllucnrehim in the selection 
of his materials and the proportional importance he 
would ascribe to events ; but it would be taking far 
too artificial a view of his work not to allow some 
influence to various less prominent ideas, and even 
to the accidental canoe of the existence or non~ 
existence of infunnatiun on dilFurf^nt {lointH. TIih 
extent to which he carried out his purpose would 
be in Komo mcasare dejwndeut un nis oppor- 

4. Altbou^'li he hml a definite aim. and con- 
etraoted a history with an artistic unity, there is 
no reason for Ibiiiking that the bistury i» tht^rcfitrn 
untrustworthy. He narratwi event!* a.-* he l>elieveil 
they Imppcncu, and he give:) a thoroughly con!>istent 
bidtorr of tlie period over which it extends. 

5. The exact degree of credibility and accuracy 
we con ascribe to him i« dei>ondent on his sources 
of information. From ch. 12 onwards his source 
waa excellent : from ch. "20 onwards he was an eye- 
vitnesB. For the preiiou* period be could not 
in all oases attain the same degree of accuracy, yet 
he was personally aei|tiainted with eye-witnesses 
tfarcmghoat, and may very prohably have bad one 
or more written uocum'ents. In any cane, lii& 
history from tho verj* beginning ebow-H a clear idea 
of historical per»pe<:tive, and of tiio stages In the 
growth of the community, even if certain charac- 
t«riatic» of tho priuiitivc Church In Jemsaleiu have 
been exaggerated. 

UnRjkn-UL — (1) 7'Ae Tfxt. ~ BotM«a thv Koorrel works 
tf Ifachcre'lDrf, Suit rnrr, Mitl WLttoott u)d Bort, tba foUow- 
tar. sttianf otbtu*, rpvcl&l works nruty bt montioOMl :— J. D. 
HnMlls, Curat in tvr. Syr. Aetorum vIp-Ml. 176&; F. A. 
ioaoBuin, Attn J^cMt.aif Co4. CaatahriffititjfU/tdim momuwU, 
Wl; BeUKim, Die ApotUifftwekiehta tmd dia OffnUmrwig 

B«tu«r, Iai J'alunaieM* dt tttwy, IbSa; aUr. da ta fUwua dt 
thAtX. ft pAtto. ; J. Bondcl lUrrk, Study of Cod. Buqm, TaU 
nnA StMditt, \L i lOl ; P. Ooivea, thr CpprtanittJu TaM dw 
Actn ApfU pcomm of th« Oymnulum ol Bcbomibwf st 
lt«rUn. tEi9S; W. SuicUt. Guardian, tStli ami tSth Hu imt; 
K. U. OhMc, 0/d Syr. EU:tne>U in tkt TmH oT CW. Boat, ISOfl : 
P. BluB, SK. 19M, p. sa, Utrnmtkena, xxi. p. 121, IStt; a 
n«r]K«ri Un Aneien UxU Latin de* Ada* d£t avdtrwt ntnmve 
daiu im MantiicrU pfovenant d* fttpigtuiH ; Tiri da nation 
tt rstraiU, IbtU. 

m OmnimUari^. — CbrytotiUmi (o&. 407), B«^a (o6. TaSV 
Calvia (Ob. IMI), Orotlus (UM), B«ii).t:l (i;43>, OUtisuwui (USt, 
«£bntriLlM»,Ua7er(iaaa,«>l. vll.t>v Wrndt, 18«8, Eiur. 
tr. br OliMv Diid Dlokna), de WeUe (183d, sd. iv. by OnriMtt, 
ISTol AUonl (IU8. cd. vi. ISaS), Wordnronlt 08&7. «1. iv. 1887). 
Cook In tbt Speaker'a Com. 0i&l\ Sdmn (isas), Luthudt 
xad Z^Uer In Stfuk umI Z^dtlef* Kmn. Oaao. cd. li. ISM), 
T. E. PKffe (1S86), Kdltmuuin In Har,d.komnuttt»r ram Ifnan 
Tr4titmtnl(ltlSJS,}; BiMm, Acta ApOft. riet twnu ad Ttuaphiiun 
Ciber alter OfOS): tUndAll. Act* of Avotlt^ omj). 

(3) Oftterat Jntrvdtietiom.—a. KatKlwjii (IMS-Gl. mad uaJn. 
Ircim ft dlSennt. point of view, 186t>, cd. Ul. I15M), tUiua nuO), 
F. B!e«k (IbOt. Ko^. tr. 1800), Ad. HilgcnfvM (1876), 11. J. 
lloltxnunn (\ia^. ed. Hi. IXH}, Q. Balmoa (IBSfi, cd. vll. ISU), 
B. WemilSSSJiae- tr. Um% 

(4) Special Tttatiaas on Vu Aeli.~J6hn Ligbttoot. Ittbrfte 
attd Tatmudieat BxercilMiana en Ote AaU of Iha ApoHUt 
0A78}; l*KleT, Ham£ Patdinae (1770, taX. br Uirka ISSfl}; VjoWtr, 
IHa ApotU^athtMe OSM, Kng. ir. IKTA); J. U. Uohtroot, 
OalaU^nt. laos, pn. 81 f., SSf., loor., £70(. ; Sup^rwUtire} 
Rttigi'm, vol. iil. (IBTT); J. D. LbbUoot In Smith's i>ll«i. SS. 

<!i) WarkM on Early CAunA Z/Wory.^NMUwler, Pjtanntng 
und Lfiluny (1332, cd, y. ISCS, tlnn- tr. IMS, 184fl); Bour. 
I'auJtni_\H*b}: Oanvbeore snd Uoi«K,n,St. Pou/, td. U. (ISM); 
Kfttchl, lUe Hntiidkmo 4tr AtLkoUtcliteken Kirtha (kL U. 
IK&7>; LecJiler, lnu ApoalaHaeJu %tad Ka<AapMtoliacka Zaitatur 
(1U7, tsi II. ISaS, Krar. tr. ISSS}; EwmJd, Geaeh. daa Apoat. 
Zeiiattera (Kn^. U. Hutarjf ef Irraat^ roL vi.); Ronan. /.A* 
Av6trta, p. x. (U6SX Xtf* EvangUaa, p. 43& 6677): Fkmu-, 
Llfa and U'onfc t^ Si. Paul OSn). Early Daya 4/ Ciriatianily 
(IbiS) : Uwin, Mfa and EpiatUt </ SU Pa*U (U7S) ; W«in«ek<<r, 
IHU Apoitoliaeha Zaitaitfr (IS&O. 2iid «L ISW, Sng- tr. 18M) ; 
IflcidcTvr. UrohriaUnthvm (1887) ; Biunsav, Tka CkwreA in 
th4 Itanu Euipirt ntfOS); II<Hrt. Judaiatic Chriariantty (ISM); 
lUnmjr, Si J'a*U, (Ac TVaraUrr and the Uoirutn CUitan (1865). 

{0> Monograoha on Spaeiai PoiitU.—Juavt Sniilb, VoyoM 
andShipmekttf St. i*a tU (184S, «d. iv. UBO); J. B. Ughtfoot. 
Euayi on 'Svpematarat Ratigie»,' pp. SOl-WK, Dbooverlas 
illuitntlnc the Acts of tb« ApcMIss <^9); J. Ftlddricll, Zhw 
LuJcat'Etnttstiiuin and di$ IpotUtsfi»tkieAU W*rkt dauttUn 
i'rrfataara (IBM) ; Th. UountMn und Ad. BMnsok, JTer Apoa' 
UOttaehiehU, xxvui. IB: ^KUuiMitidrMU dn* UnWM Praua- 
tiw^fun Akadvmit dar WiaaanaJii^ m Bartin, p, «n (tftH). 

IT) Tha AeU and Jm. (wa CsrC Qsmu, Dta Cknnudogia dar 
PauJiniaeAen Bri^a, p. Oft, n. U); Kelm, trtatAieht* J«au twi 
Sazara, lii. pp. 134, ««) {\€tt\ Slid 'ios. iin Nnirn Teslti- 
Xiwnl' in A*u arm l.'rakriHanlthttm,\. p. 1 (l&rtt); KnlUnintin, 

Z.iur W. Th. 1K73, p, BA, 1977, p. &3A; Krenkel, it. Itl73, n. 441 : 
ScKilrer, ib. ISTfl, ]>. 674 ; Tfiv Kuthor of 'SuuemAlurnl Rcilgion,' 
Fortniffhlty Rrvicv, xxIL p. 4D(L1S?7; Kr<mkel, Jnt^Aua u. 

Liusaa, Lcipaiit, ISM ; BoiUKt tn Thaol. lAUg. ISBS, ooL ADl. 

S) £;irur«M.— Sorar. Dla fiMsfatAmy dar ApoaUim*^ l^KI 
i«, Eit\a •orkantm. VlbatUtfartia\g a»» ' ' 

ApvatUytMh. 1801; 

Lukaa {n Erana. -nnd 
Spltta, Dia Apatlalgcach. ihra Qiutln 

undd^rtn •jrar/tUMtitAar Wfrf nsOl); ran Usnen, PavJua I., 
bia Uandainaer ditr ApoaUln hSH); C Ckn;eii. J>w CKromh 
hyfe dar PatiUuiaelian Brt^t (ISM), and SK (I6t«, p. 89;>; 
Johfton JOiwn, Dia (iuenen drr ApoitabftaeMeItU (isfe); Ad, 
HitcmleM, i>ta ApoM^taefiicfita naeh Aran tiuMmimr^en 
unfartiuJU, Z. fur IT. 7%. ISte, pp. A6, IIW, 3S4, «^S1. 

A. C. IIkaplam. 
ACUB (WAhq^^, a •A»oi''m). I Es G".— Hia Bona 
were among the 'temple »ervanta' who returned 
with Zcrub. CalleU Bakbuk, Kzr 2=". Neb 7". 

ACDD ('AniJd. AV Aeiia), 1 En 6*.— His aons 
were among the ' temple servants ' who returned 
from captivity with Zembbabel. Called Akkub 
{sips- = • cunning'), Ezr 2"; omitted in Neb 7. 

ADADAH (■■^71?). Jos 15" —A city of Judoh in 
the Negcit. Tlie site may be at the ruin 'Ad'adah 
iu tlie de»ert auuth-eosb 01 Beertdieba. 

ADAH (-"'iv)-— !• One of the tw-o wives of I^amech, 
and mother of Jabal nnd Jubal (Gn 4"- "|. The 
name posidbly denoted 'brightness' (cf. Arab. 
fjh>'ilAt), l..ainech'3 other wife being named *Zillah,* 
or 'Sliadow,' ' Darknes.«».' Tbc-^e natiie* have l»een 
cited to support the view of the mythological basia 
of Ltie Geneiiig narrative. But the name maysimply 
denote 'adornment' (Lenormnnt, Le* Orifftnet, p. 
183 i.). According to Jos. (Ant. I. ii. 2) L&meuli 




had 77 SODS bom to him of Adah and Zillah. 
2. Daughter of EIod. a llittit€, and one ol the wives 
of Eiiau ((in 36>) ; mother of Khphuz, and aiiceH- 
iresB of Edomito tribes, Tenian, Z^pho, Gataiu. 
Kenaz, Anialek. In On 'JO^* (P) llie daujtliler of 
?!.lun the }-)ittite, uliom E^^aii laki!^ Ut wife, i» 
named Boseinath. Tlie names in On 30 have snlTertMl 
in the procu-ss of redaction, and this may account 
for the confusion, Joa. C^"'- n. i. 2), though 
iuentianiii(; Eitau's o^c, and therefore referring to 
lin 20", given Adah and OhoHbanLah C^^i^dfirj) us 
the naniCH of K^tau'H uiv(.;.s. Vur a ilisru^aiun on 
thunsniv, see Uai^lhgetiit JScUraae, v. 140. 

H. E. RvLE. 

ADAIAH (n:y, 'Jehovah has adorned').—!. A 
ntan of Bosoatli, tho niatcroal grandfather of king 
Jo&tah, 2 K titiK 2. A Levitc descended from 
Gcrshoro, 1 Ch G**, called Iddo in v.^'. 3. A 
son of Shimei (in v." Shema) the IJynjamiie, 
] Ch 8^'. 4. The 8on of Jerohnm, a prient, and 
head of a family in .Innisal«rn, 1 Ch 9". 5. 
The father of Moaaeiah, a captain who holm-d 
Johoiada to overthrow the uBurpation of Athnliah, 
and sot Joosh on the throne, 2 Ch 23'. 6. One 
of the family of Bant, who ttjok a stranKu wife 
durinytliv Kxile, Ezr llf, 7. Another of a difTcrent 
family of Baui, nlio hud cumniittcd tlic saniu 
olFunce, Ezr H>*. 6. A descendant of Jud&li by 
I'harez, Neh 11". 9. A I.evite of the family o"f 
Aaron; probably the aonio a« (4], Neli 11'^. 

K. M. BOVD. 

ADALIA (Kf-iH. T^t 9»), the fifth of tlie aone of 
HiiniBti, pnt to death by the Jews, In llio LXX 
the name is diHerent, and the M.SS vary between 
Bn/yrd II, Bap^^ n A, Ba^d. li. A. \N'H1TK. 

ADAH. — i. Nnme. — The word d-i(j in originally 
ft common noun, dtnotinj; cith«r a Ijutnau bein;^-, 
fin 2*; or (rarely) a man as opposed to a woman, 
On 2^ ; or mankind coUeclively, Gn 1". The 
root ciK is variously explained aa (a) rwiAc, 
prntlure, by analo;;y with tho Awyr. ad&mu 
{Dclitzsvh, Assfjr. Worterburk ; Oxf. Heft, Lex.). 
Man, lliercfori!, aH nd/tm, i* one made or produced, 
ft ereatnrc, or potMjibly a maker or producer; (6) 
to be red, a .■tenso in which tho root frcqitently 
occurs ill Hell., c.y. the ncnount of Edom in 
Gn 25*. and is also found in Arab, and Eth. 
and (T) in Assyr. This etymology would point 
to tho term having oric^natc'd among nifn of a red 
or mddy race, (lesenius notes in support of tlii» 
view that the men on Epyp. monnruents are con- 
stantly r»]treiMjnted as rt;d. Dillmajiu on Gn 1. 2 
ftlso t>ui;i;c»ts a connexion with (c) an Eth. root — 
pltojtant, well-fomied, or {d) an Arab, root-fo 
attach oneself, and so gregariona, Booiable. It has 
also been sucKested that adam ia a derivative from 
adajnak, ^ound, and describes man aa earth-bom, 
•yiryp'^i. The statement of Gn 2', that man wa« 
formed from the dust of the adaniah, indicates that 
thiti connexion whh in the mind of the writer, bvtt 
it ean hardlv Ixs the original etymology. It is 
ai^iilirant tfiat A., as a term for man or man- 
kind, is by no means nniverwil in Sem. tangnapes. 
It oceoTft in Pbicnician and Sabaean, poiLMbly in 
Assyr. (so Soycc, Gntm. p. 2, and aeeording to 
JfCM, p. 104, 18 tltc euninion Bab. word for nmn ; 
ef. Del, Assyr. ii'orterbuch). Of course the nmne 
A. hiiM iH-rn iiiloptcd b^ all Setn. translations. It 
U |K>.xHihlt- that Edom le a dialectic variety of A. 

li. A dam as Common nnd Proper ^oun. — The first 
man i» necesMuily ^/i« f/ian, and in hia caao the 
generic t«rm ia cnnivulont to a proper name. In 
use, adain naturally {Inctuates lietween a cumniun 
and proper uoun. Thus in P'n acoount of the 
Creation, Gn I'-S**, he describes (hti c-rpation of 
aiM, hiMnkind, in both text's ; but in hin Tirst 
genealogy. Gu 5^"^, qik la uaed as a proper name. 

J gives an account of the Creation, Fall, etc., of 
citi!i 'the man' (in, 3" c^KJ 'to the man,' t>hould be 
rvad instead of C"t»c> ' to Adam '), and in 4" uses eii» 
without the article a^ a pru]>er name. 

iil. The jVfiTTfifHY* cunreminf/ Ad^tTn. — P, in 
Gn l'"2*" by itwelf, Hiniply dewcribe.H tho creation 
of the human speeies, aa of the other species of 
living creatures, and says nothing of any particular 
individualti. But it !•)> only in the vnxe of man that 
tho two itexca are »i»ecitii;ii, and Dilhiianu nmin- 
tain.s that "2p;i iri is not to bo taken foUectivvly, 
' male and female,' but as *a male and a female. 
I.e. tho lirst pair.' Gn o'"^ which is possibly 
from a different stratum of P, shows that the 
individual Adam, the ance.stor of tho nations 
mentioned in OT, and especially of Israel, is in 
some way identified with the human species, whose 
creation ifl de-Hcribed in Un 1. This idcntlQcation 
seems to imply that the human epeeies originally 
consisted of a single j>air ; but P doen not deOnitely 
commit himself to tiiis ])OKitiiiii. Man is cn>ated 
last of all things on the siune (sixth) day lui the 
beasts, but by a separate act of orestion and in the 
image of God ; he receives a special blessing, aeeord- 
ing to which lie is given dominion over the earth 
and its inhabitants, and (lie vpgelnbtc creation in 
assigned to liiiii, to provid« him Willi food. While 
it i;* flxprefsly said of the light, the heavens, earth, 
and Hca-*, the vegetable world, the heavenly bodies, 
the birds, tisli, and other animals, that JIoil saw 
that they were good, this is not soporotely stated 
conceniLng man, but is left to be inferretl trom the 
general statement that God saw that cvcr^'thing 
He had ma*l« wan very good. 

In J, Gn 2"'-** while tht' earlh i.s still a life- 
]h.>w waste, the man i* created out of the dust, and 
Jeliovah animates him by breathing into his 
nostrils. He i» set to take care of the garden of 
Eden, and is allo\ve<l to eat freely of its fruit. 
excvpt the fruit of 'the tree of tho knowledge of 
good and evil.' Tlie animals are created as his com- 
panidiiR and as^^iHtniitH ; but thesie proving inade- 
quate, tho woman Eve is fa**hioncd from his rib as 
he lies in a deep sleep. Thev live in childliko 
inno<-ence till Eve is tomptw W tho Serpent, 
and Adam by Eve, to Cflt of the fruit of the tree 
of knowledge. Whereupon they Ixx'omo conscious 
of sin. Yet they have become like the Elohim, 
and might eat of tho tree of life and b<*come 
iiiiniortal. Hfince they are cursed, and driven out 
tjf Kticu. Man, henceforth, is to win his fmsten- 
ance with grievous toil from soil which, for his 
sake, has been cursed with barreuiiCKs. The only 
later OT reference to Adam is at the head of the 
genealogies in 1 Ch ; in Dt 32" and Job ai" 
adam is a common noun. 

iv. Siifnijicance of the Xarraiires. — In botli 
narratives man is sliarply marked ofT as a created 
being from CJod the Creator; and is not connected 
with Him by a chain of inferior gutis, demi-gods, 
and ln^roeSj as in the Egj-p., Assyr., and Cliald. 
liynnslies, and in other mythologies. Yet man 
bus a certain coramtmity of nainre with fSod ; he is 
mailein I lis image (I'), and receives his life from the 
hrenth of Jehovah (J). Similarly, man's connexion 
with the animals is implied by nis creation ou the 
samis day, liiR Hei>Hrnte status by a distinct act of 
creation. He is lorti of all things, animate and 
inanimate, the croMin of cnyition (!'). So, in J, 
the animals are made fur his bunetit ; and the 
garden, vdth certain limitations, is at his disposal. 
Woman is also secondary and wiljordiimte to man, 
and the caujie of his ruin, but of identical nature. 
The fornmtion of a single woman for the iiiaii 
implies monogamy. Man is capable of immediate 
fel«ow»hip uilli God. Siji is not inherent in man, 
but suggested from witbmit; it is at once followed 
by item imnisltment, wliiok extends not only to 




the hotiiKn mce, hut to Bniniate ami inaniinate 
natorc. CominiTe E\'E : ami, eii't'cially for the Baby- 
loniAD and otiicr parallels to tlic Biblicnl narrntive, 
CosMoaoNY, Edf.n'. W. U. Bennett. 

ADAH iff THE NT.— AiJara is twice mentioned 
in the NT in a merely hislorii-jil fasliiun ; in Jiulu 
V.'*, where wo ivaA of ' Knoch the tMrventh from 
A.,' and in Lk 3*", wliere the jjcnealojjy of Jeans is 
traced up to hiiii, and A. Iiimself is 'fAc^onof God.* 
The oxtenAion of tlie genealof^ beyond David or 
Abraluuu (us in Mt) is no doubt due to the univer- 
HilUt sympathy of the Pauline evangelist. There 
are two otiier iiaaaages in which reference is made 
to thu OT >ttory of the firHt man, with a view to 
regulnting certain qitestionK itliout thu rehitionK nf 
men and women, esji. in puhlit* \vorshii>. The Urat 
is I Co n**-, the other I Ti a'"-. The use 
mode of A. in these pasMigc!t may strike a mmlem 
rtMuler ft» not vury couelusivi: : it han the form 
ratlier tlmn the power of what may have gugRented 
it^ — the (similar use uf piirt of tiiu OT ntory hy 
Jesus to cKtahlixh the true law of marriage (Nit 
19*^. corop. Gn 2"). 

Much more si^ificant than those almost inci- 
dental references is the place occupied by A. in the 
tlieoiogy of St. Paul {Ito 5'^=i. 1 Co 'l^- «*•}. 
The ajtostlo institutes a. formal comparison and 
contract t>etwecn A. and Christ. 'As in A alt die, 
even k> in Chriiit hhall all l>e made alive.' ' A» hy 
one man sin entered into the world, and death hy 
MB, and AO death jiaaneil u))on all men, fur that ail 
Kiuned ' : ho, thouL'h the Kuiiteuoe ia nut foruiully 
completed (Ro d"), righteousoeas entered into 
the world by one man, and life by ri(;hteousness. 
' The first man is of the earth, earthy ; the »econd 
man is of heaven. . . . And as we have borne the 
tmase of the earthy, we shall also bear the ima;;e 
of the heavenly.' In some scarce A. and Christ 
answer to each other; each is the head of humanity, 
the one to itn condemnation and death, tho other 
to ittf juHtihcation and ht'e. Yet it would be a 
mistake to pntwliat St. Paul says about A. on a 
footing with what lie says about Christ. He has 
expcnencc to so upon in the ca&e uf Ciirt»t ; his 
diofijtel eonceming Him has a certainty and scoite 
of Its own quite ind«]kendent of the harmony he 
linda in wxne iioinU* lietween the mode of man's re- 
demption ami that of his ruin. Of tlie two passages 
referred to above, it mny be said tbat tUe oue iu 
Ito deals directly with the work of A. and of 
Christ, and its enccts upon men ; the one in 1 Cu, 
with tlie tiatur« of A. and of Chri.-it, a;* related re- 
s|>ectivclv to tho actual and the ideal iTondition of 
man. All wo are told of A. is that he sinned 
{rapdirrvfia, Ko 5", implies the fall), and that his 
"in involvwi tiio nr>r]ii in death. In such a stnte- 
ment then? in ohviuusly a link wanting to an ethical 
interpretation : is it supplic<l in the dilhciilt words 
i^' t^ wi^tt iltuipT or — in that all (have) sinned? That 
this aorlst may (^ammaticaJly considered] be a 
collectivu historical aori^t, Kumminj' up tlie a^in'e- 

S.le evil deeds of men, is undoubted ( Burtun, A . T. 
ood* and Tenjia, § 55) ; but to take it bo. and 
make (J;iA^o» refer merely to the personal sins of 
men, ia to dissolve tho connexion with A. on which 
iHe apostle's ar^ment depends. To say. a^'uin. 
I Hut all men die becauiw involved in the guilt 
•if A's Btn (Ommur peeearunt, Adamo peeeantt, 
Uengel), i« stUI to leave the mumi link aniissing. 
To aay tlut all die but-ause of inhrtrited depravity, 
which seems the only other jrossihlu sng^'estion, is 
to offer a phy-icul rnlhpr than a moral connexion, 
thnuph one which m.'^y Iw assented to and appro- 
priated by the indindunl, and in that way becotne 
nioraL ft SGom.<( prol>able that St. Paul, although 
b« is nut CAoliciL mx the {xiint, would have 
wccptoil thia view ; what he ia concerned with ts 

the solidarity or moral tmitv of the human race, 
and for thia there is unaoubtedly a physical 
bnaift. Deredity is tho modem name for tho 
ori;:anic connexion of the generations ; and as the 
fact Vf&f. fiuuiliar to the npustle, it is natural to 
sup]K>se that he found in it tlio connectin': link 
ln^twreii lliB peri*onal sin and doom of A. and that 
of his whole posterity. A, in other words, was to 
him not only the type, but the ancestor, of men as 
dinners ; it m in A. — or because of A. in us — that 
wo are lost men. But A. is a ' type of him that is 
to come.' This idea (ace Weias, JioTmtru, p, 'JiS n.) 
is found alrto in thoUabhinsit^eiuadmodum homo 
primus fuic prtmua in peccato, sic McAsias crit 
ultimuH atl auferendum peceatnm jpeniLuK : and 
again. Arlamus pONtremus e^t .Mu.H.mas). He is a 
type only in tho sennt) that alike from A. ami 
f^ a ]«3rva*iive influeni^e should proceed, ex- 
tending to tlic whole human race. We are what 
A. was and became, in virtue of our vital relation 
to liim ; wc are to become what ChriKt wa.t and 
became, in virtue of a vital relation to Him. Thia 
is the side of the subject treated in 1 Co 15. It 
can hardly Iw said to throw light on man's original 
state, or on the apostle's conception of it. The 
first A., in virtue of our connexion with whom wq 
are what we are before we become Chri'^tinns, was 
a living aoul, psj'chical rather than tipiritual, made 
of the dust of the ground — in other word^t, he was 
man as nature presents him lo our eipcni'nce ; thu 
last A, o ^•, u}iij»e iiusgo we i^liall fully 
liear when this corruptible has put on incorrnptlon, 
und thiH mortal has put on immortality, was und 
is life-giving dpiriU It is too much to say, in face 
of Ito 5'^ and the whole sense of the NT, that 
man'.i mort/ility iA !i*.>re traced, not to Adam's act, 
but to his nature. His act is not (*jK-'i:ifilly in viinv 
here any more than Christ's redeemnig nct>, and his 
nature IS indeed conceived as weak, and HahJo to 
tt^mptation; bntitts not less capable of immortality 
than of death ; and it is the sin of our (irst father 
to whjcli death as a doom is invariably referred by 
St. I'aul. 

LmKATViuL— Coploiu dlfcunloiuof all the qucftioiu mrotved 
may ba found <aot to mention DomnunttuiM) in Se^-^ohlaa, 31. T. 
Thtvtoav, U. p. 4ii B. ; Bnns, St. itntTi Omeeptian iif ChrU- 
liana f. c vIL : Wciiot. LeArbuckOir, JHU rAraTd^ X.T. | 07 
For Jcnrbti poinU ot vunauxlon wiUi St. Puil'a Iccudiini;, wx 
WcliCT, Die L^rtn 4m Talmvd, oc. Kv.-rvil. 

J. Denxey. 
ADAM rrrv(o-:¥ 'red').— In the Jordan Valley, 
'far oir' from Jorirho. and l>eside Zarcthan. The 
latter {»ee ZAICKTnAN)api>unrstohavu Ix't-n near tho 
centre of tho valley (see Jos 3'"), and tlie uj>ual site 
for Adam is at tlte present mined bridge (built in 
the 13th cent. A.ti.) at tbo DAmieh ford, called 
Jisr ed'DAmieh, about half-way np the Jordan 
Valley. The Jordan being narrow, with high 
hanks, might have been dammed up in this vicinity 
by anestcnsivt: fall of the cliff. i»(f'/*vol. ii. sh. %v. 


ADAH, BOOKS OF. — Romance, with ethical 
intent, ac«umnlated around all the jirominent 
wurthieo of OT narrative, among both Jews und 
Christians: and, naturally, no one received more 
attention than Adam. Tuis process of embellish- 
ing and 'imiiroving' OT story l>egnn Wforu NT 
tituL-s. The ralin. speaks of a Bk uf Adnm, and 
sut-h legendary lure fumi-thed suitable pahulum for 
MobumuiL-daiiixm. Tho Aputtotic VonstUtitiotts 
(vi. IQ) mention an aitocrvphal 'ASifj.. Fpipbanius 
[Ifarr. xxvi, S) tells or a Gnnstio work, Jltv-lationM 
of Adam, and the Decretum tiu!a«ii prohibits 
Ohristians from reading the two works, Penitf.ntiu 
Ada! anii De Jilvibtt* Ada:. The Cypriote Syncellus 
(^th cent.) makes quotations from a Bi6i 'ASifi 
which closely resemble the Itk of Jubilees. The 
.lewish Bk of Adam is IukI; but it probably 
lumishod matter for stUl further elaboration in the 




following Ctiristion works which still surtive. 1. 
The Etniojne lik. of Adam, imb. bj Dillmann, 
Gdttingen, IS53; tr. aI»o V>y Maljin, Ijondon, l&Si 

2. A Syr. work, resembling tho foregoing, eutttk-d 
The Treasure- Cave, od. by CetolU, Leipzig, 1883. 

3. The JIi'77170'it Kal woXinia 'AJd/i kuI K^ut. ed. by 
'nfithundori, Apocai*fpstt Apocruyfifft, l**66 j antl 
condensed V>T Ki^nseh, Buck aer Jubilaen, pp. 4tiS- 
476. 4. ' VitA Ada.' et Evip,* a Lat. rendering of the 
same material, ed. by W. Meyer in Transactions v/ 
Munu-h Academy, \o\. xiv. 1878. 9. The "Tattji- 
iiiBittnm Adiuiii,' which ban lieen niibliHliM] by 
Kenan, Syrioc text with French it. in Jovrn. 
Asiatiqut' \\i^. S. The sacred book of Ibc Man- 
daitea is cidled tho Bk of Adam, but bad little in 
commoa witlt tho foi'e^oiiig. Edd., Norberg's, 
1813; Petcrniiuin'is Berlin, 1807. 

LtTRlUTtTRH.— l''abri«uJi. Cwltx p»eva»pigT. !'«(. Tut. L 1-M, 
n. \-tS\ Ilort,ttrt. -Adaiit'ln Hniith utd Woe*. iKet. ^ Ckr. 
Atar- ; Schiirvr, tlJl' 11. ill. 81, U7t. : Z6ckl«r, Avocr. do 
AT.iK^%\2MU*,l>UffotUtd. KorCr4|^i(n-JtuX<m, iiiitS,p.l3fl. 

J. T. Mahsuall. 

ADAMAH (^?7<«), Jos 19", 'red lanfla.'— A city 
of Napliuili juenlioned next to Chinnereth. Prob- 
ably the ruiu 'Adituth on the plateaii north of 
B«thshean. So* A* If'/* vol. i. ah. vi. 


ADAMANT is twice (Ezk 3». Zee 7") iiaetl in 
AV iimi ItV tsA It. of V5(^ ahiimir, winch is else- 
where ren.lerwl either ' brier' (U 5" 7»-w» y'» 10'' 
27* 32'=') or 'diiiniund' (.ler 17')- Uiamond, which 
aroHe from adamant by a variety of flpellin^' 
{adamant or adimant, then dinmnnt or diamond), 
has displaced a. as the name of tho precious stone, 
a. being now umkI rbotoricalty to nxprpjut extreme 
hardness. Seo under art. Stonf^ (Prkcious). 
'AJi/uti occurs in LXX at Am 7^- "ft" as tr. of Tytj 
'ptammet'; tbU ih the orij^in and meaniuif of a. 
in \\» only oceiurence in Apocr., Sir 16^' A v. See 

ADAMI-NEKEB (3;;;n 'pn^), Jos ll>u, 'rod lan<U 
tho po^.'— A eity of Naphiali. It in duabtfut \i 
the names should not be divided (sieu Nekkh). The 
site ii probably at the prewnt v-illaj^e Efi-IXitnieh 
on the plateau iiortb-eajit tif Tnbor, where the 
liasaltlc wiil in rediiish. The sitti of Nokub 
[SfiyMeh) is not far off. See SWP vol. i. ith. vi. 

C. R. CoNDEru 

ADAH (i^»t Ezr 6'\ Est 3'- » S" 9'- ""■, 1 Mac 7*'- ". 
2Mac lo^". Est 10'" 13« Iff"). -The 12th month in the 
iat«r Jeniah Caleudai". Sec Time, 

ADASA CAaeurd).— A town near Bothhoron (1 Mac 
7*-**, Jo.-*. Ant. XII. X. fi), now the niin 'Adajtth 
near Cibeoti. SPIV vol. iii. »h. x*ii. 

ADBEEL <V|<j-;((), the third mx^ iif Isbnmel, Cn 
25", 1 Ch 1=*, «i>onyiii of tho N. Arftb. tribe, wbit-h 
a{>pcant tn cuneiform in^crip. as Jdiba'U or IdihVnl, 
and which Imd it« aettlenientn S.W. of tlio Dend 
Sea (Sayce, //CJf 202; Schroder, KAT^ H8; Oxf. 
Jleb. Lex. t.v.), J. A. SELBtB. 

ADDAN (r:>i, 'A0a\ap A, [Xflpa]tifla\a» B, 1 Es 
S'*).— CVrtain of llie inliabitaiit* of this place 
joined the boily of the retiirninj» t^xilett in the 
timo of /enihmbel, but they were unable to 
jirovo their true Tsr, dewent by sbtjuinj; to what 
jrreat clan or family they belon;red f Kzr 2*). Prob- 
abiv lliey were not adiuitted to the privileges of 
foil citizcnsbiii. The nmiie doe» not nitpcor in the 
later lista in Ezr 10, Neb 10. Some rc^iml Chcnib 
Addan aa one nnine ; v.** auygt^tft thut Cherub, 
Addan, and linmcr were three villnj^iM in one dis*- 
tl-jct in Babylon, from which the fiiinily of N'ekoda 
came. In Neli 7"' the name ai>pears as A tioos. 

11. A. Wbitb. 

ADDAR, 1 Ch 8'.— See Ahd. 

ADDAR, AV Adar (^f), Jos IS*.— A town on 

the biirder of Judnb south of Beerahebo. There 
i;^ a niin east of I.Jaza which bears the name Vltfar, 
bnt this Deems pcchapa too far west. 

ADDER.— See S£R1'£.ST. 

AODI VA6i«l).—Aa anceatorof Jesus Christ, Lk 
3". See GKSKAUKjy. 

ADDICT.—' To a. oneself to.' now used only in 
a bad Heii»e, was formerly neutral, and in foiintl in 
a good sense in 1 Co 10" *they have n. them- 
aclveato the miDistr^of tho saints' (UV 'they have 
set themselves to minister unto the oaints '). Of. 
i/«(. Card. (1670) : ' The greatest part of the day ho 
addicts either to study, devotion, or other spirituiiL 
excrulses.' J. H.WTiNQS. 

ADD0(A'AMii,B'E33*6-).— Tlieffrandfatherofthe 
projtbet Zeebnriah ( 1 Es 6'}. Tlie name lit similarly 
spelt in LXX of Ezr 5' [A'A33*j, B'Aiw). See iDDO. 

ADDON itrat), Xoh 7«^. Sec Addas. 

ADDUB.— 1. i'AiSodi) 1 Es 5".— His wns were 
aniuntj the children of Solomon's servanU wlio 
returned with Zenib. ; the name does not occur in 
the parallel lists in Ezr 2, Neh 7. 2. See Jaddi/s. 

ADIDA ('AaiSd).— A town in the Shephelah (Job. 
Ant. xiu. vL 5) fortilicd by Simon tho llaBmonmaii 
(1 Mac 12* 13^»). The saiuo as Hadid. 

ADIEL (^iT'm, 'ornament of God'). — 1, A 
Simeunito prince who attacked the tthepherds of 
Gedor, 1 Ch *=""•. 2. A prie-Kt, I Ch U'< 3. The 
father of Azmaveth, David's treasurer, 1 Ch 27^. 

ADIN (i'-iv 'luxurious'!), Ezr 2" S», Nch 7» 10". 
I Es 5'*" 8^. Tlie head of n Jewish family, of 
which Kimu membere returned nitli Zerub,, and 
with Ezra. 

ADINA (>ti*?l()t a Reabenite chief, one of David's 

miyhty men, 1 Ch 11**. 

ADINO {[Kcthibh y-njr^] 'sxp-i u-iy 'Adino the 
Eznite,' B 'AStwuv i '.Kciaraio^, A 'AitiP a 'Affwfoot). — 
The Kerfi. is cleai'ly an attemjtt to introduce some 
sense into the nienninglesa h<thtbh. The present 
Beb. text of 2 S2;t* must Iw corrupt, the true readiiiL' 
being preserved in the ijorallel possajro 1 Ch ll"* 
' Josnoiteam, tho son of a Hachmonite, he lifted up 
his spear.' The last clause (i.Tii n» -mt' i«n| was 
corniiit'cd into i:v;m uny ttvi, and then taken erru* 
neuualy as a nropor name, bi-in;^ treated as an alter- 
native to trio precedinjj ' JosheSi-basshebeth, a 
Tahchemonite' {see JASIIOfiLAM). B ha* the addi- 
tion ofrr*! /ffWffBTo Wf* ^n^alaw nOrot ; but this le not 
found in A, and is, a.^ WellhaufM^n has pointed out, 
derived from the LXX tr. of Cb (cf. 2 S 23'*. where 
B renders the aanie words by iirnupt rh h6pv oiVoO). 

J. F. Stennixo. 

ADINU (A 'ASliKH, B 'Aa^ftiM, A V Adin), 1 Ea 5'*, 
willed Adin (A 'A6i>, B 'AMw) 1 Es 8".— His de- 
scendants retumei! with Zemboabel to the nuniher 
of ioA (I Iv.H Ti'*, Ezr 2") or (i55 (Neh 7*'). A second 
narty of ."SI (Ezr 8*) or 231 (1 I-:s 8"*} occompanietL 
Ezra. They are mentioned among 'the chiefs of 
the |>rople who joinetl Neh. in a covenant to 
separate themselves from the heathen (Neh 10"]. 

H. St. J. TllACKRRAV. 

ADITHAIM fc-o-ti). Jo« J5»*.— A town of Judah 
in the Shciiholah. "The site is unknown. 





ADJURE. — The jiriiijitive meanin;; of a. (from 
late Lut. niiJHntre) ia to put tmder uutli. Tlii» in 
itM meanin;,' in Jos (y* * AztJ Joshua adjured tbem 
al thai time, Mtjin^. Cursed be the man' (BV 
' vharccd them with an oath ']. and 1 S U^ ' Saul 
had a*' thu people. Haying, Curved be the man.' Cf. 
».* 'thy fiithcr sti-aitly cliarjrwl the |»copIe with 
lUi oath.' But tlie word is aUn nw\ in early 
writ«r)t in the Minne of to charge solemnly, without 
the artiinl ail ministration of an oath. Thus 
Cnxton ( t4t!l3): * Ka^^ael dc«ired and adjureil Tliobie 
that ho bbold abydo with hym.' Thia is the incan- 
ind; of a. in the other places of the Uiblo where it 
ia fonnd (I K 2-2^'^, 2 Ch 18". Ml 2fi® Mk 5', Au 
19"). RV given 'a.' (for AV 'cJmrgo,' Ueh. Mp) 
at Cu -2' 3= 5^» 8*. and at I Th b'" (Gr. *w>pWfw). 
Adjnratloo (not in AV) ia found in RV at Lv 5' 
(.i^V. AV ' swearing') and Pr 28« {^^v, AV 
'oundng')' See Oath. J. Hastinqs. 

U)LAt (S^V, 'Mai), the father of Shujdiat, one 
of David's herdsmen, 1 Ch 27*. 

JU>]ffAH (.-^itt), 'red lands.' Gn 1(P» U=-9. 
Pt 2tf", Ilos IP.— One of the citiw of the 
Cioear or ' Round.' It i» not noticed as over- 
thrown in the ft(^count of the destruction of Swlom 
and Gomorrah ((Jn 19|, hut ia included in thi^ir 
calastTophR in tlio two later pawagcft. The »ite 
ia unknown. It might, be the same as tliu uity 
Adam, which we. C. R. Cosuer. 

ADHATHA (mot-iv, Est V*), one of the wise men 
or couusellorft of Ahasuerus. The^e seven royal 
advisers (cf. Kzr 7'^}, who were granted admbiusion 
t« the kuiff'fe prcttencu, and ttaw his face (cf. '2 K 
25"), are tierhaps to be compared mtlier with the 
supreme I'eraian judc^ (Herod, iii. 31) than with 
the represcniativcsorthe six families which took 
part with Dnrius apainst the pwudo-Smordis 
(Herod, iii. 841. The name is poB«ibly Persian, 
arfnutf^i^'ODrcstrainod.' In the LX.K 'only three 
names arT> piven. H. A. Wuite. 

ADMINISTRATION in the general sense of ser- 
vice is now obsolete. But it is round 1 Co 12^ ' there 
are differences of adnkinistrations' (i.e. different 
kinds of Christian service, RV 'ministrations,' 
the liKeitM AT word). In 2 Co 9". thouph the Or. 
ia the same [iiaKoria, aing.), tho mcaninc ia not 
service ^nerally. but the performimce of service 
(RV ogam * ministration ' from Ccneca Bibie). 


ADiriRE, ADHIRATION.— These words occur 
in AV as the e\preKii<in of Kimplo wonder, 
without indiulini' s[inniI»ation. 2 Th 1" 'When 
he shall cunie to Iw jilorifjftd in hi.s saints, and to 
be aduiirvd (RV 'marvelled at*) in all them 
that believe' ; Jude v." 'having men's jwrsons In 
ftdmiration* iGr. BaviUiorrn *poa<awa, RV *ahow- 
hi]; respect of persons'); Rev 17* ' Wlien I saw 
her, I wond«rctI with p-eat a.' (UV 'with a preat 
wonder'). Cwnporo the version in metre of Ps 
1(15' ' Remember his marvellous works that he 
hath done,' is rendered — 

'Think an the works that he ti&th done, 
Whi«t) adnUntion br«c<L* 

J. Hastings. 
IDNA {ii;y 'pleasure').—!. A contemporary of 
Eira, who inarried a foreign wife (Ezr U)*). 2. 
The head of tho priestly house of Harim in the 
time of the high priest Juiakim, the son nf .Tenluia 
(Ueh li2"). H. A. White. 

APMAH.— i. (nrir) A Manassite ofKccr of Saul 
wbo deserted to Dnvid at Ziklaj^ (1 Ch 12*'). 2. 
(nriB) An officer in Jcliosbaphat's army (2 Ch 17'*). 

J. A. bRLiirE. 

ADO.— Mk 5^ 'Why make ye this adoV (RV 
' Why make ye a tumult T '). The older form is at 
do, where ' at ' is the prep, before the inhn., found 
chiefly in northern ling, and supposed to como 
from the ScuiidiuiLviiin. ' Wc have other things 
at do,' Toumcic^ MijsterUs, p. 181. 'At do ' was 
coutract«<l into 'ado,' and then looked, upon as a 
subat. Cf. hhaks. Tam. o/ Ukr. V. 1 — 

' IaV» follow, to sn tho nd ol ihli uOo.' 

While throwing it out of Mk 5", the RV introduces 

' ado ' into Ac •20'" ' Make yc no ado (AV ' Troulile 
not yourselves'), for Ids life is in liim,' though 
the dr. {dopv^ita^t) is the aauie in both places. 


ADONIBEZEK (ptf 'j^l.—Tlie name a« it stands 
in Jg 1*' nuwt mean, lirzrk (an otherwise un- 
known deity) is my lord. The town of l^zek (which 
see) will then altio bavo taken it^ name from that 
of the god. Tho chief of a Can. kinf^dom inS. I'al., 
he wad defeated by the trihe of' Judfih, taken 
prisoner, and mutilated by having liis thnmiNt and 
great toes cut oil. \\\» IxMtHt was that hu \\bA 
similarly treated Mvunty kingH. The mutilation 
was intended, white [ireservini; tho captive as a 
trophy, to rendi^r him innijwilile of mischief. 
According to I'lntarch (/,i/<; «/ /y*.), the.\thenians 
decreed that every prisoner of war should lose his 
thumbs, fio that while fit to row he should 1m unlit 
to handle H|x-ar. Ilaunilml im accunnl (Valer. Max. 
is. % exU 2) of mutilating prisoner^!, *prii/ut pcttitm 
parte succisa.' These may be slanders, but they 
prove how conceivable such mutilation was even 
then, and what was its object at all times. 

A. C. Welch. 

ADONIJAH (Tftii).— 1. Tho name of thp fourth 
son of David (2 S 3», 1 Ch 3^). After the death 
of Absalom, Adonijah, who was next in onler uf 
birth, naturuUv rtigardml hiitiHctf as the heir to 
the throne. His expectation wiw cloubtlesfl shnred 
by tJie nation, and seems to have been for a time 
encouraged by liis father. The situntion had been 
altered, however, by the introduction of Bath- 
#hcba into tho royal harem, and by tliu birlli uf 
Soliimun. The inituonre and the ambition of this 
latest uf David's qu<.>enii rcuderwl it certain that 
Adonijah would encounter a dangerous rival in his 
younger brother. It was probably his knowledge 
that intrigues against his intercsta were U-ing 
carried on in the harem that led to the prcniutun; 
and ill-Btarrcd attemot of Adonijah to heiKu the 
crown before his fattier's death. The narrative 
(1 K 1 And 2) is from the same jwn as the section 
ill 2 S which contains the Mtnry of AlL>(nlom'8 
reltelUon, and is evidently thu nork of one who 
hail aooens to tnistworthy Miiircc.H of information. 
There are soverai features of reatmhlance be- 
tween the two nanntives; and the two chifif 
actors therein, Absalom and Adonijati, wem 
to have rescmblLtl one another in diNposittun 
and even in bodily characteristics (cf. 1 K 1'"" 
with 2 8 U^ 16'). At firrt Adoniiah's enterprise 
seemed likely to be crowned with success, lie 
attached to nis cause such important and in- 
tluential supporters a« Joah the conimandcr-in- 
ohief, and Alimthar tho priest. In companv with 
these and many mentbors of tho royal family and 
the king's house, .4.domiah held a great feast at 
Kn-Roget, where the linal arrnng<!menta were to 1»e 
matle tor his coronation. Rut he lin^l reckoned 
witlmut hi.i hnnt. Oni; whom he hni\ not invitpd 
to the banquet was destined to checkmate the 
conspirators ere their plans were msturcd. Nathan 
the prophet seems to nave occupied much the same 
position at tho court of David as Isaiah afterwards 
held at that of Hezekiah. Seeing that not a 
moment was to be tost, Nathan hn^tened to Batli- 




ith«bn, whose fears Iid easily a^'iikenctl by poinling 
out t)iu dnnger to wliicli li^r own lifu and tliat of 
Solatnon would be expo««d if the attempt of 
Adonijah should Hucct>t!d. HathRhiiluij who HueiiiH 
to have already obtained from David a promiso 
that 8uloiiion nhonld snoceed him on the tJironi.', 
iramcdiatvly eotight an interview with the a^nA 
kinc, and informed him of what was tranKplnng 
nt En-tiogol ; while Nnthnn, in acconlnnce with a 

fjrKarrangcd iilan, t--amc* in opportunnly to conlirm 
ler sLojry. Tbw proiihot-couii-ttUor played hi-s jiart 
with ooiiMiumiiate sVill, notably when (1 K I*^) he 
expressed surprise that the kin<;, if lie had aanc* 
iioned tliu action of Adunijah, had not taken his 
old frieudft and veunsellurit into hiit confidence. 
Yielding to the rej>re5GntationH of the queen and 
I he prophet, David renewed his oath to Oathsheba 
in favour of her aon, aod took prompt measures to 
MccQio the accession of tlie latter. At such a 
juncture the wipport of the royal Imdrgnard waa 
nil-important, and fortunately their loyalty waa 
beyond suspicion. Tlieir commander was oraered 
by David to escort Iheyuuthfal Sotumon. mounted 
upon his father's mule, to Gihon, and to have him 
anointed king by /adok the priest and Nathan 
the prophet. Tim commiMiou was executed 
amidst the eatbuainHm of the j)eople, who rent the 
air wilkahoutaof 'God wive King Solomon !' The 
unwonted notae reached the cunt of Ad»nija)i'» 
guetttH nt En-Kogel, cauxtng astonishment, which 
]taK!ivd into conHt<^*rn.ition u'lien Jonathan the wn 
of Abiallmr hurried in with the news that David 
had i-liCTsen Sijhmion ic suceeed liim. The com- 
jmny broke up in confusion, and Ailonijah himself 
was 80 much alarmed that he fled for piotpntion to 
the altar. Solomon, however, a'n'ecd to spare hirt 
life on eondiliuu of future loyalty. If Ailonijah 
difiplayed no cousvicuous M-isdom in hitt attempt to 
scizu the crown, Jiiif next act, which cost him hie 
life, ie hard to explain, except on the priuciplc. 
Quern DcKSVttlt ptrdert print aenuntat. After tlie 
death of hts father be actually requested Solomon 
to bestow upan liim in marriage Abishag the 
Sliunammite, the utaideu who hod attended upon 
David during his declining years. And on advo- 
uatu fur him in thta delicate matter he chose 
Bathsheba ! No one who i« acquainted M-ith the 
notions of^'rn courts can wonder at the 
roBontmcnt of Solomon, or that he construed this 
re<i^uest as an act of treason. Considering the re- 
lation in which Ahislrag had stood to l>av1d, tlte 
jHionle wouUl ei-rlainly inftir (hat Adonijah in 
taking her for hi8 wife still asserted hL» right to 
the crown. {Comnare the story of Abner and 
Uhlw^hetb in 2 S 3-, and of Absalom in 2 S IG".) 
Speedily was sentence pronounced, 'Adouijali hath 

rken this word ngainnt his own life ; surely be 
II bo put to death tlii» day'-, and the sentence 
waa immediately e.xct;uted by the eapLoin of the 

3. Ono of tlie Levites who, accordinf; to the 
Chronicler, waa Kent bv tlehoHbapliat tu teach in 
the citidM of Judnh (-2 Ch 17';. 8. One of the 
'chiefa of the people' who scaled the covenant 
(Xuh iO"). Same as Adonikam (Eir 2'* 8", Neh 7'"). 

J. A. Selbie. 

ADONIKAH (C3Uiti *niv I-erd has arisen'). Ezr 
2" 8'\ Neh 7'^ 1 Es V* SY The bend of a Jewiali 
family after the Exile ; in Neh 10'* Adonijah. 

H. A WlUTE. 

ADONIRAH, ftDORAIHcyrtc, ^^^K|.— The latter 
name o<!c«rK 2 S 20-', 1 K 12", and ia probably a 
eorruption of Adoniram. The LXX sup]«>rt8 this 
view, reading 'ASwupaji, 2 S *»-*, I K 4« 6'* (Heb. 
ornit), 1 K 12'* (13 'Apa/x, A ' A6ufC(>ti^), and in the 
parallel 2 Ch lO^'A&fjftipaa (HeU. et^r, Hiwloramk. 
A. was 'over the levy,' that is, be Buperintendwl 
Lhu levies employed in the public worka during the 

reigns of David, Solomon, and Keho^KMim. He was 
stoned to death by the rebellions Isr. when aent to 
thorn by Rehoboam (1 K IS'-"). 

J. F. StENN'KG. 

ADONIS.— Strictly not ft name but a title, \\t}f 
'Ad6n, 'Lord,' of the god Taminuit (which sec). 
Is 17» KVra 'plantings of Adonis' (o-;?;^) 'f^j 
ni('£ na'anuirifm, text ^pleasant planta') and the 
tieiting of 'vine dUps of a stranger' (strange god). 
Is muutioucU as the result of Laving 'forgotten 
the God of thy Rolvation.' So Ewald, Lagarde, 
Chiiync. Willi ' planLin-^'s uf Adonid,' cf. the Gr. 
'\6uiinia% Kvrot, quick-growing plants reared in pots 
or ba-skets (Plato, Phadr. 27ti II), and olFerod to 
Aphrodite at: emblems of her lover's beauty auil 
earlv death (Theocr. 15. 113). 

Thomean'mgof na'awwnJwia, however, doubtful. 
Na'aniaii haprmnbly the name of a god ; cf. the name 
of the Syrian general (2 K 5'), and Ar. Nn'ninn, 
a king's name (Tehrizi'a fiehnlia to Ham/Lta). The 
riverBolus ianoweallediVaAr jVn'nffU2n. Lagarde 
{Stm. i. 32) quotes .Arab, name of the red anemone, 
Shitka'ifyU-n'Nit'juiin, exnUining an 'the wousil 
of Adonis ' ] but see Welniausen, Skizzrn, iii. p. 7. 

C. r. BuRNEy. 

ADONI-ZEDEK (p;j 'j^ 'Lord of righteousness,' 
AV Adonl-iedec), kmg of Jeru»aletn at the time 
of the invasion of Canaan by the Israelites imdcr 
.loshna. Aft«r the Cibeonitcn had succeeded in 
makin" a league with Israel, he induced four 
other kings, those of Hebron, .larmutli, Ijichish, 
and Eglon, to unite with htm against the invaders. 
I'irst they attacked, as traitors to the common 
cause, the Gibeonites, who appeale<l to Joslina for 
help. Hy a rapid night marcli from Gilgal, Joshua 
came uni^xpcetedly upon the allied king!), and 
utterlv routed tliem [JnsnuA, HETii-HonoN]. 
Adonf-zedek and his usKiclates sought refuge in a 
<iavc at Makkiidah. but were taken and brought 
before Joshua- The Heb. chiefs set their feet 
upon their necks in token of triumph. They 
Mere then Hlain, and their Inidics hung up until 
the evening, when they were Inkcn down and tlung 
into the cave where th«v had hid thenisctvea, the 
mouth of wiiich was filltd up with great stones 
iJos lO^-"). In Jos 10*'- LXX reads 'ASuiviSi^tr, 
and some have identitie<i the latter with Adonioenek 
of Jg 1». (See Kittel, //ij(. of Jleh. i. :107 ; Rudde, 
JiicAt. u. Sam. GSf. ; WeJlh. 'Einicit* [Ulet'k: 182.) 

K. M. liOYD. 

ADOPTION {uloBtaia.) is a word ui^cd by St. 
Paul to designate tlie priviletjn of Buuship iKsLowcd 
bv God on His people. \Vhll« Jesus Mimself and 
the New Testament, writers all speak frequently 
ail J emphatically of our bleasings and dutic-* as sons 
cir chiluren of G*<xl, no other ot them employs this 
special term, which occurs in five places in the 
Epi.^tlea of St. Paul (Gal 4», Ko S"' » t>*, Eph 1«). 
It rtcnms to express a distinct and definite idea 
in that apo^itle'K mind ; and tiince adoption was, 
in Itoman taw, a t<H!hnical term fur on act tliat 
had specific legal and soeial elTect-M, there is much 
prohaoility that he had wjmf! reference U\ that 
in his iise of the word. The Komans maiiitftineil 
in n vcrj' extreme way the rights of fathem 
over Ih^ir children as practically despotic: and 
lhe!<e did nut cenAO wlum tite oons came of age, or 
had famiUen of their own, but while the father 
lived could only be terminated by certain legal 
l^roceedinga, analogous to thoeo by which alavea 
were isold or redeemed. The same tenii {manci- 
fnitw] wottippliod to a pr()cess of tliis kind, whether 
a man parted with his son, or his ulttve, or Ms 
goods. Hence a man could not be trant^ferred 
froiri one family to another, or put into the potrition 
of a MOn to anV Koman citizen, without a formal 
legal act, whicli was a ijuasi sale by his natural 
father, and buying out by the peraon who adopted 




Iiini. It ho was not in Ui« ptiwisr of a nAtiimi 
father, but intlcpendeDt {sui Juris), ns, e.y., if his 
father wero cicail, then he could only be put in the 
pince of son to another by a solttmn act, of the 
t>o%*ereigii |ieople nAaeiiible'l in their rQltgioas 
cApaeity (coTnitia curutta). For each fainilj- had 
its own rclipotu rites, and ho must be freed by 
pttbUc authority from the obligation to fulttl those 
(if one, and taken bound to observe tiioso of 
anotlier. That trausoctiun was, however, properly 
oallod arrogatio, while adajuio Ktrictiv dcniiteil the 
tAkiiig, Inr one man, of a mui of anutlier lo be \\\» 
son. Thia. though not requiring an act of 
legialatioo, had to be re^'iilarly atteHted by wit' 
iie«aea; and in old form one struck a pair of ftcalcs 
with A piece of copper as an emblem of the 

ftrintitive nroce«s of sale. Adoptinn, when Uiua 
c},Tilly perlormed, put a uinn in every rwiiect in 
the postition of a Bon by birth of him who had 
adopted him^ no that he poH(i(>sHed tlie uaiue ri^litA 
and owed the aame obli<;ations. 

Xo such le;;al and complete transference of filial 
righto and dntJeit Rcein!! U> have existed in the law 
of Iwnel ; thougli there may have been many cases 
of the informal adoption known among us, as when 
Mordecai took the orphan Ksthcr, his nncle'H 
daughter, tu Ite his {Est 2^). The failure of heirs 
was provided for by the lovirate Jaw. 

Kow, ainee St. Paul repreM!ut« the Clirj«tUin'H 
adoption as carrying with it certain definite prin- 
le^j'os which would not be involves] in ^ach an act 
as Mordecai's, and hince he may welt have been 
acqutinted with the Konion practice in thi^ matter, 
it seenu probable that ho maj have had it in view. 
(Sec Dr. W. E. iJall in Contemp. Rev.. Aug. 18DI). 

The carbeHi Inatiuice of hhi nse of the word is in 
hl» Epistle to the Uahitiajui, in a paaaage in whioh 
Kvcral nanieH of human relations are ojaed to illua- 
tratA Lhoae between Gnd and man, and where tlie 
aposUe eiqpressly nays, ' I speak after the manner 
oi men' (3"), i.e. I use a hmnan analog' to make 
luy argument plain. The term that lie lirat 
employs after thin reitinik iq Uiat rendered 
covenant, or tefltauient (^afi^oj), hero probably 
in the >;rcn(!ral sense of difipo^ition, without 
empharis on the peouliarities either of a covenant 
or of a testament. In virtue of this disposition. 
which wus one of promise, given to Abraham and 
Ilia Boed, the blessing comes to all who ore united 
to Christ by faith ; for the promise, St. Paul 
argnea, was not to tlie physical doRcendanta of the 
batriaicb as a multitude, but lo a unity, the one 
\fe.«»)ah, who was to gather all nattonti to Himself. 
According to thi» diMjKMtiliun of ftod, believeni are 
sons and heirs (3*-"). But before their faith 
in ChrLst they were kent in ward under tlie law, 
which w-a« not intondcu to add a cimdilion to the 
covenant of protniae, but to brin^' their latent sin to a 
hea<l in traiiKgreasiona (3'"). so that they might not 
aeek to be justified bv works, but niiglit accnjit the 
blceaing as of (iud'a free grace through Chtist, who 
became a cunte for us that He might redeem a;; from 
the curse of the law (3'*- ■■^■"). TIiia neemsto Iw 
clearly the general line of the argument. But tho 
position of men under the law appears to be repre- 
MUted by St. I'oul in two dilferent ways, sometimes 
as bond-aervants under the cnr«e (S**-" 4''"),and 
somcLimcfl as children under age (4'''). The ox- 
jilanation of thic may bo found in thocon»tideration 
that St. I'nul never uipant to deny that Abraham, 
David, uud other believem in OT liinex were 
really JostifiPti ine« Ito ■4'*'); M-hile aa many as 
were of the works of the law were under the cnnje. 
The former were like children under age, not yet 
mjoying tl»e full privileges of ponship ; tlie latter 
w«« like bond-scnants. To both alike the 
Ueadng broiishi by Christ in the fulness of tlio 
tima u calica adoption (Gal 4^]. and this iteems to 

iralicntt) that St. I'aul holdr^ the aonship, of which 
he is speaking, to be founded on tlio covenant 
promiie of God, and not on the natnral relation to 
(jod of all men as such. We must not therefore lower 
the meaning of adoption, in his mind, to the confer* 
rin? of tho full privil^es of aons on those who are 
children by birth. It ia, as the whole context shows, 
a pui^iliunbcfitowcd by a disposition or covenant of 
<jod, and through a redemption by L'limt. This 
prtdiabty led St. Paul to the iwo of tho word ; for 
the Koman adoption wn.s uffeuied by a li»gal act, 
whic-h involved a quiLsi bui iiig-ont. He alsii plainly 
rcj^ards it as like the adoption uf Human law iii 
tbi.>4, that it ^ives not merely paternal care, but the 
complete rigute of sonship, the gift of the Spirit of 
God » Son, and the inheritAnoe. No doubt thin 
legal analog may be picsted too far ; and Sts Paul 
plainly indicates that wimt he uicaus hi really 
»ometliing far deeper ; for it is founded upon a 
spiritual union lu <>(Hi'ti Son, which lit dewribed 
aA ' putting on Christ' (3-''); so that our adoption 
is not a mere fnmml or legal act, though it may be 
eum [lared to sueh in rospeot of ita authoritative and 
abiding nature. 

Some theologians of different schools (e.,17. 
Turretin, Schleiormacher] havo inferred from tlie 
connexion between redemption and adujition, in 
(iai 4^, that ailoption i» tlie (Kj^itive |iart of the 
I'omplete b|ps»ing of justification, of which re- 
dtimption or forgiveness is the negative port. But 
this is a verj- precarious inferenw ; and the two 
terms are so dinerent in their meaning, that it is 
far more probable that St. Paul meant by adoption 
a blo&aing distinct from our having peace with (iucl 
and acee&s into His favour, which no deserilieK in 
Uo 5' as the pobilivo fruiti^ of our justiiication. 
These blessings, indeed, cannot be iie|mratMl in 
reality; ihey are only different aspfet^> of tht* one 
grrait gift uf life in Christ ; but in order to 
understand clearly the evangelical doctrine of the 
NT, it is necessary to look at thcni oeparatuly. 

'i'lie next place where St. Paul iipeaks aliout 
adoption is in Ko 8"-". Ht-re he is speaking of 
the believer's new walk of hnlineas, and he has 
said, ' \i by the npirit ye mortify the deeds of the 
bofly, ye shall live' (8"). In proof of this he 
a.'MiertH that ' as many as are led by the Spirit of 
(iod are tho sons of God ' (8") ; and "then ho proves 
this in turn by saying, ' Vc received not tho (or, a) 
i^nirit of Iwndnge agam unto fear, but yu recHived 
tilt' spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 
Father.' The line of reasoning Ik I he name as in 
Galatians, hut put in the inverse order. The pro- 
uiwi of lifo in pruvud bv the fact of our being 
yonsof God ; and that, again, becuuKc tht> spirit that 
He haf< giveu us w llial of adoption, enabling us to 
address God as our Father, and tiO (8'*} wilnussing 
with our spirit that we are fhildrcu oi (Jod. In 
this possiblv there may be miiiio allui^ion to the 
witneiuies which were necessary to the solemn act 
of »loption according to Roman law and custom. 
Then, an in the earliur KpiKtln, it i-s stated that this 
adoption carrier with it all tlio right« of true son- 
ship, ' If children, tlien lieiri*.' etc. {H'*). St. Paul 
next proceeilt* to contrast this glorious prospect 
with tnc present sufferings of tho peoplu of God. 
These aaiTerings are shared by alt creation ; and 
the delirerance is to be at tiio rcvoalinu of the sons 
of God (B"), when creation itaulf shaTl tUtare the 
liborly of the glory of tho sons of God (3"]. So in 
8^ he says, ' we wait for our ndojitinn, the 
redemption of our body.' It is the resurrection 
of life at the coming of tho l^r>l tbat is un- 
doubtedly meant; and that is called here the 
adoption, because it will be the full revelation of 
our sonship. Now are w-e eons of God, as St. John 
puts it ; but the world knoweth us not, and it doth 
not yet appear wlutt we shall be ; but when it shall 




apiJtiar, we aliall be like Him (1 Jn 3''^). AiioIIilm' 
sinking parallel i^* to l>e found iii Diir Lord'K wonli^, 
ail rHWinfeil by St. LuUh (iSf*-*'), of Ih^we tbat. ar«; 
ftcpountt-il Murtby to attain to thv rt-KiUTisclioii 
from the deAt), ' Neither can they die any more, fur 
they arc e<|ual unto the an;:eh, and arc soas of 
liou, being Biinituf the rcsurructiun.' As salvaliuit 
U sometiiiifs spoken of as a thtiij; perfect here and 
now, and soint^times aa only to w coninlettxl at thK 
laatt, 80 Bt. Paul spvaks of adoption. It l)clon(r« to 
the believer really and certainly now, buti>enectly 
only at the resurreotion. 

En Ro 9* St. Paul mentions * tho adoption ' 
first among the privileges of Israel, whicli he there 
enanierat4». '1 uta ifi lu accordance with ttie fact 
tbat the nation aa a whole in called in tJie UT 
God's Kin, and individual members of it HU 
children, sohh and daii;;bt«ni. Tbn term impliH,-* 
further, what u also tuutiht in OT, that they bad 
this relation, not tlirouKh phyaical deKcat or 
creation, but by an net of f^ro^ioua love on God's^ 
part. And in 9"'', St I'aol teaches that not alt 
the children of Abraham and Jacob are children 
of Ciu^l, but they wfio are of the promii>ti, i.e., 
as he nut it before, they who accept the promise 
by faitn. It i« not necejwary to m:ppo»e that St. 
I'aol speaTis here of another adoi>tion, q nito distinct 
from tho Christian one ; it in, indeed, an earlier 
and leas perfect phase of it, but he regards it as 
essentially tlie same ; since tlie gofipel was preached 
before to Abraham, and justilication, tliouijh 
founded on the actual redemption of Clirist, was by 
anticipation applied to liim and many uchurii 
before Christ came. 

The toBt place where Sl Paul uses the term 
adoption la Eph P, where ho sa)*:* that God 
et^^rnally (oreordoined believers unto adoption ns 
sons throujjli Jesus Christ unto HiuiHetf. This 
riTfers lu the eternal tmipuse, in iiccordanco with 
which t.!od doea all His work» in time, and corre* 
B-pondH to what he had said in Ilo S^, that ' whom 
lie foreknew He also fbreordainod to be conformed 
to the image of His Son, that Uo might be the lirst- 
bom among many brethren.* I'be conforiuity 
here mentioned probably includea moral Ukenesa; 
but tho ultimate end is stated to b« tbat there 
might be many brethren of Chri.'»t, among whom 
Tie is the firstborn. Our Lonl, aci-unlhij; to St. 
Paul, i\ in a peculiar sense, God'ti Son, Hin own 
jiroper Son, bejiotten before all creation (Col I"), 
onci the grace ot adoption mnkea believers truly His 
brethren and joint-hetrs with Hini, theuKh lie boa 
ever and ia aJI things the pre-eminence n» Son of 
Cod from eternity, by nature and not mi;rety by 

For a fuller aceount of tho Biblical doctrine of 
Divine Sonship, see GoD, Sons of ; Children op. 

LnnaATrftR.— Comni. on thv Pnuline Enn. by CWIviti, Merer, 
AlfonJ, Ellioott, Liuhtfoot. Baiid*y-UiiAaLun ; vrorks on NT 
■nicrjlogv by SohmM, WcIm, D«>«chW, Bovon; studies in 
I'auline Thvologjr bj Pflald«rer. SaJMUer. Brucv- (Seo XJt. 
uiidcr Gon, 80XS or ; OHILbUCf OP.) 

J. S, CASDLI-Stt. 

ADORA {'ASupd) in Idnm^a (Ant. xiii. ix. 1}, 
noticed in 1 Mac 1 3^. The same as Adoraim. 

ADORAIH (c'iM^), 2 Ch n«.— A city of Judah 
fortiticd by Kebohoam on the S. W. of his mountain 
kingdom, now Diint, at the edire of the mown- 
taina W. of Hebron — a sumll villag»>. SiVP vol. 
iii. sheet xxi. C. li. CoNDEit. 

ADORAM.— See Al>oxiRAM. 

ADORATION.— Under this term mav be con- 

venienLly cunsidcred certain [ihoHeH of worMbin, 
The word itself liocts not occur either in AV H\ . 
but both tbu disposition of nund and heart, and 

tlio ini[\»iiid i.\iin .■j.viitns of that dii^jMinition, which 
are alike denote^l by it, receive abundant illus* 
Lralion. From om; of the actionM exprt^snive of A., 
—namely, lifting the hand to the mouth, either in 
order t" indicate that the worshipper was dimib in 
the ifnrred presence, or, more comnmnly, to kiu it 
and then wave it towards the atntuo ol the god, — 
the term itself Is often snpposetl to be derived 
{ftdmiirtntex orihwi Buis dexicmm, Atiul. Met, iv. 
28; cf. I'liny, Ntf xxviii. 5; Min. Felix, Od. ii.). 
This proctic-e of kisj*ing the hand, accompanied by 
certain otlter gcnturen, wai*, nnmng the Komantt, tho 
special meaning of adoratio as distinguishwl from 
oratio or prayer. It was, in antiquity, expressive 
of the deepest respect, and is aJuideil to in Job 
31", posaifply alM in 1 K W, Ps 2", Uoa IS". 
Adi/i-art is liowever a comiKiuml verb, meaning, 
lirnt, ' to address,' then, ' tii «iilri?Ji.t, to supplirattf,' 
and, finally, ' to worship.' That A. should embrace 
at onue a rangv of feelings and a series of actn is 
explained by a very simple cunsidenition. The 
most profound and must intense feelings are iui^t 
tlioec which act or gesture expresses lietter tlmn 
words. It is only, therefore, to a limited ext<;nt 
that A. finds expression in laugumgc, and then 
only in language of the moi^t general and Ica^t 
objective kmd. A. ii^, in the tirst place, tho 
attitude of the sotiI which is called forth by the 
loftiest thoughts ond reaiitations of God. Uefore 
His perfections tho soul abases itself ; it seeks to 
get beyond earth and earthly things and to enter 
mto ifis nearer prcBt-Qce. A. beloiigs ihiia to the 
mystical side ui religion ; it includes tho awe and 
reverence with which the wml fwU ituelf on holy 
ground. It^a appropriate exiireiwions lire therefore 
those which convey the feeling most adeqimtely, 
even though when tried by any objective standard 
they mi^ht be prononnoed meaningless. We dis- 
tinguLth generallv between A. and those parts of 
Prayer and Wor.'*iiip wliiih arc directed tow.ti-ds a 
wmcial end, — from confi^awion, sumdication, tliankR- 
;iiving. Hymns and Prayers of A. K<!t forth the 
inajenly, purity, and holiness of God, Hi;? ineffable 
perfections, and the soul's loving contemplation of 
them. Tho adoring heart is ' lost in wonder, love, 
and praise.' In the Psalms, nature in all its 
departmentA in repeatedly ojilled it]>an to praise 
and glorify Gotl. St. Paul, cjiufjht iip even to the 
thinriipaTen, knowing not whether tie was in the 
bo«ly or ajHirt from the boily, iiud hearing un* 
speakable words, is an example of that self- 
abandonment of devotion which is implied in the 
highest form of A. PuMibly a similar meaning 
attaches to the statement of St. John, that he was 
'in the ppirit' on the I-ord'.'* day. Not only are 
aii^cltt cutlud uiK>n to blesH the Ijord, but A. in 
reprciicnted as tlie essence of the lieavonly life. In 
Ih A a scene of heavenly A. is deiiicted ; and 
similar seenes are set forth in tho Bk of Rev 
(l»n jM* 711-13}. j\_ ig hprQ distingnishe*! from 
service, as something even more truly funda- 
mental, even that from which tho only acceptable 
Bcrvioo springs. 

trcol in the only legitimate objert of A., liinre in 
Him only perfection dwell>i, and He only must be 
the HUpreme object of love and reverence. His 
wnrwhip must be spiritual (Jn 4**), and such wor- 
ship accorded to any other is imiforraly branded as 
idolatrv. Christ is adored becatise 'God woa in 
Him ' f'2 Co S"), and because God ' hath highly 
exalted Him, aud Is Utmself glorified when the 
confession it made that 'Christ ia Lord' (Ph 

As reganls the attitudes ami acts expressive 
of A., these, as already stated, HymlKdisud the 
feeling experienced, and "varied therefore with the 
kinds and degrees of emotion indicated. liumilitv 
was naturally expressed by pro&tration, kneel- 




ing, or umply bejidiiiK head or body ; sub- 
mutaion and. reverence, by the folded hundfl and 
ilowncast eyes; wonder and awe, by tlie uplifted 
liojidfl »itli |ialniii turned uuiworuj ; invuiatioii 
And »tui)[tlivn.tiuii, by hnnds and arma outtitruLchLnl ; 
dtiN^nckncH and entruity, by c)a!t[K:d hands or 
niix'tiny palms. Amon^' [bo Hebruw*, xtitndinij 
was th« nioro usual attitnde in public [imyer, an it 
is among the Jews to this day ; it indic-ates, per- 
bape, inoro a conscionsnesB of tlio presence of other 
men nnd less self-abandonment tnnn kneHiny [ct. 
the Parable of the Pbarbieti and the l^iblican), 
which therefore was more appropriate to private 
devotion. Solomon, ll js trin^, knclL at the dedi- 
cation of the temiile (1 K 8»', 2 Ch 6"). Exra iHzr 
»•) and Daniel (Du 6"t likewise fell upon Uieir 
knees ; and St. Paul knelt in pniyer with the 
ciders of Ephesua. In all tlie^ in«tancos, however, 
the idea ctniveyed is latbcr that the spectators were 
overlookin;; or UHsi-ttinK at an act of private 
devotiun, than tlint they were taking part in public 
or common prayer. In one instance [2 S 7'"= I Ch 
l'**) Vi'O tend of iriUing an an attitude of prayer; 
bnt thifl prolxiltly ia a form of knoidin);, the 
liody being thrown back «o aa to r^Hl upon 
the heels, as in other cases (1 K 18*^) it was 
thrown fonv&rd until the head was placed between 
the kneeft. To fall at the feet of a person 
{■Tfi^Kvrrifrtx) woA an act of extreme reverence, 
}^nera1lv ftrroiiiimiiviny; supjiUcation (1 S 25**, 2 K 
4", Esl ;i^ Mt2S". Mk 5», Lk H", Jn U»). Froe- 
tratton Wfore a liutnan patron or l>euefiii'tur waa 
on Oriental, not a Roman, custom, and hence St. 
I'ctcr declined to receive it from Cornelius, in whom 
it indii-atfd a mi^pprebensioa as to tho quality of 
the aiMstlo. Of hand:^ lifted to heaven we read in 
Is 1^, 1 Ti 2". The coDsccrnlion of love was 
denoteil, an we have aeen, by the kiAH. Mo<iea and 
JoMhuft were eammanded to reinovu their MiminU 
(Ex 3*, Jos 5"), because the presence of Uud made 
bolf the ipround on which they stood. In all these 
insiance* it is easy to discern now tho outw&rd act 
expnased, and, in uxpreaoln^r, tendnl to int«iii»ify in 
thebeoitof the w*orHliippeT the feeling with which 
it was BsaociaLed. A. Stewart. 

ADORNIHO (mod. adornment) occnra in I P 3* 
* Whose a. let it not be that outward n. of plaiting 
(lie hair.' The latest u&e of n. as a suhttt. i& in 
H. Mote's Sevrn <'h. (1600) : ' Her pranking and 
odomings' {Oxf. Diet.). J. Hastings. 

ADHAHHELEOH l^^rrtt).— 1. A. nnd Annmnic- 
lech, the i^ods of Sephan-aim to whom tho coUmistM, 
broDght to Samaria from ^ephan'aim, burnt their 
chiltken in the fire (2 K 17"). Adrammcloeh has 
been identified with a deity frequently mentioned in 
AMyrionrecDrda whose name is wriUen ideographi- 
f«JIy AK. HAR. and an. nin. in. This nonie has 
Iweu conjectu rally rewl 'Adar'; and if this con- 
jeetnre be ri^bt, *Adar' may be identified with 
' Adrammelecn ' (i.b. 'Adar-prince' or ' Adar- 
Molech '). ' Adar ' is a name of Accadian ori;;in, 
■i;,mifying 'Father of decision' {or judgment). 
'Adar' was aclivo in sending tlie waters of the 
Dcluue. (Cf. Sebrader, K.W, on 2K 17"). 

3. (2KI9", Ifl37')Dientiimed withSharezerasone 
of the unrderem of Kenoaclierib. In In (/.c.) and 
in all tho ventions of Kings (/.r.) the two murderers 
ore de-scribed as the *on* of JSennocherib, but the 
K<thlhh ot Kinjpi oinils 'hiM sons.' A Babylonian 
cliTonicle, rcferrinc lo the murder, snyrt simply, 
■ On the twentieth of tho month Tebct, E>cn- 
noclicrib, kin;^ of Aanyria, waji kilK-d by Uh stm 
(iinjr.) in an inwurrection.' (Sec E. Schmdur, tiiiiiu. 
Khriftlirhf Bihliuthrk. vol. ii. p. 281. iind C. il. W. 
Jubns in ErposUory Timai, vol. vii, p. 23Sf., and 

W. E. BaBNEU. 

ADRJLMyTTIUH {' ASpaninTtci') v,&» on ancient 
city of the country Slysia, in the Kora. province 
Aota, with a harbour, at the top ui tho gulf Sinus 
Adrami/ttenHj. The population and thu name 
were moved »omc difttitnro inland during th«; 
.Middle Agcii to a into M'hicli ix now calle^l Kdremid. 
It niu.-*t have been a city of -.Tcat imitirtjince when 
Ppr(;Hnio.H vms the capital of the kind's of Asia ; 
antl hence, when Asia became a Itom. province, 
Adramyttium wa« selcctetl na tho metropolis of 
the N.W. district of Asia, where the assizes 
{amventtu) of that whole diNtrict were held. 
It« ships mode trading voyagea ulung the coattta 
of Atiia and tut far aft >iyria (Ac ^') : and n 
kind of uintmuut exported from tlic city was 
highly esteemed (Pliny, iVif xiii, 2. 5j. Its 
imj>ortanco 04! a tnidiug centre is shown by ita 
heme one of the cities whore citto/thori, the uTcat 
commercial coinage of the cast, were struck be- 
tween I'iS and ti7 B-C. It suirured Krcally during 
the Mithridatto wars, and rnthur declined in im- 
portance ; but, even s^ late oji tlio .^rd cent.) 
under ('aracallo, it still ranked auflicicntly high to 
Ktrike alliance coina with Ephoaiia (implying cer- 
tain reciprocal righta in respect of religious foati- 
vals and games). W. M. Hah-say. 

ADRIA (Ac 27", UV Sen f,f Adria).— The sea 
'^amidttt' which the hhip carrying 8t. Paul waa 
uriven during fourteen daya, before it stranded on 
Melita. After pos.'iinK Crete, tho voyoKera en- 
counlereil a vinjltunl * northeaster ' (ilV Eurn* 
qtiUo), before which they drifted, and running 
under the island of Clauda (ItV Cauda, nuw liozo), 
they were afraid of Itoing carriiU t*>wurds the 
quicksands (RV Syrtisi dreaded by llm marimir 
on the African cooiit ; but eventually, on thu four- 
teenth tluy, deachftil laud, wlifirn they ran (he ship 
aground on on island called Mulita. Tbe sea wliiuli 
they traversed is termed 6 'ASpiat. Tbroe questions— {I) a» to the form, ('J) as to tho orijiin, and 
(3} as to the range or connotation, of the wonl. 

1. WH prefer the asjiiratod form 'Aiplat; hut 
while lioih forms ot'i'-Ur m ancient wrilerw (tkie tho 
variatioiia in I'anly-Wijw. RE s.v.), onr choice 
must depend on the probable derivation of tbe 

3. There were two towns of similar name— Atria 
or Iladria, in Piceuum (now Atri), an inland toAvn 
haviuguorelatiou to the .-\<iriatic (except indireclly 
tlirouuh its pott uf Mutrinum), and Atrin, a town 
of early commercial importance near tlie mouth of 
tbe Poj with which the name ia as.soeiated by snoli 
antborilies as Livv (v. 33), Strabo (v. I), nnd Pliny 
(//A' iii. I9U). This town, still called Adria, u 
descriKsl by Lii-y and others as a Tuscan settle- 
ment, but by Jnstinlxx. 1.9) as of Or. origin; audita 
cnrlyreliilionswith Greece are (aa-Mouimst-'n, in CIL 
V. I. p.22<>, pointsoutJyctmorecHrtainlyattesteilby 
iHiiattid vases of (ir. style found in no small num- 
ber there, bnt not eUewhere in that district of 
Italy. The Picentiue town was in imperial times 
called Hadria, and earlier coina belonging to it 
are inscribed IIAT., while in inscriptions from thu 
town on the Po the fir^t letter is represented by A, 
nut by JI, and Momnisen, for that ruuion, boa 
latterly preferred the form Ati'in. 

3. AB Adriaa waa early u!ieil in the aenae, to 
which Adriatic has again lioon conlinod, of tho 
branch of the sea t>etwecn Italy and lllyria, it w-as 
not unnatural so to vnderatand it in Ac 27, esp. 
OS an island olT its lUyrian shore, iliJita [now 
Melcda), might have been the scene of the ship- 
wTct'k. Uryiint {Diss, on the wind Kuroctydun), 
Macknight, and others adopted this view, whii:h 
Home, on their authority, have accepted, althuucli 
Gcalicer hnd pronounced it ridiculoua and hardly 
wortE refuting. Its chief champion ia W, Falooner« 




vhose DiiUKrtatuin on St. PauVs Vot/itfje, pulilUlieU 
in 1817, was reissued in 1870 by the w-ritcr'H nephew, 
Judf;e Falconer, witU copioun ailditionaJ notes 
caiitrovertine {though with little real euccess) the 
arguments oT Mr. Smith of Jorttanhill, in support 
of the tradition which regards Malta av the scone 
of Nhipwreck. and tftkes Adriafl in tbo wider sense 
of the waters between Cret« and Sicily ( Voyngf. 
and SKipwruk of St. Paul, 1848). The htatorv of 
the strangely varyini; usage is well indimtetl by 
Partsch in Pauly-WiM, s.v., and by MUllor in 
hLi ed. of Str&bo, pp. 328, 335, 338. At fintt the 
iiiiuie strictly belonged to the inner portion 
adjoining the mouths of Uie Po and the coast of 
the Veneti, while the lower or south fKirtioa waa 
known i\» the Ionian Sea. But tli«^se names soon 
lKM:ame interchan;;(--ahle, or, if a distinetion was 
dra^vti. it wa« that of two ba*tinft — thy inner aa far 
as Mount GarKaniis Wing more strictly 'tlie 
Adrias,' the outer tlie Ionian Sea. Stmbo expressly 
recoffnises this distinetion, Imt indicates that 
Adna« had now l>ecorae the name for the whole (ii. 
123, vji. 137). Itut while Adrin.s comca thus to 
iiuduile the Ionian Sea, the Inttcr term in its turn 
obtained an extension to the »en lyiii^ l)etwt;i<ii the 
weet cootits of Greece and Sicily, whicli ia callwl by 
Stmbo the Sicilian, and was alw termed tlie 
Auflonian Sea (ii- r25), and the name Adriaa now 
received a corresponding, but even p"eater, exten- 
uon. A very clear light is thrown on the range or 
connotation of ' the Adrias,' oa used in Aot«, by 
the stnUMut:nts of Ftoleniv, who tlomriithed (not 
•immediately,' aj» Sniitli lias said [p. 127), but) 
sixty or RevtTnty yeara afUT St. Luke (he was alive 
100 A.D.), and who jiresent-!* nn nwige wliich must 
!« presume*! to have liei-ji nut only c\ist*^nt, hut 
current and j,'enerally accepltfl for aome eonsiiier. 
able time, in order to find a place in such a work. 
Ptolemy places the Adriatic to the east of Sicily 
(lit. 4), to the RouUi of Achaia (tii. 14), to tliu we-sl 
und Boutli of the Peloixiniiesus (iii. IQ), nnd to tlie 
^SL'st of Crete (iii. 15), thus giving to it precisely 
the extent which Strabo assigns to the Sicilian 
Sea. We meet the same wider range in earlier as 
well as later WTiters. The only nrpiment of 
weight wlduceJ by Judge Falconer in op|«fiition to 
the case thus ostablisherl, is that clitCM'liere {iv. 3) 
lUolemv places* MeltlA (Malta) in the African Sea, 
wliicli bonnds Sicily on the south. Hut it is too 
mnrh to construe this aa llioii<'li Pt«letny 'dis- 
tinctly nnd nnc^uivorally r^rhntrd \\m inliLiid from 
alt SCR-'* but thnt of Africa.' The alleged ' »?xcluHion ' 
iaaincrc inference by Falconer from the ' inclusion'; 
not at all ncce.-*Miry where Melila, l^'ing between 
the twfi M'jis called Afrtean and Sifiliuu, nughl 
easily be a>^o<:iftttd with cither. At any rate, the 
main qnestinn conti^ms not the mere gcugrnphical 
aanignation of Melita as such, but the meaning t*> 
be attached to 'the AdrinA' aa the sea whldi the 
vessel traversed on il« voyage. And hore most 
commentators agree in holding that, in accordance 
with the current usage of the time when St. Luke 
wrote, the word is applied to the whole expanse of 
waters between Crete and Sicily. 

WiLiJAM P. Dickson. 

ADRTEL {S(cT)i*).— Son of IJarriUai, a native of 
Abel-meholah in tlie Jordan Valley, aliout 10 miles 
S. of Uethshcan. He miuTted Alcnii», tiie eldest 
daughter of Saul, who should have been given to 
David an the slayer of Goliath (1 S IS"). Michal 
(S S 21*) is mistake for Murab. 

J. F. Stknninq. 

ADUBL ('A3ot)i\, Hcb. ^m-ik, S^t. S-miK}, one of 
the ancestors of Tobit, To 1'. A variant fonu of 
■^ei^, 1 Ch l". J. T. Marshall. 

JU)ULLAI( (dV?!^). now 7rf-V/-m«' 'Feast of 
vater,' or 'Jd^'et^tt/eh * Feast of the hundred' 

Adullftmite ('5^? 'native of Adnllani) m anplie 
to HiraJi, the friend of Judali (Gn 3S'). At tli 

(see Clcrmont-Gonncnu and Conder in PEF Mem. 
iii. 301-67; Conder, Trnt Wark, p. 27fi f. j Smith, 
O'eoijr. n. '2'2&), in the valley of Klab, is fretjuently 
referreJ to in the OT. * It was a city of the 
Cnnnanites (Gn 38'), in the district allotted to 
the tribe of Judali after the connncst (Jos 12"). 
It was fortiiied by Kchoboam {2 Ch IT), and is 
mentioned later on by Mlcah (1"). After tlie 
Captivity it was re-[M*opled by the Jews (Nch 
1 1^), and continued to T>b a place of importance 
under the Mnccal>eeii (2 Mac 12*'). 

The Cave of Adiillam, famous tlirou";!! its osHOcia- 
tioQ with the early history of David, has usually 
tiecn isupposud to have hml no connexion with the 
city of that name, and has been located by tradi- 
tion, an well a.-* by inuny travellers, in the Wady 
Kharuilun, abinitsix miles sou Ui-eost of Bethlehem. 
The moct recent autliorilies, however, are strongly 
of opinion that an entindy suitable site for it 
can be found in the vicinity of the city, and Ihnt 
tlierc is no reason for scpnrnting the two. Half- 
way between Shocboh and Keilnh, and 10 miles 
north-weftt of Hobron, some caves have been found, 
the iioaition of which suits all wc arc told about 
DiLVid'H )itrongbold, and wliiult are at once ceiilial 
and di^fenwible. It may l«e re;iarded as practicAlly 
settled that the Cave of Adullain wa» nut for from 
wh'-re I)avid had his encounter with Guliatb. 

lime of the conqttest Adnllam was a royal city, 
and if it was ho m iliroli's tiiue, he was probably 
king. W. MuiK. 

ADULTERY.— See Cbimes, ojxd MARitrAGr. 

ADUMHIM, The Ascknt of C0T7? "^'7), Jos 
IF 18'', forming part of the eastern boundary 
l»etween Judali and IJenjamin, is the «tcep pass in 
which the niad Oincends from ileric-ho to •lurusalL-ni. 
It*! name, 7'til' at ed-Dumm, iit t^iiU the xame — 'tite 
ascent of blood' or 'red,' nnd is probably duo 
to the red marl which is so distinctive a feature of 
the iiass. In this pass, notorious for robberies and 
murders, is the traditional 'inn' of Lk li>", nnd 
near by the Chattel Rouge or Citerno Itougc, built 
by the crusaders for protection of pilgrims from 
Jeniisalem to the Jordan. A. liE.NDKlssoN. 

ADVAMTAOE. — This is one of our numerous niiR- 
Bpelt Kng. words, Itcompsfrtnnawin/, 'In-fore,' with 
tile surtix affe. Hence it has no connexion with 
Ijit. prep, ad (though the misspelling is found aa 
early as 1523), and the meaning 16 nut simple profit, 
but Hupprichrity. In this seiisc it is found in 
I?o 3' 'What a. then hath the Jew?' nnd 2 Co 
2". to which IIV mida 2 Co V 12''- »». In .Joli 
35', Jude V.'* 'a.' should be 'profit.' And ho tUo 
verb ' to advantage,' now obeoiete, wliich is found 
in Lk 1)^, 1 Co IS** ' what advantagetli it me!' 
ia rightly turned into ' proht ' in ItV, 


ADVENT.— See Farolsia. 

ADYENTURE.nowolw. asaverK iflfound Dt2S" 
' The tend(?r nnii delicAto woman among yon which 
would not a. (Intrans.^ venture) to set tlie sole of 
her foot upon the ground for delicatone^ns and 
Lcndemcss': Jg 9" 'For my father fought for 
you, and a-* (transit. = risked) his life*; Ac llH' 
'desiring him that he would not a. himself (JoOfoi 
lavTi>¥, 'give himself) into the theatre.' Cf. 
Shaka. Two 0. of Vcr. III. i. 120^ 

' LwiMJ*? would sdreotun It* ; 

and for the Intrans. nao Rom. and Jul. V. Hi. 1 1— 

' I am altnoat ^mi<l to atmnd slonp 
Here ill cliocliiirohyuU; jrctl wlU wlTcatuce.' 




• At All JiiW<.'iitnr« ' rtceurn \Vii **'■' ' we are born 
nt all ft.' (aiTooT^fJiwt, KV ' by nitre clminre') ftiid 
*Rt all nil ventures,' Lv 20" m {~)p, in tho usual 
pbriiAe ci* -13 ifiQ). Cf. T. WUson 11^^53) : 'which 
Mliowte (bboot) ... at all avcututes liittlo miMio/ 

J. Hastisgs. 

ADVERSARY. — Bc^idoa the ireneml »en»e of 
opponent, a. ocxmrH with the npci^inl nurnning of Bn 
opponent ut law (d^TiJiKoi), Lk li** '\Vht>n thou 
uoesl with thino wivursAiy to the ma;iif Irnto ' ; 
SUS^Lk 18^, Id llie foil, pftwiages it is used as 
the tr. of Hoh. [pp SdtSn, Nu tK'-, 1 S '2tf*, 2 y lU^', 
I K a* ll»*-=^=». Cf. 1 V G" 'yoor a. (Gr. ii^i5.«i) 
* Um devii.* S*m Satan. J. Uastixgs. 

ADVERTISE, ' to f,nve notice.' ' infonii,* Nu 24" 
'I will n. thpi! what this penptn sIiaJI do tu thy 
I»eo]>tti in the hitler days ' ; und Ru 4* ' I Ihoiipht 
to a. thee' (KV 'disclose it unto thee'). In the 
lost pUAsaj^e the Ilvh. is * lUK-over the »!nr ' ([]« iji). 
See Eah. Advertisement, in thu nenac of precept, 
admonition, oi'ciir» in the heading of Sir 20. 

.r. Hastings. 

ndvice' in mod. Kn^. in to eoniiult with aiiothnr 
and TttcoiTQ I1L8 opinion. But tn Jg It^" n-"'' 
S CU 25" 'to take a.' means to eonsult with 
oneself and pive an opinion; Jg 19* 'consider of 
it, take a. (KV 'take counsel') and speak.' So 
Slutka. 2 Henry Vl. II. ii. 67— 

* Antl ttiftt's not sudiknl;' to be pcrform'd : 
Hut with adrloe, and nkat Kcrvcy.' 

Advise in the BnnBo, not of giWng advice to 
another, hat of deliberiLLing with oncH^f, \b fount! 
twice. 2 S 24" 'now a. (KV 'adviae tlieo") and 
ficc what answer I shall return to him that sent 
me,' and I Ch 21'= (KV 'consider'). 'Well 
adviftc4' in Pr 13'*, ' but with the well advised is 
wi&loni,' means not those who have accmitf-d good 
advice, but lliose who are cautious or ueliWrate. 
Cf- Baeun, Etuuiys, *I«t him be . . . adviHed in 
his answent.' Advisement, now obs., occun* 
1 Ch 12*" 'the lords of the Philistines, upon a. 
(i.«. after deliberation) sent him away' ; 2 mac U^ 
•When they hod taken long a. thereupon' (KV 
' when these proposals liod been loni- con»ii)<^red ']. 

J. Hastings. 
ADVOCATE <ra/)d«\^T«}. only 1 Jn 2<. See 
SriuiT, Hni,v. 

AEDIA8 (B 'K-^lM, A -W-», I Eb 0". — One of 
those who agreed to put away their 'Btran;^e' 
wives. The conuspontiinj; name in Ezr 10™ is 
Elijah (n.'^M, "HWo). The lorm in 1 E«> is a cormp- 
lioD of tiie Cr. (UAU^ read as dkHAl\), and baa no 
Uob. equivalent. U. St. J. Tiiaokehav. 

jENEAB (AiWai) is the name of a juiralytie at 
Lydda who was cured by Peter {Ac U"-**). Wo 
ftnd the name tised of a Jew in Joa. Ant. xtv. 
X. 22. A. C. 

JENON (Mpi^f, 'aprinrcs') is mentioned only in 
Jn 3^-' uti near to Salt-m (which see). As the 
name *»prini;t)' is cotnuiun, its locality must Ite 
fixtnl by that of Snlem. KiumbiuH and Jeninie 

Silaoo .fenon 8 milo* wiutli of St^ythoiKtli*, now 
iiiaan ; and the name SAlini in Mittl to attach to a 
mound some tf or 7 mites south of lieisan. wiiile 
thrce-qanrters of a mile wutli of it are seven springs. 
' lti%'nlctA oliio wind about in all directions. . . . 
I have found few plaors in Pnlcftttne of which one 
waiW Ml truly »ay, " Hero ia much wtitcr'" (Van de 
Velde. ii. p. 34.'>. etc.). The rliief dilIic;uUy in the 
acceptance of this identification is th« naming of 
Salem (Jn 3^) as a well-known to^vn, Bagcestin;; 
tM well-known Salim, east of Shechem, Conder 

has pointed out 'Ainftn, bearing the name, situated 
in tne Wftdy Fftr'ah. * Here wua once a large 
villaije, now uomjdetely overthrown. A great 
Dumber of rork-cut cist.eni8 are obwjrved on the 
aittj' {b'urvty McHioirs, ii p. 234). A little to the 
tKiutli of 'AintUi ia a succestiioa of springs with tiat 
meadows on either aide, where great crowds might 

gather by the bonk of thu eupiuus perennial titre:am 
nhaded by oleanders. Here were ' miiiiy waterB' 
{.In ;(■' KVmt. !t is aecewible bj- roads from 

all quartcri<, and is situated b}' one of the main 
roaxls from Jeru.<v. to Galilee, the road pasi^ing 
Jacobs Well (Jn 4") which onr Lord may have 
takou to meet the Baptist in view of tiireatoneti 
misunderstandings ana jealousies of this disciples. 
Kor a full dewription, fiee ("onder's Tvjit IK»ri. ii, 
pp. .^7, r»8. *riie distance is about 7 mileM fnun 
Snlim. which has Iweu uiade an objection to this 
identiiicHtiini ; but there i» no nearer town of 
imix>rtaiice by which to deaoribe it6 situation. 

A. Uendkkson. 
iESORA (Aiffupd). Jtb 4« (AV Esora). — A 
SoinaritaQ town noticed with Bcthhoron, Juricho, 
and Salem {Sdltm]. Possibly 'A»ueh, N.E. of 
.Sheclium {.SU'F vol. ii. sli. xi.). C K. CoKDEB. 

AFFECT, APFECTION.-In ita literal sense of 
' to net upon,' ailect t»ceunt imeo. La 3°' ' mino eye 
afl'ecteth mine heart.' In Sir 13" the meaning is 
to a.>ipire, ' Atlect not to be made equal unto 
him in talk.' Uesides these, obaorve Ual V- "*, 
wlit^ru the meaning is to have atlcctioii for, be 
fond of. Gal 4" 'Tliuy wialously a, you, but 
not well jGr. fjj\(Kii-if i/ftit ov na\wt, Rv' 'They 
zealously seek yon in no good way'); yea, they 
would exclude you, that ye might a. them' (liV 
'seek them"). Cf. Kingham, Xenoph. 'Alwaies 
soure and cniell. so that Souldicrs ottcctcd bim as 
children doe tlieir Schoole master.' He-tides these, 
a. occurs only Ac 14^ ' made them evil ii"! * {KaKiia) ; 
2 Mao4« 'not well a"" (dXXirptoi), KV 'ill a*"."); 
13* 'well a*"' ((il^in-if*). AfTectlon in old Eng. 
i-f any bent or dispoitition of the mind, goo<i 
or hati, OS Col 3' 'set your a. (Gr. Af»a«tT«, RV 
*sct your mind't on things above' Ilonce, totr. 
rdOoi and the like, aome adj. is added, aa Col 3' 
' inordinate a.' [tir. viffm, lEV ' jMiM^ion ') ; Ko 
1" ' without natural a.' {tir. Acropyot). Hut in the 
pla. alffctionB means pawsions, a« (lal &" ' the flesh 
with the a. (Or. iriDijfta, KV • passions') and luats* ; 
Ito l** 'God goye them up unto rile a.' (Gr. irdfli? 
ari^ci, KV 'vile jioRsions'). Cf. the dillerfnee 
between 'passion' and 'passions.' RV gives 'atlec- 
tiona' in a good [i.e. the mod.) sense at 2 CoO" 
(AV ' bowoh),' which see). Affeotloned is found in 
the neutral sen.'MJ of ' ditiposcd ' in Ko 12'" "kindly 
a. {Gr. ^tXiirTopyoi. KV 'tenderly a.') one to anothpr.' 
Cf. Fuller.^/«//if^.(/. 'He (Luth'cr) was very lovingly 
allectioned towards his rttildreu.' J. HASTINOa. 

AFFINITY.— In I K 3> 'Solomon nuule a. with 
Pharaoh* ; 2 Ch 18' ' Jehosliftplmt . . . joined n. 
with Ahab'; ami Ezr t>" 'Should we . . . join in 

a. with the |>eople of tliese attoniiitutions?' a. Lias 
the H[H>rinJ sense of relatiouMliip by marringt>, being 
distinguished from eonsanguinity or relationslup 
by Hootl. Cf. Selden, /,/ikw of E%tg. (16-lf<|, ' Many 
that by a. an<l consanguinity were become Englisli- 
mcn.' .See M^RitrAGE. J. UaSTISGS. 

AFFLICTION is now used only passively ; the 
state of being afflicted, misery. So Ex ^ ''l have 
surely seen the a. of my people,' and nliiewhcn!. 
But it is aUo in the Bible us«d actively, a« 1 K 
22" ' feed him with bread ot a. and witli water of 
a., until I come in peace' {i.e. bread antl water that 
will afflict him). Cf. More, 'Let him . . . purge 
the spirit by the a. of the Ueah.* J. Hastings. 





AFOHE and it« compounds.— AfoF«= before, is 
used aa prep. Is 18' 'aiore ihe harvest': vm adj. 
2 Es 5" ' the night a.' ; and a-i adv. Ito I* ' whicli 
be bod piomiBcd afore.' Aforehand ta aiiv. =; 
beforehand, in antid]KLtion, occurs Mk 14'* 'Sho is 
come H. to anoint my budy ' ; and Jth 7'. Afore- 

ftromlBCd ia now found 2 Co 9* KV 'yuur a. 
Kninty ' {wfionr^YftXtJfoi). Aforesaid oociirR only 
2 Mac 4» 14». Aforetime = formurly. aa Dn C" 
'(UanicI) prayed ... a" ho did a.' Aforatimc is 
happily introduced by KV at iJt B'"-'*-* Jos 4'», 
1 Ch 4* Jn 9« Ro 3* Kph 2'-", Col 3'. Tit 3», 
Fbilem v.", 1 P 3', for various AV exftresaiona, 
^anftrally aa tr. of o';;7 or riirt. Tho a in tliefuj 
words in a worn-dowu form of the old Eng. prep. 
an or on, Sec A. J. UASTLNas. 

AFTEB, AFTERWARD ('Aft«r, orfdaally a 
comi>ar. of of, Lat. ab, Gr. ir6, Skr. <ipa, with 
comptir. fluUix -ter, liko -thor iu "eitlier," eto.-= 
fanla«r oHV — MuRKAV) is found in AV and 
RV in al] the uiodt-rn astages aa adv., crep., and 
r<inj., both of pLice and of tini«. The only 
uxjiinples demnndin^ attention are: 1. some [>aK- 
8(i"es where afl«r nmnnn 'arcordinj; to/ 9A in tin 
I* 'And God wiid. Let us make man in our image, 
after onr likeneiw' ; csp. the follutving (whore Gr. 
is Hard), Ito 2* 'after thy hardness and impeni- 
tent heart'; 1 Co 7* 'after my jndj,'m(!nt' ; 2 Co 
11'^ 'That which I »peak, 1 spt^ak it not aft«r tho 
Lord ' ; I'^th 4" ' The new man, which after God is 
crcatLsi in ri^htooamiusH' : 2 I' 3' 'Scoffers, 
walking after tlioir own hista'j Gal 4" 'be who 
■ntui of the bondwoman was bom after the flesh' ; 
Tit 1* *tlic acknowledging of the truth which 
is after (RV 'accor^inj^ to'} gudUuuaa'; and 
He 4" (where Gr. is ^i-} *Iest any man fall after 
(KVin 'into') the wuue exanip!i> of unl>elief.' 
2. Where after means ■ in proportion to ' ; I's 28* 
'give them after the M-ork ot tlieir hands'; Ps 
9^ (Pr. Bk.) 'Comfort u» agrun now after the 
time that Thou hast plagacd us.' So Pa 51' (I'r. 
Uk.). Cf. Litany, * Deal not with us after our sins,' 
and Wynlifa tr. of Mt 16" ' Ife Bflial yelde to 
every man after his works.' 3. Whuri* aft«r iu 
used for aftcrwardx, as 1 K 17" ' Make me thereof 
a little cake tirHt, and bring it unto ine, and after 
(RV 'afterward') make for tlice and for thy son.' 
So lie il». 2P2*. 

Afterward is the older fonu ; when the AV was 
mode, 'afterwords' was coming into nae. Skent 
says he has not been able to find it moch earlier 
than Shakespeare's time (but Orf. THct. gives one 
l3i*>.Hiidoiio i:n5). AV(Camh.ed.)hiw afterward 
GO times, afterwards 13 times. J. IIASTINCS. 

AGABUS ('A7aj9oi, of uncertain derivation ; 
prolsibly from either 3;ij ' a locnst,' Ezr 2*", or 
3)V ' to love'), a (-hristian propliet living at .leru- 
salem, Ac ll''-** SP"-". Tliough the prophets 
were not essentially predicters of the future, t!ie 
case of Agabns shews that their functions some- 
times included tbe actual prediction of coming 
events. At Antioch, a.d. 44, A. foretold a famine 
' over all the w*0Fld ' in tlie days of Claudius. Only 
local faniinoB are kno^^-n in this reign, though some 
were so severe as nHce*wirily to affect indirectly 
the entire i^niiiirB (Suet. Climd. xviii. ; Tar- Ann. 
xiL 43; Euseb. Chron. Ami., cd. ScliAne, ii. 252 
et ai.). Rotli Huetontiui and Eusehlns date a 
famine in tlie fourth year of CJandiiw, A.U. 45; 
and since Jadiea as well as Gr(>ece Bulfercd, it is 
prolmbly this to which Agahu!* rt^ferrcd. JoMphus 
Kpi;ak»i of its severity, and of means tnknn ftir iU 
relief {Ant. m. xv. ',i, XX. ii. ami v. 2j. The oilier 
prophecy of AyiiUus (a.d. TiO) fnlhjwed the OT 

method of symbolism, and has a c1oa« jutrallel in 
Jn 21", He foretold to St. Paul Iiih imprisonment 
in Jerusalem, but did not therebv divert him from 
the journey. Nothing more is Known concerning 
Aga]tu>i, tliuu}^h tliere are tmditions that he waa 
one of tlie ttuvunly dindiilen of CUrist, uiul that hu 
suffered martjTdom at Antioch. 

K. W. Mors. 
AOAG (Jjtt, Nn 24' :«! 'violent (•) ' Aw^vr. offAffu, 
'dinpleasuro'}. — A king of tho Amalettitos, con- 
quered by Saul and, contraryto tho divine command, 
wvvcd alive, but put to death by Samuel (1 S 15). 
From the way in which tbe name ls used by Balaam 
iNu 24^), it seems not to have been the name of any 
one individual prince, but, like Pharaoh aiitong 
tliR Egj"ptian», and (powihly) Abtmelivli amoni: llie 
PhiliHiiiieH, a diini^naiiim or title l>urue by all the 
kings, — perhaps by ibo king of that nation wliich 
stood at the head of the confederacy. Kneucker 
and Dtbcn>, without any rcaitonablo ground, insist 
upon taking it as a neraonol name, and make its 
use by tbe writer of Na 24> a rominiseenn! of tbe 
Ntory'from Saul's tiDLC. J. MACrHEItsON. 

AGAGITE (•))!)).— A term of n-nroach used to 
doaig)iato Haman, tho enemy of the Jews at tlie 
Persian court of Aliosuenis (Est a'-'" S*-" 9«). In 
Jofiepbus' version of the story M «'- XI. vi. 5), Haman 
is described as ' by birth on Anmlokitc' In Est 3' 
iui>tead of Agagi'te the LXX reads Bovyaxov, and 
in 0^ & tiaictd^, while in tho other poa^agrji 
j^imply the name Hainan occurs. Thus in tlie 
LXX the word Agagite doeJi not occur. Some 
have ar^ed (c.f/. Sertheati in Oimm.) that the 
tlosignation was used to indicate to a Hebrew wliat 
'Mi^edonian' would to a Greek, anri that it meant 
Amalekite in the eenso of a contemptible, hateful 
person, but not as Implying that Haman had any 
genealogical coonexion with Amalek. Tho pro- 
motion cif a foreigner to such a poMtiou in the 
empire at Haman occupied, even under the re;j;ime 
of the most despotic monarchs, mnst Have been 
quite an excej)tional occurrence. Apart fmm an^ 
other indication of Uamau's foreign extraction, it 
\H scareelv safe to base an assumption of itiich a 
kind on the possible meaning of a mere appellative. 
Others (e.y. v. Orelli in Herzog) thijik that the 
connexion of this adjective mtb the jiroper name 
Agag is extremely doubtful. 

J. Macpher-son. 

AGAIN. — ^The nrojier meaning of again, 'a 
second time,* is well seen in Rev 19* 'And n. (Gr. 
3ci>rra4»', KV 'a second time') they said. Alleluia'; 
Jn 0»* 'Then a, called they (RV 'so they culled a 
second time, tir. iK 2<it//]oi>) the man that was blind '; 
Ac II' 'But the voice answered me a. (Gr. ^k 
irtripov, RV 'a second time') from heaven' ; Ph 4" 
'ye sent once and again '(Gr. 8Ji, ttrirc, as in Lk 18" 
' 1 fast ticiee In the week '). Bnt the oldest 
meaning of a. is 'in the omKuito direction' (now 
generally expnesaeti by 'bacK.'), and of this there 
are some interesting examples in llie Itible : Jg 3" 
'Ho hmi&elf turned a. (KV 'back 'J froru the 
quarries'; Lk 10" *whon I come a. (RV ' l>ack 
again*) I will repay thee'; Pr2^™ 'None that go 
unto her return a. : 2 S 22* '(I) turne<l not a. 
until I houl consumed thoni'; Lk 0^ 'lend, 
hoping for nothing a.' (RV 'never de&pairing') ; 
Gn 24' 'Must I ueiMls bring tliv son a. unto tho 
hind from whunce thou earnest? ; Mt 11* 'go ami 
nliow John a. (^go back and t*how John) those 
things which ye do bear' ; Ro fl*' AVni ' who art 
then that answerest again?' Cf. P» It)* (Pr. Bk.) 
' It {the sun) goetb forth from the uttermost i>«rt 
of tlie heaven, and runneth almost unto the end of 
it 11.' ; and 

•Turn neain. WWUinjton, thrioB Lord Mavor ot London !' 

J. Hastings. 




AGAINST. —1. In its primitive mcoDing of 
'opposite to' against ia rarely fotmd alone, usual!}' 
'over a.,' as Ut 1' 'in the plain ov«r a. t]io Ked 
Saa'; but wo lind Gn 15"* 'nnd ]aid each piece 
one ft. Hiiotlier' (I^V" *ea<:h ImU over a. the otlier'); 
1 Ch 25' • Thfsy rasl lots, ward a. ward"; Ezk 3' 
* I have ma*le ihy face strong a. tlieir faces' ; osp. 
Nu23* 'Take all the bends (KV ' chiefs') of the 
Iieople, and hnof; them up before the X>ord a. the 
sun' (UV 'unto tbu Lun) ticforo the buu ') ; 
and 1 H 25** ' Dai'id and his moo come down 
a. her' {i.e. oppUHito her, ho ax to niixit her). 
8. From the muming 'op^xito to' of place, easily 
arisea 'opposite to' of time, of which wo have nn 
example in Ko 2" ' treasurest up unto thynclf 
vrrnth a. (Gr. V», ItV 'in') the day of wrath'; 
1 Mac 5". Cf. Si<enser, Frothalamion — 

'Agniml the UrTdkU dji^r. which U not loti([.' 

3> Tn thi« sense a. ifi foand aji a conjunction 
in tlrree places. Gn 43* 'thcv made ready the 
present a. Joneph came at noon^ ; Kx 7", 2 K 18". 

J. Hastings. 

AGAR. —The sons of Agar are mentioned (Bar 3=*) 
along irith the merchants of Midian and Teman, 
as ij^orant of the war that leads to the secret 
haunt of WL-Mlom. They are called HagarcDea 
(which wc), I's 83«; and HaCTitcs, 1 Ch e"^" 27". 
Their country lay east of Gilcad. 

J. T. Maiwhall. 

AGATE. See ililiNCRAi^ and Precious Stove& 

AGE, AGED, OLD AGE.— Kc^pcct towards the 
aged as such, apart from any special claim« of kin- 
fthip, wealth, or public olUce, linA alwavH iM^n a 
characteristic feature in Oriental life, tn mtidern 
Syria and Egypt it has a foremost place among 
social duties, taking mnk with the regard paid to 
tlie neighbour and the gueat. Any fauure to ahow 
this respect on the part of the voung ix Hevcrely 
frun'ned down as unmi^emly anu unnatural. In 
Itimei the gmcrnl cu-stom was atienictlicned by 
the command in the law of Mo«cs, 'Thou Khalt 
rise up before the hoary head* (Lv 10*^). This 
beautiful bond between youth and age may be 
described as a threefold cord of wisdom, authority. 
and aflection. 

1- Wittdom. — Where there ia a scarcity of WTitten 
record, personal cxpcrioncc becomes the one book 
of viadom. As it m pnt by the Arab, proverb, ' He 
that ia older Chan yuu by a day is wiser than you 
\rf a year.' There is a similar emphasis on the 
value of ex[>erien<.-e when thev say, ' Consult the 
patient, not the physician.* llence the difUdence 
and rei>pe<:tfnl waitmg of the Touth Elihu, ' Days 
•hould t>[xrak, nnd multitude of years sliuuld teach 
wisdom ' |Job ^2?). Similarly the taunt of Elipbaz, 
' Art thou the finit man thatu'a.i bom? ' {Job 15^), 
and hi» claim, ' With \Ki ore th<; grey-headed and 
very agod men' (Job 15*"). Thus altw Moses, 
though p o w ren w ed of the learning of the Ejryptiami, 
reoeives helpful ad%-ice from Jetliro; and later on, 
the tragedy of the divided kint;dom in the days of 
Rehoboau turns upon the dilference of opmioD 
between the old and yotmg adviierB oi the 

2. Authority. — It vrns natural that the voice 
of experience and wisdom should also be the voice 
of authority. It was the tide-mark of Job's pros- 
pi>ritY that the ftged rose up before him. From 
the dignity conferred on the father as lord of the 
house and head of the family, the title soon 
paaeed into one of public ofhco. The old men 
oecanie the * elders ' of Israel and of tlie Christian 
Cbtueh. SiniilarJT among the Arabs, the family 
of tbe rulin;,' tthc-Lkli (old man) bore the title of 
•beikhs from thfir ^oiith^^ui extension of the 
ten^ meaning that la seen also in Uia oorresp. 

ccclcaiaatioal term. When the Lord sought to set 
forth the high meaning of dUcipleship with rcijard 
to oumity. ttlauder, immorality, and murder. He at 
onco reached a point that H«umeU Iwyund the ideal 
when He alluded to the laM- revered by age and 
authority, and derlarcd that evi>n it must be 
vitaliseii and tronsti^reil (Mt S-'^'^^K 

8. Mutual Affection.— T^^a teaching of the Bible 
on age appeals as much to the hcJtrt as to the 
bead, aiiu many alfectionate intcri:»t«i are made to 
clustiur around the rehitiomthip of old and young. 
In the language of cndcuinicnL, ' tlie beauty of old 
men is the grey head' (l*r 2lt^), and 'The hoary 
head is a crown of glory ' (Pr 16"). The preaeace 
of the aged in a community is regarded as a oicn of 
peace nnd goodwill, ju^t as the rarity of old age 
and of natural death indicates a state of blood-feud 
and party atrifo (Job 22"*). John, wlio in youth 
came to Cluist with a petition of sclli^hufiui, livex 
to Kuy in hisuhl age, ' (irimter joy have I none thiin 
this, to hear of uiy children walking in the truth ' 
(3 Jn v."*). The women of It'ethlehem iu their 
rejoicing over the child of Buaz and Buth, bring 
the expression of their joy to her who would feel ii 
most, and say, ' There la a (ton born to Naomi ' (Ku 
4"). In the same spirit the aucd aiKistk-, in his 
appeal to Philemon on l>bliaH of OnuHlinu:), given a 

f predominance to love over laiv, faying, ' I rather 
■eseech, beingsach an one a« I'anl the agtxl ' (Philem 
v,''). The lost and softest fold of this aflectionale 
relationship is the feebleness of age, and it« claim 
upon the protection of the strong, It was the 
absence of thiit that made Moses ^nd apart and 
unique. Barzillai is too old for new friendships 
and fresh surroundingR. The limit is set at thri*e- 
score and ti^n, and excess of that is increajte of 
Borrow. Jacob's retrosjiect U over days 'few and 
evil.' There are duj*a in which there im no pleasure. 
Along with the recognition of long life as a mark 
of divine favour, thu apostle can say, 'To dit: ia 
gain.' La.<4tly, when h*uirt nnd lte.oh fail, the 
prayer is maifo to the Almighty, ' When I am old, 
lortuikQ me not' (Ps 71'*). 

Along wtJi thin devotion totheoldand reverence 
for the pa^t, the Bible koupti a lari^ si>ace for the 
fact of reaction against routine, andthe superseding 
of the provincial nnd prejwiratory. Elihu occupies it 
when he aava with the intensity of cpiBram, * There 
ia a spirit in man, and the breath of t1ie .'Mmiglity 
giveUi them understanding. It is not the grt-At 
that are wise, nor the aged that understand 

I'udgment' (Job 32'"*)- Cf. ' A new cnmniandrnent 
give unto yon' (Ju 13**), Tlie old existed for 
the younc. not the young for the old. As the 
wisdom of the man of years grew into the teach- 
ing of the historical past, it was discovered that 
the new was really the old, and that the latest 
bom might ha the most mature. The very rever- 
ence fnr t-ho wisdom of the past set the limitation 
to its autliurity. The well-worn garment had to 
Ihj protected avaiuHt the loml preduniiimnce of the 
new patch. The old Wttles were ont;e new. Hence 
along with the exlmrtaliun to seek the ' old paths ' 
wo have the announcement that 'old things are 
passed away.' Furtlier, in the Via Dolorosa of the 
centuries along which the Word of God walked 
with tJio quc!»tionInKs and sorrows of men, as the 
light forced the darkni'ss into (telf-oon^K-iousacss, 
and the klngilom uf God L-aiim nearer, it i-ould not 
but liupjien that the niiguut form would fometimen 
appear to blw^k the way, and tliiipute the passage 
of the truth fur which it existed. The appeal to 
the Burning Burdi is always for some newer name 
than the God of the fathers. Ucnce in the course 
of revelation, as the purpose of divine grace grows 
laminomi, the inDnite spirit chafes agsinst the 
liniite^l form, and a tii^ttJiAte i» inovokcd towantfl 
regimental wisdom and macadamized morality. 


•f iW hnok makes men think of 
H«M» in Israt^l the ukt^tiiL of 
i| of the omnipre.'K'nt {]a«t : 
the insoripcioii uf rvligiuMri 
■tV tiM nnknow-n god,' and tlio unrest 
<*** w^wi |<^Uoaophy to 'some new thing' (Ac 

n* KU» wittteesee tbrougfaoat to this vital 
wMm«iIu|i hetween the new iin<l the old ; for its 
Ih^ ecane b a re^titiou of Ihu lirat — th<a n«w 
cveatare etejtping into the new heAvons and new 
MUtK axtd m the elenial sen-ice Iwhitid the veil 
new notes ani heard in the song of Mo<kh and tho 
Ijimb. As long as tho power of vision rcmaina 
hmitcd, it is essential to the sublime that some- 
thinz of hlue hazo and Iwumlli^AAncKA should lie 
on iLe horizon hoth of life and landM-H|H.-. 

G. M. Mackik. 

jIGEE (K:it]._Tho father of Shainuiub, ou« of 
' the Tlivee' ("2 S 23"). We should prob. read 'tfie 
Ilararite' here in conformity with v." and 1 Ch 
11**, the Jonathan of v." [aa ciucrnded) being tliu 
grandson of Agee. "VVellliauscn, however, prefirrM 
tho rending 'Simge" (I Ch U") to 'Shamniali' uf 
2 S 23", and would restore 'Khage' here for 
'Ag«u'j on this view, Jonatban (v.**) would Im* llie 
broUier of hliammali. J. F. Stenninx. 

iGGABA t A B»*'"* 'AYVojJd, B om, AV Oraba), 
I Es 5»,— In Ezr 2« Hngabah. Neh 7** Hagnba. 
The aonrcc of the AV fomi is doubtful. 

AGGAEUS (A V Aggeu»), 1 E» 6' 7', 2 Es l« for 
Uaggai (whioh hqo). 

AGIA ('A7(d. AV Hagla), 1 Ea a".-In Ezr 2", 


AGONE.— I S 30" 'Three days agone 1 fell Kick.' 
This ii the torlior t'orni of llio past part, of the 
verb o^dn or ngon, ' to piusn hy,'or 'go on,' Only 
the part, is found aft<'r ISfx), and after Caxton's 
day this lonyer form gradually gave place to ago. 
Chaucer [Trvittts, ii, -tio) says— 

■ or thix world ttw bytli tl lOl ft^ao.* 

J. IlA-STIXr.S. 

ACONT.^In the sense of groat tnniblo or 
distress, agony ia used in 2 Mac 3'* 'TIiltd was 
no amall a. tLroujLihout the whole city' ((-f. 3"-"). 
In Canonical Scripture the word ia fonnd only in 
l,k 22*' of our Lord's Agonj' in tbo Garden. And 
tliKro ii se^ni!^ to have been introdnoed by Wyciif 
iltrertly fniui the Vnlg. agonia, just as the Lat. of 
tho Viilg. was a trauRl iteration of the Gr. iytapta 
fon which see Field, Otium A'flry, iii., ad loc.). 
Tindale (1534), Craniner (1S30}, the Geneva (1557), 
tho lUieims (1.1S2), tho AV (1611). and tlio RV 
(1881) all have 'an agony' here; VVyt-lif himself 
Iioa simply 'uguny.' J, Hastimcs. 

AGREE TO.— In the sense of 'as.sont to/ with a 
person as object, a. is found in Ac 0* 'To him 
tliey a.' ^ela0T}fftw aiT^. In Mk U™ it is used in 
the obsolete sonse of 'agree with' or 'coiTe»|Kind 
with,' 'Thou art a Galiliran, and tliy ppeech 
agreeth thereto' [bfteti^ti, TU ; IIV following cdd. 
omits the clause). J. ilASTlKCS. 

AOHICOLTURE.— Agrienltnre, which in its 
wider sense embraces horticulture, forestrj*. and the 
pastoral indu.otry. is here reatrict^id to the art of 
arable fanning — Inchiding not only ploughing, 
hoeing, etc., but reaping and threshing. As the 
savage pha»ie has l»een followed by the pastoral, m> 
tlie jMiatoral baa been followed by the A*', in the 
history of tho progressive people.1. The first 
important advance Dp<m the primitive stage took 

tho form of the domesticAtion of wild anuuals, and 
this, by bringing nian iuto closer and more 
delitierate contact miLU Che soil, cont^iiiied the 
promine of further r'r(>gress. The doitiei«tiailion of 
wild plants natnrnlly sncceeded. and the neolithic 
man is known, not only to have reared cattle, 
goete, and swine, but to have cultivated wheat. 
Barley, and millet, which he ground with mill- 
blones and converted into bruud ur pap. 

While the Aryau» were &tUI vuluaJty in the 
pastoral t(ta{ji>, the A*" art Wiis being actively 
developed in Egypt and j\.tutyriu. lu the Xile 
Valley nature Wuntifully jtaved the way. Tho 
inundations of the Nile ereute nn admirable bod 
for the seed by reducing the irrigated soil to 
a 'smooth black paste, and tlio monnmcnis 
exhibit the people as improving from the carlic.-'l 
tiniKu their gri^ut/ natunil ad vitn I ngf -h. Tho 
early trailitioim of the Hebrews, on the other 
band, were enscntially nomadic. The association 
of Cain with A. (Gn 4) impHea ft disparagement 
of the calling, Abraham is rcprosontod as a, pure 
nonind. And althou;;h, as is indicated in the 
bibtories of isaao iGii *20'^) and dacoU, the be> 
giunings of A. would naturally have a place in tlio 
prinutive period, it ia only alter the conquctt of 
Tan. that the Juwi^ taku rank as on A^ ]>eople ; 
and even then the tni)e» uf the tnms-Jordantc 
plateau, who.>te territory wok unKuitahle for tillage, 
continued to depeud on cat I It- rearing. 

The agrarian legislation of the Pent, in reference 
(o the .settlunieat of Can. doubtlcKn embodies some 
anoieiit. laws and custams regulitting the Ceuuic 
of the soil, although other enactments mu.-4t lie 
regarded as of later origin, or even un the 
unfu)tilled aspirations of the exilic age. To the 
last class prolmbly belong the institution of the 
Bablmtical year (Ivx 23", Lv 26*), tlio produce of 
which, or its ' volunteer ' crop, was rcwrved for the 
poor, t1id stranger, and cattle ; and that of the Tear 
of jubilee (Lv 25^1, in whi<:h the diwpo.'uieisiied heir 
reHUUiiH] puHMeuviuu of his anceHlral acreu. .^niong 
the enactments of a greater antiquity and valiility 
may lie mentioned tLie law agaiuHt the n<mnval of 
landmarks (Dt W*), wliieli wa^i injidc urgent by 
the fact that ttie arable lands, unlike the vine- 
yards, were not divided by hedges (I.s 6*). 

Tlio climate of Piii., ctwing to the renmval of 
forests, must now \te much Ic-ts humid than in early 
times. The summer is niiiili^»s nud warm, the 
winter and early spring are rainy and colder. 
During the dry season the heat, cm). in the low 
country, is excessive, and rapidly hum!! up all 
minor vegetation; while any surface-water, as 
from springs, is evident in tho spots of unwonted 
verdutu which it induces on tho parched landscape. 
tn autumn the ciKtenis are nearly empty, and the 
ground has become very hanl. The liufibaiidnian 
murtt RonMequently wait for the niin^ before he can 
start ploughing. The rainy season begins alwut 
the end of Oct., and is diviffed into three periods — 
early rains (n';iD), which prepare the land for tho 
reception of the seed, hea^T* winter rains (cfi), 
saturating the ground and tilling the cisterns, and 
late raiuH (r^-p^c), falling in spring and giving the 
crops tho necc-warj" moisture. Snow is often seen 
on the higher lands in winter, and bail is not 
infrequent. The coldoBt month i» February, the 
warmest August. 

Tbo soil of fal. varies widely in texture and 
appearance. In the higher regions it is formed 
niOHtlj' from cretaceous limestone or decomposing 
basalt roeks; in the raaritinm plain and the Jordan 
Valley there are more recent furuialiouM. Like 
the sedentary aoils, whera of KutKcient depth, the 
alluvia] depuaitcS are naturally fertile ; and under 
the intcuMve and careful cultivation of ancient 
times the fertility was proverbial (cf. Ex 3*- •', 



Jer ll» Tiw,ilm>, Uiit, lib. v. c 6). The Icssi-ned 
prodoclivtfn*'«a of moitfrn times U due in jmrt to 
Uie dimininhttl raitifnll, but niAinly to]Hjliticai aiitl 
sodoj clian>;r«. The hifrh fanning of ajititjiiity 
took soveral forms. Low wails, built alon;; 
liill-slopes to prevent ' soU-washio^,* gnvo rise t« 
flat termce*. Various methods of irrigation were 
praeti«d (tin 2", Vr 21», la 30" 33*-*'). Cooala 
conveyed tlm water from tlie natural floiircea to tbo 
fields, or niaKT-vifhf'dU iiiit;|il be umkJ. 

Uihcr A** iniiirtiVL'intjnlM were tlic removal of 
atones from the lieb]8, and tbo ntiligntion of the 
lull rofidiie of Atubble and weeds. Ordinary dtiui.', 
mttle in dan{;liiIU by treading in stmw (la 2.V*), 
wan aino in coiniuon use ',2 K 0"). A bare fallow 
u-oiiJil ltd occa-tiMri.illy allowed to raiae the tempo- 
rary fertility of tliu w'jil. 

The number of Crops under ooltiration was 
large. Tho mojit imiHirtant wa« wlieat {19^:1). 
The wpply exceeded tlio requirements of tlic 
country, and it was po-wiblc to ciiport it in con- 
idderahle qunntirie^ (Kak 27"l. Second in im- 
portance was Irfirley f'njp'), wluch wa» extensively 
uHi'.i aa fooil {K« 3'»;. esp. by tho poorer ola«eea. 
Spelt (nw?) was fretinuntiy crown on tbe borders of 
fields Millet t^i). beanii (Va), and lentiU (D'cny) 
were eultivatcd and uwd na food (Exlc -I*. 2 H l?**). 
I'lax (r'^st waa grown (Ex a"^, acii probaLly alHo 
cotton ^on;^. 

Amon^' the wtatvitory rejiulationn relntin-j to the 
en^, the nioit nute»vorIliy art- : — the prohibition 
Agamst sowing a field with mixed seed tLv lU'-*), a 
rmulatton implyinj^ cotisiderablo botanical know- 
Irage : Uiu provixion for dainaf*eB tn cose of 
pastnrin;; u Iwa*!. in a neighbour's field [tjL 22*); 
IwrmiKKion to the wayfarer to pluck from the 
■^tjindinir com enough to witisfy hungvr (Dt 23=) ; 
fpsfir^-atinn (or the Btranger and tlie ]KKir of the 
comers of tho fifld [I-v 19»i, and other proviaion^ 
dictairal by humanity (lit '2-4"). 

The A- uf FkI. ha» n"t ailvanocd or changed in 
Any im|K>rtaut particular since OT timos. In 
eoDscquenre we can, apart from llihlical notiren, 
largely reconntraet the A*^ picture of the ]mu«1 frtmi 
the Si'rian condilions of to-day. An additional 
Murcv of information has of recent years been 
opened up in the Kyyi». lui'm^lynlncs, and et*p. in 
the repreitentation.t uf A*^ n]tenilionn found in the 
Egyp. tonibn ; and in order tho better to bind 
tf^ther this material, we nhall now follow Ute 
proccmt of enltivntioa of one of the common cereal 
eropsfromM'ed-time to harvest, giving some account 
of the implements employed and of the dangiTM 
incident to the growing crop«. The ywir nf the 
agrlcuJturint wan well filled np— from the middle 
of Oct. to tho middle of Apr. with ploughing, 
•owing, harroM-ing, weeding ; from the middle of 
Apr. onward with reaping, carrying, threshing, an<I 
storing the grain. The interval between tlire.'^hiti^ 
u>d sowing was occupied with the vineyard [>rn- 
dace. It appears that the m;ed wan ootnutimeH 
■onTi without any previous cultivation, and iifter- 
wards ploughed in or otherwise covered, viiile at 
other ttmea the seed waa ncnttered on ploughed 
Und, and covered by a rude harrow or t»y oroas- 
ploughing. The former method was common in 
Esypt, where the grain, deposited on moist ground, 
migut be covered by dragging bashes over it, and 
afterwards trolden down by domestic animals (ef. 
Is 32"). Whcro cultivation preceded sowing, 
various implements were used. From the Kgyp. 
monuments it in possible to trace the evolution uf 
tbc Plough — tho 8(arting-in>int being a forke<i 
bnadi tiseil a.i a hoe, which was afterwards 
Improved into a kind of mattock, and finally was 
enluged and modified m> as to bo dra\m by oxen, 
ths plough was drawn by two oxen, and tho 
daoght was sometimes from the shoulders, some- 
VOU U—4 

times from the fureheml, or eveu from the horns. 
In some cases men with hoes may have pulverised 

NDHxx STiMK rioroii. 

(I) EI-KntMkKh. gTMVcd III workiriEbj' the left liknd:<?)«)-«l»r, 
Ui« tundJ« or aUtl ; (3) vl-Lurulc, ihe beam; (4) cl-nfcUll, a 
nippurU MPunHl It* ft wnin- : (•,) «l-«K«ril)r, Uie oonpUne*: 
<0) «l-wuat»li. the poia ; (7) el-alkub, tba plouKtuhan. 

the snrface after the plough, as in KgypU (See 
Wilkinuon's Ancient h'j'fpti<tju, 2\ui fteriea, vol. i. 
wooilcut 42i.i The old lleb. plough was of venr 
simple conHtruetion. consijiting of a wooden grounu- 
work (1 K iU-'i with iron wearing parts (Is 2*. ef. 
1 K 13="}. It hmloneitilt to guide iL(Lk9"), leaving 
the other hand free to um! the ox-goad (i^). 

The plough was drawn by oxen, i.e. the ox-ktnd, 
for the Jews did not mutilate ihcir animals (Am 
6"), or by asses (is ^*), but not by nn ox and ass 
together (Dt 23"). On thin M>i1 a rnattock was 
MHnctimes necessary (I S 13^). Ttic unit of square 
measure was the area plougheil in a day by a yoke 
of oxen (177). 

The season of Soiring was not one of joy (Ps 
120*;. owin^' to thn i;nri!rtainty of the weather (Mto 
fl'*, Pr a)*), and tliu toilMiiueneM of the work in 
a hard and rocky Mitl. A Ntart was mode with tha 
pulse crops, barley followed a foitnight later, and 
wheat after another montli. Usually the sower 
mattered the seed broadcast out of :% hai^ket, bub 
by careful fanners the wheat wa-s phiced in tlio 
fumiwh in rows (U28*). The summer or Bpring 
grain was rnvm between tho end of Jan. and tlie 
end of Feb. In a season of excessive drought the 
late-sown seed mtted under the clods (Jl P^ ; in 
a wet season the early-sown grain grow rank and 
lodged, and the hiinijandnuui waa aeconlingly 
counselled to make sure of a crop by attending to 
both(Eo IP). 

Between sowing and reaping, the crops were 
exiMiseil to severu dangers. Of these tlie chief 
were the easterly winds prevalent in Mar. and 
Apr. (Gn 4P), hailstorms (Hag 2"), the irrup- 
lion of weeils — esp. mustard, tliiHtlcs, tares, 
and tliorus [Jer 12'*). the depredations of erows 
and sjMirrows (Mt 13*\, of fungoid dbieases, esji. 
mildew (\il2ii''^), and of injurious insectM, esp. the 
palmer-worm, the canker-worm, the caterpillar, 
and the locust. These names do not, as has been 
suggested, refer to the different stage* in tho lifo 
history of the locust {Paehytyttu miiratoriHt], but 
the first three are probably apecitic names for 
gronps of pests. The crn|i« w«ro idso in danger 
from the inroads of cattle lEx S-J"), and as harvest 
approacheii, from tiro (Jg 15*). 

The commencement of Harvest natorally varied* 
not only with tho season, but according to 
elevation. ex[>u8ure, etc. On the average it began 
with barley (2 8 2P| — in the neighbourhood of 
Jericho about the middle of A]>r., in the coast 
plains ten days latoi*, and in the high-lying 
districts as much as a month later. Wheat was 
a fortnigiit later in ripening, and the barley and 




wheat tian-eat laAtnd about heven woeks (Dt \fP). 
The hax^'UHt wan tlio occiLtioii uf fe^tivUiL-H wlik-li 
in tliQ latf.T let:islftt»in Wf.To Iirmiylit into irlnso 
ronnexion with tlio ruliy:i(>urt hi^lury vf Ibv |h.h>ii1l'. 
Tho rrons were cut, as in Et;>'|'t, witli tlie Aiclde. 
(See Wilkinson, op, nit. wo(Kk:ut.'* 420 ftnd -tSU.) 

Little value was put u|K»n llie Straw, which w«h 
cat about ft fo4Jt below tins eara»li*J4"). Tiiu 
reaper left the Ki*^!" '(^ IianOfuU iH-hiiid him (.Ifr 
V), anil the hinih'r tie<l it, into Hh^'iives {l«n 37^1, 
whicli, however, vero not ff-t wp a« fhorkn. Th» 
Kj_'yptiftns n-iunlly cut thoptraw quite <iIom) under 
the ears, vhile some crops, such ns dhurah, vere 
'simply plncked tip by the roota. Tlia nteihod of 


nulling tho corn ivas probaMy also ^mctised in 
I'al. wln-n the t-mps were lijjlit (Is l.^i- In O'P 
tliere are flnnarently two kinds of Sickle referred 
to— ^■'^nnd 9fT- The wooden sickle, toothed with 

tlDor, and, nwording to ono sjHttm, cattle — four or 
live haiikct!«L-«i tu;;ether — were driven round and 
rniinil, until n mure or Icas conii>lete delnrhment 
uf llio grain waa fliVeti'd (Hiw !<'">. To facilitate 
the prorewi, tho straw waa repeatedly turned over 
by a fork with two or more prouyti. A well-known 
picture givea a. Tcprc^cuiAtion tif thin t4V»>iem as 
iinciently pmelisea in Eyypt, iielewnrtfiy being 
the fact that the oxe-n are uiiumzzkHl (cf. ])t 25*). 

The KTmii) furUu-r Hhuwn haw tke cxen were 
yoked to^-ettjer that tht-y niiyht walk riiiind moro 
Vppilarly. (S^-e Wilkinwon, op. rit.) Oi tlic thrcsh- 
ing-macnine two kinds were, and still arc^ employed 
in l*alestine. 


One (rfo or puj) consisted of an oblong Ixmnl, 
whose under aiile wa-'^ ruu^'h with nutehci^, nail», and 
sharp stone chips, and which, being wei;;!htod down 

TUB Bsuts»-ruxia. 

flints, supposed by Prof. Flinders Petrie to be an 
imitation of tho jawbone of an ox, waa used in 
Syria as veil as in E(:ypt. 

The rpiipurM were tl'ie owners »ni3 their famiHi's, 
nlon^ with Itired Ifthourers (Mt if^), Uio Inttcr of 
whom probably followed tlie hnn'est from tho 
plains to the mountains. The workers (juenchcil 
their thirst fmni vt-sscls taken to tho harve^l-lield 
( Uu 2"), and ate bread Hteepwl in vinegar (2"), and 

{larrlu'il curn {I.v 23'*), tlie latter iirciiared by 
mint; nm^ttxl and then nibbi^d in the hand. 

The Threshing u-mallv toyk place in the fielilit.. 
a cufitom miLilo pns.-'ililc fiy the rainless weather of 
har\e«t. 'J'hu Threshing-floor (p:t eonaihteJ of a 
round open epucu, pruhably of a {leniiaiti^nt 
character, and preferably on an eminence wliere it 
wiw exjH»>eil In the free aweepof air currents. For 
brinjnnj^ in the wlieares, carta were eni]>loyed in 
old times {jVni2"). ThreHlitng was ponormcd in 
various ways. Small quatitiUea of produce, aUo 
pulse •erojiA and ciiinniin, were Waten out wilh a 
Htick |Ku 2''). In dealing; with lar<;e quantitien 
of gmia, the Bheavea wore spread out over the 

by irtone« and by liie driver, not onlv shelled out 
the com, but lacerated the straw {Is 41", Job41»*). 



The other kind of machine was the thret-hinfj- 
waggon, ri^zz, (Is 28"- "J, now Milduu tieen in i'al. , out 




rtlU oominoD in E},'}'[iC. It ooosUted of a low-built, 
lonr-cornered wac^'on frame, iiuide which wmv 
aUiMhed two or tbrue uttrallet nvolving cylinders 
or roller*. Each of the roUer-t was Arniwl wiUi 
Uiree or four sharpened iron discs. Tht-ru was a 
M>at. fur cJiu driver, aod it was drawn hy oxen 
yoked to a |K)te. 

After the thrrahing came the work of Winnowing 
(Job 21*', Fb SS"). The luiiiuro Ivft by the 

Erevious oi)«ratiou, oonsi^itin^' of corn, chali*. and 
roken btraw, viaa tumud about and shaken witli 
a wcHxlen furk \U 30^), and advantage was taken 
of tlie winds to sei>arate the ;;:rain from the li;;htor 
niiitcrla]. This often Ufecssitatcl tii;;ht. work, as 
the winds u^uulty blow trum Ulo iu uUe oftomoon 
till bvfuru sumiae. 

rOKK. fiX, AMD Toia 

At the later stage uf the winnowing proceas the 
Turk wat Iuas needed l\tau the fan (tji;), a kind of 
fthovel ; or the ^raiu lui^-ht bu scooped up, as 
ftbown in some Efiyp. r«pre«entation», by two 
[■iecea of wood. The chaff, after bcinj; sepArated, 
was burned (^[t 3"), or left to be scattere^l by the 
winds (i'ti \*). from the heavier iinpuritie^ Ibo 
i-om was cleansed by iteves (.t;^)— an operation 
•itecinJly necessary iu vi^w of tiie mode of 
ibreHhin;;, after whteh it noA eulleclcd iuU> lu.rL'u 
heape. To prevent thieving, the owner nii(;nt 
sleep by the threfthtng-lloor (Itu 3'') until the 
removal of the ;:Tain, on wagons or other'uiae, to 
the bum* or ^nranaiiea (Lk 12**). It was often 
ftbored In pita (Jer 41*}, the o|ienin^s of which 
were carefully covered up to protect them from 
robbers and verniio. The straw remaining; 
from tlie thraahing was used for cattle fodder 

LnvK*nnuL— On the ftmenl flu^]cet : Ben>inc«r, HfbrAiteiu 
ilnA'Cob^w; 8Ude, GttoK. d. IoUj In: Md. \. Buoh vii.; 
l,M^urUthtai,Jahrhae\fr',Vavvik..L*hTlHtehder AnhtK)b>gi«-, 
TbouMon. Land atut Ao«t: FgHowl Aria itijior; ZfiUeAii/t 
«l<a D0VUe^*n Faiiutina-VertinM, ltd. Ix., 'Acksrboa uod 
TTiicfziicht'; Imdaed Uttorf. ataUitvaUM «nd otfa«r pubb. ol the 
pkL LxplM . 8oc. Ob b^n). A&riculcur* : WUkUuoo, AfoniuYa 
atid Ouitimw vf tht Anetent Sg^itilianM (End Sorlu). On tbe 
itoacti: 8o)iuro»cher. *I>«r uwAScb* rau^.' In Eld nil. of 
ai)atyr*-taxi\t*i X*H»^hi\fl. OnUisTlircabiiiir-inuhln*: WcUsuln, 
' Dl» tyr. DrcsCliUlel.' Li ButlMi't Z«iuch, /. JUhftoiogic (1873), 

J. \V. PATEltSON. 

AORIPPA.— Sec Hcrod. 

AGUE.— See Medicine. 

AQUB iyvfi LXX paraphrases arbitrarily; 
Vulg. congrt^an^). — Mentioned onlv in I'r 3(>'. 
llle name of un otherwise unknown llcb. ui^u, sou 
of Jakch. The word has been unUer.stood from 
very early times aa a tieeudgnym, ujwd symboli- 
atlly. So Jerome, following the Kabbia of hln 
utne. In tliiii case it mi^'ht be interpreted aa akJu 
to the Syrifto A;«(r(i='bipelinfi* [of wifidom), or 
aecivwl from B«b. mr, and understood oe ' eot- 

iector' [01 |.;ovc:L>^.;. Ct. fuiiii fhp* in Pa »1>, Pr 
6^ The (lesehptton of Agur in Pr SO* i« not 
e!u<y to understand. With the Maseoretie point- 
iii;^, tlie verM) may be literally rendered, 'The 
words of Agur, aon of Jakeli, the prophecy : the 
oracle uf the man to Illiiel, to Ithiel and UcaL' 
This Bouad» uii[>06sib]e. The conjunction of the 
words 7/m-tia (—propheey) and rt^'iim (—oracle) i:> 
uaprecedentt.-d ; tlie Ubc of the articlu with masta 
IB mcxplicable ; and the worda wliiuh follow have- 
no prophetic character. Consequently Maua htu* 
W-ca undemtood a» the name of a country {m 
Del. i and see RVm Jakeh of Mtuata) \ cC uu 
25'*. Similarly, Lemuel would 1>e uudenttood to 
bo kinj,' of Mft««i, Pr 31'. Che^'no [Jub and 
Saloirum) and St.rack (Kurtgcf, A ojnm. ) render 
masixi as 'prorhecy.' Both the wmntry and the 
age of this unknown philowopher are nurely con- 

i'ectnral. Ue may have been one of the 'men of 
lezekiah,' Pr 25*. Uia name is probably to be 
ojwociated, at compiler mther than author, v^Hlh 
the gnomic ulturoucus iu Pr 30=-31' ; 81"*'*^ 
forming a aepoxate section. The chief mono- 
graph on the anbjcct is Miihlau, De Frov. Affuri 
et jCtm, oriQxna (1^9), and a full disciuaiun of^the 
Bubjeet is to be found in Delitxsch's Coma. 
in low. W. T. Davison. 

AH, AHA. — i. ' Ah * is used to express grief (esp. 
in face of coming doom), except m P& 3o* *Ali 
(RV *Aha'), so would we have it,' where it 
expresMA tlte exiiItftLion of an enemy, and Mk 
I&» 'Ah (RV 'Hal'), thou that destroyest the 
temple,' where it expresses moeking. The RV^ 
has introduced 'Ahl' into Lk 4" for 'Let us 
alone' of AV (Gr. 'Ea, wliich may be either tJie 
imperat. of the verb tuu; (v let alone or an tude- 
pendeutinterjeetion, formed from the soiunl). Aha 
(a combinatioQ of a, the oldest form of 'ah,' and 
fut) exprcMes malioions aatisfaction, except in Is 
44'*, where it denotes intense satisfaetiuD, but 
without malice, ' Aha, I am wariu : I fuel the 

fire.' J. ilAJSTlNGS. 

ARAB (3NnM, 'AxoeC^, Aasyr. A-ha-^ithbu) signlGes 
' father's brother.' <Cf. analogous uses of the same 
element rue 'brother' iu Kyr. proper names.) The 
meaning of the compound is probably 'one who 
closely resembles his fathor.' The f.-ither In this 
r.-i^e waa Oinri. the founder of the d^-nnetr, and 
from him the son inherited the military traditions 
and prowess which characterised his reigu. A. 
married Jezebel ('7v;'>4), daughter of Ethboal, king 
of T\Te (the Ithobalo^, priest of Astartu mentioned 
by Menander, quoted by Jos. c. Apion, i. IS). 
I'^his was part of the jiolicy of close aJlianee with 
Pha>nicia, begun by Solomon, and cemented by 
Ouiri. This Vinil of uniun was designated by 
Anios fl') a 'covenant of brethren,' It waa un- 
duubteilly founded on reuiprocal commercial in- 
terest which tiubsbitcd for CMmturies. the com, oil, 
and other agricultural products of Canaan being 
exchanged tor other commercial products of the 
great mercantile ports cf Pboemcia (of. Ac 12*). 

Whatever commercial advantages might accrue, 
[•irael's national religion was destinea to suffer. 
A temrile and^altar to liiuil were erected in Samaiia 
ns well as an AHlierah-pnti!. To 8n[tersede Israel's 
national deity, J", b}- the Tyrian Baal, seemed an 
easy To a snperticial o>«erver the dillerence 
between the worship of Ephraim and that of 
Samaria rai^ht appear trilling. Both Baal and J" 
were wornhipixid with similar sacrihcio] accouipani- 
menU. Mur^^over. iiorUiem Israel had for centuries 
1>ecD exposed to all the influences wtiirh tliuir more 
highly civilised Can. neighliours had introduced 
(Jg S"" "). and even the very name Baal, ' Lord," 
was current in tlieir speech as an appellation of J* 

(HosS"-"*). Yet tliurc wji» one ducp djstiactton 
which marked oS'the J* of AIoEuusni from the IduU 
of the Caiiiianittts. The rcligioa of Mo»aUm was 
pure vt sensu&l taint. The cotiiunution of Ashcmh 
with J" in the ii(iv» of Jof^iah (2 K ^3') wo* a corrupt 
pnu'tice dim tit> fiyroi^n innovation. So aUo wiye 
the dcba-oiii;;; accoiupaniinent-'^ of worship refern-tl 
tu in Am '2'. And the Ur^ntious cult of Uojui and 
Ashtorcth, eetab)i»hed hy thu inltiionce of A. 'a 
Vhojn, v\ife, would certainly have it« temple 
attendnntit, proimbly Tyriao ^edr-fhim and ifedi- 
sKotK. Thfse featnrca of worship, however, liad 
become perilotuily familiar to N. Israel, owing to 
tlieiT clofie contAct witlt Cnn. nfij'hlHnirK Aix^rd- 
iugly, iia we can niadily iufvr frum tlie hinguaKQ 
of Elijali in 1 K 10, nataonal feelln); wua not deopT)' 
or jwrmnnently r<)ii»e<l even by the influence of liis 
Btimnfj nersonality and by the occmrence of a 
prolon^iea droiijxhtof more than two vears' dura- 
tion (I K 17* la^), which, according to 5lenander of 
Ephesns, extended to Ph(enicia.t In all pro- 
bability, Lite military (Ie.o[ioti»m wioldcd by the 
homw uf Dmri, in al hance with a powerful northern 
State, was able to subdue any )tniuulderin;r einberit 
of diBcontent. Rut an act of cruel injustioe 
awakened tht dormant spirit of the poople. Like 
many Oriental monarchti, A. displayed a tasite 
for architecture, which Tvrian inttuencc stimulatcil 
nnd fostered. He built a palaeo for himsrsif, 
adorned with wooilwork (probably codai) and 
inlaid ivory, in Jezreul <l K 21' Sa"). To this be 
desired to ntt4u:h a Kultahle domain, and for tLt> 
puTiiose endeavoured to acquire, by purchase or 
excnangc, the vineyard of one of the wealthier 
inhabitants, Na1>oth. But N'alioth was unwilling 
to part with an ancestral inheritance. Wliat A. 
could not nccompllBb by legal means, he waa in< 
duccd by the promptings of Jezobol to compass by 
fraud and judicial murder. Thiit act arouneil 
imiinlar hatred, and the senae of outrnjjcil Roeial 
oriipr found oxprewnion in thp dcnnnciation of do4»tn 
pronounced by Elijah (1 K 2I""=") against the kin;; 
and his unKcnipulnns queen {'^ob Nauotu and 
EUJAH). The incident is instruct ivo to the 
student of Ileb. religion, as it illinftmteit the con- 
traxt in the attitude of Phcun. an compared with 
Ueb. rcli}non towards social morality. Tn the 
words of W. K. Smith, 'the relipion of J" put 
morality on a far rounder bani.t than any ottier 
relifiion did, because the ripbtcousncag of J* as 
A God who enforced the known laws of morality 
was conceived as absolute ' {Pmphctji of Isr. 73). 

It is mote than doubtful whether A. really com- 
prehended the relli^ious iKHues. He regarded 
Elijah as a miMihievuuH fanatic., 'a troubler of 
Israel' bent on wretkirjj the imiwrial scht'mes of 
acgrandi-iemcnt Ijased on nlHance with Phtunioiaat 
the extiense of Syria. Elijah, like many another 
since his day, earned tho title of unpatriotic, 
because he placed righteousness and religion before 
the exigencies of jiolitical statecraft. 

The military career of A. exldbit* him as a 
waiTior of considerable prowess. Ilej*pectinfj his 
wars with Syria we hare only the brief record in 
1 K 20-2"J. In 1 K 20 wo arc plnnsed in mcduts 
rt9. Samaria has been for some time closely in- 
x'csted by the Svrian army under Henhadad, or 
more probably ifadadezer (DaiUtiri), if we follow 
the Assy r. annals (Stade). Of tlte defeats sustained 
Inr larael prior to this siege we have no infonna- 
tion. BLMihndnd (Hnd:ide7er] made an insistent 
demand of tliB Isr. kinji, in the thwnerate extremity 
of the latter, that Syrian envoys snould search the 
royal palace and the bouses of A.'b servants. This 

■ Wp)1hauwn's njectlan of Uu S>< (iB Bcb.) Is obsncteristk 
&r his tuch Aprion mvthod. 

I This took p1»c« daring Uw niga of Ethlunl (lihnlnto"'). athI 
lAsUd, sooordiog 10 U/vuHjoAvi, «n« jrssr. Or Phaenieitk thl& m&>- 
bave tvro tra«. 

wai rt'fiwed by A. with the unanimous approval 
of Ilia people and their elders. To tlie arrogant 
menace of the Syrian, the king of Isr. replied in the 
]>roverljial, ' Let not him who girds on the 
armour lioast ns he who put^ it olF.* Itenhadad at 
once ordered Uu! engineii of war (LXX * linCM of 
circuniviLlliition ') tu bo |>lnceil against the city. 
But beyon<l thi« he took no further precaution, and 
rwi^od himself ^vitll careless ease to vuluptuuas 
carousal Mi-ilh his nobility and feudat«ry kings. 
Meanwhile A. mustered hts army of 7000 men, 
otHccred by 232 territorial commanders, and 
attacked the S^Tians vith crushing ctfcct (1 K 
2lJ'*'"). inflictinga totJihiverthrow. In flu; fnllowinff 
spring the Syrian mon!ir4_'h again took the lield with 
a well-npiwinted army of overwhelming RUi>eriority. 
The Sj'riana attribut^ed their previou.s defeat to the 
fact tXiiiX the God of Isr. was a God of the hills 
(where cavalry and chariots could not so well 
o|Kjrnte*). If Ihey could draw the forces of ^V. 
into the valley near Aphek, all would be well. 
But the l^attlc that followed utterly falsilied their 
expectntionR. The Syrians were put to utter rout, 
nnd Kavcd themselves l>y precipitate flight to Ajvliek. 
Benhndad and his followers went as supjdiantH to 
A., who judged it politic to receive them with 
friendliness. A treaty was concluded, in which (he 
Syrian king cfmceded to Isr. special r^uartcrs (streets) 
in DantAJuniR,! a privilege which corrosiionded with 
a i!«inubir right, which Omii was compelled to oon- 
cedc to Svna in his own capitJtl, Samaria. 

With the defective Biblical rocorda before na, it 
is not easy to eK)dam the complaisant attitude of 
A. in the hour of his victory. But the key ttf the 
solution of tho mystery is given to us in the As-syr. 
annala. From these wo leam that nliout this time 
a new disturbing factor was bi'giiinitig to appear 
in \V, Asian politico. Evt'r since tho time of Saul 
thear^nnof Val. foreign iKditic.-* had been circum- 
scribed within the rcgionofthpHittite. Syrian, and 
Can. borders, and the interference of I'-i.'Tpt had 
only Wen occasional. Since tho days of TiglnMi- 
pileser I. (c. D.c. 1100) the military power of A.ssyria 
had been dormant. But iluring 'the time of Omri 
there ware vivid cifjins that Askyria was at length 
awakening from its century long ulunibi'r, under 
the energetic nile of AWnrnnzir-pal. During tho 
reign of liis successor Slialmane'mr (Siilmftnu- 
a&mdu) U., who reipned from 800-S25, it began to 

firesB more heavily on tlie lands near tho Meditcr. 
lordcr, and to extend its boundaries towards the 
Hibtite States^. About the year 8.5" the jiowi-r 
of this monarch tlirealent-d seriously the Pal. 
region. The king of Syria would be among the 
lirst to feel nppn'hension. Tlie immediate elVerl, of 
Shalmaneser's advance wan to put an t^nd, at least 
for a time, to the wars Wtween Syria nnd Ahab. 
.•^nd in the negotiations described in 1 K 2U-^''- ^ it is 
pretty certain thst the ndvonoc of the Assyr. 
jwwer from the N.E. formed a subject of conversa- 
tion lietween the two kingi^, and that Benhadad 
was glad, even upon diwulvantagt-ons terms, to get 
rid of a burdensome and exhausting war, in order 
that all his forces might Iw reserved to confront 
tho formidable Assyr. foe. The attack was de- 
livered in the yL-nr n.C. 854, when the battle of 
Karkar was fauj;lit. A conaidemble nujnber of 
Statt!H, incluiling Itiraul, but not including Judali, 
Kdom, or Moab,; had united with Hadiulezer 

* Welniaw that the Iinv«llt«a alvn iiontBNWtt ch&riuta In e»n- 
sfdentOe number, trom th« t^xiircM etaU-tnrnt nt lli» iiwinolilb 
tnscriptfnn at ShalnuiTiF» r ii. Unn 01, VI. Ct, 1 K SS. 

f Ewald (0«f. rJ. V. /«r. iU. 4t{8 n.) tnuuUt*'* Uie H«h. tij 
'l>lsoei of abode' (compAfint: the ArsD. maktUtak), t.«. pvniu- 
aent smhawflnrlil re9l>Jpni-«. But this cxpluMitiaii U very far- 
fetbhed. LXX rcnden i£*tw(, ' stmis.' ror otliar lnt«r}irvUi- 
tlotu •«« Tbenliu, ad Uk~ 

I In tl]« QUe of Moob, the rHwon adduotd by Pro!. B^ym I 

tboblr the ritftil one. M««b sent nn conUiij:<tit, tieo&Hse tliat 
!n In I """ 


Itftte was then in nvolt Sfrnlnst XsmeX (UCV p. 3P3). 




( = l)adiJri = Itynhada«I) to resUt the AsajTians. 
Tlio account of the whole campaign may be read 
in Ihe nionoUili iTi3ori[^>tion qiiot«l in achradcr's 
COT^i. IS3 H. In lines dl, 92 we read that A., king 
of iHToel, sent a contingent of 2000 diartotn aad 
10.000 men. The total dpfeAt «f ttm allied kind's, 
though prnhnhly ohtaineil with heavy loss to tlie 
AKtrynan!^, sutriced Ui break ap the alliance. A. 
novr fuUowed the (tliort->iif;ht«d jwlicy of i«olattou 
in presence of the fonniduhle Asnyr. power— a 
policv which in the fallowing century Kphrulm and 
Jadali in turn pursm-d with Latcful rt-'MulLt, Tlio 
con^cq uunc-c waA a r<.'ncvvs.t of the wtint butwe<;n 
Syria and liuiiel, which had itecn for itontu yearn 
tfiupended. We may infer from the scriptural 
aeoount that A. t-ook the initiatiTo by endeavour- 
ing to recover Uanioth-gilead from Syria. Pro- 
bably the allied kincsof l«r. and Jud. vudcavoarcd 
to proHt by the weaKQOsa of Syria after the over- 
whelming defeat (uMatned by the latti^r in the 
battle of Karkar. In 1 K 22 we Iiave a \ivid por- 
IraynJ of the draniatie scene between Micaiali, »on 
of hnlah, and the prophets who pruphe:jitxl in 
favour of imnicdiatc war with Syria (see RIicaiah). 
For Nficaiab the result wan iiiturirtuuiueut a^ the 
penally for hia outj*poken delivenince of tlie 
uirinu mataagu. Undeterred by the gravity of his 
prophecy, A. and JehoMhaphat went forth at the 
uead of Uieir retipectivo forces to battle. But A. 
raeolved to accure bin nerson against the Syrian 
arehen by appearing in Via chariot divested of the 
ordinary inntgnia of royalty. This precaution, 
liowever, did not avail hint against the ohuuce 
arrow of a bownion. which pcnetmted between the 

t'ointsuf hL<< hrea>'riiliit>-. Thn king of Isr. slowly 
lied to dealli, and dimi alMiut HUtuMt. Hia body 
mu conveyed to Samaria, where he was bnriod. 

Id tlM tongoitiir Moounl of tfa« Syrian wan of A. we liavp 
bloptcd the wquKnoe of evraU toamanmnAtA lijr Schnulor 
{COTi L 1800.. who civn the Aoyr. text and tr.). Ed. Mover 
fCtaMft. d» Att£TikumM, I. aOS\ wad raccntlr hylBtLytx (/IVK 321), 
ME), «luob pUcm Uw l«tUe of IjCi^rliu- near the cI(i«d cf A.'i 
UlB. On tfa» nUier tuuid, Wcllhaiunn (ut. * Im*! ' in Hnegtt, 
JMt.)pUceitbe baUJc of ttftrku- and Uio •Jlisaoe with (or, la 
kadouiu It, TaMal&cc * tn} .Syria in \i\f limp« that premoo the 
flyiten wu« ol A.** rriEii- Itiit thii view impowi mat dllll- 
cnltha on th* chratiAlofn of th« itcriod. Pton tb» Ajn>T. 
OukoQ of Rulcra, ootnpitcia with grcftl cw Htd nraddon. mid 
■In frotn the A»rr. Aiuuk, we obtain the fwtowlng: flxed 

Battle or Karfcar (la wUch A.'aeoatinffent takes 

|«rt} 864 B.C. 

Tribute of Jvbe. 'aon Of Omri' . . 848 ., 

Now, It w« place ihc battlo of ^tarirar btfwe tbe Brrtan wmn qI 
A.'a relcn, hi« dfath cannot bv plaoed Mrlter tWi i.e. 8*7. 
AooonliactT'. in place ol the 14 jtmn aarigncd "by Scripture 
to Uw rainii of Ahanah and Jsbonun w« can only allow a 
manmuin of jf n yean ! On thi other hand, bv adoptin; Uie 
Mtrnrtio* wMch w« bare advocated. Qit ditScuIliea are coo- 
■nanbly ndtMxd. A. 'a death may then be placed In tbo year 
ax. H&S. KamphauMn. in hli valuable ireatbe on Uie OhrooO' 
lo|[j of the lleb. Klnga (p. M]>, luggorta that A.'a name baa beeo 
oonfuad wtlh that of his suoceaor Jeboram \a tlw Anyr. 
Anmla ; ami Kittel, Ld hia Uin. tff the Btbmn fOcrau ed. ii. 
tSSX Mma di^Kwed to aoc«pt thb view, fim aeainit thia pri>- 
oead h n w« must amphatioally protest. UlblioaJ ecleiiai will 
Dtno' mako aure prosreM U we reject or modily archatolocical 
vrldaooe in tba tntvrwta of a chnmoloirical theory. Th« theory 
Mnat be oonlDnaed to the erldeitoe. not rite mtM. (On the 
■nbtel <rf Uab. chrooolooy aee the writer'a rrmarka In ScJtraflsr'a 
COf^ U. «n>~824. and abo In C. U. IL Wrixbt'a BOiU JieoiUr^ 

That A.'(> rule was lirm though despotic, and 
maintained thi; military tradition.^ inaugurated br 
Omri, is indicated by the Moabitc Stone, whim 
infuruK us (Unea 7. S) thnt Oniri and his son nilfd 
over the land of lilchdcba (conquered by the 
former) for 40 years. It was not till tlie con- 
doding part of A.'s reign, when hi> was occupied 
with hi.t Syrian warn, that \i(iah roK© in insurtfetion. 
The Uifltorian must not fail to take dtw note of the 

* Thalai^ DOn tinfonb (8000 obariota and tO,MMBii=B)fumtilied 
*r A., aecDfding to the Asn'r. reoorda, rvodcn the theory o( 
""•"'i** atnnaly icnprooahle. 

Judaic tendency of the narrative in 1 K 18-22, 
which paintA the life of A. in Kombre hue^. \Vhen 
more than a century hnd passed after the destruc- 
tion of his po.sterity, it is worthy of remark that 
the Kpkrainiitc prophet liosea {!*) expresses a 
strong condemnation of Jehu's deeds of blood. In 
Mic 0^", on Uie other liand, we aee clwtrly reflected 
the Judaic eelimate of Omri's dynasty, which 
dominates the accotint in 1 K lS-22. 

AHAB t^iir^tf, 3CI^).~Son of Kolaioh, a fol^ pro- 
phet conteuip. ^hith Jer. Ue is said to hiiw l>een 
' roasted in the fire ' by the king of Bab. {Jer liQ"*-)- 

AHARAJi {Tit!^).— A ^n of B«nJ- (1 Ch 8') : per- 
Imps a corruption of oyr^ (Nu 26"*j. See AHIRAU. 

AHARHEL (Vrr;.-:i!).— A dcscendantof Judali (I Ch 
4"). L.\.X d^tX^of' Vyixdfi implies a reading 371 'Ptj 
= brother of licehab. 

AHASBAI Cs^ri?).— Father of Eliphelet (2 S 23"). 
ftiid a mcmlier of the family of Maocah, settled at 
lIcLh-Maacah [20"*), or a native of the Syrian 
kingdom of Maacali (l(y-'). In the paralleL 
ppiiaLre (1 Ch 11**-*) we find two names. *an "hk, 
V'r, Uopher; both passages probably represent 
eormptions of the real name. 

J. ¥. STENNlNfl. 

AHASUERUS [CST}f'nii)._A name which up[)ears 
on Fcra, in^tcriptiona a» KhMftjdritA, and in Aram. 
witjiout « prohthetic, as riK'pn (Schrader, C07'^ 
ii. 6.1). TliH monarch who bears this name in 
Ezr 4'- was formerly reckoned by EwaJd and others 
to be the Comlrt-ses of profane history wlio sue- 
ceoded Cyrus. Iti."* generally recognised, however, 
bv modern critics that he mu-st Iw identihed with 
Aerxes (485-40.')), who ia buyond all que-stion the 
Ah«*uoruji of the hk of Est. See XkkXES. The 
A. of i>n 0', the father of Darius the Mede, is a 
personage whose identity is as ditKcult to e^tntilish 
OS the existence of ' Darius the Meflo * i» prublu- 
matical. {Cf. Driver /,OJ"6I5n. ; Sayce if CW 543. } 

J. A. SELniK. 

AHAVA (tCQIt)-— Tho name of a toivn or district 
in IJabyhmia (Err 8''- "'■"J, and of a Rtrcani in the 
neijitilxjurliood (v."-***"). Qa the lunkK of this 
Rlninm Ezra encjiniped for throe davs at the begin- 
ning of hU journey to^IemsaJcm. lie was thus able 
t'U review hia large company, and to make good the 
athsencc of lycviteN by sending a deputation to the 
chief of the wrttlKmnnt at Coj^iphta. Before com- 
mencing the march, Kzra instituted a wleniii fast, 
and then took mea.snres for the safe custoily of the 
treasures and rich gifts which were in his possea- 
Non. Ewald conjectured that the river Aliara or 
Peleg-Ali&va was the same as the PallacopaA, a 
stream to tlie S. of Itabylou. liavvliii.'K>n iduntilies 
it with the la (see Herod, i. 170), a river (lowing li^ 
a town of tlie fuime name, now called Hit, which ts 
about eight days' jouniey from Babylon. It seems, 
however, more prob. that Rxiii mode IiIn rendezvous 
near Ui llabylon itself ; in thnt ca.'w; we niiiy supjHwe 
that file .\hava nns one of the numerous canals of 
the Euphrates in the neighbourhood of the city (cf. 
Ryle, and Ucrtli.-Kys. ati Coe.). In 1 Es S*"* the 
rircr is called Thuras (Qtpdt). 

H. A. 'White. 

AHAZ (ti?i( 'he hath grasped,' LXX 'Ax^f. Jon. 
'Axdi>it, NT'Axaf [WH'Axo*J).--Son and successor 
of Jotham Idngpf Judah. Uis name is probably 
an abbreviateil form of Jeho-ohaz {'ot;''-''*), since it 
appears on the As^yr. inscriptions as la-u-ha-zi. 
The date of bis accesi^ion has been lixe<l at 735 B.C. 
His &iiQ at this time U Kiven as twenty (2 K Ifl") ; 
hut thu is barely reran«:iluble with the other ohrono- 
logical data, which allow nix teen yearK to hi« 
rsigUf and state the age of his son Hexekiuh at 




his acofnnon a^ twenty-five, rince it wouW make 
Ahaz a father at the a^ of eleven. The flitliciilty 
ia iacreaaed if we Buppoec that the eon possi-ci 
tbroui-'h the lire by Abu was hia firstborn ; nrnl 
if, TTiih several authorities, we allow only eit,'ht 
ye&ra to liia reifin. it i» quitt insujiorablr. Thero 
CAn be little Uouht llmt tliu ligures need correc- 
tion. Fur twenty thvru in n i<li|rht]y supported 
various readinj-, twi-nty • five, and tliiit may be 
ri^jht. It JH poKsiLle that the age of Ilezekiah 
stiDulil Iw reducf<l, nlnce Ahaz seetnii from In 3" 
to have been still youthful at the beginning of 
hi« reign. The date of hi» death is probably 
71-1 B.C., though many place it 728-727 0.0 (see 
Chronolocy of OT). 

Quite early in hia reirrn, Rezin king of Syria, 
and IV-kah kinp of [»ratd. formed a <;ui3iti<m with 
the oltject of furring Jndah into an alliance against 
Assyria, Arrurdiiiy to our oldewt autliuritie* they 
met with little sufces*, tIiou''h the Syrians vreeted 
the port of Klath from Jndali, and Isaiah bade the 
k in c have no fear of 'these two tails of Btaokini,' 
firebraadB.' To confirm the wisdom of hia coan»cl, 
be invited him to ank any .tign from God. Ahaz 
wae too panic-stricken to listen to cool reaMin, 
and, under the pretext that ho would not tonpt 
God, refused the ])n»nWred wpn, wherenpon the 
prophet gave him tlie sij.ii of Immannel. The king 
called in the aid of the king of Assyria, Tigtath- 
pileaer, who gladly accepted such an op|)ortQnity, 
and relieved Ahaz of his foes. But the rulief wan 
pQTchaitcd dearly, Judnh could form no alliance 
with a great etupin* like Agsyria ; it could only 
become tributary to it, even if the tribute was 
disgnitied under the name of a present. And 
tribute meant oppression of the poorer classes, 
wUoh was alrc-ady one of the most glaring of 
Jndoh'a sins. Further, it was of vital importance 
that the nation should keep free from entangle- 
ment in the politif-a of targe empires, ninoe olher- 
wiae it lost its independence, and made even int« 
reform — whicli was the most pressing necessity 
—more difficult. The policy of A. illustrates the 
]*>w!ltiTig weakncM of the politicians of Judah, 
and wa* shortsighted and diBostrous. If Isaiah's 
advice had been followed, A. would have wft-urei'l 
the same rcHult without its di^fidvatitages, »inv<^ in 
her o^v^l iKtc-rcsts AsHvria would have been com- 
pelled to vanquish the coalition, while Judah 
would have r^tnined her independence. 

Wc next find A. at Damaflcu?, where herendcrc<l 
homage to Tiglath-pileeer. While there lie saw 
nn altnr which pleased him, and fcent the pattern 
of it to the priest Urijalv, with ini<tructions to 
huild qno like it. On hiH return lie otTered on hiit 
new altar, and ordered it to be u»ed for the Kncri- 
fices, whilti the old bmzen nltAr wan UKed for the 
king to ' inr^nire by.* \V. K. Smith has carefully 
distuMwd tins innovation, and reached the Tesuit 
that it ' lay in the enaction of a i>cnnanent altar- 
hearth, and in the introduction of the rule that 
in ordinnry rases this new altnr should serve for 
the Muud ritual as well as for the fire rituiil' 
UiA^ 4fi,'Wfl). The importance of this consists in the 
fact thai the alteration aecms to have been a 
permanent one. For the other cluinges introduced 
by A., see 2 K 16"". 

In character A. wae weak yet obstinate, frivolous 
and something of a dilettante, as we gather from 
his interest in his new altur, and from the aoaoeia- 
tion of his name with & dial or step-clock (see 
Dial). He was alsw suiM-rMtitiouH, and probably 
a polytheist. Wliile no blame need attach — in the 
pre - Peuteronomic period — to his worship at 
ntunerouB local eanctuarteR, and while he was 
evidently a very 2ealous worshipper of J*, vet 
the fact that he passed hU »on tnrough the hie 
reveals the dark superstition to whiuh he was 

a slave. And the terrible picture of the condition 
of Jiidnh, pnintcd in Is 2-.°i and other prophtwies 
of tliintimo, is clear as to the idolatry', drunkenness, 
luxury, oppression, perversion of jujitice, grasping 
avarice, and shomelessneas tliat poisoned the 
Datiunal life. 

So far the account has Iieen drawn entirely 
from 2 Kings and Isaiah, Kinco they nro our only 
truntworthy Kourc(.*s. In SC'liron. thu narrative hat 
been Ihorouplily worked over. The hiRtory of the 
Syro-F-phraimitifih invasion is told quite difiercntly. 
Inhere is indeed no bint of a coalition, the two 
armies act independently. The Srrian» carry 
away a targe numocr of captives, and I'ckah slayt 
I20.iK)0 in one day and carries away 20O,UU0 
cjiptivefi, who, however, are sent hack at the 
advice of a prophet. The invasions have no 
political motive ojssigned, they are a punishment 
lor the king's »in, while tlie figures are tilt^gether 
incredible. Tig lath- pileser is called in, not to 
crush the coalition, bat to help him against the 
Philistines and Edomitcs. He did not help him, 
however, but apparently came against him, and 
was bought off with tribute. The religioua apos- 
laxv of A. comes out in much darker colouro, 
and the account is really in contlict with the ohler. 
Me bums his children, and not his scm merely, in 
the fire ; closes the temple and destroys its vessels, 
though we know that he took great interetit in it« 
services; and worships the goils of Damascus 
bccaufie of the success of the Syrians in war, 
tliouch when A. ■visited DamascuH their power 
had [»een utterly broken. Of all IhiM tins older 
history says nothing, and it ia impossible to re- 
concile these later additions with the earlier 
narrative, and they ore so characteristic of the 
chronicler's method of re-writing histtiry, that any 
attempt to do so would be supcrnuous. 

A. S. Peake. 

AHAZIAH On;iPi( or n;ini{ * J" hath grasped '}-— I. 
King of [i«rael, non of Aliah. He is said to have 
reigned two years ; but b-h he came to the throne 
in tlic I7th year of Jeho»dmphat (1 IC 22^1, and his 
brother Jehoram sncceeded him in JehoRhnphat's 
lath year |2 K 3'), the dnration of his reign 
wonlu not much nxcend a year. The chTonoIogic;al 
Hiat*inent in 2 K l", wtiiffh would imply a reign 
of neiirly ten years, is jiroliably an iiitt:ruotatiun 
(Griitr, etc.) ; it is not found in B. and is misplaced 
in A. The Moabit* Stone datew the revolt of 
Mesha as taking ploce after * half the days of 
Omri'a con ' ; but the Bible account (2 K 1' 3') u 
nmre probable, which makes it a consequence of 
tht) death of Ahab, who was a comparatively 
jKjwerful monarch. In any case we do not read of 
any clfort tc 9Ufipre»s thi.4 rising until the reign of 
Jhliorani. It i^ t>o»Mtble that Aha2iah was engaged 
in preparations for war when the accident occurred 
which remilteit in hi^ death. Hu Huenis to have 
inherited from hia mother her devotion to Bool, for 
in his extremity be sent to inquire at the oracle of 
naalzebub. the oiieciol Baal wor^thlpped at Kkron. 
The story of hi» fatal misaion belongs rather to the 
history of Elijah. It is &uHicient hero to note thot 
his tnrice repeated summumi of the prophet ia 
choractcrietic of the eon of Ahab ana Jexebel ; 
suggestive a.1 it in of the callnu.xness of his father, 
and the obr^tinacy of his mother. See .Jehosha- 
riiAT for the maritime alliance between Ahaziah 
and that monarch. 

a. Ahaziah, king of Judah, youngest son of 
Jehoram. He woa made king by ' the inhabitants 
of Jerasalein* (cf. 2 K 23*}, necAuae all his elder 
brothers had been carried off in an incursion of 
Philietines and Arabians (2 Ch 21" 22'). His 
name ia variously (riven as Jehooliax (2 Ch 21'' 
2S'-«) and Azariali ('J'J'). The latter is probablv a 
blunder, AJiariah being read by some fleb. MBS, 




LXX, Pesli.. Vnl;.'-; nnd Jchoaliaz is nmrely a tmns* 
pcwition of AlinaiaU (cf. Jeclioniali=JohoiMhiD). 
ItXX lias Ahazinh in 21'% and omits the nniDe in 
25". The otbcT vomons, except Vulg., nli» ij^ora 
the cliarti;e. lie bc>,'n.u to rui^n in tliti 1 1th {'Z K 
9*) or I'ith (2 K S*^) vear oT Jorani of I&rael, 
tieinK ilien 22 years ofd, and reigned one j-ear 
(2 h. B^). The rendin;/ -forty and two' in 2 Cli 
2? itt ftt>*iird, since his lather was 40 years old at 
hill death. Pc«h. hero has *22' and LXX '2U.' 
'I'he evil influeoL-c which Atlialiab, the qmsen 
mother, had exercij»eil over her liiisl«uiii continuwl 
unthcckeil in lli« n-iyn of her son (2 K 8", 2 Ch 
aa*-*); vet in2 K 12'" we read of ' hallowed thiugB' 
which h« hud dedit-aled apparently to J". 

There i** an irreconcilaolo distrennncy lietween 
Kings and Cliron. as to the death of A. Joram of 
Israel having renewal the attack on Kamoth- 
giteod in uhicli Ahab had faileil, waa joined hy hi.^ 
n«phew A. The town was cairlnrul (2 K 9"), but 
Joram ret.'ctved wounds which c«nii*elled hini to 
retara to Jwreyl, It i» implied that A. also 
rotumc<t to JernsAtern, for he ' went down* to see 
Joram ot di-zrvel (cf. 1 K 22^) (Ewald evades the 
difficalty by ruadin;; in 2 K 8=* ' now Jorom went,' 
etc., omittin;; 'Mith,' wliich Ls adoptetl in 2 Ch 22^j. 
Aecoirling to Kin^e, on seeing Joraiti'a fate. A., 
poisaed by Jdiu, * fl«d by the way of the ganien 
nou»e'(or *Ueth-Imt;gan,'*Stadu, etc.), was mortally 
woundt^d * at the a^u-'ent of Gnr/ and died on reorh. 
ing Me'jTtddo. Hirt Iwdy was carrie<l to Jerusalem, 
and • buriiKl with hi« fathers in the eity of Dand.' 
Meanwiiik the * brethren o( Ahaziah,' if,'Tiorant of 
the revolution in Juzrt:i:l, had ftdluwcd bini from 
Jerusalem lo visit Jor&ni'H children ; they were 
met by Jehu on the road Wtween Jexreel and 
Satnana. nnd were itlain. This Beenifi a consistent 
Htory; hut when the Chronicler came to deal with 
it he found two r-tumbling-blockn. First, he haA 

f'Tcnously infonjiei] ua that A. had no brethren 
iringj therclore ' the brethren of AltoiJah' become 
in hi* record 'the princeM of Jndali, and the soni* 
of the brethren of Ahaziati' attending their muter 
in Samaria or Jezrvel ; secondly, Klngif implies 
thai A., an idolater, wma buried in the royal 
sepulchres. Now the Chronicler always carefolly 
exclades IdolateTs {e.g. Jchornin, Joaah, Amaziab, 
Aha:f) from ' the sepnlchre.4 of the kin^a,' and 
Lhcrefuic he ninke» A., whu wa^ hiding in Saiziaria, 
tie killed and buiiud there ; that lie U buried at nil 
Wiug for tlie Hake of his good father Jeh<^aptiat. 
Enough has been wid to show that here^ &a else- 
where, the Chronicler, if mora edifying, is not so 
reliable oa the curlier writer. 

N. J. a WutTE. 
AHBAN {f;7tf 'brother of an intefligeniiont!').— 
A Judahite, »on of Abii>har (I Ch 2*). 

AHER fTV 'another'}-— A Benjamite (1 Ch 7"), 
pexbapa iuentioal with Ahlrajn ofNn 20**. 

JUD {'^ft ' brother' ; * br many conaidcred to have 
the same meaning as Aiima'h, wb. nee) occurs 
in BIT, and conse<)Ucntlv in AV and KV, twice : ( 1 ) 
a fiodite (1 Ch 5'*): (2) an A*herit« (1 Cli 7^). 
But the reading 'm in neither cawj free from doubt ; 

tAov 'A33riJX for TiKnan p -nn 113, most Tiavo had 
something very like tin before them. The other 
VSS trcAt 'ntt as an apiKiIlativtj. In 1 Ch 7" for 
mm '(w, LXX, B hiu* Aj£'<»«a'i A 'Axfc^pA 'Ovi. 
Probably in the original continuous Heb. te:tt 
■ome com|Miund name in "Hk was read (T •TrrK), 

* fnt a fuller diacuMloo of tlw mmnlnit of thia nune 
ufl the following- aatatm tMgiminf with Ahl, Me Sahib, 

follon-eil by anotliur name of wltlch the letters run 
On •'ii'Ti-a) ore a miLtihited burvival. 

G. B. Gray. 
AHIAH.— See Aiiijah. 

AHIAU (a|$T!«, meaning doahtfiU, according to 
some. ' mother's brother '). — One of David'ii lierocs. 
lie waa eon of Sharar (2 IS 23"), or Saciir ( 1 Ch 1 1"), 
the Uararite. (J. B. Gbay. 

&H1AN (i;n(« 'fraternal.' IJ 'Ua^lfx, A 'A»I» ; 
thcae forniit, together with the divergent text of 
the Syr., render the exact form of the original 
name oncertain}.— Ahian wa« a Manoasite, ntid la 
deiicribed an 'son of Shcmida' (1 Ch ""') : but the 
name i* Kcaroely tlint of an individual ; note iu the 
context Abiezer and Shcchcm, and cf. Nu 2tP"*-. 

0. B. tiRAY. 

AHIEZER Oiv^, 'brother is lielp).— 1. Son of 
Annni.tliiiddai, one of the tribal princes who 
leprcsunteil Dan at the census and on certjun other 
occasions (Nu 1" 2"J7«-" ia«(I»)). 2. The chief of 
the Iknjnmite archers who joined David while ho 
waa in hiding at Ziklag (1 Ch 12'''). 

G. n. Gray. 

AH1HUD (-ni-np ' brother is uiajcnlv.' In the form 
-ir.-n»r (I Ch 8") the imeond n is prottably an error 
for .1). — 1. Ai;c. to F, Ahilmd the wm n! .Shelomi 
wan the prince (m-v:) of t1ie tribe of Asber, who, 
with similar repreMentatives of ttie oilier tribes (on 
\V, of Jonlan), was appuinted by Mo^es, at the 
divine command, to divide Cnniian into hereditary 
|K>rtion!*(Nu34"(l')). 2. A IJenjarnite. Probably 
the poiisage 1 CUS*-', the text of »hieli in Homewhat 
corrupt, means that Khud begat AhihtKl, and that 
AhihuiL and his 'brother' Ciuea were ancestors of 
the inhabitants of Ueba. G. B. GSAY. 

AHIJAH {'yr^ or w.-nd 'brother of J*"}.^1. 
High prioiit in tho reign of Saul, and iiaunSly 
identified with AhimelecU [Joaeuhtui ' Abimo- 
lech") of 1 S 21. 22 (so Ewald Jh>it. of Isr. \\. 
p. 41d, n. 3, 'iiince Melech, King, uniy be applied 
also to God'). He aocomtanit^d Saul'n army as 
poaMCwor of the enhod oracle (L S 1-i'); hut when 
an occasion aruEte tor its use, Saul, with his usual 
precipitate self-reliance, interrupted tliR prii-st 
while in the very act of consultation (vv."-'^). Tliia 
temerity seems to be ufterwuida tacitly reprovol 
by Abijali (v.**): 'Let ili draw near hither unto 
CiimI.' rim I^XX reading in v." ' Bring bitlier the 
epliod.'ctc, i« followed by Jom. {Anl, VI. vi. 3 : ' He 
Iwwle the high jiriost Xa^irra -H)*- Apxu^Tit^w croKiiv 
vpo<priTfutiy^),m\*\ accepted by most mwlems, Tho 
phraee, ' bring hither,' seems appropriated to tlie 
ophod (1 S 23>' 3U') ; and when the oracle is again 
consulted (l-i*'), the LXX i6% JiJXovt , . . 3ot A^ii. 
rirra,' Valg. 'da ostensionem . . . da sanotitatem,' 
appears to point to tho Urlm and Tliummim which 
were attached to the ephod. Un the other hand, 
the ark Reenm to be uned nfl an oracle in Jg 2>>^', 
1 Ch W, and it often accomiuiuied the bosC Lo 
battle. Aq., Sym., and Vulg. follow the Kccelved 

We next read of this high priest, when David, 
fleeing from Saul, cornea to ui<)uire of the Lord 
by hia means (1 S 22'^), as he had oft«D ilono before 
C'JsL^). The tnbtirnaclo am>cara to have Wen 
transferred to Nob from Shiloh when the lattor 
was dnsulated (I'd 7S". Jer "'J-^* 2d»-"), probably 
ju»t niter the death of Eli (to whom ' the priest— 
Shiloh,' 1 S 14*, refent). Ahimelech's alarm at 
the appearance of so ereat a man [22^') unattended, 
was altaved by David's plausible explanation ; and 
he actually gave the fugitive the sbewhread of the 
prtestA. and the sword uf Guliath, which had been 
suspended as a votive oll'i^ring. Cnfortunately, 
there waa a witness of the pricbt's wull-meuut zctU, 




Do^ the Eiloiuite, wlio was |jerfornii»^' some vow. 
Nut lunji ailvr, riavitl's wumt ttUtiL'ijiatiuiiB (iK*-) 
were reuliseil. Ahimelerli, vitli the eiyhty-five 
(LXX, 305; Josepliun, 385) prieiaUi of 'his futlier'd 
house,* was cliarsrwi with coospiracy by Saul, 
and, notwitbEtt&Ddin); his amazeil proteetationa 
of innocence, oumlcmncd to iii<jt4int denlh. Doeg, 
who dill not tiharo the tnutitiona.1 reverence 
felt by tiie king's ^'imnl for the |irieHts of J", 
carrietl out the bluoily onlur with the unnatural 
oruellj' of liiti race. Ahiatliar alone eHcap^d. 
The jndgment on Ell's huuse waa being von- 

2. The Shllonite. of Shiloh (I K H-), is the pro- 
phet of tlie rise ontl fall of .Jeroboam 1. In 1 K 1 J* 
wo find the: younp rnlcr thinking out his plans of 
re1>elHon in a lonely walk, when he ia met by 
Ahijah, who comt^i to conwcrale am! control his 
aiiibitiuuB ile«iy;ci«. The ]>raphet (LXX, RVj had, 
doubtless by divine command (cf. Is 2U', Jer 13'), 
clad himself witli a new gnrmeaU This he renda 
in twelve pieces, and giHng ten of them to 
Jeroboam promises him the reversion, on Solomon's 
ilualh, of the kingdom over ten tribti), and, con- 
ditionuUy, 'a »aru houjte' like that of David, 
rej>eatin^' at the uime time the divine judgment 
which had Iwpn already (w.""^ !>') revnah-d to 
Solomon, ikroljnbly tlirou};)! Ahii&h himi^elf. Years 
pa.why; Jeroboam has renlised his ambition, but 
not the ideal set before him by the prophet. Hit* 
eldest son falls siek. The kin^; bethinus him of 
the true seer now [60 years] old and blind ; but, 
fearing lest his dt-fcution nii^iit cliuit an advcr^iu 
answer, he sends liis wife [Aiio] di«j^i»ed as a poor 
woman, with a poor woman's olFering [' loaves, two 
caket) for his children, CTftpes, and a jar of honey']. 
A divine revelation, however, has already un- 
masked the deception. Ahijah [sends his lad to 
utoct her and bring her in, treats her ^fta with 
pcorn] antioijtateH lier with the 'heavy tidings' of 
the extirpation of Jeroboam's house, tliediitiiersion 
of Israel, and, bitterest of all, the death of her 
child ('Thy maidens will come forth to meet thee, 
and will say to thee, The child is dead . . . and 
they will lament for the child, saying. "Ah Lord I" 
. . . and the wailing came to meet her']. The 
BCcond (ircck act*ount, from which the details in 
brackets are deriveil, \r found in B after IZ", and 
places this event before Jeroboam's accession — an 
impoenble place, — introduces Ahijah as a new 
character {2 K 14'). and also ascribes to Shemaiah 
a symbolical prophcey simitar to that of Ahijah, 
but spoken at Shcclicm before the rejection of 
liehoboam, 14'*** Li omitted in B, but found in A, 
etc., supplied, according to I'leld, from Aqitila. 
These facts and the want of connexion in 1)^-^ 
lead W. II. Smith to conclude that ' both par(j< of 
the story of Ahljnh are a fluctuating uncertain 
clement in (lie text' (07"^^ 119). Ewald also says 
that 14*- "^ '• are later additions [Hist, of Jsr. iv. 
p. 20, n 3]. Jos. {Ant. VUl. xi. 1} gives the vccsua 
10 a different order. 

Aliijah was one of the historians of Solomon's 
roign according to 2 Ch O'*. 

£ 1 K 4", one of two brothers, Solomon's scribes 
or secretaries. Their father Sliislm (Scraiah, 
2S8"! Sheva, 2S 2o» : Shavaha, I Ch I8'«| hold 
the Fame post under David. 4. I'ather of king 
Uaaslia, 1 K 15"-» '21", 2 K D». 5. 1 Ch 2» (LXX 
o.StX'tAt ai/Tov), youngest son of Jerahmeel, or hiit 
iirat wife, if we read with Berthenu, 'of or from 
Ahijah,' D having drop[ied out. See next verse. 
6. I Ch 8^ one of the 'heads of fathers' houses' 
of Geba, anon of Ehud, fur which read 'Abihud,' 
v.» (Pe«h., Griitz), or ' Ahoah ' (v.*). In the bccin- 
ning of the verse read 'nonielv' for 'and.' The 
tuxt is very obscure. See (.Kl'M. 7. 1 Ch ll"", 
the Pclouitc, ono of David's mighly men ; but 

Kennioott, eto., rejul in^twul ' FJiam— GiUjnite,' 
frt>m2S;23". 8. I Ch 2fi». (In David'M lime) ' of 
the Leviies. Ahijah was over the ti-ensuries.' 
LXX, followed by Bertheau, etc., rea^is, 'the 
Levitcs, their brethren (i.e. the sons of I>adan, 
v."), were over,' etc. 9. Neli 10" (RV Ahlah), 
one of *the chiefs of the people' who sealed to 
the covenant under Nuliuniiah. 

N. J. D. WiirrE. 

AHIKAM (ci^r^ 'my brother b.^ ari-ten').— Son 
of Shajdiun, a courtier under Joitiah, myntioned as 
one of the deputfltion sent by the king to Huldah 
the prophetess (2 K 22"^ ", 2 Ch 34™). and later 
as namg his influence to protect Jeremiah from the 
violence of the populace during the reign of 
Jfihoiakim (Jer2G"l. He was father of ficdaliah, 
the governor of tht* hind of Judah apj)OLntcd by 
NubuchadneMar (2 K 25^ td.). 

C. F. RtrRXBY. 

AHILQD (TV-fT, perhaps a contraction of 'nq 
-vh' 'chUd'B brother').— 1. (2 S b'« 20^*, 1 K 4% 
1 Ch 18"}. — Father of Jchoshaphat, the chronicler 
under David and Solomon. 3. (1 K 4^-) Father 
of Uaana, one of Solomon's twelve commissariat 
ofliLcr!*. C. K. IlUllSKY. 

AEIMXAZ {XSPi'V^ 'my hrnther is ■wrath').— t. 
Son of Za«)ok. He was a reinarkablv swift runner, 
whose stylo was well knowTi (2 S 18=^), and as such 
he played an important part on the occasion of 
Absalom's robe.lhou. As hod been arranged by 
Dnvid {2 S ITj"- ■•■"■Wj, lie and Jonathan, eon of 
AbiiLtlmr, 'stayed by Kti-rogcl, and a maidHorvant 
uxcd to go and tell them,' from the ^>riest«, the 
iilnns of Absalom which bad been divulged by 
Ilnsliai, ' and they went and told King David.* 
This roost have occurred more than onec (2 S 17"). 
Details of their last and most critical adventnre 
are given (l""""). when, aided by a woman's craft, 
(bey suwopfied in conveying the news that saved 
David's life. Aftor the battle, Aiiiniaaz offered 
bis Ber\'ices as messenger of ■victory; but Joab, 
fearing that the odium of being the 6r«t to tell of 
Absalom's death might injure the young man's 
prospects, refused, out of kindness, to allow him 
Ut run, and entrusted tho duty to the Cushite 
roiirior. Ahimaaz, however, saw a way out of the 
dillicuUy; Joah yielded reluctantly to Ills impor- 
tunity, and Ahimaaz ' ran by the way of the Plain * 
(the floor of the Jordan valley, Gn n'" etc.) ; and 
by superior swiftness, and also, as is implied, by 
taking an easier route, 'overran the Cushito.' Bo 
did not belie David's description : ' He is a good 
niiin, and cometh with good tidings,* for by an 
ailrnit supprcxno vcri ho auhieved \\i* purpose, and 
k-ft to tb'-' Cu«hite the ungrateful oRico of lireaUIng 
the king's heart. Wereftil nnthing more of Ahimaax 
after this. It does not appear that he was ever 
high priest, since Azariah his son (I Ch 6*-*) seems 
to have snccoeded Zadok (I K 4''). 2. (I S 14"J 
Fadier of Ahinoain, Sauls wife. 3. (1 K 4") One 
of Solomon's twelve coiinnifsariatollieers. Ho bad 
the district of Naphtali as the hold of hiRojicralions. 
Since he alone of the twelve has no father men- 
tioned, it has been conjectured that he may pos- 
sibly be the son of Zailok ; but he surely would 
have succcoded his father in the lilgh priesthood. 
Ahimaaz married Basemath. one of Solomon's 
daughters. Another of oflicerf) made asimifar 
alliance, whi<:h indicat'Uii that they hiild n high 
rank. N. J.' D. WiUTE. 

AHnHAN (p'nij : on the form, see Moore m cited 

below).— 1. The sons of Anak or Armkitos {see 
Akak) are frequently mentioned, chiefly in D ; but 
the special names Aliiman, ShcNhai, and Tabnai 
occur only in J E(Nu 13^. Jos 15'*) nnd Jg I'", cf. 
v.*. According to tlieso pasHagua, Ahimaji, 




Slicshai, and Talmai were 'itonii' or 'chiltlren of 
Anak ' (?3p^ "33 or 'pn "I'V : for the Intter, cf. n-V 
nm 2 S SP*-"), wlioae father whb Arba (Jos 15", 
pcrhapfi P). But, nn a- matter of fact, neichi^r 
Anak (=long-neckefl) nor Arba ( = four: witli 
Kiriath-cir^ cf. Becr-.TA<^'0 are pensonal names 
(Koe Moore, Judge* 1**). There ta therefore no 
reAAon to doubt what tlie context of the above- 
cited mubo^ ftu^gests, viz. that Ahiman, Sheshai, 
and Talnioi are the aajues, not of individuoU, bat 
of clann. 

A., then, woa a clan resident in Hebron (the 
more familiar name of Kiriath-arbji) at tha time of 
thellcb. conquest, and driven thence b^ Caleb. The 
c-lan mav liavo been of Aramaic orij,pn, since the 
names oi Shcshai and Talmai are of an Aram, type, 
and the name Alilmon ban annto^^ in Aram, as 
veil n» Heb. See further, Driver, Dcut. p. 23 f.; 
Moore, JudtJ'V, p. 24 f. 

2. The name of a family or divi»<Ion of door- 
keepers, 1 Ch 9". Tills name is absent, not only 
from tlie briefer list in Neh 11", but also from the 
lunger list in Eir 10** ( = 1 Es 5"). It is jossible, 
therefore, that the name {jC-nM) tu Cbron. is simply 
due todittoffraphy from the following word ctjib 
( —their bretlircn) ; if thift lie ho, it mity have Iiecn 
faoilitated by association with the Anakitea (see 
No. I), tJiB preoedinK name in Cliron. — Talmon— 
eloeely resembling in sound the Anahile Talmai. 
Ilut tne genuineness of the name is defended by 
JCertheau ; cf. the f&vr names in v.'^ and the four 
divirwnt buggested by w.**'*. G. B. GUAV. 

— 1. The son of Am tub. and grandfwjn of Fliintduia. 
He either succeeded his brother Ahiiah in tlie 
{iriestbood. or was the same person under another 
name (1 S U*-'*J. On the supposition that they 
are identical, the main facts resaitlin^ him ( 1 S iJl'*" 
22*") arc given under AllIJAH ; 8eeatM> liOKO. In 
2 S 8" and 1 Ch 24* it iii j-enerally supposed 
that the nasnee of Abiathar and Ahimelech have 
been transposed by a copyist, po that vrc need not 
reckon another Ahimclcch, ^andaon of the tirBt. 
2. A Hitlite, who joined David when a fugitive, 
and became one of his captains ( 1 is 20*). 

!;. M. BOVD. 

I.&Ilf OTH (nta'Ti)*, apparently ' brother is daath ')■ 
— Mentioned only in the geneulogj' of I Ch &^ 
(Heb. v^"). where he appears as eon of Elkanuli and 
brother of Amasai. For a discussion of the text 
and purpose of the genealogy, see Bertheaa ; cf. 
also Mahath (v.»). G. B. Orav. 

JIRINADAB (s'ljT*! 'brotlieris generous'].— Son 
of Iddo, on(> of the 12 oOiixrH np[>uinted by Solomon 
for the victnallin^ of the roval houseltohL He 
was stationed at Alahanajm (1 K 4'*). 

G. B. Gray. 

AHINOAM (C7l>rf 'brother is pleasantness').—!. 
Pauciiter of AJiiniaaz and the wile of Saul ( I S 14*). 
a. Ahinoam the JezreeHte»s wna one of the two 
women — Abigail lieing the other — whom David 
married after Miehal had been taken from him. 
A. and Abigail wore both with David while he 
Mojourned with Achish at Gath, and were sub- 
aequenlly at Ziklag ; from the latter city they were 
carried u'tf by the Anialukites, but rescued by David 
and his mnii (1 S 3i>"*). After Saul's death A. and 
Abigail went up to Hebron with David, and there 
A. cave liirth to David's firstborn, Amnon (1 S 26" 
S7» 30», 2 S 2» 3". 1 Ch 3'). G. B. Gbay. 

ABIO (V*nK|— I. Appears to be the name of a son 
of Abinodab (No. 1), and brotlier of Uzzah who 
drove the cart on ^^hich the ark was placed when 
rcnoved from Abin».UVn hniiw' (2S ti'-*. I V.h 13^). 
Ia all tliree caaes the LXX reudara the word oi 

&St\^ aC^ov, which merely involve* a difTerent 
pronunciation of tht wuue consonants — v.7(t ; this 
may be right, but on the wliolua propernnme seemn 
more probable in the context. 3. (LXX Ait\^ 
(A d6t\<f>ot) aifTcO, 1 Ch 8" ; dUrX^&t (A dSe\,f.ol, 1 Ch 
1>^) ] A eon of Jelel, and brother of KiKh. the 
father of Saul. 3. Another Aliio is mentioned in 
ihe genealogy of Benjamin (I Ch 8"|. Here also 
the LXX has ct$c\^^ (A d2f\^2) aiVoC, and in this 
case is prol*aMy right. Cf. Borthenu, in ivco. 

G. H, GRAY. 
AHIRA (nTf).— Son of Enan, oneof the litrihal 
princes who reprewnted Napht-ali at the ccnsuo 
and on certain other occasions (Nu 1" 2=* T'*'" 

AHIRAM. AHfRAMITES (aym, nrrwi? ^brother 
is exa!t«d').— Tlie eponym of a llenj. family — the 
Ahiraniite*, Nu 26* {V). The name A. occurs in 
the corrupt forma 'n*i (we Elll) in Gn 48" (P), and 
rnnv (see Ahakau) in 1 Ch 8' ; in defence of the 
originality of the fonn Aliiiam, see Grav, Stud, in 
JJeb. Proper Names, p. 35. G. li. GuAY. 

AHIfiAHACH {it^yrif * brother ha« supported'}.— 
A Danite. father of Oholiab (AV Aholiab), Ex 31* 
3ir" 3S^ ( I'J. 

AHI8HAHAR {^'nf (pauEal form) 'brother is 

dau'n '} is described in the Benjamito genealogies as 
one of the 'sons of Bilhan,' 1 Ch 7^. See under 


AHIBHAR (WT^ 'my brother has sung.'). — Super- 
intendent of Solotnon a hotisehold (1 K 4'). 

AHITHOPHEL ('j;hn(! 'my brother is folly'— 
0.r/. llch. Lex.), was a native of Giloh, a town in 
the BO utli -western part of the hi^'lilnuilH of Juda?a. 
ifh.'ntiEied uncertainly with a village llircc mile)> 
north-west of Halhul. He was a very influential 
counsellor of David, his reputation tor political 
sagacity being unrivalled ; but he wa.s destitute of 
principle, a man of craft rather than of character 
(2 S 1C'S-17=», I Ch 27"). lie joined the rebellion 
of A1'»talom, possibly through ambition, possibly 
out of symjMilhy with the re-sentnii^nt of his trilw 
of .ludafi at tim decline of itJt tribal pre-eminence. 
It is supi'osed by some that he was aim thu 
grandfather of Batlisheba (cf. 2 S 23^ with II'); 
but the identification of her fatlter with tlie son 
of A. is open tu question, though certainly posdble. 
The policy he advised was that Absalom should 
take ]>o*weit»ion of his fnther'd huruiu, thus showing 
that no panlon could be expected from David, and 
lliat ho sliould proceed at once in pursuit of liin 
father. When Hosliai'e counsel of delay prevai]e<l, 
A. recognised the necessary failure of tlie enter- 
prise, withdrew to Giloh, and hanged himself 
(2 S 17*). There is no other cose of deliberate 
suicide, except in war, mentioned in the OT, 
niitl the parallel in tlii3 NT is the case of Judas 
Allusioni* to A. have \m<m found in P» 41* 5fi"*" 
.'i9" and elsewhere; but these must not be treated 
OS designed, and no inference can be drawn from 
them as to the authonthip of the psalms. The 
Talmud and Midrashim occasionally refer to him. 
In the latter he is classed with Balaam as an 
iiiatauec of the ruin which overtakes wiiidom that 
in not the gift of Heaven ; and in the former {Baba 
baUtra 1. 7) the great kiutou of his life is said to be. 
'Be not in strife with the house of David, and 
break olF from none of its rule.' li- W. Muss. 

AHITOB {B 'Ax«T<5^, A 'Axn*-, AV Achltab), 
1 Es 8^ — jVn ancestor of Ezra, sen of Amarias and 
father of ISodduL [Ahituh). 





AHITUB (3^'Ct; 'brother is goodness'). — I. Son 
of l'lunfh&.4 aii<i ^Kndson of Kit, the father of 
AJiiiueltH'h ur Altiiah the priest who vaa put to 
acath »-v Saul ( I S 14' 22^ ^ 2. Ace. to 2 S 8" ( = 

1 Ch IS^*) the father, ace to 1 Oh »" Neh 11" tliu 
gmndfather, of Zadok tiiu jirirat who was con- 
teniuorary with David nnd Solomon. It i» very 
doautful, however, whether thin A does not owe 
his ejciitence to a copjriet's error. The text of 

2 S 8" should probably run ^Ss•.^lr;3 -/i*3ir pnsi 
sis'nM-;^ : 'And Zadok and Aliinthar the son of 
Ahimeli'i:lt, iho eoa of Ahitub' (so Wullhaosen, 
BiiddiN Kittel, Driver). 3. Still more exposed to 
suBpicioti is the existence of another A., lather of 
miother Zadok (I Ch 6"-", I E« 8', 2 Ea 1'). ♦. 
An ancestor of Jnditli, Jtii S', AV Aoitho. 

.1. A. 8ELnrK. 

AHLAB (3^.7»t). J'A I".— A city of A»her. The 
fiito is suji^iosed t-u be that of the later GukIi 
Halab or Gi^chjJa (Jo*. -Life, lU ; ly'ars, XI. 
xxi. 1), uow Et-Jish iu Upper Galilcu ; but this in, 
of conrwj, micortaiii. See Neubaiier, 6Voj. T<il. 
S.V. Gushliolab; and Rcland, Pal. Jtliutr. p. 817. 


AHLAI C^nu •() that!' cf. Ps 119»}.— 1. The 
daughter (?) of Shi-j^Ium (1 Ch 2*1, cf. v."). 2. The 
father of Zalmd, one of David's mighty men 
a Ch U"). 

AHOAH (rAfTu).— Son of Bela, a Benjamito (I Ch 8* 

= n;ri( of vj). See Ahijaii (6). The patronymic 
Ahohtte occurs in 2 S 23*. 

AHlIHAlC7>nii).— Ade8rendantofJudah(lCh4"). 

AHUZZAH {am 'posseaBor/ AV Ahuzun].— A 

man of Judah {1 Chi"). 

AHOZZATH (rrnti • possession').— 'The friend* of 
AbiiiiL'W-h, the I'liilittinc of Gerar, mentioned on 
the o«ca.sion when the latter made a leapao with 
Iwiae at Iteersbeba (Gn 26"). The pofiition of 
• king's friend ' may possibl}^ have been an official 
one, and the title a technical one (cf. 1 K 4^ 
1 Cb 27»). The rendcriiij; of the LXX gives a 
different conception, that of ' pronubua ' or friend 
of the Urido^rmini (Ox^fa^ o cu^t^ytiryii ai'rraO). For 
the fuui. tenniiiaiion -ath, cf. the Phil, name 
'Goliath' [see Driver's tmte on 1 S !7*) and the 
Arabian name ' Geuubatb ' (I K 11"]. 

H. E. Ryle. 

AHZAI (lijti for rr:m 'J' hatJi grasped.' AV 
AhMAl}.— A priest. Neh n''=Jahiepah, 1 Ch »='. 

AI Cv:). Jos T*-" S'-» lO'-a 12», Ezr S*. Neh 7» 
(Jer 4t>>, a clerical error for AR), culled Hal in 
Gn 12" 13' AV ; and Aija {k;h 'At/t/A] in Neh \l". 
In Is (1(P} Aiath (n^V). — Tlie name nieann ' heap,' 
nnd it is not enumerated as an inhabited place 
after the conqncst until about B.C. 7<HI, bnt seem.'* 
to have been inhabited after the Captivity. The 
situation is defined ns cast of Bethel, beside Beth 
Aven, with valleys Co the north nnd west (Joa 
gii. iaj_ 'I'ljy gj^p •which ngrecK with Ihuse con- 
ditions is found at H(tii/6n, immediately south of 
a L'onnpiL'uons stone mound calknl Kt-Trll, 'the 
mound.' There is a deep ravine to the north, an 
open valley to the west, and n lint plain to S. and 
h. This site is 2J niiica S.E. of lirtlicl, and on 
the road thence to the Jordan Valley. It is 
evidently the site of an ancient town, with rock- 
cut tomliH. See SIVP vol. ii. sh. xiv. Some MSS 
read Aija for Gaza (i.e. n-y for rr(y) in 1 Ch 7*, 
which appears to be the correct rendering- 


AIAH (n;v).— 1. Son of Zibeon (Gn 30" (AV 
AJah!. 1 Ch 1"). 2. Father of Riziwh, Saul's con- 
cubine [2 S 3' 21'- '•• "). 

AIATH, Is HP ; AIJA, KoU 11=".— See Ax. 

AIJALON U\h:v), AV AJalon, Jos 10" ID* 
2 Ch 28'"; Aijalon. Jos 2l-\ Jg 1» 12". 1 S ua. 
1 Ch C» S", 2 Ch 11" (in Jg 12" a place of 
the name is noticetl in Zebulun, other«ide un- 
known). — This town in Dan was in the Shepheloh, 
beneath Uie ascent of Bethhoron. It is the mcKlem 
tillage of Vaio. The name appears to mean ' place 
of tho deer.' The town is clearly noticed in a 
letter from the king of Jerusaluui, in tia- Tel cl- 
Ainarna corre»iH>nilence, as Aialuna. It was known 
to the Jews in the 4th oenL A.D. {Onajrutiticon, 
s.v. Aialon} as less than 2 Roman miles from 
EmmauH-Xiuonolls, on the road U^ Jenisalem. Thii 
agrees with the situation of Vfl.[o and 'AmwAs. 
See StVP vol. iii. sheet xrii. 


AIJELETHRASH-BHAHAR, Ps !£2 (title).— See 


AIM.- To ' luin at,' in the sense of 'conjecture,' 
'make guesses at,' occurs Wis 13' * For if they 
were able to know so much that they could aim at 
(iTTcr}(d^ofiat, RV 'explore') the world.' Cf. U. 
.Smith (I5U3), 'No mar^'el if he did aim that his 
death was near at hand.' J. Hastings. 

AIM (y, usually spelled 'Ayin, and represented 
in traiuditcratiou by ') in the sixteenth lettor of 
the Ucb. Alfbadet (wh. see), and so is used to 
introduce the sixteenth part of Ps 110. See 

AIN {\'S ' an ej-e, or spring '). — 1. On the northern 
boundary of Israel, as given Nu 34^'. It lay 
west (S.W. T) of Ribloh. It is almocst impossibfe 
now to describe the boundary tlicre given. 
Riblah lias been idcntifit-d with the village still 
bearing that name, 20 mile* south-west o( Hums 
(Kmcsa) and Zedad, with SadlVd some 341 miles 
oast of Hiblah ; oth«r points arc unknoH-n. Robiu- 
Gcin, following Thomson, places Ain at '^in ei-'Asy, 
tho main fountain of the Orontes, nliout 15 miles 
south-west of Kiblali {KesmtvJia (1S52), p. 53S). 
Conder identities this vrith Uazor-Enan {iteth and 
Mvah, p. 7 ff.). A description of this fountain 
of the Oroutes will be found in the passagca 
referred to. On the whole qnestiun, st-e under 
Palestine, and other places named with Aiu 
LQ Nu 34^^-^'; also A. B. Davidson's EzeJdei, pp. 
351, 3S2. 

3. Jos 15" 19' and 1 Ch 4*». Hero Ain and 
Riumon sliould apparently bo read as one name, 
Atn-Riuimou = En-l;immon, which sec. 

A. Uknukkson. 

AIR [D-!;p, diip, aipa.p6i) is the lirst of the three 
diriaions — ' the heaven above,' ' the earth beneath,' 
and 'the water under the earth.' lis lisnal sense 
is the atmosphere resting nptm the earth, with 
special terms for the highest heavens and for air 
in motion, as wind, breath, etc. As the locality of 
air is above the earth, so its language is tliat of 
the supernatural. As the cmbltuu of the iusub- 
stantiai, and the antitlic'tis of 'desh and blood' 
(Kjdi 3"*}, it is regarded as tlie dwelling-place 
of powers which, though under God, ore over 

Satan tR dcscrilted as ' the prince of tho power ot 
the air' (E[ph 'i'), and the war of the Lord is there 
lifted out of all tribal provincialism, and declare<l 
to be a world-wide conflict between elemental good 
and c\il. For safety and success in this battle ' the 
whole armour of God' is needed. In Dt 32*^ the 
heathen goila nre called SAaihim, the term by which 
mixlem JewK denote the malignant spirits that aro 
considered to itifust the air. The fear of oficnding 
them makes the unedacat«<d Jewish woman say» 




■ By your leave ' I when tlirowinf; ont wnter from 
her aoor-«top ; and the ilivnd of their conjugate*! 
power tnftkes tho Jewa walk quickly in the funeral 
procwmon. The same cniwratition pa«*ed into tha 
Chrirtian Chnrrli with revard to the ofHcacy of tho 
passing t>ell. The Jews in the synagogue-worship, 
when repenting the solemn watchword of Israo), 
'Heu*, O Ixracl, the Lord thy Gorj is one l>onl,' 
prolong the pronunciation of the word lov 'one,' as 
It proteation against tiie hostility of the air-jMiwers. 
8oe Demon. G. M. Mackif.. 

IKAN ti£l^>'— A descendant of Esan (Gn 30^). 
The D*mo appeoiB in I Ch l**^ as Jakan. 

AKATAN CAKari^, AV AcaUn), 1 Ea S**.— Father 
of Joanne.", who retunicd witli Ezra, called Hak- 
kfttan. Ezr 8"_ 

AKELDAHA (Ac 1" WH 'A«\«a/.4x. TR 'AwX- 
Safii, AV Aocldania). — The iMjjmlar name of 'the 
fiold of hlood,' bought with tuc money paiil to nnd 
returned by tho traitor, Mt 27'"". Tho language 
of Ac 1" fic«ms also to imply that it was so named 
as tlic •'(.■enu of hU Buicidu. It in not inijMimible 
that A 8pot so dcKlcd woold lie eagerly M>td and 
bought in the cirrnmstanoes de-'tcnl>eii. Such a 
plare most have alwaTs been ncwdctl (Jer 2*!*'), 
and at the time this * neld* 'was purchased, owing 
to the nmltitndo of 'strangers' dwelling in and 
irisiting Jerusalem, there may have been urgent 
need for a larger place of burial, and a dilliculty 
of procuring land Tor such a purpose. The placu 
had been pru^iou^ly known aa * the pottor's hold,' 
andsepniR 10 W identified with 'the tiott^fr'i^ housi-' 
of Jer IS* 19^, which was iii the vafl«y of tlm mm 
of Hinnom, the scene in earlier times of .Nfoleeh- 
wonhip. and snbfleqnently defileit as a place of 
borial (Jer 7**, 2 K 23'^). The traditional site 
b atil] known as Hakked-Dunim (in the 12tli 
rant, called Chaudeuiar, a ninnifcHt corruption 
of the original). It is situated half-way up tho 
hill, to the south of tlio Pool of Silonm, on a level 
spot. * It is now a partly mined building, 78 ft. 
long ont«ido and 57 ft. wide, erected over rock- 
eut caves and a deep trench.* OriginnJIv there 
bad been tombs cnt in a natural cavo, whicti forms 
the inner or soutliem port ; and thuu^^h these 
bare been broken tip to enlarge the i-pace, six 
• locnll ' remain on the vre-Mtern sido and two ou 
tho eaal«m. A deep trench has been cnt in front 
of the original rocK-tombs, 30 ft. deep, 21 ft. 
wide, and 63 ft. long. The wall built on the 
outer edge of the trench Is about 30 ft. hicb. A 
stone roof thrown over tlie trench joins tuo hilt 
face {J'EFSt, 18U2. p. 293 ff.). Am^ftreotly there 
was a clifT hero with a natural cave in the 
face of it. This may have Iwcn used, as caves 
fToqnently are, as a potter's workshop. But the 
name of the gate, ' Harsith/ Jer Id''' 'the gate of 
potsherds,' would rather indicate that the site of 
the potter's workshop was close by the gate, and 
not across a valJev' from it ; his work would al&o 
require a sopnlv oi water to bo at hand ; nor can 
the Valley ot llinnom be said to Iw. conclnKively 
identified. According to Euatsbins, Ak^ldania was 
on the north of the city : Jerome {by a slip or of 
dedgn) places it on the south. From the seventh 
century (Arculph) it has Uien pointed out on the 
preaeotly accepted sit-e. KralTt {Top. Jer. p. 193) 

tavB h* saw clay dug st Hakked-Dumm ; but 
Scuiuk denies that ^Kittcr'a clav ia found there, and 
sajn that only a kind of chalk used to mix with 

day is got higher up the hill • bnt even if it were, 
day ia not usod where it is found, but Arhere 
fM»lities for its use are greatest. The ownership 
of the spot haa been more valued in later times than 
vhea porchAMd by the chief piiesta. In the 12th 

cent, the Latins got it from the Syrians, in the 
lt}th cent, it wasin tliepos8e>N»ionof the Armenians, 
in tho t7th cent, of the Greeks, nnd it passed again 
to the Armenians, who at the close of that century 
paid a rent for it to the Turks. More strange la 
the virtue attached to its soil of qaickJy consuming 
dead bodies, because of which, not^rithstandinu tt« 
history, 270 ahiploails are said to have been taken 
to form the Canipo Santo at Komc, and seven 
shiploads to Pisa for a like purpose. Schick cal- 
culates tho accumulation in it of bones and small 
atones at 10 to 15 ft. deep. A. Hbxdi^kson. 

AKKOS ("A*-.:.!. A i 'Ax^iin, B ; AV Accoi), 1 Ea 
5*j= Hakkoz (wh. see). 

AKKUB (??K).— 1. A son of Eliocnai (1 Ch 3>*]. 
3. A Invite, one of the porters at the E. gate of 
the temple, the epunym of a family that returned 
from the Exile ( 1 Ch 9". Ect 2", Neh 7* 1 1" 12=*). 
colled in 1 Es.VDacubi. 3. Thennmeof a family 
of Nethtnim (Err2*»). called in I Es fi" Acud. 4. 
A Le\ito who hclrx-'d to expound the law {Neh 8'). 
LXX omits. Called in 1 Ls &" Jaoubui. 

J. A. Selbik. 

AKHABBIM (c'3-;pv nVn5), Nu 34', Jg 1». l.esa 
correctly Acrabbim Jos IS" AV, 'The Scorpion 
Piuw.'— The name riven to an ascent on the south 
side of the Dead bea, a very barren region. See 
Dead Sea. C. R. Cokder. 

AKRABATTIHE {'Airm^arr/ri?) in Idumira(l Mao 
5^, AV Arabattlne). — The region near Akrabbira. 

ALABASTER. See Box, Minerals. 

ALAMOTH, P8 4«{tit]e), iCh IS",— See PSAIJUS. 

ALBEIT.— Albeit is a contraction for 'all bo it.' 

nnd means 'id(l) thouL;h it bi\' Pra|n:rly it nlmuld 
bo, and sometimes is, nillowed by ' tlint ' ; but when 
regarded as a single word (^^nlthou^h), 'that* is 
omitted. It occurs only in Ezk 13^ 'a. I have 
not spoken,' and Philem" 'a. I do not say to 
theo ' (RV • that I say not nnto thee') : but is more 
freq. in Apocr., Wia 11» SuaW-" 1 Mac 12» lfi» 
2 Mac 4", J. 1I.VST1XCS. 

ALCIHUB {D'p.'^t' ' ^"^ "^^" "r>' grcciaed into 
'AXKi^iof, ' valiant, and nbbreviatetl into D'j;, whenre 
*[dx((/urr, Jos. Ant, Xll. ix. A, and 'Idn^ur, ib. XX. 
X. 3) waa the son {Baha hnthra i. ,13), or more pro- 
bably the sinter's son {Midrash rabba A3 et al,), of 
Jose boa-Joescr. tho famous pupil of Antigonus of 
SoeliD. He was a native of Zt:ruboth, of Aiirunic 
descent, bnt a leader of the Syrian and IlelUmi/in'' 
l>arty. By Antiochns Ku]Mitar he waM nominated 
to the high priesthood (n.G. 162), but was unable 
to exercise its fanctions on account of the bi- 
flnence in Jems, of Judas Maccaliieus. Retiring to 
Antioch, ho gathered around him ' the Inwlcjw and 
ungodly men of Israel' {1 Mac 7*). by which is 
probably meant sutth members of tho HcUouizing 
party as bad been driven from Jerus. by the 
successes of Judaa. As soon as Pemetjina Sotor 
hiul eMtablifihed himself at Antioch, the party of A. 
charged Judaa with treason, and secured the king's 
favour for thcmselvea. Demetrina was penraaded 
to renominate A. to the high priesthood, and to 
send an army nnder Bacchides, governor of 
Mesopotamia, with orders to in-stall A. and Ut 

Siuniitli thu Maccabees. The murcli of Bacchides 
oes not appear to have been opposed ; and at 
.Jems, it was found that many of the l^aaidim 
were ready to support A., ostensibly becanse of his 
priestly descent, out really pw"liap*i becanae of their 
suspicion of the dynaatio designs of Judas. Sixty 
of their leaders, amongst whom is said {Midrtuh 



AT.ffitrttiMBfe HI 


rabba) to bftve Iwen Jose ben-Joesor himself, were, 
liovover, sooD after put to death tOKether, by the 
order of the joint. repreBentatives of the SjTian 
king ; iLDd on thu iiart of lloct^hideji farther cruelties 
foUowfxL The eliect wa« to reduce the j>eoiile to a 
condition of suUcn stibmit^-'^ioti ; itnd Bncvhidiv* 
returned to Antioch, tearing a Huflkicnt force to 
maintain A. in his priestly and vice-refial di^tiity. 
For a very Bliort time the nupport of the h;rri'*ii 
troope cnaUcd him to carrj' out his IIclIeoizinR 
policy. But a reaction soon took place in favour 
of the party of Judas who forsook tbo retirement 
in wiiicli he had reiiiained during the presence of 
Bacohiden in the country, and made himself master 
of all tlie cMiltyint'diHtnuts. A. went in person to 
tlie kin^, and by means of lai'jje presents ftecured 
the despatch of n necnnd fori-e untler \icjinor, who 
was appointed to the goveniortdiip of Judii-a. 
Nicanor at firat formed on alliance, and apparently 
an intimate friendship, with Juda<«. But A., di.H- 
pleased at tlie neglect to inntall him iu hi» office, 
returned again to Demetrius, who eent strict orders 
to Nicanor to netxe JndRA and bring him at once 
to Antioch. Jadas nmnaf^ to c«caj>c from an 
attempt to overcome him by treachery; and the 
two armies mot at Adasa, near IJcthhoron, on the 
13th of Adat (March, B.C. 101). Nicanor fell in 
the battle, and the Syrian army was almost 
anniliilated. Another army waii collected hy 
t>emetriu!i, and Bcnt into Judiea under the com- 
mand of ^cchidea. JudoM vas defeated and alain 
at the Imttle of Elcnita, and Bnechideti proceeded to 
occnpy Jerua. This time Bocchides remained in 
the countrj', and etl'ectually protected A., who was 
at last able to discharge without liindrauoe his high 
mestly duties. His chief object oppcara to Iiave 
>een to abolisli the Reparation of Jew from Greek. 
With tlmt viL'w he commanded the duMtniction of 
* the wall of the inner court of thu limnctimry,' and 
also of 'the works of the prophets.' The former 
baa been identifie<l with the Sore^, or low wooden 
breastwork before the steps leading between the 
courts ; but the atlit^ion seems to bo rather to the 
wall itself, marking the limits beyond which 
Gentiles and the uncJeau were not allowed to rmjM. 
This was one of the separatist chanicteriMlics of the 
teiuple, aturibed in tru<.Ution itometimeti to Huggai 
and Zechariah, somtilime» to tlic memben> of ttiu 
Great Synagogue. But Iwfore the de.struction was 
completed, A. died [b,c. 160) of paralysis. I'ss 74. 
79. 80 have been iiiteriireted as relleclmg the senti- 
ments of pious Jews during his prie-sthooiL But 
the licat authority for the perio<l i-n 1 Mac 7*** 9''", 
though cautious use may bo made also of 2 Mac 
U'^r and Jos. Ant. XII. ix. 5, XII. x. 

IC. W. Mors. 
ALEHA {tp 'AXd/iwf A, AX^/^wi h), 1 Mac 5» — A 
city in Gileod. The site is unknown. 

ALEMETH (n?^s). — 1. A son of Becher the 
Benjiimitfl ( I Ch V, A V Alameth). 2. A de.<«^endfint 
of Saul (1 Ch8«9'-). 

ALEPH IK).— First letter of Ueb. Alphabet. 
See ALrHAUKT. Psalms, and A. 

ALEXANDER ("AWfai-aiwi).— The name occurs 
five tiniL's in NT, and apparently belongs to aa 
many di.Htinct persons. 

1. Mk 13^. A son of SlMoy of Cyrene, and 
brother of RUFV.s {»ee tlu^i^e nameii). A. and 
KnfuB are evidently expected to 1k3 familiar names 
to the readers. Very potwibly they were Christian 

2. Ac 4*. ' Annas tlie high priest toa3 thtrt, and 
C'lUaphus, and .fohn, luid Aiexnmkr, and as many 
OS were of the hindrcd of tlie Iii;;h prii?>t' (KV). 
Of this A. nothing further is known. Thu sug- 

gestion of BaroniuH, I'«ar>!on, and Liglitfoot, that 
lie was the well-known Alabarch (on tlii* title see 
Schilrer, JIJJ'li. ii. 28<,t) of Alexandria and brother 
of Pbilo (Jos. ..^11^ XVIII. viii. 1, cf. xix. v. 1), 
' licoroely needs )H;rious dincub^ion ' ( EdL-nilioinj). 
Pliilo was of higli and wealthy birth {Jos. XX. v. 2), 
bnt Jerome's statement {de Viris JUustr. xi.) that 
lie wa« 'de gencre sacerdotum* is unsnpported. by 
any evidence. 

'6. Ac \M°. ' And toma of the moltitode in- 
strncted A., the Jews putting him fonvard. And 
A. beckoned with the hund, and wuuM have made 
a defence unto the [>oopl«. But when they per- 
ceived that he was a Jew' . . . etc. etc. (R\ni|. 
The Jews were a natural and UKual obJEvt of 
the religious animosity (cf . ltf>&av\<n v.", ami Ho 2^), 
which on this occasion they had done nothing to 
I'ruvoke. A. is put forward by his co-religionist* to 
clear them of complicity with St. f'aul, but the cn- 
ruged mob will give no Jew a hearing. The absence 
uf uny r(r8iiggeatia(cf. v.") that A. wimwell known at 
Kphe-ius ; he may even have Itcon one of the i(rf&T<tt 
or Tcx*''"Q» of V.*, and thus identifiable with No. S : 
hut tliLt, although it \» staled (by Ewald, apud 
Ni^sgen, in loc.) that Jews were sometimes engaged 
in forbidden trades, lacka evidence. 

4. 1 Ti l'*-*". Mentioned with llVMliXAKUS (cf. 
2 Ti 2"] as one of the unconscientious teachers who 
)iad 'made shipwreck concerning the faith.' St. 
Paul ' dulivere*! them unto SatJin (cf. 1 Co 5*, ami 
see Satan). There is no atrong reoMin to identify 
tlm A. with No. S. 

3. 2Ti4'*. This A. (1) was a smith (xa\Kevt). 
The word originally meant a worker tn copper ; but 
as other metals come to 1>o more commonly worked, 
it became applicable (Lid, and S. g.v.) to workers 
ir( any metal, esp. iron ((In 4=^ LXX, see also 
Traiies). This maki« possible, but bv ni) means 
proves, the identity of A. with No. 3, i/ the hitter 
i-ould l>o shown to ne one of the craftsmen of Dcract- 
riua. (2) A. bfld 'done' {^i-tStiiam) St. J*»iil many 
c\ils; in particular ho bad greatly withstood (Wai- 
irrivnj, cl. Ac 13") hia words. (3) Timothy is 
cautioned against a tike experience. TIlIs last [>oiDt 
locates A. with Tiniotlny at Eplitisua, and makes it 
probable that (21 also refers trt Minietliing llmt had 
taken place when St. Paul wa--} lost tliere (I Ti 1*). 
If (2) refers to henOcat teaching, our preuent A. 
nii^'bt he identilied with No. 4. But (2) is equally 
coMipaiiblc with Jeicuh hostility ; and if tto, we 
migut eumbinc (1) and (2) with the objeetuf identi- 
fying him with No. 3. In any cose No. 5 is the 
only po.<utibIe link Iwtwccn 3 and 4. For niiccimens 
ctf Uie many pQ)<:sible conjectiiri^ on the wiiole sub> 
ject, see the comm. m toe. and Holtzmann, Pastor- 
(ilttrie/e, p. 255 s^. If, wit-li nmny critics, we regard 
the Epistles to Timothy as non-I'auline, we might 
follow the last-named writer in regarding Ac 19" 
OS the basis of the notice in 2 Ti ; but in reality 
the two jMLssages have nothing in common except 
till! name ; the malicious personal antagnntxm 
which is »o pix)itiinunt here b unLunteil at there. 


ALEXANDER III. ('.AX^farSpoi, 'defender of 
men'), knon-n as the Great, was the son of Philip U., 
king of Macedoiua, and of Olympios, a Molossion 
princess, and waa bom nt Pella, II.C. 3ul>. He 
tiucc&edcd his fatUi^r in B.C. S'Mi, and two years later 
set out on his eastern exiKKlilion. The battles of 
the GranlcuK (B.C. ;{34) ami of Issutt {D,C. Xi^) mode 
himmoBterof S.W. Ai'ui. Egypt was next subdued, 
ajui .Alexandria founded In B.C, 331. The discon- 
tent of his army thwarted his designs ujwn India, 
and in n.c. 323 he died at Babylon. 

For Alexander's connexion with the Jews, the 
princijial aiilhorily ts Jiw. Ant. IX. viii. 3-6. Tlie 
utory luns that, whilst lie wa-* ln'sicging Tyre, A. 
sent orders to the Jews to transfer Lliulr allegiance 




U) him, and to Rnj)iily liiin witli provUiooB and 
aiucUtariea. TUe hign priest refused on the j^Toimd 
of his oath of hdelity to Darius. A. dcstroyt-d 
Tyre, took Gaza [B.C. 332} after a two months' 
siege (Uiodor. xvii. 8; Arrian, iL 26, 27^ an»l 
marched a^jainst Jerus. Tho Uigli priL'st Juddim 
(Neh \'2."), or Striiun the JuF<t (I'twvi 60), van 
taught in a dream what to do, and led out the 
pric^tt* and the jieopic to meet him. At Sapba 
|n;x *be wfttA:hea': kD0\vn also as Scopus, Joa. 
IVtira, V. ii. 3, an uminenec near Jf^nu. whence city 
nnd temple were all vi>il»lL*i the priest and the 
king met. A. bowed Ixtfure the mvine name on 
the priest's tiam, and to the jiruteDtntionii of 
Parmenio replied that in a dreAin at Diunt he 
had Mjen sunh a fij^iire as .Itiddua'R, ond hail 
>»oen protnimxt huccu:*^ ami gutilanco on the way. 
Kscorted hy the priests, he enterwi Jenis., sacri- 
lieed in the temple under the direction of the hiyh 
priest-, and. when ahu\Mi the Book of Dan., inter* 
nret«d of himj>etf »ti'ch pn&'iages as 8=> and IP. 
Itefure leaving the i:ity lit; guaranteed to the Jewa 
ill ali hia duiiuniun» pmtectioa in the uimges of 
their fathers, and iinniuuity from taxation in their 
sabbatical yeaiv. How much of this story is legend- 
ary, it is impossible to deotdc. It ia fuund in the 
Tumud M well as in Jo^eplniB. TUe >*ilfncc of the 
olaasical liiatoriana {Arrian, Cartiu-s, PlutariJi, nnd 
the Epitomi-ita) is inconcluMivc, ns Uiey are gener- 
ally silent concerning matters relating to the Jowm. 
The ]}0»iitiun and the Htujiected ntritnde of Jernii. 
make a visit on the part of A. proWble in view of 
his coatempI.ite<l expedition against Kgypt. And 
though imuginnlion nns clenrly been at work with 
the details of the narrativi;, the bafnnct' of prol>a- 
btlity iK in favonr of its snl>stantial hiuturtcily. 

By A. I*a)u»tinu wan inidurhtd in the proWnre of 
Coile- Syria, nhtch extended from ]<ebanun to 
Egypt. The govi>nior vroj* Androniatlms, who choM 
as fits residenoe the tOMn of Samaria, because of it.t 
central |)u>itioD, and |>o»sibIv alnu of the atnunitie?* 
of the neiyhWurhood. At:ajn«t him the Kamuritiina 
rose in ruvojl, prompted by jcalouny of the privi- 
l^ed Jewit, by riMcntincnt at the estiibliiihtnent 
amongst theui of the iteal of govemmunt, or by the 
opportunity ufTordt^^l by the absence in Egypt of 
«iK*h of tlicir com luit riots as were most favournhly 
di9]Kvsed towards A. (Jos. Ant. XI. viii. 6]. Setting 
lire to the honse of Andromnchns, they burnt him 
alive. The newsi maehcit A. just after he )iad 
received the enhmi^don of Egj'pt; aiid, hastening 
back, he put to death the leaders of the revolt 
(Cart. iv. 8. 10), and removeil the rest of the people 
from their city, planting a colony of Macedoniuns 
in their ntead. From that time Shecheui. at the 
foot of Mt. Gerizim, became the religious centre 
of the Samaritans. Coins of A. Iiavo been found 
coined at Asbkelun ami Aeco [Pt4)leniai!)), andal^o, 
if Milllcr's idea tilii-at ions are cumiot, at ('a^aarea, 
ScytbopoliR, and Rahhah (Millter, Numutmatyjut 
tC Alcxnndre, StUV-SOH) : but it nnnnot Im inferred 
with eonfidtfnce that thesw towns were made by him 
Rub-cji(iifnl>* of distrirt-s as siioti coins were issued 
by the Dindochoi long after the death of A. Not 
noir were large nnm1)or« of the Samaritans i^^ttled 
liy liim in the Thebais (Jon. Ant. xi. viii. 0), and of 
Juwn in Alexandria (i6. XIX. v. 2: Apion. ii. 4) and 
in the Kgy)>. villngeA (noe the evidence of papyri in 
Miihaflj'. Ptolciaie-g, 8(3, n.l. but many of the latter 
fepT)«*r to have willingly enrolled tliLMnntelves in bin 
army. When he was rebuilding the temple of Bel 
In Babylon, his soldiers were ordered to asAist in 
removing the rubbb^h. The Jews are .laid to have 
refoBed on the gronndnt that any dealing with 
Idolatry was forbidden them, nnd that their Scrip- 
tares predicted the permanency of the dentraction 
of the t«mplu of Bel. They were threatened nnd 
I ponuihed in vain. Appealing to A., they were 

exempted from llie tofik, In virtuo of the original 
stipulation that they 'bhould continuu under the 
laws of their fathers.' The iniadent again la of 
doubtful authenticity ; but it is in agrvument with 
uU the traditions of the kindly attitude of A. 
towardn the Jews. 

In the Biblical Itooks A is expressly mentioned 
only in 1 Mac V'' (5^ though several passages in 
Don. are frequently interpreted aa ollndrng to him. 

LtnciLATrKK.— The ■onrccti of A.'s htttor? iu« FKvnln««l \a 
PrvttnAii, lliti. Bttayt, 2ni) Mr. £!<■. 5, to which add PftUl}*, 
ItR art. ' AlrswidpT,' uid Mohikfiy, PiiUmita, whero in f U 
vridoncn b ndductd in favour o( Vm noval auginBtlon, that A.'a 
fri«n<ljthip to Uh Jtnm wu duo to bi« dwin) to luw them Ma 
kind u( inbcllimiOf dvpaitaianl to hia ormr. For (ii« rabtrinjicol 
tnuliUona *ea Daranboorr. BUl. 4* la PaC L 41 (t. ; Ilamliuiinr, 
AJSK.44-47. ]*nyma,GH*/i.Ali'ji.anGmtm^HMiabaijf,ll&:), 
and (fetch, dc* UMmifrnxu (Gotba, 1&77) m ol apedal vaJuc. 

R. W. Moss. 

ALEXJLNDER BALA.8 Mas either a natural son 
of .\ntiochu!i Kpiph.incs (Joa. Ant. xiii. ii. \ ; lAv. 
Epit, fiO; Strabo. xiii.), or a lad of Smyrna who 
(datmed sncli »l«s«!nt (JiiRtin, xxxv. I ; Appian, 
5yr, 67). In the latter (more likely) cohb, tialas waa 
Ilia proper name, and itd etymology is unknown ; 
in the former case the name may be connected 
with the Aram. K^?9 'lord.' He also assumed faia 
reputod father's title of Epiplmues (1 Mac 10^). 
Ho waa set up as & pretender to the throne of 
Uometriua Sotor, whoso desjioti:iin tuul alienated 
his subivcts and otiended \u» neighliours, by the 
three allied kingfi, Ptolemy FhiloniKtor of I'.gyjit, 
Attains II. of I'ergnmuni, and Arinrathes V, of 
Capjiaiiocia. Tlie Kmnans al«o RHp|K>rted his 
olaini!) (I'olyhius, xxxiii. 14. 16), in accordance 
with their policy of promoting ci\il strife within 
kingdom.s that might become formidnbli?. He 
Kdcuretl the hein of Jnnatliati (D.C. irt.1) by nomi- 
nating hifii hign priest, and after »oniu reverses 
defeated I>«nH'.triu», who fell in the battle. Bulo* 
thereupon married Cleopatra, daughter of Ftolemy 
Philotuetor (for a fuller account of whoso rclationt< 
with Balos see Mahall'y. Emp. of PtoUmiea, g§ 2(t&- 
'IVi), and ap[>ointed (0.0. 1^0) Jonathan with 
sjieciiil houuurx (Jos. Ant. XIII. iv. 2) vrparrf^ix and 
fupti&pX'n^, milil4iry and civil governor of the i>ru- 
vince, although Syrian ctommandantjf were retainei) 
in Bov«ml of the principal fortrcTwcs. Hbi kingdom 
now estfl-hlishcd. liatai provml himself an incajuilde 
ruler, negligent of State nflhir.'*, and given up to 
self-indulgcnco (Miiiler, Ft\iffm. Hist. Orae. ii. 
pncf. x\*i, n. 19; Liv. Epit. 50; Ju.stin. xxxv. 2). 
iJemiitrinH Niuator, »on of Dem. Soter, invaded 
tlie coinilry in S.C. 147, and was nii]>iiorted by 
Apol loniuH, governor of C<cl«-Syria. But Jonathan 
defeated and slew ApolloniuA, and waa rewarded 
on the part of BaJas by tlui gift of Ekron. Boloa, 
however, was deserted bv hi» own soldiers and by 
the people of Antioch. Ptolemy, hi» faihoriii-law, 
entertnl Syria on the pica that Balu^ was plotting 
nguinstt him, and took up the cau-^e of Demutrius, 
to whom he transftirred his daugtiter Cleu])atra in 
marriage. Balas hastened from Cilicia, where he 
hud l>een trying to qnell a revolt, bub was d«;fpated 
by I'tolcray. He was cither slain (B.C. UH) in thu 
Imttle (Euseb. Chron. Arm. t. 340), or he fled to 
Abie, in Arabia, where lie waa nssASi-iQated (Miiller, 
/.r. : 1 >Inc 11"). The relation of the Jews to 
BuIhs, and tiie consisttmcy of their alliance, appear 
in 1 Mac 10**, RV * They were well pleased with 
Alexander, because he won the first that spake 
words of peace iinto them, and they "were con- 
federate with him always.' His nece.ssitiefl and 
Ilia unconcern made Juihca almost autonomous. 

Alexander Epiphanet, I Mac 10' -A. Balas. 

II. \V. Muss. 

ALEXANDRIA (4 'AXe$d*'£^m), the Hellenic 
capital of Egypt, waa fotiiided by Alexaniiir the 
Great, B.C. 3^. Under the early Ptolemies it 





rose to iniport^nce. And became tlin entnorlniQ of 
Lhe cuintiiurcti of Um Kaxt and uf lliu WcsL. 
Oblong in tiliripe and rounJed &t tlic ex(rumiti(^s, — 
Slralw ooiii]>.irecl it to the chlamvs nr i'li>ak uf Uie 
Maceiionian cavalrv, — it occupied ilie narrow strip 
of land which lay Mtween the eea and the Lake 
Marcotis. An artUicuLl luolc connected it \ntlt 
ihti ixload of Phoroa, and on either side of the 
mule were i-uiumodious harbours which received 
t ht) Mhijwi of Kurupe and Asia. The L&ke Mareotiv, 
wliirli WOK joined by a caiial to the Canot>tc uiouth 
of th« Nile, brought Lo it Lliu couimeicti ui the Ea^t. 
The beauty of the city was jn-overhial. One-third 
of it* extent was occupied wiLh royal palaces ntid 
open public grounds; and it had a system of wide 
regular streets with noble colonnades. Ita jxipula- 
t.iou, wliieh ainoiintcd to about 8lK).rj(>0 t^ouln in its 
tlourihhtng pi?.riud, ctmniHtAxl (rhtu-Uy uf Cgyptioitu, 
OreekM, and flcM'x, >vho occuiiietl iM.*i>arate quarterii. 
The KeKioJud.Toniin.whicli lay in the north -caetern 
portioD of the city, wat surrounded by walla. A 
special },'ovemor, colltxl the Alaliarch , presided over 
it, and the Jews were permitted to live acconlinjr 
lo their own laws. The Jews— the niorccnai-y rate 
OH tliey were called — were not popular with their 
fellow-cltixenii, but they were protected by the 
mlcnt, Greek and Koman, who ret:ogntBed tha value 
of their services to the commercisi prosperity of 
the city. \Vlten A. became part of the lUiuiaii 
Empire, u.c. 3u, and a panarj- of Home, tlie im- 
portant com trade with Italy fell into tlie hands of 
Jewisli meri^lianta. 

The Layidif were cmnificent patrons of learning, 
and it was their ambition to make their capital 
a place of intellectual l-eaowu. They collectud 
within Us walls the lartre^t library of'^antiquitj^, 
part of which waH housed in the temple of SarapiM 
m tJie Eg^-ptian (Quarter, and another part in tlie 
masciim which was vituated in tlie nrncliiuDi or 
lircek quarter. To the musenm wns attached a 
6tair of professors, who weie Balaricd by the State. 
It had a liaiiiiueting-ball in which the professors 
dined, conidors for peri|iatetic lectures, and a 
theatre for public dixputations. The chiuf subjects 
of study were granuuar, rhetoric, mathematics, 
astronomy, medicine, and geography. The sulioul 
of philosophical thought which lUtimately arose 
was ccIectiL-, a patchwork of earlier systems, and 
it clo.'wd itfl career bv dethroning pliilosophy in 
favour of religious tradition. 

For the student of (Christian tlicology, A. 
occupies an impnrtant place in the hi«tury of 
religions development as tha cradle of a school of 
Ihotlgfat in which the earliest attt-miit waM matle 
to bring the leaching of the OT into relation 
with Ilellcmc ideas. It was in A. that the Heb. 
Scriptures were Hrst translated into Greek. 
This translation, although it aften^'ards became 
' the first apostle to the nations,' was not made 
with a nuFuuunary purpuHV, being intended lu alTurd 
a knowledge of the Iiivr to the iminerous Jews who 
had grown up in ignorante of the Heb. hinifjuage. 
Dut Jtaving of>ened u]» their treasures to the curious 
Greeks, it Dccame necessary for the Jews to explain 
and to defend them. It was the claim of the Jew 
that the Ucriptures are the solo eonrco of a trnc 
knowledge of God and of human duty; but when 
he became familiar with Ureek literature, it wa>i 
imjiosHilile to deny that there also were found noble 
doctrines and excellent counsels. The Alex- 
andrian Jew offered an Awlogiii for Ins exclusive 
claim, which was repealed by the Christian Fathers, 
lived throiLgh the entire Middle Ages, and almost 
to our own time. I'lnto and l^ythugorus, he said, 
and oven Homer, borrowed all their wisdom from 
the OT Scriulures.. Arixtubulu-i, a JcwLih courtier, 
who lived aUmt the middle of the second centun* 
n.c., writer: 'Plato took our legislation as his 

model, and it iK certain that he knew the 
wliole of it; the same is txue of Pytliagoras.' 
In order lo gain venerated authoriiy for this 
attsertiun, the Jews com|>otied versea in the name of 
the mystic poets of antiquity, in pniise of Moses 
and of Juaaism, In his commentaiy on the 
rentatcueh, Ariatobulna introduces OrpUeus, 
and makes him say that he cannot reveal thu 
i'ltiii whom clouijs conceal; that the water-l>om 
MuMC« aluue uf morlida received knowledge front 
on high on two tablen, Another writer ot I'*gvi>t 
who wa.s a contemjKjrary of Ari.HlobiiluH, the autbor 
of the third of the Sibylline Hooks, introduces the 
Sibyl of Curaic, who speaks of the Jews as a nation 
appointed by God to be the guide of all mortals; 
and she olTers the coming Mcsj^ianic snlvntiou to 
nil nations if they will turn from their idols to 
»crvc the living <>ik). 

Having tliUH cstabHsheU lo their own satisfaction 
that Cenlile wisdom come3 from the Scriptnres, the 
JeM-» next proceetled to place it there by the help of 
the magic M-and of allegorical interpretation, llius 
interpreted, the narratives of i>cripture easily 
yielded up Platonic and Stoic dogmas. The 
Jewish Alexandrian philosophy, which began with 
Ariatobulmi and culmiuatvd in I'hilo, was an 
elaborate attempt to clothe Creek p!iih>>iup)uca] 
ideas in BcHnture language, and thus to confer 
ujKju tbem the authority of divine revelation. It 
n'aa to Platonism and Stoicism thai the Jewish 
scholars must naturally turned : for in the lofty 
uionotheism of the fumier, and in the moral 
earnestness of the latter, they seemed to hear 
echoes of Isaiali and Solomon. It was through the 
iulluenucof Platonic and Stoic couceptioua that tiie 
Sophia and the Logos assumed such importance in 
the .lewifdi Alexandrian philotiuphy. In the Heb. 
Soriplnres they had been ]tt*r»onitii!d, but they Mere 
now hyiio.sti.ti zed, and became intermediaries be- 
tween tlie creature and the Most High God. 

The Jewibh jihUosophy of A., which was not 
confined to A., hut spread through the whole of 
the Greek-speaking Piasimra, exercised a certain 
inlluence uitun the Greeks, who were drawn 
towards Judaism by its accent of certainty about 
God, whicli was always wanting vvvn m the loftiest 
tUeologj' of their own philoBophers. Its main 
inlluence, however, lav in its llellenizing of the 
Jews, who were enabled to appropriate Hellenic 
views of life without conscious apostasy from 
JudaLsuj. The extent of the inlluence of Jewisli 
Alexandrian philuf>ophy on the writera of the NT 
has Ifeen variuunly eMLimatexl. There are striking 
KimilaritieH betwefin the l^rminolngy and Hnme- 
times Wtu'con the tho»ghl*i of St. Paul and of 
the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews and those 
of Philo. But the similarities are probably dne to 
their common knowledge of the current teaching 
of tlie Greek -speaking synagogue. On the other 
liand, Uie direct prax:tieal spirit of the N'T writers 
otrent a strong contrast to the dreaiuy intel- 
lectnalism of Pliilo's allegories. 

The name of the cit^' of Alexandria does not 
occur in the NT. Mention is mode of a synagogue 
of the Alexandrians in Jerusalem (Ac 6*]. Apollos 
is dcserilxjd as an ' Alexandrian by race ' (Ac 18**). 
St. Paul sailed on two occasions in Alexandrian 
shipB, whicit probably belonged to the com trade 

It is remarkable that neither St. Paul nor his 
companions visited A., in some resiwcts the most 
prouusing missioiiarv field in the world. As rogords 
St. Paul, to hazard a conjecture, lie may Tinve 
been deterred by what occurred in ("orintli (I Co 
1^^), where Apollos followed him, and bv his preach- 
ing produced an unhanpy diviition without intend- 
ing it. St. Paul may Iiavt^ felt that hia simple pre- 
sentation of Chrii^t crucilied wt^iild be unwelcome 

■ mon',' hearers ancastomed to the word of wisdom 
in trofK) nnd ollefrory. If wo weru to nccejit the 
view of those critic;* who hold that A|>nllns wTOte 
the K|>i!itlc to Iho Hebrews to tliu .k-wish rhriii- 
tians of A., it would be easy to explnin St. Panl'n 
coadact, as it would have been contranr to his 
costoni to v'uat a ('huruh which a fuUuw-labourer 
luui already made his own {2 Co lO''). 

According to KuHebiun [liJi. ii. 16), St. Mark wati 
the firat who waa ncnt to Ktr>'I'''' ^'I>*^"^ Ii* pretirhed 
the gospel which he had written, and c^tablisheii 
choTches in A. 'The mnUitude of believciB.' 
he adds, 'both men and women, lived Uvca of the 
most cilrcmc and philosophical asceticism/ The 
statement of Kusebius about St. Alark. which he 
introduces with the formnla 'thev Bay,' and cod- 
ue<-ls witli fanciful legends, nas clearly no 
aatliority. His d»•^uJ^iI^li^ln, however, of the i-har- 
aoter of tlie early Alexuudri«n Church is pirobably 
correct. Purine the second und ihird centuries of 
our era Alexoudriu was the iritellcc-toal capital of 
Christendom. In tUo Alexaadrian heretics Bast- 
lides and Valcntinuii, and in tlie Church l'ather.i 
(Tleniunt and Ori^eu, wo observe how the spirit of 
Jewiffh Alexandnan philosophy passed into Chri^- 
liaaity. See Piiri.osoruv, Kki.jg!on. 

Ln-KRAniUL — Stnbo, Gtog. xvU. ; EuaeUut, Prmar, Scona, 
n : Pair. t:r. xkI. ; Or. SyS. iil. ; Mhne, &M. DarUdtL d. Jud.. 
Atrx, nri,-PkHo: ; Fkuly-WiMnim. KB\ Dnmunoiid, /'iUJv- 
JiMbVM; llftuinth, limti nf ApattUt. 

J. GtDB. 

tnim, 2 Ch JP »'"■ "; a-iz^v 'atmugqim. X K lu"- ", 
LXX. £<''.\o irei'-MTO : Vulg. lifjua thi/ina, iigna 
pinea). — Celsius (llierobot. i. 1 7 3) state* that some 
doubted the identity of the al;^m and the almug. 
Tblfl doubt, however, is not justified by the tranti- 
poealioQ of the letters In the two niiniea. Such 
tran»po.4ilion is extremely common in Heli. proper 
nanie'4 [e.g. JUhum, cr^, N'eh I2\ w calleil in v." 
of the same chapter Uarim, c-^h}. AVe are lold that 
nlj^m tree* were brought from Ophir (2 Ch 'iH"'). 
Alniug trceii M'cre also brought from Ophir (1 K 
lo"). Thcue passages are perfectly parallel, and 
plainly refer to the same tree;. 

But, in 2 Ch 2*, Solomon inRtruct* Hiram to 
seDd 'tvdar Iroos. Ar trees, and al^nim tnie» (AVm 
nlmuggim] out of Lebonou.' Did the term oleum 
in Leuanon f>\)£T\xly one tree and in Oj^hir another! 
This is possible. Cellar, in Eni;., is a|)pHed to 
voriouB species of Cupreatiu, Ahiea, ./uawertM, 
iitid Larix, as well as to Cednu Libani. Fir, in 
Kng., la applied to Rurcral iipcH!i(*s of Abia, and 
the Scoteli tir is Pin an sylvistrU^ L. Spmcu in 
uMd in KuTOpe for Ahitj fxcelta, L., and in the 
United States for three species of Abiet: A. Vnnn- 
ikiuvt, Mich., A, atba, Mieb., and A. nipra, I'oir. 
Instanoea of this might easily be moltiplied. If 
we accept this Eupi*osition, the passa^ is amply 
explained. Uut it aHbrds no duo to the name of 
the tteo gniwinfT in I-ebanon. If, on the other 
haad, tlie tree which Solomon requesled Hiram to 
tend was the same as that brought from Ophlr, 
was Lebanon a station for it T This is also possible. 
We do not know where Ophir was, nor what the 
tree was. It would be quite rash to say thai it 
could not ^row in both localities. Tlie cedar, 
mentioned in the same clause, j;rows in Lebanon, 
Amsjiuo, Taurufi, the Himala)-as, and the Atlas. 
ItisalMj uncertain what jfr itt alluded to in the 
(lasMge. There are Hrs in Lebanon, and al^o in 
NOrne, at least, of the localities proposed for Ophir. 
It is possible thnt the onknown tree had a range 
which included Leljnnon and (Jnhir. 

The conrlitions for anv candidate for the algiim 
or almnu tree, imiKjrlwl from Oiiliir, are— (II that 
it ahouju be a woihI of Kullicient value to tmikc its 
ifli[)ortatUHi from so distant a country as Ophir, be 

it Arabia, India, v-. i... j:,.-i i ■;..[ ■( Africa, pro- 
litable ; (2) that it t^lioaJd Uo suitable for ni>;:9 
tfrrncM (m. hiijhivai/s or sluirs, more properly a 
st'tirc/i.«e, 2 Ch tt"). and lyrj/ji/Zarj (m. a prop or 
rtils, more properly buiintraae, I K 10"), anci for 
harps ojiii psalteries. Fifteen different candidates 
have been proposed, amonj; them thjine -wood, 
deodar, Jir, hukm {Oesufpina Sappan). The 
majority of scholars, fotluwiug the opinion of 
(HTtAJn Knbbis, incline to (he rtd snrulal wood 
{Pierocnrpu.t Srtntalin<tt L.), u native of Coroman- 
del and Ceylon, There ia not, however, a particle 
of direct evidence in its favour. Against it is the 
fact that it occurs now in oommene only in small 
billets, nnsuitabto for staircases, balnstradea, or 
oven the construction of harps and pMilteries. It 
is, however, possiblu tJiat larger Eticks might hare 
been cat in ancient times. 

In the imcertainly which mnflt ever remain as to 
the identity of thij tree Intended, and with the 
probability that a considerable number of trees 
which grew in Lebanon are now extinct there 
owing to denudation of forests, and the possibility 
that the Lebanon algnm may have been a different 
tree with the same name, It is needless to suggest 
on interpohition of the poaance ' out of I^banon " 
(2 Ch 2«). G. E. Post, 

ALIAH (T.'^V).— A 'duke' ol Edora, I Ch l" = 
Alvah, Gn 36". 

ALIAK d.-l?;').— A descendant of Eaan, I Ch l*5« 
Alvan, Gn 36^. 


ALL.— There are few words in the Enp. Bible 
the precise meaning of which is so often missed as 
the word 'all.' llie foil, examples need special 
attention. 1. When joined to a pcra. pron. ail 
uKUully follows thu prou. in mod. u«»gc, in early 
Kng. it often precedes it. It* ^S" ' All we like tiheep 
have gone astray ' ; but Ih e-l" ' Wo all do fade as a 
leaf.' 2. All Btands for 'all people' in 1 Ti 4» 
'tliat thy profiting may a|)pcar to all.' 3. Follow- 
ing the dr. (waO. all is uwd with a freedom which 
is denied to it in mod. Kn^;. In He 7', 'without 
all cnntradicCion,' a]l=any whatever. Cf. Sbaks. 
Macbeth, III. ii. 11 — 

'Tilings without sU ranedjr 
Should b« iritbout ngord.' 

In Col !"> 'unto all pleasing' is a literal tr. of 
the Gr., and means *m order to please (God) in 
every way.' Similarly all is used for 'every' in 
Dt 22* ' In like manner ahalt thou do . . . with all 
{UV ' every *) loat thing of thy brother's ' ; Kev 18" 
'all manner of ve^oels of ivorj*,' and even without 
the word 'maimer' in the same verse, 'all thyine 
wood.' 4. All means 'altogether' in 1 K U" "till 
it he all gone ' ; Nah 3' ' Woe to the bloody citv ! 
it in all lull of lies.' Cf. Caxton (1483) 'The laiy 
wento outc of her wj*ttc and was al dcmonyak.' 
This i.<; the meaning of 'all' in ' All hail,' Mt 28", 
literally, ' bealU>gt;LherM-hole, or in iiealth.' S. Alt 
api>ears in some ititensating phrases. All along: 
1 S 28* 'Then Saul fell straightway all along on 
the earth ' (KV ' his full length upon the earth '} ; 
Jer 41' 'weeping all along as he went,' t.e. 
throughout the whole way he went; cf. 'I knew 
thftt all along,' i.«. throughout the whole time. 
All In aUi 1 Co 15™ 'that God may Ite all in 
all' (Gr. wAttra. iv wafftf, nil Otinqs in all [persons 
and] ihiruf»). Cf. Sir 43" ' He (Cod) i.^ all ' (t6 wav 
irruf Avrct), Different is Shakii. {Ham. I, iL 196) 

"Thke htm for all tn bU, 
I Bh&ll not look upvn lib like N:iLiii.* 

where all in all is * altogether.' All one : 1 Co 1 1' 
'that is even all one (UV *oac and the aam« 






thing ') as if slie were ihnreu ' ; Job »" RV ' It is 
oJI one' (Hub. r.vjv;((), i.e. it is a matter of indiffer 
vnce. All tho whole ucvuni in I'a 96^ l*r. Bk. 
'Kin<: unto t)m LoKD, alt the whole etirt}i ' [AV 
ami KV * all tiic earth '). This rudundunry is 
found in varioQii fonnH in old En^.t as * the whole 
all,' 'the all wliole/ 'nil and whole.' Fop all: 
Jn 21" 'for oil (snotwithstnndintil there wore bo 
many.' Cf. Tindolo'B Ir. of Ac IC' *for all tliot 
wd are Komnns.' Once for all: lie lO'^ (Ur. 
44>iwai)i this in the oalv occurrcDco in AV, and it 
uivea /wr all in ital. ; but KV, which omits the 
itAlicii here, yives the Winie tr, af this ft»lv. in He 
7" 9". Jiidw ', and ill map', uf Ko 6". In ] <_'o 15» 
it is tr. 'at once' in both v'SS. All to brake: Jfr 
9** 'And a c-ertain vvuinan cast a piuco of a mill- 
stone upon ALimi;loch'B bead, and all to brake 
(RV 'aud brake') hta akiill.' This is the moat 
intcrestinyof tlio-te phrases in which the word 'all ' 
if> found. Till: meaning i» not, ' and all in order to 
hrcak lii.-f skull'; the verb is in the pait tense. 
The ' to ' in not the nign of the inl'in., it gtten witli 
tho verb, like the Ger. wr, to ni^nify ojninder, or 
in pioc«8. So we find to-hnrst, to-cut, to-rend, to- 
rive. et^'. ' All ' wax prefixed to this emphatit: verb 
to give it Kreater emphasis. Hence ' all to-brake ' 
means *nlto;^ethcr broke in pieces.' Cf. Tindale'» 
tr. nf Ml 1' 'lent, they tread thcin under their fof^t, 
and the other turn ft;iain, and all to rent vou." Sir 
T. More says [iVorks. 1557. p- >22-l) 'She fel in 
hand with liym . . . and all to ratvd liini,' 

J. Hastings. 
ALLAMMELECH (^SV^)— Perhaps * Kinu's oak,' 
a town of Aslicr probably near Acco (Jos 10**). Tho 
site is not known. 

ALLAR (B 'AXKifi, A *AXi/>. AV Aalap), 1 Ka 5". 
— One of the leaders of those Jewi> wlio could not 
RJiow their peiH^ee a» Iht. at the return from 
captivity nnilur Zerubbaliel. The name seems to 
corrcapond to Imnicr in Err 2**, Nch 7", one of the 
placet from which these Jews returned. In I Ks 
Chemh. Addan, and finntcr appear as 'Ctoraatha- 
lan lending theoi and Allar.' 

H. St. J. Thackeray. 

ALLAY, not found in AV, i» introduced In? RV 
into Ec 10* ' yieldin;! allayeth (AV ' pocineth ') 
great otTences.' The meaning seema to be that a 
sjtirit of conciliation puts an end to ofTonces more 
canipletely than a stron;; arm. Cf. Shaka. i Henry 
VI. IV. i. SO, 'allay this thy abortive pride.' 

J. Hastings. 

ALLEGE owurs but twiee. Wis 18== 'a'"" 
{uTfo^i-ii/rat, RVbrinjiinj; to remembranne')theoalh!» 
and coveiianL-* made with tlie fathers' ; and Ac 17* 
'Opening and a""« that Christ muHt needs have 
sntlcrwl,' where it has the old meaning of adducing 
proofs {itaparidi/upoi), like l^t. alhgare, not the 
mod. sense of asserting. Allegiance, nut in AV, is 
given in RV at 1 Ch 12* tt» tr, uf rnpy^o ' Kept tlunr 
a. to (AV ' ICcpt the ward of) the hoii.«e of Saul.' 

J. IIastinos. 

ALLEGORY.— i. History or the Word.— 
The eubstantive dXX?ryo^o. with its verb i\\irr>fKvu, 
is derived from dXNo, tomething tlse, and iyoptCu, 
[ tptak : and is defined by Hernclitus (Heraclides ?] 
— probably of the firat century A.U. — as follows; 
d\Xa ftiv ^yoptinav Tphrm Irtpa Si wv \iyti tTTmaivciiv 
fwwyi'ifiufx dXXrryop/a iroXfrrai : ' The mode of 8))eech 
whi{:h sayH cither things (than the mere letter) and 
liLnta at diirerent things from what it exnressus, 
is called appropriately allegory' (c. 5). Neither 
Bubcitantive nor verb is found in the LXX; and 
the verb alone, and tliat only once (Gal 4=*), occur» 
In tliB NT, The word, whether sniwtantive or 
verb, anjiearsto bu altogether Iate4>reek. Plutarcli 
(fiouri»hed 80-120 A.D.) tclts us (De Aud. Poet. 19 

E) that ib was the eqnivalent in his clay for the 
more old -fashioned iiwl^ata., tiic t/ec/xr sen^e (or the 
figure expre^-<ing it), wliitli wan u Mjiccial feature 
in the Stuie pbiloDOpliy, with it« dtpartla {trcatvtenl, 
maniftulation)', and t'icero had not long before 
introduced oAXirfOfda, in its Greek form, in two or 
three jiaiuvigeH in h'm wnrtcs le.g. Orator 27 j Ad 
Aide. ii. 30); while Pliilo had frooly used snb- 
stantiveand verb early in the tirst century; ami 
the verl) it used in Josephus {Ant. IVotcia. 4) of 
some of tho wTitings of Moses. 

ii. DiSTixcTiVK Meaniso— The provinces of 
allegory, typo, symUil, parnhle, fable, nietnphnr. 
analoyy, mystery, may all truwcli uiion one 
another ; bnt eacti has its sneciality, and the saute 
thing can only reveivu the uiirerent names as it is 
viewed from the different points. AUesory diflcra 
essentialtfj from type in tliat it is not a prcumuition 
of future development, and tliut ther» is ni> ucces- 
snry historical and real correspondcncu in the mni:i 
itlea of the original to the new application of it: 
from »ymbul, in that it is not a lower grade nattir- 
mlly KJindowing fortli a higlier ; Cn^m piirahlo, in 
that it iH not a picture of a single ronipfic^t (mtli, 
but a trans]iarency through which the different 
details are seen as different truths, and in that it 
is not neceaiarily ethical in its aim : from fable, 
in that its lessons are not confined to the Aphcre uf 
practical worldly prudence; from tnetapliur, in 
that its interpretation is not immediate and 
obvious, but has to be sunght out Lhrougli the 
milium of verbal or phenomenal parallels; from 
nnalogv. because it is not addressed to the reason 
BO mucli aa to the imagination ; and from mystery, 
in that it does not await a new order of things to 
be specially inanifoiitcd and truly discerned. All 
these tropes may indeed be cioxstud under the 
allegorical or the figurative, so far as they all 
(Htiut to a senm) dilTerent from that ronlatned in 
the mere letter. But, conventionally anil in 
]irftctice. allegory has a sphere of its own. In the 
nn}i:<ij}eci^c sense, it has to do with the genoral 
relaMonA of life in its external reftemblance«. one 
thing being niirroretl in another aoccirding to out- 
ward appearance, so that the appearance of the 
one coti serve as the figure of the otlier. In other 
words, the thing put before the eye or ear repre- 
sents, not itself, but something else m <or»e toat/ 
like it. Thus tho fish was early used aa an allegory 
of Christ ; it was not, strictly speaking, a syinbof, 
or a type, or a parable, or any of the hgtires aliovQ 
oompareil. The reaeialdance was both far-fetche<t 
and outward, being evolved from the several lett«ra 
of the word Ix^vt a.s tlio initials of 'ItjutoCj, X/M<rr4T, 
OfoO, TJit, Zon:^p. Of allegorj* proper, mure or less 
elaborated, we have within the bounds of tho 
sacred books very little, [n the OT may be 
Instanced tho allegory of the Vine in tlie BOth 
Psalm, and in the NT tlio<te of the Door, the 
Shejiherd (Jn 10), amj the Vine (Jn 15). In tlie 
more confined, the ferhniral anrl historical sense, it 
denoted, especially for Alexandrian Greeks and 
Jews, the si/gfrm of tnta-prctation by which the 
most ancient Greek literature, in the one case, and 
the OT writings (and subseijuently the NT), in 
the other, wore assigned their value' in progKirtioa 
as tliey meant, not what tliey said, but sumethiug 
else, and could be made the clothing of uosmo- 
l<»gi(!al. ptiilosojdiical, monil, or religious ideas. 
Tliis leads us to the third and Final division. 

iii. ALi.RfiORiCAi, iNTKRi'KiiTATiON.— The ten- 
dency to allegorize has its foundation.* in huninn 
nature. Constantly and unconsciously wo read 
into the creations of other men, as, for example, 
into n pninling or a mctn, our own tboughtS) ri^n- 
ceptioMs, and emotions, and are scarcely to be 
peranaited that they were not the original thoughts, 
conceptions, and emotions of the creator. Ur, 

■Cain, vrhcn any lit«ratare has »o dueplv inwrought 
lUeU into the liearta and Uvea of a people as to have 
beixune a s&orcd and inseparable cotuttituent of 
their nature, and when time has nevertheless so 
far changed tlie curri-nt. nf t1inu(;ht as to tnukt; 
that lit«rature apparc-iitly inconsiHteui with tho 
new idea, or inaaequato to express it,— then tlie 
choice for the people lies hetween a ruluDtu hreadi 
with what is, by this ttiuc, part and [Htrud of 
BbCTaMlvea, and, on tho other hiuid, forciiir; the 
oU laiifni&};o to be a veliichi for the new lhou;^ht. 
EtenOD the tendency tonlk'j^'or}*, whicli inintiigfnoiia 
to human nature, becomed, in the abscnee of his- 
torical critictJim, also inttrUabie, except to the 
indifferent iconoclftst, if Biich there be. Allegory 
proved the sftfety-valve for Ureek. Jew, and 
Christian. During and, perhaps, owing to the in- 
teJlectoal movement of the lifth century !t.c., — in 
■pite of tlie sevure crilicft.1 di^provAtton of Plalo, 
whose mind was t>et on higher things, — Homer, 
the 'Bible of the Greeks, wa« aaved for the 
edncate<l by allegory ; with the ntories he told of 
the Kodd, ii he was not allegorical, he waa impious, 
or they were iinmoroL Heuce, from Anoxogorud 
onwards, the actions of the Honierio goda an4l 
heroes are lUlcgorieit uf tho forces of nature ; and, 
In HeracIitDs(nrst century A.D.), tlie 'story of Areit 
and Aphrodite and Huphifstas is a picture of iron 
subdued by fire, and restored to ita original hard- 
ness by Poseidon, that is, by water/ Or else they 
are the morements of mental powers and moiul 
Wrtnes ; and so, in Comutos (also tirst cent. A.u.), 
when CMysseos tilled his ears that ho might be 
deaf tu the sung uf the Sireiut, it is an allegory of 
the righteous fitling their senses and powers of 
mind with divine words and actions that the 
paMiona and pleasures which tempt all men on the 
sea of life might knock at their doors in vain 
{Hatch. Ilibbtrt Ltcturta, 1888, pp. 02. Oi). 

Botallegorizing was Jewish as well as Greek, and 
Palestinian as well as Hellenistic. Kotli sectiun.s 
of Jews Uited allegory for apologetic puriM>scs, 
but not with identical aims. The Pal. Jews 
allegorized tho OT, fmding a hidden sense in 
sentences, words, letters, and (In tho centuries 
after Chrirt ) even vowel - points, in order to 
satisfy their consciences for the non-oh«orv.ance 
of laws that bad become imjjracti cable, or to 
justify tniilitiiinal and tiflcn trivial increment, or 
to delend Cod against apparfnt inconsistencry, or 
the writers or historical characters against impiety 
or Inimor&tity : or, generallv. for homiletical pur- 
poses. Thtie Aldba (fiiBt ana second centuries a.o. ) 
daimed to hare saved by allegory the Son^ of 
Song* from rejection. Allegory was a consider- 
able element in tho Pal. Uaggadu (or inter- 
pretaiion), and there were detinite canons regu- 
lating its use. The Uelleniatiti Jews, whotte 
metropolis of oalture was Alexandria, and who, 
in the neighbourhood of NT limes, constituted 
the majority of JeM's, directed their apologetic 
towards educated tTrccks, for philosophical pur- 
poses, and allegorir-cd the OT to prove that ttieir 
aacrod hooks weru iirithiir tiurlianius nor immoral 
nor impious, that their religion had the same 
lationalc as Greek philoraphy, and that Moees hod 
been the teacher, or, at alt events, the anticipator, 
of Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. 
The Uellenietic thinkers desired to be Greek philo- 
Mwhcrft without ecai^ing to bo Jewlsli religionists. 
Tdos the Alexandrian vVristobulus (second cent, 
ac). reputed to be the earliest known Hellenistic 
allagorizar, in hu commentary on the Pent, ad- 
dressed to Ptolemy Philometor, sought (as Clement 
of Alexandrin says) to * bring Peripatetic philo- 
•o[4ix out of MoAcs and the I'ropheta.' But the 
npnaeDtatiTo Alexandrian atlcgori7cr was Philo 
(wdyizi&nt ceataryA.0.): he redoced allegory to 
vou I. — 5 

a system of his own, witli canons similar to those 
of the Pal. Haggddists. hut freely used, and 
adapted to philoKOjtUical ends bv means of the 
Platonic doctrine of ideas. Processing to retain 
the literal sense as carrying in itself moral teach- 
ing, he nevertheless maue the all^orlcal so tran< 
scendently significant (as tho soul in the body] that 
1<uUi literal and moral wore continimlly over* 
wlielmod : Wfurc the writer's determination to 
extract tlic allegorical at all co^ls and in ony sense 
that at the timis Kuite<l his mood, tho facts often 
ili^ppcarwi, the nnrrntivu wa» turned upside down. 
and, in the handling of the characters of OT 
story, the unities were entirely ignored. So, when 
it is said that Jacob took a stone for his pillow, 
what he did, as tho archetype of a self 'disciplining 
soul, was to put one of the 'incorporeal iniclligences 
of that holy ground close to his mind : and, under 
tilt* pretext of goiny to slefip, he, in reality, found 
rcp[.)H<< iu the intelliguuce which he had cliuwn tliat 
on it he might lay tiie burden of bis life. Again, 
Joseph is made, in one aspect, the tjrpe of the 
sensual mind, and, in another, of a conqueror 
victorious over pleasure. 

We Bud the Alexandrian method employed upon 
the OT as early as the Book of Wisaom and its 
allegorical interpretation of the manna in tlie 
Pent {\&^-)t and of the high priest's rube as the 
imaee of the wholo world (18**). 

The early Chrittiatia therefore found this current 
and acknowledged method of interpretation to their 
hand in the arpumonta they drew from the OT 
against the unbelieving .Jews; and, in particular, 
St. Paul and the Pnutinitits, iu their elFons to 
torn the law itself ngainxt the law-worshipping 
Judaisera. But not tul txj^t-apoKtolie tiine», cuJT 
minating in the times of^ Clement of Alexandria 
andOrigen, does the allegorical method show itself 
in any luxuriance. The method of Jesus and the 
sneakers and writers in NT ia tj-pioal rather 
than allegorical, and Palestinian rather than AJcx- 
andriao ; and. In any cose, is self-restrained and 
free from the ohsiraoterisUc extravagance of rabbi 
and philosopher. St. Paul, in his application of 
tho method to the command as to oxpu threHhing 
f 1 Co 9^), to the rock ( 1 Co 10*|, and to t]ie veil of 
Moses {2 Co 3"*-), is both PaloBtinian and Alex- 
andrian in disregarding the original drift of tlio 
paHHHgi^H and incidents, treating it as nothing 
(I Co D*^) in comparison with the typico- allegorical 
interpretation ; bat be ia Pal. in iHung hoinilelical 
in his aim and not philosophical, and in having 
persons and events in his perspective rather than 
nhstrQct truth. In Gal 4"*- he openly alhmia that 
Hagar and Sarah, Ishmuel and Isaac, tariv aWij' 
yopoLfttra, i.f. are (1) spoken or written of in the 
Scriptures allegoritally, or (2) interpieted allc^ori- 
cally (with his approval) in his owu dav; and, in 
treating them (somewhat after Philos manner 
upon the same subject) as representing two dilVerent 
covenants, one of the present and the otlier of tlio 
future Jerusalem, he approximates tu the Alex- 
andrian philosophical practice of allegorizing con* 
crete things, pursoiix, and events into abstract 
ideas ; but only approximates ; for not only is be 
clearly historical and t\-pica.t in his baus, and 
homiletical in his aim, out, if i7-iwt«x«» refers (as 
some think) to the numerical value of the letters 
according to the Ilabbinic Gematrio, he is, even 
here, Palestinian rather than Alexandrian in bis 
method of interpretation. In tho £p. to O^e Hebraoa 
the influence oi Philo and Alexandria comes out 
more definitely. The writer is an 'idenlbst whose 
heaven is the home of all tranRcondental realities, 
whose earth is full of tlieir symbols, and these ore 
moat abundant where earth is iiifwt aawed— In the 
temple (or tabernacle) and worahip of his people.' 
Ha IS Alexandrian in his frequent con trasts between 




the Invisible (IP), iniperiahable (8' 9=* 12*), arche- 
t}*iMJ world (8*), and tiie visible (H')» periahatle 
(XT"] world of HjijHiarancc (H*), tlio impeofeot copy 
((rMr<>Ma) of tlio former (9^ 8^) ; or, again, between 
Judoiuu an the Hliaduw [<rK<a} and Curistianity o^ 
tlio nearest earthly approxinialion {tU^^v) to the 
hcavealy snbetance (ru firovpdvta) [3*10'); and the 
allcpjry of Melchtz«<lek, haxttd not on tiie hiittori{\a] 
personage ao much as^ on the nature of the two 
psa^ng aUosions to him, combined vrith the tdgnili- 
c&nce of the great silence elsewhere in tbc OT 
as to hiH birth and doitcent, as well as of the two 
names Melchizeak-k ami Salera, — all theae together 
Iwing made th« fmmdjiLion of a logieal construction 
of the person and work of Christ as an einlxMiiinent 
of the preconceived idea, — can hanlly be cuiiKuIereil 
without regard to Pldlo's treatment of Melchizedek 
as an allegurv of bis apparently impersonal Lo^os. 
And yet, witli the expression In the 1 10th Pealm be- 
fore U8, *Thou art a priest for ever after the order 
of Melfhizcdek,' we must allow Pr. Westcott a 
certain margin of juHtilicution when he muinlains 
that the treatment of Melchizedek in tyjMcal rather 
than allegorical ; thoagh he appeam tn he too 
Hweeping when be affirms, ' There is no allegori,* in 
thin epistle.' J. Massib. 

ALLEMETH (n;Vs), AV Alemoth, 1 Ch 6"; 
Almon (i''E7i-), Jos 21". — A Levitical city of Ben- 
jamin. It is noticed wlUi Anatliulh, and m the; 
present 'Atvitt on the hilla N. of Anathoth. StVP 
vol. iiL sheet xvii. C. It. Condeh. 

ALLIANCE.— The attitude of the Israelites to 
forei(^ nations x-aiied greatly at difTerent periods 
in their history. In early times alliances were 
entered into and treaties concluded without the 
aligliteet scrujile. Even intermixture with alien 
races was m tar from being tabooed, that it waa 
one of the principal means bv which the land west 
of the Jordan was secured. Thus we are told that 
Juilah married and had children by the daughter of 
ft Cii[iajinite(f;n 38"), the tradition emtioilying the 
liistory uf thu idan in a personal narrative. Ayaiii, 
the condemnslion of Simeon and l.cvi (Gn S-***) is 
evidently due to the violation of a treaty previously 
entered into with Shet^hem (cf. the story of the 
Gibcouitea, Jos 9*, 2 S 21^). 

Kor the earliest period, then, it may bo held that 
treaties with CanaAnitisli clans were frequent 
and general. On the other hand, they played 
an ImportAnt [tart In the internal history uf the 
Mehn.'ws. Israel was by no means at first so 
homo;rcneons aa in often Bupimsed : the tribcR, 
practically independent of eacii other, were gradu- 
ally knit together by eirrnmslflnees. Common 
dangers led to common action on the part of two or 
more of them : the leaders conferrca together, or 
the chief uf the strongest clan, or of the one moat 
immediately tlireatened, assumed the hpad))hi]>, 
and the way wji* prepared for a cIobb confcderatitin. 
The times of the Jndgea fnniish ample evidence of 
thifl, and the monarchy had no other foundation. 
A very curious alliance, and one that proves both 
the looseness of the Heb. ooofedenicy and the 
readiness with which relations were entered into 
with forpignere, la that between Da^id and Achinh, 
king of Giilh (1 S 27*). Under it, David was pre- 
pared to light, on behnlf of the Irnditinnal enemiea 
of his race, against the Beiijainite kingdom of Saul. 
That he did not, wa-s apparently due wlely to the 
suspicions of his fidelity entertained by tnc lords 
of the Philistines. 

When the monarchy liccame settled and com- 
paratively jKiwerful under Solomon, treat iea with 
toreigners* in the stricter sense, liccnme ftpnnent. 
Holouion himself formed an alliance with Iliram, 
king of Tyre (1 K 5). and it is most probable that 

eome of hia marriages, and especially that with the 
daughter of Pharaoh, cemented a political union. 
The frequency ^ith wliieli ruliels and outlawn 
sought a refufje in Egypt made such a union 
dcHirahle. On the other iiand, the memorials of 
the capture of Jems, by ShiHhak of Kgypt disprove 
the conjecture that his attack on Rehoboam was 
made in mpport of Jeroboam. After the secession 
of the ten triboa, Israel and Judab both sought 
foreign assistance against each other. Asa, onbemg 
attao1ce<l by 13aaaha, bribed Itenhadad of Syria ta 
di&solve the alliance he had previously formed with 
Inrael, and to join him in his war ttitli that country. 
It wait nut until the rei^mi of JehuHhuphat and 
Ahal> that the two countries found theui^elves in 
accord, and fought side by Hide against the heathen. 
Their union was, of course, purely political : it tuul 
nothing to du with rclit^ious or sentimental con- 
Hideratlons. Ahab could alno form, or maintain, 
an alliance with the king of Plurnicia, and build 
an altar to Baal as the Kuurdian and avenger of 
the treaty (1 K 16"). With thn entrance of the 
AfiKyrions on the Fceno, a new i<eriei4 of alliances is 
begun. Jehu's tribute to ShalmiLneser was that ol 
a vassal rathor than an oily, and Menahem seems 
to have bribed Tiglath-pileser to aid him against 
his own subjects [2 K 15"). At this jmint, how- 
ever, the prophetfl Iwgin to inveigh against these 
alliancHjji (cf. enpecially Hos 8', In 30"), and the 
national excliuiveoess is finally perfected by Ezra 
and his school. J. MiLLAft. 

ALLIED {Neh 13* only) has the special meaning 
of connected by marriage. So Rob. of Glouc. — 

' And Hldf , ttut It iru to hiin rreat prow imil bonoar 
To b« in ■uoh miukgc nlieJ lu Uiu e[u|>LTuiir,' 

J. Hastings. 
ALLON, — 1. (B 'AXX*i», A 'AiXiJ^, AV AUon}. 
I Es 5^. — HiH deAcendanta are the last named 
among the children of Solomon's servants who 
returned with Zerubhabel. Be may be the same 
OH Ami ('^ 'Uftei\, the lost named in the parallel 
list in Ezr 2", or .4mon [t^v 'Hfuin), Neh 7"; 
but the (»ght. preceding uamus in 1 Es have no 
parallela in the canonical books, so that the 
identification is doubtful. Fritzwhe conjectures 
t-Joi AWwk, meaning 'etc' 2. A Simeonite prince, 
I Ch 4". H. St. J. Thackeray. 

ALLON BACOTH (ms? |SV<, AY A. Baohnth. 

'oak of weeping'), where Del»ornh. Kelwkah's 
nnrw, was buried, was at Bethel (Gn So"). See 

Bethel, Oak. C. R. Conder. 

ALLOW. — Two distinct Lat. words, nllaudan, 
to praise, approve, and atlocnrf, to place (the 
latter through the French a/ot«r), assumed ia 
Eng. the same form 'allow.' Consequently in the 
fi%'e occurrences of this word in AV tiiere are two 
diatinct meanings. 1, To approve: Ro 7" 'Fur 
that which I do. I a. not' (Gr. ytruaKu, hence KV 
'know not'); Ko H'^ 'Hanpy is he tliat con- 
denineth not himself in that thing wliicli he 
f,rih' (RV 'approvoth'): I Th 2*; and Lk 11^ 
'Ye &. the deeds (RV 'consent unto the works') 
of your fathers.' Cf. Pa 1 1' Pr. Bk. ' The Lord 
ao"* (AV and HV Hrietli') the righteous.' 2. 
To place before one so as to fee and admit it, to 
acknowledge, nccept : Ac '2-1'° ' Whiiih they them- 
selves also a.' (Gr. Tpco-fi^x'^Mtti, BV 'look for,' m. 
'accept'). Allowable (not in AV or RV) is found 
in Pref. of AV='worthy of approval.' Allowance 
JR alflo in Pref. AV— approval, and hna been intrc- 
iluced by RV at Jer S2" in the mod, sense of 
' portion ' ( AV ' diet '). Cf. I Es V. 


ALMIGHTY is used in OT as tr. of '^ 48 times 
(all the occurrences of that word) of wli. 3! are 




in Job. In NT it is xM&i as it. of mrroxpiTup 10 
UmeB ifiil Uie occarreuceti of ttial word), of vrh. 9 
are in Rer. It is alao heq. in Apocr. See God. 

J. Hastings. 

AL HOO&D iTj^t*), the Crat-nameU son of 
JoktKi, Gn Kfi*, 1 Ch 1* The context Boenu to 
imply tliat somo tribe or ULatnct of 8. Arabia is 
mo&nt, but tlie naine bu>i not hillierto been klunti- 
fied with certainty. The first element has been 
variously exjilaiDefl as the Ar&b. article (thin is 
perhaps inteniknl by the Mjuworotio niin^tafttioD ; 
80 DUlmann on Gn lU"), as thu Si'tn. Si {' God ' ; sc 
UaJivy ), and as the Arab, di | ' family ' ; so Gloser, 
SkiKMi, ij. 425). The second clement fioems clearly 
to be a derivative of the vurh ttxuid (to love), of the 
swne atem as tho noiue Wadd, a god uf the 
MinieanB and oth«r Arabian races. As a word 
that con be read Maudad ia applied in inscriptions 
to the Gebanites in their relation to the kinss of 
Ma'ln, GlasdT ^ucccsts that Lho name should be 
rendered ' the faiuily to ^vhom the office of Mandad,' 
i.f:. some prie-Hthuod of Wadd, * was assigned,' and 
that the tribe Hhould be identified with the 
Gebanit«8, whom he places in the 3.W. comer of 
Arabia. Oihem have Huppo»ed the word to be 
corrupt, and have corroctea it Al-Murati, the well- 
known name of a tribe of Yemim. 

D. S. Makgolioctb. 

ALHON.— See Allemetu. 

ALMON-DIBL&THAIU ln9:pWi^B. Nu 33**- ^ 
— A station ia the ioumvyiu{^ prub. identical with 
Beth-diblnthaim, Jer 4B". The meaning of the 
word Diblathaim is a double cake of figs ; its 
application to a town may indicat« tho appear- 
ance of the place or noiKhbourhood. Conder 
snggoets ' two discs ' with reference to some altar- 
stone or dohuen (cf. Helh and Moab, p. 2C2). 

A. T. Chapman. 

ALMOND (np;' afUAtd). ShAkfd is, like many 
names of plants, axed fur both the plant and its 
fruit. Thus in Ec 12* nnd Jer 1", the reference is 
to Uie tree, while in Gn 43", Er 25»-" S"**-*, 
Na I"*, the rGfercnce ia to the fruit. The Arab. 
name for the almond is lauz. The same word 
occuTB once in OT (Gn 30"), where it ia wrongly 
tTanslat4.-d in AV Hasol. The Heb. eq^aivolont, 
11^, is nndonbtedly another name for the almond, 
probably the more ancient one. 

ThesJimond, Amtjgdalus eotnmunu, L., boloc^ 
to the order Rosacece, tribe Amy^dalem, and Is 
a tree vitli an oblong or tiphericaJ oomua, from 
fifteen to thirty feet high. The br&ocJies are 
•onewhat straguliag, especially in the u-ild state. 
The leaves are lanceolAte, tmrrate, m-ut*-, three to 
four ioebes long, and most of them foU during' tlie 
winter. About midwinter the bare tree is HtLdtlenly 
<x)ver6d with blosMims, an inch to an incli and a 
half broad. Although tho petals are pale pink 
toward tlieir base, they are osually wbiti«h toward 
their tips, and the general oifcct o'f an a]in<jiad tree 
in blossom is white. As there are do leaves on the 
tree when the bloftsaiOA come out, the whole tree 
■ppeais a mass of white, and the otVect of a largo 
number of them, intcntpersed among tho dark- 
trroen foliage and gulden fruit of the lemon and 
orange, andthe feather^' tops of the palms, is to give 
itn indescribable charm to the January oud Febru- 
ary landscapes in the orcbardo of the large citie-s 
of Pal. and Syria. Soon after bloasounng, the 
deJJcate petals begin Lo fall in soft, »<nowy showers 
on the ground under and around the IreuH, and 
their plane is taken by the yuung fruit; and, at tlic 
same time, the yotmg leaves begin to open, and 
the tree is covered with foliage in March. The 
yonag fruit consists of oa obluug, Outtcuud, dowuy 
pod. which often attoios n length of two and a 
ualf to three inches, and a tbickncss uf two-thirds 

of an inch. This pod Is called in Arab, kur'aun- 
el4au3, and just before ripening it has a crisp, 
cQciimberdike consistence, and a pleasant acid 
t&ate. which are greatly liked by the people. 
It is hawkud about tho streets during the months 
of April aud May, and eaten with great relish, 
eHjHKisJly by children. At this stage the shell 
of the nut is yet soft, and the kernel juicy, 
with a slight smack of peach • stone flavour. 
Very soon, however, the succulent flesh of the 
outer envelope loses its juice, and dries around the 
hardening shell, to which it forms a shmnkon, 
leathery envelope. Tho kernel acquires firmness, 
and in early summer the nut is riM. It is then 
from an iucii to an inch and a half long. Almonds 
are, and always have been, a favourite luxury of 
the OrieutjUs (Gn 43"). They make a delicious 
confection of the hulled kernels, by beating them 
into a paste with sugar in a tnortAr. This paste, 
moulded into various shapes, is called Hariaet-tl- 
laus. The half kernels are spread over several 
sorts of blancmange, called mahailxbtyeht and 
nosA/iirfyeA, and mughli. Almonds are also 
sugared as wttli a». 

There are BUvural epecies of wild almond in PaJ. 
and Syria. (1) The wild state of Amt/'jdahu com- 
munis, L., a stunted tree, with smarier bloHBomji 
and pods, and small bitter nuts. Somo of the 
varieties of this have leaves less than an inch long. 
(2) A. Orientalii, Ait,, a abmb with apinesoent 
bnuM^es, small Kilvery leaves, and bitter nuts, 
three-quarters of an inch long. (3) A. lydmdu, 
•Spach, a shrub with intricate, stifT, Hpiny branches, 
linear-tanceolate, green leaves, ana a bitter nut 
half on inch long. {4) A. rpartioitUs, Spach, a 
shrub with few linear-lanceouite leaves, and bitter 
nuts, a little over half an inch long. AH of these 
share more or less the pcouliarittcs of fiowering 
and fruiting which belong to Uie cultivated al- 

The Heb. word for almond signifies the ' waker,' 
in allusion to its Wing the first tree to wake to life 
in tlie winter. Tho word also oontains the signifi- 
cation of 'watchin;^' and * hastening.' In Jcr I" 
tho word for ' almond tree ' is tfUikia, and the word 
for ' I will hasten ' (v."), ahOk^d, from the same 
root. Tho almond was tJio emblem of th; divine 
forwardness in brin^^g God's promises to pass, 
A similar instanoe m the name of another rosa- 
ceous [tlont is tho apricot, which was named from 
pracoeia {eariy) on account of its blossoms appear- 
ing earlv in tho spring, and Its fruit ripening 
earlier than its congener the peach (Pliny, xv. II). 

The usual interpretation of £o 1'2° ' the almond 
tree tdinll lluuritih,' ia that the old man'H hair aliall 
turn wliit*.^ like the almond tree. To tliisGesenius 
otijects, that the blu»Kuni uf the almond is pink, not 
M'liite. He prefers to translatu tbo word for 
flourish by spurn or reject, making the old man 
reject the atmoml because he has no teeth to eat it. 
Hut this ubjeetiuu has no force. Tho pink colour 
uf the almond bloiisom Li very tight, uitunlly mainly 
at the base of tbDj>etal.i, and fades m* tiiey Q[>eu, 
and the general cliect of the tree as seen at a dis- 
tanoe is snowy- white. The state of the teeth has 
already been alluded to (v,*), * and the grinders 
cease because they are few,' and * the sound of 
the grinding la low.' We may therefore retain 
the Leautlful imagery which brings to mind the 
mlver hair of tho age*!, and draw from the snowy 
blossom the promi«o of the coming fruit. 

C. E. Post. 

ALM80IYINO.-L The History of t/ut FTorrf.— 
This is mteresting and instructive. The Gr. word 
t'XfijfiwivTj, from which alma Ia derived, is one of 
thoMO words which owe their origin to the use of 
the Gr. language by Jews imbued with the religious 
and ethical ideas of OT. The LXX (incladiug the 





ApO(!r.)«a|^U«ithe greutcat variety of exunples 
oi the senses trivea to it. In tmine pasMigen it 
appeam imposMiulu to dbitiiiguiMh its ineiuilng frnin 
tuat of fKtot ; bat rXct^^ioatV?), as derivctl from the 
adj. i\r/!ubrr, which dencribcs a m(?rriful rnan, who 
18 Iiinwulf aa it wore a ooncrotc oxmnpic of mercy, 
properly denotes tho exhibition of the fjnality, 
rather than the inward feeling. It is ased of God 
both in the sing. [Is 1*^ 2S", Sir 17*, Bar 4") and 
in plur. [i*8 i03 (Sept 102j ', To 3"]. A deep sense 
iiiat God's ffoodnefm hod been and wonld be itrovi>)i 
in deeds, is Hpceially cbarnctoristic of revL-aled 
religion ; and tbe need for expressing this may. in 
port at leoat. hare been the motive fur coining the 
imclassical term which we are considering. It is 
used of men, also, to signifv (1) the showing of 
IdndneM, the practice of worKs of mercy (Gn 47^, 
Pr ia« 20^ i>l=", Sir 7'« etc.): and (i!) tjarticular 
works of mercy (Pr 3>, Dn A^ [Kng. 4"], Sir :j,V 
[Sept 32*], To 1=^ " etc. ). By the time at k-aat that 
the books of Sir Jind To wei"e writtfii, it had ooine to 
be a tiuite upecifie description of deed.'i uf eompaiwon 
to the poor. The iiuportancn whicti this class of 
actions )md acqnireti for religions minds is thus 
marked bvthe adoption of a special word to denote 
them. Tnc LXX, however, docs not snpply any 
clear instance of tlie tranafercnce of the word to 
the aotnal ^fta bestowed. 

Tlie LXXemploysitnaan equivalent not only fur 
ipij (mercy K but Bonietimes for words denoting nght- 
eooaness, piy, ng^v, nirj* (Dn 4**). The thoaght may 
saggeet itself that we have here signs of a tendency 
to regard A., after the manner of tho Talm., as the 
chief and most typical of the works whereby that 
righteousiieas may be acquired wliich makes man 
acceptable with God. But this ii more than 
doubtful. It occurs several times where righteous- 
ne«s is predicated of God (la 1" 28" 59"). In one or 
more of tlie following passages, where words for 
righteousnes-s are tr. m LXX by i\tTjticcCfij, a 
liunian quality may be in view (Pa 33 TSepL 32]', 
Dt fi» 24", Ps 24'[Sf^t. 23]"). But in each caao 
a dilicrunl intorpnilatuin, at least of the LXX, 13 
pos»iblo. Thy conceptiuii of rigliteouain-'-y) in OT 
IS a large one, and not wholly dehnite. Lender one 
aspect it wears almost the character of mercy. 
And it ipay tiavo been from a more or less clear 
consciouaness of this that the renderings just re- 
ferred to were adopted. >'either in tlie Apocr. 
nor in the LXX of tlia canon, books do tliure 
appear to be exomiilea of the use of SiKtuocvvij 
for 'almsgiving,' tliough it is true that eXeti- 
/wffiVi) and iiKatoff^vr} are coupled at To 2" 12*- » 
in a manner wliich shows a strong association 
of ideas between thoni. We have, however, an 
indication of ttiis lEabbinic usage in tho best 
ann|»orted reading of Mt 0'. 

In NT the wotil in used in Mt and Lk and in Ac, 
but always in the sense L'itlier of A. or of alms — 
the actual gift (for tho latter see Ac 3- '). 

The Lat Fathers, from TertulHan and Cyprian 
onwarda, and tho Old Lat. and Vulg. VSS employ 
the word eleeitwsyno, transliterated from the t^r. : 
only, however, in those eases wlicre thoy hiul no 
exact or convenient Lat equivalent i<rom Lut. 
eocles. usage come the various derivatives in the 
languages of modem Europe (Eng. almtj Fr. 
avm/hte. Germ. Almosen, Ital. limogina). 

U. Jewish Teaehin/f. — Some ronsideration of this 
is neceastuy, if we would rightly appreciate the 
teaching of NT on the subject Evidence of the 
importance which A. hitd acquired for religious 
minds among tlie Jews of tlie 2nd or 3rd cent B.C. 
has already come before its in tho fact that a 
special name was assigned to this class of actions. 
They had become one of the common and acknow- 
ledged observances of tho religious life, a matter to 
be attended to by the religious man in the sonae 

regular and careful manner as prayer and fasting, 
with which we tind A. joined (see To PS*. Sir 7*^, 
and cf. thu conduct of tho earnest proselyte Cor- 
nelius, Ac 10^*). It is ro;;;ardcd as a specially 
cllicacinuA meann of making atonement for sin 
(Sir 3'*- •• 16'*), and obia.ining divine protection 
from calomity (Sir 29" 40»*, To H^"- ") ; the merit 
thereof is an unfailing possession (Sir 40^^} ; the 
religious reputation to bo won thereby is held out 
OS an inducement to tho practice of it (Sir 31 [LXX 

Such features in the estimate of A. are, if possible, 
still moremarkeii in the Talm. .where ^i^f, righteous- 
ness, is a recognised name for A. The perform- 
ance of worlu of mercy is set forth a» a means 
vrhercby man may be aoooonted righteous in the 
sight 01 God, like tlie fulfilment of the coramami- 
meuLs of thu Law. It is even more meritorious 
than the latter, because it is not exactly prescribed, 
but lE>ft, aK to its extent and amount at least, to 
the individual. It mtiat not, however, be supposed 
that all the Itabbinic teaching on A. tends to Helf- 
righteousness. It has a better side. Thesuperiority 
of those deeds of kindness in which persona! eyni- 
pathT is shown, and which involve the taking of 
tronfile, over the mere bestowal of gifts, is clearly 
in«i«te<l on, and there are sayings which strikingly 
enjoin conaideration for the self - resjiect of Iho 
reuipieatfl of bounty. (See F. Weber, Sygtem d. 
altiijnaqoqalen Palmist iniscAen Thcologic, p. 273f., 
and A. Wiinsche, Xeit* Seiir. s. Erldut. d. Evann. 
ati3 Talmud u. Midrasch, on Mt 6'-*, Lk 11" 

iii. The Teaching of the AT.— In tho Sermon on 
the Mount (as reeordud in Mt), our Lord, after 
setting fortli His New Law as n true fulUlment of 
the Ancient Law (5""**), proceeds to treat of certain 
chief religious observances from a similar point of 
view (0'-") ; and, in full accordance with the Jewish 
thouglit of the time, that one which He takes first is 
A. It may seem stmnj^e that He docs not mora 
directly correct th« (^rrnntuUH notions of merit and 
justification which had already become nsHuciiittMl, 
in more or \&s definite form, with such works ; and 
that He speaks of a divine reward for them without 
adding anv warning against misunderstaniUng, He 
content't Himself with requiring purity of motive, 
indiHcreitce to and even avoidance of human praise, 
and self-forgct fulness. But, in truth, if we learn 
to test the quality of the motive for, and the 
manner of performing, each deed, with reference 
only to the judgment which God will pronounce 
upon it, that temper of mind, that faith aud 
humility and sense of personal failure ami sin, 
which suone are consistent with tho principles of 
the gospel, will beseoured. Another ver>' signili- 
cant Haying of onr Ix>rd on A. is given Lk 11*'. He 
there enjoins it as the true mi-auR of purifj-ing 
material objects for our UHe ; it i(* a counterpart to 
the ccremoniat washiugs of the Phari.'H'es. Lk 12" 
is the only other passage in the Gospels where the 
word < \r77/io<ri>i7 Is used. But libcrahty in giving is 
frequf-'ntlv inculcated or commended (Mt fi*" W, 
Mk 1(F, 1.k 6»»-» 14'* 16* IS"). In the Acts tho 
.Jewish u-se of the term ia illuatrated ; it docs not 
occur there in any Chriittian precept. But that 
feature of the life of the Christian community at 
Jerus. in the first days, as there picture*!, which 
has been called communism, is more properly an 
example of abounding charity. 

InChristendom during many centuries the duty of 
A. (primarily, nu ilaiiht, from a dc.<iire of obeying the 
commands of Christ) received great, and sometimea 
exaggerated, attention. The danger now is rather 
that, through fear of the ill-effects of indiscriminato 
A. , the disponition to give and the habit of doing 
so sbuuld be discouraged. A practice, however, 
enjomud as this one is, must permanently hold a 






high jilace in llie ChrisMaa rule of life. It is the 
function (t( iniKlem economic and social knowledge 
only to make ita exercise more wise and Iwne- 
ficial. V. H. StaKTON. 

&LM06.— See Alguu. 

ALOES, LIOM-ALOES (c*^;^ 'ahO/im, rtSritj 
'aMlothi.—Tlie word Aloea is used four times in 
the OT and once in the NT. lu Nu 24" the 
Heb. word is c')r^, the LXX axijral, and the AV 
Lign-Atitet=Lifinum. Aloa. In Pb 4r>" the Hel>. 
is rfiS,i|i, the L.VX ffTO«TT}, and the AV Aloes. In 
Pr 7" the Ueb. ia d-Vci*, the LXX t4v 6t oIkov, 
>nd the AV Atou. In C& 4>* the Ueb. i« rMnv^, 
the LXX dXiitf, uul the AV Alou (RV agroca 
with AV in a]]}. 

It in clenr that in the pounagus in No and Pr 
Lhe LXX haa followed a different reading from 
the MT, and has arbitrarilT' translated the same 
word atafte in the Ps and olotK {aloe] in Ca. In 
face of the ivracticnl identity of the words 'ohAlim 
and 'oAd^fA, it U fair to reject the various capri- 
eiooA renderings of the LXX^ and assume that the 
word haa the same meaning in all the four OT 
pannages. In the liuit three of tlie^ie patMigcs, 
and in the NT (Ju 19*), the reference \a plainly 
to the aroma tic. 

Celsius [ilierobot. i. 135) arcuea that thU sub* 
stance ia tlie AqvUaria AgaUocKa, the Lignum 
Atou or Alcu Wood of commerce. This wood 
yms well known to the ancients, and is descrilxid 
under its Arah. name 'M in uontudcrable dL-tail 
by Avioenna (ii. 2!}1), in hrief as folJuw» : ' Wirad 
and woocty roots are brouj^lit from China and India 
and Arabia ; and some of it i^ dotted and hiackish ; 
and it is aromatic, styptic, and sliphtly bitter ; 
and it is covered with a leather^' bark. The beat 
variety ia from Mandalay, and comes from the 
interior uf India. The uisxt beat ia that which is 
called Indian, which comes from the moantains ; 
and it has thta advantaffs over the Mandalay 
variety, that it does not i^reed maggots. Some 
persons do not dLsiinr^sh between the Mandajay 
and the l>ett«r kinds of Indian. Among the cood 
kinds of 'ud ore the Samandury, which cornea from 
China on the borders of India, and the kuniar}* 
from India, and ilie kukilly, and Lhu kotlmury, 
and of inferior f^gtecies the Hillav and the \lahilay, 
and the Ijiw.Afy and th»> linbt^^*. To Hum uj), the 
\tieX,'^d\s that which sinkN in water, and that which 
floaJte is had. It is said that the tmnks and roots 
of the 'tiff arc bnried until the woody fibre decays, 
leaving only the aromatic substance.' Avtccnna 
follows this description with a detailed account of 
th« medicinal and other properties of the alo&s 
wood. Ue alludes to the wood aI»o under the 
heading AgfatUQji, which is undoubtedly the 
i^f^XXaxop of the Greeka, and the Agall<jchum uf 
the Bomons. The snbetanoe is now known to the 
Arabs bv the names 'id-es-foltb, '^d'Cn-nadd, 
'^-(i-bai^Ktkr, and eJ'vd'el-hom^ri. 

The order Aquilariaoco; supplies several trees, 
which produce commercial aloe.s woml. The most 
noted of theae ia A'/vi/iria Agallocha, Kuxh., a 
native of Nonhom India, whicb grows to a height 
of I9() ft. AquUaria secundnria-, of China, pro- 
ilacea some of the varieties alluded to by Avicenna. 
it is a well-known fact that the fragrance of the 
wood of the species of Aquilaria is developed by 
dvcay, a process which iiiliaAtened by Imrying the 
wooo, aa ahove olludGd to by Avi».'nnii.. While 
we have no ]ioHitive proof that the aloes wood ia 
ll«! aromatic intendeil hy the Ueb. original, there 
b no food reason why it should not be. The 
iimilanty of 'oftAlvth to i.-f6.\)<vx'>* ia sufficient to 
cctablislt a strong probability in its favour, and 
b the aliMDoe of any other probable candidate 

i[> may be received with a fair meatfare of 

It must be understood that the above-mentioned 
plant haa no connexion nhilologically or botani- 
cally with Exoaicaria «<7a?/ocAa, D.C., of the order 
of Kuphorbiacea}, an acrid, poisonous, non-aromatic 
plane. Nor has it anything to do with the ulliuinal 
Alois, of the order LiUoces, a plant nut allmbsd 
to iu tlie Bible. 

There remains the ditficully of the passage in 
Nu 24* ' as gardens by the river's side, as the 
trees of lign-aloes (o'Vcif) which the Lord hath 
planted, and as cedar trees {^'n^) beside the 
waters.' The LXX has rendered the word cicn'al 
as if ^mttcn c^ink, which means tcnU; but besides 
the irregularity and iuuoniiiatency of thu LXX in 
the translation of the wortt in the other pOJtsiigeH 
iu the or, it would ho straiigu that, in a triple 
parallelism of the intensive and cHmacteric 
onier, beginning with gardens and ending 
with the prince of trc©«, the royal cedar, the 
word tents, ioiitca<l of a kind of trees, should be 
interjected. We may dismin this as wholly 

We have alao to remember that the same nojuea 
may be used for more Than one object in nature. 
Thin is point4_'d out, in dutaii iu our iirticli) on the 
/l/<7«7rt. In Lhe Eug. name Aloe, for the plant, now 
uiider coneidenUion, and for the otllcinal Aloes, we 
have an instAcce of two very dilToreut plants, of 
widely diverse properties, beaiiug the same name 
It in tlien quit^' pos-iible that tho trtQ of Numbers 
might bo totally diircrent from the arvmatic sub' 
stance of the other passages. In Eng. the labiate 
UHDUM Melissa in called balin. Impatteiu is called 
(MtUam. Populua baUamifera, L., var. cnudicana, 
is called balm of GiUad, a very different plant 
from the balm of Gileoil of Scripture, and the 
word balm is applied to many diverse substances. 
There is nothing, however, to prevent tlie anppoai- 
tion that the tree of Nuniliers is tliat which pro- 
(Iur(>d LhetiubHtanceof the LiLhL>r piutsa^«». It in trne 
that, the tree is one of tronicol Arabia, India, or 
China. But Balaam's propliuey was uttered in full 
^iew of the tropical valley of^ the Jordan, where 
the climate would have made it quite poKiiblu to 
cidtivato these trees. There la nothing to forbid 
the idea that thiM and oth&r trees not now known 
in Pal. were cultivated in the then weJilthy and 
]K>pnlouR Jimian Valley. At least twenty - five 
distinctly tropical wild jilantaaro indigenous mthta 
valley. In describing hi.i bride, Solomon compares 
her with a garden in which were pomegranates, 
camphire (henna), spikenard, saffron, calamns, 
cinnamon, ^vith nil kinds of frankincense, myrrh, 
and all tho i^hitif spices iCa 4'*' "). Halaam might 
havti looked over such a plantation when he mado 
his triatich. 

On the other baud, it is not neceKftary to assume 
that ho aaw the trees to which he alluoes, or that 
either he or the Isra<elit«a were familiar with them. 
In the climax he mentions tho ecdar, doubtless the 
ccdur of Lebanon. It is unlikely that he had ever 
seen one. It is certain that tho Israelites had not. 
Hut it watt a w^U-Urmwu troe, oiid suitable for the 
eoinpari»on. The alhi.«ion to the 'cedar trees be- 
Riiie the watem* shou'iithat the picture in ideal and 
poetical, aa cedars grow in dry places on the lofty 
mountain sides, and never by water- courses. The 
aloe tree might have been equally well known by 
ritputation, although unfamiltar both to Haloamand 
iliti It^nielitc^ personally. It i.t riuite certain that 
the Bpice trade waa very active through thu tSyriaii 
and Arabian deeerta in ancient times, ana the 
pplces and aromatios tberefore far more familiar 
tu the people of the border lands of Pal. and iiyria 
than now. So that whether the plants of Nn 
W and Ca 4'*-'* were cultivated or not, they 

were well knonn, and comparisons based on them 
welt anderstood. G. £. Post. 

ALOFT IB found only in 1 Ea B" 'and now is 
all larael a.' ; H Vm * exaltrxi: with a ref. to Dt 28" 
'thott shalt be above {same Gr. word io LXX 
iwAfu) only, and thou Bbalt not be beneath.' 

J. Uastikos. 

ALONG.— In Jg 7" wo read ' all the ehildron of 
the east, lay a. in the valley like gTaaslioppers 
(RV "lociiaLs") for multitude, and in v." 'the t«nt 
lay a.' The name verb ( = to fall) la used iu Ueb., 
and the Em». jihrase was prob. intended to have 
the same meaning; in Itoth phrases, andlang (Ger. 
gntlang). at length, oil the length. Cf. Jth 13". 

J. Hastincs. 

ALPHA AND OHEGA.— This ia found in 
Rev 1* 21* 22^^ In ttie Unit passage it ia uiicd of 
God the Father, in the other two of the Son. In 
the Til it «Tonply appears in Hev 1". This 
phraae calls for treatment in two reapecta ; (1) as to 
itxform, (2) a» to its meaning. 

1. That the form of the piiraee was familiar, or, 
at all events, caaily intelligible from the outset, is 
cloar from later Heb. analogies. Uub before we 
tonch on these it is worth observing that a kindred 
idiom Ih found in contemporary Latin literature. 
Thus in Martial v. 26 we und : 

Quod alpha dixi, Cotire, poennlatomm 
To nuper, aliqua cum jocarer in charta ; 
Si forte bilem mont hie tibi versos, 
Dica» Hoebit beta me togatorum. 
Cf. also ii. 57, and 'i'houdorut, HE iv. 8, ^fjxU p^r 
ixprfaifit&a ry iX^ Mx?^ "^^^ <^* Amongst tlie later 
Jews the whole extent of a thing was often ex- 
presfled by the first and last letters of the alphabet. 
Thn8{Schocttgcn, Bor. Heb, in loc.) rm was a name 
of the Shechmab, because it embraced all the 
letters. Ace. to the Jalkut Hub. fol. 17. 4 Adam 
transgressed the whole law n lyi 'ko from aleph to 
tau ; aeo. to fol. 4S. 4 Abraham observed the 
whole law from atepfi to tan; and, fol. 128. U, 
when God blosws IwrcI He does it from aUph to 
tau (i.e. the initial and closing letters of Lv 26*^^". in 
which the bleitsings on Israel are pronounced), out 
when Ho cnrscft iRiacl He does so from vav to 
mtm (see Lv 26"*^j. We may therefore reason- 
ably infer that the title 'Alpha and Omega' is a 
Gr. rendering of a corresponding Heb. expnasion. 

S. The thought conveyed in this title u essenti- 
ally that of Is 44", p-mK ':ki ps-in '3k ' I am the first 
and I am the last' (cf. 41* 43'*). The phrase thus 
signifies * the Eternal One' It is thus expounded 
hv Aretas (see Cramer's Caitna Grtrea in Jv'T on 
Hev 1': 'A.\<pa iii rb ipx^" ttyai, Sri xal ri iXipa 

aifTuiw. dpx^" ^^ <c<i^ T^Xot rJi cCk h» ifvo^ci Ti> vpiiirot 
ffiffiatineffiu nal ri (trxiToi ; 3*4 roO rpH/roi 84, Td 

i»eifiXOt il'l'04'lTai, til* Ka.1 Sii TOW ^ffxiTflV tA ATt^\tt''' 

TijToi. In Tertullian, Monog. 5, there is the follow- 
ing interesting cx|H»iitiuti : Hie nt duos Grteciir 
litt«ra8, sunmmni ec ultiniam, sibi induit dominiu*. 
initii et finis concurrentium in s« figuras, uti. 
qnemadmodum A ad H unqne volvitnr et run>uft 
(] ad A repUcatnr, ita ostenaeret in se esse et initii 
decoraom ad finem et finis recnranm ad initium, 
ut omnis dispositio in oum desinons |>cr qucm 
coGpta est, per scnnonem scilicet dei qui caro 
factus est, proinde desinat ^uemadmoaum et 

Cf. also Cyprian, Ttitim. ii. 1, 6, 22 ; iii. 100; 
Paulinusof Nola, Carm. 18. W5; 30. 8» j Praden- 
tius, Cathem. ix. 10-12. 
Corde natus ex Parentis, ante mnndi esordium 
Alpha et R cognominatus. Ipse fons et clausula 
Omninm quiu sunt fuertint qua'que post fulura 


Although in Rev 1" Uus title is used of God ttie 

Father, it seems to be confined to the Son ia 
Patristic and subsequent litorature. 

K. II. 

ALPHABET ia a word derived from alpha and 
beta, the names of the first two letters in Greek, in 
which they are meaningless, being adaptations of 
the corresponding Scm. Icttcr-namca nicph, an ox, 
and bcth, a house. This etymology discloses much 
of the history of the A., which onginati;d among a 
Sem, people, by wJiom it w-is tran8niitt«d to tlie 
Greeks and hv them to tlie Komaii^, whose A., 
with a few trilUng mod ili cations, we Htill use. 

It is now known that all the alphalwts in the 
world, some 2i)0 in nurolwr, are deHnended from a 
primitive Sem. A., usually styled the Phuin. A., or 
the A. of Israel. 

The universal belief, or possibly the tradition of 
the ancient world, as rejwrted by Plato, Tncitns, 
Plutarch, and other writers, was that the Plit^ni- 
cians had obtained the A. from Egypt. This 
seemed so probable that after the hieroglyphic 
writing had been recovered and deciphered,Topeatod 
attempts were made to show how the transmission 
might have been elTocted. This, however, proved 
to bo no easy task. At the time of the Heb. 
Exodus, tlie hieroglyphie picture-writing was 
already a venerable sj'stem of vast antiquity. 
Existing inscriptions make it possible ta traoe it 
back to the time of the 2nd tlynasty, some 60O0 
years ago, when it already ajipears in great 
perfection, arguing a prolonged period of ante- 
cedent development. Setting aaide a multitude of 
idiiugntiihic picture -signs, there are about 400 
jtictorial phonograms, 01 which 4[> had emerged out 
of the H^Mlabic stage, and had attained a sort of 
alphabetic character ; that is, they either denoted 
Towels, or were capable of being associated with 
more than one vowel sound. Of these, 25 wore in 
moro universal use than the rest, and it was mainly 
out of these, as we shall ace, that the letters of the 
A. were developed. 

To a French Egyptologist, Emannel de Koug^, 
belongs the honour of having discovered the prob- 
able method by which the Scm. A. was evolved out 
of tlie Egyp. wTiting. De Rougi jiointed out that 
the immeiliatc prototypes of the i'hcen. letters 
were; not to be found, as had been i^uppoined, in the 
pi^^Lurinl Hii^ruglyptiH of thi! inomitnriitK, ur in tJko 
well-known cuiwivu Hieratic of the Middle Empire, 
but in an older and more deformed Hieratic script 
whitli prevailed in the time of the Early Empire, 
— a form of writing so ancient that it had already 
fallen into dt.4asc before the Heb. Exodus. This 
obscure and dittiotilt script is chicfiy known to us 
from a single MS., now in tlie National Library at 
Paris. It goes by the name of the Papyrus Pnsae, 
haWng been presented to the Library by M. PrisMa 
d'Avennes, who ohtalnod it at Thebes, where it 
was found in a tomb as old as the 1 1th dynasty. 
It is therefore older by many centurios than tuo 
time of Moses, older tlian the invasion of the Shep- 
herd kings, and older probably than the date 
usually assigned to Abraham. 

Forty-five of the Egj'p. Hieroglyphics had 
acquired, as we have seen, a semi-alphabetic char- 
acter, and De Roug^ contended that the Hieratic 
representatives of 21 of the most suitable of these 
Hieroglyphs were selected, and employed by 
some Sem. people as the prototvpcs of tuo A. they 
constructed, only one of the 22 letlera being due to 
a non-Egyptifui source. Tliese Hieratic characters, 
traced fruni the Papyrus Prisse, are given in col. 2 
of the table, and the comtsiKinding Hieroglyphs, 
which face the other way, will be found in col. 1. 

The oldest Scm. forms with whit;h we are 
acquainted arc sliowu in col. 3. In lonijiaring 
tlicm with their as.<iumed Hieratic proti>type!) it 
must be remembered that they ore not uoatcm- 













K^ « 











y ^ 





















^ V 





Dak 111 






1 -\ 

































H n 







f c 
















J ' 































V ^ 


:3 ii 



























































f 5^ 











y V 




























\ 1, 11. Ill IV, V. VI. vu. 



\ OoL I. EorrriAt HiauMLrrtnn, f>rinr to th« Ml. Col. 11. Hiikatiu CaAKAcmB, taxing lo 
I hUunoK I'li-vxiaax Lkttkim, froni tb« Bs«l LcbuMii %aA MuaUtc InacripUuna (twc XJ. to IX, n 
I tahft, from tlM< coin* <•( tho 8«tni>iM Mid Bcyp^ inmlptlotia ftod p«|>jri <m«. T. lo 1. I.e.). Ool 
\ mn iDMcrlptiortf mnur Joniulem (H»ro4iui perioclX Col VI, SqrAHB llBUiinr, from Ilabj-loniaa 
1 CoL V[I. aaCAU HvHUtw, tram Oodwx Bkbylooicua at St. lVt«nl>urir (UIO jlu.). OoL YUL Uoon 

th« rtAbt. 

ck Ool. IV. 
V. OuiMf 8 
bovrla (mc 1 

tx SttfARa H 

Col. ni. ouiEiT 

Aiuxjuy, ritflit 
V. to VIL 1,0.), 





porary forms, hut nxo sejiarat^d by at least ten. or 
more probably hv twelve centurieH, n. periiki iluring 
whioli considerable dtUcreiices of lonii moat almost 
necessarily liave ari>icn, in addition to which the 
HieraUc foriiiK arc cursuve, freely traced on papyruK 
with a bnish, while tho Sein. lutt«ni aiu lapiuury 
types, en^ared with a chisel apon stone or bronze, 
which wonld entaU djH'erenoes of fonn similar to 
tliose which exist between oar printed capitals 
A, B, E and the script forms a, b, e of oar modern 
bandwritiUK- This alone would account for the 
alterations m the ^liapuij of Guch letters as dalcth, 
httk, rcaA, or mem, the cliaage from a caraive to a 
lapidary tv]>« caueing the charnctera to become 
mure re;^il;ir in size and inttlination, bold uurvea 
being simplitied, closed ovaU heooming triangles 
or Bqnarcs, and the cur\'ed sweeping tails betom- 
inff straight and rieid lines. 

I'or 21 of the 22 letters of the Scm. alphabet De 
liong^^ has found a prub. Hieratic prototype, in 18 
caaaa taking the normal Kfyp- Cijuivalcat of the 
Bern, sound, and in 3 instances only, aUph, beth, 
and cnijin, having recourse to a Ices usual homo* 
phone. In one c&se he huJa. The pocnliar guttural 
breatiiing deDotod by the Scm. letter 'at/in did not 
exist in £gyp- Bpticch. For this letter no £gy[>. 
prototype has been discovered, and it is supposed 
that it Mas an invention of the Semites, the lymbol 
Ol*eiu{; regarded, ait the name suggests, as the 
picture of an 'eye.' (See No. 16, col. 3.) 

How, when, or by whom the Sem. A. wah 
thus evolved from trie Kgyp. Hitsratii^ it ih im- 
possible to say with precision. The po»i«ible limita 
of dat* are believed to lie between the 23rd and 
the ITtli eenttiries B.C. It seems probable that the 
devulujmiunt was effected b^ some Scot, people 
who wera in commercial intercourse wttn the 
E^'ptiann, — possibly, it han bcnn conjueturod, the 
Semites of o. Arabia, puseibly the Hvk8u», if 
theso Sliopberd kings were Semites, an^ not, as 
is now gappoeed, of Mongolian race, hardly the 
Hebrews, »T»o eeem to be excluded by the limits 
of date, but moat probably a Pho^n. trading 
colonv settled on the shores of Lake Menzaleh in 
the fielta. On the Kgyp. moimment« they are 
called Fenekh (Pha-niciunK|, and aUoCliar or Chal, 
5 name used to desi^Bte the coast triben of 8^-rin. 
The native land of the Char was called Kaft, 
whence part of the Delta was called Caphtor, or 
the 'greater Kaft.' If the A. arose in Caphtor 
it would easily nprcad to Fhfenieia, and then to 
the kindre»l and neighbouring races. 

The art of writm*; must, however, have been 
knou-n to the Hebrews at an early period of thoir 
history. Iliram, wc arc told. TUTOt* a letter to 
Solomon, and Uavid wrote a letter to Joab. From 
the list-s of the kings and dukes of luloni, preserved 
in On 30 and 1 Chi, we gather that the Edomite^, 
at the time when their capital was taken by Joab 
in the reign of David, jjoaaessed state aiinali^, going 
tiack to a remote period. The list of the ent-ainp- 
ments of the Israelites in the I)et$ert, given m 
Ku 33, cannot have been handed down by oral 
tradition ; while it ia the only incorporated docu- 
ment in the Pent, which we are expresNly told wa!» 
written down by Moses, and ita geoyr. L-orret-tnuas 
lias been cunon»ly confirmed by recent researcbes. 
The eeiiMUH uf the cun^n-galion prc^orvod in Nu 1—1 
and 90 is alw manifeBtIv a verj' ancient written 
record which hoR been incorporated in the text. 
All thew documents were presumably written in 
the primitive Scm. A. But the discoveries of the 
la.1t few years have led scholars to believe that 
non -alphabetic MTitlng of anntlier kind waa nfied 
in Pal. long before tno Exodus, as early as the 
reign of Klm-n-Alen, tin? recent excavations at 
I-acliiwIi Riid the discoveries at Tel e! - Aiuania 
proving that the govcniors of the Syrian cities 

corresponded with the Egj-p. kings in a eursive 
form of the Babylunian runeiform. 

The oldest knowti fonnti of ibo Sem. letters are 
sho«Ti in col. 3 of the table, wliero tUeir names and 
their approximate phonetic values may aI»o bo found. 

Tiiirlcen may be reproacnted by lettern in our 
own Alphabet. These are beth, gimei, daleth, he, 
ztijjin, kapk, lamed, mem, nun, famekh, pt, resh, and 
tau, which correflpond to our letters L g, d, h^ t, A-, 
If m, n, i, p, r, and t. The other nine letters rcpre- 
xont sounds which we do not exactly possess. Of 
these, two are called 'liuguals,' or 'empliatics,' 
namely, ftth, a gutturaJiseu t, which is called the 
emphatic dental, and tutU, a gutturalised »,. called 
the emphatic sibilant. The Tetter koph waa not 
our 7, but a k formed farther back in the throat, 
and lii're represeuteil bv k. There are also four 
* faacal breaihs,' 'aleph, he, hcth, and 'ayin, of 
which 'ahph, ihe lightest, was a slightly explosive 
coniKiuant, heard in English after the'word No I 
when uttered abruptly, and nearly eiinivalent to 
the apiritut Unis of the Greeks ; 'at/in was a sound 
uf the same kind, but harder iX^an" aleph, approach- 
ing a (J roIle<i in the throat j ^h, called the 
' fricative faueal,' was a continuous guttural, 
r'.^i^mbling tiie ch in the Scotch lodi ; and As waa a 
fainter sound of the same kind, ajiproaching our 
A. The primitive sound of shin waa probably that 
of our Bh, but was subject to dialectic variation. 
Yod and vau were semi -consonants, or rather 
consonantal vowels, nsually equivalent to y and v, 
but paHtuDg readily into i aiid u. 

N'oue of the bem. A. a have possessed sjinbola 
for the true vowels, which are now denoted, not 
by letters, but by diacritical points, a notation 
essentially non-alpliabatie, and not of any great 
antiquity. The vowels in non-Semitic A.e. such 
aa dreuK, Zend, Anncnian, Licorgian, Sanskrit, 
and Mongolian, have boon dovcloi)<.Ml out of char- 
aoters reprewnting the Scm. breaths and semi- 
consonantd. Thus the Gr. aiphft, whence our A, 
was obtained from 'aleph, the tpiritua Unia ; 
cpsilon, whence our E, ia from /te, an aspirate ; eta 
and our U from AeM, the fricative faueal ; iota 
and our I and J from t/oti, a gemi-consonaiit ; 
omicr/m and omega, and our O, from Vm/i'ti.. tJio 
spiHtw aaptr ; while vjmlon and our U, V, W, Y, 
and F, came from vau, a semi -consonant. 

Besides the absence of Bvmbols for the vowels, 
most of the Sem. scripts, Ueb,, Syr., and Arab., 
agree in being viTittcu from rigiit to left, tlio 
tiirection following the example of the prototype, 
the Ui>t;ratic of the Papyniit Priiwe, whereas in 
tliu non -Sem. scripts tJie direction has mostly 
been changed. The Sem. A.s have also adhered 
to the primitive '£i letters, none of \vliich have 
fallen into disuse, any additional notation required 
being ofl'ectod by diaeritJcal iKjints, whereas iu other 
t^cripts new forms have been evolved by differentia- 
tion, as in the case of our own lutl-ers V, U, W, Y, 
and F, which are all dliflerentiated forms of the 
same symbol. 

The pictorial character of the Hieroglyphs had 
disappeared in the Hieratic of the Papyrus Prisse, 
and lience it isno matter for surprise to find tltat 
the I''gyp- symbols were runameti by the Semites, 
on the ftcrologie principle, by word;* signihcant in 
Sem. speech, the new names "being duo to a resem- 
blance, real or fanciful, between the form a*Bumed 
by the letter and some object whose name Wg&n 
with the letter in question, as in our nursery 
picture- bookn, in which O is an orange, S a swan, 
and B a butterfly. Thus the first symbol was no 
longer ahom, the 'eagle,' aain ^Qrp-, but became 
'aleph, the ' ox,' from the resembuuice to the front 
view of the head and horns of that aninfal ; and the 
13th,inpLeadof Iteiug m«/'(X-, the 'owl,' became mem, 
the ' waters,' what bad been the ears and beak of 




Uie owl coming to resemble the iindiilatioiui of 
waves (sec coL 2 and 3). Tlie Sem. iiameH are 
aometimes more easily explained by the Etryp. 
foniia of the Papyrus Pri&se than by tbose in the 
tildeat Sem. inscn|iUon.s. The Sum. namca aru 
usaaJlTinleriJreteilaafutlows: Wir/jAnieansau'ox'; 
AfM ei^iiiesa 'hon^e' ; aiid ffimct, a 'camel,' the 
Hieratic form resemhting a rocambunt uainul, with 
the head, neck, t>ody, tail* and saddle, of which 
nnly iho head and nock are prcser\'«d in the oldest 
Huiii. letter : dulcth means a * door,' not a bouse 
door, but the curtain forming the entrance to an 
Eastern tent ; he 8igniiies a ' wmdow ' ; tMiu is a nail, 
peg, or hook for hanging; things ou ; zayi'n probably 
dcnoti?!! 'weajMinit'; A^fA, a fence or 'palisade': 
Uth. irom a root meaning curvature, is mtppoaed 
to liavo been a picture ol a railed (make ; yvd i» 
tlie ' hand ' ; kapk tbe ' palm ' of tJie hand, or tlie 
bent band; lamed is an * ox -goad'; mem, the 
'waters'; nun, a * lish ' ; famcith it nrobably a 
prop or supjiort; 'nyin is the *cyo ; pe, tlic 
• mouth ' i icade \» jirobahly a * javelin," or iKsrbaps 
a hook ; ^/>A is osually supposed to mean a 'knot*; 
FcfAisthe'bead' : «Am, the' teeth' ; (au, a ' cross,' 
or sign for marking beasta. U will be notioed that 
nix of these names, gimtl^ k9, yod, nwa, pt, and 
mmekhy must be very ancient, being most easily 
explained by referenoe to tlie Hieratic forms. 

The early history uf the A. bos to be recon- 
structed from insnriptiunn, many of which liave 
only been diiW50%'ered m recent yearH. Among tlie 
monument-^ of the nldf^r stage of t.hi; Pbipn. A. the 
gruut tn»rription of McKhii. kins of Muub, nuika 
hiiit in impurlaiice. la 18(>8 Mr. Klein, of the 
C. M. 3., visited the site of Dibon, the andent 
capital of the kingdom of Moab. Here he wad 
flbowQ a block of basalt, wiUi an iiucription in 34 
lines of writing. The interest exciteil by thiH 
discovery, and the rival elForts of the European 
oonsols to secure the trcaimre, unfortunately aroo&cd 
the jealouMv of the Arabs, by whom the stone was 
broken into fragments, sume forty of which have 
been recovered, enough to lay the foundation of 
early Sem. palfeogmphy. In thin inscription, which 
most bo roferrea to the mirldip of the Ittli pent. 
B.C., Meslia, in Inn^ninge closely akin to Bib). 
Hebrew, civcs an account of the wara between Israel 
anil Moau, narratins more esp. those events in his 
own reign which tooK jdace aft^^r the death uf Ahab 
in 853 B.C. Tbe year 850 B.C. has Inien generally 
accepted by eeholars as nn apnroxim&te daio for tln^ 
record. Somewhat earlier, though of less historical 
importance, are some inscribed fragments of bronze 
vessels, obtained from Cyprus in 1870, which 
proved to be portions of two bowls containing dedi- 
cations to Baal Lebanon. They miLst have been 
carried off to Cyprus as n part of the 6[>otlH from a 
temple on Lebanon. The writing on one of the 
bowls proves on palieographical grounds to be 
nearly of the same date oh the Aioaliite inscrip- 
tion, while tliat on tbe other bowl oxhibit^ more 
archaic forms of several letters, and may probably 
be older by n centnry, belonging to the close of the 
lOtii ur the liegiuulng uf the lltU cent. B.C. It is 
froni these bowls, supplemented by the evidence of 
Uie Honbite Stone, tluit tbu A. in oul. 3 baa been 

Tt is called the Israelitic A. In order to avoid 
confnsion with a much later A., which, having been 
flrat known to scholars, neurped the name of the 
Heb. A. It cannot be too curehiU^v remembered 
tiiat at sncee&sive periods in their bititory the 
Hebrews employed two A.s, identical in all 
•nentia] particulars, but wholly nnlike in tbe 
external ap[»«arance of the lettera. From tlie 
earliest penod of which we |K*8se*8 any knowledge, 
down to the captivity in liiibylon. this Pho:n. A., 
of vhicb the ouleat monuiuoata ore the Aloabite 

Stone and the Baal Lebanon liowls, must also have 
liHen tJie oont^-niponiry X. of the HebreM*s. This 
was ingeaiouoly proved by Cfesenius, long before 
these monuments were discovered. He contended 
that tbu earlier UH>k.s of the OT could not liave been 
written, as wa^t lurmurly supivatsd, in what is 
now known as tlie Heb, A., since many obvions 
corraptioni? in the text could only have arisen from 
the urrorn of copyists, who confounded letters which 
arc much alike m the old Pbom., but are quite dis- 
similar in the square Hebrew. For example, in the 
list of David's mighty men, recorded in U li '23™, 
wo have the name Ueleb, which in the i>araUel 
passage in 1 Cb II'^ api^ears as Heled. One of 
these readings is obvion^y corrupt, ami the corrup- 
tion can only be due to the original record having 
iHwn written in the older or l'hii>n. A., in which 
the letters Iteth and daUth ditl'er so bligbtly as 
often to be hardly distinguiahable, wherea-s in the 
later or oqaare Ileb. A the tetters : and n are 
unmistakably distinct. Hence, bo argned, the 
record must bo prior to the Captivity, when, 
according to Uio Itahbinic tradition, tbe new A. 
was introduced. When Gcsonius wrote, the evi- 
dence as to the nature of the older Hcb. A. woa 
scanty in the extreme, Ixiing limited to a few 
engraved gems in the Phocn. A., supposed to be 
Heb. betwoM of their bearing names apitanmtly 
Jewish. Now, however, all ooubts have oeen set 
at rest by the accidental disoovery in 1880 of Uie 
famous Siloara inscription, engraved in a recess of 
the tiiimet which iiii?rce« the ridge of Ophel, and 
brings water from the Pool of the Virgin to tlie 
Pool of Siloom. Tbe iuacrtptiun which rcL-urdx Uiu 
coastraction of tlie tunnel is in six linesof writing, 
manifestly later iu duto than the Muiibite inscrip- 
tion, though of the sametfpe. On polit'ographical 
grounds it has been assigned to the reign of 
AlanjLsscb, B.C. 6d5-d41, though it i.M>os">hIe that 
it may be as early aa the reign of Hczekialt, and 
may refer to the oondoit conatruoted by him at the 
end of tiie 8th cent, as recorded in 2 K 20^ and 
^ Ch S'^*". This A. is of siwoial interest, as in it 
most of tlte writings of the Jewish prophets must 
have been a»nirHi»fd. This older A. lingered long, 
being emiiloyetl on the coins of the Maccabees and 
on tiiose of the Hnsnioncean prinixs. It ftiirxives as 
the sacred script of the few .Saniaritan families at 
Niiblils, wbofttUl worship in their tt-niple on Mt. 
Geriztm, and keep the 1 assovcr with the ancient 
rites. With this exception, the old Fhcen. A., tha 
parent of all existing A.s, has become extinct. 

This earliest type of the Sem. A. grodnally 
posses into einotber, somowliat more cursive, which 
goes by the name of the Sidoninn, its chief repre- 
eentatire being tbe great inscription on the nmgni- 
licout basalt sareopbagus of K.shmunazar, king of 
StdOD, now in the Louvre, which is asnigned to tbe 
end of the 5th cent. B.C. Out of this Sldonian 
type was evolved the Aram.'cno A., which was 
ifestine<i to replace the Pheen. after the decadence 
of the Phmn. power. The great trade routes from 
the Red Sea and Eg>'pt to liiibylon passed through 
I>amaacus, lioiuatb, and I'archcniis}), and trie 
trade fell into the bands of the Aranufan», tbe 
people of N. Syria. Hence, on tlie political decline 
of the Phcen. cities, the Araimean language and A 
became tlie medium of commerciaT intercourso 
tbroughont W. ABia. At Nineveh in the Tth cent. 
It.C, and at Babylon in tbe 6th, tlio Hidaiiian type 
begins to bo replaced by tho Aramn-an, whose 
continuous development may be trucod from the 
5tfa to the Ist cent. n.c., lirst on the coins struck 
by Persian satraps of Asia Minor, and then by the 
aid of mortuary inscriptions and papyri from 
Egyi't, which carry on the record after tho con- 
questa of Alexander hnd put an end to the Perjtian 
satrapies. An inspection of col. 4 in tho table will 




flhow that the chief characterisLica of tbe Axamican 
A.— due evitiently to the free use of tbe reed pen 
and papyrua— are a progresalve opeoiiiK ol the 
cIOKu liMps of the letten beth, daUth, feth, 'ai/in, 
kopk, and re»h ; wliUu Ac, van, tayin, luth, and 
iau tend to lose Ihoir distinutire bars. At tlie 
saiDO time tbe script continually becomes mure 
ouiiuve in character, the tails of tlic letters curving 
more and more to the leftt M'bile the introductitjn 
of lintures led to a distinction between tiie tinal 
and the medial or initial forms of certain letters. 
These changes, while they mode writing easier and 
more rapid, at the name time made it less legible. 

On the return of the Jews from the Bab. exile, 
the anoieat A. of Israel, though retained on the 
MscoabaiaD coins, and powibly in oopiasof the law, 
waa padually abandoned for Ihe more enrage bnt 
far inferior AramieaD, which had become tbe 
mercantile script of the W. provinces of PersJa. A 
Jewiiih tnulition, prcserred in the Talm., attributed 
thii« change to Ezra ; but there con be no doubt that 
both tteripLH were for a time employed concurrently 
— the Aramiean by the mercantile claa-tes and the 
returning exileA, and the older A. by thoao who, 
like the Samaritans, had bucu left behind in the 

The older Phoen. style had fortunately been 
traniiinittod to the Grcoks before the Aromiean de- 
formation had taken place. Consequently the Uoni. 

A. which we have iiihcritfd, boinj; a \Vual«ni form 
of the Greek A., has retainod in such letters aa 

B, D, O, Q. R, E, F, n those loops ami barn wlia-Ki 
disappearance in the lleb., Syr., Arab., and othor 
A.B dc«ecnded from the Aiiunoean, has contributed 
to make them -m) illegible. Oar own capitals are, 
in fact, mnch nearer to the primitive I'ha>n. or lar. 
A. than any of the existing Sem. A.s, and it is 
to tliiii retention of the archaic forma tliat they 
owe their cxct'llence and general aaperiority. The 
closed loopof Dand Kand theiipjterlooiiofB repru- 
dnee the closed triangles of the earlier Spin, atiript. 
which were lost by the Arama-an deformation, and 
are consequently much superior to the formleas 
Khanes 113 which we have in modem Hebrew. 

Wlii-n the Scieucidaii viiipirn had come to a 
cloHe, Lliu Arnmiran broke ui> into national scripLs, 
the A. of Eastern Syria develcpinK at liozra, Petrn, 
and the llanran into tlie Nal>at-!tan, which was 
the parent of Arabic, while the Aramiean of N. 
Syria developed at Edessa in to SyrLao^ and tbat of S. 
Syria, at Jerus. and Bah., into what is coil cdHebrcw. 
The early form of square lleb. used at Jems, in 
tbe time of our Lord, with which Ue must Himself 
have b(?en familiar, and in which probably the roll 
vraH written which He reail in the eynagoLnie 
[Lk 4''), is fpven in col. 5 of the table. ThU A. has 
been obtained from monuments of the Herodian 
period foond in Galilee or at Jcrus., all of which 
must be anterior to the siege by Titus. Those 
infloriptions arc chiefly from tombs ; hot one of 
them, of special interest, is a fra^nncnt of one of 
tbe notices, enjuining isik'nco and reverent be- 
haviour, set up, Oil we learn from Josephua, when 
the temple waa rebuilt by Herud. 

The materials for the history of the Heb. A. 
during the period of the dispersion, from the Ist 
cent, to the lOtb, when it practically a»(umcd its 
present form, have been gathered from regions 
curiously remote. Some are from the Jewish 
Catacombs at Home, many from the Crimea, others 
from the Jewish cciiictcnes at Vienne, Aries, and 
N&rbunne in Gaul, at Turlutta in Sfiain, Veiiona in 
Italy, from Prag, Aden, Tillis, and Derbend, anfll, 
not least in importance, the wTiting on sonic cabal- 
istic tiowls found at Babylon, dating from the 4th to 
the 7th cent. A.D. {see col. (i). The earliest exist- 
ing codex, the A. of which is given in col. 7. dates 
from the beginning of the 10th cent., when the 

letters had pmcUcally assumed their modem 
form.** tliough not tbeir modem a«pect, the useless 
ornamental amces in our printod books <col. 8) 
being due to tiie avhoola of lleb. caligrapby which 
aru»u in tlie 12th cent. The tiquaro Hub. of our 
printed Bibles is thus one of the most modem of 
existing A.s, and waa not, an waa formerly bc- 
lievud, tlio most ancient of all. The forms of these 
Wttera are thus neither legible nor venerable. 
Their adoption waa almost a matter of accident. 
There were two styles, the Spanish and the 
German, and the latter was osal in the Mimster 
printed Uiblo, the types bcinc imitated from tho»e 
in MSS. tlten in fashion. The result ia tliat our 
eyes are fatigued with the fantastic and vicious 
ealigrapUv of tbe 14lh cent., a period when the 
odious black letter was developed out of tJie 
beautiful Caroline minuscule, to which in our 
printed books wo have now fortunately reverted. 
So in Ueb. it would have been much better to liave 
reverted to the far superior forma of earlier times, 
such, for instance, as tho«o in use in tiie Sth cent. 
The earlier forms are better, because the letters are 
free from uawlesa urnamenuil lIuurisheH which are 
BO trying to the eves of students and comiKiBitor«, 
and are rnor» leginh; and more distinct. As in tbe 
case of our own vicious black letter, some characters 
are assimilated so as to be dilScult to dlstinguisli — in 
particular zl beth, z kaph ; i nun, 1 giirtci ; 1 daleih, 
1 rea/i ; 1 kaph tinal, t n"^ final ; 1 vau, I zayin ; or 
of ganxekh, and □ t}t£m final; while n n and n 
stand for h, A, and t. 

Six of the Heb. letters gradually acquired an, 
alternative softer aspirated sound, and the harder 
primitive sounds are now deuoted by an internal 
point (DagtsK Utia) 3 1 *t 3 b n, representing the 
sounds b, g, d, k, p, t, the same forma "ivithout the 
DagesK, or with a superscript liii^ called Haphe, 
standing for M, gh, dli, M, jfh, th. Tbe lett«i 
shin also split up into two suuada, distingnished by 
diacritical jKiints, o approaching the Bound of our 
/, and c* that of onr bK. 

The vowel points are late and of little authority. 
The Greek transliterations of lleb. names in the 
Sept. and in Josephus suifict] to prove lliat there 
were no vowel points in the copies of the Heb. Scriji- 
tnres then in use, and as late as the time of St. 
Jerome the Heb. vocalisation waa only knoivn by 
oral teaching. Tbe Hob. pointe were suggcetod by 
those which had been introduced intoSyrioo in the 
Gth and Gth cent. They merely represent 
the traditional prontmciattoD nseil in the syxxa- 
uoguea of Tiberias in the 7th cent. A.D. [See art. 
Lanouaue op OT.) Isaac TAYLon. 

ALPH£Ufi, 'A\'paXot (Westoott and Hort, Tntrod. 
g 4U8, os^uiuing tliat the name is a transliteration 
of the Aramaic 'C^a. write it with the rough breath- 
ing, 'A\<paios), occun four times in tho Gospels and 
once in Acts. As thus used it is tbe name of two 
difTercnt tuen. 

1. Tho father of the Apostle Alatthcw or Levi 
(Mk S'*), not elsewhere named or otherwise known. 

2. All tbe otlier re(erencet) are evidently to 
another man (Mt 10>, Mk :J>», Lk 8", Ac 1"), who 
is rupreseuted as father of James tbe apoatle, second 
of that name In the list. 

A considerable controversy has long been carried 
on as to whether tlu.i A. may be identified with the 
Clopas of Jn Itf» and tho Clcofias of Lk 24'". This 
question bas been of hpecir.! interest as involved 
in tlie diincui«sion regarding James anil the Bretlimn 
of the l.<ord (wit. see). Ewald boldly asHumes that 
the Clo|>iis of John and the Cleopas of Lake are one, 
but mauitainfi that tlio identification with Alpha;na 
is an onreasonablc confounding of a purely Greek 
with a purely Hebrew name (Hist, of larofl, v'u 
3U5, note 4). Meyer affirms tho identity of the 


Clopas of John witli tlie Aramaic 'th}, the Aiphn-nii 
of lh« Synoptics. And Alford (on Mt lO'j roj,'ard» 
th« two Greek names as simply two different 
ways of expreflsLa;; the Hebrew name 'oVo. It 
seems better to distinguish the Clcopos of Lake 
from the Clopas of Jolin. It is quite evident that 
CleonoA is 5imply a nhurtcnv<l fiirra of ('leii|)atcr 
(KVwvuT^t), like Antipaa fur Aotiimter. Li^^htfuot, 
indeefi. while ulmitling this, atill favours the 
iilentilication of the two names. On the other 
hand, Clopas may iR-ith the hifihest probability be 
regarded aa a simple tran^litcmtion of the Aramaic 
HnlphoL Clopas (oa in the Crock text and RV, 
not Cleopas aa in the AV) is represented in Jn 
19^ as tlie bnsband of one of the Marys who stood 
beside the cross. If we assume tliat four womun 
are there referred to, there is no indication of any 
relationship betwenn tlie vite of ClopsA and the 
mother of Jesus. The synoptic ptiss(ic«s, however, 
all mention among tJie women at the cross this 
SUM Mary as the mother of James. There is no 
reason for sapposing that tliis Jameii, hod of Marj-, 
is any other than James the bod of Alpha>ns. Ilui 
tbeaaaninptioo that Clopas was huHband of Mttry 
and brother of Joseph, and the UMial (u>.Hiimptioii 
that Mary wos the suiter of our Ixinl's motlicr, are 
eqoally gronndlees, and have no support whatever 
mm may stateraont in our Gospels. There seems 
DOTCOsoo for nappORins' that James the little and 
James the brother of the Lord are one and the same 
person. Eusebios, indeed, mentions, on the autho* 
rifcy of HefiQsippos, that Syracon. who nucceeded 
Jomea In ^e bishopric of Jemsalein, wa^ son of 
Oomu* the brother of Joseph ; but SyTneon is 
eviiUntly rct'aidi-ii, nwt u» a brother, but only oa a 
relative, probably a cousin, of his predecessor James. 

LtraoATDSB.— B«*ld6B tb» worlts nterjti to In the Uit, •«« 
Ltglltfnot, (MiUUiii; lOUtetl. Ixtadnn, ISO; p. SAT; Mftrnr, TU 
]hiatU iff St, Jama, 1BII2. p. xri f. 8m sin mi lutvTcsUng KHil 
cMvsr but perrvM uots la Kelm, /wiu tftla»ara. tii. 3T(l. 

J. Macprersox. 

XLTXR.— t. Altar is the invariable reiKieringin 
the OT of :J!5* (Aram. 13^5 Err V^), and in the 
NT of 0voiaffT^ptof. In AV it aUo occnrs as the 
rendering of ^jri? (Ezk 43'*»). RV 'upper a.', and 
of Str*! (Exk 43'"'' " — Kcthib V-init), RV 'a. 
hearth.* In the NT /5(tf;i6t is found once (Ac 17") 
in the sense of a heathen a. This distinction 
is *8TT clearly brouL'ht out in 1 Mac I" ' they did 
saciince upon the idol altar (Hrl rdf jSw/tAO which 
was upon the altar of Goil (r. Oi^iaantplou). Simi- 
larly the Vulg. and early Lat. Fathers avoid the 
BM of ara, preferring iHarui and aitare. Another 
designation is met with, viz. \^^, prop, 'table,' 
Bsk 4l=* -M», Mai i'- ". It would also scam that 
tlM Appellation ■'^;;, prop. * high place,' may in .some 
eases De itned to express ' a., as Jer 7" (I.XX rtv 
fht/iAf rau 1&,^0), 2 K 23" (but here text is <ioubt- 
ful), etc. c-;?^ Is flS* is wrongly rendered in AV 
•a* of brick'; RV 'npon the bricks.' In one or 
two phMHiS in the OT nzp of the pre&cnt MT 
seents on alteration from an original n^y?- So 
clearly Cn 83", and mont probably 2 K 12'". On 
the other liond, nats fibnulcf perhaiM be restored in 
8 K 10- (Stade in ZATW. v. pp. 27S, 2S»f.). 

ii. ALTAR.S IN Phehistoric TlM ls.— According 
to the primitive cencoptiona of the nomad Semites, 
the presence of a deity waa implied in every spot 
that attracted them by itji water or shade, and in 
every imposing landmark tliat guiii«d them in 
their wanderings. Every well and grove, every 
mountain and rock, had itM prnHiding deity. The 
humble offering of tlie M'or«liipi»er could be cast 
into the well, exposed upon the rock, or hung upon 
the lacrcd iree.^ It was tlitis brought into imme- 
diate contact with the nutjum thercm residing. A 
groat step in advance was taken when it was con- 
* Lit. 'piM* o( slsugfiitfr.' 



ceived that the deity could not only reHido in such 
objc<!t8 of nature's own creation as thoKe above 
Hp';eitied, but could he pemnaded 'to come and 
take for hU embodiment a structure sot up for him 
liy the worshipper' (AV. R. Smith, Jld. San. p. 
189). The consideration of this all-important 
advance Iwlongs elsewhere ; it is suirioicnt to note 
hero that recent rese-arches, esp. those of WoU- 
hauwn and W. U. Smith, have abundantly proved 
that the heathen Semite regarded the stone or 
cairn which he had himself erected, as a dwelling- 
place of a deity, a Beth-el (^V'n'S, cf. On 28'*; for 
tho significance of this passage, see FlbLAR), a 
name which passed, through the Phccnioiana as 
intermediaries, to the Greeks [fiaerir\tor) and 
Romans (bcetultu). Such a stone was termed by 
the Arabs, in the days before Islam, nusb (pi. 
anxSlt), a word identical in origin and signification 
with the Heb. n;W (AV 'pillar'). Bewde it the 
victim was slaughtered ; the hlood was either 
l>oured over the stone, or with part of it tlie stone 
wua Bjuearod, while the rest was poured out at its 
base, the essential idea in this primitive rite being 
that in this way the blood was brought into im- 
mediate contact with the deity who, for the time 
iK'ing, had taken up hi:^ n,lHNle in tho stono. 

Now there can be no doubt that tlic same primi- 
tive ideas were ehorod by the ancestorR of the Heh- 
rows. Among them, too, the nuab or nmzsiba mnst 
have been tho prototype of the sacrificial a. ' The 
rude Arabian usage is the primitive type out of 
which all the elaborate a. ceremonies 01 the more 
cultivntedSemitAS grew *(£</. t^fSem. Istod. p. 1&4. 
See also SacRIPICB). Even in hist, lirnKS we lind 
among the Uebrewsa survival of tho primitive rit4ial 
above described. In the narrative of the battle of 
Michmoah, Saul is shocked at the unseemly haste 
of his warriors in eating fl«ab * with the blood,' 
and orders a great atone to be brought at which 
the Wosts might be duiy »] and their blood 
poured out at the extemporiued altar. 

Tho next important step, the advance from the 
a. ns a sncTod stone to rec^ve the blood of the 
victim to the a. as a hearth on which the flesh of 
the victim was burned in whole or in part, belongs 
to the history of isACmriCE (which see, and «. 
Smith, Hei. Sem. p. 358 tf.). 

If the above is a correct account of the evolution 
of the a. among the we.stem Semites, the difler' 
untiation of pillar and a. must, as regardjt the 
inhabitants 01 Pal., have taken place in the pre- 
historic period. This seems the ob^nous conclusioti 
from the existence, even at the present day, of 
immense numbers of mepalithic monumenta, the 
so-cnlled menhirs and uotmeuB. These chorao- 
teristjc rcmaimt uf antiquity, so numerous in Moab 
and in the W. Hauran, muut undoubtedly have 
pinyed an important part in the religious rites of 
those who reared thorn, and whom, for the present, 
we may assume to have been of a SHm. stock. The 
'oup-hoUows" on the table-stone of tho dolmonn, 
connected in many cases by a network of channels, 
must have been destined to receive the blood of 
the victim.* 

iii. Pre - Deuteronomio Altars. — A very 

marked distinction, as in well known, exi!<ts be- 
tween the attitude to saoriBce of the prophetic and 
priestly narrativee respectively in our present Pent. 
The latter (P) limits sacrifice to the great central 
a.,t while tho former (JE) relates numerous in- 

* Sm Comler'B rtport on Uic dolmen-fleldi of Mosb In P.B.F. 
Qu. St. 1862, p. TGfl. ; aim in Utth Oful Moab, ctu. vlt. and vilL; 
6'yr. Slant Cart, pp. <2. 43, 70. AnoUiw ricti fl«ld bos Iwen 
ileacritwd tiy Schuin«oh«r, Tha Javlan, p. ICIB.; Acrot* 
Jordan, p. (KIT. Cf. Pormt uid Ctiipicz. iiwl. d* fdrt dam 
FAntiqutid, Iv. p. 875 fl, 

t Tlw dimcult ■ectloti (Jo» 8S1WU) ttxmM b«t. cxplalnwl u »n 
cDdesvoar to r«duca & nsnaUv* ortgliuUr <rritUu from cb* 
■Undpolat ot JS to so bppuvol bsrmear wiui Uie fundunenul 
poAiust* ol P. 




RtoBces of Racrifice l)ein<; olTcred and af enetod 
frum tlie earlicwt tinmH, and in many dilTuniiit 
places. NooJi i-i reproaent«d as buildiii)^ an a. on 
quitting the ark (Gn 8*) ; Abraham erected 
ttevoral, viz. at Sliechem (12^), Bethel (12^), Hebron 
(]3"), niid on a aiiecial ucc&aion in 'tb« land of 
Moriab' (22<*). Isaao [26*) and Jacob (36^) do 
JikewiBQ. Even Moeea, accortlinK to this routoo, 
erects an altar at Itcnhidim (Ex 1^"], and anothur, 
accompanied by twelve pillars (nHaKyi, at Horeb 
<24*J. JE therefore clearly known nothing; in its 
nurrativu parts of the exclusive legitimacy of a 
«enli-at a. With this position the law-co*le which 
it contains, tJie sO'CaDcd Book of the Corenont 
(see Driver, LOT 29 If.), is in complete accord. 
In the iocus dassuru4 (Ex 2(t=*i a plurality of a* 
is clearly nanctioned : *i« every piart {\W) where 
I reconi My name, I will come unto thee, and I 
will bless thee.' And the saiue holds t^oo^ throogh- 
out the history of the Hebrews until the time of 
•Josiah. A;:ain and a^ain do we lind a* built; up 
and clown tlie eonntry, either by the rooogni&od 
rt>]i(;iou)t Icmiers UiomaclvcB, or with their express 
«aiiction. Thus, to mention but a few, Jodhoa 
bnilds an a. on Mt. Ebal (Jo« 8^) in accordance 
with the injunction of Moses himself {l)t. ^7"), 
Gideon at Oplirah (Jg 6'*), and Sanmel at Hanmh 
(1 S 7"). Sanl, we have already seen, extemporised 
an a. at Michmosh, which the Mstorian informs 
ua woB tlte/>«f that Saul built, implying,' that thiji 
monarch had the merit of erecting several. Dand 
erected an a., by express divine comiuanid, ' in 
the tbreshinu • floor of Araurmh Lho .lebusiLo' 
(2 S S^i"- "i. Elijah, too, complains of the destruc- 
tion of the altars of J" a» an act of eacrile^ 
U K lO'^- ''), and had, but a little before, repaired, 
with liis own hand, the a. of the Lord upon Mt^ 
Camicl. These examples are enfiiciciLt to show that 
in prc-Dvut. IhtocI a plurality of a* was regarded 
OR a matter of course, tiiere boin^' not the slighteat 
hint of disapproval on thf i>art of the narrators, or 
of any idea in the mindn of the ai:t«r« in the 
history that they were guilty of the violation of 
any diiine command. 

Vrcim the oldest hist, records of the Hcbrewa, 
therefore, it in evident that local ftanctuaricB 
abouiidud throughout the countrj- (see llinii Tlace, 
and ctip. 1 Sam. ])nsrim.), the mofit ctwcntial feature 
uf which was undoubtedly the a. on whicli sacri- 
fice was olfcred to the national God, J'. Of the 
fonn of these pte-Deut. altars we have no precise 
information. No doubt, as wealth and culture in- 
creased, the a\ CBp. at Bethel and the other sjeat 
sanctuaries, would become more ami more elabo- 
rate ; bnl in more primitive tiiuc§ tliey were simple 
in the extreme. A heap of earth, either by it-'^lf 
(2 K 5'') or with a cosing of turf (see Dillnmnn on 
Ex 2C^), a few utone^ piled n|ion each other, are all 
That was required. Simpluiiy is the dominant 
note of the law in the fundamental i>assage, Ex 
SO*'"'', It in there eiijuincd, moreover, that no tool 
shall bo lifted to hew oi' dress the stone (cf. Dt 27', 
Jos 8", I Mac 4^). In this many niodeni iuventi- 
gfttors hare neen a survival of the primitive idea, 
already explained, of a numcn inhalnting the altar- 
stone, who woidd l>o driven out or perhaps injured 
by the proeeM of drowing (Nowack, Archaol. ii, 
it ; Benzinger, Arch&oi. 3711}. Another injunction, 
(hat the worshipper (for the command is not ad> 
drvascd to the pnc^ita; should not ascend by steps 
{lor., cit.), is also a plea for sinipUcity. The a. mu.'tt 
not Ite of fiiK'h a lieigbc as to prevent thft wor- 
mhipper standing ou the ground from manipulating 
hi« offering.* The evoHiou of the injunction by a 
sloping ascent was an aftertliought. 

* Cf. tho eorlv lumtlvv 1 K T*'- when Joab li raprescatrd u 
KTupinic tiiv kornsof the».(»e«N>l(nr,v.XuKl»ttti«nrni^tiTne 
vUnuinfTbjr iheriilaof th« ik Also S £&•« 'twomulw' bunleu.' 

Tq what extent the atill exifiting dolmenii fna 
above) may have Iweii u<wU ax a' in tbiu puriod it 
is im]x)^ible to say. In Che older narratives, how- 
evur, there are not a lew ioKCances of the earlier 
usage of a singla stone (1 8 U'*— v.'^ ia a later 
insertion— 14") or of the native rock as an a. (Jg 
IV* and eap. 13"- •" where i-kti v.'* la identilied with 
W;?C v.*). The aito of David's a., we can scorely 
doubt, was tlie Sakhrah rock, now encloMsl in the 
Ko-nilled moiique of Omar, The 'ntone Zuheleth 
which iu by Ln-Itogol ' was also an aneient altar- 
stone (1 K 1*). Solomon, finally, at the dedication 
of the temple, is said to have converted the ' middle 
of the court ' into a huge a. (1 K 8"). Eor Solo- 
mon's brazen a., see Tkmi'LE.' This a. was re- 
movfld by Ahaz (2 K Ifi"*'"*) to make M'ay for the 
stune a. (noto njy v.") which he caiixBd to be bniU 
after the model of the great a. of Dania-sciis (c^Si^-t, 
cf. V."* in HV). AliHz'u., rather than the brazen 
a. of Solomon, was in its turn the model for the 
a. of Ezekiel (cf. O'^-'^j. 

Of the other a* made bv Ahaz we know nothing, 
nor of thOM act up by later kings (2 K 23" loc. 
eit.). As to the a. to Baal which Ahab erected in 
Samaria (1 K Id"), M-e may awmme that it re- 
.■t^'iiililcd tlio a* erected by his Pham. neii^hlfours 
t<t the same deity (cf. Perrot et Cliipiez, ilwt. de 
VArt dan* I'Antiq. ill. lig. iy2 and paasiv*). 

iv. Post-Dkutehusoiiic Altaiis.— The sanctu- 
aries and a*, sanctioned, as we have seen, by the 
oldest law-codo, ceaw>d to be legitimate on the 
adoption of the code of Deut. (Dt I2ff.). The 
central iHHtion of the cultus, which was tlia cliief 
aim of the Dout. Icgi^tation. ecemn to have been 
attempted under Hezekiah (2 K IS^), but it must 
be admitted that the complete abandonment of the 
local bCimotK was never un/ait a^ccompii until after 
the discipline of the Exile (I K 2t^, 2 K 15»}. In 
thiory, however, the a', whether 'upon tlio hills 
and under every green tree,' or at places which had 
Ijcen tMjat* of wonsliip since the conquest, were no 
longer legitimate ; for SAcriHce, as now for the first 
lime otlioially diHtingnished from slaughter (Dt 
12"), could only be ottered with acceptance on the 
n. of the central sanctuary at Jcni.salem. It is not 
impossible that, or Conde'r hai Anggesieil (»ee ref. 
above), it is to the reforming zeal of Josiaii that we 
owe the fact that not a single dolmen has been 
met with in S. I'al. (cf. Cheyne, Jeremiah, p. 60). 
The history of the a,, tlierofore, from this time 
forward is merged in the history of the temple. It 
muat sufUcG here to note tliat, as soon as practi- 
cabIo» ttte retuTDcd exiles built tlie a. ou its lurmcr 
i^ite (Ezr 3^), which a. coutinueil in use until its 
desecration by AntiochuM Kpiphaiiea ^1 Mac 1**|. 
Hanng by thi>t act of sacrilege oeen rendered unfit 
f(ir further use, it was taken down and another 
built in it« stead (1 Mac 4**"-). The a. of Herod's 
temple was the last built on Jexvish soil. Accord- 
ing to Joft. (irnr*. V. V. 6) it was built, in harmony 
with the ancient prescription, of unhewn htimcs. 
One other a. meet* us in the history of Hit Jew's; 
this iw the a. ureet«d by Onias tT. in his ttfnijde at 
Leont4i]K>Us in Egypt (Jos. }Vars, Vll. x, 0; Ant. 
XIH. iii. 31), founding on a mistaken interpretation 
of Is 10'». 

The a. of bumt-offoring and the a. of incenae, 
which play so imjjortant a part in tlie ritual Icgiii. 
hitlon of the PnuaU' Code (P), will be di-K'usscd 
in detail in the article Tabersacle. See also 

V. The Altar a8 Aff\xuM. — An important 
function of the a. among the HcbrewB remains to be 

* W. R. Sialth'i vl«w. that Mt l« vm? doubUul whether Uten 
■ma In the Ont tsmple any otbcr btaaen a. Qima tlt> two brmau 
pilloTfl, Jwbtnftfid Bou,'iiDoCsap|(ort«db]rfundeatev|idtioaeL 
tt 1>. bcaldci, dUBoult to ■» why onl}- one of Uie two pUlan 
shonl'l Imve rukd, on thla theory, the hiixMlons o( an a. a«ujpi«d 
lo It <,IUL Sam. L pp. SU-aw, and Noie L, iauS.). 


AMALEK, A3ULlfeafil6 77 

noticed. The earliest legislation presupposea and 
conGrniB the Banctity of tlie &. as an asylum. Tiio 
riuht of twylum, however, is tbere limiu-d to caaeft 
ot acciilental liomii-iile (Ex 21^-"). This use of 
the a., which in uot ranf]nt;il to tlia Sem. peoplea, 
ia also a Rur\'ival ol the primitive idea of tfie a. as 
the teniporary abode of a deity. In clasping the 
a., tliu fui^tivu waA plncing himself under the Uu- 
oiediate prutdcliDu of the deity in nucsttian. In 
thiit coDiicxion, as well a.^ in re;;ard to an bii- 
jiortant jmrt of the luUy • 41cvuIu|k*iI a. ritual 
(cf. Lv i'"-), the horns of the a, are e»t«emed 
the uiuht fiatred i»art of the whole. It iw difficplt. 
however, to t«ee how these could have formed nart 
of the more ancient a. as prescribed in the Itoolc of 
the Covenant (see above); yet their presence is 
UDpIy attested in later time* (cf. Am 3", Jer 17^ 
and the incidents reconJod in 1 K 1*^ 2*). The 
origin and primary AigniticAnre of the horns are 
still obeciiru. Must recent writers seek to trace a 
connexion between them and the worship of 
J* in the form of a young bull (Kuenen, Jiei. of 
Itr. 1. 326 : Stade, Ifenringer. Nowook). In any 
caae they are uot to he regarded oa mere appeiiu- 
a^es, hut ai an integral part of the a. (t^eu fJill- 
mann on Ex SPJ. The view tlmt tht-y were 
originally projections to which the victimn were 
bound, has no lietter support than the cumipt 
passat^e, Ps 118^ (for which see Comm.), The 
comnariRon of the ' horns ' of the Ucb. witli tlio«o 
of tne (-ireek a. (f6t4pa<rt ^nit) seemsi mis^leadinj;, 
since the latter rather resembled the volutes of tim 
lonit' capital (cf. art. rtrrj in Ihirember" et fSaglio, 
IHctionnain etc, tigs. 410, 41S, 422). The famout^ 
st«la of Teima. on the other hand, shows the 
* horns ' rising from the corners of the a. , and 
carved like those of an ox (see Terrot et Chipiez, 
op. cit. tome iv. p. 30:2, Eng. tr. [see below] vol. i. 

LmDLATrRX. — or tiui earlier UtctBtore tha lUndftrd work b 
John ^wncer*! De tfgibui Uth. rUualQms. etc. 1686. OF th« 
nodcni works th« mort bnponaoc an th* worb an notnrw 
MiUqaitk* by D* Wette, EwkM (Eng. tr. 1878), Kow«ck (tltlf. 
HUadk« Arehdcbjrit, 18M, Dud li SicnUlarthQniftr, | 7Sfl.), 
uk]E«()xiucm(/M. J rdUMcvfa, 1804,1 ».tH«BttJ«ML iUtliff- 
ttlflnwr, ttc), snd tba inor» nneru trcatlMs of W«lltiuiMn 
(jSkitmn mid VsrarUiUn. i\L,S^tarab. BtitUntAvng, ISit;}, 
ftod. In putlculsr, W. H. Smltb's RtUfion t^ lAi fiemib*. loW 
(Sad •(L ISB&X ^* inideiit tbould also convult Uio MantUnl 
work of Pvrrot and Chiplex, UUtvirt da CArt data FA nlimiUi, 
lOOM Bi. fkfnifu, Ir. Jwlit, «lc. (Bag. tr. Uiit. of Art in 
f&»nie^ S vols. IBSS, UU. i^ A. in JutUa ttc, t voU. 1$00>. 
A. li, S. KliSXEDY. 

AL-TA8HHETH [nj^V^^, AV Al-taschith), Pss 
67. OS. 59. 65 (titlMl. See Psalms. 

ALTOGETHER is now only an adv., hut was at 
first an .idj., tieing Kimply a atronj^r 'all.* As an 
ndj. it is found in Ps 'Av ' Verily every' man at his 
beet state is a. vanity * ; Is 10* ' Are not my 
princes a. (RV 'all of tiiem') kinfj;!',' and perhapi* 
rln 16". Of its useas an adv. uotieuuhlu exauipU>.>> 
are Jcr 30", where 'I M'ill not leave i\vni a. un- 
pontflhed ^ is nvon in RV * I will in no wise leave 
tbee tuipanisHed ' ; Ac 26^, where ' both almoet and 
l' isin RV • whether with little or with much ' after 
the Gt. ; and 1 Co 6">, where ' not a.' (Gr. oi- irdrrwi) 
is taken by commentators in two directly opn. 
nosBs, eitlier 'not wholly/ or 'not at all ; RV 
givea the first in text, the second in marg. 

J. Hastinos. 

ALDSH (ctV^e).— A station in the joumeyings, 
oecon only Nu SS'*- ». (See SiKAi.) 

XLTAN (Hi's)-— Son of Sholial, a Horite (Gn 36«». 
The name apifears in 1 Ch 1^ as Alian [\-::)i). U is 
elearly the same as Alvah ('iiSy) in Gn 36^, which 
appears in 1 Ch 1*^ as Aiian (n;^s), one of tlie 
'dukes' of Edom. Knohelcomparojt thunnuie with 
that of a Bedaui'in clan Alawin^ said by Burckhardt 

to be dwelling north of the Golf ot Aknbali. See 
Uillm. in he. U. li. KYLE. 

ALWAY, ALWAYS.— Alway (i.e., 'all the way*) 
is origioiillv the accUH. of duration, 'all the 
time': while always is the gcnit. of occturence. 
* at all Cimea' And although by IGU this dis- 
tinction was vanishing, there are aouie undoubted 
instances in AV. Cf. Mt 23" ' Lo, I am with you 
olway,' with Ro 1* * 1 make mention of you always 
in my prayers.' RV gives alway for always at 
Ac 24"', 2 Th l» : and always for alway at Col 4* 
apparently capriciously, for these changes oblite- 
rate ihe distinction noticed above. When the dis- 
tinction was tost, always drove alway out of uae. 

J. 11AST1»U8. 

AMAD (137E], Jos 19" only.— A city of Ashcr. 
The site is doubtful ; there ore several ruin& called 
'Amud in this region. 

AMADATHU8. Est 12< le"*-". See Hamme- 


AMAIN only in 2 Mao 12^ 'the enemieB . . . 
ded a.' (so R\ , Gr. elt ^<rri)*- Ap^i^av). The mean- 
ing is 'at once, precipitately.' 

AHAL (S?;).- A descendant of Asher, 1 Ch 7*. 


AMALKK, AMALEKITE8 (p^?«. 'pV?;^,). — A 
nomadic .Arabian triltf, iicrnpying tlie ^^'ide desert 
region between ^>iimi on the suulh and tlie suuthem 
borders of Palestine on the norLli. Tliia dintrict 
corroiipoDds to what is now called the wildemesw of 
£t-Tiii. The Amalekites are rcprcMenlcd as per- 
petually at feud with the Urachtes, tlioiigh such 
closely oounectcd tribes as the Kenites and Kenlz- 
zites appear from the first as friendly, and ulti- 
mately as pcacefni settlers in the midst of the 
possessions of Israel. 

References to the Amalekites appear very early 
in the OT history. In the account of the cam- 
paigns of Chedorlaomer of £lau) nnd hi» cnnfe^ler- 
atee in Gn 14. 'the country of che Ainalekttei' 
near Kadeeh is dewrihod an the scene of one of 
thoee deaolatin^ wars. Hengstenliciv. followed by 
Kurtz, maintains that this does not imply that 
the Amalekites were in existence in tlie days uf 
Abrahnm, hnt only that this country, lying be- 
tween Kadesh and "the land of the Ani'oritcs, iiftcr- 
warda known as ' the Gelds of the .Viiiale kites.' waa 
at that early period overrun and dc-itrovcd by 
Chedorlaomer. Had there been no other Idntso'f 
the extreme antiquity of the Amalekites, this ex- 
planation might pertiaps lie acce]ite<l. But m'c ftnd 
tiga.\n in t)iB diant of Ralaani [S'n '24^) that 
Amaiek is descrilied as 'the first of the nations,' 
which seems almost certainly to mean a primitive 
people to be reckoned amonff the very oldest of 
the nations. Most recent acuolars ara agreed in 
assigning to the Amalekites a high antiquity. 
This is the cancluslou in which such paseagee as 
those referred to would naturally lead. The only 
rcHAon why an attempt should be made to pnt any 
other interi>retation upon theee words Is the idea 
that, in Gn 36", the descent of the Amalekites is 
traced from Amalck, tlie grandson of Esau, and 
their origin thus brought down to a later period 
than that of Abrnhani. It is exceedingly hazardouit 
to build any ar^niiuent of thi.H sort on an occ.ij*ional 
statement m a genealogical table reproduced fnnn 
some unknown source, seeing tliat It is impossible 
to determine what the point of view of the original 
compiler muv have been. In many oases such 
genen,Iogical lists seem intended to set forth simply 
certain inierrdations of Lril>es, ^n iliat, tliouL'h terms 
iudicatliig personal and faiiiily relatiomillipa are 




lued, the Doinea do not always belooc to penuiofl liiti- 
lorically real. All that we need iiiiuenitAnd by tliix 
intrmluRtifin uf an Aiimiek, tw.m nf Kliphnz by a 
concubine, is that Tiinim the Hnrito, tlie coiiculjine 
referred t^, pepreseiit--* the importation or incor- 
poration of a foroign and inferior, probably a iier%'ile, 
uleiuent into the pure Edomito Htock, tfiu Horittta 
being one of tho tribes fomiiitg that federation, 
embracing tJte Ainalekites, cunqucroci by CJiedor* 

The region in which the Amalckitcs first appear 
in history, near KadL'Kli, lies ju^it al>ont a day's 
joiinxcy south of Ilcbron, on tho undulating slope* 
and plain at the foot of the mountains held 
by tno Anioritcs. It rcav bo supjKtfied that a 
branch of tho tribe had settled there, or had begun 
to oDi^age in agricultural punuits. When driven 
forth rri)m tlieir |>08se*«ion» by the conqueror, they 
MO doubt returned to their old wandering inodeii of 
life, and rejoined tlieir brethren who moved about 
throogli the wide extent of the great desert. 

The first meeting of the liiraeltteB and the 
Anialekitca took place in the noutliern part of the 
Sinaitic peuliuula. At Ruphidiiu, a broad plain to 
the nortu-wcat of Mount Sinai, the Anialekit^s 
came out against the IiraulitUM, ami a battle nuHued 
which lajit«4l throughout the whole day. Joshua 
ontniimnded in the light, and Moses on tbe bill top 
held " ' '• ' •- "• • " 


(Ex 17*-''). 

acted in a peculiarly bitter and exasperating 
Tiianner towards the Israelites, harassing thcni ou 
tlivir rtuir, and cutting ufT the weak and the wpAry 
(Pt25"'"*). In con*eq_uence, tho Ainatekitea, to a 
greater extent than any uf the other Can. and 
ncighlMuring tribets, wore pl&oed under the ban, so 
that J" Hitn»elf, as well aa His people, is rcpre- 
nonted att solemnly swearing eternal feud agamat 

The defeat of the Anialekitcs eWdcntly put the 
fear of tlte Israelites u|H>n the robl^r Doiiiad tribeti 
of the desert for a tiine, ho that they were un- 
molested during their advance to Sinai, and during 
their year's encaniptnent there, an well as during 
their Bubsaquent march uorthword to tho southern 
borderof Palestine at lvadc«h. It was the intention 
of tho Ismclftes to enter I'alcstine from the south, 
and so from this point, juat outside of tlte soulhnrn 
Iwundary of I'alvjftine, spies were sent to examine 
the land, and to bring hack u rt-jmrt os to wliether 
an entrance from that point wom pu-taible. and if so, 
how best the invading forces might conduct the 
campaign. Thette Bpiea on tlioir return reported 
that the AnialekiteR dwelt in the land of tbo south 
in tho valley, i.n, in the southern portions of the 
region aflerwanls occupied by Judah and Sijueou 
(Nu 13* U*), in the neighbourhood of tho lowland 
CAnoanltes and the blgliland Uittites. Jebuaitef, 
and Amorites. Tho Anialekites are represented 
as the leaders of the ronf^dpniile Caniuinites who 
resiiitod the entrance of thy I»nielitea into the south 
uf Palestine (Nu H"**). Tliey were evidently 
at that time of considerable importance, and must 
Iiave been for a long period in possession of those 
territories only a little woy nortli of the district in 
which we find their ancestors, or, at least, a brancti 
of the same great nation, settled in the days of 

The bitter opposition shown by the Amalekites 
to tbo Israelites at Sinai and in Southern Pales- 
tine waa distinguished fnmi that of the other trilies 
by this, that they were really at the head of the 
confederated clans already in pussesstoo of the land, 
and the struggle between them and the invaders 
was to determine the whole future of tho rivals, 
tho success of the one necessarily meaning the utter 
destruction cf tho other. 'Il was the hatnxl,' 

Bays Ewald {HiMtofyof Israei, L 250), ' of two rivals 
dii<pntine a splendid prize which the one had 
previously nossesscd and still partuilly posacBsed, 
and the otlier was trying to get for bmiself by 
ousting him.* The bitterness mnst hav« lieun in- 
tcn.sified by tlie secession to the ranks of I^^roel of 
Huch branclics or families of the Anmlekite stem as 
the Keuites and KenizziteB. These two families, 
with jethro and Caleb respectively at their headi 
were the ancient allies of^ Israel, and ultimately 
settlers in tlie land. The defeat of the l»raclit^ 
may have secured for the Anialekitcs and tlieir 
immediate neighbours peace ami prtjsperity through- 
out a whole generation. When they were again 
attacked it was by a people already in possetwon 
of the northern regions, now pressing southward. 
How far they were interfered with by Judah and 
Simeon is not rocorded, but it would appear that 
even after Uie Iwraelitish occnpati^m of the country 
the Amidekites in considerable numbers mointaiDeu, 
possession uf tbe plateau and hilly regions in th« 
exti'otiie south. 

In the tiine of the Judges, however, we meet 
with the Amalckites In the company of the 
Miilianitcs, as nomad tribes roaming about amons 
their old dcuert liaunts, and pursuing their old 
tactics of harassing peaceful asricoltorista When 
the crops sown by the iKtaelites ware ripening, 
the Amalekite marauders descended and reaped 
the harvest, so that the unfortunate inltabltanta 
were impoverished and dwoouroged (Jl' 6*). They, 
along with the Ammoniteai, wc^re allies of the 
M (Ml bites in their confiictwitli Israel, and no doubt 
siitfered in tlie defeat uf tlie Moabitca at the hand 
of Ehud (Jg 3"). 

During Oiis same neriod, it would seem that a 
branch of the Atnolekite tribe bod (secured a 
settlement in Mount Epbraiin. Pirathuu, tho 
reiidence of the judge AWon, some 15 miles 
.•ioiith-wesnt of Shechcni, bore the name of ' tho 
Mount of tlio Ainolekites,' or had in it a hill 
so called [Jg 12"). The settlers who i^ad thus 
L-iven their name to the hilt belonged in all proba- 
bility to a branch of the Amalekitei^, who, about 
the time that some of their bretliren settled In tlie 
soutli of Palestine, in what was afterward assigned 
to Judah, pressed farther to the north, and secured 
poaacssions among other Canaanite tribes in tlie 
viiry ccntrii of tho land. TliLt is more likely than 
the suggestion of Bertheau, that these Amalekites 
of Kphroim were romiiants uf thti^u expelled by the 
men of Judal) from their scutlteni settlement'* in 
the days of Joshua. They hod evidently been some 
considerable time in possession before localities 
caiuo to be popularly known by their name. This 
%*iow is further confirmed by the words of Deborah 
in her eong |Jg 5'*), 'ont of Ephraim came they 
down whose root is in (not affainjit, as in AV) 
Amalek.' Tho land of Ephrnini was the territory 
once posBesscd by the Amaloldtes. 

In ths early years of his reign, Suul was conimis- 
siooed to carry on a war of extermination against 
the Amalekites and their king Agag (I S 15). Thb 
was intended to be the execution of tho scnCence 
posacd upon them in the days of Mose* (Ex 17", 
Nn 24», Dt as"-""). No living thing belonging to 
the Amalekitcs was to bo spared. Thu great 
battle was evidently fought in the soutli of Judoh, 
ivi> the pursuit is described as extemling from 
Havilab in Arabia, far to the east, to Shur in the 
west of the de«ert on the Ixirrler of Egypt. When 
worsted in battle they evidently piiK»*tftl over tlia 
southern boundary of rale-stine, and betook them- 
selves to their ancestral haunts in the wild desert. 
During tho period of tlieir residence as a settled 
pPDple in Siutthcrn Judah, they had a capital 
citv. Ir-Atna!ek, 'the city of Amalek' (1 S 15*). 
Kouber bonds of the yet unsultdued uoiaa«l Aiuulck- 





ites of the desert, daring the time of David's stay 
aiuong the Phllixtincs, backe«l Ziklag, in the terri- 
tory of Siitit-on, outside of the fioutncni boundary 
of '.luHah (1 S 30). These were overuken hv 
DiiWd, and only 400 yaung men on swift iraniulH 
succeeded in making their eeoape. The reference 
to the AmoJekites in 2 S 8", in the list of spoils 
dcvlickted to God by D&nd, is probably to this 
Kimv incident. From this time onward the Amolok- 
itofl ft<?ciii to liAvo been r^arded as no longer 
fomiiduhlo ; and even aa nudcrs from the deacrt wc 
find DO furt]i«r trace of them. The last nientiun of 
them in the OT ucvum in 1 Cli 4*^, in Um dayn of 
Hezekiah. There it is said tliat ' the reninaat of 
the Aniiklckitoa that e«caped,' nod who had con- 
tinued \a1\ that day in Mount Seir. were smitten 
by 600 of tiie SimeoniteR, who took ptB-fession of 
their land. That the Amalckitos are not men- 
ti<ini"d in Gn 10 ia rcj.'arded by DiUraonn its proof 
timt ticforc the time of the writer they had smxk 
into innigniticancc. 

Out«iin» of the OT we have no reliable accoant« 
of the Amalvkites. In tlie works of the Arabian 
tistoiians very extensive and detailed reports are 
ffiven of the profrrese and achievements of the 
Amftlekit«8 ; but these, as Noldeke has convincingly 
shown, are credible only in so far as they arc based 
cm ilie etatcmenta of the historical books of our 
own canonical Scriptures. 

LimATims. — A Tory admlnbl* ukI coraprabeD^ra skctoli li 
glvcB b7 D«rthf«a in Schenkel, BfbtOmktm, L«tpi. 1H9, voL I. 
111-tI4. Sw aXm DilljnuiD. Con. on Otntaf*, oa chi. x, xnil 
yxxri.: E"«l'l, itiM. (/ Itnut, Eng. tr. 1S7^ vol. I. IWf.. 
ittOt.l KurtE, liUiorvo/Ou OU Onauinl, lUe, Ul. 48- 
40 : KdldckQ, Vtlmr di» AwuMeiUr umI Hi»<m ondtn Saahbv- 
MtAcr dtr /fTMliMT, 18H. 

J. Macpbebson. 
AMAM (c?t!). Jofl 15* only. — An unknown city 
of Judali, in the desert south of Beershcba. 

AVAJI.— 1. {'A/iar A) Is mentioned in Tobit's 
(hHug words as the persecutor of Aohiachanis, 
To U". t*o«J. R. however, ha» 'AW/t ; m HaSd^; 
It&Ja, Nabod ; Syr. Ahab. Possiblr the aHiurion 
la to Hainan and Mordccu. 2. £st 12* 16"=- '^ 
See Haman. J. T. MAUsnALL. 

AHANA (r>^.), Ca 4*. Probably the mountains 
near the river Abana or Amana, being connected 
with ilenuon and l«banon ; or else Mount 
Amanus in the north of Syria. 


IJURIAH i^yix, '"VW! 'J' litttji promised').— 
1. 2 Cb 1U'\ high priest in the reign of Juhoitha- 
pitat, appointed bvnini chief justice * in all matters 
of the irf)nt,' an ^ehadiiiii, ' the ruler of the hotiae 
of Judnh,' WBM ' in all tht; king's matters.' (Is tluM 
a precedent for the joint rule in later times of 
ZembWlN't and Joahna!) 2, 3. In a genealogy in 
1 Ch fl»-»»- •*•-«> Eir "'-*, beginning with Aaron and 
ending irith Jehozadak at the Captivity, which 
HBema as much intt:iulL-d to bo a list uf the high 
priests u 1 Ch 3'"-'* In of the kinpt of Juduli, and 
which ap|)earH to be the basis oT Joi^ephus' very 
corrupt liiits [Ant. viii. i. 3, x. viii. 6), the name 
A. occurs twice — (a) 1 Ch ft'-" grandfather of 
Zfldok, and therefore a younger contemporary 
of EIL Of this man wc have no other rceord ; see 
AUIATIIAK. (^) 1 Cb 6", Ezr V, 1 E» H\ 2 Es 1« 
(Amarifts in Apocr.), son to thu Azariah who is 
■aid to have ministered in Sotomon'u temple. If, 
•A is probable, this remark applies to the previous 
Axanah, iheu tJiis Amariali may be the same as 

No. 1. But great uncorlainty Jiangs over these 
li»t«. In Ezr 7'* six names are omitted, perhaps 
by homoiotelcuton ; in 1-he full li^t important 
names {t.rj. .Ichoindn, Zcchariiih, tlur Azarinhn iTun- 
tcmjwrary with Izziah and Hczekinh re»iiectiv«Iy, 
Urijah) are omitted; the succession 'AjnariuL, 

jVhitub, Zadok ' o<:curs tnice ; only thrcQ high 
priests arc given between Amariali under Jehoaho- 
phat, and Ililkiah under Jo-^iuti. 4. A priest clan, 
lonrth ill tiie litit of 22 in N'eh 12 (v.^), who 'went 
U[) witli Zembbubel' ' in the days uf Jeahua,* and 
in the list of 21 (v."), 'in the days of Joiakim,' 
and fifth in tlie Hit of those who sealed to the 
covenant under Nehemiali (Koh 10"). This clan 
b probably identical with that of * fmmer,* the 
sixteenth course in David's time (1 Ch 24"}, and 
one of the four families of prioMts mentioned in 
' the book of the genealogy of them which came up 
at the Urst' (Kar 2" NtUi 7**, Menitli 1 E» 5»*, 
A'ZfifiyfpovS), and in tlie time of Ezra (Ezr 10**); 
nee Abijah, No. 4. 5. 1 Ch 23*»24*», a KohatMte 
Invite in David's time. 6. 2 Ch 31", a Lcrito in 
Hezeldah's time, one of the dx assistants to Kore, 
' the porter at the cast mte, who was over the 
freewill otferinf^ of God. 7. Ezr 10*=', a man of 
Judali of the !<on9 of Uani (1 Ch 9*), one of tliose 
who ' had taken Htranue wives.' 8. Nuhll*, aman 
of Judah, anccfttor to Athaiah, who waa one of those 
'that willingly otlered themselves to dwell in 
Jems.' 9. Zcph 1', grcat-paud father of the pro- 
phet, son to Uezekian, perhaps the king. 

N. J. D. WuiTE. 
AHARUB (A 'Afiofilat, B 'A^^eJaj), 1 Ea 8*.— An 
ancestor of Ezra in the lino of high priests, father 
of Abitub. Called Amariah, Ezr i*. 

AMASA (Kip-;^ 'burden' or 'burden bearer'J.-^l. 
T)ie son of Ithm. an Ishmaellie, and nf Abigail the 
sister of king David. The first mention of him is 
in connexion with the rebellion of Absalom (2 S 
17°), who made him leader of his armv. Joab, at 
the head of the king's troops, compfetely routed 
him in the forest of Ephraun (2 S IS'-"). David 
nut only pardoned him, but gave him the command 
of the army in place uf Joab (3 S 19"). When 
he cams to leojl tliu royal forces against Shcba and 
his rebel host, ho was troachcTouslv blain by Joab 
at ' the great stone of Gibeon ' (2 S 20»-J>). 2. An 
Ephraimite who opposed the bringing into Samaria 
of tlie Jewish prisoners, whom Pekali. king of 
Urael, had taken in his campaign againat Aliaz 
i2Ch2S'3). R.M. BOVD. 

AHABAI {■jrV7l.— 1. A Kohathite, I Ch 6»», the 
cpon>'m of a family, 2 Ch 29". 2, One of tlie 
prie»'ts who blew trumpets on the occasion of 
David's bringing the ark to Jerus.. 1 Ch 15**. 8. 
One of David'a offloers at Ziklag, 1 Ch 12", pos- 
sibly to bo idcntilied with Amaaa, No. I. 

J. A. Selbie. 

AMA6H3AI ('V^,, perhiijH a mmbinntion of the 
reading -iroi', *cs;') — AV Amaahal, Neh U". A 
priest of the famUyof Immer. 

AMASIAH (n:99!^). — One of Jchoshaphat's com- 
mandcra, 2 Ch 17". 

AMAZED.— Amaze has a much wider range of 
moaning in oldEng. than in modem, tn conformity 
with its derivation {a-irmzc) it e^p^esse5 confusion 
or perplexity, the result of the unexpected ; but 
this may give rise to a variety of emotions. 1. 
FeaR; Jg 20" 'When the men of Israel turned 
again, tlic men of Beujamln were a.' 2. AWE : Mk 
10" 'And they were in the way going up to Jems. ; 
and JeKU.>^ went Ix-forB them, and lliey were a. j 
and OS they followed they were afraid.' 3. EXCITED 
WOXDER: Lk 6* 'they were all a.' (Or. Iturraats 
tXaitii' iwafrat; RV 'amazement took hold on 
all'). 4. Dki>rkS.sI0N : Mk 14» ' (Jesua) began to 
be sore a., and to be very heavy.' Amazement 
occnrs twice in AV, the BxnreMiitin in Ac 3"^ of 
great joy ; in 1 P 3* of great tear. 

J, Hastings. 



AMAZIAH (n-w:i!, '•Tsci').— 1. The name of a 
king of Jndah wlio succeeded his father Jehoaflh 
ujion the assassi nation of tin; latter (c. 800. B.c.|. 
Tnu chiei interest of biJi vcign centres in hiK wart* 
witb Edom oud with Israel (2 K U, 2 Cli 2.")). In 
the first of tbeae campait^ns. Edutn, which hml 
revolted from Jndoh daring the rci^ of Jehoraui, 
the son of Jehosbaphat, suffered a severe defeat 
in the Valley of Salt', aod thecapit&t Sela or Petra 
fell into the hands of the enemy (2 K 14'). Elult-d 
by this success. AiiiQziah cliallonged to a conflict bi« 
neighbour Jeboaith, the ^-randiKon uf Jehu. Tlii» 
powerful monarch Khowed uo anxiety to try con- 
clasionfl with Iiie presaniptuoUK rival, to whom he 
addressed the well-knowti parable of the thistle and 
the cedar (w.*''"). Anm/iah, however, stung by the 
moral of this parable, refused to listen to the well- 
meant advice, and ru-'sherl blindly upon his fate. 
At the battle of llcth-sliemeah the forces of Jutiah 
were utterly routed, and the king himself taken 
prisiiner. •lehoaah foHowt^l up liiii victory by 
capturing Jerusalem, partially destroying its walls, 

Caginj; the temple and the palace, and carrring 
k hostages to Samaria (*t.'^*'*). How long 
Amaziah survived this humUlating defeat, it. is not 
eaqr to decide. The btatement {'2 K 14") that 
he outlived Juhoaiih tifteiin years can hardly be 
correct, and there seem to be sutticicnt reasons for 
considerably reducing the number of years (twenty- 
nine) aasigiied to his reign by the chronological 
system noonted in the Books o'f Kings. Ilis mh^n 
appears to iiave .sj-nchronised almost exactly wirli 
that of Jehoash, as that of liis successor did wiUi 
the TL-ipu of Jeroboam n. There is not a little 
plausibility in the conjeoture of WclUmusen, that 
the runxpiracy wbicli issued in the murder of 
Amaziah at Laehish had its origin in the jKipulnr 
diiiKatiiifaetian with his wanton attack upon Israel 
which coiit Judah so dear. The <lcath of Amaziah 
should probably be dated c. 78U B.C., the year when 
there is reason to believe his son Azariah or Uzziah 
asctnded the throne. 

itt-midt^s the (itriclly historical dt^tails which hu 
Iwrrows from 2 Ktn;;s, the Chronicler adds certain 
jiartieulars, the i)ar|ioHe of whose inserttun is 
evident (2 Ch 'iS"*-""). (On these additioos see 
Graf />iV qesckichttichtn BucJicr da A.T. p. 1570"., 
and Driver, LOT, p. 4W.) 

2. The pri&st of Jui'ubuam II. wlio opposed and 
attempted to silence the prophet Amos when the 
latter delivered his measage at the sanctuary of 
Bethel (Am V'". See Amos). 3. A man of the 
tribe of Simeon (1 Ch 4^). 4. A descendant of 

J. A. Selbie. 

AMBASSADOR.—Tbrce Heb. words are some 
iime.'t tr. 'aniKissador* in KV of OT : 1. Hj^5, a 
general term for messenger, used for (a] messengers 
of private men (2 K 5") ; [b) meuengers of God = 
angels (see ANCEL) ; (r) messengers of kings or 
ruler* =ftmbas8ador8 (2 K 19«, 2 Ch Sf)^). though 
sometimes tr. • messengers * in RV (Dt 2*, No 20'*]. 
3. ^Tf, apparently a synonym of 1 {Pr 13" ; cf. 25"), 
henco=lu;rald or inwiscBger from court (Is 18' 
57*), and metaphorically an 'ambassador' of J' 
(Jer 49'* ; cf. Ob v.'). In Joa 9* tlie reading of 
RVm is to bo preferred. 3. rVs. properly on 
interpreter, and so used in Gn 42®; cf. Job 33'' (T); 
hence tr^ in Is 43" (in theocratic sense) 'inter- 
preters' RV text, 'ambassadors' raarg.; in 2 Ch 
32" * ambaaaadoTS ' text, 'interpreters' marp. 

Ambassadors were not permanent otticiaJs, but 
wfire chosen from attendants at court for special 
occasions (see 2 K 19*). Their evil treatment waa 
regarded then as now hs a grave insult to kiug and 
people [2 S 10'"*). In the A]joor. the general term 
a-j-yeXoi, 'mcsBeuger,' is often used even in dcalini.'^ 
with courts (Jthi" 3', 1 Mac l**"'"), but during the 


Maceabrean period, when embassies were frequently 
sent, the ordinary Gr. M'ords for * ainbasf^ors ' ara 
employed: vpt<Tf!tvr^t (1 Mac IS'' 14="-^), T/jejSnis 
[I MaoiJ" 11" 13"), and ir^^.r^C'ra. (2 Mac U"). The 
word Tptopela, ' remlwLs«<agn' (RVAp<«rr,), occurs in 
2 Mac 4». In KT (Lk 14" 2 Co 5=*. Eph e*^) the 
D8C is metaphorical. 6. W. Thatcher. 

AH BA5SAGE, mod. embatrv ; in AV only Lk 

14". but RV Hdd.f Lk 10'* (.AV 'message') where 
the sumo Or. word {jrpt<rfitla) i» used. Thumeanin;^ 
is not a mcs.-tage M-nt by ambassadors, but the 
ambaasadors Uiemselves, In I Mae 14=* the mean- 
ing is ' message ' (Gr. Xiytn, RV * words *). 

J. Hastings. 
AMBER.— Sec Minekai.8. 

AJf BOSH, from in (which becomes rm before A, 
whence um) and boKus, a hiiiih, wooil, thicket, is 
usvd in various shades uf meaning. 1. The abstract 
state of lying in wait in order to attack an enemy 
secretly. Jos 8" '(Joshna) set them to lie id a. 
between Bethel and Ai.' 2. The place where the 
a. is set, or the position thus assumed. Jos tP * Ye 
shall ri&e up from the a.' ; 1 Mac U** KV ' And they 
rose up u^uiuat them from tli^ir a.' 3. The meu 
that form the a. Jos B''-* ' the a. arose quickly out 
of their place ' ; Jer Gl ''■' * prepare the ambunhes ' (lu. 
'liorsin wait']. The mod. military term is am- 
buscmle. Ambuahment, meaning a liody of troopH 
disposed in ambush, is nseil in 2 Ch 13"'": also 
aTT^tishmgnfs in 2 Ch '2(y^ (RV * Uffs in ivait'; 
hut RV gives ambuahment in Jos 8" for * lie in 
ambuKh,' and lu Jg Q^ for * lying in wait '). 


AMEN. — Thifi word found its way liodilv from 
the Jlelf. (;?)*) into the Hellenistic idiom through 
the LXX, and strengthened itit buhl latiT on by 
its more copious use in the version of Symmachns. 
It is derived from ]5i« he propped, in Kiphul (re- 
flexive) hf. uxis firm. So the adverb '\:i^, firmiy, 
came to t>e used, like our surety, for coiiUrmation, 
in rarious ways. 

( 1 ] It ia nsea for the purpose of adopting as one's 
oim lefiat has j'tisl be^n satd [tliis anxwerinff sense 
l>cmg apparently the orig. one, Nu a^)=*«o is it,' 
or 'bo sliall it be,' rather than the less compre- 
hensive ' so bo it,' thiiiigh ' so be it ' is oocaaiouall^ 
the prominent meaning (Jer 28"). The word is 
limited l« the religious atitiusphere, licing, ou 
hnman lips, an expression of faith tliat God 
holds the thing true, or will or can make it 
true. Thus after the * oath of cursing,' recited 
in Nu C°, there is added, both in the orig. 
Hebrew and in the Greek of SjTn., 'The woman 
.shall sav, -'Vmen, Amen,' the word being douhlcd 
for empliasia; where the LXX, however, has the 
inadequate t^octo, y4yoiro, so be it, as is the case 
in nineteen out of tlie twenty-three parages where 
the Heb, word occurs in this connexion : of the 
rest, three have dMi)*", and the fourth dXTjSwt, It is 
put also into the mouth of the people at the end of 
each curxf uttered on Mount Ebal (Dt 27). At 
the close, likewise, oi public prayers, tluinksgicinga, 
benedictions, or d<Kcclog\es tne people used to say 
Amen (Neb S", Amen, Auien] ; not, apparently, 
however in the services uf the temple, where the 
response was difTeront (Edersheim, Temr^e Servict^ 
p. 127), but eertainly in the Wiirviet'.'* ul the svnu- 

fogae (I'e 41", e.jf., an<l SchUrcr, lUP U. ii. 78,* 82). 
hat this ctutom passed over from the synagogue to 
the Christian ossembties wo gather from 1 Co 14'^, 
where St. Paul speakn of rA d>tiip, the (cnstomanr) 
omen uttered bv the listeners at the close of the 
extempore tlianKwyiving, 

(2) It wuseUin cunliniiation of onc'yown prayers, 
th&nkiigivings, beoedictions, doxologiea. Before 


KT tliti w'oni urcnrs only at the end of a private 
prater in To S*, anil at the end of a personal 
■■criplioa in t.he liuft Tcrsea of 3 and 4 Mao. The 
IwrMJiial daxulu>:ii:al or tMcription&l naage is muth 
more froqueni in NT [e.g. Ko I" 9*), and, ontside 8t. 
Paul and the Anoc., it is tlie onJy NT usa^. In 
St. Paul's Epii-tlea the M-ord somctiraea cont-ludes n 
prayer for, or a hcncdiotion upon, his readers ; bnt, 
except in Ko 15^ and Gal ti", it is a later addition. 
Soinvtinics, aa in Kev 7", it is nppaientty intm- 
ductory to a doxolog}', but is, in reuiity, conlinna- 
tory 01 a previous doxology. So also in Kev 22" it 
\» a iwlieving aectplftnce of tho previous divine 

{3u) It is used once at the dote of on q^rmation of 
one's own, to confirm it solemnly in faith : Kev l'. 
where It is the trustful climax of the more limited 
ra/. lycfi {the hare personal confirmation): 'Yea, 
Verily [IIu shall so cornel.' {^^) i'^ic use of Amen 
to introtiuec one's oiiMi words and clothe Uiem with 
aolemn allirmation may t>o callc<I an idiom of 
Christ: it iM a use confimnl entirely to Him in 
sacred literature. But tlm practice of the evan- 
gelists in tiiis matter is not uniform. Tho Synopt- 
ista give invariably d;*i)i' \^u>, the Fourth Gospel 
■u invariably umV ^t^'J' ^^<^- Again, Matthew is 
richest in the phrase, usin^,' it thirty timex ; Mark 
]esi rich, u.sing it thirteen times ; Xuko least so, 
ntiligitonlysix times; elsewhere he j^ivus narrower 
substitatea (dXiffui thrice, /v' iXtiStlat uucu, psI 
OMo). or more usually the simple \^n>. The 
■ignal difTerence in Luke may be due partir to the 
non-n«brflic stamp of hinreauiBrs. The double amen 
of introtitwtion in John has it« paraJlel elsewhere 
in the double amen o£ eonciunottt instances of which 
haTQ already boon cited. Uat tho invariablcncas 
of the doubling, as opposed to the invariableni^ss 
of the bin(j;lti amen in the Synopliiitii, can be put 
down only to an idiosyncrasy of the writer, tboQ;^h 
he need not U* unhisturieal m all or even in maiiv 
of hi« in'*iunp(!s ; for it is worthy of notice that nil 
the savings in question arc peculiur to John except 
13" u'Mt Lk) and « (it all Synopp., hut Lk A^« 
only). Sec Uogt; in JQJt Oct. 18M. 

But Christ's uniqueness In using it an a word of 
introduction runs parallel with the uniqueness of 
it» connutntion wlu-n Hcdocs um; it, (a) ft in n«v<'r 
the eiprc'Ssaion of His own (acccptin*; or expt-ct^iiit) 
iaXih ; it is rather an oxpreKHion calling; for faith : 
this view is supiiorted by the in%-anabte accompani- 
ment A/yw i'luv. ' He makes good the word, not 
the word Uim ' (Cremcr, iVortcrbiich, 8th ed. pp. 
145, ]4t>}. (^) Consequently, in IJis mouth, it has 
generally to do with liis Oivn j^crson, either {a) as 
Messiah, or [A) as demanding faith in His Mc^ah- 
ahip in spite of outward appearaneeji and misLiiken 
riewB : It jKiintd not merely to intellectual or 
eventual verity, but to the Tact that either the 
thing is tnte in Bim or He will make it or keep it 
true. So it is the amen of fulJUment in Uim or by 
Blm, or the amen of paradox, or both (cf. Mt o^* 
18^ 21" 2*i^^, and other pa&aages cited in Cremcr). 
It is intelligible, therefore, liow the evan"elLit-» 
preferred U> leave ii^ijr untranslated ; for Luke'ti 
rOCoaaional iXrjdut, like LXX y^woiTo, is but a 
I partial equivalent fur what Chrut meant hy the 
word. See Xe^^tlo in Erpai. Times, viii. (1897) 100. 
(4) In cluM* relation to ChriHt'n usage, so under- 
stood, is the use of amen as a Tiame or descrifttioa 
ci Cbriat and of God: of Christ, Rev 3^*, 'the 
Amen, the faithful and true witness' ^cf. 2 Co 1^, 
where the yea, the promise, is in {.'hrist, and the 
Atnen, the ratification, is through Him): of God, 
Is 66" (twice), ' the God of the amen/ i.e. of faith- 
inln«aa and truth (if tho Heh. mlverbial jxiints bo 
eorrect: see Chayae on the passa^); LXX (in- 
■idaqa&t«lj} : t6*- fftiw Hp dX:qtfi>>6y (cf. i.\f}&i96i and 
4#4r, Rev 3^'"). .T. MASfiFE. 

vot- I.— A 

AMERCE. —IJt 22" 'They shall a. hiui in 
(Driver, 'they shall fine him'} an hundred 
sliokela of silv'cr' ; and 2 Ch 3(3' RV 'and a' (AV 
'condemnetl ') the land in an hundred talents of 
silver.' In Ex 21'^, Aui S" KV trautiluti:H the name 
verb (o^;v) 'fine.' J. Hastinqs, 

AMETHYST.— See Stones, (PnEcious). 

AMI ('CH = i\a« Neh 7»*).— The head of a family 
of ' i>olomon'B servants,' Ezr 2^'. 

AMIABLE {=tovfJif, and now used only^of per- 
sons) is applied to God's dwulling-place in Ps M' 
* How tk. are Thy tabernaclea, O Lord of hosts '(RVm 
' lovely ' ; as at Ph 4* Khuiuw Bible lias ' what«oever 
amiable,* AV ' wliatso^v^^r things are lovely '). Cf. 
Howell ( 1044) ' They keep their churches so cleanly 
and amiable.' J. UASXtNGS. 

AMITTAI {'yiiti 'true').— Father of the prophet 
Jonah, 2 K 14*, Jon 1'. 

AXITY t/riendti/ relatianx between two nations, 
I Mac 12'»(RV 'friendship'). See Alliance. 

AMMAH (T?ti), 2 S 2*« only.— A hill near Giah, 
in tho wildcniesH of (iibcon. It was proltably to 
the east of Gilwon above tlie Jordan Valley, but 
ibu name litui not bcmi recovered. 


AMMIC5j;='my neople." LXX XoAi mov).— Tho 
name which la to be applicable to Israel in the 
time of rcfltoration ; Lo-ammi { = notmy people), the 
name ^ven in the hrcst instance by Ilosea to 
Gomcre third child, but in tho prophetic frajiment, 
Hoa I*'" [in Ueb. 2**'J, referred to the people of 
Itirau], is, according to the author of the fragment, 
to be replaced by the name Ammi of exactly 
opposite import, in sign of the changed relatioa of 
the people to J". See Lo-Amhi. 

G. B. Gkay. 

AMMIDIOI {WkinUliot, A, 'AftMfSsiCM ; in Swcte's 
text with tho hard, but in Frituvche's with the 
soft breAthins; AV Ammldolj. — Of the threa 
j>aranel lists (fcxr 2=Neh7 = l Ls 5) winch give tho 
mnulies which retnmwl with ZeniblinlMd from 
captivity, that in 1 Ea (6*") alone mentions the 
./Uuniidioi. It has been suegosted that the^ are 
the men of Ilunitah (Joa l$**n9cn, A Xafi^arn). It 
may Iw questioned whether either the Chadiasai or 
Ammidtui were mentioned in the original lleb. 
iist-*), for it is to be noticed that in the case of these 
alone Ih IIim gentilic form used ; otherwise tlirottgh- 
ont the litit we have equivalent expreamoiis of the 
Heb. ... "Ja, . . . vw, e.g. viol <frdp«(v.»), al it 
BtToXiJ. G. B. GiUV. 

AMHIEL (Sk'ss 'kinsman U God').— 1. Son of 
Gemalli. und spy of the tribe of Dan (Nu 13" Pj. 
2. Father of Mncbir (.-we art.), 2 S S)**- 17*^. 8. 
According to tlic Chronicler, the sixth son of Obed- 
cilom, who with his family constituted one of the 
courses of doorkeeiK-rs in tho time of David ; to 
them was allotted charge of the S. gate (of tlie 
temple) and tlio storehouse (I Ch '20, esp. vv.'-'*). 
Prei^umably. therefore, Ammiel wiw the name of 
a division of the doorkeepers in the time of the 
Chronicler— c b.c. 300. Cf. Driver, i,or 500 f. : 
Graf, Die Geadiicht. Jiueh. d. A.T. 213-247, esp. 
242 f., 240 f. ; Gray, Stvd. in Hcb. Prt'jKr .Names, 
ch. iiL p.49fr. ft. 1 Ch 3*. Seo Ei.iam. 

G. II. Gray. 

AHMIHUD (-n-TCH 'Idnsntan is ciajeaty ')•—!• 
An Ephraimite, father of Elishama (see art.), Nu 
l» 2" "*»•» 10^ (P). Presumnbly identieal with A- 

• For fuller diKussion o( t^e mcaains of Xhl» rmme, iid tbe 
roUowlng n&BiM bc^nnlciB with Ammi, see Kajisb, PaorEiu 




Mn of Ladan, 1 Ch 7". 2. A Simeonite, father of 
Shemnel (»ee ftrt.), No 34"(P). 3. A NaphtaJile, 
father of IVdahel (see art.). NttW^tl'). 4. Acc«ni- 
ing to tlie KcrK of 2 S 13^ and the AV, A. waa the 
Dame of tlie father of David's con temporary, the 
Q«ahurit« king Talmai. The Kethibh, followed by 
UV, reads -nn-ny— tlie closely similar letters n and t 
replacing ^ and i. Between the two readings it ia 
difficult to decide ; for wliilo the f^eri is better 
supported, the KethUth, as a name occurring 
nowhere dso in OT, ih the lianlor reading, fi. Hou 
of Omri, father of Uthai (I Ch »*). 

G. B. Gray. 
AHHIROB (Tn-9B).— See Aumihud, No. 4, 

JLHMIHADAB (2-yiZ 'kinsman is Kene^ou^* or 
iteiiiapB 'niy people ih genurouii,' B 'Afieiraliiff, 
A '&MtPa9i^ i in NT Mt V (and Lli 3»?1 'Afu^aS^^, 
whence tbo najne to AV of NT i» spelt Aminadab). 
— 1. According to the gonealojiy in Iliitli, wliii-h 

fives David's ancestry, Animinaclab was son of 
tain and father of Nahahon (Ru 4'"-= 1 Ch 2", Mt 
1*} ; as father of Nah^^hon ho is also mentioned in 
Nn I' 2" 7'" 10'* (V). Through lii« daiijrlitcr 
Eliaheba he beiwuiio father-in-law of Aaron, Kx 0" 
(P). 2. A<xinriUng to 1 Ch 0^ A. was son of 
Kobatb and father of Korali ; hut in uthor state- 
ments about Kohath'n children {eg. Ex 6'», Nu 3", 
1 Ch 0^) A. is not mentioned ; moroover, cUewhero 
Izhur apjR'ars as son of Kohaih and father of 
Kuraliir.x O'*-"', 1 Ch G'"). There can lie little 
doubt, LhiTcfore, that A has necidentally rvplaccd 
Izhar in X Ch 6" ; thi« may have arisen in eonij'ilinfr 
the list fniru a fulkr list of the Kohathites which 
menttonod the connexion of A. (No. 1] with them. 
3. Aooordins to ihe Chronielor (1 Ch IS"*- ") 
another A. was chief of a I.Hvitical house in the 
(lays of David ; he is de«ftril*d a* a aon of Uzziel, 
wlio wa** one of the sons of Koliath ( I Ch 6'}. 

G. B. Okay. 

AMMINADIB {^m 'CC) occurs in AV snd HVm of 
a very obscure pa*«i"e, Ca fi*' ' my soul made iitu 
tike tlie chariots of Ajnminadib.' ItV and AVm 
do not regard the term as a pr. naiiip, but render 
'niv soul set me on {\IV among) the elmriots of my 
willinK (HV princely) people.' In Kautzwh's tr. 
of CT the possace isomitte*! from the loxt, and is 
rendcreil in a lootnoto, 'Mein Verlnnfren [vor] 
sotzstB mich auf die Wagen meines \'oIIce!«, eines 
Ktllen,' witli the remark that it is <iuitc unin- 
teUi^iiblH in its present fontoxt. The pjeat variety 
of interpretation and exegc-sis of the words will lie 
found exhibited in KoiiasMr, v. 301 ff. : ef. Hitzij;. 
ti. Hohe Licfi, H2i., and comm. of I>litz.'*rli, Ewald, 
Udttcher, Zockler, OelUi, etc. See Song or S<)Nr.s. 

J. A. Semhe. 

AHHI3HADDA] {^-n 'kinsman i» Shaddai,' 
sec God).— A Dnnit*^, father of Ahiezer (see art.), 
Nul"2'-»7"-" liPlP). 

AHMIZABAD (t?:^lt 'kinsman (or, my people) 
has made a jiretmnt'). — Son of Kenaiah, for whom 
he appears at times to have oflieialed : but the 
Ktaieincnt in th« only ptsssge (1 Ch 27") where he 
is mentioned is obsnire. G. B. Gray. 

AHHON, AMMONITES Ccri;. fv:ir-:f', in tbo 
infteri]ttionjj, Ilit-Aiiiiinui). — A people occupying 
territory tai*t of the Jordun, Ijctwcen the Aniou 
on the south and the Jahlxik on the north. The 
land lying farther to the south, separated from 
them I'y the Amon, wax the possc*wion of the 
Moal'ites. Before the arrival or the Israelites at 
the plains of Moab, the Ammonites hnd been driven 
Itoek from the Jordan lianks by an Aniorite tribe 
from the west under Sihon. These Amorites estab- 
lished a kingdom, can'ed out of the Ammonite terri- 
tories, with UeshboQ as their capital, in thin way 

a >«trip of land along the eastern bank of the river, 
%'arying in breadth from 2U Ut 30 miles, ceased to 
be regarded as belon;:;;ing to the Ammonites, and 
was aasignod to the trannjordanic tribes of Beuben 
and God. The original territories of the Ammon- 
ites, extending from the Amon to the Jabbok, 
and reaehing to the easteni hank of the Jordan, 
lia<l in earlier years been held by a giaut race 
called ZaimEUmmitn (Dt 2'^"), to whom it 8>eems 
that Og, king of Bawhan, alwo belongwl (Dt 3"). 

As to the origin of the children of Aminon, an 
account is given in Gn 19*, which has been inter- 
preted by soma as genuinely blstorieal, and by 
others ai a reminiscence of a certain family lola- 
tioiuihip, cohiunKl by bitter hostility and national 
hatred. The latter position is niaintainetl bv such 
di^tin^itshod and niodrnite cxegi;t<>5 as Dillmann 
and Bertheau ; but by them the mvLh is rcgardetl 
as historicaHy justified, and indeed sug^tod, by 
the lustful cliaracter and irregular habits of the 
Aiunmnites, On the other hand, I)elit)»ch perti- 
nently asks how snch an origin can be assigned to 
the narrative, seeing tliat uioir sunposod descent 
front Lot: is made the one ground tor exccptjonat 
treatment of the Ammonites and Mn.ihitefi <Dt 
•»■ "). The HttJry of their origin oertaiidy does 
not afford occasion for contemptuous or liowtile 
tn^atment. This can be accounted for only by their 
unbrothcrly conduct towards Isi-ael, which caused 
such delay and hardehip on the eve of the entrance 
into the prumiseii land (f^t 2ii*). It appears to 
Delitracli that the lewdness and moral corruption 
which characterized their later history resulted 
fniiD their tainted origin, rather than suggested 
the story of that origin as given in our Scriptnrsa. 
In any caKe, wu muKt regard thin nutice aa indicating 
a clow relatiousliii) l«itween the Ammonites ami 
the Israelites. That such a f.innly connexion 
rcnily did subsist between the two nations is oon- 
tirmpd hy the fact that almost all the namw of 
M4>abit-e and Ammonite persons and places that 
have come down to us arc easily understood by 
the u«e of a Hebrew lexicon. From this circum- 
stance Kautz^ch quite fairly concludes that these 
nations cannot be reckoned among the Arab tribes, 
but must have a [Oace given them among the cacea 
allied to the Ilebn-ws. 

Tbo name by wliieh they were first known was 
'children of Ammon.' Only in the literature of 
very late afjes do we find the name Ammon used 
as the designation of the |>cup1e (Pa S3'']. In 
(his very late, proliabty Maccauean, psalm* [the 
only p^aoe in OT ouUido the Pput. in which 
Lot's name is found), a list is given of ten tribes 
confederated in open and violent opposition to 
Israel at the ro-dedication of the temple, in which 
llie nanies of Amnion and Moab occur. It is Uien 
said of al] thoie confederates that ' tbev have holpcn 
the children of LoL' This latter designation is do 
doubt intended to apply to the Ammonites and 
Moabitos. Tim meaning nf the name Bunfl Ammi, 
literally *sonf*of mv people,' points to derivation 
from parents l>oth of whom were of one race. 

The statement in Nn 21« that ' the border of 
the children of Amnion vras strong." t comin" after 
a description of the destruction of the Amorites by 
the Tspaelitcs as reaching to that Itorder, is under- 
Klood by K&utZM;h and others as indicating the 
reason why the Israelites did not cjiny their con- 
quests farther east, and a« iherc-fore opposed 
to Dt 2", wliich makes Israel avoid coufllct 
with the Ammonites la consequence of a divine 
command. Tlio earlier passage, however, may 
be read as gi^Tng the reason why Sihon and hia 

• Bee Ewnld, UUtoru nf hraei, i. 812, uwi CbtjTw. OrMn nf 
Uta Praltrr, IfiOl. p. 07. 
f blUtnana sind amtiy others nsd hon TV '3^'m' (or 

If 'atnag.' 




Amorites had not {>iislied their conquests hcyoud 
(his Btripof land, nilh the posMBtniuu uf whivh they 
bad re6t«d satiBfied. The Ammonites had retreatx^ 
bcJore the Amoritcs within the natural fortresses 
of their inland mountain region. But chough they 
bad thun under compuhuon ahandoncd the truitfut 
Jordan Valley, the Anitiionitefi never t^ea-neJ to look 
Upon the whnli' svvet^{> of countrj' down to the river 
L iMokit as n;;litfu1ly theirs. Boino 300 yenra Rtt«r 
tlio oonint'st of the bind by the Isr., the kin;^' 
of the Aiiinnniitcs inado the uureoAoiialile claim 
that they ^honld restore to hira the country that 
had been taken so loc^ before, not from his fore- 
fatherA, hnfc from their Amoritc conq^ncrors (Jg 
11'*). This the Israelites, under the bravo (Jilcod- 
ite chief Jephthah, rcfusod to do, inflicting' upon the 
Amninnitca and their allies a moat humiliating and 
l«mahui};ilefeat.* Frovioiutothi8,foreit*liteenyearSj 
iibe Ammonites hod h&tasBDd thoae tvlio ooonpiea 
tite coveted district; nnd so Buooeesful had they 
been in this that they were encouraged to venture 
across the Jordan, and there held in terror the war- 
like tribes of Judah, Bcniamin, and Ephroitn. 
While this is reported primarily and mainly to 
shovr the depth to which tho iBraclitca had eunk, 
it also aflbnis proof of the proweiA and>' 
importanci; of the AiiiniuniUwi. 

%\'hen we next hear of them, in the earlv yeans 
of king Saal, the children of Ammon ^orm a 
iiowcrful nation under a capable ruler, kin^ 
rialuLsh. One of the Urnt distinctions in hattlu 
(Cained by Saul Mas Ids defeat of NahoAh ami the 
Aton)anit««, and the dctivcranoc of tlic inhabit- 
ants of JatMMh'gilcoff, to whone city tlioy had 
laid 9tei;e (1 S II). The LXX text here rcad-t 
that thw eonllict took place alioiit a month afUir 
Said hod ascended the throne. Diirinjj the earUer 
part of the reign of Da\id, hnstilitiea between 
IhucI and Ammon ceased, because in tho timo 
of bia trouble. Kohoah, either this name mon- 
arch or perhaps hi^ sncoenor, 'rIiowmI kindne^to 
David' (2 S KP). On the death of DiLvid's friend. 
messengers were sent to condole with his eon 
Hanun, who, sunpectiiig that tlie^ M'cru spies, 
treated them infamously, ao that Da%id was obliged 
to enter up>on a war to wipe out the initult thai 
hod been put upon hia ambaasadora. Tlie scn^e- 
\vm oondact of the Aimiionitc monarch nvidi>ntly 
atmkened amon^ the l.-tratditcs all the old bittrr- 
nen, so that in Uie hour of vit'tory ]).'i\'id anr] hin 
man lost all control of thc:ii»<elvej:<, and inllictcd 
upon the rajiqaidhed children ol Ammon the most 
cruel and re^'olting barlKLritioti (2 S 12**"). Their 
capital. Babhath-Ammon, woii tskcn by Joab, 
I>avid'8 com mandcr-in -chief , though lie gave the 
honour to the king. This city (in Alaccahean 
limes known by the name of rhiladelpbia), one of 
the dtien of the Decapotis. Iny about 20 uiUes cost 
of the Jonlau, ju&t outside tho eofitern l>order of 
the territory of Gad, at the aonthem spring of 
the Jobbok. 

After tho division of tho kin;idom, the country 
that hod been taken from tho Anununit*:^ imtur- 
aUy foU with tho rest of the trauajordanic terri- 
to^ to the nation of the ten tribes. The 
Anunoiiitefl, however, eujou took advantage of 
the weakness of the dividi>d kingdom to a«sert 
OfTBln their independence. Tlieyalttoicnnod eagerly 
with the AwtyriauA in their attocK on Guead, 
obtainintr inerooso of territory as the reward of 
their »ervicc ; nnd Fubscf]UPntly, when Tiglath- 
HlcHT defeated the UeuWuiUs and GadtCes, the 
Ammonites seem to have liccn ollowtxl to reoccupy 
portH, at least, of their old territory on the 
bonks of tJie Jordan (2 K 15* 1 Ch 'o'"). T!ie 
cmdty which they practised in the war ayaiasi, 
* Aoc to Kima modem critic*, bowem, Jg Ills td is « iftt« in- 

Gilead as allieu of the SjTian? is described as having 
been cummilLed with the object of getting their 
borders enlarged; and for this, and for tlzeir 
malignant exultation over Israel's fall, they aro 
denounced by the prophet* (Am 1", Zeph 2'-*, 
Jer 4U'-', Ezk SI*-"). We have a detailed 
account {2 Ch 20) of hoi<tilitie9 btrtvvecn the Am- 
monitett, at the head of a pOM-erful cimfederaoy, 
and tlie southern kingdom of Judah under Jehosha- 
phaL Great prepamtinns had been made for this 
campaign, which was intended to be decisive; but 
BURpicions of treacherj' among the allies turned the 
onus of tho i)anic-&tric*kcn hosts agaimit one another 
in n great shiugliter, so that tho children of Judah 
did not rcquiru to <Iraw a swunl. 

After nearly Itm vuurs wo ngnin find the Am- 
monites at war with Judnh (2 Cli 27*). when they 
were tliorou^hly bcut«n by Jotham, and laid under 
a hca\'y tribute. During tho ymm in which 
Judah was tottering on tlie ver"o of overthrow, 
tho Ammonites ap]>ear among the vassal tribes 
usod by Babylon to harass and idundcr those Oiat 
had revolted from her sway (2 K 24*). After the 
overthrow of Judah. Baalls, the king of the Am* 
nionites, entertaining still the old unconquerable 
Hiinaty towards the Jews, aont IsUiuael, a man 
rumuU'ly connected with tho royal family of 
Judah, who had I)een reHideiit in the comitry of 
Aiumuu, to murder the pupulur and successful 
governor Gedaliah, under w-hom the Jewish colony, 
consisting of those who remained in the land of 
Judah, had begun to prosper (2 K 2.1^*'. Jer 40^*). 
In the days of Nehemiah, tho Ammonites were 
active in their opposition tothe Jewa, nmlicioasly 
endeavouring to liindor the building of the walls of 
the city and the ro.itoration of ibe temple (Nub 4). 
Tlirue 'hundred years later, in the time of Judas 
Mnccabieus, ttie Ammonites joineil the Syrians 
ngninst the •TeWH. The Jewish leader went ttirough 
Gilead and inl1ictc<I a crushing defeat u])on the 
Aninionitcs and titcir confederates under tlioir com- 
mander TiniothcUH (l Mac 6^). Tlie Aniiiioiiiteit 
are referred to by Ju.'itin Martyr, about the middle 
of the second Christian cent., as even tlieu a 
numerous people; hot not more than a centory 
Uter Origen speaks rnguely of them, as of Moabites 
and Edomitcs, claiinng them all with tho Arab 
tribes ; and witli this doubtful allu^sion they pass 
altofflithor out of history. 

The Ammonites seem to have been notorious 
among the nations for their nmelty. Tlieir religion 
waa a genuine rcHectiou of thiit iiifuinons niitiouul 
characteristic Th^ chief deity was Molech or 
Miloonul K IT"). 

Ammonitess (r-psj), woman of Ammon, 1 K 14""", 
2Ch 12"' 21*. 

LiTJiKATUHB. — Kkubneh In ni«Iim, lian/twarUrtiucS, 1M4, 

fp. U, M — Ml wlialratlo ui<l •.-uiiipc>;hciisivc Bkdtdi. S«« 
>ll)nisnn aud Delltnoh on Gn tU^ in t^iMr GotninanUilM ; 
BirkM, Hitlvry of Itntt, II. l»tidon, lS7i!, rr- 2W, Sffl, SfiS IT. ; 
Ut ISTS, p. 2i, etc. ; EbrkTd, Apoit^Uu, EOiit, l-^^^:. IL U9-U1. 


AMHON (i>37tt). -1. Eldest son of David W 
Ahinuimi the Jczreclttctn. Ucdishonoured his hall- 
sister Tnmor, and was, on tliat ac<«unt, slain by her 
lirotherAb(ialom42.S3^l3i'-)- In 2 S 13»kfliBcaUed 
Aminon(p:*0|t), supjHtsedby many (on the analog of 
Arabic) to be a diminutive fonn, puri>oseIv usm by 
Ah^Alom to express eontemut; ]x>ssihl v It is only 
a clerical error. 2. Sou of Shimon (1 Ch 4'*). 

J. F. Stevxino. 

AMOK (p'-oy 'deep').— A priestly familv in the 
limn of Zerubbabel and of^Joiak'im, Ke)i VJ?- ■• 

AMON (|'C(j, It* ' o skilled, or master workman,' 
Pr 8« RV}.— 1. One of th« kin^^ uf Judah, sou and 
successor of Manosseh. Two {•antHeJ nccounts of 
his reign are given in 2 K 2l'*-=* and 2 Ch SS*-** 




IIU name occurs in tbti <;eDealogica] It^ of the 
liDUse of D»vi<I, 1 Ch i"*, and in tliAt of the 
aiict!Stry of our I^nl, Mt 1'*. It ia also iimii- 
tioned in connexion with his eon Josiah in Jer 1' 
25^ Zejih 1'. 

A. came to the throne at the a^o of twenty-two, 
nnd hin rtngu liuitoti two fears (mi-<KJ9 UX'.}. U 
haa beott suiipoi^ed that his name mny have hatl 
some connpxiun with Lhu E^yp. divinity Amoii 
(seeTHKIiKS), and may lhu»l«'an illiistrntioii of the 
extent of his fnther'a hputhi:n symjmlhieH. Thuro 
in, however, no other evidericu tliat in his culti- 
vation of foreign forms of worship Manaswh wjia 
definitely inllnenced by Egypt, and tho namo A. 
may /jui'te well bo Uebrew. 

All that we know of A. is that during his short 
reign he repeattid all the idolatrous practices of hU 
fatner'a earUer years. Ho had iMien nnaH'octod by 
M&nas8eh*B tanfv repentAO'T-u and futilij attempts 
at reform, and wlieu lie came into _power ho gave 
(nil Bcoj*e to tho heathen proclivities with wTiieh 
his youthful training liad imbned him. Tiie 
state of mattt^rii under A. may bo inferred partly 
from the fact that ' he walked in all the way tlial 
hi)) father walked in, and served the idola that 
hia fatln-r si-rvcd, and wor>hipped them ' (2 K 
21''), partly from tiie evils that were found 
roropemt at the time of Joniah'H refnmiation (2 K 
23*-", 2 Ch 34"), and partly from the description 
which the i^rophets Zephanmh and Juremiah give 
of the religioufl condition of dudah in the be^ii' 
King of Johiah"8 reign [Zeph !*-» »** 3'*, Jer 2-0). 
An Ashcrah stood in tlio hntu>e of the Lord : 
incentHi wok htimt'd Lu Ihud ; the sun, muiiii, and 
titar» were wornliipped ; idohitroufl prieat-s were 
maintained : and the iiami^t of Malram whk held aH 
sacred as that of J". Perhaps even human racH- 
fioe vaa not discontinued. Idolatry in religion 
was accompanied by lawleiw luxurv. and by the 
corruption of moraU in every pait of society. The 
rulera vci'-Tv violent, the ludgcs rapacioua, the 
propheti! treafheroiii^, and the priests profano. 

A. wfu« 4iiin by condpirators, and wan buriod in 
the new burial-place in the garden of Uzzn, where 
his father ii1m> lay. He wax not the victim of a 
popular revolt, but of a palacL* intrigue ; for the 
people slew hia murderers, nnd set his son Josiah 
on the throne. It iii jws^ible that tho plot against 
A. mny 1ihv« been runiieettrd nith some attempt at 
religioua Reform, like the revolt of Jehu against 
Jehonun of Israel. If thi» wrh ho, the attempt 
was a failure, and the popular rcai-tion in favour 
of idolatry was strong enough to delay the revival 
of J"'s worship for nearly twenty years. But the 
record is bo meagro that this must remain mere 
matter of conjecture. 

I.irm*-niiK.— Ftr the lut r«)Dt, mm Kittcl. BUt of Btb. IL 
376 1. Then is » retdiog hv oim ot th« bojids in th* Alox. US of 
tha I.XX whlcliKivet iwcKo yean lutcftd of (to m the l«ngtli 
«t A. 'a rciifn. Toll hfts htta aafeiu]«d &■ ituthantlc by Oftori^, 
Dulte or Uiuichcatcr (Tha Tima (/ Z>amVr, Umdon, 1U6), on 
CTOuitils q( prophettcal chToni>]og7, in wnicli h* ia phrt\y 
uipvorud by Ebi«rd <SK, 1817. iiJ. ess tt.X For tho other ildc, 
fee T^ieniu*, JMf OOcAcr d*r Kdniyt, in loe,, and ih* aatM in 
ewaU iGaOiiehU, & S. 8. nt> ; Eag. U. Iv. 206X 

9. A governor of Snmaria in the davs of Ahab, 
mentioned in 1 K 22'« (js?} and 2 Cfi 18» (fax). 
The prophet Micaiah wiu< given into his cuBtody 
when Ahab set ont with Jehoshaphat on his fatal 
attempt against Riunoth-gileiid. The LXX has 
M>me Bingular variations on this name. In 1 K he 
apjioars as ^fivp rlu' ^acrtX/a r$i vii\tut (or ace, to 
another rpailing 'AfitiCiv rby Spxovra]. In 2 Ch he 
iii'Eti*ip(aim 2t;iftvp) dfixoyrn. Josei-hus calls him 
'Axd^w. (See ZATW, 1885, S. 173 IF.) 3. 'The 
children of Amon' (i'^v) are mentioned in Neh ""^ 
among ' the children of .Solomon's servants,' in tho 
list of those who returned from the Bab. Exile 

with Zerubbshel and Jeshua, In the parallel list 
in Eir (2^') the namo appears as Ami (•55), 4. 
Amon (god). See THEBES. 

James Pathick. 

AHORITES {-T^tin 'tho Amorito*).— The namo 
has been supposed to signify 'mountaineer'; but 
the two Eleb. words \'mer and 'Amir, by which the 
i<igniiication is supp<>rtcd, mean 'summit* and 
' tower,' mil ' niountiiin.' In the Bab. and Assyr. 
tcxte, as well tut in tho Tol cl-Amama tablets, the 
nameij^wTitten Amarrft, ' tlie .Aniorite,' the country 
being Amurri ; the Egj'p. form i? Araur, ' Amorite"* 
Syria and Pal. were known to tho Semites of 
Habybnia as ' the land of the Amohto' aa far back 
as tho time of Sargon of Akkad (d.c. 380Uh and the 
Sumerian nnmo Martn (which has been eonneeted 
with that of tlie Phten. city Marathus and moun- 
tain Brathyl is probably a mmUficalion of Amurra. 
Aceonlini* to an early Bab. geognipliical list 
liV'AI iL 50. 5U), Sanir {the Senir of Dt 3") waa 
a synonym of Subartuiu or northern Svrio. In 
Sumerian times 'the land of the Ajnorit^s' was 
also known as Tidnim or Tidann. 

In the age of the Tel el-Aiuama tabIctH(li.C. 1400) 
and of tho Xineteeiitb Kgj-j). iJj-naitly (B.C. 1300) 
'the land of the Amoritts' dctiutexf the inlona 
region immediately to the north of the IVl. of lator 
davd. In 3iuiny panMigefl of the OT, however, tho 
Amoritefl appear as the predominant population of 
Canaan, and accordingly (a-s in tho cnneifonu 
injieriptions) give their name to tho inhabitanta of 
the whole eountrj* (sec 2 H 21', Am 2"- "). The 
Hintes of Gn '.W, Jon 9' II'* are Amorites In Gn 
48» 2 S 21"; the JuhuKitra of J.* 15« 18". Jg 1" 
19". 2 8 5" 24'" are Amoriles in Jos 10»-« (cf. Erk 
10*); and the Hittiten of fhbmn in Gn 23 take 
the place of the Amoritea of Mamre in Gn 14**. 
Strictly spiw.king, however, according to Nu 13", 
while the Amah-kites, or |le<lawin, dwell in the 
desert to the south, and the Canaanltos in the coa-st- 
lands of Phojnicia and the valley of tho Jordan, 
'the llittitesand the J«buisites and the Amorites 
dwell in the mountain».' 

Amorite kingdoms also existed to the sonth and 
eodt of Palestine. In early ilayR we hear of 
AiTioriles to t)ie soutli-we-'t of the Dead Sea (Gn 
W, uf. Dt V-**). but at the time of the lixodus 
their two chief kingdoms were those of Sihon and 
Og, on the eaatern side of the JorJan (I>t 31*, 
Jos 2'"). Og rule<l in [la.«han. Sihon more ttf the 
HOUth, where he bad driven Lhu Moabiten from the 
fertile lands between the Jabhok and the Amon 
(Nu 2I'»-«1. T1»B overthrow of Sihon and Og, 
and tlie occupation of their territories, were among 
the lirst aehievninpnts of the l3raetiti«h invaders of 
Canaan (Nu 21'^"**). A fragment of an Amorite 
song of trinmpli oi-er the conquered Moabites is 
given in Nn 21"*', where it is turned against the 
conquerors themselves. 

^V hether Che Amorite kingdoms were tlie result of 
comjuest, or whetlier tlio Aninrites represented the 
original pouulationof the country ea^itof the Jordan, 
wc do not know. A still more dilticiUt problem is 
tho relation Iwtween the Amorites and llittites in 
southern J'alestine. That tho two peoples were 
interlocked there, vre know from the statement 
of Ezk (Itt'I in regard to the double imrentogo 
(Aniorite and Hittite) of Jerusalem. In the norlTi, 
in ' the land of the Amorites' of the cuneiform and 
Egj-p. iufecriptions*, the interlocking wa» due to 
Hittite conquest. Before the reign of Tahutmes III- 
of the EighLeentli Eg\p. DvriaHty (B.C. lol>*-1449). 
tJie Amorite strongholit of Kadosh on the Oroiit«i 
hiwl been captured by the Hittitcs, and had become 
their soathem oapital. The Hittites, however, 
were intruders from the north. 

On tho Egyi). monuments the Amorites arc de- 
picted as a toll race, with fair skiiui, light (also 


black) hair, and blue ej'ee (Tomkiiis, Jrl, of tfte 
Anthropoiogieat InjtitiUc, xvtii. 3, v. 224). Tliey 
tbos resembled tbo Libyans (the Berbers of to> 
day), aud betuiii;:ed U> tlie %vLite race. The 
same type, with profileA rcscmbliiij^ those of the 
Ainoriteii on the K^rj'^i. nionumcnUt, la BtUl met with 
ID Pal., eepecially in Uie extreme e^outh. The 
tall elatare of thu Ainnriteft impreRMed ths Ittrael- 
itefl (Nu 13«-»», Dt 2^*" 9*, it tlie Aaakim are 
to be n^rarded as Amorites}. Amorites from time 
to time Kttled in Ejiypt, and became natoralised 
subjects of the Pharaoh. Thas, in the reign of 
Taliutmos III., the ewonlbearcr of the kinj^ and hi» 
brother, a priest, vcro aona of an 'Amorito' and 
hifl wife Karuno. 

Ld the age of the Tel ebAmama oorresiioiidenoe, 
the EtiTP* governor of the 'land of the Aniuriles* 
VU Abd-A*herah (written AlxJ-Asirti and Abd- 
Aarotn), who, 'v^-ith his! son Kzer (Aziru), mode 
saoeeesfiil war af^ainst Kib-hadnd, ttie governor of 
Phomlcia, eventually drivin;;; him front bis cities 
of Zeniar and (iebal. Azirii aecms to have been 
aa«Lst«d by the forces of Babylon and Aram-naha- 
raim (MiLanni). In tome of hbi deRpatches to the 
Pliaraoh he describes the Hittltea &Jt advanciD^ 
•outiiirard, and as having captured Tnnlp and other 
Ejjyp. towns in nortliprn Syria. The kiiigiloiiia 
of Ug and (prolxibly) Silion did not as yet exist, 
•the lield oi Bashon* (Ziri-Basaaa) being under 
the ICyyp* governor Artama-Samas. One of the 
letters is from the king to tlie governor of ' the city 
of the Amorites/ and orders certain Amnrite rebeht 
to be sent in chains to the Pharaoh, whose names 
are Sarm, Tuya, l-.V^ya, Yiavari (or PiMVM'il, the son- 
in-law of Manya, Dfi-^artt, riihtuia, nnil Niinniiiklit>. 
About a centnry* and a half later, Mereii['tali, the 
son and successor of Kamscn n. , built a town in the 
land of the Amorites [Anast iii. Jiev. 6). and one of 
tbo chief olliciah at his court wa« Bcn-Marnna, the 
son of Yupa'a or Vau * the great.' from Ziri>Basana. 
But wc do not know whetlier Baahan was at Uic 
time nnder Amorile rule. 

LrrcBATnut. — Sbvc«, 'Tb« W)i<t« Rnca if AjicI«ciI FalMttne,' 
Id Ui« £jrpof. July i>^S : liataa/tht (J;'fl^1'l '. 

A. U. Sayck. 
IHOS (Etej).- 

t. The Prophet. 
U. Tht (•rftj.hwy. 

1. Authcnlidlaf. 
S, Ctinli-iiU. 
S. TbooIocYt 
4. Style. 
III. Uteraturc 

J. The Prophet. — This is the name of the 
prophet \vhot« book in our Bibles * occupies the 
third place amonpit the Minor Pruphuta.f The 
Or. and Lat. Falher», being for Ihe most i>art 
tinacquatnted with Heh., frequently con/onndL-d 
his name with the (jnite dilferunt one of IttaiabV 
iatlicr, Amot. Oar prophet has no namesake in 

*TIta mjttm order b ohsonrcd in our cdlUoni of Ui« Itcb. 
Bfldr. but in Uie LX3> Amo» loUuw* Uomk. Tbc lainc li ibc 
OMi in the S)Tbc IJ^t-s ot Uw PnpbatM. Oivg. H^x. hjih- 

t Hm nun* hu been very r&iioiuiljr CKpUincfL JeiosK, la 
Ui p«clu:c to Joel, uni)«rfi4nd» it u iDMnUigr v*4 uAo btan a 
toad, but In the pnfaoe to Amoa h* nukM It equlvalont to Ih* 
y n pf f rAfif U torn a4ututer. BukUiu g\ttM the kltematlrps 
' 'SfiU, tearing th4 people a*md«T. A lUbblnkai 
-'.-ru tbM ' tht proptwt WW okJIed Amos Iwcauw be 
■. . - Ucb. 'ama») at tcn|rue>' And rvpnaealM tfae Lnrd 

u «vin)i. - 1 Mnt Amoc. uul tticv wiled hlra itarmiurwr.' Thc- 
■kUi» ucrlb«cl tb« nn« phyvIcKl laaniiity to Uoaes, loJah. 
i«S Jcreniftl). GtPcniui {TKe*. VHi) iru cUfpowd tc iwk &ri 
tigirp' etymoIofTTi ocnnparlnf: luch btmiilar Kfryp. fcraut tm 
JiNorM, ^ntatti. Bui the unml t'tulMbIc view 1> thai wblrli 
lnc«* H to the verb 'awutt ( •= to bvAr), »ii(l looks on it ft* tii««n- 
BV imnUm-btQrtr or IntrdfMii. Tlie alU'ioiX «( expUmUon 1b 
«wiiMl loo for wbea it ii »ugffe«t«d lh«t tho dud* m-w bnpoMd 
W Ibi diiM'a p«r«Qt« be<»un of tho htAwy lo«l ot povtrtj 
VMCfc Im «■« dooHHtl to cftrrj . 

the OT.* It is ahno-tt certain that he was a 
Juda^an by birth : Am 1' is not absolutely de- 
cisive, but taken ini conjunction with 1^^ it seems 
to prove that he was a citizen of the eoutbcm 
kingdom. The attempts which liave been made 
to prove bis northern orij,'in from the »iK:lling of 
certain words (■*"' 5" 6*^ ^" S') muat be pronounced 
failures. He owne^I a nmall Hock of a jieeuliar 
breed of sheep, ugly and short-footed, but valuable 
for their excellent wool Icf. 2 K 3*, the only other 
passage where the word vol-fd (Am 1') occurs]. 
These he pastured in the neighbourhood of Tokoa, 
in the wilderness of Judah. (See Tekoa.) Part 

of his livelihood was derived from tbo Ughlly- 
■ " ■ " " ,7"). Hij 

own account of himwlf (T^**") gives ua the impreS' 

estiHjmed fruit of a few syeumoru trw» (""j, 

" " " J*. Uj 

aion that, though poor, he Mas indeiiendent,' and 
able, when occasion demanded, to leave Itia Sock 
for a while. This is more probable than the sup- 
position thnt he brought his bheep with him from 
Tekoa to Bethel. It ifl extremely likelj that hia 
father hod followed the same occupation, for in 
the East avocations are hereditary. The omission 
of the father'fi name in the superscription of the 

Iirophecy would (teem to indicate that he did not 
Hjloug to a rlistinguirthcd family (contrast Is 1', 
.ler V, K7k P, Ho« 1', Joel I' etc.). A worth- 
less JewLxh tradition makes the wise woman of 
Tekoa (2 S H) to have been his grandmother. 

In his day it was still common for those who 
appeared as prophclH to come fortli from cireles 
ttliere the prat-ticca and influences cherished were 
of s^ich a nature ks to prepare men for this higii 
office. But he was doing bin ordinnrj- work when 
the impulae came which brought him to Bethel, 
the ecclcFiiaBtieal capital of the N. kingdom, there 
to dcDouaee the eins of Israel. God calk'U him, with- 
out any intermediary (7^*; cf. GaJ P), and tho caU 
came with a eonhtraining force which left no choice 
but to follow (3*). Extemsl nvpnlR, no doubt, had 
their influence. It i* iinpo^siblu to rend the book 
without feeling how deeply A. had been im- 
pressed by the westward movement of the Assyr. 
colossus, and we may reasonably believe that the 
campaigns prosecnted in this direction by Salma> 
naaaar in. (785-77.'* B.r.), or by A.-wunla'nil (773- 
756 B.C.), hod excitc^l his alarm. Tho note of time 
1', *two years bpfore tho earth(^uake, 'does not afford 
much help in dating hh mi-<u.ion. Zee U' assigns 
this carthquokc to the reign of Urziah of Judah ; 
and Jerome, on Am P, makes l)old to identify it 
wiUi tho one which Joiicphua {Ant. ix. x. 4) asworts 
to have occurred as a puuixliment of I'uiah's 
HAcrilege : S^uando iram Domini nou solum ptena 
iijnB,i|iii HfU-TdHguit fuit, »ed etterrru iiioluBi'MitHndit, 
ijuem Hebrti'i tunc accidiHHecoiumemorant.' Am 1' 
fixea t!ip proplmt'-H nctiWty in the i»eriod when 
Jeroboum ii. of Israel was contemporaneous with 
Uzziah. Tliia period extended from 77.'5 to 750 
B.C. The tone of the prophecy leaves little doubt 
that, when it was dctivered, the bulk of Jeroboam's 

* Our Englikh nitilM, affnelrK In tbU with tho tnftjorltr c4 
taodem Vi$§, mt^nlion • fVcondlAios. This ii in Bt. Luke'i 
&rcoiint r>r tl)ir c<^r^<^<^tr}' ''f Jooi^h, th« pUtMlre tether of our 
I>jr<l. Lk s^. There ii. howtvor, torn* unc«rtsintj^ as to 
whether tho correot form U not Amos. Tht) Gr. 'Au*( Is not 
dedstvc, iluco ll U tuftd In the I.XX inditrerentljr tor jncM 
(Ifl It> ft.nd c<oy (Am V), prcciwly u Jcroioa hu Atiwt In 
both ouco. T)ie rcahitta aim fitila to hirlp tit. mMr«iu il 
trsnSIllerKt«8 tlio iiruphct'i nuns ,£DQ10^ ukI that of 
lioUah'a [athrr t Oi^l. U I.k P» It coioblnc« the two fortni 
«Q.SCa\ DfOUxHT-h and KklkliiNon, In their fUb. Xno TeHa- 
m^nU, A«Mm in hvonr of Amox, both flvlii^ poK. Tli« 
igiiMlion i* not Important. In ssy cue we kn«w nothios eon- 
oeraing the pcraon nuncd, uid It b not ponlbk to do mon 
UiM etate the negftUi'e cottcIuHlon th»t he cannot bare been 
Mtlier tbo prophet ol Tekoa or the father o( bMlob, eeetog be l« 
rrmnved from Joseph by on lourvbl at odI; ictbd {anvnuions. 

splendid achievement-'* had already heen wrought. 
The mlnifltry of Amoo ^hutild tliereforo hv dated 
about '(JO B.C. An attempt has recently been made, 
on the ground of internal eridcnce, to bring it 
down a quarter of a cycntury, and dat<i it about 734. 
This, however, would require aa to sot naido Am 7"-*\ 
a eertion wliidi liears every mark of veTisiinill lude. 
Buthel was tlie principal scene of his preflthinf;, 
perhaps the only one. When he had delivered 
several addretssett llmre, AuiuKiah, thu chief priest 
of the royal s&nctuaiy, sent a messai;o to the 
kin^', who does not seem to hare been present, 
accusing thu preacher of treason, and at the 
aatno time ordered the latter to quit the realm. 
Evidently there was some reaaon to fear that the 
op|ircs5cu poor might lie stirred up to revolt against 
their lordii and maj-ttir!?. The thrents of coming 
judgment would dinturh many liPiirers, The 
denunciation of cruelty and injuitticD would awake 
many echoes. Yet the priewt's language e^"inco!» 
all the contempt which a highly-pla<,-ed official 
feels towards an interfering nobody, a fellow who, 
as he thinks, gains a precarious livoHhood by 
prouh<>»yitiv:. Jcroliuuni docK nut w;c;m to have 
paid luui'hTieed. In the Hah. Taliu. Pcsnehi/n, fol. 
o7b, it is said : ' Huw is it proved that Jeroboam 
did not receive the accusation brought against 
Amo»7 . . . The king answered (in reply to 
Amnziah], God forhid that that righteous man 
should liavo said thie ; and if ho hath said it, what 
can I do to him? TLic Shcchinnh hath said it to 
him.' The conversation is lictitioua; but Araoa 
doubtless withdrew anmoleetcd, after diaclaiiuiuj^ 
any ofhi-ial and {>ennanent standing as a prophet. 

{iredicting Amaziah'H uLtifr dcxtrucLion tieoause of 
da impious hindrance of the divine word ("'*'"), 
and completing the delivery of his own mcsrisage to 
Israel (S. 9). On reaching homo hu douhth-ss put 
into writing the suhstauL-e of his speci-liea, and the 
roll thiia written is the earliest book of prophecy 
that has come down to us, 

Conix'minjj his subsequent fortunes we nre 
entirely in the dark. A late Chri&cian tradition, 
originating probably in the 6th century of our 
ora, affirms that Amaziiih, the priest oi Bethel, 
struck him freouentlv, and trcaelierously abused 
him, and finally Amaziah'a son killed him, 
Btriktug him on tlio furuhcad with a cinb, becauMe 
he had rebuked him for the aiioKtasy of wondnp- 
ping the two golden calves. The prophet (uirvivcd 
long enongh to reacli his own Innd [another version 
adds, *at the end of two ilays'J, and was burieil 
with his fathers. It is much more likely that 
he reached Tekoa in ucaco, rcHunied his shep- 
herd life, and eventually was gathered to his 
fathers. Jcromo and Luschius ollirm that liiti 
s«pQlchro was still !>hown at Tekoa in thoir days. 
*\\Jiun Mnuiidrell wtw in the n«ighlK)urhood in 1 j37 
ho wa-* told that the tomb was in tlio village on 
the mountain. The Roman Church places Amos 
nmongsl the martjTS, and commemorates him on 
the aist March, the Gr. Church on the I Jth June. 
Amongst the Jews his freedom of speech gave 
oH'enec even after his death, for the Koh. Itub. 
btaniea Amoa, Jeremiah, and Eijclesinates for their 
fniilt-liudinir, aiuj t<tatCH Ihitt this in The reason why 
tJiu 8M[ierseriptioti» to their books run, *The worJa 
of Amos,' etc., and not, 'The words of God.' 
II. TuK PnoniFCY. 

1. The Authftiticiifj oi tlio writing M-hich bears 
his name has never been scriou&Iy questioned. As 
to its intcffrifr/ there U good ground for tliinking 
that the following pOBSSges are later additions : 
II. :i 2*- a 4" 5'- » (P ^- ''^. Emendatiom of the Mas- 
aorctic text havo been suggCKted for the tinder- 
mentioned poAsage-H, and most of them merit careful 
consideration: !"•» 2" S*- "•'»->»■" 41.S.J fifc«.ii.». 

U. » Ql. K. 10. U 71. X. i. II. 17 }^< [^ 10. 1l_ 

2. The Contents may bo summarised tbias :— Chi. 
1 and 2 1 Thk IXTRODUcnoN, which t<jucbcs on the 
sinR, hrst of the neighbonnng nations and then of 
laracl, and announces their imminent punLihment. 
Chs. 3-(j : The FIB.ST Main Division ok tiik 
BOOK; 3-4' jI J/iiio/oryZ>wcOT(r«e, addressed chiclly 
to the ruling clafiflea; 4^" A Continuation of the 
sfiwK Speech, now directed to the people in general, 
detailing the judgments by which God haa sought 
to^ bring them l>Bck to HuiiseU, and sharply 
pointing oat that a more decisive stroke w*a8 at 
hand -.h-.A Secoml Addtxts, in which are contained 
lamentations, reproofs, exhortations to true rcli^oa 
as opiwsed to false, threats of ruin and captivity ; 
: A Woe vpitn the L uxii rityiia, iheScif-ConJident, and 
the Proud. Clis. 7-9 : TitE iJECOHO MAIN DIVISION 
OP TRK Book ; '''■ Three Visions; '*-^' Th^ .ynrra- 
tiveaf the Kxpulsionvf Amos \ 8'"'-4 J'wurM Vision^ 
the rest of the chapter being occupied with de- 
nunciations of the extortionate traders, the self- 
indulgent rich, the superstitious pilio'inis: 0: The 
C'vncludinfj Vision : The hievitabU I'uniahment of 
Wrona-docTs: The Jiffssianic Future. 

3. Till] disLinguiKliiiig cliaractiTiKtitai of this 
prophet's 3'hrotofft/ arc quite unmistakable : — 

(1) His Idea nf Hod. — Amos was an unoora* 
promising monothciat. There is not a rerse in hie 
writing's that admits the existence of other deities. 
But his conviction of the divine unity woe not 
tho result of philosophic thonght and argument. 
It was an immediate certainty springing out of 
hia deep sense of J'"h right«oii^neH.s nearness, 
greatness. So near and so mighty did He seem 
rhat th«re was no room for other t,'<^ids, and hence 
tlmre is no dixcusaion of their claims. J" is all- 
powerful in Heaven and Sheol, on Carrael and in 
thu depths of the sea, in Ca])htor and Kir, and 
Edom and Tyre. His might is shown tn tho 
control of human history (chs. 1 and !2, passim ; S" 
iV* 9^), and e»p. in Ills guidance of the fortunes of 
[ftrael. Kvery niovement of tho national life, 
spiritual and external, has been under His tinnd 
('J'"^'). In all the affairs of men there ia no such 
thing OS chance ; it U His purposes that are con- 
stantly being wTonght out ; calamity, as wcU as 
nrospt'rity, comes from Him l''i''% 'Shm implies 
liis dominion over Nature, the completeness of 
which comes out in such sections as 4^'^", where 
every natural calamity and scourge, dearth, 
drought, mildew, locust, pestilence, is traced to 
the direct exercise of His will. Tt scarcely need 
be added that the irersonnlity of GocI was clear to 
the prophet's mind. Hence it ia that ho does not 
shrink from anthropomorphism : J " steps forth 
against the house of Jeroboam like an amied 
warrior (7') ; in pity for His people He changes 
H is purtMjBes (7' ete. ). 

(2) Tne relation ficttpren J' and Israel. — In 
common witli all hiscountrymon, Amos l>elievod 
that J" was in a peculiar fiense their Gwl, and 
they His people. liut they regarded the bond as 
a natural and indissoluble one, like tlint which 
was conceived to exist between other nations and 
their dQitien, no that, provided they paid His dues 
in the form of sacrifices, He was hound in honour, 
and for His own Rake, to protect anil bleiw thi-m. 
The _prophet, on tho tuntiarj-, insisted that the 
relation waa a moral one, not merclv dissoluble, 
but certain to be dissolved if they felt below liia 
standard of moral requirements. It ia in the 
insistence on this, and in the statement of these 
moral re<{uirements, that the splendid ori^nnolity 
of Amoa ia moat clcurlv evinced. Ceremonial wor- 
ship lia.s no intrinsic value (5"'") : the only genuine 
f^irv'icu of I^ikI ('onHiMbt in justice and righteousnean 
(5^) ; when iramomlity and oppression are practised 
hv His worshippers, (^i>d Hhrinas from contact with 
tfiem as from a defilement : inhumanity and 


anbrothurlinciis, nay even the failure to resjxjct the 
KntinienUi of olhera ( l'-2*|, are hateful to Hira 
when heathens are guilty of them, and much more 
BO whun I^ael is (3'-'). As to tho Ulcgitimalc 
metlKHls of worehip]>in;; the Lord, he has but 
little to toy ; 3" 4* 8'* sliow tliQ 9Com with 
which he regarded them. But it in the spirit, not 
the metliiHl, whinh tiadii in him bo stem an anta- 
goniftt. Uia main eontention is that ritual, aji a 
tubstUuie Atr the socint virtUMy is an altoniiuatioD. 
Tnie reliiiiun oun<iiHta in doing ^ood and abstainin" 
from hanu. As in the Epistle of St. Jamci, etliiciu 
coDfiideratioDd are paramount. Ri>;Uteou;!!iiL-.>« is 
the keynote of the iirophcvy. The word Love 
does not occur. Thiit bent wfut duo primarily tu hin 
•pprehcDHion of the divine cluiracter. God, to him, 
wan the Ciod of KighlvoumieKii rather than of Love. 
Not, of couree, that the seiwe of the Divine Love 
is absent ; ch. 7*"^ ib a picture of tho placabtencsfl 
which yield* to the prophet'.i intercession, even at 
the moment when the ittroke of jjanishment w 
falling^. but in this panicular Amos standa far 
below Hoflca. Tho circunutancefi of the time 
helped to fix his \-iew. Jeroboaju'a victories had 
bniufiht wealtl) and jtower to the up]ier classes, hut 
had left tlm pour worvu oil' thau of old. Tlie 
basest advantage was taken of this ; the wicked 
meanneM of the nowerfiil provoked Amoe to con- 
tempt ('.f). WitJioat beio}^ what is now called a 
fiocialUt— for. indeed, he wbs in no respect a 
thoori§t — he felt deeply the rottenness of tlie social 
state ; the dignity ot maa waa being tmmple^l on ; 
the prevalent luxury wus founded on opjinMsion, 
and was t)a])[iing the'life of thuve who pmrti^d it. 
Ho attacks thin luxury unsparingly (ti*") ; even 
the cnstom uf reolinin;; at meaut, recently introduced 
from tho fortlier East, ia twice relinked (S** 6*). 
Tho peasaut, aa well as the prophet, may be felt 

{3) TKc Coming Judgment. — The Book of Amos 
ia the cnrlitRtt writing in which the term ' The 
Day of J" ' is used. Most probably it was current 
oo the people's Hp«. They ima^'ned that when 
the Lord aro^ in judj^iont it would be, not only 
for the cetablialiment of His rule over tho whole 
world, but al*o to llioir great benefit; oil their 
sulforings would come to a perpetual end ; dumiuiou 
aa large aa David's would be restored to Israel. 
Amon &aw that tbiti * Dny ' threatened to be on» (d 
judgment on Israel itself (5^*), and its coming 
appeared so inevitable that he speaks of it as 
already present. Uidike hin prcclecc»!»onf, ho looks 
on the result as totally destructive of the common- 
wealth ta**-" 3'"-" 43.J.U53T 6 pasxxjH, V tt^"*- ')• 
Kepentance would have averted thiit (-1), but the 
opfwrtunity has pa»»ed. The yreat world-power 
which will serve a* God'a inHtniment is floiii>tIc«* 
Asiy ria. but t he prophet Mtojni xhort of the mention 
of it* name {H^ 6'*). Perhaps he was aware of the 
weakness under which the Eastern colossus then 
laboored, but believed that it would etond firmly 
on its feet again. 

(4) Ths Metrianie pitture in fl**".— One of the 
weightiest reuont for regardinj^ thi« as a later 
a<ldition in its incongrnousneMS with the Virions of 
Judgment which have preci^de^I. HsIiowhuh tlie 
land entirely pureed of tlio sinners, the rich 
oificials who had abuned their power. The Davidic 
kin^dom is restored, no ntress, however, being 
laid on the person or charaeter of the prince at its 
head. The ancient bounds of tho empire are 
re-«atAblished, fonM;^ers, evpecially the bnted 
Bdomites, bcinfr reduce<l anew to subjection. The 
Inaelit« exiles havu been brought home, and hav« 
lehoilt the waste cities. Apriculture and vine-grow- 
ing flourish to n mirncnlous degree on a soil of 
immenMi'ly increa-sed fertilitv. Israel has reached 
ua saitlily paradise, and will never be disposscsBod. 

This is a picture which would have commended 
iiaelf to the men who heard Amoa, as his genuine 
predictions did not. One point there in in common: 
everything is human and earthly, there is no trace 
of ejtpeotation of a future life. 

In so early a writer as Amoa it ia surprising to 
meet with so few signs of sympathy with tho 
modes of tliought and cxpremion which wore 
afterwards abandoned by the higher religion of the 
OT. At 7" ho appeam to share in the common 
idea that other lands are unclean to an IsratOite. 
At ^ ho adopts tho widespread myth of a dan- 
gerous aerueiit iuhalHthig the Beo, the creature, 
perhai)s, wiiich the dwellers on the Mwliterranean 
coBMt-huids conceived of ait swallowing, each 
evening, the sotting sun. At 5P (a disputed 
pasKago) there is probably a mythical idea Involved 
in tho mention of^tho constellation of 'The Fool.* 
(See art. OitioN. ) At 6"* (another disputed paaaa^} 
the (fUper.Htitious dread of pronouncing tho divine 
name amidst inanspicioua surroundings is referred 
to without reproof. 

4. There was a lime when Jerome's verdict on 
the Style of Amos, imperitus xermone, aed rion 
snir.ntiA, was generally acquiesced in. Now, 
however, it is H«n thai the Chri»lian Father wao 
prejudiced by Ms Jewish teacher, and that the 
prophet was as little deficient in style as in know- 
ledge. In point of fact, he is very little inferior to 
tho beat Ox writers. His language is clear and 
vigorous : bis sentences are well rounded. Hia 
imagery, mainly drawn, as was to be exitcctod, 
from rural life (titrcsiitng -sledges, wajr^oit, harvests, 
gracKliojJiMfrs, cattle, birda, lions, GsTung), is vivid 
and telling. He knows hew to use the refrain (i\, 
and thi; imetir ]am«nt [5*j ; he is skilful in working 
up to a dinmx. Two or three solecisms in Biielling 
may well be set down to transcribers. An Eastern 
aliephcrd is nob necessarily uncnltivared, though his 
culture be not derived fruui Ijuiiks. TliU flheplicrd'a 
outlook was a wide one (]. 2. 0') ; liisa|>|irehcnsion 
of the meaning of events unnininiunly ctuor ; hia 
knowledge born of retlvctiou aud the touch of the 
Divine Spirit. 

The bolilness of his style was an expreaaion of 
tho boldness of the man (ind his thoughts. It 
reqnired no small courage for a Judn?an to enter 
Israelite territory for the expre«fl purpose of inter- 
ferini* in Lite r^li;^ioua and social life of tho nation, 
denouncing everything an eomipt, threatening 
swift and utter ruin, rfor is that all. No speaker 
ever ran counter to the most cherislie*! ainvietions 
of Ilia audit^ifH more daringly tlian the prophet who 
.told them that the destinies of other nations are as 
really guided by God as those of His chosen people ; 
9^ ia almost a contradiction of 3*. His courage was 
derived from his eouvicdon of the reality and 
dignity of bin miHAion. When the Lord God hath 
BiHikcn, the man whuhL'arsUim cannot but prophesy. 
And whoever elM) may fail to hear, tho prophet 
does not; he is of tiie Privy Council {a'-', cf. 
Gn 18"). That is the starling- {loint of Hebrew 
prophecy.[SAn>iui.— CiJvla, PnOaet. fn Dvad. Pr«ph, Mtn. 1910; 
J. lU'rtMKll, Adn. PetlM. to Praph. Amei tt /on. 1070; J. C. 
llaniiU'nf. •*»«« Prfpli. BxpotU. 1703: L. J. UhU»d,^nfiot. 
<id tac qtiad. Am. Ym% J. B. Valcr. Amf ttterf. h. •fiUtn, 
1^10; i\mhf>X Di^mtatia d* JniMo, 1828; Ew&ld, DU Propk. 
dtt Altm Btmdta, ItM: Uendanoa, Mintr PnpAeta, 1S*.'>. 
1)158: B»ur, Drr ProvA. Amat, 1347: OBndon Iv Tht SvmJui'm 
Cottuiumtart^unB; Hltng-Hteiner. Dte Xvi-tf Kl. ProM. 1831 ; 
W. B. Sniith, TV /'AjiAcM -^ /jmu^, ISflO: UDthduin, *VeTMeh« 
m Amrw,' In ZA TH', IBSS ; (iunninff, J)4 Godiprakm van Aikm. 
1685: DftviilMn, Exporilor, llur. und Sept. 11*87; K«il, iMc Kl. 
J^roph. ItUH; Orelb. Di* ZvAf SI. Pni^ 1388 (tr. hjr Banks); 
Bttcbmsiin, Prmantioami tv dn KL Pr. Heft », 19»: 

r p. Am. u. if. am txtnukUt, laW ; 
OuUm la KwjtiKih's A.f. law ; C'-rnllt. D«r Itr. Pnphii, 
ISWiO. A. Smitli, ThMBk.f^tluTmlwtPr9fiuU,Vi06-,Vmtn, 

Joet and Amiot, ldC7: ImI but noc I«ait, well dHerrln; to be 
InuisloUil iDto En^., Vftlcton, Atnat «n Iloteat iOOL 

J. Tayloo, 

AMOZ (p3i(], father of the prophet Isaiah (2 K 
19=1, Is 1>, et4;.), to bo carefully dutingoished front 
Aiiibs {sScn) the prophet. See Auos (p. 85'' n.) 

AUPHIPOLIS ('Am^toXii). — Amiibipolis, men- 
tioned in Ac 17' aa n Bt^S^ io St. Faut'e inission- 
S limey from Philippi to TboMalonica, wsu* a city of 
acMonia- It was situated on the eastern bank 
of the river Stryinon. about 3 mile? from tlie 
(lea, closer to wliicb lay its seaport £ion. The 
river, on Ittaving l^ko Cercinitiu, winds in a semi- 
circle round Die liHse of a terraeed bill, ou which 
the tOMrn wa» built, protected by the river on three 
eiflo8> and by a wall along the landtvanl chord of 
the arc. It was, as TbucydideM (iv. 1(12) fwiys, 
conspionoQii {wtpt^v-^s) toward Kea and hind ; and 
this is probnUy the import of i\s name, ' the all- 
around (visible) city ' (Cfaiwcn, in loc, who suggest* 
the jiarallul of Umbstadt in Upfmr Hcmhc]. IUi 
iniportanoe, alvendy marked by its earlier name 
'Nine Ways' ('V^nria. AAal). mnile i\» i>ciN»eR»iun kucnly 
cx)ntesteil,nlikeon military and mercantilefronnds. 
The Athenians fo«niie<:l a i-olony under Hafivon in 
D.C. 43"» which ^re)»ented a history of chequered 
fortunes and varied interest, in its surrcnacr to 
Brastdae, the B^'htanderita walls between Brasidas 
and Cleon in wnicb both fell, ite refusal to submit 
ajjain to the mother-city, its repeated attempts to 
assert '\\.» independence, till it passed into the yo»- 
spMMion of tliH Maeedonians under Pt^rdii^'im and 
Philip, and cvontually into that of tlie Koninns. 
By these A. was constituted a free citv, and made 
the capital of the JirU of the four ditttricts into 
which, in li.C. IC7, they divided the province (Liv, 
xlv. 18. 29). The Via Egnatia passed through it. 
It waH called in the Middle Ages Puputit (Tafel, 
Thcssnl. p. 4S)8 f . ), and is now retircsentfid by a 
village called Ncttchori, in TurkiPii Jrniboei (see 
plan in I>eake, N.G. ii. 191). Zoilus, the earpini? 
critic of Homer, was a native, and wTotc a history 
of it in tbrQc books (Soidn-i, c.r.). 

William P. DicicsoN. 

AMPLIATUB (*A;jTVaros, KV corructly with 
M A H F G. VuIr. Boh. Oris., for TR 'A^^X^aj. 
HELP, AV Ampllas, tlieabhrBv. form). —A Chris- 
tian grwled by St. Paul (Ro Itt") as the ' beloved 
in the Lord.' It ia u very eumuion Roman slave 
name. (Ligbtfoot, Fhiiippiam, p. 172; CIL vl. 
4Smi, oIM, etc.) 

Home further intcri7st attaches to the name. It 
occura in one of tlie eartiuHt ehnmltcnt of the Cata- 
comb of St. Doniitilla, in!u:ril>ed in large, bold 
letters over a cell belonpns to the end of the let 
or beginning of the 2nd cent, A later iuBoription 
in the Mime chamber also contains the same name. 
The simplicity of the earliest inscription su<;gci«ts 
a slave, and the prominence aH&igneu to the cmme 
suggeittti that it belonged to Home jiruminent 
member of the early Itonmn Chiircb, perhaps a 
member of the huuHehold of iJnmitilla. 

IjnSRATlfBE.— Do noMil. Bvil. Arch, rhrit. Spt. III. toL t1. 

Ui ■■ " — ^- ■■ 

iliullam, Itomant, p. 424. 

v.. C. HE 


AHRAH. — {DT9ff * the people is exalted '). 
J. A I-eiite, &on of Kohath antf grandaon of Levi 
(Nu :!"•>*, I ChO->"). He married JocJiebcd bis 
fathers sister, by whom he Wgat Aaron and 
Moses (Ex 6"-»| and Miriam (Nu 28W, 1 Di 6^). 
2. A son of Bani who had contracted a marriage 
with a 'strange woman' in the time of Ezra 
(Kzr I0»*). 

Amraniltes, The f'rpiT). — A branch of the 
Koliiithite family of the tribe of Levi. The name 
occurs iu tlitt account of the census taken by Mo^tOM 

(Nu 3"), and a^ain in the Chronicler's account 
of the organisatioa of the Levitcs in the time of 
David (1 Ch ae*-). W. C. ALLKN. 

AHBAPHEL {Vc-??(i), mentioned as 'king of 
Sbinar' (Gn 14'). Schrnder, who suggested that 
the name waa a corruption for ' AnirH]>hi ' (•^■^^(f}, 
was tlie first to identify th lit king witliKliammtuabi, 
the 6th king in the Ist Dvnasty of Babylon. The 
cuneiform iiig{;ription9 infonu us that Kunnimnrabi 
was king of Babylon and N. Babylonia ; that ho re- 
plied against tlie supremacy of I^lam ; that he over- 
threw hifl rivij Eri-aku, king of Larsa; and, after con- 
quering Bumcr and Accad, was the first to make a 
united Kingdom of Babylonia. Hereigned 5.1 years. 
Winckler gives the date of hia reign aa 2264-2210 : 
Sayoe [Pair, Pal. p. 12) gives 23-At as tlie date of 
his uniting Babylonia. But the cbron. in uncer- 
tain. The name in given by Hommcl aa Chammu- 
rapaltu {Geseh. d. Aforgeiiiandcs, p. fi8), and it has 
tiometimes been tran.^cribed aa Clmmmu-raga.<i. 
Mr. Pinches cunHidt>rB Amraphcl to bo a Scm. 
name=Amar-apla = Amar-|iaI ('I sec a son'), or 
Amra-apla = Amrniial ('see a son '). 

It \K clear that the idcntiTication is not free from 
difficulty, flo far as the Biblical account is con- 
cerned. (1) The date of Khammurabi, according 
to the reckoning of Wincklor and Snycc, etc., is 
400 years earlier than the cent, to which Gn 14 is 
goncrally ascribed. (2) A. is described as ' kin*!; of 
Shitiar' ; and Shinar has gont>nilly been identilied 
with Sbunier, the S. jMirt of Babylonia. Kbnin- 
murabi, wliilo subject to the Kuzeniiiity of Klam, 
wa8 king of Babylon and N. liabylonia. but not of 
•SbumerorS, Babylonia. TliiadiilJcuIty lias l>eeu met 
by the ossuniptiun that Shinar is to lie understood 
to denote in Gn all Cbaldn^, of wbicli Babylon was 
the capital. No great exactitude in geog. terms 
can be expected. Shinar (Sangar), iu the iti»criii- 
tions, seems to besitnateil in .Mcnopotamia. Possibly 
Hcb. tradition confufied the Shinar of Mesoiwtamia 
with the Sbumor of S. Babj-Ionia. 

It seems best at pre^^out to eunpcnd judgment 
upon this much disputed identilicntioa, Tue resolta 
oi Assyriological research in illustration of Un 14 
are still mucli disputed. 

Jos. {Ant. I. ix.) tran<«eribes the name as 'Attapa* 
'f'ii^r, although the LXX has '.4/up^a'\. 

H. E. KvLE. 

AHULET& (0-5*0^ Is 3*. AV ear-ringa]. — 1. 
Origin. The connexion with lahrmh, to mutter as 
a snake-charmer (Pa 58*), jmints to Nimutbing tlmt 
has had whispered or chanted over it worda of 
power and protection. Cf. Heh. har^omt magician, 
and its connexion i^ith A«»y/, thograving-|»enof the 
leamied uTit<?r, and the Arab. ' talisman ' similarly 
aiwociated with the (nUneon or long robe of the 
aacred dervish. The same idea of power throneb 
secret lore and sanctity is excmplitied at tne 
present day in Jerua., where cnicillxes, pictures of 
the Virgin, and rowiriea are laid on the pavement 
at the door of the Chinch of ibe Holy Si-imlchre eo 
OS to give them tluK holy vahiH in thu markeL 

2. M''.nTi\ug. The central meaning of the a. is 
something that faith may clasp an a pro|diylactiD 
againiit known and unknown dnngcra It a»stimcH 
a euiinexion between bulineK<i and healing, betweeu 
piety and pra-menty, the fir^t l>uing appriK:iated 
tor the sake oTthe second. It is a tc^^tiniony to 
the senae of sin, for it is only tliat which la want- 
ing in holiness that refiuires to be covered or pro- 
tected. Hence the Arab, proverb aays, 'The eye 
of the 8un needs no vcU.' Its light is pure, and 
therefore no protection is required. 

The a. unites the protector and the protected ; 
what laya a duty on divine power lays on human 
weakness a corrH-oiioniHng devotion. Fulness of 
consecration makes fulness of claim, llencc to 


the Oriental inind familiar with this ftinnlet 
faith, the Morda seem very natural, *Be strong 
in tlic Lord, and in the |»ower of His might.' 

• I*erfecl love cd-Mttth out fear.' 'I can do all 
thinj^it in Him that ftrrnj^thL-ncth uie.' Thuit 
the a. h»w! a Ime word of i>ower, for it t-eaoheH, 

• When 1 am dovot^l, I am enduc'l.' ByaFimilar 
vehicle the nnostle reat-hes the cxperien«j which 
aOTft, 'AVhcn 1 am vreak, then am 1 stroag.' 

3. ClajisificatioH. This corre«ponda vnlh the 
dangers and tlie t>oint^ of contact. Tliere is an a. 
Jiir tAe htart (illunt.. I) worn almost. iinivurMally in 
theEaitt. It i^a loclvct 8u»pended over tlie hreaat, 
and consists sometimes of a Hmall metal case of 



With thtfi may be clasMd the neck-amnlet. See 
Crescent. Sunilarly, there were a' for the nose 
anil month for the dan^orB hy inhalation ; for the 
cnr and the tcmptnlionB of fn-arinj; ; for the cj'e 
and ^vliat meets it« vision (illust^ 3, 7, 8). And 
fo the veil for the head and face, and the sheet 
enveloping the whole fij^ureof tliet^nental woman, 
now tiie fonnaliti(^9 of mode'Hly, were duu)>tle*« 
once fall of snperstitions lueaninj,'. Sec Veil. 
Amulet articles ainuni; the Jews arc cliiefly the 
fringeH of laiveand RniaH tallith: thunirznyn ; the 
paper with Pa 121 nnd rerlain A1irai'a<1ahra for- 
mulae, whirh the Itahhi puts in the room where 
there is an infant less than vt^hi days old ; and the 


i*7 W ^» J>'Vi • 


wir . 


it . 


AMI I. riff. 

1, TiiB *8bid(l of I>»Ti<l,'of 'Solouioti'a 8«al,'n Uviiurite ». uDOng the Jew*. 2. Evtraot Irom Jcniah Diith-A., which 

Ei^M, nmlft r* 131, the iiAinu of the Ihttrlantu mad thdr wlwa, vrtib a fnrnMilft at «ft*:h eMe forbkltUn; th« unmooh of 
Uth or uiiy witrli. 3. Cnast-a. (fufitoh}. 4. ^e-o.. km'TI In Ui« bnjut UiUiililv-Ulioomaiiieiiton the D0«« o( tJia^yptian 
«u»uui. &, 0- (.Mi-Tiia, Aiid bUck or red haad«l^ 7, 8. A* lor nose uid 4«n, worn ty K«<lji%vln women, alonic with iMukl«oe, 

gold or i«il\Tr. but more froq. of a heart-shaped 
■heatli of cloth ornamented with a def^iirn in ^'old 
thrcAd. This ninv contain for the Moslem a few 
Mords from the Koran, called a hejub, cdverinjr, 
lirolectiun ; and if for a Christian, a picture of Die 
Viixia and Child, called a taubckt *penit«Dce.' 

phylacteries of the hrow and nnn. St'c I*nyT^ 
ACTEKV. AuiulctH nrn also used for the jirutection, 
not only of aitimtdH hucrh h4 caini^l.t and fioi^ci, huC 
even fnr newly-huilt Iiouaes, such protection nauatly 
takinj; thu form of a roughly-drawn human hand 
in bl&ck or red, or of a cactus plant or aloe hunj; 



by tlie rooto from the arch of tbe doorvay and 
kept slivb by the moiitture of tbo air jlllust. 5 and 
6). G. M. Mackik. 

JUfZl {T?u).— I. A Meraritc, 1 Ch fl*". 2. A 
priest ill tbuaeooud teriiplu, Nub U". H&i Oexe- 


AN. — 1. An, called the indof. orticJo, !s the old 
Eng. form «f the num. adj. vne. As early as 115U 
tliQ n is found drorped beioro a CDnsonanC, and at 
tbo date of the Av the usage had become general 
to employ a before a consonantal sound (inclndiny 
u and eu pronounced yu), and an before a vomJI 
sound {including »i1ent h). Some hesitation is 
found when tlio art. jirecedes a word bejrinninj- 
wth trh. Thus we hnd 'an whole' in Nu lu- 
(od, of 1011), but 'a whole' in Nu li'*; 'an 
whore' in Pr '23^ (ed. IGU). 2 E.i Id* (ed. 1611), 
but 'awhoro* elaewhere. Again, the cd. of ItUl 

r'v&a *8UL'h an one' in Job U', Sir 6'* lO" 20'", 
Mac 6"; bnt 'such a one' in Gn 4IW Ru 4', 
Pa 60" 63". Sir 2tl» I Co 6»- ", 2 Co 10" 12=- ', 
Gal 6^, Pliilem'. Later edd. gire 'each on one' 
in all thefic pas»Q;;:c8. 

Mr>ro varied is tlie usa^ when the art. precedes 
A. In the ed. of Itill (the later edd. have made 
many changes) wo And 'a habiUtioii,' .Ter 33^', 
bnt '^an hab.' in Ex lfi>. Is 23'* 34"' and other live 
places : ' a hair ' in 1 K 1", Lk 21", but ' an hidr ' 
in r>n 3", Mk 2V\ Ac 27" ; ' » hairy.' Gn 27", but 
* an hairv.' Gn 25*. 2 K 1" i 'a hammer.' Jer 23», 
but ' an liaiTimer," Jg 4'^ ; and m with many other 
words. The explanation of this in consistency prob- 
ably is, not that the usage for a or an wan not 
fixed, but that? there was no ftxeil pronunciation 
of A. On the whole, an is found mure frequently 
tlum a before word^ Iwginning with A. 

2. In *au hungered' (*a hungered' in not found 
in AV 1611), whu-h occurs Mt 4' la'-'afr*'--^**-**, 
Mk 2", Lk 6^ the on is not the indef. art., but tb« 
prep, an or on. See A*. J. Hastlnos. 

JUIAB (2^ 'grapes').— A city of Judah in the 
Negeb bills (Jos II" 15*), inhabited first by the 
Anakim. Now th» ruin 'Atu:i/ near Debir. It in 
noticed as still e. village in the 4tb cuut. a.d. 
(Onomasticon, s.v. Anabj. SfVP vol. iii. sIl xxiv. 


ANAEL ('AFa1;^, bnt ^»n Syr. and Hob., and 
Vmmi Anim. } wa.1 brother of lobtt and father of 
Aohiacharua, To 1". 

ANAH (f^u). — i. A daughter of Zibeon, and 
mother of Oholibamah, ooei of Esau's wives, Gn 
3(]> (H) The mention of a davghfer in 
this genealogical list has been used to prove that 
kinship mnnngst tlio Horit>eH wna traccil ihron(.'li 
women (W. K. Smith in Juitmal of PhUitlotjy, ix. 
p. M). As ia pointed out, however, in KVni. Honic 
ancient authorities (including L.\X. Sam. I*€«h.) 
read son instead of daughter, which would idcntif>" 
this A. with 2. a son of Zibeon. Gn 30" (R). I 0\ 
1*^*'. 8. .\ Horito 'dnkc,' brother of Zibeon, 
Gn 3G»» at), I Cb l» If we take A. as an 
eiwnj-ni mllK-r lUnn n personal name, and tliink of 
relntionships bi?l.«twi clans rather than inilividnaU, 
it ia quite possible t<> reduce the above llin-e refer- 
ences to one. This can lie done all the ninn? 
readily by adopting with Kautwoh in Gn 36' tlu! 
reading ir? 'tne lloritc' as in v.* instead of MT 
'inp 'the llivitc' In regard to No. 2 the note is 
ATtponded, * This is A who found the hot springs 
(A V t Ito mules) in the wildwrnesa, as he fcil the nKKt;s 
of Zibeon bis father' (Gn S6**), For the Ileb. ccin 
which is a S.v. Xry., LXX offers the unintelligil>le 
TAr'la^ik, Sam. ha«C'C't''T'tlic Kmim'fanalmriginal 
race of giants mentioned in Gn 14', Dt S'"- ")> aJid 


is followed by Onk. and Psend.-Jon. It waa 

simply the context that gave rise to the conjeotora 
accept-ud by Luther ami AV tliat the word meuu 
muJes. The Vulg. tra. [aqu/u cuiulita) prub, is correct 
(so Kauta»ch, 'die heiiwen Qacllen'}, and 'the hot 
springs' mny nosHihty be identiried with Callirrhoti 
to the E. of the Dead Sen. The chief difficulty in 
accepting this interpretation is that no root for 
the wonTcon bo discovered which would suit such 
a meaning (Ox/. ££eb. Lex. a.v. ; cf. Dillmnnn and 
Delitz«clt on Genesis, I.e.), d. X. SivLDlE. 

ANAHARATH (rnQHj], Jos 19", mentioned with 
f^liiun {'Af/un Sh'ain) and KabbiUi {R4ibft) on the 
east «iae of the Plain of Esdraelon in Iitsachar. It 
h the modern rn-*W«raA of Jezreel in the Valley 
cf Jtixreel, SWP vol. it. sheet ix. 

C. R. Con DEB. 

ANAIAH {-Tja, ' J' hath an.Hwerwl 'J. — 1. A 
Lcvite Neh 8\ called .(\jianiait 1 Eh !^. 2. Ono 
of tIio»e wlio sealed the covenant Neh 10^. 

ANAK, ANAKIU (PU>^ spjv,, 'E>^«-i>i).— It is often 
mill that Anak is the name of the person from 
whom llie Anakim were regarded as na%'ing their 
descent. But the name Anak occurs without the 
article only in the descriptive phrase ' sons of Anak ' 
IJt V, Nu 1.3** 'And there we saw the Nephilira, 
the sons of Anak of the Neuhilim.' If wo have 
any account of a perwn csJled A., tliis is the 
account ; and he is said to be one of the ancient 
Nenhilim or demigods. (See NiiPHU-iM). But 
proDably here, as in all the other places (Jos IS"-^* 
21». Jg 1» Nu 13S3"), we have a descriptive 
phrase for a race of men, rather than tbe name of an 
anc4:stor. In these other places the article is used. 
We have ' the Anak,' or ' tbe Anok,' the word being 
used collectively, and denoting the race, just as 
do4>K the plural Anakim. If a progenitor for tins 
nice is mentioned, he ia Arba (which bo«), and not 

The Anakim were of the giant race (Nn l^*, 
pt l^ai"- n-»3-»-=i gi-s). Thev had their w^at notably 
at Hebron, but also fartlicr S . , and near the Moditer. 
coast (Jos 14""" 11"'°). They seem to have been, 
however, rather a race of men than an indw[K!ndent 
people or group of peoples. Politically, they were 
Amorite or Perizzite or Philistine, as the c^iae 
might be. The wars in which Jof>liua and Caleb 
coiig^uoro<l them were not separate from their wars 
ngamst the Can. peoples. Presumably tJio Anakim 
were relatively uiiintellectuul, wuro subordinate to 
the Amorite, and were for that very reason the 
more fomiiiiabtH stA fighters agaiiii^t r cnminun 
enemy. For additional particulars see GlANT and 
Kepuaim, W. J. Beechsr. 

AMAUIH. — The Ananiim {d*!JJ]^, ^Evttierutfi, Af»«- 
fitTitlfi) are stated in tho ethnographiLal li-st Gn 
10'^, 1 Ch 1", to have been descendaula, or a tribe» 
of Mixniim, i.e. Egypt, They have not yet been 
identified. The attempts to discover thin people 
in one or other of the races representcil on the 
Egyp. monuments havo been baaed on some more 
or less striking similarity in the name. Ebers 
identities them with tbo Aoinn or Noamn (Ano- 
mnima), i.t, cowherds, who are included among tho 
tribes ruled by the Pharaohs ] oth or 14th cent. u.c. 
They occupv the seconii phit-e in tho procession 
(after the Kutu or Lutu), and are reprcj^ented M 
rncldifih men of Sem. type, as is Hhuwu by the head 
of the man who represents tbem in the grave of 
Seti I. They immigrated into Egypt before the 
llyksos from Asia. Their capital Mas on tho 
Buculic arm of the Nile, and, in addtlion to being 
cattle rearers, they were imiiorters of Asiatic pro- 
ducts to Egypt (see Kichm, HlVB). 

J. MlLLAfi. 





AM AMHE ££CH CiS^JV^'-A Kod wo»hippe<l along 
with Attranuuelccb witii rites like those of Molccb 

a Syrian city iletlroyeil by Shalnmnt^wr (Unb. 
ChroniL-Ie, col. i. Hoe '.28, in Winckler, KfUiTurhr. 
Textbueh, Ci.Bal6vy,ZA,il40l,4it2). Winckler 
{AT Untersuchungen, p. 97 iT-li doubting tbat 
Syrian* would be settled in Samcirta, a district so 
neu- their own land, tokea Sepliarraim aa a false 
rvadio^, or false editorial corrtiction, iutroduced 
from 2 K IS**, for Sii>ar (Sipp&r}, tbo weU-known 
city of Northern Babylunia. 

The firvt {lart of tht; word Anammelech contatnN 
pcrbn]--^ the name of tho Bab, j^xl of the aky, or of 
n third of the eky, Ann. The whole name l.i 
taken by Schradur {KAT*. mH3, p. 2H4) to moan 
*Anu is prince,' but the meaning ia doubtful. 
Possibly tlio writer of Kinijs meant by the name to 
identify the Bab. Anu with tbo Ammonite Molcch 
— Anu-Molecb. \V. E. Barnes. 

MAN (ru. cf. Sabean \ivg).~i. One of tboeo who 
sealed the co\*enant, Neh 10*. 2. 1 Es 5*= Llanan, 
E*r 2*, Neh 7". 

AHANI C^ut— TJJZ)-— A fton of Elioonai, 1 Ch 3»*. 

ANANTAH (.TJJIt 'J' hath covered'). N«h S^.— 
The father of Slaai'eiah, and grandfather of 
Azariuh, who txHilc pH.rL in n-huildinc Lbe walU of 
Jems. He waa probably a prieat. Cf. r.**. 

ANANIAH (n:«^ Neh 11").— A town inhabited 
by Benjaniitus afUT the Captivity. According to 
]tobin»on, the present Beit Hnnina, a viltago 2 miles 
N. of Jenuuilcm. The position near Kob and jVna- 
tboth, antl ea«t of Gibeon, renders thu identificatiDU 
probable. See EloN) and SWP vol. iii. !«h. xiv. 

ANANIAS.— A 'disciple' who lived in L>omn»cns, 
and to whom the Lord appeared in a vLsion, bidding 
Mm go and baptize Saul of Tarsus. Saul hod been 
prenued for his coming by a viaion. A. hesitated 
at nrat, knowing Saol's reputation as a persecntor ; 
Imt, being encoumged by tho Lord» went and laiil 
hU hand* u|>on SaiD, who received his sight, arose, 
and was baptized. Such is the accoitnt in Ac IJ'^'". 
Tn St. T\tul'» 5|iecch to the multitudo at Jems. 
(Ac 22"") we are told that A. was a man ' devout 
according to the law' and one 'to whom witness 
waa borne by all the Jews that dwelt' ut Bamos- 
ona i and mmuh further words of hia to St. Paul are 
given in whinh he Ktieakii of Chriut as ' the Junt 
One.' Tie ia not mentioned in St. Paul's speech to 

Tb« mditi<ni8 ftbout htm snr not of « T>1miUift kitx]. In 
Piftudo-linmthciu' tUt at th« Ti <li»cIpWa (uiJ otoo lli thn Itlppo. 
Ivlcao list) ha ocean Bftli in order. aRur Tbaddaus uid bcfun 
Slvpbfln, uid la frprtaenUtl m DUhop of Dudmcui In the 
Bk of Um Bm br Solomon of Boan(lSS2>, (c. xl\%. od. WolIU 
Bude»), A. U numbercil uuana the Mvait}'. He wu Uie di«ci]ilg 
of Im BnnUal. and Ungbt m Uonuucua sad ArUU. Uo wiu 
aUin by Pol, tlu g«nenU of the wmr of AntM, ufl wm \aiA in 
ttM cfauicb whidi ti« l>uUt M ArWL Th« Ur. Meneta (OoL 1} 
«v that ha <Ud man; txtrtt In D&muuuji uid EIratlietopolla 
(btinff biabop of the former place), uid wu tomionlAd with 
woumflg And bumlns bj Liitdui tho Prefect (Rom. Uut. 
Udnius), And wu flnallr out tnit of Uie c4lr uhI itoncd. Tlii: 
Swaliaii Menologr wldi that hn vnm orduned b^ Peter arHl 
Aodfvw. and sira & plinura of him belnif Kooed hy two men. 
The Abyinton CmlaiidAr commciiuirataa hln on tfae Mh of 
TMtcmt. In the Kom. Uftrtyrokm' Im WMUn oa Jaa S5 ; to tbc 
AnacBUn on Oct. I&. 

Tbe full Gr. beta of hia auulyrdom have never been printed. 
bm the BaUuidkte, under Jan. Sa, five a IaU VS of tben. In 
wbM) tbe aoene ol bis preachlnB U aaM to twre been Betlia- 
lann M BitaitabrL near EleuUicropoUa BeiiUketxtoturebecn 
aaoDit the peraonal dlMJplei of the Lord, and baaa t-elter claim to 
fltaad la the Urt of tbe vaventy dlaciplee xiutn meet of Lhoee who 
«pp«at Id tbe wock of Pacado-Dorouwus. 

31. IC. James. 

ANANUS (*A»aWar=Heb. n-lid *J' l»*tl> been 
prncious *).—!. A son of Einmer (I Eb 9''] = HaiianI 
of ICzr 10*. a. A Bon of Bobai (I Ea 0™)=Hananiah 
of Kzr 10^. 3. Ono of thone who fltood at Ezra's 
right h&ud at the reading uf ihe law fl Eh 9**)= 
Analah of Neh 8^. 4. A Levite (1 E» ^]-Has&n 
of Neh 8^ S. The name which the angel Itapltoel 
gave as that of his father, M'hcn ho introuaoed 
hiinnelf to Tobit under the assumed name of 
Aznrias {To 6'=*- "). 6. An ancestor of Judith 
(Jth 8'). 7. Tho hustmnd of Saptihiro. Ho fell 
down dead at the rebuke of St. Peter, and the 
aamo fate, three tiouni afterwards, befell hiH wife 
{Ac 5*'-)' The intention of this narrative is some* 
times inimindemtood as regards both the oflenne of 
the80 persons and the oaose of their death. It is 
quite a mistake to anpposo that a rigid system of 
communism was enforced in the JeruBalem Chnrch, 
iind tliat A. and Sappliira by 'keeping haek part 
of the price' violated a rnlc they had pledged 
themsclvca to otiey. St. Peter's woril^ Rntlice to 
refute this notion : * Whiles it remained, did U not 
retiuiin thine own ? and after it was eold, hyw U not 
in tk'j fttjtoer f ' Bat it was inexctwable hypocrisy 
to retain part of tho price and protend to surrender 
tho whole. 'They \\'i5hed to serve two masters, 
hut to appear to servo only ono' (Meyer). As to 
the /«^( of their sudden death, even Baur and 
WeiTsdckcr atlmit lliat a genuine tradition under- 
lies the narrative. As to its aituw^ whatever tliis 
may have been from a aecondnry point of view, 
tht^re can he no doubt that in Antn it in traced 
to ifie deliberate will and inlcntion of St. Peter. 
(Note esp. v.* and cf. the paralloi case of St. Paul 
and Elyiuas in Ac 13'^) 

LrrxKATrnL— B>ar, PauAu, t. iatt.', Kmnder, Planttno if 
ChrUtitinily. Bolin'D tr I. *7 IT. : W<;isMcker, Apott Agt, i. U, 
tti I, : Conun. of Alford, Ueyer, eta. 

6. See preceding article. 9. The high pnest 
before whom St. Paul was bronght by Claudius 
Lysias (Ac SS"'-). &nd whoso outr.tgeous conduct 
upon this occa.sion provoked the apostle to apply 
to hinj the eonteniptnons epithet ot * whited wall.' 
The same A. »h(irt)v aiLi.'rvvurdB appeared at 
Cietiarea anmngttt St. Paul'd accusers before Felix 
{Ac 24'"-). He WHS the son of NedetKC^us, and held 
tho high priesthood from c. 47-50 a.d. He owwt 
hia appointment to the oftice to Herod of Cholcis. 
During his administration there were bitter 
quarrels between tho Jews and tho SamarilanH, 
and these seemed on one occn.sion tiUely to lead tu 
his d(!pnK[tiun. On account of a of some 
(.■alilii-nns by the Samurilnmf, tho latter had been 
attacked and many of their villages plundered by 
the Jews. A. wa*i accused of complicity in these 
acts of ^-iolcnco, and was sent by Qua(lratna, tho 
governor of .Syria, to stand hia trial at Borne. 
Powerful inllucncQ was at work at the iiuperiaJ 
court on the side both of tho Samaritans and tlie 
Jewfl ; tut, thanks to the cfTortg uf tliB younger 
Agrippa, Claudius gave his decinion la favour of 
the high priest, and A. returned to discharge the 
functions uf an ofljce which he ditigraced oy his 
rapacity and violence. It was no uncommon thing 
fur tiiiu to send his servants to the threshing -Uoora 
to take tho tithes by furce, while he defrauded tl»e 
inferior prieata of their dues, and left Komcuf theni 
to die ofstAtvation. His own eml was a miserable 
one. His dvinpathics had alwavs JM-cn with tho 
Romans, antl he had t hus incurruJ the hatred of the 
nationalist party. When tlio great rebellifm broke 
out which ondof] in tho siege and dcjttruction of 
Jems., A. concealed himself, but was iliscovered, 
and murdered by the fanatical populace. 

LiTXRAn-ni. — SfM. AM. ix. *. S. vi. U. 3, ix. II. 3: Wan n 
xviLB; Sdtiinr, iftfi'i. U. ITS, isa t.,Sll, it. I. IS-l. SOOII. 

J. A. Seldib. 




IKAMIEL ('Aj>apt'4\)^ one of Lbe iLDcestors of 
ToWt, To P. A Gr. forra of Sjcjje;. 

AHATH (niJt), the father of Shampar, Jf; 3'^ 5*. 
'Aoftt is the uaine of a K<JiliJess worKiii|i]>i;<l in I'al., 
cf. Jg 1=°. Jofi 15", Is 10* ; it ia fuuiid ou Egyptiaji 
moDumcDta from the 18lh dynasty. 


ANATHEUA. Sw Accitrsed. 

ANATHOTH frfnja^).— 1. A town in Benjamin 
ungned to the Lovites (Jos 21", I Cb G*"), namtKl 
from (po«sihty plural of) 'An&tU or 'An&t, a 
Cbaldfeon deity worshipped amonL' the Canaanites 
(Sayce, Hibbert Lut. p(.. 187-I8y ; Vogii6, Mci. 41 ff. ), 
now called 'A n/ittu It is situated 2* rnilnH nortli -eoat 
«f jBruxalein over tliB Bhoiilder o? S<iopaa. There 
are atiU twelve or fiileca houses on the spot, and the 
reuiuinti uf what wbk iippareiitly a haudbume uhurdi. 
l''rom it4 commanding; [Msition it hoa a ^ne \\t\v 
nortliword and oJso ea«tward over tlie broken hills 
of the wUdemcss. atrctchlng down towards tho 
north cod of the Salt Sea. It was the homo of 
Ahiathar, 1 K 2"; of Abiezer, one of David's thirty 
raiitaina. 2 S 'IX" ; of J»hu, one of liis mi{^hty nit.-n, 
I Cb IS^, and of Jfreriiiah the propliet, ^er P. 
It was reorcnpied after the Exile (Ezr 2", Neh 
7**, I Ea 5"). A quarry at 'AnAta still supplies 
biilldiDg stone to Jentsatcni. The vision of the 
dreary wildcni&w to the east, and the scorehin;:: 
of its dry winds which Jeremiah was familiar with 
in Ills native town, have imprinted themselves on 
hia pruphe('-ii*.4. To vne standing upon !Sl^uiiiui, 
Anathulh is lying at hiis feet, Is 10^. 

2. A personal name — (i) the non of Becher n 
Ilcnjamito, 1 Ch 1\ Possibly this and Akmeth 
following are namo^ of towns in which sons of 
Hecher dwelt. (A) Neh 1(H', possibly stands for 
'men of Anathoth' (T"}, 

Anathothite ('f.nwri) ia tho uniform designation 
in RV of an inlmbilnnl of Anathoth. AV oflers 
such varianta as Anetothlte, Anothothite, Anto- 

thite. A. IICNDERSON. 

ANCHOR.-See Shi?. 

ANCIENT has now a narrow range of uHice. In 
AV it ia freely applied to men,, as Kzk 0* ' then 
they began at thw a. men ' ; Y.ix V^ ' many of tlio 

E nests and Levjte-s ... a. {KV 'old'} men.' Cf. 
uttrell (17(H), 'Sir Samuel Astry (being very 
antient) has resigned his placo of elork ; ana 
I'enn, L}fe (1718), 'This A.M.C. aforeseid, is an 
jVnciont Maid.' Following tho Hub. (ond LXX) 
a. is used as a 8ubst., as Is 3' ^ the judge and the 
prophet and the prudent and the a. ; but esp. 
in tlie phir., as Ps 119'** ' I understand more than 
thca»' (ItV 'aged'). In the«e plaees 'the ancients' 
are mostly a dennit« vIhmh, the Elders of Inrael, or 
of some trilje or city. See Eldkoi is OT. 

Wriyht (Word Book^ p. 30) pointe out that 
'the ancient' is u»ed for tlie plur. iu the Pref. of 
1611 ; it is probable that in Job 12'* we have an 
in-stonce of the winie : 'With the ancient (KV 
'with agod men') is wiadum'; while Sir 39' is 
unniistakaUle, 'seek out the wLsdoiii of all the 
ancient ' (vdvrui' difixaluv^ KV ' oncient-s'}. 


ANCIENT OF DAYS (t?\' p-ni-). — A common 
Syriac expression, used three times of the Divine 
Being in Dnniol ("'*■ "■ '^), at first without the article 
(wrongly inserted by AV in v,*), and meaning 
simply 'old,' 'aged, (see RV). The expre«siorii 
has no reference to tho eternity o( God, and does 
not bear n|N>ti the qnustion of the date of the book, 
na if it carrif^d a contrast to the Neto Divinities 
intrndnccii by Antiochns Epiphanes. Itisarepre- 
Mutation natural to the fearless AnthTopomorptuni 

of the Bible* which never hesitates to attribute to 
the Deity the form and features of man. The 
object is to convey the impreaaon of a venerable 
and majestic aspect. 

P'Pl', aw-icHt, w i>roj»ciIy an Arsni. word : in 
Heb. it occurs once only, in the lato passage i 
Ch 4". A. S. AOLEN. 

ANCLE (Ezk 47') and anole-bones (Ac 3').— 
Thi3 is tho 6|>cllin^ of AV after Coverdale and 
Tindale. Camb. Bible and RV spell nvkh. In 
old li^g. the »p<i:lling Ls Inditterent. Shakx. has 
even anckle. liciiides tlie above, RV gives ' ankle 
chains' in Nu 31*" (AV 'chains'), and m Is 3'"(AV 
' uruatneiita of the leg«'). J. Hastixos. 

AND U used in AV both as a copulative and as & 
condiiional conjunction. 1. As a copul. conj., the 
Oxf. Diet, points out the use of and to cxiireM the 
ctfttKqticnce, as Gn P ' Ciod said, Let there ue light ; 
and tlicrc was liuht * ; Lk 7' 'I say unto one, Go, 
and hegoeth'; Rit 8* 'Speak the woni only, and 
my servant shall Ijo healed ' ; Lk 10" ' This do, and 
thou shalt live.' Cf. Scottish Paraphrases 35^ — 

' My broken body thtu 1 i;ivti 
For yaii, (»r &1) : tAkc, cat, uid lie*. 

Thns nnd in often more than a mere copula. It 
even has an adversative forca in * he answered and 
Haid, I go, sir: and went not' (Mt 21*). 2. In 
middle Eng. aiid wna used conditionally { = */), a 
usage which Skeat and others believe to have been 
iKiiTowtfd from Iceland. Cf. Bacon, E»snija, Mt is 
Ihc nature uf extreme self-lurcni, aa they will »cl 
iin house on fire, and it were but to roast their 
cgges.' Of this nse of and Wright point-i to Gn 
44", Nu 6* OS examples. When and meant if, it 
waa often spelt an, and was often strengthened by 
adding if. Honce we find and, an, an if, nnd (f, 
all = i?. In AVwe have Mt i;4«' (Lk 13"j'Butand 
if (KV 'But if) that evil servant t^hall aav in his 
heart": Lk 20" ' But and if (RVBut if) we say'; 
I Co 7" * Bnt and if (RV ' Hut if ') thou marry ' ; 
1 P 3'* 'But and if (so RV) ye sufler.' Except 
I P 3" (dU* ei Kai), the Gr. is always ihy Si. 

J. Hastings. 

ANDREW.— The firBt-called apostle, brother of 
Simon IV-ter : their father' .s name v:as Jonas or 
Juhn, and their native city was Itcth^taida of 
Galltoe. Their mother's name is traditionally 

Name. — The name Andreaj{*A»5p^fti)isGreek. It 
is nsnally believed to occur first in Herodotus 
^vi. iUG), where it is the name of tlie great-grand- 
father of Clcistlicncs of Sicyon. It occurs also in 
U:d Casaius (Ixviii. 3*2), in the form 'AoS^tlai, as the 
name of a rebel Jew in Creto in Trajan's reign. 
There are other instances of the name, but it is 
not very common. 

Refkhkxces to him zs NT.— In the Bynnptiata 
the call of Peter and A. while they were ii^hing is 
narrated by Mt 4"'» and Mk P""". It took place 
at the Sea of GolUoo. The narrative in no way 
implies that this was their first meeting with the 
liord. The name of A. next occur.1 m Mk l*", 
where Jc»us enters the house of Simon and A. and 
heaU the mother-in-law of Pet«r. Next in the list 
of tho Twelve, where Mt and Lk place him after 
Pet«r and Wfore James and John, while Mk's 
order is Peter, James and John, Andrew. In 
•Mk 13' he i« coupled with Peter, James, and John 
in the Question put to our I.ord about the time of 
the End. His name does not elsewhere occur in the 
Synoptifitfl. In St. John's Gos^l he is much more 
riromiucnt. In ch.l A. is a tliseiple of John the 
Baptist. He liears the words, ' lichuld the Lumb 
of God,' follows Christ, and sjteiids a day with 
Him. He then brings his brother Peter to Christ, 
and may probably have hod to do also with the 


call of fliilip, who was of the same city, tn ch. 6 
it in A. who volunteers inforniatian about the lad 
with the loares and lliibcs, on the occ&sioD of the 
feedinu of the live thoasoad. In ch. 12 the Creeks 
who JWiie to «*ee Ju^iw ft|>|ily to Philip; I'hLlip 
tell* A. : and tJie two ttdl .le-un. f u Ac 1 A. occurs! 
fur ttie la!>t time, in the li^t of the apostle.'*, fcilluw- 
int^ Jstnen and Juhu, imd preceding FUiiip (ati 
in St. .Mark). 

SunsF-QUKNT Tbaditions.— In the 2nd oent. A. 
was tliu liuru of one of the romances attributal to 
Leui^ius, a IJot-ctic writer. Wu have a faitljc 
comprchdiMivc ahridpuvnt of this book in thu 
Mimcula Andreae of tirt'gury of Tours, bettldcs 
»ome opiBodcK and fraciuenu of the orij^inal Gr.. 
in part j'et nnuditiMl. The falleHt diccuiwion of lliy 
literature is in I.ipMtuK, Apvknrpkcn Aptatcl- 
gtichicMcn (i. 543-022): Bee liutinet's ed. of 
some late tir. Encomia, boKcd on the l^oucinn Acts, 
in AnaUcta BoHandiana (xUt., and separateljr). 

Brtcflr inminBrisKl, lh« lltemtutv conristsof :— 

(l> A rta A ttdnat it ifntlAan (or ilattAttu}, ed. br Tlidicnikrf, 
Aei. Apf-i. AjMMyt. M«ttlievorMftUtiiwtoA copoVe lo the Und 
at the Anthropopbaei Chriit senda A. to r«Bcue Utn : and then 
UBuim Uh; tfulM utm smrub ftnd xnkv A. uul hl«dladpt(«(who 
wrm lo b* AexBOdcr mxI Rufiu) to the oouolrr la quenlan. 
Matthew it rvacued. mad A. is torment^ by tb6 mvj^w nalivta 
(or MverU daya. He thMfoanaeaft flood looTcrvbelni tbedty; 
tbr n»uU U a fciMtfal oonveraion. The tnoat InleresdBg |iu-t 
ol the itonr li perhaiM tba aocount ol a niimda dons by cur 
Lonl, whWih A. narntt** during the voyagv. W« bav« tbia 
Itfnd bi Cthlo|4e, ^lite, *oA AagloSuton : the buC-iMunad !■ a 
Mctica] ^-mton b; Cvncwulf , the Korthumbriaa poet. pnHrvcd 
la tba (amous VeroeJll Oodex. 

(S) Aela Pttii •* AndrM*. ed. Tiichcndorf in Apf>eat)fw» 
Afoaypkiu, Imperfect In Or. ; extant (ai Acta ot Si Jude) in 
euik>iili:. and c»ni|>letc !n Olil Sbtvonlc. U conuiu a rv«tl«(k- 
Udn of our LoT<l'« tayias aboat the cainci paaaliw throa; b a 
fitoUi:'! tj*. It is i.-xix'vdloflydoobtful wbetber this belonged 
bo the i>riK^niil l<euclan norel. 

(3) Mirturttta Onmory Bonnet. In the 
Snd loL of Greforjr'a woriu u tha Jtonumeata titmaniaf 
Jf iftenra. Thtt mttst he coupled with the Ur. Kruximia. which 
towt iiiDch the laiiie KTouiid. 

The M.-pnp nf A.'f pn-achtnk' !• l*ld )n the laixl ot Xho Anthro- 
pophagi O'} miiilonia). ItMn in Araui>ft, SiiiOTM-, NicoA, Nicn- 
tDMrn, Itv&mlium, Thraoa, Macvdouiu, ouil Vutno in Acluua, 
uhenr Ihr nkArljrrlom takefl place. 

The tmlitioui of the martynlom at Patna are (airly eon- 
fllant. A. is cmoillsd by the pro<on«ul Aeyew or AruMtek, 
becaixe by his preacbins ha bu iaclticvd the pnx'oiuul s wilr 
UatuiiilU lo tB»T« her buihftnd. VttiSi reoantly th« tiuii 
sutiionlf for tba martynlom was takes to bv a cvrlain Kplitiv 
of the )>rie«U and dMOOaa of Achala, fl?tt pubUshrd by Wooa 
in 1740. anil then br Tiacbendorf. Bowerer, M. Max Bonnt-l 
luji proved in ut ortKle in tlio Bgntntiniatkt ZtUtehri/t (ISM) 
tlMt this ia a tr. from LaL into Ur. The neareat aiwroat:!^ 
which we as yet poeiMi to the Or. orijirlnal is in tha il(rae\drt 
and fficcnnia. oouplad with touM quotations made liy Au|{u»- 
Lirie arul otlier*. 

So much foe our knowlodn of the l>eudan Acta. 

Ve pCaaea s Acts o( A. fu CopUo (tmgmcntary] and Blhioplc, 
soBH ol widch ooupla this ajxJsUe wiLn Barthoiomew and with 
Paot. Th« Arts o( A. anrl Borthciloincw seem to b« modelled 
«) thoas of A. and Matthew. Ttiueu ot A. and Paul, wlilch 
art incomplete!, and cxutt only In Coptic, givo an acconnt ot 
PmnTa dncsot titto Hadsa by way ot tbe aaa, of his ntnni, 
and of how a ScukhBus (liaai^) was enployed by tlie two 
apostJas to obtain antranos for them iulo a oily which the 
j«w« had abut a^nst them. Tho Bgyp. Acts of A. a«ai|fn 
onidfUton and stonin([ as ths manner ol his dtaLh. 

Other trsdiUons mwr tie nientiooecl:. Orif«n (ap. B*i*. HE 
111. 1) makes A. prwdi araoni^ Uis Bcythlana, that Is. on the 
Black S(« ; cT. tha Lsucian Aota. At Sinope an ima^ ol A., 
■aid to ham been niads In bis litelime, was Ion; pmcrved ; 
and aUo the seat where ho taught, which was of whit« mitrtiip. 
It* was rvfardcd as the aunsUs of Byzantium, wlmre he or- 
daiiMd 8ta^^ as flr«t bUhop. 

Uprina bclMrvss tlial Um i^cend of the pretachln; In Achaia 
amsv from a cnnh)«ion between Iho T#uric bmncii n| tlir 
Aobaaaa oa tha K. ^bore of the illjM:li Sea, and the Achaani 
Id Ihs K. ot ths IVlopoanese. 

A. amaan as the author of a pnpel oondemned in the ao- 
Otfled CModSin necrs*. No tnuw of tt is to l>u (ouiut claewhere. 
Then am rvferenots to him In tha Ciemsntin* BeoogQiUons 
0. 50. wbi-rr he anxwcra the 8adduoe«t ; ii. 08 «9f V H* appear* 
as IqtiaUUff' in the '0/«i x«i uutittt, and bi tb* Apoatoiic Con- 
etttuliooa. Re aim npires in the Acts of Potyxeaa and 
Xanthippe. His rriics were redieoDrered in JustlnUa's tttne 
alCbaalantinopIr; and remained Iher* anttilSlO, when Cardinal 
l^lsr of Capua bronxht thera to Amalfl. They ar« nid to 
lMa« beera beouBbt fiYim Patnw to ConatAntino;iiti in S&T or 
by Ariemlus. Ilii cross, or part of it, ia in SI. retefa at 
aadoMd io on* of the four gnat piirs ol tha dome. 



Thv A))}Mnci])rla(Jon of Die decuisale or saitJre ctms to St. 
Andrew is ol very late date. In the IStli cent. (t.g. in a 
ttaliie at Amiens) he conunoiily lioiil* the upright cross. 

Uocumenta rrlating; to the trvuilAUon of the ami ot St. 
.indrew into ScoUktitT by Su Rei;utiu(who is vartoualy traced. 
In lbs 4lb, Sth, and 9th oanL) may be seen in tha Oolkodist* 
under Oct. IT, 

Uis festival In the Lat and Gr. Churchei ia on Vtrt. 90: 
te occnrs io the lAt JTarryiiitm, and In the Kalcodar ol 

LrnauTViUB. — Limiui, Bonnet, Tischendorf, n.M. ; >taUa, 
ConJiieU of tM Itolt AjmtUt*; voa l^emm, A'opt. Apoisr. 

M. li. Jambs. 
ANDR0NICD8 ['\yifAvim).'~\ Chn.Hti(ui meted 
by Ht. Fau] in Bo 16' together with Jnniaa. 
lliev are deHcrihed as being (1) 'kinsmen of St. 
HuuJ,' probably ituijlyiii^ ' fellow •countri'nien.' 
The wor<l 18 u»ed in thia Bcn»u in I^o tr. tt 
would Iw unlikely th«t wo many ns arc nionlioncd 
in this eliuiiter (vv.'-"-*') should be kJnsm'.'n in h 
more literal acuKC. (2) Titev are ciilh^d by St. 
Paul hia ' fellow- prisoners.' Tficv may have shareti 
with the apostle aomo unreeunU^it impriwHinient 
(cf. 2 Co 11% Clem. Hum. ad Cur. v.), or, like him, 
been impriaonud for Uhrinra »ake. It is tuilikely 
that the term ia used in a mul-aphorical sense. 
(3) They wtre 'diBtiTiii;nishcd aiuou;^ the apostles,' 
a phroKo wliich probably means tliat t)iey were 
dis-tinpiislit'd nienibcra of the af>03tolic boity, the 
Tt'ord Ai'O^TLE (whioh see) being used in ita wider 
sense. (4) They were Ohriatiana before St. Paul, 
M» that they beloii^ed to the earliest day.t of tlm 
Christian comiuunity. The name is Greek, aiiil 
like ttioHt oilieri in thin chapter wan borne by 
nicmbent of the iniiierial household {CIL vi. 
5325, 0326. 11, (KM). It would hare been common 
in the £a«t. (See the Commentflrie*, ad Iw. 
For later traditioiifi, which a<ld noUiiiij* hi^turieal, 
See Acta Sancturuin, May, iv. 4.) 

A. C. Hradlam. 
ANEM (=];■), 1 Ch 5^ only.— A town of Issachar, 
noticed witli Knnioth. It appears to answer tu 
Engnnnini (which scoj in tlie parallel list (Jos 21*), 
but roi;:ht pcrhapa represent the viUaye of 'Anin 
ou the hills west of the plain of EHdriu-dun. Thi» 
place, which ia well watered — whmu-t; |i«rhajis ita 
name, 'two springs '^ia the Anea of the fourth 
eentnry A.P.(OHOrw«ftrfm,«.y. Anieland Ik'thana), 
which bad eood baths, lyiii^ In Koman milefl from 
Ctpnarea. Eiisebins, however. idei]tiLies this site 
with Aiier. iilVI* vul. ii. sheet viiL 


ANER (-a?, LXX A^dr. Sam. o^is).— One of the 
three Auiorite chieftains, the other two being 
Mnm^re and KhIicoI, who wuru bound, in virtue m 
their 'covenant' with Abraham, to render liini 
aspiatance, when lie was Roioumirifi at Hebron (Gn 
I4W. wj, Aa Mamro is an old name for Hebron [Gii 
23") and Eslicol is the nam© of a volley not far from 
llebpon (Nu 13^), it is nataral to suppose that 
Anor also was the name of a, locality which gave ita 
name to a clan. XKIImann {in fo^.) compares ye'ir, 
whiuh ia the name of a rajige of hillR in the 
vicinity. H. E. Ryi-e. 

ANER (-ui;), 1 Ch Q^ only.— A town of Manaasoh, 
we&t of Jordan (not notieed in the parallel ]m»!?ago 
Jos 21^). The site is doubtful. I'osaibly JiUAr, 
north-weH of Shechem. Hil'I' vol. ii. !*Ii.*xi. 

C. H. CONDEtt. 

ANGEL (^ij;:; mnfak, Sept. iry*^** w«l other- 
wtHo). — i. The word ia frequently nsed of men in 
the sense of * messenger,' especially in the plnr. 
Gn 32«, No 21", Dt 2«, Joa 6". In the sense of 
'anitrel' the term is ehiefly used in the sing, in 
earlier writing, butphir. Gn 19'- "(J), and 'ongeli 
of God.'Gn2S"32ME). In Inter books, particu- 
larly the poi^tinal, tlio plnr. m^curs oft*>ner. Job 4", 
Pa 78« 91" 103» IM* 148*. and in such hooka as 




Zee and Un ]>Iumlitj* is iiiiplii'd. So in Job 1" 
2'; in (III 32' lliuy are a ' aitu^' iir liat^t, nntl in 
Dt33' 'myrittds'; cf. Pb OS". In thowritiny V 
(Friests* Coilti} no mention U mailo vf uxitjub. 
Like the existence of God, the existence of angels 
u preenpposed in OT, not a^isert^d. They are not 
satd to TuivQ Ijceo created, rather the}' ore alluded. 
to as existing prior to the creation of the earth, 
Job 38' (Gn I* -., e(. 3» 1 1'). When they appear, it 
is in buinan form: they are callod ' mvu,' Gn 
183. w. n gou^ jos 5« Ezk S»- »- ", Dn 3« 10"- '■ ; 
the 'nuin Gabriel,' Dn tt» (cf. Lk 24», Ac 1'"), and 
apart from the Beraphim (Is G') are nowhere in OT 
represented aa winged (Rev 8" 14<^}, Uiotigh Philo 
so deacribea them (Tre;M>$>i«CiTi). In NT tliuy are 
called 'Bpirits' (He I"), hut not so in OT, where 
even Gi)d is not yet called spirit (Jn 4"*). To 
Mohammed the oiif^d Gabriel v>as thu ' boly opirit.' 
When thov aj'lJear tliey (^jfeak, walk, touch n»en 
(1 K 10"), fake lioJd of tlioni by the band (Gn !»'*), 
and also eat with tbera (Gn 16*, though, on the 
other hand, of. Jp S* 13"). The statement P» 'S* 
that 'men did vat the food of angels' (lit. tlie 
mighty, I'e Kt3^', JI 3"), a fitxitemcnt repeated in 
Wis lii-^, '2 Eb l"*, can hardly be more than poetical 
(.-olouring of the fact that the manna came down 
from heaven, a» the parnlleli>*m both in i'a 78'^ and 
Wis. shows : cf. .Jg 0"^, P» liM». 

iL In a nmnticr of pashagea, e.ff. Gn 16^''* 
22". ". 1*. Ex 3', Jf 2'- * G^ 0"-" 13^ mention is made 
uf 'the angel of Jehovah.' AV the 'I.ipku' {Jl; 
and in others, Gn il'-"*" 31"-". of ' the angel of 
Cod ' (E). Similar jiassagea are Gn 18. 32^"*^ com- 
pnicd with IJos 12*, Gn W^ ". According to the 
general grnramaticat rule the rendering 'anangcl 
of ilie Lord * is inaccurate, though some inatancea 
may bo doubtful ; so ' the angel of God, ' neceaaarily 
Gn 31", and even 21", cf. v.'» The anj^el of the 
I^rd appears in human form, Gn 18, or in a flame 
of fire, Ex 3'. or Kpeaks to men out of heaven in a 
flrcani, Gn 31"-". It lias been disputed whether 
'the angel of the Lord' bo one of the onj^cU or 
J' HimActf in Aclf-manifcAtation. The manner in 
wliich ho speaks leaves little room to doubt that 
the latter view ib the right one : tlie angel of the 
I^rtl in a tbeophany, a helf-ntanifttMt-atioii of Gotl. 
In Gn 31"* " the anj,'el of God wtys, ' I nm the God 
of Bethel ' ; in Ex 3" * the angel of the Lord says, 
*I am the God of thy father' . , . 'and Mosos 
waa afraid to look upon God'; of. Jg 13*^. In 
Gn 16'" the angel of tlio Lord sayB to Haga,r, * I 
will grentlv luuUtply thy seed,' and 21" * tliu angel 
of God failed to llagar out of heaven . . . lift up 
ttiH lad : f«ir X will umkB birii a grwit nation.' The 
angel identifieB hiNi.'-tilf with God, and claims Ui 
exercijw all the prerngativcw of God. Those aliw 
to whom the angel appcnra identify him with God : 
Gn W Hagar 'called tbo name of J" that had 
gjiokeD Co her, thou art a Gml tliat sec^t' (all> 
seeing); Gn IS thu mi;,'i;I is called 'tha Lord"; 
Jgfl" it L5< !<Aid 'tiieaii:;vl of the l«rd came,' but 
in w.'** '• he i» caJknl directly 'the Urd" ; Jg 13^^ 
Maiioah says, ' We sliall Btirely die, for wo have 
aaen Ciod.' And to name but one other passage, 
Gn 4S'*- ••, Jacob say«, 'The God Wforo wtiom my 
fathers did walk, the God who hnth fed mc all my 
life long, the angel which hath redeemed mc from 
nil evil, l)lc39 the Imls.' On the other hand, the 
angel of the Lord diHtingnishcs bctweitn birusulf 
and the I.rf>rd, just aa the Ixird di-Htingititshes be- 
t.M'een Him.-4tdfand the H.ngel. Thit latter saya to 
Hagnr. Gn 10" 'J" hath heard thy nflliction : cf. 
Gn 22". Nu 22" 'The Lord opened the eyes of 
llahuun, and lie saw the angel of the Lord ' ; and in 
^[al 3' the 'angel of the covenant' i» diHereiit 
from J', and yet ho iis J' who comcth to His temple. 
So, on the other hand, the Lord aavs, Ex 23*'- ^ ' I 
■end an angel before thee,' and ' Mine ongel shall 

go before thee' (Ex 32»* 335). But how tln*c last 
iia&suges are to be tnterjiretcd appearji from 
Ex 331*- " (14") • My fact: (I mvself) t*hall go with 
thc«' . . . 'if thy laco (thuu tliyiiolf) go not with 
UM, caiT}' ns not up hence.' The 'angel of II is face' 
(pretience] is not an angel who sc«m liiii face or 
stands before it, bat oao in whom Uis face (pre- 
8cnce) is retlccted and seen ; cf. Ex 23'' 'My name 
(fulness of revealed Ucing, la 30^) is in him.' The 
iiept. rendering of Is U3" 'not an auiba*aador' 
(reading iif), 'nor an angel, but Himnelf (Heb. 
Hiji face) aaved them,' ia scarcely the meaning of 
the original. The mere manifestation of J" creatoe 
a distinction Ivetween it and J', though tliH identity 
remains. The form of manifestation is, so to 
tipeak, something unreal {Dt i^'-^), a condesccn- 
sion for llic purpose of assuring thoM to whom It 
is granted that J" in Uis fulness is present with 
them. As tlic manifc»tation called the angel of 
the I^fOrd occurred cUielty in redemptive hiotory, 
older tbiHtlogians regarded it as an adumbration or 
premonition of the incarnation of tho Becond Ter- 
M>n. This idea waa i\i»i in no fur a» the angel of 
the Lord was a mnnifostation of J" on the earth in 
human form, and in no far a.s anch temporary 
inanifcEtations might seem tlic prelude to a per- 
manent redemptive self-revetation in this form 
(Mai 3'- ') I but it was to go beyond thr OT, or at 
any rat« liuyond the understanding of OT «Tiler», 
to found on the manifestation distinctions in the 
(•odhend. The only dUtinetion imjdieti is that 
between J', and J" in manifestation. The angel of 
the Lord so fullj- repreecnted or expre.=.ped J' that 
men hod the assurance that whun he b]>oke oi 
acted among them J" was speaking or acting. 

ili. As 'mcMtengers' {rnaTakim) sent to men> 
anf|;uls usually appear tungly, but in Gn 1*J two 
vi»it Lot ; Gn*2S>^ * tlio angels of Gi>d' ascend atid 
descend njwn the ladder, arul Gn 32' * tliu angvln 
of Got! ' meet Jacob, who nays, ' thU is God's host ' 
[lit. camp) ; ' and ho colled the name of the place 
Mahanaim ' (two camps, or as UVni plur., com- 
jiftnies). In .lob 1* 2' the *«onsof Go<i * who preaent 
tbem»Blve*i to rejjort uimjh their ministrations ara 
niinicrous. SometiniL's the i>lur. is uswi inde- 
linilely, aa P» 78"* 'evil angels, »I" ' He «hall gi%'e 
Uis augela charge over thee,' Job 33'^ ' the de- 
stroyers ' : cf. 2 b 24'*-". Angels do not usually, 
at least in early writuigfl, mediate the phenomena 
of the pbysieiil" world, uiey operate in the moral 
.iml redemptive sphere ; but the angel of the Lord 
MtiiteH with pestilence, 2 S 24 ; and with death, 
2 K 19* i and Satan, on sjKJcial permisMon of God, 
snts the lightning and wbirlwinil in iiiution against 
doll, and smites liim with sore boils, 1"'- " 2*. It 
is perhaps rather apoeticnl and realistic conception 
of the special providence of God, though with 
reminiscences of early history, when it is said that 
the juLgel of the Lonl encamps round about those 
that fear him, Ps 34", ouu tlirusta dou'n their 
enemies. Pa 35*' •, and that the aneeta bear up in 
their hands the righteous, Ps flf", cf. Nu 20'*. 
More literal is the statement that they intcriiret to 
tho individual the meaning of God^s afflictive pro- 
vidences in his life, Job 33^ i and so Job 5' the 
idea is hazarded that they might interest tbem- 
selves in tlie alllictions of men and hear an appeal 
from them, or jwrhaiw intercede or mediate In 
their behalf. In Ezk and Zee the nngcU interpret 
divine visions gi%'en to men; but see under § v. 
Passages referring to the intenr'enlion uf angels 
are !«ncU aa these : 2 S 24", 1 K 19»- ', 2 K l'» 19", 
Ezk \fl. In some of these Mwea it may be difficult 
to decide whether the angelic manifestation be not 
tho anycl of the I^rfird. The ijosaagcs 1 S 29", 
2 S 14"* 10^'' are al.-*o somewhat obscure. The 
first nas.<«age, where Arhtxh snys that David is 
good m his sight, might lie rendered 'as nn angel 






of God,' thut is, probably in valour (Zee l^j, 
M-iidoni i2S !-!'"•*), ond moral rectitude; in the 
otliura the natural rendering is 'u tlio angcI of 
Uod.' The art., however, m comparisons often 
deaiKnatee Uie class, wbUe oar idiom yjsiea the 
indu. art. *an angel,' or the plur. 'the aiigula' of 
God. The |>oint in the comparii'on is the pene* 
tration and n'lMdom of the Euigel, and refereucu 
mieht be to some (>ocb ideal being as is spoken of 
Job 15'^- *. If allusion vrere to the historical * angel 
of the Lord,' the original features of tlie phcnonio- 
nuu would have somewhat faded and the coDccption 
been generalised. 

iv. It bolougs less to the Ajihoro of rodoiuptivo 
history' tlian to tlie ooiiceptioo of the luajeaty of 
J" the Kin^ (Is 6*), when C^xl is repTQitent*» aa 
anrrounded by a vourt in heaven, by raoltitudes of 
ministers that do Hik plen-iure, and armies that 
«xecut« H'v* coniniandR. lie hna a 'counrU' (Yc 
Pi SB*, cf. the four and twenty elders, Ucv i*] ; a 
'congregation' (tjj P» 82', Sijj Ps 89*) snrronnds 
Rim, 'bostM' whuareHiH niinitit«r»(UEl^. I K 22'", 
pa 103*"" 148'). These euiKtrhuman beinj^s arc 
called ' sonn of Elohini ' (Job 1* 2', cf. Dn 3*), or 
'K»n» of Elim,' Pa 29'-" 89*. bnt powdbly simply 
'Elohim,' Fs 8» 97», and •EUm,' Ex 15". The 
rendcrint; 'sons of God' is jmssible, and Ps 8? 
' ttona of the Most High,' if said of angels, would be 
in favour of it ; bnt, on the other hand, tlie word 
Elini (D'Sm) seems nowhere an honorary plur. 
applicable to a fiin)-le being, but alM-ays denotes 
alTiot plurality. The probability, therefore, is thnt 
the right rumluring in not * sons of God,' but * sons 
of the Elohim/ 'sons of the Elini,' that is, mem* 
bers of the claas of beings called Elohim am) Elim, 
JQSi as 'sous of the propliets' means members of 
the prophetic order or guildit (cf. sing. Da 3"). 
The names Elohim and El are prehistoric, and 
their clywolo;.'y is quitu unknown; they uru also 
the names for 'God,' and these lK.'ings around 
God's throne are no doubt conceived of in con- 
trast with men as slmring in an inferior way some- 
tiling of divine majesty. They arc also called 
'Holy Ones' (c*ini5;i, though tlie term 'holy,' 
originally at least, dhl not describe moral char- 
at-ter, hut merely exi>re»ted close relation to God. 
Cf. nt Hy, 7^- 14", Vh Vifi, job fi\ and often. The 
OT ajtHUiiiuM the exiKtynitj uf these IwingM, and the 
belief g«n.!S Uick beyond the hixtoric [wriod. In- 
tereelin;: attempt* have been made to explain the 
origin 01 the idea. It has Iwen Bug^eatcd that 
these beings, subordinate to J" and Hu scrvante, 
ore the gods of the nations now degraded and 
reduced to a secondary placo by Uie incmasing 
prevalence of the raonc>thci»tic conception in 
Uracl (Ko>dent, ThT, 1878). There ia little or 
nothing in OT to support this thoorv. Israel 
pTviliohly Hpemlnt«d little on the gotw of the 
tuilionn, except of those, Buoh as Egypt and Uaby- 
loD, with whom they came into contact ; and though 
J* be greater than all f:ods (Ex IB"), He nowhere 
r^KBrda them a<i Hit) ministeni, but manifests the 
strongest hostilitv to them, e.n. those of Egypt 
Ex 12", In 10', Ezk »>". of Babylon I» 2I» 4^' 
and generally Xeph 2". The monotheism of Israel 
did not subordinate the gods to J" as His miniaters, 
but rather denied their existence, and described 
tbera a* vanities [nonentities), Ps 96*-', Jer lO*^ ''. 
The fact that J" is comfiarcd or contrasted with 
the son« of Elohim in heaven, Ps 80**, and also 
with the Elohim or gods of the nations. Pit 86" 
96*- ' 97", i« certainly rvmarkable, but scarcely 
nifficient to establish the identity of the two ; aa'd 
if in later times the idea finds expreasion that God 
had inibjerteil the nations to tho nile of angels, 
while the rule of Israd was re«rred for Himself 
(Dt 3a»-» in Sept., Sir 17", Dn lO"-* 12'. cf. 
TVt 4" 29*». !» 24"), this U hardly an old idea 

that the angels were the gods of the nations r»- 
appe&rine in an inverted form, but a new idea 
suggested to Israel by its own religions superiority 
to tno nations, and perhaps its way of explaining 
heatlienism. Another viovr goes back to wuuc was 
presumably the oldest phase of Shcmittc religion 
tor an explanation. Men, consciouH of being under 
the tnlluvnce of a mutUtudu of external furoes, 
peopled the world with spirits, whose place of 
abode they thought to be groat Atones, ombnigc- 
ous trees, fountains, and tho like. GrnduAuy 
theae varied spirita camo to be regarded as po&sess- 
iug a certain unity of will and action, and by a 
further concentration they became tho servanta o£ 
one supreme will, and formed the host of heaven. 
Such (i]>ecu la lions regarding |H>sjiible processes of 
thought among the family out of whidi Israel 
Hprang, in iwriods which prec«<le the dawn of 
hwtorj-, are not without intercut ; they lie, how- 
ever, outside OT, which, as has been said, assumes 
the existence of J"'a heavenly retinue. The God 
of Israel is aUivo all things a living God, who 
inlluenccs the allalra of the world and men, and 
rules them. If He iibcw agents, they are supplied 
by the 'miniettcrs' that surround Ilim. lliie va 
true (thnach denieJ by Kosters) even in the oldest 
period of the literature, Gn 23 and ^'2, Jos &^' and 
is G, where one of the seraphim ministers pmifica- 
tioD and forgiveness to the pro[i<tiot ; and the same 
appears in tno scene depicted in 1 K '22"^. The 
idea is oven more commuu in the later literature : 
Pa 103"- ". J*'8 hosts are also ministers who do His 
pliwisnre, Ps 148*. In Job 1' 2^ it. is the son« of the 
Elohim who present themselves to rL-jM^rt upon tho 
coDditioD of the eiirlh nod men ; in :i3'^ the inter- 
preting migel is one among a thou^atid (6'), cmd 4*' 
nia 'servants* ore also his 'aogels* (mettsengers). 
Naturally, however, as the idea of niini»tertng 
hosts belongs to the conception of J" as noveroign, 
some of the breadth xvith which the idea is ex- 
pressed may bo due to the poetical religious iroa* 
ginntion, as when God's warriors are represented 
OS miyhty in strength, Ps 103*; as * heroes' with 
whom Ho descends to do bottle with the nations, 
Jl 3", Zee U^; as m^Tlads of chariots, Ps OS^; 
and as chariots and horsemen of tire, 2 K S'*- ", 
Is 66", Dt 33", Pn 7". (On the otlier hand. Hab 3», 
God's chariots ami horKcs are the Ktomi clouds.) 
In particular, these ho«i*i accompftny J' in Hii* self- 
revelation for judgment and sjilvalion, I>t 33". 
Zeo 14*. Jl 3", and in NT this trait is transferred 
to the »artfi«M* of Christ (Mt 25"). It is leas cer- 
tain wliether the divine name J* (God) of hosts be 
connected with theae angolio luMtt^ ; it is, at any 
rate, a title correlative, oxprcsfing the nmjesty 
and omniimtcnco of J' (S«|]t. often warToxpdTwp). 
Kinnlly, to men's eyes the myriads of starH, clothed 
in light and movmg ocroiw the heavens, seemed 
animale<l, and there was a tendency to identify 
them with tho angelic ho»t — an idcntiti cation mode 
easier by the belief that man's life was neatly 
under tlie inllucnce of the stars (Job 3S"). In 
Job3S' the morning stjirs ore iilcntical with the 
sons of the Elohim. Cf. Jg 5**, Is U" 24" 40*, 
and on * host of heaven ' 2 K 17" 21», Jer W, 
Zeph 1*. The idea that the stars ore angels re- 
ceives large development in the Rook of Enoch, 
f.7. 18"'", and even Itev D*- " a star and the angel 
of the abyaa are identified. 

V. About the time of the Exile and after the 
Kcturn a manner of thinking appears which, 
though from the phraseology u*»ed it might eoem 
a development in nngelology, is really rather a 
movement in the direction of hypostntising the 
Spirit of God. In the older period, aa that of the 
Judges, J" rules His people throiigli His Spirit, 
which inspirea the leaders who judge and save 
. IjiiacL And in the older prophets the Spirit 




operates within the prophet, who is enabled to 
conceive J"'b purjiows and oi>erations in thought 
aiiil fxprcx* thciu in hinyua>;u'. liut iu Ezk 40 ih:«i. 
'a iiiun ' ucc-umpunii^ the pruphet anU explfun^ to 
htm Iii» virion. Thi^ ' niun ' m the prophetic spirit 
oUj(.'cti:%-i»e\l. Kvuu beforo tliis time, in MioUi's 
vinion, 1 K 2?', 'the apirit' who comes forth is 
tlie spirit of propiiccy pyrsonilied. Tho procoM is 
carried a step lunher in Zee : not only is the 
prophetic spirit hvpostatised as 'tho an^cl that 
apake with mc' (l"^- "'2*), but tho operations of J" 
among the nations arc personified an horsemen and 
chariots. That wliich in the oldi^r proplietA wan 
an inwanl K|iiril and tfwnghU, hoM l>ecuui« an 
• an^iel,* and symbolical agencies which tlie ' angel ' 
interprets. But Ihai tiiuvh of tliis at least is 
niuru reli'.'ioiis Bymboli^m than strict an^ology 
appears from tho virions in 1" 5'- '. It is, how- 
ever, the (spirit of God— not only as spirit of 
prophecy, hut in general, as God in operation, 
controllin,i; l.Iic (leiitinies of the nations and of Hib 
peoplu^thnt IK chietly t(ymU)li^>d in Zoo. This is 
inofit broadly set-n in eh. 4, which is stninyely 
misread when the seven lampH are unpnoBea to 
represent the li^ht shed by iivvX* people, their 
smrituRl life. I'Tic seven lamps are the (seven eyes 
or tho Lord (4'"), and the seven eyes are the seven 
DpiritH (tho manifold spirit) of (iod. To bo com- 

Sired is Hev 1*, whera tlte salutation comes from 
od and Christ mid the seven spiriU ; Kcv 4' ' there 
were seven lampw of IJre burninj: before the throne, 
which aro the seven spirits of God ' ; and Hev 5' ' a 
lamb having seven eyes, which arc the seven 
spirits of Cod scot forth into all tho earth.' Zee 4 
13 an exirtmsion of 3', and its pvirposo is to sjtw- 
boliso that Spirit of God which goes out over all 
tho uartli, controls the history of the nations la 
this interost of His people, and secures the com- 
pletion of the t^mpltf, which the Lord sliall eiitnr 
and abide in, when Ho removes the iniipiity of the 
land in one day (3*-'J— not by might nor by pnwer, 
but by My Spirit (4"). The two olive trees, ' sons 
of oil (cf! Is r>* a hill, the son of oil = an ' oily' hill), 
stand beside tho Lord of the whole earth, i.e. in 
heaven, cf. 0', and cannot Iw Josliua and ZctuIj- 
babel. Whether the dimlity of the trees exprcsiies 
some idea in the prophet's mind olismre to us, or 
whether it be merely part of the symmctT^' of the 
symbol, may remain undecided. Other writings 
of tills p4:rioil irive prominence to the Spirit of God, 
Jl S™, and show a tondoncv to hypoatatiso it. 
Is 63»*" 4S'«, Gn 1', Eik *> &. V% Vm\ The 
'an^lof tlie Ixrd'in Zee. has tho same double 
aspect B» I'Uewhert', and as tho angel of the cove- 
aont in Mai. cf. 1" with 3'"*. 

vi. Two further devi-htpuionts complttlo what is 
said in OT of angels — ( 1 ) a moral distinction appears 
anioni; tho an^cla ; and (2) a ditilinction of rank. 
The first distinction U not carried far, and the 
second naturally fultoMs from the idea of an ormy 
or host. In the earliest (Kjriod an^'els seem morally 
neutral, they aro wi much tho UR-»M:nger» of Gad 
and the metfinm of His relation to the world that 
their own character doe» not come into question. 
They have aLwaya something of the meaning of an 
inijiersonal phenomenon, Jehovah's operations or 
Itrovideiico made visible anil sensible. Of eonr-se 
Iho angel of the Lord being Jehovah's ' face,' and 
emlKMJyiiu^ His 'name,' cxiiibits also His moral 
nature, Kx 23™'*". But 'evil' ancela arc angels 
who e\eciite iiidgniBnt, Pa 7S^, Job 330. The 
spirit fi-om God who troubled Saul is called ' evil ' 
merely from tho eUectw wliiuh he produces, I S 16". 
In 1 K 22 even the jiersonified spirit of prophecy 
becomes ' a lying apint,' just as etfpwhere J" Him- 
self deceives the prophets, Ezk 14". In writings 
of the a 1^0 of the Cajitivity, and later, however, a 
being apl»eara called tho Baton (opposcr, accuser), 

one of the sons of the Elohim, who dtsplavs hos- 
lility to the .saints and people of God, Job 1* 2', 
Zeu 3. Even in thi.-su buokM he hiis as ynt little 
(Kirsonal reality. He is a voice ' bringing sin to 
remembrBJire' Iwforo God. The Boeno Zee 3 is 
greatly symlKiHcal. Tho evil conscience of tlie 
people and their fear, suggested by their miserable 
condition, that their sins still lay on them, and that 
God's favour had not yot returned to them, aro 
f^'mboliscd by the accusmg Satan ; while the angel 
of the l>ord ts God's oun voice assuring them of 
His graeions favour. There is perluips an advance 
on (he idea of Satan in Job, tliuugh even there ho 
liiidH no place in the dt^noueinHiit. nf the dmmiu In 
two ways, perhaps, the conception of evil angels 
iwcame clearer ; find, it was natural that the 
accusing angel should take on something of the 
nature of his olllce, ami au^icHr as thu oneuiy of 
the saints and of Israel. Tltts step seems alreaily 
taken in Job, Aiul, M.'Condly, there was alwayn a 
greater ditfincltnation to a.'«cribu moral evil in men 
to God. In no part of OT is God representetl as 
the primary aulhur of evil thoughts or actions in 
men ; if Heinstignte them to ovil, it is in punishment 
or aggravation of evil they have already committed. 
But at a later time the instigation to evil freely 
ascrilwd in earlier times to God (1 S 2ti", 1 K 22*') 
ia attributed to Satnn, cf. 2 S 24' with I Ch 21'. 
Kurtlier development hardly appears in OT. Thu 
'serpent' of Gn 3 is identilied with Satan in Wis 
2=" anil in NT. In Dt 32^', Ts lOO"^ mention is 
made of 'demons' (cnp). which, however, appear 
to be the false gods to which children were sacri- 
ticed, 1 Co K/*". In Asayr. shidu ia tho namo given 
to the inferior deities represented by tho duH- 
colossu.<t. i'opuior imagination puopletl the desert 
with demons, Is IS" 34", among wLidi was a ni^bt- 
.spectre, Lilith ; and to the same category [tossibly 
bulungs Ajwzel (AV H(.<apegoivt), to whom the live 
goat woH consigned on the Day of AtoDenient (cf. 
Zeofl").Lvlfl9-^'''» (Enoch 10*), although this is by 
no means certain, These demons, however, do not 
belong to the angel ic hoRt, and lie oiit.aide the moral 
world. Relatively to G<m1, tho sjigels, though the 
purest Ijeings, are imperfect, Job 4"" 15" 24*. 

In Dn 10'*- "■ ^ the various countries have 
their guardian or patron angels, Michael being 
the prince of Israel (Jude ', Rev 12^] : later 
theology reckoned aoveaty of these angels (Dt 
32», Gn 46"). And in Is 34 the universal wicked- 
ness of the world appears laid at the door of its 
rulers, whether angelic or human, and tho judg- 
ment of (!od falls un 'the host of the high ones on 
high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth ' 
(vv."-^]; ami many interpret 1*8 58.82 of the same 
angelic rulers. Apart from the idea anggwste^l in 
S iv., several things led to tltis conception of patron 
and ruling angela. First, there was a tendency 
towards removing God far from any immediate 
(.'outiLct witli the earth and men, and to introilucu 
intcrme^liaric-^ between them wh« moiliated His 
rule. In Dn He no longer sjieaks to men directly, 
but only bv tho intervention of angyls. who e\-on 
interpret His written word to men (l»* **''■). And, 
secondly, there was a tendency to personify abstract 
c;oncoptions such as tho ' spirit ' oi a nation, and a 
further tendency to locate these personified forces 
in the aui)crsen.sible world, from whence they ruicil 
the destinies of men. Tho itisucs of the contlicts 
of the kingdoms of Persia, Greece, and Jndah 
with one another on earth are all determlneil 
by tho relationa of their * princes' in heaven : and 
this idea is a ruling one in the Apoc. It belongs 
to a ditlerent class of conceptions when convicts 
are referred to between Gou and other powerful 
beings. Such beings aro ' tJie Sea,' ' Kahab,* 
'Tannin' or the Dragon, the'Seri«nt,' 'Leviathan/ 
etc.. comp. Is ei"-'". Ps SDi"-", Job 0" 26'-" (Pb 




8?', ta 30'). Pti 74*»-", U 27' (Job 40»-", P« 6S"). .'ob 
V", Am »»-» (Kzk 29*;* a*""); al80 Job 25' 'Ho 
m&ketU peace in UU high plfLces.' These po^eAges 
cont&in remmlM.'ences uf Cobinic or Cretiliun tiiytTi», 
vjctorieji of GckI, the principle of light and order, 
ovur the prioiev&l daxknefis and raging watery 
cliaos. Tliey are referred to in order to magnify 
Ihe power of God, and to invoke it usainst some 
foe of Hiii ptiuple, which in ita reUilliou uid 
mcnacin}; attitude recaJU (Jod's anciuut eoemiee, 
and may iw dencribod uriiier their iianiea (Is 27'). 
In Gn U^"* *the nous of the Elohim' can hardly l»e 
BDythinp bat a part of the hvavi-nty host, who fell 
throtiL'h tore of the daughters of men. as was 
already understood by Jonephus (cf. To 3* 6"). The 
paaMge haa no other points of contact in UT, but ia 
pttMj uupUfieti in hnoch G-15. etc.; and there, aa 
well as in NT, the idi'a uf the fallen kiiuuIm ap{xum 
ODUibineil with what ia imid of the impriaounieut of 
angelic rulers, la 24=" (2 P 2*, Jude "). 

Banks among the an;,'ela appear in Dn, and 
there for the first time aomc of them receive names. 
la OT and NT only two are named — Michael, 
prince of Israel (lOi*" W, Jude ", Itev 12T), and 
Uabrid (l>n S'* 9", Lk !»»•»). Michael ia named 
• the archangel,' Jude ». and ) Th 4'" * tho arch." is 
■ipoke-n of, though not named. Seven Mich angelic 
prilioes aro anoken of. To 12*^ ' I am lUphoel, one 
of the aeven nolvangelH'; in Knoc:h anil 2 £9 5^ 
Uriel is named na fourth. The number seven 
alreaily ajipeam in £zk 9*, and there is no necessity 
lo refer a to Pera. intluence. In Bah. writings, 
(cradea among the celcKtial huinga ore referred to 
(Scbrader, HidUnfahrt <Ur htar, pp. lfJ2, 103), one 
class of wliom Lenormant callei arclvtntjea cHattes. 
Aocording to Jewish tradition the ntuues of tho 
angels came from liabylon. 

rii. There ia little ndvanoe orer Daniel in the 
•ngelology of the Apocrypha. Raphael accom- 
paniee Toiiias as a guiuc. As one of toe seven holy 
aneelft he * preKent« the prayer« of the aalnta' (To 
IS"*, cf. Rev K'), and aays, ' I lUd bring the memorial 
of your praver before the Holy One' (12"). A 
'good' anpji i» Biiuken of, Tu 6^", 2 Mm; ll«. 
Raphael binds the demon Asmodieus, To 8', and 
the sentence of jud^ent on thutie who bring 
i*l»« accusations agaust tlie innocent is received 
and executed by the angel of God (bus "-^) ; the 
aneebi are ' blessed,' and are colled on to praise 
Um, 'Lei all Thy angelii and Thine elect blciw 
I'hee ' (To 8*^) ; and the ainii of men cannot be 
luddcn before God and Hin angeln (2 Eh 16**). 
Neither is there in principle any ^oatduvelopmunt 
in NT. (1) The angels form an innumerable htwt. 
Lk 2»-", Mt 2ti»', He I2« Rev 6"; they are thu 
anniea of heAven, Itov 12^ 19"». [2) They are 
beinfB eloriuuB in appearance, Lk 2*, Mt 28*. Ac 
W^ and in rank are 'glorieo,' Jude «. (3) They 
rainiirter in the aatnta. He 1» Mt 2» 4", Lk 22^, 
Ac 6" 8* 12^; they are the medium of re%x'Iation, 
Ber 1' 22^*. and carry the Baints into pttra«li»e, Lk 
1«", cf. 2 K 2". (4) As in OT theophany G(h\ 
was BUjTuiuidcd bv ant:;e1s, ao they accompany the 
Bon of Man at lli^ jniruutia, Mt 16" 2o'», I Th 4'«, 
a Tb r iMt 13"-* 24"). In two or three points 
there seems an advance over OT. (a) The angeJe 
are snirit?, He 1". (b) Baton in do longer i«ulateii, 
but has a retinne of angels, Mt 25^, Rev 12^. (c) 
Uanks in the angelic boat are more diKtinctly 
mggested. Col 2'", Eph 3» <I Co 15* Epb 1"). 
(tf>In the Apoc. ongela are associated with cosmic 
or elemental forces, as fire and water, which tbey 
direct or Into which tbey are changed. Rev 14>° 16', 
ef. Ps 104*. Chri»tians are made lUODg with Christ 
better than (be angeU, M-hom they sliall judge. 
He 2", 1 Co G'. Angel wornhip ia oondemnetl, Col 
2", Rei- 19"22^». cf. Dt 8^, Mt 4"». The wcond 
likene Cooncil decreed that Xar^(a ought not to 

▼OU I.— 7 

Iw otFered to angola, but allowed hoxiKtia. The 
lienae in which the Sadduceca dunied ungels and 
Njiirits (Ac 23*>) is not quite dear. The •Sadduceea. 
received the written ticripturus, but disallowed 
the oral dereloproente upnetd by the Pharisees 
and soribea ; and it is possible that they re- 
pudiated only that more modem luxuriant angd- 
ology current in their day, without questioumg 
the ancient ongelopbanios. The great historiou 
and ritual writing P contains no reference to 
angela : the Tvrak contained the revelation of 
Gocl'ti M'hole \if\i\, and exprettiwd all Hitt relations 
to the world and men ; Hj^^ecial intervention of God 
waM nut now needed. And UiiH may have been the 
poaitiou of the Sadducees. On the other hand, 
from the Sadducean inclination to freethinking, 
inherited from the prcMuircalm-an Gr. period, it is 
poasibie that Uicy interpreted the ongeluiiUanieH of 
the written Scriptures receivcil by tliein in a 
rationaliatic way as i>erJtoiiilicd natural forces. 

I^TSkATTRa— Roaten, 'IletoatatMn tier Anfdolofl* ooder 
brael,' ThT, tS7A, eU-.. ; Xohtit, Di* JOditeU Anntioiogit «. 
iXimMiA/oou, Lci]>i. IMS ; Weber. Syttrm lUr AUwjmagvifaUn 
J'aiaa. ThtiHi-ji^, Leliifl. ISSti. Se« also Ftillor. Excuraui oa 
AnifeMogif and Dfvu^tabij/f ; SptaJtar'a Apocr. vol. 1. p. 171S. 

A. IJ. Davidson. 

angels are men, they cannot be leti.t than bishops 
ruling their several cborcbes. In favour of this 
we have— <1) Mol 2' 3', where tJie words may be 
used of men ; (2} the -n3> tr^, who. however, was 
not an ol&cer of the synagogue, but one of the 
cougrcj^otiou called up fur the urciiHion to pronounce 
the prayer ; (8) the settled choructer of episcopacy 
in Asia in the time of Ignatins. Against it are — 
(1) A-n,<\9t, never used oi men in NT, except Lk 9". 
Ja 2" of ordinary messengers: (2) the figurative 
character of the Apoc. generally, and of this part 
in particular. There arc acvcn angela for seven 
churches ; and from the Saviour walking in a 
figurative tal>eroaule each of tbem receiver n letter in 
figurative form, and full of figurative promises and 
threats. Whatever be said of the 'Niwilaitaas,' 
' tliat woman Jezebel ' {2") can hardly be other than 
figurative. Even if tho allusion is to a living 
propbetees, ite form ia figurative; esp. if we rend 
riiir yvyatKd aov — thy wife Jcz«l>ci ; (3) the relation 
oi the augets to the churches i» one of close identi- 
fication in praise and blame, to an extent for which 
no human nder con be rUHpunaible; {4) Mettled 
monarchical government of churches in At^ia con 
hardly date liack to the Neronian perseoutioD, or 
even to Domitiaa's. 

The imoKeiy is suggested by the later Jewiali 
belief in angels as guardian^ of nations (t.g. Da 
12')andof men (Ac 12''), like the (7eni» of paganism. 
As, however, this belief is nowhere definitely con- 
firmed by Scripture, the angels are best regarded 
OS personifications of their clmrchc!). 


ANGER, as a verb, occurs Ps 10&* 'They a"* 
him aleo 0£*vp:i} at the waters of strife,' and Ho 
lU" ' by a foolish nation I will a. {wapofTftu) you.' 
And twice in .'Vpocr. : Sir 3" 'And he that a*** 
(RV 'provoketh ) his mother is cursed of God'; 
19" 'he a**"* bini that nourishetli him'; to which 
UV adds Win 6» 'The water of the sea shall be a*^ 
(AY ' rage') agalnat them.' J. HjUTE.vas. 

ANGER (WRATH) OF GOD. — Anthra|>opatliL- 
cally descriWi in OT by terms derived frum the 
pbyrical manifestations of human anger, '•,>f, f^yO, 
f^Tij, Tp]^ 115, etc. ; in NT by the terms ipvij, 
dvtiAt, anger or nTath may be defined generally 
as an energy of the divine nature called furtb by 
the prasenoe of Jaring or presumptuous trans- 
greeeum, and expressiDg the rt^actiun of the divina 
oolineM against it in iht punishment or destruction 



of llie tranagrv&sor. It ia the * zea] ' (mnp) of God 
for tito raaintcnanco of Hi» holiucas uud honour, 
niid of tlic ciidi of His tiL;ljtcoii.'iiic8» and luve, 
when ihow. nr« thrcatciteil by llic in^jnilitudu, 
rebtjtlion, and wilful diiwlwdieDoe or teiui^rity of 
the creature. In this light it nnpears both in 
the OT {pagsim) nnd in the NT (Mt a^, Jn 3»«, Ro 
1^", Eph Efi, Ucv 19** etc.), and is uniformly repre- 
Bented as soraetJiiog verv terrible in its elVt-ets. It 
if) spoken of ns * kindlim' hy the sinit and proroca- 
tionaofmen (Iix4'*, No 11'-^ Dt29=",2 S G^ la 5» 
etc ), as * poured out ' on men ( !*a "Jffi, I« 42*, .Fer 44" 
etc.); iU 'fierceness' U dweu ujjon by psalmists 
and prophets (Ps 78° 88^'. Is 13'. Jor 26"- »» 
etc.) ; it uuras down to the loweBt Sheo! (Dt 32"*). 
Similarlv, in NT, God is represented as ' & con- 
BuminK 'tire ' (Uo lli*; cf. Mt S^ 13« 2 Th 1" 
2*). At the fijime time, this n. is not piciurod, as 
in hcnthcn rt;l:gious, as the mere outburst of 
capricious passion, but tUwavs ap]>eare in union 
mill the idea of the divine holiness [that principle, 
as Mnrtensen says, ' wliich ^^uards the eternal 
distinction l>etwetm Creator and creature, between 
Uod and man, in tho union elTected botweon them, 
and preserves the divine diffnity and majesty 
from being infringed on/ and wtiich on its [wsitive 
side is in God the iiilluxiblo determination to 
ujihold at all costs the interests of righteousness 
and truth) ; and as directed to the maintonunce of 
the moral ordur in tht world, and sperially to the 
upholding of tho covertnt relation with Israel, an 
aspect of it which manifests its close altianco with 
righteousness and lov«. As in the hnnian sphere, 
BO in the divine, tlie keenest provocation to e. is 
that which lies in wounded or fmstratcd love, or 
in injury done to the objects of love (Nu 32"* ", 
2 K 17^-'*, K7k 23. Am S', I'a 7" etc.}. A. 
in God haa thus always an ethical connotation, 
and innntfcAtu lUielf in Knl>ser\nency to endtt of 
right eoui^ni-ss and mercy, by which also its mcoaura 
or limit is proscribed (Jor 10^). In its action In 
providence, it uses as its instruments tlie agencies 
of nature, as well as the passions and ambitious 
designs of men (cf. Is 10* ' O Assyrian, the r<Ml of 
mine a.'), and allltcts thedisoliedientond rebellious 
with the calamities of war, famine, jicstilcncc, and 
with enU gencnillr (I>t 28'*", Am 4*" etc. 
Bee analysis m RitKchl, Rn-ht. ttnd Ver* ii. p. V2ii). 
So far. accordingly, as the Itihlical representa- 
tions are corcemeii, the dinne a. or wrath is not to 
Iw weakened down, or explained away, as is the 
fashion among theologians (e.*?, Origcn, Augustine, 
Turrelin). into a mere 'anthropomorphism,' or 
geucruJ c.Ki'rcKsiiin for Gwi'saverHion loHm.and His 
determiimtion to punish it ; but is nitlier to lie re- 
vanted a> a very real and awful affection of the 
divine nature, fitt«d to awaken fear in the minds of 
men (1»b 2"-" He \(F). When we look to the 
historical development of this doctrine in Scripture, 
we find nothing to modify materially the rcpro- 
•entations just given. No real distinction can be 
predicated between the earlier and later descrip- 
tions of the divine wrath in OT, except that, as 
Kitsclil iiointa ont {Rfchi. und Ver. ii. p. 127). they 
tend in the prophets to l:>ecomemoree«rli«tolaginiij 
(se« TiAY OP THK lx)R[>: cf. Ho 2', Rev 6"). 
This, however, is not to be understood as if the 
dirine wTnth were not also manifested continuously 
tliroupli history in the punishment of those whoso 
evil-doing ca]U it forth (Ps ""), The later reprc- 
scntations in the Scripture arc every whit aa 
Btrougly coni-cived as tliose of an earlier date. When 
H. Scliultz &iM.'aksof ' the improssion of the terrible 
God of the Semite!*' in the earlier ages, and 
says, ' the ancient HHhrRws, too, tremble before a 
mysterious wrath of God '{0.7". Thcolopy, Li. p. 175, 
Eng. tr.), he .ftrangely forgets that the paasage* 
he cites are, on his ovm hypothesis, from Che reiy 

latest parts of the Pent. {Lv lO", Nu 1" 1S»: 
cf. Ex 12'* 30", Nu 8'»— all from P). Tho Book 
of Oenesui, remarkably enough, has no men- 
tion of the vrrath of God, thougli it^ vnuivolent is 
there in repeated manifestations of (tod s judgment 
on sin (expulttion from KUvn, cumingof the ground, 
flaming sword, the Flood, Sodom and Gomorrah, 
etc.). Ritschl's view of the Biblical development 
has features of its own. He rightly conceives of 
wrath as connected with the ilivim: holiness, but 
would interpret the latter attribute as expressing 
originally only the notion of God as tho exalted, 
powerful, unapproachable One, to draw near to 
whom would mean instant destruction for the 
creature ; and sees Uie peculiar manifestation of 
wrath, accordingly, under OT conditions, in a 
sudden, unexpected, and Wolcnt destruction of the 
life of those who had violated the obligations of 
the covenant {Eccki. ttnd Ver. ii. pp. 93, 125, 136, 
130). We can only urge in reply that there is no 
stage in the OT revelation in which the ideas of 
t ranscendenoe over the world, and of moral per- 
fection, are not alreaily unitod in the mnceptioti of 
holiness. The instances wliich most re^ulUy KuggeKt 
on outburst of destructive energy apart from moral 
considerations, are those in winch indiriduals or 
companies arc smitten for what may secni very 
slight faults, or acta of inadvertence [e.g. 1 S 4'*'*', 
2 n 2^1- But even in these ini^tjinccs a careful 
examination will show that it is the moral sanctity 
of the divine charact^-r which is the ground of tKe 
special Bwfulnesn with wliich it is invested. 

When, finally, we pass from the OT to tlie 
NT, we find tnat the notion of God's wrath ia 
not essentially altered, though the revelation of 
love and ^racc which now fills the virion places it 
comparativply in the liack ground. The Marcionite 
view, which would represent thi: contrast between 
the God of the OT and the GikI of the NT as 
that bt;tween a wrathful avenging Deity and a 
loving Father who ia incapable or anger, ia, on 
the KKTo of it, incorrect. The pitying, fatherly 
character cf God is not absent from OT (Ex iM*-*, 
Ps lOS'*!, but, even there, is rather the primary 
basis of God's iielf- revelation, to which the mani- 
festation of WTath and judgment i^ nuliordinato. He 
is 'slow to a.' (Ps 103' tt it!.), and ' fury (w.) is not 
in' Hini (Is 27*). On the other hand, the fatherly 
love of Go<l in NT does not exclude the aspect of 
Him 08 *Jndge' {1 P l*-"), and 'a consuming fire' 
(He 12»1, whose wrath is a terrible reality, from 
which Christ alone can save us (.In 3", Ito l"-i* 
5", I Th 1'" etc). In this connexion Kitschl 
Ijittours luird to sliow that ' wrnth ' in NT has 
(as in OT pmnhuts) uniformly an eschatological 
reference, and does not apply to the present con- 
dition. He goes even further, and challenges its 
right to a place in the Christian system at all. 
'The notion of the affection of wrntli in God,' he 
Bays, 'has no reli^ous worth for Christians, hut ia 
an unfixed and lomiless thcologoumenon'[A'CGAf. 
und Ver, ii. p. 151). tt is no doubt true Uiat the 
eschatolagital aspect of wrath is iiromihent in NT; 
and that for the reason already ^iven the wrath of 
God tlLroughont recedes into the liackgrnund, and 
becomes, as it were, an attribute in reserve (Ko 
2^, 3*1 ; but many indications wnra us that it ia 
onltf in rescr^'e, and is still there in its unchanged 
character, and rests with its heavy weight ujion 
the disobedient (Jn 3*. Eph 2-"); nay, that in a 
most, tca! scnfie its elTecta are manifest in thu terrible 
retrihutimis for sin exacted fnim men even here 
(Mt23^^,RoI«-",Ac8'-"etc.). And if the objec- 
tion is urged, as it will be by many, that the attri- 
bution 01 wrath or anger to Gotl'(otlior\nso than 
aa the reflection of tho sinner's distrustful thooghta 
regarding Him) ia an unworthy mode of oon- 
oeption, and derogates from the divine perfection. 




it mar at least vriiix e<]UjU justice be replied that 
& Kuier of the universe who wil» incnpiiblo of 
being moved with an inUins4^ monU injignnlion At 
■in, and of putting forth, when occasion required, 
» de«t4t>yin>; ener;;y against it, wouJd bo lacking 
in an esecniial clcmi?nt of moral perfection : nor 
would either the rigbicouancas or the mercy of 
BDch a Being have any longer a substantive value. 

UmuTtiK.— Wcbcr r<nn Home CoUw, 186S; Ritachl Dt 
JralMl, l&0», Itfcht und Fm-. il. pp. a»-l48: Oehlvr Tiuaitiav 
tif O.T. i. pfh m-iea (Eug. tr.): Scbult* O.T. Thtt)logy,ii- 
m. ie7-m: n. W. Stnoo 7VU Ruttmftian nf ifan~-&i.v. 
'TlM Anper o< Ood' ; DftU Th» AtonmmU, LmsL VUI. : Xiu 

jfundi. rr- tab-tan. j. orr. 

ANGLE oci^un only fut a Kubnt., Is IQ" 'all they 
UiAt caata. into thcbrook»'; Hab l>^ 'Thoy taka 
np all of thorn with the a,' In Job 41^ the only 
otber occurrence of the Heb. word (■•!?:}, the tr. u 
•book' (UV 'fish hook'). See Fishing. 


ANIAH (cTJii * lament of people'). — A man of 
ManasMb {1 Cb 7"*). See Ge^nealooy. 

AMIM (O'JV), Jos IS^ only. — A town uf Juilali, 
jn the mountains near Edhtomoli. It seems prob- 
able that it iit the pre^t^iiCi tluuble ruin of Ghtuvtin, 
weit of £shCemoh. The ileb. and Arab, ^tturnl 
letters uro equivalent. In tlic 4tli cent. A.U. 
{Onomastieon, s.v. Annb and Aatemoc) Anca or 
Aneni is noticnd an a large town nuar Kiihtttmoh ; 
ami there were two plac-os so called. It is identi- 
fied l«.v. Anim) witn the town now in question. 
All the inhabitant!* were then Cbristinns. See 
SWP voL iii. sliect xxiv. C. K. Condek. 

ANIMAL KINGDOM.— See Natural HisruHY. 

UTIftB {S»it9op, aiutMitm).— Thore can be no 
reuonable doubt that S.ry)6<ii' is tbe olaaiical name 
of Auethum graveotetiJi, h., which is tnuulated in 
EV (Mt 23") anUe. There is the direct evidence 
of Itabbi Eliezer (Tract. Maascroth, c. iv. G] that 
tlio acodfi, leavoH, and the Htt:ui uf diil are 'isubjuut 
to tithe.' DitI 'm in the Tnlm. sfinbntK, It in 
known in Anib. by the co^^nate nnme thibiih, 
and b much cultivnted in Pal. and Syria. The 
seoda of it arc us<>d in cookery ne a condiment, 
e»p. with beanti and other seeds of the pulse 
kind, and their Uavour la greatly Ukea \sfy 
tbi) natives of Egypt, Fal., Syria, and tbe East 
generally. It is also uw>d by the naiiven ua a 
ramiinative. Avivunna K{iBakM tbuH of itu virtues 
(ii. 258): *caUnant for grilling, carminative 
diminishea BweUinir, and it5*inlusiun is buraelii-iiLl 
as a woab to Indolent ulcers. ltd oil la useful in 

J'oint affections and neoral^tias, and lUoo as a 
iy(inottc ItA juice calnu pain in the ear. Eaten 
for a long time it injures tlie sight. The plant 
and it« «^d are ^mlavtogoguea, but are esp. uttefut 
in over-diKtenMon of the Ptomarb and Uatultiucy. 
It« oil if uIk) lK;n<:>ti(-.ial in ba-murriiuidti.' 

IHll is sn annual or biennial herb, of the order 
Umbelliierie, with a stem one to three feet high, 
raacll dissccttd leaves, small yellow flowers, and 
flattened oval fruits about one-nfth of an inch long, 
of a brownish colour, with a lighter -coloured wing- 
Uke border, and a ntin^ent, aromatic odour and 
tut«. It is found wild in cornlielilx in ceutritl and 
Bonthem Eunipu and Eg}'pt,iH;rbaps escaped from 
cultivation. It has been cultivated from remote 

Tbe opinion of tbe translators of AV, in favour 
of anise {Pimpinelta animtm, L.), is hardly to be 
weighed a^nin-^t the direct evidence abnvc adduced 
for the identity of dill with 6.rf)0op. UV givea dill 
in the margin. G. E. Po&T. 

ANKLE-CHAINS [rfn^, Arab. aalatU, AV 'oma- 
uienta of the leg;s,* Is 3**).- The prophet refers to 
the practice of joining the anklets by a short chain, 
to produce a stilted, allected gait in walking. 

G. M. Mackik. 

ANKLETS (D'p^n, Arab. khaltkJtU, Is 3". AV 
'tinkling ornaments.')— Tbe ref. is to the metal 
tu-ial« and Isangles of bracelet-like design worn on 
the ankles of Oriental women, cap. of the Boiiawin 
and follabin class. The munioal clink of ^o 
anklets and their uruanmntA, which to the vearied 

peasant on the rongh mountain path Ims the 
refreshment of the bells to the baggage animals, 
is here alluded to as a social vurgartsin when 
affected by the ladies of the upjicr cItuuHui, and as 
one of the marks of an ortiliuial and iinhcaltliy 
tune of life G. M. M.VCK1B. 

ANNA ('Airra, the same name as tbe Ucb. nfc 
Hannah, from a root meaning 'grauo'). — 1. The 
wife of Tobit: 'I took to wife A. of tbe seed of 
our own family' (To 1"*). Sue ToDIT. 3. A 
prophetesB, tlie dangbter of Plianucl, of tbe tribe 
uf Asher (Lk 2*"). This genealogical notice 
makes it clear that, tbouuh Ashcr was not 
one of the t-en tribes which rcturuod to Pales- 
tine after tlie Babrluninn Captivity, individual 
members of the tribe had dnne bo ; and furth<.-r, 
tlmt Anna l>elongod to a family of suflioient dis- 
tinction to have prewerred it-s genealogy. In the 
H-ome cx^nnt'xion it is inCeroBttog to notice that 
the trilie of Aeher alone is celebrated in tradition 
fur the beauty of its women, and their fltnoiis to be 
wedded to the high priest or king (for autboiitiea, 
see Edemlicim, Jttua the Mtsisiah, vol. i. p. 200). 
Of Anna's jnftrsonal history a]l that we know is 
contained in tbe brief statement of St. Luke. She 
lind lieen married for seven years, and at tbe time 
spoken of was nut merely, as the AV suggests, 
Mghty-four years old, but, according to the more 
correct rendering of the RV, ' hod neen a widow 
even for fourscore and four years ' : so that, 
supiKisine bur to have been married at fourteen, 
she Would now be about a hundred and Bve. 
Throut;buut bur long widowlinnd she bad 'departed 
not from the teuiufu,' not in the msnso uf actually 
living there — for that would have been impoBsibte, 
moiit uf all for a woman— but as takinf^ part in oU 
the temple services, * worsliipping, Mritii fastings 
and supplications night and day.' It was thus 
that she sought to give oxpru-^tion to the longing 
wliii'b was filling her henrt for the coming of the 
promised Meesiui, nnd at length her fnith and 
luttience were rowardeil. In the child Jesus she 
was allowed to see the fulfilment of God^fl promiM 
to IIls ancient people, and henceforth was able to 
announce to all like-minded with herself the 
* redemption,' as diRtinguished from the political 
dellvcronve of Jorusolcm. G. Milliuajj. 

AJiNAB ('Aj't^i, |)n ' merdful.' Josephua'AMj^),, 




— 1« Son of Seth. np^uiiileU liii^U priest A.D. C 
or 7 by tbc legate l^mriiuui*, anu tleposcJ A.D 15 
liy tho procurator VnJeriuji (Jrntug(Jo«. Ant. XVlll. 
ii. ] , 2). He thii« lu^t ollire, but not power. ' They 
Bay tlmt tliift ettlur AniinitTi wa.^ in<Mt fortiiniite ; for 
bo had five sons, ntxl it liappent^l U>at Miey iiil hehl 
the ottlco of hiuli priest to Ood, and hv had himnelf 
enjoyed that aignity a long time formerly, whirh 
had DQver bapiicned to any other of our high 
priesin' (Jon. Ant. XX. ix. I). W'u k-ani n\»o fruiu 
ijU John (18'') that Joseph Caiaphiu*. Ui^h prit^t 
A.D. ll^Stt. was his »on-in-]aw. Tim imiiu'njH- 
wealth of the-w Sadduccan aristocratM waa, in part 
at least, derived from 'the hooths of the sonn of 
Annas,* which monopolised the sale of all kimlit of 
nmtcrialu for 8acniii.>e. Thcso booths, according to 
Kderaheim [Life OTwf Times of t/ie Mfssiah, iii. 5), 
occupied part of the temple court; Dorenbourg 
{Es$ai sur Vhistuire, tie. , de la Palestine, p. 4(55 i«|q. ) 
with more prohahility identifies thcin vvitli four 
liootliH on the Mount of OHve-t, a bnini^h eHtiibliHh- 
ntent of which itii},'ht hnve boen lieneath the teiuplo 
porohea. It was the sons of Annaa who made God's 
liooM 'a den of robbers ' ; and the Taluiudic curse, 
' Woe- to the houise of Annas 1 woe to thoir nerpuul- 
like ht.H.sin)^!' (or whJHperint;») (Pck. 57a], alnio>t 
ri>-cchoes the Saviour's duiiunciatinuK. •To!(cplm.'<, 
too {Ant. XX, ix, 3-4), given a vivid jvicture of the 
ioaolent rapncity ami violence of the younge-r 
Ananua. Moreover, 'forty years before tho de- 
stmction of the tomplo tho Sanhotlrin banisbed 
itself from the chamber of hewn stone (n'ljii n^^), 
and established ibtclf in the booths' (n^~>~) (Di^ren- 
bourp, p. 46ii), subaeqaently aiu\'inu 'from the 
booths to .Ierti.>ialeni ' (Rosh ha-Sli. 31a), perhai>s 
when tlie huulha were detitroyad, three years before 
the dextrurlion of the temple, iu the same year 
in which tliu younger Anaiius was murdered. 
Such and so powerful was the faction of which 
Annas waa tho head. The NT eoiiHist<;ntly 
reflectK (his .state of things, Jesus, when arrextecl, 
i.H bruuf^ht' to Annna tir»t (Jn 18"). He takes the 
h-'odin^ pEtrt in tho trial of the apostles (Ac 4"}. 
That Annas is styled ' the high priest ' ( Ao 4', and 
probably J n 18"*'*) is not remnrkahle, since it is 
ijuitc in accordance with tho usage of Josephus. 
who applies the title, not only to the actual holder 
of the ottice, but oIm to all his living predecesaora 
i Vit. 38 ; BJ II. xii. G ; IV. iii. 7. 9, 10 ; iv. iv. 3). 
And in Itoth Jos«phiifl and NT the more in- 
Ituential members of those familieK fruui whic-Ii 
liigli iiriests were chosen are all vailed dpxitptU. 
But the phru»e ' irl i.ffxifpit>n 'Ari'a xal Kai'd^, in 
the high priesthood of A. and C (Lk 3*), seem^ 
uuparalleled. Ewald (//./. vol. vi. p. 430, n. 3) 
conjectures that it ia due to the fact that when 
tht: author wrot*.', ' they had become memorable in 
this aj<i^(-iation through the history of Chri-''t's 
death.' The chief interest in Annas centres in the 
notice of him in Jn IPl, whieh is complementary 
to tho narrative of bt. Lnke^ and corrects ah 
apparent mistake made by St. Matthew and St. 
Mark. The first two evanyclifit* obscurely indicate 
two stages in tho trial of Jesus (Mt2(J^' 27', Mk 14" 
15'), hut they transfer the events of the morning 
meeting of tlie Sanhedrin to tho previous night. 
St. I.uke avoids this apj>arent mistake, ami leaves 
room iii^} for such an informal inquirj' as that of 
Annas really was. 

When we bear in mind the predominant influence 
of the man, and the unscnipulouaness of the whole 
proucodiiig, it seems unnt-fcwwry to suptHMte that 
Annas was either dejsuty (sag8n)of the high priest 
[I.ightf«xit, 7'emjile Aem*"*, v. 1) or president (m-vi) 
of the Sauhednn (Baronius, Anna/s, followed by 
Scldcn, de Sueetju. Pontif. i. 12) or chief examining 
judge, r" P'» 3(1 (Ewald, //./. vol, ^-i. p. 43IJ>. 

The interview of Jesua with Annas is described 

Jn IS^"'". It could have only one iasue. Jesus 
was sent as a coudemned prisoner for a more 
formal trial l>eforo C-aiaphas and the Sanheilrin, as 
described by tlie Syuoptuils, but mendy itiiplied hy 
St. John. (Tliia is ul>!»cured iu tlie Keceived text 
(if v.**, and stilt more in the AV, wliicli renders 
the aorist as a pluperfect ; oS» is reocl by U C LX 
!. 33.) We have seen that the Sanhedrin at thia 
time met in the headquarters of the .\nnas faction. 
Ml tliat it may have been when passing through 
the court from the apartments of Annas to tho 
council chamber that ' the Lord tumtid. and looked 
upon Peter,' Lk 22" (Woatcott on Jn IS"). 2. 

1 Ea 9»', Bce Hakim. N. J. D, Whitb. 

AMNIS ('Af'df B, 'Acritd A, AV Ananias, RVm 
AnnJas).— The eponym of a family that returned 
with Zembbabel {1 Es C). Omitted tn parallel 
passages of Ezr and Neh. J. A. Skluie. 

ANNUS (A 'AfroLC, R 'ArnovO, AV Abub).— A 

Levil«, 1 Ea 9« = Neh 8' [BaniJ. 

ANNUUS (A -Awowoi, B omita). 1 Es 8« (47. 
LXX).^The name does not occur in Kzr 8" ; it 
may be duo to reading 'inxj (AV * and with him)* 
there as um. U. St. J. TllAOKERAY. 

ANOINTINO.— 1. The application of nninienta to 
tho skin and hair as an act of the toilet is on 
ancient custom [ tho oldest prescription extant is 
for this pur|io'K<, and professes to date from about 
u.c. 4200. Among the Jews a. was a daily practice 
(Mt 0"), the oil bomg ajipli&d to exposed parts (Pa 
104"), Nootliing the skui burnt by the sun. Tlie 
lilKjcts of oil are more enduring tlian those of 
water, lieni-o a. was practised after liathing (Itu 
S', Ezk lO**). It was a mark of Iukut}* to use 
apecially scented oils (Am &], sucii as thoao 
IiuzLkiul) kept in his tn:a.furL--liuusb(2K 20*^). As 
a. was u sign of joy (I'r 27"!, it was discontinued 
during the time of mourning (Dn 1(F); so Joab 
in8truct«d the woman of Tekoa to appear un- 
anointed liefore David (2 S 14'). On the death of 
IJathshebn's child, David anointed himself to show 
that Ids mourning had ended (2 .S 12**). Tbc ecssa- 
tion of a. was to be a mark of God's displeasure if 
Israel proved rebelliouii [Dt 28*, Mic G'"), and the 
n-storatiou of tho L-UMtom was to b« a fign of God's 
retuniing favour (Is 61'). Anointing is used as a 
BymUd of prosperity in P» 92'", Eo ir. 

3. Before paying visits of ceremony the head was 
anointed; BoIS'aomibadeRuthanoiut herself before 
visiting Itoai (.1^). Oil of myrrh was used for this 
puri>OHC in the hnrcii) of Ahasuenui (Est 2'*). On 
monuments in Eg^'tit the host is seen anointinchis 
guc^t on his iLrrival ; and the sumo must have been 
inistoinary in Pal., as Minion's failure of liospitality 
in this respprt is coinuiented upon by our Lord 
(Lk 7**). This custom is referred to in Ps 23'. 
The Isr. showed their goodwill to tho captives of 
Judah by anointing them before sending them 
bock at the command of Oded (2 Ch 28'*). Mary's 
anointing of our Lord was aceording to this custom. 

3. Before battle, shields were oibnl, that their 
Kurfaces might ha slippery and shining (Is 21*, 

2 S I" RV). This practice is referreti to several 
times by clnasical authors, and ia iu use to this 
day among some African tril^es. 

4. As a remedial agent n. was in use among tho 
Jews in pri;-<"'liri»tiaa times; it was practised by 
t]i« apuslles(Mk 6'^), n^commended by St- James 
(.5"), mentioned in tho {tarable of th« (Jooil 
Samaritan (Lk VJ^), and used as a type of God's 
forgiving grace healing the rin-siok soul (Is 1', 
Ezk 16*. Kcv 3"). In postapost, times tho oil waa 
supposed to owe its virtue to its consecration by 
prayer, which might be done by any Christian ; thus 







ProovJns anointed Sevoms, and healed him (Tertnll. 
ad Seap. iv. ). By the Srd cent, consecration of the 
oil couM only bo done by the bishop (Innocent, 
Deccntio, viti.}; slthongli any Christian might 
apjily tlie holy oU, and the oil from the church 
latniiHwoA of t«n taken ftirttiiii {rur]M>Kr> i^^hryK^itiitom 
•n Sit 32). Oil waa alito conHeorati^ti by being 
taken from the tombs of martyrs {ib. Uumii. in 
Martyr, iii. ). Br the 5th cent, the priest oJono could 
anoint (Labbu A: Coiia&rt, CvtycUia, ix. 410, § 10). 
Thia a. was intended as a means of cure even on 
lale aa tlie days of Bode (in Marvi, i. c £4). The a. 
«f the djdng waa a heretical practice of the Mar- 
coeians (Irenscas, i. 21. 6) and the Hcmtleonitcfi 
<£piphanin5, adv. Iftcr. xxxvi. 2) for purpoKc« of 
oxorcism. Theodorct says that tho Arehontiei 
*1m nae oU and water, but'apnarently in a ditlerent 
uay {rrt^dXKown, see JJar. Fab. Compend. i. 11). 
In the Horn. Chorch by the I2tb cent, tho idea of 
liualiuj; had Iteoome obHo1et«, am] the a. waa 
restrioted to llie dying (Council of Florence, 1439) 
and applied before the Viaticum (Ist Council of 
Mninz, Can. xxvi. ). It is callefl extreme unction by 
lingo dc St. Victors {SummttSententiar. vj. 13), and 
its plate as one of the seven Micramentfi of the 
Itom. Church was decided by tho<'ouni^il of Trent. 
Calvin catlit it histrionka htfpocrins (Intt. vL 10, 
I IH). 

The ceremonial of anointinp the leper whpn 
cleansed was not reme<lial, but a kJ{^ of reconsccra- 
tion. In Scripturo the application of any soft 
material, as moi^^tencd clay, to a blind man's eyea, 
is culivtl anointing (Jn 9"). 

8. ^Vm in Egj*pt, the application of uiJitinenta and 
Hnieea to the dead body was I'liHtumary in Pal. 
(Mk 16> Lk 23*», Jn 19«) ; hut they were only 
rxtomally applied, and did not prevent decompoi^i- 
tion (Jn 1 1**). In later times the a. of the dead 
with holy oU is recommended (Dhmys. Arcopag. 
tie EnlfJi. IlicrarrJi. vii. § 8). 

6. Holy tilings were by a. dciilicatcd to Cod even 
in ancient time.t. Tlnm .Jaroh consermti'd the 
(rtoae» at Bethel (Gn es'^ 35") ; and God recog- 
nised the action (31"). In Greece, Egypt, and 
other conntries dedication by oil was practimd, and 
IB continued in the Rom. and Gr rituals for tho 
consecration of chorches. The tabernacle and 
Ita furniture were thus consecrated (Ex SO* 40'", 
Lv K"), and the attar of burnt-ofTering was re- 
con»«Tat<Mi after the nin-onViring (Ex 29*). Some 
periwiie hoitlin htmorttrut were anuint«tl with oil 
(Lv 2' et<r.); but no oil was to be poured on tho 
nn-oirering (Lv 5", Nu 5'»), It ia not mid that 
the tomple waa coiutccrated by a., bat there 
was holy oil in the priestti* charge at the time 
(1 K 1*), as there wa.^ in tho days of the second 
templed ChO*). 

7. Priojits were set Apart by a. In the caw of 
Asiron, ami itrolnlily all hiu'h priei^tA, this was done 
twice : lir«t by ponnng tho holy oil on liis head after 
bis robing, but before the sncnlice of consecration 
(Lt 8", l'« las') ; and next by sprinkling after tho 
Micrilice(Lv S*). Tho ordinary prict*l3 were only 
Burinklad with oU after tho apiiltcution of t1ie blouil 
Of the CAcririce. Henco the lii^h priest in called 
the anointed priest (Lv 4'' ' and B-^). Tim holy 
oil fortbis purpose wail mode of olive oil, cinnamon, 
crxaniB, llowing myrrh, and the root of the sweet 
cjvne lAcoruji Calamus). It was to be used only 
fur these ceremonials, and it« unauthuristd c<ini- 
jN.ttndiDg was strictly forbiilden ( Ex 3i>^). In Egypt 
thuro were nine wicrud oils for cercinnninl use. 
A. in the oniinntion uf preslij-ters and deacons 
came into use in the 8th cent., but woa not 
praotiscd in the early Church. 

B. Of designation to kingship by a. we have 
example* in Saul (1 S HM) and David [1 S Iti"). 
Thia act vma accompanied by the gift of the Spirit ; 

so, when David was anointed, thu -Spirit dcstiended 
on him, and departed from Saul ; and Uazaol waa 
anoint<Ki over Syria by God's command (I K 1 9"*}. 
Kings thus designated were calletl the Lords 
anointed. David thu.'* speaks of Saul (1 SS6"J and 
of himself (Ps 2^). ThM jiassage is used by the 
apostles OS prophetic of Christ (Ao 4"). 

9. By a. King» were installed in ofllco. Davtd 
woe again anointed when mode king of Jadah, and 
a third time when made king of united IhtooI 
(2 S 2* 5*). Solomon was anointod in David's life- 
time, and he ruferM to the a. in his dedication 
prayer. It is not i«fti<i that tJiose who succeeded by 
right of primugunitnro were anointed ; but when 
tite Kucceiwion was disputed, Jchoiada anointed 
Joash (2 K 11"). Jehoabaz the vovinger son of 
Josiah was anointed (2 K 23^) in place of his elder 
brother Jchoiaktm (see SS"-*"). Kings of other 
lands were anointed. Tliis was early known to 
tho Israelites, aa we learn from Jotham's parable 
iJg 9"). The kings of Egypt were anointed, and 
tho a. is said to have been done by the godn 
(DUmichen, Jii^t, In^hrift, \. 12); hence they ore 
called the 'anointed of Uio goda' The king of 
Tyre ia also called the ' anointed ' ( Ezk 28"). Jeh n 
was anointed as beginning a new dynasty (2 K 0"). 
Zedekiah is referred to as anointed { 1 Ji4>'). British 
kings were anointed in prc-Saxon days (Gildas, 
lie ejxidio BHt. i. 10), as were the Chriatianisea 
Saxons ; but the firrft ln(^ntio^ of a. at coronation 
uhiewhere in Europe ia in A.D. 630 in tho Aet« 
of tho Gth Council of Toledo., Charlemagne, 
A.D. 800, wail tho hrst emperor anointed [by Pope 
I.eo III.). A. is now a part of tho eereniuniol of 
coronation in most C'hriHtian kingdunis. 

10. A. is used metaphorically lo mean settins 
njHirt t*i the prophetic oHire ; bo Elijah ia told to 
unuint Eli»ha. Tim does not appear to have been 
literally done (1 K 19"). In Ps H>5>* the wonls 
anointed and prophet* are uaod as synonyms. The 
Servant of the I^rd calls hituself anotnl<»i to preach 
(U 01^), and Chriat tells the (wople of Nazareth 
that this prophecy i« fuJlilled in Ilim (Lk 4"'). 

11. Similarly in a metaphorical sense any one 
chosen of God is colled an anointed one; thus the 

ratrinrch.t are called God's Messiahs (Ps 105'^), and 
srael as a nation (I's HIS llab 3'», Pa 89*^ "), 
being promised delivertince on litis account (la 
10^', 1 S 2'^J. C)TUfl is also called a Mvwtuih 
(Is 45'). Tiie name Chrut is the Gr. equivalent 
(if the Heb. iVt»naA = 'anointed.' The anointing 
of Ps 45' is taken in He 1* aa prophetic of the 
Saviour's anointing. 

In this sense, as a chosen people, believers are 
8ai<l to lie God's anointed (2 Co 1^, I Jn 2^ "). the 
unction bring the gift of tlie lluly Spirit. In iMMt- 
aiKKit. times thi^Mu words gavo riso to tho prm-lice 
oi anointing with oil at lNX]ftism. This was done 
by way of «xor(!wm Iwfore the washing in the E, 
t'iiurcli in the days of Cyril (OttecK. Mystng. \i. D), 
as it seems from St. Aiignstlne to have been tho 
practice in Africa (siee Tr. 44 I'a Joannis, g 2, refer- 
ring tonnointtug the blind man's eyes before the 
washing). ButTertullian jmtcthea. after the wash- 
ing (/Jb raturr. Cami*, § viil),aii doeaOptaruK, who 
says that Christ was anointed by the ilove aft«r 
baptism {de St-Miffm. Donat. it. 76}. Coon these 
texts, quoted above, counled with the 'sealing' men- 
tionctl in E]»h 1" 4** nnJ 2Co I**, the jMist-aitoatolic 
Clniix-h basv)l the ceremony of coniiiniation, la 
connexion with which in the W. Church another 
anointing Ixjcauie customary in the 5th cent. 

LiTRRATDns:. — UcsuIm Um rofrrenc^ (flvoR kborc, set for 
toller dcUllaooaMrabir UieibbuvotwttoDs-l, Pspj/rv* Ebm, 
p. 00 ; Emuxn, >f^vp(«a, 188£, p. 310. 4. UarUme, lU Ani. Ee^ 
Hit., RoQcti. 1700. 1. T ; DbIIwui, dt fhwhva Latinumm Satfra- 
menlU, GcDFva, IdSD; J>eer¥twm Kuffmii IV. dt Stpt. ii«L 
Sacmm., LouvkIii, 1&&7. 0. Amol>iui. adv. timt, I. SlU; Fsbci- 
cdus, d9 I'rmpL CAWaC., UsliiMUdt, 1704; I^mmwIm. vtt. tt. 

T. TbuodultuK, £pi»c. Auivi, COfil. d< Pntb., «d. Ui|rn«, 193 ; 
Ivo C»rno«ii»i9. Dteni^ vL 121. A. MACAUSTBB. 

ANON, ft contraction for *in one,' U used in AV 
lor 'in one moment' {KV ' ntrsi^tway '). Mt 13^' 

* a. with joy rcceivoth it ' ; Mk 1* * a. they t«Il liini 
of her'} Jth 13* *a. after she went fortli' (KV 
' after a littlu while she wunt forth '). 

AMOSCA^wf), 1 EsS".— One of the descendants of 
Uaani, who a^Teed to put awav his ' strange ' wife : 
corresponding to Voniab {^It), Ezr 10**. 

ANOTHER. — A. i» 'one other,* Imt Konietinies 
the iilea is 'n different one,' of which there ia a fine 
iiistiiiice in Gal 1" ' I marvel thut ye are bo noon 
removed from liim that called j'ou into the urace of 
Christ unto a. gospel' (C"r- If^por, RV 'a ditrerent 
jroepel,' but v." 'which is not a.' Or. dl\.\o ; cf. 
a Co 1 1*), lu 2 Ch l!0^ • every one IioIimkI to dcf troy 
a.'; moil, Kng. would say 'the other'; so KV in 
tin IS*", Kx t>l'» 37»» etc., but not in Zer 11". 

J. Hastinos. 

ANSWER.^!. Ab a Ral«t. a. is used in the scnBe 
of npotti^.'-y or defence (Gr. A.iro\ayUx) in I Co U* * mine 
a. (UV 'my defence') to them that do examine 
me'; 2 Tl 4'* 'At my firet a. (KV 'defenco') no 
man stood by mo ' ; I P 3" ' Kcady alwayn to girc 
an a. (KV 'give a.*) to every mini.' Compare the 
uao of a. as a verb in Ac 24'" 'I do the more 
p.hoerfiilly a. for niy»elf' (KV *! do cheerfully 
make my defence'). Ac 25"*'" 20'- =, I.k 12" 21". 
2. In Ro II* -whiit Bfiith the a. of God onto him V 
a. means oracle or divine response {Gr. xpi^w- 
Ti<f/iA», the only occurrence of the word in NT, 
bat it is found m 2 Mac 2* xp^f^'^'^f*"^ yirt^Qivrot, 
'being warned of God' AV and RV; see Sandav 
and Ueadlain, Jiomarts, pp. 173, 313). 3. In 1 P 3»' 
•the a. of a cood conMCieace toward God,' a. ia 
prob. intended to mean defence, as above: but 
the Gr. in not AvrtXoyia bat iwtfu'i^rtjtKa, and in what 
predse senM the apostle uses that word is dis- 
puted J RV gires ' interrogation,' with two alterna- 
tive.^ m the marg. 'inquiry' and 'ajipeal.' See 
Thayer, A**.?". /^u:. jt.e. 4. Asaverha. iReftcn tineil 
when no question has been aaked. The iniwt strik- 
ing iuHtancc in Ac C, where St. Peter 'answers' 
Sapphira, not only before she had opened her 
month, Imt l)y askinp her a question. B. In Gal 
4* 'For thia Agar in Mt. Sinai in Arabia, and 
a*^ to Jems.,' a*** to = oorreBponds with (Gr. 
fivrcToixtt—lit. ' belongs to the same row or column 
with '), AoBverablc oecura in AV only Ex SS'" 
'a. to the hnnfrinps of the court,' i.e. ' (!tirre*i[M>nd- 
ing to' : hut UV neids Kzk 40'* *«. unto (AV 'over 
against') tbo length of llio (:«(«»,' 45' 4K"-"'«'. 
Cf Bunyan. IToiy War (Clar. Press cd. p. 92). 

• Tliis famous town of Mnnsoul had five Gates, in 
at which to come, out at which to go: and tliesu 
were made likewise answerable to the Walls.' 

J. Hastinhs. 
ANT (^^?J nbnAlSh, nipfivi, fmmica). The ant 
Is tncntiontd only trtice in the Hihie. Once (Pr 
(fl) with reference to the tndwjitrf/ of this inject, 
and again (Pr 3()"} with reference to its icisdnm 
AVtil/uresiff/it. There has never been any difipnte as 
to the industry of the ant. Sir John Lubbock 
lAnlii, lierj. fjjid Wa-ips, p. 27) Bays, 'They work 
all day, and in warm weather, if need be, at night 
too. I once watched on ant from six in the nmm- 
jug, and she worke^l without intermis^iuii till a 
quarter to ten at uight. I hud ])nt lier to a saucer 
wmtaining larvie, ami in thin Itine she had carried 
offnolcjis than 187 to their nests. I hnd another 
ant, which 1 cmjiloyod in my experiments umler 
tontinnouH ebdervation several days. When I 
fitnrtml for I^ondon in the morning, nnd again 
when I Ment to bed at night, I used to put her 

into a small bottle, but the moment slie was let 
out she began to Mork again. On one occasion I 
was away from hume for a week. On my return I 
took her out of the bottle, placing her on a little heap 
of larvie, about three feet fruai her neat. Under 
these circumstance* I certainly did not expect her 
to return. However, though kIic had been six 
days in continement, the lirave little creature 
imracdintely picked up a larva, carried it to her 
neat, and after half an hour's rest returned for 

With reference to the wisdom and foresight of 
the ant there ban been much dincusnion. Although 
not exjtresMly stated that the ' meat' which the ant 
•prepares* in the suimuer is for winter use, it is 
generally agreed that hucli is the meaning of tlie 
passage. The Greeks, Romans. Arabian natural- 
ists, and Jewish rabbis conilrm thi'i opinion. Vet 
many naturalists and commentators have dii^pnted 
this fact> and say that the ^\Titer adopted a 
popular error, and that the ant docs not store tho 
«eed.i which it takes in such quantities to its nest 
OS food, but only as a lining to it.s burrows, or for 
some other unknown rea-mn. They argue from 
twoconsidcrations— (1) that the ant is camivorona, 
and tioe no use for the seeds which it aonumiilatea 
in ita nest ; (2) that the nnt hytwrnatctt. and there* 
fore doen not need food in winter. Both of these 
prupositions are partially true and partially false. 
All ants cat ilesh grpodily, hut thoj- art all piiaKion- 
alely fond of many things besidea. £iir John Lub- 
bock has shown that ante derive a very irajmrlant 
part of their pustenance from the sweet juice 
secreted by aphides, a product hardly to be called 
anliual food more than honey. In tho words of 
Linn«;u3, * tho aphis is the cow of ants,* Other 
kinds of insects are utilised in the same manner. 
Manv ants keep flocks an<i herds of anhidea. The 
a]>hitlcs retain the spcrution until the ants are 
ready to receive it, and the ants stroke and caress 
them with their antcnnro, until thej' emit the 
sweet excretion. The ants collect the egg» and 
larvm of these apliidcs, afore them with their own 
during the lung winter sleep, that fliey may be 
hatched in the spring, and supply them nx'ain with 
their favourite food. Here llii*u, says Lubbock, 
'our ants may not perhaps lay up food for tlie 
wioter, but they do more, for they keep during 
MX months the eggs which will enable them to 
procnre food during th'o following summer — a cose 
of prudence ancxampled in the animal kingdom.* 
Rut it is also true that ants eat many articles of 
purely vegetable food. Tho^ »>f Palehtiae and 
Syriii rertJiinly cab all kinds of cake, swectmeata, 
more or less fruit, breatl. meal, and seed."*. In the 
nL'ighboorhoodof every threshing-flnor and granary, 
onuof stables, there are always immcDM numbers 
of ants, which abstract surprising quantities of 
grain, and store tliem in their nesits. They often 
L-arry the graiaM many feet or yards away, along 
wcll-lw-aten r<ntd», which cross each other in every 
direction from the heapsof jrrain. Similar fact* have 
been observed in the warmer parts of Europe and 
in India. Tho Mishna lays down rulei in regard 
to the ownership of grain so stored. Maimoni<lea 
has diBcuseed the question as to whether it belongs 
to the owners of the land or to gleaners, deciding 
In favour of tho latter. The ants, however, riitlcr 
from hiiu, and are of opinion that the stoi-e belongs 
to themselves. I am assured by native peaaanta, 
well qualified to knew, that th(< anfj^ eat the grain 
during tho season of non-prmluction. After the 
lirat rains, the ants bring out their larvie and the 
stored grains to l>e sunned. Indian ants do the 
aamo. Many of these grains are more or lesa 
gnawe*!, or the edible ports entirely consumed. 
It wan the opinion of .Xldrovandns and others of 
Che ancient*, conHrmed by Iho French Academy 


(Addison's Guardian, lo6, 157) and of N. Plache 
{NcUum disfd. i. 1:28), that the a.Qtfi systomatiutily 
bit off tlie head of the grain to prevent ita germina- 
tion. I thiuk it iinneuBHsary to asoriba to the antH 
to luuoli i»t4.-tli^'ence •■ would be implied in this 
extraonlinary mejumre, but it is no way iuiprub- 
able that the head would l>e the first part attacked, 
■a it is the ftofteat portion of the grain, and the 
moct accc^btc, being nDco\*crcd by the silicioos 
i'nvvh)j)c, IL1 wt>ll afl the swefitoHt tnorite] of the 
whole. I.ubbuck ttillt) us of a Texan ant llmt 
clean disks, 10 or 12 feet in diameter, round the 
entrance to ita neat, to allow certain grains kuo'A'n 
OS ant-ricc, and no others, to grow there. 

Thus the ania 'are exceeding vriac.' Many of 
their nests also are inarvclK of con5itruction, m>me 
oompoeed of gallorieM and cliamhent uuderground, 
9ome built in the form of mounds or huts above 
the surface. These are grouped in towns, con- 
nected by surface road*, sometimes arched over 
at pl»4*ps and by underground tnnncU. No less 
than 5S4 species of insects are found in association 
with ants, serving them in various vayn, aomo 
obvious, others not clear. liut that they arc 
tolerated by thr aiitn for reaiamH known to Ihetn- 
telves is shown by the fact that aat« will iiuuie- 
diately attack and drive out or kill any living 
cmtures which they do not like. Many of the 
iiuecte furnish some form of food, as in the com 
of the aphides. Ollicrs rid the ants of parantea. 
Others teem to be congeuioi to them fur reaaona 
yet to be studied. 

In adilition to these insecta, not of their own 
famil}', ants make slaves of other antA. This i.<t 
not done by the capture of R<iult prisoncn, hut by 
rniils organised for the pnrpOise of stealing th«> 
eggs, larvie, and pup«? trom the nests of other 
ipeeica. These infant captivca ore taken to the 
nests of their nbductors, and raised aa alaveB. 
Tliese felaves do all or moat of the doiucatio work 
of their mn-stem, who reserve thenweives for the 
noble art of war. 

Ants also have accurate methods of divi^iion of 
labour. To the younger ones are as-signed some of 
the lighter tasks, while the oUer ones engage in 
the more serious and laliorions work. In some 
oSBea individuals are apijointed to oolloct honey 
azid stor« it in large sacs in their bodies, to Ik 
diitributed to their idle masters, who do not 
tronble thenutelves to leave their neats. 

Lubbock tbos sums up the evidence that ants 
'are exceeding wise': 'The anthropoid apes no 
doubt approaeh nearer to man in bodlty xtniuture 
than do other animals, but when we rxtnxider the 
ttahita of ants, their social orgaoiaatiou, their largo 
oomniunitieis and elaborate babitationn, their roud- 
vays, their i>OBsession of domcstio animals, and 
even, in some oaaes, of slaves, it must be udrniLU^^I 
that they have a fair claim to rank next to man in 
tlia Mftle of intelligence.* G. E. Post. 


AKTHOTHIJAH (n;oh;y, AV Antothljah).— A 
man of Benjamin ( 1 Ch 8"). See Gexealooy. 


BANaS. — See LedaiTON. 

AHTIOCH CArriAxeio}.— In Svria, under the 
Seleupidt. there apficar to have been at least five 
{ilaoea which at one time or another enjoyed this 
title : Hippoa on the hills above the E. Hhofe of the 
Lake of Galilee ("A. ^ rf>6% "Imr.^), Omlara (cf. 
Stephanns, JJe Urbitut; Keland, Pal. 774), Gerasa 
\m. £. GiJead ('A. ^ »^At t^ Xpwopi^], all of them in 

the Decapulis, and perliape tXso Aoco or Ftolemais 
(Head, Hist. A'um. 07i); hut Uie Antio<:h in 
Syria was A. on the Orontea, distinguislied as 
'A. 1} Tf»At, or ^1, Ai^^it, and entitled ftifrpianMt 
(ib. «56). 

Under an Eastern people like the Arabs, the 
natural capital of Syria is Damascus, on the borders 
of the Arabian desert. But when the Grooka poured 
Into the land after Alcjcander, it was inevitable 
that they idiuuld ehlAitlish the centre of their £«rern- 
jueiit nearer liio Muliterran(fan and Asla^lioor. 
Accurdingly, when the t?elcucid Empire was 
founded, beleuuus Nikator (Jos. c. Apton, ii. -1) 
selected a site 120 stadia from the sea (Strabo, 
xvi.), where the Orontes, uow £l-'Asi, and the 
great roa<U from the Euphrates and Cuele-Syria 
break the loug Syrian raDKO and debouch upon the 
cooMtk The projet.-teil Euplirates* Levant raUway i* 
to pasn by the aame way. Tiic valley is tolerauly 
wide, and both fair and fertile. The city waa 
built partly on an inland in the river, but mostly 
on the N. bank of the latter, and up the slopes of 
ML Silpius. By the time of Antioclius Kpiphanea 
(175 D.O.) it consisted of four quarters [rtrpdwoXix, 
Strnlm], divided by the long cotumn«il iitret'.t> 
which waa a feature of every Greek city in Syria, 
and by a second which cat tins obliquely. Temples 
and other large public buildings were erectett from 
time to time by the Scleucida and their lloman 
Boooeaaors. Daphne waa a neighbouring grove 
sacred to Ai)ollo (Jos. Ant. xvii. li. 1 ; Pliny, JIN 
V. 18; 2 Mac 4"). Under tlio Seleucida the city 
develoiKsd a mi.\ed populace, essentially fickle and 
turbulent, who fre<(uenLty nwcagainttt thtiir rulcra. 
There were Jews in Antioch from the time of its 
foundation, for Selencus Nikator gave them the 
rights of citizenship (Jos. Ant. xti. iii. 1). Many 
others must have fled or been carried captive to A. 
during tlie Mnccabisan period (i6. Xii. Xlil. nfmsim). 
The Antiochenes expelled AJexander HaluA, and 
uireretl the crown to Ptolemy Philometor, who. 
however, persuaded them to receive Demetrius 
Nikator [ib. Xlli. iv. 7 ; but cf. I Mac IP"). They 
besieged the latter in his palace ; but with the 
help of Juuatban Maccabotua and 3000 Jews he 
regained the city, yet soon after was obliged to 
yield it to Alexander'^ sou Antiochus aud his 
general Tryphon {Ant. Xlll. v. 3 ; 1 Mac lI""-). 
Under the Selencids A. remained till Ii.C. S3, when 
it was taken by Tigrnnes of Armenia. When 
Pompey overthrow the latter, he made A. a free 
city, and it became the seat of the Prefect, and 
capital of the Rom. province of Syria. M. Antonius 
oruered the citizens to relea^te all the Jews whom 
they had enslaved, and restore to them their [ws- 
seoeions (^n/. XIV. xii. 6). When Puni|»cy fell, A. 
sided with Caesar, and after Actium with Augustus. 
Doth of the latter, as ncll as IIero<i the Great 
{Ant. XVI. V. 3} and Tiberius, ciubellinhcd the town 
with theatres, ballut, and ittreeta. The harbour 
of A. M'as Siilcucia. The [>opulation waa very 
vigorous. They revolted several times against 
Rome : and after the disastrous earth(|uakefl of 
A.D. 37 and subsequent years thpyquiukly retttured 
the town. Art and literature were cultivated m> 
OS to draw the praise of Cicero ; but with the 
energy and brilliance of this people there wtLS 
ever mixed a noiorioiis insolence and scurrility. 
A large number of Humaus settled in A., and 
the Jewish community speedily crew in numlwrs 
and in intiucuce with the rest of the inhabitant« 
(Jos. BJ II. xviit. 5), who protected them in the 
iirist Jewish revolt against Rome, but afterwards 
displayed a bitter hate against them [tb. vn. 
v. 2(. 

It was when A. was filled with these rich and 
varied elements of life — Joaephos calls her the 
third city of tlie Empire, next to Rome and AJex* 




andria {DJ ill. u. 4) — that she entered the history 
of Chriiitinjiity. ADtio«h«&n Jews and proselyte 
Greeks mujst have come under the inAiience of the 
mKwtlt's' ininiatrv ia Jonia. Nicutiia 'a proitlyte 
ol A.' was oin; of llift neven di'fi<'on.^ [ AcO^). I'jion I lie 
[lenu^'culum that aroHU about 8U-phen, the diftdplefl 
were scnttered as far north as A. (Ao 11""), and 
omoDc^ theiQ Buiue men of Cypmc and Cyrene, 
who bo^an to preach to Greeks (many ancient 
authorities give ' Grecian Jews,' but surely Grueks 
arc ucout, — for uthenvii^e the diKtinctiun made 
l>etvi'ei>n the Cy|»riiitf.s ami Cyn^nians anrj tJie 
other prcaclier^ in U*' ia nioanirifilev*}. To them 
at A. the Church at Jems, sent Barnabas, who, 
after seeing the aittiation, went ami fetched Paul 
tliither from Targns. For a year they worked to- 
gether in the church, teaching ; ' and the disciples 
were called Chriatiana first in A.' The wit 
of the place was alwaya famous for giving 
namcfl. I'rophetfl arrived from Jerus. predicting a 
famine ; and wheu this camH to jhuw, tlie Church of 
A. provHii onne more the vigour of the population 
from which it was drawn, hv sending anpplicB 
to Jerus. hy tho hands of iJBrnabas and Sanl 
iib. '^■*'). These returned to A., and aft«r their 
ministry ' in tlw churdi ' they were sent forth by 
the port of Seleucia to Cypnm on Paul's first great 
miBcdonory journey {13') ; and from this to A. they 
returned, with their rej»ort of faith among tlic 
Gentile* (W"-). When Jew* came down to teach 
the neceBMily of circumcision for tho latter, the 
Church nt A. «?nt Uamaha* and Foul to Jenu. to 
claim for them freedom from tho law (I5"'-}; and 
a dopulation from Jenw. retuni«i with tlie two 
ambassadors (!.'>="''-). After ministering for a tiraii? 
in A., Paul and liamaluu Bet fortb on their 
secouu joiiriM-y hy the Cilicinn galea (Ramfuiy) to 
l.yHtroUS**): Poul returned (IS*") ; and A. was the 
Htflxting-point of his tliird journey (lA.*). which 
also was taken into Asia Minor, by the Syrian and 
Cilician gates, one great line of tho mlvanee- 
ment of Chriftiauilv wcrtward. A. was not only 
the first Gentile Cfiurch. Imt may be called the 
mother of all the rent. This pre-eminence she ooa- 
tin ued to enjoy ; for tt was probably her miMaonary 
originality, ralher than tho trotlilion which made 
Peler her bishop for two years (uf. Gal 2"), 
lliat gave her Patriarch precedence of thow of 
Kome, Constantinople, Jema., and Alexandria. 
A. was the birthplace of Araimianus Marccllinus, 
John Chry&ORtom, and Evngriun. As long oa she 
remained part of an empire with its centre in 
Kurope, A. i.-onliijued the virtual capital of Syria. 
WhRO the Arabs c&me, alic, the city of the I^vant^ 
yielded to the city of tho Denert ; mui though 
with the Crusailers eha became once mon; the pivot 
of the West in Its bearing on Syria, and the centre 
of the Principality of A. (from Taurus to Naiir-el- 
Kebir}, she lell away again when they left, and 

Sive up to I>!uiiai'cus even her Christian Patriarch, 
ow Antaki (Turkifilil, or Anta,kiyob (Arab.), she 
is a meagre to«-n of GOUO inhaMtanta. Besides the 
roinii of Justinian's wall there are no ancient 
remains of importance. 

LiTiaATnU[.-<B«ldM the uwient ftuthoritiu nlwrndr olted). 
RtUjid, PolittluuL, naff., wh^rc Jen.iiic*» error, tliat A. vnw 
H«naUi (Comm. on Aihm OJi. ..r Ribl.-»b {Vomm. on Exbk. iTh 
iaiUteduKlopnoMHj; O. O. Mfillw. AiUiovitatet AiUiochma 
(pMiafftn, 1SW>; Nari«, Anmu H fpooAn a>renwwrfoniim: 
Olbtwn And Hommani. jMunm: BdiQrw, BJP 1. I. W7. II. 
fOirim : VMtou* IWMof St Pml. is»p. Con.vbcai» »nd Ilo«*^.n« ; 
LBWin, Fatii .foeri. ptufim ; UaniMv. Church in tJtf Jtom. Emp. 
du. H.-Tlt. xvl. On A. nndiT tli<- Mo*lemi. «« th« <-xttwfB 
frpni Ai«b. gcotfiwtheim la Quy I>- Str*nco, I'aif^int vnder tAe 
Xatbm*, m>. M.-r?. On the A. of th« Crrwdcn. Rev. 
Cotonita FniuffM de Syrie <ii«Jt M,ne rt ISint titcUa; cf. 
alw BwjMnln of Tudela's TratxU. A.a lira, ajiri n^rtnndurv 
de la Drocqulirt'B In liSS; nod on th« modem city, bdc 
Oic-nriL-y, Kuphratn SasptdUtOHi MmI Oeoim tbnith. Auvrian 
DiMCOv^ria. ^ j^ SMITH. 

ANTIOCH IN F16IDIA ('Am6xc4a n«ri5(a, hidtq 
correctly rendered ' Pisidian Antioch ') is dehned 
by Strabo (pp. 569, 557, 677) a* a city of 
Piirygia towaids or near Pisidia. It waa prob- 
ably c)ne of tlie .sixteen Antioclw foiiiided by 
SthmruM Nikator (301-380 ; Appian, Si/r. 57), and 
named after his father. The inhabitants claimed 
to be oolonista from Magnesia on the Mniander ; 
but troditionB cloiininf' Greek origin for Phrygian 
cities were fashiuuable and untrustworthy. In 
190 n.C. it was declared free by the Uomaus ; and 
its history is unknown until in 30 D.C. it was made 
by AntouT ]>art of the kingdom of Amyntas (aa 
we le^rn ?rom Appian, Civ. v. 75, cf. mrabo, p. 
5G9) i on whose death in 25 it passed into Rom. 
hands as part of the provincw Galatia. At 
some time earlier than 6 B.C. ICIL iii. D974] 
Augustus mado it a eohnin with Latin rights 
(Digest, fiU. 15. U, 10) with the name CtBsarcia 
Antiocheia, the admin ii4trative centre of the 
aoutheni half of the pronnce, and the milit&ry 
centre of a series of eolunia ( Lystrn, Parlais, 
Cremna, Comama, Olbom) foiimlwf to defend the 
province against the unruly and danjierous Pisidi- 
ans in the fastn&sses of tho Taurus mountains. 
The region or district to which .^Vntioch belonged 
is colled Phrygia hy Strabo (and also tn Ao 16* 
18**, according to the South-Galatian theory, hold 
by some scholari, fUsputed by others). Pisidiaa 
Phrygia by Ptolemy v., 5. 4, Pisidia hv Ptolemy v., 
-t. 11, and hy Inter authorilie«<, snowing that 
fO'adually that partof Phrygia, which was included 
m tho province Galatia and spparateti from the 
great moss of Phrj-gia (which wai part of the 
province Asia), was merged in Pisidia. Thus the 
name Antioch toward.*! Pisidia (Strabo, A.l». 19), or 
I'isidiiLn Antioch [to diatinguiKJi it from Antioch 
rui the Mu-undcr or Carinn AntiochJ, K«ve place to 
the name Antioch of l'iRidia(PtoIoniv v., 4. 11, and 
some MSS. of Ac 13^'). The inlluence of the 
preaching of Paul and Barnabas in Antioch radi- 
ated over the whole repon connected politically with 
the city (Ac 13*). Antioch (as Arundel Jiecovered) 
is situated aliuut 2 miles £. from Valowatch 
on tho skirts of the long ridge called Sultac-Dagh, 
in a strong situation, about 3600 ft. above sea- 
level, overlooking a large and fertile plain, which 
stretches away S.E. to the Limnai (Egenlir 
hake), and is drained by the river Antliios. The 
ruins, whieli arc impressive and of great extent, 
have never as yet been carefully examined. An- 
tioch was n great seat of the worship of Men 
Askafin^ ; but tlie large estates and numerous 
temple -slaves nUed by the priesUi were eonti.-M!at«d 
by the Romans. Jewish colonist'* were always 
favoured by the Scleucid king^, who found them 
good and tniety supporters; many thoiisands of 
Jews were settled iu tho cities of Phrygia (Joa. 
Ant. XII. iii.f.: Cicero, pro fUtfco, 28. Gtt-8); 
ami a s^'nagogue at Antioch is mentioned Ac I3>*. 
The innuuuce ascribed to the ladies of Antioch (Ac 
13**) is characteristic of Phrygia and Asia Minor 
gpnerally, whi^ro wonum enjoyed great considera- 
tion, and often held otliee in the cities (see I'arla, 
Quatcnua feminte tea pmblicaa attigertnt, 1891). 

LrmuTTini.— AntinohliiflMirrthMl hr Anuulel, iMaosMriaifa 
At. Hin. L B81f.. snil bj- HuiUton. iUteanAn it^ At. Mbi. ). 
4?2f, ; tr* iilw lUmnT, C'Aw«A in Horn, titnp. pp. S&-3&, St. 

I'avi. pp. TO-KTi : itiMlvtiuBto Krliclv* iti Pnuly-l* ksows, Sntf 
clnji. , itnil mXhtyr a^ns[rsk\i\\lra,\ iliotiitimnMi : nuny innnrljiiwoa in 
atcrrttt, Epiffruj'hie Joumfft in Af. Jtfi'n. p. laifl., 1to(f« E»- 
jmitition in At, Min. p. SlSft. : Kilter, lirdkuntt* von Atifn^ 
xxL p. 469, oollccto iJl tha ou-lier MXxninU ci( tniTellera. 8m 
thfl»rtteteonCALiTU. Vf, M. KaUSAY. 

ANTIOCHIAWS {'Aruaxt't, 2 Jfac 4>'").— The 
efforts of Antiochus Epiphanes to spread Gr. 
culture ami Gr. cdwtoma throughout his dominions 
wore diligently furthered by a sectiou of the Jews. 



The lender of this HeUeaizing party, Jaaon. brotliur 
of Uitf high priext Onia8 ill., ufTered & lar^e sum 
of money to AntinrhnA to imiiiut! the kmc to 
transfer the hiu:h prie^thooil to himself, ami ruon^ 
with certain other favmim to allow thn inhnliitAnt-s 
of Jerasalcni * to be enroUod aa Antiocliiaiii*,' that 
is, to gnuit them the titles and privUe^ca of 
citueuH of Antiorli. What was the preciM natare 
of tfaedesirutl privih;^L'« wudo not kiioM-. Antiuthiu 
ftcoeded to the pro[>oiial of <1aM>ii, and Btiortly nft^r- 
vards a Jiartv of ' Antiochiuni^' frutii Ji:ru»aluii) 
waa sent by him as a sacre^l dcpntntion. to <x>nvcy 
a contribauoD of money for the festival of Heracles 

at 1^ H. A. Wamt 

ANTIOCHIS CAmaxit, 2 Mac 4"'). a concubine 
of Aniiu<-hii!i Hpiphaiii.'»i, vlto, in aocor<laiu-e with 
an old Urivntaf ciutom, aflugned to her for her 
maintenance the rerenaes or the two Cilician 
cities, Tannis and Malluis. This grant tmvo rise 
to diaturbanoee amoni; the inliahitanta of the two 
cities, but we are not told what means were taken 
by Anlioctiui) to allay tlieir discontent. 

II. A. Whitk. 

IHTIOCHUS CKyrioxof, I Mac J2"« 14^ ; cf. Jos. 
Ant, XIII. V. 8), tin: fatliur of Nunieuiun, who was 
one of the envoys «eut (c. 144 D.C.] by Jormtluin the 
Maocabee to renew the covenant made bv Jitilfu 
with the Romann, and to eater into friontlty rula- 
tionttwith the Spartans. H. A- WhiTK. 

AMTIOCHUS I. {'\rrloxot, 'tho opposor"). sur- 
nnmod Soter, 'deliverer,' was bom U.c. 324, Hon of 
of Scleucuit Nikiitur and of Aimiiia, a ]>rincLt(M uf 
So^diaoa. He («uc<-eeded hiit latbcr (B.C. 280) on 
the throne of Syria, but duriiij^' the nineteen yearH 
of his reii^ was concemtxl chiclly with thu prose- 
cation oi hi» claims to the throne of MafX'Oontn, 
vith the miiintcnonce of his empire against Kelt** 
nnd ea-Hteiu revolts, and with the repression of 
tlic Uuutii who hod settled in Asia Minor. Uc M-as 
alain by one of the hitt^ir in l»attle (ac. 261). Thu 
pOMsesnun of Co-lt*'Syria was a ntatter of disputu 
iictween Iiliil and Ftoleiny l*hil&delphut((Ut Syrian 
War), bnt it reniiiinwl ondtT the wivenupity of the 
latter, and the S. diitrivta do not Hiii)eHr to have 
been invaded by Antioohaa. It. W. Moss. 

ANTIOCHQa II. (Htirnumnl TIih^m;, 'a god') 
BUcceede>l Iiih fiither, A. I,, an kinu of f?yria in I).c. 
SOI. His kingdom was invuile<T soon afl(?r Iiih 
accession by the ^onernlB of rtolemj rhilailelphus 
(2nd Syrian War), who occupied Wveral of^ the- 
principal towns on the coast of Asia Minor. Peace 
waA conelnded (D.u. 250), prolxibly ou condition 
that A. should put away his wife Xaodice, ititurry 
ileronioe, daujjliter of iHolemy, and tninsfer the 
succusflion to her i^sue (Athen. iL 45). In a short 
time either Laodice was rec-alled, or A. endeavoured 
to reconcile her; hut, in niistrust or revenue for 
the insult (tawu^d ujion luT, she plotted Oj^ainst A., 
caused him (ac. 21tl| to he poisoned and Berenice's 
infant to be put to dt'ath, and Recureil the throiiL' 
lor her son Stdeiicus (Auji, ^i/r. 6o; Justin, xxvii. I ; 
Val. Max. ix. 14. 1). There are ttiumg evidences 
that A. omferrL-d uixm .several citie-** of A»ia Minor 
a dcnioomtic com^tiiution and the rights of auto- 
nomy. >liA immainc wa» given him by the Milt^-?- 
ians in iirratitude for hie victory over their tyrant 
Timarchus <App. Syr. Go). The Jews in "thcso 
cities, and notiiblv in Ephesns, shared in these 
right) of cittzonCliip ; and this was the ca^M-, 
both in the arrangement of cities rebiult doriii}; 
the Hellenic age, and in the reorganisation of 
older citiea efTect'ed rliiefly hy A. II. See Arrian, 
i. 17. 10 and 18. 2; Jos. Ani. xu. iii. 2: Apitm. ii. 
4 ; DilleuK'rjrer, SyUoge fnscript. Grac. nn. IGO, 
171. Dn 11' b traditioiuLlly interpreted, of Anti- 

ocltus (Jerome, ad iJan. \\% bat the latter pari of 
the vcr.40 is almost hoi)oleeiely oormpt. 

K. W. Mosa. 
ANTIOdHUS III. (*the Great') vc&a the Hon of 
St'lfnirrua KalliniiTUH (n.C. 248-'.!;2fl), and Kuw-efMled 
to the throne of S^Tia on the death of hU brother, 
Selencus Keraunus (ac. 223). luimetliatelj; after 
Ilia acisessiou he made war upon Egypt ; and in two 
suocoBsivc campaigus he li^ his army as far as 
Dora, a few mile^ to the N. of Ciesarca. A truce 
KusjiendecL huHlilities for a lime (Polyb. v. 60; 
Justin, XXX. I, 2), during which he put down 
Molo's rebellion in Media. In B.C. 21S he again 
drove the Egyp. foroes southwards, and himself 
wintered at Ptolemais ; but the next year he wan 
completely defeated at Itaphia [Folvb. v. 51-87; 
StraM>, xrL 759), near Ciaza, and left l*toIemy 
Phitopator in undiflpute^l possession of Ckele-Syria 
and Phoenicia, The following yearn he 8^«nt in 
warfare againul AcIiuju-h, whom he took in D.C. 
214, and in Farthia and Bactria, where his sao- 
cesses gained for him his surname. But on 
Ptolemy's death, in ac. 204, he formed an alliance 
with Pftilip of Macodon for the jiartttion of Egypt 
between the two i*owera (Liv. xxxi. 14). In Judiea 
ho found a party among the Jews alii;nat«d from 
Kgypt, and with llieir hi;lp ho extendctl his king- 
dom to the Sinaitic peninsula. But an invasion 
uf his dominiomt by Attalus, king of Purgamutt, 
checked his farther progress; and in his absenre 
Scopas, an Kgyp. general, overran Judiea, and 
recovered the lost territories. A. hastened to 
oppose him, and at Paneas (Ilttynoi', a grotto uf 
ran, whirh gave itR nniae to the district), near the 
Hource of the Jordan, puned a decisive victory 
(D.c. ](Hi), M'hich mmJo him a^a master of all 
Pal. (PolyU Xvi. IS, XXviiL 1 ; Liv. xxx. 19; Jos. 
.4 nt, XII. iii. 3). Judiea was thus tinally connected 
with the Seleucid dynasty. Syrian trrparrrroi, or 
military governors, were apiKuntcd ; and regular 
taxes were iin[iosed, and leased to contractors in 
the sevwral towns. A. f urt her guamntee<l the 
inviolability of the temple, and provideil by ample 
grants for the [K-Tformance of its services (Jo)«. 
Ant. XII. iii. 4). With a view to pacify Lydia and 
i'hrj-gia, he sent there 2000 Jewi'sh families 
from Mesopotamia with grants of land and ini- 
mnnity from taxation. The intervention of the 
Koinitns prpventcil any furthi^r rxpttilition agaimit 
Kgvpt: ami a treaty wa» ma<le hy which Ptolemy 
Epiphanes took in marriage A-'s daughter Cleo- 
}>Htr&, who was promised as her dower the three 
prox-iuces of Ccele-Syria, Phcenicia, and Pal. {Pol.yb. 
xxviii. 17 ; App. .Syr. 0; Liv. xxxv, 13; Jos. Ant. 
XII. iv. 1). The transfer of the provinces thcm- 
^elvca npijeora nut to havr taken place, though the 
<)ueen for a time shared in their revenue. Judjea 
was prolmhly ofwu]iied l>y Syrian nnd Egj-p. i^arri- 
sons side by side ; and the people were Kulijected 
to a twofold tyranny. A. retained tlie nominal 
sovereignly; but in ac IM he left Pal. in order to 
rondnct an expedition against Asia Minor (Liv, 
vxxiii. 19), and Ixranir'. involved in a long war with 
Hume. IIu was tinally dt-fuuliMl iu the battlt: of 
Magnesia (D.C. 100), and three years later was 
kille<i in nn insurrection at Elvmais. Dn 11"'* is 
traditionally interpreted of him, and he is men- 
tioned in 1 Mac 1^* 8". The sUteraents in the 
latter passage should l>e compared with Ann. Syr. 
3ti nnd Liv. xxx\'ii. 44, 66. R, W. Moss. 

trious' : also named ^luari^t, ' miuliuftn,' Polvb. 
xxvi. 10 ; itiKfj^hfiot, ' victorious,' and Ot6t, on coins 
and in Jus. AiU. XU. v. fi), second son of A. the 
Great, was for 14 years a hostage at Rome, and, 
after exiwlling Helitnlonts, succeodwl his own 
brother Seleucus Philopator tn ac. 176. Hia 



policy vraa to spread Greek culture iTac Hist. v. S) 
chrout^h his dominions, and to knit the varioos 
IKK)|iI(ni into a compact ood BinBle-tmrpofleJ unity. 
£>oun aft'cr tu5 occvatiioa he won colled upou to 
settle a di»putu at Jcrius. between the higU priest 
Oniaa ill. and his brother Jason, tbe leader of the 
Hollcnixing parly. Uniaa wan driven from Jems. 
(2 Mac 4''*); ami Jasi>n Mcnred tbe lii^b priei^tLood 
by the pa\Tnent to the king of a large sum of 
money and the promise tharouybly to Hellt'nize 
the city {'2 Mac -t"-^*, 1 iMn« 1"^'"; Jos. Ant. Xll. 
V. 1). A. soon after visited the city in person, and 
was received with every mark of honour (2 Mac -1^). 
In B.C. 171 Jaxon 1VIU himself supplanted by 
MenelatlB, who otfered lar>,xr bribcH ; but thu next 
year he waa encouraged by & rumour of tlie kin;:'!* 
death in K;:ypt to b^iege Jems. {'2 Mac 5"). The 
tidinga ruudiud A. aa he was in the midst of his 
second jirofjMiions tauniMiign in Egypt, and at once, 
'in a hirioti» mind,' lie marchca against Jerus. 
The city was taken, many thousanda of the people 
were maasaered, and the i«mpto was robbed of lia 
tKOsnres (1 Mao !»■", 2 Mac 5"-" ; Joa. Ani. 
XII. V. 3; Apion. ii. 7). Philip, a Phrygian of 
spemally harbaroas temper (2 Mao 5"), was left 
Wirmii an governor of Jcrus., and A. proceeded 
with the spuiiri of the temple to Antioch. 

In B.C. lOS A. fwt out on hia last expedition 
against Kgypt, and wajt approaching Alexandria to 
besiege it when he received from the Komaius 
ppTcniptory orders to refrain from making war 
upon the Vtolemies (App. Stjr. 60 ; liv. xlv. 12 ; 
Pulyh. xxix. II; Justin, ixxiv. 3) Relnctantly 
he withdrew from Egj'ut, and vented his rage upon 
Jems, (see I>n 11*}. ApoUonins, one of the chief 
officers of revenue, was dutached with an army of 
22,000 men, with instrutJtions to exterminate the 
Jewish people and to colonise the city with LJreeka 
(2 Mac 6**, I iMac !**■»«). Availing himself of the 
Sabbath law, Apollonins chose that day fur entranou 
into Jems., and met with no elTcctivo resiHtance. 
The men were killed, except a few who took refuge 
with Judna Maccabaana in lUght, and the women 
and children sold into slavery. The city was set 
on fire, its walls thrown down, and their nmterials 
useii to fortify anew the old city of David, whivh 
thenceforth uninterruptedly for 26 years was 
occupied by a Syrian gairison. Menelaua ftill 
reiuained high priest, but it is difSoult to onder- 
Btond -what Tii« duties wore, as the daily sacrilicea 
are said to have ceased in the month of tiivon 

A dwrree was then promulgated by A. through- 
out hi« kingdom tlmt in religion, law, and tustum 
'all should be one people' [I Mac I*' ; Polyb. 
xxxviii. 18). In Judaea alone the edict aeems to 
have met with Rerions opposition. Accordingly 
th« obaer^'ance of the Saboath, circumclBion, and 
abstinence from unelwin food wore specifiDolly for- 
bidden ander the penalty of death. Upon the 
altar of hurut-oti'enng a smaller altar was built, 
and on the 25th of Chislev (Deo. ItlS) sacrilico waa 
offered upon it to the OljTBpio Zeus [1 Mac I**, 
2 Mac 6»: Jos. Ani. xu. v. 4: ace Dn 11". The 
phrase in Dn, c?W? j-'^b^ may have other refer- 
once, and is not witiiout lingui-stic difliciUty ; but 
its oldeat interpretation, in the LXX, is ^i4\vytta. 
/pijtuiatm, which exactly agrees with the cxpreaaion 
in 1 Mac l**>. The courta, too, of the temple were 
polluted by indecent orgies. At the same time the 
worship of Zeus Xenioa was instituted in tlm Sam. 
temple on Mt. Herizim. The festivals of Bacchus 
were introdiired into tho various towns, and the 
Jews compelled lo take part in them (2 Mac 
ff). A monthly search was maile (I Mac 1"); and 
tlie iw>fW('ssiuii 'of a cony of tlic l>ook of the law 
waa imnicliable by dcatli. Similar nuausurfji wltu 
tikkeu in all the cities frequented by the Jews in 

the Syrian kingdom, and even in Egypt (2 Mao 
A'-'). Tho eitect upon the better Jews was to 
arouse a spirit of heroism, which tdiowud itaelf at 
first only in an inflexible rcfuiud to renounco 
Judaism. 'They chose to die . . . and they died' 
(1 Mac !■») ; and 2 Mac 6"-7" records with licence 
certain instances which arc further claboratod in 
4 Mac, and of which Philo makes use in Quott 
omnis prob. lib, § 13 (Mang. ii. 450). Open reost- 
ance occurred firat at Modin {JAuittp or M«<Sfe(M). 
a mountain village E. of 1-ydda and N.W. of Jerus. 
When tbe king's coiumiHHiuuer csune to see that 
the edict uas obeyed, Mattathias, the head of the 

Iiriestly Ha«munjpan family, refuw>d compliance, 
Lilled the officer, and fled lo the hills (I Mao a^*"; 
Jos. Ant. XU. vi. 2: a tradition ascribes the first 
rising to an outnigo attempted upon a Jewish 
bride). His examptu wa» iuuLatiHl by many otliers 
(I Mac 2'*) ; but a great slaughter of Ihcm took 
place through their n^fo.vil to dt-fend ihemselvejs on 
a Sabbath (1 Mao 2""). Mattathiaa i>er8i:aded 
his followers that the law of tbe Sablmtu did not 
ovurridu the right of defence, and was joined by 
many of the jVsitUeans {'AffiSaZtn, DTKJ Pasidimi. 
liis bands trover&ed the country, harassing tho 
Syrians with a guerilla warfare, everywhere do* 
Btroylng tho symbols of idolatry (I Mac 2**^). 

Towards the end of B.C. 167 Mattathias died, 
and WHS surcmiled in the military chieftainship of 
bis party by lus non Judos Maccalucns {wh. sec). 
After pUTHumg for a time with invariable success 
bia father's practice vi cuttiriK oil xmall companies 
of the enemy by>, Jmlas found his 
followers stronvr and expert enough to be tmsled in 
larger ent4:ri)riHi!M, In Lurn he routed an army of 
.Syrians and Samaritans under the eommand of 
Apollonius, and a greater host at Itethhoron under 
Seron, tho general of Coole-Syria (1 Mac S"*"** ; Jos. 
Ant. XII. vii, I). When news of tho revolt of Judn^a 
reached A., ho hiiD^lf was obliged to sot out upon 
an expedition into Puithia and Armenia, where 
im^umuiLion was spreading and tlie taxea were 
withheld (Tac. fflst. v. 8; App. St/r. 45; Muller, 
Frtigm. ii. 10). But he left Lysios behind, as 
regent and guardian of his sun, with orders to 
deix»pulateJHdiea,(lMBo3"'*''; Jos. ^n^ xu. vii.2). 
Ly^iaA at once despatched a large hotly of troops 
under tho command of Ptoluioy, NicAuor, and 
Oorgias ; and with them came merchanta to 
purchase tho expecte<l Jewish nlaves (I Mac S**^'). 
At Kmmau«{'E/i^cioit^ the modem Amw&s), Jndos 
inflicted so signal a defeat upon Gorgias that the 
Syrian troops fled out of the country {i Mac 4*'). 
In u.c. 165 Lysiaa in person led a still larger army 
against Judas, bat was completely dereated at 
Btithzur ( I Mao 4*^ ; Jos. Ant. XU. vli. 6). Judas 
regained posseasion of the entire country exixtpt 
the citadel in Jems., and on the 25tli of ChiMev 
tlie daily socriflces were restored (1 Mai! 4°', 2 Mao 
10* : Jos. Ant. XII. viL 6 and 7; Middoth, i. 6; 
MeaiUnth Tannifh, U 17, 20, 23). Meanwhile A- 
tiau been bafQcd in an attempt to plunder in 
Elymois (1 Mac iP) the temple of Nauaia ('the 
desire of women,' Dn II**, identified with Artemin, 
Polyb. xxxi. 11; with Aphrnditt*, Apj). Syr. 60; 
or more probaldy with Adonis or Tanimuz), lt« 
retired to Hnhylon, and thence to TalKu in Peraio, 
where ho became mad and died (n.c. I6-J). 

LiTKBATCSi.— Liv. xU.-x]v.; Polyb. uvL-xxxL; Km. Syr. 4S, 
60; Jiiitin, xxiv. 3, are the prlnoim eiutlcftl kuibonttoa. Dd 
ll«'iii |g |^.|ii>r«]|y iiitciprvtfd nt A. iv. (Jerome, «d Dan. a. U), 
■ml hn U «iii>]KNM>(I to havr liMti In thv Ihoucht t>l Ui« writer of 
It«v 13>. Trio UMillaiA AntiiK^Ata Is l^jfeDdtrr, poat-IUmudie 
in (Utv, KTul of liiUe worlti u hUtoTy. Derenbourie, titit. 
!>9-^, oxtnu-ta Iron) Ui-jiUuth TartnUk, wlilch, with I iu)d I 
Mac wid Jus. AnL zii. v., la Uie ualy Jewlih Murre of va]ii& 

R. W. Moss. 
ANTIOCHUB V. (Ei^iraVw/), 'bom of a noble 
father ') succoedod hia father, A. Epipbanes, in 




B.C. 104, at the ftge of (App. Hyr. 4tl, M) or 
of 11 (£aiH:li. t'Krvn. Arvt. i. 348) yeara. lipiph. 
tuul appointed IiU fuster-brother {2 Mac Q=") Fhilip 
1L1 hin Mn'n ffu&nluui (1 Mae 6^ " ; Ju^ A nt. xil. 
ix. 2) J but Ly«a«, tlie govemor of the provmces 
from the Eiiphrates to Ef^ypt, aMiamed tliut 
fanctfon (1 Mac 3**). In B.C. 163 Lysiaa nnd A. 
led an oxpedition to the relief of Jems., which wud 
being besieged by Judas Moccah. (1 Mac 0"^; Jos. 
Ant. xn. ix. 3). The aruies met at Bcthzachari&a, 
Kitne 9 miles to the N, of llcthsura (U«thzur), 
where Judas wan dufciitetl (Jns. Ant. XII. \\. 4; 
Wars, I. i. 6 ; 1 Mac 6"). [2 Mac IS'"- '^ on the other 
hand, tepresents Jadas as victoriotut, but ia cloirly 
unhifltoncal.] A. took Bethsnra, and proceedcil 
to lay siege to Jcnia. Within the city scarcity of 
food wae soon felt, as the year was a Sabbatical 
one (1 Mac fi'*); and news that Philip was 
npprottching Antioch was received by the besiecers. 
Peace wa^ made on the cnnditton that the Jenfl 
shoahl be luft undisturbed in their national 
cufttoms (1 Mao »>*•, 2 Mac 13*}; but A. violated 
this coadttiou by destroying the city fortUieatiotie 
ond imprisoaing tlie high priest (1 Mao 6*^; Jos. 
Ant. XU. ix. 7). Philip was conquered with ease at 
Antioch ; but in B.C. J(j2 A. himself was betrayed 
into the hands of bi» cousin, Demetrius Sotcr, and 
imt todeatli (1 Mao 7*. 2 Mac U^"; Joh. Ant. XU. 
X. 1: At'U. Nvr. 47; I'olyb. xxxi. 19; Vw. EnU.m). 

K. W. Mosa. 
ARTIOCHUS TT. (Rumameil 'Evi^oKfii iniwvaot on 
coini', but tfeAt in Jos. Ani. XlU. vii 1) wa>«. a son of 
Alexander Bala-s (App. Syr. GS) and CIeoi«atra. 
In B.C. 143, while stul a child, he was brouuht 
from Arabia, where he bml remained with nis 
father's captor, and set np by Diodotus {Tryphon, 
wh. see) as a claimant Lo the throne of bj'ria, 
then held by Demetrius Nikator. Tryphon eoourcii 
the support of the Sj-rian ^'enerals, axia of Jonathan 
iwli. see), who was appointed to the civil and 
eoolesiastical, tiiinon to the nuUt&ry, headship of 
Pill.: and A. was acknowIed^ed as kin;::; by the 
greater part of Syria. The succosa of Jonatlmn 
in aubduing the whole country from Tyre aiui 
Damaseos to K<^pt aroused the jealousy or the 
fear of Tryphon, who, by xtratiigBin, imprisoned 
and ufterwards put him to death (b.c. 143). The 
next year (or noflsibly later ; see Jos. Ant. Xill. 
vii. I ; 1 Mac !#' ; App. Syr. 67, ti8 ; Justin, xxxvi. 
] ; but the endcnce of coins is in favour of the 
earlier date) Tryphon procured the aKuasination of 
A. by Kurgt^imH (Lir. Kpit. 5.'3), aud assumed the 
crovm 01 !S. Syria in his stead. K, W, Moss. 

JUITIOCHUS TIT. (snmamed ^Hrytu from the 
place of his education, Side in Pamphylia, Euseb. 
Chron. Arm. i. 319; also tCctli^i in Joe. Ant. Xlll. 
rilL 2 ; and tAtpyi-rtft on coins) was the second son of 
I>emctrius Soter. In B.C. 138 he expelled Tryphon, 
and without further onposition obtained the throne 
of Syria. At lirist lie confirmed to Simon im- 
munili*.-«> |,rranted by former kin^«i, and adde^l the 
rijjlit of coining; money (I Mar lo^'") ; bnt after. 
wards demanded the surrender of the principal 
foitreaaea (1 Mac IS*"'). Simon refused to pive 
them np, and defeated the kin^^'s oHlcer CcDdehn>ii.<i 
(1 Mac 10'-": Joa. Ant. XUI. vii. 3). hi B.C. 13fi 
A. in persim led an anur into Judsca, and besiei,'e<l 
Jems. The siege lasted for many months, in the 
oooTBe of which A. sent sacrifices into the city at 
the Fea.'»t of Tabernacles {Jos. A nt. xilI. viii. 2), but 
allowed no provi«ion« to pftss his line*. Peace was 
at length made on termH which restored the Syrian 
■apremacy (Jos. Ant. Xill. viii. 3), without unduly 

firoTokin;: the intcn'cntion of Komo (16. XJIL ix. 2). 
n B.C. 120 Ilyrcanos (wh. sec) accompanied A. 
in an exiMnlitinn a£;ainflt the I'arrliinns, but tlie 
nail year the iduQ loll in battla with Araacea VIL 

(ib. XIII. viiL 4 ; App. Syr. 08; Justin, xxxviiL 10; 
Liv. £:pU. 55). 11. W. JIoss. 

ANTIPAS (Antipator).— See under Uerod. 

ANTIPAS ('Ayrlrail—Oniy mentioned in Rev 2", 
in the Kpistia to the Church of Pergumum, in the 
following terma : 'I know where thou dwellest, 
where the throne of Satan is ; and thou boldest my 
name, and didst not deny my faith, even (or and) 
in the dftya of Antipas (uomtnative), my witnejv*, 
(my) faithful one, who was slaiu amun^ you, 
where Satan dwclletti.' Some authorities in.sert 4y 
a/f ('in which') after Lhu word 'days' ; and two 
versions take the word AntiiMU as a verb, d^rtirat 
('thnii did.nt contradict'); but there is no pro- 
oabitity that this is corroot. WH think it not 
nnlikefy that 'Afrlra. in the f^en. should bo read. 

Various oll^orical interpretations of the name 
oro current, ono making A. the wtth<itander of 
all, and identifying htm with Timothy; another 
descending as low tia Ant.ipa.-t'^ Antipntio. Hut the 
name miu^t in all likelihood be Lhat of a real uian, 
aad is probably a shortened form of Antipatcr. 

AolimB doM not ooear ia ths UaU of the 70 diadsln 
rPiei»l-DoR>tfafli)8,8olonana(BanXl)ut AndrvsiaedAratus, 
th« GOnuiMntator* on tb« Apoctiyfma, fpo&k ot tuviag nwl the 
ftots of hii martrnlom. Theao sre to l>c found la the Acta 
SAnelarutt%, Auril It {A)iril, torn, il jtp. i. i, ukI HffQ. Th«y are 
rbetorlokl and Ul* In their nrawnt form, And sire na par- 
twuUn <4 tits isiiif* lile. Tnoy rvprewot him m iMliie out 
iiiUi ft heolad bimiea bull in ihe temple of Arwniia^ by nrder 
ota cumdowgovsniordunair IiaiaiUaa'BpeTMculioa. Hftvnu 
npp&rvnthr Bubop of Pemmun. Aooordfnv to on« Idnn of hit 
Ac-U (auoi«) br the BolwadMU from s S^aiaritm\ h« prayed 
thot tooM ninrlag (rom toottuKhs mhchl U rvlicrotl ftt hla 
tomb. The bull in wfalob ho fuffetwT wsa ibown »l Oon* 
BUntinojile <Cedrtiiiua, MO, »d. Vu.). In Uw Ethiu)tlo caleiul&r 
his dA.v la the leth of HiyasU. M. R. J AMfiS. 

AKTIPATER ('Airfrarpot).— A., son of Jason, was 
one of two ambaissadcTs sent by Jonathan to the 
Itomans and to the Spartans to renew ' the friend- 
ship aud the confodemcy * (I Mac 12'* 14^). 

J. A. SliLIlIK. 

ANTIPATRIS iWyrlTarpti). Ac 23".— A cit^ at 
the foot of the Judn-nn hills, on the ronit from 
Jerusalem to Oe«area; founded byHorod thcGrcat. 
The various notices of its iio-tition, in relation to 
places near, are fully explained by placing this 
city at the larpe mined iiionnd alxjvc the source 
of the '.'Vuiati liiver, north-en.'it of JaH'a. This site 
w now called lids el'Ain, 'the Bprint.;-he.a<i ' ; llio 
(ircek name having, as is usual in Palestine, been 
lust. Thn ruimi include the slivll of a lari^e medi- 
aeval castle, which is iirolHibly that called Mirabel 
in the 12th cent. Hor a full dtscus-tion of tills 
question, 9eeSiVPvo\. ii. sheet xlit, Jowphnshas 
been wrongly supposed to place Anti[<atris at 
Caphar Saba, farther north (Ant. Xill. xv. 1, 
XVI. V. S : Wars, t xxL 0). C. R. Coxdeu. 

ANOB Ocv).— A man of Judah (1 Ch 4>). See 

ANYlIi (DB9, a stroke, blow). — The word occurs 
with thiM meaning only in Is 41*. The au'vil of 
the East is a boot-shapeil piece of metal inserted 
in a section of oak or walnut log. larger or 
smaller, it is uncd by tiusmlths, shoemakers, Kilvcr- 
smiths, and blacksmiths. The det<cri])Mun of the 
mutal worker in la 41"'* ia one that might have 
Itcen taken from the Arab workshop of the present 
day. As the Oriental artisan ha» only a few simple 
tools at his command, his work lacks tho precision 
and uniformity attained in the West by elaborate 
machinery. Ilenco vivacious comment during the 
process of manufacture, and a feeling of triumph 
at times when the article turns out according to 
Mimple. The act. of wf.lding on the anvil, to wldch 
this prophet aUudee^ ia esp. a moment of noisy 




cntljusinjam and mntasJ enconrngement between 
the smith and his fellow-workman on the otticr 
side of the anvil. They then call oat to each other 
to fltriku more rapidly and vigoroiii^y, lie-fore tlitt 
metal cooIm, crying ^shuldl shidW \ the ArabJL' 
etiatvaleul of Isaiah's ' hnzak' \ 'be of good 
oours«e 1 ' Then the t«nn a]»plied to the soldenng 
— 'ioA*! Arab. '(at/j/iii'\ that is, 'good' I— is at once 
a call to cease from further hamnieriDg, and a 
declaration that the work ia sati»factory. 

G. M. Mackik. 
ANY. — I. lleing proliably composed of «rt one, 
and dim. cudiog y (old Kng. ifj), ' any ' meanH ' one 
al all,' 'one of whatever kind.' Of thix ori^. 
meaning gmxi exaimdw are Ph 4' 'Who will show 
ns any good ? ' 2 P 3* ' not willing that any should 
perifih.' 2. Any is not now nscd in the eing. with- 
out 'one,' ' more/ or the like, but we find Jor 23'* 
•Can any hide himself in «ecrct iilarfts that T Rhall 
not see hint ? ' lC/.k 7" ' neither bliall any utrenglheii 
himself; w> Zee 13", Jn S" etc. 3. Any thing as 
an adverb =:' at all,' *in any respect, is found 
2Cb9*"it (silver) was not any thing (RV 'was 
nothing') accounted of; Gal 5* 'neitlier eticuni- 
eision availeth any tiling' (RV 'anything'); Nu 
17" 'Whosoever Cometh any thiiiu near unto the 
(abemacle of the Lord fihall'die' (KV 'Every one 
that oometh near, that cometh near unlx> the tab. 
of the Lord, dieth'); and even (Ac '.iS'*) 'neither 
. . . have I offended any thing at all' (KV *hnvo 
I fiiuned at all'). <. Any ways— in any respect, 
mod. ' aiiywi(H\' occurs Lv '20* ' if the people oi the 
land do any nays hide their eyes from the man ' ; 
Nu 30'* ' iJf he sUail any ways make tlmm void ' 
(RV ' if he fthall make them null and void ') ; 2 Ch 
32". Cf. I'r. Dk. *A11 those whu are any ways 

aillk-tcd..* J. Hastings. 

APACE. — 'Apace meant fint of nil 'at a foot 
paoe,' »,<!. slowly. Dut before 1611 it had acquired 
the opp. meaning, *at a quick pace,' and in that 
sense only is it used in AV, It occur» 2 8 18" 
•And he came a.* (tSSti ii^:i): P» fifl" 'Kings of 
armies did flee a.' (piv p^T, RV ' flee, they iToe ') ; 
Jer 46* 'their mighty onpR . . . are fled a.' Also 
in P8 5S". Pr. Bk. (and RV, v.') ' like water that 
runnelh a.' ; and Sir 43'^ ' He makcth the tmow to 
fall a.' (nartiTireiv* xiifo). Cf. P« in Metre 92^— 

■ When those thftt lewd Mut wiokcd mn 

■rrtne quickly up tUce gnu. 
Ana woriwrv of iniquitjr 
do flourith aU aiwc*.^ 

'O&Uop AporCO. jrou florr-tDOtcd lUcdi. 

ShmiuL Kom. and Jul. Ul. 2. 1. 

*BbwI1 wcoti bar* irr»ce, stmt veadB Ho (rrow atioco.' 

KirK /i/.ll. 4.13. 

J. Ha-stinus. 
APAME (*Ard^»i).— Daughter of Uartacus, and 
OOncubinu of Darius I. ( 1 E^ 4*"). 

APES (c'cV, K'6phtm, vHIijkm, simiae). — Animals 
of the simian type, imported by rliH niHri-hant 
navy of Solomon (1 K 10=^, 2 Ch «■'). Tlitre is 
no reason to believe that any one kind, or even 
family, of apea is intended. Mnnv kind.* were 
known to the ancients, and the sliips uf Aiua 
and Africa constantly brought then, as ttiev do 
now, various sitecies of apes and monkeys. Aria- 
totle divides the simiaus into three gruujts — the 
K^fiot, the iriOijKOi, and the KV^OKipaXoi. But it is 
clear that the traiwlators of the LXX did not 
understand r^^d* to he tJie equivalent of ^phSm, 
for they have translated the latter viOtjKot. As a 
naturalist, Sntouiuii would no doubt have wished 
Rpeciiuens of as many kinds as possible of so curions 
an aiiLtual as the ape, and, refjis nd rxnnplttr, it 
would have been fashionable among liis oourtiera 

to po3sc^ tJiesc grotesque mimics of hamanity. 
licnco the fit«ady market for apos as well as 
peacocks and ivory. G. K. Post. 

APELLES ('AircXX^i).— The name of a Christian 
greeted by St. Paul in Rg l6'^ and described as 
the 'approved in Christ.' It was the name borne 
by a didtinguiahed tragic actor, and by members oi 
the household. Most commentators quote also 
llor. Sut. \. 6- 100, Credat Ivditus Apdla, non ego. 
See Lightfoot, ^hUij}f/Utns, p. 172 ; Saiiday and 
Headlam, Rinnans, p. 425. For later tniditions, 
uhicli are valuelesa, aea Ada Hancl., April, iii. 4. 

A. C. Hkadlah. 

APHfREMA {'Aifieipetia], 1 Mao 11K~^A district 
taken from t>amuria and added to Juilma by De- 
mclrjuBSoter(/ln(. Xlll. ir. 9), probably that round 
the city Ephraim. C. It. CoNUEtL 

APHARSACHITES.— See next article. 

APHARSATHCHITES (K-;rn»{ £zr 4", probably 

the same as the Apbarsachites,* KtrT^n; Ezr-A' 6*). — 
A colony of the A.'^^>Tinns in Samana ; an easteni 
people bubjtyjt to tlie jVHByrians. Eviuld [II. I. lv. 
1878, p. 21ti) identifies them with the llafufraicrp'oi 
iHeroiI. L lul), a tribe of the Medes, dwelling on 
the borderland betwoou Media and Pcrfeix 

J. Macpuerson. 
APHARSITEfi t Jt:p-ij!je Ezr 4'). —One of the Datjona 
trauspi)rt*.>(l t<i Saiimria by the Asyrians, Other- 
%vi^ unkrinwn. By many (e.7. Ewald, H.f. iv. 
210) supposed to Tie Persians; cio >vith tlie 
prosthetm K in tlie Heb. form. Others have con* 

Iecturally ideutilied tliem with the ParrhaAiaes of 
\ Metlifl. J. MacpHEHSon. 


APHEK (pnt ' a fortress ').~This was the name 
of at tca^t four places in Palestine. 

1. A city whodc king was slain by Joehna (Joe 
12'"), where wo ahoultfreod with the LXX, 'the 
king of Apliek in Sharon.' This is probably the 
L'ity raeutioned in I S 4'. The Israelites were 
at Ebene^er, between Mizpeh and Shen. With 
rommun consent Miziieh i» IiK;ate*J at Nfhtf Snmwf/, 
litit Shen is unknown, t«> Ebenezer and Apiiek still 
await idcn till cation. Kakon, in the plain of Sharoti, 
a strong position commnnding the mnin entrance 
to Samaiia, would suit ailuiiruWy, but no echo of 
the aueient nauie has licuii heard in the district. 

2. A city in the terriUiry of Asher [Jos 13* 
19*") from which the Conaanitcs were never 
expelled (Jp I" — where it is ■written P'*l!). 
Apparently m the vicinity of Acbzib, its position 
is uncertam. A possible iucntilicatioa is 'Afka ou 
the Adcuin, A'aAr Ibrahim, but this seems to be 
too far north. 

3. A upot, generally suppoced to be in the plain 
of Esdraelon, whence the Phi!b*tine8 advanced to 
the Imttly nf Gillwa ( 1 S 9»'). Wi-lllmu*«n and W. 
R. Smith give reasons for thinking this iih-nlical 
with 1: and G. A Smith now agrees {FKFSt, 
1R;i.>, 252). If the identity is cbtabli.Mie*!, the 
I'hili.stines assembled in Sharon, and approached 
Jezrcel by way of IJothan. If, however, they 
moved from Shunem to Aphek, against Saul, the 
place must be sought in some ' fortress ' westward 
of Jezreel ; the fountain near which Israel waa 
encampeil being most likely 'A in Jalud. at the N. 
base of Gilboa. FvkA'a, on the mounuin itself, 
is hardly possible. 

4. The scene of Benhadad's disastrous defeat 
(I K 20*-»'). This place was in the nif^A^i-, i^'C, 
the table-land east of the Jordan, and is prottably 
identical with Fik, ou the lip of the valley east^vard 

■ K<MUn Uiinki that A|>lur«xcbil«a of Etr S" tfi ii sii flfflc-U 
liUe nhiuli the uuUiaratf" Km uUatalieD (or Uw name of ft trib* 
or eeuDUjr {HtrwUt ti iwr. SO (.). 




of ^ai'nt €i-IJus», overlookuig the Sea of GiLlilc«. 
Ftl^ U iufit tho Hell, vfoni wilhoat the idltml 
alojih : iiut occasionally one he&n Uio oativeti call it 
'Ajik, when tho ancient name appears entire. From 
tliu Bcl^e of the valltiy (fOMtwartl Htri!tchi'!4 the plain, 
fnUhor, of JtiulAn, where the preal battlti was 
foucht. llere the Syrians ngain atiflered defeat at 
the himdA of Joaab t*^ K 1:j>-'^), 

LmKATvuL— V. B. Smith, (ytJC* m. S», 435; Wdlb*a»n. 
Caatp. d. a**, n. SM. tfut. ji. M; 6. A. Smilh, RiH. Omg. 
Index, and i»p. CVrt. iiev. (tSDS), p. MOL W. EWTNO. 

APHEKAH [-itJCV)-— A city not vot clearly Idcnti- 
Ged. it may kia%-c been in tno nionntAinH of 
Judah (Jos 15"], but is prohatly tlie fUttnu place 
as Aphek 1. W. EWIXQ. 

APHERRA ['K4^p(A), I Es 5><.— Hu descendants 

were nnioii^; the * sons of Solomon's serraata * who 
returned with 2cmbbaboI. Thifi name, with the 
fire preceding and two mtcceeding nanios, h&a no 
equivaJcnt iu the parallel VmXm of fUr and Neb. 

H. St. J. Thackeray. 
APBIAH [C'cif).— One of Saul'a ancestors (1 S 9^}. 

APHiK (p-(i<).'Acity of Asher (Jg 1"}, the same 
as Aphek )L 

APBBAH.— See Betu-le-Aphrab. 

LYPSE OF BA8UCH.-S..*« Baruch. 


Btutly i'hristianity in its Qriprins con ilinpi-nw; with 
a knowlerige of this Htoratnre. If wo wi»h to 
lecuunLruct. the world of ideuji and a^pirationH 
which tilled the heart of an earnest Jew at tlie 
beginning of tho Chriotian era, it is to this litem- 
toie that ve most have rccoar«3 for mntcnals. 
Although in its hitlior aspects Christianity in- 
finitely transcends the Jtiduinm that prefpdwd it, 
yet in othvrH it in a genuine huttoric4il development 
from such Judaixra. Chriittianity came forth fnim 
the bosom of FhariKnic Judaif<ni, and in Apoca- 
lyptic-- lileratnre this form of Ja<iaism found Jtw 
essential utt»?rance. The value, therefore, of «acli 
literatnre iftohnons, Vrom such writinprs, further, 
■wo Bee how the preat I'harbaic movement arose ; 
how it in its turn had been a transforniHtion ami a 
development of movements alreaitv at work in 
the pnijihetic i»eri«d. Thas Jewish Apocalypwet* 
not only supply a hintory of relij^ions beliefs in 
the two pre-Christian centnries, hut th«v also Itll 
up the otiierwise imavoidable gajj in tho history- of 
Jewish thought, and constitute the living' fink 
between the proi>)ictic tvachinics and ideals of the 
OT and their fullilment in Chrixtinnity. 

Apocalyptic took the place of Prophecy. The 
Psaunist exclaims with grief : ' Wo see not our 
■igns : there is no more any prophet : neither is 
there among na uny that knoweth how long' (I's 

Bat the Immediate snroesKir of Propliecy was not 
Apocal}rptic, but Scrihism. The task uf the 
aerihes waa to stady the law and apply it to the 
altered cireumstaooes of tlie time. As a result of 
tiirir study and teaohing, ftirael was firmly entab- 
Ushed in itA adhesion to the law. But Scrihism 
could Dot satisfy the a-opirntiona of the nation. In 
one aspect we mi;;ht de.->cril»e it as an unproductive 
ape ot critifisTQ following; a productive age of pro- 
phetic genius. Its chief task was to t<tudy, dis- 
crimuiatc, and systematise the products of past 
spiritoaJ genios. For over engngod in distinguish- 
ing and criticLsing, it aci^uired the habitn of caution 
and fear as it lost t-liosc of courage and love. Ita 
maxims were mainly negative. Its highest service 

waa. Dot to iuHnirG and lead into new paths of duty 
and goo<ine>*a, but to eontino every entlinaiasm and 
ai'.vs Kpiritual foroo within the narrow limits of a 
traditional routine, and to close every avonno of 
danger with a Ilaming sword and the unvarjang 
prohibition : ' Thou shalt not.' 

But Stirihisin had aniither side. In times of 
oppression especially, its ellbrts were diructed to 
tinding an antiwer for hearts that were asking in 
their anguish when God woiUd visit and redeem 
His people. By ignoring the fact that the pro< 
phetic accounts of an ideal futuro lor Israel could 
not bu literally fulhlled after thu tall of the ancient 
State, they easily found materials in (he moss of 
unfullilled prophecy on which to build their hopes 
anew. By Byml>oiiaing what wtta literal and 
literalisiug what was ugurative, by rorious re- 
arrangements and readjustments of tho resulting 
products, they were able to depict tlie future in a 
certain chronological sequence, and arrive at tills 
desired consummation. By sach means Scrihism 
in some measure kt^pt alive tlm hopes of the nation. 

It was to this side of Seril)mm tlial AiK>calyplio 
was naturally related, alttioMgh at tlie same 'tune 
it was t« a certain extenta revolt ngainst the other 
and chief pursuit of Scribism. The higher ideals 
and larger outlook of Apocalyptic faile^l in duo 
coarse to find room within the narrow liniiu of 
SeribtBm ; and whereas the anxious scrupuLoHities 
of the Iatt4>r were luoumpatible with miything but 
the feeblest inspiration and vigour, ilie former 
attested bevond doubt the reappearance of tipirilual 
genius in tne field of thought ami ant ion. 

Our conception of Apoealyptie will become 
clearer by ob«jr\ing wherein it agrees with, and 
wherein it diirers from, OT prophecy. 

1. I'rophei-j' and Apovatyptiu agn^e in this— |I) 
That they both claim to bu u eotnmunication 
through the Divine Spirit of the character and 
will and purposes of uod, and of the laws and 
nature of Hia kingdom. This, it is neodless to 
add, man could not attain to by hini^clf. 

I'J) Hut Prophecy and Apocalyptic were related, 
licit (Jiiiy in their primary postuTate, but, at least 
in thu case of the later prophets, in similaritr of 
inaterialH and inBthod. i'hus tho eHchaLologica] 
element which later attained its full growth in the 
writings of Daniel, Knooh, Noah, etc., had already 
stron;;lv asserted itself in the later prophets, sucii 
as Is 24-27, Joel, Zee 12-14. Nofc only tlm bn- 
crinnings, therefore, hut a well-ddineil type of this 
iittitnture hiul alruady ONtablialied itself in OT 

2. But Prophecy and Apocalyptic differ in the 
following respects : — 

( i) /'ropAf-cy stiil believes thnt thin world is God's 
world, and tfuit in thiji tcorld I/is gttudncss and 
truth will yet Ac Justified. Hcuee the prontiet 
addresses bttnself cbielly to Mie present and ita 
concerns, and when he addresses himself to the 
future his prophecy springs naturally from the 
present, and the future which lie denictB is regartled 
as in organic connexion with it. y'/w Af>ofal;/ptio 
writer, on the other hand, ttlmost wholly dtspairi 
fif the present; hia main intertsta art tupra- 
mundane. He cherishes no ho|ie of arousing hia 
cont«m poraricH to faith and duty by direct and 
pisrHonal ajtiteals; for though Uud sjKike in the 
past, 'there is no more any prophet.' This 
pessimism and want of faith in the present, alike 
in the leaders and the led, limii-ed and defined tlio 
form in which tho religious ardour of the former 
should manifest itself. They preserihed, in fact, 
as a necBimity of the age and as a condition of 
suocessful e^rt, the adoption of jixendonytnfw* 
authorship. And thus it is that the Aiioealyptio 
writer approaches his countrymen with a work 
whioh claims to be the production of some great 



figure in the paat, surh as Enix-h, Musea, [uiiah, 
Daniel, or llarurli. 

Thus fur two characUiistica of Apocalyptic have 
uniorged— the tranBlerercc of Lnttrest Irom the 
proaent to tlic fuiurt', from tho miindane to the 
RUpra-muDilajic, oud the adoptioa of pseudon^'mous 

(2) Another featnru of Apocaljptio an (listin- 
Kvished from Prophocy wiis iiupo«Hl ujjon it Ly tlm 
uccessttics of the tiinRj i.e. its iTidj-Jiniidy widr.r 
view of th« world's hixton/. Tlius, wficrcas anuibQt 
I'rophcoy bod to deal luth temporaiy reverses at 
tlte h&nds of some heathen {wwer, Apocalyptic 
aroM at a time when Israel liod been BUbjcc't for 
eouturies to the i>waT of one or another of the 
j;reiit worlii-|;ower«. llcnce, in order to linrmonise 
Huch dilliciilLius witli GixI'b rigbtcoui^ness, it had to 
take account of the rdie of Mich empires in the 
counsels of God ; lo recount th« away and down- 
fall of each in turn, till, finally, the lordahip of the 
world po&sed into the hands of Israel, or toe final 
judgment arrived. The chief part of these ovonta 
iMiloogod, it is trae, to the post ; but the Apocalyptic 
writer represented them as etili iii tho future, 
arranged under certain artilicial categories of time, 
and us definitely dHtemiitii^d from the beinnning 
in the connseU of (iud, and revealed by Him to 
His aerranta the prophets DeUrminitm thut 
became a IfAuling r/utraeieriitie of Jewish Apoca- 
lyptic ; and accordingly its conception of history, 
na disCingitished Jrom that _ <^ Frophxy, mxu 
mechanical rather than organic. 

(3) Agahi, rro|jhecy and Apocalyptic difTer in the 
harsher ircAimetit dc;ilt out to the iieatlien in the 
final judjiuienU. Israel's repeated opprcneioiui have 
at luat afr.'et'Cd the judgment and iiiHiKht of iti! 
uTitors. Tho iron has entere«l into their soul. 
No virtue or ^oodnexs can belong to their heathen 
oppT«6sorH, and nothin^jlmt eternal destruction can 
await the enemios of Israel in the time to come. 
TheTuthIesHt.-iuclEy they had e^^perieuced, inspired 
them witli a like ruthlcsatiesa towards the faithless 
nation Rnilthefftithleftsititlividual: and expressions 
dcauriptive of the fiiLure lot uf suuh, whicii in pro- 
phetio writincB botl been limited in their scope to 
the present life, or were merely poetical exaggero- 
tioiui, were accepted by Ajtocafvi^lic writers 05 true 
of the future, and often Inteniilied because in- 
mfficicnt to bfttisfy their merciless hatred. Thus 
it was in this ptiriod that tho ductj-ine of the 
future and eternal damnation of the wicked was 
definitely formulated, and came to possess an un- 
q^ncBtioned aiitliority. It is true that in later 
times o-'' we dis(!over from the Talmud, the severity 
oi this dogma was considerably moderated, but 
only in favour of Israelites. No elnglo mitigation 
of the awful horrors foretold as awaiting the 
wicked wna extended to tho hapless Gentile. 

Tlie foregoing will make the object of Apucar 
lyptic ca.'*y of eomprclieiiKion. This object, in 
anort, wa» to kuIvu the ditlJcultiea connected with 
a belief in God's rlglitcousnesa, and the BufTering 
condition of His servants on earth. The righteous- 
ness of God postulated the temporal prosperity of 
the righteous, and this postulate was accepted and 
enforced by tho law. But the expectations of 
material weUbeing Mtuch had thus bu^u authenti- 
cated and fostered, had in tiie centuries imme<liululj 
preceding beeu fal^ilied, ood tliuH a erave eon- 
tradtctiou had emerged between the oM prophetic 
ideals and tlic actual experience of the nation, 
boLvreen tho uromises of God and the bondage and 
pcrwMSUtion tliey had daily to endure at the hands 
of their i>agan oppres.<>ora. The diHiculties thus 
arising from this conflict between promise and 
experience may be shortly resolved into two, which 
concern rcjipectivoly the |>osition of the righteous 
as a community and the position of the righteooa 

nmn i%» an individual. The OT pruplieu lind 
cuucornyd thumsulvcs chiefly with the fornKT, and 
pointed in the main to the restoration or ' resiir* 
reclion ' of Israel as a nation, and to Israel's 
ultimate possession of the earth as a reward of 
her righteousness. But, later, with the growing 
claims of the individual, and the acknowledgment 
of these in the religious uixd iutellcclual lile, the 
latter problem jirc^'sed 'il»t:ll irresistibly un ilie 
notice uf rvligiuuu tliinkeni, and made it ini]<otisib!e 
for any conception of the divine rule and righieons- 
ness to gain aooeptance which did not render 
adequate ftatisfaotion to the claims of the righteous 
individual. Thus, in onler to justify the righteous- 
ncs« of God. there was postulated the resurrection, 
not only of tho righteoos nation, but alao of the 
rightcoiJis individual. Apocalyptic, therefore, 
strove to show that, alike in resiHiet of the nation 
and of the individual, the ri"Iitc-ousiie)« of God 
would be fully vindicated ; and, in order to jaetify 
its contention, it skctchud in outline the history of 
the world and of mankind, the origin of uvU and 
its course, and the consummation of all tilings. 
Thus, in fact, it presented a Semitic philosophy of 
religion. The nghteoud aa a nation should yet 
possess the earth cither in an eternal or in a 
temporary Messianic kingdom, and the destiny of 
tho righteous individual should he finally deter- 
mined according to Ills works. Fur thuiigli amid 
the world's disorders he might perish nntimely, he 
wuuld nut fail tu attain through the resurrectiuo 
the recompense that M-as hi-* due, in tho Messianic 
kingdom, or in heaven it*elf. The conceptiooa aa 
to tho ribcn life, its duration and choiacler, vary 
with each writer. 

The chief Apocalyptic writings which will be 
treated of in this Uictmiiary are — 

1. Apocalypse, of Baruch, a comiwwite work 
written cA)-'iAi A.D. in PnleKtine, if not in .Icrus., 
by four Pharisees. PreserA'e<i only in Syrlac. 

2. Ktliiopic Book of Enoch, written originally 
in Heb. by at least fire l^^aaid authors, 200-04 
U.C., in PalcAtine. Preserved in Ktliiopic and 
partly in Greek and Latin. 

3. Slavonic Book of Enoch, or The Book of the 
Secrets of Envcht written by an Alexandrian Jew 
about the beginning of the Chriatiau era. Pre- 
Eer>'ed only in Slavonic 

4. Ascension of Isaiah, a comjK>site work written, 
1-100 A.D., by Jowiali and Christian authors. Pru- 
Btiivcd in Kthiupic and partly in I^atin. 

5. Book of Jubilees, written originally in Helirew 
by a Fal. Jew, proliably 40-10 B.C. Preserved in 
t'thiojiic, and luirtialiy in Hebrew, Sj'rioc, Greek, 
and Latin. 

6. Asxumptif'jv of ifoses, written in Palestine, 
probably in Heb. or Aram., 14-30 A.D., by a 
Pharisee. Proservod only in Ijitin. 

7. Testaments of the X/I. Batriarrhs, a com- 
pojsit« work written origiriallj' ui Hebrew by two 
Jewish authors belonging to the legalistic and 
apocjilj'ptic sides of Pharisaism, 130 B.C.-10 A.U., 
and interpolated by a succession of Christian 
writers down to tho fourth century A.D. Pre- 
eier\-ed in the ancient Greek and Armeuion ver- 

8. I'ialms of Sotimwn, written originally in 
Heb. by a Pharisee (or Phariwies), 70-40 B.C. 

■9. SutyUtTie Oraciat, written in Greek hexa- 
meters by Jewish and Christian outhors, 180 U.C.- 
350 A.D. 

LiTtimTTRE — nilgcnfeld. Die JUdiirhe ApohUfptO:, \^7; 
Drvmrsioad, TSt Jeieirh MtuiaA, 1^77 ; Sin*nd, ' JiwLah Apoc»- 
lypUo' In ZATW (1880> ppc iS£-UO; Schiinr.UJP u. Iii. 
""Il- R. U. ClIAItI.ES. 

APOCRYPHi.— Tho title 'The Apocrypha,' or 
' The Apocrypha of the OT,' is applied by fjigliBh* 




vpeotdng Protestants t« the foUowiDg ooUoction of 
books and part« of books : — 

>oou. unuv. 

L IKnAna 1 Ei 

U. S&dna Z Sa 

BL TtoWt Tr» 

Iv. JodUh Jib 

V. TlM rest of the ch^t«n of the Book of Eatluir 

I*.*. 1IH-1«MI Afl. Kst 

vL Th« Wlidcan of BoltmoD Wii 

vU. TIw WWom ol Jwut ttia Ma ol Sincb, er 

beletiuUcuB Sir 

vUl. Dwucdi . , . Bof 

(Cfa. vL sThe Ei^a of Jmrni-J . . Ep. Jar 

U. Tbe donaot the TltrM II0I7 Cbilami , Tbim 
[i-f. Tha Pny«r ol Aariu uid the Soag cf 

X. Tlie llirtor; of Stmnnt Sua 

xl. t>i« lIiirtot7 ol tbt bo<tn>otlon of B«l And tht 

Un|(an Bal 

lix. X. ukI id. ve the Additiou to Uia Boole 

ol DwiUd] , . A(L Dd 

slL TbcPnurerolMaouwa IV.Hui 

stU. I Maa»b«w 1 Um 

kIi-. s UBcaibe«s Z Uao 

BoLb the cullcutioa, and the use of tbe vrord 
Apocrvpha as iu title, arc duttincttrcly Protestant, 
Ibuu^n Imvtni; ruotA in the history of thu OT 
C&non. Tbe ■.nllwction consists of the excess of the 
Lnt. Volp. or«r tlie Hob. OT ; and tliiu excee» is 
due to the Gr. LXX, from wliich the old Lat. 
V8 was made. The diiferenco betwoen the I'rot, and 
tlie Botu. Caih. UT roos back, then, to adilferenoe 
between Pnl. and Alex. Jews. Tbe matter is 
cuiu[>licttted, however, bv the fact that the Valg. 
vas revised nfter the HeS. hv Jerome, and that 
the extant MSS uf tli^ LXX diliur much in contents 
and order. For clenmesj* und for rt'fiirence in the 
Inter diiicuflHiDn, tbe folluwint' tabltss are given. 
They represent tlie uflicial VuJ<;. (ed. I6f)2) ; the 
two chief MSS of LXX ; the Canon of Cyril, aa a 
reptvwDtative of the viw of tbe E. Church ; and the 
Hebrew. Thehooksof our A. are printed in italics, 
other nncan. bonks, not in the A., In capitolii. 

these, 1 and 2 £e are not in Luther's Bible, and 

2 Ea is not in the LXX. On the other hand, 

3 and 4 Mac ore comnioulv present in the 
LXX, but arc nut found Ui the Vulg. and A. The 
»aiae is true of Fh 151. Further, tlie many more or 
tem significanC variations of LXX from tieb. OT, 
in text and order, do not appear in this comparison, 
for, Dwint; to Jerome, the Vulg. foUows the Ueb. 
In the can. books, the LXX only in the case of 
books nut extant in Hch. Thu A., tJiun. can be 
said only in a general way to represent the 
ditFereucu betwcun the Hub. and the Ur. UT. The 
books of the A. are treated in this Dictionary 
individually under their titles. Under the headinj; 
Apocrj'pha two mattcm require consideration : tiie 
history of the use of the word * Apocr\fpfta^ in 
reference to books ; and Che biKtory andsigniticanoc 
of the collection now so caUc^d.* With theae the 
present article will deal in the following order : — 

L Tlic word Afuoryjhn- 

1. Th« Biddia Boohs of Judilnn. 

2. Tha words $HUuim kndAuonfnk 

S. The HftMsn Books of Cbriatiamtr, tad tb< word 
IL The Apocarpba in Jodslsm. 

1. •&% Ongin ol the OoUwtbn. 

a. The Woric ol tbe fteribes. 

b. Th« A. tn retation to lh« Ha0osnptu. 

t. It* Um ukI R«Utlan to the Osnoo. 

a. In HelkDlstla Judxiim. 

b. In PalestioUn JudnLnn. 

S. Its RvIatJoa to tJie Bellsioos Tendniolcs sod 

f artiM of Judaism. 
Hi. Tfai! Apocrj^ha In Chrifltlonitr. 
1. In Uu) I«eirT«sURi«nt. 
S. la tb9 Gwteni Ohuroh. 

a. Originsl tTaigo. 

h. Sobalsrijr Tli«0f7. 

e. Hsnusonpta. 

d. Version!. 

t. Th« lAter Crock Cbun^ 
S. In the Wc«t«n) OliurdL 

(I. Romiui. 

6. Proloitjuit. 






t. ICl) 





Ert \Ad. IQMS"] 








JtrfU J3<tr) 

iMlJd. S!>tMnrM 


Xn \t.t. UlDor Propbclfi] 

After the NT, m so 
Appesdlx. In nnslt type 
ind with new paging : 
Pr. Man 


Cod. Vat, (B>. 

Cad. AUx. (A). 










1-4 E 

I. SCh 

1. SCh 

1 A 






Jer fwith Bar Ls By, 





Dn Md.J 


Est {Ad.*\ 










1. <Hjlo 


Pa UM snd 14 Cuatldes, 


o( which one is Pr. 





£p. J*r 




Dn lAd.] 


•The Jrf 

Sit sre in 


their oritf^ 
vlj. I">«-in 

ktlcr VM: 

AlU'r the ^n ktood 

ll»-l!?t betor« 11; 



ftflfr 3'«: 



Puuu or SotOMOX. 




t sr« rmm OT. Tbt 

others— if dj^nfjl^at. 

iVutw ttimirtit, Bmt- 

^istMt. snd the Uomlay 



l-S. Pent 

0. Jo« 

T, Jg-ttu 

& 1.2K 

d. S. 4 K 
la 1. SCh 
11. 1. S Bs 

15. eatMd.n 
13. Job 

U. Ps 

16. Pr 
1«. Bo 

17. Cs 

la. xit 
19. )■ 

sa Jer Bar la Sp. Jer 
■n. Bek 

£». Dn [Ad,T\ 

Cs. 12 bbtoriokl. ( 
pocUoaL Bad 6 prophM. 
Icml Nioka Tbe nuiubor 
ef Ibe Ueb. Can. to 
reduced by yAi\\r^ Ba 
lo Jg anil la to Jer. 


L *TO¥mh'(Ltw)— 
1-5. Pent 

U- 'Kuhiln]' (Prop bete] — 

a. 'J'Wwwr* 
«. Joi 

0. K 

b. 'latUr* 

10. la 

11. Jer 
it. Bzk 

UL ■Kethubim' Cnit^o> 
11. Pa 
13. Pr 
IB. Job 
17. Ca *! 
1*1. Re 

ID. U y'UfvtOotb' 
Sti-lfti [ 
21. EnJ 
91. Bn^Ndi 

Boa»e devlatioaa from 
thl> order, whifb in Ih&t 
of Um printMl edd.. an 
found in tbe oaM or tha 
'latter' propheu and 
tbt Htflogjmphft in Tal- 
mudk: llxta, wbicti amy 
be more origlnAl. Out 
tlie three diriiioni and 
the oontMita of each. 
rnnalD fixed. 

It is to be noticed that of our A., 1 and 2 Es and 
Vr. Man are regarded also by Rome as a*'. Of 

' in thii article Aporryplia (A.) eignlfles thia oolleotlonj 
.dpocrvpAa {A.) tbe booka origliimUj so called ; i^XKfTplul (fit*} 
ie ueod In either eenao. 




i. THE WORD 'AFOCltYPHA-'-The word 

d,n&Kiiv<t>oi, nieaiiiug ' latlilen,' waa do doubt at tirbt 
H])]>licd tu liuokii in quite a lUt^ral kclim:, as the 
iWiu(^atioii, wlietlier by tlio^e who liiil them or by 
tlioHe frum whntn thi.>y wqw. hidden, uf l>uokH kept 
from tbe gmbHc Tho lildin^'of a book wati en»y 
vhcn cojiiEss were few. It mi>,'lit be done upon two 
opposite grounds. An cxclui«ire eect might htdo 
its fiocrcd books in order to keep from outaiderm 
tbe secret laws or wisdom which they contftincd ; 
or the religioua authorities of a community might 
bide books judged by theui to be uaelesa or harm- 
ful. Th« twu'^ounuR mit^ht indeod anproai^b eftch 
other in tiie eoKe of buokn judf^ed unlit fur public 
une, not because of the error, but bccauite of the 
depth and dii&cidty of their cunt-ents. Indeed, a 
book judj^ct.! wholly erroneou:t and harmful \vc 
hbould expcet the authorities to diMtroy rather 
than to hide. A certain value, or at a certain 
doubt, mhuuld naluniily tic attachi^d to hooka 
hi<lden in this (>eni*e, while their peculiar value ia 
the nuuion for their being hidden in the fnniier — 
whieb in, in all probability^ the more original nenee 
of the Greek word. 

From the place of secret books in Judaism and 
in Christianity wc may thereforo hopo to gain a 
knowledge of the original mhiec antf use of tho 
word ; and we nhall lind ita firot and pro|M]r nppli<A> 
tion to be, not to the liooka of our A.. Init to the 
(i-hiclly apm-alyptical) literature commonly desig* 

1. The UiDDEN Books of Jl-uaisbi.— Eaoteric 
doctrines and books do not belong properly to the 
IriT. rcli^non. Their home is in heathenism, from 
which, however, they gained a foothold from time 
to time in JudaiHin. The occult lore connected 
with Morcerv aad niaftc turktMl beneath the aurfaee 
of old IwraeVn relij*iou8 life, but «aj* condenined by 
law aiul prophet.HtDlIH'"-, Lv 11F\ T.h S'* ly^'ote.). 
No priestly religion, indeed, can be without u 
partly csottrie priestly tradition respecting rites, 
their form, and perhaps their meaning. Uutit waji 
B eharacterintie of Judaifim that \t waa bafl>eil upon 
a priestly law made public: and orieuly adopted by 
the people (Neh it-10). Yet Judaism aid not 
ewapu from the charm which inyntery exerts over 
the nuinan mind. It was Cfip. in the after do- 
velopmentH of OT wisdom literature under 
Hellenic inllucncc, on the one tdde, and of OT |iro- 
phetie literature, under Pers. and Bab. inlluuuce, 
on the other, that tlie itiea of the Kuperior religion?, 
value of hiddeu tilings, niyHteriouHlvdiscIoHod to the 
favoured few, took poseession of tlie Jewish mind. 
Even .FesuB, son of Sirach, the Palestinian, find* 
it. the chief task of the wise man to disi.-over the 
*apocrvphii,'thehiddenlhlngs, of wisdom and oft; od 
(U" 3&^ ' ), ond think.-i that tho hidden things of the 
world ore greater than tlie manifest (43"). ' Apoc- 
rj'jiha ' was for him a word of honour (yet Kue 
3Ji*-w and 24»'"). But it wn.s eep. in Hel. circles 
that the lo*-o of hidden things was cultivated. 
rhilo preecnta the results of his deepest study and 
reflexion, and of hit) highest insight, tn the form of 
an exposition of the Pent., making of this a hidden 
book, which only the initiated could understand. 

There was, however, another way in which the 
love of hidden thingw and reverence for antiquity 
could be atljui^ted. Inttte^td of hidden me-nningn in 
openly giiiblisbeil liook.f, it wu-t iKiKHilile to Uiink 
of private teathiiigH, by tlie side of tho public, 
c'onunittcil bj* mtriareh or ]>rophet to the few, and 
handed on to tneprcscnt in a j»ecret tradition, or a 
hidden book. Tliia was the proeeduTc of those 
Pal. Jews who were interesteil in the secrets of 
the future, and in prttjdifcy. Tlie begiuningn of 
tlie production of hiilden book^4 along thin line can 
be eaidlT traced. If a prophet committed the 
record ot openly spoken prediction* to the keeping 

of hia diaciples, to await the time of tJicir fulJilment 
(Is S'"), it would not be gtrauge if he should give 
them fuller knowledge for which tUo public was 
not prepared. The Bk of Dan. i.i represented as 
haviu" ueen ' shut up and Hcated ' by ita author, 
until, long after il.f writing, the time camo for ita 
publieiitioii (Dn IS*-"). Thin may well be called 
'the fundamental passage for the conception of 
npocrypha." Daniel appears as the publication 
of a oook hitherto hidden. The justification of 
the claim lies in the revelation of the mysleriea 
of Israel's future which it contains, and in the 
niyateriouA manner in which the revelation is made 
in vihions, through ani'elti. It w iudee<l, in j>art, 
an interpretation of llie hidden sense of Jer 25" 
29" (Dn 9), but the interijretation ia given by an 
angel. The way was prejiared for Daniel bv the 
later prophets, in whom the vision of hidden things 
plays an increasingly imjwrtant part. ICxekiePs 
vision (ch. t) became the favounto and fruitful 
study of Jbw.s who love^l iiiyjitiirics. Zee con- 
taiuH similar material. But the chinf development 
of aiJoralypliwLl literature followcii Daniel. (Jreat 
numbers of bookn were put forth during the cenr. 
before and the cent, after Christ, to the name of 
natriarchs or prophet*, as booka that had boea 
hidden. They contain esp. disclosures of the 
mysterioa of the Rpirit wnrhl. of the future of 
Israel, and of the auode ami fortunes of the dead. 
In one of theno IxHiks the tradition is related 
that Exra waM in!<pired to dictate to liia scribes 
the sacred books that had been burned at tho 
destniction of Jeroa. 'In forty days they wrote 
ninctv-four books. And when the forty days were 
ended, the Moat High spoke, saying: The earlier 
books tJiiat thou Siaat written, pu'ltlitdi openly, and 
let the worthy and Uie unworthy read them ; but 
the lost seventy tliou HJialt kee]*, llmt thou niavest 
deliver them to the wi»e of thy ]«>(iple ; for in lliero 
is tht' fliiring of nnder^itanding anil the fountain of 
wisdom and tlic stream of knowledge ' (2 Es 14**"*^). 
In the 70 esoteric books, valued more highly by 
tiio wTitor than the 24 biK)kA of o[ien M^ripture, 
we have the original concwptiou of apucrifpha. 
The character of these books may be accurately 
known from those that have Bun'ived, e.g. Enoch, 
Assumption of Moses [in part}, the Apoc. of 
llanich, and 2 Est Itself. Their material is 
lart;oly foreign to lar. traditions, and was com- 
monly felt to bo BO. Yet traditional it muat, in 
the nature of tha cofle, have been, and only in a 
very limited degree the free invention of the 
writei's. That ita source iti, in an important 
iru-aaiire, to be f<mnd in the Bab. and Pern, re- 
ligions, is highly probable. 

If we a«k in vdiiit cireles of Judaism these books, 
or the writings or traditions that lie behind them, 
were cuTrent, various lines of evidoneo jwiiit to- 
ward the obscure sect of the Essenes. They 
IKiMMCiiscd a secret hire and hiilden iMKjks, and took 
oath to tlist'lose none of their dortrines to othera. 
and ' ti» preser\*e equally both tlie Ixioks of their 
siM:t and the names of the angelH* (Jos, BJ II. 
vii). 7). In regard to the contents of their secret 
1>ooks we are not left wholly in the dark. Jos. 
says that tho E»«n&s derived from tho study of 
' the writing!^ of thu aneients ' (can. ?) a knowledge 
of the heating prnpertic!^ uf plants and sbones (g 6), 
and that by rejuiing 'the holy books' they were 
able to foretell future things (§ 12). Ho also aa. 
cribea to thetn an etalmrate duutrine uf the prc- 

• ZJin, Gt»A, rf. FT Eownt, I. 134, ct. 124 !., who, howeTt-r. 
doM ntii put this ofeMTViUinn tn iu nfttuntl tiM. 

i Stttiix Ui« dtffcrcn t i.p|iliatti(>ti* ifi vcn U> tlio titln, 1 uid S E>, 
tn LXX, Vulg. And Enc A. Slill oUwt r>i)ntuakinc appeftr fn 
coTtdln MSS. MiaundGntAD'liDff would be kvof(lc<l hy c«llinir 
1 Ef I^Vulf. 3Ef: LXX ] EalUrmJc Bsru,md t fiiI=>Vulir. 
4 B>] th« AiM>cal)in« ol Exra <t.c. pn>i>ntjr cb. ^14), or 





existence of souls, ant) of the lot of good ami bad 
mhiIh after death (g U). When, therffore, «o tind 
in tiouki like Enoch, the AMQtnptio Mosts, and 
4 Ezr, disclosares of tlie secrets of nature &n<t of 
hUtory, lists of an^t-'l^t dtttcriptions of heaven and 
hell, and uf tlitiuxiiuriencvnof thu &oul aft«r death, 
beads other Etueiiic marks, such aa the praise uf 
aaoeticutm and the unfavourable estimate of the 
•econd tcniple, the opinion 8eem9 not unfonnded 
that 'their secret litcrntiire waa perhaps in no 
email degree made use of in the Pseudcpigrapha, 
and has tUioujfh them been indirevtlv liundt-d 
down to ui' (SVellhau^n). To attribute tli« 
ftpoeatjrpCical literature exclusively to Es^eniein), 
howHTur, as JewiMli scliolarn wibIi to do, ia without 
historical juBlificalion, It is true that a rela- 
tioushiii of Ew*miam u-ith rianiKm is prol>- 
ablo ( Li^htfoot, Colossians ; Choyne, Expository 
Timeji, ii. i»2-8. 24K M ; Hampton Leet. pp. 417-*2r. 
4-lo~40); and Ziiroaatrianirtm treasured secret 
buokff, aunic of which certain Chnatian Gnontins 
claimed to po«)W)(a. It is probable al«o that the 
f<)rei>^ (hfatlien) character of the^e books wan felt 
by uis-ny, «ince Judaiem never (jave these books 
oiKcial Banction ; and no RpocRly[>»G after Dn wao 
preserved in llebrew. Nevertheless, the foreij^ 
elements hero dominant itiach far back into OT 
literature : and, on the other band, Easenlstn wan 
much more closely related to Phartioifmi llian to 
ZoroajitriaiiiHrii, wing, in the fimt plane, 'only 
PliaHsni''ni in the sujterlative ' (Schhrur). If the 
Easenea are to be understnod hintoriraliy an Blniply 
more oonnstent pruteptants apiinst the hi^li- 
prieeifaood of the JSIaccaba-un princes than tin; 
Phariaeen, — carryin;; their protest tc the point of 
tefiuting all p«u-ti(-i(>tLltun in tho templH c^ervice. — 
then in the Husidiwuis of 1 Mac *2*= V^' we have 
the roots of both Pharisai.'iTn and Esseniflm, and 
the Book of Dn wonld ntnnd near the bcRinning 
of each. The Mc.«;<ianic hope is the i;eiiuini-ly 
Jewish element in the niK>cidyi>!*ed. That this had 
a far lari^er place in tiie mind of tlie Plmri»^u« 
during the two cwnturie-'i preeedinn the deMtmclion 
of .lerun. than it had after that event,— an<l e<p. 
after Akil>a'.i death, —is evident to all hut Jewi*h 
Kcliotani, who are apt to judge of the whole po-^t- 
exilic period by the Talmud. The apocalynticfti 
literatnre in (Question via», then, in alt probaniliry 
valued and cullivateil by Fharisfes, certainly by 
some cirr.lea of Pharimwy, a^^ null as by Esstriu-Ji. 
Indited, in spite of its rejection by rabbinical 
Judaism, genns of it enrvived, ana afterwards 
came to new life, in the late Jewish Kabbala, or 
•ecret philosophy (I'Jth cent.). 

It iaa fitrikint,' fact llmt while oflieial Judaism 
Tejeeted tbe»e hiil<len 1x>ukH, aad declared for the 
exeltuive recognition of the 24 )x>oka of the 
Cuion. it yet proceeded to claim for itself the 
pcMMssion of an oral law which Moses delivered to 
Joiihua when he gavBthe Pent. op<-nly to Israel, and 
which passed on through the hands of the elders, 
the prophets, the men of the Great S^-nagogne, to 
Kn unbroken BUccciwiion of Bcribe-s (t'lrke Alxjth), 
mitil it cume to writing: in tint Miiibnit, and then 
in the Talmud. By tlm thei>ry of a secret traditiim 
the Krribi3 sought to tn^'e their law the authority 
of Mose", and yet aecount for its late appearance. 

The designotion of the^e hidden books in Ueb. 
we do not know. A llcb. synunym for i.-wbtpvipoi 
b OTi« ; but this word and "the verb ua are u»ed 
in theTalm., not of the weret Iiooks juxt dei<crilH^I. 
bat asualty of a hiding, hv the sutboritie-H, (vf 
book« judgetl unlit for un)>lio use. A (>osfiibte 
exception is the rFiMirtwl 'liiding' by Hezekiah of 
a liook of inmlical lore, in order that the sick 
m)|;htcalt rather upon God (Mii^hna PeAach iv. !)). 
Ihii it was commonly lucd with reference to some 
VOL. I. — 8 

book of the Canon. Thtu a wom-oat roll of ft 
sacred scripture was 'hidden,' perhaps because, 
though unfitted for use in the s^'n-i^^oj^'vc, it nan 
vet bacnsl and not to ho destroyed (MiHhna Sabtt. 
IX. ; Sauh. x. 0). But the woid wum couimunly 
used in reference to the tjuestion whether Home 
hook should be withdraivn from tlie class of 
sacred Scriptures. Thus there were ItahbU who 
wished to 'hide' Pr, because of its contradio- 
tioRB ; Ca, because of its secular character ; Ec, 
l>ecause of its heresies. But the objections were 
in every instance met. The case of Km was mora 
xeriuuH, and it ix not improbahlu that it was put in 
the claxs of <jKnu:im fur a time among certain 
circlej*. thongti we liavn only the evidence of some 
Chri-itian lists of the Canon, which claim (or seem) 
to follow tlie instructions of Jews (esp. Mclito. See 

If there oxlfitod at any time a class of books 
calleil gtnusimj the Talmudic of the word 
wuulil lead tia tu expect that it woulil nmtain 
the books nearest to the Canon in authority or 
common esteem : books which once stood within 
tliB circle of sacred writing.i, or made a fair claim 
to stand there ; in otlier words, books like tlie 
antiUgomena of early Christian use. If there were 
such a claMi, Sir and 1 Mac, if nut To and Jth, 
ahould stand in it ; but the word is never applied 
to these books in extant writingt). This is not, in- 
deeil, a proof that it was not Mi used ; and the testi- 
mony of Origen augr^e^Hts that it was. He says 
that the Jews had Jiidden Suh and oth(-r b(M>K!4 
from the people, while Jth and To, they bad told 
him, tbcy did not i)a*8ess even among their hidden 
bowks, or njnxrtjfiJuM {Ep. ad Afric.). 

For writings Lliat stood wliully outside of the 
circle of sacred boukti, esp. for the books of heretics 
such as the Bamaritanf, the Kurlducciyt, and Chrts> 
tians [0T9 '?i;p), the Itabbis had another name, 
hxzonim {3'j^sri 0*^?), lit. 'cxtomal' or 'outside' 
iio'uka. 'I'he danger to Judaism of the reading of 
liiese books led Akiba, who Itad himself been 
attraeted by them, to nrohibit their u*e. ' Who- 
ever reads in the aepnnrim hizonim hat no part 
in the worhl to come. BookH, on the other hand, 
like Sir and other such, which were connKiKod 
after the ago of tlio prophets bud been closed, may 
Iks read jiiBt as one reaiii a letter.'* Sir, then, 
iind other Hiicrli Ixtokn, an; not fyizonim in Akiba's 
v'kw, ihu correctness of which is evident from the 
free use of Sir by Babbin in Pal. for a L-t:ntury and 
a half after Akiba, and in Babylon still later. 
But it appears that the maintenance of a middle 
class of iiooks between saored and pnifane invuls-ed 
daneers, and it was Qnally decided that 'he who 
rcMU a verse which ia not out of the 2-1 
books of sacred scripture, bis offence is as ii he 
had read in the aephnrim ^izovtm' (Midr. r. 
Num. S H, and at Kobeleth 12", cf. Jer. Sabb. IG). 
It is possible that this pracLicnl transfer of books 
like ^ir into the cta^s of hizonim may liave ob> 
seurwl the c\idence of their having once been iu 
the class of (jr.nu2im. 

a. TiiK ifiDDEN Books or Chklstiakitv and 
THK WoKK ' APocRypHA.'— Christianity was at its 
lieginoing. even Uwi than Judaism, a religion of 
mvfteriea, to be hidden by the few from the many. 
Christ's words in Lk 10=", Mt 11» {'hidden' 
from the wise, revealLMl to babes), wero a direct 
contradiction of esoteric religion. If there aru 
aporrypha, bidJen things, tht-y are to be made 
known [Mk 4". Lk 8'\ cf. Mt 13'^ 

In Chrint the hidden wisdom of God had become 
manifcHt, and the myfteriea of the coming of Uis 

• For thli rendcrififc- In- GrscU ©f * ocMTopl W« (Sanh. X. I, 
*nt1 tlm BjiU util Jer. Talm.X •« Bulil, (.■i>Mii finrf Text t^OV, 
p. 8 ; and rf. Unnliurser. Heul-Sn^yr. ii- t'.s II. The Jer. Tiilin. 




kingdoin were disclosed by its realiaation. Yet 
UlU fftiU) gained a alow mid hard \ictorT. In tM'o 
ways tliu luvc of myKtcrics aud t>f the iKKtka tbat 
uODtninetl tliciii vi-aa fostered. 

(a) The ChrbitiiLii religion inuile H» start in Ibc 
Jewish world in cJoso connexion with tbu Meswiaiiic 
idean a» tliey hod been developed, enp. in the apoca- 
Ij'p^es, from Dii onwards. JuM-iftb Cnristians clung 
to the Jewish nfjocalypiic litcratnre, modifyinp 
indeed its references to the person of the Mt.'ssiah, 
making room for His earthly life and death, but 
feeling the le^a need of radical ciianges because the 
proper fiitlilment of the Me^iaiiie Tiopea was con- 
iiecttiil, not with Ute rirvt, but with the second 
comliij; of Christ. This led, uaturally, less to the 
production of new Cliritstlan reveliiiiunii than to 
the keepiuL' and Chriittian cditiD^ of the old. 
Jewisli patnarclis and proijheta were in this way 
mode to testify to tlie tmth, and to forecast the 
fnturc, of ('bri»tianity. Thusi the Book of Knuth 
and the Apoc. of were u»ed aa aulhentie 
rcvelattonH by many Chnrrh Fathers, Jewish 
apocalypses of Abrnhani, Mose>i, Klijah, Is, Jer, 
Biimefi, and others in prent nnml)ers. in part 
extant, but eliielly known to as only by name, 
were treasnrcd by early Ciiriatinnity. 

Kvoji when apocalypses in the names of Christian 
aiWBtU's were put fortii, their material was of 
neeessily largely traditional and Jewt)^h in ori^'in. 

The.'fe books, then, Jewish unci Christian, are the 
earllenl amcryjtfut of Christianity (cf. the lists 
below). They are books usually put forth as 
harint; been hidden (the pseudepijrraphic form), 
and always contain acconnta of bidden things 
ndracuJoualy diaolosed. In the latter &cnse even 
the Apoc. ot St. John is called 'a*'' by Ureuory of 
Kyssa (Or. </« Orttin. iL 44} and by Epimiaiiius 
iHiEr. 51). The cultivation of siieb ' lii<iden ' 
books by no nieana belonged at firut to heretical 
Beets, but waa characteristic of early Christianity 
in general. It was opposed chiefly by those who 
fell under Gr. inflncnce : but among liicm another 
sort of myMlery took the plm^tt of ttic Jewish 
apocalyptic, namely, the Gr. (^irj^is. 

{h) As Jewij«h Christians made Christianity Ief<» 
the fuH'ibnent than the reatlinnaLion of Jewish 
hopej*. so Hel. Christians made it lijss the solution 
of the mystery of exiatence than a new, supreme 
mystery. Christ was made the ecntral fipure — in 
one case in Jewish eacliatology, in the other m Greek 

tit. Paul's lan^jrua^e in 1 Co 1 and 2 discloses the 
existence in Cormlh of those who valued a hidden 
wisilom more than his gospel of Ihu erueiUt.-d (i^hiist. 
And later, at CoIot*we. St. Paul urt^es. a-wiist an 
(sutpiitially GiioHtie teinJencv, aa the won! of (Jotl, 
' the mystery which huth been hidtkn from the 
■gea and from the fenerations, but nuip hath been 
manifested to his eaints' (I*). The mystery of 
God 19 * Christ, in whom are all the treasures of 
wituloni and knowledf^'u hidden ' (dwi^piifnai, '^]. The 
special Cotos&iou gliosis, with ita worship of un^els, 
ita asceticism, Ite visioas, and it^ secret doctrines, 
reminds ua of BMenhnn. The Htron^est intluenee 
on the development of a secret Christian rnosis 
eaine, however, fn;ni Alexandria; Ctuosticisni ueing 
indeed 'nothing but a Christian Ilcllcnisim ' (Har- 

Aa the Jewish Apocalypse furnished one wav of 
cennoctinc the nnw faith with the old, Uel. 
allegorical inteqiretation supplied anothur ready 
means of rinding Christ and Christianity in the 
OT ; thus making of it, luj Philo did, a hidden book. 
But the alleporical method was capable of a further 
Ute. The Gr. Christian was less concerned to find 
Christianity in the OT than to find (Jr. ]»hilo.wphy 
in Christianity. It was not an unnutuml cllort, 
oftur St. Paul, and in apparent connexion with hinj, 

to set the OT wholly BMda, and to apply aJIej^ory 
to the person and history of Christ. Gnosticism, 
indeed, based and pushed ita claims on iht; pround 
of api>.-4tu]ic authority, and, ^^itb itei ■'ejection of 
the OT, it was even the lirat to feel the need of 
new authoritative scriptures. But it establisfaed 
ita poidtion (1) by rutiuiriuu an allegorieol inter- 
pretation of the comnionly receiveti ajKMtoIic 
writinR*, makinfj them boolu of hidden imjwrt j 
V2\ by claiming to poneu, besides the o]ien apos- 
tolic writincs, a secret apo«t«lie tradition tlliLsilide* 
and Valcntmos claim to derive their secret gnosis 
from pupils of St. Paul ; t!ie (Jphitc<<, from a pupil 
of St. James, etc.); (3) by the production of great 
numbers of books, cbielly ^osjieU and ai;ts ol the 
various apostles;* {4} by the thiiui (like that of 
Hel. Judaism) to immediate proj^hetic inspiration, 
so that prophets and apocalypses played in some 
Gnostic communities an important part, though few 
tra<-ea of Gnostic apoi^Iypevos remam. 

Hel. GnosticUm stands as the extreme con- 
trast to the Jewish ajmcnlyptic tumlenoy. It re- 
nounced the OT on which the Apocalypse rests, 
and rejected the coming of Christ, tlie resurrection, 
and the earthly kinpiom. in which the Apoc 
centres. Yet twi'th make of Christianity a mystery, 
and claim for the books that unfold the mystery 
es]ienial i^anctity. From these two sources came' 
multitudes of a*^ books into Christian use. They 
were called A. by thos*? who valued them, for the 
word contained no neceiwary diMparagemcnt, but 
deiicribed the character of the Iwoks; and they 
were by no means condemned at the outaot M 
hereticiil. The Book of Enoch is directly cited by 
Judo (vv.'**'^), who also uses the Assumption of 
Moses (v.'). Front such books may have come 
othur citations and references which arc not found 
in known books (see Urigeo's view below). Tlia 
Book of Enoch was uttod aa a genuine and sabred 
book by the En. Baruabiu, Irenieus, Tertullian, 
and Clement ot Alex. Tertallian says, imleed, 
Dial it was not received by mme Christian.^, ile, 
however, defends Ua reception {i.e. among the 
iMioks of sarred Scripture) by np[>ealing to Jude; 
and explains its absence from the Heb. scriptures 
by saymg that the Jews rejected it, as they did 
otluT books, becMiBC it siioke of Christ, — an 
cxplanatiou not, indeed, whollv nnliistorical. 

Clement of Alex, uses Aas. AIos. and 4 Ezr, and 
aliso many other prophetiu A. unkuouu to us. 
He waa a warm defender of the ^aluc of secret 
tradiLions, and used not unlr Jewi^Jt. and even 
heathen, but Christian Ke4Tet )iooks. He believed 
in a RRcret tradition entni-^t^H! by Christ to His 
diwiplos, and valued it highly {Strom, u II. 13. U ; 
V. 0(C-4), Some of these traditions were preser\-ed 
in secret books, among which he cites certain a*" 
go»i»cls and acts. TJiough he knows tbat heretics 
nuiKe a tmd use of such iKwks {.Strom, iii. ^0), yet 
hUi view of .'I. as a whole is extremely favuurable. 
Origen is more dip"criniinating. He linrU a use for 
A. in NT inlerpretfltion. In I Co 2", 2 Ti 3". 
He 11". Mt 23^" 27" he buds references to a'' 
books, and enys that *not all A. current in tlie 
name of holy men ore to be received on account of 
the Jews, since they perhaps invented Gomo for the 
destructiuB of our true Scriptures and the confirma- 
tion of fal.<e doctrines; but not all are to be re- 
jet'teii, Kince soniejterlain to the denioii«tralion cif 
our Scriptures' iConiment. on Mt 23*">. Origen 
seems, however, to have l>een influenced in his n«e 
of tlie word by the Jewish (^cnMsim, for in his £/'Wf. 
ad Afrxc. he speaks of^ Sua as made a" by 
Jewish authorities, though tlie Christian Churcn 
did not so regard it. Jth and To, he says, 
the Jews do not posses even among their A. 

*9«) Ltpofas In Smith nnd Wan>, DiA. t^ CAriifian fiicy., 
. urts. ' GoapcU' and ' AcU uf ApiMtIc*.' 




These books aro not 'secret' in tbe proper nense, 
Kod can be CAlle<t A. only iu the acnse of bcinK 
wiLhdra.n'D from publicity, ftud so from canonicity. 

Tba dibnca of A. proper becune tuore umI more & mark of 
b«m7. Una Orlg«n fn Prot. in Cant, uvubs for their cx- 
dtnloB, baouM otiht cunnpt tntUttona, oomtu^ to Inm Utb, 
wli'tcta Uia; oinuun. Tliey mra loog eurrvnl In Or., but 
found no pcmunuit plaov la Uie UuC, UtouKti the UnuatAl 
V6S mirircil MKiM of tbooi, uid oos bMun« oiUTDnC in l^t, 
tboufrh Vnlg. tUd sot Bin It recoEiilUoD H £flO^ 

fhiUutrr at BretoU <oii R*r««c>, i. Sas-3B1 i.v.) condcami 
ttie 'twra«r wUch wmpU otilv vl., i.*. lucrvbt of iiropbeu uul 
spoaltei. Ml tan. •oriiilurc*' : but he »oulrl allow J. to tw rtod 
' tor lb* nk* of nwonrra bj- tiiv jivrfvcL,' oal iu tlw uliumli, Mnd 

PnteUtianua (tr»ct iii.) uvuca, from the K«a«Tally kocc]]l«d 
»c>.-OUBl of tiM rcttor&tion of tlift rah. ImmIm ti; Kzm m 4 Kzt 14, 
lor Um ralu* ot lb* 70 tccnl buolu nlao, indiitlinK 4 Ku- 
itwU. JbNpJ^aruu* alco finUfica hi Ute huuv n-li:n:ii(» the 
toe ot ranoas a** booki, wLidi he Ihuilu were Inuubtnl by Uie 
B«v«at7 la addiUoa to (iw canonioal. 

Tbs coorictioOi howtvar, ipudually pnvaUw] that lh« culUv»- 
Uen of Mcrel 'booka waa (laiignroua, Mlh bocauao of lh« crrort 
thaf oontftiiMd and bacatua of tba •ectuiaalni thoy foatetvd. 
Hham eould 'bt no Oatbolic Chunrh ao long aa aecti oould ebtim 
to pMnaa tlUior osw rev«latk>u or a aacrvt apoatolio Indltjaa. 

SacMt doctriow and boolw waro cut off by tbo two priaciplea. 
that ralkl iiupltattfon in» Itnltad to tha apoetoUc aga, and tlut 
oo^ tW boDka gvaetally r«oaJv«d In the eburohM warn renuiaaly 
aportoUo. Ko doubt a Moaa of tha uachiirtiaa oharactor of 
the books In quotioa worked, tofaUiar with tha nowiny coo- 
vfclhiB Itkat th«!r poaa e arioo waa oncathollc, to oring about 
thair ooodunnstMO. Tha grftdually prw«ailinz CsUiolic prin- 
ciple (fiNKf uMjtw, fluid wemper, mod ab omnt&ua) kouUI ){i*9 
to tbe verjr word ap«erffySus tlio meanin|[e : I«Jm, •j*urigu», 

Tba pnndpZa tlut only what the cliurcbaa geserullr rvcelve 
bapoaloUo (a found in the Jfuiodrrian jVogrnwnf (2nd oeiiC). 
i««Mrut>taiida«arl/ in Iba line ot Uiia nowiny OathoUclam. 
He oppoae* the tlMory, which Citnu Alex, defenda, of tba 
■>l«t«nca and value of secret trBdlUonaCi- ti. t, IB. S. 1, S. 1, 
]4. ^ li. IX Aod condemns the 'counUen multitude of aM 
aitd MNirtoua wrltinri' wlildi tbe UarooalaDij apDcaling to 
I>n IV. daiu to poeaeea, Uit which Uivv roally tatrioate for 
tbemauraiL if cpuijfpitf alao siwaks of 'the lo-oalled A.' ((.<. 
ao Qkllid bjr the hcntio* IketnaelveeX *ad aaja tbat 'eoni« 
of thaot wara written In hla own time by oertabi herellca ' (Kiu. 
UBlf. es. 8). TertuUiau chargta the nerctica with adilliiK to 
fti?rtptur» ' aecrcti ot A., {iiM)ihemoa»t»it\m' (Hour. CamtfSS); 
and wfit«» a TJcoroui polemic aKKinrt the tinoatic claim to 
pnwnw a aecrct tiwlition Cpnner. tt-tJ), U* applira the wonl 
^taypktu to an apoa which he rtfudB aa qnirioua (Staeph«nl>i 
but not to Enoch, which h« (m wpII as frennuc) rcfrards sk 

Snuina (■!< pudie. 10, do antmo, 2). Cfrit of JcroM., in his 
tcdiaUca (ir. S3-A, ah. .1M a.d.X tMtm the wonl of all 
Jewish books cxDcpl the a which an opaaly read in the 
churches Cyril's Insitt^noo that the A., C.S. tbe books not 
read In the cburdici, an not to bo Rad even in priratc, ia 
t> kdkwUjr almnl B^cnintt t)i<> distinrtion at three dasses of books 
— ihnan raad in church, thoer read privately, and thoaa wlioUjr 
ralecMd. lYiisdistlDotioa Isasolil as thi> Muratoriaii Fracment, 
which Dots the Shepherd In sgcfa a middio clua. It la inipUed 
hy (tty[tn, in hla rtlaorimlnation ainon^ A. It la de0iut«ly 
fonanlaccd by jltAnnanur, who, ia hia Bttb Ewbar Latter 
(867 A.B.). givea tbe oamo A . oniy to th« third claaa of books 
writtaa by hervtiia m pleased their latic.v, and put forth u 
old. lo Iced antny the simple. Athaiuisiui i^vcs no list ol 
theae A., hut lattr lists t«ach us the current undcntAudlng: 
of Ihewotd. 

The Chrvnoffraphji ^ IfionAorvM (patriarch of Constantinople 
8D0-S1SI. In a rerlaed form wulcli orkinatcd tn Jems, about UD, 
oontAlns a suchoaatfte list Df Hlblicnl books which hu Inner 
lauks (jt a mLicI) cstrUerdate (Zohn. 'perhapa U.*(ore 000). It 
o>ntains 111 the can. books of OT and of h'T; (2J the anlUc- 
romws of OT and of NT; (3) d. or trr and of NT. Under 
tlve last heedlAjf the following list Is givan :— JeoorvpAd ^ 
OT: (l> En<xh. 4^} I'atriarcbs. (31 t^yrr of Joa«ph. (4) TcAa- 
OB'tit of Moae<, (S) Amimption of yoeea, (e) Abram, (7) Uldail 
hi¥t ModMl, (8) Klllib. the prophet, W Zephaolab. the propfcct. 

ili>)Zacbarlab, tstacr of John, ;il) Psrudeplgra^iaof Banich, 
tat«kkuk, EseUel.kod Daniel. ApoerypSaoJ ST :(l> itlnerurv 
of Paul, <2> ItlB. Of Peter, (3) Illn. of John, {4) IUd. ot Thmiiaa, 
n) Doaptd BOOordlnE to nMMnaa. (t)] Teecbliij; of the Ajxiatln. 
^, 8) Clement's (two Epistles], (0} [Lplstlas] of l^'naUus, of 
rulycarp. and of Hennas. 

Of the A. of OT, Koa. 1. i. 4, & are. In whole or In part, 
a«taot -. No*. I, 7, a. are cited an Ki^iiuine ' by Urlcvu or Kiue 
still older CAnrob Father.' Tliey arc all Jewish apocalypiea, 
i.*. A. \a the carllvat acuae. but Uic wonl now camea an 
ad»«f«t Judgment. This list is repeated In the ae-callad 
S^mtftU V AUumtuiti*. Similar, but In aotne deKrae Inds- 
imnlcnl. la the cummsf}' <^ AAa the aftonj-mous ' Hm ^f tijttg ' 
aa. books, wlilch tony rvprviient the views of the tfaatem 
Qmnd) In Uic Tth cenL Atti.'r tiib can. tinuks foUons tho 
Intennadiate class ut '(Avsc ouliitlt of (As tixtu': and thni 
*«wryaAa' aa follows :— I'l) Adam, (2) Enocli, (3) Ljunech, (4) 
VWtoRta, (5) Prayer of Jim-pb («} KIdad and Uodad. fT) Tksta- 
■MAaf Maees,<K) Aeeumptlcio of Uoses, (B) Pnalms of SulAinoA, 
(UQApoc ot Elijah, aiJ Vlsioo of lulah, (IS) Apoc of Zepb- 

aiilah, (13) Apoo. of Zachnriob. (14) Apoc. ot Em. {lb) History of 
James, <1<I) Apoc of Petor, (17} Itinenry and Teachings of the 
AiKHlk'i, (I») Ktiistle uf Bumhoa. (10) AcU of Paul, QO) Apuc 
of Pau:, (t:i) DidasoaUn el Clement, (22) Dtdaaoalia of IgnaUtia. 
(23) Oidoecalia of Polycwp, <81> Gospel ace to Uoraabas, (26) 
(loonicl aoG. to Matthew. 

With retenaioa to theae lista, it Is to be noticed that they 
Hintaia bi ganeral Jtixt thnu bonks, Jewish and Christian, 
wbidb wen put fi>rifi iu tlio Onl pU<;o as j1. In the proper 
arnsa. Not Uie appll<»tion liiitth« intcrprttation of the word 
b obnogwl, in acoonlance with a changnl catimatc of Uw boolUL 
Onoa vaJuM by aonift as even riprr<an., they are now set afHut 
not only from tbe Canon, but frviu iJie class of books Umt am 
irmxl for nriirat« nwlitif^. NvvnrthrlnM, thpy still etend lo a 
recognised (.lass by thcnuclvca uiirlcr tha old (iUa ^porrypAa, 
and are distinct not only fmm w-ciilar or ht^Dthcn books, but 
from lat«r heretical litcntorv. The ifrcat part tbey played In 
early Church history has ao moch reoo^ition. 

The Latin Church was ftirtber remorod from the 
traditional use of the word, &nd it is not tstranga 
that we find there various novulties in it« appUca- 
tioD. The ^eate«t cxt«D3ioii of ite use ia found in 
the Deeretum Celasii, whiuh prcaeiita a list of Uihl. 
hooka that may bo regarded aa ibiil uf the Koui. 
Synod of 382, tinder Dainu-tus. Aft'er lisU of OT 
and NT, and a list of patrintio workn approved by 
tho Church, follows, tindur tliti headiii}^ Notitxa 
tibrorum apocrypkorum qui non recipiunfur, a list 
of Bonie 60 titlw. Only NT A. aie given, and to 
these are added (perhaps in later rcvi^ionB of the 
work) a miscellaneous collection of Ixioka con> 
dcmned by the Churoh, including even tlie worku 
of KtuehiuK, Tertullian, Clcinunt of A1l>x., i-te., to 
each of which, as to ttie eariitir li^t, the tuljeclive 
apocryphut Is added. 

Almoit equally novel in Christian usage is 
Jerome't extension of the word iu the opiiutiite 
direction to cover tho books of our A., thcitigh 
this rests upon Ueb. usatjc, as we know It from 
Origen. 'Quid<|uid cxtiu ho.s [the 'H huok-t of 
Ueb. Can.] out, iaiez ariKpi.<^ enno |M)Dendiui) ' 
{Prologue GaleaJus), Jerome, in prtictice, how- 
ever, gives to our A. on intermediate poRition (»eo 
below), in Bubst^intial hnnnony with Ruftnun, who 
attcuiptod to introduce the lCust<-m (hrecfutd divi- 
sion into tho West, and gave tlie uanie aj}ocnjpkn 
to the third L-]aj>.H. 

The W(.'!'t«rn Church, however, did not adopt 
the threefold divl^on. A^iui^t Jeruino'a theory, 
it included the second division in the first. Neither 
did it extend the word apocrt/pha to Iieretical l>ouk^ 
in L-enerol, but retainiid piucticalty it* oriyinul 
application. Another Weatern novelty, iiciw- 
uver, maintained itself tUrou(;h the niiiMlB agcK, 
namely, the interpretation of tlie word o/;orry/*A(M 
as meaning ohscuHlif of origin or authorship. 
According to AngusUne, the A, were ao called 
' becauao their obscure origin wua not clear to the 
Fathers' i,<U Civ. Dei, xv. 23), and he op|>oses this 
explanation to the idea of heretics, tlrnt they 'are 
to Ml held in a ct^rtaiu secret authurity ' (c. pauat, 
xi. 2). This bronijht lonfusion, for tlie word hitd 
come to mean practically non -can., but olncurily uf 
origin was not a eorrcji^wiiciing conception. So. 
during the middle ages, it was varioui^ly modified 
by extending tiio idea of obauurity or unt.'ert4iinty 
from the authorship to the trulh of a hook, or to 
ita reception by common con.scnt of the Church. 
•Jth, a'' in the ttcnHC tltat its author i» un- 
known, was received {(^n.) bei>a.use itx truth is 
evident (Hugo do St. Caro, 1240). Job, a'' in the 
same senKc, is in the Canon because not iinri>rtainly 
confirmed by the authority of the Church (Hugo ae 
St. Victore, d. 1141). 

The usage of Protestantism Is premrcd by 
Carlstadt in his De eanonieis scripttina. 1520. lie 
reviewH the opinions of Augustine and Jerome, and 
sides with the latter in nwpect both to tlie inter- 
pretation of the word and its application to our 
A. Not uncertainty of autbor»hip. but dmply 
non-canonicity, is the meaning of the word apocry' 




phai. He ftppliw) tlie word to the books of our A, 
as an odjecuvc, uol as n thlc. T(trou;;h Protetjtant 
raid, of Chii BtUe, beRiDuiuK with Lutlier, the word 
came, liy it natnral mUiind<>r^taiidiitg, to Lo ro< 
^ardt^l an the tittc of this i>articular collection, 
and the wonl ' T»^iid<;[>ij'rai>l)a' wasi utied of the 
A. proper, which nnitlier Jerome, Carltitadb, nor 
Latner thought of depriving of their old name. 

On tho otTier hand, the name ' Apocrypha,' to 
which a bad sennc adhered, contributed to a grndn- 
ally diminwhing regard for the hooka now bo called. 

Conclttsiotu. — (1) The word nporiyphat wa.s n.ied 
before the KcformatJun quito cuuhislctilly uf » 
certain class of books, namely, the .lewislt and 
Jewish - Christian Ai>ocalypic5, which we cnll 
Paeudepiprftpha, and the Apocrypha of the NT, 
utill 90 called, made up largely of the books of 
Onostic and other sects. These ore properly secret 
or hid<ien IkhjUs in their formal claim tuid ux their 
contents, if not orij^inally in their actual use. 

(2) Jewish Rabbis a(iiilie<l a synonymous word, 
ffenusim, to books * htud[!U,' i.e. withd^a^v-n and 
witliheld from public (syuaj^^riie) use hj the 
Jewish aiithorititts, and mi made nnoanonical. 
This 'hiding' (tlie verb is used more often than 
tho adjective) mipht happen to books in no sense 
of hidden origin or meaning. Through Origcn and 
Jerntiic, the Jewiwli woi-d »t.-cnis to havo had aoinc 
iiulluvitoo upon the Chri:«ltan. 

(3) The Catholic Chnrch, however, did not fintt 
make books a"* by excluding; thcin fntin the Canon 
(the verb is not used), but it decided that the 
A. already existing under that name were not to 
be regarded as sacred scriptures, since publicity and 
aniversality were marks of genuineness and truth. 
The secret l>ooks of sects were, as such, spurious 
and false. 

(4) It M'as therefore easy to forget that A. was 
the original name nf theiw bonks, and to regard 
itas expre!i-*ing the judi^Tnent of the Church ooocem- 
ing them, Those books were hidden which bclonpod 
to sects, which lacked common, open u-iitge hy 
the Church. .'1''^ meant, not reccivod by the Church. 
Rut since books which the Church received wore 
thereby provetl npotibolic, a non>apostoUc and 
obscure origin was a mark of A. 

(6) Protestantism went over to tho Jewish usogc, 
applying the word to the books withdrawn by it 
from" the L-ommoniy accepted Canon, though this 
no longer meant withdrawn from public reading and 
common ujie, but only from full authurity for 
doctrine. Protestants thus came to apply the word 
to books used with the canon in church service, not 
disapproved but rei-tutmiended as gotxl and nsefiil, 
not secret or hidden in origin, meanin^^ or n.ic. 
The e\Tl name, however, helped to lower the first 
estimate of the iMJok*!. 

Orioin or THE Collection.— In order to under- 
stand the origin and hiHturirnl jtigniftronce of the 
collection of iwoks which we call the A., it i» 
necessary to survey the work of the Jewifth scribe. 
for in tiiB scribe the literary history of Judaism 

{a) jTA* Work of the Jetcish Scribes. — This can, in 
ft ffeneral way, bo divided into (A) tho collecting 
and editing,' of tho sacred books, (It) the production 
uf new bonks. The transition bolween the two 
was mndt! by the tr, or paraphrasing, and the 
interpretation of the sacroci books. More particu- 
larlyj (A] the scribes collected and edited (I) the 
Law : (2) the Prophets, ' former' and • latter ' ; (3) the 
re»l of the religious literature of the nation, thewj- 
caltcd Hai^o^rapho. {B 1) In connexion with this 
3rd Canon, which contains aome indemndent work 
of the scrilMw, the production of other books of 
similar charncter was encournged («.(?. tho A.lj 
{"2) with the Maccabcean crisis came ft revival of 

jipophecy, and tho prodnt-tion of bfwks interpreting 
and imitating those of the 2nd Canon (apoi-alypHes, 
or ajiocrypka proper} ; (3) the interpretation of the 
let Canon, tho Law, always a chief tjLsk of the 
scribes, was especially etLmulated after \.\\fi do- 
stmction of Jerus., and resulted in the Mistina 
and TttlmuJ. 

The Bj'nagngne was the centrt^ of Uie scrilie's 
literary activity ; and thi^ c«*ntre of the synagogue 
service was the Law. Tho religieus instruction of 
the people in the religion of the luw was his aim. 
Uis oollection of other sacred buoka was for the 
sake of their [mblio rcadinif iu the synagogue 
service, in exj»o»ition and enfnrccmcnt of the Law. 
Such public reading yvn* the murk and meaning of 
canonicity. The tranwlationa (Targumim) and 
commentaries {Midra-^him) that at^companied the 
reading were for the same end, the rcligtous teach- 
ing of the community, and were free and oral 
Irefore they were fixed in ^vriting. 

The order of the inde{)eud'ent work of the scribes 
sketched above (B) revorsea the order of their work 
as editors (A). Tltis sequence is not to he over- 
]iressed. The editing nf the iwrities involvutl, especi- 
ally at first, independent work, in tho way of com- 
ment as well OS selection and arrangement ; on the 
other hand, their independent writing was always 
iHiHcd on trudiliiJti. rVclm}>s in the cose of none 
of the hooka of the scrilics have we original works 
in the proper sense. The iitorie^ of haggailists and 
the visions of seers are revisions and elalxtrations 
of traditional material. Further, the three lines 
of independent work outlined existed side by side, 
and the order ^'ivun is only that of the first preval- 
ence of each kmd of work. Gr. influence favoured 
the fir.'<t, the Maccabu-un reaction tlie second, and 
the fall of the nation the third. Of tho products 
of the first kind, some gained admi»»ion into the 
3rd Canon (Hngiogrnphn), and so bficame the com- 
mon property of Pal. and Alex. Judaism and Chris- 
lianily. Itut as they wero especially congenial 
lo JiiWM who full moHt under Cir. iiilhiencc, some 
of them were preser^"©!. otheis contributed, by 
Alex. Jews. So far as they gained a pl-icu in the 
Gr. Bible, these, too, passed over to Christianity 
(the A.). Products of the 2nd doss we have con- 
sidered under i. 1. Writings of the tirst and 
jtcccind kinds are called by Jews Hag^ada, while 
the third, the clalHiration otid UtiliniliDn of the 
luiw, is called Halaoha.. The A., then, are to l>u 
viewed ia oIom connexion, on the one fide, with 
the llagiographa, and, on the other, with later 
developments of the Jewish llaggnda. 

(A) The Apocrifpha in relntion to the ffftffio* 
tjirapfui. — That the three divisions of the Jewish 
'Canoii (compare the lifit at tlie 1>pglnninp of this 
article) repruwent three 8ULirej«*ive collections, 
widely separates! in time, and that they utoud 
originally, iu the Jewish view, iu a decrea.'^ing 
order of authority and importance, are ascertained 
facts in the history of OT Canon. The Ilagio- 
grapha Is, then, a relatively late collection of 
txioKa on the wliole late in origin, and, according 
to tho Jcwii^h view, inferior in authorit}- to Law 
and Prophets. The order of iHxiks «h>ui poking it 
is variously given, and tho limits of tho collection 
were open to dispute long after the Law ontl 
Prophets were closed. In regard to Ca, Eo, 
and £.st, there were still diflerouces of opinion np 
to the time of Akiba {o. IK^-lSri A-D.). 

The Bk of Ps owes its TdafO here to the fact that 
its une was in the lemple, not in the Hynngogiio. 
Afiart from Ps and La, the Hagiograpba consists 
of (1) history, iu continuation of that told in Kings 
(Ezr-Neh); (2) hihtory retold with a view to 
InHtruL-Lion (Ch)* ; (3) stories, based on history 

* In the Mtdrashic trvatmant ot hiitory, Cb tollowa still 
otdar Kttempta (we 2 Ch U^ isnji 






or tratlilioti, uAd to illtUitrute religious truth (Ru, 
£8t, Ca(!), Uu). In Job itie ttnnnilion in made 
from ttlcry to ^4) (•Uiical and nliiUiNorliicnJ Iwolcs 
(Pr, Ect. 

Under fiimilar lieatlingR fall the contents of 
the A. (1) H»t«r}' proper U found in 1 Mao. (2) 
UiKtory Mid Btciry arc rutold wtlli udifyiiig em- 
l>eUi^h^l(*rlta. 1 E« u made np of extrarU from 
£ Ch 1^. 361. Kzr. and Npii. wiUi an additional 
Btory of tbo wisdom of Zorob&btd (A-d*). This 
MidVash perlmps preceded the literal tr. of Ch, 
Eir, Kcb, into Oreck. Snch an Ilajrsaiiic atlilition 
to history was Pr. Man (sugj^ested by 2 Ch 53^'^ '*j. 
Est apiieara in the LXX only in the form of a 
midnuii, in whidi. amontf other thioga, are supplied 
Uiu letter ref«rreil t« in 3", prayerM of Mordecai 
and Esther at 4'^, the decree mentioned in 8". 
Pn ia iiimilarly enlarjiixl by a prayer and »ong 
at S*". and the new stori'-'-t of iJaniern wisdom. Sus 
ond Bel. Even the Inte Maccah-Tan history ia 
treated in the Ila^igadic way in 2 Mat*, an epitome 
cif a larger work by .la«uu of Cynmi:, wliirli uliirni* 
the lii^itory with b>;:eiidary cteniciitjt U> make of it 
a aennon on thif fliariiutii: relit^tun. 3 and 4 Mac 
are fountl niiually in the LXX, though not in the 
A. 3 Mac i^ a j-oor example of moralising under 
the form of history ; anrl 4 Mac makes an incident 
in the Maocabccan ctorv the text for a pliilowpbical 
treatise on the iordi^hip of the religious reaaon 
over the i>a&aionB. (3) Of new atorius the A. 
rtmtaioa two famoutt exampleH. Tu and .Uh ; 
Tobit teat-bing the reward for the individnal of 
a faithful life of Pharisaic rigbteonHne«s ; Judilb 
connecting a patrioti»nn like K'(ther'» with regard 
for a ceremonially correct life. (4) Direct moral 
and religions instniction ('ethical liaggada') is 
ri!prtiiivnt«d by Sir aud Win, the iino a Pal. con- 
tinuation, tliu other a Hel. deretopmont of the 
earlier wiMlom bookf. At* in the Ilagiographa one 
book, Dd, makes llie tranaition from story to 
prophecy, so in the A., liar and the Kp. of 
•leremy are iirophetic in character. It U not, 
bowe%'er, witli prophecy nor with law, but with 
hiatory aud atory, that both Uogiographa and A. 
have cbieHv to do {cf. the use made of Dn by 
HeUeniiita [LXX] and by later I'aleHinian^ [Enoch, 
etc]. The line between history and story is in 
both an uncertain one, as hiatory, too, is told for 
religions, not for scientUic purposes. With Htories 
and with proverbial aayinga the Jewish Kabbts 
long continued to occupy thenis«lrea. The value of 
these forma of religious instrnction no one will 
question in view of tiie gUHpel-). Aa to the relative 
worth of their use in the Hagiograpba and the A., 
a fair judgment, apart from doctrinal considera- 
tions, will strongly ju^tify the choice of the Taloa- 
tinianB, taking the tivo colk-ctium* on wholes. A 
relation between them in, liuwerer, not to be 
denied, and ia grounded in their hiatory. 

(e) PalfMinian and HelUnistxc EUimntu in the 
Apocrypha. — The a" books of the LXX were in 
part translations of I'al. (Ilcb.) books, in part 
original writingB of Greek Jews; but it is not 
|K)f«iblo to draw the line between the two with 
■eeurity. As the L,\X wan rccogniHibd ana tr., one 
tronld expect that translation »t would more readily 
find their way into it. Yet the Uel. scribes 
were busy wntens, especially in tlie linea which 
llie A. follows (history, story, wi.*lonO. Sir 
contains ito own tet*timony that it was writt-en in 
Heb. and tr. bv the writer's grandson into Greek. 
1 Mac was onuoubtcdly a Hch. hook, and Jerome 
(if not t')rigcn) knew it in the original. Jth and 
To, Jerome knew in ' ('haldee,' and a Heb. origtn&l 
ia almost certAin. The Ad, Eot may be Heb., or 
at leaHt Kimilar additinnx may ha%'e arisen in Pal. 
in connexion with the yi'iirly celebration of Pttrim. 
Pr. Man may have been lieb., and even 1 Ea, if it 

preceded the LXX 2 Es [Ezr-Is'oh], may have 
tiad a Heb. precursor. Of the Ad. Dn, ISua 
turns on a Gr. play on wonts. Wis aud 2, 3. and 
4 Mac were ^^ertninly Greek. 

2. Use of tiii; Aiocia cha and its rklation 
TO THE Canon.— (a) /» JlelUnistic JuiitiUm.— 
Tho a*! liooks are found in all MSS of the LXX, 
Ki-nttured anion^ the books of the Heb. Canon 
without discrimination. These MSS are, indeed, 
all of Christian origin, and some of them even 
contain Christian songs ; but, apart from thfse, they 
undoubtedly represent tho OT wlut-h wa» current 
among Uie Or. Jews and UiHHl in Gr. synagogues 
in tho apostulio and early iMi-it-apoutolic age. 
The addiiiuns to the Heb. Canon are not only of 
Jewish origin, bnt are, aa a whole, booka which 
would interest Or. Jews, but would not specially 
interest Christians, ainoe the prophetic clement in 
them is oonspiononsljr small. The addition of 
these books b^ Christians would be inexplicAble. 
The preservation of this longer OT by Christians 
only, ia natuniliy oxiilaiund by the fact that 
soon after 70 a.d. Hel. Judaism in the disliuct 
senHe ceased to exist, giving place either to 
rabbinical Judaism or to Christianity; so that 
the earlier dillercni-'e regarding tho limits of 
sacred Scriptures between Pal. and AIl'x. Jews 
KUi'vived ouly aa a dill'creuco between Jowa aud 

^Ve must not, however, conclude that the A. 
Im.d btien in the strict )>eiuie canuni/ed by Alex. 
Judaism. Their place among Scriptures is rather 
dne, in part, t« the .Mipreme dignity of the I,a,w ; in 
{Mirt to tho brood view of inspiralion current 
amon^ Hellenists. In a more exclusive way 
than in Inter Pol. Judaism, the Pent. M-as tu 
Alcxandriana the sacrud Scripture, the Canon by 
pre-eminence. It was sucli to Pliilo. In this 
n-iippct the Alexandrians [HThaps remained at the 
standpoint of the earlier Palestinians of the 3rd 
and 2ud ccaturics u.c. When Alex. Judaism was 
foundeil, the I^w waa the Canon of Judaism. 
The work of the 70 concerned it alone (Ariateas). 
The tr. of the other books into Greek in Egypt went 
on, in part, side by side %vith the formation of tho 
2nd aufl 3rd Canons in Pal. That the suc- 
ceeding trau-ilators disregarded tho Pal. distinc- 
tion or Prophets and Hagiograpba, and arranged 
the Iwoks, after the Ijiw, topically, though in 
no fixed order, indioatca their diHercnt view of 
these books. The relativelv freer tr. points in the 
Hune diriH-tlnn ; and this tTtxAmu pa»Hes over by 
natural decrees into the inc^riw) ration of explautt- 
tory and Ulustrative additions of less or greater 
extent. For this procedure the l*a]. translators 
of OT into Aram. (Targumini) had perhaps already 
set the example. That, hnaltr, Sir and Wis should 
bo put in connexion with the Solomonio books, 
making, with Ps and Job, a volume of poetry, 
or tlirat, in connexion with Eat, Jtli and To should 
ba inserted, cannot Heem strange. This waa made 
easier by thd Hel. view of inspiration. While 
Palestinians ini-linfd to limit iuHpirnlion to the 
age of the prophets, long ended, the Alexandrians 
regarded the divine spirit as stUI active, and vicM'ocl 
aa inspiration the experience of the thinker and 
writer in momenta of special cluajnoss of insight 
aud exaltation of feeling. 

Against the evidence that the LXX contained 
a*' Iiook", Phihi'fl silence is inconclusive. Philo's 
text is the Pent. It is true that he cites none of 
the A., but in the prophetic Canon he passes by 
Ezk and all the minor prophcta except Hos and 
Zee; and of tbe Hogioffrapha, except V», he makes 
almost no dm, oitiag rr twice, Job and Ch once, 
and Bn and the five MegUloth not at all. 

{h) In Palestinian Judaism. — Here, to<>, the Law, 
long the only Conun, remained aupnime. The 

Jewish Rcritiea regnrded the prophota aa those who 
gave an anthorit-atlTe interpretatioD of the Law, 
imndinK ou the Munaic traditioa from tho cMurit lo 
the 8cnl«», The Law bos always had the chief 
jilaco in the synagogue iwrvice, Iho ]>rophvta an 
important ttccundaiy place, tho Hagiographa a 
placo ello;;cthcr sunordinatc. For a lone time 
these difil-ront collections could not be writieo on 
tho saino roll. As they did not form obo volume, 
it waa tho easier to keep thciu distinct in use and 
«stiJuation. The books of the 'ind and 3rd Canons 
were, however, according to tbo Jowiah view, 
istspirf.^, and this in the end dUtingriished them 
from all later bookH. Jux, {c. Ap. i. 8) says that 
the prouheta ' le&med tiie earliest and most ancient 
events by inspiration of God, and wrote down the 
eventa of their own times plainlr, as they 
occurred.' 'But from^ Artaxerxes [Est] to our 
times all eventa have indeed been written down ; 
bat thcae late books arc not deemed worthy of the 
same credit, because the exaot aaccession of ilie 
prophet* waa wanting.* By the une of the formal 
prineiplu that with Alalacm prophecy ceoaed (cf. 
Mai -1*", Zee I3», I Mao ■»« 0*' 14"), though they 
coald iiwj the t.cst only uncritically, the scribes 
drew the lino between Uagiographa and A., or 
justified the line already drawn by the popular 
religious aense. All the Hagiographa could bo 
reijarded aa meeting thin teat, but Sir and 1 Mae, 
which were the moni valued books of the A., could 

It is trne that Jesna Sirach himself does not 
share this (later) view of inspiration. He may 
represent the earlier Pal. standpoint, from whicK 
Alcxandriaulsm took ita stArt. For him the Law 
i5 supreme. It ia the embodied Wisdom of tlod 
{2-1™). In Bome sense his knowli>dge t» all derived 
from it (39'- • 24*'). On the other hand, between 
the pro]ihets and the higli pritjst of Ids own time 
he makes no sharp distinction (44~49l : and fcir 
himself ho claims an inspiration liUc that of tho 
prophet (cf. 39«'>- with 48", and sec l'* 24»'-" 51"«-). 

Tlie step from Sir to tho Hellenistic Wis is 
not great. Here, too, the Law is the supreme 
revelation (e.p. 18*).t and here, too, in answer to 
prayer (ci. Sir 39*), the tspirit of wisdoiii is given to 
uien, tliat spirit which is the life and reason of the 
world, and which 'generation after generation 
enters into holy souls and makes friends of God 
and prophets' (7^, cJ. chs. 1. 6 fT.). 

Apart from 4 Ezr, which, not being in the LXX. 
iliHia nut detteri-e consideration at this point, the 
other lK>r>ks of the A. make no claim to be 
reckoned .imong Rnr.rrd Sf rijitures. 

It id not eJLsy to t-Htimnto the significance of the 
fact that we have no evidence in Jemsh books that 
they were ei-er so regarded, IXspntea are recorded 
recording the excloaion of books of tho Canon, bnt 
none regarding the admission of a*' books. Yet it 
should lie said that the dewinh Uabbis usually 
covered up the tracks of post wanderings from 
the straight path that led to their own position. 
That additions to Dn and Est, and books like To 
and dth, were once current among tho Hagiographa 
in Pal, is not impossible. Josephususes 1 Mac, 1 Es, 
and Ad. Est, without distinction from can. books 
as historical sources, and even aays that he has 
written his whule history 'as the »acred books 
retrord it' {An[. XX. xi. 2, vf. Pro. § :i). Yet he 
counts 22 book'^, and excludes from the first rank 
all later than Est. In Itis time, then, the line had 
been drawn. 

In the rabbinical writings there are many 

* Rkbft bathra 14 omHIms Job t« Mum*. Rti to mamovl. Pm to 
t)&vid, Cb and Se to Hewklah and bli frl<!iuli, Dn and £Jit to 
Che men of th» OrMt Sjrnwcave, Ch to Earn and Nchpiuinh. 

t Tb9 IdentlllcatJon cf WLBoToin vrlth tha Law la (ound alao In 
nor SW, 4. Jnrtith and ToMt and hU aon are exftoiplcaol thw 
rlorUcKtlan of Uw Law In lUe. 

citations from Sir ; Zunz * coonts 4U, among 
them some ' iu a manner u.^ual only of Scripture 
poasagiJB,' and kuiuu as lato us the 4th cenl., 
which speak of it as one of the Kethubhiiti. f?omo 
doubt, at least, regarding its canonicity in 
t>rob4kble. Of Ad. Est Kome iracos exist in Heb. 
literatnro. Hoggodie stories concerning Dn, 
among them traces of Bel, are found. Tho Mac- 
cnbican legend of the mother and seven sons 
(2 Mac, 4 Mac) was a faroarite theme of rabbinical 
Midrashim. Yet 1 Mac^ which Jerome knew in 
Ueb., aeenia to have left no trace in rabbinical 
books. The legend of Judilli is found, though in 
a fonn very diflisrent fi-um the LXX, and Tobit is 
still extant In Heb. Jerome says the Jews hod 
Jth and To, and regarded them aa hbntorioal 
but not aa canonical ; while Origen saya they did 
nob possess them even among their A. 

3. The Uf.i.atios or thk Apockypha to the 
Kki.icjioi;sTi;ndencies AND Pakties or Judaism. 
— Of a theolofv of the A. it is unhistorical to 
speak. The colIeoUon presents the ideiut of no one 
man or party, of no one perio<l or place. The 
theology, or the religious ideas of each book, may 
be treated (see separate articles), or a history of 
the religious ideas and movements in Judaism in a 
given period {e.ff. 200 B.C.-100 A.D.) may be under- 
taken, in which these lMoka will be important 
sources ; but tlie historian of theology cannot 
separate the A. from the later can. btKJKB on tho 
one side, and from Philo and Joseithus, tlm 
I'aeudepigrapha and the early rabbiaicaJ literatuTe, 
on the other. 

A few suggestions may, however, be made 
regarding tho relation of these books to the chief 
religious tendencies and parties of Judaism. 

The main diMtinutiou in the jJost-e-xUic Jewish 
religion was that between the pne^l, whose sphere 
was the terapte and ilH ctiltus, and the eii^rilH!, 
whoso activity centred in the synagogue and the 
law. The centre of gravity seems to have shifted 
gradually from the temple to the synagogue, from 
priestly ritual to the legalism of the acnbes, whoso 
wurk luailtt it poattihie Tor Jews iu the Db^pemion, 
out of reach of the temple, to live religious livea, 
and prepared Judainm to survive the loss of ita 
temple. The Hagiographa stands, as a whole, at 
the earlier stage, beginning with the Ps, the book 
of temple devotion, and ending with tbo uroat 
t«nplo history of Cli, Ezr, Null. The five >legil- 
loth also came into connexion with the cultus by 
their use at tlie national feasts, though it is not 
known how early this happened. On the other 
hand, there is no early evidence of tho rp-gulor use 
of Hagiographa in the synagogue service, and of 
the scribes' legalism they contain litth-. Only 
Dd, perhaps the latest book in this coUection, can 
be called Pharisaic in tcndoncy. 

In the A., on thu other band, the legal pre* 
dominates over tlie priestly interest. Sir, pcrhaiw 
ita oldest book, shows a transition from the priestly 
standpoint of Ch (to which belongs 1 E») to 
the legal standpoint of the scribes <Zunx). The 
writer delights in the temple and tho high priest's 
impressive ceremony, and dwells upon Aaron much 
more at length than u[>on Moecs (eh. 4o), and with 
Rlill more enUmsia^m upon the Simon whose minis- 
trations he hail hiinxpli witneK»e«l (ch. i30) ; while 
Ezr.1, the patrcjn saint of llm Riibbis, is passed by 
in his praise of fainons men. Yet he praises also 
the law as the wisdom of God (nfe alMive), and 
glorifies the office of the scribe (as»*-" 39'"). 

nnt it wo-s especially the MaciaibnMJi crisis that 
jdiavpcued the conlrnjit lictween the two tendencies. 
The desecration nf the temple by Antio<!lms waa 
the occa'^ion of the war. The recovery and recon- 
secration of the temple wa» the great doeil of 

* GottemlicmtticKen fvrtnige tier Juden, 2 Aufi. ISOt, p. 100. 




JadiLs. This meant to iho seriU-a the re observance 
of the law, and with that they were content. It 
utejint to Judojs the first step toward a recovery of 
]K>titiciil mile|>Gndeace. Judusm was organised 
al>out its teniple. Its cniireme authority was t)ie 
high [iriest. So that the Msccabnmn princ<>d (.-ovetc4 
the hlffh priosihood aa a ]iolitii-}Ll {lower, and finally 
goinea it. But this was a violaliun of the law, 
and alienated the lc(,'alista, who became a parlv of 
sepnrutiBtf, Phnrisee^, with the scribes at tueir 
haul and the syun^'u^uu as their iuKtitution. 
Agtun»t them thu iidhL-runts of the teuipU oud the 
new hi^h prii*Mii liecanie on opposinf^ party, ttie 
Sadducees. The pricKtly tendency iwnieJ in a 
political party, the KcrilJal in o rvli^^uiiti party; 
and in the ronllict of thote parties the inner htH- 
toxy of JndaiHin ehicHy coned«tod until the fall of 
•feruttalcni. Since Sa4fdiiceiBm was bound np with 
the t«iuple and tJie notional life, it cease^l to be after 
the deHtniction of tomple and Statit ; and fiince its 
viuwH were aa obnoxious to Cliristjaiiity as to sur- 
vlvini* JndaiKni, none of )t« (listlnct lit«rary pro- 
ducts could Hurvive. The A., huwever. owing 
partly to its Alex, selection, partly to its com- 
paiutivcly early date, in not a purely Pharisaic 
ptuduvt, and stondEi aiidu from thu controversy 
Dctwccu the two parttcit of which we know [from 
the Pliaru^aic side) in P.'*-Sol, Knocli, ete. Two 
book* of tlic A. are Sadduccnn in ttuidcncy. 
Sirach vTites before the MoccaboBan wan, so that 
his book rnn he <'-alle<l 8addnoean only by anlicJpn- 
tion. i^addncoan in tono was not only his att^u-h- 
mcnt to the temple and the prie»thoo<f (above], but 
alH> his reserve in regard to anccls, his sceptical 
attitude oa to demons (SI'") and tno future life (f.g. 
1-iT-w I4ii'i» 41'~*), pcrhupa his inaUtence on the 
entire fre«Klora of man (16"'" IT*"'), and hi« Hpirit 
of liberality toward out«>ide ftources of knowli^l^e 
ami culture (e.g. 3&*). There is, indeed, a polemic 
afcuinst a Pluuisaie spirit of ceremonialism in 
34"'» 35*'-. 

1 Mac followfi the criidii out of which the parties 
ftnwe, but precedes tlmir serious conllicts, The 
writer's admiration fur Judaa and his hrotberK, 
' through whoso hand salvation was g^vvm to Israel,' 
is unboundcl (S", cf. 3'-» 9"'- 13»« I4»»- I6» etc.). 
He paintit Simon's reign in thoroughly MeBsianic 
colours (14*'^"}, nod in tlic decision that 'until a 
tnidtworthy prophet shonid arise . . . Simon should 
be their prince and high priest for ever,' his political 
and reliuioua creed was summed np. It was the 
creed of Saddnceism. Sodducxfan also is the 
writer's attachtnent l-o the lawn and customs of 
the nation, and his opposition to innovationa (2''^ 
331. m QW et(._ ). [jiit la^.j, aj(j foj- n^^ strcnptheniiig and 
uiety of the nation, and, when the observance of 
even to sacred a law us the Subbath expoac<t the 
nation to danger, its non-o!KM;rvnnoe was decreed 
(a"""). He l(»ok.i to the valiinr of the hero to win 
victories (no miracle even in O"-** U""'*) ; as Jos. 
says, 'The Sadduceea take away fate ... we are 
onrselves the causes of good,' etc. {Ant. xrii. r. 0). 
Uia iaterest is in man more than in God, and in 
the present more than in the future. 

The essence of Fhariaaism wna tlmt It gave 
religion (i.e. legalism) the first place. TheSadducee 
attempted to further the welfare of the individual 
and 01 the nation bv direct titeens (politics, war, 
etc.) : the Pharisaic /aith was that if tno individual 
and the community kept the law, God would by a 
supernatural act eccuro tbeir welfare. The Saddu> 
cees would set aside the law in smaller things 
(Sabbath), or in greater (high priesthood), when 
circumstojiws re4iuirod. To the PharisHo the law 
was inviolable, whatever tlie extremity. This it^ 
the principle of Pharttiaihm. Out of it various 
developments issued. 
That the law might never be broken by iondvert- 

enco, the scribes put about it a 'hedge' of addi- 
tional precautionarv mJes, the IlaJacha, or oral 
taw, which the Sadaucees did m>t recognise. The 
belief that well-being was tJod'e reward for the 
observance of the law, and misfortune His jmnislt- 
ment fur its tran^greKHton, ttiough njtplied at lintt 
to the prcisent Ht'e and lot of men and nations, 
might easily be referred to the future, and foster 
the thought of a coming national glory for Israel, 
and of an individual life after death. It might 
al»o stimulate Lhe belief in miracles and in angels 
uid demons as agenL«« of Uod's blet^sings and judg- 
ments. Yet thuae marks of later Pharisaism are 
not uniformly or oonMpicuousIy present in the A. 

Fasting i» almost the onlv addition which wo 
tind to the Mosaic law [To fd*. Jth 8< etc., ef. Pn 
U' liP}, with a further ascetic emphasis upon lhe 
laws regarding food [Jth ItP 11" l'»a. To P^'-, Ad. 
Eat U'" 2 Mac 5" (i«^). The creed of the lik of 
.)lh is that no enemy can prevail against Isratd 
so long as it keeps ttie eerenioninl law, hut if it 
breaks it, under whatever stress, it will fall (5""" 
Ip-it (J'"'*). Moreover, Judith's deiiverance of tho 
nation is conditioned upon her individual fultllment 
of the law even amid the greatest dilUeulties (8*-^' 
12'''). Tbi."i is true Pharisaism, and 3'et the U>ok 
contains neither .Messianic ho)ie, nor rewards after 
death (16" is not to l>e so understo<Kl), nor miracle, 
nor ongel. Tobit illuatratefi the Pharisaic prin- 
ciple in the life of an individual. Legal rigliLoous- 
nesR is rewarded by deliverance from evil, long life 
and prosperity ; wliile ain is always nnniahed by 
cvii, and all evil is doe to sin (3'-« I*'-" 14**»(. 
Here angels and demons play a far greater port 
ihon inany other book of lhe A. The national hopn 
alfio is expressetl (13. 14*~^], but there is no resur- 
rection, 'rhe Bk of Bar cont»ins the national hope 
(2"-" 4*" 5'-"), but no individual resurrectiou. 
2 Mac riews the work of Judaa as nn illustration 
of Pharisaiam. It knows of no laxity ret:;ardiug 
the law (of. 5»» 0" 8* 12*" 15'). The history i« 
' ' ' ' rwani by angels and inirncle^ and mgris 
'■9» 10""^ Il-'IS'"-). The national Uoim; 

hcliKid forward 

Hnds frequent expression (I"'" ff-'* etc); and, 
hero only in tho A., the resur. of the iKMlies of thu 
righteous is in-listed upon (Ts.u-i*." I2»i. t4«,_ 

It is evident that the Inter marks of Pharisaism 
(cf. Ac 23*"*} were not uniformly present. Legalism 
stands as tho characteristic mark. 'This la tho 
book of the commandments of Clod, and thu law 
that endureth for ever. All they that hold it fast 
are destinerl for life, but such as le-ave it shall die' 
(Bar 4']. And since the law of life was Israel's 
law, with legalism went particularism. ' O Israel, 
happy are we I for the things that are pleasing to 
(Jod are made known unto us' (Bar ■!*]. Of thi.t 
feuliiig, and tho currcai>ouding contempt for other 
jwoples, passing over, in times of trouble, into 
jealouny and hatred, there is enough in the A. 
It inspires Ad. Kst as it does Est itnelf, Jlli and 
2 Mac are dominated hj it. It is a pponi tier 
of To {^"^ etc.). Even Sir shares it, tbonyli hi-* ruling 
interest is in tho indi\-idnal, not in the nation 
(esp. 3a'", cf. 24, and in 44-50, a.?. 47^). Only 
(he He}. lik of Wia risen to a. brooder view, 
la chs. Ii>-ld tho special care of (iod for Israel 
is shown. 'In every way thou didst magnify 
thy people, and glofifr tliem. . . . standing by 
them in every time an9 plare' (19"), But while 
Israel is God's eon {18", cf.*). He also loves all men 
(U"-» 6' V*)j and Hia iudjiments are remedial 
(12*"'}. Nor, m .spite of the first impression of 3"* * 
5"'^ (cf. 4''"'), does the writer hold to a future 
fttrlhly glory for Israel. Tho consummation is 
hwiveiily (immortality of the Bonl, here first in 
Jewish hooks), and is morally conditioned. 

The E:*«!nic type of Pharisaism is repres*ntod 
only in 4 Ezr, which doea not properly belong to 



the oolli.'ct ion. Here only do we find a jiorBonal 
Messiah. Ilel, Judaifm, which stood at one sido 
of the conHiut twtwiiCQ I'harisee and Saddncee, 
in rRprcscntcd by Wis, which, though it sets the 
ruligiouH lite ami fiiitli in tontiast to worldliiitisji 
and ftreptici»m, put.H no .stri-j* on ceremonialism, 
but intert>ix-ti« the law in a moru uthioal oonsu, 
and reviews the hiiitory of Israel to ilhistmte the 
lj«neiicent nile of God a Miwiom, rather than the 
iuv-iolahlencAs of Uia law. 

But 4 Exr cannot be treated apart from other 
anoralvitxe!!, but Wis a^art from other products 
01 liellttiiiMin. 

It is vliit'tty in these two isolated iKioks that 
foreipi elements are prominent. Apart from thuKe, 
and the ( Peni. 7) anjielology of To. the A. stands 
in the main on Uat^tr) OT ground in its views of 
GotI, of man, and of the world. 

CHUKCII.— 1. In the New Testamest.— The 
writers of NT u.'>ed almost exeliwivcly the LX_X 
OT, and we ha%-e no reason to Hnpjwso that a'' 
additions were waotinR at that time. There are 
no direct citations from A. ; thin, however, is tnie 
aUo of tho disputed books, Sod;;, £c, and Eat 
as well as of Jos and EzrNeli. The Peat., 
the Prophets, and the Pus were, for obvioua 
rea.ionH. moHt frequently citm]. Tho othur bookii 
of Ihu Hn^not^rapha, and the A., offered far fewer 
mnlerial (KvintA nf nontaet with Christianity, and 
wontd not bu allowed the same value in arjiument 
by Jews. An acquaintance with a*" books is, how- 
ever, Kenerally recopii*e<t in the case of some NT 
writerx. Thus ttiL-ru are parallelisms between 
Ja and Sir (e.g. Ja 1'" and Sir 5"), between 
Ho Bud Win He 1' and Wis 7"), and be- 
tween Paul and \VU (cf. Ho 0" with Wis 15'; 
Ro l^^with Wi-H 11. 13. 15; 2 Co 6'* with Wis 
9"*). which reveal familiarity with tins UteratuTe. 
but which do not imply that authority waa asciibed 
to it. The questjoii of the relation of the A. to 
the Canon cannot be decided oa the i^und of NT 

2.' Is THE Eastern Church.— There is pcouliar 
difficulty in delerminiiig the placfl of the A. in 
relation to the Canon in the fc. Church because 
of the conflict between different lines of evidenee. 
Wii »linH consider [a) Original Usage, (A) Scholarly 
Thi'ory, (c) Manuscripts, (i/) Vcntions, (e) This latur 
Greek Church. 

[a] Orinhml Usnejc.* — The Christian Church used 
the LXA as ita OT Scripture, and the Church 
Fathers cite all parts of it %nth similar formulas. 
1 and 2 Clement, Barnabas, Ignatius^ and the 
Teaching of the Twelve, contain alhtsiona to n*^ 
by the biidc of can. books. Irenofnn cites Ad. Dn, 
Bar, and Wis; Tertullian— Sir, Wis, Ad. Dn, 
and Bar ; Clem. Alex. — Sir, Wis, Bar, To, 
Ad. Dn ; Cyprian — Sir, Wis. To, Bar ; all 
with the fofmulna ('it is written,' 'Scripture 
«ay«,' etc.) used of can. works. This usaf^e con- 
tinues to bo the prevailinjr one, and Oriyen can 
appeal to tho univental practice of tlic Church from 
the bc^nning a^rainst the appeal of Airicanus to 
the auttiorilY of the Hob. Canon. 

{b\ Schvl't'rl'f Tfuorif.—TUe LXX came to Chriv 
tinnity frotn Oie syna^oKue of Hel. Judaium, and 
with It was awept'cd the theory of tliR inspiration 
and fiacrwint'tw of thin translation. The story of 
itsoricin. tnld by ArinlHas nf the Pent,, M-as ex- 
tended to the whole, and heightened into absolute 
miracle. (Jnntin, Dial. m. 71. 84 ; lr«n. iii. 21. 
2-4 : Apoi. 18 ; Clem- Strotn. i. .SS. US. 
140 : Oritten. ad A/ric. 4 ; Cyril, Co/, iv. 34 ; Epi. 
phanins, dr. nWTw.). But on thw other Imnd, whpn- 
Dver the liiiuk;i of OT are ooanted. the numlwr is 
given tm 2-2 (24), and is expressly derived from the 
' See the ntcnxicx* In Sefaam-. BJi' n 32. U. 

Jewish (Heb.) Canon. That the LXX wan a tr. 
of the Heb. was, of course, never lost sifjht of, 
but it was an in.spiretl tr., sanctitied by Christian 
UMO from the npOMtlea onwarda. Tho discrepancy 
between the 1 wo waM obviuuit, and yet could nut lie 
given its natural weight. The iniesUon of the 
Hiatus of the A. depended upon tne relative im- 
portance given to traditional Christian xisage and 
current Jewish nsa^'e, summarily expressed in the 
number 22, or to practice and theory, and upon 
new theories devised fur their adjustment. 

Fire |Kissibiliti<M seemed open : (1) To insert the 
A. in OT in such a way ait to retain the number 
22. (2) To introduce some of the most valued 
A. into NT {as distinctively Clirintian jw-wwa- 
sions). or to append them at the end. (:t) To make 
a third class of books, between can. and uncan. 
in dignity. (4) To pivc up the Heb. for the LXX 
Canon, making theory souaro with practice. (3j To 
give up the li.XX fur tiiu Hub., making practice 
square with theory. The first three ways are 
followed, with more or less combination, in t!ie 
Ea*t, the fourth finally by Rome, the fifth tinall v 
by Protestantism, though in neither case ^^'it^ 
entire consistency, since, in the Vulg., tho LXX 
han Irccn considerably niudilied in nccordance u*itb 
the Ueh., and in the Prot. Bible the order of the 
Vulg. (and LXX) hrui been retained. 

It }k [mpcrtont to Mt forth the placw o( tho A. In tb« rarlous 
Ihcoivlical CftDOiU of BMtom writew loitieMhat in (tttAil. 

MfiUo, BIshiip of fiMdis (c l&O-l'Q a.v.) Icanipd from Jews 
or JewiHh CbrUtlaiu in PiJ. the contcnUof OT. Hit I'M. (Biiwb. 
iv. SC 13, 11) oontAlni only ttw books of th<> Hob. (noiltUnE E>t), 
but tb« Utlca uul order (T> «r» from tha LXX |C1i *fl^ 
K, Pro|>ti. tklirr Po«t. boou: M la groneral : (1> lliclorj-, 
(;;) I'iMlrj-, (3) I'mphooyJ. It oannot Iw oerUinlv indrml Owl 
Jtr kDil Hi* wrre without Ui« »** idditloni. TAk Mu.ralorian 
pTagm^it (176-200 a-O.) oontiUlU onlv NT (whethrr nT wm 
ori^iwllv Jfiven b un(%rt«iii] : hut It IfiMrU Wut t>olWMin 
t Jn ami lUr (u by rbilot], luid fcHvi-* to t>it Shojilii-rtl Oio 
puviUou uf ft bvok that is to li« privalelv, not publidy, rvvi. lu 
jiloce k not UDonr prophet* or apovUM, but nleD not kmony 
jiercUcal boolu. Tlte writer mskw use of the moodU Bwlution 
of thv proMam uid mjnnwta tb« third. 

Orinen (c. ia6-£M) dcab with the prol>tcrn with tlio fullMt 
knowlpdtfp. Ilia (fraat H«npU tentifle* to the importanoe of 
the prabicm pirflcritcd bv tfav tlcvialttiL' tvxLi ol OT Scriplurv, 
ukI giar* him m1iiut« tamllUkrltr with lit* dlranrence of the 
LXX from t^c Heb. In hi* Oqdi. ou PkIdu (Kos. vL SA. 1) hn 

SivM tL liat of thu S2 iKKikR of th« ll«b. Canon, apimrently like 
cllto'B, (Tith the ■ddition of Kit. Uiit ho l>c]nii< Uic ii>r ot 
tht^Krtt wljtion of the problem (vliov*- ■uir^'*)il>Kl by inrhitlin^ 
[n Jcr not only Ia, but £p. 3ct <itairT>. U^rraviT, \k •>>'• 
Ihkt 1 «nd 2 En vftrt o>(>tirit«d &j ani> hook. Thin wnukl 
)>e undontood by Or. rvkden u rcri-rriii^, not to tho Eltb. uid Nch. btit to the LXX 1 E« and e Ka [i^Ii:ir-4> 
N«.'h). Ue mentions *ttaa lisiisli— il books' ftl the end of bii 
Uit na oiilniite of the Gknon. Hot frcmn the Kp. to Afrlca.nua w? 
Icani that this Uob. Ouimi vu not n«Knlcd by Oriicco h oI 
niiiLl rAliditr forChHfltlftiu. He oritidaM tli« Ummo' (^f " '[»h. 
t'lLnon on ttic KitiiuDd of traditional C3iriati«opfmctJce<t>. he top- 
plcmcnta tlie llrrt by the fourth aolutioa). IIw vlfiw U that thr 
prcacnt la not the original Heb. Owion, aincc Jewish rulers Kod 
eldt'r* hid from the pc<:>p!e pom^M that initrht hrinjc Ihrnn 
into dbcredlt (f 9). On tlila nound tSunnna is defended, 
thouffh it la now aaiong th« JeivW) A. Hut To and Jlh, 
which the Jewa do not pOMon tran kiuon^ their * hidden ' 
booka, &re to be rcUinea •Imply on the Kround ol ChrlstiMi 
uaa|^. Prorldencs niuac hAv« rulded tbc pnctic« of the 
(.rhutvh, and Judalam la not to alot«t« to Cnrictlanitjr (the 
Oarhoiic iirindple}. 

Cyril, lliahop ol Jtrua. {Cat. Iv. SS-30. c. 848 An), Innistt 
with cqiud atrrm upno the number 22, that of the Heb. Canon, 
und tho authority of tti« uaaif^ of Mw Church. lll« Ifat of 
22 (IS hiMoricftt, 5 poelkal, and G prophetical) he ac«ms to 
rvsard aa that ol the LXX In ourmit uae. His Jer Inchid^ 
fUr, and hla. Dn f and EalT) tbe addlUona. Ue declares that 
Uw iHjoka not roHlla Ihecburobetarenot tobenadin private, 
and, nlt^T all, bimwif dtea Wis a* by Balomoo (Cat. U. £, V&\ 

Tn» Si/nwi ^ LtmUeM (s. 800} affirma Cj-rire liat, with 
minor chaiiM* of onler. The llat in Apott. Canon, B^. it alio 
IVril'a, wilA the adiliUon. at the end ot th^r hi^tohps, of 1-9 
Mac. On the oUi^r hAnd, the tnetrical Uata at Greffory cf Htm. 
<d. 890) and AmphiioehiuM. CttouKh Mlowlns the ume order, 
Hcm to have omitttil tl)« a*' additlonA aa well aa Est. 

Epipfianiui (c 316-403) mores In the oup08it« dIrKtion. 
I.iliir Gvril. he racarded the LXX u the laaplred tr. of the SZ 
bonks o( the Heb. OaaoB ; but bolide* I E», Bkr, Ep. Jtr and 
Ad. Iln, ho seema tA have (niduded, under Est (with Ad. T) 
To and Jlli ; and, amintit Cyril, fae IntroduM* au Int4>nii«diat« 
Hassot wrilinL-w, not ' in the ark," but yet 'ffood and iiwfiil.' 
Here belong W)a and Sir, widrh be puts after NT in hLa list 




tOtfr. 70, Id. Ifmr. M, it» nMW. 4). lie thai provkla tar the 
pnctioftl nootfuitioa of dl th« A. exuci't Unc ukJ Pr- ibui- 
Ttwre mre still other booki, apoeryjAa pnipDr, Miroi of wbich 
Uiv Seventj- tmuUt«, upon which Itf <loH not «1)ollj' aliul 
Uie iloor (df nwn«. 6. lU). 

JrAa»MMu<, Ui hb 38th BuUr Uttar (367 «.».), nrric* 
CbrDUffh mon conaifteotlj' the third Kriutlon. Bia £Z boolu 
Indtid* Iter, Ep. Jer, 1 Es (T), Ad Pit. Bot after XT h« 
Kilil>. ' tor ffTtnl«r cuclne*a,' UMt tber* ut oUur booka outtfds 
ol tb«M, not outoniwd. but wKuDped by lb* FUhen M book* to 
b« ttsd tij CAtvcliituien* (or th«ir iiutruction. Tboe ar« Win, 
ttr, bt, Jth, To, A>). Rcid Hheubud. they w» called if*y 
tmrmii u m, Utvikn lo he tvmA, i.e. liy Q«t«chuincnB. 

"Dm tbn«ro)d (tirisloii u followed by the liat In Uta 
Chrvn. ^ Jfierplivnu, wliidi, after the S3 b»ka of OT ami 
Uw IB «( NT. Ki*ca 'dUpuUd' book* of OT. vis. 1-S Uac, 
Wia, Sir. IVttol. Bat. JUi, Su», To. Th«r« follow Ui« dUp.iU-d 
book! of NT (Apoc of Jo and ot V. Ep. Uu- and l:^l■|wl of 
UcbnwaX atul, QnaJly, tin 'apooiypha' tjt i/T aiid NTial<iive> 
ll«ra tba A. ani booka whtweouioaldty la In diapuLc. N<nAo'*- 
H»»m. The nuae and the catiiuate dlllcr rtatmUaltv from 
Atbanajiaa, thonsb both are cxniied tn the Sgnopna <ff {i'tnuta} 

la the ' LiM oT 00,* attar Ibo 80 can. booka of OT and NT. 
loUow. U ' oubide of Uic 00,' Wu. Sir, 1-4 Mac, Cat. Jtb, To. 
AfW thM» oooie the * npocrrpha ' (above). 

We find then in the lista of vritora of the 
E. Church, from the 2nd to the 6th or 7th cent., 
a practically unammoas adherence to the Hch. 
Canon of *^ l>ooks, and efforts to h&nuonisc this 
-urilh the ChriHtuin LXX by makiog the 22 as 
conipreheasive of LXX addit'iona ba iMMsiMe, and 
br affdgnin;; to other IkmiIch of t)i« A., ih> far lu 
tbcT were valuL-d, a isvpitriite titat-e, usually after 
NT, hut distinct from heretical, rejected books. 

[c) Manuscripts. — It is a Atriking fact that no 
extant MS of t)iu I<XX rcprenuiitK even approxi- 
nmc«ly tlie (^^on of Cvril or Athanasiiis. In no 
known Creek text do the A. stand by tliemscilvea. 
The codices acrco with the uso^, not with the 
theory, of the K. Church. 

otUiea uncUla irt which k*! booka are foaad,th« VaLand the 
Ales, art |n^<!<> at tho bvirintiin^ ol thla artlcla. Najil ia 
InpiHtancv (3) atamk lli« 8in., which originally ooulained Hue 
wlHile Bible. Of OT the exlont porta a» : (t'lwinvnta of On, 
Nu. 1 Ch, and Esr), Ncli, Eat, TV, Jtik, 1 Mae, t Mac. lo, Jcr. U 
(p*rt>, XII (exM-pt lloa. Am, UioY Pa, Pr. Re, Ha, ITU, Sir Joli. 
(t| God. CuatKiul Hyrl (5th c«nt), conlolna fntinnvnta or Job, 
W, Eg. Wta, Sir. Vt^ (S) Oo<L Vcnctiu (nth or 9th Mnt.) 
ounlaltM Job (end). Pr. Ec, 6a, Wi; Sir. XU, la. J<.t. Bar, La, 
Dr iAd.J, To. ./(A, 1-1 Man. ») Cod, BaaiilaaoVutlittnui (<tth 
eMC)c«ntali]a second tiolf of Pent., hlatorival boului, Induillnic 
1 Ba and Ad, Hit. (7) Cod. Uarchalianua (itth or Tih cent.) 
omloitu Iba jitwpbeta in the unlvr of II (io liar, Ep. Jcr, Ad. 
~ ■ - ... ioeaL)coatair« till? 

r and Sir, of 0th or 
t adita fturaivft Cod. 
C3iiajanuB f9tb cent. T), wbkh contain* Jor, Bar, 1^ Ea. Jer 
Dtt. aetanltttg lo iJu LXX (all ntlter MSS tiaveaulMlituUHlTlico- 
d<:<tloo'a Dnl, Ilippoljtua on Dn, Dn aeeorJii^ (a Thtod., E>k. 
Ia. Boili icitflMDn contain the addiUona. Tt ia nnu-wnrthy 
thAt aavcnJ currivoa t4 th* poetical booka gKe Pa-Sol In Uia 
«nt«r,Job,Pr, Rc,Ca,iru, Pa-Snu.A'r. [Swvt4, vol. lii. p. ivi.f.J 

(rf) Vtrtion*. — The Oriental tranMlations of OT 
wore nearly all made from the LXX, and were 
inclined rather to etilarj^e than to reduce ilo Canon. 

The old Syr. FvahitlJi waa an excupLion to 
thin rule. Its OT was fnini the Hob., and so ooD- 
laineil no A. It also larked Ch. The influencfl of 
the LXX was, Itowcver, eu ^jvtiX. that the Pcsh. 
waa early revised in accordance with it, and the 
»■■ Iwoks were inror|iO rated willi some (urthur 
aihlitiuoif. Tht! chirf tudcx (AinbnmianuB) uontniiis 
If M, En. Jer, I and2 Kp. il-tr, Jth, A]>oe. Bar. [herv 
only], Apoc of Ezra (=2 hU), 1-6, Vac. [5 Macs: Jon. 
BJ vi.]. In other MSS are found 1 £*, To, 
Pf. Man. A MS of the ftth cent. ha« a ' book of 
women,' viz. Ita. FZiit, Hiijr, Jth. THKCLA. 

Wholly exocniioniiJ. on the other hand, was the 
critical view of the No-^itorian twrhool at Nisibi**, 
which put Sir in the claH^ of fullv can. Looks, and 
regarded! aa of int«rroeiliate aut)iority, Ch, Job, 
Ezr. Nell. Jth, Est, 1 and 2 Mfu\ IKm, Ca, 

Exceptional al-Hi is a Syr. MS at Carabndf^, in 
which an attempt is niu<ie to arrange OT in clirono- 
lopcat order. This tiaturally throws most of the 
A. at the end. IVia Is after Solomon's bookK, Bar 
and JCp. Jer after Jw. After the prophets, follow 

omiAina um ptwpocu in uia onwr ui ii {yo . 
/Ja>- <S) Ooo. Cryptofetratentit <7ih or Kth t 
|>ropl>et«. (9) liaUnpMel (raftrncnu ot H'u ■ 
;Ui cant. aweU doea oat eft* a aiwl «. Irat i 

On [and Bel\, Ku, Suj, Eat, Jth, E«r-Xeh, tiir, 
1-4 Mac, 1 Es, To. 

The Ethivpic version not only mlopted the LXX 
Canon without criticism, bat tuldod various booka 
besides 4 Err, several of which sarvived in no otlier 
collection, e.g. Enoch, JubUeea, Ascension of la, 

The .4 rtnenian version also draws no line between 
Canon and .V. 

{») T/ts Later Gr. Churrh. — The views of the 
Fathen »f the Eastern Church (wuld not be without 
permanent iatluence, but their failure to reach 
coiiabttenry made it possible [or tiie LXX to retain 
ita currency. At the time of the lEcfomiation 
zoitkii Eastern scholars, appealing to Cyril and 
Athanasioa, declared the a" book-t lo l>e uncan. 
So MetrophJanes Critopulos (lOSJS) and Cyril Luuar 
(1629). Against them the SyntHU of Con?tanti> 
nojilu (103^), Jalhi (iat2), and Jerun. (107--*) Mis- 
tamed the older usage, and declared the full 
canonicity of the A. It appears, however, that 
clearness and consistency have never been reaclied, 
for rhilai>3t'B Longer Catechbuu of the Orthodox 
Catholic E. Chtircli (18^, etc.), which haJt uthual 
sanction, gives to all books out«id(* ol the 22 a 
fiuhordiokte place, as meant fur the reading of 
UiosejusteuU^ring the Church (citing Athanasius); 
while the official Bible of the (^r. Church contains 
(after Ch) Fr. Man; (after Neh) 1 Et, To, JtK\ 
(after Ca) Wis. Sir; (after La) Ep. Jer, liar; 
(after Mol) 1-3 Mac, 4 Ezr. 

3. In the Westeun Cntrncn. — («) Romnn 
Vittkodc. — lu the LaL Church there was a stronger 
inclination to let Chri.slian usage, rather than 
scholarly theory, det(;ninne the place of tlie \. in 
the Canon ; and this in spite of the fact tliat Rome 
produced the man of all antiijuity who mo:«t 
strongly pressed the sole validity of the Heb. Canon 
(Jerome), and committed to this very man the 
revision of ita OT Scriptures. 

The earliest Lat. tr. (Itala) was miule from the 
LXX, and seems to have c«mtaineii all the A. of the 
LXX except 3 and 4 Mac, and to have added 2 Es. 

.lerome lintt revisetl the Itala after the LXX. 
but then tr. the OT anew from ilcl). In this tr. the 
A. uould fall out. And tliis Jemme demands. In 
the fanmufi \'xo\. Galeatus he i^ivtw a liat of the 22 
t)uuk» uf thi] Heb. Camni in the Heb. order, and 
a4lds, ' whatever is 1>eyund these is to lie put among 
the A.' So Wis, Sir, Jth, To, and Shepherd *aro 
not in the Canon. Of Mac-, I have found the liiat 
book in Ueb. ; tlic second is Greek,' etc. 

This explicit denial that even an intcnnediate 
position should be given to the A. woubl, in c<»n- 
siKteucy, require their entire rHtiuival from the 
Itible. But Jerome elnewhere gives these books 
an intemiudiate position. For he says (Prol. to 
Bks of S(»l], 'as the Church remls Jth and To 
and the Rks of Mac, but does not receive them 
among can. Scriptures, so also let it read thette 
two books [Wis and Sir] for the islilifjilion of the 
IKitopIe, not for oonhnning the authority of Church 
iltigman.' Only by Huch a view can we unden?Land 
Juruine's revitiion of Jth and To, which lie under- 
took, indeod, under protest and with coroless haute, 
oxcnsin^' himself hy the fact that they huts 
extant in Chaldce, and that the Councd of Niiuea 
coant«d Jth in the number of sacred Scrijilansa 
(of this there is no other ovidenee). Jerome also 
inserted the Additions to Dn ami E^it, duntin- 
tniiiibing them by luarks, and colli-cting the Ad. 
Est together at the end of the book, where they 
have remained, out of their proper place, ever 

After these oonceBsiona by Jerome himself, It ia 
not strange thai theother books of the A. gradually 
found their old place in bis version as it gained 




or otiifT LaU F»th«T», Hilaiy ol Poitlera {d. 866) rcafBrma 
Orfsdi'iCnn-i l>ut «how« Rome tncllnMlon w aild To tmi] Jt/i, 
for wtilcli Onsen's ptMition vare grourKl. 

AuAmu (iL 410), who ktUOltKl M AlvKondrU fttiil Jenu., ^'ivc^ 
the li. lint ot S3 Uwkx, uxl paU tbe A. in wi lnivnmtliBt« clkM, 
wtiicti horxli«(ror Uio tni Uircn EoolttluUd, viz. D'te^'ilj-, 
Tv, Jth, Bk* vf Jtfue, »n'i, in M, Sfaep^rnl and Two w»jh 
[aUo Judcm^ni nccordinir to PeuirT]- Thoe th« Fikttacn 
widi«l toM nwl Id tlir ctiurT:hi'f, but not brought lbn»nl for 
Ui« oooflnna^tinn ot UlLh. 'Other Srhpturr* ttvy named ouJ 
wlitob tbav wifhwJ n«t to (>• feikI in Uie churofaM.' Tliv tlir««- 
told divinon Is B., but th« nuno ' ccclniuUcat ' uid the 
axpluiMtiaa <trliich ii jrracHcatiy thu viow of Jvfvtnc aim) an 
o«w. The A. itrfl to tw read not privnUlT, but in th« ohnrobM. 
TtaJi vooid oriffinall; hnr* meuit fuU cvioiildt]'. ButKilin- 
OtwOoo k aCt4iTniiu<l in dcirr««« ot kathoritr (or doctrine 
UDong booln which, in thvir text ukI Id thdr dinnJi use, km 
not dmiwoUMd. It i* not «tmii;« Uiht th« thcorjr at ui lnt*rr- 
OMdlftta wm mined no Ann footing in th« W., uid Uiftt Ui« 
A. went Into tbe AnA, not into Ui« lliinl cLxas. 

Tb« wr)y lAt- llxu kr« ch>nfit«riMd bjr tli* two noupt, 

f) P», Pr, C». Ec, Wis. Sir ; <S) Job. Tlo. Est. Jth. 1 wHTi Jla<. 
uid S b, io which, apart team tb« additioni to tho propbcla 
Jer •ad Dn, the book* of A. are umiUly found. Thry arv 
foond Ib th« Can. <if MmiuMen, which i>erhBp« raprmnbi tlw 
ftv«ng« WeatemCao. o(«; aoOA.n. It iucMeathe A.,uidatill 
oounta !4 books (H«r 4><i) b* lh« d«*lc« of wcfconjng Uit & 
Solotuonh: book* m one. Th« West had not, howcrer, th« 
Intcrat in th« numbf r 24 (hat the £ut bad In XX, and EWArally 
dJarqpinkd «v«f) ihifl (onnal agreeuieDt with the ■Iowa. 

OimMfM-iu UnitiiutiQ, etc., ctaa. xiL-xIr.. e. M4 a.o.) vivM 
Jenwne'a (Heh.) Cun., then AufiuUne'a, and finally the Can. of 
via. On-C^h ; W, tuA 6 (fr, ITu, ^iV. Ka, Ca); PropbctA; Job, 
To, Kat, ^(A, 1. 2 Km, I. S Nat. The two ffnap* are to be 
ooied. TLa divergence ol the Uiree Uata (tchu each otlier 
seam to cause the n-rtter no tmublo. 

Siinllar to tills la the lUt ot the 7>rervtum Gtiatii, which, IT 
It Is that of tite 8j-nod ol S»lj is ihe flrat oltkbi Uan. ol 
the Roman Chuivh. U puta H'w, Sir with Soloiimiilc books. 
Air with Jer. and encla with an *onler ct hlitoriea,' wliich ib 
OUT seooRd grouv, as follunt : Job, To, 1. 2 Ea, £at, Jlh, 
1. JJfoo. 

The nextoffidal OT Can. waa that of (he African Councils at 
Bippa (:tOS) and Caiihag€ (SS7) : QnCb, Job, I>9, Sol 5. 12 

Ero))hcla, la, Jer, I>r. Kak, To, Jth. Est, I. S Ks, 1. S Mac. 
>re Job ta aeparafd froan the aecana i^roiip and pat in ita old 
connexion with 1*91 l*r. Tbeae oouncUa were dominated by 
A UffHstint, whose vceij^ht on the side of Church tradlUon over- 
bore the InHuenco ot Jerome's leaming- Aujputlne stands tor 
Um Gathollo principle as determining the Can. (d« dM(- IL B, 13), 
Bran when h« focU the objections, at.;, to Wu and Sir, that 
tho ancit^nt Church has re^x-ivod them U decisiv* (dt eio. xvii. 
to, 1). Aii^rustlne glrta, In ifs doet. ii. S, 13, a list of 44 books of 
OT— 22 historical, mode bj luliliiia to On-Ch. as a secondary 
list, our SKwnd group ; Job, 7*0, Est, Jth, 1. 2 Jfac, 1. 3 tCa. ; 
and 82 propliotieal, msida b; prvBxing to the 10 itropbetsour 
first group : Pa, Pr, Oa, Bs, wiM, 9tr. la his hut book, how- 
ever l,^MiVum}, ha saants imdiried to put the A. at tfoe end 
of OT C^., sepantlog Wii, Sir from proop 1, and Job from 
group 3. This may reraal a frowiog sense ot tb« seooodaj^ 
authority or aMurity of lb* A. 

/nnoivfit L of Bumo, In a latter to the Bishop of Toulouse 
(iO!'), givea a list in wUoh tlw two groupa still appear ; fln-l K 
(with Ku); PropheU: Solomno &, Pt ; 'of bistotiea,* Job, To, 
Est, JtA. 1. S Mae. 1. 2 Ea, 1. £ Ob. 

The outcome of the matter in the Lnt. Ctmrch 
waa tliu Vulij., iind Uiu luatliiii; MS of ib (Cod. 
Amiatiuux, r. 700) gives, in the nnmt of 
Jtrome, a Hi>t identiau with that sanctioniKl nt 
Trent (sou the lint nt tho be^nnninc of this articlfi). 
The order is nearer to that of Au<;iiatiDe in de 
rioct. it, S than to that of the Council of I1i)ipo. 
The secondary jjroop of hiGtorica follows tho priiuiiry 
(Gn-Ch), and the group of i>ootry followait, prui-ad- 
lug the prophets. Jod, however, In j>ut betwtwn 
the two, 8o that it miuiit belon); either to }iidlory 
or pt^etry. an<i 1. 2 Miu; are Rejiarated from lli^ 
group and jmt at the i<nd — a partifi) cotnpromi^ia 
tetwe^en thu lopii'al place givtn to thi!t ^roup liy 
Au}^ii<tine. anil the more chronolo^cal phieo 
asaifme*! it in the Old Ijilin, and at iripjjo. I'lie 
result is tlitit the A. mu futmd nhirlly in tliu 
middle of UT, diHtinfi^ii^^hed in no way from other 
bookit. Until the det'irBc of Trent, however, it was 
still pos»ilde to rej^nl the A. as of inferior 
authority, and, when can. was understood to mean 
atjthdrilative, even aa not in the Canon. The 
middle agps furnished some followers of Jeronio 
[e.ff. HuL'o of St. Victor, d. J 140: Fetor of 
Clugny, d. 1150; Nicolatu* of Lyra. d. 13-10) who 
aDticipaC« the view of Cardinal Ximenea (U37- 

1517), who says in the Preface to the );reat Com* 
pluten<i!an Polyslott, that tho a*' Woks arc outside 
of tbcCanon.andarc received by ihcChurchasusefui 
reading, not aeauthorJtattvofordoctrine. Erasmus 
(1467-1&116) also follows Jerome, though expressing 
bimacif with his usual reserve and formal sub> 
mlsaicn to the judgment of the Clmrdi. * Wherher 
the Church recfeivw* them as posscjwing thu sanie 
authority as the others, the xpirit of the Church 
mufft knuw.' Cardinal Cajelan, Luther's uppoueiit 
at Au^borg (1518^, woulti interpret the deuisioua 
of Coanoils and Fathers l>y Jerome. 

Though the Vulg. Canon Siad been rooffinued by 
Pn]>e Eugouiua iv. and put fortli as a decree of the 
Council of Florence (143i>), it is not probable that 
the Koman Church would have taken tho dt-cixive 
step of 154^ ocainst the views of its own bvst 
scholars, if it nad not been for I.nther. Tim 
Council of Trent declared tho Vnlj;. to bo in all 
parts of equal anthority, and definitely rejecteit 
the efforts of Ximenes and others to put the A. in 
a separate claAS, ^ ecclesiastical ' or 'deutcro-can.' 
In tlio Bibliotlieca Sancta of Sixtus ^^e^enHis tlie 
case is correctly slated. The dihtJucLion uf l*rol<>- 
can. ami Ilcutvru-can. or ecclesiastical iMXtks is 
•riven {to the latter class lielung, in OT, E-st, To, 
Jth, Bar, Ep. Jer, Wis, Sir, Ad. Dn, 1 and 2 Mac ; 
in NT, Mk If?"*, Lk 22"-", Jn T^yS", He, Ja» 
2 P, 2 and 3 Jn, Jude, Itev), but the distinction has 
only hiatorical uiguiticance. These books, it is 
fMiiil, were not known tUI a lato period; were even 
formerly held by tlit; Fathers to be a** and not can. ; 
were at tintt permilt«d to be read only before 
cat«:hum©n8 (Atlianasuis), then before all uelievera 
[HiiiiQils}, bnt only for edification, nut for the con- 
ftrmation of doririno ; but were at lost adopte<l 
among Scriptures of irrefrufjable authority. 

This consistent position is deserted by modem 
Catholics for bhe iinhifturical view that the LXX 
Can. was the original one, which waa aliortencd 
by Jews for an autichristian purpose ; so that 
the words proto>can. and deutero-can. reverse tho 
true state of the ca»e, and have not even an 
historical j until! cat ion (Kaulen, in Wotzer n. 
\VeIt«, Enrt/k.'^ est. 'Kiuioii'J. 

(A.) Pi-ntcstitni.—Y.vv.n on the ground of Catholic 
Ecliolarship thoso who denied the authority of tlie 
Church must give the A. a secondary place. The 
tirst Trot. c0brt to Hx the place of the A. was made 
by Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, in his Dt 
cnnonkis tcripturis, 1520. He discusses tho views 
of Augustine and Jerome, and vindicates Jeronie'u 
IMwition, He gives the Heb. OT Can., Law, Pro- 
phets, and Ha^^iourapho, thinks thcMu divisions 
imlicate a decreasing order of value, and makes 
corresponding discriminations in NT. OT ^V. he 
divides into two clawes : (I) Wis, Sir, Jth, To, 
1 and; 2 Mac; 'Hi sunt apocryphi, i.e. extra 
canotieui hebneornm, tamenn^'iograj'hi.' (2) 3 and 
4 Ezr, liar, Pr. Man, Adi. Du : ' Ui Uhri snnt 
plant! apocryphi virgis ccnsorUs auiniadvertondi.' 
This tiignllicHnt eObrt remained almost ivithout 

In contrast to this attempt to solve the problem 
by historical means [t-o return to the original posi- 
tion), Lutlter wavered between a free criticism of 
thfl Can. hy the Christian consciouimeBs, and, for 

Sir.icLicjil piirpo»ei», tlie scceptAnce of tlxe current 
tilk^ lie wiflhcd 1 Mac hud the place of Efit in 
tho Caiiou. Of Jth, To. Sir, Wis, he judges 
favourably. Even Ad. Dn and Ad. Est have 
much good in them. Bar and 2 Mac, on the 
other hand, he condemns. 

In Luther's Bible (completed 1534) the A. stand 
tictwccn OT and NT, with the title: 'A., that is 
books which are not held equal to the sacred 
Scriptures, and neverthele-ss are useful and good to 
reaiL' They inulude our A. with the exception of 






1 uid *2 Ed. Lather's jademcnt on tlicaa two bookn 
wu especiijly tiufavouraule, but for their omiaittuii 
he hiui Lbe aulhurity uf ilcrutut;, whuiH) view pm- 
baps alfccted Ihuir uxcUtsion ut TreiiU 

The Iteforraotl Charch took n somewhat Ie«s 
favourable Weir of the A. In the Zurich Dible 
(1321t-1530) they fttond, in Leo Jud.'s tr., after NT, 
as an appendix to the Bible, vith the noD-committal 
preface : ' Tlieoe ore the books which by the aiiciuut^ 
were not written nor numbercU aniung the lliblical 
books, and alito are not found among tiie HebrewH.' 
Here 1 and 2 Ks arts included, an well an 3 Mac ; 
while Thre**, Pr. Man, Ad. Est were added only in 
later edd. 

The French Bihlo of Calvin (1535) puts the A. 
between OT and NT, with the title : 'The volume 
of the a*" l»ooks rontiiinetl in the Vulg. tr., which we 
have nut found in Hub. or Chaldee.' Here 1 uuil 2 
Hs arc included. A preface, doubtlccw by Calvin, 
rvuitirme Jerome's t-iew ua to the value of these 

Coverdale was the firrt to tr. tho A. from Gr. into 
Ent'. (I530>. He put them between OT and NT, 
witli the title : ' A|>ocripha. Tho bokes and treatiiteu 
which amoDge the lathers of oldo are not reken'-Hl 
tu be of like aathorite whh the other bokes of the 
hvbic, netber are they fuode in the Canon of the 

Matthew'a Bible (15^7) renrodunea Coverdale'a 
A., and translates Calvin's Preface, atatin^ that 
these books ore not to be read publicly in the 
Church, nor u»ed to prove doctrine, but only for 
*furtheriiu<--i: of the knowledge of the history, and 
for the instruction of L'odly manners.* 

Cranmcr'ii Bible (1540) divides OT into three 

EarU: (1) Pent., (2) Hist, books, (3) Kemaining 
ooks ; and add*, ' The volume of tho bokes called 
Haciograpba,' so called ' because they were wont 
to Tic read not openly and in common, but as it 
were in secret and apart ' 1 But in tho rei-rint of 
1541 thev npi>ear aa A., and simply as 'the fourth 
part of tliw ililile.' 

The Bishops' Bible ri56S) treaU the A. stjil more 
favourably. The table of contentajrives it as 
• The fourth part called Apocryphua.' The separate 
title-page rcadR, ' The Volume of the hookcs called 
Apocrypha.' Bot a cla.'ij>itied li.<4t of 'the whole 
Scripture of the Ilibli;,' under the headings I.e;;al, 
Historical, Bapicntial, and Prophctit^al, is given, 
which fnllowH the Vulff., with two changes oiorder 
duo to its scheme (piit« 1 and 2 Mac after Job, and 
Pfl before Is), and w'ith the addition of 3 and 4 Ezr, 
with the explanation in the case of these two books 
only that they ore apocryj.hal. 

In the Authorized Vtirsiou (ICU) 'the bookes 
called Apoervphn ' are marked by the running title 
'Apocrypha 'at the top of the iiage, but have no 
preiace or Kejiamte tafile of contents ; and in tlie 
table of lesHons at the beginning they are included 
under OT. 

The edd. so far socm to indicate a growing rather 
than dimini:4liing regard for the l>ooks. It was not 
lon;l, hrjnever, before edii. of A\' Ix-gan to appear 
in which the A. was omitt<st (1C2!>, etc.). 

The Confessions of Lutheran and Reformed 
Chnrchcfl agree substantiatlr with Article vi, of the 
Eng. Church (Lat. 1562. Enc. 1571), which, with 
the list of A., explains : ' And the other books (as 
Jerome saith) the Church doth read for example of 
life and instruction of manners ; but yet doth it 
not apply them to entablii^b any doctrine.' But a 
lees favourable judgment, held at fir-it by few, has 
endnally, through much eoiitroversy, prevailed in 
Proleetantism. At the 8vnod of Dort (1618) a 
strong, though nnsoccc.'wfuf. eftbn was made to re- 
move the A. wholly from the Bible. In England the 
oppo-iition cnnic especially from the Purilan!», ami 
took llnal form In the Wuslmiiutcr Confession 

(1648) : 'The books commonly colled A., not l»cing 
of divine iuypiiutiou, are no port of thu Can. of the 
Smplurij : and therefore are of no authority in the 
Churcliof Goii, norl^i be in any otherwise approved, 
or made use of, than other human writings. This 
means the exclusion of the A. from the Ilible and 
from use in Charch sorvico, wliich the Puritans 
demanded in 1680. It was not until 1U27, after 
two years*' sharp dispute, that the Britiah and 
Foreign liilde Society decided to exclude the A- 
from all its publications of the Bible. 

Within the Oitirch of Eni^Iand the number of 
rt'iulings from the A. has Ixjen reduct'd, Ori|;in- 
ally covering Sept. 27-Nov. ;i3, in 1867 selections 
from Wis, Sir, and Bar only are aasigned for 
Oct, 27-Nov. I", beside some BeIe<.tiona for certain 
holy days. The latter, with readings from To, 
Wis, and Sir fur Nuv. 2-20, oi'e relAinod by tliu 
Amer. Epis. Church, white Ihc Irish removes all. 

Among noD'Episcopal Churches the A. Iulb had 
in recent years practically no recognition. 

On tho Continent the movement toward the ex- 
clusion of the A. from edd. of tho Bible has been 
tlovver. The decision of the British Society in 
1827 met with a storm of disapproval. The con- 
troversy revived in 1850, when uumeious works 
appeared for and against the retention of the A. 
in edd. of the Bible. ItA ablest champions were, 
among Conservative Bcholars, Stii'r and Hen^ttten- 
berg ; among Liberals, Bleek. In the Kovision of 
Lullier'a Bible (lStt2) it still standi, with Luther's 

Tho long controversy rcgnnling the eanouicity 
of the a'' books, in which the power of tradition 
and the weakness of reason in matters of religious 
concern arc conspicuously illustrated, may be said 
to luivo ended for Protestantism, The mo«lerii 
historical intereat, on the other hand, is putting 
these wTitings in their tme pinco as significant 
documenta of a moat important era In religious 

LITEaATLTlK,— 1. Tixt: rritnchc, Vilrt Apoerypfit Vtfrrit 
Ttttammti, Grace Oltaim 1H71) : EdiL ot Lbe LXJC. eip. Swete 
(Cunb. 1S9T-UM]L 

£. TaAmnanon nrre Bmoubu : BtUI, 7%« Variorum A. <AV, 
with varioui ninderlnKS and mdinga), I8ir2 ; A Kevljed tr. by 
BlMetl (below): CtitirtMi. Unran. and Apocvj/jfltai Seriptttrtt 
(ISM); Tlw RV ot the A. (\S9h\ 

8. iMTitODiccTioa AM* UoMMUCTARUi : Solitirer. nJP, tr. )>7 
MMpfaenon, «t oL 1886-1800, |f S2, U ; FritiscJic uid OrimDt, 
Kvrtgtfamet Satffeti$tlut uvndbueh tu den Aifokryphtu dn 
Atten TtgtammU (LelpEir. ISSl-lMi); Ulvdl. -Ibe A. at tho 
OT' (UiiM-Sctoll, (Smw. toL XV. IKW); 'The Apocryptis.' 
odltcd by H. Waca {Sptnlut't Com. IBSa). 

4. Uimiiul: Art. on Uie A. lii Ucnot. HB Z Aufl. (br 
SobUrer): amith, DBUhy Itylc); Wcizcr uixl Wctt«. i^V'- 
d. KatAoL Thtol.*(hy Kuuluij ; Huiibrin:cr, Ji£ [Jt'tvlali]. 

Bk€ Klaoutidc* Bible, SKm-Aam, Ckhos, uid Uterature thera 

auA. Frank C. Porter. 

APOLLONIK ('ATAXXtft'fa).— Apollonia. in Ac 17', 
a town through wliirh St. I'aul [lo^MtHl, after 
leaving Amphipolis. on his way to Thessalonico. It 
was an inmud G^uco•'^^accdoDian town in the 
district of Mygdonio, distant from Auiidiliiolis a 
day's ioorney (Lir, xlv. 28) or about 30 milutf, and 
from Thessaloaica about 33 miles. It lay not fur 
from the T^ke Bolbe, and tho Via Kgtiutia poinded 
through it. Little is known of its history. Its 
name [so common as to be roprcwnted hv 33 
entries in Patily-Wiss. HE, three in Maccionia 
itself, while the most important was A. in IlljTia) 
se4?uis preserved in Uio modern t^oltinn (Leake, 
A'.t;. iii. 458). WiLUAii P. DiCKSOS. 

AP0LL0NID8 {'kT9K\<hviot). — Apollonins. a 
personal oame of frequent occurrence (nn<ler whicli 
129 entries appear in Pnuly-Wiss. .^£1. is borne 
by several persons mentioned in 1 and 2 Mac. 

t. The first, in the apparent order of time, is 
descrilKd {2 Mac 3^) as son uf Thrasa>ua (or 




Throscas ;— the RV dotes tbe t«xt as probably 
corrupt, and fiu;;ytrsti», an perhajiii the trne reading, 
'AjtoUonimi of I'arsiiH'), Fuid gttvumur {<rrfiaTijy6t) of 
C<ple-Syria and Pbfpiiico unilor Selt-'uciui IV. 
Pliil«j«it«r (li.r. 187-175). One Simon, de-sij^nated 
lis yovtmor (RV guardian) of the temple ('2 Mac 
3* wpoardryp), Imvitig had diffL-rcncCM with th« higli- 
liHest Oniaa conceminf; 'inarket-adniini«tratiuu' 
liyoparo/dat seeius prufcrable Ui the common 
rcailinj; -wafapofUat), took hia revenge br suggest- 
ing to AjHilIonins that the temple at Jems, con- 
tained untold treiisiiren, which might tempt the 
king's cupidity. A, convoyed the suggestion to 
SelcneoB, and induced him to send Ucuodonia hia 
clianeellor {HV ; not 'treasurer,' AV), to Jerus. 
to plunder the temple. The devices of Heliodurmi, 
the conHtemaUon occasioned by hiii piir[)o»e, andi 
the amiaritiun by which it waa ImtllfMi, arrt nnrrat«4l 
in 2 Slac; 3. In 4 Mn« 4'*" the attempt is pn*scnt«d 
oa the act of A. himself, and not of HcUouorus. 

2. At 2 Mac 4" an A., non of Menestheas, 
api>car», ncnt by AntiuchuM Kpiphancs aa envoy 
to Egypt on occAHion of the 'enthroning' (which 
•eeniH the bent I nterji rotation of wpwroxXiffia or 
rf>uToK\-^aia, literally the itn't 'sitting on,' or 
formal ' call to ' the throne) of I*tolemy Philometor 
(in B.C. 173). lie may not improbably be the 
BamoA. who is mentioned by Livy {xlii. 6] as having 
headed an embassy sent by Antiochus to Rome. 

3. At '2 Mac 5*'" we titid on A. sent by 
Anttochus Epiphanee (in I1.C. 166], with an annyof 
23,0(M> men, to Jiidn^a, under orderti to slay all tltat 
were of age for military Kervice, and to sell the 
women and cliiklren. Coming to Jcru8. under pre* 
text of peace, he took advantoue of the Sabbath, 
when the Jews were keeping their day of rest, to 
moftsacre * great muttitudc».' Ue is characterised 
08 'that detestable ringleader' (ItV 'lord of 
[lolIutionB * ; fivaipxVt Q^^ oct-nrring elsewhere, 
possibly 'ruler of the Myciana,' but probably 
' leader in foul decda '), while the use of the article 
Bccms to point to one previously mentioned, and so 
Buggeflts Itib identity with the ' governor of Ctele- 
Syna' (in ch. 3" and 4*: No. 1 above). The 
interval of nine years leaves this at itmat doubtful ; 
but tliere is leiui rtiaiion to qnealion hitt iU^-ntity with 
th« iwrson not namud but described at I Mac 1'* 
as'cnief collector of tribute' sent by thcHclIenizing 
king to carry out his policy of destraction. Jos. 
{Ant. xn. vii. 1) dciiignatoa him oa Lomniandant 
(oTpaTvyAj) of Saniaria (apparently = provincial 
govenior, (upii4ipx>}i, XII. v. 6), and rcconlR hin sub- 
wH{uonlfaIl, in conflict will) Judas MaccabKUS, aa 
does aUo 1 Mac 3'"'", 

4< At 3 Mac IS* A., 'eon of Genntcns,' appears 
OB one uf the local comnmndantn who, nutwith- 
ataiidinu the covenant that the Jews bliould have 
rest aim leave to ol»«;r%-e tlieir own laws, continual 
to vex thcm^ and to countenance ituch attacks on 
their liberties na the trcvicherous masMicre at Joppa, 
whicli JiidnK hniitened to avenge. Nothing more 
is known of him, The patronymic 'son of 
("•Hnnipus' diHtinguiBhes him from (1) the eon of 
Thrajwru."* and ('J) the non of Mene«thens: and 
the BUggeslion of Winer (HU'ii s.v., fallowing 
Luther's rendering tdlen), that Vtryalou might be 
taken U5 nn ad jcctivc,' the wcIl-lNirn,' u»cil iruiiiailly 
fiireauniably of the lattor), is highly imprulmble ; 
for, OS Grimm remarks, the irony would Ire too 
covert, and Ocnnxua occurs eliwwhere aa a proper 
name (Pape, e.v.]. 

8. When Demetriua II. Nikator come forward to 
claim his father's crown in rivalry to Alexander 
BaJ&M (about B.C. 148), wo Icam from 1 Mac. 10"-* 
that ho ap[K>inted {KcHrrrf^tv) A., who wa« over 
Ccele-Syria ; who gathertHi a great force, cliall(«nc«d 
Jonathan the higli prieat a« a wipfK^rler of Bams, 
but, after m Mries of succctuifiLl nuuiiRUvrea on the 

part of Jonathan with the support of lii'^ brother 
Simon, wa^ defeated in battle at Azotus (ll.c. 147)- 
From the mode of exprewiion, he would xeem to 
have been previously governor under ItalaA, and 
won over by Ucmclrius ; which ir the more prob- 
able, if he is Co be identified with the A. mentioned 
hr i'cdybiun (xxxi. 19. Oand 21. 2) as the airrpotint 
(/(jr<t«r-brother) and cunfidaut of the elder 
Demetrius, who shared in the plot for his rwmpu 
from Rome, and may reodil}* nave cynipiilhiacd 
with the claims of the younger, when he tame to 
assert them. Jo9. (Ant. Xlli. iv. '3) calln him a 
Daian, i.e. one of tho Dai or Bahic near tho 
Caspian Sea, and speaks as though he fought 
agamiit JouaUian in the interest of Balas ; but this, 
AH (irimm (in loc.) tthows, is much less probable. 
Tiie circumstance tliat the A. of Polybius had two 
brothprn, Meleagpr and Mene-Hthen!< (xxxi. 21. 2j, la 
a Bonicwhat (deader ground for aaMUining relation- 
fillip to the son of Mencsthcus (No. 3 above). 


AF0LL0PHARE8 ('AiroWa^irT, 2 Mac 1U»}, a 
•Syrian kilted at the taking of Gazara bv Judos 
MaccsK-PUs. This GazarH is not tlm well-known 
town In the Shephelah, near to Nicoi^nlis and 
Ekron ; probably it should be id^-ntihed with 
J^ter on the farther side of Jordan, in the 
^Vmmonitc country (ao RawIiDson}. Sco 1 %[ac 5". 

H. A. WiiiTB. 

APOLLOS ('ArsWi^i). — An Alexandrian Jew 
(An IS-*). AjKjUoniuH, of wliiL-h ApoUos is a 
imtunil abbreviation, is the reading of Cud. D, 
tliH chtpf reprpBcntalive of thfi Weattm text of 
the AL't», whii'h is hero very interesting, and 

Srobably presents a genuine tradition. He is 
c-sorihc'd ns 'fer^'cnt in Bplrit' (sec Ro 12"), as 
' iin eluiiDcnt man' (for \lrnQ% means this rather 
than ' It'jirneJ '), and as ' mighty in the Scripture*,' 
t.e. well veTBed in the Cir. OT. Hu seeum to 
have been connected i^-ith Alexandria by early 
Tcaidcnce aa well a* by race, for D reconls that 
Iiis religious instruction was receive<l if t^ warplSu 
Ue came to KpheHua in the summer of 54, whilo 
8l Paul was on bin third missionary journey, and 
there ' he spake and taught accurately tbe things 
concerning Jckuh, knowing only thi; baritisin of 
John : and he began to Ri>wik Ixlldly in tlie s^Tia- 
gogne.' The precise character of U'tn rsligiouB 
knowledtre is not!y detcmuDed from thc^e 
few worilH. It has been generally held that A. "a 
inntniction in 'the way of tho Lord' (v.»*, see 
Is 4(j^, Mt 3') was Hucli aa any ncll-cduwittti 
Jaw ml^lit have gathered from teaching like that 
of the Baptist, b^*d on the Mcasianic prophecies. 
This vien i? confirmed to some extent by tho 
account of what hapjiencd when St. Paul retumej 
to Ephcftiis after A. s departure. He there fonnd 
twelve diwiiilcs, who b«ing asked, * Did ye receive 
the Holy Ghost when ye believed?' returned an 
anikwer which showecl tlicir iguorancQ of any dis- 
tinctivo gift of the Holy Spirit. They cxpfainud 
that tliey lia^l foiinerly rei-eivwl John'.'* bnplisni, 
but willingly nccpplcd tliP Christian rit« at St. 
Paul's hand», It is probable that these men were 
disciples of A., and that, liaving been influenced by 
bin teaching in the ftynogogiies of Ephesus, their 
knowledge of Christiati truth fairly represented his. 
Rut Blatw {in loc.) \Ki\ntn out that the words ^atfijra/ 
and rirrti-ffayTtt used of them are never luted wive 
of ChrietianH, and thun some knowlcdgu at tho 
least of tho Christian storv may Ite sunposeti to 
have been theirs. Indeed A. is eaid (v,») to have 
tnuglit infit^us the things concerning Jesus, al- 
though ho know only of the baptivm of John. 
Anil so Blaas suggests that, possibly from a 
wrilten GomihjI which had reached Alexandria, A. 
had leumt trie main facts of the Lord's life, and 
that Ills ignorance of Christian baptism may be 





villained by bis not bavin;,' come in tlm way of 
Ghristiftn teachers. TakiD^ ttiU vibw. tlie n&iT& 
tive prof iMiil* njitiirally : ' But when Pribcillu and 
AqnUA hcnnl him, thuy took hini unto Uit^oi, and 
cxpoun'lod unto hiui llie way uf tiod i.KpidiitTtpof.' 
It would seem probabW. thougli thtt fact iH nut 
•tsied. that A. received DAptium at their hands, a^ 
bin follovrors in a like case did at tJie hands of St. 
Paul. After some stay in Kphesua, A. determiBed 
to go Ui Corinth, an invitation to do m> haviui^ 
come to hini, atTottUnK to the \Ve!-t*;rn text, from 
certain Corinthians »lio weru in F.plicsus iit thu 
time. They gave him lettt^nt of coiuim-ndiiliuii, 
and when he arrived in Corinth 'ha helped thcin 
unch which had believed throuf^h eracu ; for hu 
powftrfuliy confuted the Jews and that publicly, 
ithowiag by the Scripturefl that Jesus waa the 
Christ '(Ads'"). 

In the Hprin-; of A7, A. having retomed to 
Epheatw, we U-arn from 1 C-o (see e«p. 1'^ ami 3*) 
that there were divisionK ainon)' the CUrJHtiaiia at 
Corinth, the names of Paul and A. (aa well as of 
Petori beiuft UHcd as those of party Itiadere. * The 
question nt issue may have been only a* to the 
relative importnnctr of Paul and A. in tlio foondtng 
of the Corinthian Church ; but it seems likely that 
there wax aim a dillcicncu in the manner in wliii:h 
tbe gospel wa« pre^nted by eiich. Pos-iiblv the 
eloquence of A. a.^ contrasteil with St. f'aurii 
ragged style (see 1 Co 2'% 2 Co ll") afipcnled to 
a certain cultivated class at Corinth, and it may 
be {though for this there is no uroofj that xomu 
doctrinnJ dilTereuccs appeared after tbe lapse of 
Tears. The teaching of^A-'s follower* may, e.g., 
nav« degenerated into Antinoniian (ina!<ticiiim. 
However that may lie, the Corinthian Church waa 
aiplatcd by bitterly oppoaeil factions aa late n» the 
time of Clement ot' Rome. But it is unlikely tliat 
liiere wius any personal disaureemeot between St. 
Paul and A. It has indiK-*d been suKgested that ui 

1 Co 2^ ijt. Paul liu« the elor|uent A. in bin mind, 
sod again in 2 Co V, whure be declarus tbut he 
at leaat needed no commt-ndatory letters ; and it 
is curious that A. ia not mentioned at all an one of 
tbe founders of the Christian society at Conntli in 

2 Co 1". But however wc explain these passages, 
they do not prove anythm^; like serioua estrange- 
ment. In 1 Co 16", St. Paul, probably in answer 
to an invitation for A,, says, ' A^ tourbin;:: A., the 
brother, I besuu;{lit liitii much to come unto you 
with the brethren, and it wa8 nut at all hi^i will to 
come now [or ' not Cod's will that he should 
come now *J ; but he will come when he »)mll have 
opportunity.' A. moy well liave l&ecn unwilling to 
return at a time wIil-il \n» pic^nue would inllame 
party spirit. The lant meinlion of A. in tlie NT is 
in Tit 3". He w.-w then {a.i>. 67) in Crete, or wiut 
shortly expected there ; and St. Paul urges Titus 
to set bini forward on his jonmey with Zenas, — a 
kindly meesa^'e which, while it does not 8U;j;^ost 
pers-onol intimacy, does not suggest cither any 
aitferenco of interest or hostility of sentiment. 
Jerome iin /m-.) thinks that A. retired to Crete 
until he Ward that the diviiiioas at Cvrintli were 
healet), and 8ayH that he then returned and bei^aiue 
bifthnp of that city. 

It wa>i first suggested by Luther, and the opinion 
is now widely held, that A. wo^^ the author uf the 
Epistle to the Hebrews. See Hkbkkws. 

LnviATr-«E.— Conflwftrp »nd Howmn, .9L taul, vol, U. ch. 
xlr. Ntandtr, FUtHling, bk. UI. eh. vli. Ucuaii. St. Paul, 
nn. itii, x:-;rt. Mam, Om. on Acts, pp. 201-3, uia in EipoM. 
Yimt*. rii. JO* ; Wright, it. li. 8. J. H. BEUNAKD. 

* FUhl, lollowtnc ChiTSMtofn, on 1 Co <■, tofgtttM thkt Ui* 

Mna of U)«i rval party IcMlrr* arv not known to m. and (.hmt 

St. rkul aubitiUitcd fur Lbrni hU own nunraiiil thmtof Apollot. 

Dul, thourt) Ui* notv i» Intcn-ntlni;. •*« pn-tcr to follow Uia 

SiBtptvr Mi3 owr* itnul int^nirotalioii in Uui Uit. 

APOLLYON (■A»o.V\.*r» ' Destroyer).— The tr. of 
the Ueb. name !'<'<«(>, the angel of the Abyss in Itev 
9*"", who waa king over tlie destructive locusts. 
In the Talm. tract Shabbnth 5.V we lind reference 
to the on^^els of de.^truetion (nSan 'sit^;) whonccom- 
plitth Gu<rsjnur|i(uw nn the wickeil. Tbpj' are -six in 
number : Wrath, Indignation, Anger, Destnietion, 
Desolation, and Consumption. Over these are 
placed Aluuldon and Maweth (rn? Death). See 
Weber, System der J'al. T/uutl. p. 16fl f. These 
are obviouidy later Judaic development'* of the 
simpler ideua of OT ; for the tendency of Judaism 
uftec the Exile, and csp. during the Gr. pericxl, 
was to interpolate personal m^iating activities 
between the euperBonsuous and the phenomenal 
world. But though this enonuuuB deveiupmunt of 
angelology waa stimulated by Hellenic 6peeulati*-o 
ideas, ita ultimate source mu»t be traced to Bab. 
religion (cf. Schwally, Diu Leben nrtchiinn. Tude, 
pp. 140 f.). Resjiectin^r the plague deuion-t of Bob. 
exoreiHUi and iienMinibuationn of evil, see SaycC] 
Hihhfrt Lert. pp. 306 312 ; cf. also 3*27-335. 

Another name of like signification to that of A. 
is the Hellenic ' Asjnotttetut, a name which 
occurs in To 3* aa that of the rvil npirit whirh hIi-.w 
tite seven ha>ilm.nils of Sarah, duu;,'hter of Itaguel. 
Tliia is the (Irn-oihcd form of the lleb. 'I^^k, ' Dea- 
troyer.' The derivation of thi« name must obviously 
bo Ronght in tbe Ueb. icci 'to destroy.' The 
etymology whichconneetaitwith the Pers. Afishnm 
iladva, leader of the devoa, adopted by Levy In his 
Chaldee Lex. from Windischninnn (Zoroimtr. 
atuUiea), is by no means so probable. This personi- 
fication appeant to be the .-lame an 6 'O\a0pf6iiii^ of 
WiH IM". In the Targ. on Ec I" ho is called ttzSo 
'Ttn ' king of evil spiritB.' It is not necessary 
to refer to the Jewish fables which represent 
Asuiodieus as the olFspriDg of Tubolcain and hia 
siKter Noema. Respecting Tanl's use of iXofiptirrris 
in':^ of Ex 12^), introduced by him into the 
narrativo of Nu lO""*-, see Heinriei • Meyer on 
1 Co 10". 

The OT conceptions respecting Abaddon may bu 
gathered from a eompariMju of tije pfuwigcM Job 
20* 2«« 31". In tbe fiwt of the«^ the word 
Abaddon stands in parallelism wit}i Slie/il or the 
underworld (Hmlen), ju-it an we tind iu Pr 19'^ 
Deltt'Zii'ch in hii* comment on thiu last paesage 
endeavoum to draw a di.stinction liotween SlieAl 
and Abaddon, the latter designating the lowest 
depth of Uatles; but I see no warraikt for tbiii in 
OT, though in later times w*e know that sueh a 
diiitinction was made {Schwally, ibul. p. 160, on 
Lk Itp". and Wendt, Tcachirifj u/Jextu, i. p. I6ft*. 
Moreover, in Job 31'^ the same conception prevail 
in the mind of the writer as in the prL>vious OT 

faasages to which we have reftrrud. So ulw in 
'a S8", where Abaddon and the grave atand in 
parallelism. On the other hand, it is worthy of 
notteu that in Job 2S^ m'u lind the Ivginnln^'n of 
tliat person ilientaon which in later tinice wan to 
have 80 extended a dev<donment. For in that 
(lOasage both Abaildon and Death are penionilieil, 
and words are asi-ribc<l to them. Cf. the vivid and 
dramatic nortrayal of the devouring SheM in Ij> 
5'*. On the use of p;(( in the Wisdom literature 
of OT see art. Aoaudon. 

Owen C. Whttehoose. 

APOSTASY.— The wurd doeji not occur. 
The Gr. A-Totrraffta is iiaeu twice : (1) in deJining tbe 
charge uia<le against St. Paul [.'Vc 2P') that be 
' taught all the Jew* which are among the Gentilcn 
to fuiTsake Moses' (ho AV, RV ; Gr. drairraaitiy ditA 
Mwiv/ui, lit. 'a. from Mosea') ; and (3) as the word 
used for the 'falling away' (so AV, RV) which 
precedes or accompanies the revelation of the 
' Man of Sin ' (2 Th 2^). See Comni. in lor. and 
art, Man of Sin. J. Hastings. 




APOSTLE.— The proper meaning of dr^MrtoKot is 
an ambofi&aUor, who not only cairics a measat-'t] 
like an iyytXot, bul aliiu ruprcsenU tlic sender, so 
Herodotiw |i. 21) of AJyutlea to ililetus; (v. 38) 
of MilotuH to SjiarUi. The inllueuv« of Athuus 
dlvert»l it fur a tim» {e.g. Demusth. p. £52) to 
mean a uaval aqniidron ; and in later law drioToXM 
were the littcrte dimutorias by whicli u case was re- 
ferred to a hi;;Utir court. In Hel. Greek it returns 
li> its oUicr iiR'aiiing. This b not very distinct in 
1 K 14" (Aliijah dr. ffxNijpij toJurobooiitV wife), the 
uiily pluco whcru it i» foitud iu LXX, though 
SynimocliuH hoa it clear iu U 18'(lhat sendcth c-y:f 
liy the wa). So Uiore Heom to liave bcon dir^cTToXoi 
Kcnt from Jemsalem to collwt the temple money, 
and dv^tfToXoi »cnt by the foreign Jews to brin" it 
to Jorus. Later on, the pntnarch at Tiberias had 
dirA<rra\iH a,t his dispo»il (Epipb. Jiar. 30, p. l'2\i; 
Cod. Theod. xviii 8. 14, where Uonorius, in 3^, 
abolishes the whole iiyHtecu of taxation. See 
Golhufriai, ad tuc). 

In NT it ia fonnd Mt 10* (rwf St S^SRtKa Av.), 
Mk 6* (ot dx.— those sent forth, v.'), .In 13" (in the 
general sense), and frequently in Luke and Paul. 
Onc« (He 3') of our Lord lliniself, wliicb in the 
Lhoiuht of Jn IT'". 

After the aauunition the number of the Lord'H 
a|KWtle3 wa."* not Jixed at twelve, exct'jit in the 
tigurative langaa^o ol Kcv SI'*. Suiting aaidti 
envoya of men {'J Co 8= dT. 4KK\ijfitZ», Ph 2* 
ufiSiu Si dr.) and false apoRtt{>!t (2 Co \V*, Kev 2') 
who needed to bo triwl (contrast irtlfia^ar with 
1 Jn 4> ioKiu4('Tf), we have hrtst Matthias, though 
it b best left an open i^ueHtiun whether ho was 
permaiuntt*/ numbered with tlic Ktcvcn. Of Pant 
and Barnabas there can bo no doubt it.g. Ac 14'* 
ol dr. B. Kai II.), and of Jaine:ii tllu iAtul'n brotln'T 
very little (Gat I", 1 Co 15^ and perhaps &■). 
Anuronicus and Junian at Jtome seem to be 
'notable' apostles (Ito 10' iirlrtjtuH ir rvTs dr.), and 
[Kf&sibly Silvanuit also was an atiustlc. On the 
other hand, Timothy is &hut out by the peelings 
of 2 Co, Col, I'h, and possibly 2* Ti 4^" (ri-a-rrt- 
XwToC), and Aj>oUos (I Co 4"-* in iiidccialvc) by 
Clement [£f. 47), who most likely knew the fact of 
the case. 

The fin»t qualification of the apostle was to have 
•seen the Lord ' (Lie 24", Ac I"-", I Co 9'), for hia 
lirst duty was to bear witnesn of the lord's resur- 
rection (e.a. also Ac 2"). Matthias, Paul, and 
James (1 Co IS^) liad this qualiKcation ; protiably 
UamalHUi. Andronicim, and <lunia«, vrlio wcrt; all 
of the eartie^it discipl^» ; and very pot<«ib1y Silvanus 
also. On Ihn other band, it is unukelj'of Apollos, 
hardly iJOMible of Timothy, who were not apo»tle«. 
We have no reason to suppose that this condition 
M-as ever waircd, unless we throw forward the 
Tt'tching into the 2nd oont. The second qualifica- 
tion was {2 Co 12") the ' signs of an apostle,' whioU 
cousiBted partly in all pationc4>, partly in signs and 
wonders and powora, and partly again {e.g. 1 Co 9") 
in eflcetive work among hu own carvc>rt«. 

ThcMc, however, were only nualiticatiGns whitih 
others also held. A dirwt call was al-io needed, 
for(l Co 12* (9rro 6 0ei,i, Eph 4" aOrbt tSvKrr) no 
human authority could choose an apostle. In the 
CAse of nnmabos and Saul (.\c li*) an outward 
commisrion from the Church was added ; and if 
Matthias remained an apoatle, wc umst for ouiw 
aanuine that the outward apjvoiriltnent somehow 
lnchidi::d the inward call o( the Spirit. 

The work of the apoatle was (1 Co I") to preach, 
or (2 Co 5*, Ejih 6*1 to be an amliasRodor on be- 
half of ChriBt. He was (Lk 2I«) to be a witness 
to nil nations, an^ (Mt 2S") to make disciples of 
them, so that the whole world was his mission 
Held. There is no authentic traco (legends in 
Etu. B£ Hi. 1, and apocryphal works) of any local 

division of the world amongst the apostles, though 
(Gal 2*) it was settled at thii Conforenee that tue 
Three were to go to the Jews, Paul and Barnabas 
to tho Gentiles. St. Paul's rcfu»td (Ko 15") to 
* build on another luan'si foundutiuu ' was due 
rather to courtesy and prudeiiee than to any iiar- 
ticiilar assLgnniont of districts to another apotstle. 

U follows that tliH Bposlle belonged to tlie 
Church in general, and had no local tie^i. Ue had 
a light indeed (1 Co 9*- ■■ "1 to eat and Jrink and 
live oil" the gushcl, and to lead about a Christian 
wiiiiiai) im a wile ; but thi^i was all. Ilia Lifu waa 
spent in journeyingB, in laltoars, and di.-stresflcs 
(2 Co 6*)i titnnfnng in the front of dan;;itr like 
(1 Co 4*) Bomo doomed besliarius of thu aniphi- 
theatro. Certain dwelling-place he had none. 
The Teachiny goes so far as to declare hint a false 

froj>het if he stays a third day in one piaoc. Hu 
'auJ worked for months together from Corinth and 
EpheJiUB ; hut thev were only o«ntrft»* for hU work, 
I1U MtLled home uir him. Unlv the unique {Msi- 
tion of Jems, seemed to call for a stationary 
ai-Kistle in James the Lord's brother, who, more- 
over, was not one of tho Twelve. John and Pliitip. 
mid possibly Andrew, only settled dovin in Asia m 
tlieir old age. 

The aiH»itle'n relation to the Cliurches he founded 
was naturally indetinite. Me would (.^c 14^) 
choose their hrst 1o<:h1 ulHcials, start them in the 
right way, and generally htip them with fatherly 
couusol (1 Co 4* *•) when he saw ooca.tion. Thero 
is MO sign that he took any share in tli«ir ordinary 
adminiairation. St. I'aul interferes with it only 
ill eases where the Churclios have gone scriotU'ly 
wrong. All llmt be s^enis to aim at In (I) to up- 
hold the authority committed to him ; (2) to clioeic 
teachings which made the gospel viiiii, like the 
duty of circumcision, the denial of the resurrec- 
tion, or the need of ascetiei.'^ni ; (3) to stop otf' 
pnratr. miHCuiiduct which the Churi:!ies ihemselvcs 
would tiut stop, as whi'u the Corinthians saw no 
great harm in fornication, ur turned tho lrf)rd's 
Supper into a scene of disorder. Qneftion!« referre*! 
to him he answers as f or aa possible on general 
priDcinlcs, givine ^1 Co 7) a command of tho I^rd 
when ho can, and in default of it an opinion of liis 
own, and sometimes a hint that they need not 
have asked him. In general, the apostle is not a 
regular ruler in the same seuse as a modern bisliop, 
but an occasional referee like the visitor of a college, 
who acts only in case of siieeial need. 

LmaATCKB.— Lltrbltoot, Gal., Exeureus on Tlu yamt a»4 
OJiMnfan Jpattie ; IIuniKk, T*xU u. UnUrt. il. l,pp. l«-US ; 
Welrmckur, Ayo»<. ZeilitUe/' {>»1-M0: Ilaui<l. 7ui>t Vcnt.ttMt' 
tiU*d.Apcgto{aUiB*A'.'r.,lSM. H. M. GWATKIS, 

APOTHECARY is found Ex 30*^ »37", 2 Ch 16", 
Neh 3', Ec; 10', and in every case KV gives per- 
fttnter instead. For the r«f. is not to the selling of 
drugs, hut to the making of perfumes (ncn spice, 
perrume ; Hi^j to mix spice or manufacture perfume; 
nj>^ a perfumer), lint in Sir 38* 49' (ML'pt\i«i() ItV 
TL'tains a., thoii;;h from 4iH it is evident thai the 
perfumer Is mcauL J. HastIXGS. 

APPAIM (D:cti 'the nostrils '}.— Son of Nadab, n 
man of Judah (1 Ch 2**"). Sw Genkalooy. 

APPAREL. — In early Eng. a. is used of honse- 
hold furiviliirc, thu- rigging of a sliip, aud the like, 
but iu AV it is fonhaed to clothmg. Although 
the wnrd is now ptucticall^ obsol., KV (following 
older VSS) has intriHluued it Kome ten t4ruefi. Iu 
1 S n**" ■ a. replaces *arniour' of AV. very 
properly, for the reference is to Saul's miUtsry 
dress, not hU armour. 1 P 3* RV *tlie incormpt- 
iblc a. of a meek and auiet spirit' is the only in- 
stance of a lig. use of tlio word In the Bihiu. (Cf. 




Vh 2*, Tind&le's tr., 'nnd wax fottml in his a. 09 « 
man," AV and RV *faahion). Apparelled occurs 
2 S 13« Lk 7*: to wliiuh KV Rd<U Ps 93>w 
(Iwtb tig.}. So« DitKss. J. llAirrtKGS. 

APPAREMTLT. onl;' Nu 12«. aiul in the old 
ftenw of 'ojtcniy,' 'evulently,' nut aa now, ' seem- 
ingly ': ''With fiiin M'ill I Hin-ak mouth to mottth, 
even a. (KV 'manifeatly ), luirl nut in dark 
■peeobes.' Cf. SiiakM. t'otn. Err, iv. i. 18 — 
' II he ffcould Morn mc to ftpjMvciitlv*. 

J. Hastinqs. 
APPARITION.— Thia word doea not owur in AV 
except in tlie Ajiocr., Wis 17' {Gr. MaXfta, HV 
'spectral form'). 2 Mac 3" (Or., in^ftia, KV 
'ap|>aritioD,' RVm 'manifestation), and 5* {Gr. 
()rt^<Uria, RV 'viaion,' KVm 'manifei>tAt:on '). 
The KcWsere hove intiodnocd a, at Mt N». Mk 6** 
Ma tr. of i^itTna/M (AV 'spirit'). J. Uastinqs. 

APPEAL.— I. In the Old Thstament.— There 
in nu proviiiiou made in the (fT fur ajipeal in the 
prD|ior sense of the wurd, that i», for the reoon- 
nideratinn by a hi;;;her(H)urt of a au^e alreadv tried. 
The diBtinction made in the Law bet«'een tliooom- 
petcnec of hi^'her and tuuer courts is of a ditTerent 
nature. A 'great matter' must be reberved fur 
llic aupreniL' court, while the lower oirictrw ore 
ruinpetent to dei:ide a small matter. This dU- 
linction in found in one of the otdettt nartji of the 
Pent. (Ex IS"" [El), and in Dt 17'-'' tDl And 
the oUupion to the delayn in lepil procecning» of 
which Absalom took advantji;;e, 2 S 15*, also 
jmintfi to iho antiquity of what is, aft«r all» an 
obvious dcrice inevitable in a growing nation. 
"The RUprenic court for the hardest cases was either 
the king or the priest or the prophet, as the mouth- 
piece of .r llunself. The law of Rt 19'*-" in 
more like real apiieaJ, for there a 'controversy' 
and 'faltie witness seem to be preanpnosed be/ore 
'the jnilges make dili^'ent inquisition ; but prob- 
alfly the first jiTKK-eefliii^ were rather admini- 
strutive Uian judicial, and it hardly aiituuuU to a 
Mcond hearing of the case on appeal. Aceording 
to 2 Ch 10'* JeliuKhaphat placed ZchndiiiJi over 
the jndues wtiom he ap|K>inted rjty by citv lliruiiyh- 
ont Jndali ; but it doe« not follow tiiat 1ie M-aa to 
bear opix^aJH from the local courts. 

l-'or the appellate jurisdiction of later times, soo 

II. Ix THE Nkw TiiSTAMEKT. — Ac 25, 20, and 
2S'*. St. Paul was liable to be tried either by (1) a 
Jewish, or by ('2) a Roman court. (1) The liunian 
government at thix [wriud aIIowe<l the authorities of 
each srnagu^e to exercise discijillne over Jews, 
only tiicy were nut allowed to put any one to 
death. The Sanbedrin at Jeruftalcm a('>}>cars to 
have bad more moral \t-eif,'ht and a wider juris- 
diction (Ac ©■ 20"), but not larger le^nl jiowers 
(Jn 18"): and the incidenta of Ac "*• 2i>* au'" arc 
to te re<;arded a» in Uie eye of tlie law eases of 
Unichin;;, at which thu Koman p>v(-mmpat cun- 
nii'ed. A Uomitn citizen was untitkNl to claim 
exemption from the iuriaijiction of the R>-na(:opue, 
bat ncverthL'leM St. I'aul submitted to it live times 
(2 Co n^. Ac 28-'). 

(2) lie was also liable to be brought before the 
KoRian K*>i'cmor in charge of tine province or dis- 
tiicKAc 18" etc.). 

Wben. then, Festus ai^ked bini whether he was 
willing to fct* '>}' *<* Jertieulem and there Iw judged 
•Itefore mo' (Ae £5*), it is not clear whether the 

Sroiio<sal was that he should be tried (1) bj' the 
amiodrin in the presence of Fcstus, or (2) more 
frobably by Fettlua biuu»eU at JeroAalirm rather 
ban ('a-jiarea, on the pretext that the charge could 
be better sifttwl tliere ; but if so, why i» the 
prisoner's consent necessary (Ae 2^*°)? In ilie 

one case St. Paul 'apjicals' from the Jewish tribunal 
to the Roman, invoking Ca-aar bimnelt as HUpreme 
magistrate, ))ecaase I'estos was about to surrender 
him to the Jewish authorities [^ee Ac '25"). In 
the other cose he ' appeals ' from l''cstu5tlio<lele;;ate 
(procurator) to the legal governor of tlie province, 
vix. CoMar himself. It ta further not clear w hether 
the alternative in Ac 25"-" was tliat St, Paul 
tihontd be released at once [Ae 2<r" 2S'*), or that 
he should bo compelled, in spite of his * apiteal,' 
to stand bis trial at Jerusalem. Tliis laal lb not 
impossible, for we learn from other sources [e.ff. 
SuetouiuH, Galba 9) that at this time even a 
Roman citizen could nut in!ii.>4t on being sent on to 
thusuprcrae court from thatof a provincial governor, 
wbu had the power of life and deatli \Jhj: glatlii) \ 
but only it was at his peril that thit guve-mor 
refuse<i such an appeal. It was not unt^onuiKm for 
the governor in such a case to write to the emperor 
for instnictionp. The apjieal in St. Paul's case 
has no connexion with either the jtrovocatio ad 
pOf/ulMm, or the appeal to the tribunes of the plebs, 
am they eviNtod under the Hmiian Ue])ublic. (See 
Mommsen, Homiaehea HUtaUi-alu^, ii. 2."»8, it31.) 


APPEASE.- To a. in ita mud. use is to pro- 
pitiate an angry person. In this sense is Gn 32™ 
'I will a. hiiu with the present'; 1 Mae 13^ 
'Simon was a** toward tliem (KV 'leconcUcd unto 
thuui ') ; and Is 57' RV ' sliall I be a'' for these 
ihingsV Everj-whcre else in AV iv. has the ob«. 
meaning of to ({uietcn (which is the orig. meaning, 
ndpacem, to ' bring ioMacc *), as Ac 19"'wlicn the 
lown-clerk had a" (RV 'quieted') the people' j 
I'r 15" 'But he that i* slow to anger a^*" strife'; 
Est 2* ' when the wTath of king Alioiiucrus was a'* ' 
(RV 'pacified'); Sir 43>» 'he a** the deep' (KV 
' hnUi stilled '] ; 2 Mac 4» ' Then came the king in 
all haste to a. matters' (RV 'settle matters'). 


APPERTAIN.— To 'a. to' is (1) to belong U», of 
actuiil pohiki.'K'ion : Nu 16" ' all the men that 
a** unto Kcirali' (rr;>^ -^i^ C':?n''>;(; l^v G" 'give it 
unto him to whom it a*"*'; Neh 2* 'the jialace 
which a"* to the hotwe.' (2) To Wlong lo, oi right 
or privilege : To ft" • Ihu right of inheritance dotli 
ratlier a. tu thee than to any other'; 2 Ch 20"" 
*!t a""" not unto thee, Uzziiili, to bum incense' 
(lUn ed. 'pertaineth not,' so RV. Ucb. ^iii); Rar 
2* 'To the Lord our God a"*^ rightcon^noss* (RV 
* lielougeth ') j 1 Ea S», i Mac !<>*'■ «, 2 Mac 15". 
(3) To be appropriate: Jer 10' 'Who would not 
fear thee. O King of nations? for to thee doth 
it a.' (np^f ; !)^) t I Ks I" ' they rootled the Pa.4»over 
with lire, as a'""' (so RV ; Gr. uii «a(?ii«:<i, us ia 
fittivn. Cf. Lv 5" C5;p53 'according to the ordin- 
ance *). See Peutaix, Purtekasce. 

J. IlAimNas. 

APPHIA.— A Christian ladv of Culussie. u 
member of the hooeehold ot Pbilcniun, very 
probably his wife. lier memory is hunoured in 
the Greek Church on Nov. 22, as bavuiL' been 
stoned to death at Coloeetc with Philemon, 
Archippus, and Gncsimus in the reit;n of Nero ; 
but the niithuritj fur tliis fat:t is unknown. The 
name is Fhrj-gmn, being frc«iueat in Phrj-ginn 
InstTijitionti under thQvarj'ing furms'Av^la, 'A^^Jo, 
'ArAioi. In Phileni. (v.') the bt_'st alte!*ted rending 
is 'Air^f ; but 'A^^lfi, 'Knijtlq, 'Arrl^ are also found, 
and the Latin VSS vajy between Appliiic, AppUiadi, 
Appia*. In the latter case it wai probably assimi- 
lated to the Latin Appia (Lt;;litiuot, C'ulfss. p. 372; 
Meiiipon. November, [jp. 143-147). W. LoCE. 

APPH UB C'Ar^tJt, lQ.^^6t A, Sar^di a V, App^iu 

(Vulg.). ^cro PN^. (Syr.), 1 Mac 2* '\^4>ovt (Jos. 
Ant, XII. vi. 1]), the surname of Jonathan the Mao< 




cabc«. The name is nBiially thouplit to mean 
* DiBscmbler ' ienai:-) i mid eume suppose that it was 
given to Jonathan for his Btratacem a^'ainst the 
tribe of the Jniubri, who had killed hi9 brother 
John (I Mac 0"")- U- A- WuiTE. 

APPIDS, MARKET OF {'Ainrlat, 0<5poF. AV Appii 
Fomm, Ac '28"). was utie uf tlio two piHUtw »m St. 
Paul's journey to Kume at which he wna met by 
Cbristiaa brethren from the capital. It wan 
Mtutttbd 43 miles from Itomo, on the threat Appian 
military hi>;hway, which lumu-d the main route 
for intorcuiirse with Crceee and tlio Iia«t. Aa 
a ittation where travi;nfr« halted aud changed 
horsea, it naturally beeante a seat of tr&tlic 
and local jurbHliction. 11 waa, moreover, th« 
northern terminuB of a canal {/ogsa) which wa» 
carried atongside of the rotul, and wiui UKcd, an we 
learn from Strnt>o (v. 233), (or the conveyance, 
v'hietly by night, of pasacnj^crs in boats towed by 
mulea. Horace has {Sat. i. 5) preserved a virid 
picture of the place, with itn iKMittiien, iunkeci^erH, 
and wayfarerM, cheating', earuusiot,', and quarrellinj,', 
nmidnt an at'comiianyinK plague of gnata and frogs 
from tbo Pompt-ine marshea. 

APPLE (i}'5P tappunh).—'Tbe conditions to be 
fullilUd by the tai'^tiah are that it should be a fine 
tree, Huitable to mt under ((Ja 2*) : 'As the apple 
tree among the IreeH of tlie wood, m) is my beloved 
among the FumH, I sat do\sii under his shadow 
with great fk<li<;ht.' It should be of ttize bullitrient 
to overshadow a buoth or bou^e (Ca H*) : 'I raited 
thee up under the apple tree; there thy mntbor 
broiight thco forth : tnere she brout,'ht thee forth 
that tjnre thee.' It had a sweet fruit (Ca 2^) : ' and 
his fruit waa sweet to my tuatu.' U al&u hud u 

IdeuMint smell {Ca 7') : * and the smell of thy nosse 
ike apples.* It waa used to revive a iiem)]! 
who was languid (Ca 2*1 : ' Stay me with 
raisins, comfort mo with apples ; for I am siuk 
of love.' 

The apple fullits all the conditions perfectly. 
It is a fruit tree which often attains a large atxe, 
is planted in orchards and near houses, amL is a 
Bpeeial favouril-e uf the people of I'aleHtine and 
S^in. It w true that Uie fruit of the Syrian 
apple is far inferior to that of Europe, and especi- 
ally to that of America. Nevertheless it m a 
favourite with all the people, and in a few pUccs fine 
varieties have been introdnced and thriven well. 
r>Dubt]e.s8 mich an epicuru as Solomim would hiLve 
had many uf the choicext kinils. Almotit all the 
apples of Syria and Palestine are sweet. To 
European and American palates they wcirn insipid. 
llut tlicy have the delicious aroma of the better 
kinds, and it is for this quality lliat they arc nmst 
prized. It is very common, when visiting a friend, 
to liave an apple handed to you, just to smell. KiL-k 
people almost invariably ask the doctor if they 
may have an apple; and if he objerls, they urge 
their case with the plea that they only want it to 
finiell. If a pcmon feels faint or sea-stck, he likes 
nothing better than to get an apple to smell. It 
U an everyilay sight to see an apple put over the 
mouth of the smnll earthenwnre water pitcher 
(called in Arabic ahriij) to yive a slight aroinn of 
apple to the water. The first thing with which 
the capricious appetite of a convnleMrent child is 
tempted is an apple, which he fondles and squeezes 
with bLs fingcH! to develop the aroma, but i)crliiip8 
never »u ujacb as bites. A very favourit* preserve 
is aliH> mcide of the apple. 

It will be seen by these facts the appl« 
fulfils all the conditions of the tttjtpiinh. Add to 
this that the Arabic name tiff^ifi' is identical, and 
noway ambiguous as to its signification, and the 
evidence is complete. There is no other fmit 

which at all realises all these conditions. Tha 
quince has a sour, acerb ta6te, never Jturft. The 
citron was probably introduced later than OT 
times; it has a fruit with a thick rind, eatable 
only after a very elaborate process of preserving 
witli feugar. Tim pulp jh never eaten in any form. 
The orange is a fruit introduced from the 
Peninsula during the Middle AgeH. Ita name, 
fiHrdek^Tiy is a C4>miptiun of the Arabic name for 
Portugal, barliiffJuii. It was probably not known 
to tiie Hebrews. The apricot is not a fruit witli 
any Mpecial frugriincf, and is never used as the 
apple to rcfrenh the sick, A further conlirmatlon 
of the identity of irtpfntah with tiff'dA, the Ambic 
for apple, is the present name Teffhh for Heth' 
tappuaK{^Q% 16"}. 

The ' pictures of mlver' (Pr 25*') tn which apples 
of gold are said to be placed, ma;^ have been filigree 
silver baskets for fruit. The Oriental silversmilbs 
excel in thi; manufacture of Kucb ware. 

G. E. Post. 

APPLE OP THE EYE (lit, 'cAi/d [;^i^k. dim. of 
b"*!! man] of the eye'; wiuettmes nj ' (lau'jhter oi 
the eye.' Pa 17*. in combination, rrnj r^'K? 'as 
child, daughter of. the eye.' Once, Zee 2', -i?? ' the 
opening, door, of the eye ') is the ' eyeball,' or globe 
of the eye, especially the pupil or centre, the organ 
of vi.Hioft ; coinixwed of exceedingly delicate aud 
HcnMitlvestmcture^i, carefully shieUlud from external 
injury. It is encIose<[ in the bony orbit, KUjiported 
bidiind and on the Hnic» by a (quantity of loot^e fat, 
[irotwrttvl abovu by the eyebrowe, and in front by 
the eyelaihes and eyelids, the lids closing instinc- 
tively in presence of danger. The surface ii kept 
continually moiKt by an almost imperceptible flow 
of tears. Hence its preeioiieness niakc^ it a lilting 
ejnblem of (lod's unceaf<ing and tender cnre for liia 
people, as in Dt »2'», Ps 17", Kec**. In I'r 7