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peonunciation; orthography, and etymology, 






^ijxuntl) <^tittioti, mebMeb anb ^mprobeti. 







1869. \ .^--^ 



also almost every thing that is practically useful in etymology, 
under the head of Derivation. 

As at least nineteen out of every twenty words in the English 
language are regular in their pronunciation, that is, are pronounced 
according to the usual sounds of the letters in the alphabet, it is 
surely unnecessary to write down the pronunciation of each, as is 
done in Walker's and Sheridan's dictionaries. It is quite suffi- 
cient, one would think, to draw the attention of the learner to the 
difficult and irregular words, and to supply him with practical rules 
for then: pronunciation. This has been done in the present Work ; 
and if the learner makes himself acquainted with the prommciation 
of these words, which are comparatively few in nimiber, he will be 
able to pronoimce all the other words in the language without diffi 
culty. In fact, he will only have to attend to the position of the 
accent, and the usual sound of the letters. 

And what can be iaore unsatisfactory than the etymological in- 
formation given in our English dictionaries ?* Even in the volumi- 
nous and celebrated work of Dr Johnson, the amount of informa- 
tion on this important and interesting branch of lexicography, 
scarcely ever exceeds a Latin or French word, par parenMae, Now, 
of what use is the mere indication of the root? To those who know 
any thing of the learned languages, such information is unneces- 
sary; and to those who do not, it is useless, — ^unless, indeed, the 
primary meaning, and secondary applications of the term referred 
to, be fully and clearly explained. On this subject Horne Tookb 
has truly said — ^' It is a trifling etymology that barely refers us to 
some word in another language, either the same or similar, unless 
the meaning of the word, and cause of its imposition, can be dis- 
covered by such a reference." 

Instead, therefore, of following the usual plan of merely indicat- 
ing the root of the words, which would have occupied much space 
to little purpose, the Compiler has, as he said before, given almost 
every thing that is practically useful in etymology, imder the head 
of Derivation.* Many of the " English Etymologies" will be found 
novel, and, it is hoped, interesting ; and the Latin and Greek Roots 
which he has selected and illustrated, are those by which the Eng- 
lish language has been most enriched, f 

* With the exception of Dr Riohabbson's, which is the only one in the language 
that deserves the title of an English Etymological Dictionary. 

t In order to leave more space for the enlaivement of tne Dictionary, this large list 
of words has been omitted in the present ediiion. They have, however, been re-pub- 
lished, with numerous additions, under the titio of "A Manwd of Etymology ; or, Fhat 
iStej)* to a KnowUdae of the English Language, 



Notwithstanding the large and increasing demand for the Dic- 
tionary in its present form, the Author has had the stereotype plates 
broken up, though they were still in good condition, in order to intro- 
duce into their proper places the new words which have been added 
to our language since its first publication. He has also thoroughly 
revised the whole Work ; and he is glad to say that he has been able 
to make several improvements in it, not only in the Dictionary, but 
also in the Introduction. 

The principal improvements in the Introduction are : — 1. Prac- 
tical Exercises on the Principles of Pronunciation (page 31). 
This is a great improvement ; for by compelling the learner to refer 
to the rule or the exception in each case, and to find out for himself 
the proper pronunciation, he will, in a comparatively short space of 
time, become practically acquainted with all the irregular pronun- 
ciations in the language. 

2. An attempt 1^ been made (page 40), to settle the orthography 
of that large and perplexing class of words which are spelled in two 
or more ways, even by writers of high authority. Tnis has been 
done by applying the Practical Rules for Spelling (page 37). 

The improvements in the body of the Work are : — 1. New wcrds^ 
and words that were omitted in the original edition. 

2. The definitions or explanations, especially of the more impor- 
tant words, are fuller ; and, in fact, they are now as complete as it 
is possible to make them in a volume of the same size ana type. • 

3. The pronimciation of every difficult and irregular word is 
given after the word as it occurs in the Dictionary. But it should 
be kept in mind that, when words, are given in families or groups, 
neither the accent nor the irregular pronunciation is repeated in 
the words which follow, unless they should happen to differ from 
the cognate words which precede them. Much space has been saved 
by this arrangement. 

It has been already stated that this Dictionary contains all the 
authorized words which have been given in the largest and most 
recent works on the subject. It is not to be expected, however, that 
it either should or cow^ contain every word in the language ; nor is 
this the case even in our largest dictionaries. 

Generally speaking, the words which will not be f oimd in it may 
be classed under the following heads : — 

1. Obsolete words ; 2. Technical, scientific, and theological terms ; 
3. Words not in good use, or not sufficiently authorized; 4. Provin- 
cial or local terms, and colloquial expressions ; 6. Worda o\s<iVss<Qa^ 


compounded of other words, or formed by the addition of Prefixea 
and Afl&xes ; 6. The mere inflections of other words, as the plural of 
nouns, the persons and tenses of verbs, and the degrees of a(^ectives. 

In every case, however, in which it has been considered necessary 
or useful, words from each of the above classes have been inserted. 

As Prefixes and Affixes enter largely into the composition of 
English words, they have been fully explained in the Introduc- 
tion to this Dictionary (page 46) ; and as they are arranged in alpha- 
betical order, they can be easily referred to when information is 

The Inflections or changes to which English words are subject 
should also be known; and as they are very few, and very simple, 
this can be easily done. We shall give the regular inflections here ; 
and the exceptions, which are not numerous, will be noted in the 
Dictionary as they occur. 

1. Nouns or substantives become plural by the addition of « to 
their singular form ; as book, books; bookseller, booksellers, 

2. The degrees of adjectives are formed by adding to the original 
word er for the comparative, and est for the superlative ; as great, 
greater, greatest, 

3. English verbs have but two tenses — ^the present and the past ; 
and the latter is formed from the former by the addition of ed, as I 
learn, I learned; and the only changes in the persons are the fol- 
lowing:— In the present tense the second person singular is formed 
bv the addition of est, and the third person by s or eth ; as / learn, 
thou learnest, he learns or learneth. And in the past tense all the 
persons, in both numbers, are alike, except the second person sin- 
gular, which takes st in addition to a; as I learned, thou leamedst 

4. The participles of verbs are formed by adding inq for the pre- 
sent, and ed for the past or perfect ; as from ^^am are formed learnr 
ing, and learned, 

5. Words obviously derived or formed from other words. Thus, 
for example, if the amx er be added to almost any verb, a noun is 
formed which denotes the agent or doer ; as from read is formed 
reader; from write, writer; from sin, sinner; and from begin, beginner. 

The above constitute the regular inflections or variations of English 
words ; and as they are the same in all words of the same class, their 
insertion in a dictionary is unnecessary. But in affixing them to 
the original or radical word to which they belong, mistakes may be 
made even by persons of good education unless they know — 1. In 
what cases the flnal e of the original or radical word should be cut 
off or omitted ; 2. In what cases the final y should be changed into 
i; 3. In what cases the final consonant should be doubled. 

Under the head of " Practical Rules for Spelling*' (page 37), all 
these cases are enumerated; and if the learner spends half an hour 
over these rules, and the examples in illustration of them, he will 
have no difficulty in future in determining whether the t ob ant 




The Ext to Soukbs Begulab ahd iBBEauLAB, • ^ T • 8 

The Alphabet — Saxon^ Old English, Bomak, Era, • « . 9 
The Soundb ob Powbbs oi* the Lettebs : — 

Vowels, .•••••...•! 10 

DiFHTHoiras AND Tbifhthoeos, , 14 

Consonants, , . • 19 


A Collection of all the Irrequlab Pbonunoiations in the 

LaNOUAOE, EOB THE USE 01* THE LeaBNEB, • • • • • 81 

Obthoqbapht, .••••••••• 86 

Practical Bulesi fob Sfellino, . . • • • • • 8f 

Words Sfellsd m Two ob mobb Wats bt different and even 



Derivation : — 

Prefixes, English, Latin, and Qrbek, 4G 

Affixes, English, Latin, and Greek, 48 

English Etymologies, 19 

The Dictionary, •»•..••* t # 63 

Pronunciation of Scripturb Proper Names, = . . : 499 

A Concise Classical Dictionary, ...... j 505 

Geographical Pronouncing Vocabulary, with Etymological ■ 

AND Explanatory Notes, 529 

Latin and Greek Words and Phrases, . . . . } 543 
French, Italian, and other Foreign Wobds and Phrases in 

Common Use, Pronounced and Explained, .... 546 

Abbreviations, Latin and English, Explained, .... 547 
Directions for Addressing Persons of Every Bank, botq in 

Speaking and in Writing, 549 

An Appendix, containing New or Omitted Words, • • . 551 

Words of Unsettled Orthography, .,.%*• ^^"^^ 


Tk this Dictionary, the regular Bounds of the letters are unmarked^ whilo the 
IRREOVLAR or Incidental sounds are indicated by the usual long or short marks, 
or by being spelled for the leameft m they are pronounced: and for all practical 
purposes this, it is presumed, will be found to be quite sufficient. 

The regvlar^ irregular^ and incidental soimds ox the letters, voinnELS, diphtbongs, 
TRIPHTHONGS, and CONSONANTS are given in the Introduction in alphabetical order, to 
which reference, when necessaiy, can be easily made. The regular soimds, how- 
ever, which occur in at least nineteen out of every twenty words in the language, 
will, for the conveoience of the learner, be briefly re-stated here. 



1. Long Sounds. — A vowel has its long or open sound when imder the accent; as 
a infa'tcUf e in Ufgal, i in ti'tle, o in no'ticCf and u in du'ty, A vowel has also its 
long sound in monosyllables ending in e mvie^ preceded by a single consonant ; as a in 
/ate, e in me^«, i in jnne, o in noUy and u in, 

2. Short Sounds. — A vowel has its short sound when it is followed by a conso- 
nant which shvii or abruptly terminates its sound ; as a in fUty e in mUt, i in pVn, o in 
rUitf and u in tUb; and this is always the case in monosyllables ending in a single con- 
sonant ; as in the examples just given. A vowel has also its shut or short sound 
when it is followed by an accented consonant in the same syllable ; as a in bdl'ancet 
€ in fil'on, i in turtle, o in nUv'elt and u in piin'ish. 

diphthongs and triphthongs. 

The only proper diphthongs in our language are «u or «t0, as in feud and jewd; oi 
or oy, as in toU and boy, and ou or ow, as in found and now. These are the regular 
sounds of these diphthongs, and they are unmarked in this Dictionary. 

The USUAL sounds of the other or improfsr diphthongs are exemplified in the fol- 
lowing words{ — 

ae, as in Caesar. 

ai or ay, as in aid, day. 

Hu or aw, as in taught, law. 

ea, as in meat. 

ee, as in meet. 

el, as in ceiling. 

ey, as in they, 
la, as in poniard, 
ie, as in grief, 
io, as in nation, 
oa, as in boat. 

00, as in moon. 

ui, as in languid. 

uy, as in buy. 

eau, as in beauty. 

ieu or lew, as in lieu, view. 

oe, as in foetus. 

As these are the tauaZ sounds of these diphthongs, they are unmarked in this Diu- 
tionary ; but all exceptions from them will be noted as they occur. 


For the regular sounds of the consonants, turn to page 19, In which they will be 
foimd tabulated and exemplified. 


1. When following an accented syllable, the termiuation cial, siaZ, and tial are pro- 
noimced like shdl; as in commer'aai, controver'ml, and pax'tial, 2. The termina- 
tions eeouSf ciouSf and tUmSt like shus; as in farina'ceoiu, capa'cioiM, and conten'tiota. 
3. The terminations aeous and giov^, like jus; as in cours/geous and reWgiotu. 4. The 
terminations rion and tion, like shun; as in mis'«i<m and men'tion. 

The blending of two sounds or syllables into one, as in these terminations, is the 
effect of the accent which precedes them. See Nos. 74, 76, p. 26. 


t Placed after a word denotes that it is obsolete or antiquated ; as after fardel t* 

- This mark over a vowel deletes that it is long; as in control. 

u This mark denotes a short sound or syllable; as in genuine. 

' This mark (the acute accent) over a vowel denotes that it has ite long sound ; 
but when over a consonant, it Indicates that the preceding vowel has its shut or sJiort 
sound ; as in the examples given above (under the YowelsX 

" When a word has a secondary accent, this mark denotes the principal one; as 
In epis'copa'lian and in'corruptibil'lty. See No. 68, a., p. 26. 

a. stands for adjective. 



p. p. 



for adverb, 
for conjimction. 
for interjection, 
for participle, 
for past or per- 
fect participle. 


stands for participial 
for plural, 
for pronoim. 
for preposi- 
p. t •* for past tense. 

p. a. 





tmg. stands for singular. 


„ for substantive. 


„ for verb. 

L, , 

,f for Latin. 

Or. , 

„ for Greek. 

Fr. , 

„ for French. 

It. , 

, for Italian. 











O^ 1 






Gap. SnuO. 










j/ a 










£S / 










^ e 










^ </ 










S e 










f / 



















y *• 

% or eye. 






















^ / 










%y9& ^n 










^ « 



& o 




















^ / 










s& ■>■ 










y <, 




















^ u 

u or you. 









V * 










yr u. 










t:^ cc 
















* The term Alphabet is derived from AlphOt Beta, the first two letters of the Greek 
alphabet; just as we say the "A. B. C." for all the letters; and Abecedarian, for a 
t^her of the Alphabet. 

The OBDKB of tne letters in the Alphabet appears to have beexLVkTcoSduex ^\ ^oaa^^N 
oor is it of much oonsequcnce how they are axreaois^ teaft -wiWwt^ \ssr««^«tOo»2*^ 





The BOimdfl of the vowels may be reduced to their long or open Botincls; 
their short or shut sounds ; their obscure or unaccented sounds ; and their 
incidental or irregular sounds. 

1. A vowel has its lono sound when under the Acxnarr; as a in fdtal, 
e in legaly % in title, o in ndUce, and u in dUty. 

A vowel has also its long sound in monosyllables ending in e mute, pre- 
ceded by a single* consonant; as a in fate, e in mite, % in phu, o in note, 
and u in tiibe, 

a. The following are perhaps the only exceptions : — hddit hdvet ere (air), there (thairX 
ic^re, tohere (whair;, give, ftre, come (cum), eome (sumX doru (dun), dove (duv), flrlowe (gluv), 
love (luv), ehove («huv), gikie, th6ne, none (nun), one (wim), lose (looz), move (moov), and 
prove (proov). 

2. A vowel haa its bhobt sound when it is followed by a consonant which 
shuts or abruptly terminates its sound ; as a in f&t, e in m^t, i in pin, o in 
nSt, and u in t'Sb. This is always the case in monosyllables ending in a 
single consonant, as in the examples just given. 

A vowel has also its shut or short soimd when it is followed by an 
ACCENTED consouaut in the dame syllable ; as a in hal'ance, e in fSl'on, % in 
mlVitoury, o in nSi/el, and u in pUn'iih, 

It has, also, itis short sound, when it is followed by two or more oonso* 
nanfcs ; as in canvass, mUmbntme, timbrel, mSrtal, and p&ngent.f 

3. When a vowel has neither its long or open sound, nor its short X or 

shut sound, as in the foregoing cases, it has an obscube or mdistinct sound, 

particularly when it follows an accented syllable; as the second a in 

cab'bage and ah'hacy ; e in &p&n and haiftery; i in riim and abil'ity ; o in 

actfor and f elf ony; and u in Arth'w and svlph'ury, 

a. It is evident thai in sucb examples as the precedin.c^, f^e wtMewfded vowel has a 
soTmd so obscure that its place mlglit be supplied by any of tne other vowels without 
producing any very perceptible change in the pronunciation of the word. For ex- 
ample, the a in cab'bage and the u in Arth'ur might be changed into any of the other 
vowels without caiising any material change in the pronimciation at the syllable ^as 
in caVbege cab'biue ea^boge caJt/buge; ArUi'ar Arth'er Artk'ir Arth'cr). Hence the 
inutility of marking the sounds of the vowels when unactxmUd. — See No. 75. 

4. As no general rule can be given with regard to the incidental or 
IBREQULAB souuds of the vowcls, we shall briefly notice them under each 
letter in order. 

urged a new and philosophical arrangem^it. The vowels, they insist, should take 
precedence of the consonants, and be marshalled with regard to each other, accordjii;^ 
to the ax>erture which each demands of the mouth to give it due utterance ; while the 
CONSONANTS should be arranged with reference to the organs which are chiefly employed 
in giving them utterance ; as the lips, the teeth^ the throat, &o. This would certainly 
be a more rational arrangement of the letters ; but it is now too late to make such 

It is remarkable that the letter A holds the first place in every alphabet ; perhaps 
because the open sound, as in the word father , is the simplest and easiest of all sotmds. 
It is the first articulate sound which children msJse, as in the words papa, mamma ; 
and in almost every language, except the English, this is the only soimd of a. 

* In change, mamge, range, strange; chcute, haste, paste, and a few similar words, the 
a is long, though two consonants follow. 

t In ancient, angel, chanUier, cambric, and Cambridge, the a has its long sound, though 
followed by two consonants. 

X The oBBCuss sounds of the vowels are also sJuni, and more or less so according to 
jth$)r- position; bat tUey difOar from tbe shut sounds in being less disttnot 



5. ^ ha9 in addition to its l<mg slender English* sound, aa in fiU and 
pdper, and its short Italian sounc^ as in f&t and mdr^ry, two other sounds, 
namely, its long Italian sound, as in /ar and father, and its broad Qerman 
sound, as iafaU and toater, 

a. A has its long ItaHan sound before r in monosyllables, as in /br, bard, ttarvt: 
And also, before 2m, If, or Iv, when the I is silent, as in ailm, almt, eai/t Aa<A cah*, halve, 

b. When a is followed by U, Id, Ik, or tt, it has the broaj) Gierman soirnd, as in call, 
bald, valk, salt. The only exceptions seem to be sJiOU, m&ll, and PaU-maU (a street in 
London), which is pronounced Pdl-metL'. It has also the tnt>ad German sound in appai, 
},aUy, false (and its compoimds); also in inihral,i tkraMam, albeU, aimoet, aleo, aUhougJi, 
aUogether, and always, A has sJso the broad German sound between to and r, as in 
warm, twarm; and generally after tr, as in swab, swan, %oan, want, waSf what, xealek. 
Also, when it is preceded by a letter sounded like w,aBuin. quantity and fuaUty. 

e. By subetltating for a in any of the preceding examples, as in awab and swan 
(swSb, swUn}, it will be evident that the broad German sound of a is almost the same 
is short H, Compare aiso the soundof the d^hthooc ou, ae in laurd and datujlUer. 

d. In the unaccented terminations ack, aos, as ui fwmace and cabbage, a has its 
OBSOURB soimd, and consequently differs very little from the obsciu-e or unaccented 
sound of any ol the other vowels. This is the effect of the accent on the jpreceding 
syllable. The a in the imaccented termination atb is similarly affected, as m eKmiUs, 
—See No. 74. 

e. In the words any, nuiny,t PaU-maUf Thame^ the a is pnmounced like short #, aa 
in mit. In are, it is pronounced as in fan and in bUdej odpe, and hAve, it has the 
ehort sound as hkf&t/ and also in s&te, the old i«st tense olsU, 


6. E, as has been stated in the general rule about vowels, has a long 
sound, as in mete and iSgal ; and a short sound, as in niSt and mXVUm. 

a. Before d, I, orn, in a final unaccented syllable, as in lovid, revil, fallen, the short 
sound of i becomes so obscure that in some cases it is scarcely perceptible. Heuoo, in 
the past tense and past participle of verbs ending in ed, the e is scarcely ever pro* 
nounced, except in solenm and formal speaking. It must also of necessity be pro- 
nounced when it is preceded by d or <. as in the words affordid and haLed.i In such 
Words as faJlen and stolen, therefore, the e is scarcely audible, aiul in nunm, sown, 
ihrovan, seen, and ssveral others, it ha« been entirely omitted. 

b. The preceding observations apply to the temunation ^D as in handle, and b(^tle, 
in which e and I have, by a careless orthography— or by what grammarians call nuta^ 
<Aen«— changed places. The same may be said of the termination re/ M in oemtre, 
satire, and rmtre, in which r and e have evidently changed places. 

* This is the prox)er English a, called by Erpenius in his Arabic Grammar, a AnglU 
cum ciim e misUim, as having a middle soimd between the open a and e. — Br Johnson, 

t Inlhral. In this, and the following words, al la pronoimoed a/2, as formerly written; 

t We would rather say an'ny and man'ny. En'ny and men'ny savour of affectation. 

§ Formerly it was the practice to omit the e in writing, ana to mark its absence by 
an imostrophe, as in the word foUow'd ; but this is no longer considered necessary. 

H The termination le has sadly puzzled the lexicographers. Walker calls it "a 
monster in gprammar, a syllable without a vowel ! " But the error is in the orthography, 
and not in the pronimciation. The original and proper position of the e was before 
the I, and it is still pronounced as if it were in that position, for the sound of / is ti, And 
not il. Ask a person ignorant of the proper orthography of the word model, for in- 
stance, to spell it, and he will be as likely to make it end in le (modle), as in «2 
Svodel). In ract, the mistake is so nattu-al a one that even good spellers sometimes fall 
to it . It is not surprising, therefore, that our old writers should have made so many 
similar mistakes ; partici:darly when we recollect that they were so careless and in- 
■correct in their orthography, that they frequently spelled the same word in different 
ways, even in the same page. The same observations apply to re in an unaccented 
final syllable. It was originally written ir, and it is still so pronounced. The loUowizig 
couplet from Chaucer exempMes the old method of spelling such words: 

" But all be that he was %philoaophre, 
Tet hadde he but Itfei goldln cq^y^» 

In such words as acre and massawe, the transposition was necessary to preserve e 
hard. Masmure is sometimes pronounced by uie common people «& Vb N& ^^r^^^^su 



e. In the words eJerk, sergeeint, Derby, Berkeley, and a few other proper names, e Is 
pronounced like a in far. Sheridan has given a similar pronunciation to the e in 
merchant, but it would now be considered affected or vul^r. Comi>ard the vurgar 
pronunciation of the words serve (sarv)^ servieet servant, vermin, &o. 

d. JBiB mute at the end of a word, except in monosyllables that have no other vowel, 
as in m«, he, be, we: and in words adopted without alteration from the learned languages, 
as epiiomS, similif, finaU, But though e at the end of English words does not constitute 
an additional syllable, yet it modifies or lengfthens the preceding vowel; as in fSA, 
fiiies mit, mite; pYn, pfne/ n6t, note; tUb, tube. 


7. /, as has been already observed, has two sounds; namely, its long 
diphthongal sound, as in pine and title ; and its short simple sound, as in 
pin and tUfUe. 

a. In a few word8,Ci before r has the sound of short tt / as in btrdy dirt, Jtrst^ nr, sftr, 
thirdt Viirty, thirst; and in a few others it is sounded like short ^, as in births mirth, 
firt girl, virtue. But in these, and in all similar words, it would be better to give i its 
own short unaccented soimd, which indeed differs little from short i; and such is the 
present tendency. In bireh^ dirk, flirt, squirt, spirt, for instance, i has recovered its 
proper sound, though these words are pronounced in Walker, burchy durkfflurt, sqymrt, 

b. In the following words, which are derived chiefly from the French language, the 
Frencli or foreign sound of i has been retained. This sound of i coincides with the 
long sound of e in English, as in the word me : 

























Fatigue. Mandarin. 

Gabardine. Marine. 

Glacis. Mosquito. 

Guillotine. Oblique. 

Imbecile. Palanquin. 

Intrigue. Pelisse. 

Invalid. Pique. 

Machine. Piquant. 

Magazine. Police. 

e. In certain situations i takes the sound of initial y ; as in the words pin'iony minfion, 
auxiViarVf ineend'iaryt which are pronounced pin'-ydn, min'-ylin, auxXi'-vHry, ineend'* 
ydry. xms is produced by the influence of the precedhig accent, whi<^ leaves the i to 
take its initial or y sound in the syllable that follows. — See No. 75, b. 

d. In the imaccented terminations ice, ile, inb, ise, and ite, as in noffict, fer'tUe, 
gen'uXne, fran'ehtse, and res^v^te, the i is usually short ; and in the unaccented termina- 
tion ivE, as in moHve, it is always so. This is the effect of the accent on the preceding 
syllable.— See No. 76. 


8. 0, as has been stated in the general rule about vowels, has two sounds ; 
namely, its long sounds as in n6te and n6ble ; and its short sound, as in n6i 
and db'jed, 

a. In the following words, and perhaps a few others, short 5 has acquired the sound 
of short it {above being pronounced cMkVj aJS^oKt, affr^'nt, &c.) : 






















































































b. In a few words, o haa the sound of oo (the French ou\ as in mov^ prove (and 
their compounds), behove^ lose^ do, ado, toho, whom, whose, tomb. This sound of o is 
shortened in the words bosom, wolf, woman, WoUey, Wolverhampton^ and Worcester. 

e. Short 6 ia lengthened before r when terminating monosyllables, or when followed 
by another consonant ; as in for and former* This sound of o is equiyalent to the broad 
German sound of a, and also to the diphthong ait. Compare, for example, the words 
Poll, paU, and Paui.-^w No. 5, e. 

9. U, aa has been stated in the general rule,t has two sounds ; namely, 
ts long diphthongal sound, as in tSbe, use, and diUy ; and its short simple 

Boimd, as in t^^ is, and concHssion. 

a. In the following words u has the short sound of oo, as in good. This has been 
called the third or middle sound of «. It is equivalent to the soimd of o in ftoiom, 
•oo//, ftc^ Refer to note 6 under O. 

Bulfinch.t Bulwark. Cuckoo. PulL Posh. 

BulL Bush. Cushion. Pullet. Puss. 

Bullet BusheL FulL Pulley. Put, v. 

Bullion. Butcher. Pudding. Pulpit. Sugar. 

b. When u is preceded by r in the same syllable, it has a sound somewhat longer 
than its third or middle sound (oo), as in brute, intmde, prudent, rtule, ruby, true. 

e. In the words busy and business, u has the sound of short V/ and in bury, burial, 
and in the termination bury (from borough, as in Canterbury) it has the sound of short 
{ (berry). 


10. T is another form of i, and has the same sounds. Thus in the words 
type and tpramt, we have the long sound of i ; and in tpp'i4xU and tpt^anny, 
its short one. In the beginning of a word, as in yard and yesterday, y is 
pronounced with an aspirate or treathing, which has led the generality of 
grammarians to regard it, in this position, as a different letter from t, and 
to class it as a consonant. But if we substitute t for y in such a position, 
and pronounce it with an aspirate, as in the terminations ion and iary, in 
such words as pin'um, auxil'tary, and incend'iar^, it will be evident that y 
in the beginning, as well as in the middle, tod end of a word, is merely 
another form of i. Compare also the sound of i in adieu with the sound of 

a. In Greek and foreign words, as in type, t^onti myrrh, and alehymy, § y is not the 
representaUve of i, but of a different letter. The sound is, however, the same. 

0. T unaccented at the end of a word, as in gl6rp, has the short sound of V.* but if 
accented, as in aUp, it has, of course, the long soimd of i. 


11. Formerly the letter u was expressed by v, as we may still see by 
looking into any old author. Hence the letter w derives both its form (w) 
and its name {double u). Like y,wJB usually regarded as a consonant 
when it begins a word, and as a vowel when it ends a word or syllable. In 
the latter case, it is merely another form of u, and consequently a voioel, as 
in new, flew, view, prow, and tow-el; and in the former, it either represents 
r, as in wine and wool, or is merely u or oo aspirated, as in whole and work. 
Compare the pronunciation of the word one, in which w is audibly present. 

* Short d ia lengthened before r in a similar way, as in far and farmer. 

t Page 10. 

t The sound of u is retained in the derivatives of these words, as buUoeh, fulness, 
peaceful, fulAl, Ac. ; and it is also found in some words which seem to be derived from 
them, though of a different origin, as/utt (to cleanse doth ixam oil and greaeAV I'^^^'^uk'x 
A(2{i7Hir-mill, Fulham, kc. 

9 In such words y reptvosents the Greek letter ^sii/>i( ot »Um4«r u. 




12. Acoording to Walker there are twenty-six diphthongs and eox TBIPB- 
THOKQS in the English language : 

e as in Caesar. 

ei as in ceiling. 

oa as in coat. 

td as in languid. 

ai ,t aim. 
ao „ gaoL 
au „ taught, 
aw „ law. 
ay „ say. 
ea „ clean, 
eo y f ree€u 

eo „ people, 
eu „ feud, 
ew „ jeweL 
ey „ they. 
ia „ poniard, 
ie „ field, 
io „ passion. 

(B 1) ceconomy. 

oi „ voice. 

00 ff moon. 

ou „ foimd. 

ow „ now. 

oy „ boy. 

ue ,, mansuetude. 

uy „ buy. 
aye „ (forever), 
eau ,, beauty, 
eou „ plenteous, 
ieu ,, adieu, 
iew „ view, 
oeu ,, mancsuvre. 

But they may be reduced to twenty diphthongs^ and three triphthongs, 
namely, ai, au, ea, ee, ei, eo, eu, ie, oa, oo, vi, ay, ey, uy, oi, oy, ou, aw, ew, 
ow; eaUt ieu, iew. And if ^ be regarded as merely another form of i, and 
10 of u, it is evident that they may be reduced stiU further. 

Of the DIPHTHONGS enumerated, seventeen have a sound purely monoph- 
thongal, and hence they have been called imfbofeb diphthongs. Sheridan 
calls such combinations diqbafhs, that is, dovbU written. The only proper 
diphthongs in our language, in which both vowels are distinctly heard 
/oTming together one syllable, are etj, oi, and on, aa in the words feudp 
voire, 9XlA found. 

The TRIPHTHONGS occuT Only in a few words adopted from the French 
language ; as eau in heau, bureau, flamJbeau, portmanteau ; iett in adieu, 
lieu, purlieu, and iew in view, Ea/u has always the sound of long d, except 
in beauty and its compounds, in which it has the sound of long u ; and the 
other two triphthongs, ieu and iew, have the diphthongal soimd of eu, as in 
feud ajadfew. Lieutenant and lieittenanq/ are the only exceptions (in which 
ieu is prc\nounced Sv), 


13. The diphthong cb does not properly belong to the English language,* 
and is found only in a few classical words not completely naturalized ; aa 
in JEsop, Caesar, pcean, mimUice, &c. It has the sound of long S, as in me; 
and it is now usually written without the a,* as in ether, equator, and even 
the proper name Eneas. 

AI. AY. 

14. The diphthong ai has exactly the same sound as the long slender a, 
as in fate. Hence pail, a vessel, is pronounced exactly like pale, a colour. 
The diphthong ay is another form of ai, and is pronoimced exactly like it, 
as in lay^ laid. 

a. In the words again, againgt, said^ and saitK at has the soimd of short #, as in 
mit; in plaid and raillery, it has the sound of short A, as in n>dd and tdl'ary: and in 
aisle^ it is pronoimced like long i, as in isle. In the word guay, ay is usually pro- 
nounced like long e. 

b. In &nal unaccented syllables, as in mourUfaint ai has the soimd of short t. . The 
same observation applies to ay in a final unaccented syllable, as in Sunday, Monday, &c. 


15. The diphthong ao occurs only in the word gaol, in which it has the 
sound of ai, as in jail. 

* Dr Johnson says, ** Ji is no English diphthong, and is more properly expressed by 
ringle e, as in Cesar ^ Eneas." But notwithstanding his authority, the a has been 
tainod in several words, pfftioularly proper names and technical terms. 

80Vin>fi| 09 TH^ DIPHTHONas. 


AU. AW. 

16. The diphthong au has the sound of the Inroad Germao «> as !n faU, 

Hence haid, to pull or 4rag, aiid haU, 9^ large room, are pronounced exactly 

alike. The diphthong aw is another form of au, and is pronounced exactly 

like it. 

a. The diphthong au before n and another consonant, as in muU and jaumtj has the 
long Italian sound of a, as in far and father. In some words of this class, however, it 
is pronounoed, particularly by persons who are ambitious of being thought to aipeak. 
better than the& neighbours, like the broad German a, as in the general nue. Avaunt 
and VAXTNT are perhaps the only words of this class which should be considered as 
exceptions. The following list contains nearly aU the words of this class : 

Aunt.* Daunt. Haunch. Laundress. Baimders. 

Askaunt. Haunt. Jaundice. Laundry. Saunter. 

Askaunce. Ga\int. Jaunt. Haund. Baunterer. 

Craimch. Gauntlet. Launch. Paunch. Taunt. 

Custom, however, seems still !n fieiTor of pronouncing tamif totmfer, and perhaps 
some of the othmrs, as if written tawnt, aoifnier, Ac. 

h. In the words laugh, draught, and draugktt, au has also the sound of « as in>lir. 
c. In French words, as hautbojf and hatUqout, au has tlie sound of long d/ and in 
9aMiyUnMr, kmrel, and laydanum, it isounds nke short 6. 


17. The diphthong ea, has the sound of long ?, as in me, except in the 
following words^ and their compounds, in which it has the short sound of 
;, as in m^t: 

Instead. Pleasant Thread. 

Jealous. Pleasure. Threat 

Jealousy. Bead (pari tense). Threaten. 




























Lead (a metaX)- Ready. 






























a. In the following words, ea has the long slender sound of a, as iafaie: 

Bear. Forbear. Greater. Steak. Tear (to rencQ. 

Bearer. Forswear. Greatest Swear. Wear. 

Break. Great Pear. Swearer. Wearer. 

h. And in the words which follow, ea has the sound of a, as in far: 
Heart Hearten. Hearth. Hearken. Hearkener. 

c And when unaccented, ea has an obscure sound, as in sergeant, and 

d. It may now be inferred as a qenebal bule, that in all other words ea 
has the sound of long i, as inme, 

18. The diphthong ee is, also, pronounced like long ^, as in me, except in 
the contracted words e'er and ne*er, and the low word hreechee (which are 
pronounced air, nair, and hrUf(^i!s).f 

* The V in such words (for it does not really belong to them) must have crept in to 
represent the drawling and affected pronyncWon of a before n, as in cant, than% 
demand, Ac., which we sometimes hear pronounced oawk't, shawn't, DEMJc^rssk^ ^A« 
Stavnoh, the <dd spelling of stakch, is an additional i]lu8tir&tU«i <A>}[^. 

t Shortened from the simple word breech, as in the exBaxip\^ «^:««a.'^QOBJ^'Yto«^^ 













16 p&moiPLSs oir PEOKtnroiATiON. 


19. The diphthong ei, also, is usually pronounced like the long e in me, 
except in the following words, in which it has the sound of long slender a, 
as in fate : 

Deign. Freight. 

Eight. Heinous. 

Feign. Heir. 

Feint. Inveigh. 

a. In heigM and deightf ei has the sound of long i/ and in heifer and nonrpareU, 
of short if (pronounced, hUe, slite, htfer^ wmrpar-tU.) 

h. When following an accented syllable, as in fav'f^ ei has the sound of short f, as 
in pYn.— See No. 75. 


20. The diphthong eo.has the sound of long e in people; of short 9, in 
leopcurd, jeopardy, feoff and its compounds ; of long iL, in feod and its com- 
pounds; of long in yeoman and yeomanry; and of short S in George and 
Oeorgic In goUleon, a Spanish ship, it formerly had the sound of oo, as in 
moon; but now the word is usually pronounced in three syllables (^o^- 

a. When following an accented syllable, as in twr'geon, eo has the sound of short il' 
as in tiib. — See No. 75. 

EU. EW. 

21. In eu both of the vowels are sounded, as in the word feud, and hence 
this is one of the proper diphthongs. EW is another form of eu, and has 
precisely the some sound. 

a. In sewy gewery and the proper name Shrewsbwry, ew has the sound of long 9/ also, 
in 8?iew, but this word is now more properly written show. And Mioer, a drain, which 
was formerly pronounced, and sometimes written, shorey is now pronounced 90(/er. 
Strew is now regularly pronounced, stroOt and is scarcely ever written atrow. 


22. The diphthong ey has the same sound as ai and ay, that is, of long 
slender a, as iafate, 

a. When following an accented syllable, as in vaUiy, ey is pronounced quickly and 
obscurely, like ai and ay in a similar position. — See No. 14, b/ and No. 75. 

b. In the words key and ley^ which seem to be the only exceptions, ey has the sound 
of long «, as in me. 


23. For the sound of the combination ia after an accented syllable, as in 
poniard, see No. 75. 


24. The diphthong te has usually the long sound of e, as in the words 
field, fiend, grieve. The diphthongs ea, ee, ei, and ie, are, therefore, gene- 
rally speaking, pronounced alike. 

a. In friend and its compounds, ie has the sound of short i; and there is a strong 
disposition to give it a similar sound in fteree, pierce, and tierce. lu kerchief and Aaiut> 
ker chief y it has the sound of short V. In die, fjt, hii/t, lie, jne, and wt, it has tlxe sound of 
long i. 


25. The diphthong oo, has the sound of long o, as in the words 'bofU, eoiaX, 
loaf . The only ezcepU<»ui 0eem to be, groat, hroad, and ahroad, in whidi 
oa jEtounds like ow. 



26. The diphthong os is pronounced like ce, and Uie same obBorvstions 
are applicable to it — to which refer. 

a. In the words camoe and shott ot is pronounced like oo: and in cfoet (from the verb 
do) it has the sound of short Hk, 

01. OY. 

27. In ot both of tlLe vowels are sounded, as in the word hcU ; and hence 
this is one of the fbopsb diphthongs;, Oy is another form of ot, and has 
the same sound. 


28. The regular sound of the diphthong oo is heard in the words moon, 
woon, fool, food, &c. 

a. The regular sound of oo is shortened in several words ; as in the following : 

WooL GKxkL Foot. Book. Look, 

Wbod. Hood. Stood. Cook. Took. 

This sound of oo is equiyalent to the third sound of it, as in bulL — See No. 9, a. 
h. In bU>ody and fioodt oo has the sound of short tt, as in mud; and in dooty floor, of 
long d, as in mort. 

ou. ow. 

29. When both of the vowels are sounded, as in aawr, ou is a proper 
diphthong; but when only one of them is heard, as in source, it is a 
DIGRAPH or improper diphthong. The proper or diphthongal sound of ou 
is heard in the words noun, fomd, pomd, &o, 

a. In several words ou has the sound oi long d ; as in the following : 

Although. Liotirtier. Fourteen. Mourn. Shoulder. 

Borough. Concourse. Furlough. Poultice. Smoulder. 

Boium. Discourse. Intercourse. Poultry. Soul. 

Coulter. Dough. Mould. Poulterer. Source. 

Course. Doughy. Mouldy. Pour. Thorough. 

Court Four. Moult. Besource. Though. 

b. In the following words, and perhaps a few others, ou has the sound of short Ui 

Adjourn. Courteous. Housewife. Roughness. Toughness. 

Bourgeon. Cousin. Journal. Scourge. Touch. 

Chough. Double. Journey. Slough.* Trouble. 

Country. Enough. Joust. Southern. Toung. 

Couple. Flourish. Nourish. Southerly. Youngster. 

Courage. Coumet. Rough. Tough. Younker. 

e. In the following words, ou has what may be called its Fronoh sound, which, as 
we have seen beforo, is equivalent to' oo in coo, or single o in move. 

Aoooutro. Contour. Ragout. Sou, sous. Tourmaline. 

Amour. Could. Bendewous. Siutout. XJncoutii. 

Bouquet. Croup. Rouge. Through. You. 

Bouse. Croupier. Route. Toupee. ) Yotur. 

Bousy. Gout (goo). Routine. Toupet. j Youth. 

Capoueh. Group. Should. Tour. Would. 

Cartouch. Paramour. Soup. Toiuist. Woimd. 

This soxmd of ou is shortened in the words couldj ghotUd, and to<nUd. Compare with 
this sound the short sound of oo, as in tcoo^ and the third sound of u, as in bull. 

d. In the following words ou has the sound of au, which, as we have seen before, is 
equivalent to the broad German a, as in fall. 

Besought. Brought. Methought Ought. Thought. 

Bought. Fought. Nought. Sought. Wrought. 

e. In the words cough and trough (which rhyme with off and 9eoff% ou has the soimd 
of short 0/ also, in lough and though (which are pronounced lock and shock), 


30. Ow is another form of ou, and like it, when both of the vowels are 
sounded, as in now, it is a propbr diphthong; but when only one of them 

* SUnughi that is, when iie means the cast akin ot a sergeaV 

18 PsiKoiPXiBfl OF PBoinnrouxioK. 

18 heard, as in blow, it is a digbafh or improper diphthong. Itfl diph- 
thongal or proper sound is the same as <m, and is heard in the following 
words, — now, brow, town, gown, fihower, bower, vowel, &o, 

a. Like ou^ ow bas in aeveral wordB the sound of long o, as in: 




































Biz of the preoedtng words have also the regular or diphthongal sound, but in that 
case they have different meanings, and are, in fact, wiui the exception of the word 
£oWy different words. Refer to the Dictionary for the different pronunciations and 
meanings of Bow, Low, Lower, Mow, Bow, and Sow. 


81. This diphthong is another form of oi, and is similarly pronounced. 


32. When the a in this combination is pronoimced, the u has the sound 
of w, which unites both into one syllable, as in the words assuage, equal, 
language, &c., (pronounced asstoa'ge, ^qwal, lan^gwage). 

a. In a few words, u before a Is silent; as in guard, gtuirdian,* guarantee^ and 
piquant. Also, in the words mctuaU, victualling, and vxctuoMer (pronounced vit'UUs, &c.) 
In the word mantuavuiker,\ the a is commonly omitted in the nronunciation, but in 
the proper name Marvtua, both vowels are distinctly inx>nouncec[. 


33. When the e in this combination is pronoimced, the u, as in ua, has 
the sound of «r, as in qwsUon, qiiench, and desuettude (pronounced qtoestfyiin, 
gwench, de^swehide). 

a. In a few words the u Is silent before <, as in guess, guest, and guidon. In such 
words, the u has been inserted to preserve the hard soimd of or. If it were omitted, 
the pronundation would be jess, jest, &c. In tho word conquer also, and its compounds, 
the u is usually omitted in the pronunciation ; but conquest follows the general rule. 

b. When tie ends a word, as in du^, the « is of course mute, and the u has its long 
sound ; except in words where r precedes it, as in true, in which case it is pronounced 
like 00. — See note d. No. 6. 

e. In the termination gue, as in brogue, pUigv£, league, intrigue, both the vowels are 
silent, but they are not without use, for the u keei)s the g hard, and the e, generally, 
gives the long sound to the preceding vowel. The same observations apply to the ter- 
mination cnie, as in opaque and antique. But in the termination ogu^ in words derived 
from the Greek, the o has the short soimd, as in dialSgue, pedagdgue, dec, 

UI. UY. 

34. When both vowels of this diphthong are pronounced, the u has the 
Boimd of Iff, as in angvUh, languid, Ungmst, penguin.t Compare the sound 
of u before a or e in the same syllable. 

a. In a few words the u before i is silent, as in guide, guild, guiU, guinea, guise. In 
such words the u has been inserted to preserve the g hard; and in biscuit and circuiu% 
the u serves a similar purx)ose. But m such words as buXLd and conduU,% the u, ac- 
oording to their present pronunciation, is superfluous. 

b. When ui i& precedea by r, as in bruise, fruit, and recruit, the t is silent and tho u 
is pronounced like oo. Juice, sluice, suit, and pursuit are similarly pronoimced. 

* Pronounced gard, gard'yan. garamtee, and peefkanL 

t Mantuamaker. This word is not connected with the proper name MaiUwu 

t Pronounced ang'gunsh, lang'gtrid, lin'gv/iU, ptH^gwin. 
i Pronounced bis'kit, dr'kU, cvn'dU. 




85. In this combinatioxii u has the Bound pi w, as in the worda : 

Quondam. Quota. Quotation. Quotidian. BiliquooB. 

Quorum. Quote. Quoth. Quotient. Siliquose. 

a. The words quoif and guoU are similiarly pronounoed; but thogr are now usually 
Written co^and coU, and pronounced as they are spelled. 


36. This is another form of the diphthong ui, and is similarly pronounced. 
When the u is pronounced, it has the sound of to, as in dtloquy; and the y 
has always the sound of i long, if under the accent^ as in buyer; and shorty 
if unaccented^ as in pla'gup, 


87. This diphthong occurs only in the word huoy, which should be pro- 
nounced hivoy, the u in this position having the sound of to. 


88. The sounds or powers of the covsovaitts are exemplified in the 
following Table, 







Ban, ben, bin, bond, bun. 
Cat, cot, cut. 
Cell, oit, cypress. 



If an, men, middle, model, 

Nab, neb, nib, not, nut. 

Pan, pen, pin, pond, pun. 



Dan, den, din, dome, dun. 
Fan, fen, fin, fond, fimd. 
Qad, got, gun. 



Quarter, question, quick, 

Rat, red, rid, rod, rut. 

Sat, set, sit, sot, sutler. 


Gem, gin, gypsy. 


Ton, ten, tin, tome, tun. 


Hat, hen, hit, hot, hut. 
Jam, Jem, jet, jig, jog, jug. 


X = ti 

Vast, vest» vista, volume, 

Tax (taks), bo:^ (boks). 


Khan, ken, kill, Koran. 


Xnnthus, Xenophon, xebeo. 


Land, lend, lint, long, lung. 


Zany, zenith, aino, aone, 


89. B has one unvaried sound, such as it has in other languages. It is allied to v in 
sound, and is, in fact, the flat or soft articulation of it. Compare their soimds as gfvcu 
in the preceding Table. 

a. £iB mute when followed by « in the same syllable, as in debt, debtor ; or, when Jt Is 
preceded Iqr an m, as in lomd and dumb, except in rAomd and meeumi. 


40. C is a redimdant letter, having in evexy case the sound of either k or «. The 
former is called its hard, and the latter its sq/it sound. Before the vowels a, o, or u, e 
has the sound cf fc, asincoi, m«, eiU/ andbworB«L », ory, lthasthe«Qf\aA^%^%&Ns^ 


a. In te^ve and ita compounds, e, though before e, has the sound of 1;/ and in the 
words indictt vietvaiUt and their compoundis, it is silent. 

h. When « following an accent, combines with eo, ice, «o, turns, or ioia, it has the sound 
of <A; as in c/eean, v/eud, cda'eeout, (rm'cioiM.— See No. 75. 


41. This combination has the sound of Uh rapidly pronounced ; as in chance, ehai, 
chin. In some French words, not completely naturalized, eh sounds like ah'; as in 
champaign, chaise, nuichine. It has also the soimd of <A in English words ending in 
Ich or ncA/ as in bilch, bench, &c. In words derived from the learned Ismguages, ch 
has usually the sound of k, as in chaos, conchy school, stomach. In Scriptiure names it 
is also pronounced like I;, as in Enoch. The Greek prefix, arcTi, is pronounced arteh 
before a consonant, as in arcJibishop ; but before a vowel it is pronounced hard (ark), 
as in archangd. In words of our own composition, it is someumes pronounced artek 
before a vowel, as in arch-enemy. It is mute in the words, drachm, seludide, schism, 


42. D has one uniform sound, as in the examples given in the preceding Table. It 
is allied to < in sound, and has been often substituted for it, as in most of the ibreou- 
LAB VERBS, and other contracted words. 

D, like its cognate letter t, is often mispronounced by the uneducated Irish. Thus, 
tiiough they soimd the d correctly in the positive degree of such words as proud, loudt 
broad, yet in the comparative, they thicken it by an aspiration, and pronoimce it as if 
written cUi (provdher, loudher, broadher). The same observation applies to f in s\ieh 
cases, as in Jitter (fitther), hotter (hotther), and all words similarly formed, as vfoter, 
butter, &c. This is a very vulgar pronunciation, and should be avoided. And it is 
easy to do so ; for as they pronounce the d or t properly in Umdy broad, fit, and hot, 
they have only to pronounce the first syllable illstinctly, and then add without an 
aspiration the termination er. The affected pronunciation of these letters, d and t, in 
such words as education and atttuU, should be equally avoided.— See page 24. 


48. F has one imif orm sound, as in the examples in the i}receding Table. It is allied 
to V in sound, and in the preposition o/, it is pronounced exactly like v (ov). But in 
composition, as in vihatof, the/ has its own sound. 


44. Q has two sounds, the one hard, as in gad, got, gun; and the other soft, as in 
gem, gin, gypsy. like c, it is hard before a, o, or u, and soft before e, t, or y, except in 
a few words of Saxon origin, in which it has its luuxl sound, though before e or i, as : 

Anger. Qeck. Gig. Girdle. Heager. 

Conger. Geese. Giggle. GirL Monger. 

Eager. Get. Gild. Girth. * Stronger. 

Finger. Gibber. QUI (of a fish). Gizzard. Strongest. 

Forget. Gibberish. Gimlet. Give. Target. 

Begin. Gibcat. Gimp. Linger. Together. 

Forgive^ Giddy. Gingham. Longer. Younger. 

Gear. Gift. Gird. Longest. Youngest. 

a. G' is mute before n in the same salable, as in gnaw, fnat, sign, impugn, which are 
pronounced, nato, not, sine, impune. But though g is silent, it gives the preceding 
vowel its long sound, as in the examples just given. — See No. 83, c. Gis also mute 
before m in the same syllable, as in phlegm, diaphragm, paradigm. But if the n or m 
after g is carried to tne next syllable, the g is pronounced, as as-sig-n&'tion, phleg- 

b. Oh, in the beginning of a word, has the sound of hard ^, as in ghost, gherkin ; but 
at the end of a word it is usually silent, as in high, though^ bouaht. In some words it 
has the sound of/, as in laugh, tough, draught, &o. In thmgh, houah, and laugh, it has 
the sound of h, and in burgh, burgher, and burgherMp, the g only is heard. 


45. This letter does not represent an articulate sound, but is merely a mark or sign 
of aspiration, denoting that the vowel following it should be pronounced with a strong 
emission of breath, as in hand, horse, hat. At uxe beginning of a woixl it should aJ ways 
be sounded, except in the following: 

Heir, Heiress. Honesty. Honorary. Hour. Humour. 

Herb. Honor. HospitaL Humblei Humorous. 

Honest, Honorable. Hostler. Humbleness. Humoraome. 


J? is always silent after r, as in rhaptodVt rhdwric, rheumaUsmt rAuftorfr, rhyme. 

By the English, particularly by the natives of London, h after w is usually sxink io 
the pronunciation, as in the words vfJten, what, whig, while, whim, fto. This is an affected 
pronundationi, and should be avoided. 


46. J is always pronounced like soft g, except in the word haUdujaJi, in which it has 
the sound of initial y.* 


47. JT has the hard sound of e, and is used before < and i, where, according to English 
analogy, e would be soft, as in Ju!pt, king, Airt. Before n in the same syllable, k is 
always silent, as in knee, know, 


48. Z has the same liquid sound as in other languages. It is silent In the following 

Ahnond. Oalk. Falcon. Malms^. Should. 

Alms. Calm. Folk. Palm. StaUc 

Auln. Calve. FusiL Psalm. Talk. 

Balk. Chaldron. HaU. Qualm. Walk. 

Balm. Chalk. Halser. Ralmon. Would. 

Calf. Could. Halve. Salve. Tolk. 

But though 2 is mute in psalm and aMs, it should be pronounced' in pealmiit, 
psalmody, and ahtumer, because the m is detached from it, and in a different syllable. 
Le at the end of words, is pronounced as originally written, iL See note U, page 11. 


49. JU has one uniform sound, as in the examples given in the precedSng TaUe. It 
is never sUmt, except in accomptani and eomptroUer, which are now written aceowUant 
And controller. 


50. N has one uniform sound, as in the examples given in the {nreceding Table. 

It is mute after m in the same syUable, as column, condemn, hymn, limn. U the n, 
however, is detached from the m, and carried to the next syllable, it is pronounced, 
as in eondem^nation, sotem^nise. But as participles should have the same sound as thdr 
verbs, with the addition of the termination ing or eci, it is contrary to analogy to say 
hym-fiing, hym-ned, eondemrfimg, eondem-^Md, Ac. 


51. P has one unifonn sound, as in the examples in the preceding Table. Compare 
the so\md of b, with which it is closely allied. 

P is mute b^ore i'or t in the beginnmg of words, as in psaZm, pseudo, pHsan, PtoUm^. 
It is also mute between m and t in the middle or end of words, as in emj^, t twnptvunu, 
tempt, exempt. It is also silent in receipt and eorpt (core.) 


62. Ph has the sound of /, and is found only in words derived from the Greek, as in 
Philip, philoiopher, and phantom. In nephew and Stephen, it has the soxmd of v/ in 
diph^ong, triphthong, and naphtha, the p only is heard ; while in apophthegm, phthisis, 
and phthisical, both letters are silent, (pronounced apf-o-^tiem, H'-cis, tlif-A<al.) In 
oapphire, the first p is dropped in the pronunciation. 

53. Q has the power of k, and is always, as in other languages, followed by u, pro- 
nounced like 10, as in quake, guest, muU, quote, ^pronounced ktsake, kwest, &c.) But in a 
lew words derived from the French, the u after qla silent, as in coquet, etigptette, harle- 
quin, masquerade, quadrille, and qwOercousin. Also, in liquor, and in conquer and its 
oompounds, qu has the sound of £ 


64. ** Jl (says Dr Johnsonl has the same rough, snarling sound, as in other tongues." 
Hence it has been called the canine, or "dcq^* letter." Its sound is exemplified in 
the preceding Table. 

• In tUsipavd/ to really y,te it i«preimta<,M In IVVs for JVolo. OompazelotiatuBLUtUk 


Seintk final ilikaooented tjTlMid, If proiumiioed Uk9 w«ftk or unMMented ir,* u la 
the following wocds : 

Accoutre. Fibre. Musacre. Nitra. Bepulchrs. 

Acre. liucre. Metre. Ochre. B^pectre. 

Centre. Lustre. Mitre. Sabre. llieatre. 

55. £f has a hissing sound, as In the examples given in the preceding Table. Hence 
It has been called "the hissing letter." 

S single at the end of award, has a grosser sound Uke that of i^ as in Jka« and wcu, 
except m pas, thiSt thu$f tw, and the termination out, as in phmt. And in all wotrds 
ending in aion, preceded bv a vow^ as in oecarion, cohetUm^ ificMon, ee^pUttkm, and 
confvzUmy t has €b.e sound of t / but if a consonant precede Hon, t is mxmounoed like 
<A» as in expantion, exUnsUm, fto. It has also the sound of t in aU words ending in ier, 
as crosier and hoHar; also in the words m«uure, pl&uure, and treoiure. It is mute in 
awle, UU, Mcmd, demetM, puisne, and viacaunU, In sure and tugcar it has the sound of «JL 


56. T Is allied to (2 in sound, and has in several words been substituted for it t Ckmi- 
pore their sounds in the examples given in the preceding TaUe. 

Thas the sound of «A in all terminations in tion, as in nation and notion, except When 
t or a; precedes, as in bastum, quegtion, mixtion, &c. The same rule applies to termina- 
tions in HtU, as marttal and nupliai, exoept when $ precedes, as in bekuU and odatiaL 


57. The combination ih has two sounds, the one soft or flat, as in thut; and tiie 
other hard or sharp, as in think. In some words, as in Thomas, thjpne, and oKAtao, It 
is pronounced like simple t. 

58. V is allied to / in sound. Comx)are their sounds as given in the examples in the 
preceding Table. Fis never silent, except in the colloqidal pronunciation of twd/M- 


50. Bee this letter under the vowels, page IS. 

In some words w is silent, as in answer. It is always silent before r, as In vran§, 
wrap, wrist, &o, 


60. JT begins no English word. It is compounded of ks, and has the same sound, as 
in tax, fox, sex (which are pronoimced as if written taks, jfoks, seks). At the beginning 
of a word it has the sound of s, as in Xoiophon, 


61. Bee this letter under, the vowels, page 18. 


62. This letter begins no word originally English. Dr Jcdmson says that it has the 
sound, as its name isxard or s hard expresses, of an < uttered with closer ccMnpression 
of the palate by the tongue, as freeee, pose; but Walker affirms, that if this be the 
meaning of izzard, it is a great misnomer, for the t is not the hard but the soft s. It 
is the flat «, and bears the same relation to it as 6 does top, (ttot,hard||rto^. and « to 
/. It is now called by its French name ted. 

Z, like s, goes into an aspiration {th) before a diphthong or diphthongal vowel after 
the accent^ as in gUuier, axure, Ac. 

* In Kll lanspMM ih« lettor r la raUflrt to w i fn rt iri*. or trantpoilitai ; and hoMik In tha "«»«<««fntt< f» 
tnitut^tion f*. II hm disuged plaoM with & Tt la, hoverer. still praaottnoed afe if Itft iren after the «. M 
ttotol. tMsaii. 

* A% iu maujr of tha Irregnlar yerba, and othitT contracted worda» 

ramoiKJts OF psomnrcuTioir. S3 




;. The difflcultieB of fbonukoiation arise from the nature of language ; 
ImperfectlonB of alphabets;* and the ignorance^ oareleeBness, or affeo- 
m of the generality of speakers. 

bese difficulties are so numerous, that it would be impossible to noidce 
a ally even in the most cursory manneri in the space which we havt 
cribed to ourselves. 

'e shall, however, give a few general principles which will be found to 
race almost all that is useful in practice. 

u The ANALoaiES of the language, the authobity of lexicographers, 
aboTe all, the oustom of the most correct and elegant speakers, are the 
es to which we must refer in all cases of difficulty. Nor can these 
sulties, in eveiy case, be resolved by such references ; for we shall often 
analogy opposed to analogy, authority to authority, and custom divided, 
i among the most elegant speakers. The following passage from " Boa- 
's Life of Johnson " will serve as an illustration : 

kMWXLL.— 'It may be of lue, Sir, to have a dictionaiy to ascertain the proxran- 


roHNsoN.— *Why. Sir, my dictionary shows you the accents of words, if you can 

remember them.' 

^oswELL.-— * But. Sir, we want marks to ascertain the pronunciation of the vowels. 

idan, I believe, nas finished such a work.' 

OHHSON.— ' Why, Sir, consider how much easier it is to learn a lang^iage by the 

than by any marks. Sheridan's dictionaxy may do very well; but you cannot 

ys cany it about with you: and when you want the word, you have not the 

DnaiT. It is like a man who has a sword that will not draw. It is an admirable 

d tobe Bwre : but while your enemy is cutting your throat, you are unable to use 

Besides, Sir, what entitles Sheridim to fix the pronunciation of English ? f Ho 

in tile first place, the disadvantage of being an Irishman ; and if he says he will 

, after the example of the best company, why, they diflfbr among themiselves. I 

mber an instance : when I published the plan for my dictionary, Lord Chesterfield 

me the word greoU should be pronounced so as to rhyme to state; and Sir William 

^ sent me word that it should be pronounced so as to rhyme to teat, and that 

I but an Irishman would pronounce it graiL Now, here were two men of the 

L perfect alphabet would imply that the difierent sounds of the human voice had 
carefidly uialyzed, and accurately asceriAined ; and that to each of these sounds, 
pertained, a sign or character was attached which should represent that sound 
lo other. But this is not the case in our, n(nr indeed in any uphabct. In some 
1, we have distinct sounds without proper or peculiar signs to represent them, and 
hers, we have two or more difierent signs or characters for the same sound. Our 
ibet is, therefore, both drfective and redundant. The very first letter of the alpha- 
for instance, represents, without alteration or external change, f om* difierent and 
act soimds ; and with regard to all the other vowels, and sevexal of the consonants, 
ar observations might be made. Hence the difficulties and inconsistencies in 
uvciATiON and spellhto. 

Sheridan's Dictionaxy was acknowledged, however, even by Walker, "to be 
Jy superior to eveiy other that preceded it, and his method of conveying the 
d of words, by spelling them as they are pronoimced, highly rational and useful." 
Webster, the American lexicographer, thus sx)eaks of hu work : ** His analysis of 
SogUsh vowels is veiy critical, and in this respect, there has been little improve^ 
i m later writers, though I think none of them are perfectly correct. But la tJbA 
cation of his principles he failed of his object. In general, bLO^«^«l^^S(> tdks \m 
ted that his notation does not warrant a tenth pert as xoasx ^A<«Vri(kna txaaxVkia 
At respectable usage in England as Walker's." 


highest rank» the otto the best speaker in the House of Lords, and the other the ImvI 
speaker in the House of Oommons, differing entirely.' " • 

In this case, the proiiunciation of Lord Chesterfield preYailed,i* though 
opposed to analogy, because he was considered the most polite speaker oi 
his day; and in ^ similar cases, the analogies of the Ismguage, and the 
opinions of lexicographers must give way to what is considered the usage 
of the best and most polite spes^ers. 

65. In cases in which custom or authority is divided, we should give the 
preference to the pronunciation which is most in accordance with analogy. 
The word Rome for instance, should be pronoimced RSme rather than Room ; 
and this is beginning to be the case, though the latter pronunciation waa 
once thought " irrevocably fixed in the language.*':]: 

66. The three great and prevailing errors in pronunciation are, vulgar- 
ITY, FEDANTBT, and AFFECTATION. Against each of these faults we should 
be constantly on our guard; but most of all against affectation; for it is 
by far the most odious. 

67. The following excellent observations from Dr Johnson deserve par* 
ticular attention : 

"For PR0NX7NCIATI0N, the best general rule Is to consider those of the most elegant 
speakers who deviate least from the written words. Of English, as of all living tongues, 
there is a double pronunciation, one ciursory and colloquial, the other regular and 
solemn. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made differ- 
ent in different mouths by negligence, unskilfulness, and affectation. The solemn 
pronunciation, though by no means immutable and permanent, is always less remote 
trom the orthography, and less liable to capricious innovation. They [lexicographers] 
have, however, generally formed their tables according to tiie ciusory speech oi those 
with whom they happen to converse ; and, concluding that the whole nation combines 
to vitiate language in one manner, have often established the jargon of the lower 
people as the model of speech." 

"Walker, though he had this caution before his eyes, has not always 
profited by it ; for, in numerous instances, he has given the colloquial, and 
even vulgar pronunciation as " the model of speech." For instance, he gives 
apvam as the pronunciation of Apron; ium of Iron, and a-pos-al of AposUe, 
He also, in large classes of words, favours affected pronunciation ; Bamed- 
jvrca-shun, which he calls "an elegant pronunciation of the word Education.** 
These observations are not in depreciation of the great merits of Walker*B 
Dictionaiy ; but solely for the purpose of putting the learner on his guard. 

y*— ■■■■■■ — ■■ III ■!■ I ■ ■ —I — ■— ■ M ■ ■■ I I It^^mm^^^l^m^^^ 

♦ And on the same subject, the gfreat Doctor observes of himself—" Sir, when i>eople 
watch me narrowly, and I do not watch myself, they will find me out to be of a par- 
ticular county. In the same manner. Dunning may be found out to be a Devonuiire 
man. So most Scotchmen may be found out." 

t Through the same influence the i in the word oblige lost its foreign or French 
sound. For till the publication of his *' Letters," in which this pronunciation is pro- 
scribed, oblige was usually proncHmced obleege; as by Fox>e in the following well- 
known lines : 

" Dreading even fools, by flatUren berieged. 
And BO obliging that he ne'er obUgfii."^ (obteeged.) 

t See Walker on this word. The pun which he quotes from Shakspeare, as a pro<rf 

oi the pronunciation of the word Rtme in his time— 

** Now it ia Rome indeed, and room enough. 
Since its wide walls encompass bat one man "— 

may be answered by another from the same aui^r in favor of the other pronunciattoiL 

In the first part of Henry VI. A. 8, S. 1, the Bishop of Winchester exclaims, *' JtonM 

shall remedy this ; " to which Warwick retorts " Xoam thither then." In Fope, too^ 

authority for both pronunciations may be found, as in the following couplets : 

" From the same foes at last both felt their doom; 
', And the same age saw learning fisJl and Rome," 

"Thus when we view some well-ptoportioned Awml 
The wodd's Just wonder, and even thine O Rome/* 

If a rule such as is suggested above were followed, these, and all similar anowaltes, 
would soon disappear 


It should be observed, too, that Sheridan was the first to introduce this 
''affected mode of pronunciation by the change of tu into chu or Uihu; as in 
Tune, which he pronounces t&koon; Tutor, Uhooter; Tumult, tshoomuU; 
Nature, natshur; Virtue, virtshu, &c. His change, too, of s into 8^, as in 
thoopeii (Superb), shooperfluity (Superfluity), shoodorific (Sudorific), Ac., is, 
and always was, a vulgar pronimciation. 

68. Every word of two* or more syllables has in pronunciation a certain 
ACCENT, that is, a peculiar stress or force laid upon a particular syllable ; 
and if the accent in any word is misplaced, the pronunciation is injured or 
destroyed. Compare, for instance, the different pronunciations of Refuse, 
Desert, and Minute, according as the accent is placed on the first or second 

a. Some words, in addition to the principal, have a beoondabt,*}* or 
weaker accent ; as in — 

Ad'verU"se. Ab'sente^e. Ac'ciden"taL Com'plaisan''t. 

Ax^'tisan'. Ben^efac'tor. Ag^iicul'ture. Con'vGrsa"tioii. 

69. The general tendency of our language is to accent the root, and not 
the termination of a word. Hence the natural position of the accent 
in English words is in the first syllable. As a general rule, therefore, 
English or Saxon words should have the accent on tibie first syllable. 

This general rule is exemplified not only by the usual position of the 
accent in English or Saxon words, particularly in dissyllables and 
TBISTLLABLES, but also by the tendency which we observe in our language 
to bring words of foreign origin under the English or radical accent. The 
words Mem'oir, Bou'quet, and Be^ervoir, for instance, have been brought 
under the English accent; and Complaisant, Balcony, Revenue, Crttvat, 
Saline, Glacis, and many others, are on the way. Hence, also, the popular 
pronimciation of the word Police (namely, pd-UiS ; and the colloqinal, but 
now recognised pronunciation of Boatswain {bcfm). Cockswain (eocUsn), Oup^ 
hoard {cud'hida-d), Ac Many foreign words, however, particularly FrenrSi, 
have struggled successfully against the English tendency, as — 

Antique. Critique. Palanquin. Bavine. 

Brazu. Fascine. Profile. Becitative. 

Bombasin. Fatigue. Quarantine. Bepartee. 

Caprice. Grimace. Machine. Boutine. 

Capuchin. Invalid, Marine. Tambotuine. 

Chagrin. Pelisse. Magazine. Tontine. 

Chemise. Police. Mandarin. Unique. 

70. With regard to words of Greek or Latin origin, it may be laid down 
as a general rule, that when they are adopted whole or without change, the 
accent or quantity of the original word is usually preserved, as in — 

Anath'Sma. Dilem'ma. Diplo'ma. Hori'zon. Aphe^on. 

Acu'men. Bitu'men. Deoo'rum. Specta'tor. ^ledia'tor. 

a. In many such words, however, the English tendency has prevailed, as 
in Pleth'iha, Avd'ltor, Minister, W&tor, and Sen'ator, 

71. This tendency is, however, counteracted to a certain extent by 
another natural tendency in the language. In words used as verbs, the 
tendency of the accent is to the termination, and not to the root:]: Hence, 

^ AfoTiMyUabUs may have emphasis, but» as they consist of but one syllable, they 
cannot have accent. 

t In the case of a polysyllabic word, a secondary accent is often necessary for its full 
enunciation ; and when it occurs in words of three svllables, it seems generaUy to b« 
the result of a struggle for ascendancy between the foreign and £ng;li&u\Ra^«SDni. 

t Bee the class ofwords, page 8a. 


26 PRlNCit»Ll58 OP t»llOKUKCIATIOK. 

ih rerbs of two syllables^ the accent is generally on the laftt, and in Terbi 
of three iyllables, on the last, or last but one. Hence the unsettled posl^ 
tion of the accent in such words 

Com'pensate or compen'aate. Con'Ascate or confls'eate. Con'templateorcontem'plate. 
Dem'onstrate ot dbmon'strate. Bn'ervate or ener'yate. Ex'thpate or extir'pate. 

Some authorities following the general tendencn^, place the accent on the 
first syllable, as dom'pensate ; while othdrs hold that, as v^rbs, it is bettex 
to accent the second, as eompm'sate. 

72. The radical accent is also counteracted by the tendency in compound 
or derivative words to follow the accent of their primaries, as in — 

Admi'rer from admi're. Assail'able from assail'. Commen'cement from commen'ce. 
Abct'tor „ abet'. Poli'teness „ poli'te, Commit'tal „ commit'. 

Profess'or ,, profess'. Begin'ning „ Mgin'. Goquet'ry „ coquefte. 

a. In many cases, however^ the radical or general tendency of the acceni 
has prevailed; as in — 

Ad'mlrable from admi'M. Ad^ferttsemciit from advertl'se. 

Com'p&rable „ compa're. Ghas'tlsement „ chasti'se. 

Lam'&itable „ lament'. Dis'pfitant „ dispu'te. 

(. In several words the contest is, as yet, undecided ; as in — 

Ac'cSptable or accept'able. Dis'piitable or dispti'table. 

Com'm&idable or c(Mninend'able. C(m'f finsor or coiifess'or. 

73. The tendency ifl compound or dwitative words to preserve the acceni 
of their primaries, is eiNnAed by atiothet natulral tendency, namely, the dis 
position in compotmd or derivative words to Shorten the long sounds oi 
syllables of theiir primaries; oA in the following words : 

BeprSvity from deprlhre. GrSnaiy from grain. Gdsllng from goose. 

Severity „ sevSre. Desp§rati) „ despair. Thrflttie „ throat. 

Divinity „ divine. Halntteanoe j, i^amtain. Prontinclation „ pronounce. 

Consdlatory «, console. Sh^herd ^ sfaMpherd. Bofltherly (it) „ south. 

d. This tendency is also observabU in the past tense and past participle 
of most of the iRRfiQtTLAit TifiBSS j as in the following words : 

Lead. Bitb. Meet. Creep. Feel. Leave. Shoot. 

Led. Bit. Met. Crept. Felt. Left Shot. 

6. And when this is not done by the spelling of the word it is effected b 
the pronunciation ; as in the following words : 

Say. Leap. RSad. HSan. Hear. Drgam. Qo. 

Qdd($ed). L&ipb. BSad. M&mt. Hdard. Dreamt. Gtfne. 

74 AoosNT, from its very nature, must affect not only the syllable undc 
it, but also the syllable next it ; for in proportion as the one is dwelt upoi 
the other is passed quickly over. This is exemplified by the usual pronui 
elation of tiie unaccented syllable in the following words : 

Cab'bago. Pal'llco. GU'm&te. Cap't&in. SurT^it. Fa'vSur. 

CourHw. Bol'&ce. Pri'mate. Moun'tain. For'fgit. Fa'mC'us. 

Village. Far'nftoe. Pri'vllte. CUr'tWn. Por'fiign. Pi'dus. 

In the pteceding wotdd the tthadetated syllable is proltounced quickr 
Andlfidistinctly; and iti the case of H di|)hthong, one of the vowels i 
omitted iJto|;ethei^ ih the pfbntineiatiWi. Comparoj for example, the dil 
ferent sounds of the termination age in the words cdf/bage and enga'gt 
prtflarit and pteia'ge. Compare, also, the different pronunciationi of th 
accented and unaccented syllables in the following words : 

Cbntafn' (A). Cap'tain(l). Allay' (A). HsJOymi Deceif(M). Suffjftril. 
Het(rtn'(A). Foun'tatn (i). Ally' (I). Sally (I). Conc^t^(M). Foi^f«<t;(0. 

Remain' (a). Villain (l). Survey' (a). 8ur'vey(P. Perceive' («e). For'eign^ 


75. HeiiM it is that such combinationB iibea,ia,ie, to, io, eoni, km, fol« 
lowing an accented syllable, are, in pronunoiation, mnially drawn into on' 
sound or q^llable, though composed of more than one vowel, as in — 
O'oean (^iMIfOL CoaafasieDseicon'Aerue). Fen'8iozi(pcn'«Min). Q<afgeoaB(ffor^jtU), 
Far'tial (par'«A^fO•* Surgeon (nar'jtin). Men'tiozi(maft'«Attn). Qn,'(ao\XB(gra'thU8). 

a. And when c, a, or t preceded any of these combinationB, it has, by the 
quickness of the enunciation, and the consequent blending of its sound 
with the vowel, the force of aA, as in the examples just given. 

b. Hence the inutility (and worse than inutility, for it often leads to 
errors in pronunciation) of noting the soimds of vowels or syllables not 
under the accent, as has been done by Sheriplan, Walker, and others.f In 
&ct, as we have already shown, there is, in many cases, scarcely any per- 
ceptible difference between the sounds of the five vowels in wwccented 
^^llables. See No. 8, a, p. 10. 

76. The seat of the accent will generally serve as a guide in the pronun- 
ciation of final syllables in lOE, ile, ine, ise, ite, and ive. When the % is 
accented, it is long, and when unaccented it is usually short; as in the fol« 
lowing woidn : 

Advice. Kevtle. Combine. Premise. AUve. 

Novice. Berv^e. Doctrine. Promise. Active. 

77. In stLcli terminations the i is sometimes long, though not imder the 

Bcceni,t as in the following words : 

Co(^'atrIce. Asinine. Geratlne. For'cup&ie. tJ'tetlne. Car'mellte. 

Sac'rifioe. Brig'antlne. Incar'nadme. Sac'charlne. Ac'onlte. Ex'pedlte. 

Cham'omlle. CaL'amlBe. Leg'atine. Sat'iunlne. Ancliorlte. Er'emlte. 

BeConcUe. GoVumblne. Le'onlne. Ser'pentlne. Ap'petlte. Par'asite. 

In'fantile. Crys'talUne. Mus'cadlne. Tur'pentlne. Bed'lamlte. Bat'ellite. 

It should be observed, howeyer, that in each of the preceding words, the 
i is evidently under a secondai^ accent, and therefore inclined to be long. 
—See No. 68, a. 

78. As we have already observed, a proper accentuation of words ia 
essential to their just pronunciation ; and a proper accentuation can only 
be acquired by attending to the most correct speakers, and by consulting 
the most approved dictionaries ; for words are under so many influences 
with r^;ara to -tiieir accentuation, that it is scarcely possible to lay down a 
rule on the subject to which niimerous exceptions may not be found. The 
following rules, however (in addition to the General pRXNCiirLES which we 
have already explained), will be found useful to the learner. 

79. Words aiding in ctal, sutl, tial, dan, tian, dent, tient, ceous, dous, 

tious, don, turn, tiate, have the accent on the preceding syllable, as — 

Provin'ciaL Physician. Pa'tient. Gonfu'sion. 

Controver'sial. Chris'tian. Gra'cious. Muta'tion. 

8ubstan'tiaL A'ncient. Senten'tious. Ingra'tiate. 

80. Words ending in ety, ity, or ical, have also the accent on the preced- 
ing syllable, as — 

Propri'ely. Insensibil'ity. AstronomlcaL EmphatlcaL 

Sati'ety. Sptrntanelty. Categor'icaL FoIem'icaL 

* Though in nimitive words containing such combinations this rule generally holds, 
yet It is usiialfy demarted from in the derivatives. Thus Partial and Chriatian arc 
pronouiiced as diisyUables, While their derivatives PartiaUt^ and OhrUtianUy are pro- 
noimcSd in five sj^llables, llious^ only two are added. 

t If Walker's ikotation of the unabcented vowels were attended to in practice, thou- 
iandt t(f #onft would be pronounced as the following. Abileetee (ability), rapideeUe 
(r«4pidityX ctrteeeU (article), deerea (direct), deeaest (digest), deebate (debate), beetfin 
(beginX rtemov (remove). Over the unaocented i or e in these, and in aU similar 
woirai, he has plaoed the flgoie 1 above e, which indicates th* sound ol m oc QltVi^>aDA 

I That is, the pzindpal accent-^ee under Ho. 88» a. 



a. When the tennination ical is abbreviftted into ie, the accent of the 
original word usually remains, 




Specif io. 

81. In English, as has been observed, the favourite accent in polysyl- 
lables is on the cmtepemdt, or last syllable but two ; but in many cases the 
accent has been trsmsferred to that position from the radical part of the 
word, for the greater harmony and ease of pronunciation, as in — 

An'gel, AngellcaL Rhet'oric, 

Har'mony, Haimo'mous. Sa'tan, 




82. In uniting simple words into a compound, there is a tendency to sim- 
plify the compound as much as possible, by throwing the accent on that 
syllable in which the simple words unite. Hence, words with the following 
terminations have the accent on the antepenult, or last syllable but two : 

-eraey, as democ'racy. 
-ferous, as somniferous. 
•Jluent, as circtmi'fluent. 
"JhumSf as sui)er'fluou8. 
'gamy, as polyg'amy. 
-goncUf as dia^onaL 
-graphy, as geog'raphy. 

-logy, as philol'ogy. 
•loguy, as ventril'oquy. 
-machy, as logom'achy. 
•mathyy as polym'athy. 
•meteTy as Imrom'eter. 
•nomy, as econ'omy. 
•patwu, as ovlp'arous. 

-pathy, as antip'athy. 
•phony, as eu'phony. 
'Scopy, as aeros'copy. 
'gtrophe, as catas'trophe. 
•tomy, as anat'omy. 
•vomous, as igniVomoua. 
•VOTWU, as omniv'orous. 

83. The terminations cial, sial, and tial, are pronounced like shtU, as in 
eommeroa^, controverm^, and martial. — See No. 75. 

84. The terminations ceous, cious, and tious, are pronounced like ahtis, as 
in farinac^oiM, capactcms, and conten^ioiu. — No. 75. 

85. The terminations geous and giom are pronounced like jits, as in cou- 
ngeous and Teligunu. — ^No. 75. 

86. The terminations sum and tion are pronoimced like shim, as in mis- 
sum and mvention; but the termination gion, preceded by a vowel, is pro- 
noimced like zhun, as in explosum and confu^'cm. — See No. 65, 

87. The following words are differently acoented, according as they are 
used as nouns or vebbs : 


AV'Sent, a, 


Ac'-cent» • 











































Es'-cori; ^ 
Es'-say, ' 
Fre'-quent, a, 


* Intimate. — ^Though this wqpxL both verb and noun, is accented on the first syllabla^ 
yet, when used as a verb, the last syllable is longer dwelt upon. Compare the proami- 
^lii^ons of m/^deraU, verb and xiousj; also of Mparcrte^ verb and adyecttv^ 





















Prof -est, 




Ref-use, ^ 








This change of accent in the same word is produced, as Walker well 
observes, by an instinctive effort in the language to compensate, in some 
degree, for the want of different terminations for these different parts of 

88. The following words exemplify the same tendency, but in a different 





Abuse, abuce 

Abuse, abuze. 

House, mouoe, 

House, mouze. 

Close, a. 


Close, doze. 

Use, uce. 

Use, uze. 

DifiE^ise, a. difiiice. 

Bifdise, difif\ize. 

Grease, greaoe, 

Grease, greaze. 



Excuse, excuze. 

House, houce. 

House, houze 








Prize, t 





































89. Of foreign words admitted into our language, particularly French, 
there is usually a threefold pronunciation, namely, the original or foreign, 
the English, and a pronimciation, which is neither English nor foreign, but 
between the two. In this case the middle course is not the best ; but it is 
perhaps right to encourage it as a step in advance towards an honest English 

In another part of this work, will be found a collection of French and 
foreign words which Aave been introduced into our language without 

90. Some Greek and Latin words retain the pronunciation of e finals 
though in such a position in English |] it is always silent : 

Ac'm& Ancin'on& ^it'om& Be"dp& Plnal'-fi. 

Apos'trophS. Catas'trophS. E3i)ernbol5. Bim'ild. Bational'-& 

* Either by a change in the pronunciation of the same letter (as Abuse is pronounced 
abuee as a noun, and eUnuse as a verb), or by a change or addition of letters (as Glau, 
Glace; Bath, Bathe). 

t PriUf to set Apriee upon ; to value or esteem highly. 

X The adjective smooth is pronounced like ihe verb smoothe. 

I To employ a foreign word, when there is one in our own language to express the 
same idea, is a mark of silly affectation, and petly pedantry. 

That is, it does not constitute an additional syllable, but It usually modifies tbA 
sound of the preceding vowel, as in /<K<, J&He: met, meU; piis miwt: ivIGl^ •m.\a; V^^K 
tSbe. See Na 1, p. 10. 



91. The nnedacated, and gometimes the educated Irish, err in the pro- 
ntmciation of the following sounds and letters — ea, d, ey, oa, ou, a, e, i, o, 
u; d, t, I, and r; as \p. the following words : 

Lave fear leave. 
Tay ,t tea. 
Kate „ neat 
Flase „ pleasa 
Desate ,, deceit. 


Besate „ 

Resave „ 
Convee „ 
Obee „ 






lor shook. 
„ took. 

Schazne for scheme. 

receipt. Coorse 
receive. Gather* 
convey. Ketch* 
obey. Binsare 

„ foot. 
^ stood. 
„ course. 
„ coarse. 
ff gather. 


„ plenty. 
ff twenty. 
„ cold. 
„ bold. 
„ bush (oo), 
„ push (oo). 

PiUl lQrfN]n(oo)i 
Loudher „ 

ciishion (00% Ar-um. 

ff water. 
„ better. 
ff h^m. 
„ realm* 
„ arm. 



„ sincere. Ffidding „ pudding (o6).Har-um 

92. The learner should collect all the words in which such errors are 
likely to occur, and hahUwate himself to a correct pronunciation of them. 
Also, all such yuloabisms as "lommetry/* "joggraphy," "hoighth,** "lenth,** 
"onst," "strenth," "breth" (breadth), "flure" (floor), "readin," "writin,* 
for the purpose of guarding against them. 

93. The principal yuloabismb of the uneducated English, particularly of 
the Cockneys or natives of London, consist — 

a. In the use of v> tot v and v for 10/ as ** Fine, weal, and idnegar, are Vfery good 
tcittles, I toow.** 

b. In sounding h where it should not, and in omitting it where it ought to be heard ; 
as, *• Give my orte some ?ioats."f 

c. In introducing the soimd of r into some words in which it has no place, and in 
excluding it from others to which it belongs; as in "idear," "winder," "Mariar," 
"feller," "arter^for afUr, "darter" for daugMer^ "sarspan" for saiic^pon/ "bwn" 
for barmy "laud" for lard, "fust" for first, "kiver" for cover, Ac. 

94. In England the following words are frequently confounded by 
uneducated or careless speakers. The explanation of each will be found in 
the Dictionary : 












































* &a<A«r.— This error (giving a the short sound of e) belongs to the north of Ireland 
and Scotland. 

t "It was quite impossible to witness unmoved the impressive solemnity with 
which he poured forth his soul in 'My 'art^i in the 'iffklandt^* or 'The brave u]d 
Hook.* "—Dickens. 




' [Maar of the ytmd^ Ip thii list win ai>pew -nry May to the reader, bat that la baeaaae ther asa fhmlliar !• 
him. To penoDS uuieqiiainted with tnein, raeh aa children and ftreigneiBi'tbe trregnlar or nonBaal aonnda 
of the letter* oocaaioa meat difBcnlty. Besidea, vwa the easieat of them will aenre to recall the rr«der*a 
attenticm to the (irpoadliig fsixsarua or FBoinniaAXioii. with whidi the zeadar ahoold ha made familiar *} 

Ab-ive, 8, A. 
Abroad, 25. 
Acceptable, 73, h. 
Accomplice, 76. 
Accpmpt, 49. 
Accomptant, 49. 
Accoutre, 29, e. 
Accoutrement, 29, e. 
Accrue, 9, b. 
Ache, 41. 
Achieve, 24. 
Acme, 90. 
Acolyte, 77. 
Aconite, 77. 
Acquiesce, 53. 
Acre, 6, b. 
Adamantine, 7A. 
Adept, 69. 
Admirable^ 72, a. 
Ado, 8, b. 
Adulator, 68^ a, 
Adulatoiy, 68, •. 
Adult, 69. 
AduBt, 69. 
Advertise, 68, •. 
Advertisement fi. 
Advertiser, 68, a. 
/Affront, 8, a. 
Again, 14, a. 
Against, 14, a. 
AgUe, 76. 
Ague, 83, b. 
Aisle, 14, a. 
Albeit, 5, b. 
Alchymy, 41. 
Alguasdl, 7, ft. 
Alien, 7, e. 
Alkaline, 70. 
Allelujah, 46. 
Almond, 48. 
Alms, 48. 
Almoner, 48. 
Altar, 5, ft. 
Alter, 5, ft. 
Alumine, 76. 
Alvine, 76. 
Amaranthine, 70. 
Ambages. 70. 
Amb^vris, 7, ft. 
Ambufuh, 0, ft. 

Amethystine, 7S. 
Amice, 76.- 
Among, 8, <L 
Amongst, 8, <k 
Amortise, 76. 
Amour, 29, e. 
Amphibious, 52. 
Amphisbaona, 13. 
Anachronism, 41. 
Anathema, 70. 
Anchorite, 77. 
Anchovy, 69. 
Ancient, 2, f. 
Ancillary, 72, ft. 
Angel, 2, f. 
Angelic, 80, a. 
Anger, 44. 
Angle, 6, ft. 
Anguish, 84. 
Anile, 76. 
AniHty, 78. 
Anise, 76. 
Anodyne, 68, •. 
Answer, 59. 
Anthracite, 77. 
Antipodes, 70. 
Antiqxiary, 82. 
Antique, 7, ft. 
Antiquity, 58. 
Autre, 6, 5. 
AnziooB, 75. 
Any, 6,0. 
Aphaeresis, 18. 
Apophthegm, 44, •. 
ApcMtle, 67. 
AppUcability, 68^ «. 
Apposite, 76. 
Apprentice, 76. 
Approval, 8, ft. 
Approve, 8^ ft. 
Approver, 8, ft. 
Apron, 67. 
Aquatic, 88. 
Aqueduct, 88. 
Aqueous, 83. 
Aquiline, f 6 
Arabeeqae, 83, c. 
Arachnoid, 4L 
Archaic, 41. 
Areoseology, 89. 

Archangel, 41. 
Archetype, 41, 
Archipelago, 41. 
Architect, 41. 
Architrave, 41. 
Archives, 41. 
Argillaceous, 84. 
Armistice, 76. 
Arquebuse, 9, a. 
Artifice, 76. 
Artificia}, 7, c 
AsafoBtids, £6. 
Asbestine, 7& 
Asinine, 77. 
Askaunce, 16, & 
Askaunt, 16, a. 
Assign, 44, a. 
Assignation, 44, •. 
Assignee, 44, a. 
Assiiage, 32. 
Asthma, 57. 
Asthmatic, 57. 
Atrodoua, 84. 
Atrocity, 73, 
Auspice, 76. 
Autumn, 50. 
Autumnal, 50l 
Auxiliary, 7, e. 
Avalanche, 89. 
Avoirdupois, 89l 
Avouch, 98. 

Bads, 1, a. 
Bagnio, 44, 0, 
Balcony, 69. 
Balsam, 5, ft. 
Balsamic 73. 
Banian, 7, f. 
Banquet, 83. 
Barouche, 89. 
Bass, 2, t. 
Battalion, 7, t. 
Beard, 17. 
Beauty, 18. 
Becafioo, 7, ft. 
Behove, 8, ftu 
Benign, 44, a. 
Benignity, 44, a. 
Bequeath, 53. 

Bird,?, & 
Biscuit, 34, «, 
Bissextile, 76. 
Bitumen, 70. 
BNooac, 89. 
Blaspheme, 71« 
Blasphemous^ 78. 
Blood, 28, ft. 
Boatswain, 69. 
Bomb, 8, a. 
Bombard, 8, 4. 
Bombasin, 7, ft. 
Borough, 29, a. 
Bosom, 8, ft. 
Boudoir, 89. 
Bouillon, 89. 
Bouquet, 69. 
Bourgeon, 29, ft. 
Bow, SO, a. 
Bow, 30. 
Bowl, SO, a. 
Bowline, 74. 
Bowsprit, 80. 
Brazier, 62. 
Brazil, 7, ft. 
Break, 17. 
Breakfast, 78. 
Brevet, 69. 
Brevier, 60. 
Brigand, 69. 
Brigantine, 77. 
Broad, 86. 
Brooch, 28. 
Brother, 8, a. 
Bruise, 84, ft. 
Brunette, 9, fti 
Brusque, 89. 
Bull, 9,0. 
Bulletin, 89. 
Bullion, 7, e. 
Buoy, 87. 
Buoyant, 87. 
Bureau, 89. 
Burial, 9, c 
Burlesque, 83, c 
Bury, 0, c 
Business, 0, e. 

* As an tmatfim, ttie iMner should he reqnired to state what the pnmneiattan should ha, la* 
on gefunU mtiiminui m4 ^^ it wtf^y '»• m w^blished hy nMi e i p i . Thi^bawm.\»«aai . 
referrinK t<i^«'MpHmjn of Paoipnunqv. m Indicated by tbia ftsvna qk telewEttfsiokaJB** WJ^'^SH^* 
and also to the sunjoinea Dicttouary, in which their pToaandaUona vra tvEui ^^eiv. 


ntSEOtniAB PBommcunoira. 

Cabal, 5, b. 
Cabaret, 89. 

Chyle, 41. 
Chyme, 41 

Corps, 89. 
Corsaur, 69. 


Caboose, 28. 

Cicatrice, 76. 

Cortege, 89. 

Cabriolet, 89. 

Ciliary, 7, c 

Couffh, 29, e. 
Coulter, 29, a. 


Calamine, 76. 

Cinque, 89. 

Caldron, 5, b. 

Circuit, 84, a. 

Counterfeit, 74. 

Calk, 48. 

Clandestine, 76. 

Country, 29, 6. 


Cambric, 2, f. 

Clarion, 7, c 

Couple, 29, b. 


Camclopard, 68, a. 

Clerk, -6, c. 

Courage, 29, 6. 



Campaign, 44, a. 

Clique, 7, b. 

Courageous, 85. 


Canaille, 89. 

dough, 29, b. 

Courier, 29, c. 


Canard, 89. 

Cocagne, 44, a. 

Courteous, 75. 


Canine, 76. 

Cochmeal, 8, (k 

Courtesy, 29, b. 

Canoe, 26, a. 

Cockswain, 69. 

Cousin, 29, b. 


Capillary, 69. 

Cocoa, 25. 

Covenant, 8, a. 



Caprice, 7, b. 

Cognizance, 89. 

Cover, 8, o. 


Captain, 14, b. 

CoiflElure, 89. 

Covert, 8, a. 


Capuchki, 7, b. 

Coigne, 44, a. 

Covet, 8, 6. 

^ ■ 

Carabine, 76. 

Colander, 8, a. 

Covetous, 8, b. 


Carriage, 75. 

Colloquy, 86. 

Cowardice, 76. 


Casque, 53. 

Colonel, 8, a. 

Cozen, 29, b. 


Cassia, 7, e. 

Colonnade, 68, a. 

Cravat, 69. 


Casino, 7, b. 

Colour, 8, a. 

Crease, 17. 
Crevice, 76. 


Catachresis, 41. 

Column, 50. 

Catastrophe, 90. 

Combat, 8, a. 

Critique, 7, b. 

Catechism, 41. 

Come, 8, a. 
Comely, 8, a. 

Crosier, 55. 


Catechist, 41. 

Cuerpo, S3. 

Cavalier, 24. 

Comfit, 8, a. 

Cuirass, 89. 


Cavatina, 7, b. 

Comfort, 8, a. 

Cuisse, 89. 

Caviare, 7, c. 

Comfrey, 8, a. 

Cushion, 9, a. 

Cazique, 7, b. 
Cenobite, 77. 

Commendable, 7S, h. 


Commissary, 69. 

Daunt, 16, a. 


Cenire, 6, b. 

Company, 8, a. 

Dearth, 17. 


Cerulean, 9, b. 

Compensate, 71. 

Debt, 39. 


Ceruse, 9, b. 

Complaisance, 69. 

Debtor, 89. 


Chagrin, 7, b. 

Conch, 41. 

Decorum, 70. 


Chalice, 76. 

Condemn, 50. 

Definite, 76. 

Chalk, 48. 

Condemned, 50. 

Deign, 19. 


Chamber, 2, f. 

Condemning, 50. 

Deity, 80. 


Chameleon, 41. 

Condign, 44, a. 

Delicious, 75. 

Chamois, 89. 

Conduit, 84, a. 

Delight, 44, b. 


Chamomile, 41. 

Confessor, 72, b. 

Demagogue, 88, e. 

Champa^e, 44, a. 

Confidant, 89. 

Demesne, 55. 

Champaign, 41. 

Confidante, 89. 

Denier, 89. 

Chaos, 41. 

Confiscate, 71. 

Dentifrice, 76. 


Chaperon, 89. 

Conge, 89. 

Dernier, 89. 

Charade, 41. 

Conjure, 8, a. 

Desuetude, 88. 


Charlatan, 89. 

Connoisseur, 89. 

Desultory, 69. 

Charlatanical, 81. 

Conquer, 83, a. 

Detour, 89. 

Charlataniy, 69. 

Conquest, 88, a. 

Devastate, 69. 


Chart, 41. 

Consolatory, 78. 

Devastation, 86. 


Chasm, 41. 

Constable, 8, a. 

Devoir, 89. 

1 f« 

Chastise, 76. 

Construe, 9, b. 

Diachylon, 41. 


Chastisemoit, 72, a. 

C(mtagious, 85. 


, * 

Chat, 41. 

Contemn, 50. 

Dialogue, S3, e. 

Cheer, 41. 

Contemner, 50. 

Diapason, 68, a. 


Cheerful, 73. 

Contemning, 50. 

Diaphragm, 44, a. 

1 . 

Chemise, 7, b. 

Contemplate, 71. 

Diarrhoea, 68 a. 



Chevalier, 24. 

C(mtrary, 69. 

Diastole, 90. 

Chevaux-de-frlse, 89. 

Contrite, 77. 

Dilatory, 73. 

Chicane. 41. 

Contumacious, 84. 

Dimissory, 69. 

China, 41. 

Conversant, 71. 

Diphthong, 52. 

Chivalry, 41. 

Conversazione, 89. 

Discipline, 76. 

Chlorine, 76. 

Coppice, 76. 

Discomfit., 8, a. 

Choir, 41. 

Coquet, V. 53. 

Discretion, 73. 


Chorister, 78. 

Coquetry, 72. 

Disembogue, 88, c 

Chough, 29, 6. 

Coquette, g. 58. 

Disfranchise, 76. 


Christianity, 75, *. 

Coriaceous, 84. 

DishabiUe, 89. 

Chrysalis, 41. 

Cornice, 76. 

Dishevel, 89. 


OoroUary, 69. 

Disputable, 72, fr. 

Disputant, 7S. h. 
Dissoluble, 69. 
Distich, 41. 
Do, 8, b. 
Dodle, 76. 
Doctrinal, 78. 
Doctrine, 76. 
Does, 26, a. 
Doge, 89. 
DomicUo, 76. 
Done, 8, a. 
Door, 28, b. 
Double, 29, b. 
Doublet, 29, b. 
Doubt, 39. 
Douceur, 89. 
Dough, 29, CL 
Doughty, 44, b. 
Dozen, 29, b. 
Drachm, 41. 
Drachma, 41. 
Draught, 44, b. 
Drought, 29, 44, bi 
Ducat, 69. 
Ductile, 76. 
Dudgeon, 75. 
Dungeon, 75. 
Duresse, 69. 

Eclat, 89. 
Eclogue, 33, e. 
EgoUsm, 73. 
Egotist, 73. 
Eight, 19. 
Eighth, 19. 
Either, 19. 
Elite, 89. 
Empiric, 80, «. 
Empty, 51. 
Empyrean, 68, a. 
Enciente, 89. 
Encore, 89. 
Endeavour, 17. 
Endive, 7, d. 
Enervate, 71. 
Enfeoff, 20. 
Enfilade, 89. 
Enfranchise, 76. 
Engine, 76. 
Ennui, 89. 
Enough, 29, b. 
Enpassant, 89. 
Ensign, 44, a. 
Ensigncy, 73. 
Entomb, 39. 
Envelope, 89. 
Environs, 89. 
Epaulet, 89. 
Epergne, 89. 
Epilogue, 33, e. 
Epitome, 90. 
Epoch, 41. 
Equable, 81 
Equal, 82. 
Equator, 83. 
Equerry, 88. 
Equinox, 84. 
Equipage, 84. 
Equivoque 89l 



Ermine, 76. 
Escalade^ 80. 
Eschar, 41. 
Eschew, 21. 
Esditsire, 89. 
SiBcutcheon, 75. 
B^ipalier, 7, e. 
Espionage, 89. 
Etiquette, 89. 
Ewer, 2L 
Exemplary, 09. 
Exequies, 84. 
Exergue, 83, e. 
Exorcise, 60. 
Expugn, 44, a. 
Exquisite, 76. 
Extinguish, 34. 
Extirpate, 71. 
Eyre, 22. 
Eyiy, 22. 

Facabs, 89. 
Facile, 76. 
Facetiae, 70. 
Fac-simile, 90. 
Factitious, 84. 
Falcon, 48. 
Familiar, 7, e. 
Famine, 76. 
Fanatic 80, a. 
Farina, 70. 
Farrago, 70. 
Fascine, 7, b. 
Fatigue, 7, b. 
Favorite, 76. 
Feather, 17. 

febrile, 76. 
eign, 19. 
Feint, 19. 
Feminine, 76. 
Feed, 20. 
Feodal, 20L 
Feoff, 20. 
Feoffee, 20. 
Ferocious, 84. 
Ferocity, 73. 
Fertile, 76. 
Fibre, 6, b. 
met, 24. 
Fierce, 24, a. 
Filial, 7, e. 
Finesse, 69. 
Fir, 7, a. 
First, 7, <L 
Fissile, 76. 
Flambeau, 12. 
Flaunt, 16, a. 
Flood, 28, b. 
Floor, 28, b. 
Flourish, 29, b. 
Fodle, 76. 
Foetus, 26. 
Folk, 48. 
Foreign, 74. 
Forfeit, 74. 
Forfeiture, 74. 
Four, 29, a. 
Fracas, 89. 
Fragile, 76^ 

Franchise, 76. 
Freight, 19. 
Frequent, 87. 
Fricassee, 89. 
Friend, 24, a. 
Front, 8, a. 
Fulsome, 73. 
Furlough, 29, a. 
Furnace, 74. 
Futile, 76. 

Gabakdinb, 7, b. 
Galleon, 20. 
Galliard, 7, e. 
Gamboge, 8, b. 
Gaol, 15. 
Gaunt, 16, a. 
Gauntlet, 16, a. 
Genuine, 76. 
Gewgaw, 44. 
Gherkin, 44, b. 
Ghibelline, 76. 
Gibber, 44. 
Gibberish, 44. 
Gibbet, 44. 
Gibbous, 44. 
Gills, 44. 
Gimp, 44. 
Ghi la tofty 
Gingham, 44. 
Give, 44. 
Glacier, 89. 
Glacis, 89. 
Glove, 8,0. 
Goitre, 89. 
Gone, 1, a. 
Gingeous, 85. 
Gouge, 29, e. 
Goulard, 29, e. 
Gourd, 29,0. 
Gout, 29, e. 
Govern, 8, a. 
Govemante, 89. 
Gradle, 76. 
Great, 17, o. 
Guaiacum, 7, e. 
Guano, 82. 
Guardian, 7, e. 
Guerdon, 88, o. 
Guntk 84,0. 
Guinea^ 84, a. 
Guitar, 34, o. 
Gypsum, 44. 

Half, 48. 
Halfpenny, 48. 
Hallelujah, 46. 
Halliard, 7, e. 
Halser, 48. 
Halve, 48. 
Halves, 48. 
Harangue, 33, c 
Harlequin, 53. 
Harrier, 73. 
Hauberk, 89. 
Haunt, 16k & 
Hautboy, 89i 

Hauteur, 89. 
Haut-gout, 89. 
Health, 17. 
Heard, 17. 
Hearken, 17, b. 
Hearse, 17. 
Hearten, 17. b. 
Hearth, 17, b. 
Hearty, 17, . 
Heaven, 17. 
Heavy, 17. 
Hecatomb, 39. 
Hegira, 69. 
Height, 19, a. 
Heifer, 19, o. 
Heinous, 19. 
Heir, 19. 
Heiress, 45. 
Hemistich, 4L 
Heroine, 76. 
Hideous, 7, e. 
Honey, 8, a. 
Hosier, 55. 
Hostile, 76. 
Hostler, 45. 
Hough, 44, b. 
Housewife, 73. 
Hover, 8, o. 
Huguenot, 83, o. 
Hiunble, 45. 

Syaline, 76. 
ymen^ 68, «. 
Hymn, 60. 
Hymning, 50. 
Hyphen, 52. 
Hypocrite, 76. 

Imbecile, 89. 
Import, 71. 
Important, 73. 
Impugn, 44, a. 
Incendiary, 7, e. 
InchoUte, 41. 
Indecorous, 68, o. 
Indefinite, 76. 
Indict, 40. 
Indictment, 40. 
Indisputable, 72, b. 
Indodle, 76. 
Infantile, 77. 
Infinite, 76. 
Inimical, 71, b. 
Insignia, 70. 
bistead, 17. 
Intaglio, 7, e. 
Interlocutor, 70, a. 
Interstice, 69. 
Intestine, 76. 
Intrigue, 7, b. 
Invalid, 7, b, 
Inveigli, 19. 
Inventory, 72, o. 
Island, 55. 

Jonquine, 53. 
Journal, 29,6. 
Joust, 29, b. 
Justice, 76. 
Juvenile, 76. 

Kerchief, 24, o. 
Knadc, 47. 
Knave, 47 
Knead, 47. 

29, e. 
Know, SO. 
Kno^riedge, 73. 

Laboratort, 72, a. 
Lache, Laches, 89. 
Laconic, 80, a. 
Lacquer, 53. 
Lamo, 39. 
Landau, 89. 
Language, 32. 
Tiangnid, 34. 
Laniard, 7, c 
Lansquenet, 53. 
Lattice, 76. 
Laudanum, 16, c 
Laugh, 16, b. 
Launch, 16, a. 
Laundress, 16, m. 
Laundry,' 16, a. 
Laurel, 16, e. 
League, 33, c 
Lei^er, 17. 
Legendary, 73. 
Leisure, 19. 
Leopard, 20L 
Lethe, 90. 
Lettooe, 76. 
libertine, 76. 
licentiate, 79. 
Licorice, 76. 
lieu, 12. 
lieutenant, 1& 
light, 44, b. 
limn, 50. 

Isthmus, 57. 

Jaoobtnb, 76. 
Jaundice, 76. 
Jaunt, 1^ a. 
Jeopardy, 80. 


limner, 50. 
lingual, 32. 
liquid, 53. 
liquor, 53. 
Liquefy, 53. 
Live, 1, a. 
live-long, 1, o. 
Longevify, 44. 
Loquacious, 53. 
Loquadiy, 73. 
Lose, 8, b. 
Lough, 44, b. 
Love, 8, a. 
Lucre, 6, b. |. 
Limcheon, 7S. 
Lunette, 69. 


MACABom, 68, «. 
Machine, 7, b. 




Malign, 44, a. 
MaUgnity, 44, «. 
Malmsey, 48. 
Mammillaiy, 78, a. 
Mandarin, 7, &. 
Manoeuvre, 12. 
Mantua, 82, a. 
Mantuamaker, 82, a. 
Marauder, Id. 
Marchioness, 75. 
Marine, 7, b. 
Marital, 72, b. 
Maritime, 76. 
Marline, 76. 
Marque, 83, e. 
Marquee, 53. 
Marquess, 63. 
Marquetry, 68. 
Marriage, 75. 
MascuUne, 76. 
Masquerade, 53. 
Massacre, 6, b. 
Matrice, 76. 
Maugre, 16. 
Maund, 16, a. 
Maundy, 16, a. 
Medicament, 72, a. 
Medicine, 76. 
Mediocre, 6, &. 
Melange, 80. 
M@le6, 89. 
Meliorate^ 7, C 
Memoir, 69. 
Menace, 74. 
Menagerie, 89. 
Mercantile, 76. 
Messuage, 82. 
Metonymy, 72, b. 
Mezzo, 89. 
Mezzotinto, 89. 
Mignonette, 89. 
Milch, 41. 
MilUon, 7, e. 
Mineral, 78. 
Miniature, 74. 
Minion, 7, c 
Minute, 74. 
Mirage, 89. 
MisceUai^, 72, m. 
Mischief, 24, a. 
Mischievous, 78. 
Missile, 76. 
MobUe, 76. 
Mocasson, 72, a, 
Monday, 8, a. 
Money, 8 a. 
Mongrel, 8, a. 
Monk, 8, a. 
Moresque, S3, e. 
Mortise, 76. 
Mosque, 88, e. 
Mosquito, 7, 6. 
Mother, 8, a. 
Motive, 7, d. 
Mould, 29, a. 
Moult, 29, a. 
Mourn, 29, a. 
Movable, 8, b. 
Move, 8, b. 
^over, 8, 6. 

Muscle, 6, b. 
Mustache, 89. 

Naphtha, 52. 
Nation, 75. 
National, 78. 
Natiutd, 73. 
Nought, 44, b» 
Nectarine, 76. 
Neigh, 19. 
Neighbour, 19. 
Neither, 19. 
Nephew, 52. 
Niche, 89. 
Niece, 24. 
Nitre, 6, b. 
Nonchalance, 89. 
None, 8, a. 
Nonpareil, 19, a. 
Nothing, 8, a. 
Notice, 76. 
Noiuish, 29, b. 
Nubile, 76. 
Nuisance, 34. 

Oasis, 70. 
Obduracy, 69. 
Obdurate, 72, b. 
Obedient, 7, c. 
Obeisance, 10. 
Obev, 22. 
Oblique, 7, b. 
Obloquy, 53. 
Obseqmes, 84. 
(Esophagus, 26. 
Of, 43. 

Officiate, 7, e. 
Omega, 72, b. 
Once, -8, a. 
One, 8, a. 
Onion, 8, a. 
Opaque, S3, e. 
Opposite, 76. 
Orchestre, 6, b. 
Orifice, 76. 
Orison, 69. 
Orthoepy, 72, «. 
Osier, 55. 
Other, 8, a. 
Oyer, 89. 

Palakquin, 7, b. 
Palatine, 76. 
Palette, 69. 
Pali-Mall, 5, c 
Pahn, 48. 
Palmy, 48. 
Palsy, 5, b. 
Paltry, 5, 6. 
Parachute, 41, 
Paradigm, 44, a. 
Parliament, 75. 
Paroquet, 63. 
Parterre, 89. 
Partial, 75. 
Paschal, 41. 
Pasquinade, 68. 
Pasty, 89. 
Patrgnage, 78. 

Paunch, 16, a. 
Pearl, 17. 
Peasant, 17. 
Pedi^:ogue, 88, e. 
Pelisse, 7, b. 
Penguin, 84. 
Pensile, 76. 
Pentateuch, 41. 
People, 20. 
Perdue, 69. 
Peregrine, 76. 
Peremptory, 72, b. 
Perfume, t. 69. 
Perfimie, v. 87. 
Perquisite, 76. 
Perspicacious, 75. 
Perspicacity, 78. 
Persuade, 82. 
Peruke, 89. 
Peruquier, 89. 
Peruse, 9, b. 
Phlegm, 44, a. 
Phoenix, 26. 
Phosphoric, 81. 
Phrase, 65. 
Phthisic, 52. 
Phthisis, 62. 
Physio, 55. 
Physician, 79. 
Pierce, 24, a. 
Piety, 80. 
Pillion, 7, €. 
Pinion, 7, c. 
Pinnace, 74. 
Piano-forte, 90. 
Picturesque, 83, e. 
Pigeon, 75. 
Pioneer, 68, a. 
Piquant, 53. 
Pique, 7, b. 
Piquet, 69. 
Pirouette, 89. 
Piteous, 7, c. 
Pituite, 77. 
Pituitous, 78. 
Plague, 83, c 
Plaguy, 86. 
Plaid, 14, a. 
Plebeian, 7, e. 
Plethora, 70, a. 
Plethoric, 81. 
Pleuritic, 80, a. 
Plough, 44, b. 
Plover, 8, a. 
Plumb, 89. 
Plumber, 39. 
Plural, 9, a. 
Poignant^ 44, a. 
Polemic, 80, a. 
Police, 7, b. 
Polygonal, 81. 
Pomegranate, 8, a. 
Pommel, 8, a. 
Poniard, 7, e. 
Pontine, 76. 
Ponton, 89. 
Porpoise, 74. 
Portmanteau, 80. 
I Posse, 00. 

Foif7, 65. 
Poiutioe, T6. 
Pour, 20, a. 
Precipice, 76. 
Prehensile, 76. 
Prejudice, 76. 
Premise, v. 71. 
Premise, «. 76. 
Presage, v. 71. 
Presage, «. 74. 
Prescience, 76. 
Prestige, 89. 
Presumption, 7C 
Prison, 65. 
Pristine, 76. 
Private, 74. 
Privy, 78. 
Proceeds, 60. . 
Profile, 7, b. 
Projectile, 76. 
Prologue, 38, c 
Promenade, 89. 
Promise, 76. 
Prompt, 51. 

Prorogue, 88, «. 
Proselyte, 77. 
Prove, 8, b. 
Prow, 80. 
Prowess, 30. 
Prowl, SO. 
Prurient, 0, h 
Prussian, 75. 
Prussic, 73. 
Psakn, 48, 61. 
Psalter, 61. 
Pseudo, 5L 
Ptisan, 51. 
Pudding, 0, m. 
Puerile, 76. 
Puisne, 65. 
Puissance, 89. 
Puissant, 89. 
Pulse, 9, a. 
Pumice, 76. 
Pumpion, 7, e. 
Puncheon, 75. 
Purlieu, 69. 
Pursuivant^ 84. 
Pyrite, 77. 
I^tes, 89. 

Quadrille, 80 
Qualify, 32. 
Quality, 32. 
Quantity, 5, h. 
Quarantine, 82. 
Quarrel, 82. 
Quarry, 82, 
Quart, 82. 
Quartz, 82» 
Quash, 32. 
Quaver, 32. 
Quay, 14, a. 
Querulous, 88. 
Query, 82. 
Question, 88. 
Quinine, 76. 
Quoit» 85, a. 


Quota, SI 

Burnt! B A 



Sombre, A. >. 


Quottonti JB. 

Sacnrioe, »,' 77. 






S^JctT, l*,o. 

Biith. 14, a. 
Saline, 6D, 




Sa tque. 69. 


Trait. SB. 

Haplne, 79. 

8«Uv». TO. 

Bmaeriy, 7S. 




8b tpatro. 8, i. 
SalM, ss. 


afe,v ■ 

Bavin* T, 6. 

BalTer, tg. 


lioadj, IT. 


Bcalni. 17. 

Bapphlra,' B8.' 





Biillct7, 80. 
Bntiriqal, BO, o. 


KeS&va, T. ». 

Batlriit, T3. 

ScaSlou 7 e 

strew. SI, «. 

RecoDDoilra, SS. 



Recd«r. 8. A 
llccrait. M. ». 

BcUlop, 5, b. 

Sua^T^l ' 


v™tfl'«. a. 

BedDubt, St).' 

S™£trS, fl,t. 

SublmuuT. 73. ft. 

Vehicle, t, k 

adiedulo. 41. 


Tell, 19. 

Rclgn, U, <L 

Bnbtle. », ». 

Vein. IB. 

Venison. K. 





Screw. B. t 

Tonnillon. 7, t. 

B=[«rior^, ii. a. 

Smtohaon. VS. 


Reptile, 7fl. 

Requiem. 53. 

Bocrotoiy, TJ. 

Actuals. 40. 

Requisite. Td. 

Seignior. a». 


Vignette. «». 


BepuJchw, ^ i, 

VloloDceUo, to. 

Bcssryolr, «. 

Ssraglio. 7, I. 


Resign, M. d. 

Bergeanl, 17. e. 

Virtu, 89. 


SerSilB. 78. 
Sevctitj, 73. 



Itet&ue, m. 

Sewer. 51, a. 

ainrt, 7, a. 

Reveoue, G9. 

Shuo, ap, 0. 



EeTorie, «». 

BhODO, 1, u. 



Rhapsody, K. 

Bhough, 44, 6. 

TBunt, 18, o. 



T»r. 17. a. 

Khetorial, H. 


Teaacloiu, »«. 

Weigh, IB. 

Rbcum, «. 

SbDwer, 20. 

Teti»dty. T3. 

Weight. 44. 1. 

Bbomb, IS. 
Bhrmo. 4J. 

Blovo, -n. ». 
aigh, 4+. 1. 


Were, 1, a. 
Where, 1. a. 

Bogufl. 33. «. 

Si^. 41, a. 

TbamM. 9. •. 



ThestiB. S, b. 

vlT^7: '^ 

Boadoau, 11 

Their, 19. 

Woman, 8. 6. 




Theologian. fiS, B. 
Theologio. SO. a. 


alQljjIit, 19, a. 

Theology, 82. 

Worth. 9. a. 

Rouge. 80. 

There, 1. a. 

Rough. M. 6. 

Tblrd. 7, n. 

W^. S, C 

Koulwu, sa. 

TboiWigli. 29, a. 

Wry. 89. 

Bouts. 99, e. 

Thoagh, SB, 0. 

BoutSe. T, fc 

Kiougbt, 2B, d. 

Tacht, S, 

Row. 30, a. 


Thread, IT. 

Teoman, SO. 


Boloum, 29, h 




Sulemu, SD. 



Solomoiie, SO. 



Bollloquj, 51 




Prior to the inyention of the art of printing, little attention was paid io 
the Orthography of Engliah or Saxon words. In fact, the first writeni, 
haying no guide but the ear, followed each his own judgment, or his fancy 
at the moment ; and hence a large number of Saxon words were written in 
two or more ways, by different, and even by the same authors. These 
irregularities were transferred to the first printed works, and many of them 
remain to the present day. The following observations on the subject are 
Dr Johnson's : 

'* There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of oar 
Orthooraphy, which, like that of other nations, being formed by chance, or according 
to the fancy of the earUest writers in rade ages, was at first vexy various and uncertain, 
and is yet sufficiently irregular. Of these reformers, some have endeavoured to 
accommodate orthography better to the pronunciation, without considering that it is to 
measure by a shadow, to take that for a model or standard which is changing while 
they apply it. Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal imlikelihood ol success, 
have ^ideavoured to proportion the number of letters to that oi soimds, that evOTy 
sound mav have its own character, and every character a single soimd. Such would 
be the ortnography of a new language, to be formed by a synod of grammarians upon 
principles of science. But who can hope to prevail on nations to chuige their practioe, 
and make all their old books useless? Or what advantage would a new orthography^ 
procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an alteration?'' 

He then, after mentioning and giving a short description of the several 
schemes proposed by Sir Thomas Smith, Secretary of State to Queen Eliza- 
beth, Dr GiU, the celebrated Master of St Paul's School, London, Charles 
Butier, and Bishop Wilkins, ki none of which he expresses his concurrence 
^condudes in these words : 

" We have since had no general reformers, but some ingenious men have endeavoured 
to deserve well of their coimtry, by writing fumor and to2K>r, for honour and labow/ 
red for read, in the preter-tense ; tais for aays; repete for repeat/ explane for ticpUiin, or 
dedame for declaim. Of these it may be said, that as they have done no good, tkej 
have done little harm ; both because they have innovated Uttle, and because few have 
followed them." 

It is much to be regretted, that Dr Johnson, who possessed — and who 
deservedly possessed — an almost absolute authority in such matters, did 
not attempt to settle the orthography even of those words that are spelled 
in two or more different ways. On the contrary, he has confirmed many 
of these irregularities by his own example.* For instance, notwithstanding 
what he has said against writing '' honor for honour, and labor for Idbow, 
he has, uf his own Dictionary, written several words of this class without 
the «, as — 

Sculptor. Torpor. 
Bectcn-. T^itor. 

Stupor. Victor. 

* Anleriaur and irUeriour are so written by Johnson ; while he omits the it In pode- 
rior and exterior. And in his Dictionaiy we find blamaAUt blanuibly, appecMoiUt opprmh 
ablet derirahle, and raiai)let without the final e of the original words, bkune, appmt^ 
approve, desire, and rate; while he retahis the e in taieable, tameable, proveawit, imd 
moveahUt. And stranger still, he omits the e in other words, formed from proH 
move; as improvable, reprovdUe, immovable, removable. 














And tbougli he makes the majority of the words of this class end, in his 
Dictionaiy, in mur, yet he omits the u in aknost all tho words that are 
formed from them; as in the following words : 

Clamorons. FlaTorons. Humorous. Odorous. Tumorous. Vaporous. 

Dolorous. Honorary. Laborious. Rigorous. Valorous. Vigcorous. 

In the following words, however, he retains the u, though he has rejected 

it in those we have just given — 

Favourable. Favourite. Favouritism. Favourer. Honourable. Labourer. 

But notwithstanding the authority of Johnson's Dictionary, the tendency 
is to omit the u in the original words, as well as in their derivatives; and 
in more than four-fifths of them it has been irrevocably excluded; as in the 
following words, each of which ends in (mr in his Dictionary — 

Ambassador. Emperor. Gtovemor. Inferior, Terror. Tumor. 

Anterior. Error. Horror. Superior. Tremor. Warrior. 

And in several of the words which retain the «, the tendency to omit it 

continues to operate; as in the following words, which are frequently 

written without it : 

Favour. Fenrour. Honour. Odour. Bigour. Vigour. 

We venture to recommend the ommission of u in all these words, and for the 
following reasons : — ^it is useless to the orthography, opposed to etymology, 
and, as we have just seen, rather contrary than otherwise to analogy.* 


I. As a general rule, y, when its place may be supplied by t, is not to be 
written except at the end of a word. Hence when y is advanced from that 
position by tiie addition of a letter or syllable, it is changed into i. 

This change is exemplified in the formation of the pliual of nouns ; the 
persons, past tenses, and past participles of verbs ; and the comparativea 
and superlatives of adjectives; as, a cry, the criu; I cry, thou criut, he 
cries or cfneth, cried; holy, hoUer, holiest. It is also exemplified by the 
addition of tiie affixes or terminations ctble, al, ance, ant, er, otu,fid,fy, less, 
ly, ness, ment, &c. ; as in reUahle, tried, compliance, compUomt, crier, envious, 
pitiftd, glorify, penniless, holiday, merriment, &c. 


a. Except in Greek and foreign words, as syaent, tyrawtt myrrhs dtckymy^ Ac. In 
such words y is not the representotive of i, but of a different letter, namely, the Greek 
upsilon or short tt. 

h. In such cases, y retains Its form when it is part of a diphthong^ whicb occurs in all 
words ending in ay, <y, oy, or uy; as in days^ vays; barayekt betray t^ betrayed, 
betrayOht betrayer, betrayal/ keys, attorneys,' wnveyest, conveys, eanveyeth, conveyed: 
toys, boyish/ deitroyest, destroys, destroy eth, destroyed, destroyer; buys, buyeth, buver, Ac 

c. For an obvious reason y retains its form when followed by the pajrticipial termi' 
nation ing; as in magnifying, carrying, accompanying. 

d. For the sake of diranction, y is generally used for i in such names 1u Taylor, 
Bmyth, iic. 

c In proper names pluralized, y retains its form, as the Henrys, the PoTisonbys. 
f. In words Implying title or office ; as, ladyship, secretaryship. 

* Of words ending in or or our, we have about 320; of which not more than 40 can 
now with any propne^ be written with the latter termination. 

It should be added, however, that we sddom vmture to tnUaw oar own recommon* 
dation in this respect : 

** In mxrdi, M fkihioiu, tiM ■BM rale win hold. 
Alike fanlMtle if too neir or old. 

Bo not tlM ibnt lir whom tte new an trtad* ^«j[^| 

Nor 7«t Um lart to IMT th«.oid M&ite,' 


g. The y Is usually retained in the woids dry, cfty, and i^ when the aflbc ^ « \ 
is added, as dryly, dryness; <£yly, slyness: skyty, sAyiMst. 

K Lay, pay, say^ and their compounds, repay, unsay, A(c, foUow the general rule 
when ed or d is added; as laid, paid, said, unpaid, wisaid, Ac. But the exoeptloa 
prevails in layer, payer, payable, £e, 

IL Monosyllables ending with a single consonant, preceded by a single 
vowel, double the final consonant when they take an additional syllable 
beginning with a vowel; as rob, robhest, rMok, rMed, robbing; big, bigger, 
Ifiggest ; gun, gunner ; fat, fatter, fattest, &c 

Words of more syllables than one, which end with an accented conaonant 
preceded by a single vowel, follow the same rule ; as rdtel, rdteUed, rAdL- 
ing; begin, beginning, beginner; commit, committed, comnUuing, cawuniUal; 
'prefer, preferred, preening, &c 


a. In words ending with I, preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant Is usually 
doubled in such cases as the above, though the accent is on the first syllable/ aa travd 
travdlest, traveUeth, travelled, travdling, traveller, &c.* 

b. When in the derivative words, the accent is thrown back from the last syllable, 
the final consonant should not be doubled; as pn^erence, preferable, ben'^ed, 
benffitinff, tc. 

e. In the words vooUen, worshipped, worshipping, worshipper, biassed, and wnbiassed, 
the final consonant is doubled, contraxy to the rule* 

IIL When words ending with double I are compounded with others, or 
when the terminations ness, less, ly, or fuX, are affixed, one I should be omitted ; 
as already, albeit, although, almost, altogether, vithal,wUU,€Mlblaii^dulnes8, 
skilless, fuUy, wilful, bulrush, &c 


€t. The exceptions to this role are numerous and contradictory. In Johnsoxi's Dietiaiii 
ory, for example, we find misccUl and recal: enroll and enr<d: welfare and farewtU: 
uwwdl and welcome. Again, we find distil and instil with one 2/ while /ortstaU and 
install are written with two. He also omits one of the Vs in the compounds of Ml:- 
as beiman, bd/ounder,f bdmetal, hdwLher: while he retains both in the eompoonds o 
faJl: as btfaXl, bcfdl, downfall, waterfalL 

At present, the practice is in favor of the general rule. In the following words, 
however, and a few others, the two Vs are still retained : allspice, farewdL, vnwtXl, ill- 
ness, shrillness, smaUness, stillness, stillborn, taUness, dotcnhill, uphill, molehiU, b^faU, b^etlt 
dotonfall, waterfall, watermiU, windmill, JumdmiU, miUaone, mUirace, underseil, in. 

lY. When an affix beginning with a vowel is added to a word ending with 
e, the e should be omitted; as cure, cwrahle ; sense, sensible; love, loving; 
dave, slavish; rogue, roQuish; stone, stony; arrive, arrival, &c. 


«. The e, if preceded by e or ^ soft, must (in order to preserve the pronimetaHan) be 
retained before the affix able; as in pea^e, peaceable ; charge, chargeable. 

b. The e is also retained before ing in the following words, for an obyioua reason 
dyeing, singeing, swingeing, shoeing, hoeing. 

e. Words ending in ie drop the e before ing, and then change i into y/ as din, dying. 

* The " liquid" nature of the letter I, and the orthography of the French words from 
which most of these terms are immediately derived, accoimt for, and perhaps sanction, 
these anomalies; but there is no such excuse for doubling the p in " gallopped," 
"galloppinsr," "worshipped," "worshipping," "worshipper," "ffosaipping,** fto. 

In most of the American-printed books, it may be observed that these exceptions 
are not admitted. The following are Webster's observations on the subieot: — "We 
observe in all authors, ballotting, bevelling, levelled, travelled, cancelled, revelling. 
rivalling, worshipped, worshipper, apparallcd, embowelled, libelling, and many othen 
in which the last consonant is doubled, in opposition to one of the oldest and best 
established rules in the language. Nouns formed from such verbs should be wiittea 
with a single consonant, BAjewder, traveler, worshiper. What should we say to a mtn 
who should write audUtor, gardenner, laborrer, &o.T" 

t When the two words are not incorporated, the two Tsare retained; aslnM^fluCsL 
heU-founder, well-being, well-favoured, Ao. 



y. When an <#^ b^guming with a eontonatU is added to a word ending 
with e, ifaie e is retained; as pale, pcUeneas; aeme, aenaeleas; dote, closely; 
pe<i€€,pfactfiU; aUwre, qUtutment, 


a. 2>ui, dttfy: friM, trufyi awty mtful; argue, armmeia:* vft^ vMig. 

b. The wards Qbridgrnn/aUy aehunoledgemaU, and judgement^ are also usoany eon- 
Bidered as exeeptiona ; but tiiiere is no reason for omittuig fhe e in these words. On 
the contraiy, it should be retained to soften the g before a consonant, as in lodgemaU, 
"wkdch. ia so wr^ten by Johnson himself. 

VL Except in monosyllables and their compounds, as ioek, hnaptaek, 
Mtoek, ffcudns^tods, the hfinaZ is now omitted; as mpubli^Js], mwiclh], tcf 


a. The kfiud Is retained in the following words, and perhaps a few others : arraeh, 
barracky ransetek, pvneJibeehf buUockt eauoekf haddock^ hemlodCy MULock, paddock, thamr 
rock. Also in proper names : as Patriekf Frederick^ Limerickj Brunswick, &c. 

b. It must a£9o be restored fai the past tense and participles of verbe ending in ic.* 
\BfTrolic,frMek^fr<iUddng: mimie, mimicked, rnivddnng: tra^, tra,gUikei, trc^ffteking. 

yiL When the orthography of a word is doubtful, that is, when custom 
or AUTHOBITY is divided, etymology and analooy should decide. Hence, 
complete, and not complectt^t ^ the proper orthography, because it is derived 
from the Latin complex or the fVench compUt; which is confirmed by its 
cognate word, r^^AeU. 


a. In several words b<yinnlng with the prefix e»» or on, H or <m» oostom hse not 
decided whether < or i should be written. 

In all such cases, this rule will serve as a guide. Ibus we Should prefer oteloM to 
inclose, because it is immediately or directly derived from the French word enelos: 
and for a similar reason, we should write inquvre ra^er than enquire, because it is 
directly from the Latin wocd inguiro. 

The tendency, however, is to pretar ai, or <m, to tm, or im, exoept when the wrad in 
question is used in a legal or eifflcial sense ; in which cases the Latin form of tiie pnhx. 
is used, even though the wordis directly from the Vrench, as the "Incumbered Estate's 
Court ; '* to insure one's life. 

b. In several words used in a legal ot official sense, the affix «r is, in imitation of the 
Latin form, changed into or; as in graeitar for gramter; and viiitor tor visiter. 

YIIL In words aiding m ize or ise pronounced alike, it is often doubted 
whether z or « should be written. The following rules will in most cases 
enable us to decide : — ^1. The z and not « should be used when the word is 
derived from a Qreek verb ending in L(a>; as agcmze, baptize, and charac- 
terize, 2. In words which we have formed by the addition of the Greek 
termination i^to, which, like the Latin fy, EOgnifies to maJot; as AvMri- 
canke, brutalize, and generalize, 3. In words formed by means of prefixes 
the t and not z is generally written, as eircumeiee, compromiae, and enterprite. 

* Johnson excludes < from ekastness, but retains it in eMastefy, There is no reason 
for this exception. 

t Even the learning and authority of Johnson are unable to control custom. He has 
laid it down as a prmciple that no English word can end with the letter e. In this 
case, custom is right ; f<n: I; in such a position is lueless, both as regards the orthography 
and etymology. 

I Etymology has already settled the orthograidiy of this word, and of several others, 
which were, till recentiv, spelled in two ways ; as apostasy and apodaev, ecstasy and 
ecstaey. The first is obviously the correct form; ttie Greek word from mdeh thqr are 
derived being written with an » and not e. 




Absttkb, Abettor. The latter ortho- 
graphy is allowable in law only, which 
affects lAtln terminations, jy is an Eng- 
lish or &kxon affix, and abett from which 
Abetter is derived, is an English or Saxon 
word. See under Rule YII. 

Abridoement, Abridgment. The first 
Is the correct form. See under Rule Y. 

AccEssoRT, AccESSART. One of these 
words should be discarded from oiu* vocab- 
ulary; and as the first is more in accord- 
ance with etymology, it should be re- 
tained. The French is aeeeuoire, and the 
nearest Latin root is aeeestor: for neither 
aeceswrunu nor aecessariuM is Latin. Per- 
haps it would be well to use the first as s 
Aotcn, and the second as an adjective. 

Account, Accountant; Accompt, Ac- 
coMFTANT. Usago, pronunciation, and 
analogy, are in favour of Account and 
Aceountantf except when the words are 
cMffidally applied; as ** Clerk of the Ac- 
compts," *' Accomptant GeneraL" Custom 
has made a similar distinction between 
the words Controller and ComptroUert Re- 
^fiOer and Registrar. These distinctions 
are, however, unnecessary, and the ten- 
dency is to discontinue them. 


See imdcr Rule V. 

j£dilb, Edile. This word is not pro- 
perly English, and therefore the a dlph- 
uiong should be retained. In the cognate 
words JBd\fl4X and JBd^y, the a has been 
changed into e, because they have been 
adopted into oiu* language. See No. 18, 
p. 14, and the note at bottom. 

ALcnvmr, Alchskt, Alchimt. See 
under Chemistry. 

Alkoran, Alcoran, ^oran. The Ara- 
bic definite article is oZ/ and Alkoran 
simply means the Koran. Compare the al 
in oU'oZt, Ac, 

Almanac, Almanack. See Rule VI. 

AMBASSAnoR, Embassador. Custom is 
in favour of the former, though EmboMage 
is seldom written with A, and Bmbassyt 
never. Another reason in favour of Amr 
bassador is its immediate derivation from 
the French Ambassadeur. 

Amend, Emknd. The former is from 
the French amender.and the latter, from 
the Latin emendo. BiMnd is almost obso- 
lete, but its derivatives, emendation and 
em^ndatory are in use. 

Ancient, Antient. We derive this 
word from the French anden^ and not 
from the Latin antiquw. The first is, 

* Words of thlB dan not inclnded in this list, will 
be fomid in the body of tlie vorlc in their proper 
pUwet ; and the form preferred will be placed first. 

t The writer is not forgetful of the great maxim— 
UMU norma lotpt^tdi. 

therefore, the preferable fonn, eoBont 
when used in a nwoial sense, •■ **1^ 
ilftfioU Concerts HaU." Bee Rule VEL 

Anemone, Anxmoht. Bee No. 90^ pi ». 

Antechamber, Antiohambxb. Hm 
prefix in this word is derived from the 
Latin anity before, andnot frofm the Greek, 
anti, against. It should, thera£on^ be 
writteaa. antechamber. 

Apostast, Apostaot. This 'wotd ii 
derived fBom the Greek apo, from, and 
stasiSy a standing. The first li tbmttan 
the proper form. See note, p. 89. 

Aposteme, Afostumx. WenaveadopM 
both these words from the French. Ibe 
original is the Greek apotiSma, ^vhioh 
means a standing from. 

Apotheom, Apophthegm. The latter is 
the more correct form, but the former Ii 

Ssnerally employed. The original is the 
reek apophthegma. 

Arcelsoloot, Archaioloot. The first 
is the form generally in use, though the 
second is more in accordance witih ety- 
mology, namely, from the Greek ardUuot, 
ancient, and logoSf a word, discourse, doe- 
txine, or science. 

Ardour, Ardor. For words endingln 
our, or or, see pp. 87, 88; and note at 

Arquebubx, H arqukbubx. The latter b 
a Cockney pronunciation of the originil 
word argtu&tuey which we have adopted 
from the French. The root of the first 
part of the word, is the Latin areut, abow. 

Askant, Askaunt; Askamcm, As* 
KAX7NCX. See No. 16, p. 15; and note at 

Auger, Augrb. The first is the ooneet 
form. See note, p. 11, on the termina- 
tions U and re. 

Balk, Battlk. The u has no more busi- 
ness in haUcy than it has in eaUi; dbofl^ 
toUr, or wiUc. The second form is tfaflie- 
f ore incorrect. 

Baluster, Banister. The second form, 
though a corruption of the first, is the one 
generaUy employed, exc^ in arohitee' 
ture. The root is the Greek hnJimttim. 
the flower of the pomegranate. 

Banian, Banyan. The second fonn 
should be restricted to the tree so oalled. 
See this word in the Dictionary. 

Barque, Bark. The first, or Freneh 
form, should be adopted, if it were only 
to diistingtdsh it from the other appUoa' 
tions of Bark. 

Basin, Bason. There is a dieiposition 
to write Basint when the word means a 
deep circular pond or dock, but 

when the term is applied to a large deep 
There is no reason for this distino> 


As well might a different ortlM> 



graphy be sought f <xr a iStid of water and a 
thett of paper. Bann^ a dock or pond, 
and Baton^ a bowl, are but different appli- 
cations of the same word.- The French is 
hauiUf the Italian badrui. 

Bass, Base. Custom is in favour of the 
first form ; and its immediate derivation 
from the Italian bauo justifies the second 
9i but it should either be pronounced ftoM, 
as in the word ats, or written Bom. 

Bazaab, Bazas. The first is most in 
use, although the Eastern and Continen- 
tal form is Batar. 

Behalf, Bkhoof. The first, though 
established by custom, is a ooarapt form 
of the second. 

BELI/-MAK, BKLKAir. In these words, 
and in the otiier compounds of beO, the rule 
is plain. When the hyphen is used, both 
V» should be retained ; but when the two 
words are incorporated, one of the Vb 
should be omitted. The same rule applies 
to similar words; as lod^teing and vld^are. 

Biased, Biassed. Bee under Bule II. 

Blamablk, Blameable. Bee under 
Rule nr., and note p. 35. 

BoMBASiK, Bombazine. As we give this 
word a kind of French pronuncia^on, we 
may as well adopt their orthography, that 
Is, Bombann. 

BoxTBOEOis, BuBGBOis. The first is the 
correct form; but peihaps we should 
write the first when a French citizen is 
meant, and the second when we apply it 
to a kind of trpQ. 

Bowlder, Boulder. The first form is 
the correct one; because it has been so 
called in allusion to its r<mnded appear- 
ance. Comi^are BovA, Ac. 

Bowsprit, Boltsprit. The first is the 
correct form. It means the spar or boom 
which tpriU or pr^ects from the how. 

Calk, Caulk. Ime latter form is quite 
erroneoTis. Bee Balk. 

Caltx, Caliz. See under Bule L 

Camlet, Camslot. Usage and pronun- 
<dation are in favour of ttie former, though 
the latter, which we borrow from the 
French without (duoige, is the proper 

Camphor, Camphirb. The first, which 
is the form generally used, is from the 
Latin eamphora: the second is from the 
French eamphrt. 

Canvass, Canvas. Some persons make 
a distinction between these wimis, apply- 
ing eamitOM to the act of sifting or ex- 
amining, and eoMoat to hempen cloth. 
But they are different applications of the 
same word, and shoula consequently be 
similarly spelled. The root is the Latin 
eannaMtf hemp, also cloth made of hemp ; 
and as <doth made of hemp is, from the 
coarseness of its texture, used for strain- 
ing or sifting, the term came to signify to 
search after and solicit votes, as at an 

Cababihb, Cabbink. The first, which 
lUM been tnturferred from the French to 

our language without change. Is the pro- 
per form, but the latter is beginning to be 
generally adopted. 

Causev, Causeway. The second is a 
popular corruption of Cauuy: like Spar- 
rowgroM from Asparagus, and Watergras* 
from Watercress. (kL'usty is from the 
French ehatutie, a path raised through 
low or wet places by (eJiata) stones. 

Chap, Chop. When applied ta die 
hands, usuage reouires Chap, which is 
usually pronounced Chop.* 

Chamomile, Camomile. The first is tlie 
correct form. If we adopt the French 
form, we should double the 2, as well as 
drop the h. The Greek word is cAamoi* 
mdout that is, the ground-apple. In fiio 
word Chameleon also, the h should be 
retained, as the first i>art of it is from the 
same root (chamai on the ground). 

Checker, Chequer. There seems to 
be a disposition to return to the old or- 
Ibography, but without reason. Those 
who write Cheguert should, to be consU- 
tent with themselves, write Paquet^ La- 
queyj iic. We should also writer Cheeker- 
work, and Cheeky except when the word is 
used in a tpeeial sense ; as a Cheque upon 
a bank. See under Bule VIL 

Chemist, Chtmist, Chimist; Chemis- 
try, Chtmistrt, Chimistrt. I have given 
these words the places which custom has 
assigned them; but without doubt, the 
first should be last, and the last first. 
Even supposing the word to be of Greek 
origin, uialogy requires it to be written 
with y. But as Chimistry is evidently 
formed from the French Chimiet by the 
addition of the termination ietry, as in 
Palmigtry, it should be written with i. 
In the ItflJian and Spanish languages, too, 
the syllable in disfpute is similarfy writ- 
ten, viz., ChinUea and CMnUcu To this 
ms^ be added the authority of Webster : 
'* Tub orthographv of this word (CMmutry) 
has undergone changes through a mere 
ignorance of its ori^n, than which no- 
wing can be more obyious. It is the 
Arabic Kimia, the occult art or science, 
from Kamaiy to conceaL This was origi- 
nally the art or science called Alekba^.** 

Chilnbss, Chillmess. Bee Rule m. 

Choir, Quire; Chorister, Quirister. 
Quire and Quirider are antiquated, and 
contrary to etymology. 

Clyster, Glister. The second Is a 
vulgar corruption. 

CoiP, QuoiP. The old orthography, 
Quo^f, should, perhaps, be used when the 
term is officially applied, viz., to the cap 
of a sergeant-at4aw. The French is co(^<; 
whence also, coiffure, a head-dtess. 

Comptroller, Controller. See under 


* €SiKp» dnap, and tMp, anof tli« Mma flmllj. 

TlMri«ot!speriMiistlMOfMkiei$frro»}«>ciit. TiM 

wnftwinn Iwt wB i Oktm and Okop huro du BBdbittMfc 
al^wal^Ae; Hflnaa CIm» «■& Cnw»» M<Ak«r «aik 



CoKXEXioir, CSomrECTTOV. Btymology 
!■ in fftTour of the first form. The French 
is etmiuxion, and the Latin, eonnexio. 
CoMPLEZiox ifl analogoua in ereTj reapoct^ 
but no one writes it with et.* 

CosTTRE-DAarsE, Goitstby-Dasce. The 
latter orthography, which is nowf con- 
aidcied vulgar, arose from a misapprehen- 
sion of the term Contrt^ opposite, face to 

CoNTBOL, CoNTBOUL. Usage, pronun- 
ciation, and etvmoloey, decide for Control, 
which is immediately from the French, 


The first form of these words is more in 
accordamce with the etymology of them ; 
but eupkonvj and above all, cuaTOH, is in 
favour of the second form. 

CoRDOVAX, CoRDWAiy. The first is the 
form most in use. It is derived from Cor- 
dova, in Spain, the Corduba of the Romans. 

CoRNEUAX, Carneuox. I prefer the 
first, because I am convinced the word is 
derived from the Comdian or com«[-chcrry 
("coma rubicunda"), and not from car- 
nalif, flesh (colour). The French is Coma- 
liru, the ItaJJan ConuUuia, and the Latin 
Gomeola onyx. 

Corpse. Corse. The latter orthography 
should never be used in prose. Cvne is a 
poetic word. 

Coulter, Culter. The second is the 
correct form ; tiie root is the Latin euUrum. 

Crakch, Crai:7;ch. The first is the 
correct form. Compare Stanch and its 
old form StauncK 

Crawfish, Crayhsh. A corruption of 
the French (erevitsej the root of which is 
the Latin carabus, a orab. The first is the 
usual form. 

Dam ASCEsrs, Daxbost. Custom has de- 
cided for the latter, notwithstanding its 
incorrectness. The Latin is prunum i7a- 

Delft, Delf, Delph. J>e^fl(waxe)y like 
ChinOf owes its name to the place where 
it was originally made, namdy, 2>e{/T, a 
town in the Netnerlands. 

Demesne, DEMAnr. The first, or origi- 
nal form is generally used. It is derived 
from de nuzTuio, and properly means that 
part of the estate attached to the Mantion^ 
at house, where the proprietor rtmavM or 

Despatch, Dispatch. The first is the 
correct form, because the word is imme- 
diately derived from the French. See 
under Rule VIL 

* It may be nid, the Fmch of Bejieoham U R»- 
€exbm, and whr not foUov Uie French orthneraphy 7 
mj answer is, Jt^fUction was Kenemlly apellra with 
ae, till Johnson draared for the pxvwnt orthomaphy, 
on the principle of the wurd beins funned ttoai r«- 
^kct. ft may be added, tooj that tliere is no such 
word in Latin as li^fUxio. Ilad this been the cam, 
ReJUction wonld, in all probahility, bare been writ- 
ten with flE» as its oognataa jteanlM, /texUUUi/, and 

f ** Oountr^'danet " ooran frequently In the 
8p9elator.—S«» Nos. S and •». 

DR.ICHXA, Drail Thft'ieeoDd Is « oobi 
traction of the first; and it la used whsa 
a small weight or a small quantity is 
meant; as a drmm of bnuklj. Tbe ward 
is Greek (J>raekma% and it means a smsll 
coin; and also a small weights 

Draught, Draft. Johnson rejects 
Draft as a corruption ; but it is now pro- 
perly applied to a Zhn^/I for monay, at to 
2>rq/( troops, ito. 

Dbtlt, DRiLT;DBTinn,I>BnmB. Bee 
note to Rule I. 

EcsTAST. Ecstact. Sco Aporast, Kod 
the note referred to. 

Enclose, Inclose. We derira this word 
fmm the French Enclos, not from the 
Latin Inelunu. We should therefore write 
E)u\r>se and Enclosure, See under Rule VII. 

Enigma. Enigma. The first form isnow 
generally employed. See .Sdilk. 

Encyclopedia, Enctclof^dia. Bee 
the ob<:ervntions on £dilb. 

Enrol, Enroll. See Rule II. 

Entire, Intire. Both custom and 
etymolo£ry decide for Entire. It is derived 
directly from the French Enii^re, not from 
the Latin Integer. 

Equeey. Equerrt. From tha French 
eeuver, a groom. 

£quivoke. Equivoque. The second fa 
the correct form. It is purely French. 

Expense, Exfence. Etymologyv >n- 
thority, and analogy, declare for Ebeptim. 
The Latin is expenta.* 

FiLLiBEO, PniuBEO. Tho first la to be 
preferred. It is from the Gaelic JUeadk- 
big, a Uttlc plaid or kilt. 

Fleam, Fiileam. The first is the cor- 
rect form. It is from an old Celtic word, 
fiaim oTjUniy the stingof a bee, iui. 

Foray, Forr^vy. The first is the tar- 
rect form. The words are from the aanu 
root as Forage. 

Frize, Frieze. The first, which la pro* 
nounccd like the second ifireae), is men 
in accordance with the etymology, namdy, 
the French /rucr, to raise a nap on olotb, 
to/Ws/«, to ciurl. 

Gairish, Garish. Authority la in lavonr 
of the first form. Ascham has "mon- 
86*ous hats and gairish colours." 

Gaol, Jail ;, Jailer. Etyxro* 
logv and authority are in &vour ri ff.M 
and Gaoler, which we derive from l-ie 
French OccU and Geolier. t It ia now, horn- 
ever, usually eipelled as it is pronoanoed, 
Jailt Jailer. 

Gayety, Gaixtt; Gatlt, Oailt. 
under Rule I. 

* Itmaybenld. QftfneflsfromtiMLatlBdiiMM 
and yet it ts alwaya written with & Ta this tt bm 
heansweied. if tbeiiaineoonld he nld of JEiMMefl 
wonld not appear here. Oar bnaineH la culy ^iu 

nieh words as an written In two or man 

Analoity. howerer. is stroug for tlie $i amta. 
tire, offemite, d^fnuim, d^fmnfU&i 

-I Gi-ole. The origin of this wand k diaatid : W 
In all probability it is the Latin emPSsTortlSS^ 111 
dimiuuii\-e aiwrvla. Caeea was freqnautly vMI l| 
tha iU>iuaus to denote a cu0«, or Place of ooaflnnpsH 
Kenenilly ; and in old neott wAten (gMfilJiiuli 
.gofofe ooonn freqaentlr In tho hbh Hmrngt, ' ~'~ 



Gaok, Gauob. These are really differ- 
ent words. Oage is a French word, and it 
properly means a pUdgt^ or that by which 
a person is bound to do something, as in 
our word mgagtment. €fauge is also from 
the French, but the form is jauget and it 
means a meeuurt. We shomd therefore 
write gauge when measurament is meant. 

Ulatts, Glavb. The first, which we 
have adopted from tlie French, is the 
form most used by our best writers. 

GouBMAND, GoBXAND. The first, which 
we have adopted from the French, is 
generally prefeired ; but we now always 
write gormandize and gomumdizar without 

Gbaft, GBAnr. Graft is from the par- 
ticiple grafftd: as Left from Uaved: 
WErr from veav^; Cusrr from cleaved, 
i:c. It is quite erroneous, therefore, to 
write Or^ft when the word is used aa a 
verb. As well might we say to cl^, to 
giftt to th^y to v>0, iLO. Qrc^ffia from the 
IVench Orifft.* 

Gbiffon, GBiFPnr. We derive this 
word from the French griff<>^ a^d not 
from the Latin or Greek, ^e first form 
is, therefore, to be preferred. 

GuK^EL, ti UK WALE. The first is in 
general use, but the second is the correct 
form. It is from gwx and wait, a rising or 
projecting plank in the sides of a ship 
through, which the gviM, when there are 
any, are mounted. 

Gypsy, Gipsy. As this term is derived, 
from the word Egyptiany the first form is 
the more correct. See the first exception 
under Rule I. 

Halliabds, Haltabds. The word is 
derived from hmbly and the termination 
ardy as in dotard. The y, therefore, has 
no business in it. 

Halbeb, Hawbbb. The first is pro- 
nounced like the second, and it is seldom 
used. The root is the Saxon TioJU, the 
neck. Whence ^af^, HoZtf, JTdiot (to drag 
lyy the liepjb), Eavberk, &c. 

Habbbaainxd, Haibbbained. The 
lecond, though quite erroneous, is gme- 
rally used. JSTansdrained means as wild 
as a hare; <»:, as said, ""harvrni scarum." 
Compare also the adages **as mad as a 
•March hare.*** 

Habieb, Habbieb. The first is the 
eorrect form. The word means a hare- 
hound, and the corrupt (»thography arose 
from an ignorance of the tendency in our 
language to make the vowels which are 
long in rimple aiid primitive words, short 
in uieir compounds and derivatives; as 
from eh&de, an&dow: vtfM, ^nejfordf fOref 
fihthead; grainy grdtuay, fto. And on 
the same principle^ hSrt, hMrier. See No. 
78, p. 26. 

• Tharootof ttMFvpndi mfc.lifbeOmktvw- 
eMon.ApeDC&antlMnwviuvmtotbaiiafot). In 
■• " *- — " — — *• flDDWn in this wnMias 

old Frendk writen, 

wne word U nor 
rolls, rcgUters, or 
» n-guter or aecre 


, ^ . . ^,deftar.»* t]»e 

Oflcd tar ttM rwA ^ d*»<<te tl)« 
pttblloVTWngi ; vbence gn^er- 

Hetnoxjs, Hainous. Both etymology 
and pronuAciation are in favour of the 
second, or old form of the word, which is 
obviously derived from the French haineut 
(hainetue)y hatefuL 

HoopiHO-oonoB, WHoopiKO-conoH. The 
first is the usual form. See Whocp, p. 45. 

HosTLEB, OsTLSB. Etjrmology (from 
Hostely hoddrie) and analogy* deoide ia 
favoiu: of the first. 

Immovable, Immoveable. See Bule IV. 

Impakel, Empabsl. See under Bule 
VII. ; also, PaneL 

Incbease, Encbeasx. See under Bull 


See under Bule VII. 

Indue, Endue. We derive this word 
from the Latin InduOy not from the Frencli 
Bnduire. JndtM is therefore to be jtre* 

Inquibs, Ekquibe. EWmology and 
analogy f decide in favour of Inquire. It is 
derived immediately from the Latin Jn- 
qmro, not from the French JBnquerir. We 
should also write Inrntiryy and in all Par- 
liamentary and piibllc docmnents the 
word is so written. 

Insube, Enbitbe. See under Bule VII. 

Janty, Jaunty. The u does not belong 
to this word. It Is from the French 
gentiL See No. 16, p. 15, and note ut 

Jelly, Gellt. Though etymology t and 
analogy! are in favour of the latti^, it is 
seldom used. 

JuDOEMENT, JxTDOMENT. Bco the obser- 
vations under Bule V. 

Lackeb, Laqueb. See under Checker. 

Lavandbb, Lavender. This word is 
from Lavandula^ low Latin, by the change 
of { into r, as in charter, from ehartula. 
The first is therefore the proper ortho- 

LicENOB, License. The substantive ff 4t 
least, should be written Licence. It nas 
been transfeired to our language, from the 
French without change, and is formed 
from the Latip Lkentiaf as Scienob from 
Scientia/ Sentenob, from Sententia, Ac. 

LuTXSTBiNO, LusTBiNO. Zutentring, 
when applied to ehining silk or ribbon, 
is an obvious corruption. 

Halcontent, Halecontent, Ac. Ex- 
(sept when this prefix is pronounced in 
two syllables, as in malifactor and mali' 
diction, it is better to omit the e, which }a 
not only not necessary to the pronunpia- 
tion, but at variance with it. 


Mantle, a cloak, and Mantle of a chimney, 
are but different applications of the samo 
word, there is no reason for makhig a dis- 
tinqtion in the orthography. 

J* As Most, EoipUal, HoMpittOUy, Ac 
As InquMtkfey JnquUitUm, &c. 
Framthd Frcnoh gelM, the root of whloh. l&A&kA 
JLatin Mlatut, txoam. 

SAslin mMIm, gcVsMmmia, %«. 
A» in Practice ukfli gr^pM q i^ 



Mastic, MAsncn. See Rule VI. 

MoNETED, MoNiED. See under Rule I. 

Mosquito, Musquito. The first is the 
Spanish, and most usual form. The root 
is the Latin mioco, a fly. 

Mould, Mold. The first is the correct 
form. It is merely a different application 
of movldy soft earth, In which things are 
often cast or modelled. 

Movable, Moveable. See Rule lY. 

Mustache, Moustache. The first .lorm, 
which is now generally used, is more in 
accordance vdth. the root, namely, the 
Greek miutox, the upper lip; the hair 
growing on it. The second is a French 

Negotiate, Neoociate. The first is 
to be preferred, because it is derived im- 
mediately from the Latin JfegotiatuSj not 
from the French Negoeier, .Aiialogy, too, 
is in tetvour of Negotiate; as Negotia^on, 
Negotiator^ NegotiaJble. 

Olio, Oolio. The first form is now pre- 
ferred, and it is more in accordance with 
the Latin root, namely, oUa^ a pot for 
boiling {olera) vegetables. The second is 
the Italian form. 

Paillasse, Palli ASS. This word, though 
BO much in use, has not yet been admitted 
into our dictionaries. It is purely French, 
and should be spelled as such. 

Panel, Paknel. These are different 
words. The first means (paneUum, L.) a 
little pane or oblong piece of parctunent, 
as the Sheriff's pand, on which the names 
of persons are written or impandied. The 
second means a rustic saddle. 

Peddler, Pedler, Pedlar. I prefer 
the first, because I consider the word 
formed from PeddU^ as Meddler, from 
Meddle: Fiddler, from FiddUy Ac. John- 
son says Peddler is a contraction of petty 
dealer;* but we might as well derive 
Fiddler from fiddle dealer. 

Pendant, Pennon, Pennant. As the 
first two are of different origin, either oi 
them may be used with propriety. The 
latter, Pmmantt Is a oorrupfcion of Pendant, 
or perhaps the French Penon. 

Phial, Vial. The first is more in ao- 
cordance with the etymologvof the word, 
and it is now generally used. The Latin 
and Greek iaphidla. 

Pinchers, Fincebs. The first is oom- 
monly, and properly used, deriving it, as 
we do, directly from our word Pinchj and 
not from the French Pinser, the root of 

Plactter, Plaistkr. The latter ortho- 
graphy is quite erroneous* 

Plat, Plot. The word is properly writ- 
ten in Platfiorm; but graet-plot seems to 
be beyond correction. 

PoREBLiND, Purblind. The most prob- 
able etymology of the disfputed syllaole of 

* Thomson, in his Btymona, derives PeddUr from 
pied alter J but tbe analogy of the language is alto- 
gether in favor of Peddle, and the common Peddler, 
whidi denotes an agent or door, -o,^.^ 

this word is the Greek 2>9ri8t, blind. For» 
bUnd is therefore to be preferred. 

Punt, Puisne. From the Fnnei: 
pvimi, the root of which is the Ijatta jMit 
natus. The latter inthogiaphy is nam 
used, except when the term is **<**i***"y 
applied, as to a junior judge. 

PUTRETV, PuTRirv. Thi& firsfe !■ tfai 
correct form, because we dertre it fan- 
mediately from the French fwfr^er, nd 
not from the Latin putriduM. Tlie sme 
observations apply to Rareft and Smn* 
FT. On the contrary, Pubiit ahoold bo 
written with i, because it is dire cU jIroBi 
the French pur\fUr. See Rule VTL 

Pyomt, Piomt. See under Rule L 

Rash, Raze. As these are diflteent is- 
plications of the same word, they ahocud 
be spelled alike; but it is usual to write 
TOM when it is put for enue; and mr 
when it is applied to the dexnolitioa id a 

Rear, Rere. There is a strong diapcNl- 
tion at pres(mt to use the latter oorebo- 
graphy, which, if it were only to di»> 
tinguish it from i2«ar, to raise or bring tm^ 
and Rear, raw or underdone, ahoold oe 
encouraged. The root of Rerb is tht 
Latin retro, behind, ( being sunk ; as ptoe 
from poire, mtre from matrt; and pmn 
from petra. Etymology is, thnefoiv^ b 
fiKvoiurof Rere. 

Rearward, Rereward. If rerc oomei 
to be proferred, so wiU Rereward^ and n 
it was spelled formerly ; as in Isaiah liL 
12, and IviiL 8. 

Rearmouse, Reremousk. The first ii 
the proper form, which means the mm 
TMuu, or the mouse without fur, a name 
given to the leather-winged bat. 

Recognize, Recognise. See Role Vm 

Resin, Rosin. The latter is quite eno* 
neous, though it is still generally used. 
The French is resin, and the Latin miNa. 
Analogy, too, is in favoiu* of jRetin, as Bm- 
nmu, £c. 

Retievle. From the Latin refigwlii, s 
small net; also, a small bag of m eMsDr fc 
This word is ofben erroneously pronoanoed, 
and sometimes written, RedictiU. 

Ribbon, Ribon, Riband, Rtbak.* Kie 
etymology of this word is diluted, and 
hence the various spellings. As the 
French Rvban is, in all probability, tiie 
word from which ours is derived, B^Jban de- 
serves the proferenoe. 

Route, Rout. By ref eronce to the Die* 
tionaiy, it will be seen that these words 
differ both in meaning and pronunciatioD. 

Banitart, Sanatort. These words have 
been recent^ added to oiu* language, and 
the proper orthography has not yet been 

• Webster p rop oses JMMn, whkb he deriwi flroB 
the Welsh rhMn, a zov or nreak ; and adds "Thli 
mnd has no oonnezl<m with band, and the 
orthography is grossly enoneons.'* 

Menage derives Buibam Cram tha IjKUn 

{rvJbemM, rubemm), red, " FiMaeqas lea jpfaM bean 
rabans sont de oonlear da iao." wt addl Hi frti 
ftiM' non cNiptteofMliMN. 



ttormbud. AaoonUng to Biila TTT.* UiQ 
«t Is ths cornot form. It 1b deAred 
imediHt4l7 from the Fnncli tanitain, 
hlch ia from Uia Latin nmtwv hodtb or 
ata of health : utd Jigdca foiUJdrir haa 

len wplied lo lam ■ ■-" *■■-' 

od to imn ' 

Sat, Suv. ThBI 

or iwolatioiis iri 
e piuSUo or gOD 

. . ""riwrTOot or"b^ 

I BMondfOrm is Obsolala; 
ao other aoinait 

Jb caaa, hor li it to be pniunmoedT 
nguiaiiT(thati^lifco»(i. to glut), It 
m aound atrangoly, and, 1 *>'^"^, peoan- 
allytomodeniean; a^ '*He «a^(Htj) 
1th me npwu-dfl of an tunu." In Dry- 
ffl'a time it muHt hava had Its rvgnlar 

■M Unea of his Immoftal Odo ; bat, St 
«d mov. It ahould, 1 think, be pro- 
•unoed Ml. See 6, e, p, 11. 
BcCfiTO, Skeptic. Thlfl irord ohould 
tbor be written tktptie, m It la pn>- 

srly obeeleta. The Hc«ui 

eridonOjUii ^— , 

SlBUHH, SuBLOiB. If tbia mpectable 
bit owes its name to Charlea 1I„ who. It 

itforer, obriouily from Iba French wr- 
ijK, vblch meana oAotw, or the upper 
irt of the loin. Bae note «■ iSiiwr, 


BtBUT. Btbhf, BUMF. Stbop. Hie et;- 
-ology ol thlairoidia dovbtlbl, andbohoe 
le ooofiued wthogiaphT. Caage, at pla- 
nt, la in bTour d the flnt. 

u to slide oDatote. The loot ia tba 
1 flnt <i tbsaa 

ara, Spiw. We an Indebted for thta 
word to Spa, a tovn tn Oennany, bmima 
for Ita minanl mtoa. We ihoi^ than- 

8FIHACB, SnsAax^ The flnt la to be 

preferred, because derived from the lAtin 

Bpohoe, Sprmoa. W* derire tbia wotd 
from the l^tin jpoafid. fyumfft ia, th«ra' 
fore^ the propHT orthcRTwhj. 

Thhibh, l^BABH. Pcnj^ wa ahould 
nrlla Tlirah, wben lb la api^sd to the 
beatbiB of oom oat of tiie atraw; and 


hoi the word U applied to voffla ot 

IT liquid meaanm The Froncb la 

SH'rcttiBLi, TaiBBraB'RiBLt The 

mouly and erroneoualv pronounced <n1IU- 
jH-i^it. See under ^ila IL (b.y, and 

■fh'riJjU, ic. ' ' 

— ^ - .10 bctti?r to adopt tl 

Waiv&Wavi. CoBtoiD seema to decide 
or the firat, wbloh la merely a dlOerent 
pplication of lb« verb to vavt Waitt 
oeana to reject or decline bj a mnnf 
[lodon of tbo band ; and bence to relln- 

Wboof.Hoof. Thasa an dUbrent forma 
hf the aarna word. The; are derived Iiodi 
be Skeou lnwnpaji, to weep, to bowl, to 
lioaf or boop. Uee Hoonno-cooaB, p. IX 

, in a little work recent^ pobllahed, baa trsated of the aubjsct fully 
I la, "Words Spelled in Two or More Ways by Different AotiotiH with 
mp* to BetUa ttieli (-"--—-— ■■ — ■— "- ' 

ueli Orthogn^y." Fiioe 


DxBiYATioif ii that part of Ei^inology idiich trati of the origfai and 
primaiy Bignification of words. 

AVordfl are either tVimitire or Derivative. 

A FRDcrnYE word cannot be reduced or traced to any ninplflr wotd in 
the language ; as mttn, good. Primitive words, from which deriTfttlTea tn 
formed, are called Boots. 

A DERIVATIVE word can be reduced or traced to another in ihb lADguigi 
of greater simplicity; as manlp, goodneat. 

Derivative words are formed from their primitives : — 1. By the addiiiaa 
of letters or syllables. 2. By the omission of letters, or oontractioiL Z, lij 
the interchange of equivalent or kindred letters. 

All words having prefixes or afi^es, or both, are eiampleB of tlitt fini 
process. All words which undergo what gnunmarians call aphaerwli^ 
syncope, or apocope, are examples of the second process of derivatiotL Fit 
examples of the third process^ see the words under the head of " TCngliA 
Etymologies " (page 50). 

The meaning of a word is either primary or secondary. The prixmiy 
meaning of a word is that in which it was first or originally applied. 

A word can have but one primary, but it may have several Becondtrj 
meanings. Though in several instances the primary meaning of a wora 
has been lost, or is no longer in use, yet in general it will be found to pe^ 
vade all its secondary or figurative applications. 

Many words considered as primitives or roots in English, are deriv aU Tci 
from the Latin, Greek, and other languages. To the Latin language, in 
particular, the English is indebted for a large portion of its vocabulary. In 
proof of this the reader is referred to the Dictionary of DenvatimiB, 

A PREFIX is a significant particle, generally an inseparable preposition, 
prefixed to a word to vary or modify its signification; as tm in m^ust, mu 
in mistake, and re in return. 

An AFnx or TERMiKATiON is a significant particle or e^Uable added to i 
word to vary or modify its meaning ; as able in poridbte, fid in han^ 
kn in harmless, and Aip in hardskip. 



A, ai^ to, or on/ as afield,* that is, o^, 
or to the field ; afoot, onloot ; aboard, on- 
board; a.shoro, onshore. 

Be. Tills prefix is merely the verb to 
be; OB befriend^ that is, to be a friend to. 
It has usually an intensive signification ; 
is in bewail, bespatter, and bc^praise ; and 
to some intransitive verbs, it gives a 
transitive force; as in become, to fit or 

In some words, it is another form of by; 
as in leeatue and betide. 

EN,t to make; as enable, to make able. 

• ** How Jocund did they drive their team afleld." 
f En. Insumewurdx, en isuBCd both M « i;r</ta 
and tax affix; as in eniigHen, «nlircn, emboldrn. 

Sn is sometimes changed into an.' as flh 
power. £n and Jim are different fwrns of 
In and Im. They are generally used in 
words derived from the lAtin through the 
French language. See under Rule YIL 
p. 40. 

For, negaiive or privaiim/ wmJMM, tt 
bid notf or prohibit ; /orget> not to get Qt 
have in recollection. 

Fork, (b^ore); as foresaoat, fnWBd, 
/orewam, /orrteU. 

Mis, notf torong or trrcr: ss flniifoctaiMb 
mutake, misoonduct. 

Out, beyond; as outlive, ovtnm. 

Over, above, beyoind, too ffwdt/ as SWP> 
charge, overreach, overboil. 

Un, not, like the Latin in/ •• MKwflUnft 



Up, moiXoTL upwards; as upstart: alao, 
subversion; as itpset. 

With, yyom, offobut/ as tpftftdraw, vith- 
hold, vitAstand. 


A, AB, ABSy /h>m; aa overt, to turn 
fivm; ahaolvey to free from; abstain, to 
liold or keepfinm. Bee the Greek Apo. 

Aj>^*to; as to advert, to turn to; ad- 
verb, a part of speech added to a verb. 

Am^t b^f&rt; as arttccedent, gohig be- 
fore. See the Greek ArUi. 

Bis, Bi, two; as 6{so<Jt, to cut or divide 
into two; Mped, a (tpo-footed animal. 

CiRCUM, ciBCU, abovt or around; as eir- 
eumjacent^ lying aarowid; eireulate, to carry 


CoK, wttik or toff ether; as concourse, a 
running together. See note on Ad. 

Contra, against; as omfradJct, to speak 
against, or to the e(m<raY*ir. Con/m some- 
times takes the form of coi;j!a'£h, as in 
eonnteractf to act or work against, 

De, douMt from, of; as <2d8cend, to come 
down; c2«part, to partyVom/ describe, to 
write qf or concerning. 

Dis, Di, aswuUr, apart, or separated 
from ; (and hence its native force) not ; 
as citfjoin, dinaember, (iuplease. 

£, EX, out of; as eject, to cast out; ex- 
elude, to shut out. See the Greek Sk. 

Extra, out, bejfond; as extraordinary, 
beyond ordinary or common. 

I N, when prefixed to a verb, has its usual 
meaning, in, into; as inject, to cast in or 
into i but when prefixed to an adjective, 
it means not; as infirm, ruft firm. 

Inter, behoeen; as »(^ervene, to come 

IxTBO, to wOhint as Mroduoe, to lead 
to within; to bring in. 

JuxTA, nigh to; aa /lotaposition, posi- 
tion nigh to. 

Ob. in the way of, againd; as o&vious, 
obstacle, object (to cast or utgo against)* 

Peir, through, thoroughly or completdy ; 
as pervade, to go through; perfect, tJio- 
roughly made, or complete. 

Post, after ; as postscript, written afltr. 

Prjr, before; as 2>receae, to go by'ore; 
predict to/oretelL 

Pro, forth, or forward; also, /or, or tn- 
eiead of; as profxude, to thrust ybncord/ 
pronoun, for or instead of& noun. 

Re, back or again; as revert, to turn 

* ^d.— The final letinr of « prepoaitloa in eompori* 
tion uauAlly beaoues the tame u the loltLU letter of 
th« word to which it ta prefixed, llmi ad beonmr* 
or, as in oooede: '^, aa in af^xi ag, aa in v^nrva- 
aion ; a<. aa in otlade ; an, aa in announce; or, aa in 
arrufiate ; a«, aa In onent ; and a<, H in aitnct. 
Thia chanfte la made to please tha ear. 

For the same reason, aw la beanautly dianged into 
o», cog, col, com, cor; aa eahdr, collate, eoOect, 
eotnpreaa, eormpt. E, xz, into «e, af, ol; am in 
•cUpee. ^ftviifnat, alUpaa. IM, into ig, it, 1m, ir; aa 
In tjmobla, uUdt, imoMrge, trraption ; on. into o, 
•c. of, op; aalnaiait,aeeiir.<ifrer, oppose: svB, into 
tuc, nif. tug, ntp,nmi aa in raeeess, tuftnm, nig- 
srat, «i«rpose, nupend; and arv. into tg, tgl,tgmt 
as in fjsitnn, ijffloiciam, lympnthv. 

back; refbrm, to f<nin o^ain, to ratBodoi, 
to improve. 

Retro, badcward; as retrospect, a look- 
ing baehoard or on the past. 

BB,a«ide or apart/ as Mcede^ to go aparl 
or withdraw from. 

Bad, without, as in mmcuto. 

Sub, tiHder/ as mtecribe, to write under; 
«u5terraneaQ, tender ground. 

Super,* above or over; as n^Mrnmne- 
ra^, above the number. 

^niANs, beyond; as transport, to cany 


A,t lut or without,' as apathy, wkhovt 
pathos) feeling; abyss, withmU a bottom.) 

Amphi, about, on both tides; as amphi- 
tiieatre, a theatre with seats about or ctr- 
cwlar; amphibious, living in both, that is^ 
both on land and in water. 

Ana, apain or back; as onobaptism, 
that is, baptism again or a second time; 
analyse, to resolve or loose (into the com- 
ponent parts^a^atn/ anachronism (dated 
oacfc or eariter than the occurroncoX an 
error in chronology. 

Anti, against, opposite to; b» anfidote, 
given against, or to counteract ; ilnterctic, 
xtpposiie to the Arctic (circleX 

Apo, from ; as apostle (sent from), a Mis* 
sionart; apostate, (me who stands /rom 
or abandons his profession or party ; apo- 
logy> a word or discourse from, an exciue 
or justification (sometimes apo becomes 
aph, as in apAelion). 

- Auto, ^; as autograph, sdf written 
(as * * an auJtogra'ph letter from the C^ueen "): 
autobiography, a biography or history ol 
one's saf. 

Cata, down; as eofaract, a water-/a2L 

DiA, through , as diameter, a line passing 
through the middle ; diagonal, a linu p:im- 
ing through a parallelogram from one 
angle to the opposite; dialngne, a dis- 
course (passing mnn one side to the other) 
between two. 

Dts, hard, difflienU; aa dyspeipBf, diffl- 
cnlt digestion. 

Ek, ex, from or out q/; ma edectio^ ae* 

Eir, EM, in or on; as cademie, in or 
among tLe people ; emphasis, force or stress 
laid on a word or words in pronunciatkn. 

Epi, upon : as epidemie, npon the peo- 
ple, or very prevalent; e/nlogue, a worn or 
bpci'ch upon, or immediately oftet, the pin}-. 

Er, ir«/^ good afl eulogy, « speaking 
loeU or highly of. 

Htpbr, above; ta i^fpereritical, oter- 

Hypo, under; as Hy iwci ite , one who 
keeXM wnder or conceals his real senti- 
ments ; hyphen, a mark used to bring two 
woi^ or syllables under or into on«. 

* Aiper.— Hence fHrtthrongli the Frmdi) ; aa Mcrw 
base, akowe tiis base } «wiou, < 

t A.— Befora a vowal, a 

without pnvmamXi i*. - 

t The dark, tmbottome^^ \nfii>\XA d 



Meta, b€jfond,' «B mdecflhar, a canying I 
of, or aiiplyiog, a word beyond its proper I 
mcaiJng. | 

Para, begide, from: as paragraph, a 
writing betide: parallel, beside one an- 
other ; parasol, keeping the sun from : 
paradox, from or contrary to the gcmeral 
epinion (a seeming contradictionX 

Peri, roioui about : as periphery (cireuM- 

Syn (symX tagtihiT wth: as sympathy, 
oufTering mth, or coxpassiox. 


[It is imixMsible in every case to ascertain 
the exact force^ or even general import of 
an atfix or temunation. Several of them 
seem to have different, and even contra- 
dictoTj meanings, and in some cases they 
appear to be merely parapoffie, that is, 
they lengthen the won! without adding 
to the meaning.] 

Able, ibu^ bub, or ilb, implies having 
abiiUy or jwwer to do what the word to 
which it is attached signifies ; as portoMe, 
fit or aUe to he carried ; defenst(>2«, that 
which can, or is able to be defended ; do- 
ci2«,* able or fit to be taught ; ductt^, that 
which may be, or is fit to be drawn out. 

AcBOUS, consisting of, resembling; as 
herilxiceinu, testoceout, crustaceouc. 

AoY, imjdies doin^, or the thing done ; 
also, state or condition; as conspiracy, 
l^^aey, celibaey, prelacy. 

AoE, ATioN, HON, ION, denote the act of 
doing ; the thing done ; state or condition ; 
as caxTiaope, passof^ vaaaiage, haadage, 
cxeatum, positum. 

Al, ah, CRT, ic, n>, ILB, DTB, denoto be- 
longhig or pertaining to ; as natural, duc- 
al: European, coU^ian, Christian; pre- 
fatory, introductory/ public, theoretic; 
timid, lucid; alkaline, feminu»<; infantile, 
mercantile. See Art. 

Ana, denotes savings or anecdotes of; 
as JohncKmiona (of Johnson). 

Ard^ skOe or eharaeter; as dotard^ one 
In a state of dotage; sluggard, one who 
sl«9« or indulges m sloth ; wizard; a vise 
man, a sage, a necromancer. 

Art, implies pertaining to. or one who 
is what the word to which it is attached 
signifies, as military* adversary, mission- 

Art, krt, or ort, implies also a set or 
colledicm of ; as library, aviofy; nursery, 
rookery, knavery; repository, donnitory. 

Ate, in some cases, signifies to make: as 
in renovcde, invigonde, abbreviate. 

Dox, implies dominion or possession, 
state or condition ; as kingdom. Christen- 
elom, martyrdom, freedom, wisdom. 

Eb, usiudly denotes the peirson in a 
passive state, or as the object of the ac- 
tion ; as Qesaor, the person who lets or 
gives a ImseX lessee; the person to whom 

* II«e<I«.— In Midi euM iLXisaeantraetian of <6li^ 
and must be distingniahed firam tbe adjective teimi- 
naUm ilb, wlikh denotes eiroilitiide ; as ^waile, 
ittv a b7f inftnUI^ U*e an Inlaat. 

a lease is made ; patenteg, tnutee; eoiii> 
mittee (a certain number of persons to 
whom some inquiry or chaigo is cosk- 

En, denotes made of; also, to make ; ai 
wooden, golden, blacken, Inightea. Com- 
pare FY andizE. 

Er,* or OR, denotes the agent or persoi 
acting : as doer, writer; actor, pirofessor. 

Ess, thefeminine termination of a noun; 
as princeee, lioneu, ducheM, acirtss. 

FuL, denotes full o^ or abotoiuling in; 
as hopefitly artful, ]oy>W. 

Fy, denotes to miake ; as xnafi^i^/y, pari- 
fy, bcaut\/v. noti/y. See £k and Iss. i 

Head or H«')0D, implies state or degree; 
as godArad, maidonAood, boyAood; man- 
hood, priestAood. 

IsH, implies belonging to; like or re- 
sembliu;;^ ; having a tendency to ; as Brit- 
iihy Iri«A, boyi«A, grecnucA, tnicvwA. 

IsM, denotes sect, party, peculiarity, or 
idiom; as Calvintem, Jacobhiirai» Latia* 
ism^ vulgarism. 

1st, denotes skilled in or profeaaixig; ii 
botanift, fioriit, artiet, naturaltfC, liiuniifL 

Ite, a descendant or follower d; u 
Israelite, Jacobite. 

IvE, has usually an active sigxiificatiaB; 
as defensive, offensive, persoasivcy adh» 
ive, motirc. 

IzE, denotes to make ; as fertQuK^ gp» 
raliie, dvUise. Compare En and Ft. 

Kin, a diminutive affix, meaning aKi 
to, or like; as lambX-in, xnaniJtm. See 

Less, denotes privatiosi, or to be wttk 
out, as joyless, careZest, harmleu. 

Like or ly, denote likeness or simiH- 
tude; as godiiil-e or godly, gentlemanKb 
or gentlcman/y. 

Lino, cle, el, et, or ock, expresses di* 
miniition, endearment, contempt ; as e» 
linfj (little ffoose), found/in^ (a littU child or 
iiifiuit foundX darUng (lUUe dear), unde^ 
Una, worldiinj^, parUdei satchd, pockd, 

Ment, implies the act or doing of ; also^ 
state or condition; as ackno^^dgemai4 

NEss,t denotes the prominent or distin* 
guishing qualities; state or quality of 
being; as goodness, greatness, whiteneit. 

Ory. See Al and Art. 

OsE, denotes full of; as vertMt^ full of 

Ors, implies having or consisting of ; u 
dangerous, bUious, ambitious. 

Rick, implies rule or jurisdictioh; tf 

Siiip,t denotes office, state or conditian, 
as chancellorsAip, lordsAip, friendaJUix 

SoMB, denotes some <^f, or in som« do- 

* A*.— In a finr vonlR this tmninwttoo haa 
•er, tUr, or «r; as auniouwr, eugiiisM* j 

tA6M properly means a fiRMiHiuUry .mLsm 
theNue.te. Tbe xout la the Latin iMnurtfw 

X S^ip pruperly nieana the ifka^e or tem I 
landA-upe. for taiMtAaM), •■ " 
or dtoUuxuiahing qaau^. 



groo ; as troul>loMm«, venVare«oni«, quarrel- 

TiDK, denotfls time or event; as noon- 
tiiU, Whitsuntide. 

TuDE, TY, or mr, implies being or state of 
being ; as multititde, iortifiu2e/ ability, ad- 
vorsUy; novelty, anxiety, honesty, liberty. 

Ward, means turned or in the dii-ection 

of; as toward (ttanud to), torwai'd (fort- 
wardX backward. 

Ube, implies doing or being; state or 
condition ; as manufactuTV, capture, Script- 
ttre, exposure, displeasure. 

T implies having or abounding in ; as 
(stone) stony, (w^th) wealthy, (wood) 
woody, (bog) boggy, (clay) clayey. 


The great importance of a knowledge of the Latin and Greek roots, by 
wUich the vocabulary of the English language has been so much enriched, 
is now universally admitted. In ahnost every spelling-book and grammar 
now published, copious lists of them are ^ven ; while English Ettmo- 
LOOY, properly so called, is comparatively neglected. It seems to be for- 
gotten that a similar use may be made of primitive English words. The 
following will serve as an introduction to the subject. 


Nib, Nibble. Wrfng, Wrinkle. 

Drip, Dribble. Bog, B<^le. 

Scribe, Scribble. Wry, Wnggle. 

Crumb, Crumble. Wrest, Wrestle. 

Beam, Bamble. Sbrav, Straggle. 

Game, Gamble. Hack, Hackle. 

Cramp, Crumple. Hack, Hit^gle. 

Gripe, Grapple. Wink, Twinkle. 

Cunl, Curdle. Spark, Sparkle. 

Side, Sidle. TVack, Trickle. 

Stride, Straddle. ITiroat, Throttle. 

Wade, Waddle. Shove, Shuffle. 

Wrong, Wrangle. Rough, Ruffle. 

Whet, Whittle. Pose, Puzzle. 

Verbs of this formation are called fre- 
QUENTATivES, bccauso they imply a fn- 
qxienejf or iteration of small acts. 

NouMs of this formation are called Dnn- 
vuTivEs, because they imply diminviion; 





























Some FREQUENTATIVE verbs are formed 
by adding er to the primitiye word ; as, 





Gleam, Glimmer. 

Wend, Wander. 

Long, Linger. 

Hang, Hanker. 

Whhie, Whimper. 

The large classes of nouns which are 
formed from the past participle, and also 
from the old form (-efA) of the third per- 
son singular of Terbs, are examples oTUie 
second and third processes, that is, of con- 
traction, and interchange of kindred l0t> 




















































Cooled, t 



Healeth, Health. Beareth, Birih. 

Stealeth, Stealth. Breatheth, Breath. 

Wealeth, Wealth. Girdeth, Girth. 

Groweth, Growth. Dieth, Death. 

Troweth, Troth. TOleth. TUth. 

Troweth, Truth. Smiteth, Smith, t 

Breweth, Broth. Mooneth, Month. 

Some nouns have been similarly formed 
from ADJECTIVES ; as. 
Deep, Depth. Wide, Width- 

Long, Length. Broad, Breadth. 
Strong, Strength. Slow, Sloth. 

Young, Youth. 
Merry, Mirth. 

Warm, Warmth. 
Dear, Dearth. 


Bake, Batch. Dike, Ditch- 
Wake, Watch. Stick, Stitch- 
Hack, Hatch. Nick, Notch. 
Make, Match. Crook, Crouch. 


• Joined (Joio'd. Joiiid),/9iiU; and in Ifka nuta- 
nor, theoChen. 

t Theirr«9MlarTerlM,utheriuiecaIled.M»adtU. 
tioiuu ezamploi of Uib teDdcney in the '»nrniwcr 
X ** WlieuoB euDeth Sum, allw ha Sau^a. « 
Bat from the wmUk \kil —ilrfh ^fcHlia ttf 

^ S ' '■ 



Brciik, Breaeh. Hark, UarchesjiL 
tpc:ik, Speech. BtArk, Starch. 
Fccic, hoKteek, llUk, Hilch. 
I'uke, Pouch. Kirk. Cburch- 

From the nutiinl* tcudcncy in all lan- 
frw.iiivs tit abl)rov{atiuiis, k»cg Bounds in 
ei:iii>Ic or nr.initive worda, ufltuiUy be- 
c i:.u shi.>rt in cuin|K>uU'i» and derivatlvus. 
In >!.tt li>t.s of wurd8 hero givLii, fecvend 
ex.-tnji Ic.H may be fuimd; and tho follow- 
ii _' are ii'Mitiunal: — 
V.iie, Villey. Wild, Wn.lernesa. 

S :ir!e. Sh:id..w. Wiso, Wizard, 
ilnun, Gnin;iry. White, Wliitbread- 
(lean, Cleanse (/). Fure, Forehead. 
Iiuir, Dciirth. Know, Knowledge. 

Pleaeo, Pleasant. Holy, Uuliday. 
Scam, Scamstreaa. Import, Important 
>^i.-:U, Zealous. Gooso, Gosling. 
Sliuep, Shepherd. ConL Coliior. 
h^plecn. Splenetic. Foul, Fulrame. 
Vr:,e, \ineyard. Suur, Surly. 
Iriiue, Primer. Boor, Burly. 
I"' .'<»«tt?. Hinder. Ilutiso, Ilustingn. 

Wind, Windlass. South, Southerly. 

This ia an Important prtnclptO in rm^ 
HCNCiATiox, as well as in dorirritiotn. Wt 
Boraetimea hear the firat syllable in fon- 
head pronoimced ySre, as in the aimpb 
word, instead ot/Jir, as it should be in tha 
compound; also ckAHity with the kmg 
sound of a, aa in ehatte, instead of cJUbf i'jr. 
Compare humOne, hum&nity; nfttlon, 
n.iiional ; serCne, serteity ; divine, divln* 
ity; con.<>|ilre, conspiracy; pronoiuicfl^ 
pnmiaiciAtion, &c. bco No. 73. 

In £ugli:«h, as in all other languages, 
there are /amUie$ of words, that is, woidi 
allied in derivation and meaning: as, Bind^ 
band, bandage, bond, bound, Ixnuidaiy, 
bundle. Beat, batter, battery, bat, baton, 
beetle. Drop, droop, drip^ dribble, ^tip- 
ping, dripping-pan, driveL Bup, supper, 
fcop, soup, aip. Snx, spittle, spout^sput' 
tcr. Slip, slop, slope, slipper, meai^ 
health, hale, hall (to wish keaUk, to salute^ 
Bow, bough, booth (hoKetk, or made a 
6oufiA«), bay. Basis, oaee, abase, debase, 
ahaJsemcnt. FirED, food, fodder. Foot, 
fuct, fetter, fetlock. Head, heed, hood. 


Ababb, to loK«r; to degrade. SceBASB. 

Abate, to 6ea(do\vn; to lower; to lea- 
pen or dimbii&li ; to put an end to ; t<.< 
CI I lush. Batt is another form of tho same 

"AbaU tby speed, end! win 6ate of mine." 

AcoRW, the wm or berry of the oak. 
Compare Auelhaxd^ that is, Oalland, 

AriEU.f An elliptical expression, equi- 
vu.lcnt to *'I commend you (d) to (Duu) 
Cf)d." Compare the phrase '* Good-bye,* 
a contraction of Ood be icifh you. 

After, a comparatiTo from aJt,X behind 

AOAST, Aghast. These words differ in 
tlicir etymology and meaning. Agcut is 
from agaxedf and metms to gtize on with 
nii'iazcmcnt; aghast is to lock pole and 
frightened as if one had eeen a gltost. 

Ail, seems to be another form of the 
wuiti ILL, which is contracted from evil, 
as the Scotch term dM from devil Cum- 
1 are our phrase, ** What aiU you? " with 
t:.c Fivncli, "Oft avez-voiis malf*' 

Aldi:iuia.n'. A!d and eld are obsolete 
forms of the word old : and hence Aidtr- 
rAaix ctymologically means an thftr or 
oidtr man. Compare Senator, p. 60. 

Almost, that is viotA all / nearly. 

Aloft. On loft, that is, lifted vjp, in 
tho air, on liit^h. 

Alone. AU ontj that is, entirely by 
one's sell Wo sometimes hear "aU^'re- 
d<'Ubled; as "all alone." Ucnco, also, 
LoMf Lonely^ Londinesi, £c. 

"He made his mone 
Within a gaideiiie aU him enc."— <3owrB. 

* Becansarwe wish to commmicate oar ideas with 
as mach qulcknen as poeaibie. 

t rome of the uyxulogieb given in this list are, 
•tiictly f-pMUcin«r, not EnalUh : bnt they are such as 
can be undentuod by an English scholar , 
. I Aft and al>a/t are still used at sea. 

AijOOF, from all r/f, that is, entirely ofl^ 
or away from ; remote ; a]>art. 

Also, tliat is, to all : likewise. 

Amajbs, to bring to the vuut or heap; to 
heap np. Compare AocumruLTK. 

Amdl'tt, to mount or ascend. "Ths 
amomit " is what tho entire turn asceiidi 
or rixei to. 

Akt, an abbreviation of ernnuL 

Appal, to make paU with fear. 

Appease, to bring to peace : to pait^, 

An'RAiSE, to set a price or value on. 

Arrears, that portion which ronuto 
(in tlie rtar) bOtind or unpaid. 

A.SH-WKDNRHDAT, the first day of Lent; 
so called frum the ancient custom of 
sx)riukling aii^tf on the head on that day. 

Atoke, to make to be tU oik/ to recoii- 
die ; to expiate. 

" If they were wioth she wolde brlngen them fllemi 
So wise and ripe wordes hadde she/'— Chac—- 

Bacox, swine's flesh baked Qnd^wiCi or 
dried by heat. 

Bairn, another form of htnttK or bom: 
from the verb to bear. Bairn is a common 
term in Scotland for a child. 

'* They say balma an UeasingB." — BBAnraasa 

Bait, a bit or bite of food put upon a 
hook to allure fish ; and henoe, a tempta- 
tion. Hence, bait, to stop at an tnn for 
tho purpose c^ taking(a bU or Mte) ahai^ 
refreshment. Compare uobskl. 

" The son. that measvres hearen all dav loiur. 
At ui«h > doth *a« his steeds the ooeaavaTes 

Bakdt, to beat to and fee ; to give word 
for word. From bandy, tot instrunent 
bent at the bottom, for striking balls at 
play. J'andy-legs, 6<iidui^, ororodkedlflti. 

" Do yon bandjf looks with me, jaa zueal t* 

' To (andif hasty words to scant mar •Imb.'* 


t lOHOt part of an; 
fow, deep Aouiid in 

Basts, to &aU with a i 

lo give Uie baitiiHidt, To huU meat & to 
, ....... __,., ^ ^^^ oovBrod with 


as ton 

aij the c 

Batch, thg Dumber of loavei teibnl at 
tho BBme time. Compare tha HohIb Jdinl- 
larl? fonned, p. 19. 

Bi.TTBB.a[r«{neatBliveofBiiT. Henco, 
Kit. B&tter, Battarr, Battalion. BattlD. 
BattI»losr, Abate, 6ombat. Debate, Lc. 

Baitblh, a £aAv or child'a nlaftJung ; a 
gewgaw ; a court-fool'H truncneon. 

ISjit, a palm or data tree branch; the 
colour of the fruit df that trea, and henoa 
A ba^^ IXcDce, AATAfis, a tMff horse. 

Bat, a spedea of Isurisl. of tha lenea of 
vblch hononuT ei-omu or nrlanda were 
made, such u wore glysD lotiw ylcton in 
tite ancient Grecian gamea; andbanoethe 
t^urnl JJat/i came m algni^ a pii» for 
-v kind of vlotoiT (» aioelloncs, parti- 


a portion o( ti 

Iff ol the ahore; 

B. Bat Wisdow (nsuaUy and pro- 

jwriy written BOWX ■ window curving 
nutinml, and thereby tomtinK a kind at 


r hollow In the apartment Henc. 



Din, the £tfA< ol Elafm. Bat la 


Y-SALT. Bilt mkde of 






made in Bajmijw. In F 

Au. A Btm-imm, the 

>mm of ■ ba- 

and a toim of timber 

cut apFlitatlona of the ume wori 


beaiirr or taflor. 

BLAM, orighiiUy the 

hoepltal of Bt 


S.aleluiih which m 

la opened la 


ptlon of limo. 

but Oio term la now 

Itnded to aU mad-houaes 

■ lunatlo asy- 


Er->:ATER. aald lo be a 


*iyrwier. a lono applied to 

gTiirJ, becauno llidr du[j< orlglmdlj waa 
to tl.ind ut the iiiffd'. and attend upon 

uaed fur beaiisq or pounding. A btats Is a. 
heavj-looklng) and clumsy instrument, 

old or keep tha «jt» fij. 
ipon ; and hence, to look utaadiutly on. 

Bclpla ol the Terb tn Soli Compnio the 
original meaning of Uund, Miied, and 

get poasaBalon of ; and hanoe, to idomg to, 

lake away from ; to pliind™" "b"*^ 

henoe It cannot with propriety be applied 
to mora than iud. Wheu more than Ikd 
are meui^ ^tnoiv ihould be used. Sea 

Bbwildeh. To be iaiildind. la to b« 
puzited and perplexed, like a (icmon in a 
'"'"■ 'So doea Dot know which war 

bUie, to drinjt in. Bib is properly a cloth 
tucked uDder tha ehin ot a fiiild whan » 

Bill, the »ul'QfabIidi sklndofbatU*. 
aie wltliaAiwtttipohit; a kind of cleayor. 

fi called an aot. Hence Billet, a email 
note or paper In writing. To *iUe( aoldlors 
la to niAt their namei, Ac. In a bUi, or 
ploca of wrlUng; and hence, to aend them 
to their quarters or lodglnKB. 
BuioE, the sharp or cutttog part ot a 

from Ita resemblance to the cutting part 

I, from HaiMd pfow-i Mo**, bloatX 
AT From Jhioed. BLOATan, bioun 

toiird or table. 



entertiUn him at our board or table; to 
board a vessel is to enter her forcibly, as 
in battle. 

Boggle, to stick as if in a &o^; to hesi- 
tate; to be in doubt. 

BoKD, that by which a person is bound. 

Booth, from botecth: as broth from 

hreveeth: truth from trowetht Ac. A l-ooth 

properly means a house made of boughs ; 

and hence a temporary house. 

" Ac4 Jaoobe toka hia JonmeT towards Snoot h. and 
bylt him an honae, and made hootk«t Cor hiB cattle." 
—Gtnetit XT^" Old TraHilation. 

Bough, from bow, to bend, becnuse it 
bows or bends from the stem or trunk. 

Bout, from bow (bow^d, bout).' Another 
bout means another turn. 

" In notes with many a winding bout 
Of linluil aweetneu long dzawn uot."— Miltov. 

Bow, to bend the body as a mark of re- 
spect, is a different pronunciation and ap- 
plication of the word bow, an instrument 
for discharging airows. 

Box, a kind of tree; a case made of 
wood (properly boxwood); an enclosed or 
circular seat, as a box in a theatre, the box 
of a coach. 

Bbace (to enibraet, to hold tightlyX to 
bind. Two or a pair; as a brace of par- 
tridges. Like the word oouplk, bract 
seems to have acquired this signification 
from the custom of bracing car coupling 
TWO dogs, or pieces of game, together. 

Bread, from bra^ftdt past pcoticiple of 
BRAY, to poimd or break. Bread properly 
Beans brayed com. 

BRnn>ED, BRi2n>i.ED, other forms of the 
word BRANDED. The skin or hide of a 
"krinded cat, or briiulUd cow, is marked 
with brovm streaks, as if brasided or 
burned in. 

Broach, from broektt a spit ; and hence, 
any sharp-pointed instrument, as a pimch 
or borer; a bodkin or needle. To broach 
a vessel is to pierce it with a broach or 
sharp-pointed instrument, for the piupose 
of drawing or letting out the liquor ; and 
hence the phrase, to broach a doctrine or 
opinion, which means to utter or publish 
it for the ^rst time : just as the term, when 
applied io the cellar, means to draw or 
produce liquor n«to, or untasted before. 
Broach, or as it is usually written, 
brooch, is the same word. From the 
hroehie or fin (the most imi>ortant part) 
the term was naturally transferred to the 
whole ornament. Hence, brocade {hro- 
ecUaX from the broche or needle used in 
the embroidery ; and brochure, a sfitoAed 
book QiTOchS) or pamphlet. 

Brood, the number bred at one time. 
'*To brood avett** is a beautiful metaphor 
from a bird sitthig constantly and anxious- 
ly over its egga, till they are brought to 

Burlt, for boorlyf that is, like a boor. 
Compare Burlt (for sovrlif% from sour. 

But is derived from be out, and usually 
means except, that is, taJoe or leave out. 
In Scotland this word is still used in its 

primary meaning. The sqx ot a house, 
for example, means the be-0mt or osJer 
apartment, as the ben, means the be4n m 
inner one. ** Boots b%it spun," means 
boots vUhmU spurs ; and "Tofocih not ths 
cat but a glove^ (the motto of the ancient 
clan ChaUan,* whose crest was a wildcatX 
means vUhmU the gauntlet^ or aimed 

Butt, the point cr mark to be mSmd 
at: a person at whom jesta are aimtiot 

CA3IBRIC, from Casnbrmft beeanae noted i 
for its manufitcture. Compare oauoo^ 
from Calicut: damask, from 
DIAPER, from (f Tpres: jyanrY, from 
etta, Ac 

Cakvass. See canvass, p. 41. 

Casement, a part of a wxndo)w openiBg 
in a ccue or frame. 

Cashier, the -penan in a mercantik 
establishment who has charge of tin 

Cast, to throw; to throw or pour kAoi 
mould or form; and hence, cast QIm 
thing moulded or formed^ a modd» 
shape, or form. Compare moulj>. 

Cavalierly, haxightily ; like a eavaUa^ 
or trooper. Cavalier. Cavalry, and Cm 
VALRY, are different forms and appUea* 
tions of the same word. ■ 

Ceeb, abbreviated from ABaww, Cms k 
the amount of taxes assessed or rated. ' 

Chandler, a maker or seller of eoiuQa 
This term ia also applied to a genoil 
dealer, but not without a prefix to detw- 
mine its meaning, as a Ship-chsndlet^ 
a Corn-chandler, &c. GH▲^1>KUSB, s 
branch to hold candles. 

Charge, a load, properly of a car: > 

burden; and hence, something given in 

cAaT^e/ a trust Hence, chabgeb, alaige 

dish which holds, as it were, a load of 

meat; and charger, f a large, atraog 

horse, and therefore able to carry a more 

than ordinary weight. To charge a jmy 

is, to lay before them the wh<^ weight of 

the evidence ; to charge the enemy is, to 

attach them with all our weight or fence; 

and to charge and discharge a gun, an 

evidently to load and unload it. Gaboo 

is another form of the same word. 

<* A fknit in the ordinaxy method of ediiBKtiqB,*li 
the cAarwJno of diiklxen'a mnmahtm with xnta taA 
precepts.^'— liOCKs. 

*• What a sish iB there !— That beut Is MBilr 
cftaryed.**— SHAKsrsaBK 

Chase (put for exchasbX to set ia a esN 
or frame; as a precious stime in gold, fo 
adorn by embossed or raised work. 

Check or Cheque, firom eehaet, tin 

• See Seott'a «« Fair Vaid of Fferth.** oiMBL X.. vvl.1: 
t C^araer. Gibbon, In hia rtMcaijuUtJii cf til 
knight of the Cniaadea. H7»-**Tha iaaas'wm *■ 
proper and peculiar weapon of the kiyidit ; Ui f 
was of a fory* and hoan Ixeod; bat tU» < 
till he waa rooaed hr the apinoM 
nsoally led by an anandant, and 
pnd or £a!frey of a more eaay paoa. 

of the Turks and Axaha eovid add 

the direct and impHaoas welgJtt of ttMtari 
Chapter iTiii. 

Vreticb fiir B (Ibu-boud. Hence tlsa ths 
-, Vina Bxeluqatr tni ChigiuT or Cbtctir. 
The Biohaquer Tra» so called from tho 
.l^fqMd clotti, reSEnibUiig ■ ebut-boud, 
u-hich coren tha tilde Qien ; nudbaoAiue 
I<il3 court «u originallz estobllshed to 
r.iLlUiekliiK'adebtOTetooKoimf, the term 
tlieek oeine to rfgnift to oieioina ">"• 
nccousta; and hence, to »n(RiIoi 
CdwtBl doth, or eA«*. la — 
iBtiertted, wmethliig lite 

and dlTei^&ed 01 

Ckatt, Iroib; niBniulartcirll«d>«^.' 
nod bancs, ut, utiaco, noiniiV' Hence. 
iSATT, a smill iliip (MigngBd In enft at 

GsiBE, a Urd wttb ■ long beak ; alio, ■ 
ioBo l)ent liib€ fot dnwine liquor out of 
cieka. HBnca,csiiti,BtiengliiefDrlalsing 

id capftfdty to pick up objects. 

CLAM«fc a freqnentoti^. 
as Ifandir from void. Bee ,. — 
Closbt, ■ small or tlMt spartmcnt; s 

Cldmst, from atmp(dimpll/),a.lii hence 
hcavT. ahipelem, awkwant 

CosB. an tostnuoent for arawdiig or 
nTinm^" **"r the hair; alao, the cnst er 
A cock ; BO called from Its fancied reaem- 
Ijlnnce to a eomb.' See Coxcoae, 

CoUELr, emainff together; ajid hence, 
filting, Buitable, decent, grxrefuL Com- 

Conns*. 8bb under Fisie, page BS. 

CoHBtBTEHCY, unif OTmlty CT agreement 
with Belt Degree of denacneaa or rarity : 
a^^ boiled tnto tho eontuteneff of (drup- 

CooF, orlglnaUy a cask or barTef; and 

Tlio name was also ^van to cagea or en. 
oloeurea fot poultrj^. Ac. ; and benoo. Id 
cfap vp. cams t o lign ity to ahut op, or 
CDnBne within narrow limlta. 

Cobb, aeada or uraJnt wbleh grow in 
ears, notinpoda; grain unreaped; hmiw 
— Bs. to ai^kle or throw trr-^— 
meat ; and hence, to aalt til 
n the foot of - 

lis lif H from hia antas 



imss obliged, ae it w 

re. to rr«p along. 


close. Hence, CMP, 

hat >5Mch b»a been 



CaoBB, to lay one body, or diaw one line 
nCMM or athwart anothot. To crow Iha 

channel ia to go nrro 

» Id a atralght line. 

thwart or ermrhini 

nhia purpose; and 

person diapoeed to 

act Mi. called <x™ 

Choccb, to crooi or 

la another forra o( 

Btaff (or eiwicHinj 


Cr.oTCHET ia from th 

C-o". a wellknow,, bird. ■'To pluck 


OOtbtog, for CTOWB ai^ no* ^u:u; aj,-L 

tence the phnwo (which Is now vuJgnr) 
eanio to signify to lose our lime in dia. 
puting about a matter of no conaeqoenca, 
9venU deddod. This kind of diiputatton 


sray abota foafl wool, or 

CROW, an mm bar (with 
) used as a lerer. Coro- 

, a Blpbo 

baa been already 

or TflcelTed, » t 
uedfor keeping 

1J0UBT, Uie Tcodence <j a king, er ui uLb 
i«presciitattve; the ban ca chamber where 
justice Is administered. Hence oormT, to 
iollcit with <wr<1y altonUon ; towoo. 

(JOTCOBB. Biia term waa (onneriy n>- 
ijled to a comt feed, because he wen in 
Ida cap a esmfr Uke a codft: but it ~ 
aignlfiea a fop ; and also a kind of & 

Damon, tor Amium^ from auuKni. 
Dafflid, marked with round spob^ hka 

sppla; spotted. 
DaTK, of a letter, that la, the Ume when 

, uiB " ""•■ a Si' ""~' I as. to "(wl cards; to nMU or aeu in m-au 

; and also a kind of dower. rj,,jau or quanttUee ; to traik or taafic- 

. IS;dlTl«ian.alan.or<liiaimty;M.a.ff^ 

Kmo». -nwa mrMtUHBl j .^,^„j,^uil »H fc rf W »^^ 



pl.inka Are (uilici d-:ol>. perhaps from being 
itealed or divuUd, eq*ui]l7 frum the trunk, 
a5( carUa from the jxicl:. 

Dkar, e>tco!ned or bcloycvl; much 
pr>cd or value^l; and honco, i:xpen>!ve 
or costly; for things which are hiiruly 
j^rized, or much valued, are alwajs do&r. 
Darlixo, formerly dearling, means liiUe 
denr: as gotling iiicann lUtl- gnme. 

Drck, to cover; to clotlic ; to adorn ; in 
the last sense, perhaps, jmt f«.>r dfcorotf^ 
n." rii:z in vulgsirly iisod for iih •*v:fjfni,\y, 
llc;.cfi, DiX'K, tho r.uor of a ship ^that 
■u liili covert tho hull). 

L>ri:ii. any thi:i^' that in do-cd or done. 
See siiuiluilv fui rncl won Is, pa^'C 4:<. 

Dii«*t:ut, that wlr.oh one l-os c/i/'.vrior 
merited. (^Jkicrc-dy di*trv\U D!:skrt.) 
*'Not my dtterU, but what I iholl dmertt." 

Desert, to for?ako or leave dfj>*}i^d. 

Diet, an aspoinMy ; as tl;o Gcr:'ia!i Ind, 
held fur eimi'tin;r liws, and rcffx'l-.t'i. g th: 
iiiwit of f^iivuniuiciit. F-Hvl or iYiri'„\r;i 
rc;:;i!ated by tl;o n;Ic3 of luc liciiie ; ji:il 
henov. f. »« -i geiiomUy . Sl.-.U«i>oire lias — 

" T'. f-.ft 1:'ki r.i! . il at t.ik-i* cf ; ♦*• i •.»..!» [*,*-> aXy. 
r.ilii Lke \,:ie (m;.i'.iu J ti a pr,-tcn''^i r:j. 'if J. 

P: I'l \T, from «'i*, as in ''■'arrn. ar.d *!j ■•, 
to i c ulle. T>» I v.* doi>rivc'l i<f i.. '.n'J. : aiiJ 
bcuco, to be d;>c«»uni^'vil and turrifio.L 

I^oFir, to (?o or put o^f : to l::y o-^Lde. 
Ct^mpare noN (to d > nij). 

Doom, that wliich is <?<•«•!;« n? or a-ljuds'ad. 
PooMSDAi", the (lay uf judi^mcnt. 

Dkauoiits, a jramo iii which iho men arc 
played by bcinf; drv.XKgkttd or deav:\^ i^ow^ 
the board- 

DuAW, to dra^r or drnvi aL>n?, as a hor=o 
docs a ear. Diiaw (that i.**, the bni'-h or 
pencil along the pai>crX to delineate or 

Drawingroam, an apartment for icu'A- 
draiciug or retiring to. 

Drawt., to draw out one's words slowly 
and afTectedly. 

Dray, a heavy cart, originally without 
wheels; so called from being draun or 
dra/ged along. 

Droop, to drop or hang down the head ; 
to languish. 

Eldep, the comparative of tho obsolete 
word ELD, old. See Aloermak. 

Ell, properly means an arm; whence 
Eieow, the bcto or bend of tho arm. Tho 
Ell English (a yard and a quarter) was 
fixed by the length of the king's arm in 
1101 (Henry I.). Comi)aro kaiis &c. 

Embaroo, a ]>rohibition of trade or com- 
xncrce ; to detain vessels in a harbour, by 
laying? a bar or boom across its mouth ; to 
imrvcnt or prohibit vessels from leaving or 
entering a jwrt. 

Embark, to go tnfo a bark or ship; to 

Eut to sea; and hence, to engage in a 
azardous undertaking or enteri'risc; to 
engage in anv afhir. Escbarkatios, «. a 
going or puttmg on board, as of troops. 

Embarrass (to oppose a bar or obstacle), 
to obstruct ; to perplex or conftise. Eh- 

BAr.r. v^fluxiNT, a. entanglemant ; Tporfiat 
ity; confusinn. 

'k V T1ROIDER, to BOKDnt oToixminent with 
rai.^vd figures of neetUe-work. For tl>« 
mctatlic-is of tho letter r, sm note cd 
Board, page 51. 

** Amnn.' the thlck-wsTa wrboratB and flnvtn. 
X.-.^ordtrtd oo mdn tank— Um wtxk af En? 

EsDEAvom, to do one's devoir or dnty; 
to exert one's pelf. 

KsonnsH, to take the Cf^oas or whole; to 
mni:i>]Mjli.TC ; to copy In onwt or laige d»- 
racters, as in records or law writing 

" All mr ini*n whrihtnld lor\!s i 
l:ii«. u :i«*: il\:.-v, and eIrj the vaan of BoH." 

" A f>:k. r-TtA'^'vn'd bi> fktlnVi wml toflvov, 
Who i<:&.i a ttaua when ha •honld tngrt m . 


rNT.i>T, to enter on a Zwf or roll tla tif i-i.TsoDii who engage themaelTei 
f I ir > i '. ; r ■ : : y F i-vico. 

i:ri' "i.iTE. a TICKET, or nnall card, on 
v.-l::o':. * ^•.■ f> -nns and corcmonios necesaiy 
to Ih» !■' survod at court, tc., on ]iarticuLv 
C'-i-i-ns, WL-re inpcribod. Ilcnce, "»> 
Ciri::'.r to rti ••U€" means nccordinffU 
: ■-.c f .■■■•*: t ':. It i«», " according to thocanl'J. 
i.T vrc*r.'i'u'l form. 

iJx I'. .■-'*. to iir':fa out: to utter or senl 
ovt wnr l-s ; to ppr«no»mco or declare. Tu 
send o)'f orofTf>i>eed.Iy; a mo«8age so seat 

Facade, liic /•'« or front of a buUdiofr 
It \* pn>nonnccd/nA-«i<i'. 

Fao, one tliat docs the eo^rai or heavy 
work ; a dm-.l-^'O. To be fnpaed is, to be 
weary from over- work ; and ine/ov-oidii 
the tvvrr*? t»r inferior end. 

Fair, ploa^in:; to the eye or mind; ss> 
r'air lady, a /air day, fair conduct; also, 
fav"uraMo ; as h/ur wind. 

Fallow, a }>(UoiritK-r€d / and hence, fhf 
term has 1>oen applied to .fallnuf-doert and 
/ai//»r-ground, that is, ground turned a? 
by tlio plouprh and left unsown. Hencci 
to Iie/t(/M}r is to be unoccupied. 

Fancy, from phant'tgy : as FRcarsr, fipon 
pki-ciry: palay, from parcU^sUi •nd 
PROXY, from procurttejf. 

Fartiiin'o, from fowrlhinff, » diiWoD 
into four parts. 

Fellow, one of the same bocMj; aaa 
fdl&w of college ; and hence, an waU * 
match ; as one glove is said to be tne /••'- 
low of the other. This word ie also u^ 
in contempt ; as companion formerly wu 

" Awny I Hearry eampamLm.—— Jiu m. m—>«m^ 

FEfrrooK, originally a gaziand worn at i 
ffoH : but now an ornament in anddtee- 
turo, in the form of a wreath of flowem. 

Fetlock, from foot and loot/ irtiieh 
means either the joint that loet* or futatf 
the fi^r-t to the let;, or the loci; of hair tbat 
grows behind the pastern of a henn. 

Fetteh-s, properly <fliaina or *^— **'*■ 
for tho feet ; as iCAVAOLn for th* kamit. 

Fifteen, from Jive and ttm. Oataftf 
iicmty (twain Un\ airtjf {thru tmX tei 

File, a thread of wire en uddon ViV«* 
are strung to keep them la cnWr; acili' 



logue ot nU; %Um m nnk o! soUUera 

To file a bill is to put it on the JIU of the 

coiirt for trial in due order. 

FiLB, to DETiLS ; but now obsolete. 

" For Banqno*! Itsne bsve I fiuid my mind : 
For tb«m the gndooc Danaui hmf I mnidartd.'* 

Fillet (a littU thrtad), a slight bandage ; 

A chaplet or band round the head. Hence, 

FILLET, the thick part of a leg of real ; so 

called from being usually trussed with a 

filet, or ^ht bandage. 

" What with fiUettot rosM. and fXUU at Tod. 
Things gamt with laoe. aadthingsoaml with ml" 

Fudg* Fumili/. 

Fine, an end. Finish, to bring to an 
end, and hence, to perfect or eompUit. A 
piwhed scholar, is a perfect, complete, or 
Pccompli*hed scholar. A fine day, ajlne 
lady, and^ne cloth, are evidently different 
applications of the same word. A fine in 
law is a sum of money paid for the purpose 
of putting an end to fiuthor proceedings. 
A con'fisb is an end or boundary; and 
to confi'ne is to restrain within certain 
bounds or limits ; to imprison. From the 
Kime root comes fixes'se, which means 
too much Jineneu; and hence, subtilty 
and artifice. Hence, also, finical^ that 
in, too re/ned or nice; andnence, efiremin- 
ute, foppish. 

First, the superlatiye of fore (as in be- 
fore, and forehead). Fore, forer, forest, 
for*st, first. Compare w>rt, worer, toorest, 


Fi^o, a water plant with a broad droop- 
ing leaf; and hence the yerb^fa^, to hang 
loose ; to droop ; to grow spiritless. 

Flea, perhaits fit>m/M/ irom its agility 
In escaping. 

FoDDEB, to give food to ; tmm feed. 

Foible, a faUing or weakneu; another 
form of Feeble. 

Fold, a double or nlaU, Twemty-ftH 
moans twenty doubled, or twice the num- 
ber. Hence, mani/old, that is, many 
doxibled, or very numerous. Hence, fold, 
a place in which sheep are (enfoUied) en- 

Foot, as the foot of a man ; the foot of a 
table ; the foot (or lower part) of a moun- 
tnln. A measure of twelve mcbes ; such 
being the supposed length of the hiunan 
foot. See Elbow and Nail. 

FoBESTAL, to buy up provisions befbre 
they reach the ttaU or market ; and hence, 
to anticipate or hinder by preoccupation 
or prevention. 

Forge, to beat with the hammer into a 
particular shape or form ; to make or f oi*m. 
tience, forob, to fdbrieate or oouuterfeit a 
vtrriting in imitation of the original; as, 
to forge a note ; to forge a signature. 

Forsake, not to seek: and hence, to 
leave or desert. Bee the preftx for, p. 46. 

Fortkioht, firom /ounem and n^JU/ ai 
be'nnioht is tor Mvoinight. 

Forward, that is, /twn ward. See 
Ward, p. 49. 

Fouin>,toUytlie g r w t < wort cor/wpuh- 
tkm ; lo baUd or MlOflMi. 

FomrD, to form by melting into a mould; 
as in 9k foundry. 

Frct, to vex or agitate. Towearoreafe 
away ; as "a taxAhfr^tUih a garment" 

Fribble, a frwolous or triHing person ; 
a fop. Compare Drivel from dnbble. 

Fboward, Cicmed from, or perverse. 
Compare Toward. 

Fulsome, from/MiI and some. Bee p. 60. 

Fumb, to smoke: to be hot with rage ; 
to vapour. 

Gad-fly, fWnn goad and fly, as tad- 
POLS is for toocl-pole, that is, a y{>w\g 
toad. Compare Hormet with pad-fly. 

Game, sport or amusement of any kind ; 
as a game cat match at football ; to play (aa 
a gameatett or gainbler) high. Animals, as 
partridges and hares, which, by being sh'^t 
or himted, are said to afford game or sport 
to persons who are called «port<men. 

Gano, a number of persons ganging or 
going together ; as ** the press-panp; " *• a 
gang of robbers," fta 

Gano-wat, the wiy by which persons 
gang or go. 

Garner, from granary by metatheids 
of r. See note on Board, p. 51; aLm, 

Gin, an abbreviation of Geneva. 

Gnr, an ingenious contrivance; a snare 
or trap. An abbreviation of ekoins. 
** Mor did he 'Nape by »U hit BrannB."-8nDnsu 

Gingerbread, so called from being 
spiced or flavoured with ginger. 

GoBLiKO, froom gooseaad ling. Bee p. 5'>. 

Grain, a single seed of com: and henct^ 
anything very minute or small ; as. a 
grain of salt. See Corn. Grain (like 
scruple^ which originally meant a lUtU 
stone), a tmaU we%ht. The grain of a 
body means the puiicles of which it is 
composed ; and hence, the texture of cloth; 
the teonper or constitvXion of the mind. 

Grate, a range of bars ; as, a grale fur 
fire, or the grating of a window. To rub 
against a rough uneven surface; as, to 
grate ginger. 

Grave, to en^rraM; to carve on a Imrd 
substance; a hole graved or scooped out 
for the dead. 

** He died— And th«r tmloclced hit ehatn. 
And scooped for him » hollow mlavb.'* 

The Prisoner t/ Chdltm. 

Graze, to crop or feed on grass. Hence, 
ORAEB, to take the tope of ue hair off in 
passing, as a Imllet from a gon ; to touch 
the simi slightly in passing. 

Grenade, primarily a pome-^nmafe, and 
frcnn the similarity in shape, a small bomb 
or fire-balL The tallest and strongest men 
in the regiment were formerly emfdoved 
in throwuig grmeuies, and hence, they 
were called grbnadikbs. 

Groat. TbiM, though nearly the small- 
est, was originally the largest of our silver 
eoins, to which oircumstanoe it owes its 
namo oboat, tbs old form of the word 

GREAT. The OBOAT WaS first QQ&MA,\fik**du& 

istgnoC SdwaKdi:VV-*«BA.v^^ 



the largest silver coin), it was naturally 
called the groat piece, that is, the qkeat 
piece or penny. From the same root is 
OROATS, that is, large or coarsely broken 
oats, not Ground to meal ; also, grit and 


Grockr, from gross, a large quantity; 
a proc(r originally signifying a d^er that 
sells by the gross or wJtoletaU. 

Grotesque. This term was originally 
applied to figiu-es found in the ancient 
grottos in Italy. 

Guinea, so called because first coined 
from the gold brought from QuineOt in 

Gunnel, properly gvaiieole, from gun and 
i0u2e, a ridge, a streak ; a rising or pro- 
jecthig plsuQk in the sides of a ship, 
through which the guns, when there are 
uny, are pointed. 

Haft, is ?iaved, hav'dy haft. The haft 
(if a knife or poniard is the haved part ; 
the part by which it is held. IIekt is 
another form of the same word ; and hilt, 
that is, hdd, is similarly derived. 

Hammercloth, from hamper and cloth; 
the cloth that covers the coach-box. Under 
tlie seat of the coachman there was for- 
merly a hamper, for market and other 
piurposes, and the cloth that covered or 
concealed it was called the hamper cloth ; 
and hence probably the word Hammercloth. 

Hamper, a large basket used for pack- 
age. Hence, hamper, to put obstacles in 
one's way ; to clog or embarrass. 

Hanger, a short sword; so called be- 
cause it hxings or is 8usi)ended from the 

Hajie-brained, wild, unsettled. Com- 
pare the adage, "AsmadasaMorchliare." 

Harier, now written harrier, a hound 
for hunting hares. 

Heed, to give one's h^ad or mind to. 

Hermetical, hermetic. From Ilcrmes 
Trismegistus, the imagined inventor of 
chemistry. Hermettoallt sealed means 
chemically sealed ; air-tight. 

Higgle, probably another frequentative 
from hack, and mcuninff to cut as with a 
blimt instrument, and therefore to be long 
about a thing. Compare the word decipe, 
which means to cut off at once. See 
Hack, p. 49. 

Hind, as hind legs, behind. Hence, 
HINDER, to keep behind or back; to ob- 
struct. Comi)are to forward.* 

Holster, another form of holder. Com- 
pare rhymer and rhymster; spinner and 
spinster; singer and songsteTf &c. See 

Hood, a covering for the head. 

Hound, a dog for hunting with. Com- 
pare MOUND and mount. 

H usband, probably from house and band; 
as being the stay or support of the family. 
Hence, husbandman, a farmer or tiller of 
the ground; and husbandry, tillage or 

* F&rward (for faremxd), to bring In front ; to 
•dTaaoe or promota. 

ctdtivation ; thrifty uumagement or eco- 

" The naroe of ft ftttsSofur, what b It to wtT 

Of wife and the househcid the hmnd i 

"There'i%««ftafuifyinlMATtn, tbelr qumUm an «U 

out.' '— ttnAXSrBAB& 

Huswife, from hottse and wife. 

I LL, a contraction of evil. See Ail. 

Imagine, to form an inwge or likaieai. 
of any thing in the mind ; to fancy or con- 
ceive that a thing is so. 

Impertinent, not pertaining or relating 
to : and hence unfit ; unbecoming ; intni- 
sivc; saucy. 

Incense, i>&tfume drawn out by Jbt, 
Hence, incen'be, to inflame with anger. 

Indknture, a deed or covenant^ lo 
named, because the counterparts are m- 
dented or notched, so as to correspond. 

Inform, to represent to tho mind or 

conceptiun the form or idea of a tJiing: 

and hence, to convey or impart ideas ; to 

instruct. Bee the following qnotatlan 

from Chaucer, for a happy explanatioii 

of this word : — 

" Enf armed when the kins was hy th« Imlgkti 
Aud hath conceived in kit vnind aright 
The manner and tlie form of all this thinf ." 

" There '■ no raoh thing ; 

It \m the bloody boBineu which inform* 

Tlina l/omu or presents itself thns] to mine eyes." 

Jack, the diminutive of the proper name 
John; and hence applied to any thiiij; 
small. Jack was formerly a common 
name for Uttlo boys; and hence, the 
terms bootjocit and ^'ocibspit, which, from 
having been originally applied to the little 
boy whose business it was to pull off Uta 
boots and turn the spit, were naturally 
given to the instruments substitated lor 
tho purpose. A jack or JACKaxuqpes, is s 
pert, conceited, Ii^« fellow; SLJctck-Boiptis 
a smaU snipe ; and a iocib-daw la a mmU 
species of crow. To these may be added 
jocXr-pike, jociEret, jodteen. The two latter 
are double diminutives ; the cme from ^ 
French (jaquette), the other from the Irish 

Jest, an abbreviation of gesture. A jtA 
is propMBrly a gesture or grimace to exdto 

Jet, a beautiful bUuk fosslL Hcmoe, the 
expression, **as black as^." 

Jockey, the dxminvtiioe of the Bootch 
term Jock, or Jack, and hence, a UtO^ boy: 
also, a horse-rider; because boys or small 
persons are usually employed for that 
purpose. Hence jocket, to trick, to 
cheat; because ioe^< or horse-xiden are 
noted for such propensities. 

Jot or iota, the snuMest letter in the 
Greek alphabet, and hence applied to tSie 
smalleit quantity of any thing. 

Jovial, formerly meant, bom under the 
influence of the planet Jui^tor (</owX tnd 
hence gay ; merry. Compare v^ dmiftf 
tions of saturnine and usRCUBiALk 

" The/o«/aI star reigned At hia birth.''-ttUHHSUK 
Kerchief. Tliis was formeilj written 



eouvrechef, which leads ns toits etymology, 

immely, the French couvrir^ to cover, and 

chef, the head. A kercMef, therefore, is 

properly a covering, or dress for the head: 

a veiL Hei)ce HANDKEBCHisr, a kerchitf, 

or loose cloth for the hand, 

" Hire litel child lay weplnff In h«r anne. 
And knellng piteonalv to nim she said, 
' Pees litel sons, I woU do thee no harm ; ' 
With that her eouverdUef of hire hed she braid. 
And over his litd eyeo she it laid. 
And in her arme she Inlleth it fall fiist, 
And into heven her eyen np she cast." — Chaucdu 

Kidnap, to nab or steal children; lid 
having formerly meant a child. By aspi- 
rating the d in kid, as in pa^ from pac2, 
bui-^^n from burc2en, and ravather from 
murder, we have kith; whence the ex- 
pression, "neitiier kith nor kin." 

Kind, race, nature, species, sort ; quali- 
ty ; manner. Hence, kind (fond of one's 
Hnd* or kin), congenial, benevolent. Com- 
pare HUMANE, that is, becoming a human 

KiNE, for cotom, the old plural of cows; 
as SWINE for towen. 

Kirk, the Scottish form of church. 

Ladle, a large deep spoon for lading 

Laggard, one who lags or loiters. See 
under the affix ard, page 48. 

Landscape, from land and shape. The 
ghape and appearance of the land, &c., in 
a pioturCk Bee the affix thip, page 48. 

Lass, a contraction of ladess, the femi- 
nine of lad. Compare ma'am for madam ; 
and last for latest. 

Last, a contraction of latest : and hence, 
to be the Vaiexb, or most enduring. Hence, 


Launch or lanch, to hurl a Xa-Me: to 
dart from the hand ; and hence, to propel 
with velocity, as a ship into the sea. 
Hence, launch, a {igAtboat, and therefore 
easily launched. 

Lazar, from Liuuarus in the Gospel. 

" A Zazar-bonse it seemed, in which were laid 
Nmnbers of all diseased."— Mii;roH. 

Left (that which is Uaxeid, leaifd, Ufi), 
not taken ; quitted ; abandoned ; the l^t 
Imiid, that is, the hand which is {(jeavcd) 
left or not used- 

Letter, one of the characters of the 
alphabet. Hence, letter, an epistle (or 
message communicated by UiUrs or writ- 
ten characters). 

Levant. This term, like the Latin 
ORIEN3, properly means rising; .and hence, 
like it, it has been applied to the eastern 
(ouiental) regions, because the sun seems 
to rise in that quarter of the heavens. 
The Levant, however, particuhu-ly means 
the eastern "paxt of the Mediterranean, f 

• Henoe. kivdubb, nnnatoral ; as "Kindteu Til- 
lain," aiipliad hj Hamlet to his nnde, the morderar 
of Ills fiatber. Henoe, also, kixdjlt, natural ; as " the 
kindly frcits of the earth.^' 

t Because to the mut of ItalT. Tn the same way 
the Turks called Asi* Minor lAnatolia) Natoiju, 
because to the mut <rf Oowttantinrole. Anatolia is 
from two Oresk wohb wUdi signily tht rUtnif up, 
•e. of tbesqn. 

Hence levee, the time of rising; a morn- 
ing visit ; lever, a mechanical power used 
in raising great weights; and levy, to 
raise— either men or money. Hence, also, 
leavened bread, that is, bread raued with 
barm; and from the effect which the 
leavm has upon the mass with which it is 
mixed, the term has been applied to any 
thing which corrupts or changes. 

" Pride like Uaten in a mass of flour. 
Tainted the laws, and made e'en Tirtuflsonz." 


Light, luminous matter ; as the light of 
the sun ; the light of a candle. Hence, 
LIGHT, to kindle or produce light; as to 
light the fire. Hence, also, lighten, to 
erUighten, and lightning. 

Light, to oome down or settle uix)n ; as 
to ligM upon the ground ; to light from a 
carriage ; to light as birds ; to happen or 
ligJit upon by chance.* 

Lime, viscous or sticky matter ; as bird- 
lime ; mortar or cement used in buUding. 

Line, as a rod and {in</ a lirw of poetry ; 
a line of soldiers ; a line of conduct. Hence, 
outline, 2m«unent, delineate, lineal, linear, 
{meage, Ac. Line, to put lining (properly 
2iti^into clothes. 

Link, asingleringof a chain; any thing 
connecting; as a Unk in the evidence; 
Unking arm and arm. 

List, a narrow strip of paper on which 

names are enrolled; a border on cloth; 

the space enclosed for combatants. Bee 


" The Tsry liif, the rery utmost bound 
Of all our fortunee."— Skajofbabx. 

LmsR, straw, because used for the bed- 
ding of horses, Ac. Hence, utter, to 
throw or scatter things carelessly about 
like litter; and lftter, a brood of young ; 
as the Utter of a pig, tiiat is, the numtor 
farrowed in the Utter. 

Loadstar, the leading, or guiding star, 
the pole-star. Loadstone, the leading, or 
guicUng stone, the magnet. Hence, also, 
load or LODE, the leading vein in a mine. 

Lock, as a lock of wool ; a lock of hair ; 
a lock of hay. Lock, an instrument com- 
X)osed of springs and boUs used to fasten, 
shut up, or coimne ; as the lock of a door; 
the lock of a canal ; the lock of a gun. 

Locket, the diminutive of lock. A 
small lock or catch used for fastening a 
necklace or other ornament. Compare 
the formation of pocket from poke. 

Loiter, to be laier; to be slow or dila- 
tory. Compare Linger (from longer). 

Long, as a long jotuney; a long time. 
Hence, long, to desire earnestly (to think 
the time long till we possess tbe object). 

Lot, a die or any thing used in deciding 
chances, as to cast lots; fortune or state 
cusigned, as a happy lot, a hard lot; & -paz. 
eel of goods, as if i»wn by lot ; a propor- 
tion of taxes ; as to x>ay scot and lot. 

Luggage, properly baggage, so heavy 



that It requires to be Ivrprf or yiWi^d 
aloDG". Hencep iU.«o, LrncrR, % ve-=ol 
which sails hcarilj, and as if dra^^ii-.^'.v 

Lumber, rrobably from lot; thir.js 
lying in contused lumy* or hcnp^. 

Mail, a coat of aicel nrt-i.vK*/ a Ifl^ 
(properly one made of mf*hff^ like an 
anorler's caffting nff, or rftinlt). 

MailtCoach, the coach vhich carrie!i or 
coTiTeys the nail or i^t^xba;:. 

Mall, a hammer or lionter. ATn/Z is 
another form of the same word, and pro- 
perly mean« to hnat with a mail. Tniirxcr. 
(to beat with a t.-uHchf'r.'iX ci'Dt.KL. and 
CANE are analngiiuw. Hence, also, mall, 
originally a phtoc appn.«pri;ited for playir.^ 
mallt once a favourite g:iTrc, L'lt now a 
public promenade. Sog Pell-mfll. 

Maxacli:-*. ci-.Hini* for the kc.y.-U. Com- 
pare rETTF.ra (L-r the.iV--). 

SiAXCAL, a book that mar lie carried in 
the Itand: and hence, a ftv-hI'. N>.'k. 

3LATcn,aci-ntcst; a^ramc: a";?-»',lK?canpe 
the contendi:'.^ panics ar« MipT'-.^eel to be 
equ^l; one tlui: is e-jv^l ur f: arable to an- 
other: as John and Lis wife are well v. rtfi^. 
ed; these gloves do not math. Hence, 
w«/e"'i'*i, wit::«-nt an f^vnl or ir.atch. 

Ma mux, Johnson eayi^, the "C'TPipt 
appcliririon of JIC[."ini^n^ who is drawri l-v 
miv.icTst with fwp'lcii eyes aiul a o-f- f- 
dcrc I look. A dnin" :L'n cvuttenar ce sec i: s 
to h.ive \<'0n po niiii.ed from u I'liii-.— • -^ 
resemblance to the p:c:r.i-c of J/-*'".' ■■■'::». 
Drunk; fu .died: apjri'icJi n*:toe'::«.:y." 
It mav'be added ibut *• J/cjr'.u.'tV'i Coi.cV."* 
at Oxford, w usiLilIy prouownc-.l " Xi. -I- 
fa'a," which makes this etymology tLe 
more prol4ible. 

" Let th#n th^ Mr nne l^notlfollT er, 
lu ila.J-i m't loc«e hn.r au-I i:f:<ri cvf."— Pore 

" I* th*!* « I *r*cn much h^-rurwl \r. hetr, 
A mjuiiim i»jtjeiM, a riiruilu/ | e«r."— Ft-n. 

Mator, the chief magistrate in a city. 
Another form and application of majuk; 
the proper meaning ox which is pr- rtir. 

Mean, the mu/cU« or medir.m : as, "the 

f olden mean.** Mean, midv.lin^ (ar.d 
ence, not high); low; ba5c. In the 
meantime means in the intenuttijare time. 

**An4 the xrjor dimi vhnll be hmn^bt dnipn, and 
Ibe lui^lity maji ahaU be haiubled.''— iMiah t. l& 

Meander, from the Meander, a river in 
Ehry^ria, remarkable for its teinding and 
aen*nti»e courro. 

Mfet, adj. Johnson sava, "of obscare 
etymology,*' but it is evidently from the 
verb, to meet : and hence, mieting, evacuT- 
ring^ suitable, fitting, proper. Compare 
coNVEsnEarr (coming togdhtr) and compe- 


"It f« nnt fmsn to d«piM tha poor maa that h:itb 
mdcrrtaoillnf;, nnthw la tt commtmimit to maftiUy a 
■ixifol man."— Eodaa. s. XL 

Metflv. The word metal cormpted, 
and used In a metaphorical t^nse; as, a 
man of mettle. The word vrERUNC Is riini- 
lailT applied ; as, a tterlina friend. 

Mob. Abbreviated fp»ni. aisd now used 

instead of xroTiLr. the WTmlaee. the nH<[9. 
Criuccr has the "mooUe pecmla" (in allu- 
Eton to the " mobUe vulgua « Virgil); and 
it is or.Iv riuce the time of Adduon ttar. 



v9 l.r.s been recognised ae an EngHsh 
or t lu ' • Spcct.1t. T." Xo. 1 35, he okTS— 
" I dare not a:iswer that xo&, nm., pot., 
inr^., and the like, will not in time be 
looked upon as part of onr tongue.** 

" Rr the i«n*ele«i dltOc of mlnppllcd worti. On 
ret::? - « ■ I ^m>^ovQea Inflamed the mludaoCtho MMTt 
to a t*n:-» ^.J unaocounublo abhomno* tt iLi 
beiit o' inr:i."—8oim. 

MoNKET I* a c o rr u p ti on of the Gennta 
rrMnnchoi, a manikin, or Wtle man. 

Moor, a native of Jl/orocoo. 

Mortar, a ve^<el in which tfali^ an 
poim.ied or bray.? i toother; and oenee. 
Mor.T *. :;. co:. .eut used m boildinff, hecanM 
the >:.:'.X lime, ^c, are mixed and blended 
to;re:her as if in a mortar. Mortab, a 
thortn trUie cannon for throwfai;; bombs (io 
called :rom having some resemblance in 
shape to an apoihecary's mortar}. 

Mict:. a very s::.ali particle, reemstohe 
another form cf mite, a small insect; sad 
aL«o, a very p'r.ail coin. 

3IoTn. "The name of an insect thit 
e^.t-.i 'i or /n-t: 'h a garment. It is the same 
word r.s yovTii. ditTercntly written, spelt 
c i. aud api lii-d."— Toi-kKK. 

Mould. • arth ; to grow m(y*iMy or msty. 
Ilcncc, Moi'LDiLr. to turn to ui'^u'/d or dnit; 
to criTT.liIe. Miv,T,i\ a form or shape 
(".fualiy i::a lo of movld or cl:iy) in whiab 
t;::r.^s ciii^t or n^odclled. Mould li 
J cri'.aps from r.-fai* {mfa'.fd, meaVd, movU, 
like t:'.o worvls ia pi-.-o 4;'). 

M«iUND. a:ii>tl.ef i-nn of mount. Cozd* 
I>are hovxd :Km ftvrt. 

Nail, a t}-»ri ppike nf metnl ; thehornj 
pub>:.'i:ice which pn'tects the human fia> 
rcrs ajsd t..»09. 11 once, nail, a measure 
(:rom the second jiint of the fingfor to the 
end I f tiic ii^il) of two ijichcs and a quarter. 
Hr.-'id and ^--oi are aL<H> u^d to denote 
measnrc. Sec Foot and Kll. 

NAi'CriiT, a compoimd of ne aught, that 
is not ar.ythin^; and hence, worthlee^ 
bad, noy^.'.ty, wicked. 

"Thn'.y.eT'anaMi-ht: O Rcnui I ibchathtM 
8han>-tootlied uiWixidiieH Ilka a vnltoR hen." 

yFicTTB^uR, from r.igh, near. A neigli- 
boiu" is one who lives »i«rr. 

Neither, from ne or not, and either. 

"SE^Sy a nnte or p<int of land rom^ig 
into the sea: aa the I^ose in Narwaj; 
Lanpne*$ in the Isle of Man (i.e., Umgwm 
or nose). 

Net. so called because knitted. 

Niggard, from nif/hy near, and the afiBz 
ard. For ARD, see page 48. A niggard ie 
a near, close, or stixiigy person. 

Nimble, qiilck, agile; properly {Mf> 
Jlngertd: fW^m the Md Teit> niai, to fllA 
or steal t (Hence, the approjpriata naiue 
of Corporal Nj/m in Shakspenvji 

• jreal li ft«m the Latia 



NoiTE, a contractioii of tu> one Com- 
pare nkithbr, ne or not either. 

NoosB is obviously derived from n 9*. 

Nosegay, a bancn of flowers for tmeU 
and gay ai>pearance. 

Nostril, firom noH and ihriU/ to driU 
or pierce. NoentiLS, therefore, mean, the 
Itoles or passage thresh the note. 

Nought, a corraption of naught, but 
the roeaning is now different; nought 
meaning not any thing ; and naught, bad 
or wicked. 

Nozzle, a frequentative firom soie. See 
similar words, page 49. 

Offal, that which (faU$ ojBf) is cast away 
as unfit for food ; and hence, any thing 
worthless. Ckmipare refuse and rubbish. 

Offspring, that which ipring$ qff, or 
arises from; children. 

Only, from ona and kf or Uke. 

Onset, from on and thst la, on, 

an assaidt or attack. 

Orrery, an astronomical instrument 
which the inventor (Rowley) so named, in 
honor of his patron, the Eiurl of (hrery. 

Ostler, hostler, the man who takes 
care of horses at a {hottd) hotel or inn. 

Ought, a contraction of owedy ow*dj 
OUGHT. OwgH means to owe it as a dvJty 
to act BO and so. Oompare the formation 
«f BOUGHT &om "btKjfed. 

" The lofw and dntj I Iflog tev* oivIU you.' 

Padlock (a loek tat a pad gate); a lock 
with a staple and hasp. 

Paduasoy, a kind of nUr fhnn Padua. 

Pale, a stake ; an enclosure formed by 
gtoA-es; any enclosure ; a district, jurisdic- 
tion, or boimdary ; as "beyond the pcUe.** 

Pall, a corruption of pale, and origi- 
nally applied to colours. 

Palm, the inner part or jxibn of the 
hand ; a hand or measure of four inches. 
Comx»re foot and nail. Faxjc, a tree; 
so called because its leaves, when ex- 
panded, have some resemblance to the 
palm or open hand: and because the 
branches of this tree were worn by con- 
querors, FALH came to signify victory^ 
triumph. Palu, to conceal in the palm 
of the hand, as Jugglers ; and hence, to 
Impose upon by fraud. 

Palmer. Pilgrims who had visited the 
Holy Land carried branches of palm in 
their hands ; and hence, they were deno- 
minated palmers. Palmer- worm. "A 
worm covered with hair; supposed to be 
so called because he toanden over all 
plants."— Johnson. 

** The faded eolm-brandi In hii hmd. 
Showed pilgrim fhnn the Holj Treiiii*' Icon. 

Palsy. A contraction of pareHyty: as 
proxy, of proeuraey : and fancy, of pikanr 
Uuy. From paralyntt a relaxatian or 
loosening, as <n the nerves and muscles. 
Parboil, to {part hoSCi half boiL 
Parcel, a tmott jport or portiaa ;• smaJl 
pacAage or Inmdla. 

•* or vkkhbF iNirwIr dM iMd 

Pabsi, to resolve a sentence into its 
elements or pari* of speech. 

Partial, pertaining only to a part; in- 
dined to a particular poit/ asJolmistoo 
porttoi to James, that is, too much dis- 
posed to take his purt, whether right or 

Passino-bxli.. In former times it was 
customary to toll a bell tar the porixwo 
of soliciting the {oayers of the puras for 
the coul alxmt to poM into ecemity. 
Hence, the term pocvtii^-ML 

" And lma» Vb»T««iu§ k— U to tofl 
Ito weUkre <» the pMrins mniL" 


Passport, leave or permission to 
out of port, or through the ooleg. 

Pattern, a corruption of patbon. and 
hence a mocEel, because dependents foDow 
and try to imitaU their patrona. 

Pelt, contracted fmrn pellet, a tmall 
balL To pett, propedy means to hit with 
pdlelSt snudl balls, as with taaovr-baU*. 

Perch, a long pole ; a measuring rod : 
a measure of five yards and a half ; to sib 
upon a perch or bough. 

Perform, to bring to a form or shape; 
to perfect ; » achieve or accomplish. 

Ferry, a irink made from pears. 

Peruse, m %u (per) tliruugliiy or CXo- 
roughly/ axul hence, to read through and 
through, COP carefully. 

Philippic, origmally the sjpeeches of 
Demosthenes against Philip, King of Ma- 
cedon ; but afterwards applied to any in- 
vective declamation; ai^ the orations of 
Cicero against Antony. 

Phiz. ** This word is formed by a ridi- 
ous contraction from, physiognomy, and 
snould, therefore. If it be written si all, 
be written pJkirs.''— Johnson. 

Poo, a long lance or spear; avoradons 
fish— so named from the sharpness of its 
snoutb Pique, to touch to the quick, to 
oflfend deeply, is the same Ttwd differaDtly 
spelled and applied. HeAoe, piquant, 
Otarp, pungent severe. 

Pipkin, a tmaXL pipe or vessel, Oom- 
pare LambJbm, Ac. See Kin, p. 4B. 

Pitch, thererincfthepine; tar. Hsnoe^ 
the expression, "As bLade as ^toh.** 

Pitch, to throw headlong. Pitch, a 
certain degree of elevatian; as, at the 
highest piUh of the voice. 

Poach. See mider the next word. 

Pocket, a smaJH poke, or bag. Poucn 
ami POCK (a Utile hag at pustule) are dif- 
ferent forms of the same word. Hence, 
also, POACH, to hag at steal game; and 
poacher, a stealer of gamei 

Fort, a gate or entrance; a harixmr. 
Portholes in a ship are the apertures or 
doorf through which the guns are put oatb 

PoBT,6eanii|^, mien. Oompare Carriage. 
" Pkite Is kii jMrf, iitea« is kl« tyvi" 

PoBT (wineX ^'^ aUireTistian of Opeirt^ 
ToBTEn,ikffaUatdoot-kjonftae, For 
one who esmii loeda lai 




PouKD, a weight ; and because a p&and 
of silver was formerly coined into ttoeniy 
fhillings, twenty shillings are still called 
a pov.rul, thougli they are now only about 
one-third of that weight. Fouxn, to beat 
or bruise witii something weighty. 

Premises. This term, which properly 
means the things fremiskd, or before 
mentioned, as houses and lands in a lease, 
cnme to be applied to the houses and tene- 
ments themselves. In logic, the term 
means the two i)ropositions premiged; 
and from which the third, that completes 
the syllc^^m, is deduced. 

PucKSB (to form into small poeks or 
pokes)y to wrinkle or ruffle. See Pocket. 

SUAOinBE, from quaJctt as in earth^uol-c, 
Quick, alive or living ; as " the quick and 
the dead. " Hence, be quick, and be altve, are 
equivalent expressions. Life implies mo- 
t oHj and hence the expression gvick- 
Bilver. • 

Quiver, a case for arrows ; another form 

of COVER. 

Rally, to re-aUy or reunite broken 

Bat. This term has beer applied to 
persons who desert their party when it is 
in danger of being broken up, from an 
idea that rats leave houses which are in 
danger of falling, and ships that arc likely 
to sulk. 

" In fnr, they hnxried iu »boaid » bark, 
A rotten carcase of a boat— the very r-jts 
InstiiictiTely had quit it."— shaksfears. 

Ratlin, from rat and line; because the 
Bailors, when they nm up the shrouds, 
are like rats running up ropes. 

Rear, to raise up; to bring up; to 
breed ; also, to elevate by throwing on the 
hind legs, as a horse. 

Rear (or Rere), that which is behind ; 
OA, the rear rank. Rear, raarish or under- 
d^me. See Rear, p. 44. 

Reel (a frequ^ntcUive of rollV to roU or 
turn, to move quickly rotmd ; to stagger. 

Reqalb (to entertein like a king), to 
feast siunptuously. From regal, kingly. 

Reoiment, rule, discipline; but now 
applied only to a body of soldiers, tmder 
the command (i-eghnent) of a colonel. Re- 
gimen, food regulated or prescribed by 
pliysicians, is another form of the same 

Remnant, a contraction of remanent, 
that is, the remaining portion. 

Resign, to break or undo the Hgn or 
signet ; to cancel a sealed instrument ; to 
surrender an office or appointment held 
under sign or seal. 

Rest, that which rests or remains be- 
hind. Rest, cessation or relaxation, is 
the same word differently applied. 

Reveal, to unveil or take ofiT the veil; 
to disclose or make known. 

** Myitery. half-Tciled and half-re eealed. 
And Honour with hia ipotless ihield ; 
Attention with fixed eye, and Fear. 
'iliAt lOTM the tale. <he shrinks to hea r.'*_ 


Riddlr, an enigma or puszle, la a dimi- 
nutive of read or rede, to fpicss. 

Riddle, a coarse sieve, is from reticle. 

Rock, a vast mass of stone fixed iu the 
earth ; and because places of defence are 
usually founded upon a rock, the tenn. 
particularly in Scripture, has been used 
to denote a cEe/!enceor protectfni; as, **the 
rock of IsraeL** 

Rodomontadx. From a bolsteroias hen 
of Ariosto called Xodomonte. An empty 
noise, bluster, or boast Oonapare CTis* 
coNADX from Oaseon. 

Romantic, resembling the tales of JZff- 
mdnces; and hence, wild, adventaron^ 
fanciful, improbable. Romances were to 
called because Ihey were originally writ- 
ten in the Romance language, a miztors 
of (Roman) bad Latin and Frankish. 

Roost, to rest ; the place <m which hirdi 
perch to rest for the night. 

Sable, a little animal ; the skin of tUi 
animal (which is dark and glossy). Henca^ 
sable, dark, black; as, the soMe night 
Compare the figurative applicatians of jet 
and pitch. 

Sallow, a yellowish, sickly cdofor— 

{>roperly the colour of the sallow or wQ* 
ow. Ck>mpare Lilac, Chestntjt, &c 

Saltcellar, a corruption of the Frcndi 
word sali^re, to which there is no neces- 
sity to prefix the word Salt, as it already 
means a vessel for holding salt. 

Salver, from save, because originslly 
used for saving or carrying awi^ Um 
fragments of an entertainment. Hence 
also Salvage, a recompense awarded 
to those who save ships finom beiiig 

Sample, Sampler. The first is fhnn 
example, and the second from exemj^ar. 
The root is the same. 

Satchel (a small sack), a snoall bag. 
For the tenninations whidh express cii» 
iniUion, see p. 48. 

Saucer, originally a vessel far hoIdlDg 
tawie. Ilence also Saucy, sharp, pus* 
gent, pert, insolent. 

Saw, & saying; a proverb; as, "full of 
wise satos and modem instances." 

Scale, a ladder; also, a figure (so called 
from having some resemblance to a ladder) 
in maps exhibiting the proportions be* 
twcon the represented and aettial Hinf !*"«?«« 
Hence the expressions, **on a gruid 
scale," '* on a small seale." Hence, scale, 
to climb or ascend by ladders / as to seak 
tlie wallfi. Scale — as, the sccde of a fish ; 
the scale of a balance. Scale, to pare or 
peel off in thin particles like scales. 

Scrap, thirt which is scraped off; and 
hence, a very small portion. Compare 
SCUM, that which is skimmed ofL 

Senate. The Roman Senate was <al8[i- 
nally composed of (senes) old men, and 
hence it derived its name. (3ampare onr 
word Alderman. 

Set, to place ; to place or pat in order; 
as, to «<< a wateh, to set Sk rasor, to m( the 
house in order. Set, a number of things 



t€t down together) suited to each other ; 
as, a set of china, a set of fire irons. 
Skwer, a corruption of issuer. 
Shaft, an arrow; any thing long and 
itra'ighi ; as, the shaft of a car. Shaft, a 
narrow, deep, perpendicular pit; as the 
s/ui/t of a mine. 

SuABPEB ^ sharp, keen person); a 
cheat. 8ee Blade, p. 51. 
Sheen, from shining or slume. 
SnEKirr, from shirereeife. Compare Port- 
Shoal, a shaUote or sandbank. 
Shuffle, a frequentative from shove. 
To sliove or move cards frequently from 
one hand to the other; and hence, to 
keep changing one's groimd or x)08ition. 
8h(jv£l is irom the same root. See p. 49. 
Skipper, another form of skipper; the 
master or captabi of a trading vessel. 

Sloven, m)m sUno; as craven from 
crave. Slut is from the same word 
(slovKdt slovfd, slut). See p. 49. 

Sneer. It is remarkable that most 
words beginning with sn have reference 
to the NOSE ; as snout, sneety sneeze^ snore, 
snort, snarl, snvff, tnvffle, sn^, snivel, 
snaffle, Ac. 

Snuff is the i»st participle of to »n\ff; 
that which is sniffed. 

Soak seems to be connected with suck. 
Sole, a flat fish ; so called from its simi- 
larity to the solk of the foot, or the sole 
of a shoe. 

Sorrel, a plant of a sottr or acid taste. 
Compare surlt. 

Sound, any thing audible, a noise. 
Sound, a shallow sea — such as may be 
sounded* with the plummet; as, the 
Sound of Denmark. Hence, sound, to 
try, to examine; as, have you sounded 
1dm on the subject? Sound, healthy, 
sane ; wise ; iminjured ; as, a sound mind 
in a sound body ; safe and sound. 

Spice, a very small quantity — as much 
as would enable one to fudge of the species 
or quality. Specimen is another form of 
the same word. 

.Spiiino, to shoot up tinexpectedly or 
imperceptibly, as plants ; to spring up sud- 
denly, as an elastic body when the pres- 
sure is removed ; to spring or leap upon, 
as a wild beast on its prey. Spring, the 
B6<v5on in which plants, Ac, spring up. 
Spring, a well of water springing up out 
of the groimd. 

Springe, a gin or noose to catch by a 
spring or i&rk.. 

Stake, a strong liicTe or post Ktuek or 
fixed in the groimd. Stake, a wager or 
pledge — deposited or fijced to await the 
event ; and hence, chance, risk, hazard. 

Staple, another form of stable ; firm, 

Starch, another form of stark, stiff, 
firm* confirmed, established; as, **iAarh 
mud." Starch is used for stiffening linen, 
&c. It also means it\ff, formal, precise. 

""snuiM. 8m Aflli nrlL S9, ftir an flltutivtioa. 

Compare march, from warJt/ CRcrcH 
from crook; milch from r^ilh; breach 
hx)m break ; speech from speak, &c. 

Stave, another form of staff, a stick 
used for supporting or assisting one whil« 
walking, and hence, the term has been 
applied to the officers in special attend- 
ance on a general, as "the Gteneral's staff. ^ 
Stave off is to keep off, or to defend one's 
self with a xtave. Stave, to break (in 
the iMist tense, stove), is properly to 
break up any thing made of staves, as a 

Steeple, from lieep, high. See p. 49. 
Step, that which enables us to ascend, is 
also from <toep. 

Stern (the steering place), the hind part 
of a ship. 

Stick (a long, slender piece of wood), a 
staff. Stick, to fasten or pin against ; to 
adhere to. 

Stickle, a frequentative of stick, to 
stick or adhere to, to defend or advo- 
cate. See p. 49. 

Stock, the trunk or stom of a tree ; so 
called from beiag stuck or fixed in the 
ground ; a family or race ; fixed quantity 
or store o^ any thing ; stock or capital in 
trade ; that part of a gun in which the 
barrel is stixk or fixed. 

Stocks, a place of confinement, in 
which the legs of the offenders are stuck. 
Stocks, a frame in which ships arc stuck 
or fixed, while building. Stocks, the 
public funds. 
Story, an abbreviation of History. 
Strain, to squeeze or press ; to press 
too much or violently; to force or con- 
strain. Hence, to strain one's ankle ; to 
ttrain a point. 

Stud pother form of stood), anumber of 
horses standing together ; a set of horses ; 
a nail or button for fixing or keeping 
tilings steady; the head of a nail or simi- 
lar ornament set or fixed on any thing. 
Tadpole. See Gadfly, p. 55. 
Talent, a weight or sum of money; 
also (from the parable of the Talents), a 
natural gift ; a faculty or power. 

Tamper, to try a person's temper, with 
the view of practising upon it. 

Tantalize, from TaTitaJus, as to hec- 
tor, from the Trojan hero Hector. Com- 
pare the vulgar term, *' to Burke.'* 

Tap, to strike or hit with the tip of any 
thing, as the finger; to knoek gently. 

Taper, a wax candle ; a light. Hence. 
taper (formed like a taper), conical; 

Tender (to e-xiend the arm), to offer. 
Tender (put for attender), a small vessel 
which attends upon the fleet, &c. 

Tendril, the young or tender spirals of 
the vine. 

Text-hand, the larger hand in which 
texts were written, in distinction from 
the smaller hand of the comm.e.'o^s^ *^:«a7t 
properly meaxia «am.«K^A&% viaerwrnviu 
TiDVioa, t\iin«!& >3baJt \>^Aa* at >MBffV>«^'^ 



Hme, Hence, ttdt, doing every thing in 
Itsproper time; orderly, neat. 

Tight, from tied. See Joints tc., p. 49. 

Trice is fl*om thrieet and meant m an 
Instant ; before you could say thrice. 

Trifle. From the adjoctiye trividL 

Twilight, the waning Ught "betwten day 
and dark. 

Twin, from Ueoen. Twaik, twive, and 
TWEEN, as in betirem, are different forms 
of the same word. 

Twist, that which is tvieed. See p. 49. 

Upholsterer, another form of up- 
holder (upholdgteTt upholaterer), a bearer 
or snpiwrter at a i\moral ; one who under- 
takes to supply funerals ; and hence, one 
who provides furniture or upholstery 
for houses. Compare undertaker; and 
see Holster, p. 56. 

Usher, one that stands at a door, for 
the purpose of introducing strangers or 
visitors; and hence, an under teacher- 
one who introduca or initiates voung chil- 
dren in the rudiments or elements of 

Utter, for o\der, farther out; and 
hence, extreme, as in **\M«r darkness;" 
also (to give ovi words), to si)eak (to give 
or sell out); to publish; to vend. See 
Exi'RKss, p. 54. 

** 1 ill to the bridfte'i utier gkta I «me."-43FEKBKR. 

Vault, an arched cellar. Hence, vault, 
to leap in an arcJied or circular direction. 

" The fiery darts in flainlng ToUevs flev. 
AniU flyiBg, vaitlted either liosl with fire." 


Veneer, to inlay with wood so as to 
give the appearance of veim. 

ViomtTTB, • iM^ of a book oraamenled 
with wreaths of v»i«t and flowera. ViffnMte, 
a diminutive of the French viffnt, a vine. 

Waddlb, from wjldm. To walk m if 
leading; to walk awkwardl v. 

Wag, to shako or move nvguentiy; tc 
^pag one's head at, or play tricks on anr 
other ; and the person who has a habit or 
turn for doing so is called a wao^ 

Warn, from the old verb vare-^n, as in 
bet0a9ie. Compare lkabh^ from lear-eHf 
for the old form was UoTt whence lore. 
To warn is, to tell a person to bctpore, or 

Waver, from toave. "For he that 
vavereth is like a wave of tfao aea, diivea 
with the wind and tossed.** 

Whisk, a quick sweeping moticm; % 
kind of brush for sweepuig ; hence, 
whisker, from the resemblance to a 
whisk or brush. 

*' No thouRht ftdTanoes, but the eddy brala 
Whiski it mboat, and down It goea •faliL*'— Para 

Wig, an abbreviation of pebtwio, wfaidi 
is corrupted from the French pbrukx. 

Wild, wiU^ willed, wiU'd, wild. Self* 
willed, or following one's own wUL 

Winnow, to separate the grain from the 
chaff by means of the wind; to sift cr 
Wizard* For the afiBx, akd, tee p. 4& 
Worship, an abbreviation ol utrrfJMMjr 
Wrung, from wring, as song from ti^f. 
Wrong means %orung, or wrested from tk( 
right or correct course of condoot. 

*A1so WFAR {w^nr-en), tBom; ix&it [taar-en!^ temt 
and anAJ^ib car-en), bom. 





A^ tho first letter of the alphabet The 

form of the indefinite article before a 

consonant, or a vowel sounded Uke a 

consonant; as, a tmit, a eulogy, a ewer; 

many a one 0n which case the TOwel o 

is sounded as if v were i»«fixed). The 

prober meaning of a (or an) is one,' as, 

A bird in the hand is worth two in the 

bush ; but it usually means any one of 

the kind or class ; as, He caught a bird. 

— See An and Tbx. 

In expressions like the following, a 
has the force of to, on, or at; as, afield, 
ashore, aside, a hunting, a building. It 
also seems to have a signification denot- 
ing proportion; as, twenty pounds a 
year; ten a penny; eight miles an 
hour ; but in such cases a preposition, 
as tn or for, is understood. 

A, a Greek prefix (and before a vowel, an), 
means without or not; as, in the woras 
op:ithy, and anonymous ; and as a Latin 
prefix, it is another form of a5, from; as 
in the word overt. See A, p. 46. 

A^, a ship of the highest dass on the regis- 
try; anything firat-rate. 

Ab, a Latin prefix meaning from; as in 
a&solve, to free from. A, as in avert, 
and abs, as in a&stract, are other terms 
of the same prefix. 

Aback', ad. backwards : (a sea term). 

Ab'acus, s. a square table or tablet for 
counting ; a term in arcliitecture. 

Abad'don, «. the destroiyer ; Satan. 

Abaff , ad. and prep. See After, p. /^O. 

Abal'sance, 9. a T)ow ; a mark of respecC 

Abalienate, «. in law, to alienate from. 

Aban'don, v. to give up; to forsake. 

Aban'doned, p. a., fOTsaken; lost to vlr> 
tue, irrecoverablv wicked. 

Aban'donment, «. the act of abandoning. 

Aba'se, v. to bring low, to degrade. 

Abasement, «. humHiatioa ; degradation. 

Abash', V. to make aabamedt to confuse. 

Abash'n.ent, «. tbe #^8 of Ming aaluuned. 


Aba'te, v. to lessen ; to lower in prise. 
Abatement, «. the act of abating; the 

thing or sum abated; a discount or 

allowance; the removing of a nuisance ; 

a plea in law. 
Ab'atis, [or ab-a-tee, Fr.l s. branches of 

trees sharpened and tamed outward 

for defence. 
Abattoir, [a-bat-wor', Fr.] s. a public 

Ab^ba, «. a Syriao word for fether. 
Ab'bacy, «. office or possessions of an 

Abbe, [ab^by, Fr.l «. originallv, an abbot ; 

but now an ecclesiasao without cliargc, 

devoted to teaching, literature, Lc. 

Abbess, $, the head or governess of a 

nunnery. Abbey, «. a monastery; a 

convent. Abboi^ «. the head or chief 

of a monasteiy. 
Abbre'viate, «. to abridge or shorten. 

Abbrevia'tioQ, $. the act of abridging ; a 

contraction or shortening. Abbrevia- 

tor, $. one who abridges. 
A, B, 0, 9. the alphabet. 
Ab'dioate, «. to give up, to resign. 
Abdica'tion, ». the act of abdiotting ; re- 
signation of a crown. ' 
Abdo'men, ». the lower venter or belly. 
Abdom'inal, a. pertaining to tilie abdo- 

mea : «. a fish which has fins under the 

Abdu'ce, «. to draw or bring from. 
Abdu'cent, a. drawing from or back. 
Abduc'tion, «. the act ctf drawing from ; 

canTing away a Tperaaa by force. 
Abduc'tor, $. a muscle that draws back ; 

a person guilty of abduction. 
Abeioeda'xifm, «. a teacher of the A B C. 
A-bed', ad. in bed, on Uie bed. 
Aberra'tion, «.. a wandering; alienation 

of mind; apoarent ehaage in the place 

of a star or planet. 
Abetf, V. to ■Kon or etnoaoEr^e^*, ^»«&Al-. 
| AlMlf^nHlb, a. Um Mte «& 1 




A 'r. I 'tor, *. in lave, tmc "who abets; an 
r.occssBory, See AUtitr, p. 40. 

A^i:y'ance, «. property not yet in posses- 
sion ; an expectancy : (a law term). 

A^iior', V. to shudder at; to detest, to 
luathe* to abominate. Abliorrence, f, 
detestation, great hatred. Abhorrent, 
a. odious ; contrary or foreign to. Ab- 
horrer, ». one "who abhors. 

Abi'de, «. to dwell: to continue in; to 
wait for ; to ecdiire. Abiding, p. a. 
contmuing, staying. 

Ab'i^Tail, t. a lady^s waiting-maid. 

Ability, «. power to do any thing ; men- 
tal power; talent: pi. (Abilities), in- 
tollcctual power or endowments. 

Ab'ject, a. (catt off or away) worthless ; 
mean ; base : s. an outcast ; a miserable 
wretch. Abjectly, ad. meanly; wretch- 
edly. Abjectness, $. state of an abject. 

Abjura'tion, s. the act of abjuring ; a re- 
nunciation on oath. Abju're, v. to cast 
off or renounce upon oath ; to retract or 
recant solemnly. 

Ablacta'tion, t. a weaning of a child from 
the breast ; a method of grafting. 

Ablative, a. taking from ; the sixth case 
of Latin nouns. 

Abl.Vze, ad. in a blaze, on fire. 

Able (a'bdl, 6, b. p. 11), a. having compe- 
tent power or skill to do; poweriul, 
strong ; skilful, clever. Able-bodied, a. 
strong of body, robust. Ably, ad. with 
ability or skilL 

Abluent, a. cleansing 1^ water. Ablu'- 
tion, ». the act of cleansing or washing ; 
a purification. 

Abnega'tion, s. denial ; renunciation. 

Abnor'maL a. contrary to rule ; irregiJar. 

Aboard, od. in or on board a vessel. 

Abo'dc, s. a habitation or dwelling-place. 

Alx>'de, the p. t. and p. p. of Abide. 

Abol'ish, V. to put an end to ; to destroy 
utterly; to abrogate or annuL Abol- 
ishment, t. abolition. Abolition (-UsV- 
luiX <• the act of abolishing ; state of being 
al)olished; destruction; annihilation. 
Abolitionist, «. one who seeks to abolish. 

Abonn'inablo, a. execrable, detestable, 
}::itcful, loathsome. Abominableness, g. 
t.itefulness, odionsness. Abominably, 
od. hatefully, odiously. Abominate, r. 
to abhor, to detest. Abomina'tion, s. 
'Ictcstation ; pollution. 

A'^■rig^nal (-lij'-in-alX a. relating to the 
crigin; first or primitive. Aborigln&t, 
[L.J 9. pL the first or original inhabi- 
tants of a cotmtry. 

Abor'tion, «. untimely birth, miscarriage. 

Abor'tive, a. premature ; failing in effect. 

Abound', V. to have or be in p^eat plenty. 

Ab- -ut', prep, round, encircling ; near to ; 
concemhig: engaged in: ad. circularly ; 
nearly. "To bring about" is to bring 
to the point desiiid: "To go about a 
thing ** Is to prepare to do it. 

Above (a-buv', 8, a. p. 12), prep, higher in 
place or power: ad. overhead, in the 
air ; in heaves. Aboveboard, ad. open- 
ly; fairly. 

Abramdab'ra. t. a supersUlloiiB efatnn 
against agues (a cabalistlcal word)L 

Abra'de, «. to rub or scrape off: to mv 
away. Abrukm, «. the set of rahUnf 
off; substance worn offby attiitiaD. 

Abreast', ad. dose together, elde by ridfc 

Abreuvoir, [arbroo-rwor', Vr.Jl a. a poUie 
watering place for harses vad. eaale; a 
term in masrauy. 

Abridge (-rij'X «• to oontxact; to ahflrton. 

Abridgement, «. a larger work eontiadied 
into a smaller compass ; a sammaiy. 

Abroad (a-brawd), ad. without doon; ii 
foreign countries ; widely spread. 

Ab'rogate, «. to annul, to *>w>iirft^ te i» 

Abroga'tion, $. the act ofannuIUiiff. 

Abrupt', a. broken off; pred^pttoo^ 
cragr?y; sudden; unoonnected. 

Abruption, g. a sudden breaking oft 

Abruptly, ad, in an abrupt manner. 

Abrupt'nesa, s. state of bebig abnqit; aa 
abrupt manner. 

Ab'rscess, ». a tumour eontidniiig mattet 

Abscind', «. to cut off: (little uaecU. 

Ab.<H:is'sion, t. the act of cottizig aS. 

Abscond', r. to hide on^s self. 

Ab'sence, «. the state of being absent ; tbi 
not being present ; inattention to tUngi 
present; carelessness. Ab'sent^ a. not 
present; inattontiye or absent in mind; 
careless. Absenf, «. to keepawBj,to 

Abf^entee', t. one who IshabitnallyabMBt 
from his country, or from his bosiiiesa 
AbscnteeL«>m, i. the state of being ahaoii 
from one's country. 

Ab^in'thian, a. of the nature of mm- 

Ab'solute, a. unlimited; arbitrszy. Ab- 
Bolutcly, ad. unconditionally; posi- 
tively. Absoluteness, «. freedom nom 
limits; despotism. Absolutism, a ab- 
solute government; the princi|des of 
despotism. Absolutist, t. an adToesto 
for despotism. 

Abeolu'tion, t. the act of absolving. Ab> 
solvable, a. that may be absolfed. 
Absolve, V. to free from ; to dearfrom; 
to exonerate ; to aoquiL 

Ab'sooant, a. discordant ; absurd. 

Absorb', v. to suck up, to imbibe. Ab* 
sorbed, p. a. sucked up; immersed in. 
Absorl>ent, a. sucking up, ImUbiog: 
g. a medicine that abeoros humoma 
Absorp'tion, «. the act of sucking up. 

Abstain,' v. to refrain from ; to foxbear. 

Abstc'mious, a. temperate, abstinent. 

Abstc'miously, ad. temperately, sobeify. 

Absto'miousness, g. sobriety, tempenuMe. 

Abster'ge, v. to cleanse bv wiping. 

Alisteregent, a. having a cleansing qoaUlgr. 

Ab'stinence, g. a refraining ftom ; nutingi 

Ab'stinent, a. practising MMtlneXice. 

Ab'stinently, ad. temjMiatelv; 

Abstract', v. to draw or take fhxn; to 
abridge; to draw away, as the mind 
from external objeoti ; to lepantob m 
ideas ; to steaL Ab'stnet, a aaaMdg* 
mtnt or epitome: «• ■ip Matod from; 





not concrete. Abstract'ed, p. a. taken 
or sciMurated from ; absent in mind ; 
stolen. Abstractedly, ad. taken by it- 
self ; in a separate state. Abstracted- 
ness, s. state of being abstracted. Ab- 
Etrac'tion, t. the act of abstracting ; ab- 
sence of mind. AVstractness, s. quality 
of being abstract. Abstractly, ad. in 
an abstract manner. 
Alistru'se, a. hidden, obscure, difficult. 
Abstru'sely, ad. obscurely, not plainly. 
Abstru'seness, s. obscurity; difficulty. 
Abs\ird', a. contrary to reason; prepos- 
terous; ridiculous. Absiirdity, «. that 
which is absurd. Absiu^y, ad. in an 
absurd manner. Absurdness, t. ab- 
surdly; inconsistency. 
Abund'ance, t. great plenty, exuberance. 
Abund'ant, a. plentrfiil, exuberant. 
Abund'antly, ad. plentifully, liberally. 
Abuse (abuce), s. the ill use of anything; 
a corrupt practice ; rude reproach. 
Abuse (abuze), v. to make an ill use of ; 
to violate ; to reproach rudely ; to vilify. 
Abusive, o. giving abuse; scurrilous. 
Abusively, ad. in an abusive manner. 
Abusiveness, t. quality of being abusive. 

Abut', V. to end at; to meet or join. 
Abutment, s. that which abuts or sup- 
l)orts, as in masonry. Abuttal, «. the 
butting or boundary of land. 

Abyss', g. a fathomless depth or gulf. 

A ca'cia (-sh6-fi), «. a species of tree or shrub, 
to which the gum- Arabic belongs; a 

Academician (-mish'anX s. a Platonic phi- 
losopher; a member of an* academy. 
Aaidem'ic, Academical, a. belonging to 
an academy. Academically, ad. in an 
academic manner. Acad'emy, s. FIato*s 
school of philosophy; a school where 
the arts and sciences are taught ; a 
society for the promotion of science and 

Acun'thus, «. a prickly shrub. 

Acatalec'tic, s. a verse having the cotm- 
plete number of feet or syUablea. 

Acce'de, v. to comply with, to agree to. 

Acccrerate„i7. to increase motion or speed. 

Accelera'tion, «. the act of accelerating. 

Accererativc, a. that which accelerates. 

Ac 'cent, s. a peculiar tone in speaking or 
pronoimLdng ; stress or force given to a 
particular syllable in a word; a mark 
by which the accent is denoted. 

Accent', v. to give or mark the accent. 
Accentual, a. relating to accent. Ac- 
centuate, V. to make or pronoimce with 
au accent. Accentiia'tion, s, duo plac- 
ing of the accent. 

Accept', V. to receive, to take, to admit. 

Accepfable, a. likely to be accepted, agree- 
able. Acceptableness, s, the quality of 
being acceptable. Acceptably, ad., in 
an acceptable manner. 

Accepf ance, g. the act of receiving. In 
bills of exchange, it is an admission 
that value has been received, and con- 
sequently an undertaking to pay the 
amount when du«. 

Accepta'tion, *. reception; the rcceivavl 
meaning of words. Accept'er or Ac- 
ceptor, g. the person that accepts. 800 
Abetter, p. 40. 

Access', g. admission to a place or person. 

Ac'cessary, a. joined to ; additional ; con- 
tributing. See Accessory, p. 40. 

Acces'sible, a. that may be approached. 

Acces'sion, g. the act of coming to ; addi- 
tion or increase. Accessional, a. addi- 
tional Accesso'rial, a. pertaining to an 
accessary. Ac'cessory, s. an abettor or 
accomplice. Bee Accessary, p. 40. 

Ac'cidence, g. the rudiments of grammar. 

Ac'cident, ». casualty; an imforescen 
event ; a property or quality not essen- 
tial. Accident'al, a. happening by 
chance, casual, fortuitous; not esscu- 
tiaL Accidentally, ad. in an acddentjU 

Accip'itrine, a. rapacious, like a hawk. 

Acclaim', Acclam&'tion, g. shout of ap- 
plause; praise; exultation. 

Acclam'atory, a. pertaining to applause. 

Accli'mate, v. to iniu^ to the climate. 
Acclimatize, v. to inxm plants and 
animals to a climate different from that 
which is natural to them. 

Accliv'ity, g. the ascent of a hilL 

Accola'de, «. a ceremony in making a 

Accom'modate, v. to supply with con- 
veniences of any kind; to adapt, to 

Accom'modating, a. disposed to comply 
with the will of another ; obliging. 

Accommoda'tion, g. state of being accom- 
modated; fitness or adaptation; ad- 
justment of differences: pi. conve- 
niences ; lodgings. Accommodation-bill, 
g. a bill of exchange for the convenience 
of the drawer. 

Accom'panier, g. one that accompanies. 
Accompaniment, s. tiiat which accom- 
panies; the instrumental parts which 
accompany the vocal in music. Ac- 
company, V. to associate with, to join 

Accom'plXce, g. an associate in a crime. 

Accom'plish, v. to complete; to execute 
fully ; to fulfil ; to obtain ; to adorn or 
furnish with accomplishments. Ac- 
complishable, a. that may be accom- 
plished. Accomplished, p. a., com- 
pleted; finished; el^:ant. Accomplish- 
ment, g. completion; attainment; or- 
nament of mind or body. 

Accompt', Accompttmt See Account, -p. 40. 

Accord', V. to agree or harmonize with ; 
to make agree ; to grant : g. harmony ; 
agreement; consent; compact; volim- 
tajy motion or action, as with one's oicn 
accord. Accordance, $. agreement; 
confonnity. Accordant, a. agreeing 
with; consonant. Accordingly, ad. 
agreeably; conformably. According-to, 
prep, in accordance with ; agreeably to. 

Accord'ion, $. a musical instrument. 

Aeeost', v. to addreas; V>«bX\>^. 


Aceoitcliemont. t>i>-«iMli'inIin|C, Fr.J i. 
Jj'ltiK In. d(iliver7 In cblldbirth. I 

Itnbls to I 

Acniunl'antidilp, i. oOlce of nu 

_ »miililii, f. oDl . . . 

Aceoiiiit'iiitc. I. till nut of ^ . 

ndliu-UiiE MCOUiiU. 

Accomn (-lEoo'rcr), tL to fnmf^li tIIIi 
diw or 0t|ulpizumt9, VHpccially tlio^ 
of K (oldfer. AceoutrcmiwlB, i. )'. 
oqidpninitii; tnui|riiin. 

Aecnult, v. tn sIto tnuEurionfldgn co t< i : 
to voimteuobco ; to fbimlRh v;\t\i crc- 
dantlala. Aocredited, n. a. readrd »x 
limina & titlo to oroditi tnuted; bc- 

Accrea'coTLt, n. £frowInff to; IncnneSn?. 

AccniB (-croo'i r. to jron lo.- to Mil; 
from; tOAri^c, n^nroGto; to follow ;i** 
tho DotuTol rcmfc Acctuinff, p. n- 
ertmitif! to ; boini ndded. 

Accum'binicr, (.etntcorbeinsiianimbciit. 

AccmntHHit, a. leaning; lyinp ngalust. 

AflCum'iiliao, V. to haap up ; to lucren^o. 

Accu'mutatlTa. a. endued nitli tlic 

■Uccting or incn.'uing. 

Mto'riil, o. tint wl 

ohiTBO with crit 
me cimrGod witli 


AceUte (aaa'-J ». n BRlt foimed by BMtio- 
acld unttai to b bma Acctlo-Bdd, j, 
the oonoentntsd acid of •incnr. Am'U- 


1 mold ar ilnem 

Iv. V. to tur 
Aca'toua, a.aa 

Acbadko), i > omtluaadpaln : ■. toaib 

Af^larablt (ft^basy-X «. that i^ k 
achiarad. Achlara.*: tondviHcr* 
ecnta; topfaoracompBab. Adili» 
aunt. 1; tuo parfdamuiea of an Mtfca: 
adaod,afiat,*ii*xpli>it; tboMcotibB 
or anrign amunlia. Aj^erar, a ■• 
who MwomDllahBa a mirpoaa. 

Aclilng (aka-)i *. a. auaerins mtn n Ik- 
treia; i. omtiaued pain , dlitiMA 

AchoT (a'kor), (. aeald head. 

Acliromiltla (ak-), a daatttnta (tf hIk. 
applli-d to toloaooTKW 
•irnngid ai to avdd b. .^ 

Acid (dM'idJ. a- Ilka *lna[ Bbaip 

oomemjid, Atdd'ltj A ^w 

quality of being add ,. ,|1^ 

™. ABld'uUta, * to Qjni,a ^i^ 

Acknowledge (ak-Qole]), ■ to e«a ■ 
admit tbo knowledge of to eonftii « 
a fBult Acknowlodgoraeiit, k oml* 
Hjon; reeoenltfon gratltuda, aip» 

Ao'in«,|Gr,]»thshighertpobiti ttart* 
Acol'olhlBt, Ac'olyte, i a deacon. 
Ac'onlte, I. wolfsbraa: polron. 
A'oom, I. the nesd or fniit or the e^ 
Acotyle'don, i. e plmt without seedJ^ 
'"'"'"' <>-h«*liiKt»o(itrlital 

hKta I I, 

or Bscd-lolKe. 
Acoui'tic. 0. that wUch ralatw to 
Acoug'tlos, I, the doobrlna of 

mcdiQfnes used to assM tba ho. 
Acquaint', ■. to nuke ftmlllBr » 

inform : to maJu known, i 

I, ftunlUjultr; an «i * 

qoainted, a. „ , .,»__„ „ 

AoiuJeBca(-kwa-e>A*, toaubmttto4rt 
i. not most agreaaWe; to oDmidr wU 
"^n«' A ™l ""^^ ■**^ *•■ 
yielding- or'mibmltting to, Af. . ..!— ™ 
o, comiTlying; our. 
Awjui ratle o. thit may be aoqubad. 
Acqui're, r. to gel. to sttaln, S fi- 
Acqul'rprflont, K. an attainment. 
Acquisition (itsh'nn). i. the act of aeqab^ 
lig; that whldi ia acqulrod. AanM- 
tlcs, a, dadrouiof acquiring. A^irid- 
tlTenew^ g. a dcalre to ocqtilnk 

Acquit'. V. to Bot free: afaaolw. '• 

ment, ., Uis act of - - 

quittat, A rvloaae from , 

GuHw. t. a discharge from 
a* (a'kmi J. ftmitooda of f 

Imo'nloun, a. full of UHi 

ouB, a. gTmriDg to ttas top; ii 
hi. (L applied to atanwblah m 
'» tbA Athttiltn dtedol; 

AoroH'tio, ■. a kind of poe 

Act, V. to do, to porforra ; 

Act' ing. I. tliB act oi jwric 
Actin'ia, 1. BgoimHof BOft 

ffp^iklng; a dcod; a battle; & 
Ac'tiouable, a. llabls to a pneeai 
Ao'tiolULry. Actionist, ■. onB th 

AtftlvB. a. nlmbla, a^s. qiiiflfc buOT. 
Ae'tivalr, ad. nimbly, briskly, quickly. 

Ac'tor, t. ons that p«rfoniia; a etAgv- 
pLiyer. JuTtam, l. ■ female stt^ 

Ao'tiinl, a. real; certain; not apeimlatlTe. 
ActunJ'ity, Actualncea, j. raal Bxlatonw. 
Ao'tually, ad. in Mt, tn oflOct, reaUy. 
Ac'tiinry, ir a reoifftrar, or clerk of ooi^ 

Acu'men, t. quickneao of iDtellact. 
Acu'mlnBled. o. ending in i Bharp point. 
Acn'minouB, a, aliarp, rx^ted. 
Aciiinuic'Cun, >. B mstbod of bleeding b; 

making Bioall pimcturaa. 
Acu'lo, R. Bbaip, kevn, aubtla, ingeDfoiu: 
an accent marked tbui O. 

Acn'taly, ai. Sharply, kemly, (brswd^. 

Acu'teneei, i. etiarinsB, aubtlenso. 

Ad, alAtmpTefli.nuaolng(i>. SAep-4Y. 

Ad'aga, t. a provgib; '- 

Ada'gio,».(la '-> 




Adamaat^an, a, Te^hard, impenetrable. 

Adapt', t!, to make fit or BuihiMo, A^ap. 
tlbll'ity, I. the capability of adaptation. 
Adapta'tion, I. the odi of fltling or suit- 
ing ; etate of fltnoaa. Adapt'I'S, o; 
tending to adapt 

Add, w. to Join to, to Increaee, to sum U|i. 

Addeem', if. to acootmt, lo reckon. 

Addcn'dum i. : pt. Addenda, [L.] a thing 
or tblngB to he added. 

Ad'dor, t. a Tenomotia serpent ; a-vlper, 

Ad'dflr'e-grasB, i, the name ofa plant- 

Ad'dbr^tomfuo, I, the naroo of an herb. 

Add'ible, ■. tbM may be added. 

Addtbil'Uy, •. th* Miw •ddibb. 

AddKf.v.todnoUto; toBlTean^aaelt 
up to twUbuUj, gemnny fa • bid 

voted lo : given up to. 
t. the quality of b^a s 
AddlUon (-dlRh'unX J. act 


to; to dliwt ic 

^d'dle. Addled, a. tnrren, empty; usually 

Ld 'die. headed. AdMo-patod, a. having 

barreo brains, weak. sUly. 
Iddor'eed. n. (ta beialdry) back to baFk. 
'. to apply to ; t« fqtcak ot writo 
UiWJt to; to prepare for; to 
maxe Jove to : ■. a speech ; a petition ; 
direction «f a lettor; deiterlty ; adroit- 

lo bring forward by way of 

■ -■ j»nt, 0. bilng- 

Adduelblo, o. 

the act of adducing. Adductiie. a. thrit 
brings forward. Adductor, i. any mus- 
cle that draws forward or coutracti. 
Sec Abductor. 
Ad'oliiig. B, royal. (This term was ap- 

drcn or Ungs and princes. It i« ftoin 
tho Saxon artfrlornilAEl, illustrious. ail'l 

Adopt', I. one well vomed in any art 
Ad'oqnacy. j. the quality or state of belt**- 
adequate. Adcqurite, a. cqnal to ; hilly 
sufficient; proportionate. Adeqnatilv, 

nose, t- adequacy. 
Adhe're, v. to stick closg; to remain 
firmly £ied. Adhensnce, Adheroncy, >. 
the quality or riate of adhertng. Ad- 
herent, a. atlcklng to ; united with : r, 
one who adh ens: a toUowcr or partisan. 

Ad'tpoM. a. nt L .. 

Adieu, ai. &rewe11. Eiee .irTrfu, p. air. 
Ad'lt, I. an ennsoce or passage to h mine. 
Adja'cent, a, lying close to, contiguoiw. 
Adjecf , I. to add to. to put to. Ad'ici-t- 

Bubstantlve to exptess quali^, £c. Ad. 

Iectlvely, art. as on adJocUve. 
join', e. to Join or uidto. Adjoining, 
!>. a. joining to ; close to. 
Adjoum {-Jum'), v- to put off to another 
day; to portpone. idinnmment, >. 
tlie act of adjourning; pnitponvmcnt. 
•""■*'" to decree, to pass sentEQce. 




Adju'rc, V. to impcso an oath upon an- 
other; to charge solemnly. 

Adjiisf, V. to put in order ; to settle. Ad- 
justiible, a. that may be adjusted. Ad- 
justing, Adjustment, ». the act of puttiiit; 
in order; settlement. Adjustive, a. 
capable of being adjusted. 

Ad'jutancy, ». the office of an adiutant. 

Ad'jutant, «. a military officer, whose duty 
is to assdst the major. 

Ad'juvant, a. helping, assisting. 

Admcas'ure, v. to adjust, to apportion. 
Admeasurement, b. measurement; ad- 
justment of proportions. 

Adniin'icle, «. a help ; support. 

Admin'ister, v. to carry oil, as govemmetit : 
to disi>ense, as jugtice: to give, as an 
oath : to manage or conduct ; to supply 
or $:ive; to i)erform the office of an 
administrator. Administra'tion, ». the 
act of administrating ; the persons col- 
lectively who are intrusted with the 
affairs of government. Admin'istrative, 
a. that administers. Administra'tor, s. 
masc. Administratrix, g. fern, one who 
manages the affairs of a person dying 
intestote. Administratorship, s. office 
of an administrator. 

Ad'mirablcncss, s. the state or quality of 
being admirable. Admirable, a. wor- 
thy of being admired ; wonderful ; ex- 
cellent. Aofmirably, ad. wonderfully, 

A<Vmiral, a. the commander of a fleet. 

Ad'miralty, a. the office for naval affairs. 

A.flmira'tion, a. act of admiring ; wonder. 

Admi'ro, v. to regard with wonder or with 
love ; to esteem or prize highly. 

Admi'rer, a. one that admires ; a lover. 

Admi'ringly, cuZ. in an admiring manner. 

Admissibility, a. quality of being admis- 
sible. Admis'sible, a. that may be ad- 
mitted ; allowable. Admission, a. act 
of admitting ; state of being admitted ; 
admittance ; the allowance of an argu- 

Admif , V. to grant entrance ; to allow. 

Admif tance. a. the act of admitting ; per- 
mission to enter ; entrance. 

Admix', V. to mingle or mix with. 

Admix'ture, a. a mixture ; what is mixed. 

Admon'ish, v. to reprove kindly; to worn ; 
to reprimand. Admonition (-nish'-un), 
a. act of admonishing ; kind reproof ; a 
reprimand. Admon'itive, a. containing 
admonition. Admonitory, a. admon- 
ishing; warning. 

Adnas'cent, a. growing to or uiKm some- 
thing else. 

Ad'noun, a. an adjective. 

Adnu'bilated, a. clouded, darkened. 

Ado (a-doo'), a. trouble, confusion, bustle. 

Adoles'cence, Adolescency, a. the period 
between childhood and maohood. 

Adoles'cent, a. advancing to manhood. 

Adopt', V. to take a sou or daughter by 
choice, who was not so by birth; to 
take or assume as one's own. 

Adop'tion, $. the making that our own 
which does not naturally belong to us. 

Adopt'ive, a. capable of being adopted. 

Adu'rable, a. worthy of adoration ; divinn. 
Adorableness, «. quality of being ador 
able, or of exciting adiOTatioQ. Adon'' 
tion,<. divine worsfilp; homage. Adora, 
V. to worship with extemud homage ; to 
reverence ; to love hiteoasely. Adorar, i. 
one who adores ; a worshipper. 

Adorn', V. to dress with omemenls : to 
decorato ; to embelliah. Adanha, 
Adornment, «. ornament; am'hrfivCl 

A down', prep, down; towards the gronnd. 

Adrcad', ad. in a state of fear. 

Adrift', ad. floating at random. 

Adroit', a. dexterous, exx>«rt ; skilftiL 

Adroitly, ad. dexterously, skilful^. 

Adroit'ness, a. dexterity, skill, am^dij. 

Adry', a. thirsty, desirous to diink. 

Adscititious (ad-so-tish'-usX a. taroui^t h 
as supplement; added; not reguUlte: 
Adscititiously, od. in an adsotitioiii 

Adntric'tion, $. the act of binding togeHier. 

Adula'tion, a. high complinacnt, flatteiy. 

Ad'ulator, a. a flatterer. Adulatoiy, c 
flattering, highly complimentaL 

Adult', a. a person arrived at matniity: 
a. grown up ; of full age. 

Adul'terant, a. that which adulteratea 
Adulterate, v. to corrupt by some i> 
reign mixture ; to iMllute : a. corrupted: 
debased. Adultora'tion, a. the act of 
adulterating ; the state of boing adid- 
terated. Adul'terer, a. a man guilty of 
adultery. Adulteress, a. a woman gul^ 
of adultery. Adiilterous, a. guuty of 
adultery. Adulterously, ad. in an adnt 
terous manner. Adultery, «. ayiolatki 
of the marriage bed. 

Adum'brate, v. to shadow out faintly. 

Adumbra'tion, a. the act of adumbntinf ; 
a slight sketeh or outline. 

Ad\in'cous, a. crooked, hooked. 

Adust', Adusted, a. burnt ux>, scorched. 

Adus'tion, a. act of burning, or drying. 

Advan'ce, v. to bring forwiu-d or oilier; 
to raise ; to promote ; to improve : t» 
propose; to forward; to pay beran* 
hand : a. a moving forward or Un^; 
progression, improvement ; pay before- 
hand. Advancement, «. progr op rioa; 

Advan'tago, a. sui)eriority ; benefit ; gain: 
V. to benefit; to promote. Advanta'- 
geous, a. beneficial; profitabla. Ad- 
vantageously, ad. with advantage. A^ 
vantageousness, a. usefulness, prafil 

Ad'vent, a. a coming; the conilng of oar 
Savioiir; a season of devotion, isdnd* 
faig the four weeks before Chiistmsa 
Advent'ual, a. relating to Adyent. 

Adventitious (-tish'usX a. added; mod- 
dental ; not inherent ; not natonL 
Adventitiously, ad. in an adventitlaai 

Adven'ture, a. an incident ; an entuptSm 
involving hazard ; propeity v e ntured la 
a vo3rage: «. to venture; to try the 
ehances; to hanrd; t^ dan. AdTSB- 




turer, ». cmewlit hazards a chance; one 
who pushes his fortune. Adventurous, 
a. inclined to ad\entures ; enterpris- 
hag; daring; hold. Adventurousness, 
s. qualily of heing adventurous. Ad- 
ventursome, a. adventuroKS. Adven- 
turously, ad, holdly, hazardously. 

Ad'verh, «. a part of speech joined to a 
verh, an adjective, or another adverb, 
to qualify or modify the meaning. Ad- 
verbial, a. that relates to adverbs. 
Adverbially, ad. like an adverb. 

Adversary, $. an antagonist, enemy. 

Adver'sative, a. implying opposition. 

Ad'verse, a. turned against or opposed to ; 
hostile; unfortunate, calamitous. Ad- 
versely, ad. vdth opposition; unfortu- 
nately. Adverseness, 9. opi)osition ; 
misfortune. Adver'sity, g. adverse cir- 
cumstances; misery; aflUction; dis- 

Advert', v. to turn the mind to ; to attend 
to. Adver'tence, Advertency, a. atten- 
tion to ; consideration ; heedfulness. 
Advertent, a. attentive ; heedful. 

Adverti'se, v. to give information of ; to 
make known t&ough the press. Ad- 
ver'tisement, $. iniormation; public 
notice through the press. Adverti'ser, 9. 
one who advertises (See 72, a. p. 26). 

Advi'ce, «. counsel; instruction; consulta- 
tion; informatum; notice. 

Advi'sable, a. to be advised; prudent. 
Advisableness, 9. fitness ; propriety. 
Advise, v. to counsel ; to inform. Ad- 
vised, p. a. informed; acting or per- 
formed with deliberation. Advised- 
ness, 9. deliberation; prudence. Ad- 
visedly, ad. deliberately; prudentiy. 
Adviser, 9. one who advises ; a counsel- 
lor. Advisory, a. giving advice, coun- 

Ad'vocacy, 9. the act of pleading; sux>- 
port. Advocate, 9. a pleader ; an inter- 
cessor: V. to plead; to support, to de- 
fend. Advoca'tion, 9. a pleading for ; a 

Advowee', 9. he Ihat has the right of ad- 
vowson. Advow'son, 9. a right to pre- 
sent to a benefice. 

Ad'ytum, 9. the inner or sacred place of a 
heathen temple; the chancel or altar 
end of a church. 

Adze, 9. an edged tool used by coopers. 

^'dile, 9. a Roman magisixate, appointed 
to inspect public buildings. 

^'gis, 9. a shield ; the shield of Minerva. 

Mne'idf 9. the heroic poem of Virgil. 

^o'lian, a. belonging to the wind. 

Aer, [a'Sr, L-l <• the air. A'erate, v. to 
combine witn fixed air. A-e'rial, a. be- 
longing to the air ; hi^h. A'erified, p. a. 
having air infused into or combined 
with. Aeriform, a. having the form or 
nature of air, gaseous. Aeiify.v.tomako 
aerified. Aerolite, 9. a meteoiic stone. 

AeroVogy, 9. tiie theory of the air. Aer- 
om'oter, 9. a madiine for weighing the 
air. Aerosta'tion, 9. the science of 
weighing the air ; aerial navigation. 

A'eronaut, «. one who sails through the 
air. Aeronau'tic, a. sailing through the 
air. Aeronautics, 9. the art of aerial 

JErosxopv, 9. the observation of the air. 

Aerostat'ics, 9. the science of sustaining 
bodies suspended in the air. 

jEru'ginous, a. partaking of copper rust. 

Esthetics, 9. pL the science wmch culti- 
vates the taste for all that is beautiful 
in nature or art It is derived from 
a Greek word which implies endued 
with 9msiJlnLUyi having quick percep- 
tion. Hence, iBsthetic, .£sthetical, and 

^'thiops-mineral, 9. quicksilver and sul- 
phur ground together. 

Afar', ad. from a great distance, remotely. 

Affability, 9. the quality of being afiablo. 
Af fieible, a. ready to converse ; easy of 
access; courteous. Affableuess, 9. af- 
fability. Affably, ad. in an affable 

Affair', 9. transaction, business, concern. 

Affect', V. to produce an effect upon; tf> 
move the passions ; to aim at or aspire 
to. Affecta'tion, 9 false show ; pre- 
tence. Affect'ed, p. a. moved ; full of 
affectation; assumed; pretended. Af- 
fectedly, ad. in an affected manner. 
Affectedness, 9. the quahty of being af- 
fected. Affecting, p. moving the feel- 
ings. Affectingly, ad. in an affecting 
manner. Affec'tion, 9. love, kindness ; 
desire ; tender ; fond. Affectionate, a. 
loving. Affectionately, ad. lovingly; 
tenderly. Affectionateness, 9. fondness ; 
tenderness. Affectioned, a. affected; 
mentally disposed. AffcM^ive, a. cap- 
able of affecting. Affectively, ad. in an 
impressive manner. 

Affettuo'so, [ItaL] a, (in music) ten- 

Affi'ance, 9. trust, coicfi dence ; a marriage 
contract : v. to bet.oth. Affianced, p. a. 
betrothed or pledged in marriage. 

AfBche, [af-feesn', Yr."] 9. a placard. 

Affida'vit, 9. awritten declaration on oatli. 

Affil'iate, v. to adopt or receive into a 
family as a 9on; to receive into society 
as a member. Affilia'tion, 9, the act of 

Affin'ity, 9. relation by kiiarriage ; chemi- 
cal attraction. 

Affirm', V. to declare coiifidentiy. Affirm- 
able, a. that may be affirmed. Affirma'- 
tion,«.declaration, confirmation. Affirm'- 
ative, a. that affirms ; that can or may 
be affirmed; positive: 9. that which 
contains an aflormation. Affirmatively, 
ad, positivelv, absolutely. 

Affix', V. to unite, to subjoin. Affix, 9 a 
particle united to the end of a woixl. 

Ama'tion, 9. the act of breathing upon. 

Afflict', V. to grieve, trouble, torment. 

Afflict'edness, 9. the state of affdction. 

Affllcf er, 9. one who afUcts. 

Afflictlngly, ocf. in an afflicting manoioxs 

Affliction, 9, sorrow, t{i\aerj, <saikax£^ivj. 




Af Huence, AfSuency, t. abundance ; opu- 
lence. AflSucnt, a. abundant; plenti- 
ful; rich: s. a stroam or river which 
fiows into another river. Affluently, ad. 
in an affluent manner. Afflux, AiSiix'- 
ion, M. the act of Oovring to ; that which 

Aitu'rd, V. to 3iold, or pnxluce ; to grant; 
t • bo able to bear expenses. 

AiTray', v. to fright, to terrify : «. a quar- 
rel, disturbance, tumult. 

AflVight (af-frite), «. to frighten: g. fright, 

A5r>-'nt (-fruntO. <• opon insult: v. to in- 
Kult opeuly and avowedly; to ofieud. 
Affmntive^ a. causing affront ; abuuve. 
Affrouted, p. a. offended ; insulted. 

Aify, V. to betroth ; to put tra:it in. 

Afield', acL to or in the field. 

Afi're, €uL on fire, burning. 

AP.oaf, ad. borne up by water ; floathig. 

Afoof, ad. on foot; in action, in motion. 

Afo're, prep, before, sooner in time. 

Afo'rohand, od. previously prepartd. 

Afo'rcmeutionecL a. mentioned before. 

Afo'renamed, a before named. 

Afo'resaid, a. said before. 

Afo'rcthoiight, a. premeditated. 

Afo'rctime, ad. in time past. 

Afraid', a. struck with fear, terrified. 

Afresh', ad. anew ; over again. 

Afric, African, a. pcrtainiu;;^ to Afric.i. 

A front (a-frunf), ad. in front 

Aft, ad. astern. See Abaft. After, prtp. 
following in place or time, bohind; in 
pursuit of; accordiug to ; in imit.-itiou 
of : ad. in succeeding time ; afteiwaris : 
a. succeeding, subsequent. See After, 
p. 59. Aftendl, ad. at last; upou the 

Af'tcract, «. a subsequent act. 

Af teragos, i. succeeding ages. 

AT tcrclap, 8. an event hap])ening aiver an 
affair iit Bupp<>8od to bo at an end. 

Af torcourse, s. future course. 

Afturcrop, 9. the second crop. 

Afterhours, «. the hours after businetrs 

Artcrlifo, i. the remainder of lifo. 

Al*tcniiu*^h, 9. the second crop of grass. 

Afternoon', s. time from noon to evening. 

At'tcrpains, 8. pains after birth. 

At'icrpart, t. the latter i)art. 

Af'tc-rincco, 8. a fircc, or any smalk-r on- 
tvrtjiinmont, after tho play. 

xVftcrstato, t. tlio future state. 

Aftertliougbt, 8. reflection after the net. 

Af'ertiincs, 9. sucecoiling times. 

Afterwards, ad. in subsequent time* 

Af turwiso, a. wise too late. 

Aftcrwit, 8. wisdom that comes too late. 

At'terwrath, 9. anger when the provoca- 
tion seems past. 

A'l'o, 8. a Turkish military oOiccr of rank. 

Again (a^n'), ad. once more ; in return. 
Against (ag-ensfX prep, in opposition 
to ; noting enmity. 

Ag'ai>ae, [Gr.] 9. pL love-feasts, or feasts 
of chanty, among the primitive Chris- 

Alfasf. See Agbast, pa^ 5a 

Ag'ate, t. a ■emi-pelloiBlc^ ^ 

AT'atiiod, & maAed Uka an uipJtib. 

Age, 8. any period of tima ; a handnl 
years ; a auceeMioii or Benaratkiii rf 
men ; maturity ; daoliiM oflife. A'gtd, a 
advanced in yeus : «. old jpenona. 

A'gcncy, t. actian; operraon; mimn 
ment of another'a affiilrB. 

Ageu'da, [L.] t. •!. tiUn^s to i« dnu; i 
memorandum-DOok ; a ritual or MnlBi 

A'gent, 9. a deputy: a: aotiiv upoB. 

A'gentship, «. tho office of an agent 

A^Iom'ento, «. to gather up in a ML 

Agglomention, t. a maaa, a nei^p. 

Agghi'tinate, v. to unite uy cohoalaB. 

Agglutina'tion, ». union, ooheeion. 

Ag'grandixo, «. to enUu^pe, to exalt if 
gran'disement, «. tha state of being a* 
alted or prefeired ; great advanceuML 
Ag'grandixer, t. he that aggrandiiai. 

Ag'gravate, «. to make worse or grate; 
to provoke to anger. A«rBTaTa'tkii, & 
the act of aggravating. 

Ag'gregate, a. formed "by the ooUeotiaail 
rarts : t. the sum or resuU of ports oit 
iectcd: «. to collect together. Aflp» 
gately, ad. collectively, taken In mia. 
A^rgroga'tiou, 8. the act of aggn^tiDf; 
whole mass ; union of like bodiea 

Aggress', v. to assault or attack flnt 

Aggros'sion, ». the first act of iz^vy. 

Apgrcs'sive, a. making the flxat attwk. 

Aggi-es'sivenen, 8. the being aggreerim 

Agtcrcss'or, 9. one who first aanulti » 

Aggrie'vanoe, «. Bee Grieranoe. 

Aggrie've, v. to ix^Jure, to >>«»»-w_ 

Aggrie'ved, p. a. afflicted, iiriured. 

Agile (aj'llX a. qidck of m^on, xdmbk 
Agileness, 8. agilitv. Agil'ity, a quid:* 
ncss of motion ; nunblenosa ; actlvil;. 

Agio (ad'jSo), «. tho difference between 
The value ol bank-notes and the coneDk 

Agisf , V. to let cattle feed in partan 
groimds at so much par w^eek. 

Agist'mont, 8. feeding of cattle fn a flon* 
mon pastiure for a fixed price. 

Agitate (aj'-), v. to put in motion ; toitir; 
to disturb; to discuss. Agita'tion, «. ics 
of agitating ; stato of being agitated; 
perturbation of mind ; diBcustlon. Agi* 
tative, a. producing agitation. A^nip 
tor, 8. one that agitates; a dmnagogut. 

Aglet, [aieuilette, Fr.] «. a point at tb« 
ondofafringo; a tag or pendant 

Ag'nail, «. a disease of the nalLa. 

Aff'nate, a. related on the father^ ildtflr 
by moles ; allied to 

Agno'men, [L.] t. aa addlttanal bum 

given on account of eomo expifltt: n^ 
cipio AfrieanuM. 
Ago', ad. in past time: as Vang aga 
Agog', ad. in a state of desire. 
Ago'ing, ad. in action, tDXrtam, 
Agone (a gon'X ad. aso: In tune pMt 
AgcTiist'io, AgoniRtkal, a. rduiiig iB 
prize-fighting, or afcfaletle i 




V. to writhe with pain; to feci 
Agonizing, j>. a. giving extreme 
Agonizingly, ad. with extreme 
igony, 8. paJn that causes writh- 
treme pain ; the pangs of death. 
, a. relating to fields or grounds, 
e equal division of lands. 
. to be in concord; to concur 

yield to or grant ; to suit with; 
) amicably; to make a bargain. 
)le, a. pleasing to the mind or 
conformable to. Agreeableness, 
iy of being agreeable. Agrce- 
d, in an agreeable manner. 

p. a. setued by consent. 
ent 8. act of agreeing ; state of 
greed; concord; conformity; a 
t, a bargain. 

Agrestical, a. belonging to the 
rustic; rude. 

iral, a. relating to agriculture, 
.ture, 9. the art or science of cul- 

the earth; tillage ; husbandry, 
turist^ i. one skilled in agricul- 

ad. run ashore; stranded. 
m intermitting fever, with cold 

«. the paroxysm of an ague. 
I. like an ague ; shivering, 
enoting pity, siupiise, joy, &c 
a word of l^umph and scorn. 
d. farther on: onwaixL 
(. a word used to hail or call to 

1 at a distance : (a sea term). 

o succour, to help, to relievo: 

succoiur, relief. 

imp, [aid'-deh-oong, Fr.] $. u 

r officer attending on a general 

3y orders, &c. 

'gret, 8. the small white heron. 

aigrcf , Fr.]«.atuftof feathers, &c. 

See Aglet. 

be sick or in jMdn: a. a disease, 
a. disordered, sickly. Ailment, <. 
) direct towards a mark, to strive 

to attempt to reach: 8. dirco- 
nd; intention; piurpose; scope, 
(s, a. without aim. 
fluid which we breathe ; gchtle 
a tune or melody; the mien of a 

V. to expose to the air; to dry 
nd warmth, 
n, 8. See Balloon. 
3r, 8. a vesicle filled with olr. 
a. bom of the air ; fancifld. 
, a. bonio in or by the air. 
a. built in the air ; imaginary. 
I, a. painted in air ; visionary. 
. a gun charged with air. 
t. gayly, merrily, briskly. 
8. openness to the air; gayety. 
8. a short excursion to enjoy the 
x>stire to air and warmth. 
, 8. an air-extracting machine. 
«. a passage for air Into a mine. 
) a. impervious to the air. 

belonging to the air; gay, 


Aisle (He), 8. the wing or side of a church. 

Ait, 8. a small island in a river. 

Ajar', ad. half or partly opened. 

Akimlx), a. bent, arched, crooked. 

Akin', a. related to ; resembling ; alike. 

Al'abaster, 8. a kind of sofb white marble : 
a. made of or belonging to alabaster. 

Alack', int. alas, an expression of sorrow. 
Aladcaday, int. a fjaimiliar word of sor- 

Alac'rity, «. cheerfulness, briskness, readi- 
ness ; cheerful willingness. 

Alamo'de, [Fr.] ad. according to the mode 
or fashion. 

Alarm', v. to call to amu/ to give notice 
of duiger : to terrlQr: «. a call to arms; 
notice of danger ; sudden surprise with 
fear; terror. Alarm-bell, «. the bell 
that is rung to give the alarm. Alarm- 
ing, p. a. producing alarm ; terrifying^. 
Alarmingly, ad. in au alarming miui- 
ner. Alarmist, 8. an exciter of alarms. 
Alar'um, the same as aiarm; as au 

Alas', int. denoting pity or g^ef. 

Ala'te, Alatcd, a. wiiig-like. 

Alb, 8. a sacred vestment of white linen. 

Al'batross, 8. a large sea-bh-d. 

Albe'it, ad. although, notwithstanding. 

Albes'ccnt, a. becoming white ; whiti>h. 

Albigen'ses, «. an ancient sect of French 
Protestants, so called from Albi, in 

Albi'no for al-bee'no), «. a white descend- 
dant of black parents ; a T)erson whuoo 
skin and hair are remarkaoly white. 

Albugin'eous, a. like the white of an e{^g. 

Albu'go, 8. a disease in the eye, in which 
the cornea contracts a whiteness. 

Al'bum, 8. a blank book for the insertion 
of autographs, Ac. 

Albu'meu, 8. the white of an egg. Albu- 
minous, a. containing albumen. 

Album'um, «. the soft white part of 

Alcaid', Alcade, t. a Spanish or Moorish 
justice or judge ; a governor of a castle ; 
a jidler. 

Alchemic, Alchemical (fil-kem'-), a. relat- 
ing to alchemy. Alchemically, ad. in 
an alchemical manner. Al'chemist, a. 
a professor of alchemy. Alchemy, 8. 
occult chemistry, or the pretended 
science of the transmutation of metals; 
a mixed metal so called. 

Al'cohol, 8. a pure rectified spirit; for- 
merly, the substance of any body ro- 
ducea to a fine im^pable powder. 

Alcohol'ic, a. partakmg of alcoho). 

Alcoholiza'tion, 8. act of rectifying spirits. 

Al'coholize, v. to convert into alcohol. 

Alco'ran. See Alkoran and Koi-an. 

Alco've, 8. an arboiur; a recess in a cham- 
ber, or place for a bed. 

Aldabaran', «. a star in the constellation 
of Tam\is, the BvtlVa eve. 

Al'der, 8. a tree resembling the hazeL 

Al'derman, 8. a magistrate of a town, cnx- 
jporate. See this -^ wc^ "^. ^ . 

AldenniKii'V&, a. \wst\ato!».^»«CL^^ssKMBa- 




▲Idi'ne, a. noting editions of the cLissics 
from tbo press of Aldus Muuutius of 
Venice, in the sixteenth century. 

Ale, s. a fermented malt liquor. 

A'lcbrewer, ». one who brows alo. 

Alee', ad. on the side opposite to that 
against which the wind blows: (a sea 

Alefed, a. fed with ale. 

Aro<,'ar, $. vinegar, made of sour ale. 

Alehouse, s. a house where malt liquor is 
sold; a public-hoiise. 

Alcm'bic, s. a vessel used in distilling. 

Alert', a. watchful, vigilant, brisk. Alert- 
ncs' . s. sprightliness, briskness ; promp- 
titude — 0)1 the alerty on the look-out. 

Alcxau'drian, a. pertaining to Alexandria. 
Alexandrine, s. a verse of twelve sylla- 
bles (first used in a French poem called 
the Alexandriad): a. relatmg to the 
verse so called. 

Al'gebra, s. a peculiar kind of arithmetic. 
Algebra'ic, Algebraical, a. pei-taining to 
the science of algebm. Algebraic.iliy, ad. 
by means of algebra. Algebraiat, s. one 
well versed in algebra. 

erine (il-ge-reen'), s. a native of Algiers: 
a. belonging to Algiers. 

Al'gous, a. pertaining to seaweed 

Altfuazil (iU-ga-zeel'), s. a Spanish bailiff. 

A'Uas, [L.l ad. otherwise : s. in law, a writ 

Al'ibi, [L.l s. elsewhere ; in another i)lace. 

Alien (aUyen), «. a foreigner; a stran- 
ger: a. foreign, estranged, averse to. 
Alienable, a. that may be transferred. 
Alienate, v. to transfer to another; to 
withdraw the affections: a. estranged. 
Alicna'tion, .s the act of transferring; 

Ali'ght (-lite), v. to descend, to dismount. 

Ali'ke, ad. with resemblance ; equally. 

Al'iment, s. nutriment, food, sui>port. 

Alimen'tal, a. nutritive, nourishing. 

Alimen'tally, ad. so as to nourish. 

Alimen'tary, a. belonging to food. 

Al'imony, s. the allowance to a married 
woman when separated from her hus- 

Al'iquaut, a. a portion of a number which, 
however repeated, will never make up 
the number ; as, 3 is an aliquant of 10, 
thrice 3 being 9. and 1 wanted. 

Al'iquot, s. any portion of a given number 
which, being multiplied, will amount 
to tliat given number exactly ; as, 3 is 
an aliquot part of 12. 

Ali've. a. existing, active, sprightly. 

Al'kali, s. a salt which neutralizes acids. 

Al'kaline, a. having the quality of alkali. 

Arkalizc, v. to render alkaline. 

Al'koran, s. the Koran. See Koran. 

All, a. the whole of : s. tlie whole number 
or quantity; every one; every part: ad. 
wholly, entirely; completely; q^uite. 
AlU in composition, is used adverbially, 
to extend, the meaning of, or give force 
to, a word ; as aXl-h&ivieoiLs, ah-destroy- 
ing, &c. In some words it becomes 
completely incorporated, and drops an 
1»' as in almoatf also, atone, &c. 

Allah, s. the Arabic name of QodL 

Allay', V. to compose, to pacify, to assuago. 
AUay, s. now written Alloy, whidi see. 

Alle^'tion, s. the act of aU^^ing; tiie 
thmg alleged ; a declaration ; a pIcA. 
Allege (al-lej'), v. to affirm, to deckrc; 
to maintain ; to plead as an raccuae, or 
produce as an argument. All^ioable, a. 
that may be alleged. Allogod, p. a. 
affirmed, asserted. 

Alle'giance (-jance), s. the obligatloci or 
duty of a subject to a sovereign, goram- 
ment or state ; loyalty. 

Allegor'ical, Allogoric, a. in the fonn of 
an allegory ; typicaL Allegoiicallv, ad. 
in an allegorical manner. Allegorize^ r. 
to turn into an allegory ; to use aHegorj. 
Allegory, s. a story or figurative repre- 
sentation, in which the dui^ct and literal 
meaning is not the real and prindpo) 
one, but is designed to image forth some 
important truth with greater vividness 
and force ; a symbolical writing or re- 
presentation ; a fable ; a type. 

AUcgret'to, ad. less quick than altegro. 

Alle'gro, ad. sprightly, quick, (in music). 

Allelu'jah (-yahX «. See Hallelujah. 

Alle'viate, v. to lighten or remove in put, 
as pain; to mitigate; to relievo; t) 
allay. Alleviating, p. a. mtiki-nfr lighter; 
mitigating. Allevia'tion, «. '^e act «f 
alleviating ; a lessening or mitigatioii. 

Alley, s. any narrow passage or walk. 

All-fools'-day, s. the fiirst of ApriL 

All-fours, s. a low game at cards. 

All-hal'lows, s. the term near All Saints. 

Alli'ance, s. relation by marriage or kin- 
dred ; a league with foreign powers. 

Allied (al-Udo), p. a. confedei-ated ; united 
by kindred or alliance. Allies', $. pL 
states which have entered into a league 
for their mutual defence. 

Alliga'tion, «. the act of tying together; 
one of the rules of arithmetic 

Alligator, s. the American crocodile. 

Allitera'tion, s. a Ix^ginning of two or mora 
words with the same letter. AUit'erSr 
tive, a. relating to alliteration. 

Allocate, v. to place ; to settle ; to albi 
Allcca'tion, s. the act of plucii^g or add- 
ing to. 

Allocu'tion, s. the act of speaking to ; an 
address ; particularly of the Pope to bia 

Allo'dial, a. freehold, not feudaL Alio* 
dium, s, land held in one's own rigbt 
and not by feudal tenure. 

Allonge, [al-limj, Fr.]s. a. a pass or thrust 
with a rapier in fencing; a long roiu 
when a horse is trotted in the hand. 

Allopathic, a. pertaining to allopftthy. 
Allopathically, ad. in accordance wiUi 
allopathy. Allop'athist, «. one who 
adheres to allopathy. Allopathy, i. the 
usual medical practice as opposed to 

Allot', V. to give by lot; to distribute; to 
grant. Allotted, Allotting, pnrtioijplos 
of Allot. Allotment^ «. the p^ allotted 
to any one. 




Allow', V. to admit or acknowledge; to 
permit, yield, or grant; to make an 
abatement in selling. Allowable, a. 
that may be permitted, lawful Allow- 
ableness, «. lawfulness. Allowably, ad, 
with claim of allowance. Allowance, a. 
indulgence, sanction, licence ; a deduc- 
tion; a stipend. 

Alloy', M. a baser metal mixed in coinage ; 
the evil that is mixed with good. See 
Allay. Alloy', v. to reduce the purity 
of a metal ; to debase by mixture. Al- 
loyage, s. the act of alloying metals. 

All-saints'-day, s. a religious holiday, the 
first of November. All-souls'-day, s. a 
religious holidiqr, the second of Novem- 

All'spioe, i. Jamaica pepper or pimenta. 

Allu'de, V. to hint at; to refer to. 

Allu're, V. to entice, to decoy ; to seduce. 
Allurement, s. that which allures or 
entices. Allurer, «. one that allures, 
entices or tempts. Alluring, p. a. en- 
ticing; tendency to allure. Alluringly, 
ad. in an alluring manner. 

Allu'sion, t. act of alluding; a reference 
to something supi)Osed to be already 
^ blown; a hint. Allusive, a. making 
allusion; hinting. Allusively, ad. in 
an allusive manner. Allusiveness, s. 
-^e quality of being allusive. 
Kllu via, «. Che plural of Alluvium, [L.] 
earth deposited by the washing of floods, 
or carried down by rivers. Alluvia^ a. 
carried away by water and deposited ; 
as alluviai soil. Alluvion f. See Al- 

Ally', V. to unite by friendship or kindred : 
s. a friend, a confederate, a relation. 

Almacan'tar, Abnucantu*, s. a circle of the 
sphere paxuUel to the horizon. 

Al'manac, «. an annual calendar. 

Almigh'tiness (-mi'-X ^. omnipotence. 

Almigh'ty, a. of unlimited i)ower, omni- 
potent: «. the Divine Being; God. 

Almond (am'ondX ». the fruit of the al- 
miond-tree. .Almonds, «. two roimd 
glands on the sides of the basis of the 
tongue ; the tonsUs. 

Al'moner, ». the officer of a prince em- 
ployed in the distribution of alms or 

Al'monry, «. the place where alms are 

Almo'st, ad. nearly, near, well nigh. 

Alms (amz), «. a charitable donation ; any- 
thinig given to the poor. Alms-basket, «. 
the basket in which provisions are put 
to be given away. iJmsdeed, ». an act 
of charity. Almsgiver, g. one who gives 
alms. Almshouse^ «. a free dwdling 
for the poor. 

Aloe (&1'q), t. a tree or species of wood 
used in the East for permmes ; a genus 
of plants. Aloes (al-o'seX the pliu^ of 
Aloe; also, the medicinal gum of a 
species of the plant, which is used as 
a cathartic. Aloefic, Aloetical, a. re- 
lating to, or obtained from aloes. Al- 
oetics, t. pi- aloetic medicines. 

Aloft', ad. on high. See this word, p. 50. 

Alo'ne, a. single. See AlorUj p. 60. 

Along', ad. lengthwise ; onweuxi ; forward: 
prep, by the side of; near to. Along- 
side, ad. by the side of a ship. 

Aloof. See this word, p. 60. 

Aloud', ad. loudly, with much noise. 

Alpac'a, s. a species of Peruvian sheep; 
cloth made of their wool. 

Al'pha, f. the first letter in the Greek al- 
phabet, answering to our A ; it is there- 
fore used to signify the^rrt or beginning. 

Al'phabet, «. the letters of a language ar- 
range in the customary order. Alpha- 
bet'ical. Alphabetic, a. in the order of 
the alphabet. Alphabetically, od. in al- 
phabetic order. 

Arpine, a. relating to, or resembling the 
Alps; mountainous. Alpine, «. the 
mountain strawberry. 

Alread'y, ad. now, at this time ; so soon. 

Al'so, ad. likewise ; in the same manner. 

Alt, Al'to, 8. the higher part of the gamut. 

Altar (awl'tarX t. a place raised for sacri- 
ficing on ; the communion table ; figura- 
tively, religion. Altar-piece, «. a paint- 
ing over the altar. 

Alter (awl'ter), v. to make otherwise ; to 
change ; to become otherwise or difTer- 
ent; to vary. Alterable, a. that may 
be altered. Alterant, a. producing or 
causing a change : t. an alterative medi- 
cine. Altera'tion, g. the act of altering 
or changing ; a change. Al'terative, a. 
having the quality of altering ; a medi- 
cine that gradually (aUerg or^ improves 
the constitution, but has no immediate 

Altercate (51-), v. to contend in words ; to 
wrangle. Alterca'tion, i. an angry dis- 
pute; wrangling. 

Alter'nate, a. by turns, one after another; 
reciprocal : v. to perform alternately ; to 
change reciprocally. Alternately, ad. 
in alternate succession. Alternating, p. a. 
acting alternately or reciprocally. Al- 
tema'tion, g. the act of alternating ; re- 
ciprocal succession; alternate perfor- 
mance. Alter'native, g. the choice given 
of one of two things : a. ofiEering a choice 
of two things. Alternatively, ad. by 
turns; reciprocally. 

Althou'gh (awl-thoX conj. notwithstand- 
ing, however. 

Altim'etry, g. tfae art of measuring hbights. 

Al'titude, g. height ; elevation of a heav- 
enly body above iiie horizon. 

Altogeth'er, ad. completely^ entirely. 

Al'to-relievo, [It.] g. high relief in sciilp- 
ture, the figure standing out nearly 
detached from the backgroimd 

Al'um, g. a mineral salt of an acid taste. 
Alu'mina, Al'umXne, g. an earth com- 
posed of aluminum and oxygen; pure 
clay or axgiL ' Alu'minous, a. oonsistiiig 
of alum. Aluminum, g. the metallic 
base of alumina. Al'umstone, ». a kind 
of mineral. 

Alum'nus, [L."i «. «k Ios^tOk^^X ^ \nks^\ 
a 'gradwaxQ ot ». ooWa^^. 





i^l'Tine, a. pertaining to the abdomen. 

Alwayt^ Ahvay (awt'-), cuL at all times, 
continually ; Mfitbout variation. 

Am, tlio first i)erBon of tho verb to Be. 

Amabillty. Bee Amiability. 

Am'ii'Une, t. the soluble part of starch. 

Ainuiu', (id. with vobcmenco, fiercely. 

Ariiol'uam, «. a mixture of quicksilver with 
another metal; any mixture. Am:il- 
somato, V. to imite in an omuU'am. 
Amalgama'tion, «. the act of amalga- 
mating; an admixture or blending of 
dilTcrent things. 

Amanuon'sis, «. a clerk or secretary, who 
wi'Ites what another dictates. 

Am'aranth, i. a genus of plants ; in poetry, 
an imaghmry flower that never fades. 
Amarau'lhlno (76, p. 27X a. coiisistini; of 
amaranths ; like an amaranth ; uniting. 

Ainar'itudo, s. bitterness. 

Amass', v. to heap up, to accumnl{.te. 

Amoss'mentt i. an accumulation, a heap. 

Amateur', «. a virtuoso ; a lover of tho arts. 
' Am'ativo, a. given to love, amatory. Am- 
ativonoss, «. a term in phreiiologj'. in- 
dicative of a propensity to love. Ama- 
to'rial, a. relating to love. Am'atory, o. 
relating to or causing love. 

Amauro'sis, 8. a dimness or decay of sight ; 
gutta serena. 

Ama'so, v. (to throw into a maze), to con- 
found with surprise and wonder; to 
astonish. Amazodly, ad. with amaze- 
ment. Amozodnoss, «. state of being 
amazed. Amazcment,«. amingledfcoling 
of surprise and wonder ; a&tunishmeiit. 
Amazing, a. wonderful; astonishing. 
Amazingly, ad. wonderfully; ustonlsli- 


Am'azon, «. one of the Amazons; a fabu- 
lous nation of female warriors ; a virago 
or masculine woman. Amazo'nion, a. 
like on Amazon. 

Ambu'ges, [L.] t. pi. turnings; circumlocu- 

Ambas'sador, «. a person sent ns the repre- 
sentative of a prince or state on any 
public business to a forcitm country. 

Am'ber, i. a yellowish 6cnii-tra:i^.i;:ii'cnt 
substance, supposed to bo a ]b;jsil rcdiu. 
It is highly electrical when nibbed : a. 
consisting of amber ; resembling ambur. 

Ambergii-s (-gro.isX f- a fmgi-;mt rooinous 
substimce, used as a perfume and a 

Am'ber-sood, t. musk seed: it is like 

Am'bor-treo, t. a fragrant evergreen shrub. 

Ambidox'tcr, t. a poi-son that can use both 
hands alike ; a doii>)le-dealor. Ambi- 
dextrous, a. double-dealing, deceitful. 

AmlDiont, a. eomTmsing, surroundin:^ ; 
I>artieulavly ap])liod to tlio air, which 
surrounds all bo'lios. 

-Ambigu'ity, ». obbcurity of words ; double 
meaning; uncertainty of sigiiilication. 
Ambig'uous, a. doubtful, mysterious. 
Ambiguously, ad. in a doubtful uiiumcv. 
Amblguouanoss, ». unceiiaintv r r doubt- 
fulness of mCiUiiui;. 

Ambition (-bish'unX t. vi InardJnaU ov 
eager desire of powor, funam^ or foporiur' 
ity. Ambitious^ a. full o( MQiutimi; 
aiipiring; eager for; showy. AmU 
tiuubly, 0(2. m an mmbitioui nunier. 
Ambitiousneas, t. the quaUtj of bdof 

Am'blc, V. to pace or trip along ; to more 
cosily : i. a pace between a walk and s 
trot. Ambler, «. a horse that ainUe«; 
a pacer. Ambling, p. a. vocing or trip- 
ping along. Amblmgly, ad. wUh. u 
ambling movement 

Ambi'o'ftia, «. the name of a plant; in 
poetical language, the food of tho goda. 
Ambrosiao, a. ambrosiaL Aiqlvoiisl, 
Ambrosian, a. possessing the quaUtiM 
of ambrosia; fnigiunt, doUoioiii. 

Am'bry, g. an almonry ; a ixuitry. 

Aiiibs'-acc, s. a double ace, or two acta 

Anrbulance, i. a moving or camp houitaL 
Anibulant, a. walking or moving atont 
AmbuLi'tioii, t. the act of walking about 
Am^bulatory, «. a place fur wtUlung : a 
not stationary ; moving about. 

Ainbusca'do, *. a private past to aur|rti 
an enemy (literally, in or among kmlal 
Am'busli, 9. a concealed stationto w^ra 
froin, or to lie iu wait for. 

Ameer', Amir, «. on Eostom pxinoe or 

Am'cl, «. tho matter used for onamolliiigi 

Aiuoliorate, v. to improve, to maJca baiter 
Ameliora'tion, «. improvement. 

Amen', ad. maj' it be so ; verily. 

AmSnabirity, Amo'nablcucss, s. tha state 
of being amenable. Amenable, a. liaUo 
to be brought to account ; roexM^nsibla. 

Amend', v. to giow better; to improve 
morally. Amendable, a. that may be 

Amende, [a-mongd', Fr.1 «. line, repara- 
tion ; a j^ii6/icacknowlca^mcuitofiujax7 
done to another. [This is " the avuAde 
h-.noi'ublc," wldch, in Fixuice, was 
forriiorly an infamous punishment]. 

Aiiic-U'lin.nt, s. a change for the better; 
rcforuiu'.iou of life; an addition made 
to a RiotidU, bill, &a, with the view 
of arueju'liifi or improving it. ATTf**^ 
s. pi. rucomucnso ; satisracticoi. 

Amcn'ity, s. ploasantue&s, agrooablenoas. 

Amcr'ce, r. to punish by fine or penalty. 

Ainei-'ccable, a. liable to ameix-'omeut. 

Amci-'cemont, s. a pecuniary fino. 

Amcr'ican, 8. a native of Amorica : a. pe^ 
taiiiing to America. Amoricaniae, v. 
to render American. AxuericanLun, i. 

An ii'cthyst, s. a pi>eciou8 stone. Amethyat'- 
Ine, a. like an amethyst. 

Amiability, g. amiablencss. A'tniabkb a 
worthy to bo loved; ple:isiug; agree* 
able. Amlibleness, i. the quality of 
bc'hig amiable. Amiably, tiiL in an 
amiable manner. 

Am'ianth, Amianth'ua, ». aninoombiUtiblA 
mineral substance, resembling flasK. 

Am'iuiible, a. friendly, kind, peaceaUbt. 

Am'icabloness, t. frioudliuoss; goodwilL 




Am'ioably, od. in ft friendly manner. 

Amice d^cnUO. !• the undermost part of a 
priest's Bhoulder-olotli, or alb. 

Amid', Amidat', prep. In the middle. 
Aiaid'Bhipa,a(i.inthemiddleof the ship. 

Am|88\ ad. faultily, improperly. 

Am'ity, «. frienasmp, love, harmony. 

Ammo'nia, 8. a volatile alkali of a pungent 
smell; spirits of hartshorn. Ammo- 
niac, Ammoni'acal, a. pertaining to or 
havh^ the qualities of ammonia or 
ammoniac Ammo'niac, «. a gum resin 
used in medicine, hrought f^om Africa 
and the East Indies. 

Am'mouite, s. the eortm wnmSnU or ser- 
pent stone, A fossil ahelL Ammo'nium, 
s. the metallic base of ammonia. 

Ammunitianf-niaVun), t. military stores, 
•powder, balls, shells, ito. 

Am'nestjt «. an act of general pardon. 

Amo'mum, «. a hot spicy sort of fruit 

Among', Amonnt', pr^. mingled with. 

Am'orous, a. disposea to love ; loving. 
Amorously, ad. lovmgly, fondly. Amor- 
ousness, $. the quality ox being amorous. 

Amor'phous, a. without form or shape. 

Amorf. ad. liiiBless, dead, dejected. 

Amort'ise, v. to alienate lands to a corpor- 
ation. Amortisement, a. right of trans- 
ferring lands to nuntmain; that is, to 
some oomi>any that never is to cease. 

Amount', v. to rise in value, to increase : 
s. the sum total, whole result. 

Amour (a-moor'), «. an af&dr of gallantry. 

Amphib'ian, s. an amphibious animal. 
Amphibious, a. partii^ing of two na- 
tures, so as to have the power of living 
on land or in water. Amp)iibiousness, 9. 
the being amphibious. Amphibia!, s. pi. 
amphibious animals. 

Amphibol'ogy, $. discourse of uncertain 
meaning ; ambiguity, or equivocation. 

Am'iJlubrach, t. a poetic foot [^ ~ ^]. 

Amphictyon'ic, a. relating to the council 
uf the Amphictyonsor Grecian deputies. 

AmpliisbaQ'na, i. a serpent which is said 
to move with cither end foremost. 

Auiphiscii, [ara-fish'-^I, Or.] «. the inhabi- 
tants of the torrid aone, whose «i^a4oic« 
full both teays, that is, northward in one 
Ijart of the year, and southward in the 
other. See 4soii. 

Amphithe'ntrc, v. a building in ft droular 
form, with scats all round. 

Am'phora, «. a jug with a double ear. 

Am 'pic, a. large, wide, liberal, diffusive. 
Ampjeucsa, s. Largeness, extent, liberal- 
ity. Amplifica'tioii. «. enlar^gement, ex- I 
tension. Am'pUt'y, v. to enlarge, to ex- j 
oggcrate. Amplitude, i. extent, large- 
ucaa, capacity. Amply, ad. larg^y, ' 
liberally, copioualy. 

Ani'imtate. v. to cut off, as a limb, te. 
Amputa'tion, s. a cutt.ngoff a limb. iic. 

Amuck', €uL a llaLiy word for killing. 
*' To run amvck " is to run frantic about 
the streets attacking every one, as done 
by some fanatics iu tlie East. 

^ni'ulet, 9. a charm hung about the neck 
to prevent evil or mischance. 

Amu'se, «. to entertain, to divert ; to be- 
guile. Amusement, 9. a pastime or en- 
tertainment. Amusing, a. entertain- 
ing, pleasing. Amusingly, cui. in an 
amusing manner. AmuRive, a. afPbrd- 
f ng amusement. Amusively, ad. in an 
ftmusive manner. 

Amyg'daloid, «. a variety of trftp-rook with 
embedded almond-shaped minerals. 

An, in old authors, signifies ^. Aa an 
artide, it has the same meaning aa A, 
which see, p. 63. 

An'a, a Geeek prefix, which see, p. 47. 

An'a (or ft), in medical proscriptions im- 
ports the like or same quantity of. 

Anabap'tism, 9. the doctrine of the Ana- 
baptists, a religioup sect who hold that 
adults alone should be baptized, and 
that if baptised in infiEtncy, they should 
be baptized a^iain. See Ana, p. 47. 

Anachoret, Anachorite. Bee Anchoret. 

Anachronism, ^an-ak'-) 9. an error in chro- 
nology by wnich an event is referred to 
a wrong time. Anachronis'tie, a. con- 
taining an anachronism. 

Anaoon'da, 9. a Ceylon serpent ; a boft. 

Anacroon'tic, a. relating to Anacrecn : 9. 
a poem after the manner of Anacreon. 

Anadiplo'sis, 9. a reduplication ; a figure 
iu rhetoric. 

An'agram, 9. a transposition of letters or 
words so as to Ibrm other words. Ana- 
gi-ammat'io, a. forming an anagram ; re- 
lating to anagrams. Anagram'matist, 
9. a composer of anagrams. 

Analec'ta, [L.] s. pi. collection of extracta 

Analogical (-loj'-), a. according to analogy. 
Analoigically, ad. by way of analogy. 
Anal'ogous, a. having analogy ; corres- 
pondent. Analogously, a({. in an anal- 
ogous maimer. An'sdogue (-log), 9. a 
thing analogous or corresponoing to 
another thing. Anal'ogy, 9. relation, 
siwilaiity or proportion between things 
which are in some respects different. 

Anal'ysia, «. a resolution or separation of 
anything, either material or iutelloc: ual, 
into its elements or component mi-ts. 
It is opposed to 9ynih*9i9. Anal^'t'ic, 
\nalytu»l, a. relatinsr to or containing 
analysis. Analytically, ad. in such a 
manner as separates compounds into 
simples. An'alyse, v. to resolve into 
first principles or elenients. Analyser, 
9. one who analyses. Analyt'ics. «. the 
science of analysis. 

Ana'iuis, i. the pine-apple plant ; the pine- 
apple fruit. 

Au'upest, I. in poetiy, a foot of three syllar 
bios, two short and one lung. 

Anarcik (an'arkX 9. an author or iiromotcr 
of auarchy. Anarch'lo, Anarchical, <<;. 
without government coufuHcd. An'- 
arohist, «. an anarch. Auarcby, «. want 
of govfjmmeut in a kingdom ur state ; 
confuidQn ; chaos. 

Anas'tnmbd, «. ft figure whereby words 
thftt UMmld hftve preceded. «x<^ \n»N<- 

Anath'eina. a. ia «w^«Bai^<at^ svke^^ 

) BkUled in uutom; 
liisBcct ; to lay open 

jtTim of aulmiO boilicf 


[flnk.'-), J. It (BIT 
it, Anohoilt^ 1. ■ 1 


yiaica BODtfiDcaa and terms am Juinod. 
Andon'te^ [It.Jid. n musical totiii(rDig'^). 

Eii<i at a fini^giatfl, in irklch. tbe opit 

AndTDgjnal, Aadrogrncui {-droy-), a. 

having both Ba:ccs ; nonimparodLttcal. 
AD'flddotf^ t, a 'biofraphiuoJ inddeQt [»■ 

ntct(turpf^f^^'flf buforoj. Asccdot'icjil. 

noTa I, .. 


fllirlBnl, J. n diWAIVl ^-. ,. 

Siriilah it booomo 

ir wound in, a 
.'.byiriilr' ■-" - " ■ ■ 

AnourVmu, B. p „ 

Aneir', ad. oyer tenia, iDpesledly. 

Angrf {aln'Jel), », oitatnilljr, & mtiiBiiKr.- 
B coleitial BplriC, uilnhnbitantof heaven; 

Brtr, See Anffrilj, 

ADBiol'ogJ. I. UiD Bci. 

I» tr; to OMh or gain 

AMgled (wijr'-)i a. bavW imgln. 


it people oC OarnuTi; 

nz. I. tbs irt of flablne wlUt k nd 
oTaUog to Cbe Eogliia Iformina, 

Ad'huIiTi {L bavins oomerfl or iiDglBi. 
An^iilar'ity, 'r qiulity of beliiff an^tu 
Aneulsrly. od. with angles or mroon 
An'gulBtm). a. formnd witb angle*. 

Aa'ile. a. doting, old wotd 
AoU'ity. t. fhmSle dot^ga. 
All 'Una. (. the breath, the 



I romark or ortUoiae. 
itiything Cbnt baa ■ 
commonly applied 

Lulmaroular, AninuIcuUno. a. pertiimn:: 
smnll or miuuCa uiimil . 

[L.JIatbBKUnBTpI. Aj 

L living, ptngesiisg Ufe : 

inlmoB'ilff, I. pMBlonita 1ia,tred; wnlh; 

malevownce; tnalignity, 
Inlmin lU] 1. tho miud; the apWtM 

tniaa (An'LS), a plant bsaiing ammlic 

Ink'er, >. a liqudd moasuro. See jfndKT. 
Lnlcle (uik'ld^ ttaajoint batneen thefwl 

tn'ualiat, jr, a wtIIbt of nnnala. jtiwaU j, 
pi. TEoordfl of avtmtB year l^ rear; il» 

Inneal', v- to tompoi- elasa or metal l*j 
bmt. Aimealing. a. tbeartoftanipcT^ 
gloiB ; tbe tendering baA metal oallt 

Lnnerida, [L.]t. pL BDimala wblch aeem 
to b&vQ a rin^ atmctura, aa Ieaolic% 




Aiinihila'tion, s, the act of destroying. 

Aniiiver'sary, s. an annual or yearly fes- 
tival or commemoration : a. annual. 

An'notate, v. to make annotations. 

Annota'tion, s. an explanatory note. 

An'notator, «. a commentator. 

Annou'uce, v. to give public notice of; to 
proclaim; to declare. Annoimcement, 
s. act of announcing; a declaration; a 

Annoy', v. to molest, to vex, to tease : s. 
molestation, trouble. Annoyance, i. act 
of annoying ; that which annoys ; state 
of being annoyed. Annoying, p. a. giv- 
ing annoyance. 

An'uual, a. yearly; that comes yearly; 
lasting only a year : g. a book published 
yearly ; a flower whoso root dies yearly. 
Annuallv, od. yearly ; every year. 

Annu'itant, s. one who has an annuity. 
Annuity, t. a yearly allowance for life. 

Annul', V. to make void; to abrogate. 

Au'nular, a. having the form of a ring. 

An'nularly, ad. in an anniilar manner. 

An'nulary, a. in the form of rings. 

An'nulated, a. having rings or belts. 

An'nulet, «. a little ring ; a mark in her- 
aldry ; a term in architecture. 

Annul'ment, «. the act of annulling. 

Annu'merate, v. to add to a number. 

Annumera'tion, s. addition to a number. 

Aimun'ciate, v, to axmounce. Annuncia'- 
tion, «. the act of announcing; the thing 
announced; a term in theolc^. 

Annuncia'tion-day, s. the day celebrated 
by the church in commemoration of the 
angel's salutation of the BlesGMBd Virgin. 

Aii'odyne, a. mitigating pain, assuaging : 
». any medicine that assuages pain. 

Anoint', v. to rub with ou; to conse- 
crate bv imction. 

Anoint'ed, s. the Christ, or Saviour, em- 
phatically called the Lord's anointed. 
Anointment, «. the act of anointing; 
state of being anointed. Anointing, s. 

Aiiom'aly, «. irregularity; deviation from 
the common nue or analogy. Auoma- 
lis'tic, Anomalistical, a. irr^ular. An- 
om'alous, a. irregular, out of nile. An- 
omalously, ad. irregularly. « 

Anon', ad. quickly, soon, shortly. 

Auon'jrmous, a. without a name; not 
giving the name. Anonymously, ad. 
without a name. 

Another (a-ntLth'er), a, aome other; net 
the same ; one more. 

Answer (an'ser)^ «. to speak in retiun to 
a call or queistion; to reply to; to be 
accountable for; to correspond to; to 
suit ; to give an answer or solution to : 
s. a reply to a question ; a response ; a 
solution; a confutation. Answerable, 
a. that may be answered; responsible 
for ; suitable. Answerableness, «. qua- 
lity of being answerable. Answeraoly, 
ad. suitably. 

Ant, 8. an emmet, a pismiro. 

Antacid, Anti-acid (•aas'idX f> • medicine 
io remove acidity. 

Antag'onist, s. an opponent, an adversary. 
Antagonism, «. opposition of action. 
Antagonis'tic, a. acting in opposition. 

Ant'-b(»r, s. an animal that feeds on ants. 

Antal'gic, a. endued with the power of 
mitigating pain; anodj-ne. 

Antarc'tic, a. opposite the arctic. 

Ante, a Latin prefix. See AnU^ p. 47. 

Ant'-eater, «. an insect that feeds on an ts, 

Antece'dence, «. the act of going bcl'ure. 
Antecedent, a. going before, preceding : 
g. that which goes before; the noun to 
which the relative is subjoined; in the 
plural (ArUeeedenuy, previous acts or 
conduct. Antecedently^ ad. before iu 
time; previously. 

Anteces'sor, «. cme who goes before. 

An'techamber, g. the chamber adjoining; 
or leading to the principal apartments. 

An'tedate, «. to date before the time. 

Antedihi'vian, a. existing before the de- 
luge : g. one who lived before the flood. 

An'telope, g. the gazelle, a genus of animals 
between the goat and the deer. 

Antemerid'ian, a. before noon. 

Antemun'daoe, a. being before the crea- 
tion of the world. 

Anten'nas, g. the horns or feelers of insects. 

Antenup'tial, a. being before marriage. 

Antepas'chal(-kal), a. being before Kaster. 

Au'tepast, g. a foretaste ; anticipation. 

Antepenult', Antei>enul'timate, «. the last 
syllable but two in any word. 

Antepilep'tic, a. good against epilep^. 

Ante rior, a. previous, prior. 

Anterior'ity, g. priority in time. 

Au'teroom, g. a room leading to another. 

An'them, «. a holy song or divine hymn. 

An'ther, g. in botany, the point or "top of 
the stamen, containing the pollen. 

Anfhill, g, a small hillock formed by ants. 

Anthorogy, «. collection of flowers, or of 
choice poems. 

An'thracite, g. a kind of mineral coal, 
which, as it contains littie or no bitumen, 
bmns without flame. Anthracit'ic, a. 
pertaining to or containing anthiacito. 

Anthropophagi, [-pof -a-ji, Gr.] g. pL man- 
eaters, cannibals. 

Anti, a Greek prefix. See Antit p. 47. 

Anti-acid. See Antacid. 

An'tic, a. old-fashioned ; odd ; droll : $. c 
trick; bufibonxy; a buffoon. 

An'tichrist, g. an oi^Nser of Christianity. 
Antichrist'ian, a. opposing Christianity. 

Anticipate (antiss'-), v. to take up beforc- 
}iand; to go before so as to preclude 
others ; to enjoy in expectation. Anti- 
cipa'tion, «. act of anticipating; that 
which is anticipated; foretaste. Anti- 
cii)ater (-tiss'-)^ & one who anticipates. 
Anticipatory, a. that anticipates. 

An'ticly, ad. drolly, with odd gestures. 

Anticli'max, g. a sentence in which the 
last part is lower than the first. 

Anticosmet'ic, a. destructive of beauty: 
g. any preparation which injures beauty. 

An'tiddtal, Antid5taxy, a. having the qua- 
lity of an antidote. Antidote, g. that 
which cotixiteracts poison or othw e^^ 




Antlmlnlivte'iial, m. oppoMd to mlbitten. 

Aiitiniiniste'rialisi, t. ou« who Is In oppo- 
sition to the existing ministry. 

Antimnnaro'hioal, a. t^^SuHt monarohy. 

Antinio'nial, a. mnde of antimony. An'ti- 
nioiiy, g. a wliitinh brittle metal or 
inuUllic substance, used in medicino 
and the arts. 

Antino'mian, a. aaainH tJu la%0 which re- 
quires good works : 8. one of a religious 
sect who hold that faith alone is necos- 
paiy to salvation. Antinomianism, 8. 
the tenets of the Antinomlans. 

Antirxuduhap'tist, 8. one who is against 
infant baptism, a Baptist. 

Antipathet'ic, a. having an antipathy or 

Antip'athy, 8. a natural aversion or di;>like. 

Antiphlogls'tic, a. against inflamniaticin. 

An'tiphon, Antiph'ony, 8. the chant or 
alternate singing in choirs of cathedrals. 

Autiph'rasis, t. the use of words in a 
opposite to their proper meaning. Anti- 
phnw'tic, Antiphrastical, a. relating to 
or containing an antiphrasLs. 

Antiprelat'ical, a. adverse to prelacy. 

Antip'odiil, a. pertaining to the antipodes. 
Autip'6des, a. pi. the uihubitaiits of the 
opposite pjirt of the globe. fProm the 
Greek afi<t,oppo.^te, and pM'eg, thofcct]. 

Antiqua'rian, a. pertaining to antiquity. 
Antiquarian, An'tiquary, «. versed in 
antiquities; a collector of antiquities. 
Autiqua'rianism, «. love of antiqiiitics. 

An'tiquatcd, a. obsolete; old-fashioned. 
Antiquatcdness, 8. the state of being 
antiquated or obiolote. Antique (an- 
teek), a. ancient; old-fashioned; odd: 
8. a piece of antiquity, a relic. Antique- 
ness (-tcek'-), *. the quality or ai)pcar- 
ance of being antique. Antiquity (on- 
tick-w6-ty), «. old times ; great ago ; 
tho people of old times : pi. remains of 
aiu-icnt times. 

Antisabbata'rian, «. one who oppoMS the 
doctrine of the sabbath. 

Antii^cii (-tish'fi-i), #. pi. people who live 
imder the same merldlw, out on differ- 
rent sides of the equator, because their 
shadows project opposite ways. 

Antiscorbu'tic, a. good for counteracting 
scurvy. Antiscorbutics, 8. pi. medi- 
cines against the scurvy. 

Autiscrip'tural, a. conti-ary to Scripture. 

Antisep'xic, 8. a substance that prevents 
or checks putrefaction. 

Antiso'cial, a. notsodal; averse to society. 

Antispasmod'ic, a. good a^nst spasms. 
Antispasmodics, 8. pL medicines to re- 
lieve spasms. 

Antis'trophd, «. a stonsi alternating with 
the strophe. Bee Ko.90, p. 29. 

Antith'esM, 8. opposition of words or sen- 
tences: contrast. Antitheses, pi. An- 
tithetic, Antithetical, a. relaung to 
antithesis ; plaoed in contrast 
titrinita'rian, «. one who denies the 
doctrine of the Ohristian Trinity. An- 
titrinitarianism, «. a dtnial of the doc- 
trine of the Trinity. 

An'titTpo, 8. that which la rspnaautvJ nr 

ahadnwedoutbythetype. AnHljplaai, 

a. ralatlng to an antitypai 
Antler, t. a branch of a atagfi bonu 
Antlered, a. fUmiahed with antloM. 
Antoed, [-te'ai. Or.] 8. pL thoae inhftUtnti 

of the globe who n ve under the auua 

longitude and latitude^ bat in d *hrait 

Antonoma'sia, 8. a fiflrura in rhotnl^ ■ 

' ' a Cicero" for a gx«at orator. 
An'tre t, 8. a cave, a den, a oKwmk. 
An'vil, 8. an iron block on which ■BttM 

hammer their work. 
Anxi'oty, 8. })erplexity ; aoUcitada abost. 

any future event ; uneaaineaa, 
AnxMous, a. solicitoua, much ooneamii 
Aiix'iously, ad. in an anxious mannar. 
Anx'iousness, 8. the atate of being wiaiam, 
An'y, a. every, whosoever, whotertr. 
An'ywiso, od. in any manner. 
A'orist, 8. a tense in Oroek giiammir. 
Aor'ta, 8. the great blood ▼oeael of fiii 

hoiirt fVom which all the arteriee of lis 

lx>riy derive thdr origin. 
Apa'ce, ad. quickly, apieedUy, wUh 
Apart', ad. separately, iirivatelj. 
Apai-t'nicut, 8. a jiart of a houae^ a I 
Apathet'io, a. having no fbeling. 
Aji'athy, «. a want of sensibility. 
Ape, 8. a kind of monkoy, a mimlo; f.ti 

imitate ludicrously, to mlraio. 
Apeak', ad. formed with a pei^ or potil 
Ap'cnnine, a. rehiting to ttie Apenim» 
Ap'enuines, 8. a chain of high mountri* 

ni lining through Italy. 
Apop'sy, 8. a loss of natural dlgeatteii. 
Apo'ricnt, a. having the qualitv of opsii- 

ing: 8. any opening or lazattTe mtiii- 

Aper'itive, a. ax)erient, tendencj tft opn 
Ap'orture, «. an oiien place, a gmp. 
Apct'alous, a. without flower-uaraa 
A'pox, 4. the tip or angular point ; ttetop 

or summit: j^ Apexes [Aploea, L.} 
AphacroRis (afcr*-), «. a figure in gnuDiiHir 

that takes away a letter or syllable ftw 

the beginning of a word. 
Aphe'lion, «. that part of a plftiMt^ arW 

which is the most remote froin tha 

Aph'orlsm, «. a maxim or e nivoept la * 

few words. Aphoris'tic, Apnotlstioalta 

relating to or resembUng e^oxHtaUk 
Aph'rodite, 8. a follower <d Yeitttti ■ 

oeautiful genus of (mneUdana | i sSt- 

cata of magnesia. 
Aphyllous, a. vrithout leaves, fesfhstaA 
A'i)iary, 8. a place where bees toe kipl. 

Apie'ce (-peoce), ad. to each ohe'tf i 
A'pis, f. m BoolcK^, tiie bee: In tnytke 

logV, the sacred ox ol the BgjpOatm 
A'pish, a. like an ape ; fbpplah, illly. 
A'pishly, ad, in an apish manner. 
A'pishness, 8. mimicry; fopperr. 
Ai)oc'alypse, «. a revelatloii, a 'mton. 
Apocalyp'tic, Apocalyptioid, 

ing to revelaticn, or the b( 

Apoc'opS, 8. a outthig off 
ayllable of a word. 





A.poc'rypha, [Or.] «. pK things hidden or 
coiiccalcd; certain books api)ended to 
the Bible which are not regarded as 
cAiionical by the Protestant Cbitrch. 
Aitocryphal, a. doubtful; not cononicaL 

Ap'udu, «. an animal without feet. 

Ap'ogoe, 8. that point in the hearens in 
wliich the sun or any planet is at its 
greatest distance from the earth. 

Apol'lyon, t. the destroyer; Satan. 

Apologetic, Apologetical (-Jef-X a. relat- 
ing to or containing an apology. Apolo- 
getically, ad. by way of apology. Apol'- 
ogiflt, s. one who makes an apology. 
Axwiogise, V. to make an apologv. Apo- 
logy, 9. on expression of n^ret for some 
impropriely or wrong doing ; originally, 
a defence or justification. 

Apologue (ap'o-log), f. a fable. 

Aj>oplcc'tio, Apoplectical, a, relating to or 
disposed to opoi»lexy. Ap'oplexy, f. 
A disorder of the brain producing sud- 
den loss of sense and motion. 

A posiopc'flis, *. a form of ppecch by which 
the speaker suddenly suppresses what 
ho was about to say. 

Apos'tasy, «. departure from the princi- 
ples which one has professed; deser- 
tion. Apostate, s. one who renounces 
his religion or deserts liis party : a. false ; 
traitorous. Apostatize, v. to abandon 
one's religion or principles. 

Ap'ostcme, «. an abscess, an imix>sthumo. 

Apos'tle, g, one of the twelve tent fot-th by 
Christ to preach the Gk>spoL Apostleship, 
s. the ofhce of an apcratle. Apostolic, 
Apostolical , a. pertainj iig to or teuglit by 
the apostleft. A]>ostoIi<»Ily, ad. in tlie 
manner of the &i»ostle8. 

A pos'tmplid, jr. in gntmmar.a mark thus C), 
denoting the omission of a letter or let- 
ters; as ^er for ever, can'* for cannot. 
In rhetoric, it is a sudden turning from 
the persons present to address the 
absent or deacL Apostroph'ic, a. relat- 
ing to on apos'trophe. Apostrophize, v. 
to address by an apostrophe. 
Apoth'ecary, t. a person who oompocmds 

and sells medidnefl. 
Apothegm, Apophthegm (ap'o-themX «■ a 
sententious saying ; a valuable maxim. 
Apothegmat'i(^, a. like an ai)othegm. 
Af)oth^mati2e, v, to ntter apothegms. 

Apotho'oflis, g. a deification. 

Appal (ap-pawl'), v. to make pale with 
fear; to terrify; to daunt. Appalling, 
p. a. terrifying. 

'Ap'ponage, g. lands set apart by princes 
for their younger children. 

Appafa'tus, «. the tools. Instruments or 
equipments necessary to cany on any 
aii^ trade or business. 
Appar'el, g. dress, clothing, Teetments: v. 

to dress, to deck, to oorer. 
Appa'rcnt, a. Tlslble, evident, clearly 
perceptible, plain, certain ; seeming, 
not reaL Appmcntly, aiK evidently, 
\i8ibly; In appeanmee only. 
Appariti«>n (-Ttoh'nnX *. an appearance; 
son appcuranee only; a tpeotrt. 

Appar'itor, g. the summoncr or messenger 
01 an ecclesiastical court. 

Appeal', V. to remove a cause ftxmi a lower 
to a superior court; to eall upon as a 
witness or to decide between :«. a re- 
moval of a cause fh>m a lower to a supe- 
rior court ; an application for justice ; a 
reference to anotner to decide between. 
Appralable, a. subject to an appeal. 
Appellant, *. one who appeals : a. ap])caU 
iug. Appellate, a. relating to appeals. 

Appear*, v. to become visible. 

Appcar'ance, g. act of appeuinip; show; 
semblance; not real; probability. 

Api>ear'ing, g. the act of appearing. 

Appeas'able, a. roconcilalae. 

Appe'ase, v. to imcify, to reconcile. 

Appella'tion, «. the n.ime by which a per- 
son or thing is called ; title ; addrcsH. 

Appel'lative, s. a common as distlngui«]ir<l 
from a proi>er noun: a. common; p.- 
neral. Appollatoiy, a. cont:dning iiu 
appeoL Appellor', «. the plaiutiil iu 

Append', v. to hong or join to, to adH<». 
"Appendage, g. something appendL.i. 
Appendant, a. hanging to; annexed: *. 
a part annexed, an ndventitiotis jvirt. 
A])pcn'dix, g. somctliing appended; a 
supplement or addition. 

Appertain', v. to belong or relate to. Ap- 
pertainraent, g. that wliich belongs to. 
Apper'tinence. See Appurtenance. Ap- 
pminont, a. belonging or relating to. 

Ap'petcncc, Appetency, *. strong dciro ; 
sensual ai»petitc ; tendency to seek or 
select. Appotcnt, rr. voiy dvslroii^ 
Appetibirity, r. quality of being desir- 
aM<\ Ap'i>eliblo, a. desirable. 

Ap'petlte, 5. hunprcr, dcpiro, longing. 

Ai>'petitive, a. that wliich desires. 

Applaud', V. to coinmend by clapping the 
hands ; to praise higltlv ; to extol. Ap- 
pLiu'so, *. approbation loudly cxpresse- 1 ; 
great praUc. 

Ap'ple, g. the fruit of the apple-tree; tl'.o 
pu[jll of the eye. Aiiplo-plo, *. a jne mado 
of apples and pasta 

AppU^Dlo, a. that may be applied. Appli- 
ance, g. act of applying ; that which is 
applied ; instrument or means. Appli^ 
cabil'ity, Ap'plicablcness, ». the quality 
of being applic;ible. Applicable, a. that 
may be applied; suitable. Applicant, 
g. one who applies for anything : a. re- 
lating to or containing an application. 
Appuca'tlon,«. act of applyhjg; the thing 
applied ; solicitation ; fix ea attention ; 
studv; diligence lindustiy. Ap'plicativc, 
Appucfttoiy, a. that appliea Apply*, v. 
ftoDendto;,toptitto; to iix the mind to; 
to have recourse to; to make application. 

Applet', V. to fix the proportion of a mto 
or tax; to assoas. Amilotment, t. tlio 
sum applotted. Applotter, t. one who 

Appoint*, V. to determine, to settle; to 
equip. Appointed, «. a. settled, ••»•«*** 
on; equipi>cd. Appomtee'i fc^pttt 
pcuited* Aprcitit 9tf t, OM^fiiS ifi 




i\]*]M)iiit'niuiit, 8. Uicacturup]M>i!itinf7 ; ni\ 
(:uyMy,cn\oiil ; a stipulation ; nu oHu-c. 

Appo'ition, V. to divide iuto just juals. 

Appo'i-tionment, 8. a dividinpr into )>arts. 

Ap posito, a. suitable, fit, well adapted to. 
Appositely, ad. suitably, fitly, timely. 
Apposition (-Kish'unX t. the act of 
adding to ; something put in addition. 
Ap'positeness, 8. fitness ; suitableness. 

Apprai'se, v. to set a price on goods. 

Apprai'semenL 8. the act of valuing. 

Apprai'ser, 8. one who values or appra^es. 

Ap'precatory, a. praying for any good. 

Appreciiiblo(ai»-pre'8hS^bl), a. caiMiblo of 
l>eiiig appreciated. Appreciate, v. to Het 
a price on ; to estimate justly; to value 
highly. Apprecia'tion, «. the act of appre- 
ciating; a ]ust valuation or estimate. 

Apprehend', v. to lay hold on ; to arrest ; 
to tako in or conceive in the mind ; to 
fear. Apprehender, «. one who appre- 
hends. Apprehen'sible, a. which may be 
apprehended. Apprehension, 8. the act 
of apprchencUng; the faculty of conceiv- 
ing ideas; fear. Apprehensive, a. quick 
to apprehend ; fcaiiul of ; suspicions. 

Approhon'sivuly, ad. in an apprehensive 
manner. Apprehensivcncps, «. the qua- 
lity of being apprehensive ; fearfulncs.s. 

A])preu'tico (tiss), 8. one bound to a 
tmdo: V. to bind to, or put under a 
m.'ister. Apprenticeship, s. the state 
or term of lieing an apprentice. 

Ai)pri'ze, v. to inform; to give notice to. 

Appro'ach, v. to draw or come near to ; to 
approximate: 8. the act of drawing near 
to; access or way of approach. Ap- 
proachable, a. that may bo approached ; 

Approba'tion, s. the act of approving; 
approval; commendation. Ap'proba- 
tive. Approbatory, a. approving; con- 
taining approbation. 

Appro'priablc, a. that may be appropri- 
ated. Appropriate, r. to tako jvs one's 
own ; to set apart for a particular piu*- 
pose; to alienate a benefice : a. belong- 
ing to peculiarly; suitable; prt^er. 
Appropriately, od. in an appropriate 
manner. Appropriateness, «. quality 
of being appropriate. Appropria'tion, 
s. the act of appropriating ; the thing 
appropriated. Appro'priator, «. onewho 

Approvable(-proov'-), a, worthy of appro- 
CKition. Approval 8. act of approving ; 
approbation. Approve, v. (to prove to, to 
put to the proof), to show to be right; 
to justify, to commend. Approver, s. 
one who approves ; in law, one who, to 
save himsdi, offers to prove the guilt of 
his accomplices. 

Approx'imate, a. near to: v. to approach 
or come near to. Approxima'tion, s. an 
approach ; a coming near. 

Appul'se, 8. a striking against ; a touching 
or very near approach. Appulsion, «. 
the act of striking against. Appulsive, 
a. striking against. 

Appur'tenance, 8. that which appertains 

or belongs to somcthiiipr else. Aimsr- 
tonnnt, a. pert:dning or belonging tu. 

A'pricot, 8. a wall-fruit of the pmm kiii>L 

A'pril, fl. the fourth month of tne year. 

A'prciu, 8. an outside garment worn u a 
cover in front; a cover or protoctko. 
Aproned, a. wearing an apron. 

Apropos, Jap-ro-ix)', Pr,] adi by the mqr; 
seasonably; to the purpose. 

Ap'sis, 8. Ap'sldes, [6r.] pL two poinU of 
the orbit of a planet at the greatest nki 
least distance from the sun and tlie 
earth ; a concave wall or nioha. 

Apt, a. fit, quick, qualified, inclined. 

Ap'tera, 8. pL insecte without wings. 

Ap'teral, a. destitute of wings. 

Ap'titude, t. fitness for some pttrtieahr 
end or use ; suitableness; tendency ; dii- 
position. Apt'Iy, ad. ntiy; property-; 
readily; acutely. Aptness, s. flueai 
suitableness; disposition to anything 
quickness of aiyprohcnsian ; tendenej. 

Aqua, [a'kwa, L.j «. water. Aqua-fiotti^ 
^. nitric acid. Aqua-marine ^reenXi-i 
kind of emerald of seagrcen colour, the 
bcrvL Aqua-re'gia, 8. nitro-muristk 
acid. Aqua'rium, «. a pond in a giixkn 
for rearing aquatic plants. Aqusiim. 
8. the water-bearer ; the eleventh ilpi 
in the zodiac. Aquat'ic, €1. living in 
water ; watery. Aquatin'ta, t. a meUud 
of etching in copper by means of aqnu 
fortis. Aqua vi'tee, 8. brandy. AipM 
duct, 8. an artificial channel of wster. 
A'qucous, a. watery. Aqiicousnesi^ u 
qiial i ty of being aqueous. Aqiiifomit * 
having the form of water. 

Aquiline (ak'w6-lin), a. resembling n 
eagle or ite beak ; hooked. 

Ar'ab, Ara'bian, «. a native of Arabia. 

Arabesque (ar'a-besk), a. in the manna 
of Arabian architecture and soulptorB; 
fantastic ornament of foliage. 

Ara'bian, a. pertaining to Arabia. 

Ar'abic, «. the language of the AraUans*. 
a. relating to Arabia. 

Ar'abic, a. fit for tillage or ploughing. 

Arachnoid (-ak-), a. like a fader's w^ 

Ar'biter. Bee Arbitrator. Arlbitiable, a 
arbitrary; determinable. Arbiframent; 
8. will; decision; choice. Arl>itrHrIl7, 
od. in an arbitnuy manner. Arbitrtri* 
ness, 8. quahty of being arbitrary. AzU- 
trary, a. depending on tho wiU; sImo- 
lute; despotic. Arbitrate, v. to hear 
and determine as an arbitrator ; to de- 
cide. Arbitra'tion, 8. act ofarbitnting; 
decision of an arbitrator. Arldtrotor, 
8. a person mutually chosen by contend- 
ing partioB to decide between them. 
Arbitress. 8. a female arbiter. 

Arborcs'ccnco, 8. the resemblance of s 
tree. Arborescent, a. growing like a 
tree. Arbo'reous, a. belongin^to trco^. 
Ar'borot, 8. a small tree or shnih 
Arbour, 8. a seat shaded with tiooi, a 
bower ; a spindle or axis. 

Arlbutus, 8. the strawberry-tree. 

Arc, 8. a segment of a cirdo, an srah. 
Arca'dc, s. an arched waj. 




Arca'dian, a. pci'taining to Arcadia, a 
mountainous and pastoral district in 

Arca'num[L.l ». a secret : AroaxuL, pL 

Arch, o. chief; mirthful, waggish, lively. 
Arch, 8. part of circle, now written are: 
any thing curved or arched : v. to make 
an arch. 

Archaic (ark-a'ik), a. ancient, obsolete. 
Archaism, 8. an ancient or obsolete 
phrase. Archteorogy, 8. learning in or 
knowledge of ancient things. 

Archangel (ark-ain'gelX 8. an sjigd of the 
lilghcMst order. 

Archbish'op, s. a chief bishop ; a bishop 
who has jmdsdiction over other bishops. 
Archbishopric, «. the state or jurismc- 
tion of an archbishop. Archdea'con, 8. 
a bishop's deputy. Archdeaconry, 
Archdeaconship, 8. the office or juris- 
diction of an ardideacon. 

Ai'chdru'id, 8. a ponti£f of the druids. 

Archdu'cal, a. belonging to an archduke. 
Archduch'ess, «. uio wife of an arch- 
duke. Archduch'y, Archdulcedom, s. 
the territory of an archduke. Arch- 
duke, 8. a grand duke. 

Arch'ed, p. a. formed like an arch. 

Arch-en'emy, 8. a chief enemy. 

Ar'cher, «. one who shoots with a bow. 

Ar'cbery, «. the use of the bow and arrow. 

Archetype (ark'-X 8. the original type or 
model from which any thing is made. 
Archetypal, a. belonghig to an arche- 

A'ch-feron, «. the chief of felons. 

Arch-fiend', 8. the chief of fiends. 

Arch-her'esy, «. the greatest heresy. 

Arch-her'etic, 8. chief heretic. 

Arch-hyp'ocrite, ». a great hypocrite. 

Archiepis'copacy, Archiepiscopate (ark- 
Id-), fl. the office, dignity, or jurisdiction 
of an archbishop. Archiepiscopal, a. 
belonging to an archbishop. 

Ar'cbil, Orchil, 8. a violet-red paste, used 
as a dye ; a kind of lichen. 

Ai*chiperago (ark-X ». any sea which 
abounds with small islands ; the most 
celebrated is between Asia-Minor and 

Ai*chitect (ark-), i. a professor of building. 
Architective, a. belonging to arcliiteo- 
twre. Architecton'ic, a. having skill to 
build. Architec'tural, a. relating to 
architecture. Architecture, «. the science 
or art of building; the thing built; 
workmanship. Architrave, «. (the ehitf 
beam\ that -pext of the entablature which 
lies immediately on the column. 

Archives (ark'ivz), «. pi. ancient records ; 
A repository for records. Arclii'val, a. 
rela^g to archives. 

Arch'like, a. built like an arch. 

Arch'ly, ad. jocosely, wittily. 

Arch-magician, (jish'an) 8. chief magician. 

Arch'ness, 8. shrewdness ; sly humour. 

Ar'chon, 8. a governor of Athens. 

Ar'chonship, 8. the office of an archon. 

Aroh-reb'el, 8. a principal rebel. 

Arch-traitor, s. the emef traitor. 


Arch-ty'rant, 8. the principal tvrant. 

Arch'wise, ad. in the form of an arcn. 

Arc'tic, a. northern, towards the north. 

Arc'tic-cirele, that cuxde at which tbe 
northern frigid zone commences. 

Ar^cuate, a. bent like an arch. Arcua'- 
tion, 8. a bending ; an incurvation. 

Ar'dency,*. ardour; warmth; eagerness; 
zeal. Ardent, a. hot, fiery; vehement; 
zealous. Ardently, ad. with warmth ; 
zealously; affectionately. Ardour, Ar« 
dor, 8. heat; warmth, fervour; zeaL 

Arduous, a. originally, very high, as a 
hill; d^cult, laborious; hard. Ardu- 
ousneas, «. height, difficulty. 

A'rea, 8. the superficial contents of any 
figure; any open sur&ce enclosed by 

Arefac'tion, «. the state of growing dry. 

Ar'efy, v. to dry, to exhale moisture. 

Are'na, 8. a space covered with sand for 
the combats of gladiators; any place of 
public contest. 

Areop'agus, «. the Hill of Mars ; the high- 
est court at Athens. 

Argent, a. silvery, white, shining like 

Ar'gentine, a. having the appearance of 

Ar'gil, 8. potter's clay. Argilla'ceous, 
(-shus), Argillous, a. consisting of 

Ar'gonauts, 8. the companions of Jason 
in the ship Argo on the voyage tti 
Colchis, in search of the Golden Fleecq 

Ar^gosy, 8. a large merchant ship. 

Ar'gue, V. to reason, to dispute, to debate. 
Arguer, «. a reasoner, a disputer. Ai-- 
guhig, 8, reasoning, argumentation. 
Argument, 8. a reason alleged; a proof ; 
a syllogism ; the subject of any discourse 
or writhig; a disputation. Argumen- 
ta'tion, 8. the act or process of reason- 
ing. Argumen'totive, a. containin>; 
arguments; reasoning. Argument.^- 
tively, ad. by argument. 

Aria [It.], 8. an air, song, or tune. 

A'rian, 8. one of the sect of Aritis. 

A'rian, a. belonging to Arianism. 

A'rianism, ». the doctrine of Arius. 

Ar'id, a. dry, parched up with heat. 
Arid'ity, Ar idness, «. dryness. 

A'ries, [h.'j 8. the ram; the first of the 
twelve signs of the zodiac. 

Ariet'ta, [It.] 8. a short air or song. 

Aright (a-rite), ad. rightly; without fault. 

Ario'so, a, light and airy; gayly. 

Ari'se, v. to rise up, to mount up. Aris'en, 
the past participle of Arise. 

Aristoc'racy, 8. a government by nobles 
of the higher classes; the nobility or 
higher classes. Ar'istocrat or Arist'o> 
crat, 8. one of the aristocracy; a sup- 
porter or favourer of the aristocracy. 
Aristocratic, Aristocratical, a. relating 
to or partaking of aristo<atusy. Aristo- 
cratiofuly, ad. in an aristocratical maox 
ner; proudly. 

Aristotelian, a, founded oa the optoSan, -^ 
Arifltotto : «. a foUoiror of Aiirtoll% 





Arlth'motlc, t. the science of numbers; 
the art of computation. Arithroet'ical, 
a. according to arithmetic. Arithmot- 
Ically, ad. by means of uithmetic. 
Arithmetician (-tiah'un)^ «. one skilled in 

Ai'k, f. a chest, a coffer : the Ark in which 
Noah was preserved from the Deluge. 

Arm, 9. the limb from the hand to the 
shoulder ; any thing formed like an arm ; 
the bough of a tree ; an inlet of the soa ; 
a branch of military force, as artillery ; 
power, as the secular arm : v. to f lunl^h 
with or take up arms. See Amis. 

Arma'da, s. a laigo fleet of sliips of war. 

Armadillo, «. a South American quadru- 
ped covered with hard bony soiilos. 

Ar'mament, s. a force equipped for war, 
naval or military. Armature, «. armour, 
weapons of defence. 

Arm'chair, t. an elbow chair. 

Ami'ful, «. as much as the arms can hold. 

Ar'migcr, «. an armour-bearer; an esquire ; 
a gentleman. 

Ar'niilLiry, a. resembling a bracelet. 

Armiu'L-iU, «. a follower of Ariniuius : a. 
rulutiiig to the sect of Armiuius, who 
doiiiod predestination and the kindred 

Amiip'otent, a. mighty in war. 

Ar'mistlce, «. a temporary cessation from 
anas ; a truce. 

Arm'lct, $. a small arm, as of the sea ; a 

Ar'moiu-er, «. one who makes or sells arms. 
Armo'riol, a. belonging to the arms or 
esciitchcons of a family. Ar'mory, f. a 
place in which arms are deposited for 
use ; ensigns armorial. Armour, Armor, 
s. defensive arms for the body. Armour- 
betirer, «. one who oarrios the armour of 

Arm'pit, «. the hollow under the shoulder. 

Arms, $. warlike weapons ; war in gene- 
ral ; the ensigns armorial of a fumuy. 

Ai'my, ». a large body of armed men under 
military commana ; a great number. 

Aro'ma, s. the odorous quality of plants. 
Aroniafio, a. spicy, fragrant. Aro- 
matics, s, spices or fragrant drugs. 

Aro'se, the i>a8t tense of Arise. 

Arou'nd, prep, about, encompassing. 

▲rouse, V. to awake suddenly ; to rouse ; 
to excite ; to animate. 

AtoV, (u2. in a row or line. 

Aro/nt 1 interj. begone ! away I 

Ayqucbuse, «. a hand-gim formerly used. 

Arrack', s. a spirituous Ij ^uor distillc<l in 
India from the cocoa-nut tree or rice. 
Arrack-punch, «. a liquor ooutainiiig 
aiTtick. See Rack. 

Arruigii (ar-rain'X v. to indite, to charge, 
to license. Arraigmneuty «, the act of 

Arro'nge, v. to svt in order, to ndjtist. 
Arrangement, $. the act of putting in 
order; order, final settlement. 

Arrant, a, very bad, notorious. 

Ar'ruktlj, ad. notoriously, in an ill tense. 

Ar'nu^ «. rich tapestry or hangiDgn 

Array', s. order of battle ; dreaa : v. to imt 
in order, to deck to dress. 

Arroor', Arrearage, s. that part of u 
aceotmt which remains onpAd. 

Arrest', v. to seise on; to obstmet: & 
legal caption or seisuro d tlui penoa 

Arrr val, t. the act ol oomiiig to « plaoa 

Arri've, v. to come to a plaoe ; to happoL 

Ar'rogonce, «. great piido, prawnnpttna 
Amigant, a. haughty* pramiiupteoiUb 
Arrc^antly, ad. han^htUy, insakntlf. 
ArroK'ate, v. to claim hiuiKhtily; to 
assume. Arroga'tion, «. a praaumptuooi 

Arrondissement, [-does-mJVng', Fr.] «. i 
circuit ; a territorial dlstrietb 

A]<row, i. a weapon shot fmrn m bow. 

Ar'row-root, «. a nutritious starch 6b> 
tained from the root of a tropioal plani 

Ai^rowy, a. consisting of or like airowa 

Ar'senal, «. a magazine for milituy ■tsrai 

Ar'senic, s. a poisonous minoraL 

Ar'son, s. the crime of housebumlnf. 

Art, s. the i>ower of doing aoxnethingaot 
tau^^ht by nature ; piactical skill as «• 
posed to theory; practical skill as a> 
rectcd by theory or sdonca; a tradi; 
skill; dexterity; artfulness; cnmifaa 
Tlio ancients divided the arta inii 
LiberoU and Meehanica L The liberal nti 
were seven, vis., grammar, logle, 1)l^ 
toric, music, arithmetic, goometzy, sad 
astronomy. The mechanical or serwifaarti 
were practised by slaves, llie modaai 
divide the arts into the Fine artsb at 
poetry, musio, painting, sonlptim^ 
architecture, Ac., and the Us^tU arta 

Arto'riol, a. belonging to an artoiy. 
Ar'tcry, s. a tube which oonv0va tlisUoM 
from the heart to all parts m the bo^T 

Arte'pian Well, 8. a kind of fountain fini 
mode in Artoig in France. The proeen 
is to })erf orate with a small bore till 
water id reached, which will then, fmiii 
internal prossiure, iBow up spontaneoasly 
like a fountain. 

Artful, a. full cf art; performed with 
art ; cimning. Artfully, od^ in an tft- 
ful manner. Arttulness, t, qualitgr fl( 
being tulful. 

Ar'tichoke, f. an esculent plant. 

Ar'ticle, f. a part of speech ; a oondition 
of a covenant; a particular or item; f 
stipulation : v. to draw up or bind uy 
articles. Artic'ular, a. of or beloD|^ 
to joints. Articulate, v. to uttur wordi 
distinctly : a. distinct, jointod, drridsd. 
Articulately, ad. diiniBOtly, cUNrtf. 
Articula'tion, «. a joint or knot; w$ 
act of forming words. 

Ar'tifico, 8. trick, fraud; art or tnite 

Artificer, x. an artist or manufaotarir. 

Artificial (-fish'olX «. made hv tat; Bot 
natural; fictitious. Artifleially, adL tay 
art ; not naturally. ArtlficialnesB, Am* 
ficial'ity, «. the quality of being aiilflaisL 

Artillciy, «. weapons <A war, eniefl|y oiB* 
non, mortars, and other appanncHi 
the soldiers who 
of military 






r. ft meebanic, a handicraftsman. 
». a person who professes and 
« one of the fine arts. Artis'tic, 
al, a, relating to the fine arts; 
In the. manner of an artiat. 
u without art; simple; honest 
7, ad. without art; naturally, 
less, tt^ want of art ; sincerity. 
Marn>les, s. a collection of an- 
arbles presented to the Unirer- 
>xfotd by the Earl of Arundel, in 
rhey contain chronological re- 
' Grecian history, particularly of 

from 1582 to 853 B.C. Their 
idij has been questioned, 
'ceous (-shusX Anmdin'eous, a. 
full of reeds. 
[U] 9. a reed. 

fu] s. a diviner by Inspecting 
taHs of the victims; a sooth- 

n the same manner, because, 
t (-fef-^, s. a kind of gum of a 
offensive smell, used in medi- 

), a. of the nature of asbestos. 

«, «. a kind of fossil which may 

into threads and filafuents, and 

annot be consumed by fire. 

V. to moimty to rise, to move 

to advance in excellence. Aa- 

e, a. thi^ may be ascended. 

nit, a. superior; predominant; 

elevation. Ascendency, «. supe- 

controlling influence; predomi- 

Ascon'sion, s. the aet of ascend- 


i-<2ay, 9. a festival ten days be- 
litsimMde, in commemoration of 
iour's ascension into heaven. 
. the act of ascending ; the rising 
t; an eminence. 

', V. to gain certain knowledge 
nake sure of. Ascertainable, a. 
ay be ascertained. Ascertain- 
r. a making or gaining certainty. 
t. a hermit, a devout person : a. 
'ed in devout exercises ; austere, 
ism, s. the state of an ascetic, 
r.j 8. pL the inhabitants of the 
:one who, at certain times (^the 
ave no shadow at noon (the son 

IS (-tish'us). See Adsdtitioos. 
le, a. that may be ascribed. 
V. to attribute to, to impute to. 
n, s. the act of a.<icribing. 
tree and its wood. 
t, a. abashed, confounded, 
ircd, a. between brown and gray. 
. made of asb-wood. 
the dust of any thing burnt, as 
I, tic.; the remains of a dead 

A a repository for ashes. 
id. on shore, on the land, 
lesday, «. the first day of Lent, 
ash-coloured ; like ashes, 
pertaining to Asia. As&tt'le, a. 
QgtoAste: f.ftnstiytof Asia. 

Asi'de, ad. to one side, ajxirt. 

As'inine, a. belonging to an ass. 

Ask, V. to bog, to request, to demand ; to 
question, to inquire; to require, to 
clairo, as a price. 

Askan'ee, Aaucant', ad. dbliqucly; side- 
ways ; towards one comer of the eye. 

Ask'cr, 8. one who asks ; a water newt. 

Askew', ad. sideways ; with contempt. 

Aslanf, ad. obliquely, on one side. 

Asleep', ad. sleeping, at rest. 

Aslo'pe, arf. with a slope ; obliquely. 

Asp, 8. a small venomous serpent. Asp'en, 
8. a kind of poplar tree, the iMtves of 
which always tremble. 

Aspar'agus, «. an esculent plant. 

As'pect, ». lode, air, appearance, fiew. 

Asper'ity, «. roughness; harshness of 
manner and language. 

Asper'se, v. to slander, tovilify(to«pnnJH«)- 
Asperser, «. one who asperses or vilifies. 
Aspersion, t. a sprinkling ; calumny. 

Aspbdlt', Asphaltum, 8. a black bitu- 
minous substance, used as a cement 
(first found on the Lake AsphaUU). As- 
phaltic, a. pertaining to asphalt; bitu- 

As'phodel, 9. a genus of plants; the day- 

Aspbyx'y, 9. without pulse ; a susyumRion 
of respiration from drowniDg or suffo- 

Aspi'rant, a. aspiring : «. one who aspires 
to ; an ambitious candidate. Aspire, i'. 
to desire eagerly ; to piuit after ; to aim 
at what is lofty and difhcnlt ; to rise ; 
to tower. Aspira'tion, «. a breathing 
after; an ardent wish ; the act of pro- 
nouncing witli full breath. As'pirato, 
V. to pronounce with a full emission of 
breath : s. a letter which is aspirated ; 
the mark which denotes it. Aspi'ring, 
p. a. attempting to rise ; ambitious : 9. 
eager desire of elevation. 

Asquinf, ad. sqtiintingly. 

Ass, s. a beast of burden ; a stupid fellow. 

Assidl', V. to leap or rush upon ; to attack 
suddenly; to attack by argument. 
Assailable, a. that may be assailed. 
AssaiL'int, 8. one who assails or attacks : 
a. attacking with violence. 

Assas'sin, 8. one who kills or attempts to 
kill b^ treachery or secret assault. 
Assassinate, v. to murder by secret 
assault. Assassina'tion, 9. the act of 

AAiault', 8. violent attack ; storm of a fort ; 
a blow or attempt to strike : v. to attack 
with violence or hostility; to strike or 
lay hands upon. 

Assay, 8. trial, examination; trial of a 
metal : v. to make trial of ; to try ; to 
ascertain the purity or alloy of metals. 
Assaycr, *. one who assays metals. 

Assem'blage, «. a collection of persons. 
Assemble, 9. to meet or call together. 
Assembly, #. a company assembled c« 
met; a meeting; «x^»»ncs^c5UEK|^\^~ 
vocatioTi. _. 




Bible: «. the act of agreeing to; con- 
cnirrence; consent. Assentingly, ad. 
by agreement. 

Assert, v. to affirm; to maintain; to 
claim. Asser'tion, 9. a positive affirma- 
tion. Assertive, a. positive; dogma- 
ticaL Assertively, ad. affirmatively. 
Asserter, 8. one who assorts. 

Assess', V. to value for the purpose of fix- 
ing a rate or tax; to rate. Assessable, 
a. that maybe assessed. Assessment, 
«. the act of asscKsing ; a valuation for 
the piuposo of taxation ; a tax. 

Asses'sor, s. one who assesses. 

As'scts, s. pi. goods to discharge a debt. 

Asseverate, v. to affirm solemnly. Asse- 
vera'tion, s. a solemn affirmation. 

Assiduity, «. constant or close applica- 
tion; great diligence. Assid'uous, a. 
constant in apphcation ; very diligent; 
unwearied. Assiduously, ad. diligently; 
with close attention. Assiduousness, 
s. assiduity. 

Assign (as-si'ne), v. to mark out; to trans- 
fer or make over to another ; to appoint 
as a deputy. Assignable, a. that may 
be assigned. Assigna'tion (as-sig-), g. 
act of assigning; an appointment to 
meet; used generally of love appoint- 
ments. Assignee (as-se-ne'), a. one to 
whom any right or property is assigned. 
Assignor (-sf-ner), s. one who assigns. 
Assignment, i. act of assigning; thing 
assi^ed, a transfer. Assignor', s. one 
who makes the assignment (Laic). 

Assignats, [as-in-yah', Fr.] «. a French 
paper money during the Revolution. 

Assim'ilate, v. to make similar; to con- 
vert into a like substance or nature; 
to become assimilated. Assimila'tion, 
a. the act of assimilating; state of being 
assimilated. Assim'ilative, a. tending 
to assimilate. 

Assistant, 8. a helper: a. helping. Assist, 
V. to help,^ to succour, to aid. Assistance, 
8. help, aid, relief, support. 

Assi'ze, 8. a sitting of magistrates or civic 
functionaries to fix the weight and price 
of bread : v. to fix the weight or pvice 
of bread, Ac. Assizes, pi. the sitting of 
judges twice a year, in each county, to 
hear and determine causes by jiuy. 

Asso'ciate, v. to imite with as a friend ; to 
keep company with: s. a companion; 
a confederate: a. joined with; acting 
with. Associa'tion, s. act of associating ; 
imion; confederacy; partnership; con- 
nexion, as of ideas. 

Assort', V. to range or distribute into sorts 
or classes ; to arrange. Assortment, «. a 
niunber of things assorted ; a quantity 
of property selected. 

As.suage (-swjye), v. to mitigate, to soothe ; 
to idleviate; to use. Assuagement, 8. 
act of assuaging; mitigation. Assua'- 
sive, a. mitigating ; soothing. 

Assu'me, v. to take to or ui)on one's f^elt ; 
to claim; to arrogate. Assuming, a. 
arrogant, haughty. 

A«8ump'si^ 9, a promiie (• law term). 

Assump'tion, 8. the taking anything t« 
one's self; that which Is assumed; a 
postulate. Assumptive, a that is, or 
may be assumed. 

Assu'rance, 8. act of assuring; staia of 
being assured; certainty; confidence; 
boldness ; want of modeaty ; security or 
indemnity against loss; a positive de- 
claration. Assure, v. to make sure or 
safe; to assert positively. Aseored, 
p. a. convinced, certain ; Insured. As- 
suredly, ad. certainly; witliout doubt 
Assuredness, 8. certainty. 

As'tcr, 8. a genus of plants ; the star-fish. 
Asterisk, «. a mark like a star (*), serr* 
ing as a reference to a note. 

Astern', ad. a sea term. 

As'toroids, «. a name applied to the snudl 
planets discovered by Herschell, be- 
tween tho orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 

Asthma (ast'ma), 8. a difficulty of DnMth- 
ing ; a disease of the lungs. Astlunaf ic, 
Asthmatical, a. relating to, or sufflicted 
with asthma. 

Aston'ish, v. to amaze; to impress wtHi 
wonder or terror; to surprise. Astoi^ 
ishing, p. a. amazing ; very wondeifoL 
Astonishingly, ad. in an astonJshixig 
manner. Astonishment, 9. amazement,' 
wonder; surprise. 

Astound', V. to strike with astcmishnMBt 

Astrad'dle, ad. with one's legs astride. 

As'tral, a. relating to the stsurs, bxighL 

Astray', ad. out of the right way, wrong. 

Astrict', V. to bind ; to contract by Und* 
ing. Astriction, «. the act of biniing* 
a contraction. 

Astri'dc, ad. with the legs wide apart 

Astrin'ge, v. to draw together; to bind. 
Astringency, 8. the power of binding a 
contracting. Astrin^nt, a. binding; 
contracting : 8. a medicine that binds m 

As'trolabe, 8. an instrument used fori 
merly as a quadrant. 

Astrol'oger, 8. one who pretends to fore- 
tell events by the aroects of t^e stars. 
Astrologic, Astrological (-loj'-), a. pet- 
taining to astrology. AstrologicaUy, ad. 
by astrology. Astrol'ogy, «. the pre- 
tended science of foretelling events bj 
the stars, planets, &c. 

Astron'omer, «. one versed in astronomy. 
Astronom'ic, Astronomical, a. belong* 
ing to astronomy. Astronomically, ad. 
in an astronomical manner. Astxxni'- 
omy, 8. the science that teaches thi 
knowledge of the heavenly bodies. 

Astu'to, a. cunning ; shrewd, penetrating. 

Astu'teness, a. craft, cunning, subtlety. 

Asim'der, ctd. separately, in two jMirts. 

As3rlum, 8. a sanctuary; a place of re 
fuge; a charitable institution, as an 
a^lum for orphans. 

Asyn'deton, a. a figure in grammar which 
omits the conjimction; as, **I came, I 
saw, I conquered." 

At, prep, near to, in, by, on, with. 

At'aghan, a. a small Turkish sabre. 

Ate, the past te se of Eat. 




Atheism, «. the disbelief of a God. 
Atheist, 8. a disbeliever in God's ex- 
istence. Atheis'tic, Atheistical, a. im- 
pious. Atiieistieally, od. in an atheistic 

Athenas'um, t. a club or place of literary 

Athirst', a. diy, thirsty, in want of drink. 

A.thle't8s, ». pL public or prize wrestlers 
of Greece and Borne. 

Athlet'ic, a. strong, lusty, bony, vigorous. 

Athwarf, ad. across, through. 

Atilt\ ad. in a raised ptosture. 

Atlante'an, a. resembling Atlas ; huge. 

Atlantes (-lan'tes), s. pi. male figures in- 
stead of columns to support an entabla- 
t\ire. Bee Caryat^ 

Atlan'tic, a. relating to the Atlantic Ocean, 
or to AUat. 

Atlan'tifdes, «. pi. the PUiadet or seven 

^tlas, & a mountain in Africa; a col- 
lection of maps; a large folio; a large 
kind of drawmg paper; a rich sort of 

At'mosphere, t. the air that encompasses 
the earth on all sides. Atmospher'ic, 
Atmospherical, a. relating to the atmo- 

At'om, s. an indivisible particle; anything 
extremely small. Atomic, Atomical, a. 
relating to atoms. Afomism, «. the 
doctrine of atoms. Atomist, ». one who 
holds the atomical philosophy, or doc- 
trine of atoms. 

At'omy, 8. a corruption of anatomy, a very 
meagre person ; a skeleton. 

Ato'ne (to make to he at one), v. to recon- 
cile ; to expiate by a sacrifice. Atone- 
ment, ». reconciliation ; expiation. 

Ah^bila'rian, Atrabilarious, a. melan- 
choly. Atrabilariousness, «. the state of 
melancholy arising from bile. 

Atramen'tal, Atramentous, a. inky, black. 

A-tiocious (a-tro'shus), a. very wicked; 
fliigitious, heinous. Atrociously, ad. in 
an atrocious manner. Atrociousness, 
s. enormous wickedness. Atrocity 
(a^trOsl-ty), t. enormous wickedness. 

At'rophy, $. a disease in which what is 
taken for food ceases to nourish. 

Attach', V. to seize or lay hold on ; to win 
or gain over ; to fix to one's interest. 
Attachable, a. that may be attached or 
legally taken. 

Attach§, [-tab -shay, Fr.]«. one of the suite 
of an ambassador, &c. 

Attach'ment, s. act of attaching; state of 
being attached ; union of affection ; ad- 
herence ; fidelity ; a writ for takiqg a 
person or goods. 

Attack', 8. an assault on on enemy : v. to 
assault or impugn in any manner. 

Attain', v. to arrive at by efforts ; to gain ; 
to obtain. Attainable, a. that may be 
attained. Attainableness, a. the being 

Attain'der, «. the act of attainting. 

Att.'vin'ment, s. the act of attaining ; tbat 
which is attained; an acquisition. 

Attaint', v. to taint : to adjudge guilty of 
a crime, as treason. Attaintment, ». 
the being attainted. 

At'tor of Ro'ses, ». a highly fragrant con- 
crete of oil, obtamed in India from the 
petals of roses. It is also called Ottar, 
and sometimes. Otto of Roses. 

Attem'per, v. to reduce or qualify by mix- 
ture; to dilute; to soften; to fit to; 
to temper. 

Attempf, V. to try, to endeavour: a. an 
effort ; an endeavour, a trial or exjwri- 
ment ; an attack or enterprise. 

Attend', v. to wait for, or give attendance 
to ; to regard with attention ; to accom- 
pany. Attendance, «. the act of waiting 
on another. Attendant, ». one who 
attends on another: a. accompanying 
as subordinate. Atten'tion, ». the act 
of attending; close application of the 
mind to any thing ; act of civility. At- 
tent'ive, a. heedfid, regardful, intent. ^ 
Attentively, ad. heedftilly. Atteutive- 
ness, «. state of being attentive. 

Atten'uant, a. making thin : «. a diluent. 
Attenuate, v. to make thin or slender ; 
to lessen. Attenuate, Attenuated, a. 
made thin. Attenua'tion, ». a making 
thhi or slender. 

Attesf , V. to bear witness to ; to call to 
witness. Attesta'tion, «. act of 
izig; testimony. Attest'ed, p. a. certified 

At'tic, a. pertaining to Attica in Greece, 
or to its chief city Athens ; and hence 
classical and elegant. Attic, «. tlie 
garret or upper story. Atticism, «. an 
Attic idiom or expression. 

Atti're, ». clothes, dress, ornaments : v. to 
dress, to deck, to array. 

At'titude, ». position of the body; pos- 
ture; the ^sture and position of a 
figure. Attitu'dinal, a. relating to atti- 
tude or posture. Attitudinize, v. to as- 
siune affected attitudes. 

Attorney (-tur'ny), «. a person licensed 
and sworn by a court of law to act for 
persons concerned in prosecuting or de- 
fending actions at law ; a proxy or sub- 
stitute. Power of Attorney, a letter or 
document by which a i)erson authorizes 
another to act in his stead. Solieitor is 
another name for an attorney. Attorney^ 
General, a l^;al functionary appoint^ 
to manage business for the king, and is, 
consequently, the prosecutor for the 
crown. The Solicitor-Oeneral ranks nex t 
to the attorney-general, and, properly, 
is the Queen's legal representative. 

Attract', V. to draw to ; to bring together 
to unite ; to entice or allure. Attract- 
ibil'ity, t. quality of being attractable. 
Attnu/tion, «. act of attracting; that 
wliich attracts; allurement; the at- 
tractive principle or tendency in matter ; 
as the attraetion of gravity or ffravita- 
tion, and the attraction of eoJuHon, 
Attractive, a. having the quality at 
power of attraciVxLv;\ «C^^Ja^sv'5t. Kaccwiw- 




irff. AttractlTeTiesfl, «. qiwility of being 
attractive. Attractor, «. ho or tliat 
which attracts. 

Attrib'utable, a. that may be attribiited or 
ARcribod. At'tribute, «. a thing tluit 
may be attributed ; on inherent o^imlity 
or 1 >roi)crty . AttriVuto, v. to ascribe to ; 
to impute to. Attribu'tion, i. act of 
tittributing ; quality attributed. 

Attrition (-trish'un), the act of wearing 
thuiirs by rubbing ; norrow for nin. 

Attn 'no, V. to tune, to m:iko musical. 

Au'bum, a. brown, of a fine tan colour. 

Anc'tion, «. a public sale of goods to the 
liiprliest bidder. Auctionary, a. belong- 
in^ to an auction. Auctioneer', «. one 
wlio sells by auction. 

Aiula'ciouB, a. daring, bold; im])udent. 
Audaciously, cut boldly; imimdoutly. 
Audaciousness, «. audacity, impudence. 
Audacity (-das'Ity), «. boldness; impu- 

Awl'ible, a. that may be heard. Audible- 
Jic^.s, 8. the qunli'ty of ]»eing audible. 
Audibly, ad. so as to bo hcurd. Audicnco, 
a. a hearhig; admittance to a hearing; 
an interview; on auditory or nn assem- 
bly of hearors. 

Au'dit, s. the settling of aoconnts by ex- 
amining docimients and heariruj parties 
ooncemed ; a f.nal account : v. to settle 
accmmts by au audit. Auditor, s. a 
heaver'; a i>orson authorized to audit 
aocoimts. Auditorship, s. the office of 
an auditor. Auditory, s. an assembly 
of huurcrs ; a place where lectures are 
delivered : a. pertaining to the organ of 

Au fuit,[o-fay, Fr.] skilful, expert. 

Auii^e'an, a. belonging to Augeas or his 
stable, and hence, full of dirt or filth. 

Aug'or, «. an instrument for boring 

Aught (awt), 8. any thing 

Auj^icnt', V. to make Lnrger ; to increase. 
Au^ncntablc, a. capable of augmenta- 
tion. Augniont.Vtion, «. the act of aug- 
menting; increase. Augraent'ative, a. 
having the quality or power of augment- 

Au'gur, [L.] «. a soothmyor or diviner by 
oiiums, as a flight of birds : v. to predict, 
or j^ioHs by signs. Augury, t. prognos- 
tication by signs ; an omen. 

Au<^ist', a. majestic, gnmd, magnificent. 
Au'gust, ». the oigUth month of the 
year. Augus'tan, a. pcrtauiing to Au- 
gustus. Augustins, s. monks of the 
order of St. Augustin, formerly called 
ylv.ffin Friars. Aug^st'ness, t. nobleness 
of liX;k, dignity. 

Aulti'rian, a. relating to a halL Anlic, a. 
bcl'>nging to a royal haU or oottrt, as 
of tlio Oerman empire. 

Auln (awn), s a French measure ; an elL 

Aunt, 8. a father's or mother's si.ster. 

Au'ratod, a. resembling or containing 

Aure'lia, «. the first change of a ms^rgot 
before It beoomes a fly ; » chrysalis. 

Aure'ola, «. a etrele of raye representing 
glory, round the head of saints Ac. in 


Au'ricle, ». the nttemsl ear ; two appen- 
dages of tlie heart which corer the vaB- 
tricles and resemble ears. 

Auric'ula, t. a beautiful axMcies of ]■{» 
rose. Auriferous, a, hnarlTij or jn- 
ducing gold. 

Auric'ular, a. spokea hi thft ear ; pif nte. 

Aori'ga, [L.] a. a waggoner; ■ oonstaD^ 

Au'rist, i. a curer of disorders fa the ear. 

Auro'ra, «. poetically, the cLiwn d 6Mf. 

Auro'ra IBorealis, a. a lumiiuiaa metsor, 
frequently visible in the zuMtheni hft- 
misphore, commonly ealled tbenorllm 

AuBculta'tion, a. the act of listenliu[; Btp^ 
dally to the action of the Inngaureq^ 
a stethoscope. 

Aus'pico, a. an omen drawn from Urds. 

Aus'pices, a. pL patronage, pratecMaiL 

Auspicious (-pish'us), a. having omsniof 
success ; propitious ; fortunn^ ; h^iy. 
Auspiciously, ad. in on auspleiaiaB WKb- 
ner. Auspiciousness, «. the being w» 

Austo'ro, a. severe, rigid, harsh, aten. 
Austerely, ad. rigidly, Berorely. A» 
tor'ity, a. severity; hanfa disciiatan. 

Aus'tnil, a. southern, relating to tta 
south. Aostrala'siim, a. belongfaig ts 
Australasia or the countriea sotim d 
Asia ; as Au.stralia, Now Zoalaod, ke, 

Aus'triim, <l pertaining to the Anstiin 
cmpiro: a. a native ofAuvtria. 

Authon'tic, a. genuine; real; tme. An* 
thcnticaUy, ad. in an aothontio mamMr. 
Authenticate, v. to prove authentis ; tt 
prove by authority. Authontlea'tiaB, a. 
the act of authonticating ; a conflnnfr 
tion ; a legal satisfiicticm. Authentidty 
(-tiss'i-ty), a. the being acvthentie ; ga^ 

Au'thur, s. one wlio mokes or prodooci 
any thing ; a writer or maJccr of a book. 
Authoress, a. a female author or writer. 
Author'itative, a. lisving authority, posi- 
tive; dictatoriaL Autnoritativcuy, odL 
in an authoritative manner. Anthoitity, 
a. legal or rightful power; intloence; 
rule; support; tesctimony; credibUity: 
a precedent. Authoiiza'tion, s. act of 
authorising. Au'thorize, «. to givt 
authority for. Authorship, a. state fll 
being an author. 

Au'to-biog'raphy, a. Hvo life or hlstoiyflfs 
person written by himself. 

Au't(x!rat, a. a dcHiratio prince. AnbH 
ciTit'ic, Autocratical, a. relating to auto- 
crncv; absolute. 

Au'to^iph, a. original hand-wrtttag. An* 
tognipii'ic, Autcgraphioal, a. pntiabong 
to one's own writing. 

Autom'aton, a. a self-moving mariifaeL 

Au'tumn, (-tum), a. the third seagseoefllit 
year; the faU. Aut<im*na1, 
ing to autumn. 

Au'topsF, 8. ooolart 





Auxil'iary, a. M&istant: $. a helper. Aiixi- 
liavios, ». pi. foreign troops in the ser- 
vice of a nation at war. 
Avail^ V. to profit, to be of advantage. 
Available, a. profitable, advantageous. 
Av'alanche (-lansh), g. a vast mass of show 
sliding down a mountain; a snow-slip. 
AvanV-guard, 9. the van of an arm^. 
Av'arice (-riss), s. insatiable desire of 
money or gain; cupiditj; covetousness. 
Avaricious (-rish'us), a. greedy of gain ; 
covetous. Avariciously, ad. covetously. 
Avaridousness, s. greediness of gain; 
Avast', iaU, hold I enough (a sea term). 
Avatar', «. in Hindoo mythology, an incar- 
nation or metamorphosis of a deity; 
period or ebange. 
Avau'nt, inU. begone I hence ! 
Aven'ge, v. to take satisfaction for an in - 
jury ; to punish. Avenger, t. one who 
avenges; apunisher. 
Av'enue, <. an entrance to a place ; an 
alley or walk of trees leading to a house. 
Aver', V. to afi&rm as true,' to assert with 

AVenige, s. a medium quantity or quo- 
tient, obtidned by dividing the sum 
total of the ({uantities given by their 
number : thus if 21 the sum of 9, 7, and 
5, be divided by 3, the average will bo 
7 : «. to fix a mean or fair proportion : 
a. being of a mean proportion or quality. 
Aver'ment, «. a positive affirmation. 
Avemm'cate, v. to tear up by the roots. 
Aver'se, a. turned from; disinclined to; 
opposed to. Aversely, ad. unwillingly. 
Averseness, ». unwilUngness ; dislike. 
Aversion, «. hatred; antipathy; repug- 
nance. AverfyV. to torn aside or away; 
to keep off. 
A'viary, «. a place to keep birds in. 
Avidity, 8. greediness : intense desire. 
Avoca'tion, s. the act of calling off or 

away ; the business that calls avnj. 
Avoid , V. to shun; to escape from. Avoid- 
able, a. that may be avoided. Avoid- 
ance, 8 the act of avoiding. Avoider, 
8. one who avoids or escapes. Avoid- 
less, a. inevitable ; anavoidable. 
Avoirdupobf' (avur->, 8. and cu. a weight for 
ordinary commodities, in which a pound 
contains 16 o& 
Avouch, «. to vouch ; toaf&rm; to maintain. 
Avoucher, 8. one who avouches.. Avouch- 
ment, 8, act of avouching; declaraticKQ. 
Avow', V. to declare openly; to own; to 
acknowledge ; to jusUfy. Avowable, a. 
that may be avowed. Avowably, ad. in 
an avowable manner. Avowal, 8. a posi- 
tive or oi>en declaration. Avowedly, ad. 
in an avowed manner. Avower, 8, one 
who avows or justifies. 
Avul'sion, 8. a plucking off or away. 
Awaif , V. to wait f or : to be in store for. 
Awa'ke, v. to rouse nom sleep; to rouse 
from a state of inaction or tcnpidity ; to 
pfut into aetion or new life; to wake or 
ooaee to 8l«epi. Awaken, v. to awake ; 
to wake. Awakening, p, a, rousing 

from sleep or torper : 8. act of waken- 
ing; revival. 

Award', v. to ac^udg)^; to determine ; to 
sentence ; to make an award : 8. a sen- 
tence; a determination; a decision by 

Awa're, a. foreseeing; ax>prised befbrei 

Avffiy', ad. out of the way ; at a distance ; 
absent : int. begone I 

Awe, 8. reverential fear; dread: v. to 
strike with awe. 

Aweath'er (a-weth'er), <td. on the weather 
side ; towards the wind (a sea term). ^ 

Awe-command'ing, a. influencing by awo. 
Awe-struck, a. impressed with awe. 
AwTul, a. causing awe; dreadful. Aw'- 
fully, ad. in an awful manner. Awful- 
ness, 8. quality of striking with awe ; 

Awhile, ad. for some space of time. 

Awk'ward, a. olumsy ; uncouth ; perverp^e. 
Awkwardly, ad. in an awkward manner. 
Awkwardness, 8. clumsiness. 

Awl, 8. a sharp instrument to make holes. 

Aw'less, a. void of awe or reverence. 

Awn, 8. the beuxL of com or grass. 

Awn'ing, «. a ci>veriug fruiu ilxu :>un. 

Avrry', ad. obliquely, asquint, unevenly 

Axe, 8 a tool for hewing and chopping. 

Ax'illary, a. belonijing to the arm-pit. 

Ax'iom, 8. a self-evident trutli. Axiom- 
at'ic, a. relating to, or of the nature < 'f 
an axiom. 

Ax'is, 8. a line passing directly through 
the centre of any thing that revolveH un 
it. Axle, Axle-tree, s. the piece of tim- 
ber or iron on which the wheel rovolvca, 

Ay, ad. yes ; certainly ; even so. 

Aye, ad. always ; for ever. 

Azalea, 8. a class of shrubs having beautiful 
fiowers ; an American honeysuckle. 

A?/imutli, 8. the arch of the horizon be- 
tween the meridian of the place, and a 
vertical circle passing through the object. 

Azo'to, 8. the same as nitrogen gas. Azut'ic, 
a. of or relating to azote. 

Az'uro, a. of a bright blue colour; sky- 
coloured : 8. the sky. 


Baa, V. to bleat or cry like a sheep : 8. the 
bleating or natural cry of a sheep. 

Ba'al, 8. the great Syrian deity or idol. 

BabTble, Babbling, «. idle talk. Babble, 
V. to talk idly, to tell secrets. Bibljlc- 
ment, 8. wimeaning words; pnito. 
Babbler, s. an idle talker; a teU-tole. 

Babe, «. a baby ; an infant. 

Ba'bel, a. disorder ; confusion. A place in 
Shinar, where the original language of 
mankind was confoimded. 

Baboon', «. a large kind of monkey, an ax>e. 

Balby, s. a babe, an infant child. Bahy- 
hoiod, 8. infancy; childhood. Baby- 
house, *. a toy ; a place for dolls. Bixby- 
ish, Babish, a. cliildish. 

Babylo'nian, Babylon'ic, a pertaining to 
Babylon; mixed, confuaeo, diSscst^vfcj^ 

BaccalanfxwAA, «. «b\(W^bfi3V»i^% ^«cna, 
\ BaQroatea,«,\tfnYB«\MniSwk 




Bac'chanal, t. a devotee to Bacchus, the 
Kod of wine: a. drunken, reveUinf^. 
Bacchanalia, [L.] <. pL feasts or revels 
in honour of Bacchus. Bac'chanals, t. 
drunken revels. Bacchanf , [Fr.] s. a 
bacchanal; a reveller. Bacchante, 
[bak-kanf , Fr.] s. a female bacchanal or 
priestess of Bacchus. 

Xlaccif erous, a. producing berries. 

Bach'elor, s. an unmarried man ; one who 
takes his first degree at the imiversity ; 
a knight of the lowest order. Bachelra*- 

' ship, «. the state of a bachelor. 

Back, ». the hinder part of the body in 
man, and the upper part in animals ; 
the hinder part of a thing, opposed to 
the front : v. to put back ; to go back ; 
to second or support : ad. behind, back- 
ward; to the place from which one 
came: again; a second time. 

Back'bite, v, to si>eak ill of absent persons. 
Backbiter, t. one who slanders secretly. 
Backbiting, «. secret detraction. 

Back^bone, s. the bone of the back. 

Backdoor', s. a door at the back of a build- 
ing ; a private entrance. 

Backgam'mon, s. a kind of game. 

Back'ground, «. ground in the rear; the 
back or least prominent part of a pic- 
ture ; shade or obsciuity. 

Backliouse, «. a building behind a house. 

Back'piece, ». apieceof armourfortheback. 

Back'room, 8. a room behind another. 

Back'side, t. the hinder part of any thing. 

Backsli'de, v. to fall off; to apostatize. 
Backslider, s. an ax>ostate. Backsliding, 
s. apostasy, transgression. 

Back'stairs, s. the private stairs in a house ; 
private or Indirect influence. 

Back'stays, «. ropes which support the 
topmasts of a ship. 

Back'sword, «. a sword with one shaip 
c<^ ; a stic^ with a basket handle. 

Back'ward, ad. with the back forward; 
towards the back or the past; from a 
better to a worse state : a. not forward ; 
shiggish, unwillingly; dull. Back- 
wardly, ad. imwilJingly, sluggishly. 
Backwards, ad. with the back forward;*. 
Backwardness, <. unwillingness; tu*di- 

Back'woodsman, «. an Inhabitant of a 
newly-settled coimtry, particularly in 
the western parts of the United States. 

Ba'con, «. hog's flesh, salted and dried. 

Bnco'nism, a. relating to Lord Bacon or 
his philosophy. 

Bad, a. ill, wicked, hurtful, sick. 

Bade (bad), the past tense of Bid. 

Badge, s. a mark or token of distinction. 

Bnd'ger, $. an animal which burrows in 
the groimd and is eagerly pursued by 
himtsmen : v. to worry ; to tease. 

Badinage, [bad'in-azh, Fr.] «. light or 
playful discourse ; raillery. 

Bfully, ad. in a bad manner. 

Bad'ness, $. want of good qualities. 

Baffle, V. to elude ; to confoimd. 

Baffler, s. one that baffles or eludes. 

Bag, «. » sack, or pouch ; » pune. 

Bag'atelle, s. a thing of no Import, a triflei 

Baggage, «. the luggage of on army ; goodi 
to be carried away ; a worthless woman. 

Bagnio fban'yo), t. a bathing-house; a 

Bag'plF'e, » a Scotch musical Instrnmant 
Bagpiper, s. one that plays on a bagp^ 

Bail, «. surety given for another's appear- 
ance : V. to ffive bail, to admit to oafl. 
Bailable, a. that may be bailed. Bailit 
(balyX ». a civic manstrate in SootUmd; 
an alderman. Bailiff, 9. an officer who 
puts in force an arrest ; a land steward. 
Bailment, s. a delivery of goods qn tnut 
Bailiwick, «. the jurisidiction of a baOiC 

Bail'piece, ». a slip of parchment or paper 
containing a recognisance of ba£L 

Bair'am, «. a Mahomedan f estlTal in eon* 
memoration of Abraham'i faith and ol» 

Bait, «. to set dogs on. Bee Bait, p. 61^ 
for other meaning of this word. 

Baize, s. a coarse kmd of cmen cloth. 

Bake, v. to dry or harden by heat or fire, 
to cook in an oven. 

Ba'kehouse, s. a place for baking bread. 
Bake-meats, s. meats dressed in an oven. 
Baken, the old form of the p. p. d 
Bake. Baker, s. he whose trade is to 
bake. Bakery, s. a bc^e-house: the 
trade or business of a baker. Ti ft MT ^ , 
i. the act of baking; the quantity baked 
at once ; the employment of a baker. 

Bal'ance, s. a pair of scales for 'weighh^; 
the difference between, or that .wfaidi 
is required to make two parts of aa 
account, or two accounts equal; an 
equipoise, as the **balamce of power;* 
V. to poise; to make equal; to settle; 
to be on a poise ; to hesitate between. 
Balancing, p. a, poising : «. act of poii- 
ing ; equilibrium. Balance-sheet, $. a 
paper exhibiting a summaxy and faal* 
ance of accounts. 

Bal'cony, «. a small gallery of wood or 
stone on the outside of a house. 

Bald, a. without hair ; bare ; unadorned. 

Bald'erdash, s. any thing Jumbled to- 
gether without judgment ; a jargon of 

Baldly, ad. nakedly ; inelegantly. Bald- 
ness, «. state of being bald; want of 
hair or ornament; inelegance. Bald- 

gate. s. a bald head. Baldpatcd, o^ bald 
Bald'ric, s. a girdle, a belt. 
Bale, s. a package or large bundle of 

goods : V. to put into bales. Bale, t. an 

obsolete word for sorrow^ or miseiy. 

Balefiil, a. full of sorrow or misery; 

calamitous. BalefUlly, oci. calamitousiy 
Balk (bawk), v. to disappoint; to fiiis- 

trate : «. a ridge between fuzrows; a 

largo beam or rafter. 
Ball (bawl), ». any thing round; a i^bbe; 

an ontertEonment of dancing. 
B&llad, «. a song on a historj^u, or popular 

subject ; or of simple melody. saUad* 

singer, «. one who sings baliMs in tbe 




BAR'last, ». a weight placed in the bottom 
of a sbip, to prevent its oversetting : v. 
to keep any tiling steady by ballast. 

Ballet, fbailet or bailay, Fr.] ». a dance 
exhibiting a story ; a theatiical dance. 
See 89, p. 29. 

Ballis'tics, s. the art or science of throwing 
missile weapons by means of engines. 

Balloon', 8. a large ball ; a globe made of 
silk, Ac, which, being inflated with 
gas, rises into the air ; a spherical glass 
receiver; an ornament in architecture. 

Billot, s. a little ball; a ball, bean, or 
ticket used in giving a secret vote ; the 
act of so voting : v. to vote in this way. 
Ballot-box, s. a box for receiving ballots. 
Balloting, s. the act of voting by ballot. 

Balm (bam), t. the jmce of the balsam- 
tree ; a fragrant and healing ointment ; 
any thing ttiat softens or mitigates pain 
or sorrow. Balmy (l)am'y), a. having 
the qualities of balm ; fragrant; sweet; 

Bfll'neary, «. a bathing-room, a bath. 

li&Vneal, a. belonging to a bath. 

Balsam (bawl-). See Balm. BSlsam'ic, 
Balsamical, a. having the qualities of 
balsam; soothing; mitigating. Bal- 
samic, 6. a healing, softening medicine. 

Bal'uster, s. a small pillar or colimm. Bal- 
ustered, a. having balusters. Balus- 
tra'de, s. a row of small pillars. 

Bamboo', jt. an Indian cane or large reed. 

l^amboo'zle, v. to trick, to cheat, to de- 

Ban, 8. a public notice ; a curse ; an inter- 
dict: V. to curse; to execrate. See 

Bana'na, 8. a kind of plantain-tree; the 
fruit of the plant valued for food. 

Banco, [It.] s. a bank or bench. 

Band, s. a bandage or tie ; a company : v. 
to bind together, to unite in a troop. 
Band'age, s. a fillet ; a roller for a wound. 

Bandan'a, Bandanna, s. a species of silk 
or cotton handkerchief. 

Bandlsox, s. a thin slight box. 

Band'elet, t. a fiat moulding; a little 

Ban'dit 8. an outlaw; a robber. Ban- 
ditti, pL 

Ban'dog, 8. a large dog; a mastiff. 

Bandolee'rs, 8. pi. small wooden cases, 
each containing a charge of powder, for- 
merly appended to the band of a mus- 

Band'rol. See BanneroL 

Ban'dy, Bandy-logged, Ac. See this word, 
page 50. 

Bane, s. poison ; ruin : v. to poison. Ba'ne- 
ful, a. poisonous; destructive. Bane- 
fully, ad. perniciously. Banefulncss, 
8. pemiciousness. 

Ba'newort, s. the deadly nightshade. 

Bang, 8. a blow, a thump : v. to beat. 

Banian (b^n'yan), Ban'yan, 8. one of a 
sect in India, who believe in transmi- 
gration, and abstain from animal food ; 
a man's morning gown, such as is worn 
\jj » Banian: vm Indian fig-treo. 

Banian-days (a naval expression), those 
days when the men have no flesh-meat. 

Ban'ish, v. to exile, to drive away. BaO' 
isher, a. he who exiles another. Banish- 
ment, «. transportation, exile. 

Ban'ister, 8. a corruption ot Baluster. 

Banio, 8. a ne^ stfinged instrument 

Bank, 8. the side of a river; a little hill; a 
shc»l in the sea ; a repository for money. 
Bank-bill, Bank-note, . «. a promissory 
note for money to be paid by a banking 
company. Bank'er «. one who keeps 
a bimk. Banking, 8. a trading in money. 
Bankrupt, «. one who, being unable to 
I>ay creditors, surrenders his effects : a. 
insolvent, unable to pay debts. Bank- 
ruptcy, 8. the state of a bankrupt. 
Bioikstock, 8. stock or money in a bank. 

Bans, 8. pL of Ban, a public notice; notice 
of intention of marrying. 

Ban'ner, 8. a military standard or flag. 
Bannered, a. furnished with banners. 
Banneret, «. a knight created in the 
field of battle: a little banner. Ban- 
nerol or Band'rol, 8. a little flag or 

Ban'nock, 8. a loaf or cake of oatmeal. 

Banquet (bank'wet), s. a sumptuous feast : 
V. to feast sumptuously. Banqueting-, 
8. the act of feasting : a. used for bau< 
quets. Banquette, [ban-kef, Fr.] «. a 
small bank at the foot of a parapet. 

Ban'shee, 8. an Irish faiiy or spirit. 

Ban'tam, s. a small fowl with feathered 
logs, probably first brought from Banr 
tamj a kingdom in Java. 

Ban'tor, v. to rally: s. sUght ridicule. 

Bantling, 8. a young child, aa. infant. 

Banyan. See Banian. 

Bap'tism, 8. the first sacrament of the 
Christian church; sprinkling or im- 
mersion. Baptis'mat a. relating to 
baptism. Bap'tist, s. one who baptizes, 
as Johnthe^ap<»^; also, an Anabaptist. 
Baptis'tical a. relating to Baptism. 
Baptistery, 8. a place for baptizing at. 
Bapti'ze, v. to administer the sacrament 
ol DaptLsm, to christen. Baptizer, 8. 
one who oaptiz/ea or christois. See 
Anabaptist, under Anabaptism. 

Bar, V. to secure or fasten any thing with 
a bar; to hinder or obstruct. Bur, 8. a 
long piece of wood or iron; the place 
assigned for lawyers to plead; ihe place 
at which criminals stand during trial; 
a hinderance; an enclosed space in a 
tavern ; a term in music. 

Barb, 8. a Barbary horse. Barb. «. a 
beard ; a sort of pubescence in plants ; 
the points which stand backwam in an 
arrow or fishing-hook; horse armour: 
V. to furnish with bsurbs, as an arrow. 

Bar'bacan, 8. a fortification before the 
walls of a town; a watch-tower; an 
opening in a wall for guns. 

BanMt'rian, «. a rude imcivilized person, a 
savage : a. uncivilized, rude. Barbaric, 
a. uncivilized, foreign. 

Bai^barism, c ig;n.oT«cncA ^ ^T\xk\ VcksSvc. 




l7.efi word or phraso; aiolecinn. Bir- 
bar'ity, s. inhiim'iiiitv, cruelty. J?ftr'b:ir- 
Ico, V. to ronder bart)firoiifl. Barbaroun, 
a. nide, nnciTiliKcd; iiihurnnn, cruel; 
unacquainted with «rt«. Barbftrotis'V, 
a'f.igiiorantly; cruelly. BarbarouRnests 
Rtate of being b>irbaroua. 

Barliecue, «. s hog dre^ned whole with 
Pjiicc8 : V. to drew) whole on a pridlmn. 

Biirb'cd, p. a. bcarrled or jaj^i^ed with 
hooks; fumiflh" d with arniour. 

Bnr1)cl, s. a kind of fisli with Mrbn. 

J'.irHwr, 8. one w!h)ro trade is to phnre. 

IVirlKirry, «. a i trick ly shrub and its burry. 

]3nrbos or Barbies, n. a disease of hiTsoH 
and cattle, when they have morbid ex- 
crescence under the toupio. 

Bar'bet, 8. a long-haired dog; a bird; a 

BarTjican. See Barbacan. 

Bar'caroUe, 8. a Vcnetiim boat-son?:. 

]3arfl, 8. a Tnln«trel; a poet. Bardic, a. 
relating to the bards or poets. 

Bare, a. naked; uncovered; unndonicd ; 
pliiin ; simple ; mere, ijoor, le;ui : v. to 
make bare or naked ; to strip, 

Ba'rolioncd, a. having the boucs bnre. 

Ba'rcfnct'<l. a. shameless, imi)ndotit. Bare- 
fu'cedness. «. eC'rontery; assurance. 
Ba'rcfacedJy, ad. shamelessly; impu- 

B I'refoot, Barefooted, a. without shoes. 

Biir'oge. piar-eje, Fr.] «. tliin stuff. 

Bn'rchcaded, «. with the head uncovered. 

Ba'releggcd, a. haviiiir the le;f3 bnre. 

Ba'rely, ad. nakedly ; ecjircely ; racr- ly. 
Bareness, «. nakedness ; scarcciic-a ; 

Bar'gaiu, 8. a contract or aj^reement; a 
thing boujfht or sold ; n cheap purchase : 
V. to make a contract; to stipulate 
Bargaining, s. tlie act of maldug a bar- 

Bar>fe, «. a large boat for pleasure or trade. 

B.'ir'geman, s. the manager of a bar,','c. 
J3iirgemuster, 8. the owner of a bargo. 

Biirilla, ». a plant cultivated in Bnain 
fur its ashes, and the alkali obtained 
from it. 

Baritone, Barytone, a noting a deep grave 
sound : «. aterm in grammar and music. 

Ba'rium, 8. the metallic base of barytee. 

Bark, s. the rind of a treo; a small ship : 
V. to make a noise like a dog ; to clamour 
at ; to strfp trees of their bark. Bark'y, 
a. consisting of or like bark. 

Barley, ». a kind of grain or bread-corn 
of wliich malt is commonly made. Bar- 
ley-brake, «. a kind of rural play. Barley- 
corn, 8. a grain of barley ; in mea.suro- 
ment the third part of an inch. Barley- 
mow, 8. where barley is stowed. Barley- 
sugar, 8. sugar boiled in a decoction of 
barley. Barley-water, «. a eofc and lu- 
bricating drink made of barlov. 

Bum, 8. yeast, used to make drink fer- 

Bar'maid, 8. a female waiter at an inn. 

Bann'y, a. containing barm. 

Bam, i. » storebousd for com, to. 

Bar'nacle, «. ftaell-fLsh whlek •dhflmte 
wood, be. in the water ; a Uid like s 
goose, fabulously Boid to grow en trw; 
an iron instrument to hold a hatmhj 
the nose during an operatioii (tf fivilny. 

Barom'eter, 8. an instrument tar maanr 
fng the weight of the atmoqphM • I 
weather-glass. Baromefrioal, m. rw- 1 
ing to a barometer. 

Bar'on, 8. a rank in noblli^ next to i 
viscount; a judge of tho Oonrt of Ec 
chequer; two sirloins of beef not cot 
asuuder. Baronage, s. tho dignity or A 
stite of a baron. Baronosa, i. a bsnn^ 
wife or lady. Baronet, a. the lowest 
title that is hereditary, next in nnkt« 
a baron. Baronetage, «. the ooUecUrc 
body of baronets. Baronetcy, & tte 
nuik or title of a baron. 

Baro'nial, a. relating to a boron or biran'. 
Bar'onv, 8. a territorial poasesaloa, pv- 
ing title to a baron. 

Barouche, [bur-oosh', Fr.] s. an open coidL 

I>u-que. flmrk, Fr. ] «. a small ship. 

l^r'mcan, 8. a strong kind of camlet. 

Bar'rpck, 8. a building to quarter BoMIen 
in. Barrackmaster, «. the officer lAt 
has the 6ux)erintendcnce of adldien' 

Bar'rator, «. one guilty of barratry. Bv- 
mtry, 8. in law, a iraudxilent praetke; 
an oiTcnce of a master of a ship or d 
tho mariners by which the-owne*«oc 
insurers uro defrauded. 

Bar'rul, s. a round wooden vessel; ft> 
hollow tuljo of a gun: v. to put tat* 
a barrel. BniTcUod, p. a. put Into • 
biUTol ; furnished with a btureL 

Bar'ren, a. imfruitful ; stcrilo ; dnll. B«^ 
rcnncss, 8. sterility ; want oif inventioa 

Barrica'do, v. to stop up ; to fortifjr. Bn'- 
ricr, 8. a barricade; a boundary. 8n 
Barricade, p. 61. 

Bar'iister, ». a pleader at the bar.'row, 8. a small bond or wheel-CD^ 
ringc; a small raoimd of earth undff 
which bodies were anciently depodted. 

B:ir'tcr, V. to give one commodity in 
exchange for another: «. a traffic by 
exchanghig. Barterer, t. he that ex- 
changes goods. Bartery, «. exohangsof 

Bary'ta, 8. a veiy ponderous earth. 

Barv'tes, 8. sulphate of batyto. 

Barytone. See Baritone. 

Ba'sal, a. relating to the base or bottom. 

Basalt (ba-sawlf), t. a grayish, Uidc 
mineral or stone; trap-rock; a poice* 
lain imitating the mineraL TTaaiiKIn 
(-sAl-tik), a. relating to, <ur ibrmed d 

Bas'anite, «. a black Jasper, a kind d 

Bas Bleu, [bah blow, Fr.] «. a blna <toc1r 
ing; a literary or learned lady. 

Base, 8. the bottom or foiindsoosi of Uf 
thing; the pedestal of a statu : a. TiZib 
mean, low : metal heixtw the atiadiird; 
In music, deep, gttre: #. to tUbM oik • 
hastes to fooncT or «MiUiflu Btfn* 




bom, a. of illegitimnte parentage. Ba5>e- 
lc!8s, a. without foimdation. Basely, 
0(1. in a baae manner; mcanlj. fiase- 
minded, a. mean-spirited. Baseminded- 
11 CSS, s. meanness of spirit. Basement, 
f. the lowest story; the ground floor. 
Baseness, «. vileness, meanness. 

Bas'cnet, «. a helmet or headpiece. 

Bashaw^, «. a Turkish Paeka or viceroy. 

Bash 'fill, a. timid, modest, shamefaced. 
Bashfully, ad. timorously, very mo- 
destly. Bashfulness, «. modesty ; rustic 

Bas'U, 8. the skin of a sheep tanned; a 
kind of plant or herb; a term in car- 

Basil'ic, BasUlcal, a. belonging to the ba- 
silic yein or to basilica. BasiUca, s. a 
great or ktnnly hall; a magnificent 
church ; the chief or middle vein of the 
arm. Basilicon, s. an ointment of a so- 
vereign virtue. 

Bas'ilisk, s. a crested serpent fabled to 
have the power of killing by its look ; a 
term now applied to a genus of liisards ; 
a sort of cannon ; a star in Loo. 

Ba'sin, «. a small vessel for holding water; 
a pond; a dock; that portion of a 
country which is drained by a river 
and its tributaries; any depression or 

Ba'sis, the base or foundatian of any thing ; 
the foot, the pedestaL 

Batrk', V. to lie in the heat of the sun. 

Buslcet, 8. a vessel made of twigs, Ac. 

Basque (bask), a. relating to Biscay. 

Bass, 8, a mat used to kneel on in churches : 
a. ill music, low, deep, grave. 

Bas'fet, 8. a game at cutis; a term in 

Bassoon', «. a musical wind instrument. 

Bassoon'ist, 8. a performer on the bassoon. 

Bass-relief (bas-re-leef '), s. a term applied 
to figures not much raised. See Alto- 

Bass-vi'ol, 8. a musical instrument. 

Bas'tard, «. a child bom out of wedlock : 
a. illegitimate ; spurious ; not genuine. 
Bastardism, s. the state of being a bas- 
tard. Bastardize, v. to declare inr deter- 
mine a cliild to be illegitimate. Bas- 
tardy, 8. iUegitimacy of birth. 

Baste, V. to sew slightly. Baste, v. to 
beat; to drip butter on meat whilst 
roasting. See Baste, p. 51. 

Bastile, [bas-teel', Fr.J«. the fortification 
of a castle; the castle itself; a state 

Bastina'de, Bastinado, t. act of beating 
with a cudgel; a Turkish punishment 
for beating an offender on the soles of 
his feet: v. to give the bastinado. 

Ba'sting, 8. the act of beating wi& a 

Bas'tion, <. a huge mass of earth standing 
out from a rampart ; a bulwark. Bas- 
tkmed, a. provided with bastions. 

Bat, «. a dub to sMke a ball with; a 
winged animal somewhat resembling a 
mouse: v. to inaiiago a htt at oriok«£ 

Batch, 8. the qtiantity of bread baked at 
one time. 

Bato, V. an abbreviation of Abate, 

Bateau, [bat-o', Fr.J a long light boat. 

Bath, 8. a place Uj bathe in; bathing. 
Bathe, v. to wash in a bath ; to soften. 
Ba'ther, 8. one who bathea Bathing, «. 
immersion in water. 

Bat'-horse, s. a baggage-horse. 

Ba'thos, 8. anticlimax or sinking in poetry. 

Ba'ting, prep, abating, except. 

Batiste, [ba-teesV, Fr.] «. cambric or fine 

Batlet, 8. a small bat or flat club. 

Bat'on, Batoon^ 8. a short staff; a mar> 
shal's truncheon ; in heraldry, a mark 
denoting illegitimate descent. 

Bat'ta, 8. an allowance made to officers in 
the East India Company's service in 
addition to their i)ay. 

Battal'ia (-tale-ya), 8. the main body of an 
army arranged in order of battle. 

Battal'ion, «. a body of foot soldiers, from 
500 to 800 men ; a division of an anuy 

Bat'tel, V. to batten or grow fat; to staiii 
indebted in the college books at OxJur.l 
for board: 8. an account for board. lu 
Cambridge «tee is used in t)ie mmo sense. 
Ilcnce the terms BaUdler or Battler; and 
SiBor or Sizer. 

Bat'ten, 8. a broad thin scantling of wood : 
V. to form with battens. Batten, v. to 
grrow fat. See BatteL 

Bat'ter, «. a mixtm^ of flour, eggs, r/>ilk, 
&c. : ». to beat, to beat down ; to wear 
with beating, to wear out with Rervico. 
Battering-ram, s. a milifauy cnsrine, for- 
merly used to b'jitter down wal.s. But- 
tery, 8. raised work on which cannons 
are mounted ; in law, a violent assault. 

Bat'tle, 8. a fight : v. to contend in fight. 
Battle-array', 8. a form or order of battle. 
Bat'tle-axe, 8. a weapon like an axe. 

Bat'tle-door, 8. a flat instrument used to 
strike shuttlecocks with. 

Bat'tlement, «. a wall or para]iet on tho 
top of a building with openings or em- 

Battue, [bafoo, Fr.] t. a beaUng up for 
game ; the game beaten up. 

Baubee', «. (in Scotland) a haUpenny. 

Bau'ble, 8. a trifle, a trinket, a plimjiing. 

Bawd, 8. a procurer or procuress. £awd'y, 
a. unchaste, foul, lewd. Bawdry, 8. 
obsceneness or lewdness. 

Bawl, V. to call or cry out, to speak loud. 
BawFer, 8. one who makes an outcry. 
Bawling, 8. the act of loudly calling. 

Bawn, 8. (in Ireland) an enclosure for 
cattle or for defence. 

Bay, 8. a geographical term ; a species of 
we laurel-tree ; a stand made by ono 
surrounded by enemies: a. brown ai>- 
proaching to cnestnut-colour : v. to bark 
as a dog, to bark at. Bajr'ard, «. a bay 

Bsy'onet, t, a dagger fixed to a muakAt'. 
«, to steb with a oayoQsi^ 

BiTB, t. oL an 'h.o&ocax^ torair^ «t 




Day'salt, 8. a fialt tamIc from sca-wuter in 
&a^.<, d:c., exposud to the Miin. 

liuy'-tree, s. a spocios of laurel, of the 
loaves of which bays were made. 

Bay-win'dow, ». See under Bay, p. 51, 

li.-usaar', Bazar, s. an eastern market. 

lidellium (del'yum), s. au aromatic gum. 

Be, V. to exist, to have existence. 

Beach, «. the sea-shore, the strand. 

Bea'con, «. something on an eminence, 
where signs ore made to direct seamen. 

i3ead, «. a little ball stnmg with others, 
with which necklaces and rosaries are 

Bea'dle, «. an inferior officer in a parish, 
university, or coiut. Bee Bedel. Beadle- 
ship, 8. the office of a beadle. 

Bca'gle, s. a small kind of hunting dog. 

Beak, s. the bill of a bird ; any point like 
u beak. Beak'ed, a. having a beak. 
Beaker, s. a cup with a spout formed 
like the beak of a bird. 

Beam, «. the main piece of timber which 
supports a building; the balance of a 
pair of scales ; the pole of a chariot ; a 
ray of light: v. to emit rays or beams. 
J)eam'less, g. without rays of light. 
Beamy, a. shining; radiant. 

Bean, s. a well-known kind of pulse. 

Bear (bare), v. to cairry a load ; to support ; 
to endure or suffer; to bring fortn, as 

BiiiiX (bare), g. a rough, savage animal; 
a rude, unpolished man; two constel- 
lations, caJled the Greater and the 
Ixisser Bear. — In stock-jobbing, those 
who strive to pull down or depress the 
funds are called Bearg : while those who 
strive to raise them are called BvMx. 

Bear'-baiting, s. baiting bears with dogs. 

Beard, «. hair which grows on the chin 
and lips ; the barb of an arrow or hook : 
V. to take by the beard ; to oppose to 
the face ; to defy. Be'arded, a. naving 
a beard ; barbed. Beardless, a. having 
no beard; yotitbful. 

Bear'er, «. a person employed as the car- 
rier of any thing; asupportcnr. 

Bear'-garden, t. any place of tumult. 

Bearding, g. the position of one place fh>m 
another by the points of the compass ; 
gest\u*e or behaviour. 

Bear'ish, a. having the qualities of a bear. 
Bearlike, a. resembling a bear; rude. 

Bear's'foot, g. a species of hellebore. 

Beast, g. an irrational animal, usually ap- 
plied to the larger quadrupeds ; a brute ; 
a beastlv or brutal man. Beast'ly, a. 
like a beast; brutal; nasty; filthy. 
Beastliness, g. brutality; filtMness. 

Beat, V. to strike with repeated blows; 
to punish with stripes; to pound; to 
bnuse; to conquer or overcome; to 
throb or ^five pulsation; to make pro- 
gress agamst the wind by a zigzas; 
course, as a ship: g. a recurring stroke 
or its sound, as of a drum ; a piusation ; 
a customary round, as of a policeman. 
Beater, g. one wlio or that which beats. 
Beaten, p. a. punitibfd with blows; 

pounded; bruised; outdone; conquer- 
ed. Beating, g. the act of stiiUiiK; 
correction by blows; pr ojgre aB agalBit 
the wind, as a ship. 

Beatific (be-a-). Beatifical, a. imparthii 
heavenly bUss. Beatifically, od. bUn- 
fidly. Beatifloa'tion, g. the act of beitl* 
fying. Beat'ify, v. to make happj or 
blessed; to pronounce or declare to te 
admitted to heaven. Beatified, e. a 
made happy; blessed. BeatitcuM^ i 
blessedness; heavenly happineae; glofy. 

Beau (bo), g. a man of dxess ; a fop, a cos- 
comb; an admirer; jpl. Beaux (bo«)i 
Beauish, a. dressed uiowily; fqppUk 
Beau-monde (-mdnd), g. the fkehianaUa 

Beauteous (bu'td-us or bate-TosX •• 
beautiful ; elegant in form. Beonte- 
ously, od. in a beauteous numn«r. Ben* 
teousness, g. quality of being beautoom; 
beauty. Beautifior, «. that which besn* 
tifies. Beautiful, a. having the qiialit;^ 
that constitutes beauty judr; praUar; 
elegant. Beautifully, cut. in a beantmil 
manner. Beauftifulness, «. elegance of 
foim ; beauty. Beautify, v. lo mike 
beautiful; to adorn. Beauty, «. tfaat 
assemblage of graces which pleaMBi 
especially the eye; a grace or aud- 
ience; abeautiful person. Beau^f-spol^ 
g. a small black patch placed ontto 
fiEtce to heighten beauty. 

BeaVer, g. an amphibious animaL Hhi- 
able for its fur; a hat made nf fJM An; 
the part of the helmet which coven ths 

Becafico (-fee'-co), g. the fig-eater, a bduU 
bird like the nd^htingale. 

Becalm', v. to keep in a calm ; to qnlst 

Beca'me, the past tense of Become. 

Becau'se, conj. for ; for this r^uon. 

Bechan'ce, v. to befall ; to happen. 

Becharm', v. to captivate ; to ^lann. 

Beck, V. to call by a motion of the head; 
to beckon: g. a sign with the head; a 
nod. Beck'on, v. to make a sign to 
another by nodding, or by a mraon of 
the hand. 

Become (-cum), v. to be flt» to be mittablo to 
the person ; to enter into some state. Be- 
comingly, od. in a becoming manner. 
Becomingness, g. propriety, sulfeiJiile- 

Becrip'ple, v. to make lame. ■ 

Bed, g. a place to sleep on ; a ooaoh ; a 
bank of earth raised in a garden for 
flowers; the place on which anything 
rests, as of a river ; a layer or stratum : 
V. tojput or place in a bed. 

Bedabl)le, v. to besprinkle, to wet. 

Bcdras^gle, v. to traU in the dirt. 

BedauV, v. to daub, to besmear. 

Bedas/zle, v. to dazzle, to dim by lostrti 

Bed'chamber, g. a room to sleep in. 

Bed'clothes, g. the coverings of a bed. 

Bed'ded, p. a. laid on a iMd; embedded. 
Bedding, g. the materials tat a bed. 

Bedeck', v. to deck, to adorn, to drwi iqii. 

Be'del, «. a university beadla. 

BedsvH, r. to pbif tha dsril vith; to 

throw Into ntbBT coaCueion [foul 
BsdoW, •. to moiflton geatly aa wfth dow. 
Ssd'tUlow. a. one lying in tLa ume bed. 
BodTiMginM. I. fL bed-ourtalna. 
Bedi'ghC {-dlte), t>. to (uJorn i to diem- 

BediE'en, t^ to droM out gaily. 
Bodlnni, J. ft nudhause; ■ noisy plus. 
Sea JPhUbm, p. U. BedlimAto, i. a mad- 

Bed'maker, r otifl wlia m&kfia beds. 
Bad'ouliu, J. Ivjnukdio or wandering 

Bed'poAt, t. thfl poflt of a 1jedaE£sd. 
Bednnch', p. to drenali ^ to Doak. 
Bed'Hd, Badriddeu, a. eoaflned to bed by 

Bicknen or old age. 
Bed'room, «. a bedcbamber. 
Bednn/. v. to eprinkla with dropa. 

„_^,^.,. . .U..,J. .,11.. v.^ 

wfesChsrgo'f a bed. 
Uaaumt, i . the hour of reat. 
Bee, ■- an Inieot that makes honey uul 

Beech, I. A fOnat tt«A- Boeoh'an, a. con- 
Biat^ig of the iToed of beech. Beech- 

Begin', «. to sst«r upon, to commenc 
B^inner, I. one that beginii : a uovic 
Beginning, i. the first origluiil or caiui 
tlie fint port; the rudimanta or fir 

Begnaw(be-iiawT.v. tooataway.loconode. 

ottcQ, the p- p. oi BegeL 
etai r. to aoll with granee. 
to blacken or goUwiaignmu, 

or the bed. 

Bed'tick. BedtlcklnB, •. a 

M fl«>h of the ox, bull, oi 

. ,—- , — sitale (4anti- 

cipation. BelOre-mentioned, a, men- 
tioned prerjoualj. fieToretlme, a<L for- 

Befaul^ V. to make foul; todanb; toAcdl. 
BeftieDd', >. to EtvoiiT, to he kind to. 
BoMn'g^ »- *- -■-—'- -"■- --■- 

Began', tha paat I 
Begef , V. to ganerate, to produoe. 
Bcg'gar. 1. one who Uvea by begging : v. 
u nduc« to beggar; to impoTiji-iah. 

Bci.'ilt', p. ■. gQdcdoTer- 

Begul'lfi, V. to cheat, to ImpcBS on ; ro 
«muse^ to deceive pleaAbgly. Be- 
guller, i. one who bi^uileH. 

Be'gum, t- a Hindoo orIndiuiprinc4H- 

Begun', the put participle ol Begin. 

Bohair, t. eake. Interea^ advanT^e. 

SE^lf. ^B^Tiour, I. conduct; coui-ecol 

Behead', i. to kill by cutting off the bead ; 

Beheld'. &e p. 1. and p. p. of Beliotd. 
Be'hcmoth. i. an animal described In 
Job, auppoaed to bo the hlppopola- 

liWIHd,p, fi . .._ 
k, 1. BiUoaof beetforbrcdllng. 

Bee-hive, i. a brae orcMe lor holding ben. 

Ileon, the past partldple of F 

^,^, , nt plant. 

Bee'tle.!, ulltltMt Bee thlsword, p, $L 
Beotle-biowed, a. having heavy biowi. 
Beevei, i. pL ol beef; oxen. 
BelUl', V- to happen, to oome to paes. 
Beflf , (. to fit 1 to «uit ; to become. Be- 
fitting, s. a. mitable: becoming. 
Bofianar, 1. to flatter, to oitale. 
IkiCool'. V. to make a teal of. 
l^fo'Fe, pr^ liartiier onwanl ; Infrontof; 


BehQid, V. to look stedfastly upon: to 
observe, to view: inf. seel fcl Be- 
holden, 3- obliged; bound fn ffatitud<L 

Behoof, >. proSt. advantage. boneBt. 
Behoovsble (-hoov'-), n. fit. ptofltable. \t^a 
All. Behoove. Behove, v. to bo flt ur 

Be'iDg, p. exlEtlng ; f , exlatouce ; any 

thing mat exists. 
Belaliimr, v. to heot eoundly. to thump. 
Bela'cedip. a. covered with lace. 
Belated, a. bcnighttd, Uto oiit. 
Belay', v. to blt>ck up, to be^t^o; wltli 

Bel'fry, r a place where bells hang- 
Belial I. the evil one ; a wicked mnu 

BeUef(-leen^ s, petBUKUon. opinion; CTi 

credit. BcUcvabl*, a. that may bo b«. 

a Chriatian. Believinglj, tut. in a bo- 

Beli'ke, ad. probably, perhaps, likely. 
Bell, J, a hollow sounding veasoL 
Bel'la-dan'na, [It.] i. the deedlj "'"'^ ^ 
■hade, lltcnSi , al<i\( VUl-v. J^^ 




Dc'lloft-lettres, [bcl-let'tr, Fr.J *. pi. ole- 
;r:iut or jralito literature. 

Bollo, 8. a gay, drowiy vuung lady. 

BoH'-flower, ». a ulant with iKjU-shaned 
flowers, the camiifiimLa. B»ill-fouuncr, 
s. ono who casts bolls. Bell-hanger, s. 
one who hangs or puts up belLi in a 

rd'Hcose, a. Inclined for war. 

liclligorent (bel-lij'-), o. carrying on war j 
dis^josed to war: s. a state engaged in war. 

13eir-inan, «. one who rings a hand-bell as 
a notice in the streets ; a public crier. 
Bell-metal, «. & composition of copper, 
tin, and usually, a portion of brass and 

Bol'low, V. to roar like a bull ; to roar. 
Bellowing, ». roaring ; a loud outcry. 

Bcl'lows, ». an instrument to blow the fire. 

Bellows-maker, ». a maker of bellows. 

l^el'l-rope, s. a rope fur ringing a belL 

lielluine, a. beastly, bnital. 

liull'-wether, r a sheep which leads the 
flock with a bell on liis neck. 

Belly, s. that portion of the body which 
contains the bowels and intestines ; the 
abdomen: v. to bulge or swell out. 
BeUy-band, s. a baud that goes round 
the belly; the girth of a sadcQe. 

Belong', V. to appertain, to be the pro- 
X>orty of, to have relation to. 

Bclov'od, a. greatly loved, vsiluod much. 

Below*, ad. lower in place ; inferior. 

Bolt, «. a e^le, a sash : v. to encircle. 

Bel'tane, ». May-day, a Celtic term. 

Btil'vedere, t. a pavilion on the top of a 
house, or in a garden commanding a 
fine view. 

Bemi're, v. to daub with mire ; to soiL 

]iomo'an, v. to lament, to bewail. 

Bemock', v. to dcrido ; to laugh at. 

IJumu'sed, a. overcome with mushig. 

Bench, s. a long seat ; a judge's scat ; the 
judicial body. Beuch'er, s. a senior 
or goveiiiiug member in the inns of 

Bend, s. a curve, a crook, a flexure : v. to 
crook, to bow ; to subdue. 

Beneath', prep, under; lower in place, 
rank, or excellence; unworthy or: aU. 
in a lower place ; below, as opposed to 
above or heaven. 

Bun'edlct, a. a married man [Shakxpeare']. 
Benedic'ilne, s. a monk of the order 
of St Benedict: a. belonging to that 
order. Benediction, «. a blessing; an 
acknowledgment for hlessingH received. 
Benedictory, a. conferring benediction. 

Benefac'tion, «. a benefit; a charitable 
gift. Benefactor, Benefactress. «. a man 
or woman who confers a benefit; a 

Boneiice (bon'o-fls), s. a church living. 
Bene Seed, a. having a living. Bene- 
ficence, ». active goodness; kindness; 
liberality. Beneficent, a. doing good; 
bountiful. Beneficently, ail. in a l>eno- 
ficont manner. Beneficial (-fish'al), a. 
advantageous ; productive of good. Bone- 
flcialJy, ad. advbuta^cously. Bcnofi- 


dalnoss, «. usefVilneM; proAt. 

ciaiy, 8. one who holds a boa 

person benefited or Msistod. 

fit, 8. ktndnesL adnuitsgep at: % 

to do good ; to derive good tram, 
Benev^oIencOy «. good-wul; illiijinsUliali 

do good; kindness. Bcmevolfln^ & 

wishing or disposed to do good. BiHS> 

volently, ad. in a bemsvoleiit '^fi^inr 
Bengalee (-gawl'eoX <. the Bengal laoBusiiL 

Bengalo'se, «. a native or TuSanmck B»> 

Benight (-nite), v. to involve in lUrt iiiH 

l^euighted, p. a. overtaken by tbm n^i^i 

involved in darkness or ignoranotL 

Benign (-nine), a. ftill of benignltv; 

griicious ; wholesome. Benignly, mi. ii 

a benign manner. Beoig'nantk m. Uad; 

gracious; good. Bentgaitgr, 9. Ub^ 

ness; graciousness. 
Ben'lson, s. a benediction or bleMtng. 
Ben'jamin, t. see Bonioin. 
Bent, s. a flexure, a curve ; tam of mfaid! 

inclination. Bent or Boi'ded, j». t and 

p. p. of Bend. 
BenlZ-grass, ». a kind of grass. 
Benumb (-numX v. to make toiptd, teil^ 

Benzoin', i. a medicinal kind of raifai, rvSr 

garly called gvLva-benJamin* 
Bepainf , v. to cover with pidnt. 
Bcpra'ise, v. to praise extravagantly. 
Bequeath (-kwetheX v. to give or lam 

by will; to hand down to potAedtj. 

Bequest (-kwesf ), s. a gift hy wiO^ a 

Bero, s. a species of barley. 
Bere'ave, v. to deprive of ; to make dsatt 

tute. Bereavement, s. state of iNtatf 

bereaved; deprivation. Bereft^, p, I 

of Bereave. 
Bcr'gamot, s. a kind of pear; an esaoMt 

or perfume ; a sort of scented sniilC 
Berhy'me, v. to celebrate in rhyme. 
Ber'lin, s. a kind of chariot first mada la 

Berlin; a kind of dyed wooL 
Bcr'r}', 5. any small fiiiit oontalnimf aaeda 
Berth, 8. a room or slcopbiif pStoe on 

board a ship; a ship's station whou li 

Ber'yl, «. a precious stone. Bee .^{lut- 

Bescriblile, v. to scribble over. 
Beseech', v. to beg, to liitreat, to Implore. 

Beseechingly, ad. imploringly. 
Beseem', v. to become, to befit. Beseem* 

ing, a. becoming, proiHU*. Beseemly, a. 

fit; becoming; suitablo. 
Beset', V. to waylay, to perplex, to hansi. 

Besetting, a. habitually attackiug. 
Bcshrew', v. to wish a curse uix>u. 
Bcsi'de. prep, at the side of ; noar to ; la 

addition to. Bueidos, atk uioreovori 

distinct from. 
Besiege r-Kcqj), v. to lay siege to ; to bn 

in. Besieger, ». one who besiegeai 
Besmear', v. to smear or daub ovor. 
Besmut', v. to blacken with smuti oripo^ 
Besnufi', v. to foul with anufiT. 
Be'BOi:'\, I. a broom made of twig'*. 




. to make sottifih ; to stupofy with 
Besotted, p. a. stupened. Be- 
1688, ». gross stupidity, infatuation. 
tC-sawv^p. t. axidj7. p. of Beseech, 
iple, V. to decorate with spangles. 
«r, V. to splash with dirt; to 
a with calumny. 
', V. to speak for heforehand. 
1' «. to spread over ; te cover, 
kle, V. to sprinkle over, 
most good ; most excellent : ad. 
I highest degree: «. highest per- 
i ; greatest eSiort. 
(benstedO, v. to profit. 
a. like a beast, brutish. Besti- 
«. the quality of a beast. 
V. to move quickly, to hastoii. 
, V. to give, to ccouer upon. Be- 
I, «. act of bestowing; a gift. 
^er, t. one who bestows, a giver. 
vmeni; see Bestowal. 
', V, to strew aboi^t. 
), V. to get astride g£ 
«. to aounn with stu^a- 
ad. to be sure, certainly, 
wager : v. to lay a wager. 
V. to take one's self to ; to have 
«e to. Betaken, v. p. 
I. an Indian shruo of the popper 
whioh is chewed in the East for 
o^^icating qualities. 
', «L to TMoUeot* to reflect, 
(ht (bo-thof ]y p, t. and p. p. of 

V. to happ^ Uk to befall. 
9, Betime, od. in good time, early, 

1, V. to signify, to foreshow. 
p. t. of Betake. 

V. to deliver up treacherously ; 
ulge a secret; to discover. Be- 
, <. act of betraying; treachery, 
rer, i. a traitor ; one that betrays. 
, V. to contract in order to mar- 
to affiance. Betrothed, p. a. 
»d or engaged to marry. Bo- 
nent, s. the act of betrouiing; a 
al promise of marriage. 
a. (the ocmiparativeof Qoo^ supe- 
ad. (the comparative of W^ more 
lently : «. a supraior : v. to meliorate 
tprove. Bettering, i. the act of 
ving. Betters, «. piL our supe- 
n station, &c. 

', 8. the act of making a wager. 
i. one that lays wagers. 
/, Betwixt', prep, iq the interme- 
}pace ; in the middle of; from one 
ithcr ; belonging to twa 
I. a kind of square rule used by 
s and masons; an obtuse or acute 
: a. oblique : v. to cut to a bevel 

Bevelled, p. t. and p. p. 
^, «. drink, liquor to oe drunk. 
, % flock of birds ; a company. 
V. to bemoan, to lament. Bewail- 
an audible expression of sonow, 

» V. to b« oautioufl, to be wary of. 
HT. Bee this word, p. 6L 

Bewiteh', v. to injure by witdicratt; to 
fascinate or charm, as if by witchcraft. 
Bewitchery, Bewitchment, ». fasci- 
nation. Bewitching, a. fascinating; 
charming. Bewitchmgly, ad. in a bo- 
witohing manner. 

Bewrap', v. to wrap up ; to enclose. 

Bewray', v. to discover ; to betray. 

Bey, «. a Turkish governor. 

Beyond', prtp. farther ouward than, re- 
mote from, on the farther side of, above. 

Bez'el, «. that part of a ring iu which tlio 
diamond or stone is fixed. 

Be'zoar, «. a stone-like substance found in 
the stomach of goats. Bezoar-goat, s. 
the Indian antelope. 

Bezo'nian, a. a needy or low fellow. 

Bi, Bis, a Latin prefix bignifying two ; as 
iu biped, bisect, tic. 

Bi'as, 8. inclination, bent ; partiality : v. to 
incline to a side ; to prejudice. 

Bib. See Bib and Bibber, p. 51. 

Biba'ceous (-shus), a. addicted to drink- 
ing, imbibing ; thirsty. 

Bib'ber, «. a tippler, a toper, a sot. 

Bi'ble, i. The JStooky by way of eminence ; 
the volume which contains the sacred 
Scriptures. Bib'lical, a. relating to the 
Bible; Scriptural. 

Bibliog'rapher, «. one skilled in book his- 
tory. Bibliographic, Bibliographical, 
a. relating to tne history of books. 
Bibliog'raphy, ». a history or account of 
books, as to their authora, editors, &c. 

Biblioma'nia, s. eagerness to possess cu- 
rious books; book-madness. Biblio- 
maniac, «. one smitten with a rii;;:o lor 
possessing i-are or scarce books. Biblio- 
pho'bia, «. a drtjad of books. Bibiio» 
pol'ic, a. pertaining to bookselling. 
Bib'lioi)olo^ Bibliop'olist, ». abookKcUor. 
Bibliothe'ca, Bibliotheke, «. a liln-ary. 
Bibliothocal, a. belonging to a library. 

Bib'lus, «. the Egyi)tiau papjTUS. 

Bib'ulous, a. absorbing; thu-sty. 

Bicar'bonate, s. carbonic acid doubly 

Bice, B. a x)ale blue paint or pigment. 

Biceph'alous, a. having two heads. 

Bicip'ital, Bicipitous, a. having two heads. 

Bick'er, v. to quarrel, to wran.,'le. 

Bick'cring, «. a quarrel ; wrar.glinf^. 

Bicor'nous, Bi'com, a. having two lioma. 

Bid, V. to order or command ; to invito ; 
to offer as a price : ». an oflor of a priiu. 
Bid'dcn or Bid, the p. p. of Bid, Bidder, 
s. one tbat bids. Biddmg, ». a com- 
mand ; an offer of a price or termK. 

Bide, V. to dwell ; to continue ; to abide ; 
to suffer or endure. 

Biden'tal, a. having two teeth. 

Bidet', [or boo-day', Fr.] s. a small horro 
or nag ; an article of bedroom fm-nituro. 

Bicn'uial, a. continuing for two yeais; 
once in two years. Biennially, ad, 
every two years. 

Bier, $. a frame used for carrying the dead 
to the grave. 

Biost'ings, t. the first mWs. «!&jist ^siic^'cM^^ 

Bi'fold, a. iwolo\dL\ ^v^\<&. 




BiTorm, a. baying a double form. 

Bifnmf ed, a. having two fronts. 

Bifur'cate, Bifurcated, a. having two 
Iirongs like a fork. Blfurca'tion, t. di- 
vision into two branches. 

Big, a. large, great, swollen, fraught 

B^amist^ ». a person guilty of bigamy. 
Bigamy, c. the crime of having two 
wives or two husbands at once. 

Big'gin, 8. a kind of cap for a child. 

Bight. See under Bay^ p. 51. 

Big'ness, s. bulk ; size ; dimensions. 

Big'ot, $. a sealot, one blindly devoted to 
a party or creed. Bigoted, a. irration- 
ally zealous. Bigotry, t. blind zeal; 

Bijou, rbe'zhoo, Fr.] t. a jewel, a trinket; 
an elegant ornament. Bijouterie, $. 
jewellery, trinkets. 

Bilaf eral, a. having two sides. 

Bil'berry, s. a shrub and its berry. 

Bilbo, s. a sword, a rapier. 

Billboes, 9. pi. stocks or shackles for the 
feet, for punishing offenders at sea. 

Bile, 8. an animal fluid secreted in the 
liver, of a yellow or greenish colour, 
and nauseous taste ; ill hiunour ; cholcr. 
Bile-duct, «. a vessel or canal for the 

Bilge, 8. the bulge or broadest pai-t of a 
ship's bottom ; the protuberant part of 
a cask : v. to s])ring a leak, to let in 
water. Bil'ge-pump, ». a piunp to draw 
off bilge-water. Bilge-wuter, «. water 
which enters a ship by a leak, and lies 
on her bilge. 

Biliary (bll'yar-^), a. belonging to the 

Bilin'gual (-gwal), Bilingwar (-gwar), a. 
in two languages. Bilinguous (-gwus), 
a. having or speaking two tongues or 

Bilious (bil'yusX a. full of bile ; choleric. 

Bilk, V. to cheat, to overreach, to defraud. 

Bill, Billet See Bill, p. 51. Bill, «. a note 
of exchange which authorizes the bearer 
to demand a sum of money at a certain 
time and place, in consideration of value 
received. Bill, v. to caress, as doves. 

Billet 8. a small letter; a ticket directing 
soldiers where to lodjf^e ; a small log of 
wood : V. to .quarter soldiers. 

Billet-doux, [billy-doo, Pr.] «. a love- 

Bil'liards, 8. a game with balls and sticks. 

BUlingsgate, 8. foul language ; such as is 
used In Billingsgate, a fiEunous fish- 
market in London. 

Billion, 9. a million of millions. 

Billow, 8. a large rolling wave of the sea : 
V. to rise and roll like huge waves. 
Billowy, a. swelling like large waves. 

Bima'nous, a. having two hands. 

Bin, 8. a repoaifcory for wine, com, &c. 

Binary, a. composed of two ; double. 

Bind, V. to tie, to fasten, to connect; to 
put under constraint or obligation; to 
make costive; to cover, as a book; to 
put a border round. Bi'nder, «. one 
who binds books ; anything ttutt binds. 

. a. malring fut or doa; 
«. ft bandage; tbibcami 

Binding, p 
a book. 

Bin'nacle, «. a wooden Imk In thsitenp 
of a ship, where the compaag la knb 

Bin'ocle, 8. a kind of teleaoope fitted Ir 
both eyes. Binoe'ular, a, havlaf a 
using two eyes at once. 

Bino'mial, 8. an algebraic term. 

Biog'rapher,«. a writer of lives. Blantf 
i^ a. relating to biaffmphjTBf • 
raphy, a history or writrng oflifta 

Biorogy, 8. the sdence of Ufe. 

Bip'aroufl, a. bringing fbrth two it i 

Bip'artite, a. having two co t r Bepcdh 
ports. Bipartition (-tJsh'nnX <• a AJ 
sion into two parts. 

Bi'ped, 8. a two footed ^T^trwf^i B^ed4^ 
having two feet 

Bipcn'nate, a. having two wings. 

Bipef alous, a. havizu^ two petals. 

Biquad'rate, 8. the fourth power, in si 
tiiematics, arising fixnn mnl Up l ylB f i 
square by itself. Biquadratlo^ a. im 
ing to the fourth power. 

Birch, 8. a well-known tree of mmd 
species; a rod for c o rrecting mSuA 
boys. Birch'en, a. made of bindi. 

Bird, 8. a name applied to all f owla. Btrf* 
bolt, 8. an arrow for shootliig HA 
Bird-cage, 8, a cage for keeping Ebdiii. 
Bird-ciJl, 8. a whistle to allnze UMt 
Bird-catcher, 8. one who catches Udn 
Bird-lime, 8. a glutinons substanosned 
to entangle the feet of small Udn 
Bird's-eye, a. noting a view of an objjai 
or place, seen from above, as biy tti 
eye of a bird flying over it ; also^ a ktal 
of maple having spots like the en of i 
bird. Bird's-nest 8. the nest wUdii 
bird makes for hatching and reazingib 

Bi'reme, «. a galley or Tessel with t«e 
banks of oars. 

Birth, 8. the act of oominff into life ; line- 
age, extraction ; rank inherited ItJ 
descent Birth'day, 8. the annivenu; 
of the day of one's birth. Birthdon, >■ 
privilege of birth. Birthplace^ a the 
place where any one is bom. Birth- 
right, 8. the rights and ptivilegos te 
which a person is bom. 

Bis, ad. twice or double. See BL 

Biscuit (bis'kit), «. a kind of hai4 flit 
bread; a cake variously made; va* 
glazed porcelain. 

Bisecf , V. to divide into two equal paifa 
Bisection, 8. division into two eqial 

Bish'op, 8. (literally, an ovemer) a dignlttiy 
of the church, presiding over the ckirgj 
within a district called a diocese; a 
liquor composed of oranges, wine, sugar, 
&c. Bishopric, 9. the diooese ra t 

Bisk, 9. soup made by **^"Tig varioia 
meats. From BitqiUt Fr. 

Bis'muth, 9. a hard white brittle mlnenl 

Bi'son, Bis'on, 8. a kind of wild ox. 




Biasez'tiae, «. leap-year; eve^ fourth year. 

Bis'tare, 9. a paint of deep broi^ni colour 
niade of soot. 

Bit, 9. a small piece of anything; a mor- 
sel; the iron mouth-piece of a bridle; 
fL timbers to which a cable is fastened 
when a ship rides at anchor. Bit, the 
p. t. and p. p. of Bite. ' 

Bitch, 9. the female of the dog kind. 

Bite, 9. seizure by the teeth; a sharper: 
V. to s^e or woimd with the teeth ; to 
jcut; to cheat, to trick. Bi'ter, «. one 
that bites ; a trickster. Biting, a. sharp, 
severe, sarcastic. Bitingly, aU. in a 
sarcastic manner. 

Bittacle. See Binnacle. 

Bitten or Bit, the p. t. of Bite. 

Bit'ter, a. bitmg to tiie taste ; acrid, sharp, 
sarcastic: 9. anything bitter, as a medi- 
cine. Bitterish, a. somewhat bitter. 
Bitterly, ad. in a bitter manner. 

Biftem, 9. a bird of the heron kind; a 
bitter liquor which drains off in making 

Biftemess, 9. a bittw taste; extreme 
hatred; sharpness of grief. Bitters, 
s. pL a spirituous liquor containing an 
infusion of bitter herbs or roots. Bitter- 
wort, 9. the yellow gentian; a very bitter 

Bitu'men, «. a kind of pitch ; naphtha. 
Bituminous, a, containmg bitumen. 

BiValve, a. having two valves or shells : «. 
that which has two shells, as an oyster. 
BivalVular, a. having two valves. 

Bivouac, n)hPwak, Fr!j «. an armed force 
on guara all night: v. to be under arms 
all night in expectation of an engage- 

Bizarre, pbee-zai^, Fr.] a. odd, fantastic. 

Blab, V. to tell a secret, to tattle, to tell 
tales : «. a tell-tide; a tattler. Blab'ber, 
«. one who blabs ; a tell-tale. 

Black, a. of the colour of night; dark; 
wicked: 9. a negro; a dark coloiur; 
mourning : v. to blacken. 

Black'amoor, 9. a negro. 

Black'ball, v. to vote against, by imtting 
black balls hito the ballot-box. 

B]ack1>erTy, 9. the fruit of the bramble. 

Blackl>ird, 9. the name of a bird. 

Black-board, 9. a board coloured black, 
used in schools for diagrams or illustra- 

Black'cattle, 9. a general name for bovine 
cattle of any colour. 

Black'-cock, 9. the heath-cock. 

Black^en, v. to make black ; to defame. 

Black'guard, 9. a low dirly follow, a scoun- 
drel : a. low, scurrilous, vile : v. to abuse 
scurrilously. Blackguardism, «. the lan- 
guage or behaviour of a blackguard. 

fiack'ing, 9. paste or liquid for blacking 
shoes. Blackish, a. somewhat black. 

ffiack^jack, lu a leathern cup; an ore of 

Black-lead,^ t. a mineral used for pencils. 

Blackleg, «. a swindler, a low cheater. 

Blackletter, «. the old English or modem 
Qothio letter or tsrpo. 

Blackly, ad. darkly ; malignantly. Black- 
ness, 9. state of being black ; darkness ; 
deep malice. 

Black'mail, «. a certain rate paid for pro- 
tection to men allied to robbers. 

Bla(^-Monday, 9. originally Easter Hon* 
day, 84 Edward III., which was verj 
dark and fatally inclement; so much so 
that men died on horseback. 

Black'-rod, 9. an usher who carries the 
black-rod at assemblies of the Order of 
the Garter, and in Parliament. 

Black'smith, 9. a smith who works in iron. 

Black'thom, 9. the sloe-tree. 

Blad'der, 9. a thin membranous bag con- 
taining some liquid in the body, as urine, 
or bile ; anythmg resembling it, as a 
blister. Bladdery, a. containing or likl^ 

Blade. See this word, p. 51. 

Blain, 9. a pustule ; a boil; an ulcer. 

Bla'mable, a. deserving blame; faulty. 
Blamableness, «. faultiness; culpability. 
Blamably, ad. so as to deserve blame. 
Blame, 9. imputation of a fault ; censiu*e. 
Blame, v. to find fault with ; to censure. 
Blameful, a. deserving blame ; culpable. 
Blameless, a. without blame ; innocent. 
Blamelessly, ad. without blame; inno- 
cently, ^amelessness, 9, innocence. 
Blameworthy, a. culpable, blamable. 

Blanch, v. to whiten ; to whiten by peeling, 
as to blauch almonds ; to evade ; 10 shUft. 

Blanc-manger, Blanc-mango', [bla-monj', 
Fr.l 9. a confected white jelly. 

Bland, a. soft, mild, gentle, kind. Bland- 
il'oquence, 9. flattering speech. Bland'- 
ish, V. to soothe; to soften; to flatter. 
Blandisher, 9. an insinuating flatterer. 
Blandishment, «. soft speeches, flattery. 
Blandness, «. mildness of manner. 

Blank, a. white ; void of written or printed 
letters; pale or empty; disappointed 
looking : 9. a void space ; an unwritten 
paper ; a lot by which nothing is gained ; 
the spot which the shot is to mt. Blank'- 
cartridge, 9. a cartridge without a ball. 
Blankly, ad. in a blank or confused 
manner. Blank-verse, 9. verse without 

Blank'et, 9. a woollen covering for a 
bed. Blanketing, 9. cloth made for 

Blar'ney, 9. cajoling, flattery {Irdand). 

Blasphe'me, v. to speak blasphemy. Blas- 
phemer, 9. one who blasphemes. Blas- 
pheming, s. the act of blasphemy. 

Blas'phemous, a. containing blasphemy. 
Blasphemously, ad. impiously. Blas- 
phemy, 9. impious or irreverent language 
regarding the Divine Being, or sacred 

Blast, 9. a gust or puff of wind ; the sound 
made by a musical instrument ; a blight : 
V. to blight or wither ; to blow up. 
Blast'ing, 9. a blast or sudden explosion. 

Bla'tant, a. beUowiog as a beast; ndfly. 

Blaze, 9. a flame, the Ught of a flame : v. 
flame : to publiah, tA ^Abmrx. 'fftl^' ^ 
a. emteng fivm^ 01 ^^^^k 





Bla'zon, Blazonry, «. the art of heraldry. 
Blazon, v. to explain ficrures on ensigns 
armorial ; to deck, to embellish ; to make 
public; to celebrate. Blazoner, <. one 
who blazons. 

Bleach, v. to whiten, to grow white. 
Bleach'er, s. one who bleaches doth. 
Bleaching, «. the art or process of 
whitening oloth, fto. 

Bleak, a. cold ; exposed; dreaxy. Bleak'- 
ness, «. coldness: exposure to the wind. 

Blear, a. watery, dim, obscure, weak. 

Blear'-eyed, a. having sore eyes ; inflamed. 

Bleat, V. to cry like a sheep. Bleat'ing, «. 
the cry of lambs or sheep. 

Bled, the p. t. and p. p. of Bleed. Bleed, 
V. to lose blood ; to let blood. Bleed'ing, 
s. a lotting of blood with the lancet : p. a. 

Blem'ish, «. a spot or stain : v. to defame. 
BlemieAdess, a. without blemish or spot. 

Blench, v. to shrink or start back. 

Blend, a. to mix, to mingle ; to confound 
fn one mass. Blending, c. the act of 
blending or mixing. 

Dlcnde, t. an ore of zinc, black-jack. 

Bless, V. to invoke blessings on; to make 
happy in ttie highest dcgi^e. Bless'ed, 
p. a. made happy; holy. Blessedness, 
s. heavenly felicify. Blessing, s. a bene- 
diction ; a great benefit ; Divine favour. 
Blest, a contraction of Blesud. 

Blew, the past tense of Blow. 

Blight (blite), b. a disease or pestilence in- 
cident to plants ; any thing nipping or 
blasting: v. to blast or wither; to nip in 
the bud. 

Blind, a. deprived of sight ; dark : v. to 
ms^e blind; to darken, «. any thing 
which is placed to intercept the sight; a 
false pretence. Blind'fold, v. to hinder 
from seeing : a. having the eyes covered. 
Blindly, ad. without sight; implicitly. 
Blindman*8-buff', «. a play inwluch one 
of the company that is bUndfolded tries 
to catch the others. Blindness, s. a want 
ofsii^t; ignorance. Blindside, «. vreak 
part; foible. 

Blind'-worm, s. a small venomous viper. 

Blink, s. awink or glance: v. to wink; to 
see obscurely. Bunk'ard, $. one who has 
weak eyes. 

Bliss, B. heavenly felicity; happiness in the 
highest degree. Bliss'ful, a. supremely 
happy. Bmsfully, od. in a blissiul man- 
ner. BUssfulness, «. the highest degree 
of happiness. 

Blister, «. a vesicle on the skin; a plaster 
to raise bUsters : v. to apply a blister ; to 
rise in a blister. 

Blithe, Bli'thesome, a. gay, sprightly. 
Blitheful, a, flill of gayefy, loyous. 
Blithelv, ad. In ablithe manner. JBUthe- 
ness, Blithesomness, «. the quality of 
being blithesome. 

Bloat, V. to swell, to grow puffy or turgid. 
Bloafed. a. puffbd up. Bloatcdness, s. 
state of being bloated. See Bloat, p. 61. 

Bloat'er, «. a kind of cured herring. 

Block, «. ft lai^ge heavy piece o! wood, 

max^le or other stono; « mui «l bM. 
tcr; an obstmctlon; tn« jilaoa of vood 
on which hats or iKim az« ahiipad; fti 
wood oA whidi crlmmals ara ^i« * — fl mP; 
wood engraved for printttig' Sfw^; a 
pulley ; a stupid fallow; « taam fxtm- 
tinuous row of housM: #. to rimlq^; 
to obstruct. 

Blocka'de, «. a fILbgb ciaiAi ei l on bj M^ 
rounding a place to prsrait anynU; 
V. to surround a placa wKh ttwfi If 
land, or with ships by Ma» 

Hockliead, «. a stiinid penon, a dnai 
Blockheaded, Blockish, a. BhraldfdiL 
Blockishness, ». stujxidity, dmmaia 

Block'tin, s. pure tin oust mto UoeinL 

Blond-lace, «. laee mado of rilk. Bioi 
a very fair complexiimed woniaa, 
light nair. and Ught bine ^vqo. 

Blood (blud), 9. the red fluid thai dMfr 
lates through the veizui of aaliiMLii; Vbr 
dred, lineage; murder; a man. eCM 


spirit; agayspaik: v.toUeedlijafifr 

ing a vein. 
Blood'-boltered, a. clotted with Ubod. 
Blood'-flower, «. the plant hsemaiilliML 
Blood-gullt'iness, «. murder. 
Blood'-heat, «. the natoial to mpeiatui ait 

blood. Blood-horse, «. a horse ol fe^ 

blood or breeding. Blood-houad, ai 

fierce species of hound. 
Blood'ily, od. in a sazigi 

BloocOnees, «. the state 

Bloodless, a, without blood ; 
Bloodletter, «. a phlebotomiat. 

ting, «. the act of bleeding; p] 
Bloocrpudding, «. a paddmg, i 

ingredients of wliion is Uood 
Blood'-red, a. red as blood. 
Blood'shed, «. the crime of mnrder, ' 

ter. Bloodshedder,«.anitirderer. Bkofr 

shedding, «. the shedding of blood. 
Blood'shot, a. bloodswoln, saJBTasAd lift 

blood, as l^e eyes. 
Blood-stained, a. stained with blood. 
Blood'stone. Bee Hematite. 
Blood'suckei% «. a leech; a ca 

Bloodsuckuig, a. fhi^ aaoka 


Blood'-thirsty, a. desirous to shed Uool 
Bloodvessel, ». a vein or artery. 
Blood'warm, a. warm as blood, U 
Blood'y, a. stained with blood; a 

Bloody-minded, a. cruel, imj^ 
Bloom, «. the blossom or flower of a farai; 

the prime of lifo : a natlYe fluiih on tti 

cheek ; the blue that appears on gn^ 

and phuns nevdy gatfaeo^: 9. to p» 

duce Dlossoms ; tobeinastatoofyoott. 

Blooming, p. a. flowering; floimy; 

youthful Bloomin^^, ad. m a Uoon* 

mg manner. Bloomy, a. ftiU of Uoaii; 

Blos^som, «. the flowers of toaes or bIhiIb: 

V. to nut forth blossoms. BUMSon^^i 

the flowering of plants* '- ITliiWBirtlxr a 

full of blossoms. 
Blot, «. a blur, a spot ; a stafii: «. telbot; 

to obliterate ; to stain. Alol^fete'. k CM 

that blots ; a waste book, dtfcl&v a 




king of blots. Blotting-paper, «. 
per for taking up or absorbing ink. 
'. a pimple, a pustule on the skin : 
lark wiui Dlotches ; to blacken. 
. a French smock frock ; a French 

a stroke; a sudden calamity ; the 
a fly, by which it lodges eggs in 
«. to make a current en wind; to 
)y ttie wind ; to pant or breathe 
to put forth flowers ; to sound a 
I wind instrument : to inflate; to 
to shapo glass by blowing ; to 
Mr scatter (blow up). Blow'er, «. 
10 bk>ws. Blowing, «. the act of 
g; blasting. Blown, the post 
pte of Blow. Blowy, a. windy, 

pe, t. a tube used by yarious arti- 
n metals, to direct the name. 

«. a niddv, fat-fuccd woman. 
y, a. fat and ruddy-faced. 
, s. the fat of a whale, &c. : v. to 
he cheeks with weeping. 
1 (blud'jun), i. a short thick stick, 
Lsed as a weapon, a club, 
me of the seven primary colours : 
blue colour. 

;tle, t. a flower of tlie boll shapo ; 
ith a laige blue belly. 
tUs. «. a cant term for hypochon- 
' low spirita. 
ed, a. having blue eye». 
ht, i. a light with a blue flame, 
a ships as a signal 
ad. with a blue colour. Blueucss, 
quality of being blue, 
tcr, «.the signal flag for sailing, 
eking, s. a female pedant. 
% steep bank, or high, bold shore : 
; surly; blustering. Blufl^ness, 
quality of being blulF. 
a. somewhat blue. Bluishncss, 
an degree of blue colour. 
', «. a mistake, a gross oversight : 
mistake grossly ; to flounder, 
buss, «. a diort wide gun, to dis- 
) many bullets at a time. 
rer, «. one who commits blunders, 
erhead, t. a stupid blundering 
. Blundering, p. a. committing 
}rs. Blunderingly, ad. in a blun- 

.. worn or thick on the edge or 
not sharp: rough; rude; abrupt: 
lull the eago or point ; to make 
:een or active. Bluntly, ad, 
ly; rudely. Bluntness, g. state 
ig blunt; abruptness; rudeness, 
vittcd, a. dull, stupid, 
i spot, a stain : v. to blot 

to blab out, to speak heedlessly. 
'. to redden with shame or con- 
: «. a red colour suddenly dif- 
}ver the lace ; sudden apiiearauce 
lee. BKqah'fid, a. full of blushes; 

bliMUL Blushing, «. the act of 
ng: flk manifestmg blushes or 
ioQ. Blushleaa^ a. without a 
; impudent. 

Blus'ter, v. to roar as a storm ; to make a 

loud noise; to bully; to swagger: t. 

roar of stonns; a loud noise; tiu-bu- 

lence. Blusterer, a. a noisy, blustering 

fellow. Blustering, p. a. roajcing; swag« 

goring ; noisy : a. noise ; tumult. Blus- 

&OUS, a. noisy, tumultuous. 
Bo, int. a word to frighten children. 
Bo'a, or Boa-constrictor, s. a largo spcciea 

of serpent ; a long fur tippet, like a boa 

in shape. 
Boar, s. the male of swine. 
Board. Bee this word, p. 51. 
Boord'er, «. one who pays to lodge and 

have his meals in another's fomily. 
Board'ing-school, «. a school whore the 

scholara board with the teacher. 
Board-wa'ges, «. an allowance for victuals. 
Boast, t. a vaunting speech; a brag; a 

cause of boasting : v. to braj? ; to vaunt. 

Boast'er, «. one who boasts, a braggart. 

Boastful, a. full of boasts ; ostentatious. 

Boasting, s. act of making boasts: a. 

making boasts. Boastingly, ad. in a 

boasting manner. Boastless, a. without 

Boat, ». a small vessel used on rivers, &o. 
Boat'-hook, s. a hook fixed to a long pole, 

and used to push or pull a boat. 
Boat'ing, g. sauiiig or rowing in a boat. 
Boat'man, g. a manager of a boat. 
Boatswain (bo'sn), g. au uifcrior oflicer in 

a ship who has charge of tiie boats and 

rigging, and whose duty is to summon 

the crew. 
Bob, g. any little pendant ornament that 

is round and hangs so as to play loosely ; 

a round bull at the end of a string ; a 

blow ; a short wig: v. to play backward 

and forward; to dangle; to dodge; to 

cheat ; to cut short. 
Boblbin, g. a small wooden pin on which 

thread or lace is wound ; a round tapo. 

Bobbinwork, g. a work woven with 

Bob'stays, g. short ropes which confine 

the bowsprit to the stem. 
Bob'tail, g. a short tail ; the rabble. Bob- 
tailed, a. having the tail cut short. 
Bob'wig, g. a bobtail or short wig. 
Bode, V. to forebode, to portend. Bo'de- 

ment, g. an omen, a foreboding. 
Bodice (bod'is), g. a sort of stays for 

Bodied, a. having a body. Bodiless, a. 

without a body; spiritual. Bodily, a. 

rclatmg to the body, corporeal; real: 

ad, in a bodily form, corporeally. 
Bo'ding, (. an omen ; a foreshowing. 
Bodldn, g. a large kind of needle to draw 

thread through a loop. 
Bod'y, s. matter as opposed to spirit; a 

person ; a collective mass ; the bulk or 

main part ; a corporation : v. to embody. 
Bod'y-clothes, g. clothing for horses. 
Bod'y-8uard, g the king's personal guard. 
Bog, g. a marsh, a fen, a morass, a swamp : 

V. to plunge, as in mud or mirok 
Boggle. See tY»B vtot^ '^. b^ 
I Boggy, a. TOW««V\7; s^wK\\yj. 




Bog'-Und, «. a boggy country. 

Bo^lo, Bog'gle, «. a bugbear ; a goblin. 

Bog'-trotter, t. one that livos among bogs; 
a freebooter, a robber. 

Bobea', «. a species of coarse black tea. 

BoU, V. to beat to a boiling state : to cook 
by boiling in water: «. a sore ancry 
tumor terminating in a pustule. Boiled 
(boild), a. cooked by boiling. Boil'er, 
«. one that boils ; a vessel for boiling. 
Boiling, «. the act of boiling : a. at boil- 
ing boat Boiling-point, s. the heat at 
-which a liquid boils. 

Bois'tcrous, a. noisy; turbulent. Bois- 
terously, ad. violently; turbulently. 
Boistexousness, s. tiu*bulence, violence. 

Bold, a. daring; confident; unruly; im- 
pudent; steep or abrupt, as a coast. 
Sold-faced, a. forward ; impudent 
Boldly, od. in a bold manner ; bravely. 
Boldness, «. courage, confidence ; impu- 
dence ; steepness or prominence. 

Bole, «. a measure of six bushels ; a stem 
of a tree or plant ; a friable clayey earth 
of wtiich one kind, Armenian hole, is 
much used as a drug. 

Bolo'ro, «. a popular Spanish dance. 

Bole'tus, [L. J «. a genus of mushrooms. 

Boll (boleX «. the pod or capsule of a 
plant : v. to form into a secd-vesseL 

Bolster (bOle-), t. a long under pillow ; a 
pad or support: v. to support with a 
bolster or pad; to hold or prop up. 
Bolstering, «. a prop ; a support. 

Bolt, i. the bar of a door ; an arrow : v. to 
fasten with a bolt; to sift; to spring 
out suddenly: to swallow hastily. 
B6lt'er, i. a sieve to separate meal from 
bran. Bolting, «. the act of bolting, 
sifting, or springing. 

Bdlt-rope, «. the rope sewed to the edges 
of sails. 

Bdltsprit See Bowsprit. 

Bo'lus, t. a very large pill ; a pilL 

Bomb, Bombshell (DumV «. a nollow iron 
globe or shell containing combustibles, 
&c., to be discharged f^m a mortar. 
Bombard' (bum-X v. to attack with 
bombs. Bombat-dicr', i. a bomb engi- 
neer. Bombard'ment, «. an attack with 

Bombosin, Bombazine (-zcen'), «. a thin 
stufiT made of silk ana worsted. Bom- 
bazette, «. a thin woollen stuff. 

BomlKtst, «. big words ; an inflated style. 
Bombas'tic, a. high sounding ; ranting. 

Bomb-ketoh, Bomb-vessel (bum-), a vessel 
from which bombs are firod. 

Bom'byx, «. the silkworm or caterpillar. 

Ik>uas'us, [L.] «. a kind of wild ox, a bison. 

Bonbon, [oong'bong, Fr.]«. sugar confec- 

Bon-chretien, [-kret'yen, Fr.] t. a kind of 

Bond, «. anything that binds; a written 
obligation : pi. captivitv : a. ina servile 
state; enslaved, captive: v. to g^ve 
bond for, as for duties, &c. Bond'age, 
t. captivity, slavery. 

Boud'maidi f. a female slave. 

Bond'man, «. a male ■!■;▼» or aerf. 
Bond'servant, a a slave. 
Bonda'man, f. one boond for aooUMr. 
Bone, «. a firm hatd tabatancwiddaSifani 

the frame-work of tba bodiy: «. totdi 

out bones from the flesh, •• in eookax 

Bo'neless, a. having no bones; tante 
Bo'ne-setter, «. one who ptofoaeae the tf 

of setting broken bones. TtrmtrtiiWIc 

«. the practice of setUns bones. 
Bo'ne-spavin, a a bony excreecenetn 

the iniside of the hock of « tunss^ 1^ 
Bon'fire. «. afire made for Joy or titmnL 
Bon-mot, [bong'-mo, Fr.jagoodcr wtt; 

Bon'net, t. a ooveiing for the head, aap;i 

part of a fortificatum : an sddltiaBlii 

Bon'nily, ad. prettily; gayly. 
Bon'ny, a. handsome, pretty. 
Bo'num Mag'num, «. a great sort of ptaa 
Bo'nus, ». a benefit or adyantase; a|B 

mium in addition to InterestlorakB 
Bo'ny, a. full of bones ; strongs stout 
Bon'zd, «. a priest of Japan and China 
Boo'by, «. a dull stupid fellow; a lay 

bird allied to the pelican. 
Book, «. a volume in which we xwd ■ 

write ; a literary work ; a diviafao tf i 

work : v. to enter or register in abo^ 
Book'binder, «. one who binds bo^ 

Bookbinding, «. the art of binding Mb 
Book'case, «. a case for holding hooka 
Book'ish, a. much given to books or nil 

ing. BooUshnras, «. fondness of boib 

or reading. 
Book-keeper, a one who keeps scefW*^ 

Bookkeeping, «. the act of keepim » 

Bookless, a. not given tobooks ; onleiiMi 
Bookleamed, a. versed in books. Bo^ 

learning, «. learning derived frcnn boob 
Book'making, t. the art or pnctinit 

making or compiling books. 
Book'-muslin, «. a very fine tnoaUn fiM 
BooV-oath, «. an oatli made on tlio fiUfc 
Book'seller, «. a vender of books. Bodb 

selling, «. the business ot a bookHDft 
Book'stall, «. a stand for soiling bodka 
Book'stond, a a case for holding booka 
Book'worm, «. a mite that ea& holMii 

books; a close student 
Boom, a a beam or long pole ; a alMI 

bar laid across the mouth of a haibour: 

V. to make a boomiiur noise Hks tti 

bittern; to make a ruMiing nobs. 
Boom'erang, t. a peculiar kind of mbri^ 
Boon, t. an advantage ; a s^ ; a favour: a 

gjiy, merry, joviaL 
Boor, a a clown, a lout, a rtids b* 

Booi-'ish, a. rustic, downiah, ndi 

Boorishly, ad. in. a clownish maanA 

Boorishuesfl, a clownishness; matidlS^ 
Boose, Bouse, v. to drink to ciTtoanrtf 

guzzle. Boo'sy, Bousy , a. nearly dnnk* 
Boot, «. covering for the foot i^*i4 W* pit 

of a coach : v. to put on boota. 
Boot, «. sometliing m addition ; 

profit : V. to profit or avalL 
Bobt'ed, a. wearing boota. 




Bootes (bo^'tesX s. a constellation. 

Booth. Sm this word, p. 62. 

Boofhoee, «. stockings to wear with boots. 

Boot'^ack, f. a utensil for piillinff off boots. 

Bootless, a. useless, unavidling, yoin. 
Bootlessly, ocL without use or profit 
^ Boots, i. the servant at an inn who pulls 
[ off and cleans the boots of travellers. 

* Boot'tr e, «. pieces of wood, with a wedge 

* or screw, for stretching boots. 

■ Boo'ty, f. plunder, pillage, spoil. 

' Bopeep', «. peeping from behind some- 
^ t^ng, crying do I and drawing back, as 

* children in play. 

, Bo'rax, «. a kind of salts. 

* Bor'der, «. an edging; a fringe; a boun- 

* dary : v. to adorn with a border ; to be 
contiguous to. Borderer, «. an inhabitant 
near ttie borders or confines of a country. 

Bore, V. to make a hole with a gimlet or 
i* auger ; to wear by iteration ; to pester : 

3M. a hole made by boring ; the calibre of 
a gun ; any thing tedious or wearisome. 
SI Bore, «. a tide borne over, or swelling 
> above another tide; a sudden influx of 
J the tide into a river or strait. Bore, 

Bare, the past tense of Bear. 
• Bo'retfd, a. northern; towards the north. 
¥ Boreas, «. the north wind, 
ri Bo'rer, «. a gimlet ; one who bores, 
il Bom, the p. p. of Bear (to bring forth). 
1^ Borne, the p. p. of Bear (to carry). 
•) trough, (burro), a. a corporate town 
3k which is not a city ; a town that sends 

■ a member to parliament : a. having the 
rank and privileges of a borough. Bo- 

ii rough-Englifth, «. a custom in some old 
tf Bnglith boroughs by which the youngest 

son succeeds to the father's property. 
« Borough-master, «. the mayor or bailiff 
B of a borough. Borough-monger, «. one 
g who traffics in boroughs, 
f Bor'row, v. to ask a loan ; take on credit. 

Borrower, ». one who borrows. 
I Boss, t. a stud, a knob ; raised work. 
I Bos'cage, [Fr.jt. a wood; woodlands. 
I Bos'ky, a. bushy, woody. 
I Bosom (boos'um), «. the oreast ; the heart ; 
, the seat of tdidehiess or love; an en« 
, closure : v. to enclose in the bosom ; to 

Bos'sy, a. centainlng bosses: studded. 
Botanic, Botanical, a. relating to botany; 

containing plants and herbs. Botani- 

cally, od. according to botanical laws. 

Boranist, «. one skilled in botany. Bo- 

tanize, v. to collect and arrange plants. 

Botany, «. the science of plants ; that 

part of natural history that relates to 

the vegetable kingdom. 
Botch, ». a swelling or erui>tion on the 

skin ; a pustule, a blotch ; a part in any 

work ill-finished: v. to patch clumsily ; 

to put together awkwardly; to spoil. 

Botch'er «. one who botches. Botchery, 

«. patchwork, clumsy work. Botchy, a. 

marked with botches ; dumqr. 
Both, a. the two; the one and the other : 

conj. as welL 
BMh'er, v. to perplex, to eonfuse, to tease : 

«. perplexity ; annoyance ; botheratiott. 
(A corruption of Po<A<r->low words). 

Bdth'y, «. a booth, a shed. See Booth, p. 62. 

Bots, f . small worms in horses. 

Bot'tle, «. a vessel to contain liquids; a 
quantity of hay or straw bunmed up: 
V. to put into bottles. Bottle-companion, 
«. a boon companion. 

Boftom, f. the lowest part of any thing: 
V. to f oimd or build xrpon. Bottomed 
a. having a bottom. Bottomless, a. 
without anv bottom ; unfathomable, or 
immeasurably deep. 

Bot'tomry, «. money borrowed on a ship. 

Boudoir, [boo-dwor, Fr.] «. a small private 
apartment or cabinet. 

Bough (bow), 9. au arm of a tree, a branch. 

Bought, the past tense of Buy. 

Bougie, [boo-zhee', Fr.] «. a wax taper; a 
siirgical instrument. 

Bouilli, [bool'yee, Fr. 1 «. meat stewed with 
vegetables. Bouillon, [booryong, Fr.] 
B. broth, soup. 

Boulder (bold'er). See Bowlder. 

Boulevard, [Fr.J t. a rampart; a prome> 
nade around a city. 

Boimce, v. to leap, to spring; to boast. 
Bounce, «. a sudden crack or noise ; a 
boast. Boim'cer, «. a boaster, a biilly; 
a lie. Bouncing, a. stout, strong; large. 

Bound, «. a limit, an end : v. to limit ; to 
leap or spring; to fly back: (the past 
tense of Bind) tied; obligated; re- 
stricted or confined to; destined for, 
as a ship. Buimd'ary, f. that which 
bounds; a limit. 

Bound'-bailiff, «. a sheriff's officer. 

Bound'en, a. binding upon or obligatory. 

Boimdless, a. unlimited, unconfincd. 
Boundlessness. «. the being boimdless. 

Bounteous (boun'td-us or bount'y^s), a. 
liberal, kind. Boimteously, ad. liberally, 
generously. Bounteousness, «. liberality, 
generosity. Bountiful, a. liberal, gene- 
rous, kind. Bountifulness, «. generosity 
in giving. Bounty, «. gfoodness ; gener- 
osity, munificence ; a premium given to 
promote or encourage any object. 

Bouquet, [boo'kay, Fr.] ». a nosegay 

Bourgeon (bur'jun), v. to bud, to sprout. 

Bourn (borne), «. abound, a limit ; a brook. 

Bourse, [boorse, Fr.] «. the Exchange. 

Bourgeois, fboorzh-waw', Fr.]». a citizen. 

Bourgeois (bur-jois), «. a kind of type. 

Bouse, Bousy. See Boose and Boosy. 

Bout, «. a turn, a trial, an attempt. 

Boutade, [boo-tad', Fr.] «. a whim. 

Boutefeu, pjoot-foo', Fr.]». an incendiary. 

Bouts-rimes (boo'rfi-may), s. end riiMt or 
words given to be filled up and made 
into verses. 

Bo'vine, a. of the ox kind, as bulls and 

Bow, «. a bend or curve; an inclination of 
the body; an instrument to shoot ar- 
rows (ho) ; a knot made with a ribband ; 
that part of a ship which bends or rounds 
to the prow (bovo) : v. to bend, to stoop. 
See this word, p. 62. 

Bow'els, t. pi. \kMVck\As^!te«»\ 




BoVer, t. an arlsour ; aa onohor. Bowery, 
a. shady, retired, cool. 

Bowie-knife G^'cy-), s. a long knife used 
byhimters; a dagger. 

Bowl (bole), a. a vessel to hold liquids, 
rather wider than deep; a b;U)iu; the 
hollow part of anything ; a wooden ball 
for playing at bowU: v. to play with 
bowls ; to roll or trundle, as a bowl. 

Bowl'der, Boulder, s. in geology, a Ini-ge 
rounded stone. See this word, p. 41. 

Bow'legged, a. having cn>oked legs. 

Bowline, f. the name of a ship's rope. 

Bowl'ing, 8. the art of throwing Dowls. 
Bowling-green, «. a level green for 

Bow'man, «. one who shoots with a bow. 
Bowshot, t. the distance an arrow can 

Bow'sprit, B. the largo beam or spar that 
projects from the bows of a vessel. 

Bow'string, s. the string used for a bow. 

Bow-window, i. a projecting window. 

BoVyer, t. an archer ; a maker of bows. 

Box, 8. a case mode of wood; a blow with 
the fist; an enclosed seat: «. to strike ; 
to pack in a box. Box'en, a. made of 
box; resembling box. Boxer, «. one 
who fights with the fists. Boxing, «. a 
combat with the fists. 

Boy, 8. a m^e child, a youth. Boyliood, «. 
the state of a boy ; yoath. Boyish, a. 
belonging to bovhood ; puerile, cliildish. 

Boy'ar, «. in Moldavia and WaLlachio, a 
nobleman or grandee. 

Brace. See this word, p. 52. 

Bra'colet, «. an ornament for the wiists. 

Bra'cer, «. any thing that tightens ; a strap. 

Brachial (braV£-al),a.belongingto the arm. 

Bra'cing, a. strengthening; tonic. 

Brack'et, «. a small support made of wood. 

Brack'ish, a. saltish, like seawater. Brack- 
ishness, «. saltness in a small degree. 

Brag, t. a boast; a game at cards: v. to 
bcuUt, to swagger. Braggado'cio (-sh56), 
$. a boaster, a swaggerer. Brag'gart, 
a. boastful, vainly (^rteutatious. Brag- 
gringly, ad. boastingly. 

Bruh'ma, Bram'a, «. in Hindoo mythology, 
the creator or chief deity. Brah'min, 
Bram'in, ». a Hindoo priest ; one of the 
sacerdotal caste. Bramin'ical, a. relat- 
ing to the Bramins. 

Braid, v. to weave together, to plait: «. a 
texture formed by braidhig; a sort of 
trimming for dresses. 

Brails, t. ropes to draw up a ship's sails. 

Brain, «. the collection of vessels and 
oigans within the. skull; sense, and 
imderstanding: v. to dash out the 

Brainless, a. silly, foolish, thoughtless. 

Braiu'pan, «. the skull. Brainsick, a, dis- 
eased in the understanding. 

Bmke, 8. a tliicket of branches or shrubs; 
a kind of fern ; an instrument for dross- 
big flax ; a heavy harrow ; a carriage for 
bxiaking in horses; a contrivance to 
atop carrL^es by pressing the wheels ; 
Anker's kneading trough. Brake, now 

written Broke, p. (. of Bieak. itai^ 
a. full of brakes, thorny ; imwh. 

Brara'a. See Brahma 

Bramlilo, «. a prickly or thorny buk 
Brambled, a. ove ra |r uwi i "wtthbnwiMw 
Brambly, a. full of bmmblea. 

Bmm'blo-not, «. a not to oatoh Uidi. 

Bram'in. See Brahmin. , 

Bran, «. the husks of ground ookb* 

Brunch, «. an arm or uioot of a tnaj fti 
ofTshoot of anything, «■ of a tedV ■ 
a river, or of a subject or ■dainoA; t. ti 
sp-ead in branches; to mmify; to A- 
vide, as into branches or smailar nih 
Branchless, a. without tanuichM ; DM 
Branchy, a. full of branoheA ; aui iAi i h l 

Brand, «. a burning piece of wood; Mvm 
of infamy; a sword: «. to bumtrifti 
hot iron ; to mark with InfAmy. Bwf • 
iron, t. an iron to brand TRdta. B/mA- 
ish, V. to wave a brand or Award; ti 
flourish a weapon. BrMid-now» a. v^* 
now ; bright or shininflr. 

Bran'dy, «. a stronff distilled Uqaiv. 

Bran'gle, f. a squabble : «. to wmudA 

Bran'ny, a. consisting of bran ; luAjL 

Bra'sier, Brazier, «. a worker in " 

Brass, «. a yellow metal oom; 
pcrandzmc; impudence. ' 

Brass'- visaged, a. impudent* 

Bros'oy, a. made of brass ; impodiBi 

Brat, 8. a child, contemptuouaiy. 

Brava'do, «. a boast, a dtar, AUOAAk 

Brave, a. courageous, gaulAnt, luUe:! 
a dialing man: v. to set At 

Bra'vely, ad, gallantly; ^ 

Bravery, f. undaunted counigQ ; 
dress. Brav'o, int weU done I 

Brav'o, [It.] «. one who murdera ftar Ua 

Bravura, [lu^-voo'ra, It] «. a wing of dtt 
cult execution: a, spirited; diflflri^ 
and brilliant. 

Brawl, 8. a quarrel ; a kind of dAnoe: iiti 
quarrel, to speak loudly. 'BnernVm, i 
one who brawls, a wrangler. BrMrikK 
f. the act of quarrelUng. 

Brawn, «. the hard fle^ of a boer : tti 
fleshy or muscular part of the bo^,ii 
ofthearm; muscuUrttaensth. &sin^ 
iness, 8. quality of braig lA«mO^ 
Brawny, a. having large s&cav ■Of 
cles; muscular; strong. 

Bray, v. to pound or bruise in a bmiIb 
Bray,«. thenoiaoof anAAi; AloodlMnk 
cry: v. to mako a loud nafirii voii 
Bray'ing, p. a. crying ai an aaa ; vaUBf 
a loud harsh noise. 

Braze, v. to solder with bntfA. ThtlM. 
a. made of braas; bold; lmpii£^:a 
to face it ont, to be impudanC &«■■ 
faced, a. bold ; imjmdJeiDtb 
8. a bold, impudent person. 
od. in a bold brazen manner. 
8. boldness ; impudence^ 

Brazil (bra-zeel'X *• A hoAvy 
growing in Bnzil, and naed In dfital 
red. BraziliaiiL a. pertAtning to Jhi2 

Breach, «. a breakmg mnponTANAl^ M 
or rent; an infraction or flolsUfln KM I 
quarrel. Rco Bitaeh and 9rmJb§, p. Ml I 




Bread, t. food made of ground com. 

Bread-fruit-tree. Bee Bread-troe. 

Brcad'stuflF, $. l>read-ooni, meal, flour. 

Broad'-tree, f. a tree that grows in the 
ialancUi ol the Fadfio Ocean, and pro- 
duces a fruit which serves for broad. 

Breadth, «. extent from side to side. 

Bi-cak (br^ce), «. to part or burst by vio- 
lence ; to smash ; to infringe ; to tame ; 
to become bankrupt ; to fall out with : 
t. tiie state of being broken; a hrtack; 
an opening; the dawn; a pause; a 
brake or dng. Break'oge, «. the act of 
breaking; an allowance for what has 
been accidentally broken. Breaker, «. 
one who or that which breaks any thing ; 
a tra myoss ar; waves broken by rocks 
or sand banks. 

Break'fast (farek-X t. the meal which h-taJi's 
OUT /out; the flnt meal in the day: v. to 
take breakfast 

Brcak'ing, «. the act of breaking ; bank- 
ruptcy. Breaking-in', «. the training of 
a young horse. 

Break'-neck, «. a steep" and dangerous 
place : a. endangering the neck. 

Break'water, «. a mole at the entrance of a 
harbour to break the force of the sea. 

Bream, $. the name of a fresh water fish. 

Breast (hrestX «. the fore part of the body, 
betweoi the neck and belly; the bosom; 
the heart ; the oonsdence ; a mother's 
nipple. BreastlMme, «. the bone of the 
br^st; the sternum. 

Breasfknot, t. ribbons worn on the breast. 

Breast'plate, «. armour for Uno breast. 

Breast'work, «. a parapet or work thrown 
up for defence, Dreast-high. 

Breath (brethX «. air drawn into the lungs ; 
life; time of breathing: a pause; a 
breeze. Breathable (bree -X ck that may 
be breathed. Breawe^ v. to respire or 
draw breath: to live; to pause; to 
utter privately. Breathing, $, the act 
ol inhaling and exhaling air; respira- 
tion; aspintian; an accent. BrefVthing- 
iimo, t. a pause: relaxation; rest. 
Breathless (tareth'-) a. out of breath; 
exhausted with exertion ; dead. &:t»th- 
Icssness, «. the being breathless or ex- 

Breccia, [brefcha, It.] «. a stone composed 
of fraginents or small pieces of stone 
cemented or run together; a kind of 
pudding stone. 

Bred, the 0. t. and p. p. of Breed. 

Breech, «. the lower or hinder part oi the 
body ; the hind ^rt of a gun : v. to put 
into breeches. Breeches (brich'ez), «. 
the garment worn by men over the 
lower part of tiie body. Breeching 
A)rich'ingX f. a whipping; part of a 
horse's harness. 

Breed, v. to procroato; to give birth to; 
to be with yoimg ; to engender ; to gene- 
rate ; to cause ; tobring up from infancy ; 
to educate: «. progeny; offspring; a 
race or kind. BnocPer, «. one who rears 
animals. Broodiog^ t, education, man- 
ners, nurture. 

Breeze, «. a gentle gale, a soft wind. 
Breezeless, a. without a breeze; very 
calm. Bi'eezy, a. fanned with gentle 
gale% cooL 

Bret 8. fish of the turbot kind. 

Breth'ren, a. the plural of Ib:Y)ther, gene- 
rally used iu sacred writings. 

Breve, t. a note in music ; a short writ 

Brevef , «. originally, a brief or short war- 
rant or commission without seal; an 
appointment in the army with rank 
above that for which pay is received. 
Brev'et, a. taking rank by j;>rovet, as a. 
brevet colonel is a colonel in rank with 
the pay of a lieutenant coloncL 

Brev'iary, «. a compendiiun or abridgment ; 
a book contaimng the didly office read 
by the Roman Catholic clergy. 

Bre^viate, «. a short compendium ; a brief. 

Brevier', «. a small kind of printizig-letter. 

Brev'ity, a. shortness ; conciseness. 

Brew, V. to make malt liquors by steeping 
and fermentation ; to conMvo ; to i^t. 
BreVage, a. something browed ; a mix- 
ture. Brewer, t. one who brows, oi 
whoso business is that of brewing 
Brewery, a. a place for browing iu. 
Brewhouse, a. a house for brewing in. 

Bribe, a, a present or reward given to a 

Serson to corrupt or influence lus con- 
uct : V. to give a bribe to ; to gain by 
bribes. Bri1[)or, a. one who corrupts for 
pa^. Bribery, a. the act or crime of 

Brick, a. a long-square piece of burnt clay \ 
a loaf shaped like a brick : v. to lay with 
bricks. Brick'bat, a. a piece of brick. 
Brickdust, a. dust of poimded brick. 
Brick-earth, a. a clay or earth for bricks. 
Brick-kiln (kill a. a kiln for burning 
bricks. Bricklayer, a. a brick mason. 
Bricklaying, a. the art of building with 
bricks. Brickmakor, «. one who makee 

Bri'dal, a. belonging to a brido or to a 
marriage: a. a wedding; the nuptial 
festival. Bride, a. a newly married 
woman. Bride-cake, a. a cake distribu- 
ted at a wedding. Bridegroom, a. a newly 
married man. Bride'smaid, Bridemaid, 
s. the maiden who attends on a bride at 
her marriage. 

Bri'dewell, a. a house of correction (origi- 
nally beside 8t Bridt^a WelX^ in London). 

Bridge, a. a building raised over water for 
convenience of passage ; tJie upper part 
of the nose ; the supporter of the strings 
of a violin : v. to raise or make a bridge. 

Bri'dle, a. the head reins of a horse, a 
check, a restraint : v. to put on a bridle ; 
to restrain; to guide by a bridle; to 
hold up the head. Bridle-hand, a. the 
hand which holds the bridle : the left 
hand. Bridle-road, a. a road for horse- 
men only. Bridoon', a. a kind of bridle. 

Brief, a. short, cOndse : a. a short state- 
ment of a case given to a pleader or 
lawyer. Briefless, a. having no brieft. 
Briefness. <. shortness; brevity* Biiefly^ 
ad. shortly ; coxv^^atVi \ Nsl% !«« -v^icdou 




Bri'er, f. a prickly bush ; a species of rose- 
tree. Briery, a. full of briers, prickly. 

Brig, «. a square-rigged vessel with two 
masts ; an abbreviation of Brigantine. 

Brifla'de, t. a division of troops ; a brigade 
of horse generBlly amounts to eight or 
ten squadrona— of foot to four, ^e, or 
six battalions. Brigadier', ». the general 
officer commanding a brigade. 

Biig'and, s. a freebooter, a robber. Brig- 
andage, 8. robbery, plunder. Brigantine, 
t. a small vessel, such as corsairs or pi- 
rates used. See Bria. 

Bright (brito), a. full of lighl^ shining ; 
clear; full of promise; of superior 
talents, splendid; illustrious. Bright'en, 
V. to make bright; to grow bright. 
Brightly, <uL with lustre; splendidly. 
Brightness, «. quality of being bright; 
lustre; acuteness. 

Brill, s. a kind of flat fish. 

Brilliancy (bril'yan-sy). Brilliance, 8. spark- 
ling lustre ; radiance, splendour. Bril- 
liant, a. sparkling with lustre ; splendid : 
8. a fine diamond. Brilliantly, ad. in a 
brilliant manner. 

Brim, «. the edge of any thing ; the irppor 
edge of any vessel ; the brink of a foun- 
tain, river, or sea : v. to fill to the brim. 
Brim'ful, a. full to the brim. Brimless, 
a. without an ed^ or brim. Brinmiing, 
a. full to the brim. 

Brim'stone, «. a yellow mineral ; sulphur. 

Brind'ed, Brindled. See this word, p. 62. 

Brine, 8. dissolved salt; the sea; iesixB. 
Bri'ne-pit, 8. a pit where salt is formed. 
Brine-spring, 8. a spring of salt-water. 

Bring, v. to fetch from ; to convey or carry 
to ; to draw along ; to lead by deg^rees ; 
to induce. Bring/orf A, to give birth to ; 
Bring tip, to educate. 

Bri'nish, Briny, a. saltish, like brine. 

Brink, 8. the edge, as of a precipice. 

Brisk, a. qidck, lively, active. 

Bris'ket, 8. the breast of an animal. 

Briskly, ad. actively, quickly, nimbly. 
Briskness. 8. liveliness, gayeiy. 

Bris'tle, 8. tne stiff hair of swine or other 
animals: v. to stand erect as bristles. 
Bristly, a. thick set with bristles. 

Britan'nia-metal, «. a kind of pewter. 

Britan'nic, a. belonging to Britain. 

British, a. pertaining to the British 
Islands, or their inhabitants. 

Britch'ing. See Breechinff, under Breech. 

Brit 'on, 8. a native of Great Britain. 

Brit'tle, a. apt to break ; fragile. Brittle- 
ness, 8. aptness to break ; fragility. 

Britzs ;i (bris'ka), «. a kind of barouche. 

Broach, 8, a spit : v. to pierce, as with a 
spit ; to tap a vessel ; to let out ; to utter 
something new. See this word, p. 52. 

Brood (brod), a. wide, extended; coarse; 
obscene. Broad'on, v. to make broad; 
to grow broad. 

Broad'-cast, «. a sowing with the hand at 
laive, and not in straight lines. 

Broad'doth, 8. a fine kind of woollen cloth. 

Broadly, ad. in a broad manner. 
^ ^^road'ness, «. br«adth; coarseness. 

Broad'-saal, $. the great seal of auta. 

Brood'side, «. the side of a ship; adlMiyD|i 
of all the guna from one alae at cnea. 

Broad'swora, «. afwordwithatariMidtUa 

Broad'wise, ad. acc o rding to the Imadtt. 

Broca'de, «. a kind (^ fine flowered dlk. 

Bro'cage, Brokage. «. See BrdkangiL 

Broc'coli, 8. a spedas of cabtMige. 

Brochure, pbro-shoor', F^.] t. a jmmjiiU 
See Broach, p. C2. 

Brock, 8. a name of the badger. 

Brock'et, «. a red deer, two yeen oU. 

Brogue (brOg), 8. a thick, coarse shoe ; aTd* 
gar accont or pnmunciatlcxKi (/wbnA, 

Broi'der, Broiderer, Broidery. Sae b> 
broideo*, &c. 

Broil, 8. a noisy quarrel; a tmnnlt: uti 
roast on the fire; to be bot. BkvU 
(broild), p. a. cooked by broiling. 

Broke, the p. t. and Broken, s.^un Bkak 

Brokenheart'ed, a. having the spfalbi^ 
dued by grief or fear; maoonsoilate. 

Bro'kenness, «. the state of being bnlA 

Brokenwlnd'ed, a. having sbOTtDnalli. 

Bro'ker, 8. one who does biiafneasfbrotiien; 
afactor;adealerinoldgood8. T^rofcfli^ 
t. the commission chaxved by a hnko: 

Bro'mlne, «. a chemical eXememt obtadni 
from sea- water; called alao .BUUm. 

Bron'chia, Bronchise, «. the mrwi^ ifr nri* 
fications of the bronehui, Brondiid,a 
pertaining to the bronehut, Branddik 
f-ki'- or -kee'-), «. inflammation of tti 
oroTtcAio. Bronchus, [bronk'ni^ IlJ i 
the upper part of the windpipe. 

Bronze, 8. a metal comjponnaeaof con* 
and tin: v. to harden or ooloivme 
bronze. Bron'zing, t. the art of fanM 
ing bronze. 

Brooch (brOch). 8. an ornamental pla of 
buckle to fasten dress ; a XMlnting and 
one colour. Bee Broach, p. 52. 

Brood, 8. the number bred at ome tliiMi; • 
breed or progeny: v. to sit, as a bM <■ 
eggs ; to think over moodily. Bee fldi 
word, p. 62. Brood'mare, $. a maiefcvl 
for breeding. 

Brook, 8. a rivulet Brooklet, a a UtOi 
brook. Brook, v. to endure, tu iulaiifi 
Brook'mint, «. the water-mintw Bnokjt 
a. aboimding with brooks. 

Broom, «. a shrub; a besom. Beooodi'* 
stick, 8. the handle of a besom. BkooBij, 
a. fiill of or like broom. 

Brdth, 8. liquor in which flesh U boOsd. 

Broth 'er, 8. a male bom of the same ]a- 
rents ; pi. Brothers or Brethren. BEotb««> 
hood, 8. union, society, dass. Brothe^ 
in-law, 8. a wife or husband's brothor; 
also, a sister's husband. BrotherieOk * 
without a brother. BrotherlikerarW 
coming a brother. Brother^, a. Ska 
brothers, paternal. 

Brought (brot), the p. t and jp. p. of Mn^ 

Brow, 8. the ridge over the eye; the Don- 
head; the edge of a cliff or any VA 
Since, Browl)eat, «. to bear down or 
epress by stem looks and twtiiHwiy in. 
guage ; to bully. Browbeating, i tSsaflt 
of doing so. 




Brown, «. a colour: a. dusky, dark: v. to 
make brown. Brown^ish, a. inclining to 
brown. Brownneas, t. the quality of 
being brown. Brown-study, «. gloomy 

Bxt>w8e^ V. to feed on sprouts or tender 
brandies of trees: «. sprouts, twigs. 

Bru'in, «. a cant term for a bear. 

Cruise (brooz), v. to hurt or crush by a 
heaTy blow or fall: «. a hurt from a 
heavy blow, a contusion. Bruiser, s. one 
who, or that which bruises; a boxer; 
a tool for grinding telescope glasses. 
Bruising, «. a crushing ; a beating. 

Bruit (bruteX s. a report : v. to noise abroad. 

Bru'mal, a. belonging to the winter. 

Brunette (broo-nefX «• a girl or woman 
with a brown or dark complexion. 

Brun^ a the heat or shock of an onset. 

Brush, a an instrument for sweeping 
floors or cleaning clothes ; a pencil used 
t^ {Winters; the tail of a fox ; a quick 
09* sudden encounter : v. to sweep with 
a brush; to skim lightly; to move 
hastily past Brush'ing, s. a rubbing 
or sweeping. Brushwood, a rough 
shrubby thickets. Brushy, a. rough or 
shaggy, like a brush. 

Brusque, [broosk, ^.] a. abrupt, rude. 

Bru'tal, a. savage, cruel, inhuman. Brutal- 
ism,abratislme8S, brutality. Brutal'ity, 
a savageness, inhumanity. Bru'talizo, 
«. to make savage or brutal. Brutally, 
cui. in a brutal maimer. Brute, a an 
irrational animal, a beast: a. savage, 
fierce; insensate. BrutiQr* v. to make 
brutish. Brutish, a. resembling a beast, 
savaga Brutishness, a brutality; in- 

Bub7>le, a a small bladder of water ; any 
thing empty and transitory ; a delusive 
scheme: v. to rise in bubbles; to run 
with a gentle noise. 

Bulx), [L. J a the groin ; a tumor in the 
groin; the homed owl. 

Buccaneer', Bncanier, a a name given to 
the piratea who formerly infe^ed the 
West indies and Spanish America. 
Bnc'cinal, a. trumpet-shaped. 

Bucen'taur, a a figure, half man, half ox. 

Buck, a the male of deer, te, ; a H<uiii*wg 
fellow, a blood : v. to soak or steep in 
lye or suds. BucklMsket, a the ba«cet 
in which clothes are carried to the wash. 
Bucket, a a vessel to draw up water in. 
Buckingstool, a a washing-block. 

Buck-wheat, a a coarse kind of grain 
which resembles frucfanast, or the firuit 
of the&eee^tree. 

Buckle a a metal fastening for a strap, 
Ac : V. to &sten with a buckle ; to set 
or engage in with vigour. Buckler, a a 
kind of shield^ 

Buck'ram, t. cloth stiffened with gum. 

Buck'skin, a the skin or leather of a buck. 

Bucol'ic, a. relating to shepherds; pas- 
toral: a a pastoral poem or song. 

Bud, a the first shoot of a plant, a germ ; 
a gem: v. to put forth buds; to graft 
byinttrtingabud. Bod'ded^p.t. andp.p. ^ 


Bud'dha, a a Hindoo deity. Buddhism, 
a the doctrine of the Buddhists. Bud- 
dhist, a a worshipper of Buddha. 

Bud'ding, a the act of budding: p. a. 
putting forth buds or blossoms. 

Bude light, a a lamp in which the flame 
is made very brilliant by a stream of 
oxygen gas. (Invented by Mr Oumey 
of Bude^ in Cornwall.) 

Budge, V. to stir or move from a place. 

Bud'get, a a bag, a pouch; the bag that 
contahis preptuied documents to Uy be- 
fore Parliament on financial mattera. 

Buff, a a leather made of binffialo skin ; a 
leather military coat ; the colotur of buff 
leather or a light yellow; the naked 
skin. Buffer, a a cushion to deaden 
the percussion of a moving body, as in 
railway carriages. Buffet, a a blow 
with the fist : v. to strike with the fist ; 
to strike or struggle against. Buffeting, 
a the act of striking or struggling 

Buffalo, «. a kind of wild ox. 

Buffet', a a kind of cupboard. 

Buffo, [boof o, It.] a u comic singer. 

Buffoon', a an arch leUow, a low jester 
Buffoonery, a low jests, mimicry. Buf- 

. f oonish, a. like a buffoon. 

Bug, a an odious insect bred in beds. 

Bugl>ear, a something that frightens, 
commonly something that causes a false 
and absurd alarm. 

Bug'gy, a. full of bugs ; a one-horse chaise. 

Bu^le, a a sort of wild ox ; a htmting or 
military horn; a musical instrument 
made of brass ; a shining bead of glass; 
a plant, the ox-tongue. 

Bum (btde), a furniture beautifully in- 
laid with tortoise shell, mother of pearl, 
and ornamented woods. 

Bmld (bad), v. to raise or construct a 
house or other building ; to rest or de- 
pend upon as a f onndaUon or support ; 
to rely on. Build'er, a one who ouilds 
houses. Building, a an edifice or fabric 
built. Built, the p. t. and p. p. 

Bulb, a a round root, such as tulips, Ac 
Bulba'ceous (-shus), a. consisting of 
bulbs. Bulb'ed, a. having bulbs ; oul- 
bous. Bulbif erous, a. producing bulbs. 
Bul'bous, a. having round heads, large. 

Btil'bul, a the nightingale of the Persians. 

Bulge, i. the broadest part of a cask ; a 
protuberance: v. to swell out; to be 
protuberant ; a leak. See Bilge. 

Bulk, s. magnitude, size ; the main part. 

Bulk'head, a a partition across a slup. 

Bulk'iness, a greatness of size. 

Bulk'y, a. large, heavy, of great size. 

Bull (bool), «. the male of cattle of the 
bovine species ; a sign of the zodiac ; a 

Bull, a an edict of the Pope. 

Bull'ace, a a kind of wild plum. 

Bull'baiting, a the act of baiting or ex-* 
citing a bull with doga, 

BuU'ciuf, a a male caU: a stu|^ felknc* 

Bull'dog, a a enedoa cl'&rdw^^ffL- 





Bulletin, [boord-teen, Fr.J f. an oflloial 
account of facts or public news. 

Bull'finch, «. a finch with a biill-Iike neck. 

Buirfrogr, «. a large species of frog. 

Bull'trout, «. a large species of trout 

Bullion (bool'yun^ t. uncoined silver or 

fiuirish, a. of the nature of a bulL . 

Bull'ock, i. a young bull or steer ; an ox. 

Bull's-eye, «. the star in the head of the 
constellation Taurus; the centre of a 

Buiry, «. a blustering quarrelsome fellow : 
V. to bluster ; to overoear with menaces. 
Bullying, «. tke conduct of a buUy. 

Bul'rush, 8. a laige kind of rush. 

Bul'wark, a. a fortification, a defence. 

Bumbail'iff (properly b<nmd bailifQ^ i. a 
sheriff's ofiScer. 

Bum^ble-bee, «. the wild or humble bee. 

Bum-boat, «. a small boat In which articles 
are carried on shipbocud for sale. 

Bump, «. a swelling, a blow, a thump. 

Bump, V. to strike against ; to thump. 

Bum'per, $. a glass filled to the brim. 

Bump'kin, «. a clown, a lout, a rustic. 

Buncn, «. a cluster, knot, hard lump : v. 
to swdl out in a bunch. 

Bunch'y, a. growing in or full of bunches. 

Bim'dle, t. a parcel of things boimd to- 
gether. See Bind, p. 49. 

Bim'dle, v. to bind or tie up together. 

Bung, «. a stopper for a barrel : v. to stop 
with a bimg. Bunffliolo, t. the hole at 
which a barrel is filled. 

Bun'galow, s. an Indian term for a house 
constructed of wood, bamboos, mats 
and thatch. 

Bimgle, V. to perform anything clum- 
sily: «. clumsy performance; a botch. 
Bungler. «. a bad or clumsy workman. 
Bimgling, a. clumsy, awkwardly done. 
Bunglingly, ad. clumsily, awkwardly. 

Bun, 8. a smtOl kind of light cake. 

Bunion (bun'yun), «. u kind of com or ex- 
crescence on the great toe. 

Bunk, «. a case of Doards for a bed in a 
ship; a berth. 

Bimt, V. to swell out, aa a sail: «. the 
middle part or cavity of a sail. Bunt'- 
ing, 8. tne stuff of which a ship's co- 
lours or flags are made : a bird so called. 
Buntlines, t. ropes for drawing up 

Buoy (bwoy), «. a floating object to indi- 
cate shocus, rocks, or the place of a ship's 
anchor: v. to keep afloat, to boar up. 
Buov'ancy, «. the quality of floating; 
lightness of spirits. Buoyant, a. floating ; 
light ; elastio. Buoyantly, od in a buoy- 
ant manner. 

Bur, 8, the prickly head of the burdock. 

Bur'den, «. something to be borne; a load; 
an encumbrance ; oppression ; tlio quan- 
tity tliat a ship will carry ; a chief mat- 
ter; the verse of a song repeated : v. to 
load; to encumber; to oppress. Bur- 
dea^xne, s. heavy, oumbenome ; opprefr- 

Mire. BwrdenaomenoaBf «. heaVrness; 

Bur'dook. «. abroad-leaved, prickly plant 

Bureau, [bu'ro, Fr.]«. aset of dnwanwith 
a desk ; an ambaHadoi's at ■ocntMy'i 
office. Bureaucraey (ba-ra'-X & tha cen- 
tralization of power, 07 iw^iring aU the 
bureaux (-oee) or deya rtma nta d tkgih 
vemmeni the mere inatnunfluti d one 
chiefl Boxeaucratlo, a. relatiiig to bs- 

Burg, Buigh, or Bacons^ a. aoGtponUon. 
Bur'gage^ «. an andent tenure by rent^ 
proper to boxoughs. Buxgeos, a. • hmd' 
ber of a borough. 

Burgeois. Bee Bourgeola. 

Bui^lar, M. (me guil^ <d buzslaiy. Bin>> 
gla'rious, a. ruatixig to bousebnakiiig. 
Burglariously, ad. with baxs^ariooi Sn* 
tenuon. Bunflary,«. the crime cClmik* 
ing open ana entering e hooae l9'D|gU 
to rob it 

Burg'mote, «. a borough-eoart. Bm^ 
master, «. a magistrate in Trniiim^. Btar> 
grave, «. in Germany, aberedtfaeiygofw- 
nor of a town. 

Burgoo', 8, a thick gruel made at am. 

Bur'gundy, «. a wine from Buxvandy. 

Burial (bcrl-ali t. act of InuTing'; inters 
mcnt. Burial-plaoe, f. a plaoe fbr boris^ 
a sp^veyard. « 

Bu'nn, 8. a tool for engraviofi^ agrBver. 

Burlesque (bur-leskT, f. a ludusrcme »{«»• 
sentation or contriut; comio poetry: a 
ludicrous, comic: v. to make li2dlfliaiia> 

Burlot'ta, «. a ludicrous musical fiynoe. 

Bur'ly, a. blustering, big, bulky. 

Bum, v. to consume c^^ fire; to be tTiH^nftf^^ 
8. a hurt caused by fire. Bum'er, a t 
person or thing that bums. Bmnigft 
8. the act of burning ; combui^ion ; flame; 
great heat: a. flaming; vaiy hot; w 
dent; vehement. 

Bum'ing-glass, t. a glass which ooQaotailM 
rays of the sim, and increaaas tbeir heat 

Bur^iish, V. to make bright or ohiwiing^ to 
give a gloss to; topoliw: a hrlfllil nwta, 
gloss: i)olish. Burnisher, a a penoa 
that burnishes; an iustromeiit finrtamv 

BiuT, 8. the lobe or tip of the r/vt. 

Bur'row, «. a place where rabbita 1 

V. to make holes in the earthy like sd^ 

Bur'sar, 8. the treasurer of a ooUsge; a sts- 
doat who has an allowance from a luff- 
sazy. Bursarshin, a the office of a bur- 
sar. Bursary,*, the treasury of a coUsge; 
an exhibition or charitable SMmdaOan in 
a college. 

Burse, «. an exchange or xmhUo odiflos 
where merchants meet 

Burst, V. to break asunder, to fly open: a 
a sudden disruption, a raptme. 

Burt. See Bret 

Bur'then, a Bee Burden. 

Buiy (ber'rvX v. to inter; to eow witii 
earth; to hide; to put an end ta _ 
ing, «. the act of burying; a boriiL 

a tree*. «.\»gcQm\\Ac^Qt\rahcf. 
BoBh'cil, a. ameawnev a^ 





Bush'iness, t. the being bushy. Bushy, a. 
full of bushes: thieE like a bush. 

Biudly (bis'-), oa. In a ousv luauner. 

Business (bisrueflsX «. employment; an af- 
fair; seiious engagement; something to 
be transaoted; oonoem; trade. 

Busky $. a piece of whalebone or steel* 
worn bywomen to strengthen their stays. 

Buskin, i. a half boot ; a high shoe worn 
by the ancients in tragedy ; figuratively, 
tragedy. Boskined, a. dressed in bus- 

Busk'y, a. woody, shaded with woods. 

Buss, «. a small fishing boat ; an abridge- 
ment of Omnibus. 

Buss, «. to salute with the lips : t. a kiss. 

Bust, «. a statue of the human figure as 
fiar dowlas the breast. 

Bus'tard, «. a sort of wild turkey. 

Bustle (mu'a), «. to move about busily ; 
to make a gnat stir; part of a lady's 
dress. Bustler, $. an active person, a 

Bu4y (bis'ayX <ik employed with diligence 
or earnestness; active; meddling; offi- 
cious : V, to make or keep busy. Busy- 
body, f. a meddling officious person. 

But, «. a boundary, a limit, the end of a 
thing: «. to abut pr touch at the one end. 

But, con^. yet, nevertheless, however, be- 
sides, umeBs: vrep. except : ad. only. 

Butcher (booteh^), t, one who kills and 
dresses animals nxr market ; a bloody 
or cruel tyruit: «. to kill; toslaughter; 
to murder. Butcheiiy, a. bloody, cruel. 
Butcheay, 9. the trade of a butcher; a 
slaughter-house; sayage murder. 

But'-end, t. the end upon which anything 
rests ; the large €t blunt end. 

Buf ler, «. a servant who is entrusted with 
a gentleman's liquors, Ito. 

But'ment. See Abutment and Buttress. 

Butt, t. a mairik to be aimed 1^; an object of 
ricUcuie ; a cask o<mtaining 136 geJlons : 
V. to strike with the head and horns. 

But'ter, «. food made from the cream of 
milk : «. to moisten with butter. 

But'tercup, «. a well-known Add flower, a 
species €Ht ranunculus. 

But'terfly, «. abeautiftil winged insect 

But'terznilk, «. the whey of churned cream. 

But^terprinl^ «. a piece ci carved wood or 
a stamp used to mark butter witii. 

But'texy, «. a plac» where provisions are 
ke|>t : a. having the appearance ofbutter . 

But'ting, «. a boundary of land. See Abut. 

But'tock, «. the thickest part of the thigh. 

But'ton, i. a knob or ball used for the 
fastening of dothes ; a small round mass 
of metal; a bud of a phmt; the sea- 
urchin: V. to fasten with a button. 
Button-hole^ «. a loop or hole to admit a 

But'tress, «. a mass of masonry to support 
a wall ; a prop ; a support: «. to supp<nii 
by a buttress. See Abut. 

Bux'om, a. pliani; yielding; gay, lively; 
amoTovuL wanton, Buxamly, Af. gayly ; 
Amc^oi^. Bnwptnnm g, 9, the quality 

Buy (hi), V. to pay a price for, to purchase. 
Buy'er, t. one who buys, a purchaser. 

Buzz, B. a whisper, a hum, low talk : v. 
to himi like bees; to i^read by whis- 
pers, or secretly. Buz^zard, $. a species 
of hawk; a blockhead. Buzzer, t. a 
secret whisperer. Buzzing, «. a hum- 
ming noise; low talk. 

By, ad. near; in presence ; passing : jprep, 
denoting the agent, way, means. By- 
and-by, ad. presently, soon. 

By^-blow, B. a chance blow. 

By'-comer, $. private comer. 

^e, «. an old Saxon or Danish word 
signifykiga dwelling, a habitation, or 
village. Hence Byy in the sense of toca{, 
private, not public ; as By-law, &c 

By'-end, «. secret purpose or advantage. 

By-gone, a. past, gone by. 

By'-lane, b. a private or retired lane. 

By'-law, B. private rules in a society. 

By'-name, b. nick-name. 

By^-poth, B. a private or obscure path. 

Byre, t. a cow-house {Scotland). 

By'-road, b. an obsciu^ or private road. 

By'-stander, «. a looker on, an observer. 

By'-street, «. a private or obscure street. 

By-the-by, ad, by the way (mpoManCi. 

By'-view, «. a self-interested pmpose. 

By '-walk, «. a secluded or private walk. 

^'way, B. a private and obscure way. 

By'-word, b, a saying; a proverb. 

Byz'antine, a. belonging to Byzan'tium or 
Ck>nstantinople : «. a gold coin. 


0., is an abbreviation for Centum, 100. 

Cab, 8. an abbreviation of Cabriolk. 

Cab&V, B. a private junto: v. to intrigue. 
Caballer, «. one who cabals; an intri' 

CaVala, b. the pretended secret science ol 
the Jewish rabbins, according to which 
every word, letter, and accent of the 
law has a mysterious meaning; the 
Jewish traditions ; any secret or occult 
science. Cabalism, t. the science of the 
cabalists. CabaUst, ». one skilled in the 
cabala. Cabalis'tic, Cabalistica], a. re- 
lating to the cabala ; mysterious, occult. 
Caba^tically, ad. in a cabalistic manner. 

Cab'alline, a. belonging to a horse. 

Cabaret, [kab'a-ret or kab'a-ray, Fr.] «. a 
tavern. See 89, p. 29. 

Cal/bage, b. a well-known vegetable: v. to 
steal in cutting clothes. Cabbage-tree, «. 
a species of palm-tree. 

Cab'in, «. a small room ; a small house or 
cottage ; an apartment in a ship for the 
officers: v. to live in a cabin; to con- 
fine to a cabin. Cabin-boy, b. a boy who 
attends the cabin on board a ship. 

Cab'inet, «. a small room ; a room in which 
state consultations are held; the col- 
lective body of the ministeta <A «^al«k\ %>. 
set of draweia tat cvn\Q*Mvs». ^^^^^^V 
councVi, 8. & coDSQl\Aieuciii c*. ^Oaa WficKftSSW 

Iministero. ._ . —.at^* 

CWkyinoVmsatex, a. ob» ^»>* ^*^^5^ 
-wood-work, voci^ •• *"" 




Calble, ». a rope to hold a ship at anchor. 
Caboo'se, ». the cook-room of a ship. 
Cahriolet, pcab're-o-lay, Fr.] t. an open 

one-horse carriage. See CaA, 
Caca'o (or ka'^o). Bee Cocoa. 
Oaoh'alot, <. the spermaceti or sperm 

Cachet» pcash'ay, Fr.] «. a seal; a sealed 

letter; a private state letter or warrant. 
Cachexy (kak'-), «. a bad habit of the body. 
Cachinna'tion (kak-), s. loud laughter. 
Cacique, ». See Cazique. 
Caclde, «. the voice of a goose or hen ; 

idle talk; prattle: v. to make an idle 

noise. Cackling, «. the act of cackling ; 

Cacochymv (kak'o-klm-^ «. a l>ad state of 

the fluids of the body. Hence Caco- 

chym'ic or Cacochymical, a. 
Cacode'mon, t. an evil spirit, a demon. 
Cacde'thes, «. a bad or inveterate custom. 
Cacog'raphy, $. bad writing or spelling. 
Cacoph'ony, «. a bad or harsh sound. 
Cac'tus, «. a spiny plant; a genus of 

plants from the tropical parts of America; 

now called Cactaeea, Hence Cacta- 
ceous, a. 
Cadav'erous, a. appearing like a dead body. 
Cad'dis, ». the cade- worm ; a kind of tape. 
Cad'dy, «. a small box for keeping tea in. 
Cade, 8, a cask or barrel; a worm, the 

Ca'dence, f . flail of the voice towards the 

end of a sentence ; the flow of verses or 

Seriods; tone or modulation of voice, 
adency, the same, but little used. 

Cedent, a. falling down easily. Caden'za, 

[It.] 8. musical ^tdence. 
Cader, t. the youngest son; a volunteer 

in the armjr, who serves in expectation 

of a comnussion ; a student in the art 

of war. 
Cad'ger, «. a huckster ; a codger. 
Ca'di, «. a chief magistrate among tho 

Cadu'ceus, t. the wand of Mercury. 
Cadu'coui^ a. falling early, as leaves. 
Csesu'ra, t. a figure in poetry, by which a 

short syllable after a complete foot is 

madb long ; a metrical break or {muse. 

Cses'ural, a. relating to the csesiura. 
CafiS, [kaf'fy, ^J'* coffee; a coflfee-house. 

Cane'ine, «. a bitter obtained fh>m coffee. 

Caffe'ic, a. obtained from coffee. 
Cafi^ (kafer), «. a native of Ca£&aria; 

literally an wiMiever or infideL 
Caftan, «. a Persian or Turkish vest. 
Cog, «. a small barrel, a small cask. 
Cage, JL an endosUre for birds or beasts ; 

a place of confinement; a prison: v. to 

enclose in a cn.7c. 
Ca'ic or Caique (ku-oek9» «. a Turkish 

skiff or light boat. 
Cairn, «. a heap of stones ; a rude tomb. 
Cairngorm, «. a yellow or brown variety 

of rock crjrstal, from the mountain of 

Caiifigormt in Scotland. 
Cai'man. See Cayman. 
Caisson', PFr.] t. a chest of bombs or pow- 
der/ B Iaisw wooden case or framo. 

Cai'tiff, «. a low wretch: a, base, MnrHs. 
Caj'eput, JL an oil fh)m the ci^epat-tret. 
Cajole, V. to wheedle; to deldde by flat* 

tenr. Ci^oler, «. a flatterer ; a ndiMdler. 

Cajolery, t. flattery; wheedliiijg. 
Cake, ». a kind of sweet brea^ nraaDy 

made flat ; any thing concreted in the 

form of a cake: v. to form into a cake; 

to harden. 
Cal'abash, «. a species of laige gamd; a 

vessel made fh>m its shelL 
Calaman'co, f. a kind of woollen fltaK 
Cal'araine, s. an ore of zinc. 
Cal'amite, «. a kind of ndneraL 
Calam'itous, a. full of misery, wretched. 
Calamity, s. afliiction, distress, miserr. 
Cal'amus, s. a sort of reed ; a pen matfe ol 

reed: a kind of sweet-scented oane. 
Calash , «. a kind of open carriage with a 

covering to let down at pleasure ; a aoit 

of hood or covering for the head. 
Calca'reous, a. of the nature of eolx or 

lime; containing lime. 
Calcavtula, «. a Portuguese sweet wine. 
Cal'cedony, t. See Chalcedony. 
Calcif erous, ct. producing calx or Ifme. 
Cal'cinable, a. that may be calcined. Osl- 

cina'tion, a the act of caldntog. Osl- 

ci'ne, V. to reduce to a calx by hMt. 
Cal'dtrate, v. to kick, to spurn. 
Cal'dum, t. the metcdlic basis of lime. 
Calcog'raphy, «. a kind of engraving. 
Cal'cxuable, a. that may be caletdatod. 

Calculate, v. to compute, to redkon. 

Calcula'tion, t. a computation, a reckon* 

ing. Col'culative, a. belonging to oal- 

cvuation. Calculator, a a computer, a 

Cal'culous, a. stony, gravelly, gritty. 
Cal'culus, [L.1 «. a small stone ; a alone or 

concretion m the bladder ; a method ol 

Caldron (cawV-), s. a boiler, a large kettia 
Caledo'nlan, a a native of Scotland. 
Calefieui'tion, a the act of heating. 
Cal'efy, V. to make hot, to be heated. 
Calembouxg, [-booi^, Fr.] a a witticiam, a 

Cal'endar, a an almanac, a yearly register: 

V. to enter or write in a calendar. 
Cal'ender, a a hot-press for smoothing 

linen: v. to glaze or smoothe linen bj 

hot pressing. 
Cal'ends, a the first day of every month. 
Cal'enture, a a kind of fever to which sea- 
men are subject in hot dimatea, and 

which causes them to imagine the sea 

to be green-fidds. 
Calf, a the young of a oow ; the fleshy or 

thick part of the leg ; a stupid fellow. 
Calf'-skm, a the hide or skin of a calf. 
Caliber or Calibre, rka-lea)r, Fr.] a the 

diameter or bore of a gun ; the compass 

or capadty of the mind. 
Calico, a a stuff made of cotton, originally 

from Calicut in India. 
Calld, a. -very hot, burning, soordhingi 

Calidlly, a intense heat. 
Caliga'tion, a darkness, obscurity. 
Caliginous (csl-l^'-)^ a. dark^ dim, duakj. 




rBpbl(% 0. relatiiiff to beautiful 'writ- 

'. Ca]ig'raphy,t.Deftutiful writing. 

ash', Cuipee', t. termB of cookery in 


>h, &Jitf «. the title of the successors 

Hahomet among the Saracens. Gall- 

■to, i. the office of a caliph. 

fiben'ic, a. relating to caUsthenica. 

Islhenics, t. pi exercises for bodily 

ength or elegance. 

rer, «. a hand-gun, an arquebuse. 

c, i. See Calyx. 

(cawk), V. to fill up the seams of a 

p with oakum ; to rough or frost a 

■se's shoe. Calk'er, g. one who calks. 

kin, «. a sharp point in a horse's shoe 

prevent slipping. Calking-iron, «. a 

sel for caUong. 

«. to name; to summon ; to invoke ; 

ay out; to make a short visit: 9. a 

•; a summons; a vocation; a de- 

nd; a short visit. Call'ing, «. em- 

yment, trade, vocation. 

sl^, «. a hard swelling without pain. 

fUxQBt a. hardened, brawny, insen- 

lei Callously, ocL In an unfeeling 

mur. Callousness, «. hardness, in- 


yw, a. destitute of feathers ; bare. 

IS, «. an induration of the fibres, any 

aneous hardness. 

(kamX «. quiet, rest, repose; peace, 
enitnr : a. quiet, unruffled, imdistturb' 

■tfl^ easy : v. to make quiet, to com- 
m, Calm'er, t. one who or that which 
ana: a. the comparative of Calm. 
mly, ad. in a calm manner. Calm> 
iM>stlllne8s, tranquillity ; composure. 
UMi, «. a inreparation of mercury. 
'io, «. the prmdple or cause of heat. 
orif ic, a. producing heat. 
te. pea-lot', Fr.] «. a kind of coif or 
»; a round cavity, in architecture. 
tjTpe, s, a kind of photograph. 
r'er, $. a monk of the Greek Church. 

a, a subspecies of carbonate of lime. 
rem, «. a kind of thistle ; an Jnstru- 
n£ with spikes, thrown on the ground 
mmnd the feet of cavalry. 
met, «. the Indian pipe of peace. 
n'niate, v. to accuse fidsely ; to slan- 
>. Oalumnia'tion, «. a malicious false- 
>d. Calum'niator, t. a slanderer, 
nmniatory, a. calumnious. Calum- 
ua, a, slanderous. Calumniously, ad, 
uderouslyi CaTumny, «. slander; de- 

I (kav), V. to bear or bring forth a calf. 
Inism, 8. the tenets of Calvin. Calvi- 
fc, «. a follower of Calvin. Calvinis'tic, 
vixdatical, a. relating to or agreeing 
h Calvinism. 

pL(.1«. lime or chalk: jxiwder made 
calcination or burning, 
s, «. the outer covering of a flower. 
ixjlla, «. literally, a small chamber; a 
nie (SjNinuA). 

briaJo, a. relating to Cambria or Wales. 
xlo Ocaim'bricX f. a kind of fine 
m. Bee this woit^ p. 6Z 

Came, the past tense of Come. 

Cam'el, «. a laige quadruped used ia 
Asia and AfHca as a beast of biurden. 
Camelopard', «. an animiU somewhat n^ 
sembling a camel, but spotted like a 
I)anthcr; called also the gurafib. 

Camellia, t. a beautiful genus of ever- 
green flowering shrubs. ^ 

Cam'So, «. a particular sort of onyx on 
which figures are engraved ; a kind of 
painting used in representixig basso re- 

Cam'&ra-obscu'ra, [L.1 «. an optical instru- 
ment used in a aarhmed chamber by 
which objects without are exhibited. 

Cam'erated, a. arched, vaulted. 

Cam'is, t. a thin transparent dress. 

Camisa'do, «. an attack by soldiers in the 
dark, with their shirts outward, to be 
known by each other. 

Cam'let, «. a stuff made of wool and Bilk, 
or hair. See this word, p. 41. 

Cam'omile. See Chamomile, pp. 41 and 

Cam'ous, a. fiat-nosed. [116. 

Camp, «. the ground on which an army 
pitches its tents ; the army encamped : 
V. to fix tents ; to encamp. Campaign 
(-pain'), V. to serve in a campaijpi. 
Campaigner, «. an old soldier. 

Campanile (-nely), «. a bell tower. 

Campanorc^, «. the art of ringing bolls. 

Campan'ula, «. the bell-flower. 

Campes'triui, a. relating to the fields. 
Campestral, a. growing in the fielcL^ 

Cam'phor, «. a solid concrete juice of the In- 
dian laurel-tree. Camphorated, a. im- 
pregnated with camphor. Camphox'ia 
a. pertaining to camphor. 

Can, V. to be able; p. t. Could. Can, f. a 
cup or vessel for hquors. 

Cansdlle, pea-nail', Fr. j «. the rabble. 

Can'akiu, «. a small can or cup. 

Canal', «. an artificial water-course; a duct 
in the body through which auy of its 
Juices fiow. 

Canard, [kanar', Fr.] «. a duck; a decoy- 
duck; a hoax. 

Cana'iy, «. a wine from the Canary isles ; a 
singmg bird originally from tlie Canary 
isles; an old dance. 

Can'cel, v. to cross and deface a writing; 
to obliterate; to make void. Cancel- 
lated, a. crossed by lines ; cross-barred. 
Cancella'tion, «. obliteration by cross 
lines. Can'celling, «. the act of cancel- 

Can'cer, «. a crab-fish; one of the twelve 
signs of the zodiac; a virulent ulcer. 
Cancerate, v. to grow cancerous. Can- 
cera'tion, t. growing cancerous. Can'* 
eerous, a. inclining to or Uke cancer. 

Candela'brum, «. a branched candlestick. 

Can'dent, a. burning; shining; bright. 

Can'did, a. (jMning)^ open, fnuik, ingenu- 
ous; sincere, fair. 

Can'dldate, t. one who sues for a place. 

Can'didly, ad. in a candid \£k»s£a<st\ \u\^ 
nuo\:^y ; faitVy . 0«xidiaaQH«»« %« qbos^v^ 
of being can^d*, oaadoiva. 




Con'died, p. a. encrusted wiUi sugar. 

Can'dlo, «. a light mado of tallow, wax, &c. 
Candlelight^ «. the light of a candle. 

Can'dlemas. «. the feast of the Purification 
(Feh. 2d); formerly celebrated with 
many lights in churches. 

Can'dle-finufTer, «. one who snuSb candles. 
Candlestick, «. an instrument for holding 

Can'dour, Candor, «. openness, frankness, 
ingenuousness; fiodmess. 

Ciin'dy, V. to conserve or frost over with 
sugar ; «. sugar congealed or crystallized. 

Cane, «. a walking-stick ; a reed from which 
sugar is extracted : v. to beat with a cane. 

Canic'ula, «. Birius, or the dog-star. Cani- 
cular, a. belonging to the dog-star; hot» 
as in tiie dog-days. 

Cani'ne, a. having the properties of a dog. 

Ca'ning, «. a beatmg with a cane or stick. 

Can'istor, t. a small box to hold tea. 

Can'ker, t. an eating or corroding sore; a 
disease in plants ; any thing that corrupts 
or destroys. Cankered, p. a. corroded ; 
crabbed; morose. Cankerous, a, cor- 
roding like a canker. Canker-worm, s. 
a worm destructive to trees or fruit. 

Cui'nabine, a. hempen; like hemp. 

Can'nel-coal, «. a coal that bums with a 
bright white flame like a candle. 

Csn'mbal, «. a savage that eats human 
flesh: a. relating to cannibalism. Can- 
nibalism, «. the eatiDg of human flesh. 

Can'non, «. a great gun for cannonading. 
Cannona'de, v. to batter with a cannon : 
t, an attack with heavy artillery. Can'- 
non-ball. Cannon-shot^ t. the balls which 
are ^ot from great guns. Cannonier', 
Cannonec^ «. an engineer who manages 
cannon. Can'non-proof, $. proof against 

Can'not, v. to be unable. See Can. 

Canoe (ca-noo'), «• a small Indian boat. 

Can'on, «. a rule, a law, usually applied to 
ecclesiastical law ; the received Dooks of 
Holy Scripture; a dignitary in cathe- 
drals. Canon'iosd, a, according to, at in- 
cluded in the canons; regular. Canoni- 
cally, ad, in a canonical manner. Ca- 
nonicals, t. pL the canonical dress of the 
dei^gy. Can'onist, «. a professor of the 
canon law. Canoniza'taon, «. the act of 
canonizing. Can'onize, v. to declare to 
be a saint^ and enrol in tiie canon as 
such. Canonry, Canonship, t. the office 
of a canon; the benefice of a canon. 

Can'opicd, a. covered with a canopy. 
Canopy, «. a cloth of state spread over 
the head; the sky: v. to cover with a 

Cano'rous, a. musical, tuneful, loud. 

Cant, 8. a whining, hypocritical manner of 
speaking; the repetition of phrases like 
the burden of a song ; an auction : v. to 
talk in the slang or Jargon of thieves 
and blackguards; to sdl by auction. 
Cant, V. to turn or toss over by a sudden 
thrust or Jerk; to turn over or round. 

Can't, a colloquial abbreviation of can not, 

CoBtanferoaB, a, peevish ; spitefal (Low). 

DOHAo ; a Buiung-nonaaL 
[>ne that oant% a hypoodto; a 
lop : «. to gallQip gauQy. 
M, t. pL £^p«niaa flios uadk 



Cantata, [It] «. asong set to mnriai 

Can-tcen ,«. a vessel of tin In the fam 4 
a square bottle ; a sutUag-hoiueL 

Can'tor, «. one that oant% a ~ 
short gollo] 


Can'thus, jX.] «. the oomsr of ibe tpiL 

C.'ui'ticl^ «. a pious aaag. 

Can'tilate, v. to recite mnaiflallj. 

Cantile'ver, «. a bracket under a 

Cant'ing, p. a. whining ; aflbotodly 

Cantlet, t. a little comer ; a tragoM 

Can'to, a a division of a poem. 

Con'ton, a division of a eoamtgw into 
districts: v. to divide into 
Cantonment, «. a drvisioin c 
occupied by soldiers when 
Cantonal, a. relating to a gh 
ionize, v. to divide into wmian— ^. 

Cantoon^ «. a kind of fustian. 

Can'ty, a. cheerful; talkative. 

Can'vas, t, a ooarse stiff elotli. 
word, p. 41. 

Can'vass, s. a solicitation : dlaooMiaB; t 
to sift» to examine, to *^«>llMrt», to 
votes, to sue for honanu 
one who canvasses. 

Ca'ny, a. fuU of canes ; reedy. 

Canzonet', «. a short song or air. 

Caoutchouc (coo-chookl s. Tti«h«| 

Cap, t. a covering for the head ; i 
percussicHi apparatus for a gun: 
cover the head ; to complete; to 
percussion caps; to name 
temately b^iionuig with a 

Oapabil'ity, t. capacity; oapaUema; It 
ness. Ca'pable, a. able to hold or am 
tain; equal to; qualifiedfbr; intelUHii 
Capableness. «. the being capaUoL (Jifi^ 
dous (-shus), a. capabte to hold Bmaki 
wide ; vast, extensive. 0«q[taptoniiSff\ 
t. the being ci^Moious. O^paottafei te 
pas'-), V. to make capable, to qodfr 
Capacity, «. state of beoDg oi^Mtbla ; 
dous; power of holding; Tntrntal 
space, room. 

Cap-a-pie, [-pee, Fr.] ad, from headtetat 

Caparison, «. a superb drees for • hflm; 
V. to drMS pomi>ously. 

Cape, t, a headland, a promontoty; ttl 
neck-piece of a coat or doak. 

Capella, t. a star in Auriga. 

Ca'per, v. to frisk like a young goaif is 
skip or dance frolicsomely: ». a leq^ i 
ski]), a frolic Capering, s. leqiliiff; 
skipping. Caper, «. the bod of thooiVlii* 
bush, used as a pickle. 

Ca'pias, [L.] «. a writ of ezeeuiioB. 

Capilla'ceous (-shus), a. resemldlng iMlr. 
Cap'illary, a. like a hair : flne,mlnnfts: 
8. a small tube; a smaU blood-TOHiL 
Capillaments, «. thefilamentsof aflom. 

Cap'ital, a. relating to the htadi ohkf ; 
prindpal ; first-rate : t. a ohtaf city cr 
principal town; the heading or upsr 
part of a pillar or odnmn; a taaMTflr 
lazge letter; the prindpal nun cr rtoek 
VntnudAfb^tha VBofia^wmA €t nldeh 






I are expected. CapUal pvnUh- 
B the greMestk m it puts to death ; 
I crinaiM a criine deserving death. 
iliflt, 9» one who possesses capital 
wk. C^pitaliM^ «. to convert 
i|4taL Oi^taUy, ad. in a capital 
or; exoeUenUy. Capitate, a. in 
f, growing to a head. Oapita'tion, 
mneration hy heads ; a poll-tax ; 
ch per head. 

, f. at«nple in B<ane, dedicated to 
nr, whflve the Senate assembled. 
ar, Gapitulanr, «. a statute or act 
ecdenastical chapter; a member 
qaptar : a. belonging to a chapter. 
ipM^ 9. to draw up in heads or 
m; to KiTender on certain spoci- 
gnna or ecnditicms. Ci^P^^^^^ ^<)°> 
I aol U capitulating; a surrender 

Jt, a oastrated oock. 
i,CSBpoch(-poodi')>'* ftmonk'shood. 

(-yn&Of '• ^ whim, a freak ; a 
n. or unreasonable chuige of mind. 
dcNu (-pzish'us), a. full of caprice. 
doudy, ad. whimsically. Caprici- 
m, f. whimsicalness, caprice. 
m, f. the goat or the tenth sign 

aodiae ; tl^ winter solstice. 
B^ p7r.] t. a leap, such as a horse 
I without advancing; a caper. 
m, 9. Oayenne or Guinea pepper. 
, «. to upset, to overturn. 
I, t. an engine to draw up great 
ti^ as anchors, &o. 
ir, Oapsulary, a. hoUow, like a chest 
jMole. CaipealsAe, CSai^ulated, a. 
led in a capsule, or in a chest. 
la^ t. fho aeed -vessel of a plant 
, f.the onninander of a sliip, a troop 
■e^ or company of foot; a chief. 
faay, «. the rank or ix)st of a cap- 
Saptainship, «. the post of a captain. 
;,«.tiieactofcaptiuing; aseizure; 
mi. Gfl^>tiouB(HBhus), a. catchiog 
\UMg disposed to find fault. Cap- 
jt odL in a captious manner. Cap- 
iMi^ I: diiq)Osition to find fiftults. 
iti^ 9. to make captive, to subdue ; 
ana. Captivating, p. a. having 
rtooaptivatothe^ections; charm- 
G^rtivation, «. the act of taking 
'flu Oap'tive^ f . one taken in war, 
Hi: a. made priscaier; taken by 

ChptlT'ity, «. slavery, subjection, 
. Oaptor, 8. one who takes prizes 
ifloncoa. Capture, «. the act of 
I a prize; a prize or the thing 
: «. to take as a prize. 
n (••heen'), «. a cloak with a hood ; 
r with a cowl ; a Franciscan friar; 
OB hooded with feathers. 
[L.] «. the head : pi Capita, 
mortn'um, fli-] <• the residium, 
an that can be extracted is gone. 
lOart, achariot. 

10^ CaiUne,f. a short musket used 
^ honemen. Carbineer', «. one 
MBTiea a carabine ; a sort of Ught 
oaan. See this word, pk 4L 

Gar'ac^ «. a Spanish galleon, a large ship. 

Car'acole, s. in horsemanship, an oblique 
tread : v. to move obliquely. 

Carafe, [kar^of, Fr.l «. a water decanter. 

Oar'at, «. a diamond weight of four grains ; 
a weight denoting the fineness ca gold ; 
thus, gold of 22 carats, means 22 parts 
pure and 2 of alloy in an ounce. 

Csutivan', s, a large carriage ; a body of tra- 
velling merchante or pugrims. 

Caravan'sary, Caravansora, <. a public 
building erected for the convenicncy 
of eastern travellers, where they may 
repose, Ac. 

Car'avel, Carvel, «. a light old-fiishioncd 
ship; a Frendi herring-boat. 

Car'away, t. a plant producing warm seed 
used in medidne and confectionery. 

Carlx>n, t. pure charcoal ; an elementary 
substance existing pure and crystallized 
in the diamond. Garbcma'ceous (-shus), 
a. containing carbon. Carlsonated, a. 
combined with carbonic add. Carbonic, 
a. pertaining to or obtained from carbon. 
Carbonif orous, a. producing carbon or 
coal. Carbonize, v. to convert into car- 
bon by combustion. Carboniza'tion, «. 
the process of carbonizing. 

Carbona'do, s. meat cut and hacked to bo 
broiled on the coals: v. to cut and hack 
meat for broiling. 

Carbonar'i, s. a secret revolutionary asso* 
ciation In Italy; literally coal-bumers. 

Carl)onate, & a compound substance form- 
ed by the union of carbonic acid wiUi a 

Carl^imdo, 8. a red fiery pimple ; a gem of 
a deep red colour. Carbimcled, a. set 
with carbuncles. 

Carlburet, s. cai-bon combined with metal, 
earth or alkali. Carbureted, a. combined 
with or containing carbon. Carbureted- 
hydrogen, s. a gas formed of hydrogen 
and carbon, used for gas lights. 

Car'canot, «. a chain or collar of Jewels. 

Car'coss, «. a dead body of an animal; the 
body ludicrously. 

Cor'ceral, a. belonging to a prison. 

Card, 8. a small oblong piece of pasteboard 
containing a name and address ; painted 
pieces of pasteboard used in games ; a 
paper marked with the pointe of the 
compass; an instrument for combing 
wool : V. to comb or tease wooL Car'der, 
«. one who cards wool. Card'ing, «. the 
dressing of wooL Card-table, «. a table 
for playing cards on^ 

Cax'diSiO, Cardi'acal, a. pertaining to the 
heart : Car'diac, «. a cordial. Cardlolgy, 
8. the heart-bum. 

Car'dinal, a. principal, chief, eminent. 
The cardinal points axe north, south, east, 
and west; theeardinal virtues, prudence, 
temperance. Justice, and fortitude ; and 
the cardinal numbers, one, two, three, 
&o., in distinction to the ordinal num- 
bers, first, second, third, Ac. Cardinal, 
i. a dignitary of the Romsxi Cvidasi^ 
Church, next In 'raxi[k.\A>Aie'9o<Q%. Owe- 




scarlet flower. Gardinalate, CardinaUhip, 
«. the office or dignity of a cardinal. 

Care, «. solicitude, anxiety, caution; 
charge; r^;ard: v. to have a care for; 
to be anxious about : to have a regard for. 

Ca're-orazed, a. oraiea or broken by care; 

Careen', v. to lay a ressel on one side in 
order to calk or repair the other. Ca- 
reening, «. the act of careening. 

Career', s. a coiuve, race, swift motion: v. 
to run with swift motion. 

Ca'reftil, a. fiiUofcare; diligent; cautious. 
CareftiUy, ad. heedfully; proyidently. 
Carefulness, «. vigilance, great care. 

Ca'reless, a. without care; heedless. Care- 
lessly, ad, heedlessly, negligently. Care- 
lessness, 8. heedlessness, inattention. 

Caress', «. an act of endearment : v. to em- 
brace fondly, to fondle. 

Ca'ret, t. a mark in writing, thus [a] to de- 
note an omission. 

Ca're-wom, a. worn by care, miserable, 

Car'go, 8. a ship's lading or freight 

Caricatu're, «. a painting or description so 
OTercharged as to be ludicrous : v. to give 
a ludicrous representation of. Carica- 
turist, 8. one who caricatures others. 

Ca'ries, C^os'ity, «. ulceration or rotten- 
ness of a bone. Ca'rious, a. rotten, de- 
cayed, putrefied. 

Cark, 8, care, anxiety: v. to be anxious. 

Carle t, «. a rude, niggardly boor, a ehuti. 
Carrish, a. churlish. 

Carlovin'gian,a. of theraceofCharlemagne. 

Car'man, 8. one who drives or keeps cars. 

Cor'melite, t. a friar of the order of Mount 
Carmd; a sort of pear. 

Carmin'ative, «. a medicine for expelling 
wind: a. expelling wind; warming; an- 

Car'mine, «. a bright red or crimson jiaint 

Car'nage, «. slaugiiter, massacre, havoc. 

Car'na^ a. fleshly, lustful, sensuaL Car- 
nalist, 8. one given to carnality. Car- 
nal'ity, 8. lust; sensuality. Carnalize, 
V. to debase to carnality. Carnally, ad, 
according to the flesh. Carual-minded, 
a. worldly-minded. Camal-mindedness, 
«. worldlmess. 

Ca^ma'tion, «. a flesh colour; a flower. 

Camelion. 8ee Cornelian, p. 42. 

Car'neous, a. fleshy; partaking of flesh. 

Car'nival, 8. a festival oefore Lent. 

Camiv'orous, a. feeding on flesh. 

Camos'ity, «. a fleshy excrescence. 

Caroche (ka-rOsh'), «. a sort of carriage. 

Car'ol, 8. a song of exultation or praise: 
V. to sing, to warble; to praisa 

Carotid, a. belonging to the two arteries 
of the neck, which convey the blood to 
the head: 8. one of the two arteries. 

Carou'sal, «. a feast, a drinking-bout. 
Carouse, «. a drinking -match: v. to 
drink hiird, to revel. 

Carp, V. to snap at; to flnd fiinlt with 
peevishlv and frequently. Car]\ «. an 
excellent pond flsh. 

Cup'sl a. pertaining to the wriaL 

Car'penter, «. an artiflcer in wood. G^ 
pentry, 8. the trade of a carpenter. 

Carp'er, 8. a caviller; a oenaonoui penoai. 

Carpet, 8. a covering for a floor: «. to 
spread with carpets. Carpeting, s. ma> 
terials for carpets; oaxpets in genenU. 

Car'ping, «. the act of carping: p, a. find- 
ing fault with peevishly. uurpiQ^i 
ad. in a carping manner. 

Carriage (kar'rij), 8. the act of cerryinff; 
a vehicle for canying or conveying goods 
or passengers; conveyance; numage- 
ment; mode or manner of carxying one's 
self; behaviour, demeanour. 

Car'rier, «. one who carries; a Mit of 

Cur'rion, «. dead putrefying flesh: a. re- 
lating to or feeding on carrion. 

Carroua'de, «. a short iron cannon ; origin- 
ally made at Can'on in Scotland. 

Car'rot, «. an esculent root. C^iroty, «. 
like a carrot ; red-haired. 

Car'iy, v. to bear, to convey, to trannwii; 
to manage; to gain or accomplisn; to 
behave or conduct one's self: t, the 
motion of the clouds. 

Cart, 8. a carriage of burden on two wheels : 
V. to convey in a cart. Car'tage, $, eon* 
veyance by a cart for hire. 

Carte, [kart, Fr.] «. a card; a bill of fsre 
at a tavern. Carte-blunche (-blanali'X 
t, blank paper^ signed at the bottom 
with a person's name, to be fillod up as 
another pleases; and hence, unoondt 
tional terms. 

Cartel', «. an agreement between nationi 
at war for the exchange of prisoners. 

Carte'fdan, a. pertaining to the philosophy 
of J>e8 Carte8: 8. a follower of nis. 

Cluster, 8. one who drives a cart. 

Carthu'Lian. «. a monk of the ChaitreuH: 
a. relating to the order of monks so 

Car'tilage, «. gristle, a tough subetanet. 
Cartilaginous (-laj'-), a. consisting of 

Cuf ing, 8. the act of carrying in a oart 

Cartoon', 8. a drawing on laxge paper. 

Cartouch, [-toosh', Fr.} «. a cartndge; a 

Car'tridge, «. a paper case to hold the 
charge of a gun. Cartridges without 
ball are c»llea blank cartridges. Cart- 
ridge-box, 8. a box containing cartridges. 

Cart'-rut, «. the cut or track of a wheel 

Car'tulary,*. a record: a keeper of records. 

Cart'wright, 8. a maker of carts. 

Car'uncle, «. a fleshy excrescence. 

Carve, v. to cut wood, stone, or meat 
Car'ver, «. a sculptor; he that cuts up 
the meat at the table. Carving, «. the 
act of carving; sculpture; figure carved. 

Caiya'tes, «. Caryatides, tA. female figures 
employed as columns for support TC' 
lanw'ne8 are male figures. 

Casca'de, 8. a cataract; a waterfaU. 

Case, 8. a covering, a sheath ; the state of 
thin^; variation of nouns; a cause or 
suit m court : v. to put into • ease; to 
OQfver wiUi a oaM. 




Oft'seharden, v. to harden the outside, as 

iron \j^ changing the suxfsoe to steeL 
Ca'seknue, $. a laiie knife, generally kept 

inacasa; atahie knife. 
Ca'aemate, «. a vault of masonry in the 

flank of a bastion. Casemated, a. fur- 

niabed with a casemato. 
Oa'sement* t. a part of a sash or window 

opening upon hinges; a hollow moulds 


Ca'aeoos, a. of the nature of cheese. 

Ga'eem, f. a shed or lodging^ for soldiers. 

Ga'Be-ahot» «. balls, iron, &c., put into 
caaea to be shot from cannon ; canister 

Oa'aewarm, i: a worm or grub that makes 
itaelf aesaa. 

Gash, t. monqr, properly ready money: 
V. to tmn into money ; to give money 
for. GMli'«accoimt, s. an account of 
mon^ rsoelTed, paid, or on hand. Cash- 
book, a a book m which a register of 
roceiptB and payments is kept Cashier', 
«. one who receives and has charge of 
tJie money. Cashier, v. to dismiss 
from office or a place of trust ; to dis- 
card fhnn service. Cash'-keeper, t. a 

GaahtMire, t. a fine shawl from Cashmere. 

Oa'sing, s. the covering of any thing. 

Casino (nBeen'oX s. a public room for 
dancing and cards. 

Oaak, «. a barreL 

Oaalcet, a a jewel-box. 

Oaaqnfl. [cask, Fr.] a. a helmet. 

Caasa'tioxL «. the act of annulling. 

OMCsavi, Cassa'va, «. an American plant, 
from the root of which a kind of bread 
and also tapioca are made. 

CSas'ria, a a genus of plants, shrubs, and 
trees, bududing the senna; a sweet 

CSarsimere, «. a thin, fine woollen cloth. 

^^arfitft /-seen'o), «. a game at cards. 

Caasiope ia, «. a northern constellation. 

Oaa'sodc, t. the under vestment of a 

Gas'sowaxy, t. a large bird, the emew. 

Castk V. to throw; to scatter; to defeat; 
to mould ; to compute : s. a throw ; a 
mould; a small statue; a squint; air 
or mien. 

OaS'tanets, $. pL small shells of ivory or 
bard wood, which dancers rattle in 
their hands, keeping time to the music. 

Gaate, t. a name by which each order or 
class of Hindoos is distinguished. 

Castellan, t. the governor of a castle. 

Gaa'tellated, a, adorned with battlements. 

Cast'en «. one who casts; a calcuLator; a 
amaU box or cruet, out of which the 
contents are cast, as a pepper-caster ; a 
frame on %mall wheels. 

Gaa'tigate, v. to chastise, to pimish. Cas- 
tlgation, 8. chastisement, punishment. 
Caa'tigator, t. he who chastises. Casti- 
gatooy, a. punitive, corrective. 

Gas'tile-Boap (-teel), s. a refined soap. 

Oaaf ing, «. the act of casting ; a mould. 

Gastlng-net^ a a net thrown by the hand. 

Cast'ing-vote, t. the vote of a presiding 
officer, which decides a questian, when 
the votes are equally divided. 

Cas'tle, a a fortified house ; a fortress. 

Cas'tle-builder, s. one who forms visionary 
schemes, as castles in the air. C^Ue- 
building, s. the act of forming wild or 
groundless projects. 

Cas'tled, a. f lunishod with eastles. 

Cas'tor, 8. the beaver; a beaver hat. 
Castor and Pollux are two stars, also 
called Gemini or the Twins. 

Cas'tor Oil, s. an oil extracted &om the 
Falma Christi nuts. 

Cas'trate, v. to emasculate. Castra'tion, 
s. the act of emasculating. 

Cas'trel, a a kind of hawk. 

Cas'ual, a. accidental ; fortuitous. Casu- 
ally, ad. accidentally; without design. 
Casualty, s. chance; an accident. 

Cas'uist, 8. one who studies and decides 
cases of conscience. Casuis'tical, a. re- 
lating to casuistiy. Cns'uistxy, s. the 
skill or practice of a casuist. 

Cat, 8. a domestic animal. 

Catachre'sis, a an abuse of a trope. 

Cat'aclysm, f . a deluge ; an inundation. 

Cat'acomb, s. a cave or subterraneous 
place for the burial of the dead. 

Catacou'stics, s. the science of reflected 
sounds, or echoes. 

Catadiop'tric, Catadioptrical, a. reflecting 

Cat'afalque (-fSlk). Catafalco, s. an imita- 
tion tomb used in fimeral processions. 

Catalec'tie, a. wanting one syllable : «. a 
verse wanting one syllable. 

Caf alepsy, s. a disease in which there is a 
sudden suspension of the action of the 
senses and of volition. Catalep'tic, a. 
pertaining to catalepsy. 

Cat'alogue(-log),«. a list of names, articles, 
&o. : V. to make a list of. 

Catamaran', s. a sort of floating raft. 

Catamoun'tain, s. thewildormoimtaincat. 

Cat'aplasm, «. a poultice, a soft plaster. 

Cat'apult, 8. an engine to throw stones, Ac 

Cat'aract, s. a large waterMl; a disease 
in the eye. 

Catar'rh, s. a cold or rheum in the head. 
Catarrhal, a. relating to the catarrh. 

Catastrophe (-trdf-S), s. the denouement of 
a dramatic piece; a final event; a dis- 
astrous termination. 

Cat'cal, 8. a small squeaking instrument. 

Catch, V. to lay hold on suddenly; to 
seize ; to ensnare ; to take an infection : 
8. the act of seizing ; any thing caught ; 
a song, the parts of which are caught up 
by different singers. Catch'er, s. one 
that catches. Catching, p. a. infectious, 

Catch'penny, s. any worthless publication: 
a. made to get money. 

Catch'poll, 8. a bailifTs follower. 

Catch'up, Cat'sup, s. a kind of pickle 
usually made from mushrooms. 

Catch'word, t. a word under the last line 
of a page, which is repeated e.^ ^Va^ics^ 
of the naxt pa^a. 




Catechetical (-kot'ical), Catechetic, a. oon- 
risting of questUma and answers. Gate- 
chetically, od, by question and answer. 
Cafechise (-kiiEeX v. to question; in- 
struct by questions and answers. Cato- 
chlsm. «. an elementary book in which 
the principles of religion or of any branch 
of science are explokiod by question and 
answer. Catediist, s. one who teaches 
by catechising. Catchochis'ticaX Cate- 
chistic, a. pertaining to a catechist or 

Catechumen (-ku'men), t. one who is 
under instruction in the rudiments of 

Categor'ical, a. absolute, positive, direct. 
Categorically, ad, absolutely; positively. 

Cat'egory, «. a class or predicament; an 
order or series of ideas. 

Catena'tion, t. regular connexion, a link. 

Ca'tercousin. See Quater-cousin. 

Ca'ter, v. to provide food; to purvey. 
Caterer, t. a provider of victuals. 

Cat'erpillar, «. an insect, a grub. 

Cat'erwaul, v. to cry like a cat. Cater- 
wauling, s. the cry of cats. 

Gates, «. cakes, dainties, nice food. 

Cafgut, 8. a strinff for musical instru- 
ments ; a kind of linen or canvas with 
wide interstices. 

Cathar'tic, «. a purgative medicine. Ca- 
thartic, Cathartical, a. purgative. 

Cafhead, 8. the name of two projecting 
timbers at a ship's bow, wiui pulleys 

Cath'edra or Cathe'dra. «. a pulpit; a pro- 
fessor's chair. See Nos. 60 and 70, p. 25. 

Cathe'dral, «. an episcopal or head church : 
a. pertahiing to a bishop's seat or see. 

Cath oter, «. a smrgical instrument. 

Cath'olic, a. the whole, unlversaL Ca- 
tholic, t. a member of the Catholic 
Church; a Roman Catholic. Catholi- 
cism, 8. the Roman Catholic religion. 
Catholicity (-Us'e-ty), universality; Ca- 
tholicism. Cathoricon, t. a universal 

Cafkin, 8. a kind of Inflorescence, as of the 
willow, bircli, &c. Cat-o'-nine-tails, «. 
a scourge with nine lashes. 

Catop'tric, a. relating to catoptrics. Cat- 
opti-ics, 8. pi. that part of optics which 
treats of reflected light 

Cat's-paw, 8. the dupe of another (in allu- 
sion to the use made of the caf8 paw by 
the monkev in the fable). 

Cattle (kat'el), «. beasts of pasture. 

Cau'cus, 8, a meeting of electors (America). 

Cau'dal, a. relating to an animal's tail. 

Oau'dlo, 8. a warm drink mixed with wine, 
spice, &C. for women in childbed. 

Caught tliep. t and ». p. of Catch. 

Caul, 8. a net for the hair; the omentum. 

Caul'iflower, 8. a flowering or delicate 
species of cabbage. 

Caus'al, a. relating to or implying causes. 
Caiisal'ity, «. we agency of a cause. 
Causa'tion, «. the act or agency by which 
an efilBCt is produced. Caus'ative, a. 
that effects aa an agent Causatively. 

acL in a causative manner. Omum^ a 
that which jffoduces an efiEbct; a reawn, 
a motive or impulse to action; sake; i 
suit or case at law; a side or party: «. 
to effect or produce. CauseloaB, a. hav- 
ing no cause or reason. CanaeleMness, 
8. unjust groimd. Causer, «. one who 
causes; the agent 
Oau'sey, Cau'seway, t. a vaiMd vmj. Bee 
these words, p. 41. 

Caus'tic, 8. a bumii^ or corroding api^ 
cation. Caustic, Caustical, ct. buimSuL 
corroding; sarcastic. Caustically, cl . 
in a caustic manner. Canallcity, 
(-tis'e-ty), Caus'ticness, «. the qnaUty of 
burning or corroding ; great severtty. 

Cau'terize, v. to bum with irons; to MV. 

Cau'tion, 8. provident care, pfrudenee; 
wariness; warning against evU or dan- 
ger; bail: v. to warn, to advise against; 
to admonish. Cautionary, a. warning; 
given as a pledge. Cautious, a. warv, 
watchful, prudent Cautiously, ad, in 
a prudent wary manner. CaanouiDBS^ 
8, vigilance, circumspection. 

Cavalca'de, 8. a procession on barseboflk. 

Cavalier', «. a norseman; a kni^Ait; I 
partisan of Charles I. : a. gay, nnm; 
haughty. Cavalierly, ad. hanffii^tiOig, 

Cav'alry, «. horse troops, horse soldiam 

Cavatina, f-teen'a. It] s. a kind of ahoit tk. 

Cave, 8. a noUow place in the ground; • 

Ca' veat 8. a writ or process to stop ftt'oceri 
ings ; a caution or admonition. 

Cav^em, «. a cave, den, hollow plaea 
Cavemed, Cavernous, a. full of cavema 

Caviare (kav'yoreX 8. the roe of the ■tur* 
geon, or other large flsh, salted. 

Cav'il, V. to raise captious obrjectioiui; li 
wrangle ; to carp : 8. a fiUse or frtvokoi 
objection. Caviller, «. a captioua die* 
putant Cavilling, a. frivolous dispoti' 
tion. Cavillingly, ad. in tk oawaf 

CaVity, 8. a hollow place, a cavern. 

Caw, V. to cry as a rook or crow. 

Ca/enne, «. a very pungent pepper. 

Cay^man, «. the American alligator. 

Cazique (ka-seekO, s. an IndiiEaL <fliief is 
Mexico. Spelled also Cacique. 

Cease, v. to stop or leave off; to be at la 
end; to abstain from. C^seleas^ a. 
never ceasine, perpetual. Oennoleanly, 
ad. incessantly. 

Ce'dar, «. a genus of large evergreen treoi. 
Cedrine, a. belonging to cedar. 

Cede, V. to yield up, to surrender. 

Cedilla, «. a mark put under c, in French, 
thus 9 shows that it soimds like «. 

Cdl, V. to overlay or cover the inner root 
Ceil'ing, «. the inner roof of a bulldinff. 

CeVebrant, «. one who delebrates. Oda- 
brate, v. to praise; to make ilunoas. 
Celebra'ticn, t. the act of oelebrating; 

Colel/rity, t. fiune, renown« disUnfiUoBf 

a celebrated person. 
, OeleT'ity, s. swutncss, velocity, haite. 




Oel'eKy, «. a plant uaed as salad. 

Gdlos'tuL i, an inhabitant of heaven : a. 
heavily, angelio; supremoly happy. 

Celibacy, t, a aoofl^ life ; unmoniea state. 

OeU, M. a amaU dese zoom; a small cavity. 
Oellar, a a room under ground -where 
Uqoors or stores are deposited. Cellar- 
age^ t. cellars; space for cellars. Col- 
laret^ f. a case for holding bottles. Cel- 
lular, a. oonsistingof little cells. Cellule, 
«. a Utile cell. 

Cel'Uo, a. pertaining to the Cdit: «. the 
language oi the cSts. Celts, «. pL the 
prixaiUTc inhabitants of the south and 
west oC Europe. 

Oem'enfe^ a an adhesive substance which 
unites bodies; a kind of mortar ; a bond 
of unioii. Oemenf , v, to unite by the 
use of oflment or some cohesive sub- 
■tanoe: to Join closely ; to unite firmly. 

- OemmmtMn, «. the act of cementing. 
Cemenfed, p. a. united by cement or 
fHendship. Cementer, «. one who or 
that wbloh cements. Cementitious 
(-tidi'uflX a. tendency to commit. 

C«n'etery, s. aburial-placo, achiurchyard. 

Cen'obtteu a a monk living in community. 
Oenobitloal, a. living in community. 

Coi'ot^ph, 1. an empty or honorary tomb. 

Cen'ser, s. a nerfumlng or incense pan. 

Oenfflor, «. a uoman nuunstrate originally 
appcmtted to take the censm of the 
people^ and afterwards, to examine 
mto and correct their morals; a cen- 
■orer ; an inspector of the pubUo press. 
Censorship, «. the office of a censor. 
Cenao'rial, a. relating to a censor; cen- 
florious. Censorious, a. addicted to 
oensure; severe. C(msoriously, ad. in 
a censorious manner. Censoriousnoss, 
M. disposition to censure or find fault. 
Cen'surfble, a. deservingcensure; faulty. 
Cenmirableness, a blamablonoss. Cen- 
sure, V. to judge ; to find fault with ; to 
blame ; to reproach : s. imputation of a 
wrong or a fault ; blame ; reproach. 

Cen'sus, «. a numbering of the population. 

Cent, a an abbreviation of the Latin word 
enudim, a hundred ; an American copper 
cc^n, value the hmidredth part of a 
dollar. C<m't£^ge, s. rate per cent or by 
the hundred. 

Cental, <■ a new weight consisting of 100 lb. 

Cen'taui% i. a fabulous being, represented 
as half man, half horse ; a constellation. 

Cen'taury, i. the name of a plant. 

CentenaTiaxi, a a person one hundred 
years old. Cen'tenary, a. pertaining to 
a hundred : «. the number of a hundred. 
Centen'nial, a. consisting of one himdred 

C<nite8lma], a. the hundredth port. 

Cen'tigrade, a. consisting of 100 degrees. 

Centime, [santeem', Fr. j «. the hundredth 
part of a franc; the hundredth part of 

Cen'tiped, a a numy-l^CG^ insect. 

Cen'to, t. aoompositionoonflisting of scraps 
and fragpicins from various authors. 

Cen'tral, a. relating to or in the centre. 
Centrally, od. in a central manner. 
Centi-alism, «. the qualitv of being 
central Central'ity, «. the state of 
being centraL Centraliza'tion, «. the 
act of centralizing. Cen'tralizc, v. to 
bring to a centre ; to render central ; to 
take away firom localities and monopo- 
lize in one spot. Centre, «. the middle 
point : V. to place on a centre ; to rest 
on. Centrical, Centric, a. central, middle. 
Centrlcally, od. in a centrical position. 
Centricity (-tris'e-ty), a state of being 

Centrifugal, a. flying from the centre. 

Centrip'etal, a. tendmg to the centre. 

Cen'tuplo, a. a hundred fold : v. to multiply 
a hundred fold. 

Centu'rion, «. a Roman military officer who 
commanded a hundred men. 

Cen'tury, ». a hundred years. 

Cephal'ic, a. medicinal for the head : «. a 
medicine for the head. Ceph'alous, a. 
relating to the head. 

Cera'ceous (-shus^ a. was^ or like wax. 
Ce'rate, t, salve made of wax and oil. 
Cerated, a. covered with wax. Cere, v. 
to smear over with wax. 

Cera'go, a aliment of bees, bee-bread. 

Ceras'tes, s. a homed serpent; a viper. 

Ce'real, a, belonjging to Ceres; i)ertaining 
to com or grain. 

Cerebellum, a the hinder portion of the 
brain, or the little brain. Cer'ebral, a. 
belonging to the brain. Cerebrum, a 
the front and larger part of the brain. 

Ce'redoth, Ce'roment, «. cloth dipi)ed in 
wax in which dead bodies were wrapped. 

Ceremo'nial, «. outward form; exteiTial 
rite: a. relating to ceremony; formal, 
rituaL Ceremonious, a. full of ceremony; 
formal. Ceremoniously, ad. in a cere- 
monious manner. Ceremoniousness, «. 
great formality. Cer'emony, a outward 
rite ; external form in religion, in state, 
or in civility. 

Ce'reous, a. waxen, resembling wax. 

Ce'rium, s. a grayish-white metal. 

Cer'tain, a. sure, resolved, unfailing; some, 
or one, as " a certain man told me this." 
Certainly, ad. surely; without fail Cer- 
tainness, s. certainty. Certainty, s. ex- 
emption from doubt or failiure; that 
which is real ; truth ; regularity. Ccrtes, 
ad. certainly; verily. 

Certificate, s. an authenticated testimony 
in writing; a credential. Certificatca, 
a. having obtained a certificate. Oorti- 
fica'tion, a the act of certifying. Cor'- 
tify, V. to give assurance of; to attest. 

Ccrtiora'ri, [L.J s. a kind of writ. 

Cer'titude, s. certainty. 

Cerulean, a. blue or sky-colour. Corulifio, 
a. producing a blue colour. 

Cer'uUne, ». dissolved indigo. 

Ceru'mcn, [L.] «. the wax of the ear. 

Ce'ruse, a white lead ; a carbonate of lead. 

Cer'vix, s. the hind part of the neck. 

Cesa'rean, a. no\»n^ ^^^ c!PQet^i3kssa^\ vodk- 
ting t"he cYiWd aw\. <A\\i<i'vwtCa. 





Ceaa, t. a rate or tax: v. to rate. 

Ceaaa'tion, jl a ceasing; rest; intermission. 
Cession, «. a yielding or guying up. 

Cess'pool, «. a receptacle for liquid filth. 

Ces'tus, s. the girdle of Venus. 

Ceta'ceous (-shus), a. of the whale kind. 
Ce'tic, a. obtained from spermaceti, as 
celic acid. Getorog^, s. the natural his- 
tory of cetaceous animals. 

Chablis, [sha-ble', Fr.] $. a white French 

Chafe, V. to warm by rubbing; to Inflame 
or make an^^T » to fret ; to fret against 

Cha'fer, ». an msect; a sort of beetle. 

Chaff, s. the husks of corn; refuse. 

Chaffer, v. to higi^le or bargain about. 
Chaff erer, s. a deader; a hara bargainer. 

Chaffinch, ». a bird said to like chaff. 

Chaffy, a. full of chaff; like chaff. 

Chaf ingdish, s. a portable grate or dish for 
hot coals. 

Chagiin (sha-greenO, 9. ill humour, vexa- 
tion; mortification: v. to vex, to tease; 
to mortify. 

Chain, s. a series of links or rings ; a fetter : 
V. to fasten with a chain; to enslave. 

Chain'pump, s. a pump used in ships. 

Chain'shot, «. bullets fastened by a chain. 

Chain'work, s. work with open spaces like 
the links of a chain. 

Chair, «. a moveable seat; a sedan. 

Chairman, s. the president of any public 
meeting ; one who carries a sedan. 

Chaise, s. a kind of light carriage. 

Chal'cedony, «. a fine variegated stone. 

Chal'dron, «. a coal measure of 36 bushels. 

Chalet, [shawl'ay, Fr.]t. a cottage. 

Chalice, «. a cup, a bowl. 

Chal'iced (-istX a. having a cell or cup. 

Chalk (chauk), «. a white calcareous earth : 
V. to rub or mark with chalk. Chalk'< 
pit, «. a place where chalk is dug. Chalk- 
atone, «. a white concretion in the hands 
and feet of gouty persons. Chalky, a. 
consisting ofchalk, white. 

Chal'lengeable, a. that may be ehallenged. 

Chal'lenge, v. to call to a contest or fight; 
to accuse or object to ; to object to a juror 
as disqualified : t. a summons to fight ; a 
call to any contest; an objection to a 
juror. Challenger, s. one that challenges. 

Chalyb'San (kal-), a. pertaining to steeL 

Chalyb'date, a. impregnated with particles 
of iron, as ehaXyheaie waters. 

Cham (kamX See Khan. 

Chama'de, <. the beat of a drum, denoting 
a surrender, or a desire to parley. 

Cba'mber, «. an apartment in an upper 
story; a hall of justice : v. to shut as in 
a chamber. 

Cha'mberer, «. a man of intrigue. 

Cha'mbering, «. wantonness, lewdness. 

Cha'mberlain, t. one who takes care of 
chambers; an officer of state. 

Cha'mbermaid, t. a female servant who has 
the care of bedrooms. 

Cha'mber-practice, t. the practice of bar- 
risters who give opinions in their rooms. 

Cbameleon (kor), s. a kind of lizard, 
CbamTar, t. the nuting in a column. 

Chamois (shamoy' or sham'myX «• a speciefl 
of antelope or wild goat; also the «oft 
leather made of its skin (ihammyy. 

Cham'omile, ». a medidnal herb. 

Champ, V. to bite with fr^uent acU<m of 
the teeth; to chew. 

Champa^e (shampainTi 8. a light, spark- 
ling wme from Champagne^ in France. 

Champaign (shampain'), s. a flat, open 

Champignon,Xsham-pin'yun, Fr.] s. asmall 
kind of mushroom. 

Cham'pion, s. one that fights in single com- 
bat ; a defender ; a hero. 

Chance, s. casual event, accident, fortune: 
a. fortuitous : v. to happen. 

Chan'cel, s. the east end of a church. 

Chan'cellor, s. a great officer of state ; the 
judge of the Court of Chanc^y. Chan- 
cellorship, ». the office of a chsuncellor. 

Chance-medley, s. the killing of a person 
by chance, or in self-defence. 

Chan'cery, s. the chief court of equity. 

Chandelier (shandeleer'), Chandler. See 
these wonis, p. 52. Chand'lery, s. the 
articles sold by a chandler. 

Change (chainge}, v. to put one thing in 
the place of another ; to alter ; to make 
different ; to exchange ; to give smaller 
money for larger, the value being equal: 
«. alteration ; mutation, novelty ; small 
money. Cha'ngeable, a. subject to fre- 
quent changes; mutable; inconstant; 
nckle. Changeably, ad. inconstentlyi 
variably. Changeable! less, $. quality 
of being changeable. Changeful, a. taii 
of change; inconstant. Changing, «. 
the act of changing: p. a. making 
changes. Changeless, a. without change, 
constant. Changeling, «. a child changed 
foranother ; an idiot, anatural,awaverer. 

Chan'nel, s. the hollow bed of runrJng 
waters ; a narrow sea ; a furrow in a 
pillar ; a groove ; means of passing 'or 
ti-ansmitting : v. to cut in channels. Chan- 
nelled, p. a. having channels or grooves. 

Chanson, [shan'sdn, Fr.]<. a flench song. 

Chant, «. a song, a medley ; part of the 
cathedralservice: v. to sin^cathedral ser- 
vice. Chan'ter, i. a singer m a cathedral, 
a songster. Chantress, «. a female singer. 

Chan'ticleer, s. a loud crowing cock. 

Changing, t. the act of singing, as chants. 

Chant'ry, «. a chapel or part of a church 
for priests to sing mass in. 

Chaos (ka'os), s. a confused mass of matter, 
as before the creation ; confusion, dis- 
order. Chaotic, a. resembling chaos; 

Chap (chop), s. a cleft, a chink or gap ; a 
beast's jaw : v. to break into clefts or 
gapings ; to crack or split. Chapless, a. 
without flesh about the mouth. 

Chape, s. a thin plate of metal at the point 
ox a scabbard ; the catch of a buckle. 

Chapeau, [shap'o, Fr.] s. a hat or cap. 

Cliap'el, s. a place of worship. 

Chap'elry, s. the bounds of a chapeL 

worn Isy 'kxa({\i\A; ^« tfimMwEosaa. -^Xia 




protects a lady in jpabUo : v. to attend 
on a lady in a publfis asaemUy. 

Chap (for ehapman)^ t. an inferior person ; 
a youth contemptuously ; a lad. 

Chap'fiillen (chopO^ a. silenced; dejected. 

Chapiter, s. the capital of a piUar< 

Chaplain, «. a clergyman who i)erforms 
divine service in the arm^ or navy, or 
in a nobleman's or a private family. 
Chaplaincy, Chaplainshlp, «. the office 
or revenue of a chaplain. 

Chaplet, «. a wreath for the head. 

Chap'man, ». a dealer in goods ; a pedlar. 

Chapiter, t. a division of a book or of a 
body of laws; a decretal epistle; an 
oiigaxiized branch of some body or fra- 
ternity* as the clergy of a cathedral; a 
meet^ of the cleijB^ of a cathedral or 
of an order of knighthood. Chapter- 
house, «. a house where the cathedral 
clergy meet. 

Cliar, chare, v. to work by the day without 
behig a hired servant ; to do small jobs : 
», work or little jobs done by the day. 

Cliaracter (kar'-), s. a mark or impression ; 
a letter; the settled and distinctive 
qu^ties of a person or thing ; reputa- 
tion; a person: v. to inscribe; to dis- 
tinguish or characterize. Characteris'tic, 
«. ihat which constitutes or indicates 
the character. Characteristic, Charac- 
teristical, a. constituting or indicating 
the character. Characteristically, cul. 
in a manner indicating the character. 
Char'acterize, v. to give the character or 
peculiar quidities of; to designate. 

Cma«de, [sharaid', Fr.l «. a kind of riddle. 

Chai^coal, «. coal made oy burning wood. 

Charge, «. care; trust; expense; attack 
or onset ; command ; injunction ; a load ; 
a burden ; an accusation : v. to entrust ; 
to impute as a debt ; to accuse ; to load 
a gun; to make an onset, to enjoin. 
Chargeable, a. that may be chai-gcd; 
Imputable, as a debt or crime ; costly. 

Chax^r, «. a large dish ; a war horse. 

Cha'my, ad. warily, frugally. 

Cha'riness, «. caution, care, nicety. 

Char'iot, «. a wheel carriage of pleasure or 
state ; a half coach ; a cur formerly used 
in war. Charioteer', s. a chariot driver. 

Charitable, a. kind, bountiful; candid. 
CbaritAbleness, «. disposition to be 
charitable; the practice of charity. 
Charitably, ad. kindly, benevolently. 
Charity,«.love,good-will ; alms; candour. 

Cluuivan, [shar-i-va-ree', Fr.j $. a mock 
serenade of discordant music. 

Chaxlatan (sharl'-), s. a mountebank, a 
quack, a mere pretender. Charla- 
tan'ical, a, quackisl^ empiricaL ChaiT- 
atanry, t. quackery, deception. 

Oiarles's-wain, «. a northern constellation, 
called the Great Bear. 

Charm, «. a spell or enchantment ; some- 
thing to gun the affections: v. to be- 
witch, to delight, to appease. Charm'er, 
«. one who charms or enchants. Cfaarm- 
ing; a. encbantinr, delighting. Charm- 
htgJy, Mi, iMt» delightful manner. 

Char'nel-house, «. a receptacle or vault for 
dead bodies. 

Chart (tchartX «■ a delineation of coasts, 
shoals, rocks, &c. ; a marine map. 

Char'ter, t. a writing, or written paper 
bestowing privileges or rights ; a privi- 
lege, immunity or exemption, by royal 
grant, in writing: v. to establish by 
diarter ; to let or hire a ship by charter. 
Chartered, a. granted by charter ; hired 
or let; privileged. 

Char'woman, s. a woman who does char- 

Cha'ry, a. careful, cautious, diligent. 

Chase, 8. a piece of ground for himting, 
larger than a park; hunting itself; 
pursuit of an enemy ; the bore of a gxm ; 
a frame or case to confine types when set 
up : V. to hunt, to pursue, to drive away ; 
to chase metals. See Enchase. 

Chasm (kasm), s. a gap or opening; a 
vacuity or void space. 

Chasseur, [shas-sur, Fr.]<. shunter; one 
of a select body of light infantry. 

Chaste, a. pure, undefilcd; imcomipt. 
Cha'ste-eyed, a. having modest eyes. 
Chastely, od. in a chaste manner, purely. 
Chasten, v. to correct^ to punish, to 
chastise. Chastened, p. a. chastised; 
corrected. Chastener, «. one who chas- 
tens. Chasteness, «. chastity; purity 
of body ; purity of language or style. 
Chasti'se, v. to correct by punishing. 
Chas'tlsement, «. correction, punish* 
ment. Chasti'ser, s. one who chastisos. 
Chas'tity* «. state of being chaste, chaste- 

Chas'uble, s, a priest's cope, used at mass. 

Chat, V. to prate, to talk idly, to prattle: 
s. idle talk, prattle, conversation. 

Chateau, [shat-o', Fr. ]«. a castle ; a country 
seat. Chat'elet, «. a small castle; a 

Chat'tel, i. any movable property. 

Chat'ter, «. noisy and idle prattle: v. to 
utter sounds without meaning. Ch attcr- 
box. Chatterer, s. an idle talker. Chat- 
tering, s. rapid inarticulate sounds. 
Chatty, a full of chat ; conversing freely. 

Cheap, a. bearing a low price; of small 
value ; easy to be had. Cheap 'en, v. to 
make cheaper, to lessen the price. 
Cheapener, «. one who cheapens. 
Cheaply, ad. at a small or low price. 
Cheapness, s. lowness of price. 

Cheat, 8. a fraud, a trick ; one who cheats 
or defrauds : v. to defrtiud in a bargain ; 
to trick; to beguile. Cheat'er, «. one 
that practises fraud. 

Check, V. to repress, to curb, to control, to 
chide: «. a stop, restraint, reproof; a 
counter-mark to prevent fraud or mis- 
take ; a cheque ; a kind of checked linen 
or cotton. Check'-book, s. a book used 
for checking accounts; a book with 
forms for bankers' checks. Checker, v 
to variegate ; to dxvetsyi:^ *. %. caa ""^^^oa 
checks. Chec\L«t-^Qit\L, %. "^Qfk.\«^"% 
crosa stripes ot ^off etcoX. csStooxa. 
Ciicqvie and CVic^ct, v- ^"^^ 




Chcck'-mate, t. the term used at chess 
when the kmg is made prisoner; a 
check that flnidies the game of chess : 
V. to defeat hy check-mate. 

Chod'der, a. noting a rich, fine-flavoured 
cheese, made at Chedder in England. 

Check, s. the side of the face. 

Gheck'bonc, «. the bone of the cheek. 

Chcok'-tooth, 9. the hinder tooth or tusk. 

Cheep, V. to chirp, as a small bird. 

Cheer, s. a shout of triumph or applause ; 
entertainment, gayety, lollity: v. to 
applaud; to incite; to comfort. Cheer'er, 
one who cheers. Cheerftil, a. animated, 
lively, sprightly; moderately ioyful; 
williog. Cheerfulness, t. quali^ of 
being cheerfuL Cheerless, a. sad, 
gloomy, comfortless. Cheerily, Checrly, 
ad, with spirit; cheerfully. Cheery, a. 
cheerful; sprightly. 

Cheese, s. food made from milk curds. 
Chee'secako, «. a cake of curds, sugar, 
&o. Cheesemonger, s. one who sells 
cheese. Chees|>cuing, s. rind or paring 
of cheese ; petty ecouomy. Chccsovat, 
«. the wooden case in which the curds 
are pressed into cheese. Cheesy, a, 
having the nature of cheese. 

Chef-d'ceuvre, [shay'doovr, Fr.] t. a mas- 
ter-piece or performance. 

Che'go. See Chigo. 

Chem'ical, Chenuc (kem-), a. pertaining 
to chemistry. ChemicaUy, ad. by a 
chemical process. Chemicals, i. pi pre- 
parations used in the arts. Chemiei, s. 
one versed in chemistry. Chemistry, #. 
the science by which the nature and 
properties of bodies are analysed and 
ascertained. See Chemist, p. 41. 

Chemise, [she-meez', Fr.1 s. a shift or 
under varment for females ; a wall that 
lines a bastion. Chemisette, «. a woman's 
under waistcoat. 

Cheque (chek), «. an order to pay money 
on demand. See Check. 

Chequer (chek'er). See Checker. 

Cher^ish, v. to treat with tenderness; to 
nurse; to comfort; to shelter. Che- 
risher, t. one who cherishes. 

Cher'ry, s. a friut : a. ruddy, blooming. 

Cher'ry-cheeked, a. having ruddy or 
blooming cheeks. 

Chcr'ub, «. a celestial spirit, an ai^el. Che- 
rubim, 8. the Hebrew plural of cherub. 

Cher'up, v. to chirp ; to use a lively voice. 

Chess, s. a scientific game. Chess-board, 
8. a board to play chess on. 

Chest, 9. a large wooden box or coffer; the 
thorax; the breast. 

Clicst'nut, «. the fruit of the chestnut 
tree : a. of the colour of a chestnut, light 

Clicvalier (shevalocr'), s. a horseman; a 
knight; a gallant man^ 

Chevaux-de-nise, [sheVo-de-fi^es, Fr.] s. a 

Siece of timber crossed with spikes to 
efend a passage (literally, friaded 
CbeverUfabev^'X »- a kid; kid leather. 
dwvroD (abey'tonX t. two ra/lerB of a house 

meeting at the top ; a mark of dlstino* 
tion on the coat-sleeve of a non-commis- 
sioned officer. 

Chew, V. to grind with the teeth, to masti- 
cate ; to meditate on, to ruminate. 

Chiboque (tchi-book^, «. a Turkish pipe. 

Chicane (shekainOk «. a trick in law prch 
coedings; sophistry; evasion; mean 
artifice. Chicanery, «. chicane, trick- 

Chick, Chick'en, i. the young of hens. 

Chick'en-hearted, a. timorous, cowardly. 

Ghick'en-pox, «. a mild form of small-poac ; 
a pustulous distemper. 

Chick'-pcas, s. a kind of degenerate pea^ 

Chick'wecd, the name of a plant. 

Chic'cory, «. succory or wild endive. 

Chid, the jxast tense of Chide. Ghid'deB 
or Chid, the past participle of Chide. 
Chide, v. to reprove in anger; to re- 
buke ; to reproach. Chi'der, «. one who 
chides. Chiding, 8. the act of reprov- 
ing; a rebuke. Chidingly, cut. in a 
chiding manner. 

Chief, a. principal, eminent : t. a leader. 
Chiefly, ad. principally, above alL Chief- 
tain, 8. a leader, a commander. Chief- 
tainty. Chieftainship, «. headship. 

Chiffbimior, fshcfibneer', Fr.] «. a rag^ 
picker. Cmfibnnidre, 8. a receptacle for 
rags and shreds ; a work-table. 

Chi'go, Chig'ger, «. a tropical insect that 
enters the skin of the feet, producing 
great annoyance. 

Chil'blain, «. a hlain or swelling caused by 
fhwt or cold. 

Child, 8. an infimt ; a very young peTsoo. 
Childbearing, «. act of bearing children. 
Childbed, «. lying-in, travail Child- 
birth, 8. the act of bringing forth. 
Childhood, 8. state of a child, In&ncy. 
Childish, a. puerile, like a child. Chfld- 
ishly, od. in a childish manner. Child- 
ishness, 8. puerility. Childless, a. having 
no children. Childlike, a. becomlnjar or 
like a child. Children, 8. the plural of 
child. Childe, «. a noble youth, as CMkb 

Chill, a. cold, depressed : 8. chilness, cold: 
v. to make cold, to discourage. Cbflli- 
ness, 8. a sensation of shivering. Chilly, 
a. somewhat cold, frosty, raw. Chilness, 
«. coldness ; want of warmth. 

Chilly, 8. the pod of Cayenne pepper. 

Chil'tem Hundreds, 8. a distnct in Eng- 
land (so called from the ChiV^m Hills) 
the stewardship of which is nominally 
an office under the Crown. 

Chime, 8, musical soimds of bells : v. to 
sound in harmony; to agree with. 

Chime'ra (kXm-), «. a fabiUous monster; a 
wild fancy. Chimer'ical, a. imaginaxy, 
fanclAil, having no real existence. Chi- 
nioriciilly, ad. wildly, ♦'•^ ciftillj'. 

Chini'ncy, 8. a passage made for smoke. 
Chimney-piece, «. an oi-nameutal frame 
of marble, stone^ &o., round a firo-plaoe. 
Chimney-sweeper, <. one whose tndo is 
to clean c^Vmne^. 
1 Chim'ist, CHc^imX&tT^. "Ctei^QtiiBGEaiJU 




Chimpan'M^ », a spodes of ape moBfc re- 
aembling man. Beeffdnflla. 

Cbin, f. tiie lowBst part of the face. 

Qti^ruL, OhinawBre, «. a fine painted porce- 
lain; originally made in CAIna. 

CShi'napontnge, «. the sweet orange, first 
iHoiudit ttam (Mna, 

Chincd^la, f. a fine flu: ; a boa. 

Ohin'-oongh. Bee Hooping-cough. 

CSdne, t. the tack-bone or spine of a 
beast: a piece of the backed an animal; 
the edge of a cask. 

Ohine'fle, a. of or relaUng to China : t. a 
native of Ohina. 

Ohints, I. fine Indian printed caUoo. 

Chink, 8, a cnu^ a gap or open- 
ing; money in cant language: v. to 
jingle like money. Ghink'y, a. tail of 

Chip, 8. a smaU niece cut ofif with an axe 
or tool; a kind of plait for bonnets : v. 
to oat or chop off; to oradc or break off 
in small pieces ; to hack. Chip'ping, «. 
the act of chipping; a chip or frag- 

Chiragra (ki-n^gra), t. gout in the hand. 

CDbi'rosraph, «. a writing with one's 
hand; a deed of legal instnunent. 
Chirog'rapher, «. one who practises writ- 
ing as ajraofeasion; an engrosser of fines 
in the Common Fleas. Chirograph'ic, 
Ohirogrnphical, a. pertaining to cnirofi^- 
niAiy. Chirog'rapnist, s. one who tells 
fbrtnnes 1^ the hand-writing. Chirog- 
Tsphy, 8. mmdwritinff ; penmanship. 

Ghi'romancy, «. dirination by inspecting 
the lines of the hand. 

Chlrop'edtet, t. one who extracts corns. 

Chirp, V. to make a lively or cheerful 
noue, as small birds or insects : «. the 
voice of small birds or insects. Chirp'- 
t. the cheerful noise of birds. 


^rup, V. to cheer up; to animate. 

Ohinu'geon. See Surgeon. 

Chis'el, «. a cutting tool used by car- 
pentera and sculptors : v. to cut with a 

ChiL «. a baby, a child ; a sprout. 

Cbitrdiat, i. prattle : familiar talk. 

Chitteilinffs, s. jL tne small intestines of 
an eatable animal. 

Chitr^, a. childish, .like a baby. 

Chiv'ab7(8hlv-), «. knighthood; knightly 
valour; sallantry. Chivalrous, a. re- 
laUstf tiocnivalry; adventurous ; gallant ; 
herofe. Chivalrously, ocL in a chivalrous 

Chive, 8. a kind of small onion. 

OhiveOy 8, the threads or filaments rising 
in fLowenL with seeds at the end. 

Chlorate (klo'-), a a salt composed of 
(dilorio add and a base. Chloric, a. 
pertaining to chlorine. Chloride, «. a 
oompound of chlorine with ' combus- 
tible body. Chlorine, «. a greenish-yel- 
low gas obtained from common ^t. 
Chlorite, 8. an earthy green matter. 

Ofalo'rofSDrtn, a a dense limpid fiuid, used 

to modaoe vaMmBaiousneat. 
ChotroSato. Bee under Cocotk, 

Choice, «. a thing choson; power of 
choosing; variety; best part of any- 
thing : a. select, of great value ; chary. 
Cboi^cely, ad. with great care; curi- 
ously. Choiceness, <. nicety ; of particu- 
lar "mue. 

Choir (kwire), 8. a body of singers; the 
part of a chiurch where the chanters are 

Choke, V. to suffocate, to block up. Cho'ko- 
damp, 8. carbonic add gas ; a noxious 
vapour in coal mines. Choke-full, a. as 
flm as possible. 

Chol'er, 8. the bile; anger, irasdbillty. 
Chorera-morTjus or Cholera, «. a now 
and. most appalling form of pestilen* 
tial 'disease, accompanied by vomiting, 
purging, and spasms. It first appeared 
(or was first noted) in 1817 in India. 
Choleric, a. fiill of choler; irascible. 
Cholericness, «. irasdbility; peevish- 
ness ; anger. Cholerine (-een), 8, a slight 
attack of cholera. 

Choose, V. to select, to pick out. 

Chop, V. to cut with a quick blow : to 
xninco or cut into small pieces ; to bar- 
gain, to barter ; to tmn or clumge sud- 
denly, as the wind: s. a small piece of 
meat ; a deft or crack ; a Jaw. Chop, «. 
a Chinese word for a stamp or permit. 
Chop'-fallen, see Chap-fallen. Chop* 
house, 8. a house to eat provisions at. 
Chopper, «. a butcher's cleaver or axe. 
Chopping, a. lusty, plump, as a child. 
Choppy, a. full of cracks or defts. 
Chops, Chaps, pi. the jaws of a beast. 

Cho'ral, a. belonging to, or singing in a 

Chord, 8. the string of a musical instru- 
ment : V. to flunish with musical strings. 

Cho'rist, 8. a singer in a choir. Cb5r 'later, 
8. a singer in a cathedral ; a loader of a 
choir. Cho'rus, «. a number or company 
of singers; a part of music in whidi aU 

Chose, Cho'sen, p. t. and p. p. of Choose. 

Chough (tshu^, 8. the red-billed jackdaw 

Chouse, V. to cheat, to trick : «. a tiiok or 

Chrism (krism), «. consecrated oil. Chris'- 
mal, a. relating to chrism. Chrismatory, 
8. a vessel for chrism. 

Chris'ten, v. to baptize ; to initiate into the 
church ; to name. Christendom, «. the 
portion of the world inhabited by Chris- 
tians; the whole body qI Christians. 
Christening, «. the act of baptizing. 
Christian, «. a disdple of Christ: a. bo- 
longing to the relij^on of Christ. Chris- 
tianity, 8. the religion taught by Christ. 
Chris'tionize, v, to make Christian. 
Christianlike, a. befitting a Christian. 
Christianly, a. becoming a Christian ; 
.liko a Christian. Christian-name, «. 
the name given at baptism, distinct 
from the surname. 

Christ'mas, 8. \.\ia fee,\.\vslQl MXA'^«^a::^>&u^ 
of Christ, X>ecem\^T %!>. CVaAitasa*- 
box, «. & box. Vd-wYiVOoL TswaftTxVa «B»w»r 
lected at C\ir\stxQ«.a-, e\cAstan»» «» 




Chromat'io, «. that kind of music that 
proceeds by a succession of semitones : 
a. relating to colours ; relating to musical 
sounds or semitones. Chromatics, «. 
the science of coloiurs. 

Chron'ic, Chronical, a. of long continu- 
ance, as a disease. 

Chron'ide, «. a history, register, record: 
V. to record in history, to register. 
Chronicler, s. a recorder of events. 

Chron'ogram, «. an inscription implying 
the date. Chronol'oger, «. a chronolo- 
gist. Chronolog'ical, Chronologic (-loj'-), 
a. pertaining to chronology ; according 
to the order of time. Chronorogist, s. 
one versed in chronology. Chronology, 
8. the science of compuong the divisions 
of time, and the dates of events. Chro- 
nom'eter, «. a watch or clock for the 
exact measurement of time ; a portable 
time-keeper used for determining the 
longitude at sea. 

ChiTsalis (kris'-), $. aurelia, or the form 
of certain insects, as butterflies, before 
they become winged ; so called because 
the colour is generally golden. Chryso- 
lite, s. a precious stone of a dusky green, 
having in general a golden cast. 

Chub, s. the name of a short, thick fish. 
Chub'by, a. like a chub; plump, fat. 

Chuck, V. to call as a hen caUs her yoimg; 
to touch or hit gently; to pitch to a 
short distance : s. awonl of endearment; 
a pat under the chin. 

Chuck'-&rthing, ». a bov's game. 

Chuckle, V, to make a chucking noise ; to 
lai^h at or over. 

ChuC s. a blunt clownish person. Chuf fy, 
a. blunt; surly; flat. 

Chum, «. a chamber fellow ; a messmate. 

Church, s. a place of divine worship ; the 
collective body of Christians. Church'- 
ine, $. the act of giving tbanks in the 
church after child-birth. Churchism, «. 
adherence to the church. Churchlike, 
a. befitting a churchman. Churchman, 
t. a clergyman ; a member of the Church 
of England. Churchwar'den^ «. a parish 
officer chosen by the mimster and 
parishioners. Church'yard, s. the burial 
ground of a church. 

Churl, «. a rustic; a rude surly man; a 
niggard. Churl'ish, a. rude, surly; 
niggardly. Churlishly, ocl. in a churlish 
mauner. Churlishness, «. rudeness of 
manners; niggardliness. 

Chum, V. to make butter : «. a vessel used 
in making butter. 

Chum'ing, «. the act of making butter ; 
the quantity of butter made at once. 

Chvle (kile), «. a milky fluid derived ftom 
cnyme, and circulated by the lacteal 
vesseL Chylous, Chyla'ceous (-shus), 
tu consisting of or containing chyle. 
Ch^ejkime), t. a pulpy substance into 
which lood is cLangea in the stomach 
by digestion. Chy'mous, a. relating to 
or coniaining chyme. 

Cbym^iat, t. See Chemist, Cliymlstry, 
A See Chemiatry, 

CSca'da, «. a cricket; a genus of inseota. 

Cic'atrioe, «. a scar left by a wound. Gie^ 
trize, V. to heal a woimd; to akin over. 

Cicerone, [tchee-tchai-ro'n^ ItJ «. a guide 
who explains curiosities (a Otciro). 

Cicero'nian, a. like Cicero; eloquent. 

Cicisbeo, [chee-chis-ba'o, It.] 9. a galkni 

Cicu'ta, 9. a planl^ water hemlodc 

Cid, ». a lord ; a valiant chief; the name 
of a Spanish heroic poem. 

Ci'der, «. a liquor made firom apple juice. 

Ci-devant, Fsee-de-vang', Fr.lao. formeriy. 

Cigar', «. tobacco leaves rolled up for amok. ^ 
ing. Cigarett'e, ». a small cigar. 

Cil'ia, [pi* of dlium, L.] the eyelashes; 
hairlike filaments on the margin of 
leaves, &c. Ciliary a. belonging to the 
eyelashes. Ciliated, a. having cUia or 
fiine hairs like an eyelash. Cilioiotis 
(•lish'us), a. hairlike ; hairy. 

Cim'eter, «. See Scimitar. 

Cimmetfrian, a. extremely dark. 

Cinchona (sin-ko'na), «. Peruvian bark. 

Cinc'tiure, «. a belt, a girdle ; an enclosaie. 

Cin'der, «. a coal that has ceased to bum; 
the refuse or relics of burnt matter. 

Cin'galese, s. a native or natives of GeyloQ : 
a. relating to Ceylon. 

Cin'nabar, «. an ore of quicksilver. 

Ciu'namon, ». the fragrant bark of a tree. 

Cinque (sink), s. a five, the number fira 
Cinque-foil, 8. a five-leaved clover: a five* 
leaved rosette in architecture. Cinqoo* 
pace, 8. a kind of slow dance. Cinque 
Ports, j{v« ports on the eastern coast of 
England, viz., Dover, Hastings, Bonmey, 
Hythe, and Sandwich ; to whidi ¥Fm. 
Chelsea, Bye, and Seaiord have been 

Ci'pher, s. the character (0) in numbers; 
the initials of a i)erson's name iuten 
woven ; a secret manner of vniting : v. 
to cast accounts; to write in occult 
characters. Ciphering, «. the art of ca^ 
ing accoimts. 

Cir'de, «. a round body ; an orb ; compass ; 
enclosure; an assembly surroundiiu^ the 
principal person ; a class of peopM ; a 
company; a series ending as it be^nns: 
V. to move round anything ; to endose. 
Circuit (sirldt), «. the act of mo^g 
round ; a circular space ; a portion of 
the coimtry visited by the judges of 
assize : v, to move round. Circuitous, a. 
going roimd in a circuit. Circuitousiy, 
€id,mtk circuitous manner. CircuKy, 
«. a motion round a circle. Cir'cular, «. 
a letter or 'paper sent round : a. like a 
circle, roimd. Circularly, ad. in the 
form of a circle. Circulate, v. to move 
round; to cause to pass roimd; to dis. 
scminate. Circula'tion, «. the act of 
circulating; the state of being circu- 
lated; extent of diffusion; the currency. 
Cir'cvdating-medium, «. the cash, bank 
notes, or other paper in circulation. 
Circulativo, a. causmg circulation. 

Circumaml>ient, a. surround^og. 

Cir'cuTncifle, d. to oadb ofiL \)ck& lotOAVbck. 




CHicum'ferenoe, «. the periphery of a circle. 

Circuraferen'Unr, «. an instrument used in 
Bunreying to measure angles. 

Cir'cumneot, v. to place the circumflex on 
words. Circumnex, «. an accent used 
to regulate the pronunciation of syl- 
lables, marked thus C). 

Qrcum'fluent, a. flowing roimd anything, 
(^roumfluous, a. environing with waters. 

CSrcunifu'se, v. to pour or spread round. 
Circumfusion, s. the act of pouring or 
spreading round. 

CSfaroum'gyrate, v. to whirl rotmd. Ciroum- 
gyra'tu>ii, s. a rolling or turning round. 

Circum1a'cent,a.lying round ; surrounding. 

CSircumlocu'tion, s. the use of indirect 
expressions, a circuit of words. Cir- 
cumloc'utoiy, a. periphrastical. 

drcumnav'igable. a. that which may be 
sailed round. Circumnavigato, v. to soil 

Circumnaviga'tiQn, «. a sailing round. 
drcumnaVigator, i. one who sails round. 

CIrcumpolar, a. round the pole. 

drcumscri'be, v. to write round; to en- 
elose, to bound, to limit, to restrict. 

Glr'cumspect, a. watchful, cautious, pru- 
dent. Circumspec'tion, $. caution. Cir- 
oumspective, a. watchful, wary. Cir- 
oumspectively, ad. watchfully. Cir'- 
onmspectly, cuL vigilantly, watchfidly. 
Glrcumspectness. «. vigilance; caution. 

Cb^oumstemce, «. something connected 
with a fkct, though not essential to it ; 
•n incident ; an event : pL one's state 
or condition in life; state of afiairs. 
Circumstanced, a. situated or placed. 
Gircomstan'tial, a. giving the drcum- 
stances; minute, exact Circumstan- 
tials, «. pL things incident but not 
SBsentiaL Circumstantiality, «. the 
state .of a thing as modified by circum- 
stanoe. Circumstan'tiaUy, ad in a 
circumstantial mamicr. Circumstanti- 
1^ V. to describe minutely. 

Glrcumvalla'tion, s. a trench bordered with 
a parapet formed around a place. 

Ginnunvent', v. to overreach, to dccoivo. 
Cireumvai'tion, $. deception, fraud. 

Clreamvol've, v. to roll round about. Cir- 
comTolu'tion, «. rolling round about. 

CttcoB, 8. an area for si)orts, with seats 
around for the spectators. 

GIr'nma, a. having tendrils as the vine. 

Gls'alpine, a. on the Italian or south side 
of toe Alps. 

CSa'tem, «. a receptacle for water. 

Cit^ «. a pert, low townsman. 

Citraddl, «. a fortress or castle in a city. 

Cita'tion, s. a simimons to appear before 
a Judge ; a quotation. Ci'tatory, a. 
having the power of citation. Cite, v. 
to summon ; to quote. 

Clt'izen, s. an inhabitant of a city ; one 
having the rights of citizenship. Citi- 
aenship, i. the freedom of a city. 

Cifrio-acid, «. the acid of lemons. 

Cit'Tlnei a. like a citron ; of a lemon colour : 
A a apadGS of yellow cryetciL Citron, «. 
a fhut resombuDg a lomou. 

Cify, a a corporate and cathedral town. 

Civ'et, 9. a perfiime obtained from a small 
animal called the civet cat. 

CiVic, a. relating to a dty. 

Civ^U, a. pertaining to society or to men 
as citizens of a state ; political ; civilized ; 
polite ; kind ; municipal ; used in con- 
trast with militaryf ecelenastieat, crimi- 
nal, &c Civil-law, s. the peculiar laws 
of a state or country ; Roman law. Civil- 
war, i. a war between people of the same 
coimtry. Civil'ian, ». a professor or 
student of civil law ; a person employed 
in the civil service, as opposed to mt/t- 
tary. Civility, i politeness; kind treat- 
ment. Civiliza'tion. «. the act of civil- 
izing, or the state of being civilized. 
Civ'iJize, V. to reclaim from barbarism. 
Civilized, p. a. reclaimed; polished. 
Civilly, ad. politely ; with kindness. 

Clack, «. part of a mill ; a continue<l noise : 
V. to talk fast, to let the tongue run. 

Clad or Clothed, the p. t. and p. p. of Clothe. 

Claim, V. to demand of right ; to require : 
s. a demand as of right; a titie to. 
Claim'able, a. tliat may be claimed. 
Claimant, s. one who claims or demands. 

Clairvoyance, [-vwa-yans, Fr.]«. literally, 
clearsigfUeJne*8t but in Mesmerism, im- 
plying a power of seeing objects not pre- 
sent. Clairvoyant, m. Clairvoyanto, 
fem. a person who professes clairvoy- 
ance, or one who is under its Influence. 

Clam'ber, v. to climb with difficulty. 

Clam, s. a small bi vsilvo shell-fish. Clam, v. 
to clog with glutinous mutter. CLim'- 
miness, s. stickuiess, viscosity. Chunmy, 
a. N-iscous, sticky, moist. 

Clam'orous, a. noisy; importunate. Clam- 
orously, ad. in a noisy manner. Clamour, 
Clamor, s. noise, outcry, vociferation: 
V. to make an outciy, to vociferate. 

Clamp, 8. a piece of wood or iron used to 
strengthen anything: v. to strengthen 
by means of a clamp. 

Clan, 8. a family ; sect of persons ; a race. 

Clandes'tine, a. secret, liidden.underhaud. 
Clandestinely, cut in a clandestine man- 

Clangor, Clangour (klang'gor), 8. a shaiT, 
hai'sh sound. Clang, s. a sharp, shnll 
sound, as by the striking of metallic 
bodies : v. to make such a sound. 
Clank, V, to make a uoiso like the cUmk' 
ing of a chain. 

Clan'msh, a. united like a clan ; disposed 
to unite in clans, donnishness, 8. dis- 
position to be clannish. Clons'mon, 8. 
one of the same clan. Clan'ship, 8. an 
association of families under a chieftain. 

Clap, V. to strike to^^other with a quick 
motion so as to make a noise by the 
collision; to applaud by clapping the 
hands : «. a louu noise made by a sud- 
den collision or explosion, as of thunder ; 
an act of applause. Clap'por, «. he or that 
which claps ; the tATiv^i& o^ tt.\sd^ ^3S3wj*- 
trap, 8. akxndol cXavV^it \3aa^mVJM»te.v^\ 
an arti^co ox ta\c^ Vjo G\\t\\. ^a.^^"^""^ 





Clare-obscu're, «. tho art of combinilig 
light and shade in pahiting. 

Clor'et, 8. & clear, pale-red, mnch wine. 

Clarifica'tion, ». the act of making dear. 
Glar'ifier, t. that which makes dear. 
Clarify, v. to make clear, to ptuify. 

Clarion (klar^yrm), «. a kind of trumpet of 
a shrill clear tone. Clarioaiet» or Clarinet, 
t. a kind of hautboy. 

Clash, V. to strike against; to oppose: s. 
a noisy collision of two bodies. Clash'- 
ing, s. collision ; opposition. 

Clasp, $. a kind of hook, a holdfast: v. to 
shut or hold with a clasp ; to embrace. 

Clasp-knife, «. a knife which shuts up. 

Class, s. a rank or order of persons or 
things ; a sdentific division or arrange- 
ment; a number of students or pupils 
receiving the same instruction: v. to 
arrange in a class or order. Class'-lfel- 
low, ». one of the same class. Classiblo, a. 
that may be classed. Clas'sic, Classical, «. 
relating to authors of the first class or 
order ; learned ; elegit. Classically, ad, 
in a classical manner. Classics, «. pi. 
the term applied to the writings of the 
andents iu Latin or Greek. Cuassifica'- 
tion, s. the act of arranging, or the state 
of being arranged in classes. Claa'sify, v. 
to form into a class or classes. Class'- 
man, s. a student in the Universily of 
Oxford who has taken honors. 

Clat'ter, i. a rattling confused noise: v, to 
make a rattling confused noise. Clat- 
terer, «. one who clatters. Clattering, s. 
a rattling confused noise. 

Clause, s. a part of a sentence ; an article 
or stipulation in a contract, Ac. Claus'- 
ular, a. having a clause. 

Claus'tiul, a. relating to a cloister. 

Clav'ato, Clavated, a. dub-shaped. 

Clave, the p. t. of Cleave (to adhere). 

Clav'iary, «. a scale of lines and spaces in 

Clav'icle(-kei),«. the collar-bone. Clavic'u- 
lar, a, relating to ihe clavide. 

Cla'vis, [L.] 8. a key. 

Claw, t. the foot of a beast or bird: v. to 
tear with daws, to scratch. 

Olaw-off, V. to beat to windward. 

Clay, 8. a tenadouskind of earth. Clay'ey, 
a. con-'-istinGr of clay ; like clay. Clay- 
ish, a. piirti&ing of the nature of clay. 
Clay-marl, «. wmtish, chalky clay. 

Claymo're, 8. a laige, two-handed sword. 

Clean, a. ft-ee ftx>m dirt: pure, innocent: 
V. to firee from dirt, to cleanse: ad. quite. 
Cleanliness (klen'-), 8. freedom from dirt 
or impurity ; neatness ; purity. Cleanly, 
a. free from dirt; neat; pure: ad. in a 
dean manner ; neatly. Cleannes8(kleen-), 
t. state of being clean. Cleanse (klenz), 
V. to free from dirt; to purify. Cleans'- 
ing, t. the act of purilying, a porifica- 

Clear, a. bright, pure, i)er8picuous; free 

from stain ; innocent : «. to make bright ; 

to firee from obscurity; to remove any 

enoaoibnnce; to rlnaicate or free from 

Imputation or charges against character ; 

to gain over and above all deductiona. 
Clear'age, «. the removing of any tiling. 
Clearance, 8. tiie act of clearing ; a cer- 
tificate that a ship has been deared at 
the custom-house. Clearing, «. Justi- 
fication; defence. Clearly, aoL pliunly, 

Clear^ness, 8. the state of being dear; 
transparency; perspicuity. 

Clear-sighted, a. quidc to discern; Judi* 

Clear-starch, v. to stiffen with starch, and 
clear by clapping between the hanosL 

Cleave, v. to split; to divide or sever 
forcibly. Cleave, v. to adhere or stick to ; 
to unite with ; to hold to or remain with. 
Clearer, «. an instrument for cleaving. 

Clef, 8. a mark for the key in music. 

Cleft, the f>. t. of Cleave (to spUt) : «. actadc 
or opening made by splitting. 

Clem'atis, 8. a genus of dimbing plants. 

Clem'ency, t. mildness; lenity; merey. 
Clement^ a. mild, merdfiu, genUei 
Clemently, ad. in a dement manner. 

Clench, v. See Clinch. 

Clep'sydra, ». an ancient instromebt to 
measure time by the running of watw. 

Cler-gy, 8. the whole order or body of 
ecclesiastics in distinction to the laity. 
Clergyable, a. the term applied to 
felonies within benefit of cletgy (Law). 
Clergyman, «. a person in holyordinn. 
Cleric, «. a cleigyman: a. deriaJ. 
Clerical, a. relating to the deigy; 
befitting a dergyman; belonging tea 
olerk, as & clerical error. Clerk (datkX 
8, a detgyman; a scholar; a man m 
letters; a writer or bookkeeper; one 
that reads the responses in a diuxdL 
Clerkly, a. scholar-like : od. leametOy. 
Clerkship, «. the business or office of a 

Clev'er, a. skilfrd, dexterous; talented. 
Cleverly, od. dexterously ; ingeniondy. 
Cleverness, 8. dexterity; ability. 

dew, 8. a ball of thread, &c. : v. to draw 
up the sails to be fhrled. Bee Chia. 
CHeV-lines, 8. ropes fastened to the sails. 

Click, V. to make a small sharp noise (liko 
a clock) : 8. the latch of a door ; a catdL 

Cli'ent, 8. one who employs an attorn^; 
originally a dependent or follower. 

Cliff, 8. a steep rock ; a predpice. 

Climac-ter, the same as Climacteric. CU* 
macteric, 8. a step or gradation: every 
seventh year of human life, which was 
formerly supposed to be marked with 
some great change ; the 63d year being 
the grand climacteric or the most critical 
period of life. 

Cli'mate, Clime, «. a region or tntct of 
country; temperature of the air. 

Cli'max, 8. a rhetorical figure, ^ whiob 
the ascent rises by gradation ; ascent. 

Climb (klime), v. to mount by the hands 
and feet ; to ascend with efibrt. Climber» 
«. one that climbs ; a plant. 

(Tlinch (klinsh), v. to grasp or denth in 
. the Yiand; xo e!StAxtt.c^ one ^ok)!!cj\» \!ea 
\ fingera ; V> \>en^ Va ox i\v«^ VXi% ib^xxV <al 




a nail on thd other dde: to fix firmly} 
to oonfirm : t. a tarn or twist of inean< 
ing, a pun ; a kind of knot or fasten- 
ing on a cable; a cramp or hold&st. 
Clinch'er, $. a eUnch or holdfkst ; a posing 
answer. GUneher-built, a. planks orer- 
loid like slates (Shipbuilding), 

Glin^, V. to twine round ; to dry up. 
Cling'y, a. adheslTe, apt to cling. 

Clinic, a. nertaining to a bed or sick-bed : 
t. a bed-ridden patient. Clinical, a. 
relating to a discourse upon a disease, 
made at the bedside of the p3\tient. 

Olink, t. a sharp sound produced by the 
collision of small sonorous bodies : v. to 
sound or jingle like metal Bee CfanJb. 
Clink'or-builC Bee under C7tndt. 

Cl^ V. to cut shor^ to embrace, confine. 
Ctip'per, t. a debaser of coin by clipping 
it ; a Tsssel built for fast sailing. Clip- 
ping, «. the part cut off: p. a. cutting. 

Cuique^ pdeek, Fr.] «. a parfy or set. 

Cloak, $, an outer garment, a cover; a 
bUnd : V. to hide, conceal, or cover over. 

dock, «. an instrument to show time ; a 
kind of beetle; figured work on the 
ankle df a stoddng : v. to elvck as a hen. 
CAodc'work, «. machinery or movements 
of ack)ck; well-adjusted work. 

dod, t. ahunp of earth or clay; adolt; a 
<down: v. to harden into a lump. 
Clod'dy, a, consisting of earth or clods. 
Otodhopper, t. a rusticL a clown. Clod- 
pate^ f. a dodpolL Clodpatod, a. stupid, 
anil. Clodpoll, i. a blockhead, a dolt. 

Okw, t. an encumbrance ; a weight ; a sort 
of shoe: v. to encimiber; to obstruct. 
Clog'giness, «. the state of being dogged. 
doggy, a. clogging up ; obstructing. 

dois'ter, s. a place of religious retirement ; 
a monastery; a convent: v. to shut up 
in a doister. doistered, a. confined u> 
a doister: seduded. 

dose (kloEe),v. to shut; to conclude, to send, 
to enclose ; tojoiu ; to imite : s. end or 
oondusion. Close (kloce), a. shut fast ; 
having no vent; confined ; hidden ; sc- 
ent: compact; dense; near to; near 
or niggardly; wanting air ; oppressive : 
t. aa endosed place ; a small field en- 
doeed: ad. nearly; secretly, do'se- 
flsted, a. niggardly, penurious, dosely, 
ad, in a dose, compact manner, dose- 
ness, 9. the state of being close, dos'et, 
t. a imall private room ; v. to shut up 
tax a doset ; to concesd. do'sing, p. a. 
oonduding : s. conclusion. 

dot, ». any thing clotted or coagulated; 
a hard lump : v, to coagulate. See 

doth, «. linen or woollen woven for gar- 
ments; the covering for a table. Bee 
dotbea. dotb^ v. to cover with gar- 

' ments; to dress; to invest, dothes 
(kloBe> I. pU coverings of cloth; gar- 
ments ; wpard. do'thier, «. a ms&er 
or seller of doth, dothing, «. garments, 

do f ted, p. A omufeaJed, curdled. 

aot^, a. Ml of acta or concretiona. 

Cloud, «. a collection of risible vapour in 
the ah:; obscurity; gloom; a vein or 
sjiOt in a stone; a multitude: v. to 
cover with douds; to darken, to sully. 
Cloud'-capt, a. capped or topped with 
clouds. Cloudiness, «. the state of being 
cloudy, doudless, a. free i^m clouds, 
doudy, a. ftill of douds; obscure; 

dough (klufX «. the cleft of a hilL 

Clou^ s. a doth for any mean use; a 
patch; a rude blow: v. to patch, to 
strike, doufed, p. a. patched; also 
wrongly for clotted, as "douted cream." 

dove, ^e p. t. of Cleave (to split), dove, 
». a spice ; a root of garlic. 

do'ven, p. a. deft, divided, separated, 
doven-ioo^ ». a foot divided into two 

gctrts. doven-footed, doven-hoofed, a, 
avlng the foot divided into two parts. 

Clo'ver, s. a species of trefoiL 

Clown, «. a rustic, ill-bred man ; a churL 
Clown'isb, a. uncivil, awkward, Ul- 
bred. downishly, ad. coarsely ; rudely, 
Clownishness, s. rusticity, coarseness. 

doy, V. to siirMt^ to glut, to sate. 

dub; t. a heavy stick ; a suit of cards. 
Club, s. a select association of persons for 
social pastime : v. to join in common 
expense, or for a common puipose. 

dub'-footed, a. having crooked feet. 

ClulZ-law, s. the law of cudgels or force. 

Cluck, V. to click or call, as a hen. See 

due, 8. that which guides us amid intri- 
cacies, as if by a thread running through 
tb cm. See Clow, which is another form 
of it. 

dump, s. a shapeless mass; a duster of 

dum'sily, ad. awkwardly; without grace, 
dumsiness, s. awkwardness, unhandi- 
ness. Clumsy, a. awkward, heavy, 

dung, the p. t. and p. p. of Cling. 

Clus'ter, «. a bunch, a collection: «. to 
grow in bimches ; to collect. 

dutch, V, to grasp tightly or rapadously; 
to hold fast: «. gi'iisp, gripe, seisure. 
Clutch'eSt the hands in the sense of rapa- 

dutw, «. a noise, a bustle : v. to nuuce a 
noise or bustle, duttering, a. hiuried, 
indistinct but noisy. Compare CUUter. 

Clys'ter, «. an injection or enema. 

Co, an abbreviation of Company; also for 
Con. See this prefix, p. 47, 

Coacer'vate, v. to heap up t(^ther. 

Coach, s. a carriage of state or pleasorei 
Coachlbox, s. the driver's seat on t 
coach. Coocliman, $. the driver of a 

Coac'tion, «. compulsion; restraint. Co-" 
active, a. restrictive ; acting in concur- 

Coac^u'tor, «. an assistant, a fellow-hdper. 

Co-a'gont, «. a joint or faVLts^ «w5cl^ 

CoaafuVxble, a. csw0a\>\% ^ >%* ^^L 

iScd, COMJV3^\A,«.\ft5QD^\N»W^ 

fromaauid\D»w»c«fcftita«A^ ^»«P^ 




la'tion, «. the act of coagulating; tho 
body formed by coagulating. Coag'u- 
lative, a. having power to coagulate. 
Croagulator, s. that which coagulates. 
Coal, 8. a fossil used for fuel ; charcoal : v. 
to take in or supply with coals ; to bum 
wood to charcoaL Coal'-black, a. black 
as coal. Coal-box, «. a box to caxry 
coals to the fire. Coal-gas, t. a gas pro- 
cured from coals. Coal-house, t, a 

house for keeping coals. Coaling, t. 

bed of fossil coaL Coal-meter, «. one 

the act of taking coaL Coal-field, s. a 

who superintends the measurement of 
coals. Coal-measures, «. pi, beds of 
coals (Oeolo^). Coal-mine, ». a mine in 
which coal is dug. Coal-pil^ s. a pit for 
digging coals. Coaly, a, tall oicoal; 
like coal. 

Coalesce (co-a-less'}* v. to grow together ; 
to unite. Coalescence, s. a growing to- 
gether; union. Coalescent, a. growing 
together; united. 

Coalition (-lish'un), «. union in a body or 
mass ; confederacy. 

Coarse, a. rude, gross, not fine, rough. 
Coars'ely, ad. in a coarse manner. 
Coarseness, «. state of being coarse; 
rudeness, roughness, want of delicacy. 

Co-assess'or, «. a joint assessor. 

Coast, $. the sea shore : v. to sail along or 
near to the coast. Coast'er, t. a smrUl 
sailing vesseL Coasting-trade, ». trade 
carried on between different ports of the 
same country. 

Coat, s, a man's upper garment; the hair 
or covering of a beast ; a timic of the 
eye ; the shield on which armorial bear- 
ings are portrayed : v. to cover, to over- 
spread. Coat'ing, t. a covering; cloth 
for coats. 

Coax, V. to wheedle, to entice, to flatter. 
Coax'er, «. a wheedler, flatterer. 

Cob, 9. the head ; any thing round ; a 
strong, stout pony ; a head or spike of 
maize ; a laige nut ; a wicker-basket ; a 
coin; the sea-mew; a spider: v. to 
strap on the buttocks with a belt or 

Co'balt, «. a kind of mineral 

Cohnble, «. a lai:ge round pebble ; a lump of 
coal; a diving bird; a canoe; a small 
fishing-boat. Cobble, v. to mend coarse- 
ly or clumsily. Cobbler, «. a mender of 
shoes ; a bimgler. 

Coble, s. a small fishing-boat. See Cobble. 

Cob'web, *. a spider's web: a. flimsy. 
Cobwebbed, a. covered with spiders' 

Coca'gne (-kane), t. an imaginary country 
of idleness, luxiuy, and delight. 

Coc'ciferous, a. producing bemes. 

Cochineal (kutsh'e-neel), «. an insect used 
to dye scarlet. 

Cochlcary, Cochleated (kok'-), o. having 
the form of a snail's shell, or cf a screw. 

Cock, t. the male of birds ; a spout to lot 
outliqiiids; part of a gun; a heap of 
hay: v. to set up or fix; to set up the 
Jjut; to Sx tho cock of a gun. 

Cocka'de, «. a knot of liblxmB worn in the 
hat. Cockaded, a. wearing a cockade. 

Cock'ahoop, ad. in high mirth and jollity. 

Cockatoo', «. a bird of the parrot kmd. 

Cock'atrice, s. a kind of serpent. 

Cock'boat, «. a small boat Delonging to a 

Cock^shafer, ». a kind' of beetle. 

Cock'crowing, «. tho break of day. 

Cock'er, v. to fondle, to pamper. 

Cock'erel, «. a yoimg cock, a small cock. 

Cock'eiing, $. hidulgence. 

Cockliorse, a. on horseback; triumphant 

Coclcle, 8. a shell-fish; the weed aainel: 
V. to contract into wrinkles like the 
shell of a cockle. 

Cockloft, 8. a room over a garret 

Gock'ney, «. a citizen of London oon* 
temptuously : a. like a cockney. Cock- 
neyjsm, «. dialect or manners of a Cock- 

Cock'pit, t. a place where cocks fight ; a 
place on the lower deck of a ship of war. 

Cock'roach, 8. an insect resembling a 
beetle, which infests houses. 

Cocks'comb, «. the upper part of a cock's 
head ; a plant See Coxcomb. 

Cock'spur, 8. Virginian hawthorn ; medlar. 

Cock'-sure, a. quite sure, very confident 

Cockswain (cox'&i), 8. one who steers or 
commands the cock-boat: a steersman; 
a petty officer. 

Cocoa (ko'ko), 8. the e^ocoZa^e tree ; the nut 
of this tree ; a T)everage from a prepara- 
tion of the nut. Cocoa-nut «. the nut 
or fruit of a species of palm-tree. Writ- 
ten also Cacao. 

Cocoon^ 8. the silken ball in which the 
silk- worm involves itself; the egg- 
shaped case of the chrysalis. 

Coc'tue, a. made by baking, as a brick. 

Coc'tion, 8. the act of boiling ; digestion. 

Cod, 8. a sea-fish. Cod'ling, s. a young 
cod. Cod, 8. the husk or case of seeds. 
Cod'ded, a. enclosed in a cod or husk. 

Code, 8. a book of the civil law; a collec- 
tion or digest of laws. Cod'icil, 8. a sup- 
plement to a wilL Codicillaij, a. of 
the nature of a codicU. Cod'ify, v. to 
digest into a code. Codifica'tion, «. the 
act or process of codifying. 

Cod'ger, «. a miser; a penurious fellow 

CodiUe (-dil'), «. a term in playing at 

Codle, V. to eaudUf to parboil; to keep 
warm ; to fondle. Codling, 8. a sort of 
early apple, often codUd. 

Co-efficacy, «. joint efficacy. Co-efficiency 
(-flsh'\m-sy), «. joint operation. Co-effi- 
cient, a. operating together: 8. a term 
in algebra. Co-efficiently, ad. by co- 

Coemp'tion, 8. a bujring up the whole. 

Coe'qual, a. equal with, in the same state. 
Cocqual'ity, 8. the state of being equal. 
Coo'qually, ad. with joint equality. 

Coci-'co, V. to impel by force ; to restrain. 
Coercible, a. that may be coerced. 
Coercion, s. compwlavou ; TO&tralnt Ca 
crcive, cu coixvp\3i\&ov^ \ wsnVxv^^ \a t^ 




■train. Goerciveness, «. the being coer- 
oive. Coerdvely, ad. by restraint. 

Coesseatial, a. partaking of the same 
eoMinoe. Coessential'i^, «. participation 
of the same esaenoe. Coeaaen'tially, ad. 
in a ooessential manner. 

Coeter'naL a. equally eternal with another. 
CkMtemily, $, joint eternity. 

CkM'val, a. being of the same age :«. a co- 
temporary of the same age. 

Coeoceautor, ». a joint executor. 

CoexiBf , V. to exist together. Coezist- 
enoe, «. existence at the same time. 
Coexistent, a. existing at the same time. 

Ooextend', v. to make of equal extent. 
Coexten'sion, «. extending to the same 
space or duration with another. Go- 
extensive, a. having the same extent 

Coffee, «. the berry of an Arabian tree ; 
the liquor prepared from that berry. 
Cofibe-house, «. a house of entertain- 
ment. Goffoe-miU, «. a mill for grinding 
coffee. Coffee-pot, t. a pot 'for boiling 

Cof flBT, ». a money chest. 

Coffin, 9. a chest to enclose a dead body : 
V. to endose in a cofSn. 

Cc^* V. to flatter ; to wheedle ; to deceive ; 
to (dieat ; to fix cogs in a wheel ; to eog 
cUee, to secure them so as to direct their 
fiiU: 8. a tri<^ ; deception ; the tooth of 
a wheel; a light boat. Gog'ging, ». 
wheedling; cheating. 

Oo'geiioy, «. force, strength ; power ; ur- 
sen^. Cogent, a. forcible, powerfiiL 
Cogently, ad. forcibly, irresistibly. 

Oogi&be Qioy-)t V. to think ; to meditate. 
Cogitable, a. that may be thought on. 
Cogita'tive, a. meditative. Cogitation, 
B. uiought ; meditation. 

Cognac, Cogniao (kOn-yakT, «. a brandy 
mm Cognac, in France. 

CcK'nate, a. bom with ; kindred ; allied. 
Coma'tion, i. kindred or relationship. 

Cogmtion (-nish'un), s. knowledge of. 

CcwzdsableCkog'- or kon'-), a. falling under 
judicial notice; liable to be tried. 
Oegnizance (kog'- or kon'-), «. judic'al 
jiotiioe or knowledge; jurisdiction or 
right to try ; acknowledgement, as of a 
fine. Cognizant, a. having knowledge of. 

Cogno'men. [L.] ». a surname, the family 
name. Cojgruom'inal, a. pertaining to 
Hm smname ; having the same name. 

Cognosf'oenoe, «. knowledge of, cognition. 

Cognoscente, [conoscen't^ It.] 9. a con- 
noisseur: Ci^noscenti, pL 

CoMznosdhillty, 9. the being cognoscible. 
Gognos'cible, a. that may be known. 

Cog'wheel, t. a wheel with cogs or teeth. 

Cogno'vit, [L.] 9. he has admitted or 
acknowledged it (Law). 

ColuUt/it, V. to live or dwell together. Co- 
haUtantk «. a joint inhabitant. Cohabi- 
ta'tion, «. act or state of cohabiting. 

Coheir (oo-ahO, «• a joint heir. Coheiress, 
a a female who is a joint heiress. 

Ooha're, v. to stick twetber; to unite; to 

be eoaaMmit. Coherence^ Coherency, 

s. act of oobering; state o[ cohering ; 

cohesion; consistency. Coherent, a. 
sticking together; consistent. Cohe- 
rentlv, od. m a coherent manner. 

Cohe'sible, a. capable of cohesion. Cohe- 
sion (-zhun), 9. the act or state of co- 
hering; the force or aHiaction which 
holds the i)articles of homogeneous bo- 
dies together or in a state of imion ; co- 
herence. Cohesive, a. sticking to- 
gether ; tendencv to unite. Cohesively, 
ocL in a connected manner. Gohesive- 
ness, 9. the quality of being cohesive. 

Coliobate, v. to redistil (Chemi9trt/). 

Coliort, «. a troop of soldiers. 

Coif, 9. a cap; a sergeant's cap. Coiffhre, 
r^oiffoor, Fr.1 «. a head-mess. Coif- 
feur, 9. a hairdresser. 

Coigne, Coin, s. a comer. Bee Quoin. 

Coil, V. to roll up a rope ; to wind into a 
ring : t. rope wound into a ring ; a wind- 
ing; a turmoil; a tumult. 

Coin, 9. money stamped by authority : v. 
to make money; to forge; to invent. 
Coin'age, 9. the act of coining; coin, 
money; charges of coining; foigeiy; 

Coinci'de, v. to fall on the same point; to 
concur; to agree with. Coin'cidence, 
9. concurrence; agreement; a happening 
at the same time. Coincident, a. fall- 
ing on the same point; conciurrent; 
agreeing with : s. a coincidence. Coin- 
cidently, ad. concurrently. 

Coin'er, s. a maker of money. 

Coition (co-ish'un), 9. a going tofiTotiher; 

Coioin', V. to join with another. 

Coke, 9. a cinder made from pit-coal. 

Col'ander, «. a vessel for straming. 

Cold, a. not hot, not warm; chill; frigid; 
without heat, affection, or passion ; re- 
served; coy: 9. sensation produced in 
animal bodies by an escape of heat; a 
disorder occasioned by cold; catarrhs. 
Cold'-blooded, a. without feeling. Cold- 
hearted, a. without feeling or ejection. 
Coldish, a. somewhat cold. Coldly, ad, 
in a cold manner. Coldness, 9. the qua- 
lity or state of beinff cold. 

Colcnicum, «. a medicmal plant (originally 
from Colchit) ; meadow saffron. 

Cole, 9. all sorts of cabbage. Colewort, «. 
a variety of cabbage. 

Coleop'terous, Coleopteral, a. having 
crustaceous sheaths for the wings, as 

Col'ic, 9. a painful spasm in the bowels. 

Collab'orator, «. an associate in labour. 

Collap'se, V. to fall together; to shrink 
up : 9. falling or shrinking together; an 
entire prostration of the bodily energies. 

Collar, 9. something worn about the neck : 
V. to seize by the collar or throat. Col- 
lared, a. having a collar. Collar-bone, «. 
the clarTicle. 

Colla'te, V. to lay together and cQm-QQX«\ 
to examine t\ia.t tio\Xxm\t\»^w«DMKB%\Nft 
place in an eoc\eBV8JEWif»l\wn»&n». -x-^.^^ 

CollatewSXy , ad. \av co\!k»5wsn;Xts8«»«aw 




Colla'tioii, JL a repast ; the act of placing 
in a benefice; oompariaon. 

CoUa'tive, a. able to collate or confer. 

Ck)Ua'tor, ». one who collates. 

Colleague (-leeg), 8. a partner in office. 

CollecTj V. to gather together ; to assemble ; 
to infer as a canaequence. Collect, t. a 
short comprebensive prayer. Collect'ed, 
p. a. gathered together; cool; self-pos- 
sessed. Collectedly, ad. in one view or 
body; coolly. Collectedness, «. self- 
possession. Collec'fcion, t. the act of 
collecting; that which is collected; a 
gathering together; an assemblage; a 
deduction. Gollective, a. gathered into 
one mass or bodv : «. a noun singular in 
form but plural in meaning. Collec- 
tively, ad. in a body; in a mass. Col- 
lector, s. a gatherer; a tax-gatherer. 

Collecforship, s. the office of a collector. 

College, s. a university; a seminary or 
school for learning ; a society for pro- 
motingthe arts and sciences. CoUo'gian, 
B. a member of a college. CoUegiate, a. 
belonging to a college ; instituted like a 

Collet, s. the part of a ring in which the 
stone is set (a small coUar). 

Colli'de, V. to dash, to strike together. 

Collier, s. a digger of coals; a coal ship. 
Colliery, «. the place where coals are dug. 

Colliflower. See Cauliflower. 

Colligate, v. to tie or bind together. Col- 
liga'tion, «. the act of binding together. 

Colliquate, v. to mdt or dissolve slowly. 
Comqua'tion, s. the act of melting ; a dis- 
solving or wasting. 

Collision (-lizh'un), «. act of striking toge- 
ther ; a clash. 

Collocate, v. to place; to set in order. 
Colloca'tion, s. the act of placing tog^ 
ther; arrangement. 

Collop, $. a small cut or slice of meat. 

Collo'quial, a, relating to conversation. 
CoFloquist, s. a roeaker in a dialogue. 
Colloquy, 8. a conference, a dialogue. 

CoUu'do, V. to conspire in a fraud ; to act 
in concert fraudulently. Collusion, s. 
the act of colluding ; a secret agreement 
for a fraudulent purpose. Collusive, a. 
fraudulent, deceitful. 

Colly, «. the smut of coal : «. to blacken, 
to grime. 

Col'ocynth, s. the bitter apple, a kind of 
gpiu-d, the pulp of which is used medi- 

Colon, I. this point (:); noting a pause 
less than a period ; we largest of tne in- 

Colonel (cui'nolX «. the commander of a 
reffiment. Colonelcy, «. the office of a 

Colo'nial, a. relating to a colony. Cd'on- 
ize, V, to |klant a colony in. Colonist, s. 
a settler m a colony. Coloniaa'tion, t. 
the act of forming oolonies. 

golonna'de^ «. a range of columns, 
ol'ony, ». a body oi people drawn from 
^0 mother country io inhabit some dis- 
tantplnoe; the countiy ao planted. 

Corophon, ». the conduaion of a book. 

Colos^sal, Colossean, a. gigwntio, hxute. 
Colosse^um, «. a spadous amphitbei^ 
at Rome; a buil(ung of huge pwpor- 
tions. Colos'sus, «. a giganUc stMue. 

Col'our, Color, s. the hue or aiqpeannce 
of bodies to the eye; tint* dve, pi^t; 
false show; nretenoe; complexion; in 
the vlurcU, a nag or standard : v. to give 
a colour to; to paint; to dye; to nuke 
plausible; to diaguise; to exaggerate; 
to blush. Colourable, a. specious, plaus- 
ible. Colourably, ad. specious]^, plaus- 
ibly. Colouring, «. the act or art of 
laying on colours in painting; colour; 
specious appearance. Colourlessiy a. with- 
out colour ; transparent. 

Col'portcr, [Colporteur, Fr.] «. a hawkor 

Colt, s. a young horse not yet broken in; 
an inoxperieucod person. 

Coif s-foot, s. a plant ; a flower. 

Colter, 8. the sharp iron of a plough, 

Colt'ish, a. like a colt; frisky. 

Col'umbary, «. a dove or pigeon houaa, 

Col'imibine, «. a plant (with fiowera like 
little doves); the heroine in a jianta- 

Col'umn, t. around pillar; a file of troops. 
Colum'nar, a. formed in odumna. 

Colu'res, s. pi. two imaginary drdos pa«s- 
ing through the poles, and the equi- 
noctial and solstitial pomts. 

Co'ma, [Qr.] s. lethargy ; morbid' deei^ 
ness. Comatous, Comatose, a. letharupa 

Co-ma'te, t. a companion, au asaodate. 

Comb, Combe (kome or koom^ s. a vaUnr 
surrounded with hills. Comb flcomej, 
«. an instrument for the hair ; the crest 
of a cock ; the waxen cavities in Ti^ilch 
bees lod^e their honey ; a diy measiue : 
V. to divide and adjust ihe hair; touiy 
smooth and straight. 

Comliat, «. a battle, a fight; a oonfliot: 
V. to fight against ; to contest ; to oppoee. 

Coml}atant, «. one who combats : a. oom- 
bating. Combative, a. di8i)oscdto oom- 
bat; pugnadous; quarrelsome. Gova* 
bativeness, «. propensity to quarroL 

Combi'ne. v. to unite, to join together. 

Combi'nable, a. that may be combined 
Combina'tion, t. the act of combining ; 
state of being combined; union; aiso> 
elation; conspiracy. 

Combustibility, s. the quality of being 
combustible. Combus'tible, a. that 
will take fire and bum : «. a comlnistible 
material Combustibleness, ». aptness 
to take fire. Combustion, «. ttie act of 
burning or taking fire; fire. Oom 
bustive, a. disposed to take fire. 

Come (cum), v. to move toward; to ad- 
vance nearer; to arrive; to hapi)en: 
the opposite of Qo, Comer, «. one who 

Come'dian. i. an actor of oomedies; a 
writer of comedies. Com'edy, «. a dra« 
matic representation of Uie lighter 





Comely (caxalr), a. heeoming in appear- 
ance; decent: pleasing; well-looking; 
handaome. Ocmielineat, i. the quality 
of being comely. 

Com'et, «. ft heavenly body "vith a lumi< 
nona tiam, moving round the sun in a 
very eocentrio orbit. Cometary, a. 
relating to a comet. 

Gomfit (Gum'-X t. a dry or preserved sweet- 

Cknnfart (oom'furtX v. to strengthen; to 
console or cheer under afiOiction: s. 
consolation; that which brings relief. 
Cknnfortable, a. giving or imparting 
comfort ; cheerfol ; commodious. Com- 
fortableness, M. a state of comfort. 
Ck>mfortably, od. with comfort or ease. 
Comforter, «. one that comforts. Com- 
f (urtless. a. without comfort ; forlorn. 

Gomfrey (cum'-), i. a medicinal plant. 

Com'ic, a. raiong mirth; relating to 
comedy. Comical, a. diverting, merry, 
queer. Comically, ad. in a comical 
manner. Comicuness^ i. the quality of 
being comical. 

Gom'ing, s. an arrival, a drawing near. 

Com'ing-in,s. entrance; revenue or income. 

Oom'ity, a courtesy; dvility. 

Gom'ma, «. a point marked thus (,). 

Command', v. to goyern, to order, to lead 
as a general: «. right of command; 
authon^ ; order given ; mandate. Com- 
mandant', «. a commanding officer. Com- 
mand'atory, a. having the force of a 
oommand. Commander, <. one who 
oomniands. Commanding, p. a. govern- 
ing; having an air of command or 
anthori^. Commandingly, ad. in a 
commanding manner. Commandment, 
a. a oommand; a precept of the deca- 
logue or moral law. 

Oommem'orate, v. to preserve the memory 
of I to c^hanate solemnly. Commemo- 
nrUon, «. an act of public celebration. 
Gommem'orative, Commemoratory, a. 
serving to commemorate. 

Gknnmen'ce, v. to begin; to enter upon. 
Ccnnmoncement, a a beginning; date; 
the time when students in a college 
reoeive thsor degree. 

Oommend', v. to recommend as worthy. 
Commendable, a. laudable, praise- 
vrortiiy. Commendableness, a, state of 
being commendable. Commendably, 
ad. laudably. 

CSommend'am, s. a vacant benefice held 
by some person till a pastor is provided. 

Commendation, t, praise; recommenda- 
tion. Commend'atory, a. containing 

Commen'sal, «. an eater at the same table. 

Oommen'surable, a. reducible to a common 
measure: equal; coextensive. Com- 
mensurabill^, Commen'surablenoss, «. 
capacity of having a common measure. 
Commensurate, a. of equal measure; 

anal; proportionaL Commensurately, 
L wtth eqtud measure. Commensura'- 
tioii, JL reduction to a common measure ; 

Com'ment, s. annotation; note; remark. 
Gom'ment,orCommenf, v. to write notes 
on ; to expound, to make remarks on. 
Com'mentary, s. an exposition, annota- 
tion. Commen'tativc, a. making or con- 
taining comments. 

Commenta'tor, Commcnt'er, «. an exposi- 
tor or annotator; one who comments. 

Com'merce, s. interchange of commodities ; 
trade; traffic; persoxial intercourse: v. 
to trade ; to traffic ; to hold intercourse 
with. Commer'cial (-shalX <(• relating to 
commerce. Commercially, od. in a com- 
mercial view. 

Commigra'tion, t. a general emigration. 

Comndna'tion, a a throat of punishment. 
Commin'atory, a. denimciatory ; threat- 

Commm'gle, v. to imite one with another. 

Comminu'tion, s. the act of grinding or 
reducing to small parts ; pmveiization. 

Commis'erate, v. to pity ; to compassionate. 
Commisera'tion, «. pity; sympathy. 
Gommis'erative, a, compassionate. 

Commisaa'riat, a the whole body of officers 
attending an army imder the commis- 
sary-general. Gom'missory-general, «. a 
ccmmisiioner or officer who has the charge 
of furnishing provisions^ forage, &c. for 
an army. 

Commis'sion, «. the act of committing; 
that which is committed; a trust; a 
warrant or document giving a commis* 
sion; a number of persons joined 
in a commission or office of trust; an 
allowance paid to factors or agents for 
their services : v. to authorize ; to em- 
power ; to appoint. Commissioned, p. a, 
having a commission. Commissioner, 
8. one empowered to act ; one included 
in a commission. 

Commit', v. to give in trust, to deliver to; 
to send to prison ; to do, to perpetrate ; 
to pledge; to compromise one's selfl 
Commitment, s. the act of committing. 
Committal, «. a committing to prison. 

Commit'tee, i. a certain number of persons 
selected to examine or manage any 

Commix', v. to mingle, to blend, to imite. 
Commixtion, s. a blending or mixture. 
Commixture, s, the act of mingling ; a 
mingled mass; a compound. 

Commo'de, s. (a commodiouM or convenient 
article), a night-chair. Commodious, a. 
convenient, suitable, useful Com- 
modiously, ad. conveniently. Com- 
modiousness, s. convenience, use. 

Commod'ity, ». a convenience ; an advan- 
tage; interest; anything bought and 
sold; merchandize. 

Com'modore, ». a captain commandiug a 
squadron of ships of war. 

Com'mon, a. belonging to many, general, 
usual, vulgar, mean : «. a tract ot 
groimd to which several people have a 
common or joint right: v. to diat tA- 
getii«(r,OTftt«kCQmmou\sX^<^ ^^atmssstv* 
able, a. \ie\dL \xi QonxoDiOia. OymxskSsiA^i^ 

i t. Tight ot too^itva^ oxl «k w$t£«ass(u 




Com'monalty, ». the common people. 

Com'mon-coun'dl, «. the council or a dty or 
corporate town, consistinfir of certain 
hihabitanta elected to assist the mayor 
and aldermen. 

Com'moner, s. one not noble ; a member 
of parliament ; a student of the second 
rank at the imiversities. 

Com'mon-hall, i. the building in which 
citizens meet to transact public business. 

Com'monly. ad. frequently, usually. 

Com'monness, «. the state of being com- 
mon ; usualness ; frequency. 

Com'mon-place, a. common ; trite ; hack- 
neyed. Common-place-book, «. a book 
in which things to be remembered are 
ranged under general heads. 

Com'mons, «. pL the common people ; the 
lower house of Parliament; common 
land ; food at a common table. 

Commonweal', s. the public good. 

Commonwealth', Com'mon wealth (-welth), 
8. the commonweal ; a republic ; the state. 

Commo'ti< >n, t. a tumult, a distiu*bance. 

Com'ntune, v. to converse together; to 
impart sentiments mutually. Com- 
mune, FFr.] *. a district; a parish. 
CommuMial, a. belonging to a commune. 

CommimicabU'ity, Commu'nicableness, t. 
the quality of being communicable. 
Communicable, a. that may be com- 
municated or imparted. 

Commu'nicant, s. a partaker of the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper. 

Commu'nicate, v. to impart, to reveal ; to 
receive the Lord's Supper. Communi- 
ca'tion, s. the act of communicating ; 
participation ; conference ; conversation ; 
interc< nurse; a common passage. Cora- 
mu'nicative, a. ready to impart; frank. 
Communicativeness, i. the quality of 
being communicative. Communicatorv, 
a. imparting knowledge; readiness to 

Commu'ning, ». the act of conversing or 
talking together. 

Commu'nion, «. celebration of the Lord's 
Supx)er; fellowship, union, intercourse. 

Com munism, i. community of property 
among all the citizens of the state. Com- 
munis «. an advocate of communism. 
Communis'tic, a. pertaining to com- 
munism. See Sodiuism. 

Commu'nity, s. the commonwealth, the 
body politic, a common possession. 

Commu table, a. that may be exchanged. 
Commuta'tion, «. the changing of one 
thing for another; change; alteration. 

Commu'te, v. to exchange; to substitute a 
less penalty or punishment for a greater. 
Commutual, a. mutual ; reciprooal. 

Com'pact, «. a contract; a mutual agree- 
ment. Covapadft a. firm, close, solid. 
Compactly, ad, closely put together. 
Compactness, $. state of being com))act. 

Compnn'ion, s. one who keeps company 

with another ; a comrade ; an associate ; 

a mate ; the cabin ladder or staircase in 

a ship. Companionable, a. sociable; 

agreeable. Compaaionship, t, fellow- 

ship; association. Com^paiiy,t. a num- 
ber of persons assemblea together ; fel- 
lowohip; a society; a body corporate; a 
small body of foot soldiers. 

Com'parable, a. that may be compared 
with ; of equal regard. Compai'ati ve^ a. 
estimated by comparison. Oompu«- 
tively, ad. by comparison. Compa're, 
V. to liken or examine one thin^ oy an- 
other, to estimate by comparison: t. 
comparison, similitude. Compar'ison, 
i. the act of comparing, a comi>arative 
estimate ; a simile in writing. 

Compart'ment,s. a separate part, a division. 

Com pass, v. to encircle, to surround; to 
contrive ; to obtain : «. a circle, a space, 
limits ; extent or power of the voice in 
sing^g; the magnetic apparatus foi 
steering ships by; an instrument for de- 
scribing circles, generally used in thus 
plural (Compasses). 

Compas'sion, «. pity, commiseration. Com- 
passionate, a. merciful, tender: v. to 
pity, to commiserate. 

Compatibil'ity, «. consistency, suitable- 
ness. Compatible, a. consistent with, 
suitable to. Compatibleness, «. oonsirt< 
ency, suitableness. Compatibly, ad. 
consistently; suitably. 

Compa'triot, s. one of the same country. 

Compeer', «. an equal : v. to be equal witti. 

Compel', V. to force, to constrain. Com* 
peUable, a. that may be forced. 

Com'pend, Compen'dium, 8. an ^tome^ « 
summaiy, an abridgement. Compea< 
dious, a. brief, concise. Compendioiu< 
ness, i. shortness, brevity. 

Compen'sable, a. that may be compensat- 
ed. Compen'sate or Com'pensate, v. U 
make amends for, to recompense. See 
No 7], p. 25. Compensa'tion, t. a re* 
compense, amends ; an equivalent. Com< 
pen'sative, a. making recompense. Com< 
pensatory, a. serving to recompense. 

Compe'te, v. to contend in rivalry with. 
Com'petence, Competency, «. suffidenoy. 
Competent, a. fit, qualified, adequate. 
Competently, ad. adequately, suitably. 
Competition (-tish'un), «. rivalry, a C(m- 
test. Compet'itor, s. a rival, an oppo> 
nent. Comx>etitive, a. relating to, or 
implying competition ; emulous. Com- 
petitory, a. pursuing the same object. 

Compila'tion, t. a collection, an assem- 
blage. Compilator, f <. a compiler, a col- 
lector. Compile, v. to collect from 
various authors. Compilemen^ t. the 
act of compiling. Compiler, «. one who 

Compla'cency, Complacence, s. satisfiu)- 
tion of mind; cheerfulness; mUdness. 
Complacent, a. showing pleasure or 
satisfaction; cheerful. Complacently, 
ad. with satisfaction ; cheerfuUy. 

Complain', v. to express grief, to lament ; 
to murmur; to find fault; to inform 
against Complainant, t. a plaintiff in 
a lawsuit. Complainer, «. one who com- 
plains. CompUining, p. a. »n«^Vfag 
oomplaiut: t. axpTQue^ou oil wsro-v ok 




iz^iiry. Complaints, «. an accusation 
against ; the thin? complained of; a la- 
mentation; a malady or disease. 

Cknn'plaiBanoe (-pla-mnoe), «. courteous- 
ness: civility. Complaisant, a. civil, 
cbUg^ng. polite. Complaisantly, ad, ex- 
Tilly, politely. 

Com'plement^ 9. the ftill nmnber. Com- 
plexnen'tal, a, filling np^ completing. 

Oomple'te.a.ftill; fizushed; perfect: v. to 
fill; to finish ; to perfect. Completely, 
ad. folly; pmeotly. Completeness, «. 
state of bemg completed. Completion 
(-flhimX t. the act of completing ; accom- 
plishment; end; perfect state. 

Cknn'plex, a. compounded of many parts ; 
not simple; oompUcated. Compfex'ed- 
ness* t. state of being complex. Com- 
ple^don, «. the hue or colour of the face ; 
temi)erainentor habitude; complication. 
Ck>mplezi(nial, a. pertaining to the com- 
ple^on or temi)erament. Complexion- 
ed, a. constituted; temjwred. Com- 
plexity, «. state of bdng complex. Com'- 
plexnees, «. complexity. 

Complf able, a. yielding ; accommodating. 
CcMnpliance, ». act of complying; sub- 
xnismon ; acquiescence. ComplisLnt» a. 
bending; yielding; civiL 

Ooxn'plicate, a. comx>ounded of many parts : 
«. to entangle, to involve; to perplex. 
CSomTdica'tion, ». an interweaving or en- 
tangling of different things together. 

Oomidioity (-pliss'-), «. the state or condi- 
tion of being an accomplice. 

Oom'pliment, «. an act or expression of 
oivuity: V. to pass compliments ; to flat- 
ter. CompUmen'tal, a. implying a com- 
pliment. Complimentally, od. bywayof 
compliment. Complimeatary,a. express- 
ing respect or civility; complimental. 

Ocwplot, t. a plotting together, a conspi- 
raey. Complof , v. to plot, to conspira. 

OompLy', v. to bend or yield to ; to accede 
to ; to acquiesce in ; to agree with. 

Connpo'nent, a. forming a compound : i, an 
elementaxy part of a compoimd body. 

Oomporf, V. to bear or carry one's self; to 
biwave; to agree with; to suit. Com- 
portable, a. consistent ; suitable. Com- 
portment, 9. behaviour, demeanour. 

Com'poB men'tis, [L.] of sound mind. 

Oompc/se, v. to put together, to form a com- 
poond ; to write as an author ; to calm, 
to settLB ; to set up in type. Comx>osed, 
jk a, put together; calm, sedate. Com- 
poeedly, ad. calmly; sedately. Com- 
nosednees, 9 sedateness; tranquillity. 
Composer, 9. one who composes. 

Composite, a. made up of parts ; in archi- 
tednure, applied to the last of the five 
orders, bemuse its capital is compoKdot 
the Ionic and Corinthian. Composition 
f-eish'unX «. the act of composing; the 
thing composed ; a mixture ; a written 
wozk; adjustment; agreement; dis- 
charging a debt by paying part. Com- 
pofl^isor, A one who seta up or arranges 
me leUen far printing. 
Cmaa'poBt^ a a mixture; manure. 

Compo'sure, t. sedateness, calmness. 

Compota'tion, 9. drinking together. Com« 
potator, 9. a fellow toper. 

Compoimd^ v. to mingle, to combine; to 
adjust; to come to t^nns witJi a debtor. 
Com'pound, t..a mass of ingredients ; a 
word formed from two or more words : 
0. not simple, more than one. 

Comprehend', v. to comprise, to include^ 
to contain ; to conceive ; to imderstand. 
Comprehen'sible, a. that may be com- 
prehended. Comprehensibly, ad. with 
comprehension. Comprehension, 9. act 
of comprehending; power of compre- 
hending; capacity; imderstanding ; 
knowledge; a summary or compen- 
dium. Comprehensive, a. comprising 
much. Comprehensively, od. in a com- 
prehensive manner. Comprehensive- 
ness, 9. quality of comxnrenending or 
comprising much. 

Compress^ v. to press together; to bring 
into a narrow compass; to condense. 
Compressibility, Compresslbleness, 9. 
the quality of being compressible. Com- 
pressible, a. capable of being com- 
pressed hito a narrow compass. Com- 
pression, 9. act of prising together; 
state of bdng compressed. Compres* 
sive, a. having power to compress. Com- 
pressure, t. a pressure or forcing to- 

Comprise (-prize), v. to comprehend; to 
contain ; to indude within itself Com- 
pri'sal, 9. the act of comprising. Com- 
prising, p. a. comprehen<ung, including. 

Com'promise (-mize), v. to adjust and 
settle by mutual concessions; to com- 
mit one's self by making a concession : 
9. an adjustment or settlement by mu- 
tual concessions. Compromiser, 9. one 
who compromises. 

Comptroller (controler). See Controller, 
under Accoimt, p. 40. 

Compul'sative, Compulsatoiy. Bee Com- 
pulsory. Compulsion, 9. act of com- 
pelling ; state of being compelled ; force ; 
constraint. Compiilsive, a. forcing; 
constrainhig. Compulsively, ad. by 
force. Compulsiveness, 9. force, com- 
pulsion. Compulsory, a. forcing, com- 
pelling, constraining. Compulsorily, ad. 
by compulsion. 

Compimcliion, 9. remorse ; repentance. 

Compurga'tion, 9. a vouching on oath for 
the credibilily or innoceuce of another. 
Compurgator, 9. one who does so. 

Compu'table, a. that may be computed. 
Computa'tion, 9. act of computing; a 
computation or reckoning. Compu'te, 
V. to calculate, to reckon ; to estimate. 
Computer, 9. a calculator. 

Com'rade, 9. a companion, an associate. 

Con, V. to know ; to study ; to learn. Coi^ 
an abbreviation of Contra ; as " Fro and 
Con** (for and againti). 

CJoncatona'UoTx, ». «bB«nffi& cll'to2BA^«s6^«^\ 

I oppoB©dtocoui»«: ».«.\tfJ^«^%**^**^ 

F 2 




or vault. Concavliy, t, hollowness; 
the iatonal surface of a hollow spheri- 
cal body. CoQcaVo-con'yez, a. concavo 
oa one side and convex on the other. 

Opnceal't «. to hide ; to keep secret. Con- 
oealable, a. that may bet concealed. Con- 
cealer, $. one who conceals. Conceal- 
menl^ $. the act of hiding; a hiding- 
place; secrecy; disguise. 

Conce'de, v. to give up ; to admit as true, 
just^ or proper. 

Conceit', 9. a conception ; fancy ; imagina- 
tion; a fantastic notion; ofdnionatlye 
Sride ; vanity : v. to ima^nine ; to fancy, 
onceited, a. full of conceit ; vain. Con- 
ceitedly, (ul. in a conceited manner. 
Conceitedness. «. conceit ; vanity. 

Oonceive (-ceevO, v. to take in with; to 
form a conception ; to think ; to compre- 
hend; to become pregnant. Conceiv- 
able, a. that may be conceived. Con- 
ceivably, od. in a conceivable manner. 

Concen'trate, v. to bring to a common 
centre or point; to bring to a closer 
union; to condense so as to make 
stronger. Concentra'tion, «. the act of 
concentrating; coUectedness of ideas. 
Concen'trativeness, «. the power or fa- 
culty of concentrating the ideas on any 
subject or study. Concentre, v. to tend 
to a common centre. Concentric, Con- 

' centrical, a. having one common centare. 

Oonc^'tion, t. the act of conceiving ; that 
which is conceived; a notion or idea. 
Conceptive, a. capaUe of conceiving. 

Ooncenr, v. to belong to; to interest ; to 
affect; to make anxious: «. an affair; 
business; interest; anxiety. Concern- 
edly, a4. with uTection or interest. 
OcQceming, prep, relating to; regard- 
ing. Goncexnmentk «. a concern ; busi- 
ness; care. 

Ck>n'o6rt, «. agreement in any plan or 
undertaking ; accordance ; harmony ; a 
musical entertainment. Concerf, v. 
to plan with ; to settle privately. Con> 
oeited, p. a. planned; agreed upon. 

Concertina (-teen'aX t. a musical instru- 

Cbnces'sion, «. act of yielding ; that which 
is yielded ; a grant. Concessive, a. im- 
plying conceasdon. Concessively, ad. 
by way of concession. Concessionary, 
o. given by concession. 

Oonch (kdnkX «. a marine shell. Con- 
choid'al, a. shaped like a conch. Con- 
ohorogist, i. one versed in the natmral 
history of shells. Conchology, $. the 
science or doetarine of shells. 

Concil'iate, v. to reconcile; to gain over 
by kindness. Concilia'tion, §. the act 
of conciliating. Condl'iator, $. one who 
conciliates. Condliatoiy, a. tending to 

Ooncin'noua. a. neat, becoming. 

Conci'se, a. brief, short, contracted. Con- 
cisely, ad. brieflv; shortly. Concise- 
neas, «. brevify, uiortness. 

CMi^alare^ t. an oasemMy of cardinals: «r. 
s clo00 or private assembly. 

Conclu'de, v. to shut up; to bring to an 
end ; to determine. Concluding, jk a. 
closing; ending; final Oonduiriai, a. 
the dose ; the end ; an inferenoe. Oa^ 
elusive, a. closing debate: dedaive; 
consequential. Conduaively, mi. de- 
cisively. Condusiv^iess, «. th« quality 
of being conclusive. 

Concoct', «. to seethe or cook; to digest 
in the stomach ; to maMire or pinara, 
Conooc'tion, m. the act of OOUdoaong. 
Concoctive, a. tending to concoct. 

Ckmcom'itance, Concomitancv, $. a being 
together with another thing. Ccmeomi- 
tant, a. accompanjring, joinMl to : t. an 
accompanying drcumstanoe. Ckmoomi* 
tantly, ad. concurrently. 

Oon'cord, t. agreement, union, hannqny. 
Concord', v. to agree with. Gkineoi<- 
dance, «. agreement; a dioUanaiy cr 
index to the Scriptures. Conoardanoy. 
See Concordance. Concordant, a. a^va- 
ing; harmonious. ConcordantJy, 04. in 
accord with. 

Ooncor'dat, s. a compact; a convantlim or 
treaty between the I^>pe and » 
reign prince. 

Con'course, «. a great numbw of 
assembled together; a meeting. 

Ooncres'coice, «. a growing togeOier ; in- 
crease by the union of separate partiotaa. 
Con'crete, a. formed by concretion; in 
logic, existing in its suljeot, luvfe d^ 
ttract: ». a mass formed by conontiOB. 
Concre'te, v. to unite into a mass. Con- 
cretely, ad, in a concrete manner. Oon- 
creteness, «. state of being conotete. 
Concretion, «. the act of concreting; a 
mass concreted. Goncretiv^ a. oanaing 
to concrete. 

Oonculiinage, 9. the act or state of living 
as man and wife without marriage. 
Con'cubine, «. a woman who lives wiu) a 
man as his wife without being mitrrled 
to him. 

Ckmcu'piscence, «. irregular desire; luat 

Ooncur , o. to meet in one point ; to agree 
with; to contribute witn joint power. 
Concurrence, Conciurency, «. union; 
agreement; joint action. Concurrent, a. 
coming together ; acting in conjimctioii. 
Concurrently, ad. unitedly ; in concert 

Ckmcus'sion, «. act of shakixig ; state of be- 
ing ebaken; a shock, uoncuasivi^ a. 
causing concussion. 

Oondemn (-dem'), v. to pass sentence on ; 
to pronounce to be wrong; to blame; to 
disapprove of. Condemnable, a. oulp- 
able, olamable. Condemna'tion, s. act 
of condemning ; state of being condmnn* 
ed; a sentence of punishment. Con- 
dem'natoiy, a, passing condemnation. 
Condenmer, «. one that condenma. 

Oonden'sable, a. that may be comdensod. 
Condensate, v. to make thick or denso. 
Condensa'tion, «. the act of condensing; 
the state of being condensed. Oondan'ae^ 
V. to make thick or denaa. 
8. \ie, or \3aafc^^Aa\i.tOTnA»oiwa\ %' 
toT condttu&ng cix ok ftouta. 




Oondefloend', «. to dasoend from the pri- 
▼ilMpas of auperior rank : to submit to 
be veated as an equal by an inferior; 
to stoop. Oondesoendiog, p. a. yielding 
to inferiors; obUoing. Condescend- 
fnf^, od. in a oondescending manner. 
CSonaescen'sion, t. act of oondescending ; 
eoiutesy to inflniors. 

Gkmdi'gn (-dine), ck deserved, merited. 

Oon'dimenl «. a seasoning, sauce, pickle. 

Omditian (-dlBh'unX «. state; quality; 
temper : rank or station ; stipulation ; 
terms of a contract: «. to make terms ; 
to stipulate. Conditional, a. containing 
or depending on conditions. Condition- 
ally, ad. on conditions Canditional'ity, 
i, uie quality of being conditionaL Con- 
ditioned (-dish'-X p. a. stipulated ; hav- 
ing Gertain qualities, good or bad. 

Condolatory, a. ezpresfling condolence. 
Condole, «. to lament or mourn with. 
Oondolemen^ «. conddonce, by s^- 
patby. C<mdolence, t. act of condolmg; 
grief for the sorrow of another ; sym- 

Oondona'tion, t. the act of pardoning; 
pardon. Condo'ne, v. to pardon. 

Oou'dor, «. a lai^ kind of vulture. 

Ckmdu'oe, «. to lead or tend to ; to contri- 
bute to. Conducible, a. tending to 
same end; promoting. Conducive, a, 
tending to conduce ; promoting. 

Chm'ductk I. behaviour; demeanour; guid- 
ance; management; economy. Con- 
duef, V. tol^; to guide; to manage; 
to behave. Conductor, «. one who or 
that which conducts (as in electricity); 
« leader; a guard in a railway train, dec. 
Oonduct'ing, p. a. leading; managing. 

Ckmduit (cun cut), «. a water-pipe, a canal. 

(Tone, i. a solid figure tapering regularly 
to a point from a circular base; the 
conical fruit of the pine, fir, dec. 

Ckm&b'ulate, v. to chat with. Confabula'- 
tion, t. fiEuniliar talk or chat. 

Con'fect, t. a confection or sweetmeat. 
Confeof, V. to preserve with sugar. 
(^nfec'tion, $. any thing prepared with 
■agar; a sweetmeat. Confectionery, «. 
sweetmeats in general; a place for the 
■ale of sweetmeats. Confectioner, «. a 
maker or seller of sweetmeats. 

Oonfed'emcy, «. a leaguo ; federal compact. 
Confederate, v. to join in a league: a. 
united in a league : m. an ally or accom- 
plice. Confedera'tion, t. act of con- 
KdertAing; alliance by league; parties 
in alliance. 

Oonfor'. V. to discourse with; to bestow. 
Con'ference, «. a formal discourse. Cpn- 
fer'ring, «. act of conferring; bestowing. 

Confess', V. to acknowledge or oiako known; 
to acknowledge as a fault or a sin. Con- 
fessedly, ad. avowedly. Confession, «. 
aet ef oonfiassing ; an avowsd or acknow- 
ledgement. Cronfessional, t. the box in 
whudi the confessor sits to hear confes- 
akaui CoofMBor, s. one who hears oon- 
teutoas; one who professes his fiaith in 
tf» Clbrtstha nligUn, 


Confidant', $. mat. Confidante, «. /em. one 
trusted with a secret; a bosom friend. 

Confi'de, v. to trust in, to rely upon. Con'- 
fidence, t. firm belief; reliance; trust; 
assurance ; boldness. Confident, a. hav- 
ing full belief ; trusting; positive; bold. 
Confiden'tial, a. trusty, fidthful ; private. 
Confidential^, ad. in confidence. Con'- 
fidently, a. without doubt or fear. 

Configura'tion, $. the form of various parts 
adapted to each other; relative podtion 
or aspect of the planets. 

Confi'nable, a. that may be limited. Con'- 
fine, t. a limit, border, or boimdary. Con- 
fi'ne, V. to bound or limit; to restrain; 
to imprison. Confinement, t. act of con- 
fining; state of being confined; restraint; 
imprisonment; childbirth. Confined, 
t). a. limited, restricted; imprisoned; 
lain in. 

Confirm', v. to make firm or certain; to 
strengthen or establish; to ratify; to 
admit to full privileges in the Episcopal 
Church by imposition of a bishop's 
hands. Confirmable, a. that may be 
confirmed. Confirma'tion, $. act of con- 
firming; that which confirms or con- 
vinces ; a proof ; a ratification. See un- 
der Sacrament. Confirm'ative, a. having 
power to confirm. Confirmatory, a. a£ 
fording confirmation. 

Confis'cate, v. to forfeit to the public trea- 
sury: a. forfeited to the state. See 
Coimscate, p. 25, No. 71. Confisca'tion, 
«. the act of adjudging the goods of cri- 
minals to public use. Cionfis'catory, a. 
conisigning to forfeiture. 

Conflagra'tion, t. a general fire or burning. 

Confla'tion, s. the act of blowing many in- 
strumento together ; or of many fires i9 
the casting of metals. 

CSonflicf, V. to strike or dash against ; to 
contend witlu Con'fiiot, t. a dashing 
against ; a contest ; a combat ; a struggle. 
Confliofing, p. a. opposing; contradic- 
tory. Confiictive, a. opposing; conflict- 

Con'fluonco, s. a flowing together; a junc- 
tion of two or more streams. Confluent, 
a. flowing together ; uniting : s. a smaller 
stream or river which flows into a 
larger one. Conflux, g. a junction of 
currents; a crowd. 

Conform', v. to reduce to the same form ; 
to make similar ; to comply with. Con- 
formable, a. agreeable ; suitable. Con- 
formably, ad. agreeably ; suitably. Con- 
forma'tion, i. act of conforming ; form ; 
structure; disposition of parts. Con- 
form'ist, «. one who complies with the 
established forms of the church. Con- 
formity, i. resemblance ; consistency. 

Conf oimd', v. to mingle so that the thmgs 
arc no longer distinguishable; to con- 
fuse; to perplex; to disconcert; to over* 
throw; to destroy. Confo\mdcd« 'p.a« 
miugVed; coioSxihaM.*, «!QM^<d^\ v^ *^^ 

fih&mQ^ B^iBxnA&oii. ___.,^ ^ 

Conlra.tet'TAty, ». •^'w^a^fitfjoa^'^w^to^^j^ 




Confu'se, v. to mingle together; to con- 
fuund; to perplex; to disconcert; to 
abash. Confusedly, ad. with confusion. 
Confusedness, s. state of being confused. 
Confusion, «. a proD[iiscuous mingling 
together ; state ox being confused ; dis- 
oider; overthrow. 

Confu'table, a. that may be oonflited. Con- 
futa'tion, «. the act of confuting. Con- 
f u'te, V. to convict of error, to disprove. 
Confuter. «. one who confutes another. 

Cong^, [con'jee, Fr.] «. a bow or act of re- 
verence; leave; fareweU. 

Congeal', v. to freeze or change from a fluid 
to a solid state by cold ; to stiffen or fix 
as by cold. Congealable, a. that may be 
congealed. Congealment, t. a mass 
formed by congealing. Congeala'tion, 
t. the act or state of congealing. 

Conge'ner, «. one of the same stock or ori- 
gin : a. being of the same kind or nature. 

Conge'nial, a. kindred; of the same na- 
ture, feeling, or tastes. Congeniality, 
Conge'nialness, «. state of being conge- 

Conger (cong'ger), s. a kind of sea-eel. 

Conge'ries, s. a collection of fragments or 
small bodies into one mass. 

Congesf, V. to amass or heap up. Con- 
ges'tion, s. an unnatural accumulation of 
blood or humours. 

Conglob'ulate, v. to gather together into a 
little round mass or globule. 

xironglom'erate, v. to gather into a ball, as 
of thread : a. gathered into a round or 
compacted mass. Conglomera'tion, $. a 
collection, a mixture. 

Conglu'tinate, v. to glue together; to ce- 
ment; to unite. 

Congo (congr'go), s. a fine sort of black tea. 

Congrat'ulate, v. to wish joy to, to compli- 
ment on any happy event. Congratma'- 
tion, t. a wishing of joy. Congratula- 
tory, a. expressing joy. 

Con'gregate, v. to assemble ; to meet toge- 
ther. Congrega'tion, s. an assembly, a 
coUcKstion. Congregational, a. pertain- 
ing to a congregation ; also to the sect of 

Congrega'tionalist, $. one who belongs 
to the Independent or Congr^^atioiud 

Con'gress, «. a meeting, an assembly ; the 
legislature of the United States. Con- 
gres'sional, a. pertaining to the Congress. 
Congressive, a. meeting; encountering. 

Con'gruence, Congru'eucy, «. agreement, 
fitness, consistency. Con'gruent, a. 
agreeing, suitable. Congru'ity, ». fit- 
ness; consistency. Con'gruous, a. fit, 
suitable, constant. Congruously, ad. 
suitably; consistently. 

Con'ic, Coxiical, a. like a cone. Conically, 
ad. in form of a cone. 

Conies, ». the science of conic sections. 

Coniferous, a. bearing cones, as the fir. 

Conjec'tural, a. depending on conjecture. 

Conjecturally, ad. by conjectiu*e. Con- 

jectiure, *. b Buppoaition, a surmise : v. 

kffarmcot^eeturo»,toguM8; to surmise. 

Conjoin', v. to u nite or join together. Con* 
joint', a. united ; associated. Conjointly, 
ad. in union, lointly. 

Con'jugal, a. belonging to mazriage. C(m« 
ju^lly, ad. matrimonially. 

Con'jugate, v. to join, to unite, to vary a 
verb according to its tenses, &c. Con- 
juga'tion, «. the form of inflecting verbs; 
union, assemblage. 

Conjunct', a. connected, united, conjoined. 
Conjunc'tion, s. aunion ; an astronomical 
term; a connecting word. Conjunctive, 
a. uniting, connecting. Conjunctively, 
ad. jointly; in conjunction. 

Conjimc'ture, «. a critical juncture or com- 
bination of events ; a crisis. 

Con ju're, v. to bind by an oath ; to sum- 
mon in a saci-ed name; to enjoin so- 
lemnly; to conspire. Conjure (Wun'jur), 
V. to practise magic. Conjurer, «. a 
magician, a juggler. Conjura'ti<m, i. 
the act of conjuring ; magic arts. 

Connect', v. to join together; to combine. 
Connec'tion, Connexion. «. act of con- 
necting; state of being connected; junc- 
ture; union; intercourse; relation; a 
relation. See Connexion, p. 42. Con- 
nec'tlve, a. having the power of conne<^ 
ing: «. a word that connects. Connect- 
ively, ad. in conjimction. 

Conni've, v. to wink at a fkult Co«mi- 
vance, «. the act of winking at a fault; 
voluntary blindness to a fault. Cou^ 
niver, s. one that connives. 

ConnoisseiurCcon-a-sehr), s. a skilful jndge. 

Connu'bial, a. relating to marriage. 

Co'noid, s. a figure resembling a cone. 

Conquer (konk'er), v. to vanquish, to sub- 
due; to overcome; to surmoimt. Coo, 
querable, a. that may be conquered. 
Conqueror, s. one who conquers, a victor. 
Conquest (konk'west), «. a victory; tiiafc 
yrhich is gained by conquering. 

Consanguineous (-g^win'dus), a. related b7 
blood. Consanguinity, «. relationship 
by blood. 

Conscience (con'shense), s. the faculty of 
judging of our own conduct with refer- 
ence to some standard of right and 
wrong; the moral sense; justice, equity. 
Conscientious (con-shd-en'shus), a.actmg 
in accordance with the dictates of con- 
science; scrupulous; just. Conscien- 
tiously, ad. in A conscientious manner. 
Conscientiousness, s. scrupulous regard 
to the dictates of conscience. 

Conscionable, a. reasonable; just. Con- 
scionably, ad. reasonably; justly. Con- 
scious, a. inwardly persuaded ; privy to 
or apprised of. Consciously, ad. with 
inward persuasion. Consciousness, », 
perception, internal sense of the guilt 
or innocence of oiu* actions. 

Con'script, a. written down or enrolled: i. 
one drawn by lot, and enrolled to serve 
in the French army. The Contcripi 
Fathert were the enrolled senatoora of 
ancient Rome. Cona(»i\^'ttoa>«, «a«OL- 
TolUng or Tegis^et\n%. 

Con'secrate* v. to maaiL^ «MflN&,\o QwnftA 




to Bacred uses; to dedicate solemnly: 
ck ooDsecrated, made sacred. Gonse- 
era'tioQ, $. the act or ceremony of con- 

Consec'utiYe, a. following in a tn\in; im- 
inteiruptod: successive; consequential. 
ConsecutiTely, ocL in a consecutive 
manner. Oonsecutiyeness, c state or 
quality of being consecutiTe. 

Oonsenr, v. to think with another; to 
agree with; to yield when one might 
refuse; to accede : «. a yielding to what 
is proi)08ed; agreement of mind; ac- 

auiescence. Consenta'neous, a. agreo- 
ble to; consistent with. Consentane'- 
i^, «. reciprocal agreement. Conson'- 
tient (-shentX a. agreeing in opinion. 

Oon'sequence, $. that which foUows; an 
effect; an inference; importance; in- 
fluence. Consequent, a. following as an 
effect or inference : «. an effect or infer- 
ence. Consequen'tial, a. following as 
theeffeot; important; conceited; pom- 
pous. Consequentially, od. by con- 
sequence; with assumed importance. 
Oon'itequently, cuJU in consequence of 
something; tiierefore. 

Conserva'tion, «. the act of preserving; 
p rese r vation from loss or injury. Con- 
aer'Tative, a. having power to preserve : 
a. one who wishes to preserve the con- 
rtitution in the present state. Conser- 
▼a'tor, $. a preserver; a keeper. Con- 
MTv'atory, s. a place fur preserving 
things; a greenhouse for exotic plants: 
€U havhig the power or quality of pre- 
serving. Conserve (-scrv'), v. to pre- 
serve or candy fruit. Con'serve, «. a 
sweetmeat, preserved fruit 

Oonsid'er, v. to think uxK>n with care: to 
ponder ; to deliberate ; to have regard to ; 
to requite. Considerable, a. worthy of 
being considered ; of some importance ; 
more than a little. Considerably, ad. 
In a considerable degree. Considerate, 
a. given to consideration; thoughtful; 
prudent; moderate. Considerately, ad. 
m a considerate manner. Considera'- 
tion, $. the act of considering; serious 
thought; prudence; imi)ortance; re- 
gard; recompense; that which forms 
the reason or basis of a contract. 

OGmsi'gn (-sine), v. to transfer or make 
over to another formallv. Consi^ee', t. 
one to whom goods for sole are con- 
sis^eiL Consi'gnment (-sine-), s. the act 
of consigning ; goods consigned. Con- 
signer. Consignor', «. one who makes a 

Consist', V. to stand together; to subsist; 
to be made up of ; to agree. Consls'tence, 
Consistency, «. doiproe of density; sub- 
stance; agreement with; uniformity. 
CousistenC a. standing or a'^'ecing to- 
gether; firm; uniform. Consist'cntly, 
ad. in a consistent manner. 

OoDiosto'rial, a. relating to a consistoiy. 
Oouaist'oiT; t. an ecclesiastical couit. 

Coam/laMe, a. th&t which admits comfort 
OotuolmVca, a allerUtion ofmiaory. 

Consdl'atory, a. giving consolation. Con* 
sole, V. to comfort, to solace. Consoler, 
«. one who gives comfort 

Con'sole, «. a bracket to support some- 
thing; an ornament on the key of an 

Consol'idate, v. to make solid or firm ; to 
unite into one. Consolida'tion, s. the 
act of consolidating; the state of being 

Consoridated-Fund, «. a tand formed 
from certaiu portions of the joint re- 
venues of Great Britain and Ireland, 
appropriated to the payment of the Civil 
Mst, and other specified purposes. 

Consols', s. pL (consolidated /unds)f three 
per cent, annuities secured by the 

Con'sonance, Consonance, t. agreement of 
sound; union; harmony. Consonant, 
a. sounding or agreeing with; consistent : 
g. a letter which cannot be sounded by 
itself. ConsonanUy, ad. consistently, 

Con'sort, «. a vrife or husband, e8x>ecially 
of a king or queen ; a companion. Con- 
sort', V. to associate with, to join. 

Conspicu'ity, s. clearness, brightness. Con- 
spic'uous, a. obvious to the sight ; distin- 
guished, eminent. Ccxispicuously, ad. so 
as to be clearly seen ; eminently. Con- 
spicuousness, «. clearness; eminence. 

Conspir'acy, s. a plot, a lawless combinar 
tion. Conspira'tion, s. the act of con. 
spiring; a conspiracy. Conspir'ator, 
Conspi'rer, s. a plotter. Conspire, v. to 
concert a crime ; to plot ; to concur to 
one end ; to tend. 

Con'stable, s. a peace-officer, a policeman. 
Constab'ulary, a. relating to the police. 

Con'stancy, «. quality of being constant; 
firmness of mind; stability; continu- 
ance. Constant, a. firm; fixed; un- 
changeable ; faithful in affection. Con- 
stantly, ad. with constancy ; invariably. 

Constella'tion, g. a cluster of fixed stars. 

Constema'tion, g. terror ; astonishment. 

Con'stipate, v. to thicken ; to make costive. 
Constipa'tion, g. condensation ; costive- 

Constit'uency, g. the entire body of consti- 
tuents or electors. Constituent, a. con- 
stituting or forming ; elemental ; essen- 
tial : g. the person or thing that consti- 
tutes ; an elector. Con'stitute, v. to set 
or fix ; to establish ; to appoint ; to 
depute; to empower. Constitu'tion, g. 
tiio act of constituting ; the thing con- 
stituted, as the cor|)oreal frame; tem- 
perament of the body or mind ; a system 
of fundamental principles and laws for 
the government of a nation, state, com- 
munity or society; a particular ordi- 
nance. Constitutional, a. according to 
the constitution ; inherent in the consti- 
tution. ConstitutionalL<$t <• a supporter 
of the constitutiou. CQ\v&^\>\\i<ciQ&!iX:s^ 
ad. agrccio.\)\7 to XJtvft cnxt&^toaXikKfcu ^irao* 
Btltvitive, a. con8«L\»«aV,\ >&«fc tMB«\. 
tutos or «stea\>\^a^i«a. 




Constrain', v. to compel, to force, to press. 
Constrainedly, ad. by constraint. Gon- 
stittint', i. compulsion, confinement. 

Constrict', v. to bind, to contract. Con- 
stric'tion, s. contraction, compression. 
Constrictor, s. he or that which com- 
presses. See Boa, 

0<nistrin'ge, v. to bind ; to compress. Con- 
stringent, a. binding; contracting. 

Construct', v. to form or put together the 
parts of a thing; to build; to compose. 
Construo'ter, t. one who constructs. 
Construction, $. the act of construotiDg ; 
that which is constructed ; a structure ; 
the arrangement of words in a sentence ; 
interpretation or meaning. Construc- 
tional, a. relating to the interpretation. 
Constructive, a. created or formed by 
construction; not exjnressed, but in- 
ferred. Constructively, ad. by way of 
construction. Constructiveness, «. the 
faculty of constructing. 

Oon'strue, v. to translate ; to explain. 

Consubstan'tial, a. of the same substance 
or essence. ConsubstantiaVity, 8. exist- 
ence of more than one body in the same 
substance. Consubstantia'tion, «. the 
union of the body and blood of our Savi- 
our in the eucharist, with the substance 
of bread and wine; according to the 
doctrine of Luther. 

Consuetude (con'swe-X t. custom, usafi^e. 
Consuetu'dinal, a. customary. 

Con'sul, i. one of the chief magistrates of 
ancient Rome; an officer appointed to 
protect the commerce of his nation in 
foreign ports. Consular, a. belonging to 
a consul Consulate, Consulship, t. of- 
fice of consuL 

Consult', V. to ask advice of ; to take coun- 
sel together; to deliberate in common. 
Consulta'tion, 9. the act of consulting. 
Consult'ative, a. having power to ccm- 
stdt: relating to consultation. 

Consn'mable, a. that may be consumod. 
Consume, v. to waste, to spend ; to de- 
stroy ; to waste away ; to bo exhausted. 
Consumer, t. one who consumes. 

Consum'mate, v. to complete ; to pwfect : 
a. complete, finished, perfect. Consum- 
mately, ad. completely. Consumma'- 
tion, s. the act of consummating; com- 
pletion ; perfection ; end of life. 

Consumption (-sum'shim), t. the act of 
consuming ; the state of being consumed ; 
a decline or wasting disease; phthisis. 
Consump'ti ve, a. wasting : diseased with 
consumption. Consumptively, ad. tend- 
ing to consumption. Consimiptivaiess, 
i. tendency to consumption. 

Con'tact, «. touch ; close union. 

Conta'gion (-Jim), s. the commimicatlon of 
disease by contact or near approach; 
infection ; pestilence. Contagious (-j us), 
a. containing or producinfl^ contagion. 
Contagiousness, t. the quality of being 

Contain , v. to hold, as a vesseL to com- 
prise; to reatraiiu Containable, a. tiiat 
eon be contained. 

Contam'inate. «. to defile^ to apm^t 
Contamina'tion, 9, defilemontk t«int 

Contemn (-temOt <• to regard yH&k. flon* 
tempt ; to despise ; to scorn. CootanuMr 
(-tem'ner), ». one whooantemiifl;atoofliv. 

Contem'plate, or Con'template, v, to dwdl 
upon m thought; to meditale; to bi- 
tend. Contempla'tion, t. tho aot of 
contemplating; meditatkou Oontem'- 
plative, a. g^ven to oontemplii^Um ; 
thoughtfiiL Contemplativelv, oiL witti 
contemplation ; thoughtfully. Ooo- 
templativeness, «. dispositioii to md^ 
template. Bee No. 71, p. 25. 

Contempora'neoua, a. living or ezkiiiig at 
the same time. Contem'parary, i. ooe 
who lives at the same timo witii an* 
other : a. living at the same timo. 

Contempf , «. scorn, disdain; diaobodlODce 
to the rules or orders of a court of law. 
Contemptible, a. deserving contempt. 
Contemp'tibleness, 9. meanness; bMe- 
ness. Contempt'ibly, ad, in a conAampt* 
iblc manner. Contemp'tuous, a. showvig 
contempt or scorn. Contemptocnulyf 
ad. scornfully. ContemptuouanfM^ 9. 
tending to contempt. 

Contend', v. to strive with, to contaat 

Content', a. having contentment | a^is- 
fied; quiet; easy: 9. moderate ha|ipi- 
ness ; rest or quietness of mind; laUs- 
fkction; acquiescence : v. to satiaiy; to 
gratify or please. Contented, |k a. 
satisfied; quiet in mind: pleased. On- 
tentedly, od. in a contented manner. 
Contentedness, 9. state of beinff oootent 

Conten'tion, 9. strife, debate, oontart. 
Contentious, a, quarrelsome, TMnrtne. 
Contentiously, ad. quarrdtsomely. Con- 
tentiousness, 9. quiurrelsomaiesa. 

Content'ment, «. state of being conUmt 

Contents' or Gon'tmts, 9. jd. what ia eon- 
tained in any thing; the amoual; the 
headsofab<>ok; anhidex. 

Oonter'minable, a, capable of the aame 
bounds. Conterminous, a. bordering 
upon: having the same limit. 

Con'test, 9. a oGbspute, a debate ; a battle. 
Contest', V. to dispute, to contend, to 
vie with. Contestable, ck that may be 
contested. Contestingly, ad, in a con- 
tending manner. 

Con'toxt, 9. the scries of a disoourae ; the 
parts that precede and follow the sen- 
tonco quoted : a. knit or woven t(^ther. 
Contox'ture, 9. an interweavingor join- 
ing together of a discourse; the texture. 

Ccmtigirity, 9. contact; close podtion. 
Contig'uous, a. meeting so as w> touch. 
Contiguously, ad. in dose Junction. 
Contiguousness, 9. the being contiguous. 

Con'tinence, Continency, 9. restraint; mo- 
deration; fcnrbearance; chastity. 

Con'tinent, 9. a large extent of land oon- 
taining maoy countries : a. chaste. 

Continen'tal, a. relating to a oontb&enL 

Con'tinently, ad. chastely ; temperately. 

Contin'gence, Cantingen<7, a a eaanalty 
or event NvYniiAl^ Yav^qca \if 




dsptnding npon ■omothinff else; un- 
eertain : i. ft thing dependent on ohanoe ; 
ft pt o po a r ti an thu fiula to any one upon 
a divtrion; tiie vropcnrtion of troops 
fVmiished, 4o. uontingently, ad. ay 
ohanoe: ftOQldentally. 

Oontin'iuil, o.. tnoesssnt; tminterrapted, 
pezpetaaL Onntiniiftlly, ad. Incessantly ; 
penatoftUr. Cknitlnusnoe, $. the state 
or nme of oonthniing; mdnterrapted 
■oooeseian: duratian; abode or stay. 
Ckmtinuatum, t. the axst of continuing ; 
constant succession ; extension in a Ime 
or series. Oontin'uative, a. that con- 
tinues. Continuator, t. one who con- 
tinues what has been begun. Continue, 
V. to remain in the samo state or place ; 
to last; to porseyere; to protract; to 
extend. Oontinuedly, ad. without in- 
tarruptton. Conttnu'ity, t. imintcr- 
raptodoonnexian. Contin'uous, a. Joined 
togeUier; without interruption. Con- 
tfaiuansly, ad, uninterruptedly. 

Oaotorff, V. to twist together; to writhe. 
Oaotor'tion (-shunX «. act of twisthig or 
writhing; a drawing awxy. 

Oantoar 0oor7i 9. the oiitline of a figure. 

Oon^tea, [L] prep, against. 8ee Contra, 
as a prefix, p. 47. 

Oon'traband, a. prohibited ; illegal : 9. ille- 
gal traffic. Contrabandist, «. a smuggler. 

Orm'tzact, «. an agreement; a compact. 
Oontiact', V. to draw together or nearer ; 
to shorten or abbreviate; to make a 
omnpact or bargain; to affiance or be- 
troth. Contnurted, p. a. drawn to- 
gether; abridged; narrow; illiberaL 
Oontractedly,acl.iaacontracted manner. 
Oontractedness, t. state of being con- 
tnoted. Contractible, a. capable of con- 
traction. Contractibil'ily, Contrac'tible- 
ness, «. capabOilnr of beix^ contracted. 
ContraettocL 9. the act of contracting^; 
the state of being contracted ; a shrink- 
ing; an abbreviation. Contractor, «. 
one who makes bargains. 

Contradicf, «. to oppose verbally; to 
deny. Contradic'tion, $. denial, con- 
tn u ri ety . Contradicf orlly, ad. incon- 
dstenth^. Craitradictoriness, ». blunt 
opposinon. Contradictory, a. opposite 
to; inconsistent with: t. a contrary 

Oontzadistinoiion, 9. a distinction by op- 
posite quaUties. Contradistin'guish, V. 
to distinguish by opposite qualities. 

OoratriUto^ [It.] s. a term in music, the 

Oon'traries, 9. pL contrary propositions. 

Oontrari'e^,«. opposition; inconsisteney. 
Oonftrsmy, od. in a manner contrary. 
Oontrartness, t. contrariety: repugnance. 
Contrary, a. opposite ; contradictory. 

Contrasts v. to pLsce in opponition, so as 
to exhibit tbte difference. Con'tnst^ $. 
opposition In things of a like kind. 

Contravallation, 9. a counter-fortification 
against tiie sallies of the besi^ed. 

Ctmravo'be^ v, to bJnderf to oppose. Coa- 
tnvm^tloa, §. olwfraotfon, opposition. 

ContriVutary, a. concributlug to. Con- 
tribute, V. to give to a common stock ; 

• to bear a port; to conduce. Contribu'- 
tion, 9. the act of contributing; that 
which is contributed; a collection; a 
levy. Contributional, a, furnishing con- 
tributions. Contrib'utive, Contributory, 
a. contributing to or promoting the same 
design. Conmbutor. i. one who con- 

Con'trite, a. truly penitent, very sorrow- 
fuL Contritely, ad. penitentiy; with 
sorrow. Contnteness, 9. sorrow for sin ; 
penitence. Contrition (-trish'unX 9. sor- 
row for sin; ponitcQce. 

Contrivance, %. a plan, a scheme, an art 
Contrive, V. to invent ; to plan ; to de- 
vise. Contriver, «. an inventor, a 

Contr&l', «. check; restraint; power; 
authority: «. to check; to r^rain; to 
govern. Controllable, a. subject to con- 
uoL Controller, «. one who controls; 
an officer who examines the accounts of 
the collectors of public money; for- 
meriy drnvatrxXltr, See Control, p. 42. 
Controllersliip^ «. the office of a con- 

Controver'sial, a. relating to controversy. 
Controversialist, «. a disputant. Con'- 
troversy, «. a literary, scioitlfic, or 
theological dispute; a disputation; a 

Controvert', v. to dispute in writing; to 
debate ; to contest. Con'troverted, p. a. 
disputed; denied. Controvertible, a. 
that may be controverted. 

Contuma'aous, a. obstinate ; disobedient. 
Contumaciously, ad, with contumacy. 
ContumaciousncKBS, t. obstinacy. Con'- 
tumacy, t. obstinate disobedience to any 
lawful summons or judicial order. 

Contumelious, a, insolently reproachful. 
Contiuneliously, ad. wiu contumely. 
Contumeliousness, $. insolent reproach. 
Con'tumely, $. rude and insolent re- 
proach or abuse. 

Contu'se, v. to beat together; to bruise. 
Contusion, «. the act of bruising; 9 

Conun'drum, t. a quibble, a riddle. 

Convale8co(-leBs'), v. to rucover health aftei 
sickness. Convalescence, 9. a recovery 
of health. Convalescent, a. recovering 
health : t. one recovering from sickness. 

Conve'ne, v. to call together, to assemble. 
Convener, $. one who convenes. 

Conve'nience, Conveniency, «. fitness; 
oommodiousncss ; accommodation ; ease. 
Convenient, a. fit, suitable, well adapt- 
ed. Conveniently, ad. commodiously, 

, fitly. 

Con'vent, $. a community of persons de- 
voted to religious seclusion. Conven'- 
tual, a. belonging to a convent. 

Conven'tide, «. a dissenting place of wor- 
ship, but oflte!n^'v«\j s.^^'^^ , ,^ 

Convem'Uoii, «. an. sawKD^^^q \^k«Koa»^ 

or agreement lot s^ "^Vcoto^A. >tai»^J222* 
vent\ona\, •. a«twA wi V| cw»lM^\ 




stipulated; tacitly understood. Con- 
rentionalism, «. a conventional phrase, 
form, or ceremony. Conventionary, a« 
settled by contract. 

Conver'ge, v. to tend to one point. Con- 
rergence, s. a tendency to one ix>int. 
Convergent, Converging, a. tending to 
one point from different places. 

Conversable, a. fit for conversation; so- 
ciable. Conversableness, t. fluency; 
Bociableness. Con'versant, a. familiar 
with. CoQversa'tion, «. familiar or mutual 
discourse; talk; intercourse. Conver- 
sationist, s. an adept in conversation. 
Conversational, a. pertaining to conver- 
sation; colloquial. 

Conversazione, [-sat-ze-o'nS, It. j i. a meet- 
ing of company for conversation. 

Con'verse, a. reciprocal or opposite: i. 
conversation; in logic, an inverted or 
reciprocsJ proposition. Conver'se, v. to 
talk familiarly with. Con'versely, ad. 
by a change of order or place ; redlpro- 
cally; contrarily. Conver'sion, ». the 
act of conversing; a change from one 
state or form into another; change from 
one religion to another. 

Con' vert, «. one who is converted. Con- 
vert', V. to change or turn into another 
form, state, or religion. Converter, s. 
one who makes converts. Convertible, 
a. that may be converted. Converti- 
bil'ity, i. the being convertible. Con- 
vert'ibly, cui. reciprocally. 

Con'vex, a. rising in a roundish form on 
the outside; spherical; opposed to e<m- 
eave. Cenvex'ity, Convezness, i. sphe- 
roidal protuberance. Convexly, ad, in 
a convex form. 

Convey', v. to cany, to transmit, to im- 
part. Conveyable, a. that may be con- 
veyed. Conveyance, ». the act of con- 
veying; that which conveys; a deed or 
writing by which property Is transferred. 
Conveyancer, s. a lawyer who draws up 
deeds by which property is transferred. 
Conveyancing, t. the business or pro- 
fesidon of a conveyancer. Conveyer, $. 
one who carries or transmits. 

Convict', V. to detect; to prove g^ly. 

Con'vict, 8. one convicted of a crime. 
Convic'tion, «. a finding guilty; fiill 
proof; strong belief. Convictive, a. 
tending to convict. 

Convin'ce, v. to satisfy to the truth or fact ; 
to subdue by evidence; to persuade. 
Couvincible, a. that may be convinced. 
Convincing, p. a. persuading by proof. 
Convincingly, ad. in a c(Hivincing man- 
ner. Convincingness, *. the power of 

Conviv'ial, a. festive ; social, jovial. Con- 
vivial'ity, ». festive mirth; convivial 
disposition; sociability. 

Convoca'don, s. the act of calling togther ; 
an ecclesiastical assembly. Convo'ke, 
V. to summon or call together. 

Convol've, v. to roll togrether, or one part 

upon another. Convolvulus, s. a genus 

ofploDta or sbrubM. Gon'voluted, Con- 

volute, a. rolled upon itself twisted. 
Convolu'tion, «. a roUing together; a 
winding or twisting. . 

Convo/, V to accomtKuiy for defenoe. 

Con'voy, t. an attendance for defence. 

Convul'se, v. to afiect by spasms ; to efbefc 
by irregular and violent motioD. Con- 
vulsion, t. a violent spasm; any izw 
r^ular and violent motion; eommo- 
tion. Convulsive, a. producing spasms; 
attended with convulsions. OonTifl- 
sively, a<2. in a convulsive maimer. 

Co'ny, «. a rabbit ; a simpleton. 

Coo, V. to cry as a dove or pigeon. 

Coo'ing, i. the note of the dove. 

Cook, t. one who dresses victuals: v. to 
dress or prepare victuals. CookMy, m. 
the art of dressing victuals. 

Cool, V. to grow or become cool ; to xmika 
cool ; to allay heat, to quiet possicn : a. 
somewhat cold; indifferent to: dis* 
pleased with: $. moderate coloness; 
ludifTcrence. Cool'-headed, a. not eaai^ 
excited. Cooling, p. a. making or grofWi 
ing cool; refreshii^. Cooli^ a. some> 
what cooL Coolly, <id. in a cool manner 
Coolness, «. moderate cold; want oc 
ardour or affection ; a slight minnnilg 

Cooly, 8. an Indian carrier or porter. 

Coomb (koom), t. a com measure of Inir 

Coop, s. a wooden cage for poulfay; a 
barrel : v. to put into a coop ; to oaaaaa. 
Coop'er, t. a maker of cooi>s or barrels. 
Cooperage, t. the price for oocfp&fn 
work ; the work or workshop of a cooper. 
Coopeiy, s. the art of making oaaka. 

Co-operate, v. to work together; to labour 
with another for the same end. Go> 
oi)era'tion, «. the act of co-oi)eratlng; 
joint labour for the same end. Oo- 
op'erator, s. one that co-operatea. 

Co-or'dinate, a. holding the same ruk. 
Co-ordinately, ad. with equal rank. Oe* 
ordina'tion, «. equality in rank. 

Coot, s. a small black waterfowl. 

Cop t, t. the head, the top of any thing. 

Co pal, 8. the concrete juice of a Mezioan 
tree, used for varnishing. 

Copai'ba, Cox)aiva, «. a liquid resinous juioa 
obtained from a tree in 6. Amraica; 
used medically. 

Coparf ment. See Comi)artment. 

Copart'ner, «. a joint partner in busineas. 
Copartnership, 8. joint partnership. 

Cope, 8. a cover for the head ; a saceodotal 
vestment ; an arch work over, a door : 
V. to cover as with a cope. Cope (witA), «. 
tooontendwith; to oppose with suocess. 

Coper'nican, a. relating to the astrcmO' 
mical system of Copernicus. 

Cop'ier, «. one who copies or imitates. 

Coping, 8. the covering of a walL 

Go'pious, a. abundant, plentiful, falL 
Copiously, ad, in a copious manner. 
Copiousness, «. abundance. 

Cop'per, 8. a metal of a reddish colour; a 
, large copper traiiXet *. a,. cQ!&]i&i&&n:( eC 
1 copper ; «. to coivet "SR^yi^ co\>vct. 




rvyi/peras, i. a mcAalUo Mlt, aalphate of ' 
nron or groen Titiiol. 

Oop'per-bottoined, a. having a bottom 
sheathed with copper. 

CSopi^periah, a. oontaming or like copper. 

Ct^'per-noee, «. a red noee. 

Oopi)er-plate, «. an impreasion from a 
ngure engnired on copper; the plate 
on which anything is engraved for 

Ckqpi^rsmith, t. one who works in copper. 

Cawperyt ck tasthig of or like copper. 

Coppice, Ck>p8e, «. a wood of small growth. 

Cop'rolite, a the petrified feces ox fishes, 
reptiles, or other animals. 

OopTlo, $. the language of the Cojpts or 
ancieoit Egyptians: a. relating to the 

Oop'ula, t. the word which Jdns the sub- 
ject and predicate in a proposition. 
Copolateb V. to connect, to imite; to 
come together sexually : a. joined. Cop- 
nla'tton, «. the act of joining ; connexion. 
Cop'ulatiye, a. joining together: t. a 
oopnlatiTe conjunction. 

Oop7, t. a manuscript, an imitation, a 
pattern to write after; a duplicate of 
any original writing, or of a picture; 
mannacripi for printing: v. to tran- 
scribe; to imitate. 

CopV-book, t. a book in which copies are 
written for learners to imitate. 

Oop'yer, «. Bee Copier. 

Copyhold, a a tenure under the lord of a 
manor, held by the copy of a court-roll. 
Coj^holder, a one having copyhold 

Copyist, «. a transcriber, a copier. 

CoD'yrifl^t, a the right of property in a 
literary work vested in the author ; the 
exolunve right of printing and pub- 
lishing copies of any literary work, 
print, or engraving. 

Ooqnelicot, fkok-le-ko', Fr.] s. the redoom 
rose; a colour resembling it 

Ooqnet (ko-kef ), v. to act like a coquette. 
Osquetry, a deceit or trifling in love; 
affeiotation. Coquette, (ko-kot'X a a 
Tahi, gay woman, who by various arts 
endcAvours to attract admirers and re- 
jects them for others ; a jilt. Coquet- 
xUht o., practising coo^uetrv. 

Cor'acle, «. a kind of light boat made by 
stretching a hide or leather over a frame 
of wicker work. 

Oot'al, $, the shells of a kind of marine in- 
sects or animals, of which there are three 
Unds, red, white, and black ; a child's 
toy: a. made of coral. Coralline, a. 
consisting of coral: a a kind of marine 
plant formed by insects. Corallite, s. a 
petrifoctioo like coral. Coralloid, a. 
having the form of coral. Coral-rag, a 
a f nesu like coral. 

Cor'al-tree, a an American tree, with 
beautiful scarlet ftowers. 

Corlwn, a an alms-basket ; an alms. 

Corlwil (-bel), a a basket of earth used in 
numbmrs, as a defence (FortiJlccUton), 

OarTfek a in uvbitecture, the representa- 

tion of a basket ; the base of the Corin- 
thisncolimm; a niche for figures. 

Cord, a a thicker kind of string, a rope: 
V, to tie or fasten with a cord. Cord^- 
age, a cords or rraes collectively ; the 
ropes of a ship. Corded, p. a. bound 
with cord ; striped or fuxrowcd as with 

Cor'dated, a. in the form of a heart 

Cordelier', a a Franciscan friar (from the 
knotted cord worn as a girdle!. 

Cor'dial, a. proceeding from the heart; 
sincere; reviving: a a medicine or 
drink for reviving or exhilarating the 
spirits. Cordial'itv, a sincerity; warm 
affection. Cor'diuly, ad. with cordial- 
ity; sincerely. 

Cor'don, ». a string; a band; a wreath; 
a ribbon ; a row of stones in fortifica- 
tion ; a line of military posts. 

Cord'ovan, Cordwain, a a fine Spanish 
leather, originally from Cordova. 

Coniuroy^, a a stout corded cotton cloth. 

Cord'wainer, Cor'dincr, a a shoemaker. 

Core, i. the heart or inner part 

Co-re'gent, a a joint regent or ruler. 

Corf, a a coel measure of throe bushels. 

Coriaceous (-a'shusX a. consisting of or 
like leather. 

Corian'der, a a plant, a hot seed. 

Corin'thian, a. relating to Corinth ; noting 
the third order in architectmre : a a gay 
licentious person. 

Co-ri'val, i. a fellow rival ; a competitor. 

Cork, a a tree or its bark ; a stopplo made 
of cork : v. to stop with a cork. 

Cork'ing-pin, a a pin of the largest size. 

Cork'screw, a a screw to draw corks 

Cork'y, a. oonsisting of or like cork. 

Cor'morant, «. a voracious sea-bird; a 
greedy eater ; a glutton. 

Com, a the seeds which grow in ears, not 
in pods ; edible grain in general ; a single 
Eeed of com ; a minute particle ; an m- 
durated excrescence on the foot: v. to 
sprinkle with grains of salt; to salt 
slightiy; to granulate. Corned (komd> 
p. a. gnmulated ; slighUy salted. 

Cor'nage, $. an ancient tenure of land. 

Com'chandler. See Chandler. 

Cor'nea, a the homy coat of the eye. 

Cor'nel, «. a tree ; the cornelian cherry. 

Comelism, a a precious stone. See Cor- 
nelian, p. 42. 

Cor'neous, a. homy, resembling horn. 

Gor'ner, $. an angle ; a secret or remote 
place; the utmost limit Cornered, a. 
having comers. 

Cor'ner-stone, g. the stone which unites 
two waUs at the comer; the principal 

Cor'ner-wise, ad. with the comer in front ; 

Cor'npt 9. a musical instrument : the of- 
ficer who bears the standard of a cavalry 
troop. Cometcy, a the ctmmission of a 

Cor'nice(-nias), «.th«>XTra«rcsvciiXifiK>Q^d&QD4i 
or ornament ota'wmot QKJ^>ssD!n. 

Cor'nldo. s » UXJOft Votu. OanW^^««^ 




o. shaped like a ham. Ck)mig6(roQ8(oor- 
nlj'6-ru8X a. homed, having nonui. 

Cor'nish, a. belonging to Oomwall. 

Cum'-rose, t. a epecies of poppy. 

Comuco'pia, t. the hom of plenty. 

Comu'to, s. a nian with horns, a cuckold. 

Com'y, a. strong or hard like horn. 

Corolla (in Latin, a little cr(ywn\ the flower 
leaves, or petals which surround the 
parts of firuotification. Cor'ol, the same. 
Corolla'ceous (-shusX a. consisting of or 
relating to a coroL Cor'dllaiy, «. (lite- 
rally, that which comes as a finish or 
little cr(ywn% an inference from a proposi- 
tion that has been proved. 

Coro'na, [L.] «. a crown ; the flat part of a 
comico which crowns the entablature. 

Cor'onal, «. a crown, a garluid : a. relating 
to a corona, or to the top of the head. 
Coronary, a. relating to a crown. 

Corona'tion, ». the iujt or ceremony of 
crowning, as a king. 

Cor'oner, «. a civil officer, who inquires 
into casual or violent deaths. 

Cor'onet, ». a crown worn by the nobility. 

Cor'poral, $. the lowest officer of the in- 
fantry : a. bodily, not Eroiritual. Coxpo- 
ral'ity, 9. the state of being embodied. 
Cor'porally, ad. bodiljr, in bodily form. 

Cor'porate, a. united in a community. 
Corporately, cui in a corporate capacity. 
Corpora'tor, ». a member of a corporation. 

Corpo'rcal, «. having a body, not spiritual. 
Corporeally, od. m a bodily form. 

Corpora'tion, ». a body corporate or politic 
authorized to act as a single person. 

Corps, [core, Fr.] «. a body of soldiers. 

Corpse, «. the dead body oi a human being. 

Cor'pulence, Corpulency, «. bulkiness of 
body; fleshiness. Corpulent, a. fleshy, 
bulky, fat. 

Cor'ptiscle, t. a small body; a particle. 
Corpus'cular, a. relating to or made up 
of comuscles. 

Correct , a. free from faults ; accurate : v. 
to make right; to amend; to punish. 
Correc'tion, «. punishment; discipline. 

Correc'tional, a. tending to correct Cor- 
rective, a. able to amend or correct : #. 
that which has the power of correcting. 
Correctly, od. in a correct manner. Cor- 
rectness, «. acciuracy; exactness. Cor- 
rector, i. he or that which corrects. 

Corregidor (cor-rejl-d6r), 9, a mayor or 
magistrate in Spain. 

Con-erative, a. having a reciprocal relation: 
9. that which has a reciprocal relation. 
Corrclatively, ad. in a correlative man- 

Correspond', v. to suit, to agree with ; to 
hold intercourse with another by letters. 
Correspondence, 9. intercourse by let- 
ters ; agreement ; relation ; fitness. Cor- 
respondent, a. suitable, answerable : c 
one who corresponds or holds inter- 
course with another by letters. Corre- 
spondently, ad. suitably, fitly. 

Oo^riddr, 9. a galleiy round a building. 

CoiTigon'da, [L.] «. pi words or things to 

Gor'rigible, a. capable of being oGnreotod. 

Corrob'orant, a. strengtheniiw, canfiiBi- 
ing: 9. a medicine that ■cmgthenL 
Corroborate, v. to oonilrm or WTOMkh, 
Corrobora'tion, 9. the aot of strcngihA- 
iog or confirming; aoonflrmatign, Oor- 
rob'orative, a. having the poiwer of oon- 
firming or establishing. 

Corro'de, v. to eat away by degiMS. Oap> 
roden^ a. having the power of mating 
away : 9. that which eats «ingr. Oor* 
rodible, a. that may be ooiroded. Cor* 
rosion, 9. the act of eating amgr. Oor 
rosive, a. able to corrode or eat amj: a 
that which corrodes or conagmee. Oat' 
rosivcly, ad. bv corrosion. Ganoaivs* 
ness, 9. the quality of corroding. 

Cor'rugate, v. to wrinkle or purse opu 
Corruga'tion,<. contraction into wriukua 
Cor'rugator, 9. a muscle of the forehead 
which contracts the skin into wiinklM. 

Corrupt', a. rotten, tainted, onaound, vi* 
cious: V. to infect; to deprave; to briba 
Corrupter^ « who cormpta or tainta 
Corruptibility, Corrup'tiblenen, a the 
possibility of being corrupted. Corrra^- 
ible, a. tnat may be corrupted. Oer- 
ruptibly, od. in a conrupt manner. Ccr- 
rup'tion, 9. the act of oorruptixig; iksta 
ef being corrupted ; decomp!ositioii ; jpa- 
trescence; depravity of morale; wracr 
edncss ; bribery; matter or pus ina eara 
Corruptive, a. able to taint or oorropt 
Corruptleas, a. insusceptible of oosmp* 
tion. Ckurruptly,ad. in a corrupt manner. 
Corruptness, 9. state of being corrupt 

Corsage, [cor-sazh', Fr.]«. the m)nt pvtof 
a lady's dress covering the bust 

Cor'sair, 9. a pirate or p&atical voamL 

Corse, 9. Bee Corpse. 

Cor'sclet, or Corslet, 9. a light armour for 
the forepart of the body. 

Cor'set, 9. a pair of stays; a bodice. 

Cortege, [cor-taizh', Fr. ]«. a train of attend- 

Cor'tes, 9. the members representing the 
Spanish states assembled in Madrid. 

Cortex, 9. the outer bark or rind. Corti- 
oal, a. barky; belonging to the baric 
Corticated, a. rcsemluing bark. 

Corus'cant, a. flashing, glittering. Coras- 
cate, V. to glitter by ilashea Ckumaoa'- 
tion, 9. a flaishing of light 

Ccnrette, 9. an advice boat ; a sloop of war 
ranking next to a frigate. 

Gor'vlne, a. belonging to a crow or raren. 

Cor'vus, «. an ancient naval engine, with a 
hook like a crovf9 beak. 

Coryphe'us, 9. the leader of a chorus. 

Cose'cant, 9. a term in geometry. 

Cosey (ko'zy), a. snug, comfortable, ohattj. 
Cosily, od. in a cosey way. 

Co'sine, 9. a term in geometry. 

Cosmetic, «. a wash to improve the skin : 
a. beautifyuig or improving the skin. 

Cos'mical, a. relating to the world ; riling 
or setting with the sun. Cocmically, luL 
with the sun. 

Cosmog'onlRt, c. one versed tnootmooony 
\ Cosmogony, %, 'Csat 'V)>\x^^ at ccnodocsa «& 




th* world oar iliB universe ; fh« sdence 
wbidh deaoribM or traata ol it. 

CkMmog'rH»h«r, i. ona varMd 1^ ootmo^ 
raiiihy. CkMrnoKraphle, Ootmogn,] 
tm. Ok rdaiiiig to oosmogruihy. ( 
mos'lnplur, t. the Boieince ol the general 
vynem o/tibA woild. 

Oonpo1c«ical, 0. relating to ooemology. 
OonnoroglBt^ t. one veraed in coamology. 
Oaemolonr. i. tiie soienoe which treats 
of the ongin and structure of the world. 

Ooamopol'ltan, Oosmop'olite, 9. a citizen of 
the world ; one whose views and feelings 
emhonaoe the whole raoe of man. 

CkMmont'ma, t. an optical exhibition of the 
world or portions <tf it by drawings or 
paintings viewed through a convex lens. 

Coet^ «. pnce, chai^ge, expense, loss : v. to 
be bought for, to be had at a price: pL 
expenses incurred in a lawsuiu 

Cos'tel, a. relating to the ribs. 

Costard, f. a large round apple; a head. 

Cos'tardmonger, Costermonger, $. a dealer 
ha appleB; one who carries fruit and 
T^^tables about for sale. 

Ooe'five^ a. constipated or bound in the 
body; confined; close, fbrmaL Cos- 
tiveness, i. the state of being costive. 

Goatless, a. attainable without expense. 
OostUness, t. expensiveness. CosUy, a. 
expensive, of great price. 

Gostu'me, «. style or mode of dress. 

OoL «. a hut; a small house or cottage ; a 
obUd's bed ; a littie boat. 

(krtempora'neous, Cotem'poraiy. See 
tiieee words, p. 184 and p. 42. 

Oo-ten'antk «. a tenant in common. 

Ooterie (-reQ^ i. a select party or society. 

Oothum'us, «. a sort of ancient buskin. 

Cotillon (-yonX <. a light brisk dance. 

Ooto'wold, «. a sheep cot in an open coun- 
1x7. (Hence Cotgwold HlUs.) 

Oot'tage, «. a small house; an humble 
aboouB ; a hut ; a cot. Cottager, Cotter, 
Ckyttier, t, one who lives in a cot or cot- 


Oot'ton, & a plant ; the down of the cotton- 
tree; dLoth or stuff made of cotton: v. 
to umte with ; to agree with. Cottony, a. 
like cotton; downy. 

Oot'rla, Ootylfi, «. a hollow ; the cavify of 
a Done which receives in it the end 
of another. 

Ootylei'dan, t. the lobe that nourishes the 
seeds implants, and then perishes. Coty- 
led'cnous, a. having a seod lobe. 

Oouliage*. an Indian bean, the x^ods of 
which sting like a netUe. 

Oonoh, «. a seat of repose ; a layer or bed : 
V, to lie down, to recline, to stoop ; to 
fLx a spear in tiie rest ; to remove a cata- 
ract or film from the eye. 

Ckmoh'ant, a lying down ; squatting. 

Oouch'grass, «. a creeping grass, a wood. 

Ooudh'mg, «. the act of bending or bow- 
ing; a surgical oiteration on the eye. 

Cloagh (kof), $. a convulsion of the lungs : 
V. to have the lungs conrulsed; to eject 
ijya coQuJi; to expectonte. 

OtHud (eooa), v. the past tense of ^ n. 

Coulter. See Colter and Culter. 

Coim'cil, 9. an assembly for oonsidtaUon. 
Councillor, «. a member of a council. 

Couu'sel, $. advice, direction; a picador: 
V. to give advice; to direct. Couu- 
seller, i. one who gives advice; a bar- 

Count, $. a tide of nobility. 

Count, V. to compute, to number, to 
reckon; to rate; to estimate; to 
esteem : «. a number, reckoning ; x>arb 
of a declaration or indictment. Count'- 
srble, a, that may be counted or reck- 

Coun'tenance, ». the form or appearance 
of the face ; air, look ; encouragrement ; 
patronage : v. to encourage; to patronize; 
to sanction. 

Count'er, «. any thing used for counting 
with ; fictitious money ; a shop-table. 

Counfer, ad. contrary to. Counteract', v. 
to act contrary to; to hinder or frus- 
trate. Counterac'tion, «. opposite action; 
hinderance. See Contra. 

Coimterbal'ance, v. to act against with an 
opposite weight : ». an opposite weight. 

Counterbuff', v. to repel, to strike back : 
$. a blow in a contrary direction. 

Coun'terchange, t. an exchange, recipro- 
cation : V. to exchange. 

Coun'tercharge, «. an opposite charge. 

Coun'tercharm, s. tiiat which breaks or 
destroys a charm. 

Coun'tercheck, <. an opposite account; a 
rebuke. Countercheck', v. to check ; to 

Coun'ter-current, a. running in an opjiosito 
way : s. an opi)Osite current. 

CounterdraV, v. to trace the lines of a 
drawing through transparent paper. 

Counter-ev'idence, «. opposite cadence. 

Coun'terf eit (-fit), «. a copy intended to be 
passed ofi'for an original ; a forgoiy : a. 
forged, fictitious: v. to imitate; to 
forge; to feign. Counterieiter, t. one 
who counferfeits. 

Goun'torligbt, t. a light opposite to a thing 
which makes it appear to disadvan- 

Covmtcrmand', v. to contradict an order. 

Comi'termand, s. rej)eal of a former order. 

Countermarch', v. to march backward. 

Coun'termarch, t. a retrograde march. 

Coun'tcrmark, s. a check-mark ; a second 
or third mark put on goods or coin. 

Coim'termine, «. a mine made to frustrate 
the use of one made by the enemy. 
Countermi'ne, v. to defeat by counter- 

Coun'ter-movement, 9. a movement in 
opposition to another. 

Coun'terpane, «. See Counterpoint. 

Coun'terpart, «. a corresponding part. 

Coim'terplea, «. a replication in law. 

Coimterpleod', v. to contradict, to deny. 

Coun'terplot, s. plot against plot. Counter- 
plot', V. to oppose on« ^vo^ ck \iAf^(Ai> 
nation by aanomer. 

Counterpoint, t. a qjidkVfc ot wxv«t\ft\.'« «•»> 
in squares ; a tcnrm. Vu tenjAa. 




Coun'terpolse, «. an eqiiivalence of weight. 
Counterpoise, v. to counterbalance. 

Coun'tOTpoison, s. an antidote to poison. 

Coun'ter-project, ». a project of one party 
given in opposition to another. 

Coun'terproof, t. a term in engraving. 

Coun'terprove, v. to take a proof inverted. 

Coimter-revolu'tioB, t. a revolution suc- 
ceeding another, and opposite to it. 

Coun'terscarp, «. a term in fortification. 

Coim'terseal, v. to seal with another. 

Counter-secu'rity, ». security given to « 
person who has become surety for 

Cloim'tersign (-sine), v. to undersign; to 
confirm : ». the word given to soldiers 
as a watchword. 

Coim'tor-signal, t. a corresponding signaL 

Coun'terstroke, ». a stroke returned. 

Counterten'or, «. a term in music. 

Coimtervail', v. to be equivalent to; to 
have equal force or value. Coiui'tervail, 
«. equal weight or strength. 

Ooun'terview, «. an opx>osition, a contrast. 

Coun'tervote, v. to outvote, to oppose. 

Coun'terweigh, v. to counterbalance. 

Coun'terwheel, ». a wheel in machinery 
that acts hi an opposite way to thd rest. 

Ck)unterwork', v. to coimteract. 

Coim'tess, «. the lady of a count or earl. 

Countless, a. numberless ; infinite. 

Countrified (kun'-), a. rustic, rude. 
Country, «. a trsict of land ; a region ; 
rural parts ; one's native land : a. rural, 
rustic; rude; remote from town. 
Country-dance, $. a kind of dance. 
Countryman, «. a rustic; one bom in 
the same countiy ; a husbandman. 

Coun'ty, ». a shire : a. relating to a shire. 

Coup, [coo, Pr.] ». a stroke, a blow ; — de 
grace (deh grassX the merc^^ stroke, or 
the blow which puts out of pain ;— d'oeil 
(deuhl), a glance of the eye, the first 
view of any thing ; — de main (-mahn), a 
sudden attack ;--d'etat (detah')* a bold 
stroke of policy. 

Coupe, [coo pd, Fr.] «. the front part of a 
diligence. Coupee', ». a figure or motion 
in dancing. 

Couple (cup'SlX ». a pair, a brace, two of a 
sort ; a man and wife : v. to join two 
things together; to marry. Couple* 
beggar, t. one who marries beggars. 

Couplet (cuplet), «. two verses that rhjnoae ; 
a pair. Coupling, «. that which couples 
or connects. 

Coupon, [coo-pong, Fr.] «. what is cut off; 
a warrant for interest. 

Coiu^e (cur'aj), ». bravery, valour. Cou- 
rageous, a. brave, daring. Courage- 
ously, cid. bravely, daringly. Courage- 
ousness, «. bravery ; boldness. 

Cou'rier, «. a messenger sent in haste. 

Coxu'se (cOrce), «. a race ; a career ; a race- 
ground; track in which a ship sails; 
order of succession; service o! meat; 
method of life: v. to run, to hunt, to 
pursue. Courb'er, «. a race-horse i a 
hunter. Coursiiig, 8. the sport of hunt* 
ingbarea with greybounda. 

Court (cOrt), «. the residence of a save* 
reign* a seat of justice; an enclosed 
place in front of a house; addi^ssto'gaia 
xarour; flattery: v. to pay court to; to 
make love to. Courf-orM, €t. broajdit 
up at court. Court-breeding; «. edu- 
cated at coiut. Court-day, «. a day oa 
which a court sits to administer jnraoti 
Court-dress, «. the dress worn at court. 

Courteous (-yus), a. well-bred, poUtoy 
civil. Courteously, ad. in a courteoae 
manner. Courteousness, c politeneai; 

Cour'tesan, «. a prostitute, a lewd woman. 

Cour'tesy, s. elegance of manners ; polite- 
ness; civility. Courtesy (curt'syX «. an 
actofresx>ect or civility made bywomea: 
V. to make a courtesy. 

Court'-hand, s. the hand or writing uaed 
in records and judicial proceedings. 

Cour'tier, s. an attendant on a court ; ooDf 
who courts favour; a man of c<HUt]y 

Cour'ting, s. the act of paying court. 

Courtleet', ». a manor coiut. 

Coiutlike, a. polite, well-bred. Courtil- 
ness, a. el^^ance of manners. Court- 
ling, 8. a hanger-onat a court. Courtly, a 
relating to a court ; polite. 

Coiirt-mar'tial, «. a oomt appointed to in- 
vestigate military or naval offences. 

Court'ship, g. makhig love to a woman. 

Cousin (cuz'z&i), 8. the child of an unde 
or aunt; a kinsman or blood relation. 

Cove, 8. a small creek or bay ; a shelter: 
V. to arch over; to make a shelter. 

Cov'enant (cuv-), 8. a mutual agfreement ; 
a contract ; a deed : v. to make a formal 
agreement; to contract; to stipulate. 
Covenanter, 8. one who mtJses a coive< 
nant; one of a religious body called 

Cov'enous. See Covinous. 

Cover (cuv'er), s. that which is laid cmt 
something else; a concealment; a 
screen; a shelter or protection: -v. to 
lay or spread over ; to conceiJ. Cawet- 
ing, 8. anything that covers. 

Cov'erlet, «. a quut or counterpane. 

Cov'ert, 8. a thicket; a hiding place; a 
shelter, a defence : a. shelter^ ; secret; 
insidious. Covertly, ad. secretly; closely. 
Covertness, «. secrecy ; privacr^. Cover- 
ture, 8. shelter; protection; "weBtateof 
a married woman (Law). 

Covet (cuv'et), v. to desire inordinately; 
to long for; to hanker after. Covet- 
able, a. that may be coveted. Covet- 
ous, a. greedy, avaricious. Covetous^, 
ad. avariciously; eagerly. Covetous- 
ness, 8. avarice ; eagerness. 

Covey (cuv'y), «. a brood of birds. 

Covin (cuVin), 8. a fraudulent agreement 
between two or more to the prejudice 
of a third. Covinous, a. fhtudulent. 

Co'ving, 8. a projection in a building. 

Cow, 8. the female of the bovine genus of 
animals: v. to depress with rear: to 
dispirit. CoWax^ «. one ^«&«&ssl la 
courage ; a voWxooin; a. Nc&ii c& «f^a^\ 




dastardly. Cowazdice (-diss), «. want 
of courure. Gowardlike, ck resembling 
a coward. Cowardliness, $. cowardice. 
Cowardly, ad. like a coward. Cow- 
herd, «. one who tends cows. Cow- 
hide, t. the hide of a cow: v. to beat 
with a whip of cowhide ; to whip. Cow- 
house, «. a noose where cows are kept. 
Cow-itch, a vulgar corruption of Cimhage. 

Oow'er, V. to bend the knees, to crouch. 

Oowl, f. a monk's hood; a cover for a 
ohhnn^ which turns with the wind. 

Cow'-leech, «. a cow doctor. 

Cow'-pox, $. a pustular disease transferred 
from cows to the human body by inocu- 
lation, as a preventive of the small-x>ox« 

Cow'xy, «. a small univalve sea-shelL 

Cow'sup, #. a species of primrose. 

Ccnc'oomb, $. a fop (but formerly a licensed 
fool or jester, oecause he wore in his 
oap a wmb like a cock's). The term is 
also applied to a red flower. Coxcombzy, 
«. frapuhness. Coxcomlcal, a. conceit- 
ed, Ic^pish, pert. 

Goy, a. modest, reserved, decent. Coy'- 
iah, a. rathershy, chaste, modest. Coyly, 
ad. with reserve ; modestly. Coyness, t. 
reserve, shyness, modesty. 

Cos, $. a fiwniiiar word for cousin. 

Cos'en, V. to cheat, impose on, defraud. 
Cosenag^ t. cheat, fraud, deceit, trick. 
Cosener, t. a cheater, a knave. 

Os'ay. See Cosey. 

Grab, «. a sh^U-fish ; a wild apple ; a peev- 
ish person; one of the signs of the 
aodiaa Crablbed, a. peevish, morose, 
difficult. Crabbedly, ad. poovishly: 
morosely. Crabbedness, $. sourness of 
taste; asperity. 

Crack, ». a sudden disruption; a quick 
noise; a chink; a flaw: v. to break into 
chinks, to split : a. first-rate (Slang). 

(Sraoklnained, a. crazy, whimsical. 

Crack'er, «. a kind of squib or firework ; a 
hard biscuit; a boaster. 

Ghraekle, v. to make slight cracks. Crack- 
ling, 8. a noise made by slight cracks. 

GzHcak^el, «. a kind of hard brittle cake. 

Cra'dle, m. a movable bed in which chil- 
dren are rocked; a case for a broken 
bone ; a frame of wood for launching a 
ship : V. to lay or rock in a cradle. 

Onft, «. manual art; trade; cunning; 
dexterity; artifice; small trading-ves- 
s^. Craftily, ad. artfully, cunningly. 
CSraftiness, «. craft, cmining, deceit. 
Grafts'man, $. an artificer; a mechanic. 
Crafty, a. cunning, artful, sly. 

G^nff, $. a rough steep rock; the nape 
of the neck ; a deposit of gravel with 
shells. Cbtig'ged, Craggy, a. rough, 
rugged. Cxaggedness, Cragginess, s. 

Crake, t. a bird, the corn-crake. 

Cram. v. to stuff ; to eat greedily. 

Cramltx), «. a play at which one gives a 
w<nd, to which another is to find a rhyme. 

Cramp, i. a spasmodic contraction of the 
Ihaag; a raBtxiotion; apiece of iron bont 

at the ends to fasten wood or sconos to- 

gether: V. to pain with spasms; to con* 
fine; to hinder: a. knotfy; difficult. 

Cranlberry, s. a small kind of acid fruit. 

Cranch, (launch, v. to crush in the mouth. 

Crane, s. a bird; a machine for raising 
heavy weights ; a idphon or crooked pipe. 

Craniorogist, «. one who understands uie 
science of craniology. Craniology, «. 
the art which affects to discover the 
faculties and propensities of a person 
by the external form of his skuU. (It 
is now usually called Phrenology.) 
Cra'nium, [L.] t. the skulL 

Crank, s. the end of an iron axle turned 
down ; a bend or turn ; an iron brace ; 
a twisting or tinning in speech ; a con- 
ceit : V. to bend or wind, to ttun : a. 
bending; easily overset. Crank, a. 
healthy; sprightly; bold. Crank'y, a. 
bent, crooked, cross. 

Cran'nied, a. full of or having chinks. 
Cranny, s. a chink ; a fissure, a crack. 

Crape, «. a thin stuff for moiuning. 

Crap'neL See Orapnd. 

Crash, v. to break, to crush, to bruise; to 
make a crashing noise : «. a loud noise 
as of many things falling. Crash'ing, a. 
a violent crushing noise. 

Crass, a. gross, thick, coarse. Cras'situde, 
«. grossness, coarseness. Crass'ness, s. 
state or quality of being crass. 

Cratch, g. a frame for hay or straw. 

Crate, «. a hamper to pack earthenware in. 

Cra'ter, t. a bowl ; the mouth of a volcana 

Cravat', s. a neckcloth for men. 

Crave, v. to ask earnestly; to long for. 
Cra ven, s. a coward ; a spiritless follow : 
a. cowardly. Craving, s. imroasouable 

Craw, 8. the crop or stomach of birds. 

Craw'fijsh, Cray'fish, g. a river shell-fish. 

Crawl, V. to creep; to move slowly. 
Crawl'er, s. a creeper ; a reptile. 

Crasr'on, «. a kind of pencil; coloured 
drawing chalk; a drawing done with 

Craze, v. to break ; to crack the brain ; to 
impair the intellect. Cra'ziness, a. the 
state of being crazy. Crazy, a. broken; 
cracked, maddish. 

Creak, v. to make a harsh noise. Creak'- 
ing, i. a harsh grating noise. 

Cream, «. the oily or best part of milk. 

Cream'facod, a. pale, wan, cowardly. 

Cream'y, a. full of cream ; luscious, rich. 

Crease, «. a mark made by doubling or 
folding any thing : v. to mark by folding. 

Crea'te, v. to form out of nothing; to 
make; to cause; to produce. Creation, 
s. act of creating ; the universe. 

Crea'tive, a. having power to create. Crea- 
tor, s. the Maker of heaven and earth. 

Creat'ure, 8. a created being; a man; an 
animal; one who owes his rise to an- 
other; a dependent. 

Cre'dence, «. belief, credit, reputation. 

Creden'da, [h.\i. t\ilti«i\jCi\»\«Jasj^«^« 

Cre'dent, a. easy ol \«^eS.\ \i«srav^cK^^j. 
Creden'tmU a. ^^i^na «^ ^^SL^ ^ 1?!^^** 




Croden'tials, t. pi. testimonials or letters 
given to an ambassador or other puUic 

Gredibirity, 9. claim of belief, probability. 
Crod'iblc, a. worthy of credit; likely. 
Crediblencss, ». worthiness of belief. 
Credibly, ad. in a credible manner. 

Credit,*, belief, truth ; honour ; reputation; 
ii^uence : v. to believe, to trust, to admit 
as a debtor. Creditable, a. worthy of 
credit; reputable. Creditableness, s. 
reputation ; estimation. Creditably, ad. 
with credit; reputably. Creditor, «. wie 
who trusts or gives credit. 

Credulity, «. easiness of belief. Cred'u- 
lous, a. easy of belief. Credulously, ad. 
in a credulous manner. Credulousnees, 
s. easiness of belief. 

Ci'oed, $. a confession of faith, a belief. 

Creek, ». a small winding inlet; a cove. 
Creek'y, a. full of creeks ; winding. 

Creep, v. to move as a worm, insect, or 
reptile; to move slowly, ffeebly, or clan- 
destinely; to grow along the ground or 
on other supports, as vines, &o. ; to 
crawl ; to be servile. Orecp'er, s. he or 
that which creeps; a creeping plant; a 
grapnel used at sea. Creepingly, ad. 
like a reptile; slowly. 

Creeplxole, «. a retreat; a subterfuge. 

Crcmo'ua, $. a superior kind of violin; 
originally, one niade at Cremona. 

Cro'mor^. a milky or creamy substance. 

Cre'na, rii.1 «. a noteh; an indentation. 
Crena'ted, Cre'nato, a, notohed; in- 

Crenelle, ». a loophole to shoot through. 

Cre'ole, «. a native of the West Indies, 
descended from European ancestors. 

Cre'osote, ». an oily, colourless liqmd ob- 
tained by distilling wood or tar. It is 
a very powerful antiseptic (and literally 
means JUBh-preaerver). 

Crep'itate, v. to make a crackling noise. 
Crepita'tion, «. a small, crackling noise. 

Crepus'cular, Crepusculous, a. pertaining 
to twilight; glimmering. 

Crept, p. t. and p. p. of Creep. 

Croscen'do, t. a term in music (inereating). 

Cres'ccnt, a. increasing, growing: 9. the 
moon on the increase; the form of the 
new moon; the standard or symbol of 

Cres'cive, a. increasing, growing. 

Cress, $. a i>lant of several species. 

Cres'set, «. a small cross; a light set on a 
beacon; a lamp. 

Crest, g. the feathers or other ornament 
on the top of a helmet; the ornament of 
the helmet in heraldry ; the comb of a 
cock; a tufb; pride; snirit: v. to ftir- 
nish with a crest. CresVed, a. adorned 
with a plume or creet Crest-fallen, a. 
dispirited; cowed. Crestless, a. with- 
out a crest. 

Oreta'ceouB (-ahus), a. chalky ; like chalk. 

Gre'tin, «. an idiot or idiotic persoa afflicted 
with goitre, often found in the Alpine 
vaUevg. CreUniam, a the state of being 
M crdin; m Bpeolea of idiocy. 

Craux, [croo, Fr.l «. the reverse otrdutf. 

Crev'ice, 9. a crack, a deft, a fiasure. 

Crew, i. a ship's company; « mean aei 
Crew or Crowed, the p. L ol Crow. 

CreVel, «. a baU of worsted alaokly twiitad. 

Crib, 8. a manger, a stall; a cblld'a bed: 
V. to shut up or confine : to pilfer. Ciib'* 
bage, i. a game at cards. 

Crick, «. a painfUl stifEneas in the nedc 

Crick'et, s, an insect that chirps about thi 
hearth; a game with bat and balL 

Cri'er, 9. one who cries goods for sale; n 
officer who makes proclamation. 

Crim. Con., an abbreviation of OnmML 
ConvertaHon; adulterous InteroouxaeL 

Crime, «. a violation of law; a vn^tSk 
offence ; a great fault ; vice ; am. urimir 
nal, a. guQty of a crime; involvii^ ! 
crime: «. one who has committed i 
crime. Criminally, ad, witii otime; 
guiltily. Criminal'iiy, t, guiltineH. 
Grim'inate, v. to charge with a erime. 
Crimina'tion, 9. accusation or chargo of 
crime. Criminatory, a. •^M^wlng 0/ 
crime; censorious. 

Crimp, a. easily cnmibled; brittle; ciiqp: 
V. to pinch or form into plaito or ridges; 
to crisp or curl ; to crimple or cause to 
crimple, as the flesh of a cod by gashing 
it. Crimp, 9. one who decoys otheit 
into the military or naval servioe : v, to 
decoy for the army. Crim'pla^ «. to 
cause to shriuk or contract ; to ooom^ 
ffa,te ; to curl. See Crumple. 

Crun'son, 9. a deep red colour : a. of a da^ 
red : v. to ting^ or dye with crimson; to 
become of a crimson colour ; to Uush. 

Crinc'um, 9. a whim ; a cramp. 

Cringe, V. to bend, to bow; to &wn; to 
flatter : 9. a low or servile bow. 

Cringle (cring'glX «. a ring at the sudd 
a rope to fasten it to another. 

Crinkle (crink'kl), 9. a short turn or bend. 

Crinoline (-leenX 9. a French miUinety 
word recently introduced. It properiy 
means a stiffening of AoTMAair. Oriidtak 
a. having the appearanceof atuft of hair. 

Crip'ple, 9. a Lime person: v. to miUcs 
lame ; to disable. 

Cii'sis, 9. a critical time or turn. 

Crisp, V. to curl ; to make brittle. OtiMp, 
Crisp'y, a. curled, brittle, disply, rnd. 
in a crisp or brittle manner. Oriqplogb 
iron, 9. a curling-iron. Crispneaa^ 9. 
quality of being crisp. 

Orite'rion, 9. a standard wheretaj tsaj 
thing is judged of; a dlstJngniwhtng 

Crit'ic, 9. one skilled In criticism. Critical 
a. relating to criticism ; decerning; as 
act; censorious; producing a crisis; 
decisive. Critically, ad. in a eritteal 
manner. Criticise, v, to pass Jadgment 
on the beauties or blemishes of a woric* 
Criticiser, 9. one who criUdses. Criti- 
cism. 9. the art or act of critidaiiig the 
merits or def eote of a literazy woik ; cri- 
tical examination; a stricture: arenuric. 
CxlUqwe toraltiMY!^ s. TsAiAnil ^^'^rr^ffr 




L the 017 of a frogr* T&Ten, or crow : 

nakeahoftTBelownoise. Croak'er, 

who is peix)etua]l7' desoanting on 

in and cufBcuIties. 

9. troops, natiyes oi Croatia. 

, [cro'shay, Fr.l «. a small hook; 

d of bncj knitting -work. See 

hjBt, under Crotch. 

L an earthen pot ; an earthen res- 

Dtoek'wj, «. all kinds of earthen- 

ile, t. a large yoradoiis amphibious 

d, in shape resembling a iLsard. 
«. an early fiower ; aamon. 

a small enclosed home field. 

e. Bee Crusade. 

dh (-lekX t- a large flat stone raised 
others, supposed to have been 

loal altars. 

K an old ewe ; an old woman. 

t. an old intimate friend. 

I. a bend ; anv thing bent ; a shep- 

I hook ; a trick, an artifice : v. to 
crooked; to bend; to pervert. 

ilMicked, a. having bent shoulders. 

:ed, a. bent, curved, imtoward. 

»d]y, od. in a crooked manner. 

:e(biess, «. deviation from stroight- 

to pluck off; to lop or cut off ; to 
to eut short : t. tbiat which is cut 

le inriduce of the harvest ; a bird's 

ured, a. having the ears cropped. 
1, a. having a full bell v. 
d, a, cut off at the ends ; lopped. 
r, $. a pigeon with a large crop. 
it, V. to ripen to a full crop ; in gco- 
to come out to the surface, as the 
sC budined strata. 
. in India, ten millions. 
(kn/ahur), 9. the pastoral staff of 

, t. a small cross. Cross, s. the 
ol of Christianitv ; any thing in the 
of a cross ; any thing that thwarts 
rplexes; a trial of patience; vexa- 
adversity; misfortune: v. to lay 
odj or draw one line athwart an- 
; to pass over or across ; to cancel 
«8 out with the pen ; to sign with 
nas ; to thwart ; to counteract ; to 
bt athwart : a. transverse ; oblique ; 
sh; perverse. 

wrred, a. having bars across. 
lilL «. a defendfoit's bill in Chan- 
akind of bird. 

low, «. a bow fixed on a stick. 
ran, «. a cake marked with a cross, 
it, V. to cut across. Crosscut-saw, 
KW with a handle at each end. 
lAm'ine, v. to test the evidence of a 
MM of the opposite party by cross- 

^nrfncd, a. ill-natured; perverse, 
ig; t. the act of crossing ; a cross. 
p, ad. peevishly ; perversely. Cross- 
«. peevishnsM, perverseness. 
icir (an/Jak^ t. the lower yard of 
' maat; the sail od it 

Cross-pur'pose, «. a kind of enigmatical 
game ; a contradictory system. 

Cross-ques'tion, v. to cross-examine. 

Cross'-road, ». a road across the country. 

Cross'-row. «. the alphabet with a cross 
placed at the begiiming. 

Cross-trees, «. certain pieces of timber fas< 
toned to the masts of ships. 

Cross'-way, ». the place where one road 
crosses or intersects another. 

Cross'-wise,a(2.across ; transversely placed. 

Crotoh, «. a fork, as of a tree; a forked 
piece of wood or metal Chroteh'et, s. one 
of the notes in music, equal to half a 
minim; a mark in printing, formed thus 
[]; a piece of wood forked; a whim; an 
odd or perverse conceit. Crotchety, a. 
having crotchets ; whimsical. 

Crouch, V. to stoop low, to bend servilely; 
to cringe. Bee this word, p. 53. 

Croup fcroop), «. a disease in the throat to 
which children are subject ; the rump of 
a fowl ; the buttocks of a horse. 

Crou'pade, ». a higher leap than a curvet. 

Crou'pier, «. a vice-president or a person 
who sits at the bottom of the tablo at a 
pubUo dinner; one who collects the 
money at a gaming table. 

Crout. See Krout. 

Crow, 8. a black bird of the genus corrv.* ; 
an iron levor with a beak ; a noise like 
that made by a cock : v. to make a noise 
like a cock; to exult over; to bully. 
CroV-bar, «. an iron bar or lever. 

Crowd, «. a confused multitude ; the popu- 
lace : V. to press close together ; to fill 
to excess ; to encumber by multitudes. 

Crow'foot, 8. a fiower, the ranunculus. 

Crown, 8, the top of the head; the top of 
any thing ; a royal diadem ; regal power ; 
a wreath or garland; a silver coin; are- 
ward; completion: v. to invest with a 
crown or regal power; to reward; to 

Crown'-fflass, «. a superior sort of glass. 

Crow's-feet, «. the wrinkles tmder the 
eyes, the effect of age ; a caltrop. 

Cru'cial, a. tnmsverse, running across. 

Cru'date, v. to torture, to torment. Cru- 
cia'tion, «. extreme torture. 

Cru'cible, «. a chemist's melting-pot. 

Cru'cifix, 8. a representation in statuary 
or painting, &c., of our Saviour on the 
cross. (Micifix'ion, «. the act of crucif y- 
tog ; the death of our Saviour. Cru'ci- 
form, a. having the form of a cross. 
Crucify, V. to nail or fasten to a cross. 

Crude, a. raw, harsh, unripe, imdigcstcd. 
Cru'dely, ad. unripely; not premi-ed. 
Crudeness,Crudity,«.an undigested state. 

Cru'el, a. hard-hearted, fierce, inhuman. 
Cruelly, od. in a cruel manner: paiu- 
fiilly. Cruelty, 8. inhumanity, barbarity. 

Cru'et, 8. a vial for vinegar or oil. 

Cruise (crooz), v. to rove over the sea, 
without any certain course, in quest ot 
an enemy's aMpa, ot smvxg^xa^ ^x <A 
slavers; «. a voya«^ tox saOo. \ivav«R^ 
OruiseT, «. a veaaeWJMk^ croiaea. Cir>3LSs.<i> 
tt small cup ot 'v\a\. ^«o Qwaa. 




Crumb (crumX «. a small pftrticle ; a small 
piece or fragment of bread; the soft 
part of bread. Crumble (crum^bl), v. to 
break or fall hito small pieces ; to decay. 
Crumpet) «. a soft cake. 

Crura'ple, v. to wrinkle, to ruffle. 

Crunkle (crimklcl), v. to cry like a crane. 

Crup'per, «. a strap to keep a saddle right. 

Cru'ral, a. belonging to the leg. 

Crusa'de, «. an expedition under the ban- 
ner of the Croii against the infidels of the 
Holy Land; a romantic or enthusiastic 
enterprise ; a Portuguese coin, stamped 
with a cross. Crusader, «. one engaged 
in a crusade. 

Cruse (croos), «. a small cup or bottle. 

Cru'set, «. a goldsmith's melting-pot. 

Crush, V. to bruise or break by pressing ; 
to squeeze together ; to overwhelm ; to 
subdue utterly ; to ruin ; to be broken 
down by weight or pressure : «. a violent 
collision and bruising ; ruin. 

Crust, 8. any shell or external coat*.; an 
incrustation ; the outer part of bread or 
pasty : v. to cover with a crust ; to gather 
or concrete into a hard covering. Crusta'- 
cea, [L. ] «. pi. ci-ustaceous animals. Crus- 
taceous (-shus), a. shelly, with Joints, as 
a lobster ; not testaceous, as an oyster. 
Crustation, s. an incrustation. Crust'ily, 
ad. in a crusty manner. Crustiness, s. 
the quality of being crusiy. Crusty, a. 
having a crust; like crust; hard and 
dry; snappish, surly. 

Crutch, s. a support used by cripples. 

Cry, V. to call out, to exclaim, to proclaim, 
to make public; to utter an inarticulate 
voice, as an animal; to squall, as an 
InfEint; to weep: «. a loud voice; clamour, 
exclamation; acclamation; lamentation. 
Cry'ing, p. a. calling aloud; weeping; 
notorious ; enormous : $. the act of cry- 
ing; an outcry. 

Crypt, «. a subterranean cell or cave. 
Cryp'tic, Cryptical, a. hidden; secret. 
Cry*)tically, cid. occultly, secretlv. 

Cryptogam'ic, Cryptog'amous,a. in botany, 
having the fiructification concealed. 

Cryptog'raphy, «. art of writing in ciphers 
or secret characters. 

Crys'tal, s. a transparent mineral; a su- 
perior kind of glass; the glass of a 
watch: a. consisting of crystal; trans- 
parent, clear. Crvstalline, a. resembling 
crystal. Crystallize, v. to form or to be 
formed into crystals. Crystalliza'tion, 
t. the act or process of forming or being 
formed into ciystals. 

Cub, «. the yoimg of a beast, generally of 
a bear or fox : v. to bring forth cubs. 

Cube, «. a regular solid body with six 
equal sides, as a die; the product of a 
number multiplied twice into itself. 
Cu1)ic, Cubical, a. formed like a cube. 
Cubically, ad. in a cubical method. 

Cubic'ular, a. belonging to a bedroom. 

Cubiculary, a. fitted for a recumbent 


Cu'bit, «. a measure of eicjfhteen inches 

(from the dbow to the end of the middle 

finger). Cubital, a. relatiiifir to the arm 

from the elbow downwards : «. a piUow 

for the elbow. 
Cuck'ing-stool, «. a dudUnir-atool used 

formerly for the punishment (rf aooUs. 
Cuck'old, %. the husband of an adultnas: 

V. to make a husband a cuckold. 
Cuck'oo (cook'ooX «. a well-luiown bird. 
Cu'cumber, «. a plant, and its finiit. 
Cud, «. the food which ruminating aninub 

bring from the first stomawch to ehew 

Cud/dle, V. to lie dose or waa%. 
Cud'dy, «. a small cabin in a ship. 
Cud'gel, «. a thick heavy stick: v. tob«it 

or strike with a stick. 
Cue, «. the end or tail of a thing; a hint; 

a rod used in playing billiards. 
Cuerpo, [kwer'po, 8p. J «. bodily shi^; to 

be in cuerpo is to be without the eoator 

outer garment. 
Cuff, 8. a box or a blow with the fist; the 

fold at the end of a sleeve : v. to box or 

strike with the fist. 
Cuirass, [kwe'ras, Fr.1 «. a breastplata 

Cuirassier', «. a soldier armed wuh i 

Cuisine, [kwezeen', Fr.] t. kitchen tip- 

paratus; cookery. 
Cuisse, [kwis, Fr. ] s. armotu: for the thighs. 
Cul-de-sac, Tcool-, Fr.l a street oloeed at 

one end; literally, the IxMom cfamtk. 
Cu'linary, a. relating to the kitchen. 
Cull, V. to select from others; to pick out 

Ciiller, s. one who cuUs. 
Cullender, «. See Colander. 
Cullion, h. a scoundrel ; a mean wreteh. 
Cul'ly, t. a man duped by a woman; i 

mean dupe: v. to trick; to impose upon. 
Culm, s. the stalk or stem of graases. 
Culm, ». a species of fossil coed. 
Cul'men, «. the summit, the highest pcrfnL 
Cul'minate, v. to be in the meridian. Gul* 

mina'tion, s. the rise cd a planet to iti 

meridian or highest point; the most 

elevated position. 
Culi>abirity, «. blamableness. Cul'pafale, 

a. blamable; guilty. 
Cul'pableness, «. culpability ; blame. Cul- 
pably, ad. blamably; guiltily. Culpa- 
tory, a. charging with crime. Culprit, 

$. a man arraigned before a Judge; a 

Cul'tcr, Coulter. See Colter. 
Cul'tivable, a. that may be cultivated. 

Cultivate, v. to till ; to prepare for crops ; 

to improve by culture. Cultiva'tor, s. 

one that cultivates. Cultivation, a. the 

act of cultivating; improvement by 

tillage ; study or cnltiu^ Cul'ture, i. 

the act or practice of cultivating; means 

of improvement : o. to till ; to cultivate. 
Cul'ver, 8. a pigeon or dove. 
Cul'ver-house, «. a dove-cot. 
Cul'verin, «. a species of ordnance. 
CumHson^ a. lying down ; reclining. 
Cum'ber, v. to embarrass, to entangle. 
Cumbersome, a. burdmisome; trouble- 
some. Cumbrance, «. a burden; aa 

«ncum\>TanQe. C^xua^t^itua, «% \xucMMEk> 




i; troublesome. Cumbrously, ad. 
In a cumbrous mamier. 

Cum'fiy. See Comfrey. 

Gum'in, «. an annual plant with seeds of 
an aromatic, bitteiisn taste. 

Cu'mulate, v. to heap or pile up, to amass. 
Cumula'tion, «. the act of heaphig to- 
gether. Cumulatiye, a. consisting of 
parts heaped together; gradually in- 

Cuncta'tor, [L.] «. one given to delay. 

Cu'neal, Gimeate, Cimeated, a. shaped 
like a wedge. Cune'iform, Cu'niform, 
a. having the form of a wed^. 

Cun'ning, a. knowing; skilful; artful; 
sHy; crafty: «. skill; artifice; craft, 
slyness; duplicily. Cunningly, ad. in 
a cunning manner. Gimnmgness, «. 
artifice; craftiness. Cimning-man, a. 
a fortune teller. 

Cup, «. a drinking vessel; the bell or 
calyx of a flower : v. to fix a glass vessel 
on the skin and draw blood by scarifi- 

* cation. Hence Cup'per, one who draws 
blood in this way. Cupping, the pro- 
cess, and Cupping-glass, the vessel used 
for the purpose. 

Cup'bearer, «. an officer of the household. 

Cupboard O^ub'burd), «. a case with 
anelves, originally for cups. Cu'pel, «. 
a small cup used m refining metals. 

Curdd'ity, «. imlawful or inordinate de- 
mx9t particularly for wealth. 

Ca^pola, «. a dome, an arched roof. 

Cu'proous, a. of or like copper. Cuprif- 
erous, a. producing copper. 

Ciur, «. a low or worthless dog ; a snappish 
or mean fellow. See Curtall-dog. 

Cu'iable. a. that may be cured or healed. 
Curableness, Curabil'ity, «. possibility 
to be cured or healed. 

Ouxagoa (kurasoO, s. a liqueur originally 
DMde in the island of Curagoa. 

Ca'xacy, $. the office or district of a. curate. 
Curate, s. an imbeneficed clergyman; 
an assistant to the rector or incumbent. 
Curateship. See Curacy. 

Captive, a. relating to the cure of 
diseases ; tending to cure. 

Cura'tor, [L.] «. one that has the care and 
■apeKintendence of any thing. 

Ovacb, V. to restrain, to check, to bridle : 
«. part of a bridle ; check, restraint. 

Car^ i. the coagulation of milk: v. to 
tozn into curds. Cur'dle, v. to coagulate, 
to turn into curds. Ciird'y, a. coagu- 
lated; concreted. 

Cure, t. a remedy, a restorative ; the act 
of healing ; the benefice or employment 
of a clergyman or curate : v. £o restore 
to health ; to salt or dry ; to preserve. 
Cu'red, p. a. healed ; preserved. Cure- 
less, a. uiat cannot be cured. 

Ciir'few, «. an evening bell (originally, an 
eight o'(dock bell, ordered by William 
the Conqueror, as a notice to put oiU fires 
and lights and retire to rest). 

Curios'i^^. inquisitivencss; a rarity. 

Cnrio^scv pt.] s. one who ia fond of col- 
Ipottig^ rare and curious articles. 


Cu'rious, a. inquisitive; exact; rare; 
nice; odd; queer. 

Cu'riously, ad. inquisitively ; elegantly. 

Cu'riousness, s. state of being ciuious. 

Curl, «. a ringlet of hair ; a ripi>le, a wave : 
V. to turn the hair into ringlets; to 
twist ; to rise in waves or imdulations. 

Curlew, s. a kind of water-fowl. 

Curl'iness, «. the state of being curly. 

Ciu-l'ing, «. a i)opular game in Scotland, 
play^ on the ice. 

Curl'mg-irons, Curling-tongs, 9. an h'on 
instrument for ciurUng the hair. 

Curl'y, a. having curls ; flill of ripples. 

Curmud'geon (-jim), «. a chiurl, a nigsard. 

Cur'rant, «. a well-snown garden finut ; a 
small kind of dried grape imported 
from the Ionian Islands (originally from 

Cur'rency, i. circulation; general recep- 
tion; money, or pai)erpfU3^ng for money. 

Cur'rent, a. runmng ; passing ; generally 
received: «. a running stream; course 
or progression. Cmrently, ad. in con- 
stant motion; with general reception. 
Ciurentness, «. state of being current. 

Cur'ricle, «. an open chaise or chariot with 
two wheels, drawn by two horses abreast. 

Curric'Alum, [L.l «. a race-course; a cha- 
riot; a prescribed course of study, as 
in a college. 

Cur'rier, 8. a dresser of tanned leather. 

Cur'rish, a. snappish, quarrelsome. Cur- 
rishly, cut. in a cumsh manner. Cur- 
rishness, «. snappishness. 

Cur'ry, v. to dress hides after tanning by 
beating, rubbing, &c. ; to rub the uido 
of a horse with a scratching instrument ; 
to tickle or please by flattery; "to 
curry favour." Curry, «. a highly spiced 
East Indian mixture used in cookery. 

Cur'rycomb, «. an iron comb for horses. 

Curse, V. to wish evil to ; to execrate ; to 
anathematize; to torment: «. maledic* 
tion; execration; anathema; torment; 
a great eviL Curs'ed, p. a. execrated ; 
deserving a curse. Cursedly, ad. exe- 
crably; vilely. Cursedness, «. state of 
being cursed. Cursor, «. one who curses 
or swears. Cursing, «. execration; the 
habit of swearing. 

Cur'slve, a, running easily ; rapid. 

Cur'soriness, 8. slight attention. 

Cur'sitor, «. a clerk in Chancery. 

Cur'soidly, ad. hastily, without care. 

Cur'sory, a. hasty, quick ; slight. 

Curst, a. hateful; peevish; froward. 

Cur'sus, [li.] a. a course, a race. 

Curt, a. brief, short; uncourteous. Cuitly, 
ad. briefly; sharply. 

Curtail', v. to cut off; to cut short; to 
shorten ; to abridge. 

Cur'tail-dog, «. a dog whose tail is cut off, 
in accordance with the forest laws; a 
cur or worthless dog. 

Cur'tain, ». the drapery of a bed or win- 
dow ; a term in fortification *. ^ . tA V^aso^ 
or encloM w\.\3ql cuxXaioia. C^s!^»5isv\^ 
ture, «. aUctevrw ^-^wx^Vs^ ai-?<M%Vi\«» 
liuBband \ii. \>e^ 





Cor'tal, a. brief, abridged: f. a dog or 
horse with a docked tall. 

Ciirtar. Bee Conrteay. 

Cu'rule, a. belonging to a chariot. — Oundt 
chair, the seat of a Roman magiatrate. 

Curv'ated, a. bent ; crooked. Gurva'tion, 
t. act of bending * abend. Curv'ature, «. 
aciirve; crookednesa. Curre, «. a bend- 
ing without angles; any thing bent: v. to 
form into a curve ; to bend; to crook. 
CiuVing, «. a bendhig; a curved form. 

Curv'et, i. a leap, a bound, a frolic. 

Curvef, V. to leap, bound, prance, ftisk. 

Curvilin'eal, Curvilinear, a. oonslBting of 
regularly bent or curved Unes. 

Curv'ity, «. state of being curved. 

Cushat (coosh'at), «. the wild pigeon. 

Cushion (coosh'imX t. a soft seat for a chair. 

Cushioned, a. furnished with a cushion. 

Cusp, «. the point or horn of the now moon. 
Cusp'ated, a. ending In a point; pointed. 

Cus'tard, «. milk and eggs sweetened and 
baked or boiled. 

Custo'dial, a. relating to custody. Cus'- 
tody. 8. a keeping or guarding ; guar- 
dianship; imprisonment; care; preser- 
vation; security. 

Cus'tom, «. habitual practice, usage; a 
tax or duty on exports and impons : v. 
to accustom, to make familiar. Custom- 
able, a. common, habitual; subject to 
the payment of duties called ctistomSs 
Custom-house, ». a house where duties 
are received on imports and exports. 

Cus'tomarlly, ad. habitually. Customari- 
ness, «. fii^quency ; commonness. Cus- 
tomary, a. conformable to custom ; 
usual ; common : «. a book of laws and 
customs. Customed, a. accustomed* 
usual Customer, t. an accustomed 

Cus'toms, «. pi. duties on goods Imported 
and exported. 

Cus'tos, «. a keeper (as euitos rotulorunif 
keeper of the rolls and records). 

Cut, V. to separate by an edged Instru- 
ment; to divide; to hew, to carve: 8. a 
wound made by cutting ; a part cut off; 
a near cut or passage ; an engraving or 
printed picture ; shape. 

Cuta'neous, a. relating to the skin. 

Cute, a. sharp, keen (for Acute). 

Cu'ticle. 8. a thin skin ; the scarf skin. 

Cutic'ular, a. belonging to the skin. 

Cut'lass, 8. a broad cutting sword. 

Cutler, t. one who makes knives, &e. 

Cutleiy, 8. ware made by cutlers. 

Cut'Iet, 8. a small chop or steak. 

Out'piutte, 8. a picki)ocket, a thief. 

Cut'ter, 8. one who or that which cuts ; a 
one-masted, swift-sailing vessel (that 
cwU the water). 

Cut'-throat, «. a murderer : a. murderous. 

Cufting, t. the act of cutting; that which 
is cut off: p. a. shaip; severe; sarcastic. 

Cat'tle, t. a fish, which whrai pursued 
throws out a black liquor. 

Oatf-water, «. the forepart of a diip'a prow 

that cuts the water. 
C!r^aU^^.Mairol0;aroundoftlm9, Cyclic, 

Cyclical, a. relating to or d u a i t li i ln y a 
cycle; drcular. 

cycloid, t. a geometrical oarttt. Qyokld'a^ 
a. relating to a cydoid. Qjtdom'eby, t, 
the art of measuring oyclefl. 

Cyclopaa'dia, i. a body or circle of aefflnoes; 
a book of uniyersal knowledge. 

Cydone'an, Cycloplo, a. relaozitf to the 
Cyclops; giganuo; vast; tcorlna 

CygQot, «. a young swan. 

Cyrinder, «. a long round bodvof nnUbrm 
diameter; a roller. Cylin'drio^ Qylin- 
drical, a. like a cylinder. 

Cyrindroid, «. a solid body, ha^lDg its 
bases elliptical, parallel, and equaL 

Cymar', Bimar, t. a kind of scatC 

Cjnn'bal, «. a musical instrument 

Cynic, Cynical, a. relating to the philo- 
sophy of Diogenes or the Cynics ; anari- 
ing, snappish. Cynic, «. a snaner: a 
misanthrope. Cynically, ad. ih a eymetl 
manner. Cyni(»dne88, «. surlikieaa ; mo- 
roseness. Cynicism, t. a moroae oob- 
tempt of the pleasures and arts of lift; 

Oyn'osuro, «. the north polar atar; any 
thing which attracts attention. 

(Ty'press, «. a tree the branches of wiildi 
were anciently used at funerals; an 
emblem of mourning. 

Cyp'rian, a. belonging to the laUmd of 
Cyprus : «. a courtesan. 

Cy^prus, 8. a thin black transparent Btofll 

Cyst, 8. a bag in animal bodies ooutal&lDf 
morbid matter. 

Cyt'isus, 8. a flowering shrub. 

Cisar, 8. the title of the emperor of Rosrfa 
(the Ccesar). Czar'iua (-eena), §. title 
of the empress of Russia. Caaitmlta, a 
the title of the eldest son of the csur 
and czarina. 


D is the fourth letter of the alphabet ; tht 
Roman numeral for 500 ; an abbl^via- 
tion for Doctor, as D.D., Doctor of 
Divinity; a key in music; a sliding 
valve in a steam-engine. 

Dab, V. to strike geutly with something 
moist; to strike softly or gently: a. a 
small, soft lump ; a gentle bu>w ; a small 
flat-fish ; an adept. Dabl>le, v. to play in 
water; to dip slightly ; to touch lightly; 
to meddle in. Dabbler, «. one who dips 
slightly in ; a superficial meddler. 

Dab'chick, «. a smiul water-fowl. 

Dace, 8. a small river fish. 

Dacoit', 8. in Hindostan, one of a gang 
of robbers. 

Dac'tyU «. a poetical foot, consisting of 
one long syllable and two short onea. 

Dad, Dad'dy, «. infant words torfatho'. 

Daffodil, t. a plant with plain yellow 
flowers; the narcissus. 

Daft, a. idiotic ; imbecile in mind. 

Dag'gcr, t. a short sword, a poniard: an 
obelisk, or mark of reference, thua t, 

Dag'gcrs-drawlng, «. the act of arawlst 
daggen; apptoaA\x\Actp«n.'s\{Ann»t. 




Dmg'gletafl, a. bemlred, bespattered. 

Daguerreotype (dager'TO-type\ t. a most 
ingenious process for taking x)ortraits, 
4k., discovered by M. Dagyurrt, 

Dahlia (dal^X ^ *> genus of beautifully 
flowering plants. 

Daily, a. happening every day ; diurnal : 
ad. eveiy day ; veiy often. 

Dain'ty, a. pleasing to the palate: deli- 
cious; deucato; nice: «. an article of 
food which is peculiarly nice ; a delicacy. 
Daintily, ad. aellciousrv ; nicely. Dain- 
tineu, «. the ouaUty of being dunty. 

Dai'iy, «. a nmk farm ; a house where 
mi& is made into butter and cheese. 

Da'is, «. the raised portion of tibe floor in 
a baronial dininghall ; the chief seat at 
the principal table, usually covered with 
a canopy.' 

Dai'sied, a. full of daisies. Daisy, «. a 
small spring flower. 

Dale, 9. a vale, a valley. 

Dalliance, «. interchange of caresses; 
toying; delay. Dallicr, j. one who 
dallies ; a fondler. Dally, v. to sport or 
trifle with ; to fondle ; to delay. 

Dam, «. a mother. See this wora, p. 63. 

Dam, s. a mole or bank to stop water ; a 
floodgate : v. to confine by a dam. 

Dam'age, «. harm or hurt to property or 
person; injiuy; loss; value of what is 
JKWt : pL in law, compensation for iujury 
or loss: v. to hurt; to injure; to im- 
pair ; to lessen the value of. Damage- 
able, a. that may be damaged. 

Dam'ascene, «. the name of a plum ori- 
ginally from DamtucM. It is now 
written Damson. 

Dam'ask, m. linen or silk woven into regular 
flgures : v. to weave in flowers. 

Damaskeen'ing, s. the art of adorning iron 
or steel, by making incisions, and filling 
them up with gold or silver wire. 

Dam'ask-rose, s. the rose of Damasau; a 
ted rose of a very sweet odour. 

Dame, ». a lady ; a matron or mistress. 

Damn (dam), v. to curse ; to doom to tor- 
ments in a future state; to condemn. 
Dam'nable, a. deserving damnation. 
Damnably, ad. in a damnable manner. 
Damna'Uon, s. exclusion from Divine 
mercy, condemnation to eternal punish- 
ment. Dam'natory, a. tending to con- 
demn. Damned (damd, but in serious 
discourse dam'nedX p. a, cursed ; detest- 
able. I^m'nify, v. to injure ; to impair. 

Damp, a. moist; humid; depressed: $. 
moisture; humidity; depression of 
spirits: V. to moisten; to dispirit. 
I^unp'en, v. to make damp or moist. 
Damper, «. one who or that which damps, 
checks, or discourages ; a valve to stop 
sir in a furnace. Dampish, a. somewliat 
damp; moist. Dampishness, «. ten- 
dency to moisture. Dampness, t. mois- 
ture; humidness. Dampy, a. moist; 
dejected; gloomy. 

Dam'sel, m. a young maiden, a girL 

Dam'sox^ m. a olack plum. Bee Danuucent, 

Dtmoe^ r. to more me feet to the sound of 

music : to move nimbly ; to dandle or 

make to dance : ». regiuated motion of 

the feet to musia Dan'cer, «. one that 

practises dancing. 
Dau'cing, $. a motion of the feet to music j 

a frisking about. Dancing-master, «. a> 

teacher of dancing. 
Dan'delion, «. the name of a plant. 
Dan'dify, v. to make Uke a daudy. 
Dou'diprat, $. a little fellow, an urch^ 
Dan'dle, v. to move an infismt up and down 

on the hands to amuse it: to fondle. 
Dan'drif^ Dandrufi^ «. scurf on the head. 
Dan'dy, s. a fop, a coxcomb. Compare 

Dandipnt and JackadoTuiy. Dandyism, 

8. foppery in dress and manners. 
Dane, «. a native of Denmark. 
Da'negelt, t. a tribute paid to the Danes. 
Danger (dsJn'gerX ». risk, hasard, peril. 

Dangerless, a. without hazard, very safe. 

Dangerous, a. full of danger, imsafo. 

Dangerously, ad. with danger ; unsafely. 

Dangerousness, $. danger, peiiL 
Dangle (dang'gljj^ v. to hang loose and 

waving; to bang on any one; to be a 

follower. Daugibr, «. one who dangles 

or hangs about. 
Da'nish, a. relating to the Danes. 
Dank, a. very damp, humid, wet. 
Dank'ish, a. somewhat damp. 
Dank'isliness, s. moisture; dampness. 
Dap'per, a. little and active ; neat, spruce. 
Dap'ple, V. to variegate, to streak. 
Dap'ple-gray, a. f^ray marked with sfmts. 
Dap'pled, a. of different colours, streaked. 
Dare, v. to have sufficient counifje for any 

Surpose ; to venture ; to challenge ; to 
efy. Da'ring, a. bold, fearless, adven- 
turous. Daiingly, ad. boldly ; courage- 
ously. Daringness, «. boldness, fear- 

Dark, a. wanting light, gloomy, obscure : 
«. djirkness, obscurity ; want of light. 
Dark'en, v. to make dark ; to obscure ; 
to perplex ; to grow dark. Darkish, a. 
rather dark; dusky. Darkling, a. in 
the dark (a poetic word). Darkly, ad, 
obscurely, blindly. Darluiess, «. quality 
or state of l)einur dark; want of liglit; 
obscurity ; secrecy ; ignorance ; wicked- 
ness. Darksome, a. gloomy, obscure. 

Dar'ling, «. a favourite : a. dear, beloved. 

DaiTi, V. to mend a rent or hole. 

Dar'nel, ». a common field weed. 

Dart, «. a weapon thrown by the hand : v. 
to lot fly as a dart; to move rapidly. 

Dash, V. to strike against; to break by 
collision ; to fly or start oflT abruptly ; to 
form or sketch in haste ; to obliterate 
with the stroke of a pen ; to confound 
or surprise with shame or fear : t. a 
sudden blow ; a collision ; an admix- 
ture ; a mark in writing, thus ( — ) ; show 
or flourish. 

Dash'ing, a. precipitately driving; showy. 

Das'taro, t. a coward : a. cowardly. 

Dos'tardliness, t. cowardliueas. 

Das'tardly , a. cowar^^ , Xsaaa, WxMstcsoa. 

Da'ta, lUA t, pU fcucfea at \x>aSCaa ^ww^-x 
admittoc^ for finOih^^xQSva&U, 




Date, V. to note the precise time : a. the 

time at which any event happened, or a 

letter is written. Da'teleas, a. having 

no date mentioned. 
Date, 8. the fruit of the date-tree. 
Da'te-tree, «. a species of palm-tree. 
Da'tive, a. in grammar, tne case that sig- 
nifies the person to whom a thing Is 

Daub, V. to smear; to paint coarsely; to 

flatter grossly: «. a coarse painthig. 

Daub'er, $. a coarse painter; a gross 

flatterer. Daubing, «. coarse painting; 

gross flattery. Dauby, a. sleeKy, slimy, 

Daughter (daw'terl i. a female child. 

Daughterlyf ad, like a daughter; dutiful. 
Daunt (dant), v. to check by fear of danger ; 

to discourage; to intimidate. Daunt'- 

loss, a. fearless, bold. Daimtlessness, 

8. fearlessness. See No. 16, p. 15. 
Dau'phin, 8. the title of the heir apparent 

to the crown of France. 
Dau'phiness, «. the wife of the dauphin. 
Daw, «. the name of a bird, the jackdaw. 
Daw'dle, v. to waste or trifle away time. 
Dawn, V. to begin to show day or light ; 

to open upon: 8. break of day; first 

appearance; beginning. 
t)awn'ing, «. the light at break of day. 
Day, 8. vie time between the rising and 

setting of the sun ; the time from noon 

to noon, or from midnight to midnight; 

light as opposed to darkness or night ; 

sunshine; life; an appointed time; an 

age ; a contest, as " to win the day." 
Day1t>ook, s. a tradesman's accoimt-book. 
Day'break, «. the first appearance of day 

or light; the dawn. 
Day'dream, «. a dream or vision to the 

waking senses ; a reverie. 
Day^boiirer, «. one that works or is paid 

by the day. 
Daylight, «. the light of the day. 
Day'spring, 8. the rise of the day. 
Day'Ume, «. the time in which there is the 

light of the Sim. 
Day's-work, «. the work of one day. 
Daze, V. to dazzle : «. a glittering stone. 

Daz'zle, v. to overpower with hght; to 

siuprise with splendoiu*. Dazzling, a. 

overpowering with splendour. 
Dea'con, «. a clergjnnan not yet in priest's 

orders ; in Scotland, a corporate officer. 

Dcaconry, Deaconship, «. the dignity or 

office of a deacon. 
Dead (ded), a. deprived of life ; roiritless; 

dull ; tasteless ; complete or thorough, 

as a dead level. 
Dead'-drunk, a. helplessly intoxicated. 
Dead'en, v. to deprive of Ufe or sensation ; 

to weaken ; to make vapid or tasteless. 
Deadliness, «. the state of being deadly. 
Deadly, a. destructive, mortal, fatal : ad. 

so as to resemble death. 
Dcuidly-night'shade, 8. a poisonous plant. 
Dead'-march, 8. solemn music at a Burial. 
Dead'iicss, «.want of natural or vital iwwer; 

vapidness; inactivity; indifierence. 
Dead'reck'onmg, t. a conjecture of a ship's 

place by the log-book, withomt the ob> 
servation of the heavenly bodies. 

Dead'-water, «. the water that closes in 
with a ship's stem. 

Dead'-weight, «. the weight of a dead or 
slaughtered animal ; a heavy biuden. 

Deaf (oef), a. wanting the sense of hearing. 
Deafen, v. to make dea^ to stapdj. 
Deafness, «. want of the power of hear- 
ing; imwillingness to hear or notia9. 

Deal, 8. a share, a i)ortion, a quantity; a 
thin plank : v. to divide ; to dietributo, 
as cards ; to have dealings or tzansac- 
tions with. Deal'er, s. one who deals ; a 
trader. Dealing, «. traffic; int en x wr ee; 
distributing of cards. D€ttled or Deilt 
(delt), the p. t and p. p. of Deal. 

Dean, s. the second dignitary of a diooese; 
a college officer. Dean'ery, §, the oflke^ 
revenue, or mansion of a dean. 

Dear, a. valuable; costly; beloved: t. a 
word of endearment; darHng. Jkn^- 
bought, a. bought at a high pricei 
Dearly, ad. at a high price ; fondnews, 

Dearth (derth), «. scarcity, want, fiunins. 

Death (deth), 8. the extinction of Ufe: 
mortality; manner of dying; state of 
the dead; i)erdition. Death -bed, «. fbo 
bod or place where one dies : a. dying. 
Deathless, a. never-dying; immartu. 
Death's-door, «. a near approach to death. 
Death-rattie, «. a rattie In the throat of 
one dying. Death-watch, «. a small in* 
sect, whose noise, like the ticking of s 
watcht is superstitiously imagined to 
f orbode death. 

Debar', v. to bar out; to exclude: to pre- 
clude ; to hinder; to deprive oL 

Debark', v. See Disembark. 

Debarka'tion, «. See DisembarkaiioD. 

Deba'se, v. to bring low ; to degrade ; to 
vitiate, to adulterate. Debasement^ t* 
the act of debasing ; degradation. 

Deba'table, a. affi>rdingroom for debate. 

Deba'te, «. a discusaon ; a dispute ; aeon- 
test; strife: v. to contend for in aigu- 
ment ; to discuss ; to dispute. Debator, 
8. one who debates; a controversialist. 
Debating-society, «. an assodatioii fiar 
improvement in public discussicm. 

Debauch', «. drunkenness ; intemperance; 
lewdness : v. to commt ; to violate; to 
seduce. Debauchee (deb-o-shee'X a a 
drunkard; a rake. Debauch'eiy, «. tiie 
act of debauching ; corruption. 

Deben'ture, «. a writ, or writtesi instru- 
ment, by which a debt is claimed. 

Debilitate, v. to weaken, to enfeeble. 

Debilitating, a. calculated to weaken. 

Debilita'tion, «. the act of weakening. 

DebUlly, «. weakness of body or mSid. 

Debit, 8. the debtor side of an account: «. 
to charge as a debtor. 

Debonair, a. elegant ; well-bred : gay. 

Debonairly, ad. with a genteel air. 

Debouch, [de-boosh, Fr.] v. to issue w 
march out of a narrow place or defile. 

Debiis, [debree, Fr.] «. pi. fragments of 
rocks ; niins ; the wreck or remains of 
\ a touted, oxm^. 




Debt (dot), t. that which one owes to 
uiotner; that which is morally due. 
Debfor, t. one that owes money, or who 
is under an obligation : the side of an ac- 
count-book in which debts are char);red. 

Debut, [deboo', Fr.1 «. a beginning or first 
ai}pc»rance, as of an actor. Debutant 
(-tang), «. one who makes Ms debut. 
l>ebutante(-tantX ». a female who makes 
her debut. 

Doc'ade, a. the sum or number of ten. 

Deca'dence, Decadency, «. a falling off; 
decay; decline. 

Dec'aRon, m. a figure of ten sides. 

Dcc'aiogue(-log),«. the ten commandments. 

Decam'eron, a. abook in ten parts ; as the 
Decameron of Boccaccio. 

Decamp', v. to shift a camp : to move off. 

Decamp'ment, «. the act ox shifting the 
camp; marching or moving off. 

Decant', v. to pour off gently, as wine. 

Docanta'tion, a. the act of decanting. 

Decan'ter, a. a table bottle for wine. 

Decap'itate, v. to behead. 

Decapita'tion, a. the act of beheading. 

Decay', a. a gradual falling away; a de- 
dine : V. to £EiIl or wither away ; to de- 
cline. Decaying, p. a. failing; subject 
to decay. 

Dece'ase, a. departure from life, demise; 
9. to die, to depart from life. 

Dece'aaed, a. departed from life, dead. 

Deceit (-seet'X s. duplicity ; guile ; artifice; 
fraud. Deceitful, a. full of deceit ; frau- 
dulent. Deceitfully, ad. in a, deceitful 
manner. Decoitfulness, s, disi)osition to 

Deceive (-ceeV)* v. to mislead intcntion- 
ally; to impose upon; to delude. De- 
oerver, a. one who deceives ; an impostor. 
Deooivable, a. that may be deceived. 

Deoem'ber, a. the last month of the year. 

Deoem'virate, a. a government by decem- 
virs. Decemvir, a. one of the decemviri, 
or ten governors of ancient Home. De- 
cemvii^ a. the ten governors of Rome. 

De'cency, a. propriety, modesty, decorum. 

Decen'nial, a. of or containing ten years. 

De'eent^ a. becoming, suitable, modest. 

De^cently, od. in a becoming manner. 

Dfwep'tible, a. liable to be deceived. De- 
cepfclQai, a. act of deceiving ; state of be- 
ing deceived; deceit; miud. Decei>- 
tiocui (HEdiusX a. deceitful, fraudulent. 
DeoeptXve, a. deceiving; misleading. 

Deoeraf , a. plucked, cropped. 

Ded'dable, a. that may bo decided. De- 
cide, V. to determine ; to settle ; to con- 
clude on ; to resolve on. Decided, p. a. 
determined; decisive. .Decidedly, ad. 
in a decided manner. 

Dedd'uous, a. falling off, not perennial. 

Decimal (des'-X a. numbered by ten : a. a 
tenth. Decimally, ad. by means of 
decimals. Decimate, v. to take the tenth. 
Dedma'tion, a. the act of decimating or 
taking every tenth. 

Deci'pher, v. to explain wliat is written 
in dpbera or searet characters; to un- 
nref what d intricate. Deciphering, 

a. the act of explaining ciphers, or diffi« 
cult writing. 

Decision, a. act of deciding; that which is 

' decided; a conclusion; firmness; judg- 
ment or official opinion of a court, &c. 
Deci'slve, a. terminating; final; posi- 
tive. Decisively, ad. in a decisive man- 
ner. Decisiveness, a. the quality of 
being decisive. 

Deck, V. to cover over ; to dress ; to adorn ; 
to furnish with a deck : a. the floor of a 
ship; a pile of cards. Deck'er, a. one 
who decks or adorns ; spoken of ships, 
as a two-decker^ or three-decker. 

Declaim', v. to harangue; to speak to the 
passions. Declaimer, a. one who de- 
claims. Declama'tion, a. a discourse 
addressed to tho passions, a harangue. 
Declam'atory, a. full of declamation. 

Decla'rable, a. that may be declared. De- 
clara'tion, a. the act of declaring; that 
which is declared; an affirmation; a 
proclamation. Declar'atlve, a. that de- 
clares or proclaims; explanation. De> 
claratory, a. making clear, affirming; 
confirming a former law. Decla're, v. 
to make kaown ; to tell or affirm openly ; 
to proclaim; to decide in favour of. 
Declaredly, ad. avowedly; explicitly. 

Declen'sion, a. declination, descent; in< 
fiexion of noims; corruption of m(»tUs. 

Decli'nablo, a. that may be declined. De- 
clina'tion, a. descent; the act of bend- 
ing ; in astronomy, distance of a celestial 
body from the equinoctial. Declina'tor, 
a. an instrument for taking the declhia- 
tion of the stars. Declin'atory, a. an 
instrument used in dialling; a decli- 
nator. Decli'ne, v. to lean, to bend, to 
decay; to shun; to refuse; to inflect 
words: a. a decay; diminution; a ten- 
dency to worse. 

Decliv'ity, a. a gradual descent; a slope. 

Decocf, V. to prepare by boiling in; to 
seethe; to digest. Decoc'tible, a. that 
may be decocted. Decoction, a. the act 
of decocting; a prei)aration made by 
boiling. Dccoctlve, a. having power to 

Decompo'sable, a. that may be decom- 
posed. Decompose, v. to resolve or 
separate into the constituent or ele- 
mentary parts; todecom^imd; to dis- 
solve. Decomi)osition (-zish'un^, a. the 
act of decomposing; a separation into 
the elemental^ parts. 

Decomxwimd', v. to decompose. 

Dec'orate, v. to adorn, to embellish. De- 
cora'tion, s. the act of decorating; an 
ornament; an embellishment. l)ec'o- 
rative, a. fitted to adorn. Decorator, a. 
one who decorates. 

Deco'rous, a. decent, suitable, becoming. 

Deco'rously, ad. in a becoming manner. 

Decor'ticate, v. to strip off the bark. 

Deco'rum, a. decency, order, seemliness. 

Decoy', a. a lur^ to cai\jCi\i."^»'CkA. VsssV, \ia» 
place lor c^k^YiVnig Wiem. Vxi\ « . V> «a2Qx% 
mto a snaxQ or ixefe ; lo ■misS^«adu Ti«R»l' 
duck, s . a ducVc >u»^ V> \«»A. cWa«w 




» not; a person emidoyad to decoy 
others ; allurement to misohlef . 

Deaw'ase, v. to now less; to be diminished : 
». a growing less; a decay. 

Decree', v. to determine, to ordain, to 9^ 
point: s. an edict; a law. 

Dec'rement^ «. decrease: diminution. 

Decrep'it, a. wasted and worn by age. 

Dccrep'itate, v. to crackle by heat. 

Decrepita'tion, a a crackling noise. 

Decrepitude, a the broken down state of 
body produced bv old age. Decrepit- 
ness is rarely used. 

Decres'cent, a. growing less, decreasing. 

Decre'tal, a. pertaining to a decree : 8. a 
book of decrees or edicts ; a letter of the 
Pope. Decretist, «. one who studies the 
decretals. Decretive, a. having the 
force of a decree. Dec'retory, a. estab- 
lished by decree ; finaL 

Decri'al, «. a crying down; clamorous 
censiuti. Decrier, a. one who decries. 
Decry', v. to cry down, to clamour 
against ; to censure strongly ; to dispar- 
age ; to depreciate. 

Decuba'tion, s. the act of lying down. 
Decimi'bence, Decumbency, «. the act 
or po8tiu*e of lying down. Decumbent, 
a. lying down : low. 

Dec'uple, a. tenfold ; repeated ten times. 

Docu'rion, s. a commanaer of ten men. 

Decur'rent, a. running or extending down- 
ward. Decursion, s. act of running 
downward. Decursive, a. running or 
extending downward. 

Decus'sate, v. to intersect at acute angles. 
Decussa'tion. a an intersection or ci'oss- 
ing at unequal angles. 

Ded'alous, a. in botany, having a margin 
with various windings and tmnings. 

Ded'icate, v. to devote or consecrate to ; 
to inRcribe to: a. consecrated to; in- 
scribed to. Dedica'tion, t. consecration ; 
a complimentary address prefixed to a 
book by the author. Ded icator, «. one 
who dedicates his work to a patron. 
Dedicatory, a. comprising a dedication. 

Dedu'ce, v. to draw or infer from. Dedu- 
cible, a. that may be deduced. Deduct', 
V. to take from, to subtract. Deduc'- 
tion. t. the act of deducting ; an abate- 
ment; an inference. Deduct'ive, a. 
that may be inferred. Deductively, ad. 
by regular deduction. 

Deed, «. an action, an exploit, a laot; a 
writing containing a legal contract. 

Deem, v. to jud^; to conclude; to think. 

Doem'stor, s. a judge in the Isle of Han. 

Deep, a. far to the bottom; profotmd; 
sagacious : insidious ; dark-coloured ; 
gravs : m. the sea; the ocean: ad. deeply ; 
to a great dejith. Deep'en, v. to make 
deep or deeper; to grow deep. Deeply, 
ad. to a great depth ; profoundly. Deep- 
laid, a. laid deeply; well-concerted. 
Deep-mouthed, a. having a loud, hol- 
low voice. Deepness, a depth; pro- 
fundity ; cunning. Deep-read (-i^d), a. 
paroiowadly yeraed In Dooks. Deep- 
toned, tf. bmvingtklow, fonoroiui tone. 

Deer, a aforeet animal hunted l<4'wnisQiL 
Deer'-stalking; a lying in walk or under 
cover, to shoot deer. 

Defa'ce, v. to disfigure; to eraae; to mar. 
Defacement, a injuiy to the maUot; 
disfigurement ; erasure. Defiuier, a oof 
who defaces <x disfigures. 

De facto, [L.^ in fact or reality. 

Dcf&l'cate, v. to lop off; to take away. 
Defalca'tion, a a cutting off; a diminu- 
tion ; a deficit of funds. 

Defama'tion, a detraction ; slander. De- 
fam'atory, a. calumnious; libdloaa. 
Defa'me, v. to calumniate; te libel; 
Def amer, a a caliunniator. 

Default', s. failiu-e; omission; defect; 
non-appearance of a defendant. Do- 
faulter, s. one who &ils to pay or to 
acooimt for public money. 

Dcfcas'ance, s. an annulling or wi^vfyg 
void; a writing which thus annitla 
Dcfcasable, a. tlmt may be annulled. 

Defeat', v. to overthrow, to frustrate: a 
an overthrow, a frustration. 

Defecate, v. to purify from lees, asliquaHi; 
to cleanse or make clear. 

Defect', 9. a want or deficiency ; an imper* 
fection; a blemish. Defec'tion, a a 
failure ; a falling away ; a revcdL Do- 
fective, a. full of defects; imperfect 
Defectively, ad. imperfectly. Dexeotiye* 
ness, «. state of being defective. 

Defen'ce, 8. an act of resistance ; a veitel 
or written vindication; a guard. De- 
fenceless, a. without deience; un- 
guarded. Defencelessness, «. an unpro- 
tected state. 

Defend', v. to protect, to vindicate, to 
uphold. Defendable. See DefensiUe. 

Defend'ant, «. one who defends or oppoooi 
an action at law. 

Defend'er, «. a protector ; a champion. 

Def ens'ible, a. that may be defended. 

Dofen'slve, a. serving to defend: s. that 
which defends ; a uif^iard. 

Defens'ively, ad. in a defensive manner. 

Defer', V. to put off, to delay ; to submit 
to the judgment of another. Def ereooe, 
a yielding to the judgment or wishes of 
another; respect. Deferen'tial, a. ex- 

grossing deference. Deferentiidly, od. 
\ a deferential manner. Defer^nent, 
a a putting off; a postponemmt. 

Defi'ance, a act of defying ; a challenga 

Deficiency (-fish'en-cy), «. a falling short; 
imperfection. Dtfleienctt the same but 
little used. Deficient, a. failing; de- 
fective ; imperfect. Diefidently, ad. in 
a deficient manner. Deficit, a defi- 
ciency in an account. 

Dcfi'er, a a challenger, a contemner. 

Defile, V. to make foul, to pollute. DefiK 
s. a narrow pass in which troone can 
mss only in file : v. to go off file by ftie. 
Defiled, p. a. polluted, corrupted. De- 
filement, a pollution, comiptiaB. De- 
filer, «. a corrupter, a violater. 

Defi'nable, a. tiliat mav be defined. De- 
ftne, «. to |A.vei>akxQ AgmnVy^itn\ \offr\jbifa. 




tela, limitod, predM. Definiteness, 
ff. oertalnty, UmitednMS. Definition 
(-nisfa^X *• ft ibort description of a 
thing Ij iti properties, or the exact 
meaning of a word; an explanation. 
D^lnltlre, a. determinate; positive; 
fonnal: «. a word whioh defines or 
limits. I>efiniUTe]7, od. in a definite 

Deflect', V. to bend from ; to turn aside ; 
to derriate. Deflec'tion, t. a turning 
from a right line; a bending down; 

DefloYate, a. having shed the pollen or 
fecundating dust, a botanical term. 

Deflora'tlon, «. the act of deflourlng. 

Deflour', v. to take away the flower or 

* beauty of any thing; to defile or pollute. 

Defluxlon, s. a flowing down or off, as of 
humours of the body. 

Deform', v. to disfigure ; to mar ; to make 
ugly. Doforma'uon, t. a dififigiimtion 
or defacing. Defonn'cd, p. a. disflgiircd; 
ditftorted; ugly. Deformity, «. distor- 
tion; ugliness. 

Defraud', v. to deprive of by fraud or 
trick ; to cheat ; to deceive. Dufrauder, 
«. one who defirauds or cheats. Def reud- 
ment, «. the act of defrauding. 

Defray', v. to bear the charges or exncnfscs 
of ; to wy. Defrayer, s . one who do- 
fhiys. Defrayment, s. the payment of 

.Deftt, a. neat: spruce; dexterous. 
Deftly, ad. neatly ; dexterously. 

DefuncT, a, dead, extinct: b. a dead 

Defy', V, to challenge, to dare ; to brave. 

Degen'eracy, «. domrtiu'o from ancestral 
^rtue; state of betug degenerated; 
meanness; baooiiess. Dc;;cnenito, v. 
to decay in virtue or race; to grow 
worse ; to grow base : a. degenerated ; 
unworthy ; base. Degenerately, ad. in 
a degenerate manner. Degeneratcucss, 
s. deifeneracv. 

Deglutition (-tish'un), t. the act of swal- 

Degrada^tion, «. act of dcgradinpr; sta^o 
M being dcg^radod; baseneKS. Dcgra'dc, 
«, to deprive of office, rank, or title ; to 
lower or depress ; to disgrace. Dcgrad- 
ingly. ad. in a deg^rading manner. 

Degreer, «. a step ; rank ; station ; rank or 
title at a university ; the S60th port of a 
eirole; 60 gec^^pliical miles. 

Dehorf, v. to dissuade against. De- 
horta*ti<m, s. dissuasion against. De- 
hort'atory, a. dissuading a^minst. 

Delfloa''tlon,«. the act of deifying. Deified, 
«. a. made a god of ; ranked with gods. 
Deify, V. to make a cfod of ; to adore. 

Deign (dane), v. to think worthy ; to con- 
descend to ; to vouchsafe ; to grant. 

Del gratia, [L-l by the grace of God. 

Pelsm, i. beliel in the existence of God 
oou|ded with disbelief of revealed re- 
ligimi. Dedst, s. one who professes 
OB, Deist^oA^ A belonging to deism. 
r,M.tba tHriae Being; Qod, 

Deject', V. to cast dovm; to depress; to 
make sad ; to dishearten. Defected, a. 
cast down; depressed; sad. Dejectedly, 
act. in a delected manner. Dejeo^on, 
i. state of neing dejected; depression 
of spiritsj melancholy. 

Delefiner, [day-zheu-nay, Pr.] s. a break- 
fast : V. to breakfast. 

Dela/, V. to put off; to postpone ; to stop ; 
to retard; to hinder: «. a deferring; 
stop ; hinderance. Delayer, t. one who 
delasrs or hinders. 

Dele, [dold, L.] blot out or erase. Dcl'oble, 
a. tnat can be erased. 

Delec'table, a. dolightftil, pleasing. 

Delec'tableness, «. deUghtfulness. 

Dcloc'tably, ad. delightfully ■ pleasantly. 

Delecta'tion, a. pleasure, delight. 

Del'egate, v. to send as a deputy; to com- 
mit or intrust to another's power; to 
depute: «. a deputy: a. deputed. — Court 
of DdegateSy s. an ecclesiastical comt of 
appeal. Deloga'tion, s. act of delegat- 
ing ; the persons delegated. 

Dclcn'da, [L.] words to be blotted out. 

Delete'rious, a. destructive, deadly. 

Del'ctory, t. that which blots out. 

Delf, Delft, «. a kind of counterfeit China- 
vrare, made originally at Delft. 

Dclib'erato, v. to wei<]^h or balance in tlio 
mind; to consider thoughtftill v : o. 
well considered. Deliberatolv, ad. in a 
deliberate manner. Delibora tion, «. act 
of deliberating; mutual consultation. 
Deliberative, a. that doiiborates ; acting 
with deliberation. 

Del'icacy, «. diiintincss, nicety; scrupu- 
lousness ; tcnduniess. Delicate, a. Yiico, 
dainty, fyjlito, pure, fine. Delicately, 
ad, daintily; with delicacy. Delicate- 
ncss, «. tenderness, cffeininacy. 

Delicious (de-lish'us), a. giving delight;, 
sweet; charming. Delieiously, ad. de- 
lightfully; sweetly. Duliciousncss, ». 
deliirlit: sweetness. 

Delight' (lite), «. ioy, satisfaction, plea- 
sure: V. to give delight; to please neatly. 
DclightfXil, a. affording ^at aciight; 
charming; lovely. iJehghtfully, aiL 
cbiunningly. Delightfulness, «. grvat 
delight ; Joy. Delightsome, a. affording 

Deliu'cate, v. to draw the outline ; to de- 
sign ; to sketch ; to depict ; to i>ortray ; 
to describe. Delinea'tlun, «. an outline 
or sketch, either ])ictorial or descriptive. 

Delinquency (de-link'weu-sy), «. iailnro or 
omission of duty; faxilt; offence: crime. 
Delinquent, 8. an offender ; a criminal. 

Deliqxiesce (-kwess'), v. to liquefy or melt 
slowlv. Deliquescent, a. liquefying ia 
the air. 

Dclir'ious, a. light-headed, raving. De« 
liriousness, «. the state of one delirious. 
Delirium, [L.] 8. alienation of mind.— 
Delirium trement^ 8. a disciise of the 
brain ; almast peculiar to dTva\kax^. 

Deliv'er, v. to boI ticA \ \ATc\caaA\ \a ^% 
up ; to wtter ; to tft^^ \AiWa. Xft -. 

DeUv'eT&YAe, a. \.\i»d6 xqks "^ wflcWB** 




Deliv'erance, «. freedom from ; utterance. 

Deliv'erer, $. one who delivers. Delivery, 
i. a giving up ; a release : utterance or 
pronunciation; childbirth. 

Delphin (del'finX a. relating to the 
Dauphin of France ; an edition of Latin 
Classics, prepared under Louis XIV. for 
the Dauphin's use ("in usum Del- 

Del'ta, «. the Greek letter a ; a trlangiilar 
tract of land between the diverging 
mouths of a river. Deltoid, a. like a 
delta in shape. 

Delu'dable, a. liable to be deceived. De- 
lude, V. to mislead by arts ; to deceive. 
Deludor, «. a beguiler ; a deceiver. 

Deluge (delluje), s. a general inimdation; 
the great Flood : v. to overflow ; to in- 
undate ; to overwhelm ; to drown. 

Delu'sion, s. act of deluding; state of being 
deluded; deception; a cheat; error. 
Delusive, a. tending to deceive ; decep- 
tive ; illusory ; vain. Delusively, ad. m 
a delusive manner. Delusiveness, i>, 
tendency to deceive. 

Delve, V. to dig with a spade. Delv'er, «. 
one who digs with a spade. 

Dem'agogue (-gog), «. a leader of the 
people ; a popiuar and factious orator 
or agitator. Demagogism, s. the arts or 
practices of demagogues. 

Domain. See Demesne. 

Demand', v. to claim by right ; to ask for 
with authority : «. a claim by right ; an 
asking hy authority ; a desira to possess 
that which is claimed. Demander, s. 
one who demands. 

Demond'able, a. that may be demanded. 

Demarca'tion, «. separation of territories. 

Demean', v. to dejfjort or conduct one's 
self well or iU. Demeanour, s. deport- 
ment; behaviour. 

Demen'ted, a. infatuated, insane. 

Demer'it, s. the opi)osite to merit ; fault. 

Demesne (de'maiu). See this word, p. 42. 

Dom'i, a prefix signifying lialf. Demi- 
devil, s. a half devil; a monster in vice. 
Demi-god, a. a half god ; a hero deified. 
Demi-mne, «. a half moon, a term in for- 

Dem'i-quaver, a. in music, half a quaver. 

Dem'irep, «. a woman of (demi or ludf 
Tepvtaiion) suspicious chastity. 

Demi'se, «. death, decease : v. to grant at 
one's death ; to bequeath ; to transfer. 

Demi-semi-quaver, a. the shortest note in 
music (the half of a semi-quaver). 

Democ'racy, a. a form of government, in 
which the sovereign power is lodged in 
the body of the people. 

Dem'ocrat, a, one devoted to democracy. 

Democraf ic. Democratic^ a. relating to 
a democracy ; popular. 

DemoVish, v. to throw down a pile or 
fitructure; to overthrow; to destroy. 
Demolition (-lish'im), a. the act of demo- 
lishing; destruction. 

Pe'mon, a. a spirit, generally an evil one. 
Demonol'atry, a. the worship of de- 
JO0J13. Demo'm&Cf a. one possessed with 

a demon. Demoniac, Demoniacal, a. 
pertaining to demons; influenoed Uy 
demons. De'monism, a. demonolatiy. 
Demonol'ogy, a. a treatise on demons. 
Demon'strable, a. that may be demon* 
strated. Demonstrably, ad. with de- 
monstration. Demonstrate, or Dem'on- 
strate (71, p. 25X v. to show plainly; to 
prove with certainty ; to show by ex- 

Seriments. Demonstra'tion, a. the act o! 
emonstrating ; clear and certain proof; 
a movement of troops towards a pobit 
or place, as if to attack. Demoxrsbna- 
tive, a. having the pow«r of demonstxa- 
tion; invincibly condusive. Demon- 
straUvely, ad. in a demonsln^tive man* 
ner. Dem'onstrator, a. one who demoQp 

Demoraliza'tion, a. destruction of moral 
principles. Demor'alize, v. to deprive 
of moral principles or habits : to corrupt. 

Demurcent, a. any medicine that soft^ 
or mollifies : a. softening, mollifying. 

Demur', v. to delay, to hesitate ; £o delay 
a process in law by doubts and objee- 
tions: a. doubt; hesitation. 

Demu're, a. of serious or pensiTe look; 
very grave; afiectedly modest. De- 
murely, ad, in a demure manner. De- 
mureness, a. gravity of aspect; affected 

Demiur'rage (-raj), a. an allowance paid 
for detaining ships. Demurrer, «. (hm 
who demurs ; a stop in a lawsuit. 

Demy', a. a kind of paper (d^mi-sized). 

Den, «. a wild boast s hole or abode. 

Dcna'rius, a, a Roman silver coin; in law, 
an English penny. 

Den'aiy, a. containing or relating to ten. 

Dena'tionalize (-nash'-), v. to dejaive of 
national rights or character. 

Den'drite, a. a stone or mineral havfaig 
figures of treea or shrubs. Den'dndite, 
a. a petrified tree or branch. 

Deni'able, a. that may be denied. Denial, 
a. affirmation to the contrary; reftisal 
to ^r«D^.\ disavowal.— i9e(/'-d[enia2 is a 
declming of some gratification. D)enier, 
a. one who denies; a disowner. 

Denier (deneer'X a. an old French odn, 
the twelfth of a sol or penny. 

Denizen, a. one not a native, but made a 

Denom'inate, v. to give a name to; to 
name; to style or designate. Denomi- 
.na'tion, a. the act of naming; a name; a 
class; a sect. Denominational, a. per- 
taining to a denomination or body called 
by the same name; sectarian. Deno- 
minationally, ad. according to denomi- 
nations. Denom'inative, a. conferring 
a name. Denominator, «. ^e giver of a 
name; the number below the Ihie in a 

Deno'te, v. to mark; to betoken; to be a 
sign of; to signify; to imply. 

Denouement, [de-noo-mdng^ Fr.]<. a wind- 
ing up; an explanation. 

Denoxm'ce, v. to threaten by proclama- 




mont, a. declaration of a threat. Da- 
iiounoer, t. one who denounces. 

Dense, a. oloee^ compaeL ahnoet solid. 
Deniieneafly a. state of being dense. 
Den'sity, 8. (doeeness, compactness. 

Dont» «. a mark made by a tooth or by a 
stroke with something hard; an inden- 
tation: V. to indent; to mark with 
notohee. Den'tal, a. relating to tlie teeth. 
Dentate, Dentated, a. toothed; notched. 
Denticle, a. a point like a small tooth. 
Dentio'ulate, Denticulated, a. having 
small teeth or notches. Denticula'tion, 
t. a small indentation. Dentifrice (-frIssX 
a. something to cleanse the teeth ; tooth- 
powder. Den'til, a. a tooth-like orna- 
ment in cornices. Dentist, «. a surgeon 
or doebm for the teeth. Dentition 
(-tish'mi), a. the cutting of teeth in in- 
fancy. Den'toid, a. like a tooth in 

Denu'de^ «. to make naked; to strip; to 
digest. — Denudatef the same, but little 
used. Denuda'tion,*. the act of making 
naked <»r bare. 

Denun'date, v. to denounce. Denimcia'- 
Uon, a, the act of denouncing; a public 
menace or threat. Denun'ciator, «. one 
who denoimces. Denimciatory, a. de- 
noiuudng, threatening. 

1kBaj*t V. to declare untrue; to refuse to 
grant; to disown. 

Deoiystraent, a. removing obstructions: 
a. any aperient medicine. 

De'odand, a. anything forfeited to the 
king; orij^nally, to be given for pious 

Deo'domat, t. an agent for deodorizing. 
Deodorize, v. to free from or remove a 
bad smell. 

Depart', v. to go away; to leave; to die. 

Department, a. a separate office or duty; 
a division or province. Departmen'tol, 
a. belonging to a deportment. 

Depar'ture, a. the act of going away. 

Depau'perate, v. to make x>oor. 

D^ena, v. to hang from ; to rely on. 

D^Mnd'ence, a. state of being dependent 
or subordinate. Dependency, s. a de- 
pendent territory or colony. Dependent, 
a. hanging from or down ; In the power 
ofanoCLer : a. one who lives in subjection 
to another; a retainer. 

DejpieV, V. to paint; to portray. 

Depil'atory, a. taking off the hair. 

D^le'tion, «. act of emptying out or from. 

Deplo'rable, a. that 13 to be deplored. 
l>eplorableness, a. the state of being de- 
plorable. Deplorably, ad. in a deplo- 
ratde manner. Deplore, v. to lament; 
to bewail; tomoxun. 

D<^oy', V. to spread wide, to display. 

Deplu'me, v. to strip off the feathers. 

Depolarize, v. to deprive of polarity. 

Depo'ne. v. to testify on oath. Deponent, 
t. a witness on oath: a. in Latin gram- 
mar, Terbs that have apassive form with 
an active aigaMcaMon. 
Vepop'hlate, p. to UDpeoplo, to lay waste. 
Depcpttla'tkm, $. the act ot depopulating; 

havoc, destruction, waste. Depop'u- 
lator, a. one who depopujates. 
Deport', V. to demean, to behave. De- 

!)ortment, a. carriage, demeanour, be- 

Dex)orta'tion, a. transportation, exile. 

Depo'sal, a. the act ot deposing. 

Depo'se, v. to lay down ; to bear witness ; 
to displace from a throne ; to degrade. 

Depos'it, a. anything lodged in trust; a 
pledge: v. to lay down; to lodge as a 
pledge or security. Depositary, a. one 
with whom any thing is lodged in trust. 
Deposition (-zish'un), a. the act of depos- 
ing ; written testimony on oath. De- 
Bjs'itor, a. one who makes a deposit, 
epository, a. a store or warehouse. 

Depot, [de-po'. Ft.] ». a place of deposit ; a 
warehouse or mag^azine ; a place for mi- 
litary stores or recruits. 

Depmva'tion, a. act of making worse. De- 
pra've, v. to vitiate, to corrupt. De- 
pravedly, ad. in a depraved manner. 
Depravement, a. a vitiated state. Dc- 
prav'ity, «. state of being depraved; 
corruption; vice. — Depravedneaa, the 

same ; but little used. 

Dep'recate, v. to pr^ earnestly against ; to 
regret deeply. Depreca'tion, a. act of 
deprecating; a prayer ag^Unst an ex- 
pected evil. Dep recatory. Deprecative, 
a. deprecating, tending to deprecate. 

Depre'ciate, v. to lessen in price or value. 

Deprecia'tion, a. a lessening of the value. 

Depre'ciative, a, tending to depreciate. 

Depre'ciator, a. one who depreciates. 

Depreda'tion, a. a robbing, a spoiling. 

Dep'redator, a. a robber, a plunderer. 

Depress', v. to press down ; to humble ; to 
degrade ; to abuse ; to deject. Depressed, 
p. a, pressed down ; dejected. Depres- 
sion, 8. lowness of spirits; the act of 
pressing down or humbling. Depres'- 
slvc, a. tending to depress. 

Depri'vable, a. liable to deprivation. De* 
priva'tion, a. the act of depriving ; stato 
of being deprived ; loss. Depri've, v. to 
take from, to bereave. 

Depth, 8. deepness, or measure trora the 
surface downwards ; a deep place ; the 
middle, as of the wintor; profimdity; 

Deputa'tion, a. act of deputing ; the per- 
sons deputed ; delegation. Depu'to, v. 
to send with a special commission; to 
delegate ; to empower to act Dep'uty, 
a. any one that transacts business for 
another, a substitute, a viceroy. 

Dera'nge, v. to turn out of the proper 
coiu*se; to confuse; to disorder the mind. 
Deranged, p. a. disordered; delirious. 
Derangement, a. disorder ; ixisanity. 

Der'elict, a. abandoned ; utterly forsaken. 
Derelic'tion, a. the act of forsaking; 
desertion; abandonment. 

Dori'de, v. tola.\\g\ia.\,\ Vi -Asa^cMSkft*, \a«mA 
at ; to mock.; \» ^eet. "S>«A^»e2..5l.*'^ 

in a \oeTV3Da Toajcawt MtBMMsa, %._>»■ 
act of deiidSn« \ coat 

'. 2 




Derldve, a. ridiculine; leoffing. Deri- 
sively, ad, with deiiuon. 

Deri'vable, a. that maybe derived. Deri- 
va'tion, 9. a drawing <»: deducing from a 
source : the tracing of a word from its 
original; the wcMrd so traced. Deriva- 
tive, a. derived from another: $. the 
word or thing derived from another. 
Derivatively, ad. In a derivative manner. 
Deri've, v. to deduce from its original ; 
to owe its origin to ; to descend from. 

Dorm, i. the true sldn which covers ani- 
mal bodies. Derm'al, a. pertaining to 
the skin ; composed of skin. 

Der'nier, [Fr.J a. the last, the only remain- 
ing. See No. 89, p. 29. 

Der'ogate, v. to detract from ; to disparage : 
a. leaaenod in value, damaged. Dero- 
^'tion, a. the act of lessening or detract- 
mg from ; disparagement. Derog'atory, 
a. detracting; lessening the reputation 
or value of. Derogatorily, ad. in a de- 
tracting manner. 

Der'rick, $. a kind of tackle used in ebips ; 
a machine for raising heavv weights; a 
huge floating crane for raising sunken 

Der'vis, a. a Turkish monk or priest. 

Des'cant, «. a song or tune in parts ; a dis- 
course; a disquisition. D«9cant^, v. to 
discourse at large upon. 

Descend', v. to go or come down ; to sink. 
Descendant, 8. one descended or sprung 
from ; the ofispring of an ancestor. De- 
scendent, a. descending ; sinking ; fall- 
ing. Descen'sion, s. act of descending ; 
descent. Descent', a. a falling or coming 
down ; a declivity ; an invasion ; lineage. 

Descri'hable, a. capable of description. 

DescrilM, V. to represent bywords ; to draw 
a plan of ; to delineate ; to relate. 

DoRcri'er, a. one who descries. 

DoHcrip'tion, a. the act of describing; are- 
presentation ; a delineation. 

DcBcrip'tive, €L giving a description. 

Descry', v. to spy out; to discover. 

Des'ecrate, v. to pervert from a sacred pur- 
pose; to profane. Desecra'tion, a. the 
act of desecrating; a profanation. 

Desert', a. degree of mcnit or demerit, es- 
peciallv the former; claim of ri^^t to 
reward; merit; worth. 

Des'ert, a. an luiciiltivated region ; a waste : 
a. wild ; solitary ; uninhabited. 

DcHert', V. to leave without permission, as 
a poKt of duty ; to forsake ; to abandon. 
Deserter, a. one who deserts his post or 
hu party ; a soldier who runs away from 
his re^ment. Deser'tion, a. the act of 

Deser've, v. to be worthy of, to merit. 
DeHcrv'edly, ad. worthily ; JusUy. De- 
serving, p. a. worthy ; meritorious. De- 
serviiigly, ad. in a denerving manner. 

Deshabille. See Dishabille. 

Desic'cant, a. dijing : a. a medicine that 
dries a sore. Desiccate, v. to dry up. 

JhaJd'enUOf r. to dasfra or wish for. De- 

sidan'tum, fL.J t. eomething dei^bred or 

wanted: pL Aeo/danita. 

Design' (-eine), v. to forman ootUne of; to 
■ketch out ; toplan ; toprqfeot ; to fhuna 
In the mind ; w porpoee or Intend : «. a 
plan; escheme; anlntentioo. Design- 
able, a. that ma^ be deefgned. Demg- 
nate (dee'ig-natex e. to maik out; to 
point oat or show; to distlngnieh. De* 
tigna'tian, a. the aofc of deetgnatlng; ■ 
distinctive mai^ ; name ortltle ; Import; 
intention. Designedly (desfn»«X ML I7 
design; purposely. Deeigner, «. one 
who designs; a contriver. DeeigaiBg, 
p. a. planning; contriving; artful; Id- 
Bidious : deceitful : a. the act of dceteh- 
faig or ddlneating objects. 

Desi^rable, a. worthy of desire, pJeeslng. 

Desi'rableness, a. quality of beingdeclnble. 

Deii're, a. wish ; ewremess to obtain or «i- 
joy: V. to wish for; to long fbr; to ex- 
press wishes ; to ask or demand. 

Deei'rous, a. full of desire, eager for. 

Desi'rouBly, ad. with desire, earnestly. 

Desisf , V. to cease ; to stop ; to leave off. 
Desistance, a. a stopping or eesaatko. 
Desistive, a. ending, condudlnff. 

resk, a. an inclining table to write on. 

1 os'olate, V. to lay waste, to make deeert: 
a. laid waste, uninhabited, solitary. De- 
solately, cut in a desolate mazmor. De- 
sola'tion, a. act of desolating ; state of 
being desolate ; a desolate plaoe. Des'o* 
latory, a. causing desolation. 

Despair', a. hopelessness, despondency: e. 
to be without hope, to despond. 

F/Ospair'ing, p. a. giving up to despair. 

I iospair'ingly, ad. in a hopeless manner. 

Despatch', v. to send away hastily ; to per- 
form quickly; to conclude an affidr; to 
kill: a. hasty execution ; speed; eaez- . 
press or hasty message. 

Ddspcra'do, a. a furious desperate man. 

Deaperate, a. having no hope ; furious,mad. 
Desperately, od. m a desx>erate manner. 
Doin>era'tion, a. despair; madness. 

Des'picable, a. contemptible, worthleas. 

Des'picablcness, a. meanness ; vilenesa. 

Des'picably, €ui. meanly ; vilely. 

Despi'seV^o), v. to look down upon with 
contempt ; to scorn ; to slight. Doepiscr, 
a. a contemner, a scomer. 

Despi'te, a. malice, maligpolty; defiaaoe. 

Despi'teful, a. malicious, f\ill of hate. 

Despi'tefully, ad. in a despitef^il manner. 

Despoil', V. to rob, to plunder; to strip; 
to divest ; to deprive. Desjxiiler, a. one 
who desjMils; a plunderer. Despolia'- 
lion, Despoil'ment, <. the act <rf despoil' 
iug; a plundering. 

Despond', v. to lose courage or hope; to 
be depressed in mind. Despcmaency, 
Doftpondence, a. loss of hope or cp«inige ; 
sinkiug of spirits. Desjtoudont, a Ris- 
ing hope ; dejected. D^pondingly, ad. 
in a hopeless manner. 

Dos'pot, a. an absolute prince; one tiiat 
governs with unlimited authority. Dee- 
pot'io, DospoUcal, a. aheobiba, aanjltrary, 
t\X«mcdcal. "DoBgcAAicaa aig^ e d. Va ji> totr 
p( tie xaaxoieir. ueftf-^nNtatA* %» <W i iwlfc ^ 





Det'piUDate, v. to throw off in foam. 

Beequuntte (deskwa^-). v. to scale off. 

Beaseif, «. findt Mwea after dinner. 

Destlnatlao, •. end or ultimate design; 
destbiy; place to iMreaohedL Bes'ilne, 
V. to appoint or doom unalterably to a 
state or condition; to appoint to any 
pftuXXMe; to devote. Destiny, m. state 
or eonditiain predetermined; invincible 
neceadty; ultimate &te; doom; lot in 

Des^tote, a. fonnken, abandoned ; ftiend- 
leas; in utter want. Destitution, s. 
state of being destitute. 

Destroy', v. to demolish; to ruin; to an- 
nihilate ; to kilL Desfcroyer> <• one who 

Destnictibfl'ity,De8truo'tibleness,«. liable- 
neas to destruction. Destructible, a. 
that may be destroyed; i)eri8hable. De- 
struotiGii, 8. act of destroying; state 
of being destroyed; ruin; overthrow; 
death. Destructive, a. tending to de- 
stroy; ruinous: a. a political term, the 
qpposito of Cotuervative, Destructively, 
ad. in a destructive manner. Destruo- 
ttveness, a. the quality of being destruc- 
tive; a propensily to destroy, kill, or 
murder (Phrenology). 

Desnda'tion^ c a profuse sweating. 

Desuetude (des'wd-X s. disuse of a custom. 

Des^torily, od. in a desultory manner. 

Des'ultoriness, «. xmconnectcdness. 

Des'ultory, a. cursory ; unconnected. 

Detach', v. to separate; to disjoin ; to send 
oat as a part, as soldiers. Detached, 
p. a. separated; disengaged or parted 
bmn. Detachment, «. a body of troops 

Detail', a. a minute and particular relation : 
V. to relate minutely and particularly. 

Detain^ v. to keep back; to delay. 

Detect^ V. to discover, to find out what was 
meant to be concealed. Detector, a, one 
who detocts. Detec'tion, a. discovery of 
guilt or fraud. Detective, a. fit or able 
to detect. 

Detein'tioD, a. the act of detaining; state 
at being detained; restraint; confine- 

Deter^ v. to discourage by terror ; to dis- 
hearten ; to prevent or binder. 

Deter'gent, a. cleansing, purging: a. a 
cleansing or purgative medicine. 

Doto'riorate, v. to make worse; to grow 
worse. Detoriora'tion, a. state of grow- 
ing worse. 

Det«r'minable, a. that may be decided. 
Determinate, a. fixed, limited ; decisive. 
Determinately, ad. resolutely, decisively. 
Determina'tion, a. a decision ; a resolu- 
tion. Deter'minative, a. that deter- 
mines. Determine, v. to fix, to resolve, 
to decide. Determined, p. a. resolved; 

Deter'slve, a. having power to cleanse : a. 
a cJeanirfng or detergent medicine. 

Detegtf, p. to bsLte. to abhor, to loathe. 
De^eetabl^ a. deserving detestation. 
Ihiett»bleaee8, $. extreme batefulnoss. 

Detestably, ad. hateftUIy; abominably. 
Detesta'tion, a. hatred, abhorrence. De« 
test'er, a. one that deteste. 

Dothro'ne, v. to drive from Idie throne; to 
depose; to divest of sovereignty. De- 
thronement, «. the act of detmroning. 

Defonate, v. to exr^ode ; to make a noise 
like thunder. Detonating, p. a. ful 
minating; explosive. Detona'tion, a 
the act of exploding. 

Detort', v. to twist, to vnrest ; to pervert 
Detor'tion, a. a wresting ; a perversion. 

Detour, [detoor', Fr.] a. a turning; a 
winding; a circuitous way. 

Detract', v. to draw from ; to lessen or 
derogate from; to defame; to slander. 
Detittc'tion, a. defamation: slander. 
Detractive, a. tending to detract. Do- 
tractiveness, a. quality of being detrac- 
tive. Detractor, a. one who detracts ; a 

Defriment, a. loss, damage, harm. 

Detrimen'tal, a. hurtfiil, injurious. 

Dotri'tal, a. pertaining to detritua 

Detrition (-tnsh'un), a. a wearing off. 

Detri'tus, [L.] a. the waste or matter w(»ii 
off rocks, &o. 

Dotru'de, v. to thrust down ; to lower. 

Detrunca'tion, a. the act of lopping (^ 

Detru'sion, a. the act of thrusting down. 

Deuce, a. the two in cards or dice. Deuce, 
or Deuse, a. a demon, the deviL 

Devastate, Dcvas'tate, v. to lay waste. 

Devasta'tlon, a. waste, havoc, destruciJon. 

Dovel'op, V. to unfold ; to lay open to view ; 
to disclose ; to unravel. Development, 
a. act of developing ; state of bemg de- 
veloped; an unfolding; the unravelling 
of a plot. 

DeVenport, a. a sort of writing desk. 

Dcvex'ity, a. incurvation downwards. 

Dc'viate, v. to wander from the right way; 
to go astray, to err ; to sin. Devia'tion, 
a. a turning aside from the right way ; 
a departure from rule; an error; an 

Devi'ce, a. a contrivance ; an emblem. 

Dev'il, ». Satan ; an extremely wicked or 
mischievous person ; a printer's errand 
boy. Devilish, o. diabohcaL Devilish- 
ness, a. the qualities of the devil. 
Devilism, a. the state of devils. Devil- 
ishly, ad. diabolically. Devilment, a. 
de\'ili8h tricks or mischief. Devilry, a. 

Do'vioiis. a. out of the common way; 
going astray ; erring. 

Devi'se, a. a will or tesfcimcnt ; a bequest : 
V. to contrive ; to give by \vill. 

Devi'sable, a. that ma^ be devised. 

Devi'sor, «. one who grants by will. 

Devoid', o. empty, vacant, destitute of. 

Devoir, [dev-wor', Fr. J «. service, duty, an 
act of civihty. 

Devolve (-volV). v. to roll down ; to fall bf 
succession mtoivcvii \\Qsvd&. "Vi^^^J^^oo-* 
a. the act ol devoVrav^. ^^- 

Demote, «. to gvv^ >re \>7 «^ TlKJ* it jHS 
cate; tocanaect«Aft\^»as^*VJS 
to o^lU D«v<A»A, ip. ifc. ««m 




dedicated; strongly attached. Devoted- 
ness, «. the state of behig devoted to. 
Devotee', «. one devoted; a bigot. 
Devo'tement» «. a giving up ; consecra- 
tion. Devotion, «. state of being con- 
secrated or devoted ; solemn worship ; 
Srayer to the Supreme Being; piety; 
evoutness ; devotednoss ; strong afiTcc- 
tion ; earnestness ; ardour. Devotional, 
a. pertaining to devotion ; suited to de- 

Devour', v. to eat ravenously ; to swallow 
up ; to consume. Devourer, «. one who 
devours or consumes. Devouring, p. a. 
eating up ; consuming. 

Devout , a. pious, religious, sincere. 

Devoutly, ad. in a devout manner. 

Devoufness, «. piety, devotion. 

Dew, «. a thin cold vaimtu* or moisture : v. 
to moisten or wet with dew. 

Dew-drop, «. a drop or 8i)angle of dew. 

Dew'iness, «. state of being dewy. fleshy protuberance hanging 
down from the throat of an ox or cow. 

DeVy, a. resembling or moist with dew. 

Dexterity, ». right-handedness; expert- 
ness ; skill ; tact. Dex'ter, a. the nght, 
not the left. Dexterous, a. expert; 
akilfuL Dexterously, od. in a dexterous 
manner. Dexterousness, «. dexterity. 

Dey, 9. tiie title of a Moorish prince. 

Dia, a Greek prefix signifymg through. 
See p. 47. 

Diabe'tes, a. a morbid excess of urine. 

Diabetic, appertaining to diabetes. 

Diablerie, [ir.] s. dc 

Diabolic, Diabolical, a. devilish. Diaboli- 
cally, 0(2. in a devilish manner. Diab'- 
oUsm, «. devilishness ; devilry. 

Diachylon(di-ack'-), «. an emollient plaster. 

Diac'onal, a. pertaining to a deacon. 

Diacous'iics, «. pL the science or doctrine 
of repeated sounds. 

Di'adem, «. a crown, an ensign of royalty. 

Diser'esis (-er-), «. the mark u»Bd to separate 
a diphthongal syllable ; as in atrial. 

Diaglyphlc, a. simk into the surface. 

Diagno'sis, «. the art of distinguishing one 
disease from anothw. 

Diagnos'tio, «. a distinguishing sjnnptom : 
'a. characteristic; distinguishing. 

Diag'onal, «. a lino from angle to angle : 
• a. reaching from one angle to another. 

Diag'onally, od. in a diagonal direction. 

Di'agram, «. a mathematical scheme or 
delineation for demonstration. 

Di'agraph, «. an instrument used in per- 
raeciive drawing. Diagraphlcs, «. pi. 
the art of design. 

Di'al, «. a plate on which a hand shows 
the hour of the day by the sun's shadow. 

Di'alect, «. speech, language; a peculiar 
form or idiom of a language ; a peculiar 
manner or style of speaking. 

Dialec'tio, Dialectical, a. relaung to logic ; 
relating to a dialed Dialectidui(-tish'- 
anX «. a logician. Dialectics, b. the ui-t 
of logic 

m'aUst, A a constructor at dials. 
J^i'tOUng, $, the art of constructing dials. 

Diai'ogist, a. a writer of dialMfuea. Dialo* 
gia'tic, Dkdogistical, a. lamng the iana 
of a dialogue. Di'i^ogue (-logX «. con- 
versation between two or more; alter- 
nate discourse. 

Diam'eter, s. a line which paases throogli 
the centre of a circle or globe. 

Diamet'rical, Diametric, a. describing a 
diameter; direct; opposite. Diamet- 
rically, ad. in a diametrical dlrecUcm; 
in direct opi)osition. 

Di'amond, a. a precious stone of the most 
valuable kind; a very small printing 
type : a. resembling a diamond. 

Diapa'son, a. an octave in music which in- 
eludes all the sounds. 

Di'aper, a. a sort of fine flowered or fignred 
linen : v. to variegate with flowers. 

Diaph'anous, a. translucent, transpsreni 
Diaphanously, ad. transparently. 

Diaphonlcs, a. pi. the science or doctrine 
of refracted soimds; diacoustics. 

Diaphoretic, a. a sudorific medicine: s. 
promoting ixnrspiration. 

Draphragm (di-a-fram), a. the midriff. 

DiarrhoB'a, a. a piu-ging ; a flux. 

DiarrhoBtlc, a. purgative. 

Dia'rian, a. pertaining to a diary. 

Di'ary, a. a dcdly account ; a Journal. 

Dias'tdld (90, p. 29), a. the dilatation of the 
heart ; the making a short syllable long. 
It is opposed to at/atole or contraction. 

Diates'saron, a. the four €k>spels; s bsr* 
mony of the four Gospels ; a tenn in 

Diatonic, a. ascending or descending by 
tones or semitones. 

Di'atribe, a. a long and tedious discourse 
or disputation. 

Dibl>le, a. a gardener's planting-tool: v. 
to plant with a dibble. 

Dice, a. pi. of Die : v. to game with dice. 

Di'cer, a. a plaver at dice, a gamester. 

Dichot'omous (-kot-X <• regularly divided 
by pairs. 

Dicotyle'don, a. a plant whose seeds divide 
into two lobes when germinating. 

Dicotyled'onous, a. having two seed lobes. 

Dic'tate, v. to tell what to say or write, to 
prescribe; to tell with authority; to 
order : a. an authoritative maxim ; an 
order; an impulse, as of the conscience. 
Dicta'tion, a. the act of dictating. Dic- 
tator, a. one invested with unlimited 
power, as the Dictator of andent Rome; 
one who wishes to dictate to others. 
Dictato'rial, a. like a dictator; authori- 
tative. Dictatorially, ad. in a dicta- 
torial manner. Dicta'torship, a. the 
office of a dictator. 

Dic'tion, a. stylo, langfuage, expressioiL. 

Dic'tionary, a. a book explainingthe wmds 
of any language alphabeticuay ; a lexi- 

Dic'tum, a. a positive saying or assertion. 

Did, the past tense of Do. 

Didac'tic, Didactical, a. giving Instmo- 

S. pi. Vihe QXt OT ftcVsiVCQ cA.\iQOKStASk%« 




Bid'dle, v. to trick; to cheat (a low word).- 

Diduc'tion, t. a separation effected by with- 
dxawing one pcurt from another. 

Die, V. to lose me; to expire; to perish. 

Die (pL DiceX a. a small marked cube 
to play with; a stamp used in coinage. 

Di'et» 8. an assembly of princes or states. 

Di'et, s. food; formerly prescribed or 
regulated food ; v. to supply with food. 
' Dietary, a. pertaining to diet or to the 
rules of diet : «. a system or course of 
diet. Dietetic, Dietetical, a. relating to 
diet. Dietetics, «. pi. the science of diet 
or regimen. 

Differ, u to be unlike, as to differ from; 
to disagree, as to differ toUK Differ- 
ence, 8. state of being unlike or distinct 
from ; the qualities by which one thing 
differs from another; diversity; dis- 
agreement; Tariance; a dispute; a 
quarreL D^erent, a. unlike; dissimilar; 
distinct; separate. Differently, ad. in 
a different manner. 

Differential, a. belonging to the method 
of calculating by infinitely small parts. 

Difficulty a. hard to be done, not easy; 
labogrious ; troublesome ; hanl to please. 
DifBcultly, ad. hardly ; with difficulty. 
Difficulty, «. that which is hard to ac- 
compliGdi; an objection or obstacle; em- 
barrassment; perplexity; distress. 

Dtffildence, «. distrust, want of confidence. 

Diffident, a. not confident, distrustful. 

Diffidently, odL in a diffident manner. 

DUtractff v. to break in pieces, as light. 

INfiVi'se f-fuze), v. to pour out ; to spread 
abroad; to circulate. Diffuse (-fuce), a. 
widely spread; not concise; prolix. 
Difhisely, ad. widely ; copiously. Diffu- 
oibillty) ». quality of being diffusible. 
DifiVi'siUe, a. that may be diffused. 
Diffusion, 8. the act of diffusing; a 

S treading abroad. Diffusive, a. that 
ffiises or spreads widely. Diffusively, 

ad. widely; extensively. Diffusiveness, 

«. qualify of being diffusive; want of 

conciseness; prolixity. 
Dig, V. to turn up or cultivate the earth 

with a spade. Dig'ger, «. one that digs. 
Digam'ma, §. the Eolic F ; but called 

dovbU gamma from its form. 
Digesf, V. to dissolve in the stomach; to 

reduce to method mentally; to arrange. 

Di'gest, 8. a collection or body of laws. 

Di^sfer, ». he or that which digests. 

DigMtibUlty, «. the being digestible. 

Digestible, a. that may be digested. 

Diges'lion, «. the dissolving of food in 

the stomach; reduction to a regular 

plan. Digestive, a. having power to 

cause digestion: «. a medicine to aid 

Pight(dite), V. to deck, to dress, to adorn. 
2)ieit (dij'it), 8. three quarters of an inch; 

uie twelfth part of the diameter of the 

sun or moon ; any niunber under ten. 

Digital, a. pertaining to a digit^r finger. 
IHgitalis, 8. cbe foxrgio\e. 
J^gHate (dir-X Digitated, a, branching 
into Jeimet8 like nngen. 

Dig'itigrade (dij-), a. walking on the toes. 

Dig'nified, a. exalted, having dignity. 

Dig'nify, V. to advance, to exalt, to honor. 

Dig'nitary, «. a clergyman advanced to 
some dignity above that of a parochial 
priest. Dignity, 8. grandeur, honor, 

Di'graph, «. two vowels pronounced as one. 

Digress', v. to turn aside, to expatiate. 

Digres'sion, g. act of digressing ; a devia- 
tion from the subject. 

Digres'sional, a. making digressions. 

Digres'sive, a. deviating, expatiating. 

Digres'sively, ad. in the way of digression. 

Dike, 8. a ditch, a bank, a mound. 

Dilapidate, v. to fall to ruin, as a building. 

Dilapida'tion, «. decay for want of repair. 

Dilatabillty, a. the quality of being dilat- 
able. Dila'table, a. that may be dilated. 
Dilata'tion, s. the act of dilating ; expan- 
sion. Dilate, V. to spread out or widen ; 
to expand; to enlarge upon; to toll 
difdisely. Dilation, «. delay. Dilator, s. 
a muscle that dilates. 

Dil'atory, a. given to delay; slow. Dila- 
torily, a(2. in a dilatory manner. Dila- 
toriness, «. tardiness ; slowness. 

Dilem'ma, 8. an argument that tells against 
us either way ; a vexatious altemativo 
or choice. 

Dilettan'tS, [It.] «. a lover of the fine arts ; 
an amateur : pi. Dilettanti. 

Diligence (-jansY «. a French stage-coach. 

Dil'igence, «. steady application to some 
employment ; industay ; assiduity. Di- 
ligent, a. i>ersevering ; assiduous. Dili- 
gently, od. in a diligent manner. 

DU'uent, a. making thin or more fiuid : 
«. that which thins other matter. 

DUu'te, V. to make thin, to weaken. 

Dilu'tion, «. the act of diluting. 

Dilu'vial, a. belonging to a flood. 

Dilu'vian, a. relating to the deluge. 

Dilu'vium, [L.]«. a flood; the deluge; in 
geology, deposito caused by the deluge, 
or ancient currents of water. 

Dim, a. not clear in sight : v. to darken. 

Dimen'sion, «. bulk, extent, capacity. 

Dimin'ish, v. to make less or smaller ; to 
become less ; to appear less ; to decrease ; 
to reduce. Dimmishingly, ad. so as to 
lessen. Diminu'tion, «. the act of di- 
minishing; the state of becoming or 
appearing less ; a lessening; a decrease. 
Dimin'utive, a. small: «. a word that 
expresses diminution. Diminutiveness, 
8. smallness. 

Diminuen'do, a term in music (diminuftin^ 
the volume of soimd). 

Dimlssory, a. dismissing to another'o 
jurisdiction ; granting leave to depart. 

Dimity, «. a kind of white cotton doth 

Dimly, ad. obscurely, imperfectly. 

Dim'ness, «. dulness of sight, obscurity. 

Dim'ple, «. a small hollow in the choakcK 
cYmi : v. to avnk. \n. «ta'a2k!L ca:si'SN2ifi». 

Dim'plod, "Dim-pYj, a. t\3SL d ^axxscgs*. 

Dlni^^\ited» a. "iMb^Vn^ ^isa '^¥^^v. 

Din, «, aloud, wn^axjL^ «&«>»' 




noise : v. to stun with noise ; to harass 

with clamour. 
Dine, v. to eat a dinner ; to ff\ve a dinner. 
Ding, V. to daah down with violence. 
Ding-dong', «. a word by which the soimd 

of bells is bitended to be imitated. 
Din'gey, «. in Bengal, a ferry boat. 
Dingle (ding-gl), «. a hollow or narrow 

Din'giness, «. a dark, dusky hue. Dingy, 

a. dtij-k, dusky; soiled. 
Di'ning-room, $. a room for dining in. 
Diu'ner, t. the chief meal of the dky. 
Dinothe'rium, «. a hug^ extinct animal. 
Dint, «. the mark made by a blow ; force ; 

power; as by dint of argument, bee 

tmder J)etU. 
Diocesan (di-os'e-san), «. a bishop or head 

of a diocese : a. pertaining to a diocese. 
Di'ocese, «. the jurisdiction of a bishop. 
Diop'tric, Dioptrical, a. pertaining to 

dioptrics; assisting the sight. 
Diop'trios, a. pi. that part of Optics which 

treats of the refiaciion of light pabsing 

through different mediums, air, water, 

or glauBS. 
Dioram'a, «. that which is seen through an 

opening, as when clouds break ; a kind 

of exhibition of paintiogs. 
Dip, V. to put into any fluid, to immerse ; 

to enter slightly into : «. an immersion. 
Dipet'alous, a. having two flower-leaves. 
Diphthong (dip'-thong), «. the union of 

two vowels in one soimd. 
Diphthong'al, a. belonging to a diphthong. 
Diplo'ma, «. a document confemng some 

privilege, honor, or authority. 
Diplo'macy, «. the art or practice of treat- 
ing with foreign states by diplomas or 

letters interchanged ; the skill and tact 

necessary for an envoy; a body of 

Diplomat'ic, a. relating to envoys. 
Diplomafios, 8. pi. the science of decipher- 
ing ancient documents or writings. 
Diplo'matist, «. one skilled in diulomacy. 
Dip'per, 9. one who or that whion dips ; a 

Dip'ping-needle, 9. a magnetic needle that 
dips or incllDOS to the earth. 

Dip'torous, Dipteral, a. having two wings. 

Dip'tote, 8. a noun of two cases only. 

Dip'tych (-tick), «. a tablet with two 

DiradLi'tion, 8. the diffusion of the rays of 
light from a luminous body. 

Dire, Di'ref ul, a. dreadful, disinal, horrible. 

Dirccf, a. stndght, ri^ht; plain; express: 
V. to aim or drive in a straigiit hue ; to 
pouit aq^ainst, as a mark; to regulate; 
to adjust; to proHcribe; to order; to 
address. Direc tion, 8. act of directing ; 
line of motion or aim ; regulation ; pre- 
scription ; command ; superscription of 
a letter, &c. Directive, a. having the 

Sower of direction. Directly, ad. in a 
ireot manner; immediately. Direct- 
ness^ 8. quality of being direct; straight- 
ness. Uhreo'tor, t. one who directs; a 
auuugwot A Uink or of » trading 00m- 


1^71 • guide. Diracto'rUly a. givinf 
direcUoQ. Direcforahip, «. office of a 
director. Direo'toiry, f. a book of lUieo* 
tions or addresses: a. tandihgto dfa«et; 
directing or enjoining. 

Di'refuL a. dreadfuL terrible; calaqrftmuL 

Di'reftilJy, ad. dreadfully, temtfly. 

Df refidness, 8. droadfulness^ tuannor. 

Di'reness, «. dismalness, hoiTOir. 

Dirge, 8. a mournful or fiineral ditly. 

Dirk, 8. a kind of dagger or alibrt nnrnd. 

Dirt, 8. mud, filth, xnire : v. to ^rty. 

Dirtily, od. In a dirty manner; meiBly. 
Dirtiness, «. nastiness, sordidnosa. Dirty, 
a. foul, nasty, sullied; mean, Imw; a 
to make foul or filthy ; to soiL 

Dis, a Latia prefix. See Dis, p. 47. 

Disabil'ity, §. wanjt of power; buMXttj; 
■weakness; incompetency; wantof^QS' 
llQcation; legal impediment. 

Disa'blo, v. to deprive of strengtti; to 
render incapable; to hinder ucm ac- 

Disabu'se, v. to undeceive ; to set lig^ 

Disacom'modate, v. to inconvenienca. 

Disadvan'tage, 8. want of advantage; fv^ 
judice ; loss, injury to interest 

Disadvanta'geous, a. hurtful, pireiodiolaL 

Disadvanta'geously, ad. prejudiciaUy. 

Disadvanta'geousness, 8. loss ; injuiy. 

DLsaffect', v. to fill with discontent 

Disaffecfed, p. a. alienated ; disloyaL 

Disaffoct'edly, od. in a disaffected maTmar. 

Disaffecfedness, 8. the being disaffectao. 

Disafiec'tion, 8. want of loyalty or aeaL 

Disaffirm', v. to deny, to contzadiot 

Disagree', v. to differ in opinion; to 
quarrel; not to be like; to be uninit- 
able. Disagreeable, a. unpleasant; 
offensive. Disagreeableneea, «. nn- 
pleasantness. Disagreeably, ad. on- 
pleasantly. Disagreement, t. act or 
state of disagreeing; difbrenoe ; diaJBen- 
sion; discord. 

Disallow', V. to refiise to allow ; to reject 

Disallow'able, a. not allowable. 

Disannul', v. to annul, to make void. 

Disannul'ment, «. the act of annulling. 

Disappar'el, v. to disrobe ; to imdress. 

Disappear', v. to be lost to view ; to vanish 
from the sight : to go away. Dimppear- 
ance, 8. act of diflappearing; a with- 
drawing from the sight 

Disa])point', v. to defeat the expectation 
or aesire; to frustrate; to iMuk. Dis- 
appoiutment, «. defeat of hopes ; ikilure 
of expectation or plan. 

Disappruba'tion, 8. act of disapproving ; 
displeasure; dislike; censure. Eis- 
ap'probatory, a. implying or expressing 

Disapproval (-proov'al), 8. disapprobation^ 
Disapprove {-yrm/y'\ v. to refuse appro- 
bation of; to dislike; to censure; to 

Disarm', v. to deprive of arms ; to deprive 
of anything hostile or injurious. Dis- 
armVus, s. an^ ol <^BaxiDl^aD%\ ^( 
tion q{ arma. 




Diattm^igtemeiit, t. disorder, ooofiusioii. 

Diauniy', s. undzMf, disorder, oonftision: 
«. to undreas; to put out of order; to 
diBocNoafit ; to rout. 

DinaM/ciata, v. to disnatte. 

Disas'ter, «. miefbrfcone, grief, mishap. 

Disas'trous. a. unlucky, calamitous. 

Disas'trousm euL ina disastrous maimer. 

Disavow', V. to disown ; to deny all know- 
ledge ot DisaTowal, t. a deniaL 

Disband', v. to dismiss frtnn military ser- 
-vice ; to separate, to break up, to scatter. 

Disbark', v. Bee Disembark. 

Disbelief, «. a leAisal of belief; unbelief; 
soeptlGism. Disbelie^ro, v. not to be- 
lieve; to discredit; to deny. Disbe- 
liever, «. one who disbelieves; an infidel. 

Diabranoh', v. to separato or lop off. 

Disbur'den, v. to ease of a burden or load ; 
to unburden or ease the mind ; to dis- 
encumber. Disburthen, the same, but 
now leas used. 

Disbnr'se, v. to pay out money, to expend. 
DisbursemenL «. act of disbursing; tbo 
■um disbursed. 

Diao. BeeDisk. 

Discard', v. to throw out of the hand such 
cards as are useless; to dismiss or cast ofT. 

Dfscem', v. to see ; to perceive ; to see 
the difbrence; to mscriminate; to 
Judge. Discernible, a. that may be 
dlaMned; perceixtible. Discoruible- 
Deas, i. viaibleness. Discemibly, ad. 
perwptiblv. Disceniing, p. a. able to 
•ee or riifrflngniah ; judicious : 8. the act 
of disoaming. Discerningly, ad. judi- 
etofosly. Discernment, «. power of judg- 
ing' ; acuteness of judgement ; sagacity. 

IMscerp', v. to tear or pluck iu pieces. 

lUacerp'tioQ, «. act of pulling to pieces. 

Diacbar'ge, v. to unload ; to dismiss ; to 
'; to fire, as a gun: «. an unload- 
: ; dismission ; payment, acquittunce ; 
off, as a gun. Dischiargmg, s. the 
act of unloading, fta 

Diad'ple, «. a learner, a scholar ; a follower 
or adherent. Dis'ciplinable, a. capable 
of discii)line. DLsciplina'rian, a. per- 
taining to discipline: $. one wlio en- 
forces strict discipline. Dis'ciplinary, 
a. pertadning to discipline. Disoiplino, 
c education, instruction; milita^ re- 
gulation ; staict order : v. to instruct 
and govern; to put imder discipline; 
to prepare and improve by disciiiliue. 

Placlaim'i v. to disown; to deny any 
knowledge of ; to renounce. Disclaimer, 
a. one that disclaims; a deniaL Dis- 
elama'tion, s. the act of disclaiming ; a 

Dlsclo'se, V. to make known ; to reveal. 
Disclosure, s. a revealing of a secret. 

JMa'coid, IMscoid'al, a. having the form of 
a discus or disk. 

Diaooroiur, v. to change the colom*; to 
change &t>m the natural hue ; to stjiin. 

IMscoloura'tion, s. abangc of colour ; stain. 

JMtooI'oured, p. a. changed in colour. 
JMaoom*AU r. to rout, to defeat, to van- 

qafMb. Zfk>eomfUnr9^f.oTortbxow;Tvdxu 

Discom'fort, «. want of comfort; unoasi- 
neas ; sorrow : v. to grieve, to sadden. 

Discommend', v. to censure, to blame. 

Discommend'able, a. blamable. 

Disoommo'de, v. to put to inconvenience. 

Discommo'dious, a. inc(mvenient. 

Dlscompo'se, v. to disturb or ruffle the 
tomper ; to disorder ; to unsettle. Dis- 
composure, i. disturbance of viiad ; dis- 

Disconcerf , v. to break m> or frustrate a 
plan or design; to bame; to confuse; 
to ruffle. 

IMsconform'ity, i. want of agreement. 

Disoonnecf, v. to disunite, to sever. 

Disconnecfed, p. a. disunited ; separated. 

Disconnec'tion, «. disunicm of parts. 

Discon'solate, a. comfortless, soirowful. 

Discontent', 8. want of content ; uneasi- 
ness; dissatisfaction: v. to make dis- 
contented. Discontented, a. not con- 
tented, dissatisfied. Discontentedly, 
ad. in a discontented manner. Discon- 
toitedness, s. discontentment. Discon- 
tentment, 8. state of being discontented. 

Discontin'uance, 8. act of discontinuing ; 
state of boin^ discontinued r cessation. 
Discontinua'tion, 8. disruption of ports ; 
separation. Discontin'ueu v. to leave 
off; to stop or put an end to. Discon- 
tinu'ity, «. a separation of jnrts. DLs- 
coutiu'uous, a. broken off; separate. 

Dis'cord, 8. a disagreement ; opposition. 

Discor'dunce, Discordancy, «. disagree* 
ment; inconsistency. 

Discord'ant, a. disagreeing ; inconsistent. 

Discord'antly, <u2. in a discordant manner. 

Discoimf , V. to deduct a certain smn pur 
cent, from the principal. Dis'coimt, 8. 
a deduction or allowance for earlier pay- 
ment. Discoimtable, a. that may be 

Discoxm'tenance, v. to check bv cold 
looks ; to show disapprobation of. 

Discourage (-cm:'-), v. to dishearten; to 
dissuade. Discouragement, «. act of 
discouraging; state of being discour- 
aged; that which discourages or dis- 
heartens. Discouraging,^, a. dishearten- 
ing; deterring. 

Discoiur'se ^-cSrse), 8. converfiation ; a ser- 
mon ; a dissertfi^ion ; reasoning ; reason : 
V. to converse ; to treat of. 

Discoiu^teous (-c6rt'yus), a. uncourteous ; 
uncivil ; rude. Discointeously, ad. un- 
civilly; rudely. Discourtesy, «. inci- 
vility, rudeness. 

Dis'cous, a. broad, wide, flat. 

Discov'er, v to disclose, to detect, to find 
out. Discoverable, a. that may bo dis- 
covered. Discoverer, «. one that finds 
out. Discovery, 8. the act of discover- 
ing ; the thing discovered; a disclosure. 

Discredit, 8. want of credit; dinroputo; 
disip^ce : v. not to credit or believe ; to 
deprive of credibUit^ \\o ^&»n«R«^ \Jfva«- 
creditable, a. aasTO^>\\aio\!&, awb«K^>^ 
DiacreditaJbVy, odU Vn. % ^toRSMd»«*» 




avoid errors. Discrootly, ad. in a dis- 
creet maimer. Discreetness, ». discre' 
tion, prudence. 

DiscrepWco, Discrepancy, ». difference, 
want of agreemcat. Discrepant, a. 
different, duagreeing. See No. 69, p. 25. 

Discre'te, a. not concrete ; separated ; dis- 

Discretion (-kresh'un), s. judgement; pru- 
dence; wise management; liberty of 
acting according to one's own judge- 
ment. Discretional, a. left to discre- 
tion. Discretionally, ad. according to 
discretion. Discretionary, a. discre- 
tionaL Discre'tive, a. noting separa- 
tion or opposition ; disjunctive. 

Discrim'inate, v. to distinguish between ; 
to separate; to select out. Discrimi- 
nately, ad. distinctly. Discriminating, 
p. a. making a difference; judicious. 
Discrimina'tion, g. the faculty of nicely 
distingtdshing differences; discernment; 
mark of distinction. Discrim'inatlve, 
a. serving to distinguish. Discrimina- 
tively, ad. with discrimination. Dis- 
criminator, «. one who discriminates. 

Disciun'ber. See Disencumber. 

Diflcur'slve, a. rambling, desultory ; pro- 
ceeding regularly from premises to con- 
Bequonccs,argumentative. Discursively, 
ad. in a discursive manner. Discur- 
siveness, «. quality of being discursive. 
Discursus, [L.] «. a discoiunse ; ratiocina- 
tion or aivumentation. 

Dis'cus, [L.J «. a quoit. See Disk. 

Discuss', V. to examine by disputation ; to 
debate ; to reason out ; to disperse mor- 
bid matter. Discus'sion, t. act of dis- 
cussing ; an examination by argument. 
Didcussive, a. having power to discuss. 

Disdain', v. to consider unworthy of notice ; 
to regard with lofty contempt ; to scorn : 
«. haughty contempt ; scorn. Disdain- 
ful, a. contemptuous; scomfuL Dis- 
dainfully, od. in a disdainflil manner. 
Disdainmlness, i. contemptuousness. 

Disea'se, ». disorder, distemi)er, malady, 
sickness: v. to affect with disease; to 
disorder. Diseased, p. a. affected with 
disease; sick; corrupt. 

Disembark', v. to put on shore, to land. 
Disembarkment, Disembarka'tion, t. 
the act of disembarking. 

Disembar'rass, r. to free from embarrass- 
ment or peiplexity. Disembarrass- 
ment, i. freedom from embarrassment. 

Disembod'ied, a. divested of the body. 

Disembod'y, v. to discharge from military 
incorporation ; to divest of body. 

Disembogue (-bdg'), v. to pour out or dis- 
charge at the mouth, as a river. Dis- 
emb^guement, s. the discharge of rivers 
into %ae ocean, &c 

Disembow'el, v. to take out the bowels. 

Disembroil', v. to free from perplexity. 

Disenalble, v. to deprive of power. 

Disenchanf , v. to free from enchantment. 

Disenoum'ber, v. to free £h)m encumbrance 
or obstruction. Disencumbranoe, t. de- 

JivenwceArom •ncumbruice. 


Disenga'ge, v. to free from engagement; 
to disentangle ; to detadi from ; to dear 
firom. Disengaged, p. a, not engaged; 
unoccupied. Disengagement, «. state 
of being disengaged ; release : 'vacaiuqr. 

Disenno'blc, v. to deprive of nobilitj. 

Disenrol, v. to erase out of a roU. 

Disensla've, v. to free from slaveiy. 

Disentangle (-tang'gl), v. to unraTel, to 
disengage ; to free or extricate. 

Disenthral' (-awl), v. to set free, to reeeoe. 

Disenthro'ne, v. to depose a sovereign. 

Disenti'tle, v. to deprive of a title. 

Disentran'ce, v. to awaken from a trance. 

Disesteem', s. slight regard; dialike: v. 
to regard sUghily ; to dislike. 

Disfa'vour, «. want of favour. Blight ^Us- 
plcasure ; dislike : v. to discountenanoeL 

Disfigura'tion, «. the act of disfiguring. 

Disfig'ure, v. to injure the form or ajypoar- 
ance of; to deface; to mangle. Dis- 
figured, p. a. deformed ; defaced. JX»- 
figurement, «. a deforming or de&oe> 

Disfran'cbise, v. to deprive of franchise. 

Disfran'chisement, «. act of disfnmchis* 
ing ; state of being disfranchised ; de- 
privation of franchise. 

Disgor'ge, v. to vomit ; to pour out with 
force. ' Disgoigement, ». act of disgoig- 
ing ; thing disgorged. 

Disgra'ce, t. state of being out of fiiTonr ; 
state of ignominy; cause of shame ; 
dishonour: v. to put out <^ favocir; 
to bring a reproach upon; to disho- 
nour. Disgraceful, a. shamefuL Dis- 
gracefully, ad, shamefully. Diagnoe- 
mlness, «. ignominy ; disgrace. I&gra- 
cious (-shus), a. imgracious. 

Disgui'se, V. to conceal by an xintmial 
dress ; to change the form of: ». dress 
to conceal ; false ai)pearance, a pretence. 

Disgust', «. distaste ; dislike ; aversion : 
V. to raise aversion in the stomach ; to 
produce strong dislike. Disgusting, a. 
nauseous; caiicdng aversion. Disgust- 
ingly, ad. in A disgusting manner. 

Dish, «. a vessel used to serve up meat in: 
V. to put or serve up meat in a dish. 

Dishabille (disabil'), i. undress; a looser 
negligent dress for the morning. 

Dishxloth, «. a cloth for cleaning dishes. 

Dishearten (-har'ten), r. to discourage. 

Disher'it, v. to cut off frcon ix^eritanoe. 

Dishevel, v. to spread the hair loosely or 
in disorder. Dishevelled, a, fLo'wiag 

Dishonest (dis-on'ost), a. void of honesfar ; 
fraudulent. Dishonestly, od. in a dis- 
honest manner. Dishonest, «. want <tf 
honesty, roguery. 

Dishon'our, t. reproach, disgrace, igno- 
miny: V. to disgrace; to refiuse the' 
acceptance or payment of a bill ; to treat 
with indignity; to violate. 

Dishon'ourable, a. shameM, reproachful 

Dishon'ourably, ad. with dishonoiur. 

D\ahu'mov)cCt «. igecrAi^bXLQfia^VSiVxvT&sraK. 




to produce dLdike or aversion to. Dis- 

inouned, a. not fayourably disiXMsed to. 
Disincor'porate, v. to deprive of corporate 

powers ; to dissolve. 
Disinfect', v. to purify from infection. 

Disinfectant, *. an agent for removing 

infection, as chlorine. 
Disingen'uous, a. vranting in frankness ; 

mefmly artful ;unfiBtir. Disingenuously, 

ad. in a disingenuous manner. Dis- 

ingenuousneas, *, want of candour; 

want of flEdmees. 
Disinher'it, v. to cut off from heirship or 

tiie light of inheriting. Disinheritance, 

». act of disinheriting. 
Disdn'tegnte, v. to separate the particles 

of; to txreak up. Dudnten^'tion, «. act 

of disintegratiDg ; a crumbling away of 

Disinter', v. to take out of a grave. 
Pisin'terested, a. not interested; free 

from self-interest. Disinterestedly, ad. 

in a disinterested manner. Disinterest- 

ednesB, «. freedom from self-interest. 
Diainter^ment, t. the act of unburying. 
Disjohi', V. to separate, to disunite. 
Disjoinr, v, to put out of joint, to separate 

a joint; to separate: a. disjointed. 

Dii^ointed, p. a. put out of joint ; iuco- 

heorentb Disjoiuuy, ad. in a divided 

DLriuncf , a. diefloined, separate. 
Diquno'tion, *. disunion, sei)aration. 
Disjunc'titve, a. disjoining, separating: 9. 

a word that disjoins. Disjunctively, 

ad. separately. 
Disk, DSbo, s. the face or apparent form of 

ttie sun, moon, or a planet ; a quoit ; a 

fitpealax dith. 
Disili^e, ». disinclination ; aversion : v. not 

to like; to have an aversion for. Dis- 

ISken, V, to make unlike. 
Dislocate, v. to displace ; to put out of 

Joint. Dislocated, p. a. displaced ; out 

of Joint. Disloca'tion, s. the act of dls- 

lo<»^ng; a joint displaced. 
Dislod'ge^ V. to remove from a place ; to 

drive from a position or station, as an 

Dislorjral, a. not loyal. Disloyalty, «. a 

want cl loyalty or fidelity. Disloyally, 

ad. in a disloyal manner. 
Dis'mal, a. aorrowflil, gloomy, dire. 
Dis'mslly, ad, in a dismal manner. Dis- 

"^•^^ftM, ». state of being dismal. 
Disman'tle, v. to strip or divest ; to strip, 

as of outworks and fortifications; to de- 
stroy or break down. 
Dinnasf , v. to deprive of masts. 
Dismay', v. to terrify, to affright, to daunt : 

i. tenor, fright, fear. 
Dismemlber, v. to divide member from 

membor; to cut off a member from ; to 

separate. Dismemberment, «. act of 

dismembering ; division ; ps^tion. 
Dismiss', 9. to send away ; to put out of 

emi^oyment or office. Dismis'sal, g. 

dismiuion. Dismission, s. act of dis- 

miastng; disobarge. I)ismisslve, a. 

causing' or granting dismission. 

Dismoiigage, v. to redeem from mortgage. 

Dismomit', v. to descend ; to alight from a 
horse ; to throw from a horse. 

Disobe'dience, «. want of obedience ; ne- 
glect or refusal to obey. DiBol)edient, 
a. not obedient ; refrising to obey. Dis- 
obediently, ad. in a, disobedient man- 
ner. Disobey', v. to neglect or refuse to 

Disobli'ge, v. to offend by not doing some- 
thing that was expected ; to ofiend by 
unkindness or incivility. Disobliging, 
p. a. not obliging; discourteous; un- 
civil. Disobligingly, a<2. in a disoblig- 
ing manner. 

Disor'der, s. want of order, confusion; 
distemper, disease: v. to put out of 
order ; to confuse ; to make sick. Dis- 
ordered, p. a, put out of order; con- 
fiised; diseased. Disorderly, a. con- 
fused ; irregular ; lawless. Disorderli- 
ness, i. state of being disorderly. 

Disorganiza'tion, «. act of disorganizing ; 
state of beinff disorganized ; subversion 
of order. Dlsor'ganize, v. to break up 
or destroy an oi^nized body; to de- 
stroy union or order. 

Disown', V. to deny ; to renounce. 

Dispar'age, v. to imdervalue; to injure by 
depreciating comparison. Disparage- 
ment, s. act of disi)araging ; injurious 
comparison ; depreciation. Disparag- 
ing, p. a. causing disparagement. 

Dispor'ity, s. inequality, dissimilitude. 

Dispart', v. to divide in two, to separate. 

Dispas'sionate, a. cool, calm; impartial. 
Dispassionately, ad. viithout passion; 

Dispel', r. to drive away, to scatter. 

Dispen'sable, a. that may be dispensed 

Disx)en'sary, 8. a place where medicines 
are dispensed or dealt out to the poor. 

Dispensa'tion, s. a distribution ; the deal- 
iujj out of any thing; the method of 
Providence ; an exemption from some' 
law ; an indulgence from the Pope. 

Dispen'satlve, a. granting dispensation. 

Dispen'satory, t. a directory or book for 
making medicines: a. havmgthe power 
of granting dispensation. 

Difipon'se, r. (to weigh or make up in por- 
tions, as medicines) to give out ; to dis- 
tribute; to administer, as justice — To 
dispense toith is to permit the want of a 
thing which is useful or convenient ; to 
do without it; to excuse or free from 
an obligation. 

Dispeople, v. to depopulate, to lay waste. 

Disperm'ous, a. in botany, two-seeded. 

Dispor'se, v. to scatter, to drive away. 
Dispersedly, adL in a scattered manner. 
Dispersion, 5. act of dispersing ; state of 
being dispersed; wide diffusion. Dis- 
X)erslve, a. tending to disperse. 

Dispir'it, v. to dishearten or discourage. 

Dispir'itednesSf <. want ot «.^\£'v\> ore -sVi^svxt. 

Displa'ce, v. to put oxit ol^^\3BJca,\ot«a>s«^ 

Displa'cement, a. t\v^ ws^ cS. ^2lj^sf^&^o^ 
I Display,*. to BpT«wQL'?A^«*\ftwM«»B*- 




Display', «. an exhibition, a show. 

Displease (-pleez'), v. to ofTend, to provoke, 
to dissatisfy. Displeasure (-pl(»'-)» <• 
offouce, anger, disfavour. 

Displu'me, v. to depriye of feathers. 

Dispo'rt, «. play, sport : v. to play. 

Dispo'sable, a. that may be disposed of. 

Dispo'sal, «. act of disposing^ ; mspositlon ; 
arrangement; power or right of bestow- 
ing ; management. Dispose, v. to place 
or arrange ; to adapt ; to mcline or mimo 
the mind to ; to apply to any purpose ; 
to jMrt with; to sell, as to dupofe of. 
Disposition (-zish'im), ». act of disposing ; 
mode of settling or arranging ; habitual 
frame of mind ; inclination ; tendency. 

Dispossess', v. to put out of i)ossc8sion. 

Disposscs'^on, «. putting out of possession. 

Disprai'so, «. blame, censure : v, to blame, 
to censure, to condemn. 

Disproof, X. a confutation, a refiitation. 

Dispropor'tion, «. want oC proportion or 
symmetry; inequality: v. to make un- 
suitable. Disproportionable, Dispropor- 
tional, iDisproportiouato, a. wanting pro- 
portion ; unsuitable in form or quantity. 
Disproportionableness, Disprujrartion- 
Ateness, «. wont of proportion. 

Disprove (disprooVX v. to prove or show to 
be fjedso or erroneous. Dlsprovable, a. 
that may be disproved. 

Dis'putable, a. liable to be disputed. Dis- 
putant, ». an arguer, a cuntrovcrtist. 
Disputa'tion, t. act of disputing; con- 
tmversy. Disput-itious, Dispu'tativo, a. 
inclined or dis]x>scd to dispute; captious. 
Dispute, V. to contend by argument ; to 
controvert ; to altercate : ». a contest in 
wools; acontruvcrsy; an altercation. 

Dlsqu:difica'tion, §. the act of disqualify- 
ing ; that which disunalifies. Disqual'ify, 
V. to deprive of qualificiitions ; to disable 
or make unfit by some impediment. 

Disqui'et, «. uneasiness, auxiety : v. to 
make uneasy, to disturb or annoy. 

Disqui'etly, ad. without rest, anxiously. 

J)iHqui'etne8S, ». uneasiness; restlessnesa* 

Disqui'etude, ». unesisiness, anxiety. 

Disquisition (-zish'un), §. a foimal inquiry 
by arguments. Disquisitional, a. relac- 
ing to disquisition. 

Disr^;ard', v. to slight as unworthy of ncv 
tice ; to despise : ». omission of notice ; 
slight ; contempt. Disregardful, a. not 
noticing; negligent. Disregardful^, cut 

Disr^'ish, «. distaste ; dislike ; aversion : o. 
not to relish; to dislike. 

Disrep'utable, a. not reputable ; shamefuL 
Disrepu'te, t, want of reputation or es- 
teem ; ill character. 

Disrespecf, t. want of respect; incivility; 
rudeness. Disrespectful, a. wanting re- 
spect ; uncivil ; rude. Disrespectfully, 
ad. in a disrespectful manner. 

Disrol>e, v. to imdress, to uncover, tostripi 

Disroof , V. to root up, to extirpate. 

Disrupt', V. to break asunder. Disrupted, 
p. a. rent asunder. Disrup'tion, «. act 
Qtbnaktngtismdisti abxeach; areia. 


D issatia f ac^tlon, «. the state of being disn. 
tisfied; discontent. Dissatistkctflrineag. 
s. unsUJsfactorineBS. TMsnatisfnctonr, a. 
unsatisfactory. Dissat'lsfled, o. a. nut 
satisfied ; discontented. Disanisfy, a 
to fail to satisfy; todiapleaae. 

Dissect', V. to cut in pieces, as an mimal 
body; to anatomize; to cut up and ex. 
amine minutely. Dissec'tioii, «. act of 
dissecting it^ cutting up and exeniniiuf; 
anatomy, rlnnnntnr r nnoirhn disnroFn 

Disseize (-seeO, v. to dispossess, alawtenn. 

Dissem'blance, «. want of resemUanoe. 

I>i8seml)le, v, to conceal facta, motive^ 
&c., by some false pretence ; to play tho 
hypociite. Dissembler, ». one who dis- 
sembles; a hypocrite. DiBaembliDg,]).a. 
pretending; feigning. Dissen^iUngly, 
ad. with dissimulation. 

Dissem'inate, v. to scatter, as seed; to 
scatter fur growth and propegatlai, u 
opinions, d:c. ; to spread abroad ; to dif- 
fuse. DLssomina'tion, i. tiie act of dis* 
seminating ; propagation : diflkision. 
Dissem'inator, ». one who duseminatea 

Dissen'sioB, «. disagreement in opinioD; 
discord; contention; strife. Insseaf, 
s. disagreement from an opinkm or mea* 
sure; separation from the Established 
Church : v. to difTer in opinion ; to dis- 
agree. Dissenter, «. one who dissents 
from the Established Chturch. Disaen'- 
tieuu, fit. disagreeing : t. one who deolaref 
his dissent. 

Disserta'tion, «. a discourse; an essay. 

Di.sser've, r. to disoblige ; to do an i^ury 
to. Disservice, «. injury done; harm. 
Disscrviceable, a. injuriuus ; hurtfuL 

Dissev'er, v. to part in two^ to riigiin i t e. 

Dis'sident, a. varying ; not agreeing. 

Dii^sim'iL'u*, a. unlike; heterogeneooa 
Diflsimil'itude^ «. unlikeness; want of 

Diesimula'tion, a dissembling ; hypocrisy. 

Dis'Rip.ite, V. to scatter, to disperse ; \A 
spend lavishly. Dissipated, p. ck soidv. 
tered ; dissulure. Dissipa'tion, «. act of 
dissipating; state of beLug d^sipated; 
dissolute living. 

DisKo'ciate, v. to separate, to /^<«m»iffgy 

Dissocia'tion, «. seimration from. 

Dissolubil'ity, ii. quality of belM dlsiola- 
blo. Dis'soluble, a. dissolvable. 

Dis'solute, a. loose in morals : debauched. 
DLsHolutely, ad. in a dissolute manpor. 
Dissoluteness, «. laxity of morale. 

Dissolu'tion, $. act of dissolving ; state of 
being dissolved ; a breaking or tennina- 
tion ; separation of the soul and body; 
death. Dissolv'able, a. that may oe 
dissolved. Dissolve, v. to melt; to 
disunite ; to separate ; to break up ; to 
be melted \ to melt or waste away ; to 
perish. Dissolvent, a. having power to 
dissolve : t. that which has power to 

Dis'sonance, t. discord ; disagreemenl 
Dissonant, a. discordant; haiu^ 




of diflsuading ; advice or persuasion 
mgahiBt a thing. Bissua'siTe, a. tending 
to diaraade : «. an axgomeDt employed 
to dJBWiadft 

Dissyllablo, a. consisting of two syUaUes. 

Disayl'lAble, «. a word of two syllables. 

Die'taff, «. a staff used in spinning. 

DIstain', v. to stain, to tinge ; to sully. 

Blatanoe, a. space between two objects; 
remoteness m time or place ; respect ; 
reserve : v. to leave behind, as in a race. 

IMs'tantk a, standing apart ; remote in time 
en* place ; shy ; reserved. Distantly, ad, 
remotely; 'with reserve. 

Dista'sta, f. disgust; dislike; aversion. 
Distasteful, a. nauseous to the palate ; 
disagreeable ; offensive. Distastefulness, 
«. quality of being distastef uL 

Sistem'per, «. disorder, indisposition, dis- 
ease, malady ; a method of tempering 
paint by sise, Ao, instead of oil : v. to 
affect with disease. Distemperatiire, «. 
bad temperature ; excess of heat or cold 
or other Qualities. Distempered, p. a, 
disordered; diseased; painted in dis- 

Distend', v. to stretch out in breadth ; to 
expand. Disten'aive, a. that distends or 
may be distended. Distention, «. act oi 
distending ; extension ; breadth. 

IMa'tich (-tik), «. a couplet of verses. Dis- 
tichous, a. arranged in or having two 

Distil', V. to fall in drops ; to flow gently 
and silently ; to cause to fall in drops ; 
to draw by distillation ; to extnict the 
spirit or pure part of a fluid. Distillable, 
a. that may be distilled. Distilla'tion, 
a, the act or process of distilling. Dis- 
till'er, f. one who distils spirits. Distil- 
ls* 9, a building or place for dist.illlng 

DiBtincf, a. different, separate, clear. 

Distino'tion, «. a difference; honourable 
note of superiority ; eminence; quality. 

Distino'tive^ a. markmg distinction or dif- 
ference. Distinctively, ad. with dis- 
tinction or difference. Distinctiveness, 
9. quality of being distinctive. Dis- 
tinidJy, ad. separately; clearly. Dis- 
tJnctness, «. clearness ; precision. 

Distinguish (-ting'gwish), v. to note dif- 
tumoB between ; to discern critically ; 
to make a distinction by some mark of 
honor ; to signalize ; to make eminent. 
Distinguishable, a. that may be distin- 
guishod; worthy of note. Distingfuished, 
p. a, eminent, celebrated. Distinguish- 
ing, p, a. marking distinction. 

Distorr, «. to writhe, to twist ; to pervert 
Distor'tion, s. act of distorting ; state of 
Iwingdistcni^: perversion. 

Diatraof, v. to draw different ways at 
onoe ; to draw or turn from ; to perplex ; 
to make mad. Distnictod, p. a. drawn 
from; perplexed; frantic. Distractedly, 
ad, wudly; frantioly. Distrac'tion, t. 
state of bedng distracted; perplexity; 
mMfnem . LutaWive, a. tending to 

Distrabi', v. to seise for a debt Distrain, 
able, a. liable to be distrained. Dia- 
traint'. «. a seizure of goods for debt 

Distress^ s. misery, want ; a distiaining of 
goods: v. to make miserable. Distressed, 
p, a. afflicted; miserable. Distressful, 
a, miserable. Distressfully, ad. miser- 
ably. Distressing^ p, a, afflicting ; very 

Distrib'ute, v. to divide among a number ; 
to deal out; to apportion or allot; to 
separate ana replace, as types. Distri- 
bu'tion, s. the act of distributing; that 
which is distributed ; dispensation; ap- 
portionment. Distrib'utive, a, that dis- 
tributes and ascdgns. Distributively, ad. 
by distribution ; singlv. 

Dis'trict, $. a territorial division ; a pro- 
vince ; a circuit ; a tract ; a region. 

Distrusf , V. not to trust ; to disbelieve : ». 
suspicion, want of confidence. Distrust- 
ful, a, apt to distrust ; suspicious ; dif- 
fident; timorous. Distrustfully, ad. in 
a distrustful manner. Distrustfulncss, 
«. want of confidence. 

Dlstriu'ffas, [L.] «. a writ to distrain. 

Distm-br, v. to stir up; to agitate; to 
trouble ; to disquiet ; to perplex ; to in- 
terrupt or hinder. Disturlumce, ». agi- 
tation; confusion; perplexity; inter- 
ruption of a settled state ; tumult ; in- 
Biunoction. Disturbed, p. a. disgusted ; 
perplexed. Distiurber, «. one ^o dis- 

Disu'nion, t. a separation ; disagreement. 

Disuni'te, v. to separate ; to divide. 

Disu'nity, ». state of disunion. 

Disu'sage, ». gradual diKuse of a custom. 

Disu'se, V. to disaccustom, to leave oS, 

Disval'ue, v. to undervalue, to sliuht. 

Ditch, $. a trench : v. to make a ditch. 

Ditch'er, s. a man who makes ditches. 

Dithyram'bio, i. a son^ in honor of 
Bacchus : a. wild ; enthusiastic. 

Dit'to, t. the aforesaid, the same repeated ; 
contracted into Do. in books of account 

Dit'ty, «. a song ; a musical poem. 

Diuretic, a. promoting urine: s. a drug 
that promotes urine. 

Diur'nal, a. performed in a day, daily : i. 
a day-book, a joumaL Diuxiially, ad, 
daily, every day, day by day. 

Divan', a. the Ottoman grand council ; a 
council ; a smoking-room. 

Divar'icate, v. (to stride widely); to open 
or spread out widely ; to fork or part 
into two; to diverge. Divaiica'tion, «. 
the act of divaricating ; a partition into 

Dive, V. to plunge under water ; to go sud- 
denly and deeply into any thing. 

Divell'icate, v. to pull or pluck in pieces. 

DiVer, a. one who dives ; a sort of water-, 

Divcr'ge, v. to tend in various directions 
from one point ; to branch off widely. 
Divergence, t. tendancj Vn. 'svi\niv)& ^^.-^ 
reotiona from, cue v^vi^ TA:^«i>|FiD^ 
a. going taxUicx efinxEAesc. 

Di'^en* a. aeveanaL, «eoxkdx9»T&MKi* 




Dl'verae, a. difierent. tinlike, various.-' 
Diver'soly, od. differeatl^, variously. 
Di^crsifica'tion, «. variabon, change. 
Diver'flify, v. to vary ; to variegate. 

Diver'sion, «. a turning aside ; 8X)ort, play. 

Diver'sity, «. diKalmilitiide, variety. 

Di'versly, ad. differently, variously. 

Diverf , v. to turn aside ; to amuso. Di- 
verting, p. a. amusing, agreeable. Di- 
vcrtingly, od. in a diverting manner. 

Divest', V. to strip of clothes ; to strip of 
anything possessed or enjoyed. 

Divi'dable. Bee Divisible. Divide, v. to 
part into different pieces ; to separate ; 
to give out in portions. 

Dividend, «. a snare, a part allotted in a 
division, a number to be divided. 

Divi'ders, «. a "psix of compasses. 

Oivina'tion, §. the act of divining ; a fore- 
telling of future events. Divi'ne, a. 
godlike, heavenly ; not human ; excel- 
lent in a supreme degree : «. aclergvman: 
V. to foretel, to presage. Divinely, ad. 
by the agen(nr of God; in a divine 
manner. Divmeness, <. participation in 
the divine natiu*e ; supreme excellence. 
Diviner, <. one who professes divination; 
a soothsayer. 

Di'ving-boU, «. a machine or apparatus 
for enabling a person to descend and 
remain below water in safety. 

Divinity, «. the Deity; theSupreme Being; 
science of divine tbdng^ ; theology. 

Divisible, a. that may be divided. Di- 
vision (dl-vizh'im), «. the act of dividing; 
tlxe state of beiug divided; the i)art 
separated ; a partition ; a share ; part 
of a discoiu^e ; disimion ; discord. Di- 
visional, a. dividing; noting division. 
Divi'sor, «. the niunber that divides. 

Divo'rce, «. a separation ; a dissolution of 
the marriage contract: v. to separate 
married persons ; todisimite. Divorce- 
ment, «. a divorce. 

Divul'ge, V. to make public ; to proclaim. 

Divul'sion, ». a plucking away. 

Diz'en, v. to deck or diess gaudily (Low). 

Diz'zineas, «. giddiness ; whirl in the head. 
Dizzy, a. giddy, thoughtiess ; having a 
whirl in the head : v. to make dizzy. 

Djerrid (jerTeed')» «. a blunt Turkish 

Do (doo), V. to act, to practise, to perform. 

Docile (dos'il), a. teachable ; disposed to 
learn. Dodble, a. docile. Docility, «. 
state of being docile; teachableness. 

Dock, ». a place for building or laying up 
shix)s inix) which water is let in and out 
at pleasure ; the place where a criminal 
stsuads in coiut; a sort of weed : v. to 
lay up in dock ; to cut short, as a horse's 
tail ; to curtail or shorten. Dock'age, «. 
payment for the use of a dock. 

Dock'et, «. a label or direction affixed to 
goods; a register of cases: v. toabstract 
and enter in a docket. 

Dock 'yard, ». a yard for naval stores, &c. 

Doo'tor, «. a teacher ; a learned man ; one 
who has taken the highest degree in 
dtrinity, law, physio, &c. : v. to p\\yilc, 


to cure, to heal. Oootorahin, ]X>otonU^ 
$. the d^^ree or rank of a doctor. — Jke- 
tori CommofM^ », ecclesiastical and admi- 
ralty courts in London ; a plaoo wbsft 
wills are deposited. 

Doc'trlnal, a. relating to or ocmtaining 
doctrine. Doctrinally, ad. by way m 
doctrine. Doctrine, i. toachinff: that 
which is taught ; a principle of Mief. 
Doctrinaire, «. a theorizing polttloian ; 
one fond of new systems (fizvt used in 

Doc'umcnt, ». a writing containing sone 
precept, instruction, or evidenco. 

Di>cument'ary, a. consisting of doctunenti; 
relating to written evidence. DoeU' 
mental, a. pertaining to documents. 

Dodcc'agan, «. a figure of twelve sides. 

Dodge, V. to use caraft ; to follow artfully 
and unperceived ; to evade by shifting: 
«. a crafty trick ; an evasion. Dod'ger, 
». one who dodges or evades. 

Do'do, «. a large sea-bird. 

Doe (d5), i. the female of the fallow-deer. 
Doeskin, «. the skin of the doe ; a sort 
of woollen cloth. 

Doer (doo'er), <. one who xxnrforma. 

Doff, V. to put off dress, to strip. 

Df'i, «. a well-known animal; a term o( 
ivproaoh for a man ; a lump of iron : an 
andiron: v. to follow as a dog; to fouow 

DogTxjrry, «. a kind of wild cherry. 

Dog'brier, «. the brier bearing the hip. 

Dog'cheap, a. cheap as dogs' meat. 

Dog'days, «. the days in which ffirins or 
the Dog-star rises and sets with the sun 
(the ancients computed them from the 
15th July to the 20th August, — we, from 
the 8d July to the 11th AugustX 

Doge (dOjeX «. the titie of the chief mag^ 
trate in Venice during the Bepublie. 

Dog'fish, «. a kind of shark. 

Dog'fly, «. a voracious biting fly. 

Dog'ged, a. surly, morose; stubboni. 
Doggedly, ad. in a dogged manner. 
Doggcdness, «. surliness; stubbomnesB. 

Dog'ger, «. a Dutch fishing-vesseL 

IX^gerel, a. low, contemptible, applied 
to mean worthless verses. 

Dog'gish, a. currish, snappLsh; smij. 

D<^^le, «. a vile, mean nabitation. 

Dog-kennel, «. a house or place for dogs. 

Dog'-Latin, «. barbarous or vUe Latin. 

Dog'ma, ». an established principle; ft 
tenet. Dogmafic, Dogmatical, a. re- 
lating to dogmas; authoritative; posi- 
tive. DogmaticaJly, ad. positively: 
arrogantly. Dog^natics, «. pL doctrinal 
theology. Dogmatism, «. magisterial 
assertion. Dogmatist, ». a dogmatical 
teacher. Dogmatize, v. to teach dog- 
matically; to assert positively. Dog- 
matizer, «. one who dogmatizes. 

Dog'rose, t. the flower of the dogbrier. 

Dog's'-ear, s. the comer of a leaf hi a book 
turned down like a dog's oar. 

Dog's'-meat, <. meat for dogs ; offiil. 

Dog; &\Ai» ». ^Vc\\\A. ^ftft* \iO%-^JKS%» 




Dog'-toeth, 8. the teeth next the ffrinders. 

Dog'-trot, ». a gentle trot, like a dog's. 

Doi'ly, «. a small after^inner napk^ 

DoingB (doo'ingsX ». pL actions, feats. 

Ddt, c a small piece of money ; a trifle. 

JDole, V. to deal out sparingly ; to distri- 
bute: ». a share, a portion; an allow- 
ance given in chari^; gric^; misery. 
Doleml, a. sorrowful ; dismaL Dole- 
fully, od. in a doleful manner. Dole- 
fnlnesBy ». sorrow ; melancholy. Dole- 
some, a. dolefuL 

Dol'erite, «. a variety of trap-rock. 

DoU, I. a little girl's puppet or baby. 

Dollar, «. a fordgn coin of different value, 
frem about 2$. 6d. to is, 6d. 

Dol'omite, «. a variety of magnesian lime- 

Dolorific, a. causing grief or pain. Dol'- 
oxous, a. Bonowftd ; painful. Dolorously, 
ad. sorrowflilly; with pain. Dolour, 
Dolor, ». griet, laonentation, pain. 

Dd'phin, «. a cetaceous fish, remarkable . 
for its beautiful changes of colours when 

Dolt» «. a hea^, stupid fellow. Doltish, 
a. stupid; blockish. Doltishness, «. 

Domain', t, a dominion; empire; estate. 

Dome, «. a building; a cathedral; a 
q>lierical roof or cupola. 

Domei^tic, a. belonging to the house; pri- 
vate; not foreign: «. a servant. 

Dosnes'ticate, v. to make domestic. Do- 
meetica'tian, t. the act of domesticating. 

Domicile, §. a house ; a fixed residence : 
9, to render domestic; to establish a 
fixed residence. Domicil'iate, v. to do- 

Dom'inant, a. having the rule or ascend- 
em^; predominant. Dominate, v. to rule 
Ofver, to prevaiL Domina'tion, s. ruling 
power; arbitrary authority ; tyranny. 

Dmnlne, [L.] «• a schoolmaster. 

Domineei^, v. to lord it over ; to rule or 
direct with insolence. 

Domin'ioal, a, denoting the Lord's day. 

Dominican, a. belonging to St Dominic : 
9, a friar of the order of St Dominic. 

Dinninlon, «. sovereign authority ; power; 
rule; government, region, territory. 

Domino, 9. a kind of hood; a long dress. 

Domlnus, [L.] «. a lord, a master. 

Don, s. the Spanish title for Gentleman. 

Don, V. to do or put on. Comi>are J)off. 

Dona'tion, ». the act of giving; a gilt, a 
present. Don'atlve, «. a gift, a largess; 
a benefice: a. vested by donation. 

Done! inUrj. a word used to confirm a 
wager ^et it be done). Done, the p. p. of 

Donee', «. tiie receiver of a gift. 

DoaJ<m, «. the strong^t tower in a casUe. 

Don^e7f *• ft childish word for ass. 

Don'na, s, the Spanish titie for Lady. 

Do*nor, «. a giver, a bestower. 

Doc/dle, «. a simple fellow; a trifler. 

Doom, 9. to judge; to condemn ; to des- 
tine; s. Bjudidal sentence; condemna- 
tioo: £jud Judgement; ruin; destiny. 

Dooms'day, s. the day of Judgement 

Dooms'day-Book, s. a book smEuie by order 
of William the Conqueror, in which aJl 
the estates in England were registered 
with the view to their being (doomed) 
adjudged for taxation. 

Door (doreX t. the gate or entrance of a 
house; a portal; a passage. Door'-case, 
9. the frame in which a door is enclosed. 
Door-keeper, «. one who attends at a 
door, a porter. Door-post, 9. the poet 
of a door. 

Doree', «. a fish with golden-yellow sides; 
commonly called a John Dory. 

Dor'ic, a. relating to an order of architcc- 
t\ire invented by the Dorians. 

Dor'mant, a. sleeping; in a sleeping pos- 
ture; leaning; not used; conceal^. 

Dor'mar, «. in architecture, a beam or 
sleeker ; a window in the roof of a house. 

Dor'mitive, <. a soporific medicine. 

Dor'mitory, «. a sleeping room with many 
beds; a bmial-place. 

Dor'mouse, «. a smidl animal which passes 
a large part of the winter in sleep. 

Dom, «. a fish, the thomback. 

Dorr, «. a flying insect, the hedge chafer. 

Dor'sal, a. belonging or fixed to the back. 

Dose, <. the quantity of medicine given at 
a time: v. to give in doses. 

Dos'sil, 9. a pledget of lint used in siurgory. 

Dot, 9. a small spot or point in writing : v. 
to mark with dots. 

Do'tage, «. imbecility of mind in old ago ; 
silly fondness. 

Do'tal, a. relating to a i)ortion or dowry. 

Do'tard, 9. one whoso age has imi>aircd his 
intellect; a silly lover. 

Dote, V. to love to excess ; to grow silly. 

Dot'terel, 9. the name of a bird. 

Do'ting, p. a. fond to ridiculous excess. 

Do'tingly, ad. with excessive fondness. 

Douane, [dwan, Fr.] «. a custom-house. 

Double (dub'61), a. twofold, twice as much : 
V. to make twice as much; to sail round 
a headland; to turn back or wind in 
running ; to fold : «. a plait or fold ; a 
trick, a turn. Double-dealer, «. a de- 
ceitful subtie person. Double-dealing;, 
9. dissimulation, cunning. Doublo- 
edged, a. having two edges. 

Double-entendre, [doo-bl-ong-tong'dr, Fr. J 
9. a phrase with a double meaning. 

Double-faced, a. insincere, deceitful. 

Double-minded, a. deceitful, treacliero\is. 

Doublet, «. a garment that folds or doubles 
round the body; a waistcoat; a pair; 
two : pL the same number on both dice. 

Double-tongued, a. deceitful, false. 

Doubling, s. the act of making double ; a 
fold, a plait ; a shift ; a trick. Doubly, 
ad. with twice the quantity; twico; 

Doubloon', 9. a Spanish coin, dovlle the 
value of a pistole. 

Doubt (doutX 9. imcertainty of mind; 
difficulty aa to \»Yial\ \L«B*a».crcL\ \sx3«. 
certainty ; i». to \» m xaxe-wcXaAtJics \ "^ 
beaitate; to «vM5pe«\.\ ^^ ^:S^jL 

I DouU'a.b\e, ft. ^a.t Tn«s ^ ^swMwaA^ 




Doubter, f. one who doubU. Doabtftil, 
a. full fk doubts ; dubious ; nncertaixi ; 
not detormined. Doubtfully, ad, with 
doubt; dubiously. Doubtfulness. «. 
unoortainty; dubiousness. Doubtless, 
Doubtlessly, ad, without doubt; un- 

Douceur, [doo-, Fr.] «. sweetness; a gra- 
tuity ; a condliatmg bribe. Bee No. 89, 
p. 29. 

Dc ache, [doosh, Fr.l «. a ]et of water 
tiirown upon some diseased part of the 

Dough (do), «. baked paste. Doughy 
(dou'-ty), a. braye, yaliant, redoubtoc^ 
noble; (now used ironically). Doughy 
(do'eyX a. soft, not quite baked. 

Douse, V. to plunge or fall suddenly into 
water; to lower a sail suddenly. 

Dove (duTX *' A species of pigeon, a do- 
mestic pigeon. Dove-cot, Dove-house, 
a. a pigeon-house. Dovelike, a. gentle ; 
innocent. Dovetail, f. in carpentry, a 
tenon or joint in form of a dove's tail 
spread : v. to unite by a dovetail Joint. 

Dow'ager, ». a widow with a jointure ; a 
title of a widow of rank. 

Dovtr'dy, <. an awkward, ill-dressed woman: 
a. awkward ; ill-dressed. Dowdyish, a. 
like a dowdy. 

Dowser, or Dowry, t. a wife's portion ; a 
widow's Jointure. Dowerless, a, with- 
out a dower, unportioncd. 

Dowlas, t. a kind of coarse strong linen. 

Down, «. a large open plain, or a flat on 
the top of a hill; a sand-bank See 
Downs. Down, ». the finest, softest 
feathers; soft wool; tender hair; the 
soft hairjr fibres of plants w})ic}i winsr 
the seeds. Down. ad. in a downward 
direction : im. as down with them 1 : a. 
as a down look. 

Down'cast, a. bent down, dejected. 

Down'fkll, «. a sudden fall; overthrow; 

DowuHiill, a. descending : «. a dencent. 

Dowuly'ing, «. near the time of childbirth. 

Down'riijfht, a. opi-n, pLiin, diroct; blunt: 
ad. plainly; fhiukly; directly. 

Downs {pL of Down), ridges of high land, 
such as lie along the coast of Kent aiid 
Sussex. The Dotms, the roads in which 
ships lie off tijese hilly coasts at anchor, 
particuliurly, near Deal. 

Dowti'ward, a. bending down, dejected. 

Down'ward, Downwards, ad. towards the 
centre ; from a higher to a lower place. 

Down'y, a. covered with or made of down ; 
soft : tender. 

Doxol ogy, «■ a form of giving praise or 
glory to Ood, during divine sei^ce. 

Dox'y, i. a loose wenuh, a kept woman. 

Doze, V. to slumber, to be half asleep : t. 
a Ught sleep, a slmnber. 

Dosen (duj/zn), a. twelve : «. twelve 
things, usually of the like kind. 

Dt/ziness, «. state of being dozy. Dozy, 
a. drowsT, Inclined to sleep. 

Dnh, «. a thick woollen cloth ; a strmnpot: 
a, at/i dull brown or dun oolour. 

Drachm (dram), c an ■nctant Grade oolni 
the eighth part of an otmoo. SeeOnoiL 

Dra'co, i. the drsgon ; a oonstoUatlan. 

Draff, i. refiise ; any thing oast away. 

Drafty, a. dreny* waste; worthleML 

Draft, i. a bill; a cheque: a portioB or 
detachment of soldien drawn from a 
r^ment; a current of air, as fhm a 
window, fto. Bee Draiight, p. 4SL 

Drag, V. to pull along by force ; to dam 
along slowly; to trail on the groond; 
to use a drag-net or drag : #. anj Utbm 
that is dragged or drawn alooft lai 
harrow ; a sledge ; a heavy Tetalde; aa 
instrument with hooks to catch taola of 
any thing under water; an inatrtoMiA 
to lock a wheeL Draggle, v. to makl 
dirty by dragging on the groinuL 

Drag'oman, «. an interpreter in Tvaki&f, 

Dragoon, «. an imaginary winged aerpank; 
a conistellation. DrwonnAde. [Fr.j t, 
act of dragooning. DragonlikeL a. to- 
rious, fiery, fierce. Dnigon'a-Mood, I, 
a red resinous substance. 

Drag'on-fly, ». a fierce stingingr tnaaet. 

Dragoon', i. a cavalry or horse acddler, • 
trooper : v. to force one into a meaaora. 

Drain, «. a channel to carry off water. 

Drain, v. to make quite diy, to draw oft 

Drain'able, a. capable of being drained. 

Drain'age, ». a draining or flowing ott. 

Drain'ing, ». the act of making draina. 

Drake, «. a fowl, the male qt She duok. 

Dram, «. a small weight ; a 'Small portlaa 
of spirituous liquor. See Draehm. 

Dram a, «. the action of a play ; a poem. 

Dramatic, Dramatical, a. represented by 
action ; theatrical. Dramatically, adL 
by stage renresentatiou. Dram'atiaty t, 
a writer of plays. Dramatise, v. to 
adsipt to the drama or scenio repreaoa- 

Drank, Drunk, the past tense of Drink. 

Dra'per, i. one who sells or deals in doth. 
Draperiod, a. flimished with drapery. 
Drapery, s. the trade or business of • 
dray)er, hanginKS or curtains ; tho dreai 
of figures in painting and sculpture. 

Dras'tic, a. powerful as a pargative. Dims* 
tics, i. pi. powerful p^n'gatives. 

Draught (draft), t. the act of drinking; 
the quantity drunk at once ; a delinea* 
tion or sketch ; the act of pulling car- 

Draught'-horse, s. a horse used for drawing, 
as distinguished from a saddle-horse. 

Draughts, «. pL a kind of plav on chequers. 

Draughts'num, s. one who draws or 

Draw, V. to pull forcibly, to attract, toon- 
sheathe: to suck or inhale ; to ricetcth or 
delineate; to practise drawing ; to idiure ; 
to deduce. 

Drawback, s. duty paid back on exports. 

Drav/bridge, t. a bridge made to draw up. 

Drawee', «. one on whom a bUl Is drawn. 

Draw'er, «. one who draws anv thing, as a 
drawer of water ; one who dniws a Ull ; 
a tapster or drawer of Uxraiot ; that «diloh 




I or oaae ; tliat which if drawn on, 
tar trousen (Draweis). 
C, f. a dehneatlon; a picture. 
ag'TOBalbet, t. a teadier of drawing. 
IP-room, «. a room for wUMrcnring 
. wmmmhly at ooort 
. to utter slowly and aflbotedly: 
rw protraoted uuerance. 
the past participle of Draw, 
aottle, t. a battle from which the 
tantB withdraw their forces, with- 
B defeat or viotory of either party. 
fe, <i a net for catching wild-fowl. 
lU, t. a deep well of water, 
a oar used oy hrewers. 
me, t. a horse whloh draws adray. 
n, i. one that drives a dray. 
Ired), t. great fear, terror, awe: v. 
* greatly : a. awflu. Dread'ful. a. 
a, frlghtftiL horrid. Dreadfmly, 
ExiUy, fitightfUlly. Dreadless, a. 
m, nndannted, daring. 
«. thoughts or fiEmdes in sleep; 
I ftmoy ; a wild conceit: v. to have 
its or fendes in sleep ; to ima- 
to think Idly; to be sluggish. 
i'm, t. one who dreams; a vision- 
% mope. Dreaminess, ». state of 
dreamy. Dreamless, a. free from 
s. Draamy, a, full of dreams; 



r, a. dismal; gloomy with 
La; mournful Drearily, ad. dis- 
; gloomily. Dreariness, «. stato 
ig dreary. 

a. a drag or net for taking oysters, 
. madilne for cleaning canals and 
9. to catch or gather with a dredgo ; 
nkls flour, as oh meat. Dredg'or, 
who fishes with a dredge. Dredg- 
X, «. a box for sprinkling flour. 

a. oontalning drem, not clear. 

the sedimente of liquors, lees. 
V. to wet thoroughly, to soak, to 
;h drink; to pui^ge violently : s. a 
it or dose for a horse or other 

clothes, ornaments, finery : v. to 
, to deck, to adorn ; to cook ; to 
a wound with medicaments ; to 
to adjust; to arrange in a lino. 
sr, a. one who dresses; a kitclicn 

Dressing, ». the act of putting 
8^8 dothes; the act of decking 
lamenting; an application to a 
I; manure spread on land; a 

{'-gown, t. a gown worn while 
]g. Dress-maker, t. a mantiia- 
■. Dressing-room, «. an ai)artment 
M in. Dressing-table, s. a table 
IS at, a iDllet-tablo. 
a. fond of dress • showy in dress, 
le past tense of Draw. 
, V. to fall in drops, to dron 
; to drlveL Driblet, g. a smaU 
Ta large sum ; a small quantity. 
». a. made dry; free from mois- 


Hmt which kbeorhB molstaTt, 

Drift, «. dedgn, aim, tendency, any thing 
driven at random ; a heap of snow : v. to 
be driven along, to be driven into heaps : 
a. applied to an^ thfng that has drifted, 
as dri/t-wood; citZuviaf deposits, fto. 

Drill, «. an instrument used m boring 
holes * the act of teaching the military 
exercise; a row of grain; an ape or 
baboon : v. to perforate ; to sow in rows ; 
to train soldiers. 

Drill'-harrow, «. a small harrow used be- 
tween rows or drills. Drill-husbandry, 
«. a mode of sowing land by a machine 
in drills. Drill-plough (-plow), ». a plough 
for sowing gram in drilis. 

Drink, «. a Uauor to be swallowed: v. 
to swallow liquors, to quench thirst. 
Drink'able, a. that may be drunk. 
Drinker, «. one that drinks ; a drunk- 
ard. Drinking, «. the act of drinking ; 
the practice of drinking to excess. 

Drip, V. to fall in drops : «. a small drop. 

Drip'ping, «. the fat that drops £h)m meat 
while roasting. Dripping-pan, «. the 
pan in which the fet of roast meat is 

Drive, V. to impel or force along ; to ui*flpe 
forward ; to knock or force in ; to guide 
or manage a carriage: «. a ride in a 
carriage. DrlVen, the p. v. of Drive. 

Dtlv'el, V, to slaver or let tne spittle fall 
in drops like a child or idiot ; to be weak 
or foolish; to dote: «. a fool, an idiot. 
Driveller, t. a dotard, an idiot. Drivel- 
ling, p. a. slavering; doting: «. the act 
of a driveller. 

Dri'vcr, », one who drives or urges on, 

Driz'zle, v. to fall in smtill drops. 

Driz'zly, a. raining in small drops. 

Droit, [drwa, Fr. J *. right ; privilege. 

DrOll, a. comical, humorous, merry: v. to 
play the buCfoon, to jest: «. a fester, a 
Duflbon, a farce. 

DrOriory, «. buflFoonery ; idle Jokes. 

Drom'edary, «. the Araoian camel, which 
has only one protuborunco on its back. 

Drone, «. the bc« which collects no honey ; 
an idler, a slugt^ard; a low humming 
sound ; a pipe of a baprpipe : v. to livo in 
idloness ; to emit a low bummizig sound. 

Dro'nish, a. idle, sluggish, dull. 

Droop, V. to pine away, to lan^aiish. 

Drop, «. a small globule of any liqtdd : v. 
to lot fall; to fall in drox)s; to utter 
slightly ; to cease ; to como to nothing. 

Drop'pin<r, g, afidlingindroiNs; that which 
falls hi drops. 

Drop'sical, a. diseased with dropsy ; tend- 
in^ to dropsy. Dropsy, «. a morbid 
collection of serum or watery matter in 
some ports of the body. 

Dross, <. the scum of metals : rust; refuse. 
Dross'iness, «. state of being drossy. 
Drossy, a. ftill of dross; like dross; im- 

Drought (drout), «. a long continuance of 
dry weather : the effect of dry weatheir ; 
dryness; tmrst. DrovL|^\ity« a. «i?A'« 
wantingraln; tYiixslby. Dtoum,\)RN[^3aL7, 
See Drought uid Drous^tj* 




Drove, the past teiue of Drive. 
Drove, », a hord of cattle; a crowd of 
people moviiig. Dro'ver, «. one who 
drives cattle to market. 
Drovm, v. to siillocate in water, to over^ 

whehn in water; toiromei^. 
Drowse, v. to slumber, to grow sleepy. 

DroVsily, ad, sleepily, heavily, lazuy. 

Drow'siuess, t. sleepiness; sluggishness. 

Drow'sy, a. sleepy, ucavy, dull. 

Drub, i. a thump, a knock, a blow: v. to 
thrash, to beat, to bang. Drub'bing, t. 
a beathig, a thrashing. 

Drudge, v. to labour in mean offices; to 
toil, to slave : $. a mean labourer, a slave. 

Drud'gery, «. hoard mean laboiu*, idavery. 

Drud'gingly, ad. laboriously, toilsomely. 

Drug, ». a medicinal simple; a thing of 
little value or worth: v. to fill with 

Drug'gct, 8. a coarse kind of woollen stuff. 

Druggist ^drug'ist)^ ». a dealer in drugs 
and mcaicines. 

Dru'id, ». an ancient British or Celtic 
priest. Druid'ic, Druidi(»l, a. pertaining 
to the Druids. Dru'idism, i. the religion 
or rites aud ceremonies of the Druids. 

Drum, «. on instrument of military music ; 
the tympanum of the ear; a short 
cylinder used in machinery; a small 
(hnim-shapcd box of figs; an assembly 
or rout: v. to beat a drum; to expel by 
beat of drum ; to instil by repetition. 

Dnun-ma'jor, «. the chief drummer. 

Drum'mer, «. one who beats a drum. 

Drum'mond- light, g. an intense light 
catisod by a stream of ignited oxygen 
and hvdrogen gas thrown at onoe on a 
boll of lime. 

Dnim'stick, «. a stick with a knobbed end 
for beating a drum. 

Drunk, Druuk'en, a. intoxicated. 

Drunk'ard, t. one addicted to drinking. 

Drunk'enness, «. intoxication, inebriety. 

Dry, a. free from water or moisture; not 
wet; not raining; not juicy; arid; 
thirsty; frigid; tedious; quietly hu- 
morous; sarcastic; plabi; unembel- 
lished: v. to free from moisture; to 
drain; to grow dry. Dry'ing, «. the act 
of drying; desiccation. Dryly, ad. in a 
dry manner ; coldly ; sarcastically. Dry- 
ness, i. state of oeiug dry; want of 
uioisture; quiet humour. 

Di-y'ad, *. a wood-nymph. 

Dry'nurse, 9. a woman who brings up and 
foods a ohUd without the breast. 

Dry'saltor, «. a dealer in salted or dried 
meats, sauces, oils, pickles, &o. 

Dry'shod, a. having the feet dry. 

Du'al, a. expressing the number two. 
Dualism, «. the doctrine of two sovereign 
principles; one good, the other evil 
Dual'i^, «. the state of being twc. 
DualisTio, a. relating to dualism. 

Dub, i. a tap, a blow : v. to confer knight- 
Ijood. Dubbed, p. a struck; made a 

DuHbious, a. doubtful; imcertain; not 
pldD or clear. Dubiously, ad, doubt- 

fully. DubiousnoM, 9. dodUftibMn; 
uncertainty. DuUta'tion, «. the act of 
doubting; doubt. 
Du'cal, a. pertaining to a duke. 
Duc'at, «. a coin trariKdc l^ a ■ov«rrein 
Duke; value in silver, about it. M. ; n 
gold, 9«. 6d. 
Duch'ess, t. the wife of a duke. Doohy,! 

a territory giving title to a duka. 
Duck, i. a wator-fowl, female of tliadnke; 
a term of fondness ; a dip uxidsr 'water; 
a kind of light canvas: v, to diva or dip 
imder wat^: to decline or stoop the 
head. Duckling, «. the act of r^*™g**^ 
imder water. Duckinfir-atool, s. a chair 
in which scolds were tied, and pobUdty 
ducked. Duckl^csed, a. havi^i^ (dioit 
legs. Duckling, «. a youDflrdndc. Dock> 
meat, », a plant growing In gtsgnsat 

Duct, «. a tube, a canal, a passsse. 

Duc'tne, a. that may easily be diawn out 
in length; pliable, flexible, tractsljle^ 
docile. Ductileness, «. ductUitT. Due* 
til'ity, 9. quality of being ductile; flex* 

Dud'geon (-junX «. anger; ill will; ansill 

Due, 9. that which is owed; a rigbior 
just title to; custom, tribute: a. Juit, 
fit, proper: ad. duly; exactly, directly, 
as Que south. 

Du'ol, 9. a combat between two porsom. 
Duelling, 9. the act or practice of flglit' 
ing duels. Duellist, 9. a fighter of duels. 

Duen'iia, 9. a governess; an old wanan 
kept to guard a younger one. 

Duet^, 9. a song or air for two voicea. 

Duffel, 9. a sort of friezo or flannel. 

Dug, 9. the pap or teat of a beast. Dug of 
Digged, the p. t. and p. p, of Dig. 

Duke, 8. the dignity next oelow a psincs. 

Du'kedom,* s. the possessions of a obke. 

Durcet, a. sweet, narmonioua. 

Dul'dfy, V. to make sweet. 

Dul'cimer, 9. a kind of musical instrnmsnt 

Dull, a. stupid, sluggish, heavy; not 
bright or clear ; obtuse or blunt ; sad or 
cost down ; tedious or prosy: v. to make 
stupid or sad; to blunt Dullard, 9. a 
dull fellow ; a blockhead. Dully, od. in 
a dull manner; stupidly. Diunoss, 9, 
state or quality of bemg duQ; stupidity; 
want of brightness or vividness. 

Duly, ad, properly, fitly, exactly. 

Dumb (dum), a. mute, silent ; unable to 
utter words. Dumb'ness, «. inability 
to speak; mutenessi Dumb-beUs, <. 
weignts swung in the hands for exer* 

Dumfoxmd'er, v. to strike dumb (Low). 

Du'mous, Dumose, a. beset with bushe:* 
and briers. 

Dump'ish, a. sad, melancholy. 

Dumpling, 9. a small round pudding. 

Dumps, 9. melancholv, sullonness. 

Dump'y, a. short and thick. 

Dim, a. a darkish or dull brown colour. 

Dun, 9, a clamorous, importunate cre- 
ditoc*. V. \a vc^^ ^ \xsivx\Nina Im % 




debt. Dun'ning, «. the act of Impor- 
taning for a debt. Dun, t. a Celtic term 
for a hill, a fort on a bill; a fortified 
place; a residence. See Down. 

Dunce, t. an unteachable person, a dolt. 

Dung, i. the excrement of anlmftls ; man- 
ure : V. to manure land with dung. 

Don'geon (-jun), ». a close, dark prison. 
See Donjon, ci which this is a corruption. 

Dimglull, «. a heap of dung : a. sprung 
from the dunghiU; low-bred; mean, 

Diminish, a. inclining to a dun colour. 

Da'o^ [L. J «. two ; in music, a time in two 

Duodecimo (-des'e-mo), «. a book in which 
eadh sheet of papw contains twelve 

Dupe, V. to trick, to cheat, to impose on : 
«. a crodulous simplo person. 

Du'plex, a. twofold; doable; compound. 

Du'plioate, ». an exact copy of anything : 
a. double, twofold : v. to double, to fold. 

Duplica'lion, t. act of doubling ; a fold. 

Dcmlicity (du-plis'e-tyX *- double dealing; 
oeceit; insincerity. 

Durability, «. the power of lasting. 

Du'rable, a. hard, strong, lasting. 

Du'rabloiees, s. the quality of lasting. 

Da'rably, act. in a diurable manner 

Du'ra master, p[j.] «. a membrane of the 
brain. See Fia mater. 

Da'rance, «. imprisonment, custody. 

Dura'tion, «. continuance, length of time. 

Doxbar', «. an audience room, in India. 

Dure, V. See Endure. 

DaYasSy «. constraint by confinement; 
unlawful imprisonment. See 69, p. 25. 

Da'xing, prep, for the time of; the con- 
tinuance of ; for the period of. 

Durst) or Dared, past tense of Dare. 

Dusk, a. tending to darkness ; dusky, ob- 
scure : ». Incipient darkness ; twilight. 
Dusk'iness, i. slight darkness. Duskish, 
a. somewhat dusky. Dusky, a. tending 
to darloiess ; somewhat dork ; gloomy. 

Dust) 9. euth or other matter £ied to a 
powder; mould; the grave: v. to free 
ttom. duist ; to sprinkle with dust. 

Dosf er, ». that which frees from dust. 

Dosfiness, «. the state of being dusty. 

Dosfman, «. one who carries away dust. 

DostVt a. clouded or covered with dust. 

Dut^ ». the people or language of Hol- 
land : a. relating to the Dutch. 

Dot'c^xy, Dutchess. See Duchy, &c. 

Du'teous, a, performing that which is 
due; obedient. Dutiful, a. obedient to 

rents and superiors. Dutifully, ad. 
a dutiful manner. Dutifulness, s. 
obedience; reverence. Duty, «. that 
-which is due or that which a person is 
bound hy any obligation to do; obe- 
dience due to parents or superiors; act 
of reverence or respect; business; office; 
the business of a soldier on guard ; ser- 
vice ; tax or customs. 
J}w9xt, ». a man much below the ordinary 
siie; any animal or plant much smaller 
tsbMn tbe usual nize: v. to binder ttom 

growing to the natural size. Dwarfish, 
a. below the natural size ; very smaU ; 
stimted. Dwarfishness, $. minuteness 
of statins. 

Dwell, V. to abide or reside in ; to stay ; to 
continue, or dilate upon ; . to hang upon 
with attention or fondness. DweU'er, «. 
one who dwells ; an inhabitant. Dwelt 
or Dwelled, the p. t and p. p. of DwolL 
Dwelling, t, a habitation or abode. 
Dwelling-house, ». the house in which 
one lives, a numsion. 

Dwin'dle, v. to grow less ; to fall away. 

Dye, V. to tinge, to colour : s. any coloiuing 
fluid used In dydng, a hue or tinge. 

Dy'er, «. one whose trade is to dye. 

Dye'ing, t, the art of colouring doth, &c. 

I^ing, p. a. expiring; at the time uf 
death ; deadly or mortaL 

Dynam'eter, s. an instrument for measur- 
ing the magnifying xwwer of telescopes. 

Dynamic, Dynamics^, a. relating to dynu- 
mics. Dynamics, «. pi. that branch of 
mechanics which treats of the forces of 
moving bodies. 

Dynas'tic, a. relating to a dynasty. Dyn'- 
asty, «. a race of kings of the same 
fkinily; sovereignty. 

Dys, a Greek prefix, implying tS or difil- 
cult ; as in the following words— 

Dys'crasy, «. ill state of the animal fluids. 

DysenteHc, a. tending to dysentery. 

Dys'entery, i. a looseness, bloody flux. 

Dysi)ep'sy, «. difficulty of digestion. 

Dyspep'tic, a. having a difficulty of diges* 
tion : 8. one whose digestion is bad. 

Dys'iuy, «. a difficulty in voiding urine. 


E, a Latin prefix, the same as ex, signify- 
ing /roTn or ovi of. Sec p. 47. 

Each, a. either of two, every one, 

Ea'ger, a. ardent, zealous, sharp, keen. 

Ea'gorly, ad. ardently, keenly. 

Ea'gemess, s. earnestness, ardent zeaL 

Ea'gle, «. a large bird of prey ; the king of 
bu'ds ; the military standard of the an- 
cient Romans. - Eagle-eyed, a. sharp- 
sighted as an eagle. Eagle-stone, «. 
clay iron-stone. Eaglet, t. a young 
eagle. Eagle- wood, «. a fragrant oriental 

Ear, 8. the organ of hearing, the power of 
judging of harmony; a spike of com: 
V. to shoot into ears. 

Ear, t V. to plough. Ear'hag, t s. ploughing. 

Earl (erl), «. a title of nobility next to a 
marquess. Earldom, 8. the dignity or 
seigniory of an earL 

Earllness, «. the state of being early. 

Earl-mar'shal, «. a great officer of state. 

Early (erlyX a. coming soon; timely; 
seasonable : ad. soon ; in good time. 

Earn (em), v. to gain by labour ; to merit 
by services ; to acquire. Earning, «. act 
01 earning; that which is gained by 
labour— us(m1 in the plural (Earnings). 

Earnest (er'ne&t), cu axa«n.t,z»QlcraA« 
intent, fixed*, t. b«Aovwsq»»\^ 
Advancod as a plodfs^. Ymuwb^ 




eagerly, sealously. Kamefltneiii^ jl 
eagemeoa, solicitude. 

Ear'-ring, «. an ornament for the ear. 

Ear'shot^ i. within reach of the ear. 

Earth (orth), «. the world or the 'globe 
which we inhabit; the materials of 
which it is oompoiied ; mould ; the soil ; 
the prround : v. to cover with earth ; to 
get under erouud. Earth'-bom, a. bom 
of the earth. Earthen, a. made of earth 
or clay. Earthen-ware, t. ware made 
of clay, pottery. Earthiness, $, the 
quality of being earth. Earthlineas, $. 
worlilUness. Larthling, g. a poor, frail 
creature ; a worldling. Earthly* a» be- 
long! ng to the earth; not heavenlv; 
not dniritual ; corporeal : carnal ; vile. 
Eartluy-minded, a. having a sensual 
mind; worldly. Earth-nut, 9. a root 
like a nut. Earthouake, s. a violent 
shaldng of the eartn ; vibration of the 
grouncL Earthward, ad. towards the 
earth. Earthwork, «. an embankment 
for defence. Earthworm, «. a worm 
that lives under ground : a mean wretch. 
Earthy, a. consisting ox earth ; partak- 
ing of earth ; earthly ; gross. 

Ear'wax, «. wax that gathers in the ear. 

Ear'wig, $. an insect ; a whisperer. 

Ease, $. quiet, rest alter labour, facility: 
V. to free from i)ain, to relieve, to slacken. 

Eas'el, s. a painter's frame for canvas. 

Eas'ement, t. assistance ; relief. 

Eas'ily, ad. gently, without difficulty. 

Eas'iuess, t. state of being easy ; ease, rest ; 
tranquillity; mildnefla or softness; 

East, «. the quarter where the sun rises : 
a. from or towards the east ; eastern. 

Eas'ter, s. the festival in commemoration 
of the resiurecUon of our Saviour. 

Eas'terly, a. towards the east. Elastem, 
a. beioiuriQg to the east, oriental. East- 
ward, ad. toward the east : a. eastern. 

Kas'y, a. not difficult, qiiict 

Eat, V. to take food ; to devour; to corrode. 
Eat'able, a. that may be eaten: «. any 
thing that may be eaten. Eaten, the p. 
p. of Eat. Eating, 8. the act of taking 
food; food. Eaung-house, g. a house 
where provisions are sold ready dresned. 

Eau, [0, Fr.]«. water; a ucrfumud sjurit. 

Eaves, i. edges of the root which overluing 
the house. Eaves'dropper, «. a listener 
under windows ; an insidious listener. 

Ebb, V. to flow back to the sea, to decline : 
«. the reflux of the tide, decline, decay. 
Eb'bing, s. the reflux of the tide. 

Eb'on t, Ebony, s. a hard, black, valuable 
wood : a. made of ebony. 

Ebri'ety, «. drunkenness, intoxication. 

Ebulliency (e-bai'yen-cy), «. a boiling over. 
Ebullient, a. boiling over. Ebiillition 
MiNh'nnX 9. the act of boiling or bub- 
bling up. 

Ebur^ean, a. made of or like ivory. 

Eccen'trlc, Eccentrical, a. deviating from 
the centre. Irregular; anomalous; pe- 
culiar; singular; odd. EccentrlcaUy, 
od in an eccentric maimer. Sooen- 

tridty (-tris'e-^X «• deriatkm fram ths 
centre; deviation ftom what is uual; 


Ecclesias'tic. a. a dergymaa, a pciaat, 

Ecdesias'tical, a. relating to the choitdL 

Echelon, [esh'ft-ldng. Fr. J a. a term used is 
military tactics to express Che movement 
in which each division follow* behind 
the other like the steps of a ladder. 

Echinus, [ek-i'nus, L.] t. a hedffdK^; a 
sea-urcmn; the prickly head oia plank; 
an ornament in architecture. 

Ec'ho, s. the reverberation of a soond : flk 
to g^ve back the sound of a vojoeu 

Eclaircissement, [-aiz-mdng, Fr.J a. a ftlll 

Eclat, (ek-lah', Fr.] «. striking effect; t^ 
plause; brilliancy; renown. 

Eclec'tic, a. selecting, choosing at wUL 

Eclip'se, t. the darkening of one heavenly 
body by the intervention of the shadow 
of another: v. to obscure; to threw 
into the shade. Ecliptio, «. the son's 
apparent annual path m the beavena. 

Eclogue (eklogX «. a («d«ci) pastoral poem. 

Econom'ic, Economical, a. frugal, thriftf ; 
pertaining to economics. Economieallj, 
<id. with economy. Economics, t. «L 
Political Economy, or the soieuoe which 
teaches how to manage, to the best 
advantage, the general interests of a 
country. Econ'omist, i. one fruynl in 
expenses ; one versed hi Political &000- 
my. Economize, v. to maiu^ frugal^; 
to employ with economy. Economy, a 
pi-udent or thrifty household 
ment; frufral expenditure; 
ment; system; disuosaL 

Ec'stasv, «. excessive joy, enthi 

Ecstat'io, a. enraptuibig, transporting. 

Ecumen'ical, a. general, universaL 

Ec'uiie, [Fr.] <. a stable for horsesl 

Eda'cioua, a. eating ; voracious ; greedy. 

Edacity (-das'-X «. voracity, ravenousnesa 

Ed'da, i. the mother of poetiy, a collection 
of poems containing tne ancient Scandi- 
navian mythology. 

Ed'dy, «. a ooutiary or bade current; a 
whirlpool: a. whirling, moving cir- 
cularly : V. to move as an eddy. 

Edem'atous, Ekiematose, a. swelling with 
serous humor ; swoUeiL 

E'den, «. a paradise, a place of delight. 

Eden'tal, «. an edentalous aninuJ. £dSB> 
talous, a. destitute of teeth. 

Edge, «. the sharp or cutting part of a 
blade ; a brink or border : v. to aharpeft 
or give an edge to ; to indte ; to border 
or fringe; to move f«)rward sideways* 
or by little and little. Edgeless, a. with- 
out any edge, blunt. Edgetool, «. a tod 
made sharp to cut with. Edgewise^ od. 
with the edge forward. Edg'ing; f. a 
fringe, an ornamental bordor. 

Edible, a. at to be eaten, eatable. Bdible- 
ness, «. the quality of being edible. 

E'dict, t. proclamation, an ordinanceu 

Edifica'tion, «. a building up in faith; in- 
struction in relifpion and morakL jBdl- 




Ed'ifioo (-flflX <• a ]tt|[Q buOding; a itruo- 
ture; a house. 

Id'ify, V. to build up or instruct Edify- 
ing, p. a. tending to edify; instructive; 

Vdile, t. a maglstrKte In ancient Rome 
"Who had charge of the temples and pub- 
lic buildings. See iEdile^ p. 40. 

Edit. V. to prepare a work, tat publication. 
Edition (e-d&h'unX «. the publication of 
a book ; the niunbor of copies published. 

Bd'itor, «. one who revises or prepares anv 
literaiy work for publication. Edlto'rlal^ 
a. pertaining to, or written by, an editor. 
Etritorship^ the office or buainesa of an 

Id'ucate^ v. (to draw ouO to cultivate and 
improve the various powers of the mind; 
to orlng up ; to train ; to teach ; to in- 
■tructb Educated, p, a. brought up; 
trained ;tauffht, instructed. Educa'tion, 
JL a gradual development of all the 
nofwers and fiEUSulties of man from his 
mCuiGy to his manhood; teaching or 
inatruction of the voung; breeding. 
Educational, a. pertaming to education. 
Educationist, a a profiossor or promoter 
ofedocatioQ. Ed'ucator, aapersonwlio 

Idn'oe, V. to bring out ; to elicit. Educible, 
c that may be educed. Education, «. 
the act of bringing or drawing out. 

Scd, s. a serpentloe slimy fish. 

E'en, a oontraction of Even. 

E'er (airX a contraction of Ever. 

Ef 'faole,t a. utterable. 

Bfla'oe, V. to erase, to obliterate ; to de- 
stroy. EfEiAoementy «. the act of effodug; 

Eifecf, «. that which is produced by a 
cause ; Issue ; reality : v. to produce as 
a cause ; to complete or acuumplish ; to 
bring to pass. EfTective, a. liavin^ the 
power to produce effects; efTicucioiis ; 
ready for actioi^ as troops. Etfuutivoly, 
od. in an effucuve manner. KtloctlciiS, 
a. without effuct; useless. ElTcctti', <. 
pL goods, movables. Efifcc'tual, a. that 
produces the effect ; effiaudous. KiTec- 
mally, ad, in an effuctnal maimer. 
Eflectuate, v. to bring to pass; to 

Effem'inacy, «. unmanly delicacy. 

Effeminate, a, womauish, tender. 

Efibmlnidxify, od. in an efTeminato manner. 

Effem'inatenaas, a unmanly softness. 

Uffen'dL «. a Turkish title of honour, 
usoaJly applied to high civil function- 
ariesb Bee Anu 

Sffervesce (-veal, v. to grow hot ; to hiss 
or bubble. Effervescence, «. the act of 
growing hot; frothing or bubbling. 
£ffervesoent» a. gently boiling or bub- 
bling. EfltBrvoscible, a. capable of effur- 

Effe'te, a. barren, worn out. 

Effica'doos (-shusX a. producing the 
efTeot : salted to produce the result in- 
tended. EBcacioualy, ad, c/fcctuolly. 
s, sSlcacy, Et&cacy, $, 

the quality of being efBcaoions; power, 

Effidence, Efficiency (ef-flsh'-X #. the act 
or power of produdng effects ; effectual 
agency. Efficient^ a. producing effects; 
comi)etent, able. Effideutly, ad, in an 
efficient manner. 

Effigy, «. an image or resemblance. 

Effla tion, a the act of breathing out 

Efflores'cence, «. production of nowera. 

Efflores'ceut, a. shooting out in flowera. 

Effluence, «. that which blows out or 
issues from some other prindple. 

Effluent, a. flowing from, issuing out of. 

Effiu'vium, fli.] a a flowing from ; vapour; 
invisible partidos whidi exhale from. 
moist bodies ; pL Effluvia. 

Efflux, s. an cfiVision ; a flowing out. 

Effluxion, a the act of flowing out. 

Effort, ». an exertion of suength; an 
endeavour. Effortless, a. making no 

Efiron'tory, a boldness, impudence. 

Effulge (ef-fulJ'X v- to send forth efi\ilgenca. 
Efful'gence, a a flood of light; splen- 
dour. £fi\ilgent» a. shining with a 
flood of light. 

Effusion (-fu'shunX a the act of efilising; 
that which is effused. Effusive, a. pour- 
ing out ; diffusive or spreading; 

Eft, a a newt or small lizard. 

^gg> V. (to edgt) to incite, to instigate. 

Egg, a that which is laid by feathered 
animals and various kinds of insects, 
from which thefr young are produced. 
Egg-plant, «. a plant which bears egg- 
shaped fruit. 

Eglimtine, a a spedea of rose ; sweet brier. 

Eg'dtist, a one of a sect of phUosophors 
who professed to be certain of nouxing 
but their own existence (from the Latin 
ego^ I myself). Egotism, a talking much 
of one's selfl I^otist, a one who tidks 
much of Limsclx. Egotis'tical, a. prais- 
ing one's sell i^otize, v. to talk much 
of one's selC 

Egregious (o-gre'Jus), a. remarkable ; enor- 
mous. E^o'cgiously, cuL remarkably; 
enormously. Egrcgiousness, a the state 
of being e^^rogious. 

E'gresH, a the act of going out ; the power 
or liberty of going out. Egression, a a 
going out or forth. 

E'grct, a the lessor or white heron ; the 
feathery or hairy crown of seeds. Bco 

E'grioi^ a a species of sour cheny. 

Eh I viden. denoting slight surprise or do- 
sire to hear a^^aiii. 

Eider-duck (i'der), a a spedes of duck 
found in the Shetland Isles, Orkneys, 
Ao. Eider-down, a the down of tiie 
eider-duck, much prized. 

Eight (ate), a. twice four. Eighteen, a, 
eight and ten united. Eighieenth, a. 
the ordinal of eighteen. Eighth (aithL 
a. the ordinal of eight. ElgkUil^, Q&. 
in the dghtYx pW^. 'E&^VMOa, sl\^ 
ordinal of eighty, '^^^■f^f^ 
times twenty. KisYLty,a.o|^v 




Eisel (e'aelX t *. vinegar. 

Either (o'-X pron. one of the two : eonj. or. 

lyac'ulate, v. to throw out, to dart out. 

Ejacula'tioii, «. the act of throwine out ; a 
short prayer suddenly expressed. 

Slac'ulatory, a. hasty ; darted out. 

Ejecf, V. to throw or cast out ; to ezpeL 
Ejec'tion, $. the act of casting out ; ex- 
pulsion. Ejoct'ment, s. the act of re- 
jecting ; expulsion ; a writ against iUe- 
gal possession, l^ec'tor, «. one who 
ejects or dispossesses. 

Eke, V. to add to ; toiipin out ; to supply : 
ad. also, likewise, moreover. 

Elab'or&te, v. to produce or finish with 

^ much labour or study. Elaborate, eu 
finished with great labour and exact- 
ness * studied. Elaborately, ad. labo- 
riously, diligently. Elabora'tion, s. the 
act of finishing with gpreat care and 

Elain', «. the liquid or oily principle of 
oils and fats. 

Elan'oe^ v. to throw out, to dart out. 

Elap'se, V. to pass away, to glide away. 

Elas'tio, Elastical, a. having elasticity; 
springing back ; rebounding. Elasticity 
(-tis'e-tyj, i. the quality in bodies by 
which, on being bent or compressed^ 
they ^ring back to their original form. 

Ela'te, a. flushed with success ; haughty : 
V. to puff up, to exalt, to heighten. 

Ela'tion, «. haughtiness f^om success. 

El'bow, s. the bend of the arm ; an angle : 
V. to push with the elbow ; to jut out, 

El'bow-chair, g. a chair with arms. 

El'bow-room, t. room to stretch out the 
elbows on each side ; freedom. S&e EIL 

Eld, «. old age. See Elder, p. 64. Eld'er, 
a. another form of older : t. one who is 
older than another ; one who is selected 
for his age and wisdom, as a ruler, as 
among the Jews; a lay-ruler in the 
Presbyterian Church. Elder, «. a tree 
of several species. See Alder. El'derly, 
a. somewhat in years, rather old. Eld- 
est, a. the oldesl^ the first bom. 

El Dora'do, s. an imaginary coimtry in the 
interior of South America, supposed by 
the Spaniards to be full of gold. 

Elecamx)a'ne, «. a plant ; a sweetmeat. 

Elect', V. to choose or select for office ; to 
decide in favour of : a. chosen, selected : 
9. one chosen or set apart. Elec'tion, «. 
the act of electing; the state of being 
elected; power of choosing; dioice; 
preference; a term in theology. Elec- 
tioneer'ing, s. the practices used at the 
election of members of Parliament: p. 
a. aiming to promote or secure an elec- 
tion. Elective, a. having choice; re- 
gulated by choice ; exerting the power 
of choice. Electively, ad. by choice or 
preference. Elector, «. a person entitled 
to vote at an election ; one of the princes 
of Germany who had a vote in the elec- 
tion of the emperor. Electoral, a. per- 
taining to election or electors. Eiec- 
torate, s. the territory or dignity of an 
elector of the old German •mpire. 

Elec'trio, s. any substanoe capaUe of ezt 
hibiting electridtv; a noai^ooindaetor. 
Electric, Electrical, a. pertaining to, or 
containing electricity. ElcctricM]^, ad, 
by means of electxicitv. Electridan 
(-trish'un), «. one skilled in electricity. 
Electricity (-tris'e-lyX «• the science 
which explains the laws of the electite 
fluid; that property in bodies which by 
friction attracts light substances and 
emits fire. Eleo'tnfiable, a. capaUe of 
being electrified. Electrify, «. to oom- 
mumcate electricity; to exdte sud- 
denly as by a shock. Electro-magnet^ 
a. pertaining to magnetism as connected 
with electricity. Electro-mag'netism, 
». the science that treats of electxicity 
and galvanism in commimicating mag* 
netio properties. Electrom'eter, t. ao 
instrument for measuring the electricity 
in any electrified body. 

Elec'trotype, $. a method of taking copiei 
of medals, coins, iio., by electriciiy. 

Eloc'trum, [L.] g. ambcnr ; a mixed metsL 

Elcc'tuary, ». a soft compound medidlM. 

Eleemos'ynaxy, a. living upon alms. 

Eregance, «. beauty, grace, symmetiy. 

El'egant, a. choice; gracefiil, beautifm. 

El'egantly, ad. in an elegant manner. 

Ele'giac, a. used in elegies; soirowfoL 

El'egy, s. a mournful or plaintive aong; a 
fungal song or dirge. 

El'cment, «. a first or constituent inindpla 
of any thing; an ingredient; proper ha* 
bitation or sphere of any thing; rudi- 
ments of science; populiurl^, euth, air, 
jrater, and fire are called the four ele- 

Elemental, a. pertaining to elements. 

Elemen'taiy, a. of or belonging to thft 
elements; primary; not compounded 

Erephant, s. the laigest of quadrupeds. 

Elephanti'asis, », a species of leprosy. 

Elephan'tine, a. pertaining to elephants. 

El'evate, v. to raise from a low jraint to • 
higher; to raise morally or to retfine and 
exalt; to make louder or higher, as the 
voice; to elate or excite. Elevated, 
Elevate^ p. a. exalted; elated. Wawtf' 
tion, ». the act of elevating; state of 
being elevated; height, exaltation, dig- 

Eleve, [ai-laiV, Fr.1 «. one brought up or 
protected by another ; a pupil or SGhsiar. 

Elov'en, a. ten and one added. 

Eleventh, a. the ordinal of eleven. 

Elf, 9. a faiiy, a goblin ; pi. Elves. Elfic, 
Elfish, a. relating to fiEiiries. Elf-lock, t. 
a knot of hair supposed to be twisteaby 

Elg'in Marbles, «. s collection of andent 
sculptured marbles in the British Mu- 
seiun, brought by Lord Elgin, in 18U| 
from the Parthenon at Athens. « 

Elicit (e-lis'it), v. to bring or draw out of a 
person insidiously ; to find out. 

Eli'de, V. to cut off a final voweL 




Elim'inate, v. to put out of doors; to dis- 
chaz)ge or throw off. 

Elis'ion, «. the act of cutting off or strik- 
ing out as a final vowel before anotiier. 

Elite, [e^leef, Fr.] i. a choice or select 

EUx'ir, «. the liquid extract or quint- 
essence of any thing; a medicine, a cor- 

Etk, M. a stately animal of the stag kind. 

£1L Bee Ell and Elbow, p. 54. 

Ellip'sis, ». a figure in which something is 
left out; an oval figure. Elliptic, El- 
liptical, a. like an ellipsis; oval; in 
fframmar, a word or words omitted or 
left out Elliptically, cut. in an elliptic 
maimer. Ellipticity (-tis'e-ty), t. the 
qualitv of being elliptic. 

Blm, «. the name of a forest tree. 

Elm'y, a. abounding with elm-trees. 

Elocu'tion, «. fiuency of speech ; eloquence. 
Elocuttonary, a. relating to elocution. 
Elocutionist «. one versed in elocution. 

EtUm'gate, v. to lengthen, to draw out. 

Elonga'tion, ». the act of lengthening. 

Elo'pe, V. to run away ; to get loose from 
confinement ; to go off clandestinely. 

Elo'pement, «. a departure from friends 
and ikmily without their consent. 

Xl'oquence, «. the art or power of speak- 
ing we^; fluent and elegant speech. 
Eloquent a. speaking with eloquence. 
Eloquently, ad. in an eloquent manner. 

Else, a. other, different : ad. otherwise. 

Elsewhe're, ad. in another place. 

El'dn, «. a shoemaker's awl. 

Klu'cidate, v. to clear up; to explain. 
Elucida'tion, «. a throwing light upon ; 
an explanation. Elu'cidative, a. throw- 
ins light upon; explanatory. Eluci- 
^Sor, «. one who elucidates. 

Su'de, V, to escape or avoid by artifice. 
Eiudible, a. that may bo eluded. Elu- 
sion, i. an escape by artifice ; evasion. 
EluMve, a. practising elusion ; evasive. 
Elocwoy, a. tending to elude or deceive. 

ESiyslan, a. pertaining to Elysium ; bliss- 
ml; delightfuL Elysium, «. in the 
besfihen mythology, the place appointed 
for the souk of the virtuous after death ; 
any deUghtful place. 

Smaclate(e-maysh€-ate), v. to lose fiesh 

CiuaUy ; to waste away. Emaciated, 
adate, i>. a. meagre; thin; wivutod. 
Emacia'tion, ». the act of making or be- 
coming thin or meagre. 

Em'anato, v. to flow or proceed from. 
Emana'tion, ». the act of fiowing or 
jamiing from any other substance; that 
which fiows or issues from something. 

Eman'cipate, v. to set free from slavery. 
Emancipated, Emancipate, p- a. freed 
ih>m bondage; set at liberty. Emanci- 
pa'tion, ». a deliverance from slavery, or 
eivfl disabilities. 

Emas'culate, v. to deprive of virility : a. 
tmrnanned; effeminate. 

Emascula'tion, t. castration; effeminacy. 

Bmbabn {-bam'), v. to impregnate a body 
with ammmtica that It may resist putre- 

faction ; to preserve from decay. Em* 
balmment, t. the act or process of em- 

Embank', v. to throw up or make a bank. 
Embankment <• a bank or mound. 

Embar', v. to shut in, to block up. Era- 
bar'go, Embark', Embarka'tion, Em- 
bar'rass. Embarrassment Bee these 
words, p. 54. 

Emba'se. See Debase. 

EmHbassy, «. the mission of an ambassa- 
dor ; the -fimction or office of an am- 

Embat'tle, v. to range in order of battle. 

Embat'tled, p. a. placed in battle array ; 
in heraldry, indented like a battlement. 

Embay', v. to enclose iu a bay. 

Embed', v. to lay as in a bed. Embedded. 
p. a. simk in another substance. Sea 
under Rule VII. p. 89. 

Embellish, v. to adorn, to beautity. 

Embel'lishmcnt s. ornament, decoration. 

Em'bers, «. hot cinders, or ashes. 

Em'ber-week, s. a week in which an em- 
ber day or day of humiliation falls. 

Embez'zle, v. to take another's property 
intrusted to one's care . Embezzlement, 
t. the act of embezzling ; the thing em- 

Embla'ze, v. to blazon, to adorn, to paint 

Embla'zon, v. to adorn with ensigns ar- 
morial; to set off pompously; to deck. 

Embla'zoner, s. a herald ; a blazoner. 

Embla'zonment 9. the act of emblazoiiin<^. 

Embla'zonry, s. pictures upon shields. 

Em'blem, g. a moral device ; a represen- 
tation; an allusive picture; inlay; en- 
amel. Emblcmat'ic, Emblematical, a. 
relating to emblems; using emblems ; 
figurative. Emblematically, ad, by 
means of emblems. 

Embod'ied, p. a. collected or formed into 
a body. Embodiment, a. the act of em- 
bodying. Embody, v. to incorporate; 
to form into a body. 

Embol'den, v. to make bold; to encourage. 

Emboni>oint, [ang-bong-pwang, Fr.] iu 
good condition; plumpness. 

Embor'der, v. to adorn with a border. 

Embosom (em-booz'um), v. to hold in the 
bosom ; to enclose in the midst ; to sur- 

Emboss', V. to form with protuberances ; 
to engrave with reliefer rniseti work. 

Eraboss'ed, p. a. formed with emboss- 
ments. Embossment, «. relief or raised 

EmboTichure, [-boosh'-, Fr.] s. the mouth 
of a river ; tlie mouth-hole of a flute, &c. 

Embow'el, v. to take out the entrails. 

Embow'elment, «. the act of embowelling. 

Embow'er, v. to place or lodge in a bower. 
Embowered, p. a. surrounded with 

Embra'ce, v. to clasp or hold fondly in the 
arms; to comprise, to contain, to in- 
clude : «. fond pTessoie Vn. >2tka «ctMu 
Embracement. aeo"Eim\st«Bft, «. , 

Embra'sure, «. a"b&t\i^«tn«nfc\ «a «^«J5^^ 
in fortificat\an» lox casnxoxk.; ^'"^ 




■pftoe aitrand a door or window on the 

Bm'brocate, v. to foment •pert diMssed. 

Embroca'tion, t. a fomentanon, a lotion. 

Embroi'der. Bee this word, p. 54. 

Embroi'derer, «. one who embroidcn. 

Embroi'dery, 8. variegated needle-woik. 

Embroil', v. to involve in troubles. 

Embroil'ment, <. confliBion ; disturbancei 

Embrue. See Imbrue. 

Em'bryo, Embryon, g. the child in the 
womb before it has perfect 8hax>e ; any 
thing in an imfiniRhed state : a. not yet 
readv for production. 

Emend'. Bc^ Amend, p. 40. Emenda'tion, 
g. a correction, an alteration. Em'enda- 
tor, «. a corrector, an improver. Emend'- 
atory, a. contributing to emendation. 

Em'crald, 9. a precious stone of a green 
colour ; a very small kind of type. 

Emer'ge, v. to rise out of a fluid or other 
covering; to rise into view. Emergence^ 
Emergency, ». the act of rising from 
any surroimding element; any sudden 
occasion or unexpected casual^. Emer- 
gent, a. rising into view • sudden. 

Em'crods. See Hemorrhoids. 

JSmer'rion, t. the act of emerging. 

Em'ery, «. a mineral used in cutting gems 
and i>oliBhing stoeL 

Emefic, c a vomit : et. provoking vomits. 

Emeute, [ai-moot, Fr.] «. a seditious com- 
motion; a mob. 

Wmew. Emu, ». a name of the cassowary. 

Emica'tion, s. a sparkling or glittering. 

Em'igrant, t. one who emigrates: a. re- 
moving fh)m one country to another. 

Em'ifl;Tate, v. to quit one country or region 
and settle in another. Emigra'tion, «. 
removal of inhabitaiite fh)m one oountiy 
to another. See Immigrant, &o. 

Em'inence, 9. a part rising above the rest ; 
a rising ground; loftiness; height; a 
conspicuous situation; distinction* a 
title given to cardinals. Eminency. See 
Eminence. Eminent, a. high; conspi- 
cuous; distinguished. Eminently, ad. 
in an eminent manner. 

Emir (e'meer), Emeer, «. a title of dignity 
among the Turks. Comx>are Ameer. 

Em'issary, 9. one sent on a mission; a 
secret agent; a spy. Emis'sion, «. a 
sending out ; what is sent out. Emif , 
V. to send out ; to throw out. 

Em'met, $. an ant, a pismire. 

Emmew', v. to coop up, to confine. 

Emollient (-yentX a. softening : 9. a medi- 
cal application which softens and re- 
laxes. Emol]itioii(-lish'un), 9. a soften- 
ing or relaxing. 

Emol'ument, 9. profit, advantage, gain. 

Emo'tion, 9, a movement or agitation of 
the mind or of the feclhigs; mental ez- 
dtoment; depth of feeling. Emotional, 
a, relating to or implying emotion. 

Empale, v. to fence or enclose with pales ; 

to put to death by fixing on a stake. 

Bmpalement, «. the act of empaling; a 

eotyimctlon oi coats ot arma pale-wiae ; 

the calyx ota flower. 

Empan'el, v. Bee Impaiiel. 

EmT)eror, 9. the sovereign o^aa €BiplnL 

Em7)hasis, 9. a particular itujM lau on \ 
word or sentence \i(^ the speaker. 

Em'phasirA *• to utter with a partlcniar 
stress of the voioe. Emphario^ £m- 
phatical, a. nttered with emphaaia: Cdt* 
dble; strong. Emi^iatloallj; a«L man 
emphatic manner. 

Em'pire, «. supreme power In govemfag; 
the dominions of an empenn*. 

Empir'ic, 9. one of a sect of andent phy- 
sicians who practised firom e(zperunce 
only, and not from theory; a trier o( 
experiments ; a protended physician ; a 
quack. Empiric, Empirical, CL relatmg 
to empiridsm or empuies; charlatanie; 
practised without rational grounds— as 
applied to philusuphy, txptrimeninA fai 
opposition to hypothetic or theoretia 
Empirically, ad. experimentallv; as a 
quack. Empiridsm, 9. depenaent on 
experience only without theory or 
knowledge; the practice of empiiiet; 

Em])las'tio, a. viscous, glutinoas. 

Employ', V. to occupy the time, attentfoD, 
or labour of; to keep busy or at work; 
to use as an instrument or means; to 
use as materials; to entrust with the 
management of somethings 9. that which 
occupies the time, attention, or labour 
of a person; business; office; emplOT- 
ment. Smployi, [Fr.] 9. one who ii 
employed in the service of another. 
Employ'er, 9. one who employs. Em- 
ployment, 9. the act of employixig; gtats 
of being employed; occupation; office; 

Emi>oi'son, v. to destroy by poiaoo. 

Emxrai'sonment; 9. the act of poisoning'. 

Empo'rium, 9. a place of merchandioe^ a 
mart; a commercial dty. 

EmpoVerish, v. See Impoverish. 

Empow'er, v. to authorize, to enable. 

Em'press, «. the wife of an empeorar; tiM 
female sovereign of an empire. 

Empri'se, t. an undertaking; an enter- 

Emp'tiness, «. a void space, vacnlty ; want 
of substance, want of knowledge. 

Emp'tion, 9. the act of buying; a pttr- 

Emp'ty, a. notfiill; unftmlshed: nnsab- 
stantial; vacant of head: v. to make 
emply or void ; to evacuate ; to exhaust. 

Empurple, v. to make of a purple colour. 

Empyr'eal, Empyre'axi, et. formed of pure 
fire or light; relating to the highest 
heavens; neavenly. Empyrean, ■«. the 
highest heaven, where the pure ele- 
mental fire is supposed to exisL 

Empyreumat'ic, a. having the taste or 
smcU of slightly burned substances. 

Empyr'ical, ck containing the comlKistflde 
prindple of coal. 

E'mu. See E'mew. 

Em'nlate, 19. to tW«1\ V^ tccdtekA. 

'Emula'tLbn, a. -Avt^, vocrj, QantenAkm. 


1 ^ ** 


Brn'olafcor, t. s zIvbI, s oompetitor. 

Emul'gentfe a. milking or draining out 

Em'uloua, a. rivallixig, dedrous to excel. 

Em'uloualy, ad. with desire of excelling. 

Bmul'sion, t. any aoft medicinal prepara- 
tion of a colour and oonaifltenQy resem- 
bling milk. KmuUiTe^ a. like milk; 
softening or mollifying. 

lEmuno'toiy, «. a secreting gland. 

Bn, as a prefix, is anotner form of In. 
See under the Prefixes, p. 46 ; and also 
under Bule VIL, p. 80. 

Ena^ble, v. to make able, to empower. 

Enacf , V. to decree, to establish by law. 

Enacfment, «. the making of a law. 

Enac'tor, ». one who enacts. 

Enallage (-la-J^X i. in grammar, a change 
of one case, mood, &o., of the same 
word for another. 

Inam'eU v. to inlay, to variegate with 
colours; to form a glossy substance: 
«. aubstanoe used in enamelling; the 
smooth hard covering of the teeth. 
BnameUer, ». one who enamels. En- 
smelling, «. the act or art of laying on 

Enam'our, v. to inn>ire with love. 

Bnca'ge, «. to confine in a cage, to coop 
up or confine. 

Encamp', v. to pitch tents for lodging ; to 
form into a camp. Encampment, «. 
tents pitched in order ; a camp. 

Enoa'se, v. to enclose or cover in a case. 

Encaus'tic, a. (burned in), noting the pro- 
cess of ^fixing coloured de.slgiis on a 
surhoe by strong heat» as encaustic 

Snceinte, rang<.sant, Fr.] a. pr^;nant: 
«. an enclosure. 

Encha'fe, v. to chafe ; to fret ; to irritate. 

finohain'. v. to fasten with a chain. 

Jbidhant\ v. to bewitch; to charm; to 
faaoinate; to delight in the highest de- 
gree. Enchanter, s. a magiciim, a sor- 
oerer. Enchanting, p.a. magical; charm- 
ing. Enohantingly, ad, chaimingly. 
Enchantment. «. magical charms, spoils ; 
faresistilde influence ; high delight. En- 
chantress, *. a sorceress ; a woman that 
faacdnates by her beauty. 

Kiolui'se, V. to infix, as in an open case so 
■s to be seen; to chase or adorn by em- 
boased work; to cut in for ornament. 
Bee Choitt p, 62. 

Bnchirldlon, «. a small pocket volume. 

Endi'de, v. to surround, to environ; to 
encloae in a ring or circle. 

Xnclitlo, ». a parUde which throws back 
ttie accent upon the preceding syllable: 
a. leaning; throwing back. 

Endorse, v. to surround; to fence in. 

Endo'sure^ «. groimd enclosed or fenced in. 

Enoo'miastj ». a pan^^yrist, a praiser. 

Enoomias'tio, Encomiastical, a. laudatory. 

Enoo'mium, t. a panegyric, praise, eulogy. 

Encom'pasB, «. to go round any place ; to 
surround; to shut in and confine. En- 
compaasmenly a s BurroundSxig, 

Mt^otp, (atig^kony Fr,] ad, again, onoe 
man: r. So oall far m repetiti<m. 

Encoun'ter, «. s sudden or tmexpecteil 
meeting ; a hostile meeting : a conflict ; 
a skirmish ; a sharp contest in words : 
V. to meet face to fiace; to meet in a 
hostile manner; to attadc; to engage 
with ; to meet uid tiy to surmount^ as 

Encourage fen-cur'i^), v. to inspire with 
com-age; to embolden; to invite; to 
countenance; to supporL Encourngcr, 
i. one who encoiuiiges. Encourage- 
ment, ». act of encouraging; that which 
encourages; indtement; incentive; 
countenance; support, fencoiu^ng, 
p. a. affording encouragement; cheer- 
ing ; favouring. Encouragingly, ad. 
with encoiu-agemcnt. 

En'crinite, «. in geologv, the stone-lily. 

Eucroach', v. to make invasions upon the 
rights of another ; to fwuis bounds. 

Encroach'ment, ». an xmluwful intrusion. 

Encrust', v. to cover as with a crust. 

Eucumlser, v. to dog, to im))ede. 

Encuralsrance, i. an impodinieut, a clog. 

Encyclical, a. circular; round about 

Encyclope'dia, «. the whole circle of the 
sciences; a dictionary of general know- 
ledge; a cyclopedia. 

Encyst'ed, a. enclosed in a cyst or vesicle. 

End, t, the extreme point ; termination ; 
condusion; death; object or ptirposo: 
V. to bring to an end ; to come to an 
end ; to terminate ; to finish. 

Endam'ngo, v. to injure ; to prejudice. 

Enda'nger, v. to bring into [>eril, to hazard, 

Endear, v. to render dear or beloved. 

Endear'ment, s. act of endearing ; state of 
being endeared; that which endears; 
tenderness; affection. 

Endeavour (-deV-X <• an efTort, an attempt : 
V. to try orattempt. See Endeavour, p. 54. 

Endem'ic, Eudeniical, a. peculiar to a 
country, as applied to general diseases. 

Ending, «. conclusion ; termination. 

En'dlve, s. a common salad herb ; succory. 

Eud'loss, a. having no end ; unlimited ; 
perpetual; incessant. Endlessly, ad. 
without end ; incessantly. Endmost, a. 
at tbo extreme end. 

^Endogenous (-doj'-), a. applied to plants or 
trees tncreajdng trilhint as the palm tree. 

Endor'se, Endorsement. See Indorse, &<.;. 

Endow', V. to fiuTilsh with a portion or 
dower; to supply fands for an endow- 
ment ; to ennch with gifts. Endowed, 
p. a, having an endowment; enriched 
with gifts dther natural or acquired. 
Endowment, t. the act of endowing; 
the funds supplied for the piupoee ; a 
gift or quality, dther of body or mind, 
given by the Creator. 

Endue (-du'X v. to invest or dothe; to 
supply with. See Indue. 

Endu'rable, a. that may be endured; tole- 
rable. Endiutmco, «. state of enduring 
or suffering; sufferance, patienco; co\i- 
tinuance. Endure, «. \o ueax ox «QffiKt\ 
to brook; to vuBtsAxv; \o gaypqi^', N^ 
continue ; V> last. Ba^ux^ini« V* *» ^V" 
fcring; la&Ung; pwmaxicnA 




End'ways or Endwise, ad. on end ; erectly. 

Ene'ma, ». a clyster, an injection. 

En'emy, ». a foe, an adversary, an oppo- 

Knerget'ic, Eneif;etical« a. fUll of energy. 
Energetically, ad. with energy. En'ergy, 
8. inherent power; power vigorously 
exerted; force; vigour; force of lan- 
guage or utterance; spirit; life. 

Ener'vate, v. to unnerve; to deprive of 
vigour; to weaken : a. deprived of vigoiu*; 
enfeebled. Enorva'tion, s. the state of 
being enervated. 

En famille, [ang-fa-meel', Fr.] f. in a fiunUy 
way: domestically. 

Enfee'ble, v. to render feeble; to weaken. 
Enfeeblement, «. the act of making 
feeble; weakness. 

Enfeoff (en-fef), v. to invest with posses- 
sion in fee. Enfeoffment, «. the act or 
deed of enfeoffing. See Fief. 

Enfila'de, «. a straight passage or line: v. 
to pierce or rake with shot 

Enfo'rce, v. to force, to put in execution 
by force; to compel; to lu^e with 
energy. Enforcement, «. the act of en- 
forcing; compulsion; that which gives 
force. Enforcedly, ad. by force or con- 

Rnf ran'chlse, v. to make free, to liberate. 

Enfran'chisement, t. the act of making 
free ; release from slavery or prison. 

Enga'ge, v. to embark in an affair; to win 
by pleasing means; to bind by a con- 
tract ; to attack, to fight. Engaged, p. a. 
bound; pledged to marry; occupied or 
engaged in some pressing business. 

Bnga'goment, «. an obligation, a bond; 
employment of the attention ; a battle. 

Enga'gi^* <"" winning by pleasing ways. 

Ei^'gingly, ad. in an engaging manner. 

Engen'der, v. to beget; to generate; to 
produce or cause; to be generated or 

Engine (on'jin), ». a machine. Engineer', 
». one who constructs or manages en- 
gines. A civil engineer constructs rail- 
roads, docks, harbours, canals, &c. ; a 
military engineer forms and directs the 
engines and works for offence and de- 
fence in war. Engineering, 8. the art 
or profession of an engineer. En'ginery, 
8. management of artillery and of engines 

Engird', v. to encircle, to surround. 

English, a. belonging or pertaining to 
England: 8. the people or language of 
England: v. to translate into English. 

Engluf , V. to swallow up ; to fill. 

Engor'ge, v. to svt^low, to gorge. 

Engrain', v. to dye in grain, to dye deep. 

Engrap'ple, v. to close with ; to contend. 

Engrasp, v. to hold fast in the hand. 

Engra've, v. to cut characters on copper, 
wass, or other metals. Engraved or 
Engraven, the p. p. of Engrave. En- 
graver, 8. one who engraves. Engrav- 
ing, 8. a picture engraved. 

En£^5ss'. See this word, p. 54. 
Mei^rOss^er, t. one who engrosses. 

Engulf. See Ingulf and Rule VII., p. 99. 

Enhan'ce, v. to raise in value or ertima> 
tion. Enhancement, t. act of enhandog; 

Enig'ma, «. a riddle, an obscora qii» 
tion. See this word, p. 42. 

Enigmatic, EnigmaticaC a. containing an 
enigma; ambiguous; obecora. Bnig'- 
matist, 8. a maker of eniginaa. 

Enjoin', V. to direct eamestiy ; to older. 

Enjoin'ment, 8. a direction, a oommaad. 

Enjoy', V. to feel joy or delight in, to «» 
BOSS and use with pleasure. EnjoyaUfl^ 
a. that may be enfoyed. E<nj<^Tnentk <• 
act of enjoving; that which Is enjoyed; 
delight; pleasure. 

Enkin'dle, v. to set on fire, to inflame. 

Enlar'ge, v. to make greater; to inerease; 
to extend; to expatiate; to sot fiee. 
Enlargement, 8. act of enlaiving; in* 
crease ; a setting free ; copious cUfloomM. 

Enlightcoi (en-li'ten), v. to Ughten or make 
light; to illuminate; to give clearer 
views; to instruct. Enlightened, «. a. 
illuminated ; highly dvilizod.* Bnngfat- 
ener, 8. one who or that whi6h enUght- 
ens. Enlightenment, 8. act of enlighten* 
ing ; state of being enlightened. 

Enlink', v. to chain to; to bind together. 

Enlist'. See this word, p. 64. 

Enlist'ment, «. the act ol; enlisting. 

Enli'ven, v. to make livehr, to «*TMma*<i 

En masse, [dng-mass', Ft.] «. In a man 
or body. 

En'mity, «. hostility; hatred; malice. 

Enn&m'drous, a. having nine stamena 

Enno'ble, v. to make noble; to dignify; 
to exalt. Ennoblement^ s. act of en* 
nobling; elevation. 

Ennui, [tfng-we', Fr.] «. weazi8Offl«U08, 

Enor'miiy, f . some monstroua exean o( 
wrong; great wickedness; atrooloiu- 
ness. I^ormous, a. beyond role or 
measure; excessive; prodigious; very 
wicked. Enormously, ad. beyond mea* 
sure; flagitiously. Enormouanea^ a 
qualil^ or state of being enormousL 

Enough , a. sufficient: s. a sufficiencj. 

Enoun'ce, v. to declare; to expreeai 

Enow', the plural of Enough. 

En passant, [dng-pas'sang, Fr.] ad. by the 

Enquire. See Inquire. 

Enra'ge, v. to irritate, to provoke. 

Enrap'ture, v. to throw into raptures. 

Enravish, v. to throw into ecstaay. En* 
ravishment, «. ecstasy of delight. En- 
ravishing, p. a. traxusporting with ee- 

Enrich', V. to make rich ; to fertiliae. 

Enrich'ment, s. aug^nentation of wealth. 

Enri'pen, v. to ripen, to mature. 

Enro'be, v. to dress, to clothe, to adorn. 

Enrdl', V. to register, to record, to enwrap. 

EnrOl'ment, 8. a register, a record. 

Enroot', v. to implimt or fix deeply. 

En route, [dng'root, Fr.] on the way. 
I Ens, 8. being ot exietoDse ; entity. 
\ FiUBam'ple, a. «aa «x»xa\}\«, «kiB«M(mik. 




Knflangufaie (en-sang'gwinX v. to stain or 
cover with blood. 

Enaoon'ce, v. to cover, to shelter. 

Enseal', v. to fix a seal on, to impress. 

Enseam', v. to sew up, to close up. 

Bnsear', v. to stop with fire; to cauterize. 

Sinsemble, [dng-samlil, Fr.j ». the whole 
tcffether: ad. together; all at once. 

Eosbifild', V. to shield; to protect. 

Enshxi'ne, v. to preserve as a holy relic. 

Bnshroad^ v. to cover with a shroud; to 

Eia'aga (-sine), s. the flag or standard of a 
r^^ent; ihe officer who carries it; a 
badge or mark of distinction. Ensigncy, 
M. the rank, office, or commission of an 

Ensla've, v. to deprive of liberty. 

Bnsla'vement^ «. state of slavery, bondage. 

EDSDoa're, v. to entrap, to allure. 

Enstamp', v. to impress as with a stamp. 

Ensue (en-su'), v. to follow as a conse- 
quence ; to follow ; to pursue. Ensuing, 
p. a. following, succeeding. 

Ensu'ro, v. to make certain. See Insure. 

Entablature, «. the architrave, frieze, and 
cornice of a pillar. 

Entail', v. to settle the descent of any 
estate so that it cannot be bequeathed at 
pleasure by any subsequent possessor ; 
to fix inalienably : 8. an estate entailed ; 
the rule that limits the succession. En- 
tailment, ». the act of entailing. 

Eata'xne,.«. to tune, to subdue. 

Bnttangle (-tang'gl), v. to twist or involve ; 
to perplex. fSitanglement, «. intricacyi 

En'ter, v. to go or come into; to set down 
in "vrnting; to engage in; to initiate in. 

Kiteri'tis, ». inflammation of the bowels. 

Bnterla'oe, v. to intermix, to interweave. 

En'terprise, «. an imdertaking of impor- 
tance or hazard: v. to imdertake any 
thing difficult or hazardous. Enterpris- 
ing, j>. a. bold; adventurous. 

Kntertain', v. to receive and treat hospi- 
taiUy; to receive and consider favour- 
ably any thing proposed or suggested ; 
to reserve or cherish in the mind; to 
amuse or divert. Entertainer, s. one 
who entertains. Entertainment, a. hos- 
pitable reception; a feast; any thing 
wat entertams or amuses, as a drama- 
tic perfcmnance. 

Entim/ne, v. to set on a throne; to exalt. 

Bnthro'nement, «. the act of enthroning. 

Xinthu'siasm, «. heat of imagination ; ar- 
dent zeal; fimaticism. Enthusiast, s. 
one animated by enthusiasm ; a zealot; 
a visionary, ^thusias'tic, Enthusias- 
tical, a. having enthusiasm ; ardently 
xealous; visionary. Enthusiastically, ad. 
with enthusiasm. 

En'thymemo, «. a syllogism, of which one 
otthe premises is understood. 

Enti'ce, v. to allure to evil; to tempt. 

Enticement, «. an allurement to evil. 

SSntieixtg; p. a. alluiing; attractive. 

EnUotigly, ad. in an enticing manner. 

JSnti're^ a, whole; undivided; unbroken ; 


completed; perfect; unmingled; sin^ 
cere; hearty. Entirely, ad. wholly; 
completely. Ikitireness, s. totality; 
completeness. Entirety, s. the whole; 

Enti'tle, v. to give a title or right to. 

En'tity, s. a real being, real existence. 

Entomb (en-toom'), v. to put in a tomb, 
to bury. 

Entomorogist, t. one skilled in entomo- 
logy. Entomology, s. that part of natu- 
ral history which treats of insects. 

En'trails, s. pi. the intestines, the bowels. 

En'trance, s. the act of entering ; a passage. 

Entran'ce, v. to put into a trance or 
ecstasy ; to enrapture. Entrancement, 
9. act 01 entrancing. 

Entrap', v. to catch in a trap ; to catch by 
artifice ; to take in or overreach. 

Entreat', v. to beg earnestly, to importune. 

Entrea'ty, 8. a petition ; solicitation. 

Entree, [dng'tray, Fr.] s. entrance; an 

Entremets, Ffing'tr-may, Pr.] «. pi. small 
dishes set between the principal ones at 
table ; dainty dishes. 

Entrepot, [dng-tr-po', Fr.] «. a magazine; 
a warehouse for depositing goods. 

Entresol, [Ong'tr-sole, Fr.] «. a platform or 
apartment oeti^en the ground floor and 
the principal floor above it. 

En'try, s. the act of entering ; an entrance 
or passage ; a setting down in writing ; 
a record. 

Entwi'ne, v. to twine or wreathe together. 

Entwist', V. to twist or wreathe together. 

Enu'd&tto, V. to solve ; to explain. 

Enu'merate, v. to reckon up singly. 

Enumera'tion, t. the act of counliug over. 

Enu'merative, a. reckoning up singly. 

Enim'ciato, v. to enounce or declare. 

Enuncia'tion, «. act of enimciating; decla- 
ration ; manner of utterance. 

Enuu'ciative, a. declarative, expressive, 

Enun'ciatory, a. giving utterance. 

Envel'op, v. to cover with a wrapper ; to 
cover. Envelope (ongnr'lopeX «. a wrap- 
per; an enclosing cover; a mound of 
earth raised to cover some weak part. 
Enveropment, .<?. a wrapping or endoii- 
ing; entanglement. 

Enven'om, v. to poison; to taint with 
poison ; to embitter ; to exasperate. 
Envenomed, p. a. filled with venom; 

En'viablo, a. exciting envy ; desirable. 

En'vious, a. full of envy, malicious. 

En'viously, ad. with envy, with malice. 

Eu'viousness, i. state of being envious. 

Envi'ron, v. to surroimd, to encompass. 

Eu'virons, s. pi. places adjacent ; suburbfl. 

En'voy, s. a public minister sent from one 
power to another; an ambassador. 

En'vy, V. to repine at the happiness cf 
others, to hate another for any excel* 
lence : s. vexation at oxiot^Q>t'% %ocA. 

E'ocene, «. a term. ©Lven. \>7 ^^^Va^va^A \» 
the earliest depoavta. ^^ 

Eo'liaxx- harp, «. a f«\mp\© itaAaV^ 
ment moved \)y fh^ *Vt. 




B'pftot, 9, the exccfM of the sohur month 
and year aboTO the lunar. 

Epaulement, [Fr.] s. a demi-bastion. 

Ep'aiilet, «. a ehoolder-knot of lace, fto. 

Epen'theds, ». the insertion of a letter or 
syllable bi the middle of a word. 

Epergne, [ai-pem', Fr.1 «. an ornamental 
stand for the centre of a dining-table. 

E'pha, ». a Hebrew dry measure. 

Ephem'era, «. an insect that lives but a 

Ephem'eral, a. only for a day ; short-liyed. 

Ephem'eriSy t. a journal; a diary; an 
astronomical almanac: pL Ephemer'- 
Ides. Ephem'erist, i. one who keeps an 

Ephial'tes, ». the night-mare. 

Eph'od, «. a linen girdle worn by Jewish 

Ep'ic, a. narratiye, heroic : t. an epic poem. 

Bi/icarp, ». the outer or eztemal layer of 
the pericarp. 

Epice^um, s. an elefiy, a ftmeral poem. 

Epicene, a. common to both sexes. 

Ep'icure, i. a luxurious and dainty eater. 

Epicure'an, a. luxurious, contributing to 
luxury : s. a follower of Epicurus. 

Ep'icurism, «. luxury, voluptuousness. 

Epi(^cle, s. a little circle whose centre If 
in the circumference of a greater. 

Epicy'cloid, t. a geometrical curve. 

Epidem'ic, s. agenerallv prevailing disease. 

Epidemic, Epdemical, a. generally pre- 
vailing; aflocting great numbers. 

Epider^mol, Kpidonnic, a. relating to the 
skin or bark. Epidermis, «. the cuticle 
or scarf-skin; the pellicle or exterior 
coating of plants or shells. 

Ep'idote, «. a kind of crystallisod mineral. 

Epigas'trio, a. above or near the abdomen. 

Epiglof tis, «. the thin movable cartilage 
which covers the aperture of the wind- 
pipe while food is passing over it to the 

Ep'igram, «. a short, pointed poem. 

I^igrammaf lo, Epigrammatical, a. like 
an epigram ; concise, pointed. 

Epigranr matist, *. a writer of epigrams. 

Epigraph, 9. an inscription on a building. 

Ep'ilopsy, 9. tlie falling sickness. 

Epilep'tio, EpilepUcal, a. affected with 
epilepsy ; pertaining to epilepsy. 

Epilogue (-log), s. a speech or an address 
to the audience at the end of a play. 

Epiph'any, «. (a shining upon) a festival 
neld on the 12th day after Christmas, 
in commemoration of the manifestation 
of Christ by the star which gruided the 
Hagi to Bethlehem. 

Epiph'vsis, 9, the growing of one bone to 
another. Ep'iphyte, «. a plant whicn 
grows upon another plant or tree. 

Epls'cdp&cyi 9. chorcn government by 
Dishops. Episcopal, a. relating to epis- 
copacy. Epis'oopa'llan, a. episcopal : 9, 
one who adheres to episcopa<7. Epis- 
oopalianlsm, «. episcopacy. Epis co- 
pajJj, od in an episoopal manner. £pis- 
oopate^ A the <^ce or dignity of ft 

Epls'oopy, (. luperintesideiiod i Mirfej. 

Ep'isode, 9. an incidental narrative or di- 
gression in a poem. BplaM'tc^ Eidso- 
dical, a. relating to or ocmtalned m an 
episode; digressive. B^laodimllji od. 
by way of episode. 

Epis'tle, 9, a letter; a vrrltiiur ueaL 

Epis'tolary, a. relating to letters ; taDii< 
acted by letters ; siutable to letters. 

Epitaph, 9. a monumental InscriptiaD. 

Epithala'mium, 9. a nuptial song. 

Epithet, 9. an adjective expreamnjf a qua- 
lity or attribute : an appellation ; a title. 
Epithefic, a, of the nature of an qri- 
thet; abounding in epithete. 

Epif Omfi, 9. an abridgment^ a saminaxy. 
See No. 90, p. 29. 

Epifomize, v. to abridge, to rednoe. 

Epoch (ep'okX 9. the time ttom. wUcfa 
dates are numbered ; any fixed period. 

Ep'ode, 9. the last part of an ode. 

Epopee', 9. the subject of an opio poem. 

Ep'ulary, a. belonging to a feast. 

Equabil'ity, 9. evenness^ uniformity. 

E'quable, a. equal, uuiform ; Just. 

E'quably, od. m an equable manner. 

Equal (elrw&IX a. like in amount or de- 
gree ; even, uniform ; lust : «. one of tht 
same rank, age, merit, iio. : v. to make 
equal ; to bo equal. Equalltjr, 9. state 
of being equal ; likeness ; muformify. 
Equaliza'tiun, 9. the act of equalizing 
E'qualize, v. to make equal or even. 
Equally, od. in an equal manner ; evenly. 

Equanimity, f. evenness of mind; a do- 
position or temper not liable to be elated 
or depressed. 

Bqua'tion, 9. bringing things to an eqaa* 
lity ; a term in algebra and astronomy. 

Equa'tor, «. a great circle, eqiially distmt 
from the poles of the csGrth, dividing 
the globe into two equal parts. 

Equato'rial, a. ])ert:dnmg to the equator. 

Equerry, Eauory (eck'wer-ry), 9. an officer 
who has tne care of the horses of a khig 
or prince. See tliis word, p. 42. 

Eques'trian, a. pertidning to a horsenun; 
Delongiug to the Roman knights. 

Equian'gular, a. having equal angles. 

Equidis'taiit, a. being coually distant. 

EquiLif eral, a. having ail sides equaL 

Equilib'rium, 9. equipoise; equality of 
weight; in a state of equipoise or an 
equal balancing between. 

Equi'ual, a. relating to the horse kind. 

Equinoo'tial, a. pertaining to the equi- 
noxes, to the time of the equinox, or to 
the regions imder the equinoctial line. 
Equinoctial-line, «. properly, the great 
line or circle in the neavens which cor- 
responds to the equator, but usually 
applied to the equator; because when 
tne sun is vortical to it, the days and 
ni^rhts are equal all over the world. 

Eq'uinox, 9. (emuU niafu), the time when 
the days and nights are equal, about 
the 21st of March and 22d of September. 

Equip (je-k.wip'V «. \a dcraea\\o «oacpaiaE«\ 
I to fit out; TO texni^iSlQL. Mq^Tfbp *^^. »- 
\ vXtima \ hotiea woid eMR\avaa\ «mm«jAa«» 




mente; ft im ltare. Bqulp'ment^ «. the 
•ct of equlpptng; th* ililngB eqiil|yped 
or famished. 

Bq'uipoiBe, «. aa tqptSXtj of weight. 

fiquipol'Ientt a. of eqtiBi foree or pow«r. 

Ekiuipoa'deriintk a. oi equal weight. 

Eq'uftable, a. just, right, ImiiarBaL 

Eq'iiitabl^eee, «. justnen, equity. 

Bq'uitably, ad. imnurtianj, justly. 

Equita'tion, «. a riding on horse-baok. 

Eq'ulty, «. Justioe, right, impartiality; a 
power qualifying w oaimoting the law 
in extreme cases, as in the Ck>urt of 
Chancery, which is called, in this sense, 
a court of equity. 

Equiv'alence, Equivalency, t. equality of 
w<Nrth or power. Ec^uivalent, «. a thihg 
of the same Talue : a, equal in ralue or 

Equiv'ooal, a. having an equal meaning 
in different senses ; ambiguous ; doubt- 
ful. EquiTooally, od. ta an equivocal 
manner. Bqiilvoealness, «. double mean- 
ing ; ambiguity. Equivocate^ v. to use 
words of double meaning; to shuffle; 
to prevaricate. EquivocaMion, s. act of 
equivocating; a quibble; prevarication. 
Equiv'ocator, §. one who' equivocates. 
Eq'uivoke, s. an ambiguous term ; a 
quibbleL The French form is Equivoque 

Wm, t. an epoch; a point of time. 

Era'diate, v. to shoot out like rays. 

Bradia'tion, «. emission of radiance. 

Brad'icate, v. to pull up by the roots. 

Bradloa'tionf ». toe act of rooting up. 

Bra'se, «. to rase or scrape out ; to efifhce ; 
to destroy. Erasement^ Erasion, s, act 
of erasing ; oUiteration. Erasure, i. act 
of erasing ; something erased ; the place 
of an erasion. 

Brustiauism, 8. the principles of Brastus, 
who held diat the Churcn had no power 
to disdpliue the members: and that it 
the mere creature of the State. 

Vre (airX ad. before, sooner than. 
Erect', V. to set upright ; to build ; to raise 

or exalt: a. upright; bold. 
Erec'tion, ». a building or raising up. 
Erectly, ad. in an erect position. 
Erecf ness, «. uprightness of posture. 
Erekms', cuL before a long time passes. 
Br'emile, s. a hermit ; a recluse. 
BremlficflJ, a. like a hermit. 
Erenow', ad. before this time. 
Brewhile, cuL some time ago; formerly. 
Ma/ go, [L.J ad. therefore, consequently. 
Er'got, ». a morbid and poisonous excros- 

oenoe in rye or grain ; a substance liko 

■oft horn behincT tiie pastern joint of a 

Brt'ca, «. heath. Erica'ceous, a. heathy. 
Erin'go, ». the plant called sea-holly. 
Ki'mlne, «. a smsU animal that furnishes 

a valuable fcur ; the fur of the ermme ; 

figxiratively, the office or dignity of a 

Jndgei Brmined^ a. clothed with er- 

Xn/^p. to eat sway, to canker. 
Mn/MKB^ A the act or catxn aw^y• 

Erot'ic, Brotical, a. periMning to Idve. 

Erpetol'ogy, «. that branch of natural his* 
tory wmeh treats of reptiles. 

"Btr, V. to go astray ; to deviate tr6m what 
is right; to mistake; to commit etrora. 

Br'rana, A. a vtii-bal message. 

Sr'rant, a. wandering, roving ; very bad. 

Er'rantiy, t. a roving or rambling about. 

ftrafic, Erratical, a. wandering; not 
stationary; irreg^ular: eccentric. Erra- 
tically, ad. in an erratio manner. 

Brra'tum, [L.l t. a mistake in writing or 
printing : pi Errata. 

Erring^, a. committing error; liable to 
err. Erro'neous, a. having or partaking 
of error; mistaken; untrue. Errone- 
ously, ad. in an erroneous manner. 
Brroneousness, «. »tate of being errono- 
ouB. Er'ror, «. a deviation fVom what is 
right; a mistake; an offence. 

Erso, 9. the Irish or Gaelic language. 

Erst, ad. at first ; formerly. 

Embes'cent, a. somewhat red; blushing. 

£lru'ca, «. a worm ; a caterpillar. 

Elruct', V. to belch ; to expel wind. 

Biructa'tiou, i. a sudden burst of wind. 

Erudite (or'oo-dite), a. learned ; well rearl. 
Ibrudition (-dlsh'un), «. learning. Er'u- 
ditely, ad. with erudition. Eruditencs^ 
8. the being erudite. 

Elru'giuous, a. coppery; rusty. 

Brup'tion, 8. an issuing or breaking forth 
With violence; a rash or bresiking out 
of humours: pustxiles. Eruptive, a. 
bursting, or tending to burst. 

Erysip'elas, «. an eruptive disease, vul- 
garly called Saint Anthony's fire. 

Ei^rtho'ma, s. a redness of the skin. 

Escala'de, [Fr.] «. tlie scaling of walls: 
V. to mount and enter by means vt 

Escarop, 8. See Scallop. 

Escapa^do, fFr.l s. the fling of a horse; an 
unconscious impropriety of speech or 

Esca'pe, v. to get out of danger, to avoid ; 
to ivass unobserved : s. a getting out of 
daiigcr; flight; oversight. 

Esca'pement, 8. that part of a watch or 
cV^ck that regulates its movements. 

Escarp'mont, «. a slope or steep descent. 

Eschalot' (osh-X 8. a kind of small onion. 

Eschar (es'kar), 8. a hard crust or 8C;ir 
made by caustic applications to a 
wound. Escharot'ic, o. burning, sear- 
ing, caustic. 

Escheat', a. any thing that falls to the lord 
of tlie manor as a forfeit, or on the deat h 
of a tenant having no heir: v. to forfeit. 

Escheat'or, 8. an officer who has to look 
after the escheats of the Crown. 

Eschew (es-chu'X v. to avoid, to shun ; to 
flee from (Antiquated)' 

Es'cort, 8. a guard or protection. Escorf , 
V. to convoy or attend as a guard to a 
place. . 

Escritoire, ?ea-"kT©-\:woT', "^A V^'^S^ 
bureau whicVi ionna a AsaV to -wr^sajj 

E8cula*p\an, eu x^eJ^VJtoR ^ 




Es'culent, a. eatable; good for food: 
«. something fit for food. 

Escutch'eon (-un), «. a shield with arms. 

Escutch'eoned, a. having an escutcheon. 

Esoph'agufl. See (Esoph'agtis. 

Esotor'ic, Esoterical, a. secret, myHterious. 
(Applied to the instruction which Pytha- 
goras gave in private to his disciples, as 
distinguished from his exoUric or public 

Espal'ier (-yer), ». a tree trained on rails. 

Especial (es-pesh'al), a. special ; principal 
Especially, ad. specially; principally. 

Es'perance, \'PrJ\ ». hope, expectation. 

Espi'al, «. the act of espying. Es'plonage 
(-aje), «. the practice or system of em- 
ploying spies, or of secretly watching 

Rsplana'de, «. an open or flat space before 
a fortification ; a glacis. 

Espou'sal, a. relating to espousals. Es- 
pousals, «. 'pl. a betrothing; a marriage. 
Espouse, V. to betroth; to mairy; to 
take to one's self; to adopt ; to maintain. 

Espy', V. to see from a distance ; to dis- 
cover unexpectedly ; to watch ; to look 

Esqui're, «. originally the shield-bearer of 
a knight ; a title next below a knight : 
V. to attend as an esquire ; to attend or 
wait on. 

Essay', v. to try; to attempt; to teat. 
Es'say, s. a trial; an attempt; a short 
treatise. Essay'er, «. one who essays. 
Es'sayist, a. a writer of essays. Bee 

Es'sence, s. the nature, substance, or being 
of any thing; existence; perfume, scent: 
V. to perfume, to scent. 

Essen'tial, a. necessary to existence ; very 
important; pure: «. existence; the 
chief point. Essentially, act. in an essen- 
tial manner. 

Establish, v. to settle firmly; to found. 

Establishment, «. a settlement; fixed - 
state; foundation; income. 

Est^otto, Estafet, [Fr.J «. a military cou- 
rier; an express. 

Esta'te, «. a fortune; rank, condition of 
life; landed property. 

Esteem', v. to value, to think highly of: 
s. high value in opinion ; regard. 

Es'timable, a. wortliy of esteem. 

Es'timate, v. to rate, to set a value on : 
t. a calculation; a set price or value; 
assigfnment of value. Estima'tion, «. 
esteem, opinion ; a valuing. 

Es'tival, a. relating to the summer. 

Estop', V. (in law) to impede or stop. 

Esto vers, s. (in law) supplies, allowanoe. 

Estra'de, [Fr.] «. an even or level place. 

Estra'ngo, v. to keep at a distance; to 
make strange ; to idienato, as Uie affec- 
tions. Estrangement, «. alienation. 

Estrapa'de, s. the rearing and kicking of 
an imgovemable horse. 

Estreat', v. to extract, to copy; to take 
from by way of fine : 8. a true copy. 

JSs'tuanr, s. an arm of the sea; a fntii. 
M^tua'Uon, s. a boiling, a commotion. 

lilsu'iient, a. hungxy, Toradoas. 

Es'urine, a. eating, corroding. 

Etoh, V. to make a print by etching. 

Etoh'ing, «. a method of engraving oa 
metal by eating in the figures with pre- 
pared aqua-fortis; an engravipg by 

Eter'nal, a. endless, ereiiastiiig. Eternal, 
8. an appellation of Ood. Btexnally, od, 
endlessly; constantly. 

Eteme, a. etomal, perpetual, endleai. 

Eternize, v. to immortalize. 

Eter'nity, 8, duration without end. 

Eto'sian, a. at stated periods; periodloaL 

E'ther, «. pure elemental air ; alight» ToIa> 
tUe, and inflammable liquid. 

Ethe'real, a. heavenly ; refined, purei 

Ethe'realize, v. to convert into ether. 

Eth'ic, Ethical, a. moral ; relating to mo- 
rals. Ethically, ad, according to ethics. 
Ethics, 8. pL the doctrines of morality; 
the science of moral philosophy. 

E'thiop, 8. a native of Ethiopia. 

Eth'nic, Ethnical, a. heathen ; relating to 
the races of mankind. Ethnol^cal 
(-loj'-), a. relating to ethnolcwy. Sthnol'- 
ogist, 8, a writer on ethndiogy. Bth< 
nology, Ethnog'raphy, t. a treatise oq 
nations or races. 

Etiol'ogy, 8. an account of the causes of 
any thing, particularly of diseases. 

Etiquette (et-e-kef), 8. forms of ceremoiy 
or decorum ;. ceremony. 

Etui, [et-we', Fr.] «. a case for tweesen, 
and such instruments. 

Etymological (et'e-mo-loj"i-calX a, relating 
to, or treating of etymology. JStvmo- 
logically, ad. according to etymology. 
Etymol'ogist, 8. one versed m etymo- 
logy. Etymology, i. that part of phi* 
lology which tr^ts of the origin and 
derivation of words; the deduction of 
words from their originals. Et'ymon, 
8. a root or primitive word. 

Eu, a Qreek prefix signifying weZZ. 

Eu'charist (-ka-), «. the act of tiiankagiying; 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 

Eu'crasy, «. a good temi)erament of body. 

Eu'logist, 8. one who praises another. 

Eulo^'tio, Eulogistical, a. laudatory. 

Eu'logize, V. to praise; to extol. 

Eulo'gium, Eu'logy, 8. praise, encomium. 

Eu'nuch (-nukX 8. one who is emasculated. 

Eupep'sy, «. a good concoction or digoEVtion. 

Eu'phemism, 8. the substitution of inof- 
fensive for offensive words. 

Euphon'ic, Euphonical, a, having euphony. 
Eupho'nious, a. agreeable in sound. 
Eu phony, 8. an agreeable soimd in lan- 
guage; opposed to harshness. 

Euphorl)ia, 8. spurge, a plant. 

Euphorlbium, «. a pungent medical gfum. 

Euphrasy, 8. the herb eyebright. 

Eu'phtdsm, «. affected refinement in the 
use of words or language. Buphuist, «. 
one who uses euphuisms. 

Europe'an, a. belonging to Europe: 8. a 
native ol ^vucope. 

Eu'ruB, 8. the eaat'^TidL. 




ovactiation: «. a medidne that does so. 

Kvacuate, v. to make empty or Toid; to 

void or iihxaw out ; to withdraw from or 

quit. Evacua'tioD, «. the act of eva- 
cuatinflr; adiBchaige from the body; a 
withdrawing fh>m, as of troops. 
Rva'de, v, to elude; to equivocate. 
Evaga'tion, «. a rambling deviation. 
BvazMs^cence, «. vanishing. 
Bvmee'cent, a. vanishing from ; lessening 
beyond perception; imperceptible. 

BwDgel'ic, Evangeli^kl, a. relating to the 
goepel ; agreeable to the gospel. Evan- 
stelically, ad. according to the gospeL 
livan'gelism, ». promulgation of the 
gospeL Evangelist, ». a writer or 
prMcher of the gospel; a bringer of 
sood tidingSf Evangelize, v. to preach 
the gospeL 
Bvap'orate^ v. to escape or fly away in 

vapour; to convert into vapour. 
Bvapora'tion, «. conversion into vapour. 
Bva^Biom, «. act of evading; an equivoca- 
tion; a subterfoge. Evasive, a. using 
or containing evasion; equivocating; 
aimffliing. Evasively, od. in an evasive 
manner. Evasiveness, «. quality of being 

Eve, Even, in poetry for Evening.— Jffi;« 
also means the vigil or fast before a 
holiday. E'ven, a. level ; smooth ; equal; 
equable; uniform; placid; cax)able of 
being divided into two equal parts, not 
odd : V. to make even or level : ad. not 
only 8o; but also; likewise; in like 
manner; notwithstanding. 

Sven-hand'ed, a, impartial, just. 

B'vening, Eren, «. the close of the day. 

K'venly, ad, in an even manner. 

E'venness, s. quality of surface ; smooth- 
neaa; regularity; uniformity. 

E'ven-aong, «. the evening worship. 

Bvenf, «. that which comes or happens ; 
an occurrence ; an incidence; the con- 
sequence of an action ; result; termina- 
tion. Eventful, a. full of incidents or 
events; momentous. Eventual, a. com- 
ing as a result ; ultimate, final. Even- 
tuality, s. a propensity to take cog- 
nizance of events (Phrenology). Even- 
tually, ad. in the nnal result or issue. 

E'ven-tide, s. the time of evening. 

Ev'er, ad. at any time ; eternally, always. 

Everdu'ring, a. enduring without end. 

Ev'mgreen, «. a plant all the year green : 
a. verdant throughout the year. 

Eveilasf ing, a. peri)etual, without end. 

Everlasf ing, Evorlastingness, «. eternity. 

Everliv'ing, a. living always, immortal. 

Evermo're, ad. eternally, without end. 

Everf, V. to overthrow, to destroy. 

Ev'ery, a. each ; all taken separately. 

Ev'eryday, a. used or occurring every day; 

Ev'erywhere, od. in every place. 

EvicT, V. to disi>ossess by legal process. 

Evic'tion, 8. a proof, evidence; oisposse.^- 
aion hy legal procosB. 

Sv'Idatoe^ #, testimony, proof; a witness. 
Bv^denoe, r. topgawe, to abow. 

Ev'ident, a. plain, apparent, obvious. 

Eviden'tial (-shal), a. affording evidence. 

Ev'idently, ad. clearly, plainly; certainly. 

Ev'identness, s. state of oeing evident. 

E'vil, a. wicked, mischievous, beui, cor- 
rupt; unfortimate; unhappy. 

E'vil, Evilness, 8. wickedness ; badness. 

E'vil-do'er, «. one that commits crimes. 

E'vileyed, a. having a malignant look. 

Evil-fo'vourod, a. iU-oountenanced. 

E'vil-mi'nded, a. malicious, wicked. 

E'vilness, t. state of being evil. 

E'vil-speak'ing, «. defamation, slander. 

Evin'ce, v. to prove, to make plain. 

Evin'dble, a. that may be proved. Evin- 
cing, p. a. proving ; making evident. 

Evis'cerate, v. to disembowel. 

Ev'itable, a. that may be avoided. 

Evoca'tion, t. a calling out or from. 

Evo'ke, V. to call forth or out of. 

Evola'tion, «. the act of flying away. 

Evolu'tion, 8. the act of unrolling or un- 
folding; in algebra, the extraction of 
roots from powers, by which their dis- 
position or arrangement is changed; 
manoeuvring of troops, Ac. 

Evol've, V. to imfold, to disentangle. 

Evul'sion, 8. a plucking out or away. 

Ewe (3m), 8. a female sheep. 

Ewer (jm'er), 8. a vessel in which water is 
brought for washing the hands; a water 


Exacerbate (-ass'-), v. to irritate; to im- 
bitter ; to increase malignant qualities. 
Exacerba'tion, 8. increase of malignity 
or irritation; a periodical iucreaso of 
violence in a 

Exacerva'tion, 8. tlie act of heaping up. 

Exact', o. nice, accurate, precise, metho- 
dical : V. to demand or require of ; to 
force or extort from. Exac'tion, 8. ex- 
tortion ; a severe tribute. Exactitude, 
8. exactness; nicety. Exactly, ad. a(.'- 
curately, nicely, fitly. Exactness, s. 
accurateness, regularity. 

Exaggerate (-aj'-), v. to heap up; to 
heighten, to aggravate, to enlarge or 

Exaggera'tion, «. the act of heaping up ; 
amplification ; aggravation. 

Bxall?, V. to lift up ; to extol, to magnify, 

Exalta'tion, «. the act of exalting ; state 
of being exalted ; elevation. Exalt'ed, 
p. a. elevated ; high, lolty. Exalted- 
ness, 8. state of being exalted. 

Exa'meu, ». an inquiry or examiLation. 

Examina'tion, ». inquiry; critical disqni. 
sition ; a questioning ; a trial or proof. 

Exam'inator, s. an examiner. 

Examine, v. to interrogate ; to scrutinize. 

Exam'iner, 8. one who examines. 

Exam'ple, 8. a pattern, a model ; a person 
or thing to be imitated ; one pimished 
for the admonition of others; an in- 
stance ; a specimen ; a sample. 

Exan'imate, a. dead, lifeless, spiritless. 

Exarch (ex'ork), s. a nVcoto^ ; «. cnSooit^* 
nate ruler, ^xnxcbf a^A, «. \?ciQ \\uAiAtei> 
tioQ or office ol an exaxcStx. -"* 

Exas'perate, v. to xflrarvcActt* \A « 




Exaspera'tlon, t. strong provocation ; Irri- 
tation; aggravation. 
Rx'oavate, v. to cut into or make hollow. 
Kxcava'tion, s. the act of excavating; a 
hollow formed; a cavity. Excavator, 
i. one who excavates; a machine for 
excavating or removing earth. 
Exceed', v. to go beyond; to outdo; to 
Burpaas; to go beyond the proper limit ; 
to go too far. Exceeding, p. a. surpasa- 
ing; very great Exce^iugly, ad. to a 
great d^^ree : very much. 
Excel', V. to go higher ; to aunraaa in good 
q\ialitiea ; vo be eminent. Ez'oelleooa, 
a. Rtate of excelling ; that in which one 
excels; superior goodneaa or worth. 
Exc£ll£ncy, s. excellence : a title of ho- 
nour, as of governors and ambasaadora. 
EziToUeiit, a. surpassing or eminent in 
goodueas, or in any good quality. Ex- 
cellently, oci. in an eminent degree. 
Sxed'tior, [L. ] a. higher ; aiming higher ; 
a motto or precept; the motto uf the 
State of New York. 
Ezcepf, V. to take out; to leave out 
specifically; to exempt; to object to. 
Excepting, prep, with the exception of; 
exduding. Excep'tion, «. act oi except- 
ing ; state of being excepted ; thing ex- 
cepted; exclusion; objection; ollenoe 
taken. Exceptionable, a. liable to ob- 
jections. Exc-eptimial, a. implying ox- 
eeptions. Exce])tioua, a. captious; 
peevish. Exceptive^ a. including an 
exception. Exceptor, «. one who ob* 
Ex'cen>t, s. a passage selected ; an extract. 
Excerp'ta, [h.]». pL soU-otions; extracts. 
ExcoHs', «. superfluity, intemperance. 
ExcoHs'ive, a. exceeding just limits. 
iCxcesfl'ively, ad. exceedingly. 
ExouHH'ivenoss, «. state uf ticing excessive. 
Exctia'nije, «. to give one tliiiig for an- 
other; to barter; to truck: «. the act 
oi l)arterlng; the place where merchants 
meet ; the balance of money of difTercnt 
Exclia'ngcablo, a. that may bo exchanged. 
Exchequer (-cliek'er), ». the court in which 
all cau.xes relating to the revenues of 
the crown are heard and determined; 
the crown treanury: v. to sue in the 
court of exchequer. 
Exci'sable, a. subject to excise. Excise, 
i. im inland tax levied upon commo- 
dities: V. to make subject to excise. 
ExciRcman, s. an excise officer. 
ExciH'lon, «. a cutting off; exturpation. 
Excitabi^'ity, «. liability to excitement. 
Excita'tion, ». the act of exciting. Ex- 
ci'table, a. easy to be excited. Excita- 
tive, a. tending to excite. Excite, v. to 
rouse, to stir up; to call into action. 
Excitement, «. thestatoof being excited; 
that which excites; sensation Excited, 
p. a. roused ; moved or agitated. Ex- 
citer, $. one who excites others. Ex- 
citing, p, a. tending to excite or stir up. 
Exclaim^, v, to cry out, to Tociferate. Ex- 
obdmeVf .% one who exclaims. BxcIa- 

ma'tion, a. damour, outorj: a note 
thus ( IX indicating emotion. Ssekin'- 
ative, a. exclamatory. K»ci l MilWf,a. 
naing or containing exdAmfttton. 

Exclu'de, «. to ahui out: to debv: to 
prohibit ; to except ; to eject ; to rueet 
Excluaion, «. act of exduding; ataseof 
being excluded ; rejection. Bxoia- 
aionist, a. one who exdudee or dabin 
another from any privilege. BxdnMfi^ 
a. that excludes ; debarring ; not takiag 
into account; not inciuaiTe : a.cneo(l 
coterie of peraona who ex d uda ottMn 
from their aodety. ExdmriTclj. adL ta 
an exclusive manner. ExelmlTenaBit 
t. Quality of being exclusive. Ezdnaiy, 
a. naving power to exclude. 

Excoffitate (-ooj'-X v. to cogitate upon; ts 
strike out in thought ; to oontriveu 

Excogitsi'tion, a. invention by thought. 

Excommu'nioable, a. liable, or doaenliiit 
to be excommunicated. 

Excommu'nicate, v. to ^fact from tilt 
communion d the church : a, vtf^n^ 
from the pale of the church. 

Excommunica'tion, a. an ecclealaitleilln- 
terdict* or exclusion from the ehuielL 

Exoo'riate, v. to strip off the skin. 

Exooria'tion. a. a rubbing off the skin. 

Excortica'tion, a. a pulling off the baric 

Ex'crement, a. ordure, dung. 

Excremen'tal, a, voided as excrenMBlb 

Excrementitious (-tish'usl a. oontaiBliig 
excrement; excrementaL 

Bxcref>'oezuxs a. that which growa tana* 
turaily and withont use out of ■onuh 
thing else; a wen. ExcreeoaBt» •. 
growing out of something else. 

Excre'le, «. to separate and throw ofl^ as 
by natural pussages. Excretion, t. tba 
act of excreting: that which is exoeted; 
ejection of animal substiincaa. Bscn»> 
t<iry, a, aeijarating and throwing off nat* 
leKS matter: a. a duct for aaeratinff a 

Excru'ciate, v. to torbire, to tormentL 

Excru'ciating, p.a.torturing;mo«tpailiftil. 

Kxcul'pute, V. to dear from blame, ifix- 
cul|>n'tion, a. a clearing from Uaraa. 
Excul'patory, a. olearimt from blamai 

Exctu^sion, a. a ramble; a tour; a tripe 

Excur'sive, a. rambling, deviating, 

Excu'sable, a. that may be excused. St 
cusableness, «. the being excusable. 

Excu'se, V. to pardon, to remit, to 6X> 
tenuate : a. an apology, a plea, a pardon. 

Ex'ecnible, a. desennngtobeourBed; Tn?' 
hatcfid; detestable. 

Ex'ocrably, ad. cursedly, abominalily. 

Ex'ecrate, v. to curse ; to abomiiiatei 

Execra'tion, a. a curse ; an imprecatloiL 

Ex'ecute, «. to carry into effect; to per- 
form ; to put to death according to the 
sentence of the law; to complete in a 
Icgid form, as a deed. Bxeou'tion, a. 
actof executing ; completion; perform- 
ance ; a carrying into eflbct toe Judg- 




a. having power to act; carrying into 
effect; not legUatiTe. §. the person or 
the power that ezecntes the law or ad- 
minieten the govenimeat. Executor, 
9, one who earnes fanto eflbot the will of 
ft testator. Bzeentonbip. «. the office 
ef an ezeoator. Bxeenttu, t. a female . 

Bzege'siB, §. expoMtkm or explanation of 
the meaning of an author; interpreta- 
tian. Exeget'ical, Exegetic, a. exiwsi- 
toty. Sxegetically, od. by way ox ex- 

Exem'plar. «. a pattern; an example to 
be imitated. Ex'fimplarily, ad. by way 
of example. Exemmary, a. serving for 
a pattern; worthy or imitation. Exem- 
pufica'tion, t, act of exemplifying; a 
copy; a tranacript. Exem'plify, v. to 
illustrate by example; to take an at- 
tested copy. 

Exempt', o. free by privilege; not subject 
to: not included: v. to free from some- 
thmir to which others are subjected; to 
gnuii immunity from: 9. a person ex- 
empted. Exemj/tion, s. act of exempt- 
ing ; iromTmlly or freedom from. 

Exequa'tur, [L.J «. a licence given by the 
government or a country to a foreign 
cooaul or commercial agent. 

Ex'equies (-kwizX s. pi. funeral rites. 

Ex'ereise, v, to employ; to practise; to 
train: a employment; use; practice; 
exertion for tne sake of health ; a task. 

Exerdte'tion, «. exercise, practice, use. 

Exergue (-erg'}, ». the place on a coin or 
medal, outmde the figures, for the date 
or other inscription. 

Exerf, V. to put forth ; to use with efkart. 

Exer'tion, a act of exerting; effort. 

ExfoHJate, v. to shell off, to peel off. 

Exhalable, a. that may be exhaled. 

Exhala'tion, ». evaporation, vapour. 

Exha'le, v. to send or draw out vapour. 

Exhaust', V. to draw or drain off the wliole ; 
to mnptyi to expend. Exhaustible, a. 
that may be exhausted. Exliaus'tion, 
M. act of exhausting; state of being ex- 
hausted. Exhaust less, a. that cannot 
be exhausted. Exhaustive, 8. tending 
to exhmist. 

Exhibit, V. to present to view ; to display ; 
to manifest: ». a paper or document 
exhibited in court. Exhibiter, Exhi- 
bitor, a one who exhibits. See Abetter, 
PL 40. Exhibition (-bish'un), «. act of 
exhibithig; display; a public show; a 
pension or allowance to maintain a stu- 
dent in a college or university. Exhi- 
bitioner, ». one who receives an exhi- 
bition. Exhib'itive, a. showing for ex- 
hibition ; displaying. Exhibiiory, o. 
setting forth, showing. 

Bxhil'arate, v. to make cheerful or merry. 

Exhil'arant, a. tending to exliilarate: s. 
that which exhUarates. Exhilara'tion, 
9. act ai exhllaratix)^; state of being ex- 
Xxborf, p. to bialte to any good action. 
Xxborta'Uoo, *. an buHtemeht to good. 

Exhort'aiive, a. containing exhortation. 

Exhort'atory, a. tending to exhort. 

Exliuma'tion, «. the act of exhuming; die- 
interment. Exhu'me, v. to dig out of 
the earth ; to disinter. 

Exigence, Exigency, «. pressing necessity; 
need; want; sudden occasion; emer- 
gency. Exigent, a. pressing; requiring 
instunt aid : «. a kind of writ. 

Ex'ile or Exile, v. to banish to a foreign 
country; to transport. Exile, t. ban- 
ishment ; a i)crsi)n banished. 

Exile, a. thin, slender. 

Exist', V. to bo, to live ; to continue in be- 
ing; to remain. Existence, s. state of 
being or existing; dunition; life. Ex- 
Istout, a. having existence or being; 

Exit, s. a departure, a going out; drath. 

Sx'odus, g. a journey trom a place; the 
second book of Moses, which de«crilK?s 
the journey of the Israelites tVom Egypt. 

Ex'ogen, s. an exogenous plant or tree. 
Exogenous (-oj'e-nusX a. having the 
wood augmented by annual additions 
to the outside. 

Exon'orate, v. to unload ; to free from a 
charge ; to exculi»te. Exonera'tion, t. 
actofexoncmting; exculiMition. Exon'- 
erative, a. freeing from a chai*ge or ao- 

Bx'orable, a. movable by entreaty. 

Bxorl)itance, Exorbitancy, s. extrava- 
giinco; excessivencss; enormity. Ex- 
orbitant, a. cxtRivagant ; excessive; 
enormous. Exorbitantly, ad. in an 
exorbitant manner. 

Ex'orcise. v. to expel, as evil spirits, by a 
form of abjuration or the use of souie 
holy name; to deliver from evil inllu- 
encos. Exorcism, «. the expulsion of 
evil spirits by certain forms of abjura- 
tion. Exorcist, «. one who exorcises. 

Hxor'dium, ». introduction to a discourse. 

Bxotcr'ic, a. external or public, as dia- 
tiiif>xdshed from Bsoterie, which see. 

Exotic, a. foreign : ». a foreign plant. 

Expand', v. to spread out, to lay open ; to 
(>pen, to dilate. 

Expan'se, «. a wide extent of space. Ex- 
pansibil'ity, *. capacity of extenRion. 
Expan'siblo, a. that may be expanded. 
Expansion, «. act of expanding; state 
of Deing expanded; extent; enbirge- 
mcnt. Expauhive, a. having power to 
expand or be expanded ; widely ex- 
tended. Expansiveness, 9. the quality 
of being expansive. 

Ex par'tS, [L.J on one part or side. 

Expa'tiate, v. to range at large ; to enlarge 
upon in discourse. 

ExjMi'triate, v. to banish from one's native 
country ; to remove from one's country. 

ExiMtria'tion, 9. banishment, exile. 

Expect', V. to look for, to wait for. Ex- 
pectancy, Expectance, >. «At est «\aXa dt 
expecting ; aomething ex^ec^M.\ Ytfs^. 
Expectant, a. WBitanfj \xx «B^«*f*fK 
9. one who la exi 

Expectft'tton, t. 

tA «BVM» 




the thing expected ; hope ; anticipation ; 
prospect of good to come. 

Expectora'tion, «. a discharge by conghing. 

tlxpec'torant, «. a medicine which pro- 
motes expectoration : a. promoting ex 

Expec'torate, v. to eject from the breast. 

Expe'dience, Expediency, «. suitable to 
an end, fitness, propriety. 

Expe'dient, a. fit, proper, convenient: 
t. a method, means to an end, a device. 

Expe'diently, ad. suitably; conveniently. 

Ex^pedite, v. to facilitate, to hasten, to 
despatch : a. quick, active. 

Ex'peditely, ad. with haste or despatch. 

Expedition (-dish'im), s. haste, despatch ; 
a naval, military, or important enter- 
prise. Expeditious, a. quick, speedy; 
soon done. Expeditioualy, (U2. in an 
expeditious manner. 

Expel', V. to drive out, to banish, to eject. 

Expellable, a. that may be expelled. 

Expelled, p. a. driven away ; banished. 

Expend', v. to lay out, to spend ; to waste 

Expend'iture, «. the act of spending: 
that which is spent; disbursement 
cost, expense; waste. Expen'se, » 
cost; price; money expended. Ex 
penseless, a. free from cost or chai^. 
Expensive, a. requiring much expense 
given to expense; costly; dear. Ex 
I)ensively, ad. with ^reat expense. Ex 
pensivcness, «. costlmess, deamcss. 

Expe'rience, «. trial or series of trials; 
result of ^ials ; knowledge from trials, 
or practice, &c. : v. to try or know by 
trial or practice ; to suflfer. 

Expe'rienced, p. a. skilful by experience. 

fi^xper'iment, 9, trial, practical proof. 

J^xperimen'tal, a. founded on experiment. 

Experimen'talist, Exper'imenter, «. one 
who makes experiments. Experimen'- 
tally, ad. by experience, by trial. 

Expert', a. skilful^ ready, dexterous. 

Expert'ly, ad. skilfully, dexterously. 

Expcrt'ness, 9. skill, ait, readiness. 

Ex'piable, a. that may be atoned for. 

Ex'piate, v. to atone for, as a crime, to 
make satisfaction for ; to make repara- 
tion for. Expia'tion, «. the act of aton- 
ing; atonement; the means by which 
atonement is made. Ex"pia'tory, a. that 
makes expiation. 

Expi'rable, a. that may come to an end. 

Expira'tion, «. the act of breathing ; respi- 
ration; emission of breath ; death; end 
of a limited time; termination. Ex- 

Ei're, V. to breathe out ; to emit the last 
reath ; to die ; to come to an end ; to 

Explain', v. to make plain or clear. 
Explaln'able, a. that may be explained. 
Explana'tion, «. the actof explaming; the 

meaning or sense explained ; adjustment 

of a misunderstanding. 
Explan'atory, a. containing explanation. 
Ex'pletive, s. a word or syllable used 

merely to fill up a space : a. filling up. 
Ex'pUcahlef a. mat may be expUined. 
Explicate, v. to unfoUg to explain. Ex- 

plica'tion, ». act of onlbldiiig or ezp]a!n< 
ing ; the sense given ; wrolanatfim. Rz'- 
plicative, a. tending to lay open oc«s> 
plain. Ezplioatoiy, a. explianthnB. 

Explicit (-plislt), a. unfolded: plain; 
clear; definite; express: not merely 
implied. ExpIidUy, od. in an explien 
manner. Explicitness, «. the state or 
quality of being explicit. 

Explo'de, V. to bmrst with noiae; to drive 
out or condemn with oontemptoooi 
noise ; to banish from use. Bzmodsd, 
p. a. burst; condemned; diacardidd. 

Exploit^ ». a great action; an achiaTe> 
ment; a successful performance. 

Explora'tion, «. act of exploring; ekH 
search. Explo'ratory, a. searcmng; ex- 
amining. Explore, v. to searchmMaly 
and earnestly ; to examine ; to pry inta 

Explo'sion, «. the act of explcMing; a 
bursting or driving out with noise. 

Explo'sive, a. having power to explode. 

Expo'ncnt, a. the nmnber that points oot; 
the ratio of any two or more quantitiet. 

Export', V. to cany or said out of a 
country, as merohandise. Ex'port^ 1. 
goods or productions sent to a foaxim 
market. £;^rt'able, a. that may m 
exported. Exporta'tion, «. the set of 
exporting. E^[>orf er, «. one who ex- 

Expo'se, V. to lay open or bare; to ex- 
hibit ; to lay open to attack or danger; 
to disclose the finults of ; to oast oat to 
chance. Exposition (-zish'unX ». atato 
of being exposed; an explanation or io- 
terprotation of; an exhibition of arts, in. 
Expositive, Expository, a. laying opon; 
explanatory. Exi)Ofiitor, «. an ex- 
pounder, an interpreter. — Sxpo$it [dcs- 
po-zay', Fr.] «. an exposition; a fbnnal 
explanation or statement. 

Expos'tulate, v. to remonstrate witii. 

Expostula'tion, «. discussion of an aflUr 
without anger ; remonstrance, debate. 

Exi)os'tulatozy, a. containhsg expostula- 
tion or remonstrance. 

Expo'sure, 8. the act of exx)0s!ng: the 
state of being exposed; exposition; 

Expound', V. to explain; to inteipret. 
Expoimder, «. one who expounds. 

Express', v. to press out, to utter, to de- 
clare, to denote, to represent : a. in di- 
rect terms, plain, dear: 8. a courier: a 
messenger sent specially and speedily. 
Expressible, a. that may be expressed. 
Expres'sion, 8. act of expressing ; utter- 
ance ; representation ; a phrase or mode 
of speech ; tone of voice expressing or 
corrosponoing with the sense; appaar- 
ance of the countenance. Expressive, 
a. serving to express ; expreseong wii^ 
force or emphasis. Expr^sively, ad. in 
an expressive manner. Expresmveneas, 
a. the quality of being exinessiTe. — ^£r- 
prativOt f-se -vo. It.] with expressioD. 

ExpTobra'Uon, «. TepTOQAbfuIajoonaatlon. 
\ Expro'pin&td, V. \a kv^^ tk^ «e TnAv 
\ -gtovettyVa; VkV>^«^at«ittaBia« 




Bzpagn ^expuneX v. to take by assault. 

Bzpugna^tion, «. oonqueBt by assault 

£!xpiu?8ion, a. act of expelling; ejection. 

Expul'sive, a. having power to expeL 

Biqpan'ge, v. to blot out, to efface. 

Enrano'tion, «. the act of expunging. 

Erpiusrate, v. to jnxrge or cleanse tho- 
roughly; to punfy or correct by ex- 
punging. £3q>urga'tion, «. the act of 
czpozgating. Bx'puigator, «. one who 
ezpuxnates. Expur'gatoiy, a. used for 
(deanong or purifying. 

Ex'quiaite (-kwe-zit), a. choice; select; 
ciuioas; peculiarly fine or delicate; 
oonsammate; excellent: s. a fop, a 
dandy. Exqxiisitely, o^ in an exqui- 
site manner. Exquisiteness, «. the qua- 
lity of being exquisite. 

Bxsan'ffaious (-ffwe-us), a. destitute of 
Mood or red blood. 

Exsio'cant, a. drying, tending to dry. 

Exaio'cate, v. to dry, to dry up. 

Sxflioca'tion, «. the act of drying up. 

Exsada'tion. See Exudation. 

Ex'tant, a. standing out to view; now in 
being; still existing, as a literary work. 

Bxtenrporary, Extompora'neous, a. irn- 
premeditated; not studied. Extem'- 
pore (-p&-ry), ad. without premedita- 
tion. Extemporize, v. to speak without 
■tody or preparation. 

Extend', v. to spread out; to enlarge. 
JBxtendiUe, a. See Extensible. Ex- 
tanaibilll^ «. the quality of being ox- 
^enrihle. Exten'sible, a. tb at may be ex- 
tended. Extenidle, a. See Extensible. 

Bzton'sion, ». tho act of extending; the 
state of betog extended; enlargement. 

Kzten'slve, a. of great extent; wide; 
lairge ; comprehimsive. Extensively, 
•d. ynddij; largely. Extensivencss, «. 
the quality of bemg extcrosive. Extent^ 
«. space or degree to which any thing is 
extended; bmk; size; compass. 

Exton'uate, v. to lessen, to palliate. 

Bxtenua'tion, «. mitigation, x>alliation. 

Sxte'rior, a. outward: «. the outside. 

Bzter'minate^ v. to root out, to destroy. 

Bxtarmina'tion, «. destruction. 

Bzter'minatory, a. causing destruction. 

Ss'tem, «. a student or pupil who does 
not board within the college or seml- 
naiy: a. external. 

Ezter'xiaL a. outward; visible; foreign. 

Bzter^nally, ad. outwudly; in show. 

BxtaKnalSy «. pL the outward parts ; ex- 
terior form. 

Ex^icf, a. extinguished, put out; dead. 

Sbctinc'tion, «. act of extinguishing; state 
of being extinguished; suppression; 

Bxtin'gniah (-gwish), v. to put out; to 
qiien<^ ; to put an end to ; to destroy. 
ExtinguiBhable. a. that may be extin- 
goifthed. Extinguisher, «. he or that 
T^hich extinguishes; a conical cap to 
put out a candle. Extinguishment, «. 

J Bx 'UrptUe or ExOr^tmte, v. to root out; to 
d^tmy utterly. Bee No. 71, p. 25. Ex- 

tixpa'tion, «. the act of rooting out; 
total destruction. Extirpator, «. one 
who extirpates. 

Extor, V. to praise, to magnify, to laud. 

Extoller, b. a praiser, a magnifier. 

Extort', V. to wrest or wring from by force ; 
to exact oppressively. Extor'tion, t. 
act or practice of extorting; illegal or 
oppressive exactions. Extortionary, a. 
practising extortion. Extortioner, « 
one who practises extortion. 

Ex'tra, a Latin prefix signifying beyond^ 
over, or above. See p. 47. It is also 
used as an adj. and sub.; bb an extra 
charge ; with aU the extras. 

Extract', v. to draw out of, to select. Ex'- 
tract, s. that which is extracted ; a pris- 
sago from a book ; an essence or tincture. 

Extrac'tion, s. act of drawing out; lineage. 

Extradition (-dish'un), a. a delivering up of 
an accused person, by a foreign govern- 
ment, for trial in his own coimtry. 

Extrajudicial (-dish'ol), a. out of the re- 
gular course of legal procedure. Extra- 
judicially, 0(2. in an extrajudicial man- 

Extramim'dane, a. beyond the limits of 
the universe ; in the mfinite, void space. 

Extra'neous, a. that is without or beyond ; 
not a part of ; foreign ; not intrinsic. 

Extraor dinorily, ad. in an extraordinaiy 
manner; remarkably. Extraordinari- 
ness, s. remarkablenoss. Extraordinary, 
a. beyond ordinary; uncommon; re- 
markable; eminent. 

Extra-paro'chial (-ke-al), a. out of the 
parish bounds. 

Extra-profes'sionol, a. not within the usual 
limits of professional duty. 

Extrav'agance, Extravagancy, s. (a going 
beyond), excess; irregularity; prodiga- 
lity; waste. Extravagfant, a. excessive; 
irregular; prodigal; wastcftiL Extra- 
vagantly, ad. in an extravagant manner. 

Extravagan'za, [It.] s. a wild, incoherent 
sort of composition. 

Extrav'asated, a. forced out of the proper 
vessels, as blood. Extravasate, v. to force 
out, as of ducts or vessels. Extravasa'- 
tion, s. the state of being extravasated. 

Extre'me, a. utmost, last; urgent; press- 
ing; rigorous; worst, or best: «. the 
utmost point, highest degree of any 
thing, extremity, end. Extremely, ad. 
in toe utmost degree. Extrem'ity, s. 
the utmost point; necessity, rigour; 
emergency; oistress. 

Ex'tricable, a. that may be extricated. 

Ex'tricate, v. to disentangle ; to clear. 

Extrica'tion, s. the act of extiicating. 

Extrin'sic, a. external, outward. 

Extrin'sicolly, ad. from without. 

Extru'de, v. to thrust out. 

Extru'sion, s. act of thrusting out. 

Extu'berance, t. a protuberance. 

Extu'berant, a. swelling; standing out. 

Extumes'cence, t. a swelIiQk% Cft -nsiw^. 

ExuTseranoe, s. Qfv«c®KwrtJcx,VQxnafta3»»» 

Exu'berant, a. o^etaYxvmjaaaDLVVa^™^**^ 
ExulaeranUy, od.^wnf «tox».^wB«l. 




Ezu'bermte, v. to abound greatly. 

Exuda'don, t. ifCt of exuding I ^ diacharge 
by the porea. Exu'de, Ez'udate, v. to 
aweat out or diaoharge by the porea ; to 
discharge aa from a plant by Indaiona. 

Exurceraie, v. to become ulceroua. 

Exult^ V. to leap for Joy ; to triumph orer. 

Sxulta'tion, t. act of exulting; triumph. 

Exulf ant, a. rejoidi^ ; triumphing. 

Extmda'tion, t. overflow ; abundance. 

ExuA'tion, «. oonaumption by fire. 

Exu'viie^ [L. 1 «. pi, caflt skina or sheila of 
animalR; foeail remains of animala. 

Eya8 (i'as), $. a young hawk. 

Eye (i), «. the organ omaionor sight; sight; 
view; aapisct; regard; notice; ooHorva- 
tion ; watch : any thing formed like an 
eye ; a small perforation ; a small loop 
or catch to receive a hook ; the bud of a 
plant : v. to watch : to keep in view ; to 
observe. Eyed (iaeX P. a. in composi- 
tion ; aa bright-eyed ; aull-eyed. 

Eye'ball, s. the apple of the eye. 

Eye'bright^ s. the plant euphrasy. 

Eye'brow, «. tlie hairy arch over the eye. 

KyeVlass, s. a gluss to assist the sight. 

Eye'lash, ». one of tlie hairs or the line of 
hairs that edges the oyulid. 

Eyeless, a. not having eyes or sight. 

Eye'let, «. a small hole to let in light: a 
small perforation in a garment or sail 

Eye'lid. i. the membrane covering the eye. 

Eye'salve (sav), 8. ointment for the eyes. 

Eyo'-servant, s. one who works only while 
observed. Eye-service, «. aervioe per- 
formed only under inspection. 

Eye'shot, $. a glance of the eye. 

Eye'sight, a. sight of the eye. 

Eye'sore, a. something offensiye to the 

Eye-tooth, t. the tooth under the eye. 

Eye'-witness, ». one who saw what he tea- 
tifios : an ocuhu* evidence. 

Eyre (oirX «. a journey or drcuit; a court 
of judges itinerant or on circuit. 

Eyry (e'ry), «. a place where birds of prey 
build; tne nest of an eagle or hawk. 


Fa^ t. the fourth note of the gamut. 
FaWceous (-ahus), a. having the nature 

of a bean. 
Fal>le. «. an instructive fiction; a false- 
hood : V. to write fiction ; to feign ; to 

lie. Fabled, p. a. celebrated in fables. 

Fabler, «. a writer of fables or fictions. 
Fabliaux, [fablto, Fr.] a. pi. the metrical 

tales of the early poets of the north of 

Fab'ric, «. a building; a structure; a 

system; a manu&ctured article, es^ 

cially doth. 
Fab'ricate, v. to buHd, to frame: to foiige. 
Fabrica'tion, «. the act of fabricating; a 

forgery or fidsehood. 
Fab'rlcator, a. one who fkbricates. 
Fab'rUe, a. belonging to work in wood, 

stone, or iron. 
Fab'ulist^ 9. one who writes fables. 
Fab'uJoaM, a, Hctftfotis; false. 

FaVulonaly, ad, in flotkm; flelltioadj. 

Fab^ulouaneM, a. state ctf befn^ liabnhwn 

Facade, [Fr.] Bee this word, p. 64. 

Face, «. the visage: front; mperflelis m 
surface of any tbinff; appeannoe; boU> 
neaa: v. to meet m nrmtk to 0|ipoN 
boldly; to stand opposite to; to oofvor 
with an additional suxfaee; to ton op 
with facings. 

Facet (fas'et), a. a small face or g ml l M ^ ai 
one of those on a diamond. 

Face'ti«B, [-shd-fi, h.] $, pL btmioroai wri- 
tings ; witty sayinsB ; pleasantry. 

Face'tions, a. witty, humorous, apiMiUy. 

Face'tiously, ad. wittily, joeulaily. nea- 
tioiumess, t. wit, humour, pleaaantnasa 

Fa'cial. a. pertainhig to the moe. 

Facile (fas'il), a. easy, not difficult; pOsnt 
Faciloness, «. fadlity. Pacil'itAte, «. to 
make easy or easier. Fadlita'tion, t. act 
of making easy. Facil'ity, a. quali^ of 
being facile; easinesa of performanee; 
dexterity; easinesa of accoHa ; affability; 
in the ))liunal, the meana by wliich pa^ 
formance is rendered easy. 

Fa'dng, «. an ornamental ooverlng. 

Fac-sim'ile (-*-lyX «• an exact copy or Vlkb- 
ness, as of hand-writing. See 90, p ft 

Fact, 8. a thing done, a deed ; reality. 

Fac'tion, t. a party or cabal ; a tumiut. 

Fac'tiouist, s. one who promotes flactiolL 

Fac'tious, a. given to faction ; turbuleaib 

Fac'tiously, ad. in a factious manner. 

Fac'tiousneaa, «. inclination to fiMStloB. 

Factitious (-tish'usX a. made bv ait 
artificial ; not natural ; not genuute. 

Fac'tor, «. an agent for another; a term 
in arithmetic. Factorage, a. coimiiii* 
sion or allowance to a factor. 

Fac'torship, s. the business of a fhetor. 

Fac'tory, a. a manufactory; a house or 
residence of flkctora; a bodj of mn- 

Facto'tum, t. a servant employed to do all 
kinds of work ; a drudge. 

Fac'ulty, s. (a power of d<rinff% a power of 
the mind; power or skiU in performlnf ; 
ability; talout; legal right; authorftr; 
a body of professional men, eepedafly 
medical ; the heads or authotitlea of • 

Fac'und, a. eloquent, fluent. 

Fad'dle, v. to trifle, to toy, to play (£)»}. 

Fade, v. to wither ; to grow weak. 

Fa'duless, a. not liable to fiide ; unlbdiii^ 

Fad^^e, v. to suit, to fit, to agree. 

Fa'dlugness, «. liablcness to fade. 

Fa'dy, a. losing colour or strength. 

FsB'ca], Fecal, a. excrementaL 

Fte'ces, «. pi excrements, dregs, dlOML 

Fa'ery, a. See Fairy. 

Fitg, Fag'end. Bee these wordi^ n. S4. 

FaPot, a a bundle of wood bound together 
for fud; ^ jMrson hired to appear at the 
muster of a o ^mpany : v. to tteup. 

Fail, V. to be deficient; tobeeome a bank- 
rupt; to desert ; to omit, to neglect ; to 
decay: «. omission; non-petformaneei 

Fs31'iT\((, p. Qu decAkiVnft*. a. «. 4dAidtai0!\ 
a mVnoT fanVt*, «si\xn^artMMai^\«ta|MA. 




FMlnv^t^just of fining; mlsourfage; 
noB-pavftmuuEiM i diAcAsoeyi oonation i 
act of beooming aa biacdventl 

Fain, a. glad; rnaksed: ad. gladly. 

Valuta s. mik, Jangnid; not Tivld; ti- 
motons; dujeotad: ^Ltortukmotionleas 
and aenaeleai, to twoon. Faintheart/ed, 
flk tlinoroaa; eowardlj. Fainthearted- 
ly, cuL in a cowardly maimer. Faint- 
beartednaflB, 9. eov^trdioe. Fainting; 
p. «. growing flalnt, sinking. Faintibsii, 
a. niher fiunt or low. Faintly, ad, 
languidly, feebly. Faintness, «. state 
of being f^t. 

Fainta, «. pL the weaker portion or last 
runnings of distillod Bpiiits. 

Fair, a. beantiM; clear; IkvoTirable ; 
equitable; Juat; pretty good; above 
mediocrity; not raining; ad. fhirly— 771e 
fa^ir, the finnale sex. See Fair, p. 54. 
Fair, «. a stated market. Fair'-complex- 
loned, a. having a £9dr or clear complex- 
ion ; not brown. Fairing, t. a present 
bought at a fair. Fairish, a. reasonably 
fair. Fairly, ad, with fiiimess ; equit- 
ably. Fairness, t. the quality of being 
fair. Fair-one, t, one who ia fair, a 
beauty. Fair-play, «. fair or just. Fair- 
spo'ken, a. courteous in speech. 

Fiai ry, t. an enchantress, an elf, a fay: a. 
given bv or belonipng to fairies. 

Fu'iylano, ». ideal residence of fkirles. 

Fai'iylike, a. after the manner of fairios. 

Fai'tystone, «. a kind of fossil stone. 

Faith, «. belief; confidence ; fidelity ; re- 
l^iooB belief ; revealed truth ; trust in 
God. FUth'ful, a. firm in rclipfious be- 
Uflf; worthy of beUef; trusty; loyal; 
true. Faitlmilly, ad. with fidelity; in 
a f^ithfyil manner. Faithfulness, «. qua- 
lity of being faithful ; fideUty. Faith- 
Iflfls, m. without faith; perfidious; dis- 
loyal ; not true to du^. Faithlessness, 
$. quality of being faithless; perfidy. 

Fi^ir ffii^keer' or fa'ker), «. a Mahometan 
raligious itinerant or dervis — written 
tlflo Fo^r. 

FU'eated, a, bent like a sickle; hooked. 
Faleatkm, 8. bending like a sickle. 
Falchion ffkwl'shunX t. a short, sicklo- 
llka sworo. F&l'dform, a. having the 
Bha^ of a dckle. 

Faloon (bvT'knX <. a hawk, especially one 
trained for sport ; a sort of cannon. Fal- 
coner, «. one who trains or sports with 
hawks. FU'conet, s. a small piece of ord- 
nance. Fslconxy ^f awk'-), g, the art of 
training hawks ; the art or practice of 
caking wild fowls by means of hawks. 

Fald'stcx)!. «. a stool at which the kings of 
England kneel at their coronation: a 
Uanop's diair within the altar; a fold- 
ing chair. 

Fan (&wlX V. to drop down ; to decrease ; 
to happen: «. the act of falling; ruin, 
downfall. Fallen, the p. p, of FalL 

FKUa'cioaa, a, producing mistake; sophis- 
tioal, deeeitnil, &lse. Fallaciously, ad, 
wiOi deeepiAm; in a foIZacious manner. 
«. tendency to deceive. 

Fallacy, s. a sophism, a deodttbl or in- 
conclusive axgument. Fallimllt^, «. 
liableness to m deceived. Fallible, a. 
liable to error, fraiL 

Fairing, p. a. descending, dropping: «. 
a descent; decrease. 

Fall'ing-sickness, «. the epilepsy. 

Fall'ing-star, «. a shooting star; a meteor. 

Fallow, V, to plough without sowing: a. 
imcultivateo, neglected : «. ground lying 
at rest. Bee this word, p. 64. 

Fallowness, s, state of being fidlow. 

False (fawlsX a. not true ; deceltfuL 

Falsehearted, a. treacherous. 

Falseheart'edness, «. deceitf ulness. ; 

Falsehood, 8. a lie, an imtnith. 

Falsely, ad, not trulv; deceitfully. 

Falseness, s. duplicity; deceit; perfidy. 

F&lset'to, [It.] 8. in music, a feigned voice. 

FaLsifica'tion, «. the act of falsif^ng. Fal'- 
sifier, 8. one who falsifies. Falsify, v. 
to make or prove false : to coimtorfcit. 
Falsity, 8. contrariety to truth; faLso- 

Falter (fawVter), v. to hesitate in speech ; 
to stammer ; to waver ; to fail or yield 
In exertion. Faltering, p. a. stammer- 
ing; wavering. Falteringly, ad, with 
hesitation; timidly. 

Fa'ma clamo'sa, [L.J in the Presbyterian 
Church, a charge grounded on public 
scandal alone. 

Fame, «. celebrity; renown; rumour; 
report: v. to report or noise abroad. 
Fa'med, a. celebrated ; renowned. 
Fameloss, a. without fame or renown. 

Famil'iar, a. domestic ; affable, unceremo- 
nious; common: s. an intimate; a de- 
mon supposed to be in attendance upon 
a person. Familiar'ity, s. intimate cor- 
respondence, cas^ Intercourse, acquaint- 
ance. Famil'ianzo, v. to make familiar. 
Familiarly, ad. in a familiar manner. 

Fara'Uy, «. the persons collectively who 
live together in the same house; a 
household; those who are descended 
from the same progenitors; a race, or 
generation; linoiige; honourable de- 
scent ; a class ; a tribe ; a species. 

Fatnlne «. scarcity of food, dearth. 

Fam'ish, v. to starve, to die of hunger. 

Fa'mous, a. renowned, celebrated. 

Fa'mously, ad, in a famous manner. 

Fa'mousness, «. celebrity; great fame. 

Fan, 8. an instrument made of silk, paper, 
&c., used by ladies to cool themselves ; 
a machine to winnow com: v, to win- 
now com ; to cool by a fkn. 

Fanatic, 8. an enthusiast, a visionary. 

Fanat/ic, Fanatical, a. enthusiastic. 

FanatlcaUy, od. in a fimatical manner. 

Fanaticism, 8. a religious frenzy, entiiu- 
siasm ; wildness of conduct. 

Fan'cied, j>. a. conceived in the mind ; ima- 
gined; not real. Fancier, 8. one who 
nncies; an amateur. Fanciftil, a. in- 
fluenced by fancy ; VmajAw^VVs^ \ -^Wxsv^ 
rical; viBionaxy. 'Eanici&3Mcy, cA. ^sv «. 
fhncifiil manner. "ffsawJdxiinwBa**. ^iS^r 
lity of being fBnc&!&3X 'ttnBj*^ 




nation: a thought; an idea; a notion; 
a peculiar tasto or liking for ; a whim : 
V. to Imagino; to be pleased with; to 
like. Fancy-ball, «. a ball in which the 
company appear in fiuicy dresses. 

Fan'cy-free, a, free from love. 

Fandango, «. a Spanish dance. 

Fane, a. a temple ; a weathercock. 

Fanfare, [-far, Fr.J «. a flouriKh of trumi)etB. 

Fan'faron, [Fr. ]«. a bully, a blusterer. 

Fanfarona'de, [Fr.] a. bluster; swaggering. 

Fang, 8. the tusk of an animal of prey ; a 
claw or talon: v. to seize; to gripe. 
Fang'ed, p. a. having fangs. 

Fangle t, «. a silly attempt ; a mere trifle. 

Fangled, a. vainlv fond of novelty. 

Fanf^lcss, a. tootnless ; having no fangs. 

Fan'ion, $. a small banner or ensign. 

Fan'light (-Ute), «. a window in the form 
of an open fan, generally over a door, 

Fan'ner, s. one who or that which fans. 

Fanta'sia, s. a kind of air in which all the 
freedom of fancy may be allowed. 

Fan'tELsied, a. filled with fancies. 

Fantas'tic, Fantastical, a. fanciful, imagi- 
nary; unreal; whimRical; capricious. 
Fantastically, ad. in & fantastic manner. 
Fantasticalncss, s. quali^ of being fan- 
tastic. Fan'tasy. See Fancy, p. 64. 

Fantoccini, [ian-to-che'ney, It.J «. pL pup- 
pets; marionettes. 

Faquir. See Fakir. 

Far, a. distant, remote; remoter of the 
two : ad. to or at a gr^t distance ; to a 
great extent ; very much ; by many de- 

Farce, v. to stuff or fill with forced (farced) 
meat ; to stuff with mingled ingredients; 
to cause to extend or swell out: s. a 
short dramatic piece, stuffed with ludi- 
crous exaggerations; a ridiculous or 
laughable matter. Far'cical, a. belong- 
ing to a farce ; droll ; ridiculous. Far- 
cically, ad. ridiculously. Farcing, g. 
stuffing ; forced meat. 

Far'cy, «. the leprosy of horses. 

Fard, «. paint for the face. 

Far'del f, 8. a bundle ; a pack. 

Fare, v. to go, to travel ; lo happen to any 
one well or ill ; to feed ; to eat : «. price of 
conveyance; food prepared for the table. 

Fa'rewell, 8, a wish of welfiare at parting; 
leave; departiu'e: a. leave-taking or 
parting, as a fareiodl visit : v. fare thou 
loeU .' ad. or int. adieu. 

Far'-famed, a. widely celebrated. 

Far'fetched, a. brought from places dis- 
tant; studiously sought; strained; not 

Fari'na, «. the pollen or fine dust in the 
anthers of plimts; flour; meaL 

Farina'ceous, a. mealy, tasting like meal. 

Farm, v. to let out to collectors at a certain 
rate ; to let land to tenants at a certain 
rent ; to tc^e at a certain rent ; to cid- 
tivate land : «. land rented by a farmer. 

Farm'er, 8. one who rents or cultivates 
land. Farming, 8. a renting; cultiva- 
tion of land ; the business of a farmer. 
FarmbouBO t. the residence of a farmer. 

Far'most, ct. most distaiitf most gemote. 

Farm'yard, 8. an encloflure soixDimded bj 
bams and other fjEom-buildinga. 

Fa'ro, 8. a game of hazard at cards. 

Farraginous (-rajln-us), a. fonned of dif- 
ferent materials; inized confluedly. 
Farra'go, «. a hotoh-potch; a conhuri 
mass of mingled ingredients; amedlqr* 

Far'rier, «. a horse-shoer; a horse-dootcr. 

Far'riery, 8. the busineas of a fiuxier. 

Far'row, «. a litter of pigs : v. to irig. 

Far'ther, a. more distant; further. Fl^ 
thest, a. most distant : ad. at the greatest 
distance. See Further. 

Far'thing, 8. the fourth part of a penny. 

Far'thingale, «. a hoop or ciroles otwia^ 
bone to spread the petticoat to a wide 
circiunference. ComiMre the modem 

Fas'ces, s. a bundle of rods with an in, 
carried before the Roman consuls. 

Fas'cia, s. a fillet ; a bandage ; a range of 
stone work to divide a h iiildtwg . 

Fas'ciated, a. bound with fillets. 

Fascia'tion, «. a bandage, a tying up. 

Fas'cicle, «. a little bunch of flowera. 

Fascic'ular, a. united in a bundlOL 

Fascic'ulus, 8. a little bundle ; a nosegay; 
a part or regular division of a book. 

Fas'cinate, v. to bewitoh, to enchant; to 
charm ; to captivate. Fascinating, ^ a. 
bewitehing; enchanting. Fasdna^tioo, 
8. act of flEkscinating; stote of being fu* 
cinated; imseen, inexplicable influenoe. 

Fascine, [fas-seen', Fr.] «. a fi&got. 

Fashion (iash'unX «. the make or fotrn of 
a thing ; the prevailing make or modit 
of dress or ornament ; general practioe; 
custom ; the way or manner esnkbUahed 
by precedent; high society: v. to fimn; 
to mould; to shape; to fit: to adnt 
Fashionable, a. being according to tba 
fashion. Fa^hionableness, ». quality ol 
being fashionable. Ftohional^, chL in 
a fashionable manner. Fasmoner, l 
one who fashions or adapts. FnaUffm- 
monger, «. a fop. 

Fast, a. swift, qidck, moving rapidly; 
firm, immovable; strong: ad. BwtfUy; 
quickly; firmly; immovably. Fast^ v. 
to abstain from food voluntazlly : «. an 
abstinence from food; religious humlUa* 
tion. Fasf -day, 8. a day far fftafritif 

Fasten, v. to make fast or firm. 

Fastener, 8. he or that which fiistens. 

Fastening, t. that which feistens. 

Fastidious, a. disdainful, squeamish, ovor 
nice, difficult to please. Fastidioudy, 
ad. disdainfully, squeamishly. FastSd- 


iousness, a. disdain; aam 

Fast'ing, «. religious abstinence from food. 

Fast'ness, «. state of being fast; firmness; 
a stronghold; quickness; speed. 

Fas'tuous, a. proud, haughty. 

Fat, a. pliunp, fleshy, gross; rich: a an 
oily, concrete substance in animals; the 
best or richest part of any thing : v. to 
make fat, to fatten, to grow fat. 

Fa'tal, a. doa^y « TnorVaL, Vns^iVcaaaila. Tie 




table necessity. Fatalist, «. one who 
malnfalnH thiub all things happen by 
ineyitable neoessiiy. Fatal'ily, «. pre- 
destination; a decree of fate; an inevi- 
table misfortune. Fa'tally, ud. mor- 
tally; necessarily. 

nta Morgana. An extraordinary atmo- 
spheric refraction, by which images of 
bouses, castles, and other objects m the 
sur r oun ding landscapes are fantasti- 
caDy and beautifully represented in the 
air, over the surface of the sea. They 
ooour dd^y in the Strait of Messina, 
and are also called the Castles of the 
Fairy Morgana, 

Fate, «. destmy; death; cause of death. 

Fa'ted, a. decreed by fate; predestined. 

Fates, fl. pL in mythology, the three desti- 
nies who were supp(»ed to preside over 
human life. 

Fatb'er, §. the male parent; one who acts 
with paternal care; an ancestor; one 
who has given orig^in to any thing ; one 
of the early ecclesiastical writers; the 
First Parson of the Trinity: v. to adopt 
as one's own — ^To faiher-ont to ascribe 
to one as its author. Fatiierhood, «. 
the state of being a father. Father-in- 
law, «. the father of one's husband or 
wife. Fattier-land, «. the land of our an- 
cestors. Fatherless, a. having no father. 
Fatherliness, «. paternal kindness. Fa- 
tiieriy, ad, iMternal, tender, carefuL 

Fath'ofm, «. a measure of six feet : v. to 
penetrate into; to soimd. Fathomable, 
«. that may be fathomed. Fathomless, 
«k bottomless; that cannot be pene- 
trated or comprehended. 

Fatidical, a. prophetic ; foretelling. 

Fatif erous, a. deadly, mortal. 

Fiatkfae (fa-teeg'), «. weariness, lassitude ; 
labour, toU: v. to harass or tire with 
labour; to weary to excess. Fatigued, 
p. a. tired; weary. 

lat^lfng, «. a young animal, as a kid or 
Iamb, fattened for slaughter. 

Ikt^iess, «. the quality of being fat; 
pliunpness; ridmess; fertility. Fatten, 
«L to make fat ; to grow fat. Fattiness, 
«. state of being fat; greasiness. Fut- 
tiah, a. somewhat fat. Fatty, a. con- 
aistfaBg of fat ; greasy. 

Fatality, «. foolishness ; imbecility. 

Fat^ious, a. foolish; siUy; imbecue. 

Fat'witted, a. dull, stupid. 

Faubouxg, [fc/booig, Fr. 1 «. a submrb. 

Fau'oet, «. a small pipe for a barrel. 

Faugh 1 an intexjection of contempt 

Faurchion. See Falchion. 

Fault (fawlt), «. a failiug ; a defect; an im- 
perfection; an offence; a slight crime; 
a difficulty, or puzzle, as to be at /autt; 
in mhiing, a dislocation or distmrbance 
of strata. Fault'finder, s. a censurer, 
an ol^ector. Faultily, ac2. in a faulty 
manner. Faultiness, «. state of being 
fiuilty. Faultless, a. free from fault, 
porfect. Fatdtlessness, ». state of being 
foultleaa Faulty, a. guilty of a (ax^i. 

Faim, «. a sylvan deity, a kind of sat3rr. 

Faunsi, [L.] «. the animals of a particular 
counioy or district — corresponding to 
.FZoro, which embraces the botany or 

Favillous, a. consisting of ashes. 

Fa'vour, v. to regard with kindness, to 
coimtenance; to assist, to support: «. 
kindness, support, advantage, lenity; 
a knot of ribbons, worn as a token of 
favour from a lady. 

Fa'vourable, a. kind; propitious to success. 
Favourableness, s. kindness; benignity. 
Favourably, ad. with favour or kind- 
ness. Favoiired, p. a, treated with 
favomr; featured, with imU, HI, hard, 
Ac., prefixed. Favourer, «. one who 
favours; a well-wisher. Favoiulte, «. 
a person or thing favoured or beloved : 
a. oeloved; regarded with favour. Fa- 
vouritism, «. the act of favouring; im- 
due favour shown or practised; par- 

Fawn, V. to cringe or flatter servilely. 
Fawn, «. a young deer: v. to bring forth 
a fawn. Fawn'er, «. one that fawns; 
one that pays servile courtship. Fawn- 
ing, p. a. cringing; meanly flattering: 
B. the act of servilely flattering. Fawn- 
ingly, ad. in a cringing, servile way. 

Fay, «. a fairy, an elf. Fay t> <• faith. 

Fe'ilty, ». fidelity; homage; loyalty. 

Fear, «. apprehension of evil or danger; 
dread; terror; awe; reverence: v. to 
be anxious about; to be afraid of; to 
dread ; to stand in awe of; to reverence. 
Fear'ful, a. fUlI of fear, timorous; ex- 
citing fear, formidable. FeaifuUy, ad. 
timorously; terribly. Fearfulness, t. 
timorousnoss; terror. Fearless, a. freo 
from fear; intrepid. Fearlessly, ad. 
without fear; boldly. Fearlessness, 9. 
exemption from fear; intrepidity. 

Feasibil'ity, «. practicability. Fea'sible, a. 
practicable, that may be done. Fea- 
sibleness, a. feasibility. Feasibly, ad, 
in a feasible manner. 

Feast, 8. a festival, a sumptuous enter- 
tainment, a banquet; a treat : v. to enter- 
tain sumptuously; to pamper; to do- 
light. Feast'er, «. one who feasts or 
gives a feast. Feasting, 9, the act of 
feasting; a treat. 

Feat, «. something done; a deed; an ex- 
ploit; a difficult trick or performance. 

Feather (feth'er), «. a plume of a bird; in 
the plural or collectively, the covering 
of birds; a plimie; an ornament; an 
empty title; kind or nature (from the 
saymg, "birds of a feather flock to- 
gether"): V. to dress in feathers; to fit 
with feathers; to adorn. Feathered, 
p. a. clothed or covered with feathers; 
winged like an arrow ; swift. 

Feath'er-bed, «. a bed stuflfed with feathers. 

Foath'ered, a. clothed with feathers. 

Feath'er-edge, «. the edge of a botud made 
thin on one aide. 

Feath'er-edged, a. msAe \^\n. «^ V!nft < 

Feath'erlcas^ a. doemiaVA oJt UeiSbsn. 




Foath'eiy, a. dothod or covered with fiei^ 
theni; resombliug a feather. 

Fently t, ad. neatly, nimbly, dexterously. 

Fea'tiire, t. anv lineament or single part 
of the faoo ; the prominent part of any 
tiling; a dharactoristic Featured, a. 
Laving features, good or bad. Featiurea, 
g. pi. Uie cast or make of the face. 

Fcbrif' ic, a. t.ftnding to produce fever. 

Feb'rifuge, t. a medicine to cure fevers. 

Fclirllo, a. partaking of a fever; iudicat- 
iug a fever. 

February, a. the shortest month. 

Fecit, [luj he made it 

Fec'ula, a. a ffrcen matter ol plants when 
burned ana mixed with water; starch. 

Fec'ulenco, Fcculcncy, a. muddiness; sedi- 
ment; dregs, faices. Feculent, a. dreggy; 
foul; excrcmentitious. 

f'e'cimd, a. Iruiti^ul, prolific, rich. Fccim- 
da'tion, a. the act of making fruitful. 
Fe'cundate, V. to make fruitful. Fccun'- 
dity, a. feitility, fruitfulness. 

Fed, the p. t. and p. p. of Feed. 

Fed'eral, a. joined in a confederacy. 
Federalism, t. the principles of fedor- 
ralists. Federalisty i, a member of a 
federal union. 

Fee, <. a reward or recompense for ser- 
vices, especially of inrofossional men ; a 
tenure by which land is hold. An estate 
in fee may be either a fee-simT>Ie or a 
fee-tail: the former is that of which the 
owner has the entire disposal ; the latter 
must descend in a particular line of in- 
heritance. Fee is a feudal term; and 
an estate in fee originally meant one 
held of a superior on the £aith or con- 
dition of rendering certahi personal ser- 
vices. Fee, V. to give a foe to ; to retain 
by a payment or reward; to bribe. 

Feeble, a. weak, sickly, debilitated. 
Feeble-minded, a. weak of mind; ir- 
resolute. Feebleness, a. weakness, in- 
firmity. Feebly, act. in a feeble manner; 

Feed, v. to supply with food; to take 
food; to pasture or graze; to flumish 
any thing to be consumed; to nourish 
or cherlbh; to keep in hope: a. food 
taken by a beast. Feed'er, «. one who 
or tliat which feeds. Feeding, a. the 
act of taking or supplying with food; 

Fee-Carm, a. a tenure of land for the ser- 
vices named in the feoftment usually 
the full rent. See Fee, 

Feel, V. to perceive by the touch; to be 
afibcted by; to touch; to lumdle; to 
experience : a, the sense of feeling, the 
touch. Feel'er, a. one that feds; the 
horns of insects : somoUiing put forth 
with the view of dittcoveriug or ascer- 
taining. Feelinir, a. the sense of touch ; 
sensibility: tenderness: a. possessing 
great seiisibility. Feelingly, ad. with 
great sensibihty. 

Fee-simple, Feo-taiL See Fee. 

Feet, the plural of Foot. 

Fvi^m (loDoX V* to invest; to piretend; to 

flctitiouft. Fi 
lation; flotitloualy, 
feigna. FeIminjL«;« 
apretenoa. 7einl^«.a 

protanoo; ashov 

of dohig what la not I nt ended; amoric 


Felicitate (-lis'-X «. to wish happfaiMito 
to oongratulue. Velidta'tkni, «. aet d 
leUcitatitqg; oongratulatiom VaUoitoiii 
f-Us'e-tusX a. hiqipy: piroapcBpoiia. Vb- 
lidtously, ad. happily; pnMnpafoa4f. 
Felicity, <. happiness; proapanty. 

Feline, a. Uke or pertaining to a cm. 

Fell, the pcwt tense of FaU. 

Fell, a. cruel, barbarousL inhvnnan. 

Fell, «. to knock down, to cut down. 

FelL t. the sldn or hide of a baaat 

Feller, «. one that knocks or hewa dowa. 

Fell'monger, a. a dealer in hldaa or akina 

Fell'ness, «. cruelty, savageneai^ flffrimip 

Felloe (folOoX See Felly. 

Fel'low, a. an associate; an equal; cna d 
a i)air; a mean person: «. to aolt cr 
match. See this word, jx M. JlaUov* 
feel'ing, a. sympathy. FeUowfthlpk a 
companionship, aooiety, Ixi^eraonxM; 
eetablishment hi a ooUegiB. 

Fdly, a. the outward rim of a whaeL 

Felo-de-se, [ L. ] «. a self-muidarer. 

Fel'on, a. one guilty of fekmy: <l ctdA 
malignant. Felo'nious, a. «'"*Ti*"*Tg i 
felony; wicked; traitosoua. VaJooi' 
ously, od. in a f donioua znannar. ta - 
ony, a. a capital offenoe or crime. 

Fd'spar, Feld'spar, «. a silidoua minenL 

Felt, a. cloth or stiifl of wool made bj roll- 
ing and pressure with siae^ and wittioak 
weaving, used for hata: «. to unite « 
make compact without weavlmr. Mli 
a. a fdl, a hide, a skin. Felt/tha p. L 
and p. p. of FeeL Felf ing, «. the pio- 
cess of making fdt. 

Felucca (fel-ook'ka), a small open beat 
with six oars, and a helm that may In 
shif ted to dther end. 

Fe'male, a. a woman; one of the wax. that 
brings forth young : a. belonging to the 
femide kind; effeminate. 

Feme-covert' (fsim), a. in law, a mairlBd 
woman. Feme-ade, a, in law, an na* 
married woman, a spinster. 

FcmiKol'ity, a. feinale nature. 

Fem'iuino, a. pertaining to women; taa 
dor; doUcate. 

Fem'oral, a. belonging to the thigh. 

Fen, j>. a marsh, a moor, low moist ground, 

Fen'bcrry, a. a kind of blackberry. 

Fence, a. a guard; skill in defence; a 
hedge or enclosure: v. to endoae; to 
hedg^ in ; to fight with the mnall awwd 
or folL Fen'ced, p. a. secured by fence; 
fortified. FencdesA, a. without endo* 
siu^ ; open. Fencer, «. one who fences. 
Fendble, a. capable of defenoe. Fen- 
cing, a. the art of defence and attack by 
the small sword ; materiala for fandng. 
Fendng-mastcr, a. one who ^=**aflhet the 
sxt of fendxiK. ¥«ndmK-«ahoQl« & a 
HcSoool Va yiY)iO[i toiMftn^ \a XamigiX 

FoDd, ■; to Word off: ioVaepoiL 

big: *L to drlvfl out of lurkinf-plAceA' 
PWiTf omu. n. produdDg or riutung iroa. 
FViUitsk «. ft kind of iron-slone. 
I«m)'|liiau^ B. purttltmg of iion; lika 

IWrula, 1. mn Iroa ring pot nund tha 

Wac^, •- > boat lor puBga ; the pmuage 

•TWwhlchlbaboiitT««=": s.tocuuvuy 

ft boftfr for ooQTejiiig jHAHeDifen ocrou 

ftbUDdnnfa. Vei^UUzd, 

Fer'nWranla, i 

VBTW'OMiti a. gnwing b 

ll FEW 

FB^oentdno, o. UoautlDUB ; iruitan. 

pointing out ihm letton to oiiildr^; ■ 

FeHHfl (fefl), «. a Ijuid ; a t«Tm In ]iAriildr7. 
FsBaa-point; jk tha contra of mn eoci^ 

Fea'tJLl, a. portAlnlng to m feaat ; jof nua. 
Fea'tflT, vk toranklv; to oorrupt; tOBTow 
Tirulent FMtwing, p. a. twiUlug; 

Fee'tlvS, I. ii(J«rof oi>0orr8lli[ioul]oy! 
a. psrUloing to (euu; futlie. Foa- 
tivfl, a. pgr t i lnlu g to feAfata; JoTOUl, 
gtj. TeaU^ity, i. iHtlvg or HMblJor; 
mirth ; gvety. 

Fofltoon, t. ui omaTnent of flowen In tha 
lorm ol a wieatti ; folda of dispery 
hiAglne down. FsBtooood (toond), p. 
a. funiuhad with featootw. 

Futu'cs. t. a genua of grawaa. Faa'tu- 
<dn^ a. dI abvw oo^ur. FoatuoouB, o- 

U> roBcb; to obtain aa ita prlca: a. i 

IS quillt)' ot being (utid 
loci. I. »tuft o(\iir t 

lat growa bi 

im tha auU 

Bhackle, to anchain. to bind. Fattar- 
leaa, a. without fattora; frae ttaa m- 

Fs'hu. FcBtu^ I. KB)' uiinial In embiTo. 
Foud (Uid«X a. a dudly quarral betwodt 

tiDH. Feud, I. a'fief & {ee;'aiJgtitlo 
land tm condition of mlllLafy aerrioa- 
Ffiu'dol, a. perUJiLing to flufa or fees; 

tlie foudfU HyHtoiLir FoLiduL'ily, a. the 

d»ry, Feudutury, a, huldiit^a Ivud: L the 

Fell da joie, Ifoo-do-ihwaw, Frjubon- 
tre ; a biing of ^una on an; Jo/fial ovctr 

Feuills-morte. rrool-ya-nunf. Fr.l ». tte 

Fo'vur, L a dldeate charactcrlaad by quick 
pulaa, tucrcaricd bant, aad great tblrat: 

Fo'vorfsw, (. a plant of fobrlfuga quulltiaa, 

tondlng to CeTcr ; hot, bumkiE. 
Fa'vordahtiBaa, a. a alight diaorJer of tha 





Fes, «. a Turkish or Moorish cap. 

Fiacre, [fe'ak-r, Fr.] 8. a hackney coach. 

Fi'ars, s. the avcrtige price of grain. 

Fi'at, [L., let it be done] ». an order or 

Fib, B. a falsehood : v. to tell lies. 

Fib'ber, <. a teller of lies. 

Fi'bre, «. a small thread or string. 

Fi'brU, s. a very small fibre or thread. 

Fi'brixi, Fibilne, «. a white fibrous sub* 
stance obtained from coagulated blood. 

Fi'brous, a. composed of fibres. 

Fib'ula, t. the outer and smaller bone of 
the leg ; a clasp or buckle. 

Ficlde, a. changeable, mconstant, un- 
steady. Fickleness, «. inconstancy, un- 

Fico, [fe'co. It.] ». a snap of the fingers in 
contempt, signifying **AJig for you !" 

Fic'tUe, a. moulded into form by art; 
wroiight by a potter. 

Fic'tion, s. a story invented ; a falsehood. 

Fictitious (-tish'us), a. feigned; counter-, 
felt; false; not true; not real; imagi- 
nary. Fictitiously, acl. in a fictitious 
manner. Fictitiousness, «. feigned re- 

Fid'dle, «. a stringed musical instrument; 
a violin : v. to play upon the fiddle. 

Fid'dle-faddle, «. a trifle : a. triflinpf. 

Fid'dler, «. one who plays on the fiddle. 

Fid'dle^ck, «. the bow of a fiddle. 

Fid'dle-string, s. the string of a fiddle. 

Fid'dling, «. tiie act of playing on a fiddle. 

Fiderity, «. faithfulness; loyalty; ho- 
nesty; integrity. 

Fidg'et, 3. restlessness : v. to be restless. 

Fidg'etiness, «. the being fidgety. 

Fidg'ety, <u restless, impatient. 

Fidu'cial, a. confident, undoubting. 

Fidu'cially, a. with confidence. 

Fidu'dary, a. one who holds in trust : a. 
confident, steady, undoubting. 

Fief (feefX a. a manor; possession held by 
tenure of a superior. See Fu and Feud. 

Field, a. a piece of land enclosed for tillage 
or pasture ; the place of battle ; a wide 
extent ; a space ; the surface of a shield. 

Field'book, a. a book used by surveyors. 

Field'fiEure, a. a bird ; a kind of thrush. 

Fields-marshal, a, a commander-in-chief; 
a military officer of the highest rank. 

Field'-mouse, «. a mouse that lives or 
burrows in the fields. 

Fiold'-officer, a. a military officer above 
the rank of a captain. 

Field'-piece, a. a small cannon for armies. 

Field'-preacher, a. an itinerant preacher 
who narangues in the open air. 

Field'-sports, a. pL diversions of the field, 
such as hunting and shooting. 

Fiend (feend), a. an infernal being; an 
implacable enemy. Fiend'ish,a. devUish; 
miJicious. Fiendishness, a. the quality 
of a fiend. Fiendlike, a. like a fiend; 

Fierce (feerce), a. ferocious, savage, violent. 
Fiercely, ad. in& fierce manner; furiously. 
Fierceness, «. quality of being fierce; 
itacocity; Bavageness; rage. 

Fi'eriness, a, quality of befng ftecy ; lieaft; 
hotness of temper. Fieiy, a. cnnidming 
of fire; hot; 

Fi'eri Fa'das, rii.}a writ to lefvy debt 

Fife, a. a small pipe or flute. 

Fi'fer, a. one who plays on a filbu 

Fifteen, a. five and ten added. Fifteenth, 
a. the ordinal of fifteen. Ftfth, a. Urn 
ordinal of five. Fifthly, ocL in the fiflk 
place. Fiftieth, a. the ordinal of fifty. 
Fifty, a. five midtiplied by ten. 

Fig, a. the fruit of the fig-tree. Flg'-eefear, 
a. the name of a bird. JFig-aihan^ a i 
shell shaped like a fig. ng-ixeo, a a 
tree that Dears figs. 

Fight (fiteX V. to contend in twitle, to 
combat: a. a battle; a oombat; aa 
engagement. Fighter, «. one who finite 
a warrior. Fighting, p. a. quarrung; 
fit or prepared for war : t. oombat; eoD- 

Fig^ment, a. a fiction, an invention. 

Figurabillty, a. capacity of fixed lonn. 
Fig^urable, a. capable of figrure or ahapa 

Figurant, nuu. Figurante, /em. [-xantk%] 
a. an opera dancer, one who diOiOMfa 
groups or ftgurea/ not singly 

FigSurate, a. of a certain determiiuto 
form;omamentalorfiguiative. Kgtsal* 
tion, a the act of giving figure or dstsv' 
minate form | a term in musio. "Fit^ 
rative, a, topical ; metaphoricaL Fwo- 
ratively, od. by a figure; not llteniliy. 
Figure (-yiu*), a. the form or ahape of 
any thing expressed by Its outUne; 
form, shape; semblance, appearance; 
a representation of ax^ thing ; a etatoa 
or image; a person m a painting; a 
character or cugit denoting a numMr; 
an emblem; a l^pe; a metaphor; a 
diagram ; an arrangement or dispoaitiion; 
distinction; eminence. Figure^ a, to 
form into any shape ; to show l^ a ro* 
semblance; to symbolize; to imagine; 
to adorn by figures; tobedisUngcdluMd. 
Figured, p. a. formed into ahape; 
adorned with figures. 

Fig'ure-head, a. an ornamental figure at 
the head or prow of a ship. 

Fila'ceous (-shus), a. consisting of threada 

Fil'acer, a. an officer in the Conmun 
Pleas who files writs, Ac. 

Fil'ament, a. a slender thread ; a fibra 

Filamen'tous, a. like slender threada. 

Fillbert, a. a fine hazel nut. 

Filch, V. to steal, to pilfer. 

Filch'er, a. a petty thief, a pilferer. 

File, a. a thread or wire on which papen 
are strung; papers strung or placed in 
A scries ; a line of soldiers ranged oce 
behind another: v to string upon f^ 
file ; to march in file. File, a. a steel 
instrument for rasping or amooihlng 
iron, Ac. : v. to rasp or amoothe wiUi a 
file; to polish. 

Fil'emot, a corruption oi FeuSUs^morU. 

Filial (fil'yalX a. pertaining to or befltdog 
a child. Filiate, v. to afiUiate. FOir- 
tion, a. the relation of a (Mid to a ponnfc; 
«Sv\iQi,UQiv or «^^\kHX\ ^aa &TR\fi% w 




establishing the patemiiy of an ill^ii- 
mate child. 

Fil'if orzn, a. of the form of thxeads. 

Fil'igranet, Filigree, Filigree- work, t. 
work curlouBly wrought in the man- 
ner of little threads or grains, usually 
in gold and silver. Filigreed, a. orna- 
mented with filigree. 

Filing* <• the act of smoothing with a file; 
the putting papers on a file. Filings, «. 
sL particles rubbed off bv filing. 

Fill, V. to make Aill, to satisfy, to glut. 

Fill, «. fulness ; as much as wUl satisfy. 

FUOibeg, «. (a UtUe plaid or kilt) the 
pouch worn in fix)nt of a Highlander's 
kilt. 8ee.PhiUbeg,p.42. 

Fillet. See this word, p. 55. 

Flllibuster, «. in America, a piratical ad- 

miip, 8. a jerk of the finger fh>m the 
thimib : V. to strike with the nail of the 
finger forced from the thumb by a 
mmiden motion. 

FUly, M. a young mare ; a female colt. 

Film, «. a udn pellicle or skin : v. to cover 
wtth a thin pellicle or membrane. 

Fllm'iness, «. the state of being filmy. 

nim'y, a. composed of thin membranes. 

FXloi^se, a. like or resembling threads. 

Filter, V. to stntin, to percolate : s. a twist 
cl thr«ul to draw off liquor ; a strainer. 

Filtli, *» foul or dirty matter; nastiness; 
oocroption; pollution. Filth'ily, ad. 
nastily, foully, grossly. Filthiuess, ». 
dirtiness; impurity. Filthy, a. dirty, 
nasty » gross, obscene. 

FH'tnoe, V. to strain, to filter. Filtra'- 
tlon, t. act or process of filtering. 

Fimlniate, v. to fringe : a. fringed. 

nn, «. the wing of a fish by means of which 
it swims. 

Ffnable, a. that may be fined. 

Fi'nal, a. ultimate, conclusive — ^A Jlnal 
cause is the object ultimately aimed at. 
Finale, [fee-nal'ly. It.] s. the close, the 
end; the closing performance of au 
opera or concert. Finality, s. the state 
of beiug final. Fi'nally, ad. ultimately, 

Finan'ce, t. revenue, income, profit. 

Finan'ces, «. pL public fimds ; resources. 

nnan'ciaL (-shaO, o- respecting finance. 

Financier, ». an officer who superintends 
the State finances or public revenue. 

Finch, «. a small bird, of which kind are 
the gcddfinch, chaffinch, and bullfinch. 

Find, V. to discover, to detect; to meet 
witii or Ught upon ; to determine by a 
verdict — Tojlnd fauU toUh is to censure 
— To Jlnd in is to supply with. Fi'nder, s. 
one ttiat finds. Fiudmg, s. a discovery ; 
the verdict of a jiiry. 

Fine. For the original meaning and dif- 
ferent applicatlraui of this word, see 
Fine,v. 55. 

Fine Arts. See under Art 

Fi'nedraw. v. to sew up a rent with so 
much nicety that it is not perceived. 

FVaednwingf s. the dexterous drawing to- 
gether cr sowing up ot routa. 

Fi'nefy, cui in a fine manner ; elegantly ; 
veiy well— but often used ironically. 

Fi'neiessf, a. boimdless. See Fine, p. 65. 

Fi'neness, j; elegance; purity; delicacy. 

Fi'ner, «. one who purifies metals. 

Fi'nery, «. show, gaye^ in attire, splen- 
dour; a f^unace for renning or purifying 

Fi'ne-spoken, a. usixig fine phrases. 

Fi'ne-spun, a. ingeniously contrived. 

Finesse, [fe-ness', Fr.] s. an artifice, a stra- 
tagem: V. to use artifice. See Fine. 
Fiuessing, ». the practice of using 

Fin'-footed, a. having feet with membranes 
between the toes; web-footed. 

Finger (fing'ger), «. a part of the hand : 
V. to touch lightly ; to pilfer. Finger' 
board, «. the board at the neck of a 
fiddle, where the fingers act on the 
string^. Fingered, a. having fingers. 
Fingering, ». the act of touchin^^ lightly ; 
the manner of touching or playing upon 
a musical instrument. 

Fin'ial, <. in Gothic architecture, the top 
or JlnishiTig of a pinnacle or gable. 

Fin'ical, a. nice, foppish, affected. 

Fin'icalness, s. affected nicety; foppery. 

Fin'ically, ad. foppishly, too nicely. 

Fi'niug-pot, «. a pot for refining metals. 

Fi'nis, [L.1 s. the end, the couclusion. 

Fin'ish, v. to end, to perfect, to complete; 
». the last touch, the last polish. Fin- 
ished, j). a. completed; complete, per- 
fect. Finisher, s. one who completes or 
perfects. Finishing, «. completion ; the 
last touch. See under FirUy p. 55. 

Fi'nite, a. limited, bounded, terminated ; 
created; opposed to infinite. Finite- 
less, a. unbounded; unlimited. Fi- 
nitely, ad, within certain limits. Fi- 
niteness, ». limitation, confinement 
witiiin boimdaries. 

Finless, a. destitute of fins. Finlike, a. 
resembling a fin. Finned, Finny, a. 
furnished with fins. 

Fin'niken, «. a pigeon with a mano-like 

Fir, «. a tree of which there are sev4»ral 
Idnds, valuable for timber, pitch, tor, &o. 

Fire, s. the igneous element ; flame, light, 
lustre; ardoiur, spirit : v. to set on nrc ; 
to discharge fire-arms; to cauterize. 
Fi're-arms, s. guns, muskets, &c. Fire- 
ball, B. a ball filled with combustibles. 

Fi're-blast, «. a disease in hops. 

Fi'rcbrand^ «. a piece of wood kindled; 
an incendiary; one who inflames the 
passions of others. 

Fi rebrush, t. a hearth-brush. 

Fi'rebucket, «. a bucket used by firemen. 

Fi'recock, ». a cock or spout whence water 
is obtained to exting^h fires. 

Fi'redamp, ». the explosive carbiureted 
hydrogen gas of coal mines. 

Fi'redrake, ». a fiery serpent or meteor. 

Fi'i'e-eater, ». one who ^teUccksia \a ««&». 
fijre ; a Imily ; & d.\xcS^iE^ 

FVre-enghie, «. aif>i>f^\T\ft Vit ^xnfnmi 
atream ol 'wa'tv on^f^s^ 




Fi're-escupe, a. a machine for eflcapini; 
from wmdows when liousos are on lire. 

Fi'refly, s. a species of tly which emits at 
night a vivid liglit fr«»m imdur it>t wings. 

Fi'rehuok, s. a bu^e hook used for pulling 
down buildings when they are on fire. 

Fi're-iruns, «. pL the poker, tongs, and 

Fi'i-elock, «. a soldier's g^un, a musket. 

Fi'reman, s. one who is employed to ex- 
tin^niitili burning houses. Fire-oflico, s. 
an office for insuiing against fire. Fire- 
new, a. new from the forge; brand-new. 
Fireplace, «. a pLice for a fire, a hearth 
or pit. Fire-plug, «. a stopple in a pipe 
which supplies water in case of fire. 
Fire-proof, a. proof against fires. Fire- 
screen, 8. a screen to protect from the fire. 

Fi'reship, t. a ship filled with combustibles 
to fire tlie vessels of the enemy. 

Fi're-shovel, «. the iron shovel with which 
coals are thrown up. Fireside, s. the 
heartii; tlie chimney; domestic life : a. 
being near the hearth; domestic. 

Fi'restoue, «. a metallic fossil : the psrrite. 

Firewood, ». wood to burn ; fuel. 

Fi'reworks, a. pL preparation of powder 
and other combu8tiuIes to be fired for 
amusement; pyrotechnic exhibitions. 

Fi'ring, s. the act of setting fire to ; a dis- 
charge of guns; fuel; in &rriery, the 
act or process of cauterizing. 

Fir'kiu, «. a small ban'el ; a small vessel. 

Firm, a. fixed, compact, solid, strong. 

Firm, ». the names imder which the busi- 
ness of any trading house is carried on. 

Fir'mament, s. the asy, the heavens. 

Firmamen'tal, a. celestial, belonging to 
the firmament ; ethereaL 

Fir'man, «. a written declaration from an 
Asiatic ruler granting certain privileges ; 
a passport; a licence. 

Firm'ly, ad. steadily, with firmness. 

Firm'ness, 8. steadiness, stability. 

First, a. the ordinal of one: the earliest in 
time; the foremost in place ; chief; pri- 
mary; original: ad, before any thiug 
else ; at first. 

First-bcgof ten, a. first produced; eldest 

Firsf -bom, a. eldest : «. the eldest oliild. 

First'-fruits, «. tho first produce of any 
thing; tho earliest efiects. 

First'lmg, «. the first produce or oflTspring. 

Flrst'-rute, a. pro-eminent, sui)erior. 

Fisc, 8. a state or public treasury. Fis'cal, 
a. x>ertaining to the public revenue : 8. 
the exchequer; the revenue. 

Fish, 8. an animal that inliabits the waters ; 
the flesh or substance of fish used for 
food: V. to catch fish ; to seek or try to 
elicit by artifice — Fiah is often used col- 
lectively for the plural (Fiahes). Fishier, 
Fisherman, a. one whose employmeut is 
to catch fish. Fishery, a. Dualness or 
employment of catching fish; the place 
where fishing is practised. 

Fish'-hook, «. a hook to catch fish with. 

Fish'ing, p. a. catching fish ; used or em- 
ployed in c&tching fish: t, the art or 
praoUco ofCAtchhia fialu 

Fishlcettle, a a veosel for boUlnff fiah b. 

Fisblike, a. resembling fiah. 

Fish'market, ». a place for the oale of &L 

Fish'monger, «. one who deals in fiah. 

FiHh'ixmd, «. a nnall pool for fidh. 

Fish'room, a. a room in • ship betwaai 
the afber-hold and the spirit-room. 

Fish'spear, a. a spear for stabbing fiah. 

Fish'wife, Fishwoman, «. a woman thit 
cries or sella fish. 

FishV, a. consisting of or like fLdi. 

Fissile (fis'sll), a. that can be olefl or 
divided. Flssillty, a the qofility d 
being fissile. Fiasip'arous, a. applied 
to animals which proiianite b^f a spon* 
taneous division of their oodles into two 
or more p«rts. Fis'sii)ed, ck having tht 
toes separated. Fissure, a. a elsn; • 
narrow chasm or opening where abniA 
has been made. 

Fist, 8. the hand clenched or closed: «. li 
strike with the hand clenched. 

FLs'ticuffs, a. a battle with the fists. 

Fis'tula, a. a reed ; a pipe ; a long sfausoai 
pipe-like ulcer. FistuUu*, a. hollow Uks 
a pipe ; relating to a fistula. Flalulita 
V. to become ajpipe or fistula. Flstuloiiii, 
Fistulose, a. uke or of the nature <tf t 

Pit, 8. a sudden and violent attack cf • 
distemper, a convulsion, a parozysmja 
temporal^ afibotion; an intenrsl: ttit 
I>art8 or divisions of a song or poem. 

Fit, a. suitable; prof)er; moot: beeom* 
iiig ; right : v. to suit; to adapt ; to qua- 
lily— Tojtt wt, to equip— To JK f^ to 

Fitch, 8. See Vetch. 

Fit^'h'ew, Fitchet, a. a pole-cat^ 

Fit'tiil, a. varied by sudden impulses. 

Fitly, ad, aptly, properly, suitably, f|fc> 
ness, a. adnptation; sidtablenesa; pie- 
priety. Fitter, a. one who makes fll 
Fitting, p. a, suiting ; suitable : props'. 
Fittingly, ad. suitably ; properly. 

Fits, a. a son (only used in tne compori- 
tion of surnames for iUegitimats oUl* 
dren), as Fitaroy, son of the king. 

Five, a. four and one ; the half of tea. 

Five-barred, a. having five ban. 

Five-fold, a. five times as modi. 

Fives, 8. a game with a balL 

Fix, V. to fasten or make fast ; to nuks 
firm or stable; to adjust; to settle; to 
establish ; to withhold fh>m motion ; to 
deprive of volatility : to lose fluidity ; to 
become firm. Fixable, a. that m^y be 
fixed. Fixa'tion, a. the act of fixing; 
stability. Fix'ed, p. a. made feuit; 
settled; firm; stable; not vcdatllfr— 
Fixed aiVf the old term for earbome add. 
Fixedly, ad. firmly; steadfiustly. Fixed* 
ness, 8. state of being fixed or flzm; 
steadfastness. Fixity. «. ooherenoe of 
parts; fixedness. Fixture, t. eome- 
thing fixed or made fast; any thing fixed 
or attached to a house not tolie re- 
moved. FLxuTQ-^, t. voBitlon; fkrwrntm, 

F\z, 'Flzl^Q, v. \a tc\\!^<^ «k\i\»An%iwasA. 




FlaVbineflOt t. softness; limbemess. 

Flabl^, a. s^ not firm, Umber. 

FlAc'cicU «» limber, not stiff, not tense. 
Flaccidlty, «. laxity, limbemoss. Flac'- 
cidness, t. state of oeing flaccid. 

Flaff, 9. a broad, flat stone : a water plant 
^th a Uaded leaf; a mmtary or naval 
ensign : v. to hang loose ; to droop; to 
grow spiritless or dejected. 

FIsgnTlant (flaj'-X 9, one who whii)S. Fla- 

gellata, V. 

. to whir 

Iporsoourgo. Flagolla'- 

tion, fl. a scourging or flogging. 

Flagedet (flaJ'-X «' a small flute or pipe. 

Vla^gf, a. weak, limber, not tense; in- 
sipid; abounding in flags. 

Flagitious (-jish'ush a. ex&emely wicked; 
a&ooious. Flagitiously, cuZ. m a flagi- 
tious manner. Flagidousncss, ». ex- 
treme wickedness ; atrocity. 

Flag'-officer, m, the commander of a squa- 
dron or part of a fleet of ships. 

Flag'on, «. a large drinking vessel. 

Vlafmaicy, «. bumingheat; a glaring 
onenoe; enormity, flagrant, a. burn- 
ing; glaring, notorious. Flagrantly, ad. 
in a flagrant manner. 

Vlag'-flhip^ ». the admiral's ship. Flag* 
staff JL the staff on which aflag is fixed. 

Tlafl^stone, ». a flat stone for pavement. 

Flafi, s. an instrument for thresbin{?. 

FlakSb *• uiy thing that appears loosely 
put together, like a fiock of wool; a 
scale ; a stratum, a layer, a lamina. 

Hlake, v. to form in flakes or bodies 
IoomIj connected; to break into ]ii- 

Flalcy, a. lying in layers or strata. 

Vlam, 9, a whim, a freak ; an illusory pnv 
text; alEtlsehood. 

Flamibeaa fflamlraX ». a lighted torch. 

Flame, s. light emitted from fire; fire; 
heat: rage; the passion of love; a bo- 
knred one; brightness of fancy: v. to 
■faine as fire, to blaze. Fla'mclcss, a. 
d e ailiu te of fiame. Flaming, p. a. 
iw>iiJji>g a fiame; blazing; flagrant; 
•violent. Flamingly, ad. radiantly; with 
great show. 

FU'men, & a priest of ancient Rome. 

FlamJn'go, 9, a bird of AjlarM colour. 

Flamini3m'ity» *- an aptness to take fire. 

Flam'mable, a. Bee Inflammable. 

Flam'meous, a. consisting of or like flame. 

Tla'my, a. biasing ; burning as a flame. 

nagfl^ s. a raised or nrolecting edge or 
rib on file rim of a wheel 

Flank, «. the side of an animal; the side 
fdvBfVbixig; v. to attack the side of an 
army or fleet; to secure or guard on the 
■ids; to border. Flank'er, «. that which 
flanks : a fbrtiflcation commanding the 
aide of an assailing body : v, to defend 
by flankers. 

Flan'nel, 9. a soft, nappy, woollen doth. 

Flap, 9. any thing that hangs broad and 
loose ; the motum or blow of any thing 
teoad and loose ; the loose part of a coat 
or other jniment: v. to oeat with a 
Oaih «* Jw tare beaten; to ply the 
wmgpf witk a Gapping noise 

Flap'-dragon, 9. a game hi which sweet* 
meats are snatched out of burning 

Flap'-carod, a. having broad and loose ear& 

Flap jack, s. a sort of jMuicake. 

Flap'por, «. one who flaps ; a fan or flap. 

Flare, v. to give a glaring, unsteady light. 

Fla'ring, a. fluttoring, glittering, showy. 

Flore-up, 9. a sudden burst of anger. 

Flash, «. a sudden blaze ; a sudden burst 
of wit or merriment: v. to burst out 
into a sudden flame ; to rise in flashes : 
a. merely for show; not genuine, as 
JUuh notes ; low, vulgar. Flash'ily, ad. 
tn a flashy manner ; with empty show. 
Flashinoss, 9. state or quality of being 
flashy. Flashy, a. dazzling for a mo- 
ment; showy; gaudy; empq^; insipid; 

Flask, 9. a kind of bottle ; a powder-horn. 

Flask'et, 9. a lurge basket ; a kind of tray. 

Flat, 9. a level; a plain; a shallow; a 
mark of depression in music; a broad 
boat: a. smooth, level; depressed; 
spiritless; insipid; vapid; downright; 
peremptory, as &flai refusaL 

Flat-bot'tomcd, a. having a flat bottom. 

Flat-fish, 9. a broad, flat fish. 

Flatly, ad. in a flat manner ; dully ; pe- 
remptorily. Flatness, 9. the state or 
quality of being flat ; evenness ; dulnoss. 
Flatten, v. to make flat ; to depress. 

Flat'ter, v. to praise falsely ; to raise false 
hopes ; to soothe, to dehght. Flattorcr, 
9. a wheedler, a fawner. Flattering, 
p. a. bestowing flattery; obsequious. 
Flatteringly, ad. in a flattering manner. 
Flatteiy, 9. false praise, adulation. 

Flat'tish, a. somewhat flat; dull. 

Flat'ulence, Flatulency, 9. wiudiness in 
the stomach. Flatulent, a. afibctcd 
with air generated in tiie stomach; 
windy; empty; vain. 

Fla'tus, [L.] «. a puff of wind, a breath. 

Flat-wise, dd. with the flat part down. 

Flaunt (flantX v. to throw or spread out 
ostentatiously, as dress; to give one's 
self airs : 9. any thing loose and airy. 
Flaunting, p, a, making a display of 

Fla'vour, Flavor, 9. a peculiar taste 01 
smoU; taste; relish; odour; Scent: v. 
to give a pleasant taste or smell to. 
Flavourless, a. destitute of flavoui>; taste- 
less. Flavourous, a. having a pleasant 

Flaw, 9. a crack, a defect: v. to damage. 

Flawless, a. free from cracks or defects. 

FlaVy, a. full of flaws; defective. 

max, 9. a fibrous plant ; the fibres of 
plants prepared for spinning Flax'- 
dresser, 9, ono who preiiores flax for the 
spinner. Flaxen, a. made of flax; of 
^e colour of flax; &ir. Flaxy, a. 

Flay, V. to strip off the skin. 

Fla/er, 9. one w\io &\3\V& QiQ:>Ctv« iSdocu 

Flea,*, aninaoct. ^eQ\2^'WCit^^Vb. 

Flea'-bite, «. the \>i\A q& «k ^sas w 
spot causoOLby \3Qft\AX«» 




Flea'-bitten, a. stung by fleas; mean. 

Fleam, ». a lance for bleeding cattle. 

Fleck, Fleck'er, v. to streak; to dapple. 

Flec'tion. See Flexion. 

Fled, p. t. and J?, p. of Flee. 

Fledge, v. to flimish with feathers or 
wings. Fledg'ed, p. a. furnished with 
feathers. Fledgling, «. a young bird 
newly fledged. 

Flee, V. to run with rapidity from danger 
or for shelter. 

Fleece, ». the wool from one sheep. 

Fleece, v. to strip or plunder a person. 

Fleeced, p. a. having a fleece ; plundered. 

Flee'cer, b. one who strips or jplunders. 

Flee'cy, a. woolly, covered with wooL 

Fleer, v. to mock, to jest with contempt. 

Fleer, «. a derisive look ; mockery. 

Fleer'er, ». a dcridcr, a mocker. 

Fleet, a. swift of piice, nimble, quick in 
motion : v. to fly or pass swiftly; to be in 
a transient state : «. a companjr of ships, 
a navy. Fleef ing, p. a. passing awav 
rapidly; transitory. Fleetly, ad, v«dth 
fleetness; swiftly. Fleetness, «. swift- 
ness of motion; speed; celerity. 

Flesh, «. the muscular part of the body; 
human nature; carnal appetite: v. to 
initiate or give a taste of; to glut ot 
satiate. Flesh'-brush, «. a brush to 
excite action of the skin bv rubbing. 
Flesh-colour, ». the colour of the flesh. 
Flesh-fly, «. a fly that feeds n-pon flesh. 
Flesh-hook, ». a hook to draw up flesh 
from a pot. Fleshiness, «. fUlness of 
flesh, plumpness. Fleshless, a. without 
flesh; meagre. Fleshliness, ». carnal 
desires or lusts. Fleshly, a, carnal, not 
spiritual. Fleshraeat, «. the flesh of 
animals preparedfor food. Fleshmonger, 
B. one who deals in flesh. Fleshpot, a. 
a pot for cooking fleshmeat. Fleshy, a. 
full of flesh, plump. 

Fletch, V. to feather an arrow. 

Fletch'er, «. a maker of bows and arrows. 

Flctss, Floetz, b. a term in geology. 

Fleur-de-lis, [-lee, Fr. ] b. flower of the lily ; 
in heraldry, an emblem of royalty. 

Flew, the past tense of Fly. 

Flexibil'ity, b, the quality of being flexible ; 
pliancy; easiness to be persuaded. Flcx'- 
ible, a. that maybe bent; easily bent; 
pliuit ; easily turned or managed. Flex- 
ibleness, b. flexibility, flexile, a. flex- 
ible. Flexion, b. the act of bending; a 
turn or bend. Flexor, b. a bending or 
contracting muscle. Flexuous, Flcxu- 
ose, a. bending; winding. Flexure, ». 
a bending; the part bent; a joint. 

Flick'er, v. to move, as the wings, with- 
out flying' to flutter; to fluctuate, as 
flame, flickering, p. a. having a flut- 
tering, unsteady motion: «. a fluttering, 
unsteady motion. 

Flick'ermouse, b. a bat. 

Fli'er, «. one that flies; a nmaway; the 
fly of a machine. 

Flight (flite), b. the act of flying ; a fleeing 
or running away from clanger; a flock 
of birds Gying in company; avolloy, as 

of aiTows; a mountincr c ■oaring: a 
extravagance of fimcy ; thA stairB no& 
one landing-place to another. FUgfatI 
ness, «. state or quality of being fli^ifj. 
Flighty, a. wild; extravagant m fioci; 


FUm'flam, «. a freak, a whim, a Wok. 

Flim'siness, «. state of being flimq^. 
Flimsy, a. weak ; feeble ; ali^^; wixgn- 
ficial; shallow; without force; meaL 

Flindi, V. to shrink or withdraw from. ^ 

FlincVer, «. he who whrinka or ikOi. 

Fling, V. to cast from the hand, to thm; 
to dart; to scatter; to fUnmce: 1.1 
throw ; a gibe ; a sneer. 

FUnt, B. a hard sUidous stone ; a sfeoneia 
striking fire: any thln^ Tei7 hari 
Flint-hearf ed, a. hard-hearteo, end. 
Flint'y, a. made of flint; inezonfah^ 

Flip, B. a drink made of beer, spirtts, Ae. 

Flip'pancy, b. volubility of speech ; loqv- 
city; pertness. 

Flip'pant, a. pert, talkative, loquadona 

Flip'pantly, acK. in a flippant mannw. 

Flip'pantness, «. flippancy ; pertneHb 

Flirt, V. to throw with a Jerk ; to mon 
suddenly, as a fkn; to be unsteady or 
fluttering ; to leer or mock ; to oocpit: 
B. a sudden jerk ; a jeer ; a coqnetn. 

Flirta'tion, b. the act of flirting' ; ooornefaj. 
Flirt'ing, p. a. acting the part of orit- 
sembling a flirt : b. a flirtatian. 

Flit, V. to fly awav, to flutter ; to remoia 

Flitch, B. a side of pork salted and cond. 

Flit'ting, p. a, flying away ; ft>ii^Tifftiw ci 
variable : «. a cnanyng of one's abooBL 

Float ^ote), v. to swim or cause to swia 
on the surface of the wato: ; to mon 
lightly and easily as on the sm^oe of t 
fluid ; to flood or cover with wafev: ti 
convey by floating : «. somethiDg flat 
floats; a raft; the cork or quHl of a 
angler's line. Floaf age, •• any ttta| 
that floats. Floating, n. a. BWunmiBK 
on the surface; buoyant: «. actolbdng 
conveyed by the stream. Floaty, a 

Float'stone, b. a porous variety of flint 

Flocco'se, a. wooUy ; of woolly ajmeamea 

Floc'culence, b. adhesion in smaU looka 

Floc'culent, a. adhering in locks. 

Flock, B. a collection of small ■>«*«»»«<^i«^ ti 
sheep and birds ; a crowd ; a lock, «i of 
wool : V. to assemble in crowds. r\sA- 
bed, B. a bed filled with locks of maL 
Flocl^, a. having flocks or lodks. 

Floe (flo), B. a laige sheet of floating iea 

Flog, V. to lash or scoux^, to chasnaa. 

Flog'ging, B. a whipping for pimisluneot 

Flood (flud), B. the Deluge ; an inundation; 
influx of the tide ; a great quantity: t. 
to overflow, to inundate, to dduge. 
Flood'-gate, b. a gate to oonflne or kt 
cutwater. Flood-mark, a. hlt^-ivst« 

Flook. See Fluke. 

Floor (flore), b. that part of a room on wlsleh 
w« "TTViiUs.*, «b -^\Qia»nn.\ %i Vv««!L wdts of 
TOorcA*. %. V> QiQr?«t '^Mffv%i t^KMR, 'V>»a« 





tag, p, a. used for making floors : t. act 
of making a floor; matariala for a floor; 
a floor or platform. 

Fkrxu, «. the goddeas of flowers ; a cata- 
logue or aoooant of flowers or plants. 

Fk/ral, a. rdating to Flora or to flowers. 

nores'oence, «. a flowering; the season 
iriien plants are in flower. Flo'ret, j; a 
■naU Imperfeot flower. Flor'ioultuze, 
$, the ooltore of flowers. 

Flot^ & covered with flowers ; flushed 
with led ; highly embellished. 

Flor'idl^ad. in a florid manner. Florid- 
neasTnorid'ity, t. flreshnees of colour ; 
showy embellishment. 

FlorLFerous, a. producing flowers. Flor'- 
Uorm, a. in the form of a flower. 

Florin, «. a coin flrst made at Florence, 

Flo'rist; «. one who cultiyates flowers. 

Floa'ctdar, Floeculous, a. composed of 
florets or little flowers. Floscule, «. a 
floret which is part of an aggregate 

Flosa, «. a downy substance on some 
plants. Floas'-suk, e. silk in a flosi^ 
state. Flossyi a. downy ; covered with 

Fl0*ta» t. a fleet of Spanish ships. 

Vlotue. Bee Floatage. 

Fliwtian, t. the act of floating. 

Flot01a» a a fleet of small vessels. 

Flofaam, Floatsam, t. goods found flocainff 
wheB a ship is sunk. See Jetsam. 

Flounoep a a loose fuU trimming sewed to a 
woman's apparel ; a dash in the water: 
«. to dedc with flowers ; to move away 
^vlth a throwing motion of the body and 
Umba, and with anger. 

Floan'der, «. to strugRlo as a horse in the 
mire; to proceed with difficulty. Floun- 
dov *• * small flat fish. 

Floor, «. Ibe fine part of ground wheat. 

FlODr, «L to sprinkle with floiur. 

Flmnuh (flur'ishX v. to thrive as a healthy 
vla&t; to be x>ro8perous; to brandish; 
lo brag or boast ; to embellish : «. dis- 
plaj; ostentatious embellishment; a 
ahOTB musical overture. Flourishing, 
9. a. thriving; prosperous. Flourish- 
vofAjf ad. with flourishes ; prosxMirously. 

FltoWk *<• to sneer at : g. mockery ; show 
of ccntsmptb Flout'or, t. one who 
mocks or Jeers. Floutingly, ad. with 
Jeen ; Insultingly. 

Flow, V. to run as water ; to rise as the tide : 
to overflow : s. the rise of water opposed 
to the ebb : a sudden abimdance. 

Flower (floa'er), ». the blossom of a plant : 
the best, finest, or most valuable part 
of any thing, as the prime of life : v. to 
be ^flower, to blobsom ; to be in prime. 
Flower-de-luce. See Fleur-de-lis. Flow- 
eret, M. a small flower. Flowering, «. 
act of blossoming; bloom: p. a. pro- 
ducing flowers ; blossoming. Flowori- 
ness, 9. an abounding with flowers; 
florid language. Flowerless, a. having 
no flowers. Floweiy, a. full of flowers ; 
adorned witb iSowera, real or fictitious ; 
anuuamitod; florid. 

FloVing (flo-), p. a. moving as water; 
moving on smoothly; fluent; co|^ous: 
«. the flow or rising of water. Flow- 
ingly, ad. fluently; copiously. Flow- 
ingness, ». fluency of diction. 

Flown, the past pairticlple of Fly. 

Flu'ate, «. a salt f ormea trora fluoric add 
and a base. 

Fluc'tuato, V. to waver or move like a 
wave ; to be wavering or unsteady * to 
be irresolute; to vacillute. Fluctuatmg, 
p. a. wavering; changing; unsteady. 
Fluctua'tion, ». act of fluctuating; a 
waving motion ; tmsteadiness. 

Flue (flu), B. a pipe or tube of a chimney. 

Flue (flu), *. sort fiur or down. 

Flu'ency, «. the quality of flowing; 
smoothness of sx)eech; copiousness of 
language. Fluent, a. flowing; voluble; 
copious : «. a stnoam ; in fluxions, a va- 
riable quantity. Fluently, ad. in 9, 
fluent manner. 

Flu'id, s. any thing that flows ; a liquid : 
a. running or flowing, as water, not 
solid. Fluidity, s. the quality of being 
fluid. Flu'idness, ». fluidity. 

Fluke, «. a floimder or flat fish ; the broad 
part or arm of an anchor. 

Fliun'mery, «. a kind of food made of 
wheat-flour or oatmeal ; flattery. 

Flung, p. t, and p. p. of Flin<^. 

Fluxi^y, «. a Scotch term for a servant ; 
a servile flatterer. Flimkyism, «. ser^i 
viUty, sycophancy. 

Flu'or, «. a fluid state ; a fluate of lime, 
usually called fivMr-epar. Fluor'ic, o. 
pertaining to fluor. Flu'oilne, «. the 
base of fluoric acid. 

Flur'xy, «. a sudden gust or blast of wind ; 
a flutter of spirits ; a bustle : v. to agi- 
tate or con{\ise. 

Flush, V. to flow suddenly; to redden, to 
glow; to elate or elevate: ». a sudden 
flow, as of blood to the face; glow; bloom ; 
freshness ; abimdance : a. fresh ; full of 
vigour ; abounding ; even or level with. 

Flush'-dcck, s. in a snip, a deck without 
a half-deck or forecastle. 

Flush'ed, a. heated; elated. Flushing, «. 
a glow in the face. 

Flus'ter, v. to htirry; to be in a bustle : 
B. huxry, confusiiion. 

Flute, B. a musical pipe ; a channel or fiir- 
row cut in columns or pillars : v. to cut 
channels in columns. Flu'ted, a. hav- 
ing channels cut on the surface. Flu- 
ting, B. fluted work on a pillar, Ac. 

Flu'tist, B. a i)erformer on a flute. 

Flut'ter, V. to move or flap the wings 
without flying, or with snort flights; 
to move about with show and buistle ; 
to throw into confusion ; to agitate ; to 
pant ; to palpitate : ». hurry ; disorder 
of mind ; confusion. Fluttering, p. a. 
flapping the wings; agitatmg: ». flap- 
ping of the wings ; agitation. 

Flu'vial, Fluviatue, a. b^VoQiiiJkn^ est t^ 
lating to rWera. 

Flux, «. the tVdo oit ^cpwrtsi^t < A^bftia >i\ 




Fhixa'tion, «. tho act of possiiig uway. 

Fluzibil'ity, t. aptnees to flow or spread. 

Flux'iblo, a. not durable, changing. 

Fluxillty, t. capability of 1;>eing fused. 

Flux'ion, t. the act of flowing; the matter 
that flowi. Fluxions, vl, the analysis of 
infinitely small ▼ariaDle quantities. 

Flux'ionaiy, Fluxional, a. pertaining to 
mathematical fluxions. 

Fly, V. to more with wings ; to move nr 
pidly; to pass away swiftly; to run 
away from ; to shun or avoid ; to break 
or burst asunder; to shiver; to cause 
to float in the air : «. a small insect with 
transparent wings; a contrivance to 
equalize or regulate motion in a ma- 
chine; a light carriage. Fly'-blow, v. to 
taint with fly-blows or maggots: «. the 
egg of a fly. 

Fly boat, «. a light, quick vesfieL 

Fly'catcher, «. a catcher of flies ; a bird. 

Fly'fish, V. to angle with flies for bait. 

Fly'flap, «. a flapper to keep flies 08". 

Fly'ing-bridge, «. a brio^ of boats. 

Fly'ing-flsh, $. a small flah which springn 
out of the water bv means of its nns. 

Foal, «. tho young of a mare or ass : v. to 
bring forth a fcH9tL 

Foam, V. to froth; to be in a rage: jl froth, 
spume. Foam'y, a. covered with foam, 

Fob, «. a small pocket for a watch. 

Fob, V. to trick, to cheat, to defraud. 

Fo'cal, a. belonging to the focus. 

Fo'cHe, t. the bone between tho knee nnd 
ankle, or between the elbow and wrist. 

Fo'cufl, fli.] «. a hearth ; a point where rays 
of light meet; a point of convergence: 
pi. Foci, and Focuses. 

Vod'dor, 9. dxT food for cattle : v. to feed. 

Fod'derer, «. no who fodders cattle. 

Foe (fo), t. an enemy in war; an adver- 
saxy ; an opponent. Foelike, a. like an 
enemy. Foemon, t. an enemy in war, 

''an antagonist. 

Fce'tal, a. pertaining to a foetus. 

Fce'tus, Fetus, i. a child in embryo. 

Fog, s. thick mist ; moist vapour. 

Fog'gy, a. misty, cloudy, dark, dull. 

Fo'gy, «. a stickler for old things; one 
opposed to prop-ess. 

Foh 1 int. an exclamation of contempt. 

Foil^le, t. a moral weakness, a failing. 
See this word, p. 55. 

Foil, V. to defeat; to put to the worst: 
t. a defeat ; a bhmt sword used in fen- 
cing ; a thin leaf of metal ; something of 
another colour placed near a jewel to 
increase its lustre; any thing which 
serves to set ofi" something else. Foil'er, 
i. one who foils or frustrates. 

Foil'ing, t. a track of deer barely visible. 

Foin, V. to thrust, to push : i. a thrust. 

Foi'sonf, t. plenty, abundance. 

Foist, V. to insert by forgery ; to cram in. 

Foisf er, «. he who foists; a telsifler. 

Fold, V. to double up; to enclosa See 
this word, p. 55. Folder, t. one wlio 
or that which folds. Folding, 9 tUo act 
of doubling up; a doubling. 

Folia'oeoua (-ahusX a> Isaij; oontlattngcl 
leaves or taminm. Follag«^ a. Immt d 
trees; a cluster of leaven 

Foliate, V. to beat into Imkvm or tfaiB 
plates : a. fbliated. Foliated, j». m,tima&i 
ukeleaves; consint,ing o< leavea. VoUii'- 
tion, M. the act of fhnaMng: ilui kafiiif 
of plants; thedispoaitio&caleeiTMifiilifa 
the bud. Folianire, a. the state ofbdM 
beaten to f oiL FoUer, «. a a€ldnai&n 

Fo'lio, t. (a U^fX a larse book, fhe pi|« 
of which are xormed liy a oheet of vnti 
once doubled; the lert and rlfl^t nod 
pages of an account book when the tm 
are numbered by the same flgnm: a. 
denoting a folio volume. 

Folk (fokoX «. people in genenL lUk- 
land, a. oopyhola land. Folk-Ion, a 
learning or knowledge for the peoDiiL 
Folk-mote, «. a meetmg of the peopUL 

Follicle, i. a little bag ; a seed veeHei. 

Follow, V. to go or come after; to panne; 
to attend as a dependent ; to miitrtB; 
to obey. Follower, i. one who foUom; 
a retainer; a partisan; a dladple. Fol- 
lowing, p. a. going after; anooeeding: 
8. a retinue. 

Folly, 8. weakness of undentaadiiy; 
foolish conduct; a ahameftil deed; di- 

Foment^ v. to cherish with hoa^; li 
bathe with warm lotions ; to enoounga 
to abet. Fomenta'tion, «. the aolaf 
fomenting; a warm lotion ; inatifiatka. 
Fomon'ter, «. an enoouraeer, aaaoettoK 

Fond, a. indulgent; fooUohly tandw: 
foolish; loving; relishing highly. Vca- 
die, V. to treat f ondlv ; to careaa. Fkud'- 
ler, 8. one who fondles. FomdUag; a. a 
caressing: «. a person or thing ftmfflti 
Fondly, od. in a fond manner. Vond* 
ness, 8. afiection ; love ; fooUslmfln, 

Font, 8. a baptismal basin ; aoomi^ataMl 
of printing types of one aixe. 

Font'al, a. pertaining to a fount or aoana 

Fon'tanel, 8. a little font for diaehaigliv 
hizmours ; an issue in the body. 

Food, 8. victuals ; any thing that mxpgOm 
nutriment; sustenance. 

Foodless, a. not affording food ; faarran. 

Fool, «. one destitute of reason ; aa Idiot; 
one who acta absurdly; a term of n- 
preach; a buffoon: v. to trifle; to tor; 
to befool or make a fool of a perMnTio 
disappoint or deceive. Foorery; $, the 
practice of foUy; anabeordity. IrcMJiDg^ 
8. the act of playing the toa^^-To piaa 
the focHf to act like a fboL Foolhai'di* 
ness, 8, courage without aenae. Foof- 
hardv, a. foolishly bold or dariM; 
Foolish, a. weak of mtoUeet; impnidn^ 
silly ; sinful. Foolishly, ad. in a fooUih 
manner. Foolishness, «. weakneas of 
intellect; folly; abauxditiy; iimplmmai 
Fools'cap, 8. the cap of a fool; a nnd of 

Fool'-trap, 8. a tmp to catch fbola. 

. ¥00t, K- fea.^ CB\.'W^\iAviav^ mAw>4I gy ^Mm 




InohM; « meMRxre in poetry : V. to dance, 
to walk, to treed; tonmnL 

FooilMai, «. « lane inflated ball used in a 
rural fljeme; the game of kioking the 
f ooibaiL Footboard, <. a sappon for 
ttM fiNit Footbov, «. an errand boy; 
a aervanl Footfatldge, t, a narrow 
bridge for foot-paeeengen. Footed, a. 
■hafped, aa to the feet: haTing feet 
Fom-goardi, «. pL guarda of ixuantry. 
Foottii&t. ground (or the foot; eapport; 
foundaBon, baaia; making gooa an 
entanmoe ; eettlement : state, condition. 
Footman, «. a servant who attends on 
footb Footpace, t. a slow pace, as in 
walking. Footpad, t. one who robs on 
totUt, roo^xith, «. a narrow way for 
paaeengenL Footsoldier, a. a soldier 
that aerres on foot Foot'stalk (-stawki 
a. the stMn of a leat Footstall (-stawlX 
«. a woman's stirrup. 

Floof stepw 8. a track, a mark of a foot 

Footstool, t. a stool to put the feet on. 

Fopu t. a man fond of drees; a vain, silly 
xulow; a ooxoomh. Fopling, «. a yoimg 
er potty fop. Foppery, t. the dress or 
manners of a fop. Foppish, a. vain in 
draae or manners. Foppishly, ad. in a 
foppish manner. Foppishness, «. fop- 
pun drees or manners. 

For, fr^» because of; on account of; in 
planm; withregardto; toward; during: 
sei|i beoaose; on this account that; pro- 
perly, /br tAot 

Fiorage^ •• food for horses or cattle; pro- 
▼isiana in general: v. to rove or wander 
In aeareh of forage or provisions; to 
■poll or plunder. Foragor, «. one who 
fwaoea. Fwaging, «. the act of search- 
ing for fbrage or provisions: p. a. col- 
laeting forage. 

Fonmluona, a. fiill of holes; porous. 

Fonamnoh', coni. because so far. 

Fafkaj, a. a sudden piUaging incursion. 

Fotbade (-bad'), the past tense of Forbid. 

Forbaai'. v. to oease from any thing ; to 
stop; to abstain; to be patient; to ab- 
•tam IJrom; to av(M voluntarily; to 
dscUne: to omit; to spore; to with- 
hold. Fbrbearance, a. the act of for- 
bearing; eommand of temper; exercise 
of patlHieeu Forbearing, «. a ceasing; 
loDiMiifMng: p. a. patient; lenient. 

Forbia'. topnmibit, to interdict; to com- 
mana not to enter; to opi>ose; to hin- 
der. Forbidden, p. a. prohibited ; un- 
lawfuL Forbidding, p. a. nrohibitiuflr ; 
repelling approach; repuhave; of dis- 
■groeabto aspect 

Forbore, the past tense of Forbear. 

FAroe. «, strength, vigour, might, energy, 
power; violence, compulsion; virtue, 
efficacy, validity; an armament; neces- 
sity: V. to impel forward; to compel 
flitner by phyncal or moral power; to 
taka by vulenoe, to storm; to violate 
by foroe; to cause to ripen before the 
natural time, aa fruit Forc^ v. to 
foree or ataff; whanoe ForcetnaaJt^ meat 
tftaAd»tt&faiioiwioigi«dieDt8. Forced, 

0.0. constrained; not natural; affected. 
Forcedness, s. state of being forced* 
Forceful, a. violent, strong, impetuous. 
Forcefully, ad. viol ontlv, impetuously. 
Forceless, a. having little force; feeble. 

For'oeps, [L.] «. a pair of pincers. 

F6rcer, s. that whieh forces or eonstralna. 
Forcible, a. strong, impetuous, power- 
ful Forciblenoss, s. force, violence. 
Forcibly, ad, with violence; powerfully. 
Forcing, p. a. compelling ; using force : 
«. the rsising of plants by artificial heat 

FOrcing-pump, f. a pump which foroee or 
raises water by mrect pressure of the 

For'cipated, a. formed like pincers. 

F6rd, a. a shallow part of a river: v. to 
I>as8 a river without swimming. 

F<nxi'able, a. passable without swimming. 

Fore, a. anterior: ad. before. See ^ii 
word under First, p. 55. 

Fore-arm', v. to arm beforehand. 

FOre-arm, a. the part of the arm from the 
wrist to the elbow. 

Forebo'de, v. to foretel, to prognosticate, 
—generally something evil. Forebode- 
ment, a. a presaging. Foreboder, «. one 
who forebodes; a prognusticator. Fore- 
boding, a. a prognostication of evil. 

Fo'rebrace, «. a roiM at the yard-arm. 

Fo'recast, a. previous thouf^ht or contriv- 
ance. Forecast', v. to plan or contrive 
beforehand; to foresee. 

Fo'rccastie, a. the foredeck of a ship. 

Forocho'sen, p. a. pre-clected. 

Foreclo'se, v. to shut out; to preclude ; to 
cut off the power of redeeming a mort- 
gage. Foreclosure, a. the act of fore- 
closing ; a shutting out 

Foroda'te, v. to anteoato. 

Fo'redeck, a. the anterior part of a ship. 

Foredetei^mlne, v. to predetermine. 

Foredoom', v. to predestinate. 

Fo'redoor, a. a door in front of a house. 

Fo're-ond, a. tho end that is forward. 

Fo'refather, a. an anccHtor. 

Fo'refinger, a. the fiii|,'or next the thumb 

Fo'refoot, a. the front i'uot of a quadruped. 

Fo'refront, a. the foremost port. 

Fo'regame, a. the first part uf the gamo. 

Forego', V. (to go before; to go before 
taking possession of), to give up; to 
resign. Foregone (-gon), p. a. gono by; 
settled before. Forego'ing, p. a. pre- 
ceding ; antecedent, previous. 

Fo'reground, a. that part of a picture 
which seems to lie nearest to tho eye or 
before the figures. 

Fo'rohand, a. that part of a horse which 
is before tho rider's hand : a. done 
sooner than is regular. Forehanded, a. 
early, timely ; formed in tho foro parts. 

Forehead (f orbed), a. tiie IVont part of tho 
head or upper part of the face. 

Foreign (for'en), a. not domestic; out* 
landish ; alien ; extraneous ; not to the 
purpose. Foreiguer, s. ii tv«.^^« qR. «abf> 
other country. VoTiAv;cm«aa, ». *jrtA<*. 
being foreign; Tem(A«u«»\ ^mA^'«»» 




Foreludge (-juj'), v. to judge beforehand. 

Foreknow', v. to know before or previ- 
ously; to foresee. Foreknowable, a. 
that may be foreknown. 

Foreknowledge f-norej), «. jirescience or s 
knowledge of mture events ; the know- 
ledge of all that will happen. 

Fo'reumd, «. a promontory or headland. 

Forelajr', v. to lay wait for, to entrap. 

Fo'relock, t. the hair on the foreheacL 

Forelook', v. to see beforehand. 

Fo'reman, t. the first or chief person. 

Fo'remast, ». the front mast of a ship. 

Foremen'iioned, a. mentioned before. 

Fo'rcmost, a. first in place or dignity. 

Fo'renamod, a. nominated before. 

Fo'renoon, «. the time before mid-day. 

Foren'aic, a. relating to, or used in courts 
of justice. 

Foreordain', v. to ordain beforehand. 

Fo'rcpart, «. the anterior port. 

Fo'renmk. ». the first rank, the front. 

Forenm'ner, s. one sent before; a har- 
binger ; a precursor ; a prognostic. 

Fo'rosail, «. the sail of the foremast. 

Foresay', v. to predict, to i>rophe8y. 

Forcsa/ing, s. a prediction. 

Forcsi e', v. to see beforehand ; to divine. 

Foreseen', p. a. seen beforehand; antici- 

Foreshad'ow, v. to typify beforehand. 

Foreshad'owing, s. a shadowing beforehand. 

Foreshor'ten, v. in painting, to shorten 
fiprures in accordance with a view taken 
of them in front, or nearly so ; to shorten 
in order to show the figures behind. 

Foreshor'tening, s. act of shortening in 
front ; state of being foreshortened. 

Foreshow', v. to show beforehand. 

Fo'reshrouds, s. shrouds of the foremast. 

Fo'reside, «. the frontside. 

Fo'resight (-site), «. a seeing beforehand; 
I)enetration ; provident care ; forecast. 

Fo'reskin, «. the prepuce. 

For'est, ». a wild uncultivated tract of 
ground, covered with wood : a. sylvan. 

Forestal' (-stawl), v. to buy up goods or 
cattle before they come to market, in 
order to sell them at an advanced price ; 
to anticipate. See this word, p. 55. 

Forestall'er, «. one who forestals. Fore- 
stalling, fl. the act of one who forestals. 

For'ester, «. a keeper of a forest ; an inhab- 
itant of a forest. Forcstago, s. an ancient 
service paid by foresters to the king; the 
right of forc.-ters. 

Foreta'ste, v. to taste before ; to have pre- 
vious enjoyment or experience of some- 
thing. Fo'retaste, «. a taste before; 

Foreteach', v. to teach beforehand. 

Foretel', v. to predict ; to prophesy. Fore- 
teller, 8. onH who foretels. Foretelling, 
8. act of predicting ; a prediction. 

Forethink , v. to anticipate in the mind. 

Fo'rethought (-thot), s. a thinking before- 
hand; premeditation; anticipation; pro- 
vident core ; forecast. 

Foreto'ken, v. to foreshow : t. an omen. 
Fo'ntQld, the p. t. and p. p. of Forotel. 


Fo'retooth, «. one of the finont toeih. 

Fo'retop, 8. the top nait in ttcnt, m of a 
head-dress; the putfimn at the head of 
the foremast. 

Forev'er, ad. at all tlmee ; to etemlly. 

Forewarn', v. to admooidi beComiluaid, li 
give caution against Forwaming, $, 
previous admonition or caution. 

Forfeit (f or'fitX 9. a penally for an offimce; 
a fine : v. to lose bv aome oflianoe : c 
forfeited. Foxfeitable, a. that mar bi 
forfeited. Forfeiture, a. the act of to> 
feiting; the thing forfeited; a penalty; 
a forfeit. 

Forfend', v. to prevent, to fozUd. 

For'fex, |L.1 «. a pair of sciaaora. 

Forge, 8. a nre or place in -which mafadi 
are made malleable ; a fUmace : «. to 
form or beat into shape by the hammer; 
to coimterfeit, to falsify. Foi^ged (f&ridg^ 
p. a. formed by the hammer; ooumar 
feited. Fo'rger, 8. one -who targaB or 
coimterfeits. Foivery, a. the aot cr 
crime of counterfeiting; that whieh k 
forged or counterfeited. 

Forgef, V. to lose memory of ; to nefflaei 

Forget'fiil, a. apt to forget ; unmincOmL 

Forget'frilness, s. loss of memory; Tiifglwii 

Forget'tef , 8. one that foiigeta. 

Forgof , the past tense of Foraet 1» 
gotten, the past participle of Forget* 

Forgive (for-givO> v. to pardon ; to ramlti 
as a debt, ■penalty or offenoe ; to exeoM, 
Forgiveness, «. the act of foigtrloK; 
pardon; disposition to forgive. For 
giving, V- <>• diBX)osed to foigive; mer* 
ciful. Forgivingneae, 8. a f orgiiiag dh* 
position or act. 

Fork, 8. an instrument with two or mon 
prongs for domestic usee, Ac.: a. to 
shoot into blades or branohea ; to dlvidt 
into two ; to pitch with a foric, aa hiv. 
Fork'ed, p. a. raised with a forkjdk 
vided into prongs or branchea. Foind- 
ness, 8. the quality of being fknked. 
Forky, a. forked; opening into two 
parts or branches. 

Forldm', a. forsaken; lost; wretched. 
Forlorn-hope, 8. a body of troopa Miit 
on a desperate duty at a cdeMro ; a dee- 
Derate or hazardous enterpnae. For 
lomness, 8. a forsaken, wretched etats. 

Fdrm, 8. shape, figure; beauty, order, 
stated method ; empty show, ceremony: 
V. to fashion, to model, to arrange. 

F5rm, «. a long seat in a school; a daee; 
the bed or seat of a hare. 

For'mal, a. ceremonious, afiboted, metho* 
dical, observant of form. FormaUem, 
8. quality of being formal; formality. 
For'raaUst, 8. a lover of formality. Vot- 
mal'ity, «. ceremony, predseneaa. Fan'* 
molize, v. to affect formality. PunnaUyi 
ad. according to rule, predaely. 

Forma'tion, 8. the act of fbrming: tta 
manner in which a thing is tbrmed. 

For'mative, a. giving form; plastio 

For'mer, a. berore auotiier in time ; piiL 

Yorm'er, «. onA'<nYvo tvcma, VbTDafiuK. 

Vot* taQT\7, cud,. «X %iVsraM(c \iBBA\ «lt <3A. 




Vonn'ftil, a. creatiTO, ImaginatiTe. 

FoRnica'tian, «. a Benflataon, as of ants 
creeping over the skin. 

Foor'midable, a. temble, dreadful, teirific. 

Vbi^idableneaSy «. quality of exciting 
texTor or dread; the thing causing 

For'midably, ad. in a formidable manner. 

FormlesB, a. having no form, shapeless. 

For^ula^ «. a presmbed form or rule. 

Voi^mialary, «. a book of stated forms. 

For'nicate, v. to commit lewdness. For- 
nlca'tion, t. lewdness, incontinence. 
ForUcator, t. one that commits fornica- 
tion. FoniicatrMS, «. an unchaste wo- 

Fonray't. See Foray. 

Forsance, v. to quit entirely ; to abandon ; 
to renounce. Forsaken, p. a. deserted; 
xenounced. Forsook, the p. t. of For- 
■ake. See this word, p. 55. 

Foonooth', ad. in truth, certainly. 

Forswear', v. to renoimce upon oath; to 
swear falsely; to commit peijury. 

Fonwear'er, t. one who forswears. 

FOrt, t. a fortified building ; a castle. 

Forte^ a. a peculiar &culty or talent. 

Forte^ [lor'td, It.] ad, a direction, in music, 
to sing or play with force of tone. 

Fo^rted, a. guarded bv or having forts. 

FQrUi, ad. nnrward, abroad, out of doors. 

Forthoom'ing, a. ready to appear. 

Forthwith', ad. immediately; directly. 

Fortieth, a. the tenth taken four times. 

For'tiflable, a. that may be fortified. 

Fortifioa'tion, «. the science of military 
architecture; a place built for strength. 

Fbi^tifier. «. one wno fortifies. Fortify, v. 
to erect works to defend; to strengthen; 
to encourage. 

Fortis'stmo, [It.] ad. very loudly. 

Fbr'titode, i. that strength or firmness of 
mind which enables a person to meet 
danger with courage, or to bear pain or 
adversity without murmuring or de- 

Fornilght Bee this word, p. 65. 

Fof' tr e su , t. a stronghold, a fortified place. 

Forta'itous, a. happening by chance ; com- 
ing unexpectedly or without a known 
oanae; accidental; incidental. Fortu- 
ItODBly, ad. in a fortuitous manner; 
oasaally. Fortuitousness, s. the quality 
of being fortuitous. Fortuity, «. chance; 

For'tunate* a. lucky, successful, happy. 

For'tunately, ad. happily, prosperously. 

For'tune, *. in mythology, the goddess 
that distributed the lots of life; the 
good or ill that befalls man; chance; 
fuck; success; prosx)erity; wealth; 
estate; a marriage portion: v. to befall 
or happen by chiuice. 

For'tuxie-hunter, «. a man who seeks to 
marry a woman oiUy for her fortune. 

For'tuxustellOT, i. one who pretends to 
foretel the future events of one's life. 
Fortime-teUiz^, s. the act of foretolling 

For'tjr, a. four tita&s text. 

I ♦> 

Fo'rum, «. a public place in Bome where 
causes were tried; a tribunal or court. 

For'ward, a. being in fi:tmt or before ; ad- 
vanced; ready; eager; bold; presiunp* 
tuous; immodest; early ripe: v. to ad- 
vance or promote; to hasten; to send 
forward, as goods: ad. towards what is 
before; onward; progressively. Por- 
wardly, ad. eagerly; promptly; boldly; 
immodestly. Forwardness, s. state of 
being forward; eagerness; quickness; 
early ripeness; want of modesty. For- 
wards, ad. forward. See this word, p. 55. 

Fosse, s. a ditch, moat, or entrenchment. 

Fos'sU, a. dug out of the earth, — ^but re- 
stricted to oi-ganio remains foimd in 
geological formations; as fossil shells, 
bones, and petrified plants: t. one of 
these remains. Fossuif'erous, a. pro- 
ducing or containing fossils. Fos'silist, 
8. one versed in the knowledge of fossils. 
Fossilize, v. to change into a fossil; to 
be changed into a fossil. 

Fos'ter, v. to nurse; to feed; to cherish; 
to sustain. Fosterage, «. the charge for 
nursing a child. Foster-child, s. a child 
nursed or bred by a man or woman who 
is not the parent. Foster-earth, a. earth 
by which a plant is nourished, though 
not its native soil. Fosterer, «. a nurse : 
an encourager. Foster-fkther, «. he that 
rears the child of another. Fostering, 
p. a. cherishing or encoiiraging: «. the 
act of cherishing. Fosterling, s. a foster- 
child. Foster-mother, «. a woman that 
suckles the child of another. 

Fdth'er, s. a load, generally of lead. Fo- 
ther, V. to stop a leak in a ship by a sail, 
or by oakxun. 

Fought (fot), the p. t. and p. p. of Fight. 

Foul, a. not clean, dirty; filthy; impure; 
polluted; wicked; detestible; unfair 
or dishonest, as foul play ; not fair or 
favourable, as /otU weather; contrary 
to, as a, fend wmd: v. to make foul or 
filthy; to pollute — ^To be foul of^ to be- 
come entangled with — ^To fall fovi off 
to fall upon or attack coarsely. Foully, 
ad. in a foul manner ; unfairly. Foul- 
mouthed, a. scurrilous, abusive. Foul- 
ness, ». state or quality of being foul; 
filthiness ; unfairness. Foul-si)oken, a. 
using coarse and slanderous language. 

Foumjurt (f oo'-), 8. a ferret ; a polecat. 

Found, the p. t. and p. p. of Find. Foimd, 
V. to lay the basis of any building or in- 
stitution ; to build ; to establish. Found, 
V. to form by melting and casting into 
moulds; to cast, as metals. Founda'- 
tion, a. the basis of an edifice ; the basis 
or groundwork of any thing; the ori- 
ginal endowment. Found'er, a. one who 
founds or establishes : v. to grow lame, 
as a horse; to trip; to fall; to sink to 
the bottom, as a ship. Found'ery, Foxm- 
dry, «. the art of casting metals ; a place 
for casting metals. 

Found'ling, s. adQ8«t\AA\Biw&». 
Found'resa, 8. ai>NQiman\JanfctoaiStf»\ 
or eatabAisYi^B an^ \2G&a^, 




Vonn'tain (-tinX Fount, t. a spring or well 
of water; a jot or spout of water; the 
source or firat sprin;; of a river; an ori- 
gin or first cause. Fountain-head (-hcdX 
t. tiie original or i)rimar7 source. 

Four (fore), o. twice two. 

Fourcnette, [foor-sbajrt, Fr.] s. a fork. 

F(iur'-comei«d, a. having four comers. 

Four'fold, a. four times as many. 

Four'-footud, a. having four feet. 

Four'-lcggod, a. having four legs. 

Foiu-'BCore, a, four times twenty ; oigh^. 

Foui'^tecn, a. toxir and teiL Fourteenth, 
the ordinal of fourteen. Fourth, a. the 
ordinal of four. Fourthly, ad. in the 
fourth place. 

Four'-wheoled, a. having four wheels. 

Fowl, 8. a winged animal, a bird : v. to 
kill birds for food or game. Fowt'er, «. 
a sportsman ; a bird-catoher. Fowling, 
s. tno act of shooting birds. Fowling- 
piece, <. a gun for shootinor birds. 

Fox, s. an animal of the dog kind, re- 
markable for c\mning; a cunning per- 
son. Fox'chase, «. p\u*suit of a fox with 
hounds. Foxglove, «. a plant, the digi- 
talis. Foxhound, «. a hound for chasing 
foxes. FoxhimtOT, ». ono who hunts 
foxes. Foxish, a. cunning, artful ; like 
a fox. Foxliko, a. resembling a fox; 
wily. Foxtail, ». a ^lont; a si>ocies of 
gross. Foxtrap, a. a gin or snare to catch 
foxes. Foxy, a. belonging to a fox; 
wily as a fox ; reddish brown. 

Fracas, [fra-cah, Fr.] g. a noisy quarrel. 

Frac'tion, s. the act of breaking ; the state 
of being broken ; a broken i)£u-t of an 
integrolor whole number ; a very small 
piece or part of a whole. 

Frao'tional, a. belonging to a fraction. 

Frac'tionory, a. -portainrng to fhictions. 

Frac'tious, a. cross, peevish, quarrelsome. 

Frac'tiousnesa, a. crossness, x>eevishnes8. 

Frac'ture, v. to break, particuLurly a bono: 
8. a breach or break ; a broken bone. 

Fragile (f raj 'il), o. brittle; easily broken; 
weak. FragU'ity, «. brittleness, weak- 
ness, frailty. 

Frog'mont, 8. a part broken off; a piece. 

Frag'mentary, a. composed of fragments. 

Fra'gor, «. a noise, a crack, a crash. 

Fra'grance, Fragrancy, «. sweetness of 
smell; erateful odour; pleasant scent. 
Fragrant, a. odorous, sweet of smell. 
Fragrantly, ad. with sweet scent 

Frail, «. a basket made of rushes. Frail, 
a. weak, infirm; easilylod astray; liable 
to error or seduction. Frail'ness, «. weak- 
ness; infirmity. Frailty, 8. wellness; 
a fault proceeding from weakness; a 

Frame, v. to form, to fabricate, to com- 
pose ; to regulate ; to contrive, to invent : 
M. a structure composed of parts imited ; 
a fabric ; any kiaa of case for admitting 
or enclosing things; a stand or struc- 
ture for supporting things; construc- 
tion; arrangement; order; temper; 
temi>eramcnt. Fra'mor, 8. one who 
fnuzias or makes. Fnuno-work, t. the 

frame; that which sappotti or •ncila)<Y 
any thing else. 

Franc, 8. a Fronch bOtw ooln. 

Franchise (fran'chisi v. to rnaka teao; to 
enfhmchise: i. freedom; Iznmimity; 
privilege; a right to vote at eleetloiis.'chiscment. Bee Enfranchlaoment 

FranolB'can, t. a moiUc of the order of 8t 
FrandB*. a. relating to the Franoiaoaiis, 

Frangibirity, 8. qualitv- of being faa^Sbk, 
Fron'gible, a. easily broken, tnffia, 
brittla FranglblfliDeaa, a. state of beiai 

Frank, a. free; liberal ; open, oandid; li' 
genuous; not reserved: «. a letter Am 
of postage; a writing which eauanj/ltt 
from postage ; originially, a native cf 
France, but applied hy tho Turki and 
other Asiatics to Europeans genenQy 
(from the time of the Crundeel Frank, 
V. to make free; to exempt nom nj- 
mcnt. Frankly, ad. freely; candluj. 
Frankness, s. plainness of speiech ; OMfr 
ncss of manner ; candour. Franklmii 
the old word for a freeholder or rnuHk 

FRink'incense, «. a gum resin which, wImi 
burned or heated, gives out fmi^ m 
liberally a rich porfumae. 

Frtm'tic, a. mad, distracted, fazloof. 
Frantidy, ad. madly, Airiously. Awf. 
ticness, 8. madness, distractian. 


Frater'nally, acK. in a brotherly wiMiw^p, 

Frator'uity, s. a brotherhood; a aooiety. 

Frutemiza'tion, «. act of fratemialng. 

Frat'emize, v. to assodate as brothen^ 

Fratricide, s. the murder of a brother; OM 
who murders his brother. 

Fraud, t. deceit in contracts; flhftatfi^; 
guile ; trick ; artifice ; Impnaftiai. 
Fraud'flil, a. fhiudulent. FraodMlj; 
ad. fraudulently. Fraudulenoe, Frani- 
ulencv, 8. decdtfulness ; fraud; roffoeiy. 
Fraudulent, a. decdtAil in oon&aots; 
dishonest; founded on fraud; irldcy, 
treacherous. Fraudulently, ad. In a 
fraudulent manner ; by fraud. 

Fraught (frawtX a. loaded; full; replMieL 

Fray, s. a broil, a battle : v. t to frighten. 

Fray, v. to rub, to wear, to ftet: t. a mb 
or chafe in doth. 

Freak, «. a sudden and causeless ehaaga 
of mind; a sudden fancy; a whim; a 
caprice. Freak'ish, a. wnimsical; mfi- 
ricious. Freakishly, ad. whinudoally; 
capridously. Freakishness, «. whimsi- 
calness; caprldousness. 

Freck'le, 8. a spot on the skin: «. to spot 

Freckled, a. full of spots or freckles. 

Freckle-faced, a. having a &oe full of 
freckles. Freddy, a. marked witt 
freckles, freckled. 

Froe, a. being at liberty; baling libeity; 
not enslaved; not iminiBonM. ; mure- 
strained^ permitted; assuming too 
much liberty, forward; Uoeniloai; 
frank: not reserved; candid; not por- 

out 1>t\QQI SV30\\.\QBa QC ^iUMX ^ ' 




6 : inTwted with fnnohlMB or en- 
f jUnmimtttes; readj; eager to go 
at oompakioii, m a free horse, 
f . to Mt at liberty: to dear from ; 
amtit from. Ftee^^igenoy, s. the 
• of aettng freely or without con- 

ieh| t. in law a widow's dower in 

iter, «. a robber, a plunderer, 
ocrtiiag, $, robbevr; plunder. 
n, a. inheriting liberty. 
tk, «. freedom from expense, 
urn, t. a slave manumitted. 
m, «. the state of being free; U- 
; Independenee; exemption; par- 
r priTueges or immunities, as the 
mqfa eUy; ease; facility; fhmk- 
assumed £uniliarity. 
xfed, a. liberal, goneroos, kind. 
irtfednesB, «. frankness; liberality. 
Id, «. land held in perpetual right. 
Ider, «. one who has a freehold. 
rer, «. one who eats or drinks too 
. rree-Uving, «. ftiU gratification 
I appetite. 

odi in a free manner; at liberty; 
lly; spontaneously. 
in, t. one not a slave ; one entitled 
rtumlar rights and privileges. 
iMm, f. one of the fraternity of free- 
m. Freemasonry, «. the institution, 
■elenoe,or prindiples of freemasons. 
WB, t. the state or quality of being 
iDgenuousnees, liberality. 
lou, t. a school in which learning 
toitioaa; an endowed 6chooL 
/ken, a. nieaking without reserve. 
me, 9. a kmd of sand-stone, easily 
r wrought. 

inker, t. one who professes to think 
itmaalf ; a sceptic, an unbeliever, 
hinking, «. scepticism, unbelief. 
Dgoed, a. spcnking without re- 


W, $. the power of acting withotit 
itnt ; the power of choosing with- 
ompulsion or necessity; voluntari- 

o. Tolimtary; spontaneous. 
, V. to be ccmgealed with cold; to 
m into ice; tochilL 
i (f^te), ». the lading of a ship ; the 
t9 due for transportation of g(KKls : 

load or charter a ship or vessel. 
(fat'age, i. money paid for freight 
fhter, i. one who flights a ship. 
I, a. of or belonging to France : «. 
»eopie or language of France, 
i-tram', t. a musical wind instru- 

lifted, p. a. changed into French; 
ttUing the French in manners or 
aisnce. Frondiify, v. to make 
jBh; to Infect with the manners of 
.oe. FrenehUke, a. resembling the 
ich. Frenchman, #. a native of 

fh^ yreaeUcaL a, niAd, frantici 

(04 A MSbcteawiOi madnesa. 

', A BMdnen^ dishsction of mind« 

Fre'quency, #. a common ocouxrenoe. 
Frequent a. often done or occurring; 
common. Frequent', v. to visit oftcuo, 
to resort to. Frequentable, a. aoces- 
fdble. Frequenta'tion, «. the habit ol 
frequenting. Frequentative, a. fre- 
quently ropeatiDg. Frequenter, t. one 
who fluents. Fro'quently, ad. re- 
peatedly, often. Frequentness, a. the 
being frequent. 

Fres'co, «. coolness, shade; a method of 
painting on fresh plaster by which the 
colours sink in and become diutible. 

Fresh, a- cool; not salt; not stale ; recent, 
new; florid, vigorous, brisk; not vapid. 

Fresh'en, v. to make or grow troBh. 

Fresh'es, «. an overflowing of a river. 

Fresh'et, ». a pool of fresh water. 

Freshly, od. coolly; newly; ruddily. 

Fresh'man, «. a novice ; a new comer. 

Fresh'ness, i. state or quality of being 
fresh; newness; vigour. 

Fresh'water, a. raw, unskilled, applied by 
sailors to a novice at sea. 

Fret, V. to rub, to wear away; to vex. 

Fret, «. agitation or commotion of the 
mind; agitation of liquors by fermenta- 
tion. S^ this word, p. 66. 

Fret, ». work raised in protuberances : in 
to form into raised work; to variegate. 

Fref ted, p. o. vexed ; covered with fret« 
work. Fretter, ». one who frets. Fret- 
ful, a. peovlHh; cross; discontented. 
Fretfully, od. in a fretful manner. Fret- 
fulness, s. i)eovishness, cnissnoss. Fret- 
ting, ». agitation; commotion. Fret- 
work, 8. ndsed work iu masonry. 

FriabU'ity, Fri'ablenesa, «. cai)actty oi be- 
ing eaedly reduced to powder. 

Fri'able, a. easily reduced to powder. • 

Fri'ar, «. a religious brother of some order ; 
a monk. Friar-like, a. like a friar ; mo- 
nastic. Friar's-cowl, s. a spocies of plant. 
Friar's-lan'tem, s. the ignis fatuus. Fri- 
ary, 8. amonasterv or convent of friars : 
a. like a friar ; belonging to a friary. 

Friblilo, 8. a fop, a trifler, a coxcomb: 
V. to Wfle: a. frivolous. Fribbler, «. • 
trifler, a fop. See this word, p. 65. 

Fricassee', s. a dish of chickens, &c., cut 
small and dressed with strong sauce: 
V. to dress in f ricassoo. 

Fric'tion, 8, the act of rubbing two bodies 
together ; the resistance nrising from tho 
rubbing of one thing against another. 

Fri'day, «. the sixth day of the week. 

Friend (frend), «. an intimate, a confidant, 
a favourer, one who is kind to another. 
Friendless, a. without friends, forlorn. 
Friendlike, a. friendly, like a friend. 
Friendliness, «. a disposition to friend- 
ship or benevolence; kind behaviour. 
Fiiendly, a. kind, favourable, salutary: 
cul. in a friendly manner; amicably. 
Friendship, 8. highest degree of inti- 
macy; favour; personal Idndneaa *> «ar> 
Friesse (freeze^ t. «k cownM -wwJafisa. ^^s*^ 
with a nap on one A<Qa\ ^^"BS^LSL^SSL 





urchltraTO and tlio comica : v. to form a 
nap on doth ; to frizzle, to curL Friezed, 
p, a. napped with Moze. 

Frig'ate, s. a ship of war smallor than a 
ship of the line. Frigatoon, s. a small 
Venetian ship. 

Fright (friteX <• sudden and startling fear; 
terror ; alarm : v. to frighten. Frighten, 
V. to affright or impress with sudden 
fear ; to terrify ; to iutimidate. Fri^^ht- 
ful, a. causing f riglit ; dreadful. Fright- 
fully, oflL in a frightful manner ; dread- 
fully. Frightfulness, «. the power of 
impressing terrur. 

Frigid (frij'id), a. cold; wanting heat or 
warmth of body ; wanting warmth of 
affection; dull; lifeless; stiff; formal; 
impotent; jejune. Frigid'ity, Fri^dncss 
(frij'-X 8. state of being frigid ; coldness; 
want of warmth; dulnoss. Frigidly, 
ad. coldly; dully; without affection. 

FiiU, 8. an edging or ruffle; tlie ruffling 
of a hawk's feathurs when it frills with 
cold : V. to shiver with cold ; to furnish 
with frills ; to gather into frills. 

Fringe, «. ornamental trimming: v. to 
adorn witii fringes. Fringed (prinjd), 
p. a. decorated with fringes. Friu'gy, 
a. Mnged; like fringes. 

Frip'per, «. a dealer in old clothes. 

Frip'pery, s. old clothes, tattered rags; pal- 
try, ridiculous finery; drosses vamped up. 

Friseur, [free-zoor, Fr.l 8. a hair-drcsser. 

Frisk, V. to leap ; to skip ; to dance; to be 
frolicksome : $. a frolic ; a fit of wanton 
gayety. Frisk'er, $. one who firisks. 

Frisk'e^ 8. a part of a printing-press. 

Frisk'iness, 8. the being frisky. Frisky, 
a. gay, airy, fVolicsome ; wanton. 

Frit, 8. the materials of glass after it has 
been calcined. 

Frith, 8. an estuary; an arm of the sea ; a 
place for confining fibh ; a kind of net. 

Frit'ter, «. a small piece cut to be fried ; a 
little pancake: a small piece; a frag- 
ment; a shred: v. to break hito frag- 
ments; to reduce to nothing. 

Frivol'ity, «. triflingncss ; wjuit of weight 
or importance. Friv'olous, a. trifling, 
slight, of no moment. Frivolously, ad. 
without weight or importance. 

Friz'zle, V. to curl, to crmp as hair. 

Friz'zler, «. one who frizzles, a friseur. 

Fro.od. con traction ot/roniy as ** toand/ro." 

Frock, 8. a loose outer garment ; a gown 
for children. 

Frog, 8. a small amphibious animal; the 
nuddle of the sole of a horse's foot; a 
kind of braiding on coats. Frog'fish, s. 
a kind of fish. 

Frol'ic, 8. a prank, a whim; a flight of 
levi^ and mirth : v. to play wild pranks ; 
to gambol ; to be merry. Fnjlicsume, a. 
full of wild gayety and mirth ; playful. 
Frolicsomen&ss, «. gayety ; wild pranks. 

From, prep, denoting privation, aDseiice, 
distance, or departure ; away, out of. 

Frond, 8. a green leafy branch. Fron- 
des'cence, i. the tlnio of the year w\xen. 
M plant unfolds its leavea. 


Front (fhint), t. the forehead, the foot; 
the fore part of any thing; the ynn of 
an army: v. to etand foremoet; tote 
opposite to; to oppose iaoe to fhea 
Front'age, t. the front part of ahuildiBg. 
Frontal, t. a frontlet ; a medloament for 
the forehead ; a pediment over a smiU 
door or window: <k belonging to tin 
forehead or front. FronteOt m. ficmed 
with a front 

Frontier', «. the limit or atmoet ▼ngs d 
a territory : a. bordering; oontenninoai. 

Frontiniao (-yakTi s. a luedoiui Fkcoch 

Fron'tispiece, «. an engraving or omaauBt 
fronting the title-page of a book. 

Frout'lesa, a. void oi uame, impudent 

Frontlet, «. a bandage worn on ttie fat- 

Frore f, a. frozen, frosty. 

Frost, 8. the power or act of freednc; 
that which has been froaen or congflatoa: 
V. to cover with any thing like how 
troety as with white sugar, io. Frosif' 
bitten, a. nipped by the frost Frosted, 
a. made in imitation of frost Frartily, 
ad. coldly; without affection. tnM- 
ness, 8. state of being frosty. Frostnafl, 
8. a nail with a sharp head drilven inti 
horses' shoes in fh)sty weather to jpr^ 
vent them from slipping. FrostwaR, i 
a work in which the substance ii laid oa 
with inequalities, like hoar-froat oa 
shrubs. Frosty, a. oontaininff ttoA; 
like frost; without warmth or kmdneai. 

Fr6th, 8. foam, spume; unsubstantial 
matter ; an empty or senseless ahow d 
wit or eloquence : v. to throw out foam ; 
to cause to foam. Froth'ily, adL in a 
trothj manner; with foam. FrotU* 
ness, 8. state of being frothy; nTn n ttnnsi 
Frothy, a. full of fruth; empty; nifling; 

Frounce, «. a wrinkle ; a oml ; a plait : 9. 
to gather into plaits ; to curl or frink 
the hair about the face. 

Frou'zy, a. fetid, strong, musty. 

Frow, «. a woman; a wife, — genenll;f 
applied to a Dutch or German woman. 

Fro'ward, a. perverse, wayward, refra^ 
torv. Frowardlv, ad. perversely, paev- 
ishly. Frowardness, «. perveraaneai^ 
peevishness. 8oe Froward, pi 66. 

Frown, «. a wrinkled and sour look ; as 
expression of displeasure : v. to kuittba 
brows; to repel by a threatening or 
angry look ; to scowl upon. Frowning; 

£. a. wearing a frown ; stem. Frown' 
igly, ad. with a frown ; sten^y. 
Froze, the past tense of Freeze. 
Fro'zen, p. a. oongeided ; very eold. 
Fructes'cence, «. the fndting season. 
Fructiferous, a. bearing fndt 
Fnictifica'tion, «. tlie act of fructifying. 
Fruc'tify, v. to make fndtful, to fertlluai 
Fru'gal, a. thrifty, sparing, imrKimiinioQil 
Frugality, «. tlirift ; good husbandly. 
Fru'gally, ad. sparingly, panrimonioua^y. 
YTu'v^olDLeaa, t. traii^oSiV}. 
¥tusii'«tQUB, a. Yc^^ats^^^^ctaSbQ 




JViifllv'orouB, 0. feeding on fruita. 

Fnut (firootX t. the prodaoe of the earth ; 
the produce of trees or plADtsj produo- 
tion; profit; advantagb; efiecit; the 
psoduce of the womlK Fru^f age, «. 
nmit oolleotiyely. Fruitbearing, a. pro- 
dnoing fruit. Fruit-bivl, «. the Dud 
which forms into ftnit. 

Fruiferer, «. one who deals in fruit. 
Finitery, «. a place for keejiing fruit. 
Fmitfal, a. producing much fruit ; fer- 
tile; TOolifio; aboundung in any thing; 
plentfiFuL Fruitfully, ad. with much 
fruit; abundantly. FruitMness, ». the 
quality oi being fruitful; fertility; 

FHiifgrore, «. a plantation of fruit-trees. 

Fruition (-ish'un^ «. enjoyment by posses- 
sion or use. 

Fktiitless, a. dertitute of fruit ; barren ; 
I abartive: in<»ilbctual ; useless; vain. 

I Fruitlesdy, ad. unprofitably; in vain. 

Fn2itles8ness,«.unprofitableness. Fruit- 
tree, M. a tree that produces fruit. 
I Fnunenta'ceous (-shusX a. made of grain. 
I Fmmenta'tion, ». a laxgess of com. 
t Fra'men^, t. food made of wheat boiled 
t in milk, and sweetened. 

Fmmi)^ M. a Joke, a jeer ; a cross-tempered, 
fnimpish woman. Frump'ish, a. old- 
r ftahioned; cross-grained. 
L Fhish, «. the tender part of the sole of a 

hone's foot. See Thrush. 

r JVoi^trate, a. frustrated ; ineffectual ; yain. 

: Aus'trSte, v. to disappoint; to balk ; to 

: defeat; to nullify. Frustra'tion, s. dis- 

i^ppointment, defeat. Frus'trative, a. 

trading to frustrate. Frustratory, a. 

that makes void or nulL 

Fhis'trum, a a part of a solid body sepa- 
lated fhnn the rest, as a truncated cone. 

Fhites'centk a. growing into a shrub. 
Fnt'tnc, [L.] a a shrub. Frutioous, 
Fraticose, a. shrubby. 

Fry, a a swarm of little fishes. 

Wij, «. to dress food in a frying-pan: f. 
that which is fried. Fry'ing-pan, t. ft 
pan fixr frying food. 

Fub, 9. to put off, to cheat. See Fob. 

Fa'oated, Fucate, a. painted; disguised 
with fldse show. 

Foohaia (fu'she-aX a a flowering plant. 

Fu'd, *-pl- a genus of sea-weed. 

Fa'ous, [L.1 a a paint for the face. 

Fud'dle, 9. to tipple ; to make drunk. 

Fud'dler, a a tippler, a drunkard. 

Fudge I iat^. an expression of contempt : 
a a made-up story; stuff; nonsense. 

Fa'el, i. the matter or aliment of fire. 

Fn'eler, $. he that supplies fuel. 

Foga'cious (-shusX a. flying away; fleet- 
ing; -volatile. Fugaciousness, «. fuga- 
city. Fugadty (-gas'e-ty), a the quality 
of oeing fugucious. 

Fugh I int. expreMsinflr abhorrence. 

Fu7(itive. a. flying; fleeting;; pertaining 
to fbgitiyes : a a runaway ; a deserter. 
FufB^venaaa^ a ToUAtOity; instability. 

FVi^l^muuL a the aoldier who gives the 
moticoM to » regiment when ezerciaing. 

Fiuue(fQg), a flyingmusic, whentheparts 
follow and seem to chase each other. 

Ful'crum, i. a prop; the prop or support 
of a lever. 

Fulfil', V. to accomplish, to perform. Ful- 
filler, a ono who fulfils or accomplishes. 
Fulfilment, s. full performance. 

Fiil'gency, a splendotu*, glitter. Fulgent, 
a. shimng, glittering. Fulgor, a splen- 
dour, dazzling brightnesa Fulgurate, V. 
to flash as lightning. Fulgura'tion, a. 
flashes of lightning. Fm'gurant, a. 
flashing, lightening. 

Fuliginous (-1^'in-us), a. sooty, smoky. 

Fu'limart, a See Foumart. 

Full (fool), a. replete, sat\irated, perfect. 

Full, a complete measure ; the whole. 

Full, ad. fully ; without abatement. 

Full (foolX V. to cleanse and thicken cloth. 

Full'-bloomed, a. having perfect bloom. 

Full'-blown, a. fully expanded. 

Full'-bottomed, a. having a large bottom* 

Fuir-charged, a. charged to fulness. 

Full'dressed, a. dressed in full fashion. 

Full'-eared, a. having the ears full of grain. 

Fuller (fool'erl «. one who fldls cloth. 
Fuller's-eartn, a soft xmctuous marl, 
used by fullers for cleansing cloth. 
Fuller's-tlustle, «. the herb teasel. Ful- 
lery, a the place where cloth is fulled. 

Full'-eyed, a. having laige, prominent 

FuU'-faced, a. having a broad fB^ce, 

FuU'-fed, a. fed to fulness ; fat, pliunp, 

Full'-grown, a. grown to full size. 

Fulling (fooring), ». the art of cleansing 
and tmckening cloth in a fulling-mill. 
Fulling-mill, a a mill for fulling cloth. 

Full'-orbed, a. having the orb complete. 

Full'-winged, a. ready for flight ; eager. 

Fully, ad. completely, entirely. 

Ffd'mar, a a bird valued for its olL 

Ftd'minant, a. thxmdering. Fulminate, 
V. to thunder ; to make a loud noise ; to 
explode ; to issue out ecclesiastical cen- 
sures. Fulminating, p. a. thundering ; 
denouncing; explosive. Fulmina'tion, 
a the act of thiuidering ; an explosion; 
a denunciation of censure. Fulmin&' 
tory, a. thundering; etrikiug terror. 

FuU'-niouthed, o. having a full voice. 

Fulness (fool'-), s. the state of being full ; 
complotenesd ; abundance; satiety; a 
swelling force of sound 

Fulsome (fCil'somX a. nauseous, rank, 
offensive. Fulsomely, ad. rankly, nau- 
seously. Fulsomeness, s. uauseousness, 
foulness. See this word, p. 55. 

Ful'vid, a. of a deep yellow colour, tawny. 

Ful'vous, a. yellow ; tawny. 

Fuma'do, a a smoked or dried fish 

Fu'iuatory, ». a strong scented plant. 

Fum'blo, V. to feel or grope about; to 
attempt awkwardly Fu'nbler, «. an 
awkward person. Fumblingly, ad. in 
an awkwHTU manner 

Fume, ». smoke, \a.v^\xT\T«^\'0.VA«(&><3a&\ 
I to be hot wilti t«45^\ Xa nv^-^qx. 

Fu'met, 8. the dung ol deec. 'B^^cM^*•^' 
I the scent oi meaX VJo\oTka^»*l^ 




Fu'mld, a. smoky. Fumidnesa, Fumid'- 
ity, «. smokiness. Fumifuroius, a. pro- 
ducing smoke. Fu'migate, v. to smoke; 
to purify or disinfect by vaiwur or gas. 
Fnmiga tion, $. the act of ftimigating ; a 
diffuiiion of smoke or vapour in cleans- 
ing or piurifying. Fu'migatoiy, a. puri- 
fying by smoke or vapour. 
Fumingly, ad. with fume: in a rage. 
FumiBh, a. smoky ; hot ; choleric. 
Fumous, Fumy, a. producing fUmes. 
FuUf s. sport, high merriment. 
Fimambula'tion, ». rope-dancing. Fimam'- 
bulatory, a. like a rope-dancer. Fimam- 
bulist, s. a rope-dancer. 
Function (funk^him),<. performance ; em- 
ployment; occupation; office; charge; 
power ; faculty. Fimctional, a. per- 
taining to come office or flmction. F\mc- 
tionally, ad. by means of functions. 
Fimctionary, ». one who holds an office. 
Fund, «. that on which something is 
founded / an established stock or capital ; 
that out of which supplies are drawn ; 
ample store or resources; a debt due 
by a government on which iuteront is 
paid : v. to place money at interest in 
the funds ; to create a permanent stock 
for which interest is provided — Sinking 
fundf a fund set apart for sinking or 
pajdng a debt. 
Fun'dament, *. the hinder ijart or seat. 
Fimdamen'tal, a. serving fur the founda- 
tion ; essential ; imiwrtaut : t. the load- 
ing principle ; the essential part. Fun- 
damentally, ad. essentially ; necessarily. 
Fimd'ed, p. a. placed in the funds ; sup- 
plied with funds for regular payment of 
interest of, as funded debt. Funds, pi. 
of Fund— Pm6Wc funds^ the public debt 
due by a government^ and on which 
interest is paid. 
Funolirial, a. belonging to flmerals. 
Fu'neral, $. a buriu or interment; a 
procession at a burial : a. relating to or 
used at a burinL Fuue'real, a. suitintr 
a funeral; dolefiiL 
Fun'^c, a. pei-taining to mushrooms. 
Fungi te, s. a kind of fossil coral. Fun- 
gos'ity, $. soft excrescence. Fim'gous, 
a. spongy; excrescent. Fungus, «. a 
musnroom ; an excrescence. 
Fu'nicle, ». a small ligature ; a fibre. 
Funic'ular, a. consisting of small fibres. 
Fuu'nel, «. a vessel for jioiuiiig liquors into 

a bottle ; the shaft of a chimney. 
Fim'ny, a. merry, laughable, comical. 
Fur, s. the finer hair on certain animals ; 
the skin with the far prepared for gar- 
ments ; a coating of soft matter, as on 
tlie tongue in a fever; a bard coating, 
as on the interior of toiirkettles : a. con- 
sisting of or made of fur : v. to line or 
cover with fur; to cover or coat with 
morbid matter, as the tongue. 
Fura'cious, a. thievish ; inclined to theft 
Fuybelow, ». a fringe or puckered stuff 
worn as fur round the petticoat or the 
lower part of a woman's dross : v. to 
adorn with farbelows. 


Furljish, v. to burnish, to polish. 

Furnisher, i. one who furlnshaa. 

Fui^cateoL Furcate, a. fbrk-ehi^ied. 

Fur'fur, [L.] «. dandmff or anirf 
skin. Purfura'eeoas (-ahiuX ^ 
scaly; Dranny. 

Fu'rious, a. mad, ngfaiff, vlolsnfc. Fmi- 
ously, ad. madlj, violiBntly. Fnrioiu* 
ness, i. madness; rage ; TioleniML 

Furl, V. to draw up, to ocatract. 

Furlong, «. the eighth part at a mila. 

Furlough (fiurlo), i. a temponnT Ism ti 
absence from military aervioe. 

Fur'menty, t. See Frumentr. 

Fiur'nace, ». an enclosed ftreiilAee; sn 
intense fire for melting metals, A& 

Fiu/nish, v. to au-pj^ with what Is wnU 
ing or necessary; to fit ap; to eaatp; 
to decorate. Fiunished, p. a. suppilea; 
equipped ; fitted up. Furnisher, c out 
who furnishes. Fumitvre, s. goodi 
put into a house for use or onuunent; 
movables; equipage; appendages. 

Fu'rur, [L.J«. fury, madness, rage. 

Furred (f urd), p. a. covered with ftm 
Fur'rier, t. a dealer in furs. Fuiil i y, 
$. furs in generaL Furring, «. a llntag 
of furs or of thin boards to level a sm^ 
face. Furry, a. covered with or msdi 
of fur. 

Fur'row, $. a small to:«noh made liy i 

E lough; a hollow; a wrinkle: v. to sst 
1 furrows; to hollow; to wrinklsb ■ 

Fur'ther, a. (a eomp. fbrmed from Forth), 
more distant ; additioiud : ail. to i 
greater distance; moreover: «. to for> 
ward; to advance; to promote; to 
assist. Furtherance, t. advancemflnt; 
promotion: assistance. Fnrtherer, i. 
one who rarthers. Furtherinorsg mL 
yet Author; moreover. Furthermosl; 
a. most distant, fiuthest. Furthesti a. 
most distant in time or idaoe: od. ik 
tho greatest distance. 

Fur'tive, a. stolen, obtained by theft 

Fu'ry, «. madness, frensy, ragfi. 

Fu'rylike, a. raging: furious. 

Furze, «. a prickly shrub, gronO| whin. 

Fur'sy, a. overgrown wit^ Ause. 

Fus'cous, a. of a brown or dark ooloor. 

Fuse, V. to melt or liquefy by heat; to put 
into fusion ; to be melted. Fusee', «. s 
spindle; the cone or conical nui ci a 
watch or clock round whicih uie chain 
or cord is wound. Fusee (formeriy JW- 
«iO, ». a matchlock or firelock ; a sort o{ 
light musket; the match or foae whidi 
i^tes a bomb or grenade. Fusfbilltf, 
t. the quaUty of b^ng ftisihle. Fu'sihK 
a. that may be ftised or melted. Vast- 
form, a. shaped like a B|rfndleL FosU, 
a. the same as Fitsdle: s. in henJdxT, 
something like a spindle. Foall, $. the 
same as Fusee^ a light musket. FusQiai^ 
$. a soldier armed with a musket. Fi^ 
sion, 9. the state of beinff meltod. 

Fuss, $. a bustle in small matlaiS! SLtB 
make «k\ms^Q Va snvcSL\ tmX\«i». 





Fust, ». a strong smell, M that of a moulds 

barrel: v. to grow mouldy; to smell ill. 
Fust^ *. the tnmk or shaft of a column. 
Fus'iiaii, 9. a kind of stuff made of linen 

and cotton; a turgid style: a. bom- 

Fusiiio, f. a wood used in dyeing yellow. 
Fnstigate, v. to beat with a oudgeL 
Fuatlness, a mustlness, mouldineas. 
Fusfty, a. mouldy, jxauiy, rancid. 
Futile (fti'til), a. trifling; of no weight; 

wortnlesB; useless. Futil'ily, t