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Full text of "A dictionary of the central Nicobarese language (English-Nicobarese and Nicobarese-English), with appendices containing a comparison of synonymous words in the remaining Nicobarese forms and other matters, preceded by notes on the grammar of the central form"

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Appeudioes containing a ComporUon of Synonymous Words 
in the remaining Hicobarese Forms and other matters, 



Attention Patron: 

This volume is too fragile for any future repair. 
Please handle witii great care. 


All BighU BMtrvtd. 


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Appendices contaizdng a Comparison of Synonymous Words 
in the remaining Nioobarese Forms and other matters, 





Firtt Aiiittant Svperintendatt of the Andamani and Ntcoiart; I'ellaa of the 

Sot/. Qeug. Soe. ; Member of the Aatirop, ImtitKle; etc. 








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In 1871, when I was first appointed to the post of officer in 
chai^ at the Nicobar Islands, I prepared a short list of native 
words which I incorporated in my Annual Keport, and which 
was afterwards published by the Koyal Asiatic Society of 
Bengal (vol. xli, p. 1, 1872). 

Dutiijg subBec[uent periods of my official residences in these 
Islands prior to the year 1880, whUe making ethnolt^cal 
researches among the aborigines, I arranged a Vocabulary con- 
taining some 3,000 words with numerous illustrative phrases. 
Government granted me a subvention for printing this work in 
1883, but as I bad at that time volunteered for the appointment 
at the Nicobara — recently rendered vacant by the murder of 
Mr. de Eoepatorff — I thought it advisable to delay the publica- 
tion of my Vocabulary until I had availed myself of the 
opportunity thus offered to verify my notation of the various 
complex sounds in the Nicobarese language, and to enlarge the 
scope of the work. 

This I have been able to accomplish, and the present revised 
Dictionary, containii^ some 6,000-7,000 words, consists of two 
parts, i.e., English-Nicobarese and Nicobarese-EngHsh ; I have 
also added numerous notes on the Grammar and several 
Appendices which will, I trust, be found useful and inte 
to p 

E. H. MAN. 
Port Blair, 1889. 


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Inttoduotory EemarkB ,. -. yii— 1» 

I. The Article ly 

ir. Substwitiree it— ii 

IIL Adjectives ii— uiii 

IV". Pronouns .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ixiii — iirii 

V. Verba Iitii— uii 

TI, AdTerb iiii— uirii 

Vii. PrepoBiCions &nd PostpoaitiouB .. .. .. .. izxTii — zxiix 

Tin. ConjuDctiona ixxii 

1&, Interjections, EiclamationB, and Phrases . . ■ ■ uiii — li 

X. Hnmerab ili — ilvi 

XI. Psfticles, Prefixes, and Buffiiea . . . . . . . . ilri— -lii 

Xn. Sjntai liii 

XIII. The Suljstantire Verb liv— It 

XIV. Interrogatire Sentences . . . • . . . ■ . . It — Iri 
XV. Negative Senlonces M 

XVI. On Aniiliariea ivi— Iviii 

XVii. On Intensires .. .. .. .. .. ... Iviii 

Part I. — Engliah-Nicobareae (with illuatratiTe phrases) .. .. 1 — 113 
Part II. — Nicobareae-English (with derivatiyes and oompoimd words) 115 — 217 

Appendices : — 

A, — Alphabet of Symbols nsed to eipreaa the aoonds found in 

the Dialects of the Nicobar laUnds 219—221 

K— Philological Harp 222&22S 

B('). — List of certain Adverba and Verba indicating direction 

and motion . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 231&225 

C. — Comparative List of Words and Numerals in the sii 

dialects of the Nicobar Islands 226 — 243 

N.B.— Appendices and Sectiona not included in thta Tolume, hot to which re- 
ference ie made, form part of a monograph on Che " Nicobar Islanders " in course 
of preparation bj the same Author. 


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The particular language to wMcli the following observatiosa are 
confined is that spoken by the aborigines of the ^icobar Islands in 
the vicinity of the settlement established in Nancowry Harbour by 
the Indian Government in 1869. 

A glance at the map will show that the Nicobar group, 
comprising twelve inhabited and seven nninhabited islands and 
islets, IB situated between the 6th and 10th parallels of K. 
latitude and between 92° 40' and 94° of E. longitude, and thna Hes 
in a direct line between Samatra and the Andaman Archipelago. 
The inhabitanta consist of coast and inland tribes ; the former, 
evidently of Malayo-Bupman origin,^ occupy all the inhabited 
islands and number about 6,200 aoula, upwards of one-half of 
whom are located on the northernmost island (Car Nicobar), while 
the latter are confined to the interior of the largest and southern- 
moat ialand (Great Nieobar), where their numbers are believed not 
to exceed a few hundreds ; these communities evidently represent the 
original inhabitants of at least the southern islands of the group, 
and are probably allied to one or other ot the wild tribes of 

Although the inhabitants themselves recognise the existence of 
six distinct dialects in their rnidat, four of these, viz., those apoken 
in Chowra, Teressa, and the central and southern groups, might 
with some reason be regarded as one, the differences being evi- 
dently the result commonly observed among all similarly scattered 

' These islanilg are liDguiaticaUj diviiied into six coinmunities, viz. i — (1) 
Car Nicobar (population about 3,500) ; (2) Chowra (about 700) ; (3) Tereasi 
witiBompoia (about 650); (4) the Central Group, embracing Ciunorta, Nan- 
oowrj, Tnntut, aod Katehal (about 1,070) ; (5) the Southern Group, com- 
prising Great and Little Hicobiir, Condol, and MUo (about 290) ; and (6) the 
inlandtribe (Shorn Pen) of Great Micobar (? about 700). 

' In respect to their affisilj to the Burmese there is, I think, reason to 
connect thein with the Telainga o( Pegu rather than with anj other branch of 
the Burmese race, and rerj posaiblj tnej may be nllied also to the aho iginal 
inhabitants of the Mergui Ar^ipelago. 

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commimitieB apeaking an unwritten language and eDJoying infre- 

ftient opportnnities of inter-conimnnication and mtercourse. The 
iveraities of speech which have sprang into being among the four 
communities in question, are, moreoTer, no doubt in great measure 
ascribable to the operation of a auperatitioas custom, which here, 
aa in various other remote regions, haa efEected constant changes 
in the language of the inhabitants ; but in every inBtauce of this 
kind aacb changes have been limited to ike area of the particular 
corrmnmity coneemed. The practice referred to is baaed on a firm 
belief in an after- esietence, and requires that the names of deceased 
relatdves and frienda shall be tabned for a certain lengthened 
period — generally about one generation — for fear of summoning or 
offending the ghost of the person ao named.^ Thei'efore, as their 
syatem of peraonal nomenclature not only permits anyone to invent 
or adopt a name for him or herself, but also to take for this purpose 
any woid in the lai^uage without couaideration of its being in 
general use, it naturally follows that new words have to be con- 
stantly otHned to take the place of those whose use is tabued iii 
consequence of a death, and thus many striking changes are intro- 
duced into the language in the conrse of each generation.' This 
fact explains why ao many of the women and other untravelled 
membera of these commnnitiea are incapable of understand- 
ing the dialects spoken in the adjacent iulanda, and, therefore, 
regard theLr neighbours in the light of distinct tribea ; at the same 
time the frequent occurrence of synonyms for common objects is 
accounted for by the custom, which requires a man to assume the 
tabned name of bis deceased grandfather imm.ediately after the 
death of his own parents, and a woman, under like circumstances, 
takes to herself the naoie of her deceased grandmother. 

It will be readily understood that when the time comes for 
resuming a long tabned name, which conveys some meaning in 
their language, the substituted word which has been meanwhile 
employed, has in many cases taken such firm root as to remain 
concurrently in nae. 

The Nicobar dialects are included in the Tibeio-Anam family, 
and are in the agglutinative stage of development. In the absence 

' When the Binall nuaib«r of speakere of each of tlieee unwritten dialects is 
taken into oonaideration it seema eomevhat remarkable tliat the ]an{;uage Bhould 
be ohanuiterised bj so much etabilitj as ie shown to be the c&ae from the r««ull« 
ot a comparison of the vooabuloriee prepared between 1711 and 1787 and those 
of the preaent daf ■ The most striking diEFerencea are unturallT found in those 
dialeeta which are spoken in the localities moat widelj separated from eooh other. 
Taking, for example, eueh common words aa hut and canoe we find the«e to be 
in the Central Qroup dialeut «t and diie, while at Car Nicobar the corresponding 
words are pSti and ip ; again such a sentence in the former dialect as vj&t men 
pahSa chit okngdk ten paiyih (don't be afraid, I am not a cannibal, lit. I don't 
eat men), is in Car Nioobarese dm paia kva dra chian kd tdrik. 

I " As amongst most haJf-deTeloped nations proper name« are compounded of 
words in dailj uee, new eipreesions must be invented to replace them. "" 

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of homonymB having estirelj difEerent meanings and dietingaiBh- 
able bj intonatrioa only, they differ from Burmese and other Indo- 
Chinese tongues, bat in structure they present certain points of 
resemblance to Malay, PegTian, and Bnrmese, from which circmn. 
Btance as well as the evident affinity of the inhabitants to those 
races, the nativea more readily acquire a knowledge of Malay and 
Burmese langoages than of any other. 

The com.munity of verbal Btracture and parte of speech which is 
fonnd to eziet between the dialects spoken in these islands and the 
Indo-Chinese languages, is snch as to jofitify the inference that it 
is dne to common descent or continued affinity. This assumption 
is strengthened, and indeed, as elsewhere pointed out, ail doubt on 
the question of racial affinity ia dispelled nhen we come to compare 
the ethnic characters and caatoms of these islanders, as well as 
their traditions and beliefs, with those of the neigh boa ring conti- 
nents of Hindustan on the one hand, and of Malayo-Burma on the 

The small number of words borrowed from other races is some- 
what remarkable. Examples of thees are shapdta (boot), pipa 
(cask), ISbcu-e (book, paper), ehwpeo (hat), rupia (mpee), Santa- 
Maria (copper money), which are all apparently of Portuguese 
origin ; Ufdnta (elephant) is from the English word ; thai (salt) 
from the Hindnsttuii ; tiumgho (cup), liH-^t (one of the evil 
spirits), kapo (buffalo), haiya/m. (fowl, 0. Wic.) from the Malay ; 
haU (steal), hamalo (thief), from the Pegnan; while the resem- 
blance between moah (nose), and ddk (water) to the Peguan equiva- 
lents moo and dih respectively, may possibly be accidental and not 
due to adoption.' 

The symbols which have been adopted in order to represent the 
various sounds occnrring in this unwritten language will be fonnd 
in the accompanying Appendix A (the alphabet). As there stated 
they ai-e for the most part a transcript of what appeared in the 
report of the annual address of the President of the Philological 

' At Car Ificobar the men mostly posBeai a good ooUoquial knowledge of 
Botmeae, and m&ny cau conrerse in Hmdiutani and EiigUih. A few only kooir 
anything of Malaj or ot an,T of the dialecta epohen at Chowrs and other ulonda 
of the £i]up. At Chtrwra the men bnov little or nothing of Bunneae, Hindu- 
Btani, MaUt, or English, but have enffieient aoqusintooce with the Oar Nicobar 
and Centml Group dialects to m^e themselree understood by their neighboors. 

At Tera«a and Bompoka the men can converse fairly well in Malay, Burmeae, 
and HiDduatani as weU as in the Chowra and Central Gronp dialects. In tlje 
Ce»l^ol Cfroup the men are mostly able to eonvenie in Hindustani and Malay, 
and some in Boiraese and English as well as in the dialect spoken in the 
Soutbem Group and Teressa. 

In the Soufhers Oroap the men can converse in Malay and a few in Hindu- 
stani and in the dialect of the Central Group. 

At none of the islands can tiie women speak an]i but tbeb own dialect, A few 
near the Qovemment settlement have picked up a sLgbt knowledge of Hindu- 
stani. It occasionally happens that natives of different islands, such as Cor 
Kioobac and those south of Chowra, from ignorance of each otheA dialect, ai 


ipelled to oonverse together eitbsr in Hindnstani, Burmese, Malay, oi 

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Society (Mr. A. J. Ellia, F.R.S.), in 1882,' It will be seen that tbe 
langut^ is chiefly remarkable for its great variety of nasal rowels 
and diphthongs, most of which are believed to have no place in 
any Etu-opeau tongne,' 

The peculiarity in regard to final elided and half-uttered con- 
sonants BO well known in Burmese, and which presents one of the 
chief difficnlties in the correct pronunciation of that langnage is a 
farther striking feature in !Nicobarese, bo much so that in conversa- 
tion it is generally impossible for a stranger to be able to distinguish 
the particular consonant which has been thus, as it were, slurred or 
checked in mid -utterance. In the particular dialect under con- 
sideration, the final consonants which are in many words enunciated 
imperfectly in this manner are " j" " c/i," and " fc," e.g., ngai{cK), 
oil ; chi[j), abstain from cerlain kinds of food and pleasures (as 
when mourning) ; ien-sAiJ(fc)-H3as/ii, interrupt ; m&{k)-ngaijan,-v!e[\ 
(not sick) ; ■niaMd(k)nga-koi, youngest child.* Possibly, on closer 
examination, one or two others of rare occurrence might be found. 

A further similarity to Burmese is observed in the indeterminate 
sound of certain consonants in a large number of words, so much is 
this the case, that some hesitation is often justified in arriving at a 
final decision on thia point. If we may judge from the diverse 
methods of transliteration adopted by those who have published 
their views on this subject the same remark would seem to be 
necessary regarding certain final aspirates aa well as siime of the 
nasal vowels and diphthongs, concerning the existence of which I 
have thoroughly satisfied myself.* The letters that are actnally 
trttnspo.iable or which are made to appear bo from the writings of 
others are : — 

t and d ; p and b ; g and k ; e and ek ; d and r ; e.g. : — 
lewila (^Oycas SMmpkii) ... ... diwile (de Riiepstorff). 

/ap (side) /ai ;/ap (deHoepstorff). 

Foahat (Bompoka Island) ... Boahat (de Boepstorff). 

1 See " Tranaao. Philol. Soc.," 1882-3-^ pp. 49-50. 

' The Danish scientist. Dr. E. Bmi, who risited the Nicobsfs in 1846, wrote, 
" I have haard many difiereut languages spoken, but none of them had so dia- 
agteeabie a souad aa the Nicobarian. The great number of guttural and nasal 
sounds, the uneducated, drawling prononciation becoming still iuor« difficult on 
account of the disfigured mouth, makes a ver; disagreeable impression." 

' As meutioned in the notes to Appendix A, the method which has been 
adopted in order to represent the pecuUaritj of the arrested sound of these three 
letters is t« place tbem within brackets. 

* It is only right to mention that the difficulties experienced in transliterating 
the sounds in this language are chieflj due to the Imperfect articulation which 
characterispB the speech of the great majority of the natives, the result of the 
almost universal practice of eicessiTB betel'Ohewing. In order, therefore, to 
avoid as far as possible the difficulties thus presented, and to thoroughly satuf; 
myself on a matter of such importaace, I was careful not onl; to select for 
interrogation intelligent natives who had tbe &ee use of their lips, tongues, and 
teeih, but also, before recording their replies, to question them as to the accnracj 
of the words aa rendered bj previous writers wherever these differed materially 
from my own. 



pariS; 6aTO (dollar) jwwa (de RoepstorfE). 

paMy&h (native of iNicobara) ... ^iu(deB.); hoQU (Kink). 

hirdha (leaf-tray) ... ... ... gerdha (de R.). 

tha-yudng (Madrepora) ... ... sHoang (de B.). 

ftarw ; (tarfw (large) iiwiM (de R.). 

doAtai (10, also 200) ntftiei (de B.). 

dv.; ra} (olaj) ... ... ... dn (de R.), 

dwe; Mte' (canoe) dnie (de R.). 

dat-ngarit (startle, v.i.) ... ... rat nadit (de R.). 

While in respect to final aspirates and nasal vowels and 
diphthongs the following may be mentioned : — 

ckUh (go home) ... ... ... iiu (de R.). 

paiyUk (native of Nicobar Islands) poifi (deR.),6ajii(Rink). 

a»w«A (rain) ' omi (de R.). 

enh (near) ... ... ... ... oeh (de R.). 

me» (thon) me(deB.). 

o«(two) a (de R.) ; dk (Ruik). 

■miaA (pronged spear) ... ... inid (de R.). 

(anai (five) ; inai (twenty) ... tanein; ineire' (de B.).. 

W/binya (cload) mi/aie (do R.). 

Aoiia» (spinster) hoUmng(ieR.}. 

panoi (atetich) bdoi (deR.). 

Of sounds which they find diffienlt or, in the case of many indi- 
viduals, impossible to pronounce, the following may be mentioned 
aa examples : " stars," " strands," " strength," " aloth," " stations," 
"churches," "thorns," "the," "they," "then," "this," "those," 
"years," "cowards," where the "at," "si," "rch," "rdB,""th" 
(both initial and final), and final sibilants prove stumbling blocks. 
The difficulty in pronouncing anch a name as " Brookes " ia sur- 
mounted by substituting " Brooksis " or " Brookay." 

As will be seen on a subsequent page there is no lack of 
exm«ssive intellections and esclamations. 

Unlike Chinese and Burmese, no instance has been discovered in 
any of the dialects in which the meaning of words depends on tone, 
accent, or emphasis, bat, in common with many other tongues, sen- 
tences can be rendered affirmative or interrogative by change of 
tone or stress. 

Aa in the case of other barbarous tribes similarly circumstanced, 
their dialects are rich in terms denoting various actions, such as 
fishing, coniing, going, ascending, eating, carrying, visiting, and 
the like, whereby slight distinctions of meaning are conveyed ; as, 
for instance, they posssess a word to expreaa eating meat and another 

' In Romponnd words, e.ff,, kdi-ra, oonorete, or gronnd floor. 
kola-rue, landing-place. 

' Although both the " «'» " iu each of these words nre alike imaocsnted it is 
probable that the miter intended to represent the final " » " in each ease ae 

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wbich is applicable only to eating vegetableB, rice, &c, ; to denote 
fishing they have specific tenuB each indicatii^ one or other of the 
various methods of catching fish ; to express carrying there are, in 
like manner, distinct words applicable only to one or other of 
the several modes of carrying, i.e., on the shoulder, back, hip, in the 
arms, &c. ; again, by means of gnffixen, they aj% carefnl to specify 
direction in describing each actions as catting, aiming, &c., i.e., 
■whether upwards, downwards, or horizontally, bnt perhaps the 
most remarkable is the punctilious nse of a series of saffixes with 
certain verbs and adverbs in order to denote direction to one or 
other of the four cardinal points of the compass and to the landing- 

They possess no generic term to indicate an animal. Each de- 
scription of qaadmped, as well as bird, fish, insect, bxi., bears its 
own specific name, but they have no means of denoting the bmte 
creation under one term. In consequence of the very limited num- 
ber of animals in their islands, no inconvenience is thereby experi- 
enced, or the omission would, of course, have long since been 
supplied. The word slmi is used to indicate insects, reptiles, includ- 
ing ttirtles, tortoises, crocodiles, ignanaa, snakes, &c., likewise 
molluscs, crustaceans, holotharia, &c., while shick-ua (probably a 
contraction of ahSi, insect, and bl-chiia, jungle) is applied to birds 
and bate, and kda embraces all varieties of fish. 

In like manner, although possessing a variety of terms indicating 
specific stages of the tide, they have no general term to denote tide, 
and therefore have recourse to the word kamalS (sea) in such 
cases as the following :^K^4«%in kamale daka-kat, how's the tide 

The names of several birds and animals are derived from their 
cries and certain other words are suggestive of their meaning,* e.g. 
rrvu/mm, (imperial pigeon) ; Itohwanka (goose) ; wet (duck) ; kdX (sea- 
gull) ; kang (frog) ; me (goat) ; mfdie (cat) ; o-oak (cough) ; hlda 
(hiccough); e<iMft[C-J'^. yessa] (sneeze); ftin^oat (snoi-e) ; itmuian^a 
(thunder) ; fali-fahak (crow of a cock) ; kake-iik (cackle of a hen) ; 
k&ng-kong (sound of footsteps). It is, however, doubtful whether 
such onomatopoetic words prevail more largely in their language 
than in English, where we have such abundance of expressive terms 
of this kind, as, for instance, cackle, gneeze, quack, coo, cough, blow, 
bang, pop, puff, knock, rat-tat, meuf, clap, and the like. 

Their faculty for describing any action or object or expressing 
any desire by means of signs or gestures has never teen sufficiently 
exercised for them to possess any prescribed method. In order 
to express to a deaf and dumb person or to a foreigner ignorant of 
any of the languages known to them a sentence such as " I want 

' To AToiil repetition in Ibis place the rettder ia referred to Appendix B (a) for 
examples o! this rule. 

9 It is curious to note that the Cor X icobar dialect ia one of those in vhioh the 
reverse ot the ordiuar; infantiiJe terms for " father " and " mother" is fonnd. 
there a child cries tnantd to his fatlier and po-po to his mother (ms Fescbel's 
" Aaces of Mwi," p. Ill, and Tjlor'i " Anthropology," p. 129). 



El wliite hat," a man would proceed to raise his hands aboro his 
bare head and indicate the shape of the coveted article, pointing 
immediately afterwards to some white object and again to the 
imaginaiy hat on his head. In the conrse of this pantomime the 
man wonld smile and his eyes sparkle and the eyebrows be raised, 
and be wonld point repeatedly to himself. To make his meaning 
clearer he would conclude by pointing to a black object, such as a 
coat, and then to the space above his head and express his dis- 
approval of that colour by shaking his head lateraDy, protruding 
his lips npwards and frowning. 

In reference to gestnre-langoage it may be mentioned in this 
place that the direction of any object or place is often indicated 
, by the mere protrusion of the lips, as thoagh to save needless 
waste of breath ; while the time of day of any past occurrence or 
coming event is denoted to a stranger by pointing with the hand 
to that region of the sky which the son crosses at the hour in 

Before commencing to describe the varions parts of speech the 
following observations may be added. 

Boots are clearly discernible in the language. These can best 
be discovered and stndied by referring to Part II of the Dictionary 
where among nnmeroiia others may be found words derived from 
kai, tai,^ tain, tan, lain, yd, ind, dng, &0. 

Prepositions, postpositions, pronouns, adverbs, &c., stand 
separately and are not combined in the words with which they 
are employed, e.g., an 16a ong-shongha ten mne loah-hala onthaA, 
(he is walkiog quickly to that lofty tree), where the collocation is 
almost identical in the two langu^ea, the only difEerence being 
that the adverb precedes the verb in the Nicobareae sentence. 

Many words are capable of being nsed indifferently as verbs or 
adjectives, adjectives or substantives, adjectives or adverbs, &c., 
e.g., ISa, quick, quickly ; mittbi, false, falsehood ; kdto, silent, dwell ; 
cfeoitfl, own (adj.and tiw6); ^(,i8,haa, present (not absent); hen, time, 
when (at the time that) ; kapngalo, remember, mindful ; paitngato, 
forget, forgetful ; kedoknga, another, some other, otherwise, 
differently; loa-tayait, punctual, early {adv.); hoi, far (aii?. and 
adv.) ; while certain words might be mentioned as bearing two or 
more totally different meanings, e.g., tafual, pair,' six ; id, touch, 
flat ; kdhS, moon, when (mterrog.) ; ken, time, when (at the time 
that), we {dual) ; he, time, we (of three or more) ; y6, if, to wish, 
to (j""ep.), thither (eorrel. adv.), Ei. : yd men y6 yd Pit, Ac, if yon 
wish (to go) to Car Nicobar, &c. 

A large number of prefixes, suffixes and other particles are 
extensively employed with verb8,adjectives, substantives, and other 

' This word, wHch signifles " flDgers," corresponds to the Malay root " tang," 
hfiag applied lo a number of words relntiDg to the Aanij, or to the work performed 
with the ^Bjers (m» W. E. Maiwell's "Munnalof the Mnkj Language," p. 4). 

' No OTiif usioQ tan, howeyer, possibly arise from this oirfumstance, as iafsal 
(pair, oouple), is lOToriably preeeHed by a numeral. 

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parts of Bpeoch, The moat important of tbeae are the rerb&l 
Bnffises which will be referred to in Section XI (post) where it will 
be seen that they present a, striking feature in the charftcter and 
constitution of the langnage. As a careful examination of the 
subject appears to show that the selection of the particular suffix 
in nee has, in many instances at least, been determined by no 
specific rule, bat is the result of arbitrary choice, it is easy to 
understand that the chief difficulty in the study of the language is 
found to consiat in the correct employment of these important 

Compound words are extremely common^ ; in the case of sub- 
stantives they are formed according to the snme method as is 
observed in Malay and the reverse of that obtaining in English, 
e.g. : — 

hen-hathm (time-night), night-time. - 

paiyuh-blchiia (man-jungle), jungle-man. 

kdi-kenyuan (head-hill), hill-top. 
Omitting the case of certain classes of substantives compounded 
with pfl,rticles which will he referred to in Sec. II (on " Substan- 
tives " ) there appears to be but one exception to the mJe regarding 
compound words, whether substantives, adjectives, verbs, &c., 
which is to preserve the original words as &,r as possible from 
mutilation and not to contract such words into shorter forms, e.g., 
karu-fdp (big side) corpulent ; alde-ehiang (just-now-sweet) to 
become sweet ; yo-huyhie (wish-intoxicated) intemperate ; dok- 
enkngashe (can-recover) curable ; ingah-ne-'«a/ag (iaform-ear) to 
send word ; wi-kaiyl'd&k (make-road- water) to diain. 

The exception referred to is the case of the majority of the 
personal pronouns when employed with the negative adverb (see 
Sec. Y\,post), e.g.:^ 

chit (I-not) abbrev. for chiia-hat. 

met (thon-not) abbrev. for men-hat. 
Words denoting a diminutive signification such as " manikin " 
have no equivalents in the language, nor are there any corresponding 
augmentative substantives. By means of prolonged stress on the 
accented syllable of qualitative and quantitative words their 
meaning is intensified, e.^.: — 

ompei&-ehe (small), ompe-a-she (small indeed). 

karu (large), fcar-w (large indeed). 

pombi-she (old feraou), pom-di-she (very old person). 

1 As eiamples of word- compounding among the Nicoborese maj be mentioned 
flucb words ea doA-chalcd-fdin {life-faea-eroBsbow), holt of crosBbow ; driio-ooi- 
hiadel (oODtentB-fjun), partridge; moah-toah (nose-breast), teat; yd-kugdir-iai 
(wieh-drunk-make), intoiicating, lieadj j ddi-heoe (water-fire), any mineral oil, 
; iith4-kda (fiah-scaleB), is likewise applied to the small silver two- 

pieoe ; chSag-ieae (ship-fire), steamer ; cAdng-healain (ship- wheel) paddle 

leii taHdk-rdnt (measure-night), sand-gltue i iS-iitSal (hut-knife), scabbard i 

'.i/dk-idi-katioang (ooconut-Bhell-knee) , knee-oap. [This last corresponds with 

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An equally common method is to employ^' (indeed) aafollows: — 
ekaling (loi^), ekaUng-ka' (very long) ; 

pamakSa (coward), pamahea-ka' (a great coward), [See 
Sec. XVni,jpori]. 

The word dnh (life) ia employed to denote hnman beings token 
afloat in the eame way in which the word " aoul " is employed in 
English, e.g., tanai momckiama anh 6t oai chSng ame, there are 100 
souls on board that ship ; diie ka-bpe-kH tanai dnh ta-hapdh, the 
uanoe capsized (and) five sonis were lost. 

I. — The Articlb. 

Althongh, strictly speaking, equivalents of the definite and 
indefinite articles cannot be said to exist, the former ia capable of 
being in some measore represented by the demonstrative pronouns 
nee and nina (this) and ane (that) ; while the latter can be 
denoted by the numeral adjective heang (one) or the indefinite 
adjective homdok (some), 

II. — Substantives, 

In denoting number, gender, or case, the substantive undergoes 
BO inflection or change of any Idnd,'^ When the plural is not 
indicated with sufficient clearness by the context a numeral 
adjective is eai'pXosed, e.g., paiyHh ta-uTuhatshe ddk itd ia-minyiii, 
many men came here yeateriiay, or it is sometimes expressed by 
repeating the word, e.g., powah-powah (paddles), »}ianen-slianen 

Oenders relate to difference of sex only, and never to the differ- 
ence between animate and inanimate. They are indicated, when 
necessary by the terms enkbina (male) and enkdna (female) being 
added to the substantive, e.g., wel-^ikbma, (drake) ; kapo-enkdua, 

Case is indicated either by the position of the Bubstantive, the 
ase of particles or the jnita-position of two substantive?. The 
nominative does not necessarily commence a sentence -, when it 
is expressed in the middle or end of a sentence it is usually marked 
by the particle em or pan being prefixed to the substantive or 
prononn, e.g., chua ynchiih or yuchuh en (or pan)-chiia, 1 am going 
home ; paitghe homhebm pan(fir en)-men ten chua (a little give thou 
to me), give me a little. The genitive or possessive case is 
indicated by the object or thing possessed immediately preceding 
the possessor, e.g., ckia kd/nchua (father wife my) my wife's father; 

' A.t first mgbt there appeare to be on exception to this rule in the cue of 
heny (daj) Aoahaldm (night), for one flude that when empta;«il with a numerel 
these words aeBiune reBpectiyelj the forma giiniiSm and ddm (or rdm), e.g., lot 
ddm /dan thi»/n3m, three nights and four days j but one lenrna at the aiaoe time 
tliat even irfaen emplojed with heartg (one) the; take the saaxe irre);uliu' form*. 

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kan chia men, your father's wife ; due chia ehiia, my father's caaoo. 
When emphasis is desired the word chang (own) ia inserted before 
the pronoun or sabHtantive denotiojf the posseBSOr, e.g., diie chang 
cAitffi, my own canoe ; hoptep chang chia kdn chiia (box own father 
■wife my) my wife's father's own box, thns exactly reversing the 
order adopted in English. The dative and objective are usaally 
expressed by the use of the prepositions ten, an, ta, ta-tai, or 
the postposition en signifying "to," e.g., homkwbm ta-tai chiia, 
give me ; olyola ten an, tell him ywian en ia-lvnhen, make it to-day ; 
hend^n ta eh, awake him. When the dative and objective are both 
e;Epre38ed in the same sentence the latter takes no preposition, e.g., 
chUa ledt homkwbm pdwah ten an, I have already given him the 

The equivalents of the Latin ablative are denoted by means of 
the prepositions te' (by) ; y6l; yiang-an (vnth); longto ; longlo-tea; 
chakd; ngaiai ; lambngto-iM (from); e.g., an okai-hanga pomth 
Ibngto-ta oal diie chiia, he took away the paddle out of (iti. from 
inside of) my canoe. 

The substantives may be divided into those which are pnmitioe, 
derivative, and compound. 

1st. Those which are primitive, e.g., koi (head), diie '(canoe), ni 
(hut), ddk (water), chia (parent). 
2nd. Derivative; those which are formed from Verbs — 
(a) by prefixii^ or omitting an aspirate, e.g. : 

hokngSk (food) from okngoTc (to eat). 

holyol (speech, remark) from olydla(to speak). 

hokai (anything bronglit) from okai (to bring). 

hort (any object killed) from ori (to kill). 

hong-dng (boiled meat) from ong-dng (to boil meat). 

holpdl (weeds) from olpdl (to weed), 

omkiodm (gift) from homkwbm, (to give), 
(6) by adding to or modifying the prefix or first syllable, e.g : 

hen^-heat (hooked pole for lowering and lifting bucket, Ac.) 
from ha-heat (to hook, Ac). 

henhet (strainer) iromhanhei (to strain). 

henet (chisel) from het (to chisel). 

kenshin (prop) from kaehin (to prop, support). 

kentoka (dance) from katoka (to dance). 

ta-kapdh (carcase) from kapdh (to die). 

tenkdk (lancet) from tomkdk (to lance, puncture). 
(c) by pre6xing or interpolating the particles ma, om, am, on. 
Ac. : 

pamahoa (coward) from paJioa (to fear), 

pam,amoan (fighter) from pomoan (to fight). 

kwmatoka (dancer) from katoka (to dance). 

' Ai maj be seen b^ referring to Part 11 of tlie Dict'ionmy the most oommon 
form of Bubst&iitiTal prefixes iBUint oi he»,e.g,,heit-Haa (telescope); Aenloin (top, 
wheel) i ien-ioa (scar) ; hen-ihaa (auent, camphor) : hen-laridla (rudder) ; hea- 
loaa (ocean), &c. 

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kamapdh (corpse) from kapdh (to die). 

katnald (fiaei) troiakald (to steal). 

mertlvana (sliamaik) from enluana (to exorcise). 

TTiitua (visitor) from itwt (to visit). 

ckaanang (owner) from chang (to own, possess). 

da/mah (^eat) from dak (to come). 

danaha (whetstone) fromiju^ (to whet, sharpen). 

twiadka (fathom) from tdk (to measure). 

ta^k-rdm. (sand-glass) from tak (to measure) and rdm 

(night). -t*/ 

wane-ni (framework of hntj from wl-ni (to make hut). 
womi^-karav. (blacksmith) from wi-karau (to work in iron) . 
tan-mop (drunkard) from top (to drink). 
pometn (drunkard) frompem (to drink). 
okanio (whistle) from chuo (to whistle). 

(d) by prefixing en, op, &c., e.g : 

enpoya (seat, bench) irompiiya (to sit down). 
enddpa (cushion) from dSpa. (to spread cloth). 
op-ldp (shawl) from lop (to cover the shoulders). 

(e) by suffixing wa or a, e.g. : 

halawwa (purchase) from halau (toba^). 
iopa (beverage) from top (to drink). 

(/) by varbna irregular methods, e,^. : 
anula (grave) from, odl^ola (to bury). 
chanola (strap, handle) from, cfiial (to lift). 
foang (window) from ofoah (to open). 
inola (tale) from olyola (to ape^, tell). 
laneatla (&ial memorial feast) from leat t_finished). 
pwmandp (corpse) irora phin-nbp (to die). 
daM (cudgel) from odl (to beat with stick). 
di7i'a6nka (winner in foot race) from dian (tornn), 
kaiMiihe (song) from iltdsha (to sing). 
motnikdgka (singer) trom ikdska, {to sing). 

3rd. Those which are formed from Adjectives — 

(o) byprefixingorinterpolating the particles ma, am, mi, OM, Ac.: 

moreh (first person or animate object) from oreh (first). 

via-huybie (drunkard) from huyoie (intoxicated). 

'mhiiitdma (flock) from O'mtom, (ail, whole). 

hamaru (adnlt) from Icaru (large). 

haTnodng (strong man) from koang (strong). 

chomb7ig-kdi (tall person) from ehimg-koi (tell). 

ahani-tofhe (a^e) from shl-tasha (old). 

' This vord lootnl oorresponds to ths Hindustani teaUt (fellow) and the Mslaj 
tskamg. Like the latter it preredes the Bubstontive with whi«1i it is employed, 
e.g.: — uomi-cltto (canoe-mikker) j «otinti-»i (hut-builder) ; tetntu-ydm (cuUiyaior) ; 
atmu-thanen (epear-mnket) . 




(h) by meane of miacellaneoiis prefixes, enffizeB, and irr^nlar 
uethodB, e.g. : 

kala-kdi-ya (sky) from hoi (far). 

hen^yhiya (drnnkard) from huybig (dmnk). 

pen-tsyen-oahndt (white of eye) from teyen (white). 

shbnk (sugar) from ehiang (sweet). 

paich-hat (a little) irompaich (small). 

(c) by reduplication, e.g. : 

harok-harok (anything, something) from haroh (any). 
4th. Those which are formed from SubstoMtivet^ e.g. : 

sha/mayowa (sackful) from ghdyo (sack). 

mentainya (basketful) from hentain (basket). 

ta-pahomle (bottleful) from pomle (bottle), 

ftamoAenwa (a lunation) from kdhe (moon). 

kama/nuana (a generation) from koan (child). 

ta-wetare (tnmblerfnl) from wetare (tumbler). 

mombngkoa (cupful) from mongko (cup). 

miyai (value) from yai (price). 

■meakbina (man of a certain raoe) from enkiraia (male). 

And 5th. Those which are Compound— 

(a). Compounded of two or more Subtttmtives,' e.g. : 

Jeoi-petUila (ixm.otoTj).^ *i^»-ft*f^4**^ 

c!mk-m(room). 0-/6i^-**f^ 

moah-toah (teat).i?-.-^-*^**'^ 

hei-keng (day-time JTyy* vJIhA'^SAvi^ /■•/- 

heare-kemfum (cbildEobd).A^>«.*^««-*7*^ 

paiyHh-blohua (jangle-man) ^j^ '»«'•*^V'''y^ 

heng-du-kdi (nmbrella). /i^, fi^H—^eJit'-A*^^ 

kaiyi-hbin-mattai (channel). ^JJf i^ie^ ' ^t*-^*^ . . ^. ..yj-,/ 

onjf-ewff-ot-fefip (carapace of ^le)./J-.««W.-i»«Kf57«»5^ 

dnha'OaUyom. (vegetables). lU". 'Vj^TiI^-***™*- 

driA-t-oaZ-Awwfei (cartridge).^ '»f^liM-9*m' 

chakd-kiduma (edge of dhkjT 

(b) Compounded of or with a 7^6, Aij'flctitie, Prepontton, e.g. : 

halin-paiyHh (prisoner, lit. arrested person). . 

opyap-pniyuh (eavesdropper), /ft flfl*^^**'-^***'*? 
dnha-ta-leat-ybk (carrion, lit. rotten flesh). 
puah(i~dieh.ire-ta-iivi (total eclipse, Hi. eat- whole-demon). 
shUmg-di (perfume, lit. sweet odour). 
teyen-fush (steam, lit. white-smoke). 

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i/ai-tat (sbaring, chip, Ut. slice-piece). 
oyd-tat (Barplns, Kt. allow to reauun-piece). 
' (weather). 
g-ndng (clock, Ut. thing-hear-ear). 

There is one other claas of snbstantireB, which owing to its 
peculiar Bignification and frequent employment deserTes mentioD. 
In order to denote objects, whether animate or iniuiiniat«, of the ' 
santie race, deseriptioti, locality, 8^c., the substantive, indicating the 
object in qneBtion, nndergoes certain inflections or other changes 
and modificationa of form, which are similar in character to those 
shown above under 2 (c), 3 (a), and 4,' e.g. : — 

heang yuang enMima, one man, 

— — menlibiiia, one (or more) man of the same race. 
d» — — two (op more) men of two different 

hSang yuang enkdna, one woman. 

— — menkdna, one (or more) woman of the same 

Ide yuang menftano, three (or more) women of three different 

heang yuang kBTtyum, one child. 
— — kamettyama, one (or more) child of the same 

fda/K yuang kamenywnia, four (or more) children of four 

different commnnities. 
heang y&ang paiyuh, one Nicobareae. 

— — ' penyHh, or pam,enyuh, one (or more) Nicobarese 
of the same commnnity. 

ioTtai ywiiig pamem/iih, five (or more) Nicoboroae of five 

different commnnities. 
keang yuang kaling, one foreigner. 

— — kaimaiinga, one (or more) foreigner of the same 

tafHal yuang kamalenga, six (or more) foreigners of six 

different conntries. 
heang rtoang^ not, one pig. 

— — metmota. {not), one (or more) pig of the same 

issdt ndang mennota (nof), seven (or more) pigs of seven 
different villages. 

Similarly dm, (dog) becomes enmdma {dm) dog or dogs' of a 
certain village. 

' On referriDg to Section XI (poal) it will be foand that these same particles 
are further employed in yet aaolher senae. 

* Theae are numeral co-efflcient^ which will be described ahortlj in Section X. 
' i.e., HOCordiug to whether it a preceded by hiang (one) or other niimeraL 

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ehong (ship becomes chmmonga (cMng) ship or ehips of a 

certain rig. 
matlai (village) becomes Ttientai, village or villages of a 

certain commanity. 
kentoka (dance) becomes kamentoka, dance or dances of a 

certain kind. 
kanbiihe (aong) becomes kameimbishe, song or songs of a 

certain kind. 

Ex. : Seang JcaTtienTtdishe ta^kbisha da kamentdka ta-katoka tai chikt 
w3}ie. On^^nnd of song was snng (and) two kinds of dances were 
danced by me ^aat night. 

Ill, — Adjectives . 

These, like substantives, are nninflected for nnmber, gender, or 
case. It is optional to place the adjective before or after the sab- 
Btantive whidi it qnalifies, e.g., an yuang lapa kaling, or an yUang 
kaling ta-lapa. (the two good foreigners), but, as tliis example wifl 
show, it is obligatory in the latter case to prefix the particle " ta " 
to the adjective. 

The posseeaiye adjective " own " is expreaaed by choMg (aee a/nte, 
Sec. II., Case), or by suffixing "re" or " de" to the substantive, 
e.g. '. — ni chang chiia, my own hat ; an k&to ta-oal nl de, he is Kving 
in his own hnt ; dak kan ofS ta-oal dUe re, are they all coming in 
their own canoe ? 

The adjectivea may be divided into simple, derivative and com- 

1st. Those which are gimple, e.g., lapa (good) ; karu (large) ; 
chbng (high) ; ngong (empty) ; to, (level) ; enh (near) ; hoi {tax). 

2nd. Derivative — ■Thote which are derived from verbs : — 

lamiap (export) from leap (able, can). 

Srd. Those wHion. are derived from subsianhves — 
(a) By prefixing the particle ta : 

ta-karau (iron) from karaa (iron, s.). 

ta-chua (silver) from chvA (silver, *.). 

ia^onlhan (wooden) from onihan (wood, s.). 

ta-Tiiat (so long, thns long) from ruat (length). 

ta-riiala (so high) from raala (height). 

ia^rUala-kdi (so tall) from ruala-koi (statnre). 

ta^ri (so big, thus big) from rl ; dl (size). 

ta-ri-fdp (so fat) from « (Edze), fdp (side). 

(&)By prefixing or interpolating ma, am, men, Ac. : 
pamayol (hairy) frompuyol (hair). 
menkoan (having many children) from hocm (child). 
iamoano (having one or more childron) from koan (child). 

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An irregalar forai of this ie found in cha-nMoodhibi (rich) from 
ehUaha (property). 

(c) By BnfGxing o, yo, ya, hare : 

iffdpQ (fat) from/(Jp (aide). 

/ kdiio (married, of the man) from hdn (wife). 

/ kbiiio (married, of the woman) from koin (hnfiband). 

j ckafaiyo (armed) from chatai (weapon). 

1 enhoinyo (bearded) from eakoin (beard). 

\ miyaiya (costly) from iiUyai (value). 

\ ong-eng-hare (scraggy, lean) from. ojM^-eMa (bone). 

(d) An exceptional fomria the followmg: 
keoyan (hot) from hede (fire). 

4th. Those which are formed from adjectives, verbt, ^c, by saffixing 
la, to, IdtS, pa/re, nga, yan, ayan, yanto, she, asJie, liaahe, hatshe, tashe, 
ngat6,ngayan, ngare, ngashe, rtgaehl, shito and shire.^ 

iteak-la (drowsy) from iteak (to sleep). 

keh-to (ill-tempered) see keh. 

(neh.lat6 (senior) from oreh (first), 

ieydh-latd (junior) from ley ah (new). 

indm-lato (same age) from inbm, (together, accompany). 

pah6a-pare (timorous) from^a^^a (fear). 

doh-nga (snitable) from doh (able, can). 

lapd-yan (well, not sick) from lapd (good). 

oydu-yan (lonely) see oyau. 

heang-ayan (equal) from hSang (one). 

akaih-yamtS (honest) from p kai (bring). 

karn-she (abundant) from karU (big). 

iare-ghe (due, owing) from tare (more). 

wdt-she (sufficient) from ? wat (so, thus). 

heang-ashe (same) from heang (one). 

yol-hashe (of same sort) from yol (with). 

ch6ng-hatshe (smart, quick) from ? chmg (ship). 

I The ■ate and ugniflcance of some of theee snfilieB ie illustnted in Appendix 
B (a), and in a singular manner in the words for " whole " where we End : — 
£-re and di-ngathe = wliolu of a, hut or an; portable property when in toitnd 

condition, while, 
di-thire and di-Tigare — whole of a hut or any portable property when in 

untenrieeabU condition. 
M-ngare-ihe = whole, in Teferenoe to entire abience of «ome quolitj, sub- 

stanoe, &c. 
dOat-ahire — whole of anj long object. 
Mang-lara — whole of the contents of a boi, &c., when in soand condition, 

keang-ngare = whole of the contents of a box, Ac., when in damaged con- 

heaag-leSt-lare = whole of a »e( of any kind of, Hnieri (finjorssAe 
matlai nee hat 61 loak-ia-fain, there ia at present no fermented toddj in 
the whole of this rilUge, 

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tang-laske (oorrect) see tang. 

ySh-ngato (glad) Bee yah. 

heh-ngayan (difficult) see fceA. 

kompdh-ngare (moribund) from kapdh (die, dead). 

do-nga^ke (different) from dio (other). 

■manS, {k)-ngasht (laBt, hindmoBt) from mdk (fiBiahed). 

yuang-shito (bnsj) see yuang. 

yen-shire (sorry) Bee yen. 

5th. ITiote which are compound : — 

y6-huybie, intemperate (Uf. wiah-intoxioated). 
yd-ngong, nearly empty. ■ 

du-ta~y6, fertile (of soil) {lit. soil-'williDg). 
ehia-ta-y6, fraitf al (of tree) (lit. tree-wiUing). 
td-ta-tai, Qont&gioXLa (lit. toiich.-li&nd). 
id-chakd, flat (of bottom of tumbler) (lit. level-face). 
thiri-ka/nedl, crescent, (lit. like-boar's-tnak). 
du-Tnat, dirty, (lit. clay-ext«rior). 
du-ngamal, inTisible (lit. shade-colour). 
hak-7igamat, visible (Ut. air-colonr). 
tdka-ok, spotted (lit. spot-outside). 
paiyuh-ho-oal, tenanted (lit. person-inside). 
kodtig-oal, intoxicating (lit. strong- in side). 
pait-tare, some more (lit. email-more), 
heang-i-chla-enkbala, consanguine (Ut. same father). 
heang-i-ehia-enhdrta, uterine (lit. same mother). 
vrUhatghe-chnk, commodious (lit. miicli space). 
miyiya-kdn-de, nxorious (lit. affection ate -wife-own). 
holtdlnga-odl'ndng, obedient (lit. order-inside-ear). 
doh-lenkdh-ehakd, flexible (Ut. can-bend -face). 
doh-na-ngoka, eatable (Ut. cau-it-eat). 

A peculiar word of this class is denahan (alive and well), in 
which there is a trace of dnh (life) ; Ei. : ot denahan na at Lobng, he 
is alive and well at Great Nicobar. 

The degrees of cowiparisiwi.. — The comparative and enperlative 
degrees can never be expressed by retaiciag the adjective in its 
positive form and prefixing the equivalents of "more" and "most" 
and suffixing "fa" (in sense of "than") as I find has been suggested 
as the apparent method commonly adopted. 

In the majority of cases the comparative degi'ee is formed by 
inserting, sulwtituting, or prefixing in, en, ong, &a., to the first 
syllable of the positive form of the adjective, and suffixing a, too, 
ya or yo; while in every case the superlative degree is indicated by 
suffixing ka' (indeed) b) the comparative form, e.g. : 

lapd (good), l^ipda (better), lenpda-ka' (best). 
chaling (long), chinlinga (longer), chinlinga-ka- (longest), 
ehbng (high), cktjibnga (higher), chinongofka' (highest). 
thtang (sweet), shinnianga (sweeter), shinneanga-ka' 

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poa^ (foor), penndapa (poorer), penn6apa-ka' (poorest), 
iany- an (heavy), len-ngdna (heavier), Imngd/rui-ka' (heaviest). 
hiii (far), keanoiya (farther), henttdtya-ka' (farthest). 
enh (near), ermenha (nearer), ennenha-ka' (nearest). 
ka^ (big), endna ; kend^a (bi^er), endua-ka' (bluest). 
mitdnto (short), entdnta (shorter), entdnta-ka' (shortest). 
kodng (strong), ong-kodnga (stronger), ong-kodjiga-ka' 

fiu>i (think), /e?i?ioi JO (thicker), feimbiyo-hv (thickest). 
pacltoM {m\A'), penchoMwa (oAA&r), penchauwa-ka' (coldest). 
There are a few which denote the comparative degree in an 
irregular manner. Of these the most comnioii are : — 

eAhla (attaining maturity), ennyUla (older), ennyula-ka' 

•wiiila (joang), olydla (younger), olydla-ka- (youngest). 
kedyaii (hot), kenonga^yan (hotter), kenongayan-ha' (hottest). 
inienlishe (short), ennaishe (shorter), minaishe-ka' (shortest). 
ompenshe (sthall), enpechya (smaller), enpechya-ka' (smallest). 
The object (or objects) with which the comparison is made is 
placed in the dative case, e.g. : 

Ghiia chinbnga-kdi ten (or ta) men, I am taller than joa; .Slta- 
■meak endua t'Ong-yHang, Malacca village is larger than Ong-yuaiig ; 
men lenngdrta-ka' fen. he bmiow,, yon are the heaviest of na all. 

To express a diminntive degree the adjective in the compara- 
tive or superlative form is preceded by liivnd-ngaBhe ; linnd-ngayan, 
&c.,^ (denoting less, smaller), e.g., an Unndngayan ongkodnga ten 
mei, he is less strong than you; kae-dwa-hata-yan signifies "utmost, 
estremest limit," e.g., kae-diiahata-yan onokodnga an, the utmost of 
his strength ; nee due linndngashe lenpda-ka' t'cmitom, this canoe is 
the least good of all. 

The property of the English adjectival suffix " ish " signifying 
" rather " is fulfilled by the term peA-na (lit. little it) which is 
prefixed to the adjective, e.g., chaling (long), peA-na-chaling (longish), 
Jcaru (big), pen-na-karu (biggish). 

For the methods of denoting an intensive degree see Section 
XYIII (post). 

IV. — Pronodns. 

The personal and possessive pronouns are chiefly remarkable for 

the expression of thedual number. In common with adjectives and 

substantives they are uninflected for gender, while eaee is indicated 

in the former by the same means as that adopted with substantives. 

' liand-Aala = lesa (when reference ii to height or distance □orthwards) . 
tinnd-haihe = less (when refereiice ia t« shortness nr distance westwams). 
Uiuul.haine — less (irheii reference Is to nearnesB or distance to Unding- 


' less (nhen reference is to distance southwards) ■ 
Unnd-haiat = less (when reference i« to distance eastwardn). 
£.g. an Unnd-hala chinAnga-ioi lea chUa, he is less tall than I. 

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ckiia ; cha,^ I, also my. 

men ; me} thon, also iky. 

an ; na,^ he, she, it, also his, her, its. 

Aen ; chaai, we (dual), also our (dual). 

he ; chiiii, we (of three or more), aleo our (of three or more). 

yot-chUa; yol-cha, we (of a communilj), also otir (of a 

ind, yon, (duid), also yonr (dual). 

ife, yon (of three or more), also your (of three or more). 
yol-men ; yol-me, yoa (of a community), also your (of a 

ond, they (dwal), oZso their (duaT). 

ofe, they (of three or more), also their (three or more). 
yol-an, they (of a community), also their (of a commtmity). 

The possessive form, invariably follows the substantive and is 
sometimes marked by the common particle fa, e.g., due ckila, (or 
diie ta-chUa) my canoe. 

The prononn serving as the snbj'ect of a sentence is sometimes 
repeated, e.g., an hat-chiih-ta-chakd na leat, (Ut. it not-yet it 
finished), it is not yet finished. 

In replying to an inquiry regarding a transitive action the 
pronoun or substantive is preceded by tai (by), e.g. ■ 

Ohi shdk not, who speared the pig ? 
Ana. tai tdm dma, (Ut. by) my younger brother. 
chi hoshuenta ten Jcoan chiia, who kicked my child P 
Ana. tai an, (lit. by him) he. 

It is unnecessary to illustrate case declension with examples, as 
this has already been done in Section II (amte). 

In order to express the objective form of the 3rd person singular 
when employed with a verb in the imperative mood, ta eh^ is 
preferred to ten an, e.g. : 

' ThesB are mere contiacled fonne o( the lit, Snd. and 3rd pertons smgiilw, 
in reference to vhich fact it tDs; here be pointed out that na haa in a recent 
work Ob thie subject, been erroneouslj described >La answering to the copulative 
conjunction "and." It ie more eepeoially aubatituted for ihe ordiijarj form an 
when folloning a vove], e.g., Ica-iahi na tAian-tasAe na dak eSta i/u chiia, call 
me at whateoaver time he may come {Hi, be whatsoever time he (may) come, 
call eame time me) ; ydl-thsd aa itd, he has often been here. 

^ This applies more eapeciall; to verbs having the common suffii hata, but in 
the case of other transitive verba having the BufCi hala, hanga, h^at, hawie, or 
kas/te it is more grammatical to substitute la, nga, ha, lie, or tke, e.g. -. — 

^«n-hala (to take out) ; ovii la eh, take it out ! 

Icaichiat-hala (to dig up) ; havihuai la th, dig it up 1 

letikSk-hanga (to beod) \ lenidh nga eh, bend it I 

inoi-hahat (to screw or diive in) j omi ha «h, screw itini 

tuak-haiiie (to drag) ; funk nt eh, drag it 

tapaii-h^ne (to apit) i tapaih b« eh, spit it out 1 

henpdk-ha»k« (to droim, v.i.) ; henpat she eh, drown iti 

ip-haihe (to 'transplant) ; ep the <i, transplant it '. 

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hendiin ta eh, awake him (or it), 
ori ta eh, beat him (or it). 

homkivbTn ta eh, give him (or it), 
yah ta eh, continue (go on with) it. 

For the mode in which the personal prononnB are employed with 
the negative adverb (hat) see Sec-tion VI. 

As a conAeqaence of the communistic principles which govern 
their social relatione they are not even possessed of snch terms as 
" king," "slave," Ac, and do not, therefore, in addressing supen'ors 
and inferiors, adopt the Malay and Burmese custom of applying 
such expressions in place of the 2ud person sing, and plur. of the 
personal pronoun, but there is an analogous practice whereby 
friends address their seniors (according to their relative ages) 
as "elder-brother," "uncle," "father," or "grandfather," their 
juniors in Ute manner, as "younger-brother," "nephew," "eon," 
or "grand-son," and those of like age as kaiyuwd (cousin) [see 
"Friend," in Part I of Dictionary and App. L]. Corresponding 
terms of endearment are employed towards each other by females, 
and by both men and women towards friends of the opposite sex. 

In like manner strang'crs and casual acquaintances, whether 
fellow-countrymen or natives of neighbouring countries, are 
addressed by the term inetvih. European officials are styled omyda 
or kalmg-otnyda (foreign headmen), while den is applied to any 
foreigner in supreme authority, snch as a viceroy, governor, sultan. 

The plural forms of the personal and possessive pronouns cannot, 
as is so generally the case in Hindustani and many other languages, 
be employed in addressing or referring to a single individual. The 
same remark of coarse applies to the dual forms. 

As in Malay the indefinite form " one " is expressed by means of 
the word denoting "person, individual," e,g. paiyuk hat Aoh harbk 
k'lmapdh akiri Bengali, one may (or should) not bnm corpses like 
Hindus ; paiyiik hat ddh katoka keA mik&eha kot-hahl, one may (or 
should) not dance while singing the kdi-haki (a solemn chant). 

The demonstrative pronouns are nee, nlna, this, and ane, that. 
Like adjectives, they are uninflected for number, gender or case, 
and they can either precede or follow the substantive with which 
they are employed. In referring to objects at some little or great 
distance the following are generally substituted for ane ■ — 

ngdle, if in northerly direction, or higher position. 
ngange, if in emttherly direction. 
ngdhas, if in easterly direction. 

ngaicheloT ngashe, if in westerly direction, or lower position. 
ngaine, if at or in the direction of the landing-place, 
e.g., diie ngaine chamang-chi, whose is that canoe at the jetty P 

As some misapprehension is fonnd to exist in regard to the use 
and signification of certain of the personal, possessive, and demon- 

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etrative pronouns, the followinff remarks appear necessary in order 
to make the matter clear. 

(1). Nina, nee, ane, CBin never be employed as personal pronouns 
and therefore shanen ane can mean only " that spear," aod not also 
" his " or " their spear," 

(2). The pronouD an can never he employed as a demonstrative 
pronoun, or otherwise than as the third person singular of the 
personal pronoun, e.g. ehUapoya ta-fd^ an, I am sitting beside him 
(her, it). 

(3). Sen and chaai are, as above indicated, not merely the 
poaaeaaive pronouns of the first person (dual) but are alao the 
personal pronouns signifying " we two," e.g. kaitare men ta ni hen 
(or chaoA), come to our (t.e. of ns two) hnt ; dak en hen (or chaai) 
ia oal-hahi, we two are coming in the morning, 

(4). Se and chidi are, in like manner, not merely the possessive 
pronouns of the first person plural, but are also the personal pro- 
nouns signifying " We (of three or more persons)," e.g. Hi he (or 
chioi) our hnt (i.e. of us all) ; yuckuk en he, we (of three or more) 
are going home. [He can never, therefore, refer to the third 
person, as 1 find stated]. 

Demonstrative pronouns denoting quantity, number, and likeness 
are ta^dishe, this much, so much ; shlan^ane, that much ; dammah' 
tare, this many ; damindh-ta/re-ane, that mauy ; shiri nee, like this ; 
ahiri ane, like that. 

The relative B.nd correlative pronouns are; — 

ka, who, which, what; shlmi, that same {correl.). 
chi-cki, ya, whoever; sMna, that same (correl.). 
kae, whatever ; ehina, that same (correl.), 
yota-thiri, lite which, y6ta^heangasli,e,Vike the same (correl.). 
dim/menshi, aa much, aa mauy ; ehinmeAihi, ao much, so many 
E.g. paiyuh ha leat ohuh ta-minyiii shlna ledi kapdh ta-ong, 
the man who went home yesterday {the same) died to-day. [For 
further examples of the use of this class of words see Part I of the 

The interrogative pronouns are : — 

Ghl, who i ten chi, whom ; tai chl, hy whom ; lamdngto-chi ; 
lamhngtO'ten-chi, from whom ; chang-chi, chamang-ta-chi, whose ; 
chva , ehUan , chin, led, ka, kan,^ what; chun, which; kd'shin, 
like what; fta-risAe, how much; harS/m , katom, havr many; ckin- 
leang-dio, what else. E.g. chamangta-chi en enh, whose is this ? 
lambngto-ten-chi en enh, from whom (did yon get) thia ? [For 
further examples of the use of the above, see Part I of the 
Dictionary and Section XIV, jsost]. 

The reflective pronoun is de-de, or re-re, e.g., an ofino ta-dede, he 

' In a, foregoing footnote (p. ixit) it wasslioini thattxiiB frequently employed 
euphonicallj in place of on (he) i in like manner tan is pi*f erred to ka and M 
when followed by a. vord htiTing an initial vowel. 

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is beatinc; himself; ckHan-ski meA ria rere ? why are yon atrikiiig 
yourself r or the adverb fta' (indeed) may be substituted, e.g. chiia 
ha' (or dede) yo itua ddhtare, I am going to visit that place myself. 
Of miscellaneous pronouns may be mentioned taka-i>uit-de, either 
(the one or the other), as in common nse, e.g., okai taha-mat-de, take 
either (of them). 

V. — YEEBa. 

These may be divided into three classes, primitive, derivative, 
and comfound. 

Primitive verba: dian (to' Tua),itea,k (to sleep), heu (to see), doh 
(to be able), it&a (to visit), top (to drink), ah&h (to know). 

Derivative verbs : kaiylnga (to go away) from kaiyi (road) ; hd- 
«WM (to net fish) from icare (net); ha-yol (to mix flnids) fi'om yol 
(together with) ; tomfiiai-hata (to tie two coconuts together by 
means of their husks) from taf'oal (pair) ; oreha ; oreh-skishe (to 
begin) from oreh (first) ; shomyo (to fill a sack) fiom. shdyo (sack); 
diie-yo (to travel in canoe) from diie (canoe) ; kaekdng (to cat<;h fish 
in a " kanshdng " weir); komhon (to catch fish in a " kenk6n " trap); 
ha-ru-ngare (to go into the shade), ha-ru-koi (to shelter, v.t.) ; ha- 
ru-ya-kbi-re (to shade the head from the sun) fromiju; ru (shade); 
hingdp'lare (to yawn) from hingdp(jatWD); dunmlanga (to go into the 
jungle) from bl-chua (jungle) ; na-wd (to bleed) from wa (blood) ; 
lan-ddkmat (to water, of the eyes) from ddkmat (tear) ; lok-simmoa 
(to sprout) from shi-mda (sprout) ; lok-hodng (to perspire) from 
kodng (sweat) ; fuk-ddk (to draw water) from ddk (water). 

The moat common forms of verbs of this class are those having 
the prefix " ha" or "fco," e-y. henkok (cannon), ha-kok (to a 
cannon); Tiertteha, (sail), hateha (to sail); hinwe (flag), haweya 
(toByaflag);AemW(strainer),AoMAci (to attain); kinwd^ (scissors), 
kawap (to cut with scissors) ; kemhin (prop), kashin (to prop) ; 
kencJidp (button), kachdp (to button). 

Compound verbe : tuldnghal-nge-olyola (good- voice- apeak), to 
flatter; chS-kaleldk (shiver- tongue), to stammer; taiha-onglSnga 
(cnt-neck), to behead ; Aa«-a«-K^e (no-say), to deny ; kedohnga-nge 
(different- say), to contradict ; chdn-toah-chia-re (sack -breast-parent- 
own), to suckle ; ong-ytang-ni-nge (in the company of -hut- voice), 
to condole; ong-yiang-ehSng (in the company of-ship), to make 
a voyage ; orl-ngafdh (beat-die), to kill. 

Wi (to make), which occnrs in many verbs of this class, conveys 
either a transitive or causal signification, w-yom (make- 
garden), to cultivate ; wi-ta-ta (make level), to flatten, v.t. ; 
v>i-kenyuin (make-child), to beget ; wi-o^v^i(make-roof-hnt), 
to thatch ; V!i-ta-ehyu (make-sweet), to sweeten, v.t. ; ici- 
kentdng (make-fenc«), to enclose; wi-ldyan-diie (make- 

.' It must be nnderstood th^t in ■ 

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decorate-canoe), to have a canoe decorated with flags ; mi- 
hetmdng-ngaiihi (make-mark), to have one's mark of owner- 
ship affixed to any object. 

Y6 (to wish, be willing), long (pus), y6-tbng (to fester, sdp- 
pnrate) ; ybknga (rotten), yS-ybknga (to rot) ; hwf&ie 
(drunken), yo-htiybie (to be intemperate). 

Aide (just-now, on the point of), aide-beat ( just-no w-heal), to 
become healed ; alde-sMang (just-now-sweet), to become 
sweet ; alde-kodng (just-now-strong), to become strong. 

Certain verbs compounded with ndng (ear) ; Idk (foot) ; tat 
(hand) ; koi (head) ; chakd (face) ; 7ige (voice), and (enrface), 
will be found in Section XI, where they have been placed for con- 
venience of illustration, although, perhaps, they should rather be 
mentioned in this place. 

Sen, prefixed to certain intransitive verbs renders them tran- 
sitive, e.g., tbuk-nga ; tok-nga (to break, of rope, chain, cane, 
&c., v.i.), hertrtoishnga, hen-toknga (to break, v.t.) ; dah-nga ; 
dak-ne; (to break, of pot, bottle, &c., c.i.), Aen-iJtiAn^aj ken- 
dahne (to break in pieces, v.t.) ; pang-eke (to sink, v.i.), hen- 
pang-hashs (to sink, v.t.) 
Kdha, which is employed only as a prefii to a certain class of 
words conveys a peculiar signification : Ibij (to meet, by the 
arrival of one of the parties) ; hdhd-Vnj (to meet, by the 
arrival of both parties) ; tuak-ckakd (to pull), h&kd-tuak- 
ckakd (to pull in opposite directions) ; ha-pung-kanga {to 
separate, when one party only leaves), kdhd-pung-lianga (to 
separate, when both parties leave the spot). 
In addition to the foregoing, a numerous class of verbs both 
transitive and intransitive are formed by means of prefixes and 
suffixes (see Section XI). < 

In order to express contiwiative action the verb undergoes a 
certain change of fonn which will be best explained by the follow- 
ing illnstrations while the suffix "yunde " is invariably added. 

tap (drink), tennopa-yaaide, to continue drinking. 

ohngok (eat), ngen-noka-yande, to continue eating. 

i(eaT: (sleep), en-teaka-yande, to eontinne sleeping. 

kaioka (dance), ken-ioka-yande, to continue dancing. 

ikdeha (sing), kennbisha-yande, to continue singing. 

ong-shAngha (walk), skinnonga-yande, to continue walking. 

dlan (run), dinneana'-yande, to continue running. 

olydla (talk), ittSla-yande, to continue talking. 

klchal (swim), kertckula-yande, to continue swimming, 

d&ande (paddle) dennuana-yande, to continue paddling. 

vn (make), winnea-yande, to continue making. 

et'et (write), eneta-yamde, to continue writing. 

orj (hep.t), dinnla-yande, to continue beating. 

atninh (rain, s«iis(, en/minha-yande, to continue raining 



In order to denote the jsaMtce voice the most common method ia, 
in the case of verbs having & finsi consonant, to snffix a, and in the 
case of those having a vowel for their final letter, to prefix ta, while 
the agent is indicated by means of tke preposition ta/i (by). There 
are, however, not a few exceptions due apparently to euphonic con- 
siderations, e.g. : — 

harbk-hata (to bum, v.f.) ; haroka (to he bnmt). 

^ok-hata (to festen) ; p6ka (to be fastened). 

tckik-hata (to sew) ; chtha (to he sewn). 

hanl-hata (to shoot with gun) ; hariUa (iohe shot with gnn). 

hakok-hata (to shoot with cannon) ; hakoka (to be shot wilJi 

hanfbin-hata (to shoot with crossbow) j hanfaina (to be shot 

with cpoeshow). 
omttim-ldh (to fasten the legs) ; tuma-ldh (to be tied by the 

omtum-kodl (to pinion) ; t-UTna-kodl (to bo pinioned). 
opyd^-kata (to disarm, prevent) ; opydpa (to be disarmed, 

prevented). ■ 
mandya (to inherit) ; ta-mandya (to he inherited). 
tm%a. (to invite) ; ta-imdya (to be invited). 
at-lato (to lament) ; ta^atlai6 (to be lamented). 
wi'hata (to make) ; ta-vna (to he made). 
orl-hata (to beat) ; orla (to be beaten). 
entain-hatn (to plait) ; en-tainya (to be plaited), 
tiiia (to visit) ; ta-tueya (to he visited). 
okngok (to eat) ; ta-7ig6ha (to be eaten). 

Mnchavi (to distribute food) ; hinchwawa (to be distribated). 
ikdsha (to sing) ; ta-koisha (to be sung). 
katoka (to dance) ; ta-katoka (to be danced). 

E.g., ntwmJt Jtarilla tai ekUaf the imperial pigeon was shot by me ; 
homletn ngoka tai an, the Oyoaa paste was eaten by him ; Unhen 
mattai meii ta-tH^a tai ofe, yonr village was visited by them to- 

As may be inferred from the foregoing sections, not only nnmber, 
person, and gender, bnt also mood and tense, cannot he expressed 
by mere syllabic additions or infections. The latter are generally 
indicated by means of the following anxiliaries, but in certain oases, 
such, for instance, as in denoting the futuro,where this is sufficiently 
clear from the context it is usual to express the sense by the verb 
ia its simple form, e.g., bl-haki chiia itaa mattai Tnen, I (shall) visit 
year village to-morrow ; yd met tii chit shmatare, unless yon (were) 
ill I (should) not return. The ansUiaries* referred to are : — 

ledt, was, did, has, bad. 
yUang-shito, was (iinperf.). 
yUang-ehito-yanga, hod been. 

' S«e Section XT (" Aiuulituies"). 

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yd, will, about to. 

eTtydh (lit. afterwards), shall. 

Idk ; shcik, let (imperat.^ 
wot, don't, be-not. 
d6h, may. 

haroJi-ta-yande, migtt. 
dokta, abonld (also must). 

Tbe following may be giTen aa the paradigm of a Nicobarese rerb. 
Taking ori-hata (to beat with a stick), wo have :—~ 

chiia oTl (ten aw), I am beating (him). 

Tnen mri (ten an), thoa art beating (him). 

on ori (ten an), heia beating (him). 

hen ori (ten an), we two are beating (him). 

he ori (ten an), we all are beating (him). 

•n^ ori (ten an), joa two are beating (him). 

ifS ori (ten an), yon. all are beating (him). 

ond ori (ten cm), those two are beating (him). 

qfS ori (ten an), they all are beating (him), 

ehiia yuang-shito ori (ten an), I was (lit. busy) beating (bim). 

cMa leat ori (ten an), I have (or had) beaten (him), 

chiia leat ywang-ahito-yanga ori (ten on), I had been (Ut. been 
busy from) beating (him) . 

ehaa yd ori (ten an), I will (am going to) beat (him), 

chiia enydh ori (ten an.), I shall beat (him) (Ut. I afterwards, 

Idh (or shbk) chiia ori (ten an), let me beat (him). 

(»Y (to' eh) or Idk men ori (ta eh), beat (him). 

We (or sAoft) an ori (ten an), let him beat (him). 

„ hen „ „ let as two beat (him). 

„ hS „ „ let ae all beat „ 

„ ind „ „ do yon two beat „ 

„ ife „ „ do you all beat „ 
„ ond „ „ let those two beat (him), 

„ ofe „ „ lot them all „ „ 

ddhta chiia ori (ten cm), I should (also must) beat (him). 

chiia doh ori (ten an), I may beat (him). 

haroh-ta-yande chiia ori (ten an), I might beat (him). 

ori'ta-yande, beating, 

leat ori, having beaten. 

oria, beaten. 

The Passive form is conjugated as follows : — 
chiia oria (tai an), I am beaten (by him). 
«ieji „ „ thou art beaten (by him). 

« SectJoQ IV (p. iiIt) md footnote. 



ckiia yUang-ehitd oria (tai an), I waa being beaten (by Lim). 
chiia ledt oria {tai an), I was (or have been) beaten (by him). 
chua ledi yuang-»hit6-yanga oria (tai an), I had been beaten (by 

chiia yd oria (tai an), I am going to be beaten (by him). 

ckiia enyah oria {tai an), I shall be beaten „ 

lak (or shak) chiia oria {tai an), let me be beaten (by him). 
„ „ men „ „ be thou beaten „ 

,1 „ an „ „ let him be beaten „ 

t> „ hen „ „ let as two be beaten (by him). 

Ac., Ac. 

dohta ckiia oria (tai an), I ghonld be beaten (by him). 

ckaa dSh oria {tai an), I may be beaten (by him). 

haroh-ta-yande chiia oria (tai an), I might be beaten (by him). 

IE.g., mangnge ta-lfawdla tai koan an. The stone waa thrown by his 
child ; ska/rudl karilla tai onvy&a ane, the wild pig wae shot by that 
gentleman {lit. headman or elder). 

aia is a term deserving of mention in this place. Itis employed 
in the sense of " go and ' do so and so, bat its ase is restricted to 
the imperative mood ; e.g., aia tnen milah la-ole taina chiia yS itedk, 
go and play outside for I want to sleep ; ata he kaioka oal mattai ofi, 
let as go and dance at their village. 

For particulars regarding the Substantive Verb, reference is 
invited to Section XIII (post). 

VI.— Adverbs. 

In respect to construction there ia no prevailing distinction 
between these and other parts of speech. As elsewhere pointed oat 
several adjectives and a few prepositions are employed adverbiaUy, 
while the majority of the adverbs are derived either from substan- 
tives or adjectives. 

The adverbs may be classed as follows, viz. : — those relating to 
(&) time and change ; (h) place ; (c) quantity, nwmber, and degree ; 
(d) manner and cause (each with their respective interrogative^ 
forms) ; and (e) affirmative and negative. A few in the a and o 
lists will be found to be derived from adjectives and substantives 
by mere reduplication. 

As many adverbs of time, place, and manner both near, remote, 
lnt«n-c^tive, relative and correlative have been enumerated in 
Appendix B, it will be necessary in this place to furnish only a list 
of certain oth^^ of these and other classes which ore in commoa 

(a). Time and Change. — 
leiit (already). 

hat-heang-skud (once before). 
mak; mdh (already, ever). 

' For further partioulan regudiug l:h«8e, see Section XIT (port). 



hat-mdh (never). 
tobUo (again). 
ehuh~ta-chakd (yet). 
yuang-hamen (etill). 
loa-tayan (early). 
oyuhta (till). 
enlainyan-chakd (aa yet). 
aide (jnst now). 
eAhta (about, nearly). 
she (eufBx), (just, exactly). 
poa-tore; yuang-hare (alwayB). 
poa-shvre (invariably, without fail). 
etih-tayan (aoon). 
Italak-hS (seldom), 
yol-ehad (often). 
haru-he (sometime). 
'ka/ru-hS-haru-he (sometimee).' 
sh^an-shlan-tatike (now and tben, occasionally). 
dal-dal (repeatedly). 
henff-heng (daily). 
kdJie-kdhe (monthly). 
shofnenyuk-shomem/Uh (talf -yearly), 
ioa-ioa (qnickly). 
orih-ckakd (prior to), 
enydk (afterwards). 
haJcl (to-morrow). 
shaiyuk (later, some time hence). 
skaiyuhA&ng (day after to-morrow). 
wMiyvi (yesterday), 
waft^ (last night). 
ong-wdknga (day before yesterday). 
hen (when, at the time that). 
heng-hen (when, while). 
ta-shl (how long time, in future, indef.). 
nga-eM (bow long time, in past, indef.). 
gki-ngayan (formerly). 
den-nouha (for ever), 

hanga (ago, in reference to any event or to coming or going 
S.). — 

haia (t^o, in reference to coming or going N.). 
nm^at (ago, in reference to coming or going E.l. 
hashe (ago, in reference to coming or going W.). 
haia ((^o, in reference to retnming), 
ha-shi (ago, in reference to a death)f^7t4^ 
tare, hence. "^ 

Interrogative. — 

kdhe, when (of future only).^ 

k&kS-ta-shi, when {of a coming event). ' 

hdhtt-ta-iai, when (future, of making, giving, &c.). 



hdhe-ngaldh, when (fature, of travelling). 

kdhi-nga, when (of past time, in reference to death, eick- 

kdhS-ngashl, when (of some past event). 
kdhe-ngatai, when (of past time, in reference to making, 

^ving, &c.). 

kdhe-tarit When (of any past event). 

kdhe-ngasbe J 
hS-chua, when (at what time). 
]cd-eham-taihe, how long (time). 

-latoh, how old. 

kd-riia-hanga-keng, how long ago (to-daj). 

— — -yon, how long ago (in the past). 
kardtn-ekud, how many times. 
kd-inda-ato, how soon. 
kd-raala-heng, what time (of day) is it ? 
— — -hatom, what time (of night) is it P 
£l-g., y^Ushad na itd, he has often been here. 
enydk men kaiyinga tangta en an, he arrived after yon left. 
ehitKi-ehian-tashe ta-hta7ig-heang mental enkdna ta-lapd-chakd, 

from time to time, at one village or another, there is a 

pretty woman. 
katta shanen orek-chakd men yS kaiyinga, take the spear 

before yon go away. 
shorn ehinkdm, she chiia yo kdtii itd, I intend staying here jnat 

ten days. 
eiihta issdi shinkdm ehUa yd k&to daMare, I propose remaining 

there about seven days, 
loe tare ehinkdm,, three days hence, 
/oon hanga ddm, four nights ago. 
lanai hida ddm, five nights ago (went to or came from the 

chit inah heu Ufdnta, I have never seen an elephant. 
heang hanga kamaheAwa kdkngaski na pait' tare-she kdkngaehi 

na wlh-tare-s?ie (one ago month perhaps it more, per- 
haps it less), a month ago more or less. 
(6) Place.— 

Aot (far). 

tala-chakd (in front) 
kdrang-koi (above, overhead). 
ta-ngdle^ (above ; northwards). 
T^SS } (below, 
la-katah (below, down there). 
kblde' (np above). 
koitde' (down below). 
enydk-ok (behind). 

' See Section XIII. 



iataJi-oal (mmde). 
Id-ok (outside). 
okdl-hare (across). 
diie-yo (by aea). 
hajyl-shbng (by land). 
hdhngashUchah (somewhere). 
chak-diawa (elsewhere). 
dl-hanga-ohuh (everywhere). 
chaling-she (so far as). 

E.g., ehalingghe onibai ia-tme kaiyi ta-lapd, as far as yonder 
tree the road is good. 

Interrogative. — 

ka-rua-hanga (how far). 
ka-ra-mMO-hanga (how near). 

(c) Quantity, Number, and Degree. — 
hcdA-nga (too, over). 
pa-fi (too, also, besides). 
ngong-tai (qnite, wholly). 
enhfa ; enkla (nearly, abont). 
enh'tayan; enh-taehe (nearly, almost, scarcely). 
yuh-ngare (exactly, no more and no less). 
hanta (only). 

omnd/m.-tarit (together, in company). 
kamin-dangla (together, side by side). 
heang-heang (one by one, singly). 
E.g., hanta liarra an irteA dak en ckiia itd, I came here only 

on pa ta di an ckua fi, he too beat me. 
chiiapa ta yofi ta-ane, I too want that. 
sJwm-iiidt ywmuj yvlingare ledt »hsvdtare, all the aeveuteen 
perBons {i.e., without exception) have returned. 

Iwterrogative. — 

fca-ri (how big). 

ha-Ta-mi (how small). 

ha-Ti-fdp (horf fat; how wide (of ship)). 

ha-ra-mi-fd/p, (how narrow (of ship)). 

Teanr-tdk (how wide {of plant)). 

kara/ni-tdk (how narrow (of plank)). 

ka-chin-ydwa (how deep). 

ia-riiat (how long). 

hara-muat (how short) (inatiim.). 

ka-rUala (how high). 

— -koi (how tall). 
kara-rmala-iki (bow short) (anim.). 

kariia-kanga-tai (how far off, of object shot, speared, Ac.). 
kari-tare-she ; kari-tat-she (how much more remains). 

.y Google 


hari-hata-she (how much has been paid, delivered, 4c.), 

katom-tare (how many more). • 

kd-yan (how, in what state of health). 

kd'shin-mueh-tai (in what stylo). 

ha-skt (what kind, what sort). 

^■g., hdyan ka an ia-Unken, how is he to-day P 

(d) Ma/aner and Cause. — 


OM-lang-ngaehi ; an-lang~ngito' (therefore). 
kedohnga (otherwise, difEerently). 
haii-tai'ngashi (without canse). 
Interrogative. — 

— -Idng-ngasM 

— -Idng^gito' 

— -h&n-figaahi 

— 'han-ngito' 

ian-wi "men ta watshl, men 'met dalngato, why do yon 
behave in such a way F aren't yon ashanied of yonr- 

(e) Affirmative and Negative. — 

an (yes, to proposition). 
a (yea, to request). 
6t; kbdde (yes, have, is). 
ka-kaif^ (yes, have, is). 
kolde (yes, np there). 
ngdlde (yes, up here). 
kbitde (yes, down there). 

"fffi } (yes, down here). 

mah; leat (yea, already, done). 
leap; ddh (yes, can, able, nmy).' 
oAge; ari-fcoma T 
an-da-ka-cku > (all right). 

skial } 

TdkZihe } (-^eriainly, of eonrse). 
an-ka~pa (doubtless). 

han-aA (no — denial, inability, refnaal). 

, Google 


Aafi (not). 

hat-heang (no, not oie). 

Jiat-ot (no, have not, not here, not at home). 

wot (don't, be not). 

With reference to the several terms denoting ftffirniation, it is 
necessary to explain that 6t and kodde are so employed in answer to 
an enquiry regarding possessing, having, or being, when one or 
other of those words is made nse of by the inquirer ; e.g. kbdde 
ta one ddk, is there any water there ? — Ans, kbdde,'' yea (there is) ; 
6t kttn an ten ni re, is he at home i* — Ans. 6t, yes (he is). 

toak-iet-tain kakat ta nt meA is there any fermented taH in 
yonr hnt ? — Am. ka-kat, yes (there is). 
Similarly with the remaining words ; — 

kolde en ehia ife (kbl), is y-iur (addressing three or more) 

father npstaira ? — Am. kolde, yes (np there), or ngdlde, yes 

(up here). 

hoitde en koan men (fcotQ, is yonr child downstairs? — Am. 

kbitde, yes (down there) or ngdtke (or Tigaiche), yes (down 

met-mdh itua Kcdkata, hare yon never been to Calcutta? — 

Ans. mdh, yes (I have). 
leat kan men wi diie chiia, have von finished making my 

canoe P — Atis. ledt, yea, (I have), 
leap men kichal, can yon swim ? — Ans. leap, yes (I can). 
d6h kan ofe katdka ta-linhen, may they dance to-day ? — Ans. 

dok, yes (they may). 

In lite manner the negative form hat-heang (Ut. not one) is 
employed in reply to an inquiry regarding the procnring or posses- 
sion of any objects that may be counted, such as fish, pigs, paddles, 
spears, Ac, while hat-6t has a more genertd signification, e.g., (in 
reply to " Have you eanght any fish ? have yon any paddles for 
sale ? " i^a.^^Ans. hat-heang, no (not one) ; (in reply to " Have 
you any shells? ia he at home?" Ac.) — Ana. hat-dt,jio (I have 
not, or he is not). 

When employed with the personal prononns* the negative adverb 
_ (hat) undergoes contraotion as follows : — 
chit (abbrev. for chua-ha(), I-not. 
■mei „ m^K-hat'), thon-not. 

' The eitonBiTB employment of this negative in order to signify the contmrr 
of the word to which it is prefixed may he judged by referring to the long list of 
words under " hat " in Part II of the DiotionMy. Apparently the only word in 
the buiguage which ia incapable of use without the negative is Aaf-sAo (to dislite). 
The word iko probahly ori^nally signified " to liie, be food of," but it jx 
no meaning at the present day. 

i See Section XIII. 

' The only exceptioii is ieii-Aa(, we tvo-not. 

, Google 


nei^ (abbrev. for an-Aof), he-not, 

Jiel „ ke-hai), we ail-not. 

indt „ ind-hat'), you two-not. 

ifet „ ife-hat), yon ail-not. 

ondt „ ond-hai), they two-nofc. 

ofet „ ofe-hat), they ail-not. 

u>bt . „ wi-ftrt(), don't, be-not (lit. maie-not). 

E.g., het 16a ohngok, we are eating slowly (lit. not qaickly). 
I can find no confirmation of the etatement which has been made 
that " another form of this negative {i.e. hat) ia dit" or that there 
ocoar Bnck exprensions aa di-do or dit-doh (to be unable). Should 
they not hear of it they will not come, would therefore be yS ofet 
(not yd dif) ydng ofet dak. 

As it would occupy considerable space to classify and point ont 
the numerons adjectives, verbs, &c., from which the majority of 
the above-mentioned adverbs are derived it will sofGce to famish 
the few following examples: — 

viiinho (near), from enh (near). 

chuh-diaioa (elsewhere), from chuk (place), diawa (other). 

ngong-tai (entirely), from ngong (empty), tai (hand). 

ha-rua-hanga-keng (how Icng ago to-day), from ha (what), 
riia (height), hanga (ago), heng (sun). 

ka-ri'tdk (how wide), from ka (what), ri (size), tdk (wide). 

ftfflfte (when), from fca (what), he (time), 

tai-chva (why), from tai (by, because), chUa (what). 
For adverbs denoting an intensive degree see Section XVIII 

VII. — Pkepositions and Postpositions. 
The most common prepositiona are the following : — 

oal ; ol, in, into. 

(en; ta ; an, in, to, at, on (with respeot to any object). 

y6, to (with respect to any place). 

ta ; ten ; en ; at ; hit, at, 

Vmgto; yangaj chakd; nga-tai; lambngto-tai, from. 

y6l; yiang^^; hokaio, with, together with, 

ySUahl, b^id^, in addition to. 

hat; tai'-kit; hat-ySl ; hat-yiang(^ -without. 

tai, by, by means of. 

kae, concerning. 

nga-shi, about, in connection with. 

y&na-ta-kae, for, on account of, for the sake of. 

hen-shdt-kae, for, in the place of. 

enydk, after. 

' In denot^g the 3rd pen. ling, hat (without anj mention of the proDonn) i* 
generallj preferred to itai, e.g., chdae Jiat (or ne() doi why has he not come P 

' A contisctvd form of tJiia preposition Ib seen in kangul-iii-ko^la (ooat- 
wilhoul-ttmu), waistowt. 



fteang-e-chulf, Eunong. 

mong-yuang-ne, between. 

tala-shiak, beside, alongaide. 

ta-nuak, below iu rank. 

karoh-tvmtare, except. 

oyitkta, till, to tlie time of. 

ta-mang, &e far as. 

ta-tangla-tai; heang-e-iat, ae well as (not leas than). 

ta-maf, during (in the coorae of). 

okdl-hare, across. 

yoft-me, througli any solid. 

6ah-iU, throngh any fluid. 

There is another class of prepositions relating to place and motion 
which are formed and employed after the same manner as their 
eqaivalents in Malay, e.g. : 

(a.) From koi (head) and koila (bow of ship, canoe, Ac), we 
have ta-hoi (on, npon) ; la-koi (above, upper side) ; la-koila 
(at the bows) ; ioZ-ia-itot (at the top of) ; yS-ta-koi (to the 
top of ; Ibngto-koi (from the top of). 

(6.) From hatah (bottom) we have ok-Jeatah (outer side of bot- 
tom) ; oal-Jcatah (inner side of bottom) ; ta-hitah (beneatb, 
under) ; la-katah (below, in lower place) ; katah-oal (inside 
of); }ciii(ch)-ta-hatah-oal (at the bottom of); yo-ta-Jcatah-oal 
(to the bottom of) ; longtO'ta-katah-oal (from the bottom 

(c.) From ehakd (face) we have ta-ekaka ; tala-chakd (in 
presence of, in front of), oreh-chakd (previoas to) ; Iml-ta- 
chakd (in the pTOsence of) ; yo-ta-chakd (to the presence of) ; 
Ibngto-chakd (from the presence of). 

(i.) From fdp (side) we have ta-fdp ,■ iala-fdp (beside, along- 
side) ; kibUta-fd^ ; kbi(ch')-ta-fd^ (at the side of) ; yS-ta-fap (to 
the side of) ; iZngto-fdp (from the aide of). 

(e.) From cktik (place) we have ta-ckuk (in front of, in presence 
of) ; tdhnga-chuk (off, not on) ; iMUtw-chiik ; Ami-io-cAwft (in ' 
the presence of here (or there) ) ; y^-ta-chuh (to the presence 
of) ; Ibngto-chuk (from th^presence of). 

(/.) From oi (skin, back), we have la-ok (outside) ; ta-ok (on 
the back of) ; taia-ok; enydk-ok (behind) ; Ibngto-la-ok (from 

The postpositions are few in number ; en (to) ; faihe; tayan; 
ehiyan ; gkitai ; and skitd' (from) . 

Exo/nvplea. — Oal lapd yan-oal shiedtare cha. I will return in fine 
weather ; an kdto at Lobng, he is living at Great Nicobar ; a»i kato 
ten n% ck-Ua, he is staying in my hut ; Jwrnkviom ta eh ten nee, give 
this to him ; oyU-hashe kamapdh ta-oal piet, pat the corpse into the 
ground ; hanta harra an tnen, only to see (to) you ; chua yS hateha 
y& Loong, I am going to sail to Great Nicob^ ; an ledt thwdtare 

' Bee Section XI, page lii. 



longto Tatat, he has T^tnmed from Cbowi^ ; poa-t3re koan na 
yiang-an an, he always lias his child with him ; chUa kdto ySl an, I 
am staying with him ; an dak hohaio an twang shaneii, he came 
with (lit. bringiDg) two spears ; ata men okngdh yol chia an, go and 
eat with hie father ; an ghwdtare kat-yol kdn de, he returned with- 
out hia (lit. own) wife ; tat-hit keoe kaahi ch-Ua top om.kbin, how can 
I smoke tobacco without fire ? ; an ta-ria tai chUa, he was beaten by 
me ; an kam,d hoe koan an, he is enquiring abont his son ; chit akdh 
nga-tki an, I know nothing about it; an yd heang inai tdk rupia 
yona-ta-kae diie nee, he wants 20 Its. for this canoe ; an poya 
heang-e-chuk kaUng, he is seated among the foreigners ; an poya 
tala-sluak chiia, he sat beside me ; on ta-nuak an, he is below hxm 
(in rank) ; ta' kahe onghe tU en an, he was sick daring last 
month ; an heu ten an longto la-ok, he saw it fl-om ontside ; on ok- 
shiaka taia^ok men, he is standing behlad yoa ; an la-ok sh4/yo, it is 
otttaide the sack ; piishe ta-ok elviia, ait on my back ; an leat ori ten 
an ta-chuk chiia, he beat him in my presence ; nina lebare ta-kdi 
mensha oyii, put this book on the table ; an la-koi an, it is above it ; 
rupia ta-katah Idh an, the mpee is under his foot ; lebare katah-oal 
hioptep chiia, the book is inside my box ; katah-oal oal-ddk, inside 
tho well ; chit leap wi an eH, I cannot make it ; minyHi shiyan oyuhta 
ta Unhen na aininh, since yesterday till now it has been raining ; 
hng bl-haki shitai an mioml ni, he has been bnilding bis hut since 
this morning ; wahe skito rneit kekt6, you have been sulky since last 


In these the language appears to be most deficient. The copu- 
lative and is rarely eipreased ; when, however, it is employed for 
the purpose of enumerating or otherwise referring to two or more 
objects the term used is an-diawa^ (Ut., it-another), e.g. ane nina 
an-diawa an homkwom (that this and he gives), he gives that and 
this. The disjunctive or, or else is expressed by hiiii-an (no) or 
kdh-ngashi (perhaps), the conditional if by yo and unhss by yo-hat. 
Other couionctions ia common nse are lai or taina (because), yo- 

dohla-ldh (although), L^mdo^ homdoh (either or), 

hat-homdoh hat-homdoh (neither nor), e.g., an 

ka ane kdhngashi diawa, is it that or another ? homkwbm ane ten 
ehiia hanaii nina, give me that or this. 

Examples illustrating the employment of other conjunctions will 
be found ia Part I of the Dictionary. 

IX. — Iktebjectioks, Esclahations asd Phrases. 

Many of the interjections and exclamations, being invariably 
accompanied with suitable gestures and modnlatioos of the Toice, 
prove very expressive. The most common are :— 

' Another form of this word is pe«-diaaa, e.g., ehia chia loe yicmg TatSt 
pendiawa i/6-c\ai:d kaiytnga ta-linhen, mj father, at well a» the three Chowra 
men, intends to go away to-dsy. 



we-e 1 oh ! 

oya-Jeare J (ftBtonishmBnt). 

aiya-kare, ajas ! (lamentation). 

are, oh! (pain). 

o — h (denoting compassion). 

sheth (denoting dislike).- 

hunh-hunh-hnnh, ngh ! (disgnst). 

ah~ah-dh, hoah ! (silence). 

en-en-en-en, tat \ (rebuke, check). 

hash, ■pooh I (contempt). 

,3 , rhnrrah! (trinmph). 

U-ha^^ I ,l„bpiT0l 

to-ehang-to, wonderful ! 

hah-d-a, there, take it ! (annoyance). 

hoh, what a pity ! 

thial, go on ! (encouragingly). 

anya-pa \ there's no saying ! 

aiya^cha J who knows ! 

hdha-tore, never mind, no matter. 

lea-shi, what's that ? what's the matter 9 

chwj. k'ane, what was that ? (of some startling noise), (to 

one companion). 
chua k'ind, what was that? (of some startling noise), (to two 

cAud k'ife, what was that H (of some startling noise), (to three 

la-yait-ta-chakd,^ I beg yonr pardon. 

chakd hg, Hfe yol,' here's to ns all, friends ! (a toast at 

convivial gatherings). 
pehaH, all right, don't mention it. 
auri-chiih, the same to yon. 
kodnga-to ms kdt,' thank yon. 

■ -la [-cha^-chacha-ka (or f -ri _ ji j o 

mar > t ■ i , - .^ > How d ye do ? 

jf-f 1 I -cka%-cha-rakai). I •' 


ydskeme* Td^ 

— ind'rd >Good bye (saidby departingvisitor orgnest). 

tawdtie m^ rakdt^ 

Good bye (said in reeponae by host), 

c&Ht-f&i,'^ what d'ye call hirn (what's his name). 
c^Mcm-da,^ what d'ye call it (what's its name). 

' The person addressed inTorisblj responds vith pehaii. 
' According to whether one, two or more persone are being greeted. 
' These are mere ao-called " prop-words," which are sometimes employed t 
fill a UmpoTsry hiatus while the speaker is hesitstjn?. , i / 6 I 

» *(•.<■(- * j»fc - * A * * ' i*^'^/ 



X. — Ndmeeals. 

Their system of nnmeration is that known as the vigesimal, ajid 
the method employed, thongb. at first sight somewhat complicated, 
is easily mastered. 

nnlike Malay and Barmese the numeral precedes the sabetantiTe 
with which it is employed. 

The chief point to bear in mind is that in counting coconats 
and money,' the Nicobarese of the Central' Group reckon by pairs 
{tafOal), BCorcB {inai'), and foar-h and reds [momckiwma), other 
objects, save a few shortly to be mentioned nnder " Collective 
numbers," are reckoned by scores (momchlwrna) ? 

The term dbktai? when used with reference to coconnts (or 
money) signifies 200, but it can be employed only with momckla'ma 
or any multiple of 4O0 ; it cannot, therefore, be used for any smaller 
nnmber of such class of objectis than 600. When, however, it is 
employed in reference to other objects, e.g., men, hnts, canoes, Ac., 
this term {dhhtai?') signifies 10, but it can, in like manner, be used 
only with momcAioma or some multiple of a score; the lowest number 
for which it is employed is, therefore, 30, e.g., heang momckiama doktai 
Ide inai tanai tafual {yUang* oyati) (lit. 400 + 200 + 3 scores + 5 
pairs coconuts) = 670 coconuts. 

Heaag momcMa'ma doktai tanai (danin* due) (lit. 20 + 10 + 5 
canoes) = 35 canoes. 

The words tanai (5), inai (20), and doktai (10) are evidently 
derived from tai; kanetai, fingers.' 

' Bdible birds' nests, of nUuh a Bmall quantity are aimuallf eiported ara 
bIbo reckoned b; pairs, 

' A study of the comparatiie table (Appendii C) of the numoric terms 
emplojed by the eii tribes shows that while the Central and Southern Groups 
(including the inland tribe) count bj "scorea" and "four-hundreda," the 
natiTea of Teressa and Chowra reckon by "scores," "two-hundreds," "two- 
thousands" and (at Chowra only) " four-lJiousaiids," and those of Car Nicobar 
by "ecorce," "two-hundreds," "tour-hundreds," "two-tliovu(andB,"and "twenty- 
thousands." The presence in the last-named dialect of the term Idt to denote 
10,000 pairs (20,000) of coDonuta creates at first sight a suspicion that it is 
borrowed from the Uindustaai IdiA (100,000), and mis-applied in adoption, but 
as wo find that the Malays employ ta-lakta (deriTed from the Sanskrit laksha, 
100,000) to denote 10,000, it may be reasonably inferred that the Car Nioobar 
term is of Malay origin. The fact of eitenslre individual transactions in coco- 
nuts with traders having been always hitherto con£ Bed to that island— the eiporta 
from which exceed the aggregate of the rest of the Group — sufficiently eijSains 
the absence in the other djalects of any single terms denoting more Gitsa two or 
four thonaauds. 

' The double use of the terms monicAiama and d&ktai creates DO confuaioa 
when it is known to what object the speaker refers. 

' See the listof numeral co-efflcients on page iIt. 

' Strange to say they possess, now-a-days at least, no specific word for "hand" 
or "foot," the terms employed being as follows :. — olc-tai (back of hand) j oaU 
tai (palm of the hand) ; kanetai (and tai) (finger) ; Icail (arm, including the 
hand). Bimilarly idA {leg, indudiug the foot); ok-lih (the instep); oal-ldh 
(sole of foot) ; kaitelAh (Uie toes). In Malay also the some word serree for 
both "arm" and "haad." 

, Google 


In fumiahmg the following list of the numeric terms emplojed 
by the natives of the Central Cronp it should be noted that (•■) 
indicates thoee which are applied to coooQuts and. money, and (*) 
to all other objects ; where inai and tafHal are shown within 
brackets it denotes that thej may, in such ca^es, be left to be 

1. heang. 

2. ''heang-tafHal ; *dA. 

3. ^heang-tafaal-hSang ; 'tea {or Hie). 

4. ^dA-tafiMl; yoan. 

6. ^di-tafQaUheang ; ^lanai. 

6. ^loe-tafual ; Hafual. 

7. ^loe-tafual-heang ; Hmdt. 

8. ^foan-tafHal ; 'en/dan.' 

9. \foan-tafuai-keang ; *heang-hata. 

10. ^tafiai-tafutdi ; ^ahbm. 

11. Hanai-tafual-'keaTig; Uhomrheang.* 

12. ^ihbmrdn; Hafual-tafual. 

13. *ghirtn-loe. 

14. 'uhom-Jban ; Hssdt-tafual. 

19. ^hom-heang-hata ; ^heang-hata-tafual-hSaaig. 

20. 'Aeanj-TRomcftioTno ,■ ^heang-inai. 

21. ^heaTtg-irUfmchiama-heang ; ''heang-inai-heang. 

26, ^heang-momchiama-taf-ual ; ^heang-inai-loe ('tafuai). 
34. *heang-momcMama-dbktai-Joan ; ''heang-tTiai-isedt (^tafHat). 
60. 'loe-Tnom^hiarna ; ^loe-inai. 
100. ^anai-ituymchlamia ; ^tfmai'inai. 
220, ^shom-heang-ntomchiama ; ^shom-heang-inai. 
400. ^heang'iTtai-m.omehiama; ^heaTig-mwnchmma. 
1,000, *dA-inai-ghitfn-momchiam4i i ^dn-momchiama-ddktai. 
*3,000. ^issdt-mmncMama-dbklai. 
5,010, ^skbm-dn ■mow.chiama- dbltfai- tanai-iafual, 
5,100. ^tham-dn-Tnornchia'nia-dMktat-ta.naiij-inai). 
20,000. ^dn-iiMi-tanoi-viomcMama. 
40,000. Hanai-inai-momchiama. 
100,000. ^sJwTn-aAUinai^tanai-tafual-'moTnGhltvma (t'.e., 250 X 400). 
200,000, '^heang-inai-tanai-tom-momehiama (i.e., 25 x 20 x 400). 

To denote that a round nnmber is referred to the term yuh-ngare 
(no more and no lesa) is sometiraea added to the nnineral, e.g. 
Mang-movichiama. yuang oyau y-uh-ngare, exactly 400 cocontits. 
When the numeral referred to falls short of some ronnd number the 

' Probably deriTed from tSa (2), Joan (4). 

" 0( tlie ail dialocts two only (tIi., those epoken at Car Nieobar and by the 
inland tribe of Great Nieobar) eipress tbo numerals from 11 to 19 inclusiTe, 
according to the Malay ajatem, ni., 1-10, B-IO, 3-10, &c., the remaining four 
dialects adopt the Burmeee method, Tiz., 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, &e. 

' As Ihey never haye ocoaeion to count anything except coeonuta beyond 
1,000, it is unneceerarj to furnish the higher mimerals for othei' objects. 

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■word tangla (to reach) is employed, e.g. loe tare tangla hSang-mai 
(lit. 3 more reach one score) = 17.' 

So conjunctions ard employed in expressiMr numbers involvinp 
the nse of several nnmeral terms, e.g. an momchiama enjoan inai 
tanai (tafual) =2x400 + 8x20+5 (pairs) = 970. 

In order to express "only" a certain number or measuremont 
the particles ma, wm, &c.,' are nsed au follows : — 

Tteang (one) ; liemeang (only one) ; heang tamdka (I fathom); 

hemeang tatndka (only 1 fathom). 
dA (two) ; dnma (only two) ; enndyo (2 fathoms); menndyo 

(only 2 fathoms). 
loe (three) ; lamue (only three) ; lennbiyo (3 fathoms); iomex- 

nbiyo (only 3 fathoms). 
foitti (four) ; fomoan (only fonr) ; hennoanno (4 fathoms) ; 

mahennoarmo (only 4 fathoms). 
iatiai (five) ; tamanai (only five) ; ienneyo (5 fathoms) ; foroew- 

neyo (only Sfathome). 
tafval (bik) ; tamaf-ual (only six) ; tenfualo {6 fathoms) ; 

tameafualo (only 6 fathoms). 
issdt (seven) ; trUeedt (only seven) ; ertshdto (7 fathoms) ; men- 

shdto (only 7 fathoms). 
enfoan (eight) ; mere/oon (only eight) ; enfdanno (8 fathoms) ; 

fnenf^tmo (only 8 fathoms). 
kedng-kata (nine) ; 'hemedng-hata (only nine) ; 'hedng-}iata 

tamdka (9 fathoms) ; hemeang-hata tatndka (only 9 

tkbm (ten) ; thambm (only 10) ; shinndmo (10 fathoms) ; skamin 
ndmo (only 10 fathoms). 

Ordinal numhers. 

As will be seen on referring to the Calendar' in Appendix D the 
ordinal nnmbers, let, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, Ac, denoting the days of the 
month are expressed by the mere addition of the sufllx " she " to 
the cardinal. Only, however, in this Benso and in order to denote 
the Ist, 2nd, 3rd, &c,, day (or night) since any event can this Buffia: 
be so nsed, e.g. Unhei dashe ddm tia teat kaiylnga, tkia is the second 
night since his departure. 

' In lieu of tbie phroBe loe tare tdk inai baa bsen giTCn in a recent work on 
this subject, uid the explanation there afforded is that it aigaiEea "8 less than 
20," and tare is given at meaning lest, whereas it can odIj bear the opposite 
meaning. ' The sentence, moreover, convevB no meaning of onj kind to a native. 
' ' See Sections II and III, pagea ivi and u, also Section SI, page ilri. 

' Ou referring to the Calendar in Appendix D, it will be seen that this 
remark does not applj to the terras denoting the rfayg qf (*« moniA where 
by means of the suffix "she" added to the cardinal numbers lie Torioufl datet 
(let, 3nd, 3rd, 4th, 4c, days of the moon) are indicated. 

N.B. — Appendil D here referrod to is included in the Iilouogrqih on 
the " Nicobar IslanderB," in oourse of publicatdon. 



In order to expreas lat, 2nd, 3rd, Ao., in any other senae, ancli as 
in a race, row, &c,, the following few terms are need, and theee 
©Ten are ao rarely employed aa to bo known only to the more 
intelligent natiTea : — 

Ist, moreh. 

2nd, tanoe-o]e-r>u)reh. 

3rd, mong-yaang-ne. 

4tli, fande-ok'irujng-yiiang-ne 

5th, menydh. 

6th, r 'menydk-ka' , also 

and last \ mand{k)-nga-gMan. 

The only explanation (if snch it can be regarded) which has been 
afforded by way of accounting for bo meagre a list of ordinals is 
that the nnmber of " moons " in a monsoon never exceeds G or 7, 
while neither in denoting the resnlt of their canoe races nor in any 
other connection, do they experience the want of any higher ordinal 

Fractional nwmberi. 
These are expressed in an imperfect 
heajig-molkdnla ^= ^. 
heatlg-ndshBya ^ \; \; \; ^, &C. 
loB'Tniaheya = f ; f ; i^. 
Tieang-heang-Tiwllcdnla = IJ. 
dn-heang-taisheya = 2j (or thereabouts). 

Collective nwrnbers. 

For the purpose of denoting pairs or aets of fonr or more of 
certain objects the following t«rma are employed : — 

tafual, in reference to a pair of cocoimfcs, rupees, or edible bird'a 

Idk, in reference to a pair of bamboo ntensUs containing shell- 

amok, in reference to two pairs of (i.e. 4) bamboo utensils con- 
taining shell -lime. 
amok, m reference to a pair of cooking pots. 
kofmifitap, in reference to a set of 1 or 5 of the smalleet size of 

cooking potis (see Appendix N, item 102). 
noang, in reference to a set of 10 pieces of tortoiseshell, e.g. dn 

■ noang ok-kdp, two sets (i.e. 20 pieces) of tortoiseshell. 
Snch phrases as "by pairs," "by scores," " by fonr-hundreds," 
are rarely used, but would be expressed as follows : — 

by pairs, heang-tafHal-keang-tafual. 

by scores, heang-inai-Jieang-inai. 

by fonr-hnndreds, h^ng-moTnohla'ma-heang-mimichiam.a. 




Shtid is the term most commonly employed as the equivalent for 
the English " times," e^. foan shud, fonr times; bat several other 
terms are in use, each of which, however, can be employed only in 
a certain sense, e.g. loe kota^tai =: 3 times (in reference to hammer- 
ing or other hand-work). 

foan ko-chat = 4 times (in reference to jnmping), 

tanai ho-nga-ldh = 5 times (in reference to going). 

tafHal ko-ne-nge ^= 6 times (in reference to talking, singing, &c.). 

dn ko-shi-chakd =■ twice (in. reference to eating, <tc.). 

dn ho-shi-dnha = twice (in reference to washing, &c,)- 

N'omeral co-e^cientB. 

Among the many facts connecting the Nicobarese with the Indo- 
Chinese ra<!es is the existence in full force in all their dialects 
(inclnding that of the inland tribe) of the system which requires in 
the enumeration of objects the employment of a term^ — known to 
grammarians as nameral affixes or aniiliaries — descriptive of the 
particnlar object referred to. 

These co-efficiente are invariably inserted between the nnmeral 
and the substantive and not after the latter as is atways or generally 
the case in Bnrmese and Malay. 

(1.) yuang' (fruit); koi (head); tat; tat-yHang; tat-koi are 
used in reference to mankind,' e.g. 4n yvan^ Pigu (two 
Bnrmese) ; loe koi koan (three children) ; heaiig tat kenyv/m, 
(one child) ; yojn tat-yuang Matayv, (four Malays). 

(2.) noang (cylindMi^) ia a,pp1ied to animals, birds, fishes, 
insects, XimIu; eggs, spears, boxes, baskets, ropes, legs, 
fingers, lips, nose, eyes, teeth, dh^, fish-hooks, rings, seeds, 
Ac,, an noang k&a (two fishes). 

(3.) t&k (wide), in connection with fiat objects, e.g. planks, 

paddles, coins, tortoisesbell, finger-nails, leaves, feathers, A^lM^'vW^ 
cloth, clothes, thatch, also cooking pots and fishing nets, e.g. ■""" 
heang tdk powah (one paddle). 

(4.) hen^ in reference to dwellings and other buildings, dA hert 
Hi (twohnts). 

(5.) chanang,^ to trees, posts, hairs, i^c, loe chanang cmikaii (three 

(6.) danbi? to ships, boats, canoes ; JwM danbi ch6ng (four 

' The Ctu- Nicobarese eqniTnlenta of these are respeetiTely as follows : — (1) 
taha, (a) ning; (3) tSk , (4) momti, (5) mdi (6) iui«g ; (7) iAii; (8) 
iunin^Aa and fun,' (10) chamm ) (13) mt^tmit. 

* Also to the caned woodeD B§!urea (called kareati) representintE men and 
women, and which serve ae oharme to scare away the demons. 

' The onKiiial meaning of Uiis term is not known to the present inhabittintB. 


(7.) hitile,' to bamboo ntensilR containing shell-lime. 

(8.) torn (bnncli), to bnncbee of plantains, betel-nuta, Pandanvs, 

&c., or to single pineapples and papdyas. 
(9.) inanoal (also mokmha), to bnndiee of prepared Panddnus or 

Oycas paste. 
(10.) pomdk (bundle), to large bnndlea of split cane, also to the 

large trimmed bundles of imitation firewood offered by 

monmers at grave. 
(11.) mekuya,' to small bnndles of cane, ten of which eqnal one 

(12.) mindl (bundle), to small bundles of firewood. 
(13.) lamem,' to bundles of Chinese tobacco. 
(14.) amoka,^ to books only. 
(15.) ckaminkda,' to ladders only. 

(16.) shavumap,^ to pieces (of aay 40 yards) of calico, Ac. 
(17.) kamUdng,' to jM p ea and fishing lines. 

To the above may be added the following :— 

het-ndan^ (used with nl-nau, green coconut) in order to express 
distance by sea, e.g.foan het-noajig nl-nau KS tang (we could 
arrive there in four green coconnts' time). 

kdhb^ (used with maiyd, take a betel-quid), in order to indicate 
distance by land or time spent on a visit ; e.g. Ide Tcohot ind 
maiyd tang (yon two conld reach that place in three betel- 
q aids' time). 

XI. — PAKTiciBa, Pbbfixbb, and 8nF?IXBfl. 

Both in the formation of words and of sentences there is ajL exten- 
sive employment of certain, particles, some of these merely serve 
pnrposes of euphony, while others play a very important part in 
the genins of the language. The principal pajrticles are ia, en (or 
pan), WW.," am,, om,, «to, mi, a», na, ha, Ac. In the foregoing pages 
(Sections II, III, and IV, pp. xvi to ss, and sliii) the nse and sigmfi- 
cance of these latter (viz. : ma, am, Ac.) have been indicated. It 
has been shown that in the majority of cases words formed from 
snbstantivea, adjectives, and verbs, by means of one or other of 
these particles denote the t^ent, object, or characteristic signified, 
examples of these being, ka/tnapdh (corpse) from kapdh (die); homo- 

' Thp oiiginBl meaning of tliiB term ie not known to the present inhabitaalB. 
' See section on "ABtronomj"("Nicobar Islanders," in course of publioalJon), 
* II soems deairsblB to point out in this place an error which liae found its 
waj into a recent work treating on this subject. In referring to Nicobareee 
word formation and to its oharacteriBtic feature of inserting in or prefixing to 
the root certain letters and syllablas, it ie Htated tiat by tar the most common 
of these is the letter m, as an Uinstnttion of which the word met-chai-chacM'ka. 
is cited as signifying " to peet." This word, however, denotes " how d'ye do " 
(addressing one person), being the contracted form of meA-ei-ckai-ckachd-ka- . In 
arldressing two persons the expression is indt-shai-c&achd-ka; and in greeting 
tbrae or more persons, ijit-ehai-chaelti-ka- (soe Section IT, page ixiv). 



la^ij) Gather), from kolai(j) (to bathe) ; mitua (visitor), from 

Una (to viflit) ; pamakda (coward), from pahoa (fear) ; damdk 
(gaeat), from dak (come) ; chamang (owner), from ehang (posseBs) ; 
hamaru (adult), from harH (big) ; miyai (value), from yai (price) ; 
lamiap (expert), from Ua/p (able, can) ; pamaydl (hairy), from 
jmyol (hair) ; menluana (shaman) from enlHana (exorcise) ; mbm- 
toma (flock), from inniom, (all) ; mikAsha (singing), from ikdiha 
{sing) ; jmieoit (sleeping), from i(eai (sleep) ; cha-muh (going home), 
from chuh (go home) ; ka'memioishe (song of a certain kind), from 
kanoiehe (song) ; kamahenwa (a lunation), from h&he (moon) ; 
ahwmaneal (spoonful), from ehaneal (spoon) ; Tnentainya (basketful), 
from hentain (basket); no-wa (bleed), from wd (blood); ha^dl 
(mix flnids), from yol (together with) ; oreha (begin), from oreh 

The most peonliw: feature in the application of certain of these 
particles is found in their combination with numerals and with tiio 
Nicohareae standard of measnrement, the fathom or arm-span, 
where they eipreaa the meaning of " only," e.g., heang (one), 
hemeang (only one) ; foan (four), fomoan (only four) ; isedt (seven), 
inissdt (only seven); enndyo (two fathoms), Tfierenit^o (only two 
fathoms), ien/uoZo (six fathoms) ta^msn/uolo (only six fathomsj, tfas. , 
(seep. ^'<:^).meniiinsa-(Sai^tfJ«^/.''^^*»^J'^^[^^-*«j^'^^ 

Another particle in most common use is ta. Its employment in 
the fonitation of the passive voice of certain verba has been pointed 
out in Section Y (p. xxix). It also occurs enphonically in such 
verbs as wi-fa.-(o (to flatten) ; wi-ta-ekyu (to sweeten), where wi = 
make ; ta, level, and chyu, sweet. It has also been shown in Section 
III (p. xx), to be employed in the formation of a certain class of 
adjectives from substantives, e.g., ta-onihan (wooden) ; ta^karau 
(iron, adj.}, &c. 

In the numerous N'icobarese sentences famished in these p^es 
its frequent occurrence will he noticed ; take for example : an kdto 
ta oai M de ta linhen, he is living in his own hut to-day ; ddk kan 
ofS ta oal &iie re ta ehaiyuh-ldng, are they all coming' in their own 
canoe on the day after to-morrow ? where, in accordance with the 
.unwritten, but none the less recognised laws of Nicobarese diction, 
all tour ia's are employed enphonically. 

This particle (ta) also occurs invariably in constmctioQ where the 
-adjeotive or adverb follows the word which it qualifies, e.g. pawfUh 
ia lapd (a good man) ; chong-hoi ta karH (very tall). 

In other cases it ia made to serve the purpose of some preposition, 
and can even in certain conjunctions be employed in place of a 
relative prononn, e.g. shdn-hata ten an en chia chiia la chvmfdka ta 
oal-iai re (shampoo to him father my pectoral-disease palms own), 
my father shampooed him tvith his hands on account of his sufiering 
pain in the chest ; hen-iidt nl ta lbpt<i-len-'m6ya, decorate the hut 
vrith all kinds of cloth; Idk he haishot tayo re ta hokngoh-hare, let 
us choose what we want for our food ; naJc ta neng-ta-chtha la 
kamapah, tie the ornamental loin cloth round the corpse. 

En (or pan) as .pointed out in Section II (p. xv), is the sign of the 



nominatiTe case when the Bnbstantive or prononn occnro elsewhere 
than at the commencement of aaentence, e.g., ledt en (prpan) ckHa, 
I have finished (eating, working, Ac), pen is aometimee snbBtitnted 
enphonically for an, e.g., pen-diawa ; an-diawa (besides, as well as) ; 
ledt pen-dak ; leai an-dah, it's qaite finished ; chia an hoan me» 
pendiawa yanga shwdtare, hia father, aa well as yonr son, has just 

There are a great rariety of prefixes and suffixes employed with 
verbs, adjectives, anbstantives, Ac., the moat importsjit of these, ao 
far as they affect the words with which they are employed are the 
verbal prefixes and suffixes ; the property of the former is in many 
cases to intensify the ra.eaning of the word with which they are 
employed, while in the case of the latter they freqnently aerve as 
adverha o£ direction or motion. Ab examples of verbal prefixes we 
have ; ok, op, ong, o, hi, en, et, met, ten, pom, torn, i, nga, ha, ka, loko, 
yu, hen,' kdhd; ok-ldk (avoid, ahun) ; op-top-kata (drink off); 
Ong-faTig-haehe (cut down) ; ong-shhng-ha (walk) ; o-taih-haia 
(slice) j o-yii-hashe (put down) ; bl-tol (carry on head) ; en-tan- 
ngaldh (push away with the feet) ; et-kdat-hata (scrape ofi) ; et-tat- 
hanga (efface) ; met-pata-she (to sin) ; ten-fdt-hanga (to dash) ; 
pcrm-ydm-she (overload) j tom-chua-ngayan (defy) ; i-ddha (sharpen) ; 
nga-kok-ngare (disperse) ; ha-teha (to sail) ; ha-y6l (mix fluids) ; 
ha-ledt-e (awoon) ; ka-wap (cut with scissors), tM-ehin (to prop) ; 
loko-sh(ing-ha (wander about) ; loko-yo-lange (converse) ; yu-ch^h 
(go home). 

With regard to verbal suffixes it will be found convenient to 
divide them into three classes ; in Class I are included : — 

(a) hala; hanga ; hahai ; hashe ; haine; hata. 
(6) lare ; ngare ; hare ; ehire ; Hire ; tare. 

(c) le ; nge ; he ; ehe ; ne ; ie. 

(d) la; nga; hat; ehe; ne; ta. 

(e) al ; ang ; ahat ; aich ; ain; at. 

In Class II are placed the following : — 

Tax (hand) and nga-tai ; Idh (leg, foot) and nga-ldh ; fcoi (head) 

&-D.Anga-koi; ndng (ear) &ndnga-nang ; chakd(ihce)sadnga-chakd; 
nge (voice) and nga-nge; mat (surface) and nga-mai. 

In Class III occur those which per ee possess no meaning, viz. ; — 
thl ; ta-ehi; nga-shi ; ne-shl ; hanga^shi ; to ; ta-to j nga-to ; 
yantS; tore; t6h; yan ; yande; ngayan ; ngange; ngashe; ngala ; 
haiehe ; tarit ; ngarii; ha; wa; ya ; yo ; »Aw; sho ; de. 

Elxamples of those in Class I will be found in Appendix B ('), 
where, and in Part II of the Dictionary, it wilJ be observed that in 
verba indicating motion the suffixes hala, lare, le, la, and al, convey 
a northward or upward aignification, while hanga, ngare, nge, nga, 
and ang, denote southmard ; hahat, hare, he, hat, and ahat, east- 
ward; hashe, shire, she, and aich, westward or downward; hatne, 

■ See Section V, pp. ixviii and iiii. 

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Hire, ne, and ain, towards the landing-place ; and hata, tare, te, ta 
and at, towards any direction. 

On further examination of the lists of verbs bearing one or other 
of the ea£ses in question, one fiads that in several instances these 
appear to be employed somewhat arbitrarily, no special reason 
beiD^ assignable for tbe selection. This will be seen on studying 
portions of the following list, especially words with hamga, hut, 
hahat, htM-e, and ngare : — 

hala, hedoB-hala (emctate) ; hoMAHat-hala (excavate). 

lare, eyd,?n,-lare (draw breath) ; chuah-lare (embark) ; piuA- 

lare (eat meat) ; iomdu-lare (flow, of the ride). 
la, chal-la (explode) ; tah-la (float) ; kodh-la (stiffen). 
hanga, ko-chek-hanga (sprinkle) ; lenhdh-hanga (bend) ;. et- 

shech-hanga (clean, with water) ; wi-hanga (do). 
ngare, teak-ngare (go to sleep) ; md-ngare (t^ke leave) ; 

Itap-ngare (take hold). 
nga, hch-nga (flyaway) ; kaiyi-nga (go away) ; ngbih-nga (bum) ; 
poak-nga (drown, v.i.') ; hodh-7tga (famish) ; shvp-nga (set, 
of ann, moon, Ac.) ; yam-nga (disappear) ; chip-nga 
(evaporate) ; chuah-nga (distnoimt) ; dian-nga (run away) ; 
yuit-nga (dissolve) ; kwbnp-nga (emaciate). 
ha-hat, ovn-hahat (drive in nail, screw, &c.) ; hantue-hahat 

hare, tenehut-hare (burrow, of rats). 
hat, chuah-hat (disembark) ; nyuam-hot (shrink, of cloth) ; ckot- 

hat (enter). 
hashe, henpdk-hashe (drown, u,(.) ; kaich/uat-haehe (dig) ; ep-liashe 
(transplant) ; ingdh-hathe (slander) ; kafen-hashe (&1E a 
shire, ngol-shire (bow down) ; ten-chat-shire (burrow, of crabs). 
she, yam-she (disappear) ; shup-she (setof sun, Ac.) ; pom-fak-she 

(drop, u.t.) ; chip-she (evaporate) ; owi-she (unfnrl). 
hai&e, otvi-haiile (take out nail, screw, Ac.) ; itosh-haine (extract 
thorn, Ac.) ; tuak-haine (drag) ; iydh-haine (slacken) ; 
tapaik-haine (expectorate). 
niare, ten-ckvak-nire (embark from laading-place) ; ahek-nire (take 

an airing), 
ne, wud-iie (flow) ; dang-ne (transfix) ; dUk-iie (break) ; fok-ne 

(chafe) ; kok-ne (burst). 
hata, top-hata (drink), ketot-hata (di-ag towards one's self) ; orl- 
hata (flog) ; oto-hata (sit, of poultry) ; kom-hata (find) ; 
hantHe-hata (import) ; e^-ftafa (sketch). 
tare, yiang-tare (bring or take with one's-self). 
ta, chwip-ta (slash) ; hashd-ta (alter). 

Of these by far the most comm.on in use are verbs with hanga 
and hata. Generally speaking the msaoings which appear to be 
assigned to these several suffixes are as follows : — 



hala.^ lare, la, le, motiou upwards, out of, to a tigher level. 

ha/nga,^ ngare, nga, motion from one'e-aelf. 

ha-hat,^ hare, hat, motion inwards, 

haske,' shire, she,' motion downwaids, to a lower level. 

haine,' Hire, «e, motion outwards or away. 

hala,' ta, on the same level ; motion towards one'a-self. 

The following occur in Class TI :— 

tai (band) refers to wliat is done with the hand, by force, &c., 
e.g., kwdpta-tai (clutch through fear or rage) ; alde-bedt-tai 
(heal, v.t.) ; hodh-nga-tai (starve, ti.f.) ; haickartg-nga-tai 
(teach any handicraft). 

Idh (foot, leg), refers to travelling, moving, and the like : o-nge- 
Idh (leave, depart) ; ta-foish-ihu-ldh (slip down) ; diie-ldh 
(travel in canoe) ; oreh-nga-ldh (go in advance) ; Iwng-nga- 
Idh (drift away aeawarde) ; nkat-nga-ldh (take away) ; 
haiyUoiii-nga-ldh (diive away). 

kui (head), refers to anything relating to the head, top, Ac.: fco- 
bpe-koi (capsize) ; kenywirnga-kdi (cover a pot). 

ndng (ear), refers to hearing, relating, and the like: oUdl-nga- 
ndng (describe) ; hoUdlnga-oal-ndttg (obey); haliik-nga-ndng 
(banter) ; himanga-ndng (caution) ; hai-yui-nga-ndng (de- 

chakd (face). This snfSx occurs in a large namber of words con- 
veying wide distinctions of meaning r yo-chakd (intend) ; 
yol-chiikd (aid) ; orSh-chakd (proceed in advance) ; ckun- 
«jii-o^aM (lose one's way) ; daUchahd (he haBhta\) i dk-nga- 
ekakd (blush) ; enfua-chaha (dream) ; hamd-chakd (inquire) ; 
odk-chakd (covet) ; et-chai-chohd-lebare (read aloud, lit. greet 
book or paper). 

nge (voice) refers to speaking and the like: ong-ytang'ni-rige 
(condole) ; Jcedohnga-nge (contradict) ; hdha-mait-nge (dis- 
agree) ; opyap-nga-ngi (eaves drop) ; pdwa-nge (echo) j 
poshi-hat-nge (prattle). 

mat (surface) refers to anything relating to eiternal parts, e.g., 
skin, surface, &C. ; ifdh-nga^mat (brash any surface) ; 
haloa/pa-'mat (smear with turmeric) ; et-tai-mat (wipe) ; el- 
■ shich-ngii-mat (clean) ; ddk-o-mat (water, of the mouth). 

Examples of Class IH are : — 

ehl, eota-shi (call, summon) ; hoodh-shi (admire), 

ta-shi, henyol-tashi (add). 

nga-shi, harra-ngaghi (nurse) ; oltdl-ngaski (describe). 

ne-shi, tTigah-ne-ghi (confess), 

hanga-shl, hakak-hanga-shi (damage). 

' With few eiceptioDS verbs liaving those suffixes are tracBitive. 

' Bee also uuoag eubetantiTea, adjectiTee, £«.. eueh words as pom&i-tlte (old 
person) i menkoiHa-ahe (rascal) ; onipeii'SAe (smuli) ; mieAh->he (short) i pait-tht 
(few); Idah-baake (deep); I6ah-hala (high, of tree, Sm.); ng6le (up there} ; 
ngdshe (down there), 

^ i,,,.„ib,Google 


to, opehdp-i6 (aid, help) ; wl-td (wear olotlies). 

ta-iS, <mg-yiang~ta-t6 (condole). 

nga-t6, pait-ngat6 (forget) ; hakd-ngato (annoy). 

yan-td, hichih-yanto (yearn), 

tore, tnota-tSre (think) ; ha-shdi-tSre (romp). 

toh,taku-t6h (prick). 

yam, dingo/re-yan (denude) ; chutyd-yaM (take rest). 

yande,^ pe-yande (mialay). 

ngayan, dh-ngayan (digest) ; wait-tigayan (forget). 

ngange, Ibij-ngange (boast). 

ngofihe, ma^-ngashe (folfil an agreement). 

ngala, enyAh-ftgala (follow) ; enyan-rtgala (forsake). 

Twiihe, poiM-hit'he (fidget). 

tarit, orSh-tarit (win a race). 

ngarit, harat-iigarit (startle, «.(,). 

ha, ong-dSng-ha (vmt) ; et-et-ha (carve). 

via, ochia-wa (call, snnmion) ; flno-wa (whip). 

ya, komdn-ya (agree) ; cht-ya (i'ise, of ann, &c.). 

yo, eJiomryo (fill a bag) ; due-yo (navel in canoe). 

shu, pale-sku (roll, c.i.) ; pq,tdk-ska (fall). 

sho, lafat-nho (f&iV) ■ ta-hua-sho (sink). 

de, hbd-de (have, esiat, occur) ; duan-de (paddle). 

There are two other suffixes which are in common nse, viz., re 
(or de) signifying "own," and rere (or dede) signifying "self," 
Their nature will be ascertained fi'om the following examples : — 
skechi-iai-re (wash one's hands) ^ skeehi-lah-re (wash one's feet) ; 
shechi-fdng-re (wash one's month) ; da/p-oal-tai-re (clap one's 
hands) ; (n/d-havga-ltdn-de (desert one's wife) ; di-ifdh-re (commit 
snicide, lit. heat one's-self to death) ; ketijt-de (crawl, lit. move 
one'a-selt); tomfdt-de (fall from inebriation, fatigue, Ac.) ; ko-ching- 
de (take supplies for one's own use) ; rla-rere (beat one's-seif) ; ken- 
fHi-dnha-dids (fan one's-self); hafuat-dsde (fill, of bottle, &o., v.i.); 
halainya-dedi (whirl, of a top, &c., v.t.). 

Of substantival prefixes the most common are ; — hen, en, ol (or 
oal), ong, ka, and h' : hen-lain (top, wheel) ; heri-la.ridla (rudder) ; 
en-kbina (man) ; en-h&na (woman) ; en-piiya (seat) ; hl-ch'ua 
(jungle) ; oaUindt (eve) ; oal-fdng (month) ; ong-eng (bone) ; ong~ 
yuang (middle); ka-chau; ka-kdan ; ka-ehia, &o. (terms employed 
in addressing one's equals, juniors, and elders) ; hokngok (food) ; 
holpdl (weeds). 

On reference to the foregoing pages it will be found that many 
prefixes and suffixes are employed in common with two or more 
parts of speed], such as subsrantivea, fldjeclives, adverbs, preposi- 
tions, and verbs (see more especially examples on pp. xvii, xxi, xxiii, 
xssii and xxxiii). 

Among the most common are the following, the property of 

> This suffli alM> occurs in Terbe denoting continuative aotion (see Section Y, 



which ia to expresB dii-ection, possession, or the characteristic of 
the word with which they are linked, in the form either of a Bnb- 
stantive, adjective, adverb, or preposition ; — 

la (prefii and auffiz) ; Id (prefix) ; la; taia; lama; e.g., with 
koi (head) ; la-hoi (above) ; ta-koi (on, upon) ; koi-la (bows 
of ship, canoe, &o.). 
With Idh (foot) ; Id-ldh (foot of mat, hed, &c,). 
With ok (back, skin); la-oh (outside); taia-ok (behind); kan- 

yvi-lama-ok (cloth (lit. outside) -coat). 
With dn (two) ; chong-dn-la (brig, lit. two-masted ship). 
„ ckvla (right, dester) ; la-chUla (the right hand aide). 
„ chakd (face) ; ia-chdkd; tala-chakd (in presence of, in front 
With /ay (aide) ; tala-fdp (beaidea, alongaide). 

„ chuk (place) ; torchuk (in front of, in presence of). 
„ katah (bottom) ; ta-katah (under) ; la-katah (below). 
„ oal (in, inside) j kanyut-lama-oal (shirt, iti. inside-coat). 
„ one (that) ; Id-ane (that, or the other, side of creek, bay, 
With ltd (here) ; Id-itd (this side of creek, bay, Ac). 
„ hoatih (wind) ; loe-lama-hoanh (JTtpu-leai sail). 

Other anffises deserving of apecial mention are ato and laio 
which are found in snbstantives and adjectives relating to time : — 

ski-lato (old, of animate objects). 

ahanl-lato (age, of animate objects). 

orek-lato (senior) ; inbm.-lat6 (of same age), 

teydh-latS (junior) ; inoa-ato (hour, period of day or night). 

While td and ngitd which occur in a certain class of words imply 
anger on the part either of the speaker or of the person addressed 
or referred to : — 

hdt^a'li } ^"^^ ("^ason) for coming, going, Ac. 
Idng-ngito \ cause (reason) for being angry, doing any act of 
hdn-ng%t6 j violence, &C. 

chuan-ldng-ngagki 1 why (with reference to coming, going, doing, 
chuan-kdA-ngaehi J Ac.). 

S:S3« } "-y (•>»>'•■' " «*^™^ '• •" - -s")- 

kehtS, sulky, ill-tempered ; shito (postp.) from (in reference to 
anger and the like), e.g., ehuan-ldngngasht cka, why can't (or 
mayn't) I ? ohuan-ldngngiio men, what are joq about f ong bl-haki 
thito a« ntonghdng, he has been angiy since this morning. 

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ZII.— Syhtas. 

The collocfttioD of the words composing a sentence being in 
manf cases identical with or very similar to that in English, the 
framing of simple Benteuces presents little or no difficulty. As 
in Malay the Bubatantive verb is frequently omitted, being 
expressed only when absolute neceseity arises for signifying 

S.g., ane inoat lamang ten okiia, tliat knife belongs to me ; 
homJ^BWi ten ckjia ane powah, give (to) me that paddle. 

inoat shong, or inoat ta-skong, or inoat ta-shong St signify the 
knife is sharp. The two former can, however, ako mean a {or 
the) sharp knife. In the absence of "St" the context shonld 
determine which ia intended. 

When the object is to emphasize any particular portion of the - 
sentence the arrangement of the words undergoes some change, 
e.g., dare ane noang ehaneA kwbmkata, ten ckiia, (both those things 
spears give to me), give me both those spears ; ane hanyut halaw 
■men Ibngto ten chi? (that coat buy yon from whom), from whom 
did you buy that coat ? paitihe aroe heang-ehiduna ong-ehdng, (some 
rice at once cook), cook some rice at once ; wi ond ranen ten an, 
(mate those-two now to it), those two are now making it. In all 
Bnch cases, moreover, emphasis is fnrther indicaied by special strese 
being laid on certain wonis. 

The adjective nsnally, but not invariably, follows the substantive 
which it qualifies ; in the latter case the particle " ta " is usually 
prefixed, e.g., chaUng dMe, or diie ia-chalmg, a long canoe ; la/pa 
paiyuh, or paiyuh ta-lapd, a good man. 

In like manner the adverb may precede or follow the verb : 
linheA hod wi chiia, (to-day plenty work I), I am very bnsy to-day; 
iteakpoatore hamheng en-an, (sleeps always noon he), he always 
sleeps at noon. 

The following examples illustrating common methods of expres- 
sion may here be added : — 

An chah harra haiau I6e kdn de (lit.he go see bay cloth wife own), 
he has gone to see about buying some cloth for his wife ; 
leiit et-chai-chakd-lebare chUa oal kaiyi de, I read it while travel- 
ling (lit. in road own) ; 
et-chai-chakd-lehare chiia tanang ta an, he arrived while I was 

reading (lit. reading I arrive he) ; 
harra ta ehoM de ta finowa tai chia an kenyum. leat chiTn, the 
child cried on seeinghis elder brother being beaten by bis 
father (lit. see brother own beaten by father. &c.) ; 
chiia finowa tai an ta dn^ bl-haki, I was beaten by him. this 

morning ; 

an ikoahnga tai chiia ta minyiii, he was shaved by me yesterday. 

So much bearing on the subject of this section has been already 

described in the foregoing pages and will be made clear in what 

follows that it iteoms unnecesHary to repeat such particulars in this 


rf 2 

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XIII. — Thh Subbtahtiyb Verb. 

Tlie BnbBtantive Terb " to be " is represented in certain cases by 5(' 
(to be, have), and in others by la)d-de' and kajcaf (to have being, 
possess, exist, occnr) : like if» eqaivalent, 'AiJa, in Malay, the first 
of these is frequently left to be understood, e^., due nee chang-chua 
(6t), this canoe is my own ; aite kenywm koang ta-haru, (pt), that 
child is very strong; atte ta-ledn-toihe (ot), that is (or will be) 

When, however, poaseesion or existence is indicated it is 
necessary to express the verb, e.g., 6t (or Widde or hakat) enkoina, 
enh&na ta-itd, there are men and women bere ; dn dawi due eti/oc't 
tdk poJoah 6t (or Itbdde or kakaf) ta-an, be has two canoes and eight 
paddles; paitshe ski ISe St (or Icbdde oikakat) ta-o/S, they have some 
old cloth; dm ta-haru. (or kbdde or hahat) ta-chUa, I have a big 
dog ; kedde (or St or kakat) ta-ane kolpal, there is heche-de-mer 
there; katah-oal maitai Lobng ehom,-Pen kodde (or 6t or kakat), the 
shom-Pen are in the iuterior of Great Nieobar ; Unkei chok-koi 
{6t) (or kbdde or Teakeut) ta-an ■; he has a headache to-day. 

It mast, in like manner, be expressed in negative' sentences, e.g., 
hat-6i (or hat-kbdde) took ta-linheii, there is do toddy to-day ; hat' 
oi (or kat-khdde) rwpia ta-oal hoptep an, tbere is no money in his 

Referring to the particnlats famished nnder Demonstrative 
Pronouns (see ngdle, p. xtvJ and under Adverbe (see ftanga, &c., 
p. xxxii and iailde, &c., p. xxxiii) we find that in alluding to a higher 
or lower position or ta any object in a Tiortherl^, southerly, eaeterh/ 
or vpesterh/ direction or at the landing place, this word hodde under- 
goes various -changes of form in accordance with the systeni indi- 
cated in Appendix B('). This will be clearly ilinstrated by the 
following examples : — 

hodde ta^ane ddk, is there aaiy water there ? (any direction). 
khld^ ta-ane ddJc (or Jcblde ia^nffale -dak) is thete any water 

there? (N. direction). 
kongde ta-one ddk {orkbngde ta-ngange dah) is there any water 

there ? (S. direction). 
Jco-hare ta-ane ddk (or ko-hare ta-oigdhae ddk) is there any 

water there? (E. direction). 
kbit-de? ta-ane ddk (or kbitde ta-ngmche dak) is there any 

water there ? (W. direction). 
kbin-ds ta-ane ddk (or komde fa-ngaine dak) is there any water 

there ? (at the landing place). 

When employed interrogatively the word kakat is generally 
t)roferred, unless a negative is expressed, e.g., kardm, noang ngodt 

' For further partwiilars reeardiug the ranplojment of these three words see 
Beotion TI, pp. iiiv and uiri. 

' In Iheee kakal cannot be employed. 

-* Kblde also means " upatsirs," and kbildt " downstairs." 

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men hakat (or kbdde ta-men, or 6t ta-men) how many coconiite 
have yon got? IcatSm yUang ka^matoka fcakat (or kbdde or 6t) to- 
wake, how many dancers were there last night p toak'ta^tain hakat 
(or lebdde or 5t) to-Mt mew, is there any fermented tari in your hut ? 
iatom hatnaheiiea kakat, how many months old (or ago) is it F' an 
ne^-6t (or net-hi/dde) omkbin ta-tnattai men, isn't there (some) 
tobacco in yonr village 'f 


In many cases interrogation ia sufficiently indicated by the tone 
of the voice, otherwise it may be marked by the interrogative 
pronoun ka, kd, kan (what), e.g., tau me« led an, ia he your younger 
brother F ; shwdtare ha men torUrtheA, will you return to-day ? ka 
men kaungayan me rahzt, are yon (feeling) tired now ? md(]c)ngayan 
ka en koan -men, is your child quite well ? diie ■men kan enh kan ane 
is this or that yonr canoe F me« itila Lobngka hanan, are you going 
to visit Gireat Nicobar or not ? men lieu ka an ka hanan (you saw 
what yes what no), you saw it, didn't yon F m,dh ka met heang 
shud -men Lobng (ever what you-not one time you Great Nicobar), 
have yon never once been to Great Nicobar. 

When an' affirmative reply is expected or desired an (yes) is 
Bubstitnted for ha and invariably maits the enquiry by com- 
mencing the sentence, e.g. an na tda tnen, isn't he your younger 
brother ? an men iteakla ta-Unhen, don't you feel drowsy to-day ? 
an homa ichye hanta at Lohng, isn't white cane fonnd only at Great 
Nicobar ? on men keang (yes yon one) yon got something didn't 
you ? (said to one retnming from hunting, fishing, Ac.) ; an men 
shwdtare ta-hakl, you'll return to-morrow, won't yon ? an ka men 
yiang.fn-chiia olyol an ka. hanan (yea what yon with me say yea 
what no), are you coming with me ? say yes or no. 

Interrogation may also of course be denoted by means of in- 
terrogative pronouns and adverbs (see Sections IV and VI, pp. ixvi 
and xxxii to xsxv inclusive) e.g., ekl yo haiyiian, who is going to hunt 
(pigs) ? dUe nee ehama'yig-ta-ehi, whose is this canoe F lanwngtO'Chi 
kbm men ten ane, from whom did you get thatF chwn onihan 
ongfwdng en-ehiia, which tree shall I cut down ? chin leang an, what 
is bis name F chUan leang an, what ia its name ? chuan yan ife _ / 
kakat, what's yonr newsJaho what goods have you got ? ); chin- y 
ZeoMj-dio hokai ta-men, what else have yon brought ? hS-chua na itd, 
when (at what time) was he here ? kahe na itd, when will he be 
here p kdke-taehe m,eA ddk, when did yon come ? kahe-ta-tai 
hcm.kwefm-hata ten tnen, when will he give it to you ? lidhe-nga-tai 
homkwbm^hata ten men, when did he give it to Jon ? ka-tai wiem loi 
ten enh, how did, (do or will) you make this ? hd-yan men ta-Unlien 
how are yon (feeling) to-day ? kd-ehi danun y6 ■men, what kind^of 
medicine do yon want? ckiln hdto men, .where do yoo live? hat- 

' See next Section. ' See Section VI, p. ixxTii. 

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chuH die men, where ia yonr canoe ? ka-chuk hcu inaa ten an 
whereabout did yon see it p chu-shl dian en an, whither ie it ran- 
ning P Ibngto-chu okai ineii ten enh, whence did yon bring this ? 
chdwe ■men ddh-shire, why are yon going there (weatwarda) ; ch&we 
met I6a ingdh-no-ndng chua, why did'nt you tell me sooner P chuart- 
ehi mm ochuto ledtii Larrwngghe, why do yon prefer living' at Condnl? ' 
chuan-wi men Uym, why are you lying down ? ckiian-l&ngngashl cha, 
why can't (mayn't, shouldn't) I r ckuan-ldngngashi wi -men ta-ane, 
why did yon make that P chuan-ldngngito wat-shi, why did you do 
it thna (said angrily) P chuan-ldngngit6 ife, what are yon all about 
(said angrily) p ckuan-hdnngaehl men iteak, why are you sleeping ? 
chuan-hdnngito met wat-ski akdh, why are yon so stupid (said 
angrily) p tai-chHa'koi an na-wd, why is his "heaA bleeding? 

XV. — Negative Sentbkces. 

In the formation of negative sentences one or other of the follow- 
ing words is commonly employed ; — 

hat (not) ; hat-heang ; hat-ot (none, not any) ; ngong (none, 
nothing, empty) ; wot (don't, be-not) ; hat-mah (never) ; hat- 
'mand(k)nga-t6-he (nevermore) ; hanan (no). 

aiiya-pa and oHya-ehii answer to the Malay antah, being used in 
the sense of " I can't say ; who knows ? there's no saying. 

fcdia. (ore denotes " never mind, no matter," e.g., aw hat lioan, •men, 
he is not your child ; oal hoptep mes ta-ngong, there's nothing in 
your box ; oal due Wjen hat'heang iniaA, there's no spear in yonr 
canoe ; hat-heang yuang ta-ahdh, yd-at-chwn en an, no one knows 
where he has gone ; oal nl an hat-6t toak, there's no t«ddy in hie hut ; 
wot men monghdng, don't be angry ; chit--mak heu hib&t, I have 
never seen a dugong; chit manaih^nga-tohe itua Tatal, I shall 
never more visit Chowra ; a«ya-j)« katom ledt kapdh, there's no 
knowing how many died. 

XVI. — On Auxiliabiks. 

In the coujngation of transitive and intransitive verbs varioas 
auxiliaries are employed : — 

y6 (to wish, be willing) is employed to denote any future action ; 
enhtayan chiki y6 ddktare, I intend to go there one of these 
days ; ofet yd katoka, they are not going to (won't) dance. 

aide- (just now, on the point of), chdng aide hateha, the ship is on 
the point of sailing ; poashe aide chal-hala, the baby is jnst 

enydh (Ut. afterwards) is sometimes employed as the sign of the 
fatnre tense, e.g., ledt wi nee enydk chua it-ua mattai men, 
when I have finished this I shall visit yonr village. 

ieat (already, has, have, had, become, finished) expresses &pasl 
action and corresponds with the Malay word eiidah ; ledt tia 
kapdh, he is dead ; ledt ofe okngok, they have eaten ; an ledt 
ybk, it has gone bad : an ledt sM tirdm, it occurred long ago. 



leat-ngare (entirely, utterly, completely, also finished) is in many 
csnes employed after the manner of hahis in Malay : ofe 
oTntom hipdh ledtngare, they are all dead and gone ; bmtom, 
ddhaga ledtngare, they are all entirely broken ; heA na (Zedi) 
olyola ledtngare, when he had finished speaking ; irnitom 
homkwhin.-hanga leatngare, it is all spent. 

yanga (iif. from, jnst now) is often used in place of leat when 
referring to recent events, e.g., chua yanga' olyola ten an (lit. 
1 from tell to him) I have just told him ; yanga {leat) en an, 
it is just finished; yanga chuh en an, he has just gone; 
yanga chun men, where nave yott juat come from P 

yUang-shitS {lit. busy) appears to be employed a* the sign of the 
imperfect tense ; and 

y&ang-akito-yanga as that of the'plnperfeet, e.3., hen tnen dak 
ta-minyiii chUa yuang-skito, wl dde, when you came yester- 
day I was (busy) making a canoe ; oreh-ckakd men skwdtare , 
an yuang-skitS-yanga kalbk not ane, he had been sticking 
that pig before your returi.. 

lia^ and doh express ability, and therefore correspond to the 
Malay words bwleh, lain or sampat, e.g., chua leap (or doK) 
kichal, I can swim ; linhen chit doh (or leap)ohiig6k tain^i (chva) 
iu, 1 cannot eat to-day as I am sick ; chit leap (or dSK) hew 
taina hodi'inga tuehUl : I cannot see becanae it is too dark; 
ane hat doh na pahai-tai taina ybk (li^ that not able it eat 
becanse rotten), that being iMtten is not fit to eat. 

36% is also used in the sense of " may," e.g., paiyuh Tatdt hat doh 
wt nl hUle, the natives of Chowra island may not make pent- 
roof huts ; taina entoin ta-Unheii Idngngashl chit doh katoka, 
this being the entoin feast I may not dance (lit. because 
enifiin to-day therefore Ac.) 

dohta denotes obligation or necessity and expresses " should " or 
" laxiBt," met dokta ort t'enkdria-ni meB, you should not beat 
your sister; trtet dohta halo hat tangtauhe, you should (or 
must) not steal, it is wrong ; met dohta olyola ta-leang 
kamapdh, you must (should) not mention the dead man's 
name ; dohta ehOa shwdtare ta 6l-haH, I must return in the 
[N.B. ka- (indeed) can even be similarly employed, men oi-ftaH 
dak ka', you must come in the morning.] 

okldkngato expresses permission, e.g., chOa okldkngatS an kdto ta 
nl chiia, I let him live in my hut ; w'ot men okldkngat$ an 
shwdtare, don't let him return. 

kaiydh tashe (also doh) implies power or permission to do a thing, 
mst kaiydhtashe itiia mattai ane, you have no permission to 
visit that village. 

haroh-ta-yande appears to correspond to the English " might," 
but it is evidently rarely employed, 

B these -words haie been rendered is nrecent 



Idk and shoJc are synonymoua and are employed without distinc- 
tion with one and all of the personal pronouns in the im- 
perative mi)od, in order to denote exhortation and the like, 
afler the maacer of tbe English equivalent "let," e.g., Idk 
het iteak, let ns not sleep ; ^khk undt oria tai ofl, let not those 
two be be&ten by them. 

wot {probably a contmci ion of wi-ho,i, make-not) which will be 
found in Section VI (p. xxxvii) as the form of negation in 
nae with the second person singular and plural of the im- 
perative mood is exclaaively employed with men (thou), ind 
(you two), and ije (yoa allj in oi der to denote prohibition 
or entreaty, e.g., wot ije chuh, don't go ! wH vieu leang-tai, 
don't make a noise ! 

XVII. — On luTENaivEa. 

The most common method of expressing an intensive degree is by 
employing ha' (indeed) as a anffix ; when applred to pronouns it 
denotes "self," "the very," e.g., an ka\ ofe ka', he himself, they 
themselves; one la", the very same (lit. that indeed); when nsed 
with sabstantives it signifies genuine, real, pure, proper, own ; e.g., 
ckwi faj-, real (pore) silver; chia ka-, one's own father (i.e., not step- 
or foster-father) ; painahoa ka', a downright coward ; akai ka', 
indigenous Ohavica leaf,* i.e., the C. Macrosiachya (in contradistinc- 
tion to akai kaling, the foreign or caltivated hetel-leaf, the G. 
Betle) i kaidk ka', tbe proper form of ladder, i.e., of bamboo with 
wooden rnngs (in contradistinction to haldh kaling, tbe foreign or 
so-called "monkey" ladder, consisting of a thick pole with deep 
notches to form steps) : when employed with adjectives and adverbs 
it signifies " very," " quite " e.g., ohalmg (long), ckaling ka- (very 
long) ; chinUnga (longer), chinlinga ka' (longest) ; enhlayan ka' 
(very soon) ; omtom hom/pen-ngare ka', all were quite silent. 

en-dah ; pen-daK are employed with adjectives, verbs, and adverbs, 
but cot with other parts of speech, in the same sense as ka'. 

chbng'pendah, very high ; I6a-pendah, very quickly. 

leat-endah, quite finished (" that's all," as aftera recital). 

Adjectives and adverbs may be intensified to a still greater 
degree by the nse of the adverb pait (mach) ; tO'karu (very) ; to- 
uruhatshe (exceedingly, excessively), or by the reduplication of ka'; 
nee due pait lenpda ka' t'omtdm, this canoe is much the best of the 
lot ; an rrionghdvg ta-karH, he is very angry indeed ; ddk tiina 
padiaw ta-vruhatshe, this water is exceedingly cold ; pomle ngimg 
ka'-ka', tbe bottle is quite empty ; an kaungayan ka'-ka', he is com- 
pletely worn out (fatigued). 

An alternative method of expressing an intensive degree by means 
of prolonging stress on the accented syllable of certain words denot- 
ing quantity, quality, &c., has been pointed oat iu tbe foregoing 
(see p. xiv). 





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, Google 





Atiiilant Sujiennitndeat of the Andamata and Sicobart ; Fellow of (ie Rog. &eog: 

Soe. J Member of the Antirop. Iiutitutt j ate. 

Aftkob or "Tbe Abobioinal Ihhabitanxb of tbb kssuMts Islahsb." 






, Google 


Afteh forwarding the completed MSS. of his English-Nicobarese and Nicobareae- 
Englisli Vocabularies to thia country, Mr. Man wished to distingnUh more 
precisely between the Active and Passive Voice in the language than had been 
done intbe Engiish-Nicobareae Vocabulary; but as Part I was already in type 
when his notes for this purpose arrived, it waa not possible to make the 
necessary corrections and additions throughout the work without seriously 
disturbing the making up of the pages. By the kind advice and asBistance 
of Mr. A. J. Ellis, P.B.S., the following list of Transitive Verbs possessing a 
Passive Voice has been prepared, to which refereoceis made in the Vocabulaiy 
by an asterisk attached to the Nicobarese word. A. F. M. 

Burn, Broil, Roast, Singe, &c. (v.t.), 


To be burned, broiled, Ac. (v.p.), 
Blindfold (v.t.), ndk-oalmat.'^ 

To be blindfolded (,v.p.), n&ka-oal- 

Disarm (v.t), prevent, op-ydp-kata. 

To be disarmed (ti.p.), op-ydpa. 
Distribute food (v.t.), kincliau. 

To be distributed (v.p.), said of 
food, kinchaniwa. 
Eat {v-t.), oh-ngok. 

To be eaten ("■?■), ta-ngoka. 
Eat meat (v.t.), kam-ta-kdre. 

To be eaten (v.p.), said of meat 
only, ta-hdma. 
Employ (v.t.), ngSang. 

To be employed (vp.), ngeanga. 
Fasten (v.t.), pok-kata. 

To be fastened (v.p.), pSka. 
Fasten (v.t.), a cord round an animal's 

neck, Mk-ortg-lMga. 

To be fastened (v.p.), ndka^ong- 
Fasten the arms (v.t.), pinion, omtum- 


To be fastened by the arms, to be 
pinioned (v.p.), ttvma-kodl. 

Fasten the legs (v.t.), omium-ldh. 

To be fastened by the legs (v.p.), 
Fire a cannon (v.t.), hakok-hata. 

To be cannonaded (v.p.), hakoka. 
Forbid (v.t.), ol-teal-kata. 

To be forbidden (v.p.), olteala. 
Geld (v.t.), poak-hata. 

To be gelded (v.p.),poaka. 
Gird (v.t.), ndk-ong-yuang . 

To be girt (v.p.), ndka-ong-yuang. 
Hang (v.t.), by the neck, pSk-ong- 


To be banged by the neck (v.p.), 
p6ka- ong- ISaga. 
Harken to (v.t), hateng. 

To be barkened to (v.p.), halmga. 
Hear (v.t.), ydng. 

To be heard (v.p.), ydnga. 
Hit with a cannon (v.t.), taiyo-tai- 


To be hit by a, cannon-shot (v.p.), 
Hit with a crossbow (v.t.), taiyS-tai- 

To be hit by a bolt (v.p.), taiyS-tai- 
Hit with a gun (v.t), taiyd-tai-hariU 


t Note that idi denotes the Aotive, and idict the Paaaive Toice. 


To bo hit by a gnnsbot (v.p.), taiyS- 
Husk cocoimtfl (v.t.), et-ehdta. 

To be haaked (_v.p.), said of coco- 
nnte, ta-ihaia. 
Inherit (p.i.), mandya. 

To be inherited {v.p.'), ta-mandya. 
Invite (v.L), im&ya. 

To be invited (v.p.), ta-imdya. 
Lament {v.t.), at-lato. 

To be lamented (_v.p.), ta-at-lato. 
Lash together with cane, Btring, or 

fibre (ti.t.), iidh-hata.'t 

To be laahod together with cane, 

string, or fibre (v.p.), ok-ndka.f 

Load (ti. J.), said of a canoe, yUak-hata. 

To be loaded, said of a cianoe (v.p.), 
Make (v-t.), vn-hata. 

To be niade (v.p.), xDla. 
Miuce (y.t.), ok-ddk-hata. 

To be minced (v.p.), ok-ddka. 
Overhear (v.t.), mong-ydng. 

To be overheard (vp.), -mong-ydnga. 
Plait (v.t.), with cane, entain-hata. 

To bo platted (v.p.), with cane, 
Rip open a carcase (v.t.), ol-tdl-kata. 

To be ripped open (v.p.), as a car- 
cam, ol-fdla. 

Scorch (v.t.), ian^lchata. 

To be scorched (e.p,). haroka,. 
Sew (v.t.), ichih-fiata. 

To be sewed (v.p.)^ ehiha. 
Shoot with crossbow (v.t), hanfbitt^ 

To be ihot at (ti.p.)i ^ *•! object witil 

a crossbow, haUfbiSa. 
Shoot with a child's bow (v.t.), haipilr 

To be shot at with a child's boW 
(v.p,), haHpila. 
Shoot at a mark or target with guB 
(v.t.), loko-hariUhata. 
To be shot at as a target by a gnu 
(v.p,), loka'harilla. 
Shoot at a mark or target with cannon 
(v.t.), Idko-hdkdk-hata. 
To be shot at as a mark or taiget 
with a cannon (v.p.), lokct-hakoka. 
Shoot at a mark with a crossbow 
(v.t.), loko-hanfbin'haia. 
To be shotatwithacro88bow(u.^.), 
loka-k anfoima. 
Visit (v.t.), itua. 
' To be visited iy.p^, ta-tue-ya. 
Your village was visited by me 
yesterday, linhei mattai men to» 
tHeya (ia) tai ch&a. 
Weave, see " Plait." 

f Note that ndk denotes the AcHts, and »dli& the EHdTe Yoice. 

, Google 



Sound* in Engliah, &c. 

Oeal Vowels and DiPHTHONca. 

yang, withont. 

ddk, come ; at, hoarse. 

kdkA-tS-k, first moon of N.E. season. 

kdn, wife ; huyd', a wild aromatic berb. 

leii't, finished ; htiyd', ef^g. 

enyd'h, (h heard, see note 8) after (in 
time) ; heng, san, day (sonriee to 
B unset). 

li'ba/re, book, paper. 

le'ang, sound, name ; fige, voice, lan- 

kaling', foreign. 

ufi, make ; itoi, spirit, ghost. 

kod'l, arm ; shorn, native, people. 

ItM-Q'm, FanilanaB mellori ; enlSin, axe. 

bmld'm, all ; shorn, tea. 

«-e, clotli. 

ho'i, far ; po'ya, sit down, 

pud', obtain (by hunting or fishing) 

du-en, monkey ; cAaa, what (interrog.). 

du'e, canoe ; ckii'a, I. 

tanai'i five j ina/i', twenty. 

• In the preparation of thii Alphabet I have been jruidecl by the advice and aeaistanoe 
kiDdl7 gnnted me hj Mr. A. J. Ellis, F.R.S., late President of the Philological Society. A 


idea, cut 




(Italian) casa. 
























(Germaii) Koaig 






(G»m»ii) «bBr 



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Soimdfl in BngliBh, &c. 


Oral Vowbla and 

DiFSTRoaaa— continued. 



^reau'.carvedhDinan figure to frighten 
away evil gpirita. 


(German) haus 

ooM', vomit. 



enibi-n, wallow (m a pig). 

Nasal Voweib 



(French) wn 

AoJtan.Bpiuster; o7igi-han,wooA; paioi. 


aH — 

■ — (R1 ^~^^ 

mmn', spear having prongs i„kotfan'ioa. 

^imror^' — 


an, two ; dn'ha, flesh, meat. 


(Prcncli) v*M 

Bnii. (6), near ; ompenshe, Bmall ; fen'toa, 


(Portugese) aim 

amin-h (6), rain. 



fiA'ha, hogshead; wtehin-au, young 
f mit of coconut tree. 


(French) w. 

haron-h (6), stalk game, 
kenhon'a-kara/u, iron scoop for coconut 



bUh (6), fael ; thin-kH; hit with fist. 


m8«-huyii\ albnmen. 


chy un, sweet. 



mi/otw-ya, cloud. 



aA-h(mn; boU partially. . 



omhbin; tobacco. 




le'bare, book, paper. 

eh (initial 


ciafcd-, face; cAw'-o, I. 


njoi(cA), oil ; r(d(ch), micturition. 



kamindi', rainbow. 



/dpi thick ; ife; you (of three or more) . 



kdng, frog ; gol-mS'ro, gold. 



huyd', egg ; pwiyu-h (8), native (esp, of 


ben-hiod'va, ashes. 

0) (fi-MJ 


cfti(j), abstain from food, &o., as when 





kdned'l, last quarter of moon. 

(k) (final 

Tien^ghd^kynga-ahi, interrupt. 




U'ang, name, sound. 



bmto-m, all. 



Sign. (Jounds in Eaglieh, &c. 

ndtf ■pig • dain-heng, sun-beaiD. 
eii-kbi-na, man, male ; ;pakavn, sour. 
yang-tare, follow, nest (in a raco). 
I'ngol, nearly ripe. 
paho'a, afraid ; Pm, Car Nicobar. 

kara; large. _ ^S-k: AurH-^^fc^L 

Coppercom ■' *■"*- 

td'dk, tari (palm wine). 
hen-hwdva^ mourning. 
wot, don't (imperative). 
yan-de, taste, flavour. 

fehd-Jio'ng, Bnrf. 


The syllable nnder stresa in any word is sbown by placing a turned period 
(_*) after a long vowel, or the consonant following a short vowel, in every word 
of more than one syllable. 

As it is not usual to find capitals cast for the accented letters, the initial 
}etters of proper names, when bearing accents, are indicated by prefixing a direct 
period, as .bng (Little Nicobar), .et (Batti Malv). 


(1) d accented before a consonant, is the English a in mat, as distinguished 
from a, which is the short of d, or Italia 

(2) e accented in closed syllables, as ii 
in chaotic or in Italian padre, amore. 

(3) No vanishing sound of i as in English say. 

(4) No vanishing sound of u as in English know. 

(5) In an the sound has more of the a in it than the French an, and in on 
it has more of the o than the French an. 

(6) When nh is written as in enh, ink, &c., the nasal is followed by nasalised 
breath, remitting the voice, but retaining the position of the vocal organs. 

(7) In the diphthongs aiii, aun, bin, the nasality principally affects a and 6, 
but it is retained through the whole diphthong, that is, the nasal passages 

(8) denotes the sound of ch in rich arrested before being fully uttered. 

(9) denotes the eonnd of dge in bridge arrested before being fully uttered. 

(10) denotes the sound of c in fraction arrested before being fully utterrd. 

(11) «j is a palatilised ng, and bears the same relation to it as S bears to n. 
To pronounce n attempt to say n and y simultaneously ; to pronounce nj do 
the tiame for ng and y. 

(12) This r is soft and gentle, with no sensible ripple of the tongue, as very 
frequently in English, bat not merely vooaL 

B 2 

.y Google 



Ihe ■ prefixed to oertMn words is to direct the reader's i 

Terbt hsTing a FauiTe Toioe on p. iii. 
All references to Appendices md Sections haTe reUtioti to a work ( 
in course oC prepBration. 

a the list of Tranritive 

I the nicobar Islanders 

AbaudoD (leave), ytf-AoMjo; yd-Bhe. 
A.hdoiaen,taha-nima; chang-taha-nona. 
Abhor, hat-sho. 
Abide (dwell, remain), kdiii (see Ex. 

at "Alone ")■ 
Able (capable, competent), d3h; leap. 

He is not able to drink the whole 
of it (lit, entirely drink it), hat 
dSh ngong-tai to. top de. 
• — (dexterous), jifwyttA-to-Zeap, 
Abode, nl. 

Abominable, hat-tuldng-hateke. 
Aborigines, thofn-maitai. 
About (nearly), enh4a; enh-la (see 

" Nearly " and " Eleven "). 

— fconcenung). Me (see Em. ftt 

— (in connection with some past 
event), nga-sJii (see " Nothing " and 

— (iu reference to some future or pro- 
posed event), la-ahi (see " When "). 
I don't know anything about it 

(i.e., of what is proposed), chit 
ahdh ta-sht an. 
Above (on top of), la-hoi. Above it, 

— (overhead), ledrang ; Itdrang-T^oi. 

— (in the sky), ngdie ; ta-ngdie. 

— (over, q.v.) 
Abscess, /iia ; hefOaya. 

Absent, hat-St; hat-itd. 

Abstain, from luxuries and pleasures 

(aa nhen mourning), chi(J). 
AlMord, hat-hSAcka. 
Abundance, v,ra-kaishe ; tkwa-ngashe ; 

karu-the; hod; ta-haru. 
Abnndaut, ghun-ngathe (comp.') ehiti- 

ndti-ngashe; (superl.) shinndn- 

Ahxiee (v.t.'),hat-tiildng-hat-nge-oly6la ; 

Accept (take), okai ; oka ; kit-tare. 
Accident, irMihe-yande. 
— meet with an, «A»a«-n.t-yond«; ledh- 

Accidentally, by accident, shlart-to- 

yande (tee " By chance "). 
Accompany, yianga-ySlde. 
Accompany another walking, om- 

name ongshoiigha. 

travelling, ongyiang-haiske. 

in a canoe, Ac, omndme-hen. 

He accompanies me there (walk- 
ing), omndme ten chwi an ddhtare 
Accordance with. In (according to), 

lat-ehi ; leat-shi. 

It is in accordance withcustom (lit., 
it is an ancient custom), lealshi 
tandnh, or leiitehi an tandnh. 
Accordingly (consequently), man. 

.y Google 


Accost, hdhd-skait. 

Accurate, tang-ta^he. 

Accoatomedto certain i3ietar7,clothmg, 

&c., da(h)-ngayan ; da(Jc)-ngalS. 
— to any new home, dd{k)-taya/it. 

Some of ua here (lit, the people of 
these parts) are not aecuatomed 
to eat B&lt, paitehe shom-itd okngSk 
shal ha.Uda{Jc)-ngayan. 
Ache (b.). cAoi. 
Acid (adj.^jpakairi. 
Acquaint (inform), ingah-haine ; 

olyola (see "Relate"). 
Acquaintance (friend), inewih. 
Across, okdl-hare. 
Active, kamSeho; malcaik-yantS; maho- 

Add, hen-ySl-ta-ghi. 

Add 1(X) coconnts, henySllaghi men 
tanai inai yuwng oyav,. 
Addled egg', huya-waha. 
Adhere, haran-hata. 
Admire, hooah-shi. 
Admonish, hdehol-hata. 
Adopt, hedUl-hala; daitnol- Icng- 

Adopted child, hediila. 
Adorn a hut, Ac, hainat-nl. 

— one's person, wi-lbng-yand/re. 
Adrift, Vung-tiga-lSJi. 

Adolt, kamaru ; kamadu. 
Adulterate (as ambei^ris with wax), 

haiyola ; cham/po-hata. 
Advance (approach), shong-ta/re. 

— proceed in, oreh-chakd. 
Adversary, Idla ; Idla-chdkd. 
Advice, Iwmdnga-ndng. 
Advise, ngeSn-tcu-ndng. 

I am advising him to go to Cbowra, 
ehOa ngeon-ta-ndng an na yd na 
Adze (European), danan. 

— as imported, for scooping canoe- 
shell, trough, Ac. (large size), 
inuain; (small bikc), kmilanh. {See 
App. N, item 170). 

Affection (gee "Love "). 
Affectionate, iyH. 

Afloat (on fresh water), ta-oal-ddk. 
— ■ (on the sea), ta-oal-kamale. 

Afraid, paMa. 

Don't be afraid, wot men pahSa. 

I am not afraid, chitpahSa. 
Aft (astern), la-ridla; la-ok; Id-ok. 
After (in time), enydh.' 

— (hehind'), enydk-ok ; tala-oh. 
Afternoon, Id-hanga-heag. 

— early portion, ehadiaha-heag (see 
App. d5. 

— latter portion, heng-imat-ka' . 
Afterwards, if in same day, ma-ka'. 

— if another day, etiydh ; Id-enydh. 

— some time later, enydh-tigala ; 

Again, woBo; teal-ehi'tbm. 

Beat him again, an en wblto ori (see 
Ex. at "Wait"). 
Age (of animate objectsjj sJtcmi-lato ; 

— (of inanimate objects), shani-tashe. 
What is the age of that child ? kd 

ehanilato ane kenyum,? 

— of same, inh'm-latd. 
Aged (see " Old "). 

Agestrata dendriha (Linn.), metkaita^ 

Ago, hang a. 

He died fi«e months ago, tanai 
hanga iamakenwa an hdpdh. 
Agony, ye. 

Agree (consent), homdnya; kaiydh- 
(in opinion, wish, Ac,), heang-e-tC ; 


Aground (stranded, of a ship), kokla, 

— (of a boat), ngdkla. 
Ague, kaldk-penkaiya. 
Ah ! are. 

Ahead (leading), oreh. 

— (proceed), oreh-chakd. 
Aid («.), ySi-cftaM; opshdpto. 
Ail (jj.t.), ta. 

Aim (with spear, gun, Ac), Jomdofc- 
hata; komchU-hata. 

— (with one eye closed), on same 
level, kaklan-liata; npwarda, haklan- 
hala; downwards, hakiaii-haihe. 

Air, hegh^dnha; hdih-dnha. 
Airing, take an, dheh-niro 
Ajar, kehoak-chakd. 



Alarm (p.). harat-ngarit. 

Why do jOQ alarm me P ehdwe meA 
haratnya/rit chiia ? 
Alas \ dya-kare. 
Albumen of egR, niSA'huya. 
Alert (sm.arfc), holdh-hatghe. 
Alien (foreiguer), ka-Ung. 
Alight (of a bird), ten-dAian-tare. 
Alike (eimilar, of a like kind), h^ng- 

Alive (of animate objects and vegeta- 
tiou), hari-dnh. 

— (of fuel), yoin. 
Alive and well, denahdn. 

He ia alive and well at Car Nicobar, 
6t denahdn na at Pu. 
All, omtdw,. 

Call them all here, ocklova ofe bmtom 
ten enh. 
All right ! ekial ; aA-komd ;' aiige ; an- 

da-ka-chU ; pehdri. 
All together, tom-tare. 
All day, bmtam-heng. 
Allow,' kaiydk. 

He allows me to visit Trinkat, an 
kaiydh chiia itua Ldful. 
Alloy, hakoanoroal. 

This IB only alloy, kanta hakoan-na- 

Almost, enh-tayan; enh-iaahe {see Ex. 
at "Race "). 

The hut is almost completed, ni 
enhtayan na leat tola. 
Alone, hkang -ngare ; hemeangttat ; 
hemeang-yuang ; hari-kan-an. 
Why do you atop here alone? chdwe 
men hari - hanan kdto itd ? (see 
" Only one " and " Person "), 
Alongside, ta-fdp; tola - ahlak ; tala- 

Along with (in company with), yoUa; 

I am going home along with your 
younger brother, y6Ua tdu tnen 
yuchuh en chiia. 
Aloud, karushe-nge. 
Already, ledt. 

It is already time to go homo, leaf 

— (once before), leat keang-shud. 

Also, an-diawa {see " And " and 

Alter (c.t.), ka-»hdta. 

— (v.t.), ha-shdt-kanga. 
Althongh, yo-dokla-ldh. 

Always (continually), jjoo-fore; pama- 
tore; yuang-hare. 

— invariably, without ieiV), pact-thlre 
(see "Wherever"), 

— (incessantly, repeatedly), dal-dal. 
Amalgam (see "Alloy "). 
Ambergris (black and of superior 

quality), kanpS. 

— (grey and of inferior quality), ya~ 

Amiable, akaih-yant6. 
Ambidexter, dn-de-ddha. 
Amidst, among, heang-e-ehuk. 
AmomamFenziii (KMTz),damiat; tan- 

Amputate, okdal- hanga ; 61- kdul- 

Amuse, ha-ekd(k')-ngat6. 

— one's self, lia-shd-i-tore. 
Amusement (see " Fan "). 
Ancestor, halhm . , '_ 
Anchor («.), shinpoya. 

Heave up the anchor, oktuakla 

— (u.t.), omshdm-hanga. 
Anchor-rope, ndt-ekinpoya ; tanoka. 
Anchorage, ehuk-shinpdya. 
Ancient, iirdm; ong-M; ong-hen ; leat- 

And (also, as well as), an-diawa. 

He gave me this and that (lit. that 

this and he, i^-), ane nina 

andlawa an homhwbm, ten chiia 

(see also Ex. at " Time, long "). 

Anecdote, inola. 

Anger, shakeat-ahakd. 

Angle (or angular), sTiin-Ulnga. 

Aagry, 'rruirig-hdng ; en~kdin-shishe. 

— very, mong-hdng-ka' . 
Ankle, okloaka-ldh. 
bone, mat-hou. 

Anklet, hetl6t - Idh ; ketlot - henkdp- 

— of coiled wire, hetlot-ta-sklaa-ta' 



Anna piece (quarter, copper), sdnta- 
maria ; riiid ; paisa. 

— (half , copper) aamta-maria ; riiid; 

— (two, silver), hiskd-kda; kisbd- 

— (£oar, silver), oaVrndt-icJiS. 

— (eight, silver), det-maiow. 
Annoy, hakd-ngatd. 

Yoa are annoying him, meA hakd- 
ngat6 an. 
Annoyed, ndt-ngat6. 

I am annoyed, n&tngaio en chUa. 
Annual, shomenyiih-thomenyvJi. 
Another (not lJie.same), dia/wa; dio; 

Another man beat me, not this one, 
faiySh diawct ori ten cMa hat 

He is at another village an kat 

tnattai rio. 

— (some other) plaoe, kedbhnga-ckKk. 

— (one more), heang'iwre. 
Another time (some time or other), 


— (some fatoTB date), shcnyuk; enydk. 
Answer («.), opehdp. 

— (ii.)i opekd^-nga-nge. 

Ant (large red stinging species), 

— (various smaller species), tain; 
tain-vme; kamHeng. 

— (small black species), het-cHd. 

— white (termite), dabin; pin.tdng. 
(mottnd), nf-dooin. 

Antler, hentdp. 

AnnB, det ; dit. 

Anvil, ghdla-dambm, 

Anxioua, tdchS-yanto ; nyoh-ngalo ; 

I am anxious aboat my younger 
brother who has gone to Chowrd, 
ehua tdcbfeyo/ntS kde ta/a ckiia ledt 
die Tatat. 

Any, harSh ; hadSh. 

Anybody, haroh-paiyuh. 

Anything (something), hadSK-hadth. 

Apart, kedohnga-ckuk. 

Apartment, chuh 

Aperient, danuTt-wiang ; dajtur^-UhdM. 

Apparel (of Nioobarese male) (see 

— (of N'icobarese female) (tee 

Apparition («ee " Ghost," " Spirit "}■ 
Appear (in sight), tamd-hadUhe. 
Appetite, handm-layan ; omhdm. 

— appeased, paA(!«. 
Applaud, hdlSh-hata. 

Approach (v.),shong-taTe; kedid-tare; 

Don't approach my plaoe, viot men 
shbngtare ta ehak ehiia. 

Appropriate (y.t.), ke-lare. 

Approve, tang-ngato. 

April-May, the lunation in (being the 
first "moon" of the S.W, mon- 
soon), sheh. 

Arch, endon. : 

Ardeola leucoptera (pond -heron or 
paddy bird), hthd. 

— Qrayii (reef -heron), iikv,&Hk. 
Areca augusta (Kurz), cha/dt (^sei 

Ftychoraphii) . 

— catechu (cultivated beteUnut tree), 

(fruit of), ywmg-hiyd. 

This Areca {catechu) is very old, 
ntna hiyii shilatbh-ka'. 
Arise (get up, stand np), shiaha. 

— from sleep or rest, kdnga ; kdnga. 
Arm (entire), kodl. 

— fore-, kervmoanor-kodl. 


Anned, kHe-shuyande ; chataiyo. 
Armlet (for upper - arm), henlcdp- 

chang-pdk ; henfuha. 

— (for fore-arm), ketl6t-ta-ghiwa. 
Armpit, oal-odda. 

Amotto (Boa orellana), o&nk. 

Aromatic, sklang-'di. 

Arouse (of a sleeper), heiidim-hata. 

— (a heavy sleeper), en-kSng-hala. 
Arrack, ta-ratn-ta-teyeii-i^iakd ; vjinya- 

Arrange, halep-hanga. 
Arrears, tare-she; tat-she. 

What arrears are due from me r' 
kari tareihe 6t ten ehUa f 

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Axreat (v.), haUit-hata. 

Arrive, leat-d&k-ta ; taaq-ta (<ee App. 

B, a.). 
Arrow (of cross bow), dnK-chakd'fbin, 

— (of children's bow), dnh-chakd-bel. 

— dischot^ an, oyd-kanga {see 

ArrowTwtt, dmek. 

Article {e»p. of barter), yon (see " Pro- 
perty," "Thing"). 
Arum eolocagia, kanni. 

— nymjfJuei-foKum, hat-shiat. 

As (because), tai; t(dna {see Ex. at 
" In future"). 

— (in respect of), to. 

— (like), shiri. 

— (feJ.), yoUa-yiang-hata. 

Make it (after) the same (manner) 
as I am making it {lit. as I 
make it so do yon make it) yMta- 
yiang-hata vn chiia yolta-heangashe 
loi men («ee also App. B). 
As far as, ta-mang. 

I walked a& far as yoor village yes- 
terday, tamang la mattai men cha 
ongshbngha ta iiiinyiii. 
As many (rcl.), dinm.ea-tki. 

As many persons as my canoe can 

carry (so many) can accompany 

me, diameishi paiyuh ia-oal d-iie 

chua ehammeAshlan t(t-yiang d6h. 

As much (rel.), dinmen-shi. 

I will take an mnch rice as the bag 
will hold (Ut. as mnch bag-full 
rice so much take I), dinmeiiehi 
eha/mayowa aroe s}iinm,ensht hokai 
As well as (oonj.), an-diawa (see 

As well as (not leas than), ta-tang-ta- 
tai; keang-e-tai. 

I can swim as well as yon, chaa dSh 
cha ta-tang-ta-taire meA chal^ehal. 
Ascend a bill, o-le. 

— a ladder or stairs, chuak-lare. 

— a tree, rope, Ac. (see " Climb "). 
Ascertain, kamd-nga-ski. 
Ashamed, dal-ngato. 

Ashes of fuel, ben-hwdva. 

*— of cloth, paper, tobacco, &^., optop. 

> tamai-hiOTi-mai. 

Ashore (on shore), odl-matiai. 

— (stranded), kofUa. 

Ask (ask for), hamd-hala; ngion. 

Ask him for the apear, ha/md shaneA 
la Ibngto ten a/n. 
—^ permission, m-dhnya-ti^e. 
Asleep, iteai. 
Assault (v.), rl-hata. 
Assemblage, inbtntdnta. 
Assemble, heangta-'nuinmdl ; luddm- 

Assent (v.), komdn-ya; kaiydh. 
Assist, ySl-chakd; opthdpto. 
Astern (aft), la-ndla; ia-rUa; la-ok ; 


— go, ok-Icdk. 

Asthma, kbrni-ydh; kiydh; chbk- 

Astonish, vn-tamai-hian-mai. 
Astonished ) . 
Astonishment J 
Astonishing (of some sight), ta-ckang- 


— (of some report), ta-ckang-yan- 

Astray, chun-nga-6hidi&. 
Astride, ong-wdng. 
Astringent, darmn-fdit. 
Asnnder, han-hM-nga-hMn-Vifia. 
At, (1) &i; (2) at; (3) hat; (4) (eft. 
Nos. 1 and 2. With reference to 
countries, islands, and villages; 
3. To villages; 4. To dwellings 
He is at another village, an kat 
mattai rio (see "Alive" and 
No one lives at Tillanchong, en. 
Ld'Ok hat-hSang-penyHh ta kdto. 
At last, aide; bide (see " Bride," 

"Heal," and "Last"). 
At once, heang-shidiina. 

Cook some rice at oace, paiishe arte 
heang-shiduna ongshdng. 
Athletic, hamocHu). 
Attack (v.), ri-hata. 
Attempt (v.), kaldh-hata; Jiakait-tc- 

He is attempting to paddle, an 
hakait-to-ymtde na duande. 

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Attend (in attendance, be present at), 

All the people are in attendance, 
OTntdm paiyuh tedUho. 

— (peld attention to), kapnga-nd/ng. 

— (wait on), koan-chakd. 
Auger, teame (J); tenme (ch). 
Augnst- September, the lunation in, 

mand (k) -nga-poak . 
Aunt, ko-chia-enkdna {see App. L), 
Autumn (leaf-shedding season), yong- 

a-dai; y(mg-a-rai. 
Araricions, pokdh-hatahe ; okdk-hatahe 

{tee " CoyetonB," " Greedy "), 

Avenge, okai-yai-hata. 

Averse (disinclined), kat-eho. 

Avoid (shnn), oh-ldk. 

Await (see " Wait"). 

Awake (y.t.'), hendmt-hala ; hendiin- 

— («■»-)> cial-Aaio. 
Aware, akdh. 

Awaj (absent), kat-6t; hat-itd. 
Away ! (be oS !), kok-ngare. 
Awkward, numg-chuang-kari-she. 
Awninfi;, of boat, heng-da-koi-hifua. 
Aze, eiiloin. 

Baby (according to Bf^), pSaahe ; hen- 
tn&na; kbmop;inldn-ha;(mgshbng-ka. 
Babyish, thiri-poashe (&c.). 
Bachelor, tJu. 
Back, ok. 

— of hnt, ckakd-foang-ni; det (or 

— -edge of blade, ddtha^iridat. 
Backbite, et-chai(j)-nga-ok. 

■Back-bone, hen-kda; benyual. 
Back- tooth, tainyd. 
BackwardB, kdka-ok. 
Back-water («.), kdk-ta/re. 
Bad, hat-lapd; kat-luldttg-hatahe. 
Bad character (rascal), meaktiina'she. 
Bag Garge), ghdyo. 

— (small), kenhona. 
Bagful, shama-yowa. 

I want two bagfale of rice, chUa y$ 
&n skamayojoa aroe {gee Ex. at 
"As much''). 

Baggage, hal^isM-yande. 

Bait, kari. 

Bake, ong-hodng-hata. 

Balance (weighing-scales), kenldh,, 

— (amount or quantity due), ri-tare- 

— (remainder), hemobl-shdtS, 
Bald, ngd-koi. 

Bale water, itoe {•ddk). 
Ball, okon-hare-ahe. 

Ball, cannon-, dnha-oal-henkok. 
Ballast of ship (or boat), hintd-chSng 

(or -hifila). 
Bamboo (J5. vttlgarig), hedtod. 

— {B. gigantea), ng6a. 

Go and get some bamboos {lit. cut 
bamboo bring), ongfdng hedtvd 
Bamboo ntensil for receiving content* 
of toddy tapping-pots, hen-Twin (App. 
N, item 70). 
Bandage (g.),, 

— ftpplji ("■)> d-wna. 
Bandicoot, komet-t(b-karu. 
Bandy-legged, irua-o-ldh. 
Bangle («ee" Wristlet"). 
Banish, ok-kdk-nga-ldh. 

Bank of creek or river, keam-ddk. 
Banner (flag), himwe ; henwe. 
Banter (». and v.), hdluhnga-ndng. 
Bar (at month of inlet, river, Ac), 

Barb of spear, arrow, fish-hook, pdk. 
Barbarous (savage), oal-chiia. 
Barber, paiyHh-ta-ikdak-kdi. 
Bare (nnde), iyah-loe-dit-de. 
Bargain, oktuak-hai-yai-yan ; inih. 
Bark of dog, oho. 

— of tree, ok-onihan. 

— -cloth of the Gdtie veatimeniaria, 

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BamEtcle, hong-hdng-am ; hdang-dm. 
Barque (lit. three-mast- ship), chSng- 

Barrel (cask), piyo; fiA-ha. 

— of gun, karau-hindel. 

The barrel of your gun is foul, Jearaii 
hindel meA yuh. 
Barren (childless), hat-yS-a^an-na- 
koano ; hat-koano. 

— tree, ehla-ta-hat-yd. 
Barter (*.), ch-maha-yannih. 

What barter have yoa (got) this 
time F chuan chuaha-yannih me)i 
kakat ten eAh ken. 

— (u.) hatau-hata. 

Bashf al, dal-chakd ; mSt'ttgare. 
Sa»ia, pitianh ; m-ong-ko. 
Bask, hdn-heag-de. 
Basket, fine, for food, &c., chukai. 

— large and coarse, ken-tavn. 

— for carrying fowls and sucking- 
pigs, ftarasAoZa. 

— fowls' hatching, tanSchya. 

— fish-trapping, large, enyun; small, 
kenhSi (see App. N, items 58, 81, 82, 

Basketful, ma-kentain-ya. 

Four losketfnls of betel nnt, foaa 
via-hentainya hiyd. 
Bast of the Gneium gnenwn, of which 

their Hues are made, het-toit ; het- 


— -cloth (of the bark of the Geltia 
vestimeataria'), ok-ho. 

Bastard, koan-menkoan-hare. 
Bat (MinwpterU putUUts), aloda. 

— (large) see " Tlying-fox." 

Bath, Id-fin-ha ; Id'finahan ; chuh- 

Bathe (v.i.), kolat^eh) ; koh,i(_j)-hata. 

— in shaUow water, ten-dau-ehire. 

— (v.t.), by pouring water over 
another, ydl-hata. 

BattiMalv (uninhabited islet between 

Car Nicobar and Chowra), M. 
Battle, panona. 
Bay (s-), I8n; kdila-kamaU. 
BayoDet, shaniai ; dnh-chakd-hindel. 
Be (hare a certain state or quality). 

It is very hot and close to-day, 

Unhen hod keoyan tain-dnha 6t. 

Be (have being, exist, occur), hod-da. 

The Shorn Pen (tribe) are in the 

interior of Great Hioobar, Jcatah- 

oal mattai Lo-bng 8hom Pen kodde. 

Beach, sandy-, chakd-yaiya. 

Beach a boat (or canoe), et-hmi(f}' 

Beads, malau. ~- 

Beak, Ttioah (or nwanTi) -iMchua. 
Beam supporting hut-floor, upper-row, 

etdr-kbin; lower row, eio-ftan. 
Beam, sun-, dairi-heng. 
Bear (carry), okai-hanga. 

— (bring forth young), iaiyuo-AaiMe, ■ 
kaiyUa-ne-koan ; kdhd-yiUi^e. 

Beard, enkbin. 
Bearded, enhbin-yo. 
Beardless, hat-enhoinyo. 
Beat slightly, ofiio-hata. 

— severely, ori-hata ; odi-hata. 

— slightly or in play, lahuria. 

— one's self, Ha-rere. 

Did he beat yon P ten men oH kd an ? 
I will beat you, ckUa orl wen men. 
Beautiful, lapa^ehakd ; ydh-ngai-aki- 

Because, tat; taina. 

I give you a present hecanse you 
are a good man, Ttomkwbm ehiia 
tcmedlshe taina men paiyuh ta-tu- 
Beche-de-mer (Holothuria), kolpal. 
Beckon (to come), imai-hata. 

— away (warn off), intat-'hiaiga. 
Bed (bedding, lit. of Areca epathe), 

Bed- rid den, la-rMtam. 
Bed-gtead, chv.k-mitealc ; mmgha-chttk- 

Bed-time (lit. sleeping-time), hen- 

Bee, golden-honey-, tona. 

— black-boney-, sket-holowa. 
Bees' wax (see "Wax"). 

i-yiita ; met-yatybk (twi 

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Beetle (^Xylotrupeg Qideon, which at- 
tacks coconnt-tree8),ineit(Mfa-oydw. 

— Agestrata, dertdriba, which injures 
Fandanus trees), meikaita-larom.. 

— Great Capricomis(C'e7i»w.J*y»AeTos), 
larva of, damanbi. 

Before (prep.) (in front of, in presence 

of), tala-chdkd; ta-chuk. 
— (adv.} (earlier), ore?i; odeh ; moreh; 

orSh-chakd (seeSm. at "Mast"). 
Before, earlier, if same day, ong. 

— at any time, do-nan (gee Ex. at 

Be^ for a loan, hamA-chakd. 

He begged me for the \oxa of the 
spear, kwmd an shaneA ta chakd 

— for a present, et-tot-hanga ; et-tol- 

He begged me for a present of the 
spear, ettot an ehaneA ta chakd 
Beget, wi-keivyiim ; wi-kgan. 
Begin, oreha ; orSh-eMshe. 
Begone! (be off!), kom-hoi-ngare; kiih- 

Behead, tailia-ongldnga. 
Behind, tala-ok ; enydh-ok. 
Behindhand, kenying-tare. 
Behold, harra. 
Belch, hedoe-hala. 
Believe, ISk'tore. 

I believe he is at hoiae,ehiia laktSre 

Bell, ten-keang 

Bellows, hannoa-heoe (see " Fan "). 

Belly, wiang. 

Belong, la-mang. 

That knife belongs to me, ane in6at 
lamang ten. chiia. 
Below (prep.) (beneath in rank), ta- 

— (adv.) (in lower place), (ii-nyatcft«; 
la-katak ; ngaiche. 

Sit down below the hut, ta-ngaiche 

Belt, ndt-ong-yuang. 
Bemoan, a4la-tS. 
Bench, enpoya (-paiyuh). 
Bead (v.i.), daik-nga. 

Bead (v.t), lenkdh-kanga ; har&n-hala. 
Beneath, fa-/cataA; Id-StJie ; la-e-ahe. 
Benedict, ledt-kdno ; kamdno. 
Benevolent, ehami-ybng-nga-ehi. 
Bentinckia Nia>barica (Beecari), hiliia 

(see " Orania"). 
Bequeath, himdnga. 
Berry, yuang-oiiihaA. 
Beside (by the side of), iala-Bklak; ta- 

fdp; tala'fdp. 

Sit beside me, talashiak chua poya 

Besides (in addition to) ,joi-«At (prep.); 

pendiaiea (postp.). 
Besmear, end^a-hata. 

— (the face only), leta. 
Best, lenpda-ka'. 
Bestow, homkwb'm-haia. 
Bestride, ong-wdng. 

Betel-nut tree (Areca catechu), ehia 

— — (the fruit), yuang-hiya. 

-— — crusher, lanoh-hiya; shanbk- 


chop np, ok-skbh-hiya. 

quid, (see " Quid "), 

box, of Areca spathe, kendang 

(App. N, it«m 53), of Burmese 

lacquer- ware, tandp. 

tree-spathe, iSah-hiyd. 

Betel-pepper (Piper Betle), akai-ka- 

Better, lenpda. 

A little better (in health), conval- 
escent, hen la-hd. 

He is a little better, hen Tia la-hd. 
Between, ma-hong-yuang-ne ; viowj- 


Beware, kaldh-ngayan; kaldhan-yande. 

Bewitch, kom-binya. 

Beyond (on further side), hen-nSiya. 

— (the rest of the way), wat-dUal. 
Big (large), fcani; kadu. 

— (man or woman), karii-fdp. 
Bigger, end-ua; biggest (very big), 

Bigamist, paiyvh-dnla. 
Bile, peniang. 
Billet (see " Firewood ")- 




Bind (fasten) ae to a post, f6k-kata ; 

pSka (gee " Fasten," " Tie "). 
Bird, gkichiia. 
cage, m-shichiia. 

— -nest, kong-kdng. 
etlible, hikai. 

— -pepper (or bird'a-eyo) chUi (see 
" Capsicum. ") 

trap, kandap-ihiiih'ua. 

catch in, karap-hata. 

liirgus latro (eee " Crab "), 
Birtk, kaiyua. 

— give, (bear) see " Bear." 
Biscnit (large), pooJiff. 

— (email), biskut. 
Bit (see " Piece ")■ 

Bite (seize with tlie teetli) (v.), ophdp- 

— (aa a di^, snake, &c.), opkd^-hata ; 

— food, omngdm-hanga; opkdp-hanga. 

— of fish at bait (c), nuk-haiiga. 

— off, hodp-hanga (hata or -hathe 
according to position of object). 

— a fmit, lenkop-haine. 
Bitter, teak. 
Bivalve, dn-M. 

Bixa oreUana (amotto of commerce), 

Black, ai ; al-ngamat ; Iced. 
Black-skinned, keo-ngamat ; fu-nga- 

Blacksmith, damom. 

Bladder, fah. 

Blade of spear, chakd-ehaneA. 

dha, inoat-hiduTna. 

Bword, inoat-kirih; inSat-ta- 

knife (lit. toddy-knife), inoat- 


paddle, chaid-pdwah,, 

oar, chakd-kanot. 

grass, chaka-shea, 

— edge of, chakd-itiSat. 
Blame (v.t.), mvi-yua. 
Blanket, landp. 
Blaze (of torch), ch&l. 

— • (of burning grass), yual; oAitt-yfla.!, 

— a tree (mark one's coarse through 
jungle), ndng-nga; ka-ndng-hanga. 

Bleed (u.t.), na-wd. 

Why is yonr leg bleeding P tcd-chUa 
Idk -men na-wd ? 
Blind, pi^%an ; paklnaA. 

He w«a bom blind, pafe»a» kaiyua- 

— fold, ndka-oalndl.* 

— of one eye, hemeangla-oalmat ; 

Blinded by glare of sun or fire, daitt- 


storm and rain, twMl-oalmdt. 

Blink (as owing to glare), pht-ckakd ; 

pbt-oalmdt; ol-naSa (see " Wink "). 
Blister, fSk. 

Block (pnlley), oroaka. 
Blockhead, hat-hiang-Uap. 
Blood, v>d. 
Bloody (blood-stained), kwdpta-eri-wd ; 

hwdpshe- en-wd. 
Bloom (blossom), shlh. 
Blow (stroke), kortga-tai. 

— with the breath (c. and «.), ifiia. 

— (of the wind), hosh-hata. 

The wind is blowing it, hdnsh ta 
hosh ten an. 

— one's nose, kehS-haine (or -hata). 

— ont (extinguish), ifUa-hanga. 
Blown away (by the wind), fang- 


— down (by the wind), feh-ngala. 
Blubber (fat of cetaceans), yd. 

— (weep noisily), fcarw-sAtn^e-cAtm. 
Bine, cku-ng6a(-mdt) ; oaJ-henlmoa. 
Blander, hat-tang-tashe. 

Blnnt, hat-shoag. 

Blush, dk-nga-chakd. 

Boa, tuldn (see "IVthon"). 

Bou-, ndt-ka»tet-l6i(Gk) ; ndt-kama- 

Board (plank), tanoang. 

On board (-ship), oal-ckdng. 
Boast (v.i.), loi (j.)-ngange. 
Boat (£aropeau), Jiifua. 

— (Burmese or Siamese dinghi), hen- 

— -race, shiaJa-inuta. 
Body, ong-yuang-dnha. 

Boil (*.), kehu (see " Sore " and " Tn- 
moar "), 




Boii (v.(.) meat, ong-dng. 
Boiled pork, not hong~dng. 

— vegetables and fish, wi-koholai. 

— water, ok-pdk-ddk ; ok-pdh-hata. 
Go and boil some water, ata men 


— (ti.*.), yUak-hala. 

— partially (v.t.), an-kdno; an-haun. 
Bold (see " Brave "). 

Bolster (pillow), Itanlala. 

Bolt of crossbow, dnh-chakd-fbin. 

Bombard (of a war -ship), koyung- 

Bompoka (small inbabited ieland of 

Nicobar group), Toa-hai. 
Bone, ong-eng. 
Book, libare. 
Boot (from Fort, tapaio), tliapdla (see 

" Shoe," " Slipper"). 
Bore (with piercing instrument), 

leme(ch)-}iata ; kehu-hata. 

— the ears, loka-ndng. 
■ Born, kaiyua-nanh. 

— prematnrely, wi'hia-kd'he. 
Borrow, hanshon-fiata ; homtuaA-hata. 
Bosom, oal-en-daiya. 

Both of ns, hen. 

joQ, ind. 

them, ond. 

Both of them are asleep, ond iteak. 
• — (of animate and inanimate objects). 

Both of the women are asleep, dnre 

enkdna iteak. 
'Give me both of those spears, dure 
one Twanq rhanen ku>bm,-hata ten 

Bottle (bhuik),pentang'ning ; pomls. 

— (white) small, yangmat; large, 

— (sqnare - shaped), hand-shalcUQ) ; 

Bottle-fnl, ta-paham-li. 
Bottom (of boat, &c.), oal-kenkda {see 
" Inside "). 

— (of boat, keel), ok-henkda {see 
" Outside"). 

— (of bottle, pot, bnoket), det; dU. 

— (of bos), kataJi. 

— (of box, inner side), oal-katah. 

Bottom (of box, outer side), ok-katah. 
Bongfa, pdk-oiiikan, 
Bonndary, fap-mattai. 
Bow for shooting arrows, nsed occa- 
sionally by childi-en only, bel. 

— cross-, ySin. 

— rain-, kwmindo. 

— of ship, boat, canoe, kdi-la. 

— oraameDtal, of canoe, kar&ka; 

Bowsprit, hanUa-ckakd. ' 

Bow down (in saluting), ngohahire ; 

Bowels, fuah. 

— relieve the, iehau-hanga. 
Bowl (basin), tabiig-ko. 
Box (chest), hopt^. 

— of ^reoa spathe for holding clothes, 
&c., tai-shUla ; tafol (App. N, item 

— 6eiei-of ^recaspathe, tenoanff (App. 
N, item 53) ; Burmese lacqner-ware, 

— (y.t.) (strike, slap), ofdh, 

Why did he box year ears ? ch&vie 
an ofdh ten men ? 
Boy, kenyum (see App. K). 
Bracelet, hetlSt ; henkdp-kodl. 

— of coiled wire, German silver, 
hetldt-ta-shitea ; silver, hetlol'ta- 
shiwa- chvA-ka' . 

Braces, kenekiiah-kankdi. 
Brackish, haiye. 

water, daft-(a-^tye,- ddk-itoya. 

Brag (boast), ldi{j)-ngange. 

Braid, keam.-lde. 

Brain, kenduin; ketpai(j'). 

Branch {hoagh.),pdk'OmhaA. 

Brand (burning billet), ken-nga/i. 

Brandish lighted torch over corpse in 

grave, koko-hala. 
after burial, kochung-langa. 

— spear at " haichudl " feast to scaie 
away the evil spirits, kochiish-hata. 

Brass (brass-work), kala-het; shanon; 

Brave, hat-pah6a-ka: 

Bravo ! hd-ka-a-a ! 

Bread {PoMdanns paste), larom. 

— (Gycas paeix), homlem. 




Bread(wlieaten),*Trii(froin'the Hindn- 

Break (v.l.) (of rope, cane, chain, &c.), 
hen-tbish-Ttga ; ken-tdk-nga. 

— (v.i.) (of rope, cane, chain, &c.), 
toish-nga; tok-nga. 

— ("■*■) (of bottle, bamboo, flageolet, 
Ac), daQc^-iie. 

— ("■*■) (of ship, canoe, pot, Ac), 
diisk-nga; dah-figa ; da(k)-nga. 

— iri pieces (v.t.), ken-ddth-nga ; hen- 

— ■ short (snap), lofnkdk-ngare. 
Breakers on rocky coast, shd-hdng ; 

Breast (bosom), oal-en-daiya. 

— (mamma), ioak. 

— nipple of, moah-toak. 
Breath, eydm. 

Breaths, hinudh-lare ; eydm-lare. 

— heavily, shat-la-yan. 

— quickly (pant), tava-eydm; hhin- 

Breathless, hoemh; tam-eydvi; hbiA- 

Breeches, kan-hdn. 
Breeze, ha/ash. 

Bride, ledt-hiieako ; blde-kbino. 
Brido-groom, ledt-hiteaho ; blde-kdno. 
Bridge, hendHanga. 
Brig, chong-dnla. < 

Bright (shining), dain-ngamat. 
Brim (rim, upper edge), of plate, Ac, 

kSo/m ; of hat, ndng. 
'Brim-trd, push'la ; tanglata-keam. 
Bring (v.t.}, okai-hata; kai-hata; {see 


Anything brought or fetched, Ao- 

— (or t»ke) with oneself, t/iang-fare 
(sse" Whenever"). 

— forth (give birth to), see "Bear." 
Brinjal {Solanwm esculenttim'), keal. 
Bristles, -pig's, pulydl (or jmyol) -not. 
Brittle, miieft; hat-nge. 

Broad, tdk. 

Broil (v.t.y^harbh-haia; Tiaroka. 

Broom, kenwah-enchon ; }ianndJi-oal-iii 

(App- N, items 93, 118, a). 
Broth, ddk-hong-dng. 

Brother (as addressed or referred to 
by sister), enkiiina-ni. 

— (own or half, elder, or younger), (a- 

— (own.,elier),chdtt;y6l-hS-rod-ta-chau. 

— (own, eldest), chdy^-ennyHla. 

— (own, second eldest), chdu-ta^dn- 

— (own, third eldest), cMM-to-Joe-onff- 

— (own, younger), tau ; tau-ennyula. 

— (own, youngest), tdu-oh/dla. 

— (own, second younger), tdu-ta-dA- 

— (Iialf-, consanguine), heang-e-ohia- 

— (half-, uterine), heang-e-chia-t'en- 

Brothers and (or) sisters of same 

family, ydl-he-chia. 
Brother-in-law (husband's or wife's 

brother), Aiini,- hdi. 

(sister's husband), momtbm. 

Brow (forehead), lal. 
Brown, taik ; tai(_eli). 

— h&ii, taik-ydk ; taik-koi. 
Browse, kodp-hata; op-kduff-hata. 
Bruise («. and u.), taiy3-tai. 

Brush, cloth-, /aM«^A-m<i(; hanndh-mat. 

— foot-, (formed of the drupe of the 
fruit of the Pandanue mellori after 
extraction of the palp (see "Pon- 
daniis"), famndh-lah ; hannah-tdii. 

— hair-, fanndh-koi. 

— cloth (u.), ifdh-nga-mat. 

— one's feet with Pandama drupe, 

— one's hair (if.), hen-lSan-koi. 

1 will brush your coat, chiia ta ifdh- 
ngo/mat ianyut tnen. 
Brush-tnrkey (see " Megapodius"'). 
Brushwood, enchdn. 
Bubble, fbinh ; puk. 
Bucket (wooden), ftmj; (xinc), hanet- 

Bud (s.), sMh-t'ompeii-yuang. 
Buffalo {Bubahis ami), kapo-fuhare 

probably from Malay " kerbau" (see 

Part II). 
Bug, tamafuiid. 

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Baild, momi-hanga. 
Bnilding, nt. 
Ball, kaj>0-enkbina. 
Bullet (round), yucaig-'hiat. 

— (conical), cftMmJa-cAofco-ftoniain. 
Bullock, hapo-ta-poaka. 

Bump (».), taiyd-ttU. 
Banch of fruit, torn. 
BoDdle (wTflp^d up), la-manwi. 

— (tied up), yamaneak. 

— of firewood, minol-onh. 

— of neatly-cut imitation firewood as 
placed on grave oe offering, pomdk- 

— carried on slioiilder, mok-pdk. 
Bunifle, ihiala-tvire. 

Bunion, ken-ekdn. 

Buoy, ndjig-nga; diik-TncU. 

Burden, yaw. 

Burial, oal-ola. 

Burma, PijM; ('mattai-)Pigu. 

Burnaese (natives of Burma), Shorn- 

Bum (ti.t), harok-kata;' hardka.*, 

— (f-*-) ngoih-nga; ngbih-ske. 

— a hut, harbk-hala ; iihu-hala. 

— grese, nshUah-hala ; shuak-liiUa. 
Burrow (as rata) tenchut-hare ; (as 

crabs) tenekut-sktre. 
Burst (v.) kojc-ne. 

'Bary, oaUdl-hanga ; oal-dla-she. 
Bush, enehart. 

Busy, eM(k')-ngat6. 

1 ghall be busy to-morrow, haM 
chiia ahd (k)-ngat6. 
Busyoversome particular worfej^Mwiy- 

Bat (conj.) (no equivalent appears to 

Butterfly, halu-m&wa. 
Buttocks, ibm. 

Button («.), kenchdp-kanyut ; kenchdp- 

— (c), kaeJidp'kattyvt. 
Buy, haloM-hata. 

From whom did you buythat comb? 

ane kan&at-kdi halau men Ibngto- 

ten chi ? 
By (jprep.'), tai. 

Because (I yraa struck) by a child 

I would not cry, tama tai kem/Htn 

chit chim. 
Tour flageolet was broken by me, 

ledt dd(i)Se hettkel men tai cfiUa. 
By and by, if ou same day, ma-ka' ; 
if later, enydh,. 

— (at some future date), shaiyHh. 
By chance (of meeting, finding, &c.}, 


Cable, tanoJca. 

Cabra (islet near Great Nicobar), 

Cachalot, kda-d^ie; iket; kdaiaat (al- 
leged to be three different species). 

Cackle (of hen), pak-pakdk. 

Cadaverous, ishian-chakd. 

Cage, bird-, ni-shichiia. 

— pig-, ken-chata (App. N, item 97). 
(portable), hen-wydt (App. H, 

item 96). 
place pig in, ktym-ckuta. 

— for entrapping and conveying away 
evil spirits, ahtm (App. N, item 
1«). . 

Cake (of Oycas paste), homlem. 
Calamue, sp., while young, ok-hedk; 

when full-grown, ndt. 
Calculate, karo-hanga ; luidd-hanga. 
Calf, koati-hapo. 
Calf of leg, kenmoana-Wi. 
Calk, ka-nyan-hata. 
Call (summon) one within hearing or 

sight, oehiawa ; ochiova; achto-hata. 

— at a distance, eSta-ghl. 

— (summon) pif^s at feeding- time, if 
near, ka-chbk-hata ; if out of sight, 

— (summon) dogs, kaho-hata. 

— (visit) (v.i.), if at one's own vil- 

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lage, otig-ddng-ha ; if at anobLer 

villa^, itua. 
Call (name), ngen; ngS. 

Wh&t do yon call this? ka ngen 
men ten enh t 
Calm weather, nam. 
CalcBnas Nicoharica (the Nioobar green 

hackled pigeon), Italoh. 
Camorta (inhabited island of Nioobar 

group), Ndng-kauri. 

— N. W. portion of, Kehul ; .6nl-ld-lwi. 

— K.E. portion ofjKifcdini; .Sal-ld-oal. 

— Government Settlement on, Kin- 

Camphor, ken-thatt. 
Can (able), feay; doh. 
Cancer (canker), tanbi(ck). 
Candle, maindh; maindk-heoe. 

— stick, chuk'inaindk-hedB ; Idh-mai- 

Cane («.) (groond rattan) (Calaviua 
Bp.), ndt. 

— (white, fine), ichye. 

— (other varieties), penthng, palai; 
skanida; kainyin; pindol. 

— (v.t.), ori-hala. 
Canine tooth, kaneal. 

Cannibal, puak-paiyuh ; pamoaJi-pai- 

Cannon, ken-kdk. 
ball, dnha-oal-henkSk. 

— firo a (u.(.). hakdk.* 

GAiiuot, hat-ddh ; hat-leap (for inflec- 
tion of the negative, see " Not "). 
I cannot run to day, chit leap dian 

Canoe, due. 

Ib this yonr canoe p dUs men kan 

stand, entoma-due. 

— attached bow-head of, tanoanga 

— projecting Btem of, nganeana(_-due). 

— gunwale of, taneiyel^-due). 

— thwarts of, tanol-diie. 

— go or travel in, short trip, d/iie-yo ; 
d^e-ldh ; long trip, duan. 

I am going to Trinkiit (in a canoe) 
to-day, diie-yo ehiia Ldful ta Unhen 
Canvaa, Ide-kandma. 

Cap (for the head), shanoatiy; kala- 

— percnBsion-, kep-hiTuiel. 
Capacions, -urahatBhe-ckuk. 
Cape (point), Tnoanh-maUai. 
Oa/pticam annum, komeiMita'ngo. 

— harxatum (bird's-eye chili), home' 

— fnUesceng, komednta-dk. 

Capsize (of a canoe) (f.f.), komSp- 

(»■*"■)' ka-bpe-kSi (see Ez. at 

" Sonl "). 
Captive, ISm; haUa-paiyah. 
Car Nicobar (northernmost island of 

the group), Fu. 
Carapace of turtle, ong-eng-ok-kdp. 
Carcase, ta-kapdh. 
Care, take, of one's Bel^ kaldh-t-yande ; 

of another, or of any object, harual- 

Care of, take, halep-nga-shl ; kakdp- 

nga~shi ; tcmdUnga-Bhi. 
Careful, enmen-ngaya/n. 
CareleBS, ila^haishe. 
CaresB, iy e-hata. 
Cargo, ok-yuak ; inuaka-damuan. 

What cargo (have you brought) in 
yonroanoef ck-uanokyHakdUemen ? 
Caronae, kwrvJuht-'oa^Ufp. 
Carpenter, fmyaimn. 
GaTpaphaga bicolor (pied fruit pigeon), 


— irtsularis (Imperial pigeon), mumti. 
Carrion, dnka-ta-ledt-ybk. 

Carry, okai-hanga. 

— on the head, bl-tol. 

— in the hand, bl-chiaUhala. 

— atw&j,ilai-hanga ; okai-nga-ldh; pdk' 

— upstairs, ilai-hala; okai-hala ; pdk- 

— downstaira, ilai-iasAfi ; okai-haehe; 

— - child or bundle on one's shoulder, 
pdk-hata ; pdk-lare ; ok-pdka. 

— - child or bundle on one's hip, et- 
tiat-HoAiga (or -Kola). 

— child or bnndte on one's back, 
opiiaha-hanga (or -haUi). 

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Garty a child or bandle in one's arms 

— to one's lint, pdk-ha-hal. 

— to landing-place, pdi-haine. 

— on a pole over one's shoalder, of a 
basket, &c.,iiio.ft(iiii(see "Convey") ; 
of coconnt- shell water- pots, wju-tjtjft. 

Cartridge, dnha-oal-'hindel. 
Carve meat, old-haine ; ol-tdla. 

— wood, et-ehiat-hanga ; wi-hanga; 
homyHnga-ski ; et-hata ; et-et-ha. 
My fother carved this when I was a 

boy, chia ch&a etghuU nina chUa 
Cash, rupta (from the Hindostani coin 

most commonly used). 
Gask.,finka; finakan; jfipa. 
Cast (hnr!) (ii.(.)i haleang-Ttanga. 
Castor-oil, ngai(ch). Also any other 

vegetable oil. 
Caeuarina equiaetijolia, sAoma-ywoft, 
Cat, raedu ; koching. 
Catarrh, tanuya ; Iwidna. 
Catch (seize, as a pig by the leg) op' 


— falling water in one's hands or in 
pitcher, hayung-hata. 

— any falling object, le-hata. 

Why (what reason) did yon not 
catch it then ? ch'uaTt-langngiuhi 
■met le daka-ong ia-ane ? 
Canght by a thorn, cht^ai-tth. 
Caterpillar, -^laMg-lana. 
Cattle, domestic, feopo-fei'. 

— wild, kapo-fuhare. 
Candal fin, kMiiMik-dei. 
CanI, hinop. 

Caase (reason, for any action, e.g., 
coming, going, climbing), Umg-nga^ 
ahi ; hiin-nga^shi ; han-ngi-tS. 

— (reason, for being angry or doing 
any act of violence), Idrig-ngi-tS. 

Causelessly, hax-tai-figa-nang ; han- 

Cantion {e. and i;.), himdnga-ndng. 
Cave, ohavwa. 

Cease (f.i.), ledi (see " Leave off "). 
Ceaseless, dal-dal. 

Cemetery, chuh-peniila ; koi-pentila. 
Centipede, kaiap. 

Centre of any figure, ehS-shire. 
— of hut, fruit, &C., ong-yHang-oal. 
Certain, certainly, an-ka- ; dSh-tashe. 
I will certainly go and see him, clma. 
ta yo an^' cka harm ten an. 
Cetacean, kda-dUe. 
Chafe (by friction), /ofc-ne. 
Chain (silver or gold), shdha-ybk. 

— anchor-, karau-halbh. 

— fasten by means of, hachdpa. 
Chains (fetters), kenehdp-ldh; hetikdp' 

Chair, kdtere. 

Ohalcophapa iikKcms (bronzed- winged 

dove), tomoa. 
Chalk, »him-Irdpa, 
Challenge, ohiun-hata. 
Chamber, chtik-ni. 

Champion, hod-ka' ; chamang-pandna. 
Chance, by (sea "By chance"). 
Change (exchange) (v.t.)i hashdt-hata; 

— (alter) (ui.), hashdt-hanga. 

— (anfEer change) (o.t.), tdh-td-hashe. 

— (of the wind), ol-wiala. 
Channel among rocks, fa-wing. 

— (strait), Tcaiyi-hhiA-mattai. 
Char, han-yuin. 

Charcoal, shatn-yudng-onthan. 
Charitable, shaiybng-yanto ; shami- 

Charm (fetich), kareau; hentd-kdi; 

hen-shiap, &c. 
Chase (pnrsne), henybng'haia. 

— (drive away), haiyuan-nga-ldk. 
Chaste (virtuous), akaih-yantd ; tu- 

Chastise, orl-hata; odi-hata. 
Chatter, poshi-kat-nge. 
Ghavica Maoroatackya (wild pdn leaf), 


— Setle (cultivated pdn leaf), akai- 

chew the (u.), maiyd. 

Cheap, hat-tat; hat-Tnettota. 
Cheat, hat-tbng-ngatS. 
Checkered, kaldka-mat. 
Cheek, tapoa. 

— inside of, oaio (see " Money "). 




Cheer (applanii), hdkdh-hata. 
Cheroot, omhoiH-homlbm. 

— light ft, haiyviii-kata. 
Chest (large boi), hoplep. 

— (thorftx), oai-endaiya. 
Chested, deep-, ong-iang-hare. 

— narrow-, bl-odl-luwe. 
Chew, koyain-hata. 

— a quid of bet«l-nat, Ac., hoyain-pd. 
Chicken, hoan-kamde. 

Chief (head-man), omyda. 

— head-, OTm/da-ta-karil ; karH-nga- 

Child, henyuTn; "koan. 

Two or more children of a certain 

community, ka-men-nyvMia. 
My (male) child, koan chila (en- 

kbina) . 
Ten children of the same race or 

Tillage, shoTn yUang kenyum. 
Ten children of variona races or of 

two different localities, da yuang 


— eldest, koan-ennyula-ka' ; koan- 


— jo\xngeai,Ttocm-olydlarka' ;mand{h)- 

Child-bearing, one past, leaf-tS. 
Childhood, henre-kenyHm. 
Childish, shtri-kenyum. 
Childless (children hftjing died), kai- 

— (having had no children), hat- 

Chili (gee " Capsicum "). 
Chilly, nok. 
Chin, en-koin. 
Chinese (s.), Skom-Ghina. 
Chink, ken-hoan-ha. 
Chintz, loe-iwi. 

Chip of wood, tfoi-tdf; tong-chukd. 
Chisel, henet; kandha; kand-chakd- 

— cat with a, het-hala. 
Chitorddm, knyudp. 
Clioice, haishot. 

Choke (y.t.), keneak-hata. 

— (v.i.% kdk-nga. 

— owing to bone, Ac., pa-heak. 

Choose, haighbt-hata ; itohi tok-hata. 
Chop betel-nut, sJwk-akai ; ok-ehok- 

— (out into small pieces), ok-ddka. 

— (dress with adze), en-dan-liata. 

— (dress with axe or dha), ifdsh- 

Cbowra (small inhabited island of 

Nicobar group), Ta-tat. 
Chuckle (langh inwardly), %ti-oal' 

— as hen to her chiokens, kakdk-hata, 
Chnm, raoftom-Tioi.«Ae. 

Cicada beetle, kolo-diawa. 

Cicatrix, henkon. 

Cigar, omhbin-homlom. 

Cigarette, tartbm.-omkbin ; oiiMi»-ta- 

wrapper, vmLam,'Omhoin. 

Cinder, hen-hwava. 
Circle, olkel-hare. 
Circnlar (adj.), ka-wila. 
Circumcise, ydte-om-nbi-koi-ldm. 
Circumference, katoal. 
Citron, karoait. 

Citrue aaraaHufn (orange), kairoait-ta' 

— decumaaa (pummalo), kwroait-ka- 

— aoida (sonr lime), karoatt-shukdk. 

— limetta (sweet iime), karoadl-ta- 

Civil (courteous), thama-yhng-yanto-. 

Claim (s. and u.), haiyHa^a. 
Clam {Tridacna gigoi), kendu. 

— (2'ridacna eqwimoea), hetwid; ingeh. 

— {Tridaciia crocea), oalmdUken. 
Clap the hands, ddp-oal-taxre. 

Why are you clapping your hands ? 
chdwe men ddp-oal-taire ? 
Clap of thunder, nge-homdwiga. 
Clasp (v.),ful.hata. 

— one's bands together, kop-oal-taire. 
Clasp-knife, in6at-kdha-wcip. 

Claw («.), kane-ldh ; ke-»hvah. 
Clay, dii. 

— white-, du-ta-teyen, 

— Pohjcistina-, Uaim ; du-Joain. 

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Clean, (adj.), of ailverTare, (few; of 
plates, glaaa, &o., den-nga-oal. 

— (v.t.), with water, et-shech-hanga. 

— by wiping, et-tat-hanga ; et-shech- 

— by rinaing, el-chi(j)-l6e. 

— rice, Ac, by winnowing, tom-diak- 

Cleanly, meme-la-»hi. 
Cleanse {see " Clean"). 
Clear (of the sky or atmoaphere, also 
nnobstrncted), chtt-7igai(j) ; chu- 
ngai(ek) ; chu-ngai{j)-oal. 
Frora. here there is a clear view, 
Ibngto itd chuyd-ya,nmat chu- 

— (transparent), cliv-ngai(j)-oalmat ; 
dain-mat; (of water), daii^-iiafc. 

— (limpid), njDi; ngbie-chakd- 

— vision, mohlwa. 

— jnngle (make a clearing) («.), 

— ont (remove) (ti.(.), ehS-kala. 

— np (of weather), tek-oal; teyen- 

— one's throat, kd-7iealc-halit. 
Clearing in jangle, leiit-heaieh ; ledt- 

Cleave (v.t.), ong-dong-hanga (or 

•haine) ; lawd-ne-oal. 
Clench in the hand, kwdpta-tai. 
Clever, intelligent, paiyuh-ta-akdh. 

— ekiiial, paiyuh-ia-leap. 
Climb a rope, tuak-lare. 

— a branched tree, tutm-hanga. 

— an nnbranched tree, chiatla. 

— ft ladder or stairs, chuak-lare. 

— a hill, d-fe. 
Cloak, landp-kanyut. 
Clock, ken-y&ng-n&rtg. 
Clod of earth, mohSuha-du, 

Close (oppressive, an ventilated), tain- 

— (near) (adj.), enh; (adv.), miinho. 
His hut is close to mine, S» an eAh 

la ni ohUa. 
Close (v.L), a box, 3/p-haske. 

— a book, kom-ap-hita. 

— a door, &c., karap-hata. 

— the month, mop-kathe. 


Close the eyes, mtym-liashe (»ee"Shnt"). 

Why do you close your ejes ? chdwe 
m en inomhashe ? 
Clot of blood, ioiip-kat'Vid. 
Cloth (generio term for any variety), 


— all kinds of, lenm6ya. 
— - black-, l6e-om-dl. 

— checked cotton, Ide-ta-ldha. 

— striped cotton, ISe-kdhd-puan. 

— cotton- hand kerchiefs, loe-lenehe. 

— Turkey-red-, ISe-komidng. 

— white-, l6e-ngodt. 
— ■ sail-, We-henteha. 

■— of all (or various) descriptions, 
V)pta-lenm6ya (see " Sort"). 

— bark- (prepared irora. bark of Oeltis 
vestiTnentaria) , ok-ho. 

— loin- (as worn by males), neng. 
skirt (as worn by females), typ- 

ckiap ; loe-dit. 

— body- (as sometimes worn over 
shoulders by both sexes), op-lop. 

Clothes (clothing), loe-hare. 

— pnt on, viia-loere. 

— -take off, any, oloh-hanga; skirt or 
loin cloth, it/dh-hanga ; loin cloth, 
ydhi-nengde i Bkitb, r/dhi-lSere. 

Clond, cumulus, cirrus, or stratus, mt- 

fainya ; nimbus, mifainya-ta-dl. 
Cloudless, c}iv-ngai(j) ; chu-ngai(eh). 
Clump of Irees, mdmldmorshe. 
Clnmsy, mong-ckuang-hari-she. 
Cluster, ol-tal. 
Clutfch, through fear or rage, hwdpta- 

Coal, eham-yndng-pala-ledt. 

Coai^e, as sacking, keka-yan; kekain- 

yau ; as blanket, ^R-i; kain. 
Coast, mat-inattai ; fdp-matlai. 
Coastwise, by land, kaiyt-chakd-yaiya ; 

by water, ylap-chdkd. 
Coat, of cloth, hanym-la/ma-ok ; of 

cotton, henhoin-lama-ok. 

— waist-, of cloth, kanyHt-tit-hodla ; 
of cotton, kenlwin-Ui'hodla. 

Coax, hatnd-tare; fomlang-tare ; tom- 

Idng- to-ndng-de. 
Cobweb, kala-wdna. 



Cook, kamoe-enkoma ; kamoe-kbin. 
Cockroach, small species, tama-thd ; 

large species, Id-mueii. 
Coconut-tree, yoang, before bearing, 

kuhoi; after commeacing to bear, 

chia oywa. 

— imit, yuang-oyoM. (For terms indi- 
catiug the various stages in the 
growth of the jraif'gee App. I, also 
App. N, item 167). 

— leaf, yon ng, neai ; green, Ait-oydi*, • 
withered, pdl-oyau. 

{flower, 1 ,- , 
Coconnta lowered from tree by 
means ofcaneorrope (see "Lower," 
«.(.), Aen-j/on. 

— leaf-stem, lamoah-oydM. 

— ochrea, henhdl-oyau. 

— fruit-stem, chaiyuh-oyau. 

— hnsk, of ripe nut, kenlint ; of un- 
ripe not, koto. 

— shell, entire (as naed for holding 
water), hidhoya. 

— shell-full, kishoya .... ual. 

— shell (half, for use as cnp, iic.), 
enfd ; taiydk. 

(half, for baling canoe), iane- 


piece of, endain-tat. 

(immature), -m-Uak-nindM. 

— kernel, of ripe nut, enyiil; of un- 
ripe nut, henchain ; of sprouting 
nut, Mak. 

— rind of kernel, kafat-yuang-ot/d-a, 

— kopra (i.e., the dried kernel), 

— paste, ngodt-ta-koin-ha. 

— — mixed with Pandanus paste, 

— water, of ripe nut, ddk-ngodt; of 
half-ripe nnt, ddk-nindu. 

— oil, expressed by hand from rasped 
kernel, mfflyat(j') ; prepared by boil- 
ing the paste, ngaiQ) ; ngai(ch). 

— rasper, consisting of the prickly 
stem-sheath of the ground rattan 
(Calamus, sp.}, ken- ehech; kan-shait. 

— acraper (Cyrena shell), ok- 

Coconut scraper (iron), kenMsh. 

— (ripe, husked), yiUntg-oy&u-hetsJidi. 

— (ripe,nnhu8ked),yuang-oyAu-Aoio&. 

— (unripe, husked), nindu~ketshdt. 

— (unripe, nnhusked), ninati-hokok, 

— (ripe, shell of), 
— ^ (unripe, shell of), kanldnga. 

— tree, tabued, oyau-henhwdva. 

— beetle (Xylotrapeg Gideon), rnet- 

— robber-crab (Birgus lairo), kdn • 
kedn ; ong-foaitg. 

Cog-wheel, kanap-henlaiii. 
Cohabit, yoe. 

Coil of rope, Ac., tellwa; oshuaA. 
Coiled wire, German silver, hetl&t-ta- 

Bilver, hetlSt-ta-ghiwa-ta^hud-ka-. 

Coin, copper, raid ; paisa ; sdnta-maria. 

— silver (dollar), ■pwrd ; bard ; 
(mpee), rwpio. 

(8-anna piece), det-malau. 

. (4-aDna piece), oalmdt-icM. 

(2-aniia piece), AMAa-fefio; fct's- 

Coix Tackryma (Job's tears), fee&^. 
Cold (absence of heat), kee. 

I am cold to-day, linhen cha kee. 

— (of any substance), pachau ; 

Colder, 'penchav/wa; shinkodnga. 
Coldvat, peachauwa-ka-; ahinhodnga-ka' . 
The water ia very cold, ddk sha' 
hoang-ka,' . 

— (catarrh), hatdna; tOTmya. 
Colic, ye-ngayan. 
Collar-bone, idoya. 

Collect (p.t.), keangta-menmdl. 

— (v.t.), coconuts, rubbish, &e., 

— shells, seeds, Ac, opchdp-hata. 
Gollocalia lincki (common swiftlet), 


— ^odiopygia, (builder of edible nest), 

Colour, penyuha. 

I doirt like that colour, chit iho 
penyuha ta-ane. 
Coloured (in constr.), nga~mat ; e.g., 

black (coloured), al-ngamcU. 




Coloured (of various colonrs), Ibpta- 

penyuha (see " Sort"). 
Comb (v.t.), hdta-kdi ; et-koat. 

— (s.), kan&at-koi. 

From whom did you buy that comb P 
ane kanHaf-kii halau nten lbngto-% 
tea chi ? 

— hEick-bair-, shain6t-ko4. 

— (creat of acock), fcojw-ota. 

— honey- (see " Honey "). 
Come, ddk-ta. 

Is be coming? ddk kd an? 

— northwards, ateo come into hut, 

— westwards, aho come down out of 
but, kai-shire. 

— southwarda, 'vrhen both parties 
are indoors or out of doors, kai- 

— eastwards, when both are indoors 
or out of doors, kai-hare. 

— towards the landing-place, kai- 

— from any direction, hai'tare. 

— forward, gJumg-tare. 

Both of yon oome to my place at 
noon to-morrow, haki kdniheng 
chuk chdng-ckUa ind ddk. 

Why have you come from Car 
Kicobar (i.e., southwards), chdwe 
tnen kai-ngare langto PH. 

Come here (to one person), kai-tare 
en men; (to two peraoDs), kai- 
tare en ind; (to more persons), 
kai-tare en i/i. 

Come hither, kai-tare ten enh. 

Come a little nearer (northwards) 
when person addressed is out of 
doors, keoid-lare. 

Come a little nearer (westwards) 
when [lorson addressed is indoors, 

Come a little nesirer (southwards) 
when both are either indoors or 
out of doors, kedid-n^are. 

Come a little nearer (eastwards) 
when both are either indoors or 
outside, kedid'hare. 

Come ft little nearer (towards land- 
ing place), kebid-nire. 

Come a little nearer (in any direc- 
tion) when both are either indoors 
or outside, keoid-tare. 
Come along, kd-shihi; ahlal. 
Come along with me, k&ahiht men 
yiang en chiia (or ihlaX en men 
yiang en chUa). 
Comet, shbk-m^decha-ta-kinnoko-det. 
Comfortable, chuyd~yan. 
Command («. and c), hoUdl-nga. 
Commence, oreha {gee also " Begin "). 
Commodious, wr^hatshe-ckuk. 
Common (not rafe), Ibpta-ckvk ; Ibpta-' 

— (public), hanta-leang. 
Comp&moa, yiang-tare ; yolde. 

Both my companions are myyonnger 
brothers, dire ta yolde tda chila. 
Company, In («ee "Together"). 

— with. In (see " With "). 
Compare, hatoan-haia. 
Compensate for damjige done, hen-ol- 

Compete (race), on land, kashole- 

lan&ya ; on or in the water, hashol ; 

Competent (see "Able "). 
Complain, heiik-ne. 
Complete (perfect), tang-ngathe. 

— (entire), of a set, lodt-tare; of n 
bnnch of fruit, haang-tom. 

— (tj.) ledt-hata. 

Completed (constrncted), ledt-tola. 
Completely (wholly), ngoag-tai (eee 

Ex. at "Able"). 
Comprehend, akdh. 
Comrade, yiang -tare. 
Conceal, hwm&t-hanga. 
Conceive (become pregnant), Ibk. 
Conceited, poho-yuma-she ; i-ngokdn- 

Concerning, i(Je (see ^'ai. at "Aniions"). 
Concertina, ten~ka,ng ; da-ndng. 
Conch, king-, oi-ilaila. 

— queen- (Cassis fuberoed),ok-tangldh. 
Condole, ong-yiang-ta-t3 ; ong-ylang- 

Condnl (small inhabited island noai 

Great Nioobar), Ld-mbngshe. 
Confess, ingAh-ne-shi. 




Confined (of a woman with child), 

Coaflagration, ho-shtedh. 
Coafnaion (disorder), hat-lt^-ngaehe. 
Congratulate, enshian-hata. 
Congregate (v.i.), keangta-mBitmol. 
Consent (tt.i.), Jtomdnya; kaiydh-nga- 

Consequently (accordingly), man. 
Consider (tMnk), vi6ta-t6re. 
Constantly (over and over again), dal- 

Constipation, ydn. 
Construct, momi. 
Consumption (lang-disease), chwm- 

Contagious, td-ta-tai. 

Small-pox is contagions, mtdi ia td- 

Contented (satisfied), ahin-y6^ai6. 
Contents, &n}ia-oal. 

— ofacheBt,moft*j)(epa(«ee"Wliole"). 

— of a Bpathe box, tamaf&la. 
Continue (persevere), yuh-}Mta. 
Continue it! (goon with it !), ywAte-eft, 
Contradict, ked'6hnga-nge. 
Converse (v.i.), loko-y6lange. 
Convey in a canoe, ok-yuak-an-diie. 

— overland in northerly direction, 
ido-hala (see " Carry "), 

southerly direction, ido-hanga. 

— — easterly direction, ido-kahat, 

westerly direction, ido^haehe. 

any direction, ido-hata. 

towards landing-place, ido- 

Convict (prisoner), I6m. 

A. convict's hui, chang lorn St. 
Convulsion (spaam), arodt. 
Cook («.), 'mong-sh.dng'lo. 

— (v.t.) (rice, meal, vegetables), ong- 

— (v.t.') (meat or fish), ong-dng. 
Cook some rice at once, paitshe aroe 

heang-tkiduna ongehd/ng. 
Cooked, uhlan-hata. 

— half-, anhdno. 

Cooking-pot, Aan-sAot. (For the terms 
denoting the various sizes, tee 
"Pot" and App. H", item 101). 

Cooking-pot of bark aa made and need 
by the inland tribe, tiag; deak. 

Cool, pachav,. 

Coop, ben-, ong-yiaTtga(-kamde) (App. 
N, item 98). 

Copper, riiid. 

— coin, riiid; paisa; idnta-marta. 
Copra (dried coconab kernel), ngodt- 

Copy (v.), hom-yHi-nga-shi. 
Coral, coloured- (Madrepord), ehi- 

yudng ; sha-yud>ig ; yaang-mangnge. 

— lime, tfiun. 

— reef, chdkd-ngdh ; yuala. 

— reef-forming, ma/ngnge-tok ; mang- 

Cord, pan/He. 
Cork (s.), kennyan. 

— (v.), ka-nyan-hata (or -hashe). 
Com, Indian, korondta. 

Com on foot, kenshdn. 
Corner of room, Bhin,kaiiie. 

— of table, ong-ngeang. 

— of .box (outside), ottg-ngeang- la- 

(inside), ong-ngeang-la-oal. 

— of the eye, »hlak-oalmdt. 

— of the month, et-kait-nga-/d»g. 
Corpse, kania-pdh, kamait-pah; pama- 


— lay out a, henldm-hartga ; ild-hare. 
Corpulent, karu-fdp. 

Correct (accurate), tang-laehe ; eh- 

Corrode, 'ket-ai(isk)-o. 
Corrupt (v.i.), haiyot. 
Cost (v. and «.), yai; iiota. 

That coat 400 coconuts, hiang- 
momchio/ma y-uang-oyda yai ane. 
Costive, ydn. 

Costly (valuable), miyaiya. 
Cotton (the raw material), ilosha. 

— -cloth (Me "Cloth"). 
Couch, kdtere-ol-ldl. 
CoDgh (a.), o-odh. 

A bad (lasting) cough, tu-hohoka. 

— (v.), a-oah-kala. 

Connt (v.), hard-hattga ; liado-hanga. 
Counterfeit, kakoana-oal. 
Conntry, mattai. 




Conntiyman, ehom-maUai. 

Is he a conntpyman of youra P shmn- 
mattai men kd arte an ? 
Oonple, of aniiualB or birds, di-i^(mg. 

— of ioanimate objects, heang-tqfual 
(with either tdk, danbi, ken, chamang, 
Ac. (see App, C) . 

— married, dnre-na-hamdnshe. 
Court (woo), chuk-chakd-de. 
Goasin, male, kaiyuwd-enkbina ; Tta- 


— female, kaiyuwd-enkdna ; kamoan- 
shi-y dl-enkdna. 

Couvade (paternal lying-in), otS. 
Cover («.), of a pot, anopshe-koi. 

— of a bnndle, cloth or paper, lanUa; 
leaf, kendiip. 

— of a book, ok-lebare. 

— (shade) of lamp or lantern, ken- 

— table-, dandp-koi-mengha. 

— (f.), a pot, kenymi-nga-kSi. 

— a bundle with cloth, paper, or 
leaves, olHa-haTtga. 

— the head, loewa-koire. 

— the shoalders, lop-hata. 

— a beached canoe, duang-hata. 
CovefconB, mok-ddk-aya/n. 

Cow, kapo-enkd/na. 
Coward, pama-hSa ; paJioa-paiyuh. 
Cower, konp-ngare. 
Cowry, ok-puka. 

Crab (a large species, is eaten), kinong ; 

— (a small species, is eaten), tafwian. 

— land- (is eaten), ttiertldn. 

— hermit- (not eaten), komedl. 

— coconnt - robber- (Birgtit latrd) 
(eaten by some), kan; kedn; ong- 

Crab-hole, of large crabs, kan-hoha; 

— of small cratm, keehiha. 

Crack in canoe, pot, glass, &o., yiuia. 
Crackle of bnming brushwood, &c.. 

Crackling of pork, ok-not-ta-pait. 
Cradle, en-kona. 

Cramp (mnscnlar oon traction), enmam. 
Crane (pond-heron), luhd. 

Cranium, ong-eng-koi. 
Crave (long for), keehih-yanlo. 
Crawl (as an infant), ifddtiha ; hen- 
tndna (see " Baby "). 

— (as a cripple), ketot-de. 
CiAjSeh, inokkdk ; imlhdl. 
Craay, tafbng-yant6 ; tach&ak-yanto. 
Creak (of a hinge, &c.), tanat ; anat. 
Crease, kete-mat. 

Create, momi-hanga. 

Creator, Deuee'^ Meniana; Kdhe. 

Creek, ddk-ta-diiana. 

Creep (as a snake, &o.), kenshont- 

Crescent, shiri-kanedl. 
Crevice, ken-hoaii-ha. 
Crimson, dk-ngamat. 
Cripple, sAiiam ; ong-chuang. 
Ci-oak (as a frog), nge-hankdng. 
Crocodile ((7. hi-porcatus), yeo. 
Crooked, kedal; kedal ; keral ; keronat. ■ 
Cross (pass in opposite directions), 


— (cross-wise), ha-tainya-paiydk. 

— (ill-tempered), kShiS. 
Cross-bo vf, fbin. 

— the stock, ckia-fbin. 

— the bow, ddna-fbin. 
Cross-legged (with one koee over the 

other), shaiean-ngaire. 

— (with the knees apart), Uri ; lae. 
Crow (as a cock), kdke-'6k ; pak-pakdk. 
Crowd, momtdma. 

Crnel, han'chbk-ngayan. 

Crumb, tong-nga-shi. 

Crush with the hands, kendiiich-lianga; 

with the foot, entan-hala (or 

Crusher, betel • nut-, lanioh- hiyd ; 

Crust of cake, loaf, &e., ok. 
Cry, through pain or grief, chim-nire; 


— through fear, par-e(J')-haia ; also 

C ockoo, I ndian- ( Eudy rianiys urienlalw) , 

— dove (JHiwwopyjMi rufipennii), ok- 

Cucumber (C eativua), lenwn. 

.y Google 



Cnff (box on the ear), oph. 

— of a sleeve, ok-loaka-hodl-kanyut. 
Cnltivate (til)), wi-yam. 
C-anewnaleucogaster (wlufe-bellied sea- 
eagle), kaldng. 

Canning, shiale-enkdha. 
Cap, of crockery, mong-ko. 

— half a cocoQnt shell, enfd; taiydk 
(App. N", item 38). 

Gnr&ble, d&h-enhngaahe. 
Cure (heal) (t>.(.), alde-heHt- 

■tai; beat' 
, menZuona 

The Bhaman cnred k 

aldeheat-tai ten ehiia. 
Curl (as hair, Ac), luin-yhk. 
Curlew, kachudnla. 
Cnrrent of water, wud-ddk. 

— of air, hoih-hat. 
Ctiny, koko-lai. 
Curtain, raosqnito-, kenhoa. 
Curved, don. 

Cnshion, enddpa. 
Custom (usage), tandih. 

It is nob oar eastern, hat tandnh 
Castomary, leatKhi-tandnk. 
Gut (make an incisiou), doh-hal. 

— a slice (of meat), et-hdiit-hata. 

(of v^etables), thinoat-hanga. 

(of any food), (mg-tOang-hanga. 

— with scissors, kawdp-hata. 

— with dhd, or knife, o-ta/ih-hata ; 
upwards, taik-hala ; downwards, 
taih-haihe; in any direction, taik- 
hata (or -hanga). 

— with an axe, ong^dbng-hata. 

Cat one's self, taih-tare. 

— a stick, bamboo, &c., ong-fang ; 

— throat of fowl or other bird, «At»- 

— open month of fowl (Nicobar 
method of drawing blood for anoint- 
ing their fetich objects, &c.}, ok- 

have cut my fiuger, taiktare kanetai 

— off a piece of cloth, string, Ac., 

a branch, ion., taih-hata ; fdahe. 

the top of an unripe coconut 

for drinking, ifaitk-haine. 
prickly crown oiTandaauB drape 

preparatory to extracting the pulp, 


— ap a pig, fowl, Ac, ong-tdang-Juita ; 

firewood, oai-kdAl-hanga. 

vegetables, en-ahin-haiiga. 

— into pieces, et-het-havne. 
Cutlass, irwat-ek^ {see " Double- 
edged "). 

Cat water, chakd-koila. 
Cat tie -fish, tandk-mat. 
Cyeae Bumphii, te-tvila. 

— paste (as made from the fruit of 
the G. Rwmphii), homlem. 

Cylindrical, rwanga. 

Cyprcea shell, ok-puka (App. N, item 

Cyrena shell, ol\~hangai (App. N, item 


Da^er, shm-iat. 
Daily, heng-heng. 
Dainty, (adj.), mitoha- ta - hokagoh- 

— (*.), kwihbk-lare. 

Damage (u.), hakah-hanga-sM. 

Dammar, kblrdk. 

Damp (of clothing), cfirt-tJrio; cha-du. 

Damsel, holiaii. 

Dance («.), ken-toka. 

Dance any kind of, kamentoka, 

— (c), ka-tSka. 

Dancer (of either ses), kama-tSka, 

d"b°™» }'"«"''*-»"''»• 

Dare, daring, haf-pahSa-pare. 
Dark (overcast), keS. 
Dark, darkness, tuokul. 

Darker, ienchula. 

Darkest (very dark), tenchula-ka- . 




Dart (of a snake when attaoking) (v.), 

Saeh (v.), tetifdi-hanga. 
Da.ah (v.), one's face with vermilion, 

— one's body with pig's blood, &c. 

Danghter, komt (-enkdna). 

— -in-law, kdn'hoan. 
Dawn, pu/yii. 

— shortly before, enhlor-puyu. 
Day (siinrise to snnBet), heiig. 
when employed with niime- 

ral, ihiti-kd/m.. 

— of 24honrs, lit. one night (and) one 
day {heang~')dd/m ; Qieang-)Ehvnk&m 
see Ex. at " How many more "). 

Daybreak, puyii. 

\^ht,chTmgai(ch)-oal-heng; teh-oal. 

time (by day), hm-heng ; he-heng. 

To-day, Un-heii. 

— (paat portion), bng. 

— (remaining portion), wm-fca", 
Days ago, ha/iiga^Bhinkdm. 

— hence, tdt ; tare-ekinkdin. 
Day before yetfterday, ong-vidJmga. 

— after to-morrow, g}iaiyuh-ldng. 
All day, yol-heng (see " Hoarse ") . 
At what time r by day or night ? 

(lit., by day what ? by night 
what P) he ehua J" M-heng ha 
hatom ha? 
The day before that, oreh-ahahd heng 

Two days before that, orBh-ehahd 

ong-wdhnga ane. 
Three days before that, orek-ckakd 

tmg-ldnga ane. 
Fonr days before that, orek-chahd 

jva/n-hanga-TaTnr-yan nne. 
Five days before that, oreh-chakd. 

tanai-hanga-ram-yan ane. 
One day after that, bng-ngayan heng 

Two days after that, ovg-wahngayan 

Three days after that, ong-ldaigayan 

Fonr days after that, ong-la-foan- 
hanga-ram-i/ati ane. 

Dazzle, dain'hoilie. 

Dead, ledt-hdjpdh; le&t-ngafdh ; leat- 

Deaf, kat-mongydnga. 
Deal (trade), inih-h-ata. 
Dear, high in price, tot ; iota ; met-tSta. 

— esteemed, beloved, heye. 

It is very dear, one ldta-ka\ 
Dearth (scarcity), enh-7i^aah&. 
Death, hdpdh. 

feaat (see "Feast"). 

Debt, ri-tare-ghe. 
Debtor, oal-hdi. 

— who pats off payment, haii-tbng- 

Decamp, kashd-ngare. 
Decapitate, o-kdnl-riga-onglonga. 
Decay (of vegetation), yo-ybhnga ; 

Deceitful, hat-akaihyanto. 
Deceive, hai-yHi-nga-ndng. 
December-Janiiary, the Innation in, 

Decent, halep-i-yande. 

Deck of ship, npper, oal-chong ; lower, 

Decline (refnae), kdeah-hajiga. 
Decompose (torn sonr, of toddy Pan~ 
dantte or Cycas paste), haiyol. 

— (become tainted, of meat), yo- 
yohnga.; ybh-pan-Oi; 

Decorate a canoe, owi-layan-due. 

— a hut at festivals, hai-wiat. 

— the head-posts of a gi-ave, hapbh- 

— a " kareau " (fetich), ^m-ioreaw. 
Decoy («.), hai-yui-ghe. 

— («.), hen-yui-she. 
DeOTeaae (p.), pait-wihtaehe. 
Decrepit, hM-diahd. 
Deduct, oyua-hata. 

Deep, of sea or well, homSaUahire. 

— of sea, chiydu ; loak-haghe. 

— of well, chiyau-aal. 
Deepen, ok-ehdk-hashe. 
Defend, ong-yong-hala. 
Deficient, pai(ch)-hanga-she ; ytidh. 
Defile («.), kommak-ngashe. 
Deformed (see " Hnmpback "). 
Defy, tomiAila-ngayan. 




Delay, met-pHa-lashe. 

Delicate, dd(ic)-nya\/an; hat-kodrtg-i/an. 

Delicious, shiang. 

Delighted, hdkok. 

DelirioDBi loko'ch&chya. 

Delnge, t/uk. 

Uemaad (v.), yanid. 

Demon (evil spirit) , iwl-pbt ; iwi- 

piiain ; iioi-mUoya (and other iwi). - 
Dense (of nndergrowth), mchon-fo- 

urahatthe ; tuchal. 
Deny, han-ah-nge. 
Depart, kaiylnga. 

— (leave), owing to a quarrel, pmig- 

Deposit (v.), kom-ye-hanga. 

Depth (of sea or well), vui-lu^-dula. 

Descend a hill, o-she. 

— a tree, chlat-tke. 

— a ladder or stairs, chuak-the. 
Descendants, in-nal; innat-nga-thl. 
Describe, ha-ngiang ; eoha; oUdt-nga' 

shl ! ol-fai-ngar'rtd'ng; ingah-ne-n&ng . 
Description (sort), mandtai penyuha. 
Desert one's ivife, oyd-kanga-ta^kdn-de. 

husband, oyd-hanga-ta-koin-de. 

Deserted by his wife, momal-long- 



Design (pattern), danHna. 
Desire (inclination), en-kdha-to. 
Despise, ilo-yantS. 
Destitute, lorn; poap. 
Destroy, by fire, Itaroka ; tbim-eho. 

— hy cutting down, ong-f&ng-haahe. 
Detach (nnfaeten), iydh-liaine. 
Detest, hat-sho-kcf. 

Devour (of an animal), Jidm-hdm, 

Dew, ddk'ghuang. 

Dexterous, paiyuh-ta-leap. 

Diarrhoea, poit. 

Die, kapdh ; kdpdh ; fdh ; ngafdh ; 

He died yesterday evening, mtnyai 
ladiaya an ngafdh. 

— about to, kompdk-ngare ; yo-kdpdh. 
Die suddenly, ileh-lbng. 

DifEer, hat-shlri. 

This differs from that, nee hat'shiri 
ta-lbnglo tq ane. 

Different, dS-nga»he ; dok-ngatJie ; 

kedoh-nga; hat-heang-ashe. 
Difficult, keh-ngayan; ndt-agayaia. 
Dig, kaichuat-fuMhe. 
Dig up, kaichuai-hala. 
Digest, dh-ngayan. 
Dim (obscure), hai-chungai(ok). 
Diminish (v.), pait-wthtathe. 
Dimple, pomyum-laTe. 
Dinghi (Burmese or Siamese dag- out) 

Dinner, Jwkngok'ta-hatbm, 
Diotcorea alata, ko-peng. 
Dip {v.t.} kalbk-haghe. 

— (when bathing) (ti.t.)- hanp. 
Direct (straight) northwBrda, ie-Ja«. 
southwards, le-ngare. 

eastwards, le-hare. 

westwards, le-shire. 

to landing-place, le-flwe. 

to any particular spot in any 

quarter, U-tare. 
Direction, in this, bid-tare. 

— in that,(idA-fiM"e. 

— in which (interrog.\chin iaiyi (see 
" Way "). 

Directly (immediately), heang-shidHna. 
Dirt, yii ; yii'mat. 

Brush wie dirt off yonr coat, fdh- 

ngamat an kanyut m,en ta yv.-mat. 

Dirty, yuk; yuh-mat; du-jnat; pal- 


Disappear (of setting ann, moon, 4c.), 
shup-Tiga ; shiip-ahe. 

— (in any other sense), yam-nga ; 
yamuehe ; yuit-nga. 

Disappointed, da-lato. 
Disarm, opydpa." 
Disbelieve, hat-ldh-iore. 
Discharge an arrow, oyd-hanga. 

— (unload) cargo, o-kwdk-havga. 
"D'mcoutented, hal-ehain-ha-chakd ; hat- 

Discontinue, yd-lare ; doania. 
Discover (see ■' Find "). 
Disease, tu. 

— ling-, ckum-faka. 

Disembark, fen-c^uo^-f^tre; chvak-hat. 




Disentangle, olc-ydk-hanga. 
DisgaiRe (v.), kamle. 
Disgusted, ndt-ngalo. 
Dieh, yitianh-hiUe. 
DiBhevelled, poydka-shi-ydk. 
DiBlionest, hat-aJcaih-yanid. 
Diainter, ohai'hala. 
Dislike (r.), hat-eko. 
Dismomitr, ehttah-nga. 

Disobliging, hat-ehuybng-yanto. 
Disorder, (a.), hat-le^-ngashe. 
Disperse (v.f.), Tiaiyan-haaga. 

— (vA.), t4ta-tdre ; nga-leok-ngare. 
Displeased, Zdt-ngatd. 

Dispnte («. and v.), han-ySwe. 
Dissatisfied, haUshinyo-ngatS. 
Dissimilar, hat-heangashe. 
Dissolve {v.t.), ok-yuak-hala. 

— {"-t), yHU-nga. 
Diaauade, kdeah-nga-aki. 
Distant, hHi. 

Distinct (difierent), hat'heangathe ; 

— (well-defined), ddk-mat. 
Disbibntefood, AaJop-fta«^; hinchau.* 

— cloth, haroma. 
Distils tfal, hirua-hitghe. 
Disturb (agitate), homfang. 

— (interrupt), ha-ehd(k)-nga-iki. 
Ditch, hank-ddk. 

Dive head foremost, t&i-hbnp-skire. 

— feet foremost, by dropping from 
canoe, Ac, ten-fbng- shire. 

by jumping from canoe, &o., 

Divide food, hard-hata ; karen-hata. 

— cloth, fanbk-ka. 

Divorced hnsband {lee " Hoaband 

— wife (see "Wife (deserted)"). 
Dizzy, wii-chakd. 

Do, toi-havga. 

— any noisy work, wat'fai. 

Don't do so (don't make sacb a 
noise), wht vien wat-ehl wai-tai. 

What are yon doing now ? ohHan 
yuang-de-ngayan wl men f 

Doctor ("medicine-man" 

shaman), menluana. 
Dog, dfn. 

A dog of a certain village, enmdma 

Ten dogs of the same village, shbni 
noang dm. 

Ten or more dogs of ten difEerent 
vUIages, shorn noang en/mdma dm. 
Dollar, pariJ; bard. 
Dome-roof hut, ni-kolpiil. 
Domesticated (of any animal), chila- 

chakd ; lon-ehito. 
Done (finished), ledi. 
Don't, uwt, abbrev. for vn-hat (sea 


Don't make a noise, wot men Ua»g' 

Door (of honse), tamdng- chakd- fodng. 
Door-way (lit. facorhnt), chakd-nl. 

— fronts landing of, enkbinla. 

— eide-landing of, keniSna,, 

— -screen, tandng-ni. 

Dorsal fin, kdshH-kda (see " Fin "). 
Double, dn-m«kdn-ha. 

— -edged, ahep (see "Cutlass"). 
Doubtful (uncertain), hat-dSktashe. 
Doubtless, an-ka'-jia. 

Dove, bronze- winged- (Ohalcopha^t 
indicvs), tomoa. 

— cackoo- (MacTopygian^ennis),ok' 

Down (below, on the ground, down 
there), Tigaiche; ngd-uhe ; oyii-hare. 

— (from a higher position), yang- 
shire; kebid-ehiTC. . 

— -hill, tenddhrshire ; tenddh-tare. , 

— -atairs, chtdnga. 

Go downstairs, oshe mei ckianga. 

wards, taldafi-she. 

■ (in construe), she; shire (as 

suffixes, see "Descend," "Down," 

Dowry (see " Settlements "). 
Doze, fachUt-yaa ; shom-kbnk-havga. 
Drag, hdnchvhh-haine ; tvak-haine. 
Dragon-fly, mido-ddk. 
Drain (v.), wl-kaiyi-ddk. 

— (s.), iaiyi-ddk. 

Draught (currentofair), hdih-hati hosh. 



Draw (drag), hdnch^oh-haine, 

— (take tint), it6sh-hala;ok-luak-hala. 

— towards one's self (northwards), 
heoich-hala ; ketol-hala. 

(aouthwardB), hebie^- 

hanga; Icetot-hanga. 
(eastwards), kebick-ha- 

hat; ketot-hahat. 
(westwards), iebich- 

hashe; ketdt-hofhe. 
• (towards landing-place), 

keoieh-hame ; ketdt-hame. 
(*iir direction), kebich- 

hata; ketot-hata. 

— (sketch), et-hata; M-et-ha; horn- 

— breath, eyani-lare. 

— a deep breath, 'he-nyudk-la^. 

— -w&ber, fuk-ddk. 

— toddy, yat-hata. 

Drawer of box, desk, &c., yUad. 
Drawing (sketch), hen-yui-nga^'hu 
Dread (s. and v.),fahSa. 
Dream (».)■ enfva. 

— (v.), enfua-chakd. 
Dregs, pat-chalcd ; kde-dit. 
Drenched (as with rain), di-shire-ta- 

oml; karu-het-yan (see " Whole "). 
DreBB (put on clothes), vHa-lQere. 

— (gown), loe'^ikdna. 
Drift (ii.), seawards, lung-n^a; lung- 


■ towards land (of small objects), 

Drift-wood, Tarwi-ag. 
Drink (».)> 't?'"' 

What drink wonld jou like ? ^in 
topa men y6 ? 
Th-ink (v.), iop-hata ; pem-hata; optop- 

• — anything while being poured ont 

from a vessel, haraka. 
Drip (ii.)i». 
Dripping (*.), hapdh; pen-tan ; hong- 

Drive (force along), harian-hata. 
Drive away, haiyiuin-tiga-ldk. 
— in nail, screw, Ac, owl-hahat. 
Drizzle, chain ; cken. 
Droop (of a plant), chalenya, 

Drop («.), cheh. 

— (v.t.). halaih-tai ; potnfuk-she. 

— (f.*.), patdk-ehu ; pomtdk-»he (see 
" Fall "). 

— anchor, omehdmnga-ehinpoya ; ka- 
w d Inga- ehinpoya. . 

Drown (y.t.), henpok-hashe. 

— (p.».), poak-nga. 
Drowsy, tiedkla. 

— from drink or fatigne, kimai-yan. 
Dmnk, huybie. 

Ton are very dmnk, raen huybie-ka\ 
Drankaxd, tan-mop; dn-mem; po- 

m&m ; hen-yoiya ; ma-huybie. 
Drape of Pandanua, as gathered, 

noang-la/rom ; after extraction of 

the palp, omdom-lat ; inahHan-tat. 
Dry (of grass, leaves, thatch, Ac), 

chidk ; chiak-nga ; ywdp-nga. 

— (of planking, waHs, canoe, Ac.), 

— (of firewood), ishian. 

— (of cloth, clothing, &c.), Jieoih ; 

— (withered, of leaves, flowers, Ac), 

— by exposure to snn(«.),Aa-Aeny-Aafa: 
to fire («.), hdtt-tuh-hata ; 


to wind (p.), hdn-keaah-haia; 


— by wiping (v.), tat-hanga. 
Dnck, wet. 

— (teal), tangldh. 
Duo (owing), tare-ake. 
Dngong {Salicore indicua), hibui. 
Dull (cheerless), tit>ckiia-yan; fu-cAtio- 

Dnmb, hat-leap-olyola.' 
Dung, aink; ain(ch). 
Durable, tan-ngayaa. 
During (during the time that), heng- 

— (in the course of), ta-mat. 

The old man died dnring last month, 
tamat kdhe ong-enk pomoithe ledt 

Unsk, puyue (see App. D). 

Tyast, penkeata ; penyoaka ; peiitopa. 

Dusty, potop-mat. 

.y Google 


Dutiful, modal. 

Dwell, kdtii. 

Dwelling, ni. 

Dye (i>.) (aa cloth and fiab-linea i 

mangrove-bark w&ter), lomtA-haahe 
(or -hanga) ; pomshiun-hashs (see 
Dyseuteiy, ishau-ne-wd. 

Each, hi-heang. 

Eiiger, T»i(^auia'«^e, 

E^gle, white- bellied sear- (Ouncuma 

Zeuco^iiste)-), kal&ng. 
Ear, nifn^. 

— -ache, chbk-oal-ndng. 

ring (of coiled wire), Tteneh&p-vdng. 

(pft on), Itacha'pa-nang. 

— -stick (as worn in ear-lobe), iche. 

— -wai, hala-naiya-oal-ndng. 

— orifice of, kehoak-oal-ndng, 

— lobe of, kenlauwa-ndng. 

■ — ■ (hollow behind), det-ndng. 

Early morning, oa^Aa{:t,■ bl-haki. 

— to-day, Unheii-dl-haki ; bng-bl-kaki. 

— to-morrow, haki-bl-hahi. 
Earn, kenyudh-haia. 

Earth, (the world), ma-tlai-omtom,. 

— (soil), du.. 

Earthquake, hong-limga; komam-toa. 

Earthworm, latni-chilta. 

Ease, (take one's ease), edua; diia- 

Easy, (to make or do),chvifdyan-v)ia; 

ydhnga- yan^wia . 
East, Ttgakae; ta-ngdhae. 
ww^, ddh-hare; bid-hare (App. 


— wind, fal, (App. E), 

Eat (of any kind of food), ok-»gS&.* 

— (of nteat only), puah-lare; ham- 

— (of vegetables, rice, (tc.),Mm-Zare; 

I am eating only some pandanns 
bread to-day, linhen ehiia hanla 
pai(ck)-hat okngdk laront. 
Eatable, d6h-na-ng6ka. 
Eating-time (from 7 to 8 P.M.), hei- 

Eaves, kdchu-m. 

Eavea-drop (c), opyc^hmga-ngS, 

Eaves-dropper, opt/aja.paiyiih. 

Ebb (of the tide) \v.), lomnytwa- 

Ebb-tide, toa; ehSh (see App. F) ; also 

ten' nyuoor na-kamale. 
Ebony, tenkdu. 
Echo (a. and u.), pdioa-nge. 
Eclipse of sun or moon (total), puaJW- 

diehire - ta - iwi ; (partial), piiaha- 

Eddy, henvilya. 
Edge of Ahk, chakd-kidutna, 

— of paddle, keam-pdwah. 
Edible, doh^na-ngoka. 

— bird's-nest, hikai. 
Eel, salt-water-, lHan. 

— fresh-water, luam. 

Efface (rub out), pomyui(chyhanga ; 

Egg, huya. 

— albumen of, m&A.lmya. 

— white of, (boiled), lienchain-hTiya. 

— yolk of, Idharoma-huyd. 

— addled-, Kuyd-wdha. 

— -shell, ok-hMyd. 
Eight, enfoan; foan-tafual. 

— anna-piece, det-malau. 

— only, menfoan. 

— fathoms, enfdanno. 
only, meafoanno. 

— o'clock, A.M. (about), km-hwi-doaha- 
ka' ; P.M. (abont), heA-mohngok-ka- . 

Eighteen, sAoTn-en/dan ; hetktg-hata- 

Eighty, foan-iTtai. 
Eight hundred, An-momchiama. 

— thousand, hBang-inai-momckiaina. 
Either (ad)', or jjron.), tdha-mat-de. 

Take either of them, okai tdJia-mat- 




iEither (cory .) .... or, homddh .... 


I want either thia or fcliat spear, ekiia 
homdoh y6 nee shanen hoTndoh aae. 
Elbow, det-nngkeang . 

— bend of the, chi-hodl. 
Elder, ennyula. 

— brother, ch&u (^-enkbina) (see 
" Brother "). 

— sister, choM (■enkdna)(fee " Siatar"). 
Elderly, yS-potnbithe. 

Eldest, ennyula-ka' ; dafdl. 

— child, koartrdafdl ; koan-enny^la. 
Elephant, lifdnta (from the English. 

Elephantiasis, putodng. 
Eleven, shbm^Maftg ; ianai-tafuaU 


— o'clock A.M. (about), e«hla-kdm- 
heng; p.m. (abont), enhshe-yUang- 

Else, diawa. 

What else P ch'&an diawa ? 
■ — (otherwise), Aan-ii« ; kan-aA. 

Be off, or else I will beat you, 
kokngare hdnan ori wen meA. 
Elflewhore, ekui-diawa. 
Emaciate (v.i.), hebnp-nga. 
Emaciated, kwonp-ngashe. 
Embark (from a boat), fen-ckuah-lare. 

— (from a landing-place), ten-chrtah- 

Embers, om-dk. 

Embrace (seated or standing), fwn- 
hata; om-fUm; fil-hata. 

— (in reonmbent position), ucho ; 

• Emetic, oau-la-danv.n. 
Employ (of a servant), ngSang.* 
Empty (u-f.), ngong-hanga. 

— oomjiletely (v.t.), ngong-ngare-tai. 

— (adj.), ngong. 

— Nearly empty, yS-ngotig. 
Empty-handed, Aa^^an^-«Ai; hai-om- 

Enceinte (pregnant), komhHeh; Jcom- 

End (extremity), mush. 

— of bladed spear, pointed, moah- 
shanen; shaft-, la-dit-haiyAh^hmsn. 

Endearment, for terms of, see " Friend." 

Endeavour (see "Try"), 

Enemy, homoy&ng. 

Engaged at work, yuang-ehUo. 

Engine, henlahi. 

English (adj.'), Amimat. 

— people (also any Europeans), ekom- 

Enjoy, yak-ngato. 

I enjoy paying a visit to Calcutta, 
ckiia ta ydhngato chiia itua 

— food (relish), <yng-ahuniga-fdng ; 

Eularge, hatdp-hata; enion-haine. 

He is enlarging bis hut, hatdp nl an. 
Enormousquantity,Aoi«-ii5(MAe; ghan- 

ngashe ; hodnnga-endohngoBhe. 

— size, hodinga-di. 

Bnongh (sufficient), icoteAe; ledt. 
Haven't I done enough ? leat ka(n') 

chiia f 
Haven't we both done enough P 

leat fca(n) hen ? 
Haven't we all done enough? ledt 

fca(B) he ? 
Quite enough I (no more !) mbtshe- 

chinda ; wht-shinda. 
Good enough, wbi-ahire. 
Enquire, hamd-ehaltd. 
Enrage, haivia-yai-re. 
Enraged, -moiig-hang-ka'. 
Enter, chot-hat. 

Don't enter his hut, iubt men ni an 
men cfwt-hai. 

— B boat from the nhore, Ict»cA««A- 
nire; from a vessel, tew^VfOh^shire. 

Entertainment (dancing, singing, •!tc.)j 

Entire (see "Whole"). 
Entirely (wholly), ngong-tan (sea Ex. 

at "Able"). 
Entrails, pofwdk. 
Entrance (of hut), ehahdrni. 
Entreat, ha-twdn-hata ; ha-ttoaH-nga- 

tdh; ha-shuK-hata. 
Envioos, dah-chakd. 
Epilepsy, tH-arodt. 
Eqnal, h^nga-yan. 
Erase (see "Rub oat"). 




Erect (adj.), hdm; Icdm-chakd. 

— (y.) (o( hut posts), hmpdta-shi. 

— (of village poles), ikdi-kanaiya. 

— (of itiMt), t'iot'-fcdMiima.; (mg-pHang' 

Erroneous, hat-tang-taghe. 

E nictate, kedoe-hala. 

Eraption (rash), heau-dAha. 

Escape (i'.), dian-Tiga. 

Et cetera, haroh-hardk. 

Hiidynamye orientalie (Indian cuckoo 

or koel), kapdk. 
European (at^'.), Amimat. 

— (*■)) yoiiy'^fi-A.'mimat; ^iyuk'ta- 

Evaporate (vA.), chip-she; ehip-nga. 
Even (level), of land or floor, ta-koi 

(see "Flat"). 

' of a plank, fidan. 

Evening' (eborti^ be fore sunset), enhshe- 

ehupheng (see App. D), 

star, palanga'diaya. 

Ever, mdk; mah. 

Have yon ever beea to Calcutta t* 
mah kan men itua Kalkata ? 

For ever, den~»otiha. 
Every, omlom. 
Every-one, bmtom-paiyuh. 
Every day, heng-heng. 

— month, kdhe-kdhe. 
EveTywlieve,di-hanga-ckuk; di-hanga- 

mattai; Vip-ngare; halap-hanga. 
Evil- eyed, lioiiwinya. 
Evil-spirit (see " Demon," " Spirit "), 
Exact (accurate), tang-taeke. 
Exactly, in reference to time, »he 

(suffix to subst.) 

Exactly 3 days, loe ahinkdvi-she, 
Eiactly(no more and no less), yuk-nga/re. 

Exactly 400 coconuts, hSang-mam- 
chiama yuang-oyoM yuh-ngare. 
Exactly ! (just bo !), an-hi\ 
Examine (scrutinise), imd-hanga. 
Excavate (earth), leaidiuat-kala. 

— (scoop wood), oaUkola. 
Except {prep.), harSh-tom-tare. 

All except my fatter have arrived, 
harSk-toTn-tare chta chwi ^(om 

Exchange (o.i.), hdole. 

— places, ha-shSta; kdha-ol; kahl-hdt. 
Excited (Quriied), pishih-oal-dnha. 
Excrement, Uhdit; aink; aiii{ch). ■ ■ 
Excuraion (see " Expedition "), 
^ixcTiae (g. &ad v.), paton-yantS. ■ - 
Exhame, okai-hala. 

Exist (be, have being, occur), kdd~de 
(eee Ex. at "Be"). 

Sorcbm, } «'-f«'»'«- 

Exorcist, Tiherd'Hana. 

Expect (look oat for), AoroA-ta-sfit. 

— (anticipate), hakap-hanga. 
Expectorate, topaih-hmne. 
Expedition (excursion), if by canoe 

and far, dman. 
if by land, or not far by water, 

Expended, ngong. 

Expensive (dear), tot; tola; met-tota. 

— (costly), miyaiya. 
Expert, paiyuh-ta-leap. 

— at any handicraft, la-mlap. 
Expire (die), kapdh; kdpdh; nga/dh; 

Explain, haichang-nga ; haichang-ngo' 

Explode, chairla. 
Explore, harra-TnaUai, 
Export, hanttie-hahat. 
Express coconat oil by sqoeeEing 

rasped kernel in the hands, 

Exterior, mat. 
Extinguish (bf blowing with the 

breath), ifua-hanga. 

— (by quenching), olydl-nga-chakd. 

— (by preesnre or cover), pomnup' 

— (by scattering the embers), et-fat- 

Extinguished (of a torch, &o.)i blown 
out, pomndp; leiit-ifAa-eh ; burnt 
out, ledt-ngiMg. 

— (of a fire), burnt out, leiii-yualnga ; 
quenched, le&t-ydl-e-chaka ; blown 
out, pomnSp. 

Extract, a thorn, splinter, &c., itoeh- 

.y Google 


Extract toddy from coconnt tree, yat- 

— pnlp fn>mPaadanusdra-peB,inshiian. 

— the fine filaments from Pandatuts 
paste, ke'Wat; et-^uaia. 

— oil {see " ExpresB " and " Oil ")■ 
Extravagant (wast«fal), ha/ril-haiiga- 

Extremity (end), mmh. 
Eje, otd-mat; oal-iaat. 

— -ball, cmgj/iiang-oahndt, 

— 'brow, puyoUokntdt. 
skin of the, okmdt. 

EyeAesh, puyol-oalmdl ! ket-fai^ch). 

— -lid, npper, dandp-okmdt. 
lower, hinop-okmdt. 

— -loBa, pakian ; pakiiiaM. 

— -tooth, shindol. 

„ , \ pen-dl-oalmdi. 

— white of, pen-teyeii-oalmdt. 

— comer of, shiak-oahndt. 

— open the, cJidnl-hala. 

— shnt the, inom-hMhe. 

— having only one, Jiemeangla-oahndt, 

Fable (see "Tale"). 
Face, chakd; agSa-ehakd. 

— dirty, ome-hat-ghi-chakd. 

— full-, dwdk-tare-ckakd. 

-:— Bide- (profile), oJe-tkiak-hai-chakd. 

Facet of ear-stick, oabndt-iche. 

Facing (opposite), ka-kai-shcmff-chakd. 

Fade (of flower, Ac), hendun-haine. 

Faded (of leavee, &c.), ehidk. 

F»oea, ishan; aink; aiji(cA). 

Fa^ot, mttloaha. 

Fail (miss, q.v.). 

Faint (swoon), ha-ledt-e. 

Fair (proper), ind(ky-ngaghe ; tang- 

— (of l^ht shade), tai(ch) ; taik. 
Fall (as owing to a pnsh), koiin-i-lah. 

— (as owing to a foot slipping), 

— forwards, tafoighi-ckakd. 

— backwards, kaehd-nga-rit. 

— sideways, koh-ngare. 

— (of a tree, house, &c.), iaJto-shu. 

— overboard («ee " Overboard "). 

— (as ripe fruit), ^fc-«fte. 

— (as fruit when cat from tree), 

— (when drowsy or inehriated), 

— (of an inanimate object leaning 
against wall), la-fat-gho. 

— (of the tide), tomnyttoa-ngare. 
False, 1 
Falsehood, / 

> 7>iiltbi. 

Family, mindt-ngashe. 
Famish, hodh-nga. 
Fan (v.), ifiU. 
Fan («.), Aannot; fanlta. 
Fan one's self, kenfani. 

— a flame, ifui-heoe. 

— aflamewhilesingeingaslanghtered 
pig's bristles, opdiip-hata ; el-jlta. 

Far, hoi. 

Don't go far, wot meA hoi. 
This place is far from Car Nicobar, 
hoi nee mattai ta Pu. 

— less (not so far), pai(cK)-henndiya, 
Farewell (see " Good-bye "), 

— bid, mdngare. 
Farther, hen-twiya. 
Farthest, kerynoiya-ka' . 
Fast (i7.)_, eU{3). 

Fast {adj.), on land, as a nmner, or 
aa fish in water, 16a ; lanoya. 

— in the water, as a ship, canoe, 
swimmer, &c., yot. 

Faster, Fastest (oa land), lennSya; 


(in water), yi»-n<i(a; yinnota-ka'. 

Fasten (bind, tie), to a post, £c., 

poka;* p6k-kata.* 

— (tether) an animal, &o., to post, 
&c., ok-pok-hanga. 

— a cord ronnd an animal's neck, 
ndkd-imglmga'* (see "Lash"). 

— the arms together (pinion), ontfitwt- 
kodl;* tv/makodi. 

— the legs, tu,m,a-l£h j* omtwrnr-ldh.* 




Fasten sticks crosswise, hatain^paiydh. 

— with cane, &o., in reference to 
Bpe&r-head, ehawim. 

in reference to canoe, Idn- 

hata; ndh-hata.* 
Fastenings (cane) of canoe, Idnan-AUe. 
Fat (».), yd. 

— (dripping, lard, &c.), lumg-hedng; 

— {adj ,) , fdpu ; karu-fdp. 
Fat person, famdpo. 

That fat man is his ancle, ane 
famdpo ho-chia an. 
F&Her, fenndpo. 
Pattest, fenndpo.ka'. 
Father, ehia (-etikbina). 

Toot father, chia men kbina. 

— when deceased, 'mdha-eheh-taahe. 

— of many children, menkown. 

— (having one or more children), 
kamdano ; paiyuh-ta-koano. 

Fatherless, kat-chia^o. 
Pather-in-Iaw, komyd {-enkbina). 
Fathom (arm-span), tamdka. 

— one, hSang-tamdka,. 

Fathoms, two, dn-tam.dka; enndyo : 
only two, Tnenndyo. 

— three, lennbiyo : only three, lamen- 

— four, hen~noanno: only four, maken- 

— five, tennSyo : only five, tartiennSyo. 

— sis, ienfualo : only sii, tam^a- 

— seven, etuikdto: only seven, mea- 

— eight, enfoanno : only eight, mea- 

— nine, heuTig - hata - tamdka: only 
nine, hem^ang-haia. 

— ten,* ehinndmo : only ten, shamin- 

This canoe is only a little more 
than three fathoms long, nee due 
lam.enndiyo pait-tet. 
Fathomless, chiyau-ka'. 

Fatigned (gee " Tired "). 

Fatten ("-<-)' op-ehup-kaia. 

Favorite, hindh-nga-toiekya. 

Fear, paJwa. 

Feast (festival) (the entertainment), 

mUdh ; m,iloh ; iloha : (the feeding), 

m6pbh ; karuhat-hoknghk. 

— (a.) memorial- (1, 3, or 5 months 
after a death), e«-iowi. 

— (6) memorial- (nenally a year or 
more later than a),t ka-nait-ni-tai. 

— (o) memorial- (aboat a month or 
6 weeks later than 6),t hen-wal-ne- 

— (d) memorial- (abont a month 
later than c),t henevi-ghe. 

— (fi) memorial- (about 3 weeks 
later than d),i ta-nedt-la. 

— (/) memorial-(abont 2 or iweeks 
later than e),t da-nbk-ni-neak. 

— (g) memorial- (3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 
days later than a, /,and n), ka-lbng- 

— (k) special, in celebrating erectiim 
of village poles to scare away evil 
spirits, et-kait-ni. 

— (j ) ordinary (held annnally in 
lien of A), oleo. 

— (k) for propitiating the spirits 
with food, &iy, ha^ngok-matlai. 

— (I) when inangurating a new 
fetich, hata-kH. 

— (m) when installing a new shaman, 

— (n) when banishing evil spirits, 
and before occupying a new hut, 

— birth-, wi-ngai{cK)-oya.n. 

— naming-, han^Jmha. 

— on girl attaining pnberly, vil- 

— marriage-, odnhnga-kamAn-ahe. 

— welcoming return of long-absent 
friend, odnhnga-shwdiare. 

— "honse-wamiing-"(foranewhut), 

t These Sts festiTals, nitb three minor iutemiediste fensta oalled indthv-Ue, take plan 
in north-eut monioon, ind are stjUtd Jiondk, and the period during irhich they occu 

, Google 



Feast after dragging large canoe-Bhell 
over portage to coaet for completioo, 


— after anccesBful firing of a large 
canoe- shell, iJuiin. 

Feather, puydlshichHa. 

February - March, the lonation in, 

Feeble (weat), hat-kodng. 
Feed a child, ha-fwdk-hata. 

— dogs, hor-ngok-dm ; eni}n-dm. 

— doge (by band), kafen-hata. 

— pigs, Biiffii-not ; ka-ngok-not. 

— ponltry, ka-ngdk-kcvmoe. 

Feel (v.), ka-Bhiian=hata ; mo7niibi(_ch)- 

Fell (cat down), iw^Aa; ong-fwdng ; 

Pellow-conntiy man, yffli'yiiA- (or thorn- ) 

Fellow-travellfer, fttm^Z^sAa 
Female: 1 , ,, 
Feminii., | •"-'"*«• 
Fence (rbngh), kan-$'bAma: 

sigzag log-, kentdng. 

■= laake a^ ha^tdng. 

Fender (surrounding hut^fire), hedka. 
Ferment (of toddy, &c.), wak-ehe ; 

Fermented toddj; toak-tor-tain ; todh- 

Fern, la^toin. 

Pertile,yo-e»-dM; yo-em^Wiaitat; dM-ta-y6. 
Fester, y&-t(mg. 
Festival (see "Feast"). 
Fetch, from canoe, eshua. 

— from ship, ovg-ehdng. 

~— from another place, okai-haid. 

— water, _/^fc- (MA, 

— guests for a feast, okai-wa.. 
Fetich, fctweou ; henta-hoi ; henta. 
Fetters, kenchdp'ldh ; henkdp-Idh. 
Fever, pomkaiya, 

— intermittent, kaldk-penkaiya. 
Fewjpait-she; tvih-tathe i Id-Ttgatke. 

These few, ehammen-tat-ehi (se 

App. B, Philol. Harp.). 
A few more, pait-tare-she. 
Fever, irinnih-tashe ; linnd'Tigaihe 

FewestyWinneh-taske-ka' ; liTrnd-ngashe- 

ka'i petmaiUshe-ka' . 
Fez, shanoang-kapueha. 
Fibre (of the Qnet'ma gnerMm of which 

their fishing-lines, Ac., are made), 

het-loit ; het-toi(ch'). 

— (of , ? Melochia veluHna nsed for 
eztrticting the filaments from Pan- 
domu paste), kaneuiat. 

Fiddle, danang-ta-tiya/na. 
Fidget, poshi-Jiat-she. 
Fierce (as a wild boar), henyang. 
Fifteen, sAom-iiitwit; imdt-taJual-hSang. 
Fifth, menydh. 

Fifty (of cocDuats only), dn-inai- 

— of men, huta, &c., dn-momchiarma- 

Fight (battle), panono. 

— with gnns (see " Bombard "), 

— with sticks, pcmdan^haia. 
'^^ with fists, $hin!v)n-hala. 
Fightet, pamamoan. 
Fighting-hat (as worn in the Central 

group), hemili. 

— (as worn at Chowra, Teressa, and 
Bompoka), kahdioat. 

Fighting-stick, paiyHah. 

Figh ting-man (champion), chamang- 

Figure carved in human form as 
fetich, kareaii. 

— carved in any other form as fetich, 
hentd-koi (see Part II). 

Fitameats in Pandaniu paste, shin- 
Tile («.) tan^-ydn. 
Fill (v.i.) (of a bottle), hafiuU-dide. 

— (v.i.) (of a canoe, owing to leak or 
heavy sea), pang-she. 

— (y.t.) (a bag, as with grain, sand, 
earth, Ac), hafuat-oal-shdyo. 

— (v.t.) (a bag with coal, fruit, grass, 
cloth, Ac.), ehom-yo. 

— (v.t.) a bottle, hafuat-oal-pomle. 

— (v.t.) a ceMoe,yuaka (-ta-<ial-dii«). 

— (v-i.) a cooking-pot, yUaka (-ta- 

— (v.t.) one's month, hafual-oal-jdrng. 

— (v.t.) a pillow, kafSn-hathe. 

.y Google 



Fill (v.t.) up any rec«ptacla, han-push- 

Fill the bag with rioe, hafuat-oal- 
shdyo aroe. 
Filter (v.), han-het-hanga {tee 

— {a.'), ddk-ta-hariwa ; headiwa-ddk. 
Filth, yii. 
Fin, caudal-, hmnok-del-kda. 

— dorsal-, ied^ho-kda ; henteha-kda. 

— pectoral-, ndng-k&a. 

— ventral-, iiMAo-Mitawj- ft aa. 

— anal-, h^rdai-chakd-kAa. 
Find, casually, hen-ghiarv-hata.. 
~ after a search, kom-hata. 

I found this rupee in thd jdngle) 
henghian tai ckiia nee rupict fti oal- 

Pine (not coarse), homy^nii 
Finger, kanetai; {in constr.) tai. 

— fore-, menshoaka. 

— middle-, itwng-yuang'me. 

— ring-, tanoi-meiideJichya. 

— little-, Tnendenckya. 
- — (thamb), TnendHa. 

— tip of, WMWift-tai; m,wih-tai: 

— knuckle of, lenkdka; tnat-kanelai. 

— nail o£, ke-shuah-tai. 

— -ring, kenldng-tai. 
Fioial, wooden, of dome-roof hut, ol- 

Finish (v.), leal-hata. 
Finished, ledt;f mdh; leiit-ka- ; 

mand(k)-nga-ehi ; yaAgdi 
Fire, kede. 

— (embers), om-dk. 

— -ligbt, ch-angai{cli)-tai-heoB. 
— ■ -feast, do-noft-Mi-neafc ; ohai-Jieoe. 

— -place, kitoi; chuk-benhuidva. 
sticks of wood (for producing 

fire), ken-tain. 

of bamboo (for producing fire), 


— -tongs (rattan), JOf£pa; ntamcn 

— -wood, bah. 

as collected, and before being 

cnt np, eda. 

t Ihuword {"USl") anewbra fO the Malav 
Halaj, ndait nakan; gatiga (see also " JUet '] 
joit put. 

Fire-wood, bundle of, min&l-hAh. 

neatly made imitation bundle 

of, for offering on grave of relative, 

pomdk-onh; pomdka. 

— produce (by means of fire-sticks), 
hatain-heoe ; katot-hata. 

— keep np a, hahdt-haia. 

— feed a, enyiian-heoe ; bfntdm-hai- 

— - extinguish a {see "Extiugniah"). 

— take (gee " Ignite "). 
Put some wood on the fire, enyuan- 

— kindle a (set fire to), haiyuin- 

— a cannon, hakdk-hata ;* hakSka.* 
^^ off a guu or cannon, doh-nga. 

— with a gun, haril-haia* 
■ — with a cross-bow, hax-Joine. 
Fire-fly, vutt-maloka. 
Firm (made faat), tan-ngayan. 
First, oreh; morSk; ongSh. 

— -born, oreh-ni-dSha; oreft-mf- 

— i-fruit, yuang-inoreh-ne-tai. 
^=^ -quarter of mooii, heang-ld. 
Fish (».), kda. 
■ — flying-, irumg-keang. 

— -basket-trap, large, enyun ; smMll, 

— -book, karaa-hetl6t. 

— =Iin&, poriMe. 
net, wan. 

— -roa, pev,{-kda') ; katxim{-leda). 
spear {see " Spear," and App. N, 

items 17-26). 

— -weir, kan-ihdng. 

— shell- (see "Shell-flah"). 
" — with hook and line, oktudk-kaia ; 

oktuaka; oktiiak-kda; kaluan-hata, 
=— with rod fend line, kortm-kata. 
^^=- with netj hd-wan. 

■ with the " kenhdu " ttap, komhon. 

■ with the " enyvia " trbp, enyun- 



FUh with the " kanehdng " weir, ka- 

— in shallow poolfl at low water, 
haieah- kaa-ta-oal-hurul. 

— by torch-light, bieh-hata,. 

— hook a, heat-kaa; heat-nga; heal- 

I have been fishing (wilh hook and 
line) all day, bnt have canght 
nothing (lit, I not one hooked), 
ehiia bmtom-heng oklitakachitheaftg 

Fishing, haUak-Jtda. 

la he fishing F kaUah-kda ka an? 
Fist, kalop. 
Fit (eaitable, proper, q.v.). 

— (v.),'mak; mak-di. 

— tight (of a cork, Ac.), kfmg. 

— loose (of a cork, Ac), pcdo. 

That cork does not fit, and this one 
is tight, ane kennyan hat triakdi 
nee Icdng St. 

— epileptic, arodt. 

Five, tanai; only five, tamatud. 

— o'clock, A.M. (about), chang-i-oal ; 
P.M. (about), heng-vtrwi-enhthe. 

— fathoms, tennSyo ; only five 
fathoms, ta/menniyo. 

Five hundred, coconnts only, heang- 
inomchiama- tatiai'inai. 

., hSang-inai-tanai- 

Fix (v.t.), haraH-hashe. 

Fix the four-anna piece on the ear- 
stick (as a facet), haran oabnat- 

Flabby (having loose fiesh), men- 

Flag (pennant), hinice; henwS. 
Flageolet, hen-hel. 
— play the, ha-hel. 
Flame of a candle or torch, chdl ; pdla- 

Flames (blaze as of bnraiDg grass and 
brnahwood), ywoi; chdl-yual. 

Flank, of an animal, fdp. 

Flannel, kone. 

Flapper (of turtle), fore-, kodl; hind-, 

Flash of light, mai(_ch). 

Flat (level), td. 

— (of board or land), td; td-kdi. 

— (of a board), pidan (also td). 

— (low-lying), jnienkshe-koi. 

— (of bottom of tumbler), td-chahd. 

— (of the occiput, aleo of certain 
coconut shetU, which can stand 
erect), pitdnh. 

Flatten (v.t), vn4a-td. 

— the occipnt of an infant, pitdnh- 

Flatter (v.), tuldng-hat-ngS-olyola. 

Flavour («.), yande. 

Flaw, dd.(k)-'thga-chakd. 

Flay, et-tai(ch), nga-ok. 

Flea, $hei. 

Fleet (swift) (see "Fast"). 

Flesh, &Aka. 

Y\exib\a, dah-lenhdh-chakd ; vmS. 

Flight of birds (.ee " Flock "). 

Fling a spear, ahdk-hata. 

— a stone, Ac., haleang-lianga. 
Flirt (k.?.), hdkSle; ahamoka-t6re. 
Float (v.l), tak-la. 

— coconuts, timber, Ac. (as when 
shipping or transporting along 
shore) (v.t.), kan-oaka-hat. 

Flock of birds, mbmtbma'ghichua. 
Flog, ori-hata. 
Flood, yuk. 

— -mark, chakd-paAwa. 

— -tide, heo. 

Floor, earth or concrete, kdi-ni. 

— hoarded, ooi-ia-tonoonj; tanoang. 

— bamboo, oat-ta^hedwa. 

— Areca lath-, oal-ta-hiya. 
Flow (of a stream), vmd-ne. 

— (rise, of the tide), komdu-lare. 
Flower, >hth. 

— of the coconut-tree, ihiat-oyatt. 

— of the Areca eatechti, tkiat'liiya. 

— of the Pandawtt, ehiat-lardm. 

— of the Cycas, ehlat-tevnla. 

— of the plantain, henap-Mbha. 
Fluid (ai;. and ».), tah. 
Flurried (sv^t^A), piahtk-oal-dnha. 
Flushed (as with anger, exertion, 

excitement, or wine), ahakeat-ehakd. 
Fly, common hoase-, yUe. 

— (large stinging species), hen-ledai. 



Flj-catcher {Myiagra ccemlea), karii- 

— (v.), heh-hanga ; (of more than ooe 
bird or insect), ke-keh. 

— away, hek-nga. 
Plying- fish, vumg-keang. 

— - -fox (Pteropus Nic.), miokngeaka. 
Foam, from the month, toi-ehakd ; toi- 

— of the sea, toi-JcanuUS. 
Fog, o$k ; ijb ; vsk. 

Fold (v.), omlom-kanga ; lom-hala. 
Foliage, rai-kare. 
Folk-lore tale, inola-onghei. 
Follow, ya/ng-lare ; enydh-ngala. 
Fond of (like), ydh-ngashi, 
Fuudle, im-hata. 
Food, hok-ngolt. 
Fool, hai-heang-doh ; hat-heang-leap ; 

kat-heang-akdh ; kilei-shire (^see 

" Unintelligent"). 
Foolish (like a, fool), ghlri-paiyuh-ta- 


— (absurd), hat-honcha. 
Foot (also the leg), Idh. 

— sole of, oal-ldk. 

— instep of, ok-ldh, 

— -bra8h(oiFandaniudTnpe),fatmdh- 

— -fall, sonnd of, kdttg-kdng. 

— -print, du-la-ldh; sntan-tat ; enitm- 

— -race, thiala-lanoi/a. 

— of bed or mat, Id^ldh. 

For (on acconnt of, for the sake of), 

I am making this for my yotinger 
brother, yond-ta-kde lau eha nes 

— (in the pltMie of), henshdi-kde. 

I am going there for him, chiia yo 
ddhtare aa henehdt-kdS. 

— (because, on this acconnt), tai; 

I remained here for yon told (me to 
do Bo), chiia kdlo itd taina ngS 

For ever, den-nonha. 

Forbid, oUeaZa;* oUeal-nga-shi. 

Forcibly, kea-tS. 

Ford, mieHh-lbng. 
Forearm, kenmoana-kodl. 
Forefinger, •nen-ahonht. 
Forehead, lal. 
Foreign, kaling. 

country, mattai-kalittg. 

Foreigner, paiyuh-kdling ; kaling ; 


Ten foreigners of the same country, 
thorn. ySang-kaling. 

Foreigner of a certain country, 

Ten foreigners of different countries, 
Bhi>m kamerUenga. 
Foreigners, ehom-itiattai-kaliTig, 
Foremast, kandma-la-kdila. 
Forenoon, Id-hala-hmtg. 
Foreshore, oal-ngdh; koi-ngdh. 
Forest, oal-ckua; bl-ckua. 
Forget, pait-ngat6 ; wait-ngayan ; piial- 

ngayan; Id-ngato; Id-ngayan; ehoi- 

ngcUd; ahot-ngayan. 
Forgive, hoshuawa-to. 

— (excuse), Idk-nga-ehi. 
Forgiveness for an offence, seek, haloTi- 

Fork, ckanep. 

Fork and spoon, heang-komnan. 

Formerly, tirdm; shi-ngayan; thi- 

ngala; thi-laio ; ehi-nga-ldh ; fom- 

Jigayan; kan-tirdm. 
Forsake, enyan-ngala ; pung-ngare. 
Fort [light, heang-molkdnla-kamahenwa. 
Forty (of men, huts, &c.), dn-mom- 

- — (coconuts or rupees), dA-inai. 
Forward (forepart), la-kdi-la. 

— (onward), le-chakd. 
Foster-parent, meA-dOla-eki. 

Foul (dirty), ywA («ee Ex. at "Barrel "). 
Four, Joan; (of coconuts or rapees), 

Fourteen, thom-foan; (of coconuts or 

rupees), itedt'tafuaJ. 
Foarfathoms(ann-8pans), hen-ndanno ; 

only four fathoms, jnahen-noanno. 
Four o'clock, A.M. (about), ha-hoaka; 

p.u. (about), heng-inw.t-'mitiia. 
Four hundred (of coconuts or rupees), 

h eang-momchtama. 

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Foot hundred (of any other objects), 

Foorth, tande-oJc-mong-t/Hang-ne. 
Fowl, kamoe. 

— h&skettorcaiTyiiig,lcan-thdla(^App. 
N, it«m 83). 

— -coop (as kept under hut), ong- 
yianga-JMmde (App. X, item tt8). 

Pox, flying-, tnok-ngeaka. 
Fragile, mtZ^A ; hat-nge. 
Fra,ginent (remntait), pcUt-tare-diiat. 

— of ft pot, ok'da(k)-tet-haieh6i. 
Fragrant, »hiang-di. 

Frame, hen-yi-keam,. 

Framework of dome-roof huf, wone-Mi ; 

Frequently, hal-kalah-ke. 
Fresh, recently gathered, teydh ; re- 
cently prepared, heiire-iin-tet/dh. 
Fresh - water, ddk-ta-eliyu ; d<ik-ta- 

aliell-fiah, ehei-oal-ddk. 

Fretful (peevish), keh-to. 
Friend, intimate, }u>m,nbl; ktt-ySl; 
mohoirt- nhl-she. 

— ordinary (acqnaintonce), meanh. 

I am going to visit some friends, 
ehaa y6 komfdingayan jnewihre. 

— (term of endearment towards one's 

eqnal in age or standing), kaiyuwd. 
by old persons to children, 

by old persons to youths 

and young married persons, koan- 


by children tq qld RerspuB, 

ctiom; ka-chom. 
by youths and young 

married persons to qld persons, he- 

tow Eirds one's friend, sljghtly 

one's senior, ka-chda, 
— towardstwofriends, ^lightly 

one's seniors, kina-cha^. 
towards three qc more 

slightly one's seniors, hife-choM. 
towards one's friend, slightly 

one's junior, ka-tau. 

— - — — towardstwofriendSjSlightly 
one's juniors, kind-tau. 

Term of endearment towards three or 
more, slightly one's juniors, hife-tdM. 

towM^s one old enongh to 

be one's father, ka-chia. 

towards one young enongb 

to be one's son, ka-hoan. 

Friendly, IwmTtbl. 

Fright, pahoa. 

Frighten, haitkol; haithol. 

Frog, water-, kdng. 

— land-, haii-kdtig. 

From, ta; Ibaglo ; yant/a lAngto-ten 
The rain falls from the sky, annikh 

patdkske Ibngto oal kala-hoiya. 
This place is far from Chowra, kiii 
nee mattai ta Tat&t. 

— chakd (prep.). 

He is demanding payment from 
'that man, an kaitea-n^ya-re 
chakd ane paiy&h. 
— : nga-iai (prep.}. 

Take the paddle from that child, 
okqi p6uiak nga-tai ane kenyum. 

— la-mbngto-tai (prep.). 

I hare received this present from 
that man, nee tanecUshe cha ledt- 
koin lambngtotai ane paiyuk. 

— tathe; tayan; ghiyan (pogtp.') (with 
reference to time). 

Prom {i.e., since) yesterday till now 
it has been raining, minyui shiyan 
oyihla ta-Unheii na amiiih. 

— skitcei (posip.) (with reference to 
tin^e and work). 

He haq been building his hnt from 
(i.e., ^ince) yesterday, minyui 
shilai an monii ni. 

— ehitS (poetp.) (with reference to 
time and acting violently, being 
angry, and the like). 

He has been sulky from (i.e., since) 
yesterday, minyui shito an kehto. 
Front of a hnt, Ac, ehakd-m. 

— -tooth, mang-lang-ne. 

— in, tala-,chakA. 
Froth, toi. 

Frown (v.i.), mian-chakd. 
Fruit, yuajig (-om-han). 

— unripe, yuang-la-(aydL 

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Fmit, ripe, yOartg-ta-imbng ; yUang-ia- 

— nearly ripe, yUang-ta-liigol. 
Fmitfal, soil, tiv-to-^o. 

— tree, ckia-ta-y3. 
Fnel, bik. 

Fnlfil an agreement (as for supply of 

cai^), mak-ngath«. 
Tall, path ; pwh ; buth. 

The glass is not full, wStare A«i 

— nearly, ok-hoanka. 

— half (t,e,, middle), gng-tfUang-hala; 

— (laden, of a ship or canoe), yctm,. 
face, dvdk-tare-chakd. 

— -grown (adult), kamarH; hamadu. 

— -moon, hokngdka-kdhe ; ongyuang- 
kdke ; fwian-oal-kdke. 

Full-cock (of a gun), dn-honga-fdha. 

Fnu (amusement), lailah ; m/Hoh ; 
heit-shd(^k^ -ngatS. 

Faueral, mol-ola. 

Faiigne, ong-narig. 

Ehiuuel, amoke-, heAla-fmk-hsoe. 

— water-, hen^wa. 

Funny-bone (ulnar nerve, or intenul 
condyle of the hameras), ong-keang. 

Purl, yuam-htUa. 

Further (on further side of), hen-noiya. 

Furthest, hennoiga-ka' . 

Future, the, heit-da/mak. 

Future, in, haru-lie ; hea-nimg-nga-eki 
A^ 1 hurt myself badly yesterday, 
I shall qever in future be able to 
climb trees, hen-ndngngaalm, chit 
mak dSh chlaila taichuawahngayan 
ta mitiyHi, 

Gain (*ee "Win"). 
Qait, shbng-ha-enldyare. 
Qale, hdneh-ta-hodnq. 
Gall, pintang. 
Game, any, milah, 'milAh, 

— jumping-, chal. 
Gape («.)> hng-dp. 

— (tr.), hing-dp-lwre. 
Gar- fish, i\&. 
Garden, yo^. 

— abandpned (no longer cultivated), 

Gash {v. OF *.), dSh~hat. 

Gasp (v.), tain-eya.'m, {me " Pant "). 

Gather (collect) (u,), iomof- V- 

— cocpflutp, taraak-hota (or -hashe), 

— other fruits, ^-chiat-hata. 
Gaze, 1\akd-hata. 

Oeld, poaka.9 
Geueratiqn, kwma^imana. 

There are at present four genera- 
tions living in my family, oc^l 
mindtngathe c^ua ot Unhe^ fdan 
kamanuana haridnh. 
Gencrons, shai-ybng-yanto ; thv,-_ybt\g- 

yanto ; ghomr,ybng-i\'ja-eki. 
Genuine {gee " Real," " True "). 
Gtit (obtam), kom. 

Where d^d jqu gpt it ? Udm msn ta- 
ehuT- ' 
Get, by hunting or fishing, puao, 

I got two pigs while out hunting 
yesterday, -rnvnyili dn twang not 
'p§ao chiiq. 
Get up, on walfing, kiinga ; kdnga, 
— rise, stand up, shiaka. 
Ghost, iioi. 

Ghuian (Arum, coloeana^fkoMni. 
Giant, pffiyuh-ta^kapi-ta-^cf^ng-kdi. 
Giddy, wii^chaka. 
Gift, 'present, Aomfttpowj; kenlan-thA' ; 

taneal-ehe; omkwom. 
Gills (of fish), kodl:kc{nep-kda. 
Gimlet, (e»me(j) ,- tetim^(eh). 
Ginger, hen-liang. , 

Gird, ndka-ongyUaTig* 
Girdle (waistband), ndt-tmgyuang. 
Girdle ^ tree («.), ok-loaika. 
Girl (from birth to about 12 years oB^ 

age) (see App. K). 
— ; (before attaming puberty), yuang- 

— (aft«r attaining puberty), koHan- 

— (of marriageable age), Jwliaii ; 




Give (bestow, make present), Aom- 
hwom-liata, kalan-hata. 

— (cause to tsrke), hwbm-hotta. 

Qive me this, homkwbm ta-nie en- 

Ho has given nje this coat, annSe 
TcanyHt leat-hom.h'wbTa tefi-ehHa. 

Give it to me (let me take it), 
kmimhata ten-exh Trten chua-en 
(or ten-ehUa). 

— back (restore), o-shua-hafa ; shwd- 

— relnctantly, kae-hanga. 

— in mamage, komkwovi-ta-koan-de- 

He gives joa b^ daughter in mar- 
riage, an hornkwimi'ta-kdan-de- 

Olad, ydk-ngatS, hdkbh ; lapd-yanlS. 

I am glad yon have relnmed, ehda 

ydhngato ' men leat'ikwdlare. 

Glaie, of the ann, heng-ta-dain-oal ; 

dava-oal-inai j daiii-ngamat, 

— of a fire, dain-ta-h^e. 
Glass pane, tenmedla, 

— (mirror), temedlde. 

— drinking-, (tumbler), wetare {-la- 

— wine-, wStare-ta-ho/riiana. 

— de(:anter (o^so lamp-shade, white 
bottle), yang-nuit. 

— -beads, malau. 
Glisten, glitter, dain-chalcd. 
Glow-worm, chung. 
Guaab, kenat-chakd. 
Gnat, he-nyiika. 

Gnaw, et-ngof-hata. 

Qn^wm gnetiKm, het-tmt; heUtoUck). 

Go north wards, af-al. 

Wby are yon going to Car Kicobar 
(i.e., nortb) 'f cbdwe wen afal Fu t 

— northwards (or go np), o-ie. 

— soatbwards, af-ang ; o-nge. 

— eastwards, af-ahat; 6-he. 

— westwarda, af-aich ; 6-she. 
(or go down), o-ske. 

He has gonu in a westerly direclion, 
(M. leat afaieh (or dihe). 

— to landing-place, af-a&i.; o-ne. 

— in any direction, o-ie. 

Go to the cow-shed, dte ta cAwA-Si- 

Oo direct northwards, le-lare. 

— — southwards, le-nyare. 
eastwards, le-hare. 

— — westwards, IS-ehire. 
to landing-place, le-nire. 

— — to any particular place in any 
quarter, le-tare. 

— on in advance (or ahead) in a 
northerly direction, orek-la. 

in a, aoutherly direction, 

OTih-ngala. • 
— in an easterly direction, 

— in a westerly direction, 

towards landing-place, oreh- 

— in any direction, oreh-ta. 

— hence, ddh ; Jtaiyi-nga (see Est. at 
" Now "). 

— tbither (northwards), ddh^lare ; 

— — (southwards), ddh-n^are ; ddh' 

(eastwards), (idA-fcare; ddhtare- 

(westwards), ddh-ehire; dah- 

lare- la-ngaiche. 

— — (towards landing-place), ddk- 
nire ; daktare-ta-ngaine. 

in any direction, ddh-tare. 

I want to go there (southerly direc- 
tion) to-morrow morning, hakl 

— on board, teH-ckvak-JaTe. 

— on shore, chwah-hat, ddn-hat. 

— home, chuk ; yu-chuh. 

We (two) are going, hojne, ehah en- 

— time to, hen-ckaTnUh. 

— away, kaiyi-nga; ddk-ngare. 

— together, omndme-katymga. 

— away ! kok-ngare. 

— and (imperat.) (lit. go yon), ata- 

Go and play with yonr younger 
brother, ata men mUdh ta tau 




Gt> for a walk, ong-ehmg-ha. 

an outiDg in b, canoe, induan- 

ha; indiian-ha. 

Let UB both go to Trinknt (for an 
outing) to-morrow, Idk (or ghbk) 
hen haki tTidaanha Ldful. 

— visiting in one's own village, ong- 
dang -ha. 

in another village or at a dia- 

taaoe, itiia (gee "Visit"). 

— astern, ok-kak. 

— up-hill, ten-ahd/a-lare ; eji-ahdn- 

— quickly (of ahip, boat, 4c.), yoU 

— slowly (of ship, boat, &c.), hat-ySt- 

At what time did yon go away 

yesterday ? he-ckHa men minyiii 

kaiymga ? 
I am going away shortly before 

dead low- water, hen-yuang-ngd^ 

haiyinga ehiia. 
Goal, starting-place in a foot-rate, Zo- 
nangta^dam,la,n . 

— fiaishing-place in a foot-race, hen- 
yak- Ghabd-datniari. 

Goat, me. 

Goblet, taiyak i enfd. 

God, Deuie. 

Gold, gol-m&ro. 

GoQg, flat, tea-keang. 

— convex, sftonon. 

— Bound a, horaah-hata. 

Good (of animate and inanimate ob- 
jects), la-pd; tuldng-hatghe. 

Gi)od-bye (departing visitor), yuchuh ; 
ydahe me rd. 

— host, pehdri ta-wdUe me ra-kdt. 

— d,y., pehiiri. 

-~ host, anri-ehuh. 
■ — d.v., kaii-6 pehdri. 

Good-bye, my friend, ydshe me rd 
ka-chau {see " Farewell "). 
Good-natured, sku-ybng-yantS. 
Goods offered for sale, yaw ; yan-nih. 
Goose, kohednka. 
Gore, wd-ta-kdtoa. 
Gorge («.), op-mdp-Aa(a, 
Got (tee "Have," " Poeseea," "Get"). 

Qonrd (see " Pampkin "). 
Government, English, nga-manga; 


A Government bnilding, chwng 
rtgwnianga nl. 
Governor, omyda^ta-karu ; ennyul-the. 
Gradually, omyam^han-chakd. 
Grain, mong-yudnga. 
Grand, konan-hateke. 
Grand- father, chom-enkbiiia. 

— -mother, chom-enhdna. 

— -son, hewih-enkoina. 

■ — -daughter, hewih-enkdna. 

— -nncle,cAdii-(or(uu-)(!Aont-en.t(iiwji. 

— -aunt, chwa- (or tdv.-') chofn-enkdna, 

— -nephew, hewih-kaiymBd-enkhiila. 

— -niece, kemlfi-kmyuwd-enkdna. 
(See App. ii for further particulars.) 

Grant (bestow), homkwbm-hata. 
Grasp (u.f.) ha-kdpi-yande. 
Grass, then ; thin.. 

— (lalang, Irrvperata), ehen-fo. 

— (doob, Cynodon dactylon), opyuaji. 

— a coarse description of, iheman- 

Grae shopper, kala-chama. 
Grateful, mom-kdm-ehi. 
Grater, of ray-hide, ok-deya. 

— Catamat stcm-sheath, ken-skech (nee 
" Scraper"). 

Grating (platform nnder roof for stor- 
ing pots, &c.), lenpd. 

Gratis, hal-yaiyo. 

Grave (solemn) (adj.), ng6-chakd. 

Grave («.), newly dug, oal-piet ; chuk- 

— occupied, anHla. 

Grave-pegs, for pegging down corpse 

in grave, «Aani-pdn; shin-pdn. 
Grave-post, hmiching ; pentila ; kand- 

Grave-yard, ehuk-pentila ; koi-pentila. 

Gravy, ddk-hong-dng. 

Gray, toi-ngamat. 

Gray-haired, pai^-feoi; jiakd-y6k. 

Grease, Jtong-heSng. 

— -stain, }a)dn. 

Great (large), karu; kada. 
Greater, ewteo ; kendua. 
Greatest, endiia-ka- ; kendna-ka-. 




Great-grandfather, halomr-enkoiiia. 

-mother, Jutlbm-enkdna. 

-flon, koamr-hewih-enkoina. 

-daughter, koaa-heieiA-enkdtia. 

Qreat Nioobar, Lo-bng. 

Gi'eedy (coTetous), yo-pait-pait-lare ; 

— (having 70i'aoioiuappetite),Zoit-y^. 
Gi-een, chu-ng6a (-mai). 

r,_ 7! > ckai-iAakd. 

Ureetinff, J 

I wish to go and greet the old man, 
chiia yd chai-chakd pomdiske. 
Grid, for broiling Bsh and jtmgle pork, 

Grief, yen-^uhe ; yen-ne-ahe ; yen-ngaid. 
Grin, en-kain-hi-chakd. 
Grind, dHa-hala; ong-toTig-hata. 
Grindstone, dandha. 
Gristle, ihe. 
Groan (I'.i.), en-nyuan. 
Grog {alto any two or more fluids 

mixed), cham-p6a ; kaidama } ka- 

sh/uma ; katkudwa. 
Grope, kashwmde. 
Ground {t.),pieti fiat. 

It is lying on the ground, an ta-kdi 

Ground (strike bottom), »hot~lare. 
Gronp (of peraons or trees), vibmtd- 


Grown-ap (adalt), ^maru; ka/madm. 
Grant (of pig), not-ta^vidak. 
Gaanu, aink, (Mri(cA). 

— (bird) aink-Bhichua. 

— (bat), aink-alo&a. 

G-nard (protect), ong-ybng-liala. 

Guard iajo, chia-komato. 

Goava, ktyyiHwa. 

Guest, mit-iia ; paiy&'k-dtsmiak ; damSk. 

Gnide (as throngh jnngle), paiy-&h- 

Guilty, met-pota-she ; v%et-pata-the. 
GaU (sea-), kdl. 
Gullet, ken-onk. 
Gulp, kokok. 
Gum (of certain trees), hwnlemr-tedti. 

— (prepared, liquid), hendAA. 

— (of the jaws), Sk. 

— -boil, /tio- eft. 

renin, toi-en-lSang, 

Gnn (cannon), heii-kdk. 

— (musket, also fowling-pieoi')i hin- 

— -barrel, karatt-'hindel. 

— powder, (am. 

— -rod, kanlAk-oal-'hindel. 

— -vrale (of boat), mandin-hif&a. 

— fire a (y.t), etp6t-hanga. 

— -caau, ehuk-hindel ; iii-hindel. 
Gntta-percha, koTninyan, 
Gnzsle, boldh-chakd. 

Hack (with dhi, Ac.)(ij.(.), ifdsh-hanga. 
Hackle (of f eathurs) dh^a-<mgl6nga. 
Hades, kendkla. 
Haft, haiy&h. 

end of spear, ta-dit ; dit. 

Hag, enkdtia-pombiuhe ; enkdna-omyda. 
Haggle, OTor a purchase, tnol-ydla- 

Hail (call to), ochOavia ; ochio-kata. 
Hair (short), y3i; yeh; hen-koya. 

— (long), hen-koya-ta-chaliTij. 

— (a single hair), hSang-monglSanga 
yok (or hen-koya). 

— (gray), pakS-ySk; pako-koi. 

— (white), ySk-teyen. 

Hair (of face or body), pwyol; pidydl- 

— (toft of), kipdka (worn by girls 
till attaining puberty, and by male 
infanta during first year or so). 

— (lock of), meUydta. 

— oil, ■mayai^cV) ; 7igai{j); ngaiieh). 

— oil the, hsti.ngai{c,h)-koi ; Aeti- 

— -parting (see "Parting"). 
Hairless, paiyuh-ta-hangSh. 
Hairy (^pemon), paiyHh-ta-pumoyol. 
Halcyon ocdpitdlig, shak. 

Half, Ttwlkdnla. 

Half a bottle of rum, heang-m-ol- 
kdUla pomle ta-ram. 




Half-fall, heang-vu^kdnla-posh, 

— -cooked, aikdiio. 

— -ripe, Ingol. 

— -aaleep, iteakla. 

— -brother (coneangoine and nferime) 
(see "Brother"). 

— -sifltor (conBang^nino and ateriue) 
{see " Sister"), 

— -caete, kahala. 

— -cock (of agnn), tteang-Tcdnga-fdha. 

— -fathom, lUa/iig-kamoala, ; hal-lan- 
ne- Jieang- torn dka. 

— -moon, waxing, hiang-ld. 
waning, kanedL 

— -way, heoing-Tnolkdnl'lcaiyi. 

— -witt«d, menduna-the. 
Halicore Australia (dngona;), JU^ut. 
Halve, kdnl-hanga. 

Halloo, Jcdhon. 

Halo, Mn-mwa. 

Halt (cease walking), kdto-ngare. 

Hammer (v.), dbm. 

— (».), danom. 

— of gnn, kandp-hindel. 

Hand (no epecino word for " liand ") 
(see "Finger"). 
It is in my hand, an tial tai eka. 

— back of the, ok-tat. 

— palm of the, oal-tai. 

— -f ul, posli-la-oal-tai. 

— -span (hiang-') makentdna. 

— (give with the hand), hwomr-hata, 

— over, kalan-hata. 
Handkerchief, hiithe. 

— pocket, ta-nbUehakd i iattlit.hodng ; 

Handle (of basket), chanola. 

— (side-handle of box), mmh ; wane- 

— (top - handle of box), chanola- 

— (of Knife or sword), jjawiJnMi, 

— (of paddle), kwbm-powah. 

— (of Bpear), hatydh. 
Handsome, lapd-ehakd ; ydh-ngaiski- 

Handy, vntmS-thUhe. 
Hang (anspend) («.(.), enhen-hala. 

Hang it np, hen-la-eh. 

— (v-i.), otanal-haia. 

Hang (pnt to death by hanging), }>dlw 

Happen (take place), $h,i. 

What took place at year village 
last month F kdhe img-eAh chuan 
shi ttiaUa/i men ? (see Ex. at 
Happy, kdkoh ; ydh-ngatS. 
Harbonr, hoin-inattai. 
— ■ (entrance to), ooi'/any-maHw; detse- 

Hard (not soft), nge. 

— idi&cvit) ndt-ngayan I keh-ttgayan. 
Harden (v.i.), ten-naina, 

Hare:Iip, tfiyuaihne-maftdm. 

Hark ! Juiteng ! 

HarpRon, kan-shoka (see App. H, 

items, 22, 23) ; hinldk. 
Hasten (u.i.), holdh-hatshe. 
Hat (European), ahapio; (broad- i 

brimmed), shcinkdng. | 

— brim of, ndng-shapio. i 

— fighting- (aenaed in Central gronp), ! 
kemilt; (as used at Teressa and I 
Chowra), kakdviat. 

— (placed on disinterred male skall), 
haldUt-kemiU (or kamapdk). 

— (placed on disinterred female 
BknU), hoto-kamapdh. 

— Pa/tidawis leaf-, shimdang. 

— pnt on' one's, haAhonp ' hashe ; 

— take off one's, Idh-kanga. 

Hatch (as a fowl), et-teich-hala ; 

Hatchet, ealoin. 
Hate, hat-sho-ka: 
Hanghty, hdnk-ngato. 
Hani np a canoe (ont of the water), 

pSk-hUa ; (on to its stand), tbm-hala. 

— a rope, or a canoe-ehell along a i 
portage, tvak-hafa. \ 

Hannch, hen'Shdi-chakdr-kdi-ehirnang. 
Have, dt ; kbd^de ; ka^kat; I 

1 have only six spears, cMa (o- 

ntafadl ndang shone* St. 
How many coconntB have yon got, 

kardm noang ngodi meA ka-kat. 
I have plenty of rice, kdd-d« arosh 
chata hod. 

.y Google 



Have you (got) another P St kan 

diawa ? 
Hawk, mi-s^M; kaldng-ok-yaak (being 

separate apeciee). 
Hawfc-bill turtle, kdp-keai. 
Haze, oih. 
Hazy (see " Dim"). 
He, an ; na (see Ex. at " Beg," 

"Thence,'' aud "Time"). 
Head, hoi. 

— (flattened at occiput), kdi-ta-jjitdnh. 

— back of the (occiput), (kdi-)ddsha. 

— crown of tbe, ol-pila-koi. 

— of ft bed or, Id-kdi-la. 

— of a Bpear, Id-jnoanh; Id-'moah- 
chafed (-ihanen or mian). 

— -ache, chok-koi. 

— .band (o( Pandanvs leaf), ahan- 
oang (-dai-larom). 

(of ailver), panot-Mi. 

(of silver), we&r, pot-kdi. 

— -poat at graTe, komching ; pentila ; 

— -man, omyda; ennyula; karunga- 

laud, moaiih-mattai. 

— -wind, oshul. 

— turn the, upwards, ok-pdHk. 

— turn the, downwards, ol-tigol. 

— tarn the, aside, ong-teng. 

Heady (intoxicating), kodmg-oal; yQ- 

Heal, (k.}.), beat; peat; aide-heat. 
Healed, leiU-hedt. 

— nearly, enk-ngayan ; enh-ngashe. 
Heal (v.t.), bedt-tai; alde-bedt-tai (see 

Ex. at " Cure"). 
Healthy, md(k') -ngayan.. 
Heap («.), (as of coconuts, rubbish, 

&c.), tomalnga ; tom-mUla. 
Hear, ydng.* 

Did you not hear the gun ? ydug 
met ta leang hiiidel f 
Hearken, Aateng'.* 
Heart (the organ), kbi-'pav.l'wa. 

— (seat of the affections and paeaiona), 

Heart, disease of the, fu,-paniwa. 

— -born, yak. 

— of the jungle, trnj-ywanj-cAwa. 

Hearth, Aifot; dhuk-het^wdvo,. 
Heat (of fire), taim-dnha.-ta-'h^. 

— (of sun), tam-kdi-ta-heng. 

— (of body), tain-SAha. 

— (of clothing), tam-dnha-ta-loe. 

— (of hut), ni-ta-tain-oal. 

— prickly-, kdcun-heng. 

— iron in fii-e (v.t.'), et-tota-hat. 
Heave (a weight^, haleang-hanga. 
Heave up (hoist), halain-hala ; oh- 

tuak-la ; heave Dp ! tok-laka-eh I 
Heaven (the sky), kala-hoiya. 
Heavy, lang-an. 
Heavier, len-ng&tia. 
Heaviest, lenngd/ina-ka\ 
Hoed (attend to), kapnga-nwng. 
Heedless, tom-chiia-Tigay an. 
Heels («.), kent'6la-liih. 

— (as a3hiporboat),flAMm(eny-n3(i)-e; 
chumteng -shire. 

Height (of a hill, Ac.), duala; riiala. 

— (of animate objects), dMala-koi; 

Ton and I are of the same heig>it, 
meA ch'lia hSange diiala-koi. 
Heir, hen-skdt. 
Helm, pandma - hen - laridla (se' 

" Steer "). 
Helmet (see " Hat, fighting- "). 
Help, ySUchakd; opskdpto. 
Helpless, kat-heang'dok. 
Hem of a garment, op-h^. 
Hem (v.t.), op-hep-hata. 

— (cough to draw attention) (v.i.), 

Hen, kaTKoe-kdn. 

— -coop, ong-yianga-kamde (App. N", 
item 98). 

Hence (adv.) (time), hala; tare. 
Three months hence, Ide tare kama- 

— (adv.) (place), Ibngto-itd. 

— (therefore), lang-nga-shlan; an- 

Henceforth, hen-ndng-nga^hi (tee Ex. 

at "Future, in"). 
Her (pron. obj.), ten-an; wen-am. 

— (ohj. form of the pr(m.),ta-eh,as tm 

alternative form of an; la-an; 
ten-an; wen-an. 



Her own, 1 , 
Hers, 7^'9-««- 
Herd, mom-fdma-ihe. 
Here, itd. 

Hereabout, pa-yai-yan. 
Hereafter, haru-he; ehaiyHh. 
Hermit-crab, komedl. 
Heron, pond-, luhd. 

— reef-, chudnk. 
Hesitate, vm-hata. 
Hew, ong-dbng-hanga. 
Hiccongh, (».».). hida. 

Hide (cover, conceal) («.(.), Tiamut- 
hanga ; hamot-nga-chakd. 

— (tie concealed) (y.i.), mUt-ngare. 
Hidden, ham-aie. 

Higli (as a tree or lint), chbng; I6dk- 

— (as a hill), ch^ng-kci : loah-hala-ltdi. 

— (as a cload or bird), chbng-dit; 

Hij^her (see " High"), ehinbv^a ; 

chinbnga-kdi; chinbnga-dit; lennoah- 

hala; lennoah - hala-koi ; lennoah' 


Go up higher ! kebid-lare ! 
Highest, ehinbnga-ka- ; chhibnga-kdi- 

ha' ; chinbnga-dit-hi' ; lennoak-hala- 

ka' ; lennoah-hala-koi-ka' ; lennSah- 

hala-dit-ka' . 
High-land, chbng-mattai. 
sea, koya. 

— -water, tomdd. 

-mark, chakd-panwa-tomdd. 

Hill, henyHan. 

— saniinit of, koi-henyilan. 

— -side, fdp-henyiian. 
Hilly, kebSiTig-kebang-kdi. 
Hillock, kebdng-kebang. 
Hilt, jpandma-kirih. 
Him, ten-an; wen-an. 

What did yon give him P ckSan leat 
hcTnkwom mei ten-an ? 

— (o6)'. /orm of the j>ron.), task,. as 
an alternative of ten-an; wett-an. 

Hinder (ii.(.), kd-gah-nga-tdh. 
Hindermost, mand(k)nga-ahi. 
Hip, koi-shiniang. 

Bippocamput brertrosfw (sea - horse) , 

Hire (vJ.), hai-yHah-hata. 

His, an; ta-an. 

His own, ehang-an. 

Hit, any object with gnn or oth^r 

weapon, tap&k; taiyS-tai* (gee 


Ton hare hit it at last, men aide 

— (with a spear), laiyo-tai-shdk. 

— (with a Btoae), omtdm-ta-mangnge. 

— (with a gnn), tatyo-tai-harilla.* 

— (with a stick), ori-fia(tt. 

— (with the fist), ahinkoA-hata. 
Hither, ten-enh; (from any direction), 

oid-lare (see "Come," and App. B,a). 
Hoard (amass), tomdl-le-yandi. 
Hoarse, at. 

I am. quite hoarse from singing for 
aeveral days, taina chiia yolheng 
ikdsha ehua at. 
Hoax (*. and v.), halahnga-ndng. 
Hobble (f.i.)> »ha-ngdna. 
Hoe (f .(.), okshdka. 

— (a.), fiifaik (or htfaitk). 
Hog, not (-fa-ledt-poaka), 
Hog'e-lard, hong-heang-n^t; kapdk. 
Hogshead, pipa; finha. 

Hoist, wl-hala; haiyat-hala; halain- 

— a leaf sail, et-yiiaila-loe. 
Hold (v.t.), kaiydng-hanga. 

— anything npright, IcSmnga-thakd. 

— (of ship), hin-ldha. 
Hole (in the gronnd), kehoi. 

— (in wood and cloth), kehoah. 

— (of the ear), kehoah -oal-ndng. 

— (in lobe of ear), lanonga-ndng. 

— in hnt floor for convenience of in- 
mates, henlodha. 

— (dig a), kaichuat-piet. 

— (drill a), ong-ling. 
Holiday, heng-komatb. 
Hollow, keh6ah~oal. 
Uolothvria edulie, kolpal. 
Home, n»-re; chuk-nl. 

This is my home, nie ehuk-ni-rhiia. 
1 will stay at home, ch&a kald f-n 




Hone, dandha. 

Hoaest (Ul. "bring-price-umn"), okai- 

yai-paiyuh; akaih-yanto. 
Honey, golden, ddkmat-toHa. 

— black, ddk-mal-holowa. 

— -bee, golden, Idna. 
black, ghei-holSuia. 

— -oomb, golden, ni-idio. 
black, ni-holouia. 

— -Bucker {Nectarinea peetoralit or 
^thopyga Nicoharica), hatlait. 

Hoof, Idh. 

Hook, fiah-, karati-hetldt. 

— frait off a tree, Ita-ken; ha-hen- 

— up a fisb-trai), bucket, Ac., ha^heai. 
Hooked pole (toi gathering fmit), 

(for lifting and lowering well- 

bncket, &c.), henheati 
Hoop-irdn, ndt-flnha. 
Hop (t>. and «.), ka-chiianla; ka- 

Hope, en- tot. 
Horizon, keam-kalahoiya; hea/m- 

iamale; chang-kalafidiya^ 
Horizontal, okdl. 
Horn, hen't^. 

Horse, g<frd (from Hindnattini gkora). 
Hospitable, maha-ngSk-paiyuh; thavta- 

Host (entertainer), paiyHh-komcUS; 


— at memorial feast (i.«., tihe chief 
monmep), chia- chdM- komortidk; 
ennyulahe-komorudk . 

Hostile, homoyufig. 

Hot (fromraysof sun), toifl-A^; heng- 

— (from taking exercise, or from 
excess of clothing), kedyan. 

— (of boiling water), tain. 

— pangent), kardng. 

— (from fever or heat of fire), tain- 

Hot-water, ddk-ta-fain; ddk-hokpdk. 
Hoar(timeof day),»noo-(iioA,- in6a-atS. 
At what hour are yon going away ? 
kd inda-ato men kaiytnya ? 
House, wi. 

House- warming (-feast), odnhnga-nl. 

Hover ehehd. 

How (by what means), kd-lai. 

How do you make this ? kd-tai •men 

How d'ye do ? (to one person) met' 
chai ■ i^iaehd - ka' ? metchai ■ cha- 

How d'ye doP {to two persons) 

indt-chai-chachd-lui-? iadt-eihai- 

eha-rakdt ? 
How d'ye do P (to more) ifet-chai- 

ehachd-ka' ? ifSt-chai-eha-rakdt f 

(See " Salutation.") 
How many, kaiom; kardmj kd-ettdoh- 
How many paddles have yon got ? 

(lit., to (i.e., with) you, katom 

noang powah ten men j* 
Uow (in what condition), kd^yan. 
How waa he yesterday P kdyan ha- 

an ta-minyiii ? 
How big, kari. 
How big is yonr canoe P kaH dOe 

How deep, hachin-ydtea. 

How deep is that wellP kachinydwa 
ana oai-ddk ? 
How far, kd-riia-hanga. 
off (speared or shot, Ao.),Mrua- 

How fat, kcui-fdp. 
How high, ka-riiala. 

How high is your hut ? kariiala ni 
How short, ka-ra-mHat. 
How long (what length), ka-riiat. 
(time), ka-riiat-^ ; (interrc^.) 


How long will you stay hereP kd- 

ihanitashe me» kdtii itd ? 

How long (time in the past), ngoihi. 

How long (time in the future), ta-shi. 

How long ago (if same day), kd-riia- 

How long ago, ka-riia-hanga-yan. 
How many more, katom-tare. 

In how many (more) days will he 
return ? katom-tare rd/m an shied- 
tare (ddk) ? 

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How man; times, kardm-shud. 

How manj timee have 7011 been to 

ChowraF kardtn-thud meii ledt 

itOa Tatat ? 

How mach (qaantity), kd-endoh- 

ngtMhe; kcni-she; baa-i-hala. 

How much rice have joa gotP 

karishe aroeh ten men kt^t ? 
How mach remains (how much 
more), kari-lare-the. 
How many remain, hari-tat-ehe. 
How much has been paid P kari-kata- 

How mach (valae), kdshi-yai. 

How much does that costP kdahi- 

How old are yoaP kd-shani-la-toh 
men ? 
How soon («ee "Honr"), kd-in6a- 
fUbh; kd-in6a-at6 ; kd-Tiia;^lwre-t6 ; kd- 
enlain-ne-she ; kd-hanamt-ngala. 
How soon will you bring my canoe? 
kd-inda-atd men okai la (MB cha ? 
How tall, lia-rviiJAi-ltoi. 

How tall is that man? kaer^la-koi 
one paivKh ? 
How wide (of a ship)i ka-rewnat. 
How wide is yonr ship ? ioreniTiai 

(of ship or canoe), hd-ri-fd^-. 

(of hnt or plank), hd-rl-tdk: 

Howl (as a dog), ho-ang, 

— (as the wind), hdii. 
Hag, fum-haia. 

Hall (of a ship), hai-hecmg-ta-shlre 

(lee " Shell " ai canoe). 
Ham, kai'^yiien-kandi-the. 
Hnman b^ng (we "Person" and 

Humpback, homuh. 
Hondred, of men, &c., tanai-mmn- 


— of ooconnts or rupees, lanai- 

Foot hundred men, hedng-inai- 
momchvi/ma yuang (paiyuh). 

Four hundred coconuts, heang- 
vumichiama noang ngodt. 

Hunger appeased (said after a meal), 

Hungry, bint-nga. 

— (and faint), kechauyan. ■ 
Hunt turtles, haleah-iap. 

— pigs, haiyitan. 

I am fond of hunting, chUa ydhngatS 
at night by spearing from tree, 

at foot of which food is placed, op- 

Hurl a stone or weight, haleang-hanga. 

— A spear; ihdk-hala. 
Hurry (v.t.)^ ha^cha-lai/Mi. 

— (v.ii}i haldJi-hatshs. 

Don't be ih a hlirry, wrbt wie4 holdh^ 

Hurt (v.t), chok-tod. 

Why do^u hurt him ? ehdwe mei 

ehbktat ten an ? 

— (y.i\), chbk-hata^ 

— oiie'e self acddehUilly, thian^ni-' 

Husband, kbin. 

— (deserted by his wife), momal- 

— (who deserts his wife), y^-e-Hn-iJe. 
Both the husband and wife are 

good, dire ta kdnde-kbinde tuldng- 

Hush! hdid! 

Husk, ok-yuatig-onihaiii 

— (coconut), kenthit. 

— (v.i.), coconuts, gt-sJidta ;* et- 

— (y.L), betel-nuts, owiTtga-ok; et- 

HuBky (hoarseX at. 
Hut, mi; 

— (dome-roofed), M-Jwlput. 

— (pent-roofed), nl-hille. 

— (with curved outline, like tilt of 
waggon), ni-lO'^tbp-ghe. 

— (of oval form as at Car Nicobar), 

— (small, temporary), kanskiapa. 

— framework of, loane-nt; mane-ni. 

— (lying-in), ni-kamay^'a. 

— -owner, chamang-M. 
Hypocrite, mildi-yanf$. 



I, ckiia; cKa. 

Who Hpeared the (wild) pig? (Atn 

fhdh sharudl? I (did) {lit., by me, 

or lay hand), tai chua. 
Identify, hakap-pi-mai-de. 
Idle, hat-kalai'van; hat-kamalai-yan. 
If, yS. 
If joa bring it I will give joa a 

present, y6 ^nei okai-hata- chwi 

kiobmrhata faneaUhe ten meii. 
Ignita (v.tOi haiyHin-heoe. 

— (v.i.), mo-dik-hare. 

Ignorant (uninatrDcted), hat-heang- 

— (aniicqnainted with), hat-akdk. 
Ignana, huyi. 

Ill, tu. 

Ill-fitting, kdhd^wait-chakd. 

Illiberal, hat-thTtybng-yanto. 

niamiaate, okngdk. 

Ill-tempered, 1tSh-to. 

Imitate, hom-ywi-ski; hom-yut-nga-ehi. 

Immediately, hSang-shidMna. 

Cook some rice immediately, paxtthe 
arSe hSang-thidHna ongehdng. 
Immense, hodA-ngO'the, 

Immoral, J 
Immovable, t«p-ngayan. 
Impartial, hat-milok-paiyuh. 
Impatient, pishlh-oal-daha. 
Impenetrable, as dense jungle, oal- 

— aa a thick target, hat-lMinih. 
Imperfect (nnfinished), tooA^t-skUhi. 
Imperial pigeon {Carpopkaga itisu- 

laris), mumu. 

— — (pink-eyed) (Janthoenat palum- 
boides), hakdk. 

Important, an-ka'. 

Impossible, hat-wat-dUanga-tai. 

Impotent, met-pdta. 

Id, en; at; oal; ta-oal ; hit; kata; 

katah-oal; ten (see " A.t"). 

He wants to live in that village, on 
yS kdto oal mattai one. 

Thpre is a taste of sngar and of 
lime in this, katah-oal nee ta-yande 
thiink yande haroait. 
In future (gee "Fatnre"). 
Inattentive, shot-Tigaya^. 
Incisor (front tooth), nwng-ldng-ne. 
Incessantly, dal-dal. 
Inclose (fence in), wi-kentdng ; katamg- 

Inoomplete, kdha^mait-ehakd. 
Incorrect (inaccurate), hal-tang-tathe. 
Incurable, hat-doh-eiihTtgashe. 
Indecent, hat-dai-chakd. 
Indeed (in tmth), ka-; pa(-rek) (see 

Ex. at "Who," (rel.), and at "Much"). 
Indent (notch), vna-lenhok-lmnga. 
India, 'mattai-Bengdii. 
Indian com, horondta. 
Indigestible, kat-dh-agayan. 
Indispensable, an-ka\ 
ludividual, yuang; paiyuh; dAh (see 

Indolent, luU-kalai-yan ; hat-komcdai- 

Indnstrious, kdUd-yan; hymalai-yan. 
Inebriated, Kuyine. 
Infant, jpoiwie; hemtidna. 
Infectious, taiy&. 

Small-pox is infections, mail ta 
Inferior, pait-lenpda. 
Inflexible, hat-ime. 
Inflammation, fol-ngare. 
Influenza, Aof^na; tanwya. 
Inform, ha-ydng; ingah-kaiiie ; ha- 

Inhabit, kdto. 

Inhabitant, of country or island, shorn. 
— of villf^, inmate of hnt, komato ; 

Inhabited, ydka. 

Inhale, e^out- We; he-nyttdk-lare. 
Inherit, manaya.* 
Inhospitable, tai-c^AM^&c%; hai-skom' 

Injnre, hakdh-hanga-shi. 

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Ittkipeftshinwa-anet- Uhare. 
Inl&nd, oal- (or bl-) oMa. 
Inmate of hat, homatoi hamaio. 
Innocent, h<U-met-pbta-she. 
Innamerable, hoa. 
Inqaire, hamd-chdkd. 
Insane, arodf-paiyuh. 
Inaact, sftet; ekiohua (also "Bird)", 

Insert (pat in), ka-fiat-hanga. 
Inside, oal; bl; katdk-oal. 

It is inside yoar month, an Jcatah- 
oalfdng men. 
Inside-ont, ta-lain-io. 
Insipid, hat-shtang. 
Instead, Iten-ola. 

I give jon this instead of that, chUa 
nee ten nun ktoomhata k^i-ala ane. 
Instep, ok'ldh. 
Instrnment (strii^d mnsical-), da- 

Insufficient, hat-wbtshe. 
Inanlt (abaae), ha-iidi-ngato. 
Intelligent (able to explain or intei*' 

pret), leto-ghiTB. 
Intemperate, y6-huy!ne. 
Intend, yo-chakd. 

Interfere (meddle), ha-skAiJe^-ngasht. 
Interference, hen-thdiky-nga-shi. 
Interior (inside), oal; bl; kata-oal; 

— (inlaxid.), hata (or katah^-oal-mattai 

(or -ekwi). 

His temporary hat is in the interior 
(of the jangle) kala-oal-chua kan- 
ehiapa an 6t. 

Intemode (q£ sngiir-GBJte, bamboo, 

&Q.'), chamiya. 
Interpret, hentoaya. 
lutermpt (when one is bnsj), ha- 

Intestine, large, pofwdk-pat. 

— small, pqfwdk-ka\ 
Into (we "In"). 
Intoxicated, kuybie. 
Intoxicating, la)dng-oal. 

Invisible (lit., shade-coloOi'), dH- 

Invite, imdya* 

Iris (of the eye), pendl-oalmdt. 
Iron («.), karau. 

— (ad?.), ta-karau. 

Irritable (easily provoked), kSk-t6 
Irritate (provoke), kakd-ngat$. 
Is, 6t; J^d-de. 

There is water there, kod-de ta-ane 
Island, ^ulnja; m-attai. 
Islet, pulnga^ta'Ompenehe. 
Isthmna, penenknga-'maitai. 
It (prom., fiom.) an; no; (06)'.), an; 

ten-lira; an-an ; aM-e» (see Ex. at 

"Make "). 

It is above it, an la-hoi an. 
It (oij. forTii of the pron.), fa-ek, an 

alternative form of tea-an; wen-an, 

Ita, an; ta-an. 
Iteh, •pwhlh-diiha. 

— -mark (skin disease), pen^lah. 
Ivory, ehin-dol. 

Jabber, poehl-hat-nge. 
Jack-tree (Artocarpus integrifolia), 

— fruit of, yuang-paydl. 
Jacket, of cloth, kanyUt-lama-oh. 

— of cotton, kenhoin-la/ma-ok. 
JE^ged, ka-ySn-ya. 

Janthoenas palumbotdes (pink-eyed 
imperial pigeon), kahdk. 

Janaary-Febmary (the lunation : 

Jar, shiton ; kvran. 
Jaw, npper, sha7na-ld-chbttg. 
— lower, shama-ld-eshe. 
Jawbone, ong-eng-shoMa. 
Jealous, mikeh. 

Jetty, kola-hifua; hen-duanga. 
Join (in carpentry), hakdp-liata. 




Joint (node), otah. 

— (in an&tomy), ok-Wta. 

— knnckle, l^kdka. 

Joist, apper row of, of hut floor, eld~ 

— lower now of, ot hut floor, eld-kdn. 

— tau-nang. 

Joke, tnildh ; ndioh. . 
Journey, by land, kaiyi'thbng. 

— by Bea in ship, ong-r/iang-chSng. 

— by sea in canoe, da-miian ; d&an ; 

Joyfnl, dak; hdkoh. 
Jngglevy (aa performed by a bad 
sbaman), Icalo-nga-eiii ; hamok-nga- 

Juice, ddk-mat. 

The jnice of this pine-apple is sweet, 

nee yBang shwru chyu ddk^mat. 
JnJy-AngDst (the lanation in), daoeh- 

Jnmp (leap), chat. 

—~ flat, hoi-chdta ; hoi-shildh, 

— higli, etchdtnga-koi. 

Jump down, fbng-the ; ten-Jbngdte. 
Jnne-Jaly (the lunation in), c^nnt. 
Jungle (aea,Ttiieafia,),oal^hua;hl'ehiia. 

— (at some distance from the coast), 


— (dense), oal-chna-ta-tuchil. 

— (light), oal-chiia-ta-ySai, 

— : (heart of the), ong-yOang-chua ; 
ong-y&ang'ldfbng . 

— (secottdary), enehon, 

— (go to the), ongthong-oai-chMa. 

— -fowl, chui. 
Junior, one's, teydh-latH. 
Junk, ehdng-heangla. 

Just, hat-initoh'^paiyiik ; yanga («ee 


He has just gone, yanira e&uh en an. 
Just (exactly, no more aud no less), 

yiih-ngare (gee " Exactly"), 
Just as (re!.), ydta-thiri (ie« Sx. at 

"Like which"). 
Just now, yuang-oe-ngaytm ; aide; 

bide (see "Bride " and " Heal "). 
Just so ! Mi-ka- ; VKit-tki. 

Kat«h^l (inhabited island in centre of 

Nicobar jjronp), Tehnyxt. 
Keel, ok-hen-kda. 
Keen, sharp-edged, shong. 
eared, rnong-y&nga. 

— -eyed, -mohlwa. 

Keep (f.), ttymdlnga-ehl ; tia-i^- 

— np (or bank) a fire, bnh-shd-heoe. 
Keepsake, hapngato-ta-tanealghe. 
Kernel, of betel-nut, dnha^al-yuang' 


— of coconut, ripe, e-nyiH; unripe, 
h^tchain ; when Sprouting, hoak. 

— of jangle nuts or Beeds, dAha-oal- 

Kerosene oil (lit., water-fire), daJt- 

Key, temodn. 

— -hole, chakd-tmwdnya. 

— turn the, in locking, tiwdn-hanga ; 

Key, tnrn the, in unlocking, tiw&n-'hala. 
Kick, with the toes, koMhuen-hata. 

— with the sole of foot, tan-kanga. 

— aside, koU-hanga. 
Kidney, kerupong. 

Kill, ori (or odf) -nga-fdh. 

— an insect (as by crushing it), en- 

— a pig, kalok-hata ; tiko-hata. 

— a fowl, op-chip-ddeha ; tiko-hata. 
Kind (ai/.), ydk-ngayan; iyei; akaih- 

Kind (sort), kamoya; •mandUt; pen- 

Bvery kind (all sorts) (»ee " Sort "), 
Kindle (a fire) (v.t.'), kaiyuin-hede i 

King, den (from the Portaguese). 
King-conch (the shell), ok-ilaila. 
King-fisher, sbok. 
Kinsman, paiyHh-oal-M. 
Kiss (see " Sniff "). 




KnaVs, nietikbiSa-ghe. 
iCnead, hendech'hata. 
Knee, hoi-kanoang. 

— -CA^t tuiy^k-kdi-Jcanda/ng, 

^aesl, paiwn^'ta-k&i-kanoa'ng ; eadoari- 

Knife, inoat; innoat. 

— olaap-, in6at-kdhd-wi^. 

— toddy-, inoat-toak, 

— aa formerly made from old scrap 
iron, hStdm. 

— (dhd), kid&ma. 

— handle of, pandma ; pomadma. 
Knob, shinkon-hamat. 

Knock (v.L), komdwdk-hata. 

down (y.t.'), paldla-dit-tM. 

with, the fist, tompaiii-ngare. 

Knot in cone, hair, string, &a., lUoata. 

Knot in wood, onlkai-tin-ybknga, 

— slip-, henpiial. 

— (v.t.), tUOai-hanga ; oltual-hanga. 

Knotted cane-Btrip conveying invita- 
tion to memorial feast, titdoata (see 
App. N, item 87). 

— (when used with numeral), Tomtit- 
Know, akdh; enkdh'ngat6. 

I don't know, chit cMk; also dnya' 
pa; diiya-chiih. 
Kjinckle, mat-kanelai ; (ckang-) Jnne. 

— -joint of finger, Imkdka {-kanetai). 
Koel (Indian cnckoo), kapdk. 
Kopra (dried coconnt kernel), ngodt- 

Kortkaltia taaphigera, ahcumaa. 

Laboar (work), fcenfon-«jasA«; wi, 

— of ohildbirth, ok-chok. 

Lad, yuang-fomiain ; ioHda-mai/dl. 
Ladder (with epokes), haldkj haidk- 

— (notched or "monkey"), haldk- 

— (for dogs and pigs), henfeama. 

— (for ponltry), kendilanga. 

Ladle, soap-, haneat-ddk ; taiydk-ckHa. 

— sance-, ok-lewUa. 

— (gravy-spoon) yuang-hindm. 
Laden (of a ship or canoe), maknya- 

indma ; ledl-yudka. 
Lagoon, oal-ddk-ta-karu. 
Lamb, koan-kdpre. 
Lame, ghiiam. 
Lament, at-latS.* 
Lamp, iii-hede. 

wick, loe-heoe. 

IJand {v.tJ), in-dan-hata. 

— (v.t.), tenohvah-ngare (or 'hare) ; 
ehtM^-hM ; dan-kai. 

Land (country) mattai'. 

— (soil) Au. 

— flat, t&-h6i. 

Land, billr, kehSmg-kehang-Ttoi. 

— -orab (not eaten), ka-chiha; J^ng- 
the; kfUbng-chafd. 

(edible variety), m«T({an; ta- 

— -slip, dfi-tai-yat. 

— -shell, sAei-oai-cAtio. 
By land, kaiyl-thong. 

Landing-place, kola-rue. 

towards the, ta-ngaiiie. 

Langaage, ehanai(_eh) ; chanai(J) ; 

Lantern, ehuk-heoe. 
Lap (as a dog), ku-ddk'hata. 

— (the knees when seated), puZ^. 

— (sit on the), poytt-ooZ-^ttJo; iwa. 

— place on one's, ii. 

Lard, hapdk ; hong-hedng-not ; pen-lav. 
Large, karu ; kadii. 
Larger, endiia ; ketuMa. 
Largest, endua-ka' ; kendHor-ka'. 
Larra (of the Great Capricomis 

beetle), aa-kdt ; daitumdi. 
Larynx, kuldla. 
loan together with cane, string, fibre, 

&c., ndk-hata ; ok-ndk-}uita.* 
B 2 




Lass (see " Girl "). 

Last {hindiDost),mand{k)-ngatM. 

— (neit before the proseot) teiii- 
ngimg ; ong-eih. 

Laat month, leiil-ngong kdhS; Tedhe 

— night, wahS. 

— quarter of the moon, Icanedl. 
At last, aide ; bide. 

Hit at last, aide taiy6-tai (gee 
" Bride " and " Heal "). 
Late, hat-loor-tayan ; fbtn-tayan. 

The steamer ia late thia time, chong- 

henlain hat-loa-tayan nee heA. 
YoQ are Terr late to-day, linhen met 
loa-layan ha'. 
Later, in the same day, ma-Jea'. 

— some time hence, shaiyuk ; enydh. 
Lately, nain ; teyak ; Jie». 
Lattice-work platform in hot-roof, 

Laugh (v.), iti-hala. 
Laanch (».(.), hdii{j)-hain.e. 
Lay (set down), oyu- hanga; yu - 


— eggs of a bird or reptilia, oya. 

— out (or spread) food, ong-tbng- 

Lasy, hat-kalaiyan i eTiZah-ngaske. 
Don't be bo lasy, wbt men leai enlak- 
Lead (the metal), chumha. 

— (plummet), A««(ioI; 'henddl'lcaiyt. 

— heave the, hendol-kawdl-lianga. 
Lead (show the way), oken-han. 

— a blind perBon, tuah-ta-kodl. 
Leader, («ee " Guide"). 

Leaf, dai ; rai. 
mould, hayiwl. 

— pan (»ee "Chavica"). 

— midrib of, Icarval-dai. 

— — ■ sail, (furling), Ide-iama-Ao((«A. 
(rigid), hfenteka-dai-oyaa. 

— fastenings to torch, chanbm-pdl. 
Leak (in canoe or roof), ckiydu. 
Leaky (of canoe or roof), cha-hHang. 
Lean (rest against), of ati animate 

object, idiia-kare. 

Lean (rest against) of an inanimate 
object, kariia-hartga ; hashak-hanga. 

— on one's hands, shm-lare. 

— on another person's shoulder, 

— (adj.), kwbnp-ngashe. 
Leap (jump), chat. 

— foi"wards, hdi'chdta ; hoi-ghildh. 

— upwards, etchSinga-km. 

Learn, a languEige or any handicraft, 

hdliap-to ; ha-koTn-to ; Aen-fom-(o. 

I have had great troable in learning 

the English langnage, cAanai'(eA) 

Amtmat henkomtS hoS kehngayan 

ten chua, 

— (receive news), oMe-yang. 
Least (smallest, q.v.). 

— (ieweai),linnd-ngath^ka- ; pemtait- 
ghe-ka' ; witmeh-ftuhe-ka' . 

— (in quantity, in bulk), en-pait- 
ngashe ■ hf ; peitnai(_ck) - lumgatihe- 

— (in quantity, in bags), Knnd-ngojAe- 
ka,' ; winneh-tashe-ka' . 

Leather, bullock-hide, oJc-kapo. 

— sheep-skin, ok-kdpre. 

Leave (depart), katyi-nga; onge-ldk. 

— for return home, ckuk ; yU'ChUh. 

— in consequence of quarrel, pvng- 

— on a distant voy^e, hoi-ldh. 

Did he leave this morning P bttgodl' 
haki onge-ldk ka an? 

— (abandon), yt£-Aanjffl; yd-ehe. 

— (aUow to remain), oya-hrmga. 

— take-, m,d-ngare ; oyd-nga-gJii. 

— -oft, doaima ; yd-lare. 
Leavings (of food), yama-ka'. 
Lee- side, ta-la-kanSta. 
Leech, heiil ; helam,. 

Left (ainister), Id-tooaka. 

— -handed, mo-mwodk. 

Leg (including the foot), Idk. 

— calf of, kenmSana. 

— (thigh), pwiS. 

— ("Cochin," elephantiasis), putodftg. 
Legend, (see "Tale"). 

Leisure, hen-kat-kalaiyan. 

Lemon, karoait. 

Lend, kaiydh-hata; kaiydh-lo-tai. 



"Length, (in measnrement), rwa(; dmit. 
What is the length of that canoe F 

ka riial ane d/Ue f 

— (of time), ihani-taihe i rUat-to. 
What length of time will yoa ataj 

here ? ka eham-tashe ■meA . k&td 
itd ? 
Lengthen a rope, <fcc., fi<riap-Aa(o,- 

— a hut, Ac., hatS^-haine. 
Leas (i^ size), (see " Smaller "). 

— (in qoantity), linnd^ngathe ; viin- 

— (loweir),vnnneh-tashe ; pennait-ehe; 

— (in bulk), enpait-ngashe; pe7Vaai(ch')- 

Lessen (v.t.), vsi't'onvpenake. 
Let (permit),. ^tyaA. 

I won't let you eome, chit Jcaiydh 
tnen ehbngtare. 

— go (liberate), Idk-nga-ldh. 

— go (loosen hold of), oy3^\anga. 
Why did you let go of the rope P 

ohdtee rnen twnoka oydhanga t 
— ■ down (take down), Mit-Aa«fe. 

— (im^wroi.). ^ .' ii^lt- 

Let me sit down here, ISk (or *&oft) 

chUapcya ten enh. 
Let him make it, l&k (or shik) an 

Let them (two) go fishing, Idk (or 

shble) ond haleah-kda. 
Ijet u8 two go home, Idk (or thak) 

hen (or cha-ai) yuchuh. 
Let us all go home, Idk (or ahok) he 
(or chi-oi) ywikuh. 
Letter (note), lehcvre. 
Level (flat), ta (see " Flat"). 
Iiiar, favyuh'ta-initibi. 
Libation, (see "Offering"). 
Xaberal, ahwrna-ybng-yanto ; shu-yimg- 

Lick (v.t.'), kordk-hata. 
Lid (on hinges), koi-kopt^. 
■ — (loose-), terwp-fcot; kenop-chakd. 
Lie (falsehood), mittbi; m,d-nyilin. 
[This last word has been recently 
adopted in lien of mit&i, as a man 
bearing that as a napie has died.] 

Lie (speak falsely), mdttbi-olydla ; md- 

z— (lie or lay down), Jom ; Ibm-ttgare ;' 


— face downwards, /5i-sAire. 

— with head 'towards entrance of hut, 

— with feet towards entrance of hpt, 

Life (animate existence, aUo human 

being), dnh (see Ex. at " Soul "). 
Lifeless, kdpdh. 
Lift, ghindbng-hala ; shindbng-hata. 

— by the handle, ohlal-hala bl-chial- 
hala (upwards) ; bl - chlai - hathe 
(downwards) ; ul'Chial-hahati&siAti), 

Light (s.) ehu-ngai(_ch) ; chu-ngai(J) ; 
dain (in constr,} 

— flash of, nuii(eh). 

— of sun, chu-ngai(ch)-oal-heng ; teh- 

— of moon, chu-ngai(ch)-oal-kdhe ; 

— of, ehu'jtgai(eh)-tai'hede ; dain- 

— torch, Ac., chu-ngaiich^-tai-pdl ; 

— (flame), ;>aJa^wa, 

— naked-, hat-danoang-o-chtik-hede. 
Bring a light, kaita hede (or kadtcL 


— (not dark, of a room, Ac.), chu- 

— (not heavy), hat'lan^-an ; tdnk- 

Lighter (less heavy), ten-n&Tik-ngayan. 
Lightest (least he«.vy), (en-raunfc-iig«- 

Light (set light), haiyii-iTi-hieoe. 

Light a candle, haiyuin tnai^dh. 

— strike a, vn-heoe. 

— a cheroot, haiyuin-hata. 

— a torch, toin~hata; haioin-haia. 
Light up (illuminate), ok-ngdk. 
Lighten (by reducing weight), panieft' 

tart-she. . 

— (any loaded vessel by nnshipping), 

The canoe is beginning to sink. 




lighten it a little, tlMe hangen-hS 
paitehe okyuah-okwdh-hanga. 
Lightning, sheet-, mat(cA)-oai-feaIa- 

— forked-, pdla-leat. 
Like (resembling), ghlri. 

— this, ehiri nee. 

■ (thus), (see " Thus "). 

— that, skiri ane. 

Make it like this, not like that, wl 
gkiri nee mM ekiri ane. 
(some object in a northerly 

direction), ehiri ngdle. 
(some object in a aontherly 

direction), ihlri tigange. 
(some olqect in an easterly 

direction), shirt ngdhae. 
(some object in a weateriy 

direction), shiri ngaiche. 
(some object in direction ot 

landing-place), ghiri ngaine, 

— (similar), Jwang-aske. 

— what (interrog^, fc«-«Af(n), 

— which (rei,), ynta-shni. 

■ — the same (correZ.), jd(a~fcflaw3«ft«. 

Like which (just as) be mads this, 

like the same (so) yon must make 

another, y6ta'thiri leSi wi an an 

en, ySta-heangthe diaiea ota u4 

— the taErt« of (relish), ialdh-lare. 

■ — (fond of), ydhnga-thi, 

I like bim, ckUa ydkngatki ten an, 

— (pleased with), yd. 

I don't like living (in) your hnt, 
chit yo kdto ta ni 'me*. 
Likewise (also, taQ),an-d%atea., 
Lime (shell or coraJ), shun, 

— (Citrugli/metta), haroait. 

— sweet-, karoait-ta-chyti. 

— (a small variety), learoait-shMkak. 

— -jnice, ddlemat-ha/roait. 
Limp («.), shilamma. 
Limpet, en-ion. 
Xiimpid, dain-d&k. 

Line, harpoon-, partue-kap. 

— fishing-, panHe-kda. 
Linen, loe-hrwiyuam,. 
Linger, ha-ehd-i-iMre, 

Link (of chain), ma-hen-ldJca. 
Lip, manain. 

— upper, manoin-lar^hing, 

— lower, rnandin-ld-eshe. 
Liquid (fluid, g-*-)- 
Liquor, tcinj/o. 

Lisp, odon-hare-nge. 
Uston, hateng.'' 

— (as an eavesdropper), opyap-nga- 

Litter (brood), haiohdn-koande. 
Little, ompei-she ; pen-she. 
A Kttle, (1) pait-she ; (2) pai(ch)- 
hat. (No. 2 in reference to food 
Give me a little, paitshe hornkwom 
en'men ten ch/ila, (iee also " Small ") . 

— (in quantity), paHeh^-hangw-ihe. 

— Nicobar Island, .bng. 
Live (dwell), kdib. 

— (have life), hari-dik. 
Liver (the gland), atl. 

Lizard, house*, (large), woan; com* 
mon small, kaloh-chidka. 

— tree', ioi^A. 

Load (cargo), oleyHak. 

— (y.t.) a ship or a canoe, yudka;* 

— a gnu, katong-hashe. 

Bave yon loaded your gun P le&t 
m^A katong-hashe ? 
Loath to part (as inttnute friends), 

(•ee " Loth.") 
Loathe, omi'yantS. 
Loathsome, kelon-yan. 
Lobe of ear, (nnbored), hongtdng- 

(bored), lan&nga-n&ng. 

— — — (whether bored or not), 
henlamoa- ndng, 

bore the, loka-ndng. 

Lobster, hanbk-ngoa. 
Lock of hair, mel-ydta. 

— of door, chuk-tenwdnya-fodng. 

— pad-, chuk-tentcdnyO'shindAip. 
Lock (y.t.), tiwdA'hanga i tiv>dn-hashe. 
Lofty (see " High "), 

Log (of wood), m&ha-wing. 

— (of wood, rotten), ommi(J). 
Loin, dodnga. 




Loin-cloth (as worn bj males), neftg. 
back fastening of the, ghin- 

tail-iike appendage of the, det- 


wear the, ong-neng. 

adjnat the (or fasten), Zanua. 

put on the, wla-n^ng-de. 

— — remove the, ydhi-neng-de. 
aa worn by the females (see 

Loiter, ha-ehd-i-ghire. 
Lonely (solitary), o^au-^-sAe; oyau- 

Long (of animate objects), chamaling. 

— (not short), cko'ling i (longish) 
pen -na-ehaling , 

Longer, chin-tiv^a. 

Longest, chin-linga-lia' , 

Iiong (in time), chaling'to; of eating 

and drinking, ahi-ngonchaka ; shi- 

(osft« (see "Time"). 

I hac6 not drunk ram for a long 
time, shi'tiga-chakd chit top ta^am. 

— -ago, thungayan ; ghi-ngala. 
How long (see " How "), 

— -sight, moAuoa. 

— desire earnestly, kechih'yanto. 

— hare an eager appetite, yanga- 

I long for him (his return), ckiia ta 

kechih-yatUd ten on. 
I longed to eat some pork yesterday, 

ek'iiata^minyiii ywngor^hiang-ekakd 

piiah AAha-not. 
Look, haiTOrhata. 

Look ! someone is coming, harra I 

homdoh-paiyuh ddk. 

— throQgh ooroer of eye, kdhd-dol- 

— for (eearch), haladh-haia. 

— away (look on one side), loko- 

— askance, ol-dol-hata. 

— after (take care of), harra-nga-ihi. 

— oat (watch), hakd-i-mat-de ; hadua. 

— sharp ! wot^met'l6a (lit. don't you 
not quick), 

Looking-j^^ass, temeal-de. 

Loop round ankles used when climb- 

ing coconut trees, ytap (see Fart 


Loop (for snaring birds), ker^nia\. 
Loose, of a, rope, (see " Slack "). 

— of a coat, yiiai-Tiga-yan, 

— of a cork or ring, palo. 

That cork is loose, ane kennyanpalo, 

— of an iron nail or post, katiia. 

— of afinger-nail, box-lid, &o.,to/oa-Ae. 

— of a tooth, kd-loi. 

Loosen (v.t.), a tooth, komloi-hata. 

— cane or cord lashings, iydh-kaine. 
Lop twigs, &c., o-taih-hata, (see " Cut " 

with dkd). 
Lop-sided, ong-teng-h«-chakd. 
Lose, paiyd-eyan. 

— (as in a race), enydh-tarit. 

— one's way, chtm-nga-ehaJed. 

Loth to part (as intimate friends), 

Lotion, damtn'ok. 
Loud, loudly, kariisTie-ngS ; dithe-nge ; 

kom-du -Aas Ae- ta-ngere. 
Love (aa of parent or friend), (v.) ka- 

ydh-nga-thi ; (s.) hen-ydk-nga-ghe. 

— (sexnal) (v.), ka-kal-nga-eki ; (s.), 
hen- kal-Tiga-she . 

— make, hamteloTig-tSre, 

Lovely, ydh'ngai~sM - chakd; lapd- 

Lover, paiyuh-ta-hakalngtMhi. 

-'™ter }»«'"'■ »'"'■'-«!'<'*• 

— -.water-mark, ehakd-paniea-ngdh. 
below, chakd-yegha ; chakd- 

henlotoa; chakd-ngdh. 

— (shortly before), y^ang-ngdh^ 

I am going away shortly before 
dead low water, hen yUang-ngdh 
kaiyin^a chOa. 
Low, mean, thv,yong-yan. 

— not high, TtiieAh-ihire. 

Lower (adj.), etmeih-thire ; ennai- 

Lowest, ennai-ghire-lta' ; ettneih-ghire- 

Lower (v.t.), the hut ladder, tvak- 

hoAe ; htmichilai-hashe. 

— a bunch of nuts by means of a 
rope, enyan-haghe. 




Lower (v.t.), the wict of lamp, tom- 

— -jaw, ihama-ld-eehe. 

— -lip, manoin-ld-eshe. 
Lucky, tahdk. 

Lnff (in sailing), shil-tare. 
Lukewarm, 6e ; emoang-amSe. 
Lunation, himahen'wa. 

Lime, hentdp, 

— -disease, chwm-faka. 

Lnstrtun (for the good and evil 
spirits), kenUmg-nl, 

— (for monmers and gaests), datMui- 

Lying-in hnt, m-kamayiia. 
Lyre, da-nang. 

Machine (sewing-), he»l(ti»-ichih. 

Machinery, henlaifi. 

Macropygia rufi/pennia (red dove), oh- 

Mad, arodt-faiyuh ; tafong-yanlo. 
Maggot, hnnilok-kamap^ ; kawUdk- 

Magic (of a bad shaman), kal&-nga-ghi. 

— (of a good ahaman), mokea. 
Magician, pa/iyiih-ta^mokea. 
Maiden, holian-inihla. 

Maim (v.t.), wi-emg-ekiUmg ; homwdl- 

MEun.mast, katidma-ma-hong-yHang-w. 
Maize, korondta. 
Make, vn-hata;* momp-hata. 

— a hut,.wi-m* ; momt-«J. 

— a paddle, wi-powah. 

— a torch, wi-pdl; omehum-pdl. 

— believe (pretend), komchU-kata (or 

— leady (prepare), Jmiep-Ttga-shi. 

' — a noise, wi'karushe-nge ; poahi- 

— a noise (as hammering, dancing, 
Ac.), wai-tai (see " Do "). 

lam notmakinganoise.eAifwa^^i. 

— room (make way by stepping for- 
ward ),A(ii-njare(«ee "Move aside"). 

— room (by removing obstmotions), 

— peace, op-ydp-ghitd. 

— love, hamtetbtig-toTe. 

— a mistake, waitnga-tai-wi-'kanga ; 

I can m^e only one spear in four 

days, fSim ghinkdm heTtiSang n6ang 
ehanen liap wi chUa. J 

(Do thon) make it, skbk tnei u<i an ^ 

(Do you) make it (dual), ahbk ind 

wi on an, or wi indr'an an. I 

{Do Tou) make it (three or more), 

«A«fc ije wi an an, or wi ifer'an an. I 

(Do you) make it (of a community), i 

ehok yol-meii wi an an, or uii yo2- 

Malay, Mal&yu. 
Male, enkoi^. 

Mamma, amd; chia-(enkdna), 
Man, native of Nicobar Islands, pa/i- ' 

yuh-(_e7ikbina) ; y-uang-enkoina. 

— of a certain community or race, 

(Two or more), men of two different 
communities, dA (y&ang) laen- 

— any foreigner (see also "Male"), 
haling-(enkhiiia); paiyuh-kaling-(en- 
kiina) ; yilang-kaiing-(enkbina). 

— (married), leat-kdno; kamdtto. I 

— (immarried), Uii; hat-kdnn. 

— (widowed), ilH-machu; menchu-tat. 
-^ (old^i pomMghe(^enkbina'). 

— (deserted by his vrife), (<ee " Hus- 
band "). 

Man-of-war, chSng-pomombn ; ek&ng- 

Mane (of horse), hen-koya-gord. 
Manes (departed spirits), iwi-mekuya. 
liajige, hi-kbinsh. 
Mangosteen {Qarcima tpectosa, or 

comea) , pa/vgiiah. 




Man grove (Bhizophora mwronatd), 

— (Bruguiera gymnorhixa), len-chih: 
Mankind (all, or varions, races of), 

kati-ehak {-paiyuh) (see " Race "). 
Manner (style), mush-fai. 

— in this (thuB), ytang'hata ; wal-shl. 

— in that, shiri-tai-ane. 
Manners (behaTionr), penyuh-hare. 
Many, uru-hat-she ; kod ; endoh- 

Tigaeke; ydl. 

— (of ajiimate- objects only), lok. 
The natives of Car Nicobar are 

many, Ibk Pu ta-lok. 
■ — colored, htui-ahdk. 

As many (rei.) \ (see " As 

So many (oorrel.') J many "). 
Only so many, din-mdhat-ta-shian. 
This majiy, dammAh-tare. 
That za&njj darnnndh-tare-ane. 
How many (see " How "). 

■YT- r v,ruhatahe-hi\ 

Very many, J 
Harch-April (^e lunation in), kahd- 

Marine mollnBca, ghei-JcSi-ngdh. 
Mark (sign, aa a baoy), Aen-ndng- 

• — (target), henton-chakd. 

— (soar), henkon. 

— (with notches), hendowa; hd-ymia. 
make, o-kdni-haiiga. 

— (stain, g.p.), 
MaTriageable yonth, ila. 
maiden, hollan. 

Married man, leat-kdwy; hwmdno. 

— woman, leat-kdijw ; kaminiio. 
Newly-married, teydh-taghe. 

iiaxTow, dnha-oai-ong-eng f yd-oal-ong- 

Marry, of man, kamdn-ihe ; hiteak-kata 

(or shs). 

— of woman, kambina ; kileaJe-hala 

He is going to marry my daughter 
on his retom from Chowra, an 
shwdtare tbngto Tatdt yd hiteak- 
hcUa komt ck&a. 

Marsh, tukoa. 

Mast, kandma. 

Masticate, koyatn-hata. 
Mat, sleeping- (of Areca spathe), 

— coir-, tamt-tdh. 

— reed- (or leaf-), endapa-lah. 

sail, hetUeha-hiliia-ok. 

Matrimony, imhAfeak-she ; yoa. 
Match (matches), kewh&t-liedei wane- 

box, chuh-kenBhut-hede. 

Matter (pns), tbng, 

— (what's the)? fto-iAin-doA; cA-lWn)- 

— (no), (nerer mind), kdhd-tore. 
Mature, becoming (attaining puberty, 

of either sez), en^ta; eihla; wtktrt. 
May-June (the lunation in), hativmua. 
Me, ten-chiia; ten-eha. 

Give me that, ktubm ane ten-chiia. 
Meal (ordinary), hok-ng6k. 

— (festive), mSpbk. 

Mean (shabby), ehw/hng-yan ; tftai- 

Mean (signify), ngShe. 

"What do yon mean P ka ngehe men 
Meantime, hbiM-he. 

By means of, (at. 

By means of an adze, tax danan. 
Meaales, kahi-yiianga. 
Measure (v.f.), tdk-hata. 

— (arm-span of nearly 6feet) (fteawj-) 
tamdka (see " Fathom "). 

— (with the fingers), hatdn-hata. 

— foot or yard, hentona. 

— glass, hen-foata. 

— out (in glass scale), hafiiat'hata. 
Meat, diha. 

— (when stale), dnka-ta-iye. 
Meddle, ha-ikdlkyti^atki. 

Don't meddle with me, wot meA 
hashd(k)ngaghi chiia. 

— (interfere), ha^shd{k)-vgathi. 
Medicine, danun. 

- — (aperient), danwnr-ishAu ; danwn- 

— (astringent), danun-het-tahdu. 

— Gongh-, danttn-ooah. ' 

— for external applicatioQ, danun- \ 

.y Google 


Medicme-man, merUvaiia, 
Meet («..), kdh&-lH(j). 

Those two HtecimerB met yesterdaj, 
aTie ehdng-heoe tchdi nUnyiii kdha- 
festerdav I met Hamfil oa the road, 
mtnytH chita kdhaioi(J) oal ilw^ 
oha-ai Hamol. 

— (go to meet another), kdhd-shait. 
Meeting, inomtSma. 

Megapoditu Nicobarictu, miibteti. 
Melknoholy, o-ngoha-ohakd. 
Melon, iamlkai. 
Melt, of metal (o.), dng-na. 
(o-i-)i haToOih, 

— (disaolve), yiiit-nga (Ztt., disap- 

Memorial festival (lee " Feast"). 
Memory (escape one's), eltot-ngaio ; 

Meachal (islet off Little Nioobar), 

Mend wood- work, wi-hata, 

— thatching, o-wUa-ahi; haUp-hata. 

— clothing, icMh'haia. 

— clothing by adding a patoh, taldp- 

Menses, vuthdiiu 
Merghandiee, j/an-niA.; na-nth. 
Merchant (»m " Trader "), 

— -man, chong-jniiiih. 

Mercifnl, thnyong-yimto ; thom-yorig- 

Merely, hanta. 
Meridian, kdm-heng. 
Mermaid, shatvdla. 
Merman, cAonuro!. 
Meroe (an uninhabi'ted islet near 

Little Nioobar), Miriie; MeAriii. 
Mesh, hen-pual. 
Message, haydng-ta-ndng. 
Messenger, haydng-ta-ndng-paiyiih. 
■ — (conveying invitation to feast), 

paiyHh-ta-vmdya ; or paiyUth^-ta-OM- 
. th^-linloata. 
Metal, tomta-kdi-re. 
Meteor, makghdka. 
Meteorolite, sham-yudng-pala-leM. 
Hew (as a cat), ta-meau. 
Miotnrition, rai(J) ; rai(ch)-hanga. 

Midday, kdm-heng. 

aiddla, ong-yuang-cdl ; che-shire. 

— finger, moti^-yiiang-m. 

— of » circle, ong-yHang-ne ; ohi- 

— of a row, mong-y^ng. 

— of a length of rope, stick, postr- 
&C., mahong-yHanga. 

— of a jnngle, ong-ywi/ng-ehwu 
— ' of a canoe, img-yiiang-dMe, 

— -aged, ong-yvang-paiyHh. 
Midnight, yuang-hat&m,. 
Midrib, karual-dai. 

Midships, ong-yuang-chotig (or hifua, 

diie, &c.). 
Midst of (in the,) heatig-e-chuk. 
Midway, heang-molkdil-kaiyi. 
Mildew, shUang. 
MUk, no. 

— teeth, oywoA. 
Mill^-way, dak-oaX-hala-hoiya. 

Miln (an inhabited islet off Little 

Nicobar), Milok. 
Mimic, et-eha^t~»hle^^. 
Mince (chop fine), ok-daka.'' 
Mind (inclioation), enkdhia^io. 

— (attend to), kap-nga-ndng. 

— (remember), kap-ngato. 
Never mind ! kdhd^t&re. 

Mine, chang-ehHa. 
Mirror, temeai-de. 
Miscarry (bring forth prematurely), 

Mischievons, hai-chin.^igaghe. 
Miscoaat, kat-tang-tathe-haro-haaga. 
Miser, menehdn. 
Miserable, het-ydi^cK). 
Mislay, pe-yande. 
Misname, hat-tang-ia-leang. 
Misplace, to-hanga-tai-ahuk. 
Misproaoonce, hat-tang-ta-^S. 
Miss (with gonor spear), uoij; %at- 


Yon always miss, po(U^e metk 

— one's way, ohun-ng)i-fihalt&. 

— (fail in meeting or finding), kaJia- 
ihdh; kdha-wait. 

— (feel the absence of), et-^tnSta. 
Mist, oshi wh. 



Mistake, hat-tang-taehe. 

In mistake for, leM-nga-mat. 

— make, laietaken, wait-ngayan. 
]tfiy (two or more solids), ko-Un-hata ; 


— (two or more fluids), iaZAlit*; 

Miazen-ioast, kan&na-la-ridia. 

Mock, hom-yiii-itga-nge. 

Modest, dal-chakdi dal-ngatci; mSt- 

Moist, cha-att. 

Molar (double- tootb), tninyd. 
Mole-cowry, ok-pi-kdAla, 
Motlnsca, fresli water, shei-oal-ddk. 

— land, thei-oal-ehua. 

— marine, ahei-koi-ngdJi, 
Money, rvpia. 

— mouey placed in cheek of corpse 
before bnrial, oal-owo-pomandp. 

Monkey (Macao^g o^mymologot), dtten; 

Monsoon (the period of a monsoon or 
6 montlis), ihom-en-yuh. 

— (N.B.). hdAsh-ful. 

-(latter portion of), koi-kajid. 

— (S.W.), hangh-tho-hvng. 

— (N.E.) (prevalent direction of the 
wind in), f&Ua (see App. E). 

— S.W. (preralent direction of the 
vind in), sho-hdng-ta (tee App. 

Month, a lunation, kdhe. 

— a period equivalent to a Innation, 

Monthly, kdhe-kdM. 
Moon, kdhe. 

— -light, peh I chu-ngaiicK^'Oai-kdhe. 
-^- -leas, tnan&t ; katrnt. 

•^— (meridian altitude of the), ledm- 

— new, heangthe-kdhi. 

— (first qnarter), heang-ld. 

— fnll, ho'kngdka{-kdke) ; fvHak-oal- 
kdhi ; ong-yuang-kdhe. 

— (last quarter), kaneal. 

— irftxing, hen-nSni-oal-kdkS. 

— (wane of the), hi-noat - wt • oal- 


— waning, tenm/voa-7>a-oal-kdhe. 

Mooa-beam, da{n-kdhi. 

— commencement of a, ehaMala-kdhe. 

— end of a, kanat-ldh-kdhe. 
Moral (virtuons), dal-ehakd. 
More (t« constr.), tare. 

— (in quantity), some m ore, ^rt- tore. 
I want some more, ehua y6 paittara. 
A little more (in quantity),jiai'«(we-. 

she; enh'tare-ahe. 
Still more (in quantity), faiUart-- 

Mnoh more (in quantity), pennait- 

Very much more (in quantity), 


— (in quantity, in bulk), endfi-eAci 
ta-endua ; pentMi(eh)-hata-ghe; pen- 

— (in quantity, in bags), thivnan- 

— (in area), endi-ngashe. 

— (in popnlation), endHshe-paiy^h. 
There are more people in this village 

than in that, paiy&h ta-oal'inattai- 

nSe end-uehe ta-oal-mattai one. 
One more, keang-tare. 
Once more, TiSang-tare-ahud. 
Ko more, la-nedt-tare. 
What more, chua-ta-paiMare. 
A little more \hxa, pait-tet (see Ex.- 

at "Fathom"). 
Do a httle more ! pait-ta^eh I 
A Httle more (as of work), eihta- 

»he ; enhtOftai. 
A little more (as remaining in a 

bottle), enh'tigtuhe. ■ 
A little more (in asking for food or 

drink), pait-tare-the. 
A little more (distance to trftvel), 

A little more (distance to throw), 

A little more (time, soon), ma-ka- ; 

Moribnnd, kompdk-vgare. 
Morning, bl (or oal)-haki. 

He died this morning, an Udt kapdh 

ong ol-haH. 
It rained this morning, bng bl-haki 

leat amiAh. 




He died yesterday morning, an leat 

kapdh minyui bl-hal^. 
He ie coming to-morrow morning, 
haki ol-hala an dak. 
Moming-star, mu-ah&ha. 
Morrow, haki. 
Morsel (tee " Bit "). 
Hosqaito, mihoya ; (small species), 

— -curtain, kenhaa. 
Moss, put. 

Most (in qaantity, in balk), enduthe- 
ka' ; ta-endua-ka' ; pennai(ch)-katar 
. ghs-ka' ; pennait-ngashe-ka' . 

— (in area), endu-n^atihe-ka' . 

• — (^inpopalation), enduehe-ka'-paiy^. 

There are moat people in that vil- 
lage, paiyuh ta-oai-viattai ane ta- 
endushe'ka' . 
Moth, me-chuya. 
Mother, ckloren-kdna. 

My mother, ckia ch'enkdna. 
' Your mother, cAio itCffi^kAna. 
■^- when deceased, ■mong-'hSmg^ie-koi ; 

hamang-ne- ioi. 

— (an nnmarried), enhoan-hare. 

— (having one or mora children), 
paiyuh'ta-koano ; kamoano-tO'etikd' 

-r- -in-law, komyd-enkAjia, 

— -less, hai-chlao-ta-enkdna. 

— -of-pearl, ta-m-tnah. 
Mould, du-ta-&l. 
Moult, et-ldi(e}C)-}tianga, 
Monnd, Jwm^tom,. 
Mound-bird {Megapode), mifcieii. 
Mount (ascend a ladder), chuak-lare. 

— a horse, chiioh-la (see also " Aa- 
. cend," and " Climb "). 

Monntain, henywin-ta-ehdng-kdi. 
Monm, haii-hwdva. 

He is monming for his elder brothrr, 

an haAkwdva ta-chaa-re ta-kd/pdh. 

Mourner, men-kwdva; paiyuh-ta-hen- 

Mourning (the act), TiieTi-hwAva. 
■ — (alight, lasting abont 3 mouths), 

henhwdva-ka/nbishe. . 

— long, lasting full time, henhwdea- 

Mouse, komet. 

Month, oi (or oal)-fdng. 

— (on&ce of the), panuaka-oal-fd«g. 
fnl of food, khhdm. 

— -ful of drink, kokok. 

— palate of the, oal-menddla. 

— comer of the, et-kait-tiga-fdng. 

— open the, ong-dngkorchakd. 
-T— shnt the, op-mopha-chakd. 

(See "Water" (v.), and Fx. at 
" See "). 
Move (change posture) (v.i.), itoaya. 
Don't move, wot men itoaya. 

— (towardsthenorth)(o.i.),te(o(-J(we, 

— (towards the south) (u.t.), ketot- 

— (towards the east) (ti.)'.), fceioi-Aore. 

— (towards the west) (u.t.), ketot- 

— (towards the landing-place) (v.i.), 

— (towards any direction) (o.».), 

— (draw) (v.t.) (we "Draw"). 

— (crawl), as a cripple, ketot-de. 

— aside (v.t.), northwards, tomwlh 
(or tomheo) -tare. 

Houthwarda, tomwth (or (om- 

heo) -ngare. 
eastwards, tom/unh (or tomheti)- 

westwards, tomwlh (or tom- 

hSo) -thire. 
towards landing-place), tom- 

vnh (or tom,heo)-^ire. 
■ in any direction, tomwlh (or 

tomheo') -tare. 
Much (in quantity, in bulk), karu-she; 

pai(ch)-hita-ghe ; ta-karu ; ta-kadH;. 


— (in quantity, in bags, Ac), endoh- 
ngashe ; uru-haishe ; Bhan~ngashe. 

— (in area), karu-ngaghe. 

— more (in quantity), peTVnail-iare- 

Very much more (in quantity), pen-- 

nait- tofe- ehe-ka' , 
So much / '■^'^ much, ta-dislie. 
' \ that much, shian-ane. 




Ab maoli (fel.), dinmeiishi {see Ex. 

at " Aa much," and App. B). 
So much (oorrel.}, thinmeishi. 
Don't give much of it, wot na karu- 
Mdoiib, ihS»h ; jaSi. 
Mad, on the peraon, tKhUa, 

— as on road, dn-ta-paii. 
Muddy, pan. 

Covered with mud, du-mat. 
Multitude, miimtd-ma. 
Munch, ioyain-hata. 
Murder, taiha-kdi. 
Murdered, leat-dla. 

— peraon, pa^Hh-taAeat-dia ; lurn 
(victim, of a mnrder). 

Murderer, paiyuh-ta-ori. 
Murex palma-rosw (rosebud Bhell), ok- 

— tenuispma (vooicock.),oJc-iha-}iom- 

Mnacle, ihS. 

Muacular, kodng ; hat-mennoichya-yaa. 

Mnahroom, malohla. 

Mosio, ong-damg. 

Mnsioal iuatrument (stringed), da- 

Musket, kin-del. 
Muaael, heeu. 
Must, dSkta ; lai'. 

You muat come before noon to- 

Mute, hat-dok-oh/ola. 
Mutton, dnha-kdpre. 
Muzzle of gnn, moah-Jtiiidel. 
Mj, chiia; ta-ckiia. 
— own, ekang-chMa. 
Mjnah (^Etdabei javaneiieia), kd-niatt. 
ISytilvs shell (variety of, need in pi-e- 
paring Fandamu paste), ok-heeu. 

Nail (of finger or toe), ke-shuah. 

— iron-, Itu^, Iten-em ; small, tanSp. 

— head of, dit ; det . 

— point of, moah . 

Naked (uncovered), kat-oag-ydng ; 

— (in pvris naturalibue), hat-haang- 

Name («.), Uang. 

— (v.), ngen. 

Nameaake, kenmula; hsan^-e-tota-leang. 
Naming- feast, hati-hoha. 
Nanoowry (inhabited island in centre 
of Nicobar group), Ndrtg-kavm. 

— (the Government station in Nan- 
cowry harbour), Kin-ld-ha. 

Nape (of neck), dit-ddiha. 

Narrow, ompen-tdk. 

Nasty (uauseoua), t3ak. 

Native, paiy&h (or shorn-) mattai ; Kft. 

A native of Burma, lok Pigu. 
Navtibtg pompiUut, ta/mmah. 
Navel, /«7i. 
Neap-tide, hi-l&-ya. 

I obtained ten (edible) turtles at 

last neap, leiU-ngong hUdya thhm. 

noang kdp-kdapitd cha. 

Near (odj'.), enh. 

— (adv.% miinko. 

Hie hut is near mine, mi an enh ia 
Hi ckiia. 

— (a little further), enh-ta-yan. 
Nearer, en-nenha. 

Nearest, en-nenJut-ka'. 

Nearly (see " Almost " and " About "). 

I have .nearly 400 coconnts, eihta 
JUang-momchiama ngoat en chiia. 
Nearly finished (of work), eriA(a-s)le; 

(of the contents of a bottle or 

other receptacle), enhnga-she; yo- 


— full, ok-hoanka. 

— ripe, mgol. 

— arrived (ia travelling), enhta-yan. 

— hit (in throwing, spearing, &c.), 

Near-sighted, pv,td\-oal-Tn.dt. 
Necesaary, an-ha' fong-shi-t^re. 
Neck, ong-longa. 

— nape of, dit-ddsha. 

Necklace (silver or electro coil), het- 

— (silver bar), henkap-ocU-kuldla. 




NecklEtce, bead-, 'm(mleartga~maiau. 

" — (wear «), ^dt-malau. 

■ — (of split plantain leaf), fUm (tee 

App. S, item 145). 
Necktie, tamidl-oal-kttldltt. . 
Need, yo-hata. 
Needful (see "Neoeasary "), 
Needle, charum ; chanih-loe. 
Neglect, Idng-le-yan }' padl-ngayaM, 
Negligent, Ud-hatshe. 
Neighbour, ^aiyUh-tOr^miiAho-ehvk. 
Neither .... nor, hat~ham.doK .... 


1 want neither this nor that spear, 
chit yo hamdoh nee Mt hamdoh 
ane shanen. 
Nepheir, koan-ySl-enkbina; ioan- 

Nest (bird's), hmg-kdng. 
edible, hikai. 

— (white ants'), ni-doMn. 

— (orset, of boxe8,ifcc.),Aen-fcoa»a-ooi, 
Net, fishing-, wan. 

Net-fish (y.t.), hd-wan. 
Never, hal-mah; hat^indh (»e« " Not "). 
' ' r ' have never be^i to Calcatta, 
(chiia) chit rndh Kalkata. 
He never comes here, an hat-m^ no, 

Toa never heard it before (at anj 
time), met-mdh ydng do-ndn. 
>— more, mami(k)nga~t3-hS. 

— mind! kdiid-t&rel 
New, teydh. 

News, mingdh-hiine ; yan. 

Next (in position or sitoation), Mha- 

yiUng ; dlawa. 
■ — (in a race), yang-tare. 

— -day, heTtg-dlawa. 

month, hdhe-ane; tclM-ka'-kdhS ; 

.■ t^u-nee-kdhe. 

— -year, sftaiyiik. 
time, enydh. 

Nice(pretty,of any article), J/ iA-nya«ftfl. 
Nice (in regard to taate), y&K-ngayan. 
Hick (tH,lly, by marking a strip of 

cane), la-fibk-JuLriga (gee App, N, 

Item 88). 
Nickname, leari^-ta-miloh. 
Nicobar islands, ■maitai paiyHh. 

Car Nicobar, Fa. ' 

Batti Malv, M (nninhabited). 
Chowra, Tatai. 
Teressa, Taih-Umg. 
Bompoka, Fsahat. 
Tilluichong, Look (Diiinhabited). 
Central gronp ; — 

S'JS^,, }»^-»»«"- 

Trinkdt, Li^al. 

Katchal, Tshnyu. 
Southern group : — 

Meroe, Mirbe (uninhabited). 

Trak, Fuya (uninhabited). 

Trice (or Treis), radii (nnmhabited). 

Little Nicobar, .bug. 

Miltt, Miloh, 

Menchal, Menchdl (uninhabited). 

Condul, Ld-mbng-eke. 

Cabro, Komwdna (uninhabited). 

Great Nicobar, Lo-bng. 
Nicobareae (of any island in group), 

BhoTn-tnattai-paiyu h. 

— (of central portion of group (Ut., 
. natives here), paiyHh (or thorn) itd. 

— (of CarNioobar),}fat^l«&(or«hoin) 


— (of Chowra), paiyuh (or akom) 


— (tbe inland tribe of Qreat Nicobar), ' 
shom-PeH (see " Person"). 

Niece, kdan-ydUenkdna i kda»-kaiyuwd. ' 

Night, katbm. 

. — (when employed with nnmerals), ' 

rdm; ddm. . 

He died three nights ago, loe hanga ' 
ram an ngafdh. 
Night-time, hen-hattrm- ; hS-hatbm (sea 

" Daytime," and App. D). 

LaHt-night, wahe. 

— -mare, pof-en/So-wa. 

— -walker (somnambulist), wait- 

Nimbus, mifainya-ta'dl. 
Nine, hewng-hata ; foan-tafiuU-heang 

(« App. 0). 

— fathoms, hedng-hala-tamdka. 

— o'clock, A.M. (about), kot-hin-doaho' 
chong ; P.M. (about), heii~nu)kngok- 



N'ineteen, 1 / > r>\ 
Nmetj, '{("APPC). 
Nip (piDCn), mm-hata. 
Nipa fmticant, chia-loe. 
Nipple, oi breast, inoah-toah. 

— of gn&t chuk-kep-hindei. 

No ((mJu.) (denial, inability, retnaal, 
or disinclination), hdn •am; han- 

— (adj.) (not aaj), ngong ; hat-6t. 
Nolxxly (no one), hat'hS<mg-paiy&h 

(or penyHh, Ac., Ac. See " PerHOn," 

and "At"). 
No matter (see " Never Hmd "). 
Nod (when sleepy), ko-ngdk-haghe. 

— (denoting alfirmation), kdnga-hi- 

— (on meeti3)g acquaintance), ko- 

Node (gee "Joint"). 
Noise (of cbildmn shouting), kar&^she- 
nge; dfl.-she-nge. 

— (of hammeriDg, Ac), ISang-tai. 

~- (offiring.Ac, Ao.)(«ee "Sonnd"). 

— (disturbed or deafened by), jio«M- 

— (make a), wi-ka/ril-ihe-nge. 
Noisily, -walk (as on hut floor), puydk- 

hatihe ; men-lama-ghe. 
Noiay, ka/m-ehe-nge-ehakd. 
Nope (not any), hat-6t ; ngimg. 
Nonsense, that's nonsense ! hat-lh- 

tare-she ! 
Noon, kam-heng, 

— fore-, Id-hala-heng. 

— after-, ld-hanga--heng. 
Noose, heryMidl. 
North ngdle; ia-ngSle, 

— -wind, Tcofd; kahd; Mnih-kajpA. 
—~ -east wind, haish-fiii-id. 
monsoon, A^n 8 ^/u{. 

— -west wind, hanth-kapd-shxihSng (tee 
App. E). 

Northward, ddh-hxre; bid-lore. 
Nose, modk ; vtoaAh. 

— tip of the, moafi-moah. 
— ' bridge of the, Icoi-ng&h. 

— side of the, fdv-moah, 

— top of the, {ehaitg-) moah. 

— blow. the, hehe-hata. 

Nostril, kehoah-oaUmwih. 
Not, hat. 

I ■ . . . not, cAit (abbr. for chva- 

I am not coming, chit ddk. 
Thon .... not,mrf(abl«'.formeM- 

Thon art not sick, met tH. 
He .... not, net (abbr. for an-kat 

na-hal, or hat). 
We (dmal) .... not, hen-hat (this 

word has no abbrev.). 
Neither of ns are coming, hei-hat 

We (three or more) .... not, het 

(abbr. for he-hat). 
We (a community) .... not, y6l- 

ckiia-hat (no abbtev. form). 
We (a community), do not sing the 

koi-haki chant, yol-chiia-hat ilcd- 

eha Jcoi-ha)^. 
Ton (dual) .... not, indt (abbr. 

for ind-hat). 
Ton (three or more) .... not, ifet 

(abbr. ioiifs-hat). 
Ton (a commnnity) .... not, ySl- 

msn-hat (no abbr. form). 
Yon do not wrestle, yol-'niai-kut 

They (dnal) .... not, ondi (abbr. 

for ond-hat). 
They (three or more) .... not; 

ofet (abbr. for ofe-hat). 
They (a commnnity) .... not,' 

yol-an-hat (no abbr. form). 
They do not dance, yol-an-hat 

Not, do (imper.), mot. 
Don't ciy, wot mefi ehitn. 

— enough, hat-wbtshe. 

— yet, hat-chiihla-chakd. 

He has not yet returned, hat'Chiihia- 
chdkd no shwdtare. 
Notch (in tallying), len-kbk. 
Note (letter), Ishare. 
Nothing, hat-hSang. 

He gave me nothing, hal-heang hom- 
habm ten ehUa. 

— (no thing or quantity), hat-hiang 

, . . . ia-hadoh-hadiih.' 




I want nothing, chit heang yS ta- 

I have got nothing, chit-heang chang 

ta- hadoh- hadoh. 
Kothing (adv.), hat. 

He knowB nothing about it (of some 

paased event), hat akdh ngashl an. 
For nothing, gratis, hat - yaiyo ; 

without cause (see "Without"). 
November-December (the lunation in), 

Now (at the present moment), kat; 
ddkat; dakorkat («ee"Tide"); rakat. 
I am now going to Trinkut, yo Ldfiil 

chiia dakat. 
I now hear the gun, henkok en ydmg 

eha rakat. 
■ — (just now), ytUmg-oe'tigayati. 
He has jnst (now) gone, y^tig-oe- 

ngayan an ddh. 

— (immediately, also lately), men; 

danen; ranen. 
I am now going away, kaiylnga cha 

— (to-day), linheA (see Ex. at " Till "}- 

Kow and then, hddk-kS; shtan-fkiatf- 

— -a-days, han-an-dah ; lin-kei. 
Now-a-days there is little rain, htai- 

andah am/inh t'ompeitahe. 
Nowhere, hcU-kdnga-ahi-chuk, 

I see it nowhere, ekU hen kdngathi- 

Nnde, iydh-l6e-dit'de. 

Nudge, hantii-hata. 

Nnmb, hat-men-nbichya-yan. 

NnmbnesB (temporary " pins and 

needles"), of the arai, enmain-kodl ; 

of the leg, enmaiii-ldh. 
Number («.) (a collection), en-dSk- 

ngashe ; 'miymtima-the. 

— («.), harS-hanga. 

Numerous, hod; wru-hat-ahe ; endoht 
Ttgaehe; than-ngaahe {see Ex. at 

— (of animate objects only), lofc. 
Nnrse (u.), harra-nga^ki. 

— wet-, Aoino. 

— (servant), nia-harra-'nga^hi. 
Nut^ ong-yuang-oaX. 

Oar, fcanoi. 

— handle of, TnnQin-l(anot. 

— blade of, chakd-ka<ndt, 

— pulj an, et-k'6t. 

Obedient, 1 oi-yanto ; holtdtnga-oai- 
Obey, J ndng ; maha-ieng. 

Oblation (see "Offering"). 
Oblong, chwn-lenga-yiiang. 
Obscure (see "Dim"). 
Observe (notice, see), harra. 
Obstinate, hat-hong-yiang-ngato. 
Obtain (get), kdm-oihe. 

I obtained nothing at the sports, 
chit kom nga-thian milah. 

— (get, take by hunting or fishing), 
jM«w («ee Ex. at " Get '). 

Occasionally, shian-ihtan-tcuhe. 

From time to time at one village 
after another there is a pretty 
woman, shtan-shian-tathe ta-hSang- 
heang ineTitai enkdna ta-lapd-ngoa- 

Occiput, (koi-yddeha. 

— (unflattened, i.e., of natural shapo), 

— (flattened in. infancy), kdi-ia- 

Occnr (take place), »hi. 

A. storm occurred at noon yesterday, 
shl hwdsha minyHi-ta-kdatheng. 

— (exist) {gee "Be*'). 
Ocean, hamale ; hetUSwa. 

Ochrea of coconut (i.e., the fibrona 
sheath enveloping the leaf-st«ms), 

October- November (the lunation in), 

Octopue tubereulatiu, kdash. 

— (tepia officinalu), tandk-«uU. 
Odonr, oi. 

— agreeable, (lit., sweet), thiang-oi, , 

— disagreeable (lit., mud), pan-oi. 
Of (belonging to), chang. 

This is my father's hut (i.e., the bub 




of my father), nee chang chla cha 

Is this your child's coat (lit., oE 
your child ?) chang koan me« kan 
enh kanyut t 
No, it IB my younger Bister's, 
chang tait chu'enkdna. 
0( couTSB, aii-ka'-pa; dohta-ghe. 
Off (not on), tohnga-chuk. 

— be off ! (go away !) hoh-ngare ; 
hym-hoi-ngare .' 

— (aa in starting a race), ote. 

Let na be o£E (of three or more), 
shbk he haiylnga. 
OffiO, tong-o-dAha. 
Offend (oEErODt), ha-ndt-ngato. 

— (annoy), haka-ngato. 
Offer iy.'j, hom-kieOTn-ekl. 

Offering, propitiatory, connisting of 
scraps of food, tlbc, for the spirits, 

— of food, &c., to spirit of departed 
relative at " lanedtia " feast), hen- 

Officer, amyda ; ermyulshe. 

Often, y6l-ehu6,. 

Ogle, kdJid-doL-ehakd ; ol-dol-hata. 

Oh ! (exclamation of astonisbmeDt), 

Oil, ooconnt-, made by boiling the 
paste in water, ngai(J), rtgai(ck} ; 
ditto, when used for the hair or 
body, henngai(J), henrigai(ch). 

■ — ■ — made by squeezing the raw 
paste in the hands, 7ndyai(j), 
•mdyail^ck) ; ditto, when used for the 
head or body, henmdi(J'),hemnbi(ch). 

make (by boiling), wi-ngai(j). 

make (by squeezing the raw 

paste), kt»nchi{i)-ta-koinka. 

— any vegetable-, »5at'( eft) ; nyai(j). 

— mineral (egp, kerosene oil), ddk- 

— the head with ngaHj), han-ngaii^j)- 
koi ; uii-sho-kdi-ta-ngai{j) ; with 
mdyai(j), hanmm{j)-k6i. 

— the body withn3at(j),Aari-Ti50i(y)- 
dnha, wi-»ho-dnha'ta-ngai(J') ; with 
indyai(J), han-miii{j)'dnka. 

Ointment, danun-ok. 

Ointment, apply, duna. 

Old, of animate objects, pomdiehe ; shi- 

Old, of animate objects and vegetation, 
ehi-la-tbh; hat-shilatoh. 

— of inanimate objects, sAi; ehi-taaTie; 
Isdt-shi (see "Areca"). 

How old ? kd-ahani-latoh ? kd-shant- 

Older, of animate objects and veg;eta- 
tion, shinnS-hitd. 

— of inanimate objects, shinne-tashe. 

— of animate and inanimate objects, 

Oldest, of animate objects and vege- 
tation, akinne-lat6-ka\ 

— of inanimate objects, shinne-tashe- 

— of animate and inanimate objects, 
enny-dla-ka' . 

Omit (neglect), Idng-leyan. 

On, ta-koi; oal (see Ex. at "Meet"). 

Put this book on the table, nina 
lebare ta-koi ittensha oyii. 
On accoant of (see "For," and "Owing 

to "). 
Once (a single time), heang-ghud. 

— (with reference to ascending), 

— (with reference to descending), 

— (with reference to giving), keang- 

— (with reference to making, beat- 
ing, &c.), hSang-kotO'tai. 

— (with reference to coming, going, 
&c.), heang-kota ; heang-ahud. 
Once on a time, ong-heA; tirdm, 

— more, hea/ng-tare-ahud. 
At once, heang-ahidiina. 

One (with reference to periods of 
time, measures, and quantities), 
heang ; heang (-yuang ; -noang ; 
-ehanang ; -lien; -dartbi ; -tdk; Ac, 
according to the class of object re- 
ferred to). 

— o'clock (about), A.M., hen-chat-nga ; 
P.M., ahariaha~ke'»g, or ehadlaka-heng . 

— fathom, heang-tamdka. 

Only one fathom, ke-meoKii tnmdka. 




One-eyed, he-miangla-odbtidt ; pakian; 

Onion, porwang. 

Only (merely) (adv.), hanta. 

I only remained at home, chiia hanta 
koto ta ni-Te. 

It is only the wind, hanta hdnih. 

Only he (no one else), endn-hare. 

— (adv.'), em; am; om; m'; niffl 
(according to euphony). 

Only one, ke-meang. 
Only two, dn-ma. 
Only three, la-inue. 
Only four, fo-inoan. 
Only five, ta-manai. 
Only six, ta^mafual. 
Only seven,$dt. 
Only eight, menfoan. 
Only nine, he-medng-hata. 
Only ten, sha-mbm. 

— two ships, dn-ehinmotiga. 

— one brig, hemeang danbi-chong-dnla. 

— two brigs, dn-ekiri'monga ch6ng- 
dnla; also dnvia danoi chong-dnla. 

— once, he-meang-ehud. 

— so many, din-mdhat-tashtan. 

— so mncn, din-misktan, 
Opaqne, tdng-ngaimat. 

Open {v.f.} (outwards, as a door or 
window), ofoah-haine. 

— (upwards, as a box), ofoak-kaUi. 

— (a book), tamcha-haine. 

— (a sack), kich-hala. 

— {a parcel), eyd-hala. 

— one's eje, chdAl-hala. 

— one's montb, tom-dng-hala ; mig- 

— (ji.t.) (of a flower), tom-fodh-nire. 

— (y.i.) (of a door, Ac.)- Icomdbp-nire. 
Half-open, kehoah-ehakd. 

Opercnlum (of a shell), oalntat-}ioA. 

Ophthalmia, podk-oahnal. 

Opposite (facing), }ca-hai-eha7tg-chakd. 

— shore or bank, chahd. 

Malacca village is opposite Nan- 
cowry station, .olta-mSak chakd 
ta Kinldha. 
Or (eoiy.), hdn-aii. 

He or I will come to-morrow, an 
ddk bl-Jtaki hdii-dn en-ehiia. 

Orange (Oitrvs avrantium), karoait-ta- 

Oratna Nicobarica (Kura), (see also 

Betitinckia'), before commencing to 

seed, kdfbng ; after oommencing to 

seed, hilUa. 

Bpathe of, l6ah-hilUa, 

fruit of, yuang-kilua. 

Orchid, hal6-]amtet. 

Order (g. and v.), hol-tdlnga; nga- 


— arrangement), lep-ngashe. 
Ordure, uhdv,. 

Oriole (0. iruuyroums), chalau. 

Ornament, personal (of any descrip- 
tion), yon-»ata; iia-ndta, 

(of silver only), hetl6t-ka'. 

(of electro or Germaji silver), 


wear, ndta, 

— ear-stick, iehe. 

— to canoe- mast, kdl-kandma. 

— to canoe - outrigger, tanlik - koi - 

Ornamented (by means of carving 
or colouring, Ac.), yichi-she. 

— figurehead of canoe, koi-la-Pu; 

Orphan, Kat-chia-o. 

OtTnotreron chloroptera (light-green 

pigeon), ■mitain. 
Other (not the same), diawa; rio. 

— (additional), keang-tare. 

— aide, of creek, bay, Ao., Id-ane; of 
an island, Id-fdp-an-ane, 

Otherwise (else), han-an. 

— (differently), ke-doh-nga. 
Ought, dohta. 

Yon ought to Bpea>k the truth, men 
dokta olyola-ka'. 
Our, dual, hen ; ta-hen ; ta-ehaai. 

— three or more, he ; ta-ke ; la-ehioi. 

— (of a community), ydi-cAiia; (a-ydZ- 

Our own 1 ehang-hei; ekang-he ; ckang- 
Onrs J yoi-cktia (see "Our"). 
Out (gone out, extingnished) , pom-ndp. 

— outside, inat ; ok ; la-ok ; Id-ok. 
side (adj.), ok-ghiak; shiak. 

— -of-doors, thiak-ni. 



Oat-rigger (of canoe), hen-tdka. 

— -rigger-pegB, henema-rue- 

— -rigger-spars, diya. 

— -strip (see " Win "). 
Oval, chilua. 

Offer (pre)).), ta-hoi; ong-diiaTig-koi. 
Spread the cloth over the rice, 

ydhnga loe ong-dHang-koi aroe. 
Spread the cloth over the table, 
opddp loe ta-koi mensha. 
Over {adj.), more than, above, beyond, 
pen- naiUta/re-ihe. 

There are over twenty canoes in that 

village, oaX mattai anepennait-tare- 

&he }ieang-itiomchuima dambi-diie 6t. 

Overbalance, kachanga-koi. 

Overboard, fall, patdke-ta-oal-himalS ; 


— throw, kawdlnga'ta-oal-kannale. 
Overcast (of the Bkj), pot'Chakd; ked. 
Overflow, yuait-nga; wahnga-ckakd. 
Overhead, kdrang; kdrang-kSi. 

— (in the sky), ngdle. 
Overhear, mong-ydnga.* 

— by eavea-dropping, op-yap-hanga. 
Overload (of acanoe),y(Jm-Aa(a; ydmi- 

the; pom-ySm,-she. 
Overloaded (of a canoe or ship), yam,. 
Overseer {Ut., small or subordinate 

office), -penshe-omyda. 


Overtake (in walking or paddling) 

Owe, pom-nim-tare. 
Owing (due), tare-she. 

— to, taina. 

He has a headache owii^ to the 
noise, taina leangtai chbk-koi an. 
Owl, inohmwdka. 
Own (possess) (v.), chang. 

I own both these canoes, dnre nee 
danbi-dm chang chiia. 

— {adj.), chang ; re; de. 

My own native {lit., country's) 
langnage, chang mattai chiia (_ka') 
He is sitting in his own hnt, an 

poya ta^oai M-de. 

Are they all coming in their own 

• canoe ? {lit, come what they (of 

three or more) in canoe own), 

dak kan ofe ta-oal dMe-re ? 

Own conntrymazi, ihom (or paiyvK) 

Owner, choimang. 

— hnt-, chamang-Ht. 
Ox, kapo-poaka. 

Oyster {Oetrea eduUa), henydng. 

— {Ostrea hyotii), ino-ngodva. 

— (^Ostrea dindrostrea), moly&la. 

Face (step), kochoak. 
Pack (with view to early departure), 
kile-ihuyande ; kaiying-skuyande. 
I am packing my things for my trip 
to Car Nioobar, kaiying-shv^amde 
chiia yd itHa P-u. 

— for future use, or storage, op-op- 

Fackage, lOatoa ; la-manua, 
Fftdlock, chuk-teniadaya-shindii/p. 
Faddy-bird (^Ardeola leucoptera), luhd. 
Pad ( cushion), enddpa. 
Paddle, poicdft {see App. N, item 3). 

— blade of, chakd-powah. 

— handle of, kwcrm-powah, 

steamer, danHan-ch&ng-henlain. 

Paddle (v.) dHande. 

I am going to paddle round the 

ieland,cAuayo(Jwan(Je enwin mattai. 

— steamer {see " Steamer"). 

— -'wheel (of steamer), henlain- 

Fail, zinc, kanst-ddk. 

— wooden-, long. 
Pain, chbk. 

— in the bones, as from ague, chok - 

— suffer, chbk-ngayan. 
Fains of labour, ok-chbk-kanga. 
Paint (any), lanun. 

— white, shun. 

— black, pakau. 



Paint red, odnk-ta-dk. 

— red (of ArnottOBeedandoil), oorift- 

— yellow (turmeric), odnk-iang-ngd. 

— (v.}, enl&in'hata. 

Faint it black, enldin ta-dl. 
Pair ot animals, birds, Ac, dn-noang. 

— of inanimate objects, heang-tafilal. 

— of pots, heang-amolc. 

— of fish or birds (speared or sliot), 

I speared two fisb at one throw, 
heang-koagatai chiia thak heUTig- 

— (married), dttre-na-hMndntke. 
Ptdmomii (gee "Paroquet"). 
Palate (of mouth), oal-mendala. 
Pale (from sickness), teyen-chakd. 
Palm (of hand), oal-tai. 
Palm-wiue (tari or toddy), toak (see 


Palpitate (throb), hbi*-d6k. 

Pan (pawn leaf) (see " Ohaviea "). 

Pdn-chewing materials, shand-ta-yan. 

Fandantig laellori (fruit of trhich fur- 
nishes their staple food), larom,. 
21 recognised varieties, viz. : (a) 9 
varieties of larom-iiiakeat (having 
pinkish pulp); and (b) 12 varie- 
ties of larom-chuU (having whitish 
pnip) ; viz. : (a), ndama, shiat, 
ix^iij)! taniyial, hinwbt, loe, ddk, 
hain(ch) and ongtang-nge ; and 
(b), mofdh, shot, wuanga, ahiton, 
h&hS, hibhu, ednl, fSka, tombv, 
ndama, chafd, omhbin. 

— fmit, bunch of, tSm-la/rom. 
drape of, iwang-larom.. 

drupe of, after extraction of 

thei puip, inshuan-tat ; omdom-lat. 

drupe of, after extraction of the 

pnIp when used as foot-bmsh, 
hanndh-ldh ; fanndk-ldh, (App- N, 
item 63). 

P^^'P ^^> dnh-chakd-larom. 

seed of, kantiaA. 

prepared paste of, et-het-laTom. 

— ' — prepared paste of, bundle of, mo- 
Itdaha; manoal. 

— fmit, prepared paste of, bnndle 

of, suspend over fire-place, komtdl- 
Pandanwa, beetle (Agestrafa deiidriba), 
Tiie t-kaita-larom, 

— odoratiesimus, hikke. 
Pane, glass,- tenrnedla. 

Pant (p.i.), taiw-eyam; Kbin-la-yan. 

Papa I ekia ! 

Papaya (Oariea papaya), popat. 

Paper, lebare. 

Paradise, hendkla. 

Paralytic, la-inwinn. 

Parcel, laatoa ; la-manua. 

Parboil, an-Adno ; an-haun. 

Parched (of land), hahnga. 

— (of the tongue), hdkla. 
Pardon (excnse), Idknga-ghi. 

— (forgive), hoshvawa-tS. 

— b^, tayait-ta-chakd. 

I beg your pardon, I trod on yonr 

foot (lit. trod on yon I now), ta- 

yait'ta chakd tan ten Taeti chu hat. 

Pare (cut off the crown of the Pan- 

danvs drupe), ifaish-dit-larotn. 
Parent, chla. 

— (b»vingchildren),/(iiZa-«Ae, 
Paroquet (Falaomis erythrogenyt'), 


— (P(d^omis earners), katbk-naii. 
(Tbe latter found only in the southern 

islands of the Nicobars). 
Part (portion), see " Piece "). 

— (separate as friends) (see " Sepa- 

— Tvith, kaiydh-hata. 

— ■with reluctantly, kae-hanga. 
Partial (prejudiced), itiih- (or mitoh-') 

Parting (hair-) (lU. cattle path), 

kaiyi-kapo. \ 

n.B. In other portions of the Nicobar 

Islands where there are no cattle j 

the term used denotes " man- I 

path,'' being likened to those made 
through lon^ grass by cattle and 
men respectively. (8ee note at 
'• Buffalo "). 

— (for terms used when taking leave, 
see Sec. on " Meeting and Parting." 
Vide Note 2 at page i). 




Partner, paiyuh-ta-kdhct^ai(ch). 
Party (assembly), nunn-toma. 
Paaa (go by), of a wayfarer, ship or 
cload, h<iibi(ch)'hanga. 

— in opposite directionaCcrosa), fcilid- 

— away (of a cloud), yiami. 

— (spend), htmi'shon-tare. 

I passed three days at Chowra, 
hoTnshontare aha lae hata d&m 
Passion (rage), shakSat-chakd. 
Past (the) leiit-hen. 
Paste, coconnt, ngo&t-ta-h^n-ha. 

— Fandaniia, et-ket-lardm. 

— Oyeat, tewila-ta-dua-ha. 
■ — (v.t.), haraA-haske. 
Pat (v.), op-dap-hata. 

Patch, a garment («.), tal^kata, 

— a iMof (ii.), hal^-hata,. 
Path, kaiyi. 

Patient (imdei^ing eioroism), iwawo. 
Pattern, danuna. 

— diverse (varioua or all sorts of) 
patterns, Mha-ehdk (see Ex. at 
" Sorts of cloth "), 

Paw, fore-, kanetai. 

— hind-, kaneldh. 

Pay (for purchases), bomkwbm-ta-yai. 

— (for service done), hom&wdm-ken- 

— aviai't, ifinBanieTiIlage,onjr-(idit3-fta. 

— a visit, if in another village, t'iwa. 

Peace, nuLke, op-yd^-$hit6. 

Peal of thunder, nge-komdiinga. 

Pebble, kayHa. 

Peck (as a bird) (c), sha-kal-hata. 

Pectoral fin, ndng-kda. 

Peel (».),skin of fruit, ok-yHang-mthoA. 

— (».) bark, ok-onihai. 

~ (o.(.)8trip offa skin (v.),el-lai(ch.)- 
hanga; et-lai^eKj-hame. 

— ("-*-) strip ofE bark, et-tai(ch')-ok- 

— (v.t.) strip off egg-shell, e(-&M'(o&)- 

Peep (v.), hakian-hata. 
Peevish, keh-to. 
TegB, outrider-, henSma-rUe. 

— grave-, shani-.pdn ; skin-pdn. 

Peg down a corpse in grave, ehi-pdn- 

Pen (coop) for piga, hen-nydt ; ken- 
chata (gee App. N, items 96 and 97). 

— (coop) for fowls, (mg-yianga. 
Pen, for writing, a/net-lebare. 

— -knife, kdha-wdp. 
Pencil, aiiSt-lebare. 

Penetrate (with spear or kmfe). Id- 

hok-ho-ttU; dSk-hat. 
Pennant, kinwe; hetiioS, 
People, ehom; paiyuh. 
Pepper (black), lard. 
Perch (f.t.), dfUaTi-hata. 

— (s.) (as in a cage), enduana. 
Perfect, tang-ngaghe. 
Perfume, shlang-6i ; hen-shau. 
Perhaps, kalah-ta-yan ; kdlmya-tki ; 


Perhaps I will come to-morrow, 
kdhnga-iki cha dak oal-hakl. 

— (who knows! can't say), dnya-pa. 
Period (a certain past) (aee " Past " and 


— the present (now-a-days, in these 
days), ^n-an-(2a%; Un-he», 

Peritoneum, henwwn. 
Periah at sea, puaA;-n^a. 
— ■ by hunger, Iwdh-nga. 

— of a plant, powi-nop-nja. 

Permit (v.),kaiydii.nga-ldh(aee " Let "), 
Perpendionlar, kdm-ckakd. 
Person, living soul, dnh, applied to per- 
sons afloat only (sea "SonI"), 

— native of Nicobar lainudB, paiyuhj 

— native of Nicobar lalanda of a 
certain community, penyah ; pa- 

— foreigner, jba-Itnir; yiiang (-kaUng) ; 

PiveKicobareaeof thesame commu- 
nity, tanai yUang paiyuh. 

Two or more Nicobarese of two 

different communities, dn yuang 

peny&h (or pamenyuk'). 
Three or more persons of different 

races, loe yuang penyuha, lit. 

colonrs, e.g. Eoropeans, Chinese, 





Personal ormunent (see"Onuimeiit"). 

Perspiration, Iwdng. 

Porapire, Ibk-hodng. 

Persuade, o-ki-nga-ndng. 

Pester, hakd-ngato. 

Pestle (osed in preparing Cycat paste), 

Pestle (email, for pounding chilis), 

Petticoat (see "Skirt"). 
Pet- pig, of aha, 
dog, dm-taka-eha. 

— -parrot, katok-taka-eha. 
Petulant, kehto. 
Phlegm, ho-odh. 
Phoapboreacence in sea, ohung-oal- 

Physic, danun. 

Pice(copperooins),j}ai«a; eoMta-maria. 
Pick-bones, emih-kanga. 

— the teeth, ok-ihbk-kandp ; shoko' 

— out anything (as the eontents of a 
shell), ka-^a-hame. 

— op, op-chdp-hata ; op-eh^-lare. 

— out threads from cloth for thread- 
ing needle, ong-ding-ihe-loe. 

Picture, hen-yUi'tiga-shi. 
Piece of cloth, paper, &c., small, mok- 
Uka; large, mo^^&a. 

— of meat, mol'loaha. 

— of wood, iron, Ac, mol-kdnla. 

— of fruit, yegetablos, Ac., ld;mi'skeya. 

— of coconut-shell, endaxrV'tat. 
Pierce (Penetrate, q.v.). 

— the lobe of the ear, loka-ndng. 
Pig (domestic), ndt. 

A pig of a certain village, m.enn6ta 


Pour pigs of the same village, foan 

noang not. 
Fonr (or more) pigs of four different 

villages, /offiMJioonj mennota («of). 

— (jungle), skarudl. 

— (pet-), ofdha. 

pen, Aem-«j(Ji; keTichuta («eApp. 

N, items 96 and 97). 

— -spear, tkanen-hiypl.dap ; ehanen- 
iMtngheang ; skanen-hardta (see 
N, items 11, 12, and 15). 

Pigeon, imperial (Oarpaphaga insu- 
la/rig), mMoiu. 

— imperial (pink-eyed) (Janthatiat 
palumboides), kahok. 

— pied {Oarpophioga hioolor), kaiydl, 

— green {OsTtwtreron chJoroptera), 

— hackled {OaUBnas Nicoharica). 

Pile (heap) of firewood, books, &c. 

of ooconntB, mbbish, &o., torn- 

Pilfer, loko-kaiiea-she ; pait-paieh' 

hanga-she ; haiehting-ngayan. 
Pillow, kaniala. 

— for flattening infant's occiput, 

Pilot, hai-chMig-ehakd-paiyuh. 

Pimple, mSn. 

Pin, fasten with a, shol-kanga ; et- 

Pin, »kan6t'(ikak&-hanyut. 
Finanga Manii {BeccarC), okxliadk. 
Pinch (ti.) with the fingers, nvm-hiota. 

— with the nails, ehakaich-hata. 
Pineapple, shurH. 

Pinion («.(.), tuma-kodl* 

Pip (seed), ong-yuang-oal. 

Pipe, tobacco-, tanop-omkbii. 

— ■ tube, hendiwa. 

Pistol, pistol. 

Pilot-fish (Naucraiea doctor), kdmet- 

Pit, kaiehuat-sho. 
Pitch («.), pakau. 

— (as a ship) (v.), ol-ngala. 
Pitcher, kuran ; sMton. 
Pitifnl, yen-ngatS. 

Place, spot, locality, ckuk. 

— village, station, mattai. 

Which is its place P tai ehuk ka bng ': 
Another (or some other) place 

Place (v.), oyu-hanga. 

Plain (unadorned), hai-yechi-she. 

Plain (open country), td-la'chaling. 

Plait, with cane, fibre, hair, Ao., en- 

Plaiting, cane- or hair- («.), tainya. 




Plan (v.), hai-<A^ng-7tge'ghe. 

Plane (the tool), hen-loan ; hen-konsh, 

— (t'.), ha-loan; ka-konsh. 

— with adze, indaa-heUa ; endan-hata. 
Plank (of floor, Ac.), tanoarig. 

— (nsed for kneading PomJaniM paste), 

— (lashed to corpse behind when 
preparing for burial), da-yutig. 

Plant (c), op-ep; ep. 

— (v.), op-6p~liashe ; ep-hota; Op-ep- 

— coooant-Beedling, ighSi-hashe. 

— a pole, &c., in the ground, c&ij)-%(u^«. 

— a cutting, 7ia*-ham. 
Plantain, the frnit, hibbu. 

— -leaf, dai-ehia. 

— 'leaf, yonng, need for necklaces, 

— -tree, shia ; chia-skta. 
Plantation, ehuk-yom. 

Plate, pitianh ; pitianh-kdha-ioet. 
Platform (orer irepiace), oag-ddnga ; 
entwngla; ok-poka. 

— of lattice- work in hnt roof, len-pd 
(see Part II). 

— under hut, itaha. 

Play («.), OS a child, kashd-i-tore, 

— as a musician, taHp-hala. 

— on a etringed instrnment, wi-da- 
nang ; ong-ddng-hata. 

PlaTthing, ken-shd(k)-»gat6 ; mdn 

Pleased, ydh-nga-to ; hdkoh. 
Pleiades, td-yan. 
Plenty, uriihat-ike ; hod. 
Pliable, doh-lenkdii-hanga. 
Plover, iUte. 
Plnck (v.), a bird, itoth-hanga. 

— leaves or flowers, el-katck-hanga. 

— frait with the huid,i!t-^icA-Aa«^; 

with a hooked pole, AaAen-ft<wAe. 

Plunder {«.), kayua-e-yan. 

Plunge, bead-foremost (dive), ten-chU- 

Pocket, coat', kenhona-kany'iit. 

handkerchief, tanot-chakd ; tatwt- 

Point (of spear, paddle-blade, pencil, 

&C.'), -moah ; raoanh. 

Point (of knife), kot ; moaHk. 

— (of dh4 handle), Idk. 

— ("Oi pomchip-moah. 

Poiot out (or point to), kornihdak- 

haia.; }iaichang~ta~mai. 
Pointed, pochip. 
Poise on the wing, hatire. 
Poison, hSa; hok-ngok-ta-koawa. 

— food («;), mi-hok-ngok-ta-hdawa. 

— anyone («.), ha-hoa-iianga. 

Pole (across which coconut water 
shells are slung), daiidya-ddk. 

— (for propelling canoe along tho 
shore), ahin-ngan. 

— («.) (propel canoe), tha-ngande. 

— (attaching outrigger to canoe), 

— village- (along foreshore), kattaiya. 
Polish (i;.), et-tat-hala. 

Polished snrfaee, vttat-la-mat ; owi-la- 

Polite, ghama-ybng-yanto-ta-paiy^h. 
Pond, ekuk-dak. 

Pond-heron (_Ardeola QrayU), luhd. 
Pony, gord (from Hindustani 

" ghora"). 
Pool, ehuk-ddk. 

Poop (of ship), lama-eJwng-oal-chdiig. 
Poor (indigent), poap, 

— person, pomoap. 
Poorer, pvnnoapa. 
Poorest, pennoapa-ka'. 
Population, tom-koi. 

What is the population of Chowra P 
kd tom-koi shom-Tatdt ? 
Popnlous, kaaiithe-paiyuh ; hod'koi ; 

ySl'kdi ; endokngcuke-paiyuh ; vru- 


More popnlons, endushe-paiyHh. 

Most popnlous, endHske-ka'-paiyuk. 
Pork, diiha-not. 
Porpoise, kda-poang. 
Port (harbour), hbin-ntaMai. 

— (left side of ship or canoe), la- 

Portable, tdnk-ngayan. 

Portage (for conveying canoe-nlieil 

through jungle), hfat-koAsha-dHe. 
Portion (see " Piece "). 
Portrait, hen-yui-ngaski. 




Possess, ot; kodde; ka-kat {see 

" Own " and " H&ye "). 

I posHesa six spears, chiia tafual- 
fioaiig shanei ot. 
Poasible, doA; wat-diianga-tai. 
Post (at head of grave), komching ; 

pentila; kafid-koi (tee App. N, item 

Posts (lofty, in front of viUage), ka- 


— principal, of hut, Imipuh. 

— inner (sapporting floor), lai{ch) ; 

— alight wall- (inside hut), ong-d&ng. 
Posteriors, the, tbm. 

Pot (earthen, of looal mannfactnre) 
(generic name), han-shoi. 
l^r^st size, AwsWAa. 
2nd size, han-ghoi. 
3rd size, itdsha. 
4th size, he'ipa}(-ngai(cK). 
5t:h size, panoi-en^lait. 
6th size, tafdl. 
(See aho App. N^, item 101). 

— (foreign imported), largest, tbi^t. 
2nd size, kockl. 

3rd size, halu. 

4th size, kiddiih. 
Pot-fa I, ma-hansh'6i-ya. 
Potato, no-man. 

— sweet, (Oonvolvoluebatatas), patdla. 
Ponnd, crush bete! nut, ghbk-akm. 

— (hrtLy), ong-tong-hata i dua-hata. 
Pounder (eee " Crusher " and 

" Pestle "). 
Fotfiherd, ok'da(k)-tet-hanshoi. 
Pour (cause to flow), omtam-hala ; 


— (rain heavily), gJidit. 

— (as water) (u.t.), dl-chakd; Jiaro- 

— (into bottle or coconut water* 
vessel), owr-ta/m-liashe. 

— from a roof, d&h-ta-dSi. 

— water over one's head, ydl-haUi. 

— out (u.(.), tam-hala. 
("■*-)> kdpua-hai. 

— it out, tamla-eh. 
Pont (ti.t.), shomnyuk-Jca- 
Powder, tong. 

Powder, gun-, tarn. i 

— (red),o^nfc-to-afc (see" Arnotto"). 1 
Practice (custom), tandnh. A 
Prattle, poghi-hat-nge. v 
Prawn, shudug ; karauta (see ,1 

" Shrimp"). j 

Pray (lit. "Greet God"), et-chai- 

chakd-Deuse. , 

Prayer (aa performed by Muslims), 

Precede, oreh-chakS,. 

Preoipice, kdMi-shire. | 

Precipitous, shan; shan-chakd; skdn- 

Precious, kd-eaha. 
Prefer (in respect to food only), dd- 

— (inrespecttootherthings), tioAtt-(5. 
Pregnant, kom-hoiiigh. 

— woman, paiyuh-mahalbk. 
Prejudiced, itoh (or mitdk) -paiynh. 
Prepare (get ready), hahp-i-yatide (gee 

" Ready "). 

— food, wl-hokngok. 
Prepay, ha-tHe-yai. 
Presence of, iu the, ta-chitk. 

He died in my father's presence, an 
kdpdh ta-chak chia ckua. 
Present (time), the, Ivnhen ; ha»-an- 

— (gift), tanedl-slie ; omkwbm.. 

— make a, hornkwom-taneiiXahe ; hom- 
kwbm-hata (see " Promise "). 

— (a(^-), ot. 

At present, da-kat' ; ddka-an (gee 

Ex. at " Now " and " What "), 
Presently, wio-fca" ; enh-tayan. 
Preserve meat,antiseptically,by means 

of turmeric, ten-yiap-hata. 

— food, by suspending it in the 
smoke of hut-fire, hdn-ush-hala. 

Preserved meat, dnha-ta-tenylapa. 
Pretend (make believe to be angry), 
k(mickii-hata (or -hanga). 

— malinger, ndhre-t-& ; ndhre'cJwk. 
Pretty (of inanimate objects), ydh- 

ngashe; ydh-iiga/mai. 

— (of animate objects), ydh-ngai-ahi- 
ch^kd; lapa,(-ngSp,')-cha,kd. 

Prevent (by using force), op-ydpa. 




Price, yai ; itota. 

What is the price of this F ckHtm yai 

What U the price of this doth ? kd 
itota nina loe ? 
Prick («.(.), ta)sM-toh. 
— («.*■)> ii^'vm.-ioh. 
Prickly, thin-haina. 
Prickly-heat, fcaftt-^ma ; koam-heng. 
Priest, TnenZiiaiwa-DeiMe. 
Print, foot-, diti-la-ldh. 
Prior to, oreh. 
Prifloner, 16m. 

Prize (in a race), hen-yHah,; tanedl-sh«. 
Probably, Idhtore. 
Proceed (after a halt), dia-ma. 
Procreative, menkoan. 
Procure, kim; pud; puao (see "Ob- 
Produce fire (by means of fire-aticks), 

Profile (of face), ok'shiak-hai-chakd. 
Produce, product, dnha-oai (tee 

Profit («.), tot'lare-yai ; halde-long- 

Prohibit, ol-teal-hanga. 

Prolitio, prodacing offspring yol-koi- 

— fruitful (g-f-)- 

Ppomise {«. and «.), aA-ka-en-nge ; 

If you bring me two megapodea I 
promiae to make you a present, 
yS okai ta men ten chiia inikien 
ta-di noang anka-en-nge ld~enydh 
Tiomkwbm tanealshe men. 
Prong (of spear, fork, Ac.}, dAh- 

chakd(_-mian, &o.). 
Prop (s.), ken-shin. 

— (v.), ka-thin-kata. 

Propel (a canoe by poling), sha-ngan- 

Proper, correct, tang-tashe. 

— beoomiog, tang-nga-to ; fflo(ft)- 

Property, portable (not for sale), 
chUaka; tanealehe-yan. 
Thia is my fathers property, »»ee 
chuaha chia cha. 

Property, portable (for sale), yo«; mo- 

nih ; yan-nlk. 

— any, chamang. 

Prospect (iriew), hen-dda (gee " View "), 

Protect, ong-ybng-hala. 

Protective carved human figure, 

kareau ; hentd-kareau. 
Proud (haughty), hdnk-nga-to. 
Prove (test), vme-dnha. 
Provisions (in hut for future use), 

tomd l-nga-shi-hok-ngok. 

— (for a journey), kenpdnga; hen- 

Provoke (offend), hdkd-ngato. 
Prow, ta-wanga. 

— ornamental (used on memorial 
feaat days), foi9Tifto; koi-la-Pn. 

Pry (as into a parcel), iaU-i'SkiTe. 
Pterocerae lamina (scorpion shell), ok- 

Fteropua Nicobaricug, mokngeaka. 
Ptyckoraphig augv^ta (Beccari), ehafdt 

Puddle, chvk-d&k. 
Puff (as steamer or smoker), hanwv,- 


— of wind, kdaeh-ta-hah-yan. 
Poll a rope, tuak-kata. 

— a trigger, pSt-hata ; et-pot-kata. 

— ■ iu opposite directions, kdhd-tvak- 

Pnlo Condnl, Ld-mbng-she. 

Pulo Milo, Mihh. 

Palp (of Pandanue), dnk-chaka-Utrom. 

Pulsate, hain-haine ; rbk ; dok. 

Pulsation, Pulse, hbin; at tbe wrist, 

ey&m-kodl ; under the jaw, eydm,- 

det-ehamd ; over the heart, eydra- 

Pummalo (see " Citrus "). 
Pumpkin ( Gucwrhita pepo) , yuang' 

lapu (or Idbu) ; yuang-kam.ipue. 

— (Cttcurbita lugenaria), yuang-pong. 
Punch (with a tool), ekdJi-haine. 
Punctual, loa-tayan. 

Pun^nt, kardng. 

Punish (avenge, retaliate,), okai-yai- 

Pnnkah, kenfwiH-dnha. 




Puny, tfwik. 
Pupil, indha-kdm-ta. 

— of the eye. pen-dl-oalmdt. 
Puppy, kdan-dm. 
Pnrohase («.), fcaiaw-wo. 

: — (v.), halau-hata. 

Purchasable (Hi. "for sale") yS-iia- 

Pure, genuine (of silver ware), ka\ 

— cl^a, ngbi-nga-(Jtakd ; ngoi; ngbie- 

— andiluted (of spirits), thtang. 
Putative (medicine), danim-viiang. 
Pursue, hen-yong-hata. 

Pus, tbng. 

Posh awaj, entin-hanga. 

with the foot, eti'tan-nga-ldh. 

— forwards, kotain-hanga. 

— backwards, koko-bk. 

— aside, kotin-hanga. 

Pot (put down, place), ithoi-Tianga; 

■ — aside, Id-la-hianga ; ehS-hala ; oyd- 

— awav (in its place), oshiia-hata. 
Pat it on the box, yd-kanga tar-hoi 

Put into one's pocket, homlo-lMthe ; 


— in (insert), ka-fiat-hanga. 

— on clothing, wi-ta-loe-re ; telO'lde- 

— off clothing, olSh-hanga. 

— off personal ornaments, oloh-haine. 

— on the loin-strip, wia-neng^de. 

— on the cloth skirt, hii-chiof-hata. 

— on a hat, hanhhnp-hcuhe ; ha^A' 
htuhe ; ahwdng-lttre. 

— ont one's tongue, komtai-haine. 

— on personal ornaments, ovii-haii- 

— fuel on a fire, enywm-heoe. 

— into some receptacle, dicka-eh. 

— fowls, Ac, into basket, komshoU 

Pnt some rice in mj basket, oicka~ 

eh OToe ta-oal hentain cka. 

— up (erect, q.v.). 
Putrefy (as meat), yS-yokaga. 

That carcase is putrefying, bnry it 
at once, ane ta-kapdh y^-ybknga 
hSang-shidwia ten an oalBla. 
Putrid, yok; ybknga. 
Python Schneideri, taldn. 

Quaff, kopak-hanga; shin-koai-hanga. 

Qnail, button-, mSl. 

Qnake, che; nyang. 

Qualms (of aicknees), pang-at-chakd. 

Quantity, ri-ahe; dA-tke; endoh-ngathe. 

What quantity of rice have jou in 

your basket P ka rishe aroe dnha- 

oal chilkai men ? 

Quarrel (v.), v>ait-rtgaehe ; momyuaha. 

Quarrelsome, vien-thena. 

Quarter (a fourth part), tni-gheya; 


— -staff (fighting stick), paiyvah. 
Queen, den-enkdna {see "King"), 

coaa^^iGasaia tii,heroga),ok-tar»igldh. 

Quench (eztinguiah, of a flame), 


— thirst, pa - chy am, 'y an; tang- 

Question (enquire), hamd-chakd. 
Qnick, Ida; latwya (see "Fast"). 

Beqnickl (Zit., don'tyounotqnick), 
wot met I6a; also holdh-hat-ske ; 
Qnickly, 2oa-Zoa; chdng-hatihe ; holdh- 

Quicksilver, ddk-tnat-chvd. 
Quid (of betel-nnt, &c., about to be 

chewed), laina-ndma. 

— (of betel-nut, shell lime, and pdn, 
after being chewed), pd. 

— take a, tndiyd-haia. 

Time for taking a bef«l-qaid, hen- 
Qniet, hd-tii. 

Be qniet ! to one shonting, singing, 
4c., wot men dishe-nge; to one 
hammering, striking, Ac., wot men 



Uang-tai; tincler any circum- 
stanoes, teot 7n«n poshi'danang. 

Qaietly, hat-men-laina-the, 

Qaill, puyol-shieh&a. 

— -pen, anet-lebaire. 


Quite (wholly), ka- (see Esi. at 
"Rotten"); ngon^-tai (>ee Ex. at 
" Able "). 

Qaite enough! wotahe-chinda ; vj'ot- 
ahinda ! 

Kabbit, leware. 

Baoe, boat- (or canoe-) (».), sAtola- 

— foot- («.), ghHala^lan&ua. 

— in boats or canoes (u.), ha-shole. 

— foot- (v.), dian-hashole ; hashole' 

A long race (on land or 'water), 
ehlah-dUat-ehi- Idh. 
KaceB of mankind (all or varionB), 
kan-shdk {-paiyvh). 

At Calcutta I saw Bome individuals 

of almost every race, at Kalkata 

ehUa hiu enhtashe kanghdk kaling 

(see " Sort," " Species "). 

Rack (stand for weapons, &o.), chuk- 


— (stand for bottles, &o,), en-sMwa. 
Baft (of bamboos), hedwa-hentdha. 

— (for shipping evil spirits ont to 
nea), henmai (see App. S, item 146). 

Rafter, da-ntal. 

Ragged, / ' 

Rage, shakSat'Chakd. 

— be in a, en-kftin-ghi-shi. 
Railing (zigzag fence), kentdng. 

— (fence of logs, Ac), kan-skdma. 
Rain, aimnh. 

It is raining, a/minh ttbdde. 

It is going to rain (sooo), yo amiih. 

It is going to rain during the day, 

aminh ta-tdng. 
It has stopped raining, leat a/minh. 
If it tains I will not come, yo na 
amiak chit dak. 
Rainbow, kamindd. 
Rainy day, aminh-ta-he-heng. 

— season, sho-hong. 

Raise (lift), shin-^ing-hala ; gkin-dbng- 


Raise (hoist), wi-fta!a. 

— the villt^e poles, ikd-kanaiya. 

— the wick of a lamp, tenloaklo- 

Rake (s.), ke7iwdh(-enchdn) (tee App. 

N, item 118). 
Ramble, kaighai-i-tdre. 
Rami'od, kanlbk-oal-hin'del. 
Rap (knock), komdwdh-hata. 
Rapid, as a stream or current, Ida- 


— asaswimmer, Ac, yoi(»ee"Pa8t"), 
Rare (uncommon), hat-lbpta-chuk. 
Rascal, menkbina-she. 

Ea«h (eruption), keau-dnha. 
Rasp («.), tane-ydiu 

— (u.) (with the thorny stem sheath 
of the rattan), olyvM-hata. 

— (with file), te-y&n-Iiata. 

Rat (Hvspahnartmi), komet-kd-rmooah. 
Rattan (OaJomwg Bp.),ok'keak; ndt (gee 
" Cal-amus "). 

— 6ne white variety, ichye. 

— ■ other varieties, pentong ; palai; 

eha/mda; pindol; httnyin. 
Ravine, oal-hdk; hoh-hdk. 
Raw (uncooked), kuyou. 

— half-, a<A-hdno. 

Ray of light, dain-oal-mat. 

— sun's, dain~heng. 

— -fish (thom-back) (Baia elavaia), 
deyd; deyd-loe. 

serrated tail-bone of, tdh-dgyu.. 

(yf\a^) (Eaiahatis),kdha-ldng. 

Razor, kanodk-koi. 

Reach, arrive at, tang-fuU ; tang-ia. 

— by etretching, fe«n-(a-W; lean-ta- 

— by stretcbiiigupwardB,Zean-ia-fto»; 

I shall reach Bompoka in the even- 

ly GoOglc 



ing, ehua tang ta-ladlyat/a cka tang 
to. Foahat (lit., (whea) Z arrive 
in the eveniag I shall reach 
Bead, harra-leba/re. 

— aload, et-chai-chakd-lebare. 
Beady, to gOjWork, &c., halep-i-yande ; 

— ■ of food, harual-shiehi. 
Keal (not counterfeit), ka'. 

Heal silver, ofttta-fei'. 
Beason (cause), lang-nga-$ki ; l&ng- 

ngi-to ; hdn-nga-ahi ; han-ngi-id (see 

" Cauae "). 

What was your reason for not 
coming yesterday p ch/iian lang- 
nga-ehl met ddk Trdnyiii ? 
Beasonable (seuBible), htiitha. 
Rebound (u.i.), heit-ho'-lare ; hom-ddl- 

Beoeive (take), okai (see " Take "), 

— (obtain), }com-ash«. 
Recently, teydh; nain; men. 
Beceptocle, for cloth, Ac., tattthvia. 

— for food, eh&kai. 

— fop betel, lime, aod Ohavica, kmdang. 
Beckon (count), haro-hanga. 
BecklesB, tom-chila-ngayan. 
Recognise, laih-nge-re; haka/p-ngathi. 
Becollect, kap-ngato. 

Becover (regain health), la-kd (see Ex. 

at "Better"). 
Bectangnlar, poham-iki. 
Reduce size of, kdnl-hanga (or kaia). 
Reconuiled to any new home, da(_k)- 

Red, dk(-n^ama£). 

— -cloth, k&ni-ta-43t. 
(Tnrkey), loe-kOmldng. 

— -coral, yiiang-mang-7ige-ta-dk(^nga- 

— -hot, ■iial^-ngamat'). 

— -paint (see " Paint "), 
Reef, coral-, yuala. 

outer aide of, chakd-ngdh. 

— -heron, chudnk. 

Reel (Bt^ger), omleama. 
Reflect (of a mirror), vna-penyuka. 
Reflection (ae in a njirror), pen-yHha ; 

Refrain (see "Abstain")- 

Refuse (decline to give or allow), ita- 

— (not to comply), han-an-ange. 

— (reject certain ^od as when mourn- 
ing), o-tdh-nga-shi. 

Regularly, hat-kalak-he. 
Reject a gift or food (as a manrner). 

— a proposal, kan-an-ange. 

Relate (tell), ingdh-ne-ndng ; ingdh- 

Relative of same family, kinsman, 

komenehia-she ; kamoanshi-cAia. 
Reliable, tdng-nga-t3. 
Believe (exchange places), ha-shdta 

(see " Exchange "). 
Relish (u.) (enjoy any food), ong- 

shiamga; ong-shianga-fdng. 
Remain (stay), kdtS- 
Remainder (the balance), kemobl-shito. 

— (the others), pait-tat-the. 
Remark (speech), holyol. 
Remember, kaji-ngatS. 

Remind, hakap-jai-ndng-de ; hakap- 


Remind me to-morrow, haki kakap- 
nga-ndng chiia. 
Remnant (fragment), pait-tare-duat. 
Remove (v.t.) (take away), okai-nga- 

Idh; oshHa-haine. 

— (v.t.) (take out), o-kv>dh-kanga. 

— (v.t.) (take out from cooking-pot), 

— (takeoff themaleloin-cloth), yt^Ai- 

— (take ofi the skirt), ydhi-loe-re, 
— - (v.i.), tohan-chuk ; tohaii-mattai. 

— personal ornamenta, oloh-haiiie. 
Rendezvous (v.i.), menlbi(j)-hanga. 
Rent (t«ar), kehoah. 

Repair (v.) (see "Mend"). 

Repairable, d^h-wi-hata. 

Repeat, hawbUhata; di-kame-yang. 

Repeatedly, dal-dal. 

Replace (put back), oshua-hata. 

Reply («,), opshdp. 

— (v.), opehdp-nga- nge. 
Report, ingdk. 
Repose (rest, q.v.). 




BeproTe, hodAk-ngaiS. 

Bepnlsive, kelon-yan. 

Beqaire, yS-Juita. 

Rescue (v.) (on land), ta-ydm-eho-lioi. 

— from drowning, ong-nbng-hala. 
Beeoner, ddh-tatneSt-^iyuh. 
B^^mbling', ehiri. 

Beserve (food, Ac.) (d.), hen-hdn-tS. 

Beside, kdto. 

Besin, pakoM. 

Best (remainder, g.ti.). 

— take, chuyd-yan. 

Bestore (give back), wbl-tare; wbl- 

toike; oshHa-hata; ahwdlare. 
Betaliate, okai-yai-'hata. 
Betch, pang-at-ehakd. 
Betire \k6k-tare; ftoZ-»iyore (<ee Part 
Eetreat; II). 
Betnm (restore, 5.11.). 

— (come back the same daj), oth&a 
ahvjdtwre; shwdtare-ddk. 

— (comebaoklater),onidam;«fttt'^tere. 
He will return iu about two mouths, 

enhla dn kamahenwa shwdtwre an. 

— from above (or from easterly direc- 
tion), shwd-shire. 

— from below (or from Eoatherly 
direction), shwd-lare. 

— from northerly direction, ehwd- 

— from westerly direction, shwd-hare. 

— to landing-place, ghwd-nire. 

— homewards, chiih; yuchuh. 
Beverse (v.t), inom-ye-hanga (see 

" Turn over "), 
Beversed, lie (i.e., with feet at pillow), 

B«volve (as a top, wheel, &c.), ha- 

lain ; haloinya-dede. 
Reward («,), Iwmhwom-taneaWke. 
Rhen ma^m, kodh-la ; taniiya-iit- 


— (confirmed or incurable), la-vmam. 
Rhizophara (lee " Uangrore "). 

Bib, tenyudi. 

— of ft ship or boat, keTuiong. 
Bice, aroe ; armh. 

I will take aa much rice as my 
canoe will hold {lit., as much rice 
can canoe my so much take I), 

Mnm.eni'hl aroe dSh due chiia 
shinmenehi hokai ckua. 
Bich (savoury), ehiaiig. 

— (wealthy), cha-TMnodhan ; paiyuh- 
ta-chuaka; chuako. 

Richer, chinnoahbn. 

Richest, chiimoahiin-ka'. 

Ridge (of a roof), hen-kda. 

Ridiculous, kat-h&ndha. 

Big (fit with sails, A«., tackle), pHanga. 

Right (dexter), Id-chala. 

— (proper, fair, fit), tang-iigai6. 

— (accurate, correct), tang-tashe. 
handed, tnachol. 

Tou're right ! ileki-ngere I 

— (recover position of a capsized 
canoe, i&c.), homngd-Tuila. 

That's right 1 ande-ehU ! 
All right ! (very well !) aA-koma ! 
Rigid, as a baj-, hat-ime. 

— aa a stiff finger or corpse), kodh-la. 
Rim (of a pot, plate, Ac.), keam,. 

— (of a hat), ndng. 
Rind, ok-yuang-omhan. 

Ring (for finger or toe), kenlhng. 

— (for ear), kenchd'p-ndng. 

— cowrie, puka-ta-tdka-ok. 
Rinse the month, kocho-ko-odl-fdng. 
Rip (cut open a carcase), ol-tala.* 
Ripe, itnon^; omshdt. 

— nearly ripe and fit to gather, iiigot. 

— and fallen fruit, hok-fUka. 
Ripen, homnyHl-kanga. 

Rise (get np, stand up), shiaka; ehiok- 

— (get np on waking, or after lying 
down), kdnga; kdng-lare; konga ; 

— (ascend, climb, 3.C.). 

— (of the snn, moon, and stars), 
chl-ya; cMatla. 

— (of the tide), komd'A-lare. 

Time to rise (after sleep), hen-me- 

River, ddk-ta-haru. 

RiYulet, ddk-ta-wud ; wdya-ddk; ddk- 

Road, kaiyi; keydwa; kamaylwa. 
Boar (of the snif), Uang{-shahong). 
Boast, hmbk-hata.* 




Rob, halS-hanga. 

Bock (stoiie), mang-nge. 

— (lull to sleep), Ttom-Tiai-ngamat. 
Boe, hard, yeu(-fc(ia), 

■ — Boft, ha-tamilida). 

R<^?tie, 'mmkoina-ake. 

Roll (a cask or ball)(ti,(.)i downwards, 
pomle (or pomldi) -hashe; upwards, 
pomle (or 'pomlal) -hala ; on aaiue 
level, pomU (or poinldl) -hala. 

— (a caek or ball) {v.i.), paie-shu. 

— (as a ship), ong-tenga. 

— (wallow), enlbin-hata. 

— (under a cylinder), pomdi-Afflji^a. 

— (between the palma), as a firestick, 
hxtavn-hata i & lump of clay, hato- 

— (furl), ong-yuaw^'hala. 

— off, palai-ehu. 
Romp (v.), ha-eha-i-tSre. 
Roof (of dwelling), ok-M. 

— (of mouth), oal-menddla. 

Boom (space, ap&rtment),c&t(^; ehuk- 

— va&ka, ehi-Juda ; tonvwik-ngare ; Ml- 

Roomy, Iwlwie-oai. 
Iloost (v.), laiA{ch)-ehire. 
Root, yiak^-oniha*). 
Rope, tanSka. 

Rosebud-shell (see Mvrez). 
Hot, of vegetation, ' 

— of fleBh, wood, &o., yS-ybknga. 

— of eggs, coconuts, Ac, yd-kache. 
The flooring (of planks) of m; hnt 

is rotting, tatwarig Hi cMia yS- 
Rotten (of wood, fleah, vegetables, 
fruits), (leat-^yok ; ybknga. 

— (of leaves), yumla. 

— (of e^fs, coconuts, &e.), kachM. 
Your but thatoh is quite rotten, ok- 

m ffieri yumla-lta'. 

Rough (as of unplaued wood), maiyAAt. 

— (tempestuous), koya. 

That plank is rough, ane tcmoaTtg 6t 
Round (circular), kawila; o-kinl-hcwe. 

— (cylindrical), ndanga; hong-noanga. 

— (spherical), o-kon-hare. 

Round (prep.), enwin (see Ex. at 

— go, walk, or run, ka-v>in-hanga. 
The pig ran round the hut, not ta 

hawiin-nga M. 

— (of a ladder), tanol-haldk. 
Rouse (awake) (v.i.), ckal-hala. 

— (awaken) («,(.), liendun-hala ; lien- 

Eow (of persons or objects), kama- 

Row (with oar), et-kot-hcmga. 
Rub (polish), et-tat-hala ; tat-hala. 

— (wipe), et-tat-mat. 

— (clean), et-skech-nga-mai. 

— off dirt, Ac, ifah-hanga, 

— - one's eyes, tah-te-oahadt-de. 

— out, pomytii(cli) - hanga ; et-tat- 
hanga ; owi-hanga. 

Rubbish, enchart. 
Rudder, hen-la-ridla. 
Rag (of coir), ta-nbt-ldk. 
Rum, ta-ram, ; wlnya. 
Hnn, dion; Id. 

Run quickly to me, ISa-lSa Id en 
meA ten chMa, 

— a race, d^an-'ha»}iSle. 

Running over, viakaga-chakd ; ywiil- 

Rnpee, rupla. 
Rush (v.), loko-dlan-nga. 
Rust, het-ai(ch). 

Rustle (as of leaves), poght-hat-leang. 
But (of wheels, or dr^ged logs, oauoc, 
i&c.), hen-ldta. 

.y Google 


Sack, ahdyo. 

fnl, ehama-yowa. 

A sackful of rice, hSang skamaymoa 

Sacrifice (propitiatory), conBisting of 

cloth, Ac, at burial of relative or 

friend, oly&la; iniwa,. 
by alanghtering a pig or fowl, 

by placing email yonng coco- 

nats and scraps of food on fetich 

objects, iehoi-komAjHa. 

— the remains of a feast, komjiwa- 

Sad (florrowful), yen-ngafS. 
Safe {adj.') (ont of danger), ham^UU 

— (seaworthy), tan-ngayan. 
Sail (made of cloth), hen-teha. 

— (made of Nipa leaves), ISe-lama- 

— (consisting of a trimmed coconat 
leaf), henteha-dai-oyaJi. 

— make, cham-ldngshi-We, 

— take in, ydnga. 

— (u.) (of ship or canoe), kaleha. 

— (v.) (start on a voyage, set sail), 

Sailing vessel, cAifnjr; ehSng-henieha. 
Sake of, for the, ySna-ta-kde. 
Sale (baivain), inih. 

— for, yo . . . na-nlh. 

All those shells (moUnscs) are for 
sale, bmtom one oh-shei-koi-ngdh 
yS na na-nik. 
Saliva, hikai. 
Salt («.), »*«'■ 

— (saltish) (adj.), haiyS. 

— -water, ddJc-koTnald, 
Salts, £pson), danun-ishait. 
• — smelling-, het-hota. 

Salntatioii (to gneats or visitors on 
arrival), cJtai-chachd-ka'. 

— (togDcstsorvisitorsondepcu-tnre), 
. imdnga-ok. 

Salate (v.) (by bowing the head), 

Same (identical), an-ka'. 

Same (of like kind), heang-ashe. 

— (in constr.), heang-e (see Sx. at 
"Height "and "Half-brother"). 

— (the very same), an-ka' ; viat-ehi, 

— the (or that) (correl.), akina (»ee 
Hx. at "What^" "Who," mi. 
"Which," rel). 

— like the (awrei.), ySta-heOTtgaiJia 
(eee Ex. at " Like which," rel.). 

At the same time (correl.), lien. 
At the same time as, -indm-ta-chakd. 
He arrived here at the eame time 
as myself, an inbm-ta-chakd chUa 
le&t-dSk itd. 
Sand, yaiya; piet; piat. 
batak. (ix^, chakd-ngdh. 

— -fly, hi-nyUka. '. 

— -glass, tandk-rdtn. 

— -piper (Tringoides hypoleucoe), 

— -stone, mangnge. 

(calcareous), tamivg. 

Sandy-beach, chakd-yaiya. 

Sap («.), chydm. 

Sardine, chafoin. 

Satisfactory, ydh-ngayan. 

Satisfied, with food (saliated), j>o&de; 

tang -r gay an. 

— with presents, Ac, tang-vga^tS. 

— (contented), ekin-yS-ngat6. 
Sancer, pitianh-t'ompiiishe. 
Savage (barbarous), oal-chHa. 

— (fierce), hen-yang. 
Save (rescue, q.v.). 

— (reserve), hen-hdii-tS. 
Saw, ken-tdl 

dnst, omtop-chakd-kenidlf kentdl-tat. 

Bay, oU/oIai figS. 

What do yon say P chin olyolaf 
■ — tell, declare, ngSo, 

I can't say how long it will be 
(before) I return, chit vgeo tashi 
chaia shtcdta/re. 
Saying, inSla, 
Scab, ok-kehu. 

Scabbard (sheath), nl-in6at ; hennitem 
Scald (v.), ngoih-nga. 




Scald one's throat, dk-ghe. 
Soalding-hot, lain-ka\ 
Scale (of fieh), hishd-kda. 

— (weighiDg), kenldh. 
Scarcity (dearth), eAh-ngcuhe. 
Scalp, ok-koi. 

Scamp, tnenfatina-ihe. 

Soar (large), lien-kSn; (small), ma- 

Scarce (rare), hat-lopta-clmk. 
Scarcely, enh-tayan. 
Scare (frighten away), fcaiyMOd-Aango, 
Scatter (strew), jwmionj-Aoraja; poni' 

Scent (of wild animals), tbng-in. 
Scent (perfame), ) ehiang-iji ; hen- 
Scented, f shau. 

Schooner (one-masted), chSng-heangla. 

— (two-masted), chSng-dnla. 
Scissors, hiiundp. 

Scold (i;.), ho&nk-ngatS. 

Scoop (woodea, for baling water), hi- 

— (p.) (with the hineat or a coconnt- 
shell cnp), itde'ddk. 

— (v.) (with adze), indtm-hata. 

— (a canoe, trough, Ac, with axe), 
kalanh'hata ; oal-hola ; enwoaina. 

— out the f rait of an unripe coconnt, 
sho-hata (or -halo). 

— out the fruit of a ripe coconnt in 
order to make kopra), kdt-hata (or 

— ont the tmit of a ripe coconnt in 
order to make a water-pot), ts^- 

— ont the fruit of a ripe coconnt for 
food, iiho-haia. 

Scorch, harbk'hata ;* ha/rSka.* 
Score (twenty, of coconuts or coins), 
heang-inai; khbm-tafiial^-tafual). 

— (twenty, of other objects), hea-ng- 

— («.) (to reckon by means of notches 
in cane, dbo.), haro-hanga. 

Scorpion, Icalong-doanga-bi. 

— shell, oh-woat. 
Sconndrel, Tnenkbvna-ehe. 
Scowl, mlan-chdkd. 

Scraggy (lean, lit. bony), ong-eng-hare. 

Scramble, kedlnge-chakd. 

Scrape off the scales of a flsh, ishd. 

— coconut kernel with Cyrena shell 
to form paste, kmn-ha. 

— ont the pnip of Pandanus frnit 
with a shell, shUan-hata. 

— (or scrape off) with a knife, et- 

— (or rake rubbieh into a heap), ka- 

— off inner skin of limes, oranges, 
&c., or the fibre clinging to a hu^ed 
coconnt shell, ehi-hanga. 

Scraper, consisting of the thorny 
stem-sheath of the rattan {CalamuB 
sp.), nsed for preparing coconut 
and Cycae paste by rasping, k^i- 
iheck; kari-ihait. 

— Mytihit shell, or Oyrena shell (used 
in preparing Pandanttt paste), ok- 
keen; ok-hangai. 

— Oapsa Tugota or Area shell nsed in 
preparing coconut paste, ok-kanlat. 

— for relieving itch, kt^tchuat-diiha ; 

Scratch (s.), ta-kaich. 

— with finger-nail, pin, thorn, Ac. 
(v.t.), ska-kwat-hanga. 

— one's self unintentionally (".*-), 
torn- kaich-hanga. 

— •■ as a cat, thorn, pin, &c, (v.t.), 
kaichiia t-hanga. 

— Owingtoirritation(i7.t.),jpwAiA-(I«Aa. 
Why do yon scratch me ? chdwe 

men ghakivat ten chiia ? 
Scream (v.), koAyual-hata. 
Screen(of ilreca spathe, when raining), 

hichik (App. !N, item 50). 
^ (of Nipa leaves, when raining), 

shitidung-koi App. N, item 49), 
Screw (v.), hatain-hashe. 

— («.), fanBp. 

— -driver, halain-dit-ianSp. 

— -steamer, chdng-henlain-d/Hana-iit' 

— -pine (Pandanus, q.v.). 

Scuttle (sink a ship), teme(ch)-haine. 
Sea, kamaU ; henlowa. 

— rough, koya, 

— calm, ndrni. 

.y Google 



Sea-ehore, ■mat-mattai ; fdp-matlai. 

— -water, ddk-kamale. 

— -weed, ok-ydk. 

— -horse (^Kippocampw brevtrodrit), 

— -sliell, ok-thei-koungdh. 

— -ahell-fish, ehei-kdi-ngdh. 

— -worthy (safe), tan-ngayan. 

— -sick, paiig-at-chakd. 

— -Bnake, chumUo; pai(j)-mang ; 
Umg-tke (different varieties). 

— -urchin, ten-fuam. 

— travel by, in a ship, <mg-yiang- 
chSng ; in a canoe, da-miicm. 

Seam, chaniha. 

Search (u.), haleah-hata. 

Season, dry, ful. 

— rainy, iho-hoTtg. 

— festive (i.e., period of the memorial 
feasts), komtrradk. 

— be in, heU-tta-St. 

— (v.l.), wi-danun-hohngSh. 
Seasoned timber («ee " Timber "). 
Seat (thwarta of canoe), tanol-dtie. 

— any, enpdya. 

Second (in order), tanoe-ok-moreh. 
Secondary growth of jangle, enchon. 
Secret, ham&le-indla. 
Sediment, kde-dit. 
See (observe), harm. 

His month watered on seeing the 
pork, diha-not harra ddk-o-mat 

— (distinguiah, discover), hen. 
I don't see it, ehit hen wen an. 

Seed (of all trees), ong-ynang-oal. 
Seedling (of all trees except coconnt 
Kad Parndanus), op-ep; ip. 

— coconnt-, highiii (fee App. H). 
Seek, halSah-hala. 

Seize (as to seize a pig by the leg), 

— (apprehend, arrest), halin. 
Seldom, hat-ySl-skud. 
Select (v.), hai-shi>t-haia. 

Self, ka-; de-de; re-re (see Ex. at 
He is beating himself, on o/lno ia- 

I am going to visit that place my- 

self, chiia ha' (or dede) yS ilua 

Selfisb, 'moytidhr^an-paiyuh. 
Sell, inih-hata. 

The canoe which yon want is the 

one I sold yesterday, ka yS men 

due shlTia tniTi/yui ledt iHih (hata) 

haitue-nga-ldh ; liaHtue-hanga,. 

— (an animal or inanimate object), 
homkjBdin-nga--ldh ; haAtue-hata. 

— a,vrB,j, o-tdk-hanga ; ok-hbh-nga-lAh. 

— for, hawd-hata. 

— word(inform by messenger), ijigai- 
ndng ; ingdh-ne-ndMg. 

Senior, one's, oreh-latS. 
Sensible (reasonable), hSiicha. 
Separate (apart), kedUhnga-ehuk. 

— (part, q.v.), when one party leaves 
the spot, hapung-hanga ; when both 
parties leave the spot, Jcdhapung- 

— (owing to disagreement, of a 
married couple, Ac), pnng-ngare. 

Sepia officinalig, tandk-mat. 
September- October (the Innation in), 

if S.W". winds continue, lanenh ; 

lah-m-eluh; if monsoon has changed, 

Serpentine, kerodnt. 
Servant, koan-chakd; ma-harra-ng(t- 

Are yon the officer's servant P ma- 
karra.ngashi omyda ka meii ? 
Serviceable, winne-shighe. 
Set (of boxes, pots, Ac.), hen-koana- 

— a fish trap (by sinking it in shallow 
water), thwrn-hanga. 

— (as the Bun or moon), ya-shwp ; 

The sun sets in the west, ta-7igaiche 

yu-ehup heng. 
The moon is now setting, shoTWpghe 

kdk§ da-hut, 

— aside (pat away; nut aside, q.v.). 

— light to (set fire to), haiyuin-heoe. 

— down (lay), yu-hashe; oyu-hanga. 

— sail, et-yaat-la-lSe. 



Settlements (of cloth, jewellery, &c., 
demanded of bridegroom for bride), 
hen-kom ; ina,. 

Seven, weof; loe-tajualrheang. 

— o'clock, about, a.m., eyMa-koi-hin- 
dodha ; PM.,puyue-tiichitl ; pvy&epot. 

— fathom B only, enshato. 
Seven tb, mandiJc^nga-Bhian. 
Seventeen, "j 
SeveDty, \aee App. C. 
Seven hundred, &o., J 

Sever (the jointe of a carcase), he- 

Several, ho& ; yol. 
Sew, iehih-hata;* ehamih-ISe. 
Sewn, chlha.* 

Shabby (mean), ikuyoTig-yan. 
Shade (from lightj («.), du. 

— lamp-, kendup-koi-heoe. 

— (the eyes from glare of ann, Ac), 
ka-tdnga-oahn dt-de. 

— (the head from the Bnn), haru-ytt- 

— go into the, haru-ngare. 
Shadow, dM. 

Shaft (of spear), haiydh. 
Shake a tree, &c., kcmitUar-hanga. 
■ — a cloth, 4e., tenfdk-hanga. 

— hands, et-nait-kanetai. 

— one's fist, komchiii-hata. 

— the head, koehuTtg-hanga. 

— fluid contente of a bottle, kom-che- 

— from fright, kd-che. 

— (shiver), nyhk; nywng. 

— owing to vibration, ka-toa. 
Shallow water (whether sea or freah 

water), mienk-long ; freah water 
only, kale-ddk. 

Sham (see " Pretend " and " Alloy "). 

Sliaman, menluana. 

Shame, dal-nga-tS ; daUchakd. 
For shame ! ai-i ! 

Shamelesa, hat-daUchakd ; hat-daU 
ttgato; hat-modal. 

Shampoo (with the knucklea or pinch- 
ing tlie nmBclea), fi-net. 

— (with the palms, as performed by 
the mgidHatia or exorciata), enAuafia. 

Shape (y.) {see "Carve"). 

Share (v.), kdhd-pai(ch). 
Shark, main. 

— (hammer-headed-), maiS~ihildng. 
Shaip (of a blade), shong. 

— (of a pointed weapon), p6-chip. 

— (intelligent), ianoi-nyo-yaM; tanol- 

Look sharp ! holdk-hat-ghe ! 
Sharpen (a blade), irdha, ; iddha. 

— (a point), ^wm-cAtp. 
Sharpening stone, dandka. 
Shave, ikoah-hanga ; kanoah-chakd. 

— the head (as when moaming, 4i-.), 

Shaving of wood, orri-t&p. 
Shawl, oplop. 

— put on, or wear a, lop-hata. 
She, an; r>a. 

She died five months ago, ta>iai 
hanga kamahenwa an kapdh. 
Sheath, nUinoat ; henniwa. 
Shed for cattle, m (or chuk)-kapii ; 

Shed skin (as a snake), et-ldi(ch)- 


— tears, ekim-iiire; laaddk-mat. 
Sheep, kdpre. 

Sheet, bed-, dandp-oal-hiliui. 

— winding- (cloths wrapped round 
corpse), lanita~kamaj)dh. 

Shelf (ledge), euyiia. 

— (above fireplace for preserving 
prepared food), ong-ddnga ; en- 
iangla ; ok-pdka. 

Shell, coconnt-, whole, for holding 
water, hxahoya; half, enfd, taiydk; 
a piece of, endain-tat (m€ App. N, 
items 33 and 38). 

— egg-, ok-huyd. 

— of canoe, diie-hSiuii. 

— marine-, ok-ikei-koi-ngdh (see App. 

— fresh-water-, ok-sKei-oal-ddk. 

— land-, ok-shei-odt-chaa. 

fish, anha-oal (shei-koi-ngdh, -ghei'- 


— tortoise- (i.e., turtle-), ok-kdp. 
Have yon got any (Bea-)shells for 

sale ? ot en ok-shei koi-ngdh ta yS 




Shelter (v.t.), kard-kSi. 

— take, hara-long-kdire ; harS-ngare. 
SLift (as the wind), ealaiti-nya ; ol- 

Sliin, hanang. 

Shine (aa sun, lamp, Ac, or as polished 

metal), dain-hata. 
Ship, sailing-, c^n^,' chong-hentSha. 

— Btc&m-, chSTtg-hcoe ; ohSng-heulain. 

— war-, cMng-hen-koh ; cMng-fomo- 

— one- masted-, chdng-heangla. 

— two'inastod-, chSng-diila. 

— three-masted-, chong-loela. 

— tradiug-, chSng-mmlh. 

Ships of the same description or rig, 

Three shipa of the name rig, Ide 
danbi ckong. 

— different, not all of the same rig, 
chinmSitga-ckong . 

(Three or more) ships of three dif- 
ferent rigs, Ide chinmSnga cMng. 

— of the same rig nnder weigh, 
hcmga- danoi-chSng . 

Ten ships of the same description 
ander weigb, alwm hanga danbi 

— of various rigs nnderweigh, hanga- 
chiitmo itga-chong. 

Ten or more ships of ton different 
riga under weigh, ihbm hanga 
chinmSnga-chong . 
Shipwreck, ehdng-ta-kohla. 

— suffer, wah-ngayan. 

Siiirt, CO i, ton-, hsnhdiTt-lanM-oal. 

— flannel-, kartyat-laina-oai. 
Shiver (from cold or fear), ch3; 

Shoe, dandp'ldh. 
Shoot (as of bamboo pineapple, plan- 

tain, &c.), imuang-menguan. 

— any object with a croaabow, kaA- 
Jbina i* taii/6-tai. 

a child's bow, ^ri-pifa;* 

a gan, haril-hata ; taiyo- 

a cannon, taiyo • tai' 


Shoot any target with a ciossbow, 

a child's bow, loka-haH- 

a gun, loka-harilla.* 

a cannon, loka-hakoka.* 

I shot two imperial pigeons yeater- 
day with a crossbow, Miinyiti (^ua 
&n twang miimu leat hanfoin. 

— at {gee " Aim "). 

Shore, Jtutl-mattai ; fdp-mattai. 

— fore-, oal-ngdk ; koi-ngdh. 

— go on, dan-hat; chuah-hat. 

1 will go on shore later in the day, 
(enydh) eha dan -maka'. 
Short, mitdnto. 

— (of atatnre), mieriA«ie-ifc5(. 
Shorter, en-nenksJie-koi ; en-tdnta. 
Shortest, en-neUhfhe-koi-ka' ; entdata- 

Short-sighted, pitldi-oalmdt. 

— -winded, hat-chaUng-eydm. 

— -commons (insufficient food), y«(t/(. 
Shorten (i>.t.) ul-kdnUhauga. 
Shortly (noon), fna-ka' ; enh-tayan. 
Sh it, dnha-oal-hindel. 

Should, dokta. 

YoQ should not steal, met dohta )ii<-u 
feoiS (see "Ought"). 
Sbonlder, koi-ungoah. 

— -blade, et-shait. 

— -joint, henldka-chang'pdk. 
Shoulders, uncover the, kelang-hanga. 

— cover the, lop-hata. 

Shout (u.), harushe-nge-olydla ; wi- 

Sliove (i>.)i kotain-hanga (eee "Push"). 
Show (present to view), hatdh-m-inat. 

— (explain), hai-chamg-nga-nge (see 
also " Point oat," " leacb "). 

Shower, yonj; chain; amUh-ta-cheh. 
Shrimp, sea- water, shoditg-nal-hainale. 

— fresh-water, karanta. 
Shrink (aa cloth), nyuam~hat. 
Shroud (of the dead), of Areca spathes, 

danap-oal-hiliia ; of cloth, lauua- 

Shroud a (ropes supporting mast), 

Shrug the shonlderf, kenyd-lare. 




Shudder (from fear), ehe. 
Shun (avoid), ok-lak-hanga ; ehom-lo- 

— (from fear of any danger), ong- 

— a qaarrelBome or exacting person, 

Shnt a box (i.e., Tertically), d'p-hathe. 

— abook (t.e.,laterally), Iwni-ap-hafa. 

— a door, window, Ac., karap-hala. 

— one's month, op-nwp'ha-chakd, 

— one's ejcw, one eje, kiiai-hatiga ; 
both eyes, -mom-hatke. 

— one's ears, larap-oal-ndng-de. 

— one's hand, ]ecp-hata; Icolop-haia. 
Shatter in front of hat doorway, to- 

nditg ( -ehahd^-ni. 

— of hnt window, tandng-chakd-foartg. 
Shy, as a ^rl, daLchakd. 

— as wild animals, hai-ye. 

— as strangers on meeting, kdka^dal- 

Sick (ill), ta. 

— (vomit) (f.), ooM-hanga. 
Sickly (ptde), teyen-chdkd. 

Side (of the body or of a canoe or 
boat), /ap; tewynak. 

— of a ship, fdp-chmig. 

— -face, oksfwik-hai-ckakd. 

— left, Id'Woaka. 

— right, Id-ehUla. 

— on this, inneJia. 

— on that, hdii-yo. 

— on one (apart), kedohnga-ehuk. 

— by aide, himin-dangla. 

— -ways, aho-ngo-fdp. 
Sieve (strainer, q.v.). 

Sift grain (by shaking in a sieve), 
kothi-haTiga (or katfO) ; (by winnow- 
ing), totndiak-hanga (or hata). 

Sigh (u.), hdh-haiiie. 

Sight, long", taohiwa. 

— short-, putoi-oal-mdl. 
Sign (mark), lienndng-ngathe. 
Siij;i)al (v.), hatdh-to-inat. 

Silent, hat-olyola ; kdto; hompen-ngare. 
Silk - handkerohief, UAthe -ta- nyimg- 

Silly, hat-kHcha. 
Silver, chj-4; (pare), chud^ka\ 

Silver-ornaments, hellSt-ka\ 

— -ware (trader in), ehitd-ha-paiyuh. 

— imitation- (electro or German), 

Similar, !ieanga-*he. 
Simpleton, hat-hiang-akdh. 
Sin (».), pbt-the ; pat-eh«. 

— (p.), met-paia'»he. 

Since (poitp."), lathe; tayan; tkii/an ; 
thitai; *hit6 (see "From"). 

— {adv.), hanga (see Ex. at " Ago "). 

— (prep.), enydA. 

He died since yoor retnm, enydh 
shwdtare viei an kdpdk. 
Sinew, ike. 
Sing, ikdtba. 
Singer, moml-kdsha, 
Singinfj entertainment (with dancing), 

Tnilah ; miloh. 
Singing in the ears, kayuaia-ndng. 
Singe hair, ngbih-nga. 

— briatlesofpig,Aoroi-ftato;* Aoroia.* 
Single (anmarried, g.v.). 

— (alone, g.p.). 

Singly (one by one), keang-heang. 
Sink (of a ship, stone, a drowning 

JaWi, or animal), Ihngehe ; porrUorig- 


— (of a turtle when harpooned), jMm- 

— (of a scattled vessel, or owing to 
leak), pang-the ; bang-she. 

— (as a diver) {see "Dive"). 

— (as when crossing a swamp or 
walking in sand), ta-hua-sho. 

— paxtially (as from overloading), 

— a fish-trap (see " Set "). 

— (v.t.), hen-pang -haihe ; pom-pang- 

— a well, chiyav-haeke. 

Sip («.), anyiinid,feopep-iaia; ibo-pep- 
lare; (aa hot water or tea), fodt-hata. 

Siphon, shandnha. 

Sister (as addressed or referred to by 
brother), etikdfta-ni. 

— own or half, elder or yonnger, 
ta-matta-ihe- en Itdna. 

— own elder (female speaking), choM- 
enkdna; yol-he-wd-la-chdu-enkdna. 




Sister, own. eldest (female speaking), 
c hau-ennyula~enkdtia. 

— — aecord eldest (female speak- 
infr)i ehau -ta-dn- ong ■ yvang - Se- 

— — third eldest (female speaking), 
oKd/a-ta-lae-ong-yuang-ne-e n Tidna. 

younger (female speaking), iaw- 

yoongeBt (female speaking), 

twa-oly&la'enliwna. \ 

first younger (female speak- 
ing) , toM-ennyula-eiikdna. 

second younger (female speak- 
ing'), ta/a-tCL-dn-uTig-ywmg-ne-enkdTia, 

third yonager (female speak- 
ing), toM-ta-loB-ong-yuang-ne-enh&na. 

^- half-, consuignine \lit., one father, 
different mother), lieang-e-chta- 
Penlaiina (^-ddng-e-chta-t'enkdna). 

uterine (lit., one mother, dif- 
ferent father), heang-e-chia-t'enkdna 
(-dong-e'Chia- t'enkoiMa) . 

Sisters and (or) brothers of same 
family, ySl-he-chla. 

Sister-in-law, brother's wife, momtbm- 
eitkdna ; hnsband'a or wife's sister, 
hdni- (or Am-) enkdna. 

Sit (sit down), jfw/a; jio-«Aire; o-feon- 

— still, kdto-pSya. 

— up (rise from recumbent position), 

— cross-legged. Hi; liri- . 

— with one leg tncked np, sM- 

— (squat), omd-mn-hare. 

— with head resting on arm, thi-dltmg- 
ngare ; shi-muak-ngare. 

— (of a, hen hatching), ot6-kata. 

Sit down below the hnt, ta-rigaiche 
i-kata) wl poya. 

He is sitting beside my father, 
tala-shiak chia cha, an poya. 
Six, tafual; loe-tafiial (see App. C). 
Six o'clock, abont, a.m. (see " Snn- 

rise)" ; P.M. (see "Sunset" and 

App. D). ■ 
Six fathoms, tetifualo. 
Sixth, menydh-ka. 

Sixteen, "1 

Sixty, > See App. C 

Six hundred, J 

Size, di ; n. 

What is the size of yonr hnt ? kdH 

— of the same, hiang-e-dl. 

Skate (ray), kdka-ldng (eee " Ray "). 
Skeleton, ong-eng-hmtom. 
Sketch (draw), e(-fca(o; et-St-ha; horn- 

— (drawing), hen-y&i-nga-ehi. 
Skewer (a.), skajioa. 

— (v.), o-shuan-hata. 

Skilful, paiyuh-ta-leap ; mahen-drual- 

ngato ; o-tdlnga-nwng-paiyuh. 
Skin (s.), ok. 

— -disease, p^ddk. 

— (f.(.), et-lei(J)-nga-ok ; et-iai(cii)- 
nga^ok (gee " Peel "). . 

— shed (aa a snake), et-loi(chyhanga. 
Skip (u.), ten-chdt-lare ; ckat-hwnga.. 
Skipping-rope, game of, karat. 
Skirt, cioth-, opchuap; opchiap; loe- 


— of split coconnt-leaf, outer, hinong- 
lama-ok ; intermediate, hinong-lam- 
heam (or hen-oa^Aania-ok') ; inner- 
most, Kiiumg-lattia-oal (see App. N, 
item 48). 

Skull, ong-eng-koi. 

— -hat (as placed on exhumed male 
skall), hatdia-kemili (or haldia- 

(as placed on exhumed female 

skall), koto-kamapdh (eee App. N, 
items 148, 149). 

Sky, katorhiiiya. 

— clear-, teyen-oal; chu-ngai(ch,')-oal. 

— overcast-, ob-chakd; dl-ckakd; osh- 

Slack (of a rope, Ac), loai. 
Slacken a rope (f.*.), iydh-haine. 
Slander (v.), ingak-haahe ; kdydtoe- 

Slap (v.), ofiio-hata. 
Slash with cane, whip, Ac., (n.), 

Slaughter (v.) (of a pig), kalak-hata. 
Sleep {■».), iteak. 



Sleepli^ht\j,i}umi-kbiik-hanga; taekul- 

— aonndly, kimaiyan. 

— go to, teak-ngare. 

— -walker, wait-mwbiya. 
Sleepless, Jiat-hen-teak'ngayan. 
Sleeping-mat, hilua-ok. 

— -time (ftbout 9 p.m.), hei miteak. 
Sleepy, iteakla; hen-teak-ngayan. 

— from fatigue, kimaiyan. 

— from indulgence in liquor, iteakla- 

Sleeve of cloth coat, kodl-kanyHt. 

— of cotton coat, kodl-kenhSin. 
Sleight of hand, kalo-nga'shl. 

Slice ("-(■), o-taih-}Mta; ghinoaUhanga 

— («.), oag-loaTig ; et-hdnt. 
Slide, ta-heak-ldk. 

Slight (slim, slender), ompeii-fdp. 
Sling for woonded limb, enyan. 
Slip off (or down), ta-foiih-ihu-ldh. 

— down, taloah-hi-koi ; taldah-hi-ldh. 

— -knot, hen-pual. 
Slipper, dandp-ldh. 

Slippery (owing to mud, or other 

cause), hibd; hipo. 
Slit (v.t.), o-ld-hanga; (v.l), dd(k)-ne. 
Slope (» ), idu-hare. 
Slothful, hat-kataiyan. 
Slongh of a snake, ei-l$i(j'). 
Slf>w, hat-loa (tee alio " Fast," " Swift," 

and prefis hat). 

Why are yon so slow ? chdwe met-loa ? 

Don't be slow ! wot met ISa ! 
Slow-matoh (made of slit cooonnt 

spathe), lien-hota. 
Slowly, hat-hd.^i-hatBhe ; kat-chong- 

Slng (the Insect), en-kdt. 
Slnmber (v.), shomkbAk-hanga. 
Sly, shiale-en-kdkd. 
Small, OTTtpen-ghe. 

— a little, la-pa/it; pait or pai(ch) 
(also in comtr.}. 

— (in qnantity), pait-ngashe; Id- 
ngashe ■ wih-taihe. 

Smaller (or less) in size, ndk-ngare-di ; 
pait-en-paitshe ; pait-endiia; en- 

Smaller (or Usa) in quantity), ndk~ 
ngare-dkthe ; Unnd-ngaehe ; ethjpaU- 
ngaihe ; enpen-chakd ; penruii^ch)- 
kanga-ghe; wirmeh-tashe. 

Smallest (or least) in size, enpechya-ka; 

IfC. . 

in quantity, enpaiingaehe- 

ka; ^c. 

Too small (in size), hodinga-denmi. 

Too small (in qnantity), hodnnga- 
Small-pOE, mail. 
Smart (alert), holah-hal-ehe. 

— feel a, kekien-yan-chakd. 

Smash (y.),henda{k)-'ha'iiga; fcendd(fc)- 

Smatter (have superficial knowledge, 

especially of a langnage),«OTA-(a-ya», 
Smear one's-self (with pig's or fowl's 

blood, & c. , in sickness or on festivals ) , 

kalonga : dwui. 

(with soot), etddin-enhuin. 

(with tnrmerlo angnent), 

vAa-dnha; wi-gho-dnha. 

— one's face with Termilion angnent 
or powder, leta. 

— pork (with tormerie as mi anti- 
septic in order to preserve it), 

SmeU (s), oi. 

— (agreeable), $hia/ng-oi. 

— (foni or disagreeable), paii-dt. 

— (n.t.), hot-kata j et-hot-hata. 

— (v.i.). thng-oi. 

— (u.i.), agreeably, ftdf-fcota.sftionff-oi, 

— (v.i.), disagreeably, hat-thtang-oi. 
Smelling-salts, het-hota. 

Smile (ti.), om/yiim-'hai-diahd ; ta-kain- 

Smoke, fueh-heoe. 

— blinded with, ai-chip. 

I am blinded with the smoke (Ut., 
because of the smoke, <fcc.)t to* 
fush-heoe aicMp en chiia. 

— tobacco-, /«sA-o»nAoi«. 

— (c), tobacco, iop-oniMW; pem^ 

— (c), fish, ong-howng-hda. 

— (p.), food in order to preserve it, 
hd-k-iiiKa (or luh-hoia'). 




Smoked food, spoilt, pd-dih-ya» ; pa- 

Smokj afcmospbere, fvth-oal. 
Smooth with file or ray's hide (i;.). 


— as paper, table, Ac, loan. 

— as velvet, taha^ak. 

— as the sea, Ham. 

Smother (suffocate) (o.(.). A«arii-io- 

Smoulder, hed'e-ompeA-tet-ehe, 
Snail, shei-bl-chila. 
Snake, venomous, pai(eh) ; pai(j)- 

(There are aeven known varieties, 

bearing separate names.) 

— harmless, taechula; tneyuka; han- 
oal-dk (being the names of three 
known varieties). 

, ~ sea-, (1) chtunlioi (2) ling-she. 
(1) About 8 feet, and (2) about 4 
feet long, being two species). 

— (python), tuldn. 

Snap (break short), Urmkdk-ngare. 
Snare (p.), hapHala; ha-pUaUhaia. 

— («.), henpual. 

Snatch ((jT), iiai-hanga ; itai-nga- 

Sneeze (*.), eai. 

— («.), eai-hanga; eaigh-hatiga. 
Sniff (t>.) (snnff), kohat-hata. 

of the Malay 

- (after the 
kiss), iye-hata 

— _{>.), yeya. 
Snipe, et-ltoan'ta. 
Snivel (v.), hehe. 
Snore (v.), hi-ngoak. 
Snout, rrwah ; moanh. 

So (in this or such degree), vtat (gee 
Ex. at " Lazy " and " Do "). 

— (thus, like this), wai-aAi; wat-ghl- 

— (thna, in like manner), yiang-hata. 
Don't do BO, wbt meii watghl-chiada. 

— (on this account), an-ldng-ngi-t6 ; 
an- long -nga^thi, 

— (correl. of " aa "), yoUa-heang-ashe 
(see Bx, at " as," and App. B). 

— {correl. of "like which"), ydta- 
keang-aihe (tee Ex. at " Like which," 
and App. B), . 

Just BO ! aii-da-kachii ! 
So big (thus big), ta-ri. 
- — fat, ta-ri- fop. 

— far as, chalingshe. 

— high, ta-riiala-koi. 

— long, ta-riiat. 

— mach (this much), ta-dighe. 

I have only bo much rice, ehUa hanta 
ta-dithe aroe 6t. 

— mnch (cOTTfJ. o/" as much"), tAin- 
'men$hl; shammienahl (see Ex. at 
"As much," and App. B). 

Only so much, di«-nti-j"Ai(an). 

— many (thia many), daitiinah-tare. 

— many (correl. of " aa mHny "), shin- 
■memhi; eham-menahi (see Ex. at 
" Aa many " and App. B). 

Only so many, din - mdkat - fa- 

Soak cloth, &c., as in dyeing, wash- 
ing, Ac., powwfttM»-Aa«Ae; lomta(k)- 
hashe; limdd'haehe ; hommin-haehe ; 
tendo-hashe (tee "Dye"). 

— food, komldk-ngamat. 
Soap, sha-w&ng. 

Soar, haetuing-ktre. 

Sob, ke-edt-de. 

Sober (temperate), hal-yo-hnydie. 

Sock (atocking), kenhbti-ldh; hen-oaU 

Sofa, Icdtere-ol-lal. 
Soft (of wool, Ac.), ma-noi(cK) ; (of 

Hilk, &.C.), inai-Tigayan. 
-Soften (v.t,), homai-hanga ; pomghaan- 


— ("-»-), mai-ngayan. 

SofVIy (quietly), hat-men-lama-she. 
Soil, du. 

— (make dirty) («-(.), yiih-ko-mat. 
Sole of toot, oai-l&h. 

Sole (solitary), \ hemeang (see 
Solely (alone), J "Lonely"). 

Solemn, ngo-chakd. 
Solid (adj. and ».), koah-ngayan. 
Some, pail-she. 

— (in reference to any substanoe), 

Do yon want some tobacco ? paitshe 
omhbin men y6, or yo men paitth« 
omhoxH? (seeEx.e.t"EAt"). 



Somebody (aome one), homdoh-paiyHh. 

Some other, kedohnga. 

Something (a certain thing, portion, 

or quantity), hadoh-hadoh. 

I see something, ehiia harra hadoh- 

Give me something, homkwbm haddh- 
hadoh men tea chua. 
Sometime (atone time or other), harii- 


I will come some time (or other), 
haru'he chiia dak. 
Sometimea, kalak-he; harii-he-haru-kS. 
Somevvhere, kdh-nga-ihi-chuk. 
Somersault, ehdli-kali'pdang. 
Somnambulist, wait-mwhiya. 
Son, koan (-enkbina). 
Son-in-law, kbin-koan. 
Son;;, kanoi-she. 

— of a certtuD kind, kaTriennbithe. 
One tind of song was sung and two 

kinds of dances were danced by 
me lost ni);ht, keang kcmiennbuihe 
ta-koisha dii kamentSka ta-katSka 
Uti ehua wdhS. 
Soon, enh-tayan; fdh-tare-yan. 

— (later in the day), •ma-ka'. 
Soot, oeh-hede ; en-huin. 

Sore («.) (gangrenons), tatv)i(fih). 

— nicer, hi-koinih. 

— boil, keha. 

— (adj.), ehok-pa-kdt. 
Sorrowfnl (sad), yen-ngatS. 
Sorry, yen-ihire. 

I am sorry you are going (home), 
men yuohuk chiia yenshire. 
Sort (kind, description), laaadta ; 
kamoya, penyuha. 

— of the B&aie, heang-athe; ySl-hathe. 

— of a diSerent, dongathe. 

Sort (f .), kalep-nga-iht-ta-hS(mg-leany. 
All sorts of men, kangkdk-paiyuh. 
of animals, &c., Vypta-koishi- 

chiia; kanehdk-'hieh-ua. 
of things, lok-tat-ihe-penyuha- 

of cloth, in respect to material, 

of cloth, ia respect to colour, 


All sorts of cloth, in respect to pattern, 

He has brought all sorts of cloth 
and of Tarious colours and pat- 
terns, an ledt okai Zopto-Ien-md^a, 
Ibpta-penyuha, kaha-ghdk. 
Soul (seat of life), hoin. 

— (human being, person), diih. 

The canoe capsized and fonr souls 
perished, due ka-ope-koi foan dnh 
to, kd^dh. 

When I die my soul will take its 
flight, heA to kdpdK chiia hbiA 

Sound (measure depth of water), 

— of the snrf, leang-shahdng. 

— of the voice, ISang-ngS. 

— of hammering or other hand-work, 


— of firing (^ng, rain, Ac), leang- 
hindel; {-shanon; -aminh, ^.). 

Sonp, ddk-hong-dny. 

ladle, hanaat-ddk ; taiydk-chttd. 

Sour (acid) pakaiH. 

— become or tnm, (of food), pachoM ; 
(of drink), ^lyot; hdA-yot. 

South, ngange ; ta-ngange. 

— wind, (hdnah-) Ibhnga. 

— -east wind, hanahJiKnga-ful. 
^- -west wind, hdnih-ah^'hong-td. 
Southward, ddh-ngare; btd-ngare (»ee 

alio App. B, a). . 
Souvenir, kap-ngatS-ia-tanedlthe. 
Sow (/em. pig), not'enkdna ; not-kdn; 


— barren, mihSii, 

Sow seed, jpoTKtong-hanga. 
Space, ekuk. 

Spacious, kohbie-oal ; kar&-7tga~oal. 
Spade, Indian, invain-du. 

— Nicobarese (tee "Hoe"). 

Span, of the fingers of both hands 
extended, aii-moal-nga-iai. 

— of the fingers of one hand, (heang-) 

— of the arms, tofmdka (see 

Spare, superflnons, oyd-tat. 

— lean, ktob»p-iiga»he. 

.y Google 


Spare, part with willingly, ftonifcwom- 

— forbear to Mil,waiya. 

Spark, ketimg-ltetbng-hede ; hefain-lce- 

Spathe of tlie Areea augtuta, I6ah- 


— of the Areea catechu, ISaJi'Myd. 

— oitixB OraniaNieobarica(? Bentine- 
fa'o Nicoharica), I6ah-h,iliia 

— of the Pinanga Manii, ISah-okshudk. 

— of the Oocot nucijera, ehiat-oyau. 
Spawn {s.), peu-kda. 

Speak, olyola. 

— loadly, karuehe-nge-oli/ola. 
Spear, bladed, shanen ; pronged, mian ; 

(For the several varieties, <eeApp. 

S, itema 11 to 21). 
Give the spear to ttis man, huibm- 

hata ehinen ten enh paiyuh. 

— (onj or all, bladed and pronged), 

I want every kind of spear, chiia yo 
chatai I'bmtom. 
■ — point of, wioaft; mcianh(-shanen). 

— handle of, haiydh. 

— ■ handle end of, la-dit-haiydh. 

— throw a, halSang-hanga (or -hata). 

— (strike with spear), ghdk-hata ; 
^omldm-hata ; taiy6-tai-ehak. 

t [Thisword is employed withrefer- 
ence only to the maladroit spear- 
ing of women.] 

I have speared two (wild) pigs, chiia 
ledt sh&k oM ndang tharudl. 

— fish near the surface, shdk-kda. 

— fiah at a depth of several feet, 
oehdl; chanol. 

Species (all or various, of animals, 
fish, birds, Ac), kan-shdk (or Ibpta- 
leoi) shichiia (oT-kda) («ee"Sort"), 

Speckled, tdka-ok. 

Speech (remark), holyol. 

Spend money, hx/rnkwiytn-haTiga. 

— time, hom-thon-tare (see Ex. at 
" Paas "). 

— a night away from home, omdd/m. 
Spent (expended), leat-ngong. 
Spew (v.), owa-haia. 

Spider, small variety, kala^poya. 

Spider, large variety, kalong-doanga. 

Spider's-web, kala-vidna; hen-den'ti&ng. 

Spike, pocMp-koi. 

Spill (v. t.), kapHa-he. 

Spin(whirl) (v.t.),halain-hata i («.i.) 

Spine, hen-kda; kem/Hal. 

— -bone, serrated, of sting-ray, tah- 

Spiaater, holiaA. 

Spirit (ghost), hoiha-kamapdh / iwi- 

— good, iwi-ka- ; ivH-menlwina ; fioi- 

— good, itoi-luiha. 

— evil, iwi-pbt ; iwi-ptiatn; Itci- 
m.iloya and other iiei. 

Spit (expectorate), tapaih-hai-ne. 

— ont a qnid, ka-tainu-pAre. 

— ont coconut-oil or chewed ^'kopra '' 
in smooth shallow water to facili- 
tate fish-spearing, ha-rtgd. 

— ont SQgar-cane fibre, Ac,, ketitet- 

— pointed stick for roasting meat, Ac., 
skanoa (see App. N, item 114). 

Spittle, hikai. 

Splaah (v.(.), koSi-kata. 

— (y.i.), chuish-la. 
Spleen, hin-tdp. 
Splinter of wood, skd-hat. 

Split wood or betel-ant (v. j.),on<7-d&n<;r- 

— cane (v.t.), ka-deii-hata. 

— cane (for fine work), et-yual-hata. 

— (''■»'■)' da(k)-nga. 
Spoil («.(.), pot-ngo'tai. 
Sponge, Idha-Toma-kdi-ng&h. 
Spoon, silver-, ghaneiil-chtid-ka'. 

— electro -plated-, thaneal. 

— table-, skaneiS^-yuang-hinAm. 

— sance-, ihaneiil-ok-tewUa. 

— dcBsert-, shaneal-ta-pait. 
— ■ tea-, kenjol'ddk. 

— and fork, heang-komnan. 
Spoonful, dnJut'Oal-shaneal, 

Sport, hunting, fcoij/uftn; haiyan; jtttd 

— fishing, haleah-kda; pud. 

What aport have you had P chuan 




Spot (mark, stain), yoi; pat-mat; 
p!)t-m,at. ' 

— (any psrticnlar place), chuk. 
Spotted, tdka-ok. 

Spoat (of pot, kettle, i&c.), henl&ma. 
Sprain, em^nga. 

Spray from tiia sea, ehush ; ehvish. 
Spread a cluth, ddpa ; opddp-hathe. 

— a feast, ong'tbng-haia. 
Spring of water, daih-mutah. 

— Beaeon of, dai-tata^yal. 

Spring occurs dnring the first month 
of the rains, dai-tata-ydl St ta-mat 

N.B. the first month of the S.W. 
monsooQ Ir called iheK). 

— -tide, karu-kaimale. 
Sprinkle, ho-cheh-hanga. 
Spront (s.), ehamoa. 

— (v.), lok-ehatnoa. 
Spy-glass, hen-kian. 
Squabble, han-y6we. 
Sqnall (v.i.), pare(J)-hata. 

— of wind, hdngh-ta-kodng ; hard»h(t. 
Squander (waate, q.v.). 

Square, heang-e-dUat. 
Sqoat, om-dum-hare. 

— commence to, dUm-shire. 

— and lean on one hand, tardp-haia ; 

Squeak, weanh. 

Squeal, chaling-shi-'weank. 

Squeeze (ti.(.)> en-shdit-hata k(ymehi(j)- 

hata (see " Express "). 
Squint (v.t.)i kamidal-oalmat. 
Squint-eyed, paiyuh-ta-kedal-oalmat. 
Squirrel (see " Tree-shrew "), 
Squirt-, cfegJt. 
Stab (it.), Hko'hata. 
Stable, chuk-gord. 
Stagger, omlia/ma. 
Stain {».'), pat; pat-mat; pot-mat. 

— (v.), kwdpta, blood-staiaed, huApta- 

Stair-case, haidk. 
Stale (not fresh), taHi. 

This Pandatwi paste is stale, niaa 
ethii-lardm lecU-tain. 

— meat, dnha-la-iye. 

Stalk game (o.), haroih-hata. \ 

Stammer («.), che-kale-tah. 

He stammers very much, ahe-kale- 

tak a» uru-A^-«Ae. 

Stamp (v.), kothot-hata ; kapo-haske.^ 

f (JHodem aud local term, gee 


Stanch (stop flow of blood), et-nai(ch)- 

hata; larap-}Mta. 
Stand (v.), ok-»hiak. 

— still, koi-ngare. 

— n.p, shiaka ; shiak-lare 

— on tip- toes, »hi-ldka. 

— (rai;k foi-weapons), chuk-eka^a!. 

— (rack for bottles, &c.), unshlwa, 
(see "Shelf"). 

Star, elwk-malecka. 

— morning-, jnu-sfcoAa. 

— evening-, m£i.l&tig-nga-daa-ya. 

— falling, mok-ilidka. 

— -light, ckn-ngaii^eh^-oal (or dain)- 

— -fish, tain-paiyah. 
Starry, leak-nga-chakd. 
Starbcwrd, Id-chiila. 
Stare, stare at, hd-ngamat. 

— look fixedly, o-chM-valmai. 
Start (on a journey), kaiyvnga. 

— (on a voyage), etytialla-lde. 

— (startle), v. »., dat-ngarit. 

Why do yon start? chAiee me« dat- 
Startle (».(-), hirat-ngarit. 

Why do you startle me ? ehdwe mem 
karat-ngarit chiia ? 
Starve (v.(.), hoAh-nga-tai. 

— (y.i.) hodh-nga. 

Stature, liuala-kdi ; ruaia-koi. 

He is of small stature, diiaia-koi an 
Steady (firm), ttm-ngayan. 
Stay (remain), kdto-ngare ; hom-pe- 

tigare (see also " Spend "). 

— away (not return), oyuh-ngala. 
Stays of ship (or canoe )-mast, panu- 

anga; panonga. 
Steal, ka&-hanga; ha-yul-nga-ghi. 
Steam vegetables, Pandanvt, &c., ong- 


— (g.^^teyen-ftteh; fmh-ddk; toi(now 




Steamer, ehdng-heoe; chong-henlain. 

— paddle -, chong ■ henlaia - dHana - 


— screw-, ckong-henlatn-^uatM-dit-la. 
Steel («.), da-mdi. 

Steep (adj.), than~chakd. 

— (*..)(<«« "Soak"). 

Sleer, •mth radder or paddle, kdwe- 
dUla ; kdvte-ridla ; haie-ditla ; h/de- 

— straight, triors; IS-tare. 

— badly, wati-njo-fiAofcit. 
Sieersman, mahale-ridla. 

Stem (trank of tree), chla-onikaK. 

— fruit-, (of plantftiu, &c.), kanok. 

— fruit-, (of coconut-tree), ciiyfl. 
Stench, pa^-oi. 

Step forwards, ghoTig-tare. 

— backwards, kol-ngare. 

— on one Bide, tom-wih-ngare ; tom- 

— (pi-), ehtidka. 

— together, inbm'ta-chudJea. 

— (pace), kochoak. 

— of stair, tanol-haldk-ta-tanoang. 
'- of ladder, tanol-haldk. 

— -child, koaa-koin; kdan-kda (ac- 
cording to whether child of hosband 
or wife). 

— -father, hiyat-ehla. 

— -mother, kdti-ehia. 
Stepping-stone, kaiyl-hoi-irumgrtge. 
8t«ni of ship or cuioe, del-la. 

— prelecting-, of canoe, nga-niaata. 
Stick, da-nain. 

— walking-, mAn; shia-ngdMa ; doata. 

— fighting-, jjotywoft. 

— poling-, ahin-ngan. 

— -insect, d/m-ivn. 

— pointed(forkillingpig),i:enloi>noj. 

— cut a, ong-Jdng. 

— (adhere), haran-hata, 

— (canse to adhere), karaxrhathe. 

— (stab), tiko-hata. 

— in the gullet, koJc-nga. 

— a pig, kaldk-Jiata. 

Stiff, rigid, as from rhenmatiBm, kodk- 

— inflexible, as a bar, hat-ime. 
StiSim (as a corpse), koah-la. 

Stile {over ience^jka-nd/ag-oal-kentdmg. 
Still (till now) (adv.), yiinng-hameA. 
It is still raining, y&a/ag-hwmeA 
Stillborn, kdipdh-katy^a. 
Sting («.), pishlh-hata. 

— -ray, deya. («ee "Bay"). 
Stingy, me-iaa; me-nybn; thu-pbng- 

Stink («, and c), pan-di. 

Thnt stinks, ane ta pan-di. 
Stinking, pan-oi-yan. 
Stir food, ko-lin-hata. 

— broth or other fluids, ke-U-hata, 

— (move) (v.i.), ttoaya. 
Don't stir, wot men iloaya. 

Stitch (sew), ichih-hata." 

— with cane, ok-lSk-hata. 
Stocking, kenhbn-ldh; hen-oai-danap- 

Stomach, MJiaiwj, 

— -proper, hanbiya. 

■ — ■ -ache, cJibk-tviang ; ye-ngayan. 
Stone, mang~nge. 

— (lai^), langla. 

— (pebble), kayua. 

— fruit-, ong-y-GaTtg-oal. 

— sharpening-, daiidha. 
Stool (seat), enpdya. 

Stoop from infirmity, et - hoi - ham - 

— in order to pick up an object, ehin- 


— (as in passing under a branch), 

Stop (stay), fciJio-njore; hom-pe-ngnre. 

— (cease), yd-lare. 

Stop a little ! yang-ia-eh ! 

— a lenk (in roof), hd.»h6t-olt-ni. 
(in canoe), with cloth for email 

leak, ka-nyan-hata ; with wood, Ac., 

for large leak, taldp-hata. 
Stopper of bottle, ken-nyan-chakd. 
Store of provisions, Ac. (not for sale), 


— lay up in, hen-hdnt6. 
Stores, yan-nlh. 

Store-room (inroof of hut),c&uik-fenpu. 
Storm, hurdsha : kodng-hdnA. 
Story, in-6la. 




Stont (strong, of rope, Ac), JcarC- 


— (of a tree), learU'fdp. 

— (corpalent), karu-fdp ; poloh. 
Straggle (stray), kdhd^pung-ekakd. 
Straight (not crooked), chiam. 

— (direct), tep-tare; le-lare. 

— : (npright), kdm/iiga-ehahii ; kdm^ 

Straighten a, cane, &c., omyiam-haia. 
Strain (filter), kanhet-hanga ; haiihet- 

SiTaiaer,tfKei-,he7ih0t-teak ; oil-,henhet- 
ngai(_ch) ; water-, hendiwa-ddk (see 
App. N, items, 45, 46, and 36). 

Stnut, kaiyt-hbin-mattai. 

Strand ot a rope, kodl-laaska. 

— (w.t.), Idni-haf. 
Stranded (of a ship), kohla. 
Stranger, bat fellow - (Montryman, 

paiyuh- mattai- itawo. 

— and foreigner, hailing. 
Strangle (p.t.), kenSak-hata. 

— (b J hanging), poka-onglonga* 
Strap (leather), ndt-ok-kc^; (any), 

Straw, ihen-ta-ngH. 
Stray (strf^gle), kdhc^-jmng-chakd. 

— (lose one's self), chun-nga-chakd. 
Str^m, ddk-ta-wud ; wdya-ddk; ddk- 

Stretch (make tight), ong-ning. 

— (reach ont), led)i-ta-tai. 

— the arms (aa in measuring), hai- 

— the limbs, yuande; yiam-lare. 
Strew (scatter), pomtong-hanga. 
Stride (w.), ok-chudk-hata ; hdi-chtidka. 
Strike with the hand, ofHo-hata. 

— with the fist, oi-fc6*;-Aaia; thin-kon- 

— with a stick, ori-hata. 

— with a speu*, ehdk-hata ; omtdim- 
hata ; taiyo-tai-thdk. 

— with a Imif e, o-taih-kanga. 

— a nail, ofwbh-hiuhe. 

— a target with spear, taiyS-tai. 

— the nipple of gnn (of the hammer), 

— a match, ko-skiU-ne-hede. 

Strike, one's self, ria-re-re. 
Why do yon strike yourself ? chilan- 
»hi 'men ria-rere f 
String, panu6. 

— of cross-bow, paaue-fovrk. 

— beads, &o, (to form necklace), 

Strip off bark, et-tei(ci)-ofc-<int*oit. 
Stripe (stroke, blow), konga-tai. 
Striped cloth, kdha-piiaA, 
Stroke fondly (t>.), iye-hata; tenyiap- 

Strong (mnaonlar), kodrig ; kap; hap- 

— (violent, of a sqnall), kodng; keh. 

— (of inaaiioate objects), nge. 

— (durable), tan^ngayan. 

— (intoxicating), kodng-oal; thiang. 

— become, alde-kodng. 
Stronger, ong-kodnga. 
Strongest, ong-kodnga-ka'. 

Strong man, ka'Tnodng; ■mong-kodng- 

Stnff a pillow, Ac. (e.t.), kafen-hagke. 

— (feed gluttonously), op-ndp-iata. 
Stumble (trip), ta-Jbi»ki-chakd. 
Stump of tree, lah-onihaH. 

Stun (by loud report), tiiciiiZ-iMi-ndHj. 

Stunted, di-mi. 

Stupid (foolish), hai-hoAcha. 

Don't be stupid, vibt mst-honcha 
(lit., don't you not sensible). 

— (dull), hat-heang-akdk. 

— .(unskilful), hat-heangAeap. 

Ton stnpid ! -met-hewng-leap I (lit., 
YoQ not one (thing) can (do) ). 
Sturdy, kodng. 
Stutter {v.), che-kdle-tdk. 
Stye on the eye-lid, ket-kSnata. 
Style (mode, manner, or fashion), 


In this style, yiang-kata. 

In. that B^le, ihiri-tai-ane. 
Substitute (s.), hdola-paiyuh. 
Succeed (effect one's object), hoTig- 

— (take another's place), haehdia. 
Saccessfnl, in hnntmg or fishing, ong- 


— in searching, om-kom-ashe. 

.y Google 



Successor, hen-shSt. 

Suck (of like kind), shfri-ane; mat- 

ahl (see " Do "), 

At sacli time as (rel.'f, Tibin-tagJie. 
Suck milk (aa an infant), et-no-ckoA- 

— sweetmeats, chon-hata. 

— sngar-cane, mdoh-hata. 

Snckle (v.i.), chon-foah-ckUi-re ; hai~ 

Sucking-pig, koan-ndt. 
Suffer (endure pain), chok-ngayan. 

— jpaina of labour, ok-chbk-hanga. 
Sufficient, wbt-the. 

Suffocate (see " Choke " and 

Sugar, shbnit. 

I want some an gar, chiia yd paiUhe 

— -cane, ■mdoh. 

Suicide, commit, ol-laU-fdh-re ; di- 

Soitable, dohnga. 

ffi, }'•■»-«■ 

Sultry, ke-ang-yan; lee-chain-ycm. 

Summit, hoi. 

Summon (call) {gee "CaU," and Ex. 

at "Time"). 
Sun, heng. 

Why do yon sit in the snn? ckd/we 
inen poya ta-oal dain-heng ? 

— -light, chu-ngai^chyoal-heng ; teh- 

— -burnt, tain-chakd. 

— -gl&Te, dain-oal-mai(-ta-dain-herig). 

— -stroke, ta-chuU-chakd-ta-heng. 

— -rise, dandkla-heng ; hen-nSla-heng ; 

— -set, shup-heng. 

— at meridian, kdm-heng. 
SaperfluouB, oyd-tat. 
Superior, l»npda. 
Supper, hok-ng6k-ta-hatbm. 

— -time (about 7.30 P.M.), Ae«- 

Support (bear up), Ka-til-hata. 

— (prop) («.), km-t6l. 

Suppurate, yt-tbng. 

Snre, doh-tashe. 

Surf (breakers), shd-hong; Ken^yOava. 

— t^the foam), yua. 
Surface of sea, koi-k(wuiU. 

— of rirer, well, Ac., koi-ddk. 

— of any solid, mai. 

The surface of this box is smooth, 
nee mat hoptep loan. 
Surplus, oyd-tat. 
Surprise (b.), tarmai-hian-Tnat. 

— (".), wi-to/mai-hian-'mal. 
Surprising (see "Wonderful"). 
Surround, ha-witi-hanga. 
Surveyor, paiyuh (or kaUng^-ta-mdk- 

Suspend, enJien-hala ; komtdUhala. 
Swallow (Swiftlet, q.v.). 

— (v.),ckitdilat-kaske; olmdl-hashe. 
Swamp («.), tu-hoa. 

Sweat (s.), hodng. 

— (w.), Jok-hodng. 

Sweep a floor, walls, Ac., ifd'h(-she')- 

— away rubbish out of doors, kawSh- 

Sweat, ahtang ; chyv,; chyun. 

— -meat, ckyu ; cAywS, 

— -scented, shiang-iii. 

— -lime, kaToait-ta-chyu. 


— become, alde-sMang. 
Sweeten (v.t.), wi-la-diyu. 
Sweeter, shiri-neanga. 
Sweetest, ehin^neanga-ka: 
Sweetish, ong-thianga ; ong-shianga- 

Swell (wave), h&ya. 

— (v.i.) (as a. bladder), fiia-hata. 

— (as rice in boiling), puk-oal. 
Swift (of a ship, canoe, swimmer, Ac.), 


— (of a stream), loa-chakd. 

— of a bird, a mnner, Ac.), 16a. 
Swiftlet (Gollocalia Unchi, also Collo- 

ealia spodi^pygia), imtile-na. 

— (Gollocalia lincki, also Collocalia 
tpodiapygia), edible nesta of, hikai. 

Swim (whether frog or side stroke), 




Swim on the back, hoah-kanga. 

— nnder the sarfftce, chU-hanga, 

— away, ten-liia-nire. 
Swine, domeBtic, not. 

— jungle, iharaSl. 
Swing (v.t.), koirttiia-haTtga. 

— (v.i.), Mi-kata. 

— («.), chuk-kentoi-ya. 

— the arms, kewai-re. 
Swoon (faint), ha-ledt-e. 

Swoop (aa an eagle or hawk), Oj^toa^- 

Sword, cnrved, hirih. 

— Btraight, inSat-»hep. 

— •blade, diiha-kirih ; indat-hirih. 

— -handle, pandmiO-kirih. 

— -guard, inoal-tOfhaHroanga. 

— -Bcabbard, ni-inoal ; iii-lcinh. 

— -fish, kda-kifd ; kda-pem^dl. 

Table, men-aha (probable from Malay 

"my a"). 
Tabu, hen-hwdva ; ekiQ}. 
Tabu'd plantation, cAuJc-y om- A enAwdua. 
Tack (in sailing;), ka-weaH-tare. 
Tadpole, koan-kdng. 
Tail, kinndk-det. 
bone, serrated, of sting-ray, tah- 

Tako (v.), okai ; oka; ka-tare. 

May I take it? ddh chiia okai ten 

— canae to (gi'e), kieom-hala,. 

— away, okai-nga-ldh; kok-nga-ldh ; 

— an airing, dkeh-nire. 

— breath, Idk-ehu-yande. 

— care (of one's self), kaldk-i-t/ande. 

— care (of another or of any object), 

— care of (look after, of a child, 
patient, Ac.), harra-nga-skl. 

— care of (by depositing in safe plaue), 
tomdl-Tiga-shi ; halep-nga^akl. 

— — (let down), wi-hashe. 

— down anything tied to wall, yd- 

— bold of, to prevent another from 
(ailing, kap-hata ; to save one's self 
from falling, kop-ngare. 

— hold through fear or rage, kwdpta- 

— leave, oyd-nga-thi ; md-Tigare. 

— off (divest) clothes, oloh-hanga. 

Take off (divest) hat., loh-ltanga. 

skirt (ornmleloin-clott), iydh- 

hanga (see also " Remove "). 
personal ornaments, oloh-haine, 

— out (as from box) o-kiedh-kanga ; 

— out Pattdatms, from pot, o-kwdh- 

meat, vegetables, Ac. from pot, 


— — screw, nail, Ac., owi-haine. 
(See also "Exhume," "Extract," 

" Draw out "). 

— place (happen), shl, (see Ex. at 
"Happen," "When," and "Occur"). 

— rest, chmjd-yan. 

— supplies for one's own use, hi- 
ching-de (tee Ex. at " Wherever "). 

— ' with one's self, yiang-tare (see Ex. 

at " Whenever "), 
Tale, iiwla. 

— ancient, indla-orighen. 

Talk (v.), olyola (see Ex. at " Say "). 
Tall, chong-km; damHala-koi ; loak- 

— peraoa, chombng-koi. 

Taller, chindnga-koi ; lennoah-kala-kOi. 
I am taller than you, chiia ehirtonga- 
kdi ten men. 
TaWeat, chin<mga-kdi-ka-; lennSah-hala- 

Yon are the tallest of ns all, men 
cMnimga-koi-ka- ten he. 
Tally-slip, lenkbk-ngodt (see App. N, 
item 88). 

.y Google 



Talan, ke-shuah. 

Tame, (adj.), chua^hakd ; l6n-ihitS. 

Tangle {v.i.), tak-nga ; lUal-rtga. 

Tank, chuh-d&k. 

Tap (draw off, of tan), yai-hata ; yat- 

Tape-worm, O'lea/m. 

Tar, pakati. 

Target (for Bpearing, Ac.), nangnga- 

chakA (-eAanew, ^c). 
Tari (toddy, palm-wine), toak. 
Taate, a fluid, («.), ko-jpep-Tiata, ha- 


— any food, («.), om^hdm-hata ; 

— (flaTOur), (s.)i yan-de. 

There's h taste of Ume-jnice in this 
medicine, yande haaroait 6t ta-oal 

Tasteless, hat-ghiang. 

Tasty, ghiang. 

Tattoo («.), iDi-danvn-pign. 

Tattoo («.), danun-pigu. 

Tea, chd (from the Hindustani). 

— -Cnp, mbng-ko. 

— -pot, chiik-chd. 

— -spoon, kenwi-ddk. 

Teach, a language, haleap-hala; luihdm- 
hata; haichang-nga-chattai^ck). 

— any oraft, haichang-nga-tai; haleap- 
hata; hakom-hata. 

Teal, iangldh. 

Tear (flnid from the eyes), ddk-mat. 

Tear (rent), kehoah. 

— cloth, Ac., warp-wise, ok-tek-hanga; 
woof- wise, ok-tok-hatiga 

— with the teeth, h)dp-hanga. 

— off (aa a bough from a tree), ien- 

Tease (v.), hai-skb^k-ngatd. 
Teat, mcah-loak. 
Teeth (see "Tooth"). 

— pick the, ok-gkbk-kandp. 
Telescope, hen-kiaii. 

Tell, olyola (see "Inform," "Relate"), 
Temperate (sober), hat-yd-kuybie. 
Temple of tlie head, dit-mat. 
Temporaiy hnt, kan-shiapa. 
Ten, ghbm; tanai-iafHal. 
Only ten, tha-mbm. 

Ten fathoms, ghin-ndmo. 

Only ten fathoms, shamin-ndmo. 
Ten o'clock, about, a.m., eiihla kdm- 

heng ; p.m., enhshe yuang-hatbrn. 
Tender, mO'm'nH{cK) ; mo7niibi(_j) . 
Tendon AcMUpb, ihe-ldh. 
Tepid, oe ; yUang-a/moe ; emoang-ainde. 
Teredo navaUs, met-nyuata. 
Tereasa (iababited island in ITicobar 

group), Taih-lbng. 
Terniite, piatbng ; daoin. 
Terriij, hai-shol ; hai-thSL 
Terror, pahoa. 
Test (prove), ime-dAha. 

I want to test my new cross-bow, 
foin ta-teydk ime-dnka y6 chiia. 
Test the flavour of, kdldh-lare. 
Tether («.), ok-p6k-hanga. 
Than, ten; ta. 

He is less strong than yon, an pait 
ong-kodnga ten mei (see Bx. at 

Thank yon, kodnga-tS me 'kdt. 

(Reply) All right ! (" Don't mention 
it ! "),pehdTi! 
That ((fcwoiis.pron.), one. 

Who is that man? chi ane paiyHh? 
That (rel.pron.),aee "Who,""Which." 

— (near hinding place), naine. 

The Captain of that ship near the 
jetty, omyda thong naine. 

— many, dammah-tare-ane (tee Ex. at 
"This many"). 

— much, $hian-ane {tee Ex. at " This 
mnch "). 

— same (correl.'), ahlna (see Ex. at 
"Which" (reJ,), and at "What,"and 
"Whatever" rel.). 

In that way, ahiri tai-ane (see Ex. at 

Like that (resembling that), tktri 

ane (see Ex. at " Like "). 
That side (i.e. the other aide), of a 

creek, bay, &g., Id-ane ; of an island, 

Thatch («.), vn-ok-nl. 

— (».), fo; dai-loe (according to 
material employed). 

Thee, tenmeii (*e« "Ton" and "To"). 
Theft, kalo. 




Their, dnal, ond; ta~ond. 

— of thr«e or more, ofe ; ia-ofi. 

— of a commnnitj, yoJ-on ; ta-ySl-an. 
Tlieir own, theirs, dual, c)umg'ijm&. 

— of three or more, cKang-ofe. 

— of aconunntuly, chang-yol-an. 
Them, dnal, ten (or an.)-oru£; ona-e>i. 

— of three or more, ten (or an)-oft 

— of a oommmiity, ten (or an)-t/dl-an , 

Then (at that time), if to-day, bng 
daka-ong (tee Ex. at " Catch ") ; il 

I saw jon then, keu cha nain fen 

— (at that time) if long ago, Hr&m ; 
if very long ago, fiTdm-la-oreh. 

— (immediately), h,ea7ig$he-'he. 

— (in that case), hom-wal-tare. 

— (afterwards), yuh-tare. 

— {eorrel.), fceii. 

When yon come here to-morrow 
morning I will give yon this 
Bpear, hbii-taehe ine* ita dak ta- 
haki'Ol-haki hex nee shanen ten 
i?ieri hoJnkvKim chiia. 

— (ctfrrel.'), «Ai (see Ex. at " When- 
ever "). 

Thence (corrnl.'), ghlri-chuk-ane (see 
Ex. at "Whence"). 

— (from that place), longto-ta-dah- 
tare ; Ibngto-ta-ane. 

He will go thence to Trinknt to- 
morrow, bl-haM ma Ibngto ta-ane 
na y6 Ldfill. 
There, fa-<uM. 

There is water there, hodde ta-ane 

That (there) dah. 

Is that canoe there yonrs ? ane due 
mei kan ddh ? 

— (thither, q.v.). 

— (omrel), sM (see Ex. at " Wher- 
ever "). 

There it is !, hian-tashe also kod- 
Therefore, an-ldng-ngi-to ; an-kdii-tigi- 
t6 ; hdn-ngorshlan ; lang-ngo-ihian 

He beat my yonnger brother there- 
fore I was angry, on leiit ori ten 
tin chiia anldng-nyi-l6 chiia mong- 
These, in referenc-e to hnman objects 

(eee"They," "Them"). 

— in reference to other objects (see 

They, dnal, ond. 

— of three or more, ofe. 

— of a community, y6l-an. 
Thick, (dense) aa jungle, tnchiil. 

— (stout) as a tree, karu-fdp. 

— as ft plank, skin, Ac., fubi. 
Thicker (of planking, 3x.), fennbiyo. 
Thickest (of planking, Ac.), fennbiyo- 

Thief, kamal^ ; maha-yiil-nga-eht. 
Thigh, puis. 
Thin, of animate objects, I;u<oiip-n^a«^; 

— of inanimate objects, nyuu. 
Thine (see "Tonr'O- 

Thing (for sale), ya»; yan-nth; na- 

Ton have lots of things, had en yan 

What things have yon got in yonr 
box ¥ chOa/n yon lea-hat ta-oal 
hopt&p men? 

— (not for sale) (see " Property "). 
Think (consider, believe), ta-tbi, also 


Ithink that it is according to custom, 
latshi tandah taloi ehaa. 

— (exercise the mind), mSta-iSre. 
Third, mong-yuang-ne. 
Thirsty, hileang. 

Thirteen, shbm-loe ; (of coconnts) 

tafual-tafual'heang . 
This, nina; nge ; nen; nenge; enh ; 

What is this ? chna ka nen ? 
What do you call this P ka ngen 

men ten enh? 
(What) is this your cause ? dOe 

'men kan enh 7 

— (here), ddh. 

Like this (resembling this), ehiri 
nee (see Ex. at " Like "), 




Like this, in appear&ace, Bhlri-aee ; 

lAkethia (thua), ylang-hata {teeEx. 

at " Thus ") i laat-shl. 
This TOATij (ae many as this), dammdh- 

I gave him this many (as many as 

ihie) and that man; (as many as 
that), to his younger brotJier, 

ta-datmaah-tare ten an Jurmkwbm 
chaa ta-damm,dh-tiMre ane ten tav, 

— much (as m.ach as this), ta-dl- 

I wanted thia much (as much as 
this) because he gave me that 
mach (as maoh ae that), ta-S^- 
she hat y6 chiia tai ten chiia ahian' 
ane homhwbm an. 

— aide, of a creek, bay, &e., Id-Ud. 

of an island, Id-fdp-an-ild. 

Tliither (in any direction), dah-tare. 

— (northwards), ddh-lare. 
— ■ (southwards), ddh-ngare. 

— (eastwards), dah-hare. 

— (weetwards), dah-skire. 

— (towards landing-place), dah-nire. 
Go thither (southwards), dah-nga- 

eh (see also " Gio Hither"). 

— (correl.) yS (tee Ex. at "Whither," 

Thorax, oal-endaiya. 
Thorn, heat; het. 

— of the Gidamut sp. called " Waita- 
bit," het-ndt. 

— canght by a, ekahEat-tdh. 

— -back (Raia davata), deya ; deya- 

Those, in reference to human objects 
(see "They," "Them"). 

— in reference to other objects (see 

Thou, men; me. 

Though, y6-dShla-ldh. 

Thousand (of coconuts or rupees), 

diii ~fnomchiama- do k tai. 
Thrash (chastise), on-hata. 
Thread (».), ikg-lSe. 

— a needle (v.), han-ySha-Hat. 
Threaten, hai-thdl-nga-»hi. 

Three, tee ; lue. 
Only three, io-iftwe. 

Three fathoms and a half, or there- 
abouts, lennbiyo-pait'tet (gee Ex. at 

Threeo'clock,about,A.M., Aa-feafto-fca*; 
P.M., cMn-faicha-ka'. 

Three hundred, 1 ^ . ^, 

Thm, tho«.nd, ) (•"• -^ro- ">■ 

Thrice, Ideshud (see " Once "). 

Throat, htldla. 

— clear one's, kd-keak-hala. 
Throb (palpitate), hbin-dok. 
Throttle (_v.t.), keneak-hata. 

— (v.i.), kSk-nga. 

Through jungle, high grass, &c., or 
through a plank, yoh-%e. 

— water, as in fording, oaJc-ne. 
Throw a stone, spear, Ac, haleang- 

■ — a spear, shdk-hata. 

— aside, ka-wdl-hanga. 

— away, or overboard, kawdl-hain£. 

1 have thrown it away, kawdl-kaine 
ta-ane en-cJiiia. 

— down, ka-wdl-hathe ; Ttoleh-hashe. 
(as in wrestling), ha-koh- 


— npwards, ka-wdl-hala. 

— water over another, ko-oi-hata. 

— a spear in reversed position (i.e., 
handle-end foremost), ha-shdha. 

Thrust (stab), tiko-hata. 
Thumb, men-diia. 
Thunder (s.), kom-dunga. 

— peal of, ngg-komdSnga. 

— (n.t.), rnomi-komd-iinga. 

Thus (in this way or manner), yiang- 
hafa ! wat-ehl. 

— (like this), wat-shl. 

I make it thus, not in that way, 
yiang-hata, wi cha ckit shlri lai- 

Thwarts Of boat, tanol-hifua. 

— of canoe, tanol-diie. 
Thy, men ; ta-men ; ta-me. 
Tick (the insect), tamdp. 
Tickle (v.), kaloa-hanga. 

Ticklish, ong-ydng ; amdk (former now 



Tidal- wave, ta-henlaya. 
Tide (Ut. sea) kamaU. 

Bow is the tide now P kdskin 
Jeamale daka-kai i 

— flood-, Aet). 

— ebb-, too, ; chSh (latter now tabu'd 
and former sabstitated). 

— neap-, hi-ldya. 

— spring-, haru-ka/mali (tee olio App. 

— -rip, hoiya-kainale. 

— -mark, chakd-panvia. 

Tie (bind, fasten, as to a post), p^ib- 

— a knot, ol-tiial-haia. 

— together, hatdp-hata 

(of two cooonnts), Unnfiial- 

hata (see al'o " I'aaten "). 

— neck-, tanHal-oat-iuldla. 

— np bundle of prepared Pandarms 
pante, et-icat. 

Tight (not looae) (of a coat, belt, 
&c.), ea*k. 

— (of a cork), Wmg. 

— (of a rope), ning. 

— (of a knot), k&p-tw^. 
Till ipr^- and adv.), oyuhta. 

From now till next fnll-moon, Un- 
hen ihU6 oy&hia hok-ng&ka-kdhe 

Sit here till I return, pik/a men itd 
oyuhta shwdtare chiia. 

— (cultivate), wi-yom. 
Tiltan-chong (uninhabited island of 

Nicobar group), Ld-ok. 
Tiller, pandma-hen-la-ridla. 
Tilt over, hachanga-lcdi. 
Timber, green, onikak-ta-a&hdno. 

— seasoned, onlha«-ta-iahian. 
Time, he ; hen («ee Ex. at " Barter " 

and "Late"). 

— recurrent, ahud (see "Once," 
" Twice," and"Howmany times P"). 

— (in music and dancing), he-tai. 
He is singing in difEerent time, an 

ikdsha ke-doknga-he~tai. 
In his time we were less numero-cB 
than at the present time, oal he 
an yol-thua pait-6nd6hnga>,'he ta 

Time to retnm home, hen-ehatnCh. 

— sleeping-, (bed-time), hen-miteah. 

— eating-, (supper- time), hei-mok- 

The present time, 2iM-%eri,'Aa>i-an-(IaA. 

The past time, hoi-hen. 

The fnture time, hen-doi-Tnak. 

4- short time, han-skoA-tare. 

A long time, chaUng-t6 ; thi-tashe 
{see " Iiong time "). 

I don't want to stop there a long 
time, say only three or four days, 
chit sho koto ddhtare fa-ehiiashe 
lainue fomoan dam, wat-shl. 

A long time hence, hat-fdh-tare^an. 

I shall abstain from mm and 
tobacco for a long time, chit fdh- 
tareyan top ta-Tam omhoin andi- 

A short time ago, (say a few days) 

A long time ago, (in former times), 

ihi-ngala ; shi-nga-ldh ; shi-nga- 
A very long time ago, once npon a 

time, tirSm; ong-heA; iiram-la- 

Sometimes, kalak-hS. 
At some time or other, haru-hS. 
At such time as (when) (reZ.), hbiA- 
tashe {fovEx. see " When ") (rel). 
At the same time (then) (correl.). 

At what time soever (whensoever) 

(rel.), ka-ishi .... shiantasJte. 
At the eame time (then) (correl.), 

At vrhatsoever time he arrives (at 

the same time) sntnnion (or call) 

me, ka-ishi na ghian-taihe na ddk 

eota shl ehaa. 
At every time when (whenever) 

(rel.), ka-ishi-mihoin-tashe. 
At the same time (then) {correl.), 

shl, (For Ex., »ee " When- 

At the same time (together, g.u.). 
At what lime {xnterrog.), kdhe ; 

he (or hen)-chv,'a. 
At what time of dayp (at what 

.y Google 


haarP), Jed-i)i6a,-al6 t (tee Ex. at 

What time ia it? during day, fta- 

nia-la-heng ? during night, kd-riki- 

la-hatom ? 
How long ? (time) 'k&-»ha,iii-taske ? 

{see Ex. at " How "). 
How long (time) ago P kd-raa- 

hanga-yan T 
How long (time) ago (if same day) ? 

kSr-ruOr-'Kmiga.-keng ? 
At what time are yon going awny 

to-morrow ? he chua men ta-haM 

In the meantime, hbin-he. 
Time flies! koldh-hat-she! holdh- 

There's lots of time! (don't hurry 1), 
Wat men 16a (or hbinh .') 
Time-piece, heTt-ydng-ndng. 
Timid, pahSa-ehakd. 
Tin, pardta. 

Tinkle (v.), tom-ke^-hata. 
Tip (end), vtuth, moah. 

— of spear-head, moah-shauei. 

— of the nose, moah-moak. 

— of the finger, moah (or mush)- 

— of the tongne, moah-kaletdk. 

— of the tail, maah-kiTrnhk-det. 

— -toes, stand on, thi-loha. 

— -toes, walk on, ahi-lokashhng-ha. 
Tipay, huybie. 

Tired (afteranyactiTeexercise),(Juam- 

shtiyande ; kau-ngayan. 
— _ (from standing or remaining long 

in same position), yi,u-rtgayatt. 
Tit-bit, kuchhk-lare. 
To (in relation to travelling), y6. 
He is retorning to Trinknt, cm 
thwdtare yo Ldful (tee aho Ex. 
at "Wish"). 

— (in relation to any objects) (prep.) 
ton; wen; an; tax: and {^odp.), 
eA (see Ex. at " It "). 

Give this to {Mi., into the hands of) 
my elder brother, kwbm^hata ten 
enh me)i ta ohau cMia. 

He is going to your hut, ten ni men 
ong- ddngha-an. 

To and fro (as in carrying nuts to 

and from canoe), halm, 

— (as in TiBitingapatient frequently), 

enlain-yan-chahd ; awUyan-chakd. 
Toad, chaltainck. 
Tobacco, omhoin. 

— Chinese-, omkbii-pd. 

— small leaf-, omhi>in-ktmg'ddmg. 

— large leaf-, omhmn-td-cho&nle. 

— Madras leaf-, omhbin-hoktdk. 

— caked-, omhbiA-haraii ; otnhdii-ok- 

— (cultivated locally), onMiA-omhii- 

— -cheroot, omhbiA-homlbm. 

— -cigarette, lanbm-omhmi. 

— -pipe, tanop-omhbin. 

To-day, lin-hen ; (at present), daka-au 
{gee Ex. at "What"). 

— past portion, ong. 

1 saw you to-day, heu cha bng ten 

— remaining portion, mo-fco". 
Toddy {tari, palm wine) freshly 

drawn, toah-holoha ; fermented, 
toak {-ta-kuybie-tai) or {-ta-iain), 

— -tapping-pot, coconnt-shell, hen- 
wain; of bamboo, henden (see Apf. 
H, iteTM 34, 69, and 70). 

— -receptacle, coconut- shell, hok ; 
of bamboo, kenhbm. 

— -jwg, Aendiwo-toafc. 

— -strainer, henhet-toah ; shan6nha- 

syphon and strainer, shanonha- 


— -drinking utensil, ianop-toak. 

— tap- (p,), yat-hata. 
Toe, kane-ldh. 

— great-, mend-Ha-ldh. 

■ — second- menshonka-ldh. 

— middle-, mong-yilang.^-ldh. 

— fourth-, tanaimenden-chya-ldh. 

— little-, mendiTKhya-ldh. 

— -nail, keshuah-lak. 

— -ring, kenlbng-ldh. 

Together (in company), omndm-tanl : 
in&m-tarit ; omnd/me; indme; yol 
{tee Ex. below). 

— (aide by side), kamin-ddnqla. 




Together (in concert), inhm-le-tai ; 


We two went there together on a 
visit (Ut.f thither with me visit 
we two), ddktere y6l ckHa il'ua en 

I found the speare together (eide by 
side), ekarwii iamin-dnngla icom 

They all sang together (in nnison), 

o/e bmtom, ta-keang-e-nge na ledt 

Paddle together (in same time), 

inbm-le-tai duande. 
Together with (in company with), 
yoUa ; ylang. 

— with (also), an-d^aiva (lee Ex. at 

To-morrow, haM. 

— morning, hakUoal-hoM ; oal (or 

—~ (day after), ihavg^'h-ld'ng. 
Tongae, )iale't6k. 

— tip of the, moaA-ioJrffflfc. 
Tonga (of cane), iodpa; niama. 
To-night, Un-fien ddw. 

Too (likewise), an-diaioa 

— (more than eaongh), hodn-nga; oal. 

— big, kodnnga-dl. 

— mnch, kodnnga-dighe ; hodnvgaahe ; 
hodnnga-endSh- ngaehe. 

— — (with reference to contents of 
box, &c.), ti/ruhatshe-oal. 

— small, hodnnga-denmi. 

(in quantity), hodanga-den- 

: (of a hole or receptacle), om- 

~— long, hodinga-dHat. 

— short, hodnnga-denmiiat. 

— thick, Jwdniiga-di-yHang. 

— thin, hodnngO'penlda. 

— full, nruhafehe-oal. 

— many, hodAnga-etidokngashe. 

— few, hodAvga-winnel'-tanhe. 

— late, kodnnga-diia-kanga-ycm ; ihi- 
. ta-to; ehi-ta-yan. 

— eooD, hodiinga-enlainneshe. 

Tool, carpentering-, cka-tai (see alen 
" Spear "). 

Tooth, kandp. 

— -ache, c^k-Jeandp. 

— back- (molar), minyd. 

— front- (inciaor), 7nong-ldng-ne. 

— canine-, kaneiU. 

— eye-, sMn-dol. 

— milk-, oyHah. 

— -pick, ikatibh-kandp. 

— of saw, kandp-hentdi. 
Toothless, ta-ldke-kandp. 
Top, spinning-, henlain. 

— (top of), kdi ; lorkoi; ngdle-ta- 

He is at the top of the hill, an la- 
koi henyHan (or on ngdle-ta-koi 

— of a hnt, olpila-nt. 

— of the head, ol-pila-kdi. 

— -heavy, langan-koi. 
Topsy-turvy, ha-shdha ; shang-sktt-k3i. 
Torch (bunch of dried coeonnt leaves), 


— make a, omchum-pdl. 

■ — -light, chu-ngai^cK^-tai-pdl. 

— light a, toin-kata ; ha-toin-hata. 

fish by, bich-hata. 

Tortoise, ok-ieka. 

shell (it*., hawkbill- turtle shell), 

Total, omldm. 
Tonch (t).), dd-hata ; td-hata. 

Why do yon touch me P chdtee men 
dd-hata ten chua? 
Touch- wood, (jwifta»-(a-di«fc-oftaA;(J; iml- 

ha H-ta-yiiin-chakd. 
Tongh (of meat), tige. 

The pork is tongh, dnha-tiot ta nge. 

— (strong, of rope, fibre, Ac.), nge. 

— (of food), nge-ngayan. 
Tow (tng) (t!.), hdn-ehiAh. 
Towards (see "To" and App. B, a). 
Toy, mdn(^-kenyum) ; hea-shd(k)-nga- 

Track (v.), ong-yiang-entan-tat. 
Tracks (footmarks), entan-tat; entwn- 

tat-ldh; du-la-ldh. 

— (of anake, crocodile, Ac., or of 
canoe or boaton shore, rut of wheel), 

Trade, inih. 




Trader in clotfa, &c., Ide-paiyHh. 

— in silver articles, chwd-ha-paiy&h. 
Trading-ship, chSng-miiiik. 
Tradition, in6la-ong-hei. 

Trak (nn inhabited islet near Little 

Nicobar), Fuya. 
Trample (v.), entan-hata. 
Transfix, dang-He. 
Transparent, cku-ngai(ch)-oal-'nat ; 

yang-nga-mai ; dain-mat. 
Traosplant, §p-haghe. 
Transport overland, hbii(j)-hata. 

— in canoe, oJe-ywik-en-tiiie. 

Trap, fish.-, enyun ; ndama; kenkon ; 
heti-hSu (being different varieties, 
(see App. S, items 90, 91, 92, 94). 

— bird-, kandap - shichua (App. N, 
item y9). 

— birds (snare, q.v.). 
Travail («.), ok-ehok-kanga. 
Travel by land, kaiyi-thong-tare. 

— in a canoe, on a short trip, diie-yo ; 
dUe-ldh ; to a distant place, duan. 

Tray, chuje-yan. 

Tread (waUc on), tan-hata; en-ttm-ta- 

Don't tread on my foot, wot eka tan 
Treasure, kdidka. 
Treat a patient (of a shaman or 

exorcist; exorcise), en-liUtna (see 

Tree (iif., producer of wood), cAia-tmi- 

— coconut-, before bearing, hishoi; 
after bearing, chia-oyaw. 

— -fern, hi-toin. 

— -lizard, kodh. 

— shrew {Oladohates Nieobanea), ka- 

Treis (or Trice) (islet near Little 

Nicobar), ToAA. 
Trellis platform in roof of hnt, len-pd. 
Tremble (from fear), che ; nyang. 
Trepang {Holofhnria), kolpaX {see 

" BSche-de-mer"). 
Tremble (vibrate) ka-toa. 
Triangle, loe-ehin-kinga. 
Trickle (v.), cheh-ha. 
Trice («#e Treis), Tadii. 

Tridacna cTOcea, odlmdi-kSn. 

— tquamoea, Jietwld; ingeh. 

— gigas, ken-da. 

Trident (fiah spear), niidn-loe. 
Trigger, panot-hindel. 

— pull the, p6t-hata. 

Trinkut (inhabited island in Nicobar 
group, lit., East Island), Ld-ful. 

Trip (stumble), ta-fbishi-chakd. 

Trouble (labour), kSh-ngayan («ee Hx. 
at " Learn "). 

— (worry), poshi-ndng. 
Trough (feeding), hol-shodl. 
Trowsera, kan-hdn. 

Trae, an-ka' ; eh-taTe-she. 

— (real, genuine), ktf (tee " Orna- 
ment," " Silver," (fee.). 

Truly, shian-ka' 

Trunk (stem), chia-nmlhan. 

Trnatworthy, thng-nt/alo. 

Truth, apeak the, ol-yBla-ka'. 

Try (endeavour), kaldh-hata ; kaldk^ 

la-yande (see aUo "Attempt"). 

Try to learn English, kalah-ta-yaiide 
cltanai(ch) A'Tnimat. 

Try to make a paddle, kaldk-ta-yandB 
wi pdwaih. 

— (teat), ime-dnha. 
Tub, ol-iidnl-nga-pipa. 

Tube (as of toddy-pot), ok-ngyUdk. 
Tnft of hair, kipdka (see " Bmr "). 
Tng (drag), tuak-hata. 

— in opposite directions, kdha-nyHk' 
chakd; kdkd-tuak-ehakd. 

Tumble (».»-), tafbUhi-chahd. 

Tumbler (flat-bottomed and cylin- 
drical, lit., bamboo-shaped glass), 
wetare ( - la-h ediva^ . 

Tumour, e-keng. 

Tune, cha-e. 

That tune is very pretty, chae ane 

Turban, tane-koi. 

— put on, tei/a-koi. 
Tnrkey, fanai-gJiari. 

— brush- (Megapode, qx.). 
Turmeric (Cvrcuma), odnk-holyudl. '. 

— nnguent, odnk-tang-ngd. 

Turn anything towards the north, 




TamanTthiug towards thesoatfagU^t 

the east, wial-hahal. 

the west, toial-haehe. 

the landing-place, v)idl~ 

any direction, wial-}Mta. 

— one's head away (or towards the 
Boath), wial-ngaTe. 

npwarda (or towards the 

north), wUd-lars. 
behind (or towards the 

east), vHaUkaTe. 
downwards (or towards the 

west), wial-thire. 
towards the landing-place, 

towards any directloD, wiaZ- 

self away (v.i.), tHaia-ngare. 

towards (».».), tUaia-tare- 

in sleep (v.i.), hen-kong- 


— aside on account of some obstacle, 
okldJe ; 

— over (reverse) (u.t.), momyS-hanga ; 
kom-6p-kanga ; Urm-ckd-hanga. 

— roand a wheel, &c. (f.t.), halain- 
hanga ; pornle-hanga. 

as a wheel, Ac. (v.i.), lain; M- 

^t»; pomle-ngare. 

— ronnd (as in order to see), pung- 

— ronnd and round any object (c.i-), 


— as the tide, after ebb, thwd-lare; 
after flood, ehwd~ehire. 

■ — a key, in locking, biwdn-hanga (or 
hathe) ; in unlocking, tividn-hala. 

— Bonr, of food, paehiu ; of drink, 
haiyot ; hdiiydt. 

— over on to its back, of a pig (as 
when about to be slaughtered) 
(v.t.), todng-hata; ong-to&ngti. 

Turpentine, tel (abbr.from local Hindi*- 

Btani " tarfen-tel "). 
Turtle, Chelonia virgala (green or 
edible), kdp; kdp-ka'. 

— Oaretlaimbrieata (h&Vfk-hW), kdp- 

— -egg, huySr-lcdp. 

— -spear, hinlak (or hinvj&tK) ; kan- 

— -shell (hawk-bill), ok-kdp. 

— hunt- (f.), haleah-hdp. 
Tnsk of boar, kaneai. 

— of elephant, ahin-dol. 

Twelve, thbm-diis (of coconuts) 

— o'clock, noon, hdm-heng ; mid< 
night, y-uang-hatom. 

— months, dn-ehomen-yiih; heang- 
shohong- heang -fill. 

— hundred (of coconuts), loe-mom- 

Twenty (of coconute and rupees), 

— (of other objects), heang-momehi- 

Twice, dtt-skud («ee "Once"). 
Twigj pdk-onihai-t'ompenshe. 
Twilight, at dawn, teit-chiilnga-oal ; 

at sunset, enJuhe-puyOe. 
Twins (whether of same sex cor not), 

Jiotdiya; hantbiya. 
Twine (..).«.»«.. 
Twinkle (v.), nap-nap-haia. 
Twirl a fire-stick, katain-kata. 
Twist fibres (as in making lines), 

Two, dii ; (of coconuts), heang-tafwH. 

— o'clock, about, A.H,, htt-hoaka~ 
ehiyau ; P.M., chiti-faicha-cltbng. 

— fathoms, en-n&yo. 

— edged, »hep {gee " Cutlass "). 
We two, hen ; chaai. 

Ton two, ind. 
They two, end. 



Ugly, hat-ydJi^ai-ski-chakd. 
Ulcer, tawii(ch'). 
Ulnar nerve, ong-hSang. 
Umbilical cord, pan6hi-l&la. 
Umbrella, heng-du-koi. 
Unable, hat-leap. 
Unarmed, hai'chatai-yo. 
Unaware (ignorant), hat-akdk. 
Unbolt, tuak-kala (or -hashe, according 
to whether upwards or downwards). 
Unbutton, owl-haine. 
Uncertain, hat-dSli-tashe. 
Uncle, ho-ehla (-enioiSd). 
Unclothe (v.t.), oloh-hanga. 
Unclouded, day, Jieng-lsak-nga-ehakd. 

— night, hatbm^lBak-nga'chakd. 
Uncommon (scarce), hat-lbpt<t-ehv.k ; 

Uncooked, huySu. 
Uncover, iinclothe, oloh-hanga. 

— any object, i-ehdh-hanga. 

— one's shoulders, iyah-hanga. 
Under (beneath), ta-katah, la-S^hs; 

ta-ngaiche- katah. 

The dog is under the table, Am ta- 
katah tneiitha. 

— pass-, (by stooping), ten-chUat- 

Underdone (of meat), diha-la-an- 

Undergrowth, enchon. 
Undermost, lama-enkshe. 
Underneath, {a-feaf a A; la-e»he; ta-katdh. 
Understand, akdh ; leap ; en-kdk- 

Undertone (whisper), kai-ny&en. 
Undo, anravel, ok-ydk-hala ; iydh- 

— loosen, iydh-haine. 

Undress («ee "Unclothe," "Uncover"). 
Undutifnl, hat-modal. 
Uneasy (anxious q.v.). 
Uneven, of land, hat-td-ko*. 

— of a plank, &c., hat-pidan. 

Unfasten, iydh-haine. 

UnfathomabIe,cWjdw-fca'; ISdh-hashe' 

Unfinished, pait-tare-she-wl. 

Unfavourable (of wind or tide), oat- 

Unfit (unsuitable), hai-d6hnga. 

Unfold cloth, ito., cJmm-ldng-haine. 

Unfortunate, hat-tabdk. 

Unfriendly, malang. 

Unfruitful soil, du-fa^hai-yo, 

— tree, chia-tOrhat-yS. 
Unf arl, owl^she. 

— leaf aa.'d, tayuat-hfUa. 
Unhappy, yen-ngatS. 
Unhook, otoi-hai&e. 
Unhurt, hat-chbk. 
Uninhabited, hat-yaka. 
Unison, in, heang-e-nge, 
UninteUigent (nnable to explain or 

interpret), hiUi-shire. 
Unjust, hat-thfig-ngato. 
Unkind, hat-iyei. 
Unknot, iydh-haine. 
Unless, yS-hat. 

Unless you come back to-morrow 
he will be annoyed, y6 om- 
ddm oal-haM an ndt-agatS, 
Unlike, hit-heang-ashe. 
Unload (of a ship or canoe), ok-y-Hak- 

O-klndh- hanga. 
Unlock, tiiodii-haia. 
Unloose (set free), iydh-haine. 
Uulncky, hat-tabdk. 
Unmarried man, if elderly, ha-t- 

if young, ilu. 

— woman, if elderly, Tiat-kbHw. 
if yonng, hoUan, 

Unoccupied (of a hut), hat-paiyUh-ha- 

Unpack, o-kwdh-oal. 

Unpopular, hat-sho-pmyUh ; hat-hindn- 

Unpnnctuid, hai-lSa-layam, 
Unravel, ok-ydka; iyiik-hairSe. 




TTimpe fruit, taydl; iMt-imdng; hat- 


— coconat, n-indu; yi-nau (see App. 

— betel nut, ktya-ta-tia/di. 
Unroof, ko-ldngshe-ok-ni. 

Unsafe (of canoe, ic), hat-tan-ngayan. 
Unscrew, wi-hame. 

Unaerviceable (worn out), tea(-sAf-<(M^. 
Unsheltered, d&i^k^ngayan ; haii-tdsh. 
Unskilfnl, hat-hSang-lSap. 
UtisacceBBfal,inhantingorfishing, Aof- 
ong- heang-ngaihe. 

— in searching, hat'Om-kom-ashe. 
Unsuitable, hat-d6hnga. 

Untie, iydh-haine. 

Until, {iprep. and adv,), oyuhta (tee 

Untrue, ■mitthi; hat-ehtareshe. 
Untmst worthy, hat-tong-nga4S ; hai- 

yui-ngat/an; meyii-yaiS. 
Untruth, miftbi. 
Untwine, untwist, tilain-haine. 
Unnsnal (not cnstomaiy), hat-ledt-sM- 

Unwell, shom-ngayan. 
Unwilling, hat-eho. 
Up (aloft, in a higher position), 

perched, en-diian-hare ; snepended, 

Ac, en-hen-hare. 

— (risen), ledt-kong-a. 
Get Qp ! shiaka ! 

— there 1 overhead, kdrang ; kdrang- 

in the sky, ngdh. 

hill (steep), shan; ihan-ehakd; 


— — (_go), teinkdn-lare; enshdn-koi- 

— to any place, ta-mang (see Ex. at 

- — -stairs, ddngla. 

Go upstairs, ole-ddngla. 
Upland, cWmg-viaUai. 
Upon, ta-hoi. 

Upper-arm, cJiang-'pdk ; ehang-kodl. 
iaw, shama-ld-ehbng. 

— -lip, manoin-ld-chong. 

— -most, ta-koi-an-ka' ; lama-chong. 

— -aide (of mat, &c.), la-koL 
Upright (erect), kdM.-chakd. 

V yroot, thawah-hala ; ok-ekdka. 
Upset (".i), ka-ehangorkoi. 

— (v.t), ko-Ha-hanga. 

Were you hnrt when I npsot yon P 
chaa ledt kotin-hanga an me* cJwk 

— a canoe («.(.)> komop-hanga. 

— of a canoe (d.i.)> ka-ope-koi {see Ex, 
at " Sonl "). 

— of a bottle, ta-fata-det. 

— of any fluid, kd^ua-hai. 
Upside-down, ka-bpe-koi. 

turn, (v.), op-bp-hare. 

Upwards (in constr.'), lare ; le; la (see 

" Ascend," "Mount," " Climb," Ac). 

— of (more than), pemuUt-tare-she. 
Urine, Tm(j) ; Tai(ch). 

Us, dual, ten-heA ; wen-hei ; an-hei ; 
heU-e* ; ten-chaai. 

— of three or more, ten (or weworan) 
-he ; ke-eii ; ten-cfuoi. 

— of a community, ten-ySl-ekiia, ^. 
Usage (cnstom), tandkh. 

Use (employ) a canoe, tool, Ac, wanni- 

Usefal, winne-shUhe; henUn-ngashe. 

What is the use of (lit., what nsefnl) 

that p chuan winne-shishe ane f 

Useless, 'hat-win,n6-shiehe ; Aaj-%enl«n> 

Usual {custonoary), ledi (or ii()-sAi- 

Utensil, cooking-, hanehoi. 

— eating-, kirdha; kiddha. 
Uterine (having same mother), heang- 

i-ckia-t 'enkwna. 
Uterus, kdkd-noana. 
Uvula, ahin-kaAka-oal-kaldla. 
Uxorious, nd-yeya-kdn-de. 



Vacant (unoccnpied), hat-dnha-odl ; 

hal'paiyuh- ha-oal. 
Vain (conceited), poko-yHma-ehe ; 

i-ngohdi' chakd. 
Valley, ooZ-Awid ; oal-hird. 
Valuable (costly), wiyai-ya. 
Valne, miyai. 

What is the value of that? chuan 
miyai arte ? 
Valueless , hat-tidyai-ya. 
Vanish (see " Disappear "). 
Vapour (steam), leyen-fusk. 
Various, yol-mandla ; yShpenyuha. 

— kinds of men (see " Sort "). 

— kinds of cloth, &c. (see "Sort"). 
Veer (of the wind), hdngh-iciala. 
Vegetable, dnha-oal-yom,; koho-lai 

(latter includes fish Ac. as eaten 

with rice or Pandanus) . 
Vein (ift anat.), ihe. 
Venomous, ye-tai. 
Ventral fin, kdaho-wlang-kda. 
Ventoresome, hat-pakSa-pare. 
Venus (the planet), paldng-nariaya. 
Vermilion, odHifc-ia-^ (sec "Arnotto"). 

— paint one's self with (see "Smear"). 
Vertebra, hen-kda. 

Vertical, kdm-chakd. 

Vertigo, ia-chali-chakd. 

Yerj, hod; tor-karu ; ta-kadu ; ka'. 

I am very busy (lit., make plenty), 
hoa ici cha. 

The water ia very cold, ddk kee-ka'. 

Ton are very strong, kodng ta-kadu 

Very much. Hod ; urU-hat-ghe. 

— same, the, ane-ka' ; an-ka'. 

— well (excellently), (idm-d(MS«; ten- 

— well! (all right!), a-a; ehial; 

Vessel (»ee " Ship," and " Utensil "). 
Vei (irritate), hakd-ngatd. 
Vexed (annoyed, q.v.'). 
Vibrate, ka-toa. 

Vieions (depraved), kai-dai-ehaJcd, 
Victuals, hok-ngSk. 

— broken, yama-htik-ngSk, 
View, chwyor-yan-mat ; kendoa. 

From here there is a clear view, 

loTigto ltd ckuyd-yantnat chu- 

Village, mattai. 

Tbe whole village was burnt, hSang- 

ngare mattai teat ngbih-the. 
Ten villages on the same island, 

ehlyni. mattai. 

— of a certain community, m^entai. 
Three (or more) villages of three 

difierent conunnnities, loe menta/i^ 

— poles (planted along foreshore), 
kanaiya (see Part II), 

Violent (of storm), kSh. 
Violin, da-nang'ta-tiydtta. 
Virgin, hoUan-ka' ; hat-yoa. 
Vlrtnons, dal-chakd ; akaih-yanlS. 
Viscera, pofiedk. 

Visible (tit., air-colonr), hdh-ngamat. 
Tillangchong is visible to-day^ 
Unhen Ldok hdh-nga/mat. 
Visit (go on a visit), itHa* (see " Call "). 

— in one's own village, ong-ddng-ha. 

— one's friends, komfd-ngayan (see 
" Friend "). 

— all the hnts in village (pay a round, 
of visits), halop'hanga. 

— the jungleorone'Bplantation,cAua< 

Visitor (guest), damafc; katii-thiH-ta' 

— casual, paiyuh - hanahbnk - tare ; 

— fo jungle orpIanl*ition,c&amManya. 
Voeabnlary (lit., collection of words in 

book), tomiare-leang-ta-oal'lebare. 
Voice, nge. 
Vomit (ti.), oaw-hala. 
VoracioDB, ha/inar&-hai; lok-y6. 
VojAge, make a, ongylang-chdng ; yS- 




Waddle, te-wet-de. 

Wade, oak-hat ; ghong-hanga. 

Wag ('waggle), ke-daJi-hata. 

Wages, hen-yuah. 

Wwi (as wliea monming), oTt^i- 

— (over a corpse), mdnge. 
Waiet, ong~yuang. 

— -band, ndt-ong-yHang. 

— -cloth, women's, op-citop; op- 

coat (lit., armless coat), olotli, 

kanyut-lit-kodla ; cotton, ienkbin- 

Wait (w.i.), hdn-tare-yan; kdtS. 

— (y.t.}, ong-yang-hata ; ong-yoing-ta- 

Sit down again and wait, he will be 
here directly, toal-ghi-tbiii meii 
■poya ineA hMtti/reyatt enhtayan 
na dak-chahd. 

Why have yon been so bIowP I 
hare been waiting for you, chdwe 
met Ida ? chUa ongyangtayan meii. 

— a httle ! pait-iare-yan ! 
Wake («.».). ch(d-hcaa. 

— (y.t.), hendun-hala ; henMn-hata. 

— in track of ship, ngd-dit-la^chong. 
Wale ("mark of a atripe), (a-fe. 
Walk (y.i.), ong-ehbng'ha ; thong. 

— take a, hdA-heh'nire. 

— on tiptoes, ahi-l6ka-ahdng-ha. 

— aoroBS (traverse), ong-ihbng-ha- 

— round (make a circuit), ong-shbng- 

Walker, mong-ehong-hi. 
Walking-stick, man ; ahin-ngdna ; 

Wall, ken-duta. 

Wallow (aa a pig), en-loin-?Mta. 
Wander from place to place, loko- 

Wane (of the moon), hinSoi-na-oaU 

Waning-moon, ten-nyttoa-na-oal-hahe. 
Want (wish, desire), yS (see " Wish "). 

Want gratis, ettot-kanga. 

I want (a present of) sc 

oil, chva ettot paitthe ddk-heoe. 
Wanting (deficient, absent, of any 

article), hcaSt (gee " Without "). 
War (fighting, battle), panona. 
Warm (adj.), oe. 

— one's hands, ok-wdka. 

— np cooked food (reehavffS), shang- 

Wam (caution), himdnga-ndng. 

— (admonish), hdshiil-hala. 

— -oft (beokon away), iruai-hanga. 
Warp (twist out of shape) (k.i.) when 

concave, kduam ; wben twisted 

round, lain-nga. 
Warrior, ehamang-panona ; hod-ka'. 
Wart (black), A(^i-mffifc; (same oolonr 

as rest of the skin), kinghdi. 
Wash fece, et-yait-ehakd. 

— any utenail, et-ehech-hanga. 

— hands, ehechi-tai-re. 

— feet, ehechi-ldh-Te. 

— the month, ghechi-fdng-re. 

— cloth, et-chi(j)-hala. 

— a bottle, kochok-haine, 

— a child, ydl'hata. 
Wasp, black-, kaia-lwwa. 

— yellow-, tdo. 

Waste of time, hein-ghdQti-ngaghl. 
Wasteful (extravagant), 1 karu-hcmgo' 
Waste (squander), j tai. 

— away (emaciate), kwbnp^a. 
Watch(look o^vi),hodaa; haka-i-mai-de. 

— over (guard), otig-ybng-hala. 

— (time-piece), hen-ydng-ttdng. 
Water, ddk; rdk. 

— fresh-, ddk'ta-chyu; ddk-ia-ghiang. 

— sea-, ddk-ta-kamalg. 

— brackish, ddk-ta-haiye ; ddk-Udya. 

— rain-, ddk-ta-ai>UAh. 

— hot, d&k'ta-tain; ddk-hok-pdk. 

— -spout, lami-fui! Idmbk-thu-ka. 

— -fill, ddk-vrua-ahe. 

— shells (polished coconut-shells for 
fetching and holding fresh water), 



Water-t^ht (of & repaired caaoe or 

roof), hat-cha-hwmg. 

By wat«r (in. b, Cftnoe), diie-yo. 

— draw(atweU,8tream,&c.)Ji(fc-ti(Jfc. 

— (witli reference to the eyea), lati- 

— (with reference to the moutli), 
d&k-o-mat (tee Ex. at "See"). 

Wave of sea, koya. 

— one's hand, idoai. 

Wax, bees'-, white (nnkaown except 
in aoathem groap, i.e., Qreat Nico- 
bar, <bc.). 

hiackjldha-romahoUwa ; hoUiwa. 

— ear-, kaia-naiya-oal-wing. 

— -candle, maiiidk. 

— (of the moon) (i;.), komd&-nire. 
Waxing-moon, hen-neni-oal-kdhe. 
Way (roail or direction), kaiijl. 

Which way are yon going ? chin 
ka/iyi (dabtare) laen ? 

— make-, hol-ngare ; tomwih-ngare. 

— lead the, ohen-han. 
We, dual, hen ; chaai. 

We both T&n here, chaai ditm itd. 

— of three or more, he; chibi. 

We all paddled home, chidi diiande 
chidi yuchah. 

— of a commnnity, yol-ehua; ySl- 

Weak (of animate objecte), la-muam ; 

— (o£ inanimate objects), hat-nge. 

— (as after ohild-birth, or from fast- 
ing), kiche-yan. 

WeaJthy, cha-mwoahbn ; paiyuh-ta- 

Wean an.inlant, kd-ehe-ehdkd. 
Weapon, ihanen-kopaton ; ehatien-yanS- 

ma (see App. N, items 13 and 14). 
Wear a silver head-band, pota-koi. 

— clothes, vii'td. 

— any head- covering, ong-ehoang, 

— ornaments, nata. 

Wear a ring (on finger or toe), halo- 

nga(^-tai or -IdK). 
Wearied by disputation (Ut. ear-ache), 

chok-oal- ndng. 
Weary (tired) (see "Tired"). 
Weather, taih-chakd; yan-oal. 

Kow-a-days the weather is fine, 

hanandak taihchakd ta-latpd,. 

— fine, ndm. 

— bad, hai-ndtn. 

— anltry, kedyan; ka-chainyan. 
side, la-la-hdnsh. 

Weave, en-tainya* (See "Plait"). 
Web, spider's-, kala-vidna; hen-den- 

Web-footed, hong-tdng-ldh. 
Wedge, hettem-omhan. 
Weed (useless plant), holpS. 

— 8ea-, ok-ydk. 

— {v.t), olpdl-h(mga. 

Weep, chim-mre ; lan-ddk-mat. 

Weevil, shSi-ardeh. 

Weigh (v.t), kaldh-hata. 

Weir (conaisting of coconut leaves, 
weighted with atones for catohing 
fish (see App. N, item 95), kan, 

Weloome, et-cha%-ckaohd-ka\ 
Weld (o.(.), hat(^-hata. 
Well (aUo pond), oal-ddJt ; ddk-hai- 

— (protected by wall or fence), ddk- 

— (not aict), lapd-yan ; md(k')-itga- 
yan; Idh-ngayan. 

He is quite well now, liiTihen an 
md(ib) nga/yan-ka' . 

— made, tan-ngaihe. 

— -done! (bravo!), hd-ha-a-a. 

Am well as (not less than), tang-ta^ 

tai; heang-e-tai. 

He can Bwim as well as T, an leap 

an tang-ta-tai chiia na kichal. 
As well as (together with, also), 

West, ngicke ; ta-ngaiche. 

The sun sets in the west, heng ta- 

ngaiehe yv-shup. 

— -ward, da}i-ehire ; bid-shire (eee 
App. B). 

— -wind, sho-hong. 

Wet, get (from rain), ha-tmsh-hata ; 

— (as from rain, Ac.), omi. 

My coat is still wet, yuang-hameu 
oml kanyut cha. 




Wetten (v.t.), omi-hata. 

Whale, kda^dUe ; iket ; kda-wai (three 

What {inlerrog.), kd; Jta ; kan; cfUn; 

efc ya ; chUa ; ckua(n) ; ehan. 

What IB the leogth of that canoe ? 
ka rUat ane dile f 

What is the age of that child? ka, 
shanl-la-toh one kenyHw, ? 

What is his name ? (Ain teanff an ? 

What is ita nameF thuan Hang 

What are yon telling him ? cki'^- 
olyota (or chuan holyol) tneii ten 
ndng an. 

What is the matter with you to- 
day F chuan yaa men ta-linhen, or 

What do you say ? ka (or ch-Uan) 

(What) is this yonr canoe ? d/ile 

Tnen kan eih ? (see aho Ex. at 

" Own," " Say," &c.). 
— (rel.), ka. 

What yon say (that same), is tme, 

ka men olyola sklna an-ka'. 
At what time (mterroy.) («ee 

"Wlien"and "Time"). 
What time is it ? (see " Time "). 
Whatever (rel.), ka-e. 
At whatsoever time (rel.), ka-i§hi 

.... shlan-tashg (see Ex. at 

" Time "). 
Whatever yon give m.e (that same) 

1 will take care of, ha-e hotnkwom 
i ten chiia sMna hafHal-i-yande 


In what style (interrog.), 
f Tnush-tai ? 

I In what style do yon wish nte to 

make it P kd-t^n-muah-tai meA yd 
, What's his name P (what d'ye call 

him P) cMn-da ? 
What do you call it? (what's ite 
, name ?) ehuan-da f 

What's that ? fco-sAi ? 
What was that ? (of something un- 
: expected), to one companion, 

chua k'ane f to two companions, 

c3ma k'ind f to three or mora 

companions, ch&a k'ife ? 
Wlat's the matter ? ka-»hi ? 
What kind P (whatsort ?) kashi-pen- 

What kind of medicine P kashi-pen- 
yuha danun ? 

What else P chin-leang-dio f 

What else have yon brought ? chin- 
ISang-dUo hokai-ta meA ? 
Wheel, henlain. 
When (while) (adv.) heng-hen ; (rel.) 


It rained when he waa at this vil- 
lage to-day, bng oal matiai nina, 
heng-hen an leat amiAh. 

When you come here to-morrow 
morning I will give you this spear, 
JwiA-tathe msA itd ddk ta-hakd-oal- 
haM heA nee shaneA ten nteti hom- 
kwbm chiia. 

— .(rel.), ken (gee App. B, Ex. at 

" Soul "). 

— in reference to future time only 

(interrog.'), kdJie. 
When will he come? kdhe tta dak? 

— in reference to sickness and death 

(interrog.), kdhe-nga. 
When did hedieP kdhl-ngafdhan? 

— of some coming event (interrog.), 

kdhe-ta-shi ? 
When will it take place P kdhi-la- 


— of some past event (interrog.), 

When did it happen? kdhe-nga-shi F 

— in reference to making, giving, Ac., 

at some future time (interrog.), 
When will he give it to you P kdhe- 
ta-tai homkwb-m-hata ten men ? 

— in reference to making, Ac, in 

past time (interrog.), kdhe-nga-lai. 

— with reference to travelling at 

some future time, kdhe-ngorldh. 

— with reference to travelling, past 

time (interrog.), kdhe-taihe, kdhe- 

When did you come ? kdke-ta»he 
meA d&k? 




When, at what time (interrog.) ke- 

— of past events, kdhi-ngaghe. 
Whence P {interrog.) (from what 
place P) Ibngto - cAii(n) ; ydnga- 

*«(.) r 

Whence have yon come P Ibng-to- 
oAw(n) men (or Ibngto-chu leat 
Whence (rei,), Vmgto-chu-shi. 

Whence he bronght thia thence 
(from the same place) his father 
will bring more to-morrow, Vmgto- 
chu-shl okai an ana thiri-chuk-arte 
haM paii-tare okai chia an. 
Whenever (at every time when) 
(rei.), ka^iski-Tnihbin-tashe. 

Whenever he comes here he (then) 

brings me with him, ka-ishi- 

mihoin-fatliei ild dak shi an chaa 


Whensoever (atwhatever time) (rei.), 

lea-ishi . . . shian-taehe (»ee Ex. at 

Where (interrog.), at what place, chu ; 

cku{n); at-ch^; kat-chU ; kat-chil{n) ; 

to what place, y6-al-chu(n) ; chu- 

sUin), (now taba'd). 

Where did you get it? him meA 

Where does that man live P kat-chu 
koto paiyHk one ? 
Whereabout (inferroy,), fto-cfcufe; 


Whereabout ie your garden ? fta- 
chiiik yom men f 
Wherever (rti.), to.-maUai-ans. 

Wherever I go (vieiting) (there) I 
always take some tobacco with me 
(ii(., always I take with me some 
tobacco there I wherever visit), 
foa-»hlre en chiia kochingde paitshe 
ta-omhoin shi ehiia ta-mattai-ane 

Whet-atone, dandha. 
Which (interrog.), chan. 

Which paddle do yoQ want? chnn 
pQwaky6 TJWB ? 

Which (rel.), ha. 

The paddle which yon gave me 
(that same) ia broken, ha hom- 

hwdm m,en pawah ten. chiia th^na 
leat ddhnga. 
While (during the time that), heng- 
hen (gee Ex. at " When "). 

— (at anch time aa) (rel.), kbtii-tashe 
(tee Ex. &t" When"). 

Whiie, ashort,"! 

— ago, a long,-J 
Whilst (see " While "). 
Whip (s.), danain. 

— (v.),fiuo-y)a; chOapta. 
Whirl (,.)(«,, "Spin"). 
— ■ -pool, henwiya. 

— --wind, fui-nga-ldh. 
Whisker, pugol-lai-chakd. 
Whisper (v.), kai-nyuen-de. 
Whiatle (with the lips alone) (g.), 


— (the instrument) («,), chaneo ; 

— (ti.) (with the lips), ha-fef-hata; 
(with an instrument) chio-kata. 

White, teyen ; teyen-ngamat. 

— of the eye, penteyen-oalmdt, 

— of egg (raw), moit-huyd. 

— of egg (cooked), henchain (-huyd). 

— -ant (termite), pin/otjjjf ; damn, 

— -hair, ijofc^ ; p(^6-kdi. 

haired person, paiyHh • ta - pahS- 

wash, ehttn-o-mat. 

Whither (interrog.), y6-at-chu(n) ; chO- 


Whither are yon going P ehii-ghi(n) 
men (or y6-at-ehu(r^ men P) 

— (rel.), yS-chu-shl. 

Whither you go (thither) 1 alaowill 
go, yS-chU-shi meA chuh yd ckuh 
ylang chiia. 
Who (interrog.), chU. 

Who ia that man ? chl one paiyHh f 

Who is he ? chl ia an ? 

— ijel.), ha; (with correl., shina). 
The man who came here three days 

ago (the same) died thia morning. 




Ide Jianga ram. (yan) paiyHh ka. 
leiit itd dak sMna Unhen oaUhaki 
leat kapdh. 

The man who lives in this hut is 
(indeed) my elder brother, jwmjmA 
lea fa kdto ten m nee ghina e^iau 
chiia pa-reh. 
Whoever {rel.), chi-chi ; ya. 

Whoever comes I will give him a. 
present, ya ta yd ddk ckOa horn- 
hwbm lanealehe. 

Whoever lives there a few months 
(the same) always falls sick, chi- 
chi kdto ta-ane (chak) paitthe 
kamahenwa shinapoatore tu. 
Whole (in reference to a period of 

time), bmtom. 

— (all, in reference to animate or in- 
animate objects), bmtom; dt-shire. 

— (in reference to a book only), 
{keang-') omofco.+ 

— (in reference to Bat objects, e.g., 
coins, paddles, paper, &c.), (heang-) 

— (in reference to trees, posts, Ac.), 
(Aeanj-) chwnan^.'y 

— (of a bnnoh of frait, e.y., plantains, 
betel-nuts, Tandantu, die.), (hiang-') 

— (of a set or nest of objects), 
{keang-) leat-tare. 

— (of long objects, e.g., path, rope, 

length of cloth, &<s.), duat-shire. 

Is the whole path as muddy aa this P 

duat-ghire kaiyi ka wat-shl pan ? 

— (in reference to land, property, or 
one's limbs, &c., when damaged or 
injured in acy way), di-ghwe; di- 
ngare (see " Eclipse "). 

— (in reference to the above when in 
good condition), dt-ngaehe ; di-re. 

■ The whole of this fine (damaged) 
canoe is painted black, nee due 
dire {dingare), dhngwrnat. 

— (in reference to the contents of a 
box, &c., when in damaged condi- 
tion), heang -ngare. 

The whole of the tobacco in the 

chest has become mouldy, heang- 

ngare mohoptepa omhirm ta hat- 


Whole (in reference to the contents of 

a box, &c,, when in siyund condition, 


The whole of the cloth in the 
spathe box is good, heang-lare 
tamafSla I6e ta l^a. 

— (in reference to the entire absence 
of some quality, substance, Ac, 

There is no toddy at present in the 
whole of this village, linhe* di- 
ngaregke mattai nee hat 61 toak. 
Whole (of any round number, e.g., 

400, 1,000, Ac), yUk-ngare. 
Wholly (quite), ngong-tai {gee Ex, 

at "Able"). 
Whom (interrog.) (ten-)chi ; (teen-} 
eki(tai-}chi(gee "To" and "Who"). 
For whom is this P ten-chi ka nSe ? 
By whom were you beaten ? (o* ehi 
ledt ori enmen ? 
Whose ? chang-thl ? charniwag-ta-chi ? 
Whose is this ? chang-cki nee ? 
Whose egg is IhatP ane huyii cha- 
mang-ta-chi ? or chin ehamwng 
hvya. ane t 
Why P for what object or purpose ? 
cndioe f 

— for what reason, or from what 
cause F cAiia; chuan; ch-uan-hdn- 
nga-ski ; chuan-kdi-ngi-to ; cJiHart- 
ghi ; chuan-ldng-ngit6 ; chan-ldng- 
ngitd ; ckuan-lang-nga-shi ; tai-chiia ; 
chuan-wi {geeEx.eX, "Bleed," "Not," 
" Strike," " What," " Cause," Ac.). 
Why are you going north P cAaioe 

m.en ddh-lare ? 
Why are you hoarse P ch.-&a mek dt ? 
Why do you give me the paddle ? 

chua men hornkwom tapoicah feti 

Wick, lamp-, loe-heoe. 

Wiok.6d, Tnet-pota-ihe ; m^t-paia-ghe. 

la cIbbbeb of objects, tee 




Wickeduees, pa(-*Ae; pot-she. 
Wide, tdk. 

TLat plamk is vet; wide, cute tanoang 
tdk ta-karu. 
Width, renmaf ,- demnat. 

What ie the width of that hnt ? ka 
rentnat nl one, or kari t&k vX an« / 
Widow, meiKhutal (-ewAwma) ; hat- 

— (if yonng), hoUai-maohu. 
WidovferjmeHchucat^enkoina); hat-kdno 

— (ii jojuig), ilH-machu. 
Wife, kdn ; Udna. 

He has come with his wife, anyolta 
kdn leiit dak. 
■^ who draerte her husbaiid, yd-e- 

— deserted by her hnsband, momal- 

Wiieleaa (bachelor, q.v.). 

— (widower, q.v.). 

Wild, hi (or oaV)-chua; hai-iikiia- 

— pig, ehwrudl. 

Will (command) (v.t.), Tiol-tdlnga. 

— (eierciee the will, be willing) (v.t,), 


Win in a fight kunokla. 

— in a race, oreh-tarit. 

Wind (coil) (ui.). en-Kon-hala (or 

Winding-sheet (cloth wrappings ronnd 

corpse), lanHa-ka/ma^dh. 
Wind (».). Jiangh {see App. E for the 

names of the various winds). 

— favoarable, hdnsh-ta-halan. 

— nnfavonrable, hdiish-ta-oskol. 

— on the beam, kdneh-ta-opjdp-haTe- 

— -bonnd, tcaiya. 

— -fall of fruit, ripe, ta-kuitk; un- 
ripe, tama-kaich, 

— -pipe, kaiyi-eyd^m. 

— -ward-aide, ta-la-h&Atk. 
Window of house or hut, chakd-foang ; 


— -sash (or flap), tandng-fodng, 

— -pane, temneala. 
Wine, Kinya. 

— -glass, KStare-ta-hariiana. 

Wing, danuai. 

Wink, blink the eye, iiap-oal-mdt ; to 

a girl, kom~&ik. 
Winner in a figbt, da-moA. 

— in Bi T&C6, en-nyiil- she ; din-n6i-lia. 
Winnow, tomdlak-hata. 

Wipe in order to remove dirt, et-tat- 

— in order to remove moistore, tat- 

— (rub off), kotot-hanga. 

— the eyes, pa«sA-ooi-moi. 

— the &ce, tanat-chakd; tdta-chakd- 

Wire, ai-cham. 

Wise (discreet), paiyvJi-ta-hen-diial- 

— (learned), paiyuh-ta-blkoyu. 
Wish (desire) (v.), yo. 

If yon wish to go to Trinkut I will 

stay at borne, y6 mei yS yo-Ldful 

chua kdt'd ten M-re. 
With (in company with, together with), 
y6Ua; ySl-len; yiang. 
1 will visit Trinkut with yon, yiang 

en inen chiia itua Ldful. 
I am going with your yonnger 

brother, yolta tam men yuchuh en 

I am going home with him, y5l-ten 
wti chMa yuckuh {see also Ex. at 
Wither (aa a leEif, dc.) (v.i.), ehiak- 

Withered (of leaves, Ac.), yumla. 
Within (inside), oal; bl; kata (or 

— (at home), termire. 

Without (on the outside) {adv.), la- 
ck ! mat. 

— (out of doors) {adv.), $hiak-m. 

— (not having) {prep.), hat; hai'ydl; 

Why have you come without a 
spear H chdvie met ghaneH mea 

— ca.'ose, han-tai-7iga-sht ; han-tai-nga- 

— doubt, loB-fco-pa; an-ka' {tee also 

— fail, / " Always "). 




Woman (native of Nicobar lalauds) 

paiyuh-mkana ; (t/uang-)enkdna. 

— of a cert^n commnnity or race), 

Three op more women of three 
different races or commtmities, Zoe 
yuang menkdna. 

— (any foreigner), kaling-enkaTUi ; 
paiy-uh-kaling-enkdna ; (yUang-) 

— (maeiied), leat-koino ; kamoino. 

— (nnmarried), spinster, hoUan ; if 
elderly, hat-kbiiio {see " Widow "). 

Womb, kdka-ndana. 
Wonder (p.), tamdh-yanmat. 
Wonderful, to-chang-hatehe ; to-ckang- 

Wonderfnl ! to-chang-td ! 
Woo (court), chuk-ckdkd-de. 
Wood, onl-hai.. 
Wooden, ta-<m,tha». 

— bucket, long. 
Wool, puyol-ltwpre. 
Word, inola. 

That's a longiHh word, one iii&la 
Work (s.), Mil ,- henlen-ngashe. 

— {v.), wi-hata* ; ww. 

You are not eick, you can do work, 
met iw d3h meA uno. 

— quickly, Jioldh-tai. 

— be at, shd(k)-ugat5. 
Work man ship, mttsh-tai. 
World, omtom-matlai. 
Worm, earth-, lami^huta. 
Worn-ont, ledt-shi-taahe. 

Worry (v.), po»hi-ndng. 
Worse, kat'lenpda. 
Worst, hat-lenpda-ka.' 
Worth (».), miyai. 
Worthless, hat-miyax-ya. 
Wound (sore), hi-koiAsh. 

— mortal-, chUot. 

— (v.t.), utaih-hata. 
Wounded, leat-taika. 
Wrap (u.), laTU^-hata. 
Wrapper, of cloth or paper, lanua. 

— of leaf, fcemiup. 
Wrappings ronnd corpse, lanua-kama- 



by fire, chong-U 

suffer, wdJi-ngayan. 

Wrestle in play, ka-pot. 

— in earnest or in anger, kalina ; 
mdn-ghena (latter word now tabn'd). 

Wretched, het-yoi(_ch). 

Wriggle (of a worm or anake), ko- 

Wring a wet cloth, emua-lcie. 
Wrinkle on the skin, kinydng-oJc-dHha. 
Wrist, ok-loaka-kodl. 
Wristlet (bangle), henkdp-kodl. 

— of coiled wire, henliih-kodl. 
Write, et-eUlebare. 

Writhe in agony, ye-hata. 
Wrong (incorreet), hat-tang-tashe. 

— (imjtioper^that-tuldng-haf-ilie; hat- 
tang -ngato. 

Yam (cultivated variety), ko-pe«g. 

— jungle-, wean. 

Yard (half-fathom), heang-kamoala. 
Yawn (s.), hing-ap. 

— (v.), hing-dp-ltn-e. 

Tear (INicobarese, of about 6 months, 
i.e., one monsoon), ghomen-yuh. 
He is going to remain here the 
whole year, ySl shomeny^h an na 
koto ila. 

Year (English, of 12 months), dn eho- 
men-yuh; heang-ful-heang-shohong. 

Yearly (i.e., every monsoon), sKo-men 
yHh-gho meny&h. 

Yearn (desire greatly), kechih-yanto. 

Tell («.), kai-yual-Ju^, 

Tellow, ngd-ngamat. 

— (turmeric), ungu en t,o(infc-(ony-«jtii. 

Yes (answering question affirmatively ) , 
on; mdhi ledt. 



Yes (denoliDg asseat to proposition), 

-— (denoting aaaent to reqaest), a. 
Yes, mj friend, a^-da ka'Chau (gee 

" Friend "). 
Yes, a11 right ! an-komd ; aAge ; an- 
da'ka-cha ! 
Yesterday, mw-yiH. 

— -morning, •mmyui-oaX-hakl. 

— -evening, invnyui-ladlaya, 

— day before-, ong-wdhnga. 

— (i.e., last)-night, wd-he. 

Yet (up to the present time), ckiih-ta- 

He is not yet dead, kap&h hatchUh- 
ta-chakd an. 

Yolk of egg, Idha-roma-huyd. 

Yonder, in a northerly direction, ta- 
ng die. 

— in a Bontherly direction, ta-ngwnge. 

— in a easterly direction, ta - ngd - 

— in a westerly direction, ta-ngaiehe. 

— towards the landing-place, ta- 

Yonder (in the sonth), is my village, 
ta-ngwnge maltai eha. 
You (mom.), dnal, ind. 

— of three or more, ife. 

— of a commanity, yol-men ; yol- 
me (gee Ex. at " Make"). 

— (o6?-), dnal, ten (or wen, &c., Ac), 
■ind (see "Us"). 

■I, <S;c., 

You, of three or more, ten (oi 

Ac.) .ife. 

— of ft community, ten (or wen, &c., 
ilfcc ) -yol-men. 

Come nere, hoth of you, kaitare ind. 
Come here, all of you, kaitare ife. 
Young (adj.), wikla ; mhla-to ; teyah- 

— (the offspring of animals), koan. 
Younger, olydia. 

— brother (male speaking), tau (-en- 

— sister (female speaking), (Am (-en- 

Youngest, olydla-ka-. 

— child, ■mand(k')'nga-koi ; koan- 

Your (sing.), men ; me; ta-men; ta-me. 

— dual, ind ; ta-ind. 

— of three or more, ifS; ta-ife. 

— of ft commanity, yol-men ; ta-ydl- 

wn, yours, chang-men ; ckang- 
tna; chang-ife ; chang-ydl-inen (gee 
Youth (see "Bachelor," "Lad," 

"Girl," 4c.). 
— {early life), ken-koan ; hen-re- 

In my youth I saw no Europeans, 
heA-kban cha chit heu shom Am,t' 

Zigzag, emoednai kom-dal-de. 
Zinc, pardta. 

I Zinc bucket, hanet-ddk. 


Digilized by Google 

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a ; an (j.v.), yei (^denoting assent to 

a-a, o«r^ well ! all right ! 
af-ahat, go eagtivardi. 
af-al, go northwards. 
af-aug, go southwards. 
af-aich, go westwards. 
af-ain, go to landing-place. 
aheya-onglbnga, hackle (of feathers}. 
ahat, verbal »u^ ttgnifying eastwards 

(see af-ahat, alsotee App. B (*))• 
ak&h, aware, know, understand. 

ea-Mb-ngatd, nnderdattd. 
akai'ka', Chavica Macrostachya (wild 

akai-kaling, Ghavica (or Fiper) Betle 

akaih-yantfl, honest, chaste (virtuow), 

also hind. 
al, verbal iuffix signifying northwards, 

(see af-al, also see App. B (■) ) . 
aide; bide (q.v.), at last, just, just now. 

beat, heal (v.t.) 

tai, CMre, heal (v.t.). 

ko&ng, become strong. 

yang, learn, receive news. 

Bbiaiig, become sweet (as after 

adding sugar to lime-juice). 
ft-leam, tape-worm. 
aloia, bat (Miniopteris pusilhis). 

aink-alo^ bat guano. 

am ; em ; om ; ma ; m' (see em), oidy 
(adj.), (in constr, with numerals and 
words denoting measurements). 

am& ! cbia ! mam,ma ! 

am&k, ticklish. 

amiiili, rain. 

— -ta-cheh, shower. 

— -ta-he-heng, rainy day. 
Amimat, English, European. 

shom-Amimat, EngUshman, English 

paiyuh - Aimmat, EngVishman, 

English people. 
amo&I-nga-tai, handful. 
amok, nwmeral affix, used with refer- 
ertce to pairs of pots, sets of four bam- 
boos, joints of lime. 
am.oka, nu/t)ieral affix used with refer- 
ence to books. 
an (prep.) (see ten), to. 
an; na, he, she, it (nam.), his, her. 

ka', the very same, identical 

{also vmportant, necessary, indis- 
ta-as, his, her, its. 

1, his (her or its) own. 


him, her, it (pron. obj.). 

J th^ aU or their (of a 




ta-y6]-an, their (of a community). 
chaTig-y6l-an, their own (of a com- 

ande-chii, that's right ! 

an-diawa (see diawa), also, and, like- 
wise, too, as well (w. 

ane, that (de711.ons.pron.). 

— -ka", tJie very same. 
damm4h-tare-ane, that many, 
k&he-ane, next month. 
longto-tO'ane, thence. 
sIilfiTi-aiie, that much. 
Bbiri-ane, like that. 

— -tai-ane, in. that way. 

— -chnk-ane, thence (correl.). 
ta-ane, there. 
ta-mattai-ane, wherever (rel.). 

aneHebare (eee 6t), pen, pencil. 

ang, verbal suffiic signifying south- 
wards (see af-ang). 

an-kat, larva of the Great Cofri^xmia 
hsHle in its earliest etage. 

an-Iang-nga-shi "j hence ; therefore 
(seelang) I (tuiiA reference to 

an-lfing-Dgi-tS f being angry, acting 
(feeling-ngi-tfl) J with violence, Ifc. 

anopshe-koi, cover of a, pot. 

aniilft (see oal-ol), grave (burial 

ail, yes (answering que»fion affirma- 
tively), also employed as interrogative 
particle when affirmative reply is 

— da ka-ohin, yes, friend. 

— -ka', certain, certainly, true, truly, 
just so. 

-pa, doubtless, ofcowse. 

-en-nge, promise. 

— -mera, yes, indeed (addressing one 

koma ; an-da-ka-ctti ; aiige, all 

right ! yea ! 

— ri-uhiih (see " Good-bye "). 

haiio ; an-hann, half-cooked, 

half-raw, parboiled. 
ofilhan-ta-anhino, green timber, un- 

mj&l-ngatai (see an), span of 

both hands extsnded. 

aro&t, epileptic fit, spasm,, convulsion. 

— -paiyuh, mad, iiisane. 
aroe ; arosh, rice. 

at, in, at (with reference to some coun- 
try, island or village). 
y6-at-cliu(n), whither (interrog.) (see 
App. B). 

aia men, go and . . . [lit. go you 

ati, liver (the gland). 

at-la-tA, bemoan, lambent. 

a], black. 

— -chak&, overcast sky, threatening 

ngamat, black-colowed. 

inifainya-ta-al, rain (lit. black) 

pen-al-oalm^t, iris (or pupil) of the 
anat. ; taAat, creak (as a hinge). 
St, husky, hoarse. 
fLh-Dgayan, digest. 
&b^b-nire (see hesh) take an airing. 
Sk ; {kk-ngaraat, red, criTuson, ver- 

uga-cbakft, hJush. 

she, scald one's throat. 

Sktl-fSng, mythical animal repre- 
sented as having a red fiamdng 

k6ni-ta-Jtk, red cloth. 

0&nk-t»-4k, vermilion powder. 

om-fik, embers. 
im, dog. 

— -iwi, stick insect. 

— -taka-eha, pet-dog. 
enmAma-Sm, dogs of different villages. 

Smeh, arrowroot. 

Sng-na, melt (of metal) (v.i.). 

ka, two. 

— -de-doha, ambidexter. 

— -kame-yiing, repeat. 

— -kdnga-fSka, /MH-cocft (of a gun). 

— -H, bivalve. 

— -ma, only two. 

— -moil-nga-tai, ^an of both hands 

mokonha, double. 

fiire, both (with reference to anim^ate 
or inanimate objects). 




&Are-na-kam&nsIie, married couple. 

chdni^-^nla, brig (i.e., two-tnaated 

en-foan (see foan) eight. 

najo, two fathoms. 

menn&yo, only two fathoms. 

paijuh-inla, bigamist, 
iiii-meax (see pern), drunkard. 
ftnh, life (animate existence), livirig 

soul, hitman being or person (while 


— -chakfi-fom, bolt of cross-bow, 
■(App. N, item 31). 

-bel, arrmv (App, N. item 32). 

-hindel, bayonet. 

■Ta\h.h,prong of spear (App. N. . 

item 17). 
-larom, pulp of the Pandanus 

moSiih-hare, ignite (v.i.). 
denahftn, alive and well. 
bari-^hh, alive (of animate objects 
and vegetation). 
kiAh, flesh, meat, blade (steel). 

— -kirih, sumrd-blade. 
kapn, beef. 

— -kipre, mutton. 
not, pork. 

— -ta-ahhiho, underdone meat. 

— -ta-iye, stale (nut freshly killed) 

ta-leat-ydk, carrion. 

— -ta-tenjiapa, preserved rneat. 
kean-aAha, rash, eruption. 
ong-yuaQg-Biiha, body. 

Mha-oal, contents, produce, product. 

henkok, cannon-hall. 

-hindel, cartridge, shot. 


flnba-oal-sliaiical, spoonful. 

shei-oal-dak, shell-fish (fresh 

— — -abei - k6i - ng&h, shell -fish 

yom, vegetables (lit, produce of 

— -yuang-onihan, kernel of fruit 

stones or nvts. 

• -juang-hiyiL, kernel of the 

arik-mat, buoy (probably originally 

derived from Ak (or fink), red, an-l 

mat, exterior, but now applied in 

buoys of any colour), 
&nya-chu ; idya-pa, who knows ? 

goodness knows ! (who can say t 

dorCt know), perhaps. 
iip-haabe, shut a box, ^c. (i.e. ver- 

kom-ap-hata, shut a booh, ^c. (i.e. 

kar-ap-bata, «%ut a door, window, ^c. 
also oateh bird in trap. 

kaiidap(-shicbua), bird-trap. 

tantp-bata, stanch, stop flow of Hood. 

tarap-oal-nfiDg-de, sUp one's ears. 
aicb, verbal sufix signifying westwards 

(see af-aicb). 

ai-chip, blinded with smoke. 

ai-i, for shame ! 

aifi, verbal suflix signifying towards the 

landing place (see af-aifi). 
aifioh (see aink), 
aiiik, ain (cb ), /leces, dung, guano. 

aifik-aldaa, bat-guano. 

aiAk-gbicbua, bird-guano. 

bang-Bhe (see pang-abe). 

barS ; parfl, dollar. 

beat ; aide-beat ; peat ; heal (v.i.) 

beat-tai; alde-beat-tai, cure, heal(v.t.) 
bel, toy-bow as used by children (App. 

N, item 32). 

aAh-chaki-bel, on-ow /or the "hd.'' 
Bengali ; mattai-Beng&li, India. 

sbom-BeBg&li, Hindu. 
ben-bwivft, ashes of fuel, cinders. 

cb[[k-beii-bw4vft, fi/re-place. 

B 2 



eha; chua (g.c), I. 

cba-e, tune. 

chafil, Crinum lorifiilium. 

chafSt, Ptychnrapkii auguata (Beacari). 

chafoiu, BWrdine. 

cha-heat-tSh, (*ee ligat), cav,ght by a 

cba-iiuang, leaky {of canoe or roof ) . 

ohakit, /ram (prep.). 

— Jace, edge of blade,blade of grass, or 
of epear, oar, ^c., opposite shore or 
bank ; also common suffix to certain 
class of verbs, adjectives, ^c. , 

fo&ng-ni, back of kut. 

henlowu, below low-ioater marh. 

— koila, wt-water. 

ag&b, bar of river, outer side of 

reef, below low-water viark. 

— -fii, front of a hut. 

p&awni, flood-mark, tide-mark. 

ugkh, low-water mark. 

powah, blade of paddle. 

teuw&nja, key-hole. 

ygsha, below low-water mark. 

yaiytt) sandy-beach. 

dnak-tare-chak^, full- face. 
^-ha,i-aiiBtag-c\iai.k, facing, opposite. 
lapa-chakik, handsome, pretty. 

ngd-chak^, solemn. 

ngda-chak^, face (h-utnan or animal) ■ 

o-ngdha-chak&, melancholy. 

ok-BhIak-bai-chaka,' side-faae, profile. 

tala-ohaka, in front of, before. 

toi-chaka, foam, from ike mouth. 

yih- Dgai-shl-chaka,pre tty, handsom,e. 

cbai-chaka, greet. 

et-cbai-obaka-Iebare, readaloud (lit. 
greet book). 
cbal'bala, wake, (v.i.). 

cbal-la, explode. 
cbaleAya, droop (as a plant). 
cbaliug, U/ng. 

abe, so far as {of a road, or 

ificliiic, decline, ^c). 

tfi, a long time. 

chiulinga, longer. 

ohin-Iinga-ka', longest, very lotig. 

cbum-leBga-juang, oblong. 

cbamaling, long (of animate objects 
a lid hair). 
clial-Ia, {see chal and cbal), explode. 
cbalong-di, boy or girl about 8 to 10 

years of age. 
cbal-taioch, toad. 
chalaa, oriole (0. macrourus). 
obamaliDg {see cbaliag), long (of 

animate objects and hair). 
obamang {see cbang and lama&g), 

property of any kind). 

cbamang-m, hut-owner. 

cbamang-ngob, rich, wealthy. 
ubamib-lde, (see ioblh), sew doth, 

repair clothing. 
cbamlja, intemode of sugar-cane, bam- 
boo, ^c. 
cbam-l&ngabi-ldo (see Ifle), make sail. 
cba-m-vroabon (see cbmba), rick, 


cbiauoab6n, richer. 

ka', richest, very rick. 

cban (see cbin ; cbua), what 

chavatm, fasten with cane, ^c, in connec- 
tion with spear-head, 

chaD6m-pil, leaf-fastenings of torch, 

omcham-p&l, make a torch. 
chanuiig, nuTneral afix used with 

reference to trees, posts, hai^, Sfc. 
ohflneo; chane-6ug, mhistle (».), 

cbio-bata, whistle with an instru- 
m,ent {v.). 
cbanep {see chip), fork. 

— -nfit, pointed stick for taking boil- 
ing pork out of pot. (App, K, 
item 114). 

cbang, own (adj), of (belonging to). 
cbamang, owner. 

chang-cbiia, (-mefi, &c.), my own, 
{your, Sfc.) 

— -hen (-in&, -onA), our own (your 
own, their ovm), (dnal). 

— -he (-ife,-ofe), our own (your 
own, their own) {ofthrteorm^ore). 




chang-ydl-chua, our own {of a com- 

— -j61-meh, your ovm (of a com^ 

j61-aQ, iJteir ovm {of a oom- 

chi, whose (inierrog.). 

- -) kine, knuoklea of the ftond. 

- -) koS,l, one's ufper-arm. 

- -) moah, top of the noie. 

- -) p&k, one s ■upper arm. 

- -) tahanOD a, one's abdomen. 
chang-kalaboiya, horizon. 
henlAka-ohaag-p&k, shoulder- joint. 
shorn mattai-chang, oum (prfeUovi) 

chang-i-oal, ahoTtt 5 o'clock a.m. 
ohaulala-k&he, contmencevieTU of a 

month (or"itwo>i"'). 
okaulli-lde (see icinh), needie. 

chanlha, seam (in clothing). 
ohanni, the luna.tion in June-July. 
chanom-p&l (seeonichaiaaiiicliaiiani), 

leaf fastenings o*' torch. 
chaadl, spear fish at some depth beloto 

chanola (see chiid-h&la,'), handle or strap 

of basket (or hoe). 
ctiaiiai(ch) ; cluiiiai(j), language. 
charum, needle. 
chat, jumv, leap. 

— -heoe,_fire (leaping) feast. 

ch4t-hanga; ten-ch&t-hainga, skip(v.) 

et - chitnga - koi, high jump, leap 

hen- ch St -shire, dim feet foremost by 
jumping into water, 
oba-tai, spears of all or any description. 

ohataiyo, armed. 
chaai, we, our (dual). 

ta-chaai, our (dual). 
cha-ia ; oha-ino, moist, damp. 
ohi (from Hindustani), tea. 
chM, flame, blaze of a torch, S^. 

chal-yiial, y(awa of burning grass, 

chal-la, explode. 
ching (see Chang), possess, own ; also 

of, or belonging to. 

chaniang, property (of any kind). 

chamang-ni, hut-owner. 

chflAl-hala, open one's eye. 
chip, lower deck of skip. 
chiit-hanga (see chat) ; ten-ch&t-lare, 
et-ch&t-nga-koi, high jvmp, leap 

hen-chat- ehii^, dive feet foremost by 
jumping into xoater. 
cb&we, why. 

chendk - kolptll, single pronged and 
barbed spear used in collecting Solo- 
thuria, ^0. (see App. N, item 16). 
cheii (see chuin), drizzle. 

chieii, drip. 
che ; k3,-che, shiver (shudder), from, 
cold or fear, tremble. 
che-kalet&k, stammer, stutter, 
kom-che-hata(ii.(.), shake fluid con- 
tents of a bottle. 
che-shire, centre, middle (of ckde, 

cheh, drop. 

chek-ha, trickle. 
amiiih-ta-cheh, shower. 
ko-cheb-banga, sprinkle. 
chen, squirt. 

ohiam, straight (not crooked). 
chi-koU (see ko&l), bend of the elbow. 
(heang-)chi-ko41, six hand-spang 
(i.e., from the tips ijf the fingers to 
the elbow joint of the other arm, or 
about -^ ft. l^ttts.)- 
ohiak; chMk-n^, dry (of grass,leaves, 
thatch, ^c), loilher (as a leaf, Sfc.). 
chianga, doionstair^. 

oshe meo chiauga, go downstairs ! 
chien (see chen), drip. 
chi(jj, abstain from certain luxuries, 
Sfc. (as when mourning), tabu. 
ha-chi(j), abstain from certain food 
as a married couple duritig latter 
portion of wife's pregnancy. 
niaha-chi(j), a m^arried couple ab- 
staining from certain articles of 
food during latter portion of wife's 
chilot, •mortal wound 
cbilua, oval. 

chin ; chua ; cbua(u) ; ohan, w}iat 




chin-dEi, " what' » his navie" ("what 
d'ye call him "). 

and "dlo"). 
chin-faicba-chong, about 2 p.m. 
— — -ka", about 3 p.m. 

eAhshe, about 3.30 p.m. 

cliin-linga (see chaling), hmger. 

ta', longest, very long. 

chitiluftt-haahe, swallov! (v.). 
chinm6nga-nhdng {see chdng), ships of 

chinongft («ee chdng) higher (of a tree, 
hut, ^c). 
chinonga-ka', highest (of a tree, hut, 


koi, higher (of a hill), taller. 

— ka', highest(ofa hill), tallest. 

die, higher (of a cliud, bird, §-c.)- 

-ka", highest (of a cloud, bird, 


chio-liata {see chaaeo), whistle iviih an 

instrument (i!.). 
chidi, we, ot«- (of three or more). 

ta-chioi, (mr (of three or m^yre). 
chit (abbrev. for ohua-hftt), I-not. 
chiyau, leak in canoe, or roof, d^ep (of 

chiyiu-tft', fathomless. 

— -hashe, sound, measure depth of 
leater, sink a well. 

oal, deep (of well). 

chi, who (interrog.). 

chl-chi, wlwever (rel.). 

chang-chi, whose (interrog.). 
ehla, parent, papa .' also tree. 

chia-enkoina, father. 

enk&oa, mother. 

cbaki-komoraik, host at ntemo- 

rial feast (i.e., chief mourner). 

— -henlain, a charm, resembling 

a toy windmill erected in front of 
village to scare away evil i^irits. 

— -fdin, the stock of a cross-bow. 

— -komato, guardian. 

onf}'a,n,tree(lit. producing wood), 

trunk, stem. 
ojkii,coconuttree (when bearing). 

chia-hiya, betel-nut tree (when bear- 

ta-yd, fruitful tree. 

ta-hat-yd, barren tree. 

chyam, sap of tree. 

hat-chia-o, orphan, fatherless. 

komen-chia-slie, relative. 
chial-hala, lift by the handle. 

chandla, strap or handle of basket, 
bag, Sfc. 
chiat-la, ascend (cUm,b) a tree, rise (of 

.«., ™»», J-c). 
chiat-sbe, descend a tree. 
cMha (see ichih), sewn, 
chim-flire, weep, cry. 
ohip-hashe (see po-chip), plant a 

(pointed) post in the ground. 

cbanep, fork. 

— -not, pointed stick for taking boil- 
ing pork out of j!bt (App. K, item 

chip-nga ; chip-she, evaporate, dry (of 

pl'inking, S/'c). 
chiya, rise (of sun, m^oon, stars). 
chiyii, fruit-stem of coconut tree. 
cho-we ; acho, embrace in recumbent 

chom, term of respect and endearment 

on the part of children in addressing 

eliferly persons. 
ohoni-fnk6i3a, grand-father. 
enk&oa, grand-mother. 

— -chia-enk6ifia, grand-uncle. 
-enkfkna, grand-aant. 

— -lo-hanga, rhun, avoid. 
chomong-kdi(«eech6ng-koi), tall person. 
chompo-hata, adulterate (as beeswax 

with a/mbtrgris) . 
chfik, pain, ache. 
chok-eyam, asthnia. 

hatn, hurt (v.i.). 

kftn&p, tooth-ache. 

— -koi, head-ache. « 

— -mwan-nga, pain in the boTies (as 
from ague). 

— -Dgayan, suffer pain. 

— -oal-nAng, ear-ache, also wearied 
hy disputation. 

■ — -pa-kat, sore (ndj!). 
tai, hurt (v.i.). 




chok-^ang, gtomaeh-acJie. 

han-chok-ngayftD, crvel. 

ok-ch6k(-hauga), paifig of labour 

^ (m#„ii.). 
chong, high {of tree, hut, ^c). 

koi, high {of a hill), tall {of a 

— -dit, high (of a cloud, bird, ^c). 

mattai, highland, upland. 

ohinonga, higher {of treea, hute, Sfc.'). 

— -ka', highed {of trees, huts, Sfc). 
koi, taller {of men). 

ka; tallest {of men). 

dit, higher {of clouds, birdt, ^.). 

-ka', highest {of clouds, birds, 


obom^Dg-koi, loll person. 
cL6h ; toa, ebb-tide (see App. F). 
cli6Qg, ship. 

— -&nla, brig (ttco-masted ship). 

— -hfttehe, quickly. 

• hefie ; chdug-heQlain, steamship. 

— -henkok, warship. 

healain - diiaDa - ffi.p, paddle 

-ditla, screw steamer, 

— -heaQgIa,jitnjt, bagla (cme-masted 

— -henteha, sailing ship. 

— -loela, barque (Ihree-masted ship) . 
mifiih, trading ship. 

— -pomomoQ, warship. 

— -ta-koblft, shipwreck (by strand- 

ta-longahe, shipwreck (by foun- 

ta-fioihngn, shipwreck (by fire). 

chinrndnga-chdiig, ships of variovs 

danoi-chdng, ships of the same rig. 

hinta-chdc^, ballast of ship. 

lama-chong-oal-cbdng, poop of ship. 

oal-uiiflng, on board ship. 
chdA-bata, nvck (of sweetmeats, §fe.). 

toah- cilia-re, suclde. 

chot-lLat, enter, go inside. 
clmah-hat, 50 on shore, land (v.i.). 

la, m<mnt. 

nga, dismount. 

ta-chuah-Bhi-chakit, fall overboard. 

ten-chnali-lare, go on board, embark 
from boat. 

-ngare, land (v.i.). 

-fiire, emiiark from landing 

-Bhire, disembark, go on shore. 

cbnak-laM, ascend a ladder or stairs. 
chnak-ahe, descend a ladder or stairs. 
chnS, silver. 

chua-ha-paiyuh, trader in silver ware. 
chaflka, step (v.i.). 

h6i-ch.D&ka ; ok-chu^-hata, stride 

kochoak, step, pace (s.). 

iii6m-ta-chaaka, sf^ together {of 
two or more walking). 
cbntak, reef-heron (Ardeola Qrayii). 
chDk, place, locality, spot, space, room. 

— -anula, newly-dug grave. 
benhw&Ta,_/M-e-pIace, hearth. 

— -eh ft, tea-pot. 

cbatai, rack (stand) for spears or 

other weapons. 

— -d&k, pond, pool, puddle. 

— -diawa, elsewhere. 

— -heoe, lantern. 
hiodel, gun-case. 

kapo (or chuk-ni-kapo), cattle- 

— -kat6k, parrot - stand (App. N, 
item 43). 

kentoiya, swing (».). 

— -kep-hindel, nipple of gun (Ui. 
place for gun-cap. 

kolai(ch), bath. 

lenpa, store-room in roof of hut. 

miteak, bedstead, sleeping-place. 

— -maifiak-heos. candlestick. 

— -31, home, also room, apartment. 
ok-hiya, spathe rubbibh-recep- 

tacle (App. N, item ■'>5). 

— -paliitewa, hut-lantern (see pala- 
tewa) (App. N, item 4'2). 

— -panuy, basket for holding fishing 
line (App. N, item 89). 

pentila, cemetery, grave-yard. 

— -shinpova. anchorage. 

— -tanala.s/iaifte receptacle for betel- 
nut, ^c. (App. N, item 54). 

tenwftnya-fo&ng, door-lock. 




ohuk-tenwaftya shindnp, pad-lock. 

— -yan, tray. 

yom, plantation. 

ka-cbuk, ivliereaboutiititerrog.). 

ta-chnk, in thepresence of, before. 

— -tohnga-chiik, off (not on). 
tS-hanga-tei-chuk, tnisplace. 

chnk-chakii-de, court., woo. 

chal, jungle-fowl. 

chniiiba, lead (the Ttietal). 

— -chaka-kantaifi, conical bullet. 

chom-f aka, disease of the lunga. 

chum-l&ng-liaine, vmfold cloth, ^. 

chmn-leaga^yiiang {see chaliug), oh- 

chani-leo, tlie najiie of a eea-gnake 

about B feet long. 
chum-p&a, grog (also tea and milk, or any 

other tnixtuTB of tvio or morejluidg}. 
chnrnteng-ngare (or -ahire) heel over 

(of a ship or boat). 
chu-ngSft (-mat), hlue, green. 
chi]-ngai(ch) ; chn-ngai(j), light (».). 

— -chakS, light (not dark). 

— -oal, clear sky. 

— -oalmat, transparent. 

— 'Ool-beng, iun-light, day-light. 
~ -oal-kahe, moon-light. 

— -oal-sbok-maleoha, etar-light. 

— -tai-heoe, fire-light. 

— -tai-p&l, iorch-Ughi. 
leat-cbnugai(ch), jungle-clearing, 

chun, which (interrog.). 
cbun-nga,-chak4, stray, loee one's Ufttj. 
cbung, glow-viorm. 

cbung-oal-kamale, phosphorescence 
in the sea (Noctilnca). 
cbasb ; cbnisli (see cheh, chuin) tea- 


cbnisb-Ia, splash (v.i.). 
obn-yft-van, comfortable, take rest. 

cbuyayan-wia, easy. 

chny&yan-mat, view (unobstructed by 
jungle, ^-c). 
cbu; chii(n), q.v., where (interrog.). 
cbua ; chua(n) ; cbya ; cban, what 

(interrog.), why (interrog.). 

— -k'ane, what was that ? (of some- 
thing nneJ^ected (addrrssul to o'tf 

— -ahii 

— -]ang-ngit6' 

— -lang-ngaabi' 


chua-k'ini, what was that ? (of some- 
thing unexpected (addressed to two 
k'ife, what was that ? (of some- 
thing unexpected), addressed to 
three or more companions. 
cbua (n) -da, ' ' what' sits name ?" (^'what 
d'ye call tt ?"). 

dab, whafe the matter? 

' Why, for what 
reason t \Bo. 2 
wUh reference only 
to being angry, 
acting with vio- 
lence, and the l^e, 
e.g.. Why have 
you broken it ? 
THiy is he sulky ? 
cbua-Ghak&, domesticated, tarnie. 
ahxahdi, portable property (not for sale) . 
— -yannih, barter (s.). 
paiyub-ta-cbuaha ; cbuaho,; cbam- 
woabAn, rich, wealthy. 
chua-nga (see 61-cbua), visit the jungle 
or one's pilantation. 
cbamuauga, one who visits the jungle, 
cbuapta, slash with cane, whip, ^b. 
cbub ; yn-cbub, go (or return) home, 
leave for one's home. 
hen -chain ub, time to return home. 
cbuin ; cben (see cbeb) cbush, drizzle, 

cbUkai, basket for containing food, ^. 

(App. K, item 81). 
cbu(n); kat-chu(n), where (interrog.). 
chU'ka-e, wherever (interrog.). 
cbu-abi(n), whither (interrog.). 
yitnga - cbu(a) ; longto • ohu(u), 
whence (vaterrog.). 
longto-chu-ebi, whence (rel.). 
yfl-cbu-ehi, whither (rel.). 
cbii-banga, swim under the surface. 
chiia; cba, J, m.y. 
ta-cbua, my, mine. 
cbanij-chua, iny own. 
ydl-chtta, we, our (of a community). 
chiih-ta-chakii, yet (up to the present 

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chula, right (dexter). ' 

li-chiila, right, right-hand, right eide, 

starboard tide. 
machol, right-handed. 
cliya (see chin; chati), what (interrog.). 
chyftm (see chia), gap (».)- 
ctvTi ; chjnii, sweet, sweet-meat. 
karoait-ta-chyn, meeet-li'me. 
wi-ta-cbyn, sweeten {v.t.). 
chai-chsiki,, greet, greeting, salutation 
to guegts on arrival. 
met-chai-cha^hi-ka', or met-chai- 
cha-rakat, how do you do ? (ad- 
dregging one person). 
iu&t-chai-chacha-ka', or m&t-cbai' 
cha-rakat, how do you do ? {ad- 
d/re»sing two persons). 

rakat, how do you do ? (addressing 
three or more persons). 

et-chai-chakS-lebare, read aloud 
(lit. greet book). 
ohAu - enioifia (or - enk^na), elder 

brother (or sister), an addressed by one 

of same sex respedvvely. 

ch&u-ennyula, eldest broths. 

ka-chin, term, of endearment towards 
a friend eligkily senior to one's self. 

kini-chati, term of endearment to- 
wards two friends slightly senior 

kife-chiu, term, of endearment to- 
wards three or more friends slightly 
senior to one's self 

daf&), eUest. 

da-kat ; daka-kat ; rabat i kat, Jiow, 

at the present moment. 

modal, dutiful. 

dal-chskft ; dal-ngat6, bashful, shy, 
madest, moral, virtuous, chaste. 

k&h^-dal-cliak&, m,utual shyness of 
strangers on meeliiig. 
dal -dal, repeatedly, incessantly, always. 
— — -nge, greedy, covetous. 
dal-ngatd (see dal), asham,ed, shame, 

modest, bashful. 
damandi, larva of the Great Capri- 

comis beetle (Cerambyx Heroe), inits 

latest stage of development. 
da-mit, steel («.). 
damian (see diar), runner. 

hea-jak- cliaka- damian, finishing 
goal in foot-race. 

la-nangta-damian, sta/rting goal in 
da-miat, Am/mtum, FenzlH (its leaf is 

used for ciga/rette wrappers). 
dam mSh- tare, this many, so many. 

dam m&h tare -ane, that many. 

dinmahat-ta-ehian, only so many. 

damom (see d6m), Ihcksmith. 
da-mdn (see pomoan), winner in a fight. 
da-muan (see due), travel by sea in a 

inuaka-damuan, cargo. 
damiiala-koi (see duala), tall. 
danan, adze (of European pattern). 

en-dan-hata, plane or scoop with an 

da-nang; da-n&ng (see nSiig}, con- 
certina, lyre (of bamboo), any stringed 
i/nsiruvient (App. N, item 76). 
daoung-ta-tiyana, violin, fiddle. 
ong-dang, w.usic. 

danap (see danap) ; daiiaha(seeidaba), 
sha/rpening-stone, whetstone, hone. 

danSkla-beng, sun-rise. 

danilp; danap («ee dapa), cover for 
seat, ^C. 

danap-koi-meiisfaa, table-cover. 

lab, shoe, slipper. 

oal-biltia, Areca spathe shroud for 


— -ok-mat, upper eye-lid. 

ben-oal-danap-Hh, sock, slocking. 

daneh-poab, the lunation in July- 




da-nali-kapa (see kapft), the lanalion in 
February -March. 

dauen ; ranea ; neu, now, immediately, 
also lately. 

da-nial, raj'ter. 

da-nok-fli-oeak, the sixth m^monal 
feast at which the coconut leaf deco- 
rations erected at " la-neaf-la " (j.i'-) 
are burnt on the ehore, the ntaumers 
rushing through thejlamee. 

danom {see dom), hammer. 

dandya-dik (see ido-d&k), pole for 
carrying eocortut-shell water utensiU 
OK shoulder. 

danua-han {see dua), small peetle for 
pounding chilis in a coconut shell 
(,App. N,itemllO»). 

daDuan-chdn^-heniain, paddle steamer. 

danoi, numeral affi,x used u>ith reference 
to ships, boats, imd canoes. 

danun, medicine. 

— -&ilha, lustrum, for mourners and 

— -het-iahin, astringent medicine. 

— -ishau 1 aperient, purgative, cas- 

— wiang / tor-oil, ilpsom salts, Sfc. 
ok, lotion, ointment. 

— -oa^h, cough medicine. 

Pign, tattoo (s.) (lit. Burmese 


pait, aperient. 

duna, apply ointment, bandage, ^., 
to sick person, alsQ smear one's self 
with pig's or fowl's hloodwhen sick 
or feasting. 

enduti-hata, besmear. 

oiu-la-danan, em.etic. 

■wl-dannn-Pign, tatloo (w.). 
danuai, unng {of bird). 
danuna, design, pattern. 
da-naiti, stiti (s.), also whip. 
danoi-chdng {see cbdng), ships of the 

same rig. 
dan mol-ldngshe, adopt the child of 

a>iother as one's own. 
dat-ngarit, startle {v, '•'.). 

harat-ngarit, startle (v.i.) 
da-yung, narrow board lashed behind 

corpse when preparing for burial 

(App. N, item 150J. 

daoin, tvhite ant, termite. 

ni-daoin, white ants' mound. 
da-hata ; ta-hata, touch (v.). 
dah, go hence; also this (here); that 

hare, thither (eastwards). 

— -lare, thither {northwards). 

ngare, thither {southwards). 

Sire, thither, towards landing 

sbire, thither {westwards). 

— -tare, thither {in any direction). 

— -nga-eh, go there {southwwrds). 
dak ; dak-ta, come. 

dak -ngare, go away. 
leat-dakta, arrive. 
damak ; paijuh-damak, guest. 
heii-damak, the future {tirrie). 
daogla, upstairs, come up {go up) into 

dap-oal-taire, clap the hands, applaud. 
dak-mat (see mat), distinct, well-de- 

d&(k)iiga, split, break' (v.i.). 
da(k) nga-iihakS, _/Iaw. 

— -yan, delicate, weakly. 
dk{]c)-DgAjB.a,\ accustomed to certain 

ngat6, / food, clothing, ^c: 

— -tayan, accustomed {reconciled) to 
any new home. 

dA(k)&e, break {of a bottle, bamboo, 

fc), slit, (v.i.). 

ben-d(i(k) - ne, break in pieces 

ok-d £L ( k) - tet- h&a-Biioi,po/iherdJrag- 
■ment of pot. 
da-lat6, disappointed. 
d^-tatd, prefer {in reelect to food only). 
dan-hat, go on shore. 

in-dan-hata, put on shore, land 


d&ng-ne, transfix. 
dak ; rak, water. 

— •^f>aok&,well protected by fence or 

heoe, mineral oil, esp. kerosene 

hokp^, hot water. 

hong-ang, gravy, broth, soup. 

— -toya, brackish w<Uer. 

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dak-ka', etreamlft, rivukt. 
— kaicliuata, well. 
— ^ -mat, tear (^fiuid from the eye), 
juice offrtiit. 

-cliafl., quicksilver. 

holowa, blacle honey. 

-kHroait, lime-juice. 

— -^ -tona, golden honey. 

— -nmtali, spring of water. 

o-mat, to water {of the vurath) 

oiil-kalalioiya, Milky way. 

stuang, dew. 

ta-dei, pmtr/rom a roof. 

ta-chyn, fresh water. 

— -ta-amiAh, rain water. 

ta-diiana, creek. 

ta-hariwa, JilteT. 

ta-kamale, tea water. 

ta-karu, river. 

ta-haiyfi, hraehieh water. 

ta-BhitnK, fresh water. 

— -ta-tain, hot water. 
ta-m(&, stream,, rimdet. 

— -waashe, waterfall. 
chnt-d&k, pimd, pool. 
dan6ya-cl&k, poll fyr eam/ing com- 

nut-shell water pots on shoulder. 

fuk-dAk, draw water at well, |"c. 

hale-dlik, shallow (of fresh water 

hank-dilk, ditch. 
■ k&am-d&k, banh "f creek or river. 

ka-d&k-hata, lap water {of a dog). 

lan-JSk-mat, shed tears, water at the 

mido-d&k, dragon-Jly. 

oal'dak, wdl. 

w&ya-dah, etream. 
dkm; rim {see hatdm), night {when 

used with numeral). 
dim-daehe, x'ery well, excellently. 
dipa ; op-dip-haslie, ^read a cloth. 

danap ; danAp (s-v.), cover for seat, 

daaha-in&at, back-edge of blade. 

diUd&sha, jiope of neck. 

op-cliip-dfiaha (see op-chip), kill a 
fowl according to Nicobar method. 
dah, joyfnl. 

dash-uga; dah-nga; dik-n^, fcreofc 
(of a ship, canoe, pot, ^.) (v.i.). 
ben-daah-nga, break in pieces (v.t.). 

del-la, stem of skip, boat, or canoe. 

denaliiii (see &fih), alive and well. 

denmat ; renmat, width. 

den-nofiha, for ever. 

den {from the Portuguese), king {any 
supreme authority). 

eukAna, queen. 

den, clean {('f silver ware). 

nga-oal, clean (of plates, glasses, 

det ; dit ; rit, bottom of pot, bottU, 

bucket, Sfc, head of nail, end, anus. 

det (or dit)-d&6ha, wipe of neck. 

-malau, eight-anna piece (lit. 

end of bead necklace, fonnerly 
worn in front as ornament). 

-mfLt, temples (of the head). 

-nS.iig, hollow behind ewr-luhe. 

-neng, tail-like appendage of 

the "neng." 

— — -fil, back of hut. 

— — -oQgkeang, elbow. 
det-se-mattai, entrance (or exit) to 

chdng - healaia-duana- ditia, screw- 
kachft-nga-rit, fall backwards. 
kinook-det, tad, caudal fin. 
la-dit-la; la-ridla (q.v.), astern, aft. 
la-dit-haijAh, wooden end of handle 
or shaft. 
deak (see teag), bark cooking utensil 
as made and used by the inland tribe 
(App. N, item 100). 
de-de ; rere, self. 

ri-a-rere, beat one's self. 
Dense ; Diushe; K&he; also Meniana, 

the Creator, the Deity. 
deya ; deyi-lfle, thomback ray (Baia 

ok-deyi, hide of ditto used as emery 
cloth or sand-paper for grating seed 
for ■medicinal purposes, also for 
polishing wood. 
tah.deyA, serrated spine-bone of the 
diama, proceed {after a halt). 




dinmahat-ta-shlan, only go many. 
dintnenshl (seedi), as many (rel.)., as 

■muck (rei.)- 
ditnaishian (see dl), only m mMck. 
din-ndn-ha {see d6h and dian), winner 


. di-mi, stunted. 
di-she; ri-she {q.v.), quantity. 
di-ngare ; di-abive, whole (or entire 
quantity) of anything wkendaiiiaged 
or injured in any way. 
dl-ahire-ta-omi, drenched. 
dl-ngashe ; di-re, whole (or entire 
quantity) of anything when in good 
di-ngare-ahe, whole (in reference to 
the entire absence of some quality, 
substance, ^c.) (see Part I for E*. 
of above). 
di-shingo ; dl-abe-nge, loud noise. 
dinmenshj, as many, as much (rel.). 
dinralaliiaQ, oidy so much. 
ta-dishe, this much, so much. 
mflk-di,^( (v.). 
di-<Hia.k.k, pour (v.i,). 
di-hattga-chiik, everywhere. 

mattai, everywliere, 

di-if&h-re (see fall and odl), commit 

nga, run away, escape. 

damian (q.v.), runner. 

dinc6n-hn. (see d6h), winner in a 

loko-:dia,nnga, rush (v.). 

ten-diao-nire, run away. 
dlawa; rlo, another (not the same), 

next ; else. 

an-diawa, also, and. 

pen-diawa, besides, in addition to. 
^-ngare ; di-ngare-she ; di-ngashe 

(«. di). 

dio ; rio, another. 

cbin-leang-dlo, what else. 
di-re; di-ahire (see di). 
di-she; ri-she (5.0.) (see di), quantity. 
dijii, outrigger spars of canoe. 

do&nga, loin. 

do-nan, before (at any time). 

doata, walking -stick. 

dona-foin (see d6n), the bow of a cross- 

dom, hamm,er (v.). 

damdm, blacksmith. 

dan6m, hammer. 

eh^la-damom, anvil. 
d6h., able, can, possible, may. 

— -enh-ngashe, curable. 

lentih-chftkA ; dflL-leakiLh-hanga, 

flexible, pliable. 
■ — -na-ngflka, edible. 

— -nge-jfil, suitable. 

— -ta; ought, should. 

— - -taahe, certain, certainly, sure, of 

wi-hata, repairable. 

dinnSiha (see dian), winner in a 

d6h-hat, cut, m,ake (l)i< incision, pene- 
trate (with spear or knife), gash. 
dflhnga, fire off a gun or cannon, alto 

fit, suitable. 
d81i-tame-6t-paiyiih, rescuer. 
d6k, crackle (as of burning brushieood, 


ddn, curved. 

OQ-d&n, arch. 

dona-foin, the bow of a cross-bow. 

har6n-haCa, bend (v.t.). 
doama, leave off, discontinue. 
diib-ngashe ; d(i-ngashe, ke-dohaga 

(q.v.), different, distinct. 
dok; rok, pulsate. 
dn ; ru, clay, earth, soil, land. 

— -la-l&h, footprint. 

— -loin, Folycistina clay. 

— -mat, dirty, muddy (as after walk 
ing, hunting, ^c). 

ta-hat.y6, unfruitful (soil). 

— -ta-al, mould. 

t&-yd, fruitful (soil). 

■ — -tai-yat, landslip. 
idu-hare, sfope (*.). 
koi-ru, floor of earth or concrete. 
dttam- shnyande, tired after active 

duak-tare-chakil, full-face. 




dnen ; ken, mtmiey (Macacus cynomo- 

dv, shade, also shadow. 

du-ngamatr, invisible (lit. ekade- 

ha-ru-koi, shelter (v.t.). 
ha-ru-ngare ; ha-ru-long-koire, take 

skelter, go into the shade. 
— -ya-koire, shade the head from, the 

heag-du-koi, umbrella (Ut. sun- 

hifua, boat-awning. 

dua-hata, grind, pound. 

danua-ba&, fmall pestle for pound- 
ing chilis in a coconut (App. N, 
item 110*). 
tewila-ta-duaha, Oycas paste. 
duan. (see diie), distant visit or excur- 

duaade, paddle (v.). 
dum-sliire, commence to squat. 

omdum - hare, squat, sit on one's 

duna (*se danun), smear one's self with 

pig's or fowl's blood as in sickness or 

at festivals, also apply bandage, 

plaster, ointment, Sfc. to sick or 

wounded person. 
diia-ugare ; edua, ease, take one's ease. 

'wat-diianga-tai, possible. 
diiala; riiala (g.oj, height of any 

inanimate object. 

koi ; riiala-koi, height of any 

animate object. 

damuala-koi, tall. 

ka-niala-koi, hov; taU (lit. what 

ta-iiiala-koi, so (thus) tall. 
duan-hata, yercA, (v.i.). 

en-diiana, cage-perch. 

en-duan-bare, perched aloft. 
duang-hata (see diie), cover a canoe 

when beached. 
duat; riiat (q-v.), length (in measure- 


shire, tuhole (with reference to 

long objects, e.g., rope, ^ath, 

heaug-e-diiat, square. 

pait-tare-diiat, /rojmenf, remnant. 
w&t-Aii&t,remaining portion(inrefer- 
ence to journey, also to path, incline, 

diie ; me, canoe. 

Ifth ; diie-yo, go a short trip in a 

canoe; by water (not by land). 

damiiaii ; diian, go a long trip in a 
canoe, travel fry sea in a canoe. 

danuaD-chdug-henlain, paddle- 


d^-ta-duana, creek. 

duang-hata, cover a beached canoe. 

duande, paddle (v.t.). 

eutoma-diie, canoe-stand. 

benduaaga ; kolg.-Tiie,jetly, landing- 

nenema-rue, outngger-pegs. 

induac-ha ; indiian-ha, go for an 
outing in a canoe. 

inuaka-datniiaii, cargo. 

nganeana-diis, prcjecting stem of 

taneiyel-diie, gun/wVale of canoe. 
tanol-due, thwarts of canoe. 
tanoauga-diie, bow-head of canoe. 
dai ; rai, leaf. 

16e, leaf of the Nipa fruticans, 

Nipa thatch. 

— -ehia, plantain leaf. 

— -tata - y&l, spring (new leaf) 

rai-hare, foliage. 

Lenteha - dai - oyka, coconut - leaf- 

karual-dai, midrib of leaf. 
yong-a-dai, autumn, shedding-leaf- 

daih-nga, bend (v.i.). 
dain, light (in constr.). 

— -chaka, glitter, glisten. 

— -d&k, limpid, clear (of u-oier). 

— -hashe, dazxle. 
hata, shine. 

— -heng, sun-beam, sunshine. 

— -heoe, light of fire. 

— -kahe, maon-sMne, moon-beam. 

— -mat, transparent (of glass). 
ngamat, bright, shining, sun- 




dain-oatmat (ta-dain-heng), tun-glare, 
ray of light. 

— -pa!, torch-light. 
daijn^k {ahn piikdl), Areca gpathe 

feeding difh (App. N, item 59). 

daiyD&k-homlem ; daiya&k-teirila, 
tpathe reeeptaclet n»ad vritK Cyeat 
bread (App. S, item 56). 

eaAk, tight (of a coat, belt, ^'c). 

ediia; diia-iigare, ease. 

ehe-hAla, clear out, remove, put aeide. 

eheha, hover. 

ehl-hala, inake room by removing oh- 

elii-hatiga (alto ehei-tanga), tcrape off 
the inner skin of limes, oranges, or the 
fibre clinging to a husked coconut- 

ek&h-haiae, punch with a tool. 

e-keng, tumour. 

eia^kin (we k4n), lower row of cross- 
beams or joigti of hut floor. 

eliUkdin (see koin), upper row of cross- 
beams or joists of hut floor. 

em ; am ; om ; m' ; ma, particles com- 
bined with numeral terms to express 
"only" (adj.), e.g., hemeang (only 
one) ; tamanai (only five) ; fowioan 
(only four) ; -miasm (ordy seven) ; 
ka-ma (only two). 

emiii-lianga, pick bones. 

em-nga, sprain. 

emoang-amoe (see oe), tepid, luke- 

eiiiua-16e, wring a wet doth. 

en (see mna), this. 

en, euphonic particle used with thepers. 
pron., e.g., yiang on chiia (in com- 
pany with me), yuchuh en an (he is 
going home). 

en (aho at), in, at (with reference to 
countries, islands, or villages). 

en&n-hare, only he (no OTie else). 

enchin-malau, string beads, ^c, to form 
a necklace, 

eu-ohon, bush, brushwood, secondary- 
jungle, alao rubbish, 
enohdn-ta-aruhatBhe, dense under- 


endan-hata («ee danan) dress (trim) 

with adze. 
en-dApa, cushion, pad. 

end&pa-l^ reed or leaf-mat. 
endoan-hare, A:HeeI. 
en-dShnga-xhe, quantity, number,m,vch, 

many, numerous. 

ka-endohngaahe, how much, how 

enddbngaxhe-ka', most, most popu- 
lous, very much in quantity. 
ead6n (se^' hardn and d6n), arch. 
endua ; kendua (see kadu), larger, 


endua-ka'; kendua-ka', largest, 

endu-ahe, more in quantity (when in 

-ka", most in quantity (when in 


-paiyuh, more populous. 

-ka"-paiyu.h, Tnost populous. 

pait-endun, less large, rwt so big. 

ka', least large. 

endu-ngashe (see kadu), more extensive 

(in area). 
ka', most (or very) extensive (in 

en-dun-hftta (see duna), fcesmeor. 
endu-she (see kadu), m,ore abundant. 

■ -ka", most abundant. 

-paiyuh, more populous. 

ka" -paiyuh, most populous. 

enduana («ee diian), cage-perch. 
endiian-hare, perched aloft. 
en-dain-tat, piece of coconut-shell. 
en-fa, coconut-shell cup, goblet (App. 

N, item 38). 
enfoan (see kh and foan), eight. 

menfoan, imly eight, 

enf oanno, eight fathoms. 



meofoanno, oniij eight fathoms. 
enfua, dream (s.). 

enfua-chakfi, dream (v.'). 

pot-eiifunwa, nightmare. 
en-hen-hala ; hen-hala, hang, luspend 

eo-hea-hare, suspended aloft. 

en-hSin, beard. 

en-h6itt-yo, bearded. 
en-k41ia-t6, desire, inclination, heart. 

me-kyi&iiH-tA, ill-disposed, hostile. 
en-k&h-ngatd (^see akilh), undej-stand. 
en-k&na (see also kSto), female, w)oman. 

enkana-fii, sister {brother speaking). 

kan ; k&na, icife. 

k&a-chia, step-mother. 

kin-koan, daughter-in-law. 

menktLna, Nicobwrese women of dif- 
ferent villages. 

momal-long-enk^oa, woman deserted 
by her husband. 

oyik-hanga-kSnde, desert one's wife. 
en-kAt, slug (the insect). 
eo-koin, chin. 
eii-k6iia. cradle. 
euk^an-hare (see koan), an unmarried 


koan-menkoan-hare, bastard. 
en-kong-hala, rouse up a Jieavy sleeper. 
en-kain-hi-cliaka, grin. 
en-koin-sLi-ahi, fume, be in a rage. 
en-koiSa (see also koin), male, man. 

enkoina-ni, brother (sister speak- 

koin, husband. 

— -chia, step- father, 

— -koan, son-in-law). 

menkoifia, Nicobarese m£n of different 

jnenkoina-ehe, rascal, scoundrel, bad 

momal-ioug-enkoifia, man deserted 

by his wife. 
oyil-liangH-kouide, desert one's 
enkoiflln, part of hut floor imm^diaiely 

in front of entrance. 
enlfLh-nganhe, lazy. 
en-14m-hata, paint (v.). 


self wUh 

enlMn-enhuia, cmeai 

lanun, paint («.). 

enloin, aaie, h'ltchet. 

formed by shamans to drive evil 
spirits from the bodies of patients, 

eD-lain-nya (see laiu), shift (of the 

yan-chakA, to and fro, backirards 

and foi-wards. 
enloin-hata, wallow (as a pig). 
enmima-im (see km), dogs of different 

en-men-ngayan, careful. 

en-main, cramp (m,uscular contraction), 

"pins and needles " in the limbs. 
eonlyo (see in), two fathoms. 
en-n,eriha (see efih), nearer. 
en-iiehlia-ka'. nearest. 
etiDenhahe(eee mienh), shorter (of hut, 

ka", shortest. 

k6i, shorter (of stature) . 

-k»", shortest (of stature). 

eoBeAhshire, lower. 

— -k»", lowest. 
etinynan, groan. 

ennyula (see enhla), also headmjin, 
older (of animate or inanimate 
ennyula-ka% oldett (of animate or 

inanimate objects). 
ennyiilahe, headman, host, winner of 
race, leader, chief authority, 

komoniik, host (and chief 

mourner) at memorial feasts. 
ennaiehe (see mienb), shorter, lower. 

ka", shortest, lowest. 

koi, shorter (nf stature). 

ka", sh->rtest (of stature). 

enon-im, feed dogs. 

not, feed pigs. 

en-pechya (see ompenshe), sTnaller (in 

— -ka", smallest (in sige). 
en-pen-chakS,, smaller (in quantity). 
en-poya (see poya), seat, stool, bench. 




en-paiti-ngashe (see pait), less (in 

quantity), sTtuUler. 

-ka', least (in quantity). 

en-shan-hata, presx, squeeze. 
enshaa-koi-henyilan (ece alian), go up- 

en-ahato (see ias&t), seven fathoms. 
ea-flhin-hanga, cat up vegetablet. 
en-shian-hata, congratulate. 
enshiwa, rack (stand) for bottles. 
etL-tan-shi-koi (see tan), ontshan insect 

under foot. 

tat-lih (see tan), foot-print. 

-nga-l&h (see tan), push away 

with the foot. 
entanjrla, platform above fireplace for 

smoking food, aUo for placing pots, 

trays, &v. 
eD-t&n, h-npet. 
en-tana- momua, wooden grating used in 

preparing Cycas paste (App. N, item 

entafita (»ee mit&nto), shorter (of inani- 
mate objects). 
— -ka', shortest, very short. 
enbiu-banga («ee kotin), pMk away. 
en-toin (see toin), memorial feast one, 
, three orfwe numths after a death (aee 

eutoma-koi (see torn), padded pillow 

used by mothers for flattening the 

occiputs of their infants (App. N, 

item 121). 
entoma-diie (see torn), canoe-stand. 
enton-haine, enlarge. 
en-taio-ja (see tain), weave, plait with 

en-toi, hope (v.). 

ta-toi, think, believe. 
en-wan-hala, (see wan and en-win), 

wind, coU, (v.t.). 
en-weiina (see wan), zigzag. 
CD-win, round (prep.). 

en-wan-hala, wind, coil (v.t.). 
enwoaina (see iniiain), scoop with an 

en- van, sling for wounded limb. 
enjan-haalie, lower a bunch of nuts by 

means of rope, or cane. 

hen-yan, coconuts thus lowered. 

enyan-ngala, forsake. 

enjah ; l& - eny&h ; enyah - ngala ; 
enyali-ngayan, after (in (iriie), after- 
wards, later on, since (prep.) by- 
and-by, next Urns, some other time. 

agaiB., follow. 

ok, behind. 

— -tarit, lose (be behind in) a race. 
en-ynn, moustache. 

e-nyul, ripe coconut kernel. 
enyjin, large fish basket trap (App. N, 
item it2). 

— -hata, catch fish with the enyun. 
enyiia, shelf, ledge. 
onyiiau-heoe, /eed afire, put on fuel. 
en (postp,), (see ten), to. 

enh, near, close, also this (see nina). 
la (q.v.) ; eiih-ta (q.v.) ; become 

mJiture, attaining puberty, nearly, 

approaching to. 

ngayan, nearly healed. 

ngashe, nearly empty, a scarcity, 

nearly heaied. 

— -ahe-pnyue, twilight at sunset. 

-shnpheng, shortly before sunset. 

-yuang - hatom, about 10 or 

11 p.m. 
tashe, a little more (of work), 

ta-tai, nearly finished (of work), 

nearly hit. 

— -tajan, almost, nearly, scarcely, a 
little further, by-and-by, presently, 

— -tare-ahe, a little more. 
d61i- en b- ngashe, earable. 
en-neAha, nearer. 

-ka-, nearest. 

ha-efih-tare, approach («.). 
ianeha, on this side. 
lama- en h- she, undermost. 
mienb-loDg, shallow (of sea or fresh 


— -ehe, short, low (of tree, hut, Sfc). 

koi, short (of stature). 

shire, low (not high). 

miinho, near (adv.). 

ong-efih, last (next before the pre- 

ten-e&h, hither. 




eih-Ja {see enh), nearly altainxTig 
puberty, -mature. 
enhla-holiafi, girl about 14 years of 

age (lit. nearly marriageable). 
ilii, lad ai)out 14 years of age (Zif. 

nearly marriageable). 
k&m-heng, about 10 — 11 o'clock 

a.m. (i.e., nearly noon). 
koi-hiQ-doahft, about 7 o'clock 

eonyula, older. 

ka', oldest. 

enh-ta {see efih), about, nearly, attain- 
ing puberty. 

enbta - mahflm, girl approaching 

— -she, nearly finished (of leork). 

— -tai, liearly hit, nearly there, a 
little more to do. 

— -yao, nearly, almost, nearly there, 
a little further, soon. 

eoa (see heoe), firewood as collected, i.e., 

not cut up or made up into bundles. 
eoha, describe. 
edia,-Bh\,eall or sum/monone at a distance. 

et-chat-nga-koi (see chat), high jump, 

leap upwards. 
et-chi(j) -Ifie; et-chi(j) -hala, clean 

cloth (by rinsing). 
et-chiat-hata, gather other fruit than 

el-chai-chak&-l6bare (see chai-uhalci), 

read aloud. 
et-chai(j)-nga-ok, back-bite. 
et-chait-she-ok, mimic. 
et-et-lebare (see et), write. 
et-fat-nga-chakfl, extinguish fire by 

scattering the embers. 
et-fita ; opdupa (see faoita), fan the 

jlame of a torch with which a pig's 

bristles are being singed. 
et-baAt-hata, cut a slice (of nt^aj). 
et-het-liaine, cut up into pieces. 
et-bet-Iarom, prepared Pandanus paste. 
et-bot-ban-cbak&, stoop from infirmity. 
et-hot.bata, smell (v.t.). 

het-boLa, smelling salts. 
et-h6ii(j)-hftla (see b6ii{j), beach a 

canoe (or boat). 

et-hoii(j)-baine (see hoii(j)), launch a 

canoe(or bnat). 
et-kiUhala (see kJlfc), scoop out fruit of 

ripe coconut for making kopra. 
et-ko&nta, snipe. 
et-koat (see kota), comb (v.t.). 
et-koat-hata, scrape, or scrape off with 

et-kot-banga, row with oar. 

et-kaicb-baDg8, pluck leaves or flowers. 

, basbe, pluck fruit with the hand. 

et-kait-nga-fftng (see oal-fing), comer 
of the mouth. 

et-kait-fii, special feast to celebrate 
erection of village poles to scare away 
evil spirits. 

et-lai(ch)-banga, peel off a skin or egg- 
shell, husk betel nute. 

— — -baine, skin, peel (v.t.). 
et-loi(i) ; et-l6i(cb), slough (of snake). 
-hanga, shed skin (of snake, ^.), 

et-mflta, home-sick, m/iss (feel the ab- 

sence of). 
et-ngoti-bata, gnaw. 
et-fi6-cban.bata (see 56), suck milk (nf 

an infant). 
et-nai(cb)-hata, stanch, slop flaw of 

et-nait-kanetai, shake hands. 
et-p6t-hata (see p6t), pull trigger of 

et-f-hflta, husk coconuts. 
et'Sbech-banga (see ahechl), clean with 

water, wash. 
ngamafc (see abpcbi), clean by 


Bbecbi-f&ng-TV, wash one's m^uth. 

— -likh-re, wash one's feet. 

tai-re, wash one's hands. 

ken-shech ; kan-sbait, thorny stem- 
sheath of the ground rattan (Cala- 
mus sp.), (App. N, item 86). 
et-ebiat-banga, carve wood. 
et-abait, shoulder-blade. 
et-tat-bala (see tat), rub, polish. 
— - -tat-banga, clean (by wiping) (i\), 

rub-out, efface. 

— -tat-mat, wipe. 

— U-mat, polished surface. 




tat-te-oalm&t-de, rub one's eyes. 

tEtii6t-cbak&, pocket handkerchief. 

— .lih,rv^(ofcoir,fc,). 
ei-tiat-hala, (or -liBiiiga), carry a child 

on the hip. 
et-Micb-bftta, hatch (of a fowl). 

tanSchya, hatching batket (App. N, 
item 58). 
et-tSi(j)-ng»-ok, skin,fiay. 
et-tot-banga (or -cbaki), hegfor apre- 

sent, want gratit. 
et-tdta-hat, heat iron in a fire. 
et-tai(ch)-banga, hvak coconut$. 

nga-ok, sfciHi^j/ (i7.(.). 

ok-omhah, etrif off hark. 

et-wat, tie itp a hiindle of prepared 

Pandanue paste. 
et-yuat-bata, split cane for firte work. 

et-yuatla-lfte, koUt leaf-tail, set sail, 
start off on voyage. 

ia-ynat-hala, tinfurl leaf-sail. 
et-ruata, extract the Jilamente from 

Fandanus paste by mearu of the 

" kanewat " (3.0., also App. N, item 

et-yaic-chak&, wash face. 
eyam, breath. 
lare, breathe, d/roAC breath. 

taiS-eyam, pant, gasp, breathless. 
eyiL-hala (v.t.), open aparcel. 
eh, gum of the jaws. 

fua-eb, gum-boil. 
eb-tare-sbe, true, correct. 

hat-ebtare-sbe, nonsense, untrue, not 

the case. 
ep ; op-ep, seedling (except of coconut 

and Fandanus). 
■ — -hata ; op-ep-hata, plant out. 
'et, Batti Malv (umnkabited island of 

Nicobar group). 
eUbata ; et-et-ha, carve wood, draw, 

et-et-lebare, write. 

an-et-lebare, pen, pencil. 
eea ; eaieb, sneeze (s.). 
— (or eaiab)-banfi;a, sneeze (v.). 

fah, bladder. 

tua-bata, swell at a bladder. 
fain3.po (see i&po), fat person. 
fonita ; banniii (see et-fita), fan used 

■while singeing the bristles of a 

slaughtered pig. 
fannfth-lilh (see lab and iikh). 
fib ; ngafilh, die, expire. 

fab- tare -y an, soon. 

ol-tali-fSb-re ; di-ifiih-re, commit 
F&nga; ODg-fKnf^, cut sticks. 
fip, side (of body, canoe. S/'c). 
— -chfiiia;, side of ship. 

benyiian, hill-tide. 

mattw, shore, coast, boundary. 

fii, back of hut. 

kol-ta-fftp ; k6i(ch)-ta-fftp ; at the 
side of. 

ISngto-fap, from the side of. 

yd-te-f ap, to the side of. 

ikpOtfat (adj.). 

karfl-fip, corpulent, stout (of free, 

sho-ngo-f ftp, side-ways. 

ta-fftp ; tela-f4p, alongside ; beside, 
ikpo (see ikp),fat (adj.). 

tena&po, fatter. 

ka', fattest (see fat) . 

i&takpo, fat person. 
f&sbo (see ifai^), cut off. 
fitla-abe, parent (having children). 
f it-abire, lie face downwards. 

toia-ikt-de, fall from drowsiness. 

ta-fat-sho, fall (of an inanimate 
object leaning against wall). 

ta-fftta-rit, upset (of a bottle). 
fang-iigala, blown away by the wind. 
fennSpo («ee t^po), fatter. 
— Tla', fattest, very fat. 
fennoiyo (see fdoi), thicker (of planks, 

ka", thickest, very thick. 

{gh-ngala, blown down by the wind. 


nicobasese vocabul&rt. 


fida-han ; fihh.a, catk. 

la-fina-haii, bath-tub. 
fifilia (see Hna-liaa), barrel, cask. 
fifiowa, whip (v.). 

ofino-hata, tlap, beat Aightly. 
fo, grass thatch. 

of house or hut. 

t&nkag • tokng, loindow - Bash (or 

tanang-cliakA-foAng, door of a house, 
Boreen over door-way of hut. 
foiLt-hata, sip (any hot fluid). 
fo-moan (see foao), only four. 

en-foan (see kri), eight. 

fo-moan, only four. 

', four fathoms. 

mahen-D5atitio, only four fathoms, 
fom-latd ; fbm-tashe ; fom-ngaysD, 

f^m-tayan, late. 

fong-she; itea-iimg-i^B, jvmvp down. 
fdng-she, a non-edihle species of land- 

fdk, blister. 

— fie, chafe (by friction), 

fol-ugare, inflammation. 

foah, bowels. 

fsk-dflk, draw water. 

fun, navel. 

fash, (see aeh), smolce. 

— -heoQ, smolce of fire. 

omhoih, tobacco srtioke. 

oal, smoky atmosphere. 

— -dftk, steam (Ut. smoke-water). 
teyen-fnsh, steam (lit. white smoke). 

inbi, thick (of planks, ^.). 

tenttbijo, thicker. 

— -ka', thickest, very fkick. 
fu-ngamat, black-skinned. 
fui-nga-14h, whirl-wind. 

latni'fui, water-spout. 
i\\V-ahe, fall (as ripe fruit). 

pomfuk-she, da-op (v.t.). 
ful, east wind, diry season. 
ta, prevalent direction of wind in 

N.E. Toonsoon. 

L&fiil, Trinkut (Ht. east) island, in 
Nicobar group. 
hata, cla^, embrace (seated or 

tam-ha,t&;<yai-ia.Ta,hug, embrace (seated 

or standing). 
iutn, necklace made by slitting the 

young leaves of the plantain ( App. N, 

item 145). 

— -karean, decorate the fetishes with 
"fum " necklaces. 

fu-ugamat (see fu ante), black-skinned. 
Pfiya, Trak (islet near Little Nieobar). 
fiia ; befuaja, abscess, 
hata (gee fah), swell as a bladder. 

— -eh, gum-boil. 

iftia, blow with the breath. 

leat-ifiia-eb, blown out (extinguished) 

(of a torch). 
fwiaa-oal-kihe, full.m.oon. 
tbin, cross-bow (see App. S, item 31). 

&&h-chak&-f6m, bolt of cross-bow. 

hab-foine, hit with cross-bow bolt. 

loka-han-foifle, shoot with cross-bow. 

cbia-foin, the stock of the cross-bow. 

d6na-f6in, the bow of the cross-how. 
foinb, bubble. 

fol-mdro (probably 
mohur "), gold. 

from " gold 

gorit (from Hindustani " ghora"), 
pony, horse. 

R 2 



ha-chi-layan, hurry (v-t.)." 

lia-chi(j) (see chifj) ), abstain from 
certain articles of food as a married 
couple during last iwo months of wife's 

hado-hanga ; heiro-haiiga, calculate, 

compute, count, numhei: 
ltad61i ; hardh. any. 
haddh, anything, aoriiethirtg,et cetera. 

horndfih . . . homdoh, either . . . or. 

— -paiyuh., sorwbo^, someone. 

haddh-paiylib, anybody. 
hadna, watch, look out. 
ha-enh-tare (see eth), ajtproaek (v.). 
ha-fep-hata, whistle tnilh th^ lips {v.). 

henfep, whistle (s.). 
ha-foat-dede (ti.i.), Jiil (of d hoitle, 

pitcher, ^c ) . 
~ hata (ti.(.), measure out in glass 

oal-pomle, _/iiZ a bottle (v.t.). 

-ah&yo, Jill a sack with grain, 

sand, ^r.). 
-i&ng. Ml one's mouth. 

hen-fuata, glass measure. 
ha-f wAk-hata, /e6^ a child. 
ha-faiya, feast wheii installing a new 

ha-hat, verbal suffix signifying outside, 

or eastwards (see App- BC)). 
ha-hel, play on the flageolet. 

h en-hel, flageolet. 
ha-lion-haslie, hook fruit off a tree, 
pluck fruit with the ^'hen^hen." 

her-hen, hooked pole for gathering 

p-'Ht (see App.N^, item 124). 

ha-hoa-Uanga (see hoa), poison another 

ha-hoata, about 4 a.m. 

chiyiiu, about 2 a.jw, 

-_. ka ^ about 3 a.m., 

hahOt-liata, keep up afire. 

tien-hota, slow-match (see App. N, 
item 44). 

ha-kal-aga-shi (v.), love (sexuaUy). 

IieD-kal-iiga-she, sexual love. 
hakap-ngashi (see kap), recognise. 

— -nga-leaflg, recollect a tiame. 
pi-mat-de, make out, identify. 

— -pi-n&ng-de ; hakap-nga-nang, re- 

hakap-hanga, expect, anticipate. 
haka-hata, gase. 

kSi-ngamat, stare at. 
bak^-i-mat-de, watch, look out. 
hakS-ngatd, annoy, offend, irritate, pro- 

hak jip-liata, join (in carpentry). 
ha-kipi-yande, grasp (v.t.), 
hakali-lianfia-Bhi, injure, damage. 
haki, to-mai-row. 

— -oal-liaki, to-morrow morning. 
hakiafl -hata (see kiiiah), peep, also aim 

at object on same level (with one eye 

hakian-hala, peep, also aim at abject 

above one's head (withone eye closed). 

haklan-hashe, peep, also aim at object 

belowone'slevel(withotte eye closed). 

henkian, telescope. 

paklan ; paklnaii, bUnd, blind of one 

ha-koana-oal, alloy, am,algam, electro- 

ha-koh-hanga, throw down (as in 

hakok-hata ; hakoka (pass.), shoot any 

object with a cannon. 

luko-hakok-hata (see henkok), shoot 
at a target with a cannon. 
hakok-hanga, _^re a gun (cannon). 

henkok, gun, cannon. 
hakom-hata (see kom), leach any lan- 
guage or handicraft. 

16, learn any language or handicraft. 

ha-kom-tft; hen-kom-to (see kom), 

learn a language or any handicraft. 

miha-komta, pupil, 
ha-kop-ngayan, &eep (v.). 




haiktn, fell, cut down. 

ha-koh ; hilkoh (g.f .)i ^f^PPVt ^ 

lighted, glad, 
h&'koiish., plane (v.). 

hen-kohsh, plane («.). 

lien-konsha-due, portage 
hakait-to-jaQde, try, attemp„ 
hala, keticej (in tims) ; upwards, or 

northwards (in constr.). 

kai-ha!a, come northwards. 

IS-hala-lieng, fore-noon. 

tnak-liala, dram bolt •apwards. 
halap-hanga (see lop and halap), every- 

halo p- hat] ga, pay a round ofvieite. 
hal^k, ladder, stair'Ca>'e. 
kaling, notched OT " monkey" ladder. 

— -ka% ordinary ladder vrith spokes. 
halala-kamap^ ; hal&la-kemili, hat, 

reaembling the " kemili," placed on 

disinterred male skull at Tnemorial 

feaH fApp. N, item 14ri). 
hale-dak (cee dak), shallow (of fresh 

water only). 
hale-ridla; hale-ditia (see det), steer 

with rudder or paddle. 

hen-ia-ridia, rudder. 

ma-hale-rid la, steersman. 
ha-leat^e, faint, swoon. 
halep-hanga (see lep), arrange. 

hata,poteA a rnof, repair tltatching. 

i-ahlro, make ready, prepare to work. 

— TUyande, decent. 

— -ishi-yaude, baggage. 

qga-shi, take care of property. 

ta-heang-leang, sort (v.). 

lep^Qgashe, order, arrangement. 
haleah-hata, search, seek. 
kaa-ta-oal7hurul, Jiiih in shallow 


kaa, fishing. 

k4p, turtle hunting. 

ha-leang-hauga, heave a weight, hurl, 

cast, fling. 
haleang-hanga (or -hata), hurl or 

throw a stone, spear, S^c. 
ha-l^ap-hata (see leap), teach any 

language or handicraft. 

16, learn any language or handi- 

_ a-aft. 

halin, seize, amirehend, malte prisoner, 

halin-paiyiih, prisoner, captive. 

hallna, wrestle in earnest. 
halina (see halin), wredle in anger (or 

in earnest). 
haloe-16ng-uhaka-yaiya, profit. 
haloM - enkoina, great grandfather, 


— -enk&na, great grandmother. 
halop-hanga (see halapawi lop), make 

a round of visits ; visit all the huts in 

halop-hashe, distribute food. 

halfin-tare; seek forgiveness for an offence. 

ha-loan, ^2ane (v.). 

hen-loan, pZane (the tool). 

halohnga-ning, hoax (s. and v.). 

halai (nee lain), to and fro (as in load- 
ing or unloading a canoe) . 

halai -shire, lie with head towards 
entrance of hut. 

halaih-tai, drop (v.t.). 

halain-hala (see Iain), heave up, hoist 
(an anchor, ^c), by means if vnud- 

ha lain -hata, spin, whirl (v.t.). 
halainya-dede, spin, whirl, revolve (v.i.) 
halai Q-dit-tanep, screw-driver. 
halan-hata, pi^rchaee (v.), buy, barter. 

halan-«a, purchase (s.). 
ha-ldi(i:h)-hanga, pass, go by (as a way- 
farer, ship, or cloud). 
kah^l6i(ch), cross (pass in opposite 

ha-16i(ch)-chi-chak^ to be leaving 
one't hut at the time a vintor hap- 
pens to be arriving. 
hamaag^ne-kdi, mother, when deceased. 
hamci-hata, ask, ask for. 

— -chabft, inquire, question. 

— ... chaki, beg for the loan of. 
nga-shi, ascertain. 

bamddh . . . hamd6h (see hai^oh), 

either . . . or. 
hammna, the lunation in May-June. 
hamotit-chak4, s<rfe (out of danger). 
hamok-nga-fihi, jugglery as perform -d 

by a bad shaman. 
haiu6-cho, active, athletic. 




hamdtiiga-cliak& (see hamut), hide, 

ham-telong-tdre, inake love. 
heaaut-haugB. (see mut) ; liam6tng'a- 

chakS, hide, conceal. 

haniute, hidden. 

— -in6ki, gecrei. 

uiut-ngare, lie concealed. 
hanang, thin. 

liaa&-Bhalai(j), sqitare bottle. 
hanftni-layan, appetite. 
hanet-daic (see heafc), sine hucket. 
haneat-d&k, gov^-ladle, 
hao^a, common verbal su^ (see App. 

B(')). eometimts signifying south- 

hanga, ago, since (adv.). 

liiuiga(-ram ) ; lianga(-Bhiak&m), nu- 
meral aflx need with reference to 
nighte or days ago respectively (see 
"ram," "shinkam.") 

IS-hanga-heng, afternoon. 

han-tivkm, formerly. 
ba-iigA, to eject oheieedkopra or eocoaut- 

oU from the inouth in cairn shallow 

sea-water frequented by Ask whereby 

they are better seen and 'more easily 


iti-ng&, the oil or miTiced kopra so 

ha-ngiang, inform, describe. 
ta-ngSk (nee ok-n^k), feed (v.t.). 

baQgdk - mattai (or Iwl), feast 
held for propitiating spirits with 

henngSk- mattai, propitiatory offering 
to the spirits. 
hannAli-14h (see ifih), Paindanus drupe 

foot-brush (see App. N, item 63). 

mat (see ifSh), cloth brush. 

oal-tti (see ifah), broom for hvt 

floor (see App. N, item 93), 
hannoa-heoe (see ifiia), blow-pipe for 

fanning flame (see App. N, item 68), 
hanniJi-heoe (see ifiii), fan of Areca 

spatke (see App. N, item. 51). 
hanfik-iigfla, lobster. 
han-shon-hata, borrow. 
bsBta, only, merely. 
haiita-leang, common, public. 

haa-tir&m (see tirim), formerly, very 

long ago. 
hanoiya, gtomojck proper. 
ban-aa-dah, now-a-days, the present 

hafi-oA ; L4n-an, no, or, otherwise, else. 

hanan-nge, deny. 

— -ange, refuse, not to comply. 

hah-chok-ngayan, cruel. 

haA-fdiiL'liata (see foin), shoot any 
object with a crossbow. 
loko-hanfoin-hata, shoot at a target 
with a crossbow. 

baft-ham, plant n cutting or shoot. 

bafi-beUbanga, strain, fliter. 
henbet (g.w.), strainer. 

bah-boftng-nga, the practice of setting 
up tabu marks on trees in a planta- 
tion on day after death of oioner. 

han-hoinga-hoin-naa, asunder, 

bah-bonp-bashe (see hbiip), put on a 

ban-boba, feast held when celebrating 

the nam/ing of an infant. 
ban-bwAva (see ben-hw&va), mourn 


bahk-dAk, diich. 

haiimoi(j)-iiata (see milyai(j) ), apply 

coconut oil to the head or budy. 
hanngai(j)-hata (see benEgai(j)), 

apply coconut oil to the head or 

ban'mk-baifie, stretch the arms (as in 

baii-oaI-&k, the name of a harmless 

variety of snake. 
haii-o-pehari, (see " Oood-bye"'). 
baii-oaka^hat, (v.t.), float coconuts, 

timber, 4"c., as when shipping or 

transporting along shore. 
banole (see b&ole), disguise. 
haiipll-hata (see bel), shoot any object 

with a bow. 

loko-haiipll-bata, shoot at a target 
with a bow. 
faaA-pnsb-hala, ^Z{ up any receptacle. 
banre-kenyiira, childhood. 
bansbon-hata, borrow. 
haA-Bbon-tare, a short time. 
han-bhoi, cooking-pot of local manu- 

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faclare only). (For the namet of 
these and of (he various imported 
descriptions see Part I, and App. M, 
item 101). 

ma-Laiishoi-ya, pot-ful. 
ok-dik-tet-haoahoi, potsherd. 

han-ahol ; haiahol, frighten, terrify. 

haiitaeh, unsheltered. 

hata (see hataieli), get wet from 

han-tong-nge-uiLiig, ons who puts off 

payment of a debt. 
hantO-hata, midge (v.). 
bafitne-hanga ; huDtae-iiga-l&b,«en(2a 

bata, send an animal or inanimate 


hahat, export. 

han-tai-Dga-nAng ; haA-tai.nga-sIu, 

without cause, caueslessly. 
haiii-vot, no(adv.') (refusing permission). 
han-wii-hame, puff (as «<eanicr or 

Iian-y6ba-hat, thread a needle. 
haii-yflwe, squabble, dispute. 
han-yuin, char. 
ha- Eat-ngatd, abuse (v.), affront, offend, 


nkt-ngaib, annoyed, displeased. 
ha-p&k, lard, dripping. 
ba-pang-haDga (see pong), separate . 

(when one party leaves the spot). 
bapual-hatai }i&-pUB.\a,(pass.),3nare(v.) 

nen-pual, dip-knot. 
haraii-bata, stick, adhere. 
haran-haslie, cause (o adhere, fue, paste. 

hen-din, prepared liquid gum. 

omhoiii-haraft, cak^ tabasco (im- 
ported by Bombay trading vessels). 
liamt-ngarit (see dat-ngarit), alarm 

(v.), startle. 
hare, verbal suffix signifying eaetviards, 

or from outside (see App. BC)). 
liari-Snh(see^h),ZiKe (kaveUfe), alive. 
hari-han-an, alone. 
haril-hata; harilla (pass.)^ shoot any 

object with a gun. 

Ioko-haril-hata(<e6hiudel), ehoot at 
a target with a gun. 
harian-bata, drive, force along. 

haro-aija, pour (v.i.). 
haronh-bata, stalk game. 
haroaah, melt (of metal) (v.t.). 
haro-hanga- (o^fohado-hanga), count, 

reckon, compute, number. 

haro-bata, divide food. 
harowa, distribute cloth. 
barok-hata; harbko, (pass.), broil, roast, 

bum, scorch, singe. 
barok-hala, burn a hut. 
bardh (see had6h) any. 

ta-shi, e3!pect, look out for. 

bar6h, something, anything, S^c. 

— -paiyuh, anybody. 

tom-tare (prep.), except. 

hardka (see harok), burnt, scorched. 
bardn-hata (see ddn), bend (v.t.). 

end6n, arch. 
barra, see, observe, behold ! 

barra-lebare, read. 

barra-mattai, explore. 

harra-nga-Bhi, look after, attend, take 
care of, nurse. 

loko-harra, look away, look aside. 

ma-harra-nga-ahi, servant. 
harual.i-yande, take care of another, 

or of any object. 
shishi, make food ready, prepare 

\i»,T\k-)ie,anoth&rtime,someti/me or other. 
barii-koi {see du), shelter (v.t.). 
baru-long.koire (see du) ; baru-ngare 

(see du), take shelter. 
bai'iia-baoga, lean, rest against (of an 

inanimate object) . 
hashak-banga, lean, rest against (of an 

inanimate object). 
haebi-nRare, decamp. 
ha-ahibo, topsy-turvy ; throw a spear 

in reversed position (i.e., handle-end 

foremast) ; lie with feet towardt 

entrance of hut. 
ha- sh4-i- shire, linger, loH^. 
■ — -i-t^re, amuse oiie's self, play, rornp. 
ha'aha(k)-ngatd (tee Bbii(k)), amuse, 

hen-sha,(k)-ngat6, ainusement, toy, 

ha-sb&(k)-Dga8bi, meddle, interfere. 

hensb&i ( k ) -ngash, vaterference, waste 




Laahinga-shi, disturb, intefrupt. 

ha-shata (t'.t.), alter, exchange places, 

ba-dlL&t-haiiga (v.t.), alter, change. 

baahat-hata (v.^.)) change, exchange. 

ba-ahata, succeed, take another's place. 
hen-shM, mcceseor, heir. 

hashe (see she), verbal svffix signify- 
ing westwards or daumwards. 
toak-bashe, lower hut ladder, a!so 
unbolt door by dra/wing bolt down- 

bflsbdl (see shtal) ; haahQle, race in 

bft-sbuii-liata, entreat. 

bat, verbal suffix signifying eastwards 

(,e, ortli). 
hat (plur, het), not. 
hat-akab, ignorant, unaioare. 
akaib-yantft, dishonest. 

— -&h-ngayan, indigestible. 

— -aniia-oal, unoccupied, vacant. 

— -chabuang, watertighl. 

— -cbaling-eyani, short-winded. 

— -chataiyo, unarTned. 
chlao, orphan. 

-!- -(.'bok, unhurt. 

— -ch6iig-bat8be, slowly. 
chnrigai(cb), dim, obscure. 

— -chiih-ta-cbaki, not yet. 

dal-cliftki ; bat-fIaUngat6, immo- 
dest, immoral, shameless. 

danoang-o-chuk-beoe, naked light. 

d6h, unable, cannot. 

ddh-eAhngashe, incuraile. 

— -ddb-olyola, dumh, m/ute. 

— -ddb-tasbe, uncertain, doubtful. 

dS'inga, unfit, unsuitable. 

eb-tare-sbe. nonsense, untrue. 

en-hoin-yo, beardless. 

en-kain-ha-cbaki, discontented. 

fiib-tare-she, a long tim£ hence. 

— -fiitlaabe, childless (children having 

— -hamddb . . . hat-hamdah, neither 

henlen-ngaehe, useless. 

hgang, nothing, not one. 

-akab, stupid, ignorant. 

aabe, different, distinct. 

hat-heang-ddb ; hat-beang-1eap, un- 
skilful, clumsy, blockhead. 

-bM, naked. 

paijiib, no one, nobody. 

... ta-bad6b-hadAh, nothing, 

not a single thing. 

-ta-sbire, hull of ship. 

hin&bnga-tdichya, unpopular, 

holilh-liatabe, slowly. 

boltMnga-oal'ii&ng, disobey, dis- 

— -b6hcba, absurd. 

ime, rigid,injlexible (of a bar, ^c). 

— -it&, absent, away, not here. 

— -itOb-paiyiib, impartial. 
iyei, unkind. 

• — -imoDg, unripe (of fruit). 

— - -kalak-hg, regularly, frequently. 

— -kalaiyan, lazy, indolent. 

— -k&nga-Bbi-cbuk, nowhere, 

— -k&no, unmarried man,- widower. 

— -ko&ng, weak, not strong. 
-yan, delicate. 

■ — -koano, childless (having had no 

— -koinih, impenetrable (of a stout 

— -koino, unmarried tpoman, widow. 

— -langan, light (ruit heavy). 

— -lapft. bad, lerong, improper. 

— -liihtdre, disbelieve. 

— lan-ne-beang-tamilka, Imlf fathom, 
(about 2f feet). 

— -leat-sbi-taminb, unusual (not cus- 

— -lenpaa, worse. 

— — -kft', worst. 

— -lep-ngashe, disorder, confusion. 

— -leap, unable, cannot. 

— ■ — -olyola, dumb, mute. 

— -16pta-cbnk; hat-ldpta-Bbe, rare, 
vncom,mort, scarce. 

— -IQa, slow. 

-tayan, late, unpunctual. 

— -mab. (or -mah), never. 

— -mahateng, disobedient. 

— -menlaina-sbe, quietly, softly. 

— -menooichya-yan, muscular. 

— -met-pota-she, inrtocent. 

— -met-tota, cheap. 

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hat-mi toh-pftiyuh, impartial, just, -an- 

— -miyaiya, valueless, worthless. 

— -modal, undutiful, shameleBS. 

— -mongyS.iiga, deaf. 

fiAm, had weather, rough sea. 

— -nge, brittle, fragile. 

— -olyola, silent. 

— -omkdia-aihe,'unsucces«fal in search- 
ing ; empty-handed. 

— - -om-sh^t, unripe {of fruit). 

— -ong-heang-ng'ashe, unsuccessful in 
hunting or fishing. 

— -ong-yang, naked. 

— -dt, have not, is not, not got, none. 

oiyantfl, dieohey, disobedient. 

pahoa-ka", brave. 

-part), daring, venturesome. 

— -pamahSa, brave (not a coward). 

— -pid«n, »»»» (o/i. j,!«»t, l-o.)- 

— -paiyuh-ha-oal, unoccupied {of a 

sliiii-y6-ngatd, discontented, dis- 


— -sh.iang', tasteless, insipid. 
6i, stench. 

— -shiri, differ. 

— -aho, averse, dislike, unufilling. 
-ka", hate, detest. 

— -shom-yOQg-ngaBhi, inhospitable. 

— -BhoQi^, blunt (of a blade). 

— -sEuying-yantft, illiberal, inhospit- 

tan-ngayan, unsafe {of canoe'), 

- — -tabik, unlucky, unfortunate. 

haro, miscount. 

— - — -Dgat6, wrong, improper. 

— -ta-koi, uneven (of land). 

— -tot, cheap. 

— .(ong-ngat^, untrugtworlhy, unjust. 
tal^g-hat-ehe, bad. 

hat-nge-oly5la, abuse (v.). 

taiyfl-fcai, jniss one's aim. 

wat-diianga-tai, impossible. 

wlDDe-Bhishe, useless. 

wotahe, insufficient (notenough). 

hat-yaka, uninhabited. 

— -yah-ngai-alii-ehakik, ugly (face). 

— -yechi-slie, plain, unadorned. 
yoa, virgin. 

jfl-a^yan-na-koano, barren, child- 

y6-huy6ie, sober, temperate. 

yol-shua, seldom. 

— -yaiyo, gratis. 

hata, common verbal suffix without 
reference to direction (seeApp. B{')). 

ii&^-^oi, feast held when inaugurating 
a new fetish for the recovery of a sick 

liatAb-fie-mat, show, present to view. 

— - -to-Diat, signal, make signs at a dis- 

paiyut-hatih- to-mat, guide (through 
jungle) (s.). 
hatana, cold (catarrh), influenza. 
hatap-hata, enlarge, tie together, weld 


— -haifie, lengthen a hut, S^c. 
ha-teng, listen, hark I 

mahateng, obedient. 
hateha, to sail. 

hen-t«ha, sail (».)■ 
hatei^e, poise on the wing. 
hat-lait, honey-sucker (Neetarinea pec- 

ha-tcin-hata (see fcoin), light a torch. 
hatoan-bata, compare. 
hatom-hata (see torn), assetable. 
haton-faata, measure with one's fingers. 

hentona, /ooi- or yojrd-measure. 

(heang-jmahentona (one) handspan. 
hatom, night. 

rim ; dim, night (when employed 
with any numeral). 

hen (or he)-bat6m, night time. 

hatom - leaknga - chakil, unclouded 
hat61-hata, support, bear up. 

hen -t61, prop, support. 
hat-shiat. Arum nymphmi-folimn. 
ha-tue-yai, prepay. 
ha-twan-hata ; ha-tw&n-nga-lSh, en- 

hatain-paiyaii (see tain), fasten sticks 



hatainya-paiyfth, t 
ha-taish-hata ; hantflah, get wet from 

ha-toija; haiitiiya, twins (xohelher of 

haw^hata, send for. 

ha-wait-ngare, lura, aside on account of 

some obstacle. 
ha-wean-tore, tack (in eaili^'). 
ha-weya (*ee hiiiwe),/y afUig, decorate 

with flags. 
ha-win-hanga, go round, walk (or run) 

round, sitTTound. 
ha-wire (n.t.), turn round and round 

ony object. 
Iia-w61-hata (see w6lto), repeat. 
ha-yilli-ugashi, love (as relatives and 


hen-yAh-ngaehe (see yih-ngashe), 
love (of relatives and friends). 
hayang (see ying), inform. 

— -ta-nAng, message. 

-paiyuh, messenger. 

ha-yfll (seej(A),mise two or more fluids. 
ha-yua-e-yan, piuTufer (v.). 
ha-yuah ; haiyuih, pay wages, hire. 

hen-yuah, wages. 

hft-yul-nga-Bhi, steal (v.). 
maha-yul-nga-shi, thief. 

lia-yung-tata, catch falling water in 
pitcher or in one's hands. 

hk-S,, hush ! 

hil-ba-a-a, bravo ! well done ! hurrah ! 

b^-heng-hata (see heng), dry by ex- 
posure to sun (v.). 

h&h-haine (see hoib), sigh. 

b^koh, pleased, delighted, glad. 
h^oL-hata, applaiid, cheer. 

h^o\e,fiirt (v.i.). 

hi-lohnga-nSng, banter (v. or s.) 

h&mak, lunation in November-Decem- 

him-lare, eat vegetables, rice, ^rc. 

— -hSm, devour (as 0» animal), 
ham-tak&re, eat only. 
han&m-]are; omham, appetite. 
om ham -hat a, taste any food. 

h^ua-cliak&. boiosprit. 
bkh-ka (see Iian-an). 
h4n-cliuoli, tow, tug, drag. 

hih-chuftli-haifle, dray. 
hiin-heh-fiire, take a walk. 
li&h-heng-de (see heng), bask. 
b&n-hg-hala, dry by expoewre to wind 


hiii-i; hk\,hrother-itt-law {husband's or 

wife's brother). 
hilii-niwa, halo. 
h&ii-de-hata ; h&n-nsh-hata, dry by 

exposure to fire (v.). 
hiln-tare-yan, wait (v.i.). 
hAiik-ngatd, proud, haughty. 
hansh (see heah and f^ha) wind (see 

App. E). 

fut, N.E. monsooti, east wind. 

fiil-ta, N.E. wind. 

— -kapS,, N. wind. 

kapS,-shoh6ng, NW. wmd. 

lohnga, S. wind. 

lohnga-f^l, 8.E. wind. 

ehohong, 8.W. taonsoon, west 


shohonjjf-ta, S.W. wind. 

i«k-i^\^n, favourable wind. 

ta-huhyan, pu§^ of wind. 

ta-koing, gale, storm. 

— -ta-opfap- hare- she, wind on the 

— -ta-oahol, unfavourable wirid. 

wiala, veer (of the Mtind). 

haush, breeze. 

tala-h&iish, windward side. 
h&A-uah-bata, dry before afire. 
hAn-uab-bala; hife-nsba (see nsh), pre- 
serve food by suspending or placing it 

on a grating in the smoke of a hutjire. 
hilfiydt (see baiyot). 
bilola ; h&ole, change, exchange, (v.t), 

hiiola-paiyuh, substitute. 

haol.nga-shi, lend. 

handle, disguise. 

henola, instead of, 

henol-nga-shi, compensate for 
damage done, pay fine. 

k&hi-ol. exchange places. 
h^hol-hata, admonish, warn. 
b&tfim, knife as /o)-merly made from 

scrap iron. 
hA-wan (see wan), fish with net. 
babia, parched (of land). 



liahnga, parched (of the tongue). 
hahngamat (see hoih, hesb, hilnsli), 

visible (Ut. oAr-coloar). 
han-uga-shi, cause, reason. 

han-nga-shian, th^efore. 

chuau-Iiafinga-ahi, why. 
hiin-Dgi-td, cause, reason (when, or in 

reference to being angry). 

an-httn-ngi-td, therefore (when, or in 
reference to'bein^ angry). 

chuaQ-han-ngitd, why (wh^rt, or in 
reference to heing angry). 
he, verbal guffix signifying eastwards 

(see 6-he). 
heash ; beash-nga, wither (as a leaf, 

&-e.}, dm) (of chth, clothing, ^c.}. 

b&n-beaslt-hata, dry by exposure to 
wind (v.) . 
be4ka, fender (surrounding hut fire- 

heang-hata, nine. 

hetneang-hftta, only nine. 

heaDg-hata-tamflka, nine fathovis. 

hemeang-bata-tamflka, only nine 
hed6e-hala, belch, eructate. 
hediil-hala, adopt the child of another 

as one's own. 

mendula-shl, foster-parent. 

hediila, adopted child. 
hedwi, bamboo (B. vulgaris). 

hedwfk-hent^a, bamboo raft as made 
and used by the inland tribe on the 
Great Nicobar rivers). 
been, mnssel (Mytil/us). 

ok-heea, Mytilus shell, used in 
removing the shin of the Fandanue 
drupe before extracting the pulp. 
bef uaya ; fiia, abscess. 
hehe, snivel, (v.) mucus from the nose. 

hebe-hata (or -ha,me), blow one's 

tanot-helie, pocket-handkerchief, 
helam, leech. 
Iiemeang-hata (see heang-bata), only 

hemeang (see beaDg), only one, sole, 
bemeangla-oalm&t, one-eyed. 

; hemeang-de, alone. 

hen, numeral affix used with r 

beu^la, Hades. 

hen-ehatnga, about 1 a.m. 

ben- chit- shire, («ee chat), dive feet 

foremost by jumping into water. 
benchain, unripe kernel of coconut. 

— -hnya, boiled white of egg. 
bend!l(k)-baQga ; benda(k)-Be, see 

dak), smash (v.) 
bendafi (gee ba-ran) prepared liquid 

henAett-nkttg, spider's web. 

henden, bamboo - toddy - tapping - pot 

(App. N, item 69). 
hendiwa, tube, pipe, funnel. 
headlwA-Atk, water fanwel and strainer 

(App. N, item 36). 
ngai(ch), oil funnel and strainer 

(App. N, item 37). 
— -toak, toddy-Jug (App. N, item 

hendol; hendol-kaiyl, lead, phtirvmet, 

— -kawaJ-baiiga (see homdul}, heave 

the lead. 
bendowa, mark with notches. 
bendoya (see ido) the sticis on either 

side of the hut-fire on which the 

" hishoya " (g-u-) a/re suspended. 
bendoa, view, prospect. 
bendan • halne, wither (as a leaf, 

ben - diianga (see due), ladder for 

poultry to enter hut, also bridge, 

bendUn - bala ; beudun-hata, awake 

(v.t.) arouse, rouse. 
hen-em, iron nail (large), bolt (iron). 

heneni-ofiihan, wooden wedge (for 
splitting logs for planks, ^c). 

heneua'riie, out-rigger pegs. 
benem-she, ike fourth of the memorial 

feasts, and takes place 18 months or 

more after a death. 
htnet (see het), chisel. 
henema-riie, out-rigger pegs (App. B", 

item 2) (see due, and henem). 
hen-feama, ladder for dogs and pigs to 

enter hut. 

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heiifep (see hafep), whistle (tcith the 
Ups) («.). 

heofuata (see hafnat), glags measure. 

heu-fuha, armlet (for upper ann). 

henf wat, dug-out boat made on the eoatt 
of Burma wad Siam (several of these 
have drifted across in easterly galea). 

heng, sun, day. 

heng-dlawn, next day. 

— -du-koi, umbrella. 

— — hifua, awning (boat-). 

" -heng, daily. 

— -heii, when (while), during. 

imat-enhshe, about 5 p.m. 1 

-ka-, ab'iut 5.30 o.m, >«eeyat. 

mitua, about i.30 p.m. } 

— -komato (see kiLto), holiday. 

leaknga-chakft, unclouded day. 

(a-dain-oal, sun-glare. 

chnng-ai(ch)-oa,l-heng, sunlight. 
dain-heng, sunbeam, sUTishine. 
dao^kla-lieng, sunriee. 
h&h-heng-de, bask in the run. 
k&m-lieng, noon, st 
Ifl-lkala-heng, foren 
Id-hanga-heng, afternoon. 
shadialiai-heng, early portion of after- 

shap-hesg, sunset. 

ydl-beng, all day, the whole day. 

hen-hala (see en-hen). 

heD-hang, ginger. 

hentftl-oyan, ochrea of coconut (i.e. the 
fibrous sheath enveloping the leaf- 

— -tewila, Cycas paste strainer (App. 
N, item 47). 

hen-h&ntd, lay vp in store, reserve food. 
hen-hel (see ha-hel), flageolet (App. 

IS, item ?4). 
hen-liRii (see ha-hen), hmked pole for 

gathering fruit (App. N, item 124). 
henhet - toak (see hanhet), toddy 

strainer (App. N, item 46), 

— -ngfti(cli), oil strainer (App. N, 
item 46). 

kaa, perforated coconut shell ladle 

for serving boiled meat, vegetables, Sfc. 
(App. N, item 39). 

hen-Tieat (see teat), hooied pole for 

raising fish-trap, &'c. (see App. N, 

itema 125 and 126). 
heii-heu,_^A trap (App. K", item 94). 
ben-hota (see ha-hot), slow match (of 

slit coconut Bpathe) (see App. N, item 

hen-ho-lare, rebound (v.i.). 
hen-hwava, the act of mourning, tabu. 
liwava-kanoishe, light mourning, 

lasting about 3 months. 
-dide, long mourning, lasting till 

the close of the memorial feasts, 2, 3, 

or more years after the death. 

ban-hw&(-a, mourn (v.). 

meu-hw&vft ; paiyuh-ta-lieiihw&Ta, 

chuk-j-6m-henhw4va, tabu'd planta- 

hen - kal - ngaebe (see hakalngashi), 

sexual love. 
heiikaa, backbone, spins, ridge of roof, 
ok-heiikaa, keel. 
oal-henkaa, bottom (inside) of a boat, 

henkiLp-chaiig-pak (see kap), armlet 
(for upper arm), 

koil, bracelet, wristlet. 

Ikh, anklet, also fetters. 

— -oal-knlala, silver bar necklate. 

henkian (see hakian), telescope. 

henrk6ana-oal, set or nest of boxes, SfC. 

hen-koftt, large stinging species of fly. 

hen-kok (see hakok), cannon. 
&nha-oal-henkok, cannon-baXl. 
ch6ng-henkok, man-of-war. 

hen-kom (see kom), settlements of cloth, 
jewellery, S^c, demanded by father-in- 
law frorn. bridegroom for bride before 

hen-kou, scar, cicatrix (large). 

hen-kong-hala (v.i.), turn one's self in 
sleep (see konga). 

hen-konsha-diie (see h^koflah), jiort- 

hen-koya, hair of the head. 
hen-laiidla (see det (inii lialerHdla), 


pftn&ma^henlaridla, tiller. 
heuJaka-chang-pak, shoulder joint. 




lieolflni-heinga, lay out a corpse. 
hen-l&ma, gpoiit uf kettle, Sfc. 
hen-lifca, tracks of crocodile, snake, 

iguana, ^c, also rut (of dragged logs 

or canoe, or of wheel). 
henleanga, provisions for a jovirney. 
henlen-ngashe, labour, worli, also UBeful. 

hat-lienlen-ngasHe, useless. 
henloaha, hole in hut jloiir for con- 
venience of inmates (see kehciah). 
henlowa, ocean. 

oal-henlowa, blue (in reference to 
colour of the sea). 
hen-16na ; ]ien-la,n&, part of hut floor at 

aide of entrance. 
ten-loan- koi, brush the hair. 
Ii6niai-cliak&-kaa, analjin. 
tenlain (see lain), spinning top, wheel, 

machinery, engine (App. N, items 

139 and 110), 
henlain - danuan, paddle - wheel of 

iohih, setving-machij 

chdnp-henlaio, steanu 

— -diiana-dit-lft, scr 

— — — -f ip, paddle-steamer. 

chia-chata-henlain (see chia). 
henmAna, boy or girl a few months old, 

also crawl (of an infant). 
henmai, light raft with coconut-leaf 

sails for cmveying owoi/ evil spirits 

captured by the shamtans (see App. 

N, item 14i6). 
lien-m6i(j)-koi (see mayai(j) ) coconut 

oil for the head made by squeezing 

rasped kernel in the hands. 
Snha, coconut oil for the body 

■made by squeezing rasped kernel in 

the hands. 

han-in6i(i).hata, apply oU of above 
kind to the head or body. 
hen-nfing-ngaslie (see ning-nga), 

mark, sign. 
hen-nang-nga-shi, henceforth. 
hen-nela-heng, sun-rtsn. 
hen-neni-oal-kShe, waxing moon. 
lien-ngS, (see ta-ngfi), coconut-oil or 

chewed kopra spat from the mouth in 

calm shallow watvr to facilitate fish- 


Iien-ng6k-niafctai ; hen-ngfik-Iwi, (see 
ha-ng6k-mattai), propitiatory offer- 
ing to the spirits. 

hen-ngai(j)-k6i (see ngai{j) ), coconut 
oil for the head (made by boiling the 

iinha, coconut oil for the body 

(m,ade by boiling the paste). 
h&h-nga,i(j)-\ia,ta,, applying the above 
oil to the head or body. 

hen-niwa, crab-hole (large), also sheath, 

hen-noanno (see io&n), four fathoms. 

hen-noat (see heupoan), fibre obtained 
from the (?) Melochia velutina (aee 
App. N, item 135). 

hen-noiya (see hoi) , farther, beyond. 

hennoiya-ka', furthest. 

pai(oh)-lieiin6iva, no(»o/ctr, leas fa 
N, item 

hen-ny&t, pig-pen (portable) 


hen oal-dan^plah, sock, stocking. 

hen-okla, win in a fight. 

hen-ota (see baola), instead of. 

ol-nga-shi, compensate fpr damage 

done, pay forfeit or fine. 
henpak-.neai(ch), cooking-pot (App. N, 

item 101). 
hen-pang-liashe (see pang), sinh (v.t.). 
hen-poan, Melochia velutina, the small 

tree which furnishes the wood used 

for fire sticks, (kentain), and the fibre 

(kennoai, q.v.). 
hen pok-hashe (see poak),drrTicM (v.t.). 
hen-pual (see ha-pual), slip-knot, noose 

for snaring birds, mesh (of net). 
hen.sh4(k)-Dgatd (see 8ha(k) ), amuse- 

hen-eha(k)ngat6-kenyiim, toy. 

hen-fihat (see hashfLta), heir, successor. 

'kke,for, in the place of. 

hen-shian (see shian), by chance (of 
meeting, finding, ^c). 

hen-shlan-hata, ^niJ casually. 

hen-ahiap, propitiatory offering consist- 
ing of scraps of food, ^c, placed on 
a bamboo stick in the sand in various 
parts of the village to appease the 

hen-shan, camphor, scent, p^fume.- 

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hen-t&ha, outrigger of canoe. 

heaikp, lung. 

henta ; heata-koi ; henta-ta-oinyft, 
paintingg on wooden or spatke screens 
and fwerf a* charms or fetishes to 
scare away the evil-spirits and gratify 
the good spirits (App. N, items 152, 
153 and 154). 

henta- karesQ (see kareau). 

hen-teak-nirayaa (see teak), sleepy. 

hen-teha (see hateha), sail (s.) 

henteha-dai-oyan, a trimmed coco- 
nut-leaf sail (App. N", item 5). 
hentelia-hiliia-ok, mat- sail, 
ch6Dg-hetiteh.a, sailing ship. 
henteha-kSa, dorsal fin of large fish, 
e.g., shark, as it appears above the 
surface as a sail. 

hentoaja, interpret. 

h.enton-cliak&, target, mark. 

hentona (see baton), foot or yard- 

hentop, antler, horn. 

hen-tdk-nga (see tdk), hreak a rope, 

lientdl (see hatfll), prop, support. 
hen-bain (see tain), basket {large and 

coarse) for vegetables, |"o, (see App. 

N, item 82). 

heotain-koi-penlala, basket filled with 
property of a deceased, placed at 
head cf grave (App. N, item 169). 

ma-hentainya, haske^ul. 
hen-toiah-nga (see toish), break a rope, 

cane, ^., {".t). 
hea-wal-!ie-mat-chiia, the third of the 

rnemorial feasts and takes place 18 

•months or more after a death. 
henwan (see wB,^'),pSTitoneum. 
henwe ; hinwe, banner, flag (App. N, 

item 158). 

hft-weya,^i/ a flag, decorate withfiags. 
heo-wiya (see wial), eddy, whirlpool. 
heQw61-8hit6, balance, remainder. 
hen wain, coeonut'shell toddAj-tapping- 

pot (App. N, item 34). 
hen-yak-chaki-damian (see dlan), goal, 

finishing post in race. 
henyan (see enyan-haahe) coconuts 

lowered by means of rope or cans. 

henyan, mangrove (RhvK/phora mucro- 

henyang, savage, fierce. 
hen-y&h-ngaahe (see ;f^-ngashe), love 

(of relatives and friends'). 
heny&ng, oyster (Ostrea eduUs). 
hen-y&tig-ning (gee ;&ng, nang), clock, 

hen-yi-keam, frame. 
heo-yong-hata («es yang-taro), pursue, 

hen-ydl-ta-ahi, add. 
he-nyoik-lare, draui a deep breath. 
hen-yuan, hill. 

hen-yuan -ta-chong-koi, mountain. 
hen-yuava (see jua), breakers on rocky 

henyiiilh, wagis, prize, reward. 

hai-yuah-hata, hire, pay, wages. 

hen- yuah- Lata, earn money. 
he-nyiika, ffwat; ar/iall mosquito. 
hen-yfli-she (see hai-yiii), decoy (s.). 
hen-yui-nga-ehi, picture. 

— — — heng ; hen - yui - ngn- 

e,hi-khhe,paintings on boards reprr- 
senting the sun and moon respec- 
tively, used as charms or fetish: s 
(App, N, items 155 and 156). 

hen. we (dual), our (dual). 

ta-heii, our (dual). 

chang-heh, our own (dn&l). 
hen, tim£, when (at the time that (rel.)), 

at the sa/me time (correl.). 

hefi-ehamiih (see chiih), time toretum 

chua, when, at what time (w(w- 

damak (aee dak),(Ae/u(«re (ii'jfte). 

— -hat-kalaiyan, leisure. 

— -hatdm, night-time. 
heng, day-time. 

k6an, childhood, early life, youth. 

mekonga, (tme to rise (after 

— -miteak, time to sleep, bed-time. 

— -momaiyi, time for taking a betel- 

mokngdk, (ime to eoi,dmner-iMtt?, 

about 7.30 y.m. 
kft', about 8 p.m. 



liBn-inokng6k-chiyitn, ahoutQp.m. 

n&-dt, be in seas(m (of fruits, ^c). 

Lefire-kenyum, childhood, early life, 

— -wi-teyah, recently made (or 

heng-hefi, lohen (while'). 

leat-hefi, the past (time). 

lin-hen, to-day, now, present time. 

ong-heh. ancient, once upon a time. 

yuang-hamen, still (till now). 
hcnk-ue, complain. 
heiila-faBh-heoe, »moke-f-unnel. 
heoe, fire. 

heoe-ompen-tet-Bhe, smoulder. 

ch6ng-he6e, steamer. 

d&k-heoe, kerosene (or any other 
mineral) oU. 

enyuan-heoe, feed afire, put on fuel. 

liannoi-heoe, bellows. 

hin-oe-hata, dry by ea^omre to fire 


keoyan, hot from exercise or excesi of 
clothing, sultry. 

6mt6m-hai-ehak&-he6e, feed a Jire 
with fuel. 

wi-heoe, strike a light. 

eoa, firewood logs as collected arid 
before being cut up. 
heol, leech. 
Itenli-fLnha (see hoih-^iilia), air. 

haasb, breeze. 

bin-he (or heaHt)-hala, dry by 
exposure to wind (v.). 
het,plur, o/hat, g.v., not. 
het (see heat), thorn, 
het-n&t, thorn of the Calamns (? Bo- 
het-hata, cut with a chisel. 

henet, chisel. 
het-chid, ant (small black hind). 
het-hota (see ^t-h.oi), smelling 'SaltB. 
het-kdnata, stye on the eyelid. 
hotl&t, bracelet of any kind. 

— -henkap-lih ; hetl6t-lah, anklet. 

— -ka", silver ornaments (personal). 
ta-shiwa, armlet, bracelet (of 

coiled wire). 

chn^ka', armlet, bracelet (of 

coiled wire), but of pure silver. 

hetl6t-ta-ahi-wa-ta-lilh, anklet of coiled 

— -tanga, electro or German silver 

Jiap. necklace of coiled wire. 

het-mat-miit, a kind of altar erected in 
hut at the " lanedtla "feast on which 
silver and other ornaments are rfis- 
played while the exhumed skulls are 
held in mummer's laps in front of 
the same. 

het-aoang, numerical co-efficient em- 
ployed with ni-u&n, when used fo 
denote a short period of titne (sre 
" Grammar," Sec. X, p. xlvi), 

hetpSt, wooden grating fixed in pot 
when boiling vegetables, ^. (App. 
N, item 108). 

hetpftt-ok-not (or hille-ok-not, 5.*.), 
oval shaped basket for carrying pig 
(App. N, item 84). 

het-toit ; het-toi(ch), Oneium gnemon, 
of the fibre of which their harpoon 
wWs,4^.,arem.a(fe(App.N, item 134). 

hetwid, Trida/yna squamosa. 

het-y6i((;h), wretched, miserable. 

het-ai(ch), rust. 

het-ai(ch)-o, corrode. 

hewih, term, of endearment on the part 
of elderly persons towards children. 

hewih - eokoina, grandson, grand- 

— -enkina, grand-daughter, grand- 

koan-hewih, great grandekHd. 
heye (see iye), dear, esteemed, beloved. 
heaiah-hanga, clear jungle or wider- 
growth (v.i,). 

leat-heaieh, aclea/ring in the jungle. 
he ; hen (j.c.), tiTne. 

he-chua, when, at what time (inter- 


— -hatom, night-tims. 

heng, day-time. 

tai, time (in musicand dancing). 

haru-he, some other time. 

hoifi-he, in the meantime. 

kalak-he, sometimes. 

inan&(k)-nga-t6-he, never more. 

ong-he, ancient, in days of old. 



he, we, oar (of three or more). 

chang-hS, owr ov^ (ofthreeor mare). 

ta-he, oiir {of threeor more). 
heang, on^. 
heattg-ashe, lavie, similar, alike. 

ayan, equal. 

e, same (in congtr.) (eee Ex. at 

" Seight," "Size," and in followiTig 

— -e-chnk, among, amidgt. 

— -e-chia-t'enkana, half-brother (or 
gister) (uterifie) (App. L). 

— ■i'eiik6mB,,half-brother(orgitler), 

(consanguine) (App. L). 

— -e-diiat, square. 

— -e-uge, together (in concert), with 

— -e-t6, agree in opinion (with, SfV..). 

— -e-tai, ae well as, not less than. 

— -teang, singly, one by one, one after 

kamoala, half fathom (about 2| 

konga-fika, half-cock (of a gvn). 

— -kola, once (ipith reference to ascend- 

kota, once (with reference to coming 

or going). 

— -koto, once (with reference to 

-tai, on^e (with reference to 

making, beating, ^c). 
koahe, once (with reference to 


— -laire, whole of contents (whensound). 
~— -]&, half-moon (waxing), first quar- 

— -molkftnl-kaiyi, midway, half-way. 

— — -posh, half-full. 

— -ngare, whole of contents (when 
damaged or bad), also along. 

— -ahe, firet (of day of month, or 

■ she-k&he, new moon. 

— -she-h6, then, imm^ediaiely. 
shidiiiia, immediately, at once. 

— -flhnii, once (with reference to coming, 
going, beating, ^c). 

— -ta-menmol (see torn), assemble, col- 

hCtmg-tai'e, one more, other, additional. 
shna, owie more. 

hemeatig, mily one. 

yuang; hemeang-de (or-tat), 

alone (i.e. only one person). 

ki-heang, each. 

y6ta - heangashe, like the same 
(corral.) (App. B). 
heat; het, thorn. 

heat-kia; heat-nga; heat ta, hook 
a fish. 

het-D&t, iAom of the Calamus «p. 
(ground rattan). 

cha-heat-t6h, caught by a thorn. 

ha-heat, hook up a Jish-lrap, bucket, 

hanet-dak, zinc bucket. 

hen-heat, hooked-pole for raising 
bucket, fish-trap, ^e. (see App. N, 
items 125-6). 
heh-haoga,^!/ (v.). 

heh-nga, _i?^ away, 

ke-heh, fly (of more than one bird or 
iiBO, flood tide (see App. F). 
hfia, gee, distinguish, discover. 

mohlwa, long-sighted person. 
hibbu, plaintain fruit. 
hibo (also hipo), slippery from mud or 

other cause (e.g., a coconut-tree for 

climiiing after a shower). 
hibu^, dugong (Halicore indicus). 
hichih, Areca spathes stitched together 

to form screen when eaposed to rain 

(App.N, item 50). 
hida-kahik-t^re, never mind, no matter. 
hilua, boat. 

heng-du-koi-hifua, awning of boat. 

hiota-hitua, ballast of boat. 

kola-hifua, jetty. 

manoin-hifua, gunwale of boat. 
hif aih ; hifaish, hoe (s.) (App. S, item 

hikai, saliva, spittle, edible bird's nest. 
hik-ke, Pandanus odorafissim,us. 
hi-koifish, wound., sore. 
hilaya, neap tide. 
hileang, thirsty. 
hille (see m and pitlanh), oblong ot- 





hillfi-ok.not (or hetpil-ok-not), oval- 
shaped open basket for carrying pig 
(App. N, item 84). 

hiliia, Orania (or ? Bentinekta') Nico- 

hiliia-ok, bed, bedding {consisting of 
spafke of above palm) . 

IdaD-hiliia, spathe of above palm. 
liiminga (see mil-ngare), bequeath. 

himinga-D&ng, caution («.), advice. 
himol-she, feUow-travellers. 
himSe, recently married (of either the 

hinahngd-tSichya, favourite, popular. 
hin-chan, distribute food ^ 
hiadel, fowling-piece, rijie. 

chnk (or 5i)-hinde\, gun-ease; 

haril-liata, shuot anything with a gun. 

karaa-hiiidel, gun-barrel. 

kep-hindel, gun-cap. 

moali-hmdel, muazle of gun. 
hineat, wooden scoop UDed far baling, 

(App. S", item 9). 
hing-ftp, gape, yawn («.). 

hing-ip-lare, gape, yawn (v:). 
hi-ngbak, snore. 
hinl4k ; hinwenh, harpoon (iee App. 

K", item 22). 
hinle, nu-meral affix used with reference 

to single bamboos, joints of lime. 
hinlflha, hold of ship. 
hinong, skirt of split coconut leaf as 

worn by women at Ghowra, Teressa, 

and Bompoka islands only (see App. 

N, item 48). 
hinop, caul. 
hinop-ok-m&t (see mat), Zotcar eye- 

hi-nfla, man or leoman who disagree 
and separate after being married a 
short time. 

hi-n6at-Da-oaI-kilhe, wane (of the 

hindla-enko'fla, wife's (or husband's) 

— -enkfLna, wife's (or husband's) sister- 

hinta-chang, ballast of ship. 

— -hifua, ballast of boat. 
hin-topi «pZee«. 

hinaik-lare, breathe. 
hinwenh; hinlik (q.v.): 
hiiiwe (see henwe),j?aj, pennon. 
hiufuan, wooden spear as used by ilia 

inland tribe of Great Nicobar (App. 

N, item 27). 
hi-nyiika, sand-fty. 
hipo (see hibo). 
hish^-kaa (see isha), fish-scale, also 

two-anna piece (silver). 
• — ■ -lakoa, tiDO-anna piece (silver). 
hi-shoya (see isho), coconut shell water 

vessel (see App. S, item 33). 
hiahoi (see ielioi), cocon-ut seedling 

(App. I), 
hiteak-hata; hiteak-ehe, (see iteak), 

marry (said of either seai). 

leat-hiteako, bride, bridegroom, 
hitoi, fire-place, hearth. 
hiya; (yiiang-liiya), 6e(ei-5H((. 

chia'hiya^ betel-nut tree (A. catechu). 

lanoh-hiya ; shanok-hiya, betel-nut 

Idah-hiya, betel-nut epathe. 
hlan-taslie, there it is ! 
bida, hiccough. 
ho-ang (see oag-&Dg), grid for broiling 

fish or meat. 
hoarlk-la-foah, smother, suffocate (v.t.). 
hoa, abundance, plenty, many, very. 

hoa-koii p(^ulous. 

— -ka", champion, warrior. 
ho3.1i-iiga, perish by hunger) starve. 

hoilinga-tai, starve (v.t.). 
hotug, sweat (s.), perspiration. 

l^k-hoatig, perspire. 
lio&&-nga, too, more than enough. 

ho^nga-denml, too small (in sine). 

denmishe, too small (in quaintiiy). 

— -denmiiat, too short. 

— -di, too big, enonnous site. 

di-yuang, too thick. 

di§he, too much. 

diiat, too long. 

diia-hanga-yan, too late. 

enddlingaalie, too -much, too many, 

— -enlainneshe, too soon. 
penloa, too thin. 

she, too much, excessive quantity. 

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ha4fi[iga-winneb.tai8he, too few. 
hoftnk-ngftfi, reprove, tcold. 
ho-chia, term of endearment on the part 

of youths and young married pertoni 

towards elders. 
lio-cliia-enk6ifia, imcle. 
lio-cliia-enk4iia, (see chia), aunt. 
hoeDsh, breathless. 
huk-chok, fine basket a« made at Great 

NicoboT for betel-chewing materiah 

(App. N, item 80). 
hok-fiika, r^e and fallem fruit. 
hok-hak, ravine. 
hokmak, black wo/rt. 
hok-ng&ka-k&he, fuU-moon. 
hok-ngflk (see ok-ngdk), food, victuaU, 

hokngdk-a-iwi, propitiatory saorijice 
to the spirits by daughterihg a pig 
or fowl. 

to-hatom, evpper, late dinfier. 

ta^hoana., poison («. ). 

wi-hokng6k-tailioawa, poison (e.), 

yanuh^hokngfik, broken victuals. 
hokpSk, wooden pronged spear for gar- 
fish (App. N, item 25). - 
hokai (see okai). 
holfLh-cHaka, guzzle. 
liolfkh-hatshe ; holah-tai, guiehh/, Hme 

flies ! look sharp ! he quick ! 
holMt-tfti, smart (adj.'), hurry, work 

holiaA, girl of vlarriageabU age. 

ho^^-ka', spinster, virgin. 

machn, young widow (App. K). 

mamiino, girl shortly before 

attaitiitlg puberty. 

wihla, girl shortly after attaining 

holnwa; l&haromrt-Iiolowrl, bees'-tcax 

(black kind). 

dakmat-Iiolowa, black horley. 

ni-hol6wa, black honey-cornh. 

shei-holowa, black honey-bee. 
holpSl, weed, any useless plant. 

olpil-tianga, weed (y.t.). 
hol-slioSil, tray, pig-trough (App. H, 

it«ia 112). 
holt41-nga, aider, command. 
oal-D&ng, obey, obedient. 

holyol (see ol-y51a), speech, remark («.). 

hom-dal-lare, rebound (v.t.). 

bomddli .... homddh {see haddh), 

either (conj.} . ... or. 

homd6h.-paiyuh, somebody, someone. 
homdnl-sliire, deep (of sea or well). 

nia-hol-dnla, depth (of sea or well). 

hendol, sounding lead. 
homfang, dJiturb, agitate. 
homkw6m-kata (see kw6m), give, 

bestow, make a present. 

}ioinkw6m-haiiga, spend money. 

henyimi, pay for service dotte, 

pay wages. 

— -nga-lah, send any ammal or in' 
anitnate object. 

nga-ahlj spare (^art with wil- 

~ -Bhi, offer (v.). 

ta,-kdaLU-de-'k&a,givein marriage. 

ta-yai, pay for piirchases. 

tanealshe, reward (v.). 

homkwom ; omkwom, present, gift. 
hom-lem, prepared paste of the Gycas 

fruit as eaten with coconut-paste. 

-w6n, gum of eertiiin trees. 

hom-m&k-n^she, defile, maikefoul. 
hommiii-liashe, soak cloth as in wash- 
ing (see omi). i 
homnga-hala, right (recover position) 

with reference to a capsized canoe, ^v. i 

hoTaj\Q\, friend (intimate). 

mohom-TiftlBlie, chum («.). ' 

honmyul-hanga, ripen. 
homp6-ngai-e, stop, stay. 
hom-slioh-tare, pass, spend time. 
homtuah-hata, borrow. 
honmh, hump-back. 
homwal-tare (see wolto), then (in that 

homwal-hata, maim (v.t.). 
homyalita, iron spear-like object valued 

as ornament (App. N, item 141). 
hom-yuam, _/ine (not coarse). i 

hom-yuam, trinvmed Areca spathe (see • 

App. N, it«m 60). I 

hom-yui-alii ; hom-yiii-nga-slii («ee 

hai-yiii), sketch, draw, paint (v.), 

Wm-yiii-nga-nge, Tiuiok. 




homai-hanga (tee raai), soften (v.t.). 
hong-ftng (tee ong-Sjig), boiled (of 
por]t,S^.), e.g.,iiot-iiong-kag (boiled 

dik-hong-ing, broth. 
liong-inga, succeed, effect one's object. 
hoDg-hflng.aiii, barnacle. 
hong-heiiag (see ong-Jing), lavd, drip- 
ping, grease. 
hong-king, bird's nest. 
hong-longft, earthquake. 
hong-noanga (see uoangB.), cylindrical. 
hong-tang-iaji, web-footed. 

nftngi unbared lobe of ear. 

ho-oah, phlegm. 
hooah-aM, ad/mire. 
boptep, chest, large box. 

mohoptepa, contents of a chest. 
hori (see ori), anything killed or mur- 
hoshoawa-td, forgive, pardori. 
ho-Bhw&h, conflagration. 
hoto-kamap^, peculiar hdt placed on 

disinterred female skulls at ■memorial 

feast (App. N, item 149), 
h6a,^oi«on. (g.). 

ha-hoa-hanga, ptnson amother (v.). 
hoang, howl (of a dog). 
h.OB,Jig-kn\, barnacle. 
lioli, large coconut-shell pot for holding 

toddy, sheU-fish, Sfc. (App. N, item 

hoih-anha; hesh-aiilia, air. 

hoih-liat, current of air, draught. 

&-Iieh-Dire, take an airing. 

tiah-haiae, sigh. 

hafish., icind. 

hah-ngamat, visible (lit. air-colowr). 

hoah-hata, blow (as the windy. 
hOsh, draught, current of air. 

hosh-liata, blow (as the wind). 
Iiomtom (see 6mt6iii), mound. 
honp, dip (as when bathing). 

han-h6np-h.ash.e, put on a hat. 

ten-honp-shire, dive head-foremost 
(as from a height of, say, over- 8 feet). 
Ii6nclia, wise, sensible, reasonable, 
hoah-hanga, swim on one's back. 
hoak, kernel of a sprouting coconut. 
h'6i,far, distant. 

hoi-chata, longjamp, leap forwards. 
chuaka, stride (v.). 

— -liata, swing (v.i.). 

— -l&h, leave on a distant voyage. 

— -ehilah, long jump, leap forwards. 
chaog-kak^hoiya, horizon. 
d&k-oal-katahoiya, Mit^y way. 
heaaoijA, farther, beyond. 

— - -ka", farthest. 
kalahoiya, sky, heaven. 
keam-kalahoiya, horizon. 
kom-hoi-ngare, be off! 

hol-hare ; hol-lare ; hol-ngare ; hol- 
shire ; hol-nire ; hol-lare, retire, re- 
treat (eastwaTds,northwards, &'c.) (see 
App. BO). 

hol-Bgare, indke way by stepping back- 

hot-chakfk, decr^t. 

hot-hata; sUhat-haXs,, smell (y.t.). 
het-hota, smelling salts. 

hou, howl (of the wind). 

hnr^ha, storm, squall. 

hnja, egg. 

huja-wahft, addled egg. 
henchain-huya, boiled white of egg. 
tSh aroma-hay a, yolk of egg. 
m6n.-hiiya, albumen (raw white) tf 

ok-haya, egg-shell. 
hnyfln, raw, uncooked. 
haj6ie, intoiyicated, drunk. 

ma-huyoie; henyoiya, drunkard. 

ta-huyoie-tai, /enroewfed (see toak), 

yfl-huyoie, intemperate. 

tai, intoxicating, heady. 

hayi, iguana. 

I^^"^!"*"' } e^lai,, point ^1. 

chanai(j), teach a language. 

tai, teach any handicraft. 

ngashe, plan, arrange. 

— -ta-mat, point to, point out. 

chakiUpaiyuh, pilot. 

hai-chiap-hata (see opchiap), put on 

the cloth skirt. 
hai- chin- ngashe, mischievous. 
haichn&l, feast when banishing evil 

spirits, and b^ore occupying a tiew 


D 2 




haichiing-ngayan, pilfer. 
hftinak-liaifie, lengthen a rope, ^c. 
hainat-fil, decorate a hut (as on a 


hennat-nl, coconut-leaf decorations 
at " laneatla " festival. 
haine, verbal svffix in reference to the 
. landing-place (see App. B(")). 
hai-nfl (see nfl), wet-nwrse. 

h.ata, suckle. 

hai-noat, decorate a hut at festivals. 
bai-shonk-ngat^, tease. 
haishot, choice. 

Iiaish5t- hata, choose. 
liai-sliol ; haAshol, frighten, terrify . 

haishol-nga-shi, threaten. 
haishai-i-t8re, ramble, wander. 
haiyan, sport, hunting. 
■ haiyan-hanga, disperse («.(.). 
haiyat-Lala, hoist a flag, ^c: 
haiyah, handle of spear, shaft, haft. 

)a-dit-haiy^; Itandle end of spear. 
liaiye, saltish, brachish. 
haiyola, adulterate. 

haiyot ; hanyot; turn sour (of any 
■ fluid), decompose {of Fandanus or 

Cycas paste). 
Laiyuawa, claims 
hai-yuah-liata, (see Henyuiih), hire, 

pay wages. 
haiyuin-heoe, kindle a fwe, set fire to', 

— -Lata, light a cheroot, 4*c; 
haiyiian, sport, hunting. 

haiyiian-hanga, scar i, frighten nway. 
nga-lfLh, chase, drive away. 

bai-yiii-slie, deeoy. 

hai-yiii-nga-n&ng, deceive. 
— — -ngayan, untrustworthy. 
hen-yiii-alie, decoy (s.). 

— nga-shi, jncture. 

-heng ; hen-yiii-nga- 

ahi-kilie, paintings oncircular hoards 
representing the sun and meon, re- 
spectively, are used as charms or 
fetishes (App. N, items 155 and 166). 
hom-jui-shi, ccpy, imitate. 

-nga-slii, sketch, draw, paint 

(v.), copy. 

haash. (see hesh, hoih, and h&nsh), 

h6ii(i), feast after dragging a large 
-sheU over a portage to coast for 

-Lata, transport overland, especially 
over portages. 
— -haine, launch (v.t.). 

hala; beach a canoe (or boat). 

hbih, soul (seat of life), pulse, pulsa- 

hoiii-dok, throb, palpitate. 

— -he, in the meantime. 

— -haifie, pulsate. ' 

— -la-yan, pant, gasp, breathlens. 
matlai, harbour, port. 

taahe, when, while (rel.), at such 

— -yo, on that side. 

iche, wooden, • 

r bamboo cylinder 

oe,hria.t-iciie, facet at anterior end of 
cylinder in ear-lobe (App. N, item 
ichih-hata; chamih-lfte, sew cloth, 

stitch, repair clothing. 

chatuh-lde, needle. 

chaniha, seam (in clothing). 

chilia, sewn. 

ichye, fine iehite caHe (obtainable at 

Cheat Nicobar oidy) . 
idaha ; irSlia, sharpen a bla/le. 

daha-kaneiilde, iohet the tusks (of a 

danftha, whetstone. 
ido-hala ; ido-hanga; ido-hahat; ido- 
haslie ; ido-haiue ; ido-hata, convey 
overland (in various senses) see 




ido-d£lk, carry water in cocowut- shell 

Kfenails cm a pole over the shoulder. 

dan6ya-dak, pole -used for above pur- 

hendoya, sticks beside hui-fire on 
which the " hishoja " are sus- 
id6ya, collar hone, clavicle. 
idn-hare (see do), shpe (*.). 
iia-hare, lean, rest against {of an 
animate objecf). 
iffth-hanga, rub off dirt. 
ii&h-ngamat, brush cloth. 

nga-l&h, brush one's feet vnth 

Pandanus drupe brush. 

— -oal-Bi, sweep a floor, waUs, ^c. 
fannfth-koi, hair-brush. 

lAh, foot-brush of Pandanus 

drupe (App. N, item 63). 

mat ; hannfth-mat, cloth-brush. 

hannah-l&h, foot-hrmh of Pandanus 
drupe (see above}, 

— -oal-ni, broom for hut-floor (App. 
N, item 93). 

itish-hanga, dress (hack or trim) with 

axe or dhi. 

ifaiBh-dit-larora (g.v.). 
if e, you, your (of three or more) . 

ifet (abbrev.foriie-het),you (all)-not. 

chang-ife, your own. 

ta-ife, your (of three or more). 
ifua (see fiia), blow urith the breath. 

ifiia-banga, blow out, extinguish. 

hannoa-teoe, blow pipe for fanning 

_ fire (App N, item 68). 
ifui (see ifiia and fiia), /aw (v.). 

ifui-heoe, fan aflame. 

han-nqi, fan, punkah. 

kenf win-ftnha, punkah. 

ken-fan i, /a« one's self. 
ifai-tat, chip of wood. 
if aisli - dit - larom (see ifSsh), cut off 

prickly crown of Pandanus drupe pre- 

paratory to extracting the pulp. 
ifaiah-haiiie, cut off top of young coconut 

for drinking its water. 
ihe, vein, muscle, sinew, gristle. 

— -ISh, tendon Achilles. 

— -Ide, thread (cotton). 
oiig-diiig-ibe-16e (see ong-ding), 

pick out threads from cloth for 
threading needle. 
ihesh, TtiucuB. 

ii (see iwa), place in one's lap. 
ii, fibre obtained from the AnodeTidrum 

paniculatum (App. N, item 137). 

— -dai-shuru, pineapple leaf fibre 
(App. K, item 138). 
ikit-kanaiya (see kanaija and ikoi), 

raise (Ae village poles (i.e., from. 

ground in order to fix in upright 

ik^ha, sing. 

kanoishe, song. 

momi-kjlsha, singer, 
iket, whale, cetacean, cachalot. 
ikoab.-haQga ; kanoah-ohakfl, shave. 

kanoah-koi, razor. 

ikoah-koi, shave the head. 

paiyub-ta-ikoah-koi, bobber. 
ikoi-kan&ma, erect a mast. 
kanaiya (see ikft), erect the village 

poles (see "kanaiya"), i.e.,fix in 

upright position. 
ila-hatshe, careless, negligent. 
ileh-long, die suddenly. 
iloha ; miloh (see mila^),/eas^,/estivaZ, 

il6-yant&, despise. 

ilii, gar-fish. 

iln; ilu-ka", bachelor (see App. K.). 

Tviiiia, lad shortly before attaining 

■ — -maclin, young widower. 
iliie, plover. 
ilai-hala; ilai-hashe ; ilai-hanga, carry 

upstairs, carry down, carry away. 
imfl-hanga, examine, scrutinise. 
im&nga (see m&ngare), hid farewell to 

corpse before rem^oval from, hut, or at 

— -ok, salutation to departing guest 

or visitor. 
im&ya, inv'te. 

paiyuh-ta-imaya, messetiger convey, 
ing invitation. 
irae, flexible. 

Ahlia. test, prove. 

imuang - menyuaii, shoot of hamhoo, 

pineapple, plantain, ^c. 




ina (also hen - kdm), settlementg of 
eloth, jewellery, Sfc., demanded by 
father- in -Iww from, bridegroom for 
pr&ietiU to bride b^ore Ttiarriage. 

inS, you, your (dual). 

initt (abhrev.foT ini-het), you (two)- 

chang-inS, your own [dual). 
ta-iiil, your (dual). 

ingiu-tarit ; infime, together, in com- 

"inashe-lfte, minor feaet held aiont l-t 
dayg after the three memorial feastt, 
"ka-fiait.fii-tai," "hen- wal-ne- 

mat-ell iia," om 

dan-hata (gee daiian), plane or icoop 

with an adze. 
ndan-hata (see dan), put on shore, 

land (c.t). 
Ddiian-lia; induanha (see due), go for 

ail outing in a eanoe. 

igfth, report («.). 

ha^e, slander, disparage, depre- 

haine ; ing&k-ta-n&ng, inform, 

ne-nfing, relate, describe, send 

.hi, confm. 

misgah-baine, netos. 
ingeh (the shell ok-ingeh), Trida^ma 

sguamasa, clam. 
iniwa, propitiatory sacrifice, or offering 

of cloth, ^., at burial of relative or 

inlkiibst, boy or girl nearly a year old, 

also crawl (of an infant). 
innat. ; innati-nga-elii, descendants. 
innelia (see nee), on this side. 
inbm-le-tai, together (in concert). 
in6m-Ia-t8, of same age as one's self. 
- — -ta-chak&, at the sam^ tim£ as. 


inda-atob ; inda-atfi, hov.r, time of day. 
inSat ; inn6at, knife, blade. 

k4hii-wap, clasp-knife. 

kiduma, blade of dhi. 

kirih ; in6at-ta-chaliDg, blade of 

sword or catloM. 

indat-shep, cutlass, straight sword. 

— -ta-hanroanga, sword-guard. 

— -toak, toddy (tari) -knife. 
chakfk-indat, edge of blade. 
fil-indat, scabbard. 

. shindftt-lianga, cut the throat of amy 

infila (sea olyola), mord, anecdote, say- 
ing, tale., story. 

iD&la.-OJigiieii,tradition,folk-loTe tale. 
hamiite-indla, secret. 

insliuan, extract pulp from Pandanus 

— -tat, Fandanus drupe after extrac- 
tion of pulp. 

inuam-oinlioiA, cigarette wrapper. 

lanom-omhdin, cigarette. 
inuaka-damuan (see diie), cargo. 
inuain, small imported iron axe used 

for scooping canoe-shell (App. N, 

item 170). 
dn, spaie (Hindustani pattern). 

en-woaina, scoop canoe-shell with 

iuih, bargain, sale, trade. 

— -hata, sell, deal. 
cLflng-Hiifilli, trading- ship. 
yan-nlh ; na-nih, merchoindise, pro- 
perty for sale. 

yfl ■ ■ ■ na-nih, for sale, amijthing 
raha (see idaha). 
ruai-hata, beckon to come. 
rnai-hanga, warn off, beckon away. 
rua-o-lAh, bandy-legged. 
ih& (see hish&), scrape off scales of a 
i-shah-hanga, uncover any object. 
ishian, dry (of firewood). 

— zchakk, cadaverous. 

hata, to be cooked ready for 

eating (of food). 
isho-hat^ (see aho), scoop out fruit of 

ripe coconut for food. 
— -hishoya, scoop out fruit of ripe 

coconut in order to make a water-pot, 


hishoya, coconut - shell water - pot 
(App. N, item 33). 
ishoi-haoga, put, place. 

.y Google 


ishdi-haslie, plant coconut seedling. 

hiahoi, coconut eeedling (App. 1). 
komyua, propitiatory sacrifice to 

the epirita hy placing a small young 

coconut and scraps of food, tobacco, 

^c, on fetish objects. 
iflhan, excrement, fasces. 

— -hanga, relieve the bowels. 

fie-w4, dysentery. 

ishu-h&la, bvm a hut. 
issfit, eeveii. 

misBat, only seven. 

en-shito, seven fathoms. 

men-sli4to, only seven fathoms. 
ita-hare, lay out a corpse. 
itaha, platforms under hut for firewood, 

pig-troughs, coconuts, Paaidanue, ^. 
ita, here. 

l^Dgixj-itik, hence {frorn here). 

ehom-it&, natives of the Oentr'al group 
of the Nicobar Islands (i.e., Nan- 
cowry, Camorta, Trinkut, and Kat- 
chal), lit., natives here. 
it&sha, third largest si^e cooking~pot 

(App. N, item 101). 
iteak, sfcep, asleep. 

iteakia, sleepy, drowsy. 

biteak-hata {or -she), marry {mid 
of either sex). 

leat-hiteak-o, bride, bridegroom. 

mihiteak-ahe, matri-mony, the mar- 
ried state. 

teak-Dgare, go to. sleep. 
iti-hala, laugh. 

Hi-oa,l-&iih&, chuckle. 
itOBh-hala, draw out, take oift. 
— -hanga, phtck a bird. 

haiue, extract a tltom or ^linter. 

itosha, cotton (the raw m,ateria}, being 

obtained by plucking'). 
itota {see tot), cost,pric^. 
itoa-ya, move (v.i.). 

Ira-toa, vibrate, loose (of post or nait) 

komam-toa, earthquake. 

komtiia-hanga, swing (v.t.). 

chuk-kentoiya, swing («.). 
itoe-dfik (see dak), bale water. 

tane-dik-diie, a coconut shell cup 
used for baling. 
itoh, (see toh), choose. 

mitoha - to - hokngfik - hare, dainty 
' (adj.). . 
itua, visit, go on a visit. 

mitua; mituaya-chakft, guest, visitor. 
itai-hanga ; itai-nga-tai (gee tai) 

snatch (v.). 
iwi^a,,fell, cut down. 
ij&h-hala (see jfli), unravel. 

hanga, imc^er one's shoulders, 

remove th^ skirt or loin~6loth. 
— rhaifie, untie, unloose, unknot, 
loosen cane qr cord lashings. 
iy&h-lSe-dit-de, nude, hare (of the 

iye-hata, frejjf (as when embracing a 
child, &v.) fondle, caress. 
heyS, belbved, dear. 
iyei, kind, affectionate. 
miyeya-k&n-de, wcorious. 
ySya, sniff («.), the " Malay kiss." 
imong, ripe. 
agfihin-chaki, conceited, vain. 
Lgol, half -ripe. 
'A (see ii), sit on the lap. 
lij spirits of the departed, ghost. 
iwi-mekiiya, spirits of deceased 

iwiTka' ; iwi-matfcai ; Iwi-menluana ; 

iwi-lniha, 3001! spirits. 
i^iTpot; iwi-puain; iwi-milfiya, &c., 
evil spirits (see Section on " Reli- 
gious beliefs" in Monograph), 

ka, prefia employed with certain terms 
denoting relationship when addressing 
intimate friends, the terms selected 
being in accordance with the relative 

ages of the speaker and person 
addressed, e.g., ka-chia ; ka-ehom ; 
ka-koan ; ka-tau ; ka-chan (see 
" Friend "). 




ka, w^, tehich, wTiat, that (rel.). 

— -ishi - mihoin - tashe, ichenever 

-BhlAD-tashe, wkengoever (rel.). 

ka-e, whatever {rel.). 
ka ; ki i kan (gee k&) what (interrog.} 
aleo lined at a particle of interrogation 
(e.g., ane diie me kan dah ? 
le that canoe there gours ?). 
ka-chin-ySwa ; how deep {lit. what 

I'a-miiat, how ghort (lit. what 


— -vi, how big (lit. what size) 

ri-fftp, how fat, aleo how wide (of 

ship, canoe, ^■). 
ri-tat-she ; ka-ii-tare-she, how 

m'ich (or fMiny) remain. 

— -ri-tik, how wide (of hut, plank, 

riiat, how long. 

ruat-td, how long (time). 

sh.1, what'g that, what's the matter. 

— -shi- penjuha, what kind, what 

— -tom-sliafi,, hm ■many times. 

— -tom-tare, how many vwre. 
[For further esampleB see " ki " and 

ka', Kery, indeed, purSf real, gwiuine, 


an-ka', the very aame. 

ai-ka', true. 

chua-ka', pare silver. 

chiia-ka', I myself. 
, hetldt-ka', pur« silver ornaments. 

lioIian-ka% virgin, gpimter. 

ompeiishe-kas eery small. 

shian-ka", truly. 
kabSi-clifti(j), the lunation in March — 

kachanga-koi, filt over, upset (f .t.). 

kachang-a-rit, fall baekwardg. 
kacha-pa-nang', wear (put on) ear-ring 

of coiled viire. 
'k&oh.k'pa,, fasten by meant of chain. 

kacMp-kacj-ut, hutton (v.). 

keocMp (q.v.). 

nang, ear-ririg of coiled wir'. 

ka«lie, rotten (of eggs, coconuts, ^-c). 

ka-chUia, land-crab (non-edible species}. 
kachok-liata, call pigs at feeding time 

when near. 

haifie, call pigs at feeding tim.e 

when out of eight 
kachtt&nla, curlew. 
kauhii-ainch, tree - shrew (Gladobates 

ka-chiiaala; ka-ctiiinga-l&h, hop (on 

ka-chau (see chtln) term of endearment 

towards a friend slightly senior to 

one's self. 
ka-den-hata, split cane (v.i.). 
kadu; kadu-ahe; kadu-iigashe; 

endiia; kcndua, &c., ka., see karu. 
ka-e (see ka) whatever (rel.). 

chu-ka-e, wherever (interrog.), 

whereabouts (interrog.'). 
kae-hanga, give (or part vnth) re- 

kaeap, centipede. 
kafen-hashe, ^ZZ (stuff) a pillow. 
— rhata,/eetZ dogs by hand. 
kaflat-hane;a, insert, put in. 
kahala, half-caste. 

and Teressa islands (App. S, item 

k4hen-ldaga, coconut nearly ripe (see 

App. I), 
kani-owa, prickly -heat. 
kahi-leat, exchange places, also take 

one's turn, as in puUing an oar, drink- 
ing out of sffiTwe glass, ^e. 
kahi-yiianga, measles. 
kaho-hata, call to a dog. 
kahok, Janthoenas pahimboides (pink- 
eyed imperial pigeon), 
fca-hai-shang-chakS, facing, opposite. 
ka-kat, have, possess. 
kakok-hata, chuckle (of a hen to her 

kala-chaina, grass-hopper. 
kalahei, braes-work. 
kalahoiya (see hoi), sky, heaven. 

keam.-kalahoija ; chang-kalahdiya, 

d&k-oal-kalahoija, Milky way (lit. 
river in the sky). 

.y Google 



kola-howa, black waep. 
kaUk-he, nous and then, ecm^timet. 

tat-kalak-he, regularly. 

kalilk-penkaiya, agiis, intermittent 

kalan-kata, hand over, bestow, give. 

kentanshl, gift, 'present. 
kala-naiya-oaj-n&ng, ear-wiw. 
kala-poya, spider {small spedee). 
kala-wana, (see wan), spider's web, cob- 

kalanii-liata (see fcenlafih), scoop with 

kalab-hata, wedgh, attempt, try. 
kaiah-lare, test jiavouT of. 

ta-yande, make an attempt. 

■ -jtm., perhaps. 

kenlah, weighing scales. 

-*'i°|Se } »«"•'••' 

i-yande, take care of one's self. 

kalflk'penkaiya (see kalak), ague, in- 

iermittent fever. 
kal4ka-mat, eheakered. 
kalflng, white-heUied sea-eagle (Oun- 

cvmia Iwicogaster). 
kalfkng-ok-ynak, a species of haiok. 
kale-t&k, the tongue. 

moah-kaletilk, tip of thp. tongue. 
kaling, foreign, foreigner, alien. 

— - to - mak - mftttai, surveyor (see 


kamalenga, foreigners of different 

mattai-kaling, /oret'jn country. 
paiyuh-kaling; Bhom-matfai-kaling; 
yuang-kaling, foreigner. 
kalipan, mythical animal having a 
back like a turtle, and supposed to 
live in the jungle at Kavehal Island. 
kalong-doanga, spider (large species'). 

— -bi, scorpion. 

kaloa-hanga, tickle. 

kalop, fist. 

kaloh, Calmnas Nicobarica (the noted 

green pigeon). 
kaAok-hnta,,stick apigthrough theheart. 
kenlok-not, pointed stick used for 
killing pig by thrusting it through 
the heart (App. N, item 115). 

kenlok-oal-hindel, ramrod, gun-rod. 

kalok-haehe, dip (v.t.). 

ka-16ng-ta-fii, mi7W»- feast, held a few 
days after the " entoin," " da-nok- 
fii-neak," and " haiclniM " (q.v.). 

kald, theft. 

— -hanga, rob, steal. 

i-ehire, pry (aa into a package). 

— -nga-sM, jugglery, sleight of hand, 
magic (when performed by a bad 

kamal6, thief. 
kalfliwa, mix two or more fluids, also 

kal6iiga, smear one's self with pig's or 

fowl's blood when sick or feasting. 
— tai (or -lah), wear a finger (or toe) 


kal6ng-ta-fii, minor feast, held a ffw 
days after certain principal feasts. 

kenldng-tai, finger-ring. 

Mih, toe-ring. 

lu, lustrum applied to fetish ob- 
jects in order to propitiate the good 
and evil spirits. 
kalu-m&wa, butterfly. 
kaluan-hata, j^ft with hook and line. 
ka-laiyan, industrious. 

komalaiyau, an industrious person. 
kamadu (see kadu). 
kama-heiiwa (see k&he), month, luna- 

kama-l6nga (see kaling), foreigner of 

a certain country. 
kamale, sea, ocean, tide. 

karu-kamalg, spring-tide. 

keatn-kamalS, horizon. 

koiya-katnale, tide-rip. 

laiMroina-oal-kamale, sponge. 

toi-kamale, /oam of the sea. 
kamalA (see kal6), thief. 
'kama-p&h; kamdA-pak (see k&p&h), 


kamildk-kamap&h, maggot. 
kama-rflnge, row of persons or objects. 
kamaru; kamadu (see karu), adtdt. 

hat, greedy, voracious. 

kamatdka (see katdka), dancer. 
kamayiwa (see kaiyi), road, path. 
kam&ao, married man. 

•^ Aiwm-f^)™* (stt y^JiUh-f »/*!>** 


(of . 

kam^-Blie (lee k&n), 

o&nhaga-kaniftiishe, marriage f east. 

ahildren of different trillageg, children 

of different races. 
kam idaI-oalmat(«eekeiial),«9 uinl (v.i. ) . 
kamileng, ant (small vartetif). 
kamilok - kamap&h ; kamilok - teyen- 

Dgamat, mioggot. 
kamin-dangla, together, aide by side. 
kamLDdo, rainbow. 
kamiiL-tap, set of 4 or 6 smalt pott of 

the tafftl sise (these are sold tied 

kamio-yaD, gulta-percha. 
kamipue (see yuajig kamipiie). 
kamoftng (see ko&ng), strong man. 
kamoanahi-yfil {see koan), co^»in. 

— -chia, relative. 
kamoe, fowl. 

kin, hen. 

— -koin, cock. 

ong'ylanga-kamoe, hen-coop. 
kamoya, hind, sort, description. 
kamoifia, marry (of a woman). 
kamoiuo (see koin), mwrried woman, 
kan ; ka, k& (see k&), what (ifUerrog.). 
kanat, moonless night. 

— 'lih-kiLhe, end of a month (or 

kanft-koi, post erected at grave at ter- 
mination of mourning period for 

holding various offerings then mJade 

to departed spirit. 
kem^a ; kaiii-chaJ£iL-el&, chisel. 
kau&ma, mast. 

la-koila, /<we?»WM(. 

mahoDg-yuang-ne, mainTnast. 

la-ridla, misgen-mast. 

16e-kaniLma, canvas. 

ka-nfing-oal-kenting, stile (over fence). 
kanitp, tooth. 

henlain, eog-wheel. 

hindel, hammer of gun. 

kenta, tooth of saw. 

chok-kan&p, tooth-ache. 

ta-lSiie-kanap, toothless. 

yea - kanap, tooth etusntsted from 
beteUch^oing (App. If, iteia 168). 

kanchuat - iLnha ; kanchuat - ok (see 

kaichuat) (App- N, item 40). 
— -ngoit. Area shell used for scraping 

eoconut-kemel to make paste (App. 

N, item 41), 
kandap-ahicliua (see karap), bird-trap 

(App. N, item 99). 
kaiid6i(c)i) • hata, mix two or more 

kaoeal, eanine-tooth, bocM^'s tusk, last 

quarter of moon. 

shiri-kaDeal, orescent. 
kane-l^ (see Iflh), daw, talon, toe. 
kaae-oka, crest of a cock, cockscomb. 
kanep-maia, dried leaves of a certain 

tree used for fowls' nests (formerly 

also for stuffing pillows). 
kanetai (see iai), finger. 

mat-kanelai, knuckle of finger. 
kanewat (see kewat, and App. S, item 

kaoeak-hata, strangle (v.t,). 
kan-h&ik, trousers, breeches. 
kanhdha, crab-hole (of large species of 

kaniala, pillow, bolster (App. N, item. 

kanl6k-not (also kenl6k-n6t, 3.0.), 

pointed stick used in killing pig 

(App. N, item 115). 
kanlok-onl-hindel, gun-rod, ramrod. 
kanni, jirum eolocanfi (ghnian). 
kanoali-Gbak&, shave. 
kanoabrkoi (see ikoah), razor. 
laaibk., frait-stem of plantain, Sfc. 
kanot, oar. 

chaki-kanot, hlade of oar, 

kwom-kanot, handle of oar. 

et-kot, pul), an oar. 
kan-pe, amhergris (superior quality). 

ya-kampeng, ambergfis (inferior 
quality), (App. N, item 166). 
kaa-Bhak, many-coloured. 

kanshik (-paiyuh), all sorts of men, 
all races of mankind. 

kfLhi-sMk, cloths of various patterns. 
kaosh^ma, railing, log-fence. 
kan-Bhikog (see ka-sh&ag), coconut-leaf 

fish weir (App. N, item 95). 
kan-ehlapa, temporary hut. 

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kan-sbota, harpoon (_A.pp. N, item 23). 

kan-shola, basket for pa/rrying fowle and 
sacking jngg (s«e App. N, item 83). 
komshol-l^Bfae, pat fowls, ^., into 
the " kanshola " hoiJeet. 

kan-alLait (see ken-ahech), thorny stem- 
sheath of the ground-rattan (App. N, 
item 86). 

kantian, seed of the Fandanus fruit. 

kanuat-koi {see kota), ctrmh («.). 

kanwol-enchon, wooden spade for mak- 
ing drain in sand under eaiies of hut 
(App. N", item 119). 

ka-njan-liatu, calk, stop a email leak in 

— hasLe, eork («.). 

ken-njan, cork («.). 

chaka, bottle-stopper. 

kanjut, coat (^cloth, not aotlon). 

kan; ut- lama' oa I, ^nnef shirt, 

ok, cloth coat. 

~ -tit- koala, cloth waistcoat. 

koil-kanytit, eZeei'e of coat. 

kenbono-kanyut, pocket. 
]iBtrai,ij&, poles omamtnted with coconut 

leaves and planted on foreshore to 

scaare away evil-gpiriis from viUage 

(App. M, item 147). 
kanoishe (see ikgslia), song. 

kanoishe-ongheii, old and solemn 
songs sung at TneTnortal feasts. 

t«yah., modem songs sung at 

'memorial and other feasts, 
kani; kain, coarse (of a blanket, ^.). 
ka-nait-fii-tai, the second of the memo- 
rial feasts, and takes place about a 

year or more after a death. 
ka-6pe-koi (see op-op), upset (of a 

canoe) (v.i.) upside down. 
kap ; kap-&nha, strong, muscular. 
kap-hata, take hold of anything 

promptly in ordor to save another 

from failing. 
kap-ngatd, rem,ember, recollect. 

kapnga-njLng, attend, pay attention 
to, mind. 

kapugatd-tanealshe, sowoenir, keep- 

ha-kap-hanga, expect, anticipate. 
-ngasM, recognise. 

ha-kap-nga-l§aiig, recollect a name. 

nSjig; ha-kap-pi-nilng-de, 

remind., identify, make ottt, 

henkip-ko&l (-lih, &c.), wristlets 
(anklets, ^c). 
kapan-haehe, put on hat. 
kap&^ Icahh,, north-wind. 

danak-kabS,, the lunation in February 
— March. 
kapflh ; kap&h ((j-v.), die. 
kap&k, Indian cuckoo (Eudynamys 

ka-pep-lare, wp or tade any fluid. 
kapo (probably from"' k.erh&a," Malay'), 


kapo-enkoina, buli. 

eokAna, covj. 

fubare, buffalo (Buhalas ami) 

introduced by the Danes and now 
wild on Camorta Island. 

— -basbe, stamp (with the feet). 

■ — ■ -ka', domestic cattle. 

ta-poaka, bullock, ox. 

&nha-kapo, beef. 

ko&p-bata, browse. 

koan-kapo, caZf. 
kapok-pentlla, decorate the head-post of 

a grave with, offerings of cloth. This 

M ijone at t}ie " entoiu " and " la- 

ueatla "feasts. 

keopok-pentila, the c^ering so made, 
kapdt, wrestle in play. 
kapong-haebe, pat on a hat. 
kapiia-be, spiU (v.t.), 
karaiita, fresh-water shrimp. 
karap-bata (see fip), catchbird in trap, 

shut door, window, S/v. 

kandap (-abicbua), bird trap. 
ka-r&ng, hot, pungent. 
kareaa ; hentft-karean (*), fetish in 

the form, of a carved wooden htvman 

figure, kept in hvt to scare away 

evil spirits, (see App. N, item. 151). 

(') when first made and brought into 

kare, bait. 

karen-hata, divide food. 
karoait, lime (Oitrus Hm^tta), lemon. 
ta-cbyn, sweet iime. 

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karoait-shnkak, a email variety of lime, 
(Gitrue adda). 

— -ta-shiaBg, Orattge {Citrtis 

kalenwan, punpmalo {OitTua 

karu ; kadu ; ta-karu ; tii-kadii, large, 
big, great, much. 

f^p,wirp«Jen(,s(oMf (of a tree, ^c). 

hanga-tai, wasteful, eidravagant. 

— -hat-hokng6k, banquet, feast. 
hat-na-top, carouse. 

— -het-yan, drenched. 

kamale, spring -tide. 

nga-koi, headman. 

— -aga-oal, spacioas. 

— -ngashe, extensive {area). 
pa, much. 

— -she, abundant, mach. 

-paiyub, popnlotts. 

-nge, loud. 

-chaka, noisy. 

olyola, shout, speak loudly. 

-chim ; karu-shinge-chlm, 

kam-Bhe-Dge-clum, weep noisily, 

— -yuang, stout (of a rope), 
endua ; kendiia, larger, greater. 

— -ka' ; kendua-ka', largest, greatest, 
endu-she, more abundant. 

-paiyuh, more populous. 

ka', most abundant. 

ka'-paiyuh,, most populous. 

endu-ngaehe, more extensive (of 

ka', most extensive (of aiea). 

kamadu; ^mATU, adult, full-grouni. 

kamarii-Lat, voracious, greedy. 

komdu-haBhe-ta-ngere, loud, loudly. 

komduDga, thunder. 

komdu-nire, wax (ina-ease in mee) 
(of the moon). 

lare, rise (of the tide). 

kariiha, omatinental figure-head of canoe 

as used on festive occasions. (App. 

N, item 2). 
taran, iron. 

faaI6k, amchor-ehain. 

Iietl6t, fisli-hook. 

karau-hindel, gun-harrel. 

ta--karaa, iron (adj.). 
ka-sh&ng, catch fish in weir made of 

coconut leaves. 

kan-flhSng, Jish-weir made of coco- 
nut leaves (see App. K, item 95). 
ka-shin-hata, prop (v.). 

kenshin, prop (s ). 
kaalin&wa, grog (see ohnmpda). 
ka-ahuan-hata, /eeJ (v.). 

ka-shuande, grope (v.). 
kashuma, grog (see chumpSa). 
kat ; dakat ; rakat, now, at the present 

kat, vn, at (with reference to a village) 

(see en; ten). 

kat-ohu{n). where, at what place 
kfttali, bottom (of box, ^c.) 

ta-katah, under, beneath. 

la-katah, MtWJ (in a lower place). 

ok-katah, bottom (outer side of). 

oal-katah, bottom (inner side of). 

katah-oal, inside of. 

katah-oal-mattat, inlamd, in the in- 
terior of jungle or country. 
ka-tat, an, abandoned garden, no longer 

katapa, pile (heap) of firewood, boohs, 

ka-tftug, make a sigzag log-fence. 
ka-tanga-oalmiit-de, shade the eyes 

from the glare of sun. 
kato, husk of unripe coconut. 

■ — ■ -hata, roll between the palms (of a 

lump of ctay, fc.). 
katoal, circumference. 
katok, PaliKorrds erythrogenys (common 


■ — -nin, FalcBomis cauiveps (the 
rare and handsome paroquet, is 
fowid in the southern portion of the 

— -taka-eha, a pet paroquet. 
kat6ng-chaf&, a non-edible species of 

katdka, dance (v.). 

kent6ka, dance («.). 

kamatfika, dancer. 
ka-t6ng-ha8he, load a gun. 

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tafcoa («ee ifcoaja), loose (ofaniron nail 

or post), tremble, vibrate. 

komam-toa, earthquake. 
ka-tot-hata, produce fire by means of 

the keutob. 

kentot, bamboo fire-eiieki. 
ka-tai-na-pare, eject (or epitout) a quid. 
ka-tain-hata (or -heoe), produce fire by 

means of fire-eticks. 

kea-tain, fire-itickt. 
katin (see tAu), term, of endearment 

towards a friend slightly one's junior. 
kawali-enohon, rake rubbish together in 

kenwah-enchon, wooden rake (App. 
N, item 118). 
ka-wal-hanga, (or -hnifie), throw aside 

(away, or overboard): 

-hala, throw upwards. 

liasbe, throw down. 

-nga-shinpoya, drop anchor. 

ta-oal-kamale, throw over. 

ka-w4p-hata., cut with scissors. 

kinwAp, scissors. 
kawia-haine, pick out anything (as the 

contents of a shell). 
kawila, round, circular, 
bar'wbl'hesh.e, take meat, vegetables, §-c,, 

out of pot. 
ka-yen-ya, jagged. 
ka-j61 (see j61), friend^ intimate. 
ka-ynal, leaf-mould, 
kayua, pebble. 

kayuala-nilng, sinking in the ears. 
kanga (see konga): 
kft; ka; kan, what (interrog.). 

ktL-chak, whereabout (interrog.). 

-■ — enddhngashe; how much, how 
many (interrog.). 

enJwnSeslie, how soon (interrog.). 

he, when (lit., what time). 

— -inSa-atfl, how soon, at what time 
or hour. 

ram, how many. 

— -hanam-ngala, how soon. 
renmat, how wide. . 

- < \ how inuoh. 
n-she, J 

— -riia-hanga, how far. 

t& - rua - hanga - tai, how far off 

(speared, Sfc.), 
jan, how long ago. 

— -tare-td, how soon. 

— -riiala, how high. 

heng, what time of the day. 

hatinn, whai tim^ of the 

-koi, how tall. 

— -sham-lft-to, how old. 

taahe, how long time. 

ehin-dah, what's the matter. 

inQBh-tai, in what style. 

hM, what's that ? what's the 

matter ? 
shi(ii), likewhat? Mow? (inwhat 

state or condition) . . 

— -shi-yai, how m.uch ? (viAue or 

torn, how many ? 

— -tai; how t (6y what meant). 

— -yan, how ? (in what condition). 
(For further examples see " ka ") . 

kaa, fish. 

' "?' > two species of whale. 

-'.^ip41, } '^'^'^M- 

poang, porpoise. 

henlai-chak&^k^a, anal fin. 

heat-kiia, hook a fish. 

katam-k^ ^A-roe (soft). 

henteha-kSa, 1 dorsal fin (see 

kasbo-kia, J " henteha "). 

wiang-kila, ventral fin. 

kiunok-det-kilai caudal fin. 

Q&ng-kSA, pectoral fin. 

peu-k&a, ^«fe-roe (hard), spawn. 

sb&k-k&a, spear a fish. 
k&-chs (see ch§), tremble, shiver. 
k&chu-nl, eaves. 
kSe, about, concerning. 
kfieah, refuse, decline to give or allow. 

nga-iah, hinder (v.t.). 

— -nga-ahi, dissuade. 

kSiCaha, treasure, also precious. 

kSehe-chaka, wean an infant. 
kfLe-dit, dregs, sedvment. 
khibng, Orania Nicobarica (before com- 
mencing to seed). 




kilik (no separate ■meaning w assigned 
to this word which occurs in the fol- 
lowing eompounds : — ). 
k&h&-dal-chalc&, mutuoZ shyness be- 
tween strangers. 

— -dol-chakl^ ogle, look through 
eorner^ of eye. 

— -16i(j), dross (pass) in opposite 
Erections, meet. 

— -noftnfl, uterMs, wovih. 

■ nyuk-chakiL, pull (tug) in oppo- 
site directions. 
61, exchange places. 

— -pnng-chaklk, stray, straggle. 
-hanga, Separate (when both 

parties — or aU— leave the spoi), see 
" pnnjf." 

— -piian, striped cloth. 

— -pai{ch), share (as husband and 
wife, or as partners') (v.). 

pai7uh-ta-k&hi-pai(ch), partner. 
k&hi-shah, wiss, fail in meeting, 
finding, Sfc. 

— - Bh&k, cloths of varioiu pat- 

Bhait, accost, meet, go to nieSL 

t6re, never -mind, jto niatter. 

toak-chak^, pull (tug) tn oppo- 
site directions. . 

w4p, pen-knife, eldsp-hnife. 

wait, missi fail in meeting, find- 
ing, §-e. 

ohak&, ill-fittingi 

nge, 1 disagree in opinion, 

16, J wish, tatte. 

^ang, ne^t (in position or titua- 

— -yua-£e, give birth to (bear). 
k&liain-lare, hem (cough to draw atten- 

kJUheak-hala, dear one's throat. 
kihe, moon, also the Creator. 

— -kS.he, every " moon," ■monthly. 
chaiii&la-k^e, oommeJicem^ent of a 

"moon" (or ■month). 
olinngai(ch)-oal-k^e, moonlight. 
dain-kahe, moon-beam.. 
fwlaA-oal-k&he, fuU-inooti. 
hen-neni-oal-kUie, waxiiig moon, 
lieaagshe-k&lie, new moon. 


(o/ a. 

hokug&ka-kAhe, fulUmoon. 
kama-henwa, month, a Iwnation. 
■ k&m-kilii, meridian alUtude of the 

kanat-14h-k4be, end of a " moon " 

(or month). 
ong-yuang-kAhe, fuU-mmm. 
tennyuoa - na - oal • kihe, waning 

k4he, when (interrog.) of future only. 
k&he-tashe ; k&he-tarit, when (in- 
terrog.) in reference to travelling in 
future timie. 
ta-tai, when (interrog.) in refer- 
ence to giving or making in the 

— -oga, when (in reference to sick- 
ness or death). 

-shi, when (interrog.) of some 

past event. 
— -tai, wAen (of making or giving 

in past time). 
Ifthv when (in reference to 

trav^iitg at sotrie future tvme). 

— -ngasbe, when (of ■past events). 

— -ta-shi, when (interrog.) in refer- 
ence to some ixm,ing event. 

kiLke-ane ; tAn-nee-kahe ; taa-ka'- 
k&he, next -month. 
kilhiiga-Bhl, perhaps. 

kah-ngfr-Bbl-chnk, somewhere. 
k&boa, ant (large red stinging variety). 
k&hon, halloo. 

k4kiUl&Dg, white ray (&aia batis), 
kfkkfi-ok, backu!ards. 
k&kk-t&k, the lunation in September — 

October, if the wittd ha» changed to 

k&ke-ok, crow as a cock. 
k&l, sea-gull. 
k&-loi, loose (of a tooth). 

k&m-cbaka, perpendicular, upright. 

beng, noon, mid-day. 

kahe, meridian altitude of 

Dga-cboki, hold anything up- 




kSm-shire, precipice. 
kfimet-nyTiata, pilot-fieh (Nancrateg 

(bictor') , 
k&n (see enkftna), wife. 

kan-chia, st^-m.other. 

koan, daughter-in-lau). 

elft-k4n, lotoer n>u) of joists of htU- 

kamiliio, married man. 
kaioiliishe, marry (of a man). 
leat-kHao, married of a -Man. 
miyeja-kimdei uxorioui. 
y&e - k&n - dej one who deserts his 

&lde-k4nOj bridegroom. 
k&ng, water-frog. 

hah-kkag, land-frog. 
k&ng-kongi sound of foot-fall iit ibalk- 

kfi-ngariilat {see ltak&), stare at. 
k&-ulaui mynah {Eulabes javanensis). 
k&iil-hdTlgd (or -Lata)^ reditee size of^ 

mol-kinla, Tuilfi bit (of voood; iron, 

heang-molkfLnla-post, half -full. 

— 1— -kaiyi, half-way. 

oal-k&ii1>hanga, cut vp firewood. 

o-kSQl-iigB^oiigl6iiga, decapitate. 
kip ; k&p-ka', green (or edible) turtle 

(Ghelonia virgata). 

k&p-kealt haivlc-bill turtle (Caretta 

ok-k&p, tuTtle-sheU (so-caUed toHoise- 
k&p-tnala, tight ((^ a kfwf). 
kapa (see opkap), bite (v.). 
kapfLh ; ngafah ; fall, aho kap&h., die, 


k&pah-kaiyHa, still-bom. 

kamapah ; kamdiipah, corpse. 

komp&h-ngare, moribund. 

lanua-kamapah, calico shroud. 

la-kapMi, canvase, 
kapua-hai, wpset (of an.^ fluid), pour 

out (v.i.). 
karang ; karang-koi, above, overhead. 
ka-ahlhi, eom^ "long, corns and .... 
ka-Bhdt-ok-m, repair leak in roof. 
kasho-kila, dorsal fin. 

kaaho-wiang-kaa, ventral fin. 
katere, chair. 

kitere-ol-m (see ol-Ul), couch, 

kat-hflia (or -hata) ; et-kat-hala, scoop 

out the fruit of a ripe coconut in 

order to make kopra. 
ka-to, dwell, live, inhabit, remain, stay, 

wait, quiet, silent. 

kato-ngara, halt, stop, cease walking. 

poya, sit still. 

shiri-ta-mat, visitor. 

kamato ; komato, villager, inmate of 

dua-komatOj guardian. 

beng-kumato, holiday. 

paiyuh-komato, host, entertains; 
kaaamj wmp (when concave). 
kawe-ditla ; k&we-ridla, steer teith 

rOdder or paddle. 
ka-yeflaj viark with notches. 
ki-yowe-ahe, slander. 
ka-tare (see olcai); accept, take. 
kan ; keau ; oag-foaiig, Birgus lairo, 

(coconut-robber crab). 
keaBg-yaji, sultry. 
keb&ng-kebaag, hillocJe. 

keb&ng-kebang-koi, hilly, undulat- 
ing country. 
keb£b, Coix lachryma (Job's tears). 
kecMha, crai-hde (of small species of 

kechlh-yantd, yearn, long for, de»%re 

kechai-yan, hungry and faint. 
kechain-yaii, sultry. 
ke-dak-hata, wag, waggle. 
kedal ; kedal ; keral, crooked. 

kamidat-oalmat, squint (y.i.). 

paiyuh - ta - kedal - oalniat, squint- 

komdal-de, zigzag. 
kedrnge-chaka, scramble. 
kedoh-nga, another (not the same), dif- 
ferently, some other. 

kedohnga-clmk, another (some other) 
place, apart. 

nge, contradict. 

ke-eang-hanga, sever the joints of a 




ke6ilt-de, sob. 

kefe-chau, term, of endearment towardt 

one's senior (see kife). 
kefe-tau, term of endearment towards 

kefeh, a large species of crab. 

kefain-kefain-heoe, spark. 

ke-heh (see heh),fiy (of more than one 

bird or insect). 
kehieii.yatt-chakfi,, feel a rmart. 
kehoah, hole in wood or cloth, rent, 

kehoah-chakil, ajar, half -open {if 
door, Sfc). 

oal, hollow, decay (of vegetation) 

moali, nostril. 

-nang, ear-hole. 

henloaha, hole in hut-floor for conve- 
nience of inmates. 
kenfada6-iLa, chink, crevice. 
ken-hofia, »mall bag, pocket. 
keh6n, hole in the ground, 
kehti, boil, tumour, sore. 
kehu-hata, bore hole. 
keka-yan ; kekain-jan, coarse (of sack- 
ing, §-0.}. 
kelang-hanga, uncover the shoulders. 
kelon-yan, loathsorne, repulsive. 
kemili, fighting-hat as worn in the Cen- 
tral Islands of the group (see App- 
N, item 29). 
keiicha.p (see kachap), chain for dog 
kench&p-kanyut, button. 

14h, fetters. 

B^ng, ear-ring of coiled wire (see 

keuchuta, pig-pen. (see App. S, item 

komchiita, confine pig in above, 
'kevohnkhla., stilts {App, N, item 65"). 
keodecli-hata, knead. 
ken-doiig, rib of ship or boat. 
kendup, leaf wrapper. 

kendap (or ken6p)-koi-hansli6i, 
Pandanv^e leaf cover for pot when 
steajning Fandanus fruit and 
m^ahing paste. 
kendup-koi, lamp-shade, ^c. (tee 
App. N, item 62). 

ken-dii, Tridacna gigas, clam. 

kendua (see kada), bigger. 

— -ka', biggest. 

kenduich-hauga, crusA with the hands, 

kenduin, brain. 

kendula, wall. 

kenSak - liata, throttle (v.t.), choke, 

ken-fani(seeifiii),/o!»i one's self. 
k(Mi-f win- &nlta (see itui) , punkah. 
ken-lioa, mosquito curtain. 
kenhoaft-ha (see kehoah), chink. 
ken-hona (see keijoah), small bag, 


keiihofta kanyiit, coat pocket. 

keidiona-karau, bamboo receptacle 
for spare spear-heads. 

komhdii - hashe, put into one's 
ken-hom, large bamboo utensil for re- 
ceiving conteifts of toddy tapping-pots 

(see App. N, item 70). 
kenhon-lSh, sock, stocking. 
ken-hfln, fish-basket-trap (see App. N, 

item 91). 

kom-hdn, to catch fish with the 
kenhoin, shirt, coat (cotton). 

kenhdin-lama'Oal, cotton shirt. 

— — ■ -ok, cotton coat or jacket. 

tit^koSIa, cotton waistcoat. 

ken-lan-ahi (see Icalaxi), present, gift. 
keDlaiih, imported iron tool (medium, 

and small size) for scooping and shap- 
ing a canoe-shell (App. K, item 


kalanh • hata, scoop with ahove tool 

kenl&h (see kalSh), weighing-scale. 

kenlok-not (see k&-\ok), pointed stick 
for killing pig (App. N, item 115). 

ken16k-oal-hindel (see kanlok), gun- 
rod, ramrod. 

kenlong (see kaldnga), ring for finger 

]ien]bDg-ia,i, finger-ring. 

lah, toe-ring. 

— -ni, lustrum applied to fetish objects 

in order to propitiate both good and 

evil spirits. 




kenlungo-karan, bamboo receptacle for 
holding epare liarbed iron spear-prongs 
(App. N, item 66*). 
kenliawa-nftng (tee ning), lohe of ear 

(whether bored or not). 
keamoanft-kolll, forearm, 
keiimula, namesake. 
ken-ngai, brand, burning billet. 

— ka', thinnest. 

kenoyaa, cork. 

— -chak& (see ka-njan), atopper of 
kenop, flower of plantain tree, 
kendaog, Areca spathe receptacle for 

holding betel-niU, Chavica leaves and 

shell'lime (App. N, item 53). 
keD6p-chak&, keoop-koi, loose lid. 
koi-hansboi, Paifdanus leaf cover 

of pot when cooking (App. N, item 

ken-dftk (see ko-kok), gullet. 
kenpinga, provisions for a journey. 
kenp6k-pentila(«ee kapok), offering of 

cloth at grave-post at the " entoin," 

and " laueatla " feasts. 
kenpong, kidney. 
kensh&fi, com (on foot), bunion. 
ken-aheoh ; kan-shait (see et-shech), 

thorny stem-sheath of the ground 

rattan (App. N, item 86). 

(Oalamus ? rotang). 
kenshlu (see kasbin), prtyp, support 

keDshlwa-shan, fine cane basket for 
gifHngsheU lime (App. K,item 85). 
kensliSnt-ngare, creep (as a snake). 
ken-aliuah-ka&ti&A (see ke-shaalt), 

kenshut-hede, matches. 

chnk-kenebut-lLede, match-box. 
ken-t&ha, largest size cooking-pot (see 

App. N, item 101). 
keut&l, saw. 

keat&l • tat ; omtop-chaki - kent&I, 
ken-tSng, zigzag log fence. 

ka-tflng ; wl-kent&r.e:, make a 
"kB^tkngi" fence in. 

kentet>tat, «pit out fibre of sugar-cane 

^c, after sucking juice. 
keutdka (see katdka), dance (s.). 
kentola-l&h, heel (s.). 
ken-tot (seekft-tot) bamboo fia-e-sttcks. 

(App. N, item 65). 
ken-tain (see ka-tain and henpoan) 

fire-sticks (see App. N, item 64). 
kentiit, husk of ripe eoeoniit. 
kenw4b-euclidn (see kaw&h) ; keuwali- 
piet, wooden rakes for scraping away 
rubbish on the sand round the huts 
(App. N, item 118). 
kenwi-dak, tea-spoon. 
kenj&.lare, shrug the shoulders. 
ken-ylag-tai'e, behind-hand. 
ktiiiyiia-nga-koi, cover a pot. 

— -koi-LahBh6i,^( leaf cover (made 
by stitching leaves of the Maca/raiiga 
tanarius) for pot when boiling 
Pandanus, Cycas fruit, ^c. (App. 
N, item 107). 
kanyiiftl, spine, back-bone. 
kenjum, child (boy orgirl) from 2 to 12 
years of age. 
hafire - ken jum ; henre-kenyum, 

kamen-nyunia, Nicobarese childrenof 

different villagers. 
shiri-kenyiim, childish. 
kenat-ch.akS, gnash. 
keo, black, dark, overcast. 

ked-ngamat, black-skinned. 
keoyan (see heoe), hot from taking 

exercise or excess of clothing, sultry, 
keral (see kedal), crooked, 
keroSfit, serpentine. 
ke-shnah, nail, talon, clout. 
ke-sliiiah-l&}i, toe-nail. 

-tai, finger-nail. 

kensh.aah-kanh&n, braces. 
sha-twat-hanga, scratch (v. t.). 
kete-mat, crease. 
ket-fai(cli), eye-lash. 
ketong-ketong-heoe, spark. 
ketot-hala; ketot-hanga; ketot-hahat; 
ketot-hasbe ; ketot-haine ; ketot- 
hata, draw (d/rag) (v.t.) (in various 



ketot-lare; ketot-ngare; ketot-hare; 

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ketot-aliire; ketot-fiire ; tetot-tare, 

m.ove (u.i.) {i» various eenees), see 

" Move." 
tetot-de, crawl {as from Zamenew). 
tet-paj(j), hrain. 
ke-wat, extract the filaments from 

Pandanus paste. 

kanewal, a single fibre of the Melochia 
velufina as wed for extracting ike 
filaments from PandoMtts paste 
(App. N. item 135). 
feewai-re, minng the amis. 
kejibwa (see kaiyl), road. 
kead-flAha, rash, ^Tiption. 
kcoich-hala ; keoich-hanga ; keoich- 

hahat; keoich-haslie; ke6icli-b.ame ; 

Itebich-h&tn, draw {drag), (v.t.), (in 

various senses) see" Draw." 
ke&id-liare ; keoid-lare ; keftid-ngare ; 

k©6id-ahire ; keoid-flire ; keoid-tare, 

come a little nearer, approach (in 

varioKs senges) (see " CoraG" and App. 

ke-lare (v.i.) appropriate. 
keal, firinjai (SolanumescTilentum). 
kea-tfi, Jwcifeiy, by force. 
keam, brim, rim, upper edge (as of 

plate, !fe.). 

keam-d^, bank of creek or rirer. 

— -kalakdija ; keam-kamale, hori- 

16e, braid. 

taBgla-ta-keam^ hrimful. 
kech-Sala (v.i.), open a sack or bag. 
kedal (see kedal), crooked. 
kee, cold (absence of heat) («.). 
keh, viohnt (of a storm). 
16, petulent, irritable, ill-tempered. 

— -ngayan, difficult, viorry, ti^uble. 
ken (aluo duen), monkey (Macaeus 

kcy&li, asthma. 
kiche-jan, wenk, as after childbirth, or 

from loss of appetite, or fasting. 
kiduma, dha (Burmese knife). 

— -koi, one having his head of nalnril 
thape (not flattened at ocjput). 

kife (abbrev. for ka-ife. 'j.v.). 
kife-chaa (see cL^u), term, of <!ndeu,e- 
■ment towards 3 or more friends. 

cliua-kife, what was thai ? ((o 8 or 
mwe companions), 
ki-heang (see heaDg), each. 
kile-slmyande, fock one's things for a 

distant visit, also armed. 
kilei - shire, unintelligent, VMohle to , 

explain or interpret. 
kimaiyan, shep soundly, sleepy from. 

fatigue or drink. 
kinfl, (ahbrev. far ka-ina, q.v.). 
\iit&-chku(seechim),termof endearment 

towards 2 friends. 

ohi^kiiik, what was that ^ (addressed 
to 2 companions). 
Kin-14ha, name of the site occupied by 

the Qovemment Station in Nancowry 

kinnok-det, caudal fin, tail. 

Bhok-malecha-ta-kinnSko-det, comet. 
kinong, a large species of crab which is 

kinah&n, wart of same colour as sur- 
rounding skin. 
kinwELp (see kawtLp), scissors. 
kinyJLng-ok-finha, virinkle on the skin. 
kipaka, tuft of hair as worn by girls 

till attaining puberty and by male 

kiraha; kidMia, coconut-leaf -tray, on 

which food is spread (App. N, item 


ong-tang-kirftha, spread a feast. 
kirih, euraed sword. 

&nha-kirih, su)ord-blade. 
kirua-hatflhe, distrn'.ifui, suspicions. 
ki-chal, eaivm, (whether frog or side 

kmafi-hanga, shut one eye. 

paklnaii ; pakian, blind of one eye. 

hakihan ; hakiaii, aim With one eye, 

heiikinan ; henkian, telescope. 
knah-ngayan, solid (a. and adj.). 
ko&h, tree-lizard. 

koSbla, rigid, stiff, stiffen, rheumatism. 
kuti, arm, upper arm, forefiaj^er of 
turtle, sleeve. 

ko&l-kaaep-k&a, ^ills offish. 

kanyut (or -kenhiiin), sleeoe of 

cloth (or cotton) coat. 

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koAI-tanOka, strand of a rope. 

ehang-koill, upper-arm. 

ohi-koftl, bend of the elbow. 

(Itfiang-) chi-ko4I, six hand-spans 
{i.e., from the tips of thefmgera to 
the elbow-joint of the other arm, or 
about 4 feet IJ inch). 

heakiip-ko&l, wristlet, bangle. 

heuluh-kofl,!, wristlet of coiled wire. 

(heang-) kamoila, three handspans 
(i.e., the length of the arm from 
the tips of the fingers to the armpit, 
or about 24| inches) . 

ok-loaka-ko&l, wrist. 

paudng-koal, cloth bandage round- 
wrist as protection in stick fights. 

(heang-) panong-ko&l, seven hand- 
spans (i.e., from the lips of the 
fingers to the wrist of the oilier 
arm, or about 4 feet 9f inches). 
ko&it, grease mark (as on cloth). 
ko&ng, strong, violent (of a storm). 

hafiah, storm, squall. 

oal, intoxicating, heady, strong 

(of spirits). 

alde-ko&ng, becoms strong. 

kamoang ; moug-koing-nga, strong 

oug-koanga, stronger. 

ka', strongest, very strong. 

ko&p-hanga (see opk&p), bite off, tear 
with the teeth. 

— -hata (see kapo), browse. 

— -hat-wS., clot of blood. 
koching (from the Malay), cat. 
ko-chiag-de, take suj^liesfor one's own 

use {as on visiting a distant island). 
kocho-ko-oal-f ing, rinse tlie mouth. 
kochoak (see ehnJUia), step, pace (».). 
kochok-haifie, wash a bottle. 
kocbung - hanga, brandish lighted 

torch-s in village after burial in 

order to scare away eiiU spirits, also 

shake the head. 
kochush-hata, brandish spear at the 

"haichnal" feast in order to scare 

away the evil spirits. 
kodoahl-de, wriggle (of a -worm or 

kohat-hata, sniff (snuff) (v.). 

kohlni, mouthful of food. 

koholai, vegetables, fish, §-c. (at eaten 

with rice or Pandanus). 

wi-koholai, boil vegetables, fish, S/v., 
oipwmj the rice or Pandanus 


kohot, numeral affim used with ma^yi 
(take a betel quid) in order to express 
distance on land or time spent on a 

koho-hala, brandish lighted torch over 
corpse at burial, in order to drive 
away evil spirits. 

kohoie-oal, roomy, spacious. 

koin - ha, scrape coconut kernel with 
Cyrena shell. 

kiik-fie, burst. 

koko-6k, push backward*. 

ko-kok, gulp, mouthful (of drink). 
ken -fink, gullet. 
k6k-nga, stick in the gullet, choke. 

kok-wiLnka, goose. 

kola-hifua, jetty. 

kola-rile {see hifiia and diie), landing- 

kolangahe-ok-fii, unroof. 

kole-hanga, kick aside. 

koleh-hashe, throw down. 

kolin-hata, stir food, mix two or more 

koli-hata, stir any fluid. 

kolo-dlawa, C'coAa beetle. 

koloapa-mat, daub or smear turmeric 
unguent over raw (or partially cooked) 
meat as an antiseptic. 

kol-pal, b&che-de-mer, trepang {Solo- 

kolai(ch) ; kolai{j), bathe. 

chTik-kolai(ch), hath, place for bath- 

koma-laiyan {see kalaiyan), an indus- 
trious person. 

komam-ioa {see katoa), earthquake. 

kom-ap-hata {see 4p), shut a book, ^c. 
{i.e., laterally). 

komaio; kamato (see k&to), inmate, 
(occupant) of hat, villager. 

komanya, agree, assent, permit, consent. 

kum-cne-hata (v.t.) {see che), shake 
fluid contents of a bottle. 



komchi(j)-hntB; komolii(j)-ta-koinlia 
(see mAyai(j)), make coconut oil by 
squeezing the rasped hemel in the 

kumcbiag, glout poet placed at head of 

komchual-hftshe, lower the hut ladder. 
konichu-hata, aim, with spear ; also 

make believe or pretend to strike with 

spear, or to be angry. 
komdal-de (see kedal), zigzag. 
komdop-nire {v. i.), open (of a door,Sfv.). 
koED-dok-kata, aim with apear. 
komdu-hashe-ta-iigere (see karu and 

nge), loud, loudly. 
komdung-a (gee karu), thunder (».). 

nge-komdunffa, peal of thund^. 

moml-komdun^a, thutider (v.). 
komdu-nire (see karu, kadii), wtw (in- 
crease in size) (of the rnoon). 
— -lare, rise (of the tide). 
komdw&k-hata, rap, knock, (v.t.). 
komeal, hennit-orab. 
komeiinta, aapsicam (for names of 

varieties see " Capsicum "). 
komen-cliia-Bhe (see chia), relative. 
boraet, mouse. 

tomet-ta-kai^, bandicoot. 

komet-kS-mwoah, rat (mua pahna- 

kom-fit-ngayan, visit one's friends. 

kom-haii-ng'aiiiat, rock, lull to sleep. 

kom-h6h (see kenhoiia and ken-h6o), 
catch fish milk the " kenhdh." 

— ■ — -Lashe, put into one's pocket 

kotn-hoi-ngare (see hoi), be ogl 

komhoish ; komhoinsli, enixinte, preg- 

komial-hanga, taste any food. 

komlo-hashe, put into one's pocket. 

komlbi-hata, toosen a tooth (v.t.). 

ko nnan ; heaag-komnan, spooti and 

kom-Sik, wink to a girl. 
koraoyung, hostile, enemy. 
koroop-haDga, upset (01 

o.».. (....). 

ka-ope-koi, upset (of a canoe) (w.i.), 
upside down. 

op-ftp-hare, turn upside down. 
kompah-iigare (see kap4h), moribund. 
kompw&-h.aah.e, propitiatory sacrifice of 

the remains of a feast. 
kom-shol-haahe (see kanshola), put 

fowls, ^c, into " kanahola " basket. 
kom-shotik-hata, point with finger, aim 

with gun. 
kointal-liala (»eeol-tal), suspend (egpe- 

cially over fireplace in order tosmoke, 

as food). 
komt^li-tigamat, soak food. 
komtal-haine, put out the tongue. 
komtiia-hanga (see katoa), shake a 

tree, swing (v.t.). 
Komwaaa, Cabra (uninhabited islet in 

southern portion of the Nicobar 

komy^-enkoina, father-in-law. 
— -enkftna, mother-in-law. 
ko my Ay BO, Hippocampus breviroetris 

komye-hanga, deposit (v.). 
kom-oinya, bewitch (as a bad sliaman 

by exercising his arte maUci<iusly), 

kouan-hat-slie, grand. 
ko-ngak-hata, nod (on meeting acquaint- 


hashe, nod fro: 

kooi-hato, splash (v.t.). 
kop-oal-taire (see tai), dasp 


kopak-hanga, quaff. 

ko-pengi yam (IHoscorea alata). 

kopep-hata, eip or taste any fluid. 

korftk-hata, lick (v.t.). 

koronflta, Indian com, maize. 

koron-hata, fish with rod and line. 

kor6nat, crooked. 

kora^k-hata, sound a gong. 

korafik, (Ae series of merMH-%al feasts 
held in honour of a deceased rela- 
tive about two years after death 
(see "Feast"), 
komomak, the period during which 
memorial feasts are held. 

koshi-hanga (or -hata), sift grain by 
shaking in a sieve. 

ko-^hot-hata, stamp (v.). 



ko-Bhuen-hata, kick with the toes. 
ko-shut-fie-lieoe, etrike a match. 
kotin-hanga, pueh aside, vpset {v.t.). 

kotin-i-lah, /ali owing to a push. 

entia-hanga, pjigh away. 

kotftin-hattga, pueh fuTtaaTds, shove. 
kotot-haoga (see tat), loipe, rub off. 
kotain-hanga {see kotin), push for- 
wards, skove. 
ko-yan-wa, gwtva. 
kitynjp, Chitonida. 
koyung-hanga.^jAi with guns. 

kojung-hata, bombard, shell a vil- 
koyain-hata, chew, masticate, munch. 

koyain-pS, cTtew a quid of betel-nvt, 
Ohaniea leaf awl shell-time. 
koan, child, son, offspring of ani-mals. 

koan-chakS, servant, wait on (lit. 
like one's child). 

— ~dafal ; koan-enayula, eldest 

— -enkoiSa, son. 

— -enk&na, daughter. 
teng, prickly-heat (lit, child of 

the SI 


. kapo, calf. 

k&n ; kdanTkoin, step-chiid (ac- 

cordi'iig to whether of wife or hus- 

— -kaijuwft, nephew, niece, second 

— -not, suckingpig. 

— rolyftla-ka-, youngest child. 

— -ydl, term of eridearment on the 
part of eMerly persons towards 
youths and young married persons. 

— Tj61-enk6ina, rtephew. 

-enkina, niece. 

enkoan-hare, an unmarried another. 
hat-koano, childless. 

faeA-koaii, childhood, early life, youth. 
haiohdn-koande, litter, brood. 
^kamoaiiahi (q.v.). 

(kamoaiio; paiyfih-ta-koano, father 
(or mother) having one or more 
k&Qikoan, daughter-iji-law. 
koan-menkoan-Iiare, bastard. 
koin-kdan, soti-in-law. 


men-koan, father of many children, 

ydl-koi-koan, prolific, mother of 
many children. 
koaah, Octopus tuberculatus. 
kohla, ashore, stranded. 
koh-iigare, /a/( sideways. 
koi, head, top (top of), summit, surface 

(of any fluid) ; aUo numeral affix 

used with hmnait objects. 

koi-anula, head of grave. 

— -dak, surface of any river or other 
fresh water. 

— -d&aha, occiput. 

— -henyuan, hill amnmit 

hin-doaha-ka*, about 8 a.m.. 

chong, about y a.m.. 

— -boptep, lid of chest. 

— -iodat, knife-point. 

— -kamale, surface of the sea. 

— -Jtaooang, knee. 

la, bow of ship, boat or canoe. 

— -la-&hla ; koi-la Pu, ornamental 
figurehead of canoe as used at 
memorial feasts (App, N, item 2°). 

la-kiwnale, bay. 

— -moah., bridge of nose. 

— -Dg&h, foreshore. 

— -pMiIwa, heart (the organ). 

— -pent! la, cenietery, graveyard. 
ra (see da), fioor of earth or con- 

shinlaDg, hip. 

ta-pit4nh, occiput flattened in 


ungoah, shoulder. 

(lieang-)koi-;ttiigoali, 2 hand spa?i* 

(= about 3 feet 5 inches), i.e.from 

tip of finger to tJie farther shoulder. 

ya-kam^le, tide-rip. 

eQ-akfln-koi-lienyuaii, up-hill. 
kackaDga-koi, tilt over. 
kota-koire, brush one's hair. 
la-koi, above, on top of, upper sidi 

(of mat, ^.). 

la, head of bed or sle^ng-mat. 

14hardma-koi-ngiih, sponge. 
lofi-koi-koan, 3 children. 
ngftle-ta-koi, top of. 
ol-pila-koi, top of the head. 




ongduang-koi, over iprep.). 

pako-koi, gray -haired, 

shang-shu-koi, topsy timy. 

Bhei-koi-tigMi, tea shell-fish. 

ta-koi, an, upon, over (prep.). 

an-ka', ■uppermost. 

kom-aslie, obtain, receive, get. 
h&ta^Jind after a search. 

hen-kom (also ina, q.v.), settlements 
of cloth, jewellery, ^c, demanded 
by father-in-law from, bridegroom, 
fur bride before marriage. 

bakorn-hata (q.vJ), teach. 

hakom-tS (q-v.), learn. 

orakomaslic, euoces^ul in searching. 

hat-omkomaahe, -unsueeeerful in 
konga-tai, blow, stroke, spear-throw. 
— -ka-koire, mod (denoting affirmation'). 
kop-hata; kolop-hata («ee ip), shut 

one's hand. 
kotakoi; et-koat, comi (y.t.). 

kaniiat-koi, com,b (s.). 
koya, wave, swell, rough (of the sea). 
kodde, be, have being, exist, occur, also 

have, possess. 

kod-ta-ane, there it is ! 

k6dde-ife-k6d (aUo k61de-if6-k6I). 
any one at home (shouted from be- 
Imv a hut) ? 
kolrak, dammar (App. N, item 162). 
koiiii-jiLh asthma. 

k6mo|i, boy or girl a few «ionth» old. 
kong, Jit tight (of a cork). 
kop-Dgare (see kap), take hold of any- 
thing to save one's self from, failing. 
kdk-nga (tee ko-kok), stick in the gul- 
let, choke, throttle (v.i.). 
k6ne, flannel. 
k6np-ngare. cower. 
koi, boy or girl before Jiret learning to 

koi-ngare, stand still. 

kok-hare; kok-lare; kok-ngare; kok- 

shire ; kok-nire ; kok-tere, retire, 

retreat (eastwards, northwards, Sfc. 

(... Jpp. BO). 

kok-tare, hack wafer. 
kokngare, be off! go away ! 
nga-l&h, take away. 

kouga; tong-lare, arise (from, sleep or 
rest), get up (on waking), sit up. 
heft-mekOEga, time toriee (after sleep). 
hen-kong-liala (v.i.), turn one's self 

enkong-hala, arouse a heavy sleeper. 
ku-clLok-lare, l^t-bit, dainty (s.). 
kodak-hata (see ditk and l^et&k), lap 

(as a dog). 
knlala, throat, larynx. 

heuk&p-oal-kulala, silver bar neck- 

tanual-oal -knlala, neck tie. 
kurHD, jar, pitcher. 
kurat, gam,e of skipping-rope. 
kw&pta, stain (v.i.). 

kw&pta'en-w&, blood-stained. 

— -tai, clutoh(seive hold) of anything 
through fear or rage. 

km&m-hata (see homkn6m), give, cause 

to take, hand. 
kwom-powfth, handle of paddle. 
kwonp-nga, become thin, emaciate. 
■ — -ngaslie, thin, emaciated. 

kenowofipngashe, thinner. 

ka", thinnest. 

kai-Iare; kai.ngare; kai-bare; kai- 

shire; koi.tare; kai-flire, corns (in 

various senses) (see " Come," and 

App. BO), 
kai'hata (see okai), bring. 
kaMiashe, take down. 

loko-kaina-pfae, pilfer. 
kaicb; tA-kaich, seratih (s.). 

kaicbuat-baDga, scratch (as a cat, 
thorn, pin, Src), 

— -basbe, dig. 

— •hala, dig up, esecavale. 

— -piet, dig a hole. 

— -sbo, pit. 

kancbuat - itnba; kuicbuat - ok, 

scratch'back (for itch) (App. N, 

item 41)). 
sba-kaicb-bata, nip (pinch) teith 

the nails. 
tom-kaicb-hanga, scratch one's self 

un intentionally. 
kainyin, a variety of rattan obtainable 
in the southern islands of the Nicobar 




kai-nyuen, undertone, 
kai-nyueri-de, wkigper. 

— kanoishe, hum. 

kaiwa-yaire, enrage. 

kaiyal, Oarpo^haga hicolar (pied fruit 

kaiyih, let, permit, allow, aesent. 

kaiyah-hata ; kaiydh-to-tai, lend, 
part with. 

— -nga-lah., permit, allow. 

— -nga-sLi, consent. 
kaijAiig-hanga, hold (v.t.'). 

kaiye, shy (of wild animals, hirda, and 


kaiyi ; key&wa, road, path, direction, 

kaiyi-chakft-yaiya, coMt-wite, along 
shore, by land. 

— -dak, drain. 

— -eyam, wind-pipe (lit, breath- 

— -hoih-mattai, strait, channel. 

— -kapo, hair-parting (lit. cattle- 
path, being likefied to path tnade 
through long grass by wild cattle.). 

— -toi-mangnge, st^ping-stone. 
ehong, by land. 

-tare, travel by land. 

kaiyinga, go away, leave, depart. 
kaiyi ttg-shuyande, pack one's things 
for a distant visit. 

kamayiwa, road, path. 
kaiyinga; kaiying-ahflyaiide, see kaiyi. 
kaiyowa, friend (term of endearment 

towards one's equal in age), aiasin. 
kaiyua, birth. 

kaiyua-baine; kaiyua-ne-koaa, bear, 
give birth to. 

— -flonli, bom. 

k&p&li- kaiyua, etiU-bom, 

fil-kamayua, lying-in hut. 
kaiyual-hata, scream., yell (v.). 
kAu-ngayan (see yaii), tired after active 

koin (see enkotoa), husband, 

koin-chia, step-father. 

koan, son-in-law. 

ela-l^oin, upper row of joists of hut- 

en-koin-sLiehe, to be angry. 
kamoma, marry (said of a u-oman 

, ... , ..J } mamed woman. 

leat-koino, / 

hat-koifio, widow. 

y&e-koiii-de, one who deserts her hut- 

olile-koifio, bride. 
koit-de-me-koit, any one down below ? 

(to one person). 
k6it-de-in&-k6it, any one down below ? 


la (aXso li, 3-c.), particle employed both 
as prefix and suffix with certain pro- 
nouitis, adjectives, and substantives in 
order to express direction, possession, 
j'C; e.g., chula (right, dexter), la- 
cl>i)la (right hand side, starboard) ; 
ok (back), la-ok (behind); kh (two), 
ciidng (ship), cli3ng-&nla (brig, i.e., 
two-masted ship) . 

la ; le ; lare, verbal mffite signifying 
"upwards" or "towards the north" 
(in construe.) (*ee"chiat-la,'''''fl-le,'' 

labn; lapn (see yuang-labu), gourd 
(from the Malay). 

ladlaya, shortly after sunset. 

palanga-diaya, evening star, 
lae (see liri), cross-legged. 
la-eshe : Itl-eshe (see shama), b 

underneath, lower. 
la-h^ recover, regain health, 
la-katali (see l^tah), below, beneath, 

la-koi, above, on top of, upper-nde (of 

mat, ^.}. 

la, head of bed or sleepi)tg-m.a.t. 

la-kok-hanga (v.t.), nick (or notch) a 

laUy cane-strip. 

len-kok (see ivia aTtd lenkflh), notch, 
nick in a tally cane-strip. 




lal, brow, forehead. 
lama-chdng, uppennoit. 

.0fll-cli6ng, jwop of ship. 

lama-eAh-she (see enn), undermost. 
lama-nama, a betel quid as prepared for 

chewing, aii., a Ghavica leaf folded 

and smeared with shell-liyne and a 

piece of betel-nut. 
la-mang (see cbaag and chamang), 

lamem, numeral affixtised with reference 

to bundles of Chinese tobacco. 
lamen-noiyo {see loe), only d fathoms. 
lami-chuta, earth-worm. 
lami-fui (seefui), water-gpout. 
la-mmp (see leap), expert at any handi- 

lamdn (see lo), runner. 
la-maam, weak (of animate objects), a 

confirmed rheumatic, bedridden. 
la-iQue (^ee loe), only three. 
la-mungta, drift towards land. 
la-nangta-daraian (see damlan), ttart- 

ivg post in a race. 
lan-d&k-mat (we dik-mal), weep, 

la-neat-la (see leat), the fifth andprin- 

cipal tnemorial feast at which the 

skuU is temporarily disinterred ; takes 

place usually 2 or it years after 

la-neat-tare (see leat), no more, 
lanenh ; lah-melali, the lunation in 

September — October, if the 8. W. 

winds continue. 
lang-an, heavy. 

langan-koi, top-heavy. 

ien-ng^na, heavier. 

-ka', heaviest, very heavy. 

langia, large stone. 

lang-nga-sM ; l&Dg-nga-Bbi, cause, 

lang-nga-slii-an; an-langnga-shi, 
therefore, hence, for this reason. 

chuan-t^ngngaslii, why. 
lanop (see lop), blanket. 

hata, wrap (v.). 

kanyut, cloak, overcoat. 

Ian61i-hiya (see hiya), betel-nut crueher 

(App. K, item 73). 

lanom-omhoiA (seeinnara), dgaretie. 
Iau6uga-ii^ng (see loka and nkng), 

bored lobe of ear. 
lanun (see en-lain), paint (#.). 
laiiiia (see olua), wrapper (cover) of 

cloth, paper, ^c, also adjust the 


lanua-kamBp&k, cloth-shroud, wind~ 

lamanua ; luawa, bundle, package. 
la-ok; lil-ok, astern, aft, outside. 
la-pa, good. 

lapa-chakil, handsome, pretty, beauli- 

yan, well (not sick"). 

yantd, glad. 

lompa-ta-flhl, ^ hut posts well (i.e., 
perpen dicidarly) . 
lar&, blark pepper. 
lare, verbal si'^x signifying upwards or 

northwards (see App. B(*)). 
la-ridla; la-ditla ; la-rila (see det), 

astern, aft. 

hale-rid I a, steer, 

hen- la-ridla, rudder. 

mahale-ridla, steersman. 
larom, paste obtained from the pulp of 

the Pandanus mellori fruit, bei«g the 

staple food of the natives (for the 21 

reco^nii'ed i^ariedes, see " Pandanus") . 

lftbft-roma(5.u.),resein6iin3 "larom." 

&nh-cliaka-laroni, puip of the Pan- 
danus fruit. 

et-hfit-larom, prepared paste of the 
Pandanus fruit. 

met-taita-larom, Agestrata dendriba, 
the beetle which attacks the Pan- 
danus tree. 

noang-larom, a drupe of the Fan- 
danvs fruit. 

tom-larom, a bunch of the Pandanus 
latuang, driftwood. 
la-toin, ^er«, tree-fern. 
lat-shi (see leat-shi), according to, in 

accordance with {lit., old, ancient). 
Ifl.wa-fie-oal, cleave (v.t). 
lii, piece of fruit, vegetable, §rc. 
Ik {also la, g.c), particle employed as 

prefix and taffix in order to express 

.y Google 



possession, direction or the like, see 
the following examples: — 
U-ane, that {or the other) side of 
creek, buy, ^. 

— -cliiila, right, right-hand (or side}, 

fftp-an-ane, that (or the other) 

side of an island. 
ifcil, this side of on inland. 

— -iti, this side of a creek, bay, Sfo. 
• — -lih, foot of bed or sleeping mat. 
■— -moah, head {of spear). 

■ woaka, left, left hand (or side), 

port side. 

&,h-]A, bivalve (_lit. having two valves). 
Ift-chiila {see cliiila), right, right-hand 

{or side) starboard. 

ma-chol, right-handed, 
Ift-eny&h, afterwards. 
lik-eehe, (see shftina), lower, beneath. 
l^-finaliau (see tmhst), tub. 
lit-fong, jungle distant from the sea. 
Lf^ful (see ful), Trinkut island 

(Nicobare), Ht. " east " island. 
14 hala-heng (see hala), /ore-noon. 
l&-hanga-lieag {see hanga), afternoon. 
l&h, foot, hoof, leg,, hind -flapper of 


ofiilian, stump of tree. 

dola-l&Ii ; entan-tat-l^, foot-print. 
fannah-I^ ; lianD^-]Ali, foot-brush 

from Pandanus drupe, 
hongthug-l&h, web-footed. 
irua-o-lli^, bandy-legged. 
' kanelilh, toe, daw, talon, hind-paw. 
kenlong-lili, toe-ring. 
kenmoaDa-lfili, calf of leg. 
keshnah-lSli, toe-nail, 
lk-llih,foot of bed or slpeping-npat, 
mendenchya-llih, Uttle toe. 
mendua-lab., great toe. 
meiish6nka-l£h, second toe. 
mong-yuaag-ue-lfiJi, middh toe. 
oal-tMi, sole of foot. 
ok-lMi, instep. 

tan6t-l^, rug (of coir, ^c.) for wip- 
ing feet. 
tKniA-meadeavhjtk-]dh, fourth toe. 

IfHia-roma (see larom), resembling 

I31ia-r6aia-lniya, yolk of egg. 
liha-roma-hofowa,, block bees' wax 

(App. K, item 166). 
laha-rotna-koi-ngML ; ItLha-rdma-oal- 

kamal^, sponge. 
ISJilpng, narne of a shrub. 
la-hoh-ho-tat, penetrate (tnith spear or 

lfi,k {also ehok), let (i-mperat.) (spe 

Paradigm of verb, p. xxxii), 
lak-nga-14h, ht go, liberate. 

Bhl, forgive, excuse. 

lak-shnyande, take breatji. 
lala ; ISla-chakft, adversary. 
la-lah. {see l&t), foot of bed or sleeping 

lil-moah (see moah), Jiead {of i^ear). 
limok-shtika, water-spout. 
Lft-mong-she, Gondul {smaU inhabited 

island in southern portion of Nicobfir 

IS-muen, cockroach (large species). 
IflriigaBlie, small quantity, few. 

linni-ngasjie, smaller (in quantity), 

rka', smallest (in quantity), 

liugatd; \kagB.j&Ti, forget. 
liiag-le-yan, neglect, 'omit. 
Iftng-nga-ehi, cause, reason. 
liing-Dgi-t6, catise, reason (with reference 

to acting violently, being angry, ^e.). 

an-lSngngita (see Jangngafihi) there- 
fore, so, on this account (viitk refer- 
ence to being angry, ^c). 
lin-hata, lash {fasten) with cane (as 

thwarts to the gunwale of canoe, or ■ 

the rounds of a ladder). 

l&nan-diie, cane fastenings of canoe. 

tanol-diie (see tan), thwa/rts of canoe. 

■ — -halfik, round of ladder. 

ta-tanoang, stair-step. 

L&-ok, Tillan - chong (uni-ii habited 

island of Nicobar group) lit. outside 

li-ta-heanga, put aside. 
la-woaka {see woaka), left (sinister), 

port side, left side. 





lah-ngayan, well {rwt tick). 

lah-tdre, think, believe, consider, alao 

lant-hat, strand (u.i.). 
, verbal safix signifying noTtkwardt 
(see 6-le). 

aa-ta-chaki; lean-ta-tai, reaoh by 

a.a-ta,-k6i ; lean-ta-koal, reach by 
stretching upwards. 
aii'hata, overtake in walking or 
leat, cease, finished, already, enough, 
yes (tmsioering question affinnafively). 
leat^changai(j), jangle-dearing. 
■dakta, arrive. 

'dia (see on) wardered, killed. 
h&tA, finish, complete, 
thepast (time). 
ah, jungle-clearing. 
'heatig-ahaa, once already. 
hiteako, bride, bridegroom. 
ifua-eli, blown out (extinguished) 
(of a torch). 
'kano, married man, Benedict. 
■ka', quite finished. 
k&pSih, dead. 
koifio, married woTiian. 
ngafMi, dead. 

□gong, burnt out (of a torch), 
last (next before the present). 
'poin-nop, dead. 

uhl (or \At-ab.i), old, ancient ! also 
according to, in accordance with. 

■aki-ta.n&Aii,ctuto7>iary, according 
to custom,. 
■Bhi-tashB,womout, unaerviceahle, 
■tape, complete (of a set), 
past child-bearing. 
1, completed, constructed. 
■yil-e-chakfii, quenched (of afire). 
'jol-konga-uhaki, married mare 
than once. 
— -yuaka, laden (of a ship or canoe). 
— - -yualnga, bur^it out (of afire). 
laneatia, the fifth and principal 
m^emoriat feast at which the skull of 
the deceased is temporarily disin- 
terred; -usually takes place two or 

three years after death (see "feast"). 
Its name refers to the fact that it 
marks the termination of the 
mourning period. 
laneat-tare, no more, 
len-chlh, mangrove (Brugniera gymno- 

leo - kaka ( - kanetai) (see leukah), 

knuckle-joint (of finger). 
len-kah-haske, tear off (as a hough 

— — .lianga, bead (v.t.). 

len-kaka, tmuckle- joint. 

len-kok-ngo&t, tally strip of bamiboo 
or eaaie (see App. N, item 88). 

lomk&k-Dgare, snap, break short. 

ok- lilka, joint (in anatomy). 
len-kok-Qgo&t (see lenkab and lakok), 

bamtoo or cane tally-strip, each nick 

or joint in which — made by bending 

— denotes a score of coconuts (see 

App. N, item 88). 
len-kop-haine, bite a fruit. 
Ienm6ya (see loe), all kinds of cloth. 
len-ngina (see langan), heavier. 

-~ -ka', heaviest, very heavy. 

Ienn6ah-hala(gee Idah) , higher (ofatree, 

hut, ^c). ■ 

IsDuoah'bala.ka', highest (of a tree, 
hut, fc). 

— koi, higher (of a hiU), taller. 

kft-, highest (of a hill), 


-dit, higher (of a cloud, bird, 

— kft', highest (of a cloud, 

bird, ^c). 
Ienn6ya (see 16a), quicker, 

ka', quickest. 

lenTiioijo (see Ida), three fathoms. 
len-pa, grating platform under roof for 

storing surplus articles. 

clink -lenpa, storeroom formed by 
len-paa (see lapa), better, superior. 

—- ka", best. 

lenpuh, prmcipal posts of hut. 
] en-she, ha/ndker chief. 
— — -ta-nyung-ngamat, silk handker- 




lep-ngaahe (see halep), order, arrange- 

lewe-yande, at yov, pleate,jiut as you 

le-ctak^, forward, onward. 
le-hata, catch any falUTtg object. 
le-hare, go direct eastwards. 
le-l&re, go direct northwards, 
le-agare, go direct southwards. 
]e-nire, go direct to landing-place. 
le-shire, go direct westwards. 
le-tfire, go direct to any particular spot 

in any direction. 
\eak-ngA-ch.akk, starry. 
leaag, name, sound (s.). 

leang-hindel, sound of firing, report 
of gun. 

letmg-Dge, eound of the voice. 

shahong, roar of the surf. 

— -ta-miloh, nicknaine. 

— -tai, noue caitsed by any hand- 

hat-tang-ta-leang, inisname. 

heaafjr-e-tota-leang, namesake. 
leap, able, can, -understand. 

ba-l^ap-hata, teach a language or 
any handicraft. 

-tfl, learn a language or any 


la-miap, expert at any handicraft. 

paiyuh-ta-leap, skilful, dexterous. 
lebare (from the Portuguese), paper, 

letter, book. 

et-et-lebare, write. 

an-et-lebure, pen,pencil. 

harra-lebare, read (lit. see paper). 

et-ctai-chakft- lebare, read aloud. 

t6mtare-le»ng-ta-oal-leb»re, list of 
words, vocabulary. 
leta, STnear one's face with verjuUion. 
leto-abire, intelligent, aide to explain 

or interjtret. 
16 ware, raiibit. 
lifftnla, elephant. 
lii ; lirl, sit cross-legged. 
lin-hei (see hen), to-day, now, the 

present tiine. 

linlieA-dain, to-night. 
linni-ngaslie (see Ik), smaller quantity. 

lmn&-iigaslie-ka', emalleit quantity, 

liri ; lii, sit cross-legged (with the knees 

lok-tat-Blie-penyulia-chuaha, all sorts 

of property. 
lok-yfi (see yfl), greedy, voracious. 
loka-hakoka (see heniok.), cannonaded, 
hanfoifia (see foin), shot at with a 


— -liaApila (see bel), shot at with a 

barilla (see bindel), shot at with a 

Tikag (see n&ng), Sore the lobe of the 

lanAnga-n&ng, bored lobe of ear. 
loko-cb^hya, delirious. 

diannga (see dian), rush («.). 

liarta (see haira), look amay, look 

kaiwa-ahe (see kai), pilfer (v.). 

sh&ng-ba (see ^itim), wander from, 

place to place, 

— -y61ange, converse. 
lomk^-ngare (see leakiQi), snap, break 

lompa-ta-ebi (see lapa), fix hut posts 
accurately (i.e., perpendicularly). 

lomt&(k) - hashe ; lomti - haebe (or 
-haoga), soaJe cloth or fish-lines in 
■mangrove-bark water in order to dye 
the same. 

Lo-dug, Great Nicobar (the largest 
island. in the group). 

16, run. 

16a; 1&d6j&, quick, fast. 
15e; lue, three. 

loe-shin-kinga, triangle, triangKlar. 

— -Bhn4, thrice, three times. 

chdng - loe - la, barque (i.e., three- 
niasted ship). 

la-tDue, only three. 

leu-ii6iyo, three fathoms. 

lamen-n6iyo, only three fathoms. 
loh, remove any head gear. 

loh-hanga, take off hat. 

olob-hanga, take off clothes. 
16i(j)-ngftiige, hrag, boast. 




lom-hatA, fold (v.). 

lop-hata, cover the thouldera, wear a 
lanop, ilanhet. 

— •oata, wrap (v.). 

kanyut, cloak, overcoat. 

op- lop, shawl. 
161) Qga, soutk-wind. 
16k, many, Tiumerous (of animate objects 

16k, conceive (become pregnant); alsQ 

native (*-)• 

ISk-hoSng, perrpire. 

— -ahamoa, sprout (u.). 
^ -ita, native of this place. 
paiytili-taahalok, a woman viho is 

with child. 
15m.; 16m-:ngare, fie down. 
long-she, the name of a sea-snake about 

iff. long. 
Ibag-she ; pomlong-shire, sink in 

I6ngto ; 16ngt0Tta ; 16ngto-t6n, from 


16ngto-cliii{ii), whence (inierrog.). 

— -chu-Hlii, whence (rel.). 
ita, hence (from here). 


from that plq,ce. 

^jabagto-oin, from whom (interrog.^, 

tai, from (the hand of ) . 

Idp-ngace (see halap and halop), every- 
lopta-chuk ; lopba-elie, common, not rare. 
lopta-koi-shichua, all sorts of amn^als 

(or birds, ^c). 

Ien-m6yai all kinds of cloth. 

penyuha, of various colours, e.g.^ 

all sorts of coloured cloth, Sj-c. 
Ida; landya (see 16 and shial), quiclf, 

fast, swift (of runner, fish, bird, ^c). 

l&a-chak^, rapid, swift (of a sprean^ 
or current). 

l&a-lda, quiclf. 

Ida-tay an, punctual. 

ienn&ya, quicker, faster. 

— -ka', quickest. 
paiy{Ui-ta-laii6f a, quick walker-. 

I6ah, spaihe of certain paims (see 
" Spathe "). 

Idah-hiliia, spathe of the Bentinckia 
Nicobarica (App. N, item 50). 
Idah-hala, high (of a tree, hut, ^c). 
J6ah.-hala-dit, high (of a cloud, bird, 

— — -koi, high (of a Mil), tall. 

haahe, deep (of the sea). 

lenndah-hala, higher (of (fee, hut, 


ka', highest, very kigft. 

-koi (see leaatsJi), higher (of 

hill), taller, 
l&e, cloth, also the Nipa fruticavs of the 
leaf of which thatch, rair^ screeTW, 
sails, Sfc. a/re made. 
loe-dec, /emaie ^irt (ef cjotly). 
hare, clothes, clothing. 

— -henteha, saiUc\oth. 

— -heoe, lamp-ioick, 

— -homjuaia, it'nen. 

iwi, chintz (lit., spirit-cloth, heinff 

used for shroud). 

kanSma; canvas. 

kMiA-puan, striped cloth. 

komlSng, TKrl^-red cloth. 

lamahoanh, furUng-sail of Nipa 

leaves (App. S, item 4). 
lenslie, cotton handkerchief. 

— -ngo^t, white cloth. 

om-al, black doth. 

paiyuh, trader in doth. 

— -ta-ket6it, rag, ragged. 

— -la-lMia, checked cotton cloth. 

— -ta-wia, ornamental skiri worn at 
certain festivals (App. H, item 

wa-koire, cover the head. 

cliam-]&DgBlii-16e, m.ake sail. 
chia-13e, Nipa fruticans (the tree), 
dai-loe, leaf of the Nipa frutioKis, 

also thatch made ther^rom. 
ihe-lde (see ihe), thread (cotton). 
lenmdya, all kinds of cloth. 
wia-lde-re ; wi-t«r;16e-re, put on 

yShi-lde-re, take off the skirt. 

— -neng-de, take off the male loin- 

16m, poor, destitute, also prisoner, con- 
vict (the latter meaning adopted si*"-" 




establishment of the Chvemment 

Ifln-shit6, tame, domesticated. 

16ai, slack (of a rope). 

Itnia, Polyoistina day (which covers the 

greater portion of the central and 

northern islands of the group). 
loan, smooth as pa^er or any polished 

InhS., crane, pond-heron, paddy bird 

(Ardeola leucoptera), 
Inkaiia, beat slightly or in play, 
luam, fresh-water eeh 
luan, sea-water eel. 
]u&at, patient under treatMent ai hands 

of a shaman or exordst. 

enluana, shampoo a jMtieni after the 
manner of a shaman when exorcis- 
ing the evil spirit ; exorcism. 

m6ri\aB,ast,shaman,exorcist, medicine- 
luat-nga, tangle (v.i.). 
lue; loe, three. 
Iuin-y6k, curly hair. 
lung-nga ; liing-nga-lili, drift seawards 

(away from land). 
lai(el!), numeral affix with reference 

to pairs of fish or birds geared or 

Ifti(ch) ; lai(j), timer jiosts, supporting 

floor of hut. 
Iaih-ng6-re, recognise. 
lain ; halain (v.i.), turn round, revolve. 
halai, to and fro (as in loading or 

unloading a canoe). 
lain-nga, warp, twisted round 
ch6ng-henlaiD, sf earner, 
en-lain-nya, shift (of the wind). 
-jan-ciiakS, to and fro, back- 
wards and forwards (as in visiting 
a patient frequently ) . 
balain-hala, heave up with wxTidlass. 

hanga (v. t,), turn a wheel, |"c., 


— -hata (v. t.), spin, whirl. 
halainya-d^de (v.i.), spin, whirl. 
hen lain, spinniug-top, 'machinery, 


— -danuan, paddle-wheel of steamer. 

ichih, sewing-machine. 

tilain-hanga, twist fibres (as in mak- 
ing Unes). 

— -haine, untwist, untwine. 

— -ngare, turn one's self away. 
-'— -tare, turn one's self towarns. 

m'; ma; am; em; om (see em), ordy 
(in conslr.). 

ma-chol (see chula), right-hatlded. 

mah ; m^, ever (see mMi). 

maha-clii(i), see (clii(j)), a married 
couple ^staining from certain food 
during latter portion of wife's preg- 

ma-hale- ridla (see hale), steersman. 

mahalAk («ee lok). 

maliateng («ee hateng), obedient. 

maha-yul-nga-abi (see ha-jul), thief. 

mah^m, menses. 

mahen-druaUngatd, skilful. 

mahen-laka, link of Khain. 

mahenndanno (see foan)) tmly four 

(heang-) mahentona (see baton), v'ne 
hand-epan (about 8j inches). 

tna-hentain-ya (see hentain), basket- 

mahodoha-yan, active. 

mahol-dula (see hominl), d^th (of sea 

mahong-jiiang-ne (see mong-jflang), 

ma-haichj sTnall cicatrix. 
ma-ka", later on in the same day, soon, 

presently, by and by. 
mak ; mak-di (see dJ), fit (v.). 
mACkyngB^helseemkh), fulfil anagree- 

ment, also proper, fair. 

maknga-in&ma, laden (of a ship err 




in<»ift(k)-i)^ (me m&li). 

makaih-yaatd, active. 
malang, unfriendly. 
maJSiiig-riifa-diaya, evening-star. 
MaUya, Malay. 
mali, smatl-pox. 
malohla, m.i^hTOom. 
maliiu, heads. 

nat-malao, viear a heai-tiecklace. 

mongleanga-malan, head-iiedtlace. 
man, eongequenth/, accordingly. 
inani(k)-nga-kdi {see m&li), youngest 

-poali (tee mkh), htnation in 

August- September. 
Bhi (>ee m&h). finished, lad, 

hintbmost, tixth {or seventh). 
ta-he (*ee m&h and he), never 

man&ta, sort, kind, description, 

laan&ya, inherit. 

mane-ui ; wane-ni, frame-work of 

dome-roof hitt. 
man-lefia, OoilocaUa gpodwpygia 

(swiftlet which builds the edible birds' 

mang-nge, stone, rock, sandstone. 

mftuf^nge-tbh ; mAagnge-j&i, reef- 
forming coral. 

ma-nlanga (see nga-nlanga). 

manoal, bundle of prepared Fandanua 

rnanoin, lip. 

mandin-hifua, gunwale of boat. 

— -l4-cii6ng, upper lip. 

— -lA-eshe, lower lip. 
Bhomnyak-ka-maiioin-de, pout. 
taynaih-fie-manoin, hare-lip. 

manol, numeral affi^x used with reference 

to bundles of Oycas fruit. 
manilt, moonless night. 
manjut'iAee {see m6ta-t6re), thoughtful. 
TaA-Tih\(ch), soft {of wool, ^.). 
mat, exterior, outside, surface of any 

solid, also eye (in constr.) . 

ma.t-h.du, ankle-hone. 

kanelili, knuckle of toe. 

kauetai, knuckle of finger. 

mattai, shore, coast, boundary. 

ohay&-yan-m&t, view. 

dilk-mat, distinct, weU-defined. 

diik-mat, tear (water from eye), 
juice (of fruits). 

dn-mat, dirty, muddy. 

dajn-mat, transparent. 

Lanniih-inat (see ifah), cloth-hruah. 

kaldka-mat, checkered. 

nga-mat, coloured (in constr.). 

ok-mat, skin of the eyebrow. 

shnn-inat, white-wash. 

yang-mat, sniall white bottle. 
mat-mal6ka, lire-Jltt. 
mattai, country, island, land, village. 

mattai- Be ngSili, India. 

omtom, the world. 

— -PigTi, Burma. 

paiyuh, Ificohar Islands. 

mentai, villages on different islands. 
det-se-mattai, ^itrance to (or exit 

from.) harbour. 
f&p-mattai, share, boundary. 
harra- mattai, explore. 
h6in~iiiattai, harbour. 
mat-mattai, shore, boundary. 
oal-f&ng- mattai, entrance to harbour. 
ehom-mattai, countryman, Tiative. 
ta. mattai -ane, wherever (rel.). 
mit-ngare (seey^-hanga), taJie leave, bid 
him^ga, bequeath. 

n&Dg, advice, caution. 

imitaga, bid farewell to corpse before 
reTnovalfrom hut or at grave. 

— -ok, salutation to departing guest 
or visitor. 

ra&nge, wail over a corpse. 
ta&h, finished, yes (answering giiestion 
affirmatively) ; ever. 
mak-nga-inAma, laden (of ship or 

— -she, fulfU an agreement, pro- 
per, fair. 

maDS.(k)-iiga-koi, youngest child. 

-poali, lunation in August- 

— — -shi, finished, last, hindmost, 

iA-he, never more. 

m&(k)-iiga-7an, healthy, well, re- 




hat-mSh, never. 
mSlia-oheli-taslie, father, when de- 
malLa-kdnita (see hakom), pupil. 
maha-wing, log of wood. 
mahnyn-Wre, ash permiseioti. 
ma(k)-rLgashe (see roAh), proper, fair, 

fulfil an ogTeement. 
ina{k)-iigayan, healthy, well, recovered. 
man, walking-etick. 

maii(-kenyum) , toy, plaything. 
mangare (see mit). 
maoli, sugar cane. 

m^h-hata, suck sv,ga/r-cane. 
mfish, brass. 
infi,yai(ch); mayai(j), aho tenmoiQ) 

oil esfpresaed from rasped coconut 


komcbi(j)-hata, make coconut oil by 
gqueeziug rasped kernel in the 

ha.nrabi(2)-h&ta,, apply coconut oil to 
the head or body. 

mechiila, thename of a harmless vaaiety 

of snake. 
mechiiya, rtwtk. 
mekuya, numeral affix used with re- 

ference to small bundles of cane. 
mekiiya, departed spirit of one recently 

deceased {see iwi), 
me-kwiiha-t8 (see enkatatS), hostile, 

ill-disposed, aggressive. 
meme-la-alu, cleanly. 
Mencli^, Menchai (wninhabited islet 

off Little Nicobdr). 
menchutat (-enktina), widower. 
mcDchutat (-enk&na), widow. 
mendenchya (-lili,'tai), little toe, little 


tacoi-mendencbya-lali (»ee l&h and 
i&i), fourth toe. 
men-dua, thumb. 

mendua-lah, great toe. 
menduna-she, half-witted. 
menfoan (see enfoan), only eight. 
menfoanno, only eight fathoms. (see henhwava), 
tne-nia ; me-nyoD, stingy. 
MeDiima (»ee momi), the Creator. 

menk^a (see enkkna.), Nia 

women of different vUlagee. 
menkoan (see koim), father of maim/ 

children, procreative. 
meokoina (see etik6ma), Nicoharese 

men of different villages. 
nienkoina - she (see enkoina), had 

character, rogue. 
menlAo, land-crab (edible species'). 
menliiana (see liiana), sha/man, medi- 
cine man (or woman), doctor, exorcist. 

menluana- Dense, priest, chaplain. 
men-lama-she, walk noisily (esp. on 

hut floor). 
meiil6i(j)-hatiga (see kflM - 16i(j)), 

rendezvous (v.i.). 
menn&yo (see an), only two fathoms. 
mennota-not (see not), pigs of different 

mennoichya-yan, flabby (having loose 

men shin, m-iser. 
men - sh&to (see iasat), only seven 

men-shefia, qitarrelsome. 
men-sh6nka, forefinger. 

-ISh, second toe. 

men-tai (see mafctai), villages on diffe- 
rent islands, 
meajah., fifth (in order). 

menyat'kss sixth (in ofder). 
men ; me, thou, you (sinj'.), your, thine. 

ta-meii ; ta-rae, thine, thy. 

chang-raeA, thy own. 

ySl-men, you, your (of a comm,unity). 
men - diila - ahi (see bedut), foster- 
mehsha (probably from Malay meja), 


meneha-chak-miteak, bedstead. 
met (abbrev. for men-hat), you-not., Agestrata dendriba, 

beetle which injures Fandanus trees. 
— — -oyAu, Xylotrupes Gideon, beetle 

■which injures coconut trees. 
met-nyuata, Teredo navalis. 
met-pata-she ; met-pota-shc (see pat), 

sin (v.), sinful, wicked, guilty. 
met-pata, vmpotent. 
met-pua-tashe, delay. 




met-tota (see tot), dear, high-priced. 
mefc-jat-yok, beetle of a certain tpecies. 
met-y^ta, lock of hatr. 
mewih, /ri^iKi, ocquaintanGe. 
meyuha, name of a harirdeat variety of 

meyii-yatS, untnidworthy. 
mean, cat. 

ta-mean, mew {of a cat). 
miika, pronged spear {for the several 

varieties see App. N, items 17-21). 
laido-d&k, dragon-Jiy. 
mienb-long (see enh), lihallaw water 

mient-she (see enh), thort, low (of 

tree, hut, ^e.). 

eaneiihalie ; eniiai - she, shorter, 

ennai-she-lca', shortest, lowest. 
mienhalie-koi, ghort of stature. 

ennenhshe-koi; ennaiahe-koi^ «^rter. 

ennaiBlie-koi-ka', shortest. 
mieAhsliIre, low (of any inammate 


ennenhsliire ; entukiahire, lower. 

enn&ishire-ka', loteeet. 
mifaiiiya,, cloud {cmnuhta, cifrus, and 


mifaiiiya-ta-al, rain-cloud (nijnbjts). 
mihoya, ■mosquito. 
mihfln, barren sow. 
milnho, near, close (ad?.). 

paiyuh-ta-miinho-chak, neighbour. 
mikeh, jealous. 
mikien, Megapodius Nicobaricus, the 

Tnound bird or brush turkey. 
milah ; miloh, feast, festival, entertain- 
ment, game, sports, fun, joke, jest. 
mileh, brittle, fragile. 
Miloh, Pulo Milo (inhahited islet off 

Little Nicohar). 
miloh (see milah and iloha), feast^ fes- 
tival, entertainment, joke, fun, game, 

miloi-yantd, hypocrite. 
min&t-ngashe, famvUy. 
miagah-haiBe (see ingah), news. 
minlena, swiftlet (CollocaUa UticM, also 

Gollocalia spodiimygia). 
min-leya, quarter (a fourth part). 

minQl-onh (see 6nh), bundle ofjwewood 
(App, N, item 143). 

min-y^ double-tooth, molar. 
minyiii, yesterday. 

loiayiii-oaUhaJu, yesterday morning. 

— -ladiaya, yesterday evening. 
Miroe ; !Menrdi, Meroe (uninhabited 

islet near lAttle Nicobar). 
mi-sheha, a species of hawk, 
mi-shej A, quarter (a fourth part) also 

piece vf fruit or vegetable. 
miBS&t (see iasat), only seven. 
mitfinto, short (ofinanim. objects). 

ent&iita, shorter. 

— -ka", shortest, or very short. 
mitoah, the lunation in December- 

mitoh-paiyuh (see itoh), partial, 


mi toha- ta - hokngfik - hare, dainty 
mittoi, tie, falsehood, untrue, false. 

mittoi-olyola, tell a He. 

paiyuh-ta-mittoii lia^t 
mttua (see itoa) ; mituaya-chaik&, 

visitor, guest. 
mitaiii, light green pigeon (Osmotreron 

chloroptera) . 
miyiya-kan-de (see iye and k&n) 

miyai (see yai) worth. 
miyai-ya, costly, valuable. 
mian-chakil (see chaka) frown, scowl 
moah ; moaiih, nose, snout, tip, point, 
moah-hindel, -muxzle of gun. 

— -indat, knife-point. 

~ -kalet&k, tip of the tongue. 

— .kiiin6k-iiet, tip of the tail. 
mattai, cape, point, headland. 

— -moah, tip of hose. 
shanen, spear point. 

— -shichua, beak. 

— -toah, nipple of breast, teat. 

— -tai, tip of finger. 
fap-moah, side of the nose. 
kehoah-oal-moah, nostril. 
koi-moah, bridge of the nose. 
I^moah, spear-head. 
pomohlp-moaii, point, sharpen (v.). 

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moiinh-hare (see Afih), ignite (a.i.). 
modal (see da\}, dutiful. 
mohiwa (see hen) long sight, kem-eyed. 
mohom-nol-she (see homnol), chum, 

inliina te friend. 
mok-dak-ayan, covetous, 
mokea, Tnagic performsd by a good 


paiyuh-ta-mokea, tnagidan. 
mok-heak, the lunation in January- 

mok-kak ; molhal, cray-Jisk. 
miikrawitka, owl. 
mok -ngeaka , flying^fox. 
mokdnha, bundle of prepared Pandanus 

— -du, clod of earth. 

mokpflk (see pak), bundle carried on 

mokshflka, falling star, tneteor. 
mokteka, ^trnaU piece of cloth, paper, 

mokteka, large piece of cloth, paper ^ ^c. 
niol-k4nla (see olkanl), half. 
mol-loaha, piece of ineat. 
mol-ola (»ee oa,U6l&), funeral. 
mol-yola-cliaktl (see ol-yola), haggle 

over a purchase. 
molyula, oyster (Ostrea dendroslrea). 
mom-haahe, shut one's eyes. 
momal-loDg-eakaua, woTTian deeertedby 

her husband. 
momal-loag-eukoLQa, man deserted by 

his wife. 
mom-chiama, score of human beings, |-c., 

four-hundred (of coconuts and coins 

momi-hanga, oreate, build. 
momi-hata, make. 

momi-kSsha, singer. 

komdunga, thunder {v.). 

— -fii, build a hut. 

— -on, carpenter. 
Meniana, the Creator. 

mom-kim-shi, gratrful. 
motim6i(ch) ; momn6i(j) tend^. 

hata, feel (by gentle pinching). 

momtom, brother-in-law {sister's 

husband) . 
mo-mwoik («ee woaka), left-handed. 

momye-hanga (v.t.), turn over, reve) 

momyuaha (tf.), quarrel. 

mong- chiiang- hari -she, awkwa 

mong-hang-fie-koi, mother, w) 

moiig-haug, angry. 

inong-hJiig-ka', very angry. 

(heang-)mong-inga, two hand-spans 

(abi/ut 16^ inches). 
mong-keang, flying -fish. 
mong-koang-nga (see koSng), strong 

mong.lang-ne, front tooth. 
mong-leaaga-malan, head-necklace. 
mo-ngoava, oyster {Osirea hyntis). 
mong-ahiingtd (see ong-shang), <:ook 

ioong-sh6ng-ha (see ong-ahftag), 

mong-yanga, overhear ; also keen-eared. 
mong-yuinga, grain (<m of rice). 
mong-yuaug (see ong-yuang), middle 

mong-yuang-fie, third, also between. 

-lah, middle toe. 

-tai, tniddle finger. 

mahong-yuang-ne, between. 
mop-hashe, close the mouth. 
moreh; oreh (q.v.), first. 

paiyiih-moreli, ancestor. 
mosbaba, marning star. 
moyuah-yan-paiyuh, selfish. 
moih; mush; wane-moih-hoptep, side 

handle of chest, SfC. 
mol, button-quail. 
molhal; mok-kak, cray-Jish. 
mimtoma (see omtom), crowd, assem- 
blage, meeting. 

momtoma-ahe, clump of trees, herd, 
group, number, collection. 

Tnboit6vat^shich.iia,fioek of birds. 
mong-ko, howl, basin, cup- 
m6n, pimple. 

Luya, albumen of egg. 

mdpok, feast, banauet. . 
mfita-tira, think, consider, p-ir.der 
maayut-tdre, thoughtful. 




m5t-ngare, bcuhful, modest. 

rani-juti, blame. 

muldaJia, faggot. 

DiTiinu, Carpophaga inmilwrU (imperial 

mueh, end, tip. 

musli-tai, tip of finger, style, ■manner, 
loorkmanship . 
mujua-wasbe, eager. 
miit-ngare {see btimut; bomdt), lie 

mai.ngayaa, soften (v.u). 

h-omai-hanga, mften (v.i.). 
-maiich}. flash of light 

iuai(ch.)-oal-ka]ahoija, sheet Ught- 

maihe-jande, accident. 
mai-ngayao, soft {of silk, Sec). 
mam, shark {Oarcharitis vulgaris). 
main-shiUlng ; mam-shikeng, shark 
(hammer-headed), {Zygaena mal- 

mainitk ; mam&k-beoe, candZe. 

chuk {or lftb)-in»iiLiLk-heoe, candle- 
maiyS-hata, take a quid of betel-nut, 
Ghavica-leaf and shell-lime. 
heh-iDomaiy^ tim.e for taking a 
maiyAt, rough {of unplaned wood, ^c). 
mai-yjita, beetle of a certain species. 

na-wa {see wfi); bleed («,*.). 

fia-man, potato. 

na-aata (see fi&ta), personal Omainents. 

Sa-nih {see mlh), aTty merthandise. 
yd . . . na-fiihj for sale. 
na-nata (see yan),- persdnal orrM- 
jnents of any description. 

fiap-oal-mat, ivifik, blink the eye. 
nap -flap -hata; twinkle. 

fiata, wear personal <irnameiits. 

yao-uata ; na-nata, personal orna- 
ments of any l^nd. 
nat-malan, wear d, bead-necklace. 

nilhre-chok, prelertd to be in pain; 

— -tu, pretend to be sick; malinger^ 

aak-hata; ok-nftk-hata, lash together 
with cane, string, fibre^ Sfc, do or re- 
pair cane work in connection with a 

nAk^oalm&t, blindfold. 

ong-ldnga, fastened by a cord 

round the neck. 

— -ong - yuang, girt (see ovg- 

ok-uik, bandage. 
fiak-ngare-di, smaller (in size). 

di^he, smaller {in quantity). 

B&m, calm weather or smooth sea. 
n&ng, ear, rim (or brim) of hat, ^c. 

j^ug-kioi pectoral fin (cffish). 

— -shapeo, brim of hat. 

chok-oal-nftng, ear-ache. 

da-B&ng; da-nang, any slHtiged in- 

det-nftng, hollow behind ear-lobe. 

hen-y&, clock, watch. 

hong-tiing-n&ngi unbored lobeofea/r. 

kucha-pa-n&ng, wear (or put on) ear- 
ring of coihd-wire. 

kench&p -, ear - ring of coiled 

kala-naiya-oal-n^ng, ear-wax. 

ka-n^g-oal-keiit&ng, stile {over 

kehoah-oa]-n4ngj orifice of ear. 

kenliuwa-uangt ear-lobe. 

lanonga-ning, ear-lobe (bored). 

loka-n&ng; bore the ear-lobe, 

iigg6n-ta-n4iig, advise {see ngeflfi). 

o-kinga^Q&iig, persuade. 

ong-dang, m,usic. 

ta-nSag-chakll-m, screen over door- 
way of hut. 

y&ng, hear. 
NS,ng-^ari, name applied to both 

Gamorta and Nancowry islands, 
□ang-nga, iioze (white mark on tree), 

hence buoy. 
chakli, target. 

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ha-n^Dg-liaiiga, hlaae (mark) a tree. 

hen-iiftng-ngashe, inark, sign. 
n&t, groitnd rattan plant (^Galamus 

species) when full grown {see " heat," 

"ok-heak" and "kenshech." For 

navies of other species see " ftattaa ") ; 

strap, band {as round package) . 

akt-fihha,, hoop iron of cask. 

— -ok-kapo, leather strap. 

- — -ong-juaag, belt, waistband. 
fiftt-ngatd, annoyed, displeased, 

ha-fiat-ngatfl, abase, affront, offend. 
nat-ngayan, diffcuU, hard. 
nen ; danen ; ranen, now, immediately, 

also lately. 
nen (see nina), this. 
ueng, loin-cloth, as worn by the tnales. 

neng-ta-ohtha, ornamental loin-cluth 
worn at certain festivals (App. K, 
item 157). 

det-neng, tail-like appendage of the 

ong-neng, wear the "neng.' 
Bhiii-kanka-neng, back-fastening of 

the "neng." 
wia-neng-de, put on the " neng." 
yihi-neng-de, remove {take off) the 
nenge {see ulna), this. 
net (abbrev. for na-hatj, he-not. 
niak, young coconut leaf. 

da-nok-nl-neak, one of the tnemorial 
feasts {see "Feast"). 
n§e {see nina), this. 

inneha, on this side. 
nga-f&h {see k&p&h), die, expire, 
nga-kok-ngare, diverse {v.i.). 
ngala, verbai stiffve signifying south- 
wards {see oreh). 
ngamat (see mat), coloured {in oon- 

al-Dgamat, black-col owed. 

du- ngamat, invisible (Ut. shade- 

liah-ngamat, visible {lit. a,ir-colour). 
yang-ugamat, transparent. 
t«i-Dgamat, gray {Ut. steam-colour). 
nga - D^ana - diie, projecting stem of 

nga-nianga ; ma-nianga {see ng§aiig), 

Qoveminent {especially that of India) 
also order, commaTid. 
ngange ; ta-ngange, south. 
ngashe; ttg&ahe (g.v.). 
ngare, verbal suffx signifying " south- 
wards," also relating to persons or 
things on thasamelevel {see App. ii{'')). 
fheang-) ngare, alone, also whole {in, 
reference to contents of box, ^c, 
when damagtid or lost), {nee 
"heang" oTid "Whole"), 
nga-ahi {see elii and kflhe), about,, con- 
cerning {in connection with any 
passed event {see " When " and 
" Bothing "). 
ng&-tai, from {prep.). 
ngayan, comm/in suffue (seeySh-ngajan ; 

wait-ngayan, ^c). 
nga( -ngamat), yellow-colour {or 

shen-ta-nga, strww. 
ng^-dit-la-chdng, wa^ in track of ship. 
ngit-hae ; ta-ngahae, east. 
ngii-k6i {see koi), bald. 
ng^Ie ; ta-ng&le, above, in the sky, up 
there, north. 
ngale-ta-koi, top of. 
ngfUshe, dawn below, on the ground. 
ngith; yiak-ngah, low tide; low-water, 
ngah-la, aground {of boat or canoe). 
chaki-ngaJi, belou! low-water mark. 
k6i-ngflh, foreshore, 
14hardma-kdi-Dgih, sponge. 
shei-koi-ng&h, sea shell-fish. 
yuang-ngflh, shortly before low- 
nge, verbal suffix signifying southwards 

{see o-nge). 
nge, tough {of meat), strong {of inani- 
mate objects), hard. 
hat-nge, brittle. 
nge-ngayan, tough {of food). 
ngen {see nge). 
nge ; ngen, voice, language, also call, 

name, say {v.). 
nge-tankflng, croak (of a frog). 
— -komdunga, peal of thuruter, 
hat-tang-ta-nge, misname. 
heangre-nge, together {in concert), 
with one voice. 

V 2 




ilehi-ngere, nod {denoting agirma- 

kedolmga-nge, contradict. 
p4wa-ngg, echo. 

wl-karushe-nge, shout, be nouy. 
di-she-nge, loud noise. 
ngeaiig, employ (of a servant). 

nga-nlanga, Oovemment {especially 
that of India), also order, com- 
ngehe, mean, signify. 
nge6n, ask, ask for. 

nge6n-ta-n&tig, advise. 
ngoat, ripe coconut. 

ngoit-ta-ko&p, kopra {dried coconut 

koinha, coconut paste. 

Ide-ngoAt, white cloth. 
ngol-shire, bow the head. 

ol-ngol, turn the head doumwards. 
shin -ngol -shire, stoop in order to 
pick up some object; salute by 
bowing the head {as by natives of 
ngong, not any, none, empty, expended. 
ngong-tai, quite, wholly, entirely, 

— -hangft, empty (c.i.). 

— -ngare-kii, cleur out completely 
(c.t.) (sec"ngare"). 

leat-ngong, burnt out {of a torch). 

yb - ngong, nearly ampty, nearly 
finished or expended. 
ngfl-chaka, solemn, grave. 

ngda-cbakfl, face. 

o-ngdha-chaka, melancholy. 
ng6a, bamboo {B. gigantea). 
ngot-shire, stmp as in passing under a 

iigai(ch) ; iigai(j), any vegetable oil, 

especially coconut oil. 

wi-ngai(ch), make cocotiut oU by 
boiling process. 

hen-ngai(ch) {q.v.). 

lian-iigai(ch) (q.v.). 
ngaiche; ta-ngaicli!', below (in lower 

pl'ice), west, d/Dwn there. 
ngaifie, tomards landing-place. 
ngoi; ngoi-nga-chaka ; ng6ie-chnk&, 

purr., clear, limpid. 

ngftih-dga, scald (v.), bum, singe. 

she, bum {v.i.). 

ae, verbal sufiuc signifying towards 

landing-place {see 6-fie). 
ning, t'^ht {of a rope). 
fiire, verbal suffix in reference to landing- 

phzce {see App. BO), 
nlama {irr toapa), tongs {of rattan) 

(App. N, item 77). 
niaa; uee ; nenge ; nen; eiiih; en. 

El, hut, house. 

ni-dabiu, white ants' mound. 

heoe, lamp. 

hille, pent roof hut of Malay 


— -hind el, gun-ease. 

holowa, black honeycomb. 

— -holpul, dome-roof {or beehive- 
shaped) hut. 

— -indat, scabbard, sheath. 

kamayua, lying-in hut. 

—~ -kapo, cattle shed. 

— ■ -kenyual-hfll, ov(d-shaped hut (as 

at Gar Nicobar). 
■ — -re, home. 
shicbua, bird-cage. 

— -ta-optopslie, oblong hut unth roof 
shaped Uke tilt of waggon. 

toiia, golden honeycomb. 

chamang-fii, hut owner. 
chnk-fii, home. 

mane-ni; waae-nl, frame-work of 
nim-hata, nip, pinch. 
nlnan ; yin^n, unripe coconut as drunk 

(... App. I), 
uok, chilly. 

noajaa,, Jish-trap (App. N, item 90). 
DOang, num.eral affix used with reference 

to animals, birds, fish, fruits, boxes, 

baskets, and cylindrical objects. 

noang-larom, drupe of Pandanus 

— -ehnn, joint containing 
shell lime (App. S, item 67). 

noanga ; hong-noanga, round (cylin- 
not, pig (domestic). 

.y Google 



□ot- kamaU'a ; not-kaniet-16i(ch), 

ta-w6ak, grunt of pig. 

mennota - not, pigg of different 
n61 (-ngamafc), red-hot. 
fi6, milk. 

hai-nd, wet-nurse, any woman who 

gvcklet an infant. 
hai-nd-baca, tuckle, nurse at the 

et-nd-chda-hata, siKk milk (of an 
nuk-hanga, bite (offish a,t bait). 
nyang, shiver from cold or fear. 
njoh-ngatfl, aaxious. 
njok, shiver. 

njuii, thin (of inanimate objects). 
njuam-hat, shrink (as cloth). 
naia, then, lately (a few days ago). 
naifie, that (referring to some object 

near landing-place). 

oal ; b] ; ta-oal ; katah-oal, in, inside, 

oai-ch6ng, on board, upper deck. 
• — -chua, jungle near coast, gavage, 
wild, inland. 

— — -ta-tuchul, dense jungle. 
— -yuai, light jungle. 

• — -Aiik, pond, well. 
— ■ ta-karu, lagoon. 

— -endaiya, bosom^ thorax, chest. 

(beasg-) oaUendaiya, four hand- 
spans (i.e., from tip of finger to 
Tniddle of chest, or about 2 feet 
9 inches). 

oal-f&ng, mouth, 

mattai, e«(roi»ce to harbour. 

— -haki, early morning, sunrise. 
hftk, rairine. 

henkaa, bottom (inside) of boat, 

canoe, ship. 

— -Lenlowa, blue (lit,, iimde sea). 
hola, scoop a canoe, trough, |r. 

— -hnda ; oal-liura, valley. 

— -koi, debtor. 
l&h, sole of foot, 

— - mattai, ashore, on shore, in 

Taendal&, palate of the mouth. 

ag&h, foreshore. 

— -odoa, armpit. 

ow6-pomafiap, money placed in- 
side cheek of corpse before burial. 
ol-hauga; oal-ola-she, bur-j. 

— -ola, 6«rtai. 

oal-piet, empty (or newly dug) grave' 
sliiil, unfavourable (of wind or 

ta-hiya, Areca lath floor. 

ta-tao6ang, boarded fioor. 

— -ta-hedwil, bamboo floor. 
tuchul, impenetrable. 

— -tai, palm of hand. 
anula, grave (s.). 
ompeiishe-oai, too small (of a pot, 

basket, ^c), lit., small inside. 
oagshdng-oal-chua, visit the jungle. 
posh-la- oal-tai, handful. 
ta-oal-d&k, afioat. 
ti>\-oa\-ika^, foam from the mouth. 
oal-ol-hanga ; oal-dla-she,se0 oal-hola, 

oal-ola, buriai. 
mol-olft, funeral. 
anuta, grave (s.). 

oal-dlala, girl's designation on festival 
celebrating her reaching puberty. 

oal-haki; bl-iia3c\, mrmiing. 

oat-kSni-banga (see k&nl), out up fire- 

oalm&t; oalmat, e^e. 

oftlmit-lioti, operculum (of a shell). 

— .iche, the silver or mother of pearl 
facet of the ear-stick. 

— -ken, Tridaciia crocea. 
dain-oalmikt, blinded by glare of svn 

bemeangla-oalmat, one-eyed. 
niiJdi-oalmali, blindfolded. 



ong-jftang-oftlniit., eye-bait. 
pen-al-oalm&t, iris (also the pupil) 

of the eye. 
po&k-oftlni&t, any eye disease. 
p6t-oalmit, hUnk. 
pntoi-oalmit, thort'sighted, 
puyol, oalm&t, eye-lash. 
tuchul-oalmat, blinded by storm, and 

oal-t.&l-hata, e^at vp a pig, fowl, ^c. 
oinhnga-kamaiiahe, marriage feast. 
Si, ^'' house inarming" f east for anew 

— -shwatare, feast in honour of the 

retjim of a long abient friend. 
oarik, Amotto (Sixa oreliana). 

oiDk-ta-flk, vermilion, red paint. 

holyual, turmeric. 

tang-nga, t-unneric unguent, . 

yelloio paint. 
o-cMUoalmat, stare, I'lok fixedly. 
ochiawa; ochlova, eaU or stimm,on one 

within hearing. 

ochio-hBitB,,aill or sum/mon one within 
och61, spear fish at some depth below 

ochatd (see>) , prefer (in respect 

to am/thing except food). 
odeh (see oreh),^*-*;, ^c. 
odi (see on), heat severely. 

di-iffihre, commit suicide. 
odon-hnre-nge, lisp. 
otBha, pet pig. 

ofe, they, their (three or more). 
o!et (abbrev. for of e-het), they (all) -not. 

ta-ofe, their (of three or more). 

chaag-ote,their own(of three orm.ore) . 
ofino-hata (see fino), beat slightly, slap. 
ofoah-hala (v.t.), open upwards (of a 


ofoah-haine, open oiitwards (of a 
door, window, ^c). 


foan(r, wivdo'o. 
ofoh, cwjf, /'(« on the ear. 

otiro-hata, slap (c). 
of w6h.-ha8h.e, strike a nail. 
vbab-hata, viaii as women when mourn- 

ohen-hai^, lead (show) the way. 
oho, bark of dog. 
uhanii-hata, challenge (v.). 
ohanwa, cave. 

ok, hack, sHn, out, outside, crust, Wnd, 
shell of -mollusos and of eggs. 
ok-chok, labour of ch-iid-birth. 

hanga, suffer the pains of 


dik-tet-hafiahoi, potsh^d. 

deyi, hidn of the thornback ray 

(App.N, item 132). 

hangai, Cyrena shell (App. N, 

item 130). 

henkaa, keel. 

heeu, Mytilus shell, used in pre- 
paring Fandanus paste (App. N, 
item 129). 

— -hoanka, nearly full. 
huja, egg-shell. 

h6, last-cloth made at Oreat 

Nicobar from, the hark of the Geltis 
veetimentaria (App. N, item 133). 

— -ilaila, King conch shell. 
—~ -ingeh, Tridaoaa squamosa. 

— ^kanlai, Oapsa rugosa or Area shell 
for ra^ng coconut kernel (App. 
N. item 127). 

'kapo, leather (lit. bullofik hide). 
■k4p, tortoise (i.e. turtle) shell. 
■kipre, leather (sheeprskin). 
■fcehu, scab. 
■koi, scalp. 
'kok, go astern. 

nga-lah, sendaieay^ banish. 

■ISh, i««(ep. 
■1^, avoid, ahun. 

ISbare, cover of book, 
.t, skin of the eye-brow. 

n%, bandage. 

■fii, roof of hut. 

onihan, bark of tree. 

paka, carry on one's shoulder. 

pikania, mole cowry. 

■puka, Oypraea, cowry (App.N, 
item 131). 

- -shnhom-nSk-moali, iTjweie tenui- 
^na (wood^sock shell). 

- -shei-koi-ngflli, marine sAeH. 
oal-cbua, land eheU. 




6k-sk&i-os,\-di^, fresh-teater sheU. 

shiak, ontside. 

, -hai-ehat^, side face, profile. 

— -shinSIa-koi, Murex ■pakna-rotae 
(rosebud shell). 

— -tai, hack of the hand. 

— -tanglah, Cassis tuberoaa (Queen 
conch shell). 

yfOa,t,Pteroceraslamhia (scorpwn 


— -yak, georweed. 

yuak {see yiiaka), cargo. 

yuang-onihaii, htuk, peel, fruit- 

et-chai(j)-nga-ok, hack-hife. 

kiik£i-ok, hackwards. 

la-ok, astern, aft, outside. 

tala-ok, behind, after. 
ok^k-hatehe, avaricious. 
ok41, horisontai. 
— -hare, across. 
okaAl-haDga ; ol-kMI-l^anga, amjiviate. 

ok&nl-ngs^ongldn^, {see k&ul and 
ong-lflnga), decapitate. 
oka, {see okai), take. 
ok-cbttSk-hata (see chnflka), stride (v.) . 
ok-daka, inince (ehogjme). 
ok-da(k)-tefc-liansliQi, (see da(k)-ne), 

fraginent of pot, potsherd. 
<)k.-\ieB^, ground rattajp plant {Calamus 

«p.), while young. 
ok-hoanka, nearly fvijl. 
o-kin1'hare, round, cproular. 
o-kl- n ga-nfing, persuade. 
ok-kok-Bga-l&lf, Ijanish, aendaway. 
ok-kok-hata;, strike vnth tjiefist. 
ok-lftk-haiiffa, turn aside on acctnmt of 

some obstacle., shun, avoyf. 
ok-loaka-l^b, anMe. 

koal, wrist, 

kanyut, cuff of sleeve. 

ok-lflaka, girdle a tree. 
ok-16k-hata, stitch with pafie. 
ok-16ka-shia, young plantaip, }eaf (as 

used for the " f1jm " necklaces), 
ok-n&k, bandage. 
bata (see aak). 

ok-ngilk, Ught up, illuminate. 
ok-ngfik, eat any kind of food. 

hok-ng6k, food, meoL 

ddh-na-ngdka, eatable, edible. 

lia-ng6k-mattai,/e(M( held when pro- 
pitiating the spirits with food. 

heii-mokog6k, eating-time, supper 
{or dinner) -time. 

maha-ngok-paiyflh, hospitable. 
ok-ngyuik, tube {of toddy pot, ^c). 
ok-not-ta-pait, orackling {of pork) {lit. 

skin of small pig). 
Orkon-bare, round, spherical. 

okon-kare-stie, hall, 
o-koii-hare, sit, sit doicn. 
ok7pak-hata ; okrpak-dfik, boil water. 
ok-p&ka (see p^), carry chiU or 

bundle on shoulder. 
ok-p&nk, turn the head upwards. 
ok-p6k-banga (see p6k), tether, tie to a 

ok-pdka, smaH lowermost platform or 
grid of caTie or wood above fireplace 
for smoking food. 

ok-puafc-hata, eat open trpouth of fowl 
(Nicobarese method of drawing blood 
for anointing fJteir fefish objects, 


ok-shaka, uproot, hoe. 

ok-Bhak-ha^b^e, de&geri, 
ok-sbiak, stand (it.). 

sbiaka; Rbiak-lare, sfantJ up. 
ok-shiak-bai.-chaka {see ^hAsHi.), profile, 

ok-shok-bata (or -hija), chop up betel- 

ebanok-hiyi^ {^e shok), hetel-nui 
ok-shok-kan^p, pick ike teeth, 

shaTi6k-kan4p, tooth-pick, 
ok-sha&k, Pi7ta<iga Manii {Beccari). 
ot-tsk-haogiS, J tik-taifga, tear clot\ 
warp-wise or paper along crease. 
ok-tek-ba-iwi, mahe an offering of 
two strips of cloth on some jungle 
tree near village when there is 
sickness, in order to propitiate the 
tanek-ha-iwi, the offering so viade. 
ok-teka, tortoise. 
oktoak, Indian dove (Macropygia rufi- 

ok-t6k-hasga, tear doth woof -wise. 



ok-tnak-hola (see taak), take out.,draw 

ok-tttak-hata ; oktuak-kia; oktuaka, 

jish with hook and tins. 

oktuak-hai-jai-jan, bargain. 

oktnak-la, heave up. 
o-kvrah-hanga, take out of a box, ^c. 
liashe, take Fandanus fruit out 

of a pot. 
oal, unpack. 

ok-yuak-okw4h-lianga, unload cargo. 
ok-wflJia, warm one's hards. 
ok-ySka ; ok-yiLk-hala ; ok-yak-hauga, 

unravel, disentangle. 
ok-yu'ik (see yuaka), cargo. 

ok-yuak-an-diie, convey in a canoe. 

— — -okwah-hanga, lighten («m- 
load) a skip, canoe, S/'c. 
ok-yuak-hala, dissolve (v.t.). 
okai ; oka (see kai and ka), accept, 

okai -yai - hata, punish, retaliate, 
avenge (lit. take price}, 
okai-hataj hokai-hata, bring, fetch 
okai-yai-paiyuh, honest (lit. bring- 

okai-wa, fetch guests for a feast. 

hokai, anything brought or fetched. 
okai-haoga, hear, carry, take oicay. 

okai-haia, carry up, disinter. 

haahe, carry down. 

n^-lih, carry away, take away. 

olA-hansia, slit (v.t.). 

olS-haifie ; ol-tala, crwre ntea(,' 

o1 - ddl- hata; kaha-dol-ciiaktk, look 

askance, ogle. 
ole, ascend a hill. 
oleo, ordinary annual feast to celebrate 

erection of village poles in order to 

drive away evil spirits. 
ol-kinl-hanga, shorten (v.t,). 

mol-ktinla, half. 

ol-kanl-Bga-pipa, tub (i.e., lialf a 
ol-kp|-hare, circle. 
ol-lal-hare, lie down. 

katere-ol-l&I, sofa, couch. 
ol-ra&l-hashe, swollaw (i-.). 
ol-nala, half close the eye as owing to 

ol-ngala, pitch (of a ship) (v.i.). 

oi-ngol (see ngul), turn the head down- 

oloh-hanga («ee loh), take off one's 

— -liaine, take off one's personal orna- 

olpSI-hanga (see holp&l), weed (v.t.). 

ol-pila, wooden Jinial of dome-roof hut. 
olpila-al, top of the hut. 

ol-tali-fillii-e (see fSli), commit suicide. 

oNtai-nga-nSng ; ol-tAI-nga-Bti, des- 

ol-tal, cluster. 

komtal-hala, suspend (especially over 
fire-place in order to smoke, as food) . 

ol-tila, rip (cut open). 

ul-tealajolteal-hangaj ol-teal-Dga-shI, 
forbid, prohibit. 

olua-hanga, cover a bjiudle with doth, 
paper, or leaves. 

lanua, cloth- leaf- or paper-wrapper. 
luawa ; lamanua, bundle, package. 

ol-wiala (see wial), shift (of the wind). 

oly&la (see wihla), younger. 

ka*, youngest, very young. 

oly&la, propitiatory sacrifice or offering 
of cloth, Sj'c, at burial of relative or 

oly&lnga^hak&, extinguish by quench- 

leat-y&l-e-chaki, quenched (extin- 
guished) (of afire). 

olyola, say, speak, teU, talk (v.t.). 
India, tale. 

mol-yola-cliaki, haggle over a pur- 
olyola-ka", speak the truth. 
holyol, speech, remark (s.). 

ol.yiial-hata, rasp with the thorny stem- 
sheath of the Calamus sp. 

om ; am ; em ; m" ; ma (see em), only 

-)tu-ak («ee 4k), embers. . 

omchum-p&l, make a torch. 
chariom-pfll, torch fastenings. 
pal-ta-chuma, torch (bunch of dried 
coconut leaves). 

oradam, return after at least one day's 




absence, spend a n^ght away from 

omdom-tat, Pandanus drupe after ex- 
traction of the pulp. 

omdam-h&re (see duni), squat, sit on 
one's keels. 

ome-hat-slii-cliak^ having one's face 

om-fum (see ium), embrace (seated or 

omham (see ham), appetite. 
— -hata, taste any food. 
uniboih, tobacco., caked-tobaco (see 

— -lioktak, Madras leaf tobacco. 
Lomlom, cheroot, cigar. 

hongdilng, siaall leaf tobacco. 

14-cho&nk, large leaf tobacco. 

• okpiaug, caked tobacco. 

— -omhano, locally cultivated to- 

— -pil, Chinese tobacco (imported in 
paper pnckets). 

inom-omhiin, cigarette wrapper. 

1an6m-omh6iii, cigarette. 

tanop-omhoin, tobacco-pipe. 

top (or pem)-oiuh6ifi, smoke tobacco. 
omi, vrnt. 

omi-hata, wetten (v.t.). 

hommin-haslie, soak chtk (as in 
orui-jant6, loathe. 
om-Vom-asbe (see kom), successful in 

omkwom (seehornkwhro), gift, present. 
omleama, reel, stagger. 
omlom-hanga (see lota), fold (v.). 
omname-hen, accompany another tre a 

canoe, Sfc. 
omn3,me-oug-sli6ngha, accompany 

another walking. 
omnSiDi-tarit ; omn&me, together, in 

■ company. 
omngam-hanga, bite food. 
omnoifj), rotten log of wood. 
ompeiiahe ; penshe, small, little. 

ompenshe-oal, too small (of pot, 
socket, ^c), lit., mnall inside. 

ompen-ffLp, slight, sivm, slender. 

ompen-t&k, narrow. 

enpechya, smaller. 

— -ka', smallest, very small. 

en-pen-cLaka, smaller in quantity. 

pomeii- tare- she, lighten (by reducing 
omshftm-haaga; omah&mnga-sliiiipoya 

(see sb4m), anchor (v.i.). 
omsh&t, ripe. 
om-tam-hala (see tam), pour, cause to 

oratkm-\iaXa,, fUh with a spear, spear a 

Jish (said only of wom^n ^tearing). 
om-tam-ta-mangnge, hit with a stone. 
um-tom-hanga, carry a child or bundle 

omyam-han-chaka, gradually. 
omyaa, headman, an officer. 

OQiyaa-ta-karu, any supreme autho- 

penshe-omy&a, a subordinate official. 
omyiam-hata (see yiam), i ' 

omyum-hai-cbakS, smile. 

ona, they (dna!) ; their (dual). 

onat (abbrev. for onfl-het), they (two)- 

chaog-ona, their own (dual). 

ta-oiiii, their (dnal). 
o-i)g6ha-chiika (see ngfl), melancholy. 
ong-Ang, cook, boil meat or Jish. 

d^-hong-flng, gravy, soup. 

not-hong-iog, boiled por/c. 

ho-ang, wooden grid for broiling fish 

hong-heang, lard, dripping. 

ong-ho&Dg-kSft, smoke jish. 

-hata, bake. 

ong-ang-ha-cliaki, open one's m,outk. 
ong-chuang, cripple (e.). 
oug-daog (see da-naug), music. 

ong-d^ng-hata, play on a stringed 
ong-daBg-ha, visit a hut in the same 

ODg-dang-hata (see oitg-detag),play on 

a stringed instru^ment. 

da-uaug, lyre. 




ojig-A&,ng&, platform above ji/replace for 

storing pots, lard, ^e. 
ong-dinff-ibe-16e, pick out threads from. 

cloth for threading needle, a former 

practice when cotton thread was 

rarely pToourable. 
oug-dong, alight wail-poste inside hut. 
ong-doug-bata, cut with an axe, ^lit 

tBood or betel-nuts. 

ong-d6iig-h(uig& (or-hame), cleave 
ocg-duftDg-koi, over {prep.). 
ong-e-lith, leave, depart. 
OBg-eng, hone. 

ODg-eng-koi, shull, oraniiimi. 

— — -6rat6in, skeleton. 

-ok-k&p, carapace of turtle. 

atama, jaw-bone. 

ya-oal-ong-eng, •marrow. 
ong-etih (see enh), latt (next before the 

onget ; moreh ; oreh (q-v.), firet, 

ahead, before, earlier. 
ong-f&ng ; f&nga, cut a stick. 

hashe, destroy {by cutting 

ong-f6ng-ha!a (see long and tenfong), 

dive after some object. 
ong-foang; kan, Birgus latro {coco- 
nut-robber crai^). 
ong-iw Stag, fell, cut down. 
ong-heri (»ee hen), ancient, once on a 

time, a long time ago. 

ii)61a-0Dgbeit, traditiori, 

kanoishe - ongheii, ancient (old- 
fashioned) song. 

katdka - ongheii, ancient {old, 
fashioned) dance. 
ong-neang-ngashe, saceessful in hunt- 
ing or fishing. 
ong-ho&ng-hata {see onf^-ai^), bake. 
ong-ho&ng-kfla, smoke fish {v.f.). 
ong-keang, winor nerve, "funny bone." 

det-ongkeang, elbow. 
ong-koAnga (see koSng), etronger. 

ka', strongest. 

ong-langa, 3 days ago. 
yan, 3 days after. 

oreh-chak^-onglanga, 3 dayi hffyre. 
ong-long, drill a hole. 

OBg-ldnga, neck. 

aheja-ongt6nga, hackle (of feathers). 

pdka-ODgldaga, strangle, put to 
death by hanging. 

taiba-ongl&nga, behead. 
ong-nang, fungus. 

ong-neng (see neng), wear the " neng." 
ong-ngeang, comer {of table, box, 

ong-ngeang-la-ok, outside corner of 
box, &v. 

la-oal, inside comer of box, 

ong-ning, stretch (make tight). 
ong-nong-hala, rescue from drowning. 
ong-puang-kaniioa, erect a mast. 
panuanga-kan&ma, throuds, stayt (of 
ship, Src). 
OJig-shkng, fetch from ship. 
ong-ahang-hala, cook rice, m^al, vege^ 
tables, ^. 

hata, stea/m vegetables, Pandanus, 

mongrshAngtd, cooh {».). 
fflng, relish, enjoy any food ; also 
oDg-shong-ha (see ahong), walk, go for 
a walk ; also an infant coirtmendng 
to walk. 

ong-Ehongha-tol^hok-oka, waUc 
across, traverse. 

— -hawin nga, tcalk round, make 

a circuit. 
shil6ka-8h6ng-ha, walk on tip.-toet. 
mong-Bhong-ha, walker. 
ong-shoang, wear any head^covering. 
ahanoang, head-band of Areca spat)te, 

ong- tang-hare, deep-chested. 
ong-teng, turn the head aside, 

he-chak&, lopsided. 

ODgrtenga, roll as a ship 

ong-to4nga (see toing), turn a pig over 

on to its back. 
ong-toang, sliee (s.). 

-hata, cut i^ food of any kind. 

ong-tung-hala; ong-t6ng-kmlha, lay 

out {spread) a feast. 
ong- t6ng- hata, grind, bray, pound. 




ta-nflnga. pedle (large) (App- N, 
item 110). 
ong-wahnga, day before yesterday. 
oreh-chak&-ongwftiinga, two days 

ongwahngayan, two days after. 
oiig-w4ng, astride, bestride. 
OQg-yang-hata; ong-yang-ta-yan, toat'^ 

ong-yang-yan, shun /fom fear of any 

ong-yftng,* ticklish [' this word now 

ong-yiang-cli6rg (gee yiang), travel by 

sea in a ship, muke a wyage. 
-hftt - she, accompany another 

fii - nge ; ong - yiang - ±al6, con- 

(Mig-ylanga(-kam6e), ieiicoop (App. 

N, item 98). 
ong-yo ag-ha\A,guard,protect ,'watch over. 
ong-yuam-hala, roll., furl. 
ODg-yuaog, waist. 

ong-yuang-^nlia, body. 

-oh6ng, vtidshipa. 

-ctua, vhiddle (heart) of the 


-diie, middle of a canoe. 

hala, dive after some object. 

kihe, /M?I-mooa». 

-lafong, heart of the jungle. 

Se, middle of a eircie. 

-oal, middife of Am(, stone (of 

fruit), seed, nut, pip, 

oalmit, eye-baft. 

— -paiyiili, m.iddle.-aged. 

mahong-yiianga, middie of a stick, 
post, rope, tfc. 

m^ong- yuang ~ ae (see '■' mong- 
yflang"), between. 

mong-yuang, middle of a rota. 

-fie, middU-jinger, third, be- 

n4kA-ong-yiiang, girt (pass.). 

n&t^ong-y^ng, belt, waistband. 
oniban, wood. 

ofiihah-ta-ant^iio, green timber. 

ta-&nh.-cliftk3, ; onihan-ta-yiiin- 

chakA, touchwood. 

onlhaii-ta-ishian, seasoned timber. 
— -tai-ybknga, knot in wood. 
chla-ofiihaii, tree, trunk of tree, 

' l&li-nfiihan, tree-stump. 

ok-onihafi, bark of tree. 

ok-yuang-ofiihaii, huek (of any fruit 
but (Mconut). 

p&k-onlhaik, branch, bough. 

sham-yu&ng-omhan, charcoal. 

ta-oniltah, wooden. 
od4Ii, cough (s.). 

oo^-h&la, cough (v.). 

tii-bohoha, a bad cough. 
op-ch&p-hata (and -lare), collect shelU, 

seeds, Sfc, pick up. 
Op-chiap ; op-chuftp, female skirt. 

kai-chiap-hata, put on the skirt. 
op-chlp-d^sba (see chip and po-chip), 

kill a fowl according to the Nicobar 

method, i.e., by piercing the head from, 

behind by means of a stout feather 

plucked at the time from the fowl's 

op-dap-hata, paf (c). 

op-d4p-haehe (see d&pa), »pread a 

op-dup-hata ; op-dupa, fan the fiam^e 
of a torch with which a pig's bristles 
are being singed(the invariable prac~ 
tice after killing a pig). 

op-ep (see ep), seedling (exc^t of coco- 
nut and Pandanus). 

hata (or -haahe), plant out. 

op-hinp-hata, browse. 

op-hep, hem, of a garment. 
op-hep-hata, hem (v.t.). 

opkap-hata ; kflpa, Hte, seize with thn 

• hanga, bite food. 

koap-lianga(-hataor-haflhe), bite off 
(aocording to position of object). 

oplop (see lop), shawl, doth worn over 
the shoulders). 
oplop-16e, cover the shoulders. 

op-mop-ha-chak& (see &p and mop), 
shut one's mouth. 

op-fi4p-hata, gorge (v.), feed glut- 

op-op-hare, turn upside down. 




ka-6pe-k6i, ttpgfli (o/ o canoe) (c.i.), 
apside down. 

komop-hanga, capsize a catme (v.t.}. 
op-bp-haahe, pack for future use, store. 
op-shSp (s.), iinswer, r&ply. 

opehip-iiga-nge (v.), answer, reply. 
op-shapa, seize {as apig by the leg). 
op'ShftptS, aid, assist, help. 
op-shaap-hata, to attach an extra gun- 

wale to canoe. 

ahanoap-diie, the extra gunwale at- 
tacked to canoe on long sea trips, 
^c. {see " ahanoap-diie "). 
op-shap-hata, /ai(en (v.t.). 
op-top, ashes of paper, cloth, tobacco,^. 
op-top-bata (see top), drink. 
op-t6ap-h»iiga, »woop (of an eagle or 

opiiaha-hala {or -hanga), carry a child 

op with (see BhinpaDg), a wooden- 
pronged spear. 

opjftp-hanga, overhear. 

opjap-paiyuh, eaves-dropper. 
— -nga-n^e, eaves-drop, listen {asan 
eaveg- dropper) . 

op-y&p-ahitfl, make peace, quell a dis- 

opyiipa, prevent (by using force), dis- 

op-yop-hata, hunt pigs at night by 

spearing from tree at foot of which 

food is placed. 
opyiiap, '*doob" grass {Cynodon dac- 

oreli ; odeh ; ongeh ; moruli, first, 

ahead, leading, before, earlier. 

oreh-chaki {see "D&y"), proceed in 

— -hat, proceed in advance in an 
easterly direction. 

— -la, proceed in advance in a 
northerly direction. 

Iat6, one's senior. 

— -ngala, proceed in advance in a 
southerly direction. 

— -ne, proceed in advance towards 

orfih-flhe, proceed in advance in a 

westerly direction. 
— -fii-ddha; oreh-fii-kaiyua-a, j?r*<- 

oreha, begin, cominence. 
tirdm-la-oreh, in the earliest times. 
yuang-moreh-ne-tai, first-fruit. 
ori-hata ; odi - iiata, 6eof severely, 
thrash. , 

oi'I-Dga-f^, kill, beat to death. 
hori, anything {or anyone) killed or 

di-ifalire, com,mit suicide. 

Isat-dia, murdered. 

paiyuh-ta-ori, murderer. 

ri-a-rere, beat one's self. 
oroaka, pulley, block. 
osh; 6b (see ash), mist, fog. 

osh-chak4, overcast efcy. 

oah-hede, soot. 
o-shoah-hata, to spit or skewer a fowl, 

fish, ^c, with a shanoa /or broiling. 

shanoa, wooden spit or skewer used 
for above purpose (App. N, item 
oshua {see ahnk), return, come back the 

same day. 

oshua-haine, renwve, take away. 

hata, restore, give back, put back 

oshuah, coil of rope, ^o. 
oahiil, head wind. 
otah, node, joint {of bamboo, S[V.). 
otahal-hala, hang {v.i.), 
otih-hanga, send away any animate or 
inanimate object. 

— -Dga-shi, reject omy gift or food (as 
when mourning). 

otilnga-niug-paiyah, skilful. 
otd, couvade {paternal lytng-in), 
otfi-hata, sit (of a hen hatching). 
o-taih-hata; taih-hata (q.v.), lop off 

branches, strike with knife. 
owi-hanga, rub out, erase. 
la-mat, polished surface. 

— -yan-chaka, to and fro, backwards 
and forwards (as in visiting a patient 

— -hashc, pat into any receptacle. 

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owi-hala, take out of any Teceptacle. 

— -ha-hat, drive in. (nail, screw, ^c). 
haine, take out (nail, ecrew, |"c.), 

unbutton, unhook. 

— -hail-hat, put on pirtonal orna- 

lajan-due, decorate a canoe. 

— -she, unfurl. 

nga-ok, kuik betel-ntits. 

ta-shi, repair thatching. 

ow6, inside of the cheek. 

oal-ow6-poinanilp, money placed iii- 
side of cheek of corpse before 

oyii, lay eggs (of bird or rattle}. 
oyi-hanga (see yS), put aside, let go 

(loosen hold), discharge an arrow. 

ojk-nga-sb.1, take leave. 

oya-hanga-kana, take leave. 

ojA-hanga - ta - k&nde, desert one's 

ta-koinde, desert one's hus- 

oya-tat, spare, surplus, superfluous. 
oyfl-nga-shi (see ja), take leave, bid 

oyalnga-cliak^ quench, extinguish (of 

oyu-hanga (see ju), lay, set down, put 

oyua-hata, deduct. 

oyuah, •milk-teeth. 

oyuh-ngala, stay away (not return"). 

oyiihta, till, until (prep, and adv.). 

oyii-hare, down below, on the ground. 

oyAn ; ohia-oyiu, coconut-tree (for the 
numerous terms relating to the coco- 
nut, see Part I, and App. I). 
oyin-kaneal (see App. N, item 167). 

oyin-hatshe ; oyiii-yan, lonely, soli- 
oka, vomit (s.). 

oan-Ia-danun, emetic. 

oaa-hanga (or -hala), he sick, vomit. 

oah-chaka, envious. 

oe ; emoang-amoe, tepid, luke-warm,. 

o-he, go eastwards. 

6-le, go northwards, go up, climb, 

o-nge, go southwards. 

o-ne, go to landing-place. 

o-she, go westwards, go down, descend. 

6-te, go in any direction, off! (_as in 

starting a race). 
oya-kare, alas! 
61-chial-baIa (see chisl), lift or carry 

in the hand (see " Lift "). 
olde; aide (q.v.),just now, at last. 

61de-kfi,iio, bridegroom. 

— -koifio, bride. 
bl-okl-hs-rc, narrow-chested. 
61-tol, carry on the head. 
ol-tual-hata, tie a knot. 

tauual-ual-kiilala, neck-tie. 

tiloata, knot in string, cane, hair, ^e. 

tiluat-hanga, tie a knot. 

tinloata, knotted cane strip (App. S, 

item 8?). 
taminloata, knotted cane strip (when 

used with numerais). 
omtom (see torn), all, entire company, 

every one, total. 
omtom-hai-chakiL-hede, feed a fire 

W'th fuel. 
mattai, the world. 

— -tare, every. 
bomtora, mound. 
momtoroa, crowd, .issemblage. 

ehe, herd, clump of trees. 

shichua, Recife of birds. 

bag ; ddka-ong, then, before (amy past 

portion of the same day). 
,6ng. Little Nicobar (in the southern 

portion of the group). 
onh, firewood, fuel. 

onb-eh&-heoe, keep up (or bank) a 

iiiin6l-6Qh, bundle of firewood. 
dt, be (have a certain state or quality), 

also have, possess, he present. 
6ta, must. 
oak-hat, wade. 
oak-ne, through (of water, as in ford- 

ob ; osh (see ush), mist, fog. 

ob-chakfl, overcast sky. 
6i, smell (s.). 

shiang-6i, sweet-scented. 

pan - oi ; hat - shlang - iii, stink (s. 
and v.). 

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tong-iii, tmeU (c.t.). 
oich-hata, J^A by torchlight. 
oid-lare ; bid-ngaxe; bid-hare ; oid- 

ahire; oid-tare; &id-flire, hither 

(in variant senses) (ss 
, App. BO), 
oiiit-nga, hungry. 
oi-yanW, ohm/, obedient. 

pa (-re^), indeed. 

iknya-pa, goodness knows 

pa-chjflin-yan, queiich thirst. 
paclmii, cold (of any substance) 

sour (of Fandantis paste or 


penchauwa, colder. 

— -kft-, coldest. 
pa-hfie, fed, satisfied with food, 

tion after a meal. 
paheak, choke owing to a bone, ^c. 
pahom-slii, sguore bottle. 
pahfla, afraid,fear, dread,fright, terror. 

pahfia-chaki, timid. 

— -paiyuh ; pamahfla, coward. 
pak-pakak, crow of coclc. 
pak-pakflk, cackle of hen. 
pakaifl, acid, sour. 

pakan, resin, pitch, tar, black paint 

(App. N, item 163). 
paklaii ; pakinaii (see faaklan), blind, 

blind of one eye. 
piik6-k6i ; pak6-j6k, gray-haired. 
pak61 (see daiynSk), spathe feeding- 
tray (App. N, item 59). 
pala (obsolete), fire [_N.B, At Ghowra, 
pal6 still denotes jire\ 
pala-tewa, ^ame, light. 
pala-leat, forked lightning. 
chuk- palate wa, hat lamp usually con- 
sisting of a clam shell in which 
lard or oil with a tioisted piece of 
rag for wick is burnt (App. N, 
item 42). 
gham-yn^g-pala-leat, coal, meteoro- 

palauga-diaya, evening star. 
Palang-nariaya, Venus (theplanet). 
pala-toma, single pronged spear (for 
parUculars see App. N, item 24). 

pal&la-dit, fall dawn (as from top- 
heaviness, ^c). 

tai, knock down (v.t.). 

Palang-nariaya (see p^a), Venus (the 

planet), evening star. 
palo, Icose (of a cork or ring.) 
palai, a variety of rattan obtainable at 

the ISoutkem Group and at Trinkut 

palai-ehu, roU off. 
pamabda (see pab6a), coward. 
pama-t6re, ahvays, continually. 
pamoah-paiyuli (see puah), cannibal. 
panftma, handle (of knife, sword, ^c). 

pan&ma-kiri}i, sword-hilt. 

hen-la-ridla, tiller. 

pang-ebe; bang-she, fill, begin to sink 

or settle down as a canoe or vetsel 

outing to leak or heavy sea. 

ben-pang-baebe ; pom-pang-ebire, 
mii (..(.). 

paug-en-be, sink partially as from 
pang-at-chakS, feel sea-sick, retch. 
panona, battle, fight, war. 

cHamang-panona, fighting-man. 

pomoan-hata, fight with sticks. 
panokenlait, cooking-pot (see App. N, 

item 101). 
panong-ko al, cZot% bandage round wrist 

as protection in stick-fights. 

(beang-) panong-ko^l, seven hand- 
spans (i.e., from tips of fingers to 
wrist of the other arm, or about 4 
feet, 9| inches). 
paa6ka-l&la (see p6k), nmiilical cord. 
pandnga; panuanga (seepaniie),stay«, 

shronds (of ship, ^c). 
panflt-bindel (see pOt), trigger. 
panfit-koi (see p6ta), silver head-band. 
panong-ta-kui-kanoaDg, kneel. 

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panuaka-oal-f&ng: («ee pmh), orifice of 

the mouth. 
paDuanga-kanfliua (gee panue and oug- 

puang), shrouds of a mast. 
panue, line, twine, cord, string. 

panue-fdin, string of croes-bow. 

kfta, fish-line. m 

— •k4p, turtle harpoon Un£. 

chnk-pauue, baeketftyr holding fish- 
ing line (App. N, item 89). 

panutuiga, stays, shrouds (of skip, 
pan, muddy. 

pan-6i {see 6i), stink (s. and v.), 

yan, stinking. 

da-ta-pan, mttd. 
pa-oah-pa-osh-yau (see aeh), spoilt 

STiwhed food. 
pari ; bar^, dollar. 
par&ta, tin, linc. 

pare(j)-hata, squall, cry as a child. 
pat; pat-mat; pot-mat, s(om,dtrt,tiir<y; 

pat-she; pot-sLe, sin, wickedness, 

pat-cbak&, dvegs. 

p6t-chak4, overcast of the sky. 

pot-enfuawa, night-mare. 

pot-oalmilt, blink (aa owing to glare). 

pot-ngatai, spoil (v.t.). 

met-pata-she; met^pSta-she, sin (v.)) 
vdcked, sinful; guilty-. 

hat-met-pota-she, innocent. 
pat&k-Bhu ; pomtak-she, fall (as fruit 

when cut), drop. 
patiike-tB-oal-kamale, faU overboard. 
patita, sweet potato (^Convolvolus ba- 
paton-yantd, excuse. 
patoe-oalm&t, short-sighted. 
pa-waiig, onion. 
pB,jk\, jack tree {Artocarpus integri- 

pa-yai-yan, hereahout. 
pa, quid of betel-nut, (Jhavica leaf and 

sheU-lime which has been chewed. 

koyain-pil, chew a quid of the above. 

omhoin-pa, Chinese tobacco. 
pik, barb of spear, arrow, or fish-hook^ 

p4k-o&lliaii, branch, bough. 

pSk-omliaD-t'ompeikBhe, twig. 
p&k-hala, carry up. 

— -haehe, ca/rry down. 
hanga, ca/rry away. 

haine, carry to landing-place. 

— -ha-bat, carry to one's hut. 

— -hata; pfi.k-lare ; ok-piika, cavryon 
one's shoulder. 

mokpak, buiidle carried on shoulder. 

pomik, bundle of cane, firewood, ^c. 

pal-ta-chuma, torch (App. N, item 

pansh-oalmat, wipe the eyes. 
pi-oih-yan; pa-osh-pa-osh-yan (see 

Qsb), spoilt smoked food. 
piwa-nge, echo (s. and v.). 
peat (see beat), heal (v.i.). 
peb, iTioonlight. 
pehari, aU right! "samte to you" (in 

response to greeting or a farewell) . 
pem-bata, drink (v.). 

po-mem ; kt-iaexD; drunkard. 

pem-omboin, smoke tobacco. 
pen-al-oalmat, iris (also pupil) of the 

pencbanwa (see pachau), colder (of any 


ka', coldest (of any substance). 

pendiawa (see diawa), besides, in addi- 
tion to. 
penenknga-mattai, isthm/us. 
peukeata, dust. 
pen-lab, skin-disease. 
pennftapa (<eep6ap), 'poorer. 

— -ka", poorest, very poor. 
pennai(cb)-hajiga-abe (see pai(cb) ), 

less in quantity. 

~- -ka", least in quantity. 

^— -hatft-ebe, more in. quantity. 

— — — -ka", most in quantity. 
pennait-ahe (see pait), fewer. 
-^a,', fewest. 

ugasbe, more in quantity. 

-ka", most in quantity. 

— -tare-sbe, much more; more than; 
upwards of. 

-ka', very much more. 

pen-sbinwa-anet-lebare, iiik. 

pen- tang, bile. 

pea taiig-ning, black bottle. 



pen -tan, dripping, lard. 

pentila, slight grave-post on, which 

miscellaneous portable pr<yierty of the 

decerned is placed (^A.pp.^,it&m 159). 
pentopa, dust, 

potop-mat, dusty. 
pen toag, a variety of rattan obtainable 

at all the islands. 
penyoaka, dost. 
penyuh (see paiyflh) Nicoharese of 

different villages or islands (see 

" Peraon." ) 

penyuh- hare, manners, behaviour. 
penyiiha, Nicobarese wearing ■rrnainents 

or foreign clothing (see " Person.") 
penyiiha, kind, sort, denm-iption ; also 

colour, reflection (_as in a mirror'), 

16 pta- penyuh a, of various colours, 

j61 -penyiiha, various. 
peiiahe ; ompeiiRhe (q.v.), »mall, little. 
pen-k^ spawn, roe. 
pe-yaade, mislay. 
piat ; piet, sand, ground. 
piat, healed. 
pidan,_/?af (of a floor, board), 

pitanh,yJa( (of the oadput) ; also of 
such coconut - shells as are flat- 
Pign ; mattai-Pign, Burma. 

ahom-Pign, Burmese. 
pindol, a variety of rattan obtainable in 

the southern group, 
pin- tang, gall. 
pintong, white ant, termite. 
piab.i\x-&nb&, scratch owing to irritation ; 

itch (*.) 

pishih-oal-Shha, exdted, flurried, 

hatia, sting (u.). 

pistdl, pistol, 

pit&tih (see pidka),flat (of theocdput), 


pitanh-koi, flatten the occiput of 

pitlafih, basin, plate. 

pitianh-k&ha-wel, plate (round). 

pitianh-hiU§, dish. 

fc'ompenshe, saucer. 

pipa (from Malay), cask, barrel. 
poaka, geld. 

not-ta-poaka, hog. 
kapo-ta-poaka, bulloci, ox. 
poa-sbire, always, invariably, without 

poa-t6re; pama-tfire, always, con- 
po-chip, p'jinted, sharpened, spiked. 
po-chlp-koi, spike. 
ohip-bashe, plant a post in the 

pomchip-mOfth, pom( (v.), sharpen. 
op- chip -dish a, kill afoiel according 
to Nicohwr method (see "op- 
chlp." ) 
po-f wak, viscera, entrails. 
pofwak-pat, large intestine. 
pofwak-ka', small intestine, 
poho-yiitna-she, conceited, vain. 
pohotn-shi, rectangular. 
pokak-hatahe, avaricious. 
pomak (see pak), numeral affix used 
with reference to bundles of cane or 

pomak-orih ; pomSka, bundle of 
neatly trimmed imitation firewood 
as placed on grave as an offering to 
the departed spirit (App, N, item 
pom chip (gee po-chIp). 
pomdi-hanga, roll under a cylinder. 
pomem (see pern), drunkard. 
ponifuk-she (see Mik), drop (v.t.). 
pomkaiya, fever, 

kalik-peiikaiya, ague (see kalak). 
pomle, black bottle, 
— -yang-mat, white bottle (large). 
pomle-hala (v.t,), roll a cask {baU, 
^c), upwards, 

Itanga (v,t,), turn a wheel, ^e., 

hata (v.t.), roUa cask (ball, ^c.) 

hashe (v.*.), roll a cash (baU 

^c.) downwards. 
— -ngare (v.i.), turn round (of a 

wheel, ^c). 
ta-pahom-le, bottleful. 
pom lop- shire, sink OS a turtle when 

pomlong-ahire (see 16ng), sink (of a 




sAip, stone, drowning man, or 

pomname ; panfLtoa, knife-handle. 
pomnap-hanga (see p6io-n6p), extin- 
guish by pressure or cover. 
ponmilp, blown out, extinguished (of a 

fire or torch). 
pom-nim-tare, owe. 
pomoiDou (see ehfing and pomoan). 
pomoan-hata (see f&Vidiia,), fight with 

pamamoau, fighter. 
da-md&, wiitTter in a fight. 
chamang-panona, fighting-man. 
chdng-pomomon, war ship. 
pomoap (see poap), poor person, 

pom- pang- shire (see pang), sinft (v.t.). 
pomshaun-hala, soften (v.t.). 
pomshiun-liaalie, soak, cloth, fish-lines, 
^C, in mangrove bark water in order 
to dye the same. 
pomtaJt-ahe (see patAk), drop (v.i.). 
pomtong - hanga ; pomyong - hanga, 

sciiter (strew), sow seed. 
pom-yflm-flhe (see jam), overload (of 

skip /yr canoe). 
pomj 111 (cb) -hanga, efface, nA out. 
pomyiim-lara, dimple. 
pomoishe, old (in reference to animate 

pong (see yuang-pong). 
popai (from the SinduBtani), carica 

posh; push; bash, /uZ/. 
posh-la-oal-tai, handful. 
heang-molkAnla-poah, half-ful. 
poshi-n&ng, trouble, worry, disturb. 

da-nang, disturbed (or deafened) 

by noise. 
poshi-hat-she, tnake a noise, fidget, 

poahi-hat-nge, prattle, chatter. 

leang, rustle (as of leaves). 

potop-mat (see pentopa), diMty. 
poy&ka-ahi-jdk («ee yok), dishevelled. 
poang, large biscuit. 
Pdahat, Bompoka (inhabited islet near 

the centre ofNicobar group). 
pfiap, poor. 

pennflapa, poorer. 

ka', poorest, very poor. 

pomoap, pauper, poor person. 
poit, diarrhma. 
powah, paddle of canoe (App. N, 

_ item 3). 
pot-ahe (see pat), sin, crime. 

met-potrO-she ; met-pata-she, wtc&etJ, 

pot-nga-tai, spoil (v.t.). 

pot-enfuawa, nighi-inare. 

pdt-oalm&t, blink. 
pAa-she, baby, infant. 
p6k-hata ; pdka, hind, tie, fasten. 

pandka-lila, ttm,biiical cord. 

^]£.&-ong\&ngai, strangled, put to death 
by hanging. 

ok-p6k-hanga, tether, tie to a post. 
pflt-hanga, strike the nipple of gun (of 

the ham/mer). 
p6t.-hata ; et-pdt-bata, pull trigger of 

pau6t-hindel, trigger. 
p6tai-koi, wear a silver head-band. 

pandfc-koi, silver head-band. 
p6loh, stout. 
poak-nga, drown (v.i.). 

hennok-hashe, drown (v.t.). 
p6-Bhire (see poya), sit, sit down. 
poya ; po-shire, sit, sit down. 

en- poya, seat, stool. 

kSt«-p6ya, sit still. 
pa&, sport (either hunting or fishing) . 

piiao, get (obtain) by hunting or 
pnk, bubble. 

pak-oal, swell as rice in boiling. 
pnfca-ta-tSka-ok, ring-cowrie. 

pnlaog-tana, caterpillar. 
pnld, thigh, the lap. 

p6ya:-oal-pul6, sit on the lap. 
pulyol (see puyol). 
pumoyol («ee puyol), hairy. 
puQg-hanga, turn round in order to see. 
pnng-ngare, leave (or eepiraie) 
owing to disagreem^ent, forsake, 
avoid a quarrel. 
ha-pnng-hanga, separate (w^e» one 
pa^ty leaves the spot). 




kali4-puDg-hanga, separate {when 
both parties Have t}w$pot). 
pnshla (see posh), hrimfitl. 
pnto&ng, elephantiasis, "Cochin",leg. 
putoi-oalmat, near (short) -sighted. 
paj^k-tiatalie, tealk noisily {especially 

on hutjlo(yr). 
pnyo! ; pnlyol, Katr of the body or face; 

aho the hair of animals and feathers 

of birds. 

puyol-kftpre, wool. 

— -lai-chak^ whisker. 

— -oaimAt, eye-lash. 
okm&t, eye-brow. 

— -not, pig's bristles. 

ahichua, feather, qtUU. 

pnmoyol, hairy. 

pnyue, dusk. 

Tuchul ; pnyue-pot, about 7 p.m. 

puyu, dawn, daybreaki 

enhla-pnyu, shortly before dawn. 
Pu, Car Nicobar, the northernmost, and 

most populotis island of the group). 
puao (see pn4), get (obtain) by hunting 

or fishing. 
puah-lare, eoi meat only. 

puah-paiyuh ; pamoah-paiyuli, 


puaha-dishire-ta-iwi, total eclipse cf 

keam-ta-l'wl, partial eclipse vf 

sun or moon. 

piial -ngay an , forget. 

pliangs, rig (fit with sail* and tackle) 

puhila, /ennew( (of toddy, ^c). 
pulnga, igland. 

pulnga-t'ompeAahe, islet. 
piiak-nga, perish at sea. 
pai(ch) ; pai(i), venomous snake (there 

are 7 known varieties bearirtg separate 

pai(ch); pait; t&-j)&it (q.v.), small, a 
little (also in amstr.). 
pai(cli)-hat, a Ittle, some (in r^er- 
ence to food only). 

hanga-ahe, deficient, little (in 

hata-ahe, much (in quantify). 

pai(ch)-lienndiya, lets far, not eo 

peniiai(ch)-h»nga~she, less in quan- 

ka-, least (in quantity). 

tiat:a-ahe, more (in quantity). 

— — — -ka', most (in quantity). 
kahtL-pai(L'h), share (v. and «.). 

paiai (from, Hindustani), pice, copper 

pait ; ta-pait ; pai(ch) (q.v.) smaU, Utile 
(in constr.) 
pait-enddhngasbe, less in quantity, 

— -en-paitshe ; pait-endua, smaller 
(in «.,). 

— -lenpaa, inferior. 

— -rgaahe, small quantity (not in 
bags, I'c, hut in huik). 

— -ngatd, forget. 

— -pfti(ch)-hBiiga-Hhe, pii/er. 

— ■ -tare, more, some more (in quan- 

-ka', still more. 

-she, a little more, a few more. \ 

yan, wait a little. 

-Blie'Wi, unfinished (lit. a i 

little more to do). \ 

diiat, fragment, remnant. 

-^ -tat-she, the remainder, the others. i 

tet, a little more than. \ 

ta-eh, a little more (in ashing, . 

giving, ^.). 

she, soms, a little, fev). \ 

wilitashe, decrease, diminish. 

en-pait-ngaahe, less, smaller (in 

quantity). | 
ka', least, smallest (in 

quantity). , 
penttait-dne, fewer. \ 
)cat', fewest. 

— -ngashe, more (in quantity), ; 

— — -ka", most (in quantity). \ 

— -tare-abe, much more, many more. 
ka", very m,uch more, eery i 

many more. I 

y 6- pait -pait- tare, greedy, covetous. 

paiyft-eyan, lose. 

pniynA, fibre of the Gnetum edule (App. I 
S, item 130). , 

.y Google 



paijuah, fighHrtg-atick, quarter-staff, 

also the Oarcinia speciosafrom uihick 

these dicks are obtained (App. N", 

item 28). 
paiyuh, man, person, people (especiaUy 

native of Nicoba^ Islands) . 

paiyuh-Amlmat, European. 

inla, bigamist. 

damak, guest. 

hftiishonk-Iare, visitor. 

— -hat&li- to-mat, guide (as through 

— -kalingi foreigner. 

— -komato, host, ent&rtainer. 

— -mattai, native. 

-chaog, own (or fellow) coun- 

diawa, stranger (hut fellow 

country Tnan). 
mahalok, a woman inhile preg- 

motet, aifcestor. 

ta-mokea, magician. 

oal-nl, kinsman. 

ta-chuaha, wealthy. 

hakal-nga-shi, lover. 

-hahgdh, hairless person. 

paiyub-ta-headOal-ngatd, wise, die- 

-ini&ya, one who conveys in- 
vitation to feast. 

ki\\i^pa.i{ch), partner. 

leap, skilful, dexterous. 

mik-matiai, surveyor. 

-miinho-chok, neighbour. 

.omsli6m-iiiiloata, one who 

conveys invitation to feast. 

olkdjB, wise, learned. 

pnmoydl, hairy person. 

tejeh-ngamat, European. 

maha-ng6k -paiyuh, hospitable. 

pamoah- paiyuh ; puah-paiyuh, can- 

peujuh,Nieobareseof different villagei 
or islands. 

penjuh-hare, manners, behaviour. 

penyuha, Nicobarese wearing orna- 
ments or foreign clothing. 
poin-nop, die. 

n^a, perish (of a plant). 

leat- poin-nop. dead. 

paaia-fiAp, corpse. 

pom-fiap-haoga, extinguish by pres- 
sure or cover. 

ra-kat ; dakat ; kat, now, at the pre- 
sent moment. 
ranea; danen; i^n, now, immediately, 

also lately. 
rak; dak (g.u.), water. 
ram ; dam (see hat6ni), night (when 

used with numeral). 
renmat ; denmat, width. 
rere ; dede, self. 

ri-a-rere, beat one's self. 
rid ; i-it (see det and la-ridla). 
ri ; di, sise. 

ta-ri, so big, thus big. 

fSp, so fat, thus fat. 

rishe ; diahe (g-f.), qua^iiity. 
rl-hata (see on), beat severely, thrash. 

pi-a-rere, beat one's self. 

luku-ria, beat slightly or in play. 
ri-she ; di-she (see ri), quantity. 

ta-dlahe, this much, so much, 

ka-riehe, how much. 
no, another (not the same). 

rok; Aok., pulsate. 

TO. {see du), clay, earth, soil. 

i.6i-ru, floor of earth or concrete. 
mpia (from the Maiay and Sindui.- 

tani), money, cash, especially rupees. 
riiala (see diiala), height. 

ta-ruala, so (thus) high. 

koi, so (thus) taU. 

ka-ruala-koi, how tall (interrog.). 
riiat; diiat, length (in m^asuremait) . 

ta-riiat, so (thus) long. 

kiUriiat, how long (interrog.). 

ka-ra-miiat, how short (interrog.). 

riiat-tft, length of time. 
nie (seedii«), canoe. 

kola-rue, landing-place. 

henema-riie, outrigger-pegs. 
ruid, copper, copper coin, pice. 
rai-hare (see AeX), foliage. 
rai(j) ; rai(ch), urine. 

rai(j)-hanga, micturition, 



santa-maria, coj>per coin, pice. 
siiadiaha-heag ; (or Bhariaha-heng), 

early portion of afternoon, about 
sha-hotn-nok-moali, woodcock {Sfurex 

Bha-hoang, cold (of any lubstance) 


sbin-hoAnga, colder. 

— — ~ -ka', coldest. 
shnkal-hata, dart (of a enahe when 

attacking') ; peek (of a bird). 
shake at-chaka, artger, passion, rage, 

sha-kwat-baaga (aee ke-ahaah), gcratch 

with finger nail, ^. 
Bha-kaich-hata (see kaich), pinch with 

the nails. 
shal, mlf (s.). 
ehama-lft-chong, upper jaw. 

— -13,-eshe, lower jaw. 
sh^ma-y&tiga, tand piper (Tringoidee 

sharaa-y6tig-yant6 (see shai-yong), 

liberal, hospitable, merciful. 
Bliam^-yuah, Casuari'ia equisetifolia. 
Bhamin-D&mo (see ahbm), only ten 

Bhami-yong-Qga-shi (see ahn-yong- 

yan), benevolent, charitable. 
ahamiral, merman (representations of 

these mythical sea-maiisters a/re com- 
monly to be seen in their henta, g.u.)- 
shammenalil (see shlan) so many 

(correl.'), so much (correl.). 
ahamda, Kortkalsia scaphigera, a 

rattan obtainable in the southern 

shamoa, sprout («.). 

lok-shamoa, sprout (u.). 
sha-mom (see Bhom), only ten. 
shain6ka-t8re,/ir( (r.i.). 
Buara-yuing-onitan, charcoal. 

-pala-leftt, coal, msteorolite 

(see pala-lcat). 
aliaii ; shan-chak^ ; 8L3,ii-cliak6, steep, 

precipitous, vp-hill. 

Btan-ngashe, eaonnous quantity, 

abundant, numerous. 
Bhiunan-BgaBhe, more ahundant (or 

— ka", most abundant. 

enshan-koi-heQyuaii ; ten-shin-lare, 
go up-hill. 
elian-lare, lean on one's hands. 
shaD-ngasbe (see Bhan). 
shan^ta-yan, betel-chewing 'materials. 
ahaneal, spoon (for names of different 

varieties, see" S'pooa." and" htidle.") 

&iiha-oal-Bhaneal, spoonful. 
shanefi, bladed ^ear (for the several 

varieties see App. N, items 11—15). 
Bha-ngaa-de (see Bhin-Dgan), pole a 

canoe along shore. 

shiu-Qgfiaa, walking-stick. 
Bhang-hala, warm up cooked food, 

shang-shn-koi, topsy-turey. 
Bhaai-p&n j sbin-p&i, pegs for securing 

a corpse in a grave (App. B, item 


ship^n-bata, peg down a corpse with 
the above. 
shanlat, bayonet, dagger. 
shaai-latd ; Bhanl-Iatob, (see sti), age 

(of animate objects), 
shani-tashe (see ahi-tashe), age (of in- 
animate objects), length of time. 
shanoap-diie (see opshnap), raised (or 

extra) gunwide of Areca spathe, roll 

of coconut leaves, or thin planking, 

and attached to canoe when maldng 

long sea trip or crossing a rough 

shanon, gong (convex), also brass. 
shanop-ahe (see yu-shnp), set (as sun, 

moon, stars). 
shanoa (*ee oshuan), wooden spit or 

skewer for broiling a fowl, fish, ^c. 

(App. N, item 114). 
shanoaDg (see ong-ahoang), head-band 

of Areca «pa(fte or Pandanus leaf 

(App. N, item 61). 




shanoaj^-kapuaha, fez. 
slianoash, ornamentaliacdtiotie on outer 

shanok-hiya (seesbok ; ok-shok), betel- 
nut crusher (App. N, item 73). 
shanon-hishoja, curved iron rod for 

acooping out kernel of coconut in 

forming water uteneUs (App. N,item 

shandiilia-toak, bamboo syphon and 

strainer (App, N, item 71)- 
ahaii6t-chak4-kanyu.t (see ah6t),jpiM. 

Hhari6t-kdi, back-hair comb. 
Bhap&ta, boot. 
shapeo (from French or Poriuflweee), 

European hat or cap. 
shariaha-heng (§ee ahadiaha). 
sharn&l, wild pig. 
shash, skip along surface of water on 

its tail {of certain fish, e.g., the gar. 

flhawah-liala, uproot, dig up. 
stiawan-ngare, cross-legged (with one 

knee over the other'). 
shaw&la, merrnaid (see '- shamiral " and 

" henta "). 
shaw&Qg, soap. 
elia-ju&ng (also sLi-yn&ng), comm,on 

coral (MadrepoTa) . 
shala ; sh&la-larom, board on which 

Pandanus paste is knea^d (App. N", 

item 113), 

shalaidamom, anvil. 
shi-hat, splinter of wood. 
shfl-hong, breakers on coast. 
Hli4-]&re, eat vegetables, rice, 5^. 
ehiha^yok, chain (silver or gold). 
BUft(k)-ngatd, bust/. 

ha-8b4(k)-ngat6, amuse. 

hen-slia(k)-ngatd, amusement, toy. 
shftk-hata, strike with spear, hurl a 

sh^-k^, fpear a fish near the surface 
of water. 
Bham.hanga, «M»ft a fish-trap in setting 

it off the shore. 

oraaliiiii-hanga, anchor (v.i.), 
ab&trlayan, breathe heavibf. 
ehftyo, bag, sack. 

Bhama-yowa, bagful. 

shomyo, fill a bag with coal, fruit, 
grass, doth, Sfc. 
she ; ehire, downwards or westwards 

(in construction), see " descend," 

" down," ^c. 
eheclii-fSiig-re («eeet-8li6oh), wash the 

— -Iflh-re, wash the feet. 
— ■ -tai-re, wash the hands. 
steman-heiili, a cowrse description of 

shen ; ehin, grass. 

shen-fo, lalang grass (hnperata). 

ta-nga, straw. 

Bhep, two-edged, double-edged. 

iodat-Bbep, outlass, straight sword. 
sbeh, lunation in April-May (being the 

first "moon" of the S.W. monsoon). 
sLei, insect, fisa, lice. 

shei-aroBh, weevil. 

— -holowa, black-honey bee. 

— -koi-ng&h, marine mollusca. 

oa!-cEiia, land-shell, snail. 

oal-d&k, _/re«A- wafer sheU. 

gliicliua, bird, also insect. 

shiaka ; ahiak-lai-e, stand v/p. 

ok-shiak, stand (k,), 

shiloka, stand on tip-toes. 
Hhichua (see aliei), bird, also insect. 

kandap-shichua, bird- trap. 

nl-ahichiia, bird-cage, 
ahi-bnfth, sit with one leg tucked up. 
ahi-dlaag-agare ; shi-muak-ngare, sit 

with head resting on arm. 
shilam, laTne, cripple. 

abiiam-ma, limp (v.). 
ahii-tare, luff (in sailing). 
Bhiloka (see shiaka), stand on tip- 

shiloka-Blioiig-ha, walk on tlp'toes. 

Bhiadol, el^hant tusk, ivory, eye-tooth. 
stundong-hala (or -bata), lift, raise. 
shindung-koi, Nipa leaf screen for 

Boveririg head and back when exposed 

to rain (App, ^, item 49). 
ahin-ho&nga (see aha-hoang), colder (of 

any substance). 
-ka", coldest (of any substance). 



shin-kanko-neng, back-faetetting of the 

BiiJa-k&ije.,JilametUsiR Panilanug paste 

which have to be carefulb/ removed 

(App. N, item 135). 
sliin-kiLn], day from sunrise to tanset. 

tare shinkam, days hence (when pre- 
fixed with nwmeraiy . 
shin-kinga (^eee ahiak), angle, angular. 

loe-ahinklnga, triangle, triangular. 

shin-kai-fie, comer of room, ^e. 
ahin-koal-banga, qtiaff. 
8hin-kdn-hntA, kit or fight vithJUts. 

ehinkdn-hamat, knob. 
shin-kaina (see nhia^}, prickly. 
ehin-kaifie (see shiak), comer of room, 

shinlo, viooden scoop for serving boiled 

rice to guests (App. N, item 109). 
shiomeWii (see shian), so many (cor- 

rel.}, so much (correl.). 
shin-iiAmri (see Bhom), (enfathoTM. 
ehin - nAn ■ utraalie (see ahan), more 

abundant (or numerous). 
— — — -ka', m^gt abundant, 
shin neanga (see shiang), sweeter. 

ka', sweetest. 

ah ione-latd, older (of animate object* and 


-ka', oldest (of aniinate objects and 

sbinDe-taehe (see flii-tasbe), older (of 

inanimate objects). 

ka', oldest. 

shin-ngan, pnling stick for propelling 

canoe along shore (App. N, item 6). 

shiD-Dg^na, walking-stick. 

Bha-iigande, pole a canoe along the 

aha-ngitia, hobble (v.i.). 

shin-ngol-abire (see ngol), sloop in 
order to pick «y some object, bow the 
head, salute. 

gliinoat-bata (see iu&ai), cut the throat 
of any animal. 

han^, cut m slices (v.t.) (of vege- 

Bhin-p&n (see shani-paa), pegs for 
*»QUring a corpse in grave. 

sbinpoya, anchor (».) (App- S, item 

chak-aliinpoya, anchorage. 

nit-ahinpoya, anchor-rope. 
shinpang {also opwAh), wooden pronged 

spear simila/r to the " hokpAk " (5.17.) 

and used for sardines (App. IT, item 

ahin-jS-nga-tS, satisfied, contented. 
shipin-hata (see ahinpan),pei/ down a 

corpse 11 grave. 
ahire ; she; Yictiihe, verbal suffim signify- 
ing downwards or westwards (see 

App. BO), 
abiton, jar, pitcher, 
ahitb (postp.) (see shi), from,, with 

reference only to timie and acting 

violently, being angry, ndlen, and the 

Bliitai(<ee ahi), from, since (with refe- 
rence to time and doing any work). 
ahiyan (<ee sM) ; tashe ; tayan (postp.), 

from, since {with reference to periods 

of time) . 
Btl (see kS,he), occur, happen, take 


nga-shl, about, concerning a/ny passed 
event {see "When" and "Noth- 

ta-ahi, about, concerning any future 
or proposed event (see "When" 
and " About"). 
shi, there (correl.), then (correl.), at the 

same time or place (correl.), (see 

Philol. Harp., App. B). 
abi, old (of inanimate objects). 

sbl-la-td; ahl-lA-ii>h, old {of animate 
objects and vegetation), formerly. 

ngala; ahl-nga-ltlh ; ahi-Dgayan, 

a long time ago, informer titnes. 

— -nga-chaki, a long time past {of 
eating) . 

~- -tashe, old {of inanimate objects), 

a long time. 

ta-t6 ; abi-ta-yan, too late. 

ka-abanl-la-toh, how old (what age). 
leat-sbl, old, ancient {of inanimate 

objects), also in accordance with. 

— -Bbi-taBhe, unserviceable, worn 




shanl-Ia-td; Bhanl-la-t&h, age (of 
animate objecte and vegetatioit). 

tashe, age {of inanimate objects). 

shinae-la-td, older (of animate 
objecte and vegetation). 

— -ta', olde$t (of animate ob- 

Bkinne-tAsbe, older (of inanimate 

-t*", oldest (of inanimate ob- 


fihitfl ; sMtai ; shijan (q.u.), from, 
since (with referetux to penodt of 
time, Sfc. (see " From"). 
shiak ; ok-shiak, outside. 

Bhiak-oaliaat, comer of the eye. 

ni, out of doors. 

ok-shiak-hai-cliak^, profile, stde^ 

tala-sblak, beside, alongside. 
sliial, yes, all right (denoting assent to 
proposition); off! (as in starting a 
race); give way! (viken racing in 

ehial -en-hen, oome along (addressing 

one companion). 
-he, come along (addressing 

shiala-iniita (see yot), race on or in 
the water. 

shiala-landya, foot-race. 

— -wire, bungle. 

Rhiale-enkSiA, cunniTig, sly. 

dlan-hnah61e, run a race. 

hashai ; haali61e, race in boat* or 
canoes (v.). 

Bh.ia.\e-dua.t-ahi-Mh,l(mgTace (whether 
in boats or on land). 
ehlan-ane, that m^uch. 

shinmenahi; ahammenshi, «u nmch, 
so many (correl.). 
sMan-ni-yande (see henehian), meet 

with an accident, hurt one's self 

shian-shian-tashe, occasionally, some - 

times, from, time to lifme, now and 

ehian-taslie, perhaps. 
sblan-to-yande, accidenlaUy, by acci- 

shiang, sweet, savowry, strong and un- 
diluted (of spirits). 
Bhlan{;-6i, sweet-scented, aromatic, 

dak-ta-shiang, fresh-teater. 
hat-Bhlang, tOetelesa, insipid. 
alde-shlang, become sweet. 
ong • ehlanga ; ong - shianga - f^ng, 
sweetish ; also relish, enjoy one's 
ahin-neanga, tweeter. 
kas sweetest. 

Bhiat, flower of Areca, coconut. Pan- 
danus, and Oyeas. 

shih, bloom, blossom, flower. 
ehlh-t'ompen-yuang, bad. 

sh!-]at6; ahl-latoh (sue shi). 

shim, coconut leaf receptacle for cap- 
turing and conveying away evil 
spirits (see App. N, item 146). 

shina, the same, that same (correl.). 

ahi-Dgala ; shi-nga-lfLh ; shi-ngayaa ; 
ehl-ngai-cbak^ (see shi). 

ahiri, like, resembling, as. 

ehiri-nee (or ane), like this(or that). 
chuk-ane, thence (correl.). 

— -kaneal, crescent. 

— -paaahe, babyish, like a baby. 

— -tai-ane, in that way (or style). 
ydta-shiri, like which (rel.). 
wat-shi, such, like this (in appear- 
ance or style). 

BhI-taahe (see shi), old (in reference to 
itMnimate objects). 
shanl-tashe, age (of iiianimate ob- 

ahinne-taslie, older. 

ka', oldest. 

8hi-la-t6; shi-tayan (see shi). 

shi-yn&ng, coloured coral. 

Bho-hata, (or -hala), scoop out the fruit 

of an unripe coconut. 

ieho-hata, &c., 1 

hishoya, / ^' 

shoing, prawn, shrimp, 
Bho-hong, west ivind, rainy season. 

shohong-ta, prevalent direction of 
wind in 8. W. monsoon. 
shorn, inhabitant, native, people (in 

construction only). 

.y Google 



ehom-mattai, aboriginei, native. 
chang, own (or fellow)- 

Bbom-Amimat, European, English 

(person or people). 
China, Chinaman, Chinese 

Pig", Burman, Burmese pe(tple. 

— -Bengali, Hindu, natives of India. 

— -mattai-pfiiyuh, Nicobareee (for 
tribal names see " Nicobarese "). 

Bhomenyuh., mojwoon, year (of one mon- 
soon or 6 months). 

Bhomenyuh - shoinenyiih, anTiual, 
yearly (lit. every 6 inontha). 
ahom-kang, European hat or cap with 

hroad brim. 
ehom-konk-hasga, sleep lightli/, dose. 
ebom-ngajaQ, -unwell, 
shoiayo (see shkjo), Jill a bag vrith 

coal, frait, grass, cloth, Sfc. 
shom-jong - nga - shi (see slitij6ng), 

generous, iTierciful. 
ehong, sharp, keen-edged. 
Bho-ngo-fap, sideways. 
shoka-kajiip-de (see ok-Bhok), pick 

one's teeth. 
Bholi-kali-poang, som,er8ault. 
eliok (also l&k), let (imperative) (see 

paradigm, of verb). 
ehok, king-fisher (Halcyon occipitalis). 
shok-nkai ; ok-ahuk-hata, chop up 


shauok-hiya, betel-nut crusher. 
sbok-malecha, star. 

-ta-kinn6ko-det, comet. 

ahbm, ten. 

eba-moin, only ten. 

sbin-nSmo, fen fathoms. 

sbaminn&mo, only ten fathoms, 
ehong; ong-ahong-ha, woii (v.). 

Bhong-baDga, wade. 

shoDg - hare ; shong - lare ; sbong- 
ngare ; sh&ng-nire ; ah^ng-Bhire ; 
Bh6ng-tare, approach (in various 
.»»,., ...App.BO). 

loko-shoDg-ha, wander about. 

olig-Bh6ng.h»,wait (v.) also infant 
cmvmencing to walk (see App. F.). 
shonk, sugar. 

Bhdt-hanga; et'Bh6t-hanga, pin any- 
thing, put a needle away by inserting 
it in some cloth, fasten the mouth of 
a fowl-basket tightly. 
shaudt-chaki-kanyut, pin (s.). 

uhAt-ngatd ; thbt-ng&y an, forget, escape 
one's memory, inattentive. 

shoin, feast after successful Jia-ing of a 
large canoe-shell. 

ahot-lare, ground (strike bottom). 

shni ; Bhw& (q.v.), recurrent time. 
oshuft, return the same day. 

— -hata, restore, give back. 
ydl-ahn^ often. 
hat-y61aba^ seldom,. 

shDii, shell (or coral) -lime, white 
Bhnn-o-mat, white wash. 

— - Iropa, chalk (i.e., European 

shup^nga; Bhnp-Bhe, disappear (as 

setting sun, moon, ^c). 
shup-heng (see ja-ahnp), ean-set. 
shnru, pineapple. 

Bhn-yong-yan ; Bhai-ying-jan, mean, 

shabby, low, stingy. 

fihuyoDg-yantd ; shom-yong-ngaBhl ; 

shami - yong - ngaehl, generous, 

charitable, tnerciful, benevolent, 

Bhuftn-Lata, scrape out the pulp of the 

Fandanus fruit with a Gyrena shell. 
ahiiang, mildew. 
Bhwa (see shaft), recurrent time. 

sbwA - hare, return from, westerly 

lare, return from below or from 

southerly direction, turn as the 
tide after ebb. 

— - ngare, return from northerly 

shire, return from above or from 

easterly direction, turn as the tide 
after flood. 

— -tare, return the same day and 
from, any direction, restore, give 

tare-dak, return the eam,e day 

and from any direction. 

Sire, return to landing-place, 

Hhw&ng-lare, put on hat. 

.y Google 


8liai-y6ng-yaii (see aleo ahu-jhug-jiui), 
mean, ahabhy. 
Bhai - jOQg - yantd ; Bhama - y^ng - 

yaitt6, generoue, liberal, rneroiful., 


shai-yuali-haiiga, grow. 
ahaiyuli, anoiher time, hy-and-hy, 

future date, hereafter, next year. 

Bhaiyuh-l&ng, day afte ' 
sh&u, powr, rain heavily. 

ta, verbal suffix without reference to any 

particular direction (see oreh). 
ta, a», ill respect of, than. 
ta; 16ngto-ta, /rom (yep.). 
ta (^euphonic partide), e.g., due-ta- 

chiia (my canoe), fii-ta-lap» (jgood 

Ta-4n, Trei'g {islet near Little Nicobar) . 
tebftk, lucky, fortunate. 
ta-chang-yanmat, astonishing {of some 

ta - chaug - yan • n&ng {see also to - 

cbaag), astonishing {of some report). 
ta-cbaai {see cliaai), our {dual). 
ta-chidi {see chioi), oitr (of three or 

ta-chiah-yantd, danger, dangerous. 
ta-chak {see chnk), in the presence of, 

ta-chtili-Ghak&, vertigo. 

ta-heng, sun-stroke. 

(achuah-yantd, crazy. 
tachul-yan, sleep lightly, doze. 
ta-dishe (see dishe), so much {this 

dinmislilaii, only so muck, 
ta-fat-sho {v.), fall {of an inanimate 

object leaning against wall). 

ta-f&-tarit, upset (of a bottle). 
taf&l, the sm,allest description of cook- 

ittg-pot (App. N, item 101). 
ta-f&p, alongside. 

ta-fa-ta-det (or -rit), vpset {of a hoUle). 
ta-f e, wale (mart 0/ a stripe) . 
tA-ioish-shix-lkh {see tafoidhi), slip off 

tafoa-Le, loose (of a finger-nail, box-Ud, 


tatong-yantS, mad, crany. 

tafdl; tan.Bhiila, Areca spaihe box 

used for holding clothes, cloth, Sfc. 
■ (App. N, item 62). 
tafual, six, 

fcama-f ual, only six. 

tenfiialo, six fathoms, 

tameafuflJo, only six fathomt. 
tafiial (with num,eral prefixed), pair, 

couple (with reference only to coco- 
nuts and coins). 

Ex. : &n-tafual, two pairs (of coco- 
nuts or rupees). 
tafwian, a small ^des of erab. 

tomfdal-hata, to tie coconuts in 
pairs by means of a strip of the 
husk of each. 
ta-foistii-chaki {see ta-foisli), stumble, 

trip, tamable forwards. 
tah, fluid. 

tah-la, /oat (c.t.). 
tah-dey^ (see d^ya), serrated ^n« 

hone of the thm-nbaek ray (Boia 

taba-noaa, ahdomen, 
taha-ak, smooth (as velvet) 
t&.heal6iy&, tidai wave. 
ta-heak-I£lb, slide. 
tah-la («ee tali),^a( (ti.t.). 
ta-hua-sho (see ta-hoa), sink in sand 

or syiampy soil. 
tak&m-iAh, prick {v.i.). 
ta-karuj ta-kadij, abundance, mwJi, 

ta~karaq (see karau), iron {adj.). 
ta-katah (see katah). 
tank&p&b (see k&pMi), ca/rcase. 
takorBhu, fall {of a tree, house, or other 

large object). 
ta-koi (see koi), upon. 

an-ka', uppermost. 

ta-ktdsh, windfall of ripe fruit. 

.y Google 


takii-tbh, prick (c.i.)- 

ta-kaich (lee kaich), goratch («.). 

ta-kain-chakil, e-mtie. 

tala-chakfl (see chak&), in front of, 

tala-hiiiali, weather-tide. 
tala-kanota, lee-tide. 
tala-ok (see ok), after, behind. 
tala-shi^ {see shiak), betide (by the 

•ij. „/). 

talaan-ahe, dotcnwardg. 
ta-l^e-kan^p, toothlett. 
tal&p-hata, stop a leak in canoe, patch 

any garment, 
taloab-hi-koi ; tal6ali-hi-lftli, ulip down, 

fall owing to foot dipping. 
t«- lain. id, inside-out. 
tam-hala, pour cnit. 

om-tam-hala, pour, cause to flow. 

-bashs, poar into bottle, coco- 

tama-fual {see tafiial), only lia. 
tama-kaioh., wind-fall of unripe fruil. 
tft-mang {tee tang-hat), ai far as, up 

tamaDJiid, bug. 

ta-manai {see tanai), orilyfive. 
tama-shi, cockroach {small spectee). 
ta-mat, in the course of, during. 
ta-mattai-ane (see mattai), wherever. 
tamak-liata (or -haabe), gather coco- 

t&mk-hadiBke, appear. 
tamab-janmat, wonder («.)• 
(hgaog-) tamika {tee t&k), one fathom, 
span of the arms, equcds about 5 feet 

tatn&p, tick {the inteet). 

tamen-fualo {see tafiial), only sin 

Waen-neyo {see tanai), only five 

ta-meAn (see meAn), mew {of a cat). 
taming, calcareous saiiddoTte. 
taminloata (see oltiia! and tinlSala), 

knotted cane-ttrips {when ttsed with 

nwmeral only). 
tamlkai, melon. 
tammab, Naufilut pompiUus, mother of 

lamai-bian-mat, astonished, astonish- 

wi-tamaihlanmat, astonish. 
taniAn^aabe, ouin or half brother 

{whether older or younger). 
tan-bata; en-tan-ta-Iab, tread, walkon. 

tan-banga, kick with the sole -of 

— -ngasbe, well-made, welUthaped. 
ugayaD, firm, steady, durable, 

safe, seaworthy. 
en-tan-bashe ; en-tan-bata, crush 

with foot, trample. 
nga-I&h, push away with the 

— - — Tshi-koi, kill an insect under 

— -tat ; en-tan-tat-lib, foot- 
marks, tracks. 
ong-ylang-en-tan-tafc, track {v.). 
■ tanol-(iiiG (see Ian), thwarts of canoe. 

— -halak, rounds {spokes) of ladder. 
tAttda,ug, plaiyk, board, boarded floor. 
tanoanga, prow, bow'head. 

tanat-chakfl (see tat), wipe the face. 

tan&k-mat, Octopus, Sepia opr.inalis 

tan&k-r&m, sand-glast. 

tan&ng-chakft'fotuig, screen over door- 
way {or window), door. 

-fii (see ning), screen over door- 

taniiib, custom, usage, practice. 

leat-sbi-tan&ah, customary. 
tan&p, imported Burmese lacguer-wa/re 

tanealsbe, present, gift, prize, reward. 

taneiilshe-yan, portable property {not 
S«, .ah). 

bomkwom-tanealsbe, maike a present, 
reward {v.). 

kapngatd-tanealsbe, keepsake, tow- 

tane-dak-diie, coconut-shell cup when 
used for baling a canoe (App. N, 
item 10). 

tane-koi (see teya), turban. 

taney4n (see teyfln), rasp,fUe (s.)- 

tanecbya {see et-teicb), hatching 
basket (App. N, item 58). 



tAaeiyel-diie, gunimiU of canoe. 
tftnep (see tep), garew (».), iron nail. 

halain-dit-tanep, etyrew-driver, 
tang-ngashe, perfect, complete. 
ngiitd, approve, contented, »ati»jied 

with presenti, also proper, right, 

— -ngayan, quench thiret, satisfy 

— -tashe, correct, accurate. 
-ka', quite correct. 

hat- tang- ta-leang, mi'gname. 
tang-to-taj, as well as (not less than). 
tang-hat, reach, arrive at. 

ta-maog, as far as. 
tang-la; tang-Dga; tang-ne ; tang- 
she ; tang-tft, arrive, reach in various 

senses (inide App, B(')). 
tangiah, teal, wild duck. 
ta-ngange {see ngange), in a southerly 

ta-ngahae (see ngAhae), in an easterly 

ta-ngaie (see ngile), in a northerly 

ta-ngaiclie (see ngaiche), in a westerly 

ta-ngaifie, towards the landing-place. 
tanol (see tan and l&a), ^warts (of 

canoe), round of ladder. 

tanol-diie, thwarts of oanoe. 

— -halak, round of ladder. 

ta-tanoang, stavr-step. 

taaop-omhoia (see top), tobacco pipe. 
tanop-toak, hamhoo utentil for drinking 

toddy (App. N, item 72). 
tanoang (see t&n),plank, board, boarded 


tanoanga, prow, bow-head. 

oal- ta-tanoang, boarded floor. 
tauoe-ok-moreh, second (in order). 
moag-juang-iie, fourth (in 

tanoka (see tnak), rope. 
tanok-ha, divide (distribute) cloth. 
tanot-chaka ; tanot-hehe ; tan&t' 

ho4ng, see tat, SfC-, pocket-handker- 
tan6t-14b, rwy (of coir, ^e.) for w^ng 

the feet. 


ta-ndnga (see ong-tong), pestle (large), 

(App. N, item 110). 
ta-nuak, below (beneath in roinJi). 
taaual-oal-kul&lu (see bl-tu&l), neck- 

taaiija, cold (catarrh), injluenxa. 

taniiya-tit-koing, rheumatism,. 
tanai (see tAi), five. 

ta-manai, only five. 

tenneyo, five fathoms. 

tamenneyo, only five fathoms. 

tain-paijih, star -fish. 
tanai-shari, turkey. 
ta noi-mende nc bya- l&h, /ourt^ toe. 

-tM, fourth finger. 

tan6i(ch), gangrenous (syphiUttc or 

tan-mop (see top), dranha/rd. 
tail-main, Amomutn Fenzlii (leaf used 

for cigarette wrappers). 
tah-nang, joists of hut-floor. 
taii-shula; taidl, Areca spathe box used 

for holding clothes, cloth, S^c. (App. 
N, item 52). 
ta-oal (-^ee oal). 

d4k, afloat (on fresh water). 

— — -kamale, afloat (on the sea). 
ta-onlhan (see onihaa), wooden. 
ta-pahom-te (see pomle), bottleful. 
taptlk, hit, struck (by any weapon). 
tapoa, cheek. 

tapaih-haine, spit, expectorate. 
ta-pait (»ee "pait"). 

taram-ta-teyeii-chak J, arrack (white) . 
tftrap-hatft (see ftp) stanch, stop fiA»n of 

tarap-oal-n&ng-de, shut one's ears. 
tarap-hata (or -haahe) squai and lean 

tare, verbal su^ix without reference to 

direction (see App. B(*)), 
tare, mare (in constr.), hence (in tiTne). 

tare-she, arrears, owing, due. 

fln-tare-kamahetiwa, two rnorUhs 

chua-ta<pait-tare, what more. 
eah-tare-she, a Utile m/yre (in qwm- 

tity or distarioe). 
heang-tare, one more. 




heang-tare-Bttai, once more. 

la-neat- tare, no more. 

p&it-tare, more. 

-she, a little more (in atking, 

giving, |-c.)- 

ri-tare-ahe, debt, balance (wmaiini or 
quantity due). 
ta-ri (see ri), bo (thwi) big. 
— — -fapi BO (thue) fit. 
tarip-hata, flay, as a m.ueieian, on any 

kind of xnstTUment, 
tarito, iron sword-like object valued ag 

an ornament (App. S, item. 142). 
tara, gunpowder. 
ta-riiala (see riiala), ao (thui) high. 

koi, ao (thus) tall. 

ta-riiat (see riiat), so (thns) loiig. 
taslie ; tayan ; Bhiyan (^postp.), from. 

(with reference to periods of time), 

ta-shl (see ebi and }s.k\ih), ahont, con- 
cerning (with reference to any future 
or proposed event (tee "About" OTwi 

ta-shiala, land-crab (edible species), 

t»-tang-ta-tai,as well as (not less than). 

tat, numeral affix used vfitk, reference to 
humun beings. 
hemiang-tat, aUme. 

tat-hala; et-tat'hala (q.v.), rub, polish. 

tat-hanga, dry by wiping (v.). 
tat-te-oalm&t-de, rub one's eyes. 
tanat-chakiL ; tdta-chakft, wipe the 

t6ta-cliak&-do, wipe one's face, 

tanot-ohakil, <fcc., q.v., handkerchief. 

et-tat-mat, wipe off dirt. 

et^tat-tanga, efface, rub out. 

kotot-hanga, wipe, rub off. 
tat-ahe, arrears. 

pait-tatshe, the remainder, the others. 

shammen-tat-ahi, these few. 
Ta-tat, Ghowra (small inhabited island 

of Nicobar group). 
tatoi, thini, believe. 

en-toi, hope (v.). 
ta-wtltae'inera-kat, good-bye (said by 

host to one visitor). 
-inftra-kat, good-bye (said by host 

to two visitors). 

ta'W&bse-ifere-kat, good-bye (said by 

host to three or more visitors). 
ta-wing, channel through a reef. 
tayanitashe, shiyaii(^osfj). ),/rom,Mnce 

(with reference to periods of time). 
tay&l, unripe (of fruit). 

hiya-ta-taySl, unripe betel-nut. 
ta-j&m-Bho-koi, rescue another from, 

som^ danger on land. 
ta-ynaih-ne-oiqiiidiii, hars-l'p. 
ta-yuat-hala (see et- jaOit), unfurl leaf - 

tfi-jait-iA-.chaick,beg pardon (apologise). 
U,,flat, level (of land,Jtoor, SfC.). 

ta-chak&, flat (of bottom, of any 

: kdi,_fla( (of plank, land, |"c.). 

wi-ta-ta, flatten (v.t.). 

ta-ta-chaling, ^iain (open, country). 
ta-hata ; da-hata, touch (v.). 

ta-ta-tai, contagious. 
taha-inat-de, either (adj. or pron.). 
tata-tflre, disperse (v.i.). 
tanat ; anat, -creak (of a hinge). 
ta-ta-tai (see ta-hata), contagious, 
t4-clie-yaiit6 ; ti-chiah-yantd, anxious, 
thik, broad, wide, numeral affix used 

Uiith reference to flat objects and 

cooking-pots, also pairs of bamboo 

utensils containing shell-lime. 

heang-ttlk haiialidi, one cooking-pot. 

powah, one paddle. 

ahnn, one pair of 

utensils containing lime. 

kari t&k, Iww wide. 

ompen-tik, narrow. 
tak-hata, measure («.(.). 

tamaka, (one) fathom or spam of the 
arms (about 5j feet), 

paiyah (or kaling)-ta-makipjattai, 
t&ka-ok, speckled, spotted. 
t&ng-ngamat, opaque. 
t&nk-ngayaii, portable, Ughf. 

^nnank-ngayan, lighter. 

ka", lightest. 

tlo, yellow wasp. 

t&t, num.eral affix used with reference to 

and signifying days hence, e,g„ loe- 

iki, three days hence. 




tiyam-poin, CoUocalia linchi (common 

t^-yan, Pleiades. 
te, verhalguffix without reference to a»y 

particulaT direction (see o-te). 
teak-ngare (see iteaJc), go to ghxp. 

hea-teak-ngayan, sleepy. 
teal-sho, attend, he present at, in 

teh-oal, auTi-light, daylight, also clear up 


teliwa, coil of rc^e, Sfc. 
temealde, looking-gUi»», tnirror, 
teme(ch)-hata, bore a holein wood, §-c. 

temiie(oti), auger, gimlets 

teme{cli)-liaiae, scuttle a ship. 
temon, cucamber (0. sativus)^ 
ten ; an (prep.) ; and en (postp.), 

at (with reference to a dwelUiig), 

to, than (see " Than"). 

ten-an ; an-en, him, her, it (ohj.}. 

chi, whom, to wftowti 

chiia, me (06/.). 

enh, hither (lit. to~here). 

— -hen (-inil, -onit), «« (you, them) 

— -he (-ife, -ofe), v» (you, them-) (of 
three or more). 

ni-re, at home. 

— --j(»\-B.u, them, (of a commimity). 

cbiia, ua (of a convmMniiy) . 

men, you (of a commtinOy). 

ten-chSt-lare (see chit), skip (v.). 
teD-chaah-lare (see chnah), embark 

tenuhnah-fiire, embark from a land- 

— -ahire, disemhairk, go on shore. 

— -ngare, land (v.i.). 
tench nt-hare, burrow (as rats). 
— -shire, burrow (o^ crabs). 
tenchula (see tiichul), darier. 
ka, darkest, very dark. 

tenchulnga-oal, twilight at dawn. 
ten-chii-Bhiro, plunge, dive head fore- 

ten-chiiat-Bhire, pa»s under by stoop- 
tendlh-shire (or -tare), down-hill. 

tendo-haahe, soak cloth as in washing. 
ten-diian-tare, alight (of a bird). 
ten-dAu-ehire, bathe in shallow water. 
tenf&t-hanga, dash (v.). 
tenfdk-hanga (v.t.), shake a cloth, ^c. 
ten-ffing-ahire (see oag-f bug and long), 

dive feet foremost by dropping (not 

jumping) into water. 
ten-fualo (see tafual), six fathoms. 
ten-fuaiQ, sea-urchin (Echinidae). 
ten-honp- shire (see horip), dive head- 
foremost (as from a height of, say, 

»»■ 8 /«(). 
ten-kang, concertina. 
ten-keang, gong (flat), bell. 
ten-kau, ebony. 

ten-Iong-ngashe, very well, excellently. 
ten-liia-nire, swim away. 
ten-Ioaklo-chak&, raise the wick of 

ten-meala, glass-pane. 
tenme(ch)i tenme(j) (see teme(oh), 

auger, gimlet. 
ten-n&nk-ugajan (see t&nk-ngayan), 

lighter (less heavy). 
ten-n&nk-ngajau-ka') lightest (least 

ten-nfiyo (»ee t&oai), five fathoms. 
t^n-nynoa-na-kamale, ebb-tide. 
ten-nynoa-nfti.oal-k&he (seetonmyaoa), 

waning m/)on. 
ten-naifia, harden (v.i.). 
temsh&n-lare (see shan), go up-hill. 
tenn&A, key. 

tiwin-hala, turn the key in unlock- 

hanga ; tiw&fi-hasbe, turn the 

key in locking. 

chakft-tenw&fiya, key-hole. 

chak-tenwinyaifoaug, door-lock. 

— — -shindup, padlock. 
tenyim, ivy. 
tenyiap-hata, preserve meat anhVepti- 

cally by msans of turmeric smeared 

over its surface ; also stroke fondly. 

fifth a-ta-tenyiapa.jpreserved Tneat. 
ten-yn&k, rib. 

te-wet-de (see wet), waddle. 
te-wek, thin (of animate objects). 



tewila, Cycas Bumphii. 

— -ta-duaha, Oycat paste. 

ieyah, new, fresh {recently gathered), 
teyah-taahe, tiewly-married. 

Ia-t6, young (adj.), one' e junior. 

henre-wi-teyab, recently prepared (or 

tey^n-bata, rasp with fie, also tmoothen 

and polish loith ray s hide. 

tanejan, raep, file. 
tejen ; teyen-ngamat, white. 

tejen-chak&, pale, sickly. 

— -faah, steam, mpour (Kt. white 

oal, dear sky, clear up (of 


kamilok-tejen-ngamat, maggot. 

pen -t«y en- oal mat, mhile of the eye 
{sclerotic coat). 

paiyuh-ta-teyen-iigamat, European. 
teag {alKo deak), bark cooking utensil 

as made and used by the inland tribe 

of Great Nicobar (App. N, item 

teak, nasty, nauseous, bitter. 
Tehnyn, Katchal {inhabited island in 

centre of Nicobar group). 
tek-haoga; ok-tek-hanga, tear cloth 

warp-wise, or paper along crease. 
tfep-nftayan, intmovable. 

tanep, screw, nail (s.). 
ie-^-tfure, straight {direct), steer straight. 
teya-kai, p-ut on a turban. 

tane-koi, turban. 
tikO'hata {see kalok and op-chip), 

stab, thr^, stick (v.), {especially 

with reference to killing pigs and 

tiloata {see 61-tual), knot in cane, 

string, hair, ^c. 

tinJoata, knotted cane-strip (App. N, 
item 87). 

tamin-ldata, knotted eane-strip {when 
used with numeral). 
tiluat-hanga (see 61-tual), tie a knot. 
tilain-hanga {see lain), twist fibres {as 

in making lines). 

— -baine, unttnine, untwist. 

— -ngare, turn one's self away. 

tilain-tare, turn one's self toteofds. 
timfi, spathe bucket used when bathing 

(App. N, item 57). 
tin-Ioata {see ol-tual), knotted carte- 
strip conveying invitation to a 
memorial feast (App. N, item 87.) 
tamin luata, knotted cane - strip 
conveying invitation to a memorial 
feast (App. N, item 87), (wAen 
used with numerai). 
tirkta, formerly, in those days, then 
{long ago). 
tir&m-la-oreh ; han-tir&m, in the 
earliest times, once upon a time, 
tiw&n-hanga; tiw^-bashe (seetenwkti), 
lock (v.), turn akey in lock downwards 

bala, unlock, turn a key in lock 


ti-neanga, neatly made wooden gratiug 
placed in bows of large canoes to pro- 
vide a seat and also to fits the 
"kariiha" {q.v.),in position (App. 
N, item 2). 

toab, breast. 

moah-toah, nipple of breast. 

toak, toddy (tari) i.e., coconut palm 

toB,li.-ho\6h&, freshly drawn toddy. 
— -ta-bnyoie-tai ; toak-ta-tai£, /er- 

menfed toddy. 
bendiwa-toak, toddy-jug (App. N, 

item 35). 
henhet-toak, toddy- strainer (App, 

N, item 45. 
ebaudfiba-toak, toddy-syphon and 

strainer (App. N, item 71). 
tanop-toak, toddy-drinking utensil 

(App. N, item 72). 
toing-hala; ong-toanga, (v.t), turn 
over oji to its back (of a pig when 
about to be slaughtered). 
to&pa {or niama), tongs (of rattan) 

(App. N, item 77). 
to-cbang-hatshe ; to-cbang-yantfi, 

wonderful (adj.). 
to-chang-td {see also ta-cJiang), 

wonderful .' 
toin ; ha-toin-bata, light a torch. 




eu-toin, feait held on tnotmleeg night 
3 monthg after death, when torches 
are burnt at the ceremony at the 

tomsl-nga (see torn), heap (s.), (<m of 
coconuts, rubbish, ^c). 
tomal-nga-shi, take care of by de- 
positing in safe place. 

•holijigbk, provision! in hut 

for future use. 
tom&l-le-yande, hoard, amass. 
tommdi-hata, collect coconuts, rub- 
bish, ^c. 
tommula, heap {pile} of coconuts, 
rubbish, ^c. 
tom-ftng-hala (see oal-fSng), open one's 

tomcha-hanga {i-\t.'), turn over, reverse. 
tom-chiia-ngftyan, defy, heedless, reck- 

tomda, high-water. 

toEudiak-hanga (or -faata), sift grain 

by winnowing. 
tom-f&t-de (see iki), fall from drowd- 

tomtieo-1are ; tomheo-ngare ; tomheo- 
hahat i tomheo-bashe ; tombeo- 
baiiie ; tomheo-hatat move aside 

tom-ken-hata, tinkle^ 
tora-kaich-hanga (see kaicL), scratch 

one's self unintentionally. 
torn -laiig- tare ,* tom-l^g-to'iiilng^de, 

tommol-hata, (see torn), collect coco- 
nuts, rubbish, ^e. 
tom-mula, heap (pile) of coconuts, 

rubbish, ScCi 
beang'-ta-menniDl, assemble, collect 

tom-mula (see torn mol), heap (pile) 
of coconuts, rubbish, ^c. 

fcomnyuoa-ngare, ebb, fall (of the tide). 
ten ■ nynoa - na - oal - kalie, waning 

ten-syuoa-na-kainale, ebb-tide. 
toiiiiiyiiB,tahe-chakit, lower the wick of 

tomoa, Ghalcophaps indicus (bronne- 

winged dove). 

tomdl-hata, gather, collect. 
tom-pain-ngare, knock down with the 

tomta-koire, ■metal. 
tomwih-lare; tomwih-ngare ; tomwih- 

batat ; tomwib-hasbe ; tomwih- 

baifie ; tomwlb-hata, move aside 

(v.t.), (in various senses) see ''Move." 
tong, wooden bucket. 
top-hata; op-top-hata, drink (v.). 

topa, drink, beverage. 

t«[>-oiab6in, smoke tobacco. 

tan -mop, drunkard. 

tanop-orohoin, tobacco pipe. 

— -toak, bamboo utenetl for drinking 
toddy (App, N", item 72). 

tot-lare-yai (see yai), pro^, 
toa; cb6h, ebb-tide (see App. P). 
toi, froth. 

t6i»en-leang, gum-resin (App. N, 

item 16+). 
toi-chaki; toi-oal-ffing, foam, from 
the m.outh. 

— -kamale, foam of the sea. 

toit, the lunation in October-Novemher. 
torn (see omtom and tomil), numeral 

a£ix used with reference to bunches 

of plantains, betel-nuts, S/v. 

tom-koi, population. 

tare, all together. 

leang-ta-oal-lebare, vocahu. 

lary (Ust of Words). 

baf6m-hata, aseemble. 

boratom, m^mnd. 

har6b- torn- tare, (prep.), except. 

6mt6m, all, every one. 

tomilnga, ^c, (q.v.). 

tommol (q.v.). 

tommula (q.v.). 
tong, powder. 

tong-cbaka, chip of wood. 

nga-shl, crumb. 

tot ; tota ; met-tota, dear, highly 


itottt, price, cost, 
i^ra, posteriors, buttocks. 

tom-bala, haul a canoe up on to its 

eatoma-diie, canoe-stand on beach. 

koi, padded pillow for Jlaiteniny 




occipv,U of itifanti (App. S, item 

tdng, pas, matter (_from boil, See). 

tong-o-fLnha, offai. 

— -6i (gee 6i), »mell. 

yd-tong, fester. 
Omg-ng&bb, reliable, trustworthy. 

Bga-ning, promise. 

tong-agai-chdkil, sniff (as when em- 

bracing a child). 
t^lianga-tai-chnk, misplace. 
tdh'td-hashe, change (v.t.), suffer 

tdhan-cliak (or -mattai), remove, go 

t61inga.chnk, off (itot on)^ 
t6k-nga, break (of arope, cane, Sfc.(y.i.). 

hen-tdk-nga, break a rope, cane, Sf-c. 

tdta-chaJE&'de («ee tat), wipe one's face. 
toh-kata; itoh-hata (q.v.), choose, 

toi (now tabued and "fnsh," g.v., 

adopted), steam.\ 

toi-ngamftt, gray. 
toha, golden'honey-bee, 

d&kmat-tdii&, golden honey. 

fii-tona, comb of golden-honey -bee. 
tnak-hata, pull, haul, lug, drag. 
Itala, unbolt door by drawing bolt 

hashe, utAoU door by drawing bolt 

downwards, also lower the hut- 

haiSe, drag^ draw. 

lare, cii-mfc a rope. 

tnak-ta.-ko&I, lead a blind person (lit. 
pull a/rm). 

kEklia-tnak-chaki, j»^{2 (tug) in oppo- 
site directions. 

oli-i'o&, fish with hooh and Ufie. 

ok-tuakla, heave up. 

ok-tnak-hala, take out, draw out. 

-hata; ok-tnak-k&a, _^A with 

hook and line ; draw up a hooked 

tanoka, rope. 
toan-hanga, climb a branched tree, 
tochul, da^k, also dense (of thick 


tnchut-oalm&t, blinded by storm and 

oal-niiDg, stun by a loud report. 

oal-tncbul, vmpenetrable (of thick 

tenchula, darker. 

kft", darkest, very dark. 

tench ulnga-oal, twilight at dawn. 
ta-cbiia-tai ; ta-chiia-yan, duU, cheer- 

tu-hoa, ewamp, marsh. 

ta-hua-Bho, sink in swampy soil or in 

tnk-nga, tangle (v.i.). 

ta\h,u, python (P. Schneideri), boa. 

tnlftng-hat-Bte, good (of animate or in- 
animate objects) ; virtuous. 

ixge-olj6l&, flatter (v.). 

tama-koal, fasten the arms together, 

tnma-lah, fasten the legs together. 

tamcha-baine (v.t.), open laterally (of 
a book, fc). 

tu, sick, ill, ail, disease. 

tu-paniwa, disease of the heart. 

— (or c)i6k)-liok5ha, a bad (lasting) 

tai, hand, finger, fore paw of dog, ^c. 
(in constr.), hence by (prep.), to (into 
the hands of), by means of. 
tai-'Cluik&-6ah, ivharpitiAle. 
"hi, by whom. 

— -chiia ; tai luen ; tai an, by me, 
by you, by him (her or it). 

aroo&Unga-tai, handful. 
dap-oal-tai-re, clap the ha/ndt. 
et-nait-kanetai, shake hands. 
lia-taiiiya-paijah, cross, crosswise. 
he-tai, time (in music and dancing). 
inai, twenty, score. 
itai • hanga j itai - nga - tai, snatch 

kanetai, finger. 

k&-shin-mnali-tai, in what style (in- 

kft-tai, how (interrog.). 
kenlong-tai, finger-ring. 
ke-shnah-tEU, finger-nail. 
kop-oal-taire, clasp or fold one's hands 


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la-m&ngUi-tai, /ront (pr^.), 
leang-tai, noise caused by any hand 

mat-kanetai, Imuckle of finger, 
moah-tai ; muflh-tai, tip of fimger. 
mnah-tai, gtyle,iDorkmanshiji, also tip 

of finger. ■ 
nga-tai, _/rom (prep.^. 
oal-tai, palm of the hand. 
ok-tai, back of the hand. 
posh-Ia-oal-tai, handful. 
pdt-nga-tai, spoil (v.t.). 
shiri-taJ-aiie, in that way, 
tang-ta-tai, at well as (not lest 

tanai, fine. 
tain-paiyih, star-JUh. 
wannl-tai, use, employ. 
wat-diianga-tai, possible. 
wat-tai, do noisy work {e.g., ha^n~ 

mering, dajiciitg, ^c). 

tai ; taina, at, because, for, on this 

account, owing to. 

tai-chua, why {because what). 
tai(cli); taik,^air, brown. 
taih-hala ; o-taiL-hala, cut upwards with 

a dh/L or knife. 

— -hanga ; taih-hate, cut in any direc- 
tion with knife. 

— -hashe, eut downwards with knife. 

— -tare, cut one's self. 
taiha-koi, murder. 

onglfinga, behead. 

leat-taiba, wounded. 
ntaih-hata, wound (w.i.), 

Taihlong, Teressa (inhabited island in 

Nicobar Qroup). 
taih-cbak&, weather. 
taik, brown. 

taik-ydk ; taik-koi, brown {or fair) 

tain ; tain-ime, ant (»mall varieties). 

tain-paij&h (see tai and tanai), star- 

ha-taiaya-paij&h, cross, crosswise, 
taioya {q.v.}. 

tain-ya, plaiUng (cane, hair, ^c). 
en'tainya, ^^tt with cane, fibre, Sfc. 

hen-tain, basket for vegetables, fruit 

ha-tainya-paiySi, cross, crosswise. 
taiii(cli)-Bliire, roost (v.). 
tain, hot, boiling hot (of any fluid), fer- 
mented, stale (tiot fresh), 
tain-^nha, hot (from heat of fwe or 
fever), close, oppressive, heat of 

— -oliakA, eun-bumt. 

eyam, pant, gasp, breathless, 

ka', scalding hot. 

— -koi ; heng-ta-tain^oal, hot (from 
sun's rays), heat. 

&i-ta-tain-oaI, hot (of the inside of a 
taiy&k, coconut-shell cup, goblet (App. 

N, item 38). 
■^ -koi-kanoaag, knee-cap, 
— -cfau&, Boup-ladle. 
taiyd, infectious. 

taiyd-tai, bruise (s. and v.), bwmp, 
also shoot or hit any object with gun 
or other weapon. 

sh^, hit with spear, 

tjka-enkoina (or -enkfLna), younger 
brother (or sister) (at addressed by 
one of same sex). 
t&n-oly&Ia, youngest brother {or sister) 

(as addressed by one of same sex). 
ka-t&n, term ofendearmeiU towards a 

friend slightly one's junior. 
kini-tilu, term of endemrmenf towards 

two friends slightly one's junior. 
kife-tin, ierm of endBarm,ent towards 
three or more friends slightly one's 

tUn-nee-kihe ; t4u-ka"-k4he, next 
toin-sho, destroy by fire. 
toish-nga, break {of a rope, cane, ^.), 

hen-t6ish-nga, break a rope, cane, 
^. {v.t.). 

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ncho ; cho-we, embrace (in recumiient 

nddh-haifie, hatch (of a fowl). 
aru-hatahe, aimndcmce, nvmerovt, mwh, 


oriibatBhe-clink, capaciout, commo- 

ka', very namerout (or abundant'). 

oal, too ■mttcfc, too many, too full 

{in reference to the contents of a box, 


nru^telie-paiTilh, populovs. 
ash ; oeh ; ob, mi«f, fog. 

faah, emoke. 

h&n-nah-hala, preierve food in tmoJee 
of hut-fire. 

htbta, dry h^ore a pare. 

pa-OBb-pa^-osh-jan; pft-dib-yan, 
apoilt tmokedfood. 
nsliiukfa-haU ; Bbuflh-bala, bum grass. 
ntaib-hata {lee taib), wound (v.t.). 

wab-tigayan, ewfer ship-wreck; meet 

with an accident. 
wftbe, laat night. 
wabngft-chftkft, overflow. 
■wak-she, ferment (of cocotMt toddy, 

wan , fUhing-net. 

hi- wan, catch fish in a net. 

ben -wan, peritoneuTn, 

kala-wana. spider's uieb. 

eaweana, zigzag. 

on-WEiii-hala, wind, coil (v.t.). 
■wane-hcoe (see wi), matches. 

wane-fii, frame-worlc of dome-roof 
wanni - tai (see yul and tai), lue, 
wat, so (in this or such degree). 

wat-duat, remaining portion (in 
reference to jvu/meyiTtg, also to path, 

■wat-ahi (sei ehiri) ; wat-Bbi-chin- 
da, so, thus, such, lilie this (in ap- 
pearance, manner, or style), just 
so ! the very same '. 

'wat-duanga-tai, posnble. 

■wat-tai, do noisy work (e.g., hamftnet^ 
ing, dancing, ^c). 
'wA. blood. 

yik ta-k4t.oa, gore. 

isbsn-Se-'wA, dysentery. 

knr&pta-en-wA, blood-stained, bloody. 

na-w&, bleed (v.i.). 

yvkya-dSJi., stream. 

WTm, current. 

y6\-he-vft-ta-chA.a, one's own elder 
brother or sister (in relation to one 
of same sex respectively). 
wllng, mavahle partiHons of wood or 

cane placed in canoes when comieyvng 

coconuts, ^c, in order to allow of 

clear space in centre for baling (App, 

N, item 8). 
TT&n, hanging open basket of ichole 

cane as made at Great Nicoba/r for 

holding pots, Src. (App. S, item 

wAya-d&k (see wk and wii&), strea/m, 
weank, squeak. 

cbalingshi weaAk, squeal, 
wean, jungle (i.e., uncultivated)-ya>in, 
wet, duck. 

te-wet-de, waddle. 
we-6, oh ! (astonishm,ent). 
■wetare (-la-hedwa), dunking glass, 

— -ta-baraana, wine-glass. 
WLi-cbakil, dizzy, giddy. 
winue-sfaishe, handy, useful, service- 


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winneU-tashe, (lee wihtashe), less, 

— — -ka', least, fewest. 
■wi, iusiness, work, labour. 

ni-hala, hoisl, raise (e.g., hoist sail, 
wi-la 16e). 

— -hanga, do. 

hate ; wia ; wio, ■make, work, 

mend wood-work {e.g., make a 

— -hashe, let down, take down as 
from wall, or a screen. 

haiSe, take out nail, Sf-c., ««• 


— -danang, play on the bamboo lyre. 
-^— -danon-hokngdk, season food 


Pign, tattoo (v.). 

diie (-p&l, -powali), make a canoe 

(torch, paddle) . 

— -be6e, strike a light. 

— -hokngfik, prepare food. 

iBr-ho&we,, poison food (e.), 

karuahe-nge, shout (v.), make a 

^ -kenting, fence in, inclose. 

kenyllm (or wi-k6an), beget (a 


— -kaiyl-dik, drain (v.). 

ling-yandre, adorn one's person. 

— -ngaifch), Toake coconut mi. 
holian, feast on girl attaining 


oy&ii (jfie ngai(ch), feast at 

birth of infant. \_At both these 
feasts coconut-oil is made for the 
use of the girl and infant respec- 
tively. "] 

— -Si, build a hut. 

— o-k-ili, thatch («,), 

nng-chuang, widtm (v.t.). 

sbo-inha, smear one's self with 

turm^eric unguent. 
Bho-koi-ta-ngai(G}i), oil the 


ta-16ere, put on dotking. 

t&-t»,Jlatten (v.t.). 

— -t'ompeiiBhe, lessen (v.t.). 

tamai-hlan-mal, surprise (v.). 

16, wear clothes. 

wi-yom, cultivate, tiU. 

wia; wlo, work (v.). 

ddh-wi-hate, repairable. 

owi-ta-Bhi, repair thatching. 

wane-heoe, matches. 

fii, framework of doms-roof hut. 

wanni-tai, tise, employ. 

wmne-shielie, useful. 
wia (see wI), to he worked, made (p.v.). 

wia-iiiha, smear one's self with tur- 
meric unguent. 

lent ok -hanga, notch, indent (as 

on tally-strip) (v.). 

Iflere, put on, clothing, dress. ' 

— -neng-de, put on the " neng '' 

— -penyulia, reflect (of a m-irror). 
chuy&yaii-wia, easy. 

leat^wia, completed (of a building, 

wial-hanga (v.t.), turn anything to- 
wards the south. 
hala (v.t.), turn anythijig towards 

the north. 
hahat (v.t.), turn anything towards 

the east. 
hashe (v.t.), tumanything towards 

the west. 
haine (v.t.), turn anything towards 

the landing-place. 
hata (v.t.), turn anything towards 

any direction. 
ngare (v.i.), turn one's head away 

{or towards the south) 
lare (v.i."), turn one's head upwards 

(or towards the Twrth). 
hare (n.i.), turn one's head behind 

(or towards the east). 
shire (v.i.), turn one's head down- 
wards (or towards the west). 
fiire (v.i.), turn one's head towards 

the landing-place. 
tare (v.i.), turn one's head towards 

any direction. 

henwiya, eddy, whirlpool. 

ka-wila, circular (adj.). 

h&nsh-wiala ; ol-wiala, veer or shift 
(of the wind). 
wiang, beUy, stomach. 

chok-wian^, stomach-ache. 

H 2 




wihla; wihla-b&, young (ndj.), attain- 
ing puberty. 
wibla-maj&l, hoy about 15 yean of 

ltolia,ti-wru1a,^iri shortly after attain- 
ing pubefty, 

ilu-wlblti, lad shortly after attaining 

oly&la, younger. 

ka", youngest. 

wih-tashe, /«w. 

winneh-taslie, fewer, less than. 

h^', fewest, least (in nuvtber). 

■mh-fca-yan, smatter, have superficial 
knotoledge, especially of a language. 

■wiltta-k&lie, bom prematureh/. 

pait-wlhtashe, diminish, decrease. 
winya, rwm, wine. 

winya-teyen, arrack (i.e., white 

wio (ces wi), work (v.). 

noaka ; l^woaka, left, left-hand. 

mo-mwoSk, left-handed. 
■w&lto, again. 

w6l-tare; wcil-tashe, restore, give 

ha-w^l-hata, repeoi. . 

hom-wal-tare, then (in that case). 
w6t, don't (imperative). 

v/bt-Bke, enough, sufficient. 

chinda ; wot - Bhinda, qtiite 


— -shire, good enough. 

hat-wdt-ebe, insufficient, 
yrak (-d4k) (see wft), current. 

wak-ne, Jlou) as a stream. 

iT&ja-dik, stream. 
wii'hata, hesitate. 
wait, mi** one's aim. 

'wait-nga-chakft, steer badly. 

mat, in mistake for. 

ahe, quarrel. 

yan, forget, make m.istake, 

m^iscarry, bring forth prematurely. 

tai-wi-h.anga, make a m,istake 

(in m^nufacttiring any article). 

mwoija, som,namhulist. 

ahishi, imperfect, unfinished. 

k&hti-wait, fail in meeting or finding. 
■waiya, wind-bound. 
waiya, spare (forbear to kiM). 

ya, whoever, e.g., ya-ta-yd, whoever 

ya-kampeng (see kanpe), ambergris 

(inferior quality). 
yam, overlad^i (of ship or canoe). 

y&m-hata (or -ehe) ; pom-y^-she, 
overload (of ship or canoe). 
yama - ka' ; yama - hokngdk, broken 

victuals, leavings of food. 
yamaneak, bundle (tied up). 
yam-nga ; yam-she, disappear, vanish. 
yan ; yan-nih (see inih), chuaha^ 

yannlh, m,erchandise, property, sale- 
able, bartirr. 

chnk-yan, tra)/. 

jan-nata (see fiata), personal orna- 
ments of any kind). 

yantfi (see y6), demand (v.). 
yati-de, taste, flavour («.). 
yang, unthout (not having). 

yang-mat, «maU white bottle, decanter, 

yang-nga-mat, transparent. 
yang-Hkire, cowie down from, a higher 

yang-tare, follow, nent (as in a race). 

hen-yong-hata, pursue. 
yantfl (seejb, yan), demamd (v.). 
yat-hata, draw (tap) toddy from coco- 

heng-imat-mitua, about 4.30 p.m. 
(time of day for visiting trees in 
order to draw toddy). 

enhsbe, about 5 p.m. (time of 

day when about to tap toddy). 

-ka', about 5.30 p.m.. (tirne of 

day when tapping toddy). 
y&t-hanga, cut off a piece of cloth, 
string, Sfc. 
yak, heart-bum. 

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yaka, inhabited. 

j&, fat («.), bhibher of cetaceans. 

y&-oal-aiig-eng;, marrow. 
yfii-hauga; y^-she, abaiuion, leave. 
yft-hasbe, take down anything tied to 

yflr-lare, atop (cease) from viorking, ^c. 
oy&-liang&, leave (allow to remain), 

let go. 
k6iii-de, one loho detert* her 

• k&n-de, one who deserts his 

oyft-nga-alil ; mi-ngare, take leave 
(see im&ngar, him^ga), bid faire- 
y&hnga, become unfastened, slip off (as 

anv article of clothing). 

ylni-]6e-re, take off the skirt. 

neng-de, take off the " neng." 

iy&h-lia1&, unravel. 

— -hanga, remove the skirt or loin 
doth, uncover the shoulders. 

— -liaine, untie, unloose, unknot, 
loosen eane or cord lashings. 

I&e-dit-de, nude, naked. 

yUmga-mat ; y^ngai-ahe, pretty, 
attractive, pleairing, nice. 

— -ehi, fond of, like (v.). 

— -t6, happy, pleated, glad, enjoy. 
yan, hind, tatisfactory, nice (in 

regard to taste). 
-wia, easy to make or do. 

yft3i-iigai-slu-cliak&, handsome,pretty, 

ha-yftL-nga-ahi, love (as relatives and 
friends (v.). 

hen-ySh-ngaslie, love (of relatives and 
friends) (».). 
yM-hata, wash another, pour water over 

yflm-hata; ytm-ahe (see y too), overload 

(of sUp ^ canoe). _ 
yan, condipation, costive. 
y&ng (see ii4iig), hea/r. 

alde-yang, learn, receive news. 

hen-ying-nang, clock, watch. 

lia-y£biig-ta-Daiig, message. 

hat-moiig-y&nga, deaf. 
y&Bga, reflection (as in mirror). 

y&uga-Bhlajig-chaJ£&, long, have an 

y4-Bhe, (see yft-hanga), abandon, leave. 
y&ahe me-ra, good-bye ! (said by 
visitor to one person) , 

— ini-ra, good-bye ! (said by visitor 
to two persons). 

— ifS-ra, good-bye ! (said by visitor to 

yftt-hanga (see yat), cut off a piece of 
cloth, string, ^c. 

yite-onmoi-koi-Um, eirourmcise. 

yen-ashe, grief, sorrow, regret. 

yen-ngat6, sad, sorrowful, pitiful, un- 

yen- shire, sorry. 

yefi-kaniLp (see kan&p), tooth encrusted 
from betel'Chewing(A.pp. N", item 168). 

ye, agony. 

ye-ngayan, colic. 

hata, writhe in pain. 

yechi-ebe, ornamented by means of 

carving, colouring, ^c, 
y€o, crocodile (C. bi-porcatue). 
yeya, sniff (*.), the " Malay hiss." 

ije-ha,ts,,sniff(v.) (as when embracing 
a child), caress, fondle, 

mi-yeya-kSn-de, uxorious. 
yiah; yiah-onihan, root (of tree). 
yinnota (see yot), faster (in or on the 

yiak-ngfLh, low-tide, low-water, 
y'lata, pass away {of acloud). 
yl&ma, lean on another or hold another's 

yiam-Iare, stretch the Umbs. 

omyiam-hata, straighten a cane, ^c. 
yiaiig, along with, in company with. 

yiang-tare, bring or take with one's 
self ; also comparaton, comrade. 

ylanga-ydlde, accompany. 

ong-yiang-ohAng, m^ke a voyage in 

-hatshe, accompany amotJier 

ni-nge; ong-ylang-ta-tfi, co«- 


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yiap, hop of a strip of Jibre from the 

Gnetum pnemou or other material 

placed round the ankles when cUmh- 

ing coconut trees. 
yiap-chak^, coastwise, poling a canoe 

dUmg the shore. 
yiwa, crack in pot, glass, eaiioe, Sfc. 
yoa, TnatriTrwny, the married state. 

joe, cohabit. 

hat-yoa, virgin. 
yoo (see yoa), cohabit. 
yoDg-a-dai (or -rai) (see dai), autumn, 

jom, garden. 

chak-yom, plantation. 

wi-yom, cultivate. 
yok; jok.Bgst,putrid,rotten(of woodand 


y6k-pitn-6i, decompose, putr^y. 

yd-yoknga, rot (of wood and vegetO' 

oniban-tai-yokuga, knot tn wood. 
y6k-shit6, loth to part (of intimate 

yong, shower, 
t6, if. 

yo-hat, unless (i.e., if-not). 

y6-d6hla-]ah, although. 
y6, to (towards, in travelling), thither 


y6-at-chu(n), whither (interrog.). 

yS-chu-Blii, whither (rel.). 
yfl, wish, desire, want, will, like, in- 
clined to, about to, on the verge of. 

y6-cliak&, intend. 

— -en-do ; y6- en-mattai, fertile 

— -hateba, start on (make) a voy- 

hayoie, intemperate. 

tai, intoxicating, heady. 

— -tnuno, girl about 12 years of age 
(App. K). 

na-ulh (see inlh), anything pur- 
chasable, for sale. 
ngong, nearly empty (expended, 

«•«.)■ , 

■ -pomoishe, elderly, approaching 


■ -paib-pait-tare, greedy, covetous. 

y&-iffag, fester, suppvirate. 

yoknga, rot (of wood or vegeta- 

lok-yfi, greedy, voracious. 

Jant6 (see y&n), demand. 
-ae, through (of jungle, grass,plank, 


yflk, hair of the head. 

yflk-toyen, lahite hair. 

pak6-y6k, gray hair. 

poy&ka-shi-y&k, dishevelled. 

talk- jtk, fair (or brown), hair. 
yfll, together, in company ; many, 

several (with reference to a period of 


yol-chak^ aid, assist, help. 

— -chTia(-meil, -an), ow (youf, 
their) (ofacommAinity). 

— -de, companion. 

he-chia, brothers and sisters of the 

— -haslie, of the sa/me sort. 

— -lieiig, many days. 

— -koi, populous. 

— -hf>i-i6siJi,prolifie,produoingmany 

— -manftta ; ydl-penyuha, vari^ms. 
Bhi ; ydt-sbi&n, besides, in addi- 
tion to. 

shuft, often. 

yfllta; yfll-ten, along with, in com- 
pany with. 

— -beangasbe, so (correl.). 

— -yiang-hara, as (rel.). 
Iia-y61, m,ix two or morejiuid' 
hen-ydl-ta-sbi, add. 
ka-j6\, friend, intimate. 

yflna-ta-kae, for, for the sake of, on 

account (f. 
ydnga, take in sail. 
ySta^heang-ashe, Uke the same, so 


— •iAaT\,likewhich(rel\justas (rel.). 
yoin, fdive (of fuel), not extinguished. 
yot, rapid, swift, fast (of skip, canoe or 

twiinmer) . 

— -hata, go quickly, be fast (of ship, 

sbiala-iniita, race on or in the water 




yin-nota, faster. 

ka, fastest. 

ya-haalie ; oyn-hanga, lay, set down. 
yukh, short comttums (ineu^uAent food) 

deficient (of food, cloth or any 

yuip-nga, dry {of grass, Uanes, thatch, 

yu-chuh (see chuH), go (or return) 

home, leave for one'g home. 

hen-chamuh, tvme to return home. 
yvk, flood, deluge, 
yumla, dry, witherei, rotten (of vegeta- 

yn-sliap ; slianop-she, set (as swn, 

ehnp-lieng, sun-set. 
ynai-ngayou, loose (of a coat). 
ynarit-nga, overflow. 
yuafi, drawer (of box, desky^c.). 
yuak-hala, boU (v.i.). 
yuak-haaga; yuaka, load a ship or 

canoe, fill a cooking-pot. 

ok-yuak, cargo, load. 
jual; chkl-y-oB,'., flames, 'blase. 

leat-yualnga, hiivnt out, extingmdied 

yuala, arral reef. 

yuam-hala, furl. 

yuan-de, stretch the limbe. 

yuang, fruit ; numeral affix with refe- 
rence to human objects ; person, indi- 
vidual, e.g. &n-yuaiig kaling (two 
foreigners), iLti-yiiang paiyiili (two 
yuang-amoe, t^id, warm. 

— -fomiam, lad from 12 to 13 years 
of age. _ ^ 

hatom, midnight. 

— -hamen (see hen), sUll (till now). 

— -hare, always, continttally. 

— -h€at, round bullet. 

kamipue ; yuang-labn (from the 

Malay), pump^n (Oucurbita 

mabawo, boy shortly before 

attaining puberty. 

yuang-mamuno, girl before attaining 

— -mangnge, common coral, Madre- 

ta-ak (-ngamat), red coral. 

moreh-ne-tai, Jh-tt-fruit. 

Dg&h, shortly before low-water. 

oaihaji, fruit, berry. 

oyia, cocomtt-fruit. 

oe-ngayaa, now, fust now. 

pong, pumpkin (Cucurbita 

shit6, busy, engaged at work (see 

paradigm of verb, imperfect tense). 
ta-imong, ripe fruit. 

— -ta-ingol, nearly ripe fruit. 

— -ta-omshat, ripe fruit. 
karu-yuang, stout (of a rope, ^c). 
ong-ymug (q.v.). 


henyuava, breakers on rocky coast. 
yue, common house-fly. 
yuh ; yuh-mat (see yii), dirty. 

yuh-ho-mat, soil, m^ke dirty. 
yuh-hata, continue, persevere. 
yiih-ngflre, exactly (no more and no less) 

or whole (as of some round number). 

tare, then (afterwards). 

yuit-nga, disappear,vanish, dissolve,melt, 
yii ; yii-mat, dirt, JUlh. 

yuh ; yuh-mat, dirty, foul. 

yuh-ho-mat, soil, make dirty. 
yai, price, cost. 

ha-tue-yai, prepay. 

hojnkwoai'tsk-ja,i, pay for purchases. 

oktnak-hai-yai-yan, bargain. 

okai-yai-paiyiih, honest (lit. bring- 

miyai, worth. 

miyaiya, costly, valuable, eapenHve. 

totlare-yai, profit. 
yaiya, sand. 

chakfUyaiya, samdy-beach. 
yin, burden. 

y^n-ngayau (see kaa-ngayan), tired 
from remaining fonq tn name posi- 

.y Google 






Bounda in Bnglish, Ac. 





ideo, o«t 

ywanj, fmit. 


our (with tmtriUed)-) 

dak, come ; at, hoarse. 


(Italian) caaa. 

kdkdr-t&h, first moon of N".E. aeaaon. 



tore, wife; huyd; a wild aromatic herb. 



leaf, finished ; huyd; egg. 


myd-h, ih heard, see note 8) after (in 


time) ; heng, ann, day (amime to 



U-bare, book, paper. 



le-ang, sound, name; ngi, voice, Ian- 



fcatMwC, foreign. 



wi, make ; twi", spirit, ghost. 


kod-l, arm; <Aw>i, native, people. 



Worn, PandanuB mellori J e»»W, ajce. 



dmio-m, aU ; »Wm, ten. 



W-e, cloth. 

(German) Konig 

ho-i, far ; po-ya, sit down. 



pud', obtain (bj hunting or fishing). 



du-en, monkey ; chu-a, what (interrog.). 


(aennan) Mber 

dii-e, canoe ; tM'a, I. 



jonut', fivej inoi', twenty. 



^areau, carved human figure to frighten 

away evil Bpirits, 


(German) hous 

oav, vomit. 



enlbin, wallow (as a pig). 

" u Inid down at page 3, Put I. The Alphabet, with unended rulei, ia 

llierefore ffiTen aa A-ppondii A. 

' In the preparation of thi< Alphabet I have been guided by the advice and Mmtance 
Undl; granted me bj Mr. A. J. EUu, T.B.B., late Preiident of the Philolo^ioal Sooietr. A 
few corrections and addiluons have been made sines its original publioation lu the "Itmimw. 
tiona of the FhiloL Boo., 1882-3-4^ pp. 49-SO," 




Souuda in Bnglish, &o. 


Nabal VowBts 


J^ . 

{French) un 

7u>li-an, Bpimter ; oiiihaA, -wood ; porio-i, 

mi&A-, spear having prongs i^kcyai'wa. 




dn, two ; M'hi, flesh, meat. 


(French) tm. 

mh (6), near ; ompeiishe, small. 


(Portuguese) aim 

amin-h (6), rain. 



fiA'ha, hogshead ; machln-au, yonng 
fmit of coconnt tree. 


(French) on 

haroA-h (6), stalk game. 
ienhoi-a, pocket. 



bnk (6), fuel ; thm-Un; hit with fiat. 


mSn-huyii; albnmen. 



cAwMM, sweet. 
mifcdnya, clond. 





oB-AauH", parboil. 



omhHn; tobacco. 




(A), final 





(French) gagner 


le'bare, book, paper. 

ehakK', face; ehii-a, I; ^»HtMatric%, tree- 

ngai(ch), oil j rai(ch), micturition. 

kwmindo', rainbow. 

fdp,-iindk; ife', yon (of 3 or more). 

k&ng, frog ; gol-nw-ro, gold. 

livAja-, egg ; paiyu-'h (8), native (espe- 
cially of Nioobara). 

ben-hwd'va, ashes. 

<iM(j), abstain ftom food, &c., as when 

kdmed't, last qoarter of moon, 

hen-ghd'(_k)-ngaBhi, interruption, 

le'ang, name, sound. 

bmto'm,, all. 

not, pig ; dain-keng, sun-beam. 

en-kbi'na, man, male ; pakavn, boot. 

yang-tare, follow ; next (in race). 

i'ngol, nearly ripe. 

pah&a, afraid ; Pu, Car Nicobar. 

.y Google 


Sounds in Eaglieh, &o. 

Con BON ANTS — continued. 




kara; large. 


aantor^maria, copper corn^ 


sha-hc-ng, wwt' WMt^rSfe 

-A5-«ff, Burf. 



foafe, tari (pftlm wine). 



Aen-W<i'va, monming. 


wet ■ 

Mo(, don't (imperatiTe). 



yantfo, taste, flavour. 

In disyllabic words sti-ets occars on the second syllable unless there is a 
long vowel in the first syllable. Ex. : a-rnin-h, mi-'M', Au-ya", om-Aotji', dn'-ha, 

In trisyllabic and polysTllabic words stress nsnally occnrs on the penalti- 
mate ajllable whenever neither or none of the other syllables have accented 
vowels. Ex.; mi-fain'-ya, en-koi'-iia, om-pen'-she, o-ni'-haii, pan-o'-t, io-mo-AeA'- 
ujffl, ka-iniTirdo', ie'-bo-re, ka-ne-d'l, m,en-kdi' -MO-sAe, hen-ehd(^k)-figa-skl. 

Aa it is not usual to find capitals cast for the accented letters, the initial 
letters of proper names, when bearing' accents, are indicated by prefixing a 
direct period as .ffwj (Little Nicobap), M (Batti Malv), bat Pu (Car Ificobu^), 
Pigu (Bnima), &o. 


(1) d accented before a consonant^ is tbe English a in mat, aa distingtdshed 
from a, which is the short of d, or Italian a in anno. 

(2) e accented in closed syllables, as in bed ; in open ff^ llables unaccented as 
in chaotic or in Italian padra, amore. 

(3) !N'o vanisbing sound of i as in English say. 

(4) No vaoiehiDg sound of ^ as ip. English know, 

(5) In an the sound has more of the d in it than the French an, and in bit 
it has more of the o than the French an. 

(6) When Ak is written aa in enk, ink, &c., the nasal is followed by nasalised 
breath, remitting the voice, but retaining the position of the vocal organs. 

(7) In the diphthongs ain, a«», bin, the nasality principally affects o and d, 
bnt it is retained through the whole diphthong, that is, the nasal paaaaget 
remain open. 

(8) denotes the sound of cA in ricA arrested before being fully uttered. 

(9) denotes the sonnd of dge in hridge arrested before being fully uttered. 

(10) denotes the sonnd of c in fraction arrested before being fiilly uttered. 

(11) ng is a palatilised ng, and bears the same relation to it aa « bears to n. 
To pronounce n attempt to aay n and y simnltaneously ; to pronounce ng do 
the same for ng and ^. 

(12) This r is soft and gentle, with no sensible ripple of the tongue, as very 
frequently in English, but is not merely vocal. 






Tkit, nee; nlnftj nenge 

- (juat now), jruang-oo-ngaijui , 

- (inmiediatel;), nenj danei 

— (to-daj), linbeA.. 

IfbtB-a-day*, haA-ftu-dah 
Bare, it& 

Smtee, IQngto-ilA .. .. 
That, jUtag-'iaiA ; irat-ilu, , 
Lilct thU, ahlri-iifle; vat-ilu 

The» (past portion of thedftj),diigj 

— (renmmmg part of day), ma-Iui 

— (latelj), nain .. .. .. 

— (fomiBrly), tiiAm .. 

— (ancient tim««),tirAm-lB-orali.. 

TAmv, ta-aiM 

rUfi«r, d&h-tBre (iw App. B (>)) 

Thaue, 15ngto-Ca-ane . . , , 
I» that aay, Hhtri-tai-aae . . 
Like that, Ajnaoe.. ,, 
Z%(i< HMtcA, flhlaa-aue 
Thai nxmy, dammUi-l&re-ane . . 

imples illoBtnCiiig Qm um of tlie words in tbia Appendix, ue Part I of the 


DIX B'. 





H^, " 

WiaiB, ch&ag-dtd .. 

IF^itTA, i U ., 

Tiat tame, tiuaa. 


What, J 

tk4,hi,kan,4c. .. 

Whoever, ohi-ohi 1 
WhattBer, ka-e J 

The lame, shlna. 

rkahe i UhS-tashel 
WJ<B.Jtllh8-tarit! klhe- I 

wan., hen 

n<™. .hi. 

WhOe (at such tims as] 


At the lame tine, heA. 

WJtenmer, ka-uhi-mihdin-tuhe 


Br*«Mo»Bi»-, ka-iihi-ihlim-huhB 


Where, cbu(D) , Ut-obu(ii) 

7r%^«.n-, ta-n<^tt»-im6 

TA«re, .hi. 

WAilhx; clifl-Bbi{D) ! yS-at- 

WAilher, jfi-ohu-aM . 

Thither, ji. 

TFhe«ee,lbngbo-cba(n) .- 


Thenee, Bhiri-chnk-aiie. 


At, fdlta-jlang-hata . 

8a, fUta-bBtuig-aghe. 

Zite bA<.(. 

ifie wStcJ, j&te..hiri . 

Lite the ia«e, j6t»-heang-Mjie. 


A, ™«i, diiimeA-.hi .. 


^010 nxis^, ka-r&m ; ka-tum 


* This form ia adopted from Forbee'i well-known Hinduatam gramuiar. 

.y Google ■ 



north bIk) Ahow, tft-ugUe. 



2Afc that (of wme oMflct in a northerly 

(Of loiDfl object in » 
•outberlj toeotion), 


(Of some object in an 
eastertT direatktn). 


..Jrrtw (nortlnrariE), tang-I» ., 


(ewtwafde), taog-hat.. 





Go »or<A«>ani>,or1 _ 


6-ngo .. 



— ftf-«l 




Bf-ahat .. 





Z%iU«r (nortliwacda), dih-Ure . . 






li-ugan> ., 


le-hare .. 




BetrBot (northmrdB), hOl-lare . . 



bol-bare .. 






tai-ngaro . , 








Brf«n. (northwMd.), sli-A-larB.. 





^.«»d a ItKWar, chnik-Ure .. 

Brwy i«* (northward*), 6liwi-bd» . . 

■ - 




BW»j (northwirdB), kw-halft .. 





' Sea "Come" Parti 

.y Google 


DIX B«. 


Wett tito helOK, to-ngdiolw. 

Landitts-pl^i. ta-nenine. 

(Of Bome object in a weeterl; 
direction), shlri ngaiche. 

Of landing -pUce), alilri- 


object withont 

descend a tree, cMat-sbe . . 

(westwuds), tang-Bhe 

(tewardB landing-place) tarig-Be 

— oreh-flhe .. 

— orth^Be .. 



-or descend iihm.0.8he.. 

~ 5-fie 



— — jif-aioh ,. 

— af-aifi .. 



— Md-flWre.. 

— ftid-fiire .'. 



— dah-fiire.. 



— le-shJw .. 

— le-fiire .. 



— kotshire.. 

— kOk-mre.. 



— hal-shire.. 

— hOl-fiiie .. 



— shang-shir. 

— aWing-fiire' 



- Ui-shiw.. 

— i«.eire ., 



— keMd-Bhire 

— keftid-Bire 



— shwl-sliire 

— Bhwi-fiire 



deBcend aladder, ohuak-slare 

(wGBtirards), BhiTi-haBbe .. 

— Bhw4-haifie 



— kai-tashe 

— kai.haiae. . 



and " Hither," App. B. 






An^ '. 

Awake (T.i.} .'.* '.'. 


Bachelor • • 



Bamboo (B. imlgarii} , 




Betelnot tree [A. ealeciii) 






Bottle (ordinary black) 

Breast .. 

Brothel. . 

Buy .. 
Can (able) 

Cheek .. 
Cheat .. 
Chief .. 
Chicken.. .. 
ChUd .. 
Chin .. 
Cloth .. 
Coat .. 
Coconut (the fruit) 

chal-hala .. 

ts ni&u*a-Bhe 
chiu (.en-k6ifia) 
ti.11 (-en-kdr&a) 
ol6*M'she .. 





tam&u'ha; hanbi'fia 


' Oompiimng the tour following islandB : — Camorta, Nancowry, Trinkut, and Eatch&L 
' Til., of the four fijlowing islancU : — Oreat and Little Nicolnr, Milo, and Condul. 



Inland Tribe {Shorn 
Pen), lay 750-1000. 

Tereiia <md Bonmoia 
about 650. 

about 700. 

Car Sicohar, 
■ about 8600. 

to'ak .. 
ho-am i nifl 
knga, kihMgi 
t«-hai .. 

kake'u .. 


hok-D-a .. 




U-ei .. 

kiu .. 

mSt-kii .. 
dob '.'. '. 

iiau ; k5'it 

oiii'a '.'. '. 
moichi .. 

fwSt '.'. 
do-ai J ho-a . 

^sam :: : 

ka-ml-ag. . 

^■u !! 

k5-id .. - . 
ifie .. 

k^Sal '.'. '. 




kflc .. 
iti'ak . . 

JS" :: ;; 


mang-hala. . 













Ti .. 


toh .. 

oka .. 

tiu-maioh . 
eiiD-ha.Bhe . 
li-.p .. . 
rHe .. 
&-lu .. 
i-wo .. 


£f ' ; 

ing-OTe-an . 

s • 

hat-lu .. 

"? :: ■ :: 

wiang .. 

Bhichd'a .. 
pihoiit .. .. 

fa bare .. 
shi-tim . . 
kenjum .. 


anoia .. 
ha-wUi .. 


ka.wi-a .. .. 
kenyam .. 
sha-mi .. .. 
Uujdng .. .. 
banjut .. 

at-lii i atkflla. 











Hi'* (from 2 to 13 
jears) j kdm-Ba-lare 
(when about 14 jn.). 



ke; ha-wAh. 

At a-ka-a. 

kA -el-uAfih. 







it Cliovra Dud Tercwa. 



Comparative List of Words in CommoQ Use 

Central Group, 
poFulatioD about 1070. 



QkuI iuiaiifaaC: 
about 290. 

Cold .. 
Come here! 
Cough .. 

















kSta . . 
baro .. 
pattai .. 

heat ,. 

katd-ka '.'. 

koan-oyuha . 

Mg .. . 



dik-shik-ang . 

kaiohu'at-abe . 

tenhap-eliire . 


enfu'a ... . 

X-'!. ; 

nftnR .. 

iche .. 
ta-nai'haa . 
kfl-ha .. 
&b-lara .. 
huya .. 

Danoe .. 
Day (eunriae to 
Dead .. 

Gurnet)' : 


Dream (a.) . 
Drink (v.) 
Drunk .. ■ 
liar .. 












East wind 

fan J kind 
Eat 4 meat onl 
^^^ Uegetabl 

of food ! 
s, rioe, &e., oi 

jj '■ 

Eye .. 

Sr '• ■• ■ 

Father .. 
Ferer .. 
Finger.. . 
Fire .. 

FiBh .. 

Foot .. 

Forget .. 
Fowl .. 
Friend .. 
Get up! 
Girl '^ .. 
GiTe .. 

chi-a-enkaina . . 

c^^'^^ ■■ ■ 

beo-e .. .; ; 


(paijiiiOkaliag .. 


homnai '.'. '.'. ' 
ihtaka .. 
hoakwam-hata ., 

ddin .. 

ke-wet .. 
kia .. 

kamoe .. 
Bhiaka .. 


in the Six Dialects of the Nicobar Group — continued. 


Northern Group. 

Inland tribe {8iom 

Teretta and Bompoia 


Car SiBOhar, 

Jm), wy 750-1,000. 

about 650. 

about 700. 

thoixt 3500. 





dSme lo-chiku .. 



ji-htar ihih. 





k4-h6k .. 





SL ;: :: : 


1-he'ttt .. 






la-mdk . . 




ke-ri-am .. 

ko'Bn enksana 

ko-anonkft-na . 





leit-ki-pab .. 














nju-hata .. 





mashota; padutk. 


Etog r . 





kata-ngi-a.. . 

kBh^{d) .. 

naoA'ka „ 


tenkaiit .. 

kiusftb ;; '.'. '.'. 



det-ong-kS-ang . 







jia-maioh .. 









a :: :: :: 



£'. :: :: 







(pai.) k»ling.. .. 

(p46h-) kaling .. 

pameal-olwia , , 

pa-ngata .. 

langa-tA .. 




ko-cliau J madig 

ho-loang .. .. 


ko'au-lAmdk . . 

pa-mrait .. 




baa-hata .. 


, Google 


Comparative List of Words in Common Use 

(Jood .. 
HoirCof head).. 




Heel '.'. '.'. '.'. 

Hot (of water, metal, &c,) 

- (bs the 
House (hut) 
How many ? 
Hungry. . 
Hunt pigs 
Hut (c. hou* 

kitom; kSi4m 

Iguana .. 


Jungle . . 


Kill (in any manner) . . 

£nucUe ' 


Ijeft (opponito of right) 


Like (adj.) 

Lime (eheU-) . . 

MmI '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'. 
Maiden (see "Girl" and "Spinrter 
Male ; 



Bhii'am . . 

en-k6i-fia .. 




ko'i-kano'ang . . 
nangba . . 
laniL' ma-kanetai 

{felloiT oauntTyman, pu- 
foreigner, kaling (-en- 

pAh(-ot&-ba) .. 1 

kaliDg(-ot6-lia) j 

.y Google 


in the Six Dialects of the Nicobar Group — eoiUinued. 


Northern Group. 

Inland tribe (Shorn 
Fen), eay 7BO-1000. 

TereB»a and Bompaha 
about 660. 

about 700. 

Car mi-olar, 
about 3600. 

chat-kBohau .. 

^^■:. :: :: 
ay" :: :: 



teihak (or ting) k5'i .. 




T^ temporary, fii-ngim 






ha-lio-iuge .. 
la-pa.. .. 



M?k:: :: ;; 




ahaK-k6:i .. 


kentB-la-lah .. 


la-nga-enha .. 

ehafci-ko-i .. 


taiu-efilia .. 






ehyu-ftj ohian. 

el. ' 












hang-ngA .. .. 


hat-hs-at .. 


a-chi'S !! '.'. 

amtom .. 


hang-fra .. 



tala-oal . . 

ka-r&u .. 





aki \. .. 

chi-nAi .. 

Bhi-dsk .. 


la-woa-ia . . 

kar&it .. 
raanii-i ,. 
ko-dfi'»t .. 
Iftmik .. 

itnft v. '.'. 

paoh(-mohS-o) .. 


ko-ani-w&p . . 

dii-i '.'. '.'. '.'. 






clii-mflhti ., 
Bhi-ku-afi .. 

Ift-wftka '.'. '.'. 



taw '.'. '.'. '.'. 


ak&it '.'. '.'. '.'. 


kam-mdng ,. 

rt .. '.'. ". 

ftmi.. '.'. '.'. 

r paiOmaiah) 

1 kaling(.inai61.) .. 

de-la; re'la. 
of Car Hicobar, tiVnk 

of otlisT Nieobar 
Islands, taa {-kikfi-- 

of foreign country, 
. tWiu (-likft'fia). 

, Google 


Comparative list of Words in Common Use 

CaUral Group, 
population about 1070. 


Coatt ii^ahitanU. 

ftbout •i&O. 



EL.™:: ;: :: 










kama-hen'wa .. 






Mogqaito >. 


pi-Bhi'iiiha .. 


heui beu-6-ja.. 






Nail (of finger or toe) 




















X'., :: :: :: 





Dgi-dainjo-nga-heno .. 


hoang-ke-wet .. 

Palm (of hand) 







hoing .. 

Pig (wild) 



™„„ J"8pot,localilj 






eAba-pak5it .. 


















ara-ej acoBh 


, Google 


in the Six Dialecta of the Nicobar Group — continued. 


Northern Group. 

Inland tribe (Shorn 
Pen) saj 750-1000. 

T^eita and Bompoka 
aVrat 6S0. 

about 700. 

Car Sicobar, 
about 3500. 


orfl-ba^Bhe .. 

kein .. 





(hengjhawSp .. .. 

obii-at " '.'. '.'. 



Ti(d) '.'. '.'. '.'. 
iilin '.'. '.'. '.'. 
ohulii J tahap , , 

maboA " '.'. '.'. 
kkmha '.'. '.'. '.'. 


shi-honK .. 
m .. 


kamabi-™ .. 
kivbai .. .. 
pe-teh .. .. 
nahbh-ja, . . 
t5-eitkrana .. 






ble-6ng .. .. 
en-U-nga .. 

ba-tam '.'. '.'. 


kim.lieng .. 

ia-6 .. .. .. 

mSfih" !! '.'. 


moalih .. '.'. 
oal-f&ng .. '.'. 

:E'- ;: :: 

keoft-at .. 

hftSdng .. 
cHarum .. 
hatam- .. 
hanai .. 

a"'"' :: :: 

mdnb '.'. W 





dia, ha'a. 





na-hen; nee-heft .. 



kkkal- '.'. '.'. '.'. 


be-e .. .. ■ .. 


main '.. '.'. 


hon-Bha-an . . 

G':: ;; :; 

hat-ji'ao .. 
kftheal .. 
oal-n6i ., 
hanfSn „ 

ho4-ng .. .'. 






eAhs-noC .. 
ka.p6ng .. 
Bhanang (or kari ang) 

mili'ab .. 

Uo^a ','. ' '.'. 
eiiha-not .. 

kari'ang ,. W 
oh^i .. .. 

t4-lia-iiu-fiii' " 
a-ri-e .. .. 








en-bfin'ja .. 



, Google 


ComparatiTe list of Worda in Common Use 

Bight (not left) 
Eowl .. 

U-chii-la .. 


ndT beach 
J (apeak) 

Sick . . 

Sky .. 
Sleepy .. 
SWl .. 
Smoke (9.) 
Snake (Tenoi 


Bong . . 
South ,. 
South wind . . 

Spear (bladed). . 
Spear (pronged) 
SpioBter. . 
Spit (eipectorate) 

Squat (^ on one's 1 


jaiya; pi'et 

"■Ib-hata .. 






tamina-Bhe- enk&'aa 


hingfiak .. 
kandi-ehe .. 



shanB*al , . 

op-ep .. 




chdng . . 


jft :: !: 

han ftiia-omsh 0*ka 

kuha-ha.. ,. 



dinait . , • • 

fueh .. 

(only barmleBB snakes 
and the pjbhon in I' 
Southern Group) 

ko-^^j^oti-ha) .. 

14-6ng .'. '.'. 
bifteb-lAlinga . . 
ha-hal .. 
shsneb .. 

tapaih-hai'fie . . 

omdiim-hare , , 

, Google 


in the Six Dialects of the Nicobar Group — continued. 


Hortheni Group, 

Inland tribe (Shorn 
Fei), say 750-1000. 

Teregaa and Bompoka, 
about 650. 


Car Nieohar, 
about 3500. 

karA-a . 

t^it ! 

hefl-a . 

gii-hOii . 
g6-lia . 


Stp' : 



di'dag ! 




a-i(d):: : 

iika !.' ! 

at .'. '. 

ahftl .. 
M-ya; pi-at 








la-chti-la .. 
6-kai-e .. 
tanu-ka .. 




ta-rii; pi'at 
ki-nyi-a .. 
sbama-riu. . 

en-Bhung .. 
o-Saftnga-U}. . 
chlh-hata .. 

en-Ten-p&nam- . 

g:S :: : 

tikak .. 
Mmah-henAng - en- 




















wa-haui at-Uken. 








pa-man she 

e-&h .. 







mian .. 





itlakla .. 
aiobip .. 


hlngftk .. . 


ka-nyik-a .. 

en-kana '.'. '. 












dSlaj rS-Ia. 

, Google 


CcHnparative liet of Words in Common Use 

Stand up 1 
Star .. 

Strong .. 
Suck . . 
Suckle .. 

Surf .. 

TaUar .. 
. Tame (domeatica 

■^y { tt^ 

Think (regsrd) 
Thiraty . . 
Thou .. 

» { r:: 


To-mocrow (day aftw-) 



Toothache . . .. 


Tortoiie (Kt. turtle) shell 








bur&Bha . . 

kefrng .. 
chAu-hata . . 
shft-hong . . 

ktcbal' '.'. 
ehiO) .. 
dftk-mat .. 

kane-lih .. 

kale-tik . . 

ok-t5ka .. 



Bhdk-male'cba . . 


oriasha . . 


kfi-ag .. 


ba'a-toah -heii*de 

Bhdnk .. 


karuai(d) . . 

flhai(t) .. .. 

kichal- .. 

yli .. 

liudhala-ko'i , , 

taddk .. 

le(t) .. 
emeAh ; emeob'a 


kiang-ao ; kan^ 
ob^k-kAangaD .. 

J, Google 


in the Six Dialects of the Nicobar Group — ayiUi-mied. 


Nortbern Group. 

Inlaad tribe (SAoa 
Pei), Bay 760-1000. 

Terettaand Bompoka 
about 650, 


about 700. 

Car Ificoiar, 
about 3600. 

kilkeiig'.; '.'. '.'. 

Hujkiiial '.'. '.'. 

taihsk-kioal .. 


le" '.'. '.'. '.'. 

kiha-kufd) '.'. '.'. 

WWIa-k6-i !! '.'. 

ng6am.pai(d) .. 

heftfc '.'. v. '.'. 









okO '.'. '.'. '.'. 


kalat-pechft .. 

kalft-hanga .. . 
cbdng-beo-e .. 

hurft-Bbk '.'. '. 


kale-enba .. 




baraicb ,'.' '. 

S-T :; : 



mela-oha ; kilit-pi- 

mala-nga .. 


wi-ang .. 





mA-hata . . 
men-tab .. 

eok '.'. '.'. 

kucba .. 

& :: :: 


ob6-Idre; Bak-Iare. 











marA-lduf tlatl). 
nl-a; nan. 



men; nieah; mah. 



burechi burdich. 







sale 'At 




aDeftnabe-TaD'be . ■ 
rik-mit .. 


hili-ang .. . 

cb8h '.'. '.'. '. 


Dee-hen; oi-heA . 
mfthb-lah .. 


ahaki-kanAp . . 

ok-kap .. '. 




bili'ang .. .. 


GS- :: :: 

ombfin .. 

kenuBh-lab" '.'. 
tftha-ko-i .. 

kalitik .. 
(None on this iabmd) 
ok-Up .. .. 
^■a.g-apb6p .. 


o-Q-b«la '.'. '. 



, Google 


Comparative List of Words in Common Use 

Central Group, 


about 290. 

Water (fresh) 

- (»lt) 

We (dual) 


Weet .. 

Wb^t (int»rr^:) .. V. '.'. 












c^a-a;^^ya .. .. 

tejeil .. '.. 





abin-hoilnga i shamhSvi 




."* :: :: :: 

dano-ai!! !! !! 


p61i(^yu-ha) .. .. 



ok'I&ka-koU .. 

3? ;; ;: ;■: 







paiyi-h (-BukA-na) 






hiDg-ip . .. .. 



Yon («B?,), e. Thon. 

= 8°.-;U- :: :: :: 




, Google 


in the Six Dialects of the Nicobat Group — etmtmued. 


Northern Group, 

Inland tribe (Shorn 

Teretta a^Bompoka, 


Car Nicoiar, 

Fe-A), say 750-1000. 

about 650. 

about 700. 

about 3500. 

&■:. ■:. :. 







ohi-a-Mft !! !! 





to-ng4h-ha .. 

tang-ngeli , , 

11 >uog. 

Bhihingi! '.', .. 


aam-hiWi .. 


ku .. .. 


chiap; 4auap, 

obMii-»n .. 

C»Sh '.'. '.'. 


kEen '.'. '.'. '.'. 

e-Dgamftt .. 


kftplLh-kftm .. 

kapah-kMnaju .. 


Ue-a !! '.'. '.'. 







rAnpnga .. 



ea-keftna .. 

BD-fca-Qa .. .. 


pai (-enie'lna) 

paeh(-enkft'na) . . 

of Car Nicobar, tSrik- 

of other Hicobar la- 

lands, ti-B<-kikSi>a). 



ap-h6p .. .. 




kap6' ■ ■ 



at-lika-kftr .. 





fakenlai tAu'la. 

hing-ip .. .. 


aihe-i '.'. '.'. '.'. 

aamen-neoh .. 

eam&i-ha .'. '.'. 




hanj ban. 

'AtiimW " ;; 










, Google 




Inland tribe at 

Central Group. 

Great Nicobar 



An; -tBang-tafQaJ 


heng .. 

2 (one pair) 

kh; -heg-takdal 

&u; iLeng-ta-^ii 

8 (one pair 

16e (or lue)i 'heang-tafOal- 

luej 'heg-tikOal-h^ .. 


and one) 


4 (two pairs) 

foan; "iln-tafGal 

tAat; *U.Uk6al 

fuat I iu-ta-^a 




tai& .. 




lagiu .. 










lungi .. 


shim , d&ktain 

Bhab; daktaij 

teja . . 


















teja _ 




20 (ona score 

heang-momchiama ; 'heang- 

or ten poire) 

inai* ; -Bh&m-taf iial 



heg - pomohiama - beg i "heg ■ 

•Heanginni-tanai (-tafual) 




inai-tam (-taiOal) 


ftQ-momohiama-foaii ; -ftn-inai- 

dn-pomohlama-fiat; •Sa-inai- 

&u-inai-&u-ta- iiu 

an (.tafual) 

ki, (-takdal) 


tam-pomchiama 1 tani-inai ,. 



abdm-moniohlama ; *8h5m-ii]ai; 





aham - taoai - momohlama ; 

shab-tani-poniohmma; -^hab- 





hSang - inai - momohlama i 

heng-teo . .. 



beng - t6o - tain 


■heg-pomehiama-tani (-inai) 



If,yjiga_ Where tnoi and tafual and their equivalents in the other dialects are aho-mi within 

brackets it denotes that the; may in such cases be left to be understood. 
The terms marked • denote those which are employed in reference to coconuts and 
money. The numerals not so marked are applied to all other objects. As they 
noTer have occasion to use high numbers for anythi ig eicept coconuts, the terms 
employed for other objects are not given in this table beyond 2,000 in the Car 
Sioobar dialect, and beyond 70(1 in the other dialects. The inland tribe haye no 
trade in coconuts, and rarely have occ««oa to employ higher Dumerala than those 

, Google 




Teres8> and Bompoka. 


in ; *h3ang-tafDA 

lue ; "bSang-taCua-hiaiig 

tobn ; *&fi-tBfua 

iaaeat .. 

enfoAn ., ,. 

ros-hata. . . . . . . . 

ilLdm-bSang ., ,, .. 



ahdm-taiu . . 

heaog - momclilama ; 'lleailg • 

tt>m; 'shdm-taSia, 
heang • momchioma - li«aug i 

*heang-tom- heang 
heang ' momcbiama - ahbia ; 

'hIang-tom-Catii (-tafua) 
ftn-moDichiaiaa-fofui; *&n-tom- 

HA (.tafiia) 
tatu-momchisma ; *tam-tom . 
ehbta ■ momcliiaiiia j 'Bham - 

torn; *heang-nang 
BbJun-teai-niomcliIamai 'shfuu' 

heang-tom-mamctuama ; ■&£[- 

heaag^tom - tam - momchlama j 
■Sfi-afiDg-taiii (-torn) 

aA ; *heailg-taf ual 

lue ; *heaiig-tafual-heang 

tobn i •aii'tafual 



kala-ftn. . .. 


Bhdm-an .. .> 




beoDg'Dodt^ ; 'heang-tom 

heang-noAng-ltBang ; 'heang- 

heang - Dodog - ahdm i ■heang- 

tmu-tanl (-taf ual) 
an-nodng-fodn I *Bn-tiom-aA 

taDi-DoAiig ; 'taui-tom. . 
thbia - nodng ; 'aliitm - torn ; 

Bh6m-tani-iio6iig; *slii)m-tani- 

tom ; 'lieang-lft-tam-tom 
heang-tom-noiDg! "Sn-U 

beaag-tom-taiu-nodDg i *aa-U- 
tam (-torn) 

kahok; ■heog. 
□eftti 'heng-t^&l. 
lue; 'lieDg-lBliM-lieng. 

fan J "nottt-taliai. 


kabok-micbama; {rarely xun 


kabok-micbama-lieDg; 'heng- 

kahok- micbama-gani; *lieng- 

anai-tani (-lahftl). 
neftt-miobflma-fini 'neftt-anai- 

Deat <-tBli61). 
taiU'iaJcbima i Hwu-anai. 

•heng-ngjtog {or he-ng&ng). ' 
tanl-Bian-miehama; *tani-Blan. 

aaaii •heng-ngftng-tani-aiiai 
heng-anai-mfclmiBa; 'iahok- 

michama ; ■neltt-tdng. 
heng-aoai-tani-micliamai ■neftt- 

tdng-tanl (-anai). 

dBnoting a few litmdreds. *taiuii (5), tfot/of (10), inai (20), derived from tai 

(tanrfat-), Sogem. +a«/33» (8) [iiri {2),y5an(4)]. Irfaiioi(10),and rf3*io» (200) can 

tnilj be used with momchiama (20) and numchiama (400) or Bome multiple of those 

numerals reBpeotivelj. 

For further information regarding the numerals lee " Notea on the fframmar," Section X. 

[Bote the euphnnio changea rung in 3ie initial letter of the Car Nioobar word for "200," 

n denoting the varioua multiples up to 2,000 incluBiie.] 



Comparative List of the Nmnerala in 

Inland tribe of 
Great Nicobar 

hSuDg-iDai-ddktai-momchiiuna ; 

'hSang-momob lama-ddktiu 
bSui^-iiuii ■ ddktai - tanai-mom- 

cbiam^ 'hSang-momcLtama- 

ddktai-tanw (-inaj) 
*fta- momchlama - in - inai- tanai 


Hanai-momcb lama 

beg • inai ■ d^ktai -pomcbiama ; 

beg - inai • tani - pomcbiama ; 

'heg-pomcMama- ddktai- tan! 


pom cbiama- ditktai 


And BO on for 

■shftm - &ii • inai - tanai - 1^ 

bSanet-inai -tanai -torn -l 

tai^-teo . . 


tani-takOal -pomcbiama 
i-pomcbiama . . . 

teja-teo. . 

JfOTES. — Wbeie inai and tafial and tbeir equivalents in tbe other dialects are ebown irithin 
bracketB it denotes that they may in such cases be left to be understood. 
The tenns marked * denote those which are employed in reference Co coconuts and 
money. Tbe numerals not so marked are applied to alt other objects. As they 
never hare occasion to nse bigh numbers for anything except coconutB, the terms 
employed for other objects are not giTen in this table beyond 3,000 in the Car 
Nicobar dialect, and beyond 700 in the other dialactB. The inland tribe haye no 
trade in coconuts, and rarely hare occasion to employ higher nmaerals tban those 

J, Google 


the Six Nicobareae Dialects — continued. 

lereiia and Bompoka. 

heang-tom- BhAm-momchiit 

heang > torn - Bh6iD - tani - in 

chiiima ■lue-ni)ng-tAm(-toin) 

•fo&n-aSiig-an-toiQ-lam (-taffla) 

'hetmg-maiiula-taiii - ndag 

•taDl-mamlla , , 


'liiO-ia-tanr (.torn) 
*fo5ii-li-a&-tom-tAn! (-lafual) 

•lue'jicg-tam ( 

■tanl-^ . . 
•flhSm-lA; 1 

-micMina ; 


neat-onai - ne&t - micliaiaa- sam ; 

*&it ■ ii6iig - heng- auai -tani 

ne&t-anai-tani-tah&l-michama ; 

taDl ■ anai - miohsjna; 'sfttu - 

m^gi *heDg-luune. 
■Bam - onai - micbilma ; 'Da&t • 

•tftni-kainej ■drftngte-Hk. 

■heang - torn - maiuilii ; 'elidm- 

•heang-tom-tauI-metQetclija . 

'an-tom-shdm-metfietchja ■ 

D-biiifiej 'heng-lflk. 
■heng-tuiiu-kaiBe i ■ne&t-lUc. 

denoting a few hundreds, •ianai (5), dbhtai (10), inai (20), derived frcim tai 

(taneial), Gngen. fetjfSan (8) [i^n (2),JSan (4)]. tdoktai (10), and ddtlai (200) can 

Qui; be used with mcrmchiama (20) and momcMama (400) or some mnlliple of those 

mimerals respeetiveiy. 

For further itiformatioii regarding the nmneraJa tee " Notes on the Grammar," Section X. 

[Note the euphonic changes rung in the initial letter of the Car Nioobar word for " 200," 

a dtmotiug the Tarions multapleB up t« 2,000 iuoluNve.] 

.y Google 

, Google