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Full text of "A dictionary of every-day wants : containing twenty thousand receipts in nearly every department of human effort"

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RESEARCH LIBRARIES 

^';,liilii^ \i 




Mm 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



EVERY-DAY WANTS 



CONTAINING 



TWENTY THOUSAND RECEIPTS 



In Nearly Every Department of Human Effort 



BY 



A. E. YOUMAN, M. D. 



NEW YORK 

FRANK M. REED, PUBLISHER 

X39 Eighth Street 



90516B 



Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1872, by 

ALEXANDER E. YOUMAN, 

in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



All uguts kiss&vsd. 



PREFACE, 



In these days of steam and electricity, when every man is jostling and 
crowding his neighbor in the race for wealth and indepcndcncej every 
hour, every minute has its money value. To economise time by its 
admirably arranged contents; to save money by its multitudinous hints 
and aids; to relieve perplexities that arc ever occurring in our daily plans 
of life by its numberless suggestions ; to promptly offer remedies when 
sudden death is threatened, as in accidental poisoning, will be found to be 
embodied In the following pages, and so be an aid to the progressive 
hurrying spirit of the age. 

In its editing and compiling, the principal aim has been to render it as 
extensively useful as possible, and no exertion has been spared to make 
the work a correct, comprehensive and conveniently arranged manual of 
reference to the Housekeeper, Manufacturer, Tradesman and Agriculturist, 
It will be found to contain directions for the preparation of several thou- 
sand articles of interest and utility, many of which have never appeared in 
print before, 

Care has been taken to avoid all difficult, technical and scientific terms, 
and to make it so simple in language and arrangement, as to insure its 
value as a useful and reliable work for evcry-day reference. 

A. E. y. 



40X1243 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page 

Accidents and Emergencies n 

Apiary 20 

Carpenter and Builder ^ . . 24 

Cements^ Glues and Pastes . 32 

Cooking and Baking 40 

Druggist and Chemist 63 

Domestic Animals 87 

Farm, Orchard^ Garden and Dairy , . ; 118 

Household Miscellany • 151 

Household Pets 164 

Household Pests 173 

Huntings Trapping and Tanning 176 

Inks and Blacking 197 

Medical and Surgical 207 

Ornamental Work • 242 

Painting and Papering (Including Varnishing, Polishing, Staining 

and Gilding) 250 

Photography and the Fine Arts 272 

Preserving and Storing 293 

Soap and Candles 312 

Toilet 323 

Wardrobe 333 

Washing, Bleaching and Dyeing 338 

Wines, Liquors and Vinegar 362 

Workers in Glass 3S9 

Workers in Metals 397 

Misceiiamcus 447 

When an article cannot he found by its proper alphabetic arrangement, 
under any of the above sections, a reference to the very copious index at the 
end of the -work, will lead to its discovery. 



10 



ytP 



/ 



A DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES. 



I 



ACCIDENTS^ To Avouiand Prnent.—\T\ 
walking the streets keep out of the line of cellars, 
and never look one way and walk another. 2. 
Never ride with your arm or elbow outside any 
vehiilc. 3- Never alight from a steam-car 
*hile in motion. 4. In stepping from any 
wheeled vehicle while in motion, let it be from 
the rear, and not in front of the wheels ; for 
tlicn^ it you fall, the wheeU cannot run over 
TDtt. 5. Never attempt to cross a road or street 
in a hurry, in front of a passing vehicle ; for if 
you stumble or slip vou will be run over. Make 
up the half minute lost in waiting unlil the ve- 
hicle has passed by increased diligence in K)me 
otlier direction. 6. In a run-away, it is safer, 
as a rule, lo keep your place and hold fast than 
to jump out. Getting out of a carriage over the 
back, piovided you can hold on a little while, is 
safer tnan springing from the side. 7. Be par- 
ticularly cauiious when upon or in the vicinity of 
water. 8. During a time of lightning avoid the 
neighborhood of trees, or any leaden spout, 
iron gate, or other conductor of electricity. 9. 
\jKj loaded guns in safe places, and never imi- 
tate firing a gun in jesL lo. Never sleep near 
lighted charcoal ; if drowsy at any work where 
charcoal fires are used, take the fresh air. 11. 
Never hicxv put the gaslight, but turn it off, and 
before retiring sec that none of it escapes, 12. 
Wlien ttcnumbcd with cold beware 01 sleeping 
out of door* ; exercise yourself vigorously ; rub 
jxmrsrir, if able, with snow, and do not hastily 
approach (he fire. 13. If caught in a drenching 
nin, or i*" you fall in the water, keep in motion 
sofiicimtly vigorous to prevent the slightest 
diilly sensation until you reach the house ; then 
dangc your clothing with great rapidity before 
A bta/ing fire, and drink instantly a pint of some 
bcK liquid, ftct sniriluouft. I4. Before entering 
T]ralt> <*r dry wells sec if a lighted candle will 
bom at the Lottom ; for if not, animal life can- 
not tVtsX, and the foul air in it should be re* 
ptaord by pure air before entering therein, ic;. 
Kcrer Ic.ive saddle or draught horses, while m 
ttic, by ihemsclve*; nor go immedblely behind 
■ Ird horse, as he is apt to kick. 16. Rifle not on 
iooCwayv, and walk not on carriage roods or rail- 
road tracks. 17. Be wary of children, whether 
tbcf are up or in bed, and particularly uhen 
tbcy are near the fire, an element with which 
ihey arc very apt to arouse themselves. 18. 
Leave nothing p(ii«onoii« open or accessible, anil 
never omit to wnte the word •' PoistfN" in large 
lettets upon it, wherever it may l>e placet]. 19. 
Never throw pieces of orange |wel on the side- 
walk, or throw brciticn glass lx>ttles into the 
streets. 20. Never meddle with gimpowder by 
CindklifibL i^' Never trim or nil a kerosene 



lamp while lighted, and nrftr light a firt tvith 
kcrQjnu or cimI oU, 2J. Keep lucifcr matches in 
their cases, and never let them be strewed 
aljoul. 23. During frosty weather take extra 
caxit in walking. 24. Have your horses' shoes 
roughed directly there are indications of frost. 
25. Before retiring lor the nighty utrefully look 
through the house lo see that everything is as it 
ought to be. 

BIT£S, Hatvtst Bur.^The most effectual 
remedy is benzine, which immediately kills the 
insect. — A minute drop of tincture of iodine hni 
the same effect. — Many suffcrcri prevent the at- 
tacks by sprinkling a little benzine over the 
stockings before walking. 

BIT£St Insect. — Such as bees, wasps, hor- 
nets, scorpions, etc., may be instantly relieved 
by the immediate and free application of spirit! 
of hartshorn as a wash lo the pari billen. The 
part may afterward be covered with a Utile sweet 
oil. See St'mgs. 

BJTES, Mad Dcg,—\. Take immedialely 
warm vinegar or tepid water ; wash the wound 
clean therewith and then dry it ; pour upon the 
wound, then, ten or twelve drops of muriatic 
acid. Mineral adds destroy the poison of the 
saliva, by uhich means ihe evil cfTccts of the lat- 
ter are neulralize<l.—2. Many think that the only 
sure preventive of evil following the bile of a 
rabid dog, is to suck the wound immediately, 
before the {>oison has hod time to circulate with 
the blood. If the person bit cannot get to the 
wound to suck it, he must persuade or pay an- 
other 10 do it for him. There is no fear of'! 
any harm following this, for ihc poison entering 
by the stomach cannot hurt a person. A spoon- 
ful of the poison might be swallowed with impu- 
niiy^ but the person y« ho sucks the place should 
have no wound on the lip or tongue, or it might 
be dangerous. The precaution alluded to is « 
most iinjxjrtant one, and should neAcr be omitted 
prior to an excision and the application of lunar 
canslic in every part, especially the interior and 
deep-seated portions. No injury need be antici- 
pated- if this treatment is adopted promptly and 
eflcctively. The poison of hydrophobia remain* 
latent on an average six weeks; the part heals 
over, but there is a pimple or wound, more or 
less irritable; it then becomes painful, and the 
germ, whatever it is, ripe for dissemination into 
the system, and then all hope is ^ne. Never- 
theless, between the time of the bite and the ac- 
ti\'ity of the wound previous to dissemination, 
the caustic of nitrate of silver is a sure prevent- 
ive ; after that it is as useless as all tiie other': 
means. The best mode of application of the ni- 
trate of silver, is by introducing it solidly iato 
the wound. 



DTCTTQKARY OF EVEnY-DAY WANTS. 



BITES, 5m>>^.— The poison inserted by the 
stingy and biles of many venomous reptiles is so 
rapidly absorbed, and of so fatal a description, as 
frequently to occasion death before any rcme(iy 
or antidote can be applied ; and they are ren- 
dered yet more dangerous from the fact that these 
wounib are inflicted in paris of the country and 
^vorld where precautionary measures arc seldom 
thought of, and generally at times when people 
are leist prepared to meet them. I. In absence 
of any remedies, the first best plan lo adopt on 
bcing'bittcn by any of the poisonous snakes is to 
do as recommended above in Mad Dog Biles 
—viz., to wash off the place imtntdiatefy ; if 
possible, get the mouth to the sjwt, and forcibly 
suck out all the poison, first applying a ligature 
above the wound as tightly as can be borne. — 2. 
A remedy promulgated by the Smithsonian In- 
atiCute is to lake 30 grs. iodide potassium, 30 
grs. iodine, l oi. water, to be applied exlcmoJly 
10 the wound by saturating lint or batting — the 
same to be kept moist with the antidote until the 
cure be effected, which will be in one hour, and 
itomeiimcs instantly. — 3. An Australian physi- 
cian lus tried and recommends carbolic acid, di- 
luted and administered internally every few min- 
utes until recovery is certain. — 4. Another Aus- 
tralian physician. Professor Halford, of Mel- 
bourne University, has discovered ihat if a pro|3er 
amount of dilute ammonia be injected into the 
circulation of a patient suflering from snakc-bilc, 
the curative effect h usually sudden and start- 
ling, so that in many cases men have thus been 
brought back, as it were, by magic, from the 
very shadow of death. 7lic method finally 
adf^ed by Professor Halford, after many exper- 
iments, and approved by his associates, is this : 
As soon as possible after a Inte, which, without 
treatment, threatens life, thirty drops of the 
liquor ammonia: (^not Tfquid ammonia) in water 
— <me part of the ammonia and two parts water 
— arc injected, by a hypodermic syringe, dijectly 
into some superficial Tcin of the patient. Of 
course, none but a skilletl or practiced hand 
should undertake the operation, since the acci- 
dent of injecting a small bubble of air with the 
solution might oe fatal. There is no stage of 
oxhau&tion, so long as life remains, in which 
there is not hope of success by this remedy. A 
small s^yringe with a sharp point, for the purpose 
of making the injection, is manufactured and 
sold in Melbourne, and now few travel in that 
country without one. 

BITES, Of the C<»^.— The bite of the «- 
Am, savs an experienced surgeon of India, or of 
any utner poisonous .snake or reptile, can be 
cured by administering a few drops of a prepa- 
ration of the gall of the cobra, which should be 

I prepared a* follows: Pure spirits of wine, or 95 
per ccnL alcohol, or the best high wines that can 
l>c procured, loo drops ; of the pure gall, ao 
drops ; in a clean two-ounce phial, corked with a 
new cork ; give the phial 150 or 200 shakes, so 
that the gall may be thorouchly mixed with the 
spirits, and the preparation is ready for use. In 
case of a bite put five drops (no more) of the 
preparation into half a tumblerful of pure water; 
pour the water from one tumbler into another, 
backwards and forwards, several limes, th.!! the 
preparation may be thoroughly mixed with the 
water, and administer a large lablespoonful of 
the mixture every three or five minutes until the 
whole has been given. In case the violence of 
t : 



the pain and hemorrhage or swelling of the bit- 
ten part should be but slightly alleviated after 
the whole has been taken, repeat the dose, pre- 
pared with the same quantity of the preparation, 
in the same way, and administer as before. In 
curing upwards of fifty cases of snake biles i 
have never been obliged to repeal the dose ex- 
cept in two instances, and have never lost a case. 
The €obrn poison is no more deadly tlian that of 
a great variely of snakes found in South Amer- 
ica, of which may be named the Cascabct, or 
Rattlesnake ; Bt^pti-Joraiia, or gilded mouth ; 
Mapanasape, or frog-headed Mapana; Afapa- 
na-Jina, or Lnchesis; A'fi''^'' Bint, and I'crru- 
^Ma, or wort snake. The poison of all these 
varieties produces death (under certain condi- 
tions — atmospherical, physical, climaterical, and 
electrical) in from fifteen minutes to two or three 
hours ; but it is found that the gall of each va- 
riety (administered as previously indicated) is 
the perfect antidote for its own poison. The 
gall of the most deadly kind may be used in 
cases of bites of those less virulent, and is also 
applicable in cases of bites of the centipede, 
scorpion, stingray, star>lizard, or Ixuerta sttlU^ 
and IS also very effective in dog-bites. 

BLEEDING OF IVOUNDS.—^t Cuts, 
BLEEDING AT THE NOSE.-^i. RoU 
up a piece of paper, and press it up under the 
upper lip. — 2. In obstinate cases blow a little 
gum Arabic up the nostrils through a quill, 
which wilt immediately stop the discharge ; pow* 
dered alum is also good. — 3. Pressure by the 
finger over the small artery near the aia (wing) 
of the nose, on the side where the blood is flow- 
ing, is said to arrest the hemorrhage immedi- 

^ ""i'LEEDING FROM THE LUNGS,— k 
New York physician has related a case in which 
hihalitiun of very dry persulphate of iron, re- 
duced to a palpable powder, entirely arrested 
bleeding from the lungs, after all the usual rem- 
edies, lead, opium, etc, had (ailed. A small 
quantity was administered by drawing into the 
tung3 every hour during part of the night and 
following day, 

BURNS AND SCALDS,— i. By putting 
the burned part under cold water, milk, or other 
bland fluid, instantaneous and perfect relief from 
all pain will Ik experienced. On withdrawal, 
the burn should be perfectly covered with half an 
inch or mure of common whcaten flour, put on 
with a dredging box, or in any other way, and 
allowed to remain until a cure is effected, when 
the dry, caked flour will fall off, or can be soft- 
ened with wa;cr, disclosing a beautiful, new and 
healthy skin, in all cases where the bums have 
Ijecn superficial. — 2. Dissolve white lead in flax- 
seed! oil to the consistency of milk, and apply 
over the entire bum or scald every five minutes. 
It can be applied with a soft feather. This is 
said to give relief sooner, and to be more per- 
manent in its effects, than any other application. 
— 3, Make a saturated solution of alum (four 
ounces to a quart of hot water). Pip a cotton 
cloth in this solution and apply immediately on 
(he bum. As soon as it becomes hot or dry, 
replace it by another, and continue doing so as 
often as the cloth dries, which at first will be 
every few minutes. The pain will immediately 
cexse, and after Iwcnly-fonr hours of this treat- 
ment the bum will be healed, especially if com- 
menced before bib tors arc formed. The as- 



ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES. 



I 
I 
I 



I 



tringcnl and drying qualitieit of the alum will en- 
tirely prevent Uicir formation. — 4. tJlyccrine, 
five ounces ; while of egg, four ounces ; tincture 
of arnica, three ounces. Mix the glycerine and 
while of egg thoroughly in a mortar, and grad- 
ually add tlie arnica. Apply freely on linen rags 
night and morning, wajihing previously with 
warm ca&tilc soapsuds. — 5. Take i drachm of 
finely powdered alum, and mix thoroughly with 
ihe white of 2 eggs and 1 teacup of fresh lard ; 
spreail on .1 cloth, and apply to the ports burnt. 
Ii gives almost instant relief from pain, and, by 
excluding the air, prevents excessive inflamma- 
tory action. The application should he clianced 
at least once a dav.— 6. M. Joel, of the Chil- 
dren's Mospilal. Lausanne, findti that a tepid 
bath, containing a couple of pinches of sulphate 
of iron, gives immediate relief 10 young children 
who have been extensively burned. In a case of 
a child four years old, a bath repeated twice a 
day — 30 minutes each balh — the suppuration de- 
creased, lost its odor, and the litilc sufTcrer was 
soon convalescent. — 7. For severe scalding, car- 
bolic add has recently been used with marked 
benefit. It is to lie mixed with 30 parts of the 
ordinary oil and lime water to i part of the acid. 
Linen rags saturated in the carbolic cmuKion 
ajc 10 be spread on the scalded parts, and kept 
moist by frequently smearing with a feather 
dipped in the liquid. Two advantages of this 
mode of treatment are, the exclusion of air, and 
the rapid healing by a natural restorative action 
without the formation of pus, thus preserving 
untnarred the personal appearance of the pa- 
tient — a matter of no small importance to some 
people. 

tKAMP. — Spasmodic or involtmtary contrac- 
tions of the muscles, generally of the extremi- 
ties, accompanied with great pain. The musclcH 
of the legs and feet are those most commonly 
aflccted with cramp, especially after great cxer- 
tioix. The best treatment is immediately to 
stand upright, and tn well rub the part wilh the 
hand. The application of strong stimulants, as 
spirits of ammonia, or of anodynes, as opiate 
hnimcnts, has been recommended. When cramp 
occurs in the stomach, a tcaspoonful of sal vola- 
tile in water, or a dram glassful of good brandy, 
should be swallowed immetlialcly. When cramp 
comes on during cold bathing, the limb should 
be thrown out as suddenly and violently as pos- 
sible, which will generally remove il, care being 
also taken not to become flurried nor frightened ; 
as presence of mind is very essential to ]Krsonal 
safety on such an occasion. A common cause of 
cramp is indigestion, and the u^ic of acescent 
liqsors ; these should l>c avnidetl. 

Ct'TS, — First stop the bleeding, by bringing 
the edges of the wound together, if the flow is 
but trifling. If, on the contrary, it is large, of a 
bright vermillion color, and mws in spirts or 
unta a jerk, an artery is severed, and at once 
should pressure be made on the parts by the 
finger, (between the cut and the heart,) until a 
compress i« arranged by a tight ligature atx)ve 
the wounded pari. Then the finger may be 
taken off", and if the blood siitl flows, tighten 
the hmndkcrchief. or other article that forms the 
Bfslure. until it ceases. If at this point the at- 
lendMce of a physician or surgeon cannot he 
•c cuwl , take strong silk thread, or wax together 
thite or ftmr threaos, and cut ihcm into lengths 
if about m foot long. Wash the parts with 




warm water, and then with a sharp hook or 
small pair of pincers in your hand, fix your eye 
steadfastly upon the wound, and directing the 
ligature to lie slightly released, you will see the 
mouth of the artery from which the blood 
springs. At once seize it, draw it out a little, 
while an assistant passes a ligature round it, and 
tics it up tight with a double knot. In this way 
take up in succession every bleeding vessel you 
can sec or get hold of. If the wound is too high 
up in a limb to apply the ligature, do not lose 
your presence of mind. If it is the thigh, press 
firmly on the groin ; if in the arm, with the 
hand-end or ring of a common door-key make 
pressure above the collar-bone, and about its 
middle, against its first rib, which lies under it. 
The pressure should be continued until assist- 
ance is procured and the vc&sel tied up. If the 
wound IS on the lace, or other place where pres- 
sure cannot cRcctuoily be made, place a piece of 
ice directly over the wound, allowing it to re- 
main there until the blood coagulates, when it 
may be removed, and a compress and bandage 
be applied. 

After the bleeding is arrested the surrounding 
blood should lie cleared away, as well as any ex- 
traneous miLttcr; then bring the sides of the 
wound into contact throughout the whole depthp 
in order that they may grow together as quickly 
as possible, retaining them in their position by 
strips of adhesive plaster. If the wound Ite 
deep and extensive, the wound itself and the ad- 
jacent parts must lie supported by proper band- 
ages. The {wsition of the patient should be 
such as will relax the skin and muscles of the 
wounded part. Rest, low and unslimulaling 
diet, will complete the requirements ncccssarj- to 
a speedy recoverv. 

bfiOWN/XG, To Restiwe thf Apptwmtly. — 
Lose no lime. Handle the body gently, carry- 
ing it with the head slightly raised, and never 
htflding it up by the feet. While medical assist- 
ance is being sent for, remove the clothing from 
the body, rub it dry ; then roll it in hot blankets 
and place it in a warm bed in a warm room. 
Qeanse away the froth and mucus from the nose 
and mouth. Apply warm bricks, bottles, liacs 
of sand, etc, to tne arm-pits, lietwecn the thighs 
and at (he soles of the feet. Rub the surface of 
the body with the bonds inclosed in worm, dry 
worsted socks. To Restore Brrathing. — \\'hile 
the patient is lying with the face downwards 
place one of the arms under the forehead, as in 
this position fluids wilt more readily cscnpe t^ 
the mouth, and the tongue itself will fall for- 
ward, leaving the entrance to the windpipe free. 
Assist this operation by wiping and cleansing 
the mouth. If there be only slight breathing, 
or no breathing, turn the patient on the side, and 
excite the nostrils with snuff, hartshorn, or 
smelling salts, or tickle the throat with a feather, 
etc Rub the chest and face well, and dash 
warm and cold water alternately On them. If 
there is still no success, try to imitate breathing 
by replacing the patient with face downwards, 
raising and supporting the chest on a folded coot 
or other article. Then turn the body very 
gcntiv on one side and a little beyond, and 
briskly back again, repealing these measures 
cautiously and pcrsevcringly about 15 times a 
minute. By placing the patient on nis chest, 
the weight of the body forces the air out. When 
turned on one side the pressure is removed, and 



DICTIONARY OF EVBRY-DAY WANTS. 



I 



I 



air enters ihe chest. When the boOv is replaced 
on the face* use uniform pressure between the 
&houlder-bladc!> or bones on cadt :>ide, and let 
one person attend solely to the movement of the 
head and of the arm placed under it. Dr/ the 
hands and feet, and as soon as dry clothing or 
blankets can be procured, blrip the boily and rc- 
clothc it, taking care not to interfere with the cf 
forti to restore breathing. 

Should these efforts not prove successful in 
five minutes, grasp the arm^ above the elbow, 
and draw them gently upwards above the hcad^ 
keeping them stretched upwards for two sec- 
onds. By this means air is drawn into the 
lungs. Then turn down the arms, and press 

tthcra gently for two seconds against the sides of 
the chest. By tliis means air is pressed out of 
Ihe lungs. Repeal these motions pcrsevcringly, 
about mtecn litne^ in a minute, until a spontane- 
ous effort to respire is perceived. 

After the natural breathing is restored, pro- 
mote warmth and circulation by rubbing the 
limbs upwards by means of HanneU, etc. By 
this process the blood is propelled towards the 
heart. Apply hot flannels, or bottles of hot 
water, to the pit of the stomach, the arm-pits, 
thighs, and soles of the feet. If the power of 
swallowing be restored, small quantilies of wine, 
warm brandy and water, or coffee, should be ad- 
ministered. Keep the palicnl in bed, and let 
sleep be encouraged. This treatment should be 

Ecrscvcrcd in for hours, as it '\<. a mistake to 
incy that persons are irrecoverable because life 
does not soon make its appearance. Do not al- 
low any crowding round the body,, and under no 
circumstances hold it up by the feet, or put it in 
a warm bath, unless under medical directions. 
Cautions, — Never rub the body with salt or 
spirits. Never roll the Iwdy on casks. Con- 
Imuc the remedies for 12 hours without ceasing. 
The appearances which generally accompany 
death by drowning arc suspension of the motion 
of the heart, the cyeUds half dosed and the pu- 
pils dilated, the jaws clenched, the fingers half 
contracted, the tongue approaches lo the under 
edge of the lips, and these, as well as the nos- 
trils, are covered with a frothy mucus, and cold- 
ness and pallor increase. 

DROiViVrNG, To Aff&rd AssUtame to a 
Person in Danger of. — If (tie spectator is unable 
to swim, and can make the sufferer hear, he 
ought to direct him to keep his hands and arms 
under water until assistance comes ; in the 
meantime throw towards him a rope, a pole, or 
anything that may help to bring him ashore or 
on board ; he will eagerly seize whatever is put 
within his reach ; thus he may, [>erlups, be res- 
cued from his perilous situation. 

The best manner in which an expert swimmer 
can lay hoUI of a person he wishes lo save from 
sinking, is to grasp his arm firmly between the 
shoulder and the elbow; this will prevent him 
from clasping the swimmer in his arms, and thus 
forcing him under water, and, perhaps, causing 

»him to sink with him. 
DRUJVA'EXXESS, Apparent Death /rvm. 
— Raise the head, unloose the clothes, maintain 
warmth of surface, and give a mustard emetic as 
soon as the person can swallow. 

EYE, Cinders er Dirt in the. — Tlie cinder or 
other foreign substance will usually be found just 

I underneath the margin of the upper lid, where 
Iherc is a groove or gutter for the flow of tears 



to the inner angle of the eye. Foreign btxlies 
tend to fall into this groorc, and if ihcy are an- 
gular, like a cinder, they adhere in spile of the 
current of tears which now flow in greater 
abundance, and sooner or later carry off smooth 
substances. To remove it, lake, say a lead pen- 
cil, in the fingers of the right hand, and with 
the thumb and forefinger of the left hand seize 
the eyelashes of the upper lid, and drawing the 
lid gently out from the ball, press the pomt of 
the pencil downward upon the upper surface of 
the Ud, about one-fourth of an mch from its 
margin, and at the same time carry the margin 
upward over the pencil by tlic eyelashes, when 
the lid will readily roll over the pencil so as to 
expose completely the gutter described, when 
the cinder or grain of sand may easily be re- 
moved with tlic point of a penal, or with the 
fmgcT covered by a handkerchief. The person 
a[>eralcd upton should look downward when the 
lid is being reverted, and upward when the ope- 
rator wishes to restore the lid. As soon as the 
substance is removed, bathe the eye with cold 
water, and exclude the light for a day. 

FA/4VT/4VG. — If a man faint axyay, instead 
of yelling out like a savage, or running to him 
to lifi him up, lay him at full length on his back 
on the floor, loose the clothing, push the crowd 
away, so as to allow the air to reach liim, and 
let him alone. Dashing water over a_pcrson in a 
simple fainting fit is a barbarity. The philos- 
ophv of a fainting fit is that the heart fails to 
scntl the proper supply of blood to the brain. 
If the person is erect, that blood has to lie 
thrown up hill; but if lying down, it has lo be 
projected horizontally, which requires less pow- 
er, as is apparent. 

FROST-BITE.— TvAx the person frost-bit- 
ten into a cold room in which there is no fire, 
and rub the parts frozen with snow or cold wa- 
ter. After a while friction with flannels and the 
hand is to be used, and warmth very gr.idually 
applied. If a limb is frozen, the cold applica- 
tions should be continued longer, and warmth 
be more gradually applied than when the whole 
body is frorcn. (.arc should be taken to handle 
the parts carefully, so as not to break off any 
parl^ as can so easily l>e done in its frozen state, 
/>vs/-« /W/ arc said lo be pcrm.incnlly relieved 
by two or three applications of a l>oiled lye of 
wood ashes, made so sirongas to be quite slip- 
|>cry between the fingers. This lye should sct- 
Ue, be drained off, and have a large handful of 
salt to each quart of lye mixcil with it. It 
should be quite warm, and the limbs be sub- 
merged for one or two hours. 

FIRE IN A CHIMNEY, To ExHnguUh.^ 
One of the simplest methods is to scatter a hand- 
ful of flowers of sulphur over the dullest part of 
the burning coals, the mephitic vapors arising 
from which -will not support combustion, and 
consequently extinguish tke flames. Another 
method is to shut the doors and windows, and 
to stop up the bottom of (he chimney with a 
piece of wet carpet or blanket, throwing a little 
water or flowers of sulphur, or salt, on the fire 
immediately before doing so. By this means the 
draught is stopped, and Ihe burning S(Kit must 
be extinguished for want of nir. If the chimney 
be stopi^ed at the top, instead of the bottom, the 
whole of the smoke must, of course, be driven 
into the apartment. If every fireplace were pro- 
vided with a damper, or shutter of sheet-iron or 



i 



ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES, 



iS 



SiuSkirntljr large lo cIkAc it thoroughly, 

firnin chimacyt would becDin« of Ijttle conse- 

it \\ov.M only be ncoMsary to apply 

di" t out 

FIl naOtita/it Sla6itcn, 

— TTwow tnc \a(Mic or harness, etc, ovef ihcm, 

■ad Uiey will come oat immediAtclr. 

FIRE, EifUffHf from, — i. lie oxreful lo 
'nt yoxkT%t\i witn the l>cit means of exit 



I 
I 



k 



ihe h^oir, b"th nt the top and boltorn. — 3. 
On tb-^ • 're you act. If in 

bed At ' r in a hUnkct or 

bedside cnrpri. < '|--n no ni'>re doofs than arc 
^Aolutcly necnuxy, and vhuc every door after 
yo«. — 3- There is always from eight to twelve 
mdiBi of pure air dote to the ground ; if you 
ihcrefDre, walk upright through tlie 
drop on your hands and knees, and thus 
pwpcji ^w A wetted filk handkerchief, a piece 
«f aoncl. or a worsted ktocking* drawn over 
Ike hot$ permiti brtatluag, and to a grcnt ex- 
•eat exdodci the smoke. — 4. If you can neither 
mfce your way upward or downward, get into a 
froat iootd; if there is a ^mily, see that they 
■re *tl collected here, and keep the door closed 
as m«c& AS poisiblc. for remember that smoke 
■l«sy% CoHows a draught, sind fin.* always ru!<he& 
lAcr flsukie. — 5. On no orcount throw vourself, 
or aUoir others (o throw thcmMrlves, from the 
wfc iiltf w . If no as&utance is at hand, and you 
■K Id extmnity. tie the sheets together, having 
ftitencd one si^ to some heavy piece of fumi- 
tare, and let down the women and children one 
by one. by tying the end of the line of sheets 
mmatd tbe «ai»t, and lowering them through 
the window that is over the door, rather than 
tbc <mr tliBl is over tlie area. You can easily 
Id yuKTAclf down after the helpless arc saved. 

A/A'/-, Cto!kij»g cn.—Xf a woman's clothe? 
cslch (ire, let her innantly roll herself over and 
o%«r on (he ground. If a man lie present, 
iM btm throw her down and do the like, and 
then wfiT' h-TT up in is tablecloth, rug, coat, or 
the fit i ' i^t is at luind. 

/7A ' Pmrnt.—\. Be care- 

M to kecj) I'lcii'.r tTiJt'.hci in metal l>oxcs, out of 
fhe leack of ciuldrcn.— a. Wax matches are 
wtinlsHTdanMrr.-. 1^ and shouM be kept out of 
wut m%j m T^ ; be careful in making 

CrC9 witb sK- ' ahcr light kindling. — 3. 

Do mA dcpout LijsX or wood a<ihcs m a wooden 
v^(Mct« snu be sure burning dnders ore extin- 
(oiBli^ before they are deposited. — 4. Never 
f«l iltwuwl upon the stove to dry, — 5. Do not 

ratKcs tir a bght under a staircase.— 6. Fill 
)>f only ia the daytime, and never 
fc^- r light. — y. Be cautious in cxtin< 

nuhLu^j: ctiiches, and never throw them on the 
Mdr.— A. Dn not throw a ci^ar stump upon tlie 

6Q0r, or late ": ' ..^... - sawdust, without 

hdB^certair: ' : Arc. — 9. [)o not 

Mmr out a r^: way on a shelf or 

■a y b e i c ^ae« until sure tiiat the snufi has gone 
nikrdy o«L— 10. A bghted candle ought not lo 
be ctack up aninst a irAme wall, or placed n^at 
pvlscia of the wood-work in a stable, mon- 
ihop, or aay other place. — 11. Never 
MICr ■ tarn ot siabJe at night with on uncovered 
S||H«-*HS. Ostlers iboald not tw allowed to 
abool st»bJ«%. — 13. Never take an o^ien 
I eiaiBcne s {»« mri«r, or lo search for an 
oC |p».— 14. |)o not put ga« or other 
curtAiAs. — 15. t>o not read in bed. 



tm 



cither by candle or lamp light ; place gloss shadM^ 
over gaslights in shop windows, and do at' 
crowd goods too close to them. — 16. No smofc-*' 
Ing .should ever be permitted in warehouses, es- 
pecially where giKxls arc tacked or cotton stored. 
— 17. Stove pijKs should be at least four inches 
from woodwork, and well guarded by tin or 
unc. — 18. Rags ought never to be stufred mto 
stove-pipe holes ; openings in chimney flues for 
stove pipes which are not use<I, ought always to 
be securely prolectctl by metallic coverings, — 19, 
Never close up a place of business in the eve- 
ning without looking well to the extinguii^hment 
of lights and the proi>er security of the fires. — 
20. When retiring lo bed at night, always Like 
every precaution to see that tlicre is no danger 
from your fires; that the gas, if you use it, is 
properly extinguished; and take care that yonr 
lighti are safe. 

/'0/SONS\ Gmcroi, AnlidaUs and Ruin to 
if Observtd. — The fir^t thing to l>e done, when a 
person has swallowed a poison of any kind, is 
to empty the stomach, by Liking a teaspoonful of 
common salt and the same quantity of ground 
mu!itar(l, stirred mpidly in a teacup of wuter, 
warm or cold, and swallowed instantly. Next 
give water to drink, cold or wann, as fast as 
possible, a gallon or more at a time, and as fast 
as Tomited drink more; tepid water is best, as 
it opens the pores of the skin, and thus gives 
the speediest cure to the poisonous article. If 
pains begin to be felt in the bowels, it shows 
that part at least of the poison hn^ passed 
downwartls; then large and repealed injections 
of tepid water should be given, the object in 
Ixjlh cases being to dilute the poison as quickly 
and as largely as possible. Do not wait for 
warm water — take tnat which is nearest at hand, 
cold or warm, far every second of time saved is 
of immense importance. It has been found 
that there is hardly any poison which, being di- 
luted in a sufficient quantity with water, may not 
prove inofTensivc. This virtue, coupled with its 
universal availability, nukes it a valuable reme- 
dial agent in poisoning. 

POISONS, Speaal, and their Antidotes.^ 
TTie following are some ni the more common ar- 
ticles of poison by which human life is endan- 
gered or destroyed, either by accident or design, 
together with the symptoms, attending their use, 
and the articles ancl measures which may lie used 
to destroy their efTccls and iave life. AlcohoI- 
— Symptami — Confusion of thought ; inability to 
walk or stand ; dizziness; )»tupor ; highly flushed 
or pale face; noisy breathing. Trfatment. — Ex- 
cite vomiting by large draughts of warm water, 
by tickling the throat, and by emetics ; use 
stomach pump; pour cold water on head and 
back of uic neck ; keep up motion ; whip the 
!>kin, polms of the hands and soles of the feet, 
with small cords or rods; give strong stimulants, 
as ammonia. AsiMONlA.— JVyw/^/tfww — Strong 
acrid and burning tAsie in the mouth; heat in 
the throat and stomach; nausea; vomiting; 
great prostration ; cold, clammy skin ; small, 
frequent pulse. Trtatment — .Vntidntc, vinegar 
ana water, or any dilute vegetable a^id, excite' 
vomiting ; give mucilages, emetics, calharticsy 
clytters, opiates. AytiAKOKTis or Nitric Acii». 
— Symptoms — Lips, mouth and throat of yellow 
color ; fuiin. burning and strangulation in swal- 
lowing; retching; vomiting of datk-co\otcA.W- 
kls, with shreds of mucous membnhixc *, s*N^\Vvn^ 



i6 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



I 



k 



I 
ft 



of the throat ; difficulty of swallowing and of 
breathing; skin cold and clammy; puUc quick 
and fiinalL Trtatmenl — (.loicincd ma^csLa, 
carbonate of magnesia, chalk or whiting in wa- 
ter; soim and water; ashes and water; milk; 
while or eggs ; oil and mudla^. Perhaps use 
a btomach pump. If suffocation is threatened, 
open the windpipe. Arsemc. — Sympt<*ms — 
Sickness; fainting; burning pain 'in the stomach; 
vomiting ; excessive thirst ; dryness, heat and 
tightness of the tliroat ; diarrhoea ; slow and in ■ 
terroitting pulse ; palsy; lethargy; insensibility; 
convulsions, etc. Treatment — J lydraled sesqui- 
oxidc of iron ; emetics of 3 to 5 grs. of sulphate 
of copper; 10 to 15 grs. sulphate of zinc; ipe- 
cac; mustard seed; tickle tne throat with the 
finger or a feather ; white of eggs ; milk ; gruel ; 
flaxseed tea ; warm water largely ; oil and lime- 
water ; calcined magnesia ; stomach pump. 
Bismuth.— .yvwi&wj — Metallic taste in the 
mouth ; heat and dryness of the throat ; severe 
burning heat in the stomach and bowels ; violent 
vomiting, sometimes of bloody matter ; profuse 
diarrha'a : pulse small, frequent and irregular ; 
skin cold and clammy; respiration difncult ; 
fainting; con^-ulsions, etc Treatment — Large 
portions of milk, w hitc of eggs, oil ; promote 
vomiting by large draughts of sickening drinks, 
and by ticlcUng the throat] with tlie fmger or a 
feather ; use stomach pnmp. Bustering 
Flies. — Symptoms — Burning in the throat and 
difficulty of swallowing; violent pains in the 
stomach and bowels ; nausea ; vomiting of 
bloody mucus j pain in the loins ; desire to void 
urine, and passage of bloody water, with great 
pain. Treatment — Emetics ; copious drauj^hts 
of warm water, milk, mucilaginous drinks; tick- 
ling the throat with the ungcr or a feather. 
Blue Vitriol {Sulphate rf Ccf per — Verdifpns.) 
— Symptomt — Strong metallic taste in the mouth ; 
belching, violent vomiting and purf^ng ; griping 
pains; cramps in the thighs and legs; frothing 
Kl the mouth ; headache, giddiness, convulsions, 
insensibilily, etc. 7'reatment — Early vomiting 
by large draughts of warm water and by tickling 
the throat ; strong coflcc. milk, white of eggs, 
wheat flour and water, mucilages; stomach 
pump. Carbolic Acid. — The best antidote for 
carbolic acid, afler the stomach pump, is large 
doses of olive or almond oil, with a little castor 
oil. Carbonic Acio Gas. — Found in wells, 
cellars, mines, etc., and largely given off in the 
burning of charcoal in close rooms. Symptoms 
— Drowsiness, di/ficully of respiration, suflroca> 
tion ; face swelled and more or less discolored ; 
sensation of great weight in the head ; verli^, 
loss of muscular power, and inscnsibihly. 
TreatmfHt — Admission of fresh air: friction, es- 
pecially over the lung>; arlilicial respiration, by 
infiating the lungs by the mouth or bellows ; ap- 
plication of strong stimulants to the mouth or 
nose ; cold water tx>ured upon the head and back 
of the neck. If tnc l>oily be cold, a warm bath. 
CoB.iLT. — Of importance from its extensive use 
as fly-poison, children having eaten it and thereby 
been poisoned. Sympt<>mi — Heat and pain in 
the throat and stomach ; violent retching and 
vomiting; cold and clammy skin ; small ai^ fre- 
ouent pulse; respiration hurried, anxious and 
aifficull ; diarrhcca, etc. Treatment— ^Vwc freely 
milk, while of eggs, wheat flour and water, nau- 
sc0tjftff jcAs, mucilages, emciics and clysters 
CoMitcfs/vjc SL£Uma Ti::— Carelcsily made use of 



in marw families as a bed-bug poison. Symp- 
toms — Strong metallic or coppery t.islc in the 
mouth ; burning beat and constriction of the 
throat; severe pain in the stomach and 1>oweIs; 
violent vomiting and purging ; countenance 
swollen and flustied, or anx.ious and pole ; pulse- 
small, frequent and irregular ; skin cold ~^ 
clammy ; tongue white and shriveled ; rcspiratiodT 
difficult ; fainting, convulsions and insensibility. 
Treatment — Albumen, which ia contained in the 
whites of eggs, abundantly; wheal flour in wa- 
ter ; liquid starch, milk, iron filings ; excite vom- 
iting early by lar^ draughts of warm water ; 
mustard seed, tickling the ihroiil. and emetics; 
use stomach pump. Deadly Nightshade. — 
Children are sometimes poisoned by eating the 
berries, which have a sweetish taste. Symptoms 
— Dryness and stricture of the throat ; nausea, 
vertigo, dilated pupils, dimness of sight, laugh- 
ter, delirium ; r^ness and swelling uf the face ; 
convulsions, general paralysis, and insensibility. 
Treatment — Kmetics of sulphate of /inc, (10 to 
IS grs,,) or copper, (3 to 5 grs. ;) large purga- 
tives, and clysters ; take vinegar and water, or 
other vegetable adds, freely; bitter infusions £ 
lime-water; stomach pump; cold water pou 
on the head, and strong stimulants. rooL 
Parsley. — Taken by mistake for common pars*' 
ley. Symptoms — Heat of throat, and thirsts' 
oppression at the stomach ; nausea, vomiring^ 
and occasionally purging ; cold and moist skin ; 
small and frequent pulse ; headache, vertigo and 
delirium. Treatment — Kmetics of zinc or co 
per; warm water; milk; flaxseed or chamo-' 
mile tea; tiurgativcs, clusters, warm bath, stim- 
ulants ana opiates. roxt^LOVK. — Symptfi/ns — 
Intermitting pulse, vertigo, )ndistiru:t vision, 
nausea, vomiting, hiccough, cold sweats, delir- 
ium, syncoi)C and convulsions. 7Wafment — 
Emetics, followed by strong stimulants, (brandy, 
ether, ammonia, J opiates, counter-irritation; 
mustard-seed pi.tuiticcs or blisters to the pit of 
the stomach; cold cfTusions. FUNCl'SES,— Or 
poisonous mushrooms, (Kungi,) taken by mis- 
take for eatable mushroonu. Symptoms — Pain 
in the stomach, nausea, vomiting and purging}, 
great thirst, colic pains, cramp, convulsions* 
vertigo, delirium. Treatment — Emetics, purga» 
tives, mucilages, acid drinks stimulants, (ether, 
brandy, ammonia,) opiates, hitlers. Hku.lsor£ 
{Im/ian Poke,) — Sometimes used in a pnisonou*^ 
quantity as a dressing for a sore. Symptom- 
Violent vomiting and purging; Woody stools 
great anxiety; tremors, vertigo, fainting, sinkin, 
of the pulse, cold sweats, and con^ndsions. 
Treatment — Excite speedy vomiting by large 
flraughts of warm water, molasses and water, 
tickling the throat with the finger or a feather, 
and emetics; give oily and mucilaginous drinks* 
oily purgatives, and clysters, acids, strong cdHTc^ 
camplior and opium. }Ikmlock. — Symptt 
Dimness of signt, delirium ; swelling of the ab^ 
domen, with pain, vomiting and purging. 
Treatment — Emetics of sulphate of zinc or cop- 
|»r, assisted by copious draughts of warm wntcfa 
milk, flaxseed lea, chamomile, etc ; st 
pump ; pouring cold water en the head and 
oack ; stimulants and acids. Henbane. — 
Sympbfmj — Apj>carancc of intoxication ; ^JckneAj, 
Stupor, dimness of ■ '■ 'Illa- 

tion of the pupils, '»*— 

Emetics, with strong ^umdi-inis. a-, Mi^Miate of 
line or copper^ tartar emetic or ijiccac, witb 



ACCfDEfrrS Ar/D EMEKCENCrES. 



17 



IT, clfct; 

^^V 

— 'Symptomt- 1. nou 

•«, maiuing, [ 1 colic 

fain*. diArrbira* b«^iiitUDit;> cuii^iiputtMn. Trait- 
•w<»l— \*U»rgw, Irmon-juice, or any vcgt^tablc 



Mia, frerfy; 




-.1, 






nics, wirm 
vf Silver.) 

: jumcli, ruu- 

; bamctmics extreme 

■ I my skin; small, frc- 

l^uUe ; rcspir.ition difHicuU ; 

'13. Treatnunt — Common 

' ' A.irm wfttcr; irri 

\v'arm l>alh. pur* 

-AFmoN.— Avffi/*- 

vtmuting. pain in the stomAcn, 
^ the V'wels, with violent pury- 
'. frcqucn! and irregular 
;<; vumitint (if nut al- 
' ' ■ L* of nauseating 
1 emetics, muci- 
Mo.NK's Hoou 
-icmr — Nausea, violent vom- 
. vcrligOi cold sweats, dclir- 
!■-. Trratntfnt — Excite vomiting 
free enough) by emetics, large 
--» wxmi water, nioLisses and water, 
and chamumile leas, etc. ; acid 
ilrfAlSy Mlinalantv. brandy, ether, animonia, opi- 
Ma. li»x'xrAi.\ LavreI- — C)f great import- 
9Xtiat\ *f boney mule from its flowers is poison- 
<XDL, oshI blf^ which feed upon its buds m win- 
ter »rc IlLcwivr poisnnou*. Symptt^ms — Ciiddi- 
*1,..1m,.[»v of heal and cold, sickness 
repeated vomiting and purg- 
'■nt and weak pul&c. extreme 
Tspiralion, convulsions, etc 
;, mtidU^nou!; and nausca- 
■ and water, 
!'_-rs, strong 

;--. - .--. ^^.-. -..usiun, stom- 

^{wvp. MfWATIc Acil>,— Ji/m//i?mj— Kx- 
trone tmUtioQ ; burning and sen^e of ^trangu- 
fafioo in iwillowing; discharge of shreds of 
MOCDift wcmbrane: swelling of thetliruat; dif- 
firaky of rwaJlowing and breathing \ >.kia cold 
apil covered »ilh dammy iwcal ; pub.c quick 
aMSj^Mll; Uninr niciiiTti.irio of tin- niout}i and 
fhruaf psrtial^ nt — Carbu- 

<a, chalk, or 

.n-l waLct, ashes and 

dk. oil, etc. Plaster 

■>: tTOten dowTi to a paste 

n ; carbonate of soda, with 

rj elm. If iuffocatlon is 

'(C windpipe. MlRlATEOF 

yi — Pain, bnmmg, weight 

vcT'.igo, dimness of viiion, ring 

t, pain m the head, tliroMiitig in 

,^,1...;. .- 1 ... . '- .fment 

. I '.lies, 

I the 

<-u:h pump; uputes in 

'p TIM.— S>— //»A'*«r^ — 



kin, 
i--ions 
; cd , cmet 
.xkhng the I 



( usrtial! 




H* 



throat, hot cloths to the stomach and bowels, 
soothing and opiate clysters. NnnE. — Some- 
times token by mistnLc for sonic other salt. 
Symptoms — Intense pain in the stomach, nausea* 
vunutiu^. profuse purging, blotidy stools, severe 
colic pains in the lower part of the bowcJs, diffi- 
cult breathing, great pro^itration, fainting, con- 
vulsions. Treatment — Flaxseed ten, barley-wa- 
ter, molasses and water, tickling the throat, 
emetic!!, ojMutcs, stimulants, brondy. ether, etc 
Nux Vomica or Strych-ma. — i>ymp(cmi — An 
extremely persistent bitter taste in the mouth, 
muscular spo&ms, great rigidity, limbs tixcd and. 
stretched out, jaws spasmodically »hut, drowsi- 
ness. If the symptoms are prolonged, nausea^ 
vomiting, difficulty of rcipirnlion, asphyxia. 
Treatment — 'ITie Cannalts India (a variety of 
the hemp plant) has been rcccmmendcd ols on 
antidote \ emetics, to produce immediate vomit- 
ing ; stomach pump ; vinegar, and other vege- 
table acids, in water. OlL OK CFl>AJt. — SymA- 
Awi/— Heat in the stomach, followed immedi- 
ately by con\'uUions, with frothing at the mouth; 
Imlsation ceases early. The body is warm a 
ong time after death. IVeatmcHt — Vomiting to 
be exdied as early as possible by large draughts 
of warm water and other nauseating dnnks, by 
ground mustard-seed, and ticUing the throat ; 
use the stomach pump as early as possible. OlL 
OF Rt'E. — Symptoms — Drj-ne^s of mouth and 
throat, thirst, heat and pam in the stomach and 
bowels, headache and delirium. Treatment — 
Vomiting to be excited as quickly as possible by 
large draughts of warm water and ether nause- 
ating drinks, by ground mu'itard-sccd, ticlilmg 
the throat, emetics, acids, slumach pump. OiL 
OF Savin. — A])'»/^/.>mi— Headache, strong gen- 
eral excitemeni, delirium, acule pain in the 
stomach and bowels, nausea, vomilmg, purging, 
convulsions. Treatment — Vomiting 10 be ex- 
cited by copious draughts of warm water, mus- 
tard-seed, tickling ihe throat, and tmeiics of 
sulphate of cine or copper; acid drinks, muci- 
lages, stomach pump. OiL of Tansy. — Symp- 
tows — Heat in the stomach, followed imme<li* 
ately by convulsions and frothing at the mouth; 
pulsation feeble, and soon lost. Treatmenh— 
Vomiting to be instantly excited by copious 
draughts of warm water and oilier nauseating 
drinks, mustard seed, tickling the throat, sul- 
phate of line or copper, acid drinks, mucdagcs, 
stomach pump. Oil of Tar. — Symptenis — 
Si»ectly insensibility; laboriou-S rattling breath- 
ing; coldness of ine extremities; contraction of 
the pupils; sufliision of the eye; feeble pulse. 
Treatment — Vomiting lo be instantly excited by 
copious draughts of worm water, etc. OlL OF 
VifRioi-. — Symptffwis — Extreme irritation, pain, 
burning, and sense of strangulation in swallow- 
ing ; retelling, vomiting, discharge of dark-col- 
ore(i fluids and shreds of membrane from the 
stomach; swelling of the throat; diffic-uUv of 
swallowing and breathing ; cold, clammy skin ; 
ouick and small pulse. 1 lie lining membrane of 
the mouth and throat is prirti.illy destroyed, and 
is of ft white color. Treatment — Carbonate of 
magnesia, calcined magnesia, chalk or whiting, 
mixcii with water, soap, or ashes and water; 
lime from the pla«lere<i wall l>cat into a paste 
with water, white of cgps, milk, oU; pcthapi 
the stomach pump, btil with great caie. W wA- 
focalion is threatened, open \\\c ivm4\A^- 
OJ'JtJU.— JTj^m/A/iTM— Uiddiac&&, diovr&mtv^« «i 



« 




i8 



DICTJO?rARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



I 



iCTisibility, stupor ; pulse at first qukk and ir- 
regular, and breaming hurried; afterwards 
breathing is slow and noisy, and the puUc slow 
A»d fulL In favorable cases there is early nau- 
aea and vomiting. Twatnunt — Excite instant 
vomiting by mustard-seed, copiout draughts of 
warm water, and tickling the throat ; give sul- 
phate of zinc (lo to 15 grs.) or copper (3 to 5) ; 
use ilie stomach pump early. Give strong stim- 
ulants, ether, brandy, ammonia, strong coffee 
and lea. Pour cold water on the head and back 
of the neck, and whip the skin, the palms of the 
hands, and soles of tlie feet with small cords or 
rods. Phosphorous. — Hot taste of garlic or 
onions in the mouth, violent pains in the stom- 
adi, nausea and vomiting, followed by great ex- 
citement of the arterial vessels ; convulsions. 
Trentment — Fill up the stomach with magnesia 
and water ; give emetics and nauseating drinks 
to keep up the vomiting. OxAi.ir Acm. — Gen- 
erally Liken accidentally from its rcscmblanra to 
Kp»om salts. Symptoms — Hot, burning taste in 
swallowing ; immediate and constant >'omiting, 
the matter thrown up being of a greenish or 
brownish color, and extremely acid ; somclimes. 
severe p.lin ; collapse; puke sm:dl, irrvguLir, 
and scarcely perceptible ; numbness and spasm>i. 
Tr^niment — Carbonate of magnesia, calcined 
magnesia, chalk or whiting, made into a cream 
with water, and administered freely; lime-water 
vith oil ; emetics, mucilages ; stomach pump. 
Potash. — Symptoms — Strong acid taste in the 
mouth ; burning heat in the throat and stomach ; 
sometimes vomiting and purging, with colic 
pains ; cold, clammy skin ; sm-tll, frequent 

fmlsc. Treatment — Vegetable acids, \-inegar, 
emonjuice, or tartaric acid in water ; emetics, 
clysters, opiates. Pmrssic Arm. — Symptoms — 
Instant sensation of weight and pain in the 
head ; nausea, quick pulse. In large doses, in- 
stant insensibility, stupor, convulsions ; loss of 
pnlftation, very slow and convulsive breathing. 
Trtatmtnt — Application of strong ammonia lo 
the nostrils, and stimulating lintmcnls lo the 
chest ; cold water poured upon the head and 
spine ; chlorine gas ; a dilute solulinn of chlo- 
ride of fcoda or lime. PoisoN Ivy. — A running 
vine which is found covering walls, shrubs, 
trees, and in meadows. This plant, by contact, 
and ujion many without contact, produces vie- 
lent ery»ipetatuus inflammation, particularly ^-ith 
ihe face and hands. The symploms are itching, 
redness, burning, swelling, watery blisters, and 
subsequently peeling of the skin. These effects 
are experienced soon after exjjosurc, and usually 
begin to decline within a week. Treatment — 
Bathe the parts freely with spirits of nitre. If 
the blisters be broken, so as to allow the nitre to 
I»enctrate the cuticle, more ihaa a single applica- 
tion will rarely be necessary. Another remedy 
is to take a handful of quick-lime, dissolve it in 
water, let it stand half an hour, and then paint 
the poisoned parts with it. Three or four ap- 
plications will generally cure. Another is to 
bathe the affected iwrt'i well witli sweet (or olive) 
oil, taking internally 2 tablespoonfuls 3 times a 
day. Anointing the fncc and hands with sweet 
oil will prevent poisoning by the i\'y. Poison 
DOf-wo«ii. — A small hut beautiful shrub or 
tree, from 10 to 15 feet high, having a dark gray 
bark, its smaller branclic of a lighter color, and 
its cxUeme twigs red. Ils effects arc similar to 
those of Poison Ivy, but more powerful. The 




Twisonous principle is most energetic during the 
burning of the wood. Symptoms and trcalmcnt 
the same as for the ivy. St;GAR of Lead or. 
Whitk Lead. — Symptoms — A burning, prick- 
ling sensation in the throat, with dr>-ne5s and 
thirst; uneasiness at the pit of the stomach; 
nausea, vomiting; colic pains, con»;ltPation of 
the bowels, ct)ld skin, feeble and irregular pulse, 
great prostration of (he strength, cramps, numb- 
ness, paralysis, gidtluiess, torpor, insensihility. 
Treatrnefit — Epsom or Glauber salts, (sulphates 
of raagneMa and soda.) mucilages, nftk, white of 
eggs, wheat flour with water, emetics; stomach 
pump. Tartar Emktic. — Symptoms — Nausea- 
severe vomiting, hiccough, burning heat and 
pain in the stomach, colic pains, violent purg- 
ing, small, frequent and hard pulse ; cramps, 
vertigo, fainting, and great prostration. Treat- 
ment — Tea made of oak bark or I'enivian bark* 
strong green tea, mucilages, warm drinks, opium* 
opiate clysters. Tobacco. — Symptoms — Severe 
nausea, vomiting, headache, sudden sinking of' 
the strength, cold sweats, convulsions. Treat- 
ment — Emetics, copious draughts of worm wa- 
ter, tickling the throat with the finger or fvathefi 
purgatives, acid drinks, stimulants, brandy, 
camphor, etc. Tiior.v Apple or Stramomvm. 
Symptoms — Vertigo, delirium, stupor, convul- 
sions, paralysis, cold sweats, feeble and irregular 
pulse. Trrettinent — Emetics of sulphate of zinc 
or copper, musiard-.seed, tickling the throat, 
slomach pump. WitlTK VlTKloi. or Sil-rHATB 
lit" Zinc — Symptoms — Hitter taste in the mouth, 
with sensation of choking; nausea and severe 
vomiting ; pain in the stom.ich and bowels ; 
purging, difficult breathing, quick and small 
pulse, coldness of the cxircmitics. Treatment — 
Albumen, white of egcs, wheat flour and water, 
milk abundantly, infusions of tea, oak bark, etc ; 
emetics, purgatives, and opiate clysters. 

POISOXOUS DKUGS, Labels fcr,— Very 
many cases of accidental poisoning would be 
prevented if druggists would print labels that 
would not only give the name of the poison and 
the dose, but would also give the anliiJule. A 
transcript fur such a label might be as fol- 
lows : 

UAUDANtIM — poison. 

Datf — For an adult, from twenty to forty 
drops. Should not be given to chUdren except 
in very small doses. 

AntiJote, — In case of accident, use active 
stimulants. Coffee, tea, brandy, and ammo- 
nia, 

THUNDER STOKMS, Safety During, 
I. The opening of the doors antl windows of 
house, or the keeping of them closed, will in 
neither case influence the passage of the electric 
current. — 2. Sitting by a window is not only as 
safe, but probably more safe, than some other 
p.irts of the house. It is, however, less safe tOi 
sit near the fireplace. The chimney, being Oi«; 
most prominent part of the house, is the poin6 
generally on which the lightning strikes. Tlie 
best place is Xo sit or be as near the middle of 
the room as convenient. — 3. If in Ijcd, and the 
bed he as far as any other part of the room from 
the fireplace or its metallic furniture, it would 
[irobably be safer to remain in it during the 
storm.— 4. It is uAen recommended to go down 
stairs, it being supposed that a cellar, being be- 
low the surfiace ot the eortli, is the safest place of 



Acc/Dsyrs at^d EnfEnaEm:rEs, 



>9 



I 
I 



t' 



c froin wit 



T it mu.\t be 

out of the 

' louiU ; Oic 

-r, may ac- 

I he point III 

's aic 

iricitv 



i (if)urs, av. 

%'■■ 11 lrecs» lo i li 

1!i- uiuicr storm; but UiUly cx- 

Y wet; and if on hiKh ^jround 

»K^T.- ;;*t-n-- ^ ■- '■ ■■ ■■ :. ' ■■ '" 

tSJtt tlwTrlC ■- . 

k : 1 lie down, ia&icad of mainiaining 

•ii .lion. — 7. Avoid standing close to 

■ij lutioUic txxiies, as lead pipes, iroa rail- 
■tn, etc 

iOf/i-^M^' T-^-- .,-.,,...._. ^re, at firsl, 
diflkttb;, ^' the he*d, 

wUb (n-i ily; gradual 

tlofconr real iirmnc$>s, followed 

W(U&... .; and pain in the breast, 

■■OiNlni^ t.> Uic lock. JvL-mcdics for the prompt 
■ulpcnBUlcnt cure ofthiv disease are unknown. 
The «»m« lAn be cunlruUed by the u^e of 
cUurofom or ciher. taken into the stomach or 
I7 iahalabon. llic ImwcU should \x freely 
■owj tivwairm- water injections. Rapid friction 
oTliic whole hiviy by attendants will be advan- 
tUBOVi. ' ! that the application of spirits 

•Ttwp- face and neck will etTect a 

Cfts** ijws are firmly closed, the 

<b- 1 will allow the jiaAsage of 

i»" ^. fooiJ in a fluid state can lie 

into the rectum. 11je»c r*- 
rv lo the nuurtshmeul of ihe 
pidcVt, coju CMS av' ' a the disease is 

•edml oommg on. : .-ces of soft wood 

BC plaoed between 1:.. .., ^.- .iud lower jaw, one 
oi <ai£ sadc« so that ihcy may be kept asun- 

s' AND WASPS,— 
h very painful, are not 
person, unless in the 
The sling of a bee, 
l«rt)«d at the end. is alwayi^ left in the 
■bI ahoold, when pos^iMe, be carefully 
TtiU of a wi '.-d only, io 

tto dkey on rting moTv w hich a tree 

«aB»o«d». If, *Arr •' ' 

trmiad, tfae vound ' 

Am xr: _; will result. — 2. 

'h V iiter. and ap- 

^.lshed 

wing 




yW isiQc-iu 
«fl,w3l|nvY 



Sfai Cht 



w^ icxuU m a ccrUrn cure, bcc 



SUFFOCATJOy FROXr XOXfOUS 
04SBS, S — RexBovc to the frub air ; di&b 



cold vinegar and water in the face, neck, and 
breast; keep up the ^varmlh of Ihe body; if uec- 
cssaiy Ai>ply mustanl poultices to the soles of ihc 
feel, ana try ai-liliciai respiration as in Drvwn- 

SUNSTROKE. — In every instance where 
one is found dinting in the street on a hot day. 
the fir^t thing is lo remove the person to as cool 
and !>li;uJy a ]>l(u:e as can 1« found, and, if p)ssi- 
blc, to where a draft c>i Air is blowing at the 
lime. Bvbtandcrs and mere curioiut iillcrs should 
be kept from crowding around. It should be 
iindervtocMl that there are two morbid conditions 
r&tuliini; from excessive heat. Thcw differ 
' t in their iymptoms, and require a 
: different treatment. The hrsl of 
_.ars during hot weather, after undue ex- 
ertion on the part uf the person thiu affected. 
'Ilic man is fault, jicrhaph unable to move, al- 
though he can generally be roused; he has a 
feeble pulse and a cool and moist &kiu. Here 
iherc is si- '■ - ' -- of nervous power, and re- 
lief is pi' icd by removing him to a 
cool, sna'i; , , I'l^'ing cold water or ice to 
the head, and adminutering iced brandy and 
water, iced wine and waler, or other stimubnu 
In the other and more fatal form of this aflcclion 
a dilTerent set of symptoms show themselves. 
Here the patient suddenly laJU to the ground, 
completely unconscious, his skin is pungently 
hot and dry, liis breathing hurried, convulsions 
are not uncommon, and, if proper treatment be 
not promptly resorted lo, death soon takes 
place. In this, alii^o, the patient should be 
promptly removeil to a «ihady nnd cool spot, per- 
fectly private, so that ihe crowd may be kept off 
without fail. His clothing should l>c stripped 
on*, and his whole bo<ly should be rubbed with 
ice from head to fool, and pieces of ice should 
be kept under the armpits. I'his should be 
steadily persevered with until Ihe patient is re- 
stored, or until a doctor arrives, or until it is 
plain that the patient is Iwyond recovery. 

THRO A T, f'i>nij^n BmiVs in tjit. — Persons 
are frequently in danger of .^ufTocation from fish- 
bones, pins, etc., which ^tick to the throat, 
llic moment an accident of this kind occurs, de- 
sire the patient to be perfectly still; open his 
mouth, and look into it. If vou sec the obstruc- 
tion, endeavor to seixc it with vuur finger and 
thumb, or a long, slender pair o}" pincers. If it 
cannot l>e got up, and is not of a nature to do 
any injury in the stomach, push it down with the 
handle of a spoon, or a flexible, rciund piece of 
whalcl^one, the end of which is neatly covcre<l 
with a roll of linen, or anything that may be at 
hand. If you can neither get il up or down, 
place six grains of tartar emetic in ihe patient's 
mouth. As it dissolves, il will make him exces- 
sively sick, and, in conbetjucnce of the relaxa- 
tion, the l>onc. or whatever it may be. will de- 
scend into the stomach, or l>c ejected from the 
mouth. If a p*"' hulton, or otner metallic or 
pointed body, nos been ^wallowctl, or pushed 
mto the stomach, make the patient eat plentifully 
of thick rice pudding, and endeavor to prevent 
him from goiog 10 stool for at least twelve 
hourv 



30 



DICTIONARY OF RVERY-DAY WANTS. 




APIARY. 



I 



I 



NATURAL mSTORY OF TffE BEE. 

— A community or family of bees i^ generally 
unitcr^tood to contain from twelve tu thirty thou- 
sand iiiilividuaU, ALiout nine-tenths uf the 
vhoic number are common or working bees, and 
the remainintj tenth male or drone bcc*. an<I at 
the head of the commonwealth there is a person- 
age who is entitled •' the quecu" or mother 
bee. 

The Queen, or the Mother Bee.— 
This imi>ortant individual di/Tcrs In her appear- 
ance and her functions from all the other mem- 
ber's of tl»e family. She is darker, longer, and 
more taper in figure than the common bcc ; her 
legs are longer, although her wings are shorter, 
and underneath her color is tawny or yeUowish 
brown. She is furnished with a sting like the 
working bees, which, however, she uses, it is 
said, only on very important occasionn. She is 
the motlier of ttie whole community; all the 
working Ijeea, ihe drones, and those intended to 
be future qoeens, proceed alike from her eggs, 
of which, according to some writers, she has 
sometimes been known to produce a hundred 
thousand in tine year ; a number not too Urge 
when new swarms arc considered, as well as the 
deaths and casualties continually occurring 
among the members of the hive. The mother 
bee not only ocimpics the maternal relalion to 
her immense family, but exercises over them an 
influence analogous to that of n sovereign, a cir- 
cumstance from which her appclbtion of queen 
is justly derived- On her presence depends nut 
only the prosperity but the very existence of the 
bee nation ; and with thi& influence cxerciiicd by 
the qneen herself, a corresponding instinct is in 
operation in all the then members of the com- 
munity, which may justly be compared with 
what we understand by llic term "loyalty." 
Ilie absence of the insect monarch, whether 
from death or any other cause, speedUy entails 
disorder, confusioix and anarchy ; all labor is ter- 
minated, and the bees disi^>erse. 

The Working BLts.— These arc distinct, 
both from the queen and the drones, being 
smaller, and having the charge of making inces- 
sant provision for Die wcU-bcing and sustenance 
of ihe whole family. Their dauy toils ore an il- 
lustration of what is called the "division uf la- 
bor," the value of which was unknown to man 
for centuries after the bee had been taught to 
avail herself of the system. Some of the work- 
ers occupy Ibeniselvcs in making tlie combs 
from the woi, which is a natural secretion ; oth- 
ers keep the eggs worm which are to prwlucc 
future members of the hive; others encage in 
fec<ling the queen and the larv.i: or y<.iung Dro<Kl; 
Others lake charge of the ventilation and clean- 
iing of the hive ; some lake un them the duty ol 
guarding the common habitation from attack, 
and warning its inhabitants of impending dan- 
ger ; ollicrs wing (heir way to tne &clds and 
S aniens, and collet with indrlatigablc industry 
le Carina and honey that arc so imperatively re- 
fuirrd. 
7'U£ J?JtoA£ itfics:— Tliesc Are larger, darker. 



and more hairy than the workers ; they have no 
stings, their motions on the wing are heavier, 
and the sound of their humming so much deeper 

' as to give rise lo their characlerisiic appellation. 

j The ilrone^ lake nu part in the process o( col- 
Icciing or storing honey, nor, indeed, in any of 
the various industrial occujrationa in which the 
workers engage. Neither their instincts nor or- 
ganization ailapt them to these ofliccs ; but Infi- 
nite Wisdom has called them to the i>errormancc 
of functions no Ic^-s important. S',>me highly m- 
leresting and marvelous instincts are illustratetl 
in the history of tt»c drones. They are, as al- 
ready staled, unt)ro<luctive — that is to say, they 
do nothing to add to the wealth of the commu- 
nity. As mere consumers, the drones seem at 
certain periods to lie regarded by the working 
bees OS an expensive as well as a useless class, 
only worthy of being destroyed or exjKlled. 
Accordingly, if the necessity of swarming ceases, 
and no royal cells are constructed, or the royal 
brood have l>een prcmaturdy destroyed, the in- 
stinct of the workcis prompts thcni to the ex- 
pulsion of the drones, against whom a fierce war 
i» declare*!, ending in their extermination. On 
the other luind, if the queen bee is forcibly taken 
from the hive, Ihe instinct of the workers leads 
them to spare the lives of the drones, who con- 
tinue to be boarded and lodged at tlie public ex- 
pense, in consequence, apparently, of the pre- 
sumption, that although the cost of their supjmrt 
may l)C considerable, circumstances may arise to 
render Ihe very existence of the community de- 
pendent upon them, 

SWARMINO. — The instinct that prompts these 
wonderful insects to Usue from the hive and es- 
tablish new colonies, is called into exercise when 
ll»e hive contains too great a numlwr of inhabi- 
tants, and llicrc is not a sufficient space either 
for breeding young bees or storing honey. The 
crowded stale of the hive renders emigration in- 
disi:)ensable, and arrangements are made for the 
important event. Koynl cells arc formed, and 
yi>ung queens arc anxiously and tenderly fostered 
m them, since without them emigration is im- 
practicable. In these circumstances the bees 
cease to gather honey, and a period of idleness 
occurs which terminates with swarming. The 
owner of the bees, therefore, must either multi- 
ply the number of his hives, bv allowing them 
to swarm. - ' ■ ^-v prevent tne swarming bv 
furnishir.;: ■ .icxommodalioii for bleed- 

ing and «.' „ ' -ncy ; for it has been found 

thai bees can be controlled perfectly in ibis mat- 
ter, divided as much as the owner finds d«?str- 
oblc, or swarming prevented entirely if he wishes 
it. 

Artificial Swarming. — This shculd be un- 
dertaken only when honey is abundant in the 
fields and the n'ghts warm. To divide them, 
have a liivc at hand of the same sire and pattern 
OS your others. Tlifn from four hives lake each 
two from ( ' ; in the new t 

plying tb. '■ with em; 

Tfccn mov. V .;. ^ouhave not 

a rod or more away lo a new place, 




at 



f,i.- .^v.«,„ .Kw ,-„- -'ood. This should 

n: day, when many 

' These will corae 

< aid pliiiir, and find it <<trange; 

a> tirirf-t nnd y'lng h<?rs hatch- 

4flii c^;., ■ r queen, 

will At ! remain 

work .t-^ ,...,,;, ,:.vi -,^ ,.,,. . ...^ jjroccis 

be repeated ercry two weeks untiJ you have 

'irr! iii?fli.icnt increase. The hives from 

c combs and the ones M'hich 

V place, will lose so many Iwci 

[ think of swarminc. but will 

r up their loss, and \x l»ctter 

i, I.I I. ,Ti r .1 .ri Croni them. 

ide bees, and 

I iM.. — Iiumcflintcly after 

rm open the luves, (you 

"" r this, ) destroy cv- 

'he end of five days 

.- .'.J the combs again, 

! cell that may now ap- 

' «avefl at first. But if 

:: queens is allowed to 

f .".'fore anything; is done, 

Um ic'iri t; .'AMiuiii.g will rise to such a pitch 

t&Jt jrou cknnot illay it, and the old hive may 

t. 



destitute. The best way is to make 
nil an artificial one lieiore or soon 
clh arc fUrtcd. Then at the end 
'•^y all cclJs but one, as above. 



of their lop ciigcs to receive the frames. Now 
nnil these pieces together, .nnd we have a bus 
'3lj' by 19 inches upon the inside, with neither 
tup nor tN>tlum. The bottom board is Ij*^ by 
26 inches, is fitted inside the hive, the Inick tnd 
placed 4 inches from the bottom, forming an in- 
clined plane, and extending in front of the hive, 
making a cunvenicntalighliug booid for the bees. 
An inch auger hole is bored in each upper oir- 
ner of the iK'ttom bf>ard, and covered upon the 
under f.tde with wire cloth, for ventilation. A 
4trip 13^^ by 3 inches is fitted in the aperture at 
the front of the hive. TA^ AfovahU I'rauus arc 
coch composed of 4 piece* — the top piece being 
I by l^i inches by 30 inches long; the end 
piece<i are 1^ by I inch, and lo^ inches in 
Icnph; the bottom piece i by )^ an inch, and 
18 inches in length. The bottom edge of the 
top piece is beveled to an edge ; the end pieces 
niiilcd to it an inch from each end, and the bot* 
lorn piece is nailed on the end of these. Tliis 
gives us a frame 17 inches long by 10 deep, in- 
side measurement. Nine of these will go into 
the hive, leaving a % inch space all around, and 
Iwtwecn each frame. This gives us a hive hold- 
ing 2,295 <^ubic inches in the main npartmeiil. 
'J he Cit 



I 
\ 



1^ 

ongd 
cangi' 

in? i 

t 



«nI onl ssmI dt>«c \o tin 
wr tnrli in front. If a 



e two feet smiare 
_ .„ inward, ^o that no bee j 
.vay from the hive without fly- 1 
I cA-ir'^e, prevent the escape of 
i-turn. 
■nfiS — maybe pre- 
uij; ■. \< ■ '^c hive shaded- 

ird, except a 
.0, set in the 



^t 

i 



r/ of the Hive should Ijc made 16 by 31 »i 

inches aiul 9 inche.s in depth; nail iij>oq top uf 

this a board 20 by 26 inches for a cover. Now 

wc have a cap which will fit over the lop of the 

hive, and Li held in place by strips an inch 

square, nailed upon the outside of the hive, ^ 

warms, clip the wings of the j an inch below its top. The form ol this hive is 

■n yard" in front of the similar to that used by many of the most sue- 

with , ccssful bcc-keepcis in our country. 

Another Kxceijj:nt Beehive. — The prin- 
d)Kd object in making a beehive should be to 
moke it a non-swarmer, and seaire the largest 
amount of surplus honey m the best shape for 
the markol. This point can l»c attained by ih 
use of a device called a " queen-yard." m»le 
follows : Nail together strips of Imards to maki 
a box 18 or 30 inches s<|uare, by 3 or 4 inch 
r 4S hoars, And give, perhaps, a pound j deep, with a floor of thin Ixiards, except a i^trip 

4 inches wide, which should lie of wirc-cloth, 
for sifting out dirt, and for ventilation. Fasten 
strips of Un 1 indies wide around the inside at 
ihc top, parallel to the floor ; and moke an 
opening in the side next to the wire doth, in the 
floor, c>:>rresponding to the entrance of the hive. 
I'aint the upper side of tlie tin some light color. 
In swarmin^-limc place this yard in front of the 
hive. Previously examine the hive, and dip the 
wings of tlie queen. When a swarm is disj-oscd 
to issue, all the l)ces arc obliged to pass through 
this yard, and the queen, being unable to fly, or 
crawl over the projecting tins, will return to the 
hive, where the bees will soon follow her. To 
prevent their raising a young queen which can 
ny. the hive must be opened and all queen cells 
cut out once a week, unless it is desirable to su- 
persede tlic old queen, in which case one cell 
nmy be left ; and after she has liatched and com- 
menced Uying, which will he in about 10 days 
hnd her and clip her wings as above directed. 
The old queen shoidd l)c rcmavcd just before 
the young one hatches. 'Die inside of the hive 
15 simple, conjiisling of 8 niovuble frames, sup* 
I "'rted by a device which clear* them from any 

;cnL The frames arc it by iS inches, inside, 
, osurerocnt, and arc hdil in place Vt-y ■! y'vetc 
liL'(.>p-iron fastened on the ouVs'vAc ot one o^ 
^i upon ttic ifiMiic I end pieces, near lUc boUum, amlbcuv at i xv^ 



pMd Tkrot.. 

arr tim cu. 






:ary.— The proper 

■ February, or ihe 

■ ks have then 

■ ; the combs 

^'it of honey, 

saJety ami ease. 

a competent judge, 

n ays be relied on ; 


'-lertc 


with 
dby 

1 


I: lU 




««cb a 




•A"ir(U, the number 
and that they are 
.m. may !:« safelv 


ut *- — 


>n th 
.dry: 




V 

u 


:rc I>rought home 
e ^^e fufuse, care being 
ind (mt Ironi the sltacks 

r " - - 1 , 


hr., 




Uyt. 

i« 


, ;-.r 

1 1.15 will be worked, 
irtoving. 

—Take .any gooil, 

■*ciit — and dress it 

• ' " !.e 15 

. after 



i'UC iiul 



^^ 



23 



DICTIONARY OF BVBRY-DA Y WANTS, 



ongtc to project iindcr the end of the ftamc % 
of an incli, to fwrni a sort of hook. Tlicrc 
should l>c space enough between the hook and 
end of frame to allow it to slip over a piece of 
hoop-irou fastened across the bottom board of 
llLe nivCt which has a slight channel cut under it 
to give the requisite room. One end of each 
frame being thus sccureil they remain perpen- 
dicular, antlarc kept at the righi distance Trom 
each other — ^ of an inch — by nails partially 
driven in the stdcs of the frames. There are va- 
rious otlier items in the construction, such as 
ventilators, etc, wliich I cannot take room to 
describe. At the «ides and top of the»c frames 
there is space enough to place surplus boxes of 
over lOO lbs. capacity, holding from 2 J^ to 4 lb-;, 
each. Top boxes arc placed directly on the 
frames ; side boxes with the partially open end^ 
against the main conih.s. If the honey is de- 
signed for home wnsumption, extra frames uiav 
be used instead of Iwxeri. A large Iwx, which 
\i joined at the corners with hooks, incloses the 
wliolc, and can he readily opened at any time. 
The space devoted to boxes in summer can be 
filled witli dry hay or straw, and the hives re- 
main safely on the summer stand during winter. 
Those who prefer to increase their colonies by 
natural or artificial swarming to securing large 
amounts of surplus honey, can use these frames 
to advantage by omitting the extra space designed 
for bpxes, and inclosing with a box just large 
enough to accommodate the frames, leaviiig suf- 
ficient room to prevent the bees from waxing the 
outside c*JmI>s last to the hive. 

Position of the Hives. — For an npiary, or 
even a single hive of bees, the Iwst position is a 
sheltered nbce on a low level, instead of an el- 
evated anu exposed situation, and as free as this- 
siblc from damp, noxious smells, and disturbing 
sounds. A plot of well-kept grass, or a sjwcc 
covered vriih dry gravel, i-, frequently very de- 
sirable. 'ITiere strems to be no definite rule as 
to the best position for the hive as regards the 
points of tlie conii>a>>s ; the bees liave been 
found to thrive whctlier their abtKle fronts the 
boulh, the north, or any intermediate (Mjiut. On 
this subject so much def>cnds on the locality, the 
climate, and various other considerations, lliat it 
is difliculi, or rather impossible, to prcAcril>e any 
rule of universal apijlication. 

CitASCiNG HiVJts. — The best lime to change 
bees without loss from eoamiun to movable 
frame hives is about the season of swarming, 
which varies with the latitude and climate. 
About the lime when swarms arc expected nat- 
urally, take the luve which you wish to transfer, 
and, blowing a little smoke into the entrance, 
remove it a nxi or more from its stand, leaving 
an empty box or hive in its jtlacc, into which the 
bees that arc out in the field may gather. In- 
vert the hive which you have moved, and put 
over it an empty Uix or hive, as near the s.'une 
size and shape as possible, and stop all holes or 
crocks between the two with gras* or weeds thai 
may be at hand, leaving no hole large enough 
for a l>ce to escape. Then with *.ticks keep up a 
hharp ilrummiiig on the bottom hive, at which 
tiie tK-es, alarmed, will fdl their s.ics with honey 
snd mount into the u]){>er hive. In from 20 10 lo 
minutes most of the l)ecs, with their ouecn, wdl 
be in the empty box on top. The lieginner need 
not fear driving too many ; let all go that will. 
Then carefully set the box containing the bees in 



a shady place, and take the old hive back to the 
place where it stood. While you have iKren 
driving, many bees will have come bock to their 
home, and finding it gone, will be roaming in 
and out of the empty hive in distrcsi. llicic 
will at once rush into the old hive when it re- 
turns, and gladly wlhere to it. Then remove it 
to a !<3cation some yards off, when, as it contains 
many hatching bees and eggs, the bees will at 
once rear a new queen to replace the one juit 
driven out. and in a short time be as prosperous 
as ever. Mow place your new movable comb- 
hive, with iti entrances all ojMni, on the old 
stand, and spread a sheet before it ; on this sheet 
empty the bees you have driven into the Imjx, 
and they will at once take up a line of march for 
ihe entrance of the new hiw; if Ihey gather 
there, brush a few in with a wing or twig, and 
iliey will call the others, who enter in a body 
antf accept llie new liive as their home. 

Food for Bees. — It must be sufficiently ob- 
vious tliat no artilicial fo«>ii can be so acceptable 
or suitable to the bee as pure honcy~the kind 
of nutriment which llie instinct of the creature 
itself induces it lo provide ; refuse honey may 
therefore, in preference lo any utlier kind of 
food, be given lo the bees whenever it is really 
required; but in many instances ariificial ft>od is 
supplied. In spring it is recommended by com- 
petent judges that even strong hives Iw fed, ia- 
asntUL'h as thev are stimulated by the increased 
temperature which the feeding occasions; but 
that there ought lo be no feetUng — unless there 
exists an unavoidable necessity for it — till the 
hive exhibits some degree of animation; for the 
l>ees often are leniptcu to go forth prematurely 
in quest of flowers, and numbers in this way 
perish, being unable to return home. As al- 
ready observed, honey furnishes the best l>ecause 
tlie most mitural clement, and it may very prop- 
erly be rendered more liquid by a slight naraix- 
ture of water ; but various substitutes for honey 
have Ikrcn resorted to, and by no means unsuc* 
ccssfuUy. 

Ilt:K Feeder.— An excellent bee feeder, and 
one not covereil, I l>elievc, with a {Utenl, is made 
thus: Make a wooden box without a bottom, 
somewhere about S by 10 inches, and 2 inches 
deep. Nail over the top a piece of ^ood muslio, 
Istving it loose enough to sag down in tlie mirl- 
dlc nc.irly or quite to the lower edges of the 
sides of the box — if intending lo use it on ihe 
top of box hives, it ought not lo hong down 
quite so low. Now you can set this feeder, 
muslin side uppermost, on llic top of a box hive, 
having opened the boles, ur directly on the Ions 
of the frames of a movable comlt hive. Pour the 
honey or syrup on the conc:ive muslin, and the 
bees will lake it from the under side. Cover the 
whole apparatus so as to secure it from rob- 
bers. 

Tasturage for Bees. — Districts of country 
where grain is extensively cultivated nie less fa- 
vorable to bees than ihosein which fields aWund* 
ing with wild flowers exist, and \vb«re clover 
peas, beans and similar plants arc largely grown'. 
The blossoms of fruit trees of all kiiuls, and ihe 
flowers of the broom, the furze, and ihc bram 
We, allaflbrd the bee great advantages for t Si 
collection of Iionev and farina Tlh. 1 - "^ 
too, in the neighborhood of On- V" P'an^mg, 

cus. the blue liepatica, W^ bla(l-'\^^u'* ^^ ^^' 
mignonette, is also foun^ (q ^^ "<:Ucbofe^ aac 



I 



"" It dry. 

■ nct- 

i .. -. -..., .. ;(jL- sc- 

ic prcparatiun of honey 

■ <> nutural supply »if the 

!l;in cuy reach o I the liule 

vessel most lie placeil nenr 



1 so as lo t]oat on the 

[art nf it. The holes 

lU from which the bee* can 

. wilhuut the (Inngcr uf thdr 

r. 

itADOw, — Too much heat is 

iicvs ; they ought not lo be 

sun in Nuhry wvathcr. It 

r^rtrrmely irrilaMc, and cx- 

iifbcinjp more or 

' It IS very im- 



%liikll Htttj l>c thfoM^ over the liivc. In uur 
^fiiniaa ibe scrcrn is to be prrrcrrril. sis caa>>ing 
% mixSal tinde, and at tl > <- ]KTnntting 

sEclter ventilation. Or m dxcclknt 

1 ■ .,... bi!LSt in thick 

i a uniform icm- 
H ;'• and he adds, 
.lipf.'O'.c ihat Ixx's cxpoicd to 
\he car1ie«tt and strongest 
' \pcricnccd Ihc rcvcn»e. 
' working, and the san 




wntikttion. 
Viiter tanwW '^" 

tlVtSltX. tvCTt'i 



:: IIER5. — Domestic fowls are 
', and nisu some birds, fnim 
«)it^»£^tAck^ a:^ they ningv the fields at a di«- 
bsue fiwi the liive they cannot be jiroiectcd. 
AoMMm '' ' '" ', or blue tomtit, 

vilicli - < ftrtrds his ynung 

•wii^ iV . -..\id lo endeavor to 

iiiio the hi\'e its-elf. Mice aic often 
Tie, and even rata sometime* make 
litve. Slu^N and mails often 
bic; and especially in worm 
,i,. ..... I. of wasps and hor- 

•m a: the bees. In all 

iWvr t ice can do much. 

W«»|m' ncu^ viigfat ii.- he tlcstrovctt wherever 
tteC «i!h; lAiectsofall LiiuK. «ucn as earwigs, 
wtftdUoe, uiu, etc. $>hoidil be cleared away. 
Ib • *t*r<U the hi*«s and *.unds f-T tln-m ought 



lo ^ kcfit ts c^n and n- 
WivniitAo Bth.s.— \ 

ma -.f v."-i":-n Voftrni:, ^r 
r 

■ t- 

net ofdoorv. 

l- 
i 

t? 



i* 



■■■ -i!,lc. 

i^ to miilt a 

' u the Inimes 

winter passages 

, and the quilt 

' rf well 

th cut 

!. In 

. add be 

ted to 

' V, only 

in the 



with 



wire 



cloth, anil ' nivrriod and set on *f Itidl 

strips. I not be put into the ccllnr 

unhl cohl v_.„.„. . .:ncs on in earnest. A warm 
and pknisant day should be cho.'ren to put them 
out ajrain, for they will be altraclrd by the light 
and Ay out, when, if it be chilly, some will per- 
ish. 

Re.\ri>g Qleens. — Premising Ihat you ose 
movAbIc frames, make a numl)er of ^maIl tr.tm*^, 
as near 4 or 5 inches S'juarc as maj^ be, to jusl 
fit inside one of >-our large ones, till with clean 
worker comb — that which has been frozen i<. the 
l)es(, because Ihc eggs of the moth will have 
been thus destroyed — and put tlie larye frame 
containing thc^f " ■ -^ m the middle of some 
stock with a f>. 'mm which you \vish 

to hreed. Pr-i ■ iiic small boics on the 

pUn of a simple movable frame liivc, with loose 
lop and rabbeting for the frames, nnd just the 
iiic to accommodate three or four of them, 
\\1\en eggs have been deyrfjsited in the combs, 
set up one of your small boxes with them as a 
hive in miniature, nnd confine in it between a 
pint and quart of bees. They will immcdititcly 
construct tjuccn cells, and may then be opcnctl. 
In this way any number of queens may be pro- 
vided. 

How TO CH.S.NGE COLC^IES OF BLACK BEES 

TO iTAi.lAV. — Since the queen is the moiher of 
all the bees in the hive, and deposits all the eggs, 
it follows that ihcy will all be like her. If men 
the queen be taken from a colony of cumtnon 
bees, and an Italian queen be put there in her 
stead, all the eggs, thenceforth laiti will produce 
Italian Ikcs ; and as the life of Ihe worker Itcc is 
short, in from two lo three months the old bees 
will all have died cnt, and l»e replactrl in greater 
numl.icrs bylhc beautiful Italians. These Italian' 
(juecns are now reared for sale by scientific api- 
arians, and sent to any part of the world with 
perfect safely. If a pure queen purely impreg- 
nated b purcha.*ved and intrr.»ducco to any colony 
of black occa, an Italian stock is secured in the 
best and least exj>ensiv« way. 

The Safest wavto Introditce an Itauan 
Colony. — ^Take away the queen of the colony lo 
which the Italian is to be given. To fin<I her 
most easily, open the stand in llie middle of a 
fine day, when many bees arc absent from the 
hive. Disturb the l>ce5 as little as po^^itible, and 
have an a.ssistant to look on one side of ihc frame 
while you estamine the other. Look, first on the 
combs near where the bees cluster, as the queen 
is apt to l>e there. As soon as you have found 
and killed her, put the Italian queen, witli three 
or more of the bee> that come with her, into a 
wire cage which always accompanies her when 
sent, und lay this over the frames near the clus- 
ter, or, if l^c weather be cool, the cage may 
liC laid between two frames. Leave her there 
4S hours, and then, without dtsturlnng the bees, 
withdraw Uic stopper, and allow Uie queen to go 
into the hive at her pleasure. 

BEBSn'AW To irJtittn.—lti March or 
April molt yellow wax without boiling ; then 
having several pewter di'-hes ready, dip the out- 
side Viollom of each di''h in fliir water; then dip^ 
ihern into the wax, and take uj) a very ihin plaM 
of wax — the thinner the better ; lake thorn off, 
and expose them uiwm the gra.ss to the sun, air, 
and dews, until incy be tniW-wViVc, Vutw^^ 
tljem t»flen. 

B££SIVAX^ To Bltach {Jiahan Mrlkod.y- 



ii 



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i\'^'^-M\^*^"^^ 







DICTIONARY OF EV^ERY-DAY WANTS, 



The ycilnw wax is first mcUed in a kctllc, and 
then ii dipped out into a long tin vessel that will 
hold two or three galloiis, and which ha*, a row 
of small holes, about the diameter of a knitting- 
needle, in the bottom. This vessel is fixed over 
a c)'Under uf wocxl 2 feet In length and 15 inches 
in diamctLT, which is made to revolve like a 
grindstone, in one end of a trough of water, 2.% 
KCt in width, 10 to 15 feet in length, and j foot 



in depth. As the melted wax (alls in smaU 
streams on this wet revolving cylinder, it flattens 
out into a thin ribbon, and floats off toward the 
other end of the trough of water. It is then 
dipped out with a itkimmer (that may l>c made 
of^ osier twigs.) spread on a table with a t(?i> 
made of small willow rotU, covered witli a denn 
white cloth, and tlien exposed in this way to the 
sua until bleached. 



CARPENTER AND BUILDER, 




BUILDING HOUSES, Hints on.— l. Build 
solid, substantial foundations laid up in cement 
or mortar, with footing-course projecting 6 inches 
on either side, as this is a preventive against rats 
burrowing under the foundation and entering iKc 
lioase from the outside. PUister the walls on 
the outside flush and smooth with cement where 
coming against the earth ; this prevents the sur- 
face-water from percolating through the joints 
of the waJlsandmakingyourcellnr wet and damp. 
If it is a clay soil, and your house is situated 
on a side hill, sub-drain your cellar, lend tlie 
drain out to the lowest ]»irt of your ground, and 
let it discharge on the surface. If your ground 
slopes in all directions nway from the house, the 
above precaution is not necessary. — 2. Do not 
suprwrt the interior partitions to your house upon 
hncK piers in the cellar, with a limber girder 
running from pier to pier, and the floor-beams 
resting ihercon. This is very faulty construc- 
tion, as it admits of the shrinkage of the timber 
girder and liic floor-l^cams abnve it. producing 
setting and cracks throughout the budding. 
These interior partitions sustain full as much, 
if not more, weiglii than the exterior walls, and 
therefore should nave ei^ht or twelve-inch walls 
under all bciring partitions. Iluild these sup- 
porting walls up to the top of the flrtor-beams. 
so as to iwrmit the stud partitions above to rest 
directly on the brick-work, and thcrcbyavoid the 
shrinkage of the beams. AU stud portitiuns 
above the first story should, if possible, rest on 
the heads of the partitions beneath, thus again 
avoiding shrinkage and cimseoucnt sctlllng. — 3,. 
It is false economy to use liglit tloor-bcams. as 
their constant vibration when walked upon is ex- 
cessively annoying and unpleasant. They should 
never l>c placed more than 1 6 inches apart be- 
tween centres, and for ordinary spans should be 

least 2 by lO inches, and 2 by II and 2 by 12 
ichcs for spans not over 18 feet. All Iwams 

)uld be thoroughly cross-brid^d, and all 
floors should be deafened. This deafening 
is not only for the purpose of deadening the 
sound, but it alao prevents any water tliat may 
be spilled on the floor above staining the ceiling 
underneath. It also prevents the rapid spread 
of fire. — 4. All ceilings should be cross-furred, 
the purp»)sc of which is to bring the ceiling to a 
true level and to prevent cracking. — 5. It is a 
very guod plan to have all doors hung on loose- 
juintcd butts, so as to allow of iheir Ixring easily 
liftcil ofi" the hinges, should they reouire at any 
time to be cosed or planed off. This is also a 



great convenience on occasion of an entertain- 
ment, as the doors can be removed and stored 
away, and the house thoroughly thrown open to 
the company. — 6. All first-class houses should 
have double floors. The first flooring may he of 
mill-worked boards, and the finishing floor 
(which may be of any wood desired) should not 
l>c^t down until the plastering is comi>Iete. and 
the base and casings to the door arc up; by 
adopting this plan a very thorough floor is ol>- 
tained. as wc avoid all tlie dirty and wet work of 
the pla.stcrcr, and the wear and tear incident to 
Ihe passing to and fro of the workmen. The ef- 
fect of the shrinkage of the base from the floor 
is also avoided, giving the work a belter finish. 
It makes a much more rigid floor, and ties the 
building together much better, to lav the second 
floor at right angles with the fir»t floor. — 7, AU 
'^vays see that the plastering is carried down to 
the floor, and by this means avoid as far as ikjs- 
sible ha\-ing any sjKice at the back of the base- 
board, wherein cockroaches ,ind other vermin 
may find refuge. Also plaster Iwhiml panel- 
backs, under windows, and where the sult-sjll 
rests on the stone sill, to prevent the cold air and 
snow from drifting in. — B. In wooden houses, 
be careful to have all of the cappings and tops to 
the windows and doors covered with tin, the tin 
to be carried up untlcrncath tlic outside covering 
or clap-hoarding. ^j. In conclusion, ])ut yourscu 
at the outset in the hands of a goo*.!, thnrou^ 
architect, and be governed by him in the mode 
of construaion. Listen to his suggestions, for 
he has had much more experience tuan you. Do 
nut desert him because he tells you candidljr 
what your building will cost, and go to oth 
who seek to persuade you that they can i>rodui 
the same amount of nxim at much less cost ; 
this can only be done by the process ot skinninff,^ 
which means leaving out those matters whidi are 
cuntained in the above suggestions, and very 
many more, all of which greatly contritmte to 
the durability of the house and the actual com- 
fort of existence within it. In this, as in many 
other cases, the best economy does not lie in the 
fancied saving of money at the outset, but in the 
adoption of wise plans. 

/iA'/CA-JI/AA'/NG\ Affiicaiion of tfu Ash 
and Smalt Coki of Gas Works for. — Mix from 
10 to 12 parts of the ash and cinders with 1 part 
of lime, after having first taken care to break up 
the small pieces of coke, so as to be of no more 
than about 5 centimetres cubical size. Tlic mass 
is mixed with some water, and next mixed in a 



Do 

er4^H 



CARrEXrER AND nUILDER. 



I 



TV 



BmH, i.n I. sfr. 




I 



6r 



having b«wnne sUfT enough, 

y a brick-nuUing machine. 

'ItImm drrT'iny dried, and 

, • very solid 

»". 'u. oiid cs- 

TV few people, even 
he ^ mlvanlagc of wetting 

bricks Kf ' i/icm. ot, if aware of it, tfjo 

aCMa &t\, . tice it. A wall 12 inchc-^ 

ttoA* miiJl vf £"Od mortar and bricks well 
ttmkifi&f ht aUnngcr than one l6 inchc« thick 

- ^ ■ '^f this is, that if the 

with water, they will 

t.ir the moiFturc neces- 

I'ln ; and* on the contrary. 

■ tirallv, and become OS solid 

■ if the bricks arc 
take up all the 

.^ . . aig it io dry and 

•.-nee is that, when a 

"11 K tnken down, or 

uf ils uvrn accord, the muitor 

o much sand. 

t£./^, CkHitinj^ fiTT.'—X. Take of 

e cement ^ pnrl*, .ind of clean, 

It- mix witli fresh water thor- 

a gray or granite color, 

lifi',;; to the color of the ce- 

desircd, add enough 

•c to produce the color. 

red, lime may l>c used 

Care mubl be taken 

Uenti well mixed to- 

^ ihc wK>h, the wall must 

'■sh water, then follow im* 

' wash. This prevents 

^' the water from the 

• -^1 for the cement 

I stirred during 

to be made as 

. veiiicnlly with a white- 

thul this cement wash 

it is admirably suited 

, lliat it ih nearly wa- 

[ l)e used to ulvantagc 

~i. Sylvc^tcr'-s process 

■ »m external walls, is 
^ Ifiliniltou &ud very cffectuaJ. It con- 
^~ ■■Dg tw" WB»hc» or solutions for cover- 
ills — one ojmposcd of 
I one of alum and wa- 

. ..ii- : ji^ of a lb. of iroap 

and \^ a lb. of alum to 4 

h Mib^t-nrc-i to be perfectly 

' ing usctt The 

■id dry, and the 

; be below 50* 

>n» arc to be ap- 

: be laid on M'hen 
1, taking care not 
'rk. This wash 
liecome dry and 
.v4»h is a{>plietl, 
same manner as 
'i.l.-r the bricks 



VcDCtkri 

If a mj u|^:k 

•Mh the c«o»e 



&: 




UUCK Aft uift Ik.- 

«u2i Wiiih. 1 

iUltncL 
lir^5iroaf. .. : . 
<rns fozat or ^■ 



•o«p oil 

T»r .,r, 



vkkJi tbcwi'l br ap; 



urc. 

_4 



«dhk 



.nn^; 



brick 

(ircly 
• dc- 
1 fire 



W «uaos>»«d« UuB U buUi tiy llie ^idc vf ihc 1 



fireplace, in the house. A cood brick oven for 
tviUmg bread, pie<i, and cakes is worth all the 
ranees and cook-stoves thai one could store in 
his Kitchen. In such an oven every Ihiri^ will 
be baked just right, above and 1*Ioh', through 
and through. After a foundation li.is lion pre- 
pared, let two courses of hard bricks 1* Liid for 
the bottom of the oven. Then huild the mouth 
and part of the sides, until it is desirable to be- 
gin to draw the sirles inward, when sand or mcl- 
Inw enrth may l)c placed on the foundation, ami 
the surface smoothed off and prcsscil <lown to 
the desired form of the oven. Now Icl the 
brick work be built over this form of sand. Let 
two courses of hard bricks be laid over the form 
with the iK^t mortar. Aflcr the last bricks have 
been laid the sand maylx removed, Tlic bricks 
shoidd l>e K(uikc(| fnr several hours prrvioua to 
being laid, 50 that thcv will not absorb the moU- 
Inre of the mnrtar untd il has set. Svich on oven 
will cost but a few dollars. Many people can 
collect a sufficient number of I004.C oniki ami 
pieccis arounil their dwcllin)n (o build n brick 
oven. Besides this, any intelligent man, though 
only half a mechanic, can build such aji uvea 
alxiiil .-Ln well lis ,1 mason. 

BA'ICA' BL'/LDIA'CS, Hmv M Paini^—Txi 
T)rc%'CTit the disintegration of exterior brick sur- 
tacca, caused by moi&lure of the almoi<pliL-rc and 
change of tem|wrature, paint should \vi usttl to 
cover the surface; and it must Ixr burne in mind 
that paints arc durable mainly because of the 
water-proof quality of the oil in whJch they are 
used. The natural pigments — called ochres or 
earth -pain Is— do not m any ticgrec act upon the 
oil ; while others, as white leads and tlie chro- 
mates of lead, do affect Uie oil chemically, and 
impnir in a measure its tcnadly or water-proof 
quality; for these reasons it follows that the nat- 
ural pigments arc not only ihe most etonnnjicfll, 
but ine must durable, fur painting brick hciu>es. 
It has l>ecn demonstrated that tlic most durable 
paint for brick jiainlmg is a mixture of finely- 
ground French yellow ochre, mixed uilh on 
equal quantity, by ^* eight, of .American white 
zinc. The color is a soft shade of buff, most 
pleasant to the eye, and permanent to tlie last 
degree, both in color and m:iterial. Venetian 
red, an ortificial t<hre, or red oxide of iron, is 
in common use ; but it does not bold oil like the 
yellow ochre, and makes a coating far less water- 
proof. It is a seemingly durable paint, because 
the stain which it imparts to a porous surface re- 
mains long after the oil has ticen wa.shcd away. 
It cannnt be used with white zinc, because of the 
unsuitable phik tint which it produces, and be- 
cause this pi|TnicnI, (Venetian red,) when tinted 
with while. Itccomes highly fugitive in color. 

The cnndilinn of the wall is also very import- 
ant in jxiinting brick surfaces. The work should 
be done in dry, warm weather, when the moist* 
urc which bncks absorb during the winter and 
sjiring seasons has dried out ; otherwise the 
paint will not !« apt Io adhere lenatiously, but 
will scale or (Ktl off. The joints in the stone 
coping on brick walls require constant looking 
after. Thc^ic should l>e made alisolulcly imper- 
vious to water by the appbcalion of a most of 
soft paint-skins both on the top and edges; and 
when this hardens to the pomt of cracking, it 
should be removed and renewed. MmVax MivV 
ccmenl for such purposes arc a,Hog5:>\\«t uvc\cs,*. 
Tic Jwijjl, too, bclwccii ihc wail smd \lxc <cwv^t 



06 



VICTIONARY OF EV^RY^DAY WANTS. 



underneath should be well filled with paint- 
skins before piiinting ; for, no matter how wa- 
ter-proof the surface may be, if the water be al- 
lowcU to percolate through tlic joints in the co- 
ping, tlic integrity of the wall will be de- 
stroyed. 

CELLARS^ To Keep from Fnezing. — A novel 
plan fur ihib purpu.se is to lake either old news- 
papers or coarse brown paper, and with a strong 
size paste tlicm four or five thickne»se!4 down 
thoroughly to the stone walls of the cellar and 
to the bare joists overhead, leaving an air space 
between them and the floor. Before pasting, it 
will be belter to sweep down the walls and joists 
thoroughly. It mil not be neces&ary to press 
the pajjcr down into all the depressions of the 
wall ; every air space is an nuditional defence 
against llie cold. If this plan is adopted and 
carefully executed the celhir will be frost-proof, 
even if it is left unbanked. 

CUfMNEYS, To Jiu/U.—^vcry chimney 
ought, if practicable, to extend clear to the lK>t. 
lorn of the cellar, and rest there on a substantial 
foundation, coveretl with a broad, flat slonc, tu 

Crcvent the absorption of dampness by the 
ricks. Tliis will not only prevent accidents 
from fire, but will prevent the superincumbent 
weight from injuring the wall in any way. More 
than this, when a chimney rest* on a foundation 
in the atUc, or even in an upper room, during 
long and severe storms such a large volume of 
water usually falls directly into the chimney that 
Ihe bricks at the l>ottom l»ccomc thoroughly sat- 
urated. Consequently, the surplus water boaks 
down through the wall below ; whereas, if the 
chimney hncT extended to the Iwttom of the cel- 
lar, the wnlls would not have been injured by 
the great fall of rain. 

ily builiiing chimneys with double walls, leav- 
ing an air space between them, an excellent 
means of ventilation is secured, from the top or 
bottom of rooms, as desired, by inserting venti- 
lators in the outer chimney. The heat from the 
inner, when fires arc used, will always moke a 
good draft upward. 

To build a chimney so that it will not smoke, 
the chief point is to make the throat of the 
chimney not less tlian 4 inches broad and 12 
long; then Ihe chimney should be abruptly en- 
larged to double the siie, and so continue for 1 
foot or more ; tlicn it may be gradually taperetl 
off as desired. But the inside of the chimney, 
throughout its whole length to the ton, should 
be plastered very smooth with good mortar, 
which will lurden with age. If salt is mixed 
pretty freely with the mortar use*!, moisture 
enough will be imbibed to prevent the soot from 
adhering. Tlie area of a cliimncy should be at 
least half a square foot, and no flue less than 60 
square inches. The best shape for a chimney is 
drciilar or many-sided, as ginng less friction, 
(brick is the best matcri.i1, as it is a noncon- 
ducLor,) and the higher above the roof the bet- 
ter. 

CJ/ZAfyEYS, RftWi/v for .Sfflioimp-.— From 
experience it bos been found lliat by the use of 
fine wire gauze of from 36 to 40 wires to the 
inch, as a screen blower, or guard, judiciously 
applied lo registers, stoves, ranges, or stove 
doors, little if any smoke will come into the 
room. Tl»c atmospheric nressurc prevents the 
smoke entering the room llirough the gauze, and 
if applied imnicUiatcly to ihe fire more smoke 



will be consumed than by any other means. In 
that case the wire should be kept ttvo inches 
from immediate contact with the hot fire. 

COyjiRI.VG BUIIJyiNGS, Pfu/'j Compo- 
sifian for. — Take the hardest and purest lime- 
stone, (white marble is to be preferred,) free 
from sand, clay, or other matter ; calcine it in a 
revcrberatory furnace, pulverize and pass it 
through a sieve. One part, by weight, is to be 
mixed with two parts of clay well baked and 
similarly pulverized, conducting the whole opcr- 
ation with great care. This forms the first pow- 
der. The second is to be made of one part of 
calcined and pulverized gj^isum, lo which is ad- 
ded two parts of day, ttaked and pulverized. 
These l\vo powders are to be combined, and in- 
timately incorporated, so as to form a perfect 
mixture. When it is to be used, mix U with 
about a fourth part 01 its weight of water, added 
gradually, stimng the mass well the whole time, 
until it hirms a thick paste, in which state it is 
to be spread like mortar upon the desired sur- 
face. It becomes in time as hanl as stone, al- 
lows no moisture lo penetrate, and is not crocked 
by heat. When well prepare<i it will lost any 
length of time. When in its plastic or soft state 
it mav be colored of any desired tint. 

DARKROOMS, 7h Lii'htnt,~li ihe glass 
in the window of a room — the darkness in which 
is caused by its being situated in a narrow street 
or lane — is placed within the outer face of the 
wall, as is the custom in building houses, it will 
admit but ver)- little light, what it gets being only 
the reflection from ilie walls of the opjKisite 
houses. If, however, for Uie window be substi- 
tuted another in which nil the panes of glass arc 
roughly ground on the outside, and flush Mth 
the outer wall, the light from the whole of the 
visible sky, and from the remotest parts of the 
opposite wall, will be introduced into the apart- 
ment, reflected from the innumerable faces or 
facets which the rough grinding of the gloss has 
produced. The whole window will appear oa if 
the sky were beyond it, and from every point of 
this luminous surface light will radiate into all 
paits of llie room. 

DOOR-STEPS, of G.«r«-/f.— Make square 
boxes at the door where the steps arc wanted. 
Then mix up coarse gravel or cement and make 
a mortar or concrete, mixing m cobble-stones, 
and fill the boxes or moulds. After a time re- 
move ihe moulds, and place boards on the steps 
for people lo walk over till the concrete has 
thoroughly liordened. If rightly made, these 
cement steps will remain h.ind and perfect, and 
neither the frost nor weather will injure them. 
They should l>c made in the spring of the >"ear, 
so tnat they can have the summer and laU to 
harden in. 

FLOORS, Oi7ri/.— Oiling improves a floor in 
several ways. Grease-spots, of course, will not 
affect the wood thus treated; and much less 
scrubbing than is necessary for a plain floor will 
suffice to keep it clean. Moreover, the appear- 
ance is improved by the oil. Many of our na- 
tive woods, prepared in this manner, l>ecomc 
positively h.indsome. Finally, it gives the sur- 
face a harder texture, which nukes u wear longer 
and more uniformly. 

Paint costs more, lakes longer to dry, and 
wears ofl" more easily, since it simply forms a 
crust or coating upon the surface; wnilc oil pen- 
ctTBles the wood. Henpe an oiled 6oor looks 



M* 



(kAar. swi n 
Iwmed mcnva i - 
Tn nrvpsrc a 

liMOU vu, or ' 

whb smuk Mscb 



otik' 



the liav'a work 






'— nail)' if a little 
^ Df umber, or 

. manner, take raw 

oil, nut ofTciisivc in 

: mix it. if deiircfi, 

color as those nien- 

1 uith A common 

, so that it will 

1c surGice, and 

Innc at night« 

c will be rcaily 

' '■ . ilic 

|.ccl 

10 



U sul: 



«: 







of VJ.. 

; •&«■'. 
ttiedikkne». 
aoMT brash. 
ftnoA to tbe fl> ' 

6abh »i 

it t-c.ijr*^ 






' ' -'the 

-real 

ic tioor is tir^t 

fi!!e*l up with 

1 cnalk or 

mwan ; »Bcrv\ o to 65**, 

«r ttle rii4fknr\-. ■ . i-y inrani nf 

r is to be im- 

nl of the water- 

ire to be given until 

!rtr<I. A Mill higher 

(T the last 

■ttlicnl to 
Lcnt sub- 
and mix- ' 
'r<)iiuiry ihickne^s of 
r how many lumps or 
U:crr jrt'. in' it nn about 4 inches 
dcki let H lay 24 lii'iir^, and then stomp il 
«r^ -. i,^.«^ t.i.wi ..( vrcxhl 3 or 4 times a <lay 
VBtil '!• It will be found to l>e 

to^' , lliui ccincnt, and will not 

OIK (. 

/ ."- BatrmeHts. — ^In the prepara- 

"' and underneath 

ifrmed an "air 

.... Tlic airing of 

tificjr IS procured at the cx- 

of th^ upi)er surface, and 

*■ itself; for the 

:.ce against the 

' -I^ way be- 

osements, 

. the ground 

, on which the joi&is 

tay an inch or two 

' - to enter, 

lUt all VCT- 

■■■ lime. 

iiijde 

rAry. 

1 a &ijuaic 01 10 

■re are rrry few 



buUd^ai^ fiLuititial 111 i 

k aboniiaAi. it i-s 4 tin 
5 tioMS (Jbonirr thin Atone. ji>:] in> 
to elbsT. f*rt»p(WlJon* ibr 



mixing r To 8 barrows «f slacked lime well del- 
uged with water, add 1 5 barrows of sand, (do 
not use ri^tir or beach %and, as I have ob^CTved 
thus will absorb damp;) mix these to ft creamy 
(insistency, and then add 60 bairow^i of coar&c 
grovel, wnich must be worked well and com- 
pletely. Vou can throw stones into this mixture 
of any shai>e or slzc, to 9 or 10 inches iu diam- 
eter. Fonn inouldit for the walls of the bouse 
by fixing boards horizonlally a^^nat upright 
stanthirdh, whidi must be immovably braced, so 
that they will not jneld to the immense pressure 
of the material a.^ it settles ; set llie st;i:iilards in 
pairs arountl the building where the walls are to 
stand, from 6 to S feet apart, and so wide that 
the inner space shall form ibc thickness of the 
wall. Into the mould* thus formed throw the 
concrete material as fast as you choose, and the 
more promiscuous the l>etter. In a short time 
the material will get as hard as the solid tocfc. 
If the gravel is free of dirt, the sand also clean, 
and the weather dry, the walls can be rallied one 
fu«)t each day, if yoa have help to do that amoant 
of labor. 

Some prefer to make the (Travel and sand into 
mortar and press it into briclU. and then lay into 
walU ; but the wall mu.'tt be stronger if hud up 
solid in board frames mode to raise up as re- 
quired. 

Many persons argue for the eight-square or 
octagon house ; but I like the scpiare form much 
the best, carrying up the hall and main partition 
walls nf the same material. The cighl-^qtiore 
liouse looks like an old fort or watcr-tanki and is 
very cxf-ensive to finish, costing much more 
than the some room with square angles ; for me- 
chanics cannot put un cornices, outside or inside, 
in less than double the time required for making 
the common square mitre. 

HOi'SKS, ir/irH to /Vi/ii/.— Repeated ex- 
periments prove that paint applied between No- 
vcml»cr and March will last twice as long as that 
applied in warm weather. Hie reason is that in 
cold weather the component parU of the jjainl 
form a hard substance on the surface, at hard al- 
mob.t as glass. But in warm weather the oil 
penetrates the boards, and the point soon wears 
off. 

HOUSES, CkfiUe of Cohrfor.—'Wxe choice 
of color for country bouses requires the exerdsc 
of tTste, Judgment, and an eye for tuumoniou» 
combi nations. Il is laid down as a rule by Cal- 
vert Vaux, that c\*cry building require^ four tints 
to moke it a pleasant object in the way of color. 
'*The main %to1Is," he rem.-u-ks, ** should l>c of 
some agreeable shade of color, the roof-trim- 
mings, verandoii, and other wood-work, being 
either of a diflerent color, or of a different shade 
of the same Cfilor, so that a contrast, but not a 
sharp one, may be established — a third and 
fourth color, not widely different fiom the other 
wood-work, should be applied to tlie winduKtrs, 
blinds, etc" 

The jjrratcst defect in the generality of coun- 

;:j(s is the tiMi frequent use of white. 

ii.st deddctlly olijrclionablc cul^r is 

r..,i ..r \\,isc brown-stone tints, ap- 

■ ctilor, whidi arc so fre- 

. . >ustruction uf town dwell- 

.nij> 

The simplest practical rule ia the \iAh^XVY\\^ c^ 

iaclory, and \cV \W 




28 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



of the windows, cornices, etc, be painted sev- 
eral shades darker of the some color. 

LIGHTNING ROPS, Ilaiv to Errct.—t. 
The rod should consist of round iron of about l 
inch in diameter ; its parts, throughout its whole 
lencih. should be in perfect metallic continuity, 
by being secured together by coupling ferrules. — 
a. To secure it from rust the rod should be 
coaled with black paint, itself a good conductor. 
— r It should terminate in a single platinum 
j)Ouit. — 4. The .shorter and more direct the 
course of the rod to the earth the better ; head- 
ings should be rounded, and not formed in acute 
angles. — 5. It should be fastened to the building 
by iron eyes, and may be insulated from the^e 
by cylinders of glass, (I do not, however, con- 
sider the latter of much importance.)— 6. Ilic 
rod should be connected witn the earth in the 
most perfect manner possible, and nothing is 
better for thi.s purpose than to place it in metal- 
lic contact with the gas pjpcs, or, better, the wa- 
ter pipes, of the city. Tnis connection may be 
maac by a ribbon of copper or iron soldered to 
the end of the rod at one of its extremities, and 
•wrapped around the pipe at the other. If a con- 
|jiecUon of this kincl is impracticable, the ro<l 
should be continued horizontally to the nearest 
well, and then turned vertically downward until 
the end enters the water as deep as its lowest 
level. The horizontal part of the rod may be 
buried in a stratum of powdered charcoal and 
ashes. The rod should be placed, in preference, 
on the west side of the building. A rod of this 
kind may be put up by an ormnary blaclcsraith. 
ITxc rod in question is in accordance wHth our 
latest knowleuge of all the facts of electricity^ 
Attempted improvements on it are worthless^ 
and, as a general thing, ore proposed hy those 
who ore but &li|{litly ncuuainted with the subject. 

LIME, to Hum, H'tth<}ut a A7/»,— Make a 
pyramidal heap of large lime stones, with arched 
lumace next the ground for putting in the fuel, 
leaving a narrow vent or funnel at the top ; now 
corcr over the whole pile with earth and lurf, in 
■the way that charcoal nenps arc covered, and put 
In the fire. The heat will be more completely 
difTiucd through the pile if the aperture in the 
lop is partially closed. This produces a superior 
article of lime. 

MORTAR.~-^i\iQ\i of the mortar used in 
building is said to Vkt imixrfcclly made. Four 
parts coarse and three parts fine sand, with one 
part of quick-lime, well mixed with but Utile 
water, mokes mortar which soon becomes as 
hard as adamant ; resisting all atmospheric action 
as durablyas the material it unites ; ami with the 
Addition of a portion of manganese, it will harden 
onder water. 

MORTAR, HYDRAULIC— kvL easy way 
of making hydraulic mortar out of ortlinary lime 
con-Msts in adding to burned lime as much water 
as it will take up without becoming pasty, and 
allowing it to stand in heaps for o days, and 
swell up. It is then passed through a wire 
sieve with meshes aliout tlic fifteenth of an inch 
in di.imcter, for the purpose of sejaraling the 
Kird jiarticles. 'ITic residuum of preceding sift- 
ings, tliat liave been cxjioHed to water or moist 
air, are to be rubbed up and added to the mass, 
ihc whole to be well mixed together and then 
piled up in heaps, protected from roin, till 
needed. It may be preserved thus for years, 
ready for use at any moment* 



PARTITIONS.— Thcte is nothing so con- 
cerns the actual strength of a house, internally, 
as those division walls which are called *• parti- 
lions. " They relieve the external walls of much 
of their burden, and, more than that, ihcy act as 
braces or binders for the whole skeleton of the 
house. Even the roof is dependent in a very 
great degree on these partitions, as it is owing to 
their presence and strength that (he general con- 
strucuon of a dwelling is more or less strong. 

In view of permanency, partitions should al- 
wa)*s be well braced, and the braces so disposed 
as to throw the superincumbent weight naturally 
toward the walls. This office of Ihc brace is one 
on which its utility chiefly depends. Economy 
is a reason for the employment of the brace in 
parts of Europe, and in all countries where lal>or 
IS scarce and dear; for it affords a chance lo use 
up stuff that might otherwise be wasted. Par- 
titions, after being put up, should be suffered (o 
remain exposed for a sufficient time to the action 
of the atmosphere to give a chance for shrinkage 
Ijcfore lathing and plastering on them. The 
shrinkage of the joists on each floor, though but 
one-eighth of an inch, is considerably incTcased 
in the partition up through the house, where the 
joists lie on the partition -heads ; for onc-eigblh 
of an inch on the ground floor mokes a quarter of 
an inch on the next floor, and so on in the same 
muliiplj-ing ratio ; for this reason some haildcrs 
have considered it more arlvisable that partitions 
should have no sills, but the studs be carried 
down between the joists, and framed into the 
head of the partition immediately below. Al- 
though this is correct in theory, nevertheless the 
sill is advantageous as making the partition modi 
stronger. This, with bridging, is apt to make 
strong partitions. Wlicre a partiiion is to be 
framed so as to have a door leading from the 
stairs into the drawing-room, and also with fold- 
ing or sliding doors between the front and back 
parlors, or other rooms, the head of the parti- 
tion in this case should be well trussed widx oak, 
having a straining beam in the middle, two 
queen posts, and two braces, with lead at the 
abutment joints; these pieces are then to be 
forced together with bench screws, and kept in 
ihyir places by wedges passing through the aux- 
iliary heads. 

Some authorides think that all plates and 
cross-ties of such partitions shouUl be made to 
camber very considerably, the cun-c gradually 
increasing as the stories ascend; and all tbc 
flu4.}rs, cedings and door-heads should conform 
to this camt>er, which should not be less than 
half an inch on ahc first floor, and an inch on the 
second floor, and an inch ami a half on the third 
floor, and so on in proportion. If this precau- 
tion be not taken, in less than two years (think 
those authorities) the floors and ceilings must 
fall out of level at their centres, as much both 
from llie shrinkage of the timber as fi^nn the 
strain upon it from burden. Tlic door-jambs 
fixed in such partitions invariably strain out of 
square at their angles, more or less, in propor- 
tion to the dryness of the timber, the skill exer- 
cised in trussing the work, and the degree of 
burden cast on tne partition. Tlierefore wl such 
jambs should have their heads fixed somewhat 
out t>f level, so as to settle permanently lo a cor- 
rect square form, instead of being level, so as lo 
out of square. In general, 
y above the floors should be 



settle permanently 
plates immediately 



CARPENTER AND SVTLDER. 



n 



Oiniltetl, as the more horizonlat limber there is, 
the mure shrinkage there will be. and conse- 
<)uenily the mure settlement ; and £ls such plates 
mutily rc']uirc to Lc cut through for doorways, 
they arc rarely of use as ties to the work. Un- 
der eacii end uf each truss a granite or any hard 
tone templet, 3 or 4 feci long, sliould be set ; 
" e*e should be strongest and longest where the 
u&se& act with most energy. 
It may be added to thi<». that in many houses, 
as at present built, the shakihess of all the floors 
U caused by the celKir having no partitions, al- 
though its ceiling sup|)orts all the partitions and 
Staircases of the whole house. \\ c have often 
rrccted this etilirely by placing cross-beams 
jj props m the cellar under the l)cam-s support- 
g inc partitions, and, as nearly as possible, cx- 
•cxly under the partitions and staircases thcm< 
dves, and by wedging tliese props up till they 
raised tnc beams one-half or one whole 
and even more, if necessary. Floors 
hich were so shaky before that they vil)raled 
every step, may sometimes be made solid and 
rm in this way. Uf course, the effectiveness 
f the remedy depends a great deal on the man- 
' in which the nouse wa-< originally builL 
rdSTES'/XG, n'alls and CtiUngs.—VtX' 
care shouKt be used m selection as to the 
' -ri I length of the hair to be used in the 
\ ceilings, and also as to the substance 

t , which should in all cases Ijc double. 

nhe piaster should be laid on with the minimum 
thickness, a point much neglected. 
With regard to the quality of the sand, it can- 
not be too good. Sand is apt to make the plas- 
ler too •' nhort'' only when there has liecn too 
ULii employed, and ihat with weak chnlk-lime. 
is im|>ossible Ihat the admixture of luamy 
th iu any proportion can benefit anv descrip- 
of mortar or plajitcr, and therefore clean 
must be preferable to cither pit or road 
, for loom in any shape is detrimental in 
on to its amount, 
word with regard to a possible substitute 
■, B5 hair is bwroniing every day more dif- 
lo obtain. In the pulling down of portions 
work for the reparation of the Lollards* 
'ower at Lambeth Ulely, some plaster of re- 
hardness was found ; it was far supe- 
any of the rest, and upon examination 
vcred to have been mixed with chopped 
w (recognised by sever.-d of the heads 
had been mixed up) instead of hair. This 
ter was wonderfully sound and firm. Possi- 
Icscriptions of straw might be found 
suiubic for the purpose, and at any rale 
1 be quite worth wlulc making some cx- 
enu on this subject 
Having obtained a really good plaster to work 
Ih, il IS much to lie wished that it might be 
' ' in a somewhat more solid and durable 
than is usual, and that instead of flimsy 
under the joistt ur on each side of 
to receive it, short pieces of wood 
&xed in between the joists or quarters, and 
pUster uowelled on from front and back, so 
eocnpletely to envelope these pieces of wood. 
'lU means the plastering on partitions and 
(« would not be merely suspended coats, 
integral portions of the structure, which, 
1 dry, would become almost imperishable 
aftd tncnmbustihlc. Thus, instead of being 
iSuBS/, iU-cvoncded things, inviting Ere to de- 



stroy them, and the means of conducting that 
destroying clement to all the other portions of 
the building, they would be, a£ it were, thin 
vertical or horizontal shields to prevent fire from 
spreading and touching the limbers. 

PLASTER OKXAMEiWTS, Citmpoiititm 
for. — Molds for casting plaster ornaments for 
ceihngs maybe made of a composition composed 
in the following proportion : Rosin, ^ of a lb. ; 
tyiow, yi a lb. ; beeswax, 6 oz. The object to 
be copied is first oiled, and this composition 
poured upon it until there is enough when cooled 
to make a strong mold. Or a moid can be made 
from plasler-of-Paris itself, by pouring it upon 
the ODJect to be copied. If the latter be wood 
or metal it should l.>e well oiled, but if it is also 
mode of plaster-of- Paris it should be moistened 
with water, but no drom must stand on it. The 
plaster -of- Paris may be colored, while being 
mixed, with oxide of copper (dissolved) for 
blue; Mrith ashes for pearl gray ; with the vari> 
ous ochres for red, yellow and green. Red and 
yellow oxides of lead are used ior red and yel- 
low colors. Real mastic is made of say 14 parts, 
by measure, of clean, sharp sand ; 14 ports, by 
mcisurc, of pulverized limestone or marble dust; 
of litharge one-fourteenth in weight of the united 
weights of the sand and stone, and one-seventh 
of the whole weight of the three in lin-seed oib 
The sand, marble dust, or Umestonc powder, are 
well dried before mixing. Then mixed into a 
mortar or plaster and applied to an oiled sur- 
face. 

ROOFS, Composition for. — ^Take I measure 
of fine sand, 2 of sifted wood-ashes, and 3 of 
lime, ground up with oil. Mix thoroughly, and 
lay on with a painter's brush, first a thin coat 
and then a thick one. This composition is not 
only cheap, but it strongly resists fire. 

koOFiNG^ A Chtap.^Y\x%\. cover Ihc roof 
with ordinary tongued and grooved floor-boonb, 
the same as you would lay a floor ; then take 
roofing-paper, to be obtaine<l in anv large toim 
or city, and cover the boards with that, to be 
laid on as shingles are hud, to lap over each 
sheet about an inch, and fastened down with 
large tacks. Over Uie paper spread raw tar. 
Raw tar is that which is not heated to render it 
thicker. It can be spread with a trowel made 
of a shingle, about tnc sixteenth of an inch 
deep. Next take a sieve, fill it with sand, and 
sprinkle as much over the tar as it will absorb, 
sifting on the sand as each course of tar is laid 
on, beginning on the upper side of the roof, 
ftbout half an inch thick. 

Such a roof should have a slight descent — say 
I foot in 12, more or less; and the inr shnald 
be laid on when the heat of Ihe sun will «ni 
cause it to run out of its pbce before the sand is 
put on it. 

A mortar made of tar and sand, like a thick 
paste, will slop any leaks in roofs, especially 
around chimneys, that can be covered by il. 

ROOFS OF TfA\—VQt a flat roof, tin is, 
beyond question, the most economical covering 
that can be applied. If not neglected, it is ab- 
solutely indestructible by external influences, 
and will last a hundred years, in as good condi- 
tion .IS when first laid on, if kepi well painted. 
Tin on a house-top should be well painted once 
in 4 years. 

For roofs, light, cool colors arc preferable, be- 
cause tlicy rclTccC the worm rays of light, and 



DICTIONARY OF EVKKY^DAY WANTS. 



Ihereby lessen the expansion and contraction of 
the mclal, and the shrinking of the boards un- 
derneath, and so le*^scn the liability nf the tin lo 
crack in the &eams. The tcmi>eniture of attic 
rooms in summer will be maleriolty li^wcr if the 
roof be painted with a light rather than with a 
dark eulur. 

The writer has learned, from long experience, 
that the finest French oclirc i« the most econom- 
ical pigment that can be used for that purpose. 
If, as IS sometimes the case in country bouses, 
where the roof is a conspicuous object in the or- 
chitectute of the building, a dark color be indis- 
pensable, the use of pure Venetian red, <!ark- 
ened with lanip-black, is recommended as the 
most durable and economiaJ. If, by some pro- 
cess, the oil used in roof-painting could l>c pre- 
vented from becoming hard and brittle, it would 
be a great gain. 

The poorest oil-paint, however, is better than 
neglect ; and the l>cst economy consists in keep- 
ing tin entirely and thoroughly protected from 
tlie corroding influence of dampness. Old paint, 
which has become ** fatty" from exposure to the 
atmosphere, is better than new for roof-painting. 
Nut a drop of turpentine should be used fur 
Kudi work. 

HOOFS OF THATCH, il<m to Make,— 
Kye or wheat straw only .should be used, and 
must be carefully threshed with a flail to leavu 
the straws unbroken. Bind in bundles, distrib- 
uting the butts of the straws equally to each end 
of the humllc. h good roof cannot l>c made if 
the straws all lie one way. It was always cus- 
tomary to make the band three feet long, as this 
gave a bundle of cun^tfiiienl size for handling. 
In a dry time we sat the bundles on end and 
llirew water upon them a day or two before we 
tised them. 

The rafters arc placed in the usual way, and 
crossed by slats two by two, nailed 14 inches 
apart, though 12 inches will do equally well. 

Uegin at the caves and lay a row of bundles 
across. Have on iron neeille 18 inches lung pre- 
pared and threaded with oakum 8 feet long. 
Fasten the thread lo tlie slat and jjoss the needle 
thritugh the Imndlc to a boy stationed under (lie 
niftcn>, making 3 to 4 stitches to the bundle. 
Tlie boy draws the cord up light, and passes the 
needle up through again, out on the other side 
of the slat. Ily this means the first course is 
sewed onT Succeeding courses are treated in the 
same way, l)etng laid so as to overlap the stitch- 
ing. Lay the heaviest row uf straw at the eaves 
to moke It look well. When you come to the 
ridge, fold the tops of the straw over until you 
bring up the other side, then get some thin 
sods, 10 by 14 inches, and \% inches thick, and 
lay them neatly upon the top, U!.ing a sm.ill 

E'ccc of buard to clap them all slick and smooth. 
oards put on like ordinary ridge boards will do 
instead of sods, if preferred. 

Get the point of an old scythe, about iS inches 
long ; attach a handle, so that it will be like a 
long knife, and with it ** switch down" the roof 
all over, to curry "if rH the luo« straws, and 
trim the others oflT smooth. If well done, the 
roof will be as smootli as a lx>ard. Stretch a 
cord along the eaves the whole length of the 
building, aud trim ufl' stmight by it, leaving the 
outside a little lower than the in><ide, which will 
prevent its looking thick and heavy. 

A roof made in this way will not be injured 



by wind or rain, and it will last from 35 

years. 

SCREWS in Soft ff^Kirf. — Scrcw! 
subject to strain, are apt lo work loose in 
wood, and the screw-hole should >»e first 
with thick glue. If no glue is handy, pu; 
dcrcd ro*.in around the hole, and heat the screw 
before driving. -^ 

S///XGt£S, To Prrt'fMt Dertty </— « 
following is said to c^rectually prevent the d^^ 
of shingles : Take a potash kettle, or large tuh; 
and put into it j barrel of lye of wood ashes, ^ 
lbs, of white vitriol, 5 lbs. of alum, and as miia 
Sid t OS will dissolve in the mixture. Make the 
liqnor quite warm, and put as many shingles in 
it as can be conveniently wet at once. Stir ihem 
up with a fork, and, when well s<!aked, take 
them out and piit in more, renewing the Hqnor 
as necessary. Then laylhe shingles in the nsal 
manner. After they are laid, take the liquor 
th.it was left, put lime enough into it lo nuke 
whitewash, and, if any coloring is desirable, odd 
ochre, Spanish brown, lamp-bmck, etc., and ap> 
ply to the roof with a brush or an o)d brocaii 
This wash may be renewed from lime to time. 
Salt and lye are excellent prcsemitives of wotxl> 
It Is well known that leach tubs, troughs, oimI 
<ilhcr articles used in the manufacture of potash, 
never rot They liccomc saturated with the al- 
kali, turn yellowish inside, and remain 
ous to the weather. 

SHINGLES, Fireprvo/Wash fci.^i 
composed of lime, salt, and fine sand or 
ashes, put on in the ordinary way of whilewa 
ing, renders the roof 50 per cent, more secure 
against taking fire from falling cinders, in asc 
of fire in the vicinity. It pays the expense a 
hundred fuld in its preserving influence against, 
the eflccts of the weather. Tne older and 
weallicr -beaten the shingles, the more bcn( 
derived. Such shingles generally l>ccomc 
or less warjwd, rough and cracked; the appt 

lion of the wash, by wctlinc the upper surfiii , 

restores them at once lu tiieir uririnal ortni*" 
form, thereby closing up the space T>e1wccn the 
shingles, and the lime and sand, by filling up the 
cr.acks and [Hires in the shingle itself, prevents 
its warping. 

STONE^ Artificial. — The new process, ac- 
cording to the method of Sorel, of nialsir;;; arti- 
ficial stone, consists in mixing macnesi:i 
with suitable material-, wiih snnd it giv<. 
with flint, whet-stnnes and oil-stones; wti Ka- 
olin, ornaments of all kinds, statuettes, etc ; 
with sawdust it gives a gooil material for caver- 
ing flours; with carbonate of linte imitations of 
marble. 

The cement is applied in a liquid form, w^ 
the mass sets in a few hours. The magnesia 
must be carefully calcined and the materials vdl 
mixed. 

STONE, Frtxtn'i/r^ t/u Sur/atr o/.—lhc nl^ 
of oil for this purjwse is not only riifticidt of 
plicalion, but, pcnshablc as it is, it would < 
change its nature, oxidize, and thickcn^J 
attracted the floating impuritie-* in tl 
phere, and would only conceal the 1i( 
work of decay. A new method, devised by 
F. Ransomc, aflbrds a rapid and efliectnnl m< 
of successfully preserving the stone, hitlierto 
thing never accomplished. It consists in th* 
successive apphcation of three solutions- 
first containing soluble phosphate of lime ; 



h thcal- 
impd^ 

-Aw^ 
or «^| 

icoire 
1 ase 
nse a 
gantst, 




1 



CARPENTER AND BUILDER. 



3X 



wood, baryta ; and the third, a solution of sili- 
ait of potash, rendered neutral by the late Pro- 
fanor Oraham's well-known process of dialysis. 
Ikse solutions successively applied combine, 
Mtlbnn an insoluble and impenshable mineral 
■uoand, which effectually resists the action of 
k almo&phcrc, and, by indurating the stone, 
■ once arrests its disintegration. Tne extensive 
vqpencnce which has been gained by the odop- 
liOBof this method places it far beyond the re- 
paac^ experiment, and justifies its recommend- 
skn under nearly all circumstances. 
■* TOOLS, To Preserve from Rust. — ^A coating 
rf 3 parts lard and i part resin, applied to tools 
rf tfon or steel, will effectually prevent rust. 

TOOLS, Art of Grinding. — More than one- 
UC of all the wear and tear, and breakage and 
incfaer of dull tools comes from a lack of proper 
koowledge and practice in grinding. All steel, 
honrever refined, is composed of inm%idual fibres 
faid lengthways in the oar, held firmly together 
br cohesion ; and in almost all farm implements 
« the cutting kind the steel portion whtch forms 
4e edge, if from a section of a bar, is laid in 
welded to the bar longitudinally, so that it is the 
ade of the bundle of fibres hammered and 
Roond down that forms the edge. Hence, by 
Eoidiog on the grindstone all edge-tools, as axes, 
diawing-knives, knives of reapers, scythes, 
knives of straw-cutters, etc., in such a manner 
&at the action of the stone is at right angles 
vith the plane of the edge, or, in plainer words, 
Ly holding the ed^ of the tools square across 
tae stone, the direction of the fibres will Ijc 
changed, so as to present the ends instead of the 
side as a cutting eclge. By grinding in this man- 
ner a finer, smoother edge is set, the tool is 
noond in less time, holds an edge a great deal 
longer, and is far less liable to nick out and to 
Ueak. 

PLmc irons should be ground to a l>evel of 
aboat 35 degrees — chisels and gouges to 30. 
Toniing-chisels may sometimes run to an angle 
cf 45. Molding tools, such as arc used for 
i*x>ry and for very hard wood, are made at from 
50 to &Q degrees. Tools for- working iron and 
Ktz\ are beveled at an inclination to the edge of 
torn 60 to 70 degrees, and for cutting gun and 
sifiilar metal range from So to 90. 

U'lXDOfl^ SASHES, io Pret'ent Rattlhtj^. 

—The unwelcome music of rattling windows 

«in '^ftcn arouse and electrify nervous and timor- 

I cos persons quite as effectually as if a l>and of 

I L'jrgiork were making an entrance into tlie dwell- 

Thc remedy is by no means difficult or expen- 
five. Let the sashes be taken out of the window 
frame':. an<l every part of the window examined. 
It the jomb-casings have been sprung, or are 
«vpe(! and tu-istnl, the first step will be to re- 
vive the stops and straighten the face of the 
civing-i, which may be done more conveniently 
M\'J^ a large rabbet plane and a smoothing 
pUnc- 

1 .1 CL'C the sashes should he much ton narmw 
tx the frame, let one edge 1>e dressed off true, 
£L«1 a thin *>trip fitted neatly an'l glued and nailed 
I'' tlic ctlge of one stile. See that the outside 
edge of such stile is not tapering, even by the 
tlutknc^'i of a heavy shaving. When the stiles 
are tauering only a trifle, the sashes cannot be 
aoTcd up and down easily. Kow put the upper 
uth in iu placep and fiuten the central stop with 



two or three long, slender wood-screws, after 
which remove the outside stops, and place them 
so closely to the stiles of the sash that the win- 
dow will not rattle. Then let the slops be se- 
cured on the inside so closely to the stiles of the 
sash that it will move up and down easily, with- 
out having so much play that the wind will rat- 
tle it. \Vhen the sashes have been fitted as di- 
rected, there will l>e no more need of ** weather 
strips" of any kind to exclude dust and cold air, 
and the expense of refitting a window as directed 
will be much less than the cost of weather 
strips. 

fyOOD, to Prevent Decay in.— To prevent 
the common occurrence of Occay in wood, take 
20 tKLTts of resin, 46 parts of finely-powdered 
chalk, some hard sand, a little Unseed oil and 
sulphuric acid ; mix all together, and boil for a 
short time. This composition, if applied while 
hot, forms a kind of varnish, thereby preserving 
the wood. 

IVOOD, SamueVs Method of Presetvin^. — 
The wood to 1)C operated upon is first placed in 
an air-tight cylinder and thoroughly steamed, in 
order to vaporize the sap in the M-ood ; the air 
is then withdrawn from the cylinder, by means 
of an air pump, until a perfect vacuum, or nearly 
so, is created, which 0]>cns and frees the pores 
in the wood, when a solution of sulphate 01 iron 
is forced into the cylinder, under a pressure of 
175 lbs. to the inch, which forces the solution 
through the jwrcs. This pressure is kept up for 
half an hour, giving the solution time to ]>crco- 
lale or permeate every portion of the wood, when 
a solution of cariwnate of lime is forced into the 
cylinder, which has the effect to i>recipitate the 
iron, and in this manner forming a sulphate 
of lime, thus coating or filling all the minute 
cells of the wood with a mixture <»f oxide of iron 
and sulphate of lime. The wood is tlicn thor- 
oughly cleansed and dried, when it is found to 
have attained an extraonlinary degree of tough- 
ness, and capable of receiving a beautiful polish, 
besides being rendered completely impervious to 
rot of any kind, and impenetrable to injects, 

WOOD, Stone CotUinj; /i/-.— 40 Parts of 
chalk, 50 of resin, and 4 of linseed oil, melted 
together; to this should be added I partof oxiilc 
of copper, and afterward I jwrt of sulphuric 
aciil. riiis last ingredient must be a'lded care- 
fully. The mixture, while hot, is a]iplicd with a 
bruhh. 

WOOD, to Render /ncomi'itsti6/,:—},iany 
conflagrations might !«; jirevmlcd, and mnch 
property saved, by rendering the wood work of 
nouses secure against ignition. This can Iw 
done at an insignificant cost, and with little 
trouble. Perfect immunity is seaircd by saturat- 
ing the wood-work with a very delicate solution 
of silicate of potash, as nearly neutral as possi- 
ble, and when this has dried, applying one or 
two coats of a stronger solution. Another 
method is to. simply impregnate the wofwl with 
a concentrated solution of rock salt. Water- 
glass will act as well, but it is ox]K:nsivc. The 
salt also renders the wood proof against dry rot 
and the ravages of insects. Another method is 
to immerse the wood in a saturated solution of 
l)orax, heat being gradually a]>plied until the so- 
lution reaches 212*^ Fahrenheit, and is then left 
for 10 or 12 hours, according to the nature of 
the wood and size of the planks. 

fP'OOD, Prewnf its CraffciHg.— ^Jooiiwi 



sti^p-cocks, and other objects of wood, are liable 
to track, lo prevent this lay them in a bath of 
fused parafhnc healed to 213* Falirenhcit, and 



leave tliL-m as long as bubbles of air are given 
Ibai allow uic para&ae to cool dowa lo 



ofL 



its point of congelation, and remove the wood 
and wipe off the adhering wax. Objects treated 
in this way arc not likely lo crack, llic process 
could be used advantageously for inlaid ^voods 
and &ne furoiturc. 



CEMENTS, GLUES AND PASTES. 



CEMENTS. 

ArPL YING CEAfEXTS, Manner o/—Q\n\c 
as much depends upon the manner in which a 
cement is applied as upon the cement itself. 
The best cement that was ever compounded 
would prove entirely worthless if impioperly ap- 
])1icd. Good common glue will unite two pieces 
of wood so firmly that the fibres will part from 
each other rather than from the cementing ma- 
tcriol. Two pieces of gloss can be so joined 
that ihcy will port anywhere rather than on the 
line of union. Glass can be unhcd to metal, or 
metal to metal, or stone lo stone, and all so 
stmngly that the joint will certainly not be the 
weakest part of ine resulting mass. The rules 
to be observed to effect this arc : I. The cement 
itself is to be brought into intimate contact with 
the surface to be united. Tlic obstacles to this 
junction are air and dirt. The former is univer- 
sally present; the latter is due to accident or 
cai'clcssncss. Unless the adhering layer of air 
is displaced^ the cement cannot adhere to tlic 
surface to which it is apj^lied, simply because it 
cannot come in contact with it. The most effi- 
cient agent in displacing air is heat, lliercforc, 
the two fcurfacfs to be joined are to be thor- 
oughly heated before the cement is applied, s. 
Use as /iV/Zc cement as possible. When the sur- 
fiices arc separated by a large mass of cement, 
we have to depend upon the strength of the ce- 
ment itself, and not upon its adhesion to the sur. 
faces which it is used to join; and, in general, 
cements are comparatively brittle. 

AKAfEXJAN CEMEXr.—ThQ jewelers of 
Turkey, who are mostly Armenians, iiave a sin- 
gular method of onian>enting watch-cases, etc., 
with diamonds and other precious stones, by 
gluing or cementing them on. 'ITic stone is set 
in silver or gold, and the lower part of the metal 
fnadc flat, or to correspond with the part to 
which it is to be fixed ; it is then gently warmctl 
and the glue is appUcd, which is so very strong 
that the parts thus cemented never separate. 
ITiis glue will strongly unite pieces of glass and 
china, and even polished steel, and may be ap- 

}>lied to a variety of useful purposes. The fo!- 
owing is the recipe : 

Dissolve 5 or 5 bits of gam mastic, each the 
size of a large i>ea, in as mucli rectified spirits 
of wine as will sufucc to render it liquid ; and, 
In another vessel, dissolve as much isinglass, 
'^tviously a little softened in water, (though 
of the water must be used,) in French 
or gotnl rum, as will make a two-ounce 
irery strong glue, adding two small bits 
i^i galbanum or ammonincum, which muKt 
or ground till they ore dissolved. 



Then mix the whole with a sufTicient hcaL 
Keep the glue in a vial closely slopped, and ev- 
ery lime it is to be used set the vulI in boiling 
water. 

ALABASTERCEAfENT.—\. Finely pow- 
dered plaster-of- Paris, made into a cream with 
water. — 2. Melt yellow resin, or equal parts ol 
yellow resin and beeswax : then stir in half as 
much finely powdered plaster-of-Paris. The 
first is used to join and fit together pieces of al- 
abaster or marble, or to mend broken plaster 
figures. The second is used to join alabaster, 
marble, porphyry, and any similar substances 
that will bear being heated. 

AKCiUrECTUKAL CEMENT.^X, Re- 
duce paper to a smooth paste by boiling it in 
v.ater ; then add on equal weight each of sifted 
whiling and good size; boil to a proper consist- 
ence. — 2.. Paper paste and siie, equal jiarts; 
finely powdered plastcr-of-Paris to make it of a 
proper consi^lcnce. Use it as soon as mixed. 
Can be used in making architectural bust^, stat- 
ues, columns, etc It is very light, receives a 
olish, but will not stand the weather. 
BRVYEB^S HATER CEAIEAT.^'hlix 
3 gals, of clay with I gal. of slacked limc» and 
expose them to a ftdl red heat for 3 hours. 

E07ED/A'G CEA/EA7:—rhis is made by 
exposing a mixture of clay or loam, broken pot- 
tery, flints, silicious sand, or broken lx>t lie- glass, 
with wood-ashes, lo a considerable heat in a fur- 
nace, until it becomes parlially vitrified. It 
must then be ground to a fine powder, sifled* 
and mixed with one-third its weight of quick- 
lime, also in fine powder, after which it must be 
packed (tight) in casks to preserve it from the 
air and moisture. For use it is mixed up Milh 
water and applied like Roman cement. 

BOTANY BA Y CEAfENT.—\^\\o^ gum 
and brick-dust equal parts, melted together. It 
ii used to cement coarse earthenware, etc 

CEAtENT EOR A Q CAR/ A, --hUny per- 
sans have attempted to make aquarium, but 
have faile«l on account of the extreme difficulty 
in making the tank resist the action ol water for 
any length of time, llie following is a recipe 
for a cement that can be relied upon; it is per- 
fectly free from anything tliot can mjure the ani- 
mal or plants ; it sticks to glass, metal, wood, 
stone, etc, and hardens under water. A hun- 
dred different experiments witli cements have 
been tried, but there is nothing like it. It is the 
same as that used in constructing the tanks of 
the Zoological Gar(k*ns, London, and is almost 
unknown in this country : I part, by mcasore^ 
(say a gill,) of litharge ; I gill of plaster-of- 
Paris ; I gill of dry, white sand ; )^ of a gill of 
finely .powdered rosin. Sift and keep corked 



CEMEf^TS, GldES AKD PASTES, 



33 



flight until required for use, when it is to he 
made into a putty by mixing ia boiled oil (Un- 
laced) n-ith a liltic patent (fryer added. Never 
it o&cr it has been mixed (that is with the 
'oil) over 15 hours. This cement can be used 
lor marine as well as fresh water aquaria, as it 
resists the action of saJt water. I'he tank can be 
used immediately, but it is best to give it 3 or 4 
hours to dry. 

, CEMEiVT for Aitackinr Mttal to Glass.— 
Take a oz. cf a solution of glue, and mix it u-ith 
I oc. oflinseed-oil varnish, and % an oz. of pure 
turpentine; these articles arc then boiled to- 
eeincr in a close vessel. The two bodies should 
br: cUnipcti and held together for about 2 days 
after they are united, to allow the cement to be- 
come dry. Tftc clamps may then be removed. 
CEMENT fvr Attachittg Brass Work to Lamf>s. 
— A cement particularly adapted for attachmg 
the lirass work to petroleum lamps, is made by 
lioiling 3 parts resin with I of caustic soda and 5 
of water. This composition is then mixed with 
half its weight of plaster-of-raris, and sets in 
from half to tliree-quarters of an hour. It is said 
to be of great adhesive power, not permeable to 
petroleum, a low conductor of heat, and but su- 
perficially attacked by hot water. Zinc while, 
white lca.i, or precipitated chalk may lie sul»sii- 
tuted for plaster, but they harden more slowly. 
CEMENT for Broken JAiril/r.— Take gum 
•rabtc I lb. ; make into a thick mucilage ; add 
to it powdered plastcr-of- Paris, l*^Ihs. ; sifted 
qxtickdime, 5 02.; mU well; heat the marble 
and (Wply (Ke mixture. 

CEAfEXT for Brick (ra/i^.— Cement for 

the outside of brick walls, to imitate stone, i>> 

kziade of clean sand, 90 parts ; litharge. 5 ports ; 

*pUster-of- Paris, 5 parts, moistened with Doiled 

unseed oil. The bricki should receive a or 3 

cents of oil before the cement is applied. 

CEMEXT for China, Glass, CrtvJt/ry, 
Mttals and IfrAk/.— t. An excellent cement for 
jDcnding china may be made as follows : Take 
white of an egg and a little flour, which 
iato a light paste ; clear the parts to be 
from all dust and dirt; spread some of the 
on each piece and press them together; 
wrt, wipe off the exuding portions, both 
and out; then let it rcmam until quite 
The following recipe wc know from ex- 
to be a good one, and, Iwing nearly 
I, il possesses advantages which liauid 
other cements do not. Dissolve j^ an 
acacia in a wine-glass of boiling wa- 
pL&ster -of- Paris &uflident to form a thick 
aim apply it with a brush to the parts re- 
tQ be cemented together. For Mending 
CkitM, GlojSf etc. — 3. Take 1 lb. white 
Lveriied ; 2 oz. clean gum mastic ; 
a bottle, and then add ^ a lb. 
cClier. Let it stand )4 J>» hour, 
i'l *4 ^ E*l- 90 per cent, alcohol. 
![y tilTit is dissolved. Heat tlie 
,>.ie to be mended, and apply the 
wi;h a pencil brush; hold the article to- 
ttnbl the cement cools. 7*his makes a 
IC cement. — 4. ytn InJian Cfment fn- 
Mtd Mflalt, — Dissolve 5 or 6 pieces 01 
[wjtilr ci.il nlvoiit the size of a large pea, 
as will render it liquid. 
by stcepine it in water ; 
lifivd »t, aiibulve as much of it in good 
to will fUl a two-ounce phial ; odd 2 | 




small bits of ^m ammoniacum. previou-nly rub- 
bing them until they are dissolved. Mix the 3 
solutions ; keep in a close phial, and when it is 
to be used set the phial in boiling water. — 5. 
Take a lliick mucilage of gum arabic and stir 
into it plaster-of- Paris — the broken images arc 
best — made very fine, to form a thick paste, and 
apply to the edges with a brush, and press firmly 
together and confine there two or three days, t 
have pulled over 30 pounds with a wine-glass, 
the stem of which had been broken and mended 
with the cement.— 6. Dissolve I or. common 
salt in I quart of water ; bring to a boil, and 
put in l^^ lbs. gum shellac. When it shall be 
dissolved pour into cold water and work like 
wax. Moke into small sticks. This will make 
crockery as good as new. — 7. Steep Hussion isin- 
glass 24 hours in white brandy; gently boil and 
stir the mixture until it is well compounded, and 
a drop of it, cooled, will l>ecome a very thick 
jellv ; then strain it through a linen doth, and 
cork it up closely. A genUc heal will disitolvc it 
into a colorless fiuid. Broken di&hes, united 
with it, will break elsewhere, rather than sepa- 
rate in the old fracture. To apply it, rub the 
^gC4, place them together, and nold them 2 or 
3 minutes. — 8. A durable cement is made by 
burning oyster shells, and pulverizing the lime 
from thera very fine; then mixine it with white 
of egg to a thick paste, and applying it to the 
china or glass, ana secnring the pieces together 
until <iry. — 9. Take 4 11». of while glue, \% 
lbs. of dry white lead, % a lb. of isinglass* i 
gal. of soft water, I quart of alcohol, and ^^ a 
pint of white varnish. Dissolve the glue and 
isinglass in the water by gentle heat, if prefer- 
red; stir in the lead, out the alcohol in the var- 
nish, and mix the whole together. — to. K ce- 
ment that will mend marble, china, and orna- 
mental ware, ts made by taking water 1 gal., 
nice glue 3 lbs., white lead 4 oz., alcohol, 1 
quart. Mix. Directions — If it is cold weather, 
warm the bottle until the cement is dissolved ; 
then with the finger or a brush rub it on the 
broken parts, (both edges.) put together, and 
retain in their places until dry. — It. A cement 
withstanding l»Jth heat and moisture is simply 
pure white tcad or zinc white, ground in oil, and 
used very thick. It is excellent for mending 
broken crockcryware, but it takes a very long 
lime to harden sufficiently. Tlie best i»lan is to 
place the mended object m some store-room, and 
not to look after it for several weeks, or even 
months. After that time it will he found so 
firmly united that, if ever again broken, it will 
not part on the line of the former fracture. 

CEMENT far Chemical Glasses.^-W\x equal 
parts of flour, finely-powdered Venice glass, 
pulverized dialk, and a small quantity of bridc- 
rlust, finely ground; these ingredients, with a 
little scraucu lint, are to be nuxcfl and ground 
up with tJic whites of eggs; it must then be 
spread upon pieces of fine Unen cloth, and ap- 
plied to the crack of the glasses, and allowed to 
get thoroughly dry before the glasses arc put to 
the fire. 

CEMENT for Cnering the Fnmts of If ousts, 
— 50 parts, by measure, of clean, dry sand; SO 
of limestone (not burned) reduced to grains like 
sand or marble dust, and 10 parts of red lead, 
mixed with as much boiled linseed oil ns will 
make it slightly moist. The bricks, to receive it, 
should be covered with 3 coats of boiled oil. 



34 



DICTIONARY 



T WA^^TS, 



laid on with a brush, and suffered to dry before 
tlic maslic is put on. It is laid on with a trowel 
like plaster, but it is not so moist. It becumcs 
hani as stone in a few months. Core mu&t be 
exercised not to use too much oil. 

CEMENT, Coppersmith's.— '&xi\\oc\C% blood 
thickened with finely-powdered q^uicklimc, II is 
used to secure the edges nnd nvcts of copper 
boilers, and to mend leaks from ioints, etc. H 
must lie used a.s soon as mixen, a<i it mpidiy 
gels hard. It is extremely cheap and very du- 
rfthle. and is suited for many pur|K>»e!i where a 
strong cement is required. It is frrtiucully 
called blootl cement. 

CEMENT far Cloth or BeiHng.—Tsikc ale I 
pt. ; best Russia isinglo&s 2 0£. ; put them into 
a common glue kettle and )>oil until the isinglass 
is di!>solvcd; tlien add 4 oz. of the best com- 
mon glue, and dissolve it witli tlie other ; tlien 
slowly add \% at. of boiled Unseed oil, stir- 
ring all the iimc .while adding, and until well 
mixed. When cold it a\tU resemble India-rub- 
ber. WTicn you wish to use this, dissolve what 
you need in a suitable quantity of ale to have the 
consislencc uf thick glue. It is applicable for 
earthenware, china^ glass, or leather; for har- 
ness ; banils for machinery ; cloth belts for 
cracker machines for bakers, etc If for leather, 
shave off as if for sewing, apply the cement with 
a brush while hot, laying a weight to keep each 
joint firmly for 6 to xo hours, or over nighL 

CEMENT for CutUn,—u A material for 
£istemu£ knives or forks into their handles, 
when they have become loosened by use, is 
a rouch-nccdcd arlitle. The best cement for 
this purpose consists of 1 lb. of colophony, (pur- 
'diasable at tlie druggists,) and 8 oz. of ^ulptiur, 
pWhich arc to be melted together, and either kept 

ban or retluced to powtlcr. One part of the 
Rpowdcr is to be mixed with half a part of iron 
^nlin^, fine sand, or brick-dust, and the cavity of 
ihe Handle is then to Iw filled with this mixture. 
The stem of the knife or fork is then to be 
t^beatcd and inserted into the cavity ; and when 
c^>ld it will be found fixed in its place with great 
tenacity. — 2. Black resin 4 lbs.; beeswax i lb. ; 
melt them, and add I lb. of finely-powdered and 
vell-dricd brick-dust. 

CEMENT for Cisttms. — Take equal parts 
of red and white lead, and wash them into a 
paste with boiled linseed oil. It hardens slowly, 
DUt afterwards acquires a flinty hardness. To 
be applied it should be made thm, and the metal 
^thoroughly smeared with it. 

CEMENT for EMginfers. — I. Mix ground 
vhite lead with as much powdered red lead as 
vilt make il of the consistency of putty. — 2. 
,)|ix equal weights of red and white lead, with 
'boiled linseed oil, to a proper consistence This 
is employed by engineers and others to make 
metallic joints. A washer of hemp, yarn, or 
'canvas, smeareii M-itlt the cement, is placed in 
Ihe joint, which is then "brought home" or 
screwed up tight. It dries as bard as a stone. 

CEMEINT for Fasttning Chamois and ether 
Zeatherio Jrm a>id Steel— Dr. Carl \V. Hcin- 
ischcn, of Dresden, gives the following recipe 
for tlie above purpose: •' Spread over the metal 
a tbin, hot solution of good glue; soak your 
ler with a worm solution ot gall-nuts before 
ing on the metal. If fastened in this way it is 
Hmpossible to separate the leather from the metal 
[mhout tearing iL 



CEMENT for Fastening to Metals. — .\ny 
fibrous material can be stuck to metal, whether 
iron or other metal, by an amalgam composed of 
^ue dissolved in vinegar, hot, and one>third of 
lis volume i»f white wtch pine, also hot. 

CEMEINT fry Fastening Kuhber to Wood 
and Metal. — As iul)ber plates and rings are 
now-a-days almost cxclusi%'e!y used for making 
connectiuns between steam and other pipes anil 
other apparatus, much annoyance is often expe- 
rienced by the im|XJSiibilityor im[>erfectness of 
an nir-light connection. This is obviated en- 
tirely by employing a cement which fastens alike 
well to the rubber and to the metal or woocL 
Such a cement is prepared by a solution of shel- 
lac in ammonia. This is best made by soaking 
pulverized gum shellac in lo lirots its weight of 
strong ammonia, when a slimy mass is obtained, 
which in from 3 to 4 weeks will become liquid 
without the use of hot water. This softens the 
rubber, and becomes, after volatilization of the 
ammonia, liard and impermeable to gases and 
fluids. 

CEMENT for Floors.— T^c % of lime and 
^■^ of cnal-Ashes well sifted with a small quantity 
of loam clay; mix the whole together, and tem- 
ncr it well with water, making it up into a heap; 
let it lie a week or lo davs» and then temper it 
over again. After this, neap It up for 3 or 4 
ilays, and repeat the tempering very high, till it 
becomes smooth, yielding, lough and glossy. 
The ground being ihcn levelled, lay the floor 
iherewith about 2J4 or 3 inches thick, making il 
smooth with a trowel ; the hotter the season is 
the better; and when it is thoruughly dried it 
will make the best flixir for houses, especially 
for mali-houscs. If any one would have their 
floors look belter, let them take lime of rag. 
stones, well tempered with whites uf eggs, cov- 
ering the floor alwut % an inch thick with it. 
before the uniler flooring is too dry. If this be 
well done, and thoruughly dried, it will look, 
when rubbed with a tittle oil, as Lranspareot as 
metal or gla:»s. In elegant houses, floors of this 
nature arc made of stucco, or uf plaster-orroris 
beaten and sifted, and mixed witn other ingre- 
dients. 

CEMENT for Cas- Fitters.— Mix together 
resin ^)i parts ; wax I part, and Venetian red j 
]>ans. 

CEMENT for Gas RetorU, — A new cemen^ 
especially adapted lo the retorts of gas works, is 
very warmly recommended in a German gaslight 
journal. It consists simply of finely powdered 
barytcs and soluble watcr-glat,s ; or ihe barytes 
otid a solution of borax. Fbc joints are to be 
coaled several tiroes with thii cement by means 
of a brush. The addition of two-thirds of clay 
improves the cement, and the retorts will then 
stand a red heat very well. Instead of the wn- 
ter-gl.Ts-i a solution of borax may be used, or 
even fmely powtlcrcd white glass. 

CEMENT for Gutters ami Leohy Pliuu*~-~ 
A good cement for gutters and leakv places may 
l>c made of boilcil paint-skins, if wnilc hut and 
thick, a portion of s.'md and fine lime be sifted 
in. It must be used while hot, and when dry 
will be as hard as iron, and as durable. 

CEMENT fvr Iwvn.—I^z 16 parts of steel 
filings, 3 parts 9,tA ammoniac, and 2 parts flow- 
er of sulphur. This mixture can be preserved 
any lenglh of time in dry packages. Jn order to 
lute with it, add to X part ullhc mixtiLrc la 



CSAfS.VrS, CLUBS AKD PASTES. 



35 



\\rz, iwcvi- 
t<j form a 



i 



erf:- 

fMic Tli.- . ■' • ■ ■'- 

icrfacdf ck«n 
ror irtxi cu4in 

nA (^n»«« / ! applhctaric^) can be 

Mkiffrnf^! fiiT —J, To 4 or 5 parts 

•ft" i^ctl, add 2 

{■r 1 part of 

. i ..I ^.j.i, awl }i of 
, , and render as fine 
lu A thick paste with 
uudiiltty of water, muting (hor- 
CT yh iy vvelL It must Ijc used iramediatelv. 
Amt inllrwinn U vboolil be exposed to warmth , 
inovuinff lo Klmo^t a white heal. 
■I B *»-i-v n ■< "1 -"ii'l tir»-^*'nis complete 
iig water. 
:) turnings 
^ aiiuiiuni.ic and I port 
water is added till a paste 
' ' int'fl wlitcb 

ilphureted 
hanl. Of 
■<'ly before. 
I > of sifted 
: pulvcriied zinc 
. of commercial 
.1 nun [».i-stc. This mix- 
used tmmedtAtely, forms a cement 
r«irt]1 ill hardness and resistance lo that 
other way. 

V IrrJH^ Motker-cf- Pearly tic, — 
ingUss and 2 of white glue 
• w and craporate to 6 parts. 
vue inirucaj yuiX. of gum mastic, dissolved 
IbK m pvt of alcohol^ and i part of white zinc 
Wvrn rc<]tirT«t3 Ibr a«e, varru and tihake up. 

f '" r iran B^iim. — This ocmcnt is 

miK*\ '. cracks and leaks in iron boilers, 

etc^ l> DricfJ clay in powder, 6 lbs, ; 
fifisNO, t tb. Make a paste with boiled 
■ImL— 4. Take 2 oz. of muriate ofommo- 
■a. t u«. uf flower of solphur. and i6 oz. of 
^t-inm fiTniijs .jt rumings ; mix them well in a 
povfder dry. When the 
II I . ke I part of this and 2o 

nf tft^n iron tiUngs or liorinj;5, grind them 
a roortiir, mix them with water tn a 
prr^^ ooowttcnce, and apply them between the 

CSME.VT /0r LmtArr.^To to parts bisul- 
|Utfr carboo and l part spirits turpentine add 
«a tf a ^ jralta-pcTcKa ir^ make a touj^h, thickly- 
~ bOttU. The suriacM lo he joined must 

be padaClrT 6«e from grease, which is accom- 
(.« f-^tin^ A^clodi upon them and npply- 
•r a lime. The cixil is applied 
-s u)d }ireisure made till the 

/«r LdAtM^ iR^Z/Mf.— Take of 

iti ^iiif ttuA Aflieti- ! 15.$, equal 

; pfeoe Ikem In « b(< ^vater suf- 

*,t intf i-ivei titf* <■ it jiook to 

ling heat, 

becomes 

. Atiply 

rr where 

'< r-MT rfaces sol- 

tft «r«ffbrr, < nzid it is 

WUkJw ' r rir>'* i U* rnit In. 





CSMRNT for lather anJ CUth.—Kn nA- 
bcftivc material for mtitin^ the parts uf boots 
:vnd ^hoe^, and for the seams of articles of clolh- 
tiiy, m.iy be made thu3 : Take I Hi. of gutta- 
[>ercha. 4 oz. of India rubber, 2 oz. of pitch, t 
oz. of shefUc. 2 oz. of oil. The ingredients arc 
to he melted together, and used hot- 

CJiMEA'7' /i*r Alaftogtinw — Melt 4 parts of 
beeswax ur shellac with 1 o( Indian red. adding 
as much yellow ochre as is reciuisite to give 
color. This cement will be foimd most suitable 
fur stopping holes :uid rents in maliogany furiii* 
turc. 

CEMENT for Patrnt FucL^-Oxwi of the best 

' >r the agglomeration of coat du!kt and 

ture ^patent fuel is that used in 

-..<-.... :.i:ro|»can estabU<>hments, consisting of 

cfjal (or, gluten and starch. The quantities of 

the^c substanccf are altered according to the 

quality and property of coal dust ; but tlicy ore 

Tcry cosily ascertaJnod by a few experiments* 

About 2 per cent, of iliis mixture (say containing 

x% parts of tar, i part ffluicn, ana % part of 

stiuth.) would l>e suitable for coal dudt uf an 

average quality of bituminous coaL 

CEM£.\^T for Prn'nttiHx Lenks About 
Chimntys. — Dry sand, 1 part; ashes, 2 parts; 
day, dried and pulveri/eci, 3 parts. All to be 
pulverized and mixed into a paste with linseed 
oil. Apply it when soft, ami when it becomes 
bard water wiH have no effect upon it. 

CEMENT for Roofs of Houses. — Stake stonc 
lime in a large tub or liorrel with boiling water» 
covering the tub or barrel to keep in the sleam. 
When thus slaked, pass 6 quart** through a fine 
sieve ; it will then be in a state of fine flour. 
To tliis add i quart rock salt and I gat. water. 
Ikxil (he mixture and tkim it dean. To every 
5 gaU. of this carefully skimmed raixiure, 
add ^ of a pound of potash, and 4 quarts of 
fine sand or wood-ashes .sifted. Doth of the 
above will admit of any coloring you please. It 
looks better than point, and is a» durable as 
slate. 

CEMENT for Rooms. — Nt. Sarel, of Paris, 
has made an invention which is pronounced bel- 
ter than plasler-of-Paris for cootjng the walls of 
rooms. It is used thus : A coat of oxide of 
zinc, mixed with size, maile up Hko a wa.sh, is 
tirst laid on the wall, ceiling, or wainscot, and, 
over that a coat of chloride of zinc applied, pre- 
pared in tlie same way as the first wash, llie 
oxide and chloride effect an immediate combina- 
lion, and form a kind of cement, smooth and 
poli.-l ' ' ' .. and possessing the advantages 
of oi' ..lit its disadvantages --"f »incll. 

Cl.M j.r Swam Pip€5, — I. White le.id, 

mixed, 2 pirts; red lead, dry, i part ; grind or 
otherwise mix them to a consistence of thin 
putty ; apply intcrposeil layers with one or two 
thicknesses of canvas or gauze wire, as the ne- 
cessity of the case may Iw. — 2. (Stephenson's.) 
If 2 parts Utharge are mixed with 1 part dry- 
slaked lime and i part fine sand, well rublK'd 
together, and mixed with such a quantity of hot 
linseed-oil vamt^ as lo form a pasty mass, an 
excellent cemcnl for iron steam-pipes is ob- 
tained, which soon tets hard. Consequently, it 
mii=:l ' I fresh every time, and applied 

when 

f '. ' .^'.ll^rt/M;' Cr,\i\'^ III '^itii,'^!^ 




36 



niCTTONARY OF EVERY-DAY WAfTTS. 



lead and white sand, and as much oil a£ will 
make it of the coniislency of putty; in a few 
weeks it will becume as hard as stone. 

CEMES'T for Stont. — IJottger informs ns 
that a cement of extraordinary bindtn); power is 
made byusing infasorial :«ilica in place of qtmrtz 
sand. This infusorial earth is found in Germany 
only, btil it has hccn imjxirted into this country 
in considerable quantities. It consists of hy- 
draled silica, which combines with bases much 
more readily than silica in the anhydrous condi- 
tion, as in quartz sand. The infusorial silica is 
(nixed in about equal proportions with oxide of 
^cad ; about % a part of freshly slaked lime is 
then added, and the whole is then made into a 
.paste with l>oiIe<l linseed oil. The cement thus 
'-piade quickly becomes as hard as sandblone, and 
l^irill be found extremely useful in such work as 
''fixing iron in stone for balusters and railings. 
It is not likely, we think, to expand in setting, 
and thus no risk of splitting the stone will be 
incurred. In this respect alone it offers a great 
■d vantage over Portland cement, somctitncs usct] 
for the purpose we have mentioned, which, ac- 
cording to some authorities, docs expand, and in 
consequence of which one very serious accident 
is supposed to have resulted. 

CEMENT f,?r Stoves.— l. Good wood-ashes 
are to be sifted through a fine sieve, to which is 
to be added the same qu-inlity of cU)*, finely 
pulverized, together with a little salt. The mix- 
ture is to be moistened with water enough to 
make a paste, and the crack of the stove hllcd 
■with it. — 2. An excellent cement for iron stoves 
or furnaces is a paste of soluble glass and bn- 
rytes, with or without some fine fire-clay, and 
the soluble gloss may be replaced by a soluiion 
of borax, and both these and barytcs by a mix- 
ture of clay and powdered glass. 
*- CEMENT for TtU A'c^A— Eqnal part* of 
whiting and dry sand, and 25 ]Kr cent, of lith- 
arge, made into the consistency of putty wilh 
linseed oiL It is not liable to crack when cold, 
nor melt, like coal tar and asphalt, with the 
heat of the sun. 

CEMENT, Cast-Iron. — iHean borings, or 
turnings, of cast iron. 16 ; sal ammoniac, 2 parts ; 
flour of sulphur, I part ; mix them well together 
in a mortar, and keep them dry. WTien re- 
quired for use, take ol the mixture, 1 ; clean 
borings, 3o parts; mix thoroughlvi and add a 
sufficient auanlity of water. A little grindstone 
dust added improves the cement. 

CEMENT^ Colorfd. — Professor Bottger pre- 
pares cement of diverse colors and great hard- 
ness by mixing various bases with soluble 
glass. 

Soluble glass of ^3** B. is to be thoroughly 
stirred and mixed with fine chalk, and the col- 
oring matter well incorporated. In the course 
of 6 or 8 hours a hard cement will set, which is 
capable of a great variety of uses. Bottger 
recommends the following coloring matters : 

I. Well sifted suInhitW of antimony gives a 
black mass, which, after solidifying, can be pol- 
ished with agate, and then possesses a fine me- 
tallic lustre. 

3. Fine iron dost, which gives a gray-black 
cement. 

3. Zinc dust. This makes a gray mass, ex- 
ceedingly hard, which, on polishing, exhibits a 
briUiant metallic lustre of rinc, so that brokea or 
defective unc castings can be mended and re- 



stored by a cement that might be called a cold 
zinc casting. It adheres Armly to metal, slune 
and wood. 

4. Carbonate of copper |^vcs a l^ght green 
cement. 

5. Sesqoioxide of diromium gives a daclc 
green cement. 

6. Thcnard's lilue, a blue cement. 



7. Lilhari^c, a yellow. 
S. Cini 



nabar, a bright red. 
9. Carmine, a violet red. 
The soluble glass, with line chalk alone, gives 
a white cement of great beauty and hardness. 

Sulphide of antimony and iron tlusl, in equal 
proportions, stirred in with soluble glass, anurd 
an exceedingly, black cement ; cine du&t and 
iron in equal proportions yield a hard, dark* 
gray cemenL 

As soluble glass can be kept on hand in liquM 
form, and the chalk and coloring matters arc 
permanent and cheap, the colored cements can 
be readily prepared when wanted, an<l the ma- 
terial can be kept in stock, ready for use, at lit- 
tle expense. Soluble glass is fast becoming one 
of our most important articles of chemical pro- 
duction. 

CEMENT, Cwn/.— Add % a pint of vuiegar 
\o y^ z. pint of skimmed milk; mix the curd 
with the whites of 5 eggs, well beaten, and suf- 
ficient jjowdcrcd quick-lime to form a paste. 
Tliis cement will resist water and a BKKlcratc 
degree of heat. 

CEMENT, Chinese, — I, Dissolve &bellac in 
enough rectified spirit to make a liquid of the 
consistency of treacle. — 2. Boil borax, 1 02., and 
shellac, t oz., in water until dissolved. 

CEMENTt Diamond. — I. Isinglass, i o«. ; 
rlistilled vinegar, 5^ or.; spirits of wine, 2 02, ; 
gum ammomacum, y^ an oz. ; gum mastic, ^ 
an oz. Mix well. — 1. Soak isinglass in water 
till it is soft ; then dissolve it in the smallest 
possible quantity of proof spirit, by the aid of a 
gentle he.it; in a oz. of this mixture dissolve 
10 grains of ommoniacum, while still lirjuid ndd 
% a drachm of mastic dissolved in 3 drachms of 
rectified spirit ; stir well together. When to be 
used, liquify the cement by standing the bottle 
in hot water, and use it directly. The cement 
improves the ofiener the bottle is thus warmed, 
and resists the action of water and moisture per- 
fcctly. — 3. (Urc's.) Take i ox. of isinglass, 6 
07, of distilled water, l>oilcd down to 3 ot., and 
\% uz. of rectified spirit. Boil for a minutes. 
strain, and add, while hot, % 02- of milky emul- 
sion of ammoniac, and 5 drachms of tincture of 
gum ma<>lic. This recipe, carefully followed, 
results in an excellent cement. 

CF.MENT^ Engiish A'omaH. — ^Takc a bushel 
of time slacked, with 3J14 lbs. of green cop- 
peras, 15 gals, of water, and J^ of a bushel of 
fine gravel sand. The copperas should l>c dis- 
solved in hot water; it must be stirred with a 
slick, and kept stirring continually while in use. 
Care should be taken to mix at once as much as 
may be requisite for one entire front, as it is 
very difficult to match the color again ; and it 
ought to be mixed the same day it is used. 

CEMENT, EntfffHoiof^st*s. — Equal parts of 
thick mastic varnish and isinglass size. 

CEMENT, Ehitu Co//ijdiort. ^Ordmary 
collodion is made by dissolving 8 parts of gun- 
cotton in 125 parts oi ether and 8 parU oT al- 
cohoL When used as a cement or vamisb, it 



fl 



J 



CEAfENTS, GLUES AND PASTES. 



I 
I 



l^ecxtmcs very hard, crncks casilv* and pccis uff. 
,lt may Ijc rendered cla>lic by die addition ol 4 
parts of Venetian lurpenline and 2 parts of cas- 
tor oil. ^\*hcn intended for surgical purposei^, 
as a varnish, which, when dry, forms a perfectly 
di>se tilling plaster, ii has been found thai the 
addition of some glycerine to the ordinary coUo- 
dion, in which it \-k dissolved to a sninll extent, 
makes a varnish which adheres strongly to llie 
skin, docs not crack, aiid, on account of its elas- 
ticity, do'tt not crease the skin. 

CEAfEXT, Egg.—WWe of egg, thickened 
with finely-()owdcrcd quick-lime. Used to mend 
earthenware, glass, china, marble, alabaster, 
spar omanicntSp etc It does not resist mois- 
ture. 

CEMEXT^ Efeftnoiiand Ch^kal,—{S\x\g- 
cr*5.) I. Resin, 5 lbs. ; wax and dry red ochre 
IB fine powder, of each l Ih. ; plaster-of-Paris, 
4 oz. ; melt the fir'it two, then add the ochre, 
and lastly the plaster. — 2. Black resin, 7 lbs, ; 
well dric«l rcfJ fjchrc and plaster, of each i lb. ; 
as above. U&cd to cement the plates in voltaic 
tronehs. join chemical vessels, etc. 

CEAfEX^T, I'remh. — Make a thick mucilage 
with gwm arable and water, then add starch in 
fine powder to thicken it. Employed by natu- 
ralists and French artificial-flower makers. A 
little lemon juice is sometimes added. 

CEMENT, Gtrman. — For glass or- earthen- 
ware. 1. Take 2 parts of gum shellac, and i 
part of Venice turpentine; heal them together 
ID an iron pot, taking care to keep the lid quite 
close, as the turpentine is very inflammable. 
^Vhcn partially cool form into slicks ; when it is 
wanlca for u^e mell near a gentle fire. — 2. 3 
measures of litharge, and 1 each of unslaked 
lime and flint gbss; each to be pulverized sep- 
arately before mixing \ then, to use it, wet it up 
with old drying oil. 

CEAfEXT, Ghss-gHndef'j.^t. Melt pitch, 
and odd thereto j!^ of its wcii'ht each of nnely- 
powtlered wood-ashes and hard tallow. For 
coarse work. — 3. Melt 4 lbs. of black revin, and 
UicTT ndd I lb. each of l>reswax and whiting, pre- 
iri" I I still warm. Intended 

to ■ I tig. 

l ,.... .\., . , W..L. ...... — rdyocrine and lilh- 

arsv. hiirrcd tu a paste, hardens rapidly, and 
nakca a durable cement for iron upon iron, for 
two stone surfaces, and especially for fastening 
iron in stone. The cement is insoluble, and is 
W'f ■ ' y strong adds. 

t . Uiini. — I. To 4 or S parts of 

clsy. hlily dried and pulverized, add 2 

{Oft* nf line iron filings free from oxide, 1 part 
of (icrnxidc of manganese, ^ uf sea salt, and % 
of borax. Mmglc thoroughly and render as 
fine A& possible, then reduce to a thick paste 
■*■'■' V qtianlity of water, mixing 

liould l>e used immediately. 
,. ., should l>c exposed to heat, 
< .osiug almost tu white heat. This 
liard, and presents a complete re- 
o red heat and lioiUng water. — 2. 
; of sifted peroxide of manganese 
-uivcrized line white, aild a sufiidenl 
commercial solnblc gloss to form a 
This mixture, when used immcdi- 
- cement quite equal in hardness 
<. to that ubtoincd by the first 



a&'. 

C£M£XT, /fyJnnUU.-^Gud'i.) 



Mix 



lbs. of well-dried and powdered clay with I lb. 
of oxide of iron; then add as much boiled oil 
OS will reduce them to a stiff paste. Used for 
work required to harden under water. 

CEMEXT^ Jiamelitt's. — To any given weight 
of the earth or earths, commonly pit sand, river 
sand, rock sand, or any other sand of the same 
or the like nature, or pulverized earthenware or 
porcelain, add f^ of the given weight of the 
earth or earths, commonly called Portland stone, 
Bath stone, or any other stone of the same or 
like nature, pulverized. To every 560 lbs. of 
these earths, so prep.'ued. odd 40 lbs. of litharge, 
and with the last-mentioned given weights com- 
bine 3 lbs. of pulverized glass or flint stone. 
Then Jain to this mixture I lb. of minium and 2 
lbs. of grey oxide of lead, 

When this composition is intended to be made 
into cement, to every 605 lbs. of the composition 
are added 5 gals, of vegetable oil, as linseed oil, 
walnut oil. or pink oil. The composition is then 
mixed in a similar way to mortar. 

When this cement is applied to the purpose of 
covering buildings intended to resemble stone, 
the surmce of the building is washed with oil 

CEAfEXTy Ifcn-rHst. — Take 100 parts iron 
filings, pounded and sifted; add I part sal am- 
monia. When it is applied, give it sufficiency 
of water to make it of paste consistency. Ihis 
cement is used for filling up seams of iron. 

CEMEXT^ Jrim, — To make an iron cement 
suitable for making rust joints, mix thoroughly 
tl2 lbs. of clean cast-iron borings, or turnings, 
with 8 o/. of snl ammonia, and l oz. of flower 
of sulphur, and add sufficient water. Keep wet 
vhen not to Iw immediately used, or it will heat 
and be spoiled. 

CEA/EXT, India /"wi^iVr.— Dissolve I lb. of 
pure India rubber, divided into small fragments, 
in 4 gals, of rectified coal-tar naphtha, with fre- 
quent stirring. After 10 or 12 aays double the 
qiinntity, by weight, of this liquid is added of 
siiellac. Tliis mixture is heated in an iron ves- 
sel having a discharge pipe at the bottom, and 
when the whole has become liquid it is drawn 
out upon sLnbs where it cools m the form of 
plates. When required for use it is heated in 
an iron vessel to a temperature of 258", and ap- 
plied with a brush to tnc surfaces to be joineo. 
It is so strong that wo<Klen beams and posts 
joined with it will break cl-icwherc before being 
divided at the iilace of splicing. 

CEAfEXl t yapancsf. — Intimately mix the 
best powdered rice with a little cold water, and 
then gradually add boiling water until a proper 
consistence is acquired, being particularly care- 
ful to keep it well stirred all the time; lastly, it 
must be boiled for I minute in a dean saucepan 
or earthen pipkin. This glue is beautifully 
while and transjKirent, for which reason it is 
well adapted for fancy paper work, which re- 
quires a strong and colorless cement. 

CEAfEXT, 7«tv//rr'j.— Take 6 pieces of 
gum mastic the sue of peas, and dissolve in the 
smallest possible quantity of alcohol. Soften 
some isinclass in water, and saturate strong 
brandy wiln it till you have 2 oz, of glue ; then 
rub in 2 small pieces of sal ammoniac. Mix the 
2 preparations at a heat. Keep well stopjicred. 
.Set the bottle in hot water before using. It is 
said by the Turks that thi^ prcparatiou will unite 
2 metallic surfacrs, even polisncd steel, »o that 
they cannot be separated. 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



CEMENT^ Kourie. — A new gum, obtained 
from trees in New Zealaiul, has been introduced. 
It is callcil kouric. and ha5 been found to be a 
most excellent, strong, and waterproof cement 
for caulking tanks and cementing pieces of glass, 
stone or wood together. Before using it is fused 
and mixed with Y^ port of its weight of castor 
oil. 

CEMENT, IJqwit, — Cut gum shellac in 70 
per cent, alcohol ; put it in phials, and it is 
ready for use. Apply it to the edge of the 
broken dish with a ieaiher. and hold it in a spirit 
lamp as long as the cement will simmer, then 
jniti together evenly, and when cold the dish 
will br^ik in another place first, and is as strong 
OS when new. 

CEMENT, MicroscopU. — Isinglass, 2 parts; 
gum. I part; water» 2 parts. Dissolve, then 
mix in alcohol, l parL 

" CEMENT^ Optician" i.—\. Shellac, softened 
with rectified spirits or wood naphtha. For fiite 
work. — 2. Melt wax, I oz, and rosin, 15 oz. ; 
then add whiting, 4 oz., previously made red 
hot, and still warm. Used to fix glasses, stones, 
etc., while polishing and cutting. 

CEMENT, /'rtAjA./K-.— Curdle skim milk, 
press out the whey, and dry the curd by a gen- 
tle heal, but as (juickly as possible. When it 
ba!t become quite dry, grina it to powder in a 
co6fec or j^cppcr- mill, and mix it with onc^six* 
teenlh of its weiglit of finely-powdered quick- 
lime, and a piece of camphor the size of a pea, 
also reduced to powder, to every ounce of the 
mixture. Keep it in wide-mouth 1 02. phials, 
well corked. When to be used, make it into ft 
paste with a little water, and apply it immedi- 
ately. 

CEMENT, P/ttm&fr's.—Uch black resin. 1 
lb. ; llien slir in brick-dust, I to 2 lb. ; some- 
times a little tallow is addcrl. 

CEMENT, PeasUy. — Prepare a solution of 
200 parts of white glue in water ; another one 
of 50 parts of isinc&ss, 3 of gum arable, and 3 
of tragacanih ; and finally, another of i part of 
bleached shellac in alcohol. Then pour these 3 
■^•otutions together, mix them with 24 parts of 
^hite lead, and, at the last, 12 i-arls of the best 
glycerine, and 200 parts of nlcnhnl. The mastic 
thus obtained should be immediately put up in 
bottles and well corked. 

CEMENT^ Rice Flour. — An admirable ce- 
ment may be made from rice flour, which is at 
present use<l for that purpose in China and Ja- 
ifNm. It is only necessary to incorporate the 
Lficc flour intimately with cold water, and gently 
simmer it over a fire, when it readily forms a 
delicate and durable cement, not only answering 
all the purposes of common paste, but admirably 
adoptea for joining together paper, cards, etc., 
in forming the \*anous beautiful and tasteful or- 
naments which afford much employment and 
amusement to the ladies. When made of the 
consistence of plaster clay, models, busts, bas- 
relievos, etc, may be formed of it, and the ar- 
ticles, when dry, are susceptible of a high pol- 
ish, and are alto very durable. 

CEMENT, Red. — This cement, which is em- 
ployed by instrument makers for cementing 
^ass to metals, and which is very cheap, and \s 
very useful for a variety of purposes, is mode by 
melting 5 parts of black rcsm, I part of yellow 
wajc» andf tlien stirring in gradually 1 part of red 
oclirc or Venetian red, in fine jxtwdcr, and pre- 



viously well dried< This cement requires to be 
melted l>cfore u.se, and it adheres belter if the 
objects to which it is applied arc warmed* 

CEMENT, Raman, — (jcnuinc Roman ce- 
ment o^nsists of ^uzicUm, (a ferruginous clay 
from Putet^i, calancd by the fires of \'esuviu5,) 
lime and sand, mixed up with sofl water, llie 
only preparation which the puxxcUne undergoes 
is that of pounding and sifting; but the ingredi- 
ents are occasionoUy incor[>orated with bullock's 
blood and oil, to give the composition more te- 
nacity. 

CEMENT, Senl Engravti' s.^-CtiVMx\on resin 
and brick-dust melted together. I'sed to fix the 
pieces of mctol while cutting, and also lu secure 
scaU and tools in their bandies. 11ie older it 
gets the harder it grows. 

SCHIOICA O. — A new Chinese composition, 
which has the pro{3erty of making woud and 
other substances perfectly water-tight. It con- 
sists of 3 jxirts of blo<xl, (deprived of its fibrioe») 
4 parts of^ lime, and a litUc alum. 

CEMENT, Water and Fire-proof .^1o % a 
pint of milk put on equal quantity of vinegar, in 
order to curdle it ; then separate the curd from 
the whey, and incorporate the whey with 4 or 5 
eggs, beating the whole well together. When it 
is well incorporated, add a little quick-Urae 
through a sieve, until it has acquired the consist- 
ence of a thick paste. With this broken vessels 
may be united. It resists water and, in a meas- 
ure, fire. 

CEMENT, W'rtfrr.— Good gray clay. 4 
parts ; black oxide of manganese, 6 parts ; good 
limestone, reduced to pnuder by sprinkling it 
with water, 90 ports; incorporate, calcine and 
powder. 

GLUES* 

GL UE, Cement, — Take of isinglasv and 
parchment size, each I oz., sugar candy and gum 
tragacanlli, each 2 drachms; add to them I oz. 
water, and lioil the whole together till the solu- 
tion appears (when cold) of the consi-stcccy of 
glue ; tnen pour it into any form you please. If 
tnis glue be wet with the tongue, and rubbed on 
the nlgcs of paper, silk or leather that arc to be 
cemented, they will, being laid together, pressed 
slighdy, and suffered to dry, lie as firmly united 
as other ports of the substance. 

GLUE, Ftexihte. — h. German chemist haa 
discovered that if glue or gelatine be incorpo- 
rated with alK>ut % of its weight of glycerine, 
it loses its brittleness, and becomes useful for 
many purposes far which it is otherwise unfit, 
such as dressing leather, giving elasticity to i>or- 
cclain, parchment or enameled paper, and for 
bookbinding. 

GLUE, Jlew to Use It.^-To do good gluing, 
the work must be well fitted, the parts to be 
glued well warmed, and the clue well evoked 
and brought to the proper consistency. Having 
clamps, hand-screws, etc., ready, oftcr applying 
the glue put together immediately, bringing the 
parts firmly together, leavirib no botiy of ^uc 
oelween. Fin.'uly, use only the best glue. 

GLUE, its Manu/aeture. — Glue is ^principally 
prepared from the parings and waste-pieces of 
hides and skins, the refuse of tanrcrics, and the 
tendons and other ofiaX of slaughter-houses. 
jVU these should be preferably obtaineil and kept 
in the ilry stale, to prevent decomp<tsition. For 
use, they are first stcei3cd for 14 or 15 days in 



CEMENTS, gLCTES AaXD PASTES. 



milk of lime, arul then drained oncl drleU 
constituteii the cleaning or the preparation. 



lliis 
Be- 



I 



Core cunverbion iritu due, they are usually a^^ain 
steef)cd in weak milk of lime, well washca in 
witer, and exposed to the air for 24 hours. 
They arc Uicn placed in a copjicr boiler ^A filled 
irith water, and furnished with a peiTorated 
Ctlsc bottom, to prevent them from burning, and 
as much is piled on as will fill the vessel and 
rest on the top of iL Heat \s next appliet!, and 
gentle boiling continued until ihc liquor on cool- 
ing forma a firm gelatinous mass. The clear 
portion i^ then run olT into another vessel, where 
It is kept hot by a water-bath, and allowed to re- 
pose for ^:>me hours to deposit, when it is run 
into the conjraling boxes, and placed in a cool 
situation. Tlie next morning the cold gelatinous 
cu*ises are turned out upon boards wetted with 
water, and are cut horizontally into thia cakes 
with a stretched piece of braxs wire, and then 
into smaller cake& with a moistened flat knife. 
These cakes arc then placed upon nettings to 
dry, after which they are dipped one byx)uc into 
hot water, and slightly ruhbe<l with a brush 
wetted with boiling water, to give them a gloss ; 
they are lastly stove-dried for sale. During this 
time the undissolvnl portion of skins, etc., left 
lit the copper Ls treatea with fresh water, and the 
whole (^Mration is repeated again and again, as 
long as any gelatinous matter is extracted. The 
fir^t runnings pr<jducc the palest and Iwst glue. 
The refuse matter from the tanners and leather 
dmsers yields on the average, when dried, 50 
per cent, of its weight of glue. 

LIQUID GCUE.~u Dissolve bruised or- 
an^ shellac in A^ of its weight of rectified 
spuit, or of rectified wood naphtha, by a gentle 
heat. It is very useful as a general cement and 
tubiiitule for glue. — 3. Another kind may be 
made by dissolving I ot. of borax in t2 oz. of 
soft water, adding 2 oz. of bruisetl shellac, and 
hniling till dissolved, stirring it constantly. — 3. 
iHssotve 1000 parts of glue in icxx) parts, by 
weight, of water, in a glazed pot over a gentle 
fire. When it is nicltctl, add nitric acid (sp. gr. 
I "55) 200 parts, pouring it in very gradually. 
An eflcrvesccnce is caused by the escape of hy- 
ponitrous add. \STien all tnc acid is oxlded, al- 
low the solutjotf to cooL — 4. Dissolve t part of 
powdereii alum in I30 [Murts of water; and 130 
p«rts of glue, 10 of acetic add. and 40 of alco- 
itol, and digest. Prepared glue is mode by dis- 
solving common glue in warm water, and then 
adcDa^ acetic acid (strong vinegar) to keep it. 
~' KMve 1 lb. of best glue in i^-j pint of water. 
add I pint of '\'incgar. It is ready for use. 
'QUID GLUE, for LaMm,^ H/>yn 7m.— 
ing water, i quart; borax, pulverized, 2 02,; 
in the bom\ ; thrn add gum shellac, 4 02., 
id boil until di'^solvcd. 

MARIXE OLUE.—'SMx together gum san- 
V lb- ; gam roostic. % lb., and mclhy- 
S lbs. When the gums are dis- 
' r lb. turpentine, and incorporate 
' *- ' ' rrion of the best glue, 
.^s has l>ecn added to 
iijjh muslin. The ma- 
il be impervious to moisture, and 
I in any ordinarily hot weather. 
MOUTJf G/.UE.—T\\\s article affords a 
oonrrnicnt means of uniting papers, and 
odicr smjU, light objects; it is made by dis- 
•o(nog« with the aid of heat, pure glue (xs gel- 



atine or parchment glue) with about Jk^ of its 
weight of coarse brown sugar, in as small a 
quontitv of boiling water as possible ; this, when 
perfectly liquid, should lie cast into thin cakes on 
a flat surface very slightly oiled, and as it cools 
cut up into pieces of a convenient site. ViTien 
rciuired for use, one end may be moistened by 
the mouth, and it is then ready to be rubbed on 
any substances it may be wished to join ; a piece 
kept in the desk or workdwx is very convenient 

PARCHMENT G LC'E. —P&rchin^nt shav- 
ings, I lb. ; water, 6 quarts. Boil until dia- 
soTved, then strain and evaporate slowly to the 
proper consistence. Use a water-bath if you 
want it very light colored. 

PORTABLE GLUE, for Dtaughtmen, etc. 
— Glue, 5 parts ; sugar, 2 parts ; water, S parts. 
Melt in a wnter-balh, and cast it in moulds. 
For use, dissolve in warm water. 

SPAULDING'S GLUE.—Y\x%\. soak in cold 
water all the glue you wish to make at one time, 
using only gmss, earthen or jwrcelain dishes; 
then Dy gentle heat dissolve the glue in the same 
water, and pour in a little nitric acid, sufficient 
to give the glue a sour taste, like vinegar, or I 
Oi. to each U>. of glue. 

IVATEE-PROOF GLUE,^\ oz. of gum 
sond.irac and I oz. of mastic are to be dissolved 
togetlicr in a pint of alcohol, to which I oz. of 
white turpentme is lo he added. At the same 
time a very thick glue is to be kept readv. mixed 
with a little isinglas<i. The solution of' the res- 
ins in alcohol is to be heated to l>oiling in a glue 
pot, and the glue added gradually with constant 
stirring, so as to render the whole mass homo- 
geneous. .\fker the solution is strained through 
a cloth, it is ready for use, and is to be applied 
hot. It dries quickly and becomes very hard, 
and surfaces of wwkI united by it do not sepa- 
rate when immersed in water. 

MUCILAGES. 

AfUCILAGE.—x, Put 3 or. of gum arabic 
in an earthenware vessel containing % a pint of 
cold water. If the liquid is occasionally stirred^ 
the gum in 24 hours will be dissolved and tlie 
mixture reaily for use. Cloves will keep it from 
moulding. — 2. Fine clean glue, I lb.; gum ara- 
ble, 10 oz. ; water, f quart; melt by heat in a 
glue kettle or water-batli ; when entirely meltcti, 
add slowly 10 oz. strong nitric add, and set ofT 
to cool. Tlicn bottle, adding a couple of clows 
to each bottle. 

MUCILAGE, SALEP— Tom 6 ot. mixture, 
place into a flask l oz. of cold water, and 30 grs. 
of powdered salep; shake well together; then 
ada 7 oz. of l>oiling water, with which the whole 
is slioken until nearly cold. 

PASTES. 

PASTE, That Will Krrp a Year.—\. Dis- 
solve a teaspoonful of alum in a quart of warm 
water. When cold, stir in as mucn flour as \\t1I 
give it the consistency of thick cream, being par- 
ticular to beat up all ihc lamfts ; .stir in as much 
powdered resin as will stand on a dime, and 
throw in half-a-dozen cloves lo give a pleasant 
odor. Have on the fire a tcacupful of^ boiling 
water ; pour the flour mixture into it, stirring 
well all the time. In a very few minutes it will 
be of the consistency of mush. T'our it into on 



DlCrrONARV OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS. 



caithen or china veiiiit:! ; let it cool ; lay & cover 
on, and put it in a cool place. When needed for 
use, take aut a porliun and suAcn il with warm 
water. Paste thus made will hut 12 months. 
It U better than gum, 05 it does not gluss ihc 
paper, and can be wriltcn upon. — 2. Treparc in 
the ordinary way a good flour or slarch paste. 
It con be preserved oy adding to it a small quan- 
tity of brown sug^r, then corrosive sublimate in 
fine powder in the proportion of about a tea- 
spoonful to the pint of paste; add also a lea- 
spoonful of oil of lavender, or rosemary, or 
cloven, or any of the essential oils, and a few 
drops of carbolic acid, and stir well with a 
wooden spatula. Tliis paste wilt keep fur any 
kngtii of time perfectly pure. The ratwtmlc is 
this; llie Lorrusivc sublimate insures il against 
fermcnlation, and the essential oil and carbohc 
add against mold. Corrosive sublimate in the 
above IS a poisonous agent, but it is not cxpecled 
ihaL the paste is (o be eaten because of ils con- 
taining sugar ; and in the use of it as paste it is 
not in the least dangerous, as we all liandle with 
impunity many tilings more poisonous than this. 

PASTE, Jer Scrap Aw-ti,— Take the best 
of laundry starch in a clean dish, wet it with 
suflicient cold, soft water, to permit it Vicing stir- 
red smoothly. Pour on boding water, slowly 
stirring until the starch is clear and jelly-like. 
Ready for use as soon as cool. For many uses 
preferable to a mucilage of gum Arabic 

PASTE, That mil Adhere to Any Substance. 
— Sugar-of-lcad, 720 'grs., and alum, 720 grs. ; 
both are dissolved in water. Take 2)^ oz. of 
gum arabic and dissolve in 3 ouarts of warm 
water. Mix tn a dish 1 lb. of wneat flour with 
the gum water cold, till in past^ consistence. 
Put the dish on Ihc fire, pour into il the mixture 
of alum and sugar-oflead. Shake well, and 
lake il off the fire when it shows signs of ebul- 
litiim. Let the whole cool, and the paste is 
made. Tf the paste is too thick, add to it some 
gum water, till in proper consistence. 

PUTTY. 

GLAZIER'S PUTTY.— VmKin^, 70 lbs. ; 
boiled oil, 30 lbs. ; water, 2 gals, ^lix. If too 
ihin, add more whiting; if loo thick add more oit. 

PUTTY, to Sn//m.— To remove old putty 
from broken windows, dip a small brush in nilro- 
murialic acid or caustic soda, (concentrated lye,) 
and with it anoint or paint over the dry putty 
that adheres to the broken glass and &ames of 
your windows ; alter an hour's interval, the 
putty will tiAve become so soft as to be easily re- 
noovablc. 



SEALING-WAX. 

SEAL/jVG-iYAX.—iKtd.) i. .Shellac (very 
pale) 4 02. ; cautiously melt in a bright copper 
pan over a clear charcoal fire, and when fused 
add Venice turpentine, l^ oi.j mix, and further 
add vermilion. 3 oz. ; remove the pan from the 
(ire, cool a little, weigh it into pieces, and roll 
them into circular sticks on a worm marble slab 
by means of a polished wooden block ; or it may 
l)e poured into moulds while in a state effusion. 
Some persons polish the sticks with a rag till 
quite cold. — 2. (Fine.) Shellac 3 lbs. ; Venice 
turpentine, 19 01. ; finest cinnabar, 2 lbs. ; mix 
as r»cforc, — X. (Fine.) As the last, but use just 
half as much vermilion. — 4. Kesin, 4 lbs. ; shcl- 
Inc, 2 lbs. ; Venice turpentine and red lead, of 
each i_J4 lbs. Common. 

(lUaclc.) I. Shellac, 60 parts ; very fine ivory- 
black, reduced to on impalpable powder, 30 
parts; Venice turpentine, 20 ports. — 2. (Fine.) 
As the last, but using loinjj-black for ivory- 
black — 3. (Fine.) Rosin, 6 lbs.; shcUnc and 
Venice turpentine, of each 2 lbs. ; lamp-black 
q. s. Inferior. 

( Black Bollle-Wax.) i. Black resin 6U lbs. ; 
beeswax, % lb. ; finely- powdered ivory-Wack, f 
lb. ; melt together.— 2.(Ked.) As the last, but 
substitute Vcnelixm or red lead for ivory-black. 

(French.) .Shellac, (pale,) 3 lbs.; Vcuice 
turpentine, i^ lb. ; vcrmillion. ^^4 I^s. ; di- 
vide into sticks 12, 24, 36 or 40 to tne lb. Fine. 

(Gold.) By stirring gold-colored mica spoo- 
gles or talc, or aurum musivum into the melted 
resins when thcv begin to cool. Fine. 

(.Marbled.) by mixing 3 or 3 different col- 
ored kinds just as they l«:gin to grow solid. 

(Soft.). I. (Red.) Beeswax, 8 parts; oli^-e 
oil, 5 parts; melt, and add Venice turpentine 15 
parts ; red lead to color. — 2. (Green.) As the 
last, but substitute powdered verdigris for red 
lead. Both are usea for sealing certain official 
documents kept in tin boxes; also as a cement. 

AH the above forms for "fmc" wax produce 
" superfine," by employing the best quahlics of 
the ingredients; and "extra-superfine." or 
"scented," by adding I oz. of balsam of Peru or 
liquid slonix to the mgrcdients when consider- 
airly cooled. The voncgalcd and fancy-colored 
kinds are commonly scented with a little essence 
of musk, or ambergris, or any of the more fra- 
grant essential oils. Tlic addition of a little 
camphor or spirit of wine, makes sealing-wax 
bum easier. .Sealing-wax adulterated with rosin, 
or which contains too much turpentine, runs into 
thin drops at the flame of a canale. 



COOKING AND BAKING. 



COOKING suitaulk for invalids is marked 



ANCnOVY BUTTER.— 9yzni^ the skin 
from a dozen fine anchovies, take the flesh from 
Ihe bones, pound il smm>th in a mortar; rub 
through a hair-sieve, put the anchovies into the 
mortar with jl( of a pound of fresh butter, a 



small quantity of cayenne, and a saltspoonful 
grated nutmeg and mace ; heat together until 
thoroughly blended. If to serve cold, mould 
the butler in small shapes, and turn it out. For 
preservation, press the butter into jars ; keep cooL 



COOKING AND BAKING, 



» 



APfLK BREAD.— K very light, plcasnnt 
tvcwt it niAilc in France by a mixture oi apples 
ami flo«r, in the pf^'ji*^<rfion of r of tlic fonner 
1; I quantity of ycasl 

1 lion bread, and is 

lft«>^ ■ ;rlp of the apples 

t] 'C dough is t»cn 

It in a proi>cr ves- 
sel, jV) ' luc fur o or 12 hours, aiid 
ihca L:.; 1 loavts. Very little water is 
ftijiiittic— iionr, generally, if the apples arc very 



■\^^VF.. — Pare and core 3 good- 

. aiid put them into a well- 

n, with two tablespoonfnU of 

uccpan dose, and set it 

I e a couple of hours be 



APti 




I 



» 




fc«r lutincr; ^onic ;it>j'ies will taJtc a long titne 
•ivwfttc— ocbent wUl be ready in 15 minutes; 
WKctt toe «ripl» are done enough, pour ofl" the 
WMer, let tbcm lUnd a few minutes to ^et dry ; 
ffcca tkcti Uicsn np with a fork, with a bit of but- 
ter ftb'Ktf k( big as a nutmeg, and a teaspoonful 
ef povdrred sugsr- ikmie odd lemon-peel, 
Ifrxicd or minocd fine, or boil a bit with the ai>- 
|ik«. Soae are fond of apple sauce with cold 

|«ntlr- 

"/A'(75.— t lb. of flour. 6 ot. 
..■d beef s.uct ; roll thin, and 
boiling apples ; add gralcd 
I lice of a small lemon; tie it 
hnur and 20 minutes, or long- 
A &nuLll slice of fresh butter 
:vhen it is sweetened will t>c an ac- 
aitlition ; grated nutmeg, or cinnamon 
fiat pmvder, maybe substituted for lemon- 
mvd. rot a richer pudding use )^ a lb. of bul- 
•er foe the cnist, and odd to the apples a spoon- 
ftilortwo of orange or cjuince marmabtlc. — a. 
I4r« 4 or 5 Uut;e, tart applet, antl gmtc them 
Adt ; thni malce the following custard, into 
«1b(il \' '1 apple: Flour, 4tablesp4)on- 

litia; I I ''<. 5 eggs, and a little grated 

anBC<-f<rcL Alter you have these ingredients 
veil nia»l. pour them into your puddiiig-dUh, 

lBdhft)te.abr'n' •■' '• — -;. 

APtt^ .- . Bakid.—a, large ap- 

fk« Vx"lol. - bread. 4 oz. of butter, 

4 ', :: whue> vi eggs well beaten, sugw 

In - a dish with puffpasle. and bake 

A .*/■•; A CAKK. — ^Take 3 cups of dried ap- 
flc», cr* ' ' -•"•'"'« 'I cut caiiily, chop about 
SM ftne : incr in 1 cups of mo- 

Inni ^ sugar, I cup of sour 

■m, I , \ cups of flour. 2 tea- 

a|a«nUu -^.Ut, cloves and cinnn- 

mnn Mix. witn moiassca wvnn. Put apples 
ia befcic the floor. Bake in Urge 
ft nofces I Urp* one, or 2 small 

APPLE CUSTAFD. — i pint of good stewed 
^fAei» % % <A ^ *<r, ^ a pint of 

3 t|nP ^ '■' ^S^ ^^'^ grated 

ti? taste. Mix inc inj^ccuenls together, 
in ■ raif'paste in a moderate stove. 

j#/»/»/^ r/T Al/"— R'll l?_i[n.lo'. ill wifrr 



fvyy ftilT azkil l'.^jk.> '[nut. 'friuwi 
~ u{i un s dish. 



APPLE 5A'c7/r.— Put 12 good tart apples ia, 
cold water, and set them on a slow fire ; 
soft, dmin off the water, strip the skins from t1 
apple-i, core .md lay ihem in Idrge gln^s duh* 
Beat the whiles of 12 eggs to a %iift frulh, |«ji *^ 
a [lound of pfiw<lrrcd while siignr to ll»e upples ; 
I»cal ihcm and ndd the eggs. Beat the whole to 
a sli6f snow, and turn into a dcsscrl-dish. 

APPLE St CM. — Pare gcod cooking apples, 
put in an earthen dish with '■ugnr. butter, and 
water enough for juice. Moke a paste as for 
biscuit, only thin enough to spremi comIv with k 
spoon. Sjjrcail o\*er the apples am! hake V "rf ^ 
an hour. Berries and prunes- mnv lie u».ed in- 
stead of apples, and make an etjually palatable 
dish. Serve with a nice sauce 

APPLE SOUPPLE.~-6 or 8 apples, some 
while sugar, yelks and whites of 3 eggs. J^ of a 
pint of cream or new mdk, sugar to taste. Peel 
and cut the apples; boil them with n little white 
sugar, and mash them smcKHh. Make a custard 
with the yelks of 3 wcll-healen eggs, 3 J^ uf a 
pint of cream or new- milk, and while sugar to 
taste. Have the anfilcs arxl custard ready; moke 
a ring round the iiish with the apples, and put 
the eu-'ftard in the mwldlc. Whisk the whiles* of 
the egg?^ to a stiff froth, and put tliem over the 
c"ustard arwl apples. Sift sugar over it, and bake 
it m a niodcr.ite oven. 

APPLE EPirrEPS.—PaTc and core some 
fmc lorgt; pippins, aiul cut them into round 
slices. SooL them in su^, mc'istcncfl with wa> 
ter, and nutmeg for 2 or 3 hours. Make a bat- 
ter of 4 ecgs, fl tablespoonhil of rose-water, and 
one of miK ; thicken with cnougli flour, stirred 
in by degrees, to make a batter ; mix ir 3 or 3 
hours before it is wanted, that h may be light. 
Heat some butter in a fr\'ing-pan ; dip each slice 
of apple sciKirately in tlic baiter, and fry ihem 
brown ; sift pounded sugar and grate nutmeg 
over them. 

APPLE TKIFLE.^Siievt 6 large apples; 
sift them, and aild sugar, butter and nutmeg as 
for pies. Put in a deep dish, lake a pint mI 
cream and i of milk and boil them. When 
boiling, add the beaten yelks of 6 eggs, and 
sugar. Stir until thick. When cold. j>our it 
over the apple, bake, and when nearly done 
spread the wliites of the eggs, lieaten with lemon 
and sugar, on the top, and let it brown deli- 
cately. 

APPLES, Pleating Island tf/.— Bake or 
scald 8 or 9 large apples ; when cold, pare them 
and pulp them through a sieve. Beat up this 
pulp with sugar, and add to it the whites of 4 
or 5 eggs previously beaten up with a small 
quantity of rose-water. Mix tlus into tliejmlp 
a little at a time, and beat it until quite tight. 
Heap it up on a dish, with a rich custard or jelly 
round it. 

ARTICHOKES.— ^T^i them in cold water, 
and wash them well; nut them into plenty of 
boiling water, with a handful of salt, and let 
them boil gcnUy for \% or 2 hours ; trim them 
and drain on a sieve; send up melted butter 
with thcrn, which some put into small cups, 1 
for each gue^t. 

ARTICHOKES, /?.>iM/.— Twist off the 
stalks and wash them in cold water. When the 
water boils put thera in with the lops down. 
They will lie done in tj^ hours. Serve with, 
xoelted butler. 

ARROWROOT BLANC~MAliQE,—K\^ 






DICnoyARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



cupful of arrowroot to a pint of milk; boil Ihe 
milk with 1 2 sweet ami 6 bitter almonds blanched 
and licatcn ; sweeten with loaf sugar, and strain 
it; break the arrowroot with a lilUe of the milk 
us smooth as possible; pour tlie boiling milk 
upon it by degrees, stirring the while; put it 
back intu tlic pan, and boil a few iiiiniite<>, litill 
stirring; dip the shape in cold water before you 
put it ai, and turn it out when cold. 

ASPAHAGUS,^9Kt?L^ the stalks till they 
are clean ; throw them into a ]ian of cold water \ 
tie Ibem up in bundles of about 25 each ; cut off 
the stalks at the bottom all of a fcngth. leaving 
enough to serve A a handle for the green part ; 
put thcTD into a stew-pan of boiling wnter, with 
a handful of snlt in it. Let it boil, and skim it. 
When they are tender at the stalk, which will be 
in from 20 to 30 minuter, they arc done enough. 
Watch the exact time of their becoming tender ; 
lake them up that instant. If too much Ijoilcd 
they lose both color and taste. While the as- 

furagus is boding, toast a round of a quartern 
oaf, about % an inch thick ; brown it delicately 
on Iwth sides; dip it lightly in the liquor the as- 
paragus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle 
of a di^h, and lay the asparagus round the dish, 
the tops inwards. 

ASPARAGUS SOUP.^2 quarts of good 
beef or veal steak, 4 onions, 2 or 3 turnips, 
some sweet herbs, and the white parts of 100 
young asparagus ; if old, half that quantity; and 
let them simmer till fit to be rubbed through a 
tammy ; strain and season it ; have ready the 
boiled green tops of the asparagus, and add them 
to the soup. 

BAKING POWDER.— '^iz following arc 
the baking powders in general use: i. Tartaric 
add, 4>i or.; arrowrcwt or rice-flour, ^ oz. ; 
mix. — 3. Alum, 5 oi. ; bicarbonate of aoda, t% 
or. ; lucnrbonate of ammonia, ^ or. ; arrow- 
root, 4 oz. 

BEANS^ To Cook. — The usual way people 
cook beans is to parboil ihcm ; put ihcra in a 
kettle or nan, set them in the oven to bake, with 
a piece of fat pork in them. The grease oozes 
out into the I>cans, causing a most unwholesome 
and indigestible mass, destroying all the good 
flavor of the beans. Now the method for cook- 
ing them (which all who have tried it pronounce 
excellent) is as follows: Parijoil as usual, putting 
in sail to suit the taste. Then put them in a 
pan and set in Ihe ovcti to bake, putting in a 
piece of good, sweet butter — the size of a butter- 
nut will answer. U.ike until tender and nicely 
browned over on top. Beins are very nutn- 
tious, and cooked in this way are palatable, di- 
gestible, and can be eaten by any one. If you 
want the i>Ork, cook ix in a dish by itself. 

J^E.INS, <7rfm.— (French style.) Choose 
small, young beans, and strip off the ends and 
stalks, throwing them, as prepared, into a dish 
full of cold spring water, and, when all are fin- 
ished. wash nnd drain them well. Boil them in 
salted boiling water, in a large saucepan, and 
drain them, after which put them into an enam- 
eled stcrwpan, and shake them over the fire until 
they arc quite hot and dry ; tlien add about 3 oz. 
of fresh butler, and a tablespoonfu! of veal and 
chicken broth ; the butter must be broken up 
into small lumps. Season with white iiepper, 
salt, and the juice of half a lemon strained. 
Stir them well over a hot fire for 5 minutes, and 
■erve them in a vegetable dish very hot. 



BEEP, To y%*dge of its QufUity- — The grain 
of ox beef, when gooo, is loose, the meat red, 
and the fat inclining to yellow. Cow beef, 00 
the contrary, has a closer grain, a whiter fat, but 
meat scarcely as red as that of oa beef. Infe- 
rior beef, which is meat obtained from ill-fed an- 
imals, ur from those which had Iwcooie too old 
for food, may tic known by a hard, skinny fat, 
a dark, red lean, and, in old animals, a Uuc of 
homy texture rmining through the meat of the 
ribs. When meal pretised oy (he finger rises 
up quickly, it may be considered as tliat of an 
animal which was in its prime ; when the deal 
made by pressure returns slowly, or remains 
%'istble, the animal had prol>ably pa.s&ed its 
prime, and the meat consequently must be of 
inferior quality, 

PEEP, To Roast. — ^The noble sirlmn of about 
15 lbs., (if much thicker llie outside will be done 
too much before the inside is enough,) will re- 
quire to be before the fire about 3^4 or 4 hiJaT3. 
Take care to spit it evenly, that it may not lie 
heavier on one side than the otiicr; put a little 
clean dripping into the dripping-pan ; (tic a 
sheet of popcr over it to preserve the (at ;) l^aste 
it well as soon as it is put down, and every j^ 
of an hour all the time it is roasting, till the 
last yi hour; then take off the paper and make 
some gra\'y for it ; stir the fire and make it 
dear ; to brown and froth it, sprinkle a little 
salt over it, baste it with butter, and dredge it 
with flour ; let it go a few minutes longer, till 
the froth rises ; lake it up, ptit it on the dish, ctc 

PEEP, Rump of. To Bake.—ilxiX. out the 
bone and break it. and Iteat the flesh with a rol- 
ling pin ; season with pepper, sail, ai»d clores, 
and lard the meat across. Put the meal into on 
earthen pan, with the broken bones, some but- 
ter, bay leaves, whole butter, I or 2 shalots. and 
sweet herbs; cover it dose, and place it in tlie 
oven; it will require 6 hours to bake. Skim oflT 
the fat, dish the meat, and serve with dried 5i)> 
pels and its own hquor. 

BEEF, Ltg of. To Bake.-^xiX the meat off 
and break tlie bones. Put them all into an 
earthen pan with 2 onions and a bundle of sweet 
herbs, and season with whole pcpT>er, cloves, 
and blades of mace. Cover it witn water, tie 
the top doie with brown paper, and put it in 
the oven. ^Vhen done, take out the pieces of 
meat, lay them in a dish, ojid return them to the 
oven to keep hot. Skim off the fat and strain 
the liquor; pick out the 1>oncs and sinews, and 
put them in a saucepan with a little of the gravy, 
and butter rolled in flour. When hot pour il 
into (he dish with the meat. 

BEEP, PiiUt tf/.— Take the sirloin or second 
cut of the rit>s ; take out the bones with a sharp 
knife, and skewer it round in good sliape; lay 
the bones in a large saucepan, with 2 onions, I 
carrot, and 12 cloves; add the meat, just cov- 
cred with water. Let it cook slowly 2 hours ; 
dish the meat ; skim all the fat from the gravy, 
add some flour mixed with cold water, and 2 
spoonfuls of walnut catsup; give all a boil. 
Turn p.irt of the gravy over the meat, and serve 
ihe rest in a gravv tureen. 

BEEFCOLLOPS.—CxLtiUt fdlet from the 
under part of a rump of beef into thin slices, and 
broil until nearly none ; put into a stew-pan 
with a little beef stock; acid slices of lemon, 3 
tablespoons of catsup, and stew till tender ; U a 
pint of oysters is an miprovemenl to this dish. 



J 



COOK/yC AND BAKING. 



^ 



the c 



BEEF^ FiUei c/^ -,eith Musknvms.—Cwi the 
fillet into slices, and ])our over liicm some 
melted butter, seuuncd with i^eppcr and salt; 
let them stand for an hour ; then put them in a 
frying-[>an over a cjuick fire to brown liglilly; 
tjke Lhem out, and put in the pan flour enough 
to thicken and brown ; mix ^mootlily, and add 
sofnc slock. 

BEEJ^, C»r7 *?*/.— (Madras style.) Place 2 
t^Iespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan, with 2 
smaU unions cut in thin slices ; fry until bruwn ; 
add a tablespoonful and a half of curry powder, 
and mix all together. Take 3 pounds of beef; 
cut in pieces an inch square; pour over lhem 
the milk of a cocoannl* and a % of the meat of 
the not ^ated fine and squeexccl through mu'tlin 
with a little water ; this softens the taste of the 
carry, and no curry is ever made without it in 
India. If there is not liquor enough, add % a 
tcacupful of boiling water; let (he whole sim< 
mer for jO mfnates. Serve in a dish with sliced 
lemon, and a wall of mashed potatoes or boiled 
rice around it. 

BEEFJUSSOLES.—^lmcn some cold roast 
beef fine, add rather more than % as much 
bread-crumbs as meat, a little mioced leraon- 
peel and chopped parsley, with salt, pepper, and 
sweet herbs minced, to taste. Make into a 
paste Willi 2 or more e^s, according to the 
c^uantity of meat ; roll np into balls, and fry a 
nch brown ; thicken a little good brown gravy ; 
add to it tt dessert spoonful of Worcester sauce, 
and pour it round the rissoles in a very hot 
dish. 

BEEF, Stnvedwitk Onicns. — Cut some ten- 
dar beef into small pieces, and season with salt 
and pepper; slice some onions and add to it, 
with water enough in the stew-pan to make a 
gravy. Let it stew slowly till the beef is thor- 
oo^iily cooked, then add some pieces of butler 
roUed in 6our, enough to make a rich gravy. 
Cold beef may be cooked before adding them to 
tlie meat. Add more water if it dries too fast, 
but let it be Soiling when poured in. 

BEEF J/AS//.-^Takc nice slices of cold sir- 
loui or ribs of beef; cut off all the outside 
and gristle ; make with these and the 
a brown gravy as directed; cut a good- 
sixcd carrot and turnip in small pieces ; stew till 
tcwlrr ; lay the slices of meat in a stew-pan 
with ihe carrot and lumip; pour over a pint of 
tfce grary, thickened with a oil of butter rolled 

&ur. 6 pHckle<l mushrooms, and 3 pickled 
nis CUT in half. Set the stew.pan by the 
until the meat is thoroughly heated, but do 
HOC let it boiL 

B££F, CORNED, n Baif.—Wish it ihor- 

gUf , and out it in a pot thai will hold plenty 
of witer. The water should Imil when the beef 



IS pot in, and great care shouM be taken to skim 
it olten ; >^ an hour for every lb. of meal is 
snfficitnit rime. Com beef, to be tender and 
j«acT. should boil very gently and long. If it is 
to be ealen cold, take it from the pot when 
boiled, and lay it in an earthen dish or pan, 
with a jiiece of board ujion it, Ihe size of tlie 
iBKat. Upon this put a heavy stone or couple 
flC ftal ktom* It peatly improves salt meat to 

/ Vrt/.— *«lt 3 lbs. of lean beef, with 

K • : and >V ftn <k. of saltpetre. Let 

fl ttarici J <izv>. 1 lividc it into pieces weighing 
* pOVtti coc^ and put it in an earthen pan of 



just sufHcieiit size to contaiii il ; pour over it yi 
a pint of water, cover it close with a olalc, and 
bet it in a slow oven for 4 hours. Wiiea taken 
from the oven, pour tlic gravy into a basin, 
hhred the meat fine, moiaten it with the gravy 
poured from the meat, and pound it thoroughly 
m a uiarblc mortar, with fresh butler, until it 
becomes a fine paste ; season it with black pep- 
per and alUpice, ground doves, or grated nut- 
meg; put it in pots, press it down as closely as 
po!^:^ibtc, put a weight on it, and let il stand all 
night; next day, cover it a 3^ of an inch thick 
with clarified butter* and tie paper over it. 

BEEfi' CUr/.E7'S.~Ciit the inside of a sir- 
loin or rump in slices }4 an inch thick ; trim 
them neatly ; melt a little butter in a frying- 
pan ; season the cutlets ; fry tliem lightly ; serve 
with tomato sauce. 

* BEEF TEA.—Tdkc I lb. of juicy rump 
steak, cut into oblong pieces an inch or two 
long by about V ^^ ^1 i^^^ wide, place them in 
a saucepan anu ju«t cover v^nth cold water ; set 
it on top of the stove, if there is a good iire, 
and witn an iron spoon keep pressing out the 
juice from the meat, which at the end of lo min- 
utes will be almost perfectly white and touch as 
leather. 3 to 5 minutes boiling wilt finish it; 
tlien draw off the broth and rinse the meat with 
a little boiling water, to get off the nourishing 
particles which remain ; add salt the last thing 
(on no account do ihU while the meat is cooking) 
and pepper to taste if allowed, and in 15 min- 
utes you have a bowl of as good beef tea as was 
ever made. 

BEEF BROTU.—Wtish a leg or shin ot 
beef; crack the bone well; ^desire the butcher 
to do it for you ;) odd any trimmings of meat, 
game, or poultry, heads, necks, gizzards, feet, 
etc. ; cover them with cold \\'ater; stir it up well 
from the Ixittom, and the moment it begins to 
simmer skim it carefully. Your broth must Ik; 
perfectly clear and limpid, for on this depends 
the goodness of the soups, sauces and gra\'ics of 
winch it is the basift. Add some cokl water to 
moke the remaining scum rise, and skim it again. 
When the scum has done rising, and the surface 
of the broth is quite clear; put in i moderate- 
sized carrot, a head of celery, 2 turnips, and 2 
onions ; it shotdd not have any taste of sweet 
herbs, spice or garlic, etc. ; cither of these fla- 
vors con easily be added after if desired ; cover 
it close, set it by the side of the fire, and let it 
simmer very gently (so a^ not to waste the 
broth) for 4 6r 5 hours or more, according lo 
the weight of the meat ; strain it through a 
sieve into a clean and dry stone pan, and set It 
into the coldest place you have, if for after use, 

BEEFSTEAK, Hmo to Ov*.— The frying- 
pan being wiped dry, place it «ix>n the stove and 
let it become hot. In the mcintirae mangle the 
sleak — if it chance lo be sirloin, so much the 
belter — pepper and salt it, then lay it on Ihe 
hot. dry pan, which instantly cover as tight as 
possible. When the raw flesh touches Ihe 
neatetl pan, of course it seethes and adheres to 
it, but in a few seconds it becomes loosened and 
juicy. Every 30 seconds turn the steak ; but be 
careful to keep it as much as pr»ssible under 
cover. WTien nearly done lay n small piece of 
butter upon it. In 3 minutes from Ihe time the 
sleak Rrsl goes into the pan it is ready for the 
Uble. 

BEEFSTEAK AND 0N10NS.-^yA the 



^L 



dBb^ 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



ttealat about ^ of an inch thick ; put a good 
lump of clripi>ing or lard into your pan, and 
when it is hot lay in tlic steaks ; turn them frc< 
quenlly, so that they may not bum ; let them be 
nicely browned all over, and when cooked lay 
them in a hut dibh before the fire; meantime 
have in readiness a plateful of onions, sliced 
very thin, and sprinkled with pepper and salt; 
put them into the pan, and lay a dish over them 
to keep in the steam ; turn them al>out. and let 
them be cooked thoroughly. They will require 
along time; they should be soft aiid brown; 
when done, pour them over the steaks and serve 
up hot 

BEEFSTEAK ROLLS.— CmX nice, small, 
thin steaks, and firy them sUghtly ; make a stuf- 
fing as if for roast veal or turkey; roll up the 
steaks, putting the stuffing inside each roll; 
skewer or tie them neatly, stew them in a rich, 
brown gravy for 20 minutes, and serve. 

BREAD, Yeast for. — Tjike 9 medium*sized 
potatoes, boil in 2 quarts of water, and ma*ih 
them fine. Steep I cup of hops in ^ .1 pint of 
hot water, and strain off, pressing the hops. 
Add together the potato-water, hop-water, the 
ma&hed |>otatocs. 2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 2 of 

fotxl ground ginger, i cup of sugar, and when 
lood-worm add 1 cup 01 stock yeast, (such as 
here described,) or for first start use brewer's 
yeast; put in a jar and keep in a cool place, 
where it will not freeze, and it will keep gooil 
about 3 weeks. Let it stand at least 24 hours 
before using. 

BREAD, To Make, — ^To make the sponge, 
which should be in the evening, tnke a deep ves- 
sel, put in 3 quarts of worm water, 1 cup of the 
above yeast, stir in (lour enough to moke a stiff 
batter, and set in a warm place. In the morn- 
ing put in 2 quarts of warm water, salt it (if the 
dou^h inclines to l>e running, from bad flour, 
put m I teaspoonful of powdered nlum dissolved 
m warm water.) Knead the dough till it is 
smooth, and cover it with a doth in a deep ves- 
sel; keep it warm, (not hot,) let it rise, and 
then mold into 6 loaves, let it rise again till 
light, and then bake.. 

BREAD, FrrwA.—Vut t pint of milk into 3 
quarts of water. In winter let it be scalding 
hot, hut in summer litdc more than milk-warm ; 
put in salt sufTidcnl. Take i}4 pints of good 
fllc-ycast, free from bitterness, and lay it in I 
gal. of water the night before. Pour off the 
yeaiit into the milk and water, and then break in 
rather more than ^ lb. of butter. Work it welt 
till it is dissolved; then beat up 2 eggs in a ba- 
sin, and stir them in. Mix about i^ pecks of 
flour with the liquor, and, iu winter, moke the 
dough pretty stiff, but more slack in summer ; 
mix it well, and the less it is worked llie better. 
Stir the liquor into flour, as for pic-crust, and 
after the dough is made cover it with a doth, 
and let it lie to rise while the oven is heating. 
ViTicn the rolls or loaves have lain in a quidc 
oven about a ^ of on hour, turn them on the 
other side for about a ^ of an hour longer. 
Then take them out and chip them wlili a knife, 
which will make them look spongy, and of a 
' le yellow, whereas rasping takes off tliis fine 

)lor, and renders their look less inviting. 
BREAD, Unfertfiffttid. — Take the iron pans 
now in use, and which can be obtniuetl at almost 

ly hardware store ; or, if not obtainable, com- 
>n patty tins will do; saturate a dean duth 



with oil or butter, with which rub llie iron or 
tins, and set them on the stove to heat ; then 
take sweet skim milk (not more than 24 hours 
old) warmed to the temperature of new milk or 
warm water, with 2 spoonfuls of cream to i pL 
of water, and sth- in fine flour until you have a 
batter a very little thicker than for gricLjlc cakes ; 
or if unbolted flour (which is much better) is 
used, until it will heap up slightly on the spoon ; 
heat your dishes so that they will siss when the 
batter is put in, and have your oven well heated, 
until the cakes are r>une<l up and lightly browned. 
Then close the draft and bake slowly for 15 or 
20 minutes, and you will have the best bread 
made. 

BREADt Gmham. — Take i qt, of warm wa- 
ter, I teacupful of good yeast, and I tablespoon- 
ful of salt. Put into a pan, make a stiff batter 
with flour, which has l>ccn siftcil, and keep it 
very warm until it is light ; then take flour whidi 
has been half sifted to thicken it; knead it wel!, 
^ut do not let it get cold ; let it rise agom. 
Then work it down, and put in I teacupful of 
sugar and a piece of butter the size of an egg. 



Knead it ^ an hour, put it in pans, and let it 

Hour in a rood- 
rate oven. 



rise very light. Bake J^* of on 



BREAD, Oxyrfnafed. — An artide of diet 
termed oxygenated bread has of late lieen intro- 
duced into England, and found considerable fa- 
vor. For its prcjMiration the bread is placed un- 
der on air-pump, and the carlx>iiic acid gas and 
atmospheric air exhaustefl, and then oxygen ad- 
mittecl in sufficient quantity to fill the pore.s of 
the bread. An inconvenience attending its use 
is its tendency to become mouldy. This can he 
obviated by avoiding the use of yeast, or by 
placing a pn]>cr saturated with a solution of car- 
bonic acici on the top of the Ixix in whidi the 
bread is preserved, this scarcely affecting the 
taste of the bread. A single mouthful uf oxy- 
genated bread is said to remove the wont of an- 
IKtilc, and to induce an agreeable sensation in 
the epigastrium in dyspeptic attacks. In the 
case of ijaslric disturbances arising from nervous 
depression. Incomplete assimilation, or scrofulous 
aflcctions, it is said that (he use uf this bread 
produces a very sensible improvement in the 
course of i or 2 weeks. 

BREAD, To Make Witkotit FUmr.—K 
Frenchman named Seiillc has discovered a method 
of making bread from unground wheat, with- 
out first grinding and bolting it into flour. Tlie 
making of breadby this new system is a three- 
fold process — namely, washing the wheal, fer- 
mentation, and the final admixture and flavoring. 
The grain is put in a vessel, covered with water, 
and stirred until the lighter grains and extrane- 
ous particles arc cither dissolved or left floating 
on the surface. The m-iss is then freed from 
the water and put into a cylinder, like a nutmcg- 
grater, whose revolutions remove the outer sVm 
of the grain. This is all that is really necessary 
to remove. Next, the wheat thus cleansed is 
immersed in twice its own weight of water, 
heate<l to 75'', to which has been added I port 
of half-dry yeast, and 5 or 6 oz. of glucose to 
200 parts of water. A day's exposure to this 
bath secures the necessary aegrec of absorption 
and fermentation, and the color will also nave 
been extracted from the exterior surface of (he 
grain. The water being then removed, the 
wheat will be not for from white in color. Next 



COOKING AND BAKING. 



the ttifTencfi ra&^t is put through rollers, which 
ma&h it inio a glulinous pulp, and mix regularly 
Ihinugh ihc whole bulk all the rcuiAin'tn); uar* 
tides of &ldn or bran. The dough — for sucn it 
now is — is then put into a trough, flavored with 
salt which has been dis&olvecl in uiitcr. and given 
an opportunity to ab&orb more ivatcr if neces- 
sary, and then thoroughly kneaded by hand. 
Nothing, DOW, is needed but to treat it just as 
ftour-dough is treated, and, when sufficiently 
light, haiul it over to the oven. It is claimed 
that by this »rocess the cater secures the entire 
Dutnment of the wheat, and that it produces U 
more bread than under the present system. It 
is probable that the bread tnui mode will laclt 
that whiteness which is so much sought afler by 
modest hou5cwivc^ but then the result will be 
most nutritious. Owing, however, to the time 
oonsamed in preparing tne grain for the oven, it 
is not likely taai this new process will for some 
lime tocnmcsui>crscdc (he old -fashioned method 
of letting a sponge over-night for the next day's 
baking. 

BREAD, To Disfoi'er whether it is Adulte- 
ratidntitk Alum. — The bread must be sonked 
in water, and to the water in which it has l>ecn 
soaked a little of the solution of muriate of lime 
must be added, upon which, if any alum be 
present, the liquid will be pervaded with milki- 
iiei.s ; but if the bread be pure the liquid will 
remain limpid. Rationale : Sulphuric acid has a 
stronger amnily fur lime than for the alumina 
and potass, with which it forms alum; it there- 
fore quits tho&c bodies to form sulphate of lime 
with the lime of the test, which produces the 
mitkiness. 

BfiEAD, .'///'*•-— (F'rench method.^ Put % 
of boiled apple pulp to *^ of wheat fiour, and 
ferment it with yeast for 12 hours. It is said to 
be light and palatable. 

BREAD, ^AWOT«.— {Oneida.) l nt. of Indian 
meal, 1 gu of rye meal, 1 teaspoonful of soda, t^ 
a enp of moUsses, with a slight sprinkling of 
salt. A little sour milk improves it. Mix to 
the coa&istencv nf pancake batter. Bake from 
1 hour to I>i hours, according to the heat of 
JKMU oven. 

BREAD, CiTTTf.— Take I pt of com meal, 
(white is best.) and stir into it \ teaspoonful of 
dry saleratufi and % a teaspoonful of salt ; then 
•M 2 *^g*» ' P^ "f »«>"*■ milk, and 3 tablespoon- 
fuU of sour cream ; beat about 5 minatcs, and 
pus it (aljout % an inch deep) in the pans to 
bake. Use pie pans to bake it in. If you have 
BO cream, use about a tablespoonful of butter. 
dfjpp'ti^, or lard. 

BREAD, Potato. — Tade 4 or S good mealy 
potatoes, and after boiling peel and mash well ; 
add a large spoonful of flour and enough hot 
v«lcr lo make a thin batter ; when cool enough 
add a amall quantity of good yeast and a spoon- 
M <if s«qpr \ set to rise in a moderately warm 
pfaoe, my by the stove or fireplace; it rises very 
5"klky. When risen, take 3 large spoonfuls or 
H far I pt and a >^ of flour, a small spoonful of 
hni or butter, a >i pL of milk, and hot water 
fSBO^gh to make into a stiff liatlcr, (over night;) 
bcaS wdl; ( est morning work it well into a 
cmootSl dough and make into roIU or loaves ; 
*cf io a warm place lo rise again, and bake in a 
^uick oven. Do not forget a teaspoonful of salt 
tti4 I of ycBSt powder sifted in tlie dry flour 
tJhil JOB work into the baiter in the morning ; a 



tin bucket is best, with a tight cover, and a 
towel between it and the bucket. If your flour 
is good, there is no belter recipe than this; no 
hops are needed. 

BREAD, R/CE.^TvAie i lb. of rice, and 
bwl it gentiv to a thick paste, which, when 
mixed with the usual quantity of yeast, will be 
sufficient to make 5 pounds of wheat or borl^ 
meal into a dough. When risen, bake it in the 
usual way. 

BREAD, j^'KA'.— Scald I cup of flour with t 
cup of boiling water. % a teaspoonful of salt. 4 
tablespoonfuU of molasses, a large cup of yeast, 
3 cups of rye, 6 cups of flour, 3 cups of warm 
water ; stir well with a spoon, set it to rise 12 
hours. 

BREAD, Jy|f?d?.— This light and nutritious 
article for invalids is made in the following man- 
ner : 2 lbs. of sago lo be well soaked in water 
or milk for several hours; mix it with as much 
flour ; add salcralus and gmxi ycAst, (a little In- 
dian meal, if liked ;) when well raided give it a 
handsome bake. It is delidoos, healthy and 
cheap. 

BREAD, If-'/ZZOfK.— The leaves of our 
common or Ixisket m\\ovr,{Safix Nig^nu Mar- 
shall.) treated the same as is usual for hops, 
make on excellent yeast or leaven for light 
bread. The discovery was made this summer, 
and after thorough trial I was convinced (hat 
there is nothing equal tn it, as it rises much 
quicker than hops — in half the lime — imparts 
none of that hop flavor so disagreeable lo some, 
and, in fact, makes l>etler breadevcry way. The 
thing is well worthy the attention of every good 
houicwife; and lest some should hesitate in ci^n- 
scqucncc of not knowing the meilical nro^ietties 
of the willow in question, I will add tuat it is a 
healthful tonic from wluch no harm can possibly 
arise. 

BREAD, To Keep Afoist.—VUcc in the 
bread pan a board pierced with holes, and so 
supported ail to be a couple of inches from the 
bottom of the pan ; let there be an inch depth of 
water in the pan ; put the bread on the board, 
and cover the pan with the lid. The inclosed 
air will then prevent the bread from becoming 
too dr>*. 

BREAD, To Srrve at rd*/r.— First, the 
bread-plate should be of wood, perfectly round, 
and with a flat surface. They cost at the shops 
from 75 cts. to $6, or more. The highnriced 
ones arc Ixrautifully carved. Next a I>reml-knife, 
which has a wooden handle to match llic plate. 
The blade should be thin and long, and the edge 
kept well sharpened. Bread dulu a knife very 
much* 

Place on the table the bread-plate with a loaf 
of bread nn it — 2 loaves are better, I of white 
bread, the other of brown — and the knife. 
When it is time to serve the bread, the one 
nearest the bread-plate asks each one what Idnd 
is preferred, and if thick or thin slices. Where 
the table is large, a small ptale is used to pass it 
on. In this way every one at the table has the 
bread cut to his or her liking. The bread i* cut 
only as wanted, and no more cut than is used. 
The outside niece of either bread or meat must 
not be served, unless some one manifests a pref- 
erence for it. Not much strength is reoutrcd to 
cut meat and bread. The muscles of the wrist 
and band should do the work, and not those of 
the arm^ elbow, or shoulder. 



DTCTIO^ARY OF EVERY-DAV tVAA'TS. 



HREAD PVnDFNG.—l pt. of grated bread 
crumbs, I qt. of milk, yelks of 6 eggs well 
l>ealen, i giated lemon, and sugar to tosie. 
Bake. When cold spread a layer of jelly over 
the top, then make an idng of the whites of the 
eggs and white sugar, and spread smoothly 
over the jelly. To be eaten cold without sauce. 

BROSE, Athol. — This is a beverage peculiar 
to the Highlands of 5>cotIand. Honey is dis- 
solved in whisky to the consistence of cream ; 
the drink w tl»en taken with a teaspoon. A 
quantity sufficient to fill a wine-glass, taken at 
night, will l>e found of benefit in colds and ca- 
tarrhs. In prejiariiig Alliol Brest oatmeal is 
occa.sionalIy added. 

BROSE, Scetch.—V\xK a few handfuU of oat- 
meal into a wooden dish ; then pour in a little 
boiling water, and mix thoroughly. Add a lit- 
tle soil. Tlii* dish is fTcquentTy used as a sub- 
stitute for porridge, when it is inconvenient to 
cook the Inttcr. Fresh milk added is a great 
improvement. 

BEETS^ Boiled. — Beets must not be cut be- 
fore boiling, as the juice will escape and the 
swcetneH-« Ikt destroyed. Select .small- sizetl, 
.«;mo<>th roots, wash them nictly, and lK>il in 
nClcar water until lender. When sufficiently 

>kc*', 5.kim lliem into a pan of cold water, and 

Hp off the skin. Cut them in ttiin slices, and, 

while hot. season with butter, salt, pcpocr and 

^•inegar, and aen'C. If preferred coin, slice 

lengthwise and lay in strong, cold vinegar. 

BiSCUiTS, frmr.— Take 2 lbs. ot flour, 2 
llw. uf butter, and 4 oz. of sifted loaf sugar. 
Uub the sugar and butler into the flour, and 
make it into a stiff paste with milk; poumi it in 
a mortar, roll it out thin, and cut into sizes or 
5ha()es to fancy. Lay ihera on buttered paper in 
a warm oven, on iron plates, having first crushed 
them over with a little milk. When done, you 
cin give them a gloss by brushing them over 
M'ith a brush dinped in egg. A few caraway 
seeds may l>e added, if thought proper. 

BISCUITS, Englhh Scni.^x lb. of Rour. % 
lb. of su^ar, % lb. of butter, ^ oz. of caraway 
seeds, 3 eggs. Roll out, cut round, and bake 
bi m moderate ovrn. 

BROTH OF FRAGMLNTS.—Whiin yoM 
:ss a large dinner, you may nuke good broth, 
portable soup, at a very small cost, by taking 
care of all the trimmings and parings of the 
meat, game and poultry you arc going to use; 
wash them well and put them in a slew-p.in, 
\nth as much cold water as will cover Ihem ; set 
your stcw-pnn on a hot fire ; when it boils, lake 
off alt the scum, and set it on again to simmer 
gently ; put in 2 carrots, 2 turnips, a large onion, 
2 blades of pounded mace, and i head of celery ; 
some miishrfwim parings will lie an addition. 
Let it continue to simmer gently for 4 or 5 hours, 
and then strain it through a sieve into a clean 
basin. This saves much expend in buying 
gravy meaL 

BROCOLT, To Bfifl— Strip off the leares 
till you come to the top ones; peel oft all the 
outside skin from the sLiIks and small branches, 
and thniw ihem into water. Boil in accordance 
with the general directions. When the stalks 
arc tender it is done. Serve in the same man- 
ner as asparagus. 

BC'AS.—}4 a cup of butter, >^ a cnp of 
yeast, 1^ a cup of sugar, 1 cup of milk, and 
nour enough to make a lialtcr like griddlc-cakcs. 



Let this rise till light, then add % of n cup of 
iugar, I cup of currants or stoned raisins, dn^, 
namon or nutmeg to taste, ft little more flour 
let it rise again, put in |<i of a teaspoonful ol 
soda, cut in cakes, let them rise a third timCf' 
and then Imke. 

Bl'.VS, Bath,— A X of a *b- of fl<™>". 4 
yelks and 3 whites of eggs, with 4 sptKrnfuls of 
solid, fresh yeast. Beat in a bowl, and act be- 
fore the fire to rise; thep rub into I lb. of flour 
]0 01. of butter ; put in ^ of a lb. of sugar and 
caraway comfits; when the ctos and yeast ar^ 
pretty light, mix by degrees ST together, throW"' 
a cloth over it, anu set before the fire to 
Make the buns, and when on the tins brush over 
with the yelk of egg and milk ; strew them with 
caraway comfits ; l^kc in a quick oven. 

BL'TTER, To C/an/y.—Takc butter, melt ft^ 
in a warm bath, then let it settle, pour off lh«1 
clear, and cool as quickly as possibltf. Butter' 
preportMl in this way will keep a long time go<.>i 

BUTTER, j^*?«(i;/.—Ram;id butter, ifboih 
in water with a portion of charcoal, (say .a tentli'^ 
part,) will be entirely <!ivesled of its rancidity, 
and may be used for cooking purposes, althouCTj 
its fine flavor will not be restored for the lablk^ 

CABBAGE, 7:? 5/rtc'.— Parboil in milk ant 
water, and drain it ; then shred it, put it into 
stew-pan, with a small piece of butter, a small 
leacupful of cream, and seasoning, and stew till 
tender. 

CABBAGE SALAD. — This is a wholesome 
dish, as raw cabbage is much sooner digesN 
than w hen cooked ; a dressing of vinegax or 
sweet cream; shred it finely as (or slaw. 

CABBAGE {Cold 5-im.)— Take fresh cab- 
bage — while is preferable — wash, drain it, andd 
cut off the st.ilks. Shave the hca<l into vei 
fine shreds with 3 cabbage cutter or *harp knife 
I'lnce it in n deep china or earthen dish, and pre-T] 
pare for it tlic following dressing: To )-^ a pt. of 
ddcr vinegar add tl %Qi vl lb. of butter, cut in 
5 or 6 biu and rolledin flour ; add a small salt- 
spoon of salt. Stir well together, and boil in a 
saucepan. Have ready the yelks of 4 eggs, 
well beaten. When the mixture comes to a boi" 
remove it from the fire, and stir in the eggs. 
Pour this boiling hot over the cabbage, stir i" 
thoroughly through with a spoon, and set it ii 
ice or snow, or some cool pLice, to get thor-. 
oughlv cold before being served at the table. 

CAKES, AlMO\3.—i. Take some sweet 
almonds, flmir, .and powdered sugar, of each V 
lb., 7 eggs, and the outside yellow peel of4 
lemons shredded small. Pound the almonds^ 
previously bl.mcheti, until they are very smool' 
adding gradually the sugar analcmon-jwtl ; th< 
take them out. add the eggs, and beat the wl 
until it is as while as s[Minge-|xi«»le; next add 
flour, work well, p\it it into wcll-butiered paos, 
and bake in a slack oven, with 8 or 10 thick- 
nesses of jMiper under them and 1 over them. 

CAA'E, APPLE S//ORT.—V&TC and sUce 
tart apples enough to 611 2 roumi pic plates ; thea 
make a crust of i leacupful of cream, ult 
soila; roll an upper crust, and put on and ' 
when done turn nottom upu-ards; put on sugar 
enough tn taste; then turn again, 'and so on* 
To be eaten warm. 

CAAES, BAXBURY^-^WoxV l lb. of but- 
ter into the same weight of dough, made for 
white bread, as in making jijiff paste; then 
it out very thin, and cut it into oval pieces, or 




the cakes are wanted. >[ix bome good moist 
nigu with an equal wc-ight of corrants. and wet 
ifaem wUh water ; then put a little upon each 
piece of paste; dose them up, and place them 
oa a tin with the doiicd side downwards and 
hake them. Flavor some powdered sngar with 
CBudied peel, gnited« or essence of lemon, and 
aft a little m*cr the cakes as soon as they come 
oat of the oven. 

CAJTES, SA 77/.— Mix weU together }^ a lb. 
of Iratter, i lb. of flotir, 5 eggs, and a cupful of 
yrast. Set the whole t>efnre the tire to ri^e, 
which efTectrdf add 4 oz. of line! y- powdered 
sagar and I oz. of OLraways; roll the paste oat 
into tittle cakes. Bake them on tins. 

CAA'E^ BA'EAA'FASr.—\ cup of soar 
cream, I teaspoonful of soda, i egg, i lump of 
butler the size of a hen's egg, a &null teacupful 
of sugar. I cup of rye flour, and I cup of In- 
dian mea] ; nuke and bake as stirred colce. 

CAKES, C/AWAMOM—t cup of sugar; 

^ of a cap of molasses ; 1 cup of butter; i^ 

t^lcspoonfuls of ground cinnamon ; 2 level 

spoonsfuls of sodA, dissolved in 6 large table- 

fuis of warm water ; stir well, and add 

enough to allow In roll quite thin ; cut out 

a btM:uit<utter, and bake in a quick ovetu 

CAKE, CO/fX.—l. I pL of buttermilk, I 
pL of com meal* 2 beaten egg^, i teaspoonful 
of vvla; Ijeat well together and hake in shallow 
tin pons. Increase quantities for more than 4 
or 5 persons. — 2. A pi. of buttermilk or sour 
milk, a pL of com meal, i egg, a teaspoonful of 
soda, I of salt. 2 of sugar or molasses. Dts- 
solre the soda in a little warm water, and add it 
the bst thing. Bake }4 ^ ^^^^ in ^ quick oven. 

CAKE, B/f£AD.—i^ cups of dough, 1 
cap of sugar. % ^ <^ip ^^ butter. 2 eggs, ^ tea- 
spoonful of soda. Raisins and spice to suit the 
CAsCr. Mir with the hands until the dough 
thoroughly worketl in, adding a little more 
if the douqh is thin. Let )it rise ^ an- 
hoor. It rises stowly and bat little before going 
into the orcn. 

CAA'ES, GRIDDLE ( trAMfimaLy-Make 
a porrid^^c with about 3 heaping spoonfuls of 
oatmeal, hominy, rice, or very coarse com meal. 
in a pint of water. Boil 20 or 30 minutes, or if 
rm Dave either of these articles alreidy cooked. 
It can be made much quicker. Add 1 pint of 
ooU water and wheat meal, sifting it siowly, 
eaaach to make a batter a httle thicker than for 
nnCQ griddle cakes. Bake on a slightly- oiled 
or » aoapitonc griddle, spreading out with the 
spoon as yna put them on. Itake them brown, 
xjkI pat them on each other as fatt as cooked. 
Keep them close and warm, and let them stand 
xo or 15 minutes twfore serving. If soft and 
iticky 2KKT Standing, you have made them too 
tkfttt. 

CAA'ES, C/ArGER.~Ma.ke a paste with 
muffir, I lb. ; powdered ginger. 4 01. ; flour. 2 
Ibk: «mer, 1 pL : buner. '^ lb. ; and i cup of 
oci^QiS orange peel, grated; form them into 
~'~~ sad pnck them «*iih a fork before baking 



CAKE, CHOCOLATE PASTE.— 2 cups 
cf viQpv. I CBti of butter. 3 eggs, 3 cups of flour. 
If « • am or milk. ^ a lea<ipoonfuI of soda, I 
teaspuoofoj of cream of tartar. Pattt: Choco- 
l<*iw 2 or., I mp of sugar, 4^ of a cup of sweet 
■Ok; brrO K&If down. 1*his makes I cake of 4 
l^«n with paste bctlroen. 



CAKES, ICING EOR.—)ieat the while of 
e^s to a full froth, and flavor with lemon or 
rose ; then odd gradually as much finely pow- 
dered sugar as will make it thick enough, beat- 
ing it well all the time. Dust the cake over 
with flour, then gently rub it off, lay on the 
icing with n flat knife, slick on the ornaments 
while it is wet, and place it in the oven for a few 
minutes to harden, but not long enough to dis- 
color it. 

CAKES, yOlLWVY.—Saiia a quart of In- 
dian meal with water enough lo n^e a very- 
thick batter, add 3 or 3 tcaspuonfuls of t>alt. and 
mould it into small cakes with the hands. The 
hands must be well floured, or the batter will 
stick. Kry them in nearly sufficient fat lo cover 
them. When brown on tlie under side turn 
them; cook them about 20 minutes. Wlicn 
done, split and butler them. 

CAKES, I,EMOA\—r\Q\XT and sugar, of 
each I lb. ; eggs, I doeen ; grated peel and Juice 
of 4 lemons ; whisk the eggs to a high froth, 
and then gradually add the rest. Bake in small 
oval tins, well buttered, and place 6 thicknesses 
of pajier l>encath each tin. Thinly ice them. 

CAA'E, SPihVGE.—TA\te 5 eggs, and }i a 
lb. of loaf sugar lifted ; break the eggs upon the 
sugar, and beat all together with a fork for ^ 
an hour. PreWously take the weight of i^ 
cgg«, in their shclbi, ot ftour. j'Uicr you have 
t>e.'iten the eggs and sugar the time spcdfied, 
grate in the nnd of a lemon, (the juice may be 
added at pleasure,) stir in llic flour, and imme* 
diately pour it into a lin lined wilh buttered pa- 
{ler, and let it be instandy put into rather a cool 
oven. 

CAKE, SPOKGE, CHEAP— i cup of 
white sugar. 1 ecg, buUcr the size of a walniU; 
beat together ; then take i cup of sweet milk, 
add % tcatpoonful of soda. 2 cups of flour. X 
teasi>uonful of cream of lartar ; flavor with any- 
thing you wish ; mix well, and bake in pie pons 
20 minutes. 

CAA'E SAADWICf/ES.—^ eggs, yi alb. 
of pounded lump su^, l4 ^ 1^- "f fresh butter, 
^ a lb. of flour. Beat the butter lo cream, 
dust in the flour, and add the eggs wcU whisked; 
beat with a fork for a % of an hour, butter a tin, 
and pour in h.alf of the mixture. Bake from a 
% of an hour to 20 minutes. Remove from the 
lin, butter again, and adil the other half of the 
mixture. WaVc as Iwforc. When cool, spread 
jam thickly over I portion of the cake, place the 
other part over it, and cut into whatever shape 
you can, 

CAKE, WEDDING.-^ Ihs. of fine Hour 
well dried, 4 lbs. of fresh butter. 2 lbs. of loaf 
9ugar, a >^ of a lb. of mace pounded and siflcd 
fmc. and the some of nutmegs. To every lb. 
of flour add S e^s ; iva.sh 4 Uw, of currants, 
and let them be well picked and dried before the 
fire ; blanch X lb. of sweet almonds, and cut 
them lengthwise very thin ; a lb. of cilrun, 1 lb. 
of candied orange, the same of candied lemon ; 
X a pint of brandy. WTien iheite are made 
ready, work the butler wilh your hand to A nice 
cream, then beat in your sugar for ix % oi ^vv 
hour; Ijc-nt the whiles of your eggs to a very 
strong froth, and mix tham with your sugar and 
butter ; beat your yelks % an hour at least, and 
mix them wilh your cake ; then put in your 
flour, ma«» and nutmeg ; keep beating it well 
till your oven is ready; pour iu the brandy, and 



WL 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DA V WANTS, 




beat the cnrnrnt-s and almonds lightly in. Tic 3 
sheets of white paper round the Dottom of your 
hoop to keep it from running out, rub it well 
with Imlter, put in yoiir cake, lay Uic sweetmeats 
in layers, with cake between each layer, and af- 
ter it is rii>en and colored cover it 'v\-ith paper 
before your oven is stopped up; it will Tcquire 
3 hours to bake properly. 

CAA'£, YEAST. — (jood-shed potatoes, 1 
dozen ; hops, i lar^ handful ; yeast. % a pint ; 
com meal, a suflident quantity. Boil the pota- 
toes, after peeling, and rub them through a cul- 
Icnrler: boil ilie hops in 2 quarts of water and 
strain into the potatoes; then scald sufliaent In- 
dian meal to make them the consistence of emp- 
tying*, ajid stir in the yeast and let rise ; then, 
with unscnlded meal, thicken so as to roll out 
and cut into cakes, drying quickly at first to pre- 
Tent souring. They keep belicr, and soak up 
quicker, than if made with flour. 

CANDIES, To Ciarify Sugar /or,— To ev- 
cry lb. of sugar put a large cup of water, and 
put It in a brass or copper kettle, over a slow 
nre, for % an hour; pour into it a small quan- 
tity of isinglass and gum Arabic dissolved to- 
gether. This will cause all impurities to rise to 
the surface ; skim it as it rises. Flavor accord- 
ing to taste. 

All kinds of sugar for candy arc boiled as 
above directed, \Vnen boiling loaf sugar, add 
a tablespoonful of rum or vinegar, to prevent its 
becoming totj brittle whilst makin{^. 

Loaf sugar when boiled, by puUmg and mak- 
ing into small rolls, and twisting a Utile, will 
make what is called rock or snow. By pulling 
kiaf sugar aRcr it is boiled, you can make it as 
white a5 snow. 

CANDY, CHOCOLATE CREAM.— CUoc- 
olate, scraped fme, V or. ; thick cream, i pint ; 
best sugar, 3 or. ; neat it nearly to boiling, then 
remove it from the fire, and mill it well. When 
cold add the whites of 4 or 5 eggs ; whisk rap- 
idly and take up the froth on a sieve ; serve the 
cream in glasses, and pile up the froth on top of 
them. 

CANDY, G/NGER.—licAX a pint of clariRed 
sugar until, upon taking out a drop of it on a 
piece of slick, it will Ijecome brittle when cold. 
Mix and stir up with it, for a common article, 
about a teaspoonful of ground ginger ; if for a 
superior article, instead of the ground ginger, 
add the while of nn egg, beaten up jjrcviously 
with fine sifted loaf sugar, and 2o drops of the 
stmng essence of ginger. 

CAND r. GINGER LOZENGE.— TUssiAve 
in X of a pint of hoi water, 1 oz. of gum Ara- 
bic; when cold, stir it up with i)^ lbs. uf loaf 
sugar, and a spoonful of powdered ginger, or 13 
drops of essence of ginger. Roll and beat ihc 
whole up into a paste ; make it into a flat aike, 
nnd punch out the lozenges with a round stamp. 
Dry them near the fire or in an oven. 

CANDY, EVERTON TAFEE.—To make 
this (Jivorite and wholesome candy, lake I \l ll>s. 
of moist sugar, 3 oz. of butter, a teacup of wa- 
ter, and 1 Icmun. Bull the sugar, butter, water 
and half the rind of the lemon tggcthcr, and 
when done — which will be known by dropping 
into cold water, when it should be quite crisps 
let it stand aj»ide till the Ixiiting has cease^I, and 
Ihcn stir in the juice of the lemon. Butter a 
dish, and pour it in about a J^ Of fta inch in 



thickness. The hre must be quick, and the taf- 
fcc stirred all the time. 

CAADY, FRUIT— Take I lb. of the bert 
loaf sugar ; dip each lump into a bowl of water, 
and put the sugar into your preserving kettle. 
Boil it down and skim it until {)erfectiy clear, and 
in a candving state. When sufficiently boiled, 
have ready the fruits you wish to preserve. 
Large white grapes, oranges separated into very 
smaU pieces, or preserved fruits, taken out of 
their syrup and dried, are very nice Dip the 
fruits into the prepared sugar while it is hot; 
put them in a cold place, and they will soon be- 
come hard. 

CAADY, FIG.— Take t lb. of sugar and I 
pint of walcr, and set over a slow fire. When 
done, add a few drops of vinegar and a lump of 
butler, and put into pans in which split fig& are 
laid. 

CANDY, LEMON.— Take 3 lbs. oi coarse, 
brown sugar; add to it 3 teacupfuU of water, 
and set it over a slow fire for ^ an hour ; put 
to it a little gum Arabic, dissolved in hot water ; 
this is to clear iL Continue to take off the scum 
as long as any rises. When perfectly clear, try 
it by dipping a pipe-stem first into it and then 
into cold walcr, or by taking a spoonftd of it into 
a saucer ; if it is done it will snap like glass. 
Flavor with the essence of lemon, and cut it into 
sticks. 

CANDY, MOLASSES.— u 2 cups of mo. 
lasses, I of sugar, I tablespoonful of vinegar, a 
piece of butter the size ot walnut. Boil con- 
stantly for 30 minutes, stirring all the time; 
when cool enough to pull, do it quickly, as it 
will come white rapidly. — 2. Take a clean tin or 
porcelain keltic of large size, so that there will 
be no danger of l>oiiing over ; put in a sufficient 
quantity of good molasses, place it over a good 
nre, and boil briskly until it will be brittle when 
cooled — which may be known by dipping a little 
of it into a dish of cold water ; then pour into 
well buttered pans not over on inch thick. Let 
it cool until it can be handled, then pull smartly 
until white. Draw out on a clean tabic into 
slicks. 

CANDY, Scotch Suetcr.-Tokt i lb. of sugar, 
and I pint of water ; disscrfve and lx)U. When 
done, odd i tablespoonful of butter, and cnou^ 
lemon juice and oil of lemon to flavor. 

CANDY, ComntoH /"ww/.— Boil 3 lbs. of 
common sugar and l ^)int of walcr over a slow 
fire for % on hour without skimming. Whfla 
boiled enough take it off; rub the hands over 
with butler; take that which is a litde cooled 
and poll it, as you would molasses candy, until 
it is white ; then twist or braid it, and cut it Dp 
in strips. 

• CALF'S-FOOT BROTU.— Boil 2 feet in 
3 quarts of water lo ^ ; strain and set it by for 
use. When required, take off the fat, put a 
large teacupful of the jelly into the saucepan 
witn ^3 of a glass of white wine, a little sugar 
and nutmeg; heat it up till nearly boiling; thcD 
with a tittle of it beat up the yelk of an egg, odd 
a bit of butter, and stir all toother without al- 
lowing it to boil. A little frcsn lemon peel may 
be grated into it. 

CARROTS.— Let them be well washed and 
brushed, not scraped. An hour is enough for 
young spring carrots. Grown carrots must be 
cut in half, and will take from l V to 2}j( hours. 
'A'hcn done rub off the peels with a cleuiff 



coorryc Ai 



49 



1 



come doth, and slice them in 2 or 4, according 
to their size. The best way to try if tlicy are 
doMCOOUgh ts to pierce theni with a fork. 

CAULIFLOWER, To ^w/.— Having cut off 
liepeen part, divide it into 4 parts ; put it into 
boihngmtlk and water, and skim the saucepan 
wfB. When the stalks are tender, take them 
«p auefallv and put them to drain. Tlien put a 
mmnlul of water into a !ste\rp.-tn, with a little 
Jwur, • X '^^ ^ ^' ^^ l>utter. and pepper and 
nit mixed well together. Take half the cauli- 
anc] cut it as for pickling; put it into tlie 
for 10 minutes. Place the stewed caul- 
!rin the middle, and the boiled round it, 
tr over it the butter in which the one-half 
ws stpwcd. 

CAULIFLOIVKK, in Afi/Jt.— Choose those 
rtttt are close and while, cut off the green leaves, 
«nj look carefully that there are no caterpillars 
about the 5>liUk ; soak an hour in cold water 
vnh I handful of salt in it ; then boil them in 
milk and water, and take care to skim the sauce- 
pan, that not the least foulness may fall on the 
(tower. It must be served very while and rather 

CHARLOTTE DE iPd'^5£.— Takca Uttle 

kstluin 1 o£. of gelatine, and dissolve tn 1 pint 
of new mOk. Strain into i pint of thick cream 
fcric very sweet, and set this in a cool place or 
00 the ice. Take the whites of 7 eggs and beat 
l'>afrDth; then add them to the cream, and 
|)Cit light. Flavor with vanilla, and keep on the 
let until wanted. Line the moulds with very 
ligljt iponge cUce, and fill with the above when 
»antcii. 

CfffCA'EX, To Fricas^e.—VioW a chicken ; 
]<*lnt it ; lay it in a saucepan with a piece of but- 
l»the size of an egg, a tablespoonful of fiour, 
*IlltJe mace or nutmeg, white pepper, and salt. 
A4d a pini of cream, and let it doU up once. 
Serre hot on toast- 

OnCA'E.y, BOyELESS.—Friat&scc your 

d^en, liking care to brown the skin nicely; 

s«iinn 10 Taste. When done set by to cool ; 

^cn nrmave all the bones ; put back into the 

' !i it was cooked. Take a chopping 

• j» fmely, leaving m all the oil of the 

'-n-i'iL'h of that, add a piece of but- 

^' JiKelyin a dish, as you wish it 

^iP^'' -.■-, and when your friends come 

totiuc n, tlicu approbation will more than re- 

P*5Ti^n fur the little extra trouble it has taken to 

<^HlCKEXS, Tfi Fry.— Cm\ up the chickens 
JJ^fcy them in cold water to extract the blood. 
J*je them dry. season with pepper and salt, and 
^^jcthcm with flour. Fry m lord to a rich 
J^»n; take them our and keep Ihcm near the 
"''iikim Uie gravy carefully in which the chick- 
■* hi*« been fried, mix with it 34 a pint of 
^'■■JU season with mace, pepper, saJt and 

'cA/ca'EjV .ff^Or//.— Cut a chicken into 
yj ptecct, and remove the skin and any fat 
irikible ; boiJ it for 3o minutes in atmut a 
•f vaier. with a bla»lc of mace, a slice of 
rns of white p(.-p|>er. Simmer 
, ir h good. Beat a J^ of an 
: Ti'U With a little water; add it 
^^ bro(b| strain it, and when cold take off the 

. pifCfCR.V POT-PIE— dtaii, singe, and 
^ a pur of duckeos. I'arc o^-id sUcc 8 white 



potatoes ; wash the slices, and put with the 
pieces of chicken into a stcwpan lined with pie- 
crust ; season with salt and pepper, dredge with 
flour, and cover with w.iler. Cover with paste, 
making a hole in the centre ; cover the kettle, 
and citner hang it over the fire or set it in the 
oven. If in the oven, turn occasionally to. 
brown evenly. 2 hours' cooking is suffirient. 
When done, cut the upper crust mto moderate- 
sized pieces and place them on a large di»h; 
with a perforated ladle take up the potato and 
chicken, and put it upon the crust; cut the lower 
crust and put on the top. Serve the gravy hot 
in a gravy tureen. 

CiiOCOL.4 TE BLANC-MANGE,^K % 
of lb. of sweet Cicrman chocolate, % a box of 
gelatine, i i^uarl of milk, one coffcecupful of 
sugar. Put It all in a dish, set in a kettle of 
water, and let it boil an hour. When nearly 
cold, turn into the mould. 

CHOCOLATE CARAMEL.^% a lb. of 
chocolate, 3 lbs. of dark brown su^r, % of a 
lb. of butter, a small teacup of milk; season 
with vanilla, or grated lemon or orangc*pceL 
Boil it very quickly over a hot fire, stirring con- 
stantly. When it becomes hard on being drop- 
ped in water, take it off the fire, and stir for a 
lew moments Ixforc pouring into buttered dishes. 
Ilefore it is quite cool cut into little squares. 
Those who like the caramel very hard need not 
stir it, as this makes it "sugary." The grated 
peel should not be put in till the caramel is token 
from the fire. 

CllOCOl^i TE CREAAfS.~rake(resh mHk 
enough to fill 12 glasses, and bi>il with it 2 01. 
of grated chocolate and 6 oz. of white sugar; 
then beat the yelks of 6 eggs, to which add 
slowly the chocolate milk, turning slowly one 
way. Flavor with vanilla l>oilcd in milk ; when 
quite mixed, fill your cups and place in water 
and boil for an hour. Scr\'c when cold. 

CHOWDER, WEBSTER'S.—litiniel Web- 
ster was famous for the excellence of his chow- 
der, and the following is his recipe for making 
it : 4 tablespoonfuls of onions fried with pork ; i 
quart o( boded potatoes, well mashed ; l ^ lbs. 
of ship bi!»cuit, broken ; I tcospoonful of thyme ; 
}4 bottle of mushroom catsup; 1 bottle of port 
or claret ; ^^ a nutmeg, grated ; a few cloves, , 
mace, allspice, and slices of lemon, and somfl' 
black pepper; 6 lbs. of blue or white fish, cut 
in slices ; 35 oysters. The whole to be put in a 
pot, covered with an inch of water, cooked 
slowly and stirred gently. 

COCOA. — Hoil 2 large spoonfuls of ground 
cocoa in a quart uf water « of an hour; skint 
off the oil, pour in 3 gills of milk, and boil it np 
again. It is the best way to make it the day be- 
fore it is used, as the oily substance can be more 
perfectly removed when the cocoa is cold. 

COCOA SHFLLS.—VvA a heaping tcacupful 
to a quart of boiling water, lloil them a great 
while — say 2 or 3 hours. Scald milk as for cof- 
fee. If there is not time enough to boil the 
shells long enough before breakfast, it is well to 
soak them over night and boil them in the same- 
water in the mommg, 

COCOA A'C^T P/E,~Cut off the brown part 
of the cocoanut, grate the white part, mix it with 
milk, set it on the fire, and let it boil slowly 8 
or 10 minutes. To 1 lb. of the grated cocoanat 
allow a quart of milk, S eggs, 4 ubtespoonfuls 
of sifted white sugar, a ghas uf wine, a small 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



cracker jhiandcd fine, 2 spoonful* of mehed boi- 
ler, aiid 3» a nuUncg. The eggs and iM^a 
&hauM he beaten together to a froth, then the 
wine stirred in. Put ibcm into the milk and 
cocoonut, which should he firsl allowed to get 

Suite cool; add the cracker and nutmeg turn 
le whole into deep pic-plates, with a lining and 
rtin of puff paste Bake theni as soon as turned 
into plates. 

CODfl^II SALLS.^r\ckuo as fine as pos- 
sible a teacup of nice while codfish. Freshen 
all niKht, or, if wanted for any other meal tlian 
biealJiist, from the morning. Scrild it once, and 
drain off the water. Chop and work it until en- 
tirely fine. Put it in a Imsin with water, a bit 
of butler the size of on egg, and 2 eggs. Beat 
it thoroaghly, and heat it until it thickens with- 
out boiling. It should, when all is mixed, be 
about I quart, (lave some potatoes ready pre- 
pared and nicely mashed. Work the fish and 
potatoes thoroughly together as above, make it 
m flat cakes, and brown tK>lh sides. 

CODFISH, FICA'ED-rP.—This. is on old- 
fashioned dish and name, but none tbe less to 
be admired on that account, being with most 
persons, when properly jprcparcd, a great favor- 
ite. Pick up the fish in small particles, separat- 
ing the fibres as near as possible, the finer they 
are the better. Freshen by leaWng it in water 
I hour, Potir off the water and fill up with 
fresh. Bring it to a scald, pour it off, and put 
on the fish just water enough to cover it. Add 
to a quan of the soaked fish a bit of butter the 
size of half an egg, a very little flour, and a dust 
of pcpjier. Beat up 3 egps, and after taking off 
the fish thicken if liy stirring in the egg. Some 
let it boil afier the egg is added, but if this Is 
done the egg wnll be currlled. 

COFFEE^ TaAfttkf Good. — In order to make 
ffond coffee, a practical cook says that the first 
tiling necessary is to never allow an ounce of 
ground coffee to come into the house. If no one 
understands the art of roasting coffee, then buy 
it ready roosted, and try and find a dealer who 
luu not soaked all the essential juices from the 
ooffec Iicforc putting it into his oven. If the 
roasted berry is about twice as large as when 
in ils green state, depend upon it you have lieen 
.defrauded. Get an earthen pot — you cannot 
;auke good coffee or tea in a tin vejtsel — and put 
the ground coffee in a clean white flannel bog, 
and be sure toput enough in, and drop the h^ 
into the pot. rour on InJiling water and let it 
sleep; do not boil it. The coffee will steep in 
30 minutes. Never break an egg into coffee, and 
never fill up with water the second time. Pour 
on in the beginning the amount of water needed. 
An ordinary teacxtpful of rronnd coffee is suffi- 
cient for 3 persons. U&e Java, Mocha, or Java 
and Rio mixed. Follow this recipe, and you 
will never complain of poor coffee. 

COFFEE, Suhstitulfs for. — Koasted acorn, 
the chick i>ca, Wans, rye, and other grains; 
nut^, almonds, and whealen bread ; Ilie dried 
and roasted roots uf turnip, carrot, and dan- 
delion. 

CORN STARCH BlANC'MANGE.~^w\ 
I oanrt of sweet milk ; stir into it graduallv 5 
tables prHinfiils of com starch, mixed with milk; 
" ' ' ' ' ' -'infuU of *' 

iked. \\\: 

.-- - ^hcn cooled a.;.. 

^nd raniSiMp Aod poxa it into moakb. 



Serve with jellv or fresh fruit, and whipped 
cream flavored like the pudding. 

COOKIES.— \ large cup ot butter; X cttpa 
of sugar; 3 well beaten egg* ; I5 a cup of so»ir 
cream; I level tcaspoonfuT of soda; cinnamon 
or caraway seeds, and flour enough to roll. 

COLLOPS, AflNCED.—K favorite Scotch 
dish. Take 2 lbs. of good Vieeftteak. mince it 

3uite fine, and free from fat or skin : put into a 
ccp frying-pan with a good-sized piece of but- 
ter. As the butter mclis, stir the mince about 
Willi a silver fork, so as to sepnrntc the {articles 
and give the mince a granulated appcamni'^ . ii-i 
soon as the meal louk^ white, put in a >• 
of clear gravy, a little pepper and salt, ar 
mushroom catsup or Worcester sauce ei.- 
flavor it ; a minced onion may be used 
is no ol>]ection to ils taste. Stir the ....ict; 
almut till the gravy begins to boil, then serve 
with toasted sippets, 

COOKING UTENSILS, Caution Atcut.— 
Cleanliness has been aptly styled the cardinal 
virtue of cooks. Food is more healthy as well 
as palatable when cooked in a cleanly manner. 
M.iny lives have been lost in consequence of 
carelessness in using brass, copper, and gin/ed 
earthen cooking utensils. The two first should 
be thoronghly cleansed with salt and hot vine- 
gar before cooking in tfiem, and no oily or acid 
substance, after being cooked, .should Ik; allowed 
to cool or remain in anv of tlicm. 

COOA'/A'G, Airriirr Ij>n hy.~\\ is we II to 
know that 100 lb. of ocef, loses 6 lb. in boiling 
and in Kiking, 30 lbs. Mutton, by Imiling, 21 
lbs. and by roasting, 24 lbs; or, in another form 
of statement, a leg of mutton casting, raw 25 
cents, would cost, boiled and prepoicd for the 
tabic, 28 '2 cents per lb; boiletl fresh beef would, 
at 15 cents per lb., cost 1934 cents; a strloin of 
raw beef, at 30 cents, costs, roasted, 42 cents; 
whde a leg of mutton, at 15 cents, would cost, 
roasted, only 22 cents. 

CRANBERR Y SA UCE.—To slew cranber- 
ries, a quart of berries, a pint of brown sugar, 
and a pint of water; place all in a porcelain 
kettle, cover closely, and allow them fo c«.k S 
minutes after coming to a boil, without stiitmi' ; 
remove from the fire, lUid empty into an c.u ili^ n 
dish to cool. 

CRACKERS, WJt^t Flour,— x qt of flour, 
4 oz, of batter or lard, % a teaspoon of soda, 
and the some of salt; sweet milk. Kub the 
butter thoroughly into the flour ond salt ; dis< 
solve the soda in the milk, and enough more to 
take up the flour, which should be made into a 

very »i f " ilie morcfhe dnngh is i " 

or knc icr the crackers; roll 

thcdc>..-L.i .;,.v«i.L»s — ^ of an inch — an^ ....;v^ 
quickly. 

CREAM, /r^.— Have rich, sweet cream, 
% a lb. of loaf sugar to each quart of cream or 
milk. If you cannot get cream, the Ke»t imita- 
tion is to iK)il B soft custard, 6 '. ^ 
quart of milk, (eggs well Iwat.) < ' 



the VL'lk \ti 1 egg to give it ii Itch color. 5 niin- 
utes boiling is enough for either plan. Put the 



Ois&olvcd; put the »tarch m 1 quut of the milk 




then mix altogether, and simmer a little (not 
boil); iwecten and flavor to your taste; excel- 
lent. The juice of strawberries or raspberries 
^ves a beauiiftil culor and tlavor to ice creams, 
or about )-^ oz. essence or c:t,tracLs to 1 gallon, 
or to suit the taste. Have your ice well broken; 
I quart of salt to a bucket of ice. About ^ an 
hour's constant stirring, with occasional scraping 
down and beating together, will freeze it suffi- 
ciently. 

C/;L'UJi:RS.—% a lb. of butter, ^ of a lb. 
of s^ugar, 2 lbs. of flour, l nutmeg, }4 a tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved in ^ a teacup of wa- 
ter or milk ; 6 eggs. 

CUCUMBER SALAD.— T<i lOO cucumber* 
add a j^ of a peck of small onions. Tccl both 
and cut them into thin slices ; cover with salt, 
and stand in the sun for 6 hours ; rinse clean, 
and stand in clear cold water far I hour. For 
the dressing take a box of the l>cst mustard, put 
into it a little salt, pour in sufTident olive oil to 
ftlir it easily, and add vinegar and oil alternately 
till thin enough to pour smoothly. Put the cu- 
cumbers in jars, cover with the dressing, and 
cx}ver closely. Seal the jars. 

CUSTARD, Bak*d.—V>o\\ in a pint of milk a 
fiew coriander seeds, a little cinnamon and lemon- 
prel ; sv\ ecten with 4 oz. of luaf sugar ; mix 
-with it a pint of cold milk; 1>cat 8 eggs for lo 
minutes; add the other ingredients; pour it 
from one pan into another 6 or 8 times ; strain 
throagh a sieve; let it stand; skim the froth 
from uie top, fill it in earthen cups, and bake im- 
roediaiely in a hot oven ; give them a good color ; 
15 minutes will do tlicm. 

CUSTARD, i^tfi/rrf.— Boil a <iuart of milk 
with a little cinnamon, and half a lemon peel ; 
sweeten it with nice while sugar, strain it, and 
when a Ultle cooled mix in gr.idu3lly 7 well 
beaten eggs and a tablespoimful of rose-water; 
srir all together over a slow fire till it i-; of proper 
thickness, and then pour it into your glasses. 
This makes good boiled custard. 

CUSTARD TR/TTERS.—JieMihcyclk^ of 
4 cg^ with a dessert sjxxinful of flour, a little 
nutmeg, salt and brandy ; odd half a pint of 
crc-im : <weeten it to taste, and bake it in a 
•I I >r a JL^ of an hour. When cold, cut 

it rs, and dip them into a batter made 

.K -I pint e.icn of milk and cream, the 

• 4 eggs, a little flour, and a good 
ii „ I ginger; fry them brown; grate 
over them, and serve them as hot as pos- 



•UAT 

Sa. 




DOUC//.VUTS.—H(i\r a cap of butter, 2}^ 
of ftucai well r<^»Ucd and sifted, 4 eggs, I 
Saiipoonfur of s^etAtun, 1 cup of sour niiTk, I 
aallieg. flour enough to roll ; cut in any shape 
4eiifea« cither in stripi or twisted ; have the 
lani hot enough for the cakes to rise to the sur- 
fiwe as soon as put in. This is an excellent fried 

MGGS, /fani amJ Soft BMlfJ. — It is under- 
" Iktlrgesare more easily digested if *' rare" 
*"wrfr done; but which jjortion of the 
TCBSts digestion — the •'white," which is 
nearly pure albumen, or the yelk ? lately, ex- 
periments have been made io this direction, with 
ampfe opportunity nf demonstrating that healthy 
pMric juioe« which the stomncli secretes forpur- 
pBBcarrf .i<<*.>vt;.>n, will not act readily on coag. 
vlaced .;g, even if cut in pieces not 

ItfgCT ti <ry |)cas, (and that is as line as 



people usually chew their food,) while it acts 
with facility upou the more brittle yelk. The 
reason is that the coagulated albumen is very 
comjnct and tenacious, and would nccrl to be 
" ground to powder" to accept the chemical af- 
fimties of the gastric juice. 

Pour into alxisin boiling water sufficient to 
cover the eggs, put the eggs into the water and 
let them remain 10 or 15 minutes, according to 
drcuinslanccs and your own taste ; keep the wa- 
ter nearly up to boiling tempcraliirc, but do not 
lx>il the eggs. Fresh eggs will cook more 
quickly than old ones, and, of course, small ones 
quicker than large ones. By this process von 
will find the yelks well cooked, while the woile 
is left in a condition to digest readily. 

EGGS, BRO/lED.—C\xt a large round of 
bread; toast it on both sides, and butter it. 
Carefully break 6 eggs, and arrange ihcin upon 
the toast ; sprinkle over them some salt and pep- 
per, and slowly pass a red-hot shovel up and 
down over them until they are well set. Squeeze 
iijx>n them the juice of an orange, and strew 
over a little erated nutmeg. Serve as quickly as 
possible. If prefcrrc«l, the toasted bread may 
De dipped into some warmed cream, and some 
pwiched ccgs pLiced upon it, and then glazed 
with a red-hot shovel. 

EGGS, To /'(wr/i.— The beauty of a poached 
eg^, like a fried one, consists in having the 
w-mte just sufficienlJy hardened lo fonn a trans- 
parent veil for the yelk. Pour from a tea-kettle 
as much boiling water as youshail nccti, through 
a clean cloth into a stew-pan; it should be muf 
fiUcd. Dreak the eggs separately into a cup or 
saucer, and when the water boils remove the 
pan from the heat, and gently slip the eggs in ; 
when the while is set replace the pan over the 
fire, (which should be moderate.) and as soon as 
the water boils the eggs are done ; remove them 
with a slice and trim off the ragged edges. If 
served on toast, cut the bread in pieces a little 
larger than the ergg, and about ]£ of an inch 
thick ; brown only on one side, and just enough 
to give a yellow color ; too much browning 
yields a bitter flavor. The luast may be moist- 
ened with a little hot water. .Some sprinkle on 
it a few drops of vinegar or essence of anchovy 
sauce. 

EGG OAfELE TTE.— Vn\e&s a great omel- 
ette is to be made, a small frying pan should be 
used, so as to insure thickness. 5 or 6 eggs 
will make a good sized omelette. Beat them 
well with a fork or egg beater ; add a salt spooa 
of salt ; put 2 oz. of butter in the frying pan ; 
when melted pour in the omelcltc (beaten eggs,) 
stir with a spoon until it begins to set, then turn 
it up all around the edges, and w hen it is of a 
nice brown it is done. To take it out, turn a hot 
plate over the omelette, and turn the pan upside 
down. Double it over like a turn-over, and 
serve hoL If not sufHciently done on the ton, 
brown with a salamander or a heatetl shoveL 
To have the omelette particularly fine, about as 
many whites asyelks should l>e used. 

EGGS, To Tfi/.—One way to tell good eggs 
is lo put them in a pail of water, and if they are 
good they will lie on their sides always ; if bad^ 
they will stand on their small ends, i!ie large 
ena always ujipermost, unless thev have been 
shaken consideralily, when they wilf stand either, 
end up. Therefore, a bad egg can be told by* 
the way it rests in the watcf— always up, nevflC ' 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WAflTS, 



on its side. Any egg that lies flat is good to 
eat, and caii be depended upun. An urdinary 
way is lo lake ihcm into a room moderately 
dark, and buld tlietn between the eye and a can- 
dle or lamp. If the egg be good — that is if the 
alttumeu is !»ti)l unafTected — the light will &hine 
through with a reddish glow; while, if affected, 
it will be opaque or dark. 

J^lSHt To Choose. — All fisli, of whatcvrr spe- 
des, may be known to be perfectly frcih by 
their being rigid and having bright eyes. 

FISNt To Bo%L — The proper sign that fish is 
done by boiling is that the flesh separates readily 
from the bone, and has lost all appeaxancc of 
redness and transparency. It is im(»rtant that 
this should be kept in view» as fish underdone is 
unwholesome. The opposite extreme, however, 
must also be carefully guarded against. 

FISH SA C/CE.—TAkc ^ a pint of milk and 
cream together, 2 eggs well beaten, salt, a little 
pepj>er, and part of die juice of a lemon. I'ut 
It over the hre and stir it constantly uniil it be- 
gins to thicken. 

I7SJI aiOIP'DER.—Haiddock and Striped 
Bass are generally considered the best fish for 
chowder. Cut the fish in pieces about i inch 
thick and 2 inches square. Cat 5 or 6 good 
slices of (he best salt pork, lay tliem in the bot- 
tom of an iron pot and fry till crisped, but do 
not scorch ; take out tlie pork, leaving the fat, 
and chop the pork in small pieces ; put into the 
pot a layer of fish, a layer of split crackers and 
some of the chopped pork ; a little re<l and 
black pcp[>er; a httle chopped oniun ; then an- 
other layer of split crackers, fish and sen-soning, 
and so on till all the fish is used. 'Ilien just 
cover all with water, and stew slowly till all is 
tender. Thicken the gravy with cracker crumbs 
and catsup i) you like; take out the fish, boil up 
the gravy once, squeeze in the juice of a lemon, 
and pour the gravy over the fish. Add salt if 
necessorv. 

FISH^ To Freshen Salt. — Many persons who 
ore in the habit of freshening mackcrc!, or other 
salt fifth, never dream that there is a right and 
wrong way to do it. Any person who has seen 
the process of evaporation goingon at the salt 
worKs, knows that the salt falls to the bottom. 
Just so it 14 in the pan where your mackerel or 
white fish lies soaking; and, as it lies with the 
skin side down, the salt will fall to the skin, and 
there remain ; when, if placed with the flesh 
side down, the salt falls to the bottom of the nan, 
and the fish comes out freshened as it should be. 
In the other case it is nearly as salt as when put 
in. 

FRUIT CAATF.—i lb. of flour. I of sugar, 
I uf butter, 12 eggs, 2 lbs. of currants. 2 of rai- 
sins, I of citron; lemon, nutmeg, and mace to 
taste. Beat it very light. The fruit should be 
floured and stirred in last, and more flour added 
if necessarv. Bake in i large pan in a steady, 
wcU-hcated oven for 4 or 5 hours, letting it cool 
grailually in the oven. When perfectly cold it 
may be frosted. 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLES, T0 Take 
Frost cut of, — When a thaw approaches put the 
frozen articles in cold water, allowing them to re- 
main in it until, by tlieir plump, fair appearance, 
the frost seems to be out. 

FRYING, — This is one of the worst methods 
of cookcrv that can be adopted. It cannot he 
aooomplishcd without the aid of oil or fat, which 



beyond question (ends to render (he meal ^-cry„ 
indigestible. It is no less injurious 10 vegel 
bles. As an example of this it may be stale 
that the potato when fried becomes waxy in il 
texture, and often produces derangement of thft"" 
stomach in healthy and \igurous persons. 

FLOURf Ilatv to Kutnt' Good. — i. When 
flour is genuine or of the best kind, it holds to*^ 
gclhcr in a mass when squeezed by the ban< 
and shows the impressions of the fingers, an< 
even of the marks of the skin, much longer ih: 
when it is bad or adulterated; and the doug] 
made with it is very gluey, ductile, elastic, 
easy to be kneaded ; and may be elongated, flac« 
tcned, and drawn in every direction witlioul 
breaking. — 2. Adulterated flour will be found 
be heavier than pure flour — that is to say, a piu. 
of pure flour would be overbalanced in the 
scales by a pint of adulterated flour. — 3. Knead 
a little between your fingers ; if it works soil, 
stickv. it is poor. — 4. Put some flour on a table 
and blow it gently with your breath. If little 
heaps remain upon the table, resisting the action 
of your breath, and ditTering manifesUy from the 
inrlications given by other portions when blown 
upon, the substance thus remaining is impure. — 
5. Place a thimbleful in the palm of your hand 
and rub it gcnilv with the finger. If the flour 
smooths down, feeling smooth and slippery, it is 
of an inferior quality. But if the tlour rubs 
rough in the palm, feeling like fine sand, and 
has an orange tint, purchase confidently. — 6. 
Bake a small quantity of the sus(iected flour (in 
its dry state) until it is a full brown; then take 
it and rub it in your hands or on a (able, and 
white particles will be seen if cither chalk or 
plastcr-of-P.iri5 should be present in the flour. 

FLOUR, To Restore and Impme Musty. — 
Carbonate of magnesia, 3 parts ; flour, 7 
iMirts. Mix, and use the flour in the usual w-ajrJ 
rhi« will not only gre-illy improve bad flour, but 
the bread will be much lighter, more wholesome, 
and keep longer than when alum is used. 

FOULS, Choice of, — If a cock, choose wJJi 
short spurs, observing that they hft>e not been 
pared or cut ; if a hen, her comb and legs must 
be smooth; when old they are rough, and on 
the breast long hairs are found instead of feath- 
ers; smell them whether they arc fresh, and feel 
whether the breast-bone is well-covered; if not, 
they have prolably died from disease. 

FOWL, To Iir»i/,~Shi the fowl down the 
hack, and score to the hone all the tliicker part: 
as the thighs and breast, in order to its being a! 
equally done. Brush o^-er the inside and ihc 
places scored with catsup and pepper, and broil 
over a clear fire. A sauce shoula be made of 
butter and flour melted brown, into which, when 
taken from the fire, should be put caper^or but- 
ton mushrooms. 

FOWL AND CHICKENS, To Roast,— 
Put them down to a good fire, and baste them 
well with butter. A fowl will require nearly an 
hour to roast, and a chicken cbout a (^ ul an 
hour or 20 minutes. For the fowl let 4 gravjf] 
be made of the neck and gizzard, and whi 
str.nincd put in a spoonful of browning. Serve 
the chicken with parsley and butler. 

FOWLS, Hmv to Cook t?ii/.— Prepare as for 
roasting; then boil 3 hours in a co\cred po^. 
with ( quart of water, to which add 2 tablcspocm- 
fuls uf vinegar; after which put into a pan in m 
hot oven for aI;oui 1 hotu to brown. The liquor 






COOKING Ar^D BAKING, 



f 



in the pot is to be prepared for gravy ; should 
the water boil away too much more mu&t be ad- 
ded- The result i*, the meat is a* lender a:« 
young chicken, and some think richer and bet- 
ter. 

FOWLS^ Sauce for, — An excellent white 
sauce for f'jwU may be mode of 2 ox. of butter, 
3 small onions, 1 carrot, % a teacupful of flour, 
S pint of new milk, salt and pepper to taste. 
Cut up the onions and carrots very small, and 
pnt them into a itcw-pan with the butter ; sim- 
nnef them until the butter i* nearly dried up ; 
then stir in tlie flour and add the milk. Boil 
the whole gently until it thickens, strain it, sea- 
son with salt and Cayenne, and serve. 

FOWLS^ SUwcdwtth Onion. — Wash it clean, 
dry and truss it as for l)oilinp ; put a little pep- 
per and wJt into it, and rub it with butter ; but- 
ter ft saucepan ; pat the fowl in the ]}au with a 
pint of veal slock or water, seasoned with pep- 
per and salt. Turn it while stewing, and when 
Suite tender add 12 small onions, split. Stew 
II together for M ^^ hour. A young fowl will 
take I hour, an old one 3 hoars to slew. 

GF£S£, To Ckotuf. — A young goose has a 
yellow bill ; if red, it is a sign of age ; if fresh, 
the (bet will be pUaUc, but Klalc if stifl* and 
dry. 

GOOSEf ^^^iT.— Presuming that the bird 
is carefully plucked, singed, washed, and dried, 
pat into it a seasoning of onions, sage, pepper, 
and salt, fastening lightly the neck and rump. 
I'at it at first at a distance from the fire ; paper 
the brcasl-bone; baste well, and when ihe breast 
is rising ukc the paper off. Let good gravy be 
sent in the dish. Serve with potatoes, gravy, 
and apple sauce. 

GOOSS, BOrLED.—Hayintt singed the 
mvMc, pour over it a quart of boiling milk ; let 
It lie ail niglit in the milk, after which take it out 
and dry it well; stuff it with sage and onion, 
cut small ; sew up the opening"*, and hang it up 
for a day. Boil for J hour, and serve with ooion 



GEMS. — They are cheap, easily made, whole- 
some and palatable. Granam flour and water 
are stirred together to the con-^istency of a thick 
pancake batter, and baked in the iron or tin gem 
pans. Gems, whether of Graham meal, fine 
nour, or 00m meal, should he ]>ul into a Mot 
oven. Success depends on this. Fine flour and 
sweet milk, (skimmed milk is good enough,) 
well beaten together, rather thicker than the hat- 
t*T, makes a very sweet and goo<l kind of warm 
bftsad. Com bread of the best kind can be made 
witlKmt eCE* or shortening, or sweetening. 
Simply scald the meal with Iwilinff water, add 3 

E! aalt, slJr well and bake quickly in the gem 
L We thought the Graham and white gems 
t haVc salt, until we found Ihat its absence 
was not observed, and then we discarded it, as 
it seems an unreasonable amount of salt is eaten 
nndcT the plea of a little salt being necessary. 

GiyCEKBREAD.—z cups of molasses and 
I of bolter J 3 teaspoons of ginger, and i even 
fall of bi -carbonate of s«»d.i; l ten -cup of warm 
^r^*r-- '1 "-' -■-'■"•h to make a soft dough. .\f- , 
ler ■ Irtkc tin, flour your hands 

to j . lotl with a knife cross-cut 

tile top ixilo ^uaies or diamonds. Bake until 
<lonc. 

QTNGE/tBFEAO, SP/CE.^T^Ve 3 lbs. of 
r, I Lb. of butter, I lb. of moist sugar, 4 oz. 



of candied orange or lemon peel, cut small ; i 
or. of powdered ginger, 2 oz. of [wwdered all- 
spice, ^ an ox. oT wowdcred cinnamon, a hand- 
ful of caraway seetls, and 3 lbs. of treacle; rub 
the butler with your hana into the flour, then 
add the other ingredients, and mix it in the 
dough with the treacle; make it into cakes or 
nuts, and bake it in a warm oven. 

GINGER SNAFS,—i pint of baking mo- 
lasses, I lb. of sugar, J^ ^^' o^ *ard, }4 or., of 
ginger, and 1 tablespoonful of cinnamon' Work 
the lard, molasses and sugar together, and add 
flour enough to nuke a stifl* dough. Roll out 
thin, cut with a round cake-cutter, and bake 
quickly. 

GINGER B/SCa/T.—V.nh % a lb. of fresh 
butter into 2 lbs. of fine flour : add ^ lb. of 
sifted sugar, and 3 01. of |>ounded ginger. Beat 
up the jrclks of 3 eggs, and take a little milk 
with which to make Itie above ingredients into a 
paste. Knead it all well together, and roU it 
out extremely thin, and cut it into the form of 
r^Mind biscuits with a postc-cutlcr. Bake them 
in a slow oven until crisp, taking care that they 
are a pale brown color. 

GRAl'\\ BROIVN—S onions, sliced and 
fried in butter to a nice brown ; toast a large, 
thin slice of bread a considerable time until very 
bard and of a deep brown. Take these, with. 
any piece of meat, bone, etc. , and some herbs, 
and set them on the fire, with water according to 
judgment, and slew down until a thick gravy is 
produced. Season, strain, and keep cool. 

C^EF.N-CORN r.-fA'iiX— Grate the com, 
make a rich batter with cream, or according to 
directions given forbatlcr cakes. Use just suf* 
ficienl of the batter to hold the corn together, 
.and lay the cakes on llic griddle as you would a 
common griddle cake. Serve with butter. 

GREE.V-COR.y PVDDJNa.—\% ears of 
com, grated; 3 eggs, well l^eaten; i pint of 
sweet milk, % a cupful of butter, i large spoon- 
ful of sugar, pepper and salt. Bake in a laz^ 
pudding-nan 2 hours. 

GREEN PEAS, Tfi Stnv.-~V\xX into the 
stew-pan a quart of peas, a lettuce, and an onion 
sliced, butter, pcjiper. salt, but no more water 
than remains about the lettuce after washing. 
.Stew 2 hours very gently. When to be served, 
beat up an egg and stir it into them, or a little 
flour and water, 

• GRVEL, IVATER.—Takc of the coarse 
part of corn meal or grist, 2 handsful ; water, 3 
quarts ; Uiil it till only 2 quarts remain, then 
strain off the liquor, and season it to the palate 
with salt, sugar and nutmeg, to which may be 
added a spoonful or two of wine. — 2. Take 
of oatmeal 2 large spoonfuls; water, I quart. 
Mix them well, and boil them about 10 or IC 
minutes, stirring often ; then strain the gruel 
Ihrolieh a sieve, and add sugar and salt enough 
to m»e it agreeable lo the taste. WTicn it is 
designed as a meal, dissolve in it a little butter, 
and then add bread and nutmeg, as occasion re- 
quires. 

HADDOCK^ To Frv.—^Vxxi the fish, cover 
it with bread-cnimb and egg, seasoned with salt 
and pepper, ond fry with Imiling l.ird or butter. 
I/OTCH'POTC/f.—{\ favorite .Scotch soup.) 
Boil a good-sized neck or breast of Iamb for ^ 
on hour ; take out of the soup pot 6 of the best 
chops, and lay them astilc ; then boil the rest to 
a good stock. Wa^h and cut into small pieces 4 



54 



DICTIONARY OF EVEItV-DAY WANTS. 



fmhly pulled young turnips, 4 young carrots, t3 
young onions, a good-sized lettuce, and a small 
bunch of parsley ; boil all these in the slock 1 
hour. 20 minutes before the soup is required, 
cut up a fresh cauliflower and put it in, together 
with a quart of green peas, a pint of young 
beans, and a little penper and salt ; heat the 
chops that have been laid aside, and pour the 
soup over them in the tureen. A sprig of mint 
is an improvement. 

HOPS, To Ckoost. — When rubbed between 
the fmgcrs, or on the palm of the hand, good 
hops will feel glutinou:*, luive a fragrant smell, 
and develop a fine jcUow dust. The seeds 
should be ripe, and ihe leaves full and unbroken, 
and of a fine brownish- yellow green. Avoid 
yearhngs, unless you can get tlicm in good con- 
dition, and ^ the price of new hops. 

ICE CREAM, STA'AWBEKKY.—Tike i 
pint of strawberries, i pint of cream, nearly ^ 
a lb. of powdered white sugar, and the juice of 
a lemon ; mash the fruit through a sieve, and 
take out the seeds, mix with the other articles, 
and freeze ; a little new milk added makes the 
whole freeze more quickly. 

ICE CREAM, A'ASRBERRy.—Thc same 
as struwljcrry. These ices are oitcn colored by 
cochineal, but the addition is not advantageous 
to the flavor. Strawberry or raspberry jam may 
be used instead of the fresh fhiit, or equal quan- 
tities of jam aad fruit employed. Of course the 
quantity of sugar must be proportionately di- 
minished. 

ICE, Lemon Water. — Lemon juice and wa- 
ter, each % a pint ; strong syrup, I pint ; the 
rind of thiie lemon should be rasped off 1>efurc 
squeezing with lump sugar, which is to be ad- 
ded to tne juice; mix the whole; strain after 
standing an hour, and freeze. Beat up with a 
little sugar the whites of a or 3 e^, and as the 
ice is beginning tn set, work this in with tlic 
spatula, which will much improve the consist- 
ence and taste. 

ITALIAN CREAM.— Tq a pint of rich 
milk add as much fine wliite sugar as will sweet- 
en it. the rind of a large lemon pared thin, a 
small piece of cinnamon, and ^ of an oz. of 
isinglass ; put all these ingredients into a lined 
saucepan, and boil till the isinglass is p>erfectly 
dissolved ; beat the yelks of 6 eggs very well in 
a large basin, and !>train the milk while boiling 
hot to the eggs, stirring them rapidly all the 
time; continue to stir till the mixture is nearly 
c:old ; l>efbre putting it into (he shape add a des* 
sert spoonful of strained lemon juice; it will 
turn out in a few hours. 

INDIAN-MEAL CAR'ES.— To 3 pints of 

Indian meal, a piece of butter as large as an egg, 

and a leaspoonful of salt. Put 2 tea-cupfuls of 

boiling water, stir it in, then add 3 eggs, and 

M milk to moke it to the consistency of batter. 

■ INDIAN- MEAL PUD DING. —Into I 
H quart of boiling rotlk stir i quart of sifted fine 
H meal ; then aild I quart of cold milk, 2 well 
H beaten egc$, ^ of a cup of sugar, and I cup uf 
H flour. .Stir well and pour it into a buttered dish. 
H Bake 2 hours, and serve vnth butter. 

■ INDIAN PONE.—Pvil l quart of water in 
H a pot ; as soon as it boils stir in as much Indian 
^^ meal as will make a very thin batter. Beat it 
^^ frequently while it is boihng. which will require 
^H 10 minutes ; then take it off, pour it in a ran, 
^H and add i oz. of butter, and salt to liste. When 

L . 



the batter is lukewarm, stir in as much Indian 
meal as will moke it quite thick ; set it away to 
rise in the evening ; in the morning make it out 
in small cakes, butter your tins, and bake in a 
moderate oven. Or the more common way is to 
butter pans, fill them 3 parts full, and bake tbem. 
'ITiis cake requires no yeasU 

*JELL\t ArrvwrthU. — Put half a pint of 
water, a glass of sherry, a little grated nutmeg 
and 6ne sugar into a saucepan; and when boi£ 
ing mix gradually with them a dessert -spoonful 
of arrowroot already rubbed smooth in a table- 
sjxHinful of cold water. Boil all together for 3 
minutes, and pour into glasses or small cups. 
Tliis jelly may be flavored witii the juice of any 
friiit that is in season, or with orange or lemon 
juice. 

* JELLY, APPLE.— Splice whole apples— 
(cores, parings and all) — cook them witli just 
water enough to cover them till reduced to a soft 
pulp. Take the rind and juice uf 4 lemons; 
strain this pulp, (not squeezing mucli, or going 
over it twice ;) slice tlie lemons, measure a pint 
for n lb. of white sugar; let it boil for hou an 
hour, and turn into forms. Quince, etc, the 
some way. 

•" JELLY, CALVES' FEET.—Yox each 
foot take 3 pints of water, and boil it to half that 
quantity ; tiien let it cool, and skim off the faL 
It must now be boiled for 2 or 3 minutes with 
the )>eel of a kmun and a little spice, when it 
should be removed from the fire, strained through 
a flannel bag, and the juice of a lemon and a 
glass of wine added ; when cooled a little, it 
may be put into glosses or forms. 

- JELLY, CN/CNEN—'Vikc i large fowl, 
put It into a saucepan with 2 quarts of water, I 
large onion, i blaue of mace, and i teaspoonfol 
uf salt; boil all till reduced to 3 pints, then strain 
it, and let it stand till the next day; then lake off 
the fat very clean, lake the whites uf 6 eggs, 
half an oz. of isinglass, the juice of i or 2 lem- 
ons, beat them well altogether, and ImjiI it till 
the scum rises to the top. l>ct it stand a few 
minutes, then strain it through a jelly-bag. The 
above is a very strengthening preparation, and 
may be taken cold or not, as best suits the yx- 
ticnt's taste. 

• JELL Y, SAGO.—lioW a teacupfal of sago 
in 4 pints of water, till quite thick ; when cold* 
add a pint of raspberry juice, prevsed from fresh 
fruit, or lulf the quantity of rasplterry syrup; 
.idd enough loaf sug.ar to sweeten it, Ixiil it fast 
for 5 minutes, and put it into a shape which has 
been steeped in cold water ; pour a little cream 
over Ihe jelly in the dish. 

JELL Y ORANGE, — Squeeze the iuioe from 
10 sweet and I Seville orange ; add the juice of 
2 and the rind of 1 lemon pared thin ; loiu sugar 
enough to sweeten the Juice, I quart of vrater, 
and 4 oz. of isinglass. Boil all these ingredients 
for a few minutes, and then strain through a 
jelly-bag till clear, and put it into lahapcs. Add 
a liltle saffron if the color is too pale. 

L4MP, To Jud^eof Us Qua/i/v.^U fresh, 
the vein in Hie neck of^a fore-quarter is blxiish; 
if green or vellow, stale. In the hiud-ouarter, 
if the knuckle is limp, and the part uiider the 
kidney smells slightly disagreeable, avoid iu U 
the eves are sunken, do not buy the head 

LAM/i, To AWj/.— The hind qunricr of lamb 
usually weighs from 7 to 10 lbs. ; this siie will 
lake about 3 hours to 10^^ *^ Have a brisk. 



I 



COOKING AKD BAKLWG. 



OTp* 



It must be very freciuently basted while 
ami sprinkled with a little salt, and 



knifed ftll over uiLh flour, about % on hour be- 

/ - .'/, To BinL — It must be put into 

!irii the SAUcepui (or deep fish 
a drainer is best) drawn bacK« and 
itluwcd to simmer gentjy. xcdconjng 
to each lb. ; if it boih fast, the meat 
hard and the sLin broken. It should be 
aat of ttie water with the drainer, and no 
rk be ituck into it; if the scum has settled 
it* wash it off with some of the liquor be- 
ton scvdsD^ to table. Tarfrley and butter arc 
jcrwed with this, or delicate caper sauce and 




yoocovTots* 

LRMON tyf aa,— »eai o egg 
ml wUts separately, till in a solid froth ; add 



fON tyfA'-ff,— Beat 6 eggs, the yelks 



t0 the )rcU» the ^aied rind of a fine lemon and 
602. of >u(^r diie«I and siHed ; bent this a % 
tf an hour; shake in with the left hand 6 oz. of 
4ricid flour ; then add the whites of the eggs and 
die j^Moe of the lemon ; when these are well 
bnten iu, put it intmedia^ly into tins, and bake 
il tbottt an hour in a moderately hot oven. 

LEMON PI£, — 2. lemons; squeeze out the 
jvkr. and «hop the lemons fine, (take oat the 
*er ■ > of water, 3 cups of sugar, I egg. 

)( I riour ; beat the egg well with a 

cu> ^H W4<<^t (UkI the flour; then stir lemons, 
}aHe« mtA »U together ; this will be suf&deni for 
Jpies. 

LEMON SJUCE.—UcM 2 oz. of butter in 
a Gille water; put in 3 oz. of sugar, the juice 
and RBied rind of half a lemon, and the pulp 
aod |Uice of the other half, lloil together 5 
■nales. and serve hot for cold puddings. 

•LEMON ff'.t T£:A\^Vut 2 or 3 slices of 
ItuaHf with a lump of sugar and a spoonful of 
ttfrillatni into a covered jug, and pour into it a 
|atf of boiling water. Cover it closely for 2 or 
t hinzn. It will thus form a very agreeable 
nth (or a feverish patient. 

,UJ. -A-^ .('A/., Tp jt'ry.— niride the fi>h into 
fir the skin ; dip them in beaten 

q*;- I !hcm chopped parsley and bread 

e-: I'ry them. For sauce melt some 

be. ale 6our, put into it the roes of 

1^ ntn, i>-'aaded ; season with salt and Cay- 
OMM^ Sftd a mUe catsup, and pour it hot over 

Ibvfttb. 

MACARONT, i7(^/«i'.— Soak and bofl the 
mcarcAi in plcntv of milk and water ; throw in 
a tmlc uSl Boil untjl tender, but not until the 
Uvm ia lost When soft, turn into a leaking 
Aakvposr over the top the contents of a whisked 
agfc aafci bake untd brown. This process ren- 



S 



I 



b A aiorc attractive dish than when simply 
boOcd. Macaroni* with cream, sugar and cin- 
■a^oQ. makes a very nice, sweet dish. 

MEAT, Tat fif £ati.^U Good meat is nei- 
f&er of a pale piak color, nor of a deep purple 
Itei far tJM fbnxier is a si^ of disease, and the 
lailar jadiaites that the ammal has not been duly 
ihat l H ia w i,bm has died with the blood in it. or 
baa nflami from acute disease. — z. It has the 
of marble, from the ramifications of 
Telos of U.i among the ■ — ^. Tt 

dkD«H be &no aod clastic to lli .1 will 

varafy moAsAm th- •'■—■"- ' 

«t(. hmUoi and fla' 
Jifl^vr wet psrcfaDi' 
tfi «r ■» sdnr. and tiw odor ohi/uUi nU U: disa- 



greeable I for diseased meat has a sickly, cadav- 
erous smell, and soinetimes a smell o? physic. 
This i*; very discoverable when ihc meat is cut 
up and drenched with warm water. — 5. It must 
not shrink or waste much in cooking.— G. It 
should not run to water, or l»ei.ome very wet on 
standing for a day or so, but should, upon the 
contrary, dry upon the surface. — 7. WTien dried 
at a temperature of aia", or thcrcaliouts, it will 
not lose more than from 70 10 74 jkt cent, of its 
weight, whereas bad meat willoftcu lose as much 
xs io per cent. Other properties of a more re- 
fined character will also serve for the recognition 
of bad meat — as that the juice of the flc&h is al- 
kaline or neutral to lest paper, instead of being 
distinctly add. and the muscular fibre, when ex- 
amined under the microscope, is found to be 
sodden and ilUdefmed. 

MEA T, StftPfif. — Stewing is undoubtedly the 
roost economical mode of cooking meal; by its 
use every port of the meat is rctamcfl, and noth- 
ing is lost or wasted. Joints, too tough or sin- 
ewy to be used in any other way, may be stewed 
with advantage. Stewing consiitts in subjecting 
meat for a considerable time to a very moderate 
heat in a small Quantity of water. No good 
stew for an early ainner can be made the day it 
is wanted. The plan recommended is to cut the 
meat in pieces 01 the required size, pack them 
closely together, covering them with cold water, 
or what is preferable, broth ; place the stew-pan 
where it will gradually warm, and keep it for 
some hours at a heat considerably short of boil- 
ing. The albumen is thus dissolved, and the 
fibres so fiir softened and separated that the very 
toughest parts become tender and digestible. 
The stew should be put away in on open vessel 
until the next day, when the fat should be re- 
moval from the top, and vegetables and season- 
ing added. 

MEA T, Strasbourg /V/Za/.— Take 3 lbs. of 
the rump of beef, cut into small bits, and put it 
in an earthen jar with a /^ of a lb. of butter at 
the Itotlom ; make a paste of flour and water; 
cover the jar closely, and set it in a pot of boil- 
ing water. In 2 hours take it out. and add It 
teaspoonful of allspice, the same of pepper, and 
2 of^salt ; then bod another hour. l,et it stand 
until cold ; pound the meat with a pestle until it 
is entirely broken up ; add to it the liquor in the 
pot, and 3 large tablespoonfuls of tomato catsup. 
Press into small pots and cover witli melted but- 
ter. It will keep 2 or 3 months in a cold, dry 
place, and b a deudous , relish for breakfast, tea 
or lunch. 

• AfKAT PANADA,— 1:aVc the inside of a 
loin of mutton or of part of a sirloin of beef; 
pound it until it will >wiss through a sieve when 
mixed with hot water or with broth, as it is re- 
quired to be more or less rich. The most proper 
seasoning is a little salt. It ought to be kept in 
an earthen vessel in a cool place. WTjen a little 
of it is required it should be wormed up and 
served with thin slices of bread. 

AflLAT BISCUIT.— T^Ve i lb. of flour, V 
of alb. of butter, S tablcspoonfuls of yea*t, and 
% a pint of new milk. Melt the butter in the 
milk, put in the yeast and some salt, and worb 
into a stiff paste. VTion light, knead it wcH, 
toll it out an inch thick, cut out with a (unhler, 
prick them wiiJi a fork, and bake in a qokfc 
oven. 

•iV/ZX ;r^£r.— Place » ^mA ^^etjc «.\ 



56 



DICTTONARY OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS. 



K: 




rennet in a cup of hot water for 4 or 5 hours. 
Pour the water into 2 quarts of new milk» and 
when the curd appears, strain the whulc through 
a hair sieve into a jug. The whey may be given 
to a patient cither cool or lukewarm. 

MOLASSES. — When molasses is usftl in 
cooking, it is a very great improvement to boil 
and skim it before you use it. It takes out the 
unpleasant raw taste, and mokes it almost as 
good as sugar. Where molasses is used much 
for cooking, it is well to prepare t or 2 gallons 
in this way at a time. 

MUFF/XS. — I pint of milk, I tablespoon of 
butter, 1 pint of flour, a small teaspoon of salt, 
3 ^Slf^* ^^^ whites and yelks beaten separately 
ana scty stiff; a small teaspoon even full of 
soda; add (he whiles last, beat smartly and per- 
fectly free from lumps. Butter the griddle, and 
bake tn well-bullercd rings. When the bottom 
is done, turn over the rings and bake the top, or 
ut the rings on a well-buttered bake-pan, and 

ke in a quick oven. 

• MULLED ECa-^Bcat the yelk of a fresh 
egg in a tea or coffee cup, put in a little milk or 
cream and sugar, and then pour into it xs much 
tea or coflfcc as will fill the cup, taking care to 
stir it well at the same time to prevent the egg 
from curdling. This makes a good breakfast for 
an invalid. It is light and nourishing without 
being healing. 

MUSHROOMS, To DUtin^'tsh frqm Poi- 
sonous Fungi. — I. Sprinkle a little salt on the 
spongy part or gills of the sample to be tried. 
If they turn yellow they arc poisonous — if black 
they are wholesome. Allow llie salt to act be- 
fore you decide on the question. — 2. False 
mushrooms have a warty cap, or else fragments 
of membrane, adhering to the upper surface; 
they arc also heavy, and emerge from a vulva or 
bag ; they grow in tufts or clusters in woods, on 
the stumps of trees, etc., whereas the true mush- 
rooms grow in pastures. — x. False mushrooms 
have an astringent, styptic, and disagreeable 
lasle. — 4. When cut they turn blue. — 5. They 
are moist on the surface, and generally, — 6. Ot 
a rose or orange color. — 7. The gills of the true 
mushroom are of a pinky red, changing to a 
liver color. — 8. The flesh is white. — 9. The 
stem is wliite, solid and cylindrical. 

MUSHROOMS, BroiUd.—U ushroom-flaps, 
pepper and salt to taste, butler, lemon-juice. 
Cleanse the mushrooms by wiping with a piece 
of flannel and a liule sail ; cut on a portion ol 
the stalk, and peel the tops ; broil them over a 
clear fire, turnmg them once, and arrange them 
on a very hot dish. Put a small niece of butter 
on each mushroom, season with pepper and 
salt, and squeete over them a few drops of lem- 
on-juice. Place the dish before the fire, and 
when the butler is melted ser\e very hot and 
quickly. Moderate- sized flaps are better suited 
to this mode of cooking tluji the buttons; the 
latter nrc better in stews. 

MUSHROOMS, To Strjj.—Tnm and nib 
clear with a bit of flannel dipped in salt, ^ a 
pint of large button mushrooms ; put into a 
stcwpan 2 ot. of butter ; shake it over the fire 
till thoroughly melted ; put in the mushrooms, a 
teaspoonful of salt, hau as much Liepuer, and a 
blade of mace pounded; stew till tne mush- 
rooms arc tender, tlien serve thcni on a very hot 
dish. 

MUSHROOM CATSUF.—Caiha mush- 



rooms in dry weather; take the large, fully- 
grown flaps, and secHliat they are free from ia* 
sects and earth. Add to each pcik ol mush* 
rooms i4 A lb. of salt; break them up into ft; 
large earthenware pan, strew the salt over them* 
and let them stand for 3 days, stirring and 
masliing them up each day, tlien strain out 
the juice. To every quart of juice put ^ 
oz. of whole black pe|>per. ^ an oz, of bruised.^ 
ginger, ^ of an ol. of allspice, 1^ of an oz. 
Cayenne, and the same quantity of poundedJ 
raacc. Put all the spices with the juice into %1 
large earthenware jar, (standing in a pot of wa-J 
tcr, ) and boil for 3 hours ; or the catsup ma] 
be boiled in a preserving pan. Let the spiceS:] 
remain in it when boiilcd. 

MUSTARD. Snpfnor Table.— Tnkc of 
flour of mustard, 2 lbs. ; fresh parsley, "^ o£. 
chervil, ^ oz. ; celery, }^ oz. ; Tarragon, 
oz. ; garlic I clove; and 12 salt anchovies, (i 
well chopped;) grind well together; add of 
I oz., and suflicicnt grape juice or sngar 
sweeten, with sufBcient water to form tlic mi 
into a thinnish paste by trituration in a mortUat 
When put into pots, a red-hot poker is to 
thrust mto each, and a little vinegar ailei 
poured u|Kin the surface. 

MUSTARD, FRENCH.— ?^U 1% lbs.; 
scraped horsC'radish, I lb. ; garlic, 3 cloves 
boilmg vinegar, 2 gallons; macerate in a cov- 
ered vessel fur 24 hours ; strain, and add saffi* 
dent flour of mustard. 

MUTTON, To Judge its QMa/ity.—The 
meat should be Arm and close in grain, and red 
in color ; the fat white and firm. Mutton is 
its prime when the sheep is about 5 years olc 
tliough it is often killed much younger. If t( 
young, the flesh fccis lender when pinched ; 
too old, on being ]iincLed it wrinkles up, and 
remains. In young mutton, the Cat readily se] 
aratcs; in old, it is held together by strings 
skin. In sheep diseased of the rot, the flesh 
very palc-colured, the fat inclining to yellowt 
the meat appears loose from the bone, and, if 
squeezed, drops of water ooze out from the 
grains ; after cooking, the meat drops clean 
away from the bones. Wether mutton is pre- 
ferred to that of the ewe; it may be known by 
the lump of fat on the inside of the thigh. 

MUTTON To Roast a Saddle ^.— Take 
lean ham, truffles, green onions, parsley, thyme, 
and sweet herbs, all chopped small, with some 
spice, pepper and sail. Strew them over the 
mutton wncn the sltin is taken off, put the sldn 
over it neatly, and before roasting it tie over it 
white paper well hultercd. When the meat is 
nearly done take off the pajjer, in order that the 
surface of the meat may be nicely browned. 

MUTTOX, Strweii Ug </.— Put it mto the 
stew-pan with either broth or water, 2 or 3 car- 
rots, a turnip, an onion, and a few black fKpper- 
corns. After coming toalK>il, simmer for a-d^ 
hours, lake out the broth and vegetables, dred^B, 
the meat with flnur, and put it again on the fii 
to brown, leaving off" the cover. Pulp the TCge-' 
tables through a sieve, and boil them up with 
the gravy, adding a tablespoonful of vinegar, 
I'our part of the sauce on the meat and send the 
rest to tabic in a tureen. 

• MUTTON IiROTH.^2. lbs. of a neck of 
mutton, a large handful of cher\'il ; put these 
into 2 quarts of water and boil down to i quart. 
All of the fiit should be removed. A pint may 



COOKIiVG AND BAKTNG, 



^ 



be taken 3 or 3 limes a day. It slfords excel- 
lent nutrimenl to ihc weak, 

NVTMEGS^ To .W^rA— Prick them with a 
pin- If ihcT arc good the oil will instantly 
spread arountl the puncture. 

OYSTERS— Are They Healthy ?— Open an 
CTsCer* retain the liqaor in the lower ur dceii 
aoen« and, if viewed through a microscope, it 
wiU be found to contiiin multitudes of small oys- 
ters, covered with shells and swimming nimbly 
about — 1 30 of which extend but ] inch. Be- 
sides these young oysters, the liquor contains a 
variety of animafcuhe, anil myriads of 3 distinct 
sfiedes of worms. Sometimes their light rep- 
resents a bluish star about the centre of tne 
&hcll, which will be bcaalifuUy luminous in a 
dark room. 

OYSTER STESK—Slcw the oysters in 
their own liquor, and season to the taste with a 
Utile salt and pepper; butter may he added. 
Slews are often improved, in the opinion of 
many, by the addition of milk or cream, and 
liments in the way of mace, parsley or nut- 

_. If thickening of the soup is desir^, 
graced cracker is preferable to Hour. The best 
eooks omit flour cniiri^Iy. A piece of butler 
rolled in grated cracker may be added. Tour 
the oysters, when done, over a dish floored with 
crackers, or covered with layers of crispy toasted 
bread. 

OYSTERS, Tc /ry.— After thev are taken 
from the shell, dry them on a clean cloth or nap- 
kin. Beat up the yelks of eggs with thick, 
sweet cream — I yelk to 1 tablespoons of cream. 
Rub totelher some grated bread crumbs or 
cracker, and a little salt and pepper. Have hot 
in a skillet ^ of a lb. of melied butter. Dip 
each oyster in the l)ealen yelk and cream, and 
then roll it in the crumbs, coaxing ihcm to ad- 
here to iL Drop into the skillet, and fry until 
of a light brown color on boih sides, 'Iliey 
ought to be crisp and light. Never pour over 
tlicm the raeliea grease that may remain. 

OYSTERS, ToUa^e, Roaster Bcil.—'^yA a 
few minutes arc required for this. Wash the 
sbeHs clean. To roast, lay the shells on a grid- 
favo» over a bed of live coals. When the shells 
open they are done. Lift off the top, and serve 
in the under shelL To bake them, put in a pan 
in hot oven ; otherwise follow the same direc- 
txm as for roasiing. To boil, put them in a 
pot of boiling water. Serve in the shell. 

OYSTER SO L'P.—To each dozen or dish of 
u y tttia put half a pint of water ; milk I gill ; 
bailer half an oz. ; powdered crackers to thicken. 
the oysters and water to a boil, then add 
ther ingretUents previously mixed together, 
[hoA from 3 to 5 minutes only. 
^ySTER Pa -TTJES. —Take of oysters suf- 
It for the patties you may chance to want, 
a the liquor and return it to them ; mix 
tficai with very fine bread crumbs until they arc 
of • pffopcr thickness ; add a Httle scalded cream, 

' aeason the whole with pepper, salt, and cay- 

p*pper ; warm the whole in a saucepan till 

IS l« simmer ; when cold, put it in the 

a&rl bake it in the shape 01 small mince 

inches in diameter. The beards and 

part should be cut off, and the oysters 

t in 3 or 3 pieces. 

OYSTERS, ARTIFICIAL.— T^c young 
para com, and grate it in a dtsh ; to I pint of 
ui» aJd I egg well beaten, a small teacup of 



flour, ^ a cup of butter, some salt and pepper, 
and mix them well together. A taUespoonful 
of the batter wilt make the siic of an oyster. 
Fry them a light brown, and when done butter 
Uiem. Cream, if it can be procured, is belter 
than butter. 

OAT CAKES, SCOTCH.— V^i 3 handfuls 
of best Scotch ratmeal into a basin, with a bit of 
butter the size of a nutmeg ; add os much cold 
water as will form it into a cake. Press the 
cake out with the hands until it is thin, then roll 
with the rolling pin till it \% almost as thin as a 
silver dollar, hfavc the griddle already heated, 
sift a httle meal over it, and lay on tne cake. 
WTien the under side is brown, toast the upper 
side in a toaster before the lire to make it crisp. 
Tliese cakes should be kept in the meal chest 
among the dry meal to preserve their crispness, 
which is their peculiarity. They are extremely 
nice to eat with cheese. 

OMELETTE,— '^^X. separately the yelks 
and whites of 4 fresh eggs; to the yelks add as 
much powdered while sugar as will sweeten it, 
and a small dessert-spoonful of corn flour, very 
smoothlv blended in a spoonful of cream or good 
milk, heat the whites to x stiff frolh, add the 
flour to the yelks, and gently stir in the whites, 
taking care to break the froth as little as possi- 
ble \ pour the whole into a clean frying-pan 
from which the butter has been drnined ; 2 or 3 
minutes over a clear fire is enough to cook the 
under side ; hold the pan to the fire till the up- 
per side looks firm; sprcatl raspberry ur straw- 
berry jam over one half, turn the other side over 
it, ancf serve immediately. 

ONIONS, BOILED,— Tt^c the outside skin 
from white onions as uniform in size as possible, 
lay them in cold salt and water for I hnnr, and 
then boil them in milk and water until thor- 
oughly tender; lay them in a deep dish, and 
pour over them meUed butter. 

ONIONS, ROASTED.—Thc^c should be 
cooked in their skins; but before putting them 
into the oven brush off all gritliness. Place in a 
moderate oven, cooking gradually until nearly 
done ; then quicken the oven and brown. Serve 
with plenty of fresh butter. 

PASTE for Fruit or Meat /"fa-j.— This paste 
may be made with *^ of wheat flour, "% of the 
flour of boiled potatoes, and some butter or 
dripping; the whole Iwing brought to a consist- 
ence with warm water, and a small quantity of 
yeast added when lightness is desired. 

PARTRIDGES, Ttf j?«u/.— Rightly to look 
well tlicre should be a leash (3 birds) in the 
dish ; pluck, singe, draw and truss them ; roast 
them lor about 20 minutes ; baste then^ with 
butter, and when the gravy IxgiDS to run from 
tliem you may safely assume that the partridges 
arc done ; place them in a dish, together with 
bread crumbs, fried nicely brown and arranged 
in small heaps. Gravy should be screed in a 
tureen apart. 

PARTRIDGES, To BreiL —Cut ihcm in 
half, dip them in a butter previously melted, and 
cover tJicm thickly with crumbs of bread. A 
^ of an hour ought to be sufhcicnt to cook them 
over a clear fire. 

PARTRIDGE PIE.— 7. braces of partridges 
arc required to make a handsome pie. Truss 
them OS for boiling; pound in a mortar the Uv- 
crs of the birds, a 5^ of a lb. of &t bacon, and 
some shred paisley ; lay part of this forcemeat 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAV WANTS. 



■t the bottom of a raised crust : put in the part- 
ridges, add the remainder of the forcemeat and a 
iiew mushrooms ; put some slices of bacon fat 
on the top, cover with a lid of crust, and bake it 
for ly't hums. Before serving the pie remove 
the lid, take out the bacon, and add sufHcicnt 
rich gravy and orange juice. Partridge pie may 
also be made in a dish in the ordinary war. 

PASTE, Rich and LighL—To i lb. of flour, 
dried and iiflcd, take % a lb. of good fresh but- 
ter and |^ a lb. of hird ; divide the flour into 2 
equal portions ; put U on tlic pasle-board ; cut 
the butter (from which tlie water should be 
squeezed) into sUces about ^ an inch thick; do 
the same with the lard; cover the slices with 
flour. roU tlicra out tliin with the rolling-pin and 
lay them aside ; put the other ^ of the flour 
into a ba&in, work into it with a spoon a ^ of 
a pint of water, or enough to make the floitr into 
a stilf dough — too wet a dough will make tough 
paste — lay this upon the paste-board, and roil it 
out till it is y^ an inch tltick, then lay the fourth 
port of tlie butter and lard all over it, fold it up 
and roll it again \ put on another fourth of the 
butter, and repeat the buttering and rolling tilt 
all the rolled butter is mixed in. Then cover 
the tart, and bake it in a brisk oven. Always 
lundlc pastry as hghlly as possible, particularly 
after the butter has been put in. 

PASTE, POTATO.— \% of a lb. of cold 
boiled potatoes to ^ a lb. offlour. rubl>cd well 
together, wet with very little water, and odd 6 
'«c. of good lard or butter. For a sweet piste, 
add a tablespoonful of powdered sugar ; for a 
neat paste the same quantity of salt. 

PARSjV/PS, ToBoif. Wash the parsnips. 
acrape, boil ti^itder, and then slice and brown on 
a griddle, with butler to prevent sticking. Car- 
rots arc good, cooked in the same way. 

' PANADA, BREAD.— ^ak a few thin 
slices of stale, light, and well-baked bread in 
hot water, so as to form a pulp of suitable con- 
sistence. Simmer it gently, with some little ad* 
dition of water from time to time as it thickens ; 
then add z or 3 tabic spoonfuls of warm milk, a 
little loiif sug.ir, and a few grains of salL The 
objection to this brcad-pap, as commonly used, 
is tluU nurses arc sometimes apt to make it too 
thick. 

• PANADA, CfflCA-EN.—SVxn a fowl; cut 
U in pieces, leaving the breast whole; boil it In 
3 i>inls of water till perfectly tender, pick ofTthe 
meat, and pound it finely in a mortar, and mix 
it with the liquor it was boiled in; rub it through 
.a sieve, and season it with salt. 

PEARS, To Bake, — Take ripe pears and 
wij>e jhem carefully ; place a layer stem upward 
in a stone jar; spnnkie over kugar; then set in 
another layer of pears, and so on tilt the jar ii 
filled. To every gallon put in 1 J^ pints of wa- 
ter. Cover the top of the iar witn pic crust, 
and set in a slow oven for 2 hours. 

PEACHES, To Peel.— In peeling small 
peaches with a knife, too much of the {)each is 
trasied ; but by having a wire cage similar to 
those made for popping com this waste is obvi- 
ated. Fill the cage with peaches, and dip it into 
boiling water for a moment, then into cold wa- 
ter for a moment, and empty out — going on in 
the same way for all you wish lo peel. This 
toughens the skin and enables you to strip it off, 
laving much in labor, as also the waste of the 
p«ach. 



PEAS, To S/ew, — Take a quart of shelled 
pcxs, a large onion, or two of middling size, and 
2 lettuces cut small ; put them into a saucepan 
with }4 a pint of water; season them with a lit- 
tle salt, a liule pepper, mace and nutmeg. 
Cover them close, and let them stew a V of an 
hour ; then put in a )^ of a lb. of fresh butter 
rolled in a httlc flour, a spoonful of catsup, and 
a small piece of butter as big as a nutmeg: co\*er 
them cloe>c, and simmer gently an hour, often 
shaking the pan. 

P/E, CREAAF.—VoT 1 pie, take 3 eggs, >f 
cup of sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls offlour, I pint of 
sweet milk ; heat your milk ; beat suj^ar, eggs 
and fluur together ; add to the scalded milk, and 
cook to a thick custard ; flavor with lemons ; 
bake your crust, and when cold fill with the 
custard. 

P/E, /.EMONl-Gmc % of the outside of 
a lemon, and squeeze out the juice ; yelks of 2 
^^S^'f 3 tabIes|>oonfuls, heaped, of sugar; ^ 
cup of water; I teaspoonful of butter; itir well, 
and bake in a deep dish lined with crusL Beat 
the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth ; stir in 3 
tablespoonfuls of pmverizcd sugar, and spread 
over tlic top of the pie, as soon as it is baked. 
Set in the oven till tne top is nice browned. 

P/E, A//jVCE,—Takc of boUed beef, chop- 
ped fine and salted, I pint; apples, chopped 
Gne, I quart ; butter or suet, I leacupful ; 1 tea- 
cup sugar, I pint each of boiled cider and water. 
Slew all together until the apples are done, and 
when cold add i pint uf canned or stewed rasp- 
berries or blackberries, i tcas(>oonful of pepper, 
I of cloves, 2 of cinnamon, and 3 of allspice. 

P/E, ORANGE.— Take the juice and pulp 
of 6 large, sour oranges, and the grated rind of 
4. a little salt, 3 cupful^ of sugar, 3 eggs, 4 cup* 
fuls of water, 6 spoonfuls of rice flour. Muc 
these ingredienU well together, make a good 
crust, and bake like other pics. 

P/E. PEA C//.— Take good ripe peaches, 
halve and slone them ; make a good short crusti 
and lay it in your pie-plates. Lay your peaches 
evenly to co^■er it; then add lo each moderate- 
^izcd pie about 3 spoonfuls of white sugar, and a 
few drops of essence of lemon or rose, and ^ a 
tcacupful of water ; cover, and bake like other 
pics. 

P/E, Pl/MPAVN.— Choose the best pump- 
kins that can be found. Take out the sectls.cut 
the rind carefully away, and then cut tlie pump- 
kin into thin and narrow bits. Stew over a 
moderate fire in a little walcr^ust ctiou^ to 
keep the mass from burning — until soft. Torn 
off the water, if any remains, and let the pump, 
kin steam over a slow fire about 10 minntes. 
When sufTicienlly cooled, strain through a sieve. 
Sweeten the pumpkin %Yith sugar and a little mo- 
lasses. The sugar and eggs should be beaten 
together. The flavoring requires ginger, the 
grated rind of a lemon or nutmeg, and salt. To 
I quart of pumpkin odd l quart of milk and 4 
eggs for ortiinary richness. 

lleat the pumpkin scalding hot before putting 
it upon the crust to bake, otherwise the crust 
will be scalded. Bake in a very hot oven. 

PIGEONS.— Vigcoas are ^-cry indiflereni 
food when they are too long kept. Suppleness 
of the feet show them to be young ; the slate ol 
the flesh is flaccid when they are getting bad 
from keeping. Tame pigeons are larger tlisn 
the wild. 



COOKING AhfD BAKING. 



S9 



111 



i^iVHOSS, .V.'rrw;/. — Mnkc R saaoniiig of 
•iwect her!>s, and ft 
<ur. antl put it into 
" ilf rcjast them ; 
ttaitev- : A\ wliule pcp- 

fn; aacc. , amJ a small 

VMk. lake tiicm out wlicn dune, stiain ihc 
lifiQi, aWim it. »ntl thkkcn it with a piece of 
■Uu roll ' I put in the pij^ons 

wk loair. ,[Ui. and slew them 

nttrainuL^. t uui mv .-.auce over them, in the 

/T'A'.r AS rOOr>.~\^ the prohibition of 
p*^ la food, founded on 

fcl; ihc food itself? An 

monthlies cx- 

givci a most 

' rittttion of 

Ae hoe, 'It say & that *• V-- \ Hamp- 

AttCKAiae. And other >■ „ '^ Sutcs, 

*Wv the inbaUtantk send ihcii Uief cattle to 

BsHon aurkd. and live principally on pork as 

■4 (hff TBtf I ' >>r them are of- 

feEMd wilA scj I. tetter* ring- 

JBIB, *luuuar-< "")|wion, etc, 

alW Far W«r^; meat con- 

■■M^byllwCu' -^cs^ham 

btgvuMa, roa&t pig foi dinner, and sausage 

fcaq^craaBil * hog all the liuie!* And wbol 

^tUdfcctof tV. , lict upon their con- 

ImSth. 'k jl niajty of their 

.wivn ■ I. wilh their rheumcd 

9** *>d colarg' re cars, etc, for an 

■uiu, Whuc in farmer works in 

fe Mdt in ike open aii, he is comparatively ex- 

i^ Ihaa its twic6il influence and it is chiefly 

<V°* t^ SkoJiIi of his wife and children that it;* 

lorUr cfcis nay be seen. The late Doctor 

Bbhhp^ of Chicago* told the author a few years 

liacv UkU a wu estimated* by competent mcdi- 

oJaati^jrity, tbat nnrly V "^ ihc entire popu- 

iirioD uf Hit State w ; with scrotulous 

KatcjTH vrilh endai, e glands at the 

futal of I' - > ' ,rm of chronic 

MwAalnu tv;bout the en- 

vt Weal ' pork« or have. 

b Cfat iTW(e»t way, any tJuug to do viith the 

^pcfHlering, iKvly-comipling, health- 



/wrw/ 



r>ir«eUy the 



■Put them into a 

■'• water to cover 

] to break, lift 

ii'ily as possible 

':•< aU'f . Then place a 

ill) towel over them, 

Utrtti [J iiiL- lire again until they arc 

CkiyB9M)Uff tioo^ And quite dry. 

I ^rATO£S, T» Ffy.—lo fry raw potatoes 

aif, thejr sbould lie parM), cut len^hwise 

daoe* aa eighth of aa inch in thickne«s, 

a p^ orer the fire containing hot 

turned firenucnily, iiicely browned 

POTATO SCONES^^^U^y^ boiled potatoes 
C33 IKffV arc ndic •nnxtiK. .idling a little salt; 
tW» Ay-meal, to the 

ih-'i i-riddle, prick> 

'ing. 

t'ocs for 

i^Kicu a-i if they 

6vther prcr^ 

drvMvd a liltlc 

ahcRiU be taken out Co Id the 





water get into them. The farinaceous part must 
be pounded up, with a small (juantily of the 
freshest butter, the yelk of an eg|2 well beaten^ 
ami a little pe^tpcr and .salt ; add, if possible, a 
little cream, and put the mashed potatoes into 
tlic oven lo brown them. 

POTA 7X> ^A'O^r.— Pick out the whitest po- 
tatoes, and put them on in cold water ; when 
they begin to crack, strain and put them in a 
clean *itewpan l>eforc the fire till they are quite 
dry, and fall to pieces ; rub them through a 
wire sieve on the dish they are to be sent up in, 
and do not disturb them aXicrwards. 

• PUDDING^ ylrrownw/.— Mix a tablespoon- 
ful in cold milk, and pour it into boitin^ milk. 
When cool, add the yelk of an egg well beaten 
and a little sugar; put it into a uo^in, and boil 
lo minutes. 

rUDD/NG, /f//?£yS-N£Sr.~?cc\ tart 
apples, take out the cores, leaving the apples 
whole. Make a custard of 8 well beaten ecgs. 
^2 a pint of cream, and xyi pints of seamed 
roilk, thickened witJi a heaping tablets ix>onful of 
flour and a little sail, but no sugar. Bokc ao 
minutes. \Mien the apples are tender the pud- 
<Ung is done. Serve immediately with butter 
and sugar stirred to a cream. 

PUDDINa, HALF~PAY.~% of a lb. of 
suet, )^ of a lb. of currants % oi %'^ of rais- 
ins, % of a lb. of flour, ^ of a lb. of bread 
crum)>s, 2 tabIes|>oonfuU of molasses, ^ a pint 
of milk. Chop the suet finely; mix with it the 
currants, (which should be nicely washed and 
dried,) the raisins, (which should be stoned,) 
the flour, breadcrumbs and molasses; moisten 
with the milk, beat up the ingredients until all 
are thoroughly mixed, put them into a buttered 
basin, andlxnl the pudding for 3^ hours. 

PUDDING^ Kiu attJ A/'/^/r.—Vxck over and 
wash a tcacupful of the best rice. Steam it un- 
til tender in 2 cups of cold water ; spread it over 
a quart or 3 pints of good ripe apples, quartered; 
pour over I or 2 cups of milk, if preferred, or 
omit the milk and add a little water to the ap> 

f)les. Half a cup of white sugar may be snrink* 
ed over the apples, or sugar may be adu»l at 
the table, if preferred. 

PUDDING, PLUM,— A eeES, X2 crackers, 
I pint <A new milk, I teacup of butter, half a 
lb. of sugar, 1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of prunes, 
with a hncly grated nutmeg. Bake about an 
hour. 

PUDDING^ p0tato.—\ lb. of potatoes, boflcd 
half a lb. of fresh butter, half a lb. of sugar, the 
yelks of 6 eggs and the whites of 3, i gill of 
cream, i teaspoonful of mocc, and 1 nutmeg, 
liake in pufl'*paste. 

PUDDING, RICE^'-HtAi a pint of rice, I 
quart of milk, J^ of a pint of 5ugar, nutmeg or 
cuuuunon. Bake it slowly 3 hours. Tapioca 
may be cooked in the same way, af^er soaking 
in worm milk for an hour or two ; and sago, al- 
ter thoroughly washing ond soaking over night, 
is good in the same fashion. It is |K>ssiblc to 
dilute the milk one-half and yet have the pud- 
dine good, if care is exercised in soaking and 
cooking. 

^//^^/r.y.— Rabbits, when old, Imvc the 
haunches thick, the cars dry and tough, and the 
claws blunt and ragged. A young hare has 
claws smooth and sharp, cars that easily tear, 
and a narrow cleft in the check. 



I 



€o 



DICTIONARY OF £ VERY-DAY WANTS, 



are thoroughlv frved from blood with cold water. 
They arc left over night in weak salt water, 
which is [Kiured ofT in the morning, and new 
salt water added, in which they stand until ready 
for cooking. 'Phis water is made jusi suflBcienily 
salt to fit the flesh for eating. They arc then 
boiled until lender, when the meat is taken out. 
and flour and butter, first rubtjcd together, is 
Stirred in and well peppered^ and the whole 
poured over toast, upon which the meat is laid. 
A few sprigs of parsley added improve the taste 
for many persons. 

SAifCE, SHFRLEY.^XZ good-sued» ripe 
tomatoes \ 2 bell pepjjcr^ (large ones ; ) 2 onions 
(many omit these, and like Uie saace better — 
consult your own ta^ite. ) Scald and skin the to- 
matoes; chop the peppers and onions (if used) 
very fine. 'I ncn adcf i cup of vinegar and JS^ of 
a cup of sugar, and boil 2 hours ; then put in 
another cup of vinegar and boil I hour — or un- 
til the mixture does not veparate. llicn stir in 
I leaspoonfu! of cloves, I dessert-spoonful of 
cinnamon, and a leaspoonful of pimento (all- 
spice.) 

SAUCE, n'ORCESTERSIf/RE.—\\\ the 
English sauces in popular use arc foundcti upon 
walnut catsup — that is of Kngtish walnuts — or 
upon mushroom catsup. To make a catsup of 
walnuts, tltc green shells are taken in these pro- 
portions: 2 ^s. walnut juice, 5 lbs. salt, mixed 
and bruised, and allowed to lie a week ; the 
liquor is then pressed out, and to every gallon is 
■elded 4 oz. of allspice, 3 oz. of ginger, and of 
pepper and cloves 2 ox. each, all bruised. The 
whole is then simmered for 30 minutes, and is 
then set aside to clear. This is the catsup. To 
make a sauce of this similar to Worcestershire, 
lake I gal. port wine, 3^ gal. catsup, 2 lbs. an- 
chovies, with their liquor, 8 lemons, 48 shallots 
or small onions, scraped horse-radish ij^ lbs., 
mace 1 oz., Cayenne 2 oz., mustard 8 oz. Boil 
the whole genlfv, and then strain and bottle. 

SAUCE, (7//i/7:VA' K— Pare and core sour 
apples. Then take of these apples, tomatoes, 
brown sugar, and best raisins, each 8 oz. ; salt, 

4 oz. ; red peppers (chilies) and powdered gin- 
ger, 3 oz. eacn ; garlic and smalt onions, i oz. 
each. Pound the whole well, and add 3 quarts 
of best cider or wine vinegar — or vinegar made 
from beer — and I quart of^lemon juice. I^t it 
stand in the vessel a month, but give it a good 
shake daily. Then pour off the clear liquid and 
bottle it. The residue may be used in aid of n 
second batch of sauce, or, rubbed up into a very 
smooth paste, may form a constituent of French 
mustard. 

• SHANK JELL Y. —Scour and brush very 
clean 12 shanks of mutton, after soaking Ihem 
in water for 4 hours. Simmer them gently for 

5 hours in 3 quarts of water, putting with them 
3 blades of mace, 2 onions, 20 Jamaica and 30 
black pcpjTCTcorns, some sweet herbs, and a 
crust of bread toadied brown ; then strain a(T the 
liquor and keep it in a cool place. This is well 
aoapted to delicate and debilitated pcn>ons. 

SNIPES, ROASTED.— Dn not draw them, 
but spit on a bird-spit ; flour and baste well 
with butter ; prepare a slice of toasted bread, 
lay it in a plate under the birds ; roast for about 
30 minutes ; place ihem on the toast ; butter, 
garnish with slices of lemon and parsley, and 
serve. 

SOUF, Stock fffr,—^ lbs. of shin-bone, and 



] lb. of lean neck of beef, 4 carrots, i turnip, 1 
stick of celery, 2 parsnips, 2 leeks, i onion, 6 
cloves, 6 peppers, a buncn of sweet herbs, 1 gaL 
of water. Cut the meat into slices, crack the 
bone, and put it Into .on earthen pipkin that will 
stand the fire, as this makes far better soup than 
a metal saucepan ; add the water, and let it stew 
slowly till the scum rises, and skim it clear; 
stick the cloves into the onion and then add the 
vegetables, and let the whole stew slowlvtill the 
meat is in rags, which will be in about % hcturs. 
It must simmer very slowly, for if it boils the 
meat will not vicld ihe gravv so well, and the 
slock will be thick in place of being clear. Af- 
ter it is cold it should be strained through a cul- 
lender, and kept in a covered pan or jar for 
use. 

SOUPt CohrinF far. — As soups often require 
coloring, it is well to prepare browning for that 
purpose. 2 baked onions, well browned in the 
oven and then chopped fine, moke an cxceUenl 
coloring and flavoring. The shells of green 
peas, dried in the oven until thev are brown, hot 
not black, will also answer lo brown soup, and 
will keep alt winter if hung in a perfectly dry 
place. 

SOUP, Pfff, Boyd's,— ■T;ikc the shank of 
beef, or pieces of beef or veal left from a roast- 
ing piece, and boil in water sufTicicni for Uie 
soup ; if the meat has not been previously 
cooked, it niust be boiled 4 or 5 hours, or till it 
will separate from the bone easily. Pare pota- 
toes, 3 or 4 good sized onions, part of a yellow 
tumip, and 2 or 3 carrots, if desired ; slice, not 
very thin, and boil in the soup after seasoning 
with salt and pepper to the taste. Boil the tur- 
nips about iji hours ; the other vegetables will 
cook sooner. 

SOUI\ J>i'ftabU.—Ve(-\ and slice 6 largo 
onions, 6 potatoes, 6 carrots, and 4 turnips ; fry 
them in M a lb. of butter, and pour on them 4 
quarts of boiling water. Toast a crust of hread 
as brown and hard as possible — but do not burn 
it — .and put it in, with some celery, sweet herbs, 
while pepper and salt. Stew it all gently for 4 
hours, ana then strain it through a coarse doth. 
Have ready thinly sliced carrot, celery and a lit- 
tle turnip. Add them to your liking, and stew 
them tender in the soup. If approved of, a 
s[x>onful of tomato catsup may be added. 

SOUP, Gumbo. — Fry a light brT>wn 2 lbs. of 
the round of beef with 4 sliced onions ; put into 
the soup pot with 4 quarts of water, ^ a can of 
tomatoes or 12 fresh ones, i teaciipful of sliced 
okra and 1 green pepper ; boil slowly «; boura 
.-ind put throuph the cullender. Throw mto the 
tureen some sippets of fried bread and serve at 
once. 

SODA CAA'ES—M'ix a teaspoonful of soda 
and I of tartaric acid with ^ a teaspoonful of 
salt ; melt 5 uz. of butter in a large cupful of 
milk; a«ld these ingredients to i lb. of flour. H 
a lb. of moist sugar, and 2 oz. of caraway seeds* 
Work into a soft dough, and, if not wet enough, 
add more milk ; put into mince-pic pans to 
bake. 

SPONGE-CAA'E.—Betit 12 eggs as light as 
possible, (for sponge and almond cake they re- 
quire more beating than for anything else ;) beat 
I lb. of loaf sugar, powdered and sifted by de- 
grees, into tlie eggs, continuing to beat some 
time very hard after all the sugar is in, (none 
but loaf sugar will make light sponge . cake. > 



irfTi» 



COOKING AN^D BAKING, 



6i 




Stir in gradually a teaspoonful of powdered, 
mixed dnnamoo and mace, a grated nutmeg, and 
12 drops of lemon essence; Ustly, by dcgrecii, 
(lut in lo oz. of Bificd Hour, dried near the fire, 
stirring round the mixture very slowly with a 
knife. If the flour i& stirred too hard the cs^e 
will be tough. It must be done gently and 
lightly, so that the top of the mixture will be 
covered with bubbles. As soon as the Hour is 
^\ in begin to bake, as setting will hurt it. Put 
it in snuU tins, well buttered, or in I large tin 
pin. The th inner the pans the better the sponge- 
cake. Kill the small tms about half lull. Grate 
loaX sugar over tlie top of each before setting it 
in the oven. 

SUGAH, Tc Ciijrj/fv.— Take a little gum Ara- 
bic and a little isinglass dissolved in hot water ; 
poor it, when dissolved, into your su{;ar when 
Dofling. and it wil! clear all the sediment to the 
top olihe pan, which you must skim off as often 
as it rises. Loaf sugar may be cleared with the 
vhite of an egg, isinglass or gum .\raUc. A 
little of either will sumce. 

SUET DL'.\fPL/XGS.—To t guart of flour 
add half a lb. of liccf suet broken m very smalt 
pieces, I cupful of peach marmalade, a little salt. 
B leaspoontul of soda. Knead it with butler- 
and make the dough out into dumplings 
rgcT than biscuit, and boil them tilt done. 

up while hot with a rich sauLu, 
SOMMEfi SQUASH, To Gw-t.— Take them 
fore the seeds begin W harden, wash ur wipe 
clean, remove the stem and cut in pieces ; 
liU quite soft ; pour off all the water you 
.. , mash as fine as possible, aHer which put 
iMo a clean cloth or mg, and si^ueczc out the 
reat of the water. Turn out into a dish, aud 
season with salt, butler, or duck, siwect cream, 
andpepper^ lo your taste. 

TArFEE. — Put into a pan, or some shallow 

;l, a j^ of a lb. of butter and I lb. of brown 

; set it upon the stove, and stir together 

1$ minutes, or mitU a little of the mixture 

into a basin of water wiU brc.ik clean 

;n the teeth without sticking to them. 

vf flavoring that is de<>ircd — as lemon, pine- 

ilr^ or vanilla — should be added just before 

cooking is completed. The taflce, when 

me, should be poured into a shallow dish. 

is buttered on the Iwttoro and wlges. By 

iwing a knife across it when partially cool, it 

easily be broken into sr^uarcs. MoUuscs 

Vf be nscd instead of sugar, but it is not so 

TAPIOCA PUDDING.—^ Urge table. 

lis of tapioca soaked over night iu i quart 

new millt; grated rind of i lemon ; i tumbler 

sweet nulk \ one-half of a tumbler of wine, 

ith %ugar enough in it to fill the glass. Stir 

6kC upioca and milk over the fire until it comes 

lo a \tok\, before adding any of the other ingre- 

^pcnti; 4 egg^< beaten separately, and added 

^Bt before baking ; it bakes in about $ minutes. 

^V> t#e eaten cold. 

TEA^ f/ffv Af MaJtr. — ^Thc best w^y lo make 
ts by pouring a little boiling water on the 
and after ihcy have become thoroughly 
led, which requires I to 2 minutes, by 
U off again. This water contains most 
tnnic aad, and the acrid and disagrce- 
,.j..a ..f rhe tea, without depriving it of 
_;ih. Now \yo\ir sufficient hot 
'.- tc^vcs, and let them infu^ for lo 




or 15 minutes, when the beverage will be ready 
for use. This scalding with hot water is quite 
necessary with inferior tea, in which ca^c boiling 
the leaves must esj>ecially be avoided. 

TEA, Healthy Suhtittttes yj'r. —Tlie first 
leaves of the currant bush dried on tin cannot lie 
known from green tea. Good meadow hay — 
fourth ounce to each person — infused in boiling 
water, is an aromatic, anti- bilious, nouriiihing 
and soothing narcotic lo the nerves at all times; 
it promotes lUgcblion and creates appetite. The 
unfoldetl petais of the red rose, dried, 5 part»; 
rosemary leaves, i part, and balm leaves, 3 
parts, mixed, is also excellent. Tliis far excels 
any imported tea, and sells at 75 cents per lb., 
and I lb. will last as long as 2 lbs. of common 
tea. The young leaves of the pea plant, or the 
young leaves and flowers of the common Mraw. 
berry, dried in llie air out of Uie sun, furnish de- 
lectable draughts when infused and taken with 
cream and sugar like tea. 

TEA-KETTLES^ To Prevent the Formation 
of a tut in. — Keep an oyster-shell in your lea. 
kettle. By attracting the stony particles to it- 
self, it will prevent the formation of a crust. 

• TEA, ^EEF,—Takc 1% lbs. of the best 
steak; cut it into very small (lieces, and put 
them into an earthenware jar, with enough cold 
water to cover the meat ; tie the ton of the jar 
on, and put it into a saucepan fulJ of hot water ; 
place ihe :iaucejtan on the fire, and allow it to 
boil for 3 hours, by which time all ihc piodncss 
of the meal will be extr.icted. This is the pure 
essence of beef. 

• TOAST~kVATEJ?.^<:niv,i\\(x off a stale 
loaf, about twice as thick as toast is usually cut. 
Toast it carefully until it is deep brown all over, 
but not blackened or burnt ; lay it iu the bottom 
of a jug with a thin slice of lemon-peel ; fill the 
jug with boiling water, and let it stand till cold. 

TOMATOES, BROmVED.—T?,\i.c large, 
round tomatoes and halve them ; place them, tnc 
skin side down, in a frying. pan in which a very 
small quantity of butter ha> been previously 
melted ; sprinkle them wnlh salt and pcpjitrr and 
dredge ihem well willi flour ; place the pan on a 
hot part of the fire, and let Inem brown thor- 
oughly; then stir them and let them brown 
again, and so on until they are quite done. 
They lose their acidity, and the flavor is superior 
to stewed tomat<>es. 

TOAfA TO CA TSL'P.—Sca}6 ripe tomatoes, 
and remove tlie skin. Let them stand a day, 
covered with salt ; strain thoroughly to remove 
the seeds. To every 3 quarts of the liquor add 
3 oz. of cloves, 3 01 black {^ppcr, 2 grated nut- 
megs, a little Cayenntr pepper, and salt. Hoit 
all together for ^ an hour, then let the lui^tuiti 
cool and settle ; odd a pint of the best cider vin* 
cg.ir; bottle, cork lightly, and seal. Keep in a 
cool place. 

TOMA TO FRITTEHS.—Takt I quart of 
stewed tomatoes ; stir In I ^g, I small teaspoon- 
ful of saleratus or soda, and flour enough to 
make it of the consistency of pancakes. 

TOMA J O MA AM A L^iOE. — lAkc fine and 
ripe toaiatoes, cut them in halves, and squeeze 
out ihe juice. Put tliem in a preserving pan, 
with a few peoch-Ieaves, a clove of ;- ' , i'^ 
slices of union or shalol. .ind a bun 
ley. Stew ihcm untd they are suffiti . . , _ ...:, 
rulp them through a sieve, and boil ll^eui di:yNtL 

e other m fl rm a l ad e , adding &alu VuX ^hfiia 



E: 



6s 



DTCTTONAR'. 



into small jars, pepper the tops, and pour clari- 
fied butter over. Lat it with fish, etc., or stir 
the ccntcnls of a small pot into the gravy of 
stews or fricassees. 

TOM A TO PUDOrS^G.—Voxa boOing water 
on tomatoes, remove the skins, put in the Dottom 
of the pudding-dish some bread cnimbs, then 
slice the tomatues on them, season with sugar, 
butter, pepper, and salt; add some more bread 
crumbs, then the sliced tomatoes and seasoning, 
and if the tomato does not wet the bread crumbs 
odd a little water ; then, for a small pudding, 
beat up 2 eggs and pour over the top. Bake 
about 20 minutes. 

TOMATO SOC'P.—WsiBh, scrape, and cut 
small the red part of 3 large carrots, 3 heads of 
celery, 4 large onions, and a large turnips; put 
them into a saucepan, with a tablcspoonful n{ 
butler and ^ a lb. of lean new ham ; let them 
stew very gently for on hour ; then add 3 quarts 
of brown gravy soup and some whole black pep- 
per, with our 10 ripe tomatoes; let it boil an 
nour and a half, and pulp it through a sieve ; 
serve it with fried bread cut in dice. 

TURKEY, T"** C^Siwi-.— In choosing a lurlcey, 
the age of the bird is the chief point to be at- 
tended to. An old turkey has rough and red- 
dish legs ; a young one smooth and black. 
Fresh killed, the eyes arc full and clear, and the 
feet moist. When it has been kept too long, the 

Sarts about the vent begin to wear a greenish, 
iscolnred appearance. 
TURKEY, Stii^n^/or.—TiAx some bread 
crumbs and turn on just enough hot water lo 
soften them ; put in a piece of butter, not melted, 
the size of a hen's egg, and a spoonful of pul- 
Tcrizcd sage, a teaspoonful of ground pepper, 
and a teaspoonful of salt ; there may be some of 
the bread crumbs that need to be chopped ; then 
mix thoroughly and stuff your turkey. 

TURKEY, To Bakt.-hcl the turkey be 
picked, singed, and washed and wiped dry, in- 
side and out ; joint only to the first joints in the 
legs, and cut some of the neck off if it is all 
bloody ; then cut 13 small gashes in the fleshy 
parts of the turkey, on the outside and in differ* 
t*nl parts of the turkey, and press I whole oys- 
ter m each gash ; tlien close the skin and flesh 
over each oyster as tightly as jiossiblc ; then stuff 
your turkey, leaving a little room for the stuffing 
to swell. AVlien stuffed sew it up with a stout 
cord, rub over lightly with flour, sprinkle a little 
salt ;md (leppcr on it, put some water in your 
dripping pan, put in your t\;.kcy, baste it often 
with its own drippings; bake to a nice brown ; 
chicken your gravy with a little flour and water. 
Be sure and keep the bottom of the dripping 
pan covered with water, or it will burn the gravy 
and make it bitter. 

TUR.V/RS, To Tfv*.— Full-grown turnips 
will take about \% hours' gentle boiling; if you 
slice them, which most people do, thcv will be 
done sooner ; try them with a fork; when ten- 
der, tdce them up and lay them on a sieve till 
the water is thoroughly drained from them. 
Send Ihcm up whole ; do not slice them. 

VEAL^ To Roast. — .Season a breast of veal 
with pepper and salt; skewer the sweetbread 
firmly in its place ; flour the meat and roast it 
slowly for about 4 hours before a moderate fire ; 
it should be of a fine brown, but no! dry ; baste 
it with butler. When done, put the gravy in a 
stcw-paa, add a piKc of butter rolled in brown 



flour, and if there should not be quite enough 
gravy, add a little more water, wiili pepper and 
salt to taste. The gravy should be brown. 

VEAL CUTLETS, nroil€d.~^\x\. the pieces 
of veal of an equal thickness; dip them into 
beaten egg, and sprinkle Oiem with chopped 
herbs, parsley, mushrooms, grated lcmon-j>ecl, 
and crumbs of bread ; broil them to a fine brown 
color. Make a sauce of butter and flour melted 
brown, moistened with veal gravj-; put into it 
some button mushrooms, and pour the sauce hot 
over the cutlets. 

VEAL, StfWfd. — Divide into portions part ol 
a breast of veal, and fry it of a nice brown in 
butler. Put into a stew pan a quart of green 
peas, together with onions and parsley. ^ hen 
they are tender add some veal gravy, and put b 
the pieces of veal already fried, and stew the 
whole gently. Season with salt, pepper, and a 
leasiioonful of powdered sugar. 

I'EAL C/IOPS, Pr^ad^d.—Takt 6 or 7 
handsomely cut chops, season them with saft 
and pepper, and put them into melted butter. 
When sufficiently soaked put them into beaten 
(^gg^> take them out, and roll each separately in 
bread crumbs ; make the chops as round as you 
can with your hand, and lay tlicm in a dish. 
When all are brearied, bitiil Inem slowly over a 
moderate fire, that the bread may not l^c too 
highly colored. Serve with dear gravy. 

■ VEAL ^jy^A-AAr— Wash a good knuckle 
of veal, and put it to boil in g pints of water. 
I^t it boil until reduced to 2 pints. Run it 
through a fine sieve, and when nearly cold, add 
to it 2 pints of ularified syruii, and i^ pints o! 
clear lemon juice. Mix well, and serve as re- 
freshment. It will be found very oulritious, as 
well as pleasant. 

• VEAL £ROTIL—Vni a knuckle of a leg 
or shoulder of veal, an old fowl, and 4 shank 
l>ones of mutton, 3 blades of mace, 10 pepper- 
corns, an onion, a piece of bread, and 3 quarrs 
of water into a soup pot ; cover it close, and af- 
ter it has boiled up and been skinuncd, strain, 
take off tlic fat, and add salt. 

VEGETABLES, To ^<»ty.— VegclaWcs must 
be carefully cleaned from insects and very nicely 
washed. Boil them in plenty of water, the wa- 
ter to l)c boiling before ihey are put into it, and 
they should be drained the moment they are 
cooked enough. If ovet-builed they will lose 
their beauty and crispness. Bad cooks some* 
times dress them with meal, which is wrong — 
except carrots or cabbage widi boiling beel 

In order lo boil vegetables of a good green 
color, take care that the water boils when they 
are put in. Make them boil very fast. Do not 
cover, but watch them, and if the water has not 
slackened, you may be sure tliey are done when 
they begin to sink. Then take them out imme- 
diately, or tlie color will change. Hard water, 
e-tpccially if chalybeate, spoils the color of such 
vegetables as should be green. To boll them^ 
green in hard water, put a teaspoonful of carbon- 
ate of soda or potash mto the water when boil- 
ing, before the vegetables are put in. 

VEGETABLES, To Ciian of iHstfts.— 
Make a strong brine of i >i lbs. of salt to I gaL 
of water; into thi^ place the ^-cgetables with the 
stalk ends uppermost for 2 or 3 hours ; this vrill 
dcstroyall the insects which cluster in the leaves, 
and they will fall out and sink to the bottom of 
the water. 



DRUGGIST Am) CHEMIST, 



I 

I 
I 



VEGETABLE OYSTERS.— ^o\\ salsify, 
or mtgetablc oysters, Ull the !.lun will come off 
masAy. When you have taken it off nca.tly, cut 
the root in bits as long as an oyster; put into a 
deep vegetable dish a layer of crumbs of bread 
or craclurs, a little salt, pepper and natmeg, and 
m covering of butter xs tnin as you can cut it ; 
then a layer of oysters, and so on till your dish 
is 611cd. having crumbs at the top. Fill the 
dish with water, and brown them nandsomely. 
Tbey can remain 2 hours in the oven without 
injarv, or be eaten in J^ an hour, 

ykX/SOX, Ttf Roast.— ?,x>\\. a haunch of 
Tenison, and butter well 4 sheets of paper, 2 of 
which put on the haunch. Then make a paste 
of flour, butter, and water ; roll it out half as 
big as the haunch, and put it over the fat part -, 
then put the other 2 sheets of paper on. and tie 
ti^m with pack-thread. I>ay it to a brisk fire, 
and baste it welt all the time of routing. If a 
bcgr haunch of 24 lbs., it will take 3^ hoars ; 
snaller in proportion. 

V'EmSOX STEAR'S, Rrm^J.—ViMh them 
and wipe them dry. Put them oti the gridiron, 
ever a clear fire, and broil them ; then sea:son 
with salt and pepper, and baste them with but- 
ter. Serve with currant jelly. 

PLATER, n Afaki CoU.^VJaXcv may be 
kept nearly as cold as ice water, by surrounding 
the pitcher or jar with several folds of coarse 
cotton, to be kept constantly wet. The evapo. 
ration canics on the heat inside, and it will be 
Tcdnccd almost to freezing. In India and other 
trotncal regions this is common. 

miTER, To So/ten JfarJ.—K ^ oz. of 
quick-lime dipped in 9 quarts of water, and the 
acar solution put into a barrel of hard water; 
fhe whole will be soft water as it settles. 

HEATER, To Punfy.—.K t.ablcspoonful of 
piywdercd alum sprinkled into a hogshead of 
water, and stirred, will in the course of a few 
koars precipitate to the bottom all the impure 
portides, and leave the water as clean and pure 
as sprmg water. 4 gallons would need but a 
tcaspoonful. 

WILD DUCKS, Ta Roast,— Tot roasting a 
wild dack yoa must hftve a dear, brisk fire and 



a hot spit. It must be browned apon the out- 
side without being sodden williin. To have it 
well frothed and full of gravy is the nicety. 
Prepare the fire b^ stirring and raking it just be- 
fore the bird is laid down, and 15 or 20 minutes 
will do it in the fa>>hionaMe way ; but if you like 
it a little mure done allow it a few minutes long> 
er ; if it is too much done it will lose much of its 
flavor. 

YEAST,— \. In 3 Quarts of water let 2 02. 
of hops boil for % an hour ; strain the liquor, 
and let it stand in a wide earthenware bowl. 
When lukewarm add a smalt quantity of salt — 
say ^ handful— and ^ f}i ^ lb. of sugar. Take 
some of the liquor, and well mix up in it |^ a 
lb. of the best flour, beating this up thoroughly 
in the whole afterwards. The next day but one 

f>ut in I }4 lljs- of boiled and mashed potatoes ; 
el it stand one more day, after which it may be 
bottled for use. It should be kept near the fire 
while making, so us to keep it about the tern- 
pcrature of new milk, and it should also be fre- 
nueully stirred during the process of making, 
when bottled, it should be kept in a coot place. 
— 2. Take 12 large potatoes, a pint of hops 
boiled in a gallon of water ; mash the p<jtatoes 
well, add a teacupful of sugar and I of salt, and 
I pint of yeasL Let it rise a day, then put it in 
a jug and cork it loosely; put about ^ a pint to 
a gallon of bread -raising. — 3. Boil i lb. of cood 
flour, a *i^ of a lb. of &own sugar, and a little 
salt, in 2 gallons of water fur an hour. When 
milk warm, bottle it and cork close. It will be 
fit for use in 24 hours, i pint of the yeast will 
make 18 lbs. of bread. 

YEAST CARES.— V\x\. into 3 pints of water 
a handful of hops, and nearly a quart of pared 
potatoes, cut into small pieces, tkrit for % an 
tiour. and strain, while scalding hot, into suffi- 
cient flour to make a stiff batter. Stir it well, 
adding 1 tablespoonful of fresh yeast, and set in 
a warm place to rise. When light, mix it stiff 
with Indian meal, roll out thin, and cut into 
round cakes or square pieces about z,t^ inches 
in diameter. Dry these thoroughly, and keep 
them in a bag in a dry place. Iney will remain 
good for months. 



DRUGGIST AND CHEMIST. 



ACID, CITRIC. — ^Juice of Icraon*;, 4 pints ; 
prryuxed chalk. 4V oz. ; diluted sulphuric acid, 
27^ ox. ; distilled walcr, 2 pints. Heat the 
joioe, add the chalk ; let the powder subside, and 
poor off the liquor. Wash the citrate ol Umc 
frequently with warm water, pour on it the sul- 
|ifaaric acid and water, and boil for 15 minutes; 
esprcM the hquor. filter it. and evaporate with 
(CfUie beat ; then set it by to crystalline. To 
the crystals pure, dissolve tJiera a second 
i:rd time, rnler each solution, evaporate, 
tar? it siide to crystallize. 

'E CLOT/I {for Surwamj.)—$ 
w. ' ibic are dissolved in half a pint ol 

ImA waicr, awl glycerine is added to give the 
nixtOFe a syrupy con&i&tenoe. The muslin or 



linen cloth, spread out on a frame, is first coated 
with thin gum water, and. when nearly dry, 
with the glycerine mixture as rapidly as possible. 
Several coats are generally required. When 
needed for use, it is cut into strips and moistened 
with water. 

ARTIFICIAL SKIH. for Btnm, Bruisn, 
Abrasions, ^/a— ^Proof against water.) Take 
gun cotton and Venice turjxrnline, equal parts of 
each, and dissolve them in 20 times as much sul- 
phuric ether, dissolving the cotton fin>I. then ad- 
ding the turpentine ; keep it corked tightly. 
Water does not affect it, htnce its value for 
cracked nipples, chapped hands, surface bntises, 
and things of a like nature. 

ARSEXICt Tfjt far,^\* Xit, Ba,Miiva&Xh. t«c- 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY XVANTS, 



ommends, fur detectiiii; small quantities of ar- 
senic, the suspected body to be iriluratcd with 
from 3 to 6 times itb amount of iron ftlings, 
which have been exposed to a red heat, and arc 
known to be free from arsenic, and heating the 
mixture on charcoal in the rcdudng Hame of the 
blow-pipe. Even with the smallest quantity of 
ar&enic, the odor, at least, is disengaged.— 2. A 
new and very delicate test fur arsenic has been 
discovered by DettcDdorff'. Its sensibility is so 
great tliat it is said to be capable of detecting i 
part of arsenic in a million parts of solutioDi and 
the presence of antimony dues not affect it. In 
order to apply this test, the arsenious or arsenic 
1ic|uid is mixed with atjueous hydric chloride 
(hydrochloric acid) until fumes are apparent; 
thereupon stannous chloride is added, which 
produces a bassic precipitate containing the 
greater part of the arsenic as metal, mixed with 
stannic oxide. 

ALTERATIVE {for Purifying the Blood.) 
— Sarsaparilla, 12 oz. ; guoiocum shavings, 6 
oz. ; winter-green leaf, 4 oz. ; sassafras ^root 
bark| 4 oz. ; elder flowers, 4 oz ; yellow dock, 
3 oz. ; burdock root, 4 oz. ; dandelion root, 6 
oz. ; bitter-sweet root, 3 oz. ; all bruised ; place 
these ingredients in a suitable vessel, and add i 
pint of ftlcohol, with water suf5cient to cover the 
whole liandsomely. Set them in a moderately 
warm place for 3 or 4 days, pour off l pint of 
the tincture and set it aside, until you odd wa- 
ter to the ingredients and boil to obtain the full 
strength ; pour off, add more water, and -boil 
again ; then boil the 2 waters down to i quart ; 
strain, and add the liquor first poured ofT, and 
add 2% lbs. crashed or coffee sugar, and simmer 
to form a syrup ; when cool bottle and seal up 
for use. Dose — i to 2 tablespoonfuls, according 
to the age and strength of the patient, % an 
hour before meals ana at bed-time. 

AL TERA TIVE, RHEUM A TYC— Colchi- 
cnm seed and black cohosh root, of each half an 
oz., the root to be bruised ; best rye whisky, i 
pint; put it together, and let it stand for 3 or 4 
days. DusE — From I teaspoonful to a table- 
spoonful 3 times daily before meals. 

ANODYNE, /f0EFMAN'S.~O{ sulphuric 
ether, 2 oz. ; alcohol, 4 oz., and etherial oil ^' 
of a dr. ; mix. Dose — From onc-hoU to 2 tea- 
spoonfuls, (one-half to 2 drachms, ) according to 
tne urgency or pain for which it !•■ given. 

APERIENT, MAGNESIAN EFFER- 
VESCING. — Sulphate of magnesia, 12 oz. ; 
tartaric acid, 8 oz. ; calcined magnesia, 3 oz. ; 
pure sugar, 18 oz. ; bicarbonate of soda, 6 oz. ; 
essence of lemon, 30 drops. Drv the powders 
separately, mix ana sieve them, tnen bottle se- 
curely. 2 or 3 teaspoonfu]s in water b sufficient 
for a dose. 

ASTHMA REMEDIES.— I. Elecampane 
angelica, cumfrey and spikenard roots, with hoar- 
hound (ops, of each 1 oz. ; bruise and steep in 
I pint of noney. Dose — I tablespoon fu!, taken 
hot every few minutes until relief is obtained ; 
then several limes daily until a cure is efTected. 
— 2. Oil of tar, 1 dr. ; tincture of vcrairum vir- 
ide, 2 dr. ; simple syrup, 2 dr. ; mix. Dose — 
for adults. 15 drops 3 or 4 times doily. Iodide 
of pptassium has cured a bad case of asthma by 
taking 5 pr. doses 3 limes daily. Take half an 
oz. and put into a phial, and add 32 teasnocnfuls 
of water; then I teaspoonful of it will contain 
t^cs grs., which U to be put into half a gill 



" 



more of water, and is to be drank a. short 
time before each meal. 

BALSAM, GLYCERINE.— VihUc wax and 
spermaceti, o( each I oz. ; almond oil, 8 
glycerine, 2 oz. ; otto of toses, 15 drops. ^ 

BALS^iM OF HONE y\—na.hixn of toll 
oz. ; gum storax, I dr. ; purified opium, 16 gr. ; 
best noney, 4 oz. ; rectified sj)irits of wine, C 
pint. Digest them together fur a week, and 
strain the liquor. This prescription is of great 
use in colds and habitual coughs, unaccompanied 
by feverish symptoms. The dose is from I to 3 
teaspoonfuls occisionally. 

BALSAM, INDIAN.— aeu, pale resin. 3 
lbs., and melt it, adding spirits of turpentine, t 
quart ; balsam of tolu, I 02. ; balsam of fir. 4 
oz. ; «il of hemlock, origanum, with Venice 
(nrpentine. of each, 1 oz. ; strained honey, 4 oz. 
Mix well and bottle. DosB — 6 to 12 drops, for 
an adult ; for a child of 6 years, 3 to 5 drops on 
a little sugar. The dose can be varied according 
to the ability of the stomach to bear it, and the 
necessity o( the case. This is a valuable prcpo- 
tion for coughs or internal patns. 

BALSAM, MITCHELL'S, for Bruists, 
CutSf eU. — Fenugreek seed and gum myrrh, of 
each, about i oz. ; sassafras-root bark, a good 
handful ; alcohol, i quart. Put all into a bottle, 
and keep warm for 5 days. 

BALSAM OF TOLU.—Tzkt of balsam of 
tolu, 6 oz. ; white resin, 16 oz. ; sheep's suet, 
1% oz., or sufficient to make it sofl enough, ac- 
cording to climate or season. 

BALM OF GILEAD.—T^^ fi;cnuine baUam 
of Mecca is the juice of the Amyris Gileadensis^ 
and is obtained b^ cutting the bark of the tree 
with an axe. It is both scarce and costly, and 
none of it ever reaches this country as an article 
of commerce. That which is exported Ls ob- 
tained by boiling the twigs of the balsam tree in 
water. The re^ balsam of Mecca is of a clear 
gold color, and possesses a penetrating and deli- 
cate fragrance, and a sharp, bitter, astringent 
taste. A drop let fall on the surfaee of hot wa* 
tcr spreads ilself over the whole surface, like a 
thin film of oil, and again contracts on the water 
cooling. It dissolves completelyin Catty and es- 
sential oils, which then assume the peculiar fla- 
vor of the balsam. 

BALM OF GILEAD, Imitalum.—BentcAn, 
I lb. ; yellow resin, 14 lbs. Melt, and add oil 
of lemon, 4 oz. ; oil of rosemar)', 4 oz. ; oil of 
caraway. 4 oz. ; spirit to reduce it to a proper 
consistence. 

BAEM OF A THOUSAND FLOWERS. 
— Deodorized alcohol, i pint; nice, white bar- 
soap, 4 oz. ; shave the soap when put in ; stand 
in a warm f^acc until dissolved ; then add oQ of 
dtronella, 1 dr. ; oils of ncroli and rosemary, of 
each ^ a dr. 

BALM OF BEA VTY.—^xe soft water. I 
quart ; pulverized costilc soap, 4 oz. ; emulsion 
of bitter almonds, 6 oz. ; rose and orange flower 
water, of each 8 oz. ; tincture of benzoin, 2 dr. ; 
borax, l dr. ; to use, apply on a cotton or linen 
cloth to the face, etc. 

BALLS for Remcving Grease and Paint 
Sftots fnmt Clothe eU.—YyxWcfx earth, 30 parts ; 
French chalk, I part ; yellow soap, 20 parts ; 
pearlash, 1$ parts. Make into a paste u-ith 
?«pirits of turfientine. and give it a slight color 
with a little yellow ochre, and then cut it into 
cakes. Tliis form, omitting the French diolk, is 



DRUGGIST AND CHEMIST, 



«$ 



Hue wkich u so very generally sold about ihe 
rtieeb. 

BALLS, CAMPHOR {/or Chapped Ilaniij, 
A)— I. Spennocctt, white wax, each Ji oz. ; 
ilnond oil. i oz. ; alkanet to color. Melt. 
itnin, and add J drs. of powdered camphor. — 
2. Lsrd, wajc. and almond or olive oil, eaual 
pirtt, with a little powdered camphor. Used to 
reb over [he hands ifier washing to prevent 
duK. 

BALMOyy HERB,— This is a tonic and 
luative, and is employed to good advantage in 
JMUtdict, dyspepsia, diseases of the liver, loss of 
«PP«tite, and eencral debility. 

BAKDOIJNE, A CompentHd for SUff^mng 
Ai ffatr. — I. (Quince seed. ^ of a teaspoonful ; 
liinced, 1 tablcspoonful, and a pinch of white 
■ittstard »erd. Boil in a pint of loft water to 
^f a pint, and scent with oil of almonds. — 2. 
Jw^Ms, I ox. ; water, I pint ; proof spirit, 3 
Mw^w. Dissolve the isinglass in the water by 
■tttaddthe spinl, and scent with almond oil. 
-•> Tragacanih, I 02. ; rose water, I pint. 
Bnuicthc cum, digest for 3 days, and strain. 

Any of these may be colored with cochineal, 
afqoired. 

BANDOLINE, ROSE.— Gyxm traeacanth. 

* M. ; rose-water, i gaL ; otto of roses, }^ of 
■■*». Sleep the gum in the water for a day or 
**• .\s it swells and forms a thick, aelntinous 
■J"i it must from time to lime be wcU agitated. 
'W atx>ut 48 hours' maceration it is to be 
■Rifeied through a coarse, dean linen cloth, and 
JPw left to stand for a few days, and ^scd 
'"^gh a linen doth a second time, to msurc 
^U^oraaity of consistency ; when this is the case 
•wotto of rose is to be thoroughly incorporated 

-fl-^^A". AMERICAN POPLAR.— \ tea 
f** of (his l>ark is very useful in cases of de- 
r'Tv^^periiWy those of long standing, and also 
J* J^lc digctlion, worms, and a diseased con- 
'■™' of the urinary organs. Consumptive 
551* '^^^'^ received great benefit from its em- 

**<*A; ir/LD CHERRY.— The bark of 

* *'« and kernels of the cherry contain a 
^yeal eTprassic acid, to which their raetlici- 
■" ^vtecs are to be attributed. The bark is a 
Jjypoweffttl antiseptic, and is very useful in 
■* Prejnratiom of dcatrifice. It is also useful 
° ^Unrhea, Jaundice, and for worms. Gener- 
"'y Ukcn in mfaskm, an oz. of the powder to a 
jy ^ bttiling water. 'I*hc cherries aUo are 
■Jj in racrfrdne, and may be employed with or 
**iO«l peach 'kern els. They are useful as a 
JJcand a remedy for indiprstion, and particu- 
Wy as a restorative for convalescents from 
Y^oAery. Mode in a syrup, or bruised and 
|Wwi In decoction. 

SARA'S, T» Preservf. — Barks may be coo- 

^^enioUy preserved by placing them in coarse 

bags, and nanging them up, in a 

airy situation, until all extraneous mois- 

wMkorated. 

ttuM. — This is a spirit distilled over 

of Myrdacris, and perhaps, also some 

of the same ^mut. The trees 

Ihe West India Islands, and the gcnu- 

nim ia imported from there into this 

It is made elsewhere, sometimes, by 

_ Ifee ttnrture of bay leaves, 5 02., oil of, 

fay« I 4r.| bictfbonate of ammonia, 1 oz., bo- ! 



■ndairv < 




rax, 1 o£., rote-water, 3 pintii. Mix and filter 
carefully. 

SEARS' GREASE {A tii/uiaL)— Vicars' 
grease is imitated by a mixture of prepared veal 
t>uet and beef marrow. It may be scented at 
pleas ttre, 

SITTERS, AGUE.—Qxxxnixic, 40 grs, ; cap- 
sicum, 30 ^5. ; doves, ^ oz. ; cream of tartar, 
I oz.; wlufikey, 1 pint; mix. Dose — 1 to 3 
tablespoonfuls every 3 hours, beginning 8 hours 
before the chill comes on, and 3 times daily. 

BITTERS^ Cathartu and TonU. — best rye 
whiskey, and water, of each I quart; best un* 
ground Peruvian bark, Colombo root and prickly 
ash berries, of each 3 oz. ; prickly ash, block 
cherry and poplar barks, of each I oz. ; poke- 
root, mandrake -root, and cloves, of each y^ an 
oz ; all to be the dry articles, and all to be pul- 
verized before they are put into the spirits; tney 
shouM be well t^hi^en every day for a week, by 
which time the bitters will be ready for use. 
Dose — i to 3 tablespoonfuls at morning and 
evening meals. 

BITTERS, BLACKBERRY.— Tht berry, 
when ripe, is known to he pleasant and whole* 
some, and 3 handsful of the root, in 3 pints of 
milk or water, boiled down to a (juart, in the 
dose of a tcacupful every 3 or 3 hours, has often 
cured diarrhea and dysentery when otber things 
have failed. 

BLADDERS, PREPARED.— Cnt off the 
loose fat. wash in a weak solution of chloride of 
lime, and rinse in clear water. When drying, 
blow them tight and keep them expanded. Usn] 
to lie over jars, pots, etc, and to contain pow- 
dered pigments. 

BLISTERING TISSUE.— K solution of 
cantfaorides is made in alcohol, acetic add. or 
ether, strained and evaporated to an extract, 
which is then mixed with twice its weight of 
wax, and spread on silk or thin paper. 

BLOOD, Tests /»r.— Iodide of potassium 
dissolves traces of blood, even from clothing 
which has l>een thoroughly washe<l, but hx-min 
crystals cannot be obtained from the solution. 

Gunning has discovered, in the acetate of zinc, 
a reagent that precipitates the slightest traces of 
the coloring matter of blood from solutions, even 
where the Hquids are so dilute as to be colorless. 
Blood, washed from the hands in a pail of water, 
can readily he detected in this way. The floc- 
culeat precipitate, thrown down by the acetate of 
zinc, must be washed by decanlation, and finally 
collected on a watch glass, ai^ allowed to dry, 
when the microscope will reaidily reveal hxmrn 
crystals, if any bloixl be present. Tliis test has 
been repeatedly tried, with entire success. 

A lately discovered method consists in the ap- 
plication of tincture of guaiacum and ozonized 
ether, which produces a l>eauliful blue tint with 
blood or Mood-stains. This test is excessively 
delicate. Ozonized ether is merely a solution of 
per-oxidc of hydrogen in ether. 

BLOOM OF ROSES.— i>tTon^ liquid am- 
monio, }4 ^^' '* finest carmine, ^ oz. ; rose- 
water, I pint ; triple extract of roses, ^ oz. 
Put the carmine into a pint bottle, and pour the 
ammonia on it ; allow them to remain together, 
with occasional aritation, for 3 davs ; then add 
the rnsc-water ana esprit, and well mix. Place 
the bottle in a quiet situation for a week ; anv 
precipitate of impurities from the carmine wiU 
subside ; the supHenuLiaat Bloom of roses U tjbsa 



66 



DiCTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



to be bottled. If Ihr* cannioc was pcrfectlv 

pare there would be no precipitate ; nearly aU 
the carmine purchascii from the maker* is more 
or less sophistical e<t« ila enorlnaus price being a 
premium to its aduUeratioo. 

SLOOAf, ALAfOA'D.—^ml I ot. of Bnuil 
wood in 3 pints of water for 15 minutes ; strain, 
add % of an oi, of isingla&s. ^ of an 01. of 
cochineal, I oz. of alum, and % of an ox. of bo- 
ru; dissolve by heat, and strain. 

BLl'E FLAG. — Blue flag grows by the brink 
of rivers, and in (wamps and meadows. It 
blossoms in July, and has blue flowers, varie- 
gated with wnite, yellow, and purple. A tea- 
spoonful of the juice, diluted wilh writer, is an 
active cathartic, and the decoction f>^r constant 
drink is used in venereal complainLs. 

BROMIDE OFPOTASS/OAf, iU Prepofa- 
iioH. — The commercial bromide of potassium is 
▼cry rarely pure. The Impurities consist prin- 
cipitlly of chloride of potassium, (up to 30 p. c-,) 
sulphate of uotASsa, (up to 3.3 p c,) free or car- 
bonate of alkali, (up to 4 per c.,) iodide of po- 
tassium, and bromate of r-otassa. It is impos- 
tible to produce from such a mixture, by simple 
operations, a perfectly pure article, and the puri- 
fication of the bromine employed to this end is 
tendered necessary. Tliis is effected best by 
fthflkmg the commercial bromine with water and 

a litll(* ^fh*-r 

TIj f bromine, being easily soluble 

.in eiii' ved, and, by the agency of the 

vatcf, coti , hydrochloric acid and bro- 

mine. By ' this way several times, 

each time I' ' aqueous solution, chlo- 

rine maylx nlirtly from the bromine. 

Shaking (he itmg bromine with a little 

starch pahte, which removes the iodine, and dis- 
tilling It, an article is obtained free from chlorine 
and iodine. This is dissolved in a solution of 
ustic potxssa, free from sulphuric and hydro- 
acid, and the resulung hqunr, a mixture 
ide of pQtas'vi\im with bromate of potas- 
rated to drynes.s and ignited. The mass 
then' dissolved in water and cryslalHrcd, when 
ill be of sufiidem purity to scrse for all med- 
kal purposes. 

Kobicrrc and Herbclln recommend a method 
by which bromide of potassium may be freed 
frfim iodine. They dissolve it to this end in 
very little water, add gradually bromine water, 
anti beat the soluli'm to Ixiiling. After each ad- 
dition of bromine water, the fluid is tested with 
,atarch paper, which will indicate tlic di^appear- 
ice of the iodine by not turning blue. An ex- 
;$ of bromine must be avoided. Bromine wlU 
lisplacc iodine in all its compounds. The solu- 
ion is then evaporated to dryness, and the dry 
F-ttass re -crystallized. 

SJfOtVA'S BRONCHIAL TROCHES.— 
[Take I lb. of pulverized extract of licorice, \% 
[9>s- of pulverised sugar, 4 ox. of pulvcrizeij cu- 
;bs. 4 o£. of pulvciizcd gum Arabic, and I ot. 
)ulvrri2cd extract of conium. Mix. 
=f; 'A' /^C^CA'.— Burdock operates jrrntly on 
ti -.wectens the blood, p( 

ind i-* used in rheum , 
;ft>iiij;i, ;itid venereal diseases, l'<-'!?j. — vk inc 
tice, a wine-gl-issful ; of ihe decoction, Imlf a 
int t times a <{3v. 

CADAVER, 'Preteirdtitm a/.— According to 
*yi. Deircrgie, of the Paris School of Practical 
AjiMiumy, a mixture of 3 ports of glycerine and 



1 of carboUc acid, injected into dead bodies, 
prevent any unpleasant odor emanaiing 
them for several montlis. 

CAMPHOR, Tc Ptiix'ftii^.—Takt aa 

2 Oi. ; alcohol, 3 oz. ; water sufhcieot ; 
nate of magnesia, i drachm. Dissolve tJic 
phor in the alcohol >«i(h the aid of beat andj 
tcr. kub Ihe roegrtesix carb<jnas with wi 
mix with the solution, and catch on a hller; 
the mass before the sun, and pass through 
sieve No. 60. 

CAMPHOR /rv?.— Spermaceli. i^ >«.; 
gum camphor, 3|j of an o/. ; nit *>i «weet 
almonds, 4 leafpoonsful; set on tli 
earthenware disn till ilissolvcd ; he. 1 

to dissolve it. >\hilc warm poLc ^u..... 

moulds, then parwr, and put into tinft^I; used 
for chaps on hands and lips. 

CARBOAATE OR M 

f>hate of magnesia, 4 lbs. ; c 
l«. 9 oz. ; boiling, distilled wiui, j; 
Dissolve separately the carbonate and t 
in 2 gallons of water ; filter and mix. I 
s>lir lor 2 hours, adding distilled watn 
quired ; pour off the fluid, uakh the ] 
with boilmg, distilled water, and dry it. 

CARMfNATIVE, DALBV^S.-^ui^Ult 

01 magnesia, 2 scruples; oil of r- ' 
drop; oil of nutmeg. 2 drops; oil 

drops; tincture of castor, 30 drop** ; 

assaforiida, 15 drops; tincture cif opium, $ 
drops; spirit of pennyroyal, 15 drops; com- 
pound tincture of cardamons, 30 drops ; pcp> 
pcrmint water, 2 oz. Mix. 

CARM/AE. — I lb. of powdered (ochineal u 
boiled in a tin or cnnineled vesi^rl for 2 hours 
with g^ ^llons of rain or ice water 
saltpetre is then added, and 4 minutes 

2 or. of bfen«.c:ila!e of potai^n. ih'* wh< 
kept b : 
small ' 



Ibc latlcr u|/cr;iliuii rctfuiiKS fecreml 
The sediment, which ought to Xtc pure 
is then dried in the shsdc. 

CATHARTIC SYRVP.-^t^X 
lot.; biiticmui, tlic in'>-' ' -"i- ■■'" ♦>«• i 
dried and bruiiivd, 2 uz. ; 1 

fennel seed, t ci.\ si- < (cr. 

pints ; ■ 
water, c 
then slrnin, : 
the sugar, ai> 
form the iyn-i i- ■■ 
any case, incrcisc the !• 
mint leafc Uo^e — 1 t.i' 
or less often, if the Uhn ' 

CATAPLASM, T; 
Mecca, 6 drs ; 
red bark, sai 

saffron. *,' i I 

I-'- 



1. on ihc ftttfiMjc 



KL - . 

nrr as jmre i 

to produce a 

cisary that the in4;:ciUiiiiis Lc piui 



•^RUGGTST AMD CHRMTST. 



67 



CAUSTIC^ VelpiaiCs Blttck.^Xx\X.\xx7X*t'\n a 
:lain mortar 30 grtimmes (wwdcred licorice 
t, and add sulphuric acid in smoU quantities, 
onlQ a m^^\ of suitalilc consistence is obtained* 
which must be neither too hard nor too liquid. 

CERA TE, CAAfP//OR.— Fresh hog^ lard, 
}% 01. ; grated camphor, l oz. Dissolve the 
iutl bv boiling water round a cup ; then gradu- 
1U7 aod the camphor ; stir well, and when cool- 
inepour off the sediment. 

CERATE OF ACETATE OF LEAD.— 
FtMrdered ftjcetate of lead, 5 drachms ; white 
»», 5 ox. ; olive oil, i pinL Dissolve the wax 
in 18 02. of the oil ; add to this the lead mixed 
*ith the remainder of the oil, and stir with a 
luiula until they are thoroughly mixed. Ap- 
plied to bums, excoriations, irritable ulcers* and 
WTK cenerally. 

CERATE OF CANT//ARfDES.^Oai- 
tllirides nibbed to fine powder, I oz. ; sperma- 
otti cerate, 6 oz. Melt the cerate, and add the 
cutharides. Employed to promote the dis- 
dur^e from a blistered surface 

CERATE OF LEAD, Ctffli/Wx/W.— Solution 
^ diicrtatc of lead, 6 oz. ; wax, 8 01. ; olive 
^ I pint ; camphor, i drachm. Mix the wax, 
*hta melted, with 16 02, of the oil, and when 
*i>rfng add the lead ; stir until cool, and then 
wd the ramphor dissolved in tlic rest of the oil, 
tifd as the former lead cerate. 

CHARCOAL OF IP'OOD.— In 15 or 16 cases 
ofobninate constii>alion of the bowcU, Dr r>an- 
Wi of Georgia, administered 3 tabic spoonfuls of 
pMveriicd charcoal ever)* *4 hour, and in about 
17 fiours the bowels were freely evacuated. It 
ttUoir, but sure. A tablcspoonful 2 or 3 times 
<<li]rwill remove costiveness. In smaller doses 
^pofrec«^ bfifl breath, and also prevents putrid 
i from the stomach. It is a very 
f J, or anti-mortiticalion remedy. 

7/A -w.. FREPARED.—h'n^hmadQ 

'Wcoal in fine powder, 7 IV^. ; prepared chalk, 
1 ax • orris root, 1 Tb. ; catechu, yi lb. ; cassia 
wV. W lb. ; m\TTh, <^ lb. SifL 

CffA.\fOMlLE.—h. warm decoction of the 
'^**Tn in large quantities will act as an emetic ; 
M ttiitll doses, taken cold, it Is an excellent tonic 
■^Wrtngthen the stomach. 

CHERRY PECTORAL, .-/ K/-"v?»^.— Take 

<.r^rn; of acetate of morphia, 2 fluid drachms 

- i>f blood-rout, 3 fluid drachms each 

>I wine and wine of ipecaciuuiho, and 

•» ' 1 ' hcrry. Mix. 

^/ rrn.^tcd lime, A lb.; 

^■1 ,-,.... .....t..-, 10 pinu; diloride 

^^ '--cs, 1 drachm. Put the mixed 

^' :lo a rcturl ; add ihc spirit so 

V}*' only one-third of the retort. 

'^' bath, and when ebullition com- 

J*"^';- ,11 unci; withdr.t ' ' lest the retort 

**« bfolcen. Let the :i into the re- 1 

2^, while heating _. . ind 

J*! ^un when neceisary, T" the 
S*jd«dd one-fourth of the water, and mu well. 
rJJ^flrte Ibe heavier jiortiun, which !>ab^iile«, 
** "dd the chloride to it ; frequently shake du- 
rn^ivt.- . , -^ »,.dictil1 from a gUs» re- 

Prof. Nu^isbaum has sif- 
m prolongmg the anxslhcsia induced hy 
Srm, by the sub-cutaneous injection of a 
containing I grain of acetate of morphia. 
ate the patient slept 12 hours, and uu- 



anplving 
dish Dec) 



dcrwent a painful operation without experiencing 
any sensation whatever. The injection, per- 
formed without th(i previous inhalation of cnlo- 
roform, produced no such effect. 

CHLORODYNE, J. Ct>//ts Brmtmf'i.—Bunt 
sugar, 1 drachm ; hydrochloratc of morphia. ^ 
grain ; diiitilled w.iter, 2 drachms ; oil of pep- 
permint, 6 minims; diluted prussicacid, (Th. L.) 
S minims; tine, capsicum, 7 minims; chloro- 
form, I drachm. Mix. 

C/fOLAGOGC/£. LVD/A .--Qmamc, zogr. ; 
Peruvian bark, (pulverized,) I oz. ; tartaric acid, 
I scruple ; brandy, I gill ; water enough to 
make I pint. Dose — 5 to.ispoonfuls every 2 
hours, in the absence of fever. 

CHLORAL, HYDRA TE OF— The use of 
this new remedy, either as nn anodyne, a seda- 
tive, or a hj*pnotic, has, at this writmg, become 
very prevalent, and there is danger tnat not a 
little harm may result therefrom. Kmincnt phy- 
sicians say that it aggravates many diseases — as 
rhcmnatism and skin diseases — and causes irri- 
tation of the mucus surfaces of the nose and 
throaL It also causes dimness of sight. One 
case is reported where a man took nn over-dose, 
slept for 24 hours, and, on awaking, found his 
legs and arms paralyzed. Its effects ore, of 
course, vArious in different individuals. A pe- 
culiar diagnostic sign of its cflecls i<; a black 
streak on the tongue, like thirt. caused by ink, 
extending its whole length in the cenlre. 

For these reasons its use should be discarded, 
espcdaJly so bccauiie the habit of using it, when 
once formed, is exceedingly hard to break off, 
and attempts to do so have resulted in symptoms 
not unlike those of delirium tremens. 

It hai been found on trial to be an excellent 
suppurative J^nt. According to the lime it is 
left on the skin, it becomes a perfect ritbefacient, 
irritant, suppurative, or even escharoiic. The 
mode of application is to take n piece of fresh 
adhesive plaster, of the sire -\\nn(<-d, and crash 
fine, on its surface, with an ivory ■^pnfiit.i. en-'ti^h 
of the crvstaU of the chloral to irons • ■ r 

of adhesive plaster quite evenly; e 

of the spatula to take off the chlonl i* 

more than a mere dust in thickncs , 
ute evenly, leaving '-^ of an inch m i- 

hesion; bMt the back of the plast ^- 

stant only, and apply. Leave it on m 

hour as a rubemcioit, 6 hours as an irritant. 
To produce sffppnntion, pot ihe chloral on the 
plaster in larger quantities, and leave on from 
24 to 36 hours ; on its withdrawal api>ly a stimu- 
lating salve, and afterwards heal with cerate. 
For an cscharot ic effect apply the chloral, thickly 
spread, and afier 13 hours repent the application, 
if necessary. 

COAL-GAS, DeUctum 0/ SHfpkur m.'-'T^t 
presence of sulphur in coal-gai can be proved >n 
the following simple manner; Let <a platinum 
l^asin be filled with half a litre of water, and 
the Itasin be faeatcd over a Bunsen burner until 
all the liquid has evaporated ; the basin will be 
tuund to be coatetl mi tlte outside, where it has 
been strtick by the flame, with a dirty, greasy- 
looking substance, whit.li, un l>einfi washed off 
with pure disiilU'd water and tested proves to be 
sulphuric ati'J. The glass cliimiicys used with 
Argand gas-hurncn soon become coated over 
internally with a white substance, which, on be- 
ing washed off with distilled water, will be 
found to be, on testing, sulpbatc q( ttccucoLO^i^a. 



A 



DICTTOr^ARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



K 



le glass panes of a room wherein gas is 
burned for a few evenings consecutively will, 
when rubbed with the Angers of a clean hand, 
impart to it a substance which, on the hand be- 
ing rinsed in distilled v-ater, will yield a precip- 
itate of siilphnte of t>aryta with chloritlc of ba- 
rium, and a brick-red precipitate with potassio- 
lodidc of mercury. • 

COLORS, DRUGGISTS'.-^YfUine.—T^z 
iron filings, hydrochloric acid to dissolve. Di- 
lute with water. Red. — Solution of snl ammo- 
nine, ccKrhineol to color. Blue. — l. Sulphate of 
copper, I port; alum, I part; water, lo parts; 
oil of vitriol, q. s. — 2. Indigo, l part; oil of 
vitriol, 3 parts. Dis!>olve, and then dilute with 
water. Grten. — \. Verdigris; dilute sulphuric 
acid to dissolve. Dilute with water. — 3. Ver- 
<Ugris. I part ; acetic acid, 3 part», Dissolve, 
Bnd dilute with water. PurfU. — 1. Sagar-of- 
lead, I oz. ; cochineal, 25 grains. — i. Infusion 
of logwood, water of ammonia, q. s. 

L'OMF-KEY. — Comfrey Imilcd in milk is ex- 
cellent in dysentery and bowel complaints, im- 
moderalc courses, and other diseases. It is 
beneficial in all cases attended with burning 
heat in urinary evacuations. A poultice of the 
pounded root is good for wounds and inflomma- 
I lory swellings. 

COTTON fin' Staunching Hem0rfhage—\K 
flew preparation.)— American cotton of the best 

gualily should be cleansed by boiling it for an 
our in a weak solution of soda, (about 4 per 
cent.,) then repeatedly washed in cold water, 
resscd out ana dried, liy this process it will 
perfectly disinfecieil, and ad«pled to more 
ready absorption. AOcr this it should also be 
•tecped once or twice, according to the degree of 
•trcngth required, in liquid chloride of iron, di- 
luted with y^ water, presssed. and thoroughly 
dried in the air — neither in the sun nor by tlic 
fire — then lightly pulled out The cotton so 
prepared will be of a yeltowish-brovm color . i t 
vast be kept very dry, as it ijt aflected by the 
damp. Lint may be similarly treated, but the 
fine texture of the cotton renders it preferable. 
Vhen placed on a fresh wound, it causes a mod- 
erate contraction of the tissue, and gradually 
coagulates the blood in and beyond the injured 
veins, thus closing the source of the effusion. 
Tliis property of the chloride of iron is increased 
by the dryness of the cotton and the extended 
surface offered for the development of the chem- 
ical action, 

CORDIAL, GO/}FR£Y'S.SMiaAM, 6 
oz; seeds of coriander, cmrmwoy. and anise, of 
•adi I oz. ; infuse in 6 pints of water ; simmer 
the mixture till reduced to 4 pints, and then odd 
6 Ills, of molasses; boil a lew minutes; when 
cold, odd 3 fluid oz. of tincture of opium. 

CORDIAL, 6'06'7:— Rhubarb. I o/.; senna 
and red sanders, of each 1 drachms ; coriander 
and fennel se«U, of each I drachm; saffron and 
licorice, of each % drachm ; stoned raisins, 6 
oz. ; proof spirit, 48 oz. ; macerate for 14 days, 
express and filter. Dose— ^ to 1^ oz. 

COUGH CANDY, A/rduateJ.—To 5 lbs. of 
candy just ready to pour on the slab, add the 
following mixture, and form it into sticks : Tinc- 
ture of squills, 2 02. ; camphorated tincture of 
€kpium ana tincture of tolu, of each % oz. ; wine 
(H ipecac, )( oz, ; oih of ^aultheria, 4 drops ; 
tassofras, 3 drops, and of anise seed oil, 2 drops. 
Vae this Irccly in commoa coughs. 



COUCH COAfPOUNL>—VQT the cure of 
coughs, colds, asthma, whoojnng cough, and aH 
diseases of the lungs : i spoonful of common 
ta'^i 3 spoonfuls of honey, the yelks of 3 hen's 
eggs, and Knlf a pint of wine; beat the tar, the 
eggs, nnd the honey welt together with a knife, 
and bottle for use. A teaspoooful every mom* 
ing, noon and night, before eating. 

COUR7^RLAS7'I^R,'-'iQak bruised isingUss 
in a little warm water for 34 hours, then evapo> 
rate nearly all the water by gentle heat; dis> 
solve the residue in a little proof spirits of wine, 
and strain the whole through a piece of open 
linen. The strained mass should be a stiff jelly 
when cool. Now extend a piece of silk on a 
wooden frame, and hx it tight with tacks or |iack 
thread. Melt the jelly, and apply to ihc silk 
thinly and evenly with a badger hair brush. 

A second coating must be applied when the 
first has drictl. When both arc dry. cover the 
whole surface with coalings of balsam of Vera, 
applied in the some way. Piaster thus mode is 
very pliable, and never breaks. 

CREAM, COLD.— Oil of almonds, 4 ox.; 
white wax and spermaceti, of each 3 drachms i 
melt ; add ro%c water, 4 oz. ; orange-flower wa- 
ter, 1 oz. Used to soften the skin. 

CREAM, COLD, l70L£T.~.\\mond oil, 
^ lb, : oil of cossie, X 1^* i ^°^^ water, i Ib^ ; 
sperm, I oz. ; wax, I ox. ; otto of almonds, X 
drachm. 

CREAM. CIRCASSIAN.— OYivccn^ 1 pint ; 
white wax, 3 oz. ; spermaceti, 2 oz. ; alxanet 
root, *4 <*'• Warm the oU and olkanet, then 
strain, and add it to the melted spermaceti and 
wax. .Scent with 3 drachms of English oil of 
lavender, and i drachm of essence of amber- 
gris. Used for the hair. 

CREAM, CRYSTALLINE.— OMvt oil. X 
lbs. ; spermaceti, 4 to 6 02. ; melt, cool, and add 
essence of bergarootle and essence of lemon, of 
each 6 drachms ; oil of cinnomon, 30 drops ; 
olio of rose, I drachm. Mix. Fragrant. Used 
for the hair. 

CREAM, SNA T/A'C— While wax, sperm- 
aceti, and almond oil, of each % oz. ; and while 
warm beat in 3 squares of W indsor soap* pre* 
viously reduced lo a paste with rose water. 

CREAM OF ROSES.— Oil of almonds, l 
lb. ; rose water, I pint ; white wax and sperm- 
aceti, each I oz. Mix in a pipkin with a Uttle 
heat, then add essence of neroh, 20 drops ; otto 
of roses, 15 drops. Put it into pols, and tie it 
over with skin or oiled leather. 

CEPHALIC SNUFF.~u Asarabac« leaves 
(dried.) 3 parts; marjoram and lavender fiow* 
ers, of (^cn I part. Mix in fine powder. — 3. 
(Boeli's.) Valerian and snuff, of each 3 drs. ; 
oil of lavender and oil of marjoram, of each 3 
drops. Mix. 

DANDELION.— A decocdon of dandelioa 
will correct an unhealthy state of the stomach 
and liver, and procure an appetite. It is diu- 
retic, and very oeneAcial in jaundice. Given in 
the form of extract, in from 3 to 5 groin doses, 3 
times a day, and continued for a I'^ng time, it 
has the happiest effect upon the liver when its 
diiicasc has assumed a chronic form. The best 
way of preparing it, is to gather the roots in 
August and September, press out the juice, and 
evaporate in shallow dishes exposed to a dry, 
warm air. 
DENTIFRICE, Cimujaw.— Prepared harta- 



DRUGGIST Al^D CHEMIST. 



I 
I 



llOTii* 3 oe. ; sulphate of potash, 3 02. ; cuttle- 
fish bone, 8 oz. ; orris root, 4 oz. \ yellow san- 
dal wood, I 0£. ; rtne pink, 3 oz. ; oil of rho- 
dium, 30 drops. Mix the powdered ingredients, 
and add the rhodium. 

DENTIFRICE, .1/yrr*.— Myrrh, I o*. ; 
cuttle-fish bone, 4 oz. ; orris, 3 02. Mix. 

DEXTIFRICE, Cartwnghfj.—Ot prepared 
dz^k, I ox. ; orris, I oz. ; castilc soap. I drachm. 
DENTIFRICE, CamphomUd.—Vxcc\\i\\9Mn\ 
e^aJk. I lb. ; powdered orris root, % lb, ; pow- 
dered camphor, \L lb. 

DENTIFRICE, Charroa/.^Ytcsh charcoal 
in fine powder, 7 lbs. ; prepared chalk, I lb. ; 
orris root, I lb. ; catechu, 1 lb. ; cassia bark, 1 
lb. ; mrrrh, '^ lb. Sift. 

DENTIFRICE, Cuttfe /•»>*.— Powdered 
cuttle fish, I lb. : prectpilatcd chalk, 1 lb. ; jx>w- 
dcxed orris, I lb. ; otto of lemons, 1 ounce ; ot- 
to of ncroli, I drachm. 

pEF/l.-t /'ORIES.-~r)vpi\AXory is a term 
which is applied to any application that removes 
hair from tbc human skin. Depilatories* act 
either mechanically or chemically. To the first 
belong adhesive plasters, that on their removal 
from the skin bnng away the hair with them ; 
equal parts of pitch and resin Iiave been used 
for this purpose. To the second class belong 
those substances which act upon the bulbous 
roots of the hairs, and destroy their vitality. 
Tlie former method ts more painful, but less 
dangerous, than the latter one. The following 
arc the principal depilatories at present employed 
in the ti-shionablc world: l. {l}f/croij:'s PotuJrc 
Su&t*U.) — Orpiment, I pari ; finely powdered 
oaickltme and starch, of each 1 1 parts ; mix. It 
should be kept from the air. tor use, make it 
into a paste with a little warm -n-aler, and apply 
it to the part, previoui^ly shaved close. As soon 
as it has become thoroughly dry, it may be 
Wftshcd off with a little warm water. 2. (On- 
fMtal Rusma. ) — (Quicklime, 2 oz. ; orpiment, 
^ OL. ; strong alkaline lye, t lb. ; boil together 
until a feather dipj}cd into it loses its flue. It is 
applied to the skin, previously soaked in warm 
WBter, by gentle friction, for a very short time, 
flowed by washing with warm water. This is 
<me of the most certain and powerful depilato- 
ries made, but rapidly loses its strength unless 
kept in a well-sloppcrcd glass bottle. 3. {Chi- 
meg* i3r'/wii/(»7'.)— Quicklime, 1 lb. ; pearlash 
aad sulphurec of pota.ssium. of each 2 ox. ; re- 
duce them to a fine (lowdcr, and keep it in well- 
oorked bottles. Use like Poudrc Subtile. 4. 
{Rmjkt'm /?r/i/rtfory.)— Lime, I oz. ; carbonate 
hi p9t3L»h. 2 ot. ; charcoal nowder. I drachm. 
Thu and No. 3 are preferred by those persons 
who do not approve of the use of xirsenic. 5. 
^D^iiaigry Pastf.) — (Quicklime, I 01.; orpi- 
aod oi^s root, of each 3 drachms; salt- 
and sulphur, of each 1 drachm ; soap-lccs, 
i friot ; evaporate to a proper consistence. It 
mfd be kept from the air. 
DR. A'lTTR EDGE'S REMED Yfer RJkfu- 
QMti Shff yeinft. — Strong camphor spir- 
I ^int ; ncat<-faot, coon, bear, or skunk's 
I imc ; spirits of turpentine, i pint. Shake 
Mble when used, and apply 3 times daily, 
ftjrpovrins ^" ^ little at a time, and rubbing in 
aU ton GUI for 30 to 30 minutes. 

DR, PEABODY'S CURE fir Nmral^na 
(tmeraal Remedy.)— Sal ammoniac, si drachm; 
w hwJ tg m water, 1 oz. Dose — t ta(>lcspoonful 



every 3 minutes for ao minutes, at the end of 
wliich time, if not before, the pain will have 
disappeared. 

DROPS OF LIFE, ^r/^nTj.— Gum opium, 
I oz. ; gum kino, i drachm ; gum camphor, 40 
grains; powdered nutmegs I ox. ; French brandy 
or Jamaxa spirits, i pint; color with cochineal 
or saffron. Before taking cleanse the Ijowels 
with castor oil. Kor a grown person 20 to 40 
drops 3 or 4 times per day. ?or children, 4 lo 
6 drops ; adnunister in a Uttle warm mini lea, in 
which IK mixed as much prepared chalk as will 
lie on the handle of a teaiipoon. 

DROPS, IMPERIAL, far Gravd and Kid- 
Hey Complainti. — Oil of origanum, I oz. ; 01] of 
hemlock, % oz. ; oil of sassafras, ^ ok. ; oil of 
anise, i oz. ; alcohol, i pint; mu. Dose — i 
leaspoonful 3 times a day, m sweetened water; 
this will soon give relief when constant weak- 
ness is felt across the small of the bock, as well 
as gravelly affections causing pain about the kid- 
nev«. 

DROPS, DirRETIC—Oil of cubebs, 1 oz; 
sweet spirits of nitre, I oz. ; balsam of copaiba, 
1 oz. ; Harlem oil, 1 bottle; oil of lavender. 30 
drops ; spirits of turitentine, 20 drops ; mii. 
Dose — 10 to 25 drops, as the stomach will bear, 
3 limes daily. 

DROPS, PECTORAL (Bateraan's.)— Pare- 
goric, 10 0£. ; tincture of castor, 4 oz. ; lauda*- 
nam, I oz. ; tincture of saffron, 1 oz. ; oil of an- 
iseed, 15 drops. Mix. Dose — 1 tcaspoonful in 
case of C3ughs or coUls. 

DROPS, DUTCH {oT Harlem. )— Take bal- 
sam of turpentine, 2 ox. ; oil of tur{>cntine, to 
oz. Mix. 

EAU DE C/^>7»^£.— Extract of musk, I 
pint ; ambergris, vantlla, tonquin bean, orris, of 
eodi half a pml; trijile extract of rose, 2 pints. 
The mixture thus formed is one of the most 
lasting odors that can be made. 

EA U DE BOTOT, for the 7>rM.— Tincture 
of cedar wood, I pint ; tincture of myrrh, I ojt. j 
oil of peppermint, half a drachm; oil of spear- 
mint, halt a drachm ; oil of cloves, 10 drops ; 
oil of rosea, 10 drops. Mix. 

EAU POUR LES Z>.£',Vr.S.— Cinnamon, % 
ounces ; cloves, 6 drachms ; fresh lemon peel, 2 
ounces ; dried rose petals, I ounce ; scurvy 
grass, 8 ounces ; spirits, 3 pounds ; macerate, 24 
hours, and distil in a water-bath. 

EA UDE MILLEFLEURS.—&\>\x\l of cum- 
min seed, oils of sassafras and rosemary, of each 
10 drops ; oil of lavender, and otto of roses, of 
eadi 2 drachms ; ncroli, half a drachm ; oils of 
pimento and doves, of each 20 drops ; essence 
of bergamotte, 4 drachms; oil of orange, z 
drachm; essence of lemon. 8 ounces ; Toniila, I 
f^cruplc ; elder-flower water, 4 ounces; rectified 
spirit, 30 ounces ; mix and filter. 

EAU DE BOUQUET,— \. Spirit of rose- 
mary and essence of violets, of each 1 ounce; 
essence of bcrgamotte and i.ismine, of each I 
drachm ; oils of verbena ana lavender, each x 
scruple ; eau dc rose, half a pint; orange-flower 
water, 1 ounce ; rectified spirit, 2 pinu ; mix, 
digest and filter. — 2. lloocy-water, 2 ounces; 
tincture of cloves, i ounce ; tinctures of cala- 
mus, of lavender, and of loag cypress, each half 
an ounce ; eau sans pareitle, 4 ounces ; spirit of 
jessamine, 9 drachbis ; tincture of orris, i ounce; 
tincture of neroli, 20 drqi)s; mix and filter. 
EAU DE ROSiERES.—%^\TiA qIxm,«*,\ 



mcTTONAny of every-day wants. 




pints; spirits of jes!iamine, I pint ; spirits of or- 
ange flowers* I pint ; spirits of cucumber, i% 
pints ; spirits of celery seed, 7.% pints. 

EAU DE riOlETTES.—yiaicetaXtt 5 02. 
of fine orris root in a quart of rectified sjuril^, 
lor some days, and filter. 

EHGOT. — ^The diseased production of rye ; 
on some occasions, when the grain has been 

Spurred or covered with ergot, it has caused 
eath frequently to the partakers ; medically it is 
administered to contract the uterus in labor, and 
it is very powerful in this case. The active 
roperty appears to reside in the oil, which Is 
ten up by hot water, (tea, etc,) alcohol, and 
itther, and these preparations arc generally ad- 

giinistered uncombined with other mediancs. 
owdcred ergot is given in repeated doses of 10 
to 20 grains, or in one dose of half a drachm, ia 
-which case it generally acts in less than 20 min- 
utes. 

ERGOTy Ethereal Tineture ^—Powdered 
ergot, 15 ounces; ether, 2 pints; macerate 7 
days; express and strain. Dose— 1 5 to 60 
'drops, according to the object in view. 

ERGOT, Tifutun c/.— Powdered ergot, 8 
ounces ; proof spirit, 2 pints ; macerate 14 day» ; 
Strain, express and 61ier. Dose — 15 drops to 3 
drachms, as required. 

■ ERGOT, To Prestrue. — Ergot is injured from 
being eaten by a minute insect of the acarus^jfr- 
nus, that appears to have a liking for damaged 
rye, among, perhaps, many other things to it 
not less palatable. As it nas an aversion to 
many pungent things, it may ]>c kept away by 
putting in the vessel containing the ergot a few 
drops of the oil of cloves, or a few cloves tliem- 
aclves, or seeds of cardamons, or camphor, etc. 
If well dried before corking it up, by treating it 
after this manner it may be preserved for a long 
time, probably several years. 

ELDER. — An infusion of elder flowers is 
good for feveriihness and sore mouth in chil. 
drcn ; add a pint of boiling water to a table- 
spoonful of l)ic flowers. 

The inner bark, with cream, fresh butter, or 
sweet oil, makes a nice cooling ointment for 
bums, and other inflamed sores. 

ELIXIR, Anii-Korhutity for tJu Teeth.-^ 
Cinchona, 3 ounces; guaiacum, 5 ounces; pel- 
Jitnry 3 ounces; orange peel, 2 drachms ; cloves, 
^ drachms; saffron, half a drachm; benzoin, 3 
drachms ; spirits of wine or brandy, 32 ounces ; 
digest and filter. 

ELIXIR, REED'S, for the TV^-M.— Fresh 
Toots of horse-radish, fresh leaves of scurvy 
grass and mint, each 6 drachms ; guaiacum, 
cinchona, pcllitory, calamus, and rfaaiany, each 
5 drachms; proof spirits, i quart; macerate for 
16 days, and strain. 

ELIXIR, ODONTALGIC— ?e\\\iory root, 
3 ounces: simple spirits of lavender, 16 ounces; 
muriate of ammonia, half a drachm; digest 24 
hours and 61ter. 

ELIXIR OF ROSES, for the Tuth.^ 
Cloves, I drachm ; cinnamon, 3 ounces ; ginger, 
2 ounces; spirits of wine, 2 pints ; oil of orange, 
1 drachm; otto of roses 15 drops; essence of 
pep|>ermtnt, I ounce. Mix. Digest 15 days^ 
and filter. • 

ELIXIR of PyrophoiphaU ofItr>n and Bark. 
— Pyrophosphate of iron isS grains, simple 
syrup 2 ounces, water 6 ounces, tincture of bit- 
ter orange peel 3 ounces, alcohol, dilute, 6 



ounces, sulphate of quinia.6 grains, suiphnie of 
cinchona 3 grains, sulphate of quinidia 3 grains 
Put the water, pyrophosphate of iron, and half 
an ounce of the smiple syrup into a pint bottle, 
and shake occasionally till tiie pyrophosphate of 
iron is dissolved. Into another pint bottle pat 
the diluted alcohol, tincture of bitter orange peel, 
and the sulphates of quinia, dncliona, and quin- 
idia, and snake occasionally till these salts of 
bark are dissolved — then add the whole to the 
bottle containing the pyrophosphate of iron, and 
shake till mixed, after which nllcr through pa- 
per, and add the remainder of the syrun ; mix by 
sliaking, and the preparation is ready for use. 

EUXIR 01^ CALJSA YA BARK AND 
IROA'. — Take cali&aya bark in powder 4 ounces. 
Cinnamon water 2 pints, caraway water I pint, 
tincture of orange peel yi a pint, alcohol ji a 
pint, brandy 3 pints, syrup 3 pints, soluble py- 
rophosphate of iron 2 ounces. Mix the cinna- 
mon and caraway waters with the tincture of or- 
ange peel, and percolate. the bark with the mix- 
ture. Dissolve the pyrophosphate of iron tn the 
percolate, add the other ingredients, and hiter. 
This contains about I grain of pyrophosphate of 
iron and 2 grains of cincliona l)ark to a drachm. 

ESSENCE of fiitter Almonds.— 'E.^icnUaX 
oil of almonds t part, and recti&ed spirit 20 
parts. Used to Aavor wine, cordials, liquors, 
]>erfumcry, pastry, etc It is poisonous in large 
quantity, and, having a strong taste, very tittle 
serves to impart flavor. 

ESSENCE of Lavinder. — Essential oil of 
lavender x ounces, rectified spirit 2 quarts, rose 
water hall a pint, tincture of orris half a pinU 

ESSENCE of Roses.— t. Otto of ro*c» 7 
drachms, spirit I gallon. Mix. — 1. Rose leaves 
4 jKirts, water 13 parts. Distill off one-balf. 
When a sufficient quantity of this water has been 
obtained, it must be used as water upon fresh 
rose leaves, and the some process must be re- 
pealed to the fourth, fifth, or even the saxth 
lime, according to the quality desired. 

ESSENCE of Neroli. — Spirits of wine half 
a pint, orange pecU cut small, 3 ounces, orris 
root, in powder, I drachm, musk 2 grains. Let 
it stand in a warm place for 3 days, and filter. 

ESSENCE of Romfelctte.—Smxii (brandy, 
60 o. p.") I gallon, otto of lavender 2 ounces, 
otto of cloves I ounce, otto of roses 3 drachms, 
otto of bcrgomot i ounce, extract of'^musk, va- 
nilla and ambergris each ^ |Hnt. The mixture 
must be made at least a month before it is &t for 
use. 

ESSENCE 0/ Mmk,— I. Bladder mask, cnt 
small, 5 ports, civet I nart, spttit of ambrette IDO 
parts, strongest alcohol, 35 parts. Put them into 
a close vessel, and digest for a time in a beat 
of from 100 to 150^ Fahrenlieit — 2. Grain musk 
3 drachma; alcohol, i lb. Mix. As before. 

ESSENCE of Peppermint. — Oil of pepper- 
mint I ounce, rectified spirit I ounce, carbonate 
of morne&ia half an ounce, water 7 ounces. Mix 
the oil and magnesia intimately, put them tn the 
filler, pour on the spirit, and afterwards the wa- 
ter. Mixes with water; it may be hltcred a^in 
if not quite clear. 

ESSENCE OF VIOLETS.— X. Orris root, 
a ounces ; rectified spirit, 8 ounces ; digest, ex- 
press and (liter, or proceed by percohtum. — 2. 
Alcoholic extract of cassie i pint, esprit de rose, 
tincture of orris and of tuberose, of each half a 
pint, oil of almonds, 3 drops. 



DRUGGIST AND C/fEM/ST. 



ESSENCE of f rnSwwi.— I. Oil of verbena, 
t drmdun; rectified spirit, I ounce; mix, and 
add essence of vanilli, lo drops. — 2. Oil of lem- 
on-gra^5, 3 drachms ; of lemon peel, 2 ounces ; 
of orange peel, 4 drachms ; »pirit t pint ; mix 
and filter. 

ESSENCE far Smelling BottUs.—^i^cncr: 
of ambcTgri-s, I ounce ; otto of roses and oil of 
lavender, of each 20 drops ; essence of berga- 
motte, 3 drachms ; mix, and add 5 ounces of the 
Strongest solution of ammonia. Fragrant and 
refreshing. 

ESPRIT DE BOUQVE T.— Oil of lavender. 
<^ ot doves, nnd oil of bergamolte, each 2 
drachms ; otto of rose and oil of dnnamon, each 
20 drops; essence of musk, I drachm; rectified 
spirits. I pint. Mix. 

ETHER, ACETIC— Ta\i^ strong alcohol, 
3 parts ; acetate of potass, 3 parts ; concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, 2 ports. Mix and distill; 
then take of the product 4 parts, and sulphuric 
acid I part, and draw over a quantity equal in 
weight to the alcohol employed. 

EXTRACTS, TO AfAA'E.—Take of the 
plant, root or leaves you wish to make the ex- 
tract from, any quantity; add sufficient water, 
and boil them gradually ; then pour off the wa- 
ter, and add a second quantity ; repeat the pro- 
cess until all the virtue is extracted, then mix 
the several decoctions, and evaporate at as low 
a temperature as possible, to the consistence of 
an extract. Extracts arc better made in a water 
both, and in dose vessels, and for some very 
delicate articles, the evaporation may be carried 
on at a very low temperature, in a vacuum, by 
surrounding the vessel with another containing 
sulphuric acid. Manufacturing dniggists usually 
add to erery 7 lbs. of extract 4 ounces of gum 
arable, i ounce of alcohol, and i ounce of olive 
oil. This mixture gives the extract a gloss and 
keeps it soft. 

EXTRACT OF BUCUa—lixxchyx leaves i 
lb., boiling distilled water 3 gals. ; boil the lea\'cs 
in 3 gals, of the water down lo 6 quarts ; then 
boil It again in the remaining water till reduced 
to 2 quarts. Evaporate the mixed liquor down 
to 6 quartSf and add i quart of strong sage tea, 
a dr^'-*'"" ■>'' ><icuhonate of potas^ia, 2 drachms 
of :"^. 5 ounces of rectified spirit, 2 

ouTir .im copaiba and Harlem oil; then 

bottle. 

EXTRACT OF EIJ>ERFLOWERS, far 
the Complexion, — Take gum bcnsoin I drachm, 
a -n-tne-glossful of sinrit-t nf wine, and t pint of 
elder-flower water. Powder the ^m, and nuf 
it into the spirit. In a short lime it will 1>e ois. 
solved. Now put this mixture into a jug, and 
then gradually add the elder-flower water. ]f 
there oe any partides of benzoin not dissolved, 
the ezTract must be strained through fine muslin 
prior to its being put into the toilet bottle. On 
a cco un t of the miucy appearance of this ureparn- 
tion, the French perfumers call it tatt virgi- 
«a/. 

r ■ r OF OP/CAf.-Opmm sliced 

1^ -d water 5 pints. Macerate the 

Vpiam If] ■; i.ic water for 24 hours, frequently 
rarring ; then strain, macerate for 34 hours in 
tike remaining; water, and strain and evaporate 
tKe mixed liquors to an extract. Used as a mild 
preparation of opium. Dose-— I to 6 grains. 

EXTRACT OF POPPy.~Pnpp\c% bruised 
and freed from the seeds 15 ouncesi boiling dis- 



tilled water 1 gallon ; macerate for 24 hours, 
boil to 4 pints, strain while hot, and evaporate 
to an extract. Anodyne narcotic. Do&e — 2 to 
20 grains. 

EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA, Flnid, 
— Sliced sarsaparilla 3>i lbs.» boiling distilled 
water $ gallons, rectified spirit, 2 ounces. Boil 
the sarsapariila in 3 gallons of water to 12 j»inu, 
and strain. Kvaporate the mixed liquors lo iS 
ounces, and when cold add the spirit Dose — t 
to 3 drachms, or more. 

EXTRA CT OF SENNA, F/uid.'Stmnz, 15 
lbs. av., boiling water, q. s. ; concentrate the in- 
fusion to 10 lbs. nv., dissolve in it 6 lbs. of thick 
treacle, add 24 fluid ounces of rectified spirit, 
and water sufficient lo make 15 pints. Dose — 3 
drachms. Each ounce represents 1 ounce of the 
senna. 

EXTRACT OF VANILLA.— Ttkc of va- 
nilla in the pods I ounce, fine washed sand t 
ounce, 95 per cent, alcohc^ 3 ounces, 45 per cent, 
alcohol 13 ounces, syrup 2 drachms; cut the va- 
nilla into short nieces and bruise well with the 
sand, then pack in a disnlaccr; add first the 
strong and afterwards the diluted alcohol j after 
24 hours filter. 

FEBRIFUGE, fat Feiers in General— 
Carbonate of ammonia 2 drachms, alum I drachm, 
capsicum, foreign gentian, Colombo root, and 
prussiate of iron, all pulverised, of each K a 
drachm; mix by putting into a bottle, and adding 
4 ounces of cold water. Dose — i teaspoonfnl to 
a grown person, every 2 hours, in common cases 
of fever. It mav be sweetened, if preferred. 
Shake well each time before giving, ana keep the 
bottle tightly corked. 

FEBRIFUGE TEA.— T^iVe Virginia snake- 
root and valerian root, of each 2 draclims, and of 
boiling water 1 pint. Pour the boiling water on 
the roots and steep }4 an hour, and give a tea- 
spoonful of the febrifuge and a lablespoonful of 
this tea together, every 2 hours, and after the pa- 
tient has been 24 hours without fever, give it ev- 
ery 3 or 4 hours, until the patient has good ap- 
petite and digestion; then 3 times daily, just be- 
fore meals, until the patient has gained cimstd- 
erable strength, when it may be entirely discon- 
tinued : or he may continue the simple infusion 
to aid digestion. 

FEBRIFUGE fK/.V£.— Quinine 25 grains, 
water 1 pint, sulphuric acid 15 drops, epsom 
salts 2 ounces, color with tincture of red Sand- 
ers. Dose — K wincglassful 3 times per day. 
This is a world-renowned medidne. 

FRENCH H'lI/TE.—YTenQh white is leri- 
gated talc passed through a silk sieve. This is 
tne best facc-powdcr made, particularly as it does 
not discolor from action of the skin or impure 
atmosphere. 

FLUID EXTRACT OF VANILLA.— "^t^ 
nilla beans 4 ounces, sugar 2 ounces, alcohol 4 
fluid ounces, simple syrup 4 ounces, brandy I 
pint. Cut the beans finely, and rub thoroughly 
with the sugar, put all together in a strong stone 
iKiltle; secure the cork with twine, and boil in a 
water-bath for }^ an hour; then transfer to a 
percolator, and add brandy sufficient lo moke 4 
pints. 

FLUID, GERMAN RflEUMA T/C— Oils 
of hemlock and cedar, of each half an ounce, oils 
of ortganom and sassafras, each I ounce, aqua 
ammonia I ounce, pulverized capsicum I ou^<*» 
spirits of turpentine and gum caxu^\\oi » (A «u^ % 



D/CTIOJ^ARY OF EyERV-DAY WANTS. 



half onnce ; put all into a quart bottle, and fill it 
with 95 per cent, alcohol. 

FLUID, BOGLE'S HYPERION.— 'Vo 8 
ounces of 90 or 95 per cent alcohol, colored with 
red alkanct, add I ounce of castor oil ; perfume 
with geranium and verbenx 

GARGLES. — Gargles arc very simple reme- 
dies, and well suited to domestic practice in sore 
throats of various kinds. Accordmg to the na- 
ture of the ingredients of which they are made, 
they allav irritation and inflammation, invigorate 
the memlirane Uning the mouth and throat, and 

J>romote suppuration. The particular purpose 
or which ihcy are reciuired ought to be kept in 
view in their preparation. 

GARGLE, Ftfr Inflamed rAmi/.— Purified 
nitre 2 drachms, barley water 7 ounces, acetate 
of huncy 7 drachms. Mix the ingredients, and 
use frequcniW. 

CARGLE^/i^ Domestic Use, — 5 teaspoonfuls 
of vinegar, 2 teaspoonfuls of tincture of myrrh, 3 
of honey, a glass of port wine, and ^ or 4 wine- 
glasses of warm water ; mix all these mgredients, 
mnd the gargle is ready for use. A decoction of 
flic leaves of the currant may, with good effect. 
be added in<,tcad of ihe worm water. This makes 
both a pleasant and useful gargle. 

GARGLE, MUCILAGINOUS, /or Inflamed 
Thrvat. — Tincture ol myrrh 2 drachms, mudla^ 
of gum Arabic 7 ounces. Mix. This gargle is 
of use in defending the ports when the saliva is 
of an acrid character. 

GARGLE, to Promote SuppuratiffH.—'Bn\ty 
water and infusion of linseed. This gargle is to 
be used worn. It must be kept in view that 
this mild c^rglc acts by softening the ports of the 
fliroat, ana hastening the suppuration by its heat 
—it is requisite, therefore, that the temperature 
cK the gargle be kept up. 

C/IEiyiXGGUM.—Takc of prepared bal- 
sam of tolu 2 ounces, while sugar I ounce, oat- 
meal J ounces. Soften the gum in a water bath, 
and mix in the ingretljents; then roll in finely- 
powdered sugar or flour to form sticks to suit. 

GL YCERINE.— Glycerine is derived from a 
residuum left after the making of soap and stear- 
ine candles, and which for ages was considered 
of no value. The medicinal properties of gly- 
cenne are of the most striking kind, but it is not 
valuable in pharmacy only ; its antiseptic prop- 
erties are marvelous. It is capable of preserv- 
ing anim.nl substances from decay ; leather is 
preserved by it in a soft and pliotle condilion ; 
wooden vessels saturated with it neither shrink 
nor dry up ; it Is used for extracting the o<lor of 
flowers, and is of great value in the processes of 
dyeing, brewing, liqueur making and wine keep- 
ing; Its power in nealing sores and removinc 
pains, such as car-ache, is wonderful. With m- 
tric acid it forms nitro-glyccrine, a substance 
whose explosive force is many degrees greater 
than that of gunpowder. 

GLYCONINE.— This is the name of a new 
glycerine preparation, which is recommended as 
a nealing ointment for wounds, and broken sur 
faces of all kinds, erysipelas, cutaneous affections 
— of which it allays the itching — as it forms a 
sort of varnish over the skin, and thus excludes 
the air. For its preparation 5 parts of glycerine 
are mixed wn'lh 4 parts of the yelk of eggs. It 
has the consistencyof honey, feels like suve, and 
is not changed in the air. 

MVES, HAIR.— Hail dyes color the hair only 



as far as the roots, and require to be applied as 
frequently as the growth of hair shows both the 
false and real color. I. Dr, Hanman*!. — Lith- 
arge half an ounce, ciuicklimc 3 ounces, starch 3 
ounces ; mix in powder. For use, mix in warm 
water, and rub on Ihe hair to the roots. Cover 
the hair with oil-skin or wadding for the night. 
— 2. Orflla'j. — Litharge 6 parts, quicklime 5 
parts, starch I part ; mix and apply as above. — 

3. Spencer's. — Sap green half a drachm, nitrate 
of Silver I drachm, hot water l ounce ; dissolve. 
Combed in the hair for use. — 4. t'Arr-d/jiTV.— 
Mix 5 drachms of fresh-staked lime with 2 ounces 
of water ; strain and bottle. l)i.vsolve 5 drachms 
of acetate of lead in water, add enough slaked 
hmc to saturate the acetic acid, wash the prcci|^ 
itflte, and mix it with the milk of lime. — 5. Har^ 
ren's. — I Jme 4 ounces, while ^ an ounce, lith- 
arge I drachm; mix in powder. Used with a 
sponge and water, to dye black, or with milk to 
dye brown. — OeieroLx's. — Acetate of lead s 
ounces, prepared chalk 3 ounces, quicklime 4 
ounces. As No. i. — 7. Ccn. Twi^^s. — 1 dradim 
of sulphur, % a drachm of sugar of lead, 4 
ounces of rose water. Mix them well ; shake 
the phial on using it, and bathe the hair twice a 
day for a week or longer if necessary. It docs 
not dye the hair, but seems to restore the origi- 
nal color. — 8. Bateftelor's, — No. i. To i ounce 
of gallic odd, dissolved in 8 ounces ol alcohol, 
oda >i a ^lon of soft water. — To 1 ounce of 
nitrate of silver, dissolved in I ounce of conccA* 
trated ammonia and 3 ounces of soft water, add 
I ounce of ^m Arabic and 4 ounces of soSt 
water. 

HAIR DYES, ZiWm.— There is no doubt 
that the lead which forms so Urge a part of the 
various hair dyes in general use is injurious, if 
not actually dangerous, to the system. Head- 
ache, neuralgia, paralysis, etc., have in number- 
less cases been caused by the use of lead prep»> 
rations for the hair, and for this reason they 
should never be used. Gray hairs, whether on 
the head of a middle-aged or old person, ore its- 
variably becoming, and ore, or should be, **a 
crown of glory." Another objection to the dye- 
ing of the hair is, that it can be detected by the 
most casual observer^ and, in fact, deceives no 
one. 

HAIR INVIGORA TOR,—u Take b«y rum 
I pint, alcohol % a pint, castor oil i ounce, cat- 
bonate of ammonia }( oi v\ ounce, tincture of 
canthoriJes U^ of an ounce. Mix, and shalce 
when used. To l>e used daily. — 2. Vinegar of 
'caniharides 1 ounce, Cologne water i ounce, aiul 
rose water 1 ounce, mixed and rubbed to the 
roots of the hair, until tfae scalp smarts, twice 
daily, has been very highly recommended for 
bald heads, or where the n.iir is falling otit. — 3. 
Carbonate of ammonia i ounce, rubbed up in I 
pint of sweet oil. Apply daily until the hair 
stops falling out, or is suflidentlv grown out— 

4. Strong sage tea, as a daily wasb. will be found 
to promptly stop the hair from falling out, and, 
if Its use is persevered in, it will make it grow 
thick and strong. 

HAIR RESTORATIVES— Mrs. AIUn*i — 
To 16 ounces of rose water, diluted with an 
equal part of soft water, add ^ oi 9n ounce of 
sulphur and ^ of on ounce of sugar of lead; let 
the compound stand 5 days l>efore using. — 
H'ood^j. — Take 4 drachms of lac sulphur. 1 
of sugar of lead, and I pint of rose water; mix. 



DRUGGIST AND Ci 



n 



— PhahfCs. — To 8 ounces of 90 per cent, alco- 
1U>I, colore<I by a few drops of tincture of alkanet 
root, add 1 oance of castor-oil, and perfume with 
a compound of bergamotte, neroli, verbena, and 
orance. 

ffAIR, Saponaceous IVash for M<*.— Rectified 
spirit t pint, rose water I gallon, extract of ron- 
deletia. f^ 1 pint, transparent soap ^ of an ounce, 
bay saJfron 1^ of a drachm. Sfiave up the soap 
rery fine ; boU it ajul the saffiron in a quart of the 
rose water ; when dissolved, add the remainder 
of the water, then the spirit, and finally the ron- 
deletia, which is used by way of perfume. After 
standing for 2 or 3 days, it is fit lor bottling. 

JiAIR W'ASHy Roumary. — ^Koscmary water 
I gallon, spirit 10 ounces, pcarlash I ounce. 

HOREHOUXD,—K bitter pectoral herb, 
used mostly in syrup or candy. The synip is 
made by adding I lb. of good lump sugar to each 
pint of a strong infusion ; the candy, with 10 lb. 
of lump sugar to each pint, and boiling until It 
will candy on cooling. Used in severe coughs 
and colds. 

HORSE-RAD/Sff.—'Vhis. is an anti-scor- 
butic and stimulating medicine. It may be taken 
either in substance or infused in wine, for the 
scurvy, dropsy, palsy, clironic rheumatism, and 
like aJTecttonsI 

HYDROGE.VGAS, An Imfeoi'^i Mrtkod oj 
Pnidueimg. — Alkaline and earthy alkaline hy- 
such as the hydrate of potash, soda, 
iam. baryta, chalk, etc.. ratxed with char- 
coke, anthracite, pit-coal, peat, etc., and 
to a red heat, arc decompowd into cir- 
uc acid and hydrogen without further loss of 
iMAt than that due to the production of the car- 
bonic acid and hydrogen. The hydrates of pot- 
ash, soda, etc., and more especially the hydrates 
of chalk or time, decomposed by the coal into 
hr^o^eJi Uid carbonic acid, can be used indefi- 
■odj in this process, provided they are raoist- 
cnn each time with water, so as to reproduce 
fbc deoomposed hydrates. In this operation the 
liyckofen gas is generated without any special 
|NvAirtioa of steam, and may thus be produced 
without any other generating apparatus than the 
retorts themselves. These retorts, not being 
expoacd to the direct action of the steam, are 
■oC avb^rct to any interior alteration or damage. 
If fcOows, therefore, that the hydrogen gas pro- 
dooed by the decomposition of the above-named 
bTdntes, by means of carbon, can be generated 
■I a rerr small cost, and with the same facility 
as carbarctted hydrogens, from the distillation of 
pit -coal OT other organic hydrocarbon matter* 
Ttese Alkaline and earthy alkaline hydrates may 
be nilECd with the differrrnt mineral or regetable 
tbostibles, cither in a definite chemical pro- 
or without a fixed or determinate pro- 
1, and in any suitable distilling or heating 
in order to pr^nJucc, when heated to 
heal, hydrogen gas for illumtnating and 
[Mirposefl. TTie advantage of the pro- 
of iHfdrogen as chcaplv as oxygen, and 
baa Men obtained, is likely to create a 
in many industries, and especially in 
A cheap method of producing a 
heat in order 10 reduce melals, such as pla- 
I, rold, silver, and iron, ha,s long been 
il for m Europe, where the oxyhydric blow- 
is oow used to roelt the platmum in a cal- 
criMible:. By this discovery it becomes 
to obtain any immense heat which may 





(and this is a most important point) be regulated 
by a simple tap. 

/CE, CAMPHOR.— "^tW of spermaceti I 
drachm, with almond oil 1 ounce, and add of 
powdered camphor i drachm. 

/R&J^, Bitter IVtnc ^—Citrate of iron 128 
grains, extract ofcalisaya 16 grains. Hot water, 
sugar, and tincture of orange peel to flavor, and 
sherry wine to make i pint. Dissolve the cit- 
rate of iron and extract of cinchona separately in 
hot water, adding a small excess of cilnc acid; 
then add the sugar and tincture of orange peel, 
and lastly the wine. 

IXEUS/O.y OE Pi/C// a— Bucha t ounce, 
boiling distilled water 1 pint Macerate for 4 
hours in a tightly-closed vessel, and strain. 
Used in affections of the bladder or urinary or- 
gans. Dose — I to 2 ounces, generally combined 
with alkalies, as liquor potassa, etc. 

/.VCEA'SE. — Powdered cascarilla 2 ounces; 
myrrh, styrax, benzoin, and Burgundy pitch, of 
each I ounce. 

/OD/XE, Stnins of. — By adding a few drops 
of liquid carbolic acid to the iodine tincture, tne 
latter will not stain. Carbolic acid also renders 
the efficacy of tincture of iodine more certain. 
The following formula is recommended when- 
ever injections of the latter are indicated : Alco- 
holic tincture of iodine 45 drops, pure liquid 
carbolic acid 6 drops, glycerine I ounce, distilled 
water ^ ounces. In blenorrhea and Icucorrhea 
this mixture is said to be much superior to tar 
water. 

A'ATffAlROy fir the Jfatr.— (Lyon's.) 
2 ^lons of castor oil, and j gallons of alcohol. 
Mix first. 10 oes. of tincture canlharldes, (of- 
ficinal,) 13 ounces oil of bergamotte ; dissolve 
in a small quantity of alcohol. Tincture of red 
sander — ^pro[>ortions say I lb. to 5 gallons, 95 
per cent, alcohol to suit — 4 ounces color 30 gal- 

k'ALYDOR, for the Complexion. —It^h of 
blanched bitter almonds 1 part, and rose-w^er 
16 parts. Mix and strain, then add 5 grains of 
bichloride of mercnry to every S ounces of the 
mixture, and scent with rose or violet. 

LARD, To Prepare /*««•.— Take good white 
lard, and melt it in a water bath ; then put it into 
water, and agitate them well together to wash 
out all the salt; let them cool, and then col- 
lect the lard from the top of the water, drain it, 
melt it o^n in a water bath, let it remain melted 
for H' ofan hour, and lastly pour off the clearest 
portion, and be careful to preserve it from the 
air. 

I^UDANUM.—^T^t best Turkey onium 1 
ounce ; slice it, and pour upon it I gili of boiling 
water, and work it in a bowl or mortar until it is 
dissolved; then pour it into the bottle, and with 
half a pint of 76 per cent, alcohol, rinse the dish, 
adding the alcohol to the prcuaration, shaking 
well, and in 24 hours it will oe ready for use. 
Dose — From 10 to to dro|>s for adults, according 
to the strength of the patient or the severity of 
the pain. 30 drops of this laudanum will be 
equal to I grain of opium. 

LEECHES. — Leeches are best preserved in 
clean rain or pond water ; in spring water they 
soon die. TIic water should not be changed too 
often ; once each week in summer, and once 
each month in winter, being sufficient, unless it 
becomes foul. I,eeches, when applied, do t\q\ 
probe the skin like a lanccl-^\iiV,\ra,V mX ^i■5 a^ 



■ 



74 



DICTIONARY OF £ VERY-DAY WAUTS, 



saw-Ukc motion until the skin is pierced ; tliey 
then ^uck, if undi<tturbcd, until the cxcal pouches 
arc full, and finally drop off. A little salt is 
usually sprinkled on to cause them to disgorge 
the blood, and they are gently pressed between 
the fingers to facilitate this effect, ^\*hcn leeches 
do not readily bite, means arc used to induce 
them. The skin in all cases should be well 
wvihed and dried, and the leech gently dried in 
a soft cloth ; it may then be put in a pill-box or 
wine-glass, which is pressed on tlie ^ort to be 
operated on. When they do not yet bite, a 
small puncture should be made with a lancet, to 
draw blood, and they will then mostly take 
hold, lliis n^wlc is also used when llic spot to 
be drawn from is near the eye, etc ; or, if the 
leech is lively, it may be put m a large quill, and 
the head placed toward the part, while the tbimib 
prevents its retreat at the op]>osiic end. A-s the 
amount of blood cUrawn by leeches is not lar^c, 
hot poultices or fomentations are applied to in- 
crease the discharge, or the cupping-glasses may 
be used. When sufficient is drawn, the bites 
mostly close without much attention, but in some 
rare cases they arc rery troublesome ; they then 
should be pressed with lint soakcil in a solution 
of alum or the tincture of scsquicliloride of iron, 
or a fine point of nitrate of silver should be in- 
serted a minute di!>tancc. If the bleeding still 
continues, the skin must have a needle passed 
through the edges, and silk twisted round it. 

lTme-juice and GL VCONINE.— 
Lime or lemon-juice /^ a piat ; heat in a por- 
celain mortar to near the boiling point, and add 
gradually rose water, elder-flower water, and 
rectifictl snirits, of cadi 2 ounces. Agitate the 
whole well together. After 24 hour? repose, 
decant or filter through calico or muslin, then 
add of pure glycerine i%_ ounces, and oil of 
lemons y^ a drachm. Again agitate them to- 
gether for some time, and by careful manipula- 
tion you will have a somewhat milky liquid \ but 
it should be (^uitc free from any coarse floating 
matter or sediment. 

UNIMENTS. — A liniment is a semi-fluid 
ointment, found or supposed to be useful in 
painful joints, swellings, bums, elc. It is gen- 
erally applied by rubbing on with the hand, or a 
flannel, and sometimes 00th, the flannel being 
used first to irritate the skin. There are many 
who have come tu the conclusion that the rub- 
bing is more l)cneficial than the liniment. 

2,/NJjM EN T, Arnica. — Add to 1 pint of 
sweet oil 3 tablespoonfuls of tincture of arnica; 
or the leaves may be heated in the uil over a slow 
fire. Good for wounds, stifTjoints, rheumatism, 
and all injuries. 

L/N/SlENTy ChiiMain. — I ounce of cam- 
phorated sjiirit of wine, % an ounce of the sub- 
acetate of lead, (liquor.) Alix, and apply 3 or 
4 times a day. 

LINIMENT, Gjw/^r.— Rectified spirits 17 
fluid ounces, strong water of ammonia 2^^ 02., 
camphor a ounces, oil of Livcndcr 5 drops. 

LINIMENT, EUctrx>-Mapietic.—^^f:%t olco- 
ho! I gallon, oil of amber 8 ounces, gum cam- 
phor 8 ounces, castile soap shaved fine 2 ounces, 
Dcefs gall 4 ounces, ammonia 3 F.'s strong 12 
ounces ; mix, and shake occasionally for 12 
hours, and it is fit for use. 

LINIMENT, Good Samaritan.— I^t of 98 
per cent, alcohol 2 quarts, and add to it the fol- 
lowing articles : Oils of sassafras, hemlock. 



spirits of turpentine, tinctures of cayenne. cat< 
chu, guaicaci, (guac,) and laudanum, of each 
ounce; tincture of myrrh 4 ounces, oil of oi 
puium 2 ounces, oil of wintergrecn % oun< 
gum camphor 2 ounces, and chtorofona \\ 
ounces. 

LINIMENT, Rheumati£.-0\n^ oil, 
of camphor, and cliloroform, of each a ounces^ 
sa&safras oil I Icaspoonful. First add the oil of 
sassafras to the ohve oil, then the spirits of cam- 
phor, and shake well before putting in the chlo> 
roform, shaking when used, keeping it corked, 
as the chlorulurm evaporates very (ast if it v^ 
left open. Apply 3 or 4 times daUy, rubbing ~ " 
well, and always toward the body. 

LINIMENTy Sore Throat. — Gum camphof^ 
2 ounces, castile soap shaved fine 1 drachm, 
of turpentine I tablespoonful, oil of origanum 
an ounce, opium 3i of &" ounce, alcohol 1 pinCJ 
In a week or 10 days it will be fit for use ; tb< 
balhe the parts freely 3 or 3 times daily until 
lief is obtained. 

LINIMENT for S/ina! AJrctions.—Takt 
pint bottle and put into it oil of origanui 
wormwood, spirits of turpentine, and gum cam- 
phor, of each I otmcc, and fill it with the best 
alcohol. 

LIP-SALVE, Carnation.— any c oil i lb., 
alkanet root i ounce or less. Macerate with 
hcit until the oil is well colored ; then add of 
white wax 6 ounces, spermaceti 6 ounces, oil of 
lavender 30 drops, essence of bergamottc I 
drachm. 

LIP-SALP'E, R^.—u Olive oil I Ih.. alka- 
nct root 3 ounces or less. Macerate with heat 
until the oil is well colored ; then atld of sper- 
maceti 3 ounces, white wax 8 ounces, suet (pre- 
pared) 12 ounces. When nearly cold stir in or- 
ange-flower water 1 ounce, oil of Kivender ^ a 
drachm, — 2. Prepared suet I lb., prepared lard 

1 lb., alkanct root 2 ounces. Macerate in a gen- 
tle heat unt^t sufficiently colored, then cool a lit* 
tie, and stir in of rose water 6 ounces, oil of lav- 
ender to drops, essence of neroli 10 drops, es- 
sence of lemon 10 drops, essence of bergamottc 
10 drops. 

LIP-SALVE, White.—x. Prepared suet i 
lb., prepared lard i lb. Melt, and when cool- 
ing stir in rose water 4 ounces, uil of rhodium 

2 drops, oil of cloves 5 drops — or other scent to 
taste. — 2. Olive oil 1 lb., spermaceti i lb., white 
wax I lb., prepared lard t lb. Melt, and while 
cooling stir in rose water S ounces, essence of 
lemon % drachms, bergamottc a drachms. 

LIQUID BLUE, To I^e/stn.—Takc of pure 
Prussian blue I part, and gradually add a parts 
of concentrated hydrochloric acid. I^eave tJ^e 
paste to stand for 24 hours, and then odd 9 parts 
uf water, and bottle it. 

LOTION, aONLAUD'S.—manchcd bitter 
almonds i ounce, blanched sweet almonds yi an 
ounce ; beat to a paste, add pure water I pint ; 
mix well, strain through a piece of coarse doth, 
put it into a bottle, and add of corrosive subli- 
mate in powder 10 to 13 grains, dissolved in a 
teaspoonful or two of spirit of \sinc, and shake 
well. Used as a cosmetic to improve the com- 
plexion, and also as a wash for obstinate erup- 
tions. 

LOTION, ERECA'LE.—'SiuTVitc of amm< 
nia I dnv^hm, spring water ] pint, lavender wi 
tcr 2 drachms ; apply with a sponge 2 or 3 timcfl' 
a day. 



DRUGGIST AND CHEMIST, 



7S 



I 



LOTJON 0/ ChhrinaUd 5rt/*j.— This lotion 
U used for purifying ihc breath, cleansing the 
mouth, removing unpleasant odors, etc. Liquid 
chlorinated soda i ounce, distilled water about 
19 ounces. Mix. A teaspoonful in a glass of 
water. 

LOTION for Itching Chilblains.— I^z. hy- 
drochloric aad I part, and water 8 parts. Mix. 
Apply on going to bed. llus most not be used 
if ue skin is broken. 

LOZENGES, Carmittativf. — Bicarbonate of 
sodft 2 drachms, refined sugar 14 ounces, oil of 
peppermint 4 drops ; made into lozenges with 
mualage of tragncanth. Used in flatulency, 
heartburn, etc. 

LOZENGES, Caugh,—i. Extract of blood- 
root, licorice, and black cohosh, of each ^^ of on 
ounce ; tinctures of ipecac and lobelia, with 
lauduium, of each % oi on ounce ; cayenne, 
powdered. 10 grains; pulverized ^m arabic and 
s-torch, of each }l of an ounce; mix all together, 
and add pulvenzed sugar 3 ounces. If this 
should be too dry to roll into lozenges, add a 
thick solution of gum arabic to give it that con- 
sistence ; and if it should be yet too moist, at 
asy time, add more sugar. Divide into 320 loz- 
enges. Dose — I lotcngc 3 to 6 times daily, as 
needed. — 2. /ifatim^s. — Laclucariumadracnms, 
ipecacuanhn l dracnm, squills }{ drachm, ex- 
tract of licorice 2 drachms, sugar 6 ounces. 
Made into a mav^ with mucilage of tragacanth, 
and then to be divided into twenty-grain lozenges 
for use. 

LOZENGES, Ginger.— rC:AiZ 8 lbs. of loaf 
sugar in fine powder, and 8 onnce:t of the best 
ground ginger. Mix tliem into a paste with dis- 
CN^Tcd gum. If gum tragacanth lie preferred, 
the proportion is I pint of water to i ounce of 
sum; when properly dissolved, it must be forc- 
ibly pasi«d through the interstices of a coarse 
towel or cloth. 1 ounce of this diisolved gum 
ts sufficient for 4 or 5 lbs. of sugar ; or 1 ounce 
of dissolved gum Arabic to 12 ounces of sugar. 
Ksseoce may be used instead of powdered gin- 
ger, coloring it with saflron. A stimulant and 
stomachic. 

LOZENGESf Santonin, — Santonin 60 grains, 
polrerixcd sugar 5 ounces, mucilage of gum 
tntfac&nlh sumcient to make it into a thick paste, 
vrorkcd carefully together, that the santonin 
slukU be evenly mixed tliroughout the whole 
mau; then cover up the nioiiar in which you 
have nibbed them, and let it stand from 12 to 14 
hours to temper, at which time they will turn 
oct better than if done immediately ; divide into 
120 larengcs. Dose — For a child I year old I 
loienge night and morning: for a child 2 years 
oJd, 2 loienges; for a child of 4 years old, 3 
loeenges ; for a child of 8 years old, 4 lozenges ; 
for a child of 10 years old, or more, 5 to 7I0Z- 
emges ; in all cases to be taken twice doily, and 
coDttnuxng until the worms start on a voyage of 

OZENGES, .y/fcA— Sugar % lbs., starch I 
'^"^"' or oxide of iron 6 ounces, pow- 
> ounces. Mix with muciUge. 
\KE, or May Apple, — This is an 
excellent purgative, in doses of from to to 30 
crams, or double that qtuntity, in a gill of wa- 
ter; or equal quantities of the mandrake juice 
sad molLsscs may be mixed, and a tablcspoonful 
CjLco every hour or two till it operates. 'ITie 
lafius ftihcr the root in autumn, when the 



leaves turn yellow, dry it in the shade, and pul- 
verize it for use. 

MILK OF ALMONDS.— 1^^ of blanched 
Jordan almonds I ounce, blanched bitter almonds 
2 drachms, dihtillcd water % a pint. Make on 
emulsion with them, then strain and add gradu- 
ally corrosive sublimate (in coarse powder) 15 
^ainsj previously dissolved in % a pint of dis- 
tillcid water. If necessary add as much more 
water o.^ will make the whole measure about 1 
pint. 

MILK OF ROSES.— In making the milk of 
roses, the chief object should be to produce a 
perfect emulsion, or one at least which. If it sep- 
arates after long repose, may be restored to a 
homogeneous swte by slight agitation. Ii must 
also be recollected that, iKouch other perfumes 
may be and arc commonly added to it almost at 
will, the scent of roses should predominate and 
form its characteristic one. 

MILK OF ;fVJA'.— White wax and alcohol 
equal parts. Mix with heat in a porcelain ves- 
sel, then pour it on a slab, grind to a paste with 
more alconol, and as soon as it appears of a per- 
fectly even consistence, add w.-vlcr gradunlly to 
the amount of 3 or 4 times the weight of the 
wax ; grind to a fine emulsion, and strain through 
canvass. 

MIXTURE, COUGH.— T^c 1 teacupful of 
molasses, .ind add 2 tablespoon fu Is of \-ineg8r; 
simmer this over the fire ; then, when taken oflf, 
add 3 tcaspoonfuls of paregoric, and as much re- 
finca nitre as con he put ui>on the point of a 
small breakfast knife. Of this mixture take 2 
or 3 teaspoonfuls on going to bed, and i or 3 
during the day when you nave a disposition to 
cough 

MIXTURE, G^jAo.— Balsam of copoila 
1*4 ounces, nitric ether I ounce, tincture of 
henbane 3 drachms, liquor of potash 2 draclmis, 
cinnamon water sufficient to make the mixture 8 
ounces. Dose — 2 table&poonfuls twice a day la 
case of gonorrhea. 

MIXTURE, Gmtt.—\imt of colchicum I 
ounce, spirit of nitrous ether ] ounce, iodide of 
potassium 2 scruples, distilled water 2 oimces. 
Mix. A teaspoonful in chamomile tcs 2 or 3 
times a day. 

MISTURA SpirituJ I7wi CaZ/K-/.— Best 
brandy and cinnamon water, of each 4 fluid 
ounces ; the yelks of 2 eggs well beaten ; loaf 
sugar 34 *n ounce; oil of cinnamon 2 drops; 
mix. Dose — From ^ to i fluid ounce, as often 
as rci^uired. Thjji makes both eat and drink. 
Of course any other flavoring oils can be used, 
if preferred, m place of the cinnamon. 

NITRATE OF SILVER.— Vutt silver i^ 
ounces, nitric add i ounce, diluted with 2 ounces 
of water ; heat by a sand-bath tmtil ebullition 
ceases and the water is expelled; then pour into 
moulds. Must be kept from the light. 

ODOR OF FLOWERS, To Obtain the.— 
The method pursued in the south of France, by 
which all the better qualities of pomatum are 
obUined, consists in the preparation of a pure 
fat or lard, and in impregnating this with the 
odoriferous principles of the flowers. Tlie pu- 
rifying of the lard has to be done with the ut- 
most care, as almost everything depends on iu 
The lard is for this purpose washed on an in- 
clined board with water, rubbing and working it 
all the while by means of a smooth, large stone, 
UDtil the water runs off pure oud d<tu< 





D/CTIOyARY OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS, 



I 



£U i& then tilled into shallow pans on which arc 
thrown ihe flowers freshly cut; they are re- 
morcd after 12 or 24 hours and replaced by fresh 
ones, until the lard is considered saturated. The 
pomatum is then filled into pots or bottles, and 
ihc bottles arc tighdy corked. If the fat is 
slightly rancid, a very much larger amount of 
flowers is required to render it fragrant, and the 
odor never attains that fineness and delicacy that 
it does with pure lead. 

OIL, ESSENTIAL, To Extract from Flmc- 
rrs. — Take any flowers desired, which stratify 
with common salt, and put them in a clean 
earthen glazed pot. When thus filled to the 
top, cover it well and carry it to the cellar. 40 
days afterwards put a crape over a pan, and 
empty the whole to strain the essence from the 
flowers by pressure. Bottle the essence and ex- 
pose it 4 or 5 weeks in the sun, and dew of the 
evening, to purify. A single drop of this es- 
sence, if rightly prepared, is enough to perfume 
m quart of water. 

O/L, ZiR/T/S//.— Unseed and turpenlmc 
oils of each 2 ounces, otts of amber and juniper 
of each 4 ounces, Rarbadoes tar 3 ounces, scn- 
eca oil I ounce. Mix. 

O/L OF //^i^AAM/.— Sublimed or flowers 
of sulphur and oil of amber of each 2 ounces, 
linseed oil i IK, spirits of turpentine suflicicnl 
to reduce all to the consistence of thin molasses. 
Boil the sulphur in the Hn^ced oil until it is dis- 
solved, then add the oil of amber and turpen- 
tine. 

Oft, HATR, {Ro%tmary.y~'Yv^Ji castor oil 
I pint, sweet oil ^ pint, larrl oil % pint, alcohol 
a tablespoon fu I. Perfumed vrith rosemary. 

On^ //>//i?.— (Phalon's.) Cocoanul oil, 
perfumed with oil of almonds, 

OIL^ Rmoland^s Afacajsnr. — Take sweet oil 4 
ounces, canthoridcs 30 drops, oil of rose 5 drops, 
oil of bergamolte and oil of lemon of each 30 
drops, ana alkanct sufficient to color it. 

Ori^, KING t)/".— Burning fluid I pint, oils 
of cedar, hemlock, sassafras and origanum of 
each 3 ounces. carlMnate of ammonia pulverised 
I ounce; mix. To use — Apply freely to the 
nerve and gums around the tooth, and to the 
(ace in neuralgic pains, by wetting brown paper 
and laying on the parts — not too long, for fear of 
blistering ; to the nerves of teeth by Hnt- 

OIL OF CASSIA.— Y'mt^t oil of cloves 3 
parts, ground cassia I part. Pour Ihe oil warm 
on the cassia, macerate for 3 or 4 days or more, 
and then strain with expression. 

OIL OF EUODIirhf.—Thii oil is derive«l 
from a species of Rhudoriza ; very fluid and 
limpid; pole yellow; soon darkens by age and 
exposure ; tastes bitter and aromatic ; has a mod- 
ified odor of roses. Chiefly used as a substitute 
for ottar of roses in cheap perfumery, and also 
to adulterate it Oil of sandal wood is very fre- 
quently sold for it. 

OIL OF ROSES, {f*r Mr //a/r.)— Fine olive 
oil I pint, otto of roses 16 drops, oil of rose- 
mary % * drachm. If required to be red, color 
with aJkanct root, and strain before adding the 
otto. 

OIL OF ORANGE FLOWERS.— Onnge 
flowers I part, blanched almonds bruised 2 parts, 
olive oil 1 part. Mix, and let them remain to- 
gether for a week, then express the oil. More 
flowers may be used to increase the perfume, if 
desired. 



OIL OF SFIA'E.— The genuine oU of spike 
is made from the iavenduh spiea, (broad-Icavcd 
lavender,) but the commercial oil of spike is al> 
ways made by taking the rock oil, and adding 3 
ounces of spirits of turpentine to each pint. 

OIL OF TURPENTINE, M Punfyin? 
Purposes. — However carefully the oil of turpen- 
tine may have been distilled, it always leaves af- 
ter evaporation a disagreeable odor, firmly ad- 
hering to the goods that have been treated with 
it. TTie same is the case with benzine and the 
lighter petroleum oils. This may be obviated 
according to Bremer, by distillation over tannin. 
Articles treated with oil of turpentine that ' ~" 
been distilled in this way, arc heated to 150' 
when they lose every trace of odor. Brem 
adds that this preparation is less inflommab 
cheaper, and more agreeable to the vorkznui 
than bcnrine. 

OIL CREAM, Cod //:rr.— Pick ont a ^ o< 
an ounce of nice, clean pieces of gum tragacanth, 
and steep them in a pint of water for 24 hours, 
stirring or shaking up occasionally so as to in- 
sure a fine, even mucilage. Now mix a pint of 
nil with a pint of this mucilage, and put them 
into a bottle capable of holding more than a 
quart, so as to give good '• sh.aking room," and 
give a good shaking, until the particles of the 
nil are thoroughly divided. They cannot get to- 
gether '^gain, even if the mixture stands several 
days. To guard against any sourfng, add a lea- 
spoonful of best brandy, and 1 or 2 drops of es- 
sence of lemon, almonds, vanilla, or whatever 
flavor is most desired. The brandy may be sub- 
stituted by 20 drops of spirit of wine. 

OINTMENT, CREAM.— Ohxuxn a pint of 
pure cream, let it simmer over the fire till it re- 
sembles butter, and forms a thick, oily substance, 
which may be used as ointment for fresh or old 
wounds, cracked lips or hands. 

OINTMENT, GREEN— Money 3>x\A bee*. 
wax each ^ a lb., spirits of turpentine i ounc^ 
wintergTccn oil and laudanum each 2 ounces, 
finely powdered verdigris J^ of an ounce, lard 
1% fhs. ; mix by a stove fire, in a copper kettle, 
heating slowly. 

OINTMENT, GLVCERINE.—SUirdti 3 
ports, glycerine 1 o parts. The starch, finely 
pulverized, is digested for about an hour with the 
glycerine, at the heat of a watcr-balh. 

OINTMENT, IMicKiKty's.-Tukc butter 12 
ounces, beeswax 4 ounces, yellow resm 3 ounces. 
Melt, and add vinegar of cantharidcs i ounce ; 
evaporate, and add Canada balsam I ounce, oil 
of mace I drachm, and balsam of Peru 15 
drops. 

OINTMENT, ITCIf.—Syftet oil i lb., suet 
I lb. , olkonct root 2 ounces. Melt and macerate 
until sufficiently colored, and then add powdered 
nitre 3 ounces, powdered alum 3 ounces, pow- 
dered sulphate of rinc 3 ounces, powdered ver- 
milion sufficient to color, and ou of origanum 
sufficient to perfume.— 2. Carbonate of potash t 
ounce, rose water I ounce, vermilion I drachm, 
sulnhur 1 1 ounces, oil of bergamottc i dnchm, 
lard It ounces. Mix. — ^3. Unsaltei.1 butter I lb.. 
Burgundy pilch 2 ounces, spirits of turiwniinc 3 
ounces, pulverized red precipitate 15/ ounces; 
melt the pilch and add the Duller, stirring well 
together; then remove from the fire, and when 
a liltlc cool odd the spirits of turpentine, and 
Easily add the precipitate, stirring the mixture 
until cold. 



nec^^l 



' 




DRUGGTST AND CI/EM/ST. 



PRECIPITATE, RED, for Qid Sorts,— 
Red prccipiute )^ ounce, su^r of lead yi ounce, 
burnt Alum I ouoce, white vitriol % ounce, or a 
little less; all to be very finely pufveriicd ; have 
mutton tallow made warm l lb. ; stir all in, and 
stir untd cool. 

OINTMENT, MAJiSmrALLOlV,—\c\. 
low refill and yellow wax each 56 lbs. Melt 
and reduce them to a proper consistence with 
rape oil, then add of ihicL mucilage i gallon ; 
Kormeric 10 color if required, ^lir until it be- 
comes cold. 

OlNTAfENT, /'//.^.—Powdered nut-gall 
2 drachms, camphor i drachm, melted wax i 
ounce, tincture of opium 2 drachms. Mix. 

OINTMENT, SISSONS,-^^^K brandy S^ 
& pint, turpentine I gill, camphor gum l ounce, 
beefs gall % a pint, neats-ibot oil 1 pint ; mix. 
Excellent for bruises or swellings of long stand- 
ing. 

OINTMENT, STRAiSfONrUM.—TaVc of 
the leave* of the stramonium, while yet green. 
about I bushel, and place them in a suitable 
iron kettle over a slow fire. Put in a few of the 
learcs at a time, washing them as you keep ad< 
dang, until a pulpy m.iss results, when add lard 
5 lbs., and slew 10 a crisp; then strain and box 
for tt«. Or take a drachm of the soft extract. 
and nib it into an ointment with I ounce of 
brrl 

OINTMENT OF BEI.IMDONNA.^%%' 
tract of belladonna i drachm, lard 1 ounce, and 
■ux. Used to allay the pain of rheum.ilisin, etc. 

OPIUM, POli'ELVS.—T?ke opium t part. 
spirit 9 ports. Macerate until the spirit will 
take up 00 more, decant, and reserve the tine- 
tare; then pour 6 parts of water on the residu* 
Via and repeat the process. Strain and mix the 
2 solutions; next put them into a retort and dts* 
til over, spirit 9 parts, ami evaporate the remain- 
clcr In a proper consistence. 

OPODELDOC, Zywr,/.— The best brandy, i 
4]ttm ; warm it and aud gum camphor I ounce, 
■■I ammoniac and oil of wormwood, of each % 
ovnce ; oils of origanum and rosemary, of each 
y^ an ounce ; when the oils arc dissolved by the 
■ad of the heat, add 6 ounces of soft soati. 

OTTO OF ROSES.— V\\\ a large glazed 
earthen jar with rose leaves, carefully sep-tratcd 
from the cups; poar upon them spring water, 
ittst aafficient to cover them, and set the jar with 
Hs oJDtents in the sun for 3 or 3 days, taking it 
under cover at night. At the end of the third 
or barth day, small particles of yellow oil will 
be ««n floating on the surface of the w.ater, and 
wfaidu tn the course ol a week, will have in- 
crcancd to a ihin scum. The scum is the otto of 
roses; take it up with a little cotton tied to the 
■odof slick, and squeeze it into a phial. 

OXYCEN Mfthod of Pre&aring.—'Vi^x a 
■IrMiff solution of chloride of lime, and gently 
\tmA \ with onlv a trace of freshly prepareil 
fwioaidc of cobalt ; a stream of oxygen is thus 
■f<l »d i «id chloride of calcium is formeti. The 
vvalstiov of the gas is very regular when the 
S(|«d fa heated to 70 or So*'. All the oxygen is 
UHM ol^ no chlorine being liberated. The 
cabf poial is to use a perfectly clear solution of 
<ltbtiiit of Itrae I if a milky or thick solution be 
■Md, it will froth 

PAIN-KILLER, Pfrry /^rciy.— Alcohol t 
^MR, (BA rnaioc I ounce, gums myrrh and 
piMrf aoa Cayenne, (pulvcrixed,) of each 



^ ounce. Mix. Shake occasionally for a week 
or 10 days, and filter or let settle fur use, Ap- 
ply freely to surface pains, or it may be taken m 
teaspoon doses for internal pains, and repeat ac- 
cording to necessities. 

PAIN EXTRACTOR.—Syix\\& of ammonia 
I ounce, laudanum l ounce, oil of organum i 
ounce, mutton tallow y^ a lb. ; combine the ar- 
tides with the tallow when it is nearly cool. 

PAREGORIC.^^^i opium % a dmchm; 
dissolve it in about 2 tablespoons of boiling wa- 
ter ; then add benzoic add <^ a drachm, oil of 
aniseed ^ of a fluid drachm, clarified honey i 
ounce, camphor gum l scniple, 76 per cent, al- 
cohol 11 Quid ounces, distilled water 4 Hiiid 
ounces, macerate (keep warm) for 3 weeks. 
Dose — For children 5 to SO drops, adults I to a 
teaspoons. 

PAPER, FUMIGATING,— rOiC sheets of 
light cartridge paper, and dip them into a solu- 
tion of oluni — say, alum T ounce, water i pint. 
After they are thoroughly moistened, let them 
be well dried ; opon one side of this paper spread 
a mixture of equal parts of gum benzoin, oliba- 
num, and cither balm of Tom or Peruvian bal- 
sam, or the benzoin may be used alone. To 
spreof! the gum, etc., it is necessary that they be 
melted in an earthenware vessel and poured 
thinly over the paper, finally smoothing the sur- 
face with a hot spatula. When required for use, 
slips of this paper arc held ovtr a candle or a 
lamp, in order to evaporate the odorous matter, 
but not to ignite it. The alum in the paper pre- 
vents it to a certain extent from burning. 

PASTE, Gefnian. — Ulanched sweet almonds 
I lb., pea-meal 2 lbs., butter 1 ounces, saffron 4 
grains, the yelks of 2 /ggs, noney sufficient to 
make a paste, which must be passed through a 
sieve. Used to feed larks, nightingales, and 
other insectivorous singing birds, 

PASTE, Phoiphorom. — Put into a Florence 
flask I drachm of phosphorous and i ounce of 
rectified spirits. Dip the flask into hot water 
until the phosphorous is melted, then cork the 
flask and agitate it until the contents are cold. 
Pour off the spirit, and mix the phosphorous 
with 1^4 ounces of lard, then add a mixture of 
flour 5 ounces, sugar or cheese \% ounces, and 
make the whole into a paste with a lUtle water. 
Used to destroy vermin. 

PASTILES, pHmigatiH^^.^X, Benzoin J 
drachm, cascarilla % of a drachm, myrrh 1 scru- 
ple, oils of nutmegs ^nd cloves of each 10 drops, 
nitrate of potash \^ of a drachm, ch.ircoal 6 
drachms ; mix with mucilage of tragacanlh. — 2. 
Benzoin 3 ounces, balsam of Tolu and yellow 
sandal wood of each H of an ounce, laudr.n-jm 
1 drachm, nitre 2 drachms, charcoal 6 ounces ; 
mix with mucilage of tragacanlh. — 3. Sanlal 
wood in powder 1 lb., gum benzoin 1 lb., gum 
Tolu % lb., otto of .Santal, cassia and cloves, of 
each 3 drachms; nitrate of potass l ounce, mu- 
cilage or tragacanlh sufficient to make the whole 
into a stiff paste. 

PASTILES, MOUTir, for Prrfuming ike 
Breath. — I. Chocolate powaer and ground cof- 
fee each I ounce, prepared charcoal I ounce, su- 
gar t ounce, vanilla (pulverized with the sugar) 
1 ounce, and sufficient mncilftgc to mix. ^lake 
into lozenges of any form, 6 or 8 to be used ev- 
ery day lo disinfect the breath. — 2. Catecho 7 
drachms, orris powder 40 grams, sugar 3 ounces, 
od «f rosemary, (or of cloves, ipc^^troanX, at 



DICTIONARY OF EVERV-DAY WANTS. 



I 



SpxnUh Kkin, is nothing more than highW 
fiimcti leather. Gooil and sound pieces of wash 



cinnamon,) 4 drnp^i. Mix, and roll flat on an 
oiled marble slab, aiid cut into very small lozen- 
ges. — 3- {Fot Dijin/cetitti( the Br^tsth.) — l>ry 
diloride of lime z drachms, sugar 8 ounces, and 
gum IragacAnib i drachm ; carmine 2 grains. 
Form into small lozenges. 

PEAU D'ESPAGNE.—VcuM d'Espagnc. or 

highly per 
ces of 1 
leather are lo be steeped in a mixture of ottos, in 
which arc dissolved some odoriferous gum res- 
ins, thus : Otto of neroli, otto of rose, santal, of 
each _^ an ounce ; otto of lavender, verbena, 
bergantotle, of each a Ji( of an ounce ; otto of 
cloves and cinnamon, of each 2 drachms; with 
any others thought 5t. In this mixture dissolve 
about a ounces of gum benioin ; now place the 
skin to steep in it for a day or so, then hang it 
over a line to dry. A paste is now to be made 
by rubbing in a mortar i drachm of civet with i 
drachm of grain musk, and enough solution of 
gum acacia or gum tragacanlha to give it a spread- 
ing consistence ; a liltle of any of the ottos that 
may be lelt frum the steep stirred in with the 
civet, etc., greatly assists m making the whole 
of an equal body; the skin, bein^ cut up into 
pieces of about 4 inches square, is then to be 
spread over, pLvster-faslnon, with the last-named 
compost; 2 pieces being i>ut together, having 
the civet pla<itcr inside 01 them, are then to be 
placed between sheets of paper, weighed or 
pressed, and left to dry thus for a week ; finally, 
each double skin, now called peau d'Espagne. is 
to be enveIuj)«Kl in some pretty silk or satin, and 
fmishc<l off to ihc taste of the vender. Skin or 
leather thus prepared will evolve a pleasant odor 
for ye.arx. 

PERFUME OF FLOWERS, To Extract.— 
Procure a quantity of the petals of any flower 
which has an agreeable flavor; card thin layers 
of cotton wool, which dip into the finest Flor- 
ence oil ; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt on 
the flowers, and place layers of cotton and flow- 
ers aUernalely. until an earthen or wide-mouthcd 
^ss vessel is quite full. Tie the top close with 
a bladder, nnd lay the vessel in a south aspcLl, 
exposed to the sun, and in 15 days, when opened, 
a fragrant oil may be squceiecl away from the 
whole mass, and but little inferior (if roses are 
used) to the dear and highly valued otto or odor 
of roses. 

PERFUME for Sachets. — Orris root in pow- 
der I lb., musk 12 grains, essence of lavender I 
drnclim, essence of ambergris i drachm, essence 
of bcrgamottc )4 a drachm, essence of lemon *^ 
a drachm. — 2. Take any quantity of pure starch 
in powder, color it with a little finely -powdered 
rose-pink, and perfume it with otto of roses, oil 
of rosemary, lavender, and ncroli. letting the 
rose prctlominatc. — 3. 4^ of a lb. lavender flow- 
ers, ^ of an ounce of dried thyme, }i of an 
ounce of dried mint, ^ of an ounce of cloves, 
\( of an ounce of caraway seeds, I ounce of fine 
salt. Tlie lavender flowers must be rubbetl from 
the stalk, the thyme and mint reduced to pow- 
der, and the cloves and caraway seeds bruised in 
a mortar. The whole should then be mixed 
with the sail, which must be well dried before it 
is used. When the ingredients have been thor- 
oughly mixed, the compound may be put into 
silk or muslin bags for use. 

PERFUME PtmHler for Boxes and Drawers, 
— I. Coriander powder, Florentine orris pow- 



der, powdered rose leaves, powdered sweei 
scented flag-root of each 2 ounces; lavcndec 
flowers powdered 4 ounces, musk I scrupl^ 
powder of sandal-wood I drachm. Mix. — 2. 
Take of cloves, caraway seeds, nutmeg, m* 
cinnamon, and Tonouin beans, of each i ounce^" 
then add as much Florentine orris root as wiH^ 
equal the other ingredients put together. Gi 
the whole well together, and then put it in Utl 
Irags among your clothes, etc. 

PERFUA/E for C/m'es.—0\\ of lavender 
drops, neroli 10 drops, essence of tnusk 5 drop^ 
otto of roses 2 drops, alcohol 2 ounces. Mix. 

PILLS, v4^/. —Quinine 20 grains, Dover*; 
powders^ TO grains, subcarbonate of iron lO'^ 
grains ; mix with mucilage of gum Arabic an<t 
mrm into 20 pills. Dose — 2 each hour, conv* 
mencing 5 hours before the chill should set i 
Then t^e I night and morning until all of then(] 
are taken. 

PJLLSf Anti-Bilious. — Aloes 28 parts, colo-, 
cynth 12 parts, rhubarb 7 parts, myrrh an 
scammony of each 3^^ parts, ipecacuanha 
pans, cardamom seed 2 parts, soft soap 9 parts^ 
oil of juniper 7 parts, and treacle q. s. Divide 
into 4-grain pills, of which 2 or 3 are a dose 

PILL cf Aloes, Compound. — Socolrine 
in powder i ounce, extract of gentian J^ otm 
oil of caraw.iys 40 drops, and treade a snffid 
quantity. IWat lugcther to a pill mass. Pn 
Tivc, stomachic. Used in habitual costive 
Dose — 5 to 20 grains. Aloes ore more easJl, 
powdered by adding z or 3 drops of olive oil lo 
each ounce. 

PILL of Aloes with jWrrr>5.— Powdered So- 
cotrine aloes y^ ounce, saffron, powdered myrrh 
and soft soap, of each 2 drachms, and ol I 
a sufTidcnt. quantity. Beat together to a 
mass. Purgative emcnagoguc. Used in clUO- 
rosis and amenorrhea. Dose — 5 to 15 grains. 

PILL of Aloes with Avi/.— Extract of Bar- 
badoes aloes powdered, soft soap, and extract of 
licorice equal parts, and of treacle a suflSdent 
quantity. Beat the aloes wilh the soap, odd the 
other ingredients, and make a pill mass. Pur- 
gative. Dose — 5 to 15 grains. 

PILLS, Brandfc/A^j—Takc 2 lbs. of aloes, 
lb. of gamboge, 4 ounces of extract of colocj'n 
}4 ft lb. of castile soap, 2 fluid drachms of nil 
peppermint, and I fluid drachm of cinnamotu 
Mix. nnd form into pills. 

PILLS, Carbonate of Irott. — Sulphate of iron 
4 ounces, carbonate of soda 5 ounces, clarified 
honey 2)^ ounces, of syrup and boiling walcr a 
suflicicnt quantity. Dissolve the sulphate of 
iron and carbonate of soda each in a pint of wa- 
ter, and to each solution add a fluid ounce of 
syrup ; then mix the two solutions in a bottle 
just large enough to contain ihem, close it accu- 
rately with a stopper, and set it by that the car- 
bonate of iron may subside. Pour off the sti- 
pctnatant fluid; and, having washed the prccip- 
tale with warm water, sweetened with syrup, in 
the proportion of a fluid ounce of the latter lo a 
pint of the former, until the washings no longer 
have a saline taste, place it upon a fl.anncl cloth, 
and express as much of the water as possible; 
then immediately mix it vn\h the honey. Lastly, 
heat the mixture, by means of a water-bath, un- 
til it attains a pilular consistence. 

PILLS, Cathartic. — Aloes and gambc^e of 
each I ounce, mandrake and blo<M-root with 
gum myrrh, of each % ounce ; gam camphor 



# 



DRUGGIST AND CHEMIST, 



w 



ftnd Cayenne of each \% drachms, and ginger 4 
ounces ; all to be finely pulverized and thor- 
oughly mixed with thick mucilage (made by put- 
ting a little water upon equal quantities of gum 
Arabic and gum iragacantn) into pill mass ; then 
formed into common-sized pills. Dose — 2 to 4 
piUsi, ftccordine to the robustness of the patient. 

PILLS, C%a(Y6^air, for Leiuorrhta. — Sul- 
phaXe of iron t scruple, bol&am of copaiba and 
ucorice powder to mix. Divide into 40 pills. 
Dose — 3 or 4, 3 times dailv- 

PILLS^ Chiimomtle, — Aloes 12 grains, extract 
chamomile 36 grains, oil of duunomilc 3 drop<: ; 
make into 12 pills ; take 2 every night, or twice 
aday. 

PILLS, Cough. — Of extract of hyoscyamus, 
balm of Gileod buds, with pulverized ipecac or 
lobelia, and balsam of fir, each % oz. ; oil of an- 
ise a few drops to form into common-sized pills. 
Dose — I or 2 pills, 3 or 4 times daily. 

PILLS, Dtgestivf. — Rhubarb 2 ounces, ipe- 
cacuanha % ounce, Cayenne pepper % ounce, 
soap ^ ounce, ginger % ounce, gaml>oge % 
oatkce. Mix, and divide into 4-gnun pilk. 

PILLS, Dinmr. — Aloes 20 grains, ginger 5^ 
drachm ; add syrup sufficient to mix. Divide 
into 20 nills. i to be taken daily before dinner. 

y/Z/fit'ffrOTi'MJ^^^.— Precipitated carlwnate 
of iron and giun myrrh of each 2 drachms, aloes 
and tincture uf Spani&h flies of each i drachm, 
and oil of savin i drachm ; all to be pulverized, 
and made into 100 ^)ilU by using thick, gum so- 
lution. Dose — I pill, from i to 3 times daily. 

PILL, Ftmaie Ltixatxvf. — .\Tocs, macrotin, 
and cream of tartar, of each 2 drachms ; podo- 
pbylin and ground ginger i drachm each ; make 
Into common-sized pills by using 15 or 20 drops 
of oil of peppcrmmt, and a thick solution of 
gam Arabic mucilage. Dose — I pill at bedtime, 
or 3 if found neccisary, and sufficiently often 
to keep the bowels just in a solvent condition, 
but not less often than once a week. 

PILLS, for Grvrjfl — Castile soap 8 parts, 
Ik soda 4 parts, oil of tartar to mix. Di- 
into 3-grain piJU, I to be taken every 2 or 3 



I 
I 

to kee[ 
^K but no) 
■ PIL 



PILLS, Ifaliaway's. — .\loes 4 parts, myrrh, 
jalap, and ginger, of each 2 parts, and mucilage 
to mix. 

PfLL of /npw.— Powdered myrrh 2 drachms, 
carbcoatcof 5oda,salphatc of iron and treacle, 
of each I drachm. In a warm vessel rub the 
myrrh with the soda, add the iron, and rub 
a^ain ; mix in the treacle, and form a mass. 
Took, Used in chlorosis. Dose — From 5 to to 
£rain«. 

PILL, Liver. — Lcptandrin 40 grmns, podo- 
fUio and Cayenne 30 grains each, sanguma- 
iridtn, and inecac, 15 grains each ; see that 
pulycn/ed and well mixed ; then form into 
by astng 3^ of a drachm of the soft 
*»f mandrake and a few drops of anise 
mH mil into 3-grain pills. 
<}hstrucUJ Menstruation. -^Tzkc 
I 30 grains, potassa fsubcarb. J 30 
igar 30 grains, myrrh I drachm. 
■'> 3g^ain pills. 3 to be taken 3 
■lay when ihcre is no fever present. 
PILf^ to Pt{>moU Menshtsat Sffretion^ — I. 
Take b«IU of aloes and myrrh 1 drachm, com- 
poma into piJls 70 grains. Mix and form into 
«5 ySBa^ Do»c^— 2 pills twice 1 «!ay.— a. Take 
pibanum pUl 1 drachm; Soootiinc 



IM 



aloes X drachm. Mix. Dose — 2 pills, twice a 
day. 

PILL, N^ructis. — Alcoholic extract of the Ig- 
natia Amara (SU Ignatius bean) 30 grains, pow- 
dered gum Aiabic 10 grains. Moke into 40 
pills. Dose — I pill to be taken an hour after 
breakfast, and i an hour before retiring at night. 

PILL, Hhuharb. — l'"ine powdcretl rhubarb 4 
drachms, powdered aloes 3 drachms, powdered 
myrrh 2 drachms, soft soap % drachm, oil of 
caraway 15 drops, and of treacle a sufficient 
quantity. Mix Ine powders, add the other in- 
gredients, and form a mass. Stomachic, pur> 
gative. Dose — 5 to ao grains. 

PILLS for Sick Ileadaehe. — I drachm of 
castile soap, 40 grains of rhubarb, 20 drops oil 
of juniper, nnd syrup of ginger enough to form 
so pills. Take 3 or 3 occasionally. 

PILLS for Shortness of Breath.—TsAx % of 
on ounce of powder of elecampane root, % of 
an ounce of powder of licorice, as much flower 
of brimstone and powder of aniseed, and 3 
ounces of sugar candy powdered. Make all into 
pills, with a sufhcicnt quantity of tar ; take 4 
large pills when going to rest. 

PILLS, To Sugar Crc/.— Pills, to be sugar- 
coated, must be very dry, otherwise they will 
shrink away from the coating, ami leave it a 
shell easily crushed oft When they are dry you 
will take starch, gum Arabic, and white sugar. 
equal i^arts^ rubbing them very fine in a marble 
morLir, and if damp they must be dried before 
rubbing together; then put the powder into a 
suitable pan, or box, for shaking; now put a 
few pills mto a small tin box having a caver»and 
pour on them just a little simplie syrup, shaking 
well to moiiicn the surface only; tncn throw 
into the Ujx uf powder, and keep in motion un- 
til completely coated, dry and smooth. 

If you are not very careful, you will get too 
much syrup upon the pills ; if you do, put in 
more, and l>c quick about it to prevent moisten* 
ing the pill too much, getting them into the 
powder xs soon as possible. 

PIXK SA(/CEKS.~ Safflower or cnrthamus, 
(washed,) 8 ounces, sulKarbonale of soda 3 
ounces, water 2 gallons. Macerate, strain, and 
add Frencli chidk (scraped fine with Dutch 
rushes) 3 lbs., and precipiute the color on it 
with tartaric acid, a sufficient quantity. 

PIASTER, Crfrn.— Yellow wax 1 lb., Venk» 
turpentine 2 ounces, wrdigris i ounce; melt to- 
gelher and spread on leather. 

PLASTER, rtjwr^.— Soak bruised isinglass 
in a little warm water for 34 hours ; then evapo- 
rate nearly all the water by gentle heat ; dissolve 
Che residue in a little proof spirits of wine, and 
strain the whole through a piece of open linen. 
The strained moss should l>c a stiff jelly when 
cool. Now extend a piece of silk on a wooden 
frame, and fix it light with tacks or pack-thread. 
Melt the jelly, and apply to the silk thinly and 
evenly with a badger hair brush. A second 
coating must be applied when the first has dried, 
WTicn both are dry. cover the whole surface 
with coatings of liaJsam of Peru, applied in this 
way. Plaster thus made is very pliable, and 
never breaks. 

PLASTER, IrritaiiHff,~T^ I lb.. Bur- 
gundy pitch }4 oL-nce, white nine turpentine X 
ounce, rosin 2 ounces. Boil tne tar, rosin and 
gum together a short time, and then remove 
irom the fire, and stir in finely pul\CTUc4 mui- 




So 



K lem 
^1 ven 
■ ofi 



draicc root, blood root, poke root, and Indian 
turnip, of each i ounce. 

PLASTER, A/ujfanf.—Ta.Vt a pic« ofwosle 
linen, and, if crumpled, iron it smooth ; or pa- 
per will ilo. Procure a small quantity of black 
mustard seed, and bruise it to a coar&c powder, 
in n pe^tlc and mortar or olherwisc. lie par- 
ticular not to have it too fine. Spread o\'er 
the linen a thin solution of giim, and sprinkle 
the powder equally over it. Dry in a warm 
place. When Wanted, plasters mar be cut any 
size or shape ; and when applied should be mo- 
mentarily dipped in tepid water, and tied over 
the oiTectcd jmrt with a bandage. These plasters 
arc more ^implc, cleanly and effective than the 
ordinary mustard poultices. 

PLASTER, Pitch. — Burgundy pilch 6 parts. 
yellow resin 8 parts, yellow wax 3 parts, lard 7 
parts, turpentine I part, palm oil I part, linseed 
chI I part. Mix. 

PLASTER, Poor J/rt«V— Take nf beeswax 
1 ounce, lar 3 ounces, resin 3 ounces ; to be 
melted together, and spread on paper or muslin. 
PLASTER, Rheumatic,— % lb. of resin, and 
% lb. of sulphur; melt them by a slow fire; 
then add I ounce of Cayenne pepper, and ^ of 
an ounce of camphor gum ; stir well till mixed, 
and temper with ncatsfoot oil. 

PLASTER, Stren^thentH!^. — T.ithnrge plas. 
ler 24 parts, white resin 6 pans, vellow wax and 
olive od of each 3 parts, and red oxide of iron 
8 parts. Let the oxide be rubbed with oil, and 
the other ingredients added melted, and mix the 
whole well topeiher. This is an excellent plas- 
ter for relaxation of the muscles and weakness of 
the joints arising from sprains and bruises. The 
plaster, after being spread over leather, should 
oe cut into strips 2 inches wide, and strapped 
firmly round the joint. 

PLASTER, Styptic— The property of chlo- 
ride of iron to stop bleeding is well known, but 
the inconvenience of carrying it about often pre- 
vents its application when wanted. The French 
have a way of preparing a pa]>cr saturated with 
it that onswers every purpose, and can easily be 
transported. This paper is immersed in a licjuid 
prejKired as follows : I lb. of finely pulverized 
gum benzoin. 1 lb. of alum, and 4 gallons of 
water are boiled in a well-tinned vessel, and fil- 
tered after cooling. The paper is well saturated 
with this mixture, and when it is dry a tolerably 
concentrated solution of chloride of iron is spread 
over it with a brush. It can be kept indefinitely 
when protected by wax cloth, and is admirably 
orlaptcd for stopping the bleeding of small flesh 
wounds. 

POMADE, Castor Oi7.— Castor oil 4 ounces, 
prepared lard 3 ounces, white wax 3 drachms, 
Dergamotte 2 drachms, oil of lavender 20 firops. 
Melt the fnt together, and on cooling add the 
scents, and stir till cold. 

POMADE, Cmrm.— McU together i drachm 
each ol white wax and spermaceti, and add oil 
of sweet almonds 3 ounces ; pour it into a warm 
mortar, and gradually stir in I ounce of rose or 
other perfumed water, and I drachm of tincture 
of Tolu. 

POMADE, Marnr.t}. — Beef marrow i ounce, 
ca<(tor oil ■{ of an ounce, tincture of cantharide* 
1 drachm, essential oil uf bitter almonds and of 
lemon of each 12 drops. This will be found 
verv beneficial if the hair should show symptoms 
of falling off^ 




DICTIONARY OF EVERY^DAY WANTS. 



POMADE, Tramparent.—x. Take of castx>r 
oil I lb., spermaceti jjf lb., and .sufficient of any 
desired perfume. — 2. Fatty oil of almonds 2 lb*.. 
Spermaceti % of a lb., od of lemon 3 ounces. 
The spermaceti is melted in a water bath, the 
oils are then added, and the heat kept up until a 
uniform mass is obtained, in which no Hoaliiifl 
^irticles of spermaceti can be distinguished. 
The pomade is then poured into glasses ; if it is 
desired to obtain the pomade crystallized, the 

Classes must be heated beforehand, and cuokd 
own very slowly. 
POMADE DYE, fvr Ike J/air.^NiUntt <rf 
silver l part, nitric add 3 parts, iron filings a 
pr.rts. Mix, and let them stand together tor 4 
or 5 hours, then pour them on oatmeal 2 parts. 
Next add lard 3 ports, and mix well togclher. 

POMATUM, Black i^rtr*.— Prepared lard, 
melted, -with one*third in winter, and one-half 
its weight in summer, of wax. and colored with 
powdered ivorv-black, and strained through tam- 
my, or any suostanoe that will permit the fine 
particles of ivory-black to pass through. Stir it 
constantly, and when it begins to iKidcen pour it 
into paper moulds. 

POM A TUM, Eajt India.— Take suet 7 lbs., 
Lird 7 lbs., beeswax I lb. Melt, then add es- 
sence of lemon 4 ounces, gum benzoin 3 ounces, 
musk 2 scruples, oil of cloves 25 drops, oil of 
rhmlium 25 drops. Mix well. 

POMA TC'Af, //amw.— Purified bid 4 lbs,, 
purified suet 2 lbs., otto of lemon 1 ounce, otto 
of bcrgamotie 1 ounce, otto of cloves -i drachms. 
Melt the greases, then beat them up with a nhi&k 
or flat wooden spatula for a ^ of an hour or 
more ; as the grease cools, minute vessels of air 
arc inclosed by the pomatun, which not only in* 
crease the bulk of tnc mixtures, but impart ape- 
cuUar mechanical aggregation, rendering the p(V 
nuttum light and spong)*; in this stale it is ob- 
-vnous that it fills out more profitably than other- 
wise. 

POMATUM, Phi/ocotHc.—Whilt wax 10 
ounces, fresh rose oil 1 lb., fresh acacia oil ^ 
lb., fresh jasmine oil X ^^t fresh fleur d'orange 
oil [ lb , fresh tuberose oil i lb. Melt the wax 
in the oils by a water-bath at the lowest possible 
temperature. Stir the mixture as it cools; do 
not pour out the philocome until it is nearly cool 
enough to set ; let the jars, bottles, or pots, into 
which it is filled for sale be slightly warmed, or 
at least of the same temperature as the philo- 
come. otherwise the Imttles chill the material as 
it is poured in, and make it appear of an uneven 
texture. 

POMATUM, Rote.— or prepared brd 16 
ounces, prepared suet 2 ounces; melt with a 
gentle heat, and add 2 ounces of otto of water, 
and 6 drops of otto of roses. Beat them well to- 
gether, and pour into ^wts before it is cold. For 
making je^isamine, violet, and orange pomade, 
put the same quantity of water, and 1 drachm of 
the required essence. 

POSQIOGICAL TABLE ; or. Rules J0t 
AdminisitrtHg Medkines, having rrfermce im 
Age and Sex. — For an adult, (a person of 40 
years) the dose is allowed to be about I drachm, 
DO groins. 
Those at 20 years, 2<3 of a drachm, 40 grains. 

.1 ,_J .. |., .. yj .. 

41 m <l |.- <« 20 " 

«l 4 .. 1^ « ,5 M 

■I 2 " 1-6 " 10 " 




DRUGGIST AfiD CHEMIST. 



I 



Those at 3 jrcars, l-S of a drachm, 7 to 8 grains. 
«i , .. ,.,2 .1 5 .* 

For babes* under i )rcar, the dose should go 
dowD by nionths, at the same rale as by years, 
for those over a year. 

Again, for persons in advanced life, say from 
60 ynrs, the dose must begin to lessen about 5 
eraias. and, from, that on, 5 grains for each ad- 
ditional fO yctrs. 

Females, however, need a little less, generally, 
than males. 

The above rules hold good in all medicines 
except castor oil, the proportion of which cannot 
be reduced so much, and opium and its various 
preparations, which must be reduced, generally, 
la a little greater proportion. 

POULTICE, C-Umw/.— Linseed meal % of 
a lb., charcoal powder 2 ounces, hot water suRi- 
ocni to give it the necessary consistence. This 
poultice is highly antiseptic — that is to say, it 
r\is great power in cleansing ulcers, and correct- 
ing a tendency to morti5c.iUon- 

POULTICE, GoMhrJ'j.—TA\:c, & drachm 
and a half of extract of lead, rectified spirit of 
vrioe 2 ounces, water 12 ounces, and bread or 
cracker crumbt sufFlcient to make the whole into 
■ proper con&i:>tcnce. This poultice is an excel- 
lent application to reduce swelling and inflamma- 
tion, ind to allay irritation. 

POULTICE, //cw/^-^.— Pour 2 pints of 
water oo a ounces of hemlock leaves, boil it 
down to a pint, and add as much linseed meal as 
snay be necessiry for the due consistency of the 
pottlCice. This is an excellent application to 
ciaGcroai and other malignant sores. It greatly 
diminishes the existing pain. The fresh herb 
farms Ihe best poultice. 

POULTICE, yVdj/.— Flour I lb., yeast of 
beer V ^^ * pint. Mix, and expose the mixture 
to ■ gentle heat till it begins to swell, when it is 
ready for use. This poultice is well adapted as 
an ajipUcation to painful, foul, or gangrenous ul- 
oen. It is a gentle stimulant to such ulcerations, 
correcta any tendency to morlilicition, cleanses 
Uie sore, and removes the fetid odor. 

POWDF.Ry '*'^*'- — Quinine to grains, cap- 
sicum 4 grains ; mix and divide into 3 powders, 
Directions — Take I about 4 hours iwfore the 
chill, I aboot 2 hours before the chill, and the 
KhirJ I hoar before Ihe chill should commence. 
POiVDER, Com^titu>/i,^h^yhtTTy bark 3 
lb»., benlock bark i lb., ginger root I lb., Cay- 
mne pepper 2 ounces, doves 2 ounces ; all very 
finely nulrcriied and well mixed. Dose — One- 
haU 01 a teaspoon of it. and a spoon of sugar ; 
pot tticffl into a tea-cup. and pour it half fuU of 
boiling water ; let it stand a few minutes, then 
fiS the cup with hot water, and drink freely. 

POiVDERS. C^iij'i/wii.— Black aatimony 4 
evAces, Aoar of sulphur 2 ounccn, bean flour or 
bariey neal |^ of a lb. A Liblespoonful to be 
^Tca with the feed — a. Sobhur 2 lbs., fcou- 

S^ of 1 1^ . ^ 'i of a lb., common salt I 

& l>o\ laily for 2 or 3 weeks. 

POW2. --.-r*/. — Ipecacuanha in pow- 
der I dradim. opjum in powder i drachm, salt- 
~ in pT ' Wii'.rr I OTincr. The above ingredj- 
tko'i ' '-t powder. 

r -ins. 

POWl/r.i-^. s t.;.''in^- — r uiic: . earth, puH- 

M tni powdered, tzujied with duimol charcooL 



greek 4 lbs., cream of tartar 1 lb., licorice I lb., 
nkrt I Ibk, black antimony Ji^ of a lb., gentian 



Used to fdtcr oils, etc, and to render various 
liquids whitet. 

POWDERS, Lfmanoif/.—Whitt sugar 36 
drachms, carbonate of soda 4 drachms, essence 
of lemon 15 drops; divide into 12 blue papers. 
In 12 white papers dinde 6 drachms of tartaric 
acid. Mix the first well in water, and add the 
last. Each powder contains 3 drachms of su- 

f^ar, 20 grains of soda, 2 drops of essence of 
emon, and 30 grains of acid. Pleasant refrig- 
erant drink. 

POIVDER, PtarU fof ih* Comptexum.^ 
Take pearl or bismuth white and French chalk, 
equal parts. Reduce them to a fine powder, and 
sin through lawn. 

POWDER, Rose /'.w.— Wlicat starch 7 lbs., 
rose pink l drachm, otto of rose 2 drachms, ntto 
of sanlal 2 droclmis. 

POWDERS, 5>ii//iyx.— Rochcllc salts 2 drs., 
bicarbonate of soda 2 scruples ; put these into a 
blue paper, and put tartartic add 3^ grains into 
a white paper. To use, put each into different 
tumblers, hll % with water, and put a little loaf 
sugar in with the acid, then pour together and 
drmk. 

POWDER, 7a>^A.— I. Take powdered chafc 
coal and white sugar of each 1 ounce : PeruviaV 
bark *^ an ounce, cream of tartar 1 5^ drachms, 
camella 24 grains. Rub them well together and 
pulverize in a mortsr. The above powder will 
cleanse the teeth, strengthen the gums, sweeten 
the breath, and prevent the toothache. — 2. Take 
pumice stone and cuttle-fish bone of each ^ an 
ounce, vitriolated tartar and mastic of each 1 
drachm, oil of rhodium 4 drops. Mix all into a 
fine powder. — 3. (Antiseptic.) Prepared chalk 2 
ounces, dry chloride of lime 10 grains, oil of 
cloves 5 drops. It may be colored, if preferred, 
by a little levigated bole. — ^ (Anti-scorbutic.) 
Extract of rhatany ^ ounce, prepared charcoal 

2 ounces, cinnamon % ounce, cloves % ounce. 
— 5- ( Rhatany. ) Rhatany root 2 ounces, cottle- 
fisn bone 4 ounces, prepared chalk 8 ounces, 
borax I drachm. — 5. (Violet) tjrris root 3 
ounces, cuttle-fish bone 4 ounces, precipitated 
ch.\lk 12 ounces, bicarbonate of soda ^ ounce, 
essence of violets t drachm, and rose pink 
enough to give it a pale violet color. — 6. (Char- 
coal.) Prepared charcoal l ounce, sugar i ounce, 
oil of cloves 3 drops. Mix. — 7. (Paste.) Pum- 
ice stone 1^^ ounce, alum }4 di^chm, bitartrate 
of potash I ounce, cochtneal 2 scruples, bicar- 
bonate of potash I drachm, orris 1 ounce, sjrrup 

3 ounces, essence of lemon 1 drachm, od of 
cloves and es'ience of bergamottc of each I 
drachm, otto of roses 8 drops. Mix. 

QUININE, Substitute /(tt.— Signor Pavia 
has extracted from the leaves and roots of the 
box t^BuxHt umpervirens') an alkaloid, which he 
calls buxina, that has been found most efTicociout 
in a large number of cases treated by 7 different 
Italian physicians. It is in the severe intermit- 
tent fevers that prevail in the marshy parts of 
Italy that the new drug has been put to the teat. 
Out of 608 coses submitte^l to the new alkaloid, 
535 were completely cured — nearly 80 per cent, 
— enough to permit the claim for it as a specific 
to be entertained. 

In a single dose of 1 5 grains, sulphate of bux- 
ine gener^uly prevents the next paroxysm from 
appearing. In a few cases it only diminishes 
the intensity of the paroxysm. It Is onl^ in 
rare coses that a second dose bos had to be pveB> 




DiCTWNARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



The drug seems eflectual in every type of dis- 
ease attributed to mar^h miasms. 

RED RASPBERRy.—Thxi is an astringent. 
A tea made of the leaves is an excellent remedy 
for the t>owet complaints of children. A little 
of the bark of slippery elm improves its efficacy. 
It should also be given in the form of an injec- 
tion. The tea is used as awash and gargle; and 
if drank freely it has a good effect in a cancerous 
State of the mouth, throat and stomach. 

RED PRECJP/TATE.—qmQ^LsiUtiT, ni- 
trie add. equal parts. Dissolve, decant, and 
evaporate to dr^-ness, in a sand heat, until it ai- 
samcs the proper color. 

REMEU 1 for DrunkfHHcss. — Tartar emetic 
8 grains, and rose-water 4 ounces. Mix. Put 
a tablespoonful into the whole quantity of liquor 
drank each day by the patient, and le: him take 
it as U'iual. Be careful not to exceed a table- 
spoonful or }-2 an ounce. 

REMEDY fcr Gtfut and RA^maf ism. —Gum 
Foaiacum i ounce, rhubarb in powder 2 drachms, 
nour of sulphur 2 ounces, cream of tartar I 
ounce, ginger powder i ounce. Make them into 
an elecluflry with treacle. Dose — 2 leaspoonfuls 
night and roontine. 

REVALEXTA ARAB/CA.—Thii article 
for dyspepsia and constipation is what is some- 
times called Ervalcnta, and is said to be com- 
pounried mainly from a species of lentil. A pop- 
ular kind is m.idc by takmg lentil meal I part, 
and Turkey millet flour 2 parts. It is some- 
times prepared by mixing Indian mcd and bean 
flour, equal parts of each, with a little salt and 
sugnr, and mtngling all together by passing it 
through a sieve. Tliis preparation (as an article 
of food for dyspeptics) inste.id of being nutri- 
tious, is only an irritant to the bowels, oecausc 
of the difficulty experienced in digesting the ' 
lentil meal. 

PINK, i^a?/?.— Take a strong decoction of 
Brazil wood, to which add a little pearlash, and 
then pour it over finely-sifted whiting, and re- 
duce It to a thick paste ; llicn dry slowly. 

ROOT^ Atkanet. — This root gives a fine red 
tinge to oils, fals, wax, turpentine, spirits, es- 
sences, etc.. and is nsed to color hair oil, poma- 
turn*, ointments, varnishes, etc. The spirituous 
solution stains marble of a deep red ; wax tinged 
with alkanet, and applied to warm marble, leaves 
a Aesh color. 

ROOT, GoiJ 7>Jr/a</.— The root, chw'wed, is 
good for canker, or other sore mouth; and, pre- 
^red by decoction, as a gargle in sore throat. 
The tea is useful in cases of general debility and 
loss of appetite. 

ROOT, Goidftt Seal. — ^This is an admirable 
remedy in case of dyspepsia. A half teaspoonfal 
of the powder, with a half tcacupful of boiling 
water, taken immediately after ealing, when the 
food distresses one, often gives relief 

ROOT, Rhubarb. — Rhubarb is generally cnl- 
tivated in our gardens for the sake of the stalks, 
which are made into excellent pies ; the root, 
however, is of great efficacy in some diseases. 
6 to 10 grains are astringent and strengthening 
to the stomach. In larger doses — from a scru- 
ple to half a drachm— It is first purgative and 
then astringent. It is, therefore, an excellent 
medicine for diarrhea and dysentery, because it 
evacuates any acrid matter that may be offending 
the bowels, before it acts as an astringent. 

ROQT, Xtllifw -£?.vi.— This is one of the 



most valuable remedies known in diseases of the 
skin. The best preparation is to bruise the 
fresh roots in a morlar, and add cream or fresh 
butter enough to make an ointment ; and it may 
also be taken internally at the some time, either 
in decoction or combined with such articles as 
arc useful for the internal treatment of bad hu- 
mors and scrofulous conditions of the system. 
It is a certain and safe remedy for the trouble- 
some disease known as the itch. 

ROb'GE,—\VziM saffiowcrs until the water 
comes away colorless ; dry the flowers, powder 
them, and digest in a weak solution of carbonate 
of soda. Place some cotton wool at the bottom 
of the vessel, then add white vinegar till it ceases 
to produce a precipitate ; wash the wool in cold 
water, dissolve the color in a fresh solution of 
soda, add some finely powdered French diolk, 
mix well, precipitate with vinegar as before, 
dry the powder carefully, and triturate it with a 
little olive oil, to render it smooth and odhe&ive. 
— 2. Take 1 lb. of best Brazil wood, fine, and 
of ^Iden color, infuse 4 days in 4 quarts of best 
white wine vinegar ; then boil them together for 
1 hour; strain tTirough a linen cloth, and place 
the liquid in I pint of white vinegar ; mix tne 2 
liquids and stir them well together. TTie scum 
wnich now arises should be carefully taken off", 
and gradually dried and powdered. — 3. Mix ver- 
milion with enough of gum tragacanth dissolved 
in water to form a thin paste; add a few drops 
of almond oil, place the mixture in rouge pots, 
and dry by a very gentle heat. — 4. Take I pint 
of alcohol, and ] ounce of alkanet ; macerate 10 
days, and pour off the liquid, which should be 
bottled. This is the simplest and one of the 
best articles of the kind.— 5. Boil 1 ounce of 
Brazil dust in l pints of distilled water, and then 
strain ; add 6 drachms of isinglass, 2 drachms of 
cochineal, I ounce of alum, and 8 drachms of 
borax ; boil again, and strain throu^^ a fine 
cloth. 

SACfTETA LA FRANGIPANNE.~-Orn% 
root powder 3 lbs., Tilivert powder ^ of a lb-, 
sandalwood powder % of alb., olto of ncroU I 
drachm, otto of rose i dradim, otto of saAtal I 
drachm, musk-pods, ground, I ounce. 

SACHET I/EUOTROPE.—Vo'oi^tt'tA or- 
ris 2 lbs., rose leaves, ground. I lb., tonquin 
beans ground \^ a lb., vanilla benns yC of a lb., 

frain mu^k % of an ounce, otto of almonds J 
rops. Well mixed by sifting in a coarse sieve, 
it is ready for use. 

SACHET ROSE.^^ow heels or leaves I 
lb., sandalwood ground yi lb., otto of roses ^ 
oi an ounce. 

SALINE, 5/Ar*.— Lard 24 parts, while oxide 
of zinc 3 parts. Peruvian balsam 3 parts, nitiate 
of silver (finely pulverized) 1 part. 

SALVE, j9nnt'«.— Take of rosin 5 lbs.. Bur- 
gundy pitch, beeswax and mutton toUow, each )^ 
of a jb. ; oil of hemlock, balsam of fir, oil of 
origanum, oil of red cedar, and Venice turr-cn- 
tine, each 1 ounce; oil of wormwood % an 
ounce. Melt the first articles together, and then 
add the oifs, stirring well; pour into cold water, 
and work like wax until it is cool enough to 
roll. 

SALVE, Balm of GiifoA.—UxMon tallow ^ 
lb,, balm of Gil cad buds a ounces, white pine 
gum I ounce, red precipitate i ounce, hard soap 
1 ounce, white sugar I tnblespoonful. Stew the 
buds in the tallow until the strength is obtained. 



and press out or strain ; scrape the soap, and 
add it with the other articles to the tallow, using 
SttSicient unsalted butter or sweet oil to bring it 
to a proper consistence to spread efljiily upon 
doth. When nearly cool, stir in the red pre- 
cipitate, mixing thoroughly. 

SALP£, FrioA. — A salve made bv boming I 
teblespoonfnl of copperas, then pulverizing it 
and mixing with the yelk of an egg. is said to 
relieve the pain, and cure the felon in 24 hours ; 
then heal with cream ^ parts, and soft soap I 

• part Appl}^ the healing salve doily after soak- 
ing tbe part in warm water. 
SALVE, GrtiH iV^wwiixm.— Rosin 5 lbs., 
Burgundy pitch, beeswax, and mutton tatlow, of 
each % lb. ; oil of hemlock, balsam of fir, oil 
of origanum, oil of red cedar, and Venice tur- 
pentine, of each 1 ounce ; oil of wormwood % 
an ounce, verdigris very finely pulverized I 
otince; melt the first articles (ogetner, and add 
the Otis, having rubbed the verdigris up vrith a 

» little of the oiU, and put it in wiin the other ar- 
tidcs^ stirring well; tnen pour into cold water, 
and work as wax until cool enough to rolL 

SALl'E, Conktin's. — Rosin 4 Ihs., beeswax, 
Burgundy pitch, white pine turpentine and mut- 
ton tallow, each % lb. ; camphor gum and bal- 
&am of fir, of each 5^ of an ounce ; sweet oil 1 
ounce, and alcohol t pint. Melt, mix, roll out, 
and use as other salves. 

SALVE, A'l/ni/jy v.— Bitter-sweet and sweet 
cider roots of each l lb., hop vines and leaves. 
and garden plantain, top and root, of each % 
lb. ; tobacco, about 3 ounces. Boil all in rain 
water to get out the strength ; then put the 
herbs in a thick cloth, press out the juice, and 
boil down carefully to one half a pint ; then add 
QCtsalted butler 1 lb., beeswax and rosin of each 
I ounce, and simmer over a slow fire until the 
water is all out. 

SALVE, L/P.~T%\te I ounce of the oil of 
almondf, }^ ounce of spermaceti, and % drachm 
of prepared suet, with any simple vegetable col- 
oring to fancy; simmer these unlil thoroughly 
mingled ; as soon as taken oflf the fire, stir into 
the mixture 3 or 4 drops of tincture of capsicum, 
And when nearly cold 5 or 6 drops of oil of rho- 
dium. — a. Butter of cocoa I ounce, oil of 
almonds i ounce ; melt together with a gentle 
heat, and add 6 drops of essence of lemon. — 3. 
Put into an earthen pipkin I lb. of fresh butter, 
t lb. of fine yellow wax, I ounce of alkanet, ai\d 
3 bunches of black grapes ; boil together, and 
strain without pressure, through linen, — 4. Of 
■Imond oil, <^ lb., spermaceti and wax each 3 
oaaccs, alkanet root 3 ounces, otto of roses I 
drachm. Place the wax, sperm and oil on the 
vlkanet root, in a vessel heated by a steam or 
waUT bath ; after the materials are melted, they 
nust digest on the alkanet. to extract its color, 
lor al lea^^t 4 or 5 hours ; finally, strain through 
6ne muslin, and then odd the perfume just be- 
Cnre ii cools. 

SALVE, ^Mj/M.— Take equal parts of yellow 
wax and sweet oil, and melt slowly, at the same 
time carefully stirring; when cootmg, stir in a 
small qtianiKy of glycerine. Good for all kinds 
<it wnuniU, etc. 

SARSAPARLLLA, Deeeictim ^y!— Take 2 

oaaco of sarsaparilla root, ^liceil, and bruise it, 

HcA aild I ounce of guaiacum wood; boil over a 

•tew far in 3 quarts of water till reduced to i 

sJiortly before removing it £rom the 



I 



■: 



saucepan, add ^ an ounce of sassafras wood 
and 3 drams of licorice ; afterward strain it. 

Sassafras. — it is an aromatic or pleasant 
tonic Sassafras, prickly ash, dogwood, and 
American gentian, make as powerful and as 
pleasant a bitter as the foreign gentian, Colombo, 
Peruvian bark, cloves, and c'mnamon, that we 
buy at the drug store. 

SHOW COLORS, for Drugmste Windamu 
— A beautifiU blue is obtained ny dissolving a 
few crystals of sulphate of copper in water, and 
supersaturating the solution with ammonia. A 
green color is obtained by dissolving nitrate or 
chloride of nickel in wnter. Nitrate of cobalt 
will give a rose color. Other tints may be se- 
lected from the different aniline dyes, those sol< 
ublc in alcohol being preferable. They should 
be renewed every 3 or 6 months, as tney will 
gradually lose their briehlness. (^See page 68.) 

SALTS, Inexhausttbh for SmtUing BottUs, 
— Liquid ammonia I pint, otto of rosemary i 
drachm, otto of English lavender I drachm, otto 
of bergamottc % a drnchm, otto of cloves y^ a 
drachm. Mix the whole together with agitation 
in a very strong and well-slopnered bottle. 

This mixture is used by nlling the smelUne 
bottles with any porous absorbent material, such 
as asbestos, or, wh-il is better, sponge cuttings, 
that have been well beaten, washed and dried. 
{See ^ige -JU) 

SNUFF, Catarrh. — Scatch snuff i ounce, 
chloride of lime dried and pulveri2ed I rounding 
teaspoonful; mix and bottle, corking tightly. 

SNUFF, CephaHc. — Dried asarbacca leaves 
3 ports, marjoram l part, lavender flowers t 
part ; rub together to a powder. 

SPONGE, To B/eacA.Soak the sponge in 
very dilffte muriatic add to remove calcareous 
matter; then in cold water, changing it fre- 
quently, and squeezing the sponge out each time. 
Then soak it in water, holding a little sulphuric 
or sulphurous add, or chlorine in solution, and 
chan^ng the acid frequently till the sponge is 
.suffiuicntly bleached. Last, repeatedly wash and 
soak in dean water, and scent with rose or or- 
ange-flower water. 

SPONGE TENT, Ta iVr>2«.— The old 
wav was by saturating the sponge with warm 
melted wax, and compressing it until the wax 
solidified, and then getting it into a suitable 
shape. The method of Dr. Sympson, of Edin- 
burg, is to saturate sponge, previously dconed, 
with thick gum mucilage, and then having put 
on awl through its centre, a cord is forcily wound 
round it so as to expel most of the mucilage, 
and reduce the size of the sponge to a small di- 
ameter ; it is then dried, the cord is removed, 
and the outside of the tent rubbed down with 
sand-paper to the proper shape. 

L>r, il. Nott, of New Vork, preparec antisep- 
tic sponge tent by saturating the prepared sponge 
with an antiseptic paste composed of alum, ace- 
late of lead, wheat flour and gum water, healed 
to the boiling point, and wrapped in goldbeater's 
skin. It is then punctured with a small knife- 
blade. 

SPEC/F/C for /Jy/^/^frv.— Take I lb. of 
gum Arabic, I ounce of gum tragncantfa. dis- 
solved in 2 quarts of soft water, and strained. 
Then lake I lb. of cloves, \^ a lb. of cinnamon, 
and the same quantity of alUpice, and boil in 3 
quarts of soft water, and stnin. Add it to the 
gums, and boil all togethtf over a moderat* 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



I 
I 



I 



6re, and stir into it 2 lbs. of loaf Sugar. Strain 
the whole anin when you lake it off. and when 
it is cool add to it )^ a pint of sweet tincture of 
rhubarb* and \% pints of best brandy. Cork 
it light in bottles, as the gums will sour if ex- 
posed ; if corked properly it will keep for years. 

SYRUP, Ctwi'-*.— Put I quart of horehound 
to I quart of water, and boil it down to a pint ; 
add 3 or 3 sticks of licorice and a tablcspoonful 
of essence of lemon. Take a tablespoonful of 
t}ie syrup 3 times a day, or as often as the cough 
may oc troublesome. 

SYRUP fffT C<msum6livfs^-^V3ikK tamarack 
bark, without rossing, (ine moss may be brushed 
off.) t peck, spikenard root % a lb., dandelion 
root U of a lb., hops 2 ounces. Boil these suf- 
ficiently to get the strength in 2 or 3 gallons of 
water; strain and boil down to I gallon; when 
blood warm add 3 lbs. of honey and 3 pints of 
the best brandy ; bottle, and keep in a very cool 
place. Dose— A wine-glassful, or a little less, 
OS the stomach will bear, 3 or 4 times daily, be- 
fore meals and at bed-time. 

SYRUP, Hive. — Squill and seneka bruised 
of each 4 ounces, tartrate of antimony and po- 
tassa 48 grains, water 4 pints, sugar 3^^' lbs. 
pour the water on the squill and seneka, and 
boil lo half the original quantity. Strun and 
add the sugar ; then o-aporate to 3 pints, and, 
while the syrup is still hot, dissolve in it the tar- 
trate of antimony and potassx 

SYRUP, SocfAin^.—Takc i lb. of honey, add 
a tablespoonfuls of paregoric, and the same of 
oil of aniseseed, ado enough water to make a 
thick syrup, and botlje. Dose — For children 
teething, a teaspoonful occasionally. 

SYRUPUS. Stiilingui Compound,— Chxt^ti*^ 
root 2 lbs., root of Turkey-corn 2 lbs., blue flag 
root I lb., elder flowers l lb., pipsissewa leaves 
1 lb., coriander seed % lb., prickly ash berries 
^ lb. Grind and mix the articles together ; 
place the whole S lbs. in a convenient vessel, 
cover them with 76 percent, alcohol, and macer- 
ate for 3 days. Tlien convey the whole to a dis- 
placement apparatus, and f;radu:illy add alcohol 
until 4 pints of the alcoholic tincture have been 
obtained, which retain and set aside. Then 
continue the percolation with water, and of this 
second solution rescr\'e so much as contains a 
sensible amount of spirit, and distil or eva[>oratc 
the alcohol from it. Continue the displacement 
by water until the solution obtained is almost 
tasteless, and boil down this weaker infusion 
tmtil. when added to the second solution after 
the evaporation of its alcohol, it will make 24 
pints. To these 3 solutions combined add 24 
lbs. of refined sugar, and dissolve it by hcaC. 
carefully removing any scum which arises as it 
comes to the point of boiling ; and if it exceeds 
28 pints, evaporate to that point with constant 
Stirring. Then remove from the fire, and when 
nearly cold add the 4 pints of reserved alcoholic 
tincture, and make 4 gallons of syrup, each pint 
of which will be equ^u to 4 ounces of the ingre- 
dients in medical vutue. 

SYRUPo/ Tar. — ^Tincture of tar 2 ounces, 
carbonate of magnesia 1 ounce, water a sullficient 
quantity, sugar I lb. Rub the tincture with the 
carbonate, add gradually ^ o( a pint of water ; 
then filler, and pour on water through the filler 
to make the liquid measure ^ of a pint ; lastly, 
add the sugar, and dissolve with the aid of gen- 
t/e beaL 



SYRUPS for Minetal WaUrs.—'i. Simfilr, 
White sugar 10 lbs., water 1 gallon, l>cst isin- 
glass 1^ of an ounce. Dissolve the isingla.vs in 
hot water, and add it to the hot syrup. The 
syrup is to be made with gentle heat, and tbca 
strained. — 2. Lemcn — a. Grate off the yellofr 
rind of lemons, and beat it up M-ith a sumcicnt 
quantity of rranulated sugar. Express the lero- 
on-juice, odd to each pint of juice i pint of wa- 
ter, and 3 lbs. of granulated sugar, including 
that rubbed up with the rind ; warm until the 
sugar is dissolved, and strain. — 3. Ltm^n — 3, 
Simple syrup 1 gallon, oil of lemon 25 drops, 
citric acid 10 drachms. Rub the oil of lemon 
with the acid, add a small portion of syrup, and 
mix. — 4. Strawberry — a. Strawberry juice I 
pint, simple syrup 3 pints, solution of citric acid 
2 drachms, — 5. Strawberry — b. Fresh straw- 
berries 5 quarts, white sugar 12 lbs., water I 
pint. Sprinkle some of the sugar over the fruit 
m layers, and allow the whole to stand for sev- 
eral nours ; express the juice and strain, wash- 
ing out the pulp with water ; add the remainder 
of the sugar and water, bring the fluid lo the 

f joint of boiling, and then strain. This will keep 
or a long time. — 6. Raspherry. Raspberry 
iulce I pint, simple syrup 3 pints, solution of cil> 
ric acid 2 drachms. Raspberry syrup may also 
be made in a way similar to* No. 5 for strawberry. 
— 7. I'amUa, Fluid extract of vanilla i ounce, 
Citric add V of an ounce, simple symp I gal- 
lon. Rub the acid with some of the syrup, add 
the extract of vanilla, and mix. — 8. J ani/Ja 
Cream. Fluid extract of yaniUa 1 ounce, aim* 
pie syrup 3 pints, cream or condensed milk I 
pint ; may be colored with carmine. — 9. Crrom* 
Fresh cream I pint, fresh milk I pint, powdered 
sugar I lb. Mix by shaking, and keep in a coot 
pbcc. The addition of a few grains of bicar- 
bonate of soda will for some time retard souring. 
to. Ginger. Tincture of ginger 2 fluid ounces, 
simple syrup 4 pints. — 11. Orange. OH of or- 
ange 30 drops, tartaric acid 4 drachms, simple 
syrup I gallon. Rub the oil with the odd, and 
mix. — 12. Phieappie. Oil of pineapple idrachm^ 
Tartaric acid I drachm, simple s}Tup 6 pints. — 
13. Orgeat. Cream syrup I pint, Vanilla syrup 
I pint, oil of bitter almonds 4 drops. — 14. Nee- 
tar. Vanilla syrup 5 pints, pineapple syrup 1 
pint, strawberry, raspberry or lemon 3 pints.— 
15. Sherbet. Vanilla syrup 3 pints, pineapple 
syrup I pint, lemon syrup ] pmt.— 16. Graft, 
Brandy ^ of a pint, spirits of lemon ^ i:if an 
ounce, tincture uf red sandcrs 3 ounces, simple 
syrup I gallon. — 17. Banana. Oil of banana 2 
drachms, tartaric acid i drachm, simple syrup 6 
pints. — 18. Coffee. Coffee roasted )^ oJ a lb., 
Loiling water I galUm. Enough is filtered to 
make about onc-holf gallon of the infusion, to 
which add granulatctl sugar 7 lbs. — 19. WiiJ 
Cherry' Wild chcrrv bark in coarse powder 5 
ounces. Moisten tlic bark with water, and let 
it stand for 24 hours in a close vessel. Thea 
pock it firmly in a percolator, and pour water 
upon it until I pint of fluid is obtained. To this 
add sS ounces of sugar.— 30. Hintergreen* 
t")il of wintergrcen 25 drops, simple syrup 5 
pints, and a sumcient quantity of burnt sugar to 
color. — 21. Sarsaparilia — a. Oil wintergrecn lo 
drops, oil of anise 10 drops, oil of sassofiiu 10 
drops, fluid extract of sarsaparilia 3 ounces, sim- 
ple syrup 5 pints, powdered extract of licorice I 
ouQce.— 22. Sarsaparilia — b. Simple syrup 4 



DRUGGIST AND CHEMIST. 



%l 



I 



^ 



k 



pints, compound syrup of sarsaparilla. 4 fluid 
cmnccs, caramel \% ounces, oil of wiiitergreen 
6 drops, oil of -^a^safras 6 drops. — 33. MapU. 
Maple sugar 4 lbs., water 2 pinU. — 24. Choco- 
Iste, Best chocolate 8 ounces, water 2 pints, 
white sugar 4 pounds. Mix the chocolate in 
-water, and stir thoroughly over a slow fire. 
Strain, and add the sugar. — 25. Coffee Cteam. 
Coffee syrup 2 pints, cream I pint. — 26. Am- 
Srvsia. Raspberry syrup 3 pints, vanilla syrup 
a pints, hocK wine 4 ounces. — 27. //a-/- anJ 
CUrtt, Hock or claret wine I pint, simple 
sjTop 1 pints. — 28. Solferifia. Brandy I pmt, 
ftuaple syrup 2 pints. — 29. Fruit Acid (used in 
some of the syrups.) Citric acid 4 ounces, wa- 
ter S ounces. Most of the syrups not made 
firocn fruits may have a little gum Arabic added 
ia order to produce a rich froth. 

^/fi^iC-T-yr/r^V.— Sweet fern grows in the 
woods and in stony places, flowers from June to 
October, and is welt knnwtt. It is a powerful 
medicine to expel the tapeworm, in the dose of 
a pint a day ollhc decoction, or 1 or 2 teaspoon- 
fals of the powder, lo be followed on the fifth 
day by a dose of some kind of physic. It is 
also good in chronic rheumatism, and a wa^h of 
il is coasidered l>enefid:il in St. Antliony's fire, 
and other cutaneous aiTcctions. 

TANXLV, Purification </.— In order to free 
oommcrcial tannin from the peculiar odor which 
it derives firom a greenish -colored resin, Dcinz 
vccommends lo dissolve 6 parti of it in 12 parts 
of hot water in a porccUun mortar, to pour the 
fluid into a boldc. and after the addition of % to 
I part of ether, to shake it vigorously. The 
mixture appears cloudy and very greenish, but 
bcoome< clear after a few hours' standing, while 
the resinous coloring matter separates in flakes 
of coopilatcd albumen. Tlic fluid is then fil- 
tered, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness. 
Tannin treated in this way is colorless, and 
forms a perfectly clear solution. 

TINCTUKE cf CanfAaHdfs.—CajithAndcs 
bruised ^ an ounce, proof spirit 2 pints. Ma- 
cerate 6 or 7 days, express and strain. Stimu- 
lant, diuretic, and must be used with caution. 
Dose — lodrops, gradually increased to l drachm, 
givca in any mucilaginous fluid. Externally 
ttscd, combined with compound camphor lini- 
ment* as a rubefacient in rheumatism, frost-bites 
or unbroken chilblains. An in^edicnt in reme- 
dies for lialdncss. 

^ TINCTURE^ CW^nz.— Select the thinnest 
cinnamon bark, cloves, guaiac, all pulverised, of 
cadi 1 ounce; very best brandy 1 quart. Mix, 
and shake occasionally for a week or two. Dose 
— ^Teaspoon fill to tables poonful for an adult, ac- 
cording to the condition and robustness of the 
Sjrstem. It may be repeated at intervals of i to 
4 hours, if necessary, or much more often, ac- 
cording lo the condition of the bowels. — 2. Sul- 
pharic ether 2 ounces, and put into it castor and 
gentian, of each % of an ounce ; opium and 
agaric each I drachm, gum camphor ^ of an 
vunce; let them stand 2 days, then add 1 quart 
of alcohol, and let it stand 14 days, when it is 
readv for use. Dose — j teospoonful every 15 or 
to minutes, according lo the urgency of the 
OLse. 

"*' '"''^' '" ", '■ hta. — Compound tinc- 
tur tincture of rhubarb and 

rpti... .„ .......... . ;,j..h 5 ounces, tincture of 

cfrtum J ooooes, oils of anise and dnnomon, 1 



with gum camphor and tartaric acid, of each % 
of an ounce. Mix. Dose — I teaspoonful in 
half a tea-cupful of warm water, sweetened with 
loaf sugar ; repeat after each passage. 

TINL TUR/t^ Gout. — Veratrum viridc (swamp 
hellebore) 1 ounce, opium % of an ounce, wine 
r pint ; let them stand for several days. Dose 
— 15 to 30 dro[}S, according lo the robustness of 
the patient, at intervals of 2 to 4 hours. 

TINCTURE iS^tftft) of >yl« Air*.— Take 
of rhubarb bruised 2 ounces, licorice root bruised 
2 ounces, aniseed bruised 1 ounce, sugar t 
ounce, diluted alcohol 2 pints. Macerate tor I4 
days, express and filter. 

TINCTURE of yV«/*.— Powdered musk I 
ounce, civet 30 grains, otto of roses 25 drops, 
oil of cloven 10 drops, alcohol 4 pints. Digest. 
TINCTURE of Of/ww.— C>pium 3 ounces, 
proof spirit 2 pints. Macerate for 7 days, ex. 
press and strain. Dose: From 2 drops to 1 or 

2 drachms, i grain of opium is contained in 19 
drops. 

TINCTURE ofPearh {far the Cemplcxian.) 
Blanched almonds i lb., acetate of lead 4 ounces, 
water 7 pints. Rrdurc them to a milk and then 
strain ; add spirit 3 pints, essence of neroli and 
essence of lavender each I drachm. This is 
used for removing freckles, 

TINCTURES far tkt Tettk.^x. Camphor 
4 ounces, myrrh 2 oances, rectified spirits 36 
fluid ounces, distdlcd water 8 ounces. — 2. Spirit 
of nutmegs I drachm, tincture of rhatany 2 
drachms, compound tincture of c&rdamons 3 
drachms, compound spirit of lavender and spirit 
of cinnamon of each I drachm, otto of roses t 
drops. Mix. — (J/yrr-*.) Choice Turkey myrrh 

3 ounces, cau de Cologne I quart. Digest for 
7 days, and then filter. — 4. {AiyrrA anJ Berax.) 
Take spirits of wine l quart, l)orax t ounce, 
honey l ounce, gum myrrh i ounce, red sanders 
wood I ounce. Rub the honey and borax well 
together in a mortar, then gradually add the 
proof spirit, the myrrh and sanders wood, and 
macerate for 14 days. 

VACCINE VIRUS, To Art?*.— Immerse It 
in the fresh slate in glycerine, of which the best 
quality only should be used. It should be kept 
in a cool place, and never at a temperature higher 
than 84** Fahrenheit. 

VERMIFUGE {,S%min's.)—Oi worroseed 2 
ounces, valerian, rhubarb, pink-root, white aga- 
ric, of each I ounce ; boil m sufficient water to 
yield 3 quarts of decoction, and add to it 30 
drops of oil of tansy, and 45 drops of oil of 
cloves, dissolved in a quart of rectified spirits. 
Dose: I tablespoonful at night — 2. {^FakneS' 
tech's.) Castor oil 1 ounce, oU of wonnsecd i 
ounce, oil of anise I ounce, tincture of myrrh I 
oil of turpentine 10 minims. Mix. 

VINEGAR, Toilet—i. {Anfmatir.) Acetic 
add I pint, camphor 2 ounces, oil of lavender I 
drachm, oil of annamon 20 drops, oil of cloves 
and oil of rosemary each 30 drops ; mix thor- 
oughly. To be used as a reviving perfume in 
fainting, etc. As it is corrosive it should not be 
allowed to come in contact with the skin or the 
clothes. — 2. {Ileniy'j.) Dried lca%'es of rose- 
mary, rue, wormwood, sage, mint, imd lavender 
flowers, each i ounce ; bruised nutmeg, cloves, 
angelica root, and camphor, each i ounce ; alco- 
hol, 4 ounces, concentrated acetic add 16 ounces. 
Macerate the materi.-ds for a day in the spirit* 
then add the add, and digest for a week lou^^ 



DrCTWNARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 




at a Icmpcraturc of about 14 or 15* C. Flnall;r, 
press out the new aromaliznl acid, and filter it. 
HEATER, CarhbuiU (.-fr/iyfrw/.)— Hydro- 
chlorate of lime 8 groins, tincture of scsqui- 
dloride of iron I drop, sulphate of soda $0 
grains, carbonate of soda 60 grains, hydrochlo- 
ride o\ soda 8 grains, carbonated water I ptnt. 

h^ATER^ CoUgne.—l. The recipes for Co- 
lore water are innumerable ; the quality of the 
preparation depends altogether on the nurity of 
the oiIs» and greatly on the quality of tiie alco- 
hol, (Eirjt Quiihty.) — Pure alconol 6 gallons, 
oil of neroU 4 ounces, oil of roscnuu7 a ounces, 
oil of orange 5 ounces, oil of citron 5 ounces, 
oil of bergamotte a ounces. Mix with agitation. 
and then allow it to stand for a few days per- 
fectly quiet before bottling. — a. {SfcpnJ Quality) 
Pure alcohol 6 gallons, oil of neroli 1 ounces, 
oil of rosemary z ounces, oil of orange peel 4 
ounces, oil of lemon 4 ounces, oil of bergamotte 
4 ounces. To be treated in the same manner as 
the first. 

IVATER, Ccttmss.—Takc of supercarbon- 
ate of soda 2 drachms, Kpsom salts 1 drachm, 
table ult ] drachm, well water (soft) 1 quart; 
mix the powders in a black bottle, and pour on 
tiie water ; then add of tartaric acid l drachm 
to each bottle, and cork tight immediately. Fit 
for use in 13 hours. 

lYA TER, Congress {far Fountains.)— Com- 
mon salt 7|^ ounces, hyurate of soda ao grains, 
bicarbonate of soda 20 enuns, craldned magnesia 
1 ounce. Add to 10 gallons of water, ana then 
charge with gas. 

lvATER,£ye.—\. Soft water I pint, gum 
Arabic I ounce, white vitriol 1 ounce, iine salt 
Ji^ of a teaspoonful ; put all into a bottle and 
shake until thssolved. Put into the eye just as 
you retire to bed. — 2. Take I pint of rose-water, 
and add l teaspoonful ench of spirits of camphor 
and laudanum. Mix end bottle. To be shaken 
and applied to the eyes as often xs necessary. — 
3. Sulphate of copper 15 grains, French bole (5 

Eains, camphor 4 grains, boiling water 4 ounces. 
fuse, atram, and dilute with a quarts of cold 
water. 

IVA TER, Florida,. — Take oil of bergamotte 
3 ounces, oil of cinnamon 4 drachms, tincture of 
benzoin 2 ounces, alcoho! 30 per cent. Baume l 
{;allon. Mix and filter. 

WA TER, Goulard. — Extract lead i drachm, 
and of distilled vinegar 3 ounces, proof spirit 
of wine ^ of an ounce, water i pinL Mix 
these ingredients together. 

WATER, Hcn^y, — Rectified spirits 8 pints, 
oil of cloves, oil of lavender, oil of bergamotte, 
each ^ of an ounce ; musk S grains, yellow 
landers shavings 4 ounces; digest for S days, 
and add 2 pints each of orange flower and rose* 
water. 

WA TER, Hungary.— ^^<t oil of rosemary 2 
; ounces, of balm and lemon peel of each I ounce, 
int 30 drops, essence of orange fluwers and es- 
sence of roses of each I pint, alcohol i gallon. 

WATER, Kissineen, \f^ Fountains.) — Bi- 
carbonate of soda t drachm, carlmnate of lime 3 
^achms and 2 scruples, precipitated cirbonalc 
of lime 2 scruples, common salt 8 ounces, muri- 
ate of ammonia 4 grains, sulphate of soda 2 
drachms and 2 scruples, /ulphate of magnesia 2 
ounces, phosphate of sodn 13 grains, phosphate 
of lime 3 drachms and 2 scruples. Mix. Add 
water jl< of a gallon. Let it stand for 6 hours, 



>hate 

1 



filter, add carbonate of magnesia 3 dradima and 
I scruple, and charge with 10 gallons of watet. 

WATER, lazmdrr.—i. Oil o«f Uv«iida 4 
ounces, proof spirit 3 quarts, rose water r pint 
Mix ana filter. — 2. {Od^ri/efxms.) — Oil of^lav- 
ender 3 drachms, oil of bcrganiottc 30 drops, 
oil of neroli 6 drops, otto of rot« 6 drop4, c»- 
scnce of cedrnt 8 drops, essence of musk 30 
drops, rectified spirit 38 fluid ounces, distilled 
water 4 ounces. 

WATER, ZiwA— Lime % kA ^ lb., distilled 
water 12 pints. Slake the lime with a little wa- 
ter, add the remaining water, and shake; set 
the covered vessel aside for 3 hours, keep the 
liquor and lime in stopi^l glass vessels, and 
when it is required decant the clear portion for 
use. Antacid, lithontriptic. Allays obstinate 
vomiting, is used as an astringent in dysentery, 
and, with sarsaparilla. as an iterative ia cnls* 
neous diseases or impaired digestion. Dose— 
1 to 3 ounces, combined with an equal quantity 
of mdk. 

WATER, Ros f.^OxXo of roses 13 drop*, 
white sugar i ounce, magnesia 2 drachms, pare 
soft water i quart, alcohol 3 ounces. Rut the 
otto of roses with the sugar and magnesia, and 
gradually add the water and alcohol, previously 
mixed, and filter the whole through paper. 

IVA TF.R, Vichy {/or Fountains) — Sulphate 
of potass 2 drachms, sulphate of soda 4 

Eles, phosphate of soda 25 grains, common 
drachms, bicarbonate of soda c ounces, 
bonate of ammonia 10 grains. Mix. Add 
ter I gallon. Let it stand i day, filler, and 
change with 10 gallons of water. 

WASJIBAll, Fer/urmd.—Take of the best 
white soap, shaved into slices, 3 ounces: of Flo- 
rentine onris I ounce, of calamus aromaticuj the 
same, of elder-flowers, duvcs and dried rose- 
leaves, each I ounce; corriander seeds, lavender, 
and bay leaves, each i drachm; with 3 drachms 
of storax. Reduce the whole to a fine powder, 
which knead into a paste with ijic scrap, adding 
a few grains of soap or ambergris. \Vhen you 
make this paste into washballs, soften it wiin a 
little oil of^almonds to render the composiuon 
more lenient. This soap has excellent deanslng 
and cosmetic properties. 

WAFERS, firman's /V/j«p»»>.— Take white 
sugar 7 lbs., tincture of syrup of ipccac4 ounces, 
antimonial wine 2 ounces, morpliine 10 grains, 
dissolved in a tablespoonful of water, with to or 
15 drops of sulphuric acid; tincture of blood 
root I ounce, syrup of tolu 3 ounces; add these 
to the sugar, and mix the whole moss as confec- 
tioners du fur loienges, and cut into lozenges Che 
ordinary sire. 

WJNTERGREEAr, — IK is nscful in 
modic asthma, in urinary, and in female wi 
nesses. It relieves cranip from wind in 
stomach ; and the juice, boiled wiih sweet 
wnx and turpentine, makes a solve which is 
to heal wounds. 

WITCH HAZEL.^K tea of the leaves 

bark is useful to wash putrid sores; and H will 
also remove that diseased or dead substance 
known as "proud flesh." For this ourposca 
poultice should be made of a strong inmsion and 
applied to the sore, or it may he washed gently 
with the tea. 

WR/GHj 'S cure for Injlammattvy Rkew 
matistn. — Sulphur and saltjMHrc «f euJi 1 ooner* 
gum guaiac 1 ounce, coldiicum root, or aeciL 



( and ' 



and nutmegs, of each ^ of an oance all to be 
pulverued ind mixetl with simple syrup, or mo- 
Usses, 3 ounces. Dose — i teaspoonM evcrv 2 
boon ontil it moves the bowels rather freely; 
then 3 or 4 times diuly until cured. 

iVO/fAfAEED {Oak of yrrttsa/zm. )— This is 

▼ermifugc or anthelmintic medicine, that is 

to di»troy worms. A tablespoon^ of the 




juice of the plant expressed or sr|ace£ed out b a 
dose. The seed may be boiled in milk ; gire a 
wineglassful. Or i or 2 leaspoonfuls ol ihe >ced 
itself may be mixed with molasses or honey, 
and given to a child 3 or 3 vears old, an an 
emntr stomach, twice a day and continued sev- 
eral da^s. Tim is very highly prucd for bowel 
complaints* 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



ft 



AKlMALSt Effffts ttf Kindness <w.— The 
l&w that is to usher in the advent of the Golden 
Age is the law of kindness — the Uw of love be- 
tween man and man. If this law, or even a j 
portion of it, be applied by man to the govern- 1 
ment, or rather Uie directing of tlie so-called 
** brute" creation, it will be wonderful how eas- 
By they can be brought under subjection and 
oontiol. The cflicacv of the soothing word, the 
gentle touch, ha& only to be hones Uy tried to be 
fully appreciatcti. It maybe set down as a fixed 
fact that ^thcncver a horse or a cow or an ox is 
Cunid and shy — will not allow a person to ap- 
pruacb or handle, unless it is so situated that it 
cannot escape — a wrong system of treatment 
has been pursued. The ammals of the farmer 
are naturally disposed to be docile and affection- 
ale. They recognize the voice and hand of a 
friend almost as soon as a human being would, 
and manifest their aflcction in a variety of ways, 
which none but the kind master or keeper will 
observe. Have you not seen team&tcrs who 
could manare their teams bv asoft word far bet- 
ter than others could do by blows and harsh 
words ? I have. Have you not seen a milk- 
aoaid approach a cow with a bucket without the 
slightest evidence of a disposition on the part of 
the animal to evade her ? And have you not 
seen the same cow make every effort to escape 
from the next milkmaid who approaches her ? 
I have, and the reason was that tnc first had al- 
ways treated her kindly and gently, while the 
latter had pursued the opposite method. Ani 
mab almost invariably partake of the character 
tk their masters. The kind, gentle and consid- 
erate master will generally have kind, gentle 
aaimnln; while the rude, impetuous and cruel 
OMSt^ will rarely foil to have animals who^e 
dtspofiitioa^ will mate with his own. Is not 
gentlenesi the true method ? I think so. God 
has given those poor brutes for our use ; they 
Binifttcr to our wants, are patient and uncora- 
pUaiBC. and certainly deserve such treatment 
at our Mnds as will show that we properly ap- 
preciate the kindness of the Almighty in giving 
them to Uft tur Uie purpose of adding to our 
conliort. 

CATTLE. 

CA TTL£,AGE OF, ffmtf h TV/A— The age 
of the ox or cow is told chiefly bv ilie teeth, and 
Ies4 perfectly by the horns. The temporary 
teeth are in part tlirough at birth, and alt the in- 
cisort are through in 30 days ; the iiTiX, second. 
aad Aird pain of molan «;c thiuufh in 30 



days ; the teeth have grown Urge enough 
touch each other bv the sixth month ; they grad- 
ually wear and fall in iS months ; the fourth 
permanent molars arc through at the fourth 
month ; the fifth at The fifteenth month ; the 
sixth at a years. The temporary teeth begin lo 
fall at 21 months, and are entirely replaced by 
the tliirty-ninth to the fortv-fifth month. The 
development is quite complete at frnm J lo 6 
years. At that time the border of the incisors 
nas l)cen wotn away a little below the level of 
the grinders. At 6 years the firet grinders are 
be^nning to wear, and are on a level with the 
incisors. At 8 years the wear of the first grind- 
ers is very apparent. At 10 or II years, used 
surfaces of the tecLli bear a square mark, sur- 
rounded by a while line ; and this is perceived 
on all the teeth by the twelfth year ; lietween 
the twelfth and the fourtecnih year, this mark 
takes a round form. The rings on the horns 
arc less useftil as guides. At 10 or 12 months 
tlie first ring appears ; at 20 months to 2 years 
the second ; at 30 lo 32 months the third ; at 40 
to 46 months the fourth ; at 54 to 60 months the 
fifth ring, and so on. But, at the fifth year, the 
3 first rings are indistinguishable, and at the 
eighth year all Ihe rings ; beside, the dealers 
file the horns. 

CA TTLE, BREACHY.—I0 prevent bore a 
hole through each end of the boaid, whete ibey 
will exactly fit the horns without stretching or 
pressing. Let the holes be small enough not to 
^ too rar down on the horns. Leave about an 
inch of the born sticking through the board,; 
drill a small hole through it, targe enough to 
admit a horse-nail as a key. The board, reach- 
ing from this cross-piece to the nose, may be 
screwed fast to it ; there will lie play enough on 
the horns to give the necessary swing. If nails 
are used, which is seldom necessary, they should 
be very smoothly blunted. 

CATTLE, Catarrh m.— MaUgnant catarrh, 
or coryza, htis been confoumled with the catOe 
plague or rinderpest, in some points of which 
there is a resemblance. Symplems, — In first 
stage a shivering fit may be observed; dullness, 
head held low, ears pendulous, the visible mem- 
branes of which are of a bluish-red color and 
dry; eyes closed and swollen, tears flow, and 
light cannot l>e endured; muzzle dry and hot, 
saliva discliarged abundantly ; painful cough, 
pulse frequent and full, heart's action feeble, 
bowels costive, feces black and hard, but after 
a short time diarrhea ensues ; urine scanty, ol- 
fensive, and of a high color; is thirsty, but eats 



I 

4 




DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WAHTS. 



emU nothing. The second stage occurs within 
|8 or 24 hours from the appearance of the first 
signs of disturbance, and ii denoted hy a very 
inark<y change in the character of the discharges. 
The membranes of the eyes and nose now fur- 
nish a purulent secretion, having an admixture 
of blix>d and ichor, which trritales and makes 
»orc the skin over which it flows. Within the 
sinuses of the head large accumulations of pus 
occur, and when the bones over them arc tapped 
by tlte fingers (percussed) a dull sound is emit- 
ted. If the mouth is opened, red patches will 
be observed, which in some places will have 
fallen off, exposing a foul ulcer beneath, and the 
membranes are now of a deeper purple hue, and 
the breath fetid. The animal is fame, and expe- 
riences great pain when urine or dung is dis- 
charged. Pregnant auim.ils are almost sure to 
cast their young (aborL) In the tliird stage 

great prostration is evident Sloughing of mem- 
ranes extensive, and probably the horns and 
hoofs have come oflT. The pulse has become 
imperceptible, and convulsions ensue, with gen- 
eral coldness. The thermometer indicates a 
rapid and unusual fall, 90 to 95' F. being the 
amount of heat that can be registered at the rec- 
lum. Sometimes ulceration of the cornea is ef- 
fected before death, and the contents of the eye- 
ball discharged, giving rise to a great amount of 
additional pain. Dut^tion. — From 4 to 9 or 11 
days. 7Vvw///i^«^— Remove the animiU from 
the pasture, and place it in a comfortable, cool 
place, with good bedding. Cooling or evapo- 
rating lotions, water, etc., should be constantly 
applied to the head. Injections of warm water 
snould be thrown up. The following laxative 
drink may be idroinistered: 

Take of Epsom salts 12 oz., ground ginger 2 
oz., treacle ^ lb., and warm ale I ^ pts. Mix 
and give to a 2-year old beast ; \^ for t year 
old : *^ at 6 months, and }i for lesser animals. 
as calves, sheep, and large pigs. 2 or 4 drs. of 
nitre in water may be given 3 or 4 times a day. 
Solutions of carbolic acid, or sulphurous acid 
gas and chlorine in water, should be used for the 
purpose of dressing the wounds and cleansing 
the points of discharge, etc. It may also be 
necessary to open the sinuses and sponge them, 
using the some solutions. 

CATTLE, CHOKED, To RtHn^.-l'ci 
choking, the accumulation of gas (chiefly sul- 
phuretted hydrogen) is the cause of the animal's 
death. This gas can be decomposed by the 
forcing of chloride of lime down the an'mars 
throaL A strong solution of salt and water will 
also effect the same object. Another mode of 
relief is to force the animal to jump over the 
bars of a gate or fence, as high as she will jump, 
and when she touches gruund on the opposite 
side the obstruction will be elected. Another 
pUn is to take a loaded gun, slip up by the side 
of the animal, place the muz?.le directly between 
the horns, about 3 inches forward of them, and 
discharge the piece. A sudden spring of the 
animal backward results, and the obstruction is 
removed. And yet another is to use 4 or 5 feet 
of % rubber hose, and push the obstruction 
down. 

CATTLE, BLACK" LEG /.V.— This can be 
ctired by thoroughly washing the diseased leg in 
strong soap suds; rub till dry ; then scrape the 
knois witn a dull knife ; then lake i ounce of 
Tithol and diMolve in slroog vinegar, after 



which the leg must be very thoroughly bathed 
and dried. 

CA 7'TLE, FfiiiiH^ auj Cair cf. — The two 
p-eat points in the feeding of cattle are re^lat- 
ity and a particular care to the weaker individu- 
als. On this last account there ought to be 
plenty of rack or trough room, that loo man/ 
may not feed together ; in which very common 
case the weaker ore not only trampled down \xf 
ihe stroAgcr, but they are worried, cowed and 
spirilWss ; than which there cannot be a more 
unfavorable state for thrift ; beside, they are 
ever compelled to shift with the worst of the 
fodder. To prevent this the weaker animals 
should be kept and fed apart The bam or sta- 
ble should be kept worm in winter. Daring 
the winter months, whenever llie sun shines, 
turn them into the yard, and they will soon find 
the sunny side, and begin to stretch themselves 
and show increased comforL A good plan is to 
feed them meal or roots early in the morningi 
without any hny, :vnd turn them out a Utile after] 
sunrise, and then feed hay, either in the yard or] 
at the adjoining stack, putting them back in 
stalls as early as 4 r. m.. stormy or extreme cok 
weather excepted, when they should be kept 
comfortably housed the most of the time. In 
Fattemng, the farmer should remember that it 
does not pay to feed grain to a poor creature — 
one that does not take on flesh rafudly. This 
kind of stock should at once be disposed of fc 
what it will bring. The next important point H 
to feed plentifully, without stint, and to do this' 
rcgularfv and not too ottcn, as the stodc will cat 
and lie down and ruminate. 

CA TTLE, Ftlm on Eyrs of.— To remove it 
apply clean lard, warm or cold, which ever way. 
It can be got into the eye best. Its applicati( 
will cause no pain, and should be applied unl 
the film is removed. Another method is to ap* 
owdcred sugar. 
'^ATTLE, Foot and Mouth Diseast in. — Oa. 
the first indication of this disease, the |jPecteid 
cattle should at once be separated from th^j 
healthy, so as to secure against the spreading of 
the disorder. Next make a mixture composed 
of 5 lbs. of alum to 12 gals, of soft water, 4 
qts. of salt, and a small quantity of tar, and 
with a sponge or rag wash the inside of the 
mouths thoroughly of^those not aflfectcd. Ncrt 
bathe the lower portion of the legs with suds 
furmed from carbolic disinfecting soap, to whidi 
is added I at. of salt to about I gaL suds. Re- 
peat the battling and vrashtng once a day for 7 
days. The affected animals should be treated 
in the same manner, with the exception of wash- 
ing the inside of the mouth twice a day — once 
with the mixture given above, and once with 
wormwood steeped in vinegar. To the division 
of Ihe hoof apply suds at lirst, and afterwards 
apply a mixture of pitch and tar. The buildings 
should 1>e thoroughly disinfected by carbohc 
acid, chloride of hme, and other disinfectants, 
and if the cattle themselves be treated witli the 
fumes of burning sulphur, it will help to prevent 
further infection, for which purpose drop small 
pieces of brimstone upon live cools, contained in 
suitable metallic vessels, (so as to avoid all risk 
of communicating fire,) and allow the fumes to 
mingle with the air 01 the lean-to, or building 
containing the cattle, and to penetrate the C'xUs 
of the beasts, and to be inhaled to such extent 
as can be borne by the attendant without serious 



"V; 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS-^CATTLE, 



» 



I 



discomfort. \jt\. this be regularly repeated, 
daily or twice daily while the danf^cr continues, 
usuig from I to 2 ounces each time, according to 
the extent of the danger. Finally, the animals 
should tie kept in a dry, comfortable place, suit- 
ably ventilated, and receive good nursing, inclu. 
ding the utmost cleanliness. No Weeding must 
be allowed, nor should active purgatives he given 
them. If unable to take their usual food, their 
strength should be sustained by giving mashes 
of coarse-ground wheat, with bran or other sim- 
ilar diet. 

CATTLE, HOOF ROT IN,— Tor a cure, 
take I teacupful of sharp cider vinegar, l^ ta- 
blespoonfuis of copperas, 1*4 tables poonfu Is of 
salt. Dissolve gradually on the hot slove, but 
do not let it boU. When cool, apply it on the 
affected limb and hoof, and also swab out the 
mouth of the anifpal with the mixture. 2 or 3 
applications gcncially effects a cure. This prep- 
aration can M used m the foot and mouth dis- 
ease in connection with the above treatment. 

CATTLE, Hffi'en or Bloat hi.— A certain 
remedy for this is to take a pail of water, fresh 
firom the stream, and pour it from a jug forward 
of the hip tones, rubbing it on with the hands. 
It will be found that the bloat will at once com- 
mence to go down, and by applying 2 or 3 more 
pailsful complete restoration will result 

CATTLE, LICE ON, To Destrpy.—l. 
Cacaphor dissolved in spirits is an effectual rem- 
edy. — 2. I part l.ird and I parts coal oil, melted 
together and applied, will kill lice without fail, 
— 1. A strong brine, thickened with soft soap, 
vriU also kill. — 4. 3 or 3 applications of kerosene 
oil, applied by carding the animal^ and dipping 
the teeth of the card in the oil, is convenient, 
harmless iind effectual. — ^. Feeding onions to 
the anunal will make the uce travel in from 10 
to 15 hours. 

CATTLE, MANGE /M— This is caused 
by Improper treatment of the animal through the 
wixtcr, rendering it debilitated and unable to 
support the change when the grass comes on. 
Nature, overloaded, will relieve herself by this 
eruption on the skin, which, once introduced, 
will quickly spread through an entire dairy. 
The treatment required is proper attention to 
cleanliness, food, drink, and plenty of sun- 
light. 

CATTLE PLACC'E,—CU\oudc of copper 
is sow extensively used in Germany as a pre- 
ventive against the cattle plague, llie mode of 
•dibiAistering the specific is as follows : A solu- 
tion ta first mode by dissolving 1^ of an oz. of 
tike green crystallized salts in spirits of wine. In 
tfaia solution a pad of cotton is soaked for a lit- 
tle while, and is then laid on a plate and set on 
firt! ta the centre of the stable, the animals' 
heads being turned toward the flame, so as to 
make tbcm breathe the fumes. The operation 
is performed morning and evening, and a spirit 
Ump fiUed with the solution left burning in the 
statile every night. The liquid is also adminis- 
tered internally, with the addition of t^ an or. 
ofdUoroform for the above quantity, ateaspoon- 
Ifil being put into the animal's dnnk 3 times a 

VA TALE'S ffORNS, Sawing Of.—K eel- 
e lai i eJ proliessor of a Ixindon Veterinary Col- 
len his aaid, concerning this practice : I con- 
TOcr diis to be a very gross act of cruelty, and 
fiir this reuoo— ilut the horns of oxen are very 



«k 



unlike those of the deer species. Thev have a 
large proportion of bone growing out (rom the 
bone of tne head, and that is surrounded by a 
heavy sensitive structure, so that, to cut the an- 
imal s horns, they had to go below where it was 
simply homy, and the animal had to suffer much 
pain. The nearer the operation was performed 
to the skull, the greater the suffering. That 
bone was hollow — that is to say, it had not one 
single horned cavity — l)ut it nad several cells 
M-hich extended into the head, though not to the 
brain, but close to it. Tlicse cavities were ex- 
posed, by the removal of the horns, to the air ; 
and as they are lined with a delicate, sensitive 
membrane — there being, beside, a delicate, sen- 
sitive covering outside — great suffering must be 
caused. The cavities were never intended by 
Nature to be exposed to the air, which brought 
on an inflammatory condition. These canties 
were very apt to be inflamed, and the inflam- 
mation was Tery likely to be extended to the 
membranes of the brain, causing madness, lock- 
jaw, or other dangerous results. This operation 
is one of the most painful and unwarrantable 
that could possibly be performed on cattle. 

CATTLE, SNAKE-BITTEN, Remedy for. 
— Cattle or horses are usually bitten in the Ket. 
WTien this is the case, all lh.it is necessary to do 
is to drive them into a mud-hole and keep them 
there for a few hours ; if upon the nose, bind 
the mud upon the place in such a manner as not 
to interfere with their breathing. 

CA TTLE, Sorf Mifuth in.— Take a weak so- 
lution of carbolic acid — say I to 5 drops to the 
ounce of water — washing the mouth every few 
hours, allowing a little to be swallowed, and 
following this with mild tonics and food that 
will not irritate the mouth. 

CATTLE, WarUon.^i. To remove warts 
from cnttle, mix equal parts of blue vitriol, lard 
and honey, and anoint them once in 4 or 5 days; 
they will be removed without making a sore. — 
2. VVash with a strong ley made of pearlash and 
water 3 times a day. — 3. Or make 2 or 3 appli- 
cations of lunar caustic 

CATTLE, WENS aV.— Wens cannot be 
cured, except by a surgeon's removing them al- 
together with a scalpel, followed by the applica- 
tion of a healing ointment. 

COWS, ABORTION IN— The predispos- 
in^ cause for this disease is constitutional in the 
animal, while the exciting cause may be ill-treat- 
ment at the time of pregnancy, damp surround- 
ings, food in which ergot of rye may l>e found, 
impure water, etc. The predisposing cause can 
be avoided by giving the generative organs of 
the animal a rest. The domg of this, by a free- 
dom of from six months to a year from preg- 
nancy, will almost insure freedom from alK>rtion 
^-especially so if care is taken in the avoiding of 
all tupposable exciting causes. Many farmers 
may not be willing to endure the loss involved 
in this suggestion ; but it will l>e a gain in the 
end, because no animal alwrts without, in a 
greater or less measure experiencing such a 
shock to her system as will tell on her future 
_ health and ralue. 

COIVS, Cartef.—l. Cows should ran dry 6 
weeks before calving ; if milked do$ely toward 
calving, the calves will l>e poorer. 

2. A cow newly come in should not drink 
cold water in cold weather, but moderately warm 
water. Calves, intended for raising, should \a 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS, 




taken from the cow within a few days, and ther 
will be \ts% liable to suck when they are olcL 
Feed them first on new milk for a snort time, 
and then on skim milk, taking care that all the 
dianges arc gradual, by adding only a portion at 
first 

3. Hearty eaters are desirable for cows, and 
may usually be selected while calves. A dainty 
call will Iw a dainty cow. 

4. Heifers dried up too early after calving, 
will always run dry about the same time in after 
years — therefore, be careful to milk closely the 
nr&t year, until about 6 weeks prerious to the 
time fur calving. 

5. Spring cows should come in while they arc 
yet fed on hay, and before they are turned to 
erass^ which will be more Ukely to prevent caked 
Bag and milk fever. 

6. The best times for feeiling the cow are early 
in the momingt at noon, and a little before sun- 
set. 

7. Abundance of the purest water must al- 
ways be ^u]}pHcd, and it ought in all c^ies, when 

fracticabte, be what is understood as soft water, 
n winter llie water given should be warmed to 
the temperature of the air on a summer day. 

8. The food given should be as nearly in its 
natural state as possible. Cooking food, slops, 
brewers' grains, etc, are all objectionable, where 
either 6m), healthy flesh or pure rich milk is de- 
aired. 

COWS, DAIRY, To SeUct—Cowi of extra- 
Ordinary milking qualities are as often found 
iWnong the native as among grade and thorough- 
bred animals ; and, as a rule, the progeny of 
these extra-milkers become the best cows, and 
every heifcr-caif from such shouki be raised, ex- 
cept it foils to carry the mark indicating a good 
milker. This mark is the upward growth oT tlic 
hair on the inside of the thighs of the calf from 
immediately behind Uie ut'der, as high as the 
hair goes. If it be found running up in a very 

tooth and unbroken column — idl other tilings 
'facing equal — with good care and continued hnc 
■growth, there will scarcely be a lailurc. But 
whatever extraordinary qualities the cow may 
"""isess, unless this mark is found on the calf, it 

not worth raising for a dairy cow. There are 
several other signs .ind conditions indicative of 
valuable milking q;ua1ities. some of which attend 
the first described. Smooth and fair-siurd teats ; 
a large and long milk vein ; slim neck ; and 
sometimes 6 teats ; a yellow skin. ap{)arcnt 
^X)ut the eyes and nose, and other bare spots, 
Are indications of rich milk, and one of the indi- 
cations of a good cow. 

COIVS, FARROW, What ta Do With.— 
Feed them liberally and they will give rich milk, 
though, perhaps, not mucn of it. Let them 
liave 3 or 4 quarts of meal a day through the 
winter and spring, and do not stop giving it to 
them when grass comes. As soon as it dries 
them up they will be fit Cor the butcher. 

COWS, BLOODY M!LK IN— To cure, 
give a tablcspoonful of milk in a little bran or 
Sneai, and renewing the dose the second or third 
'day. Another remedy is to give a tablcspoonful 
of sulphur in a little dry braa once a day — in 
Ycry had cases, twice a dav. 

COIVS, CA RGR T AV.—This disorder is 
very frequent in cows after ceasing to be milked ; 
il alfccts the glands of the udder with hard 
swellings, and often arises bom the animal not 



being clean milked. It may be removed by jit* 
ing a pwt of beans a day for 4 or J days. The 
beans should be soaked and mixed with meal to 
make the cow eat them ; but the better way is to 
grind the beans and feed a pint a day with other 
meaL This wiil be found a sure remedy. An- 
other plan is to give the cow I tcospoonfuj of the 
tincture of arnica, in bran or shorts, three times 
a day, and bathe the bag thoroughly witli it as 
often. The arnica for bathing should be reduced 
yi in warm water, and bathe with the hand. 

COtVS, HARD-MILKING.— Tht. eaascs 
for cows holding up their milk are various — ir- 
regularity in time of milking, imperfect milking, 
and lack of water in pastures; over -driving in 
bringing nnim.als home; the taking of the calf 
away — and especially will this be the case where 
the cntf, while being reared, is kept in a situa- 
tion where the mother can keep up an acquaint- 
ance with it ; and finally the presence of a vi- 
cious or sulky disposition in the cow, the slight- 
est dissatisfaction making them bold up (heir 
milk, llicse l.ut ore unprofitable and nnly hi 
for the shambles. The remedy in usual cases is, 
besides the avoidance of the apparent cause, 
gentleness, kind words, and a system 01 petting 
the animals, so as to gain their confidence ana 
affection, coupled with plenty of good water and 
feed. 

COWS, KICKING.— Co^% seldom kick 
without some good reason for it. Teats some- 
times are chapped or the udder tender ; harsh 
handUng hurts them, and they kick. Sometimes 
long and shaip finger nails cut their teats, and 
suraeLimcs the milker pulls the long hair^ on the 
udder, while milking. Shear off the long hairs, 
cut long finger noils close, bathe chapped teats 
with warm water, and grease them well with 
lartl, and always treat a cow gently. She ne\'er 
will kick unless somctliing hurts her, or she fears 
a repetition of former hurts. When handled 
gently cows like to be milked. Wlien treated 
otherwise, they will kick and hold up their milk. 
Occasion:dly a cow is found that, hke some men* 
has a bad, ungovernable teraper^lbat flies si 
merely imaginary offences. For this class lake 
a small strap long enough for the purpose, and 
bend the foreleg so as to bring toe toot up to 
the body. Then put the strap round the am 
and smul part of the leg, near the hoof, crossing 
between so as not to slip off over the knee, and 
buckle. In this condition it is an impossibility 
for a cow to kick ; they may come to toe knee a 
few times, but arc soon quiet. Never, fts some 
do, confine the hind legs, either singly or to- 
gether, for in doing this there is danger of spoil- 
mg the animal. Milkers should study the tem- 
per of the cows they milk, and find out whether 
a cow kicks on account of pain or willfulness. 
If it is from bad temper, the strap applied to the 
foot if a very good way to subdue her, but you 
should avoid whipping and beating in all cases. 
COWS, R/I£UAM7/SA/ /N.— The tre^- 
ment of rheumatism should consist in placing the 
animal in a moderately warm place, and giving 
diet of a generous character. In cases where 
the pain is severe, the tincture of aconite in 20 
drop doses may be given with advantage. Fric- 
tion to the joints will be found Iwncficial; and, 
where much swelhng exists, the liniment of am- 
monia may be rubbed in daily. Cooling Appli- 
ances do not seem to suit this complaint. The 
enlargements in the joints sometimes become 



ill 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS— CATTLE, 



^ 



^ 



chronic, and should then be ireated with appli- 
cations of the tincture of iodine. 

COIVS, MIIKIXG, The Highi Mithcd ef.^ 
Some persons in milking seize the root ol the 
Vtax between the thumb and forefinger, and then 
drag upon it until it slips out of Ihcir jgrasp. In 
this way teat and udder are subjecteu to severe 
traction for an indefinite number of times* and in 
rode hands are often severely injured. Others, 
afain^ by carelessness and want of thoroughness, 
wUl cause ihe usual quantity of mtllc to shrink 
ooe<third in 2 weeks. In many localities more 
oowi are ruined IVom faults of bad milking than 
^om all other causes that act specially on the 
udder. The proper mode of milking is to take 
Ctie teat in the entire hand, and, after pressing it 
apward, that it may be well hlled from the capa- 
cious milk reservoir above, to compress it first 
9l the base between the thumb luid forefinger, 
then successively by each of the 3 succee<!ing 
6aeers, until completely emptied. The teat is 
at the tame time gently drawn upon, but any se- 
vere traction is altogether unnecessary, and 
Mghly injurious. 

COWSt To Increase theip Miii- — Give your 
cows, 3 times a day, water slightly warm, slightly 
salted, in which bran has been stirred at the rate 
of f quart to 3 gallons of water. You will find, 
if you have not tried this daily practice, that the 
cow will give 35 per cent, more milk, and she 
will beooiiie so much attached to the diet that 
•he will refuse to drink dear water unless very 
thirsty, but this meks she will drink almost any 
ti»e and ask for xnore. The amount of this 
drink necessary is an ordinary water-pail full 
each time, morning, noon and night. Avoid 

S'ving cows " slops," as they are no more fit for 
e animal than the hum.-tn. 
COIN'S, Milk Ffi'er in. — Immediately there 
we indications of milk fever, the animal should 
Im restricted to an exclusive hay diet. T^is 
Ireatment should be followed, even in summer 
lime, unles:> the animal is kept in very close pas- 
lure aod shows no tendency to fatten. This 
Bwderate feeding of hay only should be contin- 
ued on^ tlic fourth or fifth day after calving, at 
which time the full flow of milk is established, 
sad the danger of puerperal fever hai become 
sitghc. 

COirS. OLD, n'hen to A7//.— It u a ques- 
tioct among farmers as to what age cows can be 
properly used for dairy purposes^ and when it is 
best to dispose of them on account of age. It 
will depend somewhat on the breed of the ani- 
inuls and the usage they have received. As a 
Cjneni rule, when a cow has entered her teens, 
ue has approxiroated closely the limit of her 
ESS in the dairy line. A good ^nner has 
rked that a cow was never worn out so long 
was any room on her horns for a new 

COWS^ SELfi-^UdCING.—K good, sim- 
pie aa^ cfac^ arrangement to prevent cows from 
June themselves, or each otner, may be made 
jiaaLiag a baiter as follows : Take X or 3 
2 inches wide, and long enough to reach 
I the cow's nose. Stitch the edges to- 
r, god the ends also, with sharp nails in* 
♦very r^ inches, so that the points will 
outward. The heads of the nails should 
lar^ and should be between the two 
«rh«D leircd together. Now fasten two 
fid* aCrapSj with a budcle on one eikd of one, so 



that when the port with the nails is around the 
note the side straps may be buckled together 
over the head, back of the horns ; the part lliat 
goes around the nose should be large enough to 
allow the animal to eat freely. Inis arrange- 
ment will be effectual, but many think it cruel, 
especially in fly time. A much more desirable 
and effectual method is to put on a good strong 
halter, put the animal in a good stall, keep her 
clean, and feed as much cooked meal as she will 
until her milking season nearly runs out. 



eat 



v: 



icce 
arge 



it will be found that the milk will pay for uie ex- 
tra feed and care, and the beef will be in prime 
condition. 

COW St Swelled Bags in. — An excellent rem- 
edy for swelled bags uf cows, caused by cold, 
etc., is ^ an ounce of camphor gum to 2 ounces 
of sweet oil ; pulverize the gum, and dissolve 
over a slow fire. 

COWS' TEATS, Waris 0H,^Visins on the 
teats of cows usually extend no deeper than the 
skin. Tliey should not be removed while the 
cow gives milk. The most cfTcctual way is to 
take hold of the end of a wort with pUers, and 
cut it off with sharp shears. The cut should 
not be deeper than tnc skin. This remedy will 
not hurt a cow as much as clipping the skin does 
sheep when they are bein^ sueorcd ; or a 
of small wire may be twisted around a 
wart sufhciently tight to obstruct the circulation 
of the blood, aad left on till the wort drops off, 
leaving the surface smooth. 

CMLA'EO/^CALrES.—yrhetinnnnlnud 
is found licking his fellow, it is proof that unea- 
siness is present m the stomach, and the licking 
of his neighbor is a Iiabit contracted by instinct^ 
with a view of removing the unpleasantness. 
Unfortunately instinct is not at oil timc^ suffi- 
cient to avoid dangerous practices, and, if we 
take for granted that the stomach is at all times 
fully charged with acrid matter, we shall without 
hesitation llnd a remedy. It is only necessary 
to place within their reach shallow troughs, in 
which h kept a supply of common cliolk. If an 
animal has a supcraoundoncc of acrid secretion, 
it will most certainly swallow some of the dialk, 
which will as certainly neutralize the excess of 
acrid. If an animal has not acrid in excess, and 
partakes of the chalk, it will do no liarm. It is 
often too late to administer remedies to young 
stock, and the placing of chalk within their 
readi cannot be made tuo early. 

COOKING FOOD FOR STOCK,— TYa 
great profit of steaming food to feed to stock is, 
mat it converts much of the woody fibre of hay, 
straw, etc, into soluble, fat-forming nutriments. 
It is commonly supposed that, as cattle chew the 
cud, all the nutriment is extracted from the ha^, 
fodder, grain, etc., eaten. So far from this, 
nothing snort of boding or its equivalent, steam- 
ing, can convert woody fibre into soluble nutri- 
ment. Tlie same rule is applicable to grain, po- 
tatoes, and roots generally ; heat is essential to 
dissolving the starch of grains and roots to ren- 
der it available, as well as to dissolve the ele^ 
ments out of woody fibre. The heat of the an- 
imal system, together with the gastric juices, 
perform, but imp>erfectly, the same that steaming 
or cooking does. Experience and careful ex. 
periments have demonstrated that a very much 
larger proportion of food is assimilated into the 
system if cooked than \i fed uncooked, la ^RXf 



9* 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



cold weather & greater amount of heat'forming 
matter is required tu keep up animal heat than 
in mild or warm weather. At such limes extra 
hay or straw may he fed, to sustain this hcat» 
without cutting and steaming, yet this latter pro- 
cess would add largely to it<t nutriment, wilnout 
diminishing its heat-forming power. In this 
connection the foUouing directions wdl be found 
serviceable : 

To Cook Hay. — Cut it, wet it well, put it in 
upright tanks or casks, with false bottom and 
tight cover, press it down firmly, pass the steam 
in under the false bottom, and cook until done. 
To Cook Com. — Soak as many barrels, half-full, 
as you wish to cook from 15 to 24 hours ; turn 
on steam and cook until done, when the barrels 
should be full. To Makt Mush. — Fill as many 
barrels half-full of water as you wish to make 
borreU of mush ; bring (he water nearly to a 
boit by passing the steam to the bottom ; stir in 
each barrel from i>^ to 1^ bushels of meal un- 
til well mixed ; then cook until done, when the 
barrels should be full. T0 Cook Vegetablts — 
Fill the barrels full, and, if no other cover is at 
band, chop the top Ane with a shovel ; then 
cover them over witn bran meal or provender, 
and cook until done ; have holes in the bottoms 
of the barrels to carry off condensed steam. 

COTTON SEED FOR STOCA'.^Very 
many farmers believe that cotton seed for stock 
is superior to com, and ample experiment seems 
to confirm this view. To cook cotton seed, take 
a large kettle, which holds from 5 to 6 bushels, 
set it upon a brick furnace, fill it with cotton 
seed fresh from the gin. and then fill up the ket- 
tle with water, and boil something less than ^ 
an hour ; then empty the seed into troughs, and 
let the cattle and hogs to them. The milk and 
butter have none of that cotton-seed taste which 
the green or uncooked seed gives. Both cattle 
and nogs will keep in good order winter and 
summer on seed thus prepared ; and when yow 
arc ready to fatten pork, you have only to add 
an equal quantity of cotton-seed and corn, and 
boil as above. Experience has proved that it 
will fatten much sooner and be equally good as 
when fattened on corn alone. Your cows will 
give an abundance of milk all winter when fed 
in this manner, with but I bushel of com to 4 
of cotton- seed. 

CONDIMENTAL FOOD, THORLETS. 
— ^The advertisements of the patentees of this 
English preparation would lead to the belief 
that their "cattle food" contains more real nour- 
ishment than the ordinary kinds of food which 
hare hitherto been given; but chemical analysis 
shows the incorrectness of these statements. 
There is no secret in the composition, for the 
test is at hand in a simple analysis. Tlie follow- 
ing is an ordinary formula to make I ton of the 
meal : Take of Indian meal 900 weight, locust 
bean finely ground 600 weight, best linseed cake 
300 wcieht, powdered tumeric and sulphur of 
each 40 lbs., saltpetre 20 lbs., licorice 27 lbs., 
^ngcr 3 Ibi., aniseed 4 lbs., coriander and gen- 
tian of eadi 10 lbs., cream of tartar 2 lbs., car- 
bonate of soda and levigated antimony each 6 
lbs, common salt 30 lbs., Peruvian bark 4 lbs., 
fenugreek 22 lbs. The reader will observe that 
the cliicf ingredients are corn meal, locust bean, 
and linseed cake; these form its bulk, and con- 
stitute nine-tenths of the whole, the remainder 
being made up of "condiments." There can 



be no doubt whatever that the nutritive materials 
which the compound contains are purchased at 
an enormous expense, and really does not pay 
for the purchase. 

CALVES, Care of . — To raise good calves — 
those that will make good cows — Ihey must be 
well fed from their birth, as it is impossible to 
stint a calf in food till t year — or more — old, and 
then bring the animal into as ^ood condition, in 
all respects, as could be done if the animal had 
been well fed. Allow the calf to suck until the 
milk is fit to use. To learn it to drink, take the 
calf from the cow at the time memioned, and 
fasten it with about 6 feet of rope in a box stall ; 
then milk the cow, and standing off just fiir 
enough for the calf to reach you, wet one finger 
with milk, put it in its mouth, and gently lower 
your hand until it is immersed in the milk in the 
noil; let it continue to have the finger until iC 
hat received enough. This is lesson No. t. 
Itic second lesson is given in this wise : Dip the 
finger in the milk and place it in i(« mouth, and 
when you have brought its mouth in contact 
with the feed, gr.idually withdraw your finger 
and the thing i? done. It may be necessary to 
repeat this at the third time. The secret is that 
you must stand just far mourh so that the calf 
can just reach the pail of feed, as the rope will 
then be taut, and hence he cannot reach yoti, or 
butt over and spill his milk or feed. It may be 
remarked in tnis connection, that calves will 
thrive better on milk that is not rich in butter 
than on what is commonly called very rich mDk. 
The nutritive elements of milk reside chiefly in 
the casein. If ^ou have a cow that gives par- 
ticularly rich milk, and one that gives a quahty 
poorer in butter, it is better in every way to feed 
the calf on the milk of the latter. The calf will 
thrive better, and you get more butter from the 
milk of the first cow. 

CALVES, Lice and Vermin wr.— The best 
applications to destroy lice, nils, etc., is a thor- 
ough application of alcohol or kerosene oiL 
Neither will do the animals any harm, and they 
are much better than ointment of any kind. 

CALVES, ToCurfSfoursin.—Tikti \ pint 
of red oak acoms, break the shells, and steep 
thoroughly in 3 pints of water, and you will have 
[ quart of the tea. Give i pint of the same, 
warm, for the first dose, and the remainder 12 
hours after, if necessary. I never knew more 
than 2 doses required to effect a cure. 

HOLLOW IIORN, or Ifom Ail,— TUi dis- 
order usually attacks cattle in the spring, afler a 
severe winter; likewise those that are in very 
poor flesh, or those that have been o\Trworkcd 
and exposed to severe storms, or reduced by any 
other diseases, are predisposed to lake it. The 
s>'mptoms are as follows : Eyes dull, discharge 
ing yellow matter, dizziness, loss of appetite, 
shakmg of the head, bloody urine, coldness of 
the horns, stupidity and great debility. The 
remedies that are recommended are as numerous 
a? they are contradictory. One authority, ad- 
vises boring gimlet holes in the horns 3 inches 
from the head, while another advises not to bore 
at all; one advises to bleed in the neck in the 
same manner as a horse is bled, while another 
deprecates bleeding. Another advises to put a 
mixture of strong vinegar, (^ a teaspoonfal, ) 
fine salt and ground black pepper, (of each a ta- 
blespoonful,) and, after allowing it to stand over 
I night, to put a tablespoonful in each car of the 



I 



DOMESTIC ANiMALS^CATTLE, 



93 



ft 



ft 

I 



animal oifected. Another advises the cutting of 
the hair off the top of the head, and then pour 
or rub strong spirits of camphor thereon. And 
slill another advues the pouring of the camphor 
in the cars. Where so many remedies and so 
much advice is offered, it U safe to say that not 
ouch is known of the real ncturc of the dis- 
ease. 

I*IGS, Ninu to Select Good. — The desirable 
points in a good pig are: Sufficient depth and 
length of body to insure suitable lateral expan- 
sion; broad on the loin and breast. The bones 
small and joints fine ; legs no longer than, when 
fully fat, to just prevent the aniraal'i belly from 
trjuUng on tne ground when walking: feet firm 
And <iound: the toes to press btraightly on the 

Eound and lie well togcincr; the claws should 
healthy, upright and even. The head small, 
the snout short, forehead somewhat convex and 
curving upward ; the cars small but pendulous, 
somewhat inclining forward ; light and thin. 
His oirnage should be lively, sprightly, tather 
than dull and heavy ; a lively bright eye, and he 
sbould carry his head up rather than down. 
Those colors which ore characteristic of the best 
breed are to be chosen. The thinner the hair 
of a black pig the nearer allied it is to the Nea- 
politan, and consequently the less hardy, either 
to endure the cold and change of seasons* or to 
resist disease. White color indicates a connec- 
tion with the Chinese Mixed colors show marks 
of particular breeds; thus, if light or sandy, or 
red with black marks, the Berkshire blood is de- 
tected* etc 

P/CSt Blind Sta^^gfrs in. — The cause of this 
disease is too high feeding. The cure is to 
withhold their food for a day or two, and feed 
them on very small quantities of sulphur and 
charcoal. 

J'/GS. Li£f OH. — Procure some leaf tobacco, 
and boil it to a strong amber in water enough to 
Boat it ; mix in, whde hot, enough of lard or 
refuse grease to make a thin salve ; rub on the 
pigs or nogs troubled, and in le^s than a^ hours 
Ihey will not have a louse on them. If thor- 
oaghly Applied. Or get some crude petroleum 
oil and apply once a month, and no more lice 
will Appear. 

J'/CS, MANG y. — Manee is a diseaiie caused 
by the burrowing and breeding of a minute in- 
sect in the skin, like the itch in man, scab in 
sheep, etc If pigs which have it, or have been 
exposed to it, are washed with carbolic or crc- 
flyllc suap, and their pens and betiding sprinkled 
With the aamc, a cure is easily effected. More 
than one application might he required, and it 
would be beit to wash the animals at :he inter- 
val o/ a week. 

X/yGS, BULU Trf rns<rt.—H\Cx% can be 
done in three ways: i. By burning the hole 
throogh with a pomted rod of iron heated in the 
ibrge, thus piercing and searing the wound at 
the tame time. — 2. By punching out the hole 
an mttrnment like a leather punch of large 
■3. By pierdng the gristle of the nose with 
tipped rod, (cold,) of which the point is 
wkh two cutting edges. Perhaps it may 

as t£iprovcment to make the section of the 
Old. jusj above the point, triangular, or in the 
ahape o^" a four-pointed star. Tlijs last mode is 
sua to be the preferable one. A point of iron 
i^KMit 3 inches long, and hollowed out at the 
cod, like the barrel of a key, to receive the 



round end oC the open ring, is used after the 
hole has been pierced, as a guide to the ring. 

S!IKEI\ AGE QE, /low to T^//.— The age 
of sheep may be known by examining the front 
teeth. They are S in number, and appear dur* 
ing the first year, all of a small size. In the 
second year the 2 middle ones fall out, and their 
place is supplied by 2 new teeth, which are eas- 
ily distinguished, being of a larger size. In the 
third year, 3 other small teeth. I from each side, 
drop out, and arc replaced by 2 large ones, so 
that there are now 4 urge teeth in the middle, 
and 2 pointed ones on each side. In the fourth 
year, the large teeth are 6 in number, and only 
2 small ones remain, i at each end of the range. 
In the fifth year, the remaining small teeth are 
lost, and the whole front teeth are large. In the 
sixth year, the whole begin to be worn ; and In 
the seventh — sometimes sooner — some fiUl out 
and are broken. 

SHEEP AXD LAAfBS, Care anJ Afana^i- 
ment of. — l. Keep sheep dry under foot with 
litter. Thii is even more necessary than roof- 
ing them. Never let them stand in mud or in 
snow. — 3. Do not starve them during the win- 
ter, but by an abundance of food keep them in 
good conoition, A more painful sight than the 
nocks of many farmers, near the close of the 
winter, cannot be witnessed. When a farmer 
has more sheep than he can properly keep or 
sell, he should kill the surplus when winter sets 
in, even if he should get nothing from them but 
the pelts. — 3. Furnish an ample supply of wa- 
ter, convement of access, during the winter 
months. — 4. Always try to avoid letting any of 
your sheep or lambs have any sudden change of 
food. — 5. Take up lamb bucks early in the sum- 
mer, and keep them up until the December fol- 
lowing, when they may be turned out. — 6. Drop 
or take out the lowest bars as the sheep enter or 
leave a yard, thus saving broken limbs. — 7. 
Count every day. — 8. Begin feeding grain with 
the greatest care, and use the smallest quantity 
at first. — 9. If a ewe loses her lamb, milk her 
daily for a few days, and mix a litde alum with 
her 5.111. — 10. Let no hogs eat with the sheep, 
by any means, in the spnng. — n. Give lambs a 
lilitc mill feed in time of weaning. — 13. Never 
frighten sheep if possible to avoid it. — 13. Fur- 
nish sow rye for weak ones in cold weather, if 
possible.— ^14. Separate all those that are weak, 
thin or sick from those that are strong, in the 
fall, and give them special care. — 15. Ifany one 
of your shwp is hurt, catch it at once and wash 
the wound; and, if It is fly-time, apply spiriis of 
turpentine daily, and always wash with some- 
thing healing. If a H.nb is iKoken bind it "'ith 
splinters, hut not tight enough to interfere wUli 
the circulaiicm of the blood. — 16. Keep num- 
ber of guod bells on the sheep. — 17. Do not let 
the sheep spoil their wool with chaff or burrs.— 
I&. Cut tag-locks in early spring. — 19. For 
scours, give pulverized alum in wheat bran ; 
prevent by taking great care in changing dry for 
green feed. — 3o. If one it lame, examine the 
foot, clean out between the hoofs, pare the hoof 
if unsound, and apply a wash of carbolic add. 
— 3t. Shear at once any sheep commencing to 
shed its wool, unless the weather is too severe, 
and save carefully the pelt of any sheep that 
dies. — 23. If sheep arc ^ivcn pine boughs once 
or twice a week Iney will create appetite, pre- 
vent disease, and increase their neaLtJh.-^'V 



DICTION'ARY OF EVF.RY^DAY WANTS. 



Their general health during the grazing season 
will be promoted by giving the sheep tar, at the 
rntc of a gill a day for every 3o sheep. Pat the 
tar in a trough, sprinkle a little fine salt over it, 
and the sheep will consume it with eagerness. — 
24. The best sheep to keep, both for wool and 
mutton, is the American merino, 

SHEEP, STEERS, and Other Animais, 
yumpin^ Fencer, To /*rrtm/.— Various devices 
nave been resorted to in order to prevent such 
trcspa55C!>, and cspcciiilly in regjird to sheep, but 
none have succeeded, or only in a limited de- 
gree. The following is a new one, and is not 
cruel or painful, and will not greatly discommode 
the animal operated upon, and is a remedy to the 
employment of which there can be no obiection. 
It IS todtpofTthe eyelashes of the under lids 
witli a pair of scissors, and the ability or dispo- 
sition to jump is as effectually destroyed as was 
Samson'R power by the loss of his locks. The 
animal will not attempt a fence again until the 
eycKoshcs arc grown. 

SJF/EEP, CATARR/r /y.—Tat following 
is asserted to be a sure cure for this disease. 
Take a quill from a hen's wing, immerse the 
fe.ilher end in spirits of Inrpcntine, run it up the 
nostril of tlic sheep the whole length 01 the 
feather end, and twist it round Ijefore withdraw- 
ing it ; wipe it off clean each lime before immer- 
sing. One application will cure ordinary cases ; 
the second or tnlrd, at intervals of 2 or 3 dmys, 
will cure the worst. 

Sf/EEP-A'/LU.VG DOCS— If sheep are 
kept in the same lot with cows or fat cattle dogs 
will not disturb them. As soon as the don ap- 
preach ihcm they run to the cattle, who drive off 
Che dogs. This plan will usually be found effect- 
ual, but an additional safeguard is to put a e<^d 
sounding bell on one of the sheep. If a Tittle 
strychnine is put on a piece of meat (if tainted, 
the better) and left in tnc yards or vicinity of the 
sheep in the evening, if there be any dogs around 
ihey will be in a condition for a post-mortem ex- 
amination. An excellent way to trap sheep-kill- 
ing dogs, is to place the sheep they kill, or at 
least one of them, where the dogs have left it ; 
then put 4 or six lengths of fence around the 
dead sheep, made of sawed scantling. Com- 
mence by laying the scantling on the ground, 
and as you lay them up, draw your scantling in 
the width of them every time around, and build 
the fence high enough in this way that a dog can 
not jump it. Then lock the corners well, and 
you have a pen that dogs can go over into from 
the outside readily, and when once over, they 
cannot get out of it again until they are helped 
out. In this way, in a few nights, you will be 
quite likely to get the very same dogs that killed 
your sheep, as they will have the curiosity or de- 
sire to go over the ground the second time. It 
willbe octter lo keep still about having your 
sheep killed, for if you make any search for the 
dogs you need not be at all surprised if you find 
that every roan's doe is carefully shut up over 
night. It is not at .-dl likely that the dogs will 
have had the blood stains wxshed from them, or 
any p;u-ticles of wool removed from betwixt their 
teeth, on their return home in the morning, af- 
ter having been out over night engaged in sheep- 
killing. 

SHEEP, To Fatten for IVinter—OXhcx things 
taken into consideration, large sheep fatten more 

r/^ond profitably than small sheep, and full 



grown animals than those that have not reachevl 
inoturity. Two-year-oM wethers are the most 
profitable to fatten, and it is a matter of consid* 
erablc surprise that $0 few of our farmers breed 
them. Sheep will fatten readily in winter on 
good clover hay alone ; we do not mean the dark 
looking, burnt up stuff commonly called by that 
name, but what an I,nglish farmer would call 
"hay," cut when in full bloom, and cni in sndt 
a manner as to retain all its juices before they 
are turned into woody fibre, and of a good green 
color. A sheep of, say, 120 lbs. live weight, 
will consume 21 lbs. of clover hay per week, and 
increase in weight 2 lbs. Allowing that it woi^Ul 
ordinarily consume I4 lbs. to keep it in ^\:-u\\ 
stationary condition, an expenditure of 7 lh«. of 
hay extra will produce 1% lbs. of mutton, worth, 
in the spring, 10 cents, so tlmt the extra feeding 
ii literally realizini^ to the burner at the rate of 
nearly $30 [wr ton for his hay. No other stock, 
we think, will give such a return for the trouble 
of fattening as this. 

If it is desired to fatten sheep rapidlr, the a<]- 
dition of a small quantity of oats to tneir foCxl 
will be of great service ; a gallon of oals once a 
day, among 20 sheep, will be a great help to 
fattening. Fattening sheep do not rcnuirc very 
warm quarters — in fact, ihcy will not bear close 
confinement, but their quarters must be dry, 
well ventilated, and abundantly littered with 
clean straw ; they roust be fed regularly, kept 
quiet, have access to water, and an occasional 
taste of salt. It will be found that when the 
weather is very cold they will require to consume 
somewhat more food than at other times, in or- 
der to counteract the waste of substance used tts^ 
generating heat for their bodies, otherwise ihcy 
will lose mstead of gaining on cold or stormy 
days. 

SHEEP, To Protect from the Gad FIy.—\n 
August and September this fly lay* its ems in 
the nostrils ofshecn, where they are hatdicii, 
and the worms crawl into the head, and verj- fr<;. 
quently thev eat through to the brain. In this 
way many sheep are destroyed. As a protection 
smirch their noses with tar. Lay some tar in a 
trough or on a bcrard, and strew fuie salt on it — 
the sheep vn\\ finish the operation. The tar will 
protect them, and what they eat will promote 
their health. 

SHEEP, FOOTROTIiV, Ti* Cwrr.— Causes 
—exposure in bad weather, bnt particularly from 
soft and low lands and wet pasturage. It never 
occurs on hard, mountainous districts. The beM 
mode of cure is that bv arsenic. The moment 
you perceive that any 0/ your sheep have become 
lame, pass them through a trough containing a 
warm solution of arsenic of about the following 
strength: 4 ounces of arsenic, four onmrs of 
soda ash or potash, I gallon of water ; boil till 
dissolved; keep it about 3 inches deep, m> as to 
cover the foot as the sheep walk through ; the 
trough should be about 20 feet long, and just 
wide enough lo admit I sheep walking after the 
other. 3000 sheep can !*e run through in about 
3 honrs; and this will result in a cure in every 
instance. 

SHEEP, Hay Raekj f^r.—T^t cheapest and 
best rack for sheep can be made of 8 boards {4 
long and 4 short ones) nailed to 4 posts, form* 
ing an indosure 13 or more feet long, as the 
case may be, and « inches wide. The bot- 
tom board should be at least 10 inches vide 



POMESnC ANIMALS—CATTLE. 



and tbe top one need not be over 4, irith a space 
bdween 01 from 6 to S inches, depending some- 
whaiC npoo the size of the sheep that arc to eat, 
standing with their he«ds thrust through this 
aperture. 

SilEEP^ Injtammaticn of Lungs in. — This 
d&Ka&e is caused by wet and cold pastures, chills 
aAcr hard driving, washing before shearing when 
the water is at too low a temperature, sheormg 
when the weather is loo chilly and wet, and other 
carcumslances of a similar description. Its first 
iadicahon is that of a fever, hard and quick 
pruUe, diunclination for food, ceasing to chew 
the cud. unwillingness to move, slight heaving 
a( the flanks, and a frequent and painful cough. 
The disease soon assumes a more aggravated 
form ; but it is sulftcient for the farmer to know 
dK first stages of the malady, when he can pur- 
SBre tbe course of treatment which expcrteoce 
^Aertnines beiL 

SHEEP, RED WA TER AV.— To cure this 
ccNDpIaint tike of Epsom salts i ounce, linseed 
o«3 I ounce, gentian I drachm, ranger i scruple, 
water 2 ounces. For a lamb give ^ of 



I PiK ' 

Cwm •■ 



this amoant, but to a full-grown sheep the entire 
rf|WM>fcty. Foment the abdomen with warm wa- 
lex— 4 Iamb, m fact, may be placed altogether in 
a warm bath. In cases of recovery a change of 
looii must be ailbrded, and a short, sweet pas- 
tisre should be preferred. 

SHEEP, KlfEUMA T/SAf /y.—T\i\i dis- 
consists in a peculiar inflammation of the 
of the body, very fret^uently causing 
cooiiderable pain when thcr are called into ac- 
It if osoally cnused oj exposure to cold, 
sooMtiaieft shifts from one foot to another, 
y degenerating into a slow or chronic 
fans, aad attaining the sinews, ligaments, and 
joiaU, as well as the muscles. The neck and 
»Bs are die ports most frequently attacked, 
cilber separately or combined. The former af- 
liBCtioa causes tne head to be carried in a bent 
poiition, and tbe latter produces considerable 
sCiSsess and weakness of the loins. The treat- 
■CSKt riiould consist in removing the animal to a 
confortabte place, giving an active purgarive, 
VDch as 2 ounces of Fn^om salts dissolved in 
water, with a drachm of ginger, and ^ an 
of spirits of nitrous ether. A stimulant, 
Mdi as hartshorn and oil, or opodeldoc, should 
b« well rubbed over the ajffected part ; and if the 
4itTi«y auomes a chronic form, a seton should 
be inserled near the part. 

SHEEP, SCAB AV.— This disease closely 
leseiables the itch in man, and is caused by a 
very minute parasite called the scab mite. These 
creaCores find no dwelling-place on healthy, 
dcaui-fckinncd sheep : but when they do 5nd ihe 
leqoisilc conditions they multiply with astonish- 
rapidity, and spread throagh the flock, and 
fc dock to fiock. The females burrow in the 
and Biake little sores, in or under which 
depout their eggs, which hatch, and in a 
lime go to work produdng broods them- 
. The sores thui causeil run together and 
<hcab«; they make an intolerable itching, 
and the sheep hue and scratch themselves fear. 
fbflf, tearing out their wool m [>atchc5 over their 
loaew The disease is sometimes an epidemic. 
■hI ibnoch wbule regions (he flocks suffer so 
Itnihiy that government action has been ncces- 
cvy to prevent their cxtinctinn. The suffering 
bcooinr OKin and more emaciated ; their 



A 




wool (alls otf; their bodies are covered with nan- 
scous scabby sores ; their nervous system is in- 
cipable of sustaining the pain, and its functions, 
with those of the skin, l>eing deranged, the di- 
gestive organs sympathize, and the sheep finally 
die. 'llie reme<iies for the scab are numerous, 
but the best discovered is the use of a solution of 
sulphuret of lime, as practiced in Australia, and 
is made as follows : Take loo lbs. of flour of 
sulphur, 50 lbs. of lime, (auick-Ume, if possi- 
ble, or a large proportion slaked.) and 100 gats, 
of cold water. I'ut these into a boiler. Keep 
them mixed by constantly stirring until they 
boil, and then keep boiling and stirring for about 
10 minutes, until a clean, dark>brown, orange* 
tinted solution supervenes ; then mia i gallon 
of this solution with 3 gallons of hot water, and 
make your dip or bain, heated to too or 114^ of 
Fahrenheit, and jplungc your sheep over head in 
it for about a minute. When they are dry the 
cure is complete ; but to prevent the risk of re- 
infection, and to secure yourself against the 
chance of an Imperfect muster, a second dip. af- 
ter 10 days, in a bath of ^ the above strength 
will render assurance doubly sure. This hod 
better be done after the sheep is shorn ; but even 
if the wool i$ long, it will not in the least degree 
injure the health of the animal or the fibre of the 
wool ; but, on the contrary, by absorption it 
passes into and improves the constituents of the 
nlood, and stimulates, through its action on the 
natural perspiration, tbe growth of the wool. 

SHEEP, f.hreawnsfor SHEAh'JXG.'-T\\f; 
shearer may place the sheep on that part of the 
floor assigned to him, resting on its rump, and 
himself in a posture with his right knee on a 
cushion, and the back of the animal resting 
against his left thigh. He grasps the shears 
about half-way from the point to the bow, resting 
his thumb along the blaues. which gives him a 
better command of the points. lie may then 
commence cutting the wool at the brisket, and, 
procecdmg downward, all upon the sides of the 
belly to the extremity of the ribs, the external 
sides of both sides to the cilges of the flank*, 
then back to the brisket, ana thence upward, 
shearing the wool from the lireast, front, and 
both sides of the neck, but not yet the bock of 
it, and also the poll, or forepart, and top of the 
head. Then "the jacket is opened.** and its 
position, OS well as that of the shearer is then 
changed, by the animal's being turned flat upon 
its side, one knee of the shearer resting on the 
cushion, the other gently pressing the fore-quar- 
ter of the animal to prevent any struggling. 1 le 
then resumes cutting upon the flank and rump, 
and thence onward to the head. The sheep is 
then turned on the other side — in doing which 
great €:are is requisite to prevent the fleeces licing 
torn ; and the shearer proceeds as upon the other 
side. He must then take the sheep near to the 
door through which it is (o pass out, and neatly 
trim the legs, leaving not a soUtarv lock any- 
where as a lodging-place for ticks. It is abso- 
lutely necessary Tor him to remove from his 
stand to trim, otherwise the useless stuff from 
the legs becomes intermingled with the fleece^ 
wooL In the use of the shears, the blades roust 
be laid as flat to the skin as possible, the points 
not lowered loo much, nor should more tnan I 
or 2 inches be cut at a clip, and frequently not so 
much, but depending on the compactness of the 
wooL 



A 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS. 



SHEEP, STRETCHES IN.—h method 
that is recommended to cure this dise&se is as 
follows : Take 6 red peppers, boil them thor- 
oughly, and give (he juice, as hot as can be giv- 
en, in doses of )^ a pint at a time. This is to 
be followed bjr giving the sheep plenty of exer- 
cise by ninaing them about the fields ior 5 or lo 
minutest. 

SOIVS NEAR FARROWING, Treatment 
of. — During the whole period of pregnancy 
SUW& should be moderately well fed, but not to 
produce too much fat, as this will reduce the 
number of the litter, or risk their being smoth- 
ered by their unwieldy dam lying down on them. 
As farrowing approaches, the food muvt be semi- 
liquid or gently laxative, since costivcness at this 
period fosters fever, and hence sows devour 
their offspring. Gcnllc exercise is beneficial to 
all pregnant healthy animals, and for this the 
pen should be roomy, li is best to protect the 
sow against injury from otlier pigs. The pen 
should be airy and clean, and, until the last clay 
or two of pregnancy, comfortably littered. As 
the time approaches, or when uneasiness, or the 
piling of litler fur a bed, shows its near advent, 
clear out the pen, and cover it with a thin litter 
of diaff pnly. This is necessary to prevent 
smothering the pigs, particularly if the sow be 
large or fat. Soon remove the pigs when they 
arc brought forth, helping them away until after 
the after-l>irth. In all circumstances the after- 
birth should be removed at once. However 
natural it may be for the wild animal to devour 
this, (he practice, if permitted among domesti- 
cated swine, develops the propensity to devour 
their offspring. A drink ot milk, gruel, or In- 
dian or oatmeal and hot water will be at once 
grateful and supporting to tlic sow during aj;d 
. after parturition ; and as soon as the secretion of 
milk is freciv established, the diet should be 
abundant, soft and laxative. Tlie pen should be 
kept clean. The litler of chaff should be of a 
limited amount for a week, until the pigs can be 
better able to protect themselves. 

STEERS, Jfmv to EreaJt.^U is best to begin 
with them as calves, and let (he boys play with 
Ihem, and drive them tied or yoked together, 
taking care they arc not abused When a pair 
of old steers arc to be put together and brolcen 
to the yoke, or a pair of bulls, as not unfre- 
qucndy h.ippens, it is usually best to yoke them, 
and lie their tails logclhcr. in extempore stall, in 
a well fenced yard, and then turn ihcm loose in 
the yard, which should not he large enough for 
them to run in and get under much headway. 
If (he tails arc not tied together, they will fre- 
quently turn (he yoke, which is a very Dad habit. 
After half a day's association, ihe lesson of " ye 
up it" and "whoa"' may be inculcated and — 
these being well learned — probably the next day 
"haw" and "gee." The doily lesson should 
be given after they have stood yoked awhile. 
They should not be taken from the yard until 
they bove become used to the yoke, and arc no 
longer wild and scarey, as they are apt to be at 
first. Each day all previous lessons should be 
repealed. Put them before an ox sled or a pair 
of cart wheels at first, rather than to a slonc 
boat, as they are apt to step on the chain, and 
that frightens ihem. All treatment should be 
firm but mild, and no superfluous words should 
be employed. If these directions are carried 
It, the result wdl be satisfiactorj. 



HORSES. 

BAlSAAf, WOUND.— 0\nxi benxoin in 
powder 6 oz.. balsam of tolu in powder 3 oi., 
gum storax 2 oz., frankincense in powder 2 oz., 
gum myrrh in powder 2 02., socotorinc aloes in 
powder 3 oz., alcohol I gal. Mix them all to> 
gether and put them in a digester, and give them 
a gentle heat for J or 4 davs, and then strain. 

BALL, COC/G//.—l*uiverizcd ipecac ^ 01., 
camphor 2 oz., squills }i oz. Mix with honey 
to form into mass, and divide into 8 balls. Give 
I every morning. 

MALLS, D/URET/C—CastHii soap scraped 
fine, and powdered rosin, each 3 teaspoonfuls ; 
powdered nilre 4 teaspoonfuls, oil of juniper I 
small tcospoonful, honey a sufBcicnt quantity to 
make into a balL 

BALLS, FEVER. — Emetic tartar and cam- 

fihor each % oz., and nitre 3 ounces. Mix with 
inseed meal and molasses to make 8 balls, and 
give I twice a day. 

BALL, PHYSIC— T^Vt 2 oz. of aloes, 1 ot. 
of turpentine, and i oz. of flour; make into a 
paste with a few drops of water, %\Tap in a paper, 
and give them with a bailing iron, 

BALL, PURGA TIVE,—Mocs 1 oz.. cream 
tartar and Castile soap % oz. Mix with molas- 
ses 10 make a ball. 

BALL, /rOA'jl/.— Assafelida 4 oz., gentiaa 
3 OZ., Strong mercurial ointment i ot. Make 
into mass with honey. Divide into 16 bolls. 
Give I or more every morning. 

BAULA'Y HORSES, n Cure.— A man, in 
order to be able lo control a horse, must first 
learn to control himself; for, as a rule, whcu a 
horse is patiently made to understand what is 
rnjuired of him, he becomes a willing subject. 
To attempt to force him to do what he docs not 
understand* or to use the whip under such cir- 
cumstances, only excites him to more determined 
resistance. One method to cure a baulky horse 
is to take him from the carriage, and whirl htm 
rapidlyround till he is giddy. It requires 2 men 
to accomplish this— I at the horse's tail. Dont 
let him step out. Hold him to the smallest pos- 
sible circle. I dose will oAen cure him ; 2 doses 
ore final with the worst horse that ever refused 
lo stir. Another is to fill his mouth with dirt 
or gravel from the road, and he will at once go 
— the philosophy of this being that it gives hSa 
something else to think about. 

BLISTER, LIQUID.— 'Xxiit.t % % pint of 
linseed oil, I pint of spirits of turpentine, and 4. 
oz. of aqua ammonia ; shake well and it is fit 
for use. Apply every third hour until it blis- 
ters. 

BIG LEG. — To cure, apply the above Liquid 
Blister every third hour until it blisters. In 3 
days wash the leg with linseed oil. In 6 days 
wash it clean with soap and water. Repeat ev- 
ery 6 days until the swelling goes down. If 
there should be any callous TeU, apply spavin 
ointment. 

BIG HEAD.— "When this disease occurs, cr- 
ery care must be devoted to improving the gen- 
eral health. Let work he regular and moderate. 
Have the stable clean, dry, and well ventilated. 
Feed on sound hay and oats, either bruised or 
cooked. Withhold all Indian corn— af>avc all if 
raw and hard. 4 or 5 lbs. of linseed cake may 
be given daily. Give every day, in the feed, 2 



DOMESTIC A mMALS— HORSES, 



I 
I 



ft 



drwrbm^ of phosphate of iron, and 4 drachms of 
powdered gentian. 

BIG SHOULDER.^ See Big Head. 

BREASTS, 5£W?^.— This Ecnerally occurs 
to the spring, at Ihe commencement of plowing. 
Al bmes the faalt is in having poor old collars, 
«ful not having the collar properly fitted to the 
liorse's brcAst ; and, at others, (be hamcs nrc 
either too light or too loose. There is a great 
diflercnoe in horses about getting chafed or gall- 
ed, and at limes it has seemed to be impossible 
I0 keep their breasts from getting sore ; but a 
thorough applicalion of strong alum water CT 
vhite oak bark to the breast of the animn.1. 3 
days before going to work, will toughen them so 
thai ihcf win not get sore. Another excellent 
plan is, when you let your team rest for a few 
moments during work, to raise the collar and 
pall It a little forward, and rub the breast thor- 
oughlv with vour naked hand. 

IiRF.AKf\\'G />o;rM— The suspensory lig- 
mmeni is attached superiorly lo the back part of 
Ihc knee, and inferiorly to the back of tne fet- 
k»dc joint. It is cl:istic and gives springiness to 
the limb. In motion and in standing it pas- 
sively supports the horse's fetlock, n this lig- 
ament is torn or cut across, the joint comes to 
the ground and the toe turns up; if severely 
strained, the fetlock descends unnaturally low. 
Id breaking down, the fetlock is almost com- 
pletely torn across, and the fetlocks come nearly 
or completely to the ground. Considerable 
«wrHing soon ensues above and behind the fet- 
lock ; there is great pain and .symptomatic fe- 
ver, and in severe cases the tendons arc gener- 
ally spnined. Wien the suspensory ligament 
i^ completely ruptured, and where the injury oc- 
curs in both fore legs, treatment need not 1>e at- 
tempted. In severe cases the leg should be im- 
mersed la a rail of water, and kept in it fur sev- 
eral days. When the pain and fever subside, 
KTct bandages may l)c used. A dose of opening 
SDcdicine should also he given. Bran mashes 
■ad hay should constitute Uie hon^e*s diet at the 
fir«t, and when pnln and fever subside the diet 
maybe more liberal. In bad cases ahigh-hecled 
shoe may be applied, or the horse may be slung 
•o as lo relieve the affected leg of weight. 

BI.OOD^ Futmts <y:— When this condition 
«>pears, the eyes appear heavy, dull, red or in- 
iiuned. and are frequently dosed as if asleep; 
the rmUe is, small and oppressed ; the heat of 
the bvly somewhat increased; the legs swell; 
the hair alio robs off. Horses that ore removed 
from gross to a warm stable, and full fe<l on hay 
and com, and not sufficiently exercised, are very 
subject to one or more of these symptoms. By 
regulating the quantity of food given to him, by 
proper exerdse and occasional loxalivcs, a cure 
HMV icon t>c effected. 

BOWELS^ LOOSE,— \xi cases ot chronic 
diMrrbei. a good rcmedjr is to put powdered 
cfaucoo] in the feed, and if the disease depends 
oa s diee*tive function — the liver included — rive 
a few (^scs of the following : Powdered goMcn 
seal 2 OS., ginger I oz., salt i oz. Dose — ^ an 

/'■ \ ' 'tts arc the larvre of the g|\d fly, 

of >» arc 3 diflFerent kinds. The fe- 

malc K^d tly, (luring the summer months, de- 
posits ber ova on ihe horses* legs or sides, and 
they become firmlv attached to the hair. After 
fCBiBfalinc oa the (eg for some time, perhaps 4 




or 5 days, they become ri[>c, and at this time the 
slightest application uf warmlli and moisture is 
sumcicnC lo bring forth the latent lorvx. At 
this period, if the luogue oi the horse chances 
lo touch the egg, its operculum is thrown open, 
and a small worm is produced, which readily ad- 
heres to the tongue, and with the food is con- 
veyed into the stomach, and therein is lodged 
and hatched. It clings to the cuticular coat by 
means of its temacula, between which is its 
mouth ; and in such a. firm manner does it ad- 
here to the lining of the stomach, that it will 
suffer its liody to be pulled asunder without 
quitting its holtt. Bots arc ofien supposed to do 
a good deal of liarm, but except in cases where 
they accumulate in very large numbers, we are 
of the opinion that they arc almost harmless, 
because in ordinary cases they are chiefly at- 
tached to the cuticular coat, and the cuticular 
coat of the stomach is not possessed of a great 
degree of sensibility. Most horses that have 
been running at pasture during the summer 
months l>ecome effected more or less with bols, 
and their presence in the stomach is thus ac- 
counted for. When a horse is troubled with the 
bots, it may be known by the occasional nipping 
at their own sides, and by red pimples ana pro- 
jections on the inner surface uf Uic upi>er lip^ 
which maybe seen plainly by turning up the Up. 
To remove them, take of new milk 2 quarts, 
molasses I quart, and give the horse the whole 
amount. 15 minutes afterward give 3 quarts of 
very warm sage tea, and 30 minutes oflcr the 
tea give i pint of linseed oU, (or enough to op- 
crate as a physic. ) L.ird has been used, when 
the oil cotud not be obtained, witli the same suc- 
cess. The cure will be complete, as the milk 
and molasses cause the buts to let go their hold, 
the tea puckers them up, and the oil carries them 
entirely away. The spring is llie onlv season in 
which there is a chance to effectually remove 
them. 

CA TARACT. — This can be removed from a 
horse's eye with fmely pulvcrtxcd burnt alum, 
blown into the horse's eye through a goose quill. 
Or take oil of wintergrccn, get a small glass 
syringe, and inject a few drops into the eye, and 
after 3 days repeat the application. 

CATARRJf, NASAL^ cr c:.?rri'M.— This 
malady is commonly known as a cold; it is on 
inflammation of the membrane lining the inte- 
rior of the nose, and is observed in oU the do- 
mestic animals. It occurs frequently after sud- 
den dianges in the temperature uf the atmos- 
phere, which checks or diminishes largely the 
action of the skin. In the early stage the ani- 
mal is feverish ; the membrane of tne nose is 
dry and infected ; the animal also frequently 
snceics and coughs. There is a watery mucous 
discharge from one or both nostrils, which by 
degrees assumes a yellowish color. In young 
animals this affection is generally associated 
with swellings beneath the jaws. When the 
disease extends over a longer period than a fort- 
night it assumes a chronic tvpe. TrcatmenU — 
Dissolve % an 02. of nitre m a pint of water, 
and administer lhi?t to the patient daily, or it 
may l>e mixed with the water which the horse 
drinks. A bran mush should l>e given every 
other dav. AVben the disease assumes a chronic 
form, which is seldom the case, injecting the 
nose with a weak solution of .alum will remove 
the discharge. Voung horses arc \cr^ «^ Vjo 



98 



DTCrrONARY OF BVERY-^DAY WANTS. 




have swelled legs unless they get walking cxer- 
dse for a short time every day. This is owing 
partly to the weakness of tae circulation, and 
partly to a deteriorated state of the bluud liaving 
been engendered during the horse's sickness. 

CASTRA TION.'-\ most important point to 
be considered is the proper time for the opera- 
tion to be performed, and when that is satisfac- 
torily deciJed, employ none other than a thor- 
oughly competent individual to assume the duly. 
Very many of the defects observable in geldings 
arc attributable to loo earlv or too laic a period 
of caslration, and might have been, in a great 
measure, avoided by a judicious selection of the 
time suitable for its occurrence. A colt whose 
development will warrant his being cut at 5 or 
6 months of age, will be in very slight danger 
from the operation ; but few arc so lormcil, 
much the larger number requiring a year*s full 
growth 10 sufficiently perfect them, and others 
exceeding even that age. The withers, neck and 
shoulders arc the most frequently deficient, and 
are parts that are most dependent upon castra- 
tion for their proper appearance in the horse. 
The weather of late spring or early autumn will 
be found the most suitable time fur castrating, 
when the air is dry and tcmpcralc. Upon no 
consideration should the animal, after being cut, 
be exposed to wet or inclement weather, or un- 
sheltered from too hot a sun. Close confine- 
ment, or unlimited exercise, is equally prejudic- 
ial to an early and successful healing of the parts 



of colic : Aromatic spirits of ammonia % an ot., 
laudanum \% ox. ; mix with I pint of water. 
anil administer. If not relieved, repeat the dote 
in a short time. Another ai\d n better remedyis 
to Lake a piece of carpet, blanket, or any thi<i 
material, large enough to cover the horse from 
his fore lo his hind legs, and from the spine to 
the floor as he lies, and wring it out in hot water 
as hot as you can stand. You need not fear, 
scalding the animal. Apply this to the hors«^| 
and cover it wilh a similar dry doth. As soon 
as the heal diminishes much, dip the wet cloth 
again in hot water. 

COLLAR^ Now to Fit a /ft>rsr.^An excel- 
lent plan, and one that will not injure the colIoTp 
is to dip it in water until the leather is thoroughly 
wet, then put it on the horsCi secure the hames 
firmly, keeping it there until it becomes dry. It 
is all the belter if heavy loads are lo be drawn, 
as that causes the collar to be more evenly fitted 
to the neck and shoulder. If possible, tne col- 
lar should be kept on from 4 to 5 hours, when 
it will be perfectly dry, and retain the same shape 
evca afterwards; and as it is exactly filled to the 
form of the neck, will not produce chafes nor 
sores on the horse's neck. 

CORAS, — 'ITicre are no fixed rules for the 
treatment of horses wilh corns. Corns occur to 
horses wilh ihe l)C»t of feet. The high-heeled 
and conlracled guarlcrcd. the low as well as the 
broad, all occasionally become afTlictcd with this 
annoyine disease, the common ciusc being the 



and moderate liberty should in all cases be al- worst of shoeing. Success in the treatnicnl of 



lowed the patient 

Speaking of the operation, Mr. Youalt says : 
'•The old method of opening the scrotum (tesl- 
ical bag) on cilhcr side, and cutting off the test- 
icles, and preventing bleeding by a temporary 
compression of the vessels, while tlicy are being 
scared with a hot iron, must noi, perhaps, be 
abandoned ; but there is no necessity of that ex- 
tra pain, when the spermalic cord Tlhe blood 
vessels and the nerve) is compressed between 2 
pieces of wood as lightly as in a vise, and then 
IctL until the following (lay, or until the teslicJe 
drops ok." He also objects to the unnecesRary 
pain inflicted opon colls by corping them, and 
states that it is accompanied with considerablc 
danger. With regard to the method of castra- 
tion by Torison, he adds : " An incision is made 
inlo the scrotum, and the vat deferens i5Cx(»osed 
and divided; the artery is then seized bv a nair 
of forceps contrived for the purpose, anu is then 
twisted round 6 or 7 times. It retracts without 
untwisting the coils, and bleeding ceases, the 
testicle is remoycd. and there is no sloughing or 
danger. The most painful part of the odcralion, 
%vhich is that of the firing-irons or the clamps is 
avoided, and the wound readily heals." 

CUCfCTNG.—Ti-ivs. is noticeable by a disa- 
greeable clicking noise made by the horse strik- 
ing the toe of his hind shoe against the inner 
edge of the fore one. To prevent this annoying 
habit, shoe the hind foot short at the toe — that i5 
lo say, set the shoe as far back as is comjjatiUe 
■with security and safety ; the fore shoe should be 
forged narrow with the inner margin filed round 
and smooth. 

COLlC.Symptams : The horse oflen lies 
down, and suddenly rises again with a spring ; 
Strikes his belly with his hind feet, stamps wilh 
his fore feet, and refuses every kind of food, etc. 
Tite following is said never to £ul in caring cases 



corns must rest entirely upon the intelligent un- 
derstanding of the shoer. If he is master of the 
art, he will see at a glance what parts of the foot 
require to removed. In the preparation ol the 
fool, no matter what its form, so long a.s there is 
no reason lo suspect suppuration, no "paring 
out the corn" should be permiiied. When such 
officious exploration is permitted, the healthy 
condiuon of the whole fool is interfered wilh ; 
the scooping out ol the horn al the anLdc formed 
by the wall and bar interferes wilh the natural 
growth of these parts, causes them to till over 
end lo press directly upon the sent of the com, 
thus inflicting injuries whith frequently termi- 
nate in suppuration. Let ihc horse's foot be 
properly niljusted in all it?; parts, always leaving 
as broad and level a bearing surface as possible. 
Wilh regard to the «.hoc, unless the condition of 
the horse's fool requires some special modifica- 
tion for its protection, we prefer a plain shoe, a 
small clip at the toe, moderately broad web, and 
of uniform thickness from lot lo heel. 

COLTS, Their Care ami Mafta^cmtnl, — 
Much h.irm arises from improper wcnning. A 
good method is, when the coll is 4 or 5 months 
old, to put a strong halter upan him, place him 
in a stall, and put his mother in an adjoining 
stall, with a parlilion between, so arranced that 
they can sec each other, and, if iKs^ible, get 
their heads lopclher. The first day let the colt 
nurse twice — ihe nexl day once. Feed the mare 
upon dry hay and dry feed, and about half milk 
her 2 or 3 times a day until dry. Feed the coll 
upon new-mown grass or fine clover hay, and 
give him a pint of oai^ twice per day. and in 
about 2 weeks you will have yatir colt weaned, 
and your mare dry, and your coll looking as well 
xs ever. When he is I year old he has as much 
growth and development of mvscle as one z 
years old weaned in the usual manner. When 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS— HORSES. 



99 



I 



the marc becomes dry, colt and mare may be 
a^un turned in pasture. An opinion generally 
prevails among lanner<4 thnC, from the time the 
\oA If taken from its dam unto coming maturity, 
it should not be '* pushed, as the saying is, nor 
fed on grain, for fear it would injure one so 
young and tender. Thi& accounts (or the great 
number of moping or sniritless and unthrifty 
colts, that are scarcely able to drag one leg after 
another. Their very appearance, cadaverous 
and pitiful looks, seem to convey to the mind of 
every sen<^ible man that they are the victims of a 
wretched system of starvation, which enervates 
the digestive organs impairs the secretions, and 
impoverishes the blood. Hence the dc6dency in 
the development of bone and muscle. The mus- 
cles and tendons, being so illy supplied with ma- 
terial for crowth and development, become very 
weak, ana afford but little support to the bones 
and joints, so that the former become crooked 
and the latter weak — defects which no after feed- 
ing, no skill in training can counteract. It must 
be known to breeders that from the time of birth 
np to maturity, colts require food abounding in 
flesh-making principle, nitrogenous compounds 
^-oats. corn, etc. ; otherwise they must naturally 
be deficient in size, symmetry, and powers of en- 
durance. Therefore they should be regularly 
fed and watered ; and their food should consist 
of ground oats, wheat bran, and sweet hay* in 
quantifies sufficient to promote their growth. 
Finally, propw" shelter should always be provided 
for them. They should not be exposed, as they 
often are, lo the vicissitudes of the weather, un- 
der the false notion of making them tough and 
hardy. Equally unwise is it to confine colts to 
ckwe, onvcntilated, and filthy stables, deprived 
of tight, exercise, and pure air. They should be 
groomed e\*cry day ; a clean skin favors the \\- 
talixation of the bftxxl. They should be permit- 
ted to gambol about as much as they choose. 
Exercise develops muscle, makes an animal ac- 
tive and spirited, and increases the capacity of 
the lungs and chcsL By the above means, and 
proper attention to the principles of breeding, 
the business of raising colts may become bodi 
creditable and profitable. 

COLT% To Prment from yumpinp, — Pass a 
good stout surcingle around his body ; put on 
his halter, and have the halier strap long enough 
to go from his head, between his lore legs, then 
through the surcingle, and back to one of his 
hind legs. I'rocure a thill strap, and buckle 
around the leg between the foot and joint; fasten 
the halier strap in this — shorter or longer, as the 
obstinacy of the case may require. It is also 
useful to keep colts from running where there is 
likely to be oanger from the result. If the thill 
strap should cause any soreness on the leg, it 
nay be wound with a woolen cloth, and it would 
be well Ci> change from one teg to the other occa- 

tlOfMllhf- 

CoLt^ callus on— T^c X oi. of bitter 
twvet* 1 oz. of skunk cabbage, I 0£. of blood 
root t sleep and mix with lard ; make an oint< 
acnt. and apply once or twice a day. This is 
oonaidered a sure remedy. 

COVGU. — Take powdered squills i oz., gin- 
ger X oz., cream of tartar I 07. ; mix well, and 
give a ipoonful every morning in bran. Another 
remedy is to give the animal a feed of snnflower 



k 



CRIBBING.— 'V\\txt is supposed to be no 



remedy for this habit, but a person who has 
tried it says that a horse can be cured of crib- 
biting by nailing a sheep&kin, wool side up, 
wherever there is any chance (or the horse lo 
bite. 

Z>/i'7'^>V/'£'^.^The treatment of distemper 
should consist in good nursing rather than active 
or ofhcious medication. In the first instance the 
animal should, if convenient, be removed to a 
loose box, with extra warm clothing, flannel ban- 
dages to the legs, deprivation of grain, warm 
mashes, and a small quantity of damped hay. 
If the running at the nose is considerable, the 
throat very sore, and the cough troublesome, it 
will be advisable to wrap several folds of thick 
flannel around the throat, which should be kept 
constantly wet with alcohol, or weak camphor 
and spirit — that is, I part camphor dissolved in 
16 ports alcohol. A dose of 4 drs. of cither ni- 
trate or sulphate of potass, dissolved in the 
drinking water, may be given once or twice each 
day. Active stimulants, particularly blisters, are 
wholly inadmissible. Demuldcnt drinks, such 
as linseed tea, hay tea, or oat or commeal, are 
useful and oflen acceptable. The animal should 
remain quiet in his box until all irritation in his 
throat has completely passed awoy. Even when 
the horse is *• convalescent," the owner must not 
be in a hurry to get him into fast work, because 
the membrane of the larynx (upper portion of 
tlic windpipe) will continue to be for some time 
very susceptible of irritation and inflammation. 
In the advanced stages, if the debility is great 
and the appetite poor, much benefit is derived 
from the administration of tonics and stimulants. 
The following may be given daily: Iodide of 
iron [ dr., extract of gentian 4 drs. ; mix for to 
make i ball, or dissolve in a pint of ale and then 
give as a drink. In cases, however, which are 
progressing favorably. Nature had better be left 
to herself, and tonics should only be resorted lo 
when the symptoms really indicate the need of 
them. 

DRESSING IfOOF.—k good preparation, 
and one that will give the horse's hoof a rapid 
and healthy growth, is to take of oil of tar i pt., 
beeswax \% lbs., whale oil 4 pis. The above 
ingredients should be mixed and melted together 
over a slow fire, and applied to all parts of the 
hoof at least once or twice a week. 

EVEf Injlammation of. — Keep the horse 
quiet, and dress the eye repeatedly with the fol- 
lowing lotion: Take of tincture of opium 2 oe., 
and of water 1 pt. ; mix. Much depends upon 
a proper application of the lotion, and a most 
advantageous proceeding is to attach several 
folds of linen rag to the headstall so as to cover 
the eye, and by being repeatedly saturated it 
will keep up constant evaporation, as well as a 
cooling effect. The horse shotdd also be re- 
moved from excessive light When the inflam- 
mation has been subdued, the opacity — more or 
less of which is sure to remain — must be treated 
by the application of either iodide of potassium 
or nitrate of silver, prepared thus : Take of io- 
dide of potassium ao grs ; water 1 oz. ; mix; or 
take of nitrate of silver S grs.. distilled w.iter t 
ounce ; mix. To be applied daily by means of » 
camel's-hair brush saturated with the lotion and 
drawn gently across the eye. 

FARCY. — In most cases farcy is indicated by 
the appearance of one or more pustules, whica 
break into a very peculiar, deep, abrupt ulccr^ 



a^bifeVi 




DJCTJONAR V OF E VER Y-DA Y WANTS, 



I 



» 



having thick inverted edges, which bleed freely 
on the slightest touch. The matter discharged 
from a farcy bud is cither of a flirty, dingy yel* 
low color or of a glue-like character; in either 
case it is offensive. Or it may be bloody or ich- 
orous. In the latter case it aorades the surface 
on which it falls, or gravitates its irregular cord. 
ed lines into the cellular tissues, and hence it 
helps to spread the disease. In other cases this 
complaint commences with a very painful swell 
ing of the hind leg, followed by the peculiar in- 
tractable ulcers described above. In treatment, 
the horse should receive good care, fresh air, 
regular, moderate exercise, and be carefully kept 
apart from til others. Give daily in food for a 
fortnight 2 drs. of iodide of iron, 4 grs. of can- 
iharides, with 2 drs. each of powdered ginger 
and aniseed. 1*he ulcers or sores should be 
dressed daily with carbolic acid. 

FEET, HORSES'^ Ca« e^.— Every person 
may see. upon turning up the bottom of a horse's 
foot, an angular projection pointing towards the 
toe. termeirthc frog and its bars, the remainder 
or hollow part being tedmically called the sole, 
though the entire bottom of the foot might bet- 
ter receive this name. It is certain, however, 
that the '* frog and sole" require pressure — a 
congenial kind of pressure without concussion— 
that shall cause tnc sensible, inside, or fjuick- 
sole to perform its functions of absorbing the 
serous particles secreted or deposited therem by 
the blood vessels. If the frog and its bars are 
permitted to remain in such a state as to reach 
the ground, wherever the sod happens to be 
soft or yielding, the hollow part of tnc sole re- 
ceives its due proportion of pressure laterally, 
And the whole sole or surface of the foot is thus 
kept in health. 

Every veterinarian of sense wiU perceive the 
necessity of keeping the heels apart, yet though 
the immediate cause of their contracting is so 
universally known and recognized, the injudi- 
cious metnod — to call it by no harsher name — of 
paring away the frog and sole, which prevents 
the bars from ever touching the ground, is still 
continued to an alarming extent. 

So much for prevention, \\1ien disease comes 
on, which may be accelerated by two other spe- 
cies of mismanagement, another course is usually 
followed not less injudicious than the first men- 
tioned origmal cause of all the mischief. 

Horses hoofs are of two distinct kinds or 
shapes — the one being oval, hard, dark-colored, 
and thick ; the other round, palish, and thin in 
the wall or crust of the hoof! The first has a 
different kind of frog from the latter, this lacing 
broad, thick and soft, while the oval hoof ha.s a 
frog that is long, acute and hard. The rags, 
which hard work and frequent shoeing occasion 
on the horny hoof of the round foot, produce 
ragged frogs also, both being thus pared away 
to make a fair bottnm to receive the shuc — burn- 
ing hot I — the whole support is so far reduced, 
and the sensible sole coming much nearer the 
ground, becomes tender and fiable to those pain- 
ful concussions which bring on lameness — prin- 
cipally of the fore feet. Contraction of those 
kinds of heels which belong to the cart-horse. 
and pommice-foot, are the conse^iuence. 

The oval foot pertains to the saddle-horse, the 
hunter, and bit of blood-kind, whose hold pro- 
jccting frogs the farriers remove, and these being 
compelled to perform long and painful journeys, 



ever starting or going off with the same lending 
leg, and continuing the same throuchout. lame- 
ness is contracted m that foot, whicli none caa 
account for, nor even find out whereabouts it 
may be seated. Applications of "the oyals** 
(that egregious compound of folly, ignorance 
and brutality) follow the first appearance of this 
lameness, and are made alike to the shoulder, 
the leg, and the iwle, under the various pre- 
tences of rheumatism, strain In the shoulder, and 
founder. The real cause, however, is not once 
thought of. much less removed, but, on the con- 
trary, the evil is usually augmented by removing 
the shoe and drawing the sole to the quick, per- 
haps, in search of suppositious corns, surbaling^ 
etc — pretended remedies that were never known 
In cure, but which might have been all prevented 
by the simplest precautions that can be imagined, 
TTicse arc: 

I. Let the frog and sole acquire their natnt 
thickness. 

3. Lead off sometimes with one leg, some- 
times with another. 

3, Stuff the hollow of the hoofs (all four of 
them) with cow dung or tar ointment, dianging 
it entirely once n day. In everj- case it is auvis-. 
able that he be worked moderately, for it Is use- 
Jl-ss to talk to the owners of horses about giving 
the aHlictcd animal an entire holiday at grass. 

FEET, £K/7'TLE.^\n a large majority ofi 
cases brittleness of hoof owes its origin to mis- 
management of the feet, and especially to exces- 
sive moisture, the use of swaus, the 1)ath-1ub. 
etc In all cases where the hoof is naturally. 
brittle the feet should be kept dry rather than, 
wet. If convenient, we would remove the. 
shoes, and rasp the wall moderately short tnd 
round at its margin. Having cut the hair offJ 
short around the entire coronet, a little iodide ofj 
mercury ointment should be rubbed in. Thi»! 
will cause a rapid growth of horn. The horse 
should be kept during the day in a roomy box 
having a layer of tan or sawdust spread over the* 
floor. When removed to his stall at night the 
feet should be washed dean, and, after being 
wiped dry, every part of the hoof should be 
freely anointed with the following composition : 
Take of oil of tar and beeswax of each 4 oi., 
honey and beef suet of each z oz., whale oil S 
ounces; melt the beeswax and beef suet firsts 
then add the honey and other ingredients, stir- 
ring the whole until nearly cold. All sousing of 
the feet must be avoided. 

FEET, CONTRA CTED.—Uovsts which 
stand nearly or quite the year round, sometimes 
from year to year in the stable, are apt to have, 
the feet get into a dry and fevered condition, the 
hoof becomes dry, hard, and often contracted, 
frequently also very brittle, and the horse some- 
times suffers lameness in consequence. One of 
the most effective means of remedying these 
difTicullies, where the horse cannot be spared to 
Ik: turned loose into pasture for quite a seasoD. 
is in the spring, when the ground is breaking up, 
and the wmtcr s frost disappearing, and no last- 
ing freeze is to be apprehended, to have all the 
shoes taken off, and drive the horse daily abont 
business as usual without them. Tlie roads re- 
inain muddy .ind soft, usually, so that a horse 
may be thus driven daily for a fieriod of 3 or 4 
weeks, and a great improvement is effected in 
the feet in every respect. 

FEETt To Ptevmt Snpw-halUng.—OKiSi. 



DOMESTIC A I^/MALS— HOUSES, 



lot 



I 



h 



their hooEs wcU, then rub thoroughly with thick 
soap sads before going out in the snow. 

FISTULA. — Moke a free opening in the low- 
e»tpxrt uf the sac. and inject it daily with a lo- 
tion containing 2 drachms of chloride of zinc to 
m pin! of Sf^ft walcr. 

FLIES OiV I/ORSES.—Kfi a preventive of 
horses being teased by flics, take 2 or 3 small 
handfnls of walnut leaves, upon which pour 2 
or 3 quarts of cold water ; let it infuse for one 
nignt, and pour the whole next morning into a 
kettle, and let it boil for a ^ of an hour. When 
it becomes cold it will be fit for use. No more 
is required thaji to moisten a sponge, and, be- 
lore the horse goes out of the stable, let those 
parts which are most irritable be smeared over 
with the liquor — namely, between and upon the 
ears, the neck, the flanks, etc Not only the 
lady or gentleman who rides out for pleasure 
■will derive Jileasurc from the walnut leaves thus 
preparerl, but the coachman, the wagoner, and 
all others who use horses during the summer. 
Or take smart weed and soak it in water, and in 
the morning apply it to the horsct all over him, 
with a "tpon^. A decoction of quxssia chip!!, 
truide by bf>iling them in water, has also been 
recommenrlcd. 

FRACTURE. — Severe lameness is some- 
times caused by the fracture of I or 2 bones on 
the inside of the hoof — namely, the coffin of the 
navicular bone. Inclosed as these bones are on 
the inside of the hoof, and fenced in laterally by 
the cartilages, it is often difficult to detect, and 
wre arc obfiged to depend on the general symp- 
toms: the horse halls exceedingly, the foot is 
hot, and the pain extreme. As these bones are 
confined in the hoof no dtsplacement can take 
place, therefore no crffiiitts can be detected. In 
all cases of fracture of either bone, a, careful ex- 
amination will, however, reveal the existence of 
a swclhng at the back of the heels, immediately 
above the frog, and more or less fulness over the 
coronet of the foot. The treatment m-ty be in- 
dicated in a few words — rest, absolute rest, is 
aU-unportant. So long as the horse exhibits ev- 
idemx of acute piin whenever his weight is im- 
plied on the lame limb, the quieter he is kept 
the betlC' Warm baths, or cloths frequently 
SKiistened ivilh a mixture of equ.al parts of alco- 
hol and water, are useful adjuncts. It may be 
added that, in all ca.scs of serious injury of'^the 
stifle, the hip-joint, or the pelvis, the fiorse is 
aUe to bring his heels " fjitr and square" upon 
the floor. In fracture of either the navicular or 
coffin l«ne, lameness sometimes continues long 
afier reooverr* It may turn out permanenL 

FOOT, CANKER OF.—'Xhxs complaint is a 
separation of the horn from the sensible part of 
the iaa\^ and the sprouting of the fungus mat- 
ter — prond flesh — instead of it, occupying a por- 
tkm or even the whole of the sole and frog It 
is the occasional consequence of bruise, punc- 
ture, com, quittor and thrush, and is exceedingly 
d^hcult to cure. It is more frequently the con- 
sequence of neglected thrush than of any other 
disease of the foot, or rather it is thrush mvolv- 
ini; the frog, the bars and the sole, imd nuJiing 
the foot one mass of putrefaction. 

The cure of canker is a painful and !ediou5 
business. First, the extraneous fungus growth 
u to be removed with either the knife or caustic 
TlMn the growth of frc^h fungus must l»e dis. 
coarxgcd, Dy bringing the fool into tlial slate in 



which it will a^in secrete healthy horn, by a 
slight daily application of the chloride of anti- 
mony, and that not where the new horn is form- 
ing, but on the surface which continues to be 
diseased, and accompanied by as firm but equal 
pressure as can be made ; the careful avoidance 
of the slightest degree of moisture, the horse 
being exercised or worked in the mill, or wher- 
ever the foot will not be exposed to wet, and 
that exercise adopted as earlv as possible, and 
even from the beginning, if Ine malady is con- 
fined to the sole and frog. These means will 
succeed, if the disease is capable of cure. 

FOOT, PUAfM/CE.—'hdz is indicated by 
the hoofs spreading more and more and losing 
their shape. A properly constructed round (bar) 
shoe is the only reliable remedy, for it can be 
worn indefinitely without detriment to any part 
of the foot. The main object of treatment is to 
protect and preserve the deformed sole. The 
shoe must t>e chambcrcil so as not to touch (he 
sole, and no paring away of the latter must be 
allowed. Keep the feet clean and dry u poa* 
sible. 

FOOT, SA.VD C/fAC/r ly.^ThU, as its 
name imports, is a crack or division of tlie hoof 
from above downward, and into which sand and 
dirt axe too apt to insinuate themselves. It oc- 
curs both in the fore and the hind feel. In the 
fore feet it is usually found in the inner quarter, 
but occasionally in the outer nuarter, because 
there is the principal stress or ciTort toward ex- 
pansion in the foot, and the inner quarter is not 
so strong as the outer. In the hind feet tlic 
crack is almost mvarialilv found in the front, be- 
cause in the digging of the toe inlo tlie ^round^ 
in the act of drawing, the principal stress is in 
front. If the craoc be superficial — docs not 
penetrate through the horn — it will cause no 
lameness, yet must not be neglected. If tlic 
crack has extended to the sensible parts, and j^ou 
can see any fungus flesh, with a small drawing 
knife remove the edges of the cracked horn that 
press npon it. Touch the fungus with caustic, 
dip a roll of tow or linen in tar, and bind it very 
firmly over it. The whole foot is to be kept m 
a bran poultice for a few days, or until the lame- 
ness is removed. A shoe may then be put on, . 
so as not to press on the diseased part The 
pledget of tow may now be removed, the crack 
filled with the composition, and the animal may 
be then turned into some soft meadow. 

FOUNDER, To C«f^.— Clean out the bot- 
tom of the foot thoroughly, hold up firmly in a 
honxontal position, and pour in a tablespoonful 
of spirits of turpentine, if the cavity will hold 
that much; if not, pour in what it will hold 
without running over; touch the turpentine with 
a red hot iron, (this will set it on fire ;) hold the 
hoof firmlv in tnis position till it bums out, and 
care must Vte taken that none runs on the hair of 
Ihe hoof, lest the skin be burned. If all the 
feet are affected, bum turpentine in all of thera. 
Relief will speedily follow, and the animal will 
be ready for service in a short lime. — 2. The 
seeds of the sunflower — a pint of the whole seed 
— given in his feed, immediately the founder is 
discovered. — 3. Py standing the foundered horse 
up to his belly in water. 

GALLED BACh'.—S>Q soon as an abrasion 
is discovered on the back of a horse, the a[um.-il 
should I* excused from duty for a few days ; the 
abraded parts should be dressed twv^ Out^*^ Vt^a, 



to« 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-^DAY WANTS. 




a portion of the tincture of mloes and myrrh. 
This simple trntment will soon heal the pans. 
Should Ihrrc be no a^ra^ion^ but simply a swel- 
ling attended vrich heat, pain and tenderness, the 
parts should be frequently sponged with cold 
water. Occasionally the slun undergoes the 
process of hardening (induralion.) This is a 
condition of the parts known to the farriers of 
old as •• silfast," and the treatment is as follows : 
Procure I oz. of iodine, and smear the indurated 
spot with a portion of the same twice daily. 
Some cases of goUcd back and shoulders arc due 
to negligence and abuse ; yet many animals, ow- 
ing to a peculiarity of constitution, will chafe, as 
the saying is, in those parts which come in con- 
tact with the collar, and neither human foresight 
nor mechanical means can prevent the same. 

GLANDERS, — Glanders is a disease of very 
malignant type, and consists in a discharge from 
one or both nostrils of matter which, by transfer 
or inoculation, will produce the disease in any 
other animal. It is also chimicterized by tume- 
faction of the submaxillary and lymphatic glands. 
The lymphatic glands enlarge, a pustular erup- 
tion appears upon the skin, followed by suppu- 
rating, bloody, gangrenous ulceration in various 
parts, giving rise to small tumors known as farcy 
buds. These gradually suppurate, and secrete a 
specific virus. The physiology and pathology of 
it is this: It occurs under 3 forms — namely, 
glanders and farcy. Many veterinarians have 
considered these varieties to be distinct diseases, 
but numerous experiments have demonstrated 
that they have their origin in the common ani- 
mal poison, ll appears, however, that there are 
a grades or varieties of this disease. Thus, if 
glanders be defined to be a disorder with a run- 
ning of matter from the nose, enlargement and 
induration of the glands, farcy consists in the 
formation of a number of tumors on difierent 
parts of the body, which soften and ulcerate. 
It may be shortly stated that, in the primary 
stage of glanders, the nasal jxissages especially 
suffer, while in farcy it is the lymphatic system 
which is first afTccte\l. The catalogue of reme- 
dies proposed is endless. Sulphate of copper, 
sulphate of iron, cantharidcs, arsenic, and re- 
cently sulphate of soda and carbonic acid, have 
been used, but without benefit, and to the disap- 
pointment of the hopes which had been enter- 
tained of them. The disex^c is pronounced in- 
curable by standard authorities, and an animal 
having it should be killed, rather than expcri- 
roent<^ on. 

GRA r^'Z.—^teep a % lb. of hops m a quart 
of water, and give it as hot as the horse can stand 
iL 

GREASE. — This is a white, oflcnsive dis- 
charge from the skin of the heels. Wa^h the 
part well with warm soap-suds twice a day, and 
if the swelling be great apply a poultice to it; 
when the sores are cleansea touch them with a 
rag or feather dipped in a solution of chloride of 
zinc, I grain to the ounce of water. 

I/AIR, LOSS OE.—To promote the growth 
of hair, where the skin has been deadened by 
bruises or rubbing, take of quinine 8 grs.. tincly 
powdered galls, lo grs., powdered capsicum S 
grs., oil of almonds and pure lard of each I oz., 
oil of bvendcr 2o drops ; mix thoroughly, and 
apply a smail quantity to the denuded parts 2 or 
itimcsawTck. Where there is falling out of 
tie hair of the mane and tail, take glycer- 



ine 2 oa., stilphtir t oz., acetate of lead x drs.»] 
water 8 oz. To be well miied* and applied 
means of a sponge. 

HALTER'PULUNG.—K new way to pre. 
vent hordes pulling at the halter, is to put a very 
small rope under the horse's tail, bringing the 
ends forward, crossii^ them on the l^ck, and 
tving them on the breast. Put the halter strap 
through the rinc, and tie to the rope in front of 
the breast. When the horse pulls, he will, of 
course, find himself in rather an uncomfortable 
position, and discontinue the effort to free him- 
self. 

HARNESS, Care tf/.— First take the harness 
apart, having each strap and piece by itself, and 
then wash it in warm soap-suds. When it has 
been cleaned, black every part with the follow, 
ing dye: I oz. extract of logwood, la grs. of 
bichromate of potash, both pounded fine; put it! 
into 3 Quarts of boiling rain water, and stir undlj 
all is dissolved. When cool it may be used*i 
Yon can bottle and keep for future use if yottj 
wish. It may be applied with a shoe-brush, 
anything else convenient. When the dye haS'] 
struck in. you may oil each part with iieat's-foot 
oil, applied with a paint-brush, Or anything con- 
venient. For second oiling use ^ castor oil and 
double that quantity of ncat's-foot oil, mixed. 
A few hours after wipe clean with a wooleq 
doth, which gives the harness a glossy appear, 
ance. The preparation will not injure the leather 
or stitching, makes it soft and pliable, and obvi« 
ates the necessity of oiling as often as is neces- 
sary by the ordinary method. 

}l EAVES. — This disease is indicated by 
short, dull, spasmodic cough, and a double-jerk- 
ing movement at the flanti during expiration. 
If a horse suffering from this disease is allowed 
to distend his stomach at his pk-asure, with dry 
food entirely, and then to dnnk cold water, as 
much as he can hold, he is nearly worthle&s. 
But if his food be moistened, and he be allowed 
to drink a moderate quantity only at a lime, the 
disease is much less troublesome. To cure this 
complaint, feed no hay to the horse for 36 or 4S 
hours, and give only a pailful of water tt a time. 
Then throw an armful of well cured sroart weed 
before him, and let him eat all he wilU In all 
cases where the celts of the lungs are not Hroken 
down, great relief, if not a periect cure, will fol- 
low. Another remedy is sunllower seed, feeding 
I or 3 quarts of the seed daily. 

J/IDE-BOUND.—lo recruit a hide-botmd 
horse, give nitrate potassia (or saltpetre) 4 os., 
crude antimony I of., sulphur 3 oz. Nitrate of 
poiassia and antimony should ue finely pulver- 
ized, then add the sulphur, and mix the whole 
well together. Dose — A tablcspoonful of this 
mixture in a bran mash daily. 

I/OOF-BOUND — Cut down several lines 
from the coronet to the toe all around the hoof, 
and fill the cuts with tallow and soap mixed ; take 
oflTthe shoes, and (if you can spare him) turn the 
animal into a wet meadow, where his feet will be 
kept moist. Never remove the sole nor burn the 
lines down, as this increases instead of diminisb- 
ing the evil. 

NOOF-^VARTER, CRACKED,— Uwny 
plans have been devised by which to heal a quar- 
ter crack — such as scoring with a knife, blister- 
ing, cutting with a sharp, hot iron, riveting and 
the like, all which, in many cases, have proved s 
failure. If the following directions arc adopted. 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS— HORSES. 



lOJ 




Ihe fore feet will be sound in 3 months. Above 
tbe crmcW, and neit to the hur, cut with your 
knife an incision % inch long, crosswise ol the 
cnck. and about % inch deep. Now from the 
indsion dr.\w a line % inch each side, parallel 
with the crack, down to the shoe ; then with your 
knife fallow those lines, and cut through the 
ciuunel or crust of the foot. Now there is a 
piece of the crust to be taken out. Tliis is done 
Dj loosening the top of the piece next to the 
uUr with your knife, then with your forceps take 
kold of the piece and pull it off; tliat leaves a 
space of % inch of the crust taken out Irom the 
hair down to the shoe. Fill the cavity with tar, 
■od bee on a soft piece of leather to keep the 
Xmx in its place. 

Keep the animal quiet for 3 or 4 days, and he 
b ready to drive, but it is best not to use hiiu 
until the foot is perfectly sound. Shoe with a 
bar shoe, leaving some spring to the heel, so it 
will not bear hard upon the weak quarter, and in 
3 months you will have a sound foot. 

HORSES, HiTui ti> Jud^e and SeletL—Cohr, 
Light sorrel or clicstnut with feel, legs, and face 
while, are marks of kindness. A deep bay, with 
DO white hair, will be a horse o| great bottom. 
but a fool, especially if his face is a little dished. 
They are always tricky and unsafe. A black 
horse cannot stand the neat, nor a white one the 
cold. The more white about the head the great- 
er his docility and gentleness. Eye. — If broad 
and full between the eyes, he may be depended 
on as a horse for being trained to anything. 
Eart. — Intelligent animus prick up their cars 
when spoken to ; vicious ones throw thetr ears 
back. Fiut and Neck. — Dish. faced horses must 
idways be avoided, and a broad forehead, high 
between the cars, indicates a very vicious dispo- 
sition; white a long, thin neck mdicatcs a good 
disposition; conlr-iwise, if short and thick; the 
nostrils of a good horse should be large. 

HORSE^ Points of a CooJ.—\U should be 
about I5''x hands high ; the head light and clean 
made; wide between the nostrils, and the nos- 
trils ihcrasclves large, transparent and open ; 
brood in the forehead; eyes prominent, clear and 
sparkling ; ears small and neatly set on ; neck 
rather short, and well set up; large arm or 
shoulder, well thrown back, and high ; withers 
arched and high ; legs fine, Rat, thin and smMl- 
boned; body round and rather light, though suf- 
bciently large to afFord substance when it is need- 
ed; fall chest, alTording play for the lungs; back 
abort, with the hind-quarters set on rather ob- 
]M|uely. Any one possessing a horse of this pre- 
cise make and appearance, and weighing I too or 
1200 lbs., may rest assured he has a horse of all 
work, and a bargain well worth getting hold 
of. 

HORSE, {Cart,) Points of a Good .—\ wcll- 
shapcd head, rather large ; a long, clean ear. full 
eye, neck rather long, but not too much arched ; 
Stxoo^ withers, lying well forward to catch the 
collaf At the proper angle for dr.iiight, and broad 
ihoaklers well spread mto the back; back very 
straight, ribs long and well roundel, hind legs 
beat at the hock, forlcgs forward, hind-quarters 
tonewhat round, but not sufficiently so to make 
Ciirai look short ; the niane and tail of strong, 
bot not cotiTkc hair, and with a fetlock about 3 
inehm long : broad knees, long hocks, short 
dunks, and hard ankles or fetlock joints, and 
boOtfSf wcU opened behind ; and the near- 



er you can approach this description, the nearer 
the horse will be to perfection. 

HORSES, AGE OF, By Teeth.— \ horse 
has 40 teeth — 24 double teeth, or grinders, 4 
lushes, or single file teeth, and 12 (ront teeth, 
called gatherers. As a general thing, mares 
have no tushes. Between 2 and 3 years old, the 
colt sheds his 4 middle teetlj — 2 above and 2 be- 
low. Afler 3 years old a other teeth are shed, 
I on each side of those formerly changed; he 
now has 8 colt's teeth and 8 horse's teeth ; when 
4 years of age he cuts 4 new teeth. At 5 years 
of^age the horse sheds his remaining colt's teeth, 
4 in number, when his tushes appear. At 6 
years of age his tushes are up, appearing white, , 
small and sharp, while a small circle of young 
growing teeth is observable. The mouth is now 
complete. At 8 years of age the teeth have 
filled up, the horse is aged, and his mouth is 
said to be full. Pv Eyelul. — After a horse is 9 
years old, a wrinkle comes on the eyelid, at the 
upper comer of the lower lid, and every year 
thereafter he has 1 well-tlcrined wrinkle for each 
year over 9. If, for instance, a hor« h.is 3 of 
these wrinkles, he is 12 ; if 4. he is 1;^, Add 
the number of wrinkles to 9, and you wdl inva- 
riably judge correctly of a horse's age. 

HORSE'S EYES, To Test a.— To tesi a 
horse's eyes, look at the eye carefully, when the 
horse is in rather a dark stable. Note the shape 
and size of the pupil carefully, carry this in your 
mind while you turn the horse about to a strong 
light. If the pupil contracts and appears much 
smaller than in the first instance, you may infer 
that the horse has a good strong eye ; but if the 
pupil remains nearly of the same size in both 
cases, his eyes are weak, and you had better 
have nothing to do with him. 

HORSES, WHEN UNSOUND,— Kny of 
the following defects constitute unsoundness inft 
horse: 

Lameness of all kinds and degrees. Diseases 
of any of the internal organs. Cough of every 
kind, as long as it exists. Colds or catarrhs, 
while they last. Roaring, broken wind, thick 
wind, grease, mange, farcy and glanders ; me- 
grims or staggers, founder, convex feet, con- 
tracted feet, spavins and ringbones, enhrgement 
of the sinews or ligaments, cataracts and other 
defects of the eyes, imp.iiring sight. 

TTie following may or may not occasion nn- 
soundness, according to the slate or degree in 
which they exist: Corns, splints, thrushes, bog- . 
spavins, Uirough pins, wind-galls, crib-biting. 
Curbs ore unsoundness unless the horse has 
worked with them for some months without in- 
convenience. 

Cutting, particularly speedy cutting, consti- 
tutes unsoun<lncss when it cannot be remedieili 
by care and skill. Quidding, when a confirmed^ 
habit, injures the soundness of a horse. 

Defects, called blcmiihes, are: Scars from 
broken knees; capped hocks, splints, bog-spav-^ 
ins, .ind through pins ; loss of hair from blLsterft:] 
or scars, enlargements from blows or cutting, 
and also specks or streaks 00 the corner of the 
eye. 

Vices aret Restiveness, shying, bolting, run-rj 
ning away, kicking, rearing, weaving, or moving/ 
the head from side to side, stringhaft, quidding, 
slipping the halter. 

HORSES, Care of. — The man having the care 
of horses should be the embodiment of 



104 



DTCTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 




His temper should always be under j)crfcct con- 
trol. He should never inflict any unnecessary 
pain, for it is only by the law of kindness that a 
norse can be trained and managed. No man 
ever yet sUuclc a horse, but (hat he made the 
horse the worse for it- Patience and kindness 
will accomplish in every instance what whinping 
will fail to do. Horses having a vicious uii>po- 
sitiun are invariably made so from cruel treat- 
ment. 

Horses arc designed to work, and daily labor 
for them is as much a necessity to their existence 
as to that of man's. It is not the hard drawing 
and ponderous loads that wear out horses, and 
make them ix>or. Ijaulky and worthless; but it 
is the hard ariving, tlje worry by rou^h and in- 
human drivers, that uses up more horse flesh, 
fat and muscle than all the labor a team jicr- 
forms. Another great reason why there are so 
few really sound animals, is because of their be- 
ing put to work so soon. Horses are not devel- 
oped until they arc 5, G or 7 years old, and they 
should do very httlc work until they reach tlial 
period. 

When a horse is worked hard its food should 
chiefly be onlsj if not worked hard, its food 
should chiefly be hay ; because oats supply more 
nourishment and flesh-making material ibian any 
other kind of food ; hay not so much. 

HORSES, Food for.— \\fi\i.t% are usually fed 
thrice lUily — namely, in the morning, at niicl-day 
and at mght It is not pos&ible to state the ex- 
act quantity of food a horse requires to keep him 
in good working condition. In all cases the 
horse himself tells whether he is getting loo 
much or loo little. The best feed for ordinary 
road horses is hay and oats, lo lbs. of liay is a 
fair allowance of good hay, and to fast-working 
horses from 15. ao, or 25 lbs. of oats; one-tliird 
of tlie hay may be given during the day, the bal- 
ance at night. Horses differ so much in the 
quantity 01 hay they may eat without inconve- 
nience — in fact, they vary so much in size, age, 
breeding, temjitr, condition, and labor they are 
called upon to perform, that it is impossible to 
fix upon any specific rules for feeding them. 

Oats should be bruised for an old horse, but 
not for a young one, because the former, through 
age and dcfccti\*e teeth, cannot chew them prop- 
erly ; the young horse can do so, and they arc 
thus propi^rly mixed with the saliva and turned 
into wholesome nutriracnU Carrots given occa- 
sionally will give a flnc, sdky appearance to the 
coat, and experiments have shown that the best 
way to feed carrots is lo give them with oats. 
If you arc in the hnbit of feeding 4 cjuarts of oats 
to a mess, give 2 of oats and 2 of 'sliced carrots, 
and the result will be more satisfactory than if 
each were fed separately. Youatt writes of the 
carrot: "This root is held in much esteem. 
There is none better, nor perhaps so good ; when 
first given it is slightly diuretic and laxative, but 
as the horse becomes accustomed to it these ef- 
fects cease to be produced. They improve the 
slate of the skin. They form a goo<l substitute 
for grass, and an excellent alterative for horses 
out of condition. To sick and idle horses ihey 
render grain unnecessary. They are beneficial 
in all chronic diseases connected with breathing, 
and have a marked influence upon dironic coueh 
and broken wind. They are scr^nceablc in dis- 
eases of the skin, and, in combination with oats, 
ty restore a worn horse more than oats alone 



It is also advantageous to chop hay fed to a 

horse, and to sprinkle the hay with water that 
has salt dissolved in it — a (easpoonful of 5.alt to a 
bucket of water is sufBcient. Rack-feeding is 
wastcfuL The better plan is to feed with hi 
(chopped) from a manger, because the food 
not tiien thrown about, and is more easy to ch( 
and digest. 

Vetches and cut grass should always be gii 
in the spring to horses that can not be turned^ 
out into the fields, bccau5e they are very cool ai 
refreshing, and almost medicinal in their eflfectsfl 
but they must l>c supplied in moderation, as they 
are liable to ferment in the stomscht if given 
Urgely. 

As often as once a week a change of food 
should be made — i>nc feed of cot h.-iy and meal, 
or cut hay with shorts will do. Musty hay on 
no account should be fed to horses. Let the 
food be the best of its kind, for in the end it i» 
tlie cheaj>est. 

HORSES, WaUr for.—Vi^ict is usually 
given 3 limes a day; but in summer-, when the 
horse sweats much, he should have water 4 or 5 
times ; under ordinary circumstances, 2 rule* 
will guide the attendant. The first is, never lo 
let the horse get verv thirstv ; the second, to 
give him water so often anil in such quantity 
that he will not care lo take any within an hour 
of poing to fast work. The quantity of water 
which a horse will drink in 24 hours is uncer- 
Liin ; it varies so much that 1 will drink quite 
as much as other 2 or 3. It is influenced by 
the food, the work, the weather, and the number 
of services ; the demand for water also increases 
with the perspiration. Horses at fast work, and 
kept in not stables, neetl n large allowance, 
which must be still larger in hot weather ; horses 
of slow work may be permitted lo take what 
qdantity they please; but lo those of fast work 
ocoisional restriction is necessary. Restriction 
is always necessary before fast work. A few 
quarts given an hour before goingto work ooght 
to suffice. Water should always dc given before 
rather than after grain. Water ynurnorscs from 
a pond or stream rather than from a spring or 
well, because the latter is generally hard .ind 
cold, while the former is soft and comparatively 
warm. The horse prefers soft, muddy water to 
hard water, though ever so clear. 

HORSE.FEEDING ON THE ROAD.— 
Many persons, in traveling, feed their horses too 
much and too often, continually stuffing tliero, 
ami not allowing them time to rest and digest 
their food ; of course they suffer from over-full- 
ness and carrying unnecessary weight. Horses 
should be well fcil in the evening, and must not 
be stuffed too full in the morning, and the trav- 
eling should be moderate on starting when the 
horse has a full stomach. If a horse starts in 
good condition, he can go 20 or 35 miles without 
feeding. 

HORSES, Cr^ANIXG.—V^'hcTi brought in 
from work, warm with exertion, the horse must 
be rubbed do^vn and then blanketed ; but wc 
would not blanket a horse in a good stable, as a 
general rule, except in extremdy cold weather, 
A sharp-toothed curry-comb is the dread of at 
finc-skmncd horse, and the brush and straw wisp 
answer the same purpose much letter, if used as 
frequently as they should he. Mud should not 
be allowed to dry on the legs of a horse ; it is 
I the cause of ludf the swelled legs, scrmtdiest 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS^HORSES, 



I 



sad other affections of the feet with which ihcy 
are aiflieted. 

MORSES, Stablts /ir.— The floor of the sta- 
ble should b« level, or nearly so. When it is 
iaciinett it ctusct the horse to hang back, because 
the incline causes his loins and hind parts to 
acbe intolerably, and he hangs bade in ordcft if 
po4«iblc, to get his hind legs beyond the gutteft 
thus dtminis.ning, by many dcj^ccs, his standing 
op hUl. The best bedding is that of straw, fine 
shavings from a planing mill, or sawdust — pine 
sawdust being best, and oak sawdust the worst. 
They should be allowed to stand on the naked 
6oor as little as possible. " If I were asked," 
said a noted stock-raiser, "to account for my 
kocscs' legs and feet being in better order than 
those of my neighbor, I should attribute it to 
the four folk>wtng circumstances : First, they are 
ail shod with a few nails, so placed in the shoe 
as to permit the fool to expand every time they 
move. Second, that they all live in boxes, in* 
stead of stalls, and can move whenever they 
please. Third, ther spend 2 hours d.-uly in 
wilking exercise, when they are not at work. 
Fourth, that I have not a hc»i-stall or trace-chain 
in my stable. These four circumstances com- 
prehmd the whole mystery of keeping horses' 
legs fine, and their feet in sound working condi- 
tioa up to old at;c. 

HORSE STABLES, Ta D^e>Jjni£.—%xw- 
dit&t, wetted with sulphuric acid, diluted with 40 
paits of water, and distributed about horse sta- 
nes, will, it is said, remove the disagreeable am- 
monucal smell, the sulphuric add cambining 
with the ammonia to form a salt. Chloride of 
time slowly evolves chlorine, which will do the 
sainc thing, but then the chlorine smells worse 
than the ammonia. Sulphuric acid, on the con- 
liary, is perfectly inodorous. The mixture must 
be KCpt in shallow earthenware vessels. The 
aiUphuric actd used atone, either diluted or 
stnMig, would absorb more or less of the ammo- 
ak* out there would be danger of spilling it 
Aboat. and causing serious damage ; and, beside 
this, the sawdast offers a large surface to the 
Aoaxing gas. 

//ORSES, BLANKETING.— \z\. reference 
to blanketing horses in winter, it is doubtless 
brae that blankctingkeeps a horse's coat smooth- 
er in winter, and hence fine carriage horses and 
»vkUe horses wdl continue to be blanketed. 
Bat where horses arc kept more for service than 
%fm «bow, we think they had better dispense with 
Ae blanket. Keeping them constantly covered 
laakes them tender and liable to take cold. It 
if better to give them a warm stable, and plenty 
of straw for bedding, and good food. When 
Shef are Co sund for any length of time out of 
4oors in a cold winter's day, they should have 
bbniccis. And so when tliey come in from work 
Stcaimag hot, they should be allowed to stand a 
abort txmc until they have partially cooled off; 
tbca the blankets shou]d t>e put on for an hour. 
Be CHcbl And not delay putting on the blanket 
satil they have become chilled. 

HORSES, POOR, Hffut ta FATTEN.— 
ICaay good horses devour large quantities of hay 
aad grain, and still continue thin and poor. The 
food eaten is not properly assimilated. If the 
■SMUL focd has been unground grain and hay, 
aod^ttg but a change will effect any desirable al- 
taniiaa in the appearance of the animal. In 
^ase cEL meal cannot be obtained readily, mingle 




a bushel of flaxseed with a bushel of barley, I 
of oats, and another bushel of Indian corn, and 
let it be ground into fine n^eal. This will be a 
fair proportion for all his feed. Or the meal or 
barlev, oats and corn, in equal quantities, may at 
first be procured, and % of oil cake mingled 
with it when the meal is sprinkled on cut feed. 
Feed 2 or 3 quarts of the mixture 3 limes daily 
with a i>eck of cut hay and straw. If the horse 
will eat that amount greedily, let the quantity be 
gradually increase<I, until he will eat 4, $ or 6 
quarts at every feeding, ^ times a day. So long 
as the animal will eat this allowance, the quan- 
tity may be increased a little every day. But al- 
ways avoid the practice of allowing the horse to 
stand at a rack well filled with hay. In order 
to fatten a horse that has run down in flesh, the 
groom should be very particular to feed the ani- 
mal no more than he will eat un clean and lick 
his manger for more. Follow the above sugges- 
tions and the result will be satisfactory. 

JNTEREE RING. —To prevent inlerfcring 
in a horse who is turned out in the front feet, 
the shoe should be applied to fit closely on the 
inside, and the nails applied round the toe and to 
the outside. In some mstanccs a small piece of 
leather placed betwixt the sole and the shoe, and 
allowed to project outwards, has a very good ef- 
fect in preventing interfering. 

/7ci7. — To cure a horse aflccted with itch, 
first reduce his daily allowance of food, putting 
him on a low diet, and then give him a teospoon- 
ful of a mixture of equal ports of sulphur and 
antimony, and at the end of a week or 10 days 
the sores will have disappeared, and the horse 
will be covered with a fine coat of new hair. 

A'/DNEYS, Jnfiammutivn of—iNcf^hritis,) 
— Symptoms : Gradual loss of f?csh, pain across 
the back, impaired action of the hind extremi- 
ties, and the frequent passing of urine, which is 
very highly colored. In treating this affection, 
the horse should be allowed per^ct rest, and he 
should also have a generous diet of easily di- 

fested food, and plenty of mucilaginous drinks, 
he loins may be rubbed every iRird or fourth 
day with mustard, and I drachm of tartar emetic 
given every night. This me^Ucine can be con- 
veniently administered mixed with the food. 

KICKING IN stall:— To prevent your 
horse from kicking in the stall, fasten a short 
trace-chain, about 2 feet long, by a strap to each 
hind foot. A belter way is to have tne stalls 
made wide enough so that the horse can torn in 
them easily. Close them with a door or bars, 
and turn the animal loose. After a while he 
will forget the habit, and stand tied without fur- 
ther trouble. 

KNEE-PAN, DISPLACED.— Feed tha 
horse well on oats, barley and sound hay ; f;;ive 
him a rlrochm of powdered phosphate of iron 
daily in his food ; keep in a stall with a perfectly 
smooth and level floor, and not less than 5^ or 
6 feet wide ; apply a shoe with a bar welded to 
the toe, projecting 2 or 3 inches, and then let it 
be turned up; rub the joint with an ointment 
made of l drachm of powdered cantharidcs to 
j4 an oz. of lord, repeating the application next 
day if it has not blistered. When a blister rises, 
wash it off with soap and warm water, and then 
anoint the part daily with lard, until the scab and 
other effects hav* passed off, when another blis- 
ter may be applied. 

KNEE-SPRUNG.— The best remedy tot 



]06 



DrCTTONARY OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS. 



knee-sprung or contracted tendons is a winter's 
ran in a straw yard, or a sitmtncr's run at grass, 

LAM PAS, — This consists in a swelling of the 
first bar of the upper palate. It is cured by rub- 
bing the swelling 3 or 3 limes a day with % an 
ounce of alum and the same quantity of double 
refined sugar mixed uilh a little honey. 

LJlGS^ tnjiammatwn and S-weUing ef.— 
Rest, and the application of an active buster to 
the swollen parts, will effect a cure. No better 
blister can be used than the following : Take 
resin and black pitch each 4 parts, beeswax 3 
parts, sweet oil 1 1 parts, Spanish flics 6 parts, 
euphorbium 3 parts. Melt the resin, pilcn and 
wax first, then odd the oil, and when thoroughly 
mixed remove from the fire; lastly, add very 
slowlrthe powdered flies and euphorbium. Be- 
fore the blister is applied the hair should be cut 
close off, and the skin, if scurfy, washed with 
Castile soap and warm water, after which it must 
be thoroughly dried, and the blistering ointment 
rubbed in for 10 minutes. After applying the 
blister, the horse's head should be tied up to pre- 
vent his biting the part, or rubbing it with his 
nose. At the expiration of 2 or 3 days most 
horses may be set at liberty. In about a week 
rub sweet oil over the blistered part. 

LEGS, BROKEN, To C«r^.— Instead of 
summarily shooting the horse, in the greater 
number of fractures it is only necessary lo par- 
tially sling the horse by means of a broad piece 
of sail or other strong cloth, placed under the 
animal's belly, furnished with 2 breechings and 
3 breast-girths, and, by means of ropes and pul- 
leys attached to a cross beam above, he Is ele- 
vated or lowered, as may be required. Uy the 
adoption of this plan every facility is allowed for 
the satisfactory treatment of the fractures. 

L/N/AfENT, BLISTERING,— ^c "Legs, 
Inflammation and Swelling of." 

LINIMENT for the Gall^ Backs of llorsa. 
— White lead moistencil with milk. When milk 
is not to be procured oil may \\c substituted, i 
or 2 oz. mixed at a time will be sufHdent for 
a month. 

LINIMENT far Bntiscs, Sfminr, ttc— 
Take I pint of a!coho1, 4 oz. of Castile soap, % 
07.. of gum camphor, % oz. of sal ammoniac. 
\Vhcn these are dissolved, add i 01. of lauda- 
num, I or. origanum, % oz. oil of sassafras, aiid 
2 oz. spirits of hartshorn. Bathe freely. 

LINIMENT, NERVE AND BONE.— 
Take beefs gall i qt., alcohol i pt., volatile lin- 
iment I lb,, spirits of turpentine I lb., oil of ori' 
eonum 4 oz., aqua ammonia 4 oz., tincture of 
Cayenne % pt., oil of amber 3 02., tincture of 
Spanish flies 6 oz. Mix. 

MOON EYE. — Moon Eye is a term applied 
to remittent inflammation of the eyes of the 
horse. From the remittent or periodical appear- 
ance of this disease, it has been supposed that 
it rccurrc'i monthly, or with special changes of 
the moon — ^hence the name Moon Eye and Moon 
Blinding. It is constitutional, hereditary dis- 
ease, localizing itself in the eyes. This malady 
attacks alike the young and the aged, the fat and 
the lean, while the high bred and the mongrel, 
the lazy and the nervous, are all caually prone to 
its baleful influence. Certain kinos of eye — es- 
pecially the small sunken eye — seem disposed to 
contract the disease. Of all the influences tend- 
ing to the development of Moon ICyc. none is 
uorc dearly established than the hereditary pre- 



UU4 

i 



disposition. During its prevalence the aniin_ 
almost entirely useless. 

MOUTH, 5C>^iS".— Symptoms: The 
runs water, the horse cuds, or throws ha^i 
his mouth. Tlie cause of this disease is 
from frosted bits being put into their moul 
by eating poisonous weeds. To cure, lak- 
borax 3 drachms. 3 drachms of sugar of \czA 
ounce of alum, l pint of vinegar, x pint of > 
tea. Shake all well together, and wash the 
mal's mouth out every morning. Give him 
hay for 12 days, 

THE MULE.— There seems to be but 1 
doubt that mules arc more economical than ho< 
for farm purposes. The climate, soil, and n; 
of carrying on farming operations in the pn 
regions of the West are all admirably suUe< 
the working of horses. One combinatiot^ 
circumstances renders oxen the favorite t 
team of New England; another causes mule 
be employed in the South; and still ano 
makes ncirses the most desired iarm team in 
Northwest. If we lake into con s.i deration t 
beauty of form and carriage, speed and dod 
as well as strength, no animal employed in 
service of man can compare with the horse. 
for many purposes where elegance and speed 
of little conseouence, the horse U not an e 
nomical animal to use. The cost of keepinK 1 
is greater than is the case with the mole ; hi 
ability to disease is very much greater, and 
years of available labor arc less. The eipc 
of shoeing mules is much less than (hat of&ti 
ing horses, on account of the smallness of tl 
feet, the hardness of the hoof, and its frccc 
from disease. 

MULE, Sfi/inf «!.— To remove these Bt 
formations, the treatment consists in rcpa 
blistering. Having first cut the hair short, 
a little of the following ointment into the «1 
covering the splint, every night, until a ff te^ 
terr discharge is i>roduced from the "^^ 
Take of biniodide of mercury 2 dradimsri 
oz. Mix. If, after an interval of a foi 
the splint does not appear much reduced in s 
the ointment should be re-applied and rcpea 
at similar intervals. 

NASAL GLEET— CT running at the 
caJi be cured by taking }4 a lb> of rosin, 
of blue vitriol, and 4 oz. of ginger, grtndii 
all fine, and ginng the horse a spoonful 
times a dny. 

NAIVCULAR /)/5£'^5"£'.— Symptoms: 
prevent tension of the injured parts the fao 
points his foot. Pointing is also observed 
corns and in bruises and injuries of the heel, 1 
long-continued pointing is to be dreaded as 
harbinger of incurable lameness. Lameness 
first is often shght, and disappears after ^ 
hour's work, from increased secretion of syni 
In lifting his foot the horse bends bis knee I 
than natural, and — es]»ecially when first broot 
out — walks on his toe ; the toe of the si 
wears raindly, while the heel exhibits verv sli| 
wea^ i'hc norse steps or moves in a sliltj a 
of way. In from 4 to 8 weeks the hoof " 
deeper, narrower at the heels ; the sole b 
very concave, and the foot appears no w 
the sole than at the coronet. ^NTien the 
especially the elastic and insensible fr 
to bear weight, it becomes absorbed, 
ters consequently contract, and the so*. 
This is most among horses used on fa 



iiiW 




DOMESTIC AmMALS—MORSES. 



f«T^ irrffirt-c : rapidity of iction is the canse 

- ncet. Treatmmf. — In such 

piring the quarters almost 

aiot \%. atjuptcd. 'Fhe toe is shortened, 

ieec ATS eaveloped in poultices for lo 

9icw^tii£ the poalticc twice a day. The 

tiwMJd be fed on bran and oats scalded, 

• oftodierate allowance of hay. Give a do^e 

CBifrdicise at (he end of to diys; bli^- 

ODct, ftod keep the hoof moist with 

The sole may now be thinned, and 

kept standing on wet sawdu&l, and a 

bilsler nuy be at the same time applied. 

Che lume is shod for work a leather sole 

be applied, and the space between the 

tm and «<o1« stoiTcd with tar and tow. Turning 

Utehorrse itito a damp pasture for 6 weeks wiU 

bcatlcsdr^ — ■'*■ ' — icfit. In a great many in- 

•aaces t^ - incurable. 

0AVT.1 . :f OOF. —Tike }4 a lb. of 

asH 4 ot, of rosin. Heat them over a slow 

BBlil melicd; take the pot ofT the Gre, add I 

- «f patlverixcd verdigris; stir well to prevent 

Snm muntng over. When partially cnol add 

V* 't ,.,..^.-. ,,.« Apply it from the hair 

m the oorse all the time. 

t.. SLOAN'S,— Ro'iin 4 oi., 

Yaarwt 4 uj.. Lad 8 oz., honey 3 01. Melt 

I uticies slowly, gently bringing to a botl ; 

, fta U begins to boil, rcmurc from the fire 

■inwiy add a little less tlian a pint of spirirs 

Hf.^tit--.^ *<lirring all the time this is being 

Jr - until cool. 

-itTyy/A'^.— Make the shoe its 

■ttzai U^^'.h, or a trifle lont^er — with the calk 

of Ac forward shoes high and the heel calk low. 

bi>of wm then stand further forwartl. and be 

t«aM>ved from the stride of the hind foot, 

*M-I».> ihod with a low toe calk and high 

keel irike the gronnd before it reaches 

Ihe An interfering horse generally 

BH. Ic of the hoof, about 2 inches 

fcoc r.3 make the shoe straighter 

Ml tbc i.ii^jt:. ii,i i rj.ip thc hoof accordingly. 

i*4tSy. — An attack of this kind is frequently 
fdoired br woilintr of the affected muscles — 
Ary kMC ' ' d form, and present a more 

W IcB t. . r-ect. The most common 

ttMd of Uus diaca^'- " is and plethora. 

Il Mff rerah from a< l^nce. as blows 

•rblu. TftQtment — i u ^i, .^■.'\>\f a blister over 
ftr loiaft. Then give the mare one of the fol- 
t*»iac P^ every morning fur 8 or 10 davs : 
Ti3kc c*fUlaa and ginger oTcach 2 drachms, bn. 
i«*l meal 4 drachms, strychnine < grains. Mix 
«bb«at«T for I pill. The diet should he light, 
^kd (b« marc kept quiet in thc stable, or — better 

FBYSIC /?W^Z.— Barbadoes aloes 4. 5 or 6 
(accor\!mg lo the site and strength of the 
) tartrate of p:>tassia t dr.. of ginger and 
•osp of each 2 drs., anise or peppermint 
ptUvcritc, and make all mto I ball 
llikk rua solntion. Before giving a horse 
ftntc^ b# ^oold be prepared f'>r it by feeding 
nMlirao. in place of oats, for 2 d.ty« at the 
'**• fivioj also w3tfT which has the chill taken 
•^ nd O' ind drink during Its 

t^tfttion I operate in 4S hours, 

■ VTA, ACUTE.^Svmptomt.— 

H^ J^ - . - ' 1 «ra wtth a Arf^ dcriressed cough, 
H[«n of cp>p«til*t b«S dibrsty; puis* fveblcj bat 




frequently the extremities are cold — sometimes 
when first taken, at others they retain their nat- 
ural heat until the disease assumes its wont ap- 
pearance, and then thc legs become cold. Res- 
piration is very active and bborioos; the animal 
pants all the time, slanHs with fore legs widely 
separated, never lies down, and is loth to move. 
Some discharge copiously from both nostrils a 
thick, slimy matter, sometimes mixed with blood 
— in that case the whole body i? excessively hot, 
and the extremities also, but other symptoms the 
same. Tlie treatment in the early stage of this 
disease should be: r. An abundant supply of 
cool, fresh air. 2. Abstinence from grain or 
corn. 3. Extra dotlung snd warm bandages to 
the legs. In all cases it is desirable that the pa- 
tient snould at once l>e removed to an airy, loose 
box. If these simple remedies do not bring 
about a subsidence of the attack within a short 
time, recourse must be had to medical treat- 
ment. 

POLL EV!L.~-\\ there is only swelling and 
slight tenderness, but without any fluctuation or 
pressure from contained matter, give the horse 
as a laxative 5 drs. of Barbadoes aloes, and rub 
the poll actively with an ointment made by mix- 
ing equal parts of mercurial and iodine oint- 
ments. Repc.it this application, if necessary, to 
induce some blistering action. If matter is al- 
ready formed, .is indicated by the fluctuation nr 
pressure, the swelling should be at once opened 
so as lo let it escape. An opening should then 
be made from the very lowest point of the sac, 
so that the matter may flow freely as soon as 
formed. If obstinate, it may be injected sev- 
eral times a week with a lotion containing <j a 
dr. of chloride of cine to a pint of water. 

POLL EVIL (A'orrwfirtrt rwrr.)— Cover the 
head and neck with 2 or 3 blankets ; have a pan 
or kettle of the best warm cider vinegar; tnen 
hold it under the blankets ; steam the parts by 
putting hot stones, brick or iron into the vinegar, 
and continue the operation until the horse per- 
spires freely ; do this for 3 mornings, and .skip 
3, until 9 steamings have been accomplished, 

POLL EVIL and E/STir LA. —Common 
potash % *^^'t otract of belladonna )4 dr., gum 
Arabic ^ ot. Dissolve the gum in as little w.i. 
ter as practicable ; then, having pulverited the 
potash, unless it is moixt, mix the gum water 
with it and it will soon dissolve; then mix in thc 
extract and it is ready to use; it can be used 
without the belladonna, but it is mure painful 
without it, and does not have <^uitc as good an 
effect. The best' plan to get this into the pipes 
is by means of a small syringe, after having 
cleansed the sore wth soap-suds ; repeat once in 
2 days, until all the callous pipes and nard fibrous 
base around the poll evil or hstula is completely 
destroved. 

POiVDERS, COND/TIO.V.'^oi. resin, 2 
ot. saltpetre, 2 oz. black antimony, 2 or. sul* 
phur, 2 oz. saleratus. 2 01, ginger, I 02. cop- 
peras. I tables pivinful to a dose once a day for 
for 3 days ; then skip 2 or 3 days, and give again 
until you have given in this way 9 doses, or even 
more if you like. It should be given in thc 
spring and fall, or at any lime when the animal 
is not doing well. 

POWDERS, CLEAXSLVG.^lzkeoi gin- 
ger 2 oz,, 4 01. fenugreek, I o/. black antimonv, 
and a oz. rhubarb. l~^rind all fine, mix it wefl, 
and it is fit for use. Give a Urge spooafol kvoj 



108 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



I 



morning and nt^ht. It gives a good appetite, 
and fine coat and life to the animal 

QC/TTOR. — The treatment of this disease is 
as follows : After the shoe has been removed, 
thin the sole until it wiil yield to the pressure of 
the thumb ; then cut the under parts of the wall 
in an oblique direction from the heel to the ante- 
rior ^>art, immediately under the seal of com- 
plaintt and only as far as it extends, and rasp the 
side of the wall thin enough to give way to the 
pressure of the over -distended parts, and put on 
a bar-shoe rather elevated from the frop. As- 
certain with a probe the direction of the sinuses, 
and introduce mto them a saturated solution of 
sulphate of zinc, by means of a small syringe. 
Place over this dressing the common poultice, or 
the turpentine ointment, and renew the applica- 
tion every 24 hours. 3 or 4 such applications 
will complete a cure. It is recommended that 
when the probe is introduced, in order to ascer- 
tain the progress of cure, that it be gently and 
carefully used, otherwise it may break down the 
new-formed h-mph. 

//OA'S^\ }/civ to RUc a.— The body of the 
rider is divided into 3 parts, of which 2 arc mov- 
able and I immovable; I of the first consists of 
all the upper part of the body down to the waist, 
the other of the lower part of the legs, from the 
knee down. The immovable portion is from the 
waist to the knees. The rider should sit per- 
fectly square on the middle of the saddle, the 
upper part of the l>ody presenting a free and un- 
constrained appearance, the chest not very much 
thrown forward, the ribs resting freely on the 
hips, the waist and loins not stiffened, and thus 
not exposed to tension or effort from the motions 
of the horse ; the upper part of the body should 
lean slightly to the rear, rather than forward \ 
the thighs, inclining a little forward, lie flat and 
6rmly on the saddle, covering the surcingle, of 
which only a Email part behind the knee should 
be setn ; the lower part of the leg, hanging 
vertically from the knees touches the horse, but 
wiiliout the slightest jircssurc ; the toes arc 
pointed up without constraint, and on the same 
line with the knees, for if the toes are turned 
outward it not only caoses the horse to be un- 
necessarily pricked by tlie spurs, (if worn,) but 
the firmness of the seat is lost ; the heek should 
be seven-eighths of an incli below the toes, and 
the stirrups so adjusted that when the rider 
raises himself on thcin, there may be the breadth 
of 4 fingers between the crotch and the saddle ; 
to mnke this adjustment, when the rider has ac- 
quired A firm nnd correct scat he should without 
cnanging that scat, pu^h the bottom of tlie stir- 
rup to the hollow or the fool, and then, with the 
foot horizontal, feel a slight support from the 
stirrup; when this is accomplished he replaces 
the foot properly in the stirrup, and the heel will 
then be seven-eighths of on inch below the 
toes. 

To give the rider a correct scat, theinstnicior, 
having eiused him to mount, seizes the lower 
port of his leg, and stretches it straight toward 
the fore-quarters of the horse, so as (o bring the 
buttocks of Ihc rider square on the saddle ; then 
resting one hand on the man's knee, he seizes 
the lower part of the leg with the other, and 
carries back the thigh and knee so as to bring 
the crotch square on the saddle, the thighs cov- 
cring the surcingle, the lower part of the leg, 
Crom the knee down, also over the surcingle, and 



sees that the rider does not sit too much on hiS 
.crotch, but has his buttocks well under him. 
lie then explains to the rider that the firrancfs 
of the seat consists in this : that the rider grasps 
the horse with his legs ; that both thighs press 
equally upon the saddle, in conformity with the 
movements of the body, and that the general 
movements of the body and thighs must conform 
tu tliose of the horse. He should be taughti 
too, how to hold the feet, without allowing him 
to place them in the stirrups, fur this is one of 
the most essential conditions for a good seat. 

RINGBONE^ — This disease is generally 
caused by heavy draught, especially in up-hiU 
work. The first appearance ui the complaint is 
indicatetl by a hard swelling uj>on the lop of the 
fetlock or pastern joint, accx^mjinnied by tender- 
ness, pain, heat, etc. Cooling appliances, such 
as cold water, soap, camphor, etc, with a little 
laudanum, should be promptly applied, giving 
the animal perfect rest, with green food or roots 
in connection with hay — no groin. This raav be 
followed by some convenient preparation of io- 
dine, hkc an ointment of iodide of lead and 
lard. Rub in the ointment well, and follow up 
the treatment for several weeks. If the cose is 
an obstinate one, try blistering with cerate 01 
cantharidcs, continuing, at intervals, the use of 
the iodine. Equal parts of tur^ientinc and kero- 
sene would, no doubt, form a most excellent 
wash — the crude coal oil would be belter than 
that which has been refined. Kub it well into 
the hair around and above the hoof. 

RINGBONE REMEDIES.~~T\iLyfrra^ 
cantharidek, oils of spike, origanum, amber, ce* 
dar, Barbadoes tar, and British oil, of each 2 
02.; oil of wormwood I oz., spirits of turpen- 
tine 4 oz., common potash }i oz., nitric nad 6 
oz., oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) 4 ox., and lard 

3 lbs. Melt the lard and slowly add the acids; 
stir well and add the others, stirring until cold. 
Clip off the hair, and apply bv rubbing and heat- 
ing in; in about 3 days, or wWn it is done run- 
ning, wash off with suds and apply again. In 
old cases it may take 3 or 4 weeks, but in recent 
cases 2 or 3 applications will cure. — 2. Take ^ 
pint spirits of turpentine, ^ 01. blue stone, jj 
ot, of red precipitate. Shake well and use ev- 
ery morning ; and keep the hoof well greased. 
This will nut only take off the hair, but cause a 
severe bUsler, wlitch, after healing, if there still 
be signs of lamenes, repeat llic remedy. 

RIXGll^ORM.—\\:iS.h. the rrarts with a very 
strong infusion of bayberry bark, wipe dry, an^ 
then smear the denuded spots with a mixture of 

4 oz. of pyroligncous acid, I oz. of turpentine, 
the washing and dressing to be lepe.ited until 
healthy action Is established. If the disease docs 
not readily disappear, give sulphur, cream of 
tartar and sassafras, equal parts, in a dose uf 6 
drachms daily. If the disease still lingers, 
sponge the denuded parts with tincture of muri* 
ate iron. 

ROAR/NG. — This is a loud sound which 
some horses emit during the act of breathing, 
and is caused by a diminution in the diameter, or 
by a distortion of the windpipe, or bv a wasting 
of the muscles of the larynx, and imperfect 
opening of the latter. It is incurable. 

RUNAWAY I/ORSES, To Prn'mt IhJu- 
rifs from. — This can be done by electricity. A 
complete electric apparatus con be purchased in 
a sinall case. Let one of these be fixed in on 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS— HORSES, 



109 



It-of-the-way nook in the carnage, 3 wires to I 
lo harness, beneath which have 2 very thin \ 
pbtes properly placet!. In the CTcnt of 
[ranaway, the driver and inside occupants will 
l1y have to press a glass knob to stop instantly 

mad career of the strongest horses. 
jei//'7'6^^£.— Rupture or hernials the pro- 
Lsion of a bowel, or some other part, fr<>m its 
roper cavity. It is sometimes congenital, and 
vf then be reduced at the same time that cas- 
ion is performed. At other times rupture 
may be produced by blows, kicks or falls. A 
hernia is dangerous to life when It becomes com- 
^tecssed or strangulated by a stricture at the ori- 
ffee of protrusion. Skillful surgical aid sliould 
mlirays be obtained in any such case nl once. 
But sometimes, in the absence of a vetenahan, 
any one may restore the gut by introducing the 
hind into the bowel and drawing it up ; the other 
hand, at the «amc time, making gentle pressure 
lason the swelling in the abdomen. No violence 
fthould ever be used in attempting this; and the 
boirels should first be emptied by a clyster. 

SCR A TCifES.—\X a horse's blowl is pure 
he will not have the scratches. Give him a ta- 
blespoonful of saltpetre every day for 15 days, 
and oe careful about his taking cold while feed- 
ittp it. tt opens the pores so that he will take 
cold very easy. Along with this take pure, dry 
rhite lead, pure oxide of rinc, and glycerine, of 
ich ^■^ an oz ; fresh lard (free from rancidity) 
t^ ox. Mix the white lead, oxide of linc and 
lycerine to a uniform, smooth paste, then add 
lard, a little at a time, till a uniform, smixtth 
(intmcnt is formed. Wash the parts with Cas- 
Ic soap and water, and dry with a cloth, then 
\y tlie ointment 2 or 3 times daily with the 
Wash once in 2 or ^ days, and dry the 
»t well before dressing ogam. 
The horse should stand on a plank floor kept 
^^n and dry ; and if used, all dust* sand and 
should be washed off so that the affected 
ts may remain dean. If these directions arc 
Strictly carried out, it will seldom, if ever, fail 
10 cure the very worst cases within a reasonable 
time 

SHOEING HORSES.— Yt^ horseshoers 
understand thoroughly the anatomy of the horse's 
The great mistake is made in attempting 
trim the ho»if lo fit the shoe, whereas the shoe 
be made to fit the hoof. Very little trira- 
ing is needed if the shoe is made right. The 
should never be touched by the buttress, if 
foot is healthy, as Nature has intended that 
be the spring or cushion to first receive the 
low when the foot is set down on Che roid, to 
the knee and shoulder from the concus- 
^liofi. 

Nothing can be more barbarous than the carv- 
infi and cutting of a horse's foot before shoeing, 
thoocli on his skill in this many a farrier prides 
binMclf. The idea that the frog must not oe al- 
^■cfl lo bfar on the ground — tnat the sole must 
thinned till it *' springs on the thumb," is a 
■I pernicious one. 
you value your horse, do not let the bbck- 
even scrape the dirt off the frog. It would 
tcr if he could not sec it, because, if any- 
fit to be called a frog, he will beg, argue, 
try every means to jKrsuade you to let him 
iJo not turn your back to him while he 
fuot In his bp and knife in his hand, or 
' comes a portion of the frog. If the 




frog if left to itself it will, when Nature gets 
ready, shed itself; but the difference between 
shedding and culling is, that before shedding the 
under frog is protected by a suitable covering, 
but when cut it is exposed to the action of the 
air and water, which causes it to crack, leaving 
those "rags" which the blacksmiths love so well 
to cut Do not open the heels, as it increases 
the resistance offered to contraction. 

The summer shoe needs lo present a flat sur- 
face to the ground. Make it of the same width 
.ind thickness from the toe to the heel. Have 
the seating deep, so as to prevent die sole press- 
ing upon the shoe as it descends. Have a clip 
at the toe to prevent the shoe slipping back, but 
none at the sides, as they not only destroy loo 
much of the hoof, but prevent expansion. Have 
the fullering deep to receive the nail-heads, and 
have the n^ holes straight — neither inclined in- 
wardly or outwardly. Ilavc only $ nails to hold 
on the shoe — 2 on the inner, and 3 on ihe out- 
side. Place the 2 on the inner side about I fa 
inches from the top; those on the outside may 
be placed further back toward the heel. The 
reason is, that when the foot strikes the ground 
it expan<ls to relieve the horse of the shock of 
his weight, and the inner side being thinner than 
the outside, the expansion is greater. Tty plac- 
ing the nails far back we prevent thai expansion, 
thereby cramping the foot, which makes ihe ani- 
mal step short and quick, like one \«*ith tight 
boots. If we take an old shoe, we find at the 
heels that it is worn down, and also that it is 
smaller and bright, which is not done by the 
shifting of the shoe, as you only find it at the 
heels, by the action of the foot while expanding 
and contracting. Of course, this action wears 
upon, but tlie foot is continually growing. 

On fitting the shoe, do not let it bum the foot, 
as it makes a strong foot brittle, and on a weak 
one hurting the horse. Be sure it fits close to 
the foot. Bring in the heels, as they do not, but 
the nails prevent expansion. Do not get the 
nails larger than necessary; bring them nut low 
down in the crust, and make the clinchers very 
broad. Rasp below but not above the clinchers, 
as tlie foot above is covered — if healthy — with a 
varnish which excludes the air and water. 

The hind shoe need not be so brood, but a tit- 
tle higher at the heels. In this put 7 nails, as 
the hmd legs propel and the front legs receive 
the weight 

The winter shoe needs toe and heel pieces to 
prevent the horse from slipping. Have the in- 
ner cork not quite so sharp as the outer one, so 
that if he steps upon the other foot it will not 
cut it. 

The outside of the hoof ought not to be at all 
touched by the rasp, save at the very edge, as 
rasping tends to thicken the hoof ana muce it 
coarse and clumsy. Shoes should be made just 
as light as they possibly can be to answer the 
purpose. Ordinarily they are K too heavy. A 
norse's hoof should lie carefully cleaned every 
day. and oiling the hoof once or twice a week ii 
recommended. 

SPA r'AV.— 'Take }^ oz. oil of amber, 1 oju 
oil of spike, 2 oz. spirits of turpentine, % o«, 
nitric acid. The acid must be put into the bot- 
tle lost, .\pply this mixture thoroughly, and — 
though it will not remove the bunch — tlie lame- 
ness will generally disappear. If the horse is 
over 4 years old, you will fit a box of Ic^ yuX 



J 



1X0 



above it, ^t-irei^g ihp ends together so that it will 
constantly wear upon the enlargement, and the 
two together vrill cure 9 cases out of every 10 in 
6 weeks. 

^/W /y.V C:6'A*iF.— Take I or. of ori^nm 
oil, I oz. of British oil, I or., of oil of spike, i 
oz. oil of wonnwood, i oz. gum myrrh, i gitt of 
alcotio]. Put the oils together; put the gum in 
the alcuhol, and let it stand for 24 hours, and 
then add it to the oils; shake well before using ; 
apply it to lite parts a/Tcclcd, and rub it in well 
with the hand, or heat it in with a hot iron. If 
it is applied fur a sprain, use it morning and eve- 
ning. Wash clean once in 3 days. 

SPLIMT. — When a splint does not occasion 
lameness it need not be interfered with. To 
cure, lake volatile liniment (of the U. S. Dis- 
pensatory) lo which add I dr. of oil of origan- 
um. Apply tills thoroughly twice a day, fol- 
lowed by rubbing the splint with a round pine 
or bass wood stick, as hard as can be done with- 
out abrading the skin. This treatment should 
be continued several weeks, when it will he dis- 
covered that the splints will grow less and finally 
disappear, 

SPA'A/.VS, Getural Treatment 0/.— Rest is 
the first requirement. Next apply wet bandages 
until (he heat is abated, and until there is no 
pain on pressure; then rub with some simple 
ointment. 

STAGGERS. — This is a functional disorder 
of Ihc brain, which, when once it has declared 
itself, is said to be beyond cure. The following 
prescription may be tried. Give a mess twice 
per week composed of i galr of bran. I tablc- 
s(K>onful of sulphur, i spoonful of saltpetre, i 
quart of boiUng sassafras tea, 1% oz, assafetida. 
Xcep the horse from cold water for ^ a day af- 
tcrwards. 

STRAXGLES.—YtttA with light, cooling 
(green if it can be had) food ; mix the food with 
sassafras tea, in which a spoonful of powdered 
sulphur and a teaspoonful of saltpetre have been 

STIFLE-STEPPTNG, Ta Cure,^ % a tea- 
cap of vinegar, the whites of 3 eggs, a niece of 
alum tite size of a chcsnut, well beiaten, dissolved 
and warmed. Twitch and kncc-strap the fore 
leg standing oflT from the affected member. Ap- 
ply with lIlc hand and rub it in well; saturate a 
piece of flannel 6 inches square, place it over the 
joint, cover this with a double thickness of the 
same, long enough to lap behind the leg. and 
draw it very tight. Now take a very hot flat- 
iron and iron it, being cautious not to blister 
your horse too severely. Turn him out, and in 
I week repeat; in the meantime bathe the parts 
with a decoction of white-oak bark. 

SWEENY. — A horse is said to be sweenicd 
when the muscles of the shoulder appear to have 
periidied away, and the skin seems lo be attached 
closely 10 the shoulder-blade. These symptoms 
may arise from chronic lameness in the foot or 
other part of the limb. In such case, of course 
it is 01 no use to apply remedies to the shoulder. 
Care the foot, and the shoulder will come right, 
although stimulants and nibbing will expedite 
it. But genuine sweeny is quite different from 
the above, although the apf^nrarances arc the 
Sftme. It is caused by liard drawing in a collar 

It it too large; or where no whiffletree is ever 

I. but the traces are hitched directly to the 

as ia "jumperS|"BS they^acc caUed; or 



by jumping fences, or ihe like. The presence of 
real sweeny may be discovered by moving the 
horse in a circle, or causing him to step over 
bars, when you can generally determine the scat 
of the lameness. For such cases irritants with 
friction, is the proper trcalment. BUstenng Un- 
iment, or seton, or a piece of leather inserted 
under the skin, will cure, w^th rest. 

TAMING AND TRAJN/NG.—'SUxiy per- 
sons pay for instructions in training horses, and yet 
they nearly all fail, kimuly Ifccause, with all ihc 
instructions in the world, they cannot handle a 
horse — it is not in them. To be a successful 
trainer you roust have a sympathy with the horse 
and a personal power of control. That which 
partakes of the power necessary to subdue and 
train, you will find in your own mind, your own 
love, will and wisdom.. If you have liiiJc or no 
instinctive love for the horse, of course you are 
not the person to control him. Men and women 
are often found who arc said to have the natural 
gift of cnntroUing the horse; they love horses 
from instinct, as it were. The secret in these 
cases consists in their intense love for the horse. 
If yoB love the horse, you will, you can, but 
know how to make the horse love yon. Love, 
in all grades of animals, has its appropriate lan- 
guage ; and when this language is addressed lo 
the norse, it excites love, of course. A blow 
with a whip or club does not come from love, 
but from combativeness, and it excites combat- 
iveness or fear in th& horse. If you want to 
make a horse love you, (and you must cause lam 
to love you if you control him. ) why of course 
you must love him and treat him accordingly. 
Study the character of your horse — not the na- 
ture of horses in general, but of the horse thai 
vou wish to control. Horses differ in their dis- 



sitions as really as men do, and each one is to 
'., pleasf 
accordingly. To Make Iiim Lit Dawn. — Pirst, 



posttioi 
lie app: 



reached, attracted, pleased and controlled 



catch yr>ur horse, then strap the near fore leg up 
round the arm of the animal ; lead liim al*oui on 
3 legs until he becomes tired or weary ; he will 
then allow you to handle him anvwhcre ; then 
attach a strap with a ring lo the ofr forc-fctlock; 
to this ring fasten another strap, which being 
brought over the horse's back to the near side, 
is put through the ring on the off fore fetlock; 
return the end of the strap to the near side, siiU 
keeping fast hold, and move the animal on, and 
pull; he will then he thrown upon his knees, 
when, after struggling for some time, by gentle 
usage he will he down. After unloosing the 
straps, put him through the same process as be- 
fore, when the horse will lie down whenever re- 
quired. Uniformity is necessary in our method. 
It is by the repetition, by ihe constant recurrence 
of certain motions, words or actions, that we suc- 
ceed. M.iny fail for the want of tmiformity in 
their method, lliey are loving and kind by 
spells; then they are harsh and cruel. The 
horse is "impressed." as it is said, with his mas. 
tcr's wishes, when those wishes arc often and 
uniformly expressed in motions, words and ac- 
tions ! If man needs ''nrccept upon precept, 
line upon line, etc., in order lo Icam his lessons 
well, how much more true is this of the horse, 
which is below man in consciousness and the re- 
flective faculties. Teaching Ifim to J^au. — 
Buckle a 4 lb. weight nrounil the ankles of his 
hind legs, (lead is preferable;) ride jomr ksne 
brifiklf with these weights upoa hi» ankles, ftC 



J 



DOMESTIC ANTMALS— HORSES. 



Its 



I 



the same time, tmtcbing each rein of Che bridle 
alternalel}r ; by this means you will immediately 
throw htm into a pace. Alter you have trained 
this way to some extent, change your 
'leaded weights for something Lighter; leather 
padding, or something equal to U. will answer 
the purpose ; let htm wear these light weights 
until he i* perfectly trained. This process will 
m&ke a smooth and easy picer ol any horse. 
7> jVai/ Him Tr^t. — The secret consists in 
nftlng rollers on the front feet. These rollers 
are made of pieces of wood or horn turned 
round, as big as a hickory nut, with a gimlet 
bole bored through the centre of each, and about 
12 of them strung on a string or narrow strap, 
(which should be much smaller than tlie hole,) 
and then tied or buckled very loose around the 
feter-tock joint next to the hoof, so that they 
will play loose up and down when the horse is 
in motion. As soon as the horse 6nds some- 
thing on his feet, he will lift them up higher and 
throw them out further and handsomer; this he 
will soon learn permanently, .\nother secret is 
that a 'Small or medium sized flat is the best, and 
Cm- superior to the track system for teaching the 
horse or colt to gather quickly. A -very light 
skeleton or gig should be used in training. To 
Sit 6n ku HauHchij. — First learn the horse to 
obey you, so that when you say ** Ho !" he will 
renuin still. Then, having learned him to lie 
dfMrxi, let him get up on his fore legs, and then 
nop him. The horse gets up in this way, and 
900 have only to teach him to hold his position 
Mr a while. It docs not strain the horse to sit, 
and you mu&t always use the word "sit*' in con- 
nection with the fcaL Wsq (he word " down" 
when you wish him to fall. To Make Htm Fol- 
Uw K«i. — ^Take your horse to the stable, put on 
asvrdngle and a bridle with short reins, which 
HUy be checked up a Utile and fastened to the 
surcingle. Then lead him about a few times, 
and letting go the bridle continue to caress him, 
as you constantly say, "Come along." If he 
Iw. give him a light cut behind with a long 
WMp. Continue this until you succeed. Do not 
Idt^ the dement of " love" m this as well as 
other feats, Ta Ttafh Him to Pick Up a Hand- 
Atrtkit/. — Spread on the sawdust a white cloth 
cocttaining a liberal supply of oats ; lead the an- 
faaal round the rine, and let him take some of 
Ibe oats. Tliis is Icssou No. i — its object being 
to 6x in the horse's mind a connection between 
the ctoth and the oats. The march round the 
drdc being once or twice repeated, he slops at 
Ibe handkerchief as a matter of course. By dint 
af practice — say acouple of weeks — he will learn 
to stop as readily in a trot or a gallop as in a 
walk. After a time the handkerchief must he 
<Soabtcd over and tied in a knot; the animal 
■hihc^ it 10 get at the grain, but not succee<)ing, 
|ifi& it from the ground, which is just the thing 
^Vhen the horse has done this a few 
and 6nds that, though he can shake noth- 
be will receive a handful of oats as a re- 
hc may be trusted to pcrfurm in public 
last step of all— jicrsuading the horse to 
carry the handkerchief to his owngr — is easily 




mjTm 



Of his own accord he will hold the cloth 
tM if rs taken from his mouth, and there will t>c 
Bule dtfficalty in coaxing him to walk a few 5^ieps 
he kiKnrs that he will ^t a handful of 
a CMTOt for his ol>e<lience. Teaching 
Mim ir WM^—'Vqx every-day use, the most 



economical gait for a horse is a fast walk; and 
yet not half the thought is given to this essential 
that there is to other things that secure to the 
horse a name rather than intrinsic value. Colts 
can be taught to walk fast by following them for 
a half day together (some ope leadmg) with a 
small switch, starting them, when inclined to go 
slow, into a quicker pace. After they are har- 
nessed keep fast walking in mind, and when on 
level ground, or going up a hill with a very light 
load, urge ihem to their utmost, until 4 miles an 
hour becomes a habiL Teachin)^ Htm io Stand. 
— Take your horse on the barn tloor, and throw • 
a strap over his back and fasten it to his right 
fore foot; lead him along and say *' Whoa," and 
at the same time pull down the strap, which will 
throw him on 3 feet, and moke him stop sud- 
denly. This is the best way known to teach 
*' \Vhoa," though you can put on the war bri- 
dle, and give him a sharp jerk that will stop him 
about as soon as the strap to his foot. Then put 
tiim in harness, with the foot strap, as directed 
under the head of •' Training to Harness,*' and 
drive him up to the door. The roomenl he un- 
dertakes to move, lake his footandsay "Whoa.'* 
Gel in your carriage and get out .tgain ; rattle 
the ihills ; make all the noise getting in and out 

{rou can ; give him to understand, by snatching 
lis foot each time he moves, that he mast stand 
until you tell him to go ; and after a few times 

f'ou can put the whole family in the carriage, and 
le will not stir out of his tracks. 

TAMING^ Preparation /w.— Take finely 
grated horse castor, and oils of rhodium and 
cummin ; keep these in separate bottles, wcU 
corked ; put some of the oil of cummin on your 
hand, ana approach the horse on the windy side. 
He will then move toward you ; then rub some 
of the cummin on his nose ; give him a little of 
the castor on anything he likes, and get 8 or ID 
drops of the oil of rhodium on the point of his 
tongue; you can then get him to do anything 
yon please. Follow up your advantage by all 
the kindness and attention possible toward the 
animal, and vour control is certain. 

TES'DdXS, CON TK ACTED,— YxxsX try 
the effect of lowering the heels a Utile mure than 
the toe at each shocmg, and applying a shoe with 
a plate projecting an inch or two in front of the 
toe. If there is much tenderness of the back 
sinews on pressure, this form of shoeing must 
be avoided until tliat has been removed- The 
thickened tendons must be rubbed doily with a 
mixture in equal parts of strong iodine ointmenf 
and blue ointment, until blistering takes place, 
when It may be discontinued until the effects 
have passed off. The horse should have a yard 
or small n.addock to run in where he is not very 
likely to ije excited to vigorous or irregular ac- 
tion, or, if kept itt-doors, let il be in a roomy 
box, and give a moderate amount of walking ex- 
ercise daily. Should several months of this sort 
of treatment fail to restore in jwrt, it may be ad. 
visal>le, perhaps, to have tlie back sinews cut 
through. 

TV/AY '^//.— This is a discharge of very of- 
fensive matter from the cleft of the frog. It it 
inflammation of the lower surface of the sensible 
frog, and during which pus is sccretcii together 
with, or instead of horn. In its treatment, al- 
most any astringent substance will check thrush 
in its early stage. Tar and common salt mixed 
is A very good appUcatiun, and tar and &ui^hA3ft 



i 



112 



DTCTlOXARy OF BVERY-DA Y WANTS. 




of 2inc can also be highly recommended. Be* 
forcthe introduction of either of these prennra- 
lions, the frog should be carefully inspected and 
all decayed parts removed. The drcssinc must 
be pressed to the bottom of the cleft and com- 
missures of the frog, and this should be repeated 
every other day or twice a week. 

TRICKS OF HOKSE-DEALERS^Vn- 
less a man is accustomed to horses, it is the 
greatest folly in the world to depend upon his 
own knowledge in purcha<;ing them, for there is 
a class of men who make their livinj; by bringing 
up horses with all manner of dcfcctii, and which 
their art enables them to disguise just as long as 
is sufficient to take in their dupes. In buying 
OS well OS selling arc these deceptions practiced. 
A few of these "tricks" are as follows. 'Jo 
Miik^ a Tru€-pulHng Hone Baulk. — Take tinc- 
ture of cantharides I oz., and corrosive subli- 
male i dr. Mix, and bathe his shoulders freely 
at night. To Makf a Hors€ Appear as if iMme. 
— Take n single hair from the toil; put through 
the eye of a needle ; Ufl the front leg, and press 
the sKin between the outer and middle tendon or 
cord ; shove the needle through ; cut off the hair 
on each side, and let the foot down ; the horse 
will go lame in 20 minutes. To Make a J/i*rse 
Stand by His Food and Xot Eat It. — GrcaLSc 
the front teeth and the nxif of the mouth with 
common beef tallow, and he will not eat till you 
have washed it out. To Make a Hone Appear 
as if Badly Foundered. — Take a fine wire and 
fasten it light around the fetlock, Ijctwccn the 
foot and heel, and smooth the hair over it. In 
30 minutes the horse will show lameness. Bo 
not leave it on over 9 hours. — To Cure a Horse 
cf tht Crib or Sucking Wind. — Saw between the 
upper teeth to the gums. To Cmrer Up the 
Heaves. — Drench the norsc with ^ lb. of com- 
mon bird shot, and he will not heave until they 
pass through him. To Make a Horse Appear 
as if He lAid the Glanders. — Melt 4 or. of^frcsh 
butter, and pour it into his ear. To Nen»t a 
Horse that is lAime. — Moke a small incision 
about half way from the knee t (lie joint on the 
outside of tlic leg, and at the back part of the 
shin bone you will find a small white tendon or 
cord; cut it off and close the external wound 
with a stitch, and he will walk off on the hard- 
est pavement and not limp a particle. To DiS' 
guise lameness. — When a horse goes dead lame 
m one shoulder, it can be disguised by creating 
a similar lameness in the corresponding leg, by 
taking off the shoe and inserting a bean l>etvveen 
it and the foot. To Put Black Spots on a H'kifi 
Horse. — Take of powdered quick-lime ^4 a Ik» 
and litharge 4 oz. Well beat and mix tlie lith- 
arge with the lime. The above is to he put into 
a vessel, and a sharp ley is to be poured over it. 
Boil and skim off the substanco which rises on 
the surface. This is the coloring matter, which 
must be applied to such parts of the animal as 
you wish to have dyed black. To Produce a 
Star on a Horse. — Take a niece of coarse tow- 
lincn, the size of the wishea-for star ; spread on 
it warm pitch, and apply it to the shaved spot ; 
leave it on for 2 or 3 days, when wash with a 
little osmart water* or elixir of vitriol, 2 or 3 
times a day until well. When the hair grows 
it will be white. To Make an Old Horse Appear 
Young. — This is done by fdJng down the teelh, 
tlic dark markiof^ on which are removed by a 
iron. Filling up the depressions over the 




horse's eyes, by puncturing the skin over ih*^ 
cavity, and filling through a tube by air frum th*' 
mouth, and then closing the aperture, when the 
brow will become smooth — for a time. The 
white hairs arc painted out, when the animal will 
altogether have a youthful appearance. 

UHINE, Stoppage of. — Symptoms : Freqncnt 
attempts to urinate, looking round at his sides, 
lying down, rolling and stretching. To cure, 
take }^ lb. of hops, 3 drs. oil of camphor; grind 
and mix. Make this into 3 pills. Gii-t? I evrry 
dav, Willi a drench made of a small sjKwnful of 
saltpetre and 2 oz. of water. This »tL1 cure, as 
a general thing. 

H'ARTS. To Cure.^The safest and most ef- 
fectual caustic for destroying warts is chroi 
acid. Having first picketl off the rough out* 
-surface of the warts so as to make them bleedf' 
apply, by means of a small wooden spatula^ a 
little of the dry acid, rubbing it well in. This 
will cause a free discharge of watery Ruid from 
the surface. In a few days the wart b converted 
into a tough, leather-like substance, which ulti- 
mately falls off, generally leaving a healthy sore, 
which soon heals. 

n'AHTS ON A HORSE'S NOSE.—Vii%^' 
solve >» lb. of alum in a quart of water, with a' 
brush or cloth wet the warts twice each day for 
4 days, and they will disappear. Another rem- 
edy IS to smear the warts with salted butter. 

WATER FARCIN.— "^ymyiX^^ms.: The horse 
is dull and loses his apj>clite, and swells along 
tlie belly or chest and between the fore legs. To 
cure : Kowcl in the breast, and along each side 
of the chest, as far as the swelling goes. Leave 
the rowels in until the swelling goes down . give 
a spoonful of cleansing powders morning and 
nignt. 

WEN^ To Cure ci.— Take equal parU of 50ft 
soap and slaked lime, well mixed. Lance the 
wen at the lime of making the application, or 
two or three days after. Two or three applica- 
tions will cure. 

;f 7. VZ?-(7.-/ZZ.S".— Wind-galls are puffy swel- 
lings above and behind the fetlocks, caused by 
the enlargement of the sheathes through which 
the tendons pass. In recent cases nothing fur- 
ther is required than rest, aoerient medicine, and 
wet bandages wrapped firmly around the swell- 
ings. It may also be advisable to remove the 
shoe and shorten the toe to remove the tension 
of the tendons. When there is lameness, and 
the swelling is indurated, hot fomentations for 
several hours a day, or pouldces, should be ap- 
plies!. A woolen bandage should afterwards be 
applied, and camphorated spirits well rubbed in 
daily • 

WIND IN HORSES, To Imprat'e.—\i will 
be found, if tar water and powdered charcoal are 
mixed with the horse's feed, that it will have a 
most bencticial effect on his wind and condi^ 
tion. 

WORMS IN HORSES.— \. Give erer^ 
morning, one hour before feeding, 3 drs. of sul- 
phate of iron and 2 drs. of assafettda ; and ev- 
ery night, for a week, throw up an injection of I 
02. oil of turpentine and 10 oz. of linseed oiL. 
Green food is to be preferred. — 2. WTiiie-ash 
bark burnt to ashes and made into rather a very 
strong ley ; then mix % a pt. of it with 1 pt. of 
warm water, and give all 2 or 3 times daily. 

WOUNDS.— One of the best washes that is 
known for ordinary wounds on horses, is to take 




DOMESTIC AA^nfALS—POVLTRY, 



I 



I 



W ib. of ssltpdre, K ^ P^' turpentine, and put 
{heto into » bottle; shake np well before using; 
flopljr to the wound 3 times a day with a feather. 

POULTRY. 

BONES, To Puherisr for Fowls.~-'?wK the 
bones in a stove and allow them to bum white, 
when they can then be easily pulverized; then 
mix with corn meal and feed twice a day. 

ClilCKEl^S, Management of.— kiXftx emerg- 
ing from the shelU the chickens should not be 
removed from under the hen. They are at first 
weekly and wet, but in a few hours they become 
thoroughly dry, and it is not unlil their little 
qaaint heads peep from under the feathers of the 
hen that she should be removed from the nest. 
Many persons miaginc that the chickens require 
feeding as soon as hatched. This is an error. 
At Che time of halching, the remains of the yelk 
are drawn into the digestive canal of the cliick, 
and constitute its first food. This will last it for 
ao to 30 hours, and then the chickens are strong 
and active on the legs, and rcadv to cat with 
avidity. As regards the first food for the chicks, 
there i* nothing appronching in value to a mix- 
ture of equal parts of grated bread, yelk of hard- 
boiled egg^, and oatmeal slightly moistened with 
water. This is the best fixS for the first fort- 
ni^t; then add gradually groats, hemp-seed, 
and green food, such as cress, lettuce, cabb.ige, 
and lecks, chopped fine. If the weather is cold 
and wet, add a Hltle powdered pimento to the 
iJMd occasionally, also a little finely minced meat 
as a substitute for worms and insects, fresh curd 
and hard-boiled eggs mishcd up with the shells. 
Feed the chickens early in the morning, and of- 
ten during the day, giving but little at a time; 
the water vessels should be shallow and fre- 
quently refilled, and so arranged that the chick- 
ens cannot get into them. Throw the food on 
the ground to the chickens ; they will then pick 
top gravel alone with it, which is necessary for 
the digestion of their food. Of course there is 
not so much necessity for a substitute for the 
natural animal food when the hens have a free 
range, and an scratch for worms ai4d insects for 
the brood. It is important that a hen with 
chickens should be well fed, for if poorly fed 
the will drag her progeny about in search of 
food* taking them through the wet grass, and 
wcsrring them with over-exertion ; but if well 
fat she broods them carefully, and only scratches 
lo »npT>ly them with grubs and dainty animal 
Ibod. Both hen and chickens must be carefully 
aad warmly housed at night, and never allowed 
out until the dew is quite off the grass. 

r-^/'O.V.T.— Place the fowl on its lefk side on 
the table, with its back to the oijcrator, a strap 
loaod its wings, and the legs in a noose. Pluck 
off the fieaihers between the first and second 
rih«, and with the thumb and finger of the left 
hand draw the skin tense, so as to ascertain pos- 
itively the space between the ribs. With a very 
sharp knife make an inciiiion through the skin 
oaly, an inch long, measuring from the point of 
thi &rst rib backward. This will expose the 
two ribi and the margin of a large muscle run- 
anoifdoim the thigh. This muscle is in no dan- 

Sr o| beang injured if the incision be made at 
• proper point; but if otherwise, an injury to 
HwUanse lameness. Dinde the muscle bc- 
B ribt, by introdudiig the knife at the 




point of the first rib and cutting backwards 
about an inch. In this way the pleura is sundy 
avoided, and of course an escape of oir. 

Now, by introducing two small hooks, or any 
other suitable apparatus, draw apart the ribs so 
as to expose a bundle of fibres called the inter- 
costal inu!>c1e. Should the incision be too small, 
it may be enlarged by passing the knife round 
the point of the second rib. Divide the belly of 
the intercostal muscle lengthwise^ and you will 
perceive a semi- transparent membrane, called 
the peritoneum. This must likewise be divided, 
keeping the knife as far off as possible from the 
pleura. A branch of the cceliac artery traverses 
this membrane, and may be injured by a bung- 
ling hand or by inattention. On cutting through 
this membrane the upper testicle is brought into 
view. This lies on the margin of the lateral 
spinous processes, surrounded by nerves and 
blood vessels. It is a small yellow body, its 
color somewhat darkened by the membrane cov- 
ering it. In pushing downward and forward the 
intestine, the second testicle is brought into view, 
Iving centrally between two large blood vcssela- 
This must be removed with great care, so as not 
to iniurc any of the neighboring veins. 

CANKER /X /^OlFLS.— This disease is in- 
dicated by the mouth and throat becoming filled 
up with a cheesy substance of very offensive 
odor, which causes in some cases' a stoppage of 
the windpipe and death by suffocation. It is to 
lie treated successfully as follows: I. If the fowl 
is not worth a good deal cut its head off. — 2, If 
worth saving, with a small spoon and pincers 
take out all the cheesy matter, and* wipe out all 
the slimy mncus from month, nostrils, and eyes. 
— 3. Prepare a solution of chlorinated soda or 
chloride of lime. If chlorin.itc<l so^la (Laba- 
raquc*s solution) is used, dilute it with one or 
two parts of water. Wash the head, eyes, nos- 
trils, mouth and throat out thoroughly, using a 
soft swab with one of these solutions, and in 20 
minutes give the fowl a good feed of chopped 
meat, mixed with bread soaked in ale or spirits 
and water, and well sprinkled with Cayenne 
pepper. Give some solution of iron in the wa- 
ter, and keep up the diet indicated until well. 
Put the whole flock on a similar diet for a few 
days, espcciallv those having colds. 

CATARRif AND COZ/?.— These com- 
plaints in fowls are caused by their being ex- 
pose<l to dampness, and, if allowed to continue, 
will run to roup. Keep them on dry, elevated 
places. Red pepper mixed with soft food, fed 
several times a week, will remove a cold ; and 
pulverized charcoal, given occasionally, is a pre- 
ventive of putrid afTeclions, 

CHOLERA, C/f/CA'EN.~A remedy pro- 
mtilgated by the Department of Agriculture is 
alum alone — giving 3 or 4 teaspoons of alum 
water daily, and mix with the feed (corn-meal) 
strong alum water. This is said to cure the very 
worst cases. Another remedy is to feed raw 
onions, chopped fine, mixed with other food, 
about twice a week. 

CROUP.— Try and remove the croup mem- 
branes from the mouth with a feather, and then 
touch the parts with a feather dipped in a solu- 
tion of nitrate of siver, 10 grs. to I or. of rain- 
water. Feed no raw grain. Well boiled oat- 
meal or Indian com-mcal will make an excellent 
substitute. Put ?i an oz. of carbonate of soda 
in every quart of the water dr^nk. b*) \^^ diutt^- 

6 



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DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



enB, and* if possible, change their roosting place 
to a new building. If this last cannot be done, 
clean the place thoroughly, and wash it over 
with a solution at the rate of on ounce of car- 
bolic acid to a quart of water. 

CJUCKENSCKA TCHJNG-^^KdsX people 
object to allowing hens in gardens bccau&e of 
their .scratching peculiarities. This nuw be right 
At time of seed-planting, and until the young 
plants arc well started on their growth above the 
ground; but before and after this lime, when 
scratching will do no harm, chickens should be 
allowed tncir full freedom, because of the good 
they do in freeing the ground from insects. In 
a recent article which ap]>eared iu a prominent 
agricultural pap*r, the writer says: " Recently 
we were at work in our garden. Half of it was 
dug and some planted. Tlic fourteen hens and 
two roosters were throwing dirt at a fearful rate ; 
peas and beans were unearthed, but none of them 
were caien ; but when an earth-worm or grub 
was brought in sight, it was swallowed as sud- 
denly as Western men arc said to swallow oys- 
ters- While watching ihcm, one found some- 
thing that pleased her so much that she chuckled 
audibly. Bv making a sudden rush toward her, 
she dtuppctl it — it was the pupa or chrysalis of 
one of those large green caterpillars (txsually 
called ** worms") that arc found on potato and 
tomato plants. Gardeners who understand how 
to make tlieir business profitable will use great 
quantities of well-rotted stable manure. If the 
hens arc on hand when this manure is spread, 
how busy and how happy they will be 1 Some 
may suppose they are looking for grain ; perhaps 
ihcv do fmd some kernels, but more often chrys- 
alids looking like grains of rye, which are the 
pupec of flics — generally our common house-flies. 
Could all such manure heaps be submitted to a 
thorough scratching by the poultry, we should 
be less tormented with insects. Both vegetable 
and fruit gardens could be arranged so that hens 
and cliickens could have access nearly all the 
time to great advantage. £s{>ecially should 
fowls Ijc kept in ortliards. If so kept they will 
tvork among the trees, doing just what is need- 
ed, keeping the ground well cultivated, and de- 
stroying everything that can injure the fruit and 
trees in the snapc of bugs, worms, and other in. 
sects. 

DROOPING ;JAV£7X— This, in either tur- 
keys or chickens, is caused by vermin To cure 
it, grease their heads, the under sides of their 
wings, and their bodies under tlieir wings, with 
lard or fried meat fat, or any other grease. In 
a few days their wings w)41 be naturiu, and their 
appetite ami comfort will return. 

DUCk'S, To Fatten. — Give them oats, meal 
and barley. This feed puts on flesh rapidly. 
Shut your ducks up in a good coop, with no run- 
way. Tliey must have no exercise, for that 
gives heallti, not fat. Feed them with bran, 
oats, oat-meal, or barley-meal, cooked ; put in a 
shallow vessel; give gravel, water, cabbage 
leaves or a sod of grass. Some feed Indi.iu 
meal, and proceed wth the cramming process ; 
but this is unnecessary, as young duclcs will eat 
all the fond put Itefore them, and in that way 
cram themselves without assistance. Lei what- 
ever food you give them be cooked and fed 
warm. 

EGG^EATING HENS.— To cure this hah- 
% break an egg and dust the contents nicely 



with fine Cayenne pepper, afterwords turning 
the egg round so as to get the pepper below the 
velk, if possible, and leave the egg xtk the of- 
fender's nest ; or, if he catches her in the act of 
eating an egg, let him drive her away quietly, 
and place pepper in the remainder of the egg, 
endeavoring, as stated before, to get the pepper 
underneath. He will very soon see her mnning 
furiously about with distended beak. If one 
dose is not sufficient, administer another a little 
stronger. If fowls are well supplied with lime 
and gravel rubbish and animal food (frejihineat) 
in some form, hens will not eat their eggs. Ar- 
tificial or china eggs should be used as nest 
eggs, 

EGG-PRODUCERS, £EST.^'E%i>entnce 
has indicated that for laying eggs the Polands 
are most desirable ; for the table, Dorkings ; and 
for early marketable chickens, Brahraas and Co- 
chins. A writer who has had considerable ex- 
perience in raising fowls for pro6t says : The 
Farmer's Breed is the breed for profit. It con- 
sists of Brahma hens and colored Dorking cocks 
— the chicks from which are hardy, easily reared, 
grow fast, and in four months, without extra 
feed, will dress four to five pounds each of fine- 
grained, well-formed, plump-brca&ted, well-cc4- 
ored flesh, fit for the table of any amateur or ep- 
icure, and always commancUng a good price in 
market. The hens from this cross are even bel- 
ter and more continuous layers than either pure 
Brahma or the Dorking; but if wanted to breed 
again, the farmer must kec{i one coop separate 
oC Brahmas — say a cock and two hens — and so 
also of the Dorkings, and thus yearly •with, the 
cross of pure bred birds, cocks of the Dorkings 
and hens of the Brahmas, keep up the *' Fann- 
er's Breed for profit." 

EGGSt SEA OF, ~li is affirmed with assur- ^^M 
ance that the eggs containing the germ of males^^H 
have wrinkles on their smulcr ends, while fi^^^| 
male eggs are smooth at their extremities. 

EA TTENJNG POVL TR I'.— The fowU de- 
signed for being fattened should be well and lib- 
erally fed from the time they are hatched. It is 
a mistake to suppose that they can be kept low 
when young, and got up to a great size by lib- 
eral feeding when put up to fatten. The fowls 
so treated arc stunted in their growth, the bony 
frame-work becomes scl, and they never after- 
ward attain a large size ; whereas with liberal 
feeding they become fit for the fatling-coop at 
the age of about four months in summer, and 
from five to six in winter. It cannot be too 
strongly impressed upon those who are desirous 
of obtaining poultry of first-ratc quaHty, that 
fowls are only in perfection for the tabic before 
they have altainca their complete development. 
The cockerels should be put up when "their 
tails begin to turn'' — namely, just when the two 
lung siclilc feathers or streamers begin to top the 
straight feathers of the tail ; and the pullets be- 
fore they have laid. Tliey may be cither con- 
fined within a small space or placed in a coop, tn 
a warm and rather dark situation, and, of course, 
under cover. The fowls should be separated 
from each other by partitions in the ccop, and 
no more space ought to be allowed them man is 
necessary to make them comfortable, without al- 
lowing room for exercise. 

The falting-coops should stand on legs, in or- 
der'to raise them to a convenient height from 
the ground, so that the dung may be removed 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS— POULTRY. 



"5 



I 



I 



daily ; or each may have a shallow drawer un- 
derneath, being dail^ filled with fresh earth — an 
admirahlc plan — the fowls being very fond of 
nestling in dry earth, and earth being a deodor- 
xvtt and disinfectant, it is most conducive to their 
health. The most scrupulous cleanliness must 
be observetl in the case of fattening fowls; the 
troughs in front of the coop must be removed 
when the fowls have ceased eating, the remains 
of food Uken out, and the troughs scalded and 
laid in the sun to dry daily. Not a particle of 
fcK>d that has become sour should be given to 
them; indeed, they will eat better if fresh food, 
and of a ditTercnt kind, be given to them at each 
meal. When first put into the coop they should 
not have any thmg placed before fehem for some 
hours, till thev have recovered from their fright 
at being caught, and have become accustomed to 
ihctr new residence. Afterwards they should be 
fe^i with much regularity three times each day, 
giving them at each meal as much as they can 
eat, hut not leaving anything for them to pick up 
n the intervals. 

When first placed in the coop they may be fed 
twice a day on boiled potatoes, mashed up with 
coarse oat-meal, and moistened with a little new 
milk. The third meal may be Patna rice, well 
boUcd, with a httle milk added. When the 
Ji>wLs are nearly fat, the rice may be given twice 
a day and the potatoes only once ; the rice makes 
the flesh white and clear. A little vegetable, 
chopped fine, may occasionally be given to vary 
the character of their food ; the earth in the 
cnnpwill supply the small stones necessiry for 
therr digestion. Tlie first meal should be given 
early in the morning, the second about mid-day< 
and the last at dusk, when the other fowls are 
going to roost. 

On this system of feeding, a fowl will become 
perfectly fatted in from a fortnight to three or 
Kwr weeks at the outside. When fat it should 
be immediately killed ; for not only is it unprof- 
iulUe to keep it any longer, but it deteriorates 
Tcry rapidly, lo'sing weight and becoming hard 
Aim coarse in the flesh. Ilefore being killed, the 
fowls should be kept for fifteen or sixteen hours 
without food or water. If this precaution is not 
taken, {and it is unfortunately often neglected,) 
the food in the crop and intestines ferments. 
When this is the case in summer, the fowl in a 
flew hours turns green, and is entirely unfit for 
Ibe tabic. 

FOWLS, O/.O.—Tfi have the poultry yard 
profitable, the fowls should not be kept until 
they arc old. There is no objection to preserv- 
mC * £>vorite cock, as long as he is active and 
fivdy, but hens after three years will not pro- 
ilacc as many eggs as those of one or two 



CAPES. — ^This destructive disease is believed 
to be infectious and epidermic Unless perhaps 
thas communicated by others, it never occurs 
accept there has been foul water, exposure lo 
wel, ttnd want of nourishing food. The disease 
OOfMtsts — at least so far a-; actual symptoms ex- 
VemA in a number of small worms which infest 
1fe« windpipe, and cansc the poor chicken to 
cup for breath. If taken early, it will t>c suffi- 
aent to give, everyday, a morsel of camphor 
the size «f a grain of wheat, and to put camphor 
in the drinking water; or a little turpentine may 
be given doily in meal, taking care, of course, 
that the dcfiacncics in diet and shelter be also 



amended. In fully developed cases, the worms 
must be removed by introducing a loop of horse- 
hair into the trachea* and turning round during 
withdrawal — the operation to be repeated se\'eru 
times, till all the worms appear to be extracted. 
A feather, stripped almost up to the lop, maybe 
used instead ol the horse-hair. Crumbs of dough 
impregnated with soft soap, given once or twicci 
is also said to cure. 

GEESE, TO MANAGE.—lht goose lars 
from lo to ao eggs l>efore silting, and when she 
is well fed and attended to she will lay and hatch 
3 times in a year. She begins lo lay early in 
March, and even toward the end of h'ebruarv. 
Tlie period of laying may be perceived in tfic 
drcttmstance that the goose at that lime carries 
about straws in its bill, prompted by the devel- 
opment of the maternal instinct to prepare a 
nest. When this practice is observed it will be 
found prudent to confine the bird, providing her 
with a nest for laying and hatchmg in, which 
should be made of straw Uncd with hay, and so 
formed that tlic eggs will not readily fall out, es- 
pecially when the bird tnms them. 15 effgs wll 
be sufhcient to place under even a large bird. 
The period of incubation is a month, but some 
of the goslings may l>c hatched a day or two be- 
fore this time; it is desirable, however, that all 
the youn^ birds be hatched about the same time, 
and to this end as much care as is practicable 
should be taken to have all the eggs e^^oally 
fresh. When the brood are hatched they ought 
to be turned out into a sunny place, sheltered 
alike from cold winds and bad weather; but it is 
not only unnecessary, but prejudicial, to feed 
them for 12 hours or so. Their earliest food 
ought to be bread soaked in milk, curds, por- 
ridge, boiled greens, boiled potatoes mixed with 
bran ; and such food ought lo be given them at 
a mo>leratc temperature, so as lo avoid the en- 
trance of heat or cold, and for a couple of days at 
least after being hatched the goslings ought not 
to be allowed access to cold water, whi(^ often 
gives them cramp. 

As a general rule, geese ought to be confined 
as Utile as possible. If they are allowed to run 
about the fields, ditches, and streams of water, 
they will forage for themselves very success- 
fully. Grass and water are essential to their 
comfort and well-being, such grass especially as 
may be found on damp and swampy soil, and 
which, however rank or coarse it may be, is well 
adapted to them. In harvest time the stubhlc- 
ficlus are an excellent pasturage for them ; they 
can there pick up no small supply of com* and 
which would otherwise be lost, and they obtain 
abundance of young grass and other herbage. 
The advantages of a stubble-field, however, are 
nol always to be had, but where this occurs the 
kitchen-garden may be made available. In au< 
tumn the gecsc may be turned into it without 
the danger of their doing any serious damage; 
but they ought to be fed occasionally on boHed 
potatoes, bruised up with bran, or the result of 
their foraging for themselves will not be produc- 
tive of any advantage. 

Goslings in June and July will Citten without 
any food ocyond what they can gather for them- 
selves in the stubble-fields ; but if it be neces- 
sary to hasten the process they must be supplied 
with additional nutriment for thai juirpose, such 
as potatoes and turnips bruised with meal, md 
ihcy should thus be fed once a. Aa-y. TiVett «re 



■ 

i 



1X6 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY^DAY WANTS. 



nrious methods of faClening geese, but the sim- 
plest and best is nutritive food, and in abun- 
dance. 

GUINEA FOWL—Ttiw bird is a native of 
that part of Africa which its name indicates, but 
it is also said to be indigenous in America. It 
is a larger bird than our ordinary barn-door fowl 
— but the eggs are small, three of them being 
hardly efjuafio an ordinary hen's egg ; they are, 
however, numerous and well-flavored. This 
fowl dt>c^ not thrive in confinement, but requires 
perfect liberty, and a wide space over which to 
wander. And it is of so pugnacious a character, 
moreover, that it can hardly be got to associate 
with other poultry on amicable terms. The dif- 
ficulty of rearing the young ones in this damp 
climate, and Ihe very noisy and destructive hab- 
its of the old birds, may account for their ab- 
sence generally from our poultry yards. Thev 
are, however, very excellent eating, and well 
worth the trouble of keeping. The best way to 
raise and keep them is to procure some eggs of 
a good stock, hatch them under a small variety 
of fowl, such as game-fowl or bantams ; when 
Ihe chicks appear, keep them under cover where 
Ihcy can have plenty of air and dry gravel ; feed 
Ihcm frequently — at least once in every three 
hours, llegin by giving eggs and milk made into 
rather a dry custard; toward the end of Ihe first 
month add a little oat-meal mixed with milk, and 
as they grow older boiled vcgctahlcs small wheat 
and potatoes maybe given. Ants' eggs are their 
favorite delicacy, and will be found most nour- 
ishing food for them. These birds are very fond 
of scratching in a garden, not for seeds, hut for 
insects and grubs, and it is questionable whether 
lliey do most harm in rooting out the gardener's 
seeds, or good in destroying the insects that 
would destroy his plants after they had grown 
np. 

HENS, To Make Lav.^K hen is said to have 
the capacity of laying 600 eggs and no more — a 
few in her first year, from 320 to 375 in the next 
three, and the rest from the fifth to the ninth in- 
clusive. The true economy, therefore, is not to 
keep hens after their fourth year, liy feeding 
stimulating food, the hen can t)c made to lay the 
quantum of eggs with wliich she is endowed in 
a much shorter time than if left to scratch for 
herself. There is no better food for this pur- 
pose, fed each alternate day than the foUowmg : 
To 3 gals, of boiling water add % 01. of com- 
mon salt, a teaspoonfvd of Cayenne pepper, and 
4 OE. lard. Stir the mixture until the pepper has 
imparted considerable of its strength to the wa- 
ter. Meantime the salt will have been dissolved 
and the laid melted. Then, while yet boiling 
hot, stir in a meal made of oats and corn, ground 
together in equal prnj>ortions, until a stiff mu«>h 
is formed. Set away to cool down to a milk. 
warmth. Before feeding taste to see that you 
Kivc an overdose neither of salt nor pepper, and 
lo prevent the hens from being imposed upon 
with a mixture not fit to be eaten. Itesides 
this, especially during the winter, give them on 
the days on which the above mixture is omitted, 
a ^ oz. uf fresh meat chopped fine, and at nit 
times plenty of pure water, grain, gravel, and 
lime. 

HEX-ROOSTS^ Ta Destroy VertHin <m.— 
This can be done promptly and simply by sprink- 
ling kerosene on tnclr roosls. 
^£A^St To ^r/.— The most coovenicnt way to 



set hens is to get a common tea chest or box, 
put a portable sloping roof to it, made of a ftnv 
pieces of board. Tut a hole at one end, like 
that for a dog-kennel. In front of this put a 
wire p<n or frame made of lath. Provide Ihe 
hen with food and water daily, and you need n«j| 
be under anxiety about your hen leaving her 
^gg*; ^c cannot get out, and will return on the 
eggs, if really broody, in a very short time. In 
this way you would have them entirely under 
your command. 

HENS, To Pmtnt 5>//m^.— Setting hens 
can be cured by putting water w a vessel to the 
depth of one incn, putting the hen into it, and 
covering the top of the vessel for ahoat twenty- 
four hours. The vessel should be deep enough 
to allow the fowl to stand up. 

KILLING AND DRESSING PO UL TR Y. 
— As much, if not more, dcjicnds on the manner 
of killing poultry as in the dressing to have It 
look fit for markeL Too much caution cannot 
be used in this branch of the business. One 
mo<ie of killing fowls, (instead of wringing the 
necks, which we deprecate,) is to cut their heads 
off with a single blow of a sharp ax, hang Ihcm 
up by the legs and allow them to bleed freely, 
and pluck their fcathL-rs immediately — while yet 
warm. The French mode, which is highly com- 
mcndetl — we think far the best, as it causes in- 
stant death, without pain or disfigurement, and 
is simply done by opening the beak of (he fowl, 
and with a shar^i-pointcd and narrowbladed 
knife, make an incision at the Uick of the roof, 
which will divide the vertebrx. and cause imme- 
diate death, after which hang the fowl up by the 
legs till the bleeding ceases, and pick it while 
warm, if you desire the feathers to be removed. 
With a little care the skin of the fowl does not 
become as torn and ragged as it d(.>es in the otd- 
fashioned way of scalding. Another thing, the 
flesh presents a better and more natural appear- 
ance when not scalded. 

Geyelin says : *' Some breeders cram their 
poultry before killing, to make them appear as if 
heavy ; this is a most injudicious plan, as the 
undigested food soon enters into Jermeniation, 
and putrefaction takes place, as is evidenced by 
the quantity of greenish, putrid-looking fowls 
that are seen in the markets." Fowls should 
always be allowed to remain in their coops at 
least twenty-four hours previous to being killed 
without food; by so doing the breeder will l>e a 
gainer in the end ; as his poultry will keep long- 
er, and present a better appearance in tlie mar. 
ket ; and above all he will show the purchaser 
that he is honest, and has not crammed his pouU 
try for the purpose of benefiting hiuiself and 
swindling otners. 

LA VINO SOFTSHELLED EGGS.^Thn 
results from a deficient supply of lime, and an 
excess of soft and animal food. Give with the 
feed more plaster, pounded oyster shells, gravel 
and rubbish, etc 

LICE — and other vermin — on fowl may be 
treated by rooking their roosts perfectly clean 
with hot water and soap-suds, ami ajtplying af- 
terwards spirits of turpentine (to the roos-ls.) 
The whole of the building which they occupy 
should be kept scrupulously clean. Another 
method is to strew small branches or sprays of 
cedar about the hencry. This, also, will be 
found very effective. 

POULTRY FOR MARKET^WtL^ fowU 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS— POULTRY. 



I 



I 



are killed Iwfore being sent to market, it is best 
not to pack them as soon &s ihev axe plucked. 
It is best to let poultry hang at feast 24 hours 
after being picked before packing, so as to allow 
the aninuJ neat to entirely pass olT. After pick- 
ing, wash olT the blood-stains with a cloth and 
warm water la a careful manner, for if anv arc 
left to harden and become dry, their removal will 
prove very troublesome. 

ROUP. — Symptoms: The symptoms of roup 
are at first identical with tho» of a severe ca- 
tarrli ; the discharge from the nostrils, however, 

■ fcoon loses its transparent character, becoming 
more or less opaque, and of a very peculiar and 
offensive odor ; froth appears in the inner comer 
of the eyes, and the lid« swell; in severe cases 
the eyeball is entirely concealed; the nostrils are 
doseil by the discharge drying around them, and 
the eyelids arc agglutinate! together ; the dis- 

■ eased secretion accumulates withm to a great ex* 
tent, consequently the sides of the face swell to 
an extreme degree, and the bird, unable to see, 
or feed itself, suffers from great depression and 
sioks rapidly. With respect to the communica- 
tion of this disease, my experiments prove that 
il is CKcecdmgly contagious. It is frequently 
communicated by fowls drinking out of the same 
vessel, as the discharge from the nostrils of the 
sick bird contaminates the water as it drinks. 
^L No common fowl is worth bothering with i^ftcr 
^B the eyes swell badly ; before that tney may he 
^^ cured with tolerable ease. The raouth, throrit, 
eyes and nostrils should be washed out clean, and 
Sponged with strong chloride of lime water, or, 
vtui is better, Labaraque's solution, chlorinated 
soda, and the whole flock, but the ailing ones 
particularly, should have the heartiest diet — iron 
m their water, bread and ale, soft feed well pep- 
pered, and meat of some kind. 

TURKEYS, TO REAR.— First, a quiet hen 
is to be fiought for as a sitter, and when such an 
one is obtained, the next care is to give her a 
i^iiiet and rather secluded place for her nest while 
^K sitting, which is of more importance than some 
^H Ihink, who do not give themselves the trouble to 
^^ care for tuch small matters. Bronze turkeys are 
large birli, and will cover 15 to 18 eggs with 
ease ; while silting they should not be disturbed, 
and should not be taken from the nest after 
hatchir^ for at least 24 hours, or longer, if she 
ftkts oomented, as the young chicks gain strength 
very fast by being kept quiet for a day or two at 
firsL If the hen is quite gentle, (as she should 
be* if possible.) it is best to watch the hatching 
proce&s, ind if a chick is not likely to come out 
stTOOg, the shell may sometimes be broken, and 
t£»e oick uvcd; in taking the hen with her 
brood from the nest, she should have a large, 
mirycaopt where the grass it closely mown off, 
where the chicks can bask in the sun at pleasure, 
«ad have quite a run for exercise, and the picking 
up of bngi and insects. 

The feed should be mostlv ctirds. made from 
aouT-milk healed, and the whey drainctl off and 
Sfluooed with pepper, .\fter a few days, ac- 
OOrdlBg to their «.trength nnd the quietness of 
ibehea turkey, they should have the range of 
tbcfium. At first a tinall portion of the day, 
■Iber the dew it all off, they should be housed at 
■light, and not let out (ill the wet is off the grass 
iD the morning; then by liberal feeding \v)en- 
cwtT they come near thrir roosting quarters, they 
wiU be heaUh7 and grow rery Ust — especially if 



L 



grasshoppers are plenty, as they arc some years 
in most sections of the country. When it is the 
time for the fattening seasons, they should then 
have all the good food thev will eat, of a variety 
such as com, buckwheat, Doiled potatoes, chop- 
ped cabbage, etc., and if kept where they can 
get what ihey will eat when they want it, they 
will fatten very fast. 

An experienced farmer gives his experience as 
follows : Let the mother of the new-born brood 
choose her own time to leave the nest. Taking 
off is always bad policv. As soon as the nest is 
left, make a yard, twelve feet sqcirc, by setting 
boards edgewise. Remove the turkey and her 
brood into this little pen, wherein they should 
be kept for at least six davs — after which they 
may be let out in the middle of the day, and per- 
mitted the range of an acre; but they must al- 
ways be gathered at least an hour before sun- 
down into the pens to remain until the dew is 
off the next morning, and all the dav, if there is 
the least appearance of a storm. The time the 
mother leaves the nest, wash the naked parts of 
her body thoroughly with tobacco juice, to kill 
the inevitable Hce; and at the same time dust 
thoroughly the young with some vermin-destroy- 
ing powder. No one thing kills as many young 
turkeys as these parasites, .\$ a preventive, 
sulphur and snuiT, mixed in equal quantities, and 
dusted on the nest afler the turkey has been sit- 
ting two weeks, is recommended; but nothing 
should prevent the washing of the mother, or 
the dusting of the young, the day the mother 
leaves the nest, and 2 days after the young have 
left the shell Young turkeys require but little 
food, but they need to be fed as often as once an 
hour for the first week. Coarse-ground Indian 
meal, mixed with sour milk curds, and 6nely 
chopped hard-boiled eggs, is the best feed for 
the first month. After that, the eggs may hf. 
left out, the meal ground a little coarser, and the 
curds, if you have them, used in larger measure 
than at the first. As soon as thev can swallovr 
whole grain, give them that, and tnen all trouble 
in [his direction is at an end. Until they are 
two months old, they must be driven to some 
shelter every night, and never be allowed to re- 
main in the fields through a long or heavy rain- 
Even when one-quarter grown, they will die 
from exhaustion, trying to follow the vigorous 
and unreasoning mother, if wet with but a very 
heavy dew. 'Inrce rules, then, must be ob- 
served, if those who attempt to raise turkeys 
would secure success : First — Be sure to free 
both old and young from lice immediately upon 
the old ones leaving the nest. Second — Feed 
frequently at the beginning with strengthening 
food. Tliird — Never let the young turkey* get 
wet, either with dew or rain, until their feathers 
afford their bodies, if not complete, at least par- 
tialprotection. 

TURKE YS^ Charcoal far. — A recent exper- 
iment has been tried in feeding charcoal for fat- 
tening turkeys. Two lots of four each were 
treated alike, except for one lot finely pulverized 
coal was mixed with mashed potatoes and meal, 
on which they were fetl, ana broken pieces of 
coal also plentifully supplied. The difference in 
weight was one and a rialf pounds each in favor 
of the fowls supplied with coal, and the flesh wai. 
superior in tenderness and flavor. This sngges- | 
tion is well worth a fair trial from those engaged 
in turkey 'raising. 



A 



Il8 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



ACCOUNTS, ICE E PING.— Ket^n^ of ac- 

counts is almost an absolate necessity to a farm- 
er's success. If we should be asked what is the 
great hindrance to the advancement of ordinary 
Urraers, we should reply, the want of some sys- 
tematic plan in their labors, especially the want 
of some systematic mode of keeping their farm 
accounts. If we ask them the cobt of raising 
100 bushels of com, or making loo lbs. of pork, 
not one in a thousand can give an answer based 
on actual figures. They^'w/j-j a bushel of corn 
costs so much, but their guessing is often wide 
of the truth. The great majority of farmers 
cannot tell the net income of their farms, and 
hardljr know whether they are progressing, 
standing still, or retrograding. If a merchant 
or a manufacturer should conduct his business 
in this shiftless way. we should expect him to 
fail, and the reason that farmers do not more fre- 
(juentlvfail is that their business is comparatively 
limited. They live mainly within thcnuclves. 
The farm supports the family, and the family 
take care of the farm. Tliey would find their 
interest in farming as well as their <iLiIl and prof- 
its greatly to increase if they would adupt some 
mode of ascertaining how much this and that 
crop costs, and cultivate such crops and rear 
sucn animals as are found by actual calculation 
lo pay the best. How arc we to decide what 
liranches of farming are the most profitable un- 
less the figures of the farm account show us ? 
Shall we guesa whether it is better to mnke but- 
ler or cheese, or sell our milk, or shall we know 
definitely about these points? The question is 
sometimes mooted whether Eastern farmers had 
belter raise tlieir own corn or buy it of their Il- 
linois neighbors. How can this question be de- 
cided, unless wc know how much it costs lo raise 
a bushel of corn ? 

Whoever makes accurate, experiments and 
keeps accurate accounts not only benefits himsell 
but the public We know there arc many cir- 
cumstances to be considered in estimating the 
cost of raising crops and feeding stock ; and with 
the greatest accuracy of observation, the results 
of farm experiments are often only approxima- 
tions lo the truth, but whoever labors even for 
these approximations is a public benefactor. 
The general principles of practical agriculture 
can never be established till we have more ol 
these accurate experiments on which to ba&c 
liieniu 

Many seem lo suppose that it is a great bur- 
den to write down in the evening the results ol 
the day- They can handle a crowbar or a plow 
for ten hours, but ten minutes' work with a pen 
is an Herculean labor. This is a mere imagi- 
nary lion in the way of keeping accounts. It 
only wants resolution to undertake the work, and 
a little practice will make it easy. Possibly the 
task maybe devolved on some young member of 
the family, whose fingers are not unused to the 
pen or stiffened by hard work. A general farm 
account should be kept, in which the farm is 
^arged witli all its expenses and credited with 
" iu receipts. Besides this general farm ac* 



count, a more minute record should be kept of 
each crop, charging with all the labor, manure, 
seed, etc, bestowed upon it, and crediting it 
with all the returns, whether sold or used iu the 
family. Such a book will prove a treasure of 
wisdom to every farmer who keeps it. 

APPLE-TREE EORER.— To remove and 
destroy this pest of the orchard, in the spring. 
just before vegetation starts, level Ihc ground, 
and pack it firmly around the root of the tree, in 
a circle of about two feet in diameter, according 
lo the size of the tree. Take unlcachcd ashes 
and air-slaked lime in equal parts, well mixed, 
and apply to the circle thus made, covering the 
ground all over two or three inches in depth. 
Then take strong soap suds, or, what is Iwtter, 
a solution of half a (>ound of sal soda lo one 
gallon of water, and wash the entire trunk and 
tne base of the limbs thoroughly. Repeat this 
operation in the fall of the year, just before 
freezing weather, covering the ground with the 
mixture of ashes and lime, and washing the 
trunk and base of the branches with Ihc solution 
of sal soda. If the borers have already made an 
entrance into the tree, the only way to get rid of 
them is to dig them out by the use of a fine, an- 
nealed wire, avoiding as much as possible the 
cutting away of the bark in the necessary prep- 
aratiun for entering the holes. 

APPLE TREES, To Keep Rabbits from 
Barkinf^. — I. Take any quantity of sweet milk 
you may desire, and add to it soot from the stove 
pipe or chimney, where wood has been used, un- 
til It is a thin paint. Take a warm, dry day to 
wash your trees, so it will get dry before a rain. 
One thorough washing will generally l)C found 
to be sufficient. — 2. Thoroughly rub the tiuoks 
with the dead body of a rabbit. 

APPLES, To Color IVkiU Grvunmg.—A 
bright red color can be imparted to growing ap- 
ples by the application of the oxyd of iron to 
the soil about the roots of the trees. Aavil dost 
and cinders, etc., will answer the purpose. 

APPLE TREES, Treatment o/.—\Ti the au- 
tumn, as soon as the leaves have fallen, every 
tree should be carefully and freely pruned ; this 
will open a passage to the sun and air, and will 
contribute to health in the future season. In ad- 
dilion to this, brush off the moss and cut off the 
cankered parts, and unless the orchard is plowed, 
the soil should be opened al llie roots. 

APPLE TREES, (Old,) To RencvAU,— 
Take fresh-made lirue from the kiln, slake it well 
with water and well dress the tree with a brush, 
and the insects and moss will be completely de- 
stroyed, the outer rind will fall ofT, and a new, 
smooth, clear, healthy one will be formed, and 
the tree will assume a most healthy appearance 
and produce the finest fruit. 

APPLE TREES, ZiVr <?«.— The apple-hark 
louse is most common on unhealthful trees — 
trees that are grown in grass and are most likely 
to be infected with them. It is hurtful to trees 
and should be exterminated. A good way to do 
this is first to feed the trees liberally with ma- 
nure and ashes. Ashes alone, if you have qo 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



it9 



manure to spare, placed about the roots — not in 
contact with the hoAy — will help. Dig up the 
grass about the tree. In the spring take a hoe 
and give the hark a good scraping; then wash 
the tree with strong soap-sods. This should be 
done cutXy and the washing repeated once or 
twice before the trees blossom. 

APPl.R-TREE SaCA'ERS.^Mmy other- 
wise good orchards arc allowed to become de- 
faced, as well as seriously injured, by allnwing a 
profusion of suckers to grow at the base of the 
trunks. Attempts are sometimes made to get 
rid of them by cuttiug them off down to the sur- 
face of the ground, and leaving considerable 
portions below in the form of short stumps. 
These sprout again, and they soon liecome quite 
AS bad as ever. A better wiy is to wait until 
tbey are in leaf, at which time they are loosened 
more readily, and taking each separately in the 
hands, place a thick boot upon it near the tree, 
and they ore quickly separated. If done aX that 
time they will not be likely to sprout again. 

APPLE TREES, To P/anf.— The trees, in 
all cases, should be set without bending or di- 
Terttng them from their natural direction, and 
the more rojm is all the better. The subsoil 
or dead earth should be removed from the bot- 
tom at least a foot deep in shallow soils, and its 
place supplied with good surface soil or compost. 
A compost of well rotted manure and meadow 
mod is admirable for this purpose, and for filling 
ibe hole when the tree is set. Care should be 
taken not to set too deep. The roots need the 
influence of the atmosphere, of light and heal, 
as well as of manures and rains, and languish 
if buried below this influence. It is a safe rule 
(o set no deeper than the trees stood in the nur- 
sery, and this can easily be determined by their 
appearance at the base. Every fibre should be 
cutended in its proper direction, level and not 
dipping, and carefully surrounded with compost. 
No vacant places or cavities should be left in cov- 
ering the roots, nor injury done to ihcm by the 
hxna or spade. A tree should not be taken from 
a toil much richer than that to which it is trans- 
Ccrred. 

ARTICHOKE, JERUSALEAr—^SoM^ixn- 
ffanlt says, in his *' Rural Economy :" There are 
few plants more hardy and so little rice about 
soil as the Jerusalem artichoke; it succeeds ev- 
erywhere, with the single condition that the soil 
te not wet. The tubers arc planted exactly as 
potatoes, and nearly at the same time; but this 
IS a process that is performed but rarely, inas- 
moch as the cultivation of the helianthus is 
incessant, being carried on for years in the same 
pUce, and after harvest, in spite of every dispo- 
sition to take up all the tubers, enough const.-intIy 
escape detection to stock the land for the follow- 
ing year, so that the surface appears literally 
covered with the young plants on the return of 
spring, and it is necessary to thin them by hoe- 
ing. The impossibility of taking away the whole 
of^lhe tubers, and their power of resisting the 
liar''-" '■'••=; of winter, is an obstacle almost in- 
sr: to the introtluction of this plant, as 

on-- "f a regular rotation. Experience 

More and more confirms the propriety of setting 
aaide a patch of land for the growth of this pro- 
dactsre and very valualilc root. Of all the vari- 
e« plants that engage the husbandman, the Je- 
fmatem artichoke is that which produces the 
moftt at the least cxfiense of manure and manual 



labor. He then directs the reatler's attention to 
an example where the artichoke had been pro- 
duced for thirty. three successive years with suc- 
cess, while they had received no care or manure 
for a long time. Those who wish to try it must 
plant it as early as the condition of the soil will 
allow. The land after plowing is marked out 
with furrows l feet apart, and the small tubers 
are dropped about 1 8 inches apart, and covered 
3 Inches deep. Go over the field in a week or 
two with a light harrow to kill weeds, and culti- 
vate between the rows until the plants get large 
enough to render it unnecessary. It grows very 
readily in dry soil. Those who moke trial of it 
should take care that the plant does not become 
established as a weed. 

ASPARAGUS, To CuithaU.—To raise the 
as.parag;u5 plant, first select a piece of ground 
which IS lignt, but not too much so ; have it har- 
rowed finely and plowed deeply; then draw fur- 
rows through it far enough apart to admit of a 
hoe-harrow or cultivator; then spread stable ma- 
nure in the rows, or l>etter still apply the manure 
broad-cast and plow it in ; then draw the furrows 
afore-mentioDetl, taking care to draw them very 
shallow ; then take the seeil and sow it very 
thinly in the rows ; after you have finished sow- 
ing, cover lightly with a wooden rake. When 
the plants begin to show themselves be sure to 
keep them free from weeds and grass, as much 
depends on the healthiness and size of the 
plants. I will give two methods of planting 
when they are planted for their final culture. 
Select a (fry, light piece of ground, well exposed 
to the sun, as Ijy such a course it will sprout 
earlier, and thus augment considerably the prof- 
its. Have it manured heavily with pood barn- 
yard or stable manure; then have the ground 
plowed, following immediately with the sub-soil- 
er, and make it as fine as possible; then draw 
furrows three feet apart, and six or eight inches 
deep, the entire length of the bed, March or 
April, according to tne season, is the time to set 
out asparagus {Hants. They should be only one 
year from the seed, as this is sufficient if properly 
cared for and kept clean while growing. After 
having prepared the ground as above-mentioned, 
take the plants from the seed bed, l»eing careful 
to expose them as little as possible . tnen take 
Ihe plants lo the ground allotted to them ; place 
the plants, or more properly cnlled roots, eight 
or ten inches apart m the row, spreading the 
roots as much as possible, taking core to hava 
the crown of the plant only about two inches be- 
low the surface ; when they are all placed in the 
right position, draw the ground over Ihe crowns 
with tne back of a wooden rake to the required 
depth. Permit the crop the first two vears to 
run up to stalks, keeping the ground as (rec from 
weeds as possible. ITie third year from planting 
is the time to gather the first crop for market. 
Begin to cut as soon as the shoots are fit, and 
continue cutting until the first of June or there- 
abouts, and then leave the rest to encourage the 
formation of new roots. The shoots are tied up 
in bundles of 25 to 30 stalks, and when mark- 
eted early and in good condition bring remune- 
rative prices. 

The other mode of planting is to dig trenches 
about two feet deep, and three feet apart, the 
length of the field, taking care to keep the sub- 
soil from the good manure, and throw about sir 
inches of it in the trench, ground ; then mix the 




DICTlOt^ARY OP EVERY-DAY WAlTTS. 



I 



CTOund with considerable sub-soil, and then set 
me plants. The following spring the trenches 
are nllcd up. and every subsc<^uent spring a 
heavy coat of manure is plowed into the aspar- 
afus bed. Core should be token in cutting the 
shoots not to cut deep enough to injure the 
roots, as the future productiveness of the plan- 
Ution depends partly in observing the above, 

ANNOTTO, C^^w^fi?/— Annotto should be 
chosen of a good flaine color, brighter in the 
mid(Ue than on the outside. It should feel soft 
imd smooth, and have a good consbtencc. It 
should possess a strong smell. 

A?^TS IN GREENNOUSES, To Dettroy, 
— Place some arsenic, mixed with sugar and wa- 
ter, itt a saucer, which cover with a slate, leav- 
ing room for the insects to pass 1)etween the 
slate and the saucer. A stone ought to be set 
on the slate to prevent any other creature but the 
ants from getting access to the poison. Lime 
water, poured into the nests, wiu also destroy 
them. 

BA.VKS, {SUep,) To Covtrwitk GRASS.— 
For each square rod to be planted, take half a 
pound of lawn grass seed, and mix it intimately 
and thoroughly with about six cubic feet of ^ood 
drv garden earth and loam. This is placed m a 
tub, and to it liquid manure, diluted with about 
two-thirds of water, is added, and well stirred 
in, so as to bring the whole to the consistency of 
mortar. The slope is to be cleaned off and then 
made perfectly smooth, and then well watered, 
after which the paste just mentioned is to be ap- 
plied with a trowel, and made as even and as 
thin as possible. Should it crack br exposure 
to the air, it is to be again watered ana smoothed 
up, day by day, until the grass makes its appear- 
ance, which will be in ei^ht to fourteen days and 
the whole declivity will soon be covered by a 
clo!ie carpet of green. 

BARLEY, Ttf CuttivaU. — Our climate is not 
OS favorable for basley as for oats and wheat 
We cannot obtain a good crop unless the soil is 
dry, clean and rich. It seldom does well on a 
recently inverted sod. Its best place in the ro- 
tation is after a highly manured and thoroughly 
cultivated corn crop. The best crops ue ob- 
tained on a rather heavy calcareous loam, pro- 
vided it has been thoroughly pulverized during 
the preceding summer and autumn. But as tht& 
is seldom the case, the soils that usually give the 
best medium crops are those of a lighter and 
warmer character — or sandy loams. 

Barley should either be sown very *arly, or 
rather late — say the moment the ground is nt to 
work in the spring, or not until after the heavy 
spring rains are over. Much depends on the 
season. If there has been heavy rains soon af- 
ter the barley is sown, and then before the plants 
cover the ground, dry weather sets in, the sur- 
Hcit of the soil becomes baked, and the crop suf- 
fers. An early sown crop would suffer less, be- 
cause it would have got a good start before the 
drouth set in. A crop sown immedialcly after 
the spring rains, as soon as the land is in condi- 
tion to work, commences to grow rapidly at the 
very first, and often does better than a crop that 
is sown two weeks earlier — but not as well as a 
crop sown a month earlier. If the soil is rich 
and has been plowed the fall previous, sow as 
early as it will work without clogging. 

When barley is grown to sell, the six-rowed, 
or what is usually called the four-rowed (though 



there is no such thing as a four-rowed barley») 
is the most profitable — because it brings frona 
ten to fifteen cents a bushel more than the iwo-i 
rowed. But when barley is grown to feed oi^i 
on the farm, the two-rowed is altogether the best* 
— especially on strong, rich land. It weiglis 
great deal more per bushel, and if the soil 
rich enough, it will yield more per acre. It hi 
another aclvantage — that of being later than the] 
four-rowed, which ripens at the same time 34 
wheat, and we have wheat and barley harvest on 
us at once. With the two-rowed.wc can geT^ 
through with the wheat by the time the barley is ' 
ready. 

It is osuaI to sow from 2 to z>{ bushels per 
acre. If the land is very rich and it is sown 
early and drilled in, less seed ti required. Th«' 
yield varies more than that of almost any other! 
crop, depending somewhat on the season, bt ' 
much more on the condition and previous cuWi 
ture of the soil. 

BARLEY, To /farvest.^y^vTi the straw 
lon^ enough, the best way to harvest barley isl 
to hind it up the same as wheat. It requires 
be cut just at the right time. If cut too carlyij 
the grain shrivels up, and if it is allowed X^\ 
stand a few days too long, it " crinkles down,'^' 
and the heads drop off in reaping and arc 1q>C. 
We know of no better test than to squeeze ih«, 
grain l>etween the thumb and finger, and if lheFfl(1 
15 the least appearance of milk, the crop should! 
be allowed to stand longer. The real difhculty^t 
however, is in the uneven ripeness of the crop^' 
Some portions will be dead ripe, while other*, 
are still green, and it requires considerable cxt>&*i 
rience and a sound judgment to decide whether' 
we shall lose most by cutting before it is all rip^ 
or by letting a portion of it get so ripe that thertt] 
is danger of the heads falling off. Much de^ 
pcnds on the weather. In this as in many other 
farming operations we must calculate our chances 
— and not be discouraged if we sometimes mist 
the mark. When barley is clean and the weath- 
er favorable, there is perhaps no better — ccr*j 
tainl^ no cheaper — way of curing it, than to atl 
low it to remain in the gavels as thrown from the'^ 
platform of the reaper. They may be turned or 
stirred to facilitate the drying, but otherwise may 
remain as left by the reaper until ready to draw 
in. By moving one or two swaths to make rooBftl 
for the team, two men with barley forks can pick 
up the gavels of three or four swaths on each 
side of Uie wagon, and place them on the load. 
In this way scarcely any of the barley will b* 
scattered on the lana. 

But if there arc weeds or grass in the barley, 
or the weather is threatening, it will be neces*-] 
sary to turn the gavels, and towards night pat 
them into small cocks, which will have to be 
turned or opened the next day and recocked in 
the evening again, if not sufficiently cured to 
draw in. It should be borne in mind that bar- 
ley is very frequently stained in the stack or the 
mow, from being drawn in too soon, or with the 
dew on it. Barley should be either thrashed as 
drawn from the held, or not until it has done 
"sweating" in the stack or mow. If the form- 
er. It will be necessary to watch the grain in the 
bin and turn it occasionally, or it will heat and 
become discolored. The rakings shimld be kept 
separate, as the grain is frequently stained, and 
if mixed with the rest may reduce the price of 
the whole several cents per bushel 




FARM, ORCJfAKD, GARDEN' AJ^D DAIRY. 



121 



^ 



% 



I 



BEAj^Si To Cuitiz'aU.'^'Di^zc grow best in 
warm, rich, mellow soil. The bush bcAOs are 
plaalcd m drilU, .ihout two inches deep, and two 
mches apart in the row. The drills may be from 
one foot lo eighteen inches apart, when the 
jjants are three or four inches high, the earth 
abould be dnivrn up to the stems, and just be* 
lore they begin (o olossom they should be again 
earthed up with loose, mellow soil. They re- 
qmre to be frerjuently hoed while growing, that 
Uie ground may be kept loose and Tree from all 
weeds. 

Pole or running beans arc planted in hills, two 
by three feet apart, five or six beans to the hill, 
aiM covered about a couple of inches deep. It 
is of DO UK to plant untd the soil has become 
warm. Tliesc iKans need the support of a pole 
or rod, thrust deep enough into tne grouna to 
sustain the weight of the vines, usually about 
cigfatecn inches, and standing eight or nine feet 
high. TTiree healthy plants will be enough to 
grow in each hill. 

JBEANS^ LIMA. — The principal point in the 
successful culture of the Lima bean is lo get the 
seed well startol. The best wav of doing this 
is to plant in a hill of light cartfi, made so by 
sifting the soil, if it con be had in no other way. 
A shovelful of well-rotted manure should co into 
each hill. Then mix sand and muck, ana after 
placing each seed bean with the germ downward 
la the hill, sift the covering over i: through % 
willow sieve. Corn-planting time 15 the right 
time to plant Lima beans. The after-cultivation 
is ihe same as for the common pole bean. 

BEAN, CA S TOR- Oil.— T\tehc&i land for 
tbe growth of the castor-oil bean is a light sandy 
loan soil, with a substratum of clay. First, 
brcik vp the ground well as for corn, and then 
lay off the rows six feet apart. Between every 
seventh row leave an interval of six feet, in ad- 
mit tbe passage of a horse and slide when the 
beans arc being gathered^ as hereafter explained. 
Before plauting, put the seed in very warm (not 
booltng) water, and let them soak all night. 
I>rQp su or seven &ccd in each hill, the hills six 
feet apart each way. Thin out to two plants af- 
ter the plants have got too lar^e for the cut- 
worm, which is sometimes quite destructive. 
At this stage, if the plants arc vigorous and 
healthy, reduce to one plant, leaving two only 
where the plants took delicate. Keep the crop 
dean, first with the plow, then with the cultiva- 
tor, and now and then drawing a little dirt 
aroand with the hoe. When the plants are some 
two feet high no more work need be done, un- 
less, after a long spelt of r.iin, you may loosen 
tbe earth with your cultivator. After the ripen- 
102 of the beans, which will be in July or Au- 
eost, take your hor^e, and slide along the rows 
left tat thit purpose^ and with a pair of shears 
dip ofiT the pou-bcaring spikes as soon as the 
pogs begin to turn of a nrown or chocolate color. 
They must be promptly cut at this stage, or the 
bcmns wiU pop from the pod and be lost. 

Have ready a shci with a plank floor, or a 
Boccc of ground, well cleaned, l>eatrn and rolled, 
Ske an old time threshing floor, twenty or thirty 
Ceet »>]uare, well exposed to the sun, on which 
throw your spikes, and turn them over occa- 
sionally until all the beans drop out. Then 
%enpe away the husks, gather the beans, and go 
lata the fiefd for a new supply, as they will con- 
tiaae (o bear and mature uatil frosL Do not al- 



low the beans, when drying, lo get wet. 
shed is best. If you have no 



an open 

when the weather 



Hence 
shed, 
is threatening, rake into a 
heap, and cover with a tarpaulin or boards. 
"Phey should be well fanned and winnowed of 
ch-ifT before being sacked for market. From 15 
to 25 bushels per acre is the average yield. 

BEECHNUTS, Uses ^.—Beechnut oil is 
most valuable for culinary and lighting purposes. 
The oil is obtained from the beechnuts by the 
some means as from castor beans and from cot- 
ton seed, the crushed material being subjected 
to the action of heavy presses. The nuts yield 
16 per cent, of their weight of oil, or about a 
gallon of oil to the bushcL In England, as long 
ago as the time of Queen Anne, a company was 
formctl lo carry on the manufacture of beechnut 
oil, and aftcn^ard, in the reign of George 1., an 
application was made for a patent lor making 
buUcr from beechnuts. In France, and in some 
parts of Germany, the inhabitants use beechnut 
oil in place of butter, and sometimes grind the 
nuts into flour, from which a nutritious but rath- 
er indigestible bread is nude. Roasted beech- 
nuts are among the many substitutes in vogue 
for coffee. 

BLACA'BERRV.—YoT the cultivated black- 
berry the soil should be rich, dry and mellow. 
Barn-yard manure and bone-dust arc its best 
fertilizers ; it is a good plan to mix them with 
half-rotten straw, or some such thing. They 
should be planted three feet apart in the rows* 
and the rows should l>c six feet asunder. 

BLIGHT IN FRUIT TREES, To Curt.— 
A smothering straw fire should be made early in 
October, in calm weather, under each tree, and 
kept up during an hour or more. This done, 
scrape the moss and other impurities from the 
trunk, and from every obscure hole and corner ; 
set your ladders to the branches, carefully clean- 
ing them in the same way, taking from the re- 
maining leaves every web or nidus of insects. 
If need be, wash the trunk, and all the larger 
wood, with a .<;olution of lime and dung. L.ist 
of all, it is necessary to destroy the infects and 
eggs which may have dropped upon the ground, 
and it may be useful to loosen the soil in the cir- 
cumference. In the spring, or early blighting 
season, apply your ladders, make a careful sur- 
vey of every branch, and act accordingly ; repeat 
this monthly, picking off all blights by hand, and 
using the water engine, where ablution may be 
necessary. To those who have fruit, or the 
market profit thereof, every orchard or garden, 
little or great, will amply repay such trouble and 
expense. 

BOYS, H<m to Attach to FARM LIFE.^ 
One of the sorest methods of attaching a boy to 
the farm is to let him have something upon it for 
his own. Give him a small plot of ground to 
cultivate, allowing him the proceeds for his own 
use. Let him have his steers to break, or his 
sheep to care for. The ownership of even a 
fruit tree, planle<l, pnincd, and brought to bear- 
ing by his own hands, will inspire him with^ an 
interest that no mere reward or wages can give. 
In addition to the cultivation of a taste for (arm 
life which such a course will cultivate, the prac- 
tical knowledge gained by the boy will be of the 
highest value. Being interested, he will be 
more observant, and will thoroughly learn what- 
ever is necessary for his success. Do not, when 
the boy is in a position to realize firom the sale 



. 






123 



DICTIOl^ARy OF EVERY'DAY WANTS, 



I 

1^ 



of his produce qx animals, (a.s many fanners 
very wrongly do,) take the money that i$ rightly 
his — the result of his core, labor and uixiety ; 
hut otherwise allow him to do just as his tastes 
and plans sugge&t. Another and equally im- 
portant advantage will be the accustoming him 
early to feel responsibility. Many young men, 
thongh well acquainted with all the manual op- 
erations of the farm, fail utterly when intrusted 
with the management of an estate, for want of 
experience in planning for themselves. It is a 
great deal belter th.it responsibility should be 
gradually assumed, than that a young man should 
be first thrown upon himself on attaining his 
majority. 

BOULDERS AND ROCKS, {Big,^ To Rf. 
fmn't, — It is the opinion of some fartners that it 
is better to bum than to bury the granite rocks 
of which one may deiiire to relieve his fields. 
Make a slow fire across the rock in the direction 
in M'hich you wish it to break ; keep it up for 
one hour, more or less, When the rock begins 
to heat, thump on it with the point of a bar 
vherc it is hot, and if it has slartetl a scale, re- 
move it, and keep up your fire as before. The 
heat will swell the rock near the fire, and if the 
rock is sound will crack it where it is not hot. 
One man will break more hard rocks with fire in 
tliat way than a half dozen nith drills and pow- 
der. \Vood does not cost more than j>owder. 
You need not throw on water, as that will not 
do the least good. 

BUGS, To Destroy* — The striped bug on cu- 
cumbers and melons may be destroyed as fol- 
lows : I. By a strong solution of hen-house ma- 
nure — say I peck of the manure to \% gaU. of 
water ; let it stand 24 hours, and sprinkle the 
plants freely with it after simset, — 2. lly sifting 
charcoal du$t over the plants ; if repeated 3 or 4 
times the plants will be entirely freed from the 
annoyance. — 3, Plant a few kernels of buck- 
wheat in each hill of cucumbers or melons, and 
stripe^! bugs will not trouble the vines. 

BUTTER, Afanafrcment of the J/i7>.— The 
advantage gained during the not season by the 
rapid and complete coonng of milk as soon as it 
comes from the cow, can hardly be over-esti- 
mated, as recent experiments show thnt the milk 
thus cooled will keep sweet much longer, and 
yield its cream more readily and abundantly ; 
and, as all experience has proven that the quan- 
tity of butler made, dc[)enas greatly upon keep- 
ing the milk in such a stale as to secure all the 
cream. A saving of labor is effected by this 
process, as the muk, when cooled to the required 
temperature, (60,) maybe set in deeper vessels, 
thus diminishing greatly the number of vessels 
required, and, consenucntly, the labor of clean- 
sing them. The milk may be cooled by setting 
some large pails into a trough or box partly tilled 
■with very cold water, and pouring the milk into 
these pads as fast as it is drawn ^om the cows, 
allowing it to stand until of the required' tem- 
perature, and, if necessary, renewing the water. 
The pails used in milking should be made of tin 
— never of woo^l. It is very difficult — almost 
impossible — to cleanse wooden pails so perfectly 
that they will not impart some degree of acidity 
to the milk, though it may be on insensible de- 
gree. Thf Dairy Room. — Much of the success 
of butter-making depends upon the fitness of the 
place or room where the dairy is kept, and upon 
its condition as to deonliness and freedom from 



taints and odors of every description. If a cel- 
lar is used, it should be a dry one, and perfectly' I 
dean to the remotest comers, having no hiddcQ 
remnants nf decavcd vegetables or fruit, or any- 
thing which could possibly offend the roost deU- 
cate olfiictories. If a room in the dwelling. 
house is used, or a milk-house, built separately, 
which is, perhaps, better, it should not be situ* 
atcd near a hog-pen, stable, or anything of thffj 
kind, nor shoida anything likely to impart its 
odor to the milk — as smoked ham, codfish, po- 
tatoes, onions, etc — be allowed a place in the 
room. Nothing will receive a taint more easily 
than milk or cream ; and all bad odors absorbed 
by the milk are certain to be concentrated in the 
butter, they not having the accommodating dis- 
position to run off wiui the buttermilk. 7>«- 
ptrature. — The milk, whether in a cellar or in a 
room above ground, should be kept cool in the 
summer, never being allowed to reach a temper- , 
aturc above 60^, thoug^ it may fall below that 
without detriment. Milk should be set upon 
racks, rather than shelves, so that the air may 
drculate freely under it, as well as over ana 
around it. Hacks are made tn various ways ; ' 
the most convenient we know of is constructed 
as follows: Take a 6x6 pine post, of a length 
suited to the height of the room, place it upright 
upon a pivot so that it will revolve, and nail sUts 
of half-inch stufT to each side of the post, at such 
intervals as will give room for the pans or other 
vessels used. Two such slats nailed to opposite 
sides of the post, will support two pons 01 milk« 
one on each side of the post. 'Ine rotary ar- 
rangement allows one to stand in the same place 
to skim a whole rack full of milk. If pans are 
used, the seamless ones are best — but deeper 
vessels, cither of tin or earthenware, are perhapi 
preferable, provided the milk is cooled bclore 
being set. Washing the Utensils, — The great*, 
est care is requisite m cleaning these vcssus, oCj 
whatever material and form, as also of all the 
other utensils employed in butter-making. Thia 
is a matter of mucn greater importance thaQ' 
many suppose, cs the smallest neglect in regard 
to It is sure to tell upon the cream and butter. 
The pans and paills should be washed thorough- 
ly, in two waters, each time being made as deam.i 
as possible with the water used ; they should 
then be scalded thoroughly with boiling water. 
The churn, butter-bowl and ladle, or butler-; 
worker, if one is used, should be washed and' 
scalded with eoual care, and all should be care-, 
fully wiped ana dried, unless some arrangement 
is made for drying in the sun, which will do very 
well for tin and earthenware, and save the laboi^ 
of wiping. In summer it will be necessary ta^ 
see that all utensils are cooled perfectly before 
using them. Skimming. — The milk should b© 
skimmed as soon as all the cream has risen, an^ 
before the milk has thickened. At the time th#' 
cream should be removed it will have a bright^ 
healthy appearance, a rich, uniform, yellow ccwl 
or.'and such an adhercncy of partides as will c»- 
able one, sometimes, to remove the entire creaoti 
at one dip of the skimmer. If allowed to stand' 
too long without skimming, both the quantity and^ 
quality of the cream wilt be seriously aifcctedi,' 
The surface will become discolored, knobby,'^ 
and blotched, while underneath the cream is rap- 
idly yielding to the corrosive tendency of the 
add m the milk. Yet. in order to make the 
largest quantity of butter, care must be taken 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



"3 



^ 



not to remove (he cream loo soon. The milk 
should all be &kimmcd at the same a^e, provided 
It has hod the same conditions as regards tcm- 
pcratare, etc ; it follows, then, ttial some milk 
should be skimmed evcrv night and morning. 

BUTTER, Winter trcatmrntin Afakmg.— 
— ^It will be found that in winter milk and cream 
reqaire somewhat different manaeement. The 
effort must now be to keep the milk warm rather 
than to keep it cool ; and a failure in this respect 
'wiU very materially affect the quality of the nut- 
ter. If the milk is very much too cold, it will 
hare to stand so long for the creaun to rise that 
it will became bitter, ortea long before it turns 
sour, and the quality of bitterness will be still 
more apparent in the butter. To prevent this 
the milk should be kept at a temperature of 60" 
if possible; if not, the railk may be scalded as 
soon as strained, and the cream will then have a 
£ur start before the milk has parted with this 
extra heat, unless the place where it is kept is 
Tcry cold. If scalding is not found sufhacnt, 
two Off three spoonfuls of sour milk (which has 
soured quickly and is not bitter) may be added 
to each pan of milk when it is set .iw.-iy. This 
^rfll help to sour the milk and cause the cream 
to rise i^uicker. thus making it less liable to be- 
come bitter. It may also help to prevent bitter- 
ness to salt the cows often, and see that they do 
not eat decayed vegetables, or any substances 
^■iuch may impart a bad taste to the milk. The 
cream should be kept at about the same temper- 
store, (60^,) and should be well stirred as often 
as new ii added. It should not be kept too long 
be^vre churning, never more than a week— Hfour 
or fi*e days i* better, 

BUTTER, Churning Crmnt for. — ^Thc cream 
sbonld be churned at a temperature of 62^ ^r 
^*. A great deal of experience may enable one 
to ^ess at this temperature with tolerable clev- 
erness, but it is better to use a thermometer and 
be sure. This temoeraiure will be increased du- 
ring the process of churning to 68**, or there- 
sbonts, when the butter will come. If it should 
be hard and giranular, refusing to come together 
well, throw in a little warm water, churning all 
the while, and the butter will soon be gathered 
and mdy to take op. 

Sweet cream should never be mixed with sour 
cream just before churning, as sweet cream is 
much longer coming, and hence likely to lose 
itself in the buttermilk. To salt the cows once 
s week is generally believed to facilitate the pro- 
COM of churning. In case they have not been 
thus tailed, some put alittle salt into the cream 
Mora churning ; but we think that in most in- 
**'**^* where butter is vcrv long coming, it is 
owfalg to the temperature of the cream. It may 
be >0 oold as to require churning nil day to bring 
the batter ; a tax upon one's patience and one's 
stfowlh* if performed by hnna, equal to the cost 
cf s do«en (itcrmometers. Rapid churning must 
hs anrotded, for it not only affects the quality, 
hot lessens the quantity. Churning should oc- 
d^jr from one-half to three-quarters of an hour 
Is Its operation. 

BUTTER, COLORING.— K^ a rule, it is 
AbMblely essential in the winter to color butter, 
!■ Older to make it marketable, or at all attract. 
Ivc as an article of (able use at home. There 
auybe e possible eiccption to this rule, in cases 
where cow* are fed largely ui>on yellow com. 
■rsl. pumpkins* carrots, etc., but this does not 



lessen the importance of the rule. Of the vari- 
ous substances used in coloring butter, we think 
that carrots (of the deep yellow variety) give the 
most natural color and the most agreeable flavor. 
Annotto, however, is principally used, and with 
most satisfactory results. Some of the most cel- 
ebrated bultcr-makcrs in the country color their 
butter with pure annr>tio, giving it a rich, deep 
orange color. If carrots arc used, take two large 
sised ones, clean them thorouglily, and then with 
a knife scrape off the yellow exterior, leaving the 
white pilh ; soak the yellow part in boiling milk 
for ten or fifteen minutes. Strain boiling hot 
into the cream ; this pves the cream the desired 
temperature, colors it nicely, and adds to the 
sweetness of the batter. 
BUTTER, Imprffi>ed Coloring for.— kvL im- 

E roved coloring matter for butter — carotine — has 
een successfully employed by Dr. Qucsneville 
as a substitute for annotto, to which il is in ev- 
ery respect superior, although somewhat more 
expensive. This carotine is the representative 
in carrot of alizarine in madder, ana is obtained 
by slicing, drying, and grinding the roots to a 
powder, exhausting the powder with sulphide of 
carbon, and, having removed the solvent, rapidly 
crystallizing out the carotine from the extract. 

BUTTER, Salting and ;fVr^*«.f,— ^VhUe 
salt is not to be undervalued as a preserving 
agent, it must be remembered that loo much 01 
it destroys or overpowers the fine flavor and del- 
icate aroma of the best butler. Be careful to 
preserve all the sweetness of the fresh butter, 
salting just enough to remove its insipidity. It 
is important to use the best salt. Pure salt is 
perfectly white and destitute of odor. It will 
dissolve in cold water without leaving any se^li- 
ment, or throwing any scum to the surface, and 
the brine will be as pure as clean water, and en- 
tirely free from any bitter taste. The butler- 
milk should be nearly all worked out and the 
butter well washed before salting. Washing 
may abstract somewhat from the flavor of the 
butter, but it is, nevertheless, a necessity, if the 
butter is expected to keep long, as il completely 
removes the cream and casein of the buttermilk, 
a part of which might otherwise rem^n in the 
butter. 

Butter should stand but a short time after it is 
salted, before it is worked enough to remove all 
the water, when it may be resalted if necessary; 
there should be suHicicnt salt left in the butter 
at this time to make a strong l»rine of the little 
water that remains. It may then stand until the 
next day, when it should be worked and packed. 
On no account should butter be allowed to stand 
long before working, as it is apt to become very 
streaked, often so much so as to necessitate its 
being worked over in order to restore a uniform 
color. Besides, if neglected too long at this pe- 
riod, a tendency to rancidity will be rapidly de- 
veloped. 

We realize the difficulty of giving explicit di- 
rections for the second and last working of the 
butter — its final 'preparation for packing. If not 
worked enough, every one knows that the but- 
ter will soon spoil; if worked too much, U is 
spoiled already; though the danger of its l>eing 
overworked is less. A great deal of judgment 
and discretion, and somewhat of expcntncc, are 
requisite in order to determine wnen it has 
been worked just enough ; ihe viriuc of stop- 
pingi in this, as in many other cases, bein^wc- 



«4 



DTCTTOKAJiY OF RVERY^DAY IVANT^ 



P 



I 



ond only to that of doing. There arc some sug- 
gestions, however, which may prove valuable, 
parlicuL-vrly to those hAving little experience. I. 
The butter should not be too warm when it is 
worked, nor should it be so cold as to nuke its 
working dlHicult. Immerse the ladle for a few 
minutes in boiling water, and cool perfectly in 
cold water; then, if the butter in toe bowl is 
warm enough to admit of putting the ladle en- 
tirdy through the whole mass without difficulty, 
and dividing it up without crumbling* and still 
hard enough to cut dean and smooth, not the 
slightest particle adhering to the ladle, then it is 
in the rignt condition to work. 2. It should be 
worked with careful and gentle, yet telling pres- 
sure, and not by a series of indiscriminate stir- 
rings and mashings and grindJngs against the 
sides of the bowl. The butter is composed of 
minute globules, which are crushed by this care- 
less handling, thus rendering the butter greasy 
And sticky, whereas it should retain its clean, 
solid individuality, up to the time of packing, 
always working clear from the bowl, and never 
sticking, in the least, to the ladle. 3. The but- 
ter should not be worked until it is perfectly 
dry. \Mien ready to pack it should have a very 
slight moistare about it, a sort of insensible re- 
mains of the clear brine which has been working 
off, and at the last enough, so that when a trier 
is thrust into it, a drop or two of brine will oo»e 
out around it, and the trier be slightly wet. bs if 
by a light dew. . Overworking destroys all the 
beautiful consistency of the butter, and makes it 
dry and sticky ; greasy in summer and tallowy 
in winter ; gives it a dull appearance, and a ten- 
dency to become randd. 

BUTTER, PaehinganJ Mnrheting.—Vi^xXitx 
should be packed solid, leaving no interstices for 
air, and should completely fill the firkin, tub, or 
paU, as the case may be, leaving a flat surface. 
It is common to put a cloth over the lop, and a 
layer of salt on tne cloth. Some think it better 
to wet the salt, making a brine. The cover 
should then fit tightly, leaving no room for air 
between it and the batter. Some butter, also, 
goes into market in the form of rolls, some pine- 
apple, and other fancv forms for the table, etc 
Every person should be guided by circumstances 
in his choice of styles for putting up butter, al- 
ways being careful to give it a neat and attract- 
ive appearance. If living at a distance from 
market, and the dealers at jiis market-place buy 
for New York, he should pack in firkins or in 
tubs, so that the batter con l>e safely kept the 
entire season through, and the whole tot dis- 
posed of at once in the fall. If at a con\'cnienl 
^stance from Kew York, fresh t\ibs or pails 
may be sent in at intervals, all through the sea- 
son, or the whole kept through as he chooses. 
Or if in the vicinity of any city, gocxl chances 
offer in the way of supplying hotels, restaurants, 
etc. the butter shonUl be put up in a style to 
suit the customers. Some, who are hundreds 
of miles away, make shipments of butter to 
New York on their own account, instead of sell- 
ing to buyers at home, in which case, if their 
butter is really superior, they will not be long in 
making a reputation, and will soon be able to 
secure a high price. Some few have a stamp of 
their own, ana lal:»or assiduously to establisti a 
value for it as a trade-mark. It is said that the 
best butter-maker in the vicinity ot Philadelphia 
(who ncvtr seUs for less than a dollar a pound), 



uses a stamp inherited from his faiher, and thai 
*'nota pound of inferior butler ever went to 
market with that stamp upon it." If you would 
attain to a goodly fame, then, as a butter-maker^ 
and reap a rich reward for your pains, attend 
carefully to the minutest details in making, and 
never sell any but good butler, put up in neat 
packages; never allow your "trade-mark" to 
lose its \fdue. 

BUTTER {Rancid) To Rfjiore.—K:iw:^X\ 
butter may be restored by melting it in a water- 
bath with some fresh burnt and coarsely pow- 
dered animal charcoal, (which has been lhor<* 
oughly freed from dust by sifting.) and atrain it 
through clean Rannel. A better and less trouble* 
some method is to well wash the butter, first- 
with good new milk, and next with cold spring 
water. Butyric acid, on the presence of whic£. 
rancidity depends, is freely soluble in frcsb. 
milk, 

SUTTER, To Present Fmh.—Ut\\ it in ■" 
well glazed earthen ran, set in a wster-bath at A 
heat not exceeding iSo'' Fahr., and keep it heat- 
ed, skimming it from time to time, until it be«> 
comes quite transparent ; then oour off the deaa 
portion into another vessel, and cool itasquiddv 
as possible, by jnladng the vessel in very cold 
water or ice. This is the method employed bjr 
the Tartars who supply the Constantinople mar* 
kct. In this state it may be preserve<l perfectly 
fresh for six or nine months, if kept in a close 
vessel and a cool place. 

CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER and LET. 
TUCE.'-'Siow the seeds for early cauliflower, 
cabbage, or lettuce, about February I. in well- 
prepared soil — say one-third each of Icaf-molda 
sand and loam ; spread three or four inches 
deep on the benches of the greenhouse, or in 
hoxts of about that depth. Keep a tempera- 
ture of from 55° to Go'', and in three weeks they 
will be ready to replant — this time in boxes — at 
about 2% inches apart each way for the cab- 
bages, and x% inches for the lettuce. By the 
middle of >Iarch they will, if the temperature 
has averaged 55"*, be strong plants, superior ia 
every respect to those wintered over in cold* 
frames. By this date (the middle of March) the 
weather is such that they may be set out in cold- 
frames, and covered at night cither with wooden 
shutters or sashes for five or six davs, when they 
will be sufficiently hardened off to \\c planted ia 
the open field. The conversion of sash that has 
been used on cold-frames into greenhouses is a 
very simple matter ; two sashes of 6 feet ia 
length, give, when placed at the pro()cr angle, a 
width to the greenhouse of 11 feet: 3 feet of 
this space is used as a walk ; the remainder, 9 
feet, for bench room, on which to grow planls* 
The outer walls may be formed of wood. 

CABBAGES, The Cut Worm tm.—To pre- 
vent the ravages of the cut worm take pieces of 
newspaper six inches square, tear a slit in one 
side to the centre and insert the plant. Bring 
the slit edges together, and place a little earth or 
a pebble on the corners, ana the work is done. 
A platform of paper is formed around the plant, 
through which the worm cannot penetrate. 

CABBAGE PLANTS, SA LT//\rG.~-The 
use of salt is said to make the cabbage more 
crisp, of better flavor, and to keep better when 
salt is used, than without. After setting out the 
plants, and when they are damp, either after a 
rain or when the dew ts on, take a small dish of 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



"S 



fine sjdt And vrallc among the rows, iprialcling .1 
liulc pinch of salt on the centre leaves of each 
plant: when the leaves begin to grow you re- 
peal the sailing, and when the centre leaves be- 
gin to form the head, apply salt a^ain, scatter- 
ing it over the leaves ; after this look thcra over 
oocastonally, and if you find any plant* that do 
not bead well or appear diseased, sprinkle the 
salt over freelr ; this will save all such plants. 
A quart of salt is sufficient for 500 plants in a 
fca^on. although more can be used with safety. 

CARROTS, T^> Cu/tivau. —Scltcx a good, 
rich clover sod, deep loamy soil, or even grav* 
dly, well drained; spread on evenly fifteen to 
twenty ox-cart loads of good manure to the acre. 
In the spring, after the ground is welt settled and 
dry, with settled warm weather, plow the ground 
tborooghly, eight inches deep, or more, depend- 
mg apon its previous nianagement. In plowing 
it ought not to be plowed more than an inch 
deeper than before, unless the deeper soil has 
been ameliorated and is richer than the upper 
soiL A soil having a dose, stiff subsoil, unless 
thoroughly subsoiled, will grow poor crops of 
roots generally. After plowing, harrow so as 
fa mke the soil perfectly fine, and even this is 
ccscatial to the ready drilling and germinating of 
the seed; now drill in the seed, putting the 
drills two feel apart. The seed should be fresh 
4m1 of the prenous year's growth. It is best 
to ocnnmeacc the culture as soon as the rows can 
be distinguished. Have a cultivator of light 
frame* with eight teeth, similar to the coulter of 
A |ilow« only narrower, and about ten inches 
lon^ and a shovel for the front With this and 
a hont go through, cutting the soil deep close 
to the rows without covering the plants; thi<; 
will save the greatest part of the work usually 
tlooe with the hoe, and do it much better. 
When the carrots ore well growing and about 
tite sue of the small end of a cby pipe stem, 
take a narrow hoe and cut them into hills, thin- 
aing them to four or five inches apart. The af- 
ter culture is performed with the cultivator, go- 
ing through once in al>out two weeks. If any 
weerdi come in the rows, pull them out by hand 
^but It is ntX protiablc that weeds will trouble 
a the soil be selected as above, and well pre- 
psred before planting, and the culture as di- 
rected. To harvest, it is best to take a sharp 
hoc with a short handle and clip off the to pit 
close to the crown, gather them, and then plow 
Brottful a plat a deep furrow, as close to the 
ffoou as you can go ; now lake them by hand 
ttDd dnw them out, and throw four or more of 
the rows into one. Carrots should be taken out 
when the ground is dry. and lie a few hours to 
dry, and then be hauled to the root cellar to be 
stored, and if in light bins and covered with 
aand they will keep better. They should be 
left In the ground to ri|>en as long as safe with- 
ool freezing, as they improve till freezing weath- 
er, and keep fresher than if gathered before fully 
matured; be careful not to let them remain too 
long to get frosted, for a light freeze injures the 
mrrot more *han other roots. 

CA rS CA TCiriNG CHICKENS, n Curr, 
WIkh a cat is seen to catch chickens, tie one of 
tbem areend her neck, and make her wear it for 
two or three days. Fasten it securely, for she 
will make incredible elTorts to get rid of it. Be 
firm for that time, and the cat is permanently 
cored ; she will never again touch a bird. 



CELERY, To Cuitivatt. — Celery seed usu- 
ally germinates slowly, and the plants are ex- 
ceedingly small and tender when they first ap- 
pear ; consequently a carefully prepared seed 
bed is positively necessary. If there are no hot- 
beds that can be used for this purpose, select a 
warm spot on the south side of a fence or build- 
ing, ana as soon as the frost is out of the ground 
dig up a bed, say three feet wide and ten feet 
long, cover it with fine manure, two to four 
inches deep, and dig it in and mix it with the 
soiL Rake the b^ level, and sow the seeds 
evenly over one-half the surface, leaving the rc- 
mainaer vacant, and for use when the plants are 
large enough for their first removal. Tat down 
the surface with the back of a hoe or spade, and 
this will usually cover the seed suffidently deep; 
if not. sift on a very httle fine soil. Give tne 
bed a good soaking of tepid water, applied, if 
possibU. through a watering pot with a fine 
rose. It will not do to dash on water with a 
pait or some similar vessel. 

The seed bed must be frequently watered un- 
til the plants appear^ and thereafter sufficiently 
to keep them growing. If the plants come up 
too thickly, thin them out ; but as soon as large 
enough to handle, lake up and transplant into 
rows, beginning on the vacant end of the bed, 
placing them four inches apart each way ; and a 
oed of the size named will hold about three hun- 
dred. The plants may remain in this position 
until wantea for final planting in the garden, 
which is usually done from the fust to the mid- 
dle of July. Plants that have been transplanted 
in the seed bed con be safely removed at almost 
any lime, whether the weather is moist or dry. 
In Hxe Etna! Rlantingf it is best to adliere to 
the old practice of trench planting for ordinary 
garden culture. A trench is dug of the required 
length, or several of them, four feet apart, and 
one spade deep, which, as a general thing, will 
not be more tluin six or eight inches, and about 
a foot wide. This trench is then half filled with 
fine stable manure, and this is mixed into the 
soil in the bottom of the trench. TTie trench, 
when thus prepared, will be about four inches 
deep, exclusive of the soil, which has been cast 
out upon either bank. The plants are then set 
in the centre of the trench six inches apart, and, 
after planting, carefully watered. The reason 
why a shallow trench is most desirable isl)ecause 
of the convenience of watering, as when applied 
it is sure to reach the roots, and not spreaa over 
the surface, as when level culture is adopted. 
From this time forward, until the blanching is 
commenced, all that is required is to keep the 
plants growing by careful culture, such as fre- 
quently stirring the soil and giving water whcu 
required. 

CELLARS, To Ketp from Freezing. — The 
following experiment was tried by a gentleman 
with the cellar of an out-house, in which on sev- 
eral occasions vegetables have frozen, though 
the cellar was fortified against frost by a process 
known to farmers as "Ijanking." The wails 
and the ceiling were pasted over with four or 
five thicknesses of newspapers, a curtain made 
of the same material being also pasted over the 
ow window at the lop of the cellar. The papers 
were pasted to the bare joist over head, leaving 
on air space between ihem and the floor. Tlte 
result was that no frost entered the cellar, though 
the cellar was left unbanked. We do nut ^o>i&.*' 




FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEiV AXD DAIRY. 



U7 



dc which skirU the vilUge; the temperature 
Ibcsc recesses is kept low by various contri- 
Dccs, and seldom nscs above 4" Cent. ^41" 
tr. ) The cheese is made with the milk of the 
iming and of the evening before. 
CifEESE, DL/TCJf.—'V\i\s is the curd of 
milk dnined from the whey, pressed into 
lis or molded in small fancy shapes, and eaten 
h^Q fresh, or soon after it is made. 
The milk is alk>wed to sour and become lop- 
rrcd or thick, when it is gently heated, which 
dlitates the separation of the whey. The 
rds are then gathered up, salted, or otherwise, 
suit the taste, and pressed in small molds, or 
nncd with the hana mto suitable shape, when 
b ready for the table, and may be used irome- 
tely. In cool weather, when milk does not 
lily thicken, the sour milk may be put in a 
litablc vcwcl set in hot water over the range. 
milk is then stirred for a few minutes, when 
whey will begin to separate, and it is then 
loved, and another batch may be treated in 
same manner. 
Sometimes this kind of cheese is potted and 
to decompose, and when it has acquired a 
rong. villainous smell, it is regarded as most 
didous by those who have acquired a taste for 
tting it in this state. In some markets cottage 

■ Dutch cheese Amis a ready sale, and quite a 
-ofit U made by certain butter -makers, in tum- 
their sour milk into this product. 

CHEESE, jV£irEC//AT£l,—S^M(chzle\ 
eese, in its manufacture, difTers from (he 
ove (Dutch cheese) only in being not aUowed 
ripen so long, two or three weeks being con- 
icrtd enough. Variations of this cheese are 
hy addmg some chopped herb — the favor. 
is sage — and not allowing the cheese to ripen 

three or four days. 
CHERRIES. — The cherry, as a rule, luxn- 
in a warm, sandy soil, in an elevated situ- 
ion ; but some of the best varieties will thrive 
•II soils and aspects. In order to obtain this 
lit early, some of the varieties are planted up 
.ainst walls, but all the sorts do well as dwarfs 
espaliers in general situations, and most of 
an as standards. Full standards should be 
»ted from twenty to thirty feet, and the small 
kdirds from fifteen to eighteen feet aparL 
^^ r proper season for planting is from the end 
October till February or .March. Varieties 

■ the cherry are perpetuated by grafting or by 
Iding on stocks of the black or red wild chcr- 

and new sorts are procured from cherry 

which arc preserved in sand from the 

m till spring, and then sown. The plants 

the same season, but should not be re* 

till the second autumn after sowing, when 

ly be tr.insplantcd into rows three feci 

the plants being placed from a foot to fif- 

inches apart in toe row. Next summer 

' be 6t to bud if intended for dwa^f^ ; 

It if for standards, they should be allowed to 

" one or more seasons, generally till they are 

irs old. They should be budded or be 

about six inches from the ground, the 

way being to bud in summer, and to graft 

'hich do not succeed the following spring. 

various methods of training the chcr- 

rn grown on walls or espaliers, which, of 

must be lefl to the judgment of the 

Occasional pruning is ul that is rc- 

the object bemg to remove uiy irregu- 



larity in cross placed or overcrowded branches, 
and to take away all cankcry and decayed wood. 
CREAAf, CLOTTED {as Made in Eng^ 
land.) — The dairy-house is of stone, in connec- 
tion with the dwelling — stone fl'ior, and stone 
benches for the milk to set, and all well venti- 
lated and scrupulously neat and clean. Tlieir 
milk at this season of tne year is strainetl in very 
large, deep pans, and put in the dairy-house, 
where it stands fjrom eight to ten hours, when 
the pans arc taken oat, and the milk scalded by 
the pan in an iron skillet, filled with water, and 
placed upon the range. At the bottom of the 
skillet lliere is a grate, on which the pan of milk 
rests, so as to keep it from the bottom, and from 
burning. The milk is here slowly heated, until 
the cream begins to show a distinctly m.-irked 
circle around the outer edges, when it must be 
immediately removed. Some experience is nec- 
essary in applying the heat, to have it just right, 
otherwise the cream is spoiled. When properly 
scalded, the milk is removed to the dairy, where 
it stands from twelve to twenty-four hours, ac- 
cording to the condition of the weather, when 
the cream is removed, and is in a thick, com- 
pact mass, very much unlike our ordinary cream. 
It is considered a great delicacy, and is largely 
used as a dressing, with sugar, upon pastry, 
puddings, etc 

CLOVER^ Hsno Cured in Germany. — A far- 
mer provides in winter a number of stakes from 
three to four inches thick and seven to eight feet 
long, about eighty or one hundred to an Ameri- 
can acre. In each of the stakes six holes one 
inch wide are bored in this way : Suppose that 
the stake is firmly planted in the ground, the 
first hole is bored two feet above ground from 
north to south, the second three inches higher 
from east to west, not quite half w.-\y from the 
5rst hole to the lop of the stake hole- Ko. 3 is 
bored again north and south, three inches high- 
er ; hole No. 4, east and west. A little below 
the top come holes Nos. 5 and 6. Through 
these holes sticks about five to six feet long are 
put, so that, seemingly, twelve sticks of about 
equal length protrude from the stake, crossing 
each other at right angles. On these sticks the 
clover is put, either right away after mowing, or 
a little willed, and there left to dry. This makes 
a better, more nutritious hay than the best sun- 
shine would, and rains do not much harm, par- 
ticularly if care is taken to spread the clover well 
on the two top sticks. The whole fixture is 
called a "heintzen," and is mostly u&cd on deep 
clay soils, where the holes for the stakes can be 
made easily by a peculiar kind of borer. For 
stony grounds the pyramids are used. Three 
stakes, six to seven feet long and two to three 
inches thick, are bored near the top, and then 
joined there by a wooden or iron bolt, on which 
they can turn. This pyramid is then put up- 
right on the ground. Small pegs are fixed m 
each limb. From one peg to the other on the 
next limb sticks are laid, and on the sticks come 
the clover. The number of pyramids wanted 
for an acre is one-half of the " hcintien," and, 
as old roils will answer for the limbs, the pyra- 
mids would probably suit the American former 
best. 

COR.V. — In the cultivation of corn, the best 
time to plow is just preWous to planting. Do 
not commence loo soon — not unhl the ground 
will turn up mellow ; every one should calculate 



I 
1 



ia8 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY IVANTS. 




about the amount of time it will take to 6t the 
ground, and if loo wet when you wish to com- 
mence, perhaps the plowing can be safely de- 
layed a lew days. 

Let all the grass grow that will previous to 
the first of May \ all weed seeds in manure and 
on the surface of the ground will by this time be 
sprouted, and with the grass make almost an ex- 
tra coat of manure. 

In plowing, commence in the centre of the 
field, nack-furrowing the Whole field, thus you 
will have a field with not a particle of it trodden 
solid in turning, as you turn each comer on un- 
plowed land and with no dead furrow ; a little 
practice will enable you to finish without carry- 
ing a furrow. 

As soon as plowed harrow well ; a good plan 
is to harrow each morning that plowed the pre- 
vious day. The proper time to plant — let the 
location be what it may — can be determined by 
observing the natural \-cgetation and the warmth 
of the soil. Whenever the ground is warm 
enough to cause a speedy germination and 
groM ill, then is the time to plant. This can be 
ascertained by plunging the lower end of a ther- 
mometer into ttie ground. If the mercury goes 
much below 60*, mere is no use in putting corn 
tK:ed in. A generally safe rule is to plant when 
the apple is in full bloom. 

Much has been said in regard to hills vs. 
drills. It has been found that the l^est results 
will be found in planting in drills about three and 
one-half feet apart, and putting hills about eight- 
een inches apart, leaving only two stalks to each 
hill. 

The great difficulty with those who drill is that 
they do nut thin sumciently. Drills should run 
north and south. Three inches ts about the cor- 
rect depth for planting. As soon as the com be- 
gins to push through the ground start the drag, 
going diagonally across the drills, paying no at- 
tention to the corn; for if plant«l at that depth 
you will not destroy a hill ; go over the piece at 
least once each week until the corn is of such a 
height that the drag wilt break it off, when u^e a 
wheel cultivator, or any of the various imple- 
ments. The thinning should be done about the 
last of June, and directly after harvest go over it 
and cut out any remaining weeds, etc 

CORN COBS.^ln shelling com most farm- 
ers throw the cobs into the manure pile. This 
is poor economy, as lliey are slow to decay, and 
are a source of'^ perpetual trouble. Rather pat 
them into the wood-huuse, or some other dry 
place, and use them as fuel ; they moke a quick 
and very hot fire, excellent for summer use, and 
excellent kindlings. A few shavings and one or 
two handsful of dry cobs will start a fire as quick 
as any kindlings ever used, and the ashes moke 
the best of soap. 

CORN. To Ptez'mt Being Destroyed Vi^^ 
Newly Planted. — To prevent the com being de- 
stroyed or eaten by ciiickens, bird.s, or insects, 
before it grows througli the surface of the soil, 
prepare the seed before planting by sprinkling a 
sumdcnt portion of coal tar, procured at the gas 
manufactory, through it, stirring so that a por- 
tion will adhere to each grain ; then mix among 
the corn some ground pi aster-of- Paris, which 
will prevent the tar from sticking to the fingers 
of those who drop the corn, and vegetation will 
be promoted thereby. The tar and plaster will 

' injure iht corn so as to prereat its growing, 



by being kept some days after it is so mixed to. 
getber. 

CORN STACKS, To Prevent Ravages of 
Mice m.— Sprinkle from four to six bnshels of 
dry white sand upon the root of the stack before 
the thatch is put on. The sand is no detriment 
to the com, and stacks thus dressed have re- 
mained without injury. So very effective is the 
remedy, that nests of dead young mice have been 
found where the sand has been used, but not a 
live mouse could be seen. 

CORN CRIBS, RA T-PROOF.—lokc posts 
10 or II feet long and 8 inches square ; mortise 
2 feet from one end ; for end-silb, a-inch mor- 
tise with tusk. Taper post from sill to the end, 
by hewing olT inside until the end is reduced to 
4 inches diameter ; make smooth with the draw- 
knife, and nul on tin smooth half way to the 
end, below the sill. Let sUls be 8 inches square, 
also end tie them and the rafter plates strong 
with moderate inter-tics. Brace well, and lath 
up and down with X i**^^ ^^ '* c^^vc-tail or 
counter*sink joints crosswise ; lay the floor, and 
board up the ends with ungrooved boards; let 
each bend be 12 feet long, 6 feet wide at the sill, 
and 7^ feet at plate ; and, if full to peak, it will 
hold 250 bushels. If preferred, lay the floor 
with lath or narrow boards, with room for ven- 
tilation. Each post shoxUd stand on stone, and 
be about 3 inches from the ground, and each 
stone have a foundation 2 feet square and below 
the frost 

CORN, BR OOAf.— Broom com should be 

flanted at the same time Indian com is planted, 
t requires a richer soil than Indian com — at 
least Indian corn will produce a better crop on a 
less fertile soil than is required for broom com, 
in conse^juence of its growinij faster, and feeling 
the effects of fertilizers more perceptibly. Bot- 
tom lands on the bonks of rivers that are anna- 
ally overflowed in early spring are particularly 
adapted to the growth of broom com. It is 
sowed in drills, &l>out three feet apart, and the 
corn thinned out to stand from four to six inches 
apart. Any good upland soil that consists of a 
rich mould, easily tilled, will produce an excel- 
lent crop of broom corn, with the aid of barn- 
yard manure or other fertilizers. It requires 
careful cultivation, by running the cultivator be* 
twcen the rows as soon as the com is well up; 
and then the rows require hand-weeding, and 
thinning out to the proper distances. Boys and 
girls can do this work better than men can, and 
at one-third the expense that it would cost to em 
ploy men to do it. No weeds should be per- 
mitted to grow, as the value of the crop depends 
on the cleanness of cultivation. 

The seed is valuable for fowls, and for eveir 
kind of live stock when ground ; and some cuu 
tivators think that the seed alone is worth the 
cost of cultivation. 

COTTON.— The most suiUble soil for the 
cotton plant is a rich loam. It cannot be toa 
rich, and it is a poor crop on poor land. Cot- 
ton has been raised with success in DcUware« 
and even in Fenn<iylvania, but the finest long- 
staple cannot be produced so far north. 

The seed arc planted in hills, the rows three 
or three and a half feet asunder, and the plants 
about two feet apart in the row. After spring- 
ing it should be ttiinned to one plant in a hiU. 
The season for planting is as early as the ground 
I can be prepared. The soil should be well cul* 



* 



J 



FARAf, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY, 



^ 



h 



tinted* and care should be lakcn to keep it free 
firam weeds. 

In the fall, when the pods open, it must be 
gathered every day and stowed away until there 
15 a »uffideDC]r to run through the cotton cin, 
•which cleans it of seed. It is then ^wcked in 
bales, when it is reaUy for market fhe yield 
of cotton per acre is from 500 to 1,000 pounds, 
according to soil, cultivatiiin, treason, etc 

CRANBERRfES.^'W'fi most favorable lo- 
cation for the culiivaiton of cranberries is where 
the soil is peat from one to several feel in depth, 
and where the surroundings are such lliat during 
the summer months the waler caa be thoroughly 
drained off at lea^t one foot below the surKice, 
anil at the same time &uch tlut the water can be 
let orn in a few hours in a sufficient quantity at 
any season of the year to cover the surface from 
4 to 6 inches in depth ; and also in the vicinity 
of a good sand-biC. 

In preparing the soil, the surface should be 
removed down to the peat; it should then be 
covered at least with j inches of sand, or, when 
this cannot readily be found, fine gravel will an- 
swer a very g'lnxl purpose. 

In selecting plants, care should be taken to 
use only such as Ire known to proiluce gootl 
crops. It is found that while some varieties can 
produce 4 bushels to a rod, others, on the same 
soil and with the same care, will produce only I 
bushel. 'ITie month of May is undoubtedly the 
best time to transplant the Nines. The water at 
the time should be nearly even with the surface, 
and kept so for a week or lo days, and then be 
inmdaaiiy drawn off. The vines should be set 
singly, alxjut 6 inches each way. The first sea- 
son great care should be taken to keep out all 
grass and weeds — after that, if the location be a 
mod one, and the plants properly set, but little 
ubor will be required lo keep doM-n the grass ; 
if possible, they should, during the winter, be 
kept co^-ered with at least 3 feet of water, nor 
shouKl they be left entirely out of water until 
all danger of frost in the spring is over ; for — 
what is very singular — while the blossom buds 
arc able to withstand our coldest winters, a very 
slight &ost the last of May will kill them, and 
cntirtiy ruin tlie crop. This is a fact not so gen- 
erally tnown as it should be. When the worms 
make their appearance, the flowing of tlie land 
for a few hours is sufficient lo destroy them. If 
daring the month uf September there shouhl be 
uiy cuys which promise to be followed by frost, 
the water should be let on and the fruit thus pro- 
tected. 

C' " ' ' " " A'jV.V. — In cultivation, the cucum- 
bc" . rctjuires a deep and rich soil, an 

abj - inoislure, and continued heat. Its 

nature is to support itself by its tendrils in an 
upfichl position upon pieces of brushwood, in 
which manner the cleanest and best friiits are to 
be obtained. This, by the way, will be found 
to be a good practice, too, wnere there is but 
IfCHe room fur a horizontal growth upon the 
{round. 

Cocumber*, also, like most varieties of mel- 
on*, have Ivren found to possess in the leaves 
iiu ^iiiratory power, so that they rc- 

qu: - r supply of fluid than those of 

§|^«^«Mi«>.> y intf. which accounts for the singu- 
0UC they seem to thrive best where the 
ibeir way to an abundant supply of 
Such a supply of moisture is re<iuuite 




under exposure lo an intense sunshine, the heat 
and bright light of which decompose and alter 
the fluids of the plants, and elaborate from Ihera 
an abundance of sweet juices. This is peculi- 
arly so with melons in hot climates; ami expe- 
rience has demonstrated that the moisture must 
be applied to the roots, and not upon the sur- 
face of the soil upon which they grow, so as not 
to cool the surface, check the growth, and kill 
the pkuits. 

The plan recommended is as follows : Take a 
light barrel ur cask, remove one head, and par- 
tially fill the barrel or cask with large pebbles or 
stones, say half full ; upon these stones place a 
mixture of compost with rich alluvial soil, or 
fine fresh vegetable mold, until the barrel or the 
cask is filled to within 3 or 4 inches of the top; 
in which plant the seed, and cover to the requi- 
site depth. This barrel or cask may be placed 
in any convenient situation where sufncient room 
or S]Kice can be obtained, and around which ar- 
range lattice work or brush to sustain the out- 
spreading plants in whatever manner may be 
found most convenient for affording access at all 
times to both the barrel and the plants. 

Upon the outer side of the cask insert a ]»pe 
of convenient size, through which waler may oe 
introduced to the lower or under half of the cask 
daily, or as often as occasion may require ; this 
portion of the cask should be kept constantly 
filled with water. Mid-way of the cask the 
staves should be perforated vrith several half- 
inch holes, for the ft-ee escape of any surplus 
water, and at the same time to permit the ad- 
mission of an equal distribution of Air; this pur> 
pose would be better accomplished if the holes 
were tx^red upon a line at equal distances apart 
around the cask. 

The effect of this arrangement, as will be seen 
at once, is that through the capillary attraction 
of the soil sufficient moisture is absorbed at all 
limes to nourish the plants, while the a<lmission 
of air can be contrulIe<i at pleasure by opening 
or closing the apertures upon the sides of the 
cask. 

CURCULIO. — ^To annihilate curculio, make 
a very strong solution of gas-tar and water, so 
that after standing a couple of days it will be 
flark -colored, an<l as pungent as creosote. On 
the first appearance of the curculio, with a small 
hand-forcing pump (which every gardener ought 
lo have) give the trees an effectual drenching, 
and repeat it every three days for two weeks. 
As a preventive measure, destroy all the fruit oa 
it falls, and this can best be done by allowing 
your fowls free range of the orchard. 

DAIRY^ Charctsxt in the. — The power of 
milk tu absorb the noxious gases and otiors from 
the atmosphere U known to every dairyman, and 
this power extends also to all productions made 
from milk, be they cream, butter or cheese. 
Much of the bad liavor in butter and cheese is 
not caused so much by anything derived from the 
cow, or the food whicli she eats, as by the i>dors 
imparted either to the milk after it is drawn, or 
to the cheese after it is made, and before it is 
put in the cloth and rendered impervious to at- 
mospheric influences. Hence the necessity of 
the grcatcit efforts being mnde, not only to keep 
the dairy ainl every utensil used in a slate of the 
most perfect cleanliness, but also the attendants 
should l>c In every way cleanly in person, and 
the air kept pure and uncontnminatcd by any 

9 



ty> 



DJCTIONARY OF EVERY^DAY WANTS. 



odors whalcvcr. To do this, charcoal, finely 
powdered, is probably the be&t and cheapest ar- 
ticle that can be used. It is capable, when it is 
£re&h, of absorbing ninety times \\& own vulumc 
of ammonia or other gases, which can again be 
driven out of the charcoal by the application of 
hcaf. 

DRAINING. — A cheap mode of draining is, 
instead of digging the ditch altogether with a 
spade, to use the plow, takine a land 15 or 20 
feet wide, and leaving the dead furrow where the 
drain is to be. By plowing several times the 
dead furrow may be sunk nearly 2 feet, and from 
the bottom of this a trench, the width and depth 
of the space, may be thrown out, and a drain 
made of 3 fence boanU (4 indies wide will be 
sufficient) in the shape of tlie letter V, may then 
be put into this branch, and the plowing reversed 
lill the ground is made level. This method has 
a double advantage— i. It is a cheaper method 
than to dig the fuU depth by hand, and the wood 
is cheaper than tile. 2. By turning up and thus 
loovrning the subsoil to that depth on each side I 
of the drain, the water would nnd its way into 
the drain more readily than if only a narrow 
ditch had. been dug from the surface down, leav- 
ing the sides unmoved and almost impervious lo 
water. 

DOC/CS, 7> ^mrfi>diir.— Cut them off close 
to the ground when the tops are hilly out, but 
the seed not fully formed, and they are done for. 
The sulk dies in the ground ; but you must cut 
them so dose to the ground that you leave no 
leaves on the stalk, else they will not die. The 
end of June '\% generally about the best time to 
cut them ; but it depends on the season. In the 
pasture -fields they arc soon cut with a scylhe. 
In wheal and meadows they have to be cut with 
A knife. 

EARM LIFE, How to Make Aitractivt.—\, 
By less hard work. Farmers often undertake 
more than they can do well, and consequently 
work too early and too late. 

2. By more system. Farmers should have a 
time to begin and slop labor. They should put 
more mind and machinery into their wurk ; they 
should theorize as well as practice, and let both 
go together. Farming is hcaltliy, mural and re- 
spectable i and, in the long run, may be made 
profuablc. The farmers should keep good stock, 
and out of debt. 

3. By taking care of health. Farmers have a 
healthy variety of exercise, but loo often neglect 
cleanliness, eat irregularly and hurriedly, sleep 
in ill -ventilated apartments, and expose them- 
selves needlessly to cold. 

4. By adorning the home. Books, papers, 
pictures, music, and reading, should be brought 
to bear upon the in-door family entertainments; 
and neatness and comfort, order, shrubbery, 
flowers and fruits should harmonize all without. 
There would be fewer desertions of old home- 
steads if pains were taken to make them agree- 
able. Lose, order, health and beauty are com- 
patible with £arm, and were ordained to go with 
It 

JARMING, Rules for Sueeest in,—l. Never 
purcha>ic land on creait, unless it be in a new 
country wbcrt it is certain to enhance in value 
rapidly, 

2. Keep no more live stock of any kind than 
you cm keep in good condition. 
J' Never aVow /our slock 10 suffer from cold, 



by housing them in open, rickety buildings, and 
remember that wurra, comfortable stables arc a 
saving of one cjuartcr of the feed that otherwise 
would be required. 

4. If your farm is so large that you cannot 
cultivate all of it to advantage, nor keep good 
fences on it, sell a part, and put the money out 
to rnteresL You may depend that by so doing 
you will save a great deal of care and trouble, 
and make money foster than by skimming over 
a large surface to gel j)Of>r crops, and those half 
deslfoved by unruly cattle breaking over your 
dibpiclated fences. 

5. Look well to your orchard, and remember 
that it costs no more to produce apples that sell 
for fifty cents a bushel than it does those that sell 
for twelve and a half cents. 

6. Keep none but the best implemcnla that 
can be produced, and when y6u possess them 
take care of them. It is shocking to a good 
farmer to see his neighbors leaving their plows 
and harrows in the field week alter week, 10 
soak in the rains and crack in the sun. 

7. Never suffer yourself to be unprovided 
with suitable work for yourself and hands on a 
rainy d.iy. A commodious workshop is neces- 
sary on such days, and a plenty of good tools. 
In Auch cases a good farmer will never lack for 
work. Much money may be thus saved that 
ollierwise would go to the wheelwright. 

8. Never borrow tools, unless it be in some 
unforeseen contingency. Every farmer should 
own every kind of implement necessary on his 
farm. 

9. Never put ofT till to-morrow what may as 
well be done lo-day. Thousands of lons of hay 
have been ruined by not heeding this rule. 

10. Do all your work well. WluU is worth 
doing at all, is worth doing well. 

11. Don't trv to make merchants. lawyers, 
physicians or clergymen of your sons, because 
the farmer's vocation is without honor. Gen. 
Washington was not ashamed of being a fanner, 
and you arc no better tlian he was. 

13. The soil must, like the horse or the ox, 
be fed, in order to give forth abundantly, and it 
must have rest. A judicious rotation of crops 
is the grand secret of prosperous farming. 

13. Tlie manure heap is an important consid- 
eration with the farmer. It should be incrca&ed 
by all substances that arc easily procured, of a 
decaying nature. Keniembcr that ajiunonia is 
the essence— the life of all manures, and that 
plaster absorbs it, and retains it in the heap, 
while hmc sets it free and ■ causes it to escape. 
Carting manure to llie field, and leaving it in 
heaps for months or weeks before it is spread 
and plowed under, Is but one step short of in- 
sanity. It bhould be carted out no faster than it 
can be spread and plowetl under. 

14. Never leave your hired hands to work 
atone. Be present with them, even if you do 
nothing but look on. A pair of eyes will some- 
lijnes do wonders with workmen. 

15. The farmer who refuses to lay before his 
children several gotwl pcriixiicals of the day, in- 
cluding one agricultural |>apcr, is allowing his 
wealth and the usefulness of his family to run 
away nt the bung, while he is saving at the 
spigot. 

FARMERS, Sleep pr. —Said one of the old- 
est and most successful farmers in this Stole; 
^*ldo not care to have my men get up before 



Mub 



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i. 



five or half-pa%t five in the morning, and if they 

So Xo bed early and can sleep soundly, they will 
more work than if they got up at four or half- 
past four." We do not believe in the ei^hl-hour 
uw, but, nevertheless, are inclined to think that, 
ftS & general rule, wc work too manv hours on 
Ihe farm. The best man we ever nad to dig 
itches seldom worked, when digging by the 
rod, more than nine hours a day- And it is so 
in chopping wood by the cord — the men who ac- 
oODipU&h the most, work the fewest hours. 
They bring all their brain and muscle into exer- 
cise, and make every blow tell. A slow, plod- 
ding Dutchman may turn the grindstone of a 
Cinning-mill better than an energetic V'ankee, 
but this kind of work is now mostly done bv 
horse-power, and the farmer needs, above all 
else, a dear head, with all his faculties of mind 
and muscle light and active, and under complete 
control. Much, of course, depends on temper- 
ament, but, as a rule, such men need sound 
sleep and pienty of it. 

F£yCE-POSTS, Presfn/atioH o/.— Any sort 
of timber, when employed for fence-posts, will 
be more than twice as durable if allowed to be- 
come thoroughly seasoned before being set id 
the ground. TKc durability of seasoned posts 
may be promoted, so as to make them last for 
an age, by the application of a heavy coat of 
coal-tar to the portion buried in the earth, and a 
few inches alx>ve the surface of the ground. 
Some farmers set the ground-end in hot tar, and 
let it boil fifteen mmutes. When cool, cover 
with co.al-tar, thickened with ground slate or 
ground brick. The boiling stiffens the albumen 
and causes the pores to absorb tar. The coat- 
ing prevents the action of moUture. But such 
A treatment of green posts would do very little 
£Ood, and perhaps mischief. Others contend 
that the better way is to season the post well be- 
fore setting it, and, when the post-note is filled 
to within lo inches of the surface of the ground, 
to apply a heavy coat of tar and fill up with 
earth. As fence-posts always decay first near 
the surface of the ground, it is only necessary 
to protect the post a few inches ibove the sur- 
fikce, and about a foot below it. The timber be- 
gins to decay, usually, on the surface of the 
posts. Therefore, if the surface can be pro- 
tected by some antiseptic maieriid, posts will 
last a lifetime. 

FL y ON TURNIPS. To Dcstto^'.—Takt i 
bushel of newly slaked time, and mm therewith 
}4 ft bushel of wood ashes; mix and blend the 
whole intimately together, and sift the powder 
Ughtlv along the top of the drills. 

F^UITTREES, Or'rr.firaHn^.^Thc bend- 
ing of branches of trees by an over crop of fruit 
is most injurious ; for the pores of the woody 
Stdk are strained on one side of the bend and 
oompreised on the other ; hence the vessels 
through which the requisite nourishment flows 
being parlialiy closed, the growth of the fruit is 
retarded in proportion to the straining and com- 
pression of the stalk. 

FRUITS^ To Gather,— \j\ respect to the time 
of gathering, the criterion of ripeness, adopted 
by Forsyth, is their beginning to fall from the 
tree. Cib^erve attentively when the apples and 
peart arc ripe, and do not pick them always at 
the same regular time of the year, as is the cus- 
tom with many, A dry season will forward the 
ripeoiDg of fruit, and a wet one retard it, so that 



there will sometimes be a month's difference Jti 
the proper time for gathering. If this is at- 
tended to the fruit will keep well, be plump, 
and not shrivelled, as is the case with all fruit 
that is gathered before it is ripe. 

The art of gathering is to give them a lift, so 
as to' press away the stalk, and if ripe they read- 
ily part from the tree. Those that will not come 
oflf easily should hang a Utile longer; for when 
they come off hard they will not be so fit to be 
stored, and the violence done at the loot-stalk 
may injure the bud there formed for the next 
year's fruiL 

Let the pears be quite dry when pulled, and 
in handling avoid pinching the fruit, or in any 
way bruising it, as those which ore hurt not only 
decay themselves, but presently spread infection 
to those near them ; wnen suspected to be dam- 
aged, let them be carefully kept from the others, 
and used first ; as gathered, lay them gently in 
shallow baskets. 

FRUITS^ Time for Gathering. — This should 
take place in the middle of a dry day. Plums 
readily part from the twigs when ripe; they 
should not be much handled, as the bloom is 
apt to be rubbed off. Apricots may be accounted 
ready when the side next the sun feels a little 
soft upon gentle pressure with the finger; they 
adhere firmly lo the tree, and would over-ripen 
on it and become mealy. Peaches and necta- 
rineSr if moved upwarcb, and allowed to come 
down with a slight jerk, will separate, if ready ; 
and they may be received into a tin funnel lined 
with velvet, so as to avoid touching with the 
fingers or bruising. 

A certain rule for judging of the ripeness of 
figs is to notice when the small end of the fruit 
becomes of the same color as the large one. 

The most transparent grapes arc the most ripe. 
All the berries in a bunch never ripen equally ; 
it is therefore proper to cut away the unripe or 
decayed berries before presenting the bunches at 
table. 

Autumn and winter pears are gathered, when 
dry, as they succesively ripen. 

immature fruit never keeps so well as that 
which nearly approaches maturity. Winter ap- 
ples should be left on the trees till there t>e dan- 
ger of frost ; they are then gathered on a dry 
day. 

FRV/Tf Surt-trintin^^ on. — Monograms, in- 
itial letters, or otaer designs, can be printed on 
such fruit as apples, pears or peaches by the oc* 
tion of the sun, with verypretly effect, of either 
a light or dark color. To do this, draw the 
monogram, letter or design on a piece of writing 
paper, and paste it with mucilage or glue upon 
the side of the fruit exposed to the sun. Just 
before the fruit begins to color, and when the 
fruit is ripe, and ihe paper is removed, the de- 
sign will appear in a lighter or different color to 
the rest oi the fruit ; as, for instance, if the ex- 
periment is tried on a yellow-fleshed peach with 
a red cheek, the design will appear in gold, sur- 
rounded with red. If the opposite effect is in- 
tended, take a small oval or arcular piece of {mu 
per, and cut out or pierce the letter or design in 
It. and paste on the fruit, which, when ripe, will 
have the design in high color on a yellow or on 
a light green ground of the shape of the piece of 
paper, and this again wilt be surrounded by tho 
brighter color of the fruit. 

FRUIT TREES^ To Protect fnm RobbiU* 



I3» 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



— To protect fruit trees in the winter from rab- 
bits, it is recommended to make a strong decoc- 
tion of tobacco, simmer it down in lard to the 
consistency of thin paint, add a little soft &oap, 
stir well, and it is ready for use. Apply with a 
brush or swab from the root of the tree upwards 
until above the reach of the rabbits. This dose 
would seem calculated to spoil the appetite of 
the hungry depredators of whatever kmd. Sec 
also '* Apple Trees, To Keep Rabbits from 
Barkinp.'' 

GARDEN SPIDERS, To /Vj/my.— Vari- 
ous kinds of fruits and plants, both in the gar- 
den and the hot-house are frequently infested 
with insects, such as aphides, earwigs, red soi- 
ders, and other pests. Tlie vine, the peach, the 
melon, the cherry, the currant, and some haro- 
bler plants, afford them appropriate places of 
aboile, to the discomfort of tiie gardener and the 
detriment of his fruit. Several modes of expel- 
ling these pests have been devised. One of the 
most successful is that of frequently washing the 
plants and fruits by means of the watering-pot 
and rose. This itself will vastly diminish their 
numbers, and at length destroy them. Lime- 
water, however, will be found much superior to 
common water for the purpose, care being taken 
that the fluid shall reacn the lower sides of the 
leaves, and those parts of the twigs and branches 
in which the insects take refuge. Six o'clock in 
the morning is an excellent time to perform the 
work. And when the leaves and fruit have been 
thoroughly washed, care should be taken to com- 
pletely shade the plants in the hot-house or the 
forcing-house with matting, to prevent injury to 
them from the heat of the sun while they are in 
a wet, cool state. The washing maybe repeated 
about three o'clock in the afternoon. 

GARDENING, H^INDOfK—Sotr—Tht 
first point is good soil — without this no plant can 
thrive welL Fresh sandy loam, with a third of 
well rotted manure, will do for many plants; and 
]ceep a reserve stock of soil in a heap, and turn 
it over occasionally, then it will be ready for use. 
In potting, press the soil well down in the pot, 
and never use wet soil for this purpose on any 
consideration, or disappointment will be your in- 
evitable reward. See that the pot usca is not 
too hard burned, as in that case it becomes al- 
most non-{>orous and unfit for plant culture. 
If/at — Most plants will survive it the tempera- 
ture gets below 40'; but no healthy growth or 
bloom can be looked for at a lower average daily 
temperature than 60 or 65" ; it is better that the 
night temperature should fall 15^ less than this. 
One difBculty with plants in our dwellings is that 
they are as hot at night as during the day. Ifa- 
ter. — Give water only when the plants need it. 
A plant with its roots constantly in mud cannot 
thrive. It is better to wait until the flagging of 
a plant shows that it needs water than to keep it 
constantly soaked. Sprinkling or showering 
should be done as often as possible. Take the 
plants to a sink or a bath-tub and give them a 
^ood dousing. Air. — Do not be amiid of open- 
ing the windows whenever the outside air is not 
freezing. Give air every day when it is safe to 
do so. Not only will the plants be benefited, 
bat the atmosphere will be better for human be- 
ings. Dust is a great obstacle to the growth of 
plants in the house. The showering we have 
recommeadcfi wil] help to remove it ; but all the 
Mmootb-leavcd phats, such as camelias, ivies, 



^ ings. 

^B plants 

^H recomi 

Ir 



and the like, should be occasionally sponged to 
keep the foUage clean and healthy. Imirr/x. — 
Don't have anv. If the plants are daily looked 
over, and the thumb and finger properly applied^ 
they will be kept in check. If a plant is badly 
infested by the green fly, put it in a box or un- 
der a barrel and smoke it thoroughly. If ibc 
red spider appears, as it will be apt to do in hot 
and dry rooms, smoke will not help it. Kemove 
the plant into hospital and shower it dally. Fre- 
quent wetting and a moist atmosphere is the 
best remedy. 

GARLIC, The common garlic is propa- 
gated usually by oflsets known technically as 
*' cloves" — tnat is, the old bulbs are pulled 
apart, and the small divisions planted in spring, 
1ney are usually set in rows eighteen inches 
apart, and the sets four to six inches in the 
rows ; plant with a dibble, or by thrusting them 
into Uic soil with the fore finger and thumb. 
Give them the same culture as onions, gathering 
in autumn, and tie in bundles, the tops being 
left on for this purpose. The young bulbs wiu 
throw up long stalks, and if not checked are 
very likely to run to seed, which must be pre- 
vented by breaking down the stems, or tying 
them in a knot, which is the practice of Euro- 
pean gardeners. Garlics are mainly used by^| 
foreigners, especially the Germans, and by 
people for medicinal purposes, 

GRAFTING IVAX.—i. Take 1 IK of lal.: 
low, 3 lbs. of beeswax, and 4 lbs. of resin ; put' 
into a kettle and melt slowly until all the ingre- 
dients are combined. If to be used in the opcA, 
air in cool weather, add a ^ to ^2 ll^' more tal- 
low. Melt the resin first, and be sure it is well 1 
melted before adding the wax and tallow. If j 
this be not done, the grafting wax will be fuU of j 
lumps. When melted pour it into cold water, 
and work it by hand into rolls of convenient 
size. In cold weather, soften the wax by put- 
ting it into warm water before using. When th« 
scions are set — say as many as 30 or 30, or few 
as is wished — have the mixture ready and apply 
it warm, with a small wooden paddle. See tiiat 
every part is covered and the air completely ex- 
cluded. It requires no bandage. 

GRAFTING IVAX, ti^uuL—Ur. L'llom- 
me-Lefort invented, not many yearsaoo, a graft- 
ing composition, which, when generally known, 
will no doubt supersede all others now in use. 
either for grafting purposes or for covcnng the 
wounds of trees. It is very cheap, very easilv 
prepared, and keeps, corked up in a bottle wita 
a tolerable wide mouth, at least six months un- 
altered. It is laid on in as thin a coat as JPp'**- 
ble, by means of a flat piece of wood. Witbia 
a few days it will be as fiard as a stone. In ad> 
dition to all the advantages indicated above, it is 
not in the least affected by the severe cold of 
ouf winters ; it never softens or cracks when ex- 
posed to atmospheric action or changes. There 
15 no better preparation for covering the wounds 
of trees. As long as the inventor kept it a se- 
cret it was sold at a very high price, and even 
now it is generallv unknown. Tne recipe is as 
follows: Melt 1 lb. of common resin over a gen* 
lie fire. Add to it I or. of beef tallow, and stir 
it well. Take it from the fire, let it cool domi • 
little, and then mix with it a tablespoonful of spir- 
its of turpentine, and after that about 7 oz. of J 
very strong alcohol (OSper cent.) to be had al 
any druggist's store. Tne i 



alcohol cools it down 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



«3S 



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so npidly that it will be necessary to put it once 
more on the Are, stirring it constantly. Still the 
utmost care must be exerdscd to prerent the al- 
cohol from getttiig inflamed. To avoid it, the 
besi way is to remove the vessel from the fire, 
when the lumps that may have been formed com- 
mence melting again. This must be continued 
tiU Uie whole is a homngeneous mass similar to 
honey. 

GRAFTING, INDIA RC/BffFR.—Somc 
of the English gardeners have successfully used 
strips of India rubber in the place ot grafting 
vrax, being neater, more perfect, and not soiling 
the Angers Sheets are pu((±ased in market for 
sixpence per square foot. They are about as 
thick as brown paper. They are obtained of the 
manufacturers of this article before it is applied 
to muslin and other surfaces. The strips cut 
from it are about an inch long and an eighth of 
an inch wide, for small grafimg; the pieces will 
stretch two or three times their first length ; the 
ends a>ihere when pressed firmly with the thumb 
suil» the sheet having been previously washed 
and wiped dry. 

CRAFT/XG. — In grafting, a sharp penknife 
and a good fine saw are imlis pen sable. Split* 
tia^ the stalk so that the bark shall not be at all 
bruised, and shaping the scion wedge-fashion 
bgth wa^s, preserving also the bark uninjured, 
and placing the rim of the wood of both stuck 
&nd scion exactly together, so that the sap can 
intermingle — there is no danger of failure if Ihey 
arc properly waxed. One year's wood should 
always be used when it can be obtained, as it is 
more certain tu take and grows more vigorously. 
For grafting generally, any time is good when 
growth is going on, and there is not too much 
sap m the scion ; the amount in the stock makes 
no difference. If there is much in the scion, it 
U Uable to rot before the union takes place. If 
scsoos are taken from healthy trees, and are kept 
from drying, sprouting, or other injuries, graft- 
tBg may go on (som early in the spring till mid- 
summer. 

GRAFTING (ROOT) APPLE TREES.— 
This kind of grafting is performed as follows: 
Take seedling stocks one or two years old, cut 
off the stock at the collar of the pUnt. and re- 
move the top root and all unnecessary fibrous 
roots, leaving only a few of them four or five 
inches long. Wash the stocks, and make a very 
smooth cut sloping upward an inch or so across 
the ooUar. la the center of this cut make a slii 
or tongue to receive the scion. The sdon, three 
or four inches long, should be made to fit the 
tflSffiie exactly, both the woody part and the in- 
b<f Dark. On this dose fining depends the sue* 
cess of the operation. This done, cover the en- 
tir* graft witQ the wax, or with prepared wax 
doth, which is nothing more than cotton cloth 
spread thinly with Rafting composition while it 
is hot. This work is commonly done in the leis- 
we of winter. After the required number of 
stocks have been grafted, they arc packed away 
ia sand in a cool cellar to be plinted in the 
•pring. 

GRAFTING GRAPES.—GnJtiag grape 
vioes may t>e done early in the spring, before 
the sap begins to flow, or after the vines have 
leaved out partiallv, and just after the main How 
of sap is over ; or it may be done in the fall, but 
in all cases it is to be done on the stock so low 
dowD Uut (he saoos may be covered with earth 



up to their buds. Attention to this point is neo* 
essary to success. 

The operation is similar to grafting fruit trees 
— the scions should each have a single bud, and 
they should be cut off an inch above, and not 
less than three inches below the buds. The 
grape stocks are to be split, and tlie scions made 
with long, wedge-shaped ends, with shoulders^ 
just as apple or other fruit-tree grafts are madCv 
and with the inner sides of the wedges narrow* 
est, so that the pressure will be greatest where 
the inner bark of vine and scion meet. These 
stocks are then bound with basswood bark, and' 
grafting wax applied, and the soil packed firmly , 
around the sdoos, leaving the buds just above 
the ground. 

When the grafting is done in the fall — and we 
think that the l>cst season to do it — a flower pot 
siiQuld be inverted over such stock and grafis* 
(insert two scions to each stock,) and covered 
with straw or barnyard litter to prevent freering 
— and in the following spring the earth may be ' 
packed around the stocksas above. It is thought 
by those who graft in the fali that the stocks and 
scions have more time to unite, and form a com- 
plete junction during the winter, and will grow 
sooner than when grafted in the spring. 

When grape vines arc cut ofT wnen the sap is 
flowing freely, for the purpose of grafting them, 
they will be liable to •' bleed" to death— that is, 
the sap will esca[>e to such a degree th.*;! the vi- 
tality of the roots will be destroyed, consequent* 
ly, all grafting in the spring should be done be- 
fore the sap ^gins to flow, or after the flow of 
sap is over, early in June, in the climate of New 
York. 

If vines are to be grafted above the ground, 
they should be bent over and covered with earth 
where the junction takes place, and a mulch of 
grass, or otherwise, put upon them, to cause 
them to continue moist. It is a rather difficult 
operation to graft grape vines three, four or more 
feet from the ground; yet we think it can be 
done, and a dozen varieties of grapes made to 
grow on one vine. 

CA'.-f/'^.S'.— The best soil for the vine is a 
light, dry loam, with a slight intermixture of day 
and calcareous matter, moderately rich, the sou 
inclining a little to the south. This should be 
plowed in the fall of the year, at least one foot 
deep, and trench plowing would be better, mak- 
ing one plow follow directly after another m the 
same furrow, turning upj^c ground, if possible, 
15 or 18 inches deep. The utility of this is, to 
^ve a light, deep surface for the roots to strike 
into the earth, and thus draw the more nourish* 
roent from it. and be sufficiently low and out of 
the way of being cut off, when the plow is run 
between the rows for after-cultivation. Plant- 1 
ing ami Culture. — ICatly in the spring, before ' 
vegetation commences, replow ana harrow the 
land fine, strike off the rows 6 feet apart, then 
take cuttings or roots, as they can be best ob- 
tained, and plant them 3 feet from each other in 
the rows. As the vines grow they will require 
staking and tying up with the stalks of long, 
tough ^rass, or green, flexible straw. The after 
cultivation is precisely like that of com or any 
root crop, it being necessary merelv to plow out 
between the rows occasion.illv, and keep weeds 
down by hoeing the ground al>out the vines, 
where it may be slightly elevated from the cen- 
tre of the rows, in order 10 keep them from any 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



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standing water. Two vines only are left from 
each main stem of a tUfTerent year's growth, the 
rationale of -which may be thus simply defined : 
The branch that ^cw, for instance, in the sea- 
son of '80. bears in '8i» and in the spring of '82 
it is pruned oflf, and that season another grows in 
i:s place, prepared to bear in 'S3, wmlc that 
vhich grew in *8i bears in '82, and is cut oiTin 
*8j, and the one growing in '82, when the last 
gave fruit, will bear in '83. 

GRC/BSf {n'Aiif,) Rmediet /or,— An au- 
thority says : A goad coat of unrotted ma- 
nure, plowed in six or ei^ht inches deep, is al* 
most a specific against while grubs in corn or po- 
tatoes. We suppose the grubs work in the ma< 
nure and leave the corn plants alone. Plowing 
under clover, immediately before planting, often 
lias the same effect. 

GOOSEBERRY BUSHES. Mildew an— A 
weak solution of saleratus, pretty stiongly tinc- 
tured with alum, sprinkled over gooseberry 
bushes, is sure to prevent mildew. 

HAY, Cutting and Curing. — I. Get ready 
for haying — that ;s, put your mowing machine, 
etc., in good order, so as to have no delay when 
you begin the work. 

a. Ifyou have a good deal of grass to cut, 
some of it should be cut a few days before it is 
actually mature, or you will be compellet! to cut 
other fields so much later than it ought to be cut, 
that you would lose more by waiting till your 
carlieit grass is fully ripe, than you would gain 
l)y wailing till it is mature; besides grass cut a 
few days before it is strictly ready for the mow- 
er makes excellent hay, but not quite so much of 
it as when cut later. 

3. Wlien the time comes to commence mow- 
ing — which should be when there is a prospect 
of fair weather, go ahead and do not wait until 
the dew is off, on account of any injury the hay 
may sustain, as you will ne^er be able to see any 
difference in value between hay, from grass cut 
vrith or without the dews upon it. 

4. Just as soon as the sun has dried the upper 
surCice of the grass, the spreading operation may 
commence ; and you should have help cnuu|^h to 
do the work welL No grass cut dunng the pre- 
vious afternoon, and up to 10 o'clock thai day, 
should remain anspread at dinnertime, unless it 
be such as is light, and is left in good shape to 
dry by the machine, as is often the case. Keep 
the grass moving as long as possible before you 
begin to protect it for the night ; and here we 
will say that we never would allow a load of Iiay 
to be put into our barns that was cut the same 
day, except when the grass had been delayed to 
be cut till it was post its prime and partially dry, 
so that a few hours of sun and wind suHiced to 
cure it. 

5. After drying the hay as much as possible 
up to 3 or 4 o'clock, 1\ M., according to the 
quantity of it, and hands to take caro of it, the 
question comes up: Is it best to cock it. or to 
rake it into windrows, and so leave it till the suc- 
ceeding day, when, if the weather be fair, it may 
be put into the bam or stack ? If left in win- 
drows a great deal of labor is saved, and if the 
next day is fair, the hay is in a better condition 
to be spread than if in cocks ; but if a storm en- 
sues, the hay is in a bad shape, and will suffer 
injuiy, according to the length of unfair weather 
that takes place. No farmer should leave his 
hjtj over night in windrows, unless he shall 



have the very best of reasons for believing that 
the next day will be fair. 

6. Hay may be injured by drying too much ; 
but the wide awake farmer will avoid that, and 
either get his hay into windrows or cocks before 
it is thus damaged. 

HAY, {CLUYER,) Afanagemnit e/,—JZ\o- 
ver should be mowed as soon as it is well in 
blossom. There is no necessity to wait for a 
brown head ; there will be plenty to be seen be- 
fore the crop is well down. Cut when the dew 
is off, and allow to dry until the afternoon, when 
it should be shaken up and turned before the dew 
falls. If a tedder is employed, its constant use 
will fit the clover to be put in cocks the same 
day. If turned by hand, it may lie until the 
noon of next day, when it may be put in cocks, 
made as high and narrow as possible ; they will 
shed rain better in this shape, and, if caps are 
to be used, a yard square will be sufhcicntly 
large to cover them. Caps are to be strongly 
recommended, and the above size is sufficient, as 
the top only needs protection. Put up, and thus 
protected, the hay may stav in the ficlo until it \% 
all made, when it may be tiaulted together. Tf 
any cock should be damp inside, ^^Tt^A for a few 
minutes ; it will dry rapidly. Clover cured in 
the cock is much more valuable than that dried 
in the sun, and wastes less in hauling. Put 
away the first cut hay by itself, in a place conve- 
nient for use in the spring. Cows coming in 
early in the spring will thrive on this hay; the 
milk will be largely increased in quantity, and be 
richer in quality, while the butler will come eas- 
ily, be free from white curdy specks, and in col- 
or will not be far behind that made from June 
grass. 

NA V STACKS, To Ymfi/afe.—SUcks of 
hay, corn-stalks, etc, may be ventilated by mak- 
ing a hole perjiendiculariy through llic centre* 
with apertures through the base acd top or sides 
of the stack to admit a current of air. The ori- 
fice should be constructed when the stack is be- 
ing built, which can easily be done by filling a 
bag of the requisite size with hay or straw, plac- 
ing it upright in the centre of the slack, drawing 
it upward according as the stack rises. In this 
way a chimney will l)C formed in the centre of 
the stack, which will cirrv off the sleom, if the 
hay or corn-stalk should ferment, and by adroit- 
ting air will prevent damage from mold. The 
lop of the air-tunnel should be protected t^ a 
roof to keen out rain. 

//EDGES, //<rj} to Flant—K good way of 
planting hedges is to plow the ground about I2 
or 15 inches deep, and pulverize completely; 
then set stakes in range as the hedge is to stand. 
Then take a common garden hoe and dig a hole 
as deep as the plants ore to be set, standing with 
the face in ranee uith the stakes; then put a 
plant down with the top toward you, leaving al 
an angle of about 45 degrees, being careful lo 
put it a little deeper than it grew in the nurscnr; 
then cover that one up by diggingthc dirt out (or 
the next plant, and so on, standing in the range 
of the stakes. It will facilitate the job by hav- 
ing a dropi>er to put the plants in ibur places at 
you need tnem. 

HEDGE, BARBERRY,— KKxAx obtaining 
good seed, mix it with moist earth, and keep it 
in a cool cellar, free from frost, until the spring 
npens. I'hen sow it in drills, like carrot seeiC 
Thin out the plants to six inches apart, and keep 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDE.V AXD DAIRY, 



m 



ihe rows free from weeds. The fuUowing spring 
they will be ready to tran^pUtnt. Set them out 
by * line, six inches apart in the row. 

I/EDGE, CEDAR, {Ear Ca/J Latifudes,)^ 
First dig a, ditch about t fcx>t deep by 2 feet 
wide where the hedge is to l»e, then go and cut 
down second growth cedars, (out of thick clumps 
or clusters are best, they ha^'ing most all their 
branches on one side.) about 3 or 4 inches 
through at the butt ; take branches and all and 
lay them in the ditch, with the thickest branches 
up ; turn up the branches so they are — that is, 
the branches — not more than S inches apart, and 
if there are not enough on l tree, lay down 2, 
side by side, butt and top together ; then chop 
off all branches that cannot be got to lay in the 
dilch to about 10 inches long or so, so tnat they 
will cover ulj ; then cover up, taking a little pains 
to stake ana bend the branches that arc to form 
the hedge into a straight row, or nearly so; then 
cover about two-thirds up, and then water and 
6msh covering, and with a very little trouble the 
hedge in 5 years will be so thick that a hen can- 
not get through it, or sheep or cattle gel over it, 
and will get stronger and larger every year. 
A^Tiere small second growth cedars cannot be 
got, small trees vriW answer nearly as well — or 
eren sow the seeds, which s a rather slow pro- 
oesSi but sure. 

HEMP CC'trrRE.—The land should be 
thoroughly pulverized with plow and harrow. 
The seed-bed cannot be put in loo fine tilth. 
Titty to sevcnty-6ve pounds of seed per acre 
should be sown evenly broadcast. The amount 
should depend upon the strength of the land \ 
the stronger or richer the soil the more seed may 
be sown, the object being to secure all ihe plants 
the land will develop, and thereby a fine and a 
long 6bre. The seed should be covered with a 
light harrow, running it both ways. The sow- 
ing should commence as soon as the ground is 
dry and warm enough to pat into proper condi- 
tion to receive the seed. There is no after-cul- 
ture. 

/fORSE-RA D/S/f.— For the cultivation ol 
tKis regetable the soil should be deep and moist. 
Cut off slips from a root with a little of the 
crown and plant 3 or 4 inches deep in rows, il 
for 6eM culture, so as to admit of handy work- 
ing. If in a garden it matters little whether in 
rows or not, as it soon sprouts up in every di- 
rection. Unles* tlie whole crop is removed the 
bed will supply itself year after vcar, and a plat 
to feet square will be enough for an ordinary 
family. 

tiOTBED, T(f Make «.— Make a frame 6 
ftei long by 4 feet wide; let the one end l>e 2 
feel in height, and the other end I foot. Along 
the top of the lung sides, about an inch from the 
ispper edges, nail 2 cleats. This frame may be 
made of one inch boards. Glaze the sash and 
fit it upon these cleats, thus forming an inclined 
plane* which, when the bed is completed and the 
frame permanently arranged, should be made to 
face the south-cast. In this manner the rays of 
the morning and noonday sun fall directly upon 
the growing plants. 
* To make the bed. draw well- rotted horsc*ma- 
and pile it in a square heap, about 3 feet 
and of sufficient dimensions to admit of 
tkelftwne being placed securely upon the top. 
^ndun the frame, cover the manure heap with 
■bout 6 inches of rich earth. Put on your sash 




and leave il until the fermentation of the heap 
causes the earth to become warm. When this 
is effected, large dcwdrops will form upon the 
inside of the glass. If the fermentation is not 
very active, cover the sash with boards, so as to 
prevent all radiation of heat from the pile. The 
frame may be kept still warmer by banking up 
the outside to the top with manure. 

When the earth has become thoroughly heat- 
ed the bed is ready for sowing. To sow with 
the finger, draw drills about half an inch deep, 
take the seed of caL<bages, cnuliflowers, toma- 
toes, peppers, etc., between the forefinger and 
thumb, and by rubbing ihe two gently and mov- 
ing the hand along the drill, the seed may be 
sown evenly and thickly. 

The great principle m the successful forcing 
of plants in a hotbed is to subject them to a sui- 
Bdent amount of heat without allowing them to 
burn. This can only be regulated by experience 
and judgment. If, however, the weather be 
very warm, by throwing open the sash during 
the day and closing it at night, the plants may 
be brought in contact with cxtern.il air, and will 
become more hardy and better able to bear the 
chilling effects of transplanting into the open 
ur. 

A constant succession of early plants may in 
this manner be forced, and after their removal 
melons and cucumbers may be planted in their 
places in small sods, and, wnen sufficiently 
forced, may be removed witliout being at all dis* 
turbed. 

HYACINTH CULTURE.— 1\\^ hpirinth 
requires a light but rich soil, sandy loam, well 
dressed, and mixed with thoroughly mttrd ma- 
nure, but if the soil is not sandy, add a third of 
silver sand. The soil for a hyacinth bed must 
be deeply dug. well mixed and turned over. 
Plant tne bulbs eight inches apart, and four 
inches under the soil. To Gnnv Hyacinths in 
Eols. — Select the bulbs, and plant each one sep- 
arately in a four-inch pot, well drained with pot- 
sherds, and filled within an inch of the inpwilh 
ihe same soil recommended for the bed>. If the 
plants are to remain outdoors until rooted, place 
them in a dry level place, and cover them about 
six inches deep with straw, decayed leaves, or 
cocoanut fibre, putting a piece of bass mat over 
to keep off rain ; they will not require watering. 
In ten weeks they will have made sufficient roots, 
and may be brought into the house and watched 
carefully. If brought into the house directly 
they are potted, keep them in a dark, moist at* 
mosphere for about ten weeks, then gradoally 
expose them to the light, and give them water 
frequently. To Grow Hyacinths in Glasses. — 
Single flowering hyacinths are the best for this 
purpose. Fill me glasses with soft water, (rain 
water is the best,) so as nearly to touch the 
bulb. Exclude the light totally from them for 
five weeks, by which time the glass ought to be 
full of roots ; they may then l>c placed where 
they will have plenty of light and an equable 
temperature. Do not change the water while 
they arc in the dark, but when exposed to the 
light pour out half the water in each glass once 
a week, and fill it up with fresh water, whidi 
should have been kepi for some time in the same-, 
room, that the temperature majr be the samCi 
A very little guano, mixed with the water, 
strengthens the plant. 
IMFIEMENTS, {Farm,) Cartof,~\K Vi % 



136 



DICTIONARY OF El'ERY-VAY WANTS. 



lamentable fact thai a large majorily of our farm- 
ers lose as much from a want of proper care of 
tools as from the actual wear and tear of ihem. 
iicpcated wetting and drying injures, sooner or 
later, any kind uT wood-work; the moisture get- 
ting into the cracks soon begins the work of de- 
cay. This may be prevented by the timely and 
occasional application of somccheap painL The 
shovels, spades, and forks are brought into the 
tool-house with the dirt sticking to uiem, and in 
that condition they remain through tlic winter, 
or until they arc again needed. All practical 
farmers know how much better a bright plow 
turns the furrow, how much easier it is on the 
team and driver, and yet tliey will bring their 
plows and hxurows in every fall with the dirt 
sticking to thcro, and allow them to remain in 
that condition until again wanted, mudi to their 
irreparable injury, and also to their own loss 
and cxiM^nsc. There arc various mixtures which 
might be applied to the iron to prevent rusting, 
the cheapest of which is common (unsalted) 
grease. A better article may !« formed by the 
melting logeiher of six pounds of fresh (not 
salted) lard and two of resin. An old iron pot 
is a good thing to keep and compound the mix- 
ture in. As soon as a tool is done being u&ed 
for the season, clean it off and give it a coat of 
this mixture, and even if it remains undi^iturbed 
fur years it will come out as bright as when put 
away. Implements projierly cared for will not 
only last twice as long as where this is not the 
case, but, as we said before, they are far better 
in every way. 

INSECTS^ To Exterminati, — By scattering 
chloride of lime on a plank in a st&blc, biting 
fleas arc driven away. Sprinkling betls of vege- 
tables with a weak solution of this salt cflcctu- 
ally jjrescrvcs them from caterpillars, slugs, etc. 
It nos the same effect when sprinkled on fruit 
trees or shrubbery. Mixed in a paste with fatly 
matter, and applied in a narrow bond around llic 
trees, it prevents insects from creeping up. An- 
other plan is to carry all the toads you may fmd 
to your gardens. They will devour immense 
numbers of bugs. A toajtl will swallow the 
largest specimen of the tomato worm, though 
sometimes he will have a hard lime of it. Hens 
and wasps and spiders are all dcvourers of your 
enemies, A common duck will go up and down 
rows of tomato and potato vines, and pick off 
the lar^c worms usually found on such vmes. as 
fast as it can sec them ; and they will see a half 
dozen when a man would not sec one, Voung 
turkeys will do the same service, though thev 
arc not so easily controlled and guided. All fai 
Icn fruit is to be picked up twice a dav — at any 
rate, onetime — Ixjiletl, and then given to your 
cattle to he devoured. Ry doing this it will pay 
ten times over, and the result of it will l>c tnat 
the next year you will not have insects. Sec also 
the recipes fur a like purpose in this depart- 
menL 

^ LAWNS, KEEPING.~\jXQfn^ must be kept 
inAif if you would have a good, fresh, green 
carpet of^ grass. Mowing them repeatedly ycir 
after year, and raking off the fallen leave's that 
drop from the trees, which neatness demands, 
and which thus removes a useful lop dressing, 
requires an occasional aildicion of manure. By 
Hi the best lime to apply this manure is late in 
autumn. If spread earlier it defaces the lawn at 
J time when it proves offensive. Fine, dry ma- 



nure, which may be readily pulverized, is bcs^, 
as it spreads evenly and ncativ over the surface.,! 
But wnere this can not be haa, coarse or lumpy 
manure will answer a good purpose if treated ia 
the following manner : Spread it as evenly as 
may be convenient, and if there happens to be « 
sharp November freeze, followetl by thaw, it 
will loosen the lumps and render them quite fri- 
able, llien immediately run a smoothing har*^ 
row over the ground, and it will grind these] 
lumps to powder and spread them over the grass- 
in better style than can be done by a ikiUful. 
band, and with great rapidity. 

LETTUCE IN IVINT ER.—\\ is said that 
heads of lettuce can be produced in winter in 
^om 34 to 4S hours, by taking a box filled with, 
rich earth, in which one-third part of slaked Ume 
has been mixed, and watering' the earth wi(lh*i 
lukewarm water ; then taking seed which had: 
l>ecn previously softened by soaking in str<ui(t 
brandy for twenty-four hours, and suwing in tho- 
usual way. We arc assured, but will not voucH, 
for ihe fact, that a good-sizeii head of Icttuco, < 
may be obtained in the lime mentioned. « 

Manures.— TXiett: arc two important »ej 
quisiies to the luxuriant and healthy growth oC 
plants — plenty of nutriment, and a suitable place 
for growth. There arc soils, it is true, so ric]^ 
in the elements of plant-fixxl, and so bountifully- 
supplied with those partially decayed remains of. 
vegetable growth which we call humus, that A^ 
cades of continued cropping do not sufBce to ex- ' 
liaust their supply of the one, nor to rob theiOv' 
of the mellowness imparted by the other. Urv-, 
fortunately, however, but litilc of the earth's 
surface is of this character, and the questional 
" How much and what sort of fertilizers shall 
wc use ?" is a very weighty one. 

MANURES, STARLE.—Caxcfu\ expcri* 
ments by German agriculturists have demon^ 
strated that the plant requires a ceilain list o€\ 
substances for its nourishment, its food, such as 
nitrogen, carbon, potash, lime, soda, iron, phoa>^ 
phone ncid, sulphuric add, and that as far as itft 
nourishment alone is concerned, it is a matter of 
total indifference to the plant whether these arc. 
applied in tlie furin of stall manure or of guan^ 
oes, superphosphates ; the one and the only rc- 

auisitc Dcing that these substances be present ia 
)e soil in sufhcicnt quantity and in an ossimila^ 
ble form. Fanners followed the teachings of 
science in supplying food to plants in the form of 
artificial rather than natural fertilizers. Science 
had told them that the nitrogen and phosphoric. 
aci<l of the one were just as nutritious as those 
of the other. But this was not all that science , 
hati to say. The use of a part of its tcachiogy 
and not the whole, was the mistake. The reo*- 
son of the failure hereisc!ear. Science informs 
us that the plant, like the animal, requires not 
only good and sufficient food, but also an appro* 
priate place to grow in — or, in other words, thst^j 
the physical character of the soil, its cooditioik 
as regards warmth, moisture, compactness, oe 
looseness, are just as important as its chemical 
contents, or the supply of nutritive elements it 
furnishes to the plant. 

And it is precisely here that the superiority of 
stable manure appears. Not only is it a c<»m« 
plete manure, furnishing all the elements 
plant food, as special fertilizers do not« but it 
contains also a large amount of organic mattefa 
undigested portions of the food vi the ammsl^ 



FARSf, OJ^CHARD, GARDEN^ AND DAIRY. 



«3r 



I 



I 



and strtw used for bedding, and ihe like. This 
organic m»ltcr decays in the gjround, and by ils 
decay warms the soil, loosens it if it be compact, 
and aid* in binding it together if i! be too loose, 
and 15SLSIS in the working over of the mineral 
matter contained therein into a condition (it for 
the use of the plant. 

The general rule to be deduced from the above 
ftcts would be, if tersely expressedt keep stock 
upon the farm to produce such an amount of stall 
nanore as will be sufficient to keep the soil in 
good physical condition, and rely on artificial fer* 
ttluers only to supply the still remaining defi- 
ciencies of plant nourishment. 

MANURE HEAP, Management .?/.— Everv 
miuiurc heap consists of three portions, and all 
of these require very different means for their 
preservation. We have first the carbonaceous 
nutter. This forms the chief bulk of every ma- 
imre heap, and (xom the fact lliat it came origi- 
nally from the atmosphere, and that it con be re- 
placed from the same source, theorists who have 
not carefully watched the results attained in the 
practice, are apt to depreciate its value. It is 
not as valuable as the other two constituents, but 
it sei^'cs to bring the bnd into fine, friable, mel- 
low condition, and it is by no means certain that 
the carbonic add, furnished by ils decomposi- 
tion. i« not a source of plant-food. Under any 
circumstances, however, it is well to be econom- 
tcml of it, and allow none to ^o to WLste. 

The second portion is the morganic plant-food 
of uufluls. It consists of phosphoric acid, lime, 
potash, soda, magnesia, soluble silica, etc., and 
the great source of loss of these constituents is 
frcnn their being washed out. They cannot 
evaporate, but if the rain and liquid manure are 
aUowcd to fall on a manure heap, and drain 
thfoogh it and out of it, the manure pile becomes 
a mere caput mtartttum-^^ wortliless residuum 
of originally valuable materials. Hence every 
bamrard where manure is kept exposed to the 
■weaiber, should be hollowed out in Ihe centre 
■nd well puddled, so as to prevent the soluble 
■tatters from draining or soaking away. More- 
over, if the farm is located in a region where a 
ereat deal of rain falls, it is necessary to place a 
large portion of the barnyard under the cover of 
sb«lK. which prevent excessive wetting. Some 
moisture is absolutely necessary. Too much is 
decidedly injiunous. 

The third constituent of the manure heap is 
nitrogen. Tliis is a substajice of great and un- 
^oabced value, and every care should be taken 
to preserve and increase it. When vegetable 
CTwHtnees containing nitrogen undergo putrc- 
Ihntfoav in a moist state, the nitrogen in general 
beeocncs converted into ammonia. The same 
tMOoeas of putrefaction, however, produces car- 
IMWie actd in large quantities, and this combines 
with die ammonia to form carbonate of ammo- 
nia. This salt is comparatively volatile, and if 
tbo BROnre is allowed to dry up, while exposed, 
•O tMn layers, the ammonia aisappears. Sev- 
«ni a^^ts may be set to work to fix and retain 
if. 

Water is one of these — carbonate of ammonia 
dissoWes very readily in water, and does not 
then evaporate to the same extent that it would 
do from a dry mass. 

The great agent in the fixing of ammonis^ on 
tbcnonare heap is the humic and similar adds 
' dohag Ibe dccumpusilion of the tUaw, 



These acids do it very effectually, and hence the 
importance of mixing animal excrement with a 
large proportion of moist sira**. 

t_)nc of^ the most powerful fixers of ammonia 
is plaster or sulphate of lime. When this meets 
carbonate of ammonia in solution, decomposi- 
tion ensues. Carbonate of lime and sulphate of 
ammonia are formed, nnd as sulphate of ammo- 
nia is not voladle at ordinary temperatures, there 
is no danger of loss except by its being washed 
out. 

Hence a few simple rules will enable us to 
manage a manure heap so as to avoid any very 
great loss : 

1. Prevent all loss by drainage and soaking. 

2. See that the animal excrements ore covered 
with moist straw. 

3. See that, while too much water is avoided, 
there is a sufficiency to keep the manure moist. 

4. Moisture and pocking prevent fire fanging 
— that is, too rapid fermentation. 

5. If you find it convenient, to use a few bush- 
els of plaster, sprinkle them over the heap so 
that Ihe plaster will be incorporated with the 
successive layers. It will thus prove of great 
service. 

A/AAn/RE, APPLy/.Va,—Jn spreading 
manure, care should be taken to scatter U evenly 
over the land, breaking to pieces all large and 
hard lumps. This should always be done im- 
mediately, or not more than half a day, before 
plowing, especially if the weather is dry and 
very windy. The manure should be plowed un- 
der, before it dries very much, or loss will ac- 
crue. Another way is to plow the land first, and 
then put the manure on and harrow it in, if put 
on plowed land ; if on meadow, spread on in 
early spring on the latest settled piece, TTiat 
grounct is mellow, and when it rains it carries 
the manure down around the young roots, and 
tlie result is a heavy crop of grass. 

AfAXURE, Cmi'erfing- Dead Animais in/i*. 
—The conversion of the entire bodies of dead 
animals into manure, can be done by subjecting 
them to the action of dilute hydrochloric acid, by 
means of which Ihcy arc completely dissolvccf, 
and converted into a uniform pulp, which is in- 
odorous and can be kept for any length of time, 
to be applied when needed towards fertilising 
the soil. Another method is to cut them up, and 
compost the dead meat with dry swamp muck or 
peat. The ammonia and phosphate will all pass 
mto the peat, making a rich pile of compost, and 
that without smell. 

A/AJVC/REt Converting' Bmet intif.—Takt 
one hundred pounds of bones, broken into as 
small fragments as possible ; pack them in a 
light cask or box with one hundred pounds of 
good wood ashes. Mix with the ashes, before 
packing, twenty>five pounds of slaked lime and 
twelve pounds of sal soda, powdered fine. It 
will require about twenty gallons of water to 
saturate the mass, and more may and should be 
added from time to time to maintain moisture. 
In two or three weeks, it is asserted, the bones 
will be broken down completely, and the whole 
may be turned out upon a floor and mixed with 
two bushels of dry peat or good soil, and, after 
drying, it is fit for use. It has been recom- 
mended to pour on to this mass dilute sulphuric 
.icid to aid decomposition and prevent the escape 
of ammonia. 

Another method is to take a kettle holding a 



138 



DICTTONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



barrel or more; fill with bones; pour caustic 
ley over to cover ihcm. A gentle fire is built 
for two or three successive days, to baiely warm 
the liquid through. In a week the bones will 
become softcnol. Mix the mass with three 
loads of muck, afterward adding the leached 
ashes, from which the ley was obtained. Let the 
whole remain, in order to decompose the muck, 
and apply. 

AfAyURE, Garden Refuse aj.— Green stuff, 
such as cabbage leaves, radish and beet tops, and 
the like, should not be allowed to dry. Let 
them go while fresh to the pig-pen or to tlie 
compost heap. Young weeds — and old ones 
ought not to be found in the garden — should 
have the same destination. By saving all the 
Tcfuse of the garden in a heap by i'lSclC or put- 
ting it ill the pig-pen, a surprisinc accumulation 
of valuable compost will be found at the end of 
the season. 

MAXURE, I/EN.—K mixture of hea-dung, 
unleached wood-ashes and plaster, frequently has 
a wonderful effect on com. If the ashes and the 
hcn-manurc arc perfectly dry, no decomposition 
or chemical change will take place when they arc 
mixed together. But if moist, more or less am- 
monia will escape, and the plaster will not hold 
it. llie only advantage of mixing these articles 
together, aside from the ease of applying them, 
is probably this : When the dry hcn-manurc is 
thoroughly broken up fine, and mixed with the 
ashes and plaster, and applied in the hill, the 
moist soil soon induces chemical action. Tliis 
produces more or less heat immediately under 
the seed and favors germination ; carbonate of 
ammonia would also be given off, and would htt 
absorbed by the soil immediately in contact with 
the roots of the young com plants, and would, if 
everything is favorable, cause them to grow rap- 
idly and assume a dark-green color. But care 
must be used in applying the mixture, or it may 
do more harm than good by burning the roots. 
It should be well mixed with the soil, and not 
come in direct contact with the seed. Some per- 
sons apply it on the hill after the plants are up, 
just as they frequently apply the plaster or ashes 
alone. 

MANURE^ Leaves as. — Forest leaves are 
excellent to supply the stable-yards, and, where 
straw is scarce, a! 50 the cow-st.iblcs and hog- 
pens. They can be most conveniently gathered 
after the first snow, or at least before the wintry 
blasts have soUtered them. They then lay com- 
pactly, and, I.>eing n^oist, can be h.indled with 
greater facility. Leaves absorb large quantities 
of liquid manure, and arc an excellent ferliHzcr 
in spring. They can be gathered, too, when 
Other labor about the farm is slack. 

MANURE, //C?tVZ?.— In every 100 lbs. of 
cow's urine there are 60 lbs. of water, 5 lbs. of 
urea, 5 lbs. of phospliate of lime, 12 lbs. of sal 
ammoniac and muriate of potash, and 10 lbs. of 
carbonate of jwtash and ammonia. WHiile the 
solid excrements obtained from one cow arc es- 
timated to manure three times the amount. Our 
dairy farmers will see, therefore, how important 
it is to have tanks connected with their blables 
^tn which to deposit this material, or a good sup- 
'y of sawdust, dry earth, or muck, for absorb- 

g it in the gutters of the stable. A careful and 
ac-curate farmer in Scotland has found that while 
I4 head of cattle would make 6 loads of solid 
m^ the ligoid would saturate 7 loads of 



loam, rendering it of equal value. He Imd re* ' 
peated the experiment lor 10 years, and founil'' 
the saturated earth fully equal to the best pu«^ 
trcsccnt manure. 

MANURE, N/C/fT-SO/l,^ThcTc is nt 
better manure than night soil. It should 
mixed thoroughly with three or four times it 
bulk of muck or charcoal dust, or in the absci 
of either, good loam or coal ashes will answer^ 
Mixed with some such absorbent, it will hav«|,H 
lost its offensive odor, and become as portable 
any manure. If it is to be used to assist gjrdc 
crops, apply after spading or plowing the lant 
in the spring, and mix it thoroughly with thL. 
surface soil; if to com, apply in the hill bcfor^^ 
planting ; cover the manure with soil before yoi 
drop the soil on it. 

MANURE, Sa-MfrnfanJ CA//.— These ar»' 
excellent krticles for promoting the growth d 
the vines, shrubs and small plants, lliey must 
be thrown into a pile, after removing the coarser 
portions of the mass, and thoroughly saturated 
once or twice a week with a mixture of urine and 
soapsuds. This will induce incipient fermenta- 
tion, and so far break down the texture of the 
mass as to prepare it to act with energy when 
applied to anv soil or crop. 

MAPLE TREES, To ra/.— Much injury ii 
often ignoranlly and thoughtlessly inflicted 
sugar maple trees by excessive tap^Mng, and va- 
rious negligent practices in connection with the 
operation. As a guard against such malpractice 
the following rules will be useful : I. Use noth* 
ing larger than a three-fourth inch auger or bilt. 
One-half to five-eighths of an inch is best. 2. 
Do not open the trees until they will run equally 
well on all sides. 3. .Select the thriftiest part of 
the tree that is farthest from an old orifice. 4. 
Never put more than one spout to a tree that is 
less than one foot in diameter, nor more than 
OT\e bucket to one less than iS inches in diame- 
ter. 5. Never bore trees more than once in a 
season, but freshen them once, or any time after 
a long and hard freeie. 6. Never leave spouts 
in the trees a single day after they have done 
running. The quicker the orifices dry, the less 
they decay. 

The following facts should also be remem* 
beted : The root of a tree will sometimes run 
more than the botly. A healthy tree runs in 
proportion to the size of its top, and should be 
opened with respect to its capacity for pro- 
duction. Trees in open grounds, with spread- 
ing tops, discharge more and much sweeter wa- 
ter than those in a forest, 

MAPLE SUGAR, MAKING.— Prfsen^ing 
the Trees. — If the trees are worth having they 
arc worth keeping, and it is bad political econ- 
omy, and a very immoral waste, to spoil that 
which will enable posterity to live. Consequent- 
ly, do not tap the tree with a huge gash, but 
smooth off the outside bark about the si/e of a 
man's hand. At the bottom of this, with a three 
quarter of an inch auger, bore from half to three 
quarters of an inch into the wood, but not dccp- 
! er. Cut a V into the wood above the auger 
I hole, with a mallet and firmer chisel, to comma- 
nicnte with the auger hole. S^uts. — ^nn spouts 
are the handiest. They save time in making and 
a':^apiing to the purpose. You will waste time 
in making elder spouts, or wooden s[>outs of any 
kind. ViSieh. — Unpainted pails arc the best, 
and if they are weQ- scalded bclbrc being used 



FAXM, ORCHARD, GAR DEI/ AND DAIRY. 



t» 



they are all ihe belter. Furnaet. — Instead of 

■ the old plan ot a kettle hanging over a 5re, build 
a furnace, over which you can place shallow 
pans for evaporating the sap. In many places 
maple sugar making is abandoned on account of 
ihc waste of fuel ; but in the way last rccom- 

■ mended the fuel \s saved vcrv much, and what, 
under the old system, was a losing operation in 
farming, may become moderately profitable. If 
you wdl use a kettle, a buill-up furnace, over 
which the kettle may stand or hang, is still a 
great economizer of fuel. Boiling Down. — If 
you have two or more pans, or kettles, you will 
save time, for while one is evaporating, tne other 
may be poured off through a straining cloth, pre- 
vious to sugaring off. Fcuring Off. — When the 
xyrap has become nearly as thick as ordinary 
New Orleans molasses, strain through a flannel 
into a pan or kettle, which place again over the 
fire. When warm, you can add half a pint of 
milk, or an egg beaten in the same quantity of 
water, as a clariAer, if it needs it. If everything 
has been carefully handled this will not be nec- 
essary. Suiarin^ Off. — While the thick syrup 
is boiling take off the scum. Keep tlie fire reg- 
ular and steady. While this is going on, try 
several times a dron of the boiling syrup on a 
bright ax blade; wnen a drop thus cooled slides 
off with ease, leaving no trace, take the kettle 
from the hrc. and stir it till it begins to form fine 
grains, when pour it into moulds of any desired 
shape. Moulds with sheet iron or zinc bottoms, 
and wooden sides and subdivisions, are handy 
and clean. StraituJ Sugar. — By boiling some- 
what \^i, and pbdng the sugar (after it is 
cooled and granulated) in vessels with false bot- 
toms, perforated, much mola&scs drains ofT, and 
a finer article of sugar is produced. During the 
draining the sugar should be kept moderately 
warm, say at about 70* Fahrenheit. Clarifying. 
— VkTiere the sap has been kept entirely free from 
dust, twigs, leaves, etc., the milk or the egg is 
unnecessary. Souring. — The tendency to fer- 
ment and turn sour may be prevented by a little 
auscUime added to the sap. Draining. — The 
lorros of the sugar should not be drained until 
all the sugar possible has been granubted. To 
secure this, turn them upside down soon after 
taking them oat of the moulds ; afler a little 
wfaile turn them back again, and so on for three 
or fosr hours, after which, with % vessel under 
them to catch the molasses, they may be left to 
draia thoroughly. A Slargt Sugar. — If you 
hare many trees, and wish to make a consider- 
able bttfiness of the maple sugar-making, build 
m good furnace of brick or stone, with one deep 
evafforating pan, and several shallow ones, and 
arrange % oarrel or hoeshead of strained sap, so 
thai it will supply the deep pan with a constant 
stream of sap, from whidi it may be ladled into 
tiM thm ones as needed. 

MEADOWS, Worn <?«f.— There is no more 
profitable 5eld belonging to the farm than a good 
meadow, and yet comparatively few farmers un- 
dentatkd the art of keeping them in a produaive 
stale. Meadows become worn out, and conse- 
quently unprofitable, from two causes — namely. 
from want of proper manures, or from a kind of 
nets which fariuers usually call fog. The first 
is cmIt remedied by spreading a light coat of 
<haM of any kind over tne sod, any time between 
November and the middle of April, as this is 
AOC oaly the best manure for meadows, but must 



h 



not be put on farm lands at any time, as it con- 
tains a great quantity of the seeds of noxious 
pbnts that greatly thin, and sometimes almost 
dcitroy the grain crop. Tlie second h effectu- 
ally and permanently destroyed and converted 
into a highly nutritious manure by a top-dressing 
of lime, say twenty bushels to the acre. 

AfELOAS. — First give the ground a good 
coat of fine manure, thoroughly dig or plow the 
ground, and then level with a rake or otnerwise. 
Then moke a mnrkcr, by taking any piece of 
wood that will not bend, eight feet long; fasten 
two pegs to this, seven feet apart, and noil a han- 
dle m the centre, bracing it both ways ; then 
draw a tight line for the first mark, drawing the 
marker the first time through with one peg 
against the line; the next time through, but one 
peg run in the last mark ; then you get all per- 
fectly straight. Mark across these in the same 
manner, and then place on each comer or hill 
two shovelfuls of well rotted manure ; lake the 
digging fork and mix with the soil thoroughly to 
the depth of the fork tines. After this take the 
rake and rake the soil on the top of this to the 
depth of three inches, which makes the hiU a 
little higher than the surface of the ground. 

The seed should not be plantt^ until the 
ground gets thoroughly warm — say the last of 
May or first of June in this section. Too early 
planting is one cause of failure, llien stick nine 
seeds in each hill. As snon as they come up, 
sprmkle a little plaster on <he plants while the 
dew is on, to keep the bugs off; do this as often 
as the plaster gets ofT, until (he pKints get to be 
of good size, and then thin out to four plants in 
a hill. When these begin to run nicely, pinch 
off the tip end of the runners, which will cause 
them to throw out side runners ; pinch these in 
the same manner: keep the ground well culti- 
vated and (rcc from weeds till the vines take 
possession. If treated in this manner they will 
cover the ground completely, and you will nave, 
from a small patch, watermelons by the hundred, 
while others, pursuing a different course, will 
freauently lose all their plants by the dry weath- 
er, oecause they had a manure pile underneath 
the plants. 

Some persons raise Mountain Sweets alto- 
gether, which is supposed to be the sweetest 
melon grown. 

AfELONS AND CUCUMBERS, Burrd 
Culture for. — ^The plan recommended is to take 
a tight barrel or casK, remove one head, and par- 
tially fill the barrel or cask with large pebbles or 
stones — say half full ; upon these stones place a 
mixture of compost with rich alluvial soil, or 
fine, fresh vegetable mold, until the barrel or 
cask is filled to within three or four mches of the 
top. and in this plant the seed and cover to the 
requisite depth. This barrel or cask may be set 
in any convenient situation where sufficient room 
or space can be obtained, and around which ar< 
range lattice work or brush to sustain the out- 
spreading plants, in whatever manner may be 
found most convenient for affording access at 
all times to both the barrel and the plants. 

Upon the outer side of the cask insert a pipe 
of convenient size, through which water may be 
introduced to the lower or underhalf of the bar- 
rel daily, or as often as occasion may require; 
this portion of the cask should be kept con- 
stantly filled with water. Midway of the cask 
the staves should be perforated with several half 






DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY tVANTS. 




inch holes, for the free escape of any surplus 
water* and at the same lime to permit the ad- 
mission of an equal distribution of air ; the pur- 
pose would be better accomplished if the holes 
were bored upon a line at equal distances apart 
around the cask. 

The eflfecl of this arrangement, as will be very 
readily seen, is that, through the capillary at- 
traction of the soil, sufficient moisture is ab- 
sorbed at all times to nourish the plants, while 
the admission of air can be controlled at pleasure 
by opening or closing the apertures upon the 
sides of the cask. 

As to the production of cucumbers alone un- 
der this plan, it has been found to greatly exceed 
any other ; the yield, under proper management, 
from one "generating tub" has liecn found am- 
ply sufHcient to fill a closely packed barrel with 
smted pickles. 

MICE-GIRDED TREES, To Saif.—CMX 
from the trees branches of green wood of the 
length required to connect the bark above and 
below the gnawed space, sharpen them at each 
end in llie shape of a wedge, drive a narrow^ 
sharp chisel into the bark alrovc and below the 
Space, and press each end of the i.hools fimily 
into the cuts made by the chisel. Then wax the 
gnawed space well, or bandage it with fresh ex- 
crement from the cow stable. Pains must l>e 
taken to have the bark on the body of the tree 
•nd the bark of the branches driven therein co- 
indde. Another method is to cover the dam- 
aged parts with clay, bound on with a bandage, 
done as soon as possible, as the death of the 
tree is caused by the seasoning of the sap- 
wood. 

MIIDEW, Sulphur far.— Ttxt efficacy of 
sulphur in destroying and preventing mildew is 
now well known, and it is the chief reliance of 
the vine-grower, whether he cultivates under 
glass or in the open air. Where sulphuring is 
systematically^ followed, it is applied at least 
three times— just before the blossoming of the 
vines, after the fruit has set, and when it begins 
•to color ; and, beside these stated periods, it is 
applied whenever the appearance of mildew in- 
dicates that it is necessary. The mode of apph- 
Cation, by La Vcrgne's bellows, is the popular 
Vay of applying the sulphur. The bellows may 
now 1>c obtained at most implement stores. 
The character of the sulphur is of importance, as 
much of that found in commerce is liable to con- 
tain acid, and be injurious to (he foliage. Sul- 
phur contaminated by acid may be detected by 
the taste, but a more delicate test is litmus pa- 
per. This is paper stained with a blue dye, 
which ti:m5 red when it is touched by acids ; it 
b kept by the druggists. The sulphur to be 
tested is mixed with a little water and the paper 
wetted with the liquid. If the least trace of the 
«eid be present, it will be indicated by the change 
in color of the paper. Sometimes sulphur is not 
sublimed as above described, but the crude 
lumps arc ground to powder in a mill. Sulphur 
thus prepared is free from acid. 

MILK-ROOM, Ch<ir£c<i! m.— The fact that 
milk will absorb noxious gases to such an extent 
as to greatly impair its excellence as well as its 
healthfulness, is known to every dairyman. The 
power of .ibsorjHion is not confined to the milk 
Itselt but it extends to all the products that nat- 
urally form, or are artificially prepared from it, 
where they are cream, or butter and cheese. 



The ill flavor, as well as the disagreeable odor» 
of much of our butler and cheese, arc not im- 
parted to ihcro from substances that existed in 
the milk when it was drawn from the cow, but 
which were taken up while the milk was setting 
in pans or tanks, during the manufacture into 
butter and cheese, or while these products of 
the dairy are awaiting sale, liow snail the air 
that enters our milk-room be purified ? The 
answer is easily made — use charcoal. This com- 
mon and inexpensive substance, when freshly 
prepared, is capable of taking up and securely 
nolding ninety times its volume of ammonia, and 
a pro|H>rtionate amount of other ga^es. Not 
only does it tightly hold the portions of noxious 
matter that pass through its raeshes, but it also 
seems to have the property of attracting them 
from the surrounding air. 

M/IK, To Decdorite. — It frequently occurs 
in the spring, when tlie farmers are feeding the 
cows upon ruta-bagas, or turnips, that the milk 
becomes so strongly impr^nated by their disa- 
greeable taste and odor as to he unfit for butler- 
making. To obviate this, put a pinch of bnely 
pulvcnred saltj-wrtre into every gallon of cream. 
A little saltpetre worked into butter that has be- 
come sour, or rancid, will render it sweet and 
palatable. 

MILK, {Ruhnetsof) 7>7>j/.— Procure anv 
long glass vessel — a cologne bottle or long phiaL 
Take a narrow strip of paper, just the length 
from the neck to the bottom of the phial, and 
mark it off with one hundred lines at equal dis- 
tances ; or, if more convenient, and to obtain 
greater exactness, into fifty lines, ard count each 
as two, and paste it upon the phial, so as to di- 
vide its length into a hundred equal parts. Fill 
it to the hichest mark with milk fresh from the 
cow, and allow it to stand in a perpendicular po- 
sition for twenty four hours. The number of 
spaces occupied by the cream will give you its 
exact per ccntage in the milk, without any guess 
work. 

Now, if you wish to carry the experiment any 
further, and ascertain the per centage of butler, 
set the milk in a Urge dish, and collect say one 
hundred or two hundred ounces of cream ; make 
your butter in the cream by ascertaining the 
number of ounces of butter you have made. 
Thus, if one hundred ounces of cream give fire 
ounces of butter, you will know that one hun- 
dred ounces of milk will give fire ounces of but- 
ler. 

MILKING IN SILENCE.— K noted dairy- 
man has said that no talking should be allowed 
while milking was going on. He had discharged 
a man because he would interrupt the milking 
by talking, and in three days the increase of the 
milk was equal to the man's weekly wages. 

MILDEW ON ROSES, To AV//.— Mil 
equnl parts, by weight, of powdered sulnhnr and 
quicklime. Moisten with water, and let the 
lime slake in contact with the sulphur. After 
the lime is slaked, place the whole in a kettle 
with plenty of water, and boil it until you ^et a 
saturated solution of the sulphuret of lime. 
This will be transparent and of an amber color, 
and should be drawn off and preserved in hot- 
ties for use. A gill of this added to a gallon of 
water, and applied with a syringe, will Idll the 
mildew without injuring the roses. 

MOTHS, {CodiiMff,) r* TVa/.— Take old 
dder, or dder vinegar, not rcry sharp; put hall 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEfT AND DAIRY. 



«4t 



I 



E 



a pant tn tome open vessel, and hang it in all 
carts of the orchard when in bloom — empty fruit 
jars, or tin oyitcr cans with the top all on would 
^ The string holding the vessel should be so 
placed that it would not turn the -water running 
down the limb into the wnegar or cider. If you 
Kave a Urge crop to har\*esl, you will want to 
look to ihem every week or two to empty and 
renew if necessary. 

MUSHROOM SEDS, Arti/S^ial.—Mnsh- 
rooms laay be grown in pols, boxes, or hamp- 
ers. Kacn box may be three feet long, one and 
a half broad, and seven inches in depth. Ixt 
each box be half filled with )]orse-dung from the 
stables, (the fresher the better, and if wet to be 
dried for three or four days before it is put into 
the boxes ; the dung is to be well beat down in 
the box. After the second or third day. if any 
lieat has arisen amongst the dung, break eacn 
spawn brick into tlirec parts as equally as possi- 
ble, then lay the pieces about four inches apart 
upon the surface of the dung in the 1>ox ; here 
they are to lie for six days, when it will probably 
be found that the side of the spawn next to the 
dung has begun to run in the dung below ; then 
add one and a half ipch more of fresh dung on 
the lop of the spawn in the box, and heat it 
down as formerly. In the course of a fortnight, 
when you find that Ihc spawn has run throuch 
Ihe dung, the box will be ready to receive the 
mould on the top ; tliis mould must 1>e two and 
a half inches deep, well heal down, and the sur- 
face made quite even. In the space of five or 
six weeks tnc mushrooms will begin to come up. 
If then the mould seems dry, give a gentle wa- 
tering with lukewarm U'ater. The box will con- 
tinue to produce from six weeks to two months, 
if duly attended to by giving a little water when 
dry, for they need neither light nor free air. If 
cut as button mushrooms, each box will yield 
from twenty-four to farty-cight pints, according 
to the season and other circumstances. They 
may be kept tn dry, dark cellars, or any other 
places where the frost will not reach them ; and 
by preparing, in succession of boxes, mushrooms 
may be had all the year through. They may be 
grown without the dung, and he of a finer fla- 
voc. Take a little styaw, and lay it carefully in 
ihc bottom of the mushroom-box, about an inch 
thick, or rather more. Then take some of the 
spawn bricks and break them down — each brick 
into about ten pieces, and lay the fragments on 
tStC straw, as close to each other as they will lie. 
CoTCT them up with mould three arid a half 
indies deep, and well pressed down. When the 
sorftnr appears dry give a little Icpid water, as 
directed for the tost way of raising them ; but 
this method nee<l5 about double the ciuantity of 
water that the former docs, owing to naving no 
moisture in the bottom, while the other has Ihc 
dung. TTic mushrooms will begin to start in a 
noalh or five weeks — sometimes sooner, some- 
times later, according to the heat of the place 
vbere the boxes are situated. The spawn bricks 
may be obtained from seedsmen, or be collected 
from meadows. 

OATS. — (IJals are chiefly sown after grass; 
■onMimes upon land not rich enough for wheat. 
Chat has been previously summer-fallowed, or 
has carried turnips ; often after barley, and very 
tarely after wheat, unless cross- cropping, from 
particular circumstances, becomes a necessary 
criL One plowing is generally given to the 



grass lands, usually in the month of January, so 
that the benefit of frost may be gained, and the 
land sufficiently nicUowcd for receiving the har- 
row. In some cases a spring furrow is given, 
when oats succeed wheat or liarley, especially 
when grass seeds arc to accompany the crop. 
The best oats, both in quantity and quality, are 
always those which succeed grass; mdccd, no 
kind of grain seems better qualified by nature 
for foraging upon grass land than oats ; as a full 
crop is usually obtained in the first instance, and 
the land left in good order for the succeeding 
crops. 

OAVOJ^S, Cultivation c/.—Thc best soil for 
onions is a light, loamy, deep, mellow soil, and 
on a dry bottom. Select ground that has been 
well tilled and kept clean. If potatoes, turnips, 
or carrots have been carefully grown on it, it 
will be likely to be in good condition to prepare 
for onions. The best crop to prepare ground 
for onions is onions, but as there must be a first 
dme, let them follow the crop that has had deep 
plowing, high manuring, anti the deanesl culti- 
vation. Manure the ground heavily with the 
best thoroughly rotted manure, fut it on at the 
mie of twenty-five tons to the acre, and it you 
can add to it the cleanings of the poultry house, 
the pig pen. and your dry earth closet, and a 
Ion or two of pure finely ground bones, all the 
better. Onion's arc gross feeders, and require 
rich manures, and plenty of them. Old onion- 
growers say that the very best manure in which 
to grow large prize onions, size to rule, is wcll- 
rotted onions. Tulvcrizc the soil thoroughly by 
plowing, harrowing, and raking, and make llie 
surface as level as possible, to prevent washing 
by rains, and free from stones. Sow the s^d 
as early in the spring as it is possible to get the 
ground in good working condition. The earliest 
sown produces the heaviest crop. In field cul- 
tivation the seed is usually sown with a machine 
used for this purpose only, which sows two rows 
at once, makinii the drills and sowing at the one 
time. In sowing with the machine it will re- 
quire about four pounds of seed to the acre. If 
tne machine is not used, it will l>e found conve- 
nient to run the drills a foot or fifteen inches 
apart and sow thinly — say not thicker than an 
inch apart, if the seed be new and fresh. It is 
very easy to test the vitality of onion seed. 
IMace a little on some damp cotton or a bit of 
moss in a warm room — say the kitchen ; if it be 
fresh it will sprout in three or four dnys. Seed 
more than one year old is not apt to pro<luLe a 
vigorous planL Sow sltallow. making n mere 
scratch in which to drop the seed, and cover by 
rolling a light roller over the ground, Icngthvi'te 
of the drills. As soon as the plants are an iiit.h 
or two high they will need hoeing and weeding, 
and should be tninned out *.o about two inches 
apart. Hoe shallow, and do not draw the earth 
up around the plants, but keep the ground level 
and clean. Hoc before the weeds start, and 
much time and labor will be saved. If there be 
a market for very youn^ onions, they may be al- 
lowe<l to grow for awhile at two inches apart, 
thinning out to four inches as fast as necded- 
If there be no use for them, the onions may be 
thinned to four inches as soon as Ihe plants seem 
to be well established. 

In wet seasons onion<i sometimes grow ihjck- 
necked. To remedy this, growers are in llic 
habit of gently bending down the to^ kle \a 



Ml 



14* 



DfCTIOHARY OF SirE/^V-DAV WASTS, 



July, with the hoe-handle, which checks their 
growth and nukes ihetn form better bulbs. In 
August or earlv in September the onions will be 
ripe, which is indicated by the dying off of the 
tops. They may now be pulled or raked out, 
and left spread out to dry in the sun for two or 
three weeks, by which time they are ready for 
market, or storing for winter. The same ground 
will be the best ^r onions next year, and so for 
the next twenty-fire years, but it will need to be 
minared every year very heavily, and if a prac- 
tice is made of saving all the soot from the chim- 
neys, all the soapsuds from the washtub, and all 
the slops from tne chambers, and spreading it 
upon the onion patch, the crop of onions will 
amply repay all the labor. 

OPIUM CULTURE.—'nw time to com- 
mence operatin? upon the seed capsules (seed 
poUi) is soon after the petals have fallen. The 
way to do this is to take a common two-bUdeJ 
penknife, or a pocket knife with two blades of 
equal length, and both at one end of the handle. 
Sup a piece of cork or wood on to these blades, 
pushing the point through one-sixteenth of an 
inch, or more, according to the thickness of the 
pod shells. The cork guard is to prevent cut- 
ting the pods too deeply when making the incis- 
ions, for. if cut through to the seeds, the juice, 
or a portion of it, will pass inside and be lost. 
Ill setting the guard, it is well to cut off a poppy 
pod and cut it in two ; then arrange the blades 
so that the cut shall not be too deep. Wind the 
blide^ I>elDW the guard down to the handle, and 
the icx>l is ready for use. The aflernoon, or just 
before evening, is the best time to make the in- 
cision, as the juice exudes most freely at night. 
To Cut^ take the knife in the right hand, with 
the edges upward ; then insert the points at the 
base of the pods, and pass them up nearly to 
the apex, making a half dozen longitudinal cu(5;, 
dividmg them etjually around tlic pods. The 
cuts may also be made around the pods hori/.on- 
lally, if more convenient for the operator. The 
object sought is to wound the pod, which allows 
the juice or opium to exude. The following d.iy 
the opium should be gathered, commencing af- 
ter the dew has dried off — say by 9 or 10 o'clock 
in the morning. To Cather, take a small and 
smooth-edged, but not sharp knife, and gather 
by scraping off the opium from the pods. A 
small vessel with a sharp e*-(gc must be used in 
which to put the opium as gathered, because it 
sticks to the knife, and requires some force to 
separate it therefrom. When a sufficient quan- 
tity is gathered, it may be pressed into small 
cakes weighing a pouncl, more or less, and it is 
then ready for market. 

ORC HARDS, Ti> i1/rt«a^c.— The whole of 
the ground of an orchard should be dug in the 
autumn and laid up in a rough state for the win- 
ter, giving it as much surface as possible in or 
der that the weather may fully act upon and me- 
liorate the soil, thus following it as far as the 
case will admit. Observe to dig carefully near 
to the trees, and so as not (o hurt their roots and 
fibres. If the soil be shallow, and if these lie 
near to the surface, it would be advisable to dig 
with a fork instead oi the spade. 

Crop to within two feet of the trees the first 
year, a yard the second, four feet the third, and 
so on until finally relinquished; which, of 
course, would be against the eighth ye.ar, pro- 
vj'ticd the trees were planted at thirty or forty 



feet apart, with early bearing sorts betweenT 
By this time, if the kinds have been well chosen* 
the temporary trees will be in full bearing, and 
will forthwith defray every necessary expense. 

fARS.V/PS, To /"ouA— Select a heavy, but 
clean and rich, loam. Plow it deep, and har- 
row it thoroughly as early as it can be worked ; 
mark off in rows fifteen mches apart, and drill 
in the seed or sow by hand. Use plenty of the 
seed, two or three to the inch* and be sure it is 
fresh. Go through the rows with a pronged 
hoe. or other implement, as soon as they can be 
distinguished. When large enough, thin the 
plants to stand four or five inches apart, and be 
sure that theystand singly. Keep the land very 
clean by frequent hoeing. 

PEACH TREES, Afanagetnmt ^.—Seed- 
ling trees ore the longest livers, most prolific and 
most profitable. Secure a good vanety of pits 
which produce the same kind of fruit — these are 
rare. Plant pits wliere you desire your trees to 
remain, or, if transplanted, they should be of 
the first ycar*s growth. After your trees have 
attained to a proper size, cut back, and prevent 
their bearing ; this will cause the roots to spread 
in the soil, and will add to the longevity of the 
tree. Trees which send down one large root 
and smalt fibrous roots, will soon become cov- 
ered with moss and die. Use coal ashes and 
soap suds plentifully, and if you wish to keep the 
trees from blooming early, spread manure, coal 
ashes or sawdust deeply upon the roots when 
the ground is hardest frozen, and do not remove 
till late in the spring. (ITiis has been sold as a 
great secret.) The largest roots of a peach tree 
will be found upon the north and west sides. 
Branches grow fastest toward the south and the 
east, 

PEACNBORER, To Dfsfrvy.— One meihoA 
is to bank up to the height of from 8 to 10 inch- 
es, adding a little each successive spring. This, 
it is said, will prevent the depredations of the 
peach borer. Another is the use of scalding 
water. Early each spring scrape around the 
trees with a large knife on the morning of 
" washing day," When the washing is done, 
take buckets full of boiling suds into the or- 
chard, and dash the trees just where the trunks 
join the ground. In this way thousands of lit- 
tle worms are scalded to death. Another is by 
the use of carbolic acid soap, and lastly by pot- 
ash, as follows : 

PEACIf TREES, Potash /jr.— Dr. George 
B. Wood« President of the American PhUo> 
suphical Society, having noticed that his peach 
trees, after producing a few crops, ceased bear- 
ing, and died in a few years, and believing that 
the cause of decay was worms at the roots of the 
tree, put into operation a plan for the destruc- 
tion of the worms. He dug holes five or six 
inches deep at the base of the stem, scraped 
away all worms tliat could be found, and filled 
up with wood ashes fresh from the stove, which, 
of course, contained all the potash. This was 
done in tlic autumn, and with a result in the fcJ- 
towing spring at which he was astonished. The 
trees appeared to have been restore*! to all their 
early freshness and vigor — put forth bright green 
leaves, blossomed copiously, and bore a hcary 
crop of fruit. 

PEARS.^T)\t best soil for the pear is a rood- 
eralcly heavy, sandy, and dry soil, with a sub- 
soil of light clay which is easily penetrated by 



FARM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AS^D DAIRY. 



M3 






the roots to a great depth ; a moderate portion 
of iroQ in the soil is desirable. The best situa* 
txan is an undulating eastern or southern expo- 
sure. The best fertilizers, as in the case of the 
apple, are barn-yard manure, lime^ and bonc- 
cnuL Iron cinders axe a good application when 
there U a de^ciency of that element in the soil. 

FKAMUr CULTURE.^ll requires about 
two bushels to pj*nt aixacre. Well cured seeds 
are esvrntia]. The soli selected should be fri* 
able and light ; red or chocolate -colored soils 
stain the nuts and impair their value. Land 
that has been in com^ or other hoed crops, ex- 
cept sweet potatoes, is preferred, and if it has 
not been heavily marled for previous crops, may 
be dressed with 150 bushels of inarl or 50 bush- 
els of lime to the acre. These may be sown 
broadcast or strewed in the furrow over which 
the beds are to be raised. Tliesoil of a peanut 
farm require& to be continually renewed by very 
heavy dressings of marsh mud, woods litter and 
lime, and the putting of a piece of land in order 
for a single crop costs a good deal more per 
acre than is required to purchase good cotton 
Und in the South. It is a very exhausting crop 
— it is therefore customary not to take a crop o{ 
peanuts from land oftcner than once in threck 
years. 

PRUNING. — ^The practice of indiscriminate 
lopping off of limbs, large and small, is the 
cause of disease and a weakening of the consti- 
tution of the tree, which in numberless cases 
leads lo premature dtith. It h.Ts been found in 
Oine cases out of every ten, where a branch of 
considerable size had been taken off it would 
leave a rotten spot in the tree. In a great many 
yarietjcs of the apple tree, where any incision is 
made in the tree, ttiere is a liabiliiv to decay and 
rot- The tree may, and perhaps m most cases 
will, heal over this, but a diseased spot is left 
in the tree, and hence to that extent is left in an 
unhealthy stale. And the more these spots are 
multiplied, the more is the tree weakened and 
diseased. 

Pl^ANTS, nOUSE.—Scm -Gardening— 
(Window)." 

PLANTS, Ulame) LICE ON, To Destroy, 
— Take s^mc of the common 6ne-cut smoking 
enbacco. strong, and sprinkle it over the top of 
the earth about the plant, and keep the plant 
well watered. The strength of the tobacco now 
passes through the earth and about the roots, 
axui is jmt as sure to kill all creeping things as 
it is used and is a great bentfit to the plant. 
These worms, etc., die, and with the strength of 
the tobacco form a most valuable manure for the 
pUat. and those using it will find that the plant 
will soon show much more vigor and begin to 
grow very fast. 

PLANTS, Boxes for Starting. — There is not 
any better for this purpose than paper boxes. 
To mak^ ihr^c boxes, cut strips o( thick paper 
a^> - vv-ide and 17 long; paste the ends 

ing an inch, which will make a 
ci/i^L- iij iiuiics in circumference ; then press the 
aides of the circle together flat, and double once, 
makings XiooV. of four uncut leaves; now open 
with the 6ngcrs, pinch down the comers prop- 
<df . ^Vi^ a brittomless boa 4 inches square is the 
'OS many of these as are necfled 
in a wocwen box, fill with earth. 
.*>■ -vcds or prick out the plants. It is 
best not to have the box that holds the paper 



ones so high by a inches as they are. as the pa- 
i>cr then does not decay so rapidly as in higher 
boxes, and holds the earth together better in 
transplanting. 

PLANTS, {Outdoor,) LABELS FOR.—K 
convenient method of preparing outdoor labels 
for plants, capable of resisting weather, consists 
in first cutting them out of smooth pasteboard, 
and writing upon them whatever may be desired 
in ordiniuy inlc. When this is dry tney are im- 
mersed in linseed soil, or, what is still belter, 
linseed-oil \-arnish. until they are completely 
permeated by the liquid ; after which they are 
hung in the open air upon threads to dry ; they 
become like iron, and resist wet for a long time, 
and are more durable than slips of metal. 

PLUM^ THE. — The plum tree is hardy, and 
requires but little attention ; it bears abundantly* 
and maybe considered a sure crop when the soil 
suits. The best for it is a stiff clay, which is 
not suitable to the habits of the curculio, the 
great enemy of the plum, 

POTA TOES, Earthing (/p.—\\ has been de- 
monstrated that earthing up potatoes diminishes 
the product, and retards the ripening of the tu- 
bers. Long cKpcnmcnts in England have fully 
proved this fact^lhat hilling up the potato will 
reduce the crop one-fourth. 

POTA TOES, RA/S/NG, Under 5/mw.— 
We give an experiment in raising potatoes under 
straw, by a noted agriculturist: "I fitted the 
ground as for planting in the old way, by mark- 
ing rows one way, three feet apart, and dropped 
the potatoes on the mark from eighteen incoes 
to two feet apart, covering them slightly with 
soil. I then covered to about the depth of ten 
inches with old straw, and did nothing more 
with them. When the crop was ripe I raked oft 
the straw, and raked nut the potatoes, which 
were mostly on the surface, looking very nice, 
fresh and large. The result was, I had at the 
rate of one hundred and eighty-six bushels i>er 
acre ; while the yield from those planted the old 
way in drills, and cultivated on ground by the 
side of them, was tmly seventy-five bushels per 
acre, which was rather small for this section, 
owing to the dry season. The soil is a sandy 
loam.^' 

POTATOES, SirEET— The first week in 
June is quite early enough lo set out sweet po- 
tatoes in northern localities. Where but a very 
few arc grown, it is much easier and cheaper to 
buy the plants than it i:i to start them. Thev 
carry readily bycxprcss. In preparing the soil, 
put upon the level surface a strip of fine manure 
a foot wide, and turn two furrows over it to form 
a ridge. Dress up the ridcc wilh the spade, 
and set the plants about fifteen inches apart. 
Unless the soil is moist, water the holes before 
setting the plants, which should be set welt 
down^ so that the stalk of the first leaf is cov- 
ered. Press the soil firmly around the plants — 
much of the success will depend upon this. 
Should the tops wilt and dry up, a new shoot 
will spring up if the plant has been set deep 
enough. The skies of the ridges sliould be kept 
free of weeds by the proi>er use ol the rake. 
The vine& will soon get so large as to smother 
most of the weeds. 

POTATO ROT, Bamet's Crrtain Prevent- 
h'e for the, — Sow unlcached ashes over the field 
once a week for six or seven weeks, commencing 
soon after ihe second hoeing. Apply two or 



■ 



«4t 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



three bushels to the acre, using care to dust the 
tops well. 

POTATO BUG, (Cif/i^radff,) To Dtsh-oy,— 
A great many preparations have been invented 
to destroy this marauder on the potato fields. 
The principal ingredient in all is tne powdered 
point known as Paris green. Its poisonous ef- 
fect ujxin the plant is obviated by the admixture 
of other ingredients. The Paris green, accord- 
ing to price, is more or less pure. If Lnadulte- 
rated, it should be mixed with four, five, or six 
times the quantity of meal, flour, ashes, i^alcined 
plaster and lime. The more it can be diluted, 
witliout destroying its efhcacv, so much the less 
expcuMvc it will be, and the less injurious to the 
vines, and also the le&s dangerous to the op- 
erator. 

PLOWING AND NARROWING.—'^^y^x 

filow, if it can be avoided, or go on the ground 
or any purpose, when it is wet and sticky ; keep 
the furrows strught, and, if possible, reverse 
them at even* plowing, so as to keep the land 
level. To lill in furrows, back-furrow pretty 
widely once around, and haul once orounc very 
wide; this will cencratly l>e sufficient. Harrow- 
soon after plowmg, and before the lumps, if any, 
get dried hard ; twice over with the teeth down, 
and unce with the back of the harrow, will pre- 
pare the land for ordinary crops. 

PLOWS, {Rusty,') To C/.ra«.— Take a quart 
of water and pour slowly inio it half .1 pint of 
sulphuric acid. (The mixture will become quite 
warm from chemical action, and this is Ihc rea- 
son why the acid should be poured slowly into 
water, rather than the water into the acid,) 
Wash the mould-board (or any other iron that is 
rusty) with thi^ weak add, and let it remain on 
the irun until it evaporates. Then wash it once 
more. The object is to give time for the acid to 
dissolve the rust. Then wash with water, and 
you will sec where the worst rusty spots are. 
Apply some more acid, and rub those spots with 
a brick. The add and the scouring will remove 
most of the rust. Then wash the mould-board 
thoroughly with water, to remove all the add, 
and rub it dry. Brush it over with petroleum 
or other oil, and let it be until spring. When 
you go to plowing, lake a bottle of the acid wa- 
ter to the field, and apply it frequently to any 
spots of rust that may remain. The add and 
the scouring of the earth uill soon make it very 
brtght and smooth. 

PUAfPA'INS Amongst CORN.^fdmosX all 
■' oUI-fashioned farmers" take a crop of pump- 
kins off their com fields, much to the annoyance 
of the theorist who demonstrates to his entire 
sntisfflclion that the one crop must detract from 
the full force of the other. But the most careful 
experiments show no loss to the com. The very 
same weight results from on acre, with or with- 
out the pumpkins. 

QUINCES, To CttUivate. — ^The quince ap- 
pears to flourish best on a rather stiff and moist 
soil, in somewhat sheltered locations. Get the 
" ()r.mgc*' variety. Sec that they are entirely 
free of uie borer before planting. Set eight feet 
apart in rich soil. Bandage the stem with two 
or three wrappings of muslin, or any kind of 
cloth, as far down in the ground as possible, as 
the roots star! from near the surfece. Let this 
bandage run six or eight inches above ground, 
then pile the soil compactly a couple of inches 
around the bandage, and renew this early every 



spring. Fine, large golden quinces, rivaling the 
largest oranges, will reward your efforts, annu- 
ally. 

Should the borer by any means steal in. the 
same plan may be adopted for its destruction as 
in the apple. Should they, however, get the ad- 
vantage of you, and your trees become honey- 
combed, set out again young trees, so that by 
the time the old ones are gone the young ones 
wilt be finely in bearing. 

RADISI/ES.—U is said that, when radishes 
cannot be gruwTi on account of worms or unsuit- 
able soil, if common wheat bran be strewed one 
inch thick on any good soil, well hoed in, and 
the seed is then planted, perfect radishes will re- 
sult. 

RAIN, To Producf. — Rain is such a ncces* 
sity to the success of crops, that whatever will 
aid its occasional appearance should be ciiltj* 
vated. It has been proved without doubt tfaot 
trees do this, for it has been noticed that wher- 
ever the country has been denuded of its fomta 
rains gradually become more infrequent, and 
that in perls of the country where formerly there 
was little or no rain— as on the western prairies 
— and trees have afterward been pbntea, occa- 
sinnal and copious rains have always resulted. 
Farmers should be guided by this fact. 

RASPBERRIES.— V.zxs^herry canes, when 
set out, should be planted three feet apart in the 
row, and the rows three and a half to four feet 
apart. Cut down the canes to within six inches 
of the ground and set firmly. Prefer a rather 
moist spot for them, and if in the shade a por- 
tion of the day so much the l>etter. They can 
be planted under fruit trees, where scarcely any- 
thing cUe will grow, and the berry will be much 
larger and finer. They like a cool, moist soil, 
kept so by IJfieral mulchino with leaves, light 
manure, or any trash, and ifa foot in depth it is 
an advantage. 

^AA'A'A'7' (also called A*««nW.)— The Bava- 
rian mode of curing cons<ists in turning out the 
contents of the skin of the stomach, wiping off 
all specks or dirt with a cloth, and then blowing 
up tne skin or filling it with air like a bbdder. 
1 he ends are tied with a string, and a little salt 
applied to this part only llie skin, treated in 
this way, soon dries perfectly, and is as sweet 
and clean as can be desired. Salt ncutr.ilizcs in 
some degree the action of rennet, therefore the 
rennets treated on the Bavarian plan are much 
more effective than those cured in the old ^vay- 
WTicn the rennets cured on this plan are dry, the 
air may be expelled, and the skins can be ]»icked 
away in a small space, and are easily kept clear 
of insects. The defect in salted rennets i*;, that 
the salt in wet weather accumulates dampness, 
and, if care is not taken to keep them in a dry 
place, they drip, and thus lose their strength. 

RENNET, Mode of ^J^.— The way to use 
rennet is to cut off a bit of suitable siie (a piece 
an inch square is large enough to coagulate sev- 
eral gallons of milk) and sfttk it for sumc houn 
in water; then add the whole to the milk, a lit- 
tle warmed. The mixture is now very gradually 
heated to something above blood-heal, or aboat 
120*. Very soon it undergoes a great change, 
and a solid white curd is separated from the 
whey. 

RHUBARB, Transptanting.—hW rhubarb 
plants ought to have a heavy dressing of manni« 
every spring, to be forked in, and two or three 




FAKM, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



MS 



P 



boeiagi ilirough the season to keep down all the [ 
wwU. li is a great point to have the stalks len- 
der, and li) scaire this they oii^tU to he Rrown 
ra^dly Liider sltmuhting manures or a wann, 
ridisoil. The p-oun'l before setting out ought 
to be plijwed thoroughly and subsoilcd or trench- 
ed decfily, and, if necessary, drained. Turn iin- 
tlcft plenty of weU-rottea manure, at the rate 
of at lea 5 1 sixty or seventy horse cart loads to 
thci:rt, for the greater the quantity of manure, 
theUr^jcr and finer will the rhubarb grow, and 
the Ureer and finer it U the more it will bring. 
Jtl/US.JRfl, rn;«j//tf«/w/;'.— Rhubarb rods 
retjuite repUnting occasionally. If the stoo!s 
rtauin umlistiirlied for several years, they often 
commtnce to decay in the centre, and after a 
*We th« whole plant becomes discxscd. Every 
four or five years the stalks should be lifted and 
diniied, leaving but one large crown, with its 
w^mpTniinng roots attached. These may be 
''•a in the same soil, or upon some 
the latter method being preferable, 
•nmu-n we arc not a very strong disciple of the 
niWfy that plants run out if grown for many 
TI*M in the same soil. 
ffOCA'S, rtfiC/w^./^.— See "Boulders." 
ffY£., To Cultnti/f. — Rye ought never to be 
•O'Ti uTKin wet soils, nor even upon sandy soils 
^«*rc (be subsoil is of a retentive nature. l'p<>n 
downs, links, and all soft lands which have re- 
^^tJ THiinurc, this grain thrives in perfection, 
*W, if once covered in, will stand a drought af- 
t<fwiud'. that would consume any other of the 
J«iniferQU5 tribe. The several processes may 
'^^^^irdcd as nearly the same with those an- 
»»trujg for wheat, with the single exception of 
pwllng, which rye docs not require. Rye may 
"^Wwo either in winter or spring, though the 
^^» -seeded fields arc generally bulkiest and 
produciivc. It may succeed either sum- 
hHow, clover or turnips ; even after oats 
droits have been raised, and where such 
J^ liavc been raised the land will always be 
""^ in good condition. 

^_^C'£, To CuUiiHite. — Put it out in rows 
"^ icct apart, and the plants a foot apart in the 
*^*J- Caltiratc and keep clean; it does well in 
•"^yioil. Dry in the shaile. Put up in square 
P'"J?incIcagcs hard pressed. 
^£tZJ, //^. to Select.— \\ is of verjr great 
wr .in v It, ,. fV,.. firmer, whose desire it is to 
/, ' 1 1 rooi crons, be very care- 

^ .-lection of^ sect!. He will 

!^ ' ' i! ^,\j.\x. they wt<t large, plump, perfect, and 
Wiif,»nn Hxe, In the ^election of many seeds 
«tol!^* the farmer to carefully •wunine with 
jP"*^ui] magnifying glass, and reject all that 

Jj? itieet the abv>ve requirements. 
^^^ ^ORX.—\Ti shelling com for seed, 
?5™ t'le huts and tips, using only the centr^ 
JJJ'''>n of each car, as the early blade and root 
J^" 'i'e in nroportion to the Kcmel used ; and 
^^^ ''om the largo grains nfthe centre of the 
•ftul!*'^ gel the surt and keep ahead of the 
^^ ' 'iif'- fr.m the tip. And csjiccially select 
\^ ivc ihe grains as near uniformly 



i ^« 

m 

I 






jj J " — The best Is that which 

ij it the tail, and Is of a p-ilc 

' riM^. i,r'-ruii\cd with a bright, whitish 
r**' 36,1 if tht' lind should Iw A little shrivcllc<l, 
^^och the better, as it indicates a very thin 



SEED O^r^.— Place your oats in a heap 
at the leeward end of the threshing t!oor on a 
day when a gentle breeze is blowing through the 
barn. Take a common wooden flour-scoop, and 
tlirovv the oats against the wind, towards the 
other end of the floor. A few minutes' experi- 
ence will enable you to throw Ihem so that they 
will fall in a semi-drclo at a nearly uniform dis- 
tance from where you stand. 1 tie oats which 
(all farthest from you arc the best for seed, and 
are to be carefully swept together as fast as they 
accumulate in considerable quantities. 

SEED POTATOES.— Yiei^^yxX to secure 
large, sound, and well-ripened seed ; cut the 
large potato into pieces of one eye. Begin at 
the butt end ; cut towards the centre, leaving a 
due proportion of the potato with each eye. Po- 
tatoes inadvertently left undug, if they do not 
freeze during winter, invariably produce sound 
ones, larger and more abundant tnan those kept 
in the cellar through winter. This has lately 
suggested the plan of keeping potatoes excluded 
from the air from the time of aiggiiic and plant- 
ing, which has been found to invari;u>ly prevent 
rot. 

SEED ;r//^// r.— Seed wheat should not 
only be thoroughly cleaned from the seeds of 
weeds, but small grains should be taken out with 
a separator or suitable fanning mill, leaving only 
the largest, plumpest, and earliest ripened ker- 
nels. 

SEED, HffW to Test the IVaii/y ^— By plac- 
ing almost any of the larger seeds and grains on 
a hot pan or griddle, where the vitality is per- 
fect the grain will pop, or crack open with more 
or less noise. Where the vitality is defective or 
lost, it lies immovable in the vessel. 

SEED, To Impfwe At! iiTrtlf.— Charles Mil- 
ler, son of the celebrated botanist, published a 
recipe for fertilising seed, and tried it on wheat, 
by mixing lime, nitre, and pigeon's dung in wa- 
ter, and (herein steeping the seed. The produce 
of some of these grains is stated at sixty, sev- 
enty, and eighty stems, many of the ears five 
inches long, and fifty corns each, and none less 
than forty. 

SLUGS AND ^A':^/Z6'.— These arc great 
enemies to every kind of garden plant, whether 
flower or vegetable ; they wander m the night to 
feed, and return at d.iylight to their haunts; the 
shortest and surest direction is: "Rise early, 
catch them, and kill them." If you ore an early 
riser, you may ait them off from their day re- 
treats, or you may lay cabbage leaves about the 
ground, especially on the beds which they fre- 
quent. Every morning examine these leaves, 
and you will hnd a great many taking refuge be- 
neath; if they plague you very much, search 
for their retreat, which you can find by their 
slimy track, .and hunt there for them day bv day. 
Lime and saU arc very annoying to snails and 
slugs ; a pinch of salt icills them, and they will 
not touch fresh lime ; it is a common practice lo 
sprinkle lime over young crops, and along the 
edges of beds, a1>out rows of peas and beans, 
lettuces and other vegetables ; out when it has 
been on the ground some days, or has been 
moistene<1 bv rain, it loses its strength. 

SMUT IX iV/fEA r. Remedy /v.— Soak 
the seed wheat in brine, and then dust it with 
imslake<l lime. This will prove a perfect pre- 
vent!' m. 

SORGHUM CULTURE,— The soa andcU. 



146 



DICTIONARY OF E VERY-DAY WANTS. 



mate suitable for the cultivation of corn is well 
adapted to the growth of sorghum, but a richup- 
lana ]'.>.ini will yicKl the richriit juice. The land 
should be well worked, and kept clean, it requi- 
ring about the same treatment as com. It may 
be cither planted in hiltti or drills. As the cane 
is a very deep-rooted plant, it is very essential 
that the land should be made mellow to a gmwl 
depth, but the seed should be covered very shal- 
low, not more than half inch deep. It tihnuld 
be plaiitnt about the same time as corn. The 
young plants when they first come up look like 
blades of fall grass ; they are of slow growth and 
feeble ftppearanoe for some lime, nr until the hot 
weather of July and August, when the plants 
will go far ahead of corn in a rank and healthy 
growth. It appears to delight in hot, dry weath- 
er, OS its roots penetrate deep. Drouth does not 
aflect it as it does corn; it it Hurpri&tng to bce at 
what a rate it vill develop itself after the hot 
weather has come. It is also very hardy, and 
may he transplanted with entire safely. There 
is a difference of opinion in regard to keeping 
the suckers puUcd off. Experience shows (hat, 
although we may lose a little in quanitly, it i.<i 
more than made up in the quality of the syrup; 
therefore have a deep, mellow soil for the roots 
to pcnctrnte in scurcn of food by thoroughly cul- 
tivating it during the early stage of its growth ; 
but avoid deep plowing after the cane has once 
acquired considerable size, as the roots then fill 
the ground, and if severed the plnnls arc greatly 
dwarfed; keep the suckers off, and be sure and 
not let a weed show its heotl. 

SORREL, To Rtmn'f. This field pest mz.y 
be erft<licatcd by the judidous application of ci- 
ther lime or ashes. The sourmg principle of 
sorrel is oxalic acid ; if this be removed from the 
coil, sorrel cannot grow. Lime or potash unite 
with the oxalic ncid, forming oxalate of hme or 
potash. These substances ore sometimes called 
sweeteners of the soil, from their ability to re- 
move acids from it. Sorrel will never grow on 
hme soil. 

SQUASH, CHltix^H&n of, — The squash, be- 
ing a tropical vegetable, requires much care nnd 
attention in northern latitudes in order lo be cul- 
tivated with success. Of all the varieties tested, 
the "Hubbard" has proved to be the very best 
for winter. The planting should be done as 
early in the spring as possible after the weather 
becomes sufficiently warm, so that there will be 
no danger of frost nipping the young plants, as 
they are very tender. A few hills can be plont- 
ed cirlier, and covered with hay or straw when 
there is danger of frost ; in fact, if the season is 
late, it will pay well to plant a goodly patch and 
protect them in that way, for a very few young 
plants will cover a wide space of ground when 
old. 

The land should be made deep and rich, the 
richer the twlter, jmrticularly in the hills ; the 
best manure l>cing composted hen-droppings. 
The soil should contain a sufficient amount»nf 
sand lo make it quick and warm, and a piece of 
land should be-sclectcd sloping well to the south 
so that the rays of the spring sun can be quickly 
felt l»y ihc young plants. 

Plant in rows at least 16 feet apart, in hills 
from S to 10 feet ; pulling from 2 to 3 secils in 
a hill, and when well started thin out to I plant. 
Cultivate thoroughly all the ground between Ihc 
rows, as well as around the phnl5, until the vines 



nuthe 



cover the ground. If the above hints are fal- 
lowed a good crop wUI result. 

S IRA i i 'iiURR y Li I TtrRE.^Tot 
fruit the most siuitable soil is hglit and 
It may be enriched by ashes, bone, 
manure, etc. The plants shotild be set one] 
apart, m rows two feet from eadi other. 
in the young plants from the middle of Ai 
lo the middle of September. Keep the 
mellow and free from weeds. In the foil 
spring manure and hoe the ground well, to ktcp 
it moifit and free from weeds. With such care^ 
a quart of fruit has sometimes been picked ftoa 
one plant, the next season after planting. Some 
cultivators prefer to cut off all tne blohsonu the 
first spring, so as to strengthen the plaatsj 
growth. 

STRAWBERRY PLANTS, Pratecb\^ 
In latitudes where snows fall about the first of 
December, and remain on the ground all wintef, 
no other protection to strawberry plants is need- 
ed; but in all other sections of the country, sojM 
slight covering is necessary, as jxjor hay, straw, 
leaves, or the coarse barn-yard litter, that is il- 
ways thrown out of stables with manure. Fcr 
garden plaU of pLints barn-yard litter, mixed 
with manure, is the best protection that con U 
used, acting as a fertihzcr at the same time, by 
lieing drenched with rain. In field cultivation « 
strawl>errics, near the ocean, salt hay makes a 
cheap and good protection. Rye straw is Tcry 
good, but more expensive than salt hay. The 
plants should be covered but slightly, about tiro 
inches deep with whatever may be used. If it 
15 put on thicker there is liabiUty to smother the 
plants. Farly in December is a good time to 
mulch strawlwrry plants, if not done before. 

STVM/'S, To Rfmcvf.—Onc method is si 
follows : In the fall of the year bore a 1 indi 
hole 18 inches deep into ihe centre of the stump 
and put in an ounce of saltpetre, filling up wito 
water, ami plugging the hole up. In the spring 
take out the plug, put in half a gill of keroseM 
and set fire to it. It will burn the stump out to 
its farthest root Here is another plan : In die 
Fall, with an inch auger borcahole in tlie centre 
of the stump 10 inches deep, and put into il a 
Vz lb. of oil of vitriol, and cork the hole up very 
tight. In the spring the whole stump ana roots 
extending all through Ihcir ramifications wiH be 
found so rotten that they can be easily eradi- 
cated. 

STUMP MACHINE {Heme Madf.y—Tikn 
3 pieces of common joists, put them together in 
form like the common harrow, letting the taper- 
iug ends lap by each other some 6 inches, mak- 
ing a place for tlie chain to rest in. Cut off the 
roots at any distance you please from the slump, 
place the machine on one side of the stump, ta- 
pering end up; hitch the chain on the opposite 
side and pass it over the machine ; then nitch » 
good yoke of oxen thereto, and you will sec the 
stump rise. 

SUBSOfLfNG,~-TUt subsoil plow has now 
become one of the most important implements 
upon the farm. It is used to run in the bottom 
of the furrow before the potato is dropped, to 
loosen the earth under th« seed, to admit the air, 
and after the potatoes are up a onehorse subsoil 
plow is run between the rows, and, when prop- 
erly done, il is equal to trenching witJi a spade. 
It IS also run between the rows of com, when 
the GOTO is about four inches high. This will 



Ib Europe 

the Ml, 



ift th< s«il slightly, *nd also the young com 

fints. but will not sqrtaralc Hic particles of 

^ffl}y (f.,:-, ill.- roc-ts. TTiis will be a more thor- 

«a^ .: of the soil than a dozen hoe- 

_ I mit the corn roots lo descend 

1. In raising caaols, beets and 

.vy ground, it is almost indispcn- 

^Vrtt* Modi of Making.-- K new way 
the juice from sugar cane has been 
' v in India, during the post few 
li'led upon what is known as the 
. iicting the saccharine 
which is in use in 
' •' ^ugar factories 
jly in washing 
^ .Tt water. The 
tine is cat by machinery iolu tliin transverse 
slices, which, when treflted with water, yield a 
kt^it n l>oiIing yields very 

BUc I'l^d the cane be ful- 

lyn^fc M^.iu\ ^.'-t ^Lu.M.iOn, does not require 
to tc filtered through animal charcoal, but can 
be transferred at once to the cvajwrators and 
ncuuxn pans (o^r the fahricatioo of a good grade 
I of raw FUj^r. 

^ ' OWER^ Ti^A— The sunflower is very 

H t > IcsTes soon become large enough to 

^^L^ **:«.■-. ^. X covering for young cabbage and to- 

^■totfopdanCft, Its tlem affords an excellent hop 

^Pvrlicaa pole, and when dend in the fall, if cut 

tp tad kept dry, it answers well for Icindling- 

wood. Ttie leaves can be plucked off through 

Ihc \wmmta without injary to the plant, and then 

Mrd Ibf fodder, or feed green to milch-cows or 

hnf%ca. Its seeds nuke a fine oil, or chicken 

fctad. It Is said to be an absorbent of malaria, 

nA U often cultivated as a prerentive of fevers 

ac&r dwellings that occupv low places. Plant 

(B dnQt 4 feet apart, and iS inches in the drill, 

vc^olrinc 2 qiurts of seed per acre. Many of 

grow 16 feet hign. They want rich 

From 8 to 10 tons of leaves ha%'e been 

from an acre. The first leaves are ^n- 

miiStf fmlled m July, going up 3 or 4 feet high. 

Tbe ncxl puIHng is as high as a man can reach, 

fasting I oocen Dandles in a shock, as soon as 

wc aewl rlares. In winter the scc<l is threshed 

a flau, ihc main heads rcscrAxd for seed, 

d»r small ones threshed icparatcly. The 

beads gave thirty-one bushels per acre, and 

xnuU ones sixteen bushels — forty-seven fier 



THISTLES, CAX^DA.^To effectually 
-^w them to grow un- 
- ; their \Ttality has 
, then plow the land 
and afterwards harr"w fine and 
; Oaen, and during the remainder of the 
InirtC'boe with such a horse-hoe that 
pMmStAf mias one top of a thistle* first 
'"■•" imlil the sca- 
ly. Another 
Aturatcd with 
■ I with stout gloves, 
wed over the [lalm, 
■ing when the 
ItUlc care, the 
■ . .-. inches of the 





«it& 




become wet. 
may tc dmwn 



; aad jM wiU be rU of the nui&ance in two 



nJiulde timber arc freqacnily unsoand 



— either hollow, '*dory.'* or full of cracks at the 
hutt-cnti, even when the e»lemal iippearance in- 
dicates a good condition of the intcnor or heart. 
This is particularly the case with white-oak tim- 
ber. Large and valuable trees have frequently 
been purchased at an exorbitant price (or some 
special purpose. But when the woodman's ax 
had made a kerf half-way lo ihe middle of the 
butt, (he interior was found to be dozy or hol> 
low, rendering the timber wholly worthless for 
the purposes intended. 

In order to determine whether the heart of a 
tree is defective, without cutting into it with an 
ax, the most expeditious way is to bore into the 
butt, say one foot from the surface of the groand, 
wiih a two-inch au^er, drawing out the chipy 
(rcquently for examination. In case the tree is 
of so large dimensions that the heart cannot be 
reached with an auger of ordinary Icnglh, nn 
iron rotl one or more feet long may be attached, 
either by welding, or by means of a socket made 
in the rod to fit uie shank of the auger. An nu- 
cerhole near the ground will not injure a tree 
for limber, except in cas# it is to be emplojed 
for sleigh-runners or for ship-building. 

TmHEfi, But Time fur Cuitmg. —The 
best time to cut timber is in midsummer, iust 
alter the sap lias ceased lo flow upwaril. when 
the leaf is fully formed. Some contend that 
midwinter is equally as good, but while contend- 
ing that timber cut m midsummer lasts well, we 
may say from experience, and according 10 the 
authorities on the subject, that the former tim« 
is best. Again, by culling in midsummer, the 
bork can be stripped off and saved, which, in 
many localities, is a matter of great importance. 
This is a difficult thing to do in winter, as then 
it chngs closely to the wood. 

TA'A A'SPL I A'T/A'C— The froEen-ball way 
of removing ornamental trees is. preferred by a 
great many to all others for some purposes. It 
is well adapted to cvcrgrccnii growing wild, if 
thcv are of much size. In order that it may he 
easily and expetlitiously performed, prepoifllions 
should be made in autumn, or before the ground 
frcexes hard, by digging a trench in the shape of , 
a circle alxiut every tree a foot deep, or as far 
down as the frost penetrates, and then filling 
these trenches with dead leaves, which are gen- 
erally very abundant indeed at that time of^the 
year in Ihc borders of woods, or wherever these 
trees ore sought. 

The leaves will prevent the trenches from ever 
freezing in winter, and the earth within them 
being frozen hard, the trees are easily loosened 
and tippctl over, and may then be reailily trins- 
ferred lo sleds and conveyed lo their place of 
destination, where holes, dug at the same time 
that the trenches were made, and similarly filled 
with leaves if convenient, or left open nn«i froze, 
may receive them. If holes ind balls arc IkhIi 
frozen hard, and are nearly equal in jire, Ihc 
first thaw will soften the ball and give it n close 
fit. But it is rather better !o keep the hole un- 
frozen, so that the bolls may be snugly imbedded 
in the mellow earth when placed there. 

TRAA'SPrANT/XG. A^ilton »/ n^-^r.— The 
theory has been broached that trees bend t.TWnrd 
the cast, and that in transplanting them ewe 
should be taken to set iheni m the same position, 
relative to the points of ihe compass, that they 
bad before transplanting. 

TRANSPLANTING Durittg tJU Night.-- 



t4S 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DA Y WANTS. 



A gentleman, anxious to ascertain the eflcct of 
transplanting at night, instead of by day, made 
an experiment with the following results: He 
transplanted ten cherry trees while in bloom, 
commencing at four o'clock in the morning. 
Tliosc transplanted during the dayliglit shed 
their blos&oms, producing liitlc 'OX no fruit, while 
those planted in the dark maintained their con- 
dition fully. He did the same with ten dwarf 
trees, afierthcfruit was one-third grown. Those 
transplanted during the day shed their fruit ; 
those transplanted during the night perfected 
their crop, and showed no injury from having 
been removed. Willi each of these trees be re- 
moved some earth with the roots. The inci- 
dent is fully vouched for, and if a few more sim- 
ilar experiments produce a like result, it will be 
a strong argument to horticulturUts, etc. , lo do 
such work at night. 

TKANSPOKTA TION OF VEGETA- 
BLESt RuUs /or, — The first principle lo be 
obscrve<l is the packing, and ihe main point in 
this is ventilation. 

Onions and potatoes should be folly matured 
before shipment, for if ihcy arc not fully ma- 
tured and packed dry, thev will easily rol. Do 
not expose ihem long to tne sun lo dry, but as 
they become dry pack them, for the sun will 
bum them. 

Tomatoes should be pulled just on the lurn to 
ripen. If Ihey arc pulled too green they will 
rot before they will ripen, and if pulled ripe they 
will rot before tliey reach their destination. 

Cucumbers, peas and beans should be ripe, 
but not enough lo be liable to turn yellow, ihey 
being saleable only while having a green color. 

Citron melons should be shipped green — 
nearly matured. 

Watermelons should be ripe. 

Onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, peas andbeaas 
should be shipped in bushel crates. 

Potatoes should be shipped in barrels well 
rentilated. Bore at least three holes an inch in 
diameter in each slave, and several in the bot- 
tom. Cover with stout cloth covers, and coojwr 
the barrels. 

Cull Ihe Irish and sweet potatoes well before 
shipment, and the culls can be shipped marked 
•• culls." They will bring half price. If they 
ve shipped mixed in with large jwtatocs ibey 
wilHnjure the sale of them. Every one will 
find it advantageous to sliip good quality stuff. 

Water melons and citron melons can be ship- 
ped in three bushel crates, made the same as the 
bushel crate, but much stronger. 

Always fill the crates well, packing the articles 
tightly, so they cannot sh.-ike aliout, and Ihey 
wdl not rot as quick as they would if they could 
shake aliouL 

TREES, (S/fADE,) Best to Plant,— K 
moderate number of trees are necessary on ev- 
ery farm, both for shelter and shade. Some 
farms have been completely denuded by the ax 
of the wood-chopper, and, as screens and shade 
trees are almost indispensable, the most desira- 
ble and profitable arc black walnut and sugar 
maple. The walnut-t will bear abundantly in 8 
or lo years from the time of planting, and the 
timber will be increasing in value every year. 
The sugar maple is a beautiful shade, and its 
product is exceedingly valuable. It is a gocwl 
pian to raise the trees in some corner of the or- 
chard or garden until the/ bare become strong. 



TREES, OAA'.—The process of deforesting 
our lands upon the Atlantic border has gone on 
for centuries, and in the very populous States 
has necessitated replanting. It is a fact not suf- 
ficiently known, that oaks may be rapidly grown, 
and will develop, within an ordinary lifetime, 
fme groves of those noble trees which give so 
much dignity to an old homestead. Major iJcn. 
I'crley I'oore has upon his estate in Massachu- 
setts, a splendid oak forest or wood of ^o acres, 
every acorn for which was planted by himself 30 
years ago. The trunks of the trees arc now 1^ 
feet in diameter. 

TOADS. — Toads arc among the best friends 
the gardener has; for they live almost exclu- 
sively on the most destructive kinds of vermin. 
Unsightly, therefore, though Ihey may be. they 
should on all accounts be encouraged ; they must 
never be touched nor molested in any way ; on 
the contrary, places of shelter should be made 
for ihcm. to which they may retire from the heat 
of the sun. If you have none in your garden, 
it will be quite worth your while to search for 
them in your walks, and bring them home, tak- 
ing care to handle them carefully, for although 
they have neither the will nor the power to in- 
jure you, a very little rough treatment will in- 
jure them. 

TOMA TO PLANTS, To Raise.— Ut^ a 
hot bed in the customary way about 5x6 fceL 
t!)n about 3 square feet at one end, sow your seed 
1 - 16 of an inch thick ; cover with }i an inch of 
rich, sifted soil. \\Tien the plants are 3 inches 
high, make a trench across the bed. leaving one 
side at an angle of 5a degrees. Wet the plants 
su that theycan be Uken up without injuring the 
roots. Place them in the trench 2 inches sparL 
Cover ihcm up lo the last leaves by making an- 
other trench so near that the rows of plants will 
be 3 inches a]mrt. When they are from 4 to 6 
inches high transplant them into the garden, la- 
king care not lo injure the roots. Plants raised 
as above directed will be very stocky, will noi 
wilt when transplanted, and will ripen their fruit 
before frost comes. 

TOM A TOESy CuUivatim p/.— Set your to- 
m.ito plants in rows three and a Ivilf feet apart, 
and the some distance apart in the rows. Let 
the rows be of an even number, and, if possi- 
ble, running north and souths for the better ad- 
vantage of the sunshine. 

Now, beginning vrith the first couple of rows, 
at one end set a pair of stakes in such manner 
that they will enter the ground just outside of 
the line of the rows, and cross each other al the 
height of about four feet over the middle space. 
Set corresponding stakes at the opposite end of 
the rows, and also iutcrniediate ones, if neces- 
sary. 

This done, along the outsidp of these sloping 
stakes fasten horizontal strips of edging, begin- 
ning with the first about eight inches from Ihe 
ground, and finishing with the one which will 
run in the crossing o7 the stakes. 

As* the plants grow, carefully train them over 
this framework, securing them in pl.icc by tying 
with strings, and judiciously trimming when 
needed. 

After Ihe crop is removed in the fedl, the ma- 
terial oX this simple structure may be easily U- 
kon apart and laid away for use the coming and 
subsequent seasons. 

TOMA TOES, French Mcdf of Cultk>atin^, 




PAR,\f, ORCHARD, GARDEN AND DAIRY. 



>49 



I 



-The French method is as follows , As soon as 
a cluster of flowers is visible they top the stem 
down to the dusters, so that the flowers termi- 
nate the stem. The effect is. that the sap is im- 
nieiiitelyimpellcil into the two buds next below 
the cluster, which soon push strongly and pro- 
duce another duster of flowers each. When 
Ibcsc arc visible the branch to which thcv be- 
long ts also topped down to their level, ana this 
is done hvc times in succession. By this means 
the plants become stout, dwarf bushes, not over 
eighteen inches high. In addition to this, all 
the laterals whatsoever are nipped off. In this 
way the ripe sap is directed into the fruit, which 
ao(]iiires a beauty, st£e and excellence unattain- 
able by any other means. 

TL'hW/P C'ULrC/A'E.—Thc most desira- 
ble soil for the cultivation of this root is a sandy 
loam free from stagnant water — one easily cuUi- 
▼ated to & considerable depth, noCwithiilandine 
that a heavier crop may occasiotuiUy be obtained 
from a day loam. 

Early in the fall the land intended for turnips 
should receive a heavy coating of farmyard ma- 
nure, and be deeply plowed ; cross-plowed in 
the spring about the end of May or tne Iwfjin- 
ning of June, harrowed and rolled until a Imc 
tilth is secured. Getting the soil into a fmely 
divided state is a matter of the highest import- 
ance. It is a well established fact that all soils 
have the power of absorbing and retaining to a 
greater or less degree a certain amount of moi* 
•tare, and the more finely divided and thor- 
oagfal^ pulverized the land, the greater amount 
of motsture will it absorb and retain. It would 
be very <lifficult to state absolutclv when is the 
best time to sow, ina'imuch as soils and seasons 
vary. On clay or clay loam perhaps the most 
desirable time is from the fifth to the fifteenth of 
Jane, and on sandy loams from the tenth to the 
twentieth of that month. The quantity of seed 
required per acre will also vary with the weath- 
er. In damp weather, on sandy soils, 2 lbs. is 
ample, and on clay loam, and in weather ordi- 
narily "Irr, it will be well to use 3 lbs. or more. 
The dcnih of the seed should be from I to Iji 
incltei below the surface. It is better for plants 
to come up thickly, for they grow faster than 
when thin, and arc more apt to escape the rav- 
ages of the fly; and, moreover, tney require 
ftmmediate attention as soon as they are urge 
CDODgfa to ihin. Sowing upon drills is altogether 
priderable to sowing on the level ; not only can 
a raach larger crop oe produced, but the weeds 
arc Ux more easily destroyed. The distance be- 
tween the drills snould be from 36 to ^o inches, 
and the pUnts should be left, by thinning, 12 to 
*J mchcs apart. When a good braird has been 
aecDfed, the great secret of^suocess is in stirring 
Ibe soil freiiiientW when dry, and keeping the 
pound perfectly free from noxious wecd>. 
IVAGONS, n (Jr^s/.—hM (ew people are 
that they do wagons and carnages more 
by greasmg too plentifully than in almost 

'other way. A well made wheel will endure 
wear from ten to twenty five years, if 

; is Taken to use the right kind and proper 

mat of grease ; but if this matter is not at- 

teaded to, ihcy will be used up in five or six 

Lord should never be used on a wagon, 

will penetrat'; the huh. and work its way 

rottaJ the tenons of the spokes, and spoil 

the whceL Tallow ii the best lubricator for 






wood axle trees, and castor oil for iron. Just 
enough grease should be applied to the spindle 
of a wagon to give it a light coaling ; this is bct< 
ter than more, for the surplus put on will work 
out at the ends, and be forced by the shoulder 
bands and nut washers into the hub around the 
outside of the boxes. To oil an iron axle tree, 
first wipe the spindle dean with a cloth wet with 
spirits of turpentine, and tlicn apply a few drops 
of castor oil near the shoulder and end. One 
tcaspoonful is suffident for the whole. 

l^ALNUT TR£E,—'Xht most common 
mode is to propzgatc from the nut or seed. It 
is also propagated by a spcdes of grafting called 
'* marching, by budding, and by gralLing by 
the ••approach" method. In any common fer- 
tile soil the walnut will succeed, but it thrives 
best in a good depth of loam, mixed with sand 
or gravel. Those who intend planting walnuts 
should procure plants from the nursery, either 
miTched or buddod, and in as advanced a stage 
of growth as is compatible with their safe re- 
moval. Plants from 8 to 12 years old may he 
safely removed, if properly prepared by previous 
transplantation. Plants for fruiting should be 
planted 2o feet distant from each other. The 
u>iual periud at which they commence bearing is 
18 or 20 years. The fruit is produced on the 
extremities of the previous year's shoots, and 
should be gathered so as not to injure the 
tree. 

WEEDS, To /Ji-j/pwy.— Annual weeds, or 
such as spring from scea and die the same year» 
are most easily destroyed. For this purpose it 
will be sufficient to let them spring up till near 
the time of ripening their seed, and then plow 
them down before it comes to maturity. It is 
also of service to destroy such weeds as grow in 
borders or neglected corners, and frequently 
scatter their seeds to a great distance — such as 
the thistle, dandelion, rag weed, etc., for these 
propagate their species through a deal of ground, 
as tncir seeds are carried about with the wind to 
very considerable distantc^. A firmer ought 
also to take care that the small seeds of weeds, 
separated from corn in winnowing, be not sown 
again upon the ground; for this certainly hap- 
pens when they are thrown upon a dunghill, be- 
cause, being the natural offspring of the earth, 
they are not casilydcstroycd. 'I nc best method 
of preventing any mischief from this cause is to 
bum them Perennial weeds arc such as are 
propagated by the roots, and last for a number 
of years. They cannot be effectually destroyed 
but by removing the roots from the ground, 
which is often a matter of some difficulty. The 
only method that can be depended upon in this 
case is fre<^ucnt plowing, to render tne ground 
as tender as possible, and harrowing with a par- 
ticular kind of harrow, in order to collect these 
pemidous roots. When collected, they ought 
to be dried and burnt, as the only effectual way 
of insuring their doing no farther mischief. 

tVEEDS IN iVALK'S, V'v D/stroy.—K 
most efficient agent for the destruction of weeds, 
and one that is not expensive, can be made by 
boiling 4 lbs. of arsenic and 8 lbs. of soda in II 
gallons of water. To every gallon of this boil- 
ing mixture X gallons of cold water should be 
added, and tne liquid carefully sprinkled over 
the walks while it is yet warm. It is desirable 
to do this in fine weather, and when the walks 
are dry, so that the weeds and weed-seeds may 



«5» 



DtCTIOffARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS. 



have the full benefit of the application. Core 
must be taken not to let any of the liquid fall on 
the leaves or reach the root of any plants it is 
not desired to kill. In 24 hours after the poison 
is put on the walks every weed will be killed ; 
and, if it be once thoroughly done, it will keep 
the w.-ilks clean through llic whole season. 

WHEA r, To Pfn'tMt Mildnu /«.— Dissolve 
three ounces and two drachms of sulphate of 
copper, copperas, or blue vitriol, in three gallons 
and three quarts, wine measure, of cold water, 
for every three bushels of grain thai is to be pre- 
pored. Into another vessel, capable of contain- 
ing from fifty-three to seventy-nine wine gallons, 
throw from three to four bushels of wheat, into 
which the prepared liquid is poured, until it rises 
five or six mcnes alK>ve the grain. Stir it thor- 
oughly, and carefully remove all that s'wims on 
the surface. After it has remained half an hour 
in (he preparation, throw the wheat into a bas- 
ket that wdl allow the water to escape, but not 
the grain. It ought then to be immediately 
washed in rain, or pure water, which will pre- 
vent any risk of its injuring the germ, and after- 
wards the seed ought to be dried before it is put 
in the ground, ft may be preserved in tnis 
shape for months. 

IVIfEA Tt To Prevent Rust in. — Some hours 
— at tlie longest six or eight before sowing — pre- 
pare a steep of three measures of powdered 
quicklime, and ten measures of cattle urine. 
Pour two quarts of this upon a peck of wheat, 
stir with a spade until every kernel is covered 
white with it. By using wheat so prepared, 
rust of every kind will be avoided. I hare of- 
ten noticed, while in the neighboring fields, a 
great port uf the crop is af^ctcd by rust; in 
mine, lying closely by it, not a single car so af- 
fected could be found. 

The same writer says he takes the sheaves and 
beats oflfthe ripe<>t kernels vvilli a slick, and uses 
the grain thus obtained for seed. 

IVI/EAT, {S/ues O'ikin,) Tq Datrvy.'-Q^V 
lect a number of Icon tlucks, keep them all day 
without food, and turn them into the field to- 
wards evening; each duck would devour the 
slug!; much foster than a man could collect them, 
and they soon would get very fat for market. 

WORM, {CUT) nD^sfrcn-.—The climbing 
cut worm is the larva of moth known as the 
X.ance F<ustic. and is quite common all over the 
country. If you will place old r.ogs abotit the 
stems of young peach trees, the worms will hide 
under them in daytime, and can thus be caught 
and destroyed. A few rags, or some similar 
material, puiced on the ground near each tree, 
will also answer as a trap. These traps should 
be examined every morning, and the worms 
killed. We do not know of a better method of 
destroying them, as the wurms work all night, 
whde their natural enemies, or a portion of 
them, are asleep. 

IVORAf, CURRANT.— K multitude of de- 
irices have been tried for destroying this pcsL 
Some persons, who have only a few bushes, suc- 
ceed bj hand-picking and burning ; others by 



dusting the leaves with lime ; others by burning 
smudges of old leather and sulphur under the 
bushes ; others by dusting the leaves with pow- 
rleretl hellebore, using for this purpose a tin box 
perforated at the top like a pepper-castor. The 
latter method has been found very successfuL 
Another method is with a solution of copperas, 
made at the rate of I lb. of copperas to 6 gals. 
of water, Q.nd sprinkled on the bushes through 
a common watering-pot. This is cheaper than 
hellebore, and does not annov the operator. It 
is sure and si>eedy death to the worm, and docs 
no harm to trie bushes. The Scotch method of 
treatment is with sttot. \Vhen soot is dusted on 
the bushes after a slight shower has fallen, or 
after the leaves have t>ccn wetted, the vermin 
will soon drop off the leaves and perish. The 
application of a sprinkling of dry soot round the 
roots of bushes, when early digging operations 
arc being proceeded with in spnng, will act most 
successfully in preventing their appearance; and 
this, resorted to in successive seasons, will en- 
tirely extirpate the pcsls. 

IVORAf t TEAC//.—U is said that a mixture 
of one ounce of saltpetre and seven ounces of 
salt, applied on the surface of the ground, in 
contact and around the trunk of a peach tree 
seven years old and upwards, will destroy the 
worm, prevent tlie yellows, and add mudi to the 
product and quality of the fruit. 

H'OUNDS IN TREES, To //«/.— Make a 
varnish of common linseed od, rendered very 
drying by boiling it for the space of an hour, 
with an ounce of litharge to each pound of o3, 
mixed with calcined l>ones, pulverized and sifted 
to the consistence of an silmost liquid paste. 
With this paste the wounds are to be corer^ 
by means of a brush, after the bark and other 
substance liave l>een pared, so as to render the 
whole OS smooth and even as possible. This 
varnish must be applied in dry weather, in order 
Lhot it may attach itself properly. 

See also •' IJquid Grafting Wax." 

YAAf, CI///VESE.—ln the first pkce, send 
olT to get the tubers or seetl, if you cannot ob- 
tain the roots ; however, the roots ore better. 
Cut the roots in two slices, from one-half to one 
inch in length, according to their size, and plant 
in the spring in rows two and a half feet one 
way by six inches apart in the row — one piece io 
a place, and cover three inches in depth ; culti- 
vate to keep clear of weeds, and the following 
spring dig up one-quarter of the bed. taking np 
the one-year-old roots, and cut them into pieces 
ind plant a new bed, and thus have a supply of 
two-year-old roots that may be dug each fail and 
placed in the cellar for winter use. For cook- 
ing purposes they are excellent, apparently par- 
taking of the general nourishing characteristics 
of the arrowroot xs well as the potato. Thw 
will keep well, without rotting, all winter. If 
Ihonght best the roots can remain in the ground 
all winter, and be allowed to grow tliree or four 
years, and thus grow to an enormous site. But 
most land without plowing for two years will get 
hard and full of weeds. 



HOUSEHOLD MISCELLANY. 



»St 



HOUSEHOLD MISCELLANY. 



I 



ALABASTER, To CUan.—t. Wash with 
SMp sads. If stained, whitewash the stains ; 
let the whitewash remain on scvcrnl hours, then 
dean it off. — 3. Take ground pumice stone of 
the finest quality, and mix it up with verjuice ; 
let it stand for two hoars, then dip in a sponge 
and rub the alabaster therewith ; wash tt with a 
linen clottt and fresh water, and dry it with clean 
Uncn ra^s. 

JfEDS\ Cart of. — The care of beds is not un- 
derstood, even by some good housewives ; when 
a bed ii freshly made it often smells strong. 
Con^ktant airing will, if the feathers arc good, 
and only new, remove the scent. A bed in con- 
stant use should be invariably beaten and shaken 
up daily, to enable the feathers to renew their 
elasticity. It should lie, after it is shaken up, 
for tno or three hours in a well-ventilated room. 
If the l>ed Ls in a room which cannot be spared 
so long, it should be put out to air two full days 
of the week. In airing beds the sun should not 
shine directly upon them. It is air, not heat, 
which they need. We have seen beds lying on 
a roof where the direct and reflected rays of the 
sun had full power, and the feathers, without 
doubt, were stewing, and the oil in the quill be- 
coming rancid, so that the bed smells worse af- 
ter airing than before. .Mways air beds in the 
shade on cool and windy days. Fcatherbeds 
should be opened every three or four years, the 
ticks washed, the seams soaped and waxed, and 
the feathers renovated. 

Feathers were never intended for human be- 
ings to steep on. They arc always without ex* 
ception debilitating. Straw, corn husks, com- 
pressed sponge, or curled hair, should always be 
used in preference. 

BI^CK LEAD, To Rtm(n'f.—~To remove 
black lead from polished steel sides of a grate, 
first wash Ihem with strong soap and water, using 
A bit of old flannel for the purix>se; then rub 
them with sweet oil and rotten stone ; afterwards 
polish in the usual manner with soft leather. 

B/^NK'ETS, To C/^j«.— Wlicn soiled ihey 
■liould be washed, aud not scoured, which latter 
they will be if sent to the scourer's. Shake all 
the dust from them, plunge them into plenty of 
hot soap-suds, let them lie till the hanas can be 
borne in the water, wash quickly, rinse in new 
dean hot suds, shake thoroughly, stretch well, 
ciry, and they will be as nice as new. 

BJiASS, To CUan. — Rotten stone a oz., ox- 
•lie add yi oz., sweet oil |^ of an oz.. turpen- 
tine enough to make a i>aste. Apply it with a 
little water. 

B/IASS ORNAATEJVTS, To C/^aw.— Brass 
ornaments, that have not been gilt or lacquered, 
M*y be cleaned, and a very brilliant color given 
to tkem, by washing them with alum boiled in 
strong lye. in the proriortion of an ounce to a 
pist, and afterward rubbing them with a strong 

SOAXDS, To Take Ink Ow/*/.— Strongmu- 
rifttlc Acid, or spirits of salts, aopliefl with a piece 
C^ clocb; afterwards well vrasned with water. 

BOARDS^ To Gtt Oi! Ojf.—mn together 
§§3Ha*B earth tod soap lees, and rub it into the 



Mk 




boards, hd it dry, and then scour it off with 
some strong soft soap and sand, or use lees to 
scour it with. It should be put on hot, which 
may easily be done by heating the lees. 

BONNETS, T0 Prcuent Bring Jnjurrd hy 
the Hair. — Great advantage will be found in 
having a piece of while or yellow oiled silk 
basted inside of that part of your bonnet where 
the crown unites with the brim, carrying it up 
some distance into the cruwn, and some distance 
down into the liair between the outside and the 
lining. This will prevent the bonnet being in- 
jured by any oitiness about your hair. Or yon 
may have an oiled silk bonnet cap. 

BOOKS, To Rffttffvt Stams/rom.—'Vo re- 
move ink stains from a book, 6rst wash the pa- 
per with warm water, using a camel's hair brush 
for the purpose. By this means the surface ink 
is got nd of; the paper must now be wet with ■ 
solution of oxalate of potash, or, better slUI, ox- 
alic acid, in the prc|portion of one ounce to half 
a pint of water. The ink stains will immedi- 
ately disappear. Finally, again wash the stamed 
place with dean water/ and dry it with while 
blotting paper. 

Book's. To Rtmot'r Crr/7u/fVm.~l^ynpon 
the spot a little magnesia or powdered prepared 
chalk, and under it the same ; tet on it a warm 
flat-iron, and as soon as the grease is melted it 
will be all absorbed, and leave the paper clean. 
BOOTS AND SHOES, Care (/.—Boots 
and shoes, if token care of properly, will last 
two or three times longer than tncy usually do, 
and, at the same lime, fit the feet far more satis- 
factorily, and keep them dry and more comfort- 
able in wet and cold weather. The upper 
leather should be kept soft and pliable, while the 
soles need to be hard, tough, and impervious to 
water. 

The first thing to be done with any pair of 
new shoes, is to set each one on a platter or a 
dinner-plate, and pour on boiled tinseerl-uil suf- 
ficient to fill the vessel to the upper edge of the 
soles. Allow the leather to absorb as much oil 
as it will for eight hours. Linseed oil should 
not be applied to the upper leather, as it will 
soon become dry, rendering the leather hard and 
tough. But if the soles be saturated with this 
oil, it will exclude the dampness and enlarge the 
pegs, so that the soles will never get loose txoxn 
the upper leather. 

If the shoes be sewed, the linseed oil will pre- 
serve the thread from rotting. Now wet the 
upper leather thoroughly when the boots or the 
shoes are to be put on the feet, so that those 
parts which are light may render a trifle, and 
thus adapt the form of the shoe to the foot far 
more satisfactorily than when the upper leather 
is not wet. Keep them on the foot until nearly 
dry. Then give the upper leather a ihorougn 
greasing with equal jjorls of lord and tallow, or 
tallow and neat's foot oil. 

If shoes 1)c treated in this manner, and a row 
of round-headed shoe nails be driven around the 
edge of the soles, they will wear like copper, 
and always set easy to the feet. Boots and 
shoes should be treated as suggested, uul "Mcynv 



«5» 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



L 



A little several months before ihcy arc put lo 
daily service. They should be cleaned frc- 
quenlly, whether they are worn or not. and 
should never be put to stand in a damp place, 
nor be put too near the fire to dry. In clcaiiing, 
be careful to hrmh the dirt from the scams, and 
not to scrape in with a knife, or you will cut the 
stitches. Let the hard brush do its work thor- 
oughly well, and the polish will be all the brighter. 
Do not put on too much blacking at a time, for 
If it dries before using the shining brush the 
leather will look brown instead of black. 

BOOTS AND SHOES, India RnbUt, Water 
*PncK>/ for. — Spermaceti, 4 parts; India rubber 
(small), I part. Melt with a gentle heat, then 
add Callow or lard, 10 parts ; amber or copal var- 
nish, 5 parts. Well mix and apply the compos- 
ition to the leather with a paint-brush. Cut the 
rubber into very small pieces, and let it take its 
time to dissolve, say four or five hours. 

BOOTS {WhiU y<!an^ To Clean,— \t you 
have not boottrees, stuflT the boot as full as pos- 
sible with common cotton wadding or old rags, 
to prevent any creases ; then mix iome pipeclay 
witn water to rather a slilT paste, wash the jean 
boots with soap and water and a nail-brush, 
fusing OS little water as possible to get the dirt 
off. When thev look tolerably clean rub the 
pipeclay with a flannel well over them and hang 
them to dry. When dry beat out the superfluous 
clay with the hand and rub them till mty look 
smooth. Flake white may also be used. 

BOOTS, KID, To Clean,— \l the kid boots 
are not very soiled Ihcy may be cleaned in the 
following manner: — Put half an ounce of harts- 
liorn into a saucer, dip a bit of clean flannel in it 
and rub it on a piece of white card soap ; rub the 
bouts with thii, and as each piece of flannel be- 
comes soiled, take a fresh piece ; the boots will 
look like new. 

BOOTS, KID, To Restore cohr e/"-— Take a 
small quantity of good black ink, mix it with the 
white of an egg, and apply it to the boots with a 
soft sponge. 

BOOTS, KID, ri?5<y?rn.— Melt a quarter of 
a pound of tallo Wi then pour it into a jar, and add 
to it the same weight of olive oil, stir, and let 
it standstill ; apply a small quantity occasionally 
with a piece of flannel. Should the boots be 
▼ery dirty, cleanse with warm water. It will 
soften any leather. 

BOOTS, PEGGED, To Prevent Ripping.— 
Pegged boots, it is stated, if occasionally dressed 
wim petroleum between the soles and the upper 
leather, wdl not rip. If the soles of boots or 
shoes are dressed with petroleum they will resist 
wet and wear well. The pegs, it is said, are not 
affected by dryness after being well saturated 
with this liquid. 

BOOTS, {PATENT LEATHERY Care of. 
— The old plan of washing them witli milk is 
simply absurd — a waste of time. If they crack, 
brush a little blacking into the cracks, and then 
rub them over with French polish, or common 
furniture polish, using the finger to lay on the 
polish, and a soft dry rag to finish off with. In 
lieu of furniture polish, a mixture of sweet oil 
and turpentine will answer. This treatment will 
preserve their bright polish until they are utterly 
worn out. 

BOOT LEA TIIER, Presen'ation <y:— Shoe 
leather is generally abused. Persons know noth- 
XE^ or awe less about the kind of matodal tised 



than they do about the polish produced. Vitriol 
blacking is used until every j>article of the oil in 
the leather is destroyed. To remedy this abuse, 
the leather should be washed once a month with 
warm water, and when about half drv, a coat of 
oil and tallow should be applied, and the boots 
set aside for a day or two. This will renew the 
elasticity and life in the leather, and when thus 
used upper leather will seldom crack or break. 

3O0TSAND SHOES (Summer) ToPreservt 
tk*0ugh the Winter.— Wash the blacking off; 
let them dry; then oil them with castor or neats* 
foot oil. When you wear them they will be soft 
and pliable, and will last longer if preserved io 
this way. After j-ou have worn them a few days 
they are ready for blacking. 

BOOTS AND SHOES, {RC'BBER), Tj 
AfenJ.—J. Get apiece of pure rubber — an old 
shoe — vulcanized rubber will not do ; cut it into 
small bits. Put it into a bottle, and cover to 
twice its depth with spirits of turpentine or re- 
fined coal tar naphtha — not petroleum naphtha. 
Stop the bottle and set one side, shaking it fre- 
quently. 'ITie rubber will soon dissolve. Then 
lake the shoe and press the rip or cut close to- 
gcthcr, and put on the rubber solution with a 
camel's hair brush. Continue to apply 50 fast as 
it dries until athorough coating is formed. 
Spirits of turpentine dissolves the rubber slow- 
est, I>ut forms the most elastic cement. — 2. Pur- 
chase a can of rubber cement, which can be 
found in large cities at rubber stores ; also some 
rubber for patches, as new rubber is much better 
than oltl lx>ots or shoes. To make the patches 
adhere, it is necessary to remove the cloui from 
them. To do this, moisten the cloth with hen/ine 
and remove immediately. Cut the patches the 
proper size to cover the hole in the boot. Make 
the lxK>t around the hole rough, the site of the 
patch, with a wood or shoemakers file ; apjily 
the cement to the boot, and the patch with a case 
knife, ami let them lie in a uhjuh, dry rc*o*n/rffn 
thitty to sixty minutes; then put the patch on the 
boot, and press it down firmly, lie very parti- 
cular about the edges of the patch. After 11 has 
been on a short time examine it again, to sec tliat 
it has not started off; if it has. press it down 
again. Do not use the boot under fortv-eight 
hours after the patch is put on. One fitry cent 
can of cement will last a family several years. 
Keep the cover on the can when not in use, as 
it dries up very quickly. If the cement becomes 
dry, cut it with benzine. 

BOOTS,SQU£AKING,ToPrefent.—^\xe^- 
in^ boots or shoes are a great annoyance, cspec- 
ialTy in entering a sick room, or a church after 
the service has commenced. To remedy it, boil 
linseed oil and saturate the soles with the 
same. 

BOOTS AND SHOES, {ScUs of) T& Make 
Waterproof. — Experience has proved that a coat 
of gum copal varnish applied to the soles of boots 
and shoes, and repealed as it dries, until the 
pores are filled and the surface shines like pot* 
ished mahagony, will make the soles water- 

firoof, and also cause them to last three limes ms 
ong as ordinary soles. 

BOOTS AND SHOES, Water-pycof^ompc^ 
sitionfor. — BoUed oil 1 pint; oil of turpentine, 
black rosin, and bees' wax, of each 3 or. Melt 
the wax and rosin, then stir in the oil, remove 
the pot from the fire, and when it has cooled a 
little, add the turpentine. 



HOUSEHOLD MISCELLANY. 



»S3 



BRITANIA METAL, To C//<ia.— Moisten 

the articles to be cleaned with sweet oil; then 
appl7 s little poanded rotten-stone, and polish 
with chamois leather and fine chalk. 

BROOMS, Use an</ M^na^rrnrrit o/,^F'mi, 
buy your broom; and in buying, choose green 
brasn. See that the broomhead will not shake 
in the hnndle ; if it docs, reject it ; for the handle 
having been green M-hcn the broom was made, 
in sweeping the brush will keep falling out. 
Kext» open the broom below the sewing, and see 
if there is any stalk. It should he all bru.'^h ; 
for as the stalk of broom corn is brittle, if there 
are any below the twine, they will be continually 
breaking off. 

Now, in using a broom, don't expect tt to 
support you through the process of sweeping; 
•hat IS how it gets its bent appearance or curl 
on the edge which some brooms have, and all 
the good thai comes of it is, that you wear your- 
self, carpet and broom out quicker. We have 
seen a broom used sounskillfuUy, that one would 
almost think the person engaged in using it was 
endeavoring to change the place of the dust from 
the floor to the furniture. It requires some 
iciencc, or at least some skill, to use a broom 
well, as it does to do anvthing else. 

To use a broom skillfully, the handle should 
incline forward and not backward, as is often the 
case. If the top of the broom inclines forward 
of the part next the floor, it will prevent much 
of the dust from rising into the air, and will 
carry it along by a gentle sliding motion toward 
the place where it is to be disposed of. 

If, on the other hand, the handle of the broom 
inclines backward, the dust is sent into the air 
by a kind of jerk, to the great annoyance of those 
who occupy the room, ami to the great detrim- 
ent of everything the apartment contains. More 
than this, it wears off the threads of the carpet 
quicker, injures the paint more, if the room is 
uncarpcted, and destroys the broom sooner than 
if the sweeping was done in a more rational way. 

A new broom sweeps clean, because it is the 
proper shape ; keep it so by sweeping on each 
side alternately. Wetting it before sweeping, 
will restore its ilexibility; and if wet in boiling 
flods, once a week, they will become very tough, 
will not cut a carpet, last much longer and al- 
ways sweep like a new broom. Do not keep a 
broom near the fire ; the bru.sh is liable to break, 
l»eini; so dry. Donot store brooms where there 
mre rats or mice ; they like the dorn. A broom that 
is all out of shape, may lie restored by soaking, 
then pressed in shape between something 
he*rf. 

CAL/CO, To Prn^ent EaJin^.—Pat three 

S'lls of salt into four quarts of hot water, put in 
e calico, while the water is hot, allowing it to 
icmain in until the water becomes cold. 

CANDLE, To Make fiurn AU Nij;ht.^'Vo 
make a candle bum all night, when, as in the 
CBS« of sickness, a dull light is wished, put finely 
powdered salt on the candle till it reaches the 
bock part of the wick. In this way a mild and 
•teady light may be kept through the night by a 
SBull piece of candle. 

CANDLE-STICK, (^Silver. Platfd) TaeiMH. 
•^Silver- plated candlesticks should be cleaned by 
poaring on the tops boiling hot water, to remove 
the grease ; when wioea dry, use whiting, 
nhhtng lliem until brignt. This will not injure 
th: platei ware. 



CARPETS, Tif CAflwA— The carpet ought to 
assimilate with the style of the pnperhangings, 
but the quality of the material must depend on 
the cnpahility of the purchaser's pocket. In 
carpets, as in many other things, the dearest 
articles are generally the cheapest in the end. 
In illustration of this we may state that the carpet j 
in our dining-room cost $1.25 a yard, and al*j 
though it has been in daily use for four years H' 
looks as well as ever. For dining and drawing 
rooms Brussels carpets are the best. If iht 
rooms are sm:dl choose small patterns with fei 
colors, or of a pattern formea of shades of 1 
same color as the ground, such as a green c 
pet with mosses or small ferns in various shad* 
of green, or a cirpet with an indistinct pattc 
of ribbons or arabesques of a small sixe. Whextj 
there is nothing very decided to attrnct the eye^i 
the defects of wear are not so obvious. Stair 
carpets are also best of Brussels make ; crimson'^ 
wears longest : they must be of a pattern that 
will admit of being turned upside down, as it u 
a good plan frequently to change the position of 
the carpel, that the edge of each step may not 
always come in the same spot, which would soon 
wear the fabric. A small gay pattern of crimsons 
or oak colors wears best; avutd blues ur lilacs 
or shades of stone color: the two former fade 
quickly, and the latter always looks dirty. 

CARPETING, CHEAP.^'s^tyt together^ 
strips of the cheapest cotton cloth, of the size 
tlic room, and tack the edges to the floor. Then 
paper the cloth as you would the sides of a room, 
with any sort of room paper. After being well 
dried, give it two coats ot varnish, and your car- 
pet is finished. It can be washed like carpets 
without injury, retains its gloss, and, on cham- 
bers or sleeping-rooms, where it will not meet 
rough usage, will last for two years, as good as 
new. 

CARPETS, Hffto To Z«j'.— Cover the floor 
with thick brown paper, which is sold in large 
rolls for the purpose ; have the carpet properly 
fitted, and, on the binding of the ctlges, sew at 
regular distances smnll brass rings in such a 
manner that when the carpet is laid they will 
not appear beyond the edges. Round the sides 
of the room drive medium-sized brass-headed 
nails, at the same distances from each other as 
the rings are sewed on the carpet ; when ready, 
begin at the top of the room and hook the rings 
over the Iirass-headed nails, which must I>etlrivcn 
into the floor far enough to admit of the rings 
catching a firm hold. When the top is hooked 
on, stretch the carpet to the opposite side and 
hook // on, then fasten the sides in like manner. 
This is much less troublesome and is more econo- 
mical than nniling down carpets. 

CARPETS (STAIR\ To ?mi^/ /at/-.— SUps 
of paper should always be placed over the edges 
of the stairs, under the carpet. This will dimin- 
ish the friction between the carpet and the boards 
underneath it. The strips sfiould be in length 
vrithin an inch or two of the width of the cirpel, 
and four or five inches in breadth, as convenient. 
This simple expedient will preserve the carpet 
half as long again as it would last without the 
strips. 

CARPETS, To 5kv<:^.— Sweeping caipct* 
too often wears them out rapidly. It is ob\ious 
to any one, that a brisk, daily brushing over the 
whole suffice must wear away and carry off more 
wooUy particles than the occasional stepping of 



>54 



DtCTTOSAXY OF EVEJiY-DAY WANTS. 



fteC dnia^ Ote ^y widiovt ibc rabfaiDC lad 
scrspfoe Cncn by the brooo. To lUow sas4 
•■dfrit to —TwWghn* c* the n^boe, awl to 

liBt'i'M" groond into the fibres br the pmsnv 
•f Mfe leattfacris, howvrer, worse uam swccpof . 
A hBiAfU or so of salt sprmkkd on the carpet 
win carry the dut aloiie with it aa4 m^e the 
carpet look bn^aadcleatk. A very dusty car- 
pet nuy becle»cd by sctiiBe ft pail ofeoU water 
oat by Qie door, wet the bftxm in it, kiMKh il 
to fcteflfan the drops, sweep a yard or so^ them 
wash tfie broom u before aad sweep agaia, beiitc 
careial to shake all (he drops off the broom, and 
not sweep br at a tmie. If dooe with care it 
wiU deaa a carpet very nicely and yoa wiU be 
rarpriscd at the quantity of dirt in the water. 
The water maf need diaagxi^ oacc or twice, if 
the carpet is very dirty. Snow sprinkled over 
a carpet and swept off beforeit hastime (o melt 
and ttatolve, \s also nice for renovating a soiled 
carpet Moistened tndiin meal is used wilh 
good effect by some housekeepers. 

In libraries, cabinets, etc, where dost might 
badly iojore or wholly spoil the specimens and 
bodes. It is better to procure a patent carpet 
iwcepcr, merely using the broom or brush to 
dean out the comers and sides. 

CA/CPETS, 7*i»C7««.— Brussels carpets may 
be cleaned as foUows: — Takelhem up and shake 
and beat them, so as to render them perfectly 
free from dosL HaTC the Aoor thoroughly scour- 
ed and dry, and nail the carpet (irmly down 
upon iL U stUl much soiled, it may he cleaned 
in thefoUowing manner : — Take a pailful of clean 
cold spring water, and put into it about 3 gills 
of ox-gall. Take another pail with clean cold 
water only. Now rub with a soft scrubbing 
brush some of the ox-gall wster on the carpet, 
which will raise a lather- When a conTcnient 
sijed portion is done, wash the lather off with 
a clean linen cloth dipped in the clean water. 
Let this water be changed frequently. When all 
the lather has disappeared, rub the part with a 
detn dry cloth. After all isdone, open the win- 
dow to allow the carpet to dry. A carpet treated 
in this manner will be greatly refreshed in color, 
particularly the greens. — In nailing down a car- 
pet after the floor has been washed, be certain 
that the Hoor is quite dr^, or the nails will rust 
and injure the carpet Puller's earth is used for 
cleaning carpets, and weak solutions of alum or 
soda are used for reviving the colors. The crumb 
of a hot wheaten loaf rubbed over a carpet has 
been found efTeciive. 

CAKriiTS, To A'emm'e Crease front, —X. Mix 
a Utile soap into a gallon of warm soft water, 
then add half an ounce of borax; wash the part 
well wilh clean doth, and the grease or dirty 
spot will soon disappear. — 2. Cover the grease 
spot with whiting, and let it remain until it be- 
comes saturated with the grease; then .scrape il 
off, and cover it with another coat of whiting, 
and if this does not remove the grease, repeat the 
application. Three coats of whiting will, in most 
cases, remove the grease, when it should be 
brnihed off with a clothes brush. If oil has been 
■pilt on a carpet, that part of the carpet must be 
loosened up, and the floor beneath it well 
scrubl^ with warm soap and water, and fuller's 
'^— #4Tth; otherwise the grease will continue yet to 
^L "e through, — 3, To remove spots of spermac- 

^K^^ icrapc off as much as you can wilh a knife, 

■ 



fvcaa it with a warm iron. By repeat* 

po« mmf 4n« o«c the nxrmaccti« 
f«h Ibe dodi where the t^ou Uvtt 
bccA. With scMe vcfy aoft hcewwii paper. 

CARPETS, T»P>i9tmiMwtJksim.~^^pt^frBt 
Bcchs frG« mnna^ cnpctic b«y half a pound 
of pn C8Mkor» and that wis save all the car* 
pels m jfmr ho«sc for a year, by placing a few 
tnte 1 1 iMhi Hwler te ed^es of the carpeU wiih- 
o«l Dtoviagthen. 

CASXS, {ikUTER) n CUcM.—SoonT xhtt 
inside wcQ oat with water and sand, and after- 
ward apply a quantity of charcoal dust ; another 
and a better netbod is to rinse them with & 
stroftc aolotkw of oil of vitriol aad waUr, whidi 
entirdy deprives then of their toulness. 

C/fA/ESCCMt-B^Otm) To 0>m.— Turn up 
the chair bottom, etc. aad with hot water and a 
sponge wash the cane-work well, so that it may 
become completelv soaked. Should it be very 
dirty YOB must add soap. Let it dry in the open 
air, if^ possible, or in a place where there is a 
thorough draught, and it will become as tight 
and firm as when new, providing that it has not 
been broken. 

CHIMSEYS, ItaJks ^moi/.— These may 
be stopped by applyiitg a paste made of tar, and 
dry, sifted road Just, The paste should be 
lapped over the shingles to form a collar. 

CHIXA OK CLASSIVAKE, 71-. AfmJ.^ 
A tiseful cement is prodoced by towdered chalk 
and white of egg. A mixture of equal parts of 
while of egg, white-Iead, and glue, forms a 
strong cement. Or take a very thick solution of 
gum arabic in water, and stir into it plaster of 
Paris until the mixture becomes a viscous paste. 
Amdy it with a brush to the fractured edge«, 
and stick them together. In three days the 
article cannot again oe broken in the same place. 
For other preparations for this purpose see 
"Omenta". 

CHILDREN, To PrtUct From Brnming.^ 
Add one ounce of alum to the last water used in 
rinsing children's dresses, and they will be ren- 
dered uninflammable. It would be better still 
to dress them in woollen materials during the 
season when fires are needed. 

CLJXKERS. — Oyster shells on top of a coal 
fire will cause the clinkers adhering to the sides 
of the grate or to the firc-biick to drop off. Be 
lilierol with your oyster shells and you will ha*e 
no trouble with clinkers. 

COLOR, To Restcri.—\K u weU known that 
when the color on a fabric has been destroyed by 
add, ammonia is applied to neutralize the &ame. 
But it is not .so well known that after the appltc- 
ation of ammonia, chloroform will, in almost all 
cases, restore the original color. Chloroform 
will also remove paint Trom a garment when al- 
most everything else fails. 

CROCKERY WARE, Tc j»AW.— Wash the 
vessel gently and thoroughly *-ith soap and 
water, and let it dry wiltiout wiping. The pieces 
should then be fitted together as soon as possible, 
and kept in their places by winding firmly over 
the bowl or dish a strong thread, or a piece oi 
twine ; put the broken article into a boiler, an 
inch or two larger each way, and fill them both 
with sweet, coUl, skimmed milk ; set the boiler 
over the fire, and boil for ten or fifteen minutes; 
take it off, and let it stand till quite cold, when 
the string, or twine, may be cn^ and (he article 
washed in warm water. 



^ff^ 



HOUSEHOLD MlSCELLAN'y, 



"55 



CUH TA INS, IV/yVOl V. — Window curtains 
■re alike useful and ornomental. ITicy ought lo 
bechuicnofa color harmonizing with ihe car- 
pet, papcrhanginga. and other drapery of the 
apartment. As a rule, red or green curtains 
win blend pleasantly with ordinary drapery. 
\Vin I'w curtains arc composed of snltn, silk, 
f p. iimask, moreen, calico, and other tabrics. 
KcD i& very durable, but damaslc, which may be 
penodicallv refreshed by the dyer, is the must 
coonomicaland useful. Net and muslin curtains 
should be sobstiiuted or added during the summer 
months. Top valances hax-e been dispensed with 
as collecting dust and obscuring the light; and 
the cuitaias are now suspended by large rings on 
brass or mahagony rods, having ornamental ter- 
miiials. Window curtains are seldom drawn, 
their prindpal use being lo conceal the window- 
ahuttcn, intercept draughts from the window- 
sashes, and impart a comlortablc aspect to the 
apartment. 

D/S//ES, How To W^iJ/l.— First make sure 
before breakfast or dinner that there is plenty 
of water in the boiler, and also in the tea- 
kettle. After the table is cleared, the tabie- 
doth brushed off and neatly folded away. 
and the dining-room disposed of, proceed 
with your dishes. First take a large dish-pan, 
put into it a piece of soap, and pour over ihe soap 
three or four dipperftils of hot water from the 
builcr. Then auu 2 or 3 dipperfuls of cold soft 
water. Then ihedish-cloth. The water should 
now be so cool as not to turn the hands red when 
put into it. Take the dish-cloth and rub from 
the saap the melted surface, and put the re- 
mainder away. Wash a dish at a time and pass it 
to another pan. When all are dune, or the pan 
is full, take the leakelUe and pour over enough 
hot Mralcr to thoroughly rinse and heat ihcm. 
Now take them from the water, one at a time, 
and place them bottom. side up upon a tray or 
pan to drain. If they have been properly washed, 
lliis hot riii'iing water will run off or evaporate 
in a minute, leaving the dUhcs nearly dry. 
However, they should now be wijjcd with a clean, 
dry towel, andput away. Dishes must be washed 
in soft water. Especially is thi> necessary where 
soap is used. And soap is really indispensaWe 
in wasliinc dishes properly. 'ITie dishes should 
be scraped free from grease, crumbs, bones, etc, 
before commencing to wash them. A neat house- 
keeper wilt hare the same dish-cloth in use until 
it is worn out, when it should be put into the 
ragbag. Never allow the dish-cloth to be used 
for anv thing else but ua^thtng dishes. 

DISH FOR DISHWASHING, H<nu To 
iSahr.—K handy dish for this purpose can be 
secured by making it, oval, in shape, 20 inches 
by ri inches at the bottom 24 inches by 16 inches 
at the top and 6 inches deep ; 1 1 inches from one 
cod there is a tin partition, dividing the pan into 
two compartments, the smaller for washing, the 
larger for rinsing the dishes in hot water. 

DOOUSt To Prevent Creaking, — Apply a 
little soap to the hinges. Or take lard, soap, 
and black lead, emial lurts, mix and apply. 

EAKTHENiVARE, To Temper, — \\\x^ 
new. and before used for baking, put in cold 
water to cover, and heat it gradually until (he 
water bods. It is then less likely lo crack. 

FEA THENSt To Clean. — Feathers are com- 
snonlv cleaned by washing them in a weak 
aolulibci of carbonate of soob or in lime water, 



after which they are rinsed in c!can water, 
and llien dried in the sun or in a stove. They 
will now be improved by a thorough beating. 
The best way to clean feathers, is lo clean them 
out of the house, by taking them up on the roof 
of the bouse, barn, or shed, selecting a windy 
day, carefully ripping the tick the whole length 
of the seam, and suddenly opening it widely, so 
that the wind will clean them out in every 
direction. — Don't sleep on feathers they arc an 
utter abomination ana are the cause of a vast 
amount of weakness, being as they are prime 
extractors of vital force. 

FIRES OF KEROSENE, To Extinguish. 
— Incases of kerosene fires, don't try to extin- 
guish tlic 6ame with water ; that will only spread 
the fire. Instead, use blankets, or wnolen 
clothes, quills, shawls, or wimtever may be at 
hand that can be used to smother the flames. 

FIREBOARD OF PAPER FLOWERS, 
— Take a piece of board which fits exactly Into 
the space. TaJc over it a cover of green baize, 
stretching it smoothly. Make out of stiff, green 
I>apcr a number of leaves, dahlia, rose, tulip, lily, 
etc, enough of them to entirely cover the baLie. 
Baste these leaTCs down at the stem ; curl them 
at the edges with the scissors, and gum them 
down in the baize. Do not sew them, except at 
the stem. Now make larye i>aix:r Mowers, or, 
if you have them, take artificial flowers, and 
smooth them over. Place Ihe flowers amid the 
leaves, using your own taste in the arrangement. 
Sew the flowers at the stem ; or, if you wish to 
fasten the flowers themselves down, use dissoWed 
gxmi Arabic 

FLOORS, Mopping and C/eaning,— The 
practice of mopping floors loo often, is a loss 
of lime, and a waste of strength, and is as incon- 
sistent with reason, ns the habit uf blacking 
cooking stoves every lime they are used ; and I 
am not sure but wet floors are as detrimental lo 
health as the dust sent fortli by the too frequent 
use of the common stove blacking. Mopping 
painted floors too often, and with hot soapsuds, 
wears off the paint, causing needless expense 
of both time and money. 

It is difficult to say, how often a painted, or an 
unjKiintcd floor should 'be waHhc<l, for Ihal 
depends on circumstances ; but it requires that 
the cloth, mop and water, should be as clean as 
a supply of the latter will admit, and llic floor 
wiped as dry as possible ; and ihat every comer, 
and other retired spots, under l>cds, bureaus 
or any other articles which may be in the apart- 
ments, should have a fair chuicc to partake of 
the cleansing. 

FLOORS, To Stour.—Take some clean, well- 
sifted sand, scatter it on the floor, have ready one 
ounce potash dissolve<l in a pint of water, 
sprinkle it over the sand, and with a scrulibing- 
brush and good mottletl stmp rub the boards 
along tlieir length. Changing tlic water frequently 
and using it very hut, makes the bi>ards white; 
the polaihi if properly applied, will remove all 
stains. 

FLOORS, To Remait Stains /mm,— For 
removing spots of grease from boards, take equal 
parts of fullers' earth and pcarlash, a quarter of 
a pound of each, and boil in a quart of si>ft water ; 
and, while hot, lay it on the greased parts^ 
allowing it to remain on them for ten or twelve 
hours; after wliich it may be scoured off with 
sand and water- A floor much spotted with 



156 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-OA Y WANTS. 



grease should be completely washed over with 
this mixture the day before it is scoured. Fullers' 
earth or ox-gall, boiled logcther. form a very 
powerful cleansing mixture for floors or carpets, 
stains of ink are removed by itlrong vinegar, or 
salt^ of lemon will remove tnem. 

I'KAMES {Gill), To /'^'nr.— Wliitc of 
eggs, 2 oz.\ chloride of potash or soda, I oz.; 
mix well, blow off the dust from the frames; tlien 
go over them with a soft hnish dipped In the 
mixture, and they will appear equal to new. 

FRAMES {fu/urr) To Prn>^nf Flies soliins- 
— To prevent the flies going on picture frames 
and furniture, immerse aquantily of leeks for five 
or six days in a pail of water, and wash the pic- 
tures, etc, with it, • 

FURNITURE, Care ^— Keep the paste or 
oU in ft proper can or jar, that there may be no 
danger of upsetting when using it. Have two 
pieces of woollen cloth, one for rubbing it on, 
the other for rubbing it dry and polishing; also 
an old linen cloth to finish with, and a piece of 
smooth soft cork to rub out the stain. Use a 
brush if the paste be hard. Always dust the table 
well before tnc oil or paste is put on ; and, if it 
should be stained, rub it with a damp sp«">ngc, 
and then with d dry cloth. If the stain does not 
disappear, rub it well witli a cork or a brush the 
way ine wood grows ; for if rubbed cross-grained 
it will be sure to scratch it. Be careful to keep 
the cork and brush free from dust and dirt. 
When the dust is cleaned oflf and the stains have 
been got out, put on the oil or ]>a5te, but not too 
much at a time; rub it well into the wood. If 
oil, be as quick as possible in rubbing it over the 
table, and then polish it with anuther woollen 
doth. If wax, put a litUe bit on the woollen 
cloth, with the finger or a small slick ; rub it well 
with this till the tabic hxs a high polish, then 
have another cloth to fini<-h it with, lie very 
careful to have the cdgesof Uic table well cleaned, 
and the oil and wax well rubbed ofT. 

The furniture which is not in constant use will 
not requite to l>e oiled above once a week ; it 
ought, however, to be dusted every day and 
well rubljcd. Tables which arc used daily must 
be well rubbed every morning, and great care 
should be taken lo remove all spots from them, 
particularly ink. This can very easily be done, 
if not left to dry l<mg, by putting uu a little sail 
of [emons u-ith the finger. 

\Vlien cleaning tables or chairs, be careful to 
remove them into the middle of the room, or at 
a distance from the wall. If the-sideboard or 
sidctablc is fixed to the wall, be still more careful 
in cleaning it, and roll up the woollen cloth light 
in the hand, and into a small compass. 

FURNITURE, To Tale Bniisrs Out of.-- 
Wet the part with warm water; double apiece 
of brown paper five or six limes, soak it in the 
warm water, and lay it on the place ; apply on 
that a warm, but not hot flat-iron till the moist- 
ure is evaporated. If the bruise be not gone, 
repeat the process. After two or three appli- 
cations, the dent or bruise will be raised to the 
surface. If the bruise be small, merely soak it 
wilh warm water, and hold a red-hot iron near 
the surface, keeping the surface continually wet 
— the bruise will soon disappear. 

GLASSWARE {Ncu^ To Season. — Vyx\. 
dishes, tumblers, and other glass articles into a 
kettle; cover them eniirely with cold water, and 
pus the Jcf ttle where it will soon boiL When it 



has boiletl a few minutes, set it aside, covered 
close. When the water is cold, take out the glass. 

CTZW 55. CZf^AVAV.— Glass windows, look^j 
in^-glasses, etc, may be cleaned as follows :-- 
Dip a moistened rag or flannel into indigo, fuller*! 
earth, ashes, or rotten-stone, in inmalpablej 
powder, with which smear the glass, ancf wipe it 
off with a dry soft cloth. Puwdcr-blueor wfule" 
ning, tied up in muslin and dusted up<:pn thfi 
glass, and cleaned off u-ith chamois-lcathcr, also 
gives glass a fine polish. The spots in ihc iilver- 
mg of old looking-glasses are caused by damp at i 
the back. 

GLASS CIIIAfNE YS, To Prevent ctvckin^^ 
— If the chimney-glass of a lamp be cut with % 
diamond on the convex side, it will never cradc* 
as the incision affords room for the cxpansit 
produced by the heat, and the glass, oner it 
cool, returns to its original shape, wilh only ^ 
scratch visible where the cut is made. 

GLASS'GLOFES, 7o a^tf«.— If the globe* ' 
arc much stained on the outside by smoke, soak 
them in tolerably hot water with a little washinff ^ 
soda dissolved in it, then put a teaspooofu] q} 
powdered Ammonia into a pan of lukewarm water, 
and with n tolerably hard orush wash the globes' 
lill the smoke stain disappears ; rinse in clean 
cold water, and let them clrain till dry ; they will 
be quite as white and clear as new globes. 

CRfiASE, To Remxn-efrom STONE STEFS 
Or Fajsag-er.'^l'oaT strong soda and water boil* 
ing hot over the si>ol, lay on it a litlle fullerV 
earth made into a thin paste wlh boiling water, 
let il remain all night, and if the grease be not 
removed, repeat the process. Grease is some* 
limes taken out by ruobing the s]x>t w iih a hard 
stone (not hearthstone), using sand and very hot 
waler with soap and soda. 

GRAINING, Haw To K"<7jA.— Take clear 
warm water, a dean, white cloth, and wash a 
small place and wipe dry with another dean, 
white cloth. Do not wet any more sjiacc than 
you can dry immediately wilh your cloth as it 
must not l>eleft to dry in the atmosphere ; it must 
be rubbed dry, hence the necessity for clean 
white cloths. If the paint has been neglected 
until very much soiled with greasy fingers, or 
s]K.'ckcd with a summer's growth uf flies, z very 
litlle hard soap may be put in the first water, 
and then rinsed off with dear water, but avoid 
<ioap if you possibly can, as it dulls the Tomish* 
however carefully used. On no account must it 
be rubbed on with a cloth. 

HOUSE CLEANING. — In dcaning a room, 
the carpet should come up first, not only because 
of the dust, but to give the floor all day to ^y, 
not leaving it to be scrubbed lost, as we have 
seen some bad managers do, and pay for it by 
influenzas. Where the \valU are papered, they 
should next be swept with a clean towel pinned 
(irmly round a broom, if there is not a brush 
kept for the purpose. The ceilings of chambers 
arc usually whitewashed ; this is the next pro- 
ceeding; and the walls scrubbed, if painted or 
hard finished. Then come windows and wood- 
work, in all things being careful to use as little 
slop as will thoroughly answer the purpose. In 
cleaning wood-work, use little soap, but plenty 
of clean w.itcr, which will prevent discoloration. 
If dirty spots and patches arc wipctl off the yenr 
round, faithfully, there will be much less need of 
scrubUng the IJoards bare in "house cleaning". 
Oak, or dark woods, now so mach the foshioDf 



HOUSEHOLD AflSCELLAHY, 



Dccd not be touched, wilh good care, more than 
once a year; frequent dry rubbing will aaswcr 
CYCTV purpoic. 

HOUSE, Ham To Choose In Xm/in/^.—The 
clioice nf a bouse is in importance second only to 
the selection of a friend. The best residence is 
one which i^ not inconveniently distant from your 
place of business — is in a cheerful and healthy 
locaUty. and of which the rent, including rates 
and taxes, does not exceed one-sixth of your in- 
come. Do not choose a neighborhood merely 
because it is fashionable, and carefuUv avoid 
occupying a dwelling in a locality of doubtful 
reputation. Be particular as to whether it is dry, 
wrth convenient sewage and plenty of water. , A 
southern or western aspect is to be preferred. 
Should the house be infested with vermin, avoid 
it. See that the windows and doors are well 
secured, that there are proper means of ventila- 
tion, and that the chimneys do not smoke. 

Let all needful rc'iiairs be made by the land- 
lord before the completion of your agreement, 
otherwise you will probably be required to ex- 
ecute ihcra at your own expense. Do not deal 
with a landlord who is commonly reputed as 
being disobliging, greedy, or litigious. In every 
case have a lease properly drawn out and 
stamped. 

Avoid the neighborhood of a sluggish slream, 
a mill-dam, or fresh-water lake. Ine penalties 
arc rheumatism, ague, impaired eyesight, loss 
of appetite, asthma and other distressing ail- 
ments. Clioose a house away from the vicinity 
of tan-yards, and tallow, soap, and chemical 
work&. The neighborhoixl of old and crowded 
burial-grounds and of slaughterhouses is to be 
shunned. A low situaiion is perilous, espc- 
datly, during the prevalence of epidemics. 

Kc^XT lease a house in a narrow street, unless 
the back premises are open and extensive. Be- 
fore cloMiig your bargain try to obtain some 
account of the house from a former occupant. 

HOUSE, Hffu/ To Eurftiih •».— Ifyou are 
about to furnish a house, do not spend all your 
money, be it much or little. Do not let the 
beauty of this thing, and the cheapness of that, 
tempt you to buy unnecess.iry articles. Doctor 
Franklin's maxim was a wise one — "Nothing is 
cheap that we do not want." Buy merely enough 
to get along with at first. It is only by experi- 
ence that you can tell what will be the wants ol 
your &niily. If you spend all your money, you 
will Knd you have purchased many things you do 
not want, and hnve no means left to get many 
Uungs which you do want. If you have enough, 
uul more than enough, to get everything suitable 
to your situation, do not think you must spend 
it all, merely because you happen to have it. 
Begin humbly. As riches increase, it is easy and 
pleasant to increase in comforts ; but il is alwavs 
painful and inconvenient to decrease. After all, 
these things are viewed in their proper light by 
the truly judicious and respectable. Neatness, 
tistefulncss, and good sense may be shown in 
the mauagemenl cm a small household, and the 
sjrangemenl of a little furniture, as well as upon 
A larger scale ; and these qualities are always 
praised, and always Ireatca with respect and 
■ttemioti. The consideration which many pur- 
chase by living beyond their income, and, of 
cdftrsc, living upon others, is not worth the 
tremble it costs. The ^lare there is about this 
frUc and wicked parade is deceptive ; it does not 



tmuk 



in fact, procure a man valuable friends, or extens- 
ive influence. 

HOUSE, Hcnv To Choose in\Punfiajmg. — 
In purchasing a house, whether old or new, do 
not trust to appearances, or rely on your own 
judgment. W'nen you have selected a house 
likely to suit your family and your purse, employ 
a surveyor to inspect every portion of it. He 
willexamine the loundatiuns. tnc stale of the sew- 
age, and the character of the materials which form 
the walls. He will be able to detect if soft bricks 
have been used, by finding traces of damji at the 
bottom of the walls. In examining the joists, 
flooring, and other woodwork, he wiIU>c enabled 
to report whether cheap wood has been used in* 
stcaa of well-seasoned timlier. By your solicitor 
you must look into the nature of the tenure and 
Ihc duration of the building Icise. If you can 
obtain a freehold prc^rty, so much the better; 
if not, be particular m considering whether the 
ground-icnt is such as to justify the purchase. 
Vou will do well to secure a portion of ground 
beside your house, on which you might erect an 
addition should your iamily increase; or your bu-^ 
siness demand further accommo<laUoii. Beware 
of rashly purchasing fixtures, — such as mndow- 
blinds, hall carpets, and kitchen funiiirhings; 
new articles may be found in the end more eco- 
nomical. Make an effort to pay the wliole of 
the purchase -money. A bond on your house 
will endanger your credit, and affect your com- 
fort. 

HOUSE PLANTS, To Ktep Withont Fire. 
— Take on old bed quill, put it on the floor, and 
set (he plants together in the center. Set a 
stand over them, and bring the quilt up over the 
top. If any of the plants are very icusilive to 
the cold, a ncwsp'-ipcr pinned around them would 
be an additional protection. 

ICE' HO USEf Extemporaneous, — A n ic«- 
house can l>e extemporised without making a 
tenon dr sawing a board. Construct a pen near 
the pond or stream wliere the ice is to l>c gath- 
ered, choosing if possible a gravel-bank where 
there will be gooa diainage. Tlie pen may be 
made of rails twelve feet long, or of any desired 
length. 'I"he larger tl»e pen, the bciicr the ice 
will keep. Lay up two rails upon each of the 
four sides. Make the bottom level, and cover it 
a foot or more with straw, sca-wecd. or any con- 
venient refuse vegetable matter. Sawdust is 
better than straw, if it can be had. .Spent tan- 
bark is a good material for this foundation. Cut 
the cakes of ice in the usual manner, and jxick 
them closely, filling the interstices with pounded 
ice, and if tne weather is freezing pour on a little 
water to make it solid. I'ack the outside with a 
foot of straw, sawdust, or other material, ; i d 
put up the fence as the pile of ice rises. The 
pile can be conveniently made about ei^bt feet 
high. Cover the top with at least eighteen 
inches of sawdust, or two feet of straw trodden 
down closely. Make a roof of boards or slabs 
slanting to the north, sufficiently steep to shed 
water, and fasten with a few nails. Such a pile 
of ice as this can be secured by a couple of men 
and a team in a day. A cheap ice-box made with 
double sides and packed with s.nwduit will be 
wanted. The inner chamber should l>c al>out J 
feet long, 2 feet deep, and 18 inches wide. This 
will hoW a single cake of ice weighing a hundred 
pounds or more, and leai-e room on ti»p to kc«i 
milk, fresh meats, fruit, and other tv\an.u^» iX 



I 



\ 



M 



iss 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WANTS, 



I 
I 



I 



will Use from four days to a week, according to 
the quantity that is used in the drinking-water. 
If the extemporaneous ice-house is not disturbed 
more than once a week, it will probably supply 
the family through the summer with abundance 
of ice. 

INK STAINS, To Rettune Ffwn Books.^ 
To remove ink stains from a book, first wash the 
paper with warm water, using a camel's hair 
pencil for the purpose. By this means the sur- 
face ink is got riJ of; the paper must now be 
wetted wiili a solution of oxalate of potash, or, 
better still, oxalic aci<l, in the j>ro{M>rtion of one 
ounce to half a pint of water. The ink stains will 
immediately dis-ippear. I-lnally, again wash the 
stained place with clean water, and dry it with 
white blotting paper. 

IN/C, To Remati£ From DRESS GOODS. 
-—Oxalic acid is considered one of the best 
agents for this purpose. Dissolve ten cents worth 
in a pint of soft water ; dip the stained spots in it 
quickly, and then into clear water, and rub well ; 
repeat the process until the stains arc remove]. 
If the goods remain in the acid, the texture will 
be destroyed. The skin of the hands i> nnplcis. 
anlly afifectcd, if brought into frequent contact 
with a strong solution; care should be taken to 
dip onlv the spots into this liquid. If the color 
ofthe dress is affected mix wittt warm water and 
wet with a dilute solution of ammonia which will 
restore the original color. Ink stains on Uible 
covers can be removed in the some way. 

INK STAINS, To Rtm<n>e From linen,— 
With a clean rag or sponge rub the soiled spot 
with lemon juice in which has been dissolved a 
small onantity of salt. 

INK To Extmct From Mahoramy, — Dilute 
half a tea-spoontul of oil of vitriol with a large 
spoonful of water, and apply the mixture with a 
feather to the stained wood. The ink mark will 
disappear. 

lA^K (A/nrh'n^), To Remoz'r,—\\ct the stain 
with fresh solution ofchlorideof lime: and, after 
ten or Iwclve minutes, if the marks have become 
white, dip the part in solution uf ammonia (the 
liquid ammonix of chemists), or hyposulphate 
of^sodx In a few minutes, wash in clean water. 
IRON MOULDS, 7* it^w^v.— Rub on the 
S|>ot a little powdered oxt«lic acid, or salts of 
lemon and warm water, let it remain a few min- 
utes and well rinse in clean water. 

IRON MOCLD {Old), To Rfmovr.— The 
part stainerl should be rcnwistencd with ink, and 
this removed by the use of muriatic acid diluted 
with five or six times its weight of water, when 
it will he found that the old and new stain will 
be remuved simultaneously. 

IRON RCST, To Rcftto7>^. —Every particle 
of rust on iron may be removed by first softening 
it with petroleum, and then rubbing well with 
coarse sand-paper. To paint iron, take lamp- 
black sufficient for two coats, and mix with etiua! 
quantities of Japan varnish and lK>ilcdIinseetl oil. 

irORY, To lYhii/n.—l. When ivorv orna- 
ments get yellow or dusky looking, wasti them 
well in soap and water, with a small brush to 
clean the carvings, and place them while wet in 
full sunshine; wet them for two or three days, 
several times a day, with soapy water, still keep- 
ing them in the sun; then wash them again, and 
they will be beautifully white. — 3. Immerse the 
iw>ry in a saturated solution of alum .ind allow 
tto so/ien in it for an hour; then take it out, 



rub with a woolen cloth, wrap in a piece of linen' 
to dry throughout, and polish afterward. — ^.The 
ivory is heated tn a ihin paste of lime until it 
turns while, it is then dried and polished. 

irORY, To Takt Stains Out o/.—K Uttle 
prepared white chalk, tinged with sweet oil and 
sal vobtile into a paste; nib it on wet with ^^ 
piece of wash-leather ; let it remain until dry^ 
then brush it off. 

FIRE KINDLINGS— Take one quart hw, 
three i>ounds rosin; melt them; wheq somewhat 
eool add one gill spirits turpentine, and mix at 
much sawdust, with a little charcoal, as can ba. 
worked in ; spread out while hot on a board ; 
whpn cold break up in small lumps about tho. 
siie of hickory nuts. They will easily ignite with_ 
a match and burn with a strong blaze long 
enough to bum any wood fit to bum. 

A'NiyES, To Ciean. — i. Cut a good-size^ 
solid, raw potato in two; dip the flat surface iti\ 
powdered unck-dust. and rub the knife-blades. 
Sloitis and rust will disappear. — 2. One of ihe-i 
best substances for cleaning knives and forks Is. 
charcoal, reduced to a fine powder, and applied' 
in the same manner as brick dust is used.-^ 
■\. Water lime is also used for this purpose-, 
Have a box with a partition and keep the lime 
in one part and the cloths in the other. Wei x \ 
small doth a little and dip it in the lime, and' 
after the articles are well washed and wiped, rub 
tlicm until the spots are removed, TTien take « 
br^cr, dry cloth, dip it in the lime, and rub the J 
articles until polished to suit, ^Ipe oflf th«:j 
dust from the knives and forks with a dry doth, 
and tliey are ready to put away. 

KNIVES, To Preserve From Rust. — ^Neret^ 
wrap them in woolen cloths, N\T»en they are not 
to be used for some time, have them made bright 
and perfectly dry ; then take a soft ra^. and rub 
each blade with dry wood ashes. — \Vr.-ip thent 
closely in thick hron*n paper, and lay ihcm in a 
drawer or dry closet. A set of elegant knives, 
used only on great occasions, were Itept in this 
way for over a hundred years without a spot of 
rust. 

IVORY KNIFE HANDLES, To Present 
Being Cracked, — Never let knife-blades stand 
in hot water, as is sometimes done to make themj 
wash cosily. The heat expands the steel which. i 
runs up into the handle a vcrv Httlc, and this 
crocks the ivory. Knife-handles should never 
lie in water. A handsome knife, or one used for 
cooking, is soon spoiled in this way. 

KNIFE HANDLES, {Loose) To Fasten.^ 
The best cement for this purpose consists of one 
pound of colophony( purchasable at the dniggist's) 
and eight ounces of sulphur, which arc to be 
melted together, and cither kept in bars or re- 
duced to powder. One part of the [wwdcr is to 
be mixed with half a jwrt of iron filings, fine 
sand or brick dust, and the cavity of the liandle 
is then to be filled with this mixture. The stem 
of the knife or fork is then firmly inserted and 
kept in position until the cement hardens. 

LACQUERED ARTICLES, To Clean,-^ 
Brush with hot water and soap, wipe and dry 
before the fire ; finish with a soft doth. Avoid 
the use of pearlash or soda which may remove 
the lacquer. 

1^4 MP ACCIDENT, To IVevenf.—SkiiTCt}f 
a week passes, during the winter months, but 
we read accounts of frightful accidents from kero- 
sene lamps exploding and lulling or scarring for 



HOUSEHOLD MISCELLANY. 



l^ 



I 




life, women atid children. A simple knowledge 
of the tnfUmmablc nature of the fluid, would prob- 
ably put a stop to nearly all the accidents. As 
the oil buras down into the lamp, or highly 
inBanunable gas gathers over its surface, nnd 05 
the oil decreases, the gas increases. When the 
oil is nearly consumed a slight jar will often in- 
flame the gas, and an explosion is sure to follow, 
dealing with death and destruction. A bombshell 
is oot more to be dreaded. Now if the lamp is 
DOt allowed to bum more than half way down, 
soch accide^ are almost impossible. Always 
fill your lamps in the morning; then you never 
need fear an explosion. 

The charred wick should also be cut off, for 
observation shows that in a few times using the 
wick becomes choired, and after the lamp tuis 
burned a little time the tube becomes overheated, 
and the charred wick is all on fire. From this 
extra heat the oil is set on fire, and then comes an 
explosion. Cut off the charred wick daily. 

It would seem as Uiough no one need be told 
that it is ilingcrous to use any burning oil for the 
purpose of kindling a fire, but the frequent rec- 
ord of deaths from that practice, shows that great 
numbers follow that wasteful and dangerous 
wav. 

La AfPSt{/i'ftosen() Turning Dcivn TheiVicks 
V/. — Many j^eonle who use kerosene oil are in 
the habit ofbuming night-lamps, and turning them 
down as they would gas, not Icnowing how much 
mischief they thus do. When the Tight of the 
kerosene lamp is turned down low, the combus- 
tion is not perfect, and the atmosphere of the 
room becomes vitiated by the unconsumcd oil 
Taper, by the gas produred by combustion, and 
alsA legitimate p.-irticlcs of smoke and soot thrown 
off, to be taken into the lungs of the occup.'mts. 
Air thus poisoned is deadly m its effects, and the 
wonder is that the people arc not immediately 
and fatally injured by breathing it. Its conse- 
quences are the unaccountable and mysterious 
headaches, irritation of throat and lungs, dizzi- 
ness and nausea. 

LA.\fPS, To Ciiati. — Bronzed lamps should 
be wiped carefully; if oil be frequently spilled 
over tnem, it will cause the bronzing to be rubbed 
off sooner than it would disappear by wear. Brass 
lamps are l*est cleaned witti crocus, or rotten 
stone and sweet oil. Lacquered lamps may be 
washed with soap and water, hut should not be 
touched with lad or very strong lye, else the 
lacquer will soon cnme off. When lamps arc foul 
initde, wash them with potash and water, rinse 
ihrm well ; set them Itefore the Are, and be sure 
that lliey are dry before oil is again put into 
them. 

LAMP CHfAfXEYS, To C/^aw. — Most 
people cleaning lamp chimneys, use cither a 
brash made of bristles twisted into a wire, or a 
rag on (he point of sdssors. Both of these arc 
h^A : for, without great care, the wire, or scissors 
will scratch the glass as a diamond does, which 
under the expansive pi>wer of heat, soon breaks, 
as ftll scratched gLiss will. If you want a neat 
thing that costs nothing, and will save half your 
glass, tie 1 piece of soft sponge the siie of your 
chimney to a pme stick. 

LAMP C/I/MXE KS", Ta Prevent Breaking. 

— ^To prevent lamp glasses breaking by the sutl- 

den contact with heat, the best way is to cut or 

*cr»tch the base of the glass witn a glacier's 

ond. Another melhml is to put the glasses 



into a saucepan of water and boil them. ThiA 
seasons them. 

LAMPS, To Prevtni Smokm^.Soaik the 
uick in strong vineear, and dry it well before 
you use it; it will then bum twth swccl and 
pleasant, and give much satisfaction for the Irifl- 
mg trouble taken in preparing it, 

LAMP fV/C/CS, Hunti Madi.-'K good sub- 
stitute for a regular lamp-^vick may be made of 
canton flannel, taking a strip three limes as wide 
as the hunplube, and folding it, overcasting the 
open edge. The little bits can thus be utilized, 
and many times considerable annoyance saved by 
having a supply of these needed articles always 
in the house. 

LEAA\ To S/ofi a, — Beat yellow soap and 
whiting, with a little water,, into a thick paste. 
Rub this over the part where the leakage is and 
it will be instantly stopped. 

LEA TJfEK iBLOCK) OF OLD FURNI- 
TUREy To Restore. — Eggs, yolk and white well 
beaten, 6 parts ; treacle, 1 part ; isinglass, 1 part; 
water, C parts. Dissolve tho iiinglnss in the 
water, then add it to the other articles. Mix well. 
Color with lampblack. This also forms a good 
varnish for dress shoes. 

LINEN, Can O/.^When linen is well dried 
and laid by for use, nothing more is necessary 
than to secure it from damp and insects. The 
latter may be agreably performed by a judiciout 
mixture of aromatic shrubs and flo\Ter5, cut up 
and scwcfl up in silken bags, to be inters]»r5Da 
among the drawers and sbelres. These ingre- 
dients may consist of lavender, thyme, roseSi 
cedar sha\in£js, powdered sassafras, cassia lignea, 
&C., into which a few drops of otto of rose*, or 
other strong- seen ted perfume, may be thrown. 
In all cases, it will be found more consistent with 
economy to cjcomine anrl repair all washable ar- 
ticles, more especially linen, that may stand in 
need of it, previous to sending them to the laun- 
dry. It will aLso be prudent to have every ar- 
ticle carefully numbered, and so arranged, after 
washing, as to have their regular turn and term 
in domestic use. 

LINEN, To Remmf FnatStaiHStH.—To 
remove them, rub the part on each sifle with 
yellow soap, then tie up a piece of pearl-ash in 
the cloth, &c,, and soak well in hot water, or 
boil ; afterwards expose the stained part to the 
sun and air until removed. 

LINEN, To Take Ink Out O/!— Ink spots 
may be effectually removed from linen by a simple 
ana ready process. Take a piece of tallow, melt 
it. and dip the spotted put of the linen into the 
tallow ; tne linen may be washed and the spot 
will di5ftpi>ear. the linen remaining uninjuretL 

LINEN, To Take Markint: Ink Out 0/,—\ 
saturated solution of cyanuret of potassium, ap- 
plie<l with a camd's-hair brush. After the mark- 
mg ink disappears, the linen should be well 
washed in cola water. 

LINEN To Remme MmtU ^ww.— Spots of 
mould on fabrics can, it is said, be rcniovctl from 
cotton or linen, by first rubbing them over with 
butter and afterwards applying potassa moistened 
with a little water, anci then rubbing tlie spot, 
when all traces of it will disappear. 

LINEN, To Rrmcn'e Sunns From. — Stains 
caused liy acids can be removed by wetting the 
part and laying it on some salt of wormwood; 
then rub it without diluting it with more water. 
Or, tie up in stained part some perlatih; thea 



iGo 



DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY WAHTS. 



scrape sonic sonp into cold soft water, to moke a 
lather, EU)<1 boil the linen till ihe stain i.tisappcai&. 
Recent stains of fruit may be removed by fielding 
the linen tightly &trctclicdovcralubanu pouring 
hot water over the part. This must be done be- 
fore any soap has been applied to it. As soon 
as the biain is made on tabic linen, etc. rub on 
it common table salt, before it has had time to 
dry ; the salt will keep it damp till the doth is 
washed, when the stain will disappear ; or, wash 
the stjun lightly when the cloili is removed. 

UNEN, Tq Make FIRE PROOJ-.—k quan- 
tity of phosphoric acid lime is dissolved in water; 
to this a little ammonia is added and the whole 
filtered and discolored witli animal carbon. It 
is then put on the fire and Icfl to evaporate until 
it i.i concentrated, when gelatine and five per 
cent, flilicic acid is added, and again reduced by 
evaporation to a crystalHc substance, which is 
drictl and pulverized. This powder is called 
"Hottina", from the name of tne inventor. The 
cloth to be made fire-proof is dipped in a solution 
made of thirty per cent, of the above powder, 
thirty-five per cciil.of gum, and thirty-five per 
cent, of starch. The cloth, when dry, will be 
perfectly fire-proof, and preserve its color. 

LINEiV {SCORCHED) r* AV/ATfr.— Take 
two onions, peel and skin them, and extract the 
joicc by squeezing or pounding. Then cut up 
half on ounce of white soap, and two ounces of 
fuller's earth ; mix with tnem the onion juice, 
and half a pint of vinegar. Uoil Uie composition 
well, and spread it when cool over the scorched 
port of the linen, leaving it to dry ihereon. Af- 
terward wash ou; the linen. 

LOOKING GLASSES, To T/i-aii.-Takc a 
newspaper, or part of one, according to the size 
of the gJx-^s. Fold it small, and dip it intoa basm 
^ of clean cold water; when thoroughly wet, 
squeeze it out in your hand as you would a 
sponge, and then ruU it hard all over the face of 
the glass, taking care that it is not so wet as to 
ran down in streams. In fact, the paper must 
only be completely moistened, or duni|)ed all 
through. After the glass has been well rubbed 
with a wet pnper, Jet it rest a few minutes, and 
then c*> over it with a fresh dry newspaper 
(foldccT small in your hand), till it looks dear 
and bright — which it will almost immediately, 
ar»d with no further trouble. 

This method, simple as it is, is the best and 
most expeditious for cleaning mirrors, 2Jidit will 
be foanrl so on trial — giWng it a deamcss and 

folish th.it can be produced l>y no other process, 
t is equally convenient, speetly, and efTective. 
The inside of window frames may be cleaned in 
this manner to look beautifully clear ; the Min- 
dows Iwing first washed on the outside. 

MAHOGANY FURNITURE, To Ghe a 
Good Color to. — Let the tables be wai^hcd per- 
fectly clean with vinegar, having first taken out 
any ink-suins there may be, with spirits of salt. 
Use the following liquid: Into a pint of cold- 
drawn linscctl nil, put a mixture of^alkanet-rnot 
and rose pink in an earthen vessel; let it remain 
all m'ght, then, stirring well, ruh some of it all 
over Die tables with a linen rag ; when it has loin 



some time, rub it hrighl wi 
MARBLE, To Chan.- 



th Tincn cloths. 



common soda, and one of pummice stone, and 

oneof frncly jwwdered chalk; sift them through 

a fine sieve and mix them with water. Then 

rub the mixture well all over the marble, and the 



stains will be removed ; now wash the marbU 
over with scKip and water, and it will t>e as 
as it was previous to its twing stained. Some 
times the marble is stained yclTow with ironrustj 
this can be removed with lemon juice. 

MARULE, To Remote Grease Or Oil in, 
French chalk reduced to powder, dusted ovc 
the spot, and a hot flat-iron hekl very near, 
soften the grease and make the chalk absorb 
If this will not do, try common clay mixed wil 
benzine smeared over llie spot. 

MARBLE, To Remove Smoke-siK^ns /rem. 
Take a large lump of Spanish whiting, soak it 
water, not more than enough to moisten it, ai 
put into the water a piece of wasliing soda ; 
some of this whiting on a flannel, and rub 
marble repcatetily, leaving the whiting on fi: 
some hours. Wash it a]fl off with soap an< 
water, drr well, and polish with a sofl duster. 

MARKETING^ Hints on. — Tlie purchc 
will do well to keep in view one or two si 
rules. AVhatevcr kind of provisions may be r( 
quired, it is invariably the wisest course to di 
with those tradespeople who have a large buj 
ness, ond who are known and respectable, 
is the interest of such persons to supjily thei 
customers with the best ortides, and for this 
pose they themselves must go to the best marliet 
.■\s a general rule they arc tinder no tcmptati< 
to overcharge their customers. Tlieir fcuccess 
business and their profit depend on tlie numl 
of their retail transactions, and if the number 
great, they gre oil the more able to supply 
best arlides, and to be content with tlic smaU< 
profits on each individual sale. As on i11ustjati< 
of tliis it may be stated tliat, with very few 
ce]>lion«;, all commodities are dearer, as wd 
of inferior quality, iit shops in the sulnirbs tl 
in those situated in places of the greatest con*, 
course: the reason is that small dealers, who 
have comparatively few transactions, must neces- 
sarily msLke up for the defects of their businei 
by obtaining large profits on individual 
while, at the same time, they have little or m 
cncuuragement to obtain the nest goofls, and ii 
many cases want of sufficient capital renders 
impracticable. It will be usually found, h 
ever, that there is no economy in purchaung 
ferior articles. In butcher's meat, for exar 
the best meat, and the best parts of (he nu 
although at first a litde dearer, axe in rcoUt 
cheaper in the end. 

MILDEW, To Remove.— 'SWx soft soap »-it 
powdered starch, half as much salt, and the j|ui( 
of a lemon; lay the muture on both sides oT i 
stain with a painter's brush; let it lie on the gr 
day and night till the mildew mark disappea 

MOULD fN EOOh'S AND INK\ To 
vertt. — A few drops of lavender will save 
brarvfrom mould; a single drop will save a 
of in^. A little salt or white wine will also pi 
serve ink from mould. 

MUSLINS, To Make Unin/jmma&le.—Txmi 
stale of soda, prepared expressly for rcnderin| 
fabrics noninflommable, is used for this purpos* 
Directions for use: — ^To 3 parts of dry sti 
add X part of tnngstate of soda, and use tl 
starch in the ordinary vray. If the mntcri.ildot 
not require starching, mix in the proporlions of 
I pound of tungstate of soda to 2 gallon*; of 
water, saturate the fabric well with this solution 
and dry it. The heat of the iron in no way a^ 
fects the non-inflammability. ' 




HOUSEHOLD MISCELLANY. 



J6B 



OJL CLO'J'J/, J/aw To 67«if.— Toruin Ibem 
— dean them wiih hot walcr or soap suds, utd 
IcAvc them lialf wiped, and they will look very 
bright while wcl, and very dingy and dirty when 
diT, and soun crack and peel off. llut if you 
wish 10 preserve (bein, and have them look new 
and nice, wash them with soft flannel and luke- 
warm water and wipe thoroughly dry. If you 
want them to look extra nice, after they are dry, 
drop a few spoonfuls of milk over ihem, and rub 
them with a small dry doth. 

O/L {k'EJiOSENE), Tc TV//.— The only 
reliable test u the temperature of the flashing 
point, that is, the temperature at which the pe- 
trotcum takes hre when a burning match is ap- 
plied to its surface. Thiii test can be easily ap- 
plied. Into a flat dish or saucer, pour the oil lo 
DC iried. until it is at least half an inch deep; 
then hold a burning match or paper near the sur- 
£ue. At the point of contact the combustion is 
often very lively, as the taper draws uu some 
of the liquid, out if the petroleum De safe 
and free from naphtha, the flame docs not spread 
over the sur£ioe. If the petroleum has been 
adulterated, as soon as the match touches the 
surface a blue lambent flame flashes aaoss it, 
and in a few moments the body of the oil will be 
on 6re. Such an oil is dangerous — liable to ex- 
plode in lamps, and to give off mflammahle va- 
pors at all times. Any oil which takes fire when 
a match is held near its surface, and continues to 
bom, ought to be condemned at once and thrown 
nuo the streets. 

OVEN ANDIRON \VARE{Nrui) ToTfrn- 
per. — Before new ovens arc used, they should 
De heated half a day, and then put up the lid to 
ke«p the heat in. When heated the second time, 
Chey may be used for baking. If not treated in 
this way, they will never retain heat well. New 
flat-irons should be heated half a day before they 
are used. Iron ware of all kinds, and stoves 
should be healed gradually at first or they may 
Crack. 

J*AINT, Ta C/<M«.— Provide a plate with 
•one of the best whiting to be had, and have 
ready some dean warm water and a piece ol 
flannel, which dip into the water and squeeze 
nearly dry; then take as much whiting as will 
adhere to it, apply it to the painted surface, when 
a little rubbing will instantly remove any dirt or 
grease. After which vtas\\ well with clean water, 
rubbing it dry with sofk flannels. Taint thus 
cieaneu looks as well as when first laid on, with- 
out any injury to the most dcUcate colors. It is 
£tf better than using; soap, and does not require 
more than half the ume and Ubor, 

PA /NT, 7a Reminfe Odar o/.—V\acc^^ci%c\ 
full of lighted charcoal in the middle of the room 
and throw on it two or three handfuls of juniper 
berries. Shut closel]r the windows, doors and 
of ventilation for about twenty-four 
when they may be opened and it will be 
diat the unpleasant smell will be entirely 
_ This will not mjure articles leftm the room, 
each OS tapestry, etc, aad can be considered 
reliable. 

Paper-hangings, n a^H.^JC^t into 

8 half-quarters a stale quartern loaf; with one 
of these pieces, afler having blown off all the 
dost from the pnpcr to be cleaned hy means of a 
(ood pair of l^eUows, begin at the top of the 
room, faoiding the crust in the hand, and wiping 
Gg^lly downward with the cramb, about haU a 



vord at each stroke, till the upper part of the 
tanging is completely cleaned all round ; then 
go .again round with the like sweeping stroke 
downward, always commencing each successive 
course a little higher than the upper stroke hnd 
extended, till the bottom be flni&hed. This op- 
eration, if carefully performed, will frequently 
make very old paper look almost equal to new. 
Great caution muat be used not by any means to 
rub the paper hard, nor to attempt cleaning it 
the cross or horizontal way. Ihe dirty part of 
the bread loo must be each time cut away, and 
the pieces renewed as often as is ficccMary. 

FAPER-HANCINGS {PoutmouA, Tistfar. 
— A good test for poisonous paper-hanging is 
cotnmun spirits of nart&hom, or ammonia is a 
sure one of arsenic. On application llic beautiful 
but dangerous green turns to a blue. The ex- 
istence of arsenic in rooms hung with green paper 
may also be immediately detected by lighting a 
Lit ul the suspected paper at a cantUe. When 
the paper is well lighted, blow it out, then smell 
the iiiiokc, if it contains arsenic, the smcU will 
be that of garlic 

PAPER, To Remove Stain j /tvtri. — The pro- 
cess must depend on what the stoinsore. If they 
aie those of writing ink, a solution of citric, tar* 
taric, or oxalic acid will be successful. K grease, 
t.ike a heated iron and ^^ress it upon LUiiiing- 
j paper placed on the stami. After this process 
n.iis been frequently repeated, take a soft brush 
and apply oil of turpentine to the st^ns on both 
sides of the paper; lastly, with a clean brush, 
apply to the spots already almost gone rectified 
spirit of wine. 

PAPER, To Take Writing Oi// */.— Solution 
of muriate of tin, two drachms; water, four 
drachms. To be applied with a camel's hair 
bruslL Afler the writing has disappeared, the 
paper should be passed through water, and 
dried- 

PAPER-MACHE, To C/ean.—VfiLsh the 
article well with cold walcr and a sponge, dust 
flour over il while still damp, and rub dry with 
flannel. 

PEHTER, Ta C7«».— Apply to the surface 
of (he vessels a fine sand mixed with oil of tartar; 
then polish. 

PICTURE FRAMES, To Prevent Plus 
From Injuring. — Boil three or four onions in a 
pint of water : then with a gilding brush do over 
your glasses and frames, and the flies will not 
alight on the article so washed. Tliis may be 
used without apprehension, as it will not do the 
least injury to the frames. 

PICTURES, il<r^ To IIang.~The worst 
position in which a painting can be placed is 
directly opposite a window, as its surface so re- 
flects the light that the olyect cannot be seen 
except from a side view. The picture ought to 
be hung so as to allow the light from the win< 
dow to fall upon it firom the same side in which 
the artist saw or imagined the picture to appear 
in nature ; that is to savi the shadows in the pic- 
ture ought to be on that side of the objects which 
is opposite to the direction from which the light 
comes ; for example, in the case of a tree or 
house, if the window is on the right hand the 
shadows on the picture must be towards the left 
hand of the observer, as ifprojcclevi from the 
right side to the left, as would be the cose in 
nature if the light fell upon the light of the ol>> 
jccts perceived. 




II 



PLATE, Hmo To CUan.—Xn the first place 
every particle of grease must be removed by 
means of a thorough hot soap suds in which is 
dissolved a small bit of cooking soda^ it must 
Ihen lie thoroughly rinsed in clear warm water, 
and wiped wiih a dry soft towel or a piece of 
wash leather. It may then be rubbed with fine 
whiting with a bit of flannel or chamois skin ; tf 
tliere are i^tains on the plate the whiting should 
be rubbed on mixed with water or a litHe sweet 
oil and allowed to remain several hours, but if 
the silver is merely tarnished il will be sufRcieat 
to give it a dry palish by using the whiting of 
very fine plate powder, dry, and iiolishing by a 
soft wash leather, cleansing the cnascd portions 
with a sofl brisUe brush. 

All plate and silver in common use should be 
cleaned at leut once a week, but too severe rub- 
bing will soon wear out even the celebrated 
Shemeld plate. 

Plate snould be well proleded in a dry closet 
or drawer; .1 box lined wilh flannel is ine best 
miiclc. The practice of leaving plate exi>osed 
on the side board is injurious to. the plate, from 
the fact that there exists in the air a portion of 
sulphureted hydrogen gas, which turns the sil* 
vcr black. 

Another habit of melting off spermaceti from 
candle-sticks by placing them near the fire is also 
destructive; if moderately hot water will not re - 
'move the grease, a little alcohol wilL 
' POTS, {IRONS To Mtnd.—^xx finely sifted 
lime with some white of an egg, till a thin kind 
of paste is formed, then add sumc iron filings. 
Apply this to the fracture, and the vessel will l>c 
found nearly as i>uund as ever. 

PUTTY, Ta AVitioty.— Putly that has Iwcome 
hardened may be rendered soft, so as to be 
easily removed, by the application of a hot iron 
to it. In this way it may l>c readily removed, 
where glass is broken, without injury to ihcsash. 
UMBRELLAS, To Make Last Twice As 
Lang As Usual. — Most persons, when ihcy come 
in from the rain, put their umbrclbs in the rack 
with the handle upward. They should put it 
downward; because when the handle is upward 
the water runs down inside to the place where 
the ribs arc joined to the handle, ana cannot get 
out, but stays rotting the cloth and rusting uic 
teetal until slowly dried awny. Tlic wire &ccur- 
iDg the ribs soon rusts and breaks. If placed the 
other end up, the water readily runs on, and the 
umbrella dries almost immediately. 

VENTILATION, Him casUy to secure.— 
For ventilation, open your windows at top and 
bottom. The fresii air rushes in one way and 
the foul air makes its exdt by the other. 

RAZOR STRAP, To Renr.t}.-'\L\ih clean tal- 
low over the surface, then ftpply the fine snuflings 
of a candle, or rub the strap "with soft pewter or 
lead. 

RiBpONS OR SILK, To AV^/.— In pulling 
a;way ribbons or silk, wrap or fold them in coarse 
brown paper, which, as it contains a portion ot 
tar or turpentine, will preserve the color of the 
Rrticle, and prevent white silk from turning yel- 
low. The chloride of lime used in manufacturing 
white paper renders it improper to'keep silks in, 
as it frequently causes them to spot or to change 
color. 

RUG, To Make a. — A very economical rug 

can be made in the following manner : take coffcc- 

ARoU Bad sew together oi the required sine. 



which fasten upon a rough frame of lath nailed 
together. Trace n design in the center — for in- 
stance a diamond, and a wavetl or pointed bor- 
der. Geometrical designs are usually prettier 
than those miserable, stiff masses called nowers. 
To work this sadcing as if it were canvas, prepare 
balk of assorted rags sewed together, as for ctr- 
jwls, except that they must be cut evenly and not 
more than half an inch wide ; wind each color in 
a separate ball. Now take a large hook — you can 
manufacture one from a piece of wire. Pot the 
strip to be worked underneath, and insert the 
hook from the upper side, catch the strip below, 
and draw it up through the foundation about one 
half an inch, making a loop; put Ihe hook through 
ihe next diagonal place, and draw up another 
loop; proceed in this way. following the outline 
of the center design. Three times around is 
enough of the outline color ; then work the out- 
line of the border, and fill up the margin, FQl 
up ihe inside figure with a contrasting color. 
^Jcxt work the comers; and fill up the ground 
with a dark color. Remove fi-om frame and hem 
the edges underneath the work. This rug is 
durable, and can be mode quite handsome, with 
good colors. 

RUGS, {SHEEPSKIN) To C/««.— Make 
a very strong lather, by boiling soap in a little 
water, mix this with a sufficient quantity of water 
(rather more than luke-warm), to wash the mat 
or rug in, and rub boiled soap on those ponions 
of it which require additional clecnsing. When 
the mat has been well washed in this water, pre- 
pare another talher in the same way, in which a 
second washing must take place, followed by a 
third, which ought to be sufficient to dcante it 
thoroughly. Rinse it well in cold water until 
all the soap is removed, and then put it in water 
in which a little blue has been mixed, sufficient 
(0 keep the wool of a good while, and prevent its 
inclining to yellow. After this it should be 
tburuugnly wrung, «duikcn, and hung out in the 
open air with the skin part towards the sun, but 
not while it is scorching, otherwise the skin will 
become hard. It must also be shaken often while 
drying, for if not it will be quite stiff and craddy. 
It should be frequently turned, being hung np 
first by one end and tiicn by the other, until it 
has dried entirely. 

SILVER, To Give Luster To. — Dissolve a 
quantity of oJum in water, so as to make a pretty 
strong brine, and skim it carefully; then add 
some soap to it, and dip a linen rag in it, and nib 
over the silver. 

SILVER ORNAMENTS, Ttf C/««.— BoU 
them in soap and water for five minutes; then 
put them in a basin with the same hot soap and 
water, and scrub them gently with a very wft 
brush while hot; then rinse and dry with a Unen 
rag. Heat a piece of common ungl.-ued earthen 
ware, or a piece of brick or tile in the fire; take 
il off, and place the ornaments upon it for the 
purpose of dr)*ing them, and causing every par- 
ticle of moisture to evaporate; as the moisture, 
which otherwise would remain on the silver, will 
cause it to lamiiih, onassume a greenish hue. All 
ornaments, whether gold or silver, can be kept 
from tarnishing if they are carefully covered from 
the air in boxwood sawdust, which will also dry 
them after being washed. 

SIL VER PLA TE, To Take Stains OtU Of. 
— Steep the plate in soap lyes for the space of 
four hours; then cover il over with whiting, wet 



I 



with vinegar, so that it may stick thick upon it, 
and dry it by a fire; after which rub off the 
whiting and pass it over with dry bran, and the 
spot& will not only di>a|>i)ear, but the plate will 
look exceedingly bright. 

SPOTS, OKEASE, To Remave.^x, Take 
bentinc, 30 ounces ; alcohol (strong), 5 ounces ; 
ether, 2 drachms ; ammonia, i drachm. — 2. {_7<3- 
vetU icatrr.) Take bleaching powder, l ounce; 
GBrbonatc of potossa, l ounce ; water, 33 ounces. 
Tritnrate the bleaching powder in the cold with 
35 ounces of water, then add the carbonate of 
potassa, previously dissolved in the rest of the 
water» wake well and let it settle. The super- 
natant liquor is filtered, if necessary, and mixed 
with one ounce of hydrochloric acid, when it is 
tcady for use. 

SPOTS, (,G/iEAS£) To take out of Silk, 
— Take a lump of magnesia, and rub it wet over 
the s(X)t; let It dry, then brush the powder off, 
and the spot will disappear; or, take a visiting 
card, hcpaxaic it, and rub the spot with the soft 
tnteraal port, aoicl it will disappear without taking 
the gloas off the silk. 

STA/XS OF NITRA TE OF SIL P'ER, Tc 
Jiemavr. — Grimm states in a German journal that 
dtloride of copper completely removes nitrate of 
«!v« stains from colored cotton cloth. It should 
a^crward be washed with hyposulphite of soda, 
and tlicn thoroughly woshcd with water. Such 
stains ore more effectually removed from while 
coilon or linen cloth, by applying I0 it a dilute 
ftolotion of permanganate of potash and hydro- 
chlonc acid, which is to be followed by washing 
with bj-posulphitc of soda and plain water. This 
proccu renders the use of the highly poisonous 
CTBBide of potassium unaeccs&ary. 

STEEL ARTICLES, To Pnserve from 
Ruxi, when net in Use — Sleigh runners, skates, 
Ac, which are only used for a limited time during 
the year, may be effectually prcse^^'cd from rust 
by a coating of cummnn lard and pulverized black 
lad, containing a little cnmphor. 

STEEL, ToRemo-.e j^7/.V7'//wr/.— This can 
lie done by a free application of kerosene oil, 
allovrinc the oU to remain on until the rust is 
loosened, and can be rublwd off. 

STOPPER iC/ass) To Reiftir'r.—Apply hot 
water to the neck of the bottle, which will expand, 
while the stopper retains its fomter temperature 
and Itecnmcs loose. 

STOy£SffL.-iCA'EVG.—Ji\acking for stoves 
may be made with \^ a pound of black lead finely 
powdered, and (to make it stick) mix with it (he 
whiles of 3 eggs well beaten ; then dilute it with 
icoor beer or porter till it becomes as thin as 
>h»v> i-i. ■•■ after stirring it, set it over hot 
coo! I for ao minutes ; when cold it may 

be I.. . 

TAdiLLS, To remmv Marks from* — If a 
whitish mark i« left on a table, by carelessly set- 
pitcher of boiling water, or a hot dish, 
lamp oil on the s^jot, and rub it hard 
cloth. Then pour on a lilllc spirits 
0^ vfeie or olocne wntcr, and rub it dry with 
aa ottiei cloth. The while mark will thus dis- 
■ Ppe ar , ami the table look as well as ever. 

TAR, PITCH OR TURPENTINE, To Re- 
wt0Ct. — Scrape off as much a:i you can ; then wet 
the pJUcc thoroughly with gfxxl salad oil, and let 
Si icxnain for twenty*four hours. If linen or 
ctrttOO wash it out in strong warm soap-suds; if 



woollen or silk, take out the oil with ether or 
spirits of wine. 

Tf the slain is of tar, you may remove it (after 
scraping and wiping), ny using cold tallow in- 
stead of sweet on. Rub and press well on the 
spot a small lump of good tallow, and leave it 
sticking there till next day. Then proceed as 
above. 

TEA-KETTLE^ To Chan.^Vwt into the 
tea-kettle a 6al oyster-shell. and keep it constantly 
there. It will attract the stony particles that are 
in the ivater to its.elf, and jirevcnl their forming 
upon the tea-kctllc. 

TIN, Ilmo To Clean, — Never use lye to clean 
tin, it will soon spoil it. Make it clean with 
suds, and rub it with whiting, and it will look 
well, and last much longer. 

TIN-PANS, How To Mem/.— Thh can be 
done quickly and easily by the use of putty, and 
is much better than to throw them away. Put 
it on the outside ; let it dry thoroughly, and ihcy 
will never need mending m the same place again. 

PVALLS{VAMP), Remtdyfor.—Na. excellent 
remedy for damp walls is washing them with a 
strong solution of alum. 

WALL-PAPER, To Extract Grease Stains 
from, — Oil marks can be taken from the paper 
on drawing-room walls, and marks where |>eople 
have rested their heads, by mixing pipeclay wuh 
water to the consistency of cream, laying il on 
the spot, and letdng it remain till the following 
day, when it may be easily removed with a pen- 
knife or Inrush. 

iVAIER, How To 7>j/.— Mechanical im- 
purities in water are removed only by filtration ; 
chemical impurities cannot be removed tn this 
manner. If lime is supposed to be present in 
water, the best test is to mix with it a small quan- 
tity of oxalic acid in a small vessel ; lime, if pres- 
ent, will be re^■ealcd in a white precipitate. Car- 
bonate of iron is best detected by the tincture of 
SlIIs, which produces a black precipitate. If 
e penknife, dipped in water, assumes a yellow- 
ish coating, copper is present. The be^l method 
of detecting the presence of vegetable and animal 
matter is by dropping into il a small quantity of 
sulphuric acid ; the water becomes black. 

HA 7'ER, Puri/ieation ef.— Mr. Booth, of 
Birmingham, England, has lately made known a 
very simple process for disengaging from water 
all organic mailers. By this meihod il is suflfi- 
cienl to prepare a neutral solution of bj-stilphate 
of alumina, and add ihe water to be purined in 
the proportion of one ounce to 435 gallons. As 
soon as this is done, a cloud is formed in the li- 
quor, and flocks rapidly descend, taking to the 
bottom all organic matters, and <lcbarnissing the 
waler of all coloring matter, and disagreeable 
taste and smell. In six or eight hours the deposit 
is complete. The principle of this operation is 
the Mlowing: All water contains bi-carbonate of 
lime, in a more or less proportion. The sul- 
phuric acid of the bi-sulpnate of alumina inm- 
bines with the lime to form a sulphate of lime 
nearly insoluble, which is precipitated. The 
hydrate of alumina becomes free, and .01 ms with 
tHe organic matters an insoluble product. The 
carbonic add of the bi-'Carbonate is set free and 
communicates to the water an agreeable taste. 
For very hard waters, it is sufllicient to add to 
them a very weak dose of bi<rar)x)natc of soda, 
to entirely free them of their etcess of lime. 
WATER {Mu^iiy) To C/<fln.— Vi^ti ciOtwa- 



«64 



dictionahv of every-day wants. 



_ rise pure, but canUmiiiated simply with clay (as 
'may DC the case with the water of rivers after 
heavy rain or fall of snow), brcomcs at once clari. 
fied by very minute quantities of some salts of 
lime; one tnousandth part of chloride of caldum 
for one part of water effects thii purpose in a 
moment ; ibe nitrate, bi-carbonatc, and cau&tic 
lime act in the same manner. TIic prccipiuted 
^lubstance may be readily >.cixiralcd from the wa- 
'tcr by filtration, whereas the fiUration of the wa- 
!r containing the sunpendcd matter is very diffi- 
It, because the pores of liie fdters lMx:omc 
'chokni. *I"he practical importance of tliis matter 
is very great, since it is, for instance, a well- 
known fact that the water of some river* docs 
not, in winter time, and dftcr heavy ratn-lolt or 
snow-storms, become quilc clear, even if left at 
rest in large ponds for a considerable lime. 

WATER FILTER^ Home- made — K^t\ 
water is much healthier than hard water as a bev- 
[etagc; and the following will be found an easy 
td cheap way to fit it for drinking purposes: 
Have an oak tub made, holding from half, to 
a Inrrel, according to the amount of water needed 
in the family; let it stand on end, with a faucet 
r the bottom ; or, I prefer a hole through the 
torn, near the front side, with a tube in which 
prevents the water from rotting the outside of the 
tub; then put dean pebbles 3 or 4 inches in 
thickness over the bottom of the tub; now have 
^charcoal pulverized to the size of small peas (th;it 
le from hard maple is best) and put in half a 
bushel or so at a time; pound it down quite 
firmly, then put in more and pound again until 
the tub is filled to within 8 inches of the top ; and 
•gain put on 2 inches more of pebbles; then put 
a piece of clean white flannel over the whole top 
AS a strainer. 

The flannel can be W3.<ihed occasionally, to re- 
move the impurities collected from the water, and 
it might be well to put % flannel between the 
i.|)ebbles and charcoal at the bottom alM). When 
^['the charcoal becomes foul, it can be renewed as 
before, but will work a year without renewing. 

WINDOWS^ To C/«fl.— Remove stains and 
dust with soap and water, then apply with a 
moistened rag powdered indigo, rotten-stone, or 
fuller's earth. Dry with a soft cotton cloth. 

WINDOW GLASS, To Prrjent tk* Sun 
from Passing Through. — Pound gum tragacanth 
to a powder, and put it, for twentv-four hours, 
to dissoh'c in white of eggs, well-beaten. I-ay 
a coat of this on your glass with a soft brush, and 
lei it dry. 

WINDOW SASHES, To Prnrnt Ratiiing, 
—The sashes in very many costly and elegant 
dwellings are frequently so loose from some 
cause, that when winds blow even gently they 
will rattle aod bang from stop to stop, like the 



uings 

-% 

■plaiic^^ll 

hoiUd 



shrunken and decayed portions of some foruken 
and dilapidated castle. Tlie remedy is by no 
means difficult or expensive. Let the sashes be 
taken out of the window frame, and every part 
of the window examined. If the jamb-c3;^ngs 
have been sprung, or ore war[>ed and twist 
the first step will be to remote the stops 
straighten the (ace of the cas>ings, which 
done moat conveniently with a Urge rabbet-' 
and a siniK>thing-pUnc. In case the sashes sf 
he much too narrow for the frame, let one edge 
be dressed off true, and a tiiin strip fitted ncatl^, 
and glued and nailed to the edge of one stile. 
See that the outside edge of such stile is not ta- 
pering, even by the thickness of a heavy shaving. 
When the stile are tapering only a trifle, the 
sashes cannot be moved up and down easily. 
Now put tlie upi«r sash in its place, and fasten 
the central stoji with two or three long, slender 
wood screws, after which remove the outside 
slops and place them so closely to the stiles ol 
the sash that the window w ill not ratde. Then 
let the stops be secured on the inside so closely 
to the stiles of tlie sash that will move up and 
down easily, without hnWnc so much play that 
the wind will rattle it. When the sasJics have 
been fitted as directed, tlicre will be no mare 
need of "weather strips" of any kind to exclude 
dust and cold air, ana the expense of refitting a 
window as directed will be much less than uic 
cost of weather strips. 

WIN DO W SASHES, To Kttp in Piatt.'- 
These may be kept up without sash-lines and 
pulleys, by means of cork, in the sioiplcst manner, 
and with scarcely any expense. Bore three or 
four holes in the sides of trie sash, into wliich in- 
sert common bottle corks, prelecting about the 
sixteenth part of an inch. These will presis 
against the window -frames, along the u^iul 
groove, and by their elasticity support the »ash at 
any height which may be requireo. 

WE/ai/TS A ND ME A SC'RES //tmieioU, 
— Wlieat flour weighs one pound to a quart. 
Indian meal, one pound two ounces to a quart. 
Butter, when soft, one pound to a quarL Ixuf 
sugar, broken, one pound to a quarL White 
sugar, powdered, one pound one ounce toa quart. 
Eggs, average size, ten to a pound. 

WOOD {Nfuf) To Rimave Tajtt /rom.—\ 
new keg, churn, bucket, or other wooden vessel 
nill generally communicate a disagreeable odor 
to anything that is put into it. To prevent this 
inconvenience first scald the vessel with boilii 
water, letting the water remain in it till col 
Then dissolve somepcarlash orsodainlokewai 
water, adding a little bit of lime to it, and wash th( 
inside of the vessel well with the solution. After- 
ward scald it wcU with plain hot water, and liuse 
it with cold n-ater before you use it. 



HOUSEHOLD PETS. 



AVTARY, The, — Strictly speaking, an avbry 

is a considerable space fitted up and adapted to 

anromAiodale a large number and variety of birds 

remarkable for their singing qualities, the beauty 



of their plumage, or other peculiarities. An 
aviary, as a matter of course, is a large c^e in 
which an attempt is made to give a uaiuraj ap- 
pearance to the interior of the place where the 



HOUSEHOLD PETS. 



I 
I 



feathered pruoners are confined. Fercbes re- 
sembling the bmnchcs of trees, grass, moss, 
various pl&nU, patches of gravel or sand, a rill 
of dear water, seclude^l places for nests — in a 
word, everything is provided that the birds can