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The utility of geographical works is so generally admitted, that it 
seems unnecessaiy to endeavour, by any lengthened statements, to 
conciliate the favourable opinion of the reader by dwelling on their 
merits. There are few so incurious as not to wish to learn something 
of the state of foreign countries, especially of those with which their 
own nation is connected, or which have been celebrated in history. The 
desire to gratify this laudable curiosity has, in all ages, prompted indi- 
\'idual8 to visit foreign countries ; and has made the works of voyagers 
and travellers be eagerly sought after. But the situation of most 
people precludes the possibility of their leaving their native country ; 
while few of those who do travel can survey more than a small part of 
the earth's surface. Neither is it possible adequately to supply this 
want of personal knowledge by resorting to the relations of traveUers. 
These are firequently contradictory and inconclusive ; the statements 
in them are usually, also, limited in their application, and are not 
always to be depended on ; and, though it were otherwise, the command 
of many hundred volumes, and the free disposal of one's time, would 
be necessary to enable an individual to acquire, by their means, even a 
superficial acquaintance with the different regions of the earth. Hence 
the utility of geographical works, compiled with due care and know- 
ledge : they embody the information scattered in the accounts of 
travellers, in topographical works, and in official returns and other 
public and private documents ; sift and distribute it under its proper 
heads ; and lay it before the reader in a condensed form, disencumbered 
from superfluous or irrelevant matter. 

Systematical works, or those in which the various details with respect 
to the physical, moral, and political state of a country or district are 
arranged in their natural order, in a consecutive narrative, are probably 
the best adapted for the use of the student and scientific reader. But 
Dictionaries are much more convenient, and better fitted for public 
use. When arranged in alphabetical order they are ea^^y of consulta- 


tion ; and, if properly compiled, the articles in thorn arc not connected 
or mixed up with others, but are separately complete, supplying the 
inquirer with independent, and, at the same time, precise and well- 
authenticated information. Such works seem, from the extreme diver- 
sity and interest of the subjects treated of, peculiarly fitted to ' excite 
curiosity by their variety, to encourage diligence by their facility, and 
to reward application by their usefulness/ We need not, therefore, 
wonder that tliey liavo generally, even when their execution has been 
very indifferent, enjoyed a large share of populanty. 

It is necessary to observe, that we have not attempted to supply the 
reader with a complete Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Dic- 
tionary. We have proceeded on a principle of selection ; and, instead 
of noticing unimportant places and objects, have endeavoured to notice? 
those only that might reasonably be expected to interest the reader. A 
work of this class on any other plan would necessarily extend to many 
volumes, and would embrace multitudinous details of no general im- 
portance. In illustration of what has now been stated, we may men- 
tion that the Grand Dicfionnaire Qeogniphujue, UUfonqne et Critique^ 
by Bruzen de la Martiniere, which aims at consideitible completeness, 
occupies no fewer than six huge folio volumes ; and, gigantic as this 
may seem, it is far surpassed by the German edition of the same work, 
which extends to thirteen similar volumes. Though on a compressed 
and far more judicious plan, the Dictiomuure Gcotjraj^hiqye UnlvcrsrJ^ 
Paris, 1823-1833, occupies ten thick octavo volumes. It is needless to 
say that works of this size are quite unsuitable to the great majority of 
readers ; and it has been our object, by excluding articles and stati*- 
ments of little interest, to keep our work within reasonable limits, and 
to allow, at the same time, sufficient space for treating the more im- 
portant articles at adcquato length. It is also necessary to bear in 
mind, that this being a work intended for the especial use of English- 
men, we have dwelt at greatest length on the articles and details we 
presumed most likely to interest them. Hence we have appropriated 
a much larger space to the description of our Eastern possessions, and 
of our colonies in different parts of the world, than they may appear, on 
other grounds, properly entitled to. On the same principle, we have 
lengthened the accounts of those countries and places with which our 
countrymen have the greatest intercourse, or which have acquired 
celebrity by the historical associations connected with them, and have 
proportionally shortened the others. 

Without neglecting ihe physical geography of the different countries 
and places, we have directed our principal attention to what has been 
called their political geography, — that is, their industiy, institutions, 
and the condition of their inhabitants. Neither have we attempted to 
confine ourselves within what might, perhaps, be called the limits of a 
strictly geographical and statistical work. Wherever the occasion 
seemed to justify it, we have not scrupled te commend and censure, as 
well as to describe ; and have endeavoured to appreciate the influence 
of institutions and habits of national welfai'C. The histoncal notices 


are neoessarilj brief, and, unless in the more important articles, are 
mostly restricted to an enumeration of leading events. 

Our object being to supply a work of easy reference to the public at 
large, we have, in general, given our notices of countries and places 
under the names by which they are commonly known in England. 
This plan does not involve any want of scientific precision ; though if 
it did, the defect would be much more than compensated by its being 
better adapted for public use. There are not veiy many readers who 
would think of looking for Leghorn under Lworno, or for Munich 
under Munchen ; and among the many thousands who might wish to 
iicquire some information respecting the present state of the Dead Sea, 
there are not, perhaps, as many dozens who would seek for it under its 
Arabic name of Bahr-eULout. 

It did not enter into our plan systematically to notice countries or 
places as they existed in antiquity. But, wherever it was supposed 
that such notices would be likely to interest the general reader, we 
have not hesitated to introduce them. Our object, in fact, was not so 
much to compile a dictionary on strictly scientific principles, and that 
should be perfectly homogeneous in its parts, as to produce one that 
might be relied on, that should omit few articles of importance, and 
that ordinary readers should find generally instructive and interesting. 

None can be more fully satisfied than we are of the extreme difficulty 
of accomplishing even this much. In a work embracing so great a 
variety of statements, many of them relating to matters in regard to 
which it is frequently all but impossible to acquire correct information, 
perfect accuracy need not be looked for. But we can honestly say that 
we have spared no pains to make our work worthy of the reader's con- 
fidence ; and would fain hope that its errors are not such as sensibly to 
detract from its utility. 


LoNDox : January 1841. 




In this new and revised edition of Mr. M*Culloch*8 Dictmuirff, the 
changes have been marked which the world has undergone in the lapse 
of a quarter of a century. Short as is the time, these changes have 
been neither few nor unimportant. Whole kingdoms have disappeared 
from the political map of the globe ; empires have refixed their bound- 
aries, and nations have reformed their existence. In the course of less 
than a generation of men, an immense network of iron roads has come 
to encircle the civilised world ; vast navies of commerce have been 
launched upon the ocean; and races the most distant have been 
brought together by the new agents of progress — steam and electricity. 
To register all these marvellous innovations, without altering the 
character of the Dictionary^ has been the duiy of the present editor, 
who must plead, in extenuation of sins of omission and commission, 
the last paragraph of Mr. M'Culloch's preface. 


L(>xi>oN : January 186G. 

Vou I. 


1. THE WORLD to face title-page 

2. AFRICA „ page 27 

3. AMERICA, NORTH „ „ 91 

4. A3IERICA, SOUTH , ,,9; 

5. ASIA , ,,197 

6. AUSTRALASIA „ ,.259 




A A, the name of about forty small riven in 
France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the 
states of Germany. The wide dififusion of the 
name seems to prove that it is derived from the 
old Teutonic word si^^nifying stream, or, simply, 
water. Besides the forty rivers called Aa, there 
are a dozen more ending in this name. Such are 
the Hoopster-Aa, and Uie Ladbeiger-Aa, both in 
IIano%*er; the Bredevorder-Aa, in Holland; the 
Veile-Aa, in Denmark; and the Arl-Aa and 
Scholm-Aa, in Schleswig. 

AALBOKG, an old town of Denmark, cap. 

diocese anc baiUwick, and the principal town m 

Jutland, situated about 17 m. irom the sea, on the 

8. side of the channel of the Lymfiord, or great 

internal gull^ entering from the Cattc^t, near 

where it beghis to expand into an extensive lake. 

LaL 570 y 32" N., long. S© 66' 41" E. Pop. 10,070 

in }f<60. Aalboig is tne termmal station of the 

railway from Teensburg to the north of Jutland, 

opened in 1865. The town is intersected by two 

anall rivers, and surrounded by ditches; it is the 

•eat of a bL<hopric, has a gymnasium or college, an 

epuvopal library with 11,000 vols., a school of 

navigation, and'an hospital and two workhouses. 

Exclusive of distilleries and breweries, it has 

Tnsnnfactnrea of soap, fish-oil, fiie-arms, refined 

nfrar, leather, and silk, with a considerable 

amoant of shipping and trade: principal exports 

com, floor, fish, butter, and spints. Formerly it 

vu accessible to large vessels; but owing to the 

irradnal filling op of the channel of the Lymfiord, 

it is now accessible only to the smaller class of 

Dercbantmen, or those not drawing more than 9 

nr 1 feet water. Aalboig means Ecltown ; a name 

(ierived from the immense number of eels that are 

(rand in the waters in its vicinity. 

AALEN, a town of WUrtemberg, circ Jaxt, 
csp. bailiwick, formerly a ftee imperial dty, on 
Uie Kocher, 42 m. £. Stutgard, on the railway 
from Stuttgard to Nuremberg. Pop. 4,272 in 1861. 
The town is surrounded by walls flanked with 
ii^ towers; has manufactures of wool and cotton, 
and breweries There are extensive forests in the 
environs, and iron minea. 

A4LSMEK, a villa^ of Holland, E. side of the 
tta of Haarlem, 10 miles S\V. Amsterdam. Pop. 
tffHi in 18G1. The village is famous for its straw- 
benin, grown in immense quantities, for expor- 

AALTEN, a village of the Netherhmds, Guel- 
Mmd, 74 miles SSW. Groenla Pop. 6,038 in 


1861. There are linen factories; also tanneries 
and oO-milla. 

AAK, a river of Switzerland, the most consider- 
able in that country after the Rhone and Rhine. 
Its principal sources are in the glaciers of the 
Schreckhom and Grimsel mountains in Berne, 
near the source of the Rhone. Having united ita 
different arms near Meyringen, it flows thence 
through the lakes of Brienz and Thun. Escaping 
from the latter, it takes a northerly direction tiU 
it reaches Berne; it then turns W. till havii^ re- 
ceived its tributary, the Saane; it flows NE. by 
Aarfoerg, Soleure, and Aaran, till it unites with the 
Rhine, opposite to Waldshut. Its most important 
tributaries are, on the riffht, the Emme, Reuss, 
and Limmat; and on the left, the Saane, already 
noticed, and the Thiele. Its course is about 170 
m. It becomes navigable on emerging from lake 
Thun. In the upper part of its course it dashes 
along with great fury, and is precipitated over 
several waterfalls. — Aar also is the name of two 
small rivers in Waldeck. 

AARAU, a town of Switzerland, cap. cant. 
Aargau, on the Aar, 1,140 feet above the level of 
the sea, 23 m. SE. Basel, on the railway firom 
Basel to Lucerne. Pop. 5,094 in 1860. The town 
is well built, has a gymnasium, a school of art, a 
teminarium or normal school for the instruction of 
teachers, a pubUc or cantonal Ubrary, a society of 
national instruction, with manufactures of rilk 
and cotton, a cannon foundry, and bleach-fields. 
A station on the Central Swiss railway, from the 
Lake of Constance to the Lake of Geneva, (^)ened in 
1862, has done much towards increasing the manu- 
facturing activity. The peace, whidi terminated 
the civil war of 1712, was concluded here. 

AARGAU, or ARGOVIA, the 16th of the Swiss 
cantons, separated by the Rhine from Baden, 
having the canton of Zurich on the E., that of 
Lucerne on the S., and Solenre and Basel on the 
W. Area 502 sq. m. Pop. 194,600 in 1860, being 
397 persons to the square mile ; or, next to Basel 
and Geneva, the densest populated canton of the re- 
public. The mountains m this canton do not attain 
to any very great height, and it possesses a con- 
siderable extent of fertile land. It is traversed 
by the Aar, whence it derives its name, and by 
its important tributaries the Reuss and Limmat. 
The country is well cultivated, and the produce 
of wheat and other grain exceeds the consumption : 
there are numerous vineyards .with abundance of 
.garden and orchard fHiit. The rearing of cattle 


and sheep is not found to be prodnctlvc, but thev 
are advantageously fattened in the meadows, which 
are both extensive and excellent. Manufacturer 
have made great progress. The principal is that 
of cotton, next to it is silk, and then follow linen, 
straw-platting, and the manufacture of machinery. 
Cottons arc still in part woven in the cottages of 
the peasants or small labouring farmers. The 
canton is dl>«tinguished by the attention it has 
paid to education. Every district of 120 children 
roust have at least one primary and one superior 
schooL In every circle (Bezirk), the population 
being from 15,000 to 20,000, there are from five to 
six secondary schools. There is also in the capital 
a gymnasium, a school of arts, and a normal 
school for the instruction of teachers. The expense 
of the schools is defrayed partly by the communes 
and partly by the state funds. In the g>'mna- 
sium and school of arts the state provides for the 
pa>'ment of fourteen professors and their assistants. 
AlK>ut three-tiflhs of the population, namely, 
104,167, are Protestants, and the rest Koman 
Catholics. The public revenue amounted to 
2,136,000 firs., or 86,440/. in the year 1864. About 
one-half this sum is derived from state property. 
The cantonal contingent to the diet is fixed at 
2,410 men. For an account of the government, 
see art. Switzkkland. Principal towns Aarau, 
Laufenberg, Baden, and Zoffingen. 

AARHUUS, a sea-port town of Denmark, cap. 
diocese and bailiwick of the same name, on the 
E. coast of Jutland, Ut. 66© 9' 35" N., long. 10° 
14' E. Pop. 11,009 in 1861. A railway, opened 
in 1864, connects Aarhuus with Aalborg in the 
north, and the chief towns of Schleswig-Holstcin 
in the south. The town is well built, has a large 
cathedral founded in 1201, a lyceum, a museum 
of antiquities, and a valuable diocesan library. 
Its commerce and industry have increased con- 
siderably of late vears. The exports consist prin- 
cipally of agricultural produce; with spirits and 
b^r, the produce of its distilleries and breweries ; 
and cloth and gloves. Considerable sums have 
recently been expended on the improvement of its 

yort, which has been rendered one of the best in 
utland. Packets sail regularly between it and 
Callundberg, on the west coast of Zealand. 

AARONSBURGH, a smaU town of the United 
States Centre Co., Pennsylvania, 51 miles NW. 
Harrisburg, on the railway from Harrisburg to 
Pittsburg. Pop. 1,276 in 1860. 

AASZV, the Orontes of Greek geographers, 
which see. 

AATYL. A toiiii or village of Syria, in the 
Haouran or Great Plain, extending S. from Da- 
mascus and E. from the mountains beyond Jordan, 
lat. 82° 16' N., long. 360 33' E. The inhabitants 
consist of Druses (see Libanus and Syria) , of the 
number probably of 200 or 300. Though now in- 
significant, the remains of ancient grandeur in its 
vicinity prove that Aatjrl was once a place of im- 
portance. These remains occupy a circuit of a 
mile, and in many instances are inhabited by the 
present population. W. of the town a perfect arch 
of very fine workmanship, with broken pillars and 
friezes, marks the site of a small but elegant 
temple. On the 8. another temple, almost entire, 
with a portico of four columns and an entrance 
beautifully and elaborately carved, has been con- 
verted into a private residence. Aatyl is 54 m. 
i direct distance) SSE. Damascus, and 48 m. E. 
jake of Tabaria, the Genesareth of the Bible. 

ABADEH, a large village of Persia, prov. Far- 
sistan, 115 m. X. Shiraz. Estimated pop. 2,000. 
It is surrounded by walls in a state of decay ; and 
is defended by a large SQu&rc fort, now containing 
the whole population. The ground in the neigh- 


bourhood is very fertile, and intersected by nume- 
rous watercourses and rivulets. (Ussher, Journey 
from Ix>ndon to Persepolis, 1805.) 

ABA KANSK, a town of Sil)cria, gov. Jcnnis- 
seisk, on the Abakan near the Jenissei. Pop. 1,250 
in 1858. On mount Isik, and other places in its 
environs, are found some of the most remarkable 
of those singular remains of former civilisation 
that are met with in many jilaoes of Southern 
Siberia, They consist principally of tumuli or 
tombs, which frequently contain ear-rings, brace- 
lets, and other ornaments and utensils of gold, 
silver, and copper, with iron stimips. Xear Aba- 
kansk are statues of men from 7 to 9 feet high, 
and covered with hieroglyphics, of which unfor- 
tunatelv no explanation has yet Ijeen given. 

ABANO or ALBANO, a village of Northern 
Italy, prov. Padua, 10 m. SW. Pa<hm. Pop. 3,0(58 
in 1861. This village derives its celebrity 
its hot springs and muds. It is situated near the 
Euganean hills, in a place markcil with some low 
eminences, whence issue copious springs of water 
capable at their source of boiling an egg (piite 
hard. The waters are partly employed to prepare 
and soften mud, partly to supplv the baths, and 
partly go to waste, or turn a mi^l which revolves 
amid volumes of smoke. They are supposed to be 
efficacious in cases of palsy, rheumatism, and a 
varietv of complaints. The mud is applied hot to 
the a^ected part, somewhat after the manner of 
taking a stucco cast ; and the baths are reganled 
principally as an auxiliary to the * dirty ' ap])li- 

These baths were well-known to, and much used 
bv, the Romans. They were called Fatarinte 
Aqua, the principal source being distinguished 
by the name of Avtmus font, whence their modem 
name has evidently l)een dcriveii 

Aponns terris ubi fumifcr exit. 

Lucan, vii. 1. 194. 

A branch line of railway places Abano in com- 
munication with Venice and Mantua. 

ABB, a town of Arabia, in the Dsjebcl, or moun- 
tain land of Yemen, lat 13° 58' N., long. 44° hV E., 
95 m. S. Sanaa, 73 m. NE. Mocha, and 104 m. 
NW. Aden. Number of houses said to be alK)ut 
800, which at an average of 6 individuals to each 
gives a pop. of nearly 5,000. It is built on the 
summit of a mountain ; is surrounded bv a strong 
and well-built wall ; and overlooks a well-watered 
(for Arabia) and extremely fertile countrj'. Houses 
(as usual in the mountain towns of Yemen) of 
stone; streets well paved, which, in this country, 
is very uncommon. An aqueduct convevs water 
from a mountain at a little distance on the N. to 
a large reservoir in front of the principal mosque. 

ABBEVILLE, a thriving industrious town, in 
the NW. of France, dep. Somme, cap. arrond. on 
the navigable river of that name, 25 m. NW. 
Amiens, on the railway from Paris to Boulogne 
and Calais. Pop. 20,058 in 1861. The to^-n is 
neat and well-built; is regularly fortified on the 
s\'stem of Vauban ; and has, exclusive <jf the old 
Gothic church of St Vulfran, several public build- 
ings worthy of notice and a public library. A 
fine cloth manufactory was established here in 
1669, bv a Dutchman of the name of Van Kohais, 
under the auspices of Colbert; and Abbeville had 
ever since continued to be distinguished as one 
of the most industrious towns in France. liesides 
black cloths of the best quality, with serges and 
barracans, there are produced calicoes and stock- 
ings, sackings, packtliread, cordage, and jeweller^'. 
It has also establishments for the spinning of 
wool, print works and bleaching works, tanneries, 
soap works, a glass work, and a paper manufac- 
tory. The tide rises in the Somme about 7 feet, 


and vessels of frum 200 to 250 tons come up to 
the town. Beinf; si tuated in the cen tre of a fruitful 
ciHintry, an<l communicating by railway with all 
the m(»«t important towns of France and Belgium, 
AljUfville has a considerable commerce. 

ABBIATEGRASSO, a town of Northern Italy, 
prov. Pavia, on the canal of I^r^uardo, 14 m. 
WSW. Milan. Pop. 8,263 in IHCl. The town is 
ffirtified: and its position has made it be always 
ivpudcd of considerable importance in a military 
point of view. 

ABBS HEAD (ST.), a promontory on the E. 
coast of Scotland, being the most southerly point 
.»f the Frith of Forth, lat 66° 54' 50" N., long. 
2® 8* 20" W. 

ABD-l'L-AZIM, a village of Persia, at the foot 
of the hiUs in the neighbourhood of Teheran. Near 
it stands a lofty tower built of brick, in a very 
peculiar form, supposed to have been erected by 
Older of the first of the Sassanian kings, in com- 
memoration of a great victonr over the Parthians. 
(XTssher, Journey from London to Persepolis, p. 

ABEIJ^, ABIL, or ABILA, a town of S^-ria, in 
the Haouran, on the Sheriaiti'Mandhour (anc. 
HUromax), one of the largest affluents of the 
Jordan, lat ^^ 4T X., long. 360 £. it is now in 
a rainoos and dilapidated state, having probably 
not more than from 100 to 150 inhabitants; but 
fbfmerly it was a place of considerable import^ 
ance, tieing the capital of and giWng its name to 
one of the six departments (Abilene) into which 
the Romans divided the countrv E. of Jordan. 
Some broken pillars and overt^irown columns 
evince its ancient grandeur ; but none of its old 
liuildings remain entire, and it is preserved from 
dey^tion only bv ita vicinity to the water, which 
ivfiders it a desirable residence for the few Arab 
families bv whom it is still occupied. 

port, manufacturing town, and parL bor. of Scot- 
iaml^ CO. Angus or Forfar, at the mouth of the 
Broth<»ck water, on the railway from Dundee to 
Atierdeen. Pop. 14^568 in 1841, and 17,593 in 1861. 
ArhnMith unites with Brechin, Bervie, and Mon- 
trriHe, in returning a m. to H. of C. ParL constituency 
€6^ in 1864. It has a parish church and two chapels 
of eaM% with churches for Episcopalians, Seceders, 
Metho<liiit«, and Independents. The other public 
baiklings are the town-house, the trades-hall, the 
pnbUc schools, and the signal tower, which com- 
manicates with the Bell-Rock lighthouse distant 
about 12 miles. The town has a secure though 
■nail harbour, frequented, in the year 1863, by 453 
TCHseLs of 31,042 tonSb The corporation revenue, 
in li*63-4, amotmted to 1,500/!. The town owes 
its pn>sperity to the flax manufacture; nearly 
half the population being employed in the spin- 
ninif, dressmg, weaving, and bleaching of coarse 
Knen gooiU. Some of the miUs are driven by the 
littfe rivulet that intersects the town ; but steam 
■illft are numerous, both in the town and the 
Ticinity. Here are the ruins of an abbey, founded 
in honour of Thomas k Beckett, in 1178, by Wil- 
fiam the Lion, who, on his death in 1214, was 
interred within ita precincts. It was destroyed in 


ABERDARE, a par. and large village of Wales, 
eo. Glamorgan. The \'illage, in a beautiful valley, 
watered by the Cvnon, an affluent of the TafT, is 
•bnot 4| m. SW. Merthyr Tydvil on the Taff-Vale 
faihraT. Pop. of parish 6,471 in 1841, and 32,299 
k 1H61. This extraordinary increase is wholly 
to be ascribed to the increase in the production of 
inm and coal, on which by far the larger portion 
•f the popi is dependent. Thnmgfaoat the pariah. 


immense quantities of coals are raised, not merely 
for tlie use of the iron works, but, also, for ship- 
ment at Cardiff. In ad<lition to the par. church 
there are various pkices of worship, inc. chapels 
for Baptists, Independents, &c, with National, 
SumUv, and other schools. 

^ ABERDEEN, a maritime co. Scotland, bounded 
N. and E. by the German Ocean, S. by the cos. of 
Perth, Forfar, and Kincardine, and W. bv Banff, 
Elgin, and Inverness. Extreme length 86'm. from 
N. to S., and 42 from E. to W. Area 1,260,800 
acres, or 1,970 sq. m. In the south-western divi- 
sion, called the district of Mar, are some of the 
highest mountains of Scotknd. Ben Macdhu, till 
lately considered the highest of the British moun- 
tains, rises to the height of 4,296 feet above the 
level of the sea, and several of the other moun- 
tains are but little inferior in altitude. About a 
fifth part of the surface consists of high moun- 
tainous tracts; and these, with hills, extensive 
moors, mosses, and waste lands, occupy nearly 
two-thirds of the entire country. The arable land 
lies principally in the eastern parts. Principal 
rivers Dee and Don; and besides these are the 
Deveron, Bogie, Ythan, IJrie, Ugie, &c. Lime- 
stone abounds in various places ; there are quarries 
of excellent slate; and millstones are found of 
good Quality. Vast quantities of granite are 
shipped at Aberdeen, particularly for London, 
where it is used in paving the streets. The moun- 
tains of Braemar contain numbers of coloured 
crystals, or cairngorms; and some real topazes 
have been met with. The winters, owing to the 
great extent of sea coast, are mild; but Uie sum- 
mers are usually short and cold. Agriculture is 
prosecuted with much more spirit and success than 
might have been supposed. Oats is the principal 
crop, about 160,000 acres being sown with that 
gram; l>arley is also raised; and some, though 
only a little, wheat. The culture of turnips and 
potatoes is extensively carried on. Several thousand 
acres of land in the vicinity of Aberdeen have been 
trenched. The practice is not, however, confined 
to that district, and largo additions are being con- 
stantly made to the arable land. Farm houses 
and offices are now, with few exceptions, comfort- 
able and commodious. A greater number of cattle 
are bred in this than in any other Scotch coimty : 
the native breed is preferred. They have increased 
much in size during the last forty years. They 
are commonly black, but there are many red or 
brindled. Sheep comparativelv few, and of a 
mixed breed. There are some large estates; but 
property is, notwithstanding, a good deal 8ul>- 
divided. Great diversity in the size of farms. It 
is usual for mechanics to occupy an acre or two. 
The woods, which are very extensive, afford shelter 
to the red deer. Average rent of land 6«. 9d, an 
acre. The woollen, cotton, and linen manufactures 
are carried on to a considerable extent, principally 
at Aberdeen. There are considerable fisheries ou 
the coast and in the rivers, particularly in the Dee. 
Principal towns Aberdeen, Peterhead, Huntlv and 
Fraserburgh. Parishes 88. Pop. in 1841, 192,387, 
in 1861 , 221,569 ; inhabited houses in 1861, 32,762. 
Returns one member to the House of Com- 
mons. ParL constituency in 1863, 4,210. Valued 
rental, 225,665/. Scotch. Annual value of real 
property in 1815, 325,218/L stg., do. in 1843, 
603,968iE. stg., do. in 1864-5, exclusive of niilwa3ra, 

ABERDEEN the cap. of the above co., and 
the seat of a university, an ancient, distinguished, 
and flourishing royal' and parL bor. and seaport, 
situated moetly on rising ground on the N. bank 
of the Dee, near its monUi, 94 m. NNE. Edin- 
boigh, on the Great North of Scotland railway. 


Pop. in 1821,44,7%; in 1831,58,019; in 1841, 
61,923 ; 011(1 73,805 in 1861. Aberdwoi consists of 
the parishes of Ka»t, (ireyfriare'. North, St. Clc- 
mentX South, and West ; aim part of the parish 
of Old Machar, 12,514. There were, in 1861, ac- 
cording to the census returns, 3,869 inhabited 
houses, and 14,224 separate families. Aberdeen 
acquired importance at an early period, and made 
a consj)icuou3 appearance in many of the stormy 
scenes of Scottish history. It received a charter 
from William the Lion, dated Perth, 1179; and 
the journals of the town council have been pre- 
served nearly entire since 1398. It is indebted to 
Robert liruce for a considerable portion of its pro- 
perty. Having suffered a good deal in the civil 
wars during the reign of Charles I., it continued 
in a nearly stationary state till about 1750, when 
it began to increase. It has since been signally 
improved, especially during the present century, 
by the formation of new streets and squares, which 
have superseded most part of its old narrow and 
winding thoroughfares. From the S. Aberdeen is 
approached by three bridges across the Dee ; one 
or 7 arches of stone, originally erected in 1520-26, 
and rebuilt 1719-23; a suspension bridge of iron, 
opened in 1830 ; and the railway bridge of 8 arches 
opened in 1850. The roads from the first two 
bridges conduct to Union Street, which with Union 
Place and Castle Street, in the same straight line, 
form a magnificent street of about a mile in length, 
the houses all of dressed light-grav granite. This 
street is carried over a deep and partly wooded 
ravine by a bridge of a single arch of 132 feet span, 
opened in 180'!. Among the public buildings may 
be specified the assembly rooms, the town-house, 
court-house, gaol, and new market ; the E. and W. 
churches of St Nicholas, the N. church, and others 
of late erection ; St Andrew's episcopal church ; 
the orphan hospital ; the Iiarracks, on the castle 
hill, formerlv the ate of a fort ; Gonlon's hospital, 
bridewell, the infirmary, medical hall, and Ma- 
rischal College, lately inbuilt on an extensive and 
elegant plan. Besides the latter seminary, there 
are various public and private academies and 
schools, among which is the grammar school, es- 
tablished before 1418. There are numerous chari- 
table establishments and endowments upwards of 
70 being under the mana.u^ement of the magistrates, 
the net revenue of which amounted in 1848 to 
3800/. Gordon's hospital supiK>rts and educates 
150 boys, and has an annual revenue of about 
8284A Here is also an infirmary, with a lunatic 
asylum erected at an expense of upwards of 
10,000/. ; an institution for deaf and dumb persons ; 
a large hospital fi>r girls, and one for the education 
and support of the blind. The value of real pro- 
perty amounted to 179,0722., while the corporation 
revenue was 11,876/. in 1863-4. 

Aberdeen occupies a distinguLshed place both in 
the manufactures and commerce, and in the lite- 
rature, of Scotland. During last century, the town 
and adjoining country were celebrated for the ma- 
nufiicture of knit woollen stockings, of which an 
interesting account is given by Pennant (Tour 
in Scothmd, i. 137, ed. 1790.) But the introduc- 
tion of machinery has superseded that employment 
There are now, partly in the town and partly in 
its immediate vicinity, numerous large factories 
for the spinning and weaving of cotton, flax, and 
wool, in most of which steam power is employed. 
The woollen fabrics comprise carpets, blanlcets, 
Berges, stockings, and worsted yams. Extensive 
iron-works have been established, where steam- 
engines, anchors, chain-cables, and spinning ma- 
chinerv are produced. Paper of the best quality 
is made on a large scale, considerable quantities 
having been purchased of late years by govern- 

ment Sliip-building is carried on to a consider- 
able extent, and there are ro])e-w<>rks, tanneries, 
soap and candle works, comb factories, distilleries, 
breweries, &c The principal natural products 
exported are cattle; salmon, sent to London in 
ice ; granite, with which the streets of the metro- 
polis are mostlv paved ; eggs, butter, pork, and 
com. The totAl value of the exports amounted to 
21,236/. in 1859 ; 23,062/. in 1860 ; 5,619/. in 1861 ; 
14,111/. in 18ti2, and 11,836/. in 1863, thus show- 
ing enormous fiuctuations. The total amount of 
customs dutv received was 97,251 /.in 1859 ; 93,853/. 
in 1860; 92,71.')/. in 1861; 92,963/. in 1862; and 
82,839/. in 1863. The general shipping, in the 
year 1863, comprised 148 British vessels, of 25,615 
tons, and 147 foreign vessels, of 18,057 tons, which 
arrived in the port Only one steam vessel, 269 
tons, was registered in the arrivaK There b^ 
longed to the port, on the Ist of January, 1864, 
7 sailing vessels imder 20 tons, of a total burthen 
of 248 tons, and 244 sailing vessels above 50 tons, 
of a total tonnage of 77,192. There were al'V) 5 
steamers under 50 tons, of a total tonnage of 86 ; 
and 11 steamers above 50, of a total burthen of 
3,287 tons. There is a regular <»mniunication by 
steamers with I^ndon, Leith, Peterhead, Inver- 
ness, and the Orkneys. 

The harbour in the sestuary, at the mouth of 
the Dee, labours under considerable natural disad- 
vantages, which, however, have been to a great 
extent, though not wholly, obviated. Its im- 
provement l)egan umler an act obtained in 1773; 
and it has been prosecuted at intervals, with more 
or less vigour, under that and other acts down to 
the present time. The principal object was to fa- 
cilitate the access to the harbour, by removing the 
bar at the mouth of the river, and deepening it,H 
channel; and this has been effected partly by 
dredging, and partly by the erection of a pier 
about 2,000 feet in length, projecting into the sea 
on the N. side of the river, by a breakwater on the 
opposite shore, and other subsidiary works. The 
interior of the harbour has I)een vastly improveiL 
In it, some years ago, were constmcted a magnifi- 
cent wet dock, or fioating harbour, the area of 
which comprises 34 acres, with locks capable of 
admitting the •hu'gcst steam-ships. The quay 
walls and quays are all of granite ; the work being 
executed in the best and most substantial manner. 
Still, however, the harlx>ur is not accessible at all 
times of the tide to vessels drawing above 10 feet 
water. But, as the tide rises from 13 to 15 feet, 
vessels drawing 17 feet water may enter the har- 
bour at high-water neaps, and those drawing 20 
feet, at high-water springs. There are at an ave- 
rage 18 'f^t water in the floating harbour. The 
bay afibrds safe anchorage with off-shore winds, 
but not with those from the E. or NE. A light- 
house has been erected on Girdle Ness, the S. point 
of the bay, having two fixed lights in one tower, 
the highest lieing 185, and the lowest 115 feet 
above high-water ; there is, also, a tidal light on 
the N. pier-head, and two leading lights fiirther 
up the harbour on its S. side. The affairs relative 
to the harbour are managed by a board of com- 
missioners. Tiiere has in all been expen(le<l on 
the harbour, since 1810, above half a million 

In consequence of this heavy expenditure, and 
of the large outlay in opening new streets and 
constracting bridges, the affairs of the bonuigh 
became so much involved as to lead to its disfran- 
chisement, in 1817. But, in the eml, the corpora- 
tion, having been restorecl, was enabled to meet all 
the demands upon it; and for several years its 
affain have been in good onler, and it has enjoywl 
a full share of credit The buigh revenue, as be- 


ibre stated, amounted to ll^7GL in the financial 
year 186a-4. 

Previoosly to the passing of the Kefonn Act in 
1832, Aberdeen was asfiodated with Arbroath, 
Brechin, Bervie, and Montrose in returning a 
member to the H. of C. ; but that act conferred 
this important privilege on Aberdeen singly. Old 
Aberdeen and a considerable tract of the surroun- 
ding coontiy is included within the pari. bor. The 
parX constituency consisted of 3,827 registered 
electors in 18^ The town is governed by a pro- 
vo»t, 4 bailies, and 14 councillors. The municipal 
constituency in 1864 consisted of 2,825 registered 

Abodeen is connected by a canal, 18^ m. in 
length, with Inverury, and by railway with 
If ontroee, Perth, Edinburgh, and Inverness. The 
canal is chiefly used for the conveyance of heavy 
articles, such as granite, to the town, and of coal, 
manure, &C., to Uie country. 

Aberdeen has three large banking companies, the 
oldest of which, the Aberdeen Banik, established in 
1767, had recently 16 branches, and about 450 
partners ; bat in 1849 it was incorporated with the 
Union Bank of Scotland. The other companies, 
viz. the Aberdeen Town and County Bank, and 
the North of Scotland Banking Company, have 
respectively 13 and 32 branches. The latter has 
about 1500 partners. The Bank of Scotland and 
aome of the other Scotch banks have also branches 
in Aberdeen. 

A regular post was established between Aber- 
deen and Edinburgh, in 1667. The first printing- 
pnm in the town was set up in 1621 ; and the 
first almanacks published in Scotland appeared 
here in 1677. It supports several newspapers, the 
oldest of whidi, the Aberdeen Journal, commenced 
in 1748. 

ABERDEEN (OLD), an ancient and incon- 
siderable city, about ^ths m. N. Aberdeen. In 
former times it was the seat of a bishoprick, the 
see of Mortlach having been removed to it, in 
1154. It has no trade, and very little property, 
its impt^tance depending entirely upon its ooV 
kg& Pop. about 2000, inc. in the pop. of Aber- 
deen. The chief edifices are King's College, the 
cathedral, and the bridges across the Don. The 
buildings of Kmg's CoUcge have an antique ap- 
pearance, and are of different periods, but m good 
repair. The library and chapel are attached to a 
krfty square tower, surmounted by an imperial 
crown of open stone work. The cathedral of St. 
Machar, or Macarius, after whom the parish is 
named, is an ancient Gothic edifice, chiefly of 
granite, commenced in the 14th century: the choir, 
transept, and great central tower were demolished 
or fell down upwards of a century ago ; the nave 
remains, and is used as the parish church ; at the 
west end are two finely proportioned stone spires ; 
the roof of the interior is also a curious relic. Near 
its mouth the Don forms a haven, which, however, 
admits only vessels of a few tons' burden. An an- 
cient bridge, ocmsisting of a Gothic arch, 70 feet 
in <ipan, crooses a rocky and woody ravine in which 
the river flowiw Lower down is a new bridge of 5 
arrbes, opened in 1830. 

C anKrnty.^Aberdeen has a university, with 
two colleges. There were formerly two universities, 
but they were incorporated into one by the Scottish 
University Act of 1858. Of the two colleges, the 
matt ancient is that of Old Aberdeen, founded by 
Bishop Elphinston in 1494, under a bull of Pope 
Akzaoder Vl^ of which Hector Boethius was first 
princtpaL It earlv received the name of King's 
College, instead of that of the Yimn Mary, to 
vbom it was originally dedicated. The other and 
ktcr seminary, established in 1593, is called Ma- 


rischal College, from its founder Geoige Keith, 
Earl Marischal The university has now 21 pro- 
fessors and above 600 students. There are 8 
schohirships of 65L each, and about 200 bursaries 
of from 5^ to SOL each. Although their bursariea 
are numerous, their other revenues are but limited. 
King's College was formerly entitled to copies of 
all works entered at Stationers' Hall ; but in 1836, 
it relinquished this privilege for an annual pay- 
ment of 242L 14s. Marischal College has a mu- 
seum, an observatory, and an extensive apparatus 
for teaching natural philosophy. The excellent 
education given in these seminaries has been 
highhr useful in disseminating knowledge over the 
N. of Scotland; particularly in improving the 
character of the parochial schoolmasters, most 
part of whom, having been at colle^ are superior 
to the generality of their brethren m the southern 
parts of the country. The number of bursaries, 
which are mostly disposed of by comparative trial, 
is an inducement to attend. But independent of 
this circumstance, the cost of education is moderate 
in the extreme. The usual fee entitling to attend 
one of the literary classes is only from 2LtoSLi 
and the total aimual fees paid bv a student, not a 
bursar, going through the regular curriculum, or 
course of study prescribed by the faculty of arts, 
do not exceed 6L or 7L a year, during each of the 
4 years to which it is limited. Respectable board 
ma^ be had for from 25L to 352. during the session, 
which commences on the last Monday of October, 
and ends in the beginning of ApriL Manv emi- 
nent men have been professors in these colleges ; 
among whom may be mentioned Reid, the author 
of the Inquiry into the Human Mind ; Fordyce, 
author of a Treatise on Moral Philosoph v ; Gerard, 
author of an Essay on Taste ; Campbell, author o 
the Philosophv of Rhetoric ; and Blackwell, author 
of the Life of Homer. 

ABERFOYLE, in Scotland, a parish, and a 
celebrated pass or narrow valley leading into the 
Highlands, in the district of Monteith, in the SW. 
part of Perthshire. Pop. 565 in 1861. The vil- 
lage or clachan of Aberfoyle in this pass is the 
scene of some of the most interesting adventures 
in the novel of Rob Roy. 

ABERGAVENNY, a town of England, co. 
Moiunoutli, at the confluence of the Gavenny with 
the Usk, 14 m. SW. Monmouth, 120 m. W. by N. 
London, on a branch line of the Great Western 
rail Pop. 4,621 in 1861. The town is built in a 
straggling manner ; has a fine bridge of 15 arches 
over the Usk, and some branches of woollen manu- 
facture. There are very extensive iron works in 
the vicinity. On an eminence, near the S. end of 
the town, are the ruins of its ancient castle. 

ABERGELEY, a sea-port and m. town of 
Wales, CO. Denbigh, bund. Isdulas, on the railway 
from Chester to UolyheaiL Pop. 3,308 in 1861. 
The town has been considerably resorted to of late 
years for bathing. 

ABERNETUY, a parish of Scothmd, partly in 
Fife and partly in Perthshire. It was once the 
seat of an arehiepiscopal sec, removed to St. 
Andrew's in the ninth century. All that now re- 
mains of its ancient structures is a round tower 75 
feet high, and 16 in diameter. The modem vil- 
lage of Abemethy is small, and the houses mean. 
Pop. of village 984, and of parish 1,960, m 1861. 

ABERYSTWITH, a sea-port town of Wales, 
CO. Cardigan, at the mouth of the Ystwith, over 
which is a neat bridge, 178 m. WNW. London. 
Pop. 5,641 in 1861. It stands on an eminence 
overlooking the bay; and the streets, though well 

faved and Macadamised, are steep and uneven, 
t is a place of considerable trade, exporting lead» 
calamine, oak baik, flannels, &&, mostly to Livei^ 



pool; but owing to the fihallowncM of the water, 
It u accessible only to small vesaoh. As there is 
no market town within 18 m. it has the supply of 
a considerable adjacent territory'. Latterly it has 
been extensively resorted to in sammer for sea- 
bathing. Public rooms were opened for the ac- 
commodation of visitors in 1820, and a new theatre 
in 1833. It seems to have been once stronglv 
fortified. Its castle, of which some vestiges still 
exist, was rebuilt bv Edward I. in 1277. A con- 
siderable ext<5nt of fen land to the N. of the town 
has recently been recovered from the sea. 

Abkrybtwith, a parochial chapelry, hund. 
Abergavenny, co. Monmouth, celebrated for its 
collieries and iron works, which have greatly in- 
creased during the last half a centur}'. ¥op, 5,601 
in 18G1. 

ABIAD (BAHR EL). See Nile. 

ABINGDON, an ancient town of England, co. 
BeriLs, at the continence of the Ock with the Isis, 
and at the junction of the Berkshire canal with 
the latter, 55^ m. WNW. London on the Great 
Western railway. Pop. 5,6K0 in 1861. The town 
has several well-paved streets terminating in a 
RMudous market-place, having a market^house in 
tne centre. It has two churches, with places of 
worship for Dissenters, a well-endowed grammar 
school, and sundry almsliouses and charitable en- 
dowments. It has a considerable com market: 
Bome trade is earned on in malting and hemp- 
dressing. It returns one m. to the H. of Commons. 
The pari constituencj' consbtcd of 317 n^stered 
electors in 1864. Amoimt assessed to property- 
tax 20,425^1 This was formerly a scot-and-lot 
borough; every inhabitant assessed to the poor 
Tates cxcrrising the elective franchise. Of tnese 
0cot-and-lot voters only four remained in 1864. 

ABO, the ancient capital of Finland, near the 
«i:tremiU' of the promontory formed by the ^Ifs 
of Bothnia and Finland, on the river Aurajocki, by 
which it is intersected, Ut 6()0 26' 58" N., long. 
239 17' 15" E. It was the seat of a university, 
and has a considerable trade. But in 1827 it 
BoiTered severely from a fire, which destroyed the 
imiveridty and above 700 private houses. The 
university has been since removed to Ilelsingfors, 
now the capital of the province. PreviousTv to 
the fire the town contained about 13,000 inhab- 
itants; the population then decreased, but had 
risen again to 16,m70 in 1858. The town has a 
gymnadum, a bank, and some unimportant manu- 
factures. A treaty was concluded here in 1743 
between Kussia and Sweden. 

ABOMEY, cap. of the kingdom of Dahomey, in 
Africa, nearly lOO m. N. from the sea, lat 7° 30' 
N., long. 20 1 7 E. Pop. said to be 24,000. 

ABOUKIR, a village of Egypt, with a citadel, 
on a promontory', al)out 10 m. NE. of Alexandria, 
being supposed bv some to occupy the site of the 
ancient Canopus', Lit. 31° 19' 44" N., long. 30© 
r 16" E. 

ABOUKIR BAY, on the north coast of EgJT** 
fonned on the w&st Hi<lc by the point of land on 
which Almukir is situated, and on the east by 
that which lies at the mouth of the Rosetta branch 
of the Nile. Here, on the 1st of August, 1798, 
was fouglit the famous battle of the Kile, when 
the French fleet that had conveyed Napoleon to 
Egypt was totally defeated by the British fleet 
tmder I^ml Nelson; and here also, on the 7th of 
March, 1801, the English army, under Sir Ralph 
Abercrombv, efli'cted its disembarkation. 
ABRANTES, a fortified toym of Portugal, prov. 
EstTvmadura, lat 39° 26' N., long. 8° 15' \V., at 
the S. extremity of a ridge that trends S\V. fn>m 
the great langc'dividing the valleys of the Douro 


and Tagua. Pop. 6,020 in 1858. The position of 
the town adapts it admirably for a military' sta- 
tion ; and Sir A. Welleslcy availed himself of its 
local advantages bv resistfng tlicre tlic progress of 
the French in 1809. (See Napier, ii. 317, &c.) 
It is about ^ m. from the right bank of the Ta^s 
and 72 m. above Lisbon, 'fhe hill-side on which 
the town is built, as well as the bills about, boar 
>'ine8, olive, peach, and other fruit trees, while the 
plain eastwaird produces pumpkins, water-melons, 
and other vegetables: all these products arc car- 
ried down the river in barges to the capital, with 
which this town has very considerable traffic 
The trade, now occupying above 1 00 barges, would 
be much increased if the navigation were improved. 
A few nnall craft go 24 m. higher, as far as Mlla- 
bella; but the stream is rapid, and the bed much 
impeded with sand and rocks. The church of San 
Yincentc is the largest and finest in Portugal 

ABRUZZO, an extensive territory of Italy, 
forming the NE. portion of the former Neapolitan 
dominions, between 41^ 50' and 42^ 55' N. lat. 
While Naples existed as a separate kingdom the 
territory was divided into the provs. of Abnizzo 
Ultra I., Abmzzo Citra, and Abnizzo Ultra II., 
but these names were abolished at the formation 
of the kingdom of Italy, and its reconstruction 
into 59 pro\'inces. The new administrative divi- 
sions of the Abnizzo, are called, after the names 
of the chief towns, Aquila, Chieti, and Teramo. 
Aquila has a ])(>puiation, according to the census 
of 1862, (»f 339,555: Chieti of 337,364, and Teramo 
of 240,035, so that the total pop. of the Abnizzo 
numbers 917,954 inhabitants. An enumeration of 
the year 1831, stated the pop. at 735,931, which, 
conndering the nature of the countr}', shows a 
remarkable increase. 

The country presents every variety of soil and 
surface; but the greater part is mountainous, nig- 
ged, and occupied by extensive forests. It is tra- 
versed throughout its whole extent by the A]>en- 
nines, and has some of their highest summits 
Monte Como, sumamed // Gran Saxso^ or the 
Great Rock, rises to the height of 9,527 feet above 
the level of the sea, Monte Majella to about 8^500, 
and Monte Vellino to 8,397. It is watered by 
many rivers, most of which fall into the Adria- 
tic; and in Abnizzo Ultra II. is the celebrated 
Lago Celano, the Lacus Fucinus of the ancients 
(sex; Cklano, Lake ok). The cUmate diflV?rs with 
the elevation of the soil; but though very cold un 
the mountains, and com{)aratively hot in the low 
grounds, it is, speaking generally, temi>erate and 
healthy. Along the Adriatic, and in the valleys 
and plains, the soil is ver\' pnxhictive: and large 
quantities of com, oil, wine, silk, liquorice, and 
almonds, are ]>roduced. Saf&on used to be very 
extensively cultivated in the valley of Aquila, 
but the quantity raised is now very much restric- 
ted. The inhabitants of the mountainous districts 
are principally engaged in the rearing of sheep and 
cattle, 'rhe uf»per regions and recesses of the 
mountains are depastured in the summer season 
by vast flocks of sheep, brought from the Capitan- 
ata and other level produces more to the S. 
Their migrations are regulated by law, and are 
similar to those that take pLice in Spain and in 
the SE. depts. of France. The inhabiUinls are 
stout, well-made, healthy, and industrious. The 
occupiers and labourers, who form the vast major- 
ity of the population, are mostly poor, living in 
miserable dirtv huts feeding princiimlly on Indian 
com, and drinking a poor wine. Many thousands 
of the peasants emigrate everv' autumn to seek for 
employment in the Northem* Murennne. Manu- 
factures have made but little pnigross; but wckiI- 
lens, silkB, and earthenware, arc produced. The 


fordid trade would be much more extensive than 
it ia, woe it not that the entire coast is without 
a single good port. Principal towns Chieti, Aquila, 
Teramo, Safanona, and Avezzano. 

ABU-ARISCH, a pet^ state in the SW. of 
Arabia, oo the borders oi the Bed Sea, between 
150 50' and 170 40' N. lat, and 41° 30' and 430 E. 
loc^^ cooasting of the narrow slip of low land 
which lies between the coast and the mountain 
district of Hiuehidrm-BthtL On the N. it is sepa- 
rated from El-Hedjaz by a small district inhabited 
bj wandering tribes of peculiar manners; and on 
the S. it bwden iroon the state of Loheia, Its 
extreme length is about 180 m., and its greatest 
width from 70 to 80 m. It fonns part of the 
Tektumti or low lands of Yemen, being almost 
wholly a sandy plain (see Arabia), extremely 
boC and diy, di»titute of pennanent water courses, 
and prestf>'ed fircMn utter sterility only by the 
abundant rains in the nei^bouiing mountains, 
which periodically inundate its othenrise water- 
leas sou. Its pnndpal products are dhourah or 
barley, which fnms the principal food of the 
inhabitants, and a peculiar and highly esteemed 
breed of asses. 

Abu-Arisch, a town of Arabia, cap. of the 
above state, and the residence of the sneriff, lat 
leo 40' N., long. 420 20' E. It occupies the 
emtre of the principality, being midway between 
the Red Sea and the mountains, and between its 
K. and S. boundaries. It is walled : population 
estimated at from 4,000 to 5,000. It seems pro- 
bable that Abu-Arisch, which at present is 24 m. 
frum the sea, was ibrmerly much nearer to it, if, 
indevd, it were not once what Gheran now is, the 
port of this part of Arabia. This is rendered pro- 
bable as well from the appearance of the surrounding 
country as from the well-known fact mentioned 
by Niebuhr, that the coast here is constantly and 
rapidly gaining on the water. (Niebuhr, Des. de 
TAr. par. ii. p. 232; Yov. en Ar. ii. 59.) 

ABUTIGE, a considerable town of Upper 
Eg^^-pt, on the site of the ancient Abotis, lat 27^ 
r N'., long. 310 23' E, jt » the seat of a Coptic 
bishftp, and is celebrated for its opium. 

ABYDOS, an ancient city, founded by the 
Thmcians, and subsequently occupied by a colony 
of Milesians, on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, 
vhere it is narrowest bearing nearly S. from 
SertoA on the European side of the strait It had 
a commodious harbour, and was strongly forti- 
fied. It was here that Xerxes constructed the 
bridge of boats by which he conveyed his ill-fated 
host across the Hellespont ; and it is distinguished 
in ancient history for the desperate resistance 
Bade b}' its inhabitants to Philip of Macedon, 
vImi, however, partly by force and partly by 
treachery, succeeded in taking it But Abydos, 
nd also* Sestos, are mainly indebted for their im- 
perishable celebrity to the story of the loves of 
Hero and Leander, and the meh&nchol^' fate of the 
latter. Abydoe wungni quondam (tmoru commercio 
huipuM eet. (Amm. Marcellinus, lib. i. s. 19.) It 
wu destroyed by the Turks; and the fact that 
the materials were carried 3 m. S. to assist in 
building the SuUanie Kaleesi, or old castle of Asia, 
the ArciDgest fort on the Dardanelles, and its con- 
tigaous town, accounts for few ruins being found 
at Abydos. The modem fort of Nagara occupies 

ABYSSINIA, or JJoftescA, an extensive coun- 
try of Ejtttem Africa, of which the boundaries are 
BOC weU defined, but which may be regarded as 
•ecupying the space included between 9^ and 15^ 
4ff N. lat and 3CO E. long, and the Red Sea; 
ktring £. the latter, N. Seoaar and Nubia, and 
«the W. and S. Senaar, KordofaD, the Soudan, 


and other barbarous and nearly unknown coun- 
tries. It is supposed to include in all above 
300,000 Eng. sq. m. 

Name, — ^Abyssinia was included in the Ethiopia 
(from ai$iot^t a mum burnt by the sun, or of a dark 
colour) of the ancients. The name Abyssina, 
or more properly Habessma, fh>m the Arabic 
Habeechf signif^g a mixture or confusion, has 
been giv6n to tLe country by the Arabic and Por- 
tuguese geographers, and indicates the supposed 
Arabic origin of the people, and their subsequent 
intermixture with the Africans. The Abyssiniana 
do not use this name ; and either assume that of 
the provinces in which they live, or call them- 
selves ItjopkMMy and their country UfanaheHa It- 
jopioy or kmgdom of Ethiopia, a name given it by 
the Greeks during their ascendancy at Axum. 

Face of the Country, — ^Abyssinia presents great 
ineiiualities of surface. It consists principally of a 
series of plateaus, intersected and separated by 
mountain ridges. Kitter classes the plateaus im- 
der three great divisions. Setting out from the 
coast of the Red Sea, and traversing the low arid 
ground by which it is bordered, and ascending the 
heights or mountains of Taranta, we arrive at the 
first plateau, or country of the Bahame^ash, lying 
between the Taranta on the E. and the nver Mareb 
on the W. Passing through the Bahamegash, 
and making another ascent we arrive at the great 
plateau of Tigr^ between the Mareb on the E. 
and the Tacazze on the W. ; but including to the 
south the mountain regions of Enderta, Wojjerat, 
Lasta, &C. The last-mentioned country contains 
the sources of the Tacazze, one of the principal 
affluents of the Nile. The towns of Adowah and 
the ancient Axum (see the names), are situated 
in the middle of the plateau of Tigrd Antalow 
lies more to the south, in the province of Enderta. 
The mountains of Samen, on the W. side of the 
plateau of Tigr^, are the highest in Ab3r8sinia, and 
form, with those of Lamalmon and Lasta, a great 
but not continuous chain, running NE. and SW., 
and separating the high lands of Tigr^, from the 
still more elevated plateau or alpine country of 
the Habesch or Amhara, including the provinces 
or countries of Dembea, Gojam, Damot, &c This 
region, the highest in Abyssinia, and the nucleus 
and centre, as it were, of the old empire, contains 
the sources of the Bahr-cl-Azrek, or eastern arm 
of the Nile, and the great lake of Tzana or Dembea. 
It has a mean elevation of about 8,000 feet, and is 
fenced and intersected by mountain ridges, of which 
those of Goiam, from their containing the sources 
of the E. >i ile, are the most celebrated. Gondar, 
the capital of Amhara, and formerly the residence 
of the Negus or emperor of Abyssinia, lies a little 
to the N. of the lake. From this plateau the 
country shelves down on the W. to the barbarous 
and unknown regions already alluded to. 

The provinces of Efat and Shoa, which now 
form, with their dependent territories, the most 
powerful of the Abyssinian states, lie to the SE. 
and S. of Amhara. The first is very elevated, 
part of its waters flowing westward to the Nile, 
and part eastward to the Hawash. Its chief town 
is Ankober. The province of Shoa, lying along 
the southern side of the Nile, is comparatively 
low, and is renowned for its magnificent pastures 
and fruitful valleys. It has several towns and 
some celebrated monasteries. Salt is inclined to 
think that the Etbiopic language and literature, 
and the ancient manners of the Abyssinians, are 
preserved in a purer state in these provinces than 
in any of the others ; but they are very imper- 
fectly known. 

Exclusive of the above, there is a vast and but 
little known country in the SE. part of Abymnia, 



between Efat and Lasta, and the Red Sea and the 
sea of Bah-el-mandeU. It is almost entirely occu- 
pied by tribcH of dallas, some of them the most 
orutified of any to be found in Abyssinia. The 
countiv of Nana, at the sources of the Maleg, SW. 
from the prov. of Damot, is one of the most ele- 
vated of the African plateaus. Its inhabitants are 
said to be nearly as white as the Spaniards and 

On the SE. of Tignl, between it and the low 
country or province of the Dankali, lying alon^ 
the Red Sea, and between the fourteenth and iif- 
tccnth degrees of latitude, is an extensive salt 
plain, haxdng, in most parts, the appearance of 
ice covered with partially thawed snow. The salt 
is perfectly pure and hard for about two feet deep ; 
but that lyuig beneath is coarser and softer till 
purified by exposure to the air. It is cut into 
pieces with a hatchet; and not only serves to 
season and preserve food, but even circulates as 
money. The salt is carried off by caravans, or 
companies, consisting of from 300 to 600 beasts of 
burden, and its digging is not unacconii>anied by 
danger, from the attacks of the savage Galla. 

Mountains. — Those of Abyssinia have not in 
gmeral been accurately measured. They were 
represented by the early* Portuguej«e travellers and 
the Jesuits aslieingof such vast height that, com- 
pared with them, the Alps and Pyrenees were 
mere hillocks ! But these exaggerated represen- 
tations have been since reduced to their proper 
▼alue. The highest summits of the Samcn, how- 
ever, approach closely to the line of perpetual 
congelation, so that their elevation may be fairly 
estimated at fh>m 12,000 to 13,000 feet The 
Abba Jared is 16,000, and Ras Detschcn 15,986 
feet high. The mountains of Gojam arc of very 
inferior altitude, and are cultivated to the sum- 
mits. Generally the Abywinian mountains have 
a peculiarly abrupt and precipitous appearance. 
Sometimes they form what are called ambas or 
hill forts, consisting of steep, rocky, and all but 
inaccessible sides, having on the summit a level 
snrfiEKe covered with trees and verdure. The most 
celebrated of these hill forts is that of Ambu 
Geshm, formerly used as a place of confinement 
fbr the princes of Abyssinia. 

Rivers, — Of these the Bahr-el-Azrck, Blue River, 
or eastern branch of the Nile, is by far the most 
ikmous. It riiies from two mountains near Gecsh 
in Gojam, being, acconling to Bruce, in lat. 10^ 
69' 25*^ N., long. 86° 55' 30" E., and at an eleva- 
tion of 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. Its 
course is thence N. to the lake Dembea, a large 
sheet of water, which receives many other streams; 
but the Nile is said to preserve its waters with 
but little intermixture with those of the lake, 
across which its curroit is always visible. E»- 
caping from this lake, it sweeps in a southerly 
direction round the E. frontier of the provinces of 
Gojam and Damot, till, between the ninth and 
tenth degree lat. it takes a NW. direction, which 
it preserves till, at Halfaia, near the sixteenth 
degree lat., it unites with its other and more im- 
portant branch, the Bahr-el-Abiad, or White 
River, flowing flrom the SW. (see Nile). The 
next most important stream is the Tacazze, whose 
source has been already noticed. It drains the 
mountains of Samen an(l Tigrd; and pursuing. a 
pretty direct NNW. course through Senaar, falls 
mto the Nile near the eighteenth degree lat The 
Mareb, which rises in the heights of Taranta, runs 
nearly paraUel to the Tacazze. In the dry season 
St loses itself in the sand ; but Bruce says that in 
the rain^ season it continues its course till it 
unites with the Tacazze. The Hamazo and Ha- 
iraah run E. in the direction of the Rod Sea; but 

the latter is swallowed np in the sands before 
meeting it. Exclusive of the great lake of Dembea 
or Tzano, already referred to, which is 50 mihiJi 
long, 80 miles broad, and ,6120 feet above the sea 
level, the lake of Ashangee, on the E. side of the 
Samen, is also of very considerable size. 

Minerahgy, — This is very imperfectly known, 
though geologically presenting some remarkable 
features. Granite and schistus or slate have been 
extensively observed ; and it is probable that these 
primitive rocks occupy a large portion of the prin- 
cipal chains. In Tigi^ the strata arc chiefly ver- 
tical ; but in the mountains of Samen they incline 
more to a horizontal position. Extinct volcanoes, 
hot springs, deposit^) of sulphur, rock salt, and 
malachite have also 1)een found; as B\m gneiss, 
antimony, iron, gold, and silver. Allusion has 
already been made to the extensive salt plain E. 

Climate. — ^This necessarily differs with the elc- 
vation of the countr\', the direction of the moun- 
tains, &C. In the deep valleys and low grounds 
{koUas) the heats are frequently excessive ; and 
thU, combined with excesd of moisture, renders 
them unhealthy. But the climate of the plateaus 
is extremely fine, particularly that of Amhara, 
which is said to enjoy a perpetual spring, cer eter- 
Hum. The Portuguese found it quite as temperate 
as that of their own country. According to Lu- 
dolph, the natives often attain, in that happy cli- 
mate, to the age of 100 years and upwards ! Tho 
climate of Tigrc is not quite so mild ; but there, 
also, the great extent of pasturage and of verdant 
plains shows that the country is not visited by the 
extreme of heat. I1ic plateau of the Bahamegajth 
is the hottest. In March, Mr. Salt found its air 
hot and dry, and the beds of the rivers without 
water. The year is sometimes divided into four, 
but more properly into three, seasons. Winter 
(kramt) is Uie season of rain, which always falls 
in great quantities, and often with much violence, 
rendering rivers and even brooks quite impassable. 
It begins on the coast at the latter end of October, 
and in the interior about the end of February, the 
river Tacazze I)eing swollen from April to Sep- 
tember ; the rest of the year consisting of summer 
(hagai) or the season of heat and drought; and a 
short period of harvest (tzadau) 

Races — Pcpulation. — The inhabitants of Abys- 
sinia comprise a variety of tribes. They all, how- 
ever, closely resemble each other in their physical 
character and manners ; and, in respect of bodily 
conformation, arc entirely distinct both from the 
Negroes and the Arabians. They belong to what 
has been called the Ethiopic variety of the human 
race ; and their most prominent characteristics will 
be found described in the article Africa, to which 
the reader is referred. Of the different tribes, tho 
principal are the Tigrani, or inhabitants of Tigrd ; 
the Amharans, or inhabitants of Amhara; tho 
Agows, inhabiting the province of Damot; the 
Efats, occupying the southern banks of the Nile ; 
the Gongas and Enareans, still further S. ; and the 
Falashas, occupying the mountains of Samen, &c, 
who profess Judaism, and pretend, though it is be- 
lieved on no very good grounds, to d^uce their 
origin from Palestine. These tribes are easily di»- 
tinguishefl by their language; but it is not clear 
whether their idioms be really distinct languages, 
or, which is mocjt probable, only dialectic varieties 
of a much smaller number of mother-tongues. 
(Prichard on Man, vol il p. 136, 3rd ed.) 

The Galla, or savage tribes by which large por- 
tions of Abyssinia have been overrun, are said to 
have made their first appearance on the southern 
frontier in 1537. No doubt they belonged ori- 
ginally to the central parts of the African oonti- 



afford them an abundant mipply of food. The 
nitwer, dr ji^olden eagle, perhaps the lai^^e^t bird of 
the old continent^ and a beautiful species called 
the black eagle, are particularly notioMl by Bruce. 
To these Salt addfl a new species called' goodie^ 
goodie, the size of the common falcon. According 
to Mr. Park^'Uis there are several varieties of the 
vulture, and aliout twenty-four sorts of hawks and 
falcons. Storks, partridges, snipes, pigeons, and 
swallows, occur in great number and variety, as 
well as plovers, grouse, guinea-fowl, florican, geese, 
ducks, horn-bills, the cuckoo, parrots, woodpeckers, 
thrushes, larks, crows, &c The ostrich and the 
bustard are found to the north of Abj^ssinia and in 
the wilder districts of the ccmntry. 

Heptiles of all sorts abound in the hot districts 
of the Tigrc, and of the smaller lizards there are 
an innumerable quantity. 

Among insects the most numerous and useful 
are bees. Honey constitutes ever^nvhere an im- 
portant article of food. Several provinces used to 
pay a largo proportion of their tribute in this 
article. The honey assumes different appearances, 
sometimes black, sometimes blood-red, according 
to the plant on which the insect feeds. Of a very 
different character is the locust, which commits 
here ravages quite as terrible as in the other coun- 
tries of Nortliem Africa. 

Government — Political Divisions, — The former 
government of Abyssinia, or that which existed 
in it when it became known to the Portuguese and 
the Jesuits, was an absolute and despotic monarchy, 
in wliich the emperors, restrained by no written 
laws, popular assemblies, or privileged classes, had 
full power to dispose at pleasure of the lives and 
property of their subjects. But this ancient govern- 
ment may now be said to Im totally extinct. The 
force of the central government was gradually 
weakened, partly by the rel>ellion of the governors 
of the different provinces and juirtly by the ir- 
ruption of the Gallas and other slave hordes, who 
have subjugated some of its finest coimtries. Salt 
has ingeuioanly compared the state of Abyssinia in 
a political point of view to that of Kngland during 
the heptarchy; and since he visitetl it anarchy 
seems to have made a still more rapid progrt^s. 
Ihe whole country' was, till lately, split into an 
endless variety of states, the limits of which were 

5er])etually changing, and between which the most 
eadlv animohities and interminable contest** con- 
stantly j)revailed. Within the last few years tlie 
most of the territory' has fallen under the sway of 
an adventurer Thcodoros, who is styled King of 
Ab>'ssinia. He was l)oni ui Quara, a Kmall pro- 
vince on the western lx) of Amhara, his father 
behig a ])oor nobleman, and his mother, after the 
•father's deatli, having Ix^n driven to seek a sul)- 
sistence for herself and her child bv the sale of 
kosso tlowers, considered by the Abyssinians a 
specific agauist tapeworm. Growing up to man- 
ho(Hl, the yomig Theodoros attacheil himself to a 
band of robl)ers in the malarious l)orders of the 
western lowlands, and soon l)ecame famous 
throughout Abyssinia and the Soudan, attracting 
a graduallv increasing following of discontented 
chiefs. After a good deal of fighting, he moile 
himfielf master of the whole of Western Abyssinia. 
In 1H5G he conquered Tign<, then govemcni by a 
chief named Oubi, which wasfolIowe<l shortly after 
bv Uie conquest of the Wollo Galla and Shoa pro- 
vmoes, so that he is now really master of nearly the 
whole country'. For some years after his success he 
manifest^ great partialif^' to Europeans, enter- 
taining readily any projecl of theirs to enhance the 
wealth of his empire and the stabilitv of his throne; 
find missionaries and consuls described him as far 
in advance of his people in ideas and aspirations. 

Latterly some nnfavonrable changes have chanus 
terised his proceedings, the most prominent of 
which has been the imprisonment for a lengthened, 
period of Messrs. Stem and Rosenthal, two mis- 
sionaries, and Mr. Cameron, the British consul, at 
his capitol, for which cause is not very certainly 
known. Hw reign has been signalised by great 
severity towards rebels. Mr. Stem states that, in 
I860, 8,000 of them, after their defeat on the 
western bank of the Tacazze, were with their 
leader mercilessly butchered in cold blood; but 
such barbarity has not been unusual in Abyssinian 

Manners and Customs, — The almost perpetual 
state of civil war and confusion, and not any pecu- 
liar crueltv of disposition, seems to be the main 
cause of that barbarism and bmtality by which 
the manners of the Abyssinians are characterised. 
All the feelings by which man is restrained from 
shedding the blood of his fellows seem entirely 
blunted. Human life is scarcely more respected 
than that of brutes. Bmce seldom went out at 
Gondar without seeing dead bodies lying in the 
streets, left to be devoured by dogs and hytenas, 
without being even allowed the rites of sepulture. 
To show the indifference usually felt on such oc- 
casions, he mentions that one day, passing along 
the streets, he saw an ofKcer of rank about to exe- 
cute three men who had offended the sovereign. 
This person, calling to Brace, begged him to stop 
till he had despatched this business, as he wished 
to have a short conversation with him. But the 
circumstance wliich seems to place the Abyssinians 
below even the most savage tribes, Is the extreme 
coarseness of their festive indulgences. Their brinde 
(raw l)eef) feast has excited the astonishment of all 
travellers. Alvarez, who Wsited the countrj' as am- 
bassador from Portugal in 1 520, and reraainwl there 
for six years, describes it a<t a thing * of which he 
dare not in a maimer speak.' Being in\'ite<l to a 
feast, he was much surprised, instead of the usual 
dishes, to sec bniught in * pieces of raw flesh, with 
warm blood.' The landlord, on seeing his guests 
show no favour to this savourj' dish, ordered other 
fooil I)etter suited to their tastes; but ininic<liately 
l)egan eagerly to devour the tiesb, * as if it had been 
marchpane or comfits.' The huly of the houstj did 
not appear at dinner: but, in drinking, she *bravelv 
sec<»nded ' the rest of the company. Brace and Salt 
have furnished still more particular dest'riptions. 
The table, which is low, is first coverwl with suc- 
cessive piles of teff cakes, serving to the guest* at 
once as f(K)d and as towels with which to wii)e their 
fingers. The comi^ny Iwing then j^ated, the next 
jirocess is the slaughter (»f the cattle, whicli are 
standing at the do4>r, and the coitting wann steaks 
from their flesh. Brace says that tlies<* are ex- 
tracted while the animal is vet alive, and l»ellow- 
ing under the pain of the wound. But tliis 
disgusting circumstance is not mentioned by any 
of the earlier writers, and Mr. Salt affinns that 
the head Is separated from the body before the 
oi»eration of slichig commences. Salt, however, 
as well as Brace, admits that the luxury of an 
Abyssinian feast consists in having the ]>ieces 
brought in while the bloo<l is yet warm and the 
fibres palpitating. The female who sits next to 
each chief then wraps up the slice in a teff cake, 
and thrasts into Us mouth as large a quantity as 
it is capable of containing, which Is greedily de- 
voured. All parties (hrink copiously of hydromel, 
and bouza, the l)eerof the country. Having satis- 
fied themselves, they rise, and give place to another 
company of inferior rank, and these to a third, till 
all IS cxinsumed. The gn>ss indecenci(*s wliich 
Brace represents as peqtetrated on these occasions, 
and which he has described with such revolting 



minateneH, hare been denied by Mr. Salt, and it 
is hardly pomible to supDooe that they can be other 
than rare occurrences. Mr. Gobat, the mLsitionary, 
admits that a feast such as that described by 
Bruce may have taken place among the most 
shameless 'libertines ; but he adds, that * excesses 
ot that kind are not customary either as to their 
cruelty or indecency.* The practice r^rted by 
Bruce, and which subjected him to no Uttle ridi- 
cule, of cutting steaks from' a living animal on a 
joomey, and then dosing up the wound and driving 
it on, appeared at first quite unfounded to Mr. Salt; 
but in his seccmd ioumey he witnessed it, and found 
that it was called by a peculiar name— cutting the 
Skuiada ; which certainly goes a good way to prove 
its frequency, though that also is disputed by Mr. 
Gobat, who denies its occurrence, unless perhaps in 
eases of extreme hunger. Mr. Parkyns, a later 
traveller, corroborates the testimony of Mr. Salt, 
having heard of, though he had not himself wit- 
nessed, an occurrence of the kind. He believes in 
the accuracy of Bruoe's observations at the time, 
though apparoitly a change for the better had 
taken place. 

Justice in Abyssinia is altogether barbarous, 
venal« and corrupt. When a person accused of a 
criminal offence is found guilty, he is detained in 
prison till he has made satisfaction to the accuser; 
or, if he have committed murder, till he be dis- 
posed of by the relations of the deceased, who may 
either put him to death or accept a ransom. The 
latter is generally fixed at 250 dollars for a man, 
but the relations are under no obligation to accept 
it. To escape the avenger of blood, however, tne 
murderer may retire to another province, as to a 
city of refuge, and he cannot be followed. When 
a murdered person has no relations, the priests take 
upon themselves the office of avengers of blood, 
llie king in person constitutes the final court of 
appearand is very assiduous in performing the 
duty of Judge. Th^ and murder and other aggra- 
vated offences ha\'e been a good deal suppressed. 

Marriage in Abyssinia is a very slight connec- 
tion, formed and dissolved at pleasure. The most 
formal mode of concluding it is, when the lover, 
ha^-ing made certain engagements to the parents, 
and obtained their consent (for that of the bride is 
seldom asked), seizes her and carries her home on 
his shoulders. A magnificent feast is then given 
o( l«inde and bouza ; and at a fixed period of 
twenty or thirty days afterwards, they go to 
chuivh and take the sacrament together. It is in 
a few rare instances only that even this slight 
ceremony is used. In must coses, mutual consent, 
and a plentiful administration of raw meat and 
bouza. form the only preliminaries. The will of 
either {tarty, or of both, is at any time sufficient to 
disdolve the connection. If they have several 
children, thev divide them ; if they have but one, 
and he w under seven years of age, he belongs to 
the mother ; if above seven, to the father. Gobat 
sa}-s that after a third divorce they cannot contract 
another regular marriage, nor partake of the com- 
munion mtUen thejf become mxnuts ; Bruce, however, 
■MutioiM being in a company at Gondar, where 
there was a lady present, with six persons, each of 
whom had been successively her husband, although 
noue of them stood in this relation to her at the 
time: nor do either party consider themselves 
bound to observe with rigid fidelity this slight en- 
gigement, even while it lasts. Manners may be 
eon^idered* in this respect, as in a state of almost 
total diMolntion. Slaves are common in all parts 
«f Abyssinia. They consist of Shangallas, a race 
«f savage negroes inhabiting the low countries on 
the NNW. and NE. frontiers. They arc very 
■meroai in Gondar and other places of Amhant, 

and also in Ti^; are well treated, and escape 
many of the privations to which they are subject 
in their wild state. 

The only display of architectural magnificence 
in Abyssinia is in the churches. They are built on 
eminences; are of a circular form, with conical 
summits and thatched roofs ; and are surrounded 
with pillars of cedar, within which is an arcade, 
which produces an agreeable coolness. The houses 
of the sovereigns and j^^andees are also large and 
commodious j though, m this warlike country, the 
camp is considered as their more proper residence. 
All the houses are mere hovels of a conical form, 
with a thatched roof, and containing little or no 
furniture. The dress, both of men and women, 
consists chiefly of a piece of cotton cloth, 24 cubits 
long by 14 in breadth, which they iiTap round 
them like a mantle, with close drawers reaching to 
the middle of the thigh, and a girdle of doth. 
Needleworic and washing, according to Mr. Stem, 
are performed not by the women but by the men. 
Their food consists of the different species of grain 
already enumerated, fish, fruits, honey, and raw 
meat at festivals. The most general drink is bou- 
za, a spedes of sour beer, made from the fermen- 
tation of their cakes, particularly those left at 
entertainments. Tooousso, the coarsest grain, pro- 
duces bouza eoual or superior to any of Uie others. 
Hydromd is also made m great quantities. Agri- 
culture, the only art much cultivated, is very far 
behind the perfection which it has attained even 
in the most backward parts of Europe. The 
ploughs, of the rudest construction, from the root 
or branch of a tree, are drawn by oxen. The land 
is t^ice ploughed, but with the utmost indifference 
as to the straightness of the furrows ; afler which 
women are employed to break the clods. In the 
course of ripening, the com is carefully weeded. 
As previously stated, there are two or three crops 
in the year. The worst grain is commonly used 
for seed. In general, every family cultivates for 
itself, and little is brought to market. The poor 
people live miserably on black teff and tocousso, 
and even persons of consideration use little except 
teff and bouza. 

The Abyssinians profess Christianity, but it has 
little influence over their conduct. At present 
they are split into three parties, violently opposed 
to each other. They retain a great number of 
Judaical observances, abstaining from the meats 
prohibited by the Mosaic law, pructising circum- 
cision, keeping both the Saturday and Siuiday as 
Sabbaths, and r^i^arding fasts as essential liut their 
fasts, though apparently long and rigorous, are 
dispensed with on pa\nncnt of a sum of money, 
according to the rank and wealth of the party. 
The Coptic patriarch of Cairo continues still to Iks 
the nominal head of the church, from whom the 
Abuna, the resident head, recdves his investiture. 
They have monasteries, both of monks and nuns, 
who arc far, however, from professing that rigid 
austerity which is the boast of the Komish church. 
Their veneration for the Virgin is unbounded ; and 
the Catholic missionaries found that tliey com- 
pletely outdid, in tliis respect, their own ultra 
zeaL Their saints are extremely numerous, and 
surpass, in miraculous power, even those of the 
Koraish calendar. They represent them by paint- 
ingH, with which their churches are la\'ishly 
adorned; but they do not admit any figures in 
relievo. The clergy do not attempt to prohibit 
divorce, or even polygamv, the propensitv to 
which in the nation is probably too powerful to 
render any prohibition enectuaL 

Mohammedans, as well as Jews, are also found 
in Abvssinia. The former appear to have in- 
creased since Brace's visit; at present they are 



most nnmcrous in Adowah and its vicinity. Few 
of them Imve any knowledge of the Koran. They 
engage more in' traffic than the Christians, and 
have more money. They are said to engross the 
whole traffic in slaves ; the Cliristians, according 
to Mr. Gobat, never taking any part in it. The 
Jews claim to be descended from mimigrants into 
Abyssinia, who returned with the Queen of Sheba 
alter her visit to Solomon. In morals thoy are 
much superior to their neighbours, both Christians 
and Mohammedans, but are unsocial and ascetic. 
Husbandry and a few simple trades are their sole 

Though low, as compared with Europe, the 
manufactures of Abyssinia occupy a prominent 
place among most of the African nations. It sup- 
plies itself with all the most indispensable articles. 
Cotton cloths, the universal dress of the country, 
arc made in large quantiUes, the fine sort at 
Gondar, and the coarse at Adowa. Being unable 
to dye their favourite dark blue colour, they un- 
ravel the blue Surat cloths, and weave them again 
into thcur own webs. Coarse cloth circulates as 
money. Manufactures of iron and brass ore also 
consdderable, the material being procured from 
Sennaor, Walcayt, and Bcrbcra ; knives are made 
at Adowa and spears at Antalow. The business 
of tanning is well understood in Tigrc'; and at 
Axum sheepskins are made into parchment. 
Saddles, and all sorts of horse furniture, are good. 
The foreign commerce of Abvssinia is carried on 
entirely by way of Massuan, whence the com- 
munication with the interior is maintained by the 
channel of Adowa. The imports are chiefly lead, 
block tin, gold foil, Persian carpets, raw silk from 
China, velvets, fVcnch broad cloths, coloured skins 
from Egypt, gloss beads and decanters from Venice 
The exports consist of gold, ivoiy, and slaves. The 
slaves ore reckoned more beautiful than those 
which come from the interior of Africa. 

Frogreu of DUcovery. — ^The ancients never ac- 
quired any accurate knowledge of Abyssinia. To 
it, along with Scnnaar, they, in a peculiar sense, 
applied the comprchennve name of^ Ethiopia ; for 
though that term was made to extend generally 
to the interior of Africa, and even to a great port 
of Asia, yet ^khiopia tub jE^ypto was r^i^arded 
as the proper Ethiopia. Descriptions of Ethiopian 
nations are given by the ancients at considerable 
length : but thejr serve chiefly to show the im- 
perfection of their knowlc<lgc, and ore tinctured 
with a large admixture of fable. Kennell sup- 
poses, aeemingly on good grounds, that the Ma- 
crobian, or iong-liv<Mi Emiopians, said to live 
farther to the south than the others, belong to 
Abysania. The ondcnts had no distinct know- 
ledge of more than two Ethiopian kingdoms : the 
first and onlv one known to the earnest writers 
is Meroe, or the Peninsula, which they erroneously 
supposed to be an island formed by the successive 
union of the Nile with the Astaboras and the 
Astapus (Blue Kiver and Tacazze). The chief 
dty of Meroe was placed by them on the Kile, in 
lat« 16^ 26' ; and iSruce, in passing through Scn- 
naar, saw, near ChencQ, immense ruins, which 
probably belonged to this celebrated capital of 
Ethiopia. The other kingdom became known 
after the Greeks, under the successors of Alex- 
ander, extended Uieir na%'igation along the eastern 
coast of Africa It was that of the Axumitas, 
ntuated upon the Kcd Sea, and occupying part of 
Tigrd. Its capital, Axum, still rcmams, and 
thofagh in a state of decay, exhibits remains so 
vast as amply to attest its former greatness. 
The inscriptions discovered here by ^It show 
that the Axumites had received amongst them 
the religion and the arts of foreigners, and tliat 

they made use of the Grecian language in the 
inscriptions on their monumental. The port of 
Axum, Adulis, was the channel by which the 
finest ivoiT then knovm was exported, and a 
commercial intercourse maintained with the coasts 
both of the Ked Sea and the Indian Ocean. Salt, 
though unable to visit it, seems to have ascer- 
tain^ its situation near Mossouah. 

Prior to the middle of the fourth centurv, Abys- 
sinia was converted to Christianity, which it has 
ever since nominally professed. 

After the rise and rapid spread of Islamism, 
those of Uie E^ptians who were reluctant to 
change their faith being compelled to fly south- 
wards before the sword of the Saracens, Nubia 
and Abyssinia became filled ^-ith Jewish and 
Christian refugees. And as both these countries 
were at that time Christian, the Arabian geo- 
graphers, who have fully described other parts of 
the continent, make a very slight mention of 
them; so that Abyssinia remained almost un- 
known till near the asm of modem naval dis- 
covery. In 1445, the emperor of Abyssinia sent 
an ambassador to the senate of Florence, and 
wrote a famous letter to the priests his subjects at 
Jerusalem. This, and the layourable reports of 
the Abyssinian priests now referred to, gave rise 
to the most exaggerated reports. It was said that 
a Christian prince, to whom the Portuguese gave 
the fantastical name of Preater or Presbyter John^ 
niled over a vast^ highly cixdlised, and rich em- 
pire, in the centre and E. of Africa, lliis state- 
ment inflamed at once the spirit of discovery and 
of religious zeal, the two rulmg principles in that 
age. The Portuguese monorchs, who took the 
lead in exploring the eastern world, immediately 
devLsed measures for acauiring a knowledge of so 
remarkable a region. The passage to India by 
the Cape of Good Hope had not yet l)ecn dis- 
covered; Abyssinia was therefore \'icwcd as a 
tract tlirough which the commerce of India might 
be conducted. Two envoys, Co\'ilham and l>e 
Paiva, were therefore sent, under the direction of 
Prince Henry, upon a mi^on to explore it. They 
went by way of Alexandria, and descended the 
Ked Sea. De Paiva perished by some unknown 
accident; but Covilham, after visiting difiercnt 
parts of India and Eastcdm Africa, entered Abys- 
sinia, and arrived, in 1490, at the court of the 
emperor, rending then in Shoa. Being brought 
iKjfore the sovereign, he was receivetl witli that 
favour which novelty, when there is nothing to 
be feared from it, usually secures; and being a 
man of address and obilitv, he contrived to main- 
tain this friendly di8])osit[on. The reports which 
he transmitted of tlie country were favourable; 
and having prevailed on the empress-mother to 
send an Armenian as an ambassador to Portugal, 
whoso arrival excited a great sensation in that 
country, the Portuguese sent out several otiier 
embassies. Of these the most remarkable is that 
described by Alvarez, in 1520. He remained six 
years in the country, and traverse<l it from north 
to south, \'isiting the provinces of Amharo, Shoa, 
and Efat I^aez, Almeyda, Lolio, and several 
others successively undertook journeys into Al»ys- 
sinia. Paez, who resided in the 'countn"* from 
1603 till his death in 1622, visited, in 1618, the 
sources of the Bahr-el-Azrck or eastern arm of the 
Nile, and describes them nearly in the same terms 
as Bruce, who absurdly claims the honour of being 
their discoverer. From the accounts of tliese and 
other missions, Tellez first (1660), and afterwani^ 
Ludolph (1681), principally compiled their his- 
tories and descriptions of Ethiopia. Ludolph, 
who was well versed in the language, derived a 
considerable part of his information from the com- 


Bimicatioos of Gregory, an Abyssinian monk of 
the province of Amhara, then in Europe. 

Public cuiioaity, however, with respect to Abys- 
sinia gradually suJisided, till towards the close of 
last century (1790), it was revived by the publi- 
cation oi Mr. Brace's Travels. Many of the dr- 
cumstances he relates are so very extraordinary 
as to give to his descriptions a good deal of the 
appearance of romance. The authenticity of his 
work was in consequence very generallv doubted; 
and it must be admitted that some of his state- 
ments have been shown to be unfounded, and that 
others are of very Questionable authoiit^r. But 
the accuracy of the leading features of his work 
has been fully established by Mr. Salt and other 
late travellers. 

Farther information as to Abyssinia will be 
found in the Modem Universal History, vol. xv. ; 
the Travels of Bruce, Salt, and Lord Valentia ; Mr. 
Gobat's Journal; the account of Abysania in Bit- 
ter's Geography; Prichaxd's Researches on Man; 
Paikyn's liie m Abyssinia ; and Stem's Wander- 
ings among the Falashas in Abyssinia. 

ACAPULCO, a celebrated sea-port and town of 
Mexico, in the intendency of that name, on the 
coast of the Pacific Ocean, 190 m. SSW. Mexico, 
lat. Ifio 50' 29" N., long. 99° 46' W. Estimated 
popu 3,000. The harbour is one of the finest in 
the world. *It is familiar,* says Captain Hall, 

* to the memory of most people, from its being the 
port whence the rich Spanish galleons of former 
days took their departure to q)read the wealth of 
the Western over the Eastern world. It is cele- 
brated, also, in Anson's delightful Voyage, and 
occupies a conspicuous place m the very interest- 
ing accounts of the Buccaneers : to a sailor, there- 
furtj it is classic ground in every sense. I cannot 
expreM the universal professional admiration ex- 
cited by a sight of this celebrated port, which is, 
moreover, the very beau-ideal of a harbour. It is 
easy of access ; very capacious ; the water not too 
derp ; the holding ground good ; quite firee from 
hidden dangere ; and as secure as the basin in the 
centre of Portsmouth dock-yard. From the inte- 
rior of the harbour the sea cannot be discovered;^ 
and a struiger, coming to the spot by land, would 
^wnijritM* he was looking over a sequestered moun- 
tain-lake.* (South America, ii p. 172.) Thero are 
two entrances to this ^Icndid basin, one on each 
side <^ the small island of Koqueta or Grifo, the 
broadest being nearly 1^ m. across, and the other 
from 700 to 800 feeL The town, commanded Inr the 

* cxtensrre and formidable ' (Hall) castle oi San 
Carlosi, ia poor and mean. Since it ceased to be 
the resnrt <^ the galleons, it has ceased to be of 
any considerable importance; and, when visited 
by Captain Hall, had onlv thirty houses, with a 
luge suburb of huts built of reeds, wattled in 
open ba:^et-work to give admission to the air. 
The climate is exceedingly hot and pestilential. 
To give a freer circulation to the air, an artificial 
cut was made through the chain of rocks by which 
the town is surrounded. But, though this has 
been of considerable service it still continues to 
be very unhealthy. Its natural insalubrity is in- 
creased by the poisonous vapours exhaled from a 
marsh situated to the £. of tne tovm. The annual 
deaocation of the stagnant water of this mardi 
oocaasons the death of innumerable small fishes ; 
whicht decaying in heaps under a tropical sun, 
diffuse their noxious emanations through the 
neighbouring air, and are justly considered a prin- 
c^tal cause of the putrid biUous fevers that then 
prevail along the coast. Some trade is carried on 
Detween Acapuloo andGuayquil, Callao, &c. ; but, 
owing to the extreme tediousness and difficulty of 
the voyage from Acapnlco to Callao, the inter- 



course between Mexico and Pcm is confined 
within very narrow bounds. 

ACERENZA (an. Acherontta), a small and 
very ancient arohiepisoopal city of Southern Italy, 
prov.Potenza; 14 m. N£. Potenza. Pop. 3,955 m 
1862. It is situated, according to the description 
of Horace (Od. lib. iii. car. 4, 1. 14), on an almost 
inaccessible hill, Nidu$ celta Acheroniutj the foot 
of which is washed by the Brandano. It has a 
castle, a cathedral, two convents, a grammar 
school, and an hospital The archbishop resides 
at Matera. This town was looked upon by the 
Romans as one of the bulwarks of Apulia and 

ACERNO, a town of Southern Italy, prov. Sa- 
lerno; 16 m. N. by E. Salemo. Pop. 3,715 in 
1862. The town has a cathedral, a parish church, 
a mont depiete, which makes advances of seed to 
indigent cultivators, a fabric of paper, and a 

ACERRA, a town of Southern Italy, prov. Ca- 
serto; 9 m. NE. Naples. Pop. 11,274 in 1862. It 
has a cathedral, a seminary, and a numt de pietS, 
The country is fhiitful, but unhealthy. This is a 
very ancient tovm. In the second Punic war it 
was destroyed by Hannibal, the inhabitants 
having des^ted it on his approach. (Liv. lib. xxiiL 
8. 17.) Under Augustus it received a Roman 

ACHEEN, a principality occupying the NW. 
extremity of the island of Sumatra (which see). 

AcHEEN, the capital of the above principality, 
situated near the NW. extremity of Sumatra, on 
a river about 3 m. from the sea, lat. 5^ 35" N., 
long. 95^ 45" E. It is veiy populous, being said 
to contain 8,000 houses built of tMunboo and rough 
timber, and raised on posts, to secure them from 
inundations. A good deal of trade is carried on 
with Singapore, Batavia, Bengal, &c. Owing to 
a bar at the mouth of the river, none but small 
vessels pass up to the city. The entrance for three 
months of the year is dangerous, but the harbour 
is secure. 

ACHERN, a town of the G. D. Baden, on the 
Achem, 14 miles NE. Kehl, on the railway from 
Kehl to Carlsruhe. Pop. 2,579 in 1861. Within 
a short distance of Achon is the village of Sas»- 
bach, contiguous to which is a granite monument, 
erected at the expense of the French government 
in 1829, on the spot where the Martial de Tu- 
renne, one of the greatest generals of modem 
times, was killed by a random shot on the 27th 
July, 1675. He was interred in the chapel of St. 
Nicholas at Achem. 

ACHIL, or EAGLE ISLAND, an island on the - 
W. coast of Ireland, co. Mayo, separated from the 
main land by a narrow channel. It is about 30 
miles in drciunference, and contains above 23,000 
acres. Pop. 5,776 in 1861. It is mountainous; 
and eagles — whence its name — breed in it« inac- 
cessible fastnesses. The inhabitants speak Uie 
Irish language, and are in an extremely depressed, 
miserable condition. 

ACHMIN, or ECHMIN, a town of Upper 
Eg3rpt, on the right bank of the Nile, 230 m. 
S. Cairo. Estimated pop. 3,000. Streets well 
disposed, broad, and straight, which is very un- 
usual in Egypt ; so that this would be a handsome 
town, were the houses built of better materials 
than baked bricks cemented with clay. It was 
anciently called Panopolis, or Chemnis; the former 
being the Greek, the latter the Egyptian name. 
It contains a church of some antiquity, and held 
in much veneration ; but its chief ornament is the 
granite pillars taken from the ruins of Panopolis. 

ACHMUNEIN. a lai^e\'ilhige of central Egypt, 
prov. Minyeh, on the site of the an. NervMpoiu 



Magna, lat 27° 43* N., long. 30® 53' E. In the en- 
virons is the pftrtico of an ancient temple, covered 
with hieroglvphics, and re^rarded as one of the finest 
remains of Ivfoi>tian architecture. 

ACHONRi, a parish of Ireland, co. Sligo, which 
fp^&i name to a bishopric, now united to Killala. 
16 m. W. Sliffo, Top. of parish, 14,504 in 18C1. 

ACI-REALE, a 8ea-|X)rt town of Sicily, prov. 
Catania, cap. cant at the foot of Mount iEtna, 
9 m. NE. CaUnia. Pop. 24,831 in 1862. The 
town stands on a vast mass of basaltic lava, about 
800 feet above its port, the Marina ofAei^ and is 
fmpported on arches constructed with f^eat labour 
and ex]>cnse through ten alternate strata of lava 
and cartlu The situation is healthy ; the town is 
r^l^larly built, clean, with many churches, con- 
vents, and public buildinf;:s, the whole isd^Wnj^i; en- 
dence of a tluriviiif^c ^^nd industrious population. A 
considerable trade is carried on, particularly during 
the fair in July, in wine, fnut, gold filigree work, 
cotton, flax, and diaper, the last l)eing bleacheil 
in great quantities in the plain below the town on 
the banks of the Acquc Grande. The port is sm^ll ; 
the mole is formed out of a mass of lava, and 
there are some good warehouses. The town is 
celebrated for its cold, sulphurous mineral waters, 
the cave of Polyphemus, and grotto of Galatea. 
There are dx other places bearing the same name. 
During the 8cr\'ile war Aci-Reale was the head- 
quarters of the consul Aquilius, who succec<Ied in 
suppressing that dangerous revolt, anno 101 b. c. 

ACONCAGUA, a province of Chili (which see). 
This also is the name of the cap. of the same 
prov., a town containing about 5,000 inliab., and 
also of a mountain and nver, the former one of the 
loftiest of the Andes, being 2K,910 feet above the 
sea. The river rises on the S. fudc of the mountain, 
and flows into the sea 12 miles from Valparaim. 

ACQUAPENDENTE, a smaU town of Central 
Italy, 15 m. W. (M-iclo. Pop. 2,005 in 1862. 
It has a cathedral and 5 churches. 

ACQUA-VIVA, a to^-n of Southern Italy, prov. 
Ban, 18 m. S. Bari. Pop. 7,843 in 1862. It is 
surrounded by walls, has a handsome parish 
church, some convents, 2 hospitals, and a mont de 

ACQUI, or AQUI, a town of Northern Italy, 
cap. prov. same name on the left l»ank of the Bor- 
nuda; 47 m. ESE. Turin. Pop. 9,944 in 1862. It 
has a citadel, a cathedral, 2 churches, and a semi- 
narv; and is celebrated for its warm sulphurous 
baths. The inhabitants arc principally employed 
in the silk manufacture. 

ACRA, a small dwtrict on the Gold Coast of 
Africa, bek>nging to the Ashantees, nearly under 
the meridian of Greenwich. The English, Dutch, 
and Danes have forts at Acra. 

ACRE, AKKA, or ST. JEAN D'ACRE, a town 
of Svria, cap. pachalic of same name on the coast 
of the Mediterranean, lat. 32^^ 54' 35" N., long. 
86® 6' 6" E., 33 m. SSW. Tsour (an. Tyrta), and 
85 m. W. Lake Tabaria or Genesareth. It is 
situated on a promontory, forming the NE. limit 
of a fine semicircular bay (the Bay of Acre) open- 
ing to the N., bounded *NW. by Cape Carmel, at 
the extremity of the mountain of that name. The 
harbour of Acre, on the S. side of the town, within 
the bay is shallow, and accessible only to vessels 
drawing little water; but opposite to Caipha, a 
amall town at the foot of Mount Carmel, on the 
W. side of the bay, there is good anchorage ground 
hi deep water. Few towns are more advan- 
tageously situated as a centre of conunerce or seat 
of political power; but these advantages, by 
making its possession of importance, have ser\'od 
to expose it over and over again to hostile attacks. 
Hie clhnate is unhealthy ; the winter rains, de- 


scending in torrents from the mountains, fill the 
adjacent plain with stagnant lakes, from which, 
and the decomposition of vegetable remains, con- 
stant malaria is produced, forming a striking con- 
trast to the healthy atmosphere of the ncighlK>uring 
mountain land. Cotton and com are the chief 
pn)ducts of the plain of Acre, and thejte form its 
staple exports. 

Previously to 1832 the population of Acre was 
loosely estimated at from lo,(MK) to 20.00(1 : but 
the siege of that year haWng ended in its almost 
total destruction, it is impossible to state exactly 
the numl)er of its present inhabitants, though 0,000 
is probably about the mark. The same C4iuse 
operates to make an accoimt of the ])laoe his- 
torical, rather than descriptive of its existing 
state. Even before the period allude<l to, a few 
broken columns of granite, and other dilupidate<l 
and neglected relics, were the only remauns of 
antiquity; but of the Gothic age there were, at 
this epoi'h, the cathedral churches of St. Andrew 
and St. John. The mosque of Djezzar Pacha wa-s 
a fine quadrangular building, paved with white 
marble, and surmounteil by a cupola sup{>orteti on 
pillars brought from the ruins of CA'sarea. The 
same governor also constnicted a large fountain, of 
incalculable advantage to the town. The lutzaan* 
were numerous and go(Kl, being arched over, and 
well supplie<l with commo<lities. Houses built of 
stone, and flat-roofed, the terraces on their tops 
forming agreeable promenades; the more useful, 
as the streets were extremely narn>w. At present, 
howe\'er. Acre is, or at all events within a year or 
two was, little lietter than a mass of ruins ; of all 
its buildings, public or ])rivate, the fc»ui)tain of 
Djezzar was the onlv one thst escaped uninjuretl 
from the eflfects of the siege by the Egvptiaiis in 

Although the modem town lie of comparatively 
recent tlate, its site has been wcupierl by buildings 
from the remotest antiijuity. Herest<)o<i a Hebrew, 
or perhaps a Phoenician city, called Accho. Being 
improve<l and enlarged by the Greek sovereigns of 
Egypt, they gave it the name of Ptolemais; and 
it was justly regarded by them ami their Koniari 
successors as a port of great importance, Syria 
was one of the first connuev'its of the M<>hanime<laiis 
(see Arabia), into whose hands Ptolemais fell, 
A.D. 636. It then received the name of Akkn, 
which continues to be its Saracenic appellation. 
In 1104 it was captured by the first cnisaders, and 
forme<l for eighty vears part of the kingdom of 
Jemsalem, when it was taken by the famous 
sultan Saladin. About four vears afterwanls 
Richard Ca*ur de Lion and Philip Augustus ap- 
peared before its walls, and after a siege of twenty- 
two months it surrendered to their arms in 1 IHI. 
It subsequently remained in the possession of tho 
Cliristians exactlv a century ; and under the go- 
vernment of the Rnights Hospitallers of St John 
attained considerable imfMirtance and prosperity. 
It derived from the magnificent cathedral erectixl 
by these soldier monks to their patron saint its 
common western name of St Jean dAcre. In 
1291, however, the knights were driven from SjTia, 
and Acre was the spot on which their last dcsjHj- 
ratebut useless straggle took place. From 1291 
till 1517, it formed part of the Caliphate, when it 
passed, with the last paltry wrecks of that once 
mighty power, into the hands of the Turks. Neg- 
lected by the government, and exposed to tho 
depredations of every wandering tribe, it con- 
tinued to decay, till, in the beginning of the 17th 
century, it was seized by FakV-el-din, the cele- 
brated emir of the Druses, under whose wise and 
energetic government it 1)egan to show symptormi 
of retummg prosperity; but in the latter part 6f 


Us life FakV-el-diii, apprehending a Toriush in- 
vaftiun, destroyed the harbour, and thus left the 
place in a worse condition than that in which he 
found it. Another century of decay and miseiy 
endued, ti]]« in 1749, the Bedouin Arab Daher ex- 
pelled the Turkish aga, and made Acre the capital 
of a territory which for more than 20 years was 
virtually independent of the Porte. Daher par- 
tiaUy fortified Acre, partly cleared its ruins, and 
settled colonies of Greek and Mussulman farmers, 
baxmased and despoiled in the neighbouring coun- 
tries, in the surrounding plain. On Daher's fiill 
in 1 775, Acre reverted to the dominion of the 
Turks. For once, however, the change of masters 
was not productive of ruin. Djezzar, who was 
immediately appointed pacha, how inferior soever 
to Daher in personal character, seems to have re- 
sembled him in his political energy, promptness, 
and decision. He strengthened the fortifications 
and embellished the town. The determined and 
successful resistance which it made in 1799 to the 
arms of Napoleon have rendered it fimious in 
modem history. There is, indeed, good reason to 
think that the termination of the siege had a 
powerful infiuence over the future fortune of that 
extraordinary peraon, and consequently of the 
wnrid. (See Voyage du Marshal Marmont, iii. 
p. 76.) Acre continued to prosper till 1832. 
Though fettered by imposts and monopolies, it 
carried oo a considerable foreign trade, and had 
resident consuls from most of the great states of 
Europe. During its siege by Ibr^um Pacha in 
1^32, which lasted 5 months and 21 days, its pri- 
vate and public buildings were mostly destroyed. 
In 1840 It was bombarded by the English and 
Austrian fleets, through whom it was restored to 
the sultan. It has not recovered its former pros- 
perity. (Volney's and Robinson's Travels, and 
KuMeirs Palestine.) 

ACKI, a town of South Italy, prov. Cosenza, 
cap. cant^ on the Muoone, in a healthy situation ; 
12. m. N. E. Coeenza. Pop. 11,736 in 1862. It 
has 6 parish churches and a hospitaL The sur- 
rounding country is very firuitfuL 

ACTIUM. See Art a, Gulfh of. 

ACTON, a village and parish of England, for- 
meriv resorted to for its mineral waters; 8A m. 
W. 11^ Paul's, on the North London railway. Pop. 
of parish 3,151 in 1861. Acton has in recent 
times become a suburb of the metropolis. (See 


ACUL, an inconsiderable sea-port town of 
Hayti, on its N. coast. Lat 19© 47' 40" N., 
ko^ 720 27' 13" W. It was called St Thomas 
by Columbus. 

ADALIA, or SATALIEH, a sea-port town of 
Turkey in Asia, Anatolia, cap. Sangiack Tdk^ili, 
oo the gulph of the same name, near the mouth 
of the Douden-sou, lat. 860 52^ 15" N., long. 30® 
45' 3" E. Estimated pop. 8,000, two-thirds Tiuks 
tnd oDe-third Greeks. It is finely situated, being 
built amphitheatre- wise round a small harbour 
on the declivity of a hill, the summit of which is 
iumonnted by a castle. It is enclosed by a ditch, 
a donUe wall, and a series of square towers about 
50 yards apart. Streets narrow, and houses mostly 
of wood. It is the residence of a pacha and of a 
Grfeek archbishop; and has numerous mosques, 
dinrrhes, baths, caravansaries, &c The sur- 
nwnding country is beautiful, and the soil deep 

Adalia is supposed to occupy the site of the an- 
cient Olbia; and the fragments of columns and 
other remains of antiquity found within its walls, 
tttest its fbnner flouruhing state. 

ADAirS PEAK, the blgfaest mountain in the 
idnd of C>ylon, altitude 7,420 feet ; 45 m. ESE. 



Columbo. It has a sugar-loaf shape; and its 
summit, supposed to be the point where Buddha 
ascended to heaven, is esteemed sacred, and is 
resorted to by pilgrims. 

AD ANA, a town of Asia Minor, the capital of a 
district or government of the same name, on the 
Sihon (Sams), about 25 m. above where it falls 
into the sea, kt 36© 69* N., Ibng. 350 16' E. 
Estim. pop. 20,000. It is veir ancient, stands on 
a declivity, surrounded on all sides by groves of 
finit trees and vineyards ; is large, well-built ; has 
a castle ; a bridge over the river, said to have been 
built by Justinian; and a noble portico in the 
middle of the bazaar. It carries on a considerable 
trade in wine, fiiiits, and com. In summer it is 
rather unhealthy, and the majoritv of the inhi^ 
bitants retire to the country. ()^inneir*s Asia 
Minor, &c p. 131.) 

AD ARE, an ancient town of Ireland, co. Lim- 
erick, with some fine ruins, now much decayed, 
situated on the Maig, over which it has a bndge 
of9arehe8; 130 m. SW. Dublin. Pop. 816. Ditto 
ofparish 2,944 m 1861. 

ADDA, a celebrated river of Italy, formed by 
the junction of several rivulets near Bormio, in the 
Valteline. Having traversed that province, it 
passes Sondrio, enters the lake of O)mo near its 
northon, and issues from its southern extremity, 
and passing Lodi and Pizzighettone, falls into the 
Po 6 m. W. Cremona. 

ADELA.IDE, a city of South Australia, cap. of 
the British colony of that name, about 7 m. SE« 
from its port, an inlet on the E. side of St Vin- 
cent's Gulph. Lat. 340 57' S., long. 1380 38' E. 
Pop. 7,143 in 1846, and 18,303 in 1861. The mu- 
nic. boundaiy comprises rather more than 1,000 
acres. It is divided into N. and S. Adelaide by 
the river Torrens, here crossed by several bridges. 
Both portions of the town stand on gentle eleva- 
tions, and are regularly laid out : the streets, which 
vary from 70 to 130 ft. in width, mostly cross or 
meet each other at right angles, and there are se- 
veral good squares. The S. is a good deal larger 
than me N. division of the dty ; it includes the 
government house, hospital, &c, with some hand- 
some terraces and villas, having from ^ to ^ acre 
of shrubbery and garden ground attached. Along 
King William Street, the central thoroughfare, are 
many large buildings, including the government 
ofllces and commissariat stores, with many good 

{>rivate houses and shops of all descriptions. Hind- 
ey Street is the principal place of business, and 
here is to be observed all the bustle of a flourishing 
town. It is lined on both sides with good stone, 
brick, or wooden houses, some of which are of su- 
perior build, and do credit to Australian street 
architecture. Many of the stores or merchants' 
warehouses are massive brick or stone buildings. 
The government house, near the river, is a fine 
house, surrounded by about 10 acres laid out in 
ornamental gardens. A botanic garden was es- 
tablished in 1855, and in 1858 a special grant of 
1000/!. was allowed for a conservatory, filled with 
palms and other tropical produce. Among the 
other principal edifices are Trinity and St. John's 
churches, the legislative council house, court house, 
the office of the S. Australian bank, an auction 
mart, the offices of the S. Australian Company, 
and a large prison, built at a cost of 34,000/. In 
the centre of Light Square is a handsome Gothic 
cross, 45 feet high, erected to the memory of CJolo- 
nel Light, the founder of the dty. Adelaide has 
chapels for Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, Bap- 
tists, Independents, Methodists, Crerman Luthe- 
rans, and others, a Friends' meeting house, a Jews' 
sjmagogue, numerous schools, the S. Australian 
bank, and a branch of the Australasian do., S. 



Australian Assurance Company, a philanthropic 
institution, and a mechanics' institute. Several 
newspapers are published in the city. It manu- 
factures 'woollen goods, starch, soap, snuff, and 
machinerv, and it has a variety of steam and 
other mills, with breweries, tanneries, and malt 
houses. Its trade in ores and wool is alreadv very 
cxtensi\'e, and it will necessarily increase with the 
increase of the trade of the colony, of which it is 
the grand emporium. Adelaide exported 5,699,200 
lbs. of wool in 1860 ; 6,662,020 lbs. in 1861 ; and 
7,162,032 lbs. in 1862. Around the cit3r on the £. 
and S. is a semicircle of hills, some rising to up- 
wards of 2,000 fL above the sea; and within a few 
miles are some of the principal copper and lead 
mines, to which, especially the former, the colony 
owes great part of its prosperity. 

The river Torrens, on which Adelaide is built, 
loses itself in a marsh before reaching the sea, so 
that the city is from 6 to 7 m. distant from its 
port, an inlet of St. Vincent's Gulph. In the 
rainy season the Torrens is much flooded, though 
it seldom overflows its banks, which are steep and 
lofby ; but in the dry season it has no current, its 
bed being then formed into a series of pools or 

Port Adelaide, 7 m. NW. from the city, in a 
low and maishy situation, consists of a number of 
dwelling-houses and warehouses, many of which 
are of stone, with wharves, partly belonging to 
government, and partly to the South Australian 
Company. The inlet of the sea forming the har- 
bour, opposite the entrance to which a light ves- 
sel is moored, stretches from the gulph, from which 
it is separated by a narrow neck of land, for about 
S m. southward, surrounding Torrens Island. There 
entered at Port Adelaide, in the year 1862, a total 
of 293 vessels, with a tonnage of 92,120. Of these, 
273 vessels, of 86,230 tons, were with cargoes, and 
20 vessels, of 5,890 tons, in ballast. The clearances, 
in the same year, amounted to 282 vessels, of a 
total burthen of 92,502 tons. Port Adelaide has 
a custom house ; but vessels are exempted firom all 
port charges in this and in the other parts of the 
colony. A railway unites the city with the port. 
(For further information in regard to the trade of 
this dty and of the colony generally, see Austra- 
lia, South.) 

Adelaide was founded in 1834. In 1842 it was 
incorporated by an act of the colonial legislature 
as a city under a mayor, aldermen, and common 
council. (Wilkinson, Dutton, Bennett, S. Aus- 
tralia ; Statistical Tables relating to the Colonial 
Possessions, 1864.) 

ADELSBERG, a village and cavern in lUyria, 
about half way between Laybach and Trieste. The 
cavern is decidedly the most magnificent and ex- 
tensive hitherto discovered in Europe. It has been 
explored to a distance of between 1 and 2 miles 
(1810 fathoms) from the entrance, and is termi- 
nated by a lake. It is believed, however, that 
this is not the end of these vast hollows, and that, 
were it carefully examined, its extent would be 
found to be much greater. The cavern is placed 
under the care of an officer in the adjoining village, 
who appoints guides to conduct strangers through 
it. It is ca<)ily accessible, and may be \isited with- 
out any risk. The entrance is situated about a 
mile from the village, in the face of a chff, below 
a ruined castle. At this point the river Poik, after 
winding through the plain, disappears beneath the 
mountain, sinking into the rock below a natural 
penthouse formed by the 8loi)e of the limestone 
strata. The entrance for visitors is a small hole 
above this, closed by a door. At a distance of 180 
yards from the mouth, a noise of rushing waters is 
heard, and the Poik may be seen, by the light of 


the taper, struggling along at a considerable depUi 
below ; and on a sudden a vast liall 100 feet high, 
and more than 300 long, called the Dome, is en- 
tered. The river, ha\'lng dived under the wall of 
rock on the outside, here re-appears for a short 
space, and is tiien lost in the bowels of the moun- 
tain. It is believed to be identical with the Unz, 
which bursts forth at Planina ; planks of wood, 
thrown into the stream of the cavern, appear there, 
it is said, after ten or twelve hours. 

The Dome was the only part of the cavern 
kno¥m down to 1819, when a labourer, working in 
the cave, accidentally broke through a screen of sta- 
lactite, and discovered that this was, to use the words 
of Russel, * but the vestibule of the most magnificent 
of all the temples which nature has built for her- 
self in the region of the night' Kude steps, cut 
in the rock, lead do¥m the sloping sides of this 
chunbor to the level of the river, which is crossed 
by a wooden bridge; and the opposite wall is 
scaled by means of a similar flight of steps. Here 
the visitor enters the newly-discovered part of tho 
cavern, consisting of a range of chambers varying 
iu size, but by far the most interesting, from the 
variety, beautiful purity, and quantity of their 
stalactites. Sometimes uniting with the stalag- 
mite below, they form a pillar worthy to support 
a cathedral; at others a crop of minute spiculss 
rises from the floor ; now a cluster of slender co- 
lumns reminds one of the tracery of a Gothic 
chapel, or of the twinings or interlacings of the 
ascending and descending branches of the banyan 
tree. The fantastic shapes of some masses have 
given rise to various names, applied by the guides, 
acconling to tlie likeness, which they imagine they 
can trace in them, to real objects; such as the 
throne, the pulpit, the butcher's shop, the two 
hearts, the bell, which resounds almost like metal, 
and the curtain (Yorhang), a ver>' singular mass 
about an inch thick, spreading out to an extent of 
several square yards, perfectly resembling a piece 
of drapery, and beautifully transparent The sta- 
lacticiu matter pervades almost every part of the 
cavern ; it paves the floor, hangs in pendants from 
the roof, coats and plasters the wail, cements to- 
gether fallen masses of rock, forms screens, parti- 
tions, and pillars. The only sound in the remote 
chambers is produced by the fall of the drops of 
water charged with lime, which ore found, on exa- 
mination, to tip each pendant mass, forming an 
ascendant spire, or stalagmite, on the spot where 
it descends. One of the long suite of chambers, 
larger and loftier than the rest, and with a mora 
even floor, is converted once a year (in May) into a 
ball-room. On that occasion the peasant hids and 
lasses assemble fVom miles around, and the gloomy 
vaults re-echo with sounds of mirth and music. 

ADEN, a small state of S. Arabia in Yemen, 
lying between 12<' 32' and 13® 3' N. Lit, and bo- 
tween 43^ 30' and 4!P 30' E. long. It extentis 
from E. to W. almut 115 m., its greatest width 
being about 30. The mountains in this part of 
Arabia are close upon the sea, and, for an Arabic 
district, it is well supplied with water ; and from 
b<»th these causes the heat of the climate is con- 
siderably mitigatorl, and vegetation flourishes upon 
a more extensive scale than in most other partes of 
the peninsula. It has a considerable forest The 
cidtivated ports produce wheat, dhourah, and cot>- 
ton; the woods consist of mangoes, s>'camores, 
and pomegranates, and the surface of the whole 
country is interspersed vnth date trees. WclLstixl 
(Travels, iu 409.) states that in purity of atm<>- 
sphcre, richness of soil and venhupe, nature of vege- 
tation, and proximity of production and desolation, 
this country resembles Egypt Tho barren ports 
ore represented aspecuUarly so; but they occur in 


enmnumtively anAll patches, and in the mi^ of 
feitilitT. The inhabitants are mostly a^coltu- 
Tvts : bat sach is the miserable state of the coun- 
try, that the husbandman never goes to his labour 
without being armed, and remrts to the towns for 
necuritY daring the night The town inhabitants 
of the interior carry on an extensive trade with 
the Bedoainsy who bring to market their ghee 
(butter), frankincense, and milk, receiving in re- 
turn grain and cloth. Manufactures limited to a 
fine eoiped cloth or silk, osed for the dresses of the 
sapcrior classes, the weaving of which occupies 
about 30 looms in the town of Lahedftjee. 

XoESt, a sea-port town of Arabia, cap. of the 
abov€ state, now in the possession of Great Britain, 
on the Indian Ocean, 118 m. £. from the straits of 
Babehnandeb, hit 129 46' IS'' N., long. 45^ 10' 20" 
£. It stands on the K side of a promontory, pro- 
jecting S. into the ocean, called the Peninsula of 
Aden. This peninsala, which terminates in a lofty 
moontain, bearing a striking resemblance to the 
nick of Gibraltar, is connected with the main land 
by a low isthmus about 400 yaids in breadth. Gn 
the X. and W. the town is overhung by steep and 
craggy rocks, on which are the remains of old for- 
tificatimis. The £. or outward harbour of Aden, 
formerly (and apparently at a recent period) large 
and commodious, is now partly filled up with sand. 
Bot the harbour on the \V. side of the town, be- 
tween the jHomontory on. which it stands and 
another parallel thereto, is a magnificent basin, 
capable of accommodating the largest fleets. It 
haA a contracted entrance, which might easily be 
fortified, so as to make it inaccessible to a hostile 
squadron. From this harixmr the approach to the 
town is over a low ridge of the mountain, the road 
being in parts cut through the solid rock. 

The site of this town, the best adapted for trade 
on the whole coast of Arabia, and the key of the 
Ked Sfea, has always made it a point of primary 
importance in the direct trade between Europe and 
the East It became at a very early period a cele- 
Icated emporium (the Atabict en^xnium of Ptole- 
my). After the Romans obtained possession of 
Kgypt, and Hippalns (a. d. 50) had discovered the 
direct route to India, they destroyed Aden lest it 
sboald fall into hostile luuids, and interfere with 
their nnmopoly of this lucrative traffic. (\'^incent's 
CVunmerce, Hcc., of the Indian Ocean, iL 827, 528.) 
It is not known whoi (mt by whom it was rebuilt ; 
bat from the 11th till the 16th century it was the 
great, or rather the exclusive, entrepot of Eastern 
commerce. The discovery of the passage by the 
Cape of Good Hope was the first great blow to its 
importance. Simultaneously with the appearance 
«f the Portuguese in India, the Turks, under Soly- 
man the Magnificent, took possession of various 
Arabic ports, Aden among the number. They 
erected the fortifications, the ruins of which excite 
the admiration of every traveller, and which re- 
peUsd the attacks of the famous Portuguese gene- 
ral Alboquerqoe. From this date, however, Aden 
rapidly decliiied; nor did the expulsion of the 
TurkA, which lock place about the middle of last 
cpntmy, retard its downfalL Its ruin was more 
oimplete than could luive been anticipated ; for 
it!* convenient haorbours and plentiful supply of 
water make it, apart firom other considerations, a 
urjrt desirable port 

Hlftcn first occupied by the British, Aden had not 
RKice than 100 houses, with a parcel of wretched 
hots, and from 3,000 to 4,000 inhabs. It had 
indeed the ruins of several cisterns and reservoirs 
cut in the solid rock, and of aqueducts for convey- 
ing water from the mountains c^ the interior, which 
felly testified ita former greatness. But within the 
faat twenty yean a vast change has taken place, 

Vou L 



and tho ancient prosperity of Aden bids fair to be 
again restored. Hotels for the accommodation of 
the passengers by the steamers have been erected; 
and the population of the vicinity, attracted by 
the security afibrded by the English flag, have 
flocked to the place, which has now an estimated 
pop. of 50,000. Defensive works have recently 
been constructed, which are considered to render 
it impregnable, and make it the Gibraltar of the 
Red Sea. Its great deficiency was formerly the 
supply of water, though tlie supply was abmidant 
as compared with many other Asiatic towns. The 
sources of supply are— the adjacent plain, from 
which brackish water is drawn, and a condensing 
apparatus used by the residents. It rains only 
once in three years, when the rain descends in 
torrents for about a fortnight in September. To 
husband the rain-water the British have lately 
constructed a system of reservoirs in a rocky ra- 
vine^ at a cost of l,000,000i, in order to supply 
the inhabitants in dry weather. 

While its commanding position, excellent port, 
and abundant supply of water, make Aden an 
important station in the route from India to 
Europe bv the Red Sea, it is no less favourably 
situated for becoming an erUrepSt for the con- 
tiguous countries of Arabia and Africa. It owed 
its former consequence mainly to its natural ad- 
vantages, and these it still retains. It is be- 
coming more and more an important emporium, 
and bids fair to be of the greatest utility to the 
surrounding continents. The climate though hot 
is not unhealthy. 

(Niebuhr, Dcscr. del' Ar. par. ii, pp. 221, 222: 
Forster's Historical Geogranny of Arabia, iL 104 
and 156; and recent and omcial documents.) 

ADJYGHUR, a town of Hindostan, jirov. Alla- 
habad, hit 240 50' N., long. 80° 3' E. It has a 
fortress at the top of a steep hill that was token 
by the British in 1809, after a stout resistance. 
Estimated pop. 45,000. 

ADIGE, a large river of Italv, the AtesiuM or 
Athesis of the ancients. It is formed by several 
rivulets which have their sources in the Rhetian 
Alps, and unite near Glums; thence it flows £. 
till near Bolsano it is joined by its important tri- 
butaiy, tho Eisack. It then takes a southerly 
course past Trent, where it becomes naWgable, 
RovercMlo, and Pontone. It then changes its course 
to the E., and passing Verona, L^nano, and 
Aquileia, falls into the Adriatic, 20 m. S. Venice. 
It is deep, rapid {Velox Athests, Claud.), and is 
usually navigated with difficulty. In faring, on 
the melting of the snow in the mountains, it is 
liable to sudden floods, to prevent the injurious 
influence of which in the Polesino of Rovigo and 
other low grounds, it is fenced by strong banks, 
while a part of the surplus water is carried ofi* by 
canals. Exclusive of^ the Eisack, its principal 
affluents are the Nocc, Aviso, and Agno. 

ADMIRALTY ISLAND, an island on the W. 
coast of America, between George the Tliird's 
Archipelago and the continent, about 90 m. long 
and 25 broad. Lat 57© 2* to 5«o 24' N., long. 

1340 W. 

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a duster of 20 or 30 
islands in the South Pacific Ocean, of which the 
largest, called Great Admiralty Island, is from 55 
to 60 m. in length: in about 20 10' S. lat, and 
from 1260 to 1280 E. long. They were discovered 
by the Hollanders in 1616, and arc inhabited. 

ADOUR, a considerable ri\'er in the SVV. of 
France. It has its source in the P>Tencets 6 ni. 
E. Bareges, whence it flows N. by Bagnbres and 
Tarbes to Oise ; hero it takes an easterly oourne, 
and passing St Sever, Dax, and Bayonne, falls 
into the sea a little below the latter. *It is navi- 



gable to St Sever. The Oleron and the Pau are 
the most considerable of its affluents. 

ADOWA, the capital of Tigr^, in Abyssinia, 
partly on the side and partly at the foot of a hill, 
commanding a magnificent view of the mountains 
of TigrtTLat. 14© 12^ 30" N., long. 39° 5' E. 
The houses are all of a conical form, pretty regu- 
larlv disposed into streets or alleys, mterepersed 
with trees and small gardens. Pop. probably 8,000. 
It has manufactures of cotton cloths, and an ex- 
tensive trade in cattle, com, salt, and slaves. 

ADKA, a sea-port town of Spain, cap. district 
same name, prov. Granada on the Mediterranean, 
45 m. SR. Granada. It is situated near the mouth 
of the Adra. In its vicinity are some of the rich- 
est lead mines in the world, the produce of which 
constitutes the principal article of export from 
the town. 

ADRAMIT, a village of Armenia in Russia, 
situated on the shore o? Lake Van. It is a place 
of some beauty as to situation, being nestled in 
among crags and rocks, at the foot of which, 
wherever space is available, fruit trees and small 
gardens are planted. The huts, of the same mise- 
nble description as other Armenian villages, are 
built of rough stones, put together with mud, and 
erected close up to the side of a hill, into which 
part of the dwelling is excavated. The fiat sum- 
mit of the rocky hill on the slope of which the 
village stands is surrounded by an ancient wall, 
bmlt of huge stones laid one upon another, with- 
out mortar or cement of any kind, and resembling 
Cyclopean remains. (Ussher's Travels, p. 324.) 

ADRAMYT, a town of Turkey in Asia, Ana^ 
tolia, about 4 m. from the E. extremity of the 
gulph of the same name, 78 m. X. Smvma, lat. 
880 29' N., lon^. 2(P 57' 15" E. Pop. 5,000 (?). 
Streets narrow, ill-paved, and filthv; nouses, with 
few exceptions, mean, and miserably built. The 
olives produced in the adjoining territory, with 
large quantities of wool from the interior, are prin- 
cipally ship|)od for Constantinople; little except 
galls lieuig shipped for other p»arts of Eiuxmc. 

ADRI A (an. Atria or Hatria)^ a town or North- 
ern Italv, deleg. (formerly the Polesino of) liovigo 
on the 6astagnano, l)etwccn the Po and the Adige, 
12 m. E. Rovigo. Lat 45© 2' 57" N., long. 12^ 3' 
6b" E. Pop. 12,803 in 1858. Adria is a very 
ancient city, being supposed to be of Greek origin, 
and having afterwards I'omied part of the domhiious 
of the Etruscans. It was originally a Hca-)Mirt of 
such magnitude and im]M>rtance as to l)e able to 
jpve its own name to the great arm of the MctUter- 
rancan on which it stood; but owing to the gra- 
dual extension of the land, in consequence of the 
mud and other deposits brought doMmny the rivers, 
the port of Adria has been long since filled iq), and 
it is now an inland town 18 or 19 m. from the sea. 
When Strabo wrote, it had become a comparatively 
unimportant place, and it subsequentlv suffered 
much from inundations and war, particularly from 
the attacks of the barbarians. During the twelfth 
century it b^an to revive. Its climate, which 
had become very unhealthy, and its environs, have 
both been materially improved by the drainage 
effecte<l by caning the canal of Portovico. It is 
the seat of a bishopric, has a fine collection of 
Etruscan and Roman antiquities found in the 
vicinage, with manufactures of silk and leather. 
The surrounding country is productive of com, 
wine, and cheese. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, L 
p. 116, Halbi Abn^ cd. 1837.) 

ADRIANOPLE (called Edreneh by the Turks), 
a celebrated city of Turkey in Europe, prov. Rou- 
melia, on the Maritza (an. Hebnis), where it is 
Joined bv the Toonga and the Arda, 134 m. NW. 
Constantinople, lat 4lo 48' N., long. 26^ 29' 15" 


E. Adrianople has, according to Mr. "Vlcc-CJonsul 
Blunt (Report 1864), 18,000 houses and a pup. of 
90,000 souls, of whom 28,000 are Mohammcdann, 
56,000 Christians, and 6,000 Jews. It contains 60 
mosques, 14 churches, and 13 synagogues; 1 mili- 
tary school, ami 37 other schools, with 2,730 
pupils; 2 hospitals and 1 madhouse. It is beauti- 
fullv situated in one of the richest and finest 
plains in the world, on the sides and base of a low 
nill, and when viewed from a distance has a mag- 
nificent appearance; but as is the case in mo»t 
Turkish towns, the illusion vanishes on entering. 
The streets are narrow, crooked, and filthy; and in 
certain periods of the year it is unhealthy. Some 
of the nouses are three stories high, and their 
shelving roofs project so much as to meet those on 
the opposite side. In the centre of the town an 
old wail, supported by massive towers, the work 
of the sovereigns of the Lower Empire, encloses a 
space occupie<i by the rayah population. Origin- 
ally it may have been the citadel ; but it is now 
useless as a defence. Among the public buildings 
the most distinguished are the ancient palace of 
the sultans, in a state of decay; the famous bazaar 
of Ali Pasha, appropriated to the warehousing 
and sale of various descriptions of commodities; 
and the numerous raosquei. Of the latter, the 
one erected by Selim II. is the most splendid; 
and ranks, indeed, among the finest Mohammedan 
temples. There are 8,000 8ho])s and several large 
stone bazaars and haus. The largest bazaar is that 
of * Ali Pasha : ' it is some 350 paces long, nvith rows 
of shops on each side occupied by retail dealers in 
foreign and native manufactures. Tliere are also 
numerous baths and fountains supplied by water 
conveyed into the city by an aqueduct A nie- 
drassch, or superior school, is attached to the 
mosque of Sultan Selim, and there are a number 
of other schools. The Maritza is na%'igable up to 
the city <luring winter and spring: but in summer 
the sea craft only ascend as high as Deinotica. 
PjUos, at the mouth of the Maritza. is properly the 
sea-port of Adrianople. It formerly admittiHl 
large vessels; but owing to the carelessness of the 
Turks, who have allowed a sand-bank to acrcumu- 
late, it is now accessible only to vessels <jf ct»m- 
paralivcly small burden. With the exception of 
tanning, which is rather extensively carried on, 
manufactures are, inconsiderable. It liaa, however, 
a pretty extensive commerce. The exi»orts con- 
sist principally of the raw pnulucts of the adja<.*ent 
country', comprising excellent wm)l, c<»tton. silk, 
tolMicco, g*K)d wine, otto of roses, fruits, lierrics lor 
dyeing, &c. The imports consist princiimlly of 
manufactured gootls; as cottons and hanlware from 
EngloiKl, woollen stuffs from Genuany, &c The 
trade is principally carrietl on by Greek mercJiants. 
The corporations of saddlers and shoemakers em- 
ploy a great number of workmen, and annually 
disp(M»e of large quantities of TurkUh saddles and 
shoes at fairs held in Tlirace and Bulgaria. The 
town is the scat of a Greek archbishop. 

In early times Adrianople was the capital of the 
Bessi, a people of Thrace, and was then calle<l 
Uskadama. It derives its present name fn)m the 
emperor Adrian, bv whom it was imprr»ved and 
embellished. TheYurks took it in 1300; and it 
continued to be the seat of their government fn)m 
130() till the taking of Constantinople in H-'i-J. 
It was occupie<l by the Russians in 1829; but was 
evacuated on a treaty being concluded between 
them and the Turks in September that year. 
(Keppel's Joumev across the Balkhan, L pp. 250 — 
bGii; Walsh's Jouniey fn»m Constantinople to 
England, p. 114; Kei>ort by Mr. Vire-Consui 
Blunt Commercial Reports, July to December, 
1864, pp. 165-7.) 


(3fare Adriatiaam or Smperum), is that great arm 
of the Mediternmean eztendmg SE. and NW. 
between the coasts of Italy on the W. and those of 
lUvria and Albania on the £., from about 40^ to 
45^ 55' N. lat. Its southern extremities are the 
Capo di LeaoL, or St. Manr's, in Naples, and the 
tale of Fano to the N. of (joifu; and its northern 
extronity the bottom of the gulph of Trieste. Its 
f^refttest length ftom Cape Leuca to Trieste is 450 
m.; mean breadth 90 m. It derived its ancient 
name from the once flourishing sea-port town of 
Adria (which see), now 18 m. £rom the shore, and 
its modem name from Yenioe. Its W. or Italian 
shore is deiident in haiboun, is generally low, and 
fhim the entnmce to Rimini has deep water; but 
from the latter northwards it has been partially 
filled op by the deposits brought down by the Po 
and the Adige, and is ed^i^ by lagoons, marshes, 
and shoals. On the £. side its coasts are ^^erally 
high, steep, and rocky, and are broken mto deep 
bays and gnlphs formed by the numerous islands 
by which it is fenced. With the exception of 
thoee already mentioned, it receives no river of 
any oonsidenble magnitode; and the saltness of 
its'waten is said to exceed that of the ocean. 
The ebb and flow are considerable at Venice and 
other places. The 5orti or NE. wind is the most 
lunniuble obstacle to its safe navigation. It 
omnes on in sodden and impetuous squalls, which 
geneially continue for three days, and in an 
advanced season from 9 to 15 or more. A vessel 
ovotaken by it should always make for a port or 
ancbonge ground xm the E. coast, those on the W. 
being open and unsafe. The SE. wind throws up 
a heavy sea; but is not dangerous, as vessels may 
eanly get to an anchorage on the E. shore. 
VenMe, Trieste, Ancona, and Fiume are the prin- 
cipal trading jMXts on the Adriatic. 

AERSCHOT, a town of Belgium, prov. S. Bra- 
liant, on the Doner, 9 miles NE. Louvain. Pop. 
Sjt^Jo in 1856. It was formerly fortified ; and has 
some breweries and distilleries. 

AFFGHANISTAN, the name applied to a 
country €f Central Asia inhabited bv the Affghan 
nation : and, sometimes, to a kingdom of which 
that ooontry fiMmed the principal part. In the 
latter sense, the boundaries of Aflfghanistan have 
bren sul^ect to the same political changes which 
have affected other Asiatic states. In the former, 
eoarideted as the country of the Afighan people, it 
may be described as extending firom the 80th to 
the' 35th degree of N. latitude, and from the 62nd 
to the 71st degree of E. longitude; having the 
Indus on the £^ the crest of the Uim&leh or Hin- 
doo-Coosh, and part of the Paropamesan or Goor 
mountains oo the N. ; the districts of Seeweestan, 
Catch Gmdava, and Sareewan, with part of the 
desert of Befeochistan on the S. ; part of SistAn, 
with Gbofian of KhcHrasan on the west ; and Meiv 
ghab, and the Hazareh country on the NW. Ao- 
cnrding to the most recent authority (Bellew, 
Miwion to Aflfghanistan in 1857, pp. 1, 2), Affghan- 
irtan is not so designated by the Affgnans them- 
selves, although the name is not unknown to them. 
Bv the Affghans their country is usually called 
'Crlayat* (hence the term *Urlayate' often ap- 
plied to its people by the natives of Hindustan), 
or native country; but it is also distinguished by 
two appellations, including different portions of 
tCTr iun> , viz. * Caubul,* or * Kabulistan, which in- 
dodes all that mountainous n^on north of Ghazni 
and Snlaid Koh, as far as Umdoo-Coosh, limited 
tovards the west by the Hazareh country (the 
amient Paropamisus), and eastward by the Abba- 
Sin, or Father of Rivers, the Indus ; and * Kho- 
,* or * Zahnliifan,* which includes all that 



extensive tract of conntzy, Alpine in its eastern 
limits, and table-land or desert in its western ex- 
tent, which stretches southward and westward from 
about the latitude of Ghazni, and borders on the 
confines of Persia, from which towards the south 
it is separated by the desert of Sist4n. To the 
Affghans the Persian province of Khorassan is 
known by the name of Ivan. The existing poli- 
tical state of Affghanistan may be said to lie 
between lat 26<> 50^ and 86^ 80' N. ; long. 60<^ and 
72^80' E., having E. the Punjaub; S. Buhalpoor, 
Sinde, and Beloochistan ; W. the Persian domi- 
nion ; and N. Independent Tm:kestan, from which 
it is s^Mirated by the Hindoo-Cooeh. 

Dimnont and Aspect of the Country. — The former 
depending rather upon natural features and forma- 
tion than upon political or artificial arrangement^ 
will best be noticed in describing the latter. Hiis, 
so far as is known, presents an a^^gre^tion of 
mountainous groups and ranges, divergmg from 
certain princi{Mkl points, and thus becomes divided 
into numerous vallejrs of greater or lesser size, 
which are watered by streams of correqwnding 
magnitude, and which sometimes stretch out into 
plams of considerable extent. The south face of 
the Hindoo-Coosh is furrowed by a variet]^ of sub- 
ordinate glens and ravines, which carry their waters 
to the Caubul river. This stream, which rises near 
Ghiznee, but drains also the highlands of Kolustan, 
runs in a large and frequently very broad valley 
from that dty to the Indus, whicn it enters at 
Attock. It separates the mountains of Hindoo- 
Coosh from those to the southward, which, origi- 
nating in the huge peak of ^peengur or SuffcM- 
koh ^White Mountain), spread east and west, 
confining the Caubul valley on the south, and 
stretch m a variety of huge ranges in that 
direction : one of these uniting with that of the 
Tuchtr«-Solv-maun, extends to Dereh Ghazee- 
khan; another enters Seeweestan; and another, 
tending more to the westward, by Shawl and 
Pisheen, sinks into the deserts of Beloochistan and 

The Caubul valley is the most important of the 
natural divisions thus constituted, it contains the 
larf^t river, the finest plains, and the principal 
cities of the country, including the ancient town 
of Ghiznee; and extends from the westward of 
Baumian to the Indus, a distance of more than 
200 miles. It is subdivided into several sections, 
of which the western lb formed by Kohistan or 
' the Highlands,' comprising the valleys and low- 
lands or Nijrow, Punjsheer, Ghorebund, Tugow, 
and Cozbeen, which are all blessed with a delight- 
ful climate, embellished with the finest scenery, 
{ffoduce the finest fruits in abundance, and are wdl 
watered and cultivated. 

Lugmaun, also on the north side of the river, 
comprehends the vallevs of Aling&r and Alisheng, 
with numerous subordinate glens, all equally ridi 
and beautiful. The fertile plains of Jclallabad 
afford the produce of both torrid and tcmjieratc 
climates. The Dell of Coonnur forms but a bed 
for the rapid river of Kashk&r, which, traversing 
Kafferistan, here pierces the Him&leh range to join 
that of CaubuL The smkll valleys of Punjccora 
and Bajour pour their streams into the more ex- 
tensive and verj' fertile district of Swaut, where 
forest, pasture, and cultivated land are found ad- 
mirably blended, and every valuable fruit and 
grain is produced. The same description will a]mly 
to Boonere, Choomla, and all the glens that ais- 
charge their waters into the Caubul or Indus rivers 
from the north. Peshawur, the lower division of 
the great Caubul valley, is divided from the plains 
of Jelallabad by a range of small hills, which stretch 
from the Hindoo-Coosh across to the Suffeed-koh. 



It is well watered and extremely rich, but saffera 
from heat in summer. 

Damann, which signifies the * skirt,' and is the 
tract between the foot of the Solymaun mountains 
and the river Indus, is poorly cultivated and thinly 
inhabited ; bcinf^ chiefly haid tenacious clay, scan- 
tilv covered with tamarisk and thorny shrubs. It 
is Iwunded on the north by the Salt ranfj^e of the 
Khuttuk coun^, and stretches southward to Dcroh 
Ghazec Khan. A wide extent of mountains in- 
tervenes between this district and the valleys which 
furrow the western face of the Solymaun range ; 
but even in this wild region we hear of fertile tracts. 
The plain of Boree, for instance, is compared by 
the natives to that of Peshawur for extent and 
richness ; the rivers Zhobe and Groomul water some 
fine valleys ; and Tull, Chooteealee, and Furrah 
are mentioned as well peopled and cultivated. 

Among the valleys opening westward, those of 
Shawl, Bunhore, I^isheen, Yessoon, Saleh, Uigh- 
essan, Guasht&, are described as interspersed with 
well cultivated spots, but as more generally suited 
to pasturage than agriculture; but the two first 
are stated to be rich and productive. Beyond 
these, to the NW., the river Tumuk, rising near 
Ghiznee, but on tlie southern slope of the countr}', 
runs through a poorly watered and ill cultivated 
district, till, to the westward of Kandahar, it is 
joined by the Urgund&b, and both fall into the 
^^reat river Helmund. The district of Kandahar 
IS fertile and highlv cultivated, but is circumscribed 
within narrow limit« by the desert. In like manner 
the fertile valley of Herit, which may be 30 miles 
long by 15 wide^ constitutes the most important 
portion of that district. 

A vast and varied surface, such as has 1)een de- 
scribed, must naturally exhibit much diversity of 
aspect and fertility. Of the mountainous Uacts, 
some are covered wiUi deep forests of pin^ and 
wild olive trees ; others afford excellent pasturage 
for sheep and cattle, while others again are hare, 
rocky, and sterile. Of the valleys, as we have 
seen, many are fertile^ well watered, and wooded, 
especially those which pierce the Ilindoo-CVxwh 
range ; while others, particularly to the south, arc 
Iwre, or covered only ¥rith tamarisk and thorny 

Mnuntaini, — These have been alreadv men- 
tioned. The chief ranges arc those of llindoo- 
Coosh, or Him&leh ; the Speengur or Sufieed-koh, 
called Riygul by Captain Bumes, a branch from 
which joins the Solymaun range; and perliaps 
that of Kh(>ieh Amr&n, which seems to be the pro- 
longation of a spur from the last^mentioned range. 
The Ilindoo-Coosh, or Himaleh, is described by 
Mr. Elphinstone as rising above the level of Pe- 
shawur in four distinct ridges, the lowest of which, 
clear of snow on the 24th of February, was clothed 
with forests of oak, pine, and wild' olive, and a 
profuse variety of fruit trees, and graceful herbs 
and flowers. The second was sHll more denselv 
wooded; the third was at that time white with 
snow ; and beyond mse the glittering and stupen- 
dous crest of the true Ilim&leh, spiring into sharp 
peaks and bold masses. 

Captain Bumes states that the term Ilindoo- 
Coosh, though applied genejallv to this chain, 
which is a continuation of the Jlimaleh, belongs 
properly to one single peak, forming the western 
buttress of the range, which beyond that point de- 
clines in height, and is lost in the Paropamesan 
or GhOr mountains. The peak of Koh-e-liaba, 
estimated by him at 18,000 feet high, is the only 
one covered with perpetual snow to the westwanl 
of the passes. Little is known of the height of 
the other ranges, but the Sufi^eed-koh obtains its 
name from its snowy cap. The Tucht-e-Solymaun 

is C8timat«d at 12,000 feet in height; and there ia 
a very lofty peak to the south-west, name^ KumL 

iZirrrs. — The principal of these have also boen 
mentioned. They are the Caubul, the Helmund, 
the Tumuk, and Urghundab; the Goomul, the 
Zhobe, the Lorah. The courses of the three lai*t 
are little known, and their waters arc lost in the 
sand, excepting in the time of floods. 

There arc no lakes of any consequence known 
to exist in Affghaniatan. 

Climate and Soil. — ITiese vary in an extreme 
degree, according to locality. In the eastern part 
of the Caubul valley and in those to the south, 
bordering on Cutch Gundava, the heat is sufliciont 
to mature all the products of India, such as the 
sugar-cane, indigo, and some of the tropical fruits ; 
while the northern valleys abound in the produc- 
tions of cold r^ions, and the mountains are co- 
vered with fbrcsts of pines. According to Ferrier 
(Ilistory of the Aifglians, p. 257), the soil of 
Aflglumutan resembles that of the rest of the great 
table-land of C'Cntral Asia. Within the princi- 
pality of Caubul, and the northern part of that of 
Ilerat, are high mountains covcro<l with foitwts, 
having between them vast argillaceous plains well 
supplied with water, covered with fields, and sus- 
ceptible of every 8|iccics of cultivation. The portion 
south of Herat and Kandahar also consists of im- 
mense plains, but generally arid, mnning from 
east to west, and borderetl by a chain of stexilc 
mountains. The soil of these plains is sandy, and 
absorbs so much water as to create a great scarcity 
of that necessarj' of life ^^dthin their limits, and 
the inhabitants are o1>liged to obtain by lon^ an«l 
toilsome labour that which nature has denirnl them 
at the surface. Tljcy dig a deep hole at the ftntt 
of a mountain where they cxf»ect to fin<l water, 
and having succeeded, lead it to their viUages by 
a subterranean canal connecting a series of welL«». 
If the country' unhappily becomes the theatre of 
war, the first operation of the invading army is U* 
destroy them, and <leprive the people they come to 
attack of their supply of water. It is to this un- 
happy mania of destnictiveness, esfiecially in this 
particular form, that the depopulation of Affghnn-^ 
istan is principally to be ascribe<l : immense tracts 
of country have m consequence been aban<lone<l, 
and l)ecoine arid ; they belong to no one ; the land 
is valueless, and cannot be sold. 

Mineral Products. — ^The mineralogy, as well as 
the geology, of Affghanistan, is but little known. 
Biuiies telk us of two sorts of sulphur, of wells of 
petroleum or naphtha ; and, of what may prove 
still more valua)>le, of coal, which exists in the 
district of Cohat, belcjw Peshawir. Vast quanti- 
ties of in>n, lead, and sulphur arc found in the moun- 
tains of Afighanistan. as well as mercury and as- 
bestos — the latter called Btngui-pembe — and silver. 
But this mineral wealth is entirely unexplored and 
wiused. (Ferrier, Ilistory of the Affghans.) 

Agriculture is in the same mde state as in Per- 
sia and most Asiatic countries. The soil is broken 
by a crooked log of wood, sometimes sho<l wth 
iron, which is generally dragged by oxen ; and ir- 
rigation is resorted to wherever rain does not fall 
in sufiicient abundance to bring foru'ard the cn)))s. 
Only the richest and most promising tracts are 
thus employed; so that, as the seasons are usually 
regidar, the har\'est afforded, even by so rude a 

{)rocess, is for the most part abundant* Wheat, 
wirley, rice, maize, form the produce of the more 
temixirate regions ; while m the warmer, tlie 
smaller grains common to India, as moonpy, chvn- 
iw, joar, dal^ &c., with the sugar-cane, cotton, 
tobacco, indigo, madder, &c., reward the farmer's 
lal>ours. Horticulture is carried to a considcmblo 
extent in the neighbourhood of the princi]>al 




vuuDgukd tcodcr, UuKbed artificial];, and n mien 
liutli raw and dnosed in great quantities, aa a vei^ 
wbolnunw delicacy ; (he latter is not duly culti- 
vated Ibr its valuable gtnn, but is eaten nwated, 
wben it qviii^ young iToni Lba eiftb, like the , 
Huwer o( a caoliflower in appearance. It is ea- <1j 
Uieined a great delicacy ; but it Bmelta so Btrong, 1 1 
thai, to those imacaialumed to its odour, one bead vi 
of it, wiiile being oooked, it enou);h to poison the I k 
air iii a whole camp, 1 1 

The (aincipal ■"■"■-'- at Affghaniitan ate the ni 
bune, camel, and sheep. The flnt two are laii^ly ^l; 
npcirled inlo India, and are bred chieHy in the I'r 
wntcm parts of the cinintry. The camel anil tti 
abeep constitute the main wealth of the nomsd |,i 
tzibu, together with cows, buflaloes, and goats. , ^i 
All the sheep m Affghanislan are of the fat-tailed In 
rarielj, and an remariuble for the peculiarly i^; 
bivwn colom of their vtooL From the skins of [ n.- 
thtae abeep. propetly prepared, are made 
tins, or dM«p-skin oiMs, Che oommon dress 
iliMii of the people. The wool of the white- 
fleeced sheep fonns an important item of the 
staple exports of the country, whilst their flesh 
enuslitiiles the diief animal food of the lower 
c lam w. The prindpal wild animals of the plains 
an Ilw gaielle, the jackal, the fox, and the wolf. 
Confined to the western deserts is the wild us, 
called, fiun its colour, the ' gorftkhar," 

ass. Thiongbout the moon"" " 

(unnd the tiger, leopard, lyi 
the bear and monkey, w'""" ~ 
the ibex, the wild goat, 
(IteUeWs MiMion to A: 

:<\-.l<AI.: horse^ 9!,eSU ; and ftuit, 14,914/. 
li:<;iort on tlie Tnde of Centml Asia, printed 
liiiiKiig the House of Commons' Papers, February, 
lnr:i.} The commerce of Affgliuuatan, on the 
uluila, is increasing, and will probahly ot " 

■' The opening of the over '-•'■- 

.1 _h<.-h —rib Ik. f.,..h.. 

nel which, 1 

e conveyed into the heart of Asia, can- 
it liil to stimulate the commercial propensiiiea 
t lie people, and give rise to a vsst increase of 


There are no very tniatworthjr 
I CTDond a tolerably accurate ea- 
luUCion of this country. It must 



imte of the popuh 

rv (greatly in diflerent dlstric 

n'^i-ring the Cauhul river, and the fertile glena 

II penetrate the Uindoo-Cooah, are certsinlr 
•f densely peopled than the high and bleak 
Plural Gountnes to the west. Mr. Elphinstone, 
rii the beat infonustion he could obuin, haa 
riiioned the suppoted numbers of several of the 
[LI ipal clans; but it Is to be fesred that these 
' nut to be depended on. Thus the Eussufie- 
I'n, who occupy a very small district at ths 
inme NE. comer of the country, are set down 

7iiO,000 souls at least-, and the whole of the 
riliior&nees, a collecUon of tribes including ths 
i~-uriehe«, who inhabit a country of about 
.oiiO squ. m., an estioialed St nearly 1,400,000, 
'.lit to the square mile. The Dooranees, on tha 
ursiy, who occupy at least fi2,0OU sou. m., an 
.1 [0 amount to only 600,000 or a miirion, being 

III 171 to 19i per square mile. The Ghiljee^ 
!ike manner, from 500,000 to 600,000 souls, are 
r. 111! over IJiOO squ. m^ or alxiut 40 per squara 
li. This is on B calculation of five indiriiluala 
n lamily, which is too little in these counlriea. 
NiiW the whole of ARghanistan as here defined 
I- not quite amount (o 1 70,000 >q. m. of surface, 

uliich suppose the richci parts, such as, and 
1 tiding the, 

r.l.orfliieei»aatiT.ta1ie. Xliow atW 1,100,1100 

m are conSned to home-made atuSg , i 

Id wool, and a little tiik, which serve ' 
of the inhabitants : little or nothing j 


GiH^rnv.— The disturbed stale of the country 
fur a succeiaian of yean ha* been unfavourable to 
tiade; and the large and valuable caravsnswhich 
funneriy carried the rich productions of India and 
Cnfamere to Canbul and Ueiit, for the consump- 
liuD irf the csBTts at these cities, or for transit, by 
rex, into Persia, bare dwindled down to the 
pmalleBt dimensinDB. There is still, however, a 
IfM extensive traffic carried on, chicdj' by a pas- 
lunl tribe caileil the Lohlnees, occupying much i 
of tbe rmntiy between the Indus and (ihiznee, 
who at certain periods of the year repair to India ! 
b> nuke theii {lurcluues, or receive goods from 
tbtve who have oTougbt them from thence, at the 
Irrry of Kaheree, With these they return, cany- , 
ing them iffl their own camels, through their own ' 
eouDtrr, by the Golairee pan, and the valley of 
ibe GuuinnI, not only to Ghizoee and Caubul, but 
m^ihward, across the mountains, to Beriihara. 
Captain llunwa stata. that a thousand camel- 
hnds of Rn^lish and Indian chinties, calicoes and 
noslins, bnieades, shawls, Funjsli turbans, spices, 

whirk are sent bade horses in great niimbem, mad- 
der, saffimn, assaliFtkia, and Iruit, both fresh and I 
dried. in large quantitiea. AnofficialrepiirtcJ Mr. ' 

iMvies. seeretan- to the government ot tbe I'un- ' ^^^ ^^_ ^-•■^ ^..^ .. 

igtbeexportflfromKurTache^ iii^^.-nmued principaUiies. Mr. Fen 

.nd this is independen 

I'liis eglimaie, founded on the vsgue numbeia 
InK'd above, would give to AffgiianiBtan a popu- 

I the Bou. m.. which taking into account the vast 

';i< i-i of high and unproductive lands on the west 

f ihe Solymaun ran^, and north of Kandahar 

" " IS undoubtedly far beyond 

<■ province of Herlt Li 

the following 

brought down through th 
inaniiwanUhis:— HaddeT,l2,f!*U:; assa- I "'""""*' 
l,S9«Li nw liUc, 17,97U; Ibeqt'l wvol, {.Berlt 



The general total 18430,000, which is considerably 
above the estimate of Lieut.-CoL Lumsdcn, in the 
report of his mission to Affghanistan in 1857. On 
the whole, and upon grounds of analogy and pro- 
bability, therefore, rather than friiiu any existing 
data, the population of Aifghanistan may, perhaps, 
be regarded as little exceeding foar millions. 

Tnbes, — ^The Affghan naUon is composed of a 
great number of tribes, who claim a common 
origin, and differ int-rinsically very much from all 
their neighbours. This origin is very obscure. A 
native history derives them from Saul^ the king 
of Israel, whose pn^ny vras carried away^ in the 
time of the captivity ; but no proof of this is ad- 
duced, and Mr. Elphinstone classes this among 
other fabulous genealogies. The name Affghan is 
not kno¥m to the people, who call themselves 
PooMhtoon, in the plural Foothtauneh, from whence 
1^ corruption, Feitdn or Fatdn, the name the^ 
have obtained in India ; and of their great anti- 

aoity there is no reasonable lioubt. Bumes says, 
lie Affghans call themselves * Bin-i-Isracel,* or 
children of Israeel ; but consider the term of ' Ya- 
hoodee,' or Jew, to be one of reproach. The 
tribes of Soor and Lodi, from both or which kiii^ 
have sprung, are mentioned as owing their origm 
to the union of an Arab chief, Khalcd ibn Abdool- 
la, with the daughter of an Affghan chief, in a. d. 
682; and Mahmood of Ghiznee, though sprung 
from another race, ruled over the Affghans m the 
ninth century. According to their own traditions, 
the whole of the tribes descended from the sons 
of one Kyse or Kais Abdor-resheed, who, whether 
a real or imaginary character, is the person to 
whom all their genealogi^ refer ; but as it would 
be impossible to examine all these, the following 
classincation must suffice to enumerate the prin- 
cipal tribes, with their habitats, as they at prracnt 

Eaotirn BmsiGS.—Bfrdooraneet. 

Ensmiffsehees. Peahawar tribes. Bung^nsh. 
Osman Kheil. Ehyborees. Khuttuk. 


Neighbourhood of Salt Range, 

Eanwkheil. Bannooses. Khooitees. 

Sheotucks. Dowers. 


2W6e« t(f Damaun, 



Central Division.— /fie/Htfin^ Mountain Tribes, 

Jaujees. Yizeerees. Zmnirees. 

Zoorees. Murheils. Sheeranees. 

Jadrftns. Moonakhdl. Speentereens 

Wertebn Divuook.- 




















Tor Teroens. 

National Character, — This aggregation of tribes, 
though exhibiting conftidcrablc diversity in cus- 
toms, dress, and appearance, among themselves, 
form, taken together, a nation singularlv homo- 
geneous ; yet Mr. Elphinstone remarks, that 
' amidst the contrasts which are apparent in the 
government, manners, dress, and nabits of the 

different tribes, I find it difficult to select those 
great features which all possess in common, and 
which give a marked national character to the 
whole of the Affghans.' And this becomes the 
more |)crplexiug, lievuiuH.' even the ^-irtuet* and 
attributes on which they most value themselves, 
and which separate them most from their neigh- 
bours, are apt to be misunderstood or overlooked 
by strsngcrs. Thus, an Engluh stranger might 
regard their wild freedom as but a savage mixture 
of anarchy and arbitrary power. Alarmed at the 
absence of any o]ganise<l government, or regular 
courts of justice, and witnessing the summary 
inflictions of retributive and customary law, he 
might fancy that violence and revenge entirely 
usurped the place of justice and equity ; while the 
rude hospitality, the bold an<l simple manners, and 
martial and lofty spirit of the people, would 
scarcely in his imnd compensate for their prune- 
ness to violence and rapme — to the deceit and 
fraud which are tbe vdces necessarily engendered 
by the lawless freedom in which they exult. 

The traveller from India, on the other hand, 
sickened with the servile vices of its pliant, timid, 
and indolent inhabitants, would prooably be fa- 
vourably impressed, not less with the bold and 
independent bearing of his new acquaintance, than 
with their sobriety, their superior energy, their 
strong and active forms, their fair complexions, 
and features marked and striking even to harah- 
ness ; and he might view, in the storm v indepen- 
dence of their mode of life, a favourable contrast 
to the apathy of that which he had left. The 
result in both cases might be, that, mingled with 
many a vice and failing, he would find the germ 
of many a virtue and noble quality; and that 
however much he might lament the'ir great fail- 
ings, he would not be able to deny them a portion 
of bis esteem. 

One of the strongest characteristics of this peo- 
ple, according to all travellers, is their hospitality, 
which is founded on national feeling, and there 
arc some usages connected with this principle 
which deserve mention. The first is that of Aan- 
nawautee (two Affghan words, signifying, * I have 
come in '), by which a person having a favour to 
entreat goes to the house of the mdividual on 
whom it depends, but refuses to sit on his carpet or 
partake of his food until the boon be granted ; and 
this, if in the power of the party besought, custom 
makes it imperative on him to concede. A still 
stronger appeal is the second, being made by a 
woman, when she sends a person her veil, and im- 
plores assistance for herself or for her family. 

All persons, even a man's bitterest enemy, is 
safe under the protection of his roof; but this 
protection extends not beyond the lands of the 
village, or at most of the tribe ; and it is not un- 
common for the stranger who has benefited by it, 
and experienced the kindest treatment, to* be 
robbed and plundered when once beyond its in- 
fiuence. •There is no point in the Affghan 
character,' remarks Mr. Elphinstone, * of which it 
is more difficult to get a clear idea, than the mix- 
ture of s^rmpathy and indifference, of generosity 
and rapacity, which is observable in their conduct 
to strangers. ... So much more do thev attend to 
granting favours than to respecting rights, that 
the same A%han who would plunder a traveller 
of his cloak if he had one, would give him a cloak 
if he had none.' In this, as well as in their regard 
for hospitality, their customs much resemble those 
of the Desert Arabs. 

The pastoral tribes in the west are more addicted 
to robberv and theft than the agricultural on»; but, 
in general, a previous understanding with the chiefs, 
confirmed by the ftrescnee of a single man, ensures 



tafety; and the Affghans, it is said, are lees prone 
to add mmder to plunder than most other rspwdous 
triliea. They are reproached with ignorance, bar- 
barinai, and stupidity, by the Persians, but on no 
sufficient grounds. They are less polished, it is 
tiue, and have less of worldly knowledge than their 
nrpntftchers ; but are in general prudent, sensible, 
and ubsenrant, and are less indifferent to truth 
than most of their neighbours. Like most moun- 
taineers, they are proud of their lineage, and will 
hanlly acknowledge one who cannot prove six or 
seven descents. Like Highlanders too, they are 
highly nationaL Love of individual freedom, 
stjning though it be, is exceeded by devotion to 
family and clan, and this seems by no means to 
pRJndioe their love of country at large ; for the 
*Nmmg du Fotmk tamndi^ or, honour of the Aff- 
ghan name, which lb one of the feelings warmest 
in their breasts, appears to be equall^ by local 
attachments, so strong in all mountaineers. A 
native of the wild valley of Speiga, who for some 
ofTence had been forced to wander abroad, declarcil 
Ml his return that he had * seen all Persia, India, 
if««irgia, Tartary, and Beloochistan, but in idl my 
travels 1 have seen no such place as Speiga.' * To 
sum np their character in a few words,' wyt^ Mr. 
KlphiiMt<ifiev with whom subsecj^uent travellers are 
in perfect agreement^ * their vices are, revenge, 
en^y, avarice, rapacity, and obstinacy; on Uie 
cfCher hand, they are fond of liberty, fkithful to 
their friends, kind to their dependants, hospitable, 
brave, baniy, frugal, laborious, and prudent ; and 
they are Icm dispneed than the nations in their 
ttdgfabi»nrbood to falsehood, intrigue^ and deceit.' 

CWloMS, Mammert. — ^The former of these heads 
comprehends the internal government of the 
tritieM. This is patriarchal Tribes are subdiWdod 
intii branches, which are termed ooloot, and each 
of the!« are commonwealths, which have their 
chief or tpem-zherak (literally white beard), or 
muiiik (master), if anaU ; or if large, a khan, who 
14 always diosen from the oldest family, and is 
MmMr times selected by the king, sometimes by the 
iitMple. These carry on the internal government, 
ui conjunction with certain assemblies of heads of 
di\'L'a«ins which are called Jeerga, and which 
determine all matters of consequence. In civil 
artiims the statutes of Mahomet are generally 
xihcreii to: but criminal justice is administered 
aecocding to PooahtuntimUtey or Affghan usage, a 
ttytftem Miffidently rude, and founded on the law 
of retaliation. This, however, as tending to per- 
petuate feuds and quarrels, is modified by judi- 
cial jcrrpos composed of khans, elders, and mool- 
lahn, who indict suitable penalties on offenders; 
and in fact this whole tnrstem is subject to various 
and oon.'4deral)le modifications. 

A family forced or induced to quit its ooloos 
may be received into another ; and once received, 
it i^ treated with peculiar attention, and placed in 
all respects chi an equality with the original 
■lembers of the community. Everv ooloos, more- 
ofver, has many persons called humaayaha (or 
companions), who are not Afghans, and who are 
regarded with consideration, but not permitted to 
iliare in the administration of affairs. Of such 
kheilM ooho&ea and tribes the nation is composed ; 
and when placed under one sovereign, has seldom 
vieUed him a full or impticit obedience. Mr. 
tlphinstone has compared it to that yielded by 
Scotland of oU to its kings, who ruled pretty 
abrtolutely over the principal towns and country 
in their vicinity, but whose authority diminished 
as it extMftded to the extrendties of the kingdom ; 
whose court nobles were inordinately proud, and 
whose moce distant chiefs were nearly inde- 

Wotmen^ Marriaae. — Their customs with re- 
gard to their females are nearly those of most 
Mohammedan countries; those in towns arc jea- 
lously secluded, those in the country have greater 
liberty. They purchase their wives, who there- 
fore are regarded as property. The husband can 
divorce at pleasure ; and a man marries the widow 
of a deceased brother. The latter, decidedly Jewish 
custom, is strictly adhered to, and it is a mortal 
afiront for any other man but the brother to take 
the widow without his consent; but she is not 
forced to marry at all The age for marriage is 
twenty among men, axteen for women. In towns, 
courtships resemble those in Persia. In the coun- 
try, matches are made more according to the liking 
of^the parties. If a lover can cut off a lock of his 
mistress's hair, or snatch away her veil, and in 
doing so proclaim her his affianced wife, no other 
will approach her with these views, and he gene- 
rally obtains the consent of her parents on pay- 
ment of her price ; if not, they elope ; and this 
offence, which ranks not less fpively than a 
murder, is settled by intervention of parties. 
Among some tribes the bridegroom earns his 
wife by service, as Jacob did Rachel ; some permit 
not the least familiarity before marriage, others 
an excessive and perilous dq-c^^ (>f it. Polygamy 
is permitted, as in other Mohammedan countries, 
but less practised; the poor content themselves 
with one, those of middle rank with two wives, 
and perhaps as many concubines. The wives of 
the nch hve in luxury and indolence ; the poor 
not only employ themselves in household, but in 
field labour. In towns they go about, as in Peraa, 
veiled from top to toe ; in the country they only 
veil in the presence of Rtrangers, and that more 
from decency than obligation. The Affghan women 
are said to be correct in conduct and deportment ; 
but adultery or incontinence is puniiihcd with 
death to \joth parties upon the spot, by the injured 

Education is conducted much as in the conter- 
minous countries. A village moollah, or school- 
master, teaches the children of the poor to say 
their prayers and to read the Koran ; the ricK 
keep laUat, or private tutors, in their houses ; the 
village schoolmasters are paid in allotments of 
land and some small fees. Those intended for 
the learned professions go to tovms, and live in 
collies instituted for the i>urpose of instruction. 

Literature is at a very low ebb. The Pooshtoo 
language is an original stock, embracing a good 
detu of Persian, with some Zend and Sanscrit 
words: they use, in writing it, the Niskce cha- 
racter of the Persian alphabet ; but there are few 
or no works of much repute in the language. 

Religion. — The Affghans are all Mohammedans 
of the Soonee persuaaon, and are superstitious 
enough, believing in alchemy, astrology, and 
magic; but are far from being intolerant to 
others. Hindoos remain unmolested, on pajring 
a slight tax. Christians sustain neither persecu- 
tion nor reproach ; thcv are called people of the 
hook, as deriving their tenets from a written 
source, which they themselves reffl)cct, instead of 
being pagans, as the Huidoos. sheahs are de- 
tested more than any sect: yet the country is 
full of Persian sheahs, many of whom held im- 
portant oflices under the crown, and now do so 
under the several chiefs. Sooffeeism (or free- 
thinking), though denounced by the moollahs, is 
common, and ^puns ground among the higher 
orders. The priests and mooUahs/Uke those of 
Persia, are avaricious, hypocritical, and bigoted, 
as well as arrogant and overbearing, and they 
exert a very absolute and dangerous powor over 
the peoples This is strengthened by the ooca- 



■ional exerdfle of good offices, and by the in- 
fluenoe of flome rare examples of wiaciom and 
\*irtue, evinced in represfdng bloodshed and vio- 
lence. But the blind reganl of the Affghxuis for 
these holy impostors is chiefly attributable to 
their ignorance and superstition, which lead them 
almost to adore all dervishes and other ascetics, 
and to visit their tombs as those of canonised 

Pertonal Appearance^ AmtuemenU, — The men 
of Afghanistan are fur the most part robust, ge- 
nerally lean, though bony and muscular, lliey 
have elevated noses, high cheek bones, and long 
faces; their hair is commonly black, sometimes 
brown, rarely red ; tliey wear King thick Ix'ards, 
but shave the middle of the head : the westem 
tribes are st^mter than those to the east ; the lat^ 
ter have darker complexions, and more strongly 
marked features: their dcmeanoiur is frank and 
open, equally free from stateiiness and puerility : 
they are very social, delighting in dinncr-iiartios, 
smoking atlter dinner, and sitting in a circle telUng 
stories of kuigs, viziers, and genii, or singing 
songs, generally al>out love, to the sound of in- 
struments like rude guitars, fiddles, and hautboys : 
they take much snuff, of a high-dried fine-pow- 
dered sort, like the S<K>tch : they are fond of the 
chase, driving tlie game into some valley, and 
killing great quantities; also of coursing hares, 
foxes, and deer with greyhounds ; and they ride 
down partridges in the open ground, tiring them 
out till they can knock them down with sticks : 
they are abo fond of horse-radng and fighting 
cocks, quails, rams, dogs, and even camels. The 
westexn AfTghaus have a dance, called the attum 
or ghoomboor, in which ten or twenty fxjople 
move in strange attitudes, shouting and clapping 
hands in a circle, round a single person, who plays 
on an instrument in the ccntm The national 
costume appears to a>nsist of a loose \^^UT of 
trousers of dark cotton stuff; a lai^e shirt, like a 
waggoner's frock, reaching a little l)elow the 
knees ; a low cap, the sides being of black silk or 
satin, and the top of some sort of brocade ; half- 
boots, lacing up to the calf; and a clo^ of soft 
grey felt, or of well-tanned sheepskin with the 
wool inside. The women wear a shirt like tliat of 
the men, but much longer and of finer materials, 
coloured or embroidered with silk ; their trousers 
are tighter than those of the men ; a small cap of 
bright-coloured silk, embroidered with gold thread, 
comes down to the forehead or the ears ; and they 
throw over their head a large sheet of plain or 
printed cotton, with which they hide their face 
when a stranger approaches ; they divide the hair 
on the brow, and phiit it into two locks which 
fasten behind ; they wear round their head strings 
of Venetian sequins, and chains of gold or silver, 
which are hooked up, and end in two large balls 
hanging down on either side: ear rings, finger 
rings, and nose pendants are worn. In towns the 
fashions more approach those of Persia, particu- 
larU' to the westward. 

Of individual Trihet, — \VTiat has been said 
applies to the nation in general ; but almost every 
tribe has its peculiar characteristic, which can be 
but shortly touched upon. The Berdooranees, 
who occupy the north-eastern districts, are brave 
but quarr^somc, active, industrious; but selfish, 
bigoted, and remarkable for vice and debauchery, 
llieir quarrelsome disposition is thought to have 
li^ven origin to a sort of foderaUve alliance, offen- 
sive and defensive, among tribes and 8ubdi\'isions 
called GoondecMf which were held more binding 
than ties of blood. From these Goondees, how- 
ever, were excepted the Eussuffzehees, the most 
powerful and numerous^ as well as most hnughty. 

insolent, and tnrtralent tribe of the Berdooranees, 
who arc said to number 700,000 souls. They now 
occupy Swaut, Bunere, Punjecora, &c, and are 
notonoufl for the anarchy which reigns among 
their oolootes, Tliough an agricultural people, 
they do not themselves labour ; this is left to their 
fakirsj a species of viUainM or servants, consisting 
of strangers or individuals of conquered tribes of 
other nati<»ns, reduced to serve these invaders, and 
protected by them for their services. Their mas- 
ters, or khawunds, can beat or kill them at plea- 
sure, but are bound by custom to protect them ; 
and proWded they pay the customary tax, and do 
their work, tliey may engage otherwise in trade 
as they please, and are commonly treated miklly. 

The Tt)orkolanee»f who are brave, active, indus- 
trious, and cheerful, are all subject to one powerfid 
chief, who exercises over them a very powerful 

The Khybereeit, who possess the upper branches 
of the Rajgul or Spcengur mountain, and derive 
their name from the formidable pass of Khylier, 
are the most rapacious and treacherous robbers of 
all Affghanistan : no previous agreement secures 
the traveller from their assaults; they watch tho 
approach of the caravan, matchlock in hand, and 
choose their \'ictims witii certainty and security. 
They are a lean muscular race, capital marksmen, 
and carry swords and short spears in addition to 
their matchlock; they are altogether more un- 
couth than most of their countrymen. 

llie Khuttuks, occupying toe banks of tiie 
Indus, from the Caubul river to the Salt range, 
are a tall well-favoured people, as remarkable for 
honesty and orderly conduct as is their comitry 
for drearj' and ruggc<i barrenness. 

The tribes of Damaun are said to be moro 
sini)>le and honest, less bigoted and litigious, less 
vicious and debauched, than tlie nortliem tribes. 
They are a more bony and fairer race than the 
Berdooranees, and universally wear long hair and 
beards. They owe the greater order which pre- 
vails in their oolooscs to an establishment of ma- 
gistrates, formed some fifty or sixty years ago, 
which has been eminently efficient 

The Gundepoors are a particularly thievish and 
quarrelsome race, in spite of a commercial turn, 
wliich leads many of them to make annual trading 
journeys to India and Khorasan. 

The Baboors are a civilised tribe, mnch em- 
ployed in merchandise. The Stooreaneet were 
shepherds, till robbed of their pasture lands by 
the CaukerSf when they betook themselves to 
agriculture. These agricultural tril)es have all 
fakirs, or \'illains, like the Eussuffzehees. 

Of the central division, the Jauiees and Toorees^ 
hereditary enemies, live in the glens and vallevs 
of the Solymaun range. The country of tiie 
former is colder, wilder, and higher than that of 
the latter; the mountain sides are covered with 
pines. The Jaudraus^ who dwell in a pleasant 
district westward of the rich plain of Bunuoo, are 
remarka))Ie only for their dis^isting vices. 

The SheeranetSf who inhabit the borders of the 
Tukhtn-e-Solvmaun, a wild inaccessible countr\', 
are very poor and uncivilised, plunder everj' one, 
and are at war with all the world ; yet theynever 
break their word, and a single individual of their 
tribe suffices to secure the safety of a iiarty : they 
are described as wild and savage in tneir' appear- 
ance, as in their habits and mode of life. The 
Zmurrees, neighbours of the last, resemble tliem 
closely, but are less inveterately predatory. The 
Vizeerees, NW. of the two last-mentioned tribes, 
live in little soaeties, among pine-covered moun- 
tains, and are equally uncivilised and addicted to 
plunder; yet the smallest escort ensures safety. 



ttd the diiefe, powerfol khans, are, it is said, le- 
uaiiuible for their love of peace. The Vizerees 
are divided into a fixed and erratic population. 
Th« loo£ valley of Zawura, which opens on the 
plain ofT^ and Chooteeallee, is inhabited by the 
white and black {tpeen and tor) Zertena, great 
carriers of merchandise between Upper Sinde and 

The two most noble and important tribes, how- 
ever, are the DoonmeeM and Ghiljees. Their terri- 
tory' consists chiefly of high bleak downs, inter- 
»perMd with hUls, in some parts desert, in others 
sparsely cultivated, in all open, bare, and fit chiefly 
f«ir pa^tture;. They are therefore chiefly a pastoral 
pcitple, with patriarchal habits, and live for the 
mijHt part in tents of black wool lliefle (Jnzhdeet) 
are from 20 to 25 feet long by 10 or 12 bn)ad, and 
8 or !> high, supported by a row of three poles, and 
cliMed all round with a curtain. In winter they 
are lined with felt, and are warm and comfortable. 
The country dT the Dooranees is 400 miles long 
liy i:k) broad, extending from the Paropamesan 
mountains to the Khoieh Amr&n range. They 
were formerly called Abdallees, till the late Ahmed 
Shah, their diief and sovereign, changed the name, 
in consequence of the dream of a famous saint, he 
taking that of Shah Dooree Doorftn. They may 
amount to 800/)00 souls; the Suddoozehee, from 
whence sprung the king, is a subdivision of the 
Populzehee. The king is their hereditary chief, 
and military commander of the whole : he claims 
a hoTMsman^s service for every plough of land; 
and the officers commanding them are the civil 
magistrates c^ their respective districts, besides 
being employed in offices of state at court, when 
there was a court. The internal government of 
the clans is better maintained than among other 
tri)*p3S and the iHt>gress of improvement and civil- 
isation among the agricultural Dooranees has 
bc^A correspondingly great. They are generally 
handsome stout men, with good complexions and 
fine beards. Tbey are brave and hospitable ; and 
thdu^h not quite strangers to rapacity, still may 
be es^teemed tne worthiest of their race. 

The Ghi^eea occupy the upper valley of the 
Tumuk, and great part of the Caubul valley, to 
the Berdomanee oountr}' ; a tract which contains 
ft^m/f of the principal cities, with some fine dis- 
tricts of land, but the climate of which is cold. 
The Ghiljees were formerly the leading tribe of 
Affghanistan. It was a branch of them that 
ctioquered Persia and broke down the power of 
the Seffavean kings; and they are still a high- 
minded, bnve, and numerous people. 

The HotdtK and Tokhee are the noblest of their 
clans, having produced — the first, kings ; and the 
•ecood, their viziers; and they are a hospitable 
and good people, ranking deservedly as the second 
of the Afl^han tribes: they amount to about 
Km^,000 families, and resemble much the Dooranees 
in appearance, customs, manners, and dress, though 
hating them, as their successfal rivals, with an 
unquenchable hatred. They are perhaps the 
fairest and handsomest of all the Affghans. 

There is yet another class, which, though not 
strictly Aflghan, still, as amalgamated wiu that 
people^ ought to be mentioned — the Tdjuks. The 
wf ^ w used in opposition to that of Toork^ the 
peaceable to the warlike; and it was applied to 
the rabdoed Pernans by their Tartar masters. In 
Aflfchanistan th^ are supposed to be descendants 
of Arabs displaced by their conquerors, who now 
live scattered ovtx the land which they might 
once have cultivated as their own. As tenants or 
•eo-ants, they are mild, sober, peaceable, and in- 
diatrions, and live on gopd terms with the Aff- 
ghans, who, thoqgh they rega^ them as inferiora, 

do not treat them with contempt They are most 
numerous in and around the great cities, and are 
all zealous soonnies. There are also the Hcuuireha 
and other allied tribes, whose language is a dialect 
of the Persian ; and the HindloM and JaU, who 
npeak Hindi, or rather a dialect of that tongue. 
There are also some Kashmires and Armenians 
settled at Caubul, but their number is insignificant. 
The Hindkis are veiy numerous and are Hindus 
of the military caste, transacting nearly all the 
business of the country. The Jata are a fine, 
athletic, handsome race, usually very dark. They 
are mostly very poor, and are employed as farm- 
servants, barbers, musicians, &c. The Hindkis 
and. the Jats number about 600,000. 

History and Political Changes. — ^Afigbanistan 
ha^'ing, from the remotest period of authentic 
record, followed the fortunes of its more powerful 
neighbours, or formed but the centre of a greater 
whole, cannot correctly lay claim to any history 
of its own, until after the death of Nadir Sha^ 
For though several dynasties sprung from its mil, 
they never erected there a separate kingdom of 
anv duration, unless perhaps in the instance of 
Suouctageen, father of the celebrated Mahmood 
of Ghiznee, who resided at that city before the 
rise of his son's power — a power which extended 
over great part of Asia. On the murder of Nadir, 
in Khorasan, Ahmed khan Abdallee, after an in- 
decisive conflict with the Persian troo^ of that 
conqueror's army, fought his way with 8,000 
A£^nan horse to Kandahar, where, seizing on a 
convoy of treasure on its way to Nadir's camp, he 
assumed the ensigns of royalty ; and, at the age 
of 23, in Octobo' 1747, was crowned as king, 
the Dooranee, Kuzbilbash, Beloochec, and other 
chiefs assisting at the ceremony. Wise and ]>ru- 
dcnt beyond his vears, Ahmed consolidated the 
discordant mass of the Afighan tribes by employ- 
ing them in the congenial occupations of foreign 
conauest and plunder; in which he was so suc- 
cessful, that before his death, in June 1 778, after 
a reign of 26 years, his dominions extended from 
NLst^pour of Kliorasan to Sirhind of the Punjab, 
and from the Oxus to the Indian Ocean. He was 
succeeded by his son Timour Shah, a weak and 
indolent prince, who died in 1793. 

Zemaun Shah, the son of Timour, who was 
placed on the throne by a faction headed by the 
queen, b^an his reign with a promise of energy 
and talent, which the event but ill redeemed ; f(>r 
after a seven years* reign of ill directed cnter- 

E rises, domestic rebellions, and dark connpiracies, 
e fell a victim to the revenge of a chief whom he 
had provoked, and who first opposed, then seized 
the Shah, and delivered him to Mahmoo<l, his 
half-brother and most formidable competitor, who 
blinded the unfortunate Zemaun. 

Mahmood, however, was in his turn soon op- 
posed by Shujah-ool-Moolk, full brother of Ze- 
maun, who, seizing the treasure at Pcshawur, 
proclaimed himself king. But his pros|)crity was 
short-lived. Mahmood, who hod been made ])ri- 
soner, escaped, and joining with Futeh Khan, the 
able chief of the Baurikzehees, who had caused 
the ruin of Zemaun, raised a rebellion agaiiii»t 
Shujah. At this period the British mifwion under 
Mr. Elphinstone arrived at Pcshawur ; and l>efore 
it had well quitted the country, the ill-fated 
Shujah was forced to flv and seek a refuge Mrith 
Runjeet Sing, chief of the Sikhs, from whone per- 
secutions he afterwards with difficulty escaped to 
throw himself on the protection of the British 
government at Loodheana. Mahmcxxl, a king 
only in name, became a ^>ageant m the handi) of 
Futeh Khan. This minister, turning his arms 
westward, seized Her&t, but soon after fell a victim 



to tieachery and the feelings of disgnst which his 
aiTt^ancc had excited in the mind of his royal 
dqicndant, being fint blinded and then put to 
death by order of Mabmood and hifl son Camriin 
Meerza. His numerous brothers, alarmed at this 
act, tied to their various governments and strong- 
holds, exciting discontent and rebellion through- 
out the kingdom, until nothing of his dominions 
remained to Mahmood, save Her&t and its im- 
mediate dependencies. Since then the affairs of 
Aff^hanistan ])resent little save a series of civil 
broils, till the late Sikh chief, Kunjeet Sing, 
stripped it of Cashmere and Peshawur, with the 
country between it and the Indus. It was subse- 
quently partitioned among the chiefs of Caubul, 
KandiUiar, and Her&t. The attempt made by the 
English in 1839, to dethrone the first of these 
chieftains, on account of treachery and bad faith, 
led to some of the severest reverses we have met 
with in the East. The Bolan Pass, a long and 
narrow defile, leading through the mountains on 
the S. frontier of Affghanistan, having been passed 
with difficultv, the British forces advanced to 
Kandaliar and Ghuznee. The latter was taken by 
storm on the 22nd July, 1839. The armv soon 
after entered Caubul ; and the chief Sluih Shujah 
was established on the musnud^ Dost Mahomed 
Khan having retreated with a few followers be- 
yond the Oxus. 

A force of lUxiut 8,000 men, partly Europeans 
and partly Sepoys, exclusive of native troops, 
having been leh in the country (mostly at Cau- 
bul) to support and consolidate the newly estab- 
Ibhed order of things, the rest of the British army 
returned to India. But no sooner had they with- 
drawn, than plots and conspiracies began to be 
formed against the English garrison. From some 
unexplained fatality, the Latter did not become 
fully alive to their danger till the envoys, Sir 
Alexander Bumes and Sir William Macnaughten, 
had been assassinated, when it was too lute to 
adopt the precautions necessary to ensure their 
safety. Bemg unable to maintain themselveH in 
Caubul, the trooj)s, amounting to about 5,000 men, 
exc. of an infimtely greater number of camp-fol- 
lowers, women, and chihlren, commenced their 
retreat from it in Jauuar}', 1842. The defiles 
through which they had to iiass being of the most 
impracticable description, the cold extreme, and 
the attacks of the Affghiuis incessant, the retreat 
was most disastrous, and residted in the aU but 
total destruction of those engaged in it. 

The receipt of this melancholy intelligence pro- 
duced a great sensation in India and EiiglauiL 
Government imme<iiately resolved to march a 
fresh army into Affglianistan to inflict a signal 
and well merited punisliment on its treacherous 
neople and chiefs. This was effected in 1842. 
Having entered Caubul the British troops de- 
stroyed its fortifications; the prisoners and de- 
tachments that were left in the country were 
relieved ; and our ascendancy and the presti^ that 
had so long been attached to our arms were again 
triumphantly restored. But having wisely re- 
nounced all idea of maintaining a permanent 
footing in the country, we finally quitted it in 
December, 1842. 

Dost Mahomed who had surrendered himself 
our prisoner was set free, and returning to Caubul 
regamed the allegiance of his former adherents 
and subjects. Having fully established himself 
in the capital and central provinces, the outl]^4ng 
districts became the objects of his aspirations. In 
1850 he conquered Balkh in Turkestan, and, four 
years after, Kandahar, which he made a province 
of CaubuL Herat, after the death in 1852 of Zar 
Mahomed Khan, by whom the defence of Herat 


in 1839 had been conducted, was governed by his 
son and a succession of usurpers till 185C, in which 
year the Affghans, under the direction of Kahou- 
dil-Khan, a DounuMe chief, thri'atened it. The 
then chief of Her&t, Isa Khan, a Bor-Douranee, 
called in the aid of the Pen«iaus, who, enpousing 
his cause, threw an army into Herftt in IHhd, 
This being an infringement of our treaties with 
Persia led to a war in 1856-7, in which a small 
force, despatched under General Out ram up the 
Persian Gulf, was able to bring the Persians to 
reason. In accordance with the terms of a new 
treaty, the Persians evacuated Her&t in July, 1857. 
On their departure, the government fell into the 
hands of one Sultan ^Vhmed Khan, a Barukzve 
chieftain. The danger to his western frontier 
induced Dost Mahomed to invoke the aid of the 
British, and the result was a treaty concluded 
with him at Peshawur in January, 1857, granting 
him a subsidy so long as the Persian war should 
last, and providing that a deputation of British 
ofiicers should enter the country under the pro- 
tection of Dost Mahomed to watch the movements 
of the Persians, and aid in organising the forces 
of the Ameer. Tlie mission wliich was sent Iiarl 
for political chief and head Major H. B. Lumsdcn, 
and the medical officer of the miiwion was as- 
sistant-surgei>n W. H. Bellew, whose wt>rk we 
have couHulted in the compilation of this article. 
The Indian mutiny of 1857 added to the dangers 
of the mission, but by great tact and pnidence the 
danger was not only avoided, but the influence of 
the mission decide<l the Affghan government to 
remain faithful to the British alliance, and refrain 
from attacking Peshawur, an attack which in all 
probability would have been the signal of a rising 
of the Pimjab, with all the disastrr>us conse- 

2uences of such an event. Since the death of 
Mt Mahomed in 18f)3, the country has l)cen the 
scene of perpetual disonlors, owing to the quanvls 
among the sons of Dost Mahomed. One of them, 
Shere Allee Khan, succcetled in establii«hing him- 
self in Caubul, consolidating his authority by a 
* great victory' over one of hL«» brothers in the 
summer of 1864. After the \mtt\c the defeated 
bnither surreiidenKl on the pnjmise of gcKxl treat- 
ment, but the Ameer treacherously iinpriwuie*! 
him. Other brotliers*, however, still <lispiit4* the 
Ameer's authority, but the state of matters is not 
authentically enough known, nor of suflicieut in- 
terest to demand a more extended notice. 

AFIUM-KAliA-IIISSAli (or Black Gistle of 
Opium) y a city of Asiatic Turkey, in Anatolia, 
cap. Sanjiock, i88 m. E. Smynui,*lat. 38° 45' N., 
long. 30" 56' E. It is situated on the declivity of 
a mountain range, and is defended by a citadel, 
built on a high and almost iiuurcessibic n>ck. Po]). 
estimated bv Kinneirat 12,000 families, or from 
50,000 to 6i),000 individuals. It is pretty well 
built; but the streets arc exceedingly nam^w, and 
in manv parts very steep. Some of them are 
washed by streams that descend firom the arljacent 
mountains. It has numerous mosques, two Ar- 
menian chapels, six khans, and five public baths ; 
an extensive manufactory of black felts, fire-arms, 
short sabres or yatagant, with stirrups, bridles, &c. 
But it is principally celebrated for the great ouan- 
titv of opium grown in its vicinity ; firom wltich, 
indeed, it derives its modem name. It is said by 
D'Anville to be the Apamea of the Greeks and 
Bomans ; but the latter was situated a good de^l 
flirther VV, According to the Turkish annals, it 
was founded by Aladdin, one of the Seljuckiun 
sultans. It was the patrimony of Othman, the 
founder of the Turkish empire, of which it haa 
ever since formed a part, 
AFKAGOLA, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 



Xapjei; 5 m. XNE. Naples, on the raflway from 
Kivie to Naplea. Pop. 16,717 m 1^1. The town 
tu^ imnnfiirtTiree of stimw hau, and a great an- 
nual fiur, which commenoea fittlSit second Sunday 
ufMay. . »■■ 

AFRICA. A Taat peninMa* one of the great 
diTL^kiiu of the globe, situated tp the S. of £urope, 
and to the W. and SW. of Asia. It is separated 
(nm the former by the Mediterranean Sea and the 
StTait of Gibraltar; the two continents appntach- 
in^ at the latter within about 10 m. of each other. 
It Msepanted from Asia by the Red Sea, at whose 
iHmtbem extremity, the strait of Bab-el-mandeb, 
tlie (tboru c^ the two ooutinenta are only 16 m. 
apart. Bat at the moat northerly extremity of 
tbe Ked Sea, Asia and Africa are united by the 
I^hmiu of Suez ; the Mediterranean being there 
<b>at 72 m. from the Red Sea. 

The mofit aontheily point of Africa, Cape das 
AfHilhas (Cape NeeAes), is in hit 840 52' S.; 
aod the moat northeriy. Cape BUnco, opposite 
iiirilr, in lat. 87° 21' N. Cape Gardafui, the 
B4«t eauteriy point, is in long. 51^ 80' £., and lat. 
11^ 50' y. ; and Ca^ Veido, the extreme western 

S'lnt, is in long. 170 88' W., and 14^ 48' X. kt 
M" ilb'tanoe between the most southerly and most 
ooftherly points is consequently about 5000 m., 
ud between the extreme eastern and western 
r-ints not much less. The area probably falls 
ihtle ithoit, if it do not exceed, 12,000,(N)0 sq. m. 

Africa is distinguished from the other conti- 
ntntA by its coasts extending moetlv in continuous, 
anl»n>ken lines, having but few indentations of 
the sea, and no extenuve peninsulas ; so that it 
ii<nM a more compu:t and undivided mass of land. 
The uniformity or its outline seems to be in ac- 
a*rrianoe with the uniformity of its interior. Tlie 
surface of the latter does not present that endless 
sncceMri(*n of changes which are met with in 
Europe and southern Asia, and which are found 
in t>ath Americas, but on a greater scale and at 
fsnater distances. It resembles rather the north- 
ern parts of Asia, exhibiting elevated table-lands 
anil k»w plains, both of immense extent and of 
reraarkime imilbrmity. The whole of the con- 
tinent, from about 15°^' X. lat. of the equator, and 
S. of it to the northern borier of the Ngami 
Water, 20O S. of the equatoi^ constitutes, with 
the exceptioQ of the central depression of the 
Lake Region, a mass of elevated land, comprising 
extensive plateaus and high mountain chains and 
groups. North of this Uble-land, between 10^ 
and 3»fi N. lat., extends an immense but low 
plain, the greater part of which is occupied by the 
Great Desot, cr Desert of Sahara. A compara- 
tively nauTow tract of mountainous country, in- 
cluding Atlas and its dependencies, separates the 
depCTt from the Mediterranean. On the E. the 
d esert does not reach the Red Sea, being sepa- 
rated from it by the mountains of Abyssinia and 
the mcky oovntries extending from them north- 
ward along the Red Sea to the shorBS of the Medi- 

The great central belt south of the eauator 
* rejects^* sava O^itain Burton, 'the old hypo- 
tfaeris of oesert and plateao, and forms the 
sharpest ooatrast to our grttdfirthen' idea of 
Central Aftka.' He thus describes the eastern 
section of it : — * Near the coaat are low littoral 
plains and rolling ground, with lagoons, savan- 
nalks, and graany vallejrs, the courses of large 
ftreams, whose banks, inundated by rain-floods, 
main in the dry season meers, morasses, reedy 
aisrihee, and swamps of black infected mud. Be- 
fuod the maritime regions rise lines and moun- 
tain groups of primanr and sandstone formation ; 
ridgs and highlanoib often wictiUivated, bat 

rarely sterile, with basins and hill-plains of exu- 
berant fertility, traversed by perennial rivulots 
and streams. Beyond the landward sluitc of these 
African ghauts l)egins on oIevate<i plateau, now 
level and tabular, then broken into undulations 
and gentle eminences, displacing by huge out^ 
crops of granites and syenites the activity of the 
igneous period ; where rain is deficient, thiulv clad 
with buHh, broom, and slurubbery, with tliomy 
and succulent thickets, cut by furrows and bunit 
by torrid suns; and veiled where moisture alxmnds 
with tangled jungle rising from shallow valleys, 
with umbrageous forests broken into glades' of 
exceeding beauty, and with interjacent plains of 
emerald or amber-coloured gross, nrom which trees 
of the darkest laurel-green, and knolls and clumps, 
large and small, against which no foller has como 
up, cast thick shade over their subject circlets of 
luxuriant underwood. Dull, dreary, and mono- 
tonous, where lying desert, in part this plateau is 
adorned with a lavish nature s choicest charms 
and varieties. Bcvond it, again, the land sinks 
into the Lake Region, or the great Central De- 
pression ; the superabundant moisture diffused by 
its network of waters, fordablc and unfonlahle, 
covers the land with a rank gro^i-th of gigantic 
grasses and timlier-trees, and the excessive luxu- 
riance of nature proves unfavourable to the de- 
velopment of animal organisms. Throughout the 
line, to judge without statistics, in the more ste- 
rile parts, about one-fifth, and in the more fruitful 
one-half of the land, is under cultivation ; whilst 
almost everywhere the abundance of the desert 
vegetation evidences the marvellous capabilities 
of the almost virgin s<»ils. The superficial ain- 
formation owns four great varieties. \Vlien low, 
the plains are reedy and muddy ; when higher 
raised and well watered, they l>ear evergreen 
jungle and forest trees. In the deserts, where 
water lies deep beneath the earth, and rain is 
scarce, the plateaus pnKlucc short tufty grass, 
bush, and scraggy thorn, and in rare spot^ the 
land is almost bare.' Dr. Livingstone, who made 
a journey into the interior from Loanda on the 
west coast, represents the country as similar in 
most essential characteristics. 

At the southern extremity', Africa presents to 
the Indian Ocean a broad line of coast, running 
east and west nearly along the 84th parallel fn>m 
18© to 26° E. long., or fh>m the Cape of Good 
Hope to Algoa Bay. Along this coast extends an 
undulating count rj% intersected with a few eleva^ 
tions deserving the name of hilK Its vridth varies 
between 10 and 50 miles. Nonh of this the table- 
land rises in terraces. The fin<t terrace, chilled the 
Long Kloof, is enclosed by the double ridgi> of the 
Zwarte Bergc, or Black iifoun tains, of which the 
northern, or the Grootc (Great) Zwarte Berge, 
rises to about 4000 ft above the sea. North <»f this 
range is the second terrace, called the great 
Karroo, which is about 100 miles across and 3,000 
feet elevated above the sea. It is bounded on the 
N. by the Nieunveld licrgcn, a chain of which 
some summits arc considered to rise to 9,000 or 
10,000 feet. On its northern side the table-land 
seems to have attained its mean elevation, which 
probably is not less than from 4,(H)0 to 5,000 feet. 

At both the eastern and western extremities the 
two above-mentioned ranges run NW. and NK. 
parallel to the sea-shore, at a distance of fVoin 80 
to 200 miles ; the intermediate space being like- 
wise occupied by two or more terraces. The 
ranges along the west shores do not extend farther 
than about 2^ S. hit, where they terminate hi 
isoUtcd hills and with a high bank on the Gareep 
or Orange River. N. of this river, the coast, when 
seen from the sea, prescuta only high sand-hilla 



without any traces of water, and is, consequently, 
entirely destitute of v^etation. It extends as 
far as Cape Negro (18^ S. lat). The interior east 
of the western ranges and of this coast is an ele- 
vated sandy desert, with few wells and little rain. 

The eastern half of the table-land firom the 
Gape Colony to 18^ S. lat. offers a different aspect. 
A great number of mountain-ridges, of moderate 
elevation, traverse it in different directions ; and 
at the foot of these ridges the country is well 
watered and fertile ; though here, too, extensive 
sterile tracts occur, but they are not continuous. 
The descent from the table-land to the Indian Ocean 
is formed by two or three terraces, the highest 
edge of it about 90 or 100 miles distant from the 
shore. This edge, formed bv a mountain ridge, 
prevents the rivers of the table-land from escaping 
to the Indian Ocean; so that they either run 
westward, and fall partly into the Gareep river, or 
arc partly lost in the sands of the desert. The 
eastern descent of the table-land resembles that 
farther south, being formed by terraces, Tliis, 
however, extends only to the equator, or the 
mouth of the river Juha ; for farther north, up to 
Cape Gardafui, the coast itself is formed by high 
rocKs, rising to 400 feet and upward, and no moun- 
tain jranges are visible from Uio sea. On the 
western side of the continent, between 18^ and 
40^ S. lat,, there is a considerable depression in 
the table-land. This country, which is knovm 
under the name of Lower Guinea, has low shores, 
behind which at a considerable distance the sur- 
face rises, but not to a great height, llien follows 
an uneven plain, watered in its lower parts by 
numerous rivers, among which the Zaire or Congo 
and the Cuanza are the largest ; but towards the 
sources of these rivers the country is mountainous. 
In the plain numerous lakes of considerable ex- 
tent are met with. 

North of the river Zaire, at about 4^ S. lat., 
the country again rises at no great distance from 
the Mca to a great height This high ground b 
called Scrra Complidc. Its W. declivity extends 
NW,, by degrees approaching nearer the Atlantic, 
till it reaches the mncrmost comer of the IVay of 
Biafra, where it comes close down to the sea, and 
forms for more than 80 miles the shore, rising, 
under the name of Cameroon Mountains, to 13,000 
feet above the water. These great mountain 
masses form the W. extremity of an extensive 
range, which at about 5^ of N. lat. traverses the 
whole continent. 

Dr. Livingstone fotmd the geological structure 
of the earth, which he had an opportunity of exa- 
mining at the river Moamba (lat 9^ 38' S., long. 
2(P 13' 34" E.), to consist of— first, a capping of 
ferruginous conglomerate, containing water-worn 
pebbles of all sorts; then a pale red hardened 
8an<Lst4>ne; beneath that, a trap-like whinstone; 
and lastly a coarse-grained sandstone, containing 
|)ebbles, and in connection with which is some- 
times seen a white calcareous rock, or banks of 
quartz pebbles. 

The true nature of the centre of this southern 
belt is now satisfactorily established. Sir Roderick 
Murchison had the honour of starting the theory, 
which has since l)een verified by the discoveries of 
African explorers, that, instead of the arid plain 
long supposed, the centre of Southern Africa is a 
vast, elevated, watery basin, whose waters escape 
to the sea by fissures and depressions in the higher 
lands by which it is surrounded. 

Extending southward from Lake Ngami to the 
Orange Kiver, and from 24^ east long, to near the 
west coast, is the Kalahari Desert This tract. 
Dr. Livingstone says, has been called a desert 
merely on account of the absence of nmning 

water. It is by no means destitute of vegetation. 
Many plants are found there, more especially the 
water-melon, and there are patches of bushes and 
even trees. The soil is soft, light-coloured sand, 
and the grass grows abundantly and in tufts. The 
human inhabitants of this region are the Bushmen 
and the Bakalahari. 

Still farther south, at Cape Colony, Ainca pre- 
sents to the Indian Ocean a broad and undulating 
line of coast, extending firom the Cape of Good 
Hope to Algoa Bay. 

North Africa, extending from south to north 
through a breadth of about 25 degrees, contains 
two different countries, the one fertile and the 
other sterile. The fertile lands are, on one side, 
thoae which lie along the Mediterranean, and on 
the other, the tropical lands to the south of the 
Sahara, called the Soudan. Of these Dr. Barth 
says, that they arc far from exhibiting the moni>- 
tony popularly ascribed to them. He describes the 
fertile regions of Negroland as being as varied as 
any part of India. He tells us * Moimtains be- 
tween 5,000 and 6,000 feet are not at all rare, and 
most beautiful and picturesque glens and valleys 

are formed by them The general middle 

altitude of mountainous tracts is 2,500 feet' In 
many parts it is well watered by rivers, which 
descend from the table-lands at originate in the 
low ridges by which the country is intersected; 
such districts are covered with immense forests, 
and are very fertile where cultivated. In other 
parts water is rather scarce, and some of them 
partake largely of the nature of the Sahara. Ita 
climate is extremely hot, ne\'ertheless it sometimes 
happens that during night the thermometer de- 
scends to the freezing point 

The Sahara, or Great Desert is not, as was once 
believed, a deep sink. It is rather, to quote from 
Dr. Barth, * an elevated tract of a mean elevation 
of from 1,000 to 1,400 feet, mostly consisting of 
rock — namely, sandstone or granite, the latter 
being overlaid in the heart of the desert by vast 
tracts of gravel, while the sandstone region forms 
many elevated plains of larger or smaller extent, 
strewn with small pebbles.' Several mountainous 
groups are found in different parts of this tract, 
the most important being Tibesti, A'sben or A'ir, 
the two mountainous regions of A'derer, and the 
A'taleor. These afford a dwelling-place to a con- 
siderable nomadic population ; but the inhabitable 
localities are limited, and the ravines are verv' un- 
healthy, though some of them are amply pro- 
vided with water-springs, and produce grapes and 

These mountains, however, are quite destitute of 
timber. A characteristic feature of this desert is 
the immense change of temperature which is found 
there. The greatest heat in summer alternates 
with a considerable degree of cold in winter, the 
difference between the maximum and minimum 
being as much as 80<^ The aridity of these tracts 
Dr. Barth thinks greatly exaggerated, as they are 
occasionally refreshed by showers. Another cha- 
racteristic feature of the Sahara is the reaion of 
Sandhills, which exist either in zones of sand- 
ridges, or in the shape of isolated hills. The for- 
mer sometimes reach an elevation of from 800 to 
1,000 feet, and have a breadth of 60 geographical 
miles. A great deal of moisture collects in the 
depressions between these ridges, and in most of 
them large quantities of dates are produced. All 
the western part of the Sahara would, owing to 
ita burning heat and the want of water, be totally 
impassable, were it not that it is here and there 
interspersed with venlant well-watered spots or 
oases, which appear like islands of the blest in the 
midst of desolAtion. The ancients compared them- 



approaches the zenith, whereas it occurs in the 
countries beyond the tropics when the sun ai>- 
pfoaches the opposite tropic, and consequently is 
at the greatest distance from their zenith. l)ut 
Dr. Livingstone says : — All the interior of South 
Africa has a distinct winter of cold, var3ring in 
intensi^^ with the latitudes. In the central parts 
of the cfape colony, the cold in the winter is often 
severe, and the ground is covered with snow. At 
Kuruman snow seldom falls, but the front is keen. 
There is frost even as far as the Chobe, and a par- 
tial winter in the Barotse vallev, but beyond the 
Orange River we never have cold and damp com- 
bineiL Indeed a shower of rain seldom or never 
falls during winter, and hence the healthiness of 
tJie Bcchuana climate. From the Barutse valley 
northwards, it is questionable if it ever freezes; 
but during the prevalence of the south wind, the 
thermometer anxs as low as 42^, and conveys the 
impression of bitter cold.' Mr. Galton, travelling 
in South-western Africa, ovct the hiUy country 
which separates the Fish River from the sea, savs 
that the rains were periodical and very variable. 
From the middle oi^May to November rain is 
scarcely ever known to falL The rainy season 
extends from about the first of January to the last 
of April ; the groimd is seldom saturated till Feb- 
ruary, and is quite dried up by June. Yet, not- 
withstanding the appearance of drought, the 
marks of violent torrents are visible. Captain Bur- 
ton thinks the climate of Eastern Equatorial Africa 
superior to that of the Western coast^ but of too 
uniform a temperature, and too deficient in cold 
to be healthy for Europeans. 

Rivera. — The last few years have produced an 
entire revolution in our ideas of the water system 
of Africa. Instead of the * dry and thirsty land ' 
which books of geography were accustomed to re- 
present the interior, recent discovery has disclosed 
a vast assemblage of rivers and lakes, which are 
not onlv important as subjects of geograpliical 
knowlo(^e, but which it is hoped and believed may 
l>e made the means of developing the resources of 
the countr)', and of raising the condition of the 

The principal river is the famous Nile, the only 
large navigable river on the North African coast. 
Ai^iming as its source the Victoria Nyanza of 
Spekc, a little to the south of the equator, the Nile 
has a course nearly due north, extending over more 
than thirty degrees of latitude, and its length and 
depth of water entitle it to rank as one of the 
most considerable rivers of the globe, while of the 
laige rivers it is bv far the most famous. Till 
quite recent years, the Nile was reckoned the only 
laige river of Africa, but modem exploration has 
added to the list the Niger, flowing into the At^ 
lantic on the west coast, and the Zambesi, whose 
principal sources appear to lie quite near those of 
the Nile, in the great central depression of equa- 
torial Africa above described, though it receives 
numerous important tributaries farther south. It 
is the chief nver on the side of the Indian Ocean. 
Among other considerable rivers are the Senegal, 
the Gambia, the Congo, the Coanza, and Orange 
rivers on the west coast, to which may be added 
the Ogoboi of M. du Choillu. On the east coast, 
the most important river next to the Zambesi 
appears to bo the Rovuma, which flpws into the 
Indian Ocean north-east of the Zambesi, and 
which has lately been found useful as a conve- 
nient mo<le of access to the interior, where lie the 
sources of the Zambesi. 

LakeM, — These are numerous, and often of great 
exti^nt. The I-.ake Tangarrijika, one of the most 
important in the great lake region, was diiicovcreti 
by Captains Burton and Sfieke in the year 18.58. 

It is 1,800 ft above the level (^ the tea; and has i 
length of about 800, and a breadth of from 30 to 
40 miles. The same year. Captain Speke made a 
more important discovery, in the Lake Victoria 
Nvanza, the reservoir from which the Bahr-el- 
Abiad, or White Nile, descends into Egypt. This 
lake is between 8,000 and 4,000 feet above th« 
level of the sea, and is at present about 150 miles 
in len^h and In^eadth, though Captain Speke sap- 
poses it to have been at some period of greater 
extent. The northern shore of the Nyanza is 
parallel to the equator, and its north and south 
direction is, from 2^^ S. lat to 8^ 80' N. lat It 
has been ascertained that two other lakes, viz. the 
Baringa and the Luta Nzif^, have a share in feed- 
ing the Nile : the Luta Nzig^ lies 120 miles north- 
west of the most northerly part of the Nyanza. 
Previous to this, Dr. Livingstone had made hia 
discovery of Lake Ngami, 20^ S. of the equator, 
and more recentlv he has explored Lake ^^yasaa, 
a lake in East Africa, which gives exit to the 
Shird river, and which is surrounded by a dense 
population. During a certain portion of'^ the year, 
this lake is visited by clouds of midge», which fill 
the air to a prodigious height, and cover the 
waters. The natives gather these insects, and 
bake them into cakes. (See Letter from Mr. C. 
Livingstone to Sir R. Murchison, Journal of Geo- 
graphical Society, 1868.) The Tchad Lake is 
upon the southern border of the Sahara. There 
arc many other lakes of less moment The Lake 
of Demliea, in Abyssinia, traversed by the Bahr- 
el-Azrek, or Eastern Nile, is also of very consider- 
able magnitude. 

Racet of People. — Although we are accustomed 
to consider the inhabitants of Africa as being 
generally of the Nc^ro race, the actual number 
of varieties of the human family occupying this 
portion of the globe is not only much gnuiter than 
those found in Europe, but the differences in coIout, 
form, and stature are much wider. There ore 
about neven ascextoinable varieties, which mav lie 
enumerated as foUows, beginning with the soutfiem 
extremity of the continent: \iz, the Hottentot, 
Kaffer, Abyssinian, Egyptian, Numidian, Nubian, 
and Nc^nro. We shall give a brief description of each 
race in this order. In the Hottentot the colour of 
the skin is a yellowish brown, and has been com- 
pared to that* of a ' faded leaf.' The cheek bones 
are high, and much spread out in the lateral direc- 
tion; and from these the face is suddenly con- 
tracted below to a very narrow and pointed chin. 
Nose remarkably fiat and broad towards end. 
Colour of the eyes a deep chesnut ; they ore long, 
narrow, and removed to a great distance fntra 
each other. The hair of the head is of a singular 
nature; it does not cover' the whole scalp, but 
grows in small tufls at certain distances from each 
other. When kept short, it has the appearance 
and feel of a hard shoe-brush ; with this difierencc, 
that it i» curled, and twisted into small round lumps 
about the size of a marrowfat pea. When suf- 
fered to grow, it hangs on the neck in hanl twisted 
tassels like fringe. There is little beard ; and the 
hair on other paxts of the body is cither scanty or 
altogether wanting. The stature of the Hottentot 
is very short, about four feet six inches being con- 
sidered about the middle size for the men, and 
four feet for the women, which is about fourteen 
inches short of the average stature of Euro|)eaiis. 
Their form is slender, delicate, and not ill-propor- 
tioned ; but altogether they may be pn>nounced a 
very ugly race. The sex is diHtinguisihed from all 
others of the human race by a pendulous rugose 
elongation of the nymphee of from two to five 
inches long, and by a vast accumulation of fat 
over the glutei muscles, which invariably takes 



place after the fint conoeption. Both these ap- 
peanuHses are well ascertained to be natural, and 
in DO way the remit of art. The language of the 
Hottentota is as mngnlar as their persons. Its 
pronnncialion has been compared to the clucking 
of a turkey. There are numerous guttural sounds 
produoed deep in the throat, and pronounced with 
a peculiar ckck of the tongue, which is quickly 
stnick against and withdrawn from the teeth or 
palate. The aspirated gutturals are combined 
with harsh coosonanta in a manner unpronoun- 
ceable by Europeans, except those who have ac- 
quired the language in infancy. No portion of 
this race, unconnected with Europeans, has ad- 
vaooed beyond the rudest stage of the pastoral 
state of society. When discovered, they had do- 
mesticated the ox and the sheep, the flesh and 
milk of which afforded them food, and their skins, 
with those of wild animals, clothing ; they knew 
nothing of tillage, had no fixed dwellings, and 
pracdaed no mechanical art excepting tiiat of 
iabricatiiig the bow and arrow. The ancient 
ooontry of the Hottentot variety may generally 
he de sc ri bed as that which now constitutes the 
British colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The immediate neighbours of the Hottentots, 
and lying N. and NG. of them, are the Caffrts, in 
all leapect s a difierent race. The colour of the 
Kaffer is neither black, like that of the Negro, nor 
of the eoloor of a faded leaf^ like that of the Hot- 
tentot, bat of a deep brown. Hair short, curling, 
and woolly ; but it is not of the wooliness of the 
Negro. Noee tolerably elevated ; lips large and 
thick ; bat the lower maxillary bone does not pro- 
ject in the remarkable manner of the Negro, and 
dmsequently the fiunal angle is much greater. 
The body, instead of being, as in the Hottentot, 
diminative and feeble, is muscular and athletic, 
and the stature is equal to that of the European 
race. The peculiarities of the female form in Uieir 
mmthem ndgfabours have no existence among 
them, and the genius of their language is distinct 
and peculiar. In the useful arts they have made 
ciHwiderable progress. Besides domesticating Uie 
ox and sheep, they have also tamed the horse and 
{Toat ; and their agriculture extends to the culti- 
vation of baiiey «id millet It is a singular and 
djytinctive trait that they practise univeisally the 
rite <A circumcision. Of the origin of the practice 
thtrv can give no account; and it has most pro- 
bal»ly been derived from intercourse, at some re- 
mote period, with s<»ne people by whom it was 

The Abytaimiam race is entirely different from 
thone previously mentioned. Their colour is nearly 
black ; hot the hair is long, and generally lank, 
like that of an Arab or Hindoo. Features regular, 
after the European model, and the nose often aqui- 
line. The stature equals that of the European ; 
and the whole person is generally well formed, and 
nccasiooally handsome. The nations compre- 
hended under this race have made considerable 
pnigrese in the useful arts. They have domesti- 
cated most of the useful animals, as the ox, sheep, 
horse, aas, and camel ; and cultivate most of the 
common corns, as wheat, barley, and miUet. They 
ahn work, with some skill, articles of iron, copper, 
sad brasa ; and except the ancient Egyptians, and 
probably the Nnmidians, are the only native race 
of the entire continent who have invented an al- 
phabet or pos oca s c d a literature. 

The Egj^ptian race is represented by the Copts 
of Egypt. These have long hair, a yellowish 
daetkv'complexion, neither Grecian nor Arabian, 
a poded viMge, swollen eyes, flat noses, and thick 
lips : and, in short, according to Volney, much rc- 
sembk Molattos, or the mixed ofSs^nng of the 

European and Negro. It is almost unncoessaTv to 
add, that this was one of the earliest civilised races 
of mankind ; and that at least thirty ages ago it 
had already tamed the useful animals, cultivated 
the most valuable plants, smelted the useful and 
precious metals, and erected architectural monu- 
ments which for their durability, extent, and gran- 
deur, still astonish the world. They were also 
among the first to invent hieroglyphic and alphar 
betic writing. 

The next race to be named is the Numidian, 
The people who inhabit the northern portion of 
Africa from about the 18^ of N. latitude to the 
Mediterranean, and known by the various names 
of Moore, Berbera, Tuai^his, and Tibbans, are, in 
some cases with an admixture of Arab blood, pro- 
bably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country 
before the settlement of the Phcenicians, Romans, 
Vandals, or Arabs ; that is, they are the descend- 
ants of the Lybians, Numidians, Mauritanians, and 
kindred tribes. With this race the hair is long and 
black ; eyes dark ; the colour of the skin alight 
brown, little deeper than that of the inhabitants 
of Spain ; the features are European, but the nose 
generally not very prominent, and never aquiline, 
as is often the case with the Arabian. Although 
apparently superior at all times in civilisation to 
any Negro nation, this race appeara at no period 
to have made any remarkable progress in arts or 
arms, and scarcely any in lettere ; for it has been 
ascertained only of late jears, rather as a matter 
of curiosity than anytbmg elsc^ that they once 
possessed the art of alphabetic writing. Their lan- 
gua^ indeed, is but the jaigon of a rude people, 
desdtute of terms to express the most common 
distinct ideas, such as shortness^ roun€lne$$, ahth, 
and death. Such ideas are either expressed by cir- 
cumlocutions, or in more difficult circumstances 
recourse is had to the Arabic language. Their in- 
feriority is indeed most decidedly implied by the 
facility with which thev have given way before 
every successive race of conquerors, during a pe- 
riod of at least 2,500 years. 

The next race to be described may be called the 
Nuhtan; and, with the exception of the Abys- 
sinians, will comprehend nearly all the people of 
Africa from about 8^ of N. latitude to the southern 
confines of Egypt, and from the Rc^ Sea and In- 
dian Ocean on the east to about the 26° of E. lon- 
gitude westward. In this race are included the 
people called Barabra or Nuba, the people of Sennar, 
the Sumuli, the Snaking, the Bishari, the Abab- 
dah, the Galla, and othere. A long oval counte- 
nance ; a curved nose, somewhat rounded towards 
the top ; rather thick lips, but not protruding ex- 
cessively, like those of the "Segro ; a retreating 
chin ; scanty beard ; lively dark eyes ; strongly 
frizzled, but never woolly hair ; and a finely formed 
person of the middle size, with a bronze com- 
plexion, are the physical characteristics of this 
race. Some of the nations of this race have made 
considerable prc^jesH in the common arts of life, 
but they have no indigenous literature. 

With the exceptions now mentioned, the rest of 
the African contment may be said to be peopled 
by the Negro race, which commences at the south- 
em boundary of the great desert, and, embracing 
both the western and eastern coast, with the island 
of Madagascar, extends to about 20^ of S. latitude. 

The foUowing are the leading characteristics of 
this well-knovm varietv of our species : — Skin and 
eyes black; hair black and woolly; skull com- 
pressed laterally, and elongated towanls the front ; 
forehead low, narrow, and slanting ; cheek bones 
prominent; jaws narrow and projecting; upper 
front teeth oblique; chin receding; eyes promi- 
nent; nose broad, thick, flat, and confused with 



the extended jaw ; lipR, particularly the upper one, 
very thick ; imlrna of the hand and soles of the 
feet flat ; tibia and fibula convex ; pelvis narrow ; 
kneefl turned in, toes turned out. The stature and 
physical strcn^h are equal to that of the European. 
Many of the Negro tribes have made considerable 
pni}.cre8s in the necessary and useful arts, a pro- 
gress which, it may be safely affirmed, greatly sur- 
lusses that made by Any native race (»f America, 
rhey cultivate useful grains, roots, and fruits ; liave 
appropriated the services of many of the domestic 
animals, such as the ox, horse, ass, camel, goat, 
sheep, and hog, all of which appear to be indige- 
nous. It is singular, however, that no Negro tribe, 
nor even any native African race, has ever had the 
ingenuity to tame and train the elephant, a service 
to civilisation which has been performed by almost 
every Asiatic nation to whose countrv this animal 
is indigcnr)us, and which there is abundant evi- 
dence to show was done by the Carthaginian and 
Koman settlers in Africa. 

It is a still more striking fact that no Negro, 
and indeed no African nation, save the Egyptians, 
Abyssinians, and partially the Numidians, ever 
possessed a literature, or had ingenuity to invent 
anv alphabet, however rude. 

'riie general character thus sketched belongs 
with more or less intensity to the whole Negro 
race within the limita we have assigned to it : but 
it is not at the same time to be forgotten that there 
is much variety — a greater perliaps than exists 
among the European or any other family. The 
Berben form the chief part of the population of 
Baibar^, and, according to Dr. Barth, * arc of un- 
mcnse im^Mrtance in the whole question of African 
and Asiatic ethnography, as a link bet^'een various 
and most distinct races.' He estimates them in 
liarbarj', though existing under different names, 
and speaking dialects greatly mixed with Arabic, 
at between 7,000,000 and 8,000,000. The Man- 
dingoi are a numerous people, occupying the moun- 
tainous country on the west side of the continent 
which lies towards the sources of tlie rivers Senegal 
and Gambia. They possess the true Negro fea- 
tures, but not in an exaggerated form. The colour 
is black, with a mixture of yellow ; the person 
strong, symmetrical, and above the middle stature. 
Of all the Negro races the Mandingos have exhi- 
bited the greatest aptitude for improvement, Thcv 
are industrioas, enterprising, and, compared yrith 
their neighbours, of an o|)en and generous cha- 
racter. They have adopted the Mohammedan re- 
ligion, and with it the letters and literature of 
Arabia. The Fouhh$, or Fulbe, inhabit the same 
f Nirtion of Africa. The colour of the skin with this 
race is a sort of r^ldish black. Their countenances 
are regular, and their hair longer and not so woolly 
as that of the onlinary Negro. They are robust, 
courageous, industrious and enterprising, and like 
the Mandingos have adopted the literature and 
religion of Arabia. They lack the industry of the 
Mandingos, and manifest a want of political or- 
ganisation, being, from their origin, disposed to a 
nomadic existence. They are intermixed with 
several other tril)es, so that great diversity of type 
and colour prevails amongst them. They are of 
great importance as regards communication along 
the Niger. Altogether they make a considerable 
approach to the family which we have l)efore de- 
scribed under the name of the Nubian, Tlie 
Suhniaa are a sr^uat robust Negro race, not ex- 
coetling 5 feet 8 inches high. They are remark- 
able for their courage and hardihood, and have 
made considerable progress in the common arts of 
life, but have not adoptcnl Mohammedanism or the 
Arabic letters. The Johfg inhabit Inith the mari- 
time and mountain country on the south banks of 

the Senega], and are, in fact, the first Negro nation 
we encounter on the western side of the continent 
after quitting the Berbers. Their complexion is a 
fine transparent deep black. With the exception 
of thick lifis and a nose much rounded at the end, 
their features make some approach to the Euro- 
pean. The hair is crisp and woolly, the stature 
tall, and the figure good. To the south of the 
Gambia, and extending to Cape Pahnas, we find 
the race called Fehuns, of a deep black colour; 
with longish woollv hair; features so regular ad 
to be thought to Sear some resemblance to the 
Hindoo ; and of slight and short stature, but much 
agility, lliese are nearly in a savage state. To 
the south of the Feloups are the PapaU, a race ot 
very ugly Negroes, of^ dull, gross, and fcrocioua 

Xt, with ver}* flat noses, and of a dirty livid 
r. These and some other races resembling 
them are followed in proceeding southward by the 
BuUnnij &c., of a fine black colour, of good features, 
and well made, with i)enons above the mean sta- 
ture. The 7e6«, or Teda^ occupy the eastern half 
of the desert, corresponding in position to the 
Berbers on the western side. Tlie Hauaa form an 
intermediate race between tlie Berbers and Ne- 
groes : near neighbours to these arc the Kanuri or 
Bdmii. On both sides of the Niger are settled 
the Yoruba-Niife nations, industrious and com- 
mercial iMiople. Farther to the east are the Loqdn 
or JAggone^ the Bagirma^ and the Wadau The 
Bagirma ore a fine race, but cniel. Wadoi isi 
powerful kingdom, with a population of about 
0,000,000. Proceeding southwani, and more to the 
Gold coast and the country lying inland fn)m it, 
we find the Intor, Fantec, and Ashante« nations, 
which a|)pcar to constitute another distinct variety 
of the Negro race. It is of the mean stature, and 
well pro|)ortioned. The face is of an oval form ; 
the eyebrows lofly and thick ; the lips fresh, red, 
and n<»t hanging down as in the extreme forms of 
the Negro ; and the nose not so flat^ The hair is 
rather curled than woolly, and occasionally so long 
as to reach to the shoulders. The Ashantee belong 
to * a larger group of people,* says Dr. Borth, * con- 
stituting the O'chi race.' Now' and then are to Iw 
seen examples rather Asiatic tlian African. No 
nation of this variety has ever p^^ssessed the art of 
i^Titing, either springing up among themselves or 
borrowed from strangers ; and, altliough they have 
all ina<le considerable pn^^jess in several of thu 
common arts of life, they are in the habitual per- 
petration of cruel and ferocious rites, not to he 
paralleled by any other race of mankind. From 
the Bight of Biafra down to 2^ S. latitude, wlierc 
we encounter the Kaffero, there is comparatively 
little variation from our general description of the 
Negro family. Dr. Livingstone tells us that the 
amount of population in the central parts of Africa 
is to be called large, only in comi^arison witli Ca)ie 
colony, or the Bcchuana country, w^hich extends 
fTi»m the Orange Kiver to 18° south latitude. lie 
says of these tribes, < The people who inhabit the 
central region are not all quite black in colour. 
Many incline to that of bronze, and othera arc as 
light in hue as the Bushmen.' Amongst the 
south-western tribes are the Ovanepo, a corn-grow- 
ing, honest, and well-ordered people, who, con.^i- 
dered as blacks, are highly civilised ; the l)emanu<, 
a handsome, sprightly, but wortlileas race; and 
the Ghou Danup, a very i)eculiar race of Negroes*. 
In the interior of Africa, lying between the Moun- 
tains of the Moon, which cn>ss, or are supposed to 
cross, the entire continent in about 10° of N. lati- 
tude, and the great desert, we have, as far as our 
very imperfect information extends, little variety 
from the common type of the Negro. This is the 
country which the' ^Vrabs coll Soudan; a word 



which means the eountry of ' bliick men/ and is 
exactly equivalent to the Persian word Hindostan. 
On the east coast of Africa, between the Caffrt 
and NfMam races, we have nothing bnt true 'Ne- 
groes. It is, however, to be observed of these, that 
altbo«u:h the woolly head, black skin, flat nose, 
thick lipe, and projecting jaws are never absent, 
their excess which is found in general on the west- 
em coast does not exist. Captain Burton says, 
that the ftq[)ect of the great mass of this Negroid 
noe is not nnpreposBessing. They are tall and 
well-made Mulattos, but a handsome man is never 
seen except amongst the chiefs. The osteological 
stmctore of the head is-not so heavy as in the 
pore Ncoo. The hair of these races is stiff, short, 
criup, and curling. Under the same denomination, 
though shorter and feeler, is to be included the 
inhabitants of the great island of Madagascar; 
who, becanse their languure contains probably 
about 100 tx 150 words oX. Malayan, are absurdly 
s u ppo s ed by some writers to be of the Malayan 
nee, wliich they no more resemble than Uiey do 
Europeans. The^ introduction of such terms has, 
in fact, been satisfactorily accounted for by the 
drifting of boats with crews of Malays from the 
shore of the island of Sumatra, two or three au- 
thentic examples of which have occurred within 
our own times. The fact of such occurrences 
having taken place is a suflSdent answer to the 
a p pare nt difficulty of opoi boats with their crews 
peffonning a voyage which cannot be less than 
SvOOO naiitiral mil». The manner in which such 
events would take place is, we think, obvious 
enoQgfa. A trading ot fishing-boat, with a few 
eoooa-nnts, affwding meat and drink to the crews, 
and known to be a constant sea-stock in such cases, 
driven from the coast of Sumatra in the height of 
the NE. moosocMi, would in due course be carried 
into the SE. trade wind, and going wiUi a flowing 
sheet bdbre the wind {the onlv course she could 
pacme), would be earned to the shore of Mada- 
f^ascar in a shorter time and with more safety than 
BoLrht at first be imagined. 

SiM^ is a brief and necessarily imperfect account 
of the races of men inhabiting Africa. The sub- 
ject ia indeed full of difficulty; not only from its 
extent, variety, and complexity, but also from 
the imperfect information, and indeed in most 
cases tl^ entire ignorance, which exists rqi^ding 
it. The number of different nations, and even of 
dietinct languages, is proportional to the barbarism 
of the people; and there is no quarter of the globe, 
America excepted, in which the number of lx>th is 
lo great. 

Tboe are no accurate means by which to form 
an estimate of the population of Africa, the calcula- 
tioan varying between 60,000,000 and 100,000,000. 
Pnjbably the mean of these, namely 80 millions, 
accepted by Ritter and other eminent geographers, 
will be nearest the truth. 

AmmdU of Africa, — ^These, at its northern ex- 
tmnity, where it approaches Europe, and at its 
eauiem, where it approaches, or rather joins, Asia, 
are generally the same as those of these two por- 
tir^is of the globe; but throughout its greater part 
t>iev are not only different from the European and 
Afncan spedea, but equally also from the animals 
(if the two po^ons of America, and from those of 
the Oceanic continent and islands. We shall con- 
fmt €nn observations chiefly to those more imme- 
diately sabservient to the uses of man. 

Of 1,270 Imown impedes of terrestrial Manunalia 
there have been discovered in Africa, although 
axire imperfectly explored than any other portion 
of t»»e gl<ibe, no fewer than 290, of which 242 
peculiar to this continent. Of the Quadru- 

■mo, cnmpcehending apes, mcmkeys, and lemurs, 


there are 55 spedes, of which 48 are peculiar 
to it; not one of them bdng identical with the 
spedes found in Asia or America. One of the 
most remarkable of the whole tribe is the Simia 
troglodyteif or chimpanzee, which, after a careful 
anatomical comparison with the orung utan of 
Borneo, is now considered to make in physical 
formation a nearer approach to man than the lat- 
ter, while it is unquestionably more lively and 
intelligent. Another curious specimen of the 
Troglodyte* is the nthiewMnbormi, or nest-making 
ape, of which M. Du ChaiUu gives an account in 
his travels, and which constructs for itself a house 
of leafy branches in lonely forest trees, always 
choosing a tree which stands a little apart from 
others. The Kooloo-^niba is another enpedes of 
Afncan ape. But the most wonderful ot all this 
great family is the Gorilla, M. Du Chaillu thus 
describes a meeting with one of these monsters: — 
' He stood about a dozen yards from us, and was 
a sight I think I shall never forget. Nearly six 
feet high (he proved four inches snorter), widi im- 
mense oodv, huge chest, and great muscular arms, 
with fiercely-glaring large deep gray eyes, and a 
hellish expression of face, which seemed to mo 
like some nightmare vision : thus stood before us 
this kins of the African forest. He was not afraid 
of us. He stood there, and beat his breast with 
his huge fists till it resounded like an immense 
bass dnim, which is their mode of offering de- 
fiance, meantime giving vent to roar after roar.* 
Of the Cheiroptera, or bats, Uiere are 30 species in 
Africa, 4 of which only are common to it with 
Europe and Asia. The carnivorous animals of 
Africa are 66 in number, of which 14 only are 
found in other parts of the world. The most re- 
markable of these is the lion, which is known 
historically to have once existed in the east of 
Europe and west of Asia. With the exception of 
an inferior variety found in some parts of northern 
Hindostan, this animal, so renowned in the fable, 
poetry, painting, and sculpture of almost ever^ 
nation of the old world, from China to Spain, is 
now confined to Africa (Leonum arida nutrix); 
which it ranges from its N. to its S. extremity. 
Panthers, leopards, and many small spedes of 
the feline race also exist; and the cat nas been 
domesticated, though it be much more rarely 
found in this state tnan in Europe, Asia, or even 

Of the Canine family, Africa contains the dog, 
wolf, fox, lackal, and hyena. The dog has not 
been found there in the wild state, but many 
varieties exist in a seroi-domesticatcd condition, 
living in troops in the towns and villages, as it 
does in almost all the countries of Asia. The 
Africans have never, that we are aware of, used 
it for food or labour, or even for the chase. 
Jackals and foxes are numcnjus. Africa may bo 
considered the peculiar country of the hyena; 
for of four existing species one only, belonging 
to Hindostan, is found out of its limits. Of the 
Fiwrrra, or dvets, several species exist in Africa; 
among which is the true avet cat, domesticated 
by the natives to produce civet; and a species of 
the Mongoos, viz. the celebrated Ichneumon, or 
rat of Pharoah. Of bears, which dthcr still exist, 
or are knovm to have existed, in almost every 
country of Europe, Asia, and America, no example 
hasyet been found in Africa. 

Tne Marsupial order of animals, or that of 
which the females have a double womb, is wholly 
wanting in Africa, as it is in Euwpe and con- 
tinent^ Asia. Of the Rodent Mammalia, or 
gnawers, Africa yiekls many species of rats, 
squirrols, and four or live f«[M»cieH of hare; wliile 
the rabbit is thought to have been orijanally 



brought to Europe through Spain from the Af- 
rican coast of the Mediterranean. The Pachy- 
dermatay or thick-Mnned order, is very abundant; 
more so indeed than in any other part of the 
world. We find among these the horse, ass, 
zebra, dow, and quagga; the elephant, rhino- 
ceros, hippopotamus, common hog, and lingallo 
or African boar. Although the horse cannot bo 
asserted to be a native of Africa, n(»t being found 
in the wild state, it has been domesticated there 
from the earliest ages of history. The Numi- 
dians had their cavalry when the Romans first 
became acquainted with them; and the horse 
does not appear to have been a stranger even 
to the anaent Egyptians; though among the 
mummies of quadnipeds found in the catacombs 
that of this animal does not appear. The most 
improved of the negro triljes possess the horse, 
and have often a numerous cavalry; but^ like 
Asiatics, generally, the Africans do not apply the 
horse to draught or burthen, and confine its use 
t4> war or pleasure. When the Arabs conquered 
Egypt and northern Asia, they introduced their 
own breed, which, mixed in some degree with 
the native one, constitutes the l)ari) and Egyptian 
horse — little inferior to the pure Arabian blood 
itself. The Dutch and English introduced into 
the colony, at the soutliem extremity of the 
continent, their respective national breeds; and 
the soil and climate of Africa being found gene- 
rally congenial to the constitution of the liorse. 
it has thriven and multiplied there as scarcely 
anvwhere else. 

^e asH is most probably not a native of Africa, 
or we should still, in a crtuntry so little occupied 
by man, find it in its wild state, as we do in so 
many countries of Asia. It has, however, been 
introduced into Egj'pt and Bari)ar\% — poswibly by 
the Arabs, — and thrives extremely well in both. 
The zebra, the dow, and the cjuagga, quadni])eds 
pec'idiar to Africji, and lieautifnl, at least as to 
colour, are found in troops all over itn arid i)lains 
and deserts. Hut from a natural ind<»cility or 
waywardness of temi)er, or fn>m the unskilfulness 
of the African people, — ^probably, indeeil, fn>m 
both causes, — and the p>asession of the horse and 
ass, they have never been tamed and a[)plied to 
economical uses. 

Kuminating animals are not less abundant than 
the Pachydermata, Of the 157 species of those 
which are ascertained to exist, 73 are found in 
Africa; and, with the exception of 10, all of them 
are peculiar to it. The dromedary, or single- 
himiped camel, is now abundant in all the dry 
parts of Africa, and is the principal lx?ast of 
Durthen. In the earliest portion of scriptural his- 
tory it is mentioned as lieing employed in carry- 
ing on the trade 1>etween S^iia, Arabia, and 
Eg>'pt, and therefore it is fairly concluded that 
it was well known to the ancient Egyptians. It 
is also found sculptured on some of the earliest 
Egyptian architectural monuments. Egypt, how- 
ever, from position, physical character, and civi- 
lisation, was always more an Asiatic than an 
African country ; and from the fact of the camel's 
existing there, its general diffusion over the 
country cannot be inferred. It does not appear to 
have been known in the portion of Africa lying 
along the coast of the Mediterranean during its 
possession by the Romans ; and it seems not im- 
probable, therefore, as some have conjectured, that 
Its general diffusion over the continent was the 
work of the Arabs^ after their adoption of the 
Mohammedan religion in the 7th century. The 
Giraffe, known to the Romans, and used in their 
games, is exclusively an inhabitant of the dry 
parts of Africa. Notwithstanding its size, strength, 

and gentleneana, it has never been applied, in iti 
domesticated state, to any useful purpose of man ; 
and from its eccentrk and awkward form of move- 
ment, is probably unfit for any. 

Homed cattle, or oxen, of man^ yarietiea, ore 
general among all the more civilised tribes of 
Africa; and in Egypt the existence of the ox 
is coeval with the earliest records of the ommtry. 
Mummies of this animal have been found in the 
catacombs, rapposed to be not leas than three 
thousand years old. Whether the original stock 
was imported or was indigenous, cannot be ascer- 
tained; but most probably the latter, for the 
common ox in the wild state is not known to ex- 
ist in any part of this continent as it does in many 
parts of Xsia and its islands, and as it is known 
once to have done in Europe. The bufialo {Bot 
hubalua) has been naturalised in Egypt since the 
middle ages, having been intniduced from India 
through the conquests of the Arabs. One species 
of the ox family only is ascertained to be indi- 
genous to Africa, and is T)eculiar to its southern 
extreroitv. This is the ouffalo of the Cape, or 
Bos Cajfer ; an animal of great size and fercK*ity, 
which has never been tamed, and is probably un- 
tam cable. 

Sheep and goats exist throughout all the drier 
parts of the continent ; but neither are found in 
the wild state, and have proliably been intn>- 
duce<L The prevalent variety of the first is that 
with the fat tail, of from 10 to 80 pounds weight, 
the same which is so general in Pervia, Arabia, 
and Tartary; and wliich, though long looked 
upon OS a rarity and a moiistmsity, is probably 
as extensively diffused over the globe as the 
variety more familiar to us. The wo<»l and flesh 
of the fat-tailed sheep are greatly inferior to those 
of our own bree<l ; but the flesh of the lamb is 
thought to be superior. There are said to be but 
two s{>ecies of deer— -one of which is the common 
fallow deer— exih'tiiig in this continent, and tliese 
are confined to the countries Ixinlering the Me<li- 
tormncan. This is compensated by the existence 
of n(»t less than 00 ^>ecies of antelo|)e, all peculiar 
to it; a number far exceeding that of the genus 
fdiund in every other part of the world. Some of 
the species, as the gazelle, do not exceed a foot 
and a half high, and are remarkable for the beauty 
and gracefulness of their form. Others are equal 
in size to a large ass or zebre ; as the gnu, which 
has the Ixxly, tail, and paces of a horse. The 
most numerous epecies is perhaps the springbok; 
which, in the wide plains of soutliem Africa, is 
said Xa> be found in henis of 10,000, or even 5(),tH>0. 
Not one of the whole family has ever l>een do- 
mesticated for the pur|)oses of AkhI or laU^ur by 
the natives, as the rein and fallow deer have been 
in Europe. 

The elephant is found in all the wooded and 
low parts of Africa, from the northern limits of 
the great desert to the southern cape ; and gene- 
rally in greater numbers than any where else in 
the world, if we except Ceylon and the countries 
lying between Ilindostan and China. The African 
elephant difl*ers, specifically, from the Asiatic 
The crown of the trnith is marked by a lozenge 
instead of riblnm stripes ; the hind foot has thrte 
toes instead of /Jmr; the forehead b convex in- 
stead of concave, and the ears are longer. In 
point of size, general form, sagacity, and docility, 
there is probably no great difference. No native 
African people, that we are aware of, ever tame<l 
the elephant. When an African is told that this 
is <lone in the East, he is as incredulous as a 
European would lie if an African t«»l<l him that 
his countr>'men tamed the hipp(>|K>tainus, and 
ui»ed it as a beast of burden. The only hint we 



have Been that sach a thing may be, Is given by 
Mr. Campbell, the African travdler, who informs 
OS that he was told by a people of the interior 
vhom he enoountered, that another people more 
advanced in civilisation than themselves, the Ma- 
hala»ley, 'wear clothes, rkk on elephants, climb 
into thor houses, and are gods.* That the ele- 
I^ants used by the Carthaginians were of the 
African species there cannot, we think, be the 
le»ft question. One of the conditions of the treaty 
fififved upon them bv the Romans after the battle 
of ZamA implies thu clearly enough. They were 
to surrender all the elepliants which they had 
tamed, and to tame no more for the future. Livy's 
account is : — * Perfugas, fugitivosque, et captivos 
omnes redderent Romanis, et naves rostratas, pneter 
dcoem triremes tnderent, elephantosque, ^uo» Aa- 
bemt donUttM; »eque domarent alios.* — (Livy, lib. 
XXX. c 37.) The elephants of Pyrrhus were, no 
(knibt, Asiatic, and received through the Mace- 
ddfiian oraiqnests. His invanon of Italv was but 
47 yean after the Indian invasion of Alexander ; 
and therefore, considering the long age of the 
elephant, the v«rv individual animals in the army 
tji Pyrrhus may Lave been the same which Alex- 
ander hniught from the banks of the Indus. The 
Carthaginians being of an Asiatic, and not an 
African irtock, form no exception to our previous 
nrmark. The Egyptians, the only people of 
Africa fmm whose ingenuity we might have 
liMked for the domestication of the elephant, had 
ni>ne to tame; nor was their highly cultivated 
cimntry well suited for their use, if they had. As 
a ctmtirast to the Africans, it may be observed, 
that there is no people of Asia whose country pro- 
duces the elephant by whom it has not been 
d<iroc«iticated and used as a beast of burden, from 
the Hindoos, the most civilise<l, to the Malays, 
the k«st so. The Africans consider the elephant 
cinly as a beast of chase, and hunt it for its ivory, 
its tie»h, and its hide ; and the herds are so nume- 
nms, and the population so scanty, that the supply, 
Areoffding to present circumstances, appears for all 
firactical purposes inexhaustible. 

The two-homed rhinoceros, of a different 8])ecies 
frim the two-homed rhinoceros of Sumatra, inha- 
tiits the same localities as the elephant, and is 
honied with the same avidity by the natives for 
its t^ngh and thick hide and its homs. Traces for 
ox-hameM, but above all shields, are made of the 
former, which are in repute throughout all eastern 
cnuntries: and the latter are us^ for their sup- 
fmieed medical virtues, and are a r^^lar object of 
traffic It may be observed of this species of rhi- 
wtcfTtm, as well as of the two which belong to 
Intiia and its islan<ls, that their docUity and capa- 
city ftir domestication are not inferior to those of 
the elephant itself. The slow and slup^h move- 
ments of this animal make it, notwithstanding 
these qualities and its great strength, an unsuit- 
able beast of burthen, especially in countries where 
the depAiant, the ox, the buffalo, and the horse 
exist: and, consequently, it has never been ap- 
iJied to soch a purpose. 

The hippopotamus is exclusively a native of 
Africa, inhabiting the rivers and fronh-water lakes 
of the whole continent, from the southern confines 
t4 the Sahara nearly to the extreme cape. It was 
veil known to the Greeks and Romans as an in- 
habitant of the Nile ; fmm which, however, it has 
fryw disappeared e^'eiywheie below the third cata- 
nrC In the rivers and lakes of tmpical Africa it 
mH exists in undiminished numbers, being from 
iu locality difficult to come at by the hunter. 

The ooromon hog, in the wild state, is said to be 
ffKmd at the two extremities of the continent, 
it approacfaea Europe and Asia, viz. Bar- 

bary and Egypt; but there is no evidence of the 
existence, anywhere else in Africa, of this animal, 
which was at one time general throughout Europe, 
and is still general throughout Asia and its la^ 
islands. Its place seems to be taken by the lingal- 
lo, or masked boar. This animal, which has teeth 
of a formation and growth resembling those of the 
elephant, and a large pendulous protuberance sup- 
ported by a bony process on each cheek, giving it 
a hideous appearance, is not only found on the 
continent, but in Madagascar and the Canary Is- 
lands. It has never been domesticated, but the 
common hog has to a limited extent. 

ITie native Ornithology of Africa docs not pre- 
sent the same number of subjects subservient to 
man as that of Asia, or even of America. The 
common fowl, g(M>sc, and duck are all of them 
probably strangers, and there is no doubt that this 
IS the case with at least the first. They arc bred 
by the native inhabitants, but only to a very 
mnited extent The only bird which Africa has 
contributed to the poultry-yard is the Guinea hen : 
of this genus there are four or five species found 
abundantly on the western coast and its islands. 
The bird, as its Latin name, Numida, implies, was 
known to the Romans, and bred by them. Most 
probably they received it domesticated from the 
Carthaginians. It is very remarkable that it is 
now wholly unknown to anv African people in the 
domestic state, except as imported by European 
colonists — ^a singular proof of apathy and diilncss 
in the whole race. This bird seems to supply, in 
Africa, the place of the common fowl of Europe, 
the peacocks and pheasants of Asia, and the tur- 
keys and alectros of America. The ostrich, which 
once extended to the nearest parts of Asia, is now 
confined to Africa ; and the Arabs aro said to have 
introduced the practice of breeding them in the 
domestic state, in onler to obtain their feathers in 
greater perfection. Of our summer birds of pas- 
sage many pass their winters in Africa ; as the 
cuckoo and nightingale^ some swallows, and the 
common quail and land-raiL The cheerful and 
active period of their lives, therefore, is passed 
amon^ us, and the note of the cuckoo and song of 
the nightingale arc whollv unknown to the people 
of Africa. The woo<Ls of tropical Africa aliound 
with birds of the parrot family, from those wliich 
are no bigger than a lark to some which are 
equal in size to a large falcon. As iu South 
America, the Indian Islands, and Australia, they 
are remarkable for the variety and brilliancy of 
their plumage, their dissonant and incessant notes, 
and their utter inutility to man. Proportional to 
the number of graminivorous and frugivorous birds, 
and of wild mammals and roptiles, is that of eagles, 
hawks, vultures, and other birds of prey. 

Among reptiles are to be found a great variety 
of the lizard family, from the chameleon up to the 
crocodile ; and of snakes ^a few poisonous, but the 
greater number harmless), some species not ex- 
ceeding a few inches long, up to the python, 
which measures 30 feet in length. All the species 
of this class differ from those of Asia and America, 
not to say of Europe, or the Indian Islands, or 
Australia. Africa, of course, abounds in the insect 
tribe. Of these the bee alone is directly useful to 
man, but has never been domesticated by the 
Africans. Africa yields no useful insect such as 
the kermes of Europe and Western Asia, the lac 
of Eastern Asia, or the cochineal of South 

Plants of Africa,— 'In reference to its Flora, 
Africa may be dividetl into three districts, namely, 
the Atlantic, the Equinoctial, and the Austral re- 
gion. A fourth may be added in the princi|)al 
ulanda on its western and eastem sides, viz. the 



CniiniiiM mill Minlnf/imrnr, uriili tlir MniiriliitK iiikI ' Indinn nrrhipcliip^. Dut fTcncrallr Imth hprc oiid 
IWiiiiIhiii. 'I'lif iihinin III llii* Mfiliicrmiii'mi in I htiirl Mm and tiio Mauritius, Uie Flora u peculiar 

ilinn lllilii III iioiliiii^ Irnnt IIkhm' nf llic n]i|N)t«it4'. 
hImmii III AimIiiIiinIii. Wlii'iil, linili'v. iiini/ts rice, 
liiii »iiii|M', ihi* 11^, iill\i\ niMl iliilr, UN well iih th(! 
nil Inn |iliiitl, I III I VI' UvTt* ill iNTli'i'tiiiii. It Ih imt 
uiilll Hii rrmli iti liir Miiith at !'<>'] it| tlml tlu^ 
MiHii iiniiMitrn n rliiinirliT itiliTiiUMlintiMiN it w<*r<', 
Ih<iui«i-ii l':iiiii|ti«uii mill 'rrniiirnl ; niiil lirns to llio 
|ilfitiln nlirmK iMniiiirrttliHl, iiiiiy In* iiiIiUmI tho 

and liNTal. 

IMigion. — Foticimn, or the wowhi|> of natural 
fihJtH'tii, animato or inanimate, is, in ita most 
iU'f^^lin^ and offensive fi»rm, the reli^on of the 
^'Uter nunilier of the inhabitanta of Africa, bcin^; 
pn»fesflod by almost all the Ne^nies, and by ncariy 
nil the nntiven of Mada(:aM.*ar. Tliey appear 
^■nerally to admit a p^ckkI and on evil priori] »1o, 
nit/i.ii iniir, fill Inn, iiidi^i'. and n>nit«. In rp|NT ' have their lucky and unlucky days; and their 

I -i\\|i|, Nutuit, and \liv)«i«tiiln, i«o linvo a hhuu^ 
i\lirii iHiiiliar M'Krlrtliiin ; and hen* we timl the 
iiitK iiii, wiiirti |ii-iHluro^iini anduc, nml the niwtJKJt, 
whli'h ,\lidd Ihi^ tiiiHliciurtl m^nna. In AbyHHinia 
tliii Hp|N*Ai^ I hit Sciirtnun«Hiu« laniily of plantm 

pricHtH claim the pt>wer of preserving men and 
nnimaUi ironi the intluenoe of e\'il apirita. Several 
of these natiiini* have a national and supreme jfe- 
tii^hr: the piMple called Ouidah or Widalu for in- 
Htantv, worship the serpent, an order of priests and 

llio nA^%^^^ witirh In I ho I'hM > icliN ^in^er. tunnt^ , pri(>sit«iiM*s Wxixfi set a}Uirt to mini^^ter to this rep- 
I If. i«u 1 0(ii\lHii«i>nia. rito (NtlVitt plant Mill ^nm-jt ■ tile. The Hissa^>s worship the cock; and the 
wild III I ho initio ivi;iitn, nhu'h i!t uidi'etl nupimmnl triU^s on the Hi^ht of Renin, who rp|*anl their 
h* U^ Ht ifkiiM* louiiiiA. I own shadow as a ftticke^ have a lizani for their 

lu ili«t ri)iinuviii«l jvirl »»f \lri*'a a ti»lally new ■ princi|>Al divinity/ Other trilies wixpship allipH 
^tyvt.-iiioit pivM'ol^ it-M-ll, vniiivlx dtlTtTtn^ InMU (itry, hyt'n»s h^M*^^^^ ^^** • and in sitme instances 
Ih.ii i>t tui\>|v. and :ili«i«>'^i tipiallv m* tn^nt {hiM«* iinmoUtc to thorn human victim.*. Tlie Arrows, 
I'l ii\>|'tf.«l Vm.» •••nd Vioi'iu-a. l*tic ^>»n'*picu.Mi^ who n^sido ncir the j*'URVS of the Nile in Al»y»- 
l%«i^\*i ti>v i»l >; M«t\ h»'wc\%T. I ho ii>*m\ir >ini.i, have, with lo*« aiwinlity than mti«t otliers, 
^\*f-.><<Hi'<i«« i« «N>iioiion to ihf thixv \Nmt:ucni.>. fr\*m tttne immom<-ria\ e^t-rv^l Mcri!ioc« t<) th« 
Vofilut U'»\v»l tuv ot \!<*! iim4;i\i*.Mdc. tho lvii>lv%U c»** of that river. The narrative vf the Munr 
«>i 4.v.i«*->«t^«. t««ii)4^NM«l lo .*rt,';:\l o\ami'U'*ot t?:c Svdv Hanuil n':«^XTs tho ir.haSiiants of \Va*- 
okU-'<t luiMx '.»»^.i!".',\d n*.«iu-i »•« »*iir j;..'Jv; *♦•!««* !^«::Ah a;:.', -ii'mo rh'v* .-f Nu.-i^ aa^l of other 
>4sMiitoov ^\ iviiuiv.';^ t!io iv.itrVi ot iho:r *^•!»- ^\nr.?:ros ir. the rvc*."" of tlw Ntie an>i the inie- 
*v«u*\- -ovU^N-uv \'»i"v*tx>l a: •.•.\»t Kr»* >ojir* ri »r . r* .V'r..-a. a* w .•r^V.-yr^rs of :he m.-'n: anil 
s-k'. \*w V'it,\»" s\*W. o'- t\.\*N. wiiv**, ^•••vHfT'. i* iSx<o o>•c':^:t•.'•Jl■.* to Ca:* >l**rj»*^ in '^riJnea as 

Us.. V.N.*', i'.'-*\v *'.*x '.xs, \v'*. I'' wi AM.-vr'.A:' o«.*.. '.'* vvrcjn'. :r;vr* ar.-: *:.■:*■*#» :h- si- ••c. ar.-i *«-<ne "f 

w sV/" •■•%%* I".' "«■ •-•."««.■•■ •■: \>:4 A".'.l \""r-rv.i. ^ 
w'».V"..'»" \* V '.'•.■<. \^*-.^.' ■•..* •'»•.': :! v> : Mr'.i-r 
.4 ■ V X \ .tv«.i • i '. > .' ^ v» N '* v.t« ■- » ."*,>%■ ■.•*:.■ *■•-■»• ^i" z, 
IV V .v. ■ ...v.-it .'i •,'>\'ts .>.V. l\-^'. ' -I* a**".-* 
^ ^v%iL' ■<«»,• i ".x-,. h:. . « ■ "• \ • ^ H •» •. '^. *.-•*•.•■'■.'-. >•.' 

■fcarik Sr-^!;~v* zT-i N-^jr^*^ 

ill -Is 


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li«ii -i iili* «•* li ii: -;• -I ii'iliia 'j; >r.'l> • ' *i 'i- 

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■U >.»»'l, >i ■►.IJtl l»lli. ■'« KV"' '* tl '1 ..•.'«. - 

■.•••«.•>..• :.i%/'imm. . I* II* »li%- - t,'i-ii . 'IV •-■1 ■•l|iti> 

t. tH •t'.ti.i*'**-- >« li.'ttliiiii 1 ici'il 'Ir 'lint'. 

1 •■.■•«. . mil ^1 v:*! Mi'ii ."ij -.M v'l /'iiH . 

\'U ■1.1 ici'tl . » 1.11 I V.liii'i-1, ,'» rt"* ll.*. I- 

li'ii. » It li I !►>.>. IB* i I «■••■ IM.Ii,* >li .i>. 

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• iii'iti'ii. * tirt I .'n I ■ v,» iM :• ll 
.iilt>>il;^ >«>4,<l(l.«l'* (•III :1%>I I 
■t !l\ «■ l"i. Kll *1 MI'IV, -'ll l\-U*'.'*<l UIUI 

I. I 



iK»i I k.o»»ln^'A. In 'LufM-'ii s>. >mi'-. 

Ui*. UmIh* ll\ ^ ".i III* I ■l:lWi4» HI". Ml •:•■- 

■V •iJUllS^ ..•'IM'Mil^ «:ill Hl*cU <i*ir-'«« Mf. '.4V'l> 

»• IK Wi.iSfclUi' I II* *ttii*. ' 'ix. ,i:»*>«.i*- u*- 

ll IK M>^i^rr ^iir- noi t!*: *>*i>»c^ • f ••-("•» 

ll 1^- . UmC^ l>«aAi^k< IK 'ib'ni.*«i«- u^ I ^ 

t|^ tt^ (». -*niwrnt saot 'ul«iv»- ••uruf'rii i ^;''i*..i« 

!:•■■. *>:. S-::".> ^vcv >";."7.r,->*;«* -. • -••;*«. .c '^r^- lar.k.4 
■:" >•.' S-LTk •■: -!;•? '..r.-fr.' c f .V-r-j.-a. iv. j wiib 
y -.r •• v.JL * "iC" ■ ■*•"«» 1.-' * n^^'' cr-^ ■.!< J',r«'T<ian, 
.r -^ 'i.c '*t? /i- r asja-T. <ur"iif^ rs* F^T^T^anas 
"M'v 1 i .•■■•. t 'J.':r^-rr'"*c. "v^i nr-L* m» '^.-' cc-<«t 
■•.'.■ir"jL:*. ■i.TMnao' t;". fC :>h 'trrc- Ai I**j-<jni- 
*a, .• .•• ?? ri. .• ;..'ri"j» -.••'Cf > i Tiaii i:» rv:lr. the 
■*:-^ p* ■%'*.i-i '*;»ii'i''^ -■ - iH ■": ■"■^».i r t' 1 r. «ir- 
>.• "ii .■* i'f 71I''*'*'. * ■••■ I" Ti'i^ ~ ■ i£ ' • K~~IS.'* ■*■?.->, 

»i i.^'i -•■.i'l-^: ! y • >';ulru > I ""r :i n TT:*. i.i:h — 
- !i.' ■.".ip-siifv?'. V ll ii:us \ ii":.'Tv:-. M ■i-.'or.-, titii I ^i-r i:i;'Mki> .'I "i.-ixi "tiff^ \ irTr"ii. ".ise 
ij.i.' - — !•«'*. IT 1"^ jvM.T". mil' ■. •:• liUT" •«-<«:•!: r- 
*si • ll"* ii' ll f^itif •m«'i»« II niiniiii suTTir^rci* : 
III* »• ii.^'i I ui )i.'>4iii:iMii* ii>!'i •4i".i r. iT" sii'i 

■' 'I- iMiiii^iirx Sii '1 If*' -■It" i:*- ;i:r'i, r,"'i^r""L*;- •■&* 

■I » li!.tl>4r'li ".■•: util UH.I" 'lii-i.'i THO a* ^A- 

i III '11^ ti-M.' i::;'i'i]«« InniiUi -sji •Tili'^'N. li?:> rj- 

■IV. '■ 1. I »!■ 'I • Iwi " ;'i '■ 'H,'" 111 ■.Tf u'V«--ri-- 
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!'iii :»i '.m- ■ '4s4".r^- i lines' «»■ i ~' il.".^ 
•>!. '-• . ^■:-":*.i" ■. lo rii-' -:.A.z 
:i- :!'. : •. -r. •.«. ii .. inmi-i;iri ir. 
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- ■•- -'• '■.fT::^ ;ii' iiU'r*"!^ ;•*- 

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'•* ' !' -.'.n- ■?* 'I nai£:iii£ '.jri 

■jn^.ii I-'-, iiti miuii**ir» jH 3* 

■.11:. :' :•.,■.,«* ll inpi-'Hn;; 

ll? ',-.\ - -..■:» ■ u'r;- ^.. j.-. nuni-i im ..T 

iM*».i».. I • • ': .-i, J- J— •— |ii. -:*^-uy,r^ 

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llv-.ll •. » II 

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•=** -I avi 111- -H - 

)ded in inadMn tima on mme pointi of 
u cnagt, wlicrc Clirulianiry is profemol, 
ledBiusm pnvaib in all Ihe cnuntri«i of 
N devoted U> Fetii^um and idnlairy. It 
widely diffused, having eiteniied itaelf 
whole of lUrijar}-, l^yt, yuliia, 4c. 
g vtateaed by a rontiidpr&ble number oj 
Hvuccd Xi^^ nalioriB. Itji inlroduo 
b*«n, perbaps, the ^EreateKt bnnn evei 
OD Africai, ami ha:! tended materially tr 

the habita and m<rrab of the prnplt 
. tbe (Hily Tefltfj^ifled eode in nuni 
d, what 'is sin(;iilaT, the Arabic is 
■nHf;huaI Africa, irith tlio exception oT 
I, the l>ii)tuaec uwil bv auch or the na- 
ntber read ur write, ft waa intmdiiced 
at age of the Hef^n. and baa participnied 
! in the impruvvnivnt^ thai hare since 
de upon it in Ami. Arahic hu been for 
ituiiefi Ihv lantfuiKe of Ihe Cujita uide- 
■ of Ihe andeiit J^-vpiini 

n AhvHxi 


ltd the prievu are iw if^n-inuii. siiu nuriii- 
in well be imai^ned. With Ihe oxcepticm 
■pe Colony. Ihe seats of Christianity in 

iet ; but a cunsiilriable nnml>eT of Cbris- 
TSrious deiiominaliiins. and <if Jews, are 
coantries where Muhammetlatiism and 

■ra preralenl. 

a^. — ttaibi has pven a classification of 
I* of Africa HTfirdini; to their ]anf^a^:ea. 
it WIS impiisnMe to have selected a worse 
, We know Utile, unci somelitnes literally 

of the |ieti|de in some very extensive 
>, lod if II lie possible we linow elill U»» 
bnpiace*. Onr kn>iwleclf(e of Ihe latter 

in mioi instances exceediiiRly im|ierfect ; 
my clAMAcation of ihe peuple bottomed 

■ the vernacular idiom of the Barfaoiy 
he Sanf^ is used in Guinea; and Ibe 
> lubif, Ac bear Ihe nMneii of Ibe people 
I thev lie sjukcD. The Ambounila is tlie 
I of all Ibe tribea between Ihe Confro and 
\ of Mnmnhique. As was lu be cxppcied 
bw state of c»-ilisalinn nf those by whom 
oMd, thnw lanKuOKes arc alt misorablv 
Iw Rwler will tind in the article Abvssiuui 
comt of Ihe buipuace of that eint^lar 
ftbc.VricancimiinenU gpcokinu of the 
) of Ihe tribes uf the south, l>r. Livinic- 
ya: 'The structure, or we mav say Ihe 
S of Ibe ilialvcU of Coffre, Itohuana. Ba- 
■mtiw, llaloka, Bat'in^.'a or [leofile of the 
, Uasbora. Babisa. the nccnies of Souda, 
■nd people of Ihe West ciwt, are wondcr- 
X. A tneat pmportii'n of llie mot is iiten- 
"• ■" It r^^liuly d«-eloped of all 

le dialivC 

e Iteclini 

± Ibe DiUe is now nearly all 
tta Ianpia|:e is the most sonorrHia and 
of all the languat^ of NeKrohtncI, hut 
kally defective. The Kauiri is very rich 
atttic fiimw. A complete i^rammar and 
f id the Demora tonf:ue baa now been 
tbe Kbeniah missionarien, 
laear. — Most forms of f^ivemmrnl may 

:e the reader's 

({TealeF or less extent in Uie rif(hta of aoTeniRnty, 

and in some Hiey are occaaioiially (hareii by Ihe 
people. Some large ilatea consist of a kind of 
confederacj- of petty chiefs, who, however, are very 
frequently at war with each other. In fact, with 
but few eiceptioris, slavey and anarchy reign tri- 
umphant throuchoHt Africa. And it would be to 
no purpose, even if we were aocurately informed 

as to the diiwrqnncies in the fo — " "' " — '""* 

established in dilTerent parts, to 

time by detailliif; in what res| 

and i^neially tluctuatini; system of government 

diffeml fnim anolher. Since the year lHu3, when 

the privilege of self-KOvemment was accorded to 

the colony uf the Cape of Good Hope, the tm' 

Kv-ement in ita development and resources has 
n moet conspicuous. Algeria, liio, has to tie 
reckoned as pnssessinfc a civilis«l government, an 
well >a the other colonies on the African coast 
possessed Ijy France, Brilain, and Portugal ; while 
of Isle years, in KpypI, some apfiroaches have been 
made lo European models, with the advantago of 
greatly stimulating material |>rospeiily by Ncuiing 

Imdiatry in Africa is at Ihe lowest ebb. Except 
where they are associaled with or have been iit- 
alructeil by Euro|ieans or Araln, tlie Africans havo 
maile little profrrrM in the arts. All Ihe more la- 
borious occiipalions are devolved cm females ; and 
in some parts the wives of kings or pelly girinces 
are made Is dll the land for the support of Iheir 
barbarian lorchc P^ven Ihe most neceaeary arts are 
iu an extrcmeir backward states 

Commerct, — It may appear a singular and not 
easily explained fact, thai notwilhstanding the 
low state of the arts in Africa, and the difficulties 
of Ihe c;ounlry, an extensive inten»urse has been 
ranied on, ftum Ihe remotest aniiquity, between 
very (Ustant parts of thai continent. This, no 
doubt, has been owing lo the natural productions 
in greatest demand iH'in^ confined to certain local- 
ities; and to the focililics affbtded for traverung 
Ihe vast deserts which intersect Africa by tlie 

studded ; and the employment of tbe camel, or 
sAip of du drBrrt. Salt and dates are Ibe princ^i- 
pal articles conveyed from nortbem to central 
Africa. The extensive region uf Sundan, lo the 
south of the great clesert of Sahara, is completely 
destitute of lliese valuable articlts. Itolh ot them, 
but es[iecially salt, are, however, in great demand 
in it; tbe latter being, iu many paiia, so highly 
priied and so soarec as to he employed to perfgjru 
the functions of money. This neceeeory article is 
found in various places in the desert, while dales 
arc found in the grealcst abundance all along ita 
north froQIier, tlie country aclioiniiu; In it being 
called from tbu circumstance Kledulgerid, or the 
cn*Hlrf nf iLiltM, But, though ileslitute of these 
imimnant jiriHlucts, ceiilml Africa has others; such 
as gold dust, ivciry, gums, palm cdl, fealherv, and, 
above all. ehive«,'for which there bas always been 
a readv market in itortiary and Egyiit. In conse- 
quence of this natural oibtplattun of the pmdui^ta 
of one part of the conlincnt lo sujyly the wants 
of aDotliet, an inlereoutse has subcisled amotigitt 
them from the remotest ontiqiuly. Even » early 
as Ihe days of Ilerodutiis, the mercbania engaged 
in Ihe inleiiur Irollic had penetrated as lar as the 
Xiger, or one of the rivim Mowing into lake Tchad; 
wliich the veneraldc father of liistoiy ccmeclly 
de»crilies as a ouislilemlile river beyond a sandy 
desert, which it required many days lu cmss, flowing 
easiwanU and infested wilh cMomliles ! (II. | '■ti.) 
Eg.vpt and diffi-n>nt towns in ibe S. or Itartiuy 
slaiva have always lieen, and continue to he, Ihe 
gToatsealsuf thiatrade. It ia carried on at preaciA 



w it was 3,000 yeam afco, wholly by caravans. 
ThcwG consist of an indefinite number of camcU, 
eeldom Icah than 500, and often as many art from 
I/)00 Ut 2.000, They <li» not liillow n din\'.{ muiM' 
acTi)S8 the desert from their ])oint of dei^arture to 
where they arc destined, hut tliver^ to the oa>His 
or v(*nlant f<pot.s, wliere they pn^cure water and 
refresh themselvef*. If they 1)6 disapix/mtetl in 
lindiu}; water at one of resrin^-places. or be 
overtaken by a land-Mtorm, the coiutequeueert ore 
often m(»8t disoHlnms. In li<05, a caravan pro- 
ceedin*^ fmm TinibuettN) to Tatilet, nut haNnn^ 

tortouMMihcll, anow-mot, sofico, and other con 
modities. Zaiizilriur, in lat. G° 2H" S., and Ion, 
39® 33' E., exp)rtrt jfuhl, ivory, drti;^ criir, coo<* 
nntH, ^um.s Uirs-wax, ti>rtoiiH.*-shell, sptoo, ri< 
fn>m Pemlia, seMUiie seed from Anpixo, and 
loT)^ quantity of timber. In 1818 clovtw we 
introduced uito Zanzibar, and thrive 8i» well tli 
thcv have to a frruat extent MupeiMHlud the cull 
vatnm of the 8u^r-cane. The imports uf Zani 
linr mav \» valueil at oOO.<HN>/. per annum. I^m 
in hit. i» 15' .j;," s., and hniK. 41® I' o" E., earn 

on a con.^iderable traile in hiiles, and the ex{x»T 
found water at a re?*tin{f-plac«% the whole per>«»nH i fmm Zanzibar. Urava. lat. 10 6'40" N., and Ion 
U'lonpnir to it. l>,OiH) in numlier. with aUiut I.xoo 4 |o 3' K.. 


ramelrt, {K'rished miserably ! (JacksonV Mon»cco, 
{K 331). See abvi the excellent cha])ter in Heeren, 
on the I^nd Commerce of the Cartliapnians.) 

Kxchisive of this internal cr>mmcr('e, Africa has 
rarric«l on a considerable commerce by wo, Muce 
the (liscovery of her W. ctaHtN by the I'ltrtu^juese: 
but the pn^liabiHty seemn to be, that she has lost 
more tlum she has ;^ined )iy this commerxre. 

trades loi^'ly with India and Arabi 
anil its tnule with America rapiiUy increases, 
exports, hides, bullocks, hitrses. and camels, tl 
skins of wilil animals, ami M^me other thiii<: 
IleMide the actual commerce thus p:oin^ on in K:i 
Afn<"a, M. M'Leod. t** whose * Travels in En.<itei 
Africa' we an> hidebted for thc^se details, p<iin 
out various other places in this ]>art of Afric 
which are rich in ppNluce. and admirably adaph 

Slaves Iiave lieen the staple article of ex[sirt fn)m for trade: IIm>, Melinda, Momlms, ami ijsonilja 

•iffer pvat ailvantof^es in this way, IVrliaiis e: 
o^^rated noti(»n8 liave been entertained of tl 
value of the trade and of its cofiacity uf cxtei 
sion. That it mav bv mareriallv incn^asetl is. i 
doubt, true: but the fair pn*sumptii»n seems 
b<\ that till civilisation has wrought a nulic 
chan^^e in the African character, the wants of tl 
native Africans, and their in<histr>', an* much t« 
c<»ntracled t«» admit of their ever bectnniinj extei 
sive deniaudiTs of Kuroi) pro«luce. 

Cartlui^e. the lirst maritime jstwer of antiiput 
thou;rh situntiHl in northern Africa, wa** a riueii 

the African i^roost : and in some yeor^ as many as 
110,(M)0 or 120,000 have l>een carrietl acn»ss'thc 
Atlantic. It has I>ee.n saiil, anil no dou))t truly, 
that the o[H.*nin^ of this new and vast outlet f<ir 
slaves was atlvanta^*ous ti» Afric.i, by lesseninjr 
the fxlious iiractii'e of cannilMilism, and preventing 
the immolation of the captives taken in war. liut, 
'Oiimiltin^r this, it scrnis notwittiMnmlin^ abun- 
dantly certain that the slave-tra<le has U'cn ]»ri>- 
ductive of a far ^preater amount of misery- tlian it 
has sup[>ressed. Without stopping tu inquire 
whether death miifht not W pn-fcrable to slavcr\'. 

it has miiltipli«'<l l)ie latter in no ordinnrA' d(';o^'c. ■ rian colony.and Iut fleets wen* princi|>ally raann< 
Formerly the J K'Oci.* of the (luniirv wjl* compnra- fnim her tidonies in the Metlilerruuea'n. Sin 
tively little di.sturiKxl by wars; but now a whole- the fall of this])owerful n-publio. no African |teo|i 
sale system of bri^andii^ and roblN>n- i^oI^anised I has had the >maUeiit claim to lie calhtl mariiim 
in many exteuMve districts; the bulk of tlie |H.*ople | The most a4lvance(.l natii»ns are at this moniei 
iH'iiij; huntetl down like pime by tlie|M'tiy princes, ! ami have always Ixt-n. nearly ignorant of the ii 
nndbytheMohannneibns.wlioaflK'ttolK'lii'vethat ; of shii»-buildin^. It Is to l^ur«>[)oan en^ne< 
they an* entitliNl toca|)tun>and>ell the * idolat«'rs,' I and caqK'ntera that the Pacha of K^rypt ii* i 
to Her\'e a-H Is^asts of bunh'u ill another hemi>pltere. ! debte<l for his shi|is; and everyone knows tli 
Hence it is that the suppn-sMon of occa<iional in- \ tliL* was fi»rmerly the case with the Deys of A 
stances of canniltali<ni, and of the sa^-rifice of , j^ers, Tunis. &c. In some few ]tlai.vs ilic nativ 
human victims, ha.-* lK*en su]>plantetl by a widely ! lit out a s<»rt of hirpe cutter; not. however, i 

diffusetl system <if rapine, ]mNluctive of a t<ital 
want of security, aiul subven»ive of ever\'tlnnjr 
like p^kI (;oveniment anil psKl onh'r. Until this 
state of tiling Ite totallv chan^-^l, it wouM Ik> 

the piiqiose of tnule or fishing, but to engo^j^e 

Uesides salt, to which we have already allude 
jjold ihist or tibbar and c«iwrie« are the articl 

idle to expect that civilisation slutuld make anv . principallv iismi as monev in Africa. The latti 

jiro^rcss in the countries where it exL-^ts. Its 
alMilition is iiidis|K'nsable as a pr(>liminary mea- 
sure to jrive them even a chance of emei^n;r fr<»m 
the baritarism in which they have been so Imig 

There seems to lie a r^^owmable jm>si>ei*t that 
the meritorious efft»rt8 of (;reat lintain for the 
suppression of the slave-trade will, at no verj- tlis- 

tanf iK'ricNl, be crowned with success, in so far at ; and thou«;h forliidden in Abybsini.i, the marrinj 
least as the nations of KnroiK? and America are tie is there sti sli;;ht as hanlly to h.ive any se 
conwmeiL Hut it is quite other\*-ise with the sible influence: ami morals an\ in this rY^jsvt. in 
»lave-tra<le carriiKl on fnjm the interior with the stateofahiiost total dissidutioii. That can nil mi lis 
Itarbary states, K;:vpt and Arabia. Then* are no I fonuerly existwl to a frifihtful extent in niai 
ffroumis for supisisin^ that it will l>e six'eilily »»u|)- I parts of Africa, cannot Ik» doiibte<l ; and though 
pressed: prolwibly, indeetl, it is destine<i for a while . has ^jitly dt>cliiutl, i>artly liecatise «»f the iutr 
rather to imTeose. Luckily, however, it is much diictmn of MohamineilaiiLsm, and iiartlv, ai 

a s|iecics of small shell {gathered <in the shuri's 
the Maldive islands, are u>*ed in small jkaymer 
tlirou;;hout lihidostan: but in the intcri<»r 
Africa their value is al»out ten tunes greater thi 
ill lt4'iipil. 

TTif tttcial condltum of the pwiple of Africa is 
depn«>seil as their industry and their scieiiw. Tl 
practii'e of polygamy is ilitluseil all ovct Afrir 

less extensive than tliat carrierl on fmm the \V. 
cxNUt, the entire export of slaves rarely amounting 
to so monv as 10,006 in a single year, and it is not 
aocomponied by so many disastmus results. 

Exclusivo of slaves, palm oil, gold dust, ivor\\ 
fpims, teak, timber, wax, hides, and f(>athers are 
tbe principal articles importerl into \V. Kurojie 
and America from Africa. Mozambique exports 
ivoiyy bee»-wAZy sesame SMd, orchella, coffee, 

princiijally, {teriiaits, because of the n'ady oi 
ailvantageous markets that have long l)een tipom 
in the Wwt liuliesand America for the slaves 
captives taken in war, there S4*enis t4» l»e no dou 
that it still exist •« among certain trilies. Amoi 
some consideiable nations the ex)Misun* of chi 
dren, and tlie slaughter of tht»s<» that arc* defonm 
or maimed, is not tolerated niervly, but enfonre 
In some iNirts humau blood ia 'reported to I 



mixed op with the Ume or mortar used in the 
cotwtmction of temples. And it is said to be usual 
amung the greater number of the nations on the 
coast cf Gumea for rich individuals to immolate 
human victims once in their lives to the manes of 
their (athen. (Balbi, Abi^^ p. 849, 2nd ed.) 
Atrocities like these are, however, principally con- 
fined to the least improved tribes of tne Negro 
race. Bat, speaking generally, barbarism, cruelty, 
and the most degrading superstition are univer- 
sally prevalent amon^ by far the greater number 
of the nations of Afincan origin. (See art. Ash- 

As already stated, with the exception of Egypt 
and Ab3rseinia, all the science and literature to 
be found in Africa are of Arabic origin. The 
Arabs have schools established in Cairo, Merou, 
and Darfour, in the region of the Nile; in Mo- 
niooo, Fez, Algiers, Tunis, &c., in Barbury; and 
there are schools among the Mandingos, Fou- 
lahs, Jok^s, and other Mohammedan nations 
of central Nigritia or Soudan: these are placed 
under Mohammedan teachers, and assist in dis- 
seminatingthe rudiments of Arabic learning and 
ftaenoe. The £uropean colonies at the C^)e, 
AJgiers, and varioos other places along the coast, 
have been regarded as so many centres, whence 
the language and liteniture of Europe might be 
expected gradually to ^read over the whole con- 
tinent. Hut our anticipations in this respect are 
lar from sanguine; and the presumption seems to 
be. that if barbaricsn and ignorance are not to be 
immortal, they are, at aU events, destined to a 
prolonged existence in Africa. 

Catue9 of the Inferioriiy of the Jfrictxtu, — The 
low state of the arts in Africa, and the barbarism 
that so generally prevails in it, have been va- 
riiiasly accounted tor; and, perhaps, we are yet 
with(»ut the means of coming to any satisfacturv 
€uncla«oa in regard to either matter. But it 
wc«ild seem that the first, or the low state of the 
aru. is mainly attributable to the climate, which 
sopenedes the use of many articles indispensable 
in regions more to the N. and S. Manufacturing 
in«iu9Cry is principally devoted, in European and 
Ai4atic countries, to the producrion uf articles of 
cloching; but where clothes are an incumbrance, 
anil most of the people are satisfied if they have a 
piece of coarse ccnimon cotton stufi^ to wrap round 
their middle, it would be absunl and contradictory 
to expect that this great department of manu- 
Cactanng industry, and its many dependent and 
mhetidiary arts, should make any progress. The 
agriculture, too, of the greater part of Africa is ex- 
recilingly unfavourable to the development of a 
ffiirit of enterprise and invention. The seasons 
itifiTcr bat little from each other; and in those 
tracts not condemned to perpetual sterilitv, that 
is. in the tracts watered by the periodical rains, 
or by the overfiowing of the rivers, the rudest 
hasbandry is sufficient^ the heat of the sun opera- 
ting oD the moisture of the soil being all but 
cniiagh to produce the most luxuriant crops. The 
battles, too, in tropical climates may be construc- 
ted at comparatively Uttle expense; and, except 
fur the cooking of victuals, fires would be a 
wnnaiKie, It is idle, ti)»efore, to wonder at the 
Uckward state of industry in Africa. It would 
be as reasonable to expect to find a manufactory 
of freexing machines at the North Cape, as to ex- 
pect to find extensive cloth factories in Nigritia. 
The industry of a country always bean some pro- 
tttrt'um to the wants and necessities of its in- 
haUtanta; and few comparatively gf those things 
which employ a large part of the industry of 
Eampfans hang wanted in Africa, they are but 
little pnwinoeiL 

It is true that besides the great articles now 
referred to, there are others, such as articles of 
show and ostentation, arms, and jewellery, for 
which it might be supposed the taste in Africa 
would be as strong as in Europe. But these are 
costly articles; and, in point of fact, are never 
found generally diffused in any country not distin> 

Siished by its industry. Men are not instinctively 
borious or entcrprismg. Industry is vrith them 
only a means to an end — a sacrifice they must 
pay to obtain supplies of the necessaries and con- 
veniences of human life. Wherever the sacrifice 
required to procure food, clothes, and other neces- 
sai^ accommodations is considerable, the popu- 
lation is generally industrious; and a taste for 
labour being widely diffused, those who are not 
obliged to i4)ply themselves to the production of 
necessaries, engage in the production of super- 
fluities. But wherever the principal wants of man 
may be supplied with but little exertion, indolence 
becomes the distinguishing characteristic of the 
population; and instead of employing their spare 
time in the production of articles of ostentation 
and luxury, they usually waste it in idleness and 

In addition to the circumstances now mentioned 
explanatory of the low state of the arts in Africa, 
and the barbarism prevalent in it, the Negroes 
and other African races have been supposed by 
some philosophers to be naturally inferior in 
point of intellect, and not to possess the same 
capacity for improvement as the Europeans, or 
people of the Caucasian variety. This suppo- 
sition has, however, been vehemently denied; and 
it has been contended over and over again, that 
the peculiar circumstances under which they have 
been placed sufficiently account for the condition 
of the Africans — for their want of a literature and 
their low civilisation. That great weight should 
be attached to the considerations now mentioned 
is true; but still the^ are insufficient wholly to 
account for the exustmg state of things. Egy]»t 
was, at a very remote period, the principal seat of 
science and of art; and various nations of Africa 
were in contact vrith, and had a pretty extensive 
intercourse witti, the Egv])tians, and also with 
the Phoenicians, and af'terwards the Romans. 
But they seem to have profited little or nothing 
bv this association. Aiid while Uie people of 
Greece, Asia Minor, and Magna Gnecia raised 
themselves in a comparatively brief period to 
the highest pitch of civilisation and refinement, 
the nations of Africa continue, without a so- 
litary exception, down even to the present day, 
immeriMMl in the grossest l)arbarism. Yet, during 
the space of 8,000 or 4,000 years, opportunities 
must have been afforded to some* of them to make 

With the exception of that of the ancient 
Eg^'ptians and Ethiopians, whose descent is in- 
volved in the greatest uncertainty, almost all the 
civilisation that exists in Africa seems to be of 
foreign origin. The introduction of Moham- 
medanism, though in a debased form, has, as 
previously stated, gone far to banish cannibalism 
from many countries; and some of them have 
also adopted the letters and literature of Arabia. 
But the progress they have hitherto mrnle is not 
such as to lead to any very sangume anticipations 
as to their future advancement ; and it would not, 
indeed, be very pliilosophical to suppose that those 
who liave been wholly unable to produce any 
thing original should attain to much eminence in 
tlie practice of foreign arts and sciences. 

It w unnecessary to enter into any examination 
of the vexata tpiutio^ whether the varieties of the 
human race m Africa originally sprung from 



different sonioes, or whether they all belong to 
the same stock, but chanfi^ to the state in which 
we find them by the influence of circumstances 
in the lapse of ages. Whatever conclusion may 
be come to on this point cannot in anywise affect 
the question as to tne comparative intelligence of 
the African people. The same circumstances that 
arc supposed by those who contend for the original 
identity of the races to have so greatly affected 
their appearance and physical capacities, could 
hardly fail to have an equallypowerful influence 
over their mental faculties. This in fact is sub- 
stantially admitted hyr Dr. Prichard, who has 
ably contended for their common origin, an^ the 
equality of their intellect vrith that of the other 
races, * The tribes,' says he, * in whose prevalent 
conformation the negro type is discernible in an 
exaggerated degree, are uniformly in the lowest 
stage of human society ; they are either ferocious 
savages, or stupid, sensual, and indolent. Such 
are the Pajtals, Bulloms, and other rude hordes on 
the coast of Western Guinea, and manv tril>es 
near the Slave coast, and in the Bight of^ Benin ; 
countries where the slave trade has been carried 
on to the greatest extent, and has exercised its 
usually baneful influence. On the other hand, 
wherever we hear of a Negro state, the inhabitants 
of which have attained any considerable degree of 
impn>vement in their social condition, wo con- 
stantly And that their physical characters deviate 
considerably from the strongly marked or exag- 
gerated type of the Negro. The Ashantee, the 
Sulema, the Dahomans, are exem])lincations of 
this remark. The Negroes of Guber and Hausa, 
where a considerable degree of cixilisation has 
long exi«tted, are, perhaps, the finest race of 
genuine Negroes in the whole continent, unless 
the Jolofs are to be excepted. The Jolofs have 
been a comparatively civilised people from the 
eam of their first iliscovcry by the Portuguese.' 
(Researches into the llbtbry of Man, ii. p. 338. 
3rd ed.) 

It is doubtful whether this is a perfectly correct 
statement ; but at any rate it may be worthy of 
consideration as coming from a great authority on 
questions of race. As to the nc^^ro, the new era 
opening for him in the great American republic, 
where he has been freed at such boundless expen- 
diture of European blood, must ultimately settle 
the question whether he is fit for a higher civilisa- 

Geographical and Political DiviMtons, — Africa 
has been variously di\'ided, according as one stan- 
danl or another has been adopted. Owing to the 
barbarism of the people, our ignorance of the 
different states into which the continent is di- 
vided, and the revolutions to which they are per- 
petually sul^ect, an^ distribution of the country 
founded on its political divisions would be almost 
impiMusible ; and, however accurate at the time, 
would speedily become (|uite obsolete. A letter 
method woidd be to distribute it acconling to the 
races of people by which it is principallv occupied ; 
but as these arc in parts very much blended, and 
it is sometimes no easy matter to say which pre- 
dominates, it seems, on the whole, the better way 
to distribute it according to the great natural fea- 
tures of the country; On this principle, Africa 
may be distributed as follows, beginning with the 

1, The Barhary Slates, inclndinf? the whole country N. 

of the deaert of Sahara, and W. of the 25th d<^rree 
of E. long. 

2. Sahara^ or the Great Desert. 

9. The Region of the JfiU. including Egypt* Nnbia, 

' Abyssinia, Senaar, Kordofon, and all the country 

drained by its ai&oents. 

4. Niffritia^ which may be subdivided as follows, tIx.:— ^ 

a. Soudan, or N. Kigritia, being the country to the 

8. of the Sahara and N. of the Kong moun- 
tains, watered l^ the Senegal, Gambia, Niger, 
and the rivers flowing into the great lake of 

b. Central Nigritia, being the region betwe e n tha 

Kong mountains and the N. shore of the gulfib 
of Guinea to the Bight of Biafra. 
0. Southern Nigritia, including the countries from 
the Bight of Biafra along the coast to Cape 
N^irro, and inwards to the souroos of the riven 
flowing through it to the coast. 

5. Southern Africa, or the region S. of Cape Negro on 

the W., and of the Zamt)08i river on the E. 

6. Eastern Africa^ or the region N. of Zambeid river, 

round by the sea coast to the confines of Abyiwinia 
and the Gebel-el-Komri.or Mountains of the Moon. 

7. The Island* of Africa^ including the Madeira. Canary, 

and Gape de Verde islands on the W. coast, widi 
ttiose of St. Helena, Aaoenslon, jec, and on the B. 
ooast the great island of Madngascar, the isles of 
France and Mauritius, Soootra, £c. 

Progre$$ of Discovery, — Africa, among all the 
quarters of the globe, has always been the chief 
object of curiosity and discovery. Her Mediter- 
ranean coast indeed was well known to the 
ancients, and included in their circle of civilised 
states. But her eastern and western limits, 
stretching an indefinite extent southward, long 
bafiled the attempts to reach their termination 
and that of the continent ; while immense deserts 
barred tiic access into the interior. A peculiar 
difiiculty was also found in tracing the source, 
and sometimes the termination, oi the mighty 
rivers by which its inland rc^ons are watered. 

Tyre, the earliest seat or a flourishing com- 
rncrce, might be expected to seek a route to tiie 
distant parts of Africa. In the curious account 
given by Ezekiel, Tarshish is mentioned as both 
the most remote and most important place with 
which she trafficked. The learned, however, have 
ItecTi much divided respecting its site; but the 
Tarshish to which the Tyrians sailed down the 
Mediterranean, whence they imported iron, silver, 
lead, and tin, the pn>duct8 of Spain and Britain, 
was m(»4t probably either Carthi^^e, or the S. part 
of ,8pairu Carthage made violent efforts to pro- 
vent other commercial jpowers from penetrating 
beyond Sicily, thus seeking to monopolise the ex- 
clusive trade of the remoter countries, of whose 
products her merchanta would, of course, ke<^ an 

Mention, however, is made of another route to 
Tarshish, by the Rod Sea, which has singularly 
perplexed geographers. It was opened Hy So- 
lomon, during the most prosperous period of the 
kingdom of Judsea, and aided by an alliance with 
Hmmi, king of Tpe. To reconcile these two 
voyages, M. Gosselm supposes the term to mean 
* the ocean ' as distinguished from inland seas or 
gulphs : so that one voyage was to the Atlantic, 
the other to the Indian O^an. But all the modes 
in which Tarshish is mentioned— the fare of a 
vessel thither, its merchants, its kings — seem in- 
consistent with so very vague a sense ; nor does 
there appear any room to tliink the Jews ever 
viewed the Mediterranean as an inclosed sea. We 
are disposed therefore to prefer the suggestion of 
Mr. Murray, in the Encyclopedia of Geographv, 
that the TjTians gave the name of Tarshish to the 
whole continent, of which it funned for them the 
most important part. Tarshish, in this larger 
sense, becomes nearlv synonymous with Africa ; 
the one voyage was along its northern, the otlier 
along its eastern coast 

Ophir is another country much celebrated in 
the Jewish scriptures, particuUrly for its gokl. 
Many learned men have sought it in India, 
though gold was not then ao artido of export 



from ihat ooontay, bat the contraiy; and no 
ooe staple of Indian trade is mentioned as brooght 
from Ophxr. Indeed ita poeition seems clearly 
fixed, when we find the Ked Sea voyage to Tar- 
ihijh described elsewhere as one to Oj^iir. The 
latter, then, was on the eastern coast of Africa, 
where ffold ia nowhere fonnd north of the Zam- 
bexe. Here accordingly we find Sofala, long the 
diief emporium of that liver ; and it may Im ob- 
served tnat Ophir is called in the Septuagint 
Soopbeira, while the modem Aiab term is in- 
differently Zolar or Zofoat. 

This interooorse did not survive Solomon, whose 
BDOoessors, weakened by the division of the king- 
doms, were unable to maintain it. 

Our next information is derived from Hero- 
dotos, who, dmin^ his residence in Egypt, made 
veiy careful inquiries of the priests and learned 
men. He gives a very curious report of no less 
an exploit than the entire circumnavigation of 
Africa. Necho, one of the greatest Egyptian 
princes, engaged for this purpose Phoenidan roar- 
rinens who descended the Red Sea, and having 
leached the ocean, landed, sowed a crop, reaped 
it, and renewed their vo3rage. Thus they pro- 
ceeded for two years, and in the third entered 
the Pillars of Hercules. They remarked that, in 
rounding Africa, they had the sun on the right, 
that is, <m the south, which must have been cor- 
rect. This brief relation has given rise to a mass 
ci controvexsy. rHerodotus, iv. 42; Gosselin, 
G^ographie des Anciens, i. 199-216; Bennell, 
G«*^. Herodotus, s. 24, 25.) 

Hopodotns has given a detuled account of the 
wild and wandering tribes behind the Atlas ridge, 
extending to and somewhat beyond Fezzan. — 
He adds an interesting narrative of an expedition 
to explore the interior, undertaken l^ some 
youths from the country of the Nasamones lying 
mland from Cyrene. They passed, first, a ver- 
dant and cultivated territory ; then a wild region 
filled with wild beasts ; next entered into an arid 
dnarj desert. Here, while plucking some wild 
fruits^ a party of bladL men surprised and carried 
them akmg vast marshes and lakes to a city situ- 
ated on a river flowing eastward. These last 
features, after they were within the desert, could 
not be found short of central Africa; but it is 
dodbcfnl whether their refer to Tlmbuctoo and the 
Niger, as supposed by Bennell and Heeren, or 
to the lake Tdiad, and the Yeou or river of 

Another singular drcumstanoe mentioned by 
Herodotus relates to a traffic for gold carried on 
by the Carthaginians with a people beyond the 
straits, and managed in a peculiar manner, with- 
cot the parties seeing eacn other. There is no 
gold in Afirica north of the Senegal or Niger; 
but whether the Carthaginians penetrated thither, 
or the gold was brought by natives across the 
desot, there seem no means of certainly deter- 

The records of Carthage, which would have 
thrown so mudi hfAt on ancient commerce and 
ipeogniphical knowledge, have unfortunately pe- 
iitihed. There remains only one valuable docu- 
t, the narrative of a voyage by a commander 
Hanno, sent to found colonies on the 
vcstem coast, and to push discovery as far as 
|wifi^Mf^ He is said to have carried with him 
sixty vesaels, and no less than 30,000 men, women, 
sad'diildjen. After passing the straits, he founded 
SB oteasiw e^ four colonies in convenient situa- 
tkns; tbeo aailing three days along a desert 
coast, came to Ccne, a small island in a bay. 
In ita Tidnity he Tiaited a lake, through which 
iovad A kige iif«t and another atieam inll of 

crocodiles and hippopotami. Thep, returning to 
Ceme, he sailed twdve days along the coast of 
the Ethiopians, a timid race, who fled at the ap- 
proach of strangers. His party then reached and 
sailed for several da^s along a coast, where they 
observed many strikmg objects. In one place the 
earth was so hot that it could not be trodden ; 
torrents of flame were seen to roll along it and 
rush into the sea. During the day there appeared 
only a vast forest; but in the ni^ht, the air was 
filled with the sound of musical instruments and 
of human voices. Landing on an island they 
found a singular race of bemgs, in human 8hjq)c, 
but with rough skins, losing from rock to rock 
with preternatural agility. Towards the close of 
their voyage, there appeared a very lofty moun- 
tain, seeming to reach the skies, called the Chariot 
of the Gods. 

This voyage has been the subject of elaborate 
dissertation by learned men, who have differed 
very widely as to its extent. Bougainville carries 
it to Cape Three Points on the Gold Coast, 
Rennell to Sierra Leone ; while Groeselin restricts 
it to the river Nun, in Morocco. The first space 
exceeds 8,000 miles ; the latter falls short of 700. 
The difficulties are very great ; not a single name 
coincides ; the descriptive features are too slij^ht 
to fix any one spot with precision. The penod, 
estimated only at 88 days, seems scarcely ade- 
quate to so long a voyage of discovery along an 
unknown coast. Yet the aspect of man and na- 
ture ; the Ethiopians or black races ; the gorillas, 
evidently large apes, whose form resembled the 
human; the great rivers, full of crocodiles and 
hippopotami; the conflagrations, apparently oc- 
casioned by the still prevalent custom of burning 
the grass at a certain season ; silence during the 
day, with music and gaiety in the night, — all 
these strongly suggest tropical Africa. Gosselin 
indeed maintains that the coast of Morocco, in its 
then comparatively rude state, would much more 
than now resemble the negro countries ; but this 
seems scarcely to account for all the above par- 
ticulars. (Hannonis Periplus, in HudsonVGeog. 
Gtoc Min. tom. l ; Rennell, Geo^. Herodot, sect. 
16-26; Gosselin, G^og. des Anciens, i 61-164; 
Bougainville, in Mdmoires de I'Acad^mie des In- 
scriptions, xxvi 10.) 

The Persians, who entertained an almost super- 
stitious dread of the sea, were little likely to ex- 
tend maritime knowledge. Yet Xerxes showed 
some interest in Uie subject. Having condemned 
to death Sataspes, a Persian nobleman, he was 
ponsuaded to commute the sentence to that of 
curcumnavigating Africa. Sataspes passed the 
straits, but soon terrified by the stormy ocean and 
rocky shores, he returned, and declared to hia 
sovereign that the vessel had stopped of itself, and 
could not be got forward. The monarch indig- 
nantly rejectttl this apology, and ordered the 
original sentence to be executed. The attempt 
was not renewed; and under this empire the 
knowledge of Africa seems to have on the whole 
retrograded. When Alexander sent an expedi- 
tion down the Persian gulph to seek its way into 
the Ked Sea, it returned without success ; whence 
the inference was made that no communication 

Under the Ptolemies, though they were an en- 
terprising dynasty, and a learned school of geo- 
mphy was then K>rmed, little progress Was made. 
The prevailing hypothesis oi an uninhabitable 
torrid zone at once mdicated the limited amount 
of knowledge, and tended to perpetuate it. The 
map of Eratosthenes makes Africa an irregular 
trapezium, of which the N. and S. sides were 
nearly panUely and the whole teimuiated N. of 



the equator. The coasts beyond the Straits of 
IxibraltAT and Cape Gardafui, being olMerved on 
botli sides to convo^ef were supposed to continue 
in that direction and meet A navigat^^ named 
Eudoxesp partly aided by Ptolemy Eversfetes and 
by the merchants of Cadiz, made several spirited 
attempts to perform this voyage, of which he did 
not suspect the extent ; but he returned always 
without success. 

The Komans did not much advance the know- 
ledge of interior Africa. Mela, without any ad- 
ditirmal information, adopts the system of Era- 
tosthenes, with some fanciful additions. Pliny, 
however, had access to all the information col- 
lected by the Roman chiefs and commanders. 
8cipio had sent Polybius to explore the western 
coast, which was surveyed by that officer for about 
800 miles, consequently not beyond the limits of 
Morocco. Suetonius Paulinus had penetrated into 
the rejynon of Atlas, describing its loitv and rugged 
steeps richly clothed with forests. Cndcr Vespa- 
sian, Cornelius Balbus made an expedition into 
the desert, receiving the submission of Cydamus 
(Gadamis), and Garama (Germa), but we can 
scarcely identify Boin vrith Bomou. 

Alexandria meantime, under the impulse given 
by the luxurious consumption of Home, acquired 
a great extension of commerce. She opened a 
it^ular communication with India, and also to a 
considerable extent along the eastern coast of 
Africa. Both are described in an important com- 
mercial work written in the first century, called 
the Periplus of the Erythreau Sea. The African 
course terminates at Khapta, a promontory and 
fiourishing port, the position of which, however, 
fn»m the usual causes of changed names and vague 
descnriptions, b open to controversy. Vincent lixes 
it at (juiloa, whde Gossclin mokes it Magadore^ 
not ({uite a third part of the distance fn>ra the 
ascertainecl |K>int of Ca\)e Aromata (Guardafui). 
But the former has one conH]ncuous feature; five 
successive laige estuaries, whi<rh Gossclin owns 
himself unable to find witliin his limits, but which 
actually occur a little north of Quiloa, in the 
mouths of the great river QuillimancL There 
aeems little room to hesitate therefore in fixing 
Rhapta at Quiloa. The gold of the Zambezi had 
not reached tliis port., the exiK)rts from which 
consisted only of ivory, tortoise-shell, and slaves. 
(Periplus, in 6eog. Gra^ Minor, torn. L; Gosselin, 
Cteog. des Anciens ; Vincent, Periplus of the Ery- 
threan Sea.) 

About a century after, Ptolemy published his 
geographical work, the most complete of any in 
ancient times. On the eastern coast he adils to 
that described in the Periplus an a<iditional range, 
stretching south-east fn>m Rhapta to another 
pn»montory and port calle<l Prasum ; considerably 
south-east from which lay a large island, Menu- 
thias, evidently Madagascar. According to Gos- 
selin, Prasum is Brava, while Vincent makes it 
Mozambique ; but the south-easterly direction of 
the coast seems to limit it to Cafie Delgado. This 
too would harmonise with Ptolemy's singular 
theory of a great austral continent extending Ifrom 
Prasum to the coast of the Sinse (China), thus 
making the Indian Ocean an immense inland sea. 

In regard to the W. boundary, Ptolemy's ideas 
seem by no means very precise. His graduation 
.shows an extent of cr>ast which would reach far 
into tropical Africa ; yet the Canaries are placed 
opposite to his most southern limit, which would 
thus seem scarcely to have reached beyond Mo- 
n>cco. Gossclin accuses him of having em- 
ployed the materials afi^onled l)y three different 
voyages along the same line of otast, supiMsiiig 
Ihcm to a|)ply to separate and successive parts, I 

thereby trebling its extent ; bnt we must hesitate 
in imputing to this eminent geographer an error 
so flagrant. 

On the side of central Africa, Ptolemy de- 
lineates a very extensive r^on, reaching far 
south, wliich he names Interior Lybia. It con- 
tains two spacious lakes, the Lybian and the 
Nigritian, recei\'ing the great rivers Gir and Niger, 
derived from chains of lofty mountains. A num- 
ber of cities are inserted which cannot be recog- 
nised by modem namesL But the remarkable 
ciraimstance is, that these objects appear con- 
tiguous to, and even connected with others, that 
tmequivocally belong to northern Africa. Hence 
G<«selin and other writers conclude that his in- 
terior Lybia was not central Africa, but merely 
the r^on along tlie northern borders of the desert. 
We must observe, however, that the former, de- 
scribed as a r^im of mountain, river, and lake, 
all on a great scale, bears very little resemblance 
to the desert border of northern Africa. Our im- 
pression is that Ptolemv, receixdng his intelligence 
fh>m caravans coming li, from Bomou to the Nik^ 
not from those crossing the great desert, was 
ignorant of the extent of the Tatter, and conse- 
quently of the interval separating northern from 
centre! Africa; and that ne hence suppoaed and 
delineated the two as almost in contact. Yet 
this geographer had received intelligence of two 
marches, one by Julius Materaus from Cyrene, 
the other bv Septimus Flaccus fin^m Garama, who 
during periods res|)ectively of three and of four 
months had penetrated into the country of the 
Ethiopians. Pttdemy scarcely gives credit to 
routes of such an extent; but he lavs down 
Ag\'simlia (perhaps Agadiz), into which they 
penetrated, as the most sout herlv known region. Ab 
it c-oiitains neither rivers nor lakes, it cann(»t be 
central Africa; but if, in the manner aliove su]v- 
posed, he was ignorant how far south that region 
lay, the length of the marches would necessarily 
oblige lum to pn>tract Ag>'simba beyond it» ((ieu- 
gnt))lua Nubiensis (Edrisi), in I^tinum versa a 
Gabriele Sionita et Joanne Hesronita Climate, 
i. TMirts 1, 2, 3, 4 ; Notices des MSS. de la Biblio- 
theque du Roi (Paris, 17H9). The passages of 
these writers relating to C-entrel Africa traiisL in 
Munrav's Discoveries in Africa, App. (2d ed.) iL 

In the seventh century a grand revolution 
changed the face of the world. The followers of 
Mohammed, inspired by fanatical zeal, issued fortli 
from Arabia, and not only shook the Roman 
empire, but sfiread their conqu^ts and settlements 
over countries never >nsited by the Roman arms. 
To Africa particularly they gave an entirely new 
face. Along its Me<titeiTancan coast, they estab- 
lished several fiourishing and cinlised kingdoms. 
Their wandering habits, and the use of the camel, 
an animal ex(>ressly formed f(»r sandy deserts, 
enabled them to overcome obstacles that bafiletl 
the Romuis. The Sahara, across which no regular 
route appears to have been known to the ancients, 
was penetrated by them in difierent directions. 
Their dispersion was aided by the great schism 
between the d^niasties of the Abbassides and Om- 
miades. The vanquished party, in large bodies, 
crossed the desert, and formed settlements, where, 
undeT the title of Fellatus or Foulahs, they still 
exist as a race entirely distinct from the Nc^ies. 
Their iwssessions extended along a great river 
called by them the Nile of the Negroes, which, 
however^ was not, as long supposed, our Niger, 
but a tributary flowing into it from the ea^t, 
termed by Clapperton the Quarrama or Zirmie. 
Ghana, the modem Kano, was then tlie chi^ seat 
both of empire and commerce. The 8o\'en^ 



dvplAjed a pomp tmhTalled in Afirica, having his 
thftme adofiied with a mam of pure gold, indi- 
cadi^ the oommerce by which the city was en- 
riched. This i^uld was found in a oountiy to the 
sooth called Wan^|a^^ intersected by numerous 
blanches of the Nile, and where the metal was 
extracted &om alluvial earth. There is evidently 
some confusion here, as ^Id, in allu^'ial deponts, 
is only fcrcd in countnes far to the west; the 
emv pmbably arising from the channel by which 
it wat» brought. Farther east, on the Nile of the 
X^gnieH, Edrisi represents Berissa and Tirka, 
which seemed to have been recognised bv Clap- 
IfoUta in Bershee and Girkwa, still considerable 
toims. Farther in that direction, Kuku, a great 
and fl<Hirishing kingdom, is evidently Bomou, the 
capital of which still bears that name; while 
Kaugha, tw^ty days to the south, and distin- 
guished by its arts and industry, appean pretty 
clearly to be the Loggun of Doiham. Returning 
tu Ghana, and proceeding down the river, we are 
cooducted to Tocrur, an inferior yet large and 
powerful kin||;dom. It appears evidently to be 
Ntccatoo, which, in a document quoted by Clap- 
perton, is even called Takror. Sala, two days' 
^•umey lower, cannot now be identified. Farther 
we«t, the knowledge of the Arabians became most 
imperfect. They considered the ocean as onlv 
5<4» miles be^'ond Tocrur, when it is nearly 2000. 
They notice in that direction the island of lllil, at 
the mouth of the great river, whence all the 
oHintries on its banks were supplied with salt. 
This was jwettv eWdently suggested by Walet, 
the great mart ^r the salt of the northern desert ; 
and its being reached across the great lake Dibbie 
might attach to it the idea of an islancL 

AUiut (vui centuries after Ktlrisi, central Africa 
was visited and described by Leo, a Moslem 
S(«nianl. who was even sumame<l Africanus. A 
great change ha<i now taken place, Tirabuctoo 
lia%'ing risen to be the most powerful city, the 
chief <'ity of commerce and splendour, the mart 
f«tr gol(L Tlie neighliouring states, including even 
Ghana, called nc»w Kano, had become its tribu- 
tariesL This writer mentions Bomou under that 
name, and ad«Ui fiir the first time other states that 
still suImL<4 — Cassina, Guber, Zegzcg, and Zanfara. 
Even, under the name of Gago, is justly described 
as a large and fine kingdom, 400 miles south-east 
of Timbiictoo. In a western direction, Ghinea or 
iirheneoa, distinguished for its great commerce, is 
tlie Jenne' of Park. Thus all this part of the con- 
tinent had assumed nearly the sh^w which it has 
ever since retained. 

Sooo after began that grand career of maritime 
ent^rrprise, which terminated in the circumnavi- 
gmtii>n of the African continent and the discovery 
of a {lassage to India. It was carried on entirely 
by the Portuguese, and pn>ceeded by gradual 
step*, from the rounding of Cape Bojador in 1433 
by Gilianez, to the memorable passage of the 
Cape tj€ Good Hope in 1497 by Vasco de Gama. 
During this long period, at every successive point, 
viio^nius eAirts were made to penetrate into the 
inieritir. These were inspired, not only by the report 
of isirUi mines and other objects of commerce, but 
ftiU iDore by a hope of reaching the court of a 
iB\*steri<ius personage named Prester John. This 
DAme appears to have originated in reports brought 
bv Knbrnqnis and other ^urly travellers of a ruling 
N'estorian faishc^ in central Africa. When, how- 
evrT. notices arrived of a Christian prince in Abys- 
iinia. the name I*rester John settled down upon 
him; ami, ignorant of the breadth of the con- 
tinent, they supposed that, at no very great dis- 
tance from the western coast, his dominions mi^^ht 
he ftwikL The fmtpmandfra were therefore m- 

stmcted on every new discovery to make their 
first inquiry concerning Prester John ; and though 
total ignorance was everywhere professed, they 
persevered, and really i4)pear to have sent embas- 
sies even to Timbuctoo. Di Barros has given a 
pretty correct account of the position of tluit city, 
and of Genni (Jennd) its rivaL The English and 
French found a considerable Portuguese popu- 
lation on the Senegal and Gambia, and many 
wonls of that language current among the people 
of Bambouk. Yet nothing was done to correct 
the Arabian idea of the Niger rolling westward 
into the ocean; and the Senegal was therefore 
considered as forming its lower course, though Di 
liarros expresses wonder that, afler passing through 
BO many regions, it should not have rolled a greater 
body 01 waters. 

The Portuguese formed leading settlements at 
Elmina on the Gold coast, and at the mouth of the 
river Formosa, which has now proved to be that of 
the Niger. They learned that the rulers here, on 
their accession, were accustomed to send ambassa- 
dors about 250 leagues into the interior to the 
court of a prince named Agan^, from whom, as 
from a superior lord, certain symbols were received, 
which formed the prince's investiture. This po- 
tentate, during the interview, was screened from 
\'iew by a silk curtain, an<l only at the close his 
foot was put forth, to which they did homage. 
(Di Barros, Asia, b. ilL ch. 3-12.) Major Kennoll, 
with seeming reason, pr^umes this to be the king 
of Ghana ; and in the maps of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries there ap|)earfi a very large 
lake named Guardia, which, from the site and a 
rude resemblance of name, we suspect to lie the 
Tchad ; but D'Anville, finding no authority in its 
support, expunged it. The Portuguese also formed 
considerable settlements on the coast of Congo, 
which, to a certain extent, they still retain ; and 
their missionaries })cnetrate<I to some diHtance in- 
land. After passing the Ca})e, and on the way to 
India, they sailed along nearly the whole <»f the 
easteni coast as far as Melinda and Momttasa. 
The king of Portugal hod previously sent out two 
envoys, Covilham and De Pa>'\'a, to reach hulia 
by way of the Rod Sea. Tlieir notices and ob- 
servations, coupled with those of the circumnavi- 
gatfirs, first conveyed to Eun»pe a full >'iew of the 
outline and circuit of this vast continent. 

CoWlham, in returning, settled in Abyssinia, 
and transmitted such accounts as induced his sove- 
reign to send thither a succession of missionaries, 
through whom copious accounts were received (^ 
that remarkable country, scarcely at all known to 
the ancients. They did not, however, carry dis- 
covery far into the interior of the continent ; and, 
indeed, such ignorance prevailed on the subject 
that, in the maps of tne seventeenth century, 
Abyssinia and Cong»i are brought nearly into con- 
tact, while the Nile rises almost in the vicinity of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

In Europe mcautime a groiring interest was ex- 
cite<l respecting the course of the Niger, the coun- 
try of gold, and the trade of Timbuottw. It was 
heightened bv the conquest of that city by the 
em))eror of Morocco in the end of the sixteenth 
century. In 1618, an English company was formed 
for the* purpose of penetrating thither, by ascend- 
ing the Gambia, supposed one of the mouths of 
the Niger, They sent out Captain lliompson, 
who, leaving his vessel at Kassan, went in a boat 
to Tenda, which no European had yet reache<l ; 
but he was killed in a contest with the natives, 
another Ixnly of whom, instigated by the Portu- 
guese, attacked and massacred most of the men in 
the vesseL Another crew, sent to reinfon* him, 
fell almoat all yictima to the climate. In 1U20| 



Captain Richard Jobson came oat with a huger 
armament, and, undismayed b^ these evil tidings, 
made his way considerably higher than his pre- 
cursors. He even supposed, on erroneous informar- 
tion, that he was near Timbuctoo, and returned 
with the intention of actively resuming his re- 
searches, but was prevented by a quarrel with the 
merchants, who lost courage, and dropped the un- 
dertaking. (Jobson, Golden Trade, or a Discovery 
of the River Gambia. Lond. 1623.) 

A century elapsed without further eflTort, till the 
Duke of Chandos, director of the Afncan Com- 
panv, entertained the idea of enlarging its scanty 
probts by opening a communication with the 
country of gold. He sent out, in 1723, Captain 
Bartholomew Stibl», who having procured canoes, 

{>ushed vigorously up the river. On passing the 
iaUs of Barraconda, however, the stream b^amc 
in many places so extremely shallow, that even 
his little boats could scarcely be dragged upward. 
He was finally obliged to stop nearly at the point 
which Jobson had already reached. His informa- 
tion led him to conclude that * the original or head 
of the river Niger is nothing near so far in the 
country as by the gec^raphers has been repre- 
sented.' The Gambia, at a little dbtanoe upwanls, 
was described as dwindling into a mere ri^ndet. 
It had no communication with the Senegal, or 
with any lake. He nowhere heard the Niger 
named, and had great doubts if such a river ex- 
isted. Moore, a zealous agent of the company, 
strenuously repelled this conclusion, and endea- 
voured to overwhelm him by quoting Pliny, Pto- 
lemy, Leo, and other high authoriries ; but Stibbs, 
though unable to meet him on this ground, con- 
tinued not the less steadily to affirm what he had 
seen with his own cj'es. (Moore, Travels in the 
Inland Parts of Afnca. Lond. 1738.) In fact, 
notwithstanding one or two other attempts, the 
English made no farther discoveries in this quar- 
ter, nor obtained any intelligence of the real 

The French meantime were making greater 
exertions on the Senegal, which they early chose 
as their place of settlement. About 1630, a com- 
mercial intercourse had been opened by some 
merchanta of Rouen and Dieppe, without any set- 
tlement, the crews merely erecting temporary huts 
during their stay. (Tannezina, voyage de Lybie. 
Paris, 1645.) They were obliged, however, in 
1664, to give wajr to the great West India Com- 
pany^ whose privil^e included also western Africa. 
In nme years, however, it fell ; and on its ruins 
was erected a second, succeeded by a third, fourth, 
and fifth, which last was merged in the Mississippi 
scheme. These, like similar mercantile associa- 
tions, were all disastrous ; but each had its interval 
of activity, during which a good deal was done to 
extend discovery and trade. The chief efforts were 
made bv the Sieur Brue, appointed governor in 
1697. ^im Port St Louis, where a settlement 
was now formed, he immediately sailed up the 
river, with a view to adjust some differences with 
the Siratik or king of'^the Foulahs, and open a 
trade with its upper r^ons. He succeeded m his 
negotiations, and had hoped to reach Gallam, but 
was obliged to stop at Ghiorel, where he erected a 
fort. In 1698 he reached Gallam, and arrived at 
the rock of Felu, which stops the navigation for 
laigc barks. At Dramanet he fixed on a i)oeition 
for a fort, which was soon after erected under the 
name of St. Joseph, and became the centre of 
French interior trade. Tlirough the exertions of 
one Oompagnon, he acquired a full account of 
Bambouk and its gold mines, the most productive 
in Africa. He laid before the company a plan for 
oonqacring the oountiy, which he undeitook to 

effect with 1,200 men, but could neither obtain the 
requisite authority nor means. He made diligent 
inquiries respecting the r^ons beycmd, and ob- 
tained pretty distinct accounts of bambarra, the 
lake Mabena (Dibbie), and Timbuct4x>. Re- 
specting the Niger, two opposite statements were 
made. According to one, it fiowed westward, and 
divided into the three branches of the Gambia, the 
Faleme, and the Senegal ; while others asserted its 
course to be eastward. The former continued to 
be the popular belief; but D'Anville, who bestowed 
much attention on tJie subject, and had access to 
the best documents, became convinced that there 
was a great river quite distinct from the Sen^al, 
which flowed eastward, and was the one that pa»ed 
by Timbuctoo. Upon thifi principle he formed 
his map of Africa, a wonderful effort of sagacity 
and ability, and which, in fact, is still tolerably 
correct as to a great part of that continent. (La- 
bat^ Afrique Occidentale, 5 tom. Paria, 1728. 
Golberrv, Fragmens d'un Voyage en Afrique, 2 
tom. I^'Anville, sur les Rivieres dans l'Interi(V 
de 1' Afrique, Academic des Inscriptions, tom xxvi. 
64.) By restricting Abyssinia and Congo to tlieir 
true limits, and obliterating imaginary features, 
this great ge<^i^phcr first exhibited that vast in- 
terior blank which so strongly excited the curiosity 
and enterprise of Europe. 

The spirit of African discovery slumbered in 
Britain till 1788, when it burst forth with an ar- 
dour which led to the most splendid results. In 
that vear was formed the African Association, com- 
posed of a number of distinguished indi\'idua]s, 
among whom Sir Joseph Banks and Mr. BeaAfoy 
took Uie lead. Ledyanl was sent to penetrate by 
way of Egypt, and Lucas by that of Tripoli. The 
former, who, with an iron frame, had travelled great 
part of the world on foot, excited great expecti^ 
tions; but unhappily a fever carried him off before 
leaving Cairo. Mr. Lucas, long vice-consul at 
Morocco, had the advantage of understanding per- 
fectly the AMcan languages. He found no diffi- 
culty in obtaining the concurrence of the Pasha 
of if ripoli ; and had set out for Fezzan, but was 
arrested by an insurrection among the Arab tribes. 
Valuable information, however, was obtained from 
several intelligent natives, confirmed by the tes- 
timony of Ben Alii, a merchant, who ha{^x»ied to 
be in London, and had travelled far into the in- 
terior. From these sources pretty copious accounts 
were received respecting the great countries of 
Bomou and Cassina, the latter of which had be- 
come the chief among the states of Houssa. The 
informanta described also a great caravan route 
across the continent, from IMpoli to Asicnte or 
Ashantee, behind the Gold Coast. In this course 
it crossed the great central river, described, how- 
ever, as flowing to the westward. It was, in fact, 
the Arabian Nile of the N^proes, the Quarrama <^ 
Clapperton, which in that direction proceeded to 
the main river, of wliich it is only a tributaiy. 
Kennell, ha\'ing these materials put into his hands, 
and not being aware of any central river but one, 
reversied the direction given by D'AnvUle to the 
Niger, making it flow westwaid to the ocean by 
the channel of the Senegal. At the same time 
Bomou, understood to be described as bordering on 
Nubia, was carried far to the north and east of ita 
real position, and the bordering countries displaced 
in consequence ; so that this map, though ably 
drawn up, formed decidedly a retrograde step in 
African geography. 

The Association now turned their attention to 
W. Africa, and engaged Major Houghton, for some 
time consul at Morocco, to proceed from the Gam- 
bia. He went on foot, imprudently loaded with a 
quantity of valuable artkilesk He passed nnmo- 



legted through Medina snd Bambouk; but on 
rmchini^ the teiritoiy of the Moors, was seduced 
br that people into the desert, where he was either 
killed or abandoned to perish. (Proceedings of the 
African Asuoriarioo. London, 1790. Ibid. Lond. 

On recetring this intelligence, the Associadon 
lost no time in seeking a substitute, and were for- 
tunate CDoo^h to engage Mr. Mungo Park. That 
gentleman, in Deoemter, 1795, set out from the 
Gambia, and passed through Medina, Bondou, 
Gallam, Kaason, and Kaarta. Having suffered on 
the way serere spoliation, he was seized and de- 
tained kmg in captivity by the Moors of Ludamar. 
He eootiived to escape, and though in extreme 
distress, made his way through the kingdom of 
Bambarm to Sego, its oipitaL This formed a crisis 
in Afiican geo^nmhy, for he there saw * the long- 
sought majestic riiger, glittering to the morning 
sun, as broad as the Thames at Westminster, and 
flowing slowly to the eastward.' The extent of 
the city, its crowded p(^mlation, and the numerous 
canoes on the river, presented altogether a scene 
little expected in the heart of Africa. Mr. Park 
penetrated down the Niger as far as Silla ; but his 
destitote condition, and the formidable accounts of 
the bigotry prevailing at Jenn^ and Timbuctoo, 
deterred lum from proceeding farther. 

This traveller's arrival in England in December, 
1797, with accounts (rf* such important discoveries, 
raised higher than ever the entnusiaBm for African 
disooverv. He retired into private life ; but the 
Assuciadon obtained the services of Homemann, a 
Gennan, who possessed many requisites of a tra- 
reUec He went by way of Egypt to Fezzan, 
thence into central Africa, and appears to have 
palliated bv wa^ of Cashna to Nyne on the Niger, 
where be fell a victim to the climate. The same 
£kte befell Mr. Nicholls, who attempted to reach 
the Niger by way of the Gulph of Benin. Some 
years befcfe, Mr. Browne, an enteiprising indivi- 
dual, by his own resources had penetrated by way 
of Egypt into the interior country of Darfour, about 
midway between Abyssinia and Bomou. He ob- 
tained there some important detached notices re- 
spectingthe nei^booring nations, and the origin 
of the White River or main branch of the Nile, 
said to TIM in the mountainous territory of Donga. 

Meantime Park's mind was intensely bent upon 
Africa; and through his acquaintance with Mr. 
Maxwell, who had commanded a vessel employed 
in the Zaire or C!ongo, he became perstuided £hat 
that riverwas the termination of the Niger. Being 
invited by government to lead an expedition on a 
large scale, he readily accepted it, and its arrango- 
mentM were adjusted with a view to his hypothesis. 
(hk the 4th of May, 1805, he departed from the 
Gambia, with a well appointed Thirty of upwards 
of fofftr ; but the harassing attacks of the natives, 
with tiie pestilential influence of the rainy season, 
rrdoced them to seven before they reached the 
Niger. He proceeded downward, however, and at 
8ansaading obtained materials for constructing a 
schooner, 40 feet long, which he named the Joliba ; 
and on the 17th November, 1805, set sail to ex- 
pl<ire the mysteries of interior Africa. It appears 
that be passed Timbuctoo, and made his way down 
the river to Bonsaa, where the king of Youri, in- 
«&gnant at having received no presents, pursued 
with a large body of men, and attacked him in a 
Barrow and rodcy charmed. Park and his com- 
panions, nnable to resist, threw themselves into 
the water, attempting to reach the shore, but were 
drowned. ELis papers were never recovered. 

A German named ROntgen attempted to pcne- 
timie by way of Morocco, and set out in 1809 from 
Mogadoie; but be appears to have been murdered 

by his guides. Some intelligence was gleaned from 
Adams and Riley, two Americans, who were suc- 
cessively shipwrecked on the coast of Sahara ; but 
much uncertainty attached to their statements. 
In 1809, the association engaged the services of 
the celebrated Burkhardt, who undertook to ac- 
company the interior caravan from Cairo. While 
preparing himself for the expedition he made ex- 
cursions through Nubia, and also through Syria 
and Arabia, his observations on which have been 

Eublished, and are extremely valuable. In 1817, 
owever, when about to set out on his main desti- 
luition, he fell a victim to dysentery. 

The public mind continued to be intently fixed 
on African discovery ; partly from a wish to learn 
the real state of countries so difficult to explore, 
and so different from those of the temperate zone, 
and partly, and perhaps principally, from absurdly 
exaggerated ideas as to the vsJue of the commerce 
that might be carried on with the natives. At 
length government, on the suggestion of Sir John 
BaiTow, determined to make a more extensive effort 
than ever. Following up the hypothesis of the 
identity of the Niger and Congo, two expeditions 
were prepared; one to ascend the latter river, 
another to descend the former. Captain Tuckev, 
who commanded the first, sailed from England m 
February, 1816, and arrived in June at the mouth 
of the Congo. The party proceeded for some time 
with great spirit ; but being obliged by the catar* 
racts to leave their boats, and proceed on foot 
through a rugged country affording little shelter, 
they became exposed to the baneful influence of 
the climate. Severe sickness soon assailing the 
whole party, obliged them to stop short, and ulti- 
mately proved fatal to all the officers, including 
the commander, llie other expedition, destined 
to go down the Niger, was commanded b^ Major 
Peddie, who endeavoured to reach Uie intenor 
through the country of the Foulahs. Having died 
before the march began, he was succeeded by Cap- 
tain Campbell^ who reached the Foulah frontier ; 
but the sovereign, jealous of their designs, detained 
them under various pretexts, till exhausted sup- 

flies and general sickness obliged them to return, 
mmediately after Captain Campbell died, and his 
fate was shared by Lieutenant Stokoe, just as he 
had plaimed a new expedition. Captain Gray, of 
the Koyal African corps, penetrated by another 
route to Gallam, but could not obtain permission 
to proceed through Bambana. 

All this series of disaster did not shake the per- 
severance of the British government. A new open- 
ing was afforded through the Pasha of Tripoli, who, 
inspired with a desire of improvement new in this 
(quarter of the world, cultivated European connec- 
tion, and influenced bv the judicious conduct of 
consul Warrington, offered his assistance to tlie 
British government. Holding Fezzan tributary, 
and havmg a commanding influence over the cen- 
tral states, he could secure the safe passage of a 
traveller through a great part of Africa. Under 
his auspices, in 1819, Mr. Ritchie and Lieuten- 
ant Lyon reached JPezzan; but through the 
climate, and the treacherous ill-treatment of 
the sultan, they incurred such severe illnesses as 
proved fatal to the former, and obliged the latter 
to return. 

This failure did not prevent the speedy forma- 
tion of another expedition, for which a more for- 
tunate destiny was reserved. Its chiefs. Major 
Denham, Lieutenant Clapperton, and Dr. Oudney, 
arrived at Tripoli in November, 1821. Next spring 
they proceeded to Fezzan ; but through the neg- 
lect of the sultan were unable to procure camels, 
which obliged Denham to return to Tripoli. Hero 
he ret^eivedassurances of protection from Boo Khal- 



IfKm, a preat Arab Blavo-mcrchant, who was set- 
tinp out for the very ccmntries which he sought to 
explore. Under hu fjfuidancc, the party, in the 
end of 1822, bo^an their route throuf^h the great 
dcflext, passing between the territories of the two 
remarkable native tribes, the Tuaricks and the 
Tibb(MNi. They then travelled for a fortnight amid 
hills of moving sand, without the slightest vestige 
of life or vegetation. Soon after they entered Ka- 
nero, the northern province of Bornon. At Lari 
they came in view of Lake Tchad, the great in- 
teri(»r sea of Afri( a, 200 miles long, receiving two 
great rivers, and containing numerous islands. In 
proceeding along ita eastern shore they visited most 
parts of liomou and its chief cities of kouka (Kuku 
of Edrisi), New Bimie, and Angomou. Thw king- 
dom, once the most powerful in central Africa, had 
alnnit thirty years before been conquered and 
dreadfully ravaged by the Fellatas from Houssa ; 
but a private in<lividual, by valour and ability, had 
reasserted its iudepcndencc, and driven out the 
enemy. That person, under the title of Sheik, ex- 
on'ised all the real power, while ho sufTenxl the 
legitimate king to reign in emptv pomp. Major 
Denham also \'isited the smaller kingdom of Man- 
dara, l>oundo<l by an almost interminable range of 
mountains lille<l with savage tribes, who are hunteil 
down f(»r slaves. In Loggim, situated along the 
great river Shary, which falls into the Tchad, he 
found a people mure ingenious and industrious than 
thoHC of IV)mou. 

Meantime Clapperton and Oudney were making 
an cxi^edition through Houssa, the most interest- 
ing region of centnd Africa. It was found inha- 
bited by the Fellatas, a i)eople having nothing of 
the Nqjro features, but ap|»arently descended from 
the great bo<lv of Moslem Aralw, who had migrated 
many centuries ago. Tlicy were quite superior to 
the i^inionese both in aspect and character, culti- 
vating the land with greater skill and diligence, 
and manufacturing very tine cottons. The sway 
of Ghana, and even of Cassiua, hod been t.ran»- 
fcrre<l to Sackatoo (Tocnir), the sultan of which, 
about the lieginning of the present centur\', over- 
ran all Houssa, and for some time occupied )lcniou. 
Ghana, however, under the name of Kano, was 
found great in its decay, and still the chief seat of 
commerce. Hie transactions were ext4>nKive and 
well arranged ; but slaves were the staple com- 
modity. Sackatoo was found considerably larger 
than Kano, and the traveller was hospitably re- 
c»;ive<l by sidtan Bello. Tlie river (juarrama was 
olwervetl traversing this countrj', and flowing west- 
ward into the Niger, which, at the nearest jM>iut 
to Sackatoo, had a southwanl course ; but accounts 
varied, whether continuing in that direction it 
reached the sea, or making a great circuit eraptiwl 
itself into the lake TchacL The traveller, having 
in vain solicited the means of proceeding to the 
river and the coast, returned to mmou by a liew 
route, which enabled him to see Cassina, a capital 
now greatly decayed. Dr. Oudney died eayly on 
this journey. 

The British government determined to follow 
up these extensive and important discoveries. 
Clapperton was employed to land on the coast of 
Guinea, thence to penetrate to Sackatoo, and on 
his way explore tne termination of the Niger. 
Instead of attempting to ascend the river of Benin, 
he was advised to proceed by land from Badagry ; 
but from imprudent exposure to the climate two 
companions died, and he became sickly. He soon, 
however, reache<l the Yarriba, or Kingdom of 
Eyes, which he found populous and tioiuishing ; 
and the natives, not imbued with Mohammeilan 
bigotry, courteously receive<l him. In traversing 
it ho 'croeaed tho chain of the Kong Mountains, 

pcofiled to tho rammit Leaving Tairiba, aiMf 
passing through the large cities of Kiama and 
Wawa, he reached Bouasa on the Niger, where he 
received a confirmation of Park's death, and even 
an invitation from the king of Youri, who pro- 
mised to give him that traveller's books and 
pa])en ; but this yint was delayed till he should 
return from Sackatoo. On his way thither ho 
passed through Nytfe, a highly improved territory 
though dreailfully laid waste by the Fellatas; and 
through Zegzeg, also very populous and well cul- 
tivated. At Sackatoo, or Soocatoo, an expe<liri<m 
against the rebel territory of Goober enabled him 
to procure farther information. The sultan, how- 
ever, prepossessed with groundless jealousies, 
treated him with a harshness, which, ^-ith pre- 
>'ious sickness, brought this spirited traveller to a 
premature grave. His servant. Lander, aHer 
doing the last duties, conceived the plan of him- 
self exploring the tc>rmination of the Niger, but 
was forcibly jirevented. 

The information attained on this journey afibnicd 
the strongest reason to suppose that the Niger ter- 
minateil iii the sea. Lnnder, on his ret urn, submitted 
to government a plan for proceeding to Boussa, 
an(l thence navigating the stream downwaivls. 
The British Government agreed to furnish the 
means, though promising only a very slender re- 
ward. In March, 1 830, accompMiinied by his bmther, 
he arrived at Badagr}', and proceeded by nearly 
the former route to Boussa. Thence he \'isit«i 
Youri, which proved a very rich and {lopulons 
country ; but the king treated him ill, and he had 
no success as to Park's books and [Mipers. On the 
island of Patashie, below Boussa, he pnicured, 
with gre^t difficulty, two canoes, afterwanls ex- 
changed for one of larger size, and thus began the 
navigation down the Niger. He 9<xm found it 
expand into a most magniticent river, about three 
miles bnmd, and bordered by noble forests. The 
large island of Zagoshi presented an acdve scene 
of industry and navigation, and by a large force 
of arme<l canoes maintained its independence of 
the neighbouring states. On the adjoining shoru 
ap|>eare<l a ver>' large t/>wn, named Kablm. Far- 
ther down, Egga, another great i)ort on the river, 
termuiatetl the comparatively civihse*! territorj' <if 
Nyrte ; below which were only detached states of 
a very turbulent and lawless character, among 
which serious dangers were cncounterecL The 
next striking object was the influx from the west^ 
wanl of the great rivex Tshadda, three or four 
miles broad, and ii«ith a current so strong that 
they soon gave up the attempt to ascend it. They 
learned, ht)wever, that three days' journey up was 
Fimdah, of whose importance they had ofti^n 
heard. It l)ecame more and more cedent that 
their voyage was to terminate in the sea, and that 
the numerous river branches which open into the 
Gulph of Benin are the delta of the Niger. Near the 
large tovim of Kirree, they passed the one which 
runs towanls Benin. Here the natives were almost 
entirely clothed in the manufactures of Europe, and 
had flc*cts of large canoes adome<l with Eun^tean 
articles. The travellers, however, were matle pri- 
soners, and carried down to Eboc, the great mart 
for slaves and palm oil, with which trade the 
natives, who are rude and dissolute, do not hesi- 
tate to combine piracy. With great difficulty, and 
the promise of a high ransom, they succeeded in 
gettmg arrangements made for conveying them 
to the sea. They reached it by the channel called 
by the Portuguese Nun, by the English Brass 
Biver ; not the largest of the estuaries, but that 
which comes in the most direct line from the 
main trunk. Tlius, by very humble agency, was 
solved that grand problem in African geography, 



in the aearch alter wliicb so many abortive efforts 
hail been made. 

This important discovery, opening a water com- 
monieaiion into the very oentie of the continent, 
made a ntfong impression cm the mercantile world. 
Mr. M*Giegor Laird, and some other gentlemen of 
lirefpool, entered into an association for forming 
a settlement and opening a trade on the Upper 
Nifccr. Two steamers, the Quorra and Alburkah, 
were fitted oat; while the Columbine, a laiger 
asilin^ vessel, was laden with goods. They ar- 
rived m the mouth of the Nun in October^ 1882, 
bat soflcsed severely firom sickness amid the 
swmmpa of the delta; and though before the 
end of the year they reached a healthier station, 
the sorvivon did not regain their health. In the 
coufBe of the next two years, Mr. Laird ascended 
the Tshadda, and reached Fnndah, nine miles in- 
land, which he found a ha^ dty, with nearly 
4<>.(KI0 inhabitants, situated m a very extensive 
and beantifbl plain. Its commerce, however, had 
been mnrti injured by war, and by the tyranny of 
its ruler, firom whose power Mr. Laird had some dif- 
ficulty in escaping. Mr. Oldfield in the Alburkah 
sailed about 100 miles up this river, but neither 
luund its banks so fruitful nor the commerce so 
active as on the Niger. He also vittited Kabba, 
which proved equity extensive with Fundah. 
The streets were crowded and dirty, but the mar- 
kets spacioiis and well arranged. The state of 
the VMsel frustrated the attempt to ascend to 
Hrnwsa. Lander had unfortunately died of wounds 
received in a contest with the natives. The 
expedition was unfortunate in a commercial 
view, the only valuable article found being ivory, 
in too small quantity to pay the expense of the 

l^rum the southern extremity of Africa, inter- 
tftinfi discoveries have also been made. It was 
Hilt till 1650 that the Dutch formed a colony at 
tlie Cape of Good Hope, which quickly became 
fl4i«iri»hing. Beyond the Karroo desert they set- 
tled rich grazing farms, at the foot of the high 
interior ranges of the Nienweld and Sneuwge- 
birge^ compelling the natives to labour as slaves. 
TuwsLTds the end of the eighteenth century, 8i>arr- 
man and Vaillant brought interesting accounts of 
the scenery of this tract, and its natural produc- 
tir«is both animal and vegetable. The settlement 
haicing been captured by Britain, Mr. Barrow, as 
secretary to Lord Macartney, made in 1797 an 
exnnsicA into the interior, and gave striking pic- 
tares of the pastoral life of the Kafifres, and of the 
mbiefmble aspect and condition of the Bomemans 
or oMiimtain Hottentots. In 1801, Messrs. Trutter 
and SofnerviUe passed the Sneuwgebirgc, disco- 
vered the large stream of the Orange Hiver, with 
the pastoral tribe of the Koranas, and finally ar- 
riTedat Lattakoo, capital of the Boshuanas, a 
BKiie indnstrioiis and miproved people than an^ 
vet known in southern Africa. On receiving this 
intdligeDoe, Lord Caledon sent Dr. Cowan and 
Mr. Duoovan, with a party of twentv, to attempt 
tA penenate as far as Mozambique ; \>nt afler pro- 
eeeding considerably beyond Lattakoo, they were 
surnised and killed by a IMffty of natives. 

The Kev. Mr. Campbell, in his zealous pursuit 
of misHooaiy olgects, considerably extended our 
knowledge of this part of AMca. Beyond Latta- 
bio. he pasaed through a succession of towns 
always rising in importance. Kurrechane, the 
l«t.'was estimated to omtain 16,000 inhabitants, 
wbii. besides agriculture, showed considerable skill 
in adoming their habitations, tanning skins, and 
sroelting iron and copper. Dr. Lichtemxtein and 
Mr. Borchell made imfiortant observations on the 
people, but neither penetxated so far as 

Mr. Campbell. In 1823, while Mr. Thompson 
was at Lattakoo, these districts were invaded by a 
numerous and formidable Caffire people, from the 
vicinity of Cape NataL These, it was discovered, 
had been driven from their country by a still more 
powerful tribe, the Zooloos, whose chief, Chaka, 
could muster 100,000 fighting men. Yet there 
was found to be in that quarter a large extent of 
fertile territory, to which a nimiber of Dutch 
farmers were induced to emigrate; but having 
been involved in hostilities with this savage tribe, 
they have of late suffered dreadfully, and many 
of them have perished. 

During the years 1822 to 1826, Captain Owen 
was employed by the British government in 
making a very careful survey both of the eastern 
and western coasts. He obtained much informa- ^ 
tion respecting the former, which had hitherto* 
been very imperfectly known. In 1837, Sir James 
Alexander, under the auspices of the Geographical 
Society, performed an expedition to the norths 
west m>m the Cape, into the country of the 
Damaras, where he penetrated farther than any 
former traveller. 

Within the last few years, a new and powerful 
impetus has been given to African exploration, 
which has resulted in most important <li8coveric8. 
In the first place, the true nature of Uie interior 
has been ascertained beyond dispute. In the year 
1852, Sir Roderick Murchison suggested the h3rpc>- 
thesis that the interior of Africa was now, as in 
ancient geological periods, an immense watershed, 
occupied by fresh water lakes, outflowing to the 
east and west through fiKSures in the mountain 
ranges near the coast. This theory has been com- 
pletely established by the discoveries of our most 
eminent African travellers. It is known to be 
true of the passage of the Niger, and Dr. Living- 
stone proved it to be the case in that of the Zam- 
besi, whilst it received a fresh confirmation from 
the discoveries of Burton and Siieke, and Spcke 
and Grant, with respect to the sources of the 
Nile. The discoverv of the latter is a most me- 
morable one in African geographv. It was in 
1858 that Captain Speke first %4sited the Lake 
N'yanga. He subsequently made a second jour- 
ney for the purpose of farther investigation; and 
in a memoir, in the Journal of the G(K>graphical 
Society, he published a statement of the facts on 
which he grounds his conchinion that this lake is 
the great reservoir of the Nile. He says that it 
appears *that all the drainage of the N'yanga 
mu8t come down the channel of the Nile, unless 
perchance the Sobat might be the river alluded to 
by the Arabs and natives as *^ making Usoga an 
inland." Should this not be the case, then the 
Sobat must be an independent river, (Iraining all 
the mountain range north of Mount Kenia up to 
this parallel, and so to the eastward as far as 
posAble the basin of the Nile is determined. Now 
to complete the western side of the basin of the 
Nile as far as possible, I must state as a positive 
fact, the Nile at Gondokoro is the parent or true 
Nile. No explorers on the Nile, of the present 
time, doubt that for a moment; and all those — 
there are many — ^who have recently directed their 
attention to the discovery of the source of the Nile, 
have invariably looked for it south of Gondokoro. 
This matter established, — as on the east the only 
affluent to the Nile worthy of any notice was the 
Asua river, and that was so small it could not have 
made any visible impression on the body of the 
Nile, — leaves only the Little Luta Nzig^ to lie 
discussed, for the rest of the land included in the 
basin of the Nile is drained into the Nile north of 
Gondokoro. Information assures me, that as the 
Malagaiazi and Kusizi rivers drain the southern 



side of the mountains encircling the Tanganyika, 
80 do the Kitangul^ and Little Luta Nzig^ drain 
the north side of those mountains; and this, I think, 
is proved by the fact, that the Nile at Gondokoro 
was not so huge as the Nile was in Unyoro during 
the flood. For this reason also I feel very sure the 
Little Luta Nsigd of itself, if it was not supplied 
by the Nile as a backwater, would be nothing 
more than a flat rush-maish, like the Bahr-el- 

Dr. Livingstone, in his exploration of the Zam- 
besi, has not only contributed largely to geo- 
graphical science, but it may be hoped that his 
exertions will ultimately prove moet useful in the 
cause of humanity. He propoees a chain of sta- 
tions beyond the Portuguese territory on that 
river^ as a means of facilitating commercial com- 
munication with the natives. Some of the races 
in the vicinity are anxious to engage in trade^ and 
the country is suitable for cotton. He behoves 
that it is only by encoura^ng industry in this 
way, in connection with missionair labours, that 
real good will be done to Africa. We owe to him 
the discovery of Lake N'gami, and he has but 
recently returned from explorations of the Shir^ 
river — an affluent of the Zambesi — and Lake 

Dr. Barth's researches in north Africa are well 
known as placing him on the list of illustrious 
African travellers. Captain Burton is not only 
distinguished for his discoverv of the Tanganyika 
Lake, and his explorations m western cquati>rial 
Africa, but for his valuable observations on the eth- 
nology and condition of the east African races. M. 
Paul du Chaillu, during his travels in ec^uatorial 
Africa, made some most important investigations 
in connection with the river Ogobai; and has 
also greatly enlarged our knowled|2|[e of the ani- 
mids of Anica, particularly introducing to us that 
wonder of natural history, the Gorilla. Anderson, 
Petherick, Galton, Krap'f, Kcbmann, Von Decken, 
and many other names occur in the histoxy of 
African exploration, in which field so much zeal 
and heroism have of late been displayed. Yon 
Decken ascended the Kilimandjaro to a height of 
18,000 feet, and there witnessed a fall of snow, 
thus establishing by personal observation the fact 
announoed by Krapf and Rcbmann of snow-capped 
mountains under tne equator. 

But after all that has been done, there still 
remain interesting points to settle, which yrill 
afford abundant stimulus to the exertion of new 

AFRICA, or MAHADIAH, a sea-port town of 
Barbarv, E. coast reg. Tunis, 110 m. SSE. Tunis, 
lat, 35<^ 32' N., lonp. 11<^ 16' E. It contains about 
8,000 inhab., and is at present a wretched place, 
surrounded vrith brokenndown walls, and nvithout 
shops or bazaars. Formerly it was a sea-port and 
fortress of very considerable importance. In t550 
it was besieged by a powerful armament, under 
the onlers or Uie viceroy of Sicilv and of Doria 
the famous admiral of Charles V., who took it 
after an olwtinate and desperate resistance; but 
being found to be untenable it was subsequently 

AGADES, a town of central Africa, cap. of Air, 
or Asbcn, in lat. l&> 40' N., lon^. 7© 30' E. Est. 
pop. 8,000; formerly 50,000. It is still an impor- 
tant entrq>6t of the interior commerce of central 

AGADIR, or SANTA CRUZ, a sea-port town 
of Morocco, on the Atlantic Ocean, and the most S. 
in the empire, kt. 80O 26' 35" N., long. 9© 35' 56" W. 
It is built on the declivity of a hill on the shore of 
a gtilph or laTRC bay of the same name, well ile- 
feiidtHl from the winils, and lUTonling go<Hl anchor- 


ago for shipping. Agadir belonged at one time U^ 
the Portuguese, by whom it was surroundod by 
walls. It was taken from them by the Moors in 
1536, when its fortifications were farther strength' 
ened. It was for a considerable period the centre 
of an extensive commerce; but having rebelled 
against the government in 1773, the (ffincipal part 
(k its population was transferred to Mogadure. 
The vast sandy deserts of N. Africa conunencc 
immediatelv to the S. of Agadir; and hence its 
bay is aptly termed by the Arabs Bab-SoudoHj 
that is, GatB of^ BUick». 

AGDE (an. Agatha), a town of France, de^ 
Herault, on the river of that name, near where it 
is traversed by the canal of Languedoc, about 8 
m. above where the former falls into the Gulph of 
Lyons, and about the same distance from where 
the latter is united with lake Thau. Pop. 9,746 in 
1861. Ships of 200 tons burden come up to the town 
by the river, near the mouth of which is fort Briscoo. 
It has a considerable coasting and some foreign 
trade, with ship-building, manufactures of venU- 
grise and soan, and distilleries. Being entirely 
built of black oasaltic lava, and surrounded by a 
wall and towers of the same material, it has a 
grim appearance, and is called by the country 
people the ViUe Noire, It made a part of Gallia 
Narboneruiif and was in 506 the seat of a council 
summoned by Alaric 

AGEN (an. Aginum), a town of France, cap. 
dep. Lot-et' Garonne f on the right bank of the Ga- 
ronne, on the railway from Bordeaux to Toulouse, 
Pop. 1 7,263 in 1 861. The town is ill built ; streets 
nanrow, crooked, and dirty. The hotel of the pre- 
fect is worthy notice, and there is a fine bridge 
over the Garonne of eleven arches. It is the scat 
of a cour royale for the depts. Lot-et-Garcmne, 
Lot, and Gers ; has a coll^ne and several literary 
instituUons, a public library with above 12,000 
vols., and a theatre. Its situation, though rather 
unhealthy, makes it the entrepot of the commerce 
between Bordeaux and Toulouse. There is here 
a sail-cloth manufactory, which recently employed 
above 600 work-people, and produced annually 
130,000 metres of canvass for the navy : there are 
also manufactures of serges, printed cloths, cottons, 
braziers' ware, pottery, soap, and spirits. En- 
virons beautiful; the promenade du Gratnert is 
one of the finest in France. The town is famous as 
the birthplace of Jasmin, *lastof theTroubadoura,' 
who kept a hairdresser's shop in the High Street 
till the time of his death, in 1864. Agen is very 
ancient, and under tlie Roman emperora was a 
prajtorian city. 

AGGERliUUS, a bishopric of Norway, and ono 
of the most important divisions of that kingdom ; 
which see. 

AGGERSOE, a small Danish ishmd in the 
Great Belt, near the E. coast of the island of 
Zealand, lat, 55° 12' N., long. 11° 12' K 

AGHRIM, or AUGHRIM, an inconsiderable 
town of Ireland, co. Galway, 82 m. W. Dublin. 
Pop. 383 in 1861. One of*^ the greatest battles 
ever fought in Ireland took place in the vicinity 
of Aghriin in 1691, when the troo}^)s of William III., 
commanded by Ginkell, afterwords Earl of Ath- 
lone, gained a complete and decisive victory over 
those of James II., commanded by St. Ruth, who 
fell early in the action. 

AGINCOURT, or AZINCOURT. a village of 
France, dep. Fas de Calais, 13 m. NW. St. PoL 
Pop. 438 in 1861. The place is famous in history 
for the great victory gained near it in 1415 by 
the English monarch, Henry V., over a vastly- 
superior French force. 

AGLIE, or AGLIA, a town of North Ttalv, 
pniv. Turin, 10 m. 8\V. Ivrua. Poj>. 3,321 lu 


18S1. It has a oollegUte chinch, and a mag- 
Bifioait_pa]ace with a conBiderable library. 

AGNES (ST.), one of the SdUy Islands being 
the most S. of the group. It contains about 300 
acies, and had in lH3i a pop. of 289, and 200 in 
1861. It is celdnated for its light-house with a 
rerohriDg light, in hit. 49° 53' 37' N., long. €9 19' 
23* W. The lantern is elevated 138 feet above 
high-water marie 

AGNOKE, a town of South Italy, prov. Cam- 
pobasso, 18 m. NNE. Isemia, in an elevated 
healthy situation. Pop. 10,320 in 1861. It has 
an immeujie numb« of churches, an hospital, and 
live mont»-de-i»^t^, which make loans of seed 
evm to the peasants. It is the seat of the pnn- 
cqtal copper manufactures in the kingdom. Some 
writers have affirmed that it occupies the site of 
the ancient Aqmkmia of the Samnites. 

AGOA DE PAO, a sea-port town of St. Michael, 
one of the Azores, 12 m. L. Punta del Gada ; near 
a mountain peak of the same name, 3,066 feet high. 

AGON, a small sea-port town of France, dep. 
La If anche, 7 m. W. Uoutanoes. Pop. 1,605 in 

AGOSTA, or AUGUSTA, a mariUme town of 
^cilv, am. cant., prov. Catania, on its E. coast, 
12 BB. N. Syracuse, lat. 37© 13' 35" N., long. 
15<^ 14' £. Pop. 9,735 in 1858. It stands on a 
peninsula, and was built in the 13th century by 
the emperor Frederick, who ncopled it from Cen- 
tnrissa, which was razed for sedition. It was 
nearly destroyed by the earthquake of 1693, when 
numbcn of people were crushed to death under 
the ruins of their houses, and a sulphurous \'apour 
tiniling its way to the principal powder magazine, 
it tjlew up with a tremendous explosion. A vimilar 
mifAmune occurred in 1848. Streets rt^lar and 
f«imllel. with some tolerable municipu edifices 
and magazines for articles of commerce ; but the 
btniaes are low and mean, and the inhabitants 
have an air of dejection and poverty. Their whole 
^xvtKSic^ depends on the export of salt, and a 
little oil, honey, and wine. It is strongly fortified 
bi4h on the land and sea sides. The harbour, 
though Father difficult of entrance, is deep, spacious, 
and secure ; but in E and S. gales there is often 
a heavy swelL The holding ground is excellent. 

AGKA, one of the ndrnkt, great divisions, or 
pvoriDcea into which Hindostan, or India N. of 
the Ncfbuddah River, was divided by the emperor 
Akbar. It lies chiefly between 25<^ and 28<^ N., 
and may be computed to ccmtain about 45,000 sq. 
OL. and from 6 to 7 ndllions of inhabitants. These 
rabahs or provinces of the Mogul empire were in 
fact equal in extent and population to kingdoms. 
The province of Agra lies in the alluvial plain of 
the Jumna and Ganges, with an elevation but a 
few hnndred feet above the level of the sea ; and 
the finest portion of it, well known under the 
Bsme (if the Doab, or country of the * two rivers,' 
lies between these streams. By far the greater 
purtioo of its surface is a dead flat. Although 
watered by three great na%'igable rivers, the Chum- 
bvl, Junna, and Ganges, the country is charao- 
tmsed in general for its drought, the greater part 
of its iir^^ation being effected by means of deep 
vHls. It ma^ also be described as eminently 
tkitdteot of tunber. From March to June the 
climate is diy, and extremely sultry ; firom June 
tu (.*ctober, sultry and rainy ; and from November 
to Fefamary inclusive, serene, dry, and cold, the 
thermometer almost every morning falling below 
the freezing point. With the exception of a few 
vfjudy pordons of the province Iving towards its 
W. extremity, and here only durmg the season of 
the periudicai rains, the donate is health^. No 
metaBae mines exist in the province ; and its only 



valuable minerals are the red sandstone, of which 
nearlv all the monuments of the cities of Delhi 
and Agra are constructed ; and a species of tufous 
limestone, called kanghar in the language of the 
country, and which b the only source from which 
lime is obtained for economical purposes. There 
are commonlv two harvests: the greater crops 
being reaped before the setting in of the rains m 
May and June, and the lesser in Decem1)er and 
January'. The principal com crops are those of 
wheat and barley. Rye is not known, and oats 
hardly so, and rice is not cultivated for want of a 
sufficiency of water. Of the smaller kinds of com, 
those chiefly cultivated are two species of millet, 
viz. Holcus Sorghum, called in the language of 
the countrv Jewar; and Holcus spicatusj called 
Bajercu 'These two constitute the chief bread 
com of the labouring people, who seldom taste 
wheat. Great quantities of pulses are rmsed as a 
winter crop for ttic food of man and cattle, the 
most common of which is the Cictr arrietum^ called 
grain bv Europeans. Mustard seed is raised for 
oil, and the sugar cane is cultivated for the manu- 
facture of sugar. Cotton is cultivated to a very 
considerable extent, and indigo is produced more 
extensively in tliis province than in any other 
part of Upper India. It was, indeed, from hence 
that the drug, in the earlier periods of European 
commerce, was procured for the trade of Europe. 
The great mass of the inhabitants are Hindoos ; 
among whom the two first classes in rank, the 
Brahminical and Military', are more frequent tluui 
to the eastward, or to the south. To the \V. of 
the Jumna, chiefly are found two nations or tribes 
well known in the history of Upper India, the 
Jauts and the Mematties, both distinguished by 
theif warlike and predatory habits. It is remaric- 
able of ^ country so long subject to Mohammedan 
mlc, and the immediate seat of power, that the 
proportion of Mohammedans found in this, as in- 
deed in the neighbouring provinces, b smaller 
than in the more remote one of Bengal. The in- 
habitants, of whatever denomination, are of more 
robust frames and a far bolder spirit than those of 
the last-named country'. The langiuige of the 
people throughout is the Hindi or Hindustany. 
The basis of this language is the Hindoo dialect, 
which was spoken in the kingdom of Kanoje, 
which Lb within the limits of this province, on the 
first Mohammedan invasions. 

AoRA, the name of a zillah, or district, consti- 
tuting a judicial and fiscal division of the last- 
named province, lying on both banks of the Jumna. 
Its computed area is 4,500 Eng. sq. m. ; and if it 
be equaJly populous ^ith the neighbouring pro- 
vince of I>elhi, of the population of wliich some 
estimate has been made, and it is probably some- 
what more so, it contains 273 inhabitants to the 
square mile, or near one million of absolute popu- 
lation. In 1813, ten years after thb dbtrict caine 
into Britbh possession, it was estimated to contain 
2,456,214 b^ahs of land, each equal to near one 
third of an Englbh acre, of which there were 
under actual culture 1,222,667; fit for culture 
330,807 ; and waste or uncultivable 902,740. Half 
the area of the whole dbtrict, therefore, was under 
actual tillage. The land tax as assessed to the 
land under culture was at the rate of two mpees 
and two anas a begah, or near 13«. an acre; a 
very high or rather oppressive land tax, for a poor 
country just recovermg from long disorder and 

AoRA, a city of Hindostan, cap. of the above 
province and clbtrict, on the S\V. bank of the 
Jiunna, which during the season of the floods is 
here about half a mile broad, and at no season 
fordable; in lat. 27^ 11 N., long. 77^ 53' E. It b 




distant from Calcutta 950 m., Madras 1190, and 
Bombay 850, and is connected by railway with 
(!!alcutta, Benarejt, and Delhi The present popu- 
lation iii estimated at. between 70,000 and 80,000. 
It is of considerable extent, and has now hand- 
some houses for European officers, subscription- 
rooms, churches, fort and arsenaL The town is 
very conveniently situated for the commerce of 
\V. India and E. i^ersia, and is the mart of a very 
considerable inland and frontier trade. The trading 
commtmication is, besides the chief medium of in- 
tercourse, the railway, carried on by boats on the 
Jumna and Chumbul. and by horses, camels, bul- 
locks, and bullock cartj» by land. The goods com- 
prising the imports consist of shawls, horses, camels, 
rock-salt, and the dry and fresh fruits and drugs of 
Persia , cotton wool and coarse cotton fabrics from 
the S., with Europe^an commodities by the Jumna 
and Ganges. The chief exports consist of raw silks, 
indigo, and coarse sugar. Agra, in remote times, 
appears to have been a fortified town of some 
consequence ; but it was not until the year 1504 
that it was made the seat of Mohammedan em- 
mre. This was effected by the Afghan emperor 
Sihtmdur Lodi. About half a century later the 
place was greatly embellished h^ Akbar, by far 
the most illustrious of all the Indian emperors. It 
continued to lie the seat of government dluing his 
reign and that of his son ; and Delhi was not re- 
stored as the metropolis until the reig^ of his 
grandson, Shah Jehan, in the year 1647. When 
Akbar fixed the seat of his government at Agra, 
he changed its name to Akbarahad, which con- 
tinues to be its Mohammedan designation. It 
contains many fine monuments, all of Moham- 
medan origin. The fortress is of great extent, the 
double rampart and bastions being built entirety 
of hewn red sandstone, and at least GO fe^t above 
the level of the Jumna, on the bank of which it 
stands. The most remarkable structure, how- 
ever, is the Taj Mahal, literally the * Crown of 
Empires.' This stands about 2 m. below the for- 
tress, and on Uie bank of the river. It is a mau- 
soleum, built by the einperor Shah Jehan in 
honour of his empress the hegum Narr Mahal ; a 
building of white marble raL^HKl on a terrace, and 
in the onlinary form of a Mohammedan mosque 
with minarets. The mosaic ornaments of the in- 
terior, including even the marble pavement, are 
extensive, rich, and elaborate, the flowers and ara- 
besques being composed of no less than twelve 
different stones, such as agates, jaspars, lapis la- 
zuli, and various coloured marbles, and the nu- 
merous quotations from the Koran being in black 
marble. A garden with fountains and highly 
ornamented gateways surroimds the mausoleum, 
and the toute ensemhle is supposed, whether for 
extent, symmetry, materiel^ or execution, to sur- 
pass any thing in the world of the same d^crip- 
tion. l*his is the uniform opinion, even of those 
who have seen the master-pieces of Italian art. 
* It is possible,' says the celebrated and accurate 
B^mier, ' I may fiave imbibed an Indian taste ; 
but I decidedly think that this monument deserves 
much more to be numbered among the wondere of 
the world than the pyramids of Egypt, — those un- 
shapen masses, which, when I had seen them 
twice, yielded me no satisfaction, and which are 
nothing on the outside but heaps of large stones 
piled in form of steps, one upon another ; while 
within there is very Uttle that is creditable either 
to human skill or to human invention.' The ar- 
chitect was a Mohammedan native of Sahar, and 
the whole building is said to have cost 750,0002. 
It is kept in excellent repair by the British govern- 
ment, which assigns a handsome annual revenue 
for this object. The tomb of the emperor Akbar, 


at Sectindra, 6 m. from Agra, would be oofindered 
a s|)lendid building in any place that had not the 
Taj Mahal to boast of. ft was constructed by his 
son, the emperor Jeh^ighire. A marble palace of 
Shah Jehan exists within the fortress; and the 
neighbourhood of the town for miles contains the 
ruins of palaces and tombs of costly materials and 
workmanship. Agra, with the district to which 
it belongs, was conquered by the chief Madhajee 
Sindiah m 1784, and formed a portion of the jaghcer 
assigned by this prince for the maintenance of the 
army, organised on the Euroijean system, and 
officered by Europeans, by means of which he 
maintained his supremacy in Upper Hindostan. 
In the course of the military operations whidi de- 
prived the Mahrattas in 1803 of nearly the whole 
of their possessions in Hindostan, Agra was be- 
sieged by Lord Lake, and surrendered after a 
practical breach had been effected in one of the 
Ixastions. Since that time it has continued in 
British occupation. The fortress has always a 
considerable garrison, and about two miloe beyond 
its waUs is a cantonment where a much larger 
military force is stationed. There are several 
modem buildings, including the English and 
Oriental College, the Metcalfe Testimonial, and 
the Government House. Agra was the birth- 
place of Abul Fazel, the famous prime minister ai 
the emperor Akbar. 

AGKAM, or ZAGRAB, a fortified dty of the 
Austrian empire, cap. Croatia, and the reeidenee 
of the governor-general, on a hill on the banks of 
the Save ; lat. 45° 49^ 2" N., long. 15^ 4' E. Pop. 
16,G57 in 1857. Agram is the seat of a bishopnc 
and of a tribunal of appeal for Croatia, the Bannat, 
and Slavonia. It has a superior academy, a gym- 
nasium, a Frandscan convent, a considenblc com- 
merce, particularly in the tobacco and com of 
Hungary, and manufactures of silks and porcelain. 

AGKEDA, a walled town of Spain, tntov. Soria, 
at the foot of Mount Cayo, celebrated oy MartiaL 
Pop. 8,120 in 1857. The town is ill built, has 6 
churches and 4 convents, with tanneries and pot- 

AGREVE (ST.), a town of Prance, dep. Ar- 
deche, cap. cant. Pop. 3,183 in 1861. 

AGUAS CALIENTES,a town of Mexico, prov. 
Guadidaxara, 100 m. NE. Guadalaxara; lat. 22^ 
N., long. 101^45' W. Est. pop. 20,000. The town 
is situated in a fertile distnct, has a fine climate, 
and is one of the handsomest of the Mexican towns. 
Being intersected by several great roads, it has 
an active and considerable commerce. It is cele- 
brated for the hot springs in its vicinity, whence 
it derives its name. 

Spain, prov. C^ordova, 22 m. SSE. Cordova. Pop. 
11,836 m 1858. 

AGUILAR DEL CAMPOS, a town of Spain, 
prov. Valencia, on the Pisueiga, 40 m. NW. 
Burgos. Pop. 1,026 in 1858. 

AHANTA, a rich well wooded tsrritonr on the 
Gold Coast of Africa, between the rivers AncdHa 
and Suberin. It has gold mines. 

AHMEDABAD, a town of Hindostan, presid. 
Bombay, prov. Gujerat, cap. district of same name, 
on the na\igab]e river the Sabermatty. Lat. 22^ 
58' N., long. 72^ 87' E. Estim, pop. 180,000. 
About the middle of the 15th century it was a 
flourishing city celebrated for the magnificence of 
its mosques, palaces, and streets; but it has since 
fallen greatly to decay. It is surrounded by a 
high wall flanked with towers; and is a great re- 
sort of itinerant players and poets. It suffered 
severely from the plague in 1812, and 6om an 
earthquake in 1819. The district of which Ahme- 
dabad is the cap. contains 4,356 sq. m. and an 

«d pop. of 650.890. Tfae town is the head- 

1 CH the DOTth division of the Bornbay 
ud hu ■ lulwaj- to " 
lEDPOKE, « towi 

lEDNDGGUk, M aty .nd fnitrsyi of Indin, 
Bombav, |VoT. Aanui^^abod, cap. district 
« nune, «i the river Swim, 7U m. NW. 
; Ut. 190 6' S„ loOB. 740 65' E. The 
bonded in 1493, ia enclosed by a etoae 
td haa 4 handflome maiket-nlace uid some 
piod stnetL At pn»ent it is the bead 
at a dvil ettabliihment, luid has about 
Inbatk eidmive of the K»ni»on. The for- 
little iray tnjm the town, is oval shaped, 
Nrt I m. in ciic : it is built entiiely of 
■d ia aumnuided by ■ lirnad and deep ditch. 
■■deted to Geoeral WcUeile; (Uuke af 
paa) in 1803. 

dbtiict or eoUectonle of which Ahmed- 
N the cap^ oralains aa area of 9,910 sq. m. 
pop. of about W0,000. 
lOOD. a unm of Gujerat, 20 ni. N. by W. 
; Ut. Sao 3' »„ lon^:. 73° 6' E. 
IWEILEU, a town of Pnissia. proT. Lower 
c^i. arc. on the Ahr, 23 m. WNW. Cob- 
Fop. 3.T09 in 1861. The towB bu nuuio- 
i<f elotb and Unneriei. 
FK, a veiy ancient town of France, dep. 
cap. cant., 10 m. SE. Gueret, va a mouu- 
^ f->ot of which flowi the Creuse. Top. 
> 1881. There are coal minea iu the ncigh- 

VAZ, or AHWUZ, a town of Persia, piov. 
tn, on (he KaruoD, 48 m. S. Shiuler. In 
timea thii waa a tarp: ami Souriahin); city, 
>r. of nme name, aud the wiulei residence 
Pcnian kinjni. It ia now a wretched plaoc, 
N ox 7(W inhalHtanla. Some ruins of the 
f an itill to be seen. Of ttieee the matt 
at attention are the remainB nf a bridge 
• river, and of a rgyal palace. The pmion 
rail of the latter now standing is built of 
loeka uT bewn alone, and ia alMut 3U0 feet 
ik, and 14 or li feet high. A little beluw 
, al the deseiled village of Sabia, an the 
I of a rtmaitable muund 01 dam made 
1m rivtr to procure water for the inigalion 
■mmoiUng coontry. (Kinnrar'a Per. Emp. 

S; or AJASSO, a mined aca-port of Aaiatic 
'.SB tbeN.sbnreorihegulf oflakendenwn. 
iUCH, « AICUA, a town of ISaratia, ciic. 
Dmube. on the Baar, 1! m. EXE. Aug>- 
Pon. 1,950 iu 1861. Near the town are the 
t ue aneient castle of WLttelabach, tnaa 
[ha mien irf Havana ' ' 

celebrated all 1 

, aad it has also (abrica of iiun and co). , . 
I, and uailo. It baa withaluod 

SjSi <ST.),at<iwn of France, dep. Lture et 

_ .__. ^. _. = „, :. „__ o,gQ(, in 

!. The Quantily annually 

ctmdb atimaled at Irum 3o,mKI,(KHi t< 
DM. Thaw for the nae of the army ar 

M caatle of Amboise. Tho tuwi 


AIGRE FEN1LLE, a village of France, dep. 
Charenle Infcricure, cap. cant, 13 m. NNE. Koche- 
fon. Pop. 1,H12 in ISGI. 

AIGUE PERSE, a town of France, dep. Puy 
de Dflme, cap. canl^ 11 m. tiSE. Kiom. Pop. 
2,697 in 1H61. Near it is the Chiteau de U 
Roche, the birthplace of the Chancellor de t'H6pi- 
taL The town haa manubcturca of doth and 

A1GUE8 MORTES, a town of France, dep, 
Gari, cap. cant,, 20 m. 8\V. NUmw; Ut 43= 33' 
68" N., long. 4° II' 22" E, Pop. 3.8G5 in 1861. 
Though now about 4 m. inland, Aieues Mortea 
was funnerly a sea-poit, aud wan, in fact, the 
place where St. Louis embarked on bii two expo- 
" '*' I. At present it is coanecied with 
nal, which ia prolonged tu Beau- 
Lc hand, while it is united on the 
other with that of Lan^edoc It i< fortified, and, 
1, ia an important poat for the do- 
•asL Owing to the retrogresaion 
of the sea, the town is aunounded by morahea 
(whence ita name Aqme Jtfnrtue), and is very un- 
healthy. The salt lake of Peccaia, in the neigh- 
bourhood, ia celebrated as well for the quality aa 

AIGUILLE (L'}, a celebrated mountain in 

rance, dep, Istre, 4 m, NW, Corps, height 2,000 

metres, or 6.365 feet. Its under part has the ajt- 

pearance of a truncated cone, and ita upper part is 

of a cnliical funn. It was lung auppueed to be in- 

vas hence calleti ;i/mu /iKio-euiK i 

afficer of Charles VIII. reached its 

AIGUILLON, a (own of France, d(>p. Lot et 
Gaiunne, at the confluence of the Lot and the 
Garonne, 17 m. KW. Agen, Pop. 3,7BI in 1861. 
la nnsuccessfulty besieged by Jcihn duke of 
landy iu 1345 \ when, it boa been said, bat 
iscorrectly, that canoona were first made use of. 

AIGUKANDE. a (own of France, dep. Indre, 
cap. cant„ 12 m. SW. Chilie. Pop. 2,146 in 1861. 
It is the centre of on extensive cattle trade ; and 
has, or hod, an octagonal monument, believed to 
be very ancient, but of which the object is ud- 

AILSA, an insulated rock in the Frith of Clvde, 
10 m. W, Gin-an. Ila baae is elliptical, and it 
rises abruptly from (he sea to the height of 1,098 
feet. Uconststa of columnar tn^k TheNW.nide 
ia almost perpendicular, being formed of suocesaive 

AIN, a frontier department in the E. of FraDce, 
having (he Rhone, which separates it from Savoy 
on the E. and S., the Saone on the W., and the 
depta. of Saoce et Loire, Jura, and part of Switzer- 
land, on the N. and NW. Ares £92,674 hectarce. 
Pop. 370,919 in 1801, Exclusive of the Rhone 
and Sonne, by which it is partly bounded, it ia 
divided by the Ain. vlience it lierivcs its name, 
into two nearly equal parts ; that to the K being 
rugged, mountainons, and principally adapted to 
pasturage ; whereas that to the W., though in 
parts manhy. ia generally level and fit for culti- 
vation. There are in the SW. purtion of tliis dep. 
a great number of lakes or ponda, some of which 
are subjected to a very peculiar species of rotation. 
It is usual to drain and culti%'ate them for a 
Reason ; and when the crop hoa been gathered 
tliey are agsia filled with water, and with dif- 
ferent sorts of Qah, according to the nature of the 
pond ; and after being occupied in this way for 
two ycara, or thereabouts, are again ilried and 



Bal)jcct€d to the plough. The extent of the ponds 
8o employed is esdmated at nearly 16,000 hec- 
tares. Tliw is found to l)e a very profitable species 
of cultivation ; though, from the humidity it occa- 
sions, it is said to render the climate unhealthy. 
Oxen, of wliich largo numbers are bred, are gene- 
rally used in tillage. Produce of com crops suffi- 
cient for the consumption. Vintage considerable, 
three-fifths of the produce exported. Woods very 
extensive, amountmg to ^>ut 120,000 hectares. 
Near Belle v are produced the best lithr^praphic 
stones in f'rance. Manufactures inconsiderable. 
Great numbers of the inhabitants emigrate an- 
niwlly after harvest to seek for employment in 
the contiguous departments. Cliief towns liouig. 
Naiitua, Trevoux, Belley, and Gex. But the 
most celebrated place in tiie dep. is Femey, long 
the residence of Voltaire. 

AIN-TAB, a large town in the N. of S%'Tia, on 
the S. slope of the Taurus ; lat, 36° 68' ^f ., long. 
370 13' 15*' E. ; 70 m. N. Aleppo, and 30 m. W. 
Bir, on the Euplirates. Pop. lias been estimated 
at 20,000, which, if the t(»wn be two-tliirds the size 
of AlepfK), as stated by Mnuudrell (Journal, 210), 
can scarcely he considered as exaggerated. The 
inhabitants consist of nearly equal numl>ers of 
Armenian and Greek Christians, Curds, and Mo- 
hammedans, among whom a spirit of toleration 
and unity ))revails unparalleled in most other 
E&Htem societies. They use the Turkish lan- 
guage. Houses were built, of a fine stone re- 
sembling porphjTy, flat-roofed, and generally of 
only one storj'. There arc five moscjues, and 
several large and well supplied bazaars. In the 
centre of the town is a castle on a mound, re- 
sembling, in everv respect, that of Aleppo, but 
much smaller. Water abundant, many of the 
streets ha\'ing streams flowing through them. 
On the S. is a large burial ground, which at a 
short distance resembles an important suburb, and 
is perhaps not much inferior in extent to the town 
itself. Manufactures of goat-skin leather, cotton, 
and woollen cloths, are carried on to w)me extent; 
and there is some trade in raw and tanned hides, 
cloth, honey, and tobacco. 

Ain-Tab'may be reganlexi as the capital of a 
limited but very fine countrj', consisting of small 
hills and valleys among the roots of the Taurus. 
The towns and villages in this little district arc 
very numejous, the most imiK)rtant being Adjia, 
8ilam, nnd Kles. At Adjia, 6 or 7 m. distant, is 
the source of the Koeik (the river of Aleppo) ; 
and within 10 yards of this stream there runs 
another, tlie Sejour, the banks of w^hich are thickly 
set with trees and tillages. The Sejour has a 
good bridge over it, about 2^ m. from Ain-Tab. 
Tlie air is good and the soil fertile; but cultiva- 
tion is not much followed, the majoritjr of the 
rural population being shepherds. Principal agri- 
cultural products com and tobacco. Bees are very 

Ain-Tab was taken and plundered by Timour 
Bee in 1400 ; but its favourable site and the tolerant 
spirit of its inhabitants have kept the district re- 
markably free from the usual Eastern casualties. 
The Turkish pachas, notorious as they are for ex- 
action and oppression, respect the homes and rights 
of these hanly mountaineers. They have, indeed, 
been taught this forbearance by some severe les- 
sons, haAing experienced, in every attempt at 
tvranny and extortion, a firm and successful re- 
sistance. The last of these attempts was made in 
1780, when the Turkisli forces were completely 
defeated ; since which the men of Ain-Tab and its 
vicinitv have been suffered to enjoy the produce of 
their delds, flocks, and bees, in undisturbed tran- 
quillity. According to Maundrell, Ain-Tab iaidcn- 


tical with the Antiochia ad Taurum of the andoits; 
but this is doubtfuL 

AIKDKIE, a royal and pari bor. and m. town of 
Scotland, co. Lanuk, pa. New Monkland, on rising 
ground between two little rivulets, 11 m. E. Glas- 
gow, on the railwav from Edinburgh to Glasgow. 
Pop. of pari bor. In 1841, 12,408, and 12,922 in 
18G1. 'The town consists principally of two pa- 
rallel streets joined by cross streets. It has a 
handsome town-house, and the houses of the 
labouring population are well built and comfor- 
table. In the early part of last century Airdrie 
contained only one solitary house. It owes its 
rapid rise to the coal and iron mines in its imme- 
diate >'icinity, and to its contiguity to the Monk- 
land canal and the Garakirk railway. The Calder 
and other great iron works in the neij^hbourhood 
employ a numl>er of hands ; and witlun the town 
there are iron founderies, at which machinery is 
made, with distilleries, breweries, malt bams, &c 
The wea%'ing of cotton goods on account of the 
Glasgow manufacturers has hitherto, however, 
been the principal source of emplovment ; and it 
has, also, a cotton factory. It is divided into two 
parishes; and besides the churches attached to 
them, it has sundry chapels in connection with 
the Free Church and the diflTeient classes of dis- 
senters ; with various schools and charitable insti- 
tutions. It is governed under a charter of 1833, 
bv a provost, three baillies, and twelve councillors. 
Burgh revenue, 1863-4, 2,700^. The Keform Act 
united Airdrie with Hamilton, I..anark, Falkirk^ and 
Linlithgow in the return of a member to the H. of 
C. Pari, and municip. const 389 in 1864. Annual 
value of real property in 1862-3 (railways not in- 
cluded), 12,24R 

AIKE, a river of England, important from its 
navigation and the numerous canals with which it 
is connectetL It rises in Yorkshire in the central 
mountain ridge, a little to the E. of Settle. It 
pursues a SE. course, till passing Leeds it is joined 
bv the Calder at Castleford ; its course is thence 
I^., with a good many windings, till it falls into the 
Ouse, a little above (jloole. From Leigh to Ferry- 
bridge the Aire flows through one of the richest 
pbins in the kingdom. 

Aire (an. Vidu JuUi), a city of ("ranee, dep, 
Landes, cap. cant, on the Adour, 80 m. SSrl 
Bordeaux. Pop. 1,960 in 1861. Tliis is a very 
ancient city, and has been since the fiiUi century 
the seat of a bisho])ric The Goths became pos- 
sessed of it in the sixth century, and it was for some 
time the residence of Alaric II. It suffered much 
in the wars with the English, and still more in tlie 
religious contests of the sixteenth century. The 
fortifications bv which it was once surrounded have 
now wholly disappeared. It is pretty well built, 
has a cathedral, a college, and a secondary eccle- 
siastical seminary. A bridge has been built over 
the Adour. 

Aire, a fortified town of France, den. Pas de 
Calais, cap. cant, at the confluence or the Lys 
and Laquette. Pop. 4,864 in 1861. It is prettv 
well built; has several public fountains; with 
manufactures of linen, hats, soap, Dutch tiles, ge- 
neva, &c. In a military point of view, it is of 
considerable importance for the defence of the 
country between the Lys and the Aa. 

AIKVAULT, a town of France, dep. Deux 
Sevres, cap. cant, on the Thou<^, 15 m. NNE. Par- 
tenay. Pop. 1,736 in 1861. The town is well Iniilt, 
and has the remains of an old castle and monastery 
destroyed in the sixteenth century. 

AISNE, a dep. in the north of Frince, between 
48© 50' and 50° 4' N. lat, and 29 56' and 4© 12' E. 
long.; the principal town, Laon, in its centre, 
being 75 miles NE. Paris. Area, 728,580 hectares. 



hojB, gnpe. 

*JM7 in 1R61. Tbe department is [nvened 
Ai^ne. when™ its name, tbe Oi»r, Mume, 
mptttbI caiuild. Surface gencrallv fUt or 
inR, bill in pan* tiilly: soil fcnile. Tlte 
cd landamounUto oliiul 5UU.0O0 ticcL 
IWI.INK) licinft ofcupiwi with woodn. 
rith mcBiluvni. Ai^culturBgiiwl; andifter 
10 for the iDhabiiantM tlicrre U a hv^e 
corn, lU H-ell on nf aliccji, oxen, horae.i, . 
■■ ako pmluces I 

Ot, TfrLAtoO^ R 

nude: but the onlinan' ibink of the' in- 
la ii»Tne«nd Lcor. Ttiia dep. i» celebrated 
unuficture^ at Ihc head of which miuCbe 
Uk ciittunM, locct, lairns. shawbi, table 
«.of 8c. Qneniini (he mirmni uf St. Go- 
!id the bolilc*, cif which Folambrv fiiraiibpa 
O00,IM0 a reu for the innes of Chunpn^rnc 
■lio coit 'irnn and imn plate foimderim, 
nd tile WD!^ motitifaclures of chemical 
I, and of beet-iDiit su^v, bleach Hold's &e- 
irided inui five airoii.L. 37 canl. and S37 

Chief Inmiii, Lson, SU Quentin, Soisaana, 
t'Thietrv, and Vervins. 

an ancient city of France, dep. Bouohes 
ine. cap. arroud, am! cant., fonneriy cap. 
W, in a plain at the foot of some bills, 16 
laneilles. on a short branch of the lailway 
iroua (u Mawilles. Piip. 27,G5!) in IfMil. 
n Tw founded by Caiui tkxtiiu Cal- 
I Boman general, 120 years B.C., and re- 
Lbfl name of Afjmt Stria, finm ltd tomous 
iagt. It in a wtU-built handAome town. 
generally veil paveil, wide and clean. It 
jsatiTtil pnimenade, and i 
nled with fuuntainA. A 
i* foimed by what i.i called the Palaii, an 
iSag containinK fitas: spacious halls, for- 
DCOtMed by the parliamcoi of Pnivetico and 
bik bodies. Ilhiualiv>it(iuni-]uill,C(intain- 
ilnable collection of antiquitiea, a magnifl- 
bwbml, a miueuni of pictures, o theatre, and 
abUc huildings. Previo 

oe gooil rq 

of the 

it Ufa 

it baa on ocadcmv equivalent 
th faculties of thculuf.'v and lav, and a 
: library- ronUininc ab^ive 1(W,0IK) vols. It 
ha seat nf a n»r imprriale for [he dcpta. of 
ebes da Khonc, Baw> Alpe^ and Var, and 
rebhiabopric ; and ban several lenraod eo- 
Aix has nunufaclurvB of sjlk, wool, and 
md its industry and commeice, chiclly in 
• materially increased witliin the jin:sent 
. The mineral springs, from wluch the 
ok its ancient name, were acciilentallv dis- 
m 17(M, and were identilioil by the modala, 
mas, and nihcr Kumaii mnnumenlB then 
Tbe eatahliihment of the baths belonna 

' 69,941, inclndii^ a garrison of 1,888. It is the 
seat of a buthup, of a court of appeal, a tribuiml 
of commerce, and bos on exchange, a ^mDnaniiiai 
or ciiUfcc, a school of arts, a picture Kallery, aiid a 
public bbrary with above 50,000 volumes. Manu- 
factnres conniderable. and recently increased. Ths 
moatimportontore those of broad-clnth and cotton, 
in which 4,500 persons are engaged; and ne;it la 
them [he famous needle-woiiis, which employ 
about 1,500 hands. Watchmaldne and jewellery 
are extensively carried on; and there are also 
print-works and tan-works. KieluMve of tbe 
catbeilral, there are eight Catholic ch^^clle^ a, 
Protestant church, and a syna^gut It had at 

but most of them have been euppreaseiL Among 
the public buildings, the moit remarkable are the 
town-house, enriched with portruita of the dilTer- 
ent ministers present at the n^otiation of the 
treaty of 1748 ; the cathedral, founded W Cbarte- 
magne ; and the fountain in the principal market- 
place, with a statue of Chariomagne, &c Handsome 
private houses are to be met with in every street. 
Aix-la-ChapcUe was the favourite residence of 
Charlemagne, and for snine time the capital of his 
empire ; licnce it was long customary to hold the 
coronation of the emperore of Germany in thia 
town; and till 1794, when they were cairiod to 
Vienna, the rq^ia used on the occasion were to 
be seen in tbe convent chapeL Strai^^en are stilt 
shown a sabre of Charlemagne, a copy of the 

nnmber of relico. 
Aix-la-Cbapelle is celebrated for its hot baths, 

celebrated is that calleil the Soxter dc rEmprrmr. 
The water is strongly impre^ateil with sulphur, 
and has a temperature of 143° Fah. The baths 
are generally opened with much cercmnny on ths 
1st of May, and are frequented by from 4,000 to 
5,000 bathers annnally. Two celebrated trealiea 
of peoce have been conclmled in this dty; the 
lirat in 1G8S, between France and S^iain ; and tike 
1 -_ ■"4(1^ between the different powcra en- 
he wars of the Austrian succossion. 
1 confess was held in 1818, which 
B period of (he Allies' occupation of 


e of the 

Tj. Pop. 4.253 in 1801. It is' celebrated 
M baths, which were in vogue among tbe 
i, and are atill extensively resorted to. 
I a large and cimvenicnt building for the 
odatiim of visilurs. 

LA.<.'1IAPELI.K (the Aacfitn of the Gci^ 
nd the A^iigruna of fhe Italians), an 
irell-lmili citv of Prussia, pruv. Lower 
■car llie couiinet uf the Netheriands, 
wmy from Bnissels to Odogne. Aix- 
B was fuimerly a free fanperial city, a 
.w. „p_ of ,' prnv .i:.—.^t ,.r fi.~ —. 

d in mi', 

the N. shIc of a gulph to 
UL 41<'65T'X., long. 8° 44' 4" E. "Pop. 4,038 
in ItlOt. It has a citadel built in l.'>34; is the 
seat of a bishopric ; boa a royal court and other 
judicial establishments, a collide, a model school, 
a public libnuy, a good thMiire, and a fine prome- 
nade along the bay. The latter is spacious and 
commodious, but exposed to the W. g^cs. Streets 
straight and broad, and houses good, liut it Ubours 
indCT a deficiency of good water. It has a con- 
aderable trade, exporting wine, oil, and coroL 
Ajocciu is memorable fnim its having l>cen the 
buth'piace of Ihc greatest war-captain of modem 
times. Sapolowi L was bom here on the 5th of 
August, 17U9, and a statue of the Emperor was 
erected at the principal place of the tuwn in 

AJMEKE, a town of Hindestan, cap. itutrict 
bclongins to the llritish. in Kajpnotana, 2S.5 in. 
SW. Italhi ; lat. W 31' S., long. 74" iS' E. Pop. 
estimated at 25,000. 1 1 L9 a well-boilt, moderate- 
sized town, on Iho slope of a high hill, at the 
summit of which is a fortress, formerly deemeit 
impTKnahle, and which, with a Utile imnnivement 
from European skill, might eaiuly be made a second 
(iibraltar. Ajmcre is a holy eiW, having llin 
good Ii)rtunc to puiaesa the tomb of ■ saint whomi 



miracles are renowned all over India. The emperor 
Akbar made a pilgrima^ on foot to the shrine of 
the floint ; and it contmues to bo resorted to by 
devotees from all parts of India. It b not uncom- 
mon, in Malwa, for pil^ms who have been at 
Ajmero to set up a brick or a stone token from 
tlie sanctuiuy near their dwelling, and to become 
saints themselves, and have pil^mages made to 
tliem ! A strong detachment of troops is usually 
stationed at Ajmere, and the nei/^rhbouring town of 
Naseerabad. It has now a medical school and a 
mission station. 

At a short dbtance W. from Ajmere is the cele- 
brated Hindoo temple of Pooshkur, on the banks 
of a sacred pool nearly a mile in circuit. It is 
annually visited in October by crowds of pilgrims 
firom all parts of India. 

gulph of Akal)ah is a deep narrow inlet, uniting with 
the NE. extrcmitv uf the Red Sea. It extends in 
a NNE. direction from 28° to 2^ 32' N. kt., a dis- 
tance of above 100 Eng. m. ; being, where broadest, 
10 or 17 m. across. It communicates with the Red 
Sea by channels on each side the isle of Tiran at 
its S. extremity. This gulph, the Sinus Elaniticut 
of antiquity, so called from the port of Elana or 
Elath, forms the E. boundary of the peninsula 
occupied by Mount Sintd. It has tlie appearance 
of a narrow deep ravine, the cliffs rising in some 

E laces 2,000 feet perpendicularly from the sea, and 
as been very little frequented in modem times. 
Being exposed to sudden and heavy squalls, and 
encumbonxl in parts with coral reefs, its navigation 
is not a little dangerous. 

The castle of Akabah, £rom which the gulph 
takes its modem name, is not a place of any 
strength. It is situated about 150 yards from the 
beach, on the E. side of the gulph, and about 2| 
m. from its extremity, in lat. 29° 30' N., long. 35^ 
8' £. It has a supply of go<Kl water, and there 
are several Arab huts within its walls. The gar- 
rison consists of about 30 Eg^^ptian soldiers, kept 
to guard the com deposited in it for the supply 
of the caravans, in their journey from Cairo to 

Akabah has been supposed to occupy the site of 
Elan or Elath, from which an extensive intercourse 
was carried on in the earliest ages with Khinocu- 
lora, now El Arish, on the Mediterranean, only 
116 m. distant. There are, however, no ruins of 
any kind at Akabah, and no port. It would, 
therefore, seem more probable that the situation 
of Elath is identical with that of Jezirat Faroun, 
on the W. side of the gulph, and about 6 m. from 
ita extremity, where there are very extensive 
ruins, and a natural harbour. Dr. Shaw supposes, 
apparently with much probability, that Meenap- 
ci-I)sah^e, i. e. the Golden Port, on the W. coast 
of tlie gulph, and nearly opposite to Mount Sinai, 
occupies the site of Eziongebery whence the ships 
of Solomon sailed to fetch gold from Ophir. It is 
said by Lieutenant Wellsted to be the only ' well- 
sheltered ' harbour in the gulph. (Shaw's Travels 
in Barbary, drc 4to. ed. p. 322. ; Wellsted's Travels 
in Arabia,* ii. passim.) 

AKERMAN (an. Tyra$), a fortified town of 
Russia in Europe, in Bessarabia, on the W. side of 
the aistuary or liman of the Dniester, near its 
junction with the BUck Sea; kt. Aff^ 12' N., long. 
80° 24' E. Pop. 19,076 in 1858. The citadel, sur- 
rounded by a deep ditch, was constmcted by the 
Genoese during the time that thev were masters 
of the Black ^ea. The Dniester Geing rapid and 
not well suited for internal navigation, the com- 
merce of the town is not very considerable. The 
exports consist principally of salt, the produce of 
the salt lakes in its vicinity. The basin of the 


Dniester having only £rom 5 to 7 feet water, the 
larger class of vessels anchor outside the bay, in 
the Black Sea, about 16 m. from town. 

Akerman is distinguished in recent diplomatic 
history by the treaty concluded here in 1826 be- 
tween Russia and the Ottoman Porte, by whidi 
Wallachia, Moldavia, and Servia were emanci- 
pated from all but a nominal dependence on the 

AKHISSAR (an. Thyatira), a city of Turkey 
in Asia, Anatolia, the seat of one of the Apocal^^y- 
tic churches, 58 m. NE. Smyrna. It stands on an 
eminence elevated but little above the siuTOunding 
marshy and alluvial plain. The town being situ- 
ated on the direct road between Constantinople 
and Smyrna, wean an appearance of comfort su- 
perior to that of Anatolian towns in ^neraL The 
oazaars are large and amply supphed ; the khan 
handsome, clean, and well ordered. According to 
the Utest estimates it has 1,000 Turidsh, 300 
Greek, and 30 Armenian dwellings, with a pop. 
of 6,000. It exports cotton goods. 

AKULAT, a town of Tuney in Asia, in Kur- 
distan, on the NW. shore of lake Van, at the foot 
of the Seibandagh. It is very ancient, and was 
formerly a place of considerable importance ; but 
it is now greatly decayed, not having more than 
1,000 houses, or perhaps 6,000 inlkah. Its territoiy 
is filled with gardens and vineyards. {See Kin- 
neir*s Persian Empire, p. 328., where it is noticed 
imder the name Argiih,) 

AKHTYRKA, a town of Russia in Europe, go- 
vern, of Kharkoff, 60 m. NW. Kharkoff. Pop. 
13,946 in 1858. It has a pretty considerable com- 
merce ; and among its churches is one that attracts 
a good man^ pilgnms to visit a miraculous imago 
of the Virgm. 

AKISKA, or AKHALZIKH, a city of AaUtic 
Russia, prov. Greoigia, formerlv the cap. of a Turk- 
ish pachalik, on an affluent of, and at a short dis- 
tance from the Kur, 115 m. W. Tifib; lat. 31o 45' 
N., long. 43^ 1' E. Pop. has been estimated at 
about 15,000, two-thirds Armenians. It is an open 
town, but is defended by a strong castle situated 
on a rock. It b rema^able for its fine mosque of 
Sultan Ahmed, built in imitation of St. Sophia, 
and for the collie and library attached thereto. 
The latter was reckoned one of the most curioos 
in the E. ; but the Russians have removed about 
300 of the rarest and most valuable works to 
Petcrsburgh. Akbka b also the seat of a Greek 
archbishopric, and has about 60 Jewbh families 
and a synagogue. Its environs are productive of 
silk, honey, and wax ; and it has some manufac- 
tures. It was formerly a principal seat of the 
slave trade. The slaves sold in its maiicets were 
brought from Geory^ Mingrelia, Imeritia; and 
being conveyed to the nearest ports on the Black 
Sea, were shipped for Constantmople and Alexan- 
dria. Thb commerce b now entirely suppressod. 
Many of the Turkbh inhabitants have left the 
town since its occupation bv the Russians. 

A K SERAI, a town of 'furkey in Asia, in Ka- 
ramania, cap. sanjiack of same name, on the SW. 
arm of the JKizil Ermak, 90 m. KE. Koncieh (an. 
Iconium), Pop. estim. at 10,000. It has a castle ; 
and its territory b productive of com and fruits. 

AK-SHEHR (the White City), a dty of AsUtic 
Turkey, Karamania, sanjiack of the same name, 
55 m. ESE. Afiui^ Karahissar; lat. 38^ 18' N., long. 
31° 30' E. It b situated near the S. extremity of 
a considerable lake, at the foot of a mountain 
chain, in a rich and well watorcd country. Its 
position b said to be identical with that of the 
ancient Thymbrium, visited by the yoimger Cyrus ; 
and, according to D'AnviUe, it was denominated 
AnHoi^ia ad FituUoMj from its being on the con- 


fines of Pindia, of which pror. it afterwards be- 
came the capital. It is mentioned in Turkish 
annals as the place where Bajazet was confined 
by Timoor, and where he expired. It is supposed 
by Mr. Kinneir to have about 1,500 houses, with 
many fine gardens in the vicinity. Its principal 
ornament is a handsome mosque and college, de- 
dicated to the monory of Bajazet. The streets 
are cleaned by means of streams firom the neigh- 
bouring mountains that run through them. ^lun- 
Detr's Jonmey through Asia Minor, p. 226 ; Obvier, 
vi. p, 396.) 

AKTAB, a maiit. town .of India beyond the 
Ganges, cap. pcov. ArracaUj and of a dist. of same 
name, on the £. of the island of Akyab; lat. 
20O 8' N., long. 92^54' E. It is built of wood ; has 
faitwd streets, and markets for grain, and European 
MDd Indian goods. Its harbour, though inferior to 
that of Kyouk Phyos, is safe ; and it is, in most 
other leqiects, superior to the last mentioned town 
as a place of true. The vicinity is level, fertile, 
free firom jungle, and traversed by several roads. 
It is the residence of a British commissioner. 

ALA, a small town of Jthe Tyrol, on the Adige, 
7^ rau S. Roveredo. Pop. 4,820 in 1858. It has a 
g3rmnasium and a Capuchin convent, and manu- 
facuzRfl of silks and velvets. 

ALABAMA, one of the United States, in the 
S. part of the Union, between 3(P 10' and 85^ N. 
lat., and 850and 8803O' W. long., having S. Flo- 
rida, SW. Golph of Mexico, W. State ot Missis- 
sippi, N. Tenessee, and £. Geoigia. Area, 50,722 
so. m. Pop. in 1820, 144,041 ; in 1830, 309,527, 
01 wh<Hn 117,549 were slayes, and 1,572 firee 
Uacks; in 1860, 964,201, of whom 435,080 were 
slaves, and 2,690 free coloured. The principal 
river, the Mobile, formed l^ the junction of the 
laige rivers Tombigbee and Alabama, both of 
which flow Sw, falls into the bottom of Mobile 
Bay. The Chattahoochee also flowing S. forms 
m part the £. boundary of the state. The country 
padnallv rises firom the low level lands along the 
Golph of Mexico, to an elevation of £rom 1,000 to 
1,500 It. in its N. parts. It has, in consequence, 
a considerable difference of temperature. Soil 
mostly very fertile, particularly in the N. counties. 
GcAton is the staple product, the crop of which, 
{sevioos to the late Secession war, was rapidly in- 
creasiiig. The sugar cane is cultivated m the S. 
Indian com is the principal com crop, 
erected into a state m 1819. The 



eovemment is vested in a govemor, elected for 
2 years, a senate dected for 8 do., and a house of 
Rpresentatives elected annually. Members of the 
latter receive 4 dolL a day each, and their number 
a not to fall short of 60, nor to exceed 100. 
Judges of the supreme and circuit courts are 
deded by a joint vote of the two houses of as- 
Mmbly for 7 and 6 yean. Several canals and 
aihrays have been completed, and more projected. 
In 1862 there were 743 m. of railways open, but a 
jrood many have been more or less deetroved during 
the dvil wax; Liberal provision has been made 
fi* edncation; and a state university, well en- 
doired, and on a large scale, has been founded 
near the cap. Tuscaloosa. The principal foreign 
tnde of the state is carried on from Mobile (which 
•ee). The value of the domestic produce, prin- 
dpslly cotton, exported during the year 1835, 
amounted to 7,572,128 doll, which had increased 
in 1860 to 88,670,188 dolL 

ALABASTER, or ELEUTHERA, one of the 
TUh«w or Lttcayo islands, which see. 

ALAIS (an. Aiuia), a town of France, dep. 
Gard, cap. arrond., on the Gardon d^Alais, at the 
foot of the Cevennes, 25 m. NW. Nismes; lat. 
440 r 22^ X^ long. 80 4' 25" E. Pop. 20,257 in 

1861. The town is ancient, and pretty well 
built. During the religious ware of France, the 
inhabitants were distinguiDhcd by their attach- 
ment to the Protestant party, and to bridle them 
Louis Xrv. constmcted a fort in the town. It 
has a communal college, a tribun^ of primary 
jurisdiction, a theatre, a public library, a consis- 
torial Protestant church, &c. It has, also, manu- 
factures of riband, silk Ftockings, and gloves; 
with a ^lass work, potteries, copperas works, &c. 
Besides its own products, it has a considerable 
trade in the raw and dressed silks, oil, grain, Ac. 
of the surrounding coun^. There are mines of 
iron and coal in the vicinitv. 

ALAND (ISLANDS OlP), a group of islands 
belonging to Russia, at the entrance of the Gulph 
of Bothnia, between 59® 50' and 60° 82' N. lat, 
and 190 10' and 2P 7' E. long., consisting of more 
than 80 inhabited and upwards of 200 unmhabited 
islets and rocks (Sharon), occupying an area of 
about 470 sq. m., and divided into three oblong 
clusten by the straits of Dclet and Lappvttsi. The 
Baltic bounds them to the S. ; on the W. the 
straits of Alandshaf separate them from Sweden, 
their width being about 24 m. ; and on the £. Uie 
straits of Wattuskiflet, which are scarcely 2 m. 
broad where they are narrowest, and about 14 
where they are broadest, interpose between tiiem 
and the Fmland shore. Pop. 15,000 in 1858. The 
principal of the islands, called Aland, has a pop. 
of 9,000, and the chief town here, likewise named 
Aland, a pop. of nearly 8,000. Nearly all the in- 
habitants are of Swedish extraction. 'Most of the 
islands stand at a considerable elevation above 
the level of the sea, and are intersected by chains 
of granite rocks, which occasionally rise into 
peaks, and are full of hollows. There are no 
rivere, but many small lakes. The surface is 
either a thin layer of clay or rich mould, slate- 
stone or sand. 'The climate, though keen, and at 
times severe, is more temperate than that of Fin- 
land. There are extensive forests, chiefly of 
birches and pines ; the pasture grounds are very 
poor, excepting near some parts of the coast ; and 
the ar^le land, on which nre and bariey are 
mostly grown, produces a sufficiency for domestic 
consumption, the best yielding seven-fold. Hops, 
cabbages, parsnips, carrots, and other roots, pota- 
toes, and a little flax are likewise raised. Nuts 
form an article of export. The homed cattle, of 
which there are upwards of 12,000, are small in 
size, and few of the cows have horns ; the latter 
fumish the 'Aland cheeses,* which are much 
sought after, and made principally in the island 
of Fagloe. Of sheep there are above 13,000, the 
wool of which is converted into coarse stufls and 
sail-cloth ; horses and goats are also bred in con- 
siderable numbers. * The fisheries are productive, 
partictilarly of {ttrondinge) herrings and seals, of 
the first of which 6,000 tons and upwards are 
salted. MVaterfowl abound. The exports consist 
of salt meat, butter, cheese, hides, and skins, dried 
and salted fish, wood for fuel, drc. ; and the im- 
ports of salt, ^lonial produce, ironware, woollens, 
cottons, and other manufactures, &c The Alandera 
are excellent seamen, and navigate small vessels 
of their own that trade vrith tlie adjacent parts : 
they are Swedes in their language, mannere, and 
usages. There are a number of good harbours, 
many of which have been fortified by the Rus- 
sians, who keep up a disproportionately large mili- 
tary force in the blands, as well as a numerous 
flotilla, called the ' Skaerenflott.* One of these 
harboure, Bomartund, strongly fortified, and a 
station of the Russian fleet, was destroyed by the 
Anglo-French fleet in 1854. The islimds contain 
8 parishes and as many churches, and 7 churches 



or chapels of ease. Aoland, the lax^cst island, is 
nearly circular, bein^ about 17 miles in length 
and IG in breadth ; it contains above 9,0(H) inha- 
bitants, and has an excellent harbour at Yttcr- 
naes, on the \V. side. It is divided by a narrow 
strait from Ekcroe, the westernmost island, which 
has a tcle^i^ph. On the E. coast of Aoland is the 
old castle or (*astleholm, now in ruins. These 
islands were wrested by Russia from Sweden in 
1809; and ^ve the former a position from which 
thoy may easily make a descent on the Swedish 

ALA-SHEHR (the exalted city), a city of 
Turkey in Asia, pro v. Anatolia, famous as the seat 
of one of the A^)ocalyi)tic churches. It was for- 
merly called Philadeijmia, The town is situated 
83 m. E. Smyrna, near the Copcamus, partly in the 
plain, and |)artly on one of the roots of Tmolus, 
which, separated by a valley from the posterior 
ranp^ and rising to a verv considerable elevation, 
is the site of the Acro|K)lis. The old wall of the 
town, formed of small st4>ncs held together by a 
strong]; cement, and strcnjifthejied with towers, is 
broken down in many places, and the Acropolis is 
also in ruins. The modem houses are mean and 
irre^lar, and the streets narrow and lilthy. The 
ruins of the church of St. John are of great anti- 
quity, and ancient relics meet the eve at every 
step. Ala-Shehr contains nearly 3,000 Yurkish and 
250 Greek houses ; so that the pop. may be esti- 
mated at from 15,000 to 18,000. It is the seat of 
a Greek archbishop, and ^Wne service is regubrly 
performed in 5 Christian churches. The count^ 
round is very fniitful ; the waters are said to be 
exceUent in dyeing ; and being situated on one of 
the m<ist frequented roads to Smyrna, it is much 
resorted to by caravans, and has a good deal of 
trade. It is held so sacred, even by the Turks, 
that they occasionally convey their dead thither 
for interment, from Constantinople ; and apply to 
it the epithet of Ala, or the exalted. 

Philadelphia derived its name from Attains 
Philadelphus, brother of Eumenes, by whom it 
was founded in the second century B.C. Strabo 
says, that it suffered much from repeated shocks 
of' earthquakes; and it was one of the fourteen 
cities which were partially or wholly destroyed by 
a subterranean convulsion in the reign of Tiberius. 
Anciently, indeed, it was matter of surprise that it 
was not abandoned; but it continues to be a con- 
siderable place; and the church of Philadelphia Is 
still erect, 'a column in a scene of ruins.' it was 
the last city of Asia Minor that submitted to the 
Turks. *At a distance from the sea, forgotten by 
the emperors, encompassed on all si<les bv the 
Turks, her valiant citizens defended their religion 
and freedom, above fourscore years; and at length 
(ill 1800), capitulated to the proudest of the 0th- 
mans.' (Gibl)on, cap. 64.) 

ALASSIO, or ARRACI, a »ea-nort town of 
Northern Italy, prov. Genoa, 5 m. SSVV. Albenga. 
Pop. 4,r^i4 in 1801. Most of the inhabitants are 
industrious, active, and daring seamen. There is 
good anchorage fipposite to the town, which con- 
sists of a long narrow street Fine coral is fished 
on the coast. A good harbour for tlie largest class 
of vessels might be formed between Cape Mele 
and the island of Galiuara. 

ALATRI, a citv of Central Italy, prov. Fro- 
sinone, G m. NE. (Vosimme. Pop. 11,370 in 1861. 
The city is the seat of a bishopric, Las a cathedral, a 
collegiate church, and some convents. Antiquities 
are fnM^uently dug up in the environs, which 
abound in oUves and \nnes. 

ALATYR, a town of Russia in Europe, gov. 
Simbirsk, at the confluence of the Alatyr with the 
Sura, UO m. NNW. Simbiisk. Pop. 4,407 in 1858. 


It is built of wood, has tanneries, a gliSB work, 
and a considerable trade in com. 

ALAYA (an. Otracenum), a sea-port town of 
Turicey in Asia, Anatolia, cap. sanjiack of the same 
name, on the E. side of a lofty pmmontory ; lau 
360 31' 61" N., long. 320 2' 24" E. Pop. about 
2,000. The promontory on which this town is 
built bears a striking resemblance to that of 
Gibraltar. It is joined to the continent on the N. 
by a low sandy isthmus, from which it rises 
abmptly; and its W. and S. sides consist of per- 
pendicular chffs 500 or GOO feet liigh. The E. 
side, on which the town is built, is also so steep 
that the houses seem to stand on the top of each 
other. * In short, it forms a natural fortress that 
might be rendered impregnable; and the numerous 
walls and towers prove how anxiously ita former 
possessors laboured to make it so.' At present it 
IS of trifling importance : streets and houses mise- 
rable; mosques few and mean. When \'isited by 
Captain Beaufort it liad no si^s of commerce. 
The bay is open to southerly wmds, and the an- 
chorage indifferent. 

Coracesium shut ita gates against Antiochui 
when all the otlicr towns of Cilicia had submitted; 
and at a subsequent period it was the place selec- 
ted by the pirates at which to make a last stand 
in their struggle with Pompey. (Beaufort's Kara- 
mania, p. 172, drc) 

ALBA, a town of Xorthem Italy, prov. Cuneo, 
on the Tanaro, 82 m. SSE. Turin. Pop. 9,077 in 
1861. It has a tribunal of original jurisdiction, a 
cathedral, 3 parish churches, a coll^^e, and a con- 
siderable trade in cattle. 

ALBACETE, a town of Spain, prov. Muida, 
9 m. NW. Chinchella, agreeably situated in a vast 
and fmitful pbim. Pop. 11,860 in 1857. The 
town has manufactures of coarse cloth and soap. 
Great (quantities of wine and safiron are er>llocted 
in its Aicinity; and a great cattle market ia annu- 
ally held in September. 

ALBAN (ST.) a town of France, dep. Lozere, 
22 m. NNW. Mende. Pop. 2,270 in 1861. 

ALBANIA, a large porov. of European Turkey, 
bounde<l N. by Dalmatia and Servia, E. by Mace- 
don and Thessaly, S. by Livadia, and W. by the 
Adriatic, along with that part of the Mediterranean 
called the Ionian Sea, hnng generally between lat. 
890 and 43® N., long. I'O^ and 21© 30'' E. It thus 
comprehends, in its widest acceptation, the ancient 
lUyria and Epims, and is at present included in 
the Turkish government of Romania. Its area ia 
18,944 sq. m., and the pop. is estimated at 1,200,000. 
The mountains in the north rise to the height of 
9,000 feet, but the country includes the fertile 
plains of Scutari and others. The climate is warm 
out healthy. The maritime trade is for the most 

Eart carried on through the ports of Prevcsa, Sala- 
ora, Gomenitza, Sayada, Santi Quaranta, and 
Avlona, while at most of the smaller port^ that 
indent the western coast a petty trade, of which 
no statistics liave been collected, is carried on with 
Corfu. The safest port on the Adriatic is Avlona. 
The largest town in the province is Janina, on a 
lake of the same name, which has a pop. estimated 
at 36,000. The principal productions and exporta 
are valonia, tobacco, olives, Indian com, <lye-wood, 
raw liides, wool, raw silk, cheese, salt provisions, 
<Inigs, sheep, and horses; but nearly all the pri>- 
ducts of Southern Europe, including cattle, may 
1»e included in the list of tlie district's capabilities. 
The Albanians are principally Mohamme<lans 
though on the coast a considerable number are 
of the Greek or Roman churches. Lately con- 
siderable attention has been paid to the constnir- 
tion of roads. In the end of 1863 telegraphic 
communication was established between Con- 


ffUntinople and Janina, by way of Salahora and 
Jariwa, and works were in proj^ress in 1865 for 
continuing it to Arba and Prevesa. (Ck)n8ular 

OF), in the Caa^xwrna di Roma, situated in the 
line of the Apfuan Way, on a hUi, near the SW. 
side of the lake, about 14 m. SSE. Knme. Pop. 
6.44)0 in 1868. Tliis town is not built, as some 
haTc soppoeed, on the site of Aiba Lan^ which 
stood on the otho* side of the lake, but on the 
foins of Pumpey's villa. Its situation, at a mode- 
rate elevation above the level of the plain, fine 
salubrious air, shady walks, and magnificent views 
of the 'eternal city,' the Campagna, and the sea, 
make it a favourite retreat or the more opulent 
Roman citizens, particularly durinp; spring and 
autumn. It is the seat of an archbishop; is well 
built: has a cathedral and some convents, with 
many fine palaces, among which may be specified 
th4«e o( the Otfsini and Barbcrini families. At a 
little distance, on the margin of the lake, is Castcl 
(yandolfo, the summer residence of the pope. The 
adjacent country is almost wholly appropriated to 
the culture of the vine; and the wine which it 
vields still maintains its ancient reputation. 

The ]Mke of Albano, a little to the NE. of the 
town, is sunounded on all sides by very high 
bankii, except towards the N., where they are a 
little lower. It has the form of an irregular 
ellipse, and there would appear to be little doubt 
that it occupies the crater of an extinct volcano. 
The distance round the crater, or summit of the 
hasin of the lake, is estimated at about 8 m., and 
that round the water^s edge about 4 m. It is in 
pans very deep: a variety of fish are found in it, 
among which are eels of an immense size, and 
bicfaly esteemed. 

But the subterranean conduit or tunnel, called 

by the Italians an nnuMario, for conveying away 

jta surplus water, is the feature most worthy the 

attention of the intelligent traveller who visits this 

Iske. This tunnel, intended to prevent the waters 

(•f the lake from injuring the surrounding country 

by overflowing its banks, and to keep them alwavs 

at their inre^ent level, was completed at an early 

period of the Roman history (about 400 years 

ax.), and bears unequivocal proofs of the sagEicity 

and perseverance of those by whom it was exe- 

CQted. It is cut right through the mountain, and 

mostly through solid rock, a distance of con- 

ndnably more than a mile, being generally about 

3 U:tt 10 inches wide, and from G^ to 7 feet in 

bei^t : at its entry from the lake, and its issue 

in the plain, it is solidly built round with large 

ftones. arched at top, and is in perfect preser\'a- 

tML This great work Lb said to have been com- 

I*W(ed in about a year; but it has been objected to 

this, that as only three or at most four men could 

luTe wrought together, and these at the outer end 

<^ the tunnel only, the other end bein^ under 

vater, it must •have taken many years for its com- 

pMon. But I%ancsi has shown that after tracing 

the line of the tunnel above ground, shafts had been 

Kmk, by which workmen might have been let 

dffvn in various places, and the work completed 

vithin the stated time. 

The Alban Mount {Mtnu Albanut)^ now Monte 
Cno, lies a little to the E. of the lake. It is 
aboat 3,176 feet in height; and the view from its 
Munmit, extending ov«^Latium and a great cx- 
t»t of country, is one of the noblest that can be 
ima^ned. It was crowned by a temple in honour 
*4 Jupiter Latialis, where sacrifices were annually 
•idcred up by deputies from the various Latin 
Ktates, with the Romans at their head, to their 
cunmoo CatlMr and pcotector. Here, alao, the 



Roman generals refused the honour of the great 
triumph in the city, performed the lesser triumph, 
or ovation, and sacrificed to Jupiter Latialis. 
Some fragments of this famous tem])lc existed in 
^750; but they have since disappeared. (Besides 
tlie authorities referred to, see the excellent woric 
of Lumsden on the Antiquities of Rome, pp. 453 

ALB AN'S (ST.), an ancient borough of Enghmd, 
CO. Hertford, occupying the summit and sides (»f a 
low hill, on a fewler of the Colne, 20 m. NNW. 
London, on the London and North Western rail- 
way. Pop. of parish 3,679, and of munici|)al 
borough 7,675 in 1861. The borough long had 
the privilege of returning 2 m. to the H. of C, 
the right of voting having been vested in the free- 
men, whether resident or not, and in scot^and-lot 
householders; but it was a few years ago disfran- 
chised on accoimt of corruption at the elections. 
The place is very ancient, and is cither on or very 
near the site*of the ancient Roman Vemiamium. 
The abbey church Ls the most imposing object in 
the place; and is celebrated alike lor its antiquity 
and great magnitude. It lately underwent a 
thorough repair. In the church of St. Michael is 
the Uivcih of the great Lord Bacon, with a fine 
marble monument to his memory. There b a free 
grammar school, with several charitable institu- 
tions. The town \» not thriving. Straw pliiit is 
the principal manufacture; and there are besides a 
cotton mill and a silk mill, but neither on a laige 
scale. There is a market each Saturday. 

ALBAN'S HEAD (ST.), a cape of Enghmd, on 
the EngUsh Channel, co. Dorset ; lat 60° 38* 10" N., 
long. 20 6' 15" W. 

ALBANY, a city of the United States, cap. state 
of New York, on the \V. bank of the Hudson, 
145 m. N. New York; lat. 42° 39' 3" N., long. 
73° 44' 60" W. Pop. in 1825, 15,971 ; in 1840, 
33,721 ; and in 1860, 62,367. Besides being the 
seat of government, it is, in population, wealth 
and commerce, the second city in the state. It is 
finely situated at the head of the river naAngation 
of the Hudson, and is now connoted by canals 
with Lake Erie and the Mississippi on the one 
hand, and with Lake Champlain and the St. I^w- 
rence on the other. It is also the centre where a 
number of railways meet connecting it with Buf- 
falo, Boston, Lake Champlain, and New York ; so 
that it is, and has fur a considerable time been, one 
of the principal centres of internal commerce in 
the Union. A fine basin has been constructed for 
the accommodation of the shipping <»n the river 
and the canals. Among the public buildings are 
the capitol, the state house, an academy, a splendid 
museum, a jail, with numerous bonks and places 
for public worship. 

ALBANY, a district of S. Africa, belonging to 
Great Britain, at the E. extremity of the Capo 
Colony. It has on the E. the Great Fish river, on 
the W. Boshuana river, on the N. on imaginary' 
line^ drawn from the junction of the Great and 
Little Fish rivers to the Konap, and on the S. the 
ocean. Its area has been variously estimated, but 
may probably amount to about 2,000 sq. m. or 
1 ,280,000 acres. I ts aspect is highly pleasing, being 
diversified with hill and dale, its verrlant pastures 
and smooth grassy knolls, contrasting agn*eaJ)ly 
vrith the dark masses of forest, which clothe the 
broken groimd near the river courses. Soil very 
various. The stiff clavev lands would be the rnowt 
pnKiuctive, were they sufiiciently watered ; but as 
rain is precarious, and the rivers' are said not to be 
suitable for irrigation, light friahle soils are pre- 
ferretL Climate temperate, salubrious, and suit- 
able for European constitutions. Lions, w<»lveM, 
and leopards are occasionally met with; but are 



every day becoming rarer. Elephants arc now 
seldom seen within the limits of the district. 
Horses, cattle, sheep, goat^ h(^]^ &c., thrive re- 
markably well, and their produce forms the great 
deiicndcnco of the colonists. The country is tn>- 
versed by numerous streams, of which the Great 
Fish river is by far the most important. Prc- 
Wously to 1820, there were not more than 1600 
Europeans in the district; but government having 
given encouragement to emigration to this quarter, 
3,720 emigrants landed in 1820, at Algoa Bay, 
whence the greater number proceeded to this dis- 
trict. For the first 4 or 5 years, the colonists suf- 
fered severely from a failure of the wheat, crops ; 
but their progress from 1825 down to 1835 was 
comparatively rapid, and presented a picture of 
prosperity and advancement, not often to be met 
with in the early annals, even of the most suc- 
cessful colonics. At the last-mentioned epoch, 
however, this career was suddenly arrested by an 
irruption of the CaiTres, who destfoyed a great 
quantity of valuable property, and kilted several 
of the colonists. This invasion having been re- 
pelled, and peace having been again restored with 
the Caffres, a lieutenant-governor was appointed 
tx> the £. province^ and the district is fast recover- 
ing from the losses it had sustained. The pop. in 
1861 was estunated at above 20,000, with 15,000 
whites. Graham's Town, the cap. of the E. prov. 
and the residence of the lieut,-govemor, is situ- 
ated almost in the centre of this district. A town, 
called Port Frands, has been founded at the mouth 
of the Kowie river; but as the access to it is ob- 
structed by a dangerous bar, it is doubted whether 
it will ever become of any material importance. 
The shipping trade of the mstrict is chiefly carried 
from Port Elizabeth on Algoa Bav. 

ALBEMARLE SOUND, United States, coast 
of N. Carolina, in the NE. part of the state, being 
GO m. long from E. to \V., and from 4 to 15 
wide. It communicates with Pimlico Sound and 
the ocean by several narrow inlets, and with 
Chesapeake Bay by a canal cut through Dismal 

ALliENGA (an. AWium Ingaunum), an ancient 
tea-port town of Northern Italy, prov. Genoa, 44 
m. SW. Cxenoa, on the Centa. Pop. 4,189 in 1861. 
It is the seat of a bishopric, and has several re- 
mains of antiquity. The situation is imhealthy ; 
but the suiroundmg country is productive of oil 
and hemp. This is the birthplace of Proculus, a 
competitor with Probus for the throne of the 

ALBERT, a town of France, den. Somme, cap. 
cant., on the Miraumont, 15 m. ENE. Amiens. 
Pop. 3,806 in 1861. It has a cotton mill, with 
print works, bleachfields, and paper mills. In its 
vicinity is a cave or quarry wncre there are a va- 
riety of petrifactions. 

ALBINO, a town of Northern Italy, prov. Ber- 
pmio, on the Serio, 7 m. NE. Bergamo. Pop. 2,627 
in 1861. It is very well built, the castle and gar- 
dens of Count Spini being particularly wortJiy of 
notice. There are silk filatures, with a manufac- 
tory of agricultural implements and machinery for 
polishing whetstones renowned all over Europe. 

ALBION (NEW),alaiKe tract of the NW.coast 
of America. This designation was given by Sir 
Francis Drake to California and part of the adjoin- 
ing coast; but recent geographers, and among 
others Humboldt, limit the denomination of New 
Albion to that part of the coast which extends 
from the 43rd to the 48th deg. N. lat. 

ALBUFEIRA, a sea-port town of Portugal, S. 
coast Algarve, 28 m. E. Lagos ; lat, 87° T 30" N., 
long. 70 19' 12" W. Pop. 2,800 in 1858. Large 
vessels may anchor in the port, which is defended 


by a citadel and batteries. The inhahttants mostly 
subsist by fishing. 

ALBuHERA, a town of Spain, Estremadon, 
14 m. SSE. Badajoz, on the river and near the 
mountain of the same name. Hero, on the 16th 
May, 1 81 1 , a sanguinary conflict took place between 
the allied British, Spanish, and Portuguese troops 
under Marshal Beresford, and a F^nch force iin^ 
Marshal Soult Each army lost about 7,000 men 
in killed and wounded. On the allied side the 
chief brunt of the action fell on the British, who 
suffered severely. In the end Soult, who com- 
menced the attack, retreated. 

ALBUQUERQUE, a town of Spain, with an 
old castle, prov. Estremadura, on the frontier of 
Portugal, 22 m. NNW. Badajoz. Pop. 5,470 in 
1857. It has cloth and cotton manufactures. 

ALBY {AWiga)^ a city of France, cap. dep. Tarn, 
on the Tarn, which is crossed by an old-faahioned 
brid^ Pop. 15,493 in 1861. The town has a 
station on the railway du MidL It is situated cm 
a hill, and has few public buildings worth notice, 
except the cathedral, b^gun in 1277 and finished 
in 1480. It is ill built, the bouses being gloomy, 
and the streets narrow, crooked, and dirty; but 
the shady Promenade de la Lictj on the side next 
the country, is universally admired. It has a pub- 
lic library, a museum, and barracks, with varioas 
manufactures of coarse cloth, sacking, table linen, 
handkerchiefs, cottons, hats, and paper. The pre- 
paration of woad has been long carried on in the 
vicinity. Alby has suffered much at different 
periods for its attachment to Protestantism. 

ALCALA DE GISVERT, an Ul buUt town of 
Spain, prov. Valencia. Pop. 4,954 in 1857. 

ALCALA DE HENARES {Con^mttam), a city 
of Spain, prov. Madrid, on the right bank of tfeie 
river of the same name, 17 m. ENE. Madrid. PopL 
6,400 in 1857. It is surrounded by wkUa flanked 
with square towers, has a fine Gothic cathedral, a 
magnificent palace of the archbishop of Toledo^ 
with numerous churches and convents. It is the 
seat of a university founded in 1510 by the illus- 
trious statesman, Cardinal Ximenes, which, next 
to Salamanca, is the most celebrated seminary in 
Spain : it had, in 1831, 17 colleges and 31 profes- 
sors. The cardinal also bequeathed his libniy to 
the university, and founded in it a printing raess, 
which produced, at his expense, in 1512-lr, the 
famous Polyglott Bible, denominated the BibBa 
Omnpluietuia'i an imperishable and noble monu- 
ment of his piety, learning, and liberality. The 
remains of the cardinal were interred in the col- 
1^^ church. But it is the chief glory of Alcala 
de Henares to have given birth, in 1547, to Cer- 
vantes, the inimitable author of Don Quixote ; it 
is also the birth-place of the poet Figucrroa, and 
of Solis, the historian of Mexico. 

Spain, prov. Cadiz, 38 m. E. Cadiz, and 48 m. S. 
Seville. Pop. 5,516 in 1857. The town stands in 
a hilly and bleak district, totally unfit for tillage, 
but well adapted for rearing sheep, which consti- 
tutes the chief employment of the people. It b 
at a very short distance from the nver BariMte, 
which flows into the sea 35 in.SE. Cadiz. Close 
to the town are the remains of an old Roman 

ALCAIC LA REAL, a town of Spain, prov. 
Jaen, on the Gualcoton, at an elevation of more 
than 2,700 feet above the level of the sea, 80 m. 
\ySW. Jaen. Pop. 6,738 in 1857. There is a 
rich abbey, with various churches, convents, and 
a hospital On the 28th Januar>', 1810, the 
Frcnch defeated the Spaniards in the vicinity of 
this toMm. 

ALCAMOy a town of the island of Sicilyy in the 


Val di IfazznB, on the great road from Palermo 
to Tnpuii, 24 m. WSW. Palermo. Pop. 19,518 
in 1^1. The town is ritnated on high ground, 
in a fine, open, coltivated country, and is well 
•heltered bj large woodA of olive trees. Within 
the distiict of Alcamo, and at no great distance 
from the town, finely sitnated on an eminence, 
are the magnificent ndns of an ancient Doric 
temple^ — aU that now remains of the once power- 
fol aegista. It is a parallelogram, 162 by 66 feet, 
and baa 36 columns, which, when examined by 
Swinbume, were all, with one exception, perfectly 
entire. (Swinburne's Two Sicilies, iL p. 236, 4to. ed.) 

ALCANIZ (Arab, for treasmry)^ a town of Spain, 
pror. of Temel, Aragon, on the r. bank or the 
Gandaloime on a hill side, above which is a castle, 
built by James L of Aragon, 62 m. SE. Saragossa. 
Pop. 6,400 in 1857. A hwidsome collegiate church, 
with a nc^ble portico, is the chief building. It is 
encircled ^ walls; and is connected by a canal, 
eonstmcted b^ the Hoofs, with the Ebro. There 
are in the vicmity rich mines of alum, and thriving 
plantatioos of mulberry and other trees ; there is 
also in its vicinity a pond, which produces re- 
markably large fine eels. 

ALCAM^FARA (firom the Arabic al-cantarat-al- 
mify the bridge of the sword), a fortified town of 
8piun,piiw. Estremaduxa; andthecap.ofadi8tof 
the same name. Pop. 4,273 in 1857. It stands on a 
steep hilly close to the £. bank of the Tagus (run- 
ning here NW.) ; was called by the Romans, its 
founden, NorhorCmmiTta ; and they in the reign of 
Tiajan erected the famous bridge, whence its 
pment name is derived. It was of granite, its 
length 577 ft^ breadth 22 ft, span of the two 
centre aichea 110 ft, thickness of piers 38 ft, 
height above river-level, 175 ft ; in the middle of 
the bfidge was a triumphal arch, 46 ft high, with 
a Roman inscription. (Laboide's Vo^rage Pittor. ; 
where see views and sections of the bridge. Pons, 
viiL p. 63.) This fine relic of antiquity was unfor- 
tunately destroyed, together with some a^yoining 
buildrngs, by the British troops, June 10, 1809, 
owins to a mistake of military orders. (Napier, 
roL 11. pt. 816.) The river was once navigable up 
this town, and before the separation of Portu^^ 
in 1580, a large trade in frmt was carried on with 
Lii4>on (Minano) ; but it now serves onl;^ to turn 
a few milla, and to simply the people with dace, 
faarbelt eels and other nsh, which greatly abound. 
(Pons.) It is joined a little below Alcantara by 
the Alagoo« Jartin and Salor. At the expulsion 
of thelfooiB in 1213, which was aided oy the 
knigtite of San Julian del Pereyro, the defence of 
the town was entrusted to them, and they thence- 
inwwmxA aasnmed the title of knights of Alcantara. 
The ovder is now a dignity of some value, and the 
monarch has been the grandrinaster since 1495. 
The knights, in 1506, biult a handsome convent 
and church, which still exist A cloth manufac- 
ture once existed here; but it has perished. 
Brick-makififig and tanning are all the signs now 
to be seen of mdustry. 

AixAXTABA, a sea-port town of Brazil, prov. 
Maranham, on a hill, 15 m. NW. San Louis de 
Maranham. The surrounding territory is pro- 
ductive of excellent cotton and rice ; and the salt 
lakea, a litUe to the N. of the town, might yield 
the largest supplies if they were properly managed. 
Estim. Pop. 10,000. 

ALCAXTARILLA, a dist and town of Spain, 
pnrv. Mnrcia, 4 m. firom the 1. bank of the Se- 
gura. 5 m. SW. Murcia, and 50 SW. Alicante. 
Pop. 4.083 in 1857. The country aroimd is famous 
for itA winet^ 

ALCAREZ, a town of Spain, prov. La Mancha, 
on the <kuidanmay 45 miles WSW. Manzanares. 



Pop. 2,907 in 1857. The town has a citadel, 
manufactures of cloth, mines of calamine and 
copper, and an aqueduct. 

ALCAZAR DO SAL, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Estremadura, on the r. bonk of the Sado, 29 m. 
SE. SetubaL Pop. 2,400 in 1857. The town is 
delightfully sit in the midst of an extensive and 
fertue plom, and is chiefly distinguished for its 
salt works and sedge mat factories. 

ALCAZAR DE SAN JUAN, a town of Spain, 
prov. La Mancha, 55 m. SE. Toledo, on the railway 
firom Madrid to Alicante. It is the cap. of a dist 
which contains 16 towns and villages. Pop. of 
town 7,800 in 1857. The dist (besides its pasture, 
com, oil, and fruits, which are abundant) produces 
saltpetre and other minerals, supporting above 500 
workmen and their families. The town contains 
several soap factories. 

ALCESTER, a pa. and m. town of England, co. 
Warwick, 103 m. NW. Lond., 16 m. WSW. War- 
wick. Pop. of pariah, 2,128 in 1861. The town, 
situated at the confluence of the Alne and Arrow, 
has a handsome Crothic church, a free school, a 
good com market, and carries on a pretty large 
needle manufacture. 

ALCIRA, a town of Spain, prov. Valencia, on 
an island of the Xucar, 25 m. SSW. Valencia, and 
so low that the river by rising 12 feet above its 
usual height inundates the town ; lat 39^ 6' N., 
long.0O25'W. Pop. 9,250 in 1857. ItisforUfied 
and flanked with towers ; has several churches, 
convents, and hospitals, with two fine bridges over 
the Xucar. This is a very ancient town, having 
been successively occupied by the Carthaginians, 
Romans, and Moors. The inhab. are thrifty and 
intelligent farmers, superior to roost in Spain, and 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the town they 
ndse excellent pimentos and tomatos, in addition 
to the rice ana other produce of the district 
About 2 m. E. are some limestone hills, among 
which is a stalactitic cave {Cueva de las MaraviUcu)^ 
visited as a natural curiosity. 

ALCKMAER. See Alkhaar. 

ALCXDBAZA, a town of Portugal, prov. Estre- 
madura; lat 890 36' N., long. 9^ W., 16 m. SSW. 
Leiria, and within 5 m. of the sea, at the con- 
fluence of two small rivers. Pop. 2,700 in 1857. 
The town contains a very handsome and exten- 
sive Cistercian monastery, founded by Alfonso 1., 
possessing a good library with valuable MSS., and 
a collection of pictures, among which are portraits 
of all the Portuguese kings, from Alfonso I. to 
Donna Maria L The cotton manufacture is 
carried on here to some extent. 

ALCOLEA DEL REY, a town of Spain, prov. 
Seville, 26 m. N£. of that city, near the r. bank 
of the Guadalquivir, in the midst of a fine and pro- 
ductive phdn. Pop. 2,200 in 1857. When tlie 
Guadal(}uivir was more navigable than at pro- 
sent this town appears to have been of some im- 
portance. The recently completed railway from 
Seville to Cordova and Madrid has restored it to 
somewhat of its former proBpcrity. 

ALCOKA, a town of Spain, prov. Valencia, 48 
m. N. Valencia, in a country watered by the Mi- 
jares. Pop. 5,609 in 1857. Its agricultural and 
industrial products are not important 

ALCOVE R, a town of Spain, prov. Cataluna, 
on the banks of the small river Angura. Pop. 
2,812 in 1857. In the time of Alfonso VIII. it 
was a place of some importance. 

AL(;OY, a town of Spain, Valencia, at the 
source of the Alcoy, 24 m. N. Alicante, Pop. town 
and district 27.000 in 1857. Iksides chiu^'hes and 
convents, it has a college, a considerable manu- 
factory of fine cloth, soap works, and paiKjr works ; 
the contiguous territory is very fertile 



ALCUDIA, a town belon^ng to Spain, near 
the N. extrem. of the isle Majorca, on a umall pe- 
ninHuln between the bavn of Pollensa and Alcudia ; 
lat. 3i>o 50', long. 3° 8' E. Pop. 1,116 in 1857. 
Two stagnant pools, or Albuferas, lie between it 
and the bay; and the exhalations from them 
greatly injure the health of the inhabitants, a 
sickly and miserable race. The pools might be 
<lrained, and the soil rendered useful, if the natives 
were possessed of any enterprise or energy. Coral- 
fishing employs some 40 vessels in the bay. At 
about 3 m. SE. is a stalactitic cave, visited and 
well described by Antillon. Several other towns 
in Spain have the name of Alcudia, but none of 
great importance. 

ALDBOROUGII, a borough of England, W. R. 
CO. York, wapentake Claro, 185 m. NNW. Lon(L, 
18 m. WNW. York. Pop. 620 in 1831, and 522 
in 1861. The borough enjoyed, since the era of 
Philip and Mar}% the privilege of returning 2 mem- 
Iters to the H. of C. ; but was disfranchised by the 
Keform Act, 

town of England, co. Suffolk, hund. Plomesgate, 
85 m. NE. LoncL Pop. of bor. and pa. 1,721 in 
1861. The borough returned 2 m. to the H. of C. 
from the i5th Eliz. down to the passing of the 
Reform Act, when it was dL<ifranchised. It has 
suffered much from encroachments of the sea. 
For the last few years it has been rising into 
repute as a quiet watering place. A short branch 
lino connects Aldborough with the Great Eastern 

ALDEA DEL REY, a town of Spain, nrov. La 
Mancha (Ciudad Real), on the L bank of^ the Ja- 
balon, an affluent of the Guadiana, 17 m. S. Ciu- 
dad lieaL Pop. 1,650 in 1857. The climate is 
verv unhealthy, owing to inundations of the river, 
which a very slight industry might obviate. Here 
is a palace of the knights commanders of Calatrava. 

ALDEA GALEGA, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Estremadura, actuary of the Tagus, on the E. 
side of the bay of Montijo. Pop. 3,750 in 1858. 
Previoiui to the establishment of railways the town 
was well known as a ferr\' station between, Lisbon 
and the great road to lUidajoz and Madrid. 

ALDERNEY, an island belonging to Great Bri- 
tain, in the English Channel, 55 m. S. from the 
Isle of Portland, and 18 m. W. Cape La H<^ue in 
Normandy. The channel between Aldemey and 
the latter, called the Race of Aldemey, is dan- 
gerous in stormy weather from the strength and 
rapidity of the tides. This island is about Sk m. 
in length by f m. in breadth, and had in 18ui a 
pop. of 4,932. Aldemey is strongrly fortified, and 
large sums have been expended in the erection of 
a hiu^iur for men-of-war. It is a dependency of 
Guemsey, and celebrated for a small breed of cows 
which afford excellent milk and butter. 

ALDERSHOT, a par. of England, co. of Hants, 
which has come into notice since 1854, in conse- 
quence of the establishment there in that year of 
a permanent camp for 20,000 men. Tlie camp has 
caused the erection of a town in the immediate 
neighbourhood. Pop. in 1861, 16,720, of which 
8,965 were militar\'. There are railway stations 
in the N. and E. o{ the camp. 

ALDSTONE MOOR, a par. and m. town of 
EngUmd, co. Cumberland, Leath ward, on the bor- 
ders of Northumberland. The town stands on a 
hill washed by the Tyne. The parish contains 
35,();>0 acres. *Pop. of 'par. 6,404 in 1861. It Ls 
cluefiy celebrated for its lead mines, formerly the 
property of the earls of Derwentwater, and now of 
Gn^enwach HospitaL 

ALEDO, a town of Spain, in the prov. of Mur- 
da, sit. on a mountain side, 6 m. from the L 


bank of the Sangonera, a branch of the Segura, 
and about 25 m. WSW. Murcia. Pop. 1,029 in 

ALEN^ON, a town of France, cap. dep. Ome, 
in an extensive plain of the same name, on the 
Sarthe, near the southern boundary of Uie dep., 
56 m. SSE. Caen, on the railway from Caen to 
Mans. Pop. 16,110 in 1861. The town is agree- 
ably situated and well built ; streets generally 
broad and well paved ; the walls by which it was 
formerly sturrounded have nearly disappeaied, and 
it has several considerable subnirbs. Among the 
public buildings may be specified the cathedral 
church, the town-house embodying two well-pre- 
served towers, the only remains of the ancient 
castle of the Dukes of Alencon, the courts of jus- 
tice, and the com market. It has a communal 
college, several hospitals, a public library, and an 
ob8er\'atory. Its manufactory of the lace, known 
by the name of Point dAlen^n, established bv 
Colbert, still preserves its ancient celebrity, and it 
has in addition manufactures of muslin, of coarse 
and fine linen, buckram, serges, stockings, and 
straw hats. There are freestone (juarries in the 
neighbourhood ; and at Ilartz, a httle to the W. 
of the town, are found the stones called Alen9on 
diamonds, which when cleaned and polished are 
said to be little inferior, in respect of lustre, to the 
genuine gem. Several fairs are held in the town, 
which is the seat of a considerable commerce. 
During the religious wars, Alencon, which was 
generally attache! to the Protestant party, suffered 

ALENQUIR, a town of Portugal, prov. Estre- 
madura, 26 m. N"NE. Lisbon. Pop. 3,200 in 1858. 
It is one of the principal points for the defence of 

ALEPPO, a dty in the N. of Syria, called by 
the natives Haleb-es-Shabha (an. Chahfbtm and 
Beraa); kt 86° 11' 26" N., long. 37° 10' 15" E.; 
76 m. ESE. Iskenderoun, and 126 m. NNE. Da- 
mascus. Its present pop. is estimated at about 
100,000; though from the middle of the 17th to 
the beginning of the present century it was va- 
riously estimated at from 200,000 to 258,000. Ac- 
cording to Russell, it had in 1794, 235,000 inhabi, 
of whom 30,000 were Christians, and 5,000 Jews, 
the rest being Mohammedans; but, according to 
Volney, the pop. in 1785 did not exceed 100,000, 
which we incline to think is the more probable 
statement. Aleppo occupies an elevation in the 
middle of an open plain ; and is surrounded by 
walls 30 ft high and 20 broad; supposed, from 
the massive style of their architecture, to be Sara- 
cenic. The city, within Uie walls, is about 3^ nu 
in circ., but including its suburbs, it occupies a 
circuit of more than double that extent. Houses 
of freestone : they arc said to be elegant and du- 
rable, and those belonging to tiiie better classes 
exhibit an elaborate degree of omament in their 
lofty ceilings decorated with arabesques, and their 
largo windows of painted glass. Roofs flat, as in 
moHt Eastern towns : during the summer months, 
the inhabitants pass their nights upon them, un- 
protected bv tents or awnings of any kind. These 
fiat roofs iorm also a continuous terrace, upim 
which it is easy, by climbing over the low parti- 
tion walls, to pass from one end of the town to 
another. Streets broad, well paved, and clean — 
remarkable qualities in the E. : the latter may 
fverhaps be owing, in part, to the drainage, occa- 
sioned by the slight elevation of the town and 
neighbourhood above the surrounding plain. The 
seraglio, or palace of the pasha, which used to be 
admired for its ma^ficcnce, was dest roved in 
1819-20 during the siege of the town by khour- 
chid Ahmed Pacha. Mosques numerous, bat nearly 



in hsre been injured, and numy of them are in 
ruinit. fittm the effects of the earthquakes which 
have so often shaken this part of Syria ; the Djan 
me«s Zacharie, and £1-Halawe are, however, fine 
remnants of the ancient Roman style ; thev were 
orifi^inally Christian edifices, the latter built, it is 
aaiid, by the Empcess Helena. There are ten or 
twelve" Christian churches, three Christian con- 
vents, and sevoml wakfs, the conventual establish- 
ments of the Mohammedans. An ancient aque- 
duct eonve3r8 a plentiful pupply of good water 
frnm two i^mngs. This woiic is an object of much 
care ; and it is singular that, being certainly con- 
fttmcted before the time of Constantine, it should 
have remained uninjured amid the frequent con- 
vulsions to which the town has been subject. 
Within the walls of the city is a castle, partly in 
ruii». boilt upon an artificial mound, of consider- 
ate heif;ht, and ^ m. in circumference; this is 
MLRoonded by a iHoad and deep, but diy ditch, 
cmaaed by a bridge of 7 arches. From this spot 
is commanded a very extensive view, bounded N. 
by the snowy tops of the Taurus, W. by the ele- 
vated rocky' bed of the Aaszy ; while to the S. 
and £. the eye reaches over Uie desert as far as 
the Enphxates. Here are several laige khans, 
principoiily occupied by Frank and other foreign 
merchAnta. These are handsome and convenient 
buildings, containing counting-houses and store- 
moms ranged round an interior court, in which 
are stands for loading and unloading the beasts of 
burden, and a fountain to supply them with water. 
At present, however, Aleppo can be regarded as 
httle more than the shadow of its former self. 
Slight earthquakes are frequent in its neighbour- 
hood, bat in 1822 a tremendous shock overturned 
most of the public buildings, and reduced the 
(TTDftter part of the city to a heap of ruins. This 
calamity has occasioned the erection of a new sub- 
ub. materiAlly altering the appearance, and injuring 
the beauty of the town. The houses in this 8ul> 
nrb. intended at first for the temporary shelter of 
the populAtion that had escaped from the town, 
were hastily constructed of wood, lath, and plas- 
ter ; bat from want, either of funds to repair their 
miffe substantial dwellings, or of energy to set 
about the work, or probably from a fear of return- 
ing into the city, these hastily constructed edifices 
have become permanent residences, while many, 
perhaps the greater number, of the large and con- 
venient stone buildings in the city are either in 
mins or tenantlesB. 

Although upon the borders of the desert, Aleppo 
is advantageously and agreeably situated. A 
maall stream, called the Koeik ^an. Chabu)^ waters 
the W. aide of the town. This brook, which is 
about the size of the New River, and never dry, 
swells in the rainy season to a formidable and 
Bptd current : it rises at the foot of Mount Tau- 
niA, about 70 m. N., and after a course of 80 or 90 
m. loses itself in a large morass full of wild boors 
and pelicans. The upper course of the Koeik lies 
between naked rocks, but near Aleppo and S. of 
that town, it flows through an extremely fertile 
valley, in a high state of cultivation. This river 
and the aqueduct before mentioned furnish an 
almndant and unfailing supply of water ; and 
besides the poblic fountains and baths, every pri- 
vate indivi(hial« who chooses to be at the expense 
of pipes, may have his house served with water in 
the European fashion. 

The Car famed gardau of Aleppo are situated to 
the SE. of the city, upon the banks of a small 
rivulet. <»ie of the very few affluents of the Koeik. 
They are rather orchards than gardens, consisting 
of fruit trees, with vegetables growing between 
them, but scaioely any flowers. They are pleasant 

spots, from the luxuriance of their productions, 
and the nightingales that resort to their shades ; 
but very little taste is exhibited in. their arrange- 
ments. W. of the town the banks of the river 
are covered with vines, olives, and fig-trees, and 
towards the E. are some plantations of pbtachio 
trees, which, though still extensive, are only the 
remains of much more majestic groves, for which 
this country was formerly famous. 

The air of Aleppo is dry and piercing, but ac- 
counted salubrious both to natives and strangers ; 
the former, however, are subject to a peculiar dis- 
ease, said to attack them once, at least, in their 
lives, the habtxl-ei-^ne ; 'ulcer,* or 'ringworm of 
Aleppo.' It is, at first, an inflammation of the 
skin, subsequently becomes an ulcer, continues for 
a year, and generally leaves a scar for life. It 
usually fixes in the face, and an Aleppine is known 
all over the E. by the mark left by this disorder, 
the cause of which is unknown, but suspected to 
be owing to some quality of the water. 

Aleppo appears to have risen to importance on 
the destruction of Palmyra. Like the latter, it 
was a convenient emporium for the trade between 
Europe and the East, so long as it was carried on 
over land. The productions of Persia and India 
came to it in caravans from Bagdad and Bussora 
to be shipped at Iskenderoun and Latakia for the 
different ports of Europe. Alepp>o communicated 
also with Arabia and Egyp^ ^y ^^y ^^ Damascus; 
with Asia Minor, by Tarsus ; and with Armenia, 
by Diarbekir. It rose to great wealth and conse- 
quence under the Greek sovereigns of Syria, and 
into still greater under the early Roman empcrora. 
In 638 A. D., it resisted the arms of the Arabs for 
several months ; but being finally taken, it became 
of as much importance under the Saracens, as it 
had before been under the Romans or Greeks. In 
the tenth century it was reunited to the empire 
of Constantinople, by the arms of Zimisccs ; but 
it soon after fell into the hands of the Seljukian 
Turks, under whose sway it remained during the 
time of the Crusades. It suffered considerably 
during the irruptions of the Mongols, in the thir- 
teenth century, and again, by the wars of Tamer- 
lane, or TimW Bee, in the fifteenth. Selim I. 
annexed it, in 1516, to the Turkish empire, of 
which it continued a part till 1832, when it opened 
its gates to Ibrahim Pacha, without a summons. 
Its political revolutions, with the exception of its 
two captures by the Tartars, affected its prosperity 
only temporarily and in a slight degree ; but the 
discovery of a passage to India by the Cape of 
Good Hope struck a deadly blow at its greatness. 
Since that event it has continued to decline, and 
the earthquake of 1822, together with the wars 
which have distracted Syria, by causing extensive 
emigrations, have reduced it to comparative in- 
significance. Its capabilities are, however, very 
great, and under judicious treatment it is more 
than probable it would speedily r^ain a consider- 
able share of its former prosperity. It is the most 
convenient centre for the trade between Persia and 
the interior of Arabia, on the one hand, and Asia 
Minor and Armenia on the other : it is, beyond all 
comparison, the cleanest and most agreeable town 
in S3rria; and still, even amid its ruins, better built 
than almost any other between the Black Sea and 
the Euphrates ; its inhabitants, a great proportion 
of whom are sheriffs (descendants of the Prophet), 
are the mildest and most tolerant among the pro- 
fessors of Mohammedanism. These circumstances 
have made it the resort of strangers, and they are 
not likely ,in peaceable times, to have less influence 
in future. 

Aleppo formerly possessed several manufactures, 
and bciore the earthquake, it was said to contain 



12,000 nrtizanR, chiefly weavers of fi;oId and nWcr 
lace, silk and cotton f^ooda, and shavrla. Tlicse 
worka are now lani^uishing, but they still exist, 
and, with the pistachio nuts, form the chief part 
of its remaining trade. Its imports are f^ts' hair, 
from Asia Minor; gall nutA, from Kurdistan ; and 
Indian goods, such as shawls and muslins. JProm 
Europe, it receives cotton stuffs, cloth, sugar, dye 
stuffs, &c ; W. I. coffee, though a prohibited arti- 
cle, is also introduced, and is cheai)er than that of 
Mocha. Within the last few years Aleppo and 
the surrounding district have shared in the pros- 
perity which the wide-spread demand for cotton, 
consequent on the stoppage of supplies from the 
United States by tlie great civil war, produced 
in many di£fercnt countries of the world. The 
demand for native manufactures, especially for 
the supply of the Egyptian markets, also increased. 
(Report on tlie Trade of Aleppo; Consular Reports 
Jan. to June 1864.) 

jmrtant town and fortress of North Italy, prov. of 
the same name, in a marshv country on the Tanaro, 
near where it is joined by the Boimida, 47 m. 
ESE. Turin, and 38 m. NEN. Genoa. Pop. 66,645 
in 1861. The town has a very strong citadel, 
and was surrounded by Napoleon with extensive 
fortifications, demolished at his downfaU. Of late 
years, however, it has risen again into imptortance. 
There are extensive barracks and armouries, and, 
next to Verona, Alessandria is now the strongest 
place in Italy. It is the centre of five lines of 
railways, spreading in as many different directions. 
The town is well built ; has a'cathedral, numerous 
churches, palaces, and hospitals; a handsome town- 
house, with a gymnasium, theatre, public library, 
and lafge barracks. It has manufactures of silk, 
doth, and linen, and some trade^ The latter is 
promoted by its two fairs, held the one at the end 
of April, and the other on the 1st of October; they 
are both well attended, not only by Italians, but 
also by French and Swiss merchants. Alessandria 
was founded in the twelfth century, and has fre- 
quently been taken and retaken. It has always 
Ix^cn reckoned one of the bulwarks of Italy on the 
side of France. The village and battle-field of 
Marengo lie a Uttlc to the £. of the town. 

of islands in the N. Pacific ocean, stxetching from 
the peninsula of Kamtschatka, in Asia, to Cape 
AlasKa, in N. America. They are very numerous, 
occupying a circular arc, extending from 166^ to 
196^ &. long., whose chord is in 66^ N. lat, and 
above 600 m. in length. Apparently, this insular 
chain consists of the summits of a ran^ of sub- 
marine mountains. In 1795, a volcanic island rose 
from the sea, in the middle of the line, which, in 
1807, was found to be enlarged to about 20 m. in 
circuit, and lava was then flowing down its sides. 
There are always amongst them several volcanoes 
in activity, and some, known to have emitted 
flames, are now quiescent. Earthquakes are com- 
mon, and sometimes so violent as to throw down 
the huts of the inhabitants. Behring's Island, 
Attoo, and Oonalashka, are the largest, the first 
being 104 m. in length, but many are only incon- 
siderable rocks. They are intersected by channels, 
various alike in width, and in the safety of navi- 
gation. All exhibit a barren aspect; high and 
conical mountains, covered with snow 'during a 
great portion of the year, being the most promi- 
nent features. Y^etation scanty; there are no 
trees nor any plants surpassing the dimensions of 
low shrubs and bushes. But abundance of fine 
grass is produced in tlie more sheltered valleys, and 
different roots, either indigenous or introduced re- 
cently. The seas abound in fish, and the feathered 


tribes are nmnerons. The hunting the Bea otter, 
whose skin affords a fur of the finest quality, was 
formeriy carried on to a great extent ; they were 
wont to be caught in thousands ; but their indis- 
criminate destruction has greatly reduced the 
number of those now taken. The seal is particii- 
larly valuable, affording the inhabitants a constant 
supply both of food and clothing ; the thin mon- 
brane of the entrails is also converted into a sub- 
stitute for glass. Foxes are the principal quadra- 
pcds. The natives are of middle sixe, of a dark farowB 
complexion, resembling an intermediate nee be- 
tween the Mongol Tartars and North Americana. 
Their features, wluch are strongly marked, have an 
agreeable and benevolent expression. Hair strong 
and wiry ; beard scanty ; eves black. They are not 
deficient in capacity, and the different woilu of both 
sexes testify their ingenuity. They are indolent, 
peaceable, and extremely hospitable; but stubbom 
and revengeful. Tattooing, which was ocnnmoa 
among the females, is on the decline, but they pn&^ 
tise a hideous mode of disfiguring Uiemselves, by 
cutting an aperture in the under lip, to which variona 
trinkets are suspended. These deformities, however, 
are less common than whoi the islands were dia- 
covered, the more youthful females having learned 
that they are no recommendation in the eyes of 
their Russian visitors. A man takes as many'wivea 
as he can maintain ; they arc obtained by purchase, 
and may be returned to their relations; or the 
same woman may have two husbands at onoe ; and 
it is not uncommon for men to exchange their 
wives with each other. Their subsistence is prin- 
cipally obtained by fishing and hdnting. Their 
dweUings are spaaous excavations in uie earth, 
roofed over witn turf, as many as 60 or even 150 
individuals sometimes .residing in the difTeanent 
divisions. Onl^ a few of the islands arc inhabited; 
but in former times the population is said to have 
been more considerable. Its decrease is ascribed to 
the exactions of the Russian American Company, 
who have factories in the islands. Its present 
amount has been variously estimated, at mmi a 
few hundreds to 10,000. The islands were partiallj 
disco\'ered by Behring, in 1741. 

ALEXANDRETTA. See Iskendeboox. 

ALEXANDRIA (Arab. Itkendiiyyeh), a cele- 
brated city and sea^port of £g3i)t, so called fimm 
Alexander the Great; by whom it was either 
founded, or raised from obscurity 882 years B.G., 
about 14 m. WSW. of the Canopic, or most W. 
mouth of the Nile, on the ridge of land between 
the sea and the bed of the old uke Mareotis. Lat. 
of lighthouse 81© 11' 81" N., long. 29© 51' 80" E. 
Its situation was admirably chosen, and does 
honour to the discernment of its illustrious founder. 
Previously to the discovery of the route to India, 
b^ the Cape of Good Hope, Egypt was the prin- 
cipal centre of the commerce l^twcen the E. and 
W. worlds ; and it so happens that Alexandria is 
Uie only port on its N. coast that has deep water, 
and b accessible at all seasons. It has not, it ia 
true, any natural communication with the NUe, 
but this defect was obviated in antiquity by catting 
a canal from the city to tlie river. After Alexan- 
dria came into the possession of the Saracens, this 
canal was allowed to fall into disrepair ; and it waa 
not to be supposed that any attempt would be 
made to reopen it, while Egjrpt continued sul^ect 
to the Turks and Mamelukes. But Mehemet Ali, 
the late ruler of Egypt, being anxious to acquire a 
navy, and to revive the commerce of the country, 
early perceived the importance of Alexandria, 
both as a station for his ff oet, and a centre of com- 
merce. In furtherance of his views he greatly im- 
proved, beautified, and stren^th^icd the city, and 
restored the ancient oommunication with thie Nile 



by mean? of the Mahmoudieh canal fh>m Alex- 
aotlrU to Fooah, a distance of 4S m,, o|)cncd in 
1919. It is to be regretted that its construction is 
in several respects ddectire; but it is notwith- 
standing of gKMt advantage. ^ Alexandria is built 
nartlr on a peninrala, connsting of the island of 
Pharoa, so (amoos in antiquity for the lighthouse 
orpham, whence it has denved its name, and 
partlr on the isthmus by which that island is now 
connected with the mainland. The principal pub- 
lic buildingBf as the palace of the pacha, the 
aisenal, the hosj^tal, &c, are on the peninsula, and 
the town principally on the isthmus. The ancient 
dty was aituatod on the mainland opposite the 
muideni town ; and the vast extent* or its ruins 
would sniBcicntlv evince, were there no other evi- 
dcsices, its wealth and greatness. 

Alexandria has two ports. That on the W. 
side of the city, called the old port, the EmtMiuM 
of the ancients, is the laigest and by far the best. 
The entjanoe to it is narrow and rather difficult ; 
bot when in, ships may anchor off the town in 
from 22 to 40 feet water, and there is good anchor- 
age in deep water all along the shore. The new 
harbour, or that on the £. side of the town, is 
very inferior, being comparatively limited, having 
a iuul and rocky t>ottom, and being exposed to 
theX. winds. 

A diT dock was constructed in the course of 
1837. Naval and military hospitals have been 
cstaULihed, the fonner under the direction of an 
Knglifth, the latter of a French doctor. A quaran- 
tine boaid exists nnder the direction of the con- 
folsr body, to which the Pacha has confided this 
Inoch of service, and connected with which a 
Isiype and commodious lazaretto has lately been 
cfKted outside the waUs* Vessels arriving from 
tny of the infected ports of the Levant, are sub- 
jected to quarantine, the sameas in Europe ; there 
» also a school for the marine, and a board com- 
powd of the admirals and higher officers of the 
fltet, for «»-gMw»winir into the merits of candidates, 
fiwtMwingr the msctpline and regulating every 
matter connected with that branch of service. The 
TroBch system has been adopted in eveir depart- 
nent of the service, and to the French the Pacha 
ma duefly indebted for the advances he made. 

On the peninsula has been erected the Schunoj 
« range of warehouses for the reception of the 
ntdIus produce of Egypt, and hither it all comes, 
viui the exception of that exported from Suez 
nd Coasor, for the maintenance of the army and 
fleet in the Red Sea. According to the late 

I Pacha's monopolising system, the whole produce 
<< tke country came mto his hands, at prices fixed 
\n himself^ without the option of resorting to 
other Biaricets being aUowed to the grower. And 
not only did this apply to the produce of Egypt, 
bat to that of the adjacent countries, wherever 
tlie Padia's influence extended, embracing the 
c^o^ of Modia, the gums and drugs of AJrabia, 
tlx tobaoeo of Svria, elephants' teeth, feathers 
^ the interior, &c, all of which were purchased 
fcrhiin m the first instance, the prohibition of 
tndiD^ in them applying to every one, and carry- 
^ with it the ntk of confiscation, if oontra- 
^ncd;— the whole of this produce, native as well 
vaotac, being collected in Alexandria was sold 
V pobhc auction, in the same way exactly as 
"Ktions are conducted in Europe, Uie upset price 
bong fixed according to the latest report or the 
Barkels, the merchant having the privilege of 
exaoiijiini; the article in the schuna before the 
•lie. and b«ng required to pay in cash the price 
ttvhich it was locked down to him within a 
Innited number of days when delivcnr took place. 
The pcindpal titicles thus disposed of were cotton, 

which was by far the largest, rice, opium, indigo, 
gums, coffee, scnua, hemp, linseed, and the co- 
mettibiU of the country, wheat, barley, beans, 
lentils, &c But this system is now much modi- 
fied. During the ascendency of Mehemet Ali, 
every other oranch of industry was sacrificed to 
the raising of cotton ; but since his demise a more 
rational system would appear to be followed, 
though the stimulus caused by the failure of the 
cotton supplies from the United States again caused, 
in late years, the revival of the cotton culture. 
The greater part by far of the trade of the port is 
carricxi on with England, but she has also a con- 
siderable trade with Marseilles, Trieste, Constanti- 
nople, Leghorn, the Isles of the Archipelago, &c 

Accordmg to the report of the Alexandrian 
custom-house, it appears that, during the year 
1861, the total value of the exports from Egypt to 
all parts was 2,638,822t ; but a very great increase 
has since taken place. The exports of cotton to 
Great Britain alone amounted in 1862 to 8,723,440^ ; 
1863, 8,841,657/.; and in 1864 to 14,300,607/. The 
imports in 1862 from Great Britain, of British and 
Irish produce and manufactures, amounted to 
2,406,982/1 ; in 1863 to 4,416,240/., and in 1864 to 
6,070,22U England of course had by far the 
laigest share of hoth the import and export trade. 
The quantities of cotton expMorted to Great Britain 
were, in 1862, 526,897 cwts. ; 1863, 835,289 cwts.; 
and 1864, 1,120,479 cwts., so that the increase in 
value has been much greater than in quantity. 

The exports from Egypt of other articles in 
which there has been less variation were, in 1861, 




. £28,317 


. £94380 


. 207,348 

Ivory , 

. 38,995 


. 879,724 

Rice . 

. 135,894 


. 56,140 


. 45,336 

Indian com 

. 45,574 

The imports from Great Britain in 1864 included 
cotton manufactures of the value of 2,492,962/. stg., 
the amount in 1863 having been 1,810,136/. The 
principal other imports fron\ Great Britain were 
machmery, iron, woollen and silk goods, hardware, 
timber, chngs, and other colonial products, and 
coals, besides the quantities imported for the use 
of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Company 
and of the East India Company's steamers at 

There is no doubt that the population has trebled 
or quadrupled since the opening of the Mahmou- 
dien canal, and it is still on the increase. It might 
amount in all, in 1863, to 160,000, including troops 
and artizans in the arscnaL A good deal of this 
increase has taken place at the expense of Rosetta, 
which has latterly very much declined. The po- 
pulation of Alexandria is of a mixed character, 
consisting, besides the native Turks and Arabs, of 
Armenians, Greeks, Smymiotes, S3Tians, Moghre- 
bins, or men from the Barbary states, Maltese, 
Jews, and Europeans of almost every nation, in 
such numbers, that it may be questioned, whether 
the strangers, in a commotion, would not be more 
than a match for the natives. The English have 
numerous commercial houses; as have also tho 
French, Italians, and Greeks. Amateur French 
and Italian theatres exist, the performances in 
which rival those of the Acaddmie Koyale and 
San Carlos ; balls and routes are given in the most 
approved style of fashion ; a commercial journal 
has been established in the Italian language, which 
however does not treat of politics ; French mo- 
<fi«/es, tradesmen in all dejMurtments, and shops 
disf)laying every article of furniture, and of male 
and female attire, from the Parisian bonnet of the 
latest fashion to the very humblest article of drewi, 
all conspire, in conjunction with tho style of the 



buildings, and pretty equal balance of hat and 
turlmn, to take away from this place the appear- 
ance of an Oriental city; and it la only after 
leaxdng it, and purHuing his way to Cairo, that 
the stranger tnily feels that he is in the East. 
Hero also exist Catholic and Greek convents, 
where divine service is performed on Sundays and 
holydays to the people of those persuasions : the 
Armenians, Syrian Christians, and Jews have also 
places of worship, Protestants alone being without 
a temple. There is little intercourse between the 
natives and Franks, except in the way of business. 
They occupy distinct quarters of the city, the 
former sci^luding their families, and maintaining 
all the re8er\'e of Oriental life, tlie siesta, pipe, and 
(N>iree filling up three-fourths of their time ; the 
latter adhering to the customs of their own coun- 
try, in dress, furniture, the use of carriages and 
horses, and indeed in all things but the siesta, the 
pi|je, and immuring themselves during the heat 
of the ilay, wherein they imitate the Orientals. 
Latterly also, after the example of some of the 
liighcr Turks, several of the richer Frank mer- 
chants have obtained grants of land from the 
Pacha, on the banks of the canal, and built houses 
and made gardens, which ser>'e to beautify and 
give interest to the neighbourhood. 

Tlie Turkish quarter of the city consists of a 
number of narrow, irrcgidar, tortuous, filthy 
and ill biult streets and bazaars, with hardly any 
grMxl houses but those of the Pacha's ofiicers, and 
without a single public building, mosque, or other 
object worthv the least attention, the bazaars being 
mean, and but very indifferently provided. The 
Frank quarter, on the other hand, presents several 
streets of well built substantial houses, with good 
8ho{)S ; in particular the square, which is the resi- 
dence of the consuls and principal merchants, 
called the Piazza Grande, that may well bear 
comparison, for the size and style of its buildings, 
with some of the best streets of Paris or London. 
Ibrahim Pacha owned the greater part, of these 
houses, which he built on speculation, and for 
which he <lrew rents, varying from 200/. to 240/. per 
annum. The whole town is built of stone and brick, 
dug up from the foundations of the ancient city. 

During part of the year Alexandria is supplied 
with water from the canal ; and during the otheT 
portion, from the cisterns of the ancient city (the 
only portion of its public works that has been 
spared), which, at the period of the inundation, 
when the canal b full, are thence filled, and to 
which recourse is only had, when the water of the 
canal, by being stagnant, becomes unfit for use. 
As tlie * inundation advances, the old stagnant 
water is run off into the sea, and the canal being 
filled brim full with fresh, is shut up at both ends, 
and so remains till the following year, 8er\'ing in 
the meantime for navigation, for the use of man 
and beast, and for the irrigation of those small 
portions of land on its banks, that have been re- 
claimed from the desert, and brought into culti- 
vation. The climate of Alexandria is considered 
very salubrious, the heats of summer, which rarely 
exceed S5P Falir., being tempered by the Etesian, 
or NW. winds, wliich prevail for nine months of 
the year. In winter, a gcxxl deal of rain falls, 
which, however, is confined to the coast, and is 

{)robably the cause, coupled with the wretched 
labitations and misery of the poorer classes, why 
the plague so often makes its api)earance here. 
Were the labouring classes better clad, housed, 
and fed, there is little doubt tlmt this scourge 
would soon be no longer heard of. 

The municipal government of- the city is en- 
trusted to tlie governor, who has under him a 
commandant dc place, and an ofiicer, called the 

Bashaga, or chief police magistrate, whose dntr it 
is to see that order and quiet are maintained, llie 
city is besides di\nded into quarters, over each of 
which a sheikh prej<ides, who is let^nsible to the 
governor for the peace of his district : and mofe- 
over, each trade and profession has its ahiekh, 
whose duty it is to collect the taxes, and to see to 
the good behaviour of the members. Guard-bousei 
are also distributed all over the city, and the mili- 
tary are instructetl to take all riotous and disor- 
derly parties int4> custody, the officer of the ^;uaid, 
if the offender be a native, having authority to 
infiict summary punishment by the bastinado ; but 
if a Frank, he must send him to his own consul, 
to be punished acctinling to the laws of his own 
country. The system works so well, that a more 
orderly place, or one fireer from riot or crime, is 
rarely to be seen; indeed, when crime is com- 
mitted, it is usually by Frank upon Frank ; and 
then, from defects in the consular system, it almust 
always escapes detection. Besides the Bashaga, 
or police court, there is the Mch-kemeh, or Kadi's 
court, where all ciWl questions between natives 
are determined; and a commercial court, with 
Frank judges, but presided over by a Turk, for de- 
ciding questions between the Franks and natives^ 
where the latter are defendants: the Franks 
themselves, besides exemption from all taxes and 
burdens of every sort, bemg amenable only when 
defendants to their own consular courts, and to 
the laws of their re^)ective countries. These 
immunities have been secured to the Franks by 
convention with the Porte, and are rigidly in- 
sisted upon here as well as in every other part of 
the Turkish empire. 

Alexandria, as every one knows, has recently 
acquired an unusual degree of importance from 
her ha\'ing become the central and principal sta- 
tion in the overland route to India. Uer jKOi is 
now regularly and frequently ^-isited by steamers 
from England, Marseilles, and other places. Her 
hotels and streets arc crowded with passengen 

gjing to or returning frt>m India, C«ylon, the 
astern Archipelago, Australia, &c She has, in 
consequence, become the centre of a conadenble 
transit trade ; and the influx of so many visitcMrs 
has not only added greatly to her wealth, but it 
has, at the same time, ^i^ven a powerful stimulus 
to industry and civilisation in adl parts of Eg>'pt. 
Alexandria is now connected by railway with 
Suez and the sea-bathing \'illage of KamleK, 7 m. 
distant, as well as with Cairo, 130 m. distant. 
Tlie shortest sea-route, from Southampton to 
Alexandria, is 2,960 m., the average time by steam 
II days. 

HUtory. — The Ptolemies, to whom Egypt fell 
on the demise of Alexander the Great, made 
Alexandria the metropolis of their empire ; and it 
became, under their liberal and enlightened go- 
vernment, one of the greatest and most flourishing 
cities of antiquity. When it was annexed by 
Augustus to the empire of Kome, it is said to have 
occupied a circumference of 15 miles, and to have 
had 300,000 free inhabitants, besides slaves, who 
were probably ^uite as numerous. It was regu- 
larly and magnificently built ; and was tra\'enied 
by two great streets, each more tlian 100 feet 
across, and the larger extending more than 4 m. 
from E. to W. Under the Ptolemies and the 
Romans, Alexandria was the entrepot of the prin- 
cipal trade of antiquity, being the market where 
the silks, spices, ivor\', slaves, and other i>roducts 
of India, Arabia, and Ethiopia, and tlie com of 
Egypt, were exchanged for the gold, silver, and 
othej products of the W. world. iTie inhabitants 
were distinguished by their industry; either sex 
and every age were engaged in laborious occulta- 

nd eren the lame anil the blind had em- 
nu tuiud In Iheir cnntlitiun. Amon^ Ihe 
tl nuuHiTactnn^ were those uf glass, linen, 
QTUs. the paper of anliqiiily. Under the 
cmpcTun, E;:ypt becamif a niindpol (^ra- 

Ifmed of the uIjiiohC unportancc, aoil 
loTCr irith preuliai rare. Variumi privi- 
sd itDmmiiUea were ctnCerTol upon Alex- 
mauy vf her inhahilanta were admilteil 
rights uf Ror— "■' — ■ ■- >-■- 



di3tin/niu>l^ed by 
Doice ui iiitniun: anil philnwiphy Iban by 
aatrct and liclies. The rounilaticm i>r her 
DCDce in this nwpect was laid by the 
en, whn founded the miuciim and libraiy 
Hm rrgmm intra^v tgrvyiurn opia,^ Livy), 
EnranJx Iwcame w famou', at Ilw name time 
ay gave the meat muniliceiit enomraKe- 
t literature' and learned men. Ttua pa- 
beuip cvniinunl by the emiierurB, Alex- 
ma, fiir aeveral ceiiturieii, a iWinguivbeil 
acienre, literature ami idiil[>»opli.v. Ueiie- 
■Dwevvt, her liierBii were mcne dintin- 

She pfdi 

•mt the nanie!< nf Eurlid, A|><illimiiu uf 
*lalnnr, Eralmthencs, Xii.iinia>:hiiH, Hcru- 
CntiiTUA, Ac, are but a few uf Ihiwe mmt 
jt&vl in the a.' <.t KU.meln-, astn^ 
feiigiitphy ant] mcriitine, Tliat Hiturtihed in 
taia- But her philmiiihy was the miuit 

Caature nl Alexandria, iu a liicrarv puint 
Thi- influx irf .l.ffiriues fnmi ihe E. and 
lOb pniliieeil n wncularisiiillictofmratciDBi 
allied in an 8tti'm|<t uf the philiKwplien 
io», flotiniu. Olid Pi>r|>liyr}-, to . extablirh 
:lic ur univerMil svHicm by K-levliiig and 
pt il[icainc« taken from the jirindpal cxist- 
ttnia, paitirularlv rmm thrwe uf I'vlhn- 
■d VUuk Chiijuaidly was nut exem|<te(l 
ace id' tills niiril ; and on its intni- 
UianKnly alkiyeil with Plaliniism ; 
■neuiw* Bit exiaiunding nf im ilHclrines 
lid duwn that iniuld now be with difficulty 

•rlmils vf geometry, astroniimy, pliync, 
lier braui'lieii of K-ience, mniutanird their 
ioa till A.i>. C4i>, wlien, after a luO)^ uf 
ntht. .\lexaiulna wan token tiy Amrmi, 
I uf the cBlipii Omar. Tlie ccmtiuemrs 
rtimixhed by the (neatness of Ihej<riie; 
Dmu. in ai'iiiiaiuliiii; the eodiph with its 
F.saiiL'We have laken llie gieat cdly of 
M. It is imnosHble fur me Cu eniimci 
tidy of its rii-liM ami beniity ; and 1 si 
I mvself with utwen'inK, that, it cunlr 
(daini, 4Jim buOv. Vm thi^re* or pli 
■nBeni, li/HNr rhopa tar Ilie sale of vege- 
tal, and MjHM tributary Jews. The town 
(D HiUfajed by furuc of anti», without treaty 

as on (his ocniiiuin tbat the famous lilirary 

[ b> hare liecu dCKtruved, conromiabl] ' 

'e cali|.' ■ ** 

■f the tireeks agrei 

t' if the 
ml with the book of 

_. , __. , _nd need nut bo pre^ 

1 if Ihey dii^dgntefl, they were pemivioua 
ufal Iu be devtiiiyed.' Thia lutrluTous Jud;.'- 
being nurieil intu effect, the books and 
nhrta were dii<lril>uled among the 4,IIIK) 
monging to (be city; and so priHli^mui 
or number, that nx mniithH arc said to 
etn reqnircd fur their consumption. Such 
ale tliai haa so oTti-n exiited the indigna- 
nI nr^'t of iohulan aiul the uibniivis uf 

indent genius. But Gibbon has shnwn that it 
has nngood fuunibiiion i it restt on the solilarv 
statement of Abuliiliani^uH, who wrote six cen- 

those toon! ancient aiuuilisis, who have narticii- 
larly dcMribcd tlic siege anii capture of the city. 
It L<s besides, repugnant (i> the cbaracler of (liu 
caliph and his general, and lo (be policy of (ho 
Mnhamme>lauK. Even if it did occur, the loss liaa 
tieen much exaggerated. Great port of the library 
uf Ihe Piolemien waa acciilcnlidty cunsumod by 
the fire which louk place during the attack un th'o 
city by Cffisor ; and either the whole, or the prin- 
Ipal part uf the lilnary suimcquenlly collected 
ras desirnyeil a.d. 3KU, wlion the temple of Sera- 
is, the must magnificent structure of 'the city, 
.ras ilemutished by tlie enthusiaaiic aeal of tiie 
AJctiuidria continncd prngressivelv to decline 
U, in l-IST. its ruin was cunsummateil by the dia- 
ivery uf tlie ]>B»age (o India by the Cape uf 
Guiul lIo[ie. llut (here can be no duubt, as pre- 
viously sta(ed, that it is desrineil lo recover a 
large portion of ita ancient importance. It Iliii 
leceesoiily become the centre uf Ibc communi- 
ralions canied on by steam between £uro|Ae oud 

The datoms which, as already seen, are slill in 
pretty guod preservation, are the priiici|ta] muiin- 
mvnt's of the ancient city lliat ha\-e ouilived i.ho 
injuries uf time, and the raii'agea of bniboriniis. 
The cataetimlB are also cum[>amtively entire. 
The magniliccut culumn, im|)nij>eriy called I'um- 
pev's I'Ubir, seems tu luve been erected in the 
re^ uf Dhwietian : its shaft cunsists uf a single 
lildck nf granite, KB feet iu height. Twu ubclisks, 
vulgarly calleil Cleo|ialra's Needles, of which only 
one is erect, are said tu have funned the entianco 
to the palace of (he Ctcsars. 

Ai.Ri.tsDitu. a ci(y and port of entry uf tho 
Unite<l States, *»U i;. Jumbia, on the W. bank of 
Ihe Falomac,6 m. S. I,at, StfO-lll' 
N., long. 770 IB' W. I'uji l-i,iij^ in ItXlU. It u 
well built, (ho streets c^K•8ing each other, at right 
angles, aiid it has commodious harbour with deeii 
water, the largest ships coming close to lliu 
wharls. Railways connect the dty with Sew 
York. Busli)n, and all tbe impuilant tuwns uf the 
L'nitcd Slaten. 

AL£:(AM>l(OVSK, a b'wn of Bnsua in Eu- 
rupc, gov, Ekaterinusiotr, cap. iliplrict on (lie 
Ihiieper at the bottom of tlic caiaract*, 140 m. 
S.E. Clionion. Puj). 4,iI7 in 1H6H. It is furti- 
lied; and dispUys nnuidemble activity from ilit 
l>cing tlie place wlicro merchandise conveyeil 
fnim EkatennnslafT by waggon, to aviud the caln- 
mcis in Ihe river, is i^tain slu|i]icd. 

ALFAKO, a town of Si-ain, prov. Soria, on Ihe 
banks uf the Aloma, cliwe lu itajuiictiou with tlic 
Ebni, 12 m, W. by N. Tudela. lliere is a militarj' 
nod between (his ]i]aco and Logruno, Pop. &,tM3 

ALFELD, a town of Hanoi-er, prov, llilde- 
sheim, at. Ihe conllux of the Leine and Wanio, 
and at the railway from llilileshdm tu Gottiiigen. 
Puji. 2,7y0 in IMOl. 'ITie town haa paper and oil 
mills. Flax and hups in uumiideroble quantities 
are grown in the neighbourhood. 

ALFKETOK, a par. and m. tuwn uf Englan.1, 
CO. Derby, hund. Scaradalc, 18 m. XSE. Dcrbi-. 
Pop. of town 4,IK)0, and uf parbh 11,649 in IMU. 
The iiihahitanta of the town are piiiici|ially em- 
ployed in the munufocliire uf siix'hings and 

iithenware, and in the sdjoiniiig collieries. 

ALGAKIXI'yO,atownufS|iain,imn-. Granada. 

[>se to the fruniiets of CiBtluba, near the riglil 

mkuf the Genii, in acuuiitry whosi' nbiuidant and 



fertilifling streams fall into that river. Pa8turap:e 
and tilla^ fomi the chief buaincss of the popula- 
tion. Pop. 4;i8.3 in IHT)?. 

ALGAKROBO, a town of Spain, prov. Granada, 
2 m. from the MetL Sea, in the miib^t of a countr>' 
particularly rich in lemons, oran^<!H, tijc^ and 
other fruita belongin;^ to the Routh of Simin. 
16^ m. E. Mala^ra, and nS m. SSW. Granada. 
Pop. *2,9.>4 in lt<o7. 

ALGARVE, the most S. prov. of Portugal, 
which Bee. 

ALGECIRAS, or Al-DJezireth, the Carteia of 
Roman geop«phv, a town of S|)ain. prov. Cadiz, 
on the W. side <»(* the IJay of Gihmltar, opposite 
to the celebrated rr)ck and fieninsula of tliat 
name, from which it is distant aI>out 7 m. by 
water, and 17 m. by lan<l. Lat. Hii^ 8' N., long. 
50 31' 7" vv. Pop. 14.-2i>9 in 1H57. The town 
has a good hariniur and {ir)nie trade in the exiN»rt 
of c<»al. It was built by the Mooth, and taJcen 
from them after a two vearH* siege, in 1344. 

ALGHEKl, or ALOHERO, a town and sea- 
port of the island of Sanlinia <}n its W. coast, 
16 m. SSVV Sassari; lat, HP 25' r>0" X., long. 8° 
16' 40" E. Pop. 8,419 in IWJl. The town is built 
on a low rr>cky point, jutting out from a sandy 
l>each, in the shape of a parallelogram with stout 
walls dank(^l bv bastions and towers : the walls 
arc in good repair; but being conimandc><l by two 
lieights it could not oiitmim; any vigorous attack 
from the land side, io the S\V. of the town 
there is tolerable summer anclioragi* in from 10 to 
l/i fathoms, good holding-ground. Though narn»w, 
the streets are clean and well paved. It is the 
seat of a bishopric, has a cathedral and 12 chun'hes 
and convents, with public schiHils which carry 
their scholars through a course of philosophy; and 
a surgical institution. It has a small theatre. 
The tovm was long (NX^upieil by the S])anianb4, 
and their language and manners still prevail. The 
country round is well cultivatetl, pnnlucing wine, 
butter, and cheese. In addition to these the ex- 
ports consist ti{ wool, skins, tobacco, rags, ancho- 
vies, coral, and bones. 

AUvIERIA, now frequently called Algeria, a 
country of N. Africa, and till recently the most 
powerful of the Harbary states, comi>ri>ing the 
Numidia Proper of the ancients or the Numidia 
of the Ma»$yii and the Aumidia J\l(uiui»yUy after- 
wards called Mauritania C<e9arien$i$^ with some 
|)ortion of the region S. of the greater Atlas an- 
ciently inhabited by the Getulie and Garamantes. 
Ithas'lMien since 1830 in possession of the French ; 
but for more than three centuries previously it 
formed a sulNirdinate part, of the Turkish empire, 
and was during that |x>ri(Ki the seat of an exten- 
sive system of ])iracy and C^hristian slaverj'. 

Situation^ Extent, Boundaries. — ^Algieria lies be- 
tween 20 11' W. and 8° o-S' E. ; its greatest N. lat, 
is 37^ 5'. It is l>oim<led the Medit<;rnmenn, 
W. by Fez (M(>rocco), and E. by Tunis; its S. 
boundary is doubtful, iMit it extends beyond the 
greater Atlas range to the confines of the «le»ert (»f 
Sahara : it is alnive 500 m. in length ; its breadth, 
which is greater in the E. than in the W., varies 
from al)out 40 to alxiut 200 m. The [Kipulation. 
in 18<51, amounted to 2,999,124 souls, namely, 
2,800,378 native*; 10,000 nfgn>c-s; 30,000 Jews; 
and 192,74H Euroi)eans. A later estimate (1803) 
makcK the number of Eun)]K*ans 213,000. Algeria 
is <Uvided into three great military proviiuxjs — 
that of Algiers in the centre, (Jran in the west, 
and Constantino in the east. The civil territory 
of each forms a department, having at their head 
a prefetTt, and sulKliWdttl into sub-prefectures, ^'iz. 
in the dci>artment of Algiers, lilidah, Mcfdeali, 
Mihmmh'f iu the dci>artniuiit of Coustantiuu, 


Bona, Philippcvillc, Guelma, Sc^tif; in thai of 
Oran, Mostaganem, Mascara, and Hemcen. Tlie 
remainder of the territory is in each pro^-ince 
administered by the militar>' authority. 'The civil 
territories are generally understood 10 incluile only 
the TeU^OT land N. of the gn»ater Atlas, excluding 
the territories of Zaab or Wad-reag, S. of that 

Mountains. — Algieria is mostly mountainous: the 
little Atlas, which nms along the coast parallel to 
the greater Atks, varies fn)m 3,000 U> 4,000 ft. in 
height. The abrupt mountains of Titteri, l>clong- 
ing to the greati>r Atlas, reach in some jwiut^t to 
an elevation of 9,000 ft., and send off tlirec prin- 
cii»al ridges: NW. towards Cape lyy; N. towanls 
Algiers; and NE. towanls Bugia. Itfany of these 
moimtains are remarkable ; as Wannashrecs iXa- 
hifus), pn>v. Oran. ver\' lofty, and Ju^ura, SE. of 
Algiers, both capiied with snow during winter ; the 
Titteri Dosh, or n»ck of Titteri, L) also a remark- 
able ridge of rugge<l preci]>ices. 

Plains. — 'ITie princii>al is that of Metidjah, im- 
me<liately S. «»f Algiers, 50 m. by 20 ; fertile, wvU 
watered, and coven>d with an abundant vegt>tatioiu 
but in parts marshy and unhealthy. In the W. 
prov. arc several jAains, es]Xicially that thr^»ugh 
which the Shelliff runs ; and another S\V. <»f Oran, 
sand^ and saltudi, dry in summer, but uiuudatctl 
in winter. In the S. pn>v. are tlie rich plains i4 
Ilamza, watered by the N'asava. Many luxuriant 
plains are found in the E. prov., as those of Setif, 
Majanal), and that skirting most part of the E. 
coast, which is, however, in many parta manhv. 
(Shaw, pp. 24, 37, 44, 47, 50, 53.) 

The Rivers arc sei^arated by tlie greatex Atlas 
range into those which run N. and S. Of tlie 
former, or those which discharge thein«clves into 
the Mediterranean, the princi|>aJi is the Shelliff (an. 
Chinaiaph)^ which rises S. of the Wannaslu^c M., 
and af^er a tortuous CH>urse of 2oo m., during which 
it ]>asscs through the Titteri (lawle or lake, falls 
into the sea under Cape Jibbel Iddis. In the rainy 
season it overflows its banks, and interrupts the 
communication between Algiers and Oran. The 
Wail-el-Kel>eer (an. Ampsaijd)^ which falls uitu 
the sea, N. of Constant ine^ "in C° E. hmg., is the 
sectmd in magnitude; the others an"* the Si'iUius, 
or river of Itona, the Ik>oberac, Yisso, Zowah, Wad- 
y-Zaine, &c Tlie large rivers, the Adjitli anil 
Abiad, nin SE., and empty thembclves into tlie 
Mdpiptf Lake; and several rivers «»f inferittr di- 
mensions empty themselves into the Shttt. Thew 
are two very extensive salt marshes ; tlie former 
on the S. the latter on the N. side of the givatcr 
Atlas : they consist partly of a light oozv H>il, as 
dangerous as quicksands to travclleiB. l^he lakv« 
are those of Titteri; two near Oran, which dr\' in 
summer, and from which salt is collected ; s«ime 
salt marshes near CafK! Matifou, and others along 
the coast fmra Bona to the bonlera of Tunis. 
(Rozet, p. 19 ; Shaw, p. 65.) 

Ciiinate. — The climate of the Tell, i. e. between 
lat. 3-1° and 37°, is generally wholesome and tem- 
perate. Shaw states that for twelve years (luring 
his ex|>ericncc it only fn»ze twice at Algiers; yet 
the heat was never o]>pressive unless during* S. 
winils. The mean teni|)erature of the year at 
Algiers is 7{fi F., in July and August alNiut 8rP 
F. ; but ranging (K'casionally during the pi\'valen«'c 
of the khamsin, sim(M»n], or hot wind fniiu the 
Sahara, as high as 1U>°, or even more. Luckily, 
however, the latter seldom or noxr continues fi»r 
more than 5 or 6 days at a time, and rarely oontrM 
except in August or Sej)teml>er. In winter tin* 
temi)erature is usually rrom 55^ io 65° F. The 
heat is mitigateti by the N. winds, which with the 
E. [urevail during summer. About the uquiuoxi'tf 



rmlent SW. winds oocor ; NW. winds are common 
fpim Xovembcr to Apnl, at which time storms and 
«h<iweRi (»f rain are most frequent; but in summer 
t\ify4: winds bnng dry weatlier ; the E. and S. 
wind.** are also drv% and quite imlikc what they are 
on the oppcwiite £unipcan c<»asts. The barometer 
varies only fn>m 29 and 1-lOth to 30 and 4~l()ths 
in. Tlierir are about 50 wet days during the year, 
chif-lly in March, alonf: the coast and on the lesser 
Atla^J The quantity of rain varies greatly in dif- 
frn^nt years ; but, at Alfj^ierH, it may average from 
i7 to 28 inches : little falls during summer. Dews 
are abondJuitT and the air on the coast is damp. 
At the end of December the trees lose their 
leaver : bat by the middle of Februarv v^^tation 
is again in full activity, and the fruit Ls ri{>e in 
May. (Shaw, pp. 133-'l36 : Rozet, i. pp. 140-149 ; 
D'Ax-izac, art, * Al^r.*) The atmf>sphere is ver>' 
clear and the country healthy, excepting in the 
nuRthv ilistricts. Of late years Algeria has come 
much in vtigue as a residence for invalids. 

Gtologjf amdMnurahn — Ttie primary rocks con- 
Mi-t in part of granite, but chietly of gneiss and 
mit-aceous sduB^ Travertine is found on the 
ei«st : near Oran a grevHsh quartz, but no volcanic 
rricks ; in the interior a lime formation often alter- 
nates with a schistose marL The secondary de- 
pi«4ts cunsist in many places of a lias formation 
and calcareous strata, containing few oiganic and 
A) vegetable remains. At Oron the lime cuntains 
bivalve, hut no univalve sheUs. The tertiary de- 
I»<4ts are mostly calcareous, in the Metidjah of a 
yrllowish grey colour ; sometimes a blue clay en- 
cLviing a laminary gypsum and a little iron, in 
Mtber parts sandy and much impregnated with salt. 
All the chain of Atlas has a tertiary* clay deposit. 
The W. province appears to be the richest in mi- 
nerds. Salt is extremely almndant, in springs and 
beiU <m Ijoth the E. and W. frontiers ; near ( 'ou- 
Mantine. the Titteri I><ish mountains, and the Mel- 
gif^ and Shott marshes. The salt ^its near ^Vrzcw 
occupy a space of 6m. circ, forming marshes in 
winter which dry in summer, when bu^e quanti- 
tie» iA salt are ctdlected. Nitre, though not found 
pure, is very plentiful in the W. province, (ietu- 
iia. &c Ifun 18 most abundant. Copper is found 
in various places ; and there are some very rich 
lead mines, the ore of those of the Wannaslurees 
U'ing said to }*ield 80 per cent, of pure metal. 
There are also fidlers' earth, potters* clay, talc, py- 
rites ire. Diamonds (verifying what was reckoned 
the apociy|>hal statement of I'liny, ULMt. Nat., lib. 
37, ( 4) have been found in the sands of the \Vad- 
c-I-Kammel that runs by Constant iiie, mixed with 
Hnali quantities of grdd dust, silver, tin, and aii- 
tinHioy. Saline hot and cold springs are exceed- 
ingly abundant, mnre so, in fact, than those of 
fre>h water. Tlie latter, however, are by no means 
nre. and may everywhere be found by digging 
thp»u;;h a crust of Aakv soft stone lying at diflerent 
d-n-tliA, Init near Algiers and Dona immetliately 
f<*L»w the surface of the ground. (D'Avizac, art. 


Vrgniaticm in the N. {uirts of Algieria is nearly 
ihr iome as in the S. parts of S))ain, Provence, 
Iialy. and the rest of the Mediterranean shores. 
Tlii^ m«iantains of the little Atlas are covereil with 
thick fureffts, in which are found fve different va- 
ri*-ties of oak, the Aleppo pine, the wild olive, the 
>huin«c trw {Rhtu coHtiia), with arbutus, cypress, 
Di% rtles. &c. S. of the greater Atlas are found the 
datf-hearing {olm, and other trees l>elonging to a 
wanner climate. The Algerian Sahara is far from 
l«^ing a perfect desert. There are multitudes of 
<«-cs full of towns and Ullages, surrounded by 
olives figM, vines and pahns. 

AuimaU, — Lions of great size and strength, 

panthers, hy»nns, and leopards, inhabit the moun- 
tainous recesses of the greater Atlas, but arc never 
seen near Algiers: wiUl Intars, wolves, and jackals 
are more common, and there arc a few bears. 
Wild cats, monkeyH. iK>rcupiiies, and hedge-hogs 
are more or lese abundant; as well as antelo|)es 
and other S]>ecie8 of deer, hares, gennets, jerboas, 
rats, mice, £c. The useful animals arc horses, 
asses, black cattle, sheep, camels, dromedaries, <tc. 
Ostriches are found in the desert on the confines 
of Morocco; there arc also vultures and other 
large birds of prey; bitterns, curlews, lapwings, 
plovers, pigeons, and suii)es; with great plenty of 
game and small liinLs. Some serpents of the Colu- 
t>er race are met with: and lizanlH, chameleons, 
and other amphibia. Tunny and other sea fish 
abound on the coasts; l)ari)el, perc.h, eels, &c., arc 
found in the fresh waters, and even in the wann 
saline streams; conger at the mouths of the rivers; 
and lobsters and many other Crustacea ttlt)ng the 
shores. Among tlie insect tribe ore scorpions and 
tarantulas. Locusts seldom commit the sanio 
devastations here as in Eg>i>t and Syria. Conil, 
which is very abundant on the coasts, forms on 
important article of prtnluce and industry: it is of 
a laiger sort, but less Wvid in iin colour, than that 
of Sicily. (K<>zet, vol. i. p. 218; Sliaw, p. 192; 
Campl)ell, [-.etters from the South.) 

People, — There are nine distinct racei» of in- 
habitants, viz.: 1st, lieriwrsorKabyles, who. how- 
ever, call themselves Mtuigh (noble) or Muzerg 
(free); they ctmstitute alnnit half the entire ]x>- 
pulation, and are the lineal des^'cndants of the 
aiNiriginal inhabitants of the country. They arc 
principally found in the mountain districts; and 
their lands are occasionally well cultivutiMl and 
irrigate(L 2d, BL*»keris or Mozabs, su]>posed to Ixj 
the descendants of the GetuUe, living principally 
S. of the greater Atlas, an»l coinparutively in- 
dustrious. 8d, Moors; a mixed race, descende»l 
from the Mauritanians. Berl)en*, Carthaginians, 
Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; they constitute the 
bulk of the jKipulation of the towns and villages. 
4th, Arabs, consisting of three tril)es: the first, 
supposed to have descendeil from the ancient 
Amalekites, is nearly extinct ; the second consists 
of cultivators of the soil, and Is fixed to certain 
si)ots; the third, or wandering Aralw, arc princi- 
pally henLsmen and shepherds dwelling in tents. 
5th, Negroes, called Abyd (slaves) i»r Soudan 
(black); originally ibrcught thither from the in- 
terior, and stdd as slaves. (5th, Jews, who form a 
third part of the inhabitants of Algiers, and a 
fourth part of those of Oran. 7th. Turks, now 
very few, nor ever very numerous, although long 
the dominant race: they worc a hetontgeneous 
body, coraiM>se<l of genuine Turks, Greeks, Cir- 
casHiians. Ail>anians. Corsicans, Maltese, and rene- 
gades of all nations, mounte<l, and forming n 
militia similar to the Mamelukes. On the c<»n- 
quest of ^Vlgieria, in 18H0, by the French, the 
Turks l>eing ]K*miitted to withdraw, evacuated 
the counir}' to the nund)er of alM»ut 20,000. 8th, 
KolouglLs, or descendants of Turiis by Moorish 
mothers, their name literally signifying 'sons of 
soldiers.' Although ]wssessed oif infiucnce, they 
did not formerly enjoy the same rights and con- 
siderati<tn as their fathers. 9th, Eur«»iH»ans. who 
may of course l>e sulxlividerl into various nations, 
but arc mostly French. Amongst the Kabyles of 
the Aurcss are a trilKMlistingidshe<l by a fair com- 
])Iexion, blue eyes, and light hair, believed to l)c 
<lescendants of the Vandals. Traces of the Iluns, 
Suevi, an<l other Gothic nations have l>eeii also 
found. (For further inf<irmation resis'cting the 
differcnt native races, see Arabia, Bakbauy, and 




Scenery. — ^Procccilinff from W. to E. a rich 
chnni[>ajgii countr)' stretches for some <lwtance 
iiilnnd S. of Arzew, l)oun(l«i towards the aea by 
steep HK'ks and pnnupices; many fertile plains are 
irri^ate^l by the Sigg river (or Sikkj a drain or 
trench), its waters being diverted by numerous 
canals hir that puqxwe. Ik^hincf Masagran, and 
near the Shelliff, as far as the sea, is a tract stud- 
de<l Diitli on^hards, gardens, and countrj' houses. 
The countrv nmnd Shershell is of the most exu- 
l>eTnnt fertility, jHJSsessing large trat^ts of arable 
land, and the m<mntains covered to their summits 
with plantations of fruit trees, and affording de- 
lightful and extensive pn»s]KH'ts. The inland parts 
of the W. province f>n'sent alternately fertile val- 
leys and high ranges of rocky mrmntains. * If we 
conceive,' says Sliaw, 'anuml)erof hills, usually 
of the i>er[Kmdicular height of 4(>0, 500, or (UM) 
yanls, 'vvith an easy as<"ent, and several gn»ves of 
hniit and forest trees rising up in a succession of 
ranges one l>ohind ant)ther, and if to this pro8i)ect 
we h<»re and there add a rocky precipice ol a supe- 
ri(»r eminence and dilhcult a<!cess, and place uiM»n 
the side or summit of it. a mud-walled Dashkerah, 
or village of the Kabyles, — we shall then }iav(» a 
just idea of the atlas iHuuiding the Tell.* The 
verge of the Sahara l)eyond this presents nothing 
but scattered villages and plantations of dates. 
Tlie plain of Metidjah, adjoining the ca])ital, con- 
tains many farms and country houses, prtNlucing 
in ])erfecti(»n flax, henna, r(K»ts, iK)t-herl)s, rice,, 
fruit, and com of all kinds; it is a<Iorned l)esides 
with multitudes of oleanders, geraniums, ]Mission 
tiowers, an<l other luxuriant shhd)s. The S. pro- 
vince has the same general character as that of 
Gran, llic Titteri Dosh, 20 m. S. of Me<leah, is a 
towering nmgc of bleak preci])ices. Tlie Juijura. 
8K. of Algiers, is a similar tract. The sea coast of 
the E. pn>viuce, as far as the river Zhoore, is 
mountainr)us, and calle<l by the Aralw El-A<lwah 
(the Lofty); thence to the Seibous it is hilly; and 
fr«>m the' latter to the l)order mostly level, and 
sometimes covered with forests. Some distance to 
the S. are the 3f. Thamhes of Ptolemy. Ihe 
Seibous in some parts wanders through l>eautiful 
valleys, clothed with olive trees, lentisks, and a 
fine turf. The coimtrv alsjut the source of the 
Zenati is broken and irregular, and api>ears to be 
volcanic; that to the X. and NW. of ( Constant ine, 
from which that city is chiefly supplie*!, is wat^^retl 
by the Rusuli, which is * bonlerwl by a few villas 
ami numerous gardens, rich in every variety ol 
vegetable and fruit trees, with extensive groves of 

Kimegranate, olive^ tig. orange, and citron,' and 
>unile<l by bol<i ranges of hills : its fruit is esteemed 
over the whole province. In the roa<l from Algiers 
to Omstantine, between the plains of Hamza and 
Majanah, a deep narrow (mss, called Beeban (the 
Gat«s), which a few men might defend against an 
army, leads through a moimtain ridge; and a 
little farther E. the road is carried by a dangen>us 
track over the crest of a high mountain. S, of 
Sdtif are many rich plains. The territory around 
Tifesh is the most fndtful in Numidia, and the W. 
I)n)vince the finest of the regency. The \'illages 
of Zaab are collections of dirtv hovels, surrounded 
by <late plantations; Wad-reag, a similar countr}', 
lias 25 villages. To the W. ext<»nds the vast 
region of Blaid-el-Jerride, *a<lrv'countr>','al)oimd- 
ing in dates. (Shaw, ])p. 1-M>8; Sir Ix. Temple, 
Extracts in the Ge<^;japh. Journal, 1838, part, iL) 
Antitntities, — Most of the citii»s and towns bear 
names little altered fnim those given them bv the 
liomans. Manv niins remain ; th(»se of I'ipasa 
(Tifessad), IH m. E. of Shershell, stretch f«»r two 
miles along the coast : on the brink of the Shelliff, 
in about the same lat., there ore several classical 

remiuns, Corinthian capitals, &c., probably the 
ruins of the Colon ia Augusta of Pliny. Abi<ut 
14 m. E. of Algiers are the ruins of Kosucurium. 
At Maliana, N. of the Shelliff, a stone, inserted in 
a modem wall, bears an inscriptiim, whence it has 
been inferred that it was tlie place where Pompe>'*s 
gran(b«on and great grandson were biuied. (See 
Martial, Epig. Ub. v. Ep. 75.) Near Bona are the 
ruins of Hippo BegiuSj and many towns can bt^a^t 
of ancient relics ui tolerable prcser\'atioa. The 
j(n)vince of Constantine especially abounds with 
them, and with Roman roads ; and even the re- 
mote district of Wad-reag has numerous remains 
of Roman masonry. Near the capital is a col- 
lecti<m of iinheM'n stones, somewhat similar to 
thiKse of Stonehenge^ which the French call l^midic, 
but others believe to be Pha'nician. There are 
few Christian remains, their buildings ))a\ing been 
(lest roved bv the zeal of the Saracens^ (Shaw, 
pp. 2r-67. ; *Sir (}. Temple, Extracta.) 

Agriculture, — Much of the land is uncoltivatod 
and waste ; but the fertility fur which it was «> 
famous in antiquity — 

* Non qnicqnid LlbTcis terit, 
Fcrvcns area mcndbos,* — 

still continues nnimpaire^l; and requires merely 
the substitution of regular govemmcnt for lawless 
violence, and of industrious colonists for roving 
he.rilsmen, to render it once more the grauary of 
Euro|)e. The land in many parts, owing to the 
<]uantity of salt with which it Ls impregnated, is 
so rich as to rec|uire no manure but burnt weeds. 
But in a dr\' climate like this ever>' thing depends 
on the command of water ; and the necessity un- 
der which the native inhabitants were placed (if 
providing this indis]x;nsable element for their 
lands, had so far coimtcrvaile<l their indolence and 
want of science as to make them pretty expert in 
the art of irrigation. The French were not, at 
first, sufficiently alive to the vital importance of 
this; and some of the Arab works for irrigating 
were in consequence neglected, to the great iiyury 
of the province, but the mist.ake has latterly been 
re]iaired. Tlie land is usually ploughed and sown 
in Oct(»ber, or (if with barley) in Novemlier; by 
the aid of A]iril rains a gotxl cn>j) is thought 
secure, and the har\'est takes filacc m the end of 
May, or the be^ning of June, yielding at an 
average 8 or 12 for 1. The species of com mostly 
groinTi are the Tritirum durum (hanl wheat), and 
Hordeum vuigare (common barley). Maize is not 
much cultivateiU except in the W. proWnce ; white 
millet for fattening cattle is planted there; rice 
chiefly in the jirov. of Oran. Oats not being 
grown, horses are fed wholly upon liarley and 
straw. The plough used round Algiers is the same 
as that of S{>ain and I*rovence ; but in general is 
not shod vnih. uron. It is drawn by cows and asses, 
very rarely by hoi«is; yet ^^ith such im])(*rfect 
jdoiighing the cn>]>s are generally excellent. When 
reii]>ed, the grain is triKlden out by cattle or 
horses; and after being cleaned by throwing it 
up against the utind, is deposited in subterraneous 
caves or magazines. Tlie pulse crops arc beanii, 
lentils, kidney beans, pease, an<l garvan^os fcicer 
]>ea) ; tumiiis, carrots, cabl»ages, &c., arc good anil 
plentiful. Endive, cress, spinach, and artichokes 
are in seas<in from Octol)cr to June ; after which 
come calabashes, mallows, tomatas, and water- 
melons. Potatoes are fn^uently groiMi, but do 
not arrive at a huge size, and are of inferior quality. 
The date is the jmncipal fnut, and is by far the 
most valuable pro<luct of the country S. of the 
greater Atlas. It Is ]^r(.>j>aj;rated chieflv by younrj 
shoots, and yields fruit in Its Cth or tth year; it 
attains maturitv at al)out its 30th vear, bxhX is in 
full vigour for CO or 70 more, after which it gra- 

duall; deeliiM*, tin it 

BS extinct vhcn ■boni I BtuITi, the first 


HDglit PaHaditu n] . , 

lonm A pahmi eo^Ut amtcrtudit.' (Oct. n.t 
During >la iiuuiiit7 it yrclda uiaualljr fiom 15 M 
^ duAttf ot Amua, each weighing &om 15 to 
10 Ida. The date palm (font) when it dies ii 
alwair* mecceded by olhen fram shoots or kecnela ; 
. whence inav prohtblv have orifinaleil the fable oi 
allepay of the binl l^ffiiiijt. The lotiu or trrdra 
bar* a b«iy aold all uver the S. disUict, Htwt 
df the fruit trees common to Europe are found in 
Alffiera ; but the fruita are infi^ur, excepting ncc- 
tarines, peachea, and potn^ianatea j there are no 
hazel nuts, filtierta, airawbcmes, gooRebetrieA, or 
ennanta. The Tine is cnltiv»t«il with much ad- 
rantaffiv; the KT^tea ripen by the end of July, 
uid are eaten buth fresli and drv by the natii-is, •j- 
who aeldinn make wine; thou|;£ thinj no duulrt, , w 
will be attempted, and must iikcl^- with mucccbs, m 
bv the French. Oil of a very inferior quality, and ' Fi 
iJirayB acrid, is obtained Irum the ulive. Me 
and iDdian figa are laigely grown, and fon 
DHiidileTable part of the food of tlie Arabs. 
BHne f^rudoda near Algiera the anear-cane is ci 
nied. Cotton and inciij,ii have been tried, and 

fnnnin); the j^iealer part of the 
iuo»» of the population, leatber, saddles, bridles, 
carpets, nre^arma, steel and other metal articles, 

a them 

IT tn that of 
only are omplojni ■ 
coarse woollen manufactures, as 
slavish occupation of grinding com. European 
Rwxla arc much in request, and are bartered in the 
S. for gold ihist and cwirith fcathen. 

Tradt. — Prci-ioualy to the oc<'upation of Algieria 
by the French, the istobiiBhcd ralea iifdiity wcra 
S and 10 )>er cent, on imported articles, occonling 
til the Btipulnlions in the treoliiw with the coun- 
tries of wliich tbey were the prmluce. But these 
general ru1(s were entirely disrtgardeii in practice; 
uid, in point of fact, little or no tmde ctndd be 
carried on except by those wbo obtained licences 
that effect from goremment, which were cither 
Id to the highest bidiler, or to tliose who had 
33t inlereat with the Divan. As soon as the 
French had taken posseasioii of Algeria, the 
icreat resources of the country came to bo de- 
veloped. The imports, chiefly from France into 
Algeria, amounted to 7,01)0,000 hs., or 280,0001; 
in 1B3I, and gradually rose to 40.000,000 fri., or 
. ^^, n^, !_ 18^. toBI,234,M7rni.,or3,aW,377/., 

ill. It appeani from in 1».>J ; and to nearly ij milliuiia 

of I Bi 

affiiial returns that there were 3,274 hecta: 
land pUnteil irith cotton in the year lHti3, in 

Altfena ; that the crop amounteil to l,"" 

rnmmes, and the value ia estimated 

tiucK. During the years 18«1 and 1802, 

prcvDd planted with cotton did not measure ' .. . 

thin 1.42)1 hectares, and the value did not exceed i^reatly 

Vflmm francs. chiefly 

Cattle constitute the principal wealth of the by the J 
ailivcB. She^aieoftwokiuils: oneHmall.mlh imly to l^?2/. 
aibickUi}:e toil; theotheroramuChbirgcrBi7G, lo47,f""' " 
etiictly found in the country of the Mebuio-Gelulie. Mber 
ShtppofiheeDe Tunisian breedorenotmetwith. into Algeria dcclii 
(Mts {veUy abundant; pigs few, round-bodied, They were of the 
•bn-lcKKci and generally block. Cattle usually ■"•'■"• -- ■'"■■ 
Uic^ : iheir milk la inferior tu that of Eurnpetm 
eaitic; that of aheep and goats is mostly ixae<L in 
ikt making! if cheese and butter. The Arabs 
MJikim diminish tlielr flocks by killing them fur 
tuL but live on their milk and wimjL \o animals 
m castrated- The commun boaata of burthen are 
iii»l», dromedaries, oases, and mulis. ]>r. Shniv 
•Voks of a singular cruss brrwil between on ass 

u>d a cow, called Immrah, hftving a sleeker akiu 

iban it» sire, no boms, but the dam's hcail and 

iiil ; lui Kozet saya that be had not been able to 

iai toy ince of any such animal The horses 

•n am olwivs, nor ei*en often of the jiure Arab 

l^ed. Dor sltogeihcr well shaped, being lanky 

tod mind-ahouldered ; heod small, and not ill 

I'^Qked; cars erect; and thev are hardy, fleet, 

inrilfll, and docile: thoee of 6ran ore occounled 

>}• bat, Tbey are U-ted onlj- fur ri.ling, and like 

erling in IWiS. 

the exports scarcely kc|>t poce witli tl „ 

import trad& In the ten yeora from lN.i4 ti> 

njnuo- I icniJ, Algeria never exported more than from l^ 

,859,000 (O 2 millions atciling worth of ber produce, nearly 

■thirds of which went to France. However, 

[ports from Alf^na to the United Kingilnm 

- ' 1 during tlie yeors lftliO-3, owinc 

civil war. The exports amounted 

, _. lMC0,nndro»eto3l'l,3ai(.in IMKl; 

47,2e4Jinl8G3,an<ltol04.204f.inlN6a. Ontho 

* om the United Kingdura 

iring the some period. 

_ _ or43,754t in 18G0; of 

Cattle usually M.955J: in IRCl ; of 4r>,253/. in 18G3, and of 

- '-- l,V32t in 1863. In ailiUtitai to cttu, or rather 

lioar, the principal articles of importation are 

(Otton, woollen, silk, and linen stuffis but pnr- 

uciiUrly the first; wines and spirits, sugar and 

is>ffoc, armfl, hardware, and cutle^. 

The em]ilovment of shiimiiig corresponds with 
;he amount of tmde ; and the prn)ioni<in of both 
in the hands of the French is increasing. A regular 
intero.urw is kept up bv means of steam-iiatkcw 
liftwccQ Marseilles, Cette, Antwerp, Havre, and 
'■lie weights, measures, and money in use are, 
Wrigha.—Tbe Onijnjsh {4 Kruuuues) ; RoU t ttiarir 

Mnaura of bipon^r,— ZVfHirf: KuUah, (18'M litres} 
= alKiut IT pints. Drf: Pn(4S]ltTvs)=513'7thplntf. 
ilfliaglh: Dicrd ftTorkf (Btt>mi11emetnH)=l.U!>9Iect 


^ tbii 

omela ore reared and bve 

ip. 2-fi5, 160-170; Roict, 
LctlcTB from S.) 

l1ti"4-iBi; CampbeU 

^1*. awf Jtfo.i</ocri.r._. 

"•In rf Europe are followed in the towns; but 
omdontd in a very inferior manner, as well be- 
CUH lithe indolence oa of the ignorance of the 
'^'mn. The Jewa ars the moat industrious, and 
"^cfJiie the gifater part of the extemol trade, 
nih the higher Iwanchcs of ort, beinglhe liief 
JfwllH*, watchmakers, ond tailors. The Arabs 
■t SHchanta, tanners, and carpenters; the Xe- 
fT'« mawns, bricklavers, anil other artificers ; 
I* Kabries extract m)n, lead, and copper from 
re gimpowder,aoid 

^nimb. C-ippert Dcrbem tiifur, J 

Riematt. — It i 


impossible precisely to oscorta 
;nueaat the disposal of the ik 
)I^ to the French conquest; b 

I* miperior to that m 




it mav be fairly estimated at about 3,lH)0,niK) fr, 
iir 1-20,000/., including thertdn 650,000 fr., o. 
■«,O0O(. of tribute paid by Naples, Portugal, Ac. 
Eitr exemjition from piracy ; but it is prubable that 
the taxes paid by the people amoontcd to at least 
three or four times as much. The taxes were of 
i^oiia kiiuls : the principal was the tithe {aithr) 
iif ell crops; and there were also |Kiil taxes on the 

annrifti-timi an coane linen, woollen, and oilk i 


the monopoly of wool, loAther, baU, and wax. 
These taxes have l)ecn | retAined by the 
French ; but the mf»re oppresHive^ with the nn>- 
nopolies, liavc lieen abolished. A considerable 
revenue has been latterly <lerived from the »ale of 
the public lands and other pr()])erty belonp:inf:f to 
the state, which are iK-^nninc to be extensively 
])urchased and (.>ccupied by Kuropeims, The re- 
venue from all wiurces amounted in 18H3 to about 
r)O,000,(KK> francs, or 2 millions sterling. The 
French exfjenditurc in Algeria, from it>» conquest 
to the end of the year 1804, is estimated at 
4,632,4^4,000 francs, <ir lHr),29l»,3G0/. To France 
Algitria always has been, and must continue U) be, 
a most costly colony. 

The (invemmcnt is administered by the com- 
mander-in-chief of the French forces in Algieria, 
who is governor-general, and rc^poiisilile to the 
French cabinet. His salarv, bv an innx*Tial de- 
cree of S*«]>t. 5, 1804, has been fixed at 120,000 frs., 
or .'i,000/. The govemor-gcnenil exercisei* al>- 
solute authority. PreWously to 1830 the govern- 
ment was veste<l in a dev, or pacha, l)cing the 
officer at the head of the 'Turkish soldiery in the 

Military and Naval Force, — Under the Turks 
the (ley maintained a\nmt 10,000 n'gular infimt.ry 
and 0.000 cavalrv ; but in case of neetl he could 
bring into the lield a considerable l)ody of irreguhir 
t.nM)|)s, iNiund to st»r\'e, like the Euroi)ean f(.»rces of 
the middle ages, for a certain uuml^er of <lays at 
their own awt. The cavalr\' was recnnte<l chietiy 
among the Araljs and Jierl)ers. The naval force, 
i«> long an object of tcrn>r to the Christian powers, 
wxLs never very formidable. In 181t5, when it was 
n<!arlv annihilated bv Loni Exmouth, it consisted 
of 4 frigates of from 40 to 50 gims, 1 of 38 guns, 4 
corvettes, 12 brigs and gi>elettes, an<l 30 giui-lM)ats. 
In 1824 their corsairs had again l)egini to infest 
the se-as; and in 1830, on the capture of Algiers, 
the French found a large frigate m dm'k, and two 
others in the i>ort, 2 cor>ettes, 8 or 10 brigs, several 
xelxjcks, and 32 gim-Uiats. (Kozet, iii. p. 3r)2- 
380.) The French tn>oi>s in Algieria in 1 8r)3, accord- 
ing to official returns, were 02,407 men and 14,323 
horses. The French troops of all arms iucludcd 
in these figures amoiuited to ftl.^i'ut men and 
10,714 horses, the suq)]iL«i l)eing fonned of a foreign 
regiment and native troops. In the so-calle<l na- 
tive tnH)ps, which never quit the colony excc]>t 
fiir fighting puqjoses, there are a great number of 
Kuro|)eans. Tliey consist of three regiments of 
Zouaves, three uf Turcos, or * Tirailleurs Algt'riens,' 
three of ' ('h.'tsseurs <l\Vfrique,' ami three of Si»ahis, 
but lor some years a numl)er of these liave been 
absent in CtK'hin-China and Mexi(;o. 

Religion and Edwntion. — The gre^it bulk of the 
peojde profess Moliammodnnl^im. The negroes, 
iiowever, are mostly addicted to fJtichism ; and 
the cree<l of the IJerlnirs is scarcely kn(mii, as 
they suffer no strangers to \*'itness their riles: 
they pay great reverence to tlu'ir maralxjuts or 
mouraiMi/s, |>ersons who practice a rigid and austere 
life, and who sometimes affect to perform miracles. 
Ttiey n^rd them as insj>ire<l, and honour their 
tombs. This cuhtom luis crept in amongst the 
Jews, who venerjite the sepulchres of their rabbins, 
and convert them inUi synagogues. Since the 
French occupation a goo* I many mo»iques have 
been converted into Christian churehes. 

Morals arc at an extremely low ebb; the inha- 
bitants, particularly the Mt)ors, l>eing in gt-ueral 
grossly sensual, debauched, and corrupt. Dronken- 
nejis is n(»t very frequent amongst the natives; but 
the French have lost large immbers of n»on from 

The Moors and otlicr inhabitants of the towns 

con for the most part road the Koran and wTit«, 
which, however, comprise the whole of their in- 
stnicrion ; few underKtand arithmetic, or go bej-bnd 
the first two rules; and this limited instruction, it 
will be observed, is enjoyed by the male sex only, 
women being bniught u]) in the moAt complete 
state of ignorance. Tlie Moors often transact 
business by pla<:ing their fingers on different jiarts 
of each other's hands, without speaking ; each 
finger and joint denotuig a different number. Few 
Ixxjks, except the Koran, and some encomiastic 
commentaries upon it, arc ever seen or £u>ught 
after. The education of children in the Korui 
goes on for three or four years, when their tuition 
ceases. The French have established schools of 
mutual instruction in all the principal to\«iis, 
which are chiefly superintended by Jews, and 
tolerably well attended. Official returns show 
that, in 18(>2, there were 471 establishmentj« for 
priman* instruction, which received 3v>,l>yy ))upilit 
of lK»th sexas. Dining the tliree last years tlie 
number of children who liave received primary 
instructi<m has increased by over o,000. In 18t)l, 
among the tribes which hail submitted to the mili- 
tary athninistration, 2,140 primary* schooLfi for 
Miissidmans had been established, "with 2,313 in- 
stitutions at which 25,000 pupils learned reading, 
writhig, arithmetic, and commentaries on tlie 
Koran. (Tableau de la Situation, &c. p. 254., and 
French Official Keturns.) 

Arts and Sciences. — The jVrabs of Algieria, though 
descended from the people who gave algebra to 
Europe, and preserve<l medicine during the dark 
ages, have no notion either of arithmetic or of the 
correct measurement of time or distance. Their 
me<licine, too, is in the nidest state, and few dL«v- 
eases occur that do not, under their treatment, 
l>ec(»me either chronic or mortaL Tlieir remedies 
consist chieflv of suj>erst itious practices, as ]>il- 
grimage,s : or mert- decoctions, as that of mallows, 
fhey are accustome<l, in cases of rheumatism and 
pleurisy, to pmicture with a red-hot inm ; to dre* 
wounds with hot butter, and sometimes with pejH 
per, salt, and brandy ; and on the field of liattle to 
thrust W(K>1 into them. When amputAtiim i* re- 
sorted to, it is ]>erformed by the stroke of an ata- 
ghan, and followed by the application of hot pitclu 
Hence, notwithstanding their aversion to change, 
we neexi not wonder that latterly the French army 
surgeons have lK*en in great request by the natives. 
llosi)itaU have l>een cstaldisheil in the princi))al 
to^Mis, and vaccination has been introduced. In 
18r»3 not fewer than 23,301 civilians, l»elonging 
either to the Eun)pean or to the native p<»pula- 
tion, applied for admission into the hospitals. 
(Shaw, p. 190-199 ; Campbell, Let. 20 ; and Official 

Social Life. — The Ikrliera or Kabyles live in 
cabins (gurbies) made of the branches of trees 
pla>itercd*with mud and straw, with a low do(.>r and 
narrow glazed holes serving for windows; the*e 
huts are collected together in small groups iw 
dashkras. The Moors, Jews, Negroes, and mt»st 
others, except the Arabs, live in houses built on a 
uniform model, which from the earliest times has 
not varie<l. An o}K»n court-yard forms the centre, 
around which are various apartments, opening U]Hin 
galleries supi>orted by light pilasters: the roofs are 
tint, surrounded by a battlement breast high, and 
built with a com{)osition of sand, wmhI ashe^, and 
lime, mixe<l with oil and water, called terrace \ 
whence our word. The rooms are fliKJitd and cis- 
terns Jire made of this com]K)sition. Watcr-omrsi'S 
are comi>osed of tow and lime only, mixinl with 
oil ; this mixture, as well as the former, SiK>ii ac- 
quiring the hardness and im|»er\'iousne8s of stone. 
In most habitations there is in each apartment a 



niatd fdatfonn for deqnng on, the bed being com- 
pi«ed of junk, matting, 8hee|>Hikins, or more costly 
material, aoconling to circumstances. The other 
Aimiture oonsista, among the nomadic tribes, of 
two large stones for grinding com, wrought by 
women ; a few articles of pottery and bronze, and 
a rude firame for weaving. The better classes have 
co&hioas and carpets to their rooms, the lower 
part of their walLi being adorned with coloure<l 
hai^^ingft, and the upper part painted and decorated 
with fret woiit. The tofits of the Arabs (the ma- 
fa£a of the ancients) are sometimes called khynuuy 
from the shelter they afford ; and somctimeH btet- 
ei~akaar, or houses of hair, from the webs of goats' 
hair of which they are made. They are constructed 
at tht!4 moment predselv in the wav described by 
Liv>- (lib. xxLx, § 31.), 'Sallust (Bell Jug. § 21.), 
VlTfpl^ &C. They are of an oblong shape, not un- 
like the bottom of a ship turned upwards, and arc 
family set up and taken doMm. (Shaw, pp. 20H- 
2±*.) The dress of the Berbers is very rude and 
coarse ; that of the other classes varies grcAtly ; 
but it w common with both sexes to wear abroad a 
kait, or toca, and a bemmu, which covers the 
bead and shoulderB : the faces of the women are 
\*ry much concealed. Vegetables form the chief 
diet <^ all classes, not a fourth part of the animal 
fiMid being consumed by them tliat b consumed by 
m equal population in Europe. Bread, couscouson 
(a kind of Irish stew), legumes, potatoes, tomatas, 
and other vegetables, dressed with spices, oil, but- 
ter, or aromatic herbs; Indian figs, raisins, melons, 
and other fruits ; with water, sherbet, and coffee, 
—form the main articles of consumption. 

Drinking coffee and smoking tobacco constitute 
never-iailing amusements. Almost all the male in- 
hiliitants oi the towns have a pipe attached to the 
Intton of their vest; and the more indolent and 
npaknt will sit for days in caf(^ unmindful of 
their families, smddng incessantly, or playing at 
t!tta». In the country, fowling, hawkintc? and 
hunting the yvUd boar and lion arc actively ])ur- 
Hied. Theatres are now opened in the prmcipal 

The Lamguage is mostly Arabic, but mixed with 

V<Miriith and Phoenician wonls. The Kabyles have 

a peculiar language, so very poor that it is without 

cnnjunctions or abstract terras, and is indebted to 

th* Arabic for these, and for all terms of rcli^on, 

fwnrc, &C. In conversing with Europeans a lin- 

f»a Franca is made use of; a mixture of Spanish, 

Italian. French, and Portuguese. (See Bakuaky.) 

HmUcayt, — In no respect have the efforts of 

France to civilise this part of Africa been more 

>'>wtrtttf!ful than in the formation of |2^ood roads, 

and. tlic most perfect of all rr)ads, railways. At 

the end frf" the year 1864, there had been prepared 

in Algeria a net work of 340 miles of railroads, 

»i«nely, a trunk line from Algiers to Oran. 287 

miler iooji:, and a branch line from Philippo-illc to 

I'^iRi'tantine, of 53 miles. The first section of this 

'' *o«, from Algiers to Blidah, was ojjened for 

^T>ffic in April 1864, and the whole network was 

••xfiertM to be complete in May 1869. A connec- 

tiiin li all the towns and military stations of 

Al^vria bv telegraphic wLres was brought into 

wpoation 'in l«o6. 

History. — The country formed part of the Ro- 
niin empire ; but during the reign of Valentinian 
HI. Giant Itoniface, the governor of Africa, having 
n^^'olued. called in the Vandals to his aH^uitance. 
Tfie Utter having taken possession of the country, 
h^-id it till they were expelled bv Bclisarius, a. i>. 
'i^>\, who retttoml Africa to the !■!. Empire. It was 
O'ttnin and c^>nquere<l by the Saracens in the 
M-venth centurj', and was soon after diWdc*! into 
9A many kiugtloma as there are now pro\-iuccs. 

Ferdinand of Spain, having driven the Saracens 
from Europe, followed them into Africa, and in 
1501 and 1509 took possession of Oran, Bugia, 
Algiers, and other places. The natives, wishing to 
throw off the Spanish yoke, had recourse to the 
famous corsairs, the brothers Aroudj and Khayr- 
ed-Dyn, better knoMm by the names of Barba- 
roAsa I. and II., who had distinguished them- 
selves by the boldness and success of their 
enterprises against the Christians. The brothers 
speedily succeeded in expelling the Spaniards 
from all their possessions in Afnca, with the ex- 
ception of Oran, wluch they held to the end of the 
eighteenth century. Algieria became the centre of 
the new power founded by the Barborossas; the 
survivor of v^om obtained, in 1520, from Sultan 
Selim, the title of Dey, and a reinforcement of 
2,000 troops. Since tlien it has been governed 
nearly in the manner describe<l above ; and has, 
with few interruptions, carried on almost incessant 
hostilities against the powers of Christendom, 
capturing their ships and reducing their subjecta 
to slaverj'. Attempts have l)een mode at different 
periods to abate this nuisance. In 1541, the em- 
peror Charles V., who had successfully achieved a 
similar enterprise at Tunis, arrived with a powerful 
fleet and army in the vicinity of Algiers ; but the 
fleet having been immediately overtaken and nearly 
destroyed by a dreadful storm, the troops, without 
provisions or shelter, underwent the greatest pri- 
vations ; and the em|)eror was compelled forthwith 
to re-embark such of them as had escaped the fury 
of the elements and the sword of the Turks. 
(Kobertson*s Charles V., cap. 6.) This great dis- 
aster seems for a lengthened period to have dis- 
couraged all attempts at cantunng Algiers. France, 
however, as well as l*]ngland and other powers^ 
re{)eatedly chastised the insolence of its banditti 
by bombarding the town ; but in j^enerol the 
European powers preferred n^otiating treaties 
with the dey, and purchasing an exemption from 
the attacks of the Algerine cruisers, to making 
any vigorous or well-combined effort for their 
effectual suppression. In 1815, the Americans 
captured an Algerine frigate ; and the dey con- 
sente<l to renounce all claim to tribute from them, 
and to pay them 60,000 dollars as an indemnifica- 
tion for their losses. But the most effectual 
chastisement they ever received was inflicted so 
late as 1816 by the British under Lord Exmouth; 
when Algiers was bombonled, the fleet in the 
harlxiiir dcstroywl, and the dey compelled to con- 
clude a treaty, by which he set the ('hrLstian 
slaves at liberty, and engaged to cease in future 
reducing Christian captives to that ignominious 
condition. But it is cxcee(linjj:lv doubtful whether 
these stipulations would have lieen better ol>8crve<l 
than others of the same kind previously entered 
into by his pretlecessors. 

The last of the Algerine deys got entangled in 
altercations with the French government. Pro- 
voked by the discussions that had taken place, and 
the claims that had been put forward, he hot! the 
temerity to strike the French consul on the latter 
IMiying hira a visit of ceremony. Kedress was, of 
course^ demande<l for thb* gross insidt ; but instead 
of complvnng with any such demand, the dey took 
and demolished the French post at La Calle. Thw 
was equivalent to a declaration of war ; and France 
determined on being avenged. In this view, she 
fitted out a powerful ormament, including a land 
force of nearly 88,000 men, with a formidable train 
of artillerk', under the command of General lk)ur- 
mont. The armament arrived on the Algerine 
coast on the 13th <if June, 1830; and having effec- 
ted a disembarkation on the following day, Algiers 
capitulatctl, after a feeble resistance, on tlie 5th of 



July. The dcy was allowed to rMire with his per- 
sonal property uninolcHted to Italy, and his troops 
to wherever ihoy ch(««e. 

The Fn-nch found in the treasury of the dey 
gold and silver, coined and uncoined, of the value 
of 47,639,011 fr., exclusive of stores of various 
kinds valued at 7,080,926 fr. 

The t<mTis of Oran and Bona soon after sub- 
mitted, and the bey of Titteri was also re<Uiced to 
obedience. Hut the bey of Oran, or Tlemsen, 
carried on for a lenj^thened period a series of con- 
tests and negotiations with the French, which 
were termiiiat(Hl in 1837 by the treaty of Tafna; by 
which he a;;reed to abandon the maritime parts of 
the province, and to rec«»gnise the supremacy of the 
FR»nch in Africa. The Ix-y of Coift-tantine was 
less easily dealt wth. Trusting to the strength of 
his principal city, its distance from Bona, the 
iiean>Ht iM>rt, and the liadness of the roads, he 
bravt<l the hostility of the French. In N(>vomber, 
18:)(), a force of x,(N>0 men, under Marshal Clausel, 
advanceil against Constant inc. But the expedi- 
tion, having I>een too long delaye<l, encountere<l 
the gniatest difficulties on its march, fn^m the se- 
verity (»f the weather, and the impracticable nature 
of the country ; so that when it arrived Iwfore Con- 
stantine, it was unable to undertake the siege (»f 
the ]ilace, and i^ith difficulty eflecteil a retn»at. 
To wii»e off this disgrace a powerful army left 
lk)na ni the following autumn for the attack of 
("onstantine, before wMch it arrival on the Gth of 
Octol)er. The jVralw made a ^-igorous resistance ; 
but breaches ha\'ing been effected in the walls, 
the city was carrie<l by storm on the 13th. The 
F'rench*commander-in-cluef, General Damremont, 
was killed during the siege. 

Since that time. Frantic has been engnge<l in a 
continuous stublMjm conflict \i-it1i the native tribes, 
imdertaking frwpient ex|>editiou9 into the interior, 
the most important of them in the years 18 10-C. 
The latter ende<l in the surrender of the renowned 
chieftjun Abd-el-Katler, who was taken as a ])ri- 
soner to Fnince in IK 17. He was release<l by the 
Emi)eror Najioleon III. in 1852. Minor insurrec- 
tioiu* and small frontier wars, however, continued 
Ki occupy the French tTooj>s; and a rather serious 
revolt o( tlie trilx?s in the south-east bn»ke out 
towanLs the end of 1864, and was not 8toppe<i 
without much bloodshed. To assist in the pacifi- 
cation of the colony, the Emiwror Xa|M>leon him- 
self went on a tour through Algieria in May, 1K<;5, 
issuing many proclamations, in which the inhabi- 
tants were exhorted to submit, without furtlier 
op|>osition, to the rule of France. 

ALUlLits ^Arab. At Jezeln el qazie^ Algiers the 
warlike), a city and 8ca-iK>rt of N, Africa, cap. of 
the above coimtry, on the Mediterranean c<»ast, on 
the W. side of almv about 11 m. in width and 6 
deep: lat. c»f light-in)use 36© 47' 20" ^'., long. dP 
4' 32" E. It is built on the face of a pretty steep 
hill, the houses rising alK)vc each other so that 
there is hardly one of them which does not com- 
mand a view of the sea. Tlie summit of the hill 
is cr«)wncd by the Kasl*a, or citailel, 700 ft above 
the level of the bay. The to^\Ti is nearly 2 m. in 
circ., l»eing surrounded by thick and high walls, 
^tanked with towers and l)astions. Tlie fortifica- 
ti<»ns t4>wanls the sea are comi>aratively stn>ng; 
but tb(»sc on the land siiie, though greatly im- 
proved by the French, are incapalde of any very 
vigonnis defence, being commanded by the adjoin- 
ing heights. Algiers ha<l, ]>reviously to the French 
inva<uon, 5 gates — 2 on the sea, and 3 on the land 
side; alx)ut 160 streets, 5 squares, 2 palaces, 4 
laigc and 30 small mosgucs (some of which are 
now c<»nverteti into Chnstian churches), 2 large 
jxnd 12 small synagogui's, many buildings for the 

milittfv, and about 10,000 jirivate housea. The 
)>op. was formerly estimated at from 110«000 to 
180,000 ; but it is probable that the lowest of thtat 
numliers was beyond the maik. It ^ipean fivm 
a census taken in 1847, that the pop. of the city 
and commune amounted at that date, inc. ganison, 
to 97,389, of whom 72,393 were French and other 
Europeans, the residue being Moon, Kab^ies, and 
Jevn, A considerable emigration of Turks and 
others took place after the occuiuition of the city 
by the Frencli ; and the above statement ahowed 
that the emigrants had not retume<L A final 
enumeration of the year 1862 showed a further 
decrease, the pop. at this time consisting of but 
58.315 souls, of whom 37,145 Europeans, and 
21,170 natives. The city has a very impobing 
apiMiarance from the sea, looking like a successi«jn 
of terraces, the houses, which are all whitened, 
giWng it a brilliant aspect; but^ on entering, 
the ilhL<!ion vanuh(.« : the streets are tiltliy, dark, 
crooked, and so narrow that, until latterly, the 
widest was but 12 ft. acnws. The French have, 
however, taken doMii mxmy builtliugs t4> cnlaigc 
the streets, amongst others the principal moi«quu, 
in the view of making the Place du GoHvememimt 
in the centre r)f the city, a huge and handsome 
square in the P^un»pean style. The hoiiaes have 
Hat n)ofs, that command a fine view ; they vary 
from two to three stories in height, and have a 
quadrangle in their centre, into wliich the windows 
uniformly open. The streets have, in ctnisequence, 
a gloomy appCArance ; and they are farther daik- 
cned by the successive stories of the houses pro- 
jecting over each other, and by their being fre- 
(juenily pr«»j)]>ed up by tim!)ers acn^ss from one to 
another. The ^islands' whence Algiera derive* 
its name, are t«'o r«K'ky ledges opposite its N'E.. 
quarter, which have Ikkii united, stnmgly fortiftekl, 
and connecteil with the main laud by a mole; 
another mole, stretcliing SW. fr»)m these islands, 
and funilshed i^dth two tiers of cannon, incloses 
the harbour, which is rather small, and incapable 
of accommodating any vessel larger than a miiKile- 
sized frigate. A light -house Is erected on one «»f 
the islands, at the junction of the two moles. Tlic 
Kasha or citarlel 'm surn>unde<l by strong walls, and 
its fortifications have l)een repaired and strength- 
ene<l by the French. It Is, in fact, a little town 
in itself. It was here that the French found the 
treasure l»elonging to the dey. The mosques are 
oi'tngon buildings, with a dome and minarets, often 
elegant, and adome^l with marble cidonnades. 
Thc:rc are numerous public aiul private fuuutains, 
and batlis of all kinds ; fiir though formerly desti- 
tute of water, Algiers is now well supplied with 
that important element, wluch is bn>ught to the 
town by aqueducts const nicted in the last century, 
and which, i)reviously to the French occupation, 
were kept in Tc\mi bv fimds set apart for that 
purpose. Many shojw liave Inien ojHrned by Euro- 
I leans; they consist of recesses in the sides of the 
Iiouses, about 7 ft. by 4 ; but biu>iness L* mostly 
tmnsactcd in the Iwizaars, which, witli^ Imrijeis' 
shops and cafes, are the chief plaices of rcsiirt for 
the natives. Algiers is now the residence of the go- 
vernor-general of the French possessions in Africa, 
and of tlie princi|)al government functionaries and 
courts of justice. It was create<l the seat of a 
bishopric ni 1838; is stnuigly garrisoned; and has 
"a regular intercourse by steam |»ackets with Mar- 
seilles. The manufacturer are chiefiy those of silk 
stuffs, gin lies, piu-ses, clocks, jewellcrj', woollen 
cloths, kailtSf bemousj saiulals, harness, car)«ts, 
junk, lm»nze utensils, dc Tlic markets are well 
provi<led with meat, vegetables, and fruit ; pn»vi- 
sions generally cheap, excepting bread, which Is 
dear : there were no uvcus. and only JKindmilla I'^r 


fn^nding eotn, before the oocnpation by the French. 
Kmopean manoen, halnts, and dresses are com- 
mon: as many hats are seen as turbans; cigars 
replace pipca, shops bassan; grsnd hotels, caftSs, 
billiaid tablcWi eating houses, cabinets Htteraires 
haw been set up, and a circus, cosmorama, and 
ofiera ertablisheo. There is regular steam com- 
mnnication with Toulon and Cette in France, and 
Onn and Bona in Africa. The streets have all 
recfived French names. There arrived in the port 
of Algiere. in 1863, 1,587 vessels, of a total bur- 
then of 192.119 tons. Of these vessels, 1,064, of 
I65.3:!0 tons burthen, were engaged in the foreign 
traile, and 523, of 26,799 tons, were coasters. The 
envinms of Algiers are very beautiful, and for 
MQie miles nmnd interspersed with great numbers 
of elesant \'il]aa. There are 2 small suburlw, those 
of IkU>-«l-Oned and Bab-a-Zoun; Uie former to 
the N., the latter to the S. of the city. About a 
mile S. of the Kasha is the Sultan Aa/exs/, or fort 
of the emperor, an incgulor polygon without fowte 
or oiuntencarp, about ^ m. in circumference. It 
stands on the spot where Charles Y. encamped, 
A. II. 15-11. and a>mpletcly commands the town; 
liiit i4 itM-lf commanded bjr Mount Boujereoh. 
The ancient city of Kustouium, the capital of 
Julia, was situated not far from Algiers, to the W. 
of Torretta Cica: some ruins of this city still 
exi-t. Algiers was foiuded a. d. 9^^. For some 
ik*itice of its histor}% see the previous article. (See 
Tableau de la Situation; liozet, iii pp. 14-88.; 



Shaw's Travehi, np. 33-35.) 
AL<;OA BAY. See Poi 

*oKT Elizabeth. 
ALHAMHKA. See Gra!vada. 
ALHANDKA, a town of Portugal, prov, Estre- 
JUilura, on the Tagus, 18 m. NNE. Lisbon. Pop. 
l.>i<x) in 1K'»8. Tlie town has some small manu- 
iactuTVi* of linen. 

A Lie ANTE (an. Lueentum), a 8ea-i)ort town 

</ ^pain in Yalemia, ca|K pr^>v. same name, on 

tbf Mediterranean, 42 m. RNE. Miircio. Pop. 

:i>'i.TH) in 1857. Alicante in the tcmiiiius of the 

NNith-Ea:»tem of Spain railway. It is situated 

l*twei'n mountains at the bottom of a spacious 

l«y. having Cape la Huerta at its XE. extre- 

nuty. and Isla Plana on the S. Alicante is <lc- 

f'fltlrtl by a cat^tlc on a rf»ck about 400 ft, high. 

Streets namfw and crookeil, but well (mved and 

riam. None of its chuivhcs, convents, or other 

i^lAic buildings dcsen'e notice. Tlic trade of 

.Vliv-ante harl fallen much off, in coiisecpience of 

ih« ttnancipation of S. America, and the disturlx^i 

ftate (if the country, but b now again inereahing. 

It4 exports consist princii>ally of wine, almonds, 

larilU, oUves and olive oil, brandv. figs, salt, 

*=f^«au* rush, wool, silk, and linen, ^c imi>ort8 

c^iwst principally of linens, salted fish, com, cot- 

t"Q,UHi cotton stuff;!, colonial prrxluce, timl)er, «fec. 

The numtier of British vessels which entered the 

{■■n ID lsfi2 was 231, bringing coals, iron, machincr>' 

and jruams to the. value of 224,305^ The ex|>ortH, 

j™wi|Ally raisins, oranges and wine, were 32,200^ 

Th« traile mith other nations was, shi])s 309 ; im- 

l^-iTH WTAW^ exjiorts 92,305/. In 1 8«3 the figures 

vrf,Bridsh ships 189; imports 145,710/.; exports 

M^w7t Foreign ships 343; imp<»Tts I82,02r)/.; 

♦-ipifft* 72.149/. The decrease in imports anise 

fniQ the diminishetl quantity of railway material 

UDpuied, and the increase in exports firom an aug- 

'"''nratiiHi in the shipment of lead and esparto 

(ftarhcr t^rass), wluch last had double^l in price 

n onLiequence of its demand for the manufacture 

**f Ii«p<-r. 'The pnwperity,* says a consular re- 

\'^ 'fff Alicante since tlie ojicning of the rail- 

My to Mailrid in 1858 continues gradually to 

^■u^mpiit, Tlie town and suburi^s now contain 

^i:i^*) inhalatauta, 3,950 dwcUiiig-housos, ICl 

strata, and 17 squares. It possesses G churches, 
an institute or prei>aratory college for the imivcr- 
sity, 14 schools, a public library, a handsome 
theatre, 2 homiitals, and a well-conducted estab- 
lishment for roimdlings and aged paupers of both 
sexes. Hitherto little has been done in the erec- 
tion of manufactories, for which the position of 
Alicante is well adapted, the remembrance of the 
ruinous result of several joint stock comi)anies for 
smelting lead and silver ore in 1844 bchig still 
fresh in the memory of the inhabitants. An ex- 
tensive cigar manufactory', a government mono- 
ix)ly, in which upwards of 4,000 women are 
employed, still continues, however, to retain its 
rcputarion for sufjerior finish, and is constantly at 
work.* (Report of Colonel Barre, British Consul 
at Alicante, 1863.) 

ALICATA, or LICATA, a sea-port town on 
the S. coast of Sicilv, Yal di Girgenti, at the 
mouth of the Salso;' lat. 37^ 4' 25" N., long. 
18O55'*40" E. Pop. 15,481 in 1858. It is built 
partly on the beach and partly on the slope of 
some hills. Its walls have gone to decay, and 
neither of its two castles is of any considerable 
strength. It is a poor-lintking place, but ex()orts 
considerable quantities of com, with sulphur and 
sofbi, pistachio nuts, almonds, maccoroni, &c. The 
{lort is shallow, so that loige vessels must load in 
the offing, or road, al)out a mile SW. of the town, 
where they are exposed to the southerly winds. 

ALICUDI, the m<«t W. of the Lipari islands, 
56 m. ENE. Palermo. Pop. 450 in 1858. It is 
about 6 m. in circ., nscs abruptly from the sea, 
with irregular ravines and precii)itoiu3 hills. It is 
cultivated wherever there is any S4iil, with singu- 
lar and laborious industry, and produces most ex- 
cellent wheat, barilla, flax, cafjers, «SL'c The i»eoplo 
are said to l)c exceedingly healthy; it has only 
two unsafe landing-] )laces, and is rarely vibited by 

ALIGHLTR, a strong fort of Hindostan, in the 
district of the same name, lietwccn the (iangcs 
and the Jumna. 53 m. N. Agra, 82 m. fn>m Delhi 
by rail; lat. 27° 5()' N., long. 77° 59' E. It was 
taken bv storm in 1803; an<l was soon after ninde 
the head-quarters of a civil establishment ftir the 
collection of the revenue, and the administration 
of jitotice. The N. i>ortion of the district of ^Vli- 
ghur is a desolate tract, oversprpa<l with 1«)W 
jungle; but the S. iM)rti<»n is fertile and highly 
cuItivateiL The natives, though turbulent, are 
superior to the Bengaieos, and other tril>os more 
to the E. Alighur was one of the ]>lace^ heUl by 
the Sepoy reljels in 1857, and was retaken on 5th 
Octol)er of that year. 

ALKM/VAIJ, a town of X. Holland, cap. arrond. 
and cant., on the great shi]> canal from Aranter- 
(hun to the Helder. 20ra. NXW. the fonner, 
and 18 m. S. the Helder. Pop. 10,500 in 18G1. 
It is strongly fortified an<l well built; there are 
manv fine canals, shaded with trees, and the 
whole town has a strikingly clean oixl c(»mfort- 
able ap|»earttnce. The IL^tel de Yillc and the 
arsenal are the only public buildings that deserve 
notice. It is the seat of a court <»f primary juris- 
diction, and has a college, physical s<»ci(^ty, theatre, 
concert-hall. A-c. Yost quantities of excellent 
butter and cheese arc pnnluced in the surrouiuling 
meadows. Exclusive of butter, alsmt 40,000 tons 
of cheese are said to be annually dis|>oseil of in 
its markets. It also manufactiut'S canvass, and 
has a considerable tnule in cattle, com, tulijw, &c. 
Its commerce has l>een materially fa<'ilitute<l by 
the construction of the gn'at canal. Without the 
town is a fine proraenatle, similar to those at 
the Hague and at Ihiarleni. In 1573, Alkniaar 
was invested by the Sponianls; but having been 



rcpulficd with great Iobs, in an attempt to take the 
town by storm, they abandoned tne sic^^ In 
1 709, the AngI(»-}{iiM«ian army under the Duke 
of York, advanced from the Ilelder aa far as 

ALLAHABAD, an extensive and populoas 
]m>v. or soubah of Hindontan pro|>cr, l)etween the 
240 and 20° N. lat and 79^ and 83^ E. long. It is 
iMmndcd on the N. by Oude and Agra, S. )>v 
(iundwana, R. by Bahar and Gundwana, and W. 
by Malwah and Agra. It is about 270 m. in 
length by about 120 in breadth. 

It is divided into the following zillahs or dis- 
tricts, ^iz. : I.Allahabad: 2. Ikinores: 3. Mirza- 
i»o<^r; 4. Juan|MK)r; 5. Tlie Kcwnh territory; 6. 
Bundelcund; 7. CawnjKwr; 8. Manicij)0«rterritr»ry. 
It is watered by the Ganges, Jumna, and other 
great riv«rs. Adjacent to the former, the country 
is flat and verj' proiluctive, Imt in the SW., in the 
liundolcund district, it fonns an elcvate<l table- 
land, diversified with high hills containing the cele- 
brated diamond mines of P(K)uah. llie Hat country 
is extremely sultrj' and subject to the hot winds, 
from which the more elevatc^i region is exempted. 
In the hilly country, where the rivers are less 
numerous than in the plains, the pcrio<lical rains 
and wcll-wat€r are chiefly relied on for agricul- 
tural puqwses. On the whole, however, Allaha- 
!>ad is one of the richest provinces of Ilindostan. 
The principal articles of cx|)ort are sugar, cotton, 
indigo, cotton cloths, opium, salt])ctrc, diamonds, 
&c; and, in addition, it pnKluces aU kinds of 
grain and a vast variety of fruits. 

The chief towns are Allahabad, Benares, Cal- 
linger, ('hatterpo(»r, Chunar, Ghazv^vHjr, Juani)(N)r, 
and Mirzap<K»r. The whole of this extensive im> 
vince is now subject to the British government ; 
the Benares district having l)een ceiled in 1775 ; 
AllahalMul and the adjacent territory in 1801 ; 
and the districts (»f Bundelcund in 1808. Total 
po])ulation 3,710,2G3 in 1801. Seven-eighths of 
the inhabitants arc supposed to be Ilmdoos, the 
remainder Mohammedans. 

Ai.iJLHABAD, an ancient citv' of Ilindostan, cap. 
of tlie alK)ve prov. and dist., near the confluence 
of the Ganges and Jumna, lx»ing by the course 
of the river 820 ra. from the seji, but the distance 
in a direct line from Calcutta is only 475 m. ; fn»m 
Ik'iiares, 75 m. ; and from Agra, 280 m. Lat, 25° 27' 
N., long. 81° 50' E. At a short dL<*tance from the 
city, at the jimction of the rivers, is situated the 
fortress, founded bv the Emi>en>r Akbar in 1583; 
but much improved since it c^ime into the posses- 
sion of the IJritish. It is lofty and extensive, 
completely commanding the navigation of both 
rivers. ()n the sea-side it \» defeudeil bv the old 
walls ; but on tlie land side it is regularly and 
stmngly fortifietl. It could not l)e taken by a 
Euro|K'an army, except by a regular siege ; and 
to a native army it would be all but impregnable; 
an<l hence it has l>een selected as the grand mili- 
tary depot of the up]>er provinces. In the course 
of the Indian mutiny in 1857, an insurrection of a 
dangerous character broke out, on tlie 5th of June, 
at AlL'ihabad, and the I'Luropeans had to retire 
into the fort, where they were l>esiegt;d. How- 
ever, they soon recovered their ground, and, l>efore 
many days were over, retook possession of the 

Beinfr pituated at the point of union of two 
great navigable rivers, Allahabad is in (»ne of the 
finest |>ositions in India for iK'ing the seat of an 
oxlensive c<)mmerce. ITie town, indeed, was de- 
caying for some time after its occujiation by (ireat 
Britain in 17(>5; but of late years, and ]>articu- 
larly since the o]>ening of the great Ea^t hulia 
railway from Calaitta to Deltii, on which it is a 


chief station, it has been greatly increaang !d 
prosperity. 'The population, which wan only abnat 
20,0(K> in 1803, haii risen to (>4,785 in 1861. The 
extensive ctdtivation of cotton in India, a remh 
of the American civil war, was also particularly fa- 
vourable to Allahabad, it having become the chief 
seat of an extensive trade in the article. 

In the eyes of the natives, the city is chieflr 
im]U)rtant as a place of pilgrimage — one of the 
most renowned in India. Besides the Ganges and 
Jumna, the Hindoos believe that another river, 
the Sereswati, joins the other two from below 
ground. In consequence of this cxtraordinarjr 
junction, Allahabad is reckoned peculiarly holy, 
and is annually yi<«ited by many thousands uf 
[)ilgrims, who come from all ^uurts of Hindostan to 
bathe and ]turify themselves m the sacred stream: 
in some years their numbers have amounted to 
nearly 220,000, each of them pa>-ing a small tax 
to government: — 'When,' says Mr. Hamilton, *a 
jnlgrim arrives, he sits down on the l)ank of tlie 
river, and has his head and body shaye<l, so that 
each hair may fall into the water, the sacred 
nvritings pn>mising him one million of years' resi- 
dence in heaven for every hair so deposited. After 
shaving, he bathes; and the same day, or the 
next^ I)erforms the obsequies of his deceased an- 
cestors. The tax accruing to government for per- 
mission to bathe, Is 3 rupees each person ; Imt a 
much greater expense is incurred in charity and 
gifts to the Bralimins, who are seen sitting by the 
river-side^ Many persons renounce life at tliis holy 
confluence, by going in a boat, after performance 
of certain solemnities, to the exact spot where the 
ihree rivers unite, where the devotee plunges into 
the stream, with three pots of water tied to hii 
IkkIv. Occasionally, also, some lose their lives 
by the eagerness of these devotees to rush in and 
bathe at the most sanctified spot, at a precim 
])erio<l of the moon, when the immersion poss e ss e s 
the highest efficacy. The Bengalees usually per- 
form the ]>ilgrimages of Gaya, Ik^nare^, and AUa- 
hal>a<l in one journey, and thereby acquire great 
merit in the estimation of their countrymen.* 
(Hamilton's Gazeteer; Ileber, L p^K 441^45.) 
Since 18G2, Allalmbad has become the coital <k 
the north-western ])rovince8. 

ALLAN (HKIDGE OF), a neat village of Scot- 
land, on the Allan, 3 m. NW. Stirling, on the 
St-ottish Central railway. Pop. 1,803 in 1861. 
The village is a g(KMl deal resorted to in summer 
by \nsitors, on account of a mineral spring in the 

ALLAUCH, a town of France, dep. Bouchet 
du Khone, 5 m. EN'E. Marseilles. Pop. 3,041 in 
1801. The town is built on the declivity of a 
hill, and is ver\' ancient. 

TAINS, a chain of mountains in the IT. States of 
N. America, nmning in a NE. and SW. direction 
from the N. parts of Alabama and Georgfa, to the 
state of Maine, a du^tance of about 1,200 m. It 
o(»nsiHts of a numl)er of ridges, having a mean 
breadth of about 100 m. and a mean elevation (A 
frt»m 2,500 U) 3,000 feet. Their highest summits 
are in N. Hamiwhire, where they attam to an ele- 
vation of Ijctween 6,000 and 7,(H)0 feet. They are 
nlrnost everywhere clothe<l with forests and iiiter- 
sytersed with delightful valleys. Tlieir steepest 
side is towards the E., where granite, gneiss, and 
other primitive r»K*k«* are \o lie seen, (hi the W, 
they si(^pe doi^Ti by a gentle dcclinty continued 
to the Mississippi. Inm and lead arc lK>th me4 
with, the former in great abundance, in -various 
parts of the range; and the consiclfrable quan- 
tities of gold that have lieen found in the strearof 
in the upiier [larts of N. Carolina and Gooxgia, 


liunr that it also is among the products of the 
AUe^faanieK. But coal seems to be by far the 
mott impoftant of their mineral riches. Vast, and 
iD but mexhausdble beds, of bituminous and of 
anthxadte or stone coal are found in different parts 
of the (diain, and are already, very extensively 
imioi^ht. The quantities of anthracite brought 
to Philadel(^ua, partly for the supply of the city, 
md iriurtly for shipment to other places, have 
f7«aliy increased of late. Within the last few 
yeaiB, most extensive oil wells have also been 
diacorered in the district of Pennsylvania, giving 
rue to eager speculation, and the sudden growth 
of immense fortunes. Salt springs arc abundant 
all alvog the W. slope of the Alleghanies, and 
fnim some of them large suppUes of salt are pro- 
eared. This mountain system is crossed by the 
Hudson river, and is the only instance known, 
except that of the St. Lawrence, of the ocean 
tid» passing through a primitive mountain-chain, 
and cam-ing depth for the largest venscls. It is 
aki (TQ«ed bv several canals and railwavs. 

ALLEN (BOG OF), the name usually given 
to the extensive tracts of morass situated in 
Kikkre and King's and Queen's counties, and 
tbe adjoining counties of Ireland. These do not 
bowever form, as is commonly supposed, one 
jTcat monfss, but a number of contiguous rao- 
cwa separated by ridges of dry ground. Though 
flat, the bog has a mean elevation of about 250 
feet above the level of the sea, and gives birth to 
•ome of the principal Irish rivers, as the Barrow 
floving 8m and the Ik>yne £. 

ALLEN (LOUGH), a lake, co. Leitrim, Ire- 
hnd, about 10 m. in length, and from 4 to 5 in 
vidth. This lake is generally su]>posc<i to be the 
tnave of the Shannon, and it has perhaps the 
Uxt title to that distinction. It is elevated 144 
feet alxive the level of high water-mark at Lime- 
ride : and the Shannon has been rendered navi- 
f;ilile ati far as the Lough. 

ALLEN IKJRF, a town of Hesse Cassel, on the 
Wma. 23 m. ESE. Oassel, on the railway from 
Ciiwl to El<<enach. Pop. 2,600 in 18G1. There 
b m the vicinity a considerable salt work. 

ALLEVAKI), a town of France, dep. Isbrc, cap. 
eant- 21 m. NE. Grenoble. Pop. 1,547 in 1861. 
There are ^'aluable iron and copper mines in its 
ncinity. and founderies where in)n of an excellent 
d»:*cripti«»n is prepared for conversion into steel, 
and alflo for bemg cast into cannon. In the neigh- 
l*>aih<Mi are the ruins of the castle of Bayard, the 
l«ith-place of the famous knight of that name — 
the (ketalier $ans peur et tans rrproche, 

ALLIER, a dep. almost in the centre of France, 
M caUe»i from the river Allier, one of the principal 
sfihitntfl of the Loire, which traverses it from S. 
t« X.. between 45° 58', and 40° AV N. lat., and 
2° 16' and 3° hT E. long. Area, 728,081 hect., 
▼Wwof about 468,000 are cultivated land, 70,000 
»e*kj^ 18,000 vineyards, 64,000 woods, 28,700 
keatbs, moors, &c Pop. 856,432 in 1861. Ex- 
<l»ive «jf the Allier, it is bounded E. bv the Loire, 
ttd u traveried by the Cher, and other lesser 
n^cn. The ponds and smaller lakes are so nu- 
'<3^nws. that they are said to have an injurious in- 
duence over the climate. Surface undulating, and 
in part« hilly ; soil ^nerally fertile, producing a 
MnpluH of com and wine for exportation, with great 
Qumben of cattle, sheep, and excellent horses. A 
P^x'i deal (if the timber in the forests is oak, suit- 
^ f<«r ship-buiitling. Agriculture in this, as in 
■unv (»ther departments of France, is in a back- 
*wd state. Many of the peasantry are small pnv 
F*Jef/«H, and wedde<i to the practices of tlw^ir fore- 
<«*her*. (.Sec France — S\griculture.') There are 
TaloaUe mines of coal, iron, and antimony ; and 



quarries of marble and granite,. Among the ma- 
nufacturing establishments may be mentioned the 
glass works of Sourigny and Comment rj', which 
employ aljout 800 workpeople ; the iron works of 
Tnmcais, wliich employ above 600 ditto, and fur- 
nish annually above 500,000 kilogs. of iron. Tliere 
are also manufactories of cutlery, earthenware, 
cloth, and paper, with spinning-niills, and nume- 
rous breweries. The department is divided into 4 
electoral arrond. ; 16 cant, and 322 communes. 
Chief towns, Moulins, Montlu^on, Ganiuit, and La 

ALLOA, a sea-port and m. town of Scotland, co. 
Clackmannan, on the Forth, at the point where it 
ceases to be a river, and becomes a frith, 25 m. 
WNW. EdinbuTglu Pop. of town, in 1841, 5,434 ; 
of parish and town, 6,505; in 1801, town, 6,425; 
par. and to^^-n, 8,867. It is irregularly built ; but 
has recently l^een much impn)ved. A church, 
opened in 1819, has a spire 200 feet in height. 
The harbour is excellent ; vessels of large bunlen 
lying close to the quays ; there is also a dry dock 
and two yards for ship-building, and a s]>acious 
wet dock was opened in 1863. The trade of the 
town is considerable. In 1862 the reg. shipping 
was 48, tonnage, 14,049; steamers, 5, tonnage, 
231. The customs revenue in 1861 was 5,329/. 
There are verj' extensive collieries, distilleries, and 
iron works in the neighlwurhood, tlie produce <»f 
which is principally sbipi>ed here ; and in the ttmii 
and its Wcinity are extensive breweries,, which 
pro<luce ale rivalling that of Edinburgh, with iron 
founderies, woollen manufactories, glass works, tile 
and brick works. The justice of peace and sheriff 
courts for the co. are held here. In a park adjoin- 
ing the town are the ruins of a seat of the Earl of 
Mar, part of wliich consists of a tower of the 13th 
centurv, 90 feet in height. 

ALLOWAY KIKK : the church (Scottice,Kirk) 
of a parish, on the coast of AjTshire, long united 
with that of Ayr, near the mouth of the Doon, on 
the road from Ayr to Maybole, alxiut 3 m. S. fn>m 
the former. The Kirk lias l)een for a lengthened 
peri<Kl ill ruins, but lM?ing prominently brought for- 
ward in Bums's inimitable tale of Tam O'Shanter, 
and having in its immediate vicinity the poet's 
birth-place, and the monument erected to his me- 
mory, it has become an object of great inlcrest. 
Though roofless, the walls are in pretty grK>d prc- 
servati(m ; and the feelings ■with which they are 
now associated will protect them from depredation. 
The church-yard, which is still used as a burj'ing- 
ground, contains the graves of Bums's father and 
mother; and such is the prextige with which it 
has been invested, that latterly it has become a 
favourite place of interment. Ik'twecn Alloway 
Kirk and Ayr, but much nearer the former than 
the latter, is the cottage in which Hums was born 
(on the 25th of Fcbniarj', 1759), a one-storj' house, 
of humble appearance, with a thatched roof, and 
long used as an inn. Almut ^ m. on the other side 
of the Kirk, are the * Auld brig o' Doon,' and the 
new bridge — the latter alx>iit 100 yards below the 
former, and built since the time of Hums ; and on 
the summit of the acclivity of the E. bank of the 
river, alwut half wav between the old and new 
bridges, Ls the monument of the poet. This ele- 
gant structure was finished in 1823, at an exiwnse 
of alM)ut 2,000/. It is built in imitation of the 
monument of Lysicrates at Athens, and C(»nsists of 
a triangular basement, on which rises a iwristyle, 
of 9 (>)rinthian columns, 30 feet in height, hu|>- 
porting a cupola, surmounted by a gilt tri|KKl. It 
IS alK>ve 60 feet in height; is built of fine white 
freestone, and has a chaste, classical api)earance, 
In<ic|)endently of the ])eculiar associations con- 
nected with the place, the scenery axouiid is equal 



in richness and variety to any in Scotland. The 
celebrated statues of Tam O'Shanter and Soutcr 
Johnnie are appropriately placed in a grotto within 
the Kfoands attached to the monument. 

ALMADA, a town of Portiu^l, prov. Estiema- 
dura, on the Tagus, opposite to Lisbon. Pop. 5,500 
in 1858. There is an old castle on a rock, an hos- 
pital, a Latin school, with large magazine for wine. 

ALMADEX, a town of Spain, prov. La Mancha, 
on its SW. frontier, in the Sierra Morena, 57 miles 
WSVV.CiudadKeal. Pop. 8,645 in 1857. Within 
a short distance of this town is a famous mine, 
whence quicksilver was obtained to the extent of 
from 30,000 to 40,000 quintals a year about 25 
years ago; but in 1803 the produce was only 10,000 
quintals. Tliis mine is ver>' ancient, and ut be- 
heved to have been vrrought previously to, and by 
the Romans. But the statements of Pliny, which 
are alike curious and instructive (IILsL yaU lib. 
xxxiiL 7), apply distinctly Ut Sisapo in Retica, 
that is, to Almaden dt la "Plata, 27 m. XNW. Se- 
\'ille, where there is still a productive mine; and 
there are mines of the same sort, though of very 
inferior consequence, in other parts of Spain. 

The inhai). of Almaden are almost wholly en- 
gaged in the mines^ or in the subsidiary employ- 
ments conuccte<l with them. Formerly,*the mines 
were princiiMilly ¥rr«)ught by convicts; but that 
system has been relinquished for a good many 
vears, and they are now wholly wrought by free 
labourers. Working in the mines is still, despite 
the meritorious efforts made for its impn)vement, 
verpr unhealthy; but it is less so in winter and 
spnng than in summer and autumn ; and during 
the latter the mines are comi)arativcly deserted, 
the miners being then mostly engaged in agricid- 
tural pursmts. Tlie mines were fonnerly wrought 
on account of government, who disjKKsed of the 
protluce by contract to the highest biilder ; but in 
the year 1831, owing to financial diiHculties, they 
wore leased to the great banking house of Baron 
Kothschild & Co. for a numl)er of years. 

ALMA(iRO,a town of Spain, prov. La Mancha, 
12 m. ESE. Ciuda<l lieal. Pop. 12,605 in 1857. 
It has an important manufacture of blondes. The 
country round is celebrated for itj? mules and asses, 
for which there is annually a lai^e fair. 

ALM AXZjV, a toiMi of Spain, prov. Mureio, 56 m. 
NW. iUicante. ' Pop. 8,736 m 1857. It is well buUt. 
has broad streets, Imen fabrics, and a grexit annual 
fair. In the neighbourluKKl of this town, on tlie 
25th April, 1707, the French, under the I)uke of 
Berwick, gained a c»)mplete victor\' over the allied 
forces in the interest of the Archduke Charles. The 
latter lost 5,000 men killcdf on the Held, and nearly 
10,000 taken prisrmers. 

ALMEIDA, a fortified town of Portugal, prov. 
Beira, 24 m. W. b;^ N. Chidad Rodrigo. Pop. 6,850 
in 1858. Frr>m its position on the frrmtier of the 
kingdom, it has always been deemed a milit.'iry 
post of the greatest im|)ortance. In 1762, it was 
tJiken by the Spaniards, after a long siege. In 
I8l(^ it was taken by the French under Massena, 
who abandoned it in the following year, after blow- 
ing up the fortifications. 

ALMERIA {tiiu Murgis), a sea-port town of 
Spain, cap. of prov. of same name, and near the 
mouth of the river, and at the bottom of the gtilph 
of the same name; 40 m. ESE. Murcia. Pop. 
27,036 in 1857. It is the seat of a bishop, and has 
fabrics of 8(Kla and saltjtetre, and of cordage and 
ot her articles ma<ie of t he es]>arto rush. The harbour 
is laige, well sheltered, and is protecterl by a castle ; 
the water is so deep, that large vessels anchor half 
a mile from shore, in from 9 to 14 fathoms, and 
smaller vessels anchor, close in shore, in from 5 to 
9 fathoms. The ouciont sovereigns of Gnuiada I 


considered this as the most important town of 
their dominions, as well on account of the fertili^ 
of the surrounding country, as of its mannfactum 
and commerce. Till of late the tovm had my 
much fallen off, but its importance as a oommercial 
port has greatly increased in recent years, and 
it has been embellished with many new build- 
ings. Besides the esparto trade, that in lead and 
grapes affonl considerable occupation, and the no- 
duction of t)arley is likewise on the increase. The 
total ship])ing in 1863 was 1,278 vcsselfs 98,4M 
tons. There are 13 smelting works for lead on^ 
and the produce in 1 863 was 8,000 tons. The roads 
in the district are very indifferent ; there are no 
railways, and none ]>rojccted ; and t-he mountainoiis 
nature of the country interposes a natural barrier 
to the town keeping pace vtith more favoored dis- 
tricts of S{iain. (Consular Reporta.) 

ALMONBUR I , a pa. and township of England, 
W.R, CO. York, wap. of Agbrigg, dividcil by the 
Colne from the pa. of Huddersfield. The |ia. is 
very extensive, containing 30,140 acres, with a 
pop. of 42,889 in 1861. It contains several vit> 
lages, of wliich Almonbuiy, 1| m. SEL Iluddem- 
fiehl, is the principaL Pop, of AlmonlMU^' town- 
ship 10,3<>1 in 1861, mostly ejigoged in the 
manufacture of woollens and cottons, especially 
the former. (See Huddrksfield.) 

ALMORA, a town of Hindostan, cap. Kumaon, 
in the yK. i>art of India, 90 m. X. by £. Bareilly ; 
lat. 29° 35' N., long. 79^ 40' E. It sUnds on a 
ridge 5,337 feet alx)ve the level of the sea, and ia 
compactly built. The houses of stone, and slated, 
are generally two and some three stories higti, the 
ground-fioof being occupied as shopa. 'The old 
(loorka citadel stands on a commanding point of 
the ridge at the E. extremity of the town, and 
several martello towers have been erectetl on peaks 
to the eostwanL This ])lace was acquired by the 
British in 1815. The surrounding countiy is bleak 
and nake<L 

ALMUXECAR, a sea-port town of Spain, piov. 
Granaila, 41 m. S. Granada. Pop. 4,710 in 1857. 
The town is of Arabic origin, its name signi- 
fying a ^ place of banbhment.' It has a nuued 
castle, ruined walls, and narrow streets. The sur- 
rouuding countr\', though uiisuiteil to com, pro- 
duces figs, roisLos, the sugar-cane, cotton, Ac: 
The anchorage is fit only for small vessels, and 
should not be used by tjicm ejccept in cases of 
emergency, as the E. winds common on this coast 
arc dangerous. 

ALN MOUTH, a vilhige of Enghind, in North- 
uml)erland, at the mouth of the ^Vlne, 5^ m. ESE, 
Alnwick. Pop. 454 in 1861. The village expoiti 
considemble (quantities of com and other produce. 

ALNWICK, a town of England, cap. co. North- 
umberland, on a decliWty near the river Aine, 276 
m. from Ijondon by ri>ad, and 313 m. by Great 
Northern railway. Pop. of town, in 1841, 4,945, 
of township 6,626; in 1861 town 5,670, par. 7,850. 
It has a s])acious square, where a weekly market 
is held, and a town-house, where the co. courts 
meet and the members for the co. are elected; the 
a^jsizcs, however, are not held here, but at New- 
castle. Alnwick was formerly fortified, and vea- 
tigcs of its waUs and gates still remain. At the N. 
entrance to the town stands Alnmck Castle, ooce 
a principal stronghold of the kingdom on the side 
of Scotland, and now the magnificent baronial 
residence of the Dukes of Northumberland. It 
underwent, not many years ago, a complete repair 
and renovation, executed in good taste. At the 
entrance to the town, a ctilumn is erected in 
honour of one of the Dukes of Northumberland. 
A cross, called Malcolm s Cross, stands on the spot 
where Malcolm III., king of Scotland, is said to 


kvc been klDed, in 1093, by a soldier, who came 
to offa him the keys of the castle on the point of 

ALOST (Flem. Aaltt)^ a town of Belgium, prov. 
EiBt FUndera, on the Dcnder, about half way 
between BrumeLs and Ghent. Pop. 19,254 in 1856. 
Ik b sorrounded by walls, and is clean and well 
bdlt: the parish church, the largest in the country, 
ii not finished; it has a college, and several other 
ftliicstional establishments; a town-house, remark- 
*able iur its antiquity, with manufactures of linen, 
cocttin, lace, hats, Ac, print works, and dye works, 
famreries and distilleries, tanneries, soap works, 
wn uhI copper founderies, and potteries. Vessels 
of fmsD size come up to town by the river; an<l it 
\m a crauddaable commerce in the produce of its 
maaofactures. and in hope of an excellent quality, 
pinrn in the neighbourhood, rape oil, ^c. At 
Aloet is the tomb of the celebrated Thierry Mar- 
tern, the friend of Erasmus, who introduced the 
art uf printing into Belgium. 

ALPHEN, a town of the Xetherlands, prov. S. 
Htdlaod, ca[i. cant, on the Rhine, 7^ m. E. Ley- 
dn. Pop. 3,167 in 1861. It has manufactures of 
earthenware and pipes. 

ALPXACil, a village of Switzerland, cant. 
Vntcrwald. on the S\V. arm of the lake of Lucerne. 
P<^ l.^H) in 1860. A vexy singular road, called 
the SSde of Alpmach^ is constructed in the imme- 
diatt vicinitv of this town, for conveying trees 
fi^ND Mount )*ilatus to the lake, from which they 
«K funranled down the Khine to the Netherlands 
in the ftjmi of rafts. 

ALPS (THE), the most extensive mountun 
•vMcm of Europe. They extend from the banks 
<^the Rhone in France on the W., to the centre 
flf blavonia and the frontiers of Turkey on the E., 
fenn the 5th and 18th degree E. long., forming a 
Tart oemicircular bulwark which encompasses, on 
tbe N.. Italy and the Adriatic Sea. The ex- 
tremities of this semicircle approach 43^ N. lat., 
faot the great btMly of the range occupies the space 
brtwwtj the 46th'and 48th degrees N. lat 

The Alps are cUieely united to two other motm- 

tain ran;:cdt: on the W. to the Apennines, which 

tzaren^ Italy in its whole length; and on the E. 

U> the Balkhan, which coverH Turkev and Greece 

vhh its numerous ramifications, "tha. boundary 

fine between the Apennines and the Aljn is difh- 

colt to determine. It seems to be most ex|)edient 

^n »a|<p(i0e that the Alps begin on the W. side of 

the p«at road over the B<x;hetta pass (2,550 ft. 

ahure the level of the sea), which leads from 

Genua to Novi in Piedmont. That portion of the 

murt which begins at this road and extends E. to 

the -Kmrces of the Tinea, a tributary of the Var, is 

caDeil tbe Maritime Alp»y and does not contain 

anv very high summits; but it is extremely steej), 

nj i* tia\'eraed only by one road practicable fur 

caniacoL This road coimects the town of Nice 

*ith the town of Coni in Piedmont, and traverses 

thne ridges by the col$ or mountain passes of 

^fvos llrovis, and de Tende. The last col is in 

the main ridge of the range, and rises to 6,159 feet 

•bore the level of the sea. 

Between the plain of the Po and the valley of 
the Rhone, the mountain mass lies in its greatest 
extent & and N., reaching from the shore of the 
Mcditenanean, or from nearly 43^, to the lake of 
^ne\'K at to nearly 46° 30*' N. lat. Its length 
is here, consequently, about 230 m., and its width 
*^«nfrn about 100 m. The watershed, between 
^ liven (ailing into the Po, and those emptying 
thMttneivee into the Rhone, does not traverse the 
nidfile of the mountain region, but is found at 
ihfiut 3<l m. from its E. b(»rder. On it rise some 
\trr high fummita. The most remarkable arc. 



Monte Vlso, 12,G43 feet above the sea, on whoso 
E. declivities the Po takes its origin ; and Mount 
Cenis 11,795 feet al>ove the sea. Mont Is<^an, it 
appears, must be deposed from the place it has 
long held amongst mountains. On reaching the 
summit of the Col d'Isdran, the traveller naturally 
expects, says the Alpine Guide, to see this summit, 
towering, as has been described, 13,271 feet above 
the level of the sea. But no great peak lies close 
to the pass; the highest point near it, and that 
which occupies the place of the Mont Is(^ran of 
the maps, is not more than 10,800 feet above the 
sea leveL Farther N. is the immense mass of 
rocks that constitute Mont Bi*\nc, whose highest 
point, the Bosse de Dromedaire^ in lat. 45° 50' N., 
long. 6° 51' E., 15,739 ft. above the sea, is the 
highest elevation to which the Alps attain. The 
valleys, both to the E. and W., branch off at 
right angles from the watershed Those to the E. 
are short, straight, and deej), and terminate in the 
plain of the Po; those to the W. are of much 
greater length, and rather winding. On this side, 
e«i>ecially in the dep. det Ilautet Alpe$f iKJtween 
the upper branches of the rivers Isfere and Durance, 
are placed a considerable number of very high 
summits; Mont Louc\'Ta attains 14,451 ft., Mont 
Ix)upilla 14,144 fu, Mont Pelioux de Valloiuse 
14,119 ft., and at least twelve others rise above 
1 1,000 ft. The peculiar disposition of the valleys 
in this iK)rtiou of the Alps has rendered the com- 
munication between France and Italy compara-' 
tively easy. The roads follow the valleys up to 
the watershed, and have then only to traverse one 
high ridge. Three great carriage roads lea<l over 
it. The farthest to the S. is the road of Mount 
Ge'nfevre, which ascends from the banks of the 
Khone along the valley of the Durance to Brian^on, 
antl traverses the ritlge N. of Mount Gi^nirre, 
where it attains 6,119 ft, above the sea, whence it 
descends in the valley of the river Dora to Susa. 
The second is the road of Mount Cenis, which on 
the side of France may l)e said to b<^n at Greno- 
ble. It ascends first the valley of the Isbre, and 
afterwanls of the Arc, a tributary of the former, 
and traverses the ridge X. of Mont Cenis, where 
it is 6,772 ft, above the sea, and then descends, 
like the former, along the Dora to Susa. The 
latter is by far the most used of all the roads over 
the Alps; and it is stated that annually from 
16,000 to 17,000 carriages of all kinds, and from 
45,04)0 to 50,000 horses and mules, pass along it, 
A railway following the course of the niad over 
Mont Cenis, with a gigantic tunnel through the 
mountain, is to be completed in 1872. The thirtl 
carriage road is that of the Little S. Bernard, 
which ascends the valley of the Is^re, passes the 
ridge between Mont Is<^ran and Mont Blanc, 
and descends in the valley of the Dora Ilaltea to 
Aosta. It attains in its highest point to an eleva- 
tion of 7,015 ft, above the sea, and it is most 
commonly supi)osed that it was by it that Uan- 
nilial i>enetrated into Italy. This porti(»n of the 
Ali»s comprehends what commonly are called the 
Cottian, Graian, and nartly the Pennine Alps, 
together with those of Dauphind and Savoy ; but 
resi)ecting the limits of the Cottian and Graian 
Alps, there prevails considerable uncertainty. 

At Mont Blanc the direction of the range is 
changed It runs hence ENE. and the N. ndg<« 
continue in that direction to their termination in 
the neigh bourhwKl of A'^ienna. With the change 
of direction a change in the disposition of the 
valleys is obser\'ed. The range is divided into 
two or more ridges, running nearly parallel, and 
including extensive longitudinal valleys. Fn)m 
the ridges enclosing these longitudinal valleys 
short transverse valleys descend S. and N. to the 



plairiA which Imund tho mountAin range. Tliis 
diftposititm of the ranges renders the communi- 
cation l>etwcon Italy on one pide^ and Switzer- 
land and Gonnany on the other, much more 
ditHadt thiui the communication iM.>tween Italy 
and France; for the roatls must either traverse 
two or more ridges, or gR-at dcHections must be 
made t<) avoid one of them. 

E. (»f Mont Hlanc tlie range is di\'idetl into two 
high ridges, which encl<>se the vallev of ValaLse, 
and unite about 8^ 30' K. long., at tVie sources of 
the Rhone. The southernmost <if these ranges, 
which is immwUatelv connected with Mont Hlanc, 
c<»ntains nearly in its middle Mount Kosa, the 
second highest summit of the Al[»s, Ix-ing 15,217 
ft. above the sea, VV. of it stands Mount CersHn, 
or Matterhoni, tlie tliird highest summit, rising to 
14.S.% fu Then follow Mount C<»mbin, which 
has 14,104 ft., and Mount Velan, which attains 
r2,."J.'>3 ft, K. of Mount liosa, ami near it, Ls the 
Cinia <le SaiM, 13,740 ft. high. This chain com- 
])rLsos the greater i>art of tho Pennine and a 
]>ortion of the LefKnitine Alps, but is commonly 
c:jdle<l the Al])s (»f Valaise. In the chain which 
(tncloses the valley of Valaise on the N. the 
gnvitest Kuro{H'an glacier is found, not far \V. 
of tlie source of the Khone. Here a grt'at ])art 
of the chiun rises above the line of congelation, 
and is alwavs ctivercd with icc. It w stilted to 
have an areii of 200 sq. m. Many high summits 
rise out of it in the form of ])yramids ; and as 
the snow do<« not adhere to their steep sides, 
they fonn a sublime contrast with the sea of ice 
that surrouiuls them. The most famous of these 
summits are the Finsteraarhoni, 14.026 ft.; the 
Monch (Monk), 13,438 ft, ; the Jungfrau (Virgin), 
13,7(51 ft.; tlie S<-hrekhom, 13.3i>4 ft.; the Vis- 
cherhomer in Grindelwald, which include six 
summits ranging ftxim 12,G94 ft. to 13,281 fU; 
and thi} Kiger, 13,0-15 ft, liigh. Tlie glaeiers of 
Grindelwald and Lauterbnmnen, which attract so 
many travellers, arc only small detache<l iM)rtions 
of this immense glacier. W, of the great glat^ier 
tlie chain still contains many summits lising to 
ll.JMM), and even to 12,000 ft. of elevation ; as the 
Altels, the BlUmlisalp, and others. It may be 
considered as terminating on the W. with the 
Diablerets, or Teidels-honier, which att.iins aljout 
10,<»<jn ft:, of elevation. W. of them the moun- 
tains arc of moderate height, antl towanls the 
lake of Geneva they sink into elevated hiUs. This 
chain gf>es commonly by tho name of Bernese 
Aljw (Bemer Al])en). 

The depression of this chain at its western 
extremity has afTordeil an o])portunity of esta- 
blishing a carriage communicatiim between Ge- 
neva and Benie in Swit/.erland, and Milan in 
LomlMinly. llie road runs along the shores of 
the lakv of Geneva, and enters at its eastern ex- 
tremity the vallev of the Klmne or (»f Valaise, 
It then ascen<ls t^ie vallev as far as tho town of 
Brigg, and ].MisHes thence (»ver the S. range by the 
]iass (»f the Simplon to Domo d'Ossola and the 
shorcji of the Lago Maggiore. The highest 
point of thb roail Is r).5)5.) ft., the town of Brigg 
2,325, and Domo d'Ossola 1,003 ft. alsive the 
sea. This road, mmle bv onler of Ka]M»leon. 
l)artly at the expense of ^France, and ])artly of 
the then kingdom <»f Italy, is a noble work. It 
LS alMHit 2i>^ ft, wide, rising i\ inch each yanL 
In some phices it is tunnelled to a considerable 
dbitance thnnigh the solid rock. It is the only 
curiage road over this range ; but another road, 
usetl only by mules, hiu» obtained celebrity by 
Na]M)letm having parsed it in 1800, i)n»viously to 
his famous Italian cam]mign. Tix'tn is the road 
of the Great S. Bernard ; it l)egin8 at Martigny 

on the Rhone, ascends the vole of the small rire^ 
I>rance to its source, where it passes ovesr the 
chain near the celebrated Hospice, at an clcvatioa 
of 8,173 ft. alK»ve the sea, and descends benoe to 
Aosta on the Dora Baltea. 

E. of the sources of the Rhone is the only 
place in the Al{»s running W. and £. where this 
range is not dixided by longitudinal vallevs. but 
is intersected bv the two transverse vallevs of 
the Reuss and Tessino. Hence there has existed 
time immemorial a line of communication in 
this {xiint l)etween Smtzerland and Italy. Tliis 
LS the road of the S. Gothard, uniting Znrich 
and Lucerne with Milan, running first along the 
shores of the lake of the four cantons (or of Lu^ 
ceme) to Altorf, and afterwards in the valley of 
the upper Reuss to Andermatt. It passes the 
ridge at an elevation of 6,808 ft., dcMoends to 
A\'iolo on the Tessino in Val Leventina, and runs 
in this valley to the Lago Maggiore, and thence 
to Milan. Tliis much frequented mad has only 
in m(Klem times been rendered practicable for 
carriages, on account of the poverty of the small 
cantons wluch it traverses. 

That portion of the mountain system which 
lies lK>tween Mont Blanc and tlic road of tlie 
S. Gothanl is less broad than any other part. It 
probably does not measure more than 80 m. across 
m a straight line ; but it^t valleys, both to the S. 
and the N., but es]K'cially tlie latter, knoivn by 
the name of Highlands of Benie (Bemer Oberland), 
are considered as exhibiting the richest mountjun 
scenery iu the AljiS. 

E. of the nwid over the S. Gothard pass, the 
mountain system widens considerably; so that 
b(!twecn 9° and 13® E. h)iig., its average breadth 
may l>e estimated at between 120 and 130 nodles. 
But at the same time the high summits are less 
numenius, a few only attaining 12,0fM) ft,, though 
a great numl>er still exceed 10,(K>0 ft., and |>ass 
the line of congelation. The height of the mf»un- 
tain passes shows evidently that the elevation of 
the whole mountain mass has rather increased 
than decreased, at least W. of the pass over the 

That (lortion of the range which is bounded on 
the south by the Val Tellina, the n>ad of the 
Tonale, and the valleys of S<d and Ntm ; on the 
north by the n)aii of the Vorarllieig from Feld- 
kirch to Landeck, on the east by the Adige fn>ra 
San Michelc to its source^ and then bv the Fins- 
termUnz road to Landeck ; and on the west bv 
the valley of the Rhine and the }S])lllgen roaii u 
called the Rluetian Al]is, or the Alps of the Grisons, 
It is traversed by a great valley, which is di\ided bv 
a high transverse ri<ige into two, of which the \V. 
or shorter, called the Vale of Bregaglia, is drained 
by the river Mora, which nins W., and falls into 
the lake of Como, or rather of Mi.'sola ; and the E. 
and much longer by the Inn, which falls into the 
Danulje. The Adda, and its tributaries, with the 
exception of the valley of Poschiavo, has been 
unitoil to Italy since the year 1859. l-lxi^ept Fln- 
gadine, all the valley's rumiing eastward from 
these Alps Iwlong to Austria, as also iKdongs the 
valley of the 111, oj^ning uito the A-alley of the 
Rhine at Feldkirch, The valley of the Upper 
Rhine affonbi two openings towards the low 
countr}' ; one to the lake of Constance, and the 
other to the lake of Wallstadt. Thus the town of 
(.'hur or Coire, situated where the Rhine tunis 
N., has an easy communication both with Ger- 
many and Switzerland Though a small place, 
by far the grcatejr part of the commercial inter- 
c^iurse l)etween Bavaria, Wirtembeig, Baden, ami 
Switzerland on one side, and Italy on the other, 
b carried on by the road passing through it. The 



emtoa of the Gnsoos, sensible of the advantage 
accming frDm thia commercial inteicotirae, has 
eofi^tnK^ted three excellent roads over the range, 
vfaidi divides the affluents of the Rhine from 
thttw descending into the plain of the Po. A 
road runs from Coire along the Khine to tlie place 
wh^fte the Vorder Rhein and Ilinter Khein join, 
aiMl thence ascends in the valley of the latter to 
the village c^ SplOgen in the lihcinwald. At thb 
place the road divides in two. One continues to 
ascend the valley of the Hinter Rhein to a village 
called also Hin'terrhein, and passes thence over 
the high mountain ridge to S. BemanUno ; it b 
called the road of S. Bernardino. From this vil- 
lage it descends in the Yal Misocco or Miso along 
the river Moosa, which opens near Bellinzona 
into the amall plain suiroanding the N. extremity 
of the Lago Maggiore. This road, which rises to 
7.015 ft. above the sea, has been made in modem 
times to avoid the heavy duties which the Aus- 
trian government laid on the foreign commodities 
pstfing through its territories; for from Bellin- 
SiiDi they now can pass to Turin and Genoa 
witiKNit traversing any portion of the Austrian 
dmninions. The other road leaves the Rhinwald 
ftt the villa^ of SplUgen, and directly passes over 
tbe mtiuntam ridge to Yal Giacomo, which opens 
into Val Biegaglia near Chiavenna. The highest 
ptit of this n>ad between SplUgcn and Isola is 
6^ ft above the sea. Another road runs from 
Ci«re nearly directly S. over some mountains of 
mi^ienue height, till it enters the valley of Ober- 
hailKtein, widch it ascends nearly to its upper 
extremity, where it divides into two branches, of 
vhieh the £. passes Mount Julier at an elevation 
0^7.285 ft; it leads to the valley of Engadion, 
and if not a commercial line of communication. 
Tite W. road passes over the Mal(^ and descends 
ifito Val Bregaglia, where it continues to the town 
of Chiavenna. It rises to 8,250 ft above the sea, 
ad though practicable only for small carts, is 
Burh used. 

The next road farther £. is rather a military 
than a commercial line, and was recently made 
by the Austrian government to open a carriage 
ommnnication between the newly acquired 
ValteUne and TyroL It b^ins at Innsbruck, 
tKradti along the Inn as far as Finstermilnz, near 
th« boundarv line between Tvrol and Switzerland ; 
Usn» then southward, and passes the watershed 
f^the Alps, between Nandeis and Reshen, where 
it» hij^iest point is about 4,500 ft above the sea. 
Then it descends along the valley of the Adige to 
(flonis ; but a few miles S. of this it leaves the 
valley, and turning SW. traverses a very lofty 
lateral chain of the Alfis, which at the place where 
it it OTiflrted by the road is called Monte Stelvio. 
h then rises to the height of 9,177 ft, being the 
h;^btA elevation of any carriage road in Euroi)e. 
Fnwn thw point it descemb rapidly into the valley 
«^ the Adda to Bormio and Sondrio, and thence tt) 
Milan. It is ctonmonly 16 fr. wide, and has been 
nuite at a vast expense, and with great skilL 

This ruad encircles on three sides an extensive 
Bwiuitain region, filled up by snow mountains and 
?U(%n, uccup>*ing the greater part of the countrj' 
••rtweeo Inns^ck and Glums, and displacing 
tU wildest scenery of the Alps. Eternal snow 
mren here a space not much less in extent than 
thai wliich surrounds the Finstcraarh'om and 
^ "Vin, and it is likewise overtopped by numerous 
f^ fununits of a pyramidal form, many of them 
"*ffl»: to more than 10,000 ft above the sea; 
f the (ieUatch Femer 12,288 ft., the VVildspitz 
*'''ni« I2^3m ft, the Glockthurm 11,284 ft., and 
f*^ Where the road traverses Monte Steh-io 
K {aaiea near another moimtain group, less iu 

extent, but rising to a greater elevation. In it is 
Mount Ortelor, or Orteler, the highest summit in 
T\Tol, 12,851 ft above the sea; and near the 
latter Mount Hock Ishemowald 12,422 ft, and 
Mount Zebru 12,075 ft high. 

To the E., but at some distance from those 
mountain masses, is the road over the Brenner, 
which may be considere^l as the E. boundary line 
of the Rhietian Alps. This road l)egins at Inns- 
bruck, ascends the valley of the small river Sill, 
and passes thence over the watershed between the 
Inn and the Adige, where, N. of Storzing, it 
attains the elevation of 4,659 ft. It then descends 
in the valley of the Eisack from Brixen to Bol- 
zano or Botzen, and thence to Roveredo and 
Verona. It is one of the most frec^uented com- 
mercial roads over the Alps. 

This road may be considered as separating the 
W. from the E. Alps. The latter are distinguished 
from the former by lieing more disrinctly divided 
by longitudinal valleys running W. and E. ; by 
the greater number of sei>aratc ridges; their 
greater width and lesser elevation ; the number of 
snow-topped mountains being comparatively few, 
and none of them occurring E. of 1 4° E. long. The 
northern half of this mountain region is known 
by the name of the Noric Alps ; and the southern 
by thr)se of Carinthian, Crainian or Julian, and 
Dinarian Alps. 

Not far distant from, and nearly parallel with, 
the N. border of this mountain region, extends a 
very long longitudinal valley from 11° to 15° E. 
long. ; l)ut it is divided by two transverse ridges 
into three valleys, in which flow the rivers Inn, 
the Upper Salzach and the Upi>er Ens, all of them 
running E. To the S. of the valley of the Salzach 
is placed the highest part of the Noric Ali)s. 
Many summits rise above the snow line, and he- 
tween them are many extensive glaciers. The 
highest summits are the Gross Glcxikner, 12,667 ft, ; 
the Gn)ss Wiesbach, or Krummhom, 11,844; ami 
the Ankogel, 11,873 ft, al)ove the sea. The lon- 
gitudinal valley south of this range is diWded by 
a transverse ridge into two valleys, of which the 
W. is drained by the Eisach, which rmis W. and 
falb into the Adige. The E. valley is drained by 
the Drave, running E., and one of the largest 
tributaries of the Danube. The mountain chain 
dividing these from the plain of Lonibardy is 
much less elevated, rising only in a few summits 
to above 8,000 ft., and none of them exceeding 
9.000 ft. above the sea. Only the Tcrglou, which 
rises near 14° E. long., at the sources of the Save, 
attains a height of 9,884 ft., and is by many con- 
sidered as the most E, snow mountain of the S. 
range of the Ali>8. 

E. of 14° E. long, the Alps are diWded into 5 
ridges by 4 longitudinal valleys, all of them open- 
ing to the E. These valleys are traveled by the 
rivers Ens, Muhr, Drave, luid Save, The Mulir 
suddenly tunis S., and running througli a wide 
and oj>en transverse valley, empties itself into the 
Drave. The ranges enclosing these valleys on 
their N. and S. sides graduallv dccri'ase in height us 
thev advance towju*il8 the IC. ; so that when ar- 
rived at 16° thev mav rather be tcnned hills than 
moiuitains, except the ndge which divides the 
A^lley of the Drave fn)m that of the Save, whieh 
preserves its mountainous as|)ect Ix^ytmd 18° E. 
long. ; where, at the continence of the Drave with 
the DanulHJ, it suiks into low hills, but rises ;igaiu 
into mountains towards the confluence of the 
Danube and of the Save, where it takes the name 
of Sirmian Mountams, or Fnizka (ioro. ThLs 
latter group may he considertul as the most E. 
offset of the Ali^s, but rises hanlly to more tliau 
3,000 ft. 



The ran^c which dix-idcs the valleys of the 
Muhr and of the Ens turas S., and continues for 
a dintancc in that direction, forming the E. boun- 
<larv of the transverse vallev of tlie Muhr: but on 
the iMHindary' line lietwecn St}'Tia and Hungary, it 
8ul>side8 into low hills, which arte followed bv flat 
high gn>und, connecting the Alps with the forest 
of Hakony. Iliis name is given to a low moun- 
tain range which sejMiratCH the two plains of 
Hungary from one anotluo*, terminating where the 
Danube suddcnlv turns soutliwani, and which 
mav also be considered as one of the E. offsets of 
the A\\)B, 

The most N. ritkce of the Noric Alp, which 
skirts the valleys of the Salzach and I'^ns on tlie 
N., is broken through bv these rivers where they 
turn N. to nm to thefr recipient, the l)anuU^ 
This ridge may be considered to terminate with 
the Schnieliei^, ne,ar Neustadt, rising 6,882 ft. 
alM>ve the sea. This ridge sends numen>us lateral 
branches to tlie N., which tenninate cltwte to, or at 
a short distance from, the Danulie, K-tween Linz 
and Vienna. But they rarely attain the height of 
4,<H)0 or o,(M)0 ft, 

llirough tliis iMirt of the Alps lie the roa<ls bv 
w^hich the towns of Linz and Vienna communi- 
cate with Italy and Trieste and Fiume, There are 
two (carriage n.»ads with different branches ; having, 
as centnd i)oints, the towns <>f Vilbich on the Drave 
in Carinthia, and of Layba<'h on the Save in Cnr- 
niola. The imt, uniting Linz on the Daiuibe 
with Italy and Trieste, nms in the lK?ginning 
mostly along the banks of the river Traim, in a 
WSW. «lirection, to the town of Salzburg <m the 
Salzbach : it then follows the valley of the hu»t- 
mentioned river u^) to the place where it is divided 
by a transverse ndge from that of the Ens, and 
then passes over that ridge to Kadstadt. Hence 
it directly ascends the elevated range which 
separates the valley of the Ens from that of the 
Mulur, and is known by the name of the Tanem. 
The highest point of this road, at Hirsohwand, 
rises t«) 6.21M) ft. alMjve the sea. Fn>m S. Michael, 
in the valley of the Muhr, the roa<l ascends again 
to 1WIS8 over the thinl range, which divides the 
valley of the Muhr from that of the Drave. Tliis 
chain, however, is much lower. The road leads 
to Spital on tlie Drave, and thence follows the 
iMUiks of the river to Villach. From A'illach it 
ascends the valley of the (Jail, a tributary' of the 
Dravi', t<» Tan'is, where the roa<ls leading to Italy 
and Trieiitc se]>arate, Tlie roa<l to Italy turns W., 
traverse^ the most S. ridge by the pass of Ponteba, 
2,572 ft. above the sea, and descends through the 
valley of the Telia to Treviso and Venice. The 
road to Trieste nms from Tarvis S., attains its 
highest point at the pass of PrefUl (3,840 ft. high), 
and descends thence in the valley of the Isonzo 
to G«»erz or (loriza, whence it turns S. to Veith 
and Trieste, This roatl is connected with that over 
the IJrenner by a transverse road, uniting the 
valley of the I)rave with that of the Eisach. It 
ascends along the I)rave from Villach to Spital 
and Lienz, passes over the transverse bridge sepa- 
rating the valleys by the pass of Innich, and de- 
s<rend8 the Eisach in the wide valley of Puster to 
Urixen, where it joins the roa«l over the Uremier. 

Tlie roa<l between A'ienna and the towns on the 
Adriatic runs ui the beginning along the E. skirts 
of the Aliis to Neustmlt on the Leitha, whence it 
ascends the ridge calle<l the Sommering, on whose 
summit it is 3,337 fTu above the sea. Hence it 
descends along the small river MUrz to Itruck on 
tlie Muhr. Along the last-named river it passes 
through Grtttz to Marburg on the Drave. It then 
trjivorses the range separating the Drave and Save, 
I»assuig through Wcndish, Tci^tritz, Cilli, and the 

Trojana pass to Layb.ich. Between this place and 
Trieste is the mountAinous country called the 
Adelsberg and Karst. Near Adelsbeig the mail 
rises 2.271 fil, above the sea; it thence descends to 
Senosetsh, and passing over the Karst arri\'es at 
Trieste. From the imss of Adelsbezg a road 
branches off t4) Fiume. 

There are two railways across the Alps, follow- 
ing, with but slight variation, the course of the 
roails here dei«crilMHL The first, and m<i6t westtf ly 
of the two, runs from Linz, rtu Salzlmirk, to Inns- 
bruck, where it is to cross the lireimer, falling into 
the plain of I^>mbardy at Botzen, and then going, 
in a straight line, to Trieste aiul Verona. The 
second railroad — the earlie*it that was ever c<«n- 
plettid acniss the Alps — goes from Vienna towards 
(floggnitz, m a straight southerly direction, and 
then ascend^, in constant cur\'e8, to Gratx and 
Cilli; the ascent, very considerable at some )M»int«i, 
l)eing overc(»me by powerful h)comotive«, specially 
built for thi^ line. Fn>m Cilli and Laybach, tbie 
railway falls, in gradual cur\'es, towanis Trieste, 
thromng off branches in an easterly and westerly 
direction. The journey from Vienna to Triei*te, on 
this line, occupies fifteen hours by the fant trains. 

Two carriage roads unite this railway with that 
which connects Linz with Italv. The most X. 
nms in the valley of the Muhr westw.^^^l, begin- 
ning at Hnick, and traversing Leol>en, Indeiibuig, 
and Muran; at St. Michael it joins the other mad. 
The S. runs in the valley of the Drave, between 
Marburg and Villach, and traverses Klagenfurt. 

The Diuarian Alps, which may be considerwl as 
the link connecting tlie mountain system with the 
lialkhan mountains, occupy the ctnnitrj- Iwtweeii 
the (lulph of Quaniero or Fiume ami the riven 
Verbas or Verbriza and Narenta in Turkey, and 
have obtained their name from M(mnt Dinars, 
their highest summit (nearly 44*^ N. lat.), which 
rises to 6,<)4(» ft. al>ove the sea. The princijial 
ridge lie^ nearly parallel to the Adriatic, at a dis- 
tance of about 30 miles more or less, and forms at 
the same time the watershe<l l>et>vet»n tlie riven 
falling into the Adriatic or h»ining the Save. 
Lower ridges, mostly parallel to the ]irinci]ial 
ridge, fill the country' Initween it and the sea; 1ml 
th(.>se branching otF towanis the Save run neariy 
S. and N. Opposite the Giilph of (^uaniem. the 
higher mountains cover only a space of h-ajs than 
80 miles frr»m W. to E. ; and as here the fertile 
plains of Hungary' a[>i>roach nearest the sea, tlie 
Austrian government, desirous of devising s<»n»e 
meiins b}' which the abundant prtNhicc of thai 
countrj' could be brr)ught to the marketj* of the 
commercial world, made in the last iXMitur\' two 
rtmds over the numemus ritlges which traverae 
the countrv. Thcv are known bv the names uf 
the Camline and Josepliine rtuuls; the former 
rising at one ]M>int to 4,ri7ti ft. alx>ve the sea. But 
the lines were not judiciously chosen. Thc>' nm 
over tf succes^ion uf steep acclivities and dwlivi- 
ties; and, as they traverse a c<.mntr\- destitute vf 
water, they couhl onlv be used by light carriage* 
and mules. But in t)ie l>eginning of thi.^ century 
a comjmny of private individuabs constructe<i an- 
other and A'ery superior n»a<.L on which all steep 
sIo])es have lx»en avoided; so that it is practicable 
for carrijiges conveying the m<)st bulky commo- 
dities fmm the interior of Hmigar\' tothe coast. 
This n>ad begiiu) on the coast at f'iume, ascends 
directly the mountains, passes thmugh Kumenjak 
and Skerbuter\'ak, and terminates at Carlstadt ou 
the (^ulpa, where this river l)egins to Ik? navigable. 

On three sides the Alps are surmumled by plains. 
On the S. by that of I;omljardy, <m the N. by thc*o 
of S\vitzi'rland an<l Bavaria, and on the k.'by the 
great plain of Hungary. The plain of Lominniy 



ill kfli elevated tlum those of Switzerland and 
Bavaria; for the Lago Maggiore is only 805 ft., 
and tlie lake of Como 697 it ; whilat the lakes of 
Genera, Zurich, and Constance are respectively 
1^7, 1^10, 1^ ft above the sea. The highest 
na^es <^ the mountains axe much nearer to the 
plain of Lofnbaidy than to the plains on the N. ; 
and their descent u much steeper towards Italy 
than tawaids Switzerland or Germany. The mean 
elevation of the great plain of Hungary is only 
300 ft above the sea; and in it terminate the £. 
extppmiries of the ranges, which nowhere rise to a 
great height 

The central ridges of the Alps are composed of 
primitive lucks, especially of granite and gneiss, 
•ad are distinguished by Uieir pointed peaks. On 
the N. side of this formation extends a slate for- 
mstioa of coosiderable width. This does not ap- 
IK*r to aooompany the range on the S., except 
t^fmg the E. Alps, where it dmb been observed to 
extend from Bnxen on the Eisach to Marfouxg on 
the Drave, akirting that river on the S. Beyond 
the slate formation, the chaUc occupies a consider- 
able space. It is found to occupy the greatest 
extent on the SE. of the mountam system, the 
Tih>le Julian Alps beins composed of it On the 
«f)|»aite ur X W. side, the sandstone formation ex- 
tends from the lake of Geneva as for as the S. 
bonadary of Bavaria. The chalk formation is dis- 
tinguished by its summits, which do not rise in 
pUnted peaka, but form either cones or cupolas. 

All those parts of the numerous ridges which 
ri» above the line of congelation are, of course, 
ouremi with snow all the year round. In many 
F'isoes the snow occupies a considerable space on 
the upper parts and summits of the rocky masses, 
ind num these * eternal reservoirs ' of snow the 
jkciert are derived. The sides of the rocky mass 
at mnaUy furrowed by long narrow valleys ; and 
b these masses of snow, descending from the upper 
fans under the form of ice, extend the farther 
^uvnwaxd the greater the mass and height of the 
aaw from which they are derived. These aocu- 
Bmlatioiis of snow and ice form glaciers, many of 
viiidi are from 15 to 20 m. long. In the Intro- 
doctian to Messrs. Longman's * Guide to the Cen- 
tnl Alps' (Part II. of Alpme Guide), will be found 
t detailed and interesting account of these pheno- 
mena. The author deKribes, in the first place, 
the manner in which the snow-dust and minute 
cTTstals are partially melted and fused by the in- 
floeoce of the sun m warm weather, and frozen 
together into compact particles of ice during the 
next bter%'al oi cold, — ^the alternate melting and 
eoofcelatitn being continually repeated until the 
vbtde mass is converted into that peculiar condi- 
tiw called u^r4 ; and how, in the lapse of years, 
tbe HfM increasing layer by layer, and each layer 
cxnting omaiderwle pressure on that beneath, the 
fwen of congelation grsdually turns the deeper 
fMtiaos of the mass contained in the reservoir 
uitA compact ice. These reservoirs partaking of 
tbc dope of the mountains, and the ice in this 
*t<t« possessing considerable plasticity, the masses 
*^oer^ gTsdiudly flow down through the channels 
<f the Valleys, or become spaders. The Introduc- 
^ goes on : * We now see that the essential con- 
^^ for the formation of a glacier is the existence 
*^ } RBOToir huge enough, and at a sufficient 
bfi^t, to accumulate such a mass of ndv^ as will, 
i h >t« weight convert its own substance into ice, 
L *M fiuice It to flow in whatever direction it en- 
<<'<unen the least resistance. In moving onward 
^ glacier conforms to the laws that regulate the 
^mjuq of imperfect fluids. The resistance of the 
li^ and the bed on which it moves retards the 
^**irm of the mi^minBg portions of the ice : the 

centre, therefore, moves faster than the sides, and 
the surface faster than the bottom. When the 
iccstrcam flows through a bend in the valley, the 
point of most rapid motion is shifted from the 
centre towards the convex side of the curve. 
While the ice thus conforms to the laws of fluid 
motion, the internal changes by which it is en- 
abled thus to comport itself are peculiar, and have 
no example among other bodies of which we have 
experience. The nature of the motion, involving 
constant chan^ in the relative positions of the 
particles, implies fracture, which must be frequent- 
ly renewed; but tliis would speedily reduce the 
whole to a mass of incoherent fragments, if it were 
not for the property of regelation. At each step 
in the progress of the glacier, this repairs the 
damage done to the continuity of the ice, and by 
the twofold process of fracture and remlation^ the 
fflacier moves onward, constantly changing its 
form, yet presenting a continuous mass of solid 
hard ice.' When the general movement of the 
glacier tends to draw asunder adjoining portions of 
ice, the mass is rent through, and crevaues are 
made. Where the descent is gradual, the surface 
of the glacier is nearly level, and offers few cre- 
vices ; but where the declivity is rapid and uneven, 
the glacier is rent with numerous chasms, and 
covered with elevations, rifiiiig from 100 to 200 ft., 
having the aspect of a sea agitated by a humcane. 
The chasms are frequent Iv many feet wide, and 
more than 100 deep. Hieir formation, which 
never takes place in winter, but is frequent during 
summer, is accompanied with a loud noise resem- 
bling thunder, and a shock which makes the adja- 
cent mountains tremble. Tlicse chasms are subject 
to change every day, and almost every hour, and 
it is this circumstance that renders the ascent of 
the glaciers so dangerous to travellers. Sometimes 
there«are found in tlie glaciers pyramids of ice of 
a considerable elevation and a regular form, on the 
tops of which are placed large pieces of rocks. At 
the lower extremity of the glaciers is an excava- 
tion in the form of a grotto, frequentiy 100 feet 
high and from 60 to 80 ^-ide, whence issues a small 
river, bringing down a bluish water. Though 
every single crystal of the ice of the glaciers 
seems perfecdy white, the whole mass is of a blue 
colour, passing through every shade from the most 
feeble sky-blue to that of the lapis lazuli; it is 
most pure and beautiful in the lower parts of the 
chasms. The glaciers impart one of the greatest 
charms to the scenery of the Alps, by the t)eauty 
of their colour, and their contrast with the sur- 
rounding country, their lower extremities being 
commonly contiguous to meadows covered with 
the finest grass and the most beautiful flowers, 
and the declivities of the mountains which enclose 
them exhibiting large tracts clothed with magnifi- 
cent trees, especially firs. 

Avalanche* are more frequent in the Alps than 
in most other mountains, because of the steepness 
of their declivities. The most common consist of 
masses of snow, which, commencing their descent 
at the higher parts of the mountains, and incrcaa- 
ing in magnitude and velocity as they roll down 
to the valleys, overwhelm, in their headlong ca- 
reer, men and cattle, destroy villages and forests, 
and dam up and obstruct the course of rivers. 
Four kinds of avalanches may, however, be dii^ 
tinguished. 1. The drift avalanche takes place 
when the upper puirts of tiie mountains have been 
covered by a heavy fall of snow during a calm, 
followed by a strong wind before the mass has 
acquired consistency. An immense mass of loose 
mow is then suddenly brought by the wind into 
the valleys, where it frequently covers villages ; 
but in general these avalanches do not occasion 
* Q 



much damage, unless when they cause a compres- 
Bion of the uir. ThU M>rt of avalanche usually 
occurs in the lM>^nning of whiter. 2. The rolling 
avalunclie^: these briii^ down great raav(» of com- 
pact snow, e8i>ecially towards tlie end of the win- 
ter, when it Wgins to thaw. In their pwgress, 
thev are increoseil bv all the snow they meet in 
their descent ; their impetus and mass l>eing frc- 
qu(>ntly such as to overwhelm and lieat do^^-n 
ever>' tlihig, r<x;ks not even excepted, that may 
intemipt their course. These, the most destruo- 
live of the avalanches, cause great loss of life and 
property. 3. The siuUmf avalanches are masses 
of snow tlesceuding slowly along the surface of 
a not verj' steep (leclivity. They take place in 
Fjiring, when a long thaw has dissolved that por- 
tion of the snow which lies immedintelv on the 
ro4*ks, and thus l(M)sened the bond with which the 
whole ni.'iss is united to its base. They carry 
before them every thing that is too weak to with- 
stand their ]»ressun». Tliey sometim(>s iMrcasioii 
considerable loss, but not fre<|uently. 4. The ice or 
glarier avalanches are fonned by hiiger or smaller 
pieces of ice, detache<l from a glacier by the sum- 
mer's heat. They are pre('ipitate<l downwanls with 
a noise like thunder. U hen seen fn»m a dis- 
tance, they resemble the cataract of a powerful 
river. As they generally descend into uninhabited 
places, they seldom do much damage. 

The rolling and sliding avalanches expose tra- 
vellers to the gR'atest dangers they have to incur 
in traversing the Alps. There are, in fact, certain 
localities on the mt>.'«t frequented n>a<b<, to which 
they descend annually, an<l which are consequently 
very dangerous. To obviate the risk <»f accidents 
fn)m this cause, in the construction of new roads, 
as of th(»se of the Simplon and over Monte Stel- 
vio, ciure has been taken at such plmres to excavate 
the mountain Ut a certain depth, and to cover over 
the n>ad with strongly built arches, wliich efFectu- 
ally provide for the safety of the traveller. A few 
places on the roails are also rendered unsafe by less 
t)r greater pieces of n>ck, which de^>end \vith fear- 
ful veliK'itv from the steep dwrlivities of the moun- 
tains. 'Hiis usually hap|)ens when, after some tlays' 
continued rain, a strong wind arises, and shaken 
the higher ]M)rtion of tlie mountains. Luckily, 
liowever, such places are not frequent. Travellers 
on the gla^ners run the risk of fulling intxi chasms, 
or of tinding the ice under their feet suddenly o|)en- 
ing in the ]>rogrcss of the fc»nnation of a new chasm. 

The scenerj' of the Alps owes a [vart of its nu- 
merous charms to the great numl>ej of extensive 
lakes, of which nearly every one is du<tingiushed 
by some peculiar iH'auties. Most of them have 
an easy access, l>eing situated on or near the out^ 
skirts of the range, as the lakes of (leneva, Con- 
stance, and Zurich ; or partly witliin and partly 
without the range, as the lake of the Four Cantons, 
and the Logo Alaggiorc and that of C^>mo, and 
the beautiful lakes in Austria. Innumerable are 
the small lakes which occur on or near the sum- 
mits of the high ridges and glaciers. Most of the 
rivj-rs and torrents have their stmrces in such lakeji. 

The chalk formation of the Julian Aljis offers 
the most inten^iting natural phenomena. It con- 
sists of a fine-grained. much-<lecomp<»sed primitive 
chalk, which is rent bv a great number of trans- 
verse crexices and precipices, and frequently forms 
deep depressiims in the fashion of funnels. In it 
occur numerous caverns and subterraneous galleries 
of great extent, in which everywhere the finest 
and most fantastic stalactites are forme<l. More 
than a thousand such caverns are alreadv known, 
and luanv have never been visitwL 'the most 
remarkabfc are those of Adelsk'rg (which see), 
Ma^fdalen in its neighbourhood, Zirknitz, &c 

Numerous too are the rivers and torrenta which 
suddenly disap|icar underground, precipitadng 
themselves into a large chasm, and re-apiiearing 
aft^er a subterraneous course of many milGf«. Here 
arc also many intermittent wells, which, at cer- 
tain seasons, emit large quantities of water, and 
at others arc dr\'. Several of them fee<l the lake 
of Zirknitz, wlu(;h has acquired celebrity for lieing 
for several montlis ijuite dr\', and for several others 
filled with water ; so tliat it sen-es each year suc- 
cessively for tillage, pasturage, hunting, and fishiii}^ 

The Alps an*, not rich in metals, except ir^>u. 
Some mines of gold and silver occur on the S. as 
as well as on the N. declivity, especially in the 
Austrian dominions; but their produce is incon- 
siderable. Others of co]>|K'!r and lead are more 
productive ; but they too are comparatively pour, 
except the Hleiberg (lead mountain) of Cunnthia, 
which furnishes some of the l>est lead in £un>pe. 
The qiucksilver mines of Idria, NXE. of Trieste, 
are nnikoned among the richest of the gh»be. The 
iron muies of Styria, Cariiithia, and Camiola are 
ver)' productive, and thoir prrsluce hardly inferior 
to any of Euro{)e. Kock-salt occuivi only in a 
verj' few places in the W. Aljis ; but on the N. 
side «>f the E. Alps are very rich layers of that 
mineral, ruunhig, as it scrims, in a continuous line 
from the banks of the Inn at Ilalle to those of tho 
Enns in Austria. They are worked with great 
industry at differejit places. 

A'egetation c(»vers the greater part of the Alps. 
The larger valleys, none of wliich rise to ftjOllO ft, 
alKive the sea, contain some tracts fit for agricul- 
tural purposes. Tliey consult generally of uneven 
ground, extending on Isith sides a river, llehind 
it the mountains rise with a steep and commonly 
inaci*esbible ascent, which is covered with liigh 
tnn^s; in the Uiwer ])urt8 with oak, l)eech, elm, 
&c. ; and in the upper region nvith fir, pine, larch, 
anil the Pinti$ Ctmbra, Near the region of the 
pastures the trees dwindle down to low bushes. 
The pasture region, which occuines the next place, 
offt^rs commonly a plain strongly inclined towards 
the valley, and is in gcneml of considerable wi<lth. 
It is called in Switzerland the Alpt^ Here arv 
found the huts or »ennet of the herdsmen, inlia- 
bited only in summer, when the cattle are brought 
to these pastures. The up])er part of the range is 
occupietl by bare ro<:ks, many of which rise above 
the line of congelation. This line occurs in the 
A1|U( betwiwn 8,0U() and 9,0(H) ft. above the sea, 
and is lower on the X. than on the S. declivity. 

Com is grown on the X. side, not above :{'.H0O 
or 4,000 ft, ; but on the S. it succeeds l,o«»0 ft, 
higher. Tlie highest pkice at which barley ripens 
is Skala in the Engadin, 5.950 il. alK>ve tlie sea. 
High trees are found in some places not above 
4,500 ft., at others they ascend the decliWties even 
to 7,000 fr. and more. *(.)ak is found up to 4,00() IV^ 
elm to 4,300, ash somewhat higher, beech to 5,0(l0, 
fir to 5,3<N), mountain ash to 5,()00, bin*h to 5,7Ul.>. 
pines to (>,500,and larch to 7,000 or 7,300 ft above 
the acta. Where the high trees begin to ceAsc. the 
mountains are covered with bushes and the Alidne 
rose {Rhododendnm ^errugineum and hirtuium), 
IJeyond the upiK-r limit of trees, are found the saxi- 
frage, primntsc, i)edicularis, anemone, gentian, and 
other specimens of the brilliant Alpine tlonu 

The author of the * Alpine Guide ' just quoted, 
divides the Alps, geologically, into thirtv-three 
groiqis. He says : ' To the mocleni race ol Swiss 
geologists Ijclongs the cre«lit of having ascertained 
the real onler of suctression of the strati, and the 
general plan of structure which [>re vails through- 
out the entire chain. M. Studer, who holds a 
foremost placn; amongst Alpuie geologists, reoi^r- 
nises the existence in tlic Alps of a series of 



grmps, each with its oystalline centre, Bometimes 
^snllel to each other, sometimes arranged em 
tdiekm^ like the squares of a chess-board. 

*The intenrab between the higher crv'stalline 
masses had been imperfectly studi^ by the earlier 
genlngista. It is now known tliat these inter- 
mediate species, which we shall designate bv 
the general term trough [Fr. mait^ Germ. tnulde]y 
are formed of rocks completely difTcrcnt from thcjse 
coD^titating the crystalline centres. As a general 
rule, these are stxatified rocks of softer and less 
resuming texture.' The crystalline masses may 
be r^raided as islets, which, in the process of up- 
hetvaJ, have driven back or tilted up the deposits 
throogh which they forced their way. It is, 
therefore, in the troughs or spaces, where it has 
been leas disturbed, that the clue to the original 
geological structure must be sought 

The inhabitants of those ranges of the Alps 
which extend firom the Mediterranean to the lake 
of Geneva are mostly of French origin, speaking 
a oarmpt dialect of the French language. In the 
muinder of the mountain system the population 
is if Teutonic origin, only a few of the more open 
Talle}-8 tenninating in the plain of Lombanly, 
fipf«king a dialect of the Italian language. Tlie 
RMst £. extremity of the whole range, between 
the rivers Muhr and Save and the Julian Alps^ is 
pvtly inhabited by a population of Slavonian 
ori^ called the Wendes or Sloven zL As the 
tncts of land fit for agricultural purposes are of 
cwparatively small' extent, the rearing of cattle 
u4 the making of butter and cheese constitute 
tbe {«incipal employment. Many of the inhabi- 
tants migrate, at certain seasons, to the neigh- 
buoring countries in search of work. Some of 
them return annually, some after the lapse of 
tone yeank Besides the daiiy, the mines give 
flDployment to a number of inhabitants ; but this 
in onlv the case in the Alps of Styria, Carinthia, 
ud (!amiola, where rich mines of iron and ex- 
tensive layers of salt are found. In these districts, 
ibo, are some manufactures of hanlware and iron 
vteoHlfl. In the other parts of the range manu- 
(actoring industry is almost unknown; but near 
it« oatskirts on the N. side it has in later times 
heoome so diffused, that it hardly fields to any 
flther part of the continent The mhabitants of 
the mountains are distinguished by their love of 
B«rtv, their opposition to every kind of oppre^ion, 
the frankness c^ their behaviour, their ahhcrcnce 
to their old manners and dress, and their fidelity 
aad hcmesty. 

The Alps did not become well known till the 
Ri(^ of Augustus. That emperor finally sub- 
dwd the numerous and savage clans which inha- 
^iitA the Alpine valleys, and cleared the passes of 
the banditti by which they were infested. lie 
a>pn>ved the old roads, constructed new ones, and 
•weeeded in establishing free and easy communi- 
eatMis across the mountains. The chain wa<i then 
<^irided ioto separate portions, which have pre- 
Hrred their boundaries and denominations nearly 
to the piesent day. 

The ex|rforation of the Alps has, within the last 
fcv vean, exdted a considerable amount of public 
intfnst, principally through the exertions and 
•^bieroqents of the Alpine Club. In 1859, the 
^. C. Hndscm establi:died the practicabilit^yr of 
'^*<^hiiig the summit of Mont Blanc by the ndgc 
frrio the DiNne du Gout^. The highest pinnacle 
<^ Monte Rosa, 15.217 ft, was reached for the fiist 
time in 1855 by Messrs. G. and C. Smith and 
three other gentlemen. The north end, 15.182 
^ '[I* fcicended for the first time in 1861 by Sir 
J- K Buxton, Mr. E. Buxton, and Mr. CoweU. 
The Lyikamm, liy889 ft, was ascended by the 

Rev. F. W. Hardy, for the first time, by the 
Monte Rosa glacier. The Wei«ihom, Pennine 
Alps, 14,804 ft, of which the ascent is one of the 
most difficult and laborious yet accomplished, was 
first ascended hy Professor Tyndall in 1861. 
Monte Viso, Cottian Alps, 12,643 ft, which long 
had the reputation or being inaccessible, was 
ascended in 1861 by Messrs. W. Mathews and 
F. W. Jacomb; and a second ascent was made in 
1862 by Mr. Tuckett The Grand Combiu, Pen- 
nine Alps, 14,164 ft, was long one of the least 
known of Alpine summits; but in 1857 Mr. W. 
Mathews reached its second peak, and in 1860 a 
Swiss gentleman attained the highest, and an 
English officer performed the same feat almost 
immediately afterwards. The Dom, 14,935 ft, 
the highest peak of the Saas Grat, Pennine Alps, 
was ascended for the first time by the Kev. Llew- 
elh*n Da\*ies. The ascent of the Dent Blanche, 
14^18 ft, a most difficult undertaking, is only 
known to have been achieved once — by Mr. T. S. 
Kennedy and a party of friends, in the year 1862. 

Amongst the passes recent Iv opened may be 
mentioned the Ried Pass, from Sass to St Niklaus, 
discovered by Professor Ulrick; the Col de Gran- 
crou, from Cogne to Ceresole, first effected in 1862 
bv Mr. F. F. Tuckett: the Jungfrau Joch, from 
Wengem Alp to iEggischhom, one of the most 
difficult passes yet accomplished, and considered 
insurmountable until ascended, in 1862, by the 
Rev. Leslie Stephen and other enteiprising mem- 
bers of the Alpine Club; the Eiger Joch, effected 
but once, in 1859, by the Rev. I^lie Stephen and 
friends; the I^awinen Thor, a pass made and 
named by Professor Tyndall in 1860; and the 
Studcr Joch, from Grimsel to the iEggischhom, a 
most difficult pass traversed by Messrs. Macdonaid, 
Buxton, Grove, and Hall, in 1863. 

Alps (Ix>wek), Btuaes Alpes, a frontier dep. in 
the SE. of France, having E. the Sardinian states, 
S. the dep. of the Var, VV. dep. Vaucluse, and N. 
the depts. Drome and Hautes Alpcs. Area, 682,643 
hectares. Pop. 146,368 in 1861, against 152,070 
in 1851, showing a considerable decline in the 
decennial period. This dep. derives its name from 
its being principally occupied by the W. slope of 
the Al\wi, Its asfKH^t is highly varied and pic- 
turesque, presenting a succession of high rugged 
mountains, crowned with eternal snow, vast som- 
bre forests, and low, rich, smiling valleys. The 
mountains and hills occupy about half the surface, 
and the woods about a sixth part ; the extent of 
cultivated land is estimated at 155,000 hect., of 
meadoifvs at nearly 18,000, and vineyanls at 14,000 
do. The principal river is the Durance, which 
traverses the dep. from N. to S.; it is also in part 
intersected, and in part bounded, by the Verdon, 
and is watered by many mountain streams, the 
inundations of which often occasion great mischief. 
The climate varies, of course, with the elevation 
and exposure of the soil. There is a good deal of 
spade husbandrv; and mules and asses are used in 
preference to either horses or oxen. I*roduce of 
com crops insufficient for the consumption. Po- 
tatoes extensively cultivated. Olive, fig, and 
mulberry trees, are all cultivated in the lower and 
warmer districts, and dried and other fruits make 
a considerable article of cx]>ort. Tlie lower moun- 
tains afford excellent sheep pasture. They belong 
parti V to individuals, and partly to communes; 
and Wsides the stationary sheep, or those that 
belong to the dej)., about 400,000 head are annually 
brought from the adjoining depts. of the Var and 
the Bouchea du Rhone ^ to be depastured for about 
four months in summer on the mount^ns referred 
to. They i>ay at the rate of fmm 1 fr. to 1 fr. 25 
cent per head; and both their size, and the quality 



of their flesh and wool, are said to be materiany 
improve<l by the change. The shepherds never 
quit their charge either by night or by day. 
Besides the sheep belonging to the dcp., the breed 
of which has l)een materially improved, it has a 
great number of goats; and the rearing of bees is 
also much attended to. There are mines, but not 
very prwluctive, of iron, lead, copper, and coaL 
Manufactures have not made much progress; but 
there are several silk filatures and silk looms, Tvith 
manufactures of cloth, hats, earthenware, and tan- 
neries. ( ireat numbers of the poorer classes leave 
their homes for a portion of the year to seek 
em]>lo^nnent in the neighl)ouring depts. It has 5 
arrond., 30 cant., and 257 communes. Principal 
towns Digne, Sisteron, and Ilamellonete, in the 
picturesque valley of the same name. 

Alph (Uri»KK), Haute.8 Aloes, a frontieT dep. in 
the SE. of France, on the N. side of the dep. of 
the Banes Alpes, and having on the E. the Sar- 
dinian states. Area, 55H,2G4 hect Pop. 125,100 
in 18C1. The pop. numbere<i 132,038 in 1851, so 
that there was a decline during th(»c ten years. 
ITie department of llautes Alfies differs in few 
res|)ects from that just described, except that it is 
more mountainous and less fniitfuL Some of the 
mountains rank, in fact, among the higliest in the 
immense clmin of which they form a part. Mont 
Pelioux, the most elevated, rises 14,120 ft. above 
the level of the sea, and Mont Olan 13,4G1 do. 
The mean elevation of the mountains may be 
taken at about 9,000 feet, and the elevation of the 
highest coU or posses from one valley to anotlier 
sometimes exceeds 7,000 feet. There are several 
glaciers in the N. part of the dcp. Agriculture 
similar to that of the Bosses Ali)es. Only 97,500 
hect. of surface is cultivated; 77,000 hect. are 
occupictl by woo<ls and forests, and about 24,000 
by meadows, the irrigation of which is an object 
of great importance. The valleys principally lie 
alongside toe riveis Durance, Briuch, and i)rac. 
Inluibitonts poor and laborious. Greniers cTabon- 
dance, or com magazines, are established in dif- 
ferent communes, which make loans of seed and 
necessaries to poor familieii. There ore mines of 
iron, lead, ond other minerals. Afanufacturcs 
principally confined to coarse cloth, linen, stock- 
ings, and hats, required for the use of the in- 
hid>itants. Tlie cheese and butter of the Brian- 
9onnais are highly esteemed. Bread made of 

t)otatoes is extensively used. Families using rye 
iread commonly bake it only once a year; it 
keetw for 15 or 18 months, is hard, and has to be 
i)rf>Kcn to pieces by a hatchet. Between 4,000 and 
6,000 of the peasants leave tlie dep. every yeor in 
the beginning of October, and return early in 
June. It is estimated tlmt at an overage about a 
fifth part of those that emigrate never return, and 
that those who do, bring back with tiiem about 
200 fr. a piece; the emigrants principally take to 
the trades of {ledlars and showmen. The depart- 
ment has 3 arrond., 24 cant., and 189 communes. 
IMncipal towns Gap, Brian^on, and Embrun. 

ALRESFOKD, a market town and two parishes 
of England, co. Hants, hund. Alton. Tlie tovtn is 
situateii on the Itchin, at no great distance from 
its source, 67A m. S\V. by VV. London. It is 
divided into Old and New Alrcsford; pop. of Old 
A. 526, and of New A. 1,546 in 1861. It was for- 
merly a place of much more importance than at 
present, and sent a member to the II. of C. 

AL8EN, an island in the Baltic, formerly 
belonging to Denmark, and ceded to Germany by 
the treaty of Vienna of Oct, 80, 1864. It is sepa- 
rated by a very narrow channel from Schleswig, 
and by the Little Belt from Funen. Shape irregu- 
lar, bong about 20 m. long, and fW>m 8 to 8 in 


breadth. Pop. 22,500 in 1860. Surface pleasantlf 
diversified with wood and open fields. All the 
country houses are surrounded by fruit trees, and 
large quantities of fruit are annnally cxpuvted. 
Principal towns Norborg and Sonderborg. Chris- 
tian II., deposed by the states of Denmark in 
1523, was confined f;or nearly 17 ^ears in a timer 
in the castle of Sondioboxg. The island was taken 
by the allied Prussians and Austrians from the 
Danes in June, 1864:, the Danes having withdrawn 
to it after the unsuccessful defence of Dttppd on 
the opposite mainland. The capture of Alsen was 
the last event of the war. 

ALSFELD, a walle<l town of Uease Darmstadt, 
cap. bailiwick, on its N. frontier on the Schwalm. 
Pop. 4,153 in 1861. It has manufactures of ra- 
teens, flannels, and linen, with considerable bleadb 
fields and print worics. 

ALSLEBEN, a walled town and castle of Pnia- 
sian Saxony, vio, Mersebuig, on the Saale. Popu 
3,009 in 1861. The castle is the property of the 
Duke of Anhalt Dessau. 

ALTAI MOUNTAINS (THE), a scries of 
mountain ranges of central ^Vsia, forming an 
Alpine belt, intersected by wide valleys and tra- 
versed by numerous rivere, extending fn»m W. to 
E., about the parallel of 50° N. between the meri- 
dion of 8-1° and IWP E., where the AlUi proper is 
separated from the system knoivn as the Danrian, 
by Lakes Kosgol and Baikal The name had for* 
mcrly a much more extensive meaning, the range 
being reckoned as extending from the eastern 
l>anks of the Irtish, a tributary of the Oby (SO^E. 
long.), to the shores of the Pacific, at the'S. extre> 
mitv of the Sea of Okhotzk, opposite the island of 
Tarakai (142<' E. long.). Its length, therefore, 
was counted little short of 2,500 m. It was, how- 
ever, not possible to determine it with any d^pree 
of exactness, since only the N. declivities of the 
range had been visited by travellers, the S. de- 
clivities lying within the territories of the Chinese 
empire b«ng inaccessible to Europeans. Of late 
years, however, the mountain ranges between the 
frontiers of Kussia and China, especially in the 
west, have been the scene of repeated exploratiooi 
by Russian travellers ; while our own countryman, 
Mr. Atkinson, since 1846, devoted many years uf 
his life to the some task. 

The most westerly portion of the s^'stem,betweai 
the river Irtish and the river Tshulvshman, the 
upper branch of the Oby, is properfy called the 
Altai Mountains, which liame has been afterwards 
used to indicate the whole system. This portion 
bears also the name of the Ore Altai, beouise it 
contains numerous veins of the precious metals. 
It consists of several ridges, wliich mostly nm 
WN W. and ESE. These ridges advance their W. 
extremities close to the l>anks of the Irdsh, where 
they are 500 or 600 ft. high, but at a distance of 
about 15 or 20 mUes from the river tJiey attain 
from 3,000 to 5,000 ft,, which elevation may be 
considered as the mean height of the greatest part 
of the ranges; only where they approach the lake 
Teletzkoi and the river Tshulyshman they fist 
still higher, even to 10,000 ft.*, and this [Mrt is 
always covered with snow. It is called Altai 
Biellii, and is, so far as is known, the highest por- 
tion of the system. Mount Katundc, or Bilooka, 
is 12,796 ft. high. 

Between the Tshulyshman and the great lake of 
Baiital, the mountains appear to form two great 
chains, running E. and W. ; of which the S„ which 
falls within the Chinese empire, and is called the 
Tangpu Oola, or Tangnu Shan, seems to be the 
princi])al range. It b divided from the N. chain 
by a long valley, in which run the Kemtshick 
from W. to E., and the Oukm-kem from E. to W.; 



after th^ junction the river is called Teneae!, and 
IjRAks thiough the N. chain. The portion of the 
latter situated W. of the Tenesei river is called 
the Sayanskian range, bat the £. chain bears the 
name of £mk Tta^k Taiga. Both chains unite 
aboat 100^ £. long., at a considerable distance W. 
of the lake Baikal, at the sources of the Selenga, 
the most considerable river which empties it^lf 
into the lake. The united chain is here called 
Gooibi Uhden Dzong, which name it preserves to 
108° £. long., running in general E. On the £. 
ade of the meridian of 108^ £. long, and the river 
Selenga, the direction of the mountain chains com- 
puting Uie Altai syston is changed; they run NE., 
*Dd form a verv extensive mountain region £. of 
the lake BaikaL This region is called the Buka- 
liiD or Daurian Mountains; but the highest chain 
belonging to it, and lying within the Chinese 
empire, bean the name of the Great Khing-Khan. 
The most easteriy portion of the Altai Mountains, 
between 1229 and 142^ £. long., lies again nearly 
due W. and £. ; but here it advances to 56^ N. laL, 
lod is called by the Russians Yabloni Kherbet, 
«Bd by the Chinese Khing-Khan Tugurik« 

Hie Aldan Mountains may be considered as a 
eoadnuation of this latter chain. They separate 
fium it at the sources of the river Aldan, a tribu- 
tiiy of the Lena, enclose the valley in which it 
nms oo either side, and continue on the £. side 
akng the shores of the Sea of Okhotzk up to the 
biy ^ Poshina, the most northerly comer of that 
ML From this bay one branch runs NE., and ter- 
minates at Behring's Straits with the East Cape 
aid the Cape of Tshukotshoi-Noss. Another 
bnndk tozns abruptly S., and traverses the penin- 
nla oi Kamtichatka, terminating at Cape Lopatka. 
the highest summit of the Aldan Mountains, ad- 
iioent to the road connecting Yakutzk with Ok- 
botzk, was found by Erman to be 4,055 it. above 
the sea. But the chain traversing the peninsula 
of Kamt.srhatka contiuns several volcanoes, some 
of which rise to a great elevation. Erman mea- 
snred three of them. The highest peak of the 
Tokano of Shiv<autsk (36^ 40' 32'' N. lat) rises to 
10^91 ft., the volcano of Kliutshuvsk (56^ 4f N. 
Itt.) 15,825 ft., and that of Tolbatshinsk 8,346 feet 
above the sea. If the Aldan Mountains and the 
ange travexaing Kamtschatka be considered as a 
oootinuation of the Altai cliain, more than 1,500 
■liles must be added to its length. 

The country extending N. of the Altai Moun- 
tains and the monnUun chains which continue the 
nnge to the eastward to the shores of the Polar 
Sea, fonn one continuous plain, sometimes of an 
aDdnlating surface, but mostly exhibiting immense 
flat bwlands, called, as others of a similar descrip- 
tion, tttppes. This plain, at the foot of the range, 
11 hanlly more than 500 ft above the sea, to which 
it gradnaUy slopes down. On the other hand, the 
cooatnes luring S. of the Altai Mountains consti- 
tate a portMHi of the great elevated table-land of 
^pper Asia. Their surface is much more uneven, 
1><9^ traversed in many parts by ridges of rocks 
aod hills, whilst others present themt^ves as im- 
Bcose plains covered with sand. The mean ele- 
^^atiia of these countries seems to be frum 2,000 to 
^fiW feet above the level of the sea. 

Soadi^ — Two roads lead over the Altaic and one 
orer the Aldan Mountains. That most to the W. 
'» the great road of Kiachta, by which the com- 
iBcioe between Ruada and China is carried on. It 
^'fpDB at Irkntzk, the capital of East Siberia, situ- 
ated oo the Lower Angara, not far from the point 
*here it issues from the lake BaikaL From thb 
^"^ which is 1,440 ft, above the sea level, goods 
ov carried in summer by water, and in winter over 
the ice of the lake, to Udinak, and hence to Sele- 

ginsk, where they are landed, and transported to 
Kiachta, the Russian commercial establishment, 
and exchanged with the goods brought by the 
Chinese to Maimatshin. llie Chinese bring the 
goods to Uiga, the provincial capital of the adjar- 
cent country ; and in advancing farther S. they 
attain the highest point of the range S. of Uiga, 
on the mountain Dshirgalanta, S. of the river Tola, 
where it rises to 5,055 feet above the sea. They 
afterwards descend to the table-land, and traverse 
the great desert of Cobi, or rather Gobi, sometimes 
called Shamo. The other great road leads from 
Udinsk, on the river Selenga, to the mining district 
of Nertshinsk. From Udinsk it runs E. in the 
valley of the river Uda, a tributary of the Selenga, 
somewhat more than 250 m. ; then it traverses the 
highest part of the range near 112^ E. long., and 
descends into the valley of the Ingoda, in which 
it continues to Gorodisktshcnk, where the Ingoda 
unites with the Onon, and forms the Shilka nver. 
On the banks of the last-mentioned river it con- 
tinues to Nertchinsk. The great road over the 
Aldan Mountains connects Yakutsk with Okhotzk. 
Yakutsk is only 287 feet above the level of the 
Polar Sea. Between this place and the river Aldan 
the road rises gradually, and attauis at Nokhinsk, 
on the heights forming the W. bank of the ^Vldau 
river, 751 leet. In the valley of the Aldan it de- 
scends to 424 feet above the sea. E. of this river 
the road rises to 1,531 feet at Gamastakh, and in 
the mountain pass six miles W. from Khoinia to 
2,619. It continues nearly on this level for several 
miles, and then descends with a rather steep de- 
clivity towards the Sea of Okhotzk. This latter 
place is only 3 feet above the sea. 

Mine*. — The Altai Mountains are rich in me- 
tals, especially in gold, silver, copper, and lead. 
The mines from which these metals are extracted 
have been worked on a large scale at some unknown 
period, and by an unknown nation. In the middle 
of last century the Russians, following the traces 
of the ancient mines, began to work them; but 
only at the W. extremity of the mountain system, 
between the Irtish and the Oby, and again on tlie 
banks of the Shilka river, east of the lake BaikaL 
The first mines are comprised in the mining dis- 
trict of Barnaul, and the second in that of Ner- 

Latterly, however, the mines have been com- 
paratively abandoned, and the attention of all 
parties is now directed to the washing of the cfe- 
trituSf or sand, earth, and gravel, found in the 
valleys and in the beds of the various affluents of 
the Irtish, Oby, Yenesei, and other great rivora 
that have their sources in the N. slope of the moun- 
tains. These efforts have met with great success ; 
and the countrv of which Bamaid ou the Oby (in 
about hit. 48<^ N., long. 83° E.), and Krasnojarsk 
on the Ycniflsei (lat. 56«> 1' N., long. 92^ 57 15" 
£.) are the ci^)itals, is by Car the most important 
and valuable of the auriferous regions of ihe Old 
World. The district, of wliich Nertchinsk, to the 
E. of Lake Baikal, is the capital, is also, though 
in a very inferior degree, productive of gold. The 
produce of the Siberian Gold-Washings amounts, 
on the average, to 1,000 poods, or about 45,()0(> 
pounds per annum. In 1837, they prcnluccd but 
132 poods, but the quantity of gold found annually 
increased everj' suceesslve year, till it rose to 1,302 
poods in 1846. The productivity, after this i>e- 
riod» slightly declined, remaining, however, about 
a thousand i>ood8, worth nearly 3,000,000/. By far 
the greater portion of the gold is raised by private 

As the existing detritus must be enriched by all 
the gold brought do^-n from the mountains during 
a long course of ages, the probability is that the 



ivashingR will in the end become less producti\'e. 
})ut 8unh 18 the extent of the auhfenius region that 
it has hithertjo been onlv imiK'ifectly ex])Iore<l, 
much less exhaust eil. Silver, copptT, and other 
valuable pnNluct» are ah«o foiuid in this region. 
Tlicy are, however, of trivial importance, an com- 
pared with the snnpHes of y:o\d. 

At Kolywaiio W oskrescnsk arc extensive polish- 
ing works, where granite, ]K>rphyr}', jasper, agate, 
and marlde are worked into taules, A'ases, chimney- 
pieces, l)asins, and columns. The material is 
Drought fn)m the river Korgon, and the workmen 
are employed at the expense of government. 

ALTvVMURA, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 
liari, at the foot of the Apennines, 29 m. SVV. liari. 
PoiK 17,305 in 1862. Tlie toiin is summnded by 
wails, has a magnificent cathedral founded by Fre- 
deric II., an hospital and a lyceum, and is one of 
the handsomest t^miis in the province. Having 
taken part with the republican party in 1799, it 
was taken by the royalists, and given up to mili- 
t4uy exeirution ; but it has since recovereil its former 
prosperity. Altamura is supposed to be founded 
on or near the site of the ancient Lupazia, This 
opinion is strengthened by the number of Grecian 
vases, of the most beautiiful forms and woricman- 
ship, and other antiquities, that have been found 
in excavations in the town and its vicinity. The 
surrounding country is fertile, being especially dis- 
tinguished by the excellence of its pastures. 

AI-TAA'^ILLA, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 
AveUino, 7 m. N. Avellino. Pop. 2,717 in 1862. 
This also is the name of a town in the prov. Sa- 
lerno. Pop. 8,396 in 1802. 

ALTDOKF, a town of Bavaria, ciic Rezat, 13 m. 
SE. Nureml)eig. Pop. 2,800 in 1861. A groat 
number of wooden toys are manufactured here, and 
are exported to all parts of Eurt»pe and to S. Ame- 
rica. There are also considerable breweries. The 
surrounding country is beautiful and ferrile. 

ALTEA, a town of Sixain, Valencia, near the 
sea, 80 m. NE. Alicante. Pop. 6,602 in 1867. The 
town has glass works ; and the contiguous territory 
produces cotton, wine, flax, silk, and honey. 

ALTENA, a town of I*russian Westphalia, cap. 
circ same name, on the Senne. Pop. 6,942 m 
1861. The inhabitants arc principally employed 
in wire-drawing and in the manufactiuxs of needles, 
pins, and thimbles. 

ALTENAU, a mining town of Hanover, prov. 
Gnibenlingen, Ilartz mountains, about 1600 feet 
above the level of the sea. Pop. 1,996 in 1861. 
There are in the vicinity mines of silver, copper, 
and iron. 

ALTENBERG, a town of the kingdom of 
Saxony in the Erzgebiige mountains, 22 m. S. 
Dresden. Pop. 2,419 in 1861. It manufactures 
lace. The surrounding mountains abound in tin, 
and are covered with forests. 

ALTENBRUCK, a town of Hanover, on the 
Weme, near where it falls into the estuary of the 
Elbe, a little above Cuxhavcn. Vo\y. 2,650 in 
1861. The town has some trade in com and 

of the small German States, governed by a sove- 
reign duke. The duchy is divided into two prin- 
cii»l parts by the lordship of Gera, with several 
detached {portions in other states. Area, 609 sq. m. 
Pop. 137,883 in 1861. The W. part, watered by 
the Saale, is hilly and woody ; while the E. |>art, 
watered by the IPleisse, is flat and fertile. The 
fiihab., who are descentlants of the Wendcs, are 
industrious, and are almoHt all Lutherans. The 
annual revenue from 18<^J2 to 18<i4 amounted to 
123,498/., and annual expenditure to 120,051/., 
one-half of tha revenue produced by state domains 


and about one-third by indirect taxes. Altenbui];; 
contributes 1,621 infantr>' with 17 artillerymen to 
tlie army of the Otnfederation, Prussia appointing 
the officers. In 1826, by a general exchange vi 
territories among the Saxon princes, tlie state waa 
handed over to the Hildbuighaiiscn branch of tli« 
Saxon princes. (See Saxony.) 

Altknbuug, the cap. of the above principality, 
24 m. SSE. Leipsic, near the Plcissc, on the rail- 
way from Berlin to Munich. Pop. 17,168 in 1861. 
Tlie town is well built; has a g^-mnai^ium, with 
a considerable librar>', a foundation for noble ladieSy 
an orphan asylum, and a theatre ; with manu- 
factures of wool, tobacco, sealing-wax, gloves, and 
an extensive trade in wood, com, and cattle. 

Altenuuro, or Ovaty a town of Hungary, 29 
m. SSE. Knoxburg, in an island of the Fritha, 
at the point where it unites iiith the riji^ht arm v( 
the Danube. Pop. 3,160 in 1858. It has a gym- 
nasium and an old castle, now used as a com ma- 
gazine. It was burnt by the Turks in 1683. 

ALTENKHtCHEN, a town of the Pruwian 
states, prov. Rhine, cap. circ, on the Wied, 16 m. 
N. Coblentz. Pop. 1,697 in 1861. It has some 
fabrics of linen and cotton, and a forge. The 
vicinity of this town was, in 1796, the theatre of 
some obstinate conflicts between the French and 
Austrians ; in one of which, on the 2lst September, 
the brave General Marceau was killed. 

ALTENSTEIG, a town of Wilrtembei^, circ 
Black Forest, 5 m. WNW. Nagold. Poj). 2,100 in 

1861. It is Imilt on the declivity of a steqp hill, 
at the summit of which is an old castle. 

ALTER-I)0-CHAO, a town of Portugal pror. 
Alemtejo, on the Avis, 14 m. WS\V. Portalagrc 
Pop. 2,226 in 1868. It is surrounded bv walls. 

ALtKIRCH, a town of France, dep. Haut Uhin, 
cap. arrond., 34 m. S. Colmar. Pop. 8,108 in 1861. 
It is situated on a hill, at the bottom of which ii 
the 111 ; has some tanneries, and a cattle fair onoe 
a month. 

AI/rOMONTE, a town of South Italy, prov. 
Cosenza, 24 m. NXVV. Cosenza. Pop. 2,933 in 

1862. It is situated on an eminence, has good air, 
vdth mines of iron and silver, and a brine spring 
ill the \ncinity. 

ALTON, a town of the U. States, Illinois, ott 
the Mississippi, a little above its ctmfluence with 
the Missouri. This town was founded in 1818, 
and in 1832 contained only two or three dozen 
houses. But the public attention having been then 
directed to its advantageous situation for com- 
merce and navigation, it advanced with extraordi- 
nary rapidity, and, in 1860, had a pop. of 7,838. 

Alton, a m. town and parish of England, oo. 
Hants, hund. Alton, on the Wye, 47 m. SW. by 
S. London, on the London and South-Westem 
railway. Pop. 3,286 in 1861. It is a neat town, 
with manufactures of dmggets and worsteds. 

ALTONA, a considerable city of Holstein, on 
the Elbe, 2 m. W. Hamburg, and at the head of 
the railway from Altona to Kiel. Pop. in 1860, 
45,524. It is well built, is a free port, and enjoys 
various privileges. Altona has a gtxHl deal of 
trade ; Hhii)-building is also carried on to a con- 
siderable extent; and there are manufactures of 
cotton, silk, and leather articles, with sugar- 
houses, breweries, and distilleries. There is here a 
superior academy or college, a public library, a 
mint,^ an orphan-house, with numerous churches. 
The inhabitants are mostly Lutherans. Altona 
was burned by the Swedes in 1718, under drctun- 
stances of great barbarity. 

ALTORF, or ALTDORF, a town of Switzer- 
land, cap. cant. Uri, situatetl in a narrow valley 
sumnindcd by lofty mountains, near the SE. ex- 
tremity of the lake of Lucerne, at the N. extrcmitj 


of the pans over McNint St. Gothaid. Pop. 2,426 

in ImV), The town suffered severely firom a fire 

in ir99, Imt has been rebuilt on an improved plan. 

It has a handsome parish church, a town-house, 

and a Capuchin convent, with a librarv attached. 

Altfof is Ultimately associated with the' history, or 

Iffzeml, of William TeU. He is said to have been 

Utm in Ikoi^len, a village close by; and an old 

u<v«r in the town of Altoif, covered with paintr- 

ing* in honour of Tell, is said to mark the spot 

vhence lie shot the apple off his son's head. 

ALTKIXcaiAM, a town of England, Cheshire, 
A m. Manchester, on the railway from Man- 
choter to Crewe. Pop. 6,628 in 1861. It is a 
iwtL thriving town, with factories for the spinning 
of cotton and linen yarn. 

ALTSOHL, a free town of Hungary, at the 
cnoflnenoe of the Salatina with the Gran ; lat. 48<^ 
%i' 55" N., long. 19° 7' 20" E. Pop. 2,800 in 1857. 
The town is old, and is entirely occupied by Sla- 
Tumans. On a hill in the neighbourhood are the 
ruins of a castle, sud to have been a favourite 
RMtience of Mathias L 

ALTSTETTEN, a town of Switzerland, cant. 
^ <Ball, 9 nu 8. from the embouchure of the 
Rhine in the lake of Constance. Pop. 7,266 in 
1(^>. It is situated on the declivity of a moun- 
tain in a beautiful coimtry, surrounded with com- 
fiddi and vinevards; has a fine church which 
hfvm both for Catholics and Protestants, a pu))lic 
liiinrT. a muslin manufactory, and three fairs 

ALTdRA, a town of Spain, Valencia, 3 ro. XAV. 
Sf}p«be. Pop. 3,300 in 1857. The town has dis- 
tiUoin. potteries, and a paner-milL The country 
luund produces a great deal of wine. 

AL\ A, a village and parish of Scotland, co. Stir- 
ling, 7. m. NE. Stirlmg. Pop. of par. 3,283 in 1861 . 
The Devtm iron company has considerable works 
here; but the chief industry is the manufacture of 
tartan fthawls and blankets, as in the neighbouring 
u/vnof Tillicoultry. 

ALVAR AIX), a small town of Mexico, near the 
BMQtli of the river of the same ruune, 40 m. SSE. 
V«m Crux ; lat. 18^ 34' 18" N., lon^. 65° 39' 16" 
W. The bar at the mouth of the nver, about 1^ 
m. below the town, renders it inaccessible for 
vcwds drawing above 10 or 12 feet water; laii^ 
ahipt being hi consequence obliged to anchor m 
the roads, exposed to all the fury of the N. vrinds, 
which often blow with much violence. During 
the period that the castle of St. Juan d*Ulloa 
(tvtmoed in poasesnon of the Spaniards, after 
^en Cnu had thrown off their yoke, the trade o 
the latter was principally carried on through Alva- 
rvlo; bat upon the reduction of the castle by the 
patiii^ it speedily reverted to its old cluumeL 
FopL eMimated at about 6,000. 
ALYIXCZ, a town of Transylvania, on the 

Xsrot, opposite Roberick, 7 m. SW. Karlsburg. 

Pflfn 1^70 in 1857. The inhabs. are almost all 

MsKTanand Bulgarians. 
ALVITC), a town of South Italv, prov. Caserta. 

fi m. 8E. Sora. Pop. 4,242 in 1861. The town 

^ bnih on a declivity of a hill, in a healthy situa- 

titd; has an hospital, and several monta-de-piete 

(* the marriage m young giria. 
ALWUK, a large town of Hindostan, prov. 

Delhi, cap. dominions of the Macherry Raja, 90 

^fm. Delhi; lat. 27^ 44' N., long. 7b^ 32' E. 

It ii ritoated at the base of a steep hill, and is 

"ti^v furtified. On the sunmiit of the hill, 

i^'^t l^Siio feet high, is a fortress containing 

*f^ml tanks. 
ALYTH, a town and parish of Scotland, co. 

Pmb, 12 m. W. Forfar. Pop. of par., 3,422 in 

l^L The toil is fiectile, and the town, which is 



finely situated, carries on some branches of the 
linen manufacture. 

ALZEY, a walled town of Hesse Darmstadt, on 
the Sela, 18 m. SSW. Mayence. Pop. 4,609 in 
1861. It has manufactures of linen and stockings, 
and tanneries. 

ALZONNE, a town of France, dep. Aude, at 
the confluence of the Lampv and the Fresquel, 
near the canal of Languedoc, 12 m. WN W. Careas- 
soime. Pop. 1,566 in 1861. It has manufactures 
of fine cloth, caps, and lace. 

AMAK, a small Danish island, on which a port 
of Copenhagen is built. It is principally laid out 
in gaixlens and pleasure-grounds. 

AMALPHI, a dty and seaport of South Italy, 
prov. Salerno, 9 m. WSW. Salerno. Pop. 6,606 
m 1862. This city attained during the early part 
of the middle ages to great dbtinction as an inde- 
pendent maritime republic, and was the first 
Italian state that traded with Eg>i)t and the 
shores of the Mediterranean. In the zenith of 
her prosperity, in the eleventh century, Amalpld 
is said to have contained 50,000 citizens; and her 
wealth, and the skill and intrepidity of her mari- 
ners were then unequalled. But after being re- 
duced bv the Normans, she was taken and sacked 
by the iMsans, in 1130; and from this period she 
rapidly declined, and not long after fell into ob- 
scurity. A unique copy of Justinian's Pandects, 
said to have been found bv the Pisans among the 
spoils of this city, was beUcvcd to have led to the 
reWval of the study of the civil law. Amalphi is 
also famous for having been the birthplace of 
Flavio Gioja, supposed by some to have oecn the 
inventor of the mariner's compass, but who, it is 
certain, was only its improver. The place is now 
resorted to for sea-bathing. (Gibbon's Decline and 
Fall, cap. 66^ 

AMAND-LES-EAUX (ST.), a town of France, 
dep. du Nonl, cap. cant., on the Scarpe, 7A m. NW. 
Valenciennes. Pop. 10,210 in 1861. This town 
is celebrated for its mineral waters, whence its 
name ; it is very ancient, has a communal collie, 
and the ruins of a celebrated abbey, destroved at 
the revolution. It is situated in a rich, well-cul- 
tivated country, where the flax is produced (fin 
rame) of which the finest laces are made. These 
are manufactured in the town, with woollen stock- 
ings, cotton coverlets, soap, linseed oil, and chiccorj'. 
It has also distilleries, tanneries, and a great fair 
held on the 81 st May. 

AMAND-MONT-ROND (ST.), a town of 
France, dep. Cher, cap. arrond., at the confluence 
of the Marmaude with the Cher, and at one of the 
extremities of the canal, joining the Cher and 
Loire. Pop. 8,607 in 1861. It is well built, has 
a tribunal de premiere instance^ a commercial col- 
lege, and a theatre. It manufactures wooden clogs 
and leather; and there are forges, cannon foun- 
deries, and porcelain manufactures in the neigh- 
bourhood. It is the most commercial town of the 
dep. ; the exports consist principally of the produce 
of the surrounding countrj', viz. timber, staves, 
iron, wine, chesnuts, cattle, leather, hemp, wool, 
and goatskins. 

AM^VNTEA, a sea-port town of South Italv, 

ov. Cosenza, 14 m. SW. Cosenza. Pop. 4,077 m 
It is encircled by walls; has an old castle. 


4 parish churches, some convents, and a school 
for beiles-leitres. There are hot springs in ita 
vicinity, and its territory has the appearance of a 
continued olive wood. It is sui>p<)»ed to occupy 
the site of the ancient Nipezia, It was taken by 
the French in 1806, after an obstinate defence. 

AMARANTE, an ancient town of Portugal, 
prov. Minho, on the Tamepi, 35 m. NE. Oporto. 
Pop. 5,600 in 1858. It ia situated in an agreeable 



the revolutionary frenzy. The remaininpf portion 
is now converted into a depot for the iluits for the 
use of the French army, broujjlit from the quarrj' 
of Mcuiine, near St. Aignan. The \'icw8 from its 
towera and battlements are 8U|)erb. 

AM BOOR, a town of Hindostan, in the Car- 
natic, district S. Arcot, 108 m. WSW. Madrati; 
lat, V29 50' N., long. 78© UV E. It w neat and 
repiilarly built : the inhabitants, who arc indus- 
trious, prepare a considerable quantity of castor 
oil for exportation. To the left of the town is a 
lofty isolated mountain, that was formerly sur- 
mounted by an all but impregnable fort ; but its 
upper works have been destroved since it came 
into the possession of the British, and the tower 
is ased as a place of confinement for malefactors. 

AMBOYNA (Ambun, Malay), an island of the 
E. Archi]>elago, in its third or E. di^nsion (Craw- 
funl), bel<mging to the Dutch. It lies in 8° 40' 
S. lat,, between 128© and 129° E. long., SW. of 
C/cram ; is 32 m. in length, and 10 in breailth ; 
area 424 sq. m. Estimated population 188,000, 
mostly Malays, with some Chinese, besides the 
Dutch residents. The shape of the island is irre- 
gular, l>cing indented by a long bay (Binnen), 
which divides it into two very unequal ]K>rtions, 
connected by a narn.)w isthmus. Surface moun- 
tainous, and the whole district volcanic It is 
watered by numen)us rivulets, and overgrown 
everywhere bv trees and underwood, intcrs{)ersed 
with clove pfantations ; its soil, a rich red loam, 
is of a darker colour in the valleys, and some- 
times mixed with sand ; climate' healthy, the 
average heat of the year 82^ Fahr., the lowest 
temperature 7(P F. The monsoons occiur regularly, 
but their effects are quite the reverse of those 
experienced in B<»meo and the W. division of this 
archipelago; the E. monsoon bringing rains and 
t«mi>ests, and the \V. dry weather. Tlie Dutch 
appn)priate<l this island to the culture of the clove, 
for the production of wliich it is especially calcu- 
lated ; and to secure to it a monojioly of this valu- 
al)le product, barbarously compel the destruction 
of the trees in the other islands subject to their 
power. The clove {^tmnde^ Tidor lang.) thrives 
l^est in a dark loamy soil, but not very near the 
sea, on hills, on sandy or hanl clay soil, or on 
sedgy grounds, and requires much care in its cul- 
ture. The plant rcsemhles a large pear-tree, from 
20 to 40 feet in height. In the Moluccas it bears 
at 7 or 8 years, in Amboyna, not till 10 or 12 
years old; about one-third' of the trees are infer- 
tile, the rest may continue to bear fruit for 70 
years. The crops' are gathered in Oct. and Nov. ; 
they are very unequal in different years, but the 
])roduce of each tree may average from 2 or 3 to 
/>lb. ; the total annual pro<luce is said formerly to 
have been 050,000 ll>s. (Hamilton.) Sago forms 
the chief nourishment of the inhabitants, and 
very suiH^rior indigo, but inferior coffee, are also 
grown. Sago tretts are 7 years in arri^dng at full 
growth, and last about 30 ;* but they are generally 
cut down when alxnit 20 years of age,. When in 
full vigour, they yield from 42 to 40 lbs. of sago a 
year. 'The wild ai'iimals of AmlK»vna are deer and 
wild h(igs : there are no lieasts of* prey, but a mul- 
titude of birds and sen'^ants. Buffaloes, cows, 
sheei>, goats, and horses, were brotight thither by 
the Portuguese^ but cattle are rare. The inha- 
bitants are of four distinct races, \\z,'. — 1. Ilora- 
fora<), the aborigines, who are in a savage state 
and live in the forests, whither they were driven 
by, 2. Malays, who comjKwie the bulk of the popu- 
lation : 3. Chinese, who are the principal mer- 
chants: 4. Europeans, mostly Dutch. The Malays 
arc indolent, effeminate, and fond of imitating the 
Dutch ; they arc expert fishcn, iu canoes from 10 


to 20 feet long ; in war they use korokoret, 80 t 
100 feet in length, and capable of ct)ntaining 8* 
men. Their houses are of W(mn1, n>ofed with palm 
leaves, and arc mostly of but one st<iTT, on atvoun 
of the ])revalence of earth(j[uakcs. The prevailini 
religion is Mohammedanism, iutrud. a. d. 1515 
but some of the Ambo\iicse arc Christians, ant 
bear Portuguese names. The government is de 
itendent on that of Bata^-ia; its seat is at F(« 
Victoria : the public revenues are derived from . 
monoitoly of arrack, custom-house anil port duties 
taxes on merchandise, and licences to keep an inr 
and kill pigs. The exports consist of cloves. an< 
other natural protlucc ; the imports cliietiy opiun: 
and a few Eurof)eau and Indian goods. 

History, — Amboyna was firet discovered by th 
Portuguese in 1515. It was taken by the Date 
in 1007, and by the EngUsh in 1015. The lattei 
who were soon afYer expelled by the Dutch, re 
tained a factory in the Island* till 1022. Th 
destruction of this establishment by the Dutcl 
and the cruelties inflicted on the unhappy jtersoD 
found in it, affonled a theme for lengthened ne;gn 
tiations, and for much declamatory invective. A 
length, under the vigorous adminLstration « 
Cromwell, the Dutch were comjielled to mak 
some compensation to the descendants of tbom 
who suffered in the * Amboyna massacre.* Ii 
17i)0, the island was captured by the British, wh« 
restored it at the peace of Amiens. Thev rocap 
tured it 1810, and held it till 1814, when it re 
verted once more to the Dutch. 

Amboyxa. The principal town in the abov 
island, and the second in imm>rtance belongin 
to the Dutch in the E. Archi|>elago, on the SI 
side of the bav of Binnen, near Fort Vicu>ria. ~ 
30 40' S. lat., and 128° 15' E. long. Po|>. 8900 
1801. It is rt^larly built; the streets, thou^ 
not leaved, are broa(l, and intersected by mac 
rivulets; the houses, excepting the town-hous 
which has two stories, are all of only one stor 
constructed of wood and roofe<l with palm leav« 
A long esfdanade, reaching as far as the fort^ 
bounded by a handsome range of hituses, and 
double row of nutmeg trees ; there are two Chri 
tian churches, an hospital, a fine ganlen xm 
menagerie, and several good bazaars and marked 
Fort \'ict<»ria is an irregular hexagon, surrowu{e< 
by a ditch, but as it is entirely commanded h 
two neighbouring heights, its best defence 1 
in the ditKculty of anchorage in the contiguotu 

AMBRIERES, a town of France, dep. M* 
yenne, cap. canti, 7 m. N. Mayenne. Pop. 2,72t 
in 1801. 

AMBROIX (ST.), a town of France, dep. Ganl 
cap. cant^, 11 m. NN'E. AUais. Pop. 4,000 ii 
1801. It manufactures coarse silk stockings, an 
has tanneries and nail works. 

AMELIA (an. Atneria), a city of central Italj 
prov. Penigia, tleleg. Spoleto, 23 m. SW. Spolefi 
Pop. 7,021 in 1801. It stands on a small hill, j 
the seat of a bishopric founded in 13^14, and has 
cathedral, three churches, and some convents. 

Ameria was one of the most considerable an 
ancient cities of Umbria. The famous comciliai 
Sextus Roscius, was a native of Ameria, which ; 
frc/]ucntly referred to bv Cicero in his sfjcech i 
defence of Roscius. It is said to have liee 
founded 1045 years B.C., and became a colon 
under Augustus. 

Amkija, an island on the NE. coast of Florid 
from which it is separated by a narrow channc 
40 m. N. St, Augustine, Iwtwecn St, Marj's an 
Nassau rivers. It is 20 m. in length liy 2 i 
l)readth, is feitile, and its chief town, Fcmandin; 
has a good harbour. 



AMERICA, or the New World of the W. he- 
lufiherc, one of the great divuimiB of tlie f^Iobe, 
uipwrinj? all the othen in magnitude, with the 
xeieptioa of Asia, to which, however, it in but 
ittle inferior. Thia vatit continent Btrctdies N. 
md & a <liiitance of abo^'e 9,000 m., or from 
ibont the 72nd d^ree of N. lat. to Cape Horn, 
n aboat 56 S. Ut. It in vcxy irrcx^larly shaped, 
Mini; divided by the Gulph'of Mexico and the 
Darnbean Sea into the two enormous peninsulas 
if N. and S. America, united by the narrow 
[Ahmu9 of Daiien, or Panama, where biiNulcst, 
!?. Amirrica, excluding Greenland, b not less than 
y3f*t m. acn«ii, and S. America not less than 
iS^JO m. The best estimates that have been 
Ibnned of the area of America vary from 14,790,000 
tn loi^O,0(M) Eng. aq. m., while scmie authorities 
i;iTe a *till hifi^her figure. Probably, the following 
statement will approach the mean, based on the 
BUMt ndiable statistica:— 

Eag. liq. on. 
N. Ammica . . . • • 7,400,000 

& America 6,500.000 

IriuHl4 150,000 

Gnmliind and the Inlands connocted 
with it N. of Hudson's Straits . 900,000 


. 14,950,000 

The continent of America lies between the At- 
Isotir and Pacific oceans, the {onnet separating it 
from Eunvpe and Africa, and the latter from Akin 
uA Auntnlia. All the distinguishing features of 
the American continent seem to be formed on 
the nviet gigantic scale. The chain of the Andes, 
vfaich nui4 fn>m one end of S. America to the 
Hber, ind is prolonged under different names 
thir4i(;h the whole extent of N. America, is, in 
pnt uf length, unequalled by any mountain 
tbun in the old world ; and is far'superior, in 
luped of altitude, to the Alps and every other 
BMnitain dvstem with which we are acquainted, 
tbe Himmaiaya only excepted. The plains, rivers, 
Ian, Ukcw. cataracts, and forests of America are 
of Bofivallt^l extent and grandeur. Her mineral 
nHio Mem also to be superior to those of every 
<<)ier continent : and she possesses every variety 
(^ eEmate. fmm the extreme heat of the torrid 
sow to the eternal winter of the arctic circle. It 
'» finpiha, however, that while inanimate and 
^^'ct^ie nature are developed on so grand a 
Kale in the new world, the animal kingilom 
vkwld be comparatively deficient The native 
Anmcan u proliably inferior even to the negro. 
<^ the lower animals, neither the elephant, camel, 
»•* &« w fiMind in Ainerica; and it was originally 
^itate of the hone, the ox, and the sheep, all 
of vhicb were carried thither by Spanish, Bntisli, 
iti other European settlers. 

N'. America is more indented than any other 

xf the KRat divisimis of the globe, with immense 

piliihf and arms of the sea. One of the princi|»al 

<f th(«e, in the N£. part of the continent, consists 

(ifvhat ItallH has not unaptly called the sea of 

'be L<H}uimaux, from its cnasts being everywhere 

"^ipted with tribes belonging to that peculiar 

^' It consists of two great divisions, Davis's 

^nit« ind BafilinV Bay, separating Greenland 

Jn-o the rert of the continent ; and Iludsuu'8 Bay, 

'Jinj more to the S. and W., but connectwl with 

j^ ftimer by numerous channels, some of which 

w« •«ly been recently discovered. The naviga- 

JJ* "f the«j seas and inlets, even at the m«i8t 

nvfmnj,]^ seasons, is extremely difiicult, from 

l^irlninp constantly encumberp<l with ice ; and 

>* > •»nly <lnring a short period of the year that it 

*» ** attempted The next great inU*t of the 

** "0 the American coast is the Gulph of St. 

^'"tcace, M> called from the great river of that 

name which falls into its SW. extrcmitj'. Passing 
over the numorouH inU'ts and noble bays on the 
coast of the United »*<tat««H, wc conic t»> the. (>ulph 
of Mexico and the Carrihoan Sea. This vast mo- 
diterranean is sci>arated from the Atlantic by the 
peninsula of Florida, and the Greater or Lesser 
Antilles, or the West Indian islands. The latter 
are^ as it were, a continuation (»f Florida ; and are, 
it is prcibable, the only remaining p«)ints of what 
was once a broa<l belt of land, which has been 
broken to ])ieces and partly submerged in some of 
those tremendous con\'ulsronH to which the earth 
has been subject. But, however this may be, this 
great inland sea is divided into two portions by 
the peninsula of Yucatan and Cape St>. Antonio, 
at the W. extremity of the island of Cuba, which 
approach within a comparatively short <listaiicc 
of each other; that to the X. being called the 
Gulph of Mexico, and that to the S. the CarrilM^an 
Sea, or the sea of the Antilles. The Isthmus of 
Panama is at the extreme S. limit of the latter, in 
about the 8th degree of N. latitude. It is l>elieve<l 
that it would be by no means difiicult to cut a 
canal across this isthmiu<, and conseqiiently to 
unite the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The Gulph 
of California, separating the |)euinsulaof that nnnie 
from the main land, is the most important inlet 
of the sea on the W. coast of North America. 

S. America bears a striking resemblance in the 
form of its coasts to Africju It is nnich more com- 
pact than X. America, and is comi>aratively little 
mdented by arms of the sea. The great rivers, 
Amazon, I^ Plata, Para, Orinoco, Sec, may, how- 
ever, be looked ui)on as a siiei'ies of inland seas ; 
and are, in s(»me res]>ects, more ser\'iccablc than 
the latter. The W. coa*«t of America, from the 
proximity of the Andes, has but few gulphs ; and 
IS, in great part, all but destitute of harbotuis. The 
8. extremity of S. America, or the count rj' of 
Tierra del Fnego, is pro|)erly an archipelago. Whig 
separated from the continent by the narrow and 
wmding strait of Magellan, or ^fngalhaens. 

Mmintaina, — Ilumlxildt has shown that all the 
high elevations of the New World l>el(»ng to that 
great chain which, under difierent denominations, 
extends fn»m one of its extremities to the other, 
along its western coast, over a space of no le,**a 
than 10,000 m. The American mountains may, 
however, be tlivided into right systems, or prin- 
cipal groups, three of which Wiong to S., and 
three to N. America ; and one each to the West 
Indian and Arctic archipelagos. 

1st, Of those systems, that of the Andes, or 
Peruvian system, from the highest mountains 
being, with one exception, in the country kn(»wn 
by the name of Peru, is the most gigantic. This 
vast chain of mountains commences at Cape Iloni, 
in about the dCth deg. of S. lat., and lollowiiig 
pretty closely the line of the W. coast of the con- 
tinent, to which it forms as it were a huge bul- 
wark, stretches N. to the Bay of Panama, in alsnit 
the 0th <leg. of N. hit. But at Popayan, in alwuit 
2^° N. lat., the chain is dividctl mto thn»e great 
ridgeji, of which the most westerly take^ the di- 
rection alx)ve mentioned, while that farthest t<» the 
K. follows a NK. diretni«»n, terminating a little t<» 
the K. of lake Matacaybo. The name cordiUem^ 
sometimes given to the entire chain, belongs ]^n>- 
]M;rly <»nly to the highest ri<lge. In [wirts the 
chain consists t»f only one ridge, and in others t»f 
2 or 3, enchising very exten.sive Al]»ine valleys, 
many thousand feet above the level of the wii. 
Next to the Himmaiaya, the Andes has tlie hi;;h- 
est elevation of any mountain system ; its mean 
height may be taken at from l(r.O(K» ti> Ti.lXM) ft. 
Chimborazo, near (^uito, 21.124 ft. above the sea, 
was formerly supposed to be its culminating ix>int ; 




it is surpassed in altitude by Aconoaf^aa, in the 
iian AndeSf lat. 32^ S., lung. 7U^ W., which 
certainly rises to above 22,290 ft., or to more than 
ft.'lOO fV> above the height of Mont Blanc (See 
Andes.) 2d. Tlie system of I^a Parimc, or Guv- 
ana, embraces the mountains scattered over the 
immense Inland formed by the Orinoco, Cassiqui- 
ari, Kio Negro, and Amazon. It consists of an ir- 
n^Cular grouf) of mountains, separated from each 
other by plains, savannahs, an(l immense forests. 
Tlie Sierra de I'arimc may \yc regarded as its i)rin- 
cipal chain. The Peak of Duida, 8,280 ft. in 
)ieight, is the cubninating point of the chain and 
of the whole svstem. iki. The Brazilian svstera, 
embracing the mountains that lie )x*tween the 
j^Vmazon, Paraguay, and Kio de la Plata. The 
Siemide Kspinhazo is its most elevated cliain. It 
traverses, under different denominations, the pro- 
vinces of Bahia, Minas-GenUht, Kio de Janeiro, 
San Paulo, and tlie northern extremity of the 
province of San Pedn). Its culminating point^t 
are Itambcand the Sierra da Pieiiade, nearly 6,000 
ft. high, in the proWnceof Minas-(ierat's. 4th. In 
N. America, the [irincipal mountain system is that 
of the Mexican ^Vlps and Kocky Mountains, which 
mav bo regarded as a contiimatitm of the Andes. 
In Mexico, it is divided into three distinct ridges ; 
within which, between the parallels of 19^ and 
24^ N. lat., are immense platcAus elevated to the 
height of between 6,000 and 9.000 fY, The central 
Cordillera of Mexico stretches N. 10*^ W. from the 
2<')th to the 38th deg. lat., separating the waters of 
the Kio del Norte^ flowing BE. from those of the 
Col(»rndo, flowing SW. The highest peaks in the 
ridge in Mexico are the volcanoes or Pocatcpetl, 
17,717 fU, and Orizaba, 17,374 ft. From alx)ut 
the 38th d(^. the ridge, which then begins to be 
called the Kocky Mountains, stretches N. 28° W., 
till it terminates near the mouth of the Mackenzie 
Kiver, on the Arctic Sea. in about the G9th di^. of 
lat. and 13Sth deg. of W. long. Some ^joaks in 
tliLs chain, l)etween 52° and 53°, are said to be 
nearly 16,000 ft. aliovc the level of the sea ; and 
otherJs between 37° and 39°, have l)een ascertained 
to be from 1(1,000 to 12,04)0 ft. in height, oth. 
Parallel to tlK* Kocky Mountains, and at no great 
distance from the sea, a chain of mountains runs 
N. fn)m the pi^ninsula of California till it i» lost in 
Kussiiui America. This chain, which has l>een 
called by Humboldt the Califiimian Maritime 
Al[», increases in altitude as it gets further N. 
Mount IIotkI, near the 46th deg., on the S. side of 
the Columbia or Oregon river, is said to be alxiut 
16,000 f^ high; and Mount St. Helen's, about a 
ilegroc further N. on the X. side of the Columbia, 
lias an elevation of 14,000 ft. Mount Fairweather, 
in the 69th deg., is also 14,000 it, high; and 
Mount St^ Klias, the loftiest in the chain, attains 
to an elevation of nearly 17,000 ft. The last two 
arc volcanoes. Between the Kocky Mountains 
and the Maritime Al]is is an extensive ])rairio 
tract, 700 m. in length, by from 100 to 200 m. in 
breadth. The Kocky ^lountains and tlie Maritime 
Alps arc connecUMl by a ridge in about the 42d 
deg. lat., dividing the waters which flow N. to the 
C^ilumbia fn»m Uiosc which flow S. to the CoK)- 
rado. 6th. The mountains E. of the Mississippi do 
not ut all aitpToai^li the Ktvky Mountains in mag- 
nitude. They are included in what is called tlio 
Alleghany or Apjialachian system, extending in 
a NR by N. din'ction from Alaliama, on the N. 
confines of ( rcorgia, to the banks of the St. Law- 
rence, lieiiij^ alxHit 1,200 m. in length, with a 
mean breadth of 100 m. The White Mountains 
of New Hani|>shire. 7,300 feet above the level of 
the itva^ are the highest in this range, which is 
crossed by the tidal waters of the IludisHiu river. 

The immense Tallcy of the Misnsripp lies between 
the K(x:ky and the Alleghany chains. 7th. lUbi 
pniposcs to embrace, under tbe denomination «if 
Arctic system, all the mountains that are already, 
or tliat may hereafter be, discovered within t£e 
Arctic archipelago. The culminating points uf 
that system, in so far as they are at inesent knnwn, 
arc the Com du Cerf, in Greenland, the height iif 
which has been much exaggerated, but which is 
proluibly above 8,000 ft., and tbe Aeraefi Taekull, 
m Iceland, 6,649 ft. 8th. The system of the An- 
tilles embraces the mountains in the aichipclagi) uf 
that name. Its culminating points are, the Anton- 
Sepo, in Hayti, nearly 9,000 ft in height; and 
the Sierra de Cobre, in Cuba, the most elevated 
summits of which attain about the same height. 

Plateaus, — America has a great variety of pla- 
teaus, some remarkable for their futMliginua ele\'a- 
tion, and others for their immense extent. Under 
the former arc included the plateau <^ Titicaca, 
dixddeil between Boli>*ia and Peru, compriiting an 
area of about 18,000 sou m., -with a mean elevation 
of above 13,000 ft. The populous and well culti- 
vated plateau of Quito is elevated about 9,600 ft; 
and the extensive plateau or table-land of Ana- 
huac, in Mexico, from 6,000 t(» 9,tK)0 ft Among 
the latter, or those principally remarkable for their 
ext4>nt, may be mendoncd tbe central plateau uf 
S. America, embracing the vast province «>f Matto 
Gnissf), with parts of Goyaz and San Paulo in 
Brazil, the whole of Paragimy, Chaco in the con- 
federation of the Kio de la Plata, and a part of the 
lands of the Cliiauitos and Moxes in Bolivia. Its 
elevation varies from about 750 to 1280 feet 

Volcanoes, — America has a great number of 
volcanoes, and some of the most elevated volca- 
nic mountams in the world. Tlie states of Equador 
and of Cauca in Columbia, the states of Nica^ 
ragua, San Salvailor, and Guatemala in central 
America, Chili, Kussian America, and Iceland in 
Danish America, contain a great number erf* vol- 
canoes. The most remarkable volcanic moun- 
tains are, C-otopaxi, Sanguay, and Pichincha in 
the Columbian department of Equad(»r; Pasto, 
Sotara, and Purace in that of Cauca; Guagua- 
Plitina, or t)ic volcano of ^Vreqnipa, and Sehama 
in Peru ; the volcanoes of Copii^x), Cliilan, An- 
toco, and Peteroa in Chili; those of Socomusco, 
Guatx]!mala or Fuego, Agua, Pacaya, San Salva- 
dor, Graiiafia, and Telica, near St Leon, of Nica- 
ragua, in central America; Popocatapett or tlto 
volcano of Puebla, Citlatcftetl, or the volcano of 
Orizaba, the volcano of Colima, and that of Xo- 
rullo, in the Mexican confederation ; St Elias and 
Fainveat her, in the Califomian Alps ; the two vol- 
canoes of the peninsula of Alashka, and those of 
t he Aleutian islands ; with Heda, and othoa in 

Plains, — In no other part of the world are the 
plains so vast^ The inunense space from the out- 
let of the Mackenzie Kiver to the delta of the 
I^Iii^issippi, and between the central chain of the 
^Icxican system and Kocky Mountains, and the 
Alleghany, forms the largest plain, not of America 
only, but of the world : it embraces the basins of 
the Mississippi, the St Lai^Tence, Churchill vit 
Nelson, almost the whole basin of the Missouri, 
nearly the whole basins of the Suskatchawan and 
Mackenzie Kiver, and the entire basin of the Cop- 
permine Kiver. Four-fifths of that portion of ttiia 
vast plain which lies Iwyond the 50th d(^. of lat., 
Ls a bleak and barren waste, overspread with innu- 
merable lakes, and bearing a striking resemblance 
to N. Asia: but its more southerly ])ortion, or that 
lying W. of the Alleghany chain, and N. fn»m the 
(iulph of Mexico, differs widely in character from 
the other, being well wooded auid fertile on the £. 

«il«. ten but not iafectile In the middle, and 1m- 
camiDf; almiiat ■ dcMct in the extreme W. The 
MoMid pHt plnn of the New Cnntinent is that of 

«f S. Amelia, comprising man than half Braiil, 
with iDatli-veM Columbia, the eaitem part of the 
npublic of Peru, and the northern part of Bolivia : 
ita linuta are nearly identical with those of the 

the Amuon and Tocantia. The plain of the Kio 
lie In Plata extends betwecD the Andea and their 
fnocipal bnoches, and the mountaimi of Urszil, 
to the Atlantic Ocean and the Strsiu of Magellan. 
It emhinL'ea the nulh-wnt part of Brazil, Pais- 
fCoar, the coaatrj of the Chiquilos, Cham, with 
the (creatCT part of the conlcderalion of the Kio 
de la flaia, the atate uf Uruguay, and Pola^nta. 
A Iar};e portion of it is known by the name of the 
AB9aiorBwnoaAyres,ar KiodelaPlala. The 
plain of the Orinoco, embracing the Llano* o( 
Kew firanada and VeneEuela in Colambia, extends 
fr^xn Caqueta to the raouth of the Orinoco, along 
the Guavtarc. Heta, and lower Orinoco. In some 
et the ttat parts of America Large tracts of terri- 

aare Diet vith, which, in rpipect of aiidity of 
and of the sand by which they are covered, 
Bany b« compared to the deaerta of AsLii and 
Africa. The moat remaikable and most extensive 
•t those tiBcta are the desert of Pemambuco, 
oecnpvin)! a (treat part of the HE, plateau of lira- 
nl: tlie deaert of Alacama, extending with some 
intoruptiona along the coast of the Pacific from 
TanpKB in Peru to Copiapo in Chili; and the 
diMvt uf Xultal, at U)e E. foot of the Kncky 
Hnmtaina, between the Upper Arkansas and 
Pttioka, forming part of the central plain of North 

Tk Hkm of America are on a much laraei 
sole than thoae of any other portion of the globe, 
iftnfing [adlilia of interna] communication of 
'ttt importance, and quite unequalled any where 
eke, Tbe principal are the Amazon. Hissiwnppi, 
Plua. SL Lawrence, and Orinoco. The Amazon 
tun E. through the broadest part of S. America, 
(■Hing into the Atlantic Ocean under tbe equator, 
hi niin ourae is estimated at about 4.700 m., 
■ad it has several Iribularies la^r than the Wol- 
pwibe Danube. Uninterrupted by either rocks 
fihaUowi, it is riavigable fur vraseb of conwider- 
^hnnlen to the E. foot of the Andes, a distance, 
B > dinct line, of above 2,000 m. from the sea ; 
led iLongh dvilisation has as yet made little pro- 
pa is the vaal and fertile n^ons through which 
a ion, there can be no doubt Ihat it is destined 
Is tceume as it were a great highway for many 
Jonrfai oauona, and to have ila banks thickly 
M vizh populous towns and emporiums. 

The lUsiisaippi, taken in connexion with the 
Hiaonii, [be Lugnt and most important stream, 
k<n from N. to S., falling into the Guluh of 
Muke, about 100 m. below Nen 
warn, including n ' 

CA 93 

The Plata, which mns 3. with n slight inelina- 

on to the E., is the grandehannclof communioa- 

on to a verv latRC portion of 3. America. Its 

>urse may be estimated at about 3,500 m.; and 

9 basin is inferior only to that o( the Amazon or 

the Missiesippi. 

The St. Lawtenec, with Its coimecled lakea, or 

ither great Inland scan, is the grand outlet of the 

largest freshwater aj-stem in the world. Including 

tlie lakes, its course exceeds 2,000 m. It is re- 

mork^le for the equnlitv of its current, which is 

earlv uniform throughout the vear. 

The Orinoco hat a counie of about IdOO m.. and 

irries to the sea an immenxc boily of water. There 

i a water communication between one of its adlu- 

nts, the Cossiquiari, and Ibe liiu Negro, on afilu- 

nl of the Amanio. 

Owing (n ihe c 


iparatively short distance oi 

■ai, there is not, in most parts, room in me ui- 

-1,'ening space for the formation of any very great 

■er. Hence, notwithstan.ling the prodigious 

igth of the W. coast, it only receives two large 

rivers, and Iliexe not of the tiist class; Ihe Hiii 

Colomdu, falliJig into the bottom of the (iulph of 

California, and tbe Columbia or Oregon, Tlieir 

lated at about 1,140 m. each. 

The Mackenzie is the only great river flowing 

4,^00 B 

nr of its tnbntaries, as the Arki 
Biier, Ohio, Ac, are of great magnitude ; and it 
^■iu me at the laigeat and finest basins in the 
"irU. It i* narigable fur about 1,700 m. in a 
^nrt line from its mouth ; and though civilisation 
Wrfdy begun "" -■-"-- ■-- — -- --' ---.-.- ■.- 

■kin Ihe wide regions through which 
II Inauented channel of 
ie boldest Sights of imagination 

a ihfady a well fr 

on hardly Bgure what the MissiMJppi will be, 
*Mi Ibe rich and fmitful countries on its banks, 
»llli«eof iualHueuls, are all fully peopled, and 
nsling of its waters to send abroad their sur- 
1^ jinxtucta, and to import those of other couii- 

of the Andes, ai 

I of 
?"^thc Vf. 

loihe A 

It bos a NNW. I 
y a series of lakes and tributary Blroams 
upcrior, and consequently with the Si. 


„, . ,... een 42° 

hichmight be Justly called the kke 
region. It presents not only the gtealeBt massea 
of fresh water on the surface of the globe, but ao 
lany smaller lakes and morusses, that ilieir enu- 
leration is almost imponiible. Iliesc lakes form 
most important feature in the phvsical geography 
f the new world. In the rainy season, several of 
them overflow (heir banks ; and temporary com- 
mnicatione arc then eslablished between livcis 
,.hose embouchures are frequentlv at immense dift. 
tanoes from each other. Some of these communi- 
calions are permanent; as, for instance, that of the 
Miseinsippi or Churchill with Ihe Mackenzie River. 
The great lakes uf X.America are, Ijdce Superior, 
Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario. 
These, which ore all amneeted together, discharge 
Bupcrlluous watera by the Si. Lawrence, and 

1 the sea of Canada. (Sec tbe titles fur a full 
iption of these taken.) The next ui size and 
rtance ore Lakes Winni]>eg, Alhaboseo, Great 
Slave Lake,and Great Bear Lake,stretclnngNKW. 
(ram Lake Superior to near tlie mouth of the 
Uackeniie liiver, and forming as it were a conti- 
nuation of the Canadian Ukes. There are some 
considerable lakes in the Mexican states ; and the 
comparatively small hikes of Tezeaco, Xochimilco, 
ic, in the valley of Mexico, are remarkable for 
their elevated situaiinn, their vicinity to tlic ca- 
pital, and the superb works undertaken to prevent 
the damage caused by their frequent overflowing. 
Lake Nicaragua, in central America, is remariuble 

forming the basis of* the works pro- 
ting Ihe Atlantic and Padfic oceans, 
lize of the principal lake* of S. Amc- 
:rikingly contnisU with Ihe dimensions of 
those of N.America. The lake of Titlcaca, (he 
largest and must celebrated of Ihe H. American 
lakes, is situaled near the of Bolivia, 
or Upper Peru, in an Alpine volley su 
ridges of Ihe Andea. It coven an aF 

The hmiied 



at 2,225 ^ceog. eq. m., its length l)eing 120 m. and 
1)reiidtli im m., and it Ih elevated 12.850 feet abave. 
the level of the sea. Manco (]!apac made hiH first 
a|»|K>arunee (in the hanks (if tins lake. The hashi8 
<»f the Kio CVildrado, or ^lendoza, and Kio Negro, 
jiresent several very extensive lakes; but the^e 
are really rather vast raoratuM^, than lakes ])roperly 
BO called. 

Islamls. — A multitude of islandn belong to 
America. We shall briefly notice the principal, 
in the order <if the se-as in which thevare 8ituate<L 
In the Atlantic Ocean are, the archWlago of St, 
I^WTence or of Newfoundland, at the mouth of 
the (rulph of St. Lawrence: its princii>al islands 
are Xewfoundland, Anticosti, Prince Eilward's Is- 
land, and Cape Dreton. Tlie great Columbian ar- 
chipelago, or Antilles, commonly called the West 
Intlies, comprise^) a great number of islands and 
secondar}' groujts, lying between the i)eninsula of 
Florida and the delta of tlie Orinoco. IXs cliief 
islands are,Cul>a, Hayti,or St. Domingo, Jamaica, 
and Porto-Uico, calle<l the greater Antilles; St. 
Cruz, Antigua, (iuadaloni)e, Martinico. St. Lucia, 
IVirbadoes, St. Vincent, lol>ago, Trinidad, and se- 
veral others, calleti the smaller Antilles. The Lu- 
cayos, or Bahama Islands, a vast secondare' group, 
are situated to tl»e N. of Cuba. Towards the 
southern extremity of the New C^mtinent, are the 
Falkland or Malouine Islands, wliich have no fixed 
inhabitants; in the southern ocean is the archi- 
X>elago of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego, the most 
southerly inhabited part of the worl(L By its 
))ositi(in, at the extremity of America, it bebmgs 
as much to the ocean, to which we liave assigned 
it, as to either the Atlantic or Pacitic 0(;ean. 

The Antarctic archipelago, or Antarctic lands, 
under which denomination we include all the. 
islands situated beyond 5()^ S. lat^, next claims 
attention. The greater part of these L^lands have 
been recently disiUivercd : they are all uninhabited, 
are mostlv covered with ice, and are important 
<mly to whale and seal fishers. The most remark- 
able islands and groups are, the island of St. 
Peter, called by (^nik, S. Georgia; the archipt*lago 
f Sandwicli, the Orkneys, S. Shetland, Trinity 


Island, the small LHlands oi Alexander I. and 
I'etcr I. Tlie Pacific Ocean has also a multitude 
of islands, lying in grrmps, of which we can (mly 
notice the following : the archiiKdago of Madrc de 
Dios, on the W. coast of l^itag(inia; the Cam- 
Tiana and Madre de Dios are the laigest of these 
islands : the archi|>elago of Cliiloe, situated to the 
S. of Chili, to which it belongs, and of which 
Chiloc Island is the largest : the archiiMtlago of 
Gallo])ag(»s, situated under the equator, about 
600 m. W. from the coast of Columbia, but which 
has no stationary' inhabitants : the archipelago of 
Quadra and Vancouver, comprising a great numljcr 
of islands, and that of King George III., on the 
NW. coast of N. America, with the Aleutian 
archipelago in Russian America In liehring's 
Sea, are the group of Pribylof and Nounivok, be- 
longing U> liussia. The Arctic Ocean presents a 
vast numl)er of islands, the majority of which, 
previously to the late voyage of ^^liiscovery, were 
n^arded as parts of the Amencan continent. 
Ballii pro^Mises to give to these islands the gene- 
ral denoramation of Arctic lands or Arctic arclii- 
iielago, and to subdivide them as follows : K. or 
)anish Arctic lands comprising the great group 
of (in*enland and Iceland, belonging to Denmark, 
and Jan Mayen*s Ishind, without stationary in- 
habitants; the W. or English Arctic lands, ex- 
tending to the W. and N. of BafKn's and Hud- 
tMin's liays, the principal grou|)s of which arc, X. 
Devdu, 'X. (ieorgia, with the islands Comwallis, 
Melville, &.c\ and the archi|xdago of Baffin — 

Parry, with the islands Cockbum, SoathtmptaOi 
New Galloway, 4c. 

The Climate of America is nearly as oeldxitad 
for the jircdominance of cold, as that of Africa (br 
the predominance of heat« With the exception of 
the limited space al(»ng its W. shore, between the 
Andes in the S. and the Maritime Alps in the X„ 
the temperature of the Xew Wori<l, in the Mune 
latitude, is ev<»ry^'heTe inferior to that of the OU, 
Countries which, from their geographical parition, 
we should suppose would be mild and t^pent«, 
are exposed to long and severe winters, durini; 
which they are wholly covered with snow ; and in 
point of fact, the entire continent of X. Americi 
above the 50th degree of lau is all but uninhabitx 
able. Even in the 46th parallel, on tlie N. ride of 
the Canadian lakes, frost is continuona for more 
than six months. Occasional frosta occur as low 
down the Atlantic coast as the confines of Floridai 
near the 30th deg. of lat., in the parallel of M«^ 
rocco, Cairo, and Suez. Tliis predominance of 
cold is no doubt ascnbable to a great variety of 

causes ; among the most prominent of which may 
be ploceil the extraordinary ele\'ation of the wnL 
Not only is the continent traversed from one ex- 
tremity to the other by immense chains of moun- 
tains covered with perpetual snow, but in many 
tmrts, as in Mexico and Columbia, ver>' extcnnve 
plains are found at an elevation of frtNn 6,000 tu 
10,000 feet al)ove the level of the sea ! Thus 
the plain of (^uito, immediately under the equa> 
tor, has an elevation of above 9.000 feet, and iu 
mean tem})eratiurc is said not to exceed 53^ Fahc 
In some parts, where the plateaus rise nq)idly, 
there is often, within a few leagues, an extrsonfi- 
naxy cliange of temperature. At Vera Gnu and 
Guayaquil, for example^ on the borders of the 
plains of Mexico and Quito, and nearly on a level 
with the sea, the heat is often Huite oppressiveu 
These different climates have different vegetable 
productions. * Hence the traveller joumcring 
down the deep descent of one of these magnimxoii 
ravines (l^^di^j? f<^>n the plateau of Mexico), 
through forests of birches, oaks, and pines, finds 
himself suddenly on the level shores of the Kio 
Alvarado, surrounded by palms, and has an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the animal products of tln^ N. 
and S., of the Alpine regions and tn)pic8, nay of 
the E. and W. hemispheres min^l^ together. 
Wolves of northern aspect dwelling m the \'icinity 
of monkeys ; humming binls retiuniing (leriodicaUy 
from the borders of the frozen zone, with the X. 
bunting and soft-feathered titmice, to nestle near 
parrots; and our common European whistling 
ducks and teal, swimming in lakes which swarm 
with sirens and Brazilian ])arras and boathills.' 
(See Bichanlson*8 Zoolog\' of X. America, in the 
Sixth Beport of the British Association, p. 136.) 
In addition to its vast mountain chains, and the 

{>nidigious elevation of many of its plateaus, the 
ower tem{)ejature of .tVmerica may be partly as- 
cribed to the great indentation of tW sea between 
X. and S. America, and the want of extensive 
sandy deserts in Uie tropical regions, easily im- 
])regnated with heat, Tno place of the latter in 
the African continent is here occupied by vast 
forests, traversed in all directions by immense 
rivers. The forests, however, are not confined to 
the tropical regions ; they extend over tlie greattf 
portion of the continent, powerfully diminifthing 
the influence of the solar rays upon the earth, and 
greatly increasing its moisture. A strnng and 
abuuilant vegetation, the result of its greater hu- 
midity, is, in fact, the distingubhing cliaracteristie 
of the Xew WorUL 

But a ver}' small portion of Xorth America is 
within the torrid zone ; it reaches tar within 



Arctic ciitle, where it abo attuns to a peat 
idth. The NW. wind prevails during wuiter. 
IW wind, sweeping over a desolate country, over- 
i|«Bad with manhesB, forests, frozen lakes, and 
nonntainis boried under eternal snows, contracts 
m intcsise degree of cold, and in its progress 
nathwafd. passing over a wilderness, where the 
ppoond is shaded by forests fn)ni the solar rays, its 
v^inal character is in no respect changed. If 
iowly pelds to the dominion of the climate, and 
stains Its temperature long after it has penetrated 
into the regions of heat. Throughout >. America 
the X. wind is accordingly felt to be keen and 
pienaog. It increases the rigour of the seasons 
■I the more northerly regions, and extends the in- 
iaeiioe of winter far into those latitudes which, 
B the other hemisphere, are blessed with perpetual 
pring. The countries lying within the tropics are 
i3q>ofled to the inioads of the northern blasts ; and 
he great heats felt at Vera Cruz and Havannah 
tre oden suddenly reduced by strata of cold air 
jroogfat by the N. winds from Hudson's Bay. 
Fbese winils blow from (October to March, fre- 
joentiy bun»ting fnrth in tremendous hurricanes, 
iDd cnHiling the air to such a degree, that, at Ha- 
rannah, the centigrade thermometer falls to 0, or 
t20 Fahr^ and at Vera Cru2 it falls to 16^, or to 
WP Fahr. At Zacatecas, within the tropic of Can- 
Der, it frequently froze hard in the winter of 1825 ; 
•nd in the city of Mexico the thermometer lias 
been known, though rarely, from the same cause, 
to&U below the fireezing point. To the prevalence 
of these X. winds, thereuire, combined 'with the 
cxtrannlinary elevation of the ground, and the 
■Bcaltivated state of the country, overspread with 
TSrt fmests, the greater cold of N. America seems 
dnrfly ascribable. In S. America nearly the same 
canses operate. The country is even more deso- 
late; the climate is more inclined to moisture; 
■od hable, bevond the 40th parallel, to dreadful 
teatpests; while immense mountain ranges, risuig 
far above the limit of perpetual snow, aid these 
cAacts. and greatly increase the rigour of the sea- 
■ona. Tu these canses may be added the form of 
the American continent, which being greatly con- 
tacted in breadth as it approaches the S., is, in 
ennM)uence, exposed on every side, except towanls 
the N„ to the surrounding oceanic winds. To the 
& of Cape Horn is the great Antarctic Ocean, 
'ftwecold prevails even to a mucli greater degree 
tban m the N., so that the winds coming from 
tW inhospitable seas bring to the American con ti- 
imt all the unmitigated rigour of the polar regions. 
The ^\iide8 and the Maritime Alps protect the strip 
<f torritorv between them and the Pacific Ocean 
^ the feezing influence of the N\V. wind ; and 
to this its greater mildness is partly at least, if 
aftt whoQy, owing. 

Mhierak. — ^The mineral riches of America are 
Iw^W*!? superior to those of any of the other 
pwt dirisions of the globe. The discovery of the 
o»ine» of Mexico and Peru effected an entire re- 
^tioD in the value of the prei'ious metals ; and 
*Miua revolution, in the same sense, followed 
th« dLvovery of the mines of California, of recent 
<^ The annual produce of the American mines, 
M the cmnmencement of the present centurv, was 
•rtimated by 3L Humboldt at 17,291 kiirigs. of 
^M. ukI 795,581 kilogs. of silver, of a total value 
^^MiSoOL This produce continued slightly to 
^ooieart down to 1810, when it was estimated by 
Mt Jacob, author of an Inquiry into the Con- 
•wnption of the Precious Metals, at 9,913,000/. 
^ the revolutionary struggles which l>^an in 
the l&>i-nienti(Hicd year to agitate Mexico, I*cni, 
■O"! the rest of S. America, speedily occasionetl 
the ibamidnment of some of the most productive 

mines, and an extraordinary falling off in the 
supply of the precious metals. Acconling to Jacob 
their average annual produce in America, from 
1810 to 1829, did not exceed 4,036,000/. a year, 
or less than half its amount at the commencement 
of the century. (Jacob, ii. 207.) Latterly, how- 
ever, the sui)plies of bullion from Mexico, and 
still more from Chili and Peru, appear again to l)e 
on the increase. And to the supplies from Mexico 
and S. America we have now to add those from 
California and Columbia. The extraordinary pn)s- 
perity of the former region, consequent on the 
discovery and energetic working of its mineral 
treasures, followed as it was a few yean) latter by 
the Australian discoveries, and on a smaller scale 
by the discoveries in Columbia, has quite tlirown 
into the shade the more ancient gold fields of 
South America and Mexico. The value of gold 
exported from San Francisco in 1857 was esti- 
mated at 14,000,000/., and the entire vield of gold 
to 1st July, 18G2, was 136,000,000/. 6old was dis- 
covered in 18,56 in Columbia, and in 1861 the total 
C'eld was e-stimated at l,527,97o/. To these must 
added the produce of the silver mines of the 
new territory (now state) of the United States, 
Nevada, of whose enormous richness the most 
marvellous reports have recently reached us. There 
has alreadv been a large immigration into the new 
territory, but the working of the mines and the 
knowledge of their immense fertility has been 
comparatively recent, l^ides gold and silver, 
most other metals arc found in less or greater 
abundance in America. Chili and Cuba have some 
of the richest copper mines in the world ; lead is 
found in the greatest plenty in different parts of 
the U. States, particularly at Galena, Dubuque, 
and other points on the Upper Mississippi, in 
Mexico ; and in California, Columbia, and Nevada, 
lead, antimony, mercury, and in some places dia- 
monds are found. Diamonds are also found ex- 
tensively in Brazil, which till late years was the 
princip^ source of 8upi>ly for the world. Iron is 
extremely abundant in the U. States, and in many 
other p^rts of the continent; salt aLso is veiv 
widely diffused ; and coal, including anthracite, is 
foimd in vast an<l indeed all but incxliaustible 
deposits in different parts of the U. States, in 
British America, and in Chili. 

Vegetation. — Stretching, as America does, from 
the eternal snows of the Arctic to those of the 
Antarctic circle, and possessing soils of every ele- 
vation and quality, her vegetable products are 
necessarily of the most diversified description. 
Owing to the prevalent huraiditv and coolness of 
the climate, and the richness of the soil, her fo- 
rests and pasture.s ore unrivalled for extent, luxu- 
riance, and magnificence. The forests consist ge- 
nerally of very heavy timber, including many 
species of pines and larches unknown in Europe, 
with an endless variety of oaks, maples, cyjircsses, 
tulip trees, mahogany trees, log^^'o<Hi, Brazil-wocnl, 
&c. &c. The Old World is indebted to the New 
for some of its most useful and widely diffused 
vegetable pnKluctions. Potatoes, though probably 
not intnKluced into Europe for mr»re than a century 
after the discovery of America, already form a most 
impK)rtant part of the foo<l of most Euroijcxui nations; 
and tobacco, though it also is of American origin, 
has been diffused from one extremity of the Ohl 
World to the other, and Ls, perhaps, the most 
universally esteemed of all luxuries. We also 
owe to America maize or Indian com, millet, 
cocoa, vanilla, pimento, co)>aiba, cinchona or bark, 
so ini])ortant in medicine, jalap, sassafras, nux 
V4)mica, and a great iunnl)er of less important 
plants. The Gictus cochinUifer, wliich furiiLHhe^ 
the c(K:hiucal, is also peculiar to America. On the 



other hand, AmGrica is indebted to the Old World 
for a great variety of cereal grasses, trees, and 
fruitA. At the head of the former may^ be placed 
wheat, Imrley, oats, and rice, all of which succeed 
admirably well in large portions of America. It 
seems pretty well established that the sugar-cane 
is indigenous to some of the W. Indian islands ; 
Imt it is abundantly certain, not merely that the 
art of making sugar, but that the cane, now most 
generally cultivated in the islands and in conti- 
nental America, was brought to them cither from 
the E. Indies or from Ma<leira. America is also 
indebted to the Old World for the coffee plant, 
now one of her staple products ; and for oranges, 
lemons, peaches, and mcMt descriptions of fruit- 
trees. New York apples, though now very su- 
i)crior to any produced in this countr>% are derived 
Irom plants carried from England. The vine has 
been raised in America; but either the soil or 
climate is not suitable for it, or, which b perhaps 
most probable, sufficient care has not been be- 
stowed on the manufacture of the wine. The tea- 
plant has been tried in Brazil ; but, owing to the 
clearness of labour, there is no chance of its being 
profitably cultivated there, or any where else in 

The Zoology of America differs in many im- 
portant respects from that of the Old World. Of 
about 1,350 mammals that have been described 
and clarified, America possesses about 540 ; hut, 
with few exceptions, she is singuUurly ill provided 
with the useful animals. As already stated, nei- 
ther the horse, ox, sheep, nor hog were found in 
America on her discover^' by Columbus ; and the 
want of them must, no doubt, have been a con- 
siderable obstacle to the advancement of the natives 
in the career of civilisation. The elephant and 
the camel are also unknown in America ; but she 
was not entirely destitute of useful animals. lu 
Peru they had the llama, guanaco, paco, and 
vicunna, animals that bear a considerable resem- 
blance to each other, if they be not of the same 
species. The first has a considerable analogy to 
the camel, though it is neither so large nor strong, 
and wants the hump. It was, and still is, em- 
ployed to carry loads, and being docile and sure- 
ItMited, makes its way over the most dangerous 
paths. Its pace is slow, seldom exceeding 12 or 
15 m. a day, and it usuidly carries about 80 lbs. 
Its wool, or rather hair, which is generally, but 
not always, wliite, is spun and made into articles 
of clothing. The guanacos and pacos arc not so 
serviceable as beasts of burden as the llamas, and 
are comparatively little used. The vicunna, the 
smallest of them all, inhabits the least accessible 
])arts of the Andes ; it ia chiefly prized on account 
of its wool, which is of a very sHperior quality. 
The flesh of these animals, though dry and coarse, 
is used as food. They are almost the only animals 
that the native inhabitants of America had been 
able to subdue, and to render subservient to their 
purposes. The bison, or American ox {Bo» ameri- 
canua), the laij^t native quadruped of the New 
World, is principally foimd on the prairie lands of 
the Kocky Mountains in N. America. It is rarely, 
if ever, seen to the S. of the Mississippi; and it is 
doubtful whether it was ever found on the At- 
lantic coast. The Bot mo$chatu9t or musk ox, is 
found only in the most N. parts of America to the 
W. of Hudson's Bay, from 66© to 739 N. lat. Its 
horns, which cover all the forehead, are often of 
great weight The Kocky Mountain goat, re- 
markable for the fineness of its wool, inhabits the 
liocky Mountains from Mexico to the extremity 
of the range. Several species of deer are found 
both in N. and S. America. The rein-deer is the 
most northerly ruminating animal, being found in 

Greenland and the remotest of the Aieilc isUmdi 
On the W. coast it descends as low as the Cahun- 
bia river. 

America possosseR several peculiar speden of 
the genus Canii, or dog. The physiognomy of the 
American wolf, when contrasted with that of in 
European namesake, is very distinct. There ii a 
great variety of foxes. The fur of the CanU laft- 
pusj or arctic fi)x, and of some other varietifs of 
the same genus, is of considerable value. The 
best known variety of the American dog is tlie 
Cania familiaritj found in Newfoundland. Tlui 
animal is now very common in England, and it 
deservedly a great favourite. It is strong tnd 
active, has long, fine, glossy hair, a curved binhj 
tail, and webbed toes, by means of which it swimi 
admirably well. The colour of the back and 
sides is generally black, with a white belly and 
le^ and frequenllv a white spot at the tip of the 
taiL It is naturally fitted, by its tliick covering 
of hair, for a cold c^mate, and is more active and 
in better health in this country in vrinter than in 

The beaver (CoMtor) is more abundant perhaps 
in the NW. ports of N.America than in anv other 
part of the world. But the great demand fiv, and 
high price of its fur, lias led to a great diminution 
of its numbers, and to its nearly total extirpation 
in the more accessible parts of the country. The 
coypou, known in commerce by the nameof ncu- 
tra, and the chinchilla, are found in S. America. 
They ^neld a highly esteemed fur, and immense 
quantities of their skins are now imported. 

America has but few beasts of prey. The most 
formidable, the Felix oiuro, or jaguar, is found 
only in S. America. It is laigcr and stronger 
than the panther; but is inferior in size and fero- 
city to the Bengal tiger, with which it is gene- 
rally compared. The Felix ditcolory or puma, is 
found in both S. and N. America ; though deno- 
minated the American Uon, it is neither so large 
nor fierce as the jaguar. A number of bears some 
of them of the lamest and most formidable de- 
scription, are found in Arctic America: two are 
peculiar to it. 

Tropical America has a great variety of apca, 
but none of them approach so nearly to the human 
form as the orang-outang, or chimpanzee, and none 
of them have the ferocity of the baboon. Many, 
however, have prehensile tails, endowed with so 
great delicacy of touch that they have been com- 
|)ared to the trunk of the elephant. This fits 
them admirably for travelling from tree to tree. 

The vampyre bat, frequent in S. America, is 
very dangerous. It attacks the larger animals, 
and even man himself, when asleep ; and as its 
bite is not sufficiently painful to awaken the \ic- 
tira, the bleeding it occasions sometimes proves 

America is inhabited, or rather infested, by an 
immense number of reptiles. Of these the rattle- 
snake is one of the most common, and also the 
most dangerous: but there are others little less 
venomous. The true boa cotutrictor is found of 
an enormous size in the marshes and swamps of 
tropical America. Centipedes, sometimes a yard 
in length, with enormous spiders, as well as soor- 

Iions, abound in these n^ons. According to 
lumboldt^ the white ants and termites are even 
more destructive here than their congeners in the 
Old World. 

The birds of America are exceedingly numerous. 
The condor, which inhabits the most inaccessible 
partd of the Andes, though of less dimensions than 
was formerly supposed, is the largest and moat 
powerful of all the feathered tribes. There are 
also a great many eagles, vultures, fakoms and 

Bii I f ^ 

f jmy. A iporiea af Mtrieh, Liit 
the Atiiean, inhabita the Tampu; 

> at both Americu aie the resort of 

wild tnikeyaf mad pi^eona. 

of America are m-gII xupplied wiLh 

riven in the tropiral lEgiane pio- 

■muna liianti anil alligsl'in. In the 

I loolo^ of Amvrita. h the wunder- 
f the hone* and oiKle carried there 
Had we not been fully aware if all 
ice* in ItJ-ard tu their immigralion, 
inly have be«n BU])posed that they 

re eounln-. They here roam about 
loda in > Mate uf prisline fieeiium; 
IMU have tbcy beeome, that the 
XCfit not for the caicos^t but merely 
ii the prindiul bnniiicsg of many 
rinee*. t^^iee pAUfAS.) In a unele 
00,000 hide* have been exported 
only, cTcluiive of those exported 
(lyres, Montevideo, anil other ports. 
^ too, of the exlraorclinary iiKresse 
mode of eiinlencc of the nalivcs in 
la* been wholly chanj(cd ; they have 
t horsemen^ and pasa a considerable 
time on horseback, approaehing in 
a the Tartan antl ^VibIm of the an- 
Sheep bare not guceccded m> nell 
I cattle and horses; and their wool, 
ii generally of sn inferior descrip- 

hHrd-fa%-oured, ai 

n, yet witli a 

wliioh is a contrast to the rwt of the features. 
It will appear from thia statement that the races 

the Uongul, Mulayon. and Indo-Chinese. The 
featuiea of the face arc, however, more omp/y 
chiselled than in any of these; the frontal bona 
is mure flattened than in any of them; and the 
Blature a gnatri tlian it is, nt least, in the Ma- 
layan race. AlthuUKh in the tropical i^ons of 
America there an; no black men, as in Africa or 
Asio, nor iu its tem]icrate regions any whites, as 
in Kumpe, iitill vonotieii do exist in an inferior 
de^jee, which may l>e cunipored to tbo»e which 
exijit amoiij; Euru|>eana. and nniiint' Hecmea. The 
most etrikinjt of tliesc ore found in the short, squat, 
and tallott-e'ilniired Ksquimaux, about the polar 
n^ona of the N.. and the tall I'atagoaians towards 
the S., exiremity of the coaltnenu The first of 
these differ in no respect, as far as phywcal form 

Asia and Europe. The I'ntiiRimianB or Puelcbes, 
inhaluting the MIL enoM of the southern extremity 
of America, may lie considercil, lifter rejecting the 
exiifrgerations of early, aud the cmtiodictionB of 
Inter travellers, as the tallest people iu the world. 
If with 119 (he medium heit-ht of the male sex 
mav be estimated at 6 fi^t S iiichea, that of the 
I'aUigoniana may he taken at six test. Other 

e inhab 


lijueal form, i .. „ 

ectuol character, from every othei 

1 Imman race. Probably, however 

uiHe remarkalile than their disa 
I other races. The Red men, as thi 
I themselTes, in cuntradLstinction ti 

■nd Afritwi racm, (that is, to Ihi 
■■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ o Ihey have anj 

- kees. Itui there are also ra 
hnrtneaa, as the Peruvian 
lean Kuropean standard Af 
vera^ height, acctrrdin^ 

exhibit Burpiisinjfly 
nding oi-er TU° on I 
ride, of the equatj>r. iicai oi i^uu, 
■Mure, elevation or liepreswon of sur- 
rtatnlv no effect in the production, 
Mil Taiialiuns occosionallv discover. 
ban. ' The Indians uf iJeff Spain,' 
t, 'beara cleee tesembUoce tothnee 
Cwiada, Floriila, Peru, and BraiiL 
I aq. leagnea, from Cape Horn to the 
■Dd Behrin^r's fitraits. we are struck 
anee with the general resemhhmce 
1 of the inhabiUnis. We think we 

all to be d«ceiided from the same 
laCanding the prodi^^ous diversity of 
le portrait drawn by Volney 

innahs of 

%,' The general physical form is as 
1 dark, having mure or leas of a red 
ealleil cupper-colour, but thought lo 
rtly cliarai^erised by that of cinna- 
.._i_.jL.... i__.. ->-ining, 


The beard 


:; eyes deep sunk, snmll, 
roM the cheeks, which are round and 
on well raised, and round at the 
large, and lip* thick; chest high, 
. legs arched, feet Urge, bands and 

1 (he Cbavmss, whose 
) Humboldt, is 6 foet 
I a full inch shorter 
than the Malayan race, yet much taller than the 
Esquimaux. Upon the whole, it mav be remarked 
that (he American race eshibiia a wider difference 
in stature llian any other fiunily of mankind, wlule 

to be productive of any essential variation in 
phyi-ical ur intellectual capacity. In point of co- 
lour (here exists also considCToblo \-ariety ; the 
brownish-red tinpc for the most part prevails; 

block, and in others to the fainiwis uf^a wulhera 
European. The prDbohility is, after all. that the 

least as great ss in other portions of the world, 
although their smaller numben, and olisciirity of 
(he tribes moke il more difficult to distinguish 
and class them. In this matter, langangefl, ao 
useful a guide in Kurope and A»a, have not, in 
America, on account of (heir multiplicity and in- 
tricacy, afforded as yet much oasiatanic. Tlie ex- 
ceeding, and perhaiis insurmountable diJGculty of - 
this branch of the inquiry mav, indeed, be JudKed 
of when it is known that the'number of disiinct 
languages spoken by men whose numbers ore not 
supuoeeii to exceed 10,000,000 has been reckoned 
at no less than 438, and their dialects at 2,IK)0. 
The intellectual powers of the American fiimilv, 
must, at fimt view ot least, be considered as rang- 
ing very low even among the unciiilisa! races of 
mankind. The Americans, when led undisturbed 
to (he exerdse of their native eiiergicH, boil not 
tamed any of the useful animals, whether for food 
ot labour, the llama and ricunna bv one tribe ex- 
cepted. The Peruvians used gold, funad in ita 
native state, and they appear, also to have been 
able to smelt ami harden copper — the utmost 
stretch of their ingenuity ; but they knew nolliing 



of the nsc of iron. Tlie agriculturo of the most 
advance<l of tlie American tribes was of a rude- 
ness and impcrfectitm of which there can hardly 
]k' said to have l>een an example in the Old WorhU 
Tl»« Quichua, the most improveil of their lan- 
frna^es, had no wonls to express abstract or uni- 
versal idean, as space, time, Iteing, matter, substance, 
or even such as justice, honour, pratitude, and 
freedom, l^ey had inventetl no s|)ecies of writing, 
and tlie contrivances by which they attempted to 
df'pict and reconi their ideas are more rude than 
anything handed <l<mni in the traditions of Euro- 
l^'an and Asiatic nations. In ail the respects now 
mentioned, the Americans eviiice»l their inferiority 


to the nations of Kuroin; and Asia, and. in all but 
the invention of a nide s<»rt of hiero^ly])hiiM, to 
even the N'ej^o nations of Africa. Nature hrni 
not. indeed, in many rcsj)ccts, been propitious to 
them : she had denied them nejirly all the do- 
mestic animals which have conduced materially 
to the civilisation of the inhabitants of the Old 
Worl<l; as the horse, ass, ox, camel, shee]», j;oat, 
ho^. and most of our dome^tlc poultr}'. lUit their 
want of inj;enuity is suificiently shown by their 
not availinf< themselves of such as they possessed : 
as the rein-deer, «coose, turkey, an<l other jMiultry, 
WM»n dome^^ticated by the European settlers. For 
their want of ini^enuity in ii(»t dL^coverin^ the 
art of smelting iron, no plea can be shown ; and, 
indeetl, it mi^ht rationaUy l)e supiiosed that the 
]iaMcity of usiiful animals for domesticiition would 
rather have had the effect of direi't in^ and con- 
centrating their efforts in other quarKTs. Mere 
handfuls <»f Euroi>eans, in comparatively rude 
ages, subdue<l the most numenms and warlike 
tril>es of America, and these handfuls have now 
grown into the majority of the iwpulation. 

Of the origin of the American nice we are 
totally ignorant. Neither the evidence of phy- 
sical form nor of arbitrary customs and institu- 
tions, which could sj^ring only fr«»m a common 
source, or the testimony of language, connect 
them with any other race of men. The testi- 
mony of language on this subject is particularly 
clear. For examj>le. incontestable evidence of a 
connecticm exwts among the great majority of 
those insular langmiges which exteiul over at 
least fiO*^ of latitiuie, and between Madagascar and 
Ea-iter Island, over 200° of longitude; but the 
moment we quit the la>«t name<l island, which Ls 
but 45° fn>m the ccmst of America, all further 
tnioc of a l*(d\Tiesian language ceiis<"s. We are 
not, indeed, unaware that the comparis^m of a 
great numl>er «»f American with a gn'at number 
of Asiatic Linguiiges ha«( exhibite<l a small num}>er 
of re-semblances : but these we are dis|H»setl to con- 
sider a** forced, fanciful, or accidental. 

The moral character of the native Americans 
has Ijeen depict<^l uncler very differeJit cohmn*. 
Their caiiacity of enduring hardships and priva- 
tions of all sorts, and even the most excruciating 
tortures, without munnur or complaint, is well 
known, and w owing a"< much. {K*rliaps, to phy- 
sical (Piuses as t<» the training they undergo. 
They cannot Ik* accuse<l of ingratitu<le, or of a 
want of hos]>itality, but they are in tJie last degree 
vindictive, cniel, and treacherous. When not 
engaged in war, or hunting, or drinking, they 
sink into a state <»f toqior and ai>athv fn>m which 
nothing can muse them. They liave all, or 
mostly all, an irrepressible rage for spirituoiLS 
liquors, tf) obtain which they will sacrifice every- 
tliing. If the state in which women live betaken 
as indicative of the character of a people, the 
American Indians will be found to be almost at 
the lK)ttom (if the scale of civilisation. From the 
one end of the continent to tho other, woman, 

with very few exceptions, b a sUve; she his to 
perfonn all the labonons occupations of the tribe, 
and is, in fact, derailed almost to the le%'el of a 
l>east of burden. Polygamy is very generallr 
practised; and it b only in some rare cases that 
chastity is held in any estimation. Their religioa 
b a nide s{)ei*i^ of' idolatry or feticbm. Can- 
nibalbm has undoubtedly prevailed over the whule 
continent^ and b not yet entirely extinct. The 
Mexicans, the most advanced of the native natinni, 
delighted in bIo<Kl, and were accnstomed.' when 
invailed by the Spaniards, annuaUy U> offer up 
thousands of human victims on the altars of their 
g(xb. Even tlie Peruvians, the least sangninary 
of all the Americans, they l*eing Sabiaus, or wor- 
shippers of the heavenly bodies, did not scru]>le, 
on the death of their monan*hs, to immolate hun- 
dreds of human victims on their tomljs. 

The natural inferiority of the native Americans, 
and their incapacitv to attain to anvthin^ like real 
civilisation, are strikingly cvincetl f>y the result ef 
the continued efforts of the Jesuits in Paraguay 
j for their improvement* So long as the Jesuiti 
resiiletl among them, and could direct their effuits, 
and coni|>el them to l)e indiustrious, all went on 
ver>' well, and the golden age seemed to be n^ 
st4>n*d. But the entire system was forced and 
fiictitious. Tlie moment the Jesuits witlidreit', the 
fabric that had C(»st them so much pains and la- 
lx)ur to rabe, fell to pieces. Civilisation liad taken 
no n'al nsit among the Americans; and they re- 
lapsed forthwith into the indolence, improvidence, 
and idolatry, that seem natural to the race. 

• From the moment,' says an aide writer, * that 
the Europeans landed in the New World, bene- 
volence has l)een at woric to instruct some 
portions of these tribes in reiigion and the aits, 
luid tlattering accounts have been published from 
time to time of the success of those humane 
f>ers(Mis who dedicated their lives to the task. 
But, after three centuries of incessant exertion, 
what is the result? Is there one tribe that ex- 
hibits the steady industr>', the pro>'ident habits, 
the spirit of impn)vement, and tlie rational views 
of religion^ which are to be found in anv parish 
of England? We cannot find that there is. 
Many tribcis, living near the whites, have adopted 
their habits and ideas to a certain extent, but 
merely under the intluence of imitation. While 
missionaries and teachers are among them, everv 
thing wears a favounible aspect ; but their civi- 
lisation b never self-sustained. It b created by 
the agency of men of higher natural endowments, 
and when they arc removed it moulders away, 
because it has no foundation in their character. 
Many parties of Indians, remnants of tril)cs once 
powerful, have live<l i)eaceably, on reser\-es of 
land, inclosed amidst the ))opulatioii of the United 
States, for more than a <rentur>'. No situation 
can be imagiue<l lK>tter titted to promote their 
improvement; but in no one instance, so far as 
we know, have thev melted into the mass of tho 
white population, or risen to any thing near their 
level in knowle«lge and the useful arts. They 
live in huts in no material degree better tlian the 
wigwams of their wandering brethren. Thev are 
generally honest, but (hrunken, indolent, and igno- 
rant, though teachers and missionaries arc em- 
ployed by the government u> instruct them, 
liasket-making b almost the only trade they ply, 
and in their habits and character they may fie 
aptly com))are<l to the gj'psies of Europe, who exisC 
in the midst of civilis^itiun, without {.vartaking i^ 
its spirit itr its benefits. It should be observed 
that there b not the same rcductance in the whitci» 
to mingle their blood with the red men as witl& 
the blacks. Much lias been recentlv said of the 

pnHjTBM made br tbe Cherokea ; bat we soBperl 
thai what i* wititaeed there is but ■ flimsy veil 
•f ilDp(Dvclnm^ gpmd over habits which ..._ 
MHDtiallT sava^ We are conviui:«d, in short, 
that the Indiui ig truly the man of the woods ; 
md that, like the wiJil animals he lives upon, he 
■• d>^*ti)I«l tu disappear before tbe BtlvsncuiK tide 
of civilisatioii, which falls upon him like a blii^ht, 
beeauae it suf^tlies new food tn nounah his vices, 
irtiile it demands intelleclual and moral faculties 
is which he is deScienC aoi! renders useless those 
qoalilics which predominate in his character. We 
wtnid not discDura^ the attempt Ut meliuratB 
the kii (d' the Indians; but this will succvecl 
b»t when il is i;miuded on a true knowleil^ of 
their natural ca|iBciIieii. Sume of them are much 
Birt* unscpptihle of moral and reliKious improvc- 
■rnt than others ; but to instruct and reclaim 
them etTeelnallv, our belief ia that (he a>-stem uf 
At Jeniiia if the onlv oue that holila out a chance 
of novM. They must not merely be laiieht and 
pnarbed tn, hut they must be retained in a ntate 
rf pupila^ trained lu their duties, cunlroUed and 
diiHied in all their prDCeeilin|i;s by intellects 
npeiii* to theii own ; and there are many tribes 
Kw refociou* and intractable for even this method 
<f loitian. Wc do not maintain that the cha- 
iKter el the Indian nations is indelible ; but tu 
(Sect any a>n.->iderBli1e chan^^ in ii, the lapse of 
a fcncer period nuuld be required than the exist- 
BK* iif ihete tribes is likely to extend to. Nei- 
Ibet dn we think that there is anvthiog in the 
ntiuciiiin of these people by natural means which 
humanity fhould mourn over. In every stale uf 
life nan has but a brief span of existence allotted 
to taim. Successive ^nerations fall like the Icovea 
W IbeKHHt: and it should be remembered that 
■be utioction of a race of men by natural causes. 
Dons merely its nun-renewal or the suspension 
•i tbrtr drcuiwtancea which enabled it to continue 
ii» tdstence." (Encve. Britannicu, ii. p. 631.) 

fiiftlalum. — Ijesidn the ori^nal inhatutants. 
rw nmnlieni of Europeans of all nations, have 
™init«l to America "ince its discovery by Co- 
Imilna. templed oritpnally, fur the most pMt, by 

nibjoin, the population is eatimaled at 69,350.9!>9 ; 
but this number, owinit tn the la^^e natural in- 
crease, and the extensive immigroliiin from Europe 
to both Xorth and South America, must at the 
present dav be exceeded by manv millions, and it 
mav be salely stated that the population amounted, 
in round munbent, tf at leant 79,000,000 in tho 
year lHHri. 

The fiillowinR account of the difi'erent Aroerioui 
Stales, and of their e.ttent and population in IHtil, 
has been carefully compiled from the latest and 

llw tut made I 



pd an Bsvlnm for the victims of poli- 
iligious persecution in tlie Old Worhl; 
■se manv vears slie has offered an all 
iisiibic field fur the profitable employ- 
. redundant capital, skill, and labour; 
ids upon thousands, who could hanlly 
exist on this siile the Atlantic, have 
not tn opulence, at least to comfort 
uiiaiiependeace, in America. Hence she has lonK 

'" ftill continue 

obe. tl 

sell Ian. 

■^W to all who happen to be discontented wii 
It* ujUct. or who have ^ven ofTencc to the rulei 
•^ It* old Wurhl. 

TbetMimates of the population of America at 
•Jfatnt periods ' ■— ■ ■ . . - 

■ >■»*!»'■ >" 

with respect 
— W the population of Amei 
luW II ai.iK>0,000. Balhi i 
•'39Jmi.(iOOi but we inclii 
V ^^ the mark even fi 
^it^: and the populati 

epoch to which 

1, and Brazil, but eiiiiccially the 
''^ t«D. has since increased prudiffiously. Ac- 
"'^ 10 (atimate* fur the year IHOt, which we 

'alls epidemically as far ni 
1 uiK Buu I'liiiadelphia ; but the meaii iiuj-iiikiii m 
life in tlie EiiKli"n race lias been inconsiilerabl^ 
afTected bv the climate of America. Ueadlv epi- 
demica btiwe\-cr, decimate the Hamnnah, Vera 
Cnu. and other cities in trujiical America. Tho 
vellow fever beRins tn pn-vuil epidemii'uUy at 
Vera Crui in Mav. when tlie mean lem]icraturB 
rises lo 750 3' of Fahrenheifs thermometer! it 

tob r. The dLtease is fatal to stnnijiers. ]>articn- 
larlv to the inlialiitants of the tcmnemle and 
colli climates. lu the intcjidency rf VerB Cruz, 
the yellow fever, which mj^es in the ca|iilal. has 
never lieen able lo oscenil alaiTe tho form nf En- 
cero, which Ilumbolrll found to be 3.'U4 feet above 
the level of the scai and as the Mexican oaks do 
not flinirish hchiw this limit, it shows tlial the 

the Cumbre and the Cerro ile Avila. 

healtli and diseases of the native .American tribes 
which caiiiuit lie oietlookeiL The women, though 
doomed to severe lalinir, are s]iarvd durin;; the 
]ieriad of |iret;nancy. They selihiin marry till thc^ 
are about 3U. Accuuchemenls take place in |in- 
vate cabins, and tbe mother, after washine herself 
in c«ld water, returns in a few days to her usual 
empbvments. iiir W. Penn was assured, and 
conectly, that the American Indians piling their 
infants into cold streams as soon as bom. in all 
seasooBuf the year. This practice, which destroya 



the weaklier bodies, and Btrenfj^thens tlie Burvivors, 
ha8 l»ovii generally ad(ipU*<l by the savaf^cs of cold 
Olid teni[H!rat« climates. It was common in Greece ; 
and Vir;^il makes one of the early Italians say in 
the ^Eneid : — 

Durum a gtirpc genua : nntofl ad flumina primum 
DcforimuH, au;voquc geln duramus ct undis. 

The Dorians and Pelaspian« ex]K>scd their chil- 
dren; and Lyciirj;u8 n»j;ulated the practice by 
enacting that none but the intimi and diAeancd 
shituld l)e abandoned after a public examination. 
There are no deformed Indiann or idiots ; they are 
Hacriliceil, says an ajwhij^ist of Kavagcs, by the 
severity of tlie Indian manners. To facilitate their 
tnmHixJrt from ])lace to jdace, the children are tied 
ti) a board, where they lie u|M)n their backs for tt, 
10 or IM months. By some trilxis the lieads are 
flattened! by pressure.* The child Rpnerally sucks 
its mother* till it is 2 yejirs ohU and st>metimes 
loiij^r. The circulation of the blo*Ki is more lan- 
piidiu the Indians than in ])erHons who an^ in the 
constant exercise of the habits of civiliseil life. 
Out of 8 North Ameriiym Indians, whose jndses 
Itush examined at the wrists, he did not meet 
with one in whom the artery beat more than (>t) 
strokes in a minutx'.. 

'llie diseases of the Indians var>' with the cli- 
mate and locality. In the north, however, fevers 
constitute the most striking diseases. Pleurisies, 
iioripneumonies, and rheumatisms are common. 
Pysenteryis an Indian disease, (ireat numbers 
perish of famine, and the innumerable diseases 
generated by famine. In the tem]ierate zone, 
ague, remitting and malignant fevers assail them 
in the endless ft)rests, and in the marshes, and 
ctlluvial atmosphere of the lakes and rivers. In 
the tropii^ Humbiddt says, they are exemj)t at 
A'era Cruz from the ravages of yellow fever, wliich 
proves so fatal on the cwist and* in the West Indie-s 
to Euro|)eans. Hut thousands have Wen carried 
<iff in repcAteti ejndemics, by a disease n«)t very 
different from yellow fever, called Miitlazahuelt 
Small-|H)x, which is l>elieved tt) have l»een intro- 
duced amongst them by the Spanianls, sometimes 
<lestroys half the heads of a tribe. Montezuma 
died of small-pox. It has Iwen a generally re- 
ceivwl opinion that lufM venerea was acquired 
fnnn the inhabitants of Hispaniola (Ilayti), and 
c<inveyed by the equi{>age of Columbus t^) Kurope. 
The mn of Columbus relates in his narrative tlmt 
the islanders had a cutaneous aifection, called 
etxararacoh which resembled a tetter (Tenia) : 
tlie historian Ferdinand Oviedo de Valde^H afHrms 
that the Spaniards were infected with it by the 
Indian women, and communic^itcd the disease to 
the Nea|K>litans in the expwlition of (ionzalvo de 
( 'ordova. He ascribes its im|K»rtation to the second 
cxpe<lition of Columbus. Various cutaneous aftec- 
tions had l>een described by earlier medical mitew, 
confounded yfiy\\ leiirosy, and attributed to impure 
intercourse : but, in 1403, syphilis appeared, with 
its striking and appalling s^-mptoms, almost simul- 
taneously all over Euroi»e. Columbus di^tembarked 
from his lirst voyage, March 15, at Palos; and 
arrivetl at Se\-ille*iu ApriL In the beginning of 
the siunmer, the db*ease was observed at Auvergne, 
m Lombardy, in the rest (»f Italy, and in Rnins- 
\nck. It stiil, however, remains* a problem whether 
the outbreak of the malady merely coincided 
with the return of Columbus, or was conveyed 
from America. 

Violent deaths are common among the Indians. 
Their iK'cuiMtions exi)Ose them to accidents. They 
are engaged in an almost ))crpetual warfare ; and 
entire tnbes are sometimes exterminated. Their 
connexion with the European population has made 

them acquainted with spirituous liquora: and this 
has proved another prolific source of disorder. 

C«lsus says, Memcina numquoM won esf; and 
this holds among tlie American Indians. Their 
medical treatment, for the inftrmities to which 
they arc subject, is simple, and often instmcti^-e. 
In feveK, they abstract all kinds Tsf stimulaiini; 
food ; and allow their ]tatiants to drink plentifully 
of cold water. Sweating is a common remedy. 
Tlie Indian mode of pn>curing this evacuation is 
as follows: — the patient Is oi>nfined in a close 
tent, or wigwam, over a liole in the earth, in which 
a red hot stone is placed : a quantity of water is 
thrown u]K)n this stone, which inst-antly involves 
the patient in a cloud of va{iour and sweat ; in 
this situation he rushes out and plunges himself 
into a river, from whence he retires to bed. If 
the rcmetiy has l>een used with success, he rises 
from his bed in four and twenty hours perfectly 
recovere<l from his indisposition. This bath u 
used not only to cure fevers, but to remove tliat 
imeasiness which arises from fatigue of body ; and 
used for this purpose it is an exctcllent remedy. 
They purge* and vomit : iyiecacuanha is one of the 
many roots thev employ for the latter puqiose. 
They confine bleeding to tlie parts affected. A 
])iei^e of rotten wotnl is burnt ujjon the skin for the 
same purposes as the moxa. Tliey attempt to 
staiuich the flow of blood from wounds by plunging 
in cold water, and endeiivour to rcstoife drowned 
jieople by suspending them by the heels. They 
liavc a great many s{>ecitics of uncertain value. 
The Indians attend to the sick for a certain seas(.tn, 
but abandon them if the disease l)e ppjiiacted. 
When the northern Indian is unable, from sick- 
ness, to continue liLs journey, he is left behind by 
his companions, and covered over^ith deer skins; 
he is supplied with water, f<Hvi, fuel, if the place 
will afford it, and informed of the track which his 
companions intend to pursue. (Ileame.) 

Some of the most important drugs in the Ma- 
teria Medica are deriviMl from America, (tuaia- 
cum was introduced, at an early period, as a 
s|)ecific for svi^hilis in the place of mercurj', which 
it suyM^rsetled for several years. It is now fallen 
into <lisuse. Not so the root of the American sar- 
saparilla, which is consumed in f^at quantities, 
although it is exceedingly expensive. It is fimnd 
in the hedges and swami^ of Virginia. There are 
several sikhmcs ; the best, according to Humboldt, 
grows on the borders of a lake, two days' uiumey 
from Esmeralda. The calumba root,' jalap, co- 
paiba, and i}>ecacuanha are derived from America. 
We are also indebted to the New World for Peru- 
x-ian baric These ri'medies are invaluable; they 
contributed, in the 17th centiuA", with the intrr>- 
duction of syphilis, to destroy the blind adoration 
of Galen, and led to a revitlution in medicine. 

Discovery of America, — This is the most strik- 
ing event in modem times, and has perhaps made 
the most important change in the condition of 
mankind. There is no rational ground for sup- 
posing that the ancients liad the slightest idea of 
the existence of the American continent. Tlie 
form of their vessels, flat-bottomed and impelled 
by oars, and their ignorance of the compa^ al- 
lowed them to move only at a short distance from 
lan(L Their vovages therefore, though in some 
instances extensive, were always along tlie coast 
of t he great continents ; nor is there the faintest 
reconl of any one having turned his daring keel 
into the va^t abysses of ocean. Nothing could be 
less probable, than that tempest or accident should 
drive any of the few vessels which tlien navigated 
the exterior seas of Europe to so immense a dis- 
tance, or, if driven, that they could ever have re- 



But if we liflten to nome learned modems, 
America would appear the general refuge of all 
who felt themselves straitened in the Ola World. 
The Trqjaiis, S3rrians, Carthaginians, Canaanites, 
bat above all the Jews, have been represented as 
the imdoabted ancestors of its present people. 
These speculations proceed upon a total obUvion 
of the fact that man has every where man^ things 
in common with his fellows. The division into 
tribes and respect for chiefe, the lamentations over 
dead lelatioiis, the love of ornament, are considered 
as habits which the Americans must have learned 
from the Jews. Garcia, observing that most of 
them honoured their parents, and considered theft 
and murder as crimes, thinks it clearly proved 
that they received the ten commandments from 
Moses. Others were obsdnate, unbelieving, and 
nnnateful; sure signs of their belonging to the 
st^-oecked posterity of Abraham. (Garcia, Ori- 
gen de loe lindios ; Essai sur la question, Quand 
et eomment rAm<<rique a-t-il 4ti peupld? 5 torn. 
l2mQ. 1757; Adair's History of the X<)rth Ameri- 
can Indians, 4to.) Attempts have been made to 
trace a similarity between the languages of the 
Old World and of America, but certainly with most 
■lender success. Barton has collected o5 similar 
•oonds, which Professor Vater has raised to 104, 
and Malte-Brun to 120; but to produce this, it 
has been necessary to search through sixty lan- 
guees in each world. 

The Welsh have put in a claim to the discovery 

of America. In 1170, 3Iadoc, a prince of North 

Wales, sailed in quest of maritime adventure, and, 

aftcf a long voyage, reached a * faire and large 

ccnntry* filled with wonderful objects: he then 

retomed and took with him ten vassals and a 

laiger party. Thus for seems tolerably attested ; 

bat thoo)^ affording a sufficient foundation for 

Hr. Souther's poem, the idea of the r^on arrived 

at being reallv America seems scarcely to merit 

Rftttation. llie intimation, that he left Ireland 

iar to the north, makes it not improbable that he 

night have reached some part of Spain, no incon- 

nioable achievement in that age for a Cymric 


The claim of discovery by the Northmen from 
loelaod has been much more generally received. 
The Scandinavian writers have supported it as a 
point (^ national honour ; and the learned in the 
Rft of Europe have generally acquiesced in their 
•athority. They would not, we think, have done 
*o had they perused the oiiginal narratives in 
Toffinm, and the Heimskringla, or Saga, of King 
Oltf Tryggeson. Biom, an Icelander, in sailing 
■cws to Greenland, was overtaken by a tempest, 
ud after being tossed about for several days, came 
in view of an unknown land. After navigating 
ff^fval days along the coast the wind became 
^K^'owible, and in four days he reached his desti- 
ottiw in Greenland. Can any one seriously sup- 
P^that in this short passage he could have been 
^n upon Newfoundland, upwards of a thousand 
•^ out of his way, or ii driven, could thus 
^rwtly and rafiidly have retraced his course? 
^■njeroos voyages to and frf>m this new coiintrj', 
opined Finland, are then related, with no mention 
*^farticular difficulty or danger. One of them is 
***^ without any surprise, to have been |)er- 
^fOfA in twenty-four ftoyrs ; a manifest impossi- 
^tv ander the Newfoundland supp<«ition. As 
J? the terai Fm-land, very inappropriate even to 
^cvfuQiHUmid, the Northmen probably, who could 
^< be great connoisseurs on this suHect, mistook 
'"^ the gn^ one of those delicate bexries which 
^^-ond un the Arctic border. We are convinced 
th^ that Vinland was merely a southern part of 
^'^'^ealaad; for the modem hypothesis, which 

places the colonies on the western coast, is by no 
means supported by good early authorities. (Tor- 
fieus, Hist. Vinland, Antiq. ch. L ii. v., p. 50 
(Maps of Stephanus and Thorlaims), Heimskring- 
la, edit, Perinpkiold, 1. 328-335.) 

Another alleged discovery of much celebrity 
stands on the report of the Zeni, Venetian noble- 
men of distinction Towarils the end of the four- 
teenth centun', they visited and spent a cunsider- 
able time in Friesland. an insular country in the 
north of Europe, which Fornter has shown to 
agree not ill with Orkney, Shetland, and the Ferro 
islands. They there learned, that four tisliing- 
boats being driven more than a thousand miles to 
the westward, had reached a coast named by them, where they found cultivation, large 
cities, castles, and a Latin library in possession of 
the king. Thence they saile<l to a more southern 
country^ named Drogio, inhabited by a rude 
people. Ignorant of iron, waging furious wars, and 
devouring each other. Reports were then made 
of a more civiUsed people to the south-west, who 
abounded in gold and silver, and had splendid 
temples in which human sacrifices were offered. 
Forster, Malte-Bnm, and for some time geogra- 
phers in general, considered that these countries 
were undoubtedlv Newfoundland, New England, 
and Mexico. >fr. Murray was, we believe, the 
first to observe, that even the distance of 1,000 
miles by no means corresponded ; that the castles, 
libraries, and populous cities on the savage coast 
of Newfoimdland, were the reverse of credible, 
and that accounts of Mexico were little likely to 
have reached the Friesland fishermen. He argued 
therefore that^ supposing the northern voyage 
correct, interpolation must have been practised in 
what related to America, lliis has been corro- 
borated by the research of Mr. Biddlc, who, on 
comparing different posthumous editions of Ka- 
musio's work, found that the narrative had been 
altered in accordance with successive and cor- 
rected accounts of the new continent. He there- 
fore rejects the whole as a forgery : we rather in- 
cline to think that the northern voyage may be 
genuine, while all that relates to America is un- 
doubtedly interpolated. 

In the maps constructed during the fifteenth 
century, some curious features appear, which have 
been referred to a western world. In 143(5, one 
formed at Venice by Andrea Bianco has in the 
north-west Atlantic, not very remote from New- 
foimdland, the word St^^ka fixa (Stwktish). IJut 
it is to be observed that Icelan<l and the adjacent 
seas were then the seat of a great fishery, and 
the term may have been merely used to ex- 
press the abundance of its finny tribes. Another 
remarkable object in this map, as well as in one 
long prior, and in a subsequent one by Martin 
Ilehaim, is a long range of territory wcit of the 
Canaries, named Antilia. It seems im])ossil>lc to 
trace with certainty the origin of this term, whicli 
we strongly susiHJCt to be a corruption of tlic 
Atlantis of I*lato, and to have no other origin. 
The inhabitants of those islands are said to have 
confirmed the impression, by a<*serting that, in 
certain states of the atmosphere, they saw iu 
mysterious distance a great unknown land: the 
work either of imagination or of some optical de- 
ception. These ideas, however, rested on no solid 
basis, and the sound judgment of Columbus ap- 
pears to have been in no degree infiuenced by 
them ; it was not to Antilia, but to other regions, 
that he directed his voyage. 

Perhaps no indi\idiuil ever stood so much alone 
as this navigator, in making a discovery that 
clumged the face of the worltU He conceived the 
design, and struggling against the opposition 



made by his a^o, singly achieved it. Yot, like 
even' other jnxiat revolution, it was doubtlo«ft 
prepared by jireWoiw circum8tancei». The pro- 
press of na\'igation and comracree, the enthusiasm 
excited by maritime discover}', it« vni\c ran^ 
alonp Africa, and towards India!!, all tended tojjive 
this direction to his s^^irit of lofty and daring a«l- 
venturc. Tlie nivention of the comY)ass, and im- 
pn»ve<l celestial observati(»ns, renden»d it no longer 
]m[)OHsible to steer through an imknowii ocean. 
Sound reasoning, aided by some errors, made him 
ho|»o, l)y sailing westward, to reach, even at no 
ver>' great distjince, the coasts of P^astem Asia. 

('olumbus, being firmly impressed with this 
opinion, and being supported by the judgment of 
learned friends, made the lirst offer to (Jenoa, his 
native country* ; but the citizens, unused to oceanic 
expeditioiui, at once rejected it. He then applied 
to P(»rtugal with seemmgly ever}' chance of better 
Buccess; and King John acconlingly referred it 
successively to a spcrcial commission, and to the 
council of state. There was then, however, a 
powerful party opj)Osed to maritime enterprises 
altogether, as wasting the national resources; 
while their opjKinents menily defended a prosei^u- 
tion of the sure and successful career, by which 
thev liad nearly rounded the southern |K)int of 
Africa. The proposal was rejected, while John was 
persuaded to take the mean step of secretly send- 
mg a ve>flel on lils own account, which, however, 
returned without any success. Columbus next 
repaired to S{)ain, then under the able sway of 
Ferdinand and Isal>ella. Here, however, cosmo- 
graphical knowledge was much lejw advanced; 
the globular form of the earth was doubt<^d by i 
many, an<l even represented as against the autho- 
rity (»f scripture and the fathers. Financial difh- 
ciiities, caused by the war with the M(»ors, and 
tlie lofty demands of Columbus to have the oftices 
of viccMV and high admiral made hfcre<lit;irv 
in his family. o|>erated against him : and live 
years' solicitation was vainly employetl. Pro- 
p4>sal8 were then made bv his bn>ther IJartholo- 
mew to Henry VII. of England, who received 
them more favourably ; but as Columbus was on 
the jKiint of setting out for this country, Isabella 
was ]>ers\ui4led to recall him, and, after some fur- 
ther dilHculties, she engage<l in t he undertaking 
with the utmost ardour, and even pledged part of 
her jewels to raise the ncfcessary funds. 

1 lie ex]iedition after all c»»nsL«»ted but of three 
small vessels, and a)st only 4,<X)(V. C(»lurabus 
sailed from the ]v)rt of l*aloh on the 3rd of August, 
141)2, and went by way of the Canaries. He en- 
countercHi innumerable olwtacles arising diietiy 
from the timid and mutiuoiLs t«mper of his seamen, 
and after exhausting every resource furnished by 
his extraordinan' address and i>erseverance, had 
lxK?n oblige<l t4> promise to return in a few days, if 
still unsuccessful. Signs of land, however, became 
frequent, and on the night of the 11th of Oct(»l)er 
a light was obser\'ed at some distance, and the 
joyful soimd of land ! land ! burst from the ships. 
But having l>een often deceived Ijefore, they spent 
the night in a state of the utmost anxiety. As soon, 
however, as moniing dawne<l, their doubts and 
fears were dispelled ; and the natives of the Old 
and the New Worlds found themselves, for the 
first time, in sight of each other. The land (»n 
wliich Columbus made his descent, ami which had 
a pleasant delightful a«»i)ect, was one of the Ba- 
hama Islands, called by the natives (tuanahani, 
and by the Simniards San Salvador. Having landed, 
and taken formal i>o»session of the comitrj- for the 
crown of Spain, Columbus bec4ime satislied, from 
the poverty of the natives, that this was not the 
rich countiy of which he was in scarclu He 

therefore immediately set sail, and, shtping his 
course a little more to tlie S., suoceHsivcly dis- 
covered the great islands of Cuba, and Hajti at 
Hispaniola. Aft<:r various transactions with the 
natives of the latter, lie erected a fort, and leavii^ 
there a detachment of his men, set out on hi* 
return to S{min, arriving, after being obliged to 
take refuge in the Azores, and in the Tagus, at 
Palos, on the 15th of March, 1498, having spent 7 
mouths and 11 <lays in his memorable voyage. 
He brought with him pieces of gold, a party of 
natives, and specimens of the v^yetablc and ani- 
mal priMluctions of this new world. His airi\'al 
was hailed with an enthusiasm of wonder and ad- 
miration in Spain and in Europe, and he made his 
entrance into liarcelona almost in regal pomp. 

Columbus found no longer any difficulty in 
e<iui]>ping a new armament, to which volunteers 
flocke^l from ever\' quarter. In September he set 
sail with 17 vessels, several of large bunlen. and 
having 1,500 persons on board. Tliough he found 
his colony involve<l in many troubles, he was not 
deterred fnim pushing his enteqtriscs to the west- 
ward. Having fallen in with Cuba, he suled 
along it<» southern coast, then steering t«» the left, 
lighte<l upon Jamaica. He was delighted with 
the rich venhire and ]>icturesque aspect of thct« 
fine islands, which he firmly believed to be parts 
of the Asiatic continent. Having returned to 
SjMiin, he set out, in 1408, on a third voyage. 
Having first proceede<l siiuthward to the Cape de 
Verd Islands, and steering thence at^roM the At- 
lantic, he came in view of the loft^^ mountains of 
'I'riniilad. Kounding that Island into the Gulph 
of Paria, he saw the Orinoco ndling by many 
mouths its mighty stream into the ocean. This 
discover}' highly gratified him, and was, indeed, 
the first* time that any part of tlie S. American 
c(»ntiiient had been visited »by Euro{ieans. He 
sailcil along the coast as far as Margarita, and 
thence to Hayti. In 1502 he imdertoc^ a fourth 
voyage, seeking to jnisli westward rill he should 
arrive at regions belonging to India. In tliis 
course he struck against the coast of Hon<lnras : 
where, instead of turning to the right, wliioh 
would have led him to Mexico, he took the left, 
or NW. course, as most promising for his obiecu 
He reaclie<l the Gulph of Darien, but ^-ithont 
seemingly gaining any intelligence of the South 
Sea. He then ri'tumod to Sf>ain, where, weighed 
down by banL<ihi|)s, and disgusted by the ingrati- 
tude of Fenliiiond, he closed, in 1506, his un- 
rivalled career. 

America had, in the inter\'al, l)cen explored 
from a different quarter. John Caboto, or CaUrt, 
a Venetian, who had settled at Bristol, presented 
to Henr\' VII. a plan of western discover^'. Tliai 
monarch, who had nearly earned the glor>' of Co- 
lumbus's voyage, gave his full sanction to the un- 
<lertaking. The adventurer, it ap])earM, was willing 
to defray the whole expense ; but wlwtever regions 
might be discovered, he and his family were to 
rule them as lieutenants, and to enjoy the exclu- 
sive trade, payuig, however, to the king l-oth 
part of the priitits. The patent was granted hi 
1495, Uut circumstances prevente<l him firi>m sailing 
rill 1407. The-n proceeding due west, he arrivctU on 
' the 24th of June, at a land, with an island ad- 
jjacent, which ap])ears to be Labrador and New- 
foundland. This was the first discovery- of the 
continent, since it was not till 1498 that (Co- 
lumbus reached the mouth of the Orinoco. CalM>i> 
brought home several of the natives, and, th<»ugh 
the aspect of the coast was not very in\*iuiigy 
Henry was so much gratified that he next year 
granted a fresh patent, allowing him to take up 
I any 6 ships within the realm, equip them at the 

Stdline si 


. , ., _ n bo«pd any number 

tt Engliiili Buliject* wbo might be pleased to k- 
eaajmav Iuiil John^ from some 
did not ^ out in pemon ; but the expedition was 
kd by bii win Sebasliui, who, thougb a ^outh, 
atiowed alreadj the (aleota of a greBt navigalor. 
Areontin;; to the veiy imperfect accounts of his 
Tvya^^ be had with him 300 men, and Miiling by 
way of Iceland, reached the coast of Labiadur in 
■lusi lat. 66°. Disconraged by ils bleak ap- 
pcBnnce' he elecied to the sciuth, aad coatiniied 
m thai direction till laC 8H°. {Hackluj-C, iU. 

f Cabot, ch. S 

; Tyller'a Xwthem 

rter imponant dla- 
lecnt Yaner rinooii, 
in awHDg the Atlantic from [he Cape de ^ erd 
lalandii wafl aaaailed by a lempeatr which dnivc 
bm to the southward of the equator ; Bn<l. after 
hang bewildered fur some time amid unknnvm 
■Hs. he catne in January 1499, to the view of au 
■nknown coa^t, which was that of Brazilr near 
Cape St. Aoimatin. Thence he coasted northward 
to the moutli of the AmDZons, and viewed witli 

bjr it into the ocean, justly inferring [hat it rouHt 
lire rolled ihniuEh a ci)n[inent of vast e.ttenu 
Tbiee munths after. Alvarez Cabnl, des|ialched to 
bdia to folluw in the fiotsteps uf Vasco de (ioma, 

CDut. which he named I^anta Cruz, and tnoh pas- 
te*™ of it in the name uf the king uf PortugaL 

America had thus been reached in three dif- 
Imat and distant quartenff on a scale which coQ- 
TFTfd a high idea of itx grcatncde, but without at 
ill Mceitainiii); ila outline and hmits. There was 
■dU ample unexplored coast to leave ruum fur the 
pasHfre to India, which continued to be the grand 
D^ta in the diKoveriea that immediately ful' 
Ivtd. We shall begin with thuse moat important 
■B. Bude by way uf [he Gulph of Mexico. Even 
Mm tbe fourth voyage of Columbus. Alunzn de 
ti)aia, on learning the reiulu uf the third, K 
wa Spain in 149^, and following up the cori 
btndKXHur, explored [he coast from Margarita 
u OfK de Vela. He was accumpanied as pilur 
tr Amtri)(o Vespucci, a skilfid naviga[ur, who 
'■rniruDg to Europe, published a narrative uf tin 
n^i^ lepre^endng himself as the first discoverei 

iiwdinary in[ere8t, and the public adu|>te<i tlii 
■BM iW America, yielding him an bunuui iin 
Mwdlr due to Columbus. In 1500, Uoderigi 
dF Ikitidas explored the coast from Cape Vela ti 

■an. Ojeda and Xicueasa obtained grants of 
4fe(Bt purtions ; but their coiuniea, conilucted 
•Mir and viulently, were abnost endrel^ de- 

■ va Xqgnea de Balboa, an o^cer of great en 
■"inie, who, penetrsiing acnwa the istbmui, 
■w in view of the great southern ocean. Vast 
Jfi^ntfl were thus opened ; but the court of 
'im unKenerouslv transferred the chief cuminand 
tu P(rliina» Davila, wbo, actuated by mean jea- 
^^,peneci]ted and put to death his predecessor, 
*uhiM himself achieving any thing of unportance. 
The (hscoveiy of the northern coast of the 
''"kt wtt begun by Ponce de I*on. 'Ilufl officer, 
»lJe b oommand at Porto Kicn, was misled by 
"e illaiory rejiort of a (buntain. in which who- 
"t lathal was restored fmm the must decrepit 

[■aiil of this chimera, he boat i 
aw, jdniigiiig inia every poul, cii cu 
"raw IntlweoaiHof liiawarch,hei 

103 ' 

Mat, which he named Florida 
considerable ex[ent, and tum- 

. poini, he ascertained it to lie 

part uf the continent, and (he Spanianls lung cim- 

linued thus to name and to claim as Ihelr own 

die whole teiiitury to Canada iiiciuHive, though 

they wero ullima[ely unable to mninlain more 

this southern exli>emity. 

c main directiun was still lunanls (he west. 

ill, Conloba from Uubaitailcd along the coast 

of Yucatan, and collected siinie intelligence of the 


, traceil the entire coast of Mcx 

as far as I'ai 

liattfiing ideas of this coast, which was imme- 

iiately dignified »ilh the title uf Kew S[)ain. In 
519, <iaray, gu\'em<ir of Jamaica, sent four shipe 
mder PineiLi, who,lieginning at Florida, traversed 
he wbulc coast as far ns Vera Cruz. The entire 

survey of the Gulph of Mes' 

plcted. ,(<Medo, Mi 


BancrolVs Hist. Unil 

Velasquez, governor of Cuba, 
flattering accounts brought by 
mined to lose no time in fitting i 
fur the cunquest of Kew Spain. Jealousy, how- 
ever, deterred him from emplnying the uriginol 
discoverer; and be gave the commaiul tu Henian 
Co^e^ a personal favourite, but whu possessed 
cverv quahty fitting hjm fur such an niulertakiiig. 
In ^Iui:h, 1,519, he landeil at Vera Crux, atul 
having burned his ships, marched into the inictior 
with about SOU men. With Ihia small force, 
seconded by his own superior sagacity and daring. 
Cones sutverted the em]Hre of Mexico, put its 
soverHgns to death, and annexed it to the Spanish 
reached the South Sea, he e 


d fur the space u: 


now Uuadalaj 

:o Sew GahciB. 
id Zacatecan. Cortex liimaelf, 
fleet in lOSHi, discovered the 
penineuia uf California, with its ilvep gulpb, com- 
monlv named in that age the Veimiliini Sea. 
(Cortese Kebziuni, Itamusiu, III. Kuliertsun.) 

The discuvery by Balboa of the South Sea ru- 
miuned lung wiihuut any result, thniugh the 
weaknew or disunion of the olfii-ers cm[>luyeii. 
The must tempting accounts were liowevcr re- 
ceived of the wealth uf Peru, and the abundance of 
its precious metals. In 15:11, Pixnmi, a ilaritig ail- 
vcnCurer.wholuul sailed with Ojeila. after one un- 
luccesnful attempt, succeeded in nsHemhlitigo band 
of brave and fierce followem, with whom he nailed 



ncas and treachery, he se . 

sure of the Inca ; and Peru became an appendage 
of the Spanish crown. Almogtu, the companum 
and rival of I'iiarro, piisheii suuthwani into Chili, 
but he met there with great ditHculties, anil was 
recalled by the affairs uf Pern. Pedro de Val- 
divis, however, having the government o( that 
oountry confeired uiioD him, marched to the 
southern bolder of its fertile tciriturv. as far as 
40° S. lat. Vadillu, in 1537, mode a'march from 
Uarien to Peru, tlirough the fine countries of Kew 
(iranoda and Quito. Ex]>editions tu conquer the 
latter were undertaken by Itannlvazar and Alva- 
radu, who, after ci^ilending fur its possession, 
agreed to ililide it bctween.Ihem. In lo4l). (loii- 
zales Pirjirrn, brother tu the cunqneror, undertook 
■D expedition thnnigh tlie Andes to the west of 
Quito, in hopes of discovering s country said tu 



abound in flne cinnamon. After numberless hard- 
slii[)8. he cnme to tho bonks of the great river 
Amazon. Having followed its course for some 
distance, lie employed Orellana, one of bis oificens 
to descend the stream in a light luirk to search for 
provisions. Orellana, inspired by a spirit of ad- 
venture, continued his voyage, and traced the 
whole of its immense course down to the ocean. 
While the al>ove-mentione<I events were in 

Cn^gress, discover}' proceeded, though in a less 
rllliant train, along the eastern coast. In 1514, 
Juan Diaz de Solis, a skilful mariner, was sent to 
sail round America, and reach the opposite side 
of the isthiims of Dorien. Solis, bcgmning with 
St. Augustine, the limit of Pinion's disotivery, 
surv'oyed the whole coast of Brazil, and then came 
to the grand oi>ening of the ]{io de la Plata. But, 
having incautiously ventured on shore with a 
small party, he was suq^rLsed by the natives, and, 
with several of his party, experienced the dread- 
ful fate which awaits those captured by the can- 
nibal tribes <tf this continent. The remaining 
crews, on witu&<*sing thLs catastrophe, were struck 
with dismay, and immediately returned home. 
Three yeaw after, Fernando Magalhaens, or Ma- 
gellan, a Portuguese, discontented with his treat- 
ment in his native countrv, offered his sernces to 
Charles V. The immediate object was to nwich 
the Moluccas from the west, and thus, according 
to the ])apa1 grant, establish a claim to those 
islands, which were then much valued. A fleet 
of five sail being equipped, lie sailed in September 
1519, and having pnK'oeded along the coast of 
Brazil, reached Port St« Julian, where be win- 
tered. In October 1520, he entere<l the strait 
bearing his name, and after a few weeks' naviga- 
tion, saw the great Pacific opening before liim. 
He stretched directly across, and came to the 
IMiili))pines, where he was killed in a contest with 
the natives; but his vessel ha<l the honour of 
being the lirst that circumnavigated the globe. 
In 152t>, Sebastian Cabot was sent out to the La 
Plata, where he ascended the Parana anil the 
Paragtuiy, aiul, notwithstaiubng the opposition of 
the Portuguese, establL<he(.l two or three forts. In 
1585, Juan de Mendoza, an opulent S^ianianl, 
founder! the city of Buenos Ayres, and in 15H7 
Juan de Ayolas penetratoil across the Andes to 
Peru. Thus the great outlines of Southern Ame- 
rica were traced in every direction, (ILerrera. Ko- 
bertson. Marit. antl Inl. I)is., B. IV. eh. \t. vii.) 

Discovery in the north (lid not pr<K'oe<l with 
the same rapid stejw. We have already noticed 
the imi)ortaut voyages made by the (Jabots. Tliis 
excited the rivalry of the Portuguese, and in 15(M) 
(ias])ar de Cortcreal, a nobleman of that nation, 
set sail and surveyed a considerable extent of the 
coast »»f Labra<lor. He airried off about 50 of the 
natives, to employ them as slaves; but the enmity 
of the ])eople, thus justly n)use<l, probably led t<» ' 
the fatal result of hu* next voyage, fn»m wluch he 
never returned His brother Michael, sailing in 
search of him in the following year, met the same 
fate, whi<>h was shared also by another exi>editiuu 
sent in 150.3. 

The reign (»f Henrj' VIII. wa^ unfavourable to 
nautical enterjjrlse. The diwover>' of the Cabots 
was not foUowetl up, and S(^basiian sought the 
sen'ice of Siiain. He was .sent out, however, in 
1517, as pilot to an expedition commanded by 
Sir Tliomas Pert, which, it ap|>ears, actually eu- 
tiCred Hudson's Bav; but the commander then 
h>st courage and returned, to Calwt's great indig- 
nation. This discovery attracted little notice, and 
was soon forgotten. 

France now entered on the career of American 
discover}'. In 1524 Francis I. employed Giovanni 

Verazzano, a Florentine navigator, who etikd 
along and described the coast from Carolina to 
Nev^-foundland. Unhap[)ily, in a subeequent voy- 
age, he fell into the luinds of the luitives, and 
suffered a cruel death. Ten ycors after Jacques 
Cartier, a seaman of St. Malo, pezformed several 
voyages, in which he entered the Gulph of Sl 
Lawrence, and ascended the river as high as Mont- 
reaL Attempts were then made to colonize ihnc 
countries, for some time without success: how- 
ever, in 1604, De Montz founded tho culonycf 
Acailia, and Champlain, in 1608, that of Canada. 
The latter, engaging in warlike expeditions, pene- 
trated southward to the lake bearing his name, 
and westward beyond Lake Huron. 

The Spaniards meantime, as already observed, 
had, under the title i»f Florida, claimed ncarlv all 
North America; nor were they wanting in vigor- 
ous efforts to make good their title. In 1521), 
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon discovered and at- 
tempted to forma settlement on South Carolina; 
hut having Ix^^i bv eiitra]>ping and cairpng off 
a nimiber of the inliabitants, he excited* such a 
tierce enmity that many of the settlcn were killed, 
and the rest returned to Hisivaniola. In 1624, 
Estevan Gomez sailed as far as the latitude of 
New York, whence he brought off a caigo of 
slaves. A more important expedition was under- 
taken in 1528 by Narvaes, the rival of Cortes, and 
sent to supersede him, but who had been van- 
quishefl and made prisoner. He now nought to 
indemnify himself by a kingdom in Florida. He 
landed with a force of about 600 men, and ad- 
vanced about 800 miles into tlie interior, baflliiig 
all attempts to opi)ose his progress. Tlie naiives 
however, irritated by his violent and domineering 
conduct, jxtsted themselves in the woods, and 
harassed him by constant attacks and suipri>e.'i. 
The Spaniards, completely exhausted, and m ex- 
treme want, were obliged to seek the nearest 
coast. Unaldc to reach their ships, they con- 
structed frail barks, wliich, on comuig out to the 
open sea, were wrecked, and almost the whole 
number {lerishetL Alvaro Nugncz, the treasurer, 
l»eing cast ashore, contrived, by conciliating the 
Indians, actiug as a mercliant and physician, and 
even pretending to work miracles, to make his 
way to ^lexico, after a seven yeai^* pilgrimage. 
The land route was thus traced between that 
country anil Florida. 

This catastro]ilie did not prevent another at- 
tempt. Fernando di Soto had been an associate 
of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, where lie ^li^- 
tingiiished himself by the capture of Cuzco, and 
other exploits. He returned to S])ain with a hij^h 
name and a princely fortune: but instead of sil- 
ting down to enjoy thesie, be resolved to make 
them instruments for c(»nquering an empire fur 
himself. His reputation attnictiHl many of the 
most distinguished SjMinish youtlm as volunteers: 
and in May 1528 he landed in Florida, with a 
more powerful armament than those whirh h&d 
conriuered IMexico and Peru. The exploits •.•f 
Solo sur])as8e(I. in <lAring valour and brilliant 
achievement, those of ('ortes and Pizarrti; bui 
hih fortune was far different. Tliere was here nt> 
great ein])ire, no central point to strike at. He 
struggled on amid u succession of fierci' and ]ictty 
tril>e.'s, whom he always vanquishe<l, but who 
rose anmnd and bi^hind' him, and never left to his 
tr«Kif>s m(»re than the ground which they c«»veniL 
He was lured <m by rejwrts and »|MH'.imens of the 
gold formation of North Can>luia: but arri^-ing 
there, in a most exhaustetl state, and fhiding only 
ridges of naked hills, he turned back. He after- 
wards pushed far to the westwanU crossctl the 
Mississippi in about lat. 3iP, and jiroceeiled north- 



'Wild to near the pretent site of New Madrid. 
nDding no report of gold, or rich kingdoms, he 
made a dash at the extreme west, passed the heads 
of the Wliite Kiver, then descended the Washita 
and Red River to the MississippL Here, over- 
powered by fiuigne and disappointment, he sunk 
into the grave. The miserable remnant of his 
men, anxious to conceal his death from the In- 
dians, carried the body at dead of night into the 
middle of the river, and sunk it beneath the 
waten, afterwards putting together some rude 
bazka, they made their escape to Mexico. (Alvoro, 
Xanfragioa in Barda Historiaderes, tom. IL Tega, 
Florida. Bancroft, L 41, Ac) 

Tlie wanderings of Alvaro had attracted the 
attenti<m of Uie Spaniards to the r^ons imme- 
diately north <^ Mexico. A friar, Marco di Nizza, 
Mt out with a party to explore them, returned 
wiUi a romantic account of a city, named Cevola, 
having 20,000 splendid houses, and its most com- 
mon utensils of gold, silver, and the richest 
jewels^ Mendoza, the viceroy, hoping to emulate 
the glcoy of Cortes, fitted out two large expedi- 
tions, one to proceed by land under Vasquez Coro- 
nado, the oUier by sea under Fernando Alarchon. 
Coronado, after a most arduous march through 
nifcged and desolate mountains, reached the plain 
of Cevola, and, notwithstanding a most desperate 
renstance, forced an entxy, but found a mere vil- 
lage of 400 houses, with nothing at all splendid ; 
tlK jewels were only pebbles and rock-crystal. In 
hoipes oi achieving something, he marched 300 
loigfttes to the coast, where he found a city of 
Hcoewhat greater consequence, named Qui\'ira, 
vhifch cannot now be identified. Alarchon, im- 
ible even to join his associate, returned equally 
disappointed. Cabrillo, a Portuguese seaman, was 
then employed b^ Mendoza to explore the coast. 
He reached' as high as 449 N. lat. but brought 
\atk a gloomy account of the aspect of the region, 
aid the difficulties of navigating this northern sea. 
(Kamusio, voL iiL p. 297, ^c. Venc^as, Cahefomia.) 
The zeal of Spain now slackened ; but, in 1579, 
Dake, in his expedition round the world, traced 
the iwith-westem coast as high as lat 48^. There 
i^inazTUive by a Spaniard, named Juan de Fuca, 
vbi) boasts that, in 1596, he reached a similar lati- 
t34e; sod his report, long discredited, has been 
wofimxed, in a great measure, by the discovery of 
tftiait closely answering his description, and now 
tKvin)^ his name. In 1596 and 1602 the Coiide 
^ Muotercy employed Sebastian Visca^iio, who 
^ not, however, reach so far as Cabrillo. There 
^ alio a narrative by De Fonte, who boasted that, 
io 1640, he had reached the latitude of 53^, where 
be ffMuid numerous islands separated by nanrow 
t^ti, which he named the ^Vrchipclago of St. 
I'azare.and within them a large lake named Belle. 
This acooont is generally branded as fictitious ; yet 
we cannot but observe, tliat it strikingly agrees 
*^h the numerous chain of islancb* found by Vaii- 
^«Term the same latitude, while Lake Ikllc may 
^>^ the interior sea between them and the main. 
'T^ioeinada, Munarquia Indiana, book v. Murray 
l^ws'V. X. Amer. voL iL p. 87, &c) 

The power of Spain ha\'ing declined, she was 
vsakk to maintain the vast pretensions she liad 
*^anced in relation to Florida. Britain, now be- 
«*«>e a much more formidable maritime |)owcr, 
**»'*l»li*hed ci>lfmies in Virginia and New England 
^ "Irfiance of Spain. In doing so, although there 
p> wt nxjm for great discoveries, she acquired a 
** Joow accurate knowle<ige of thus long range of 
<!'«rt. The exi)ectati(m was still entertained that 
*|'flMr of its openings might lead into the South 
>*x and this was even viewwl by the Virginia 
^^^''TAny as one of their leading objects. But the 

laborious survey of Cheaapeakc Bay, by Smith, in 
1608, nearly put an end to these hopes. 

The British, however, made indefatigable efforts 
to discover a passage to India by the north. Sir 
Martin Frobisher, in 1576, found means to equip 
two slender barks of 25 tons for this anluoiis at- 
tempt. Passing the southern extremity of Green- 
land, he reached the coast north of Hudson's Strait ; 
but, after sailing alx)ut for some time without per- 
ceiving any opening, and the season being ad- 
vanced, he retunie(U One of the party brought 
home a shining black stone, which some ignorant 
persons pronounced an ore of gold. The utmost 
enthusiasm was thus kindled, and a larger expe- 
dition was easily fitted out next year. Frobisher 
then discovered the straits bearing his name, lead- 
ing into Hudson's Bay; but he was arrested in 
them by the ice; he carried home, however, a 
store of the black stone. The hopes of the nation 
were higher than ever, and the queen sent hira 
back with 15 ships, a strong fort in frame-work, 
and 100 men to form a colony. In approaching 
the place, however, he was attacked by so furious 
a tempest, with islands of ice driving against the 
vessels, that he had the utmost difiiculty in saving 
and bringing them home. These disasters, and 
the discovery that the appearances of gold were 
illusory, caused a suspension of this series of en- 

In 1585, a number of leading merchants fitted 
out two vessels under John Da\'is. Steering far- 
ther N. than Frobisher. he crossed from Greenland 
the straits bearing Ins name, and came upon the 
American land in about 66° N. He sailed some- 
what farther N., and surveyed different parts of 
the coast, but was obliged by the lateness of the 
season to return. HLs reiwrt, however, being fa- 
vourable, he was sent out again next year. 
Though much retarded by the encounter of a huge 
field of ice, he reached his former station, and 
steered thence SE. till he came to Labrador, having 
passed numerous islands, as appeared to him, but 
probably the coasts bordering on the sounds and 
inlets leading into Hudson's Bay. Being assailed 
by temi)ests, he returned to P^ngland, still giving 
such favourable hopes tliat^ though many of the 
adventurers held back, Mr. Sanderson, his zealous 
patron, procured for hira a smaller armament. He 
pushed to the yet imattained point of 72° 12' X., 
on West Greenland ; thence he steered 40 leagues 
across, but was arrested bv the fixed field of ice in 
the middle of the bay. ile vainly attempted to 
round it, and was pushetl southwanl to his former 
station on the American coast. He i)enctrated 60 
leagues up Cumberland Strait ; then being obliged 
to return, he olwerve<l, without entering, the en- 
trance of Hudson's Bay. He retumetl home as 
sanguine as ever, but the perseverance of the mer- 
chants was exhaasted. 

The ]!iIus<.H)vv and I-.evant companies, in 1602, 
sent out John Wejinouth ; but the mutinous spirit 
of liis crew prevented his achieving anything. 
They employed, in 1606, John Knight, who was 
surpTLse<l and killed in Labrador by the native:'. 
In 1007, Sir Dudley Digges, Sir John We.>t en- 
holme, and other gentlemen fittctl out lienr}- Hud- 
son, a celebrateil naNigator, who had already made 
three arctic voyages. 'ITiough furuLshed only with 
one shii)of 56 tons, he penetrated, after many diffi- 
culties, into the bay, or mther inland sea, which 
now bears his name. He surveye<l a considerable 
extent of its eastern shore : but as November had 
arrived, was obliged to winter there. Much liard- 
shij) bemg endured till spring, a miituiy arose 
among his crew, who ex}K)se<l Hudson and his 
firiends to perish on this inhwpitablo shore, and, 
with thinned numbers, made their way to Ireland. 



Xotwitlistnndiiiff tho^o molnnclioly circum- 
staiuvs. a ^at^ai oponinjr had thu/« ]K.K*n traced, 
mid, in 1012, the (^)^lpauy Hent out Sir Thomas 
Ituttoii, ncr()iu|>.'miorl hy Hylol, j)iie of HiidwiiV 
com]mnion.s. Sir Thonias hnvinpf enloretl tlie hay. 
striTwl dirncily across thnni^h such an extent of 
o|)en s(>ji. as made Iiim ho|)e that he was now in 
the Pacific; when he suddenly saw himself ar- 
rested by a lonfj line of «.»oast, to which he f;avc 
the name of Iloije Checked, He wintered in 
Mclson'rt Kiver, sailed up Roe's Welcome, sur- 
veyed vari»»iu» ])oiutJ4 on Southampton Island, and 
retumcrl to England. Af^er a fmitless attempt by 
(ribbons, Bylot and RatKn were M>nt in 1G15 ; but 
thev were arrested bv the eastern coa^t of Sou- 
thampton Island. In 1G1(> they went to try t)ie 
more ]>atent route of Davis's Straits. They made 
th(>n the com))lete circuit of that great inland sea, 
which has since l)een named Hattiu's Hay; but 
returne^l with the ctjnWction that it was enchised 
by land on every side, and affonied no hojKj of a 
passage. The search in this direction was di.s- 
oontinued: but, in 1031, Fox was sent out by the 
kint;, and James by tlie Bristol merchants, to try 
again the rrnite of Hudson's 15ay. F<»x, after 
vainly atteni]iting a wej^tem route, sailed up the 
chtmnel bearing his name, the most direct route to 
the strait of the Fury and H(K;Ia, but stopped 
much sh(»rt of that jHiint. James 8t(HKi to the 
Houthwanl, an<l being entangled in the eastern 
c<>asts «if the pdj)h, was obliged to winter there^ 
where his crewsufiered the utmost extremitv<»l ct>ld. 

The north-western coast of America, n<>twith- 
Rtanding the S))auish disjioveries, remained still 
alm(»st unknown. Rut after Russia had overrun 
SilK?ria, and reached the shores of the eastern 
oce^n, her active rulers felt an interest rcs|ie<:ting 
the opiMisite continent. It was even doubted, 
whether it wa.s separated fn>m that of Asia: but 
this, in 172«, was nearly ascertained by Hehring, 
who reache«l the eastern extremitj' (»f the latter 
continent, on the straits which l)ear his name. 
He saw the land thence stretching NW., but did 
not discover anv part of America. A few ye^rs 
after, Kmpishef, a Kossac, from Karotschatka, 
descried, and sailed along it for two davs. In 
1741, Ik^hring and Tcliirikofl* were sent thitlier to 
make a careful sur\'ey. They were s<'i)aratwl: the 
former reached the coast, and landed at>out the 
latitude of oK®. He coubl not accomplish his ob- 
ject of sun'eying it to Oo^. and !>eing obliged to 
winter on one of the Aleutian islands, suffered 
Revere hardships, to which he fell a Hacriti<*e. 
Tchirikoft* came ui view of it in al)out lat. i)iP: 

but beuig unable to 
l>oat8 in attempting 
natives, he returned 
voy;ige the Russians 

land, and having h»st two 
to commimicatc 'with the 
to KamtM'hatka. On this 
found their claims to the 
American coast X. of 55°; and their traders soon 
e^tablishetl along it a chain of settlements with a 
\iew to collecting furs and skins of the sea-otter. 
(Purchas, iiu 5(MJ, 710. Narratives of Fox and 
James Ramjw's Arctic Voyages.) 

('apt. C.'ook employe<l his last voyage in cx- 
aminmg tlie n<»rth-west Iwundaries of America, 
and in attempting to effect a north-west passage. 
He traced the coast fn.)m b(P northwanls, till he 
came to Carie IVince of Wales, the western limit 
of the continent: then steered north-east till, in 
alMiut 7<>°, he wa.s arrested by an unbroken <!hain 
<»f ice islands. He retunieil, naming the adjacent 
promi»n(orj' ley Cai>e; and King and Clerke next 
season in vain attempted to j-ienetrate further. 
Tlic information obtained in this voyage induced 
many Knglish ships to resort to this ct)ast with a 
view to the capture of the sea-otter, for whose rich 
Rkin thexc in a regular demand in the China mar- 

ket. Dixon and Mean», in thin puntait.. expkmd 
Xootka and the aiijacent coastA. Tlie Spaniards 
attempted to oppose this trade, and even captural 
the Argonaut, a Britisli ve.ssel; but were i4>lig«d 
t«) witlidraw their o)))xi!iition. Tliey now sent 
several ex|>editions, particularly one luidex Ayala 
and iMaurelle: but these could make no dis>ct^'vrr 
which htul not liecn anticipatOfL In 1791-2, Van- 
couver was employed in making a careful tfun'ej 
of these coasts, in the hope of finding a paf^^'^gc 
into the Atlantic, through one of tlieir niimerxHU 
bays; but this he prove<l to he uniiracticable. 
itmughton, under his direction, aw»>nded th« 
('olumbia for about 90 miles. Cant. Ciray, em- 
l>loyed by the United States, had before l>een at its 
mouth, and given it its name; but he is said never 
to have entered tlie actual channel of the river. 

Meantime some stra^ling attempts after tlie 
|)assiige were made fnim the Atlantic. In 16«>. 
the Ilu<lsonV liay Com^mny wa.s formed, antl iin- 
dert4M»k to make exertions for this objc<:t. 'I'liere 
is however no record of any till 1721, when Kniglit, 
governor of one of their forts, prevailed on them 
to supiily him with the materials for a voyairb 
Unfortunately, lieing obliged to wintor on Mnrt>le 
Island, he and his whole crew fell a aacriiice to 
sickness and famine. In 17-41, Mr. DobUs a 
gentleman of influence, and imbued with the 
most ardent zeal on this subject, ]>revailed on the 
Admiralty to send out Ca])t. Middleton with the 
Furnace lK>mlvketcli. That officer, in 1 742, sailed 
to the head o( Sir Thomas R<ie's Welcome, where 
he found on one side Repulse liay, (»n the other a 
fn)7en strait l)etween Southampton Island and the 
mainland. Ha\ing also hN>ked up Wager Inlet, 
he pronounce<l a passage in thLs directi'm im- 
possible. Dobbs and others loudly nccuscvl huii iff 
carelew-ness and even treacherk-, and kindled such 
a spirit that lO.OtRt/. was raised by suljscriptitin. 
and {larliameiit voted a Innrnty of 20,(|(Xi/. to the 
subscrilK?re in the event of their nuccess. Two 
vessels were sent out under Captains Alorr and 
Smith, who however merely examine<l tlie W.tger 
Inlet, as4:ertaiiiing that there was no jiaseiage, and 
then returned. 

]^!aritime expeditions were now siL««pcnded, hii; 
sonic important discoveries were made by Lin-L 
Ever since Ratfiirs last voyage, the imprptsoiiin 
had prevailefl that North America stretched in- 
delinitely towards the ixde. Rut in 1769, Mt. 
He;mie, sent by the Hudson's Ray Company, 
descended C-op]H;rmine River, anil found it tn 
terminate in a sea at about 05° X. lat. In \7i*% 
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, an agt^nt of the Xt-rth 
W<;st Fur C<»mpaiiy, defended, much farthit 
westwawl, the great river licaring his name, and 
came to what he tenned a lake, but whicli, fmm 
iti4 having tides and containing whale*, was very 
decidedly judged to be aL-to a sea. There w.-is 
thus found great ro«>m to suppoe>e that, in a lati- 
tude between (»t>o and 7()°, America was boiuidi'd 
by a pjeat Arctic ocean: while from these obwn-a- 
tions conibine<l with those of CiKik, the estimate of 
its breadth was greatly enlai^^ed. 

These considerations )tnHlua'!il little influence, 
till, after the ])eace of 1K15, when the eneigiei 
cnlle^i forth during the late war sought a differc-ni 
direction. Sir John Ranrow pn^veti that the iin- 
])rc^sion against the existeni^ of a ])aMsage. dn.- 
rived fwm former failures, rested on vor\- blight 
grounds. Under his aus)>ices, Capt. Roiiiswaai sent 
out in IH18, with the isalx'Ua and Alexander, to 
make a more full trial in Ratlin's Bay. He 
sailed entirely n»und it. but returned decidetlly 
re|)orring that na\'igat<»r*s opuiion to be corrcvi. 
and that it affonied no western ]Vif«age. Lieut. 
Parr}' of the Alexander, however, and other 



of opinion that the Bpadous opening 
of Lancaster Soond had been quitted without due 
examination, and affonled a favourable promiM. 
He wa» therefofe Mnt oat next year, and though 
Ik did not reach the Mmnd till August, foimd aU 
kb expectations fulfilled. The shijis, during the 
tet day after entering the sounds had an un- 
ebetnicted run of upwanbi of a hundred miles. 
Alia' sailing a little farther, he was arrested by 
Me, and obliged to turn southwanl along the 
eirtcm shore of Prince Regent's Inlet. Being 
axrested there, he returned northwards, and was 
gnuiiied to lind the passage to the west become 
qnte clear. He run along it to beyond 11(P W. 
kog., thns entitling the crew to a royal bounty of 
&.0OOI. He was then obliged to noake arrange- 
■enta for f4)ending the winter, during which, not- 
withstanding the most rigorous cold, tlie health 
ad spirits of the crew were surprisingly preserved. 
He was defeated in his attempt next year to 
fenetzate further west, and obliged to return. 

Capr. Parry was again sent out the following 
itMx : but it was now resolved to try the channel 
W the northern head of Hudson's' Bay, which 
llid^eton was coniddeied as having by no means 
cumpletelT explored. He found no reason to doubt 
die accuracy of that navigator; but by pushing up 
the Fox Channd, he arrived at a strnit, named 
rfier his vessels the Fury and Hecla, which was 
atontained to afford a passage into the Polar sea. 
It was so blocked up with ice, however, that his 
vtBKrft efforts, during two successive seasons, could 
■ot furce a pasaage. Having returned to England, 
he was sent out a third time^ in 1824, to endeavour 
to penetrate throu|;rh Prince Regent's Inlet into j 
the open sea, of which he had now fully ascertained | 
tbe tjogtoice. The season, however, being pecu- 
^Trigiiroas, it was not till next summer that he 
mdlied the western coast; and the Fur>% being 
tbeo tiqaeezed between two masses of ice, sustained 
» wrere an injury, that it became necessary to 
•bmdon her, and give up all attempts to proceed 

Other means were at the same time resorted to 
h exploring the northern boundary of America. 
Lieot Franklin and Dr. Richardson undertook to 
(fnoecd to the mouth of the Coppermine River, 
and thence attempt to trace the whole const, from 
tile foait dT the Fur\' and Hecla to the lev Cape 
of Cook. They sailed'from England in May. 1820; 
wfR obliged to winter on the Athabasca Lake, and 
n Joly, 1H21, embarked on the Arctic Ocean. Tliey 
tamed to the eastward, but were forced to take a 
vcty circuitoas course thruugh deep sounds and 
iakcs. particularly the great one named Coronation 
^voiph. Hence, on reaching Point Tumagain, in 
liySI^ 25' W. longM though the se.i continued open, 
tbe>- foond it necessary to return, from the ex- 
hausted state of the eauipment. The party, being 
obliged to travel by land over a range of naked 
territory broken by lakes and riven*, endured the 
ntmo«(t extremes of human misery, and several 
peivibed bel<ire they could reach Fort Enterprise 
on the Coppermine. They returned, however, with 
onhruken spirits and determination, and govern- 
ment libendly furnished the means of renewing 
their efforts. At the same time, Capt. Beechey 
was Mnt by way of the Pacific Ocean to follow in 
the Fteps oif CotJc, and meet them from the west- 
ward. Franklin's new expedition set sail in 182o, 
wintered on (vieat Bear Lake, and early next year 
were at the month of the Mackenzie, whence they 
nrrw proposed to begin their sur\'cy. From this 
|M^<nt Cape. Franklin proceeded \V. ; Dr. Riithard- 
son £. The fcNrmer expired a considerable extent 
of cfjaj*t botdeml by ranges of the Rocky Moun- 
tains ; but, after passing Fqggy Island, in long. 

147° W., the obstaclei* became so serious as made 
it necessary to turn back. Meantime, hcmever, 
Capt. Beechey hail ])assed Bchring's Straits ; and, 
though the ship could not Ik*, navigated beyond 
the Icy Cape of Cook, Mr. Elson, in a Iwat, reached 
156° 21' W. long., where a cape stretched into lat. 
71° 23' N. The expeditions were thus within 9 
short deg. of long, from each other ; of which had 
they been aware, thev would at every cost have 
pushed through. Dr. kichanlson succecdeti in ex- 
ploring the whole coast betwen the Mackenzie and 
the Coppermine, connecting his discoveries with 
those of the former voyage, and leading unknown 
only two comparatively small portions between 
Franklin's extreme points and those reached by 
Beechey on one side, an<l Parry on the other. 

Capt. Ross, regretting the mistake by which ho 
had failed to discover the entrance into the Polar 
Sea, anxiously sought the means of retrie\'ing this 
error. These were fumbhed by a public-spirited 
friend, Sir Felix IkK>th, and the resources of steam 
navigation were called forth. They were not of 
much avail ; but Capt, Ross, thnuigh many diffi- 
culties, made his way into Prince R^ent's Inlet-, 
and reached considerably farther than Parrj' on its 
eastern limit. He thrice wintered there, and ex- 
plore<l a great extent of the adjacent coasts. He 
foim<l himself on what appeared a peninsula, name<l 
Boothia, reaching to 74° N. lat, and connected 
with the continent by a narrow isthmiw. A con- 
siderable extent of the American c(»ast to the west- 
ward was also explorwl, but without reaching 
Franklin's I'umagain. Commander Ross is con- 
sidered as having ascertained the site of the mag- 
netic !K»le on the we-stem coast of lk)othia. Capt* 
Ross, m attempting to reach home, was obliged to 
spend another winter near the nortlieni point of 
the peninsula. His arrival, in 18118, occasioned a 
joj-ful surprise, as the most melancholy forebodings 
had prevailed as to his fate. 

During the alarm felt at Ids long absence, an 
expedition to discover and release him was fittM 
out, partly by government and partly by private 
sul^cription. It was entrusted to Capt. Back, a 
companion of Franklin, with the hope that ho 
might also make some further discoveries. Having 
left England in Febniarj', 1833, he wintered at 
the eastern end of Great Slave Lake, and next 
summer descended a river named the Thlew-ee- 
chop. It terminated in a spacious Imy, at the end 
of which the coasts appeared to stretch, one SE., 
the other due W. Frem C^aiw Ogle, where this 
last direction began, was seen on the E. an appa- 
rently boundless expanse of sea. By the obsen'a- 
tions then made it appeared jirobable, that IkH)tliia 
did not form part of the American continent ; but 
was connected with a more southerly peninsula 
which, along i^-ith it, formed one great island 

In 1838, the Hudson's Bay Comi>anv determined 
to explore what was yet unkno^*n in their own 
territory'. Under the direction of Mr. Simpson, 
the resident governor, Messrs. Dcase and Sim|)son, 
hi the summer of 1837, went over the intermediate 
space between the points reached by Franklin and 
Beechey. It was found to run in a nearly direct 
line, presenting no remarkable feature except the 
eiflux of two lar;^e rivers. The same gentlemen 
were employetl, m 1838, to explore fn>m Ca|>o 
Tumagain to the strait of the Fury and Hecla ; a 
more (fifficult task. 

The first im}K)rtant steps in the dL»covery of the 
interior of N. America were made by the French 
from Canada, under the government of (^miit 
Frontenac. Under his aus))ices, loylet and Father 
il^larquette, in two Indian bark canoes, undertook 
to explore the vast regions on the Mississippi. 
Lake Michigan then formed the extreme boundary 



c»f Kiiro]> knowlcdtjo. From it, ascoiuUnp the 
l'\»x rivor, ami «lesc<'.inliM|; the Oiii.sconsni. they 
roached the cent nil ntn^jiin, and were a»«tonL(he<l 

tnineil a series of Moody iitni^j^los with the fi»- 
tivert, hy whom the KnglL^h wens kei^t in [jerpetiud 
alann. * It was not till acme years after the war J 

at its grandi'ur, and the maje^itlc finvnt* on itii ' inde|>ondcnce, that Kmtucky "wa* received into 
* ' ■ '■ ^ ■ ' " ' ' ' the union, and that the great tide of emignriflo 

began, which hurt covered the valley of the Mw- 
HiHHip])i witli so many populous aud flourifhiiu; 

The Americanfl ha\'ing in 1804 purohsMd Ijim- 
siana from Nap«>le<ju, claimed under tluvt vasue 
title the whole region Ut and beyond the ^ri**!*- 
8i])pi, and commenced operation** for expluriii^ 
tliat vast territory. An ex]>e<litiun was axran^l 
by Mr. Jefferson,* then president, and wa-* le-i hy 
(iaptains I^wi* and Clarke, the former of whom 
was his private secretary. On tlie 16th May, 
IH(|4, they be^iran their vovage on the Missoaii 
Having ai»cended l.Hno miles, and reachetl the 
foot oif the Kocky Mountain;}, they found the 
season too far advanceti for cros.-*ing that preai 
chain. They, therefore, built a fort namixl Sl»n- 
tlan, where thev J»|>ent the winter. Early in April 
they were again m movements and iu niui?ti>ea 
days came to the in tin x of the Yellowstone, almwt 
eqiial to the main stream. Having reachcil the 
cri'itt of the great n^.-ky chain, the truvellen* lie- 
»cende<l rapidly, though not without diffitnilriw, 
fnim the rugge<lnc!»» i»f the roa*l and the wanr of 
]>rovirtion8. They at length, however, eraliarked 
on the southern branch of the CVdumliia, wlucb 
they named Lewis, and after passuig icd faU« raw 
it sjtread into a wide channel, anil ultimately ii[^o 
into a bay, where they exultingly heard the >«mnd 
of breaker* from the' Pacitic. ITiey winterct! at 
the mouth of the river, and hastened back by the 
same route in the following spring. They ww 
not, however, the tirst who hmi cros>otl the i*ntiw 
breadth of the continent. This liad l»een efftctiJ 
in 17y2 by Sir Alexander M'Keuzie, in a aivn 
northerly quarter; and in 180:J, the agents of the 
Montreal Comi>.iny had cn*K«<cd the mountaias 
and formed trading jHists on the northejii bnujiiei 
of the Ciilumbia. (Journal of 1). W. Ibruxiii, 
And()ver, 1X20.) 

The American government sent, in 180?, another 
ex{)edition under Major I'ike, to tnu,-e tlu- yrt 

b'tuks. In proceeding downwnnis, the first ]>eople 
tliov mot wen> the Illinois who ret^eived them 
hospit.ibly. Afterwards they were stnick by the 
intlux of the mighty stroain, deeply tinged with 
mud, of the Mi^siMiri (named by them IN'ketanani). 
Under the name of (hiui»iskgou, they des«?ril)e the 
unite^l stream of the Wobash and* Ohio. They 
came next to the Akam^eas (at the mouth of tlip 
Arkansas), but fierceiving now that the river must 
terminate, not, as had Xtov.n supposed, in the (viilph 
of California, but in tliat of Mexico, tliey were 
afraid of the Spaniards mid retumetL 

When the two tnivellers arrived at Quebec, 
there happened to Ije in that citv an enter[irising 
young Frenchman, (»f some birth anrl fortune, 
nameil Sieur do la Salle, who c*ince.ived an en- 
thusiastic desin* to prosecute this can»er of dis- 
covery. Through influence at court, he pro<:ured 
am|)le means. After s«»nie time sjieiit in erecting 
fortj* iifHMi the lakes, he reached the Mis^iN8i]>]>i 
by a new route, as<'ending the Miami ami desceu'l- 
ing the Illinois. On reiic^hing the Arkansas, he 
hesitated not to pn>8ecut.e his voyage, and jmssed 
along the tejritorj' of the Taenais, Natches, and 
Quinipissjts. S<H»ii after, by the vast breadth to 
which the waters expanded, their brackish taste, 
and the shelld on the sliore, lie discovexcd, with 
exultation, that he was at the mouth of the Mis- 
aissippL He iLtstcned back by the same route to 
Canada, and thi>ncc to France, where lie was 
received with the highest distinction, cn^ted 
governor of the region he had traversed, and sent 
out with four shiiis and 2H0 men. He went by 
the W. Indies; but inifortuuatelv he could not 
distinguish the entrance of the nver, and, while 
searching for it, a mutuiy arose among his men, 
in which he was killed. 

About this time Hennepin aL«o attempted to 
reach the source of the 3li«isissippi; but, after 
passing the Falls of St. Anthony, he was taken 
prisoner by the Indians, detained long in captivity, 
and thought himself happy in making his escape. 

Some time after, IJaroii I.ahonian n>iK»rted Ids unknown head of the Mis^is^ippi. It wa«> fi>iin<l 

having ascend(r<l a great tributary, which he calls 
Long, but which ajipcars t^> be the St. Pi'ter's. 
He met s<»me memlirrs of a distant tril»e. who 

in a (liriTtion almost due nonh. not rising fri'in 
any great natural range, but in a flat marshy 
region, ami pas^ing through a numl>er of little 

descrilted a chabi of high inountauis lying to the lakes, the chief of which, iiame<l IxH^ch anil Ked 

westward, beyond whi<'h was a great salt lake, a 
term which the Indians often ap])ly to the sea. 
These iv»rrect statementA seem to absolve the 
iMiTfMi's re]N>rt« from the suspicion of fiction, which 
has iK'en sometimes attaiihcii to them. 

Cetlar, contend for the honour of giving birth tn 
this leading American water. Its length. l'««s 
pntved t4> i)C at the mutual junction litth^ loi* 
than half the Missouri, which then-fore riught|'n»- 
perly to rank iin the main stream. Pike. t>n liis 

The Knglish colonii^s on the Atlantic had made i n>.tum, was sent to explon- the ivurse and oripn 
a great advance in ]xi|)ulation and wealth. iK'fore ' of the Arkansas and Ke<l Kivers. The former li« 

they attempted to |K'nctrate acnws the ^Vlleghany. 
An < opinion had indeed long prevmled, that this 
range fonneil an iiL«iurmountabU> barrier. In 1711, 
however, Sp(»ttisw(Hi<le, governor »if Vii^iia, sent 
a p«rty, who made their way into the western 
territory. It wa« still some time before tiie 
c(doni^t.s made any attempts to settle there, and 
when they did, they were vigorously o])|K)sed by 
the French, who, in virtue of the settlement <»f 
Canada and the (Uscovery of the Mississippi, ! 
<'laimed the whole n';rion. Thev drove out a '■ 

found ver>' luroad, flowing through .a country 
richly st«K*keii with game, and having its ifnir-.'e 
hi the IftK'ky Mount, 'dns. He lir^t l.Ylnvcyl^l un 
idea of the loftiness vi' that chain, which be c^'iii- 
parcd, though with exaggeniti«in, to the (!nrilil- 
lenis. He attempted then to des4*cnd the Kol 
ITiver. but entered bv mL-Nfake on the iCio del 
Norte, and ]in»«'eduig into the Mexican territcry 
was made pris(^ner by the S)iniii»rds, but hcU 
treated and soon released. AUiut the same time, 
Mr. Dunbar and Dr. Hunter, fn>m X.-itdn'?. saWvd 

company who attempted an establishment on the ; to a c<»nsider:ible height up the lied Kivcr .ind 
( Miio, and erect(Nl, on the jiresentsiteof J*ittsburg, | its triimtary the Washita, ^urveying the fertile 
Fort Diiqiiesne, which si nick a general alarm | country' on their banks. 

thniiigh the pnjx-inces. The ci>nque-st of Canada, ' After a long sus|MMision, the govr«m- 
and the ^wace of Paris, hi 17(5:1, n-moved this ment, in Isli). ri'Coniinence«l thb* can*or. Major 
op|K)sition. Still the settlement was maiUv. not L(»ng and Dr. James wew; sent to explore more 
l>y luiy combined or ollicial movement, but by precisely the we-sieni territori' southwanl of ilie 
]kx>ne, and other daring adventurcn, who main- MisbOurL They discovered with regret th.ii a 


■t extsidi Tor a breadth of abont 
the Ruclcy Hounlaina. 
wai eaiefblly exaniinnl, and its highest 
not much lotxceed li'.OOO feet. Seek- 
nd tlie B«d Kiver, bv a fh»h fatality 
ok for it the CaiuuiiaD, the loucest 
rttw Aifcaiuaa, by whuie channel they 
c MiwinippL Ueantime denenl Can 
red in a more careful exominBtion of 
TOT, tm^Dg in hia way the wnilhern 
aka Superior. Xajor Long, on hii re- 
ded SL Peler'i River, already visited 
la and Carver. He luunil, rising finin 
au KMirces. the northern Ked River, 
a into rhe British territory, and ends in 
nip^. These sucOHsive expediiicnu 
to the United Sutea government a 

nclqding those partu of the continent 
hitherto been most imprrfpctly known. 
enwise. which had remained ' 

iha latter yeu, when Sir Job 

of an open Polar 
meneed, wliich ■ 


Hi« dire 

ived with 

Ihmuch Lancaater Sound and Harrow's 
^{le Walker, and thence twuth-weet to 
^nii, a distance of about UIK) milet; 
BiKl Ihii ruuie unpmciicable, he was to 
dlingtun Channel Tho Krebua and 
« aeen fur the lait time in July. 1843, 
bl after their itejiarluri' from Kngland. 
faam the giivemmeni at home was oc- 
» in apetiUatiuns respecting their pro- 
ecnce. and plans of lelicf; but m 1N48, 

led Sir John Richardson and l>r. Kae; 
Aber waa cummjuided hy SirJameaRwd. 
Boag's M|iiadron relumeil in IWO, » 
g »ttcf«eded in geltiDK to the wa 
[aland; and in 105J. the Hhlps Kr . 
1 Invesii^tor atcaiii sailed, the former 
command of Cajilaln CoIUdbih), and 
kt the command of Captain JlcCli 
t of [bis expedition waa tu search 
Eoast of .Vmeriea. and the wciilein cu. . 
Ml and Ranka' Land, Melville IsUnd, 
Land, and the passage between, 
e remit was the discover^' of the Ni 
age. Having pa.'vcd tluT>ugh Bchring 
fttain McClure piuceeded. according ' 
Ktinn.v aliHig the northern coast 
a Cape Parry; then sailed KE. and d 
dnceof Wain's Stra 11, Itaring Land, and 
tc^Iilands. Upon theZUlh of October. 
ilM the Invmli^tor lay in this strait, 
IcCIure. having undertaken an exploring 
gn land, taw, fnim a hill, the frozen 
Meli-ille Strait lying away to the. north. 
distance hie eye commanded, it was clear 
and could intervene bet^ 
jland, so that there was nothing to ob- 
I JuMge into the Atlantic 'IliaB, at 
>aTth-west paHtage was found ! After 

t adi-iaahle i 


M; but at length, in 1864, he 
of England by a route which 
ily settled the ciuesiion wliich had been 
f £ugli--*h seamen for nearly three bun- 
L Captain Collinson, of the ' Enterprise,^ 
to England in May, 1H.55, havm^ esta- 
h* fact of the connection of Victoria, 
[bcTt, and Wollaston Lands, and bring- 
turn some fr^^enrs, supposed to have 
to tbe Erebus and Terror. In both 



h(M diMoveries, 
by Dr, Rae, who 

tetween the yea 

kmencan exped 

howe>-er,he had been rorestalled 

had been sent out in I8fia. lo 

of Bolt his, and other points. 

rs IH.iO, and 1867, numerous ex- 

nt out, amongst othen a second 

ion, nnder Dr. Karre. which re- 

In 1867 the search was com- 

tock sailed in the Fox for tbe Arctic Seas. Tbe 
results obtained hy this expedition were of tbe 

the unhappy enil of Franklin's enterprise, but aa 
' ig, from the route tbroiigb vhich be waa 
Iraceil. [hat he, after all, is entitled to tbe honour 
of being the earliest discoverer of the Konh-wwt 
passage. Captain MeClintock's vovage has also 
fumisliod consideiable geographical information, 
donn tho cuasl-line of Boolhia, from 
it to the Slagnelic Pule, delineated 
im'i Island, anil openeil a new channel 
la .Strait to Melville or ranj- SountL 
ieved the navigation of Bellot Sirait. 
. ain McClintock'n rclum, Jlr. Hall, 
of Cincinnati, started on a renewed search for 
the Erebus and Teiror. Two other cxpedltiona 
from America departed in tbe course of the years 
1S60-61, to attempt the voyage to the Pole. In 
England, the project of a new Xortb Polar expc- 
(Ution is at present (lAGA) under discussion, opi- 
{ divided aa to the Smith Siound or 
Spiliberj,-en routes. 

In British Xorth America, Mr. Palliser's sur- 
veying; expedition, which wan lininhcd in 186U, 
has disclosed, between the soulbem end of Lake 
Winnipeg and the base of the Kocky .Mountaioa 
■ fertile tract of land admimbly lltled fiir coloni- 
aation. An expedition despatched by the Cana- 
dian government, under tbe chaige of Profcasor 
Hind, has also made important investigations in 
the country west of Lake Superior, giving good 
ground for the belief that tlie Itasm of Lake Win- 
nipeg will one day have ' a great future.' 

In Central America, surveyH have been under- 
taken for an Inierocearuc Railway acroes Honduras, 
and in South America the vast project has been 
started of a railway over the Chilian Andes, from 
Copiapo, aciDSB tbe Argentine provinces, to Rosario 
on the Parana. 

AMERKOTE, a town and fort of India, terri- 
tory of Sinde. in the desert, S5 m. E. Hyderabad; 
lat. 25° 2(y N., long, 6!)° 49* E. The emperor 
Acbar was bom here m 1541. 

Utrecht, on the Eer 

this point, 12 ra. EN'E. Utrecht, Pop. 12,' 
1861. It is weU built and well fonilled; 
court of original jurisdiction, a college, a coi 
Hon of agriculture, with manufactures of fui 
■■ ■ ■ " ' izeens. It i: ' 

le Netherlands, prov. 

jvated in the eoiitiguou 

ilory ; and has a considerable transit trade in 
produce from Germany, embarited here in Hal- 
Dottomed boats from Amsterdam. The distin- 
guished statesman and grand pensionary, Bame. 
veldt, sBcriflced in 1S17 to the fanaticism of the 
people and tbe hatred of Prince Maurice, was ■ 

AHEKSUAM, a bor. and pa. of England, couuty 
BuikinKham, near the Colnc, 36 m. WSW. Lon- 
don. Pop. of parish, a,a60 in JUil. Tbe town 
consists of one long street, crossed by a shorter 



attached thrco cxhibitioiiH at Corpus Christi col- 
lejfc, Oxfonl, ^i-ith almsliuusea and tliree charities. 
A go<Ml do4il of black lace is manufactured, and 
the market is well attended. Previously to the 
lieform Act, by which it was dii^franchi^M^d, this 
l)i)rou;;h sent two mcmi)ers to the II. of C, the 
ri'cht of votin;; bcin^ in the uihabitants paving 
scot and lot ; l>ut these beinp: all tenants of the 
lord of the manor, it was in fact a nomination 

and [>ar. of England, co. Wilts. The town is situ- 
ate<l on the Avon, 7J m. X. Salisbury. Tlmuj;h 
inconsiderable, it is noto^ for the ruins of an abbey, 
the xairinitv of Stonehenge, and for having been 
the birth-place of Addison. The parb«h comprises 
C,m) acres, with a pop. of 1,138 in IHGI. 

AM II A K A. a division of Abyssinia, which seo^ 

AMHERST, a sea-port town of the Brit, prov. 
of Martaban, India Iteyoud the (langcs, and the 
chief British militarv and commercial station in 
the provinces E. the Yhan-lweng river, on a point 
<»f land in the NE. angle of the (xulph of i^Iar- 
taban, facing the moutli of the Than-lweng and 
the Isle of Balu to the N. Lat. 1G0 4'4»"X., 
l(jng. 970 35' 24" E. Estimated i>op. 5,000. Am- 
herst was founde<l in 1826, the restoration of 
the to^ii of Martaban to the Binnese, in the view 
of serv'ing as a military |Ktst, and a commercial 
establishment, and as an asylum for such refuge<»s 
as might choitse to emigrate from the Binnese 
dominions. The apex of the pn»montorj', which 
is the highest spot m the town, is occupied by the 
church, goveni(»r's house, court of justice, fortifi- 
cations and other public buildings; on the higher 
ground around it arc the EuropeAU and Chinese 
(piartcrs; and the lowest are by choice inhabited 
by the natives. The military cantonments are 
about H m* distant^ in a dr}', level, and elevated 
spot. The harbour is s])acious and seciune, wth 3 
lath, water at low nea]) tides: rise and fall al>ove 
19 ft., with a tlow of t> m. an hour, and perfectly 
still for 2 hours bf>th l>efore and after high water. 
Sliips may lie within 100 yards of the shore. 
Mangrove and a kind of oak are abundant here, 
and there are teak forests at no great distxmce. 
G<hm1 water is found everywhere 6 feet below the 

Amiikkst, a town of the IT. States, Hampshire, 
CO. ]\lassac*liusets, 82 m. W. Boston. Pop. 3,0.'>2 in 
18G0. A collide was established here in 182 1, 
which luis an observat^try and a good cabinet. 
Amherst is the name of some other places in the 
U. States. 

AMIIERSTBURliH, a small town of Upper 
(Canada, on I)An>it R., 3 m. above its embouchure 
in Lake Erie, and 14 m. below Detroit. It was 
founded during the adminUtration of Lord Am- 
herst, and was named after his lordship. 

AMIEXS (an. Sainarobnva)j a city of France, 
cap. dep. Somme, on the river of that name, 72 
m. N. Paris, on the (ireat Northern of France 
railway. Pop. 58,780 in 18(>l. Amiens has a 
citadel c«mstructed by Henry IV. It is well built; 
streets for the most part straight and clean; and 
it has some tine squares and promenades. The 
old Gotliic cathedral, in eJtcellent presentation, is 
one of tlie finest in P^urope. It is 30G ft, in length 
and 132 in height- Anumg the other public build- 
ings may be six-cifieti, the Royal C/Ollege, theatre, 
Hotel d*e Ville, corn-market, courts of justice, 
barracks, semuiary of St. Acheul, and chateau 
d'Eu. It is the seat of a bishop, has a cour Im- 
periale, a court of assizes, a commercial tribunal, a 
custom-house, a public library containing above 
40,000 vols., an academy, an academy of sciences 
anid belles-lettres, a free school of design, and a bo- 


tanical garden, Ac Manufactures very ooonda 
able. They consist prindpally of keneymat 
cassimeres, merinoes, and seiges, made paitly • 
home, anil partly of German and Spamah ira 
The linen trailo is also coDsiderable; bat it ii m 
sur{)assed by that of cotton. There are annul 
produced about 60,000 pieces of cotton velvet, t! 
a^O^ate value of which is estimated at idw 
8,(»O0,0OO fr.; and about 400 looms are uocii|i 
in the production of velvets cftfes dTUtnc 
Tliere are also several mills for the sfMnnini; 
cotton and flax ; with dye and bleach-wort 
manufactures of machinery, beet-ioot sogar, s 
chemical products; tanneries, soa]>- works, s 
|>aper-mills. The pdt^* de canard made here . 
highly esteemed. Flat-bottomed vostfcls. drawl 
from 40 t4> 50 tons, come up the river to the loi 
which is the centre of a very considerable tn 
OS well in its own productions as in those of 
surrounding couutr)*. Amiens is very anck 
1)eing supp«jsed to have existed anterior to 
invasion of Belgium by the Romans. It is knc 
in diplomatic history from the circiunstanoe 
detiuitive treaty of peace between England t 
the French republic having been signed in it 
the 25th March, 1802. It is the birth-place 
Peter the Hermit, the apostle of the first crosa 
of I>ucange, author of the Ghtaarium ad Sei 
tore* laeditB et infinue LMtinitatUn a wrsrk of w 
derful research and labour; and of Delambre, 
leameil author of the most accurate though 
the most eloquent liistory of astronomy. 

AMJHERRA, a small liajpoot state of 
Indui, Malwa, 46 m. WSW. Iiidur. Area 5M 
m. Pop. about 58,000. I^Iaize, cotton. fa| 
cane, and gnun, are the chief products. Ther 
a town of the same name 60 m. N W. CKijein, c 
taining about 500 houses, and laige and well s 
plied 1)azaars. 

Ai^rLVVCH, a sea-|H>rt town of N". Wales, 
shore of the Island of Anglesea, at the t^mi 
of a branch line of the Chester and Holyh 
railway. Pop. 5,949 in 18t)l. The town rose fi 
the state uf an inconsiderable tishing ^Hll^gc 
consequence of the discovery of the famous cof 
mines in the adjoining Pan'^s Mountain in 11 
It has a pretty good port, excavated from 
solid rock. During the flourishing period of 
mines, tliev produce<l above 3,000 tons a veai 
pure metal; but they have been gradually 
dining for several years. Amlwch is united v 
Beaumaris, Holyhead, and Llangefni, in retan 
a memljer to the II. of C. 
. AM:^rAN (the Rabbah of the Scriptural, 
Philadelphia of the (Greeks), a city of Syria E 
the Jordan, deserted and in ruins; lat. 32^ 8* 
long. 36^ 8' E.; 25 m. SE, Dead Sea, and SO 
E. Richa (an. Jericho), 

Tlie remains of Amman arc very extensive^ 
none of them seem to be older than the nara of 
I i reek power in Syria. They consist of tbeai 
temples, and colonnades, of great beauty and k 
tinish, some of them being in ver)' perfect prese) 
tion. A great number of private houses still 
main, but there is not a single inhalntant. 

This is one of the most ancient dries mentio 
in Jewish histor\'. It was the capital of the J 
monites, a people undisturbed by the Israeli 
settlement in Palestine, and with whom the J 
lived in a state of suspicious truce ull the «r 
Jephcthah, about 11(>1 B.C. Thenceforward 
two nations were in almost constant hostil 
generally to the disadvantage of the Ammcmi 
and in 1035 b.c. DaWd took their capitaL 
notwithstanding this untoward event, and the 
successful war they waged against JehoMup 
(b.c. 896), and Jotham (b.c. 760), they contu 


Id be t powerfiil people, and about 600 years b. a 
fifpGea Xebucbadnezzar with a strong auxiliary 
lone to amaat in the destruction of their old ene- 
witk Amman was subsequently included in the 
AHrriin and Persian empires; and after the battle 
of Lnis (B.C. 333), it passed, with the rest of 
Srrit and Palestine, into the hands of the Greeks. 
Ib 218 B. c. Palestine was the scene of war be- 
tween AntiochuB the Great and Ptolemy Philo- 
ptter: the f comer of whom utterly destroyed 
Anmian. Having been rebuilt by Ptolemy Phila- 
ddphuik it received from him its Greek appellation 
of PhUadelphia. It became a Roman town in the 
hrt centurv b. (X, and remained such till the con- 
opeit of f*alestine by the Saracens, a. d., G38. 
Inder the Christian emperors of the East, Am- 
man appears to have been a bishop's see, but it 
was declining before its capture by the Arabs, and 
Abul-Feda, in the early part of the 14th ccutur}', 
4BBcnbes it as already deserted. 

The ruins of Amman stand on the banks of a 

insAif which issuing from a la^e pond at the SW. 

eoner of the town, flows (partly under ground) 

over a dinty bed into the Zerka (an. Jab^k) an 

■fluent of the Jordan. The water of this stream 

k excellent, a circumstance which renders the spot 

t dearahle halting-place for caravans, the drivers 

tf which Oiie the ancient temples and buildings as 

ibelter for their beasts, fulfilling, it is supposed by 

mne i^udents of prophecy, the denunciation of 

Eiduel. * I will make Rabbah of the Ammonites 

a suble for camels and a couching-nlace for flocks.' 

(Nombeni to Chronicles, pastim ; rolybius, lib. v. 

op. 5. and C. : Robinson, ii. 172-175.) 

AMMEILSCHWIHR, or MarivUlier, a town of 
Fnnce, dep. Haut Rhin, 4 m. N\V. Colmar. Pop. 
2.ti36 in 1861. Excellent wine is grown in the 

JlMOL a city of Persia, prov. Mazunderan, on 
theHcnuz, about 12 m. above where it faUs into 
tbe southern part of the Caspian Sea ; lat 3(P 30' 
X,l««. 0-29 2^ 55" E. Pop. differs at different 
MMoitt: but in winter, when greatest, is estimated 
WMt Frtzer at from 35,000 to 40,000. The prin- 
ce uMect WOTth notice is a mausoleum erected 
br Shah AUms over the remains of a former dis- 
tini;ai»bed M>vereign of Saree and Amol, who died 
b \^'K This magnificent structure has, however, 
iieui injured by an earthquake, and b rapidly de- 
carug. There is a bridge of 12 arches over the 
Hcraoz, and there are in the >'icinity of the town 
■uuy mounds and other remains of Persian anti- 
quities. The bazaars are extensive, and well sup- 
I^ied with certain articles ; but it has Uttlc trade 
or ioduMiT. Mr. Frazer could not find tea cither 
iMte or at Balfiroosli, and the inhabitants had never 
lw«nl of coffee. Chillaw and nuu, that is plain 
b.<i]ed lice and sour curds, is the common food of 
tbe people, some of whom season it with a little 
nit &Jl (Fraser^s Southern Banks of the Caspian 
Sea. jK 101.) 

AMOOR, or AMUR, a large river of E. Asia, 
vhioh has its sources in Mongolia. It is formed 
1^' ihe junction of two great rivers, the Onon or 
ChUka, which rises nearly under the 110 dog. of 
Elfog: and the 50 d(^. of N. lat., and the Kerou- 
lon m Argoun, which rL^es nearly imder the same 
OMriilian, but about 2^ deg. more to the S. Tlie 
bfter river travern^ the great lake of Koulon, and, 
iMiiiig {torn it, and pursuing a NE. course, forms, 
or recently formed, for a considerable distance, the 
line of demarcation between the Russian and Chi- 
nese empires. The Keroulun and Onon imite near 
the fort i4 Ruklanova, in about the 1 20th deg. E. 
luc^ The combined river having taken the name 
«f Amoor, flows E. and BE., till, at its most S. 
pomt, it is joined by its large tributary, the Soon- 



gari, flowing NE. : the Amoor, having suddenly 
taken the same direction, preserves it during the 
remainder of its course, till it falls into the arm of 
the sea opposite the N. end of the island of Sag- 
halien, or Tchoka, in about the 53d deg. of lat. and 
the 140th deg. of long. The entire course of the 
river, to the source of the Keroulun^ reckoned the 
principal branch, is estimated, inclusive of its wind- 
ings, at 2,641 m. It is na\'igable by steamers fn)m 
June to November, when it is free of ice, to a dis- 
tance of 2,200 m. from the sea. In the lowej part 
of its course it flows through a comparatively rich, 
well-cultivated country ; but the coimtrj- round its 
sources, and the upper part tjf its course W. of the 
Kingan Yalo mountains, being contiguous to the 
great desert of Shamo or Gobi, has the same 
characteristics. The Russian fort of Nertschinsk 
stands on the Nertscha, near where it falls into 
the Cbilka. In 1854, a Rus^an expedition went 
down the Amoor, planting a number of posts, and 
securing to Russia possession of the course of tho 
river to the sea, and tho whole countrj' to tho 
north. In 1861 the Russians also acquired, by 
treaty with China, all the region east of the lower 
Amoor and the river Ussuri, an afiluent from the 
south, which joins the Amoor in lat. 34° 40' N., 
giving to Russia the sea coast as far south as Capo 
Sisdro, in the Sea of Japan, llie Rusi^ian terri- 
tory is diWdod into the prov. of the Amoor (cap. 
Blagoveschensk), area 718,500 sq. m., p<^p. 40,000, 
and the maritime prov. of E. Siberia, separated by 
the Kingan mountains. The country is as yet 
very sparsely inhabited. The chief places on the 
recently acquired coast, counting from S. to N., 
are — Victoria Ray, or Peter the Great Gulph ; Port 
Seymour, or Ogla Bay ; and Vladimir Bav, in the 
Sea of Japan ; Constantinovsk, or Port Imperial, 
on Barracouta harbour ; Alexandrovsk, on Castries 
Bay, near the mouth of the river : and Nicolaievsk, 
at the mouth of the river, in the Gulph of Tartary. 
The trading places in the interior are mostly on 
the banks of the Amoor. The Russians have' also 
the port of Dui, in the island of Saghalien, and 
coal IS found in the neighbourhood. Witliin the 
last few years a considerable trade has groHn up 
along the shores of the Amoor. In the year 1864 
there arrived 9 foreign ships at Nieolaievsk, name- 
ly — 3 American, 2 German, and 4 Danish. In 1864 
a Russian government steamer openeil the na\'iga- 
tion of the Poongari, ascending a distance of up- 
wards of 600 miles, as for as the Chinese tovs-n of 
Guirine, a most populous place, estimated to con- 
tain above 100,000 inhabitants. The Russian na- 
val force in the Amoor river was comi)oscd, in 
1864, of 6 cor\'ettes, mounting 11 gims each; 7 
schooners, each of them with 6 guns; and 1 1 steam 
transports, vrith a total of 37 guns. (Consular 
Reports ; Ravenstein, E.G. ; The Russians on tlie 
Amur, Lond. 1861.) 

AMORGO (an. Amorgoa)^ an island of the Gre* 
cian Archipelago, about 36 m. in circumference, 
hnng SE. from Naxia, m about 36° 50' N. lat, 
and under the 26th deg. of E. long. Pop. esti- 
mated at between 2,000 and 3,000. It is m part 
moimtalnous and rocky ; but, in antiquity, it was 
noted for its fertility, and is still well cultivated, 
producing more com and wine than the inhabitants 
can consume. It contains a town of the same 
name. Port St. Anna, on the N. shore of the 
island, is an excellent harbour, \iith goixi anchor- 
ing ground in fn»m 18 to 20 fathoms. Simonidcs, 
famous in antiquity for Ids iambics, was a native 
of Amorgos. 

AAIOUR (ST.), a town of France, dep. Jura, 
cap. cant, 9 m. SVV. Lons-le-Saidhier. Pop. 2,343 
in 1861. It has a forge, a nail work, a considerable 
marble work, and tanneries 



A.'VrOY, a f»o.i-]M)rt town of China, prov. Fokion, 
wiili a oomnuMliims ami «'<Mire harlHiur: lal. 24° 
10' X.. Ion;,', llso 10' K. It U; of iho i)ortH 
iio'.v o|H'n lo fon'i^i tradi; in China. Tliouj^h Mlii- 
nu-i\ in one of the leaj^t fertih* distriots of the 
empire, the mrrdiants of Aniov cam- on a verv 

I • • ■* 

f'Xii:u>ivo intoroourso with Konno>a, wlieucc they 
irrn)«irt |»n)vi?<ions, with the otlier Chinese |>ort8 to 
the N. and S., and M'ith Siani, Java, Sin|^a]Hire, 
till* SiM>-l<M> islands, «Jti". Kxjiorts to foreign coun- 
tries, tea, and silk ; imj.»«irts. rire, hn;^ar, ramphor, 
iVc. In 18G2 the nunilK»r of liritish vessels t-ntcr- 
ini^ the jMirt was — steamers TiCi ; sailing vessob* 
i»7 ; total tonnajre, W».ini>. The niunljorof foreign 
vessels, other than British, wits 2(U ; tonnage, 
7n.;V.».s. The esiiinatiHl value of the expirts in 
IJriti^li vess«!ls, in Si»anish dollars, was 2.0i>*J.0 13 
(:'i'.)r,.-j-jn/.) : iin|M)rts, in Spanish dollars. ,V>iU,U*Jl. 
Th«-n* had hnn a very great liecrease in the tr.-ule 
as eoni|ian*d with IHdo and \x*tl. owing <'hii tly t<» 
I he heavy rxai'lions levied by local authorities, 
(l.'onsular lIr|K»rts.) 

AMl'FINti, a village of IJavaria, (? m. W. l.y 
X. !MuhKlorf. A gn*at battle was f»»ught hi the 
vieiiiily of this village, on the J'^ih September. 
l.'I'J'i. U'twoen Louis, duke of Havana, eni|K»ror of 
(iemiany, and Fre(h;riek, arehduke of Austria, 
when the latter was entirely ch^feated and niaile 
l)ris<iner. (Pfellel. anno l;i22.) It was from tl4s 
point also that Moreau commenced Ids famous 
reirt'at in \f<w. 

AM1*LKI*L'1S, a town of France, dep. Klume, 
1!» m. WSW. Villefranrhe. Pop. it.'Ml in l««il. 
It has niaintfaetures of Unen and cotton, particu- 
larly the latter. 

AMPTJIILL, a m. town and p. of Knglanil, co. 
Tiedford, h. K<'db<jnistoke, {'ih m. N\V. London. 
l*op. 2,01 1 in isi'il. It is neatly binlt, has a eha- 
rity sch(M»l for lo po(»r children, ami an hospitid 
fur 10 ]><M»r nj«*n and women. Ampthill J*ark, a 
m.igintlcent mansion, the property of Lord Hol- 
land, is situated a little to the W. of the toA\ii. 

AMPl'KIAS, a town and castle of Sjuiin, NE. 
part «if Catalonia, on the Llohregat. near the sea, 
21 m. NK. (leroim. INip. 2,500 in 18.'»7. 

AMK'AN, a wailed city of Arabisi, in the Dsje- 
Ih^I. or mountain land of Yemen, l>eing the chief 
town of a district of the smie name; lat \!P '.i'2' 
N., long. 4:P ?.S' E. ; 2o m. NW. Sanaa, and 10-1 
>»'K. Ilodeida. Pop. unknown, but may ])n)l)ahly 
amount to fmm l.')00 to 2,000. It stan<lH near a 
mount :un, in a fertile country, in the centre of the 
coffee lands, the dep. to which it gives name being 
a part of Ilaschid-u-Hekel, one of the most iioteil 
tlivisitins of Yemen for the growth of cofl'ee, Axn- 
nui is not^ lu)wever, politically imited with the 
state of lla.schi(l-ii-Iiekel, but is under the g<»vem- 
raent of the Imam of Yemen Proi>er. (Niebuhr, 
Des. <le I'Ar., ]Kir. ii. pi>. 127-220.) 

AMKKTSiK or UMKITSIR {Pool of Tmmor- 
taiitt/), a town of the Punjab, India, the holy city 
of the Seikh ])eople, 41 m. E. Lahore; lat. 31° 
y,:V X., long. 43° 3«' E. I»op. estimated at i>0.0(K). 
It is an open town, about 8 m. in ciro.; street* 
narrow; houses lofty, and built of l)umt bricks, 
but the apartments are smalL Manufaotunis in- 
considerable ; but Iteing situated on the Idgli n^ad 
between CaiKH)! and Delhi, and Cachmen! and the 
Decern, it enjf»y» an extensive trade, and is tlic 
H'^idence of several rich merchants and bankere. 
It Is defended by a fort built by the Ilunject Singh, 
who united it to the I^avee by a canal 34 m. in 

The town derives its entire celebrity from its 
iK'ing the ]mncipal of the Seikh religion. 
Amret.«.ir, or the Pool of Immortality, is a basin 
135 paces square, biult of brick, in the midst of 


which is a temple, covered with * burnished cnid 
[Burnes)^ de«iicated to the warrior saint Goom) i 
(ioviud Singh, the principal fonniler of the religitiB I 
and |K)wer of the Si'ikhs. Within thL< temple k f 
presi'rved, under a silken canopy, the Grinth Sdiik^ r 
or sacred Un^k of the Seikhs, being a code cii Itm 
and ordinances, princi|)ally c<>mpiled by the ahnre 
siujit. The temple is attendeil by a uumcTooii Itnd? 
i»f ]>riej<t-s, who arc «upjK»rted by the voluniaiT 
offerings of the <levotees by whom it i» frequented. 
Immersion in the sacred pxd is beliove«l In* the 
Seikhs. and many tril)es of Ilindooti, to irurifr 
from all sin. 

In I84ti a treaty was signe<l at AmreLsir, ly 
which the territorj- ci»mpris<»d Iwtween the riven 
IJeas and Sutlej was cede<i to the British. 

'Hie. total annual value of the trade of Amn-t^ir 
is estimated tt) exceed l,t)0(},(HHi/. sterling, the 
mti>t im|Hirtaut items being — sh.iwl fabrics. ab<Kil 
2;;:),ooo/.; (jotton piece g«KHls 23.*i.<;(M.i/. ; raw silk, 
I47,0(M.«/. : silk fabrics, 4 ?<,('•( Mi/.: spic<»."*. ilnigssT»>- 
«<'ry, and halienhisher>', (U;,00o/.; and tcji, U),*mL 
The remuintler is made up of a great variety of 
articles, inchidnig m.idder, alum, indigo, tr^bacco, 
siigjir, jewels, and ciHdiineal. The silk manu- 
facture is a ver\' important one at Amrctsir. as well 
as at Lahore and !ViiM>ltan. The raw silk is im- 
! ported from Kokand, Itokhara, Ualkh. Khulnif 
^ Kashmir, and other ]>arts of Central Asia; from 
I llcuc^al, and fmm China bv liombav. The greater 
: portion of the tnide is with Af'chanistan and <>n- 
tral Asia, Amrctsir is the pnncijMil man in the 
j Punjiib for the cotton fabrics of ManolMs-ter. the 
I gohl thn-ad of Agra and Delhi, the metal utensil<« 
I of Hindustan, the sugar grown in the Hurrounding 
. alluvial plains, and the grain and cattle of the 
I neighlNuirluHHl. Founded about one hundrc<l yean 
' ago, the town is now the tenninu.** <»f a railwar 
from Mooltan by I^ahore, and the t^vat of sliawl 
and silk manufactun's, and is advancing yearly in 
wealth and pojmlation. It is projK>soii to coustrod 
a road fn»m Lahore to J'eshawur, which willgivatly 
facilitate the trmle between Amrctsir and the latter 
])hu'e, through which is the princifMil trade with 
Afghanistan and Ontral Asia. A further im|>ulM 
will be imparted bv a railway I»etwoen Amretar 
and Delhi in course of construction. (Kopurt of 
Mr. Davicrs on Trade of Central Asia, 1^03.) 

AMSTEKDAM, a famoiu marit. and commer- 
cial city of Holland, cap. prov. X. Holland, and (/ 
a district and cant, of the same name, on the S. 
bank of the Y, an inlet or arm of the Ziiyder Zee, 
where it is joined by the Amstel : lat, frJP 22' li 
N., long. 4° 53' li)" E. Ik?uig Mt.uated in a marsh, 
its buildings are all foun<le<l on ]ulcs ilriven fnni 
40 to oO feet, into a soil confiisting of alluvial de- 
jK>sits, peat, clay, and sand. The canals bv which 
it is ev(!r\'where intersected, and along wiiich all 
hea\y burdens arc conveyed, divide it into 9t) 
islands, and are crossed by about 290 bridgeA, partly 
w(kk1 and partly stone. Its form w tliat of a cres- 
cent or half moon, the horns on either side pi\>- 
jecting into the Y. and inclosing the jjort. On the 
land side it is sumnmded by walls having 26 bas- 
tions and a wide ditch ; but its rampartjt luivc been 
])lante.d w^ith trees, and converted into public walkj 
and l)oulevards ; the only defence of tlie town con- 
sisting in the facility with which the surroumUng 
country might be laid under water. It is from M 
to 9 m. in circ, and covers a space of about SKK) 
acres. 'Hie Amstel, which runs through the city, 
diWdes it into two nearly equal portions; that to 
the E. of the river being termed the old, and thst 
to the W. the new city. In the centre and oldest 
lK)rtion of the city, on both sides the Amstel, is a 
cluster of irregular streets and canals; but the 
streets and canals roimd this central nucleus are 

naU, tbe fltcren, Kn-wn, snd Pi 
■ DM owly U> be maiched in ut 
Mn tut thdr leii0h, width, ftn 
iBd degancc oT th«it buildint^ They 
boM 3 m. ]t>af(, aboat 2HI fnC bnwd: 
vw the direction af (he outer wall o1 
rhidi ia that of a iwLvf^nal CTescent^ 
Ike lii>« perfertly ilrailcht betneen the 

"^- "■ e larife and well 

■oan sifflie bridges 
wn tlie middle of 

iBl& Tbe hoDM« u 

me iDeetf, the >i 
pared and lighted, aa 
all the ocher Miteu. The piinnpal 

1 the KaltersStraat,-'-- "'■ ■■- ' 

annuls Straat. The 
lUthedinintpart of 

d oCben belon^nff to the poorer d 
Ian under the hnuHs nf the more 
a ureat many renide constantly o 
isoiiifiinaMe apartri>ents built or 
*of tbfir irmdinf; renela, more paj 


1 payment of a < 

«ni Mn constructed in an elegant atvle, 
r them are splendidly Atted up. 
■blic hoildin^rs, the palacf, lormerly 

't rtaiida ID an open space or square, 
Sbduil This fioc almcture, le^rdcd 
di a* the eighth wonilcr of Ihe world, 
■n a fooiidatioR uf I.1,K59 pileii: it is 

Icnicth, £15 in depth, and IKi high, 
if the cniinia, wbiuh is H feet higher, 
ki top of which there is an excellent 
■ aingnlar city. With the exceiition 
md floor, which is <if brick, it is built 
i. The liall-rDom, ropresrnled as one 
t in Ennrie, ia saiil to he lid fret long, 
1, and 90 in height The foundations 
It-tHHue were laid in Ilrit, and it was 

the short space of 7 year?u Among 
— "-'-i: bnildJDgH are, (he cxchnnjw. 

•ik prinHpal 

la; the arsenal, bnilt on the island of 
f; and the buildings of the society of 
Ik, having a auiierb eoocett halL Ot 
m, that mnnt worthr nf attention, the 
±, waa be^n in I'itW. It contains 

re ailmiral l>e Ituiier. The painted 
■wiof the <)i<i Chon-h, dcdii-atcd to Si. 
n utmng the Hnt-xl in l^un'pv. There 
oat 3I> places of wonilii]!. animig wliicb 

STnagognes, the -lews being suppoaed 
(D abmit 16,000. The principal hridge 
BMel, near where it enters (he eitv, 

ia length by irl in breadth, with 11 

twbirii large ships pans. The tur- 
the French, three migh-houiics, 

hie noticed. In Wtl, the warehouses 
oDt (or the East India Company being 

lie limry institutions i« the Alhe- 

aaatomicB] theatre, and a botanical 
lac are here also a school uf naviga- 

X ZtB there 

or Sodetv of Felix JVm'h'i ; and a societv of Pub- 
lic Utility, foundol on an extensive suale in ITST. 
Schools of the best description, for (he gntuituiu 
education of the poor, ore found in every part of 
(be town; and instruction may be said to be uni- 
versally diffui«d. There are three theatres. The 
workhouses, hospitals, infirmaries, the house of 
conTction, or rasp-house, the oriilion-house, the 
eetahlishment for widows, the lunatic asylnm, 
with the numerous other charitaliie estahlish- 
menta, may be citod a* models of good onler, 
cleanliness, and ceonomv. Tbe hospital for the 
old and indigent of both sexes, on the quay of 
the Amstel, u admirably contrived fnr the com- 
fort and convenience of its inmates. The building 
is !fiO feet long, liy 330 deep, and S stories high. 
It has galleries end a garden where its occujiiera 
enjoy the fresh air. There is here, and in other 
Dutch towns, a class of provident iiistitutinns or 
asylums, which admit sgeil perwtisof both sexes 
mparadvely small sum. Mas- 
fcWBuroquentlv rewani old and fnith- 
}y paving for their admisrdon into one 

s of the canals opening into the Y 
and of tbe Amstel an provided with strung flood- 
gates; and on the side of (he town nearest the 
—1 a new dyke has been conslnictcd Ut giianl 
oinst inundations. The haiiiour is spacious anil 
:uie; the largest ships coming close to the qiia.v* 
d warehouses. It ha.4 mviitly been much im- 
proved by the fnrmation of ducks and la ' 
'•-- - -t where they iiHtis the Zuy 

cmwcd by lai;^ ship unhw prevLxisly Ughtetied. 
.- 1 ■ .. .. . -ncnnveiiiences arising from this 
il the dangers anil cleLi\-s occa- 
the sliallowncss and diflicnlty of nai-i- 
gating the Zuvder Zee, a ship canal has been 
■ ■ - ■ ■ teniam to the IIcld(T. Thin 

im. in length : and lieing 
mits huge ships. IMleviJ 
'- ""at of the highest tiiles, the only locks it re- 
's being one at each end; but il has two sluices 
LC intermediate space. It was begun in 1HI9, 
finished in 1K25, at an expense of about 
l,00a,atHlj: The dues arc mo<lemIei owl it bos 
been of the greatest senico to Amstenlnin, by 
giving it, as it were, a deep-water hariiour on the 
— ust accessible part of the llulch coast. 

The manufactures of Amsterdam, betudcs va- 
rious branches of those nf wmd. linen, cotton, and 
ilk, comprise sail-cloth, refineries (J sugiir, bo- 
IX, sal-ammoniac, sulphur, &c, ; with distilleriM 
nd bieweries, tonnenes, tohacco-manufact^mes, 
rm-founrleriea, rope-walks, smalti-woiks. gas- 
riitia, soap-works, cnl mills, it. Shiji-lmilding 
I extensively carried on. The an of ciitling 
iamimds and other stones lor the landaries has 
here attained to great peifection. About l<i,00O 
persons, 9,000 <if whom are Jews, ore engaged in 

the annual value of the tmHic in 

precious stones amounts to Sil,UOO,l>0O florins, 
.lenellery, gold lace, *c. are also Urgely prudueed. 
~)u( Ami>(enlara is fnr more distinguished as a 
railing than as a manufacturing cilv. Through- 
iiit the I7th centuT^-. and (he first half of the 
18th, she was what London is at present, the me- 
tropolis of tbe commercial worhl, (iradua11y,how- 
partly in consequence of the oppressiveness 
- public burdens, but mure, perhaps, of tb 

other countries, 
carrying trade, which 


I in England 

had nearly 
ler fisheries ai 
ively ' fell off. During the 

iraign trade pnsressively ' fell off. During the 
ilyugaliou of Ilolland by France, her culoniea 



foil into the han«ls of England, hor ships tlisap- 
|^>i>are(l (mm the Hca, and tlift trade <>f AniHtenlam 
was almost anniliiUtt^l. Itut. notwith>t.indin^ 
these untoward eveiit,s,aiid the exactions to which 
hhe was A'|K'alfdly suhjcctJMl, slie ])rr"M;rve<l her 
indnstry and a vast amount of cajntal; an«l no 
fiooner had ]>eAce lK.'en restored and Holland had 
recMivered a |Nirtion of htT eohmies than the com- 
merce of Amsterdam lK?pan rapidly to incn!a>«e ; 
and though still far short of its anci<;nt un|Kirt- 
ani^e, it i.s now of very conHiderable extent and 

TIjc imports ]>rincipally cfmsist of sugar, coflTee, 
8pi«'es, tohaci^>. cotton, teiu indigo, cochineal, wine 
and hrandy, w<m)1, grain of all s<»rts timlxr, pitch 

and, in 1801, to 268,204. Notwithstandinc tke 
city is surrounded on all sides with water, and tbit 
th(> grcAtest care and attention arc rcqairal to 
j>ri>vent its being subniei);ed, it labour:* undrra 
loinl wiint o( spring water. The water in the 
river and canals being lilthy, braclush, and tntallr 
unlit for use^ the inhabitants arc partly supplied 
by rain wat4T carefully collected in tanks, vA 
partly by water brought in a peculiar dewr^ilioa 
of barges fn>m the Vecht. 6 or 7 m. distant De- 
spite this want of good potable water, the hund- 
dity of the atmosi»here, and thectHu\'iagi-nented 
in wann weather frr>ra the water of the itinaK ihi 
tovni is free from epidemic disonlers, and the hi' 
habitants are healthv and robust. Must pnibabl} 

and tar, ht>mp and tiax, iron, hides, linen, cotton ■ this is owing in a consideraldc degree to the cun 
and wtMillen stufls, hardware, r»»ck-s;dt, tin plat<'s I fortahle mode of living of the hulk of the {Kia^Jk 
coal, ami dried lish. Tho i'X}x»rts consist i«irtly j the pn-valcnce of cleanliness, in which the Ihitc 
of tiic jinKluce of Holland. ])iirtly of the produce ; are superior to all other nations : and the absent 
of her ]Missessi(ms in thi* East and \V»->t Indies* (»f extreme p<»verty and de-stitution. 
and otluT tropiciil countries, and i»artly of c<»m- The toleration that prevails at Amsterdam d« 
nuxlities brought to Amsterdam as tt> a <'onvenient honour to the people an<l the govenimenu Tha 
mtrt'pot from diffenMit parts <»f Eun>|»e. Of tht; | is here every variety of S4»ct; but they are <iistxi 

lirst class are cheese and butter ; madd<'r: clover, [ gui'^lH;d by nothin;; so much as by their al>stincni 
rsi]K.'. hemp and tlax-stKnls ; raiw and linsee<l «»ils ; fn»m theological discussions and by their ap|iarei 
1 hitch linen. A'c. Geneva is princijmlly exjMirted resjKjct for the opinions of others. It miwt nc 
from Schie^lam and Rotterdam (no less than however, l)e inferrc<l that the toleration i-xistiD 
.^MHMNIO cases wen> despatched to Australia in hen; and in the n'st of H<dland — a toleration pe 
l>^2) : oak bark princi]Mdly fn>m the latter. Of fc<.'( ii\ fact as well as in law — has its origin in an 
the second class are spices ; Min^ha and Java c<»f- ' tlcgree of apathy with respect to religion, or I 
fee: sugar of Java, Krazil, and (.•ui)a: cochimral. , any irreligious tendencies on the f jart of the pec 
indigo, <N»tton. tea, tobacco, and all sorts of <yisteni pie; such a conclusion wtmld be ntterly emineott 
and colonial pnslucts. And of the third class, all , Oenerally sjieaking, the Hollanders, whatever ma; 
kinds of grain ; linens from Gennany : tiniU'r and | be their religious pmfession, an* tin 
all sorts of Baltic priNlutre: Sitani.^h, German, and | believers, and devotetl to the ])nu'tice of|uet]r 
Enjjlish wools: French, llhenish, and Hungarian j This -virtue iM*r\'ades all claswe-s of yoiiety. A» 
wities, bran<ly, A'c. Tlie trade of Amsterdam may, I stenlam for ages has lK*en a * city of refiiffe't* 
indeed, Ik; said to comprise every article that the o])pTessed and ]K'rsccuted of all nations: u4 
enters into the cinnmerce (if Euroi)e. The total therein lies one of the main causes of its wetltb 
value of the imports and ex|y>rts are res])ectively and pros|KTity. 

estimateil at about ;J,'»on,(K)0/. t)rl,<MM),0()o/. Emm j In t;verk' part of ITolland, but no where man 
220 to 'i-Jn large ships belong to Amstenlam, em- ; than at Ainstenlam, do we tind prtH)f-* of the asrto- 

yloyetl in the trade to the E. and W. Indies, the nishuig power of ingenuity, industr}', ami pew* 
laitic, d'C. There Ls little «'.oasting trade; the; verance. This great city is not merely built in • 
connnunication w^ith most other I)utch towns • niarsh, but is constantly ex|M)se<l to the ri:4 df 
In-ing |»rinci|Milly kc]>t up by canals and railways. Wing overwbehniil by the intluence of hi;;h tidai 
The t<»tal nunilx-r ol >hips of all sorts entering the . and storms. Ihit this danger has iK'en effectiuJIy 

iK)rt. amounts, at an average, to alnnit *J,'2()(i a year. ])rovided against; and the waters by whidi flie 
n 13SG2 only 1.725 vessels entered the ivirt, a con- 
sidenible decrease fn»m the ])receding year. Am- 
stenlam has n.'gular steam (r«>mnninication with 
Ilarlhiiren. Hamburg, horidon. and Hull, and is 

city is all but snm)uniled, and which peuetnte 
everj' one of its stn'ets are under c«»mplete wa- 
trol, and made to <.-<»ntrilaite to the comfort tfd 
acconnnthlation of the inhabitants. Hie voik< 

connected by railways with the Hague, Rotterdam, necessary for the public safely and |m)tectionit- 

and Amhem. The tratle of Am>»tenlam is chielly 
wnth Australia, Java, Guinea, Ja|»2ui, Chili, Uio 
de la Phita, the Mediterraneiin, Swwleii. Xomay, 
the Kaltic, and the White Scii. The trade with 
England is decreasing. 

The men^hants of .cVmstenlam were formerly 
most oxtAjnsive <lealers in bills of exchange, and 
in all sorts of fmnled pntiK'rty and government 
securities; but I^nidon is now, in this resiKi't, far 

su]K*rior to her oM rival : the latter, however, still as well as to grind c»)ni, and cnisli seedx. Tha 
enjoys a large share of the exchange business of is a large windmill on every one of tlie bastioi 
the ('ontinent, and many of her capitalists are j by which Amstenlam is sumiundeil. 
large holders of fon-ign securities. I Amstenlam has lK*en sometimes called the V 

The old bank of Amstiinlam, founded in KlOO, ' nice «»f the North; and in resfKH»t of situatin 
and s«> celebratetl among the moneyed institutions number of canals, and the magnificence of ti 
of the iMth centurv, c(>ased to exist in ITIH), <>n . puhlic and private e<litices it certainly bears a re 

qnin', hf>wever, t() Ui watclnvl over with unceasu^ 
vigilance; and a large annual exfienditure u is- 
cnmsl in ket-ping them in good n'p.-iir, awl in 
dn'd^ing and clearing the p<irt and canals. 

Notwithstanding the superabtuiiUince of water 
there is not, owing to the tlatnesu of the siriL i 
single water mill in IIollantL There are, huir«\'a 
immense nuinl>ers of wind miUs, empio}-ed fri 
quentlv to pnmp up water fn>ni the htw gnwDd 

the invasion <»f Holland by the French, The ]»re- 
sent l>ank of the Netherlands was established in 
1M14. hiMirance business is extensively carried on. 
Amsterdam is scantely more |x»pulous now than 
it wjis eighty ye/irs ag«>. In ilXi) the iK)p. is saitl 
to have amounted to 2."J.'>,<MX). It had declined in 
1814, the e\H)c\\ of it-i greatest »lepn'-««.-ion, to 
1)<1),U00; and it amoiuitcl, in 19 11, to 211.')!!), 

striking resemblanw to the Venice of the Soul 
Ijiit each of these great cities has notwithstandii 
a ])erfectly original and distinctive chamctcr. 

In the 12th centuri', Amstenlam was only 
small Hshhig \illage; in 1 ls2, it was fortiticiL '. 
tlieoutM-'t <if the rrv(dutionar>*stnigglewith Spa 
the Ihike of Alva having exjX'lKHl the Pnitestv 
from the city, and c mmitted the government 

■ CubaUa, it rapportnl fnr a lengthened 
Ibe ODK of the Riianuircl!! ; aoil it wss nnt 
■78 that it jmne.1 the mnfe.iersliun. From 
oA it b>^a rupidly to inrwase, ITio nnun 
ilB loleruion bang gisntnl tn all nect*. it 
t Ml wvlum lot thuK ilrireu by |>enecutti)n 
ha other toviu of the Low Countries 
■a. ThedosingupofthcSchFldCiDl 
oed the greatei part of (be trade of Antv 
itndam, and raiMd the latter to the bi){ 

r^^^JdlSI^ND, a nnall bat reirn 
Mid In the S. Indian Ocean, laL aV 47 
P U' FL, heinc H m. in lrnf;th, hv i^ in 
i,aiKt 700 feet high. It in obviuuiilyor vot- 

.: — ^ lai^ portion iit occu|ae(l hy 

■■"-dlj- been a mugnificeiil ci ' 

a, it in now convert«l into a tifruUu- har- 

ia everyvhere lif;ht anil ii]iongy, and 
BBing hut. Thcrp ar« xeveml hot .i]irin; 
twnper a liirea varj'iiiK frnm XIP Fuh. to t 
pginl : with the excqitinn of a Hinicle cha- 

■icinj;, haviuK ■ temperaliife of 112°, all 
iog* in the i;dand are brat'liteh. Some nf 

^■inpi an sn near the wbI«-'h eilgp. that 
BxagKcntion to affirm that 1i<4i taken with 
: bsid may be bailed with the othvr [ The 
dfaur HW awann with Torioiu >iperie!< of Hah, 
- - -'erfruit- 

Ij with crav&Oi. 

; plant, nor niiadrupedn, nor li 

n thta iiilanil; but it i> naurteil lo by vutt 
n of Ma-liinJi^ SeaL* and aca linns aliuunil 

aaaonallj vuateii "by nhipH ennasnl in thp 
hoj. It vaa diwni-cr»l bv a Dulcli nuri- 
Fm VlaminR. in 1G9G, anif was vliilol bv 
nnw in i;tf9. 

9TEIU>A}I, NEW. a town ami harbour of 
>la, Eii|r1>sh rhilnno. nnu- the m. of thH 
Hirer. Pop. l.T.'iOin Will, IWng fuumlcii 

Ihncfa. it is built in their fashion, and in- 
td i:nr numcmua caoalii. lliv private liouscit 
mIt of wood, covcrpd with binnlim leiavcs, 
tjCsrerntnent ollices are iif liridt. and hand- 
■fnQt. The entianre to the river, in lat. 
K_ long. 67° 11' W., ia defended by three 
Tbnc are only 7 Itel water r>n the' bar at 
h. The auulu' bdiif! lillnl anil em|>tie<< by 
■■ and ebb of the lide. all imiiuntics »k 
it, and the health of Ilie Iiwn n pivmrved 
h<an ding the beat orihcclimalp. 
IZELU a village of WllrtenibiTg. eire. Da- 

Po|k 1,306 in istjl. lliere i« a Hue old 

ICAPRI, a t«wn in the NW. comer of Ihc 
<deafri,ia Ibt Gulf orXa].lu<, on the N. 
' llonnt Solani, nearlv 'i,lt)tt feet above the 
rOesea. Pop. 1.667 in INfil. Thcat«ent 
viTF neep, and b effected by a utait of 553 
aUld la (tsfnato. It has a choreh, a con- 
oid ■ caMle in the ndghlnurhond : there 
two ancienl towers, and Ihc remaina of 
dficn, unibnl to Tlberiu.". The pro»p*«t 
ta canle i« extensive, and idngukrly rich 
mmanjling the Tynh( 


ANAM on AX-KAM (Empirk of), aim known 
a» Ok:iiiM Ciiika, a eouiilry of Aiaa, ncmpying 
the E. iHirliiin of tlie );ruat E, penuii<ula uf S. Asia. 
cir India beycmil the liautm, oimprL'inK Cirldn 
Cliina anil Touipiin (to which only thu name of 
An-nom properly Iwlonga). with Ihc E. and ^i. |Hit 
of Combuilia. anil many snii^ ishmils in the c^nem 
Sea. It lies l-etwecn 8° 4S' anil 2i|0 22" N. lat., 
and 105° to 1IIU° E. long. ; haviiiK X. the Cliinew 
provinecsof (Juang-tong, Quang-si, aiul Vun-nan j 
W. Laos and Kiaui, anil in the nut of its extent, 
the ocean. It ia 9U5 m. in length, varying in 
width (rum 415 m. lo GO m. Area, pniliabrv al»iit 
08,000 sq. m Pop. cslimattxl at from 10 to I if 

The cnunlry lit snbiliviihid as followH i— 
■ " " "■■ (collod Uong-traiiing.raCeiilral 


Ill ispltol ([U]k <!0.OIM, Cniit- 

3. Canio^'a (calleil Ko-mi 

fiini's '. 

u Euiioiwy,' one of tl 


— The |irineipal chain, an olTset rmm 

Himalaya riiii;i'. runs tlinaigli llie iiiilral and 

.lliem purls of ihe muntrv, romiitii; the IV. 

Uiiinihir}- of Cochin lliiiui, anil (lie K. oiw of tjui 

CanilHslja. UhI li'rminatiw at 4'aiie Si. Jaineis 

il. ll)°lli'X. Itplwcen this (Bilge anil the sea, 

L'ariiin China cnaMiits nf a Miiia.wliin nf iitlii'm, 

grailuallj drrreairing^ iu hi'ighl as tbin' amnHwh 

■he aliorc, and iiie1i»unK a gieut niimlnTr of fertile 

'alli^'v. Tluw: muDnlaiiui have nut Iwvn inea- 

iinsl by Eumpeans. Tlie suiniiiits rf the jirin- 

ipal chain are aciunimilnt, sterile. aiHl miKt ]in>- 

baldy gianilie ; )iut llirir slii'p sides an^ elnllieil 

iih extensive forests, and llw inferior rank's arii 

ten cullivnteil nearly to tlleir t.«». (White's 

Voyage lo CoHiin ('hiiia, p. 'i; Finhi}>uuV JUis- 

'm to Siam and Hut'. ]•. Xifi.) 

Phant. — 'I'onquin ami CnnilKslja are both im- 

ense alluvial liasins of great fiTlility, ami tm- 

'isal by birge rivem: in oililition tn flii'.ti', lliero 

are a few small Hata aniumi the mmilhii of the 

riven in the central provinces. 'IIig plain frnm tho 

mouth iif tlie Ouls«iiemnut lo Cape St^ James is 

but little above the level <if the sea, and Bulgect lu 

dation at everv Sluing lide. 

Iivri.— 1'he MGiiam-kong, or ri\-er of Cam- 

boitla, is one of tlie largest m Aula; it riees in t)iu 

Chinese imn-ince of Yun-nan. is jidned liy sumo 

large streams from Tibet, anil, ninuing iicorlv ihic 

S. Ihrough the cenin of Iiaut and (.'aml>iHt)a, firnns, 

" - ■' itanee, the W. bounilaiy i>f tho Anamese 

. and disrhargea itself in lal. 9° ia' and 

hfi IS' by two (irinripnl moutliB (the liirtbcst N. 

'sqng railed tlw Japanese river, the -S. ime Ihe 

Juhoiiiemme), and liy main' smaller mihs. TIiv 

'iang-kol { AifAi) or river of Toiiquin. has B ahorter 

Hjume; it lism in Ihe mountains of Yun-nath RniH 

nu.'itly SE. through Ton'guiti, |iaa>iiig Ly Ke-rlHi, 

uul falls into llie Gulf of TuD(|nin by twu iirin- 

■i|ial miniths, Itlween 20° and 21° X, lal. Ilotli 

these rivcrf, as well iis that of Sal-g<di (wliicli it 


*J of a mill' in wi«lth nonr that cily), have deltas at 
thi'ir nioutlu^: tlipy arc navi^aWle goncrally f<»r 
lar^8lii|>s; but (»win^ to sand Itanks at both its 
inouthH, it in r(»]K>rt<.'d that the Tonquin river w 
availalilc to imno alnive 200 tons burthen, thoii^li 
(^mwfunl il(iui)ts tliis HUitenient as resjxH'tM tlie N. 
nioutli. (Omwfuril. Journal, A'e., pp. 451)-4ri2.) 
Tliere are «<'veral otlie.r ctmHijlerable riven* in Ton- 
quin; iL« the Li-Hin^-Kian^ : alon^ the OK*hin 
(.■hine>M; coaHt they tm: all much smaller, and with 
a shorter cou^^^e ; tlie river of Hud (on whirh the 


cefttinpc the clondfl at the convene seamnof tbe 
vear. The (reneral hei|:;ht of the baxiimettf ti H«$ 
Is 20*^5'. Immense inandatinnA lagl wmiHiiBei 
for three or four days at a time. Tonquin is wh- 
jeet t4) heavv fo^ and violent hurricaneR. 

VfgetaltUt /'mditrf*.— The fopest* of Cochin Chiai 
pHMluce a variety of soent«fl vood^ as sandal, nn, 
ea^le-w(MKl, ^c. T)ie true cinnamon (Lavnarm- 
fuinunnum) u iudif^enrtus to this coontiy.and vilned 
by tlie ('hinenc more than that produced in anv 
other : it is found wild chiefly in dry and Miidy 

ea|)itjd is sit uated) is one of the most c()iisid<>rable, soils. The l>ank8 of the SaT-f^on and the other 
lias a fine estuarj', and is navigable by vwvM'lsof ■ lar^ rivers are thickly covered with jonglf; 
200 tons burthoni | amon<;st which arc teak, iron-w(»od (iSyderoxylm'), 

Ixihe* — JJarfxturx. — JiluroiN'ans have desrrilKNl ; a kind of Callophyllum, ait straifj^ht an a Norway 

no lakrs of any ma^^nitude; but the shores of 
CiM'hin (.'hina a>M)uud with some of (be finest har- 
Ixiur* ill the worbL From (!afie St. James to the 
Uiiy (»f Turon, there are no less than nine of thes(>, 
Kife and air^B^sibb' with every wiml : that of Tunin, 
ill the opinion of Mr.('ni\\iunl and others (though 
not in that of M. de Hoit^aiiiville), Ls not suq)as!9ed 
bv anv ill the VaihU 

CiHi»t and Shores. — The coast hen; is generally 
lM)ld, and presi'uts many )in»nioni<»ries. like thai of 
C St. James, whieh is HOO feet in height ; the 
|ireeipi<'us (tcoasionally altenuitin^ with a iiam»w 
hjuidv l>ea<.'h. 'I'he anchor:i;;ej» are ever\'when' 
^(mmI ; but at nri ^nuit (iistaucc. fntm the shonts saiul- 
banks and nn-ky islands an* <ifVen very prevalent, 

(JeifltHfi/ and J^finfrah. — Tin' primitive roeks. of 
which the principal mountain chain is almost 
wholly e^)mi)08ed, are ^^ranite and syenite; the 
l(»wer hills contain quart x, marble^ and mountain 
limestone. In the S. pnivinees the jrranite is 
seamed in ever\' diri'ction ; on the rouiKkit sitles of 
the hills it alternates with syenite, and Istth nicks 
are |MMiet rated by veins of iron ow: near Hue, 
all the hills an* ^mitic, and their ]ieakN in the 
hi|;hi9<t dejrn*e shar]), ni^^^^il. and iineovered. Thens 
is a j^reat diversity of u]»iK»r soils in the valleys: 
some Ix'iii^ <lr\', friable, and s-mdy ; otln-rs of a stitf 
clay. The hhIs of the rentral provinces are, how- 
ever, nn>stly sandy : those of ToiKpnn and ('am- 
lH»dJa are. as alR»ady statrd. alluviiil. Around their 
shores then; are extensive and fertile luiid-tlnts. 


ir and well adapted for ships' masta ; TOan?mT«, 
I'C. In the forests of C<K*hm China, cedai>. wal- 
nut, ]K'.ltr>', ctM^oa, areca, iM'tel, I»amlNio. rattan, 
elM>nies, and most of the proilucts i>f liritish India. 
CamlMxlJa yiekte ^amlM^^, the finest canlamunM, 
aniseed, areca, and imli^i; the central jtnninocv, 

C'pIN;r and two sorts of supir cane ; Tonquin, many 
lids of vamitih trees, areca palms, and other vege- 
table pPMluce^ Cotton, rice, and the inulfiern* tree 
are almoht universal. Amonp4t the fruit are oranject 
af a bl(NMl-nKl pulp and delicious tlav«>iu', luinanaa, 
fip(, ]M)mef^ranat<w, pine-ap])lcs, fj^uavas, maiipiea, 
shaddocks, lemons, liincs, and plantain. (lin^, 
and sfiices of various starts, are also indijj;en(Hi\ 
An inferior s*»rt of tcA, with a leaf twice or thrice 
as lar^e as that of Kohea, ^n^ws wild in tlie hilly 
{Mrts of (juan^-ai, and is sold at fnHn to 2«> quant 
(he picul, or, in English money, fur abrjut a penny 
a i)ound. 

The cocoa-nut tree, next to the Itamlioo, ii the 
most u.s({fut <»f any. Tlie tmnk is luwsl for hon« 
and slu{> building; ; the husk protluccs cortU^re and 
cables sup'rior to any other; the leave* are iwd 
for roofing, and for making paper, and wicker i^ivk; 
the oil for lam|tft and painting ; the ahcll for cups 
d'c: and the nut furnishes iMjth fiNtd and drink. 

Scent:rif. — The interior of CamlKnlja has boea 
little exjdtired by Kun>peaiis, but it» suiface is !♦• 
lievwl to lie i^overeil, in great ]>art. with extensive 
fonsts. The banks of t he river Sat-gon are cm'ered 
with mangmve trees, and no cultivation ap|Mn 

roiiqiiiii is the only ]iart of the em|iin.' rich in until within from 20 to 30 m. of that city. Biih 

metals; it product^-* large quantities of gold, silver, 
cop|K>r. and iron: with the latt4>r it Mipplies all 
the country except the most S. ]iart. Its mines 

thuoHj the most S. prov. of ('^ichin China, extciyli 
to aUnit 12^ N. lat,, and is most remarkable foriti 
ah K's. N/ia-trvMp, which succeeds it, is an elevatiJ 

are worked bv Chiiicsi'. and alMiut 100 piculs (or and ill-cultivated region, but pnNluccs silk. Fhw- 
J7,M00 llw. I'roy) of silver are pnMlu(?e<l yearly. I i/en, which reaches as far as lat, 14°, is the rielteft 
Cochin (.'hina has no metallic wealth: silver oniv : and the most highlv cultivated and peopletl |«o- 
is said to Im* found at. Cape Avan>lla; CanilsNija is ', vinc«M«f all : it is full of fruitful valleys and gently 
]>oor in metals. It producers iron, but in inadequate undulating hills, on which rice is grown in terranVf 

quantity for it^ own use. and it is t lien'f«ire iiii]sirted 
fmin the neighlKUiring couiitri<*s to the \V. of it: 
th<' ci'ntnil provinces yield salt. 

Cliinatf — Is gciienilly fine and healthy, the ln'at 
U'iii;: tenqM-ri'd in the maritime districts by the 
sea breezes ; in the winter it i.s even cmd in C<Krhin 
China, but in Tonquin the heats of summer are 
excessive, and the cold of winter pro|Hirti<inally 
wvere. At Hue, M. Cbaigneau, who resided there 
for some lime, r»'|sirts that the grr-atest hear of 
humin(>r was lo;»o, and of the c«»ld <if winter .'>T° F. 
During the wet seas<in of August, Mr. Crawfiml 
found that the thermometer in the shade rangiiil 
in one day Iroin 7l»° to ^'29 F. at Sai-gon. In the 
S. the s4visons ftdhiw the same onler as in Malabar, 
LU'iigal. and Siam: viz. the niins ]>revail with the 
SW. moiismm from May or the iK'ghming of June, 
to Septeml)er: the simie takes place in Tonquin. 
Hut ill Cochin China, lietwee.n 11° and IS^, 
the rains set in with the Nhl. m(ins<N>n, and 
from ()ctolier till March; the high mountain range 
joDtex'ling this country from wct weather by inter- 

almost to their summits, and lit>uiided W. bvhittr 
mountains, croAmed with toweiK and {lagiKLtsor 
having their jiiiinacles enveloijeil in lle«cy clouds 
Qui-vhon is a pr«>\*inix* of gri'at extent, and veil 
cultivatiHl: Qunny-tii and QftaNiz-fUM, extcndii^; 
fnnii 1-1^° X. to nearly 17°. are almost exclusively 
the 4*oiintries of the sugar cane and the ten tive. 
The lianks of the riv(;r of Hue, though iK'autiful, 
are more indebted to art than to natiuv; they 
alKiuml in oniamental ganlens, l.iid out amoncvt 
gniv4^s of ciKH>a, areca, liaiiana, and liamlMMi, and 
niws of hibiscus. At Turon, and in moat «>f the 
N. of C«K»hin China, there is a degree of sterilitv 
not met with in the S.; but the whole (Mmntr>' u 
nriparentlv inferior in fertility to that of Siam. 
Tonquin lias U'cn very imperfectly examined by 
F.uroiieans, but is the miwt populous pn)vinoe; 
therefoH', most proliably, of superior fertility and 

Animah, — Tlie elephant, rhinoccroa. tiger. le«v. 
pard. buffalo, lK>ar, horsi', d(«r, giKit, dc are natives 
of Auaiu. Then: arc no Jackala nor foxes \ nor 

B A pnAukin of utJier kinds of ffaiDO. 
■ben of monkeyt anil liaNmiu are rouud 
ndi: DDC Ui)re «nrl piKpiful Bppriai uemii 

labo lutiTtt. mre dumwlicatcd : elephjuim 
■ WM, Pearudu, jkiidM, md ■ variely 
f Uwiichm pluDu^. inhaliit Ihe rorenW; 
di>Ters Ac- ue shores ; and aqiutic biids 
n^ioaa, ibe riven. Ailit-aiuni inhaWl 
r am» ; the rabm-de-riipTlln, and aevrral 
ft and Trniinioiu Hvqw-ntis infext the 

Tbt iMi alnanil with ui inoxhiuiHlible 
'Oiih, and afliinl nilwimi'iiui: Ut a laiuc 
f the poiuUtuni; aiiiini(,-iit the upwies 
IjriBB fch, MVifiion tWi (itmnrkablv and 
J TlxtiMti), maniK U^ll of BmirbI, *<■., 
*, mulliiix. ui'l many ulhvn liiniliar tii 
ipaand nawlMi an^viTy flm^t and mnl- 

laiKB qiuntilin, are 'tHkvn lur tvil 
m uhI oUut inaceta abuunil in gKM 

Mfli ixauirt lA Mvnal incm: — 1. the 
knnt anil 7<nyiniirar, wlui aic similai 
, and mnatof iliHr haliilM and cuAlnnu, 
Unoe; i. the Camlmdjaia. in phviueal 
nuummi tiL, num mwmlilinK tliv Sis- 
tic JUM ran, inhaliiiing (he miiuutjiiu- 

■ncial hiKms Imf mmllv in the N. pm- 
rhe ntbi't Klranfct'ni bit Vhii'tlv Mnlnyis 
M in Ihe K. paiu nf CaraUidJai and Pvt- 

rf QuofitiM.— AecfinUnK tn Hr. Finlay- 
Igtan, who aix»ni|iuniril Mr Cnwriint 
hian in the rear IH2-2, tlie majority uf 
lUntu are oT Mnlnv iirif.'in. He ol»cn-ai 

Men ai^natce i rvrl 2j inches in hci^t, 
bcluw iHe >inlinaiy Htandanl <>f thu Ma- 
MameM.'! Iher arc lm> ImlkyanddiiDiHy 

latter. Iml (if n Mimt'Wiint'MtuBt Ht^i'i^- 
ar eztremitiei' are i<>ni;. Ibvir liiwer ones 

I luj^ and' veil dweln|iD<L Head and 
I nuriy tound ; (he liiiiKi(u<Unal and 
s diam*(en uf each lieint; nearly equal : 
Ant and bnNul, clu'ek-lmneii wide, but 
alariy nBeut. eliiu liUKe aiul tiiuod ; but 
aid pmeewi irf' the hiwrr jnw Iibh not the 
ipncnt in the Malay* aiul SiameM, aiHl 
(f In tUs naprct Id (he Tartar loeo in 
Eye* TDumler and muller than tliute 
iMat and Siameip, mure lively and in- 
•mk : Lipa modentely thick : liair un Ibe 
aia^blKl,andeiianiet heard icriel; ' ' 

Ul 117 

siVB! (nolravellenthaveaeeiuedthCTn of ferocity;) 
affable, kind, and attentive luKliaiiKe™; and the 
liiwer i>n1en> not rsjuu'iiHiH, althouuli a dc»[>oti(', 

tiiinably made all within (lie inHuencc uf the 
coort the most nnant thieves. In tlieir manneni 
and behaviour (he ^Vnameae are polite and {^mce- 
fnl; but pnnitilior ■ — ' 

in A|iiil, and 

They are ititellicent, n 

Ucting atoleniendi have been made by 
I have ezperienrcd either a hanilBc,mc or 
dBDOw ruFejitiiin fiom ihen, that it is 
1 eime tn any ei>nrln«iiin. Tliey arc 
animated, (pnal-hnmunnni, anil nllo- 

qra Uughin); and thai lerinc, volatile, 
and ehaiiKealde, vain, and enihieil with 
la national jiriile. CniwfunI and Kin- 
- thai they are mild, dueile, and iuulTea- 

lift,' forr 

lix difTerenl mirts Kniwn ; two un 

used fur confitclionei}-, and yielding 

annnally 1 the oilier Morta ylehl (to 

cmp9 a ye«T! but ({vnerally two, niw 

another in (>c(c.l>er! or tlirce, wlieru .i« muu-ui- 

chni ••r (,*nem[ vulture. 

'file siifiar-iwiu in mitivatn) Iiy the TiHdiln 
ChineM only, and a voy infrrior, ilaik, rlaye^ 
imaluce ubloineiL Mivt »f the vinamnnm that is 
expiirteil i» cultivated: iiiliaceu, eaiideum, tieiiper 
uf a vcrv tcuoil quality in the ccntmf wuviwes, are 
o(her e^ief id jevlH of (ill«{e : no ciilfev is yRnvn, 
exoept in a ^ caidena near llu(<. 

Itaw Mlk ia pitHtneeJ in laiuc quantiticii in Tiin- 
tiuin and U>i:hiu China. The cniunil i* hut in- 
ititTerHilly (illud ; near Sal-j^m, it I* in many 
Bmall latclics of ohout half on acre, the rieu 
KTuundH beitiK hnnndeil by ditrhea. A^ricultiiinl 
lalxmr i* almuia whollv 'iHifonniil bv wcitneii j 

-' -•- ■•-■ -iloiich. whii'h ix ■' '■■■ - '■■■"■- 

_ _. e, build anr' 
entnwtfil with all tl 
Their [lay. on weU as that of IbIhhitetii of ilie 
other nex, ia 1 mat a day with food, ur 2 mat 

1'lie iHiffalo is dinnexieateil, ami is UHefut in 
asricultHTe; (he n:( i:i uf a hmnll redilish-lirMwii 
kmd, but not n«il as fuod, beef nut bwnj; nm- 
moiily eaten. A i^niill species tif (pmt is ki-jil ; 
Init stieep are ntj" rare and«exlremelv infenur. 
The hi«; i» n ven- favuurile animal; the bm^l ia 
the <.'liine!«, and' ivniariubly line. At Hut', hi^ 
ore alwayn stall-fell, and seldom inifrert<<l to niuni 
at larf^e. Tlie horM-, iK an infeiior lin-<><i, is uhhI 
only tiir ridmit. Iicint; unfit tiir cavnliy servii-e. 

iliens ore kejit evenrwhere i 

_. ^ .d to lie amuiiKid the fluent 

in India. Urese arc nut m oimmon as duekn ur 
foK-ts. The ennie eueka ore tiaini^l fxr fiKhtiiiK- 

/liorf, $v.— The diet i,f the iie«|Jc is to Kuni. 
pcan iiteiia oHen f^wa and disKustitiK in a hi^b 
decree. Kice, hvnmis, and flsh futm Ihe chief 
port of Ihtnr fiul ; but duKs' and ailij^ntors' fleiih, 
rata, mice, worms, fmpi ami other re|>lili«, nUfc- 
Itntii, entrails and puirid meals, are amonf! Ibeir 
fiiniuiile ihidies, IVnh, bolhiit ducka and Hiwbs 
Ixnled and atuweil yanu, and sweet putalucs, aniiai^ 
eane, fruit, andmuehronle<-tiiinpiy,e<>Tn|i"Kuieat 
part uf the rest ; ami lea, and rii-i'-wbiskey (rrf' 
whirh n (iniBl ileul is drunk), cinnpav their usuid 
lievrnvcea. Finli-pickle is their lavriurite conrli- 
ment. iiitu which nearly eveiy mtirscl Oiey eat is 
piunReiL Klqihants' flesh is'enlen only ay tint 
Niverc'i)^ and tiobililv. Milk ia not useii at nil, 

nearly batchiiL 11iey lake two meals a dav; uiid 
at 9 or 10 o'cloek in the muniitiu, Ibe other at 
sunset. These they take in the iijien air, iri-nenilly 

ti|i|>e<l wilh ivoiy or utelal, iiofcujiine iinills, and a 
potim- iqioiin. 

The' tubaeeo (hat in inuwn is all nse<l in (he 
country. .\11 ihe men sinuki'. and, ns well as Ihe 
wumeii, chew belel and orcca, which eitlier they 

\iuife at Sal-f^Hi 



or their attcndAntn (if rich) always cany with 
them in Imjxom or lar^e purscji for the exprcfts pur- 
lK>si\ In thrir jiorsons they an; cxtn'nioly dirty, 
noiwithstaiuliiij; tlu-ir frequent ahlution'; their 
untlcr ^ariiiciiis an- never washed nor ehan^cd 
until thry drop to piiK-es; their nails are never 
cut, their length hein^ an indication of rank. 

Arts and Maitufactures. — The inferi<>r dwellin;r« 
ronsi>t of inud walL*, thatehed or e<»vere<l with 
banduH) h-avcs; the l>elter sort of houses are <»f 
wimhI or hhek, and tiltnl, but the hritrka are only 
baked in tlie Mm, and glazed windows arc un- 
known. The Inits of the jx'asantrj- near Sai-j^on 
con>i.-t of wattle«l tloors*. raisetl aUmt H or 4 fwt 
above tlie ^ound, and eontain two or three eom- 
finrtments. on** c)f wliich is a e<»minon riMmi ; in 
tlie otln-rs rlu' family .-hH'|) on mats on a kind of 
rain-d platfonn, ran;j:ed around the walls. The 

TVrnA*.— The Chincae are the bntdicn, USa\ 
confcctioneni, baiikcm, moncy-chanffcn, and pei- 
lars of tlie empire, aud arc met with in all tlie 
towns with an cUustie pole acnxw their ithouldtr, 
and at either end a ba<iket containing their mxu. 
In the bazaars, pit paper, fans, puTL-elain, dni|^ 
luid other ('tiina produce, toohi, uticemarieA (4 at 
and the i)ther articleH yielded by the cniintiT,in 
sold Provisiona are che^p. Mr. White ivm 
that, at SaT-^on, pork waa 3 ccnta per lb.: bed 
4 c (Americ.) ; fowls, 60 cent j» jicr dozen ; a fia 
deer, 1^ dollar; rice, a dollar a picul (133 Ih 
Kn^.) ; shaddocks and lemona, 50 c per hundi 
<imn;;es. Si) c. per huniL Tea of Hue w kAA i 
boats on the rivens as well aa varuiah. vliid 
with other combustible matter:^ L* not allowed 1 
)Hr k<>pt on shons and the varuiith menrhaff 
live constantly in their covered houaesi, buih < 

ordinary' furniture of a <'otta<;e eon>^ists of a eo- > bamluH) rafts. The foreign traile w cumptu 
loimnl tunttin<; f<»r the tloor, an earthen stove, an ! tivcly tritlin^. and almost wholly with the Cb 
iron rice-jMit, and s<»nu' very rude ])orcelaiu and '*""' ''^ "*^ "'' " ~^ 

other earthenware articles. 

The art iu whi«;h. above all others, the Owhin- 
('hine>e excel, is that of ship-huihlinp Their 
ves-els, the constru<'tii»n of whicli. were it not fc»r 
their rude materials. wouM not ilis:a"ace Kunjjx', 
an' built of from o to 100 ton> bunln-u, but mostly 
betwei'U It! and .'>0 ton>i; sluiq) at either end, and 
the di'ck c»ne-ihird loii^^er than the keel. Their 
iMMtoms mostlv coii'^isi of wicker w<irk, covered 
on the <iutsid<^ i)y a coating, ^ inch thick, u\' {f(iUntly 

nese ; verv little with the Siainej« or Enrupeant 
From 'lK),my) to GO,0OU piculs of sugar; :SoO,04 
to .SOt),(M)0 lbs. of true cinnamon, not freed fio 
its enidermi.'s at oU to 00 quans per picul; ^ 
]>iculs of aniseed from CamlMHlja : rawnilkatJ 
to 5 (|iians the catty (2$ Hi.), 2(H> pieul^ fn>m Fi 
fiKi, (?0 )). from Hue, and 1,000 p. from Cach 
annually; cottons superior to thiMse of Ueqgi 
ari>ca, spices, cardamoms fnam CamlxMija, bog 
lanl, .-HTenttYil wckkIs, rice, edible birds' ncst^s ai 
mollus'je^ and the precious metals, are exiMSli 

aelo'^e and duralde. mixture (»f pitch, oil, lime, <i'c. to China ;^aml)0(^e,n.>ddyeuigwtiod from Tonqnii 
TIh' >id«^s and <ieck are l)oun<l together with cross- ! ivory, pearl, horns, hides, gum-lac, goItl-du:<t,iii 
bulk hea'L*! : a-id as the larger vi-ssels uMially Ik;- other metals in smaller quantities t-o <tther i«tn 

Jiiiif^ to a joint-*!tiM;k com|>.'niy of merchants, there 
are \\> many se|»arate hohb< as owners. The tish- 
iiiic biiat-i and others, fto feet in length, :in> made 
of ii long planks extending from stem to stem, 
their <'dge.s m«>rticed, lightened with wooih-n pins, 
and bound together liy twlsttid IkuuImiw libres : al 
each eu<l they are n»i>cc| nnich higher, and iiauite<l, 
gilded, and oruannMited with figures (»f dragons 
an<l nqtents. They ofttm carry a c;»ven*d cabin, 
built like a hoiw upon the (h>ck : I'roni on<' to throe 
sails of matting, which in tlie \. pn»vin«res are 
often s<|uan? ami more like thox* of Kuro|K*; a 
woofleii anchor with one Huke, shrouds and cables 
of rattan, and <"<»nlagt^ of <v;/r. During the unfa- 
vourabh; m«»ns<Min, tlie Ixiats are taken to pie»-es, 
and the larger vi'S'Jols drawn upon sh<in'tos<imedijv- 
tanctr. The uxmIc of rowing is by pushing, and n«)t 
]»ulling, the oars .•igain>t the water (White, ]>. 200) : 
when then* are many rowers, they ]»ush in regu- 

the world. AMien Harrow wn>te, sugar at Tino 
fetched 3 dollars, peppier of C(x;hiii China. 6 to 
doll, and rice half a dtdlar the picul of l^i^^lh 
liritish manufactnre^i then sold usually at 20 to 9 
]>er cent, pn.ttit, and were paid in silver ingoti 
Ke-cho was tonnerly the centre of the Eaitcn 
traite. and at the end of the 17th centunr tb 
Kuglish and Dutch had factories there, wmdo 
thev exporteil largely. 

Ihe im|)orts are chietly manufactured alb 
jxiTcelain, drugs, a great quantity of gilt pi{Nf 
and tine teas for tlie upix'X class«>s, witli hou?<c^oU 
^c. utensils fn)m(.'hina; spices, sandal-w<«)d, w 
tin. from Malay; opium (wliich ia, however, WO 
hibited) from Iniiia,150 cliests annimlly, 2-3Mi o 
which an* consumc^l in Ttmquin; coU4>n» froa 
Canton ami Sincaiiore (but none of a \'ariet^o 
Ci>K»urs hi the same yaeee, nor chintzes) ; BntiJ 
windlens. chietly scarlet, some yellow ix grett 

with a mattress and jiiHows iii^icU', coven^il by a 
laige varni'<he«l e^mopy, in fonn like a tortoi-*c- 
hhell ; the whole flung uiM.»n a long [nde, and ciir- 
rieil (in the shoidden* of two, four, or six men. 

In mojit manufactures, the Anamese are vcr\' far 
Whind, and are HujKrsedeil by the Chinese, from 
whom tlu^y <lerive m»)st of their u«*eful articles. 
Swonl-han«lles with very g<M»d lilagrt^e work, Lxixcs 
of la«:(|uere<l ware, inlaid with pearl or gold, purses, 
matting, Iwiskets coarse silk, and ver>' durable 
cotton stuffs, bells, c-annon, iron nails, seissoi>i of a 
rude kin<l, varnish, Ac. they van make ; but they 
cannot temiwj iron or steel, print calico, or make 
a matchlock, and dc|K'nd for all their arms on 
Kvroiiean nations. 


lar succes>ion, In'gimung with the r>ne at the stem. ' and all coarse ; a few serges, and camlets, imu in 
The govennnent rowers, who an? sehvted fn)m the ^ anns from Euroiie ; but altt^ther amouDting 
army, are paiii but 1 quan jht month. The lx>ats very little. The (iiina trade is chiefly in Ke-c 
that ply for hin* are chietly con<lucted by women; 
but the very unfair and ungallant custom prevails 
that the men ]»jiy no fare, they Ixjing all supiMist^l 
on govennnent service. They have no wliceli?d 
carri.ngeA ; but jkmj])!*; of di-^tinction are carriv'<l in 
a iialanqiiin, fomurfl of a cotton net hanmiock, 

Sai-gon, Hue, aud FaT-fo, but the whole scantl 
amounts to 20,000 txiiLS annually, L>ein|;^ littkmo 
than half the Chinese trade with the &ingk dty 
Ilangkok, in SLim. 

The transiH>rt of gooils between Ke-cbu ai 
Hue is facilitated by a canal, 180 mile» in lengi 
20 yards in breadth, and almost straight: Mid 
Ik* c4 instructed by the rei^iing monarch in 181 
near Hue it is umhI for irrigation as well aa oc 

Wrights ami Metuwrtt.-^'Th.e picul is about IS 
H)s. Kng., and diWdes into 100 catties, each eqi 
to 1 and l-3nl lb. Kng. A bag of rice wei/i^s 
catties. The current coin is the sepcck, cast 
Ke-cho, of a compound brittle metal, cidled 
ttntiffufy tlie base of which is zinc. It is aboat ' 
size of a shilling, and pierced with a square b 
by which thev are stmng in numbers together,! 
as they are tlie only Ci»in useil. they form a v 
Itulky and inconvenient me<liura. *Acc«nuits 
thus reckoned: — 00 scpccks=l mas (5 cents), 

nu (£0 cmHb), Chr two UKot uniti aro 
J. A Sftnub ilollar >:« valiitil at 1| 
I in^ot iu ulver, ut fntm 27 lo 28 quauji; 
llADgDldinsiXsuf thouuiicniidufdiiablc: 
t the cmrency ia nibjcct tu very eapti- 
ngtii^b choaKCH. 

Brama mn Umvcd fmm,J. a cajHtatuHi 
■oil l-lOih iJiiAn, puiil by every male 
mnnTaiCe; x.alaiiil-iax; S.Ibeenmn 
icii are faimotl by lUtTvri'nt vLllii(!<>st 4. 
■liibuliuuaiinpcHbiinfiin'inTi inule, Kc 
^D*u ue aniall, ami Ihrrc ia nune on 
•■Ksr; i!ii>«i; in ihe servitu iif thp (,-uv«ii- 
ezeln[it«l fr»m Ilwm. 'I'lic laag hui 
> of ^Id-Jiut, ivi-iy, and iLiiiuueiDa' 

■wnuBntM an hcrnlilary militaij (le»- 

to [)uiii Iciptunacy. Tliu iuivt4vi|,ii baa 
(Emiicruc. Hiv 'ivulnil ailinintalntiim 
I is ciiiiiluilcil )•}' >dx MiiiutaiinA, niiiiiit- 
llBve diarKi' of tlu- an-llivel^ religiiin, 
ar. tinaiice-. jinil w<iijila aju) fun>t^ Be- 
viiVH uf Tinii|iiiii and Cam- 
-* '-'■ nf JHephanU, tIiii in 
DBHT. onii muibtn ut Tiinn)^ aRairi, 
■ in tbc mpniDU cuundl. Knrh |>nivinee 
laioSdrjianiDcntH,t'allHl //■-}«■: «ach 
S or 4 lOittikiis Mllcd ToH. The |iTr>' 

lanlaiiiM (>-t militniy cIoks), who ban J 
idarino nnilrr him ; rovh hu-i/ai k Ki>- 
' two nnil eacli f« hyiHii.' d\-il tlamWin : 
jca arv i^iTimnl l^'irflicvM clvdcd hy Ihc 
r, Khn an anmrerablv fiit (he uucct of 

Ic in uflidal, avl nllhoneh in pan. hvnv 
aaaul* a kU^ in earli min-wilinK f;»ii«ra- 
adi rnnclkmarv ban iKHtisr ti> iuHiut 
at im all inrrniir lu tiim in rank, ami 
a thin ptiwer ia diqiiaycd 


iiraaller (;all^ Romewlut nmihuly 
scamra arc cfitHwd in rc^^inicnu lh« i 
trni>|M, (1 iirwiiifh uro ini diiLy at Itu 
1 at each uf tbu otlwi prinui]ial furta. 

t Ualilo ti> MTve, a 


1 1 out iif ;l IS grne- 
'fhero in cuniinually a kvy of 
tn«a IT an<l 2<t: anil thuae whn an 
>l•ervl^ cannot leave thvanuy (ill a^je ur 
omi)>el them. They ace iu active mr- 
Ihrae Micccwivo yvaii>, and thiai have 
■kenee fiir the tbive next, which tliey 
tfa ibeir laintURi, einplnyinic (hemwlvtw 
km irfamnBll allotment oriand.Knuileil 
■mml ti> cai'h. Tlie utandinf* anny wan 
IW,tWI> men ; but when Cntwfiird italed 
Dv, it wav uoty bclwevD VlfnM and otlJHNI 
bil^ivHt Hys *liiev aiE (iiboiil, amart- 
iwpft,*rlntliedin Hriliah rrarict wuuUona 
■ tumnl up with blue ut yelbiw. and 
akal lielmrt of baxket-wnrtL. laaiucml 
1 tltcir Kthcr annii aie Bwurds. nnwkets 
EOeliS ahieldh and 
di uf r> 

id other accnutninentii, iwat 
vt Eumpr, llic lirtHnivenr 
V &Cq were iii[n>duceil by the French 
« toiil ivntiuy, who mice «i|i|ilie[l thero 
ttl) Rand uf ann*. Much |in>gTeii'i wan 
Bdlitary atCiirH hy the (.liwhin Chinese, 

and lume other cicieii, are Uninifly fui- 

nls tu ajtuIB, mHar»> tfiilleys • jVnva 
can, with aereial smiill HWivvl jrieMW. 
! M Si immdcr at tlw pruw, ami HM 

nniple ia a a|innea tif Uiiddhlimi ; tbc Ulster iinlfri 
fiilluw the rclittiini uf Cunfiiriua. Cliriatianiiy wiu 
' itmiucrd Li IU:f'l liy the I'uitn;;(iCM> Jeauits; 
id Iheic arc nUiut 4'ioMO Giliatiamt in the em- 

pltt((;nn1'un1),viz.: SDO.tMHIinTiaHiidn, lll»,<M 
m I'^a'liin riiiiiK, and about iSfll)i> in CombiHlj.i; 
n miHit alijcrt i>f the juipuUtKin, 
|»lilica] wciKbt wlialcver. Tlie 

iifferiiit; first fhilta, ieentsd woudH, Ac tu iihilis in 
bnmiiii; j^M quanlitieii (/ pit paiHT at u'rtnin 
limcH. MicltiiiK inK'tiittiinw <>a pmus, treca, and 
bouMasand raRyiii|t*n<iiit nhrlacleriiv, aiidotlwr 
aacml objei^a. Tlie Ikichln Chiwiw ani i-i'ty 
anprntiliiiuM. and enileavtiur tu apiH'OW ttiu eiil 
nuiit miire titan they wiieratc the lin)cfH!rnt one. 
Thry have iitwalas, auil t pmlkmii but Ibeir 
idnlii and terajiliM are Bum commonly an ima|{e of 
the ChbieHc pH] >'•!, entdiwed iu n tmull hoinw uf 
wicker work, hunc up in a tree, or ekvatol im 
four lotif;piMta.amlap[iiuiirlieilby alailtler. Their 
piieHta ant Ibw, ami but little iwiectal by a pcuule 
wlin treat nMnv of their Knda wilb contempt. In 
Chinm|ia (niun/al, tlie ili.paTturCiicIiin L'hiiia, 
¥„..; — -_■ _. . .■■_: ■ .1.. „l^(c(j nf 


, UTiite olBcrves, that theft is i 

nnjc-t ui 

rioil after which, I 

vellcru aj^tw it 
in neiibcr ihftrailii ibcm iii ■ 

"ji their becoininc inar- 

a eirkt wntoh ia kqit 

-.—The pidice of tlie villain mid 
llie lawn are odnibiiHlercd liy the villafK cliieCi 
alreaily simken of; in llie town*, one of the priii- 
-^ijial iidiiihitiuils of Hieh strret i» ctionen In- tlm 
.»« u innl of IknIrrtI, and i» auawcralilo fiir the 
Kuod liehaviinir of all the rest, over whom he i* 
an arbilntor. In capital caMU, jiid^nneut reita 
with tlie inivemon of the An-yra, or (here may 
he appeal ftinii them tiitlin<c of the prinince. anil 
nltinuuely tn tlie myat eoutH-JI; wlicre all the 
evidenee U Mmiiulnu^ly re-addneed. Thejudtn'a 
and the anperor hiinwir ilutcnniacs ou the ca.10. 
Ko diHtinction in uude hrtween natives aiid fo- 
reignen. Die latter biins niider tlie protection uf 
ttwnuniaterof idraniiera. The nei'cral uhii^fipvo 
auiUencu niul receive )ietitiuiu o^ery day; Imt 
preoenta Ui eacli are noccMiary to uhljiin a heai- 

The IramlHHi is couNtantly at work, and the 
■■oawfiK, or voke, fiir otiier minur Crimea, wliicb in 
compiiMil oftwu iiiecea uf wixal I'l fL-et lim;;, faat- 
eiieit acnna by (wo ollieni, Slid worn aonicwbnt 
tiitblly louml tlie neck. All capital criineA, aa 
munler, rulibery, aoini'tiuica c<iiTu;rtii>n (except Inx 
mhillery), are punii-hed hy decaialatiiHi : the iti- 
miitalB are bnini-lit inlu the bazar, iir jHiblie place, 
aiid ulwwl in rows, <xKh opnuritc a placatil, de- 
daiiii;; the nalure of hia crime; Iheii, wilh une 
blow of a tw»-liaiiricd aalirp. Ihdt heada are auc- 
ccaaivrly ctruck rartie* coiivieted of ndul- 
terv are Ikil loucllicr niul thrown into the aca. 

(■•df^imiivianlloweil; the Hint wife la tlieehief, 
the i^her-'lieuiK nuiatly uf infcrinr nink: tin- 
chililren of idl are, however, njually lei;iiiniate. 
Till' richer eliissoa marry at 1-i, the pcwrer at ilt 
or 30 ycara of ugu, ur when they con aStunl lu buy 



a woman from her friends ; but women cannot be 
married against their own eonHont. Marriage is 
hut a veriMl contract, ratilied by exchanging pre- 
sents before witnesses, and dissolved as readily by 
merely breaking a pair of cho))-stioks, or porcu- 
pine quills, before a third party. The remains of 
the dca<l arc often laid out with much pomp under 
a pavilion covi^red with silks, aiul surrounded with 
taoles of the choicest fruits, and a band of music 
for 15 da^'s. White garments are worn, and much 
gilt pafwr is burnt at these times. No native nor 
foreigner, if married, is allowed to quit the 

AmusemetUi, Public Tatte, §r. — ^The Anamese 
arc ver>' fcMul iif dramat ic n'lmwntations, which 
are ptTl'ormwl in pavilions ft)r several tlii^'s to- 
gether with little mtenniHsion, an<l to which no 
entrance-money is required, the actors deiMiuding 
on voluntary' contributions. The ^)lays consist of 
liistorical operatic piei^es, or of a light and comic 
dialogue, intcrs])erHe<l with cheerful airs, each con- 
cluding with a common chorus. Their dancing 
and music is in exact time, the latter not destitute 
of melixly, not unlike some Scotch airs. ITie in- 
struments in use are gongs, drums, xdolins, tlutes, 
guitars, and tnimi)otri sutliciently harsh and grating; 
but the appLiuse is always in pmportion to the 
nol<K' made. They have H«»me notion of sculpture, 
the best s]>ecimcns of which wrv. seen on tonil)s. 
They arc fon<l of shuttlecfxrk and frnitball, cock 
and quuil lighting, the trit^ks of jugglers, d'C. ; 
and the upper ranks of elephant, tiger, or buffalo 
hunting, and lircworks, canis and dice, without^ 
liowever, being addicte<l to gambling. 

[)re88 — Is the same as that of the Chinese be- 
fore the Tartar conquest, consisting of lot)se 
trouH<>rs, tied round the waist with a sash : several 
IcKise fro<;ks of diifereut lengths, the upper one 
the shortest, and having long l(K)se sleeves, a small 
close collar, and five buttons and loops ; a bn»ad 
basket-work hat^ or a turban of crai>e; slippers 
by which the feet are not crain])ed like those 
o^ the ('hiiu*s<.>; hair long, and turned up in a 
knot on the top of the heiuL The dress of both 
sexes is alike, only in that of the women the 
frocks are longer, and they wear hrawdet* and 
armlets of i>earl, of ivorv, earrings, and other 
oniaments. Dn^ss is an (»bject of great attention 
with all classes. 

lArnqtuige. — 'ITie language of the Cochin (^hi- 
nos(% like their dress, &o., has l)een de.rive<l from 
that of Chnia: it is monosyllabic, destitute of in- 
Mcxioiis, its written character like the former, 
although it poHsess<^ several elements, as the H, 
1), and It, which the (^hineJM^ arc unalile to pro- 
nounce. The CamlMKljaiis s|)cak a diffen'tit lan- 
guage, and the [>eople of Tsiam])a another distiii<:t 
from both. Litx'rature is confined to Chinese 
IsK^ks, chieMy on medicine, and the works of Con- 

History. — In 234 B.C. this countrjr was con- 

?uerp<l by the Chinese, who held it till a.d. 2<5H. 
n 1400 it was recompieretl by the Chinese, who 
abnndoiie<l it again m 142H. In 1471, Cochin 
China was completely suHected by Tonquin ; but 
in 1553 threw off the yoke, and, until 174H, was 
govcme<l by ls>th a n<miinal and real sovereign, 
the latter of whom was a military commander 
and regent. The nominal sovereigns then ob- 
taine<l the master]^', and ruled in the midst of 
anan^hy till 1774, when, in the reign of Caimg- 
shung,*the revolution of Nhac {Yinyac) and his 
bn>thers overturned their power. Bishop Adran, 
a French missionary", the tutor of the lute king's 
son, obtained for hmi the alliance of Louis XVI., 
and, with the aid of a few of his countr^'rnen, was 
the maiu cause of the restoration of Ids pujiil Gla- 


long to the throne of his anoestoni on whidi be 
was firmly seateil in 18<)2. Adnm reformed tlie 
jurisprudence, commenced public works, sarvrnd 
the coasts, promoted trade, established naval use- 
nals, and new disciplined the king^s army: but 
dying soon after, many of his wholesome rektm 
sank into disuse. Gia-long died in 1819, and wn 
suc(«oded by an illegitimate son, who was invttt«d, 
in 1821, by the court of Peking with tho empire 
of Tonquin and Cochin China. 

Anam. — ^TiiE Fkrnoh CoLOsrr. Before the 
French revolution the government of Louis XTI. 
made great endeavours to obtain a footing m 
Cochin China, and they were sucoessfnl for a time, 
causing many of the places to be fortified in Euo- 
{leaii fiisliioii, introducing Frendi officers into 
places of authority, and generally modifying the 
government according to European ideasC In the 
beginning of the present century these changes 
had 1)ecome obsolete; but, in I860, a powerfol 
Franco-Sfianish expedition reduced the city uf 
Saigon, which was ma<le the capital of a new 
French colony. Tlie territorj' of this colony com- 
prises the three provs. of Dongnai, Bien-hcia, siid 
Saigon, or that part of the country extending 
east of the CanilxNlla H5 m. in a iliiect line, and 
lutrth on the C^unbodia to ll^^ 10' north, 13>J m. 
along the river course. (See Saioon.) In some 
quarters in India, the position of tlie French is 
xdewed with some cxmccm, more etipecially tdnoe 
the French have recognised the sovereign of Ckm- 
bodia as independent, while he is really dependent 
on Siam, an empire on terms of enmity witli the 
Burmese province of India. The French are en- 
deavouriug to attract the commerce of the pro- 
vinces of C^hina bounding the Ananiite empire on 
the north, down the CamboiUa river, while British 
merchants, both in India and at home, favour • 
scheme to construct a road into these ChineN 
provinces frt>m Kangoon. 

ANAPA, a sea-fiort town and fortress of Ean>- 
pean Russia, Circassia, on the N£. coast of the 
Bhick Sea, 47 m. SE. Yenikale, lat. 44© M' 5^, 
long. 370 1«' 21" E. Pop. ex. of military, 3,000. 
The fortress, constnicted by the Turiu in 1784, 
was taken by the Uussians in 1791, and in 1807, 
and finally in lK-28, since which it has been de- 
fiuitivclv cede<.l to them. The houjics are mutftlr 
mere cabins, built of wood and mud. The inht- 
bitants consist of Circassians, Turks, Tartans 
Greeks,Jews, Armenians and Kussiaiis. The poft, 
or rather road, is nearly open, with ImuI holdiui; 
gnmnd, and so shallow as to admit only ships of 
small burden. Anapa is at present pkincipanT 
important as a military post ; bat were tranquil- 
lity restored in Cin^ssia, it would most likely 
become the seat of a considerable cfmimerce. The 
exporLs are grain, tallow, and butter, hid», pel- 
tries and wax. 

AXCEXIS, a town of France, dcp. Loire Infe- 
rieure^ on tlie Loire, 21 m. ENE. Nantes. P«ip. 
4,r)28 in 18H1. It is well built, has a handsome 
college, an hospital, and barracks. There are coal 
and iron mines in the neighliourhood ; and it has 
a good deal of trade in wine, vinegar, brandy, 
and timber. Its port serves as an entrepot and 
station for the vessels navigating the Loire. The 
town is commanded by a Gothic castle placed on 
a steep hilL 

ANCEKVILLE, a town of France, dep. Meuse, 
11 m. SSW. Bar-le-Duc Pop. 2,003 in 1861. 

ANCHOLME (Isle of), see LiNoouirsHiBK. 

AN CON A, a marit« citv of Italy, on the Ad- 
riatic, 1 7^ m. SE. Siuigaglia, 15 m. !^N W. Loreto, 
and 188 m. NE. R«)me, lat, 430 87' 42" N« long. 
130 30' 35" E. Pop. 4C,0»0 in 1862, of whom 
many are Grcelu aud Mohammedaiu, and exda- 


10 Jawi wbo inhaMt ■ Mparate qnarUr. ' 
Mt of a dvil tiibuoal. of it triliimil nf . 
tn^ctioD, uicl nf > buhnpric: a built 
it»-wiK, on ■ sIo|>ing (tiuimit, dpclining 
I, between tvo hilli, on one of which 
csthednl, ou the other iu dladel; 
mnr, dirty, and im^lar; but miuiy 

tioopi remained within the Papal territories ! the 


iBicd tl 

■ing been withdraw 



Bd 65 abore Ibe . 

UgbthixiM, with a handsoine i 

tt mole bdnf; hiioked at llxc exciemiiv, 

tf lie imnudiately wiihin the hartwur in 

8 &tbonu; but it Ahoal§ rapidLv, and 
awing mine than 15 or IG f«t~ water 
dior wiihin a shnrt distance of the entry. 
ood ancfanrage KTUund abuut i m. vith- 
ole. in mand 12 fathonu. Tlic horbaui 

impniviiig under the present Italian 
at, ■even] diedf^ of iaie venn having 
oouataiitly at winli increasing the depth 
MMT. On the mole AUuidfl a ni>ble ancient 

arch, in honour of die Erepenjr Tnijnn, 
ITed and emlvUiidied iJie town and port : 
«d of laige bluuks of white marble ; and 
a anotlier arob in bcmour of Pope Bene- 

The caiheilral, aituated on a fiiilcl pro- 
n the pite of an ancient temple of Vunus, 
dnu porch, fenpportod by two lionii of 
nanite; avery ancientuiai, and many 
n [uUan. There are 10 other uhurehes, 
I many good painiingg; 15 com 
— ■ ■— o huepiUia. Tbe palace 

[n the year 1N4!> the town bai-ing ebared in 
revolation in tbe Koman States, waa bombarded 
ind then occupied by Amtrian troop« and held by 
ihem till 1859. On SDth October 1860 it mrren- 
leml tu Iho Piedmuntese tioope, and baa gince 
formed part uf tbe Italian kingdom. (Rampoliii, 
CoTografis dell' Italia, voL L p. 80 ; Cooatilai Re- 
porta, 186fl-4). 

ANCY-LE-FRANC, a town of Francs, dep, 
Yonne, cap. tanL on the canal of Bnigundy, 10 m. 
SE. Tonnerre. Pop. 1339 in 1861. It in neat 
and well-built, but i« chiefly remarkable for the 


stle i 

of Looia XIV. It if 

at of Khokan, on th 


long. 71^ 27' E. It in suimunded lyganlens, am 

a place of coiuiderahle size and antiquity. 


ttrict of Spain, i 
Ib who setUeil be 

inue, tl 

Bubcturei, chiefly in the handa of the 
aiiKprinci|ial1y of wax, tallow, silk hata, 
^ The harbour ia well adapted for build- 
epairing thi|ia, and ia lirei{uenlcd by thuae 
lUDB. It waa maile a free poR by Clt 
Uand baa a more connidrrable trade tha 
r town on the W. coast of the Adriatic, 
loepled. This Iraile is now on tbe ' 
Hade the harbour is a tine lazaaictlo, 
ial ialand, communicailn^ with the t<i 
]r The market-[>lAce la ripacioua, i 
^ .1 A._:.i... _j,i, gijpap and good 


, ._ an Arabic wonl, ai^ifving 

Laxd of iht ITcil. It ii the mow 8. ^riaiiin of 
Spain, comprisng the four Moorivb kingdoms of 
Seville, Cordova, Jaen, and Granada, between 
86" (f and 3«o W S. laL, and 1° B7' and 7° 25' W. 
long., having N. Estremaduia and La Mancha ; 
E. Murcia; W. Portugal; and S. the Alkntio 
Ocean, tbe Sir. of tiiliraltar, and the Ueiliter- 
lanean : length, E. to W., about 850 m. ; grenteot 
breailth nearly 200 m.; area, 27,153 fty. m. Pop. 
" """357 according to the centma uf 1857, being 
icrease since IMH of 1,509,398. Andslnsia ia 
'resent divided into eight provinces, viz. — 
Seville, Cadiz, Cordova, Granada. Jaen, Malaira, 
Almeria, and Iluclva. Its chief dticB are SeviUe, 
Cadiz, Cordova, Jaen, Almeria, Granada, Mala^ 

, Tbew 

, The U 


with Rimini and Pe'«:ara. 
Ctsfti, Pairaa, Athens, Smyrna, uid Co 
la. Kxpurts, ciim,hemp,liacon,sulpbi 
V, Imports, colonial gi^Hls, drugrt, aj 
nd large qnanlitiM of coal fmm Britain. 
[fl6S9i^46L i importH317,U0f.: of which 
■h ihare waa ■26,ilCJL and 196,52' 


I is said by Strabo to have b«i] founded 

nans e'lAbliahed themwlves in it 
ing jually reifardeil aa a naral alatio 
pmaiice,' Trajan expended large s 

in 839 it 

■acked by 


a republic, till 

aler pretext of defcndinK 

taring built tbe cilailel which entirely 

k tbe town), placed it in the bands of 

n 1799 it waa Uken by the Prench, i 

fumed the chief city of the dep. of the 

. Id IK14, it waa realorad to the Pa|>al 

FeU 1K)2, a detachment uf French troops 

laaipectedlv, aiul took povaewncm of the 

which the rreiu:li govummi ' 

uion Iu leMia so lung aa 

. alx>\-e tbe level of the sea. Tlic 
betongii to the N. chain, and forms 
part of tbe N. Iwundary of the diatriet. Between 
these two ranges flows the Guailalquivir, by far 
the laTKeet of the Ancla1u>ian rivers, and swelled 
by numerous eireams from the lateral valleys open- 
ing into ita basin. There are numerous small lakes. 
On the coast, tbe climate is hot and opprcMi^-e; 
but N. of the Siena Ncvaila, tbe temperature is 
more eqoable, and cooler, although it never freezai. 
The primitive rocka of tbe high S. mountains ant 
chiefly mica-alate, gneiss, and clay-slate, covered 
in some parts by black transition limestone, con- 
taiuinf; sulphuret of lead. Scrpenttne marble, and 
alabaster, are found in Granada ; and there atB 
numerous mines, that either produce, or have pro- 
duced, gold, silver, copper, antimony, mercury, 
* I, lead, vitriol, coal, and sulphur; but, with the 
:eption of the lead mines of Adra, near Malaga, 
:v are at present mostly in a neglected state, 
e vegetation partakes of the European and 
[ican characters: mastic, olive, myrtle, palms, 
bananas, &c., abound in the central porta of the 
country, but on the S. shores those common to 
Europe almost wholly disappear, and the sugar- 
cane and cotton arc cultivated. Wheat, barley, 
fruits of all sort.*, and wines, are abundantly pro- 
duced 1 the chief mnesare those of .\erca (sherry), 
Pajarclc, Malawi 





pecially the bitter, are rcnownc<l as amonp^t the 
beat in Spain. The wolf and boar are the only 
formidable wilil animals; therii is plenty uf ^anits 
an abundance of fish, and none of the moftt veno- 
mous reptilcH: tlic <x>cluneal iiiKect is KuccesHfully 
cultivated near Cadiz. Most part of the country 
is i>arcellcd out Into va^st eBtates, l)elonjnii^ to 
grandees, the churcli, and corporations. Af^cul- 
ture is in a very liackward state. The prcutvr 
part of the countiy is appropriated to jmsture, the 
traveller often i<)urneying many miles without 
aeein*; a single house, or any 8ym])tom8 of culti- 
vation ; and, notwithstaudin/iC the fertility of the 
fv>il, there is annually a considerable im^iortation 
of com from tlie opixwite coast of Africa, Sicily, 
and the Black Sea. The cvccupiers of the land 
mostly live toj^ethcr in towns and Wlla^jes; their 
rents are umally ]Vii(l on tlie nutayer principle, 
and they are at once i;^urant and poor; the in- 
habitants of the mountainous mid less fertile dis- 
tricts are, as mij;ht be exi)ecte<l, tlie most indus- 
trious. The chief manufacturos are those (»f 
wtMilIons, silk, and leather; and but for oppressive 
custom laws, there would Ik; a more c<»nsulerable 
trade than there is both with other |»art« of Spaiji 
and forei;^! <x)imtries. Cadiz is the chief ]x>rt. 

The AndalusLins are a mixed nioe. de,-H.*ended 
from Africans, Carthii^nians, Ifomons, Goths, Van- 
dals, and M<x)rs. They retain nmch resemblance, 
both in |)erson and manuoj-s, to the latter; al- 
tliough li^ht hair, eyes and complexions, are by no 
means unfrequent. * When they have any motive 
to exertion, thev are not deficient in mdustrv, 
and are intelU^ent and imaginative. AndaluMn 
has produced many grxnl poets and distinguished 
men hi all ages: Trajan, tlie Senecas, and Silius 
Italicus were natives of this j)rov., with Murillo 
the painter, and some of the best lyric authors of 
m(Mieni S{>aiii. 

ANDAMAN ISLANDS, a lengthened narrow 
li^oup of islands, none of whicli are of any verj' 
considerable magnitude, in the E. part of the Hay 
of Bengal, stretching N. and S., between UP 30' 
and 13° 10' N. Int., under about l».iO 50' E. long. 
They are within tlie full swee]i of the SW. mon- 
Boon, <md are washe<l for eight months a year by in- 
cessant rains. TheypnHluce many large trees, that 
might furnish timlx'r and planks for the construc- 
tion of shi[js, and for the finest cabinet work. The 
3uadmpe(ls are but few, consisting princi])ally of a 
iminutive breed of swine and rat«. Among the 
binls is the swallow, that produces the edible nests 
so highly esteemed hi Chma. Fish are generally 
plentifiJ, but occasionally scarce. The inhabi- 
tants, who are not sup|)Osed to excee<l 2,500 or 
3,0(M) in number, seem to be a pcadiar race in the 
lowe-st state of barbarism. 'J'hey seldom exceed 
5 feet in height, have protid^erant bellies, liml)s 
disproportionally slender, skin a deep s<K)ty black, 
hair woolly, nose flat, ll]>s thick, eyes small and 
retl, their countenances exhibiting the extreme of 
wretchedness — a mixture of famine and fenwity. 
They go quite naked, and are insensible to shame 
from ex]K)sure. They have made no effort to cul- 
tivate the gn>und, anil arc found only on the sea- 
coast^ dei>ending principally f<»r subsistence on 
iishing. 1 heir implements are of the rudest texture ; 
but tliey use them with great dexterity, particu- 
larly in spearing and capturing fish, "rhey are 
skilful as rowers, and in the management of their 
boats. Hiey have no utensil that will resist fin>, 
and tlress their ftKnl by throwing it on the live 
cml)ers, and devouring it half bn^iletL Their ha- 
bitations display little more ingenuity tlian the 
dens of wild Ixjasts, being mere huts, formed of 
four irregular posts stuck in the ground and covercil 
with palm Icayca. Being much incommoded by 


insecta, their first occapatioa in the monnng ii 

f>laster their bodies all ov^ with mud. wUi 
lardening in the sun, forms an impenetrable tr 
our. They paint their woolly heads with i 
ochre and water, and, when completely drw 
have a roost hideous ajipeanmce. They ha?e 
intense hatred of strangers, witli whom ther o 
not be ])erHuaded to hold any intercourse. 11 
arc sui)p<»sed to worship the sou and moon; i 
during storms and tempeeta, endeavour to « 
the wrath of the demon b^' whom they ran 
them to l>e produced. Their language is pecal 
and Ls not known t«> have the alighrcst affinin 
any spoken in India, or in any of the Iihd 
islands. They liave been said to be oM&n 
phayists, but this is not confirmed by the la 
\'isitors. Some have supposed them to lie a i 
of degenerate negroes ; but this appears not i 
the case. No distuict resemblance can be tn 
liet ween them and any other race — Malay, Ausi 
asian, or others — a descent frum one or othc 
whom might have I;een looked for, and they i 
nwemblc a dwarfed and untlefonntnl Enro] 
race. Their want of correspondence with anvo 
tyi)e raises on interesting questitm in ethnoki^ 

A British settlement was establisliod at '. 
Comwnllis, on the largest of the islands, ncai 
NE. extrtrmitj' of the group, in 1 703. The harl 
is excollent ; and the settlement was designee 
the reception of con\'icts from Bengal, and fi» 
security of shipping during the monsoons; but 
situation turned out so verv' unliealthv, as to o 
sion its abandonment in 17Ut). Since tlien f 
have l>een but seldom visiteti, except in 1W4 
1825, when some of the ships, on their wa; 
I{ang(H)ii, touched at the islands. On one oft 
occasions the native^) attacked a party wate 
with the utmost fun'; and were not repulsed « 
out great loss on their side, and after they 
killed one soldier, and wounded three othenk 
place on one of the islands, Tort Blair, wassele 
as a )>enal settlement for the Se]K>y rebels in 1 
(Symes, Embassy to Ava, ]ip. 127-138, 4lUi 
mid Mouat*s Adventures and Researches am 
the Andaman Islanders. 18G3.) 

AN DELYS (LES), two towns of France, wi* 
a ver>' short distance of each other, del^ Eue, 
arrond. one on tlie Seine, and the other a L 
uiland, 10 or 11 m. £. Louviers. Pop. o,13 
180 1 . The greater Andely is ill built, with nai 
crooked streets; but it has a fine coUc^patc chu 
The lesser Andely has to boast of the mognifl 
ruins of the chateau Gaillard. There are mi 
factures of fine cloth, kejsex'meres, rateena, co 
yams, and paiier, with tanneries. Nichohu P 
sin, the famous painter, was bom in the haml 
Villere, near the greater Andely, in 1594; ai 
monument has been erected to his memwy in 

ANDENNES, a town of Belgium, prov. Na 
on the l^Iacse, 13 m. ENE. Namur. Pop. 6^S1 
18^)6. There are manufactures of earthenware 
]K)R'eIain, and of pipes formed of the day fuan 
the neigh l)ourhoo(L 

ANDEKNACH (the^n/muzcirmoftheRoiiu 
a town of the I'nissian prov. of l-iower Khin' 
the left l>aiik of the Rhine, 10 m. NW. CobI* 
on the railway from Cologne to Coblentx 
Mayence. Pop. 4,257 in 18(>1. It is situated 
coiuitrj' formerly volcanic, and ita massive to" 
turrets, and ruined walls are admirably suite 
the sr)mbre scenery by which it is surroui 
Streets narrow and ill paved, and the hi 
ghM>my, old, and out of re^vair. There is a ftiK 
nn'hway, supposetl to be Roman, formuig the i 
of the town on the side next Ooblentz; and ht 
it, in a line towards the river, arc the niiiu U 

ikb^tbe Goths 

_» Goths 

imaa. Tbc 
ftaai Ut>, uid U^e quaulitJvs of poiuidul tufa, 
dRunicatal (nasi, jt cvment ivbkh, wbeii mixed 
■il wila, becumfs u hutl u alone. The funnvr 
ttt m cmt doDuid in moal poild of Eurupe ; the 
liUcf is principally useil by the Dutch in ttio cun- 
Mniction uf thcii dykes, but is also exputt«d to 
•Umt tuunliiea. Immeiue rafUof timbei lri>m the 
Gcmun foreatA^ declined for the Lov CouDtriea, 
W fiirnieil nvmr AadcnLach, 

ANDES (TUE), an inunenae mmintun ruige, 
nma alunK the whole W. cuaat of S. America, 
coToing with iu ch«in», declivities, «nii \-all«y; 

h part of tliat ci 

The Oir- 

1 the inDormoM and 

■toperiv applicable only 
Lt^t nil(,'e uf (he maun. 

Cape Horn, on Cape Hum Island, in aboi 
8. lal^ mar be consirleml aa the b. cxlien 
the Aa<k& The most X. chain of the mou 
ii Ibr Paramo de liu Kuaas, uliich exleoda 
£. of Lake Manmrbo, arid termiiiatea at 
t^N. lat. The whole n-alem ia Ihua found 
UDd lenfTthwile over ki deg. of lat. Its width 
nfwa very much ; in aome parts it occu ' ~ ~' ~ 
bttwteo 3U IT 4<l milva sctiku, in othen 
^rith ltd branchtT' and vallevs a cuunuy extending 
hlU mdeii and nfiwardi from E. to W. 

bcKinnini; at ihcwuthem extremity, the Andea 
cBuucnL-e at (he Cape of (nod Succew, un tlie W 
Aum ^ the Straits of Le Miure, in about 7U° VV 
bus. Eren the high rocky mas, which conati 
latEi the island of Staateu Ldnd, and extend 
■mt than a dt^^ree farther E., may be cimsidervi 
sionlinualiuD of this nui^, fruro wbich it i 
K(antcd imly by the Smita of l/e Maire, belweei 
ktul-Ulm. acTU&s. From tbeCaiie ufUood Sue 
■M ibe nuiKe luns \\\ aloii); the S. Ehores o 
ILiigChaileBa Southland, the munt exten:^ve o 
the islanda cunatituliiig the S. Archipelaga u. 
u del Fuego. It 

lole of the islands lyhigS 

-, . e, Wollaaton, Uennit, aut 

Cifilliini. ToirardtlhvStraiUuf Lo Mairv, th< 
n^ lombits of rucky hilU, of uu great elevation 
hnfuiluT W. ihey rue Ii> an altitude of 2,UUU oi 
VW a Cape Hom itdclf is a conspicuoua rock, 
*iit) 1 Keep aac«il, upnards of 3,tlU0 ft. high 
Mauii Sanuiento, near Magilalen Channel, is ihi 

Id ibc Vi. port of Kuig Charles's Southland Hay. Earthcr Vi. it changes iu 

fattiim, nmnitig in a NW. direction aa far as 

lit Friih of Sausalid (Ancon Shiaahda o" 

ttuiuds). u20 S. lat., and 73° \V. long. 

pin uf the rau);e, whiHC mean width maybe about 

Vnalta milei, is luogituibnally dividcil by that 

V*u»a <if tlK Strait of jUagDihaeiis wliicb extends 

hn Cape Fruward to C-ape Victoria, '" 

ytnc channels divide the S. porti 

<|>*nU The E. or UagdaJco Channel aepaiales 

'^bmcc liland fnim Kiug Charlea'a So ' ' 

'"itlK Vi. extends between Clarence Is 

J™* Uesolation; the btler bears the 

Wan Channel. That part uS the ranj 

■a In (he NE. of the strait is iuteraiKtei 

^uaniveiH inlets. Tlie tvudi-eastcm, called 

'•n>iu(,'liamKl,termiiia(eii on theE. iti two hu'ge 

■PMH, adle.1 Utway and Skryii^ Wi ' 

f*l>ilh tiiualAl on the easteni side o 

"Ik |ilami> of Patsf.'ouia. By Ihu e: 

*<> hnuunrick Peninsula is ilinded from King 

"■Uiao'i Land. The X W. tnuisvcrM! inlet beaia 


of Smyth's Chftnuel, and diTides first 

Kin^WilUam's Land fium Queen Adelaide's Archi- 
peljif^) and aftcrwanls joins the Frith of Sinsalid, 
'' ' likcwijie pGUftnites through the whutechoin 
Andes, and terminates with its numerous 
pl^ia of Patagoni 

frith t! 

It higlier 

Eing Charles's Southland, hi 
~')n does not uceeii 4,0UI] ft. above the sea. 
The mountwn mnKe south of the Frith of Sinsa- 
1 may be called the Magalhuciu Andri, extending 
principally on both sides tlie strait bearing that 
name. It consists of islands and peninsulas inter- 
sected by deep but nanvw arms of the wa. The 
omits of the mountains are covered with eternal 

of the mountains and the sleep and incky shores 

of the islanda arc partly oovereil with everi-reen 

" I ; except towards the ocean, where they pi^ 

ho osjiect of hoje black rucks. 

the Frith of Sinsalid begins the niJnter- 

rupteil chain of the Andea. At thu place ita^in 

changes its direction, running due N. with aliubt 

■"inda as lai north as tbe Might of -Vriea (lao S. 

L,), It comiirebends the PataRonian Andes be- 

recn 52° and 42°, tbe southuh Chihmu Andes 

between 42° and 35°, and the iiorthera Chilean 

id A lacamean Andes between So^" and 20° S. kt. 

The PalagaitioM Andes extend from the FliCh of 

[uulid to the N. comer of (he Gulph of Ancud^ 

oppositetlicislondofChiloe. They are only known 

from the aide of the ocean, whence they rise to a 

maiderable height with on extremely eteep ascent, 

aupieii a much greater breadth, and that by some 
ctraordinary convulsion the whole of (he western 
cclivity, with tlie summits of Ihe range, had been 
niken down and burieil iu the oceau, so that only 
le eastern declivity has rentotued standing. The 
umeious and rocky islands which skirt this sliorc 
1 all its extent, except at tlie protrudal cape of 

Tree ilonlea, sp|>ear tu support such s su|ipoeition. 

The eastern declivity of the range haa not been 

>ccupy a width of only from 3U to 

4U miles. The mean height oi me I'ataginuaii 
Andes may be eat iniaced at about o,l)(HJ or li,UOII fu, 
me height 8/Ktll ft. Uut snow nioun- 
■a glaciers, aiB stated to be frequent. 
The lower part of tlie declivity is covered with 
trees and ahmbs, the u|iper port bare, aa also Ihuec 
poflions of the shore whieh are exposed to the 
immediate effects of the gales blowing from the 

The SoMlhtm Chilean Andes extend from tbc 

moat N. comer of tlie Uul) Ji of AncutI (42-' S. Ut.) 

S.lal. and i<l° \V. long. Towarilatbe S. extremity 
the Aiidea keep for some extent a distance of i^ut 
1611 miles from the shores oi' the I'acitie, the greatest 

wards the'X. they gradually aiiproaoh it to witliin 
about lUU miles. Between the Andea and the 
shore are extensive plams, from I.'JW to 2.(MJ0 It, 
above the sea ; and from theae plains the moun- 
tains rise with an extremely sleep acclivity to the 
mean elevation of t3,Ui>U or I4,UUII St. aliin'e Ihe 
Bca. Some summits attain Is.UUU and even 16,61)0 
feet. Though out knowledge leqieeting this |iait 
of the Andes be eumpamtively acauty, it would 
seem that they fonn one extensive inaa« froin (ill 
to MU miles aenjes, which, bowover. in its u[>|ieT 
iiart is furrowed by a longitudinal valley, diviiluil 

leys. This grvat mass of tvcks b mostly clothifll 



with f(»roKt trees and a rich vegetation ; but in the 
interior it pn^ents only l>are roc'kif, nearly yrithout 
]>lanti4 of any dest^iiption. 

Thiw. iMiiSQH are known to traverse the Cliileaii 
Andeff. That farthest S. skirttt the liigh volcano 
of ^itfiicr), between 37° and SiP S. lat., leading 
fn^m the snudl town of Tncapel to the great plains 
E. i»f the j^Vndes. It w also useil by the aborigines 
inhabiting these plain:}, who bring to Chile salt 
and some <r<»minotlitiei». The second rr>ad traverses 
tlie I'au del J'tanrhtm, which cnMsch the mountain 
riiiges near 35° S. lat», lieginning on the west at 
the village of Curico, and leading to the territory 
of the IVhueiichea, who occupy the E. declivity <»f 
the Andes, and thence to Meudo/a. It is said to 
be the lowest of the mountain passes of the Andes, 
vegetation ascending up to tlie highest |»art of thr 
road: it is farther stateii to l)e more gentle in its 
ascents and dt^scentK. Yet it is little useil, except 
by iientons trading with the Imliiuis in the l*am- 
pas. The third |»ass is that of PortUloy which at 
firet nms along the river Ma\i^», S. of Santiago, 
tlie capital of Chile, an<l afien^-anis crosses the 
two ri<lges of the Andes which enclose tlie valley 
of Tunuvan. On the W. ridge the road risci* to 
14,aO'J, on the E. to 13,210 f«H*t alnive the level of 
the sea. Fnim the latter it desirends to the plains, 
and leails to Mendo/a. It is the nearest way 1)0- 
tweeii the last -mentioned town and Santiago, the 
capital of Chile, and is therefore sometimes, but 
not frequently, usetl. Tliere is als<» the ^Mii*s of 
San Fraiicbico, and other jMisst-j* to be dej*cnlK»<l in 
B{)eaking of the pn»|K>se<l railway and new roatU* 
across the Andes. (Sec end <»f this article.) 

There is some doubt its to the exact height of 
the summit <if Aconcagua ; but it certainly ex- 
ceeiLs 23,3(M> ft.; and is, therefore, entitleii t<» l»e 
regarded as the culminating |)oint in this vast 
chain. X. of thU summit the Amies, which farther 
S. fonn onlv one enonnous mass of rocks, diviile 
into two masjics, which long and wide 
valleys ctnisiderably lower than the surrounding 
ridges. The first valley «»f this des<'ription is that 
of Uspallata, which extends alsjut IHci or tJOU miles 
S. ancl N. It is traversed by two rivers ; the IJio 
<lc Mendoza, which Hows S. ; and the IJio de S. 
Juan, which runs N. The watershed l>etween them 
lies N. of 32° S. lat. This vallev is alwiut 1 j miles 
in width, and pre»eut8 an nnduluting surface. It 
is about C,OU() feet above the level of the sea. Tlie 
range E. of it, called the ParamiUo de Uspallata, 
peems not to excetnl 10,0lK) ft. ; but the W. or prin- 
cipal range attains M,0(H) ft. and upwards. The 
fonncr is about 25, and the latter more than 70 
miles acnww. The E. range has two narn»w breaks, 
by whi<:h the t^'o rivers of the valley find their 
wav to the plains extending E. 

Over these two ranges, and through the valley 
of Us^Mdlata, lies the most frequented mountain 
road cn»s«ing the Andes. On the west it l)egins 
at the ttiwn of Santa Kosa, in the valley of the 
(^uillota river (2,0 14 ft. above the sea); it next 
follows the l)cd of that river f(>r a great dbttaiiee, 
and then crosses the high range nearly at ecpial 
flistances fnim the mountain summits of Tu])un- 
gato and Aconcagua (lietween 33° and 32° S. lat.). 
The Cumbrc or highest jwint is 12,454 feet above 
the Pacitic. Hence the n>ad des(x^nds along the 
Ifio de MdUdoza into the valley of Uspallata, parses 
the ParamiUo range, and enters the plains near 
Villa Viciosa, whence it runs along the last-men- 
tioned mountain chain to Mendoza (2,r)0H ft. above 
the 0ca) ; from Mendoza it leads over the Pampas) 
to Buenos A>Teti. Though much ftvqueiited, it 
cannot be pawed by carriages, and only mules an> 
lued fur the transport of conuntKlitiiw, and byjias- 
Mngen. In winter (fxvm June to September) the 

passage is very dangeroos, on account of the hetvy 
falls of snow, which cause frequent lomefl of life 
and property. Tlie pass is by some named that <if 
the Cumbre, and by othem of Uspallata. 

N. of the valley of Uspallata the Anden continne 
to form two ranges, including extcnfivc longim- 
dinol valleys. The tint in coder b that of Agua- 
lasta, of which we know only that its soil is sterile, 
but it>t mountains rich in metallic ores. Then fol- 
lows the vallev of /Vndalgala, which is entirely un- 
known. The latter extends to 23° S. lat. A great 
numlier of mountain passes are stateil to exist ova 
the W. range endo-^ing these valley^4, which would 
indicate that the mean ele\'ation of the Andes 'n 
here much less than in other partii. But none m 
these ]visses seems to l>e much used, nor liaa un 
of them iK-eii visit e<i by European travcUen*. fi 
is, however, known that towanls the Paritic thl 
rnnge iloes ni»t descend with a f>hort ami rapid de- 
clivity, a.s in the S. Chilean Andes, but by tal>l< 
lands in the form of terraces, which near the ])rin 
ci|ial chain are 5,000 feet and more above the sea 
but lower by degrees as they niipmach the (K-ean 
where thev still fonn a shore from 30«) to .'><Hi ft* 
high. l>(;ing furroweil by deep water-course>, thc«i 
table-lands, when s€«n trom the banks of riven 
ap{H'ar frequently like mountains of conj<ideraUi 

From their farthest S. point as fiv as the X.poin 
of the valley of U{)sallata, the Andes do s«n 
out lateral branches. But fVom the E. range, in 
i'luding the valleys of Agualasta and Andalgala 
hcvenil ranges branch otf into the E. plains, ani 
extend in a S. and E. direction to a distance u 
from 20<) to 250 m. Viy these lateral chains th> 
countries extending Y., of the Andes, lK:twi*<'n 7& 
and 23° S. lat., are reiKlercd hilly, and in som< 
districts even mountainous. In the S. district 
the height of the rauges is not considerable, bu 
farther to the X. it increases greatly; and th 
chain, which branches off at the N.'end of thi 
v;dley of Andalgala, and forms at ])ri>seiit the Uiim 
dary U'tween the republics of Buenos Ayre* ant 
Bolivia, may attain a height of 10,U<Mi ft. ahrni 
the sea. It temiinatcs at no great distance fron 
the {loint where the Kio Grande euteiH the Kic 

Between 23° and 20° S. lat. the principal mm 
of the Andes seems to constitute a single cliaih 
rising to a mean height of above 15,(Hiu feet, h 
it stands the Nevado de Chondque, which i% siatet 
to rise 10,.548 ft. above the ftea. From this chaii 
several lower and narrow ridges nin E, 120 or 15< 
m. The S. districts of Bolivia are in consequeno 
rendere<t a succession of valleys and mouniaiiu 
However, these ritlges do not attain a great ele\t 
tion over the ^tlains on which thev rise, A roai 
traveiM:s the pnncii>al chain ; it begim* on thecoad 
of the Pacitic at Cobija, or Puerto de la ^lar, th 
princqial harbour of liolivU. iMi.*«seM «»ver the hig) 
Andes of LiiH'Z near the volcano of Ataoama, an> 
deseeiuls to Tuiiiza; heni^e it run» tu Poto^t ao' 
Chuqui.>aca. This mad is not much useiL on ac 
count of the sterility of the surrounding count n 
and the dilHculty of procuring provender ft»r th 
mules and other animals of burden. In {H»me pari 
water to«) is extremely scarce. 

Near 20° .S. lat. is the mountain knot of Poro 
Here l>egin the Bolivian AntieSj which extend t 
14° S. lat., and mav lie considered as const itutin 
the central portion c»f the whtde mountain systen 
In no other |>art do the mountains generally* attai 
an c^jual height, ni»r «lo they cover so great a siu 
face. The chain, wliich fonuc<l or 
great undivided ridge, here diverges into tw 
smaller ridges, the one to the E, l)eing denom 
naicd the Cordillera do Ancunia, and that to tii 

V. Iba Cordillen dc toe Aodee, or nf the cnasu 
Tbtr utile at^im in about 14° or 14^° S. lal., eu- 
dHUif: bfcween them the great Alpine valley, 
Ng)HinniialledTitiaa,finm thefamouH lake ol 
t^ name, and soiDetinjefl DEiuiguaden> from the 
liiswbidi fluwafrom it. Thia iniineiute Imhui is 
tinil aSi m. in leni{th from X. iv S. i iU lireadth, 
■hidi ii difftrent at diffHent place*, may be «ti- 
Hitfd at aLout 55 m. at a malium, making ilA 
sa ituut 1 M,425 HI. m., o( wliich the lalie is leck- 
and at about ifli)l) an. m. The laller is at (he 
|>iidi;>Hu rkvMiim of lS,tl47 fN nlxjvc the level 
i^ ilw >ea ; uid the nie«ii Mk'" "^ '''^ mnuntains 
bi •rhich it u HiTTDimdHl eannot be ]e«i than 
liiNIO ft. Tbe higheat aummiu i>n each side as- 
Rsd (ai abiyve the line of peipcliuil muw. The 
Crnij da Pulosi, near the S. rxtceoiitv [>f the nuifte, 
ituinj t« an eleratioa of 16,152 FL; and lanhc 
It ihe X. niimani and the Nevailo de Zorata i 
1b( E. chain iii« reapcclivelv la th« heij^ht c. 
;i,11t> and £1,286 ft. Bui ihe ptaka in the W. 
tluia air Mill hiRbei, Sahama, in Ut. IR° »' S. 
lane ilSau ft alxn-e the aea, Paiinacota, 2?.():<l) 
It ind the viilnno of Aiequipa 2(VI2U ft. llieiw 
uA niber aliituclea hare been deCennlned by Mr. 
FnlUod. South of 17° S. lac, the two lanRe* 
nn Hulv due !^ and K., bnt M. of that parallel 
S,SHaa.rsSW. Ac their N. exRenuty (H" .S. 

tUMib'NNlL and S.SW. It haaiwveni silmmila 
rinntdwith perpetual anovr, but theii ele^'atiun 

ki- im Iji-en ast-ertained. 

■ valley of Tlticaca does not pre- 


the paaa of Fe 




il with m 

t ■aficirntlv lei-el Murfare. The HettaguBdni), 
■liiL'hiMiMlrnni the S. exlremitv of the lake of 
Tilinta. Ii.iw^ li. liU al>oat 1'.'^° S.~ lat., when it jx 
lidina nnall lake. The fnnncr lake ia fanrnua 
ia ibc hb-lurv <^ I'eru, fcir beiim the scene nf the 

<ii\if Inn dvnunv. He ia naid l<> luive inhnli 
drln)rn>l <-i ita many ialambi, whirh wan •>< 
t<»,l»lil in peculiar veneration. Snii-wilii 
w»<fd till it a ma^^niiicent ' ' ' " ' 

II Mrcca ia. iit 
nibTTU, toihr MiihaiDmoilaD mirld; fiirilwan 
iiiiiinlent <in all Penivians tii vi^it it, anil in Iviw 
"irt ibm rich offerinpt. Ilenm ita wraith became 
■BDHM. It is aUtcd IhM vhen the Hfianiaids 
■"ij-iooniiin of the rmintry, the iialivcii, to dli- 
•l^ani (be avarice of the ei>iii|ueniiii. anil firevcnt 
il> p'Utiiinn of the l«niiik, thraw ita timmmi 
Ell" the lake, and ikwiI the bliric to tlw fouoila- 
'>'•■■ Saie ancient tnins wv slill to be luinul on 
dv hmkcn iif the lake, ami 3Ir. Preiuiitt nqipniiea 
il !>• bave been the neat of (dviliraliuii mteniii lu 
ikm nf the IncaH.— (Hii>t. of Peru, I. Iltb ed. 
I'I'j The sliimu thai nuh frum llie nurantaina 
Hi'lntbe navigation of this lake peeuliiiilr dan- 
itnif, lu waiern are naiil to be liitler or brack- ' 
''^-. bsi iber are dnuik iiv tlic catlle in ttin vi- 
'. The lake ia well etucknl with truut and 



' valley of Titl- 

"khii Ihe fiiUowinc arc the most frrqiieiilwl : — 
ito lb^^ll;h the |iam of Fotmi, tiBvcrdiai! the 
j^" lietween the Ceno of Polusi and llukt of 
Unnu Potnn: it leads from I'ntinn to Uiuni, 
■"■I ii« in its highe*! pcant Ici 14,120 feeL The 
"ul mtt the )ia« of CVarfar FmhrUt, lietween 
<>Tiir. umI Cvclialiamlia, rises in it^ bi^liesC part 
^ llilf^ ft. above the sea. The ruud tliruugh 

nuiRi, leading from La Pnz la Iho 
>r the riilitej, risai b> 1 5,226 ft. The 
nuMt used road ia over the wutern ran|% and 
that through the paaa of Lot Cualillai, leading 

the vallev of Tlticikait it tnvemea the range at 
17° 5U' !i. lat., S. of the Xevado de Cliipirani, 
where it riaca to I4,X30 ft. Farther K. {tifi t 3. 
lat.) id another roail, wliich, connecting Arrauipa 
with Puno, attains in the pass of Altat di Toleib 
an elevation of 15^^28 feet above the sea. 

Several lateral ridRea mn off fiotn thia great 
maaii of rocka tn the E. ; but none of them scema 
to l>e distin^fuished by its height or extent, except 
the Sierra de SanU Cnix, which detaches itself 
from the prinei|ial ranRe about 17° 10' S. lat., and 
terminates near the bnnka of the Kio Guapai or 
Kio Ununte, within a few leagues of the town of 
S, Cniz de la Scrra. It extends about 30o miiea, 
and is of eonnidendile elevation in ita irestem 
part, where it forma the Kcvadu de Tinaieo, near 
Cochabamba; TartlieT east it becomes gradually 

The Pertinan AndiM occupy the next place, 
extending from 14° to 6° S. lat. Between these 
latitudes they meanire from 4W to 450 m. in 
width, and their area does nut proliablv fall short 
uf 200,nnO Ni. m. On tlieir liordera cxtctul two 
ranges; of which Ihe G., seiiaiutiiifc llie mountain 
region from Ihe grrat plaiiH extending Huiih of 
the Amazon, Imiirhea otf fnim II 
i>f the Aniiea of Vilcsnota in a X. directiim. 

ie affluen 

lof II 


ts exceeil 10,000 fc 

■o S. lat.. a1 

ablv n 

The W. mngc of tile Penri-iiui Aniloa, which, 
with its W. decliiiCies, appruncbcs the Pavilia 
Ocean U> a distance of HO m. or le», must be con- 
sidered aa the princijial chain, on account of iiH 
height and l)re»dth, and bccauw it forms with iho 
N. parts of the Andes an uiiinterTupted chain. It 
may be said to commence near the Nevailo de 
Churn leliamba, where the Andea of Vikanola join 
the W. ran^e of the valley of Tilicacs. tt is re- 
marknhlc that Ihe Pcnii-inn Anilra srcra to be 
lather a continnntion of Ihe Amies nf Vilcanota 
than of Ihe gn-nt \V. chain ; f<ir near 10° S. Ut. 
and between 71° and 70° W. long, the Peruvian 
Amies extend in a dim'lion K. and W., whilst 
Ihrce degrees farther S. Ihe Bolirian Andes run K. 
nivl X. In this ix>nion of Ihe Andes are some 
very liigh summits. Ilcsiih'a Ihe Xevn'lo dc Chu- 
quiiliamlia, already n«ticr<l, are ihe Cerru di^ llu- 
nndo and tlie (>otii de Parinaeocha, whose eh'va- 
liiHi, however, lias not lieen determined. Near 
Tii° W. long, the principal chain of Ihe Amies 
ilerlinea to NW'.. ami miis in Ihal dirrclion lo the 
nrighlHiurho-id of Cajie Pnrina, the mutt W. ex- 
tremity of S, America. In the S. portion of thia 
chain srvcrat summila riw aliove the snow line, 
Iiut the elevation uf none of tlirm haa been deter- 
mined. The l)est known are, Ihe Toldo <Ig la 
Nieve, srcii from Lima, to the .SK. of which it is 
siiiuueih Uhe Altunduuna, near 10° S. lal.; ami 
Ihe Ne\-ailii de Ilniiylillas. 7° SO* .S. Inl. Bill 
lietween llic la)it iiameil snow-iieak and Mount 
L'bimliorKUi, in Ihe Andes of ICciuidor, or Kqual'ir 
(2<> ft. lat.), there ia no snmuiit whkh allains tlie 

The country lying between the two ont( 
of the Peruvian Andri prrs«its a ciqilii 
^ n of high ridges ami long ^Ik-ys. I 
intermixeil with plains of nxxlemli 
ms the beal poniuii of the rc|iublic 




The most remflrkablc dwtrict S(»em8 to be the plain 
of Uoinlxm, near IP S. lat., which in 18,000 feet 
above the level of the Hca, and extends about 18 
miles in Miidth from E. to W., and 40 or 50 from 
S. to X. A great part of this elevatetl plain, 
which in encloiicd by two ridges of mountains, 
and on which the argiferous Cerro of Paxco is 
situated, is covered with swnmpa. The water 
running off from them, and from the elevated 
ground, which frequently is covered with snow, 
is collected in several lakes, of which three are 
especially noticed, as gi\ing birth to three con- 
siderable rivers. The farthest \. is the Lake of 
Llnuricocha, from which the Amazon rises; the 
farthest S. is called the Lake of Quihuicocha, 
which gives birth to the Simja or Mataro, one of 
the principal branches of the Ucayale. Between 
these lakes is that of Chiquiacola, whence the Rio 
Hualluga issues. The plain of Bombon is farther 
to Im) considered as a mountain knot, from which 
difTcntnt ranges branch otf in different directions. 
Iie>ides tlie principal range of the Peruvian Andes, 
which lies contiguoiLs to it on the W., two moun- 
tain chains run off from it to the X., and one to 
the S. The most W. of the two N. chains runs 
nearly parallel to the principal range of the Peru- 
vian Amies, and forms the E. boundary uf the 
valley of the Maranon or Upper Amazon. It rises 
to a great elevation, but does not enter the snow 
line. <])ne of its farthest N. branches extends 
close to the banks of the Amazon, where it forms 
the famous Pongo, or cataract of Manseriche. A 
lateral ridge of this chain, branching off from it 
at alK)ut 7^, runs £., and terminates on the banks 
of the Kio Huallaga, where that river forms its 
great cataract, or jxtnao. The farthest K. of the 
N. chains sqmrates the valley (»f tlie HualLiga 
fn>m the pamptu of S. Sngrnmento, travcrseit by 
the Kio Ucayule. It is towards its U<ginning, in 
the nioimtain knot of DomlHin, of great height, 
but lowers c«nsi<lprably farther N., t«;nnhiating 
U'twivn G° and "P S. lat., at the Poiigo of the 
Hualluga. The S. chain, issuing from the plain 
of ll<imb<in, nui.s SSE., nearly parallel to the prin- 
cipal rangf of the Andes, ami encloses the rich 
valley of the Hio Saiija. It terminates in the 
most S. l)cn<l of that river, aUiut 13*^ S. lat and 
1\9 \V. long., an<l nojirly o])posite another range 
of high miiuntains, which issue from the Andes 
of Vileanota, and nm N., separating the valley of 
the Kio Apurimac fmm that of the Kio (juilla- 
liamba or river of C'uzco. The valleys enclosed 
by these K^veral chains of mountains seem to have 
aniean elevation of from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above 
the sen. 

The n>ads traversing the Penivian Andes are 
srnnewluit imperfect Iv known. That most to the 
S. leads from Are(|uii)a (near 10° 30' S. lut) on 
the coast tt) (hizco in the valley of the (^uilla- 
bamljo, and traverses ver>' high ranges of moun- 
tains. Another road leaiLs from Lima to the town 
of Tarmu, in the valley of the Sanja, and thence 
to Guancavelica, Iluamanga, and Cuzeo. It rises 
on the principal chain at the Portacnelo de Tuoto 
to 15,700 feet above the sea. Farther north is tlie 
roa<l pas^ng over the plain of Bonibon to the 
Cerro de Pasco. It traverses on the pnncipal 
range two mountain passes, of which the vV., 
calle<I Alto de Tacaibamba, attains an elevation 
of 15,135, and the K., or Alto de I^achagual, 
Io,-1HO feet above the sea. Another road conncitts 
the town of Truxillo with the valley of the Ma- 
ranon. It traverses the great range near the Nc- 
vailo de Guavlillas, and leads to lluamachucoanil 
Caxamarquilla ; but we are not acquainted with 

The Andes of Ecuador ^ or the Equator, extend 

to the X. of the Pcmvian Andes. Their com- 
mencement may be fixed oppoAte the Puntade 
Aguja (6° S. lat.), and the place where ilic Maim- 
non changes its XNVV. course into a XNEw In 
the same parallel the chain also changes its direc- 
tion. It runs between G^ $. lat. and the equator, 
nearly due north. This portion of the mountain 
system closely resembles the Chilean Andes. It 
c<mstitutes one enormous mass of hi^j^h rocks, of 
about 80 or 100 m. in width, overtopped longi- 
tudinally by a double scries of very elevated sum- 
mits, so' that between them a sncceasion of hi^ 
valleys is formed. These Andes are also distm- 
guished from those lietween 33^ and G° S. lat by 
their not sending off to the E. lateral branches. 
Their eastern declivities are supported by short 
contreforts which probably nowhete extend be- 
yond 50 m. into the PI plains. 

It is remarkable that the elevated vallevs ooni- 
pWng the middle of the range rise in eleratioa 
as they advance farther \. Tliat portion of the 
range* which lies between 5^° and 3^° S. lat is 
occupiefl by an exten.'uve mountain knot, the An- 
de.s of I^x'a, wliich, however, at no place attains 
tlie snow Une^ Then follows the longitudinal 
vallev of Cueii^a, which extends from Ip 15' to 
2° 8(V, and rises to aliout 7,800 feet abr»ve the 
sea. On this side no snow mountains occur. The 
mountains of Assuay, which form the X. boundaiy 
of the valley of Cuen9a, extending between the 
two outer ranges, rise to 15.500 feet aboA'e the set, 
and enter the snow line; but they are nairow, 
occupving (mly alwut 3 min. of lat (l'*>*twcei 
20 27' and '» 30'). To the X. of them exten* 
the longitudinal valley of Alausi and Ilamliato^ 
which extends between 2^ 27' and 40' S. Ut, and 
rises to alK>ut 7,920 fv-et above the sieo. The «»»• 
mits of the ranges which enclose it on the E. and 
W. rise to a gwiat elevation. On the western 
range stands the famous Chimborazo, ri^iing 21,4!fO 
ft al)ove the level of the sea. It was until lately 
con>idercd as the highest summit of the Anden; 
but it is now known that Aconcagua, and tbebi^ 
peaks of the Bolivian Andes, Parinacota and Sa- 
hama, rise considerably higher. On the E. range 
stand the volcanoes of Sangay, Collancs, and Lisa- 
ganate. On the X. the valley of Alausi and Ham- 
bato is I)oun(lc<l by a narrow transvenic ridge, the 
Alto de CliL'iiiiche^ which hardly ri«es 300 ft. above 
the adjacent level grounrL Put at its extremities, 
and precisely on the lateral ranges, rise two i-or 
high summits; on the E. the volcano of Cotopaxi, 
attaining 1K,8(H) ft.; and on the W. the Ylmiza, 
attaining 1 7,37() ft above the sea. 

The valley of Quito extends fWira 40' 8. lat to 
20' N. kt, and has an elevation of 9,<>o0 it. above 
the sea. It likew^ii^e is skirteti hv very high sum- 
mits, on the E. by Antisana, which attains 19,180 
ft,, and by Cayambe L'rcii, which attains 19,535 ft. 
above the sea. The summit of the latter moontain 
is traversed by the Equator. On the W. range 
the tiighest summits are the Pichincha, rising to 
15,036 ft., and the Cotocache, 16,448 ft. above the 

The three longitudinal valleys of Quito, Alansi, 
Hambato, and Cuenya, beuig only sefMinited ftmn 
each other by very narrow transverse ridges, maj 
1k.> considere(l as one valk'ty, extending 240 mile< 
in length, with a mean breadth of from 12 to l( 
inik^s. Thev fonn the most impnlous and richest 
portion of the republic of Equator. 

The northern t>ouiidary of the vallev of Qnit< 
is formed by a transverse ridge iKtwecn the Ne 
vado of Cotocache and the volcano of Imt»aban 
(21' N. lat*). To the N. of it lie the Ande* ofim 
PtiBtos, an extensive mountain region, which* ex- 
tends to 1^ 13' X. lat., and is crowned by several higfc 



tfmmits and volcanoes; as the volcanoes of Cum- 
bal, Chile, and Pasto. The narrow valleys which 
le between the different rid^^ by which it is tra- 
Temd are, at a medium, 10,0(>() ft. above the sea. 

This portion of the Andes is directed from SW. 
to NE., and may be considered as the centre of 
the N. Andes; for it is here that the chaiti begins 
to divide into two principal branches ; the western 
rf which is called Cordillera de la Costa or de Sin- 
dagos, whilst the £. bears the name of Andes de 
Iw Pastes. 

The Andes of Sindagua have a break at about 
P 2U' N. lat^ by which the Kio de las Patias car- 
nes off the waters descending from the Andes de 
Ih Ps9tos and those which collect in the valley 
of Alnuffoer. This valley extends between 1° 13' 
and 1° 56' N. Its surface is very uneven, and its 
ii!«an elevation may be about 6,900 feet above the 
MS. In the mountains which extend to the E. of 
it tfs Ut]^ alpine lake, theCianega de Sebondoy, 
in which the Kio Putumaya or lea, a large tribu- 
tarr of the Amazon, takes its origin. This E. 
chain exfionds considerably to the N. of 1^ 5G' N. 
kt., w> a>4to form a mountain knot, which receivcA 
the name of Paramo de las Papas. A little far- 
ther north (2^ y N. lat.) the knot divides into two 
diatn.1 uf mountains, which advancing N. enclose 
the valky of the Kio Magdalena, as we shall ace 
aftenranis. From the mountain knot of the Pa- 
ramo de las Papas a transverse ridge branches off 
weitvard, uniting the eastern chain of the Andes 
vith the Cordillera of Sindaguo, and separating 
the valky of Almaguer firom the great valley of 
theCaaca. Near the place where this transverse 
nii|;:e leaves the mountain knot of los Pastos is 
the vukano de Purac^, 14,544 ft. above the sea. 
This volcano may be considered as the most N. 
point of the Andes of Equator, comprising those 
of <jaito and of los Pastos. 

The countries lying on both declivities and at the 

fbc< of the Andes of the Equator are very thinlv 

mhaliited, and alma-^t entirely by aboriginal na- 

t3im»y anacquahited with civilisation and com- 

nwoe. But the elevated valleys lying between 

tht two ranges are comparatively well peopled, 

partly by the descendants of Europeans, and 

partly by Indians who have made some progress 

m civilLsatiMi, and are acquainted with the ad- 

▼antagw of commerce. Hence the great com- 

nm-iAl nwul which traverses this ])ortion of the 

Aniks runs longitudinally over tlie internal val 

kv% beginning on the north at Po[>ayan {2° 26' 1 

N. Ill,) in the vallev of the Cauca, and temii- 

aaiin- at Truxillo (^ 5' 40" S. hit.) on the Pacific. 

From Popavan (5,7*24 ft. alwve tlie seu) it a.scen(i.s 

the Ako de'Koble (6,176 ft.), and then the Alto de 

Qoilqua* (6,416 ft). Hence it descends to the 

Kiod«Guachicon (3,042 ft.), whence it rises again 

hy -Jfintes to the tonvni of Almaguer (7,440 ft.) in 

the ralley of Almaguer. It next enters the nioun- 

taitti of los Pastos, passing over the Paramo de 

Pumzuav (9,408) to the villiige of Pasto (8,578 ft.). 

»South vif this it descend** to the Kio de Guaitara 

(•5,4.>5 ft.), and again ascends a steep declivity to 

tl* village of Guachugal (10,320 ft.), whence it 

pa<*»tothe vilhige of Tulian (10,1 12 ft.). Having 

traversed the Paramo de Ifeliche (11,504 ft.), and 

the Alto de Pucara (10,400 ft.), it descends by a 

'twp dechvity to the river Chota, which is passed 

at thePonte'de Chota (5,280 ft,), and hence it 

fcai^ upward to the town of (^uito (9,536 t\.). 

from (^uito the road runs over the plain to the 
Aho i\e Chisinche, which has a little more than 
l'i,iM.Ki ft, of elevation. It next pa**es through 
th*- valley by Uambato (8,864 ft.), Ki(»baniba 
Xueva (9,472'ft.),Guamote (10,224 ft.), and Alausi 
(7,!ft^ ft.). Bi^ween the last-mentioned pUice and 


the town of Cuen^a is the famous and dangerous 
pass over the Paramo dc Assuay, which in its 
highest point, the Ladera de Cadlud, rises to 
15,536 ft., and is above the snow line. More or 
fewer lives are annually lost on this paramn, 
Cuenga is 8,640 ft. above th^ sea. Leaving this 
town the road descends to the Kio de Saniguru 
(7,376 ft.), and again rises to the Alto de Pulla 
(10,000 ft.), whence it passes to Loxa (6,768 ft.). 

From Loxa the road passes to the W. declivity 
of the Andes, where it traverses Ayavaca (8,992 ft.) 
and Olleros (4,768 ft.), whence it repasses thet 
range by the Paramo de Guamani (10,960 fl.), and 
enters the valley of the Maranon. In this it tra- 
verses Guancabamba (6,360 ft.), Zulaca (4,352 ft.),, 
the Paramo de Yam oca (8,768 ft.), the Passo do 
Pucura (3,552 ft), Montan (8,560 ft.), and Caxa- 
marca (9,200 ft.). From the last-mentioned place 
it again passes the Andes to Guanganiarca 
(8,000 ft.), and runs hence to Casc4is (4,384 ft.) 
and Los Mokinos (608 tt.),termmating at Truxillo 
(200 ft. above the sea). 'Thus this long road runs 
continually over mountains in traversing 9^*^ 
of lat. 

From Guayaquil a road leads to Quito. From 
the first-mentioned place it runs through the low 
grounds skirting the Kio de Guayaquil to Caracol, 
and then along the banks of theKio Ojibar toCa- 
luma, where the ascent of the nioimtaiiis com- 
mences. The acclivity is extremely steep between 
(^alunia and Chimbo, which is situated on an 
elevated country S. of the Chiniborazo. From 
Chimbo the road leads to Mocha and Hombat<t, 
where it joins the great mountain road. 

At about 1° 20' N. lat. the Andes of Sindagua 
branch off from the mountain knot of los PasU)s. 
The E. range divides again at alx)ut 29 5' N. lat, 
in two high mountain ranges. Thus, we find X. 
of the latter paralh'I the Andes divided into three 
distinct chains, which enclose the valleys of the 
rivers Magdalena and Cauca. These chains are 
called the K. ('entral and W. Andes. 

The Kiistem AiuUa of New (iranada run be- 
tween 29 5' and 5° 30' N. lat., nearly parallel with 
the central range NNE. ; but X. of 5° 30' they 
incline farther E., running due XE. Though 
none of it-* summits, except the Xevado de Chita 
(5° 50' X. lat.) and the Xevatlo de Mucuchues 
(ho 12') cuter the line ()f perpetual congelation, its 
mean height is commonly above the region of 
trees; and the /Mr«mo», which extend on its sum- 
mits, have a scrjity vegetation, and ris«« to an 
elevation of between 12,000 and 11,0(M) ft. Las 
Kosas, the most X. of these paramos, termiimtes 
near 9^ X. lat., and may be considered as the most 
X. extremity of the ^Vndes; for the hilly country 
lying farther X. about the towns of Tucuvo and 
Uarquisimento is not known to contain summits 
exceeding -IjOlK) or 5,000 ft. in elevation, and on 
that account alone cannot be considered as a con- 
tinuatiou of the gigantic mountain system of the 

The eastern decli^-ity of this range is so ])recipi- 
tous that it affords wo space for agriculture and 
can onlv l>e ascended with great dilficulty ; but 
on its \V . dcirlivity recline several extensive table- 
lands, exhibiting a more or less level surface, and 
rising to an clevatirm of from 6,000 to 9,(MM) ft. 
al)ove the sea. Such are the rich and fertile plains 
of Kogota, ^vith those of Tmija, Socorro, Soga- 
mozzo, and Pamplona, These fible-lands tenni- 
nate rather abruptly, and at a little distance from 
the banks of the Kio Magdalena. The river 
Funzha, or IJio de Bogota, when issuing from the 
plain, precipitates itself at Tequendama, at two 
iMiunfh*, down a |K.'rpendicular height of 650 ft. 
In no other cataract is there so great a mass of 



water precipitated frnm so fn^at a heip^ht; and 
Ihc jHilitiuk* of tlic plairo, the luxurinm^* of the 
veprctation, and the dreadful roar, present a scene 
of unrivalled Kublimity. 

The K. Anded are twice traversed by the road 
leadiu); from Bogota to Cnrracas. From the capi- 
tal of New Granada it nms over the table-land of 
l{<t^)ta and Tunja to the wmrces of the Tej^ia, a 
tributar\' of the So^amozzo, where it passes over 
the Paramo de Almocaden>, on the summit of 
wliicli It attains an ehtvation of ]*2,K50 ft. alM>ve 
tlie sea. It then descends towanls the E. plain ; 
before attaininf]; which, it again ascends the ranf^e 
to the town of Pamphma, which proliablv w nr»t 
kw than 9,<>00 ft. high. To the X. of this it tra- 
verses the upfier part of the range, and passes to 
liosario de Cucuta. Fn>m the last-named place 
tlie road is made over the high grounds which 
skirt the N\V. dwlivity of the chain, passing 
througli Merida, Mendoza, and Truxillo, to To- 
cuyo. From Tocuyo it tra%'erse8 the liilly region 
by which the Sierra <lc la Crista is united to the 
Andes, ]mssing through Ikirquisimento, 8. Carlos, 
Valentia, and Victx>ria, to Caractras. 

The Central Andes of New (irranada nm N., with 
a slight declination to tlie £., and form l»etween 
their commencement and 6° 15' one great mass of 
rocks, almut 40 or 50 miles in breadth, whose si<le9 
are only fum)we<l by ravines, but not intersected 
by valleys. It« mean height seems to be rather 
greater than that of the PI. Andes, and it contains 
several summits which exceed the snowline. The 
most remarkable of them are from S. to N. ; the 
Nevados de Iluila, de Baraguan, de Tolima (which 
attains 18,830 ft.), anddc Herveo. In the vicinity 
of tlie latter (5° 16') the range expands to aUmt 
double it^ width, separating at the same time into 
several ridges, so as to form a mountain knot^with 
intervening valleys. This mountain region? known 
under the name of Sierra de Anti(»quia, f(»rms in 
its up]>er valleys a high cimntrj', from 0,(M)0 to 
7,04)0 ft. alwve the sea, on which the ritlges rise 
2,<MM» ft, and more. It approaches ver>' close to 
the Kio Cauca, so as to skirt its lied fur alNmt 150 
mik>s. Opposite to the high banks fnrmwl by ridges, other mountains, l>elonging to the 
W. And(>s, a])pniach as near to the riv<»r, which 
runs for nearly 150 miles in an immense cleft, 
over a rocky and nigged bottom, and forms a 
series of cataracts and rajrids l>etween Salto de S. 
Antonio, and Bocca del Ksinrito Snnto. In all 
this s|)ace the river is quite unfit for na\'ig2ition, 
an<l travelling by land is in this country' very 
fatiguing and not without danger. The ridges 
which iwue fn>m the mountain knot of the Sierra 
de Antiorpiia appn»ach the Hi" Magd.'Ufna to a 
distance of a few miles, an«l terminate nrit far 
fnun the place where that river joins the Kio 
Cauca, alsmt >f9 no'. 

That p«»rtion of the Central Andes which forms 
one undivided inaM is crossed by two n>ads : one 
leading fn.»m Bojjota to Poiiayan, and the other to 
Cartogo. The first runs after descending from 
the elevate<l plain of B(^r>ta to the banks of the 
L'io Magdalena, in the valley <»f tMs river to the 
S. as far as the town of La Plata, whence it turns 
W., and crosses the range over the Paramo de las 
Guanacas, on which it rises to 14,705 ft, alMive the 
sea. It then descends into the valley of the Cauc^ 
to the town of P<»payan. The road b<*tween Bo- 
gota and Cartago d(»cends from the ]>lain of Bo- 
gota («,736 ft,), crosses the Kio Magdalena at the 
pass de Guayacana (1.200 fu), i>assej* through the 
town of Ibague (4.480 ft.), and crosses the range 
by the famous mountain ]iass of Quindiu, Iwlween 
the Nevados of Baraguan and Tolima; at its 
bigheBt point, the Garilodel Paramo, it attains an 

I'levation of 11.504 ft. alwve the level of the 
It desceiuls afterwanls to the town of Car;^ in 
the valley of the Cauca (3,152 feet). 

The IK AndeM of New Granada are the aame 
range, which farther S. is called Sierra de la 
Costa or de Sindagua. It lowers considerahlv in 
advancing to the N., so that between 2° Sti^aad 
5^ N. lat. its mean elevation doea not exceed 
5.(N)0 or (i,000 ft, al)ove the sea, or from 2,000 to 
3,000 ft, above tlie valley of the Cauca; nor is ita 
breadth considerable, probably not more than limn 
15 to 20 milvH, but it rises i^-ith a very preci|HtMis 
decliWty. N. of 5^ the range is higher, and ift 
breadth more considerable. Ita highcitt aommit 
is the Torra del Choco, SE. of Kovita. which, 
however, is far from attaining the snow line, and 
prolMiblv does not rise to much more than 10,(100 
feet. ^. of this summit the range appmacbea 
close to the Kio Cauca, forming its high honks be- 
tween the Salto de S. Antonio and the Bocca dd 
Kspirito Santo, and constituting with the oppo- 
site ranges of the C-entral Andes, aa it weie, one 
mountain knot. The Western Andea send fnvn 
this jMiint a range towards the Caribbean Sm, 
which skirts the Kio Cauca on the W., extending 
to the N. of 8^ N. lat,, and contains the Alto de 
Vieiito, a summit which attains more than 9,000 ft. 
of elevation. 

Fn»m the W. Andes a ridge branches ofT ntar 
G^ N. lat. It runs to the W ., and seiuuates the 
sources of the Kio de 8. Juan, which falls into the 
Pacific, from those of the Atrato, which nina to 
the (!nrri1>lM>an Sea. This range soon turns to the 
NNW., and advances in that direction betwreen 
the Kio Atrato anil the Pacific It« elevation 
seems not to be considerable at the beginning, and 
it grows lower as it advancej* farther N. It sc«ni 
to disa])pear entirely lietween 7° and 80 iqjpusite 
to the liarismr of Cu]nca on the Pacific; for no 
mountain range is found on the isthmus of 
Panama, where it is narrowest. 

Six roads are said to cross the W. Andes : bat 
they can only be used v^ith great difficulty, oo 
account of the extreme steepness of the ridge 
They are commonly im]>racticable for mules, and 
travellers n» well as go<Nls are bmught over on 
the Imcks of Indians. The roads most usetl aw 
that of I^ios Juntas, which leails from Cali in the 
valley of the Cauca to Buenaventura, a haritour 
on the I'acitic ; the nvid of S. Angustin, ciHinect- 
ing Cartago with Nt^dta ; and that of Venas, by 
which the town of Citara in the valley of the 
Atrato communicates with Antioquia' on the 
Imnks of the Cauca. (For n further accoant oS 
existing and ])ntp<ised n^ads over the Andes, see 
Raihcays^ at the end of tliis article.) 

The GvoifMfy of the Andes is verv imperfectly 
known. Only a small ]y)rtion of their immense 
extent has been visite<l by scientific travellei9; 
and the information obtained from them teaches 
oidy a few isolated facts, which do mit justify 
general conclusions. We are, h(»wever, informed. 
tliat the mo24t frequent of the primitive nnrks of 
the Al|>s — granite and gneiss — are by no means 
frequent in the Andes, which are iromposed mostly 
<»f iK>rf»hyr5' and mica-slate. Porphyrj' is by far 
the most widely extended <»f the unst ratified rucks 
of the Andes, and occurs through the whole range 
at all elevations, and fn^iuently the highest sum- 
mits are comjxised of it. Next tu porphyry and 
mica-slate, trachyte and basalt arc most frMiuently 
met ^-ith. 

Volcanoes arc frequent in certain portions of 
th(> range. Capt. B. llall ol>ser\-ed a phenomenon, 
which induced liim to think that a voh*ano exists 
on one of the larger Islands N. of Ca})e Horn, and 
that the observed phenomenon was pn)dnced by an 

I btet Oqrt. Kng, (dw mrrered Uwie 
bonl tea r**» *&h n«nu not to htra 
vleauo In nan del Fowo. nor in uiy 
lkaorihanngca>athof46°8.l>t. Bat 
T. Ibef occur in gnat nnmben. Foui 

- '-"- ■*— n the iskod of Chiloe; 

tt, between 46° and 42° 
iij an volcanoM in ibe 

1 nineteen being known 

■•BsmteofactiTitr. Tbe mwt ■4. is 
^Dqidmbo, noiewbU to tbe S. ofSOO 3. 
: t n lw t t n thii votcuo and that of Ala- 
Rnoi 11° uid 22° a lat.) nu volcano i> 
mat. Puther X. the volcanic moun- 
n cdt^ in tlie W. range of Ibe Bolivian 
use dTlhe hi^ nunmita of the E. lange 
n> bnn known to have made an ernp- 
■Btted nuoke. That poitioa of the Andes 
Toleanic leeocv ia most active lice be- 
"8.Ut,and a^lJ. lat. The nnmbei of 
^koaa ariintioafl ub recoided is here very 
kte; and UnmboHt ia inclined to think 
nUcTa X. of the pan of Aaauay aie to 
Isad W being placed on an extensive 
bam ■Od tluit moat of the numeroos 

in Mne, a> "'"""«'« for the nibterranean 
■iiiiii iliiit, with the atmoapheie. Tbe 
H.oftlwae volcanoes is that of I'unc^ in 
bbamfaood of Popayan, where tbe Andes 
diride into three nnges ; which seem to 
lb pnsant Male, gtute exempt from vol- 
■7, DODO of their ■ommits having evei 

iliHi of the globe ia aulject to Bach tn- 
dliigfatfnl eanliqaakes as the cnuntiies 
Md witbin the range of the Andea, and 
<lg between them and the Pacidc Ocean, 
Da of Bogota. Quito, Riobamba, Callao, 
, Va^iaiaiao, Concspdor — ' -■' — ' 


climate aa the banana; bnt its cultivation 
ids over a moch wider s^re, as it arrives at 
matniity at an elevadon of 6,000 ft above the sea. 
The low countiy within Che tioraca is also the 
region of oiangea, pine-applM, and the most deli- 
dousfhiits. Between the altitodes of 6,000 fL and 
9,000 n, lies the climate best suilfld for the culture 
kinds of Enropean grain. Wheat, under the 
equator, will seldom form an ear below an eleva- 
•=— of 4,500 ft., or ripen if above that of 10,000 ft 
the same time it must he observed that the 

he Andes induced him 
D0* line near the equator, at an elevation 

ILi and he thought that, near the 
tmmld be found at about 14,000 ft., - 
M higher. But Hr. Penlland found 
'StU^at nearly 17,000 ft : andlaternb- 
■ Oz it near 12° S. Ut, at about 16,400 ft 
I* level of the sea. It is farther remaik- 
at though a great number of summits 
ra the mow line, glacien are of rare oo- 

1 in the Andes. This is putly to be at> 
ta tbe relative position a their summits, 
tacnUy form a continuous line, without 

a— M»ijt«UfM-J»rhii.h»Va.ywliBr»;iifni.nH 

raa between two soramils. It is only in 
0* nviiMa, by which some of the udes of 

mm md Zoalagg of At Amirt.—Tbn dif- 
bnta and tree* peculiar to the diSerent 
of the 0obe a{near in regular succcadon. 
Mod fmn the level of 3\e ocean to the 
■f the Andes. In the lower )no^nd^ be- 
ta tropia, from tbe level of the sea to II 
t from B.0O0 to fi,0O0 ft, cassava, caca 
liitainii iniUgo, sugar, cotton, and coH 
rated. Indigo and cacao, tbe plantain 
aa (ne, and the cassava root require great 

a bnugfat to maturity, ^nerallv a cV 

tke DKan tempsature is 76°. ^ut i 
It win giDw at a consideTaLle clev 
m ia CBttivated with auccew in the 
Ma of Quito, Uaize is cultivated 

he minimum of height at which European cereaUa 
roold come to maturity in the eqninozial r^ions 
if America. Humboldt mentioiia that in the 
::araccas be saw tine harvests of wheat near Vio- 
toria, in the latitude of 10° IS' N„ at the height of 
1,640 and 1,900 ft, and at Cuba wheat flourishes 
at a still smaller elevadon. Ryo and barley, es- 
pecially the latter, resist cold better than wheat ; 
they axe accordingly cultivated at a greater eleva- 
tion. Bailey yields abundant harvests at heights 
where the thermometer rarely keeps up during the 
day above b7> Fah. Witbin the limits in which 
European grain flourishes is t<i be found the oak, 
which (mm an elevation of 9,200 rt never denxnda, 
near the equator, below that of 5,fiO0 ft, thoo)^ it 
— It with in the parallel of Mexico at the hiaght 
ily 2,620 ft Beyond the limit of 9,000 ft 
large trees ofeveiy kind begin to disappear, though 
some dwarfish pines are to be found at tbe height 
of 13,000 ft, nearly 2,000 a from the line of pei^ 
petnal snow. The grasses clothe the ground at an 
elevation of from 13,fi00fLta 15.100 ft; and from 
this to the regions of ice and snow the only plants 
viable are the lichen, which coveis the face of 
the rocks, and seems even (o peaotiate under the 

Indistiieta as elevated aa the valley of Titicaca, 
agriculture is conSned topotatMe,omons,and(»p- 

., and to the grain eslled tukio (Oiaufediiat 

1, 1 .in.) ; barley and lye are only cultivated 
as fodder. On tbe plain of Bogota a farinaceous 
root, called iiniQii:Aa, is cultivated, and lately BOme 
ittempts have been made to introduce its culture 
nEngland. Treesarefoundto ascend tol2,00Oft 
ir 14,000 ft on tbe declivities of the mountains ; 
rut their summits, which commonly form plains 
if some extent, are nearly bare of vegetation, 
iDurishing only two or three kinds of low plants. 

Among the vegetable pioductions of the Andes, 
lone has obtained greater celebrity than the cut- 
cAoiu, or Jesuits' Inifc, which is now known to 
grow not only on dilTerent parts of the Andes, but 
also on the other hij{h mountains of S. America. 
The best baik, however, is collected on tbe Andes 
between G° N. lat. and 5° S. lat, where the trees 
grow at an elevation of from 10,000 to 14,000 ft 
above the sea. 

The most remarkable kind of »mTii«lii in the 
Andes is the species comprinn^ the guanacos, 
llamas, and vicunas. Tbe llamas are used aa ani- 
mals of burden ; but they ore slow, making only 
about 12 miles a day, and carryinf; about fO ibt^ 
of burtben. The vicunas give a very valuable kind 
of wooL Among birds, the nnuJori have always 
attracted the attention of travellers, on account 
of their enormous mze. They are a ^ledes of 

Mintral Wraith.— If the high table-land of Ana- 
huac in Mexico be excepted, no mountain ranee 
can vie wilhthe Andes in mineral riche^ ei^iecially 
in the precions metals. Many of tbe rivers de- 
scending from the Andes between the tropics con- 
tain small parUcl(* of gold in their sand. The 
particles of gold depoeiled in the alluvial soil 



skirtiiu: the beds of some of them riven have at- 
tracted the attention of Europeans, and at some 
places the soil is carefully washed. The alluvial 
soiUi richest in f^ld arc those lying to the W, of 
the Central Andes of New Granada, on both AdM 
of the Rio Cauca; as also in the provinces of Bar- 
bacoas and Choco along the Pacific In the latter 
districts pktina also occurs ; and, till within these 
few years, when it has been found in the Ural 
mountains^ these were considered as the onl^ places 
in which it was to be met vrith. Alluvial soils 
rich in gold are also found along the rivers which 
descend from the range of the liollvian Andes, 
between 14® and 17® S. lat,; and here, too, con- 
siderable quantities of gold arc extracted. The 
annual produce of -the lavaderoM and gold mines 
of the Andes is stated by Humboldt to have 
amounted, in the beginning of the 19th century, to 
283,429 oz.; equal, at 41. per oz., to 1,133,7162.* As 
far as can be asccrtaineti, it has rather decreased 
than increased sinctc that time. 

Silver occurs in many places of the range l)e- 
twecn 33® and the equator ; but it is commonly 
found at an elevation where vegetation nearly 
ceases, which renders the working of the mines 
very expensive, and frequently disap[)oints the 
otherwise well-founded expectations of the under- 
takers. The number of mines which have been 
worked and abandoned is veiy great; many of 
them, however, are still worked. The most cele- 
brated silver mines are those of Potosi and Pasco. 
The former are in the Cerro de Potosi (19® 36' S. 
lat.), which rises to 16,037 ft above the sea. This 
mountain is perforated in all directions ; and it is 
said, though the statement be pn>bably exag- 
gerated, that there are no fewer than 5,(MM) exca- 
vations in it. The Cerro de Pasco is a hill, rising 
on the high plain of Bombon (about 11® S. lat.). 
It has been worked for more than two centuries, 
and may now be considered as the richest silver 
mine of America ; unless, which is doubtful, it be 
surpassed by the silver mines discovered in N. 
Chili in 1830, about 30 or 40 m. S. of the town of 
Copiapo, where silver ore is very abundant. Inhere 
are also to be mentioned the silver mines in the 
San Juan province of the Argentine republic, 
where also, according to late reports, gold has been 
discovered. The yield of the San Juan mineft. to 
work which a company has been formed under the 
patronage of the Argentine goveniment, is very 
considerable. At the beginning of the present 
century the annual produce of the silver mines of 
the Andes was stated by Humboldt to amount to 
691,492 lbs. troy; which, if we take the silver at 
5s. the ounce, gives a sum of 2,074,476/. It is not 
easy to estimate its amount at present ; but jiro- 
bably it is not much fallen off. 

Mercury or quicksilver occurs in many places 
N. of 14® S. lat., and S. of the equator; but since 
the destruction of the mines of Guancavelica, we 
are not sure whether it be anvwhere worked. 
These, which were extremely rich, \ielding from 
4,000 to 6,000 cwt, a vear, were unluckily ruined 
in 1789, through the ignorance and mismanage- 
ment of a superintendent. 

Copper seems to occur very frequently S. of 14® 
S. lat. LsLtf^e masses of nearlv pure copper are 
stated to exist on the surface of the 8. extremity 
of the valley of Titicaca, but the expense of 
bringing them down to the coast is at present so 
great that they cannot be turned to advantage. 
In the N. provinces of Chili several mines are 
woriied with advantage. Miers estimated the 
quantity of copper exported from these countries 
in 1824 at 40,000 cwt; in 1829 it rose to 60,000, 
and has since materially increased. It is mostly 
exported to Cliizia, India, and the U. States. 

Ores of lead, tin, and mm exiat inTvioospnti; 
but they are little worked. 

TrmxNinp in <Ae Aude»,—The im urov guiait of 
the countnes embosomed within toe Andei ii 
much retarded b^ the want of easy commonieitta. 
Sometimes the mteroourse between places in thi 
immediate vicinity of each other ia intemipted by 
quebradoMf or rents, generally nairow, sometiiiMi 
of a vast depth, and with nearly peqwDdieakr 
sides. The famous natural bridge* of Iconenao, ia 
Columbia, leads over a small qnebrada; it is d»> 
vated about 812 ft. abo^-e the torrent that fiowi 
in the bottom of the chasm. Most of the tomnti 
that are passed in travelling over the CordUkm 
are fordaole; though their impetuority is sod 
when swollen by the rains as to detain *tiaTellai 
fur several davs. But when they axe too deqi li 
be forded, or t'be banks too inacoeBsible, tuspeuAii 
bridges are thrown over them, of a singular make; 
but which, notwithstanding their apparently dn- 
gerous and fragile construction, are found to annnr 
the purposes required. Where the ri^'er ia nanov, 
with high banks, they are oonstmcted of woodi 
and consist of four long beams laid doae togeths 
over the precipice, and forming a path of aSoot a 
yard and a half in breadth, being just l ui l i ci M t 
for a man to pass over on horseback. These InAgm 
have become so familiar to the natives that ttef 

Eass them without apprehension. Where the 
readth of the river will not admit of a bcoi 
being laid across, ropes constructed of b^wm, a 
species of thin elastic cane, of the length r e qui red 
are thrown over. Six of these ropes are stretdisd 
from one side of the ri^'er to the other; two, in- 
tended to serve as parapets, being oonndenU^ 
higher than the other four; and the Intter boig 
covered with sticks laid in a tnnavene dtzection, 
the bridge is passed by men, while the mnlea, bdaf 
divested of their burdens, are made to swim acnWi 
All travellers have spoken of the extreme daun 
of passing these rope bridges, which look nki 
ribands suspended abo\'e a crevice or impetooM 
torrent. But this danger, according to Hnmbdld^ 
is not very great when a single penon passes orer 
the bridge as quickly as poiaible, witn his bo^ 
leaning forward. But the oscillations of the npM 
become very great when the traveller ia oondoetad 
by an Indian who walks quicker than hinuelf ; or 
when, frightened bj the view of the water seen 
tlirough the interstices of the bamboos, he has the 
imprudence to stop in the middle of the bridgi^ 
and lay hold of the ropes that serve as a nO. 
Some of the rivers of the higher Andes are paasd 
by means of an invention or bridge denommatad 
a tarabita. It conveys not only the jpassaigcn^ 
but also their cattle and burdens; and is used to 
pass those torrents whose rapidity and the laxgt 
stones continually rolling down, render it impoa- 
sible for mules to swim acrosa. It consists of a 
strong rope of bejuco, extended across the river, 
on each bank of which it is fastened to stoat poftiu 
On one side is a kind of wheel <Hr winch to straiten 
or slack the rope to the degree required. Fhim 
this rope hangs a kind of moveable leathern ham- 
mock, capable of holding a man, to which a rope 
is fastened for drawing it to the aide intendeiL 
For carrying over mules two ropes are nccessaiy, 
and these much thicker and slacker. The Greatnit 
being suspended firom them, and secured by gMM 
round the belly, neck, and legs, is shoved o£ uid 
dragged to the opposite bank. Some of these be* 
juoo bridges arc or great length, and elevated to i 
great height above the torrent* 

A bridge of this sort was constructed br tht 
5th Inca over the Deeaguadero, or river that laHM 
from Lake Titicaca, where it is more than SOOft. 
in width ; and, on account of ita utility, ia stiU 

„ . _waa aapmikm bridn 

IwWed Kn>di oUkiiw* of bollock's li 
M ptnad ■!■« <na of lliia «ait in Chili, 
I iHclh, br * n- "i^ Itunvevedofw 
HlM^and'WMpcffectlTnaue. (UUa4, 
■■AinataM,lU8; lfien,Chili,' <■"- 
lA BanudMS, a 71.) 
mtidaas of tbg loid* in the len tm- 
BKtt of the AndM, an btrHy be de- 
nt nuBjr tiacM (he ground is to obitdw 

Ht &^ M^ and in Mhos it ia a con- 
^m id imeipini. Then pethi an fnQ 
Aom S to 8 ft. itip, in which the nwlee 
lbK> and ibair their bdlies and their 
^ akog the gnNnuL The boles serre 
withoDt nhicti the pndnco would be 
kBMMBMltBpiaetieahle; bat, sbonld the 
Iwn— to set its (hot between two of 
h^ or BM place it right, the ridar bOt, 
H the side of the pndjnce, ineviubiy 
ni* danger is eron gioater whoe the 
• waaiiag^ Ihe tracks an extRmel; 
laH|Hiai;,andinseneral chalky and 
wa tMR an no Doles to sarre as i 

l^ths inatinet of 
h^ Is adnbaUe. They are aenuble of 
Im NqoUte in the dMcenU On comiag 
f of an —ainjiu-, they sti^ ; sad having 
Nk fcn feet close together, ih if in ■ po«- 
i^iping tbemwlTOS, thej slao put their 
HsgSthtri but alittle forwards, m if going 
■■. In this altitude, having, ss it were. 
■iv^ of the road, they slide down with 
MB of a meteor. The rider lias only to 
■Mtf bet in the saddle, without checking 

of Uie mule, in 

. , jnderfaJ; for in 

^idBOtion, when thev seem to have lost 
■Md of llNlnselveB, thev follow exactly 
tmt windlags of the path, an if they hsd 
^neomMrilnd and settled In their minds 
■ A»j wen to (bllow, and taken every 
« ftr their safety. There would, other- 
In^ b* no peailiiH^ of tnTelHng over 
tm» the safHy et the lider depends on the 
(•and addieaof hisbesst. 
lll^ri of the Conlillecas, which are deeper 
«m than thoae <tf the Alps and Fyreneea, 
■tt •cenas of the wildest ajpect, give rise 
nasal athw peeaHaritiM in the mode of 
K In manj parts, owing to the bumidily 
laata, and the declivity of the ground, 
OBlMa iridtl flow down the mountains 



tag aiid left t^ien to the sky. In some 
> Bfoning above is covered by the thick 
m triuch grows oat from both sides of the 
• &at the tnvella ii forced to grope hii 
lAaea^ Theoxen, which aie the beasts 

rfr face tb«r way throtub these galleries, 

lo means of 


laying bold of tba note which paoetnte to thta 
depth tknm the smfaee of the groond. 'Inmany 
of the paaaea of the Ande%' says Humboldt, ' soeb 
ia the state of the road* that the usual mode of 
travelling fix persoiu in easy dicumstancee il in 
a chair strapped to the back of one of the native 
porters, called corgueme, or, men of burden, who 
live by letting out their backs and loins lo Invel' 
lera. They talk in this counDy of going on a 
man's back (andar en csiKueroe), tt we mention 
going on faoneliack. No humiliating idea is an- 
nexed to the trade of csrguerue \ and the men who 
IbUow this occupation are not Indians, but mulst- 
wbites. The umal load 
six or seven arrobas: thoee whoan 

cam, by a Journey tmm Ibague to Caitago, only 
' ' piasters in fium fifteen to twenty-five daya. 
The passage of the mountain of Quindiu is not the 
only (lart of South America which is traversed on 
the backs of men. Tbs whole of the province of 
Antioqnisii sumunded by moanlains so difficult to 
pass, that they who dislike entrusting Ihemselvea 
lo the skill nf a bearer, and are not strong enough 
*- travel on foot bom Santa Pe de AnluHiuia to 

le Nan 

>r mo ; 

an thoughts of leaving Che country. The number 
of young men who undertake the employments of 
beasts (? burden at Choco, Ibague, and Medallin 
so considerable, that we sometimes meet a Sla 
of fifty 01 sixty. A few years ago, when s project 
was lonDH) to make the passage from Nares lo 
Antioquia passable for miUfe, the cargueros pre- 

road, and the government was weak enough lo 

' ^Id to their clsmoun. The person carried in a 

sir by a ca^uero must remain several hours 

ilionleas, and leaning backwaids. The least 

ition is sufficient l« throw down the carrier; 

and his fall would be so much the more dangemts, 

IS the carguero, too confident in bis own skill, 

chooses the most rapid declivitiea, or oosses a tor- 

-ent on a narrow and slippery trunk of a tree. 

These accidents are, however, ran ; and those 

which happen must be attributed to the impiu- 

' ice of travellers, wbo, frightened at a false step 

the carguero, leap down bom their chairs,' 

(Kesearchea, i. 69.) 

SaUaay: — Within the last few yean mealuiea 
have been projected, and steps have been taken to 
cany them out, which there is little doubt will 
break down the barrier to commerce wliich the 
>r South America now form. Host pmmi- 
is the project to prolong westward 

the line uf railway fr 

1 Roaano on the Parana 

lantic with the Pacific, the Kiver Plata 

last of Chili, by a railway crossing the 

a hdght of 16,033 U, abjvo the level 

It was originated a 

ted and roughly sur- 
ly Mr. Whee&ri^t, a 

of the s> 

England gentleman of long expeiienc 
constructmg mountain rsilwayi in ChilL Under 
his direction a railway was constructed from Val- 
jaraiso to Santiago, which lies about 2,000 ft 
above the sea| npenol for traffic in 1863. In 1849 
he completed 50 miles of line, Irom the seaport of 
Caldeta la tbe mining station of Copiapo, now 
ctended 5i miles farther to Chanar^iUo, paav 
-er an elevation of 4,476 tl. above I' 
maximum gtadien 
precedesited, but worl 

~ '' ~ slow speed with powerful locomotives, dr 
s maximum load of 43 tons. The succes 
line as a pecuniary speculation, and more 
ive knowledge of the country, su^oatec 
Wheelwright the greater scbeme of crosi 

m three years 

if cTosaiag 



the Andes. From Copiapo a pan, called by the 
name of San Frunciaco, cmMes the Cliilian C<)rdil- 
lera. Thou|;h it exceeds the height of 16,()00 ft. 
it i8 rarely if ever blocked up with snow, partly 
owing to the dryncsH of the atmosphere, partly to 
it8 wide and open character. From Copiapo to 
the Hummit is 225 miles, the rise in height about 
14,MX) ft From the summit to Fiambala, where 
the plains which extend to the Atlantic may be 
said to bepn, the distance is 125 miles, the fall 
near 11,000 ft, Fiambala being over 5,000 ft. 
al)ove the sea. Here, however, rich soil and abun- 
dant vegetation, with almost tropical proilucts, 
bc^n, and the rest of the distance to Conlova, 
.350 miles, and thence to Itosario, 250 miles, though 
passing occasionally through salt and barren lands, 
offers no engineering difficulties ; and, indeed, like 
the neighbourhooil of Buenos Ayr^ Lt singularly 
favourable to cheapness of construction. From 
Copiapo to the summit onlv two places involve 
much difficulty or hcaw worlcs. Tlie firet nnpiires 
steep gradient!) and a tunnel between 1 and 2 miles 
long, in a space of almut 11 miles, at the jMssage 
of a secondary mountain ridge called Cuesta tii los 
C^ilenos. Passing it, the ruad comes out on the 
great central plateau of the Cordillera at a height 
of near 13,000 ft., at a point distant about 80 
miles from the summit level, and with a total rise 
of little more than 3,(KHi ft. in that distance, in 
which only one difEculty occurs — a gra<lient of 
600 ft. to the mile (or 3 miles, to Ije reduced to 
200 bv taking a circuit increasing the length to 
10 mdes. I1ie first portion of the descent, for 13 
miles is on a heavy gradient of 150 ft.; and no 
further difficulty oct^urs except at a place called 
the Angostura-— the contraction of the I^s Losas 
river, where it falls rapidly for 5 miles. But it is 
probable that this difficulty, itself not excessive, 
might be avoide<l by a side valley, which would 
also sh(»rten the rout*. As yet rmly a survey of a 
rough description has been made ; but the prac- 
ticability of the lino is {jroved by the gracUents 
not exceeding what have already 1)een worked. 
The scheme, it is also remarked, includes only 2^ 
miles of tunnelling. It is even expected that 
when more acciunte sur\'eys come to be made, 
more suitable passes may be chosen. 

Mr. Wlieelwright stated, in a paper communi- 
cated to the British Assotnation in 1863, that 
since he left Copiapo, * a Mr. Brewer, a very reli- 
able person, who resides in that city, has driven 
over the mountain by San Francisco to the pro- 
vince of Tucuman, and returned in the same car- 
riage by the Horquera Pass, further south, which 
he preierrcd. Mr. Brewer describes the summit 
of the Horquera as Ixfiug only a few thousand feet 
in iiidth, whereas at San Fnindsco it is 100 miles, 
and that tliere is an abundance of water except 
for a s])ace of 20 to 25 miles. He is, no doubt, 
the first person that ever crossed the Andes in a 
carriage.' The pass called Planchon, above des- 
cril»ed, has also attracted attention. 

If this should Ije found practicable, another 
trunk line would probably he planned to diverge 
from the Rosario and Coldova line at a pl«^ 
called Villa Nucva, and nm direct by the impor- 
tant towns of San LuLs and Mendoza to the Plan- 
chon. It would then descend to join the Great 
Southern Railway of (?hile at Curico, 85 miles 
aouth of the capita], Santiago. In that case, the 
other line on arriving at Horquera, a central posi- 
tion for the proWnces of Catamarca, Tucuman, 
and Santiago de Estera, instead of turning west- 
ward to the pass of San Francisco, might run 
neariy north through Tucuman, Salta, and Jujuy, 
and enter Boli\'ia and Upper Peru even as far as 
I'otosi, if it should be found practicable. 


Among the advantage expected firom then 
railway's is reckoned not only the oommcne «f 
Cliili and Pern, seeking a port or a river flownj; 
into the Atlantic, but it is antidpatod that thn 
construction would lead to the aaoptioii of a iwv 
passenger route from Europe to AnstraHa. Ai 
Admiral Fitzroy pointed oat before the Geogn- 

Ehical Society in 1860, *a ship nmmng a few 
undred miles to the north firom Copiapo or Cat 
dera, gets into the heart of the trade-wmd, whkk 
would carry her across to Australaoa. On the 
other hand, by mnning a little Bonth hom Aus- 
tralia or New Zealand, a ship would get into tfas 
south westeriv winds, whidi would carnr her lig^ 
across to Chili : so that a ship without steam miat 
make the voyage either way in five or nx mtki, 
without ha\'ing to gnard against any Lnterraiii{ 
land, or peculiar danger of any kind, beyond thrt 
of an oceanic passage without a huiricane.* Tbt 
actual distance, again, across that part of SooA 
America from New Zealand to Europe is rather Im 
than by the Isthmus of Suez. The royngt tnm 
Liverpool to Kosario is reckoned at from trntat^ 
Hve to thirty days, so that, allowing fire days n 
the railway transit, little more than two monthi 
would be sufficient for the transmiasion of mob 
and passengers between Australia and England. 

ANDLAU, a town of France, dep. Bas Rhii, 
anroniL Schelestat, on the Andlan, 10 m. NNW. 
Schelestat. Pop. 2.01fi in 1861. 

AXDORRE (REPUBLIC OF), a small nl 
nominally independent state on the S. dediri^ 
of the Pj^enees, between the den. of Arij^ ia 
France, and the ilistrict of Uigel in Spain. It 
stretches from N. to S. about 86 m^ and from EL 
to \V. about iU), comprising three nMHintain vaDcyt 
and the basin formed by thrir union. These tu- 
leys are among the wilidest and mo^t {nctaretqai 
in the Pyrenees, and the mountaina, with tMir 
immense peaks, by which they aze cndondi 
among the highest and least acoeaaible. It ii 
watered by several small rivers ; Uie laigest of 
which, the Embalin, having received the otfaa% 
falls into the Segre, an affluent of the Ebnu 
Pop. from 7,000 to 8,000, divided among six eon- 
munes. Andorre, the principal town, nas aboit 
2,(H)0 inhab. It has but little arable land, tot a 
conniderable extent of excellentpasture graond^ 
sheltered by vast forests of fir. Tne inhah. depend 
principally on their flocks and iron mines, the 
produce of the latter finding a ready market ia 
Spain. This little state, though connected m 
some degree with both its powerful neigfabooi% 
has preserved its independence for about IfiOO 
years. The government is composed of a comdl 
of twenty-folur members, chosen for IhTe, taA 
commune electing four. The conndl elect t«i 
Syndics, who enjoy considerable authority, oob- 
voking the assemblies, and canning on the go- 
vernment when they arc not sitting. Andom 
owes its indenendence to Charlemagne. In ITM^ 
that prince, having marched against the llooa 
of Spain, and defeated them in the ne ig hbou^ 
ing valley of Carol, the Andorrians are wid 
to have rendered themselves so uaefal to thi 
French army, supplying them with proviaon^ 
and taking care of their wounded, that the £■- 
peror, by way of recompcnce, made them iDd»> 
]>endent of the neighbouring princes, and per* 
mitted them to be governed by their own lawi 
After him Louis Ic Debonnaire ceded to the BidMB 
of Uigel a part of the rights over Andone whioi 
Charlemagne had reser\'ed to himself and hii 
successon. In >'irtuo of tliis grant, the Bishop 
acqiured right to a foot of the tithes of the u 
communes, and a spiritual jurisdiction over the 
countn', which he still exerciaea. 

4 the npublic 

1 to preaerve their stUch- 

. ThCT rensUd the vioUtion of 
■lUuj b; the ^laniards, uid furnuhed to 
1iA annin, dnrlog the late war, guidee 
rirtance of mry kind. At the mae time 
azlndf tolicitgd the otabliahmcnt of Che 
toidvof thinp; and NapaleoD yielded ti) 
rkb. B7 a decne oT the aOih of MbtcIi, 
ladom waa declared to be a republic con- 
wllb nance; ilaTJeoier, or criminal Judge, 
beaFnDduiiaii,ofthedep.of Ari^; uid 
■Unwed to import certain qiuntitia ot cer- 
iriied aitielei, free of dntf , on pajrinent of 
Ibg torn of 960 fr. a year. Except Ihen- 
■ twarda Uu •piiitoal juri^iction of the 
of Urgd, which canDottw aaid to iat«rfbre 
IS indeptodence any more thim tlie Pope's 
i^lial BDtbority over Catholic countrin 
b tbein, Andorre i> altogethei ' ' 

da; and, aa rcgarda France, the 
■t It mafcea to ba ia not a tritnite, but an 
Mta oompexuatlm for a valuable privilege; 
mt bflBC little crime in Andoire, the ap- 
i^ttofa ntDchmaD for erimiDalJadge via 
lU ■ Tww to deter French criminals from 

ntagt in this nentral territory, than to 
Mqr anpetlority. Andoire may, therefore, 
^ eoonknd aa the oldest free republic in 
ma. Uu pei^le all belong to [he church of 
Md an racy religioiia. Their clergy, and 
Mvaahbv of the inhabitanta, are educated 
1(MB cr Barcdonl. Each cni^ in addition 

■■■ocal dntiea, haa charge of a acbool, 
Ba peer aie inKructed grBluiliHuly ; but 
V Dot glre him much extra trouble, feir of 

tf m^aritj of the people can neit 

Aadorriana are a 

■^ Iba Tfcea and 1 

lie and aerere in thdr 
Tuptiona of citiea not 

la thtir fonfatheia lived 
Idn tbcm : the little they know concem- 
• kunrias arts, and ciriliiiation of other 
In tnapiriiw them rather with (ear than 
Aair wealth consista in [heir aheep or 
m in the ahare they may have in iron 
mfy a ■rerf few of thrir number being the 
tm of any land bejroDd the garden which 
■la tbair cottage. Each bmily acknow- 
k dndl who anoceed* by right of primo- 
n. Thaae ehleb, or eldeat saan. choose their 
a 01 eqnal 

> of the ei 

t son would 
■ cadet erf another family, who adopu 
Md ia doroifiliafaid in her family. By thia 
■at, the principal Andorrian bousin have 
ad tar cvitoriea without any change in 
It^KB. n plu ridit, ni ptn patitiTe. The 
taUtitanta are not ao badly olT aa in most 

md vntil they marry ^ and if they marry 
•■ 1^7 join her name to [heir own. Un- 
liiM, tMy are not admittod to any share 
MnauiMii III of pnbUc affairs. 
■ tboe oiv only daughters in a family, the 
-*-- *- ^— '' "" — '--^ property, and 

ANDBE 133 

other counbiea ; their wants are itm and eaaily 

aupplied, the opulent families taking care of tboee 
who are aotj and the latter honouring and re- 
specting their benefactoni, 

The Andunians are in general strong and well 
proportioned ; the greater part of the diseases pro* 
ceeding fhnn the moral otfections aie unknown, 
as well aa those originating in vice and corruption. 
The costume of the men, composed of coarse brown 
doth made fimn the wool of their own sheep, re- 
sembles that worn by the peasants of Bigone, with 
thia difference, that the Andorrians wear the 9ow- 
inc red cop of the Catalans. There would seem 
to be but little gallantry among t hese mountaineenf, 
for the women are not admitteid to any of the as- 
semblies where public aSkiis are considered ; nor 
even to the masses perlbrmed upon the reception 
of the bishop or judge. Crime of every kind ia 
rare, and punishments, though mild, are effectual. 
There are no law-suits relative to paternal sno- 
ins; and should disputes of any kind arise, 
ire at once referred to the Syndics, whose de- 
L is never controverted. The men are all 
to serve in the militia, should they be re- 
quired ; and every head of a family is obliged to 
*- ive in his possesHJon at all times a musket, and 
certain quantity of powder and hall. 
Commerce of every kind is (rtx ; but, with the 
exception of iron, of which it has some mines 
id forges, its manufactures are all of the 
■uBcsI and rudest kind. 
ANDOVEK, a borough and m. town of Eng- 


I acre^ had '£.221 iiihab. in 1H61. It la com- 
pactly built, extending on either side about one- 
third of » mile froro the market place, in the centre 
ich is a modern town-hall, supported on 
, under which are held the markets. The 
church, an old Gothic building, is on the N. side 

thirty boys. Some trade is carried on in malt- 
ing, and the manufsclure of silk ; but its principal 

. :. J. _:_._.. j^^ijij j(g being a considerable 

the only market for the sur- 
rounding country. It is In a thriving condition ; 
~jid contains several good shops and resectable 
irivata liouses. The great annua] &ir of Wevhilt 
jwhich see) is held within a short distance, ifbrto 
' a canal ih>ra the town to Southampton. It re- 

.ms two members to the H. of C. From 1689, 

iwn to the passing of the Reform Act, the right 
voting was in the bailiff and corporation. ParL 

lutituencv, 257 in 1865. 

AJIDOVfeK, I town of the U. Slates, Hana- 
chusets, CO. Essex, aO m. N. Boston by road, and 
TA by railway. Pop. 6,748 in 18^0. It ia finely 
liluated, and has some manufsctures ; but it la 
^iefly distinguished Ibr its literary institutiona, 
particularlv its tbeiilogical academy, founded in 
' 107, and I'iberally endowed. There is also a very 

>urL«hing scailemy, founiled in 1778. 

ANDHACIO, or ANDRACY, a town of Srain, 
on the 8W. coast of tlie Island of Majorca. Pop, 
,CU9 in 1827. It is situated at a tittle distance 
from tlie sea, hut it has a small port accessible to 
vessels drawing little water. It) territory is pro- 
' jctive of olivfs. 

ANDRF.,orENDRE (ST.),alown of Hungary, 
..) the right bank of the Danube, opposite to the 
island of the same name. 111 m. N. Buda. Pop. 
2,980 in 1857. It has one Catholic and seven Greek 
churches. The hills in the vicinity produce ex- 



cellent wineA, and the island in the river is cele- 
brated for its fertility. 

AXDRE-DE-ClTIiSAC (ST.), a town of France, 
dep. Gironde, cap. canU 12 m. NN£. Bordeaux. 
Pop. 8,H90 in 18G1. It is situated at a little dis- 
tance from the Dordof^^e; but it has a port. Cub- 
sac, on ttiat river. The high road from Bordeaux 
to Paris crosses the Dordogne at this point, and 
formerly, ])rcviously to the construction of rail- 
ways, passengers and carriages were conveyed 
across in a large ferr>' boat 

ANDREASBEKG, a t«)wn of Hanover, princi- 
pality of (srubenhagen, in a district which has 
mines of iron, cobah, copper, and silver. Pop. 
4,300 in 1861. The town has a college, a council 
of mines, and manufactures of Uce and thread. 

ANDREW'S (ST.), an ancient and celebrated 
city and seaport of Scotland, qo, Fife, finely situ- 
ated on a low eminence on the German Ocean, 
81 m. NE. Edinburgh, hit. 6t>o 20' N., long. t>o 50' 
W. Pop. of pari burgh, 5,1 70 in 1801. The 
population in .1800 was only 2,519. The city 
chiefly consists of three principal streets, leading 
in a W. direction from the cathedral, is in general 
well built, and has been much impn)ved during 
the present century. St. Andrew's was long the 
metropolitan see of Scotland ; and is highly inter- 
esting fn)m its numerous remains of other ages, 
and the historical associations connected with 
it, many highly im]>ortant event* having occur- 
red within its precincts. \tA splendid cathedral, 
founded in 1160, and completed in 1318, was re- 
duced to a ruin in 1559 by the barbarous zeal of 
the reformers* The castle, long the residence of 
its archbishops, and a place of considerable strength, 
stood on a precipice overhanging the sea. llie 
famoas Cardinal Beaton was assassinated in it in 
1546, in revenge of the share he had in bringing 
Wishart, a preacher of the reformed doctrines, to 
the stake in the pre\'ious year. Its picturetque 
ruins now serve as a landmark for ships. There 
are also, among others, the ruins of a cliapel, and 
a square tower 108 (I. liigh, called the chapel and 
tower of St. Rule or St. Regulus, supposed to be 
the m(X)t ancient of the existing fabrics. The 
priory of St, Andrew's was one of the best endowed 
in Scotland ; and part of a gigantic wall, intended 
to enclose the grounds of the priory, 870 fL long, 22 
high, and 4 thick, with fourteen turrets, erected by 
Pnor Hepburn in 1516, is still in good preserva- 
tion, and is not one of the least interesting relics 
of bygone times. The foundations and part of the 
walis of this edifice were uncovered in 1860. The 
parish church, founded in the 12th century, but 
rebuilt in 1797, has a monument to Archbishop 
Sharpe, assassinated in 1679. The university of 
St, Andrew's, the most ancient in Scotland, and 
now the principal sup])ort of the city, was founded 
in 1410 by Bishop Wardlaw, and conflrmod by a 
papal bull dated the following vear. It originally 
consisted of three colleges, St, ^Ivador's, St, Leo- 
nard's, and St. Mary's ; of which the two former 
were united in 1747, when the buildings of St. 
Leonard's were pulled down. The two colleges 
are in different parts of the town, and their pro- 
fessors and discipline are quite distinct. The 
United College consists of a quadrangular edifice, 
in which some excellent rooms were recently 
erected at the expense of government ThL>« insti- 
tution is appropriated to the study of languages, 
philosobhy, and science, and St. Mary's to that 
of theology. The chapel of the United College, 
founded by Bishop Kenne<ly in 1458, is a tine spe- 
cimen of the light Gotliic ; and is used as the col- 
lege chapel, and as a parish church. It has a 
tomb of the founder ; on opening which, in 1683, 
six silver mcoes were found, of which three were 


sent to the other Scotdi universitafls* and tlir» 
retained in the college. St Maxy's Colkg^ is a 
handsome stone structure. A library' oontignous 
to the latter, and containing about 60,000 volnmei, 
is common to both colleges ; and until the privi- 
lege was commuted, in 1836, for 4561. a year, it 
was entitled to a copy of even' work entered at 
Stationers' Hall the United College and St 
Mary's have together thirteen piofe»oT8; each col- 
lege' has a principal, the principal of St H>iy^s 
being one of the professors, and the universitr if 
presided over by a lord-rector and a chanoHlor. 
The endowments are considerable, each prafBWV 
receiving at an average about 2801. a year, ezdiF 
sive of fees from pupilB. The fee for attending cm 
of the literary dawes is 3iL 8a. ; students in the 
theological classes pay no fees— with the ezceptka 
of a it^ of 5«. on matriculating, which is oommon 
to both establishments. The United College bsi 
59 bursaries. Within the last thirty years a tctj 
large addition has been made to the facflitieB for 
education already enjoved by St Andrew's, throo^ 
the liberality of' Dr. Bell, of Madra^ who died m 
1832, beoueathing the sum of 45,0001. three per 
cent stock for the erection of a seminary on a con- 
prehensive plan in this his native city. A fios 
building for this school has been erected at a littk 
distance from St Mary's College. The number cf 
teachers in the Madras College (the name giren to 
Dr. Bell's establishment) is nine, exclusive of as- 
sistants. This seminary affords instruction gntii 
to the poor ; and the fees are very low, being only 
7«. 6d, per quarter for Latin and Greek ; the same 
for (jrerman And French ; the same for mathemap 
tics, and the same for drawing: be. per quarter 
for geography: 3«. for writing: 2f. 6a. for arith- 
metic : and 2$. for English. Students may attend 
one or more classes, and pay accordingly. Hie 
average number of pupils at this seminaiyhas 
been about 800, but it is rapidlv increasing, and is 
now 900. There is also an infant school, with aa 
average attendance of 120. Of the number of 
people at the college, above a half are stiangen^ 
attracted to the city by the deservedly high cha- 
racter of this excellent institution, the best pro- 
bably of its kind in the empire. To this caoie 
it is also in great measure owing that the town 
has been completely renovated of late years, and 
the population luf^ely increased. Much credit ftr 
the improvement of the place is also due to the 
late provost, Lieut CoL Sir Hugh Lyon Playftir. 
Through his exertions a broad foot pavement was 
laid down, in place of the once grafls-grown cause- 
way, and the old townhouse, which fonnerly stood 
in the middle of Market Street, obstmcdng the 
thoroughfare, was swept away, and a more eleg^ut 
building erected in South Street St Andrews is 
becoming increasingly a place of fashionable re- 
sort, and its buildings are rapidly extending. The 
harbour, partly formed by two piers, is on the £. 
side of the town, extendmg about 480 yards in- 
land ; but it dries at low water, and the access to 
it being difficult, it is little frequented by ship- 
ping. The town has no manufactures worth no- 
tice, unless it be that of golf-baJU, or balls for 
playing the game of golf, which employe abont six. 
or seven men, who produce annually i^ut 1,10(^ 
dozen balls, of which about 800 dozen are sent to 
other places, the rest being consumed in St An- 
drew's, which has been long famous for this gam& 
A good workman makes eight or nine balls a day. 
St Andrew's unites with the two Anstruthers 
Crail, Cupar, Kilrennv, and Pittenweem in retnn* 
ing a member to the H. of C. 

iVNDKIA, a town of South Italy, prov. Bari. 
cap. cant 9 m. a Barletta. Pop. iii 1861. 30,891 
It stands on a plain on the edge of the enclosed 



id Ita ■OYirau an tu from nnplcuuiL 
■t of a tuhopric, tuu a mperb othe- 
iluolitgt,uidOimmmMdrpati. Itiraa 
UMB byPeta, Conut of Tnni, and tc- 

', or ANDKOS, an iiLmd of tiie Gradan 

".Ijing to 

of Tino, from wdieh it ia 

yu. tteN 

■7 a my nairow chumeL It extendi 


and 8K direction: but iu 

anotmtoHdTorBm. ThouKii moun- 


estiiuve, fertile, and well 


DBiDbo of TiUagai. The 

( prindpal article, the annoal pniduc 
la S80,D00 gala. ; excluive o^ whid 

n Chie iflland 
■ fcr the eonaomptlon of the inliabi- 
Ira^ or Castro, the capital, a coniiderable 
■Ittot 6,000 iahabilanta, ii lilnated oa 
t of the ialand; its port, which ia de- 
1 1 ■■III, ii too shiUow to admit anv but 
A itiaiilncliin of veueli. Port Gaorio. 
M the W. ude, U a moch better bar- 

w DTading Greece, for which they were 

Atrtiaedbv Themistocliu. 
RTOv a gronp of ialanda amonz the 
vUcfa eit«nd aboat 120 m. from If. to 

to SSO SO' N. loHB. 77° to 780W, 
AR, a town of Spain, Andalusia, on the 
nt, in a plain at Che fmt of the Sierra 
IB. NW. Jaen, Ut, 88° r82"N., long. 
W. Pop. 9,363 inl867. Mi.Townsend 

Is 17efi, it conlained 6,800 tamiliea; 
aeorate, would show a great decline in 
iL (TraTeli in Spain, ii. p. 297.) It is 
»ba built of the ruins of the andent 
iH ; it ■ deftoded by an old castle, and 
naa ehnrebes and convents, a theatre, 

taddga of dfteen ardies orer the river. 
• an frnllfiil, and the inhabitants are 
fined in agiicaUnre ; but there are 
^M nunnbetories of wine and water 
da of a pacnliar qiedei of white clay 
M Bd^booriiood. 

X, a town of France, dep. Gard, cap. 
Ita Oaidon, 26 m. NW. Nismes. Pop. 
Kl. The InbabitaDts are moatlj Pro- 
It la ill boilt. but agreeably situated at 
' die CevcuMa. between nicks and hills 
th vine* and oUto. It has a tribunal 
tm, wUh nanDTacturcs of hats, silk, 
e, and glue, a silk flla- 

t^ Heiiry II. for IHana 

iy«d dnring the tevolutionarr frenzy in 

■e an in its environs forgea and paper- 

villaae of Switzerland, cant Beme, on 
B.w7byN.Beme. Pop. 1,373 in 1861. 
tjiprityf an found in the neigbbou- 

c. Lodi, 7 m. SW. LodL Pop. 
tSt. St. A-iuEUi in the name kingdom, 
la. It m-NE. Padua. And St.A.noelo, 
Italr, disCr. Campogna, lli m. SSE. 
. Pop. 2,264 in lKll-2. 
O D£ LOMBAKDI (ST.), a town of 

Sooth Ital;', 48 m. E. Naplta. Pop. 6,844 in 1B68. 

The town is the seat of a bishopric, has a college. 

__. _ of Pruaaia, prov. E. 

Prussia, cap. drc. on the Angeiap, 60 m. 8E. 
Konigsberg. Pop. 3,991 in 1861. Ithasacastle 
and manufactures of wooilea staffs and Isatfaer. 
The Angerap falls, a Utile to the E of the town, 

to the laiKc, irregularly shaped, shallow lake of 

, celebrated for I 

j abundance and excel- 

ANGERMUNDE, a town of the Prmnan 
States, pmv. Brandenburg, reg. Potsdam, cap. 
drc, on the lake Munde, 43 m. NNE. Berlin, on 
the railway botn Berlin to Stettin. Pop. 6,206 in 
1H6I. The town has mannfactnrca of hats, 
woollen «tuB^ and tobacco. 

ANGERS (tbe Jnhomagiu ofOaar, afterwards 
Andigavia, nnd hence Angtn), a very ancient cHy 
of France, dn>. Uaine et Loire, of which it is the 
capital, on the Uayenne, which divides it into 
two portions, near its conflueuai with the Loire 
and the Sarthe. Ut. 47° 28' 9" N., kmg. 0° 88' W. 
Pop. 61,797 in 1861. The town is 131 m. 8W. 
Paris, on the railway from Toun to Nantea. It ia 
surrounded bv miseive walls, built in 1214 by- 
John, King of England. Bpeaking genenlly it is 
ill built, and mean looking ; booses partly of'^wood 
and partly of slate, streets narrow and crooked. 
Prinapal objects of attraction, cathedral and 
castl& The first begun in 1225, and of large di- 
— ^jisiomi, lias its Iroot ornamented by two sym- 

itrical spuva, each 225 ft. high. It contains the 
monument of Margaret of Anjou, dau^ter of 
Ren^ King of Sidh-, and wife of Henry VL of 
England. The old castle, the fbrmer residEnce of 
■'-- dukes of Anjon, stands or a rook having the 
r at its feot : its plan is tiiat of a vast paral- 
rrani, sumiundcd by high massive walls, do- 
fended by deep fosses cut out of the rock, and by 
eighteen towers; but theee, with one exception, 
have now been reduced to Che height of the walls. 
The castle serves at present as a prumi for the dty, 
powder magazuie : on Uie side next the 
; is becoming ruinous. Angers is the seat 
of an imperial court for the departments of Maine 
" Ijoire, Sarthe, and Mayenne ; hasatribnnal of 

iginal jurisdiction, an academy, a royal college, 

school /or deaf and dumb, and a secondary 
school of medidne. It has idso a school of arts 
and trades, bemg, with the exception of tliat at 
Cbalons-sDr-Hsme, the only school of the kind 
in France. Each department is entitled to Bend 
three pupils to this school — the instruction of one 
to be entirely gratuitous, the others paying one a 
fourth part and one a half of the ordinary pupils. 
It has also a school of design { an agricnltaral 
sodetf ; a public library, containing 86,000 ro- 
Innies: a museum with abont 600 pictures, many 
of them good; a botanical garden; a calnnet of 
natural history; and a thealre. There is an im- 
perial manufactiue of Hil-cloth, a cotton mill, 
with manufactures of linen, serges, haudkerchieA, 
horiery, and starch ; a sugar refinenf, a wax ro- 
Rneiy, and tanneries. The town has three bridges. 
It labouiB under a defidency of water, that of May- 
enne not being fiC for use. Previous to the revolu- 
tion Angers was the seal of a univeraiCy, fotmded 
in 1246 : it had also a celelirated academy of bcUa 
Itltra ; and such was the fame of its ridrng-school, 
that it was attended by Peter the Great. It Buf- 
fered severely during the wars of La Vend^ ; but 
since 1816 it has been comparatively proeperooa, 
'improvei ' ' ' f ■ • 



' I)e la Republique,' published in 1576, Menage, 
and Berni«r, the famoun traveller. 

The slat« quarricj) in the vicinity of Angers, 
whence the town in built, and whicli also supply 
large quantities of roofing slates to other deptC, 
are immense excavations* It is noticed in Frcndi 
works that the abundance of slate is such that 
almost all the houses are covered with slates, for 
which reason it has been termed the Black Town 
( Ville noire), 

ANCIERYILLE, a village of France, dep. Seine 
et Oisc, 33 m. S. Versailles, and on the railway 
from Paris to Orleans. Pop. 1,^5 in 18G1. 

ANGUIAUA, a town of Italy, prov. Arexxo, 
near the Tiber, 18 m. E. Arezzo*. Pop. 6,880 in 
1862. The town is celebrated for the victory ol>- 
tained near it, in 1440, by the Florentines under 
Piccinini over the forces of the Duke of Milan. 
This also is the name of a \'illage of the Veronese, 
and of a decayed city on the banks of the I^ago 

ANGLES, a town of France^ dep. Tarn, cap. 
cant 16 m. ESE. Castrcs. Pop. 2.663 in 1K61. 
This is the name of several small villages in other 
parts of France. 

ANGLESEY (the Mona of Tacitus), an inland 
and CO. of N. Wales in the Irish Sea, separated 
fnim the mainland of Britain by the Menai Strait, 
but connected with the co. Carnarvon across the 
strait by the famous Menai bridge, and the Bri- 
tannia tubular railway bridge. It is of a triangular 
form, extending, IIoi>'heari included, about 27 m. 
from E. t») W. by about 20 from N. to S. ; area, 
173,440 acres; surface gently undulating ; climate, 
temi)crate, but liable to fogs; there is in most 
parts a great deficiency of wood, and it has gene- 
rally a bare unin\iting aspect. 

Since 1768 Anglesey has been famed for its 
mineral riches, the celebrated copper mines in the 
Parys mountain having been discovered in the 
course of that year; but they have now greatly 
declined. (See Amlwch.) Lead ore and asbestos 
have also been found ; and coal is wrought to some 
extent at Maltraeth. Soil various, but ]>rincipally 
a fine loamy sand, which, when proi)erly cultivateti, 
is highly productive. Agriculture is not, however, 
in an advanoe<l state. So late as 1810 it was no 
uncommon thing to take five white crops in suc- 
cession, most of which were so poor as hardly to 
pay their expense; but an improved ^'stem is 
bemg gradually introduced. The stiff loams, of 
whioi the extent is considerable, are usually ma- 
nured with a sort of shelly sand. Principal crops, 
oats, barley, wheat, and potatoes, the latter being 

rwn more extensively than in any other part of 
Wales. Grazing is the principal object of the 
farmer's attention. Several thousand head of cat- 
tle are annually sent from the island to the main- 
land, exclusive' of considerable numbers of sheep. 
Manufactiues unimportant, consisting merely of 
some of the coarser descriptions of woollens. Chief 
towns, Beaumaris, Holyhead, Amlwch, Llancrchy- 
nii<id, and Llangefni. ' It is divided into 3 can- 
trods, 6 comots, or hundreds, and 73 parishes. The 
pop., which in 1776 amounted to 19,780, had in- 
ciease<i in 1831 to 48,325, and in 1851 to 57,327, 
but had decreased in 1861 to 54,609, or a decn^ase 
in the ten years of 2,718. It returns a m. to the 
II. of C. for the co., and one for tlie boroughs of 
Beaumaris and Holyhead. Keg. elect., 2,389 in 

Anglesey seems to have been a principal seat 
of the Druids. The l^>mans, under Suetonius 
Panlinus, having taken it after a fanatical resist- 
ance, A.D. 61, cut down the groves of tlie Druids, 
9tBvis 8iq)ertHtionibu8 tarri, and seem to have ex- 
terminated both the priests and their religion. 


(Tacit Annal, lib. 14, 1 80.) It was Bubjmtod, 
along -with the rest of Wakfli, by Edwani L, and 
was incorporated with England and made a coantr 
by Henry VIII. The most imptMrtimt events m 
its recent history are the diaooreiy of the Paqrs 
mines, in 1768, building of the Sienai bridge m 
1825, and the construction of the Britannia tubu- 
lar bridge for the railway from Chester to Holy- 
head, which was opened October 21, 1850. 

ANGLET, a town of France, defx. Baam Py- 
n'nn^es, near Bavonne, famed for ita excrilcnt 
white wine. Pop. 2,663 in 1861. 

dom of the W. coast of Africa, extending froa 
8«> 20' to 90 15' S. lat., and from 14° to 18^ or 19° 
E. long., but the eastern boandaxy is not defined. 
On tlie N. it is separated firom C<Higo by the 
Danda; on the S. the Coanxa divides it frtm tbt 
districts of Quassima and Libolo ; and on the W. 
it has the Atlantic Ocean. It is rectuigolar 
shaiHxl, lies nearly parallel to the equator, being 
about 350 m. in length from E. to W., 50 or 60 n. 
in width from N. to S.; oontahiing an area of 
probably not less than 18,000 or 20,000 sq. m. The 
district of Benquela, to the south of Coanza, Iviax 
between lat 10^ and 17^ S. and long. 120 aiJ IP 
E., is also claimed by the Portuguese, and ther 
have established in it the new colony of liomi- 
medes, the population of which district and colony 
is usually mcluded with the returns for Angola. 
(Ace of'Discoy., 22, 143; Annales des Coloniei 
de Portugal.) 

This country is properly a part of Congo, frooi 
which, however, it Yias been politically sepantad 
since the middle of the sixteenth century, when a 
ch ief, whose name or title was Angoia, made himself 
independent of the Ring of Con^ and gave ita 
present designation to his new kingfdom, the na- 
tive name of which was Dongo, or Ambond& It 
is very powerful among the neighbouring statei, 
the paramount authcNrity of ita monarai being 
acknowledged by several districts, some of them 
greatly exceeding itself in extent 

Phytical Charucter, — Angola is extremely 
mountainous, with no plains, except upon the sea- 
shore, and some small plateaus on the sides sod 
in the gorges of mountains. The land appears 
however, to be making advances on the sea, and 
forming islands, which are wholly of an alluTial 
and level character; such is the* isle of J-nmnA»^ 
lying a short mile finom the coast And fonning 
with the Cabo Palmareinho one of the most — 

venient harbours on the W. coast of AAica. The 
cape itself is also a plain of the same natore^ and 
very evidently in a state of progress westward. 
(Pigafetta, Del Regno di Congo^ 10 ; McroUa, 
Viaggio del Congo, 70.) 

The country is extremely well watered (ta, in- 
deed, is the whole of Congo) ; the principal streams 
are the Coanza, Benga, and Danda, which nm 
nearly parallel to each other, and to the equator; 
the first and last forming the S. and N. boundaij 
of the country. The Coimza, however, before run- 
ning east and west, haa a north-westerly coarse 
among the mountains, oast of the district of Ben- 
guela. Among the mountains inland fiom Ai^la 
and Benguela are also the sources of tiie southeni 
branches of the Zaire or Congo ri\'er, which flows 
into the Atlantic Ocean to ue north of Ansola, 
and of the Leeambye and Chobe rivers, iniich 
unite in the centre *of Africa to form the great 
Zambezi river. The interior mountainous coonbty 
has been comparatively little explored, but of late 
years some progress has been nuulc with the de- 
termination of the courses of the principal rivers 
by the travels of Dr. Livingstone, of a Portnguose 
merchant Silva Porto, and of Dr. Welwilsch, 

raDmlun-aaliomdded to the infomistloD 
• <rf' ttu Dlbn inhkbitiiiK the ioterioi, the 
tta, and geolo^cal chuscteriatici or the 

Kwk;— The wont ami in An^la u thiC 
I ooMt, and the man recently formed 
fUA U mtdy, bat b; no mean* desert ; 
r tim^ b; digging to the depth of a foot, 

It ii> luwevfT, ■ lemukible fact, that 
irelbi are alwajs 

ha Birful paxMinctions of the land are aaid 
^J tnri^ to the ftcricultural laboura of 
IgBSSe. Tm climate u excepted by Adama 
t, MO) from the genent charge of malig- 
■da Emopeana uodei which the rest of 
kfiiealabmin. Situated eo near Ihe eqita- 
ikad^t be expected to have two diy and 
r atMciiM la (ach year ; but this does not 

ipriltillAogBst; Lebat (p. 107), that it 
Son>nb«(, Decembei, and soraetimea 
. Baibot <9i!) leaves it ancertain, but 
» A; Mason extend from May to Sep- 
ttODgfa he lemarke that this period la 
oat an lalermixtoie of pleaeant showers. 
[aif (Vor^ilaCated'Afnque,L4) savs 
lasliaailUU, and uBin- abundantly. The 

development of vef^tation, 
e out by all the other au- 


. Tbe trade win' 

■ Ma bneiea comnianly from WSW., 
•tad IhaD E. by X. Angola is, however, 

Oe ill eStets that might be otherwise 
B this breese. Tornadoes are not unfre- 
■d at such times the wind ihiftA violently 
tela of the cumpuis, settling, finally, into 
Man at the tnde. Gold and ailiet have 
■luul in the moontains near the coast ; 

adnK ■• fuond, though it appean to 
firameriy. Iron is produced plenli- 
atA the enei^ nf the Portuguese ; and 


int an nasonably good miners, under 
a dneliatii and it is asserted that the 
MHa eilkalations produce as senuble a 
a m Asir ctloirr, as the same cause la 
■ Many cases, to efiect in that of Eun>- 

■ko haa the magniflcence observable in 
■aund (npical regiona. A ijiecies of the 
Dad by the natives Enaada, and poHaesa- 
— - — '.y vi dropping its branches to the 

.t...._, . --]j gjrmiimtj; liite 

gome of these 

Cftyitf d: 
lant, ii vary abundant. 

anCB, extend to more than 1,000 paces m 
IDce. The eoiada is an extremely use- 

: the fruit, which resembles an ordinary 
jnapimant article of fund ; its outer bark 

-t . ^; — -r 1. — ^j^j boala, and 

DLA. 137 

and every Ihut and forest tree common to the 

equinoxial regions, grow here spontaneously, and 
reward the least expense of labour with the most 
abundant return. Tbe same rema^ holds good 
with rcjjaid to yams, potatoes, and the whole race 
of roots; and diough the climate be (oo hot for 
the production of European grain, yet foor species 
of wheat, Turkish, ^larasin, Massingo, and Luno, 

V raised in great i 


are likewise identiful , .. . 

vine, and a plant called maniUoca, of which a very 

rd bread is made, absolutely stniggle with man 
the pceseesion of the soiL Many trees produCQ 
0ne gums or rcHios ; and, in a word, there is 
scarcely a vegetable production which Anmla data 
not, or under reosonsble care might not be made 
to produce. The woods and mountains shelter 
lions, tigers, leopards, hy«)iaa, and wolves ; of 
smaller wild animals, there are foxes, wild cats, 
&c Qf the useful animals, there are hares, rab- 
bits, all the species of antelopes, stags, guata, and 
hogs of tbe Chinese variety. The sheep, cow, 
horse, and ass are strangers to the country, and 
known only as importations from Europe ; but the 
zebra, elephanl, and rhinocerm bsverse the woods, 
and the luppopotamus is found in the rivers. The 
dvet cat is also a native of this country, which 
likewise abounds in monkeys of all kinds, ai 
which is the chimpanzee, the mt 
the tribe. A speraes of wild d< 
found in the wcuds. 

intelligent of 

To enumerate the hi 

is part of Africa, 

d in other tropical re- 
peculiar, floujuh here. 
r honey bird, are among 
hosts of pelicans, and 
parrot, constitute the chief 

nngth; all that are 
giona, and some thai 
The Hsher and the sei 
the latter, and with i 

nearly every variety t. , 

characteristics of Angohon ornithology. Reptiles 
numerous, consisting of cendpedes, scorfuona, and 
exceedingly venomous serpents. Some of the 
lizard tribe, as the cameleon, are l^ss danger- 
ous than these ; but the rivers swarm with two 
or three species of crocodiles, which make tishing 
dangerous, and bathing all bat falaL Life is as 
abundant in Che watere as on the land; and be- 
sides the usual tenants of the deep, as whalat, 
sharks, dolphins, mackerel, oysters, crabs, ic, tho 
coasts and rivers possess an endless list of crea- 
tures, the very names of which are unknown in 

destructive as in other tropical climatea; and 
among the last-named class, the termites or white 
ant stands pre-eminent. 

Dr. Frederic Welwilsch, director of tho Botanic 
Gardens of Lisbon, lias been engaged fur many 
years in the sdenlillc exploration ut the province, 
of which he has given an account in the ' Annales 
des Culonia de Portugal.' His travels on the coast 
extended Irom Quiiembo to the riorth of Ambrii, 
in the north, as far south as the mouth of the 
Coanza, and he afterwards gradually penetrated 

) the in 

r of t! 

previously unknown. He ascended the couiae of 
the Benga, as far as 8ang«, the chief place of a 
district called Golongo-Alto, where heest ablished 
his head-qiiarteiB, from whidi to make diverging 
excunions among tbe surrounding precipitous 
mountains and virgin forests. Travelling east- 
ward, M. Welwilsch, afler leaving the dictrict of 
Ambaca, reached rungo-Andougo, which he se- 
lected as a second centre for his operations in the 
interior, and hence he explored the banks uf tbe 

CI river Coania, the momitains of I'edras and 
ja, and the islands of Calemba ; the vast 
forests lying between Quironda and Condo, the 
salt manbes of Quitogc, the river Loxillu, and 




the district of CamlMun1)e. During this long 
journey, M. Welwibwh collected 8,227 vegetable 
species] lielonging to 1(>6 families. He recognises 
tliree botanical regions in Angola. 1. The region 
of the &>a»t of which the thorny plants, the aca- 
cias, and the baobabs form the principal vegeta- 
tion. 2. the mountain region, chiefly characterised 
by its majestic forests, its orchids, and a palm as 
useful as beautiful {the elms guineerms)^ and the 
region of the plateaus distinguished by an im- 
mense variety of vegetation, the el^^nce of the 
species, and especially by a multitude of aromatic 
and bulbous plants, and the luxuriant verdure of 
the vast prairies. The average annual tempera^ 
ture of Angola he found to be 82^ F, and that of 
the r^on of the plateaus 70^. 

Population, Customs, ^c. — The population is 
dense for a barbarous country, the monarch being 
called Incue, from the great number of subjects 
under his commanfL It is not, however, easy to 
assign the amount, but it mav pexhaps be taken 
at between 2,000,000 and 8,000,000. The capital 
city, St. Paul, or I^oanda, contains 8,000. The 
natives have few of the negro peculiarities in form 
or feature : they are of ordinary stature, well 
limbed, and, but for their colour, very like the 
Portuguese, by whom they are surrounded. Blue 
eyes and red hair arc not uncommon among them. 
Society is divided into four classes, two free and two 
slaves ; the first two oonsiBting of nobles and hus- 
bandmen or artiflccrs ; the others of slaves, native 
bom, and those acjquired by war or foreign pur- 
chase. Marriage is an extremely simple cere- 
mony, a mere agreement between the husband and 
the father of the woman. The appearance of the 
first tooth in children is an important epoch ; the 
infant being then carried from nouse to house, and 
gifts extorted from friends and strangers. For the 
rest, they do not difier much from other nc^nraos. 
Dancing is a favourite divenion, and a religious 
rite; and, like other African people, their cere- 
monies are defiled with blood and cruelty. Money 
is of several kinds : marked cloths, the shell of a 
smfdl fish called simbo, a red wood brought finom 
Malemba, and iron, which last was introduced by 
the Portuguese. The countrv is parcelled out 
into an immense number of little lonlships, each 
under a magistrate called a sova. It would ap- 
pear that the king is able to control the petty 
despotism of these governors; for they have 
neither wealth nor any other distinction, except 
the personal respect paid to them, which is, how- 
ever, very i»rofouna, to distinguish them firom 
any other freemen. The religion of the bulk of 
the people is Feticism, difiering in nothing from 
that on the coast of Guinea (see Ashantke) ; but 
there are many Christian families among the na- 
Uves, and at one time the Jesuits had converted 
nearly the whole population, and established a 
r^^lar form of cniuch government. But the 
effect of their labours has now nearly vanished, 
and the negroes have relapsed into the idolatrous 
rites of their ancestors. The language is less bar- 
barous and more uniform on this coast than in 
most other parts of Africa; the whole of Congo, 
that is, the country between the Coanza and the 
Zaire, speak a dialect of the same tongue, which is 
extremely musical and flexible; not particularly 
sonorous, but veiy agreeable ; with a perfect s^ni- 
tax, and bearing in some points a resemblance to 
the Latin. 

lyade, — The Portuguese established a factory 
on this coast in 1485, and their power has been 
constantly extending to the present time. Two 
of their establislimcnts arc 700 m. inland ; but it 
is not to be supposed that they possess a sove- 
reignty over the whole coimtry to this extent. 

Their posts, called fairs, mfaieria, ut little 
than entrepots for trade; though the resUenu 
exercise a political power in their immwtiam 
neighbourhood. These eetabUshments have, it ii 
said, excited a spirit of manofactiire and eon- 
merce among the negroes ; bat we doubt macli 
whether this nas been the case in any conaidenUe 
dc^^ree; and whatever beneficial inflnenoe they 
might otherwise have had, has been ooimtenrailti 
and nullified by the support given by the Por- 
tuguese authorities to tne slave trade. In fad, 
Angola was for a lengthened series of yean, iSm 
great mart whence slaves were obtained for Bnnl; 
but the slave trade to that conntiy has now almoit 
entirely ceased. The Portognese gov. of Angola 
is understood to embrace the kingdoms of An^di, 
Benguela, and other Presidendea. Ana witk 
Ambriz, Benguela and Moesamedes about 203,110 
sq. m. Pop. estimated at 2,000,000 ; bat the Pcf- 
tugucse colony in 1858 was reckoned to numbff 
only 659,190. Attention of late has been (tiredtd 
to the cultivation of cotton. A Koyal Poftugnen 
decree of December 4, 1861, provided for the 
grantiiip^ of waste lands in Angola and Mona- 
bique, tor the cultivation of cotton at a nonunil 
rent, and on other advantageous conditions, and 
at the same time a Mr. John Beaton obtained the 
concession of 400,000 acrea. He had engaged to 
form a cotton-growinf company, but the oon- 
pany not beinff formed withm the oontiact tuns, 
the concession oecame void. A similar allotnwt 
of land to about the same extent waa made to a 
French gentleman, M. de Bellegarde, beaidei 
smaller grants to Portuguese speculaton for aimiltf 
purposes. The actual exports of cotton have as yet, 
however, been inconsiderable. (See Portugal.) 

ANGORA, or ENGOURI, the andent Amm, 
a city almost in the centre of Natolia, near the NE. 
source of the Sakariah, or SamfforiuM^ lat. 40^ iSt 
N., lon^. 38^ 18' £. After undeigoing rtnam 
revolutions, it fell under the dominion of the 
Romans; and being embellidied and othenriae 
favoured by Augustus, the inhabitants erected to 
his honour the celebrated MmmMteHhtm Auq^ 
ranum, a temple of white marble, on the waDa of 
which an account of the principal events in the 
life of Augustus was inscribed. The ruins ci thii 
edifice stiQ remain. Notwithstanding the demiae 
of its powerful patron, Ancvia continued to floariah. 
It was here that St. Paul preached to the Gala- 
Uans; and when the Christian religion spread 
itself all over the world, it was advanced to the 
dignity of an apostolic see. It came into the pot- 
session of the Turics in 1859. The great battle 
between the Turirish sultan, Bajazet, or Bayaiid, 
and the famous Tartar conqueror Tameilue, or 
Timur Bee, which ended in the total defeat and 
capture of the former, was fought in the vicxutf 
of Ancyra in 1401. It continues to be one of the 
principal cities of Natolia ; and is celebrated for 
manufactures of stu£& made of the ailk-Uke wool 
of the goat ofAitgora, a variety peculiar to the 
country round the town. The populatioa has been 
variously estimated at from 35,000 to 80,000; bat 
according to the latest accounts it ia conaidenhly 
less, the numbers being 10,000 Mohammedana, 
5,000 Armenians and Greeks, and 200 Jewa. 

ANGOSTURA, a dty of S. America, rep. of 
Venezuela, on the S. bank of the Orinoco, 
about 240 m. above its embouchure, and aboat 
190 ft. above the level of the sea, lat, 8^ 8' 10* 
N., long. 6do 55' 20^^ W. It was founded in 1588. 
Owing to its situation in a fertile coimtrv, on a 
great navipible river, and its command of^a veiy 
extensive mland navigation, Angostura is fiavoar- 
ably situated for commerce, which it carried on to 
a very considerable extent previous to the revoln- 


■niriwd its oiwDMne, wealth, and popalation. I 
TklMt,«lud> inlSOTmi athnUed «t iboat 
UOOiWM toktimecoiiudcnbl)' leas, botia isain 
pWd; aboot tlut Dumber. It hu > Itigt bkll, 
itaa BsMingi of Coogim have been held, vith 
■ knptal mud aeiill^; ind ia defended by M 
blflBtbe appa^U bank of the rirei. Though 
iiv, did nlijaet to ioimdition, the cUnute ii leoi' 


linng gnduallj' from the Ma. T 

broad and reffoUr, aad the ban* 

tenlly of three atoriea, thoogh gloomy, are v 

are broad and refol 
Kcnerallr of three nones, Uioi „ „ 
built. It is veil lupptied wiih" water, but 

Durobei of chu 

ANGOULftHE (an. /«&»), a city of Frano, 
4ifk -Chanate, irf which It ia the capital, on a 
fliuam derated 331 ft. above the river Cha- 
lale, on the nilwmy from Paris tn Boideanx, 
U m. SZ. Bordeaux. Pop. 34,961 in 1861. 
TW old town, which ocnplea the nmmit of 
Ai [.I—— has nanow, croolied itreela, and is 
»i* el laidi. In its centre stands the old caitle 
k rain*, 'nie walls, with which the dly wu 
isiauly smroonded, have been mostly demo- 
Ued, and the lampaits converted into public 
mOa. The new towa, bnllt on a declivity to the 
& of tbe old torn, hu broad straight sneels, 
nd booK*, and Is rapidly Increasing. There are 
Mb KTval anbaibB, cJ which Houmean Is the 
Ita pest is the entrepAt of the 

n the citv of 

iAb« lante nor beaattfnl; and, with the ex- 
Wfriwi of (ba flae bridge over the Charente, and 
" ' " " - . ■ . r of the preiient Du- 

Lher pubhc buildings 

^ The Piact ifArlou 

b 1 fae promenade, and, from its elevated poai- 
tlB, cnmand* a view of the valley of the An- 
gidnnaaDdUicaarRnindingconntFy. Angouleme 

, licta pobliahea ... ._ 

lag* fiUk In>i>ry> a cabinet of natural history ; 
aiAiiol rf midwireiy ; a fiinndling hospital, and 
•nai labcr boopilaia; a theatre, &c It has 
dB> vdar the Benotadon a royal marine school, 
tttbddmgi ofwhleb woe on a targe scale: this 
faNitiliaa waa, bowerer, transferred in 1837 to 
IraL ingonUme is celebrated for the extensive 

KBwabetana in ill vicinity: it has also 
(f aerga and coane studs, and eanliea- 
>■>: nth exienaive distiUerita, which produce 

|vuif Eorope. 

iaggoUoM i* verr andent, being noticed by I 
Aaaains, who floanshed in Che third centniy. | 

Ik teatibb rcsiclde, Ravaillac, the sasanla ol 
Hay IT. In the vicinity are the ruins of the 
teM abbey dcfa Omnrnt, founded in 1123, 
■m tke onament of the Angoomois. This vs- 
laaUe and magnificent structure, after escaping 
AiieTcdatiooan'phienzy,was demolished in 1808. 
Tit faontain of Trom-e, a few miles th>m Angou- 
IbtVBi next to that of Yauelnse, the most cele- 

ASGOUHOIS, the name of a district in Fiance 
ptanDoalTto the rnrolatlon, nearly but not exactly 
iiMi iiliiift with the dep. Chaiente. It fonncd, in 
(lucxian with tbe district of Saintonge, one of 
im BDvineea into which Prance was formerly 

ASGKA, a town and aea-poit of the island ol 
Tcrcetra, one of the Azores, being (he cap. of the 
■diipelago, and the leeidence of the governor, at 
Ihe bottom (rf a deep hay or creek, lat. 880 S8' 83" 
K, lon){. 370 13' 33^' W. Pop. varionsly estimated 
M ban 10,000 (o 19,000. It ia beauiirully aituated 

itreelB, as welt as the inhabitants, are notwith- 
iVely filthy. There are a great 
chea, and it fonneriy also bad 
ics and convents ; but the latter 
have been dissolved, and the buildings applied to 
other naea, Aa a port, Angra has nothing to boast 
of: it is open to all winds from the SSW. by the 
S. to the E. The swell from the SW. in particular 
which seta round Monnt Brazil, on the W. side 
of the hay, is tremendous. In tbe lad weather 
moDtlu, large vessels anchor in the mouth of the 
bay, abreast of St. Antonio, ui 38 and SO fathoms, 
to be ready instantly to put to aei in the event of 
storms setting in, the coast affording no shelter. 
The town is defended on the W. by the citadel at 
the nnt of Mount Brazil, and on the opposite aide 
of the bay by the fort of Su Sebastian, the dis- 
tance tietween them being about ) m. 

AaoRA, a seaport town of Brazil, pi 
Janeiro, bears SW. dislan "" 

tliat name. Its port admi ... ^ , . . .._ 

tified by two redoubts, and haa some commerce. 

from ita innunus figure, an island belonging to the 
British in the W. Iadie^ being the most northerly 
of the Caribbee Islands, and separated by a narrow 
channel from St Martin's; lat. 18° 8' X., long. 
63° I^J'E. Area about 35 sq. m. It is 16 m. m 
length, by about 3 to 1^ m. in breadth. Pop. 
about 2,51)0, of whom nearly 2,400 are coloured or 
black. Surface Hat; soil chalky, and not very 
productive ; and there is a defidencv both of wood 
and water; cUmate healthy. By far the largest 
portion ia uncultivated. It produces some sugar, 
with maize and provisiona of various kinds. 

are under cultivation. A salt lake in the middle 
of the island furnishes a considoable supply of 
■alt, and the revenue is chielly derived from a 
duty of 6 c per barrel on salt. The island has no 
good harbour. The town, an inconsiderable place, 
stands near the NE. extremity of the island. The 
island is part of the government of SU Kilt's, and 
sends one member to the assembly. For local 
purposta it is governed by a alipendiary magis- 
trate paid f^om the Imperial Treasury, assisted by 
a vestrv of which he is chairman. 'The revenue 
in 1861 was iUL and expenditure HOL Bosidca 
the local courts for administering justice there are 
also supposed to be Courts of Queen's Bench and 
Commons Pleas, and Chancery in the island! 
The ooloniats elect their chief magistrate, subject 
to the appiovai of the governor of Antigua. 

A50UILI.A, one of rJie Bahama Isluids, about 
20 m. Ion. and b broad