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or IHZ TABioirs 















1. ENGLAND AND WALES iofaeepage 265 










, 316 

, 367 

, 411 


Vou II. 




pASPIAN SEA (the Mart ffyrocnmm of the Ui- 
ciente), a great salt lake of W. Asia, between 
Sff> 36' and 47° 26' N. Ut., and 46° 15' and 56° 10' 
£. long. It is wholly inclosed, having no outlet 
whatever to the ocean, and is suirounded by Tar- 
tazy, Penia, the Caucasian countries, and the 
Roaeian governments of Astrakhan and Orenburg. 
Its direction is from N. by W. i W. to S. by £. i 
£^ but at its N. end it turns due £., terminating 
in a consideiable gulf called Mervoi Kultuk, or 
the Dead Sea. It is here almost 400 m. from £. 
to W.. bat in general it is not much more than 
half that width, and at its narrowest part (about 
40^ 20' N.) it does not exceed 120 m. across: its 
greatest length from N. to S. is 760 m., and its 
area may be estimated at 119,000 or 120,000 sq.m. 
(Hanway*B Travels, i 344, Ac.; Great Russian 
Map, 1800; Rennell's Gen. View of W. Asia, pi. 
6, 10, 12 ; Airowsmith's Atlas.) 

The coast of the Caspian is omfioderablv broken, 
bat its gulft and bays are more remarkable for 
their number than their size ; the most important 
after Mervoi, is the Ralkhan Gulf, or lake^ as it is 
sometimes, though improperly, called, which pro- 
jects from the main body of the sea, near its SE. 
comer, and stretches £. o^er nearly 2^ of long. 
The others are mostly little more ^an very large 
hazboma, nearly surrounded by the land ; such as 
Alexander Bay, Karabogas Lake, Astrabad Gulf, 
and othen on the E. coast; the gulfs of Kezil- 
ntch, Agzakhan, Kolpichi, and others on the W. 
The S. coast has an almost unbroken line, but the 
K. is frittered in pieces, eflpecially towards the W., 
by a oonntleas number or sandy marshy islands, 
the shores and positions of which are continually 
changing. The depth of the Caspian is very 
variable ; on the N. shore there is nowhere more 
than 12 It., and uraally not more than 6 ft., water ; 
and this extraordinary shallowness continues for 
more than 20 m. from the land ; on the E., W., 
and S. shorea, on tbe other hand, the depth is 
sometimes 160 ft.; though here, also, shoal water 
is far tnan nnc(»nmonu In the middle the bottom 
has not been reached at a depth of 2,800 ft From 
the general result of the soundings it would appear 
that, in some parts at least, the bed of the sea 
descends by terraces; for, on the SE. coast, the 
depth lies very regularly between 12 and 16 ft 
for some distance from the land, when it suddenly 
increases to 40 or 60 ft., at which depth the 
soundings mn in a line, equal in extent and 
parallel ro the former one. A similar phenome- 

Vou II. 

non is observed on the N. shore, and in several 
other parts. (Georgi, Geo|f. Phys. and Stat des 
Russ., i. 267-260; Gmelin's Reise dnrch Russ- 
land, iii. 231, Ac; Hanway's Travels, i 186, 166, 
892, &c.) 

The basin of this sea is extremely limited on 
the S., as well as on the E. side. On the S. 
the Elburz mountains press so closely on the 
water that the fact of their allowing a passage for 
the road at one point on Uie SVT. comer is re- 
marked as a singularity^— the roads and passes 
being generally so impracticable that many lives 
are annually lost in travelling them, without 
reckoning those who fall victims to the robber 
population. (Hanway, L 221-227, Ac.) It seems 
that there is good reason to believe that the 
Caspian was formerly much more extended to- 
wards the £., but it is now shut in, in that direction, 
by high clifis and sand hills dose to its shores, 
beyond which a flat desert, full 90 ft. higher than 
its present surface, stretches to the shores of Lake 
Aral. (Hanway, i. 188, et 9eg. ; Pallas's Trav. in 
S. Russia, i. 80, Ac.) On these sides, therefore, 
the drainage is insignificant ; the Elburz, indeed, 
gives forth a great many streams, but they are all 
of the nature of mountain torrents ; and in the 
dreary desert to the E. scarcely a single rivulet is 
found between the Attruck, at the SE. comer, 
and the Yemba, at the extreme N£. (Hanway, 
i. 180-188.) 

The W. shore presents a singular appearance. 
As high as 48^ of lat the whole space between 
this sea and the Euxine is filled by the immense 
masses of the Caucasus ; yet from this region the 
Caspian receives rivers which have their sources 
at nearly 800 m. distant from its coasts; they 
flow, however, over high plateaux, and through 
narrow ravines, apparently cut bv their own action, 
and which are sometimes scarcely wide enough to 
afibrd them passage. (Col. Monteith, Geog. Joum., 
iii. 39, ttpau,) Cot Monteith believes Uie narrow 
bed of the Terek to be the Pilse Caspian of the 
ancients ; and it answers exactly, in both descrip- 
tion and situation, to the pass which Pliny says 
(vL 11-18) was errcneouuif so called; but the 
true Caspian gates were an artificial opening cut 
through the Elburz mountains on the S. coast. 
(See Caucasus.^ N. of the Caucasus, the countzy 
W . of the Caspian spreads into a wide flat ; but, 
remarkably enough, between the Terek and the 
Wolga, there is only one river mouth, that of the 
Knma (an. CambyteM or Udon) ; for the land 



though flat and sandy, is elevated suddenly at a 
little distance from the sea, so that the edge of 
the latter consists of extremely swampy ground, 
and aU the running water that is not ab^rbed in 
the soil flows X. and W. to the Don or the Black 
Sea. (PaUM, I 78, 4c.; Gmelin, iil 236, 4c.) 
On the NVV. and N. the Caspian opens on the 
great European plain ; its mighty rivers run courses 
varjang from 300 to upwards of 2,000 m. (see 
Ukal, VVoloa, 4c.), and its basin becomes so 
mingled with those of the Euxine, Baltic, and 
Arctic oceans, that it is impossible to assign, with 
any accuracy, the limits of each. (See Baltic 
Ska.) So closely, indeed, do the several branches 
of these waters approach each other, that a short 
canal near Tver, by uniting the little rivers Tvertza 
and Schlina, has connecteid the Caspian with the 
Baltic for upwards of a century ; and much of the 
timber used in the imperial yard at Petersburg 
is cut in the woods of Kasan, being conveyed up 
the Wolga to this point of artificial communica- 
tion. Th^ canal was the work of Peter the Great ; 
and the same prince projected the union of the 
Caspian and Euxine, by another, between two 
small streams, aflluents respectively of the Wolga 
and Don, which in the neighbourhood of Tzaritzen 
approach each other within 2 m. ; the whole dis- 
tance between the laiger rivers being here less 
than 15 m. (Algaiotti's Letters, 67 ; Hanwav, i. 
98 ; Tooke's Russia, ii. 144 ; Pallas, I 91.) With 
respect to its basin and drainage, therefore, the 
Caspian is much more of a European than an 
Asiatic lake ; the former is extensive only on thie 
side of Europe, and the latter carries on at least 
l-6th of all the running water beJonging to that 
division of the world. The rivens which descend 
from the Caucasian mountains, the only ones of 
consequence which the Caspian receives from Asia, 
are quite iiisigniflcant when compared with such 
streams as the Wolga and Ural; the former of 
which alone drains 140,000 sq. m« (Lichenstein's 
Cosmog., i. 328.) 

There are, of course, no tides in this dose lake, 
nor do there seem to be any regular currents, in 
the usual acceptation of the wonl ; but, from the 
freedom with which the wind blows over so large 
a surface, many considerable and very irregular 
changes are effected in its motions and character. 
A strong breeze from the S. drives the waters over 
the low lands of the N. coast, sometimes to the 
distance of several miles ; vessels, at such times, 
are said to have been carried so far inland, that, 
on the retiring of the sea, it was found necessary 
to break them up where they lay, irom the impos- 
sibility of transporting them back to the shore. 
It must be remembered, however, that these ves- 
sels are of peculiar construction, the numerous and 
extensive shoals preventing the general use of anv 
(on the N. coast) that would require much deptn 
of water. Such a vrind, too, by driving the sea 
into the mouths of the great rivers, causes these to 
rise in their beds, and, consequently, when the 
wind subsides, a very violent b. current is pro- 
duced by the water returning to its luual leveL 
A N. wind produces the same effect on the S. 
^ore ; only, from the nature of the coast, the 
water cannot extend so far over the neighbouring 
land; but it is frequently raised from 3 to 4 ft 
above its natural level ; the return to which, there- 
fore, causes a rushing and confused motion of the 
waters to all points of the compass. Vessels 
drawing 9 or 10 ft. are, during these changes, ex- 
posed to great hazard, and, as the winds are ex- 
tremely uncertain, the navigation of the Caspian, 
like that of most confined sheets of water, is one 
of very considerable danger. (Hanway, i. 142, 
898, 4c.; Georgi, i 258 ; Monteith, G. J., iil 28.) 

There is another motion of the sea much more re- 
markable, however, than the preceding. It appears 
to increase and decrease in actucd buJ^ in periods, 
according to native report, of about 30 years each. 
Wlien navigated b^ Hanwav, its surface was in- 
contestably rising, if the united testimony of the 
inhabitants upon the coasts be credited ; and this 
testimony received confirmation from the appear- 
ance of the coasts themselves. Tops of houses 
were seen in water several feet in depth ; the sea 
had visibly risen on the walls of fortified towns ; 
and these encroachments were going on equally 
on all parts of the coast at the same time ; so that 
the natives round the whole circuit were living in 
a state of great alarm, (i. 155-157, 371, 4c. ; see 
also Algarotti, 78, et »eq,) Now Hanway makes 
his remarks in 1743, when tiie sea had certainly 
been rising more than 20 year»— that is, from be- 
fore the expedition of Peter the Great, in 1722 (i. 
155) ; and, therefore, if the native tradition were 
founded on fact, it had nearly reached its greatest 
height. It is, at least, a remarkable circumstance 
that, in 1784, the sea was again (or Ml) rising, 
having, by its action, levell^ the outer wall of 
Baku, which was standing in the time of Hanway. 
(Forster's Travels, 227) ; while, between 1811 and 
1828, it had very sensibly decreased (CoL Mon- 
teith, Geog. Joum., iiL 23)', and, in 1832, it had re- 
ceded from the S. shore full 300 yards. (Bnmes's 
Travels to Bokhara, iL 121.) It is clear that, iii 
the 41 years between the observations of Hanway 
and Forster, there had been time, upon the native 
hypothesis, for the sea to reach its greatest de- 
pression, and begin again to rise. At all events, 
the facts, meagre as they are, seem to warrant the 
conclusion of periodic variations ; though what 
law these follow, the data are at present far too 
limited to determine. If a conjecture may be 
hazarded, they probably depend upon meteorolo- 
gical causes, and the general state of the atmo- 
33here. Hanway (though he disbelieves the peno- 
ic variation) appears to hold an opinion similar 
to this ; for he remarks, that the summere, from 
the time of Peter the Great to that of his own ob- 
servations, had been less hot than formerly ; that 
consequently evaporation had been less, while the 
supply of water had continued the same. (i. 156.) 
It would be a corroboration of this theorv, could 
it be established that, from 1811 to 1832, when 
the Caspian was unquestionably and rapidly sink- 
ing, the summer heat*had been peculiarly great ; 
but on this point nothing certam is known. In 
the meantime it is worthy of remark, that, between 
the observations of Hanway and those of Mon- 
teith and Bumes, 90 years (a multiple of the as- 
serted period) had elapsed ; that the time during 
which the sea was known to be constantly rising 
in the one case, and sinking in the other, was the 
same, namely, 21 years ; and that, on the suppo- 
sition of the trigentennial alternation of the phe- 
nomena, it should have been found sinking, as it 
was, by the last named travellers. That there ia 
something very peculiar in the atmosphere of this 
region is evident. Monteith found its extra pres- 
sure to be equivalent to a column of 390 ic. in 
height (Geog. Joum., iii. 22) ; Bumes, some 4 or 
5 years later, to one of 800 ft (Travebs ii. 122.) 
These results were obtained, not by the barometer, 
but by the boiling point of water; the difference 
of pressure would, however, cause a rise of nearly 
if an inch in the former (Nettleton, Phil. Trans., 
xxxiiL 308), and consequently a depression of 
almost 7 inches in the surface of the Caspian. This 
co-existence of phenomena is similar to that ob- 
served in the Baltic, only much more powerful 
and longer continued; it is, therefore, at least 
probUble, that in both cases the varying level de- 


pends npon the varying pressore, and that, with 
ext«ad^ knowledge, theexpUnaUonsof the Swe- 
dish mathematicians may be brooght to bear, 
generallT, opon this pecoliar feature of physical 
geography. (See Baltic 8ea). 

But whatever may be the variations in the pre- 
sent atoiace of this lake, there can be little doubt 
but that it was forroerlv much more extensive on 
three sides — ^the N., NtV^ and £. ; and it is still, 
moet likelv, diminishing. The fact that it never 
increases, In any thing approaching to the ratio 
of the water poured into it, has been, combined 
with its want of outlet to discharge that water, a 
standing wonder for centuries ; and the most ex- 
travagant hypotheses have been adopted to account 
for a phenomoion apparently so paradoxical: 
among others, a filtration through a shelly sand 
into an imaginary abyra : and a subterranean com- 
municatioa with the ocean. The latter is the 
]»evalent opinion among the natives ; the former, 
to the discredit of philosophv, has found abettors 
among Europeans, who should have known better. 
(Hanwa^, I 166; AJ^rotti, 67; Tooke, i. 138; 
Bumee, xL 188, Ac.) But evaporadon is in these 
regions great, bevond belief; not from the tem- 
perature, which M lower than might be expected, 
out from the extreme dryness of the air. In an 
experiment made by Dr. Gerard in the £. desert, 
a bowl full of water disappeared altogether in two 
days. (Bumo, ii 189.) Without pretending to 
decide the proportion between this exhaustion and 
the aipply afforded bv the rivers, which could not 
be done without much more extensive data, it is 
dear that the first, unchecked by the latter, 
would be sufficient to dry up the Caspian, or a 
much larger bodv of water, in the course of a 
few years ; and that the waste is, or at all events 
ha» been, greater than the supply, is shown bv the 
appearance of the plain country in the neighBour- 
hcKid of this sea. It has been observed that the 
present bed appeani to descend in terraces, and on 
the £. and NW. shores the land rises in the same 
manner. This land presents, also, incontestable 
proofs of having been formerly covered with sea 
water; it is uniformly fiat, except where it rises 
in sandy ridges, to form the terraces before men- 
tioned ;' it is uniform in soil, consisting of sand 
omnbined with marine slime, without a trace of 
terrestrial vegetation except the common desert 
plants, or the slightest indication of minerals: 
the substratum is clay, at a considerable depth 
from the surface ; and the surface itself abounds 
in sea salt, sai-weed marshes, salt pits and lakes, 
together with innumerable shells exactly re- 
sembling those of the Caspian Sea, and which 
art not fmmd m avy of the riverM. This uniform 
and dreary country terminates suddenly towards 
the N., at a comparatively high tract running 
from the Wolga to the Ural, near the 61st piu- 
raUel ; and on the NW. at a similar tract between 
the Wolga and Don, a little to the £. of the 46th 
meridian. The change of soil is here striking and 
instantaneous; salt, sea-weed, shells, and sand 
disappear, and are replaced by black mould, 
solid turf^ and all the usual appearances of vege- 
table soil upon reasonably old land, though stiU 
belonging to a period ^eoiogicaUy recent, as is de- 
monstrated by Its honzontal strata and the con- 
tinued absence of mineral productions. These 
high grounds formed therefore, in all probability, 
the ancient shores of the Caspian ; but that to the 
XW. terminates abruptly on the little river 
Man^sb, near the 46th parallel, between which 
and the Caucasian mnts. a low and narrow tract, 
exactly resembling that on the immediate borders 
of the Caspaan, stretch<» without intemiption to 
thoae of the S«ei of Azoph, having every appear- 

ance of the deserted bed of a strait formerly 
uniting the two waters. Towards the E. the 
whole country has the same appearance of a 
deserted sea-bed ; and the conclusion, therefore, 
appears inevitable, that, at comparatively no dis- 
tant period, the Sea of Aral, the Caspian, and the 
Black Sea formed one body of water, uniting the 
present anomalous salt lakes of Asia with the 
ocean. This conclusion is further strengthened 
by the presence of the same species of fish, seals, 
drc, in the three seas ; a fact which it is impos- 
sible to account for on the supposition that they 
were always separated. (Pallas, L 78-87, 271)- 
304, Ac. ; Gmelin, UL 231-248 ; Georgi, i. 269, Ac.) 
When it is considered that Russia is extremely 
flat; that its slope from the Arctic Ocean to the 
Caspian is uninterrupted ; and that this slope is 
so considerable, that the Wolga, though rising in 
a flat countr>', has raMer a rapid current (Pallas, 
1. 26), — it wQl be evident that the position of the 
Caspian must be very low. A suspicion having 
long existed that it was lower than the level of 
the ocean, Messrs. Englehardt and Parrot, in the 
beginning of the present century, performed a 
series of barometric levelling between its shores 
and those of the Black Sea ; the result of which 
gave a depression of 333 ft. (64 toiaei) for the sur- 
face of the Caspian. (Keise in die Krym und der 
Kaukassus, it 66.) It is to be remarked, that at 
this time the sea was sinking ; and, therefore, if 
the opinion hazarded on the cause of its variations 
be correct (see anti)^ the atmospheric pressure on 
its coasts was greater than it would be m the ordi- 
nary state of the air. This seems, also, to be 
borne out by the observations of Monteith and 
Bumes, upon the boiling point of water. Results 
depending upon the height of the barometric 
column would, imder such circumstances, be in- 
evitably excessive; and this was, upon other 
grounds, suspected bv Humboldt, from the very 
rst publication of Messra. Englehardt's and Par- 
rot's memoir. (Parrot, Voy. a 1* Ararat, ii. 192.) 
To determine the question, the Russian govern- 
ment, in 1836, despatched an expedition, which, 
after two years' labour, completed, in 1838, a 
splendid series of trigonometncal levelling ; from 
which it appears that the Caspian is 101 '2 Prus- 
sian ft. (about 116 ft. English) below the Black 
Sea. (Geog. Joum., viii. 136.) The known eleva- 
tion of the desert steppe E. of the Caspian will, 
according to this survey, place the Sea of Aral 
verv nearly on a level wim, or even something 
higher than, the Euxine. 

Considering its lat., that of S. France and Italy, 
the temperature of this sea and its neighbourhood 
is extremely low ; the X. part is verv frequently 
frozen, and the ice in the mouth of the Wolga 
(lat. 46°) does not usually break up till April. 
fHanway, L 140; Pallas, L 89, &c) Even the 
Aral, as low as 46°, is iometimei frozen ; and the 
inhabitants have a tradition that one of its islands 
was peopled bv a colony which crossed the ice, 
with all their flocks and herds. (Bumes, ii. 189.) 
This fact is the more remarkable, from the low, 
level, and S. aspect of the region round the Cas- 
pian ; but the want of mountains towards the N. 
exposes it to the influence of chilling winds from 
the Arctic Sea, while the intervention of snow- 
capped ranges on the S. prevents the counter- 
balancing effects of the hot breezes from the 
equator. The summer heat is, however, gene- 
rally great, and is towards the S. attended with a 
humidity, which renders it very imhealthv; 
thouji^h, from this very cause, the S. and SW. 
districts present a luxuriance of vegetation 
stronglv contrasted with the bare salt deserts on 
the NW., N., and £. Rice, maize, cotton, firuita 

B 2 


of all kindB, and a countless variety of forest 
trees, are among the productions of these dis- 
tricts ; which, with the exception of the Bussian 
colony in the steppe of Astrakhan, are the only 
parts of the coast possessing a settled population ; 
but such is the deadly nature of the climate, that 
all who are able leave the towns in the beginning 
of summer, and retire to the mountains, where 
the atmosphere is of course more salubrious. 
The deserts are occupied by the wandering Kal- 
mucks, Kiighis, and Turkomans, who preserve 
unaltered the roving and predatory habits of their 
earliest ancestors. (Pallas, i. 92, 116, Ac. ; Frazer's 
Trav. on the S. Bank of Casp., 11, 16, Ac; Co- 
noUy's Narrative, I 35-49, 146, Ac ; Bumes, ii. 
100-127, Ac.) 

The waters of this 9ea are less salt than those 
of the ocean, and considerably less so near the 
mouths of rivers than at a distance from the 
shore. The waters of Lake Aral are even drink- 
able (Bumes, ii. 189) ; but all have a bitter taste, 
ascribed by some to the great quantities of naphtha 
with which the soil abounds, out by others to the 
presence of glauber salts, amon^ the substances 
held in solution. The fish are pnncipally salmon, 
sturgeons, and sterlets ; a kind of herring is also 
found, and there are likewise porpoises and seals. 
It has been already said, that the same inhabitants 
are found in the waters of the Caspian, Aral, and 
Black Seas. The fisheries employ many vessels 
annually, and the shores abound m aquatic fowl, 
storks, herons, bitterns, spoonbills, red geese, red 
ducks, Ac. (Gmelin, iii. 233-267 ; Pallas, I /xzjw.; 
Tooke, i. 238, Ac.) 

It is somewhat remarkable that, though situated 
on the confines of Europe, this sea should have 
remained nearly unknown, except by name, till 
the beginning of the last century. It is scarcely 
less remarkable that the oldest' observer, Hero- 
dotus, described it truly as an ocean by itself, 
communicating with no other and of such size that 
a Hwift-oared boat would traverse its length in 
fifteen days, its greatest breadth in eight days. 
(Clio, 203.) These proportions are accurate ac- 
cording tu the b^t modem observations, and at 
50 m. per day for the swill boat's progress, would 
give the actual measurement. After this clear 
account^ it is startling to find the Caspian trans- 
formed by Strabo into a gulf of the Northern 
Ocean, and otherwise distorted, according to a 
theory which must be regarded as purely fanciful. 
(Geog., 3u. 507.) Ptolemy restored the Caspian 
to its lake-like form : he had some knowledge of 
the Wolga, which he calls Rha ; but he gives the 
greatest length of the sea from E. to W., and 
makes it a vast deal too large, (v. 2, \d. 9, 13, Ac.) 
It is to be remarked, that Herodotus does not $taie 
in what direction lay the greatest length ; but it 
may be very readily deduced, from his descriptions 
of the surrounding countries, that he meant it to 
be understood as stretching N. and S. The autho- 
rity of Ptolemy remained paramount and unques- 
tioned for maiiy centuries ; and the first mc^dem 
account of the Caspian, at all consistent with the 
tmth, is due to Anthony Jenkinson, an English- 
man, who, in 1558, traversed its waters, and gave 
an account of its dimensions and bearings, agree- 
ing in all its main points with the more brief de- 
scription of Herodotus. (Hakluyt's Voy., i. 326- 
329.) Jenkinson's voyage did not, however, gain 
much attention; and in 1719 a regular survey 
was commenced, by command of Peter the Great. 
Yanverden's map, the result of that survey, and 
which was partly constructed by the emperor him- 
self, is still) and justly, held in high estimation. 
The voyages of Hanway had for their object the 
establishment of a trade (in English hands) be- 


twoen Russia and Persia. The failure of that 
object was owing to the ambition of a Mr. Elton, 
who, attaching himself to the Persian court, gave 
such offence to that of Russia, that the latter 
eventually prohibited the English commerce on 
the Caspian. ^Hanway, iL 279, etpasa.) A ma-ss 
of valuable ini(»rmatio*n was, however, collected, 
during these transactions, by Hanway himself, 
Elton, Woodroffe, and others. The more modern 
travellers, Gmelin, Georgi, Pallas, Englehardt, 
Parrot, Forster, Frazer, Conollv, Bumes, Monteith, 
Fuss, Sabler, and Sawitch, have added immea- 
surably to that information; but much still re- 
mains to be done ; and as the Russian government 
seems fully alive to the importance of accurate 
knowledge on geographical subjects, and as their 
power or influence is nearly established on all 
parts of this sea, it may be reasonably hoped that 
every vear will make \^. Europe better acquainted 
with this very remarkable r^on. 

The largest class of vessels that navigate tlie 
Caspian, are called by the Russians scAvyts, and 
belong wholly to Astrakhan and Baku; their 
burden varies from 90 to 100, and sometimes 150 
tons. They are not built on any scientific princi- 
ple, and are constructed of the worst materials — 
that is, of the timber of the barks that bring com 
down the Wolga to Astrakhan. There are sup- 
posed to be in all about 100 sail of these vessels. 
A second class of vessels, called razchweSf em- 
ployed on the Caspian, carry from 70 to 140 tons, 
and sail better than the schuyts, and there are 
great numbers of small craft employed in the 
rivers, in the fisheries, and as lighters to the 
schuyts. But steamboats will, no doubt, in the 
end supersede most of these vessels; they have 
already, indeed, been introduced, not only upon 
the rivers, but upon the Caspian itself. The trade 
of the sea is entirely in the hands of Russia; and, 
whatever objections may, on other grounds, be 
made to her conquests in this quarter, it is certain 
that, by introducing European arts and sciences, 
and comparative good order and security, into 
countries formerly immersed in barbarism, she has 
materially improved their condition, and accele- 
rated their pn^ress to a more advanced state. 

I'he Caspian Sea, Kaaimq AaAaa<ra (Herod. Clio, 
203), is the oldest name of this water. It was de- 
rived from the Caspii, a people who inhabited its 
banks ; as the more modem term Hyicanian Sea, 
eaAavaa'Ypjcai'ta (Strabo, xi 507), wos similarly 
derived from the more important Hyrcauii, a 
principal branch of the great Persian family. In 
the present day it ia called More Cualemkoi, by 
the Russians; Kvhuan, by the Persians; Bdhr 
Kurzum, by the Arabs ; Kuizum Denghis, by the 
Turks ; and AkdingkU, by the Tartars. (Tooke, 
1 232.) , 

CASSANO, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 
Cbsenza, cap. cant., in the concave recess of a 
steep mountain, round an insulated rock, on which 
are the rains of an ancient castle, 7 m. ESE. Cas- 
troTillari, and 10 m. from the Gulf of Tarentum. 
Pop. 8,125 in 1862. The town is well built ; ia 
the residence of a bishop ; has a cathedral, four 
convents, a seminary, and a workhouse. The in- 
habitants are industrious, and manufacture mac- 
caroni, stamped leathers, and table-linen. Cotton 
and silk are also grown, spun, and woven; and 
the environs are productive of excellent timber, 
fruits, and com. 

country of India beyond the Ganges, between 
lat 240 and 26° N., and lon^. 98© and 95° E. ; 
having N. Assam and the Biiman empire ; S. a 
hill country, inhabited by independent Khyens 
(see Birmah), Kookies (see Cachar), and W. 



Cachsr. Area aboat 7,000 m. m. CaMay consuts 
of a central fertile valley, of comparatively' small 
extent, surrounded on evexy side by a wild and 
roooDtainous country. The Xaga mountains 
bound it N., averaging in height 5,000 or 6,000 fL 
above the sea ; although in some parts they are 
as much aa 8,000 or 9,000 ft. high. Two branches, 
passing S. from the Niu^a mountains, inclose the 
(;as8ay vallev £. and W., and the S. boundary, 
from the conduence of the Chikoo nullah^ or rivu- 
let, with the Barak, is formed by the same ranges, 
which run £. and W., bounding Caehar S., and 
Tippenh NE. The W. mountam range is more 
elevated and extensive than any other, and runs 
from the banks of the Barak SSW. for 80 m., 
»teep and precipitous, towards Caehar; but in 
(tome parts almost cleared of forest, and annually 
cultivated with rice and cotton. This range has 
nine principal peaks, varying in height from 
5,790 to 8,200 U. above the sea, which, from su- 
perstitious motives, are left covered with wood by 
the inhabitants of the hills, and are often capped 
with a dense stratum of clouds. The £. bills 
varr fiom 4,900 to 6,730 ft above the sea. The 
valley thus inclosed is about 36 m. lon^ and 18 m. 
broad, having an area of 650 sq. m. of nch alluvial 
soil, 2,500 feet above the level of the sea. 

The chief rivers are the Khongta, or Munneepoor 
river, Eeril, and ThobaL The first rises in the 
Naga mountains, in lat. 25^ 12^ N., long. M^ £. ; 
it completely travenes the central valley N. to S. 
and falls into the Ningthee or Kyen-dwero river. 
It is the only outlet for the waters of the Cassay 
valley ; and, as the latter is 2,000 feet above the 
Ningtbee, it is probable there are several con- 
siderable falls in ita course through the mountauis. 
Almost all the centre of the Cassay vallev is a 
series of jeels and marshes ; there is a small lake 
(Logta) at its SW. comer; compact sandstone, 
slate, and limestone are the prevailing geological 
features of this region. 

Iron is the only metal found in Cassay ; it is 
met with under the form of dtaniferous oxide, and 
is detected by thrusting spears into the ground, 
and, where iron is present, small particles soon 
adhere to them. (Pemberton.) The Cassay val- 
ley is rich in salt springs, especially on its £. side ; 
and more than enough salt tor home consumption 
is made. The climate of the valley is lower by 
many degrees than in Calcutta, but not so low as 
might have been expected from the elevation. 
There are more rainy days in the year, but less 
rain falls than at Calcutta: from March the 
showers become continual ; the permanent rise of 
the streams begins in May, and continues till the 
middle of October, from which time they rapidly 
decieaae. From Nov. to Jan. fogs settle during 
the whole night in the valley, and hoar frosts 
prevail on the hills ; yet the climate of the former 
region b decidedly salubrious, and peculiarly 
healthy to European constitutions. The surround- 
ing mountains are, in most instances, covered with 
the noblest varieties of forest trees, common both 
to tropical and colder climates ; and, according to 
Capt. Pemberton, there is no part of India where 
the forests are more varied and magnificent ; but, 
from the small number of streams, and the want 
of good roods, their utility is entirely local ; there 
being at present no means of conveying the tim- 
lier to any distance. I1ie valley is penectly free 
frrim for»t, though every village is surrounded by 
a grove of fruit-trees : the soil of the detached 
hilk, and their S. faces especially, are highly 
adapted to the culture of fruit. Herds of wild 
elephants are constantly seen in the glens and 
defiles of the N. : wild hogs and deer of the laigest 
size abound everywhere; and the chase is a fa*- 

vourite sport with the Cassayers. Tigers are not 
common, and have retired to the mountam fast- 
nesses : there are no jackals ; but wild dojjs, greatly 
resembling that animal, abound on the hills, where 
they hunt in packs. With the exception of woollon 
cloth, this countrj* furnishes evcrv article e^w^ntial 
to the comfort and pros{jerity oi its inhabitants. 
All the tribes N., W., and E. of the central valley 
partake strongly of the Tartar countenance, and 
are probably the descendants of a Tartar colony 
who passed hither from the NW. borders of China, 
during the sanguinary struggles for supremacy 
between the Chinese and Tartar dynasties, in the 
13th and 14th centuries. They have much more 
affinity, both in person and manners, with the 
Hindoos, than with the Burmese, to which latter 
race thev bear little similarity. They differ from 
the Rookies of the S. hills in their superior height, 
finer complexions, higher foreheads, mharmonious 
voices, and harsh language. They are highly in- 
genious, and are good horsemen, on which account 
they were formerly exclusively employed in the 
Birmese cavabrv service. The upper classes are 
worshippers of Vishnu, and this country may be 
regarded as the extreme £. limit of Brahminism : 
the Cassay tongue is, however, widely different 
from Sanscrit, There are many other dietinct 
tribes in different psrts of Cassay and its neigh- 
bourhood. All cultivate tobacco, cotton, ginger, 
and pepper, and manufacture cloths ; which arti- 
cles they barter for others with the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring plains of Bengal, Assam, and 
Birmah. In the central valley rice is the chief 
object of agriculture, and the land there is well 
imgated, and highly suited to it : but scarcely ^ 
part of the land available for it is under culture, 
owuig to a paucity of inhabitants. The whole 
pop. of the valley in 1835 was barely 20,000. To- 
Kacco, sugar-cane, indigo, mustard, dhal, and 
opium are also grown, and each house is sur- 
rounded by a little garden, in which culinary 
vegetables are raised m larce quantity. Almost 
all the garden produce of £urope is found here, 
havinfi been introduced by the British since 
the Birm^e war; and the pea and potato are 
found BO acceptable, that their culture is nearly 
universal, and they are constantly exposed for 
sale in the bazaars. The pine-apple attains an 
excellence in Cassay not surpassed in anv part 
of the world. Buffaloes are uj«d for plough- 
ing ; there are about 8,000 in the central valley, 
and perhaps an equal number of bullocks, which 
are superior, both in size and symmetry, to those 
of BengaL 

llie ponies of Munneepoor are much and de- 
servedly esteemed, by both the Cassayers and 
Birmese, who use them for the elite of their cavalry. 
They average from 12 to 12^ hands, and are rarely 
more than 13 hands in height : they are hardy 
and vigorous, and have a peculiar blood appear- 
ance, but are now nearly extinct ; and scarcely 
more than 200 cotUd be found fit for active service. 
Formerly, every inhab. had two or three ; and the 
Cassavers afiimi that, in a military sense, they 
have lost one of their arms by the decrease of the 
breed. Sheep were unknown till introduced by 
the British ; they tlmve on the slopes of the central 
valley: goats are bred by the Naga tribes on the 
hills, but invariably deterioiate if brought into the 
lowlands : poultry are plentiful in the latter dis- 
tricts, and the mountaineers purchase fowls thence 
at a very high price. The chief manufactures are 
coarse white cottons ; a very soft and light muslin ; 
a coarser kind, used for turbans and jackets ; silks, 
remarkable for the brilliancy of their colours, and 
which are much prized at Ava ; iron articles ; and 
salt. The chief iron articles made are axes, hoes 



ploughshareSf spear and airow heads, for home use ; 
and olades, 1 or 2 ft. in length, which, fixed into 
wooden or other handles, form the dao, the inse- 
parable companion of the Cassayer, Shan, and 
bingpho. Salt is ^ot from wells, sunk in the valley 
to about 40 or 60 ft. ; all of which are the property 
of the rajah, who levies a tax of l-5th upon the 
water drawn. The quantity of salt obtained by 
evaporation is about l-20th the weight of the 
water, or nearly double the quantity obtained by 
evaporation from sea water at Newcastle : the la- 
bourers engaged are paid in salt to the value of 3 
or 4 rupees a month each, which they barter for 
other commodities. Wax, cotton, and elephants' 
teeth, form part of the tribute of the hill tribes ; 
the same articles, with ponies, (be, are bought by 
the Chinese merchants of Yun-nan ; and similar 
products, with silks, iron, dammer, wood, oil, san- 
dal-wood, camphor, thread, &c., were taken in lieu 
of money payments by the British, for assistance 
to the rajah about the middle of the last century. 

The records of Cassay bear some character for 
truth, and, it is said, reach back to a remote epoch. 
In 1475, the Kubo valley was annexed to Cassay 
by conquest; and in 1738, the Cassay ers con- 
quered Birmah, and took its then capital, Sakaing. 
{Subsequently, Cassay was frequently invaded and 
devastated by the Birmese; and from 1774 to 1824 
was subject to Ava. By the treaty of Yandabod, 
in 1826, it became independent. In 1833, the 
valley of Kubo was ceded to the Birmese by Bri- 
tish authority. 

CASSEL (anc. CcuteUum Cattorum), a town of 
W. Germany, prov. Lower Hesse, of which, and of 
the electorate of Hesse Cassel, it is the cap., and 
residence of the elector. It is finely situated on 
both sides the Fulda, 72 m. S. by W. Hanover, 
and 89 m. NNE. Frankfurt-on-the-Mayne, on the 
main line of railway from Frankfurt to Berlin. 
Pop. 38,920 in 1861. The town is divided into 
three separate parts, and has three suburbs. The 
Old Town and Upper New Town, with the Wil- 
helmshdhe and Frankfurt suburbs, are built on the 
left or W. bank ; while the Lower New Town, and 
the Leipzig suburb, are on the E. bank of the river. 
The two divisions are connected by a stone bridge 
across the Fulda, 273 Germ, feet in length. Cassel 
is walledj and has numerous gates ; it was formerly 
well fortified, but its ramparts were demolished in 
1764. The Old Town, by the river, consists of 
narrow dirty streets; but the Upper or French 
New Town, so called because origmally built b^ 
French refugees, on a height above the former, is 
one of the TOSt laid out and handsomest towns in 
Germany. It contains, among others of less di- 
mensions, the largest square in any German city 
(the Friedrichs Flatz), and one street, nearly a 
mile in length, and proportionally broad. Houses 
in the New Town and the Wilhelmshdhe suburb, 
generally well and tastefully built. In this quarter 
of Cassel are the elector's palace, a structure no- 
wise remarkable; the museum, the handsomest 
building in the city, contaiuing a library with 
70,000 volumes; an obaervatoiy; and cabmets of 
natural history, mineralojy^, coins, artificial cu- 
riosities, statuary, and antiquities ; the latter com- 
prising several mieresting Koman relics found in 
Hesse Cassel ; a picture gallery, containing some 
valuable paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, and 
Vandyke ; the Bellevue palace, with others be- 
longing to the electoral family; the electoral 
stables, and riding-school, mint, town-hall, arsenal, 
old and new barracks, and an opera-house. In the 
Old Town are the Kattenbuig, a large unfinished 
structure, begun upon the site of the old electoral 
palace destroyed by fire in 1811 ; the old town- 
hall ; government offices ; and St Martin's, the 


principal church in the city, and the burial-place 
of the sovereigns of Cassel. The Lower New Town 
contains the castle, an ancient fortress, now used 
as a state prison ; and several other prisons. 

Cassel has 9 churches, 7 of which belong to the 
Lutheran or Reformed faith; and 1 synagogue. 
It has altogether 20 edifices devoted to military 
puri)oses, and 51 other public buildings. Amongst 
the institutions for public education are, a lyoeum, 
academies of paintmg and design, a teachers' se- 
minary, a mihtary school, and a school of mecha- 
nical employments, called the Bau-und-Hand- 
werksBchtue. There are societies for the promotion 
of agriculture, trade, and manufactures, and nume- 
rous charitable establishments ; the latter includes 
the fVUhdms Institute at which many poor are pro- 
vided for, and taught different trades. Notwith- 
standing the Vvldk is navigable, and that Cassel 
is on ul sides surrounded by large commercial 
towns and districts, with which it has abundant 
railway communication, its own trade is not very 
considerable. It possesses manufactures of cottons, 
silk and woollen fabrics, leather, hats, carpeta, 
snuff, gold and silver lace, porcelain, earthen and 
lacquered ware, playing-cards, wax-lights, che- 
mical products, dyes (Cassel yellow and black), 
soap, starch, hardware, musical instruments, linen, 
damask, chicory, and some machinery. It has two 
fairs annually. S. of the Upper New Town is the 
KarltauCf or Augcarten^ a fine park containing an 
orangery, a pheasantry, and a marble bath ; but 
the mst is overloaded with ornament, and in bad 
taste. A straight and handsome road, shaded by 
an avenue of kmes, 3 m. in length, conducts from 
the Wilhehnshohe gate to Wilhelmsh5he, the 
summer palace of the elector, a magnificent resi- 
dence, with costly fountains and waterworiss, some- 
times called the German Versailles. 

During the short period that Jerome Bonaparte 
was on the throne of Westphalia, Cassel was the 
cap. of his king, and the place of his residence. 

Cassel, a town of France, ddp. Nord, cap. cant., 
on an isolated mountain in the middle of an ex- 
tensive plain, 28 m. NW. Lille. Pop. 4,260 in 

1861. The town is well built, and, notwithstanding 
its situation, is well supplied with spring water. 
It has fabrics of lace, thread, hats, oil, and earthen- 
ware. It is very ancient, having been the capital 
of the Morini when Cnsar invaded the country. 
It was united to France in 1678, by the treaty of 
Nime^en. Several battles have been fought in 
its vicmity. 

CASSIS, a sea-port town of France, d^p Bou- 
che»-du-Rhone, in a narrow valley on the Medi- 
terranean, 10 m. SE. Marseilles, on the railway 
from Marseilles to Toulon. Pop. 2,035 in 1861. 
The town has a tribunal of prwThommeg, an office 
of health, a workhouse, and yards for the building 
of small vessels. Its port is confined, and admite» 
only vessels of small ourden. The figs and gre- 
nades of Cassis are held in much estimation ; and 
it has a considerable trade in excellent muscatel 
wine, produced in the environs. This is the native 
country of the learned and excellent Abb^ Bar- 
thelemy, author of the ' Voyage d' Anacharsis,' who 
was bom here on the 20th of Januarv, 1716. 

CASTEL-A-MARE, a city and' sea-port of 
Southern Italy, prov. Naples, on the Gulf of 
Naples, 15 m. W. Salerno, on a branch line of the 
railway from Naples to Salerno. Pop. 25,843 in 

1862. It is the seat of a bishopric, and the resi- 
dence of a sott' intendente; and is well built, 
pardy along the shore, but principally on the site 
of the mountain, rising immediately from it. It 
has a royal palace, a cathedral, 5 churches, several 
convents, a military hospital, fine barracks a royal 
dockyard, and hot baths. There are manufacturea 


of linen, hDe, and cotton, with tanneries. The port, 
which 'is small, u defended hy two forts. Being 
exposed to the N., and elevated, Castel-a-mare 
has acquired great celeMty as a summer zesidence, 
in oooseqiienoe of its oooln^s, the salubrity of its 
air, and uie beauty of its environs. But in autumn 
it becomes damp, chill, and disaj^reeable. 

Castel-«-Duure is built on the site of the ancient 
SteMc, which, having been destroyed by Sylla 
during the civQ wan, was aAerwards principally 
nccapied by villas and pleasure-grounds. It was 
here, A.C. 79, that the elder Phny, wishing to ap- 
proach as near as poesihle to Vesuvius during the 
dreadlhl eruption tnat overwhelmed Herculaneum 
and Pompeii, fell a victim to his curiosity and 
thixBt for knowledge. 

Castku-a-Mare, a sea-port town of Sicily, 
piov. Trapani, cap. cant., on a gulf of its own name. 
6 m. KW. Alcamo; lat 8^ 1' 61" N., long! 
120 Sr 43^, E. Pop. 1 1,959 in 1862. It is a mean 
diity town, with a castle faUing fast to decay. The 
bay is spacious, but it is not safe with northerly 
winds which throw in a heavy se^. The neigh- 
bouring country is well cultivated; and con- 
aidenble quantities of wine, fruit, grain, manna, 
and o^um are exported. 

PLAN A (an. Oauiaiio)^ a town of Spain, Valencia, 
capu dep., 4 m. from the coast, and 41 m. NNE. 
city of Valencia, on the lailwav firom Valencia to 
Barcelona. Pop. 19,840 in 1867. The town is 
finelv situated in a well-watered, extensive, and 
fertile plain. This fertilitv is entirely the result 
of induBtiy, the water which gives life and verdure 
to the plain being brought by an aqueduct, cut in 
great iMUt throi^h the solid limestone rock, from 
the MijaieA, which flows about 5 m. S. from the 
town. This great work has been ascribed to the 
Romans and Moors ; but others assert that it was 
constructed, about 1240, by James the Conqueror, 
king of Axagon. The town, which is well built, 
has 3 churches, 6 convents, 1 hospital, 2 houses of 
charitj, and a public granary. The beauty of the 
ganiation, the mildness of the climate, and the 
abundance and excellence of the fruits, make this 
one of the favourite residences in the prov. 

CASTELNAUDARY, a town of France, d6p. 
Ande, cap. arrand., in an elevated fine situation, 
contiguous to the Canal du Midi, 21 m. WXW. 
Carrassonne, on the railway from Toulouse to 
Xaxboone. Pop. 9,584 in 1861. The town is verv 
indiiTerently built, and there are few edifices worth 
notice, except the church of St. Michael, said to 
be the finest in the dep. It has a tribunal of pri- 
imuy Jurisdiction, a departmental collie, and a 
pbilotechnic society. The canal has a superb 
barin contiguous to the town, surrounded by fine 
quays and warehouses, which, with the vessels by 
which it is sometimes crowded, give it the ap- 
pearance of a sea-port. The public promenade 
commands this basin and a fine view extending as 
fsr as the Pyrenees. There are here manufactures 
of doth and silk, with establishments for the 
sptniiiiig of cotton, print-fields, and tanneries ; and 
a cooaiteable trade is carried on in the manufac- 
tures ci the town, and the produce of the adjoining 

In 1682, in an encounter under the walls of the 
town, the Due de Montmorenci, commanding the 
tmopa of Gaston, due d'Orleans, was wounded and 
taken prisoner ; and being conveyed to Toulouse, 
was convicted of treason, and executed in the same 

CASTELO BRANCO, a city of Portugal, prov. 
Betn, on a lull on the Liria, S\ m. XE. Abrantes. 
Pop. M93 in 1858. The town is the see of a 
bisbopy and the residence of the captain-general of 


Lower Beira. Streets narrow and steep, and the 
houses mean, except some modem ones without 
th^ walls ; the latter are double, and flanked with 
seven towers. The cathedral also is without the 
city; and there is an old ruined castle on the 
summit of the hill on which the town stands. It 
has a college and two collegiate churches. 

CASTEL-SARRASIX, a town of France, d^p. 
Tam-et-Garonncv cap* arrond., pleasantly situated 
in a fertile plain on the Songuine, 1 m. from its 
confluence with the Garonne, 13 m. W. Montauban. 
Pop. 6,838 in 1861. The town is well built, and 
the walls and ditches by which it was surrounded 
have been converted into promenades. It is the 
seat of a court of primary lurisdiction, and of a 
departmental college; and has mahufacturei of 
sen^s and other woollen stuff's, hats, and tanneries. 

CASTELVETRAXO, a town of Sicily, prov. 
Trapani, cap. cant, on a hill 6 m. from the sea, 
and 12 m. E. Mazzara. Pop. 14,540 in 1862. The 
town is well built M'ith stone, the streets being 
spacious, and disposed with some attention to 
regularity; and tnere are several churches and 
convents. It has a good trade in wine and olives, 
the former grown in the neighbourhood, and much 

of Xorthem Italv, prov. Brescia, on a hill 22 m. 
XW. Mantua. IPop. 5,237 m 1862. The town is 
surrounded by a low wall, and contains several 
churches, the ruins of a castle, and a conventual 
seminary; but is chieflv noted for a decisive 
victory gained here by the French over the Aus- 
trians, 5th Jlugust, 1796; from which Marshal 
Augereau derived his title of Due de Castiglione. 

CASTILE, the central and largest division of 
Spain, lying between lat 380 25' and 42° 50' X., 
and loop, lo 2' and 5° 87' W. ; it has, X. and XE., 
the temtoiy of Reinoea, Alava, and Xavarre ; E., 
Aragon and Valencia ; SE, Murda ; S., Andalusia ; 
W., Estremadura and Leon : length about 306 m. 
from N. to S. ; mean breadth about 160 m. Area 
about 48,600 sq. m. It is divided into two parts 
by a range of high mountains, called in different 
parts Urbians, Carpetanos, Sierra de Guadarama, 
Gata, Somosierra, and de Estrella. The country 
to the X. of the ridge, having been the flrst re- 
covered from the Saracens, is called Old, whilst 
that to the S. is named Xew Castile. Old Castile 
comprises the modem provinces of Burgos, Sorla, 
Segovia, and Avila, so named after their chief towns. 
Xew Castile comprises the provinces of Madrid, 
Guadalajara, Cnen9a, Toledo, and LaMancha, each 
also so odled after the names of their chief towns, 
except La Mancha, whose cap. is Ciudad Real. 
Principal towns, exdusi ve of the capitals, are Osma, 
Calahorra, Ix^roifo, Caizada, Haro, Alfaro, Miran- 
da, Briviesca, Almazar, Toledo, Ajranjnez, Alcala 
de Henares, Talavera de la Reina, lUescas, Zurita, 
Tembleque, ViUanueva, Ac The Ebro, Dooro, 
Tagus, and Guadiana have their sources in this 
province. The first flows SE., along the X£. 
Doundary, to the Mediterranean ; the Douro and 
Tagus, to the Atlantic ; and the Guadiana, WSW. 
to the same. There are many other rivers, af- 
fluents of the above. The Xucar, flowing E. to 
the Mediterranean, also rises in this province. 
Besides the chain of mountains that separate Old 
and Xew Castile, there are three other important 
chains that traverse these provinces. First, the 
Sierra de Toledo, which winds semicircularly past 
Daroca, from the Castilian chain, and then runs 
SW. nearly parallel to it, to the hills of Santa 
Cruz, near Merida. Xext, the Sierra Morena, ur 
Black Mountains, beginning above Alcarez, near 
the source of the Guadalquivir, and running like 
the two former, nearly S W ., to the narrow i>ass of 



MontegiL Lastly, the Sierra Nevada, or Snowy 
Mountains, that commence between the sources 
of the Xucar, Gaudiana, and Guadalquivir, and 
extend into Andalusia. These last are here ex- 
tremely steep and bare, mostly schistose, and often 
coated with limestone. They have white quartz 
in considerable veins; and valuable dark green, 
and a profusion of other marbles. The NE. part 
of the Sierra Morena is of considerable height, and 
rather resembles table-land than a ridge of hills. 
The seasons are very different on the two sides of 
this range. In Andalusia, the vines are all in leaf, 
and the fruit is set, when, on the N. side, hardly a 
leaf is to be seen, or a bud to be found in the vine- 
yards. There are here a few remains of former 
forests, which might have existed when Cervantes 
mafle these parts the scene of the exploits of his 
hero ; and a variety of flowering shrubs, particu- 
larly the rock-rose, or gum cistus, from which 
manna is procured, and sumach. In this chiun are 
vertical beds of argillaceous schist, and beds of 
grained quartz, with entire hills of pudding stone, 
and some porphyry, and the finest jasper, ft is the 
richest in minerals of any in the kingdom ; and 
has veins of gold and silver. The quicksilver 
mines at Almaden have been worked for nearly 
B,000 years, and furnished the vermillion sent to 
ancient Rome. They produce annually 2,000,000 
lbs. of quicksilver. (Bowles, Historia Natural de 
EspaSa, p. 12; A Year in Spain by a Toung Ame- 
rican, i. 199.) The Castilian mountains are com- 
posed of gneiss ^pranite, which often terminates in 
peaks of great height ; schist, limestone, sandstone, 
Dreccia, quartz, nuirble, gypsum, d^c The Guar- 
darama mountains, about 20 m. NW. Madrid, are 
bleak, dreary and barren near their summits, which, 
in many places, are covered with nearly perpetual 
snow, indicating that they must be 8,000 or 9,000 
fl. above the level of the sea ; the limit of per- 

?itual snow in these latitudes being about 9,900 fU 
he height of Moncayo, the highest mountain in 
Castile, is estimated at 9,600 ft The rock, being 
partly decomposed, forms a light soil that produces 
the juniper eurtipeuM, Daphne mezereony nuUriearia 
Muavitj genittoj thyme, and a great many other 
aromatic herbs. The cistus tribes abound at ever\' 
level on the granite mountains, not covered witL 
snow: pines appear on the summits; the noble 
oak ana the elm near their baseSb (Townsend, iL. 
106.) The scenery is often of the wildest descrip-f 
tion ; the mountains full of deep cuts and ravines, 
mostly the beds of winter torrents; aged and 
stunted pines hang upon their edges, and are strewn 
upon the brown acclivities around ; and bare rocks 
frequently project over the passes, and force them 
to the verv edge of undefended preci^oces. (Icglis, 
L 855.) The quality of the soil is various ; in some 
parts a blackish or brown nitrous clay, which is 
extremely fertile ; in others, light and stony, and 
little productive. New Castile is in great part 
clayey, and covered with ratchiL Besides the 
minenUs mentioned above, the Castiles produce 
calamine, ochre, bole armeniac, fine emery, rock 
crystal, Milt, many curious stones and fossil shells, 
hot and cold saline springs ; and in the mountains 
are many remarkable caverns, that contain beau- 
tiful stalactites, in a variety of fantastic forms. 
Near Molina is the hill of La Platilla, which has 
a remarkable mine of copper, in masses of white 
quartz. Though the ore is near the surfiux, the 
hill is covered with plants. Townsend had no 
doubt that there is tin near Daroca. (L 218, 219, 
303 ; ii. 106 ; MiHano, Diccionario Geoffrafico, ii. 
467, et »eq, ; Dillon's Travels through Spain, p. 
110, 112, 115, 196, 202, 205-207, 237, 239; An- 
tillon. Geographic d'Espagne, p. 8-14.) 

The climate of the Castiles is in general healthy ; 

that of Old Castile is rather cold and moist. In 
new Castile it is excessively dry; but rendered 
healthy by the purity of the prevailing winds, 
and the great elevation of the country ; but this 
altitude sometimes exposes it to strong dry winds, 
which, not meeting with the thick woods by which 
they were formerly tempered, are found very un- 
pleasant, and at times even dangerous, at Madrid, 
m ¥rinter, by producing pulmonair complaints. 
The height of the plateau of Castile reduces the 
mean temperature to 59 Fahr., while on the coasts 
of Spain it is from 65° to 7b\ The ordinary 
extremes of temperature, in Madrid, are 9(fi Fahr. 
in summer, and 32^ in winter; but the ther- 
mometer often rises to above 100^, and falls be* 
low 14°. 

Products, — ^The principal product of the Castiles 
is com, some of wnich they export to Valencia, 
Andalusia, and Estremadnn. No other province 
of Spain has wines so strong, and yet so sweet, 
though but little exported, or Known abroad. The 
most celebrated is that of the Val de PeSaa, or 
< Valley of Stones,' in La Mancha. It is a dr;^, 
strong, red wine of the Buigundy species, and is 
said to be so plentiful and cheap that a bottle 
may be had in the country for 1^ It is drunk 
by the better classes all over the Castil^; but in 
the greatest perfection in its native^ district, on 
account of the taint given it by the skins in which 
it is carried to a distance. The Castiles produce 
also pulse, and some fruit and oil. Hemp, flax, 
madder and- saffron are partdally cultivated. 
Garden stufis are not abimduit. On the moun- 
tains and in the pastures considerable numbers 
of black cattle, sheep, and mules are raised ; but 
the increase of the latter has almost annihilated 
the race of good horses in the Castiles. There 
are fallow deer^ wild boars, wolves, hares, pea- 
cocks, and all kinds of poultry and small game in 
abundance. The larger game has decreased 
through the breaking up of the land near the 
royal seats dnring the absence of Ferdinand VII. 
Bears are seen ia some parts, and l}mxes are not 
uncommon in the high mountains. Not only the 
fallow land, but the cultivated fields in New 
Castile, are full of two species of broom (aenUta 
^^hetrooarpa and mcmotperma), and the Daphne 
pnidium. They grow to nearly six feet in height, 
and have a great effect on the prospect These 
plants, with the a^phodelue ramoMM, and several 
other bulbous plants that abound in the pasture 
fields, give a pieculiar character to the landscape 
of Spam. There is a want of trees, which is 
partly attributable to the flat and unsheltered 
nature of the plains, and the dryness of the 
climate, but chiefly to a prejudice against them, 
entertained from time immemorial ; the peasantry 
thinking that they are good for nothing, unless 
it be to attract and shelter vermin. They dislike 
them so much that they destroy those planted by 
government along the high roads. It is believed 
that the want of trees to attract humidity has 
promoted that drought which, next to bad govern- 
ment, is the curse of the Castiles. From the 
Douro to the Tagus there is not a stream ankle 
deep, except when swollen by floods. Agriculture 
is in the most backward state: the consequence 
of a comparativelv thin population, having little 
interest in the soil, which is monopolised by the 
cleigy and nobility. Irrigation, which in such a 
country is indispensable, is out very little practised, 
and even manuring is all but neglected: and 
thus, while three-fourths of the country remun 
fallow, the rest produces only poor crops of grain 
or potatoes. The great distance between the 
towns, the badness of the roads, and still more the 
insecurity of life and property, which prevents 



tiie fanner from liTiog insulated on hia fiurm, are 
additional checks to agriculture. Eight or ten 
mileB freqaently intervene without a single habi- 
tatioa, and the country looks poor and miserable 
in the extreme. Nothing can be more gloomy 
than the appearance of the towns, wiUi old- 
iashioiied towen projecting out of a dismal group 
of houses plastered over with day. At the en- 
trance of each is a gate for receiving the duties 
on all articles that pass; and in the centre a 
square, round which are the building occupied by 
the ayuntamiento, or municipality, the posada, 
or inn, and the butcher, baker, tailor, cobbler, and 
snrgetm, or barber. Most of the towns 
exhibit every mnptom of decline. (Slidell, L 136 ; 
Inglia, L 56.) ^Before the construction of railways, 
there was nearly a total want of free communi- 
cation, all but the main road to France being neg- 
lected. The old ixMid between Madrid and Toledo 
was mostly carried over ploughed fields, sometimes 
with hardly a visible track. The new iron roads, 
established chiefly by English capital, and built 
by English ^miwies,^ have greatly improved this 
state of things, and bid fair to raise even Castile 
from its state of poverty and misery. (See Spaim .) 

Manufactures, though formerly considerably 
are now at a very low ebb. The cloths of Se- 
govia were once 'the best in Europe ; and there 
are still some woollen fabrics, among which is 
the Cunous vigogna cloth and coarse camlets, 
serges, and flannels, and some of wrought silks, 
silk stockings and gloves, galloons, blond lace, 
eoazse linens, hats, caps, soap, saltpetre, gun- 
powder, the celebrated plate-ghue of St. Ildefonso, 
white earthenware, tanned leather, and paper, 
bat they are all incondderable. Castile has 
little commerce: wool is the staple commodity. 
Tlie exportation of sheep was always strictiy for- 
bidden, till by the treaty of Basle the French 
were allowed to purchase 5,000 Merino rams and 
as many ewes ; and from this stock, and subse- 
quent exportations from Spain, the quality of the 
wools of France, England, Germany, and otha 
parts of the wwld, has been greatly miproved. 

The following table shows the area and popu- 
lati«m of the two Castiles according to the census 
of 1857. Valladolid and Valencia are sometimes 
included in the Castiles ; but they did not formerly 
belong to them, and are excluded in this table. 


An* In Eng. 
Sq. llUc* 

Popalatlim in 
Mmr, 1857 


SewCMtOe— Vadiid . . 





Toli^ . . 



Cuenca . . 



Total . . 





OU Castile— Bnrgos . 

f 333,356 





i 314,441 

OtI««1o . . 



Boris . . . 



fisgovia . . 



▲Vila. . . 



Leon . . . 



P-ilenda . . 



VaUadoUd . 





Total . . 





The Castilians have the character of probity, 
sobriety, and moderation: they are serious and 
oontemi^tive, which makes Uiem, at first, seem 
gloomy and haughty ; but, after a time, they are 
found not deficient in the agreeable qualities. 

They have to boast of many illustrious men ; at 
the head of whom stand Cervantes, ^e inimitable 
author of Don Quixote, and Lopez de Vega. They 
are not what would be called hospitable, but they 
are, notwithstanding, generous. The middle and 
upper classes are fond of display and ostentation 
to an extraordinary degree, while inconsidereteness 
and carelessness are conspicuous in the characters 
both of the lower and middle classes. Almost 
everyone lives up to tus income ; even the emphyeeSf 
whose tenure of office is so uncertain, seldom lay 
by anything, and generally die penniless. But 
the love of ease and pleasure, and proneness to 
indolence, is less marked, perhaps, in CastUe, than 
in the southern provinces. Their want of industry 
is the result or the circumstuices under which 
they have been placed, and of their vicious in> 
stitutions. No man will be industrious, where 
industry does not brin^ along with it a corre^ 
spondii^ reward ; and um it very rarely does in 
Spain. Had the Castilians the means of improving 
their condition by labour, their apathy and Ust- 
lessness would m)eedily give place to activity and 
enterprise. In Madrid, and generally in Castile, 
there is something more of luxury at the table 
than in the N. provinces, though ^e Spaniards in 
general are abstemious, and Uttle addicted to its 
pleasures. The dining-room is generally the 
meanest apartment ; but the houses of respectable 
persons are scrupulously dean, particularly the 
kitchens and bed-rooms. Female education begins 
to improve ; besides embroidery and music, abttle 
histoi^ and geography is taught in t^e schools, 
though not m the convents, where the higher 
orders are educated. In the time of the constitu- 
tion of the Cortes, there were two Lancastrian 
schools for boys and one for girls at Madrid ; but 
those for the boys were suppressed on the king's 
return. The influence of the regular clergy is 
diminished much more than that of the monks, 
who are still, through the austerities they practise, 
and the alms they distribute at the convent doors, 
held in considerable veneration, except in Madrid, 
where less attention is paid to religious ceremonies 
and processions than in any other city of Spain. 
The large towns have a sombre aspect,'the women 
being nearly all in black, without a bonnet or a 
riband. Every one has a mantilla or scarf thrown 
over the shoulders, which varies in guality with 
the station of the wearer. Besides a waistcoat 
and jacket of cloth, covered with abundance of 
silver buttons, the men usually wear a sheepskin 
jacket with the woolly side outwards ; or, instead of 
this, an ample brown cloak, the right fold of which is 
thrown over the left shoulder with a Roman air. 
The head is covered with a pointed cap of black 
velvet, the ends of which being drawn doHii over 
the ears, leave exposed a high forehead and manly 
features. They have tight breeches, sustained 
above the hips by a red sash, and fastened the 
whole way down the outside of the thigh by bell 
buttons, woollen stockings, stout shoes, and leather 
gaiters, curiously embroidered, and fastened at top 
with a gay-coloured string. The love of dancing is 
universal among them : the ladies usually dance 
well, but in a style quite different from the t'rench ; 
they laugh and talk while they dance, and are 
strangers to that burlesque silence and gravity that 
prevail among the quadrillers of France and* Eng- 
land. Music is much cultivated; and it is rare to find 
a female even in the middle ranks who is not a good 
pianist. Among their amusements, the bull-fights, 
to which all classes are passionately addicted, must 
not be forgotten. These have been prohibited 
several times ; and the cruelties practised at them 
may seem sufficient to stamp them with the cha- 
racter of brutality and barbarism. Yet there is 



nothing of deliberate craelty in the character of 
the Spaniards, and they have as little, perhaps, of 
hard-heartedness as other people. The use of the 
toledo, or bravo, to revenge private wrongs, is now 
unknown. Horse-racing was attempted to be intro- 
duced by the Duke of San Carlos, at Madrid, in 
1830, with an English horse against a Spanish one; 
but the £ngUsh horse was beaten by foul play, 
and the duke insulted as he left the ground. 

The Castilian is the standard dialect of the 
Spanish language. During the struggles with the 
Moors, many dialects of the Romamzo^ or mixture 
of the Latin with the Germanic tongues, grew up 
in Spain, which imaUy melted into three — the 
Galicuin, Castilian, and Catalcmian. On the mar- 
riage of Isabella, queen of Castile, with Ferdinand 
of Aragon, the Castilian Romanzo became the 
language of the court, and has maintained its 
pre-emmence ever since. 

Hittorv. — The Castiles anciently formed parts of 
(ktntabrtat and the country of the Celtiberi, Ore- 
tom, and OarpetUani ; and, like the rest of Spain, 
were successively overrun by Romans, Goths, and 
Saracens. After the expulsion of the Saracens, 
and various vicissitudes, the sovereignty of Castile 
came by marriage to Sancho III., kmg of Navane, 
whose son Ferdinand was made kinc of Castile in 
1034. He married the sister of Yeremond III., 
king of Leon, but afterwards killed his father-in-law 
in ^ttle, and was himself crowned king of Leon, 
in 1037. The crowns of Castile and Leon were 
afterwards separated and again united several 
times, till, by the marriage of Isabella, who held 
both crowns^ with Ferdinand, king of Aragon, in 
1479, the three kingdoms were, as at present, con- 
Holidated into one. Castile, as well as the rest of 
Spain, has for a lengthened period been exposed 
to the scourge of a civil war carried on without 
zeal on either side, but with the most detestable 
periidv and cruelty. 

CASTILLON, a town of France, d^ Gironde, 
cap. cant, on the Dordogne, 11m. ESL. Liboum. 
Pop. 3,516 in 1861. In 1451, an obstinate engage- 
ment was fought under the walls of this town 
between the Lnglish and French, when the lat- 
ter were victorious. In the commune of Cas- 
tillon are the remains of the Chdteau de Montaigne^ 
to which the illustrious essayist of that name re- 
tired in 1572. and where he breathed his last on 
the 13th of September, 15£2. 

CASTLEBAK, an inl town of Ireland, prov. 
Connaught, co. Mayo, at the N. extremity of the 
lake of the same name, 126 m. W. by N.* Dublin, 
on the Midland-Great-Westem railway. Pop. 
6,373 in 1831, and 3,022 in 1861. The town was 
taken by a French force under General Humbert, 
which landed at Killala in 1798, but was shortly 
after evacuated on the approach of the main army 
of the British under Loni ComwalUs. It is the 
assize town of the co., and consists of a square, 
and a long street with some branches. The par. 
church and a K. Cath. chapel are new, large and 
elegant buildings ; there are also a meeting-house 
for Methodists, a large parochial school, a national 
school, an infixinary, and two dispensaries. There 
are barracks for artillen^ and infantry, fit to ac- 
commodate 650 men. The constabulary and the 
revenue police have stations here. By a charter 
of James I. in 1613, the corporation consists of a 
portreeve, 15 burgesses, and a commonalty, which 
returned 2 mem. to the Irish H. of C. till the 
Union, when it was disfranchised. The assizes for 
the CO. are held here ; also general sessions in Jan. 
and Oct., and petty sessions every Saturday. The 
court-house is a well-arranged building. The 
county prison, erected on the radiating principle, 
has 128 cells, and 33 other sleepnig rooms. Linen 


and linen yam are manufactured to some extent, 
and sold in the linen-hall ; there are also tobacco 
and soap manufactories, a tannery, and a brewery. 
There is an extensive trade in grain, and other 
agricultural produce. Markets on Saturdays ; fairs, 
llth of May, 9th of July, 16th of Sept, and 18th 
of November. 

CASTLECOMER, an inland town of Ireland, 
prov. Leinster, co. Kilkenny, on the Deen, an 
affluent of the Kore, 52 m. SE. Dublin. Pop. 
2,436 in 1831, and 1,435 in 1861. The town, 
which suffered much in an unsuccessful attack by 
the insurgents in 1798, consists of a main street 
planted on each side, and of some others branching 
from it, and is remarkable for neatness and good 
order. The par. church on a neighbouring nill, 
a lar^ R. Cath. chapel, a convent, a MeUiodist 
meetug-house, a court-house, a dispensary, and a 
barrack, are the principal buildings. Little trade 
is carried on, the place deriving its support chiefly 
from the neighbouring collieries, which furnish a 
copious supply of fuel to the adjoining counties. 
The mineral is of the carbonaceous or stone coal 
species, which bums without flame, being the 
slaty, glantz coal of Werner. Fairs are held on 
Mar. 27, May 8, June 21, Aug. 10, Sept 14, Oct 
28, and Dec. 14. General sessions in June, and 
petty sessions every Friday ; also a manorial court 
for small debts. 

CASTLEDOUGLAS (formerly CarUmDark,fmta 
the name of a lake in its immediate vicinity), an 
inland burgh or barony of Scotland, co. or stewart- 
ry of Kirkcudbright, par. Kelton, on the railway 
from Dumfries to Portpatrick, 18 m. from the for- 
mer, and 68 from the latter. Pop. 2,261 in 1861. 
The town is neat and well built, and consists of a 
main street along the road, with several lesser 
streets running at right angles or parallel to it. 
It is quite a modem town, and is wholly indebted 
for its existence and prosperity to the advancing 
wealth of the thriving agricultural district by 
which it is surrounded. Its consequence has been 
of late years materially increased by the transfer 
to it of the weekly com and cattle markets, the 
most important in the co., originally held at Rhone 
House, a small village, distant H m. The famous 
horse-fair of Kelton Hill is still held at Rhone 
House ; but it has lost much of its original im- 
portance, as horses from Ireland, which formed its 
staple, are now generally sent direct to the faii^ 
in England by steam, mstead of taking a cir- 
cuitous land route bv Kelton HilL It has an ex- 
tensive retail trade, but no manufactures. 

CASTLETON, a par. of England, co. Derbv, 
hund. High Peak. Ajea, 10,100 acres. Pop. 1,157 
in 1861. The village is 143 m. N. by W. London. 
The vale of Castleton is in the heart of the Peak 
district, about 1,000 ft below the level of the sur- 
rounding hill ranges, and is 6 m. in length, and 
from 1 to 2 m. in ^^ddth, with several smaller dales 
opening to it on the N. and S. It is a fertile tract 
watered by several rivulets, and approached from 
the Chapel-le-Frith side, through a long and deep 
chasm, crossing the mountain range, and callecl 
the * Winnets,' or windgates, from the strong gusts 
and currents of air that usuallv prevail : the road 
winds down a considerable declivity, between pre- 
cipices rising upwards of 1,000 ft on each side, 
and opens, by a sudden turn, on the vale, in which 
there are three villages, Hope, Brough (both in 
the parish of Hope), and Castleton. The latter 
is at the base of a steep rock, whose summit is 
crovmed by the ruins of the Castle of the Peak, 
considered a genuine specimen of the Saxon pe- 
riod ; though the traditions of the neighbourhood 
ascribe it to Wm. Peverell, a natural son of the 
Norman Conqueror. The keep is still nearly en- 


tire» and aome portioiu of the outer walls, in many 
places 20 ft hi^h and 9 ft thick. The church u 
small, bat considered a very interesting rehc of the 
carij pointed stjle: here are also a Wesleyan 
chapel, and an endowed charity school^ in which 
23 scholan are educated. The' inhabitants are 
chiefly employed in the mines of the sunounding 
district, which produce lead, calamine, and the 
coloared floor spar called * blue John,' much in re- 
quest for Tases and other ornaments. The whole 
of the calcareous strata in the vicinity are remark- 
ably deranged, and are also characterised by nu- 
meroos cavernous fissures and the frequent disap- 
pearance of streams (through what are termed 
swallow-boles), which, after subterranean courses 
of various lengths, again emeige to the light. 
The outer chamber of the Great Feak, or Devil's 
Cavern, has a natural arch of about 120 It span ; 
several small cottages have been built in it The 
rest of the chambers are only to be explored by 
torches ; they extend about 2,300 ft. from the en- 
trance to the innermost end, where, though there 
are probably others beyond, the rocks close dofm 
so near a subterranean stream as to prevent fur- 
ther access : this stream has to be crossed two or 
three times in proceeding, and at one part a small 
boat is ka>t for the purpose. The average depth 
from the floors to the upper surface of the moun- 
tain is about 650 ft The straU abound in marine 
fossil remains. The Eldon hole, 8 m. W. of Castle- 
ton, is of a similar character, and also that ap- 
proached by the level of the SheedweU mine, near 
the Wlnnets. This mine has been given up ; but 
the Odin mine, in the vicinity, which was worked 
in the Saxon p«riod, is stiU productive. Mam 
Torr, or the Shiveiin^ Mountain, rises 1,300 fu 
above the vale, and is composed of alternating 
strata of shale and micaceous grit There is an 
ancient encampment on its summit and British 
and other ancient remains are frequent in the dis- 
trict which is one of the most remarkable in the 
kingdom for its picturesque character, and the 
abundance of natural objects and phenomena in- 
teresting to science. On the attainder of the 
grandson of William Peverell of the Peak (for 
{loisoning the Earl of Chester), the castle was 
granted by Henry IL to his son, afterwards King 
John : subsequently Edward III. gave it to John 
of Gaunt ; since which it has formed part of the 
duchy of Lancaster, and is at present leased by 
the Duke of Devonshire. 

CASTKES, a town of France, d4p. Tarn, cap. 
arruxHL, in an acreeable and fertile valley, on the 
.Vgout 23 m. »8£. Alby, on the railway from 
.Uby to Narbonne. Pop. 21,538 in 1861. This, 
though not the capital, is the principal town of 
the <l^p., and is thriving and industrioufli It is 
divided into two parts by the river, over which it 
has two bridges. It is Imt indifferently buUt and 
the streets are narrow and winding. The princi- 
pal building is the old episcopal palace, now the 
Km» prefectmrf, it has also barracks, workhouses, 
an exchange, a theatre, and a fine promenade. It 
is the seat oi a court of primar)' jurisdiction ; and 
has a model school, a diocesan seminary, with 1 13 
pupils, a Protestant consistorial church, a class 
fif linear design, and a public library with 6,500 
volumes. There are here extensive manufactures 
iif cloth and woollen stuffs, with establishments 
fur the spinning of cotton, linen fabrics, paper 
fabrics, dye-woms, bleach-tields, and tanneries. It 
han alao copper forges and foundries. 

Ca^tres espoused, in the 16th century, the Pro- 
testant party, and Henry IV. resided in it for a 
lengthened period. Its ramparts were demolished 
by Louis XIII., and the bisnopric was suppressed 
at the Revolution. It is the birthplace of Dacier 



the critic, of Rapin the historian of England, and 
of the Abbd Sabatier. 

CASTRO, a seaport town of Southern Italy, 
prov. Lecce, on the Adriatic, 28 m. SSE. Leooe, 
with which it is connected by railway. Pop. 5,300 
in 1862. The town has an old castle and a cathe- 
dral, and is the seat of a bishopric. It was sacked 
by the Turks in the 16th century ; and since then 
has suffered much from the inroads of Barbary 
cruiaen. Its harbour admits only smidl vessels. 
The environs are productive of com, wine, cotton, 
and fruits. 

Juiia), a town of Spain, prov. Cordova, on the 
Guadajos, 16 m. S£. Cordova. Pop. 8,945 in 1857. 
The town has two churches, two hospitals, a found- 
ling hospital, two seminaries for the education of 
boys and girls, and a castle ; with manufactures 
of wool and hemp. 

CASTROGIOvANNI (an. Ema), a town ot 
SicUy, prov. Catania, cap. cant., almost in the 
centre of the island, 65 m. ESE. Palermo, in a 

{>lain about 5 m. in circ, being the summit of a 
ofty and almost inaccessible mountain, more than 
4,000 ft above the level of the sea. Pop. 13,747 
in 1862. This city, celebrated in antiquity as 
the birthplace of Ceres, and the site of her most 
sacred temple, is now one of the poorest towns in 
the island. It still, however, commands an ex- 
tensive and delightful prospect is ^^ supplied 
with excellent water, and nas a clear salubrious 
atmosphere. The surrounding country, which is 
very fertile, was, in antiquity, ornamented with 
innumerable groves and temples, appropriated to 
the worship of Ceres and Proserpine, LiVy has 
correctly described the city as buUt in excdso loco 
ac prarvfOo'y and Cicero has given an eloquent 
description of the town, temple, and statue of 
Ceres, carried off by the wholesale plunderer, 
Verres : * Simulacrum CererU Entut ex tud aede 
ac domo austulit, quod erat tale^ ut hommeM, ouum 
vitUrent, aut ^psam videre $e Ccreremy out efflgiem 
Ctreru, non humand manu factam, acd cado delap- 
aam, arbitrarenturj' But all traces of the temple, 
as weU as of the worship of the goddess, have dis- 
appeared. The castle in the m^iem town, which 
is going fast to ruin, is evidently of Saracen or 
Norman drigin. 

About 5 m. from the town, at the foot of the 
mountain, is the famous lake, on the borders of 

' Proserpine gathering flowers. 
Herself a taiter flow'r, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered.* 

The orators and poets of antiquity have ex- 
hausted their powers in describing the beauty and 
sublimity of this famous lake. (See, among others, 
Cicero in Verrem, iv. § 48 ; Ovid, Met. lib. v., lin. 
385.) But it no lunger wears the livery of per- 
petual spring ; its groves have been cut down, and 
Its temples levelled with the dust ! All is desolate 
and deserted : — 

' Pro molli viola, pro pnrpnreo narcisso, 
Cardans, et spinis suxgit palinniB acutis.' 

Its naked borders are foetid and loathsome, and in 
the summer months exhale a pestilential air. 

* Tautmn svi longinqua valet mntare vetustas/ 

Enna was the head-<iuarterB of the revolted 
slaves under Eunus, during the first servile war in 
Sicily. Here they defied for several years the 
power of Rome, and defeated three rnetorian 
armies. At last they were entirely defeated un- 
der the walls of Messina, by the consid Piso ; and 
Enna was subsequently taken by the consul Ru- 
pilius, and the slaves put to the sword or crucified. 

CATALONIA (Span. CataluHa), an old prov. of 



Spain, occupying the NE. portion of the kingdom, 
between laU 4(P 30' and 42«> 51' N., and long. iP 
15' and 3^ 21' K It ia of a triangular shape, and 
has the £. Pyrenees, which separate it from France 
on the N. ; the Mediterranean on the E. ; and 
Aragon, and a small part of Valencia on the W. 
Greatest length and breadth, 190 and 130 m.; area 
about 12,150 sq. m., including Andorre. Offsets 
from the Pyrenees spread themselves through the 
whole prov. from N. to S., forming valleys of 
laiger or smaller extent, like those of Ampundan, 
Uigel, Aran, and Lerida. Towards the middle of 
the prov., 29 m. NW. from Barcelona, is the cele- 
brated Montserrat, 4,500 fL in height ; and farther 
8^ on the Ebro, is the Sierra de la Llena. The 
Pyrenees are not so rugged on this as on the 
French side, and descend gradually towards the 
Mediterranean. They are mostly granitic. The 
other mountains of Catalonia are in many respects 
similar. The mountain of Cardona, 17 m. NW. 
Montserrat, almost in the centre of the prov., is a 
solid mass of pure rock-salt, without the least cre- 
vice or fissure, between 400 and 500 ft. high, and 3 
m. in circ. 'This prodigious mass of salt is unpa- 
ralleled in Europe, and perhaps in the world. In 
almost any other country it would be turned to 
great account, and be made the means of an ex- 
tensive trade ; but here, owing to the badness of 
the roads and the difficulty of access, this inex- 
haustible source of wealth is but little known, and 
comparatively neglected. (Dillon's Travels in 
Spam, p. 390.) Near Olot, in this prov., about 55 
m. N. Barcelona, is a remarkable district of extinct 
volcanos, that has been visited aftd described by 
Mr. LyelL It contains about 14 distinct cones, 
with craters. The greatest number of perfect 
cones are close to Olot ; and the level plain on 
which the town stands has clearly, according to 
Mr. LyelL been produced by the lowing down of 
lava from the adjoining hills. Most of these vol- 
canos are as entire as those near Naples, or on the 
Hanks of Etna. Some of them contain caverns 
called Imfadora^ from which a cuitent of cold air 
blows during summer. There is no record of any 
eruption here ; but the town of Olot was nearly 
destroyed by an earthquake in 1421. (Principles 
of Oeolog}"^, xi 38, 3d. ed.) The mountains in the 
S. of the prov., near the coast, are limestone. On 
the £. of Cervera gypsum only is met with ; but 
more to the W. it gives place to chalk. The coast 
is mostly bold and rugged. In the N. is Cape 
Creus, the most E. point of Spain, being the ex- 
tremity of a rocky peninsula stretching out into 
the sea, and separating the Gulf of Lyons from 
that of Rosas, lat. 42© 19' 63" N., long. 8° 20' 16" 
E. Tlie prov. is well watered. One of the afflu- 
ents of the Ebro, the Naguera, forms for nearly 60 
m. the line of demarcation between it and Aragon. 
The Ebro itself enters the prov. at Mequinenza, 
and flowing through its most S. portion by Tortosa 
and Amporta, falls into the Mediterranean 15 m. 
E. from the latter. The Segre, with its affluents, 
unites with the Ebro at Mequinenza. The prin- 
cipal rivers, unconnected with the Ebro, are the 
Llobegrat and Ter, the one flowing S£., and the 
other E., to the Mediterranean. 

The Pyrenees furnish iron, copper, zinc, and 
manganese. There are lead mines m various dis- 
tricts. Coal is abundant, but much difficulty has 
always been encountered in working it, from the 
want of capital and of improved means of com- 
munication. Townsend says, that copper and 
silver abound in the valley of Aran, and that 
ooal, silver, and gold, have kll been found in the 
^icinity of Lerida. There is abundance of alum 
in the valley of Aran ; nitre is produced spon- 
taneously in the plains of Ufgel, and cathartic 

salts at Cervenu The mountain of rock-salt at 
Cardona has been already noticed. There are 
marbles, jasper, and other stones useful in archi- 
tecture and sculpture ; alabaster, amethysts, to- 
pazes, and coloured rock crystal ; quartz, barytlc 
spa, fluor spa, limestone, chalk, and gypsum, in all 
varieties; amianthus, talc, serpentine, and chal- 
cedony. There are many mineral waters and hot 

The air is dry and unusually bright and clear 
in the interior ; but on the coast it is variable and 
moist; and in summer pestilential diseases not 
unfrequently prevail. The mountains are every- 
where covered with siiow during the winter, and 
in the Pyrenees frequently even in June. 

Soil and Product, — About half the surface is 
susceptible of cultivation, the rest consisting of 
rocks, naked barren hills, and woodland, fhe 
mountain land is stony, and full of fragments of 
granite ; but the valleys are mostly fertile. All 
sorts of grain are grown, viz. wheat, rye, maize, 
barley, oats, and millet. The plains of Ampuri- 
dan are suitable for rice; but its cultivation is 
prohibited, as prejudicial to health. (MiHano.) 
Pulse is produced in all parts. Hemp, flax, saf- 
fron, madder, woad, anise, liquorice, and barilla 
are also produced. The £. districts yield good 
strong wines, which are frequently employed to 
give Dody to the wines of other provs» and are 
sometimes exported for that purpose to Cette, and 
thence to Bordeaux. Oranges, lemons, and citrons, 
are foimd on the coast ; figs and almonds are grown 
in the plain of Tarragona; and apples, pears, 
cherries, quinces, medlius, apricots, peaches, wal- 
nuts, chestnuts, and filberts, in all the plains. 
Oil, though not of the best quality, is produced 
in all the warmex parts of the coast distnct. Silk, 
honey, and wax are also produced in considerable 
quantities. Timber is plentiful, especially the 
roble-oak, beech, fir, elm, evergreen poplar,'cork- 
tree, drc. Nuts and cork constitute important arti- 
cles of export from the prov., being in this respect 
second only to linen and cotton goods and brandy. 
Bears and wolves a^ sometimes seen in the 
Pyrenees. Laborde e^lmated the produce of wool 
at 30,000 guintals. 

Catalonia is the best cultivated, and the people 
the most industrious, of any of the Spanish provs. 
l^is is owing to a variety of causes, but princi- 
pally, perhaps, to its exemption from the o/cara/a 
and other oppressive imposts (See Spain), and to 
the mode in which lands are occupied. Generally, 
throughout Spain, the land is divided into vast 
estates, held under a system of strict entail, and 
administered by stewards on account of the pro- 
prietors. The disastrous influence of this system 
IS apparent in the low state of agriculture, and 
the wretchedness of the peasantry, in most parts 
of the monarchy. But in Catalonia its influence 
is materially modified by the landlords having 
power, by what is called the emphyteutic contract, 
to lease a portion of their estates. This they ma^y 
do for a term of years, either absolute or condi- 
tional, for lives or in perpetuity ; always reserving 
a Quit-rent, as in the English copyhold, with a re- 
liei on every succession, a fine on the alienation 
of the land, and other seignioral rights dependent 
on the custom of the district. The reserved rent 
is commonly paid in money ; but the agreement 
is oKlen for wine, oil, com, or poultry. If the 
tenant quits before the end of his term (which he 
may do), he loses all claim for improvements, for 
which he must otherwise be paid. Persons occu- 
pying land under this tenure have an obvious in- 
terest in its profitable cultivation ; and wherever 
it preyails the country is in a comparatively flour- 
ishing state. 


Inigation is the leading feature in the hiis> 
bandiy of the prov., and is carried to a great ex- 
tent by means of canals and trenches cat from 
eTeiy available source ; the maintenance of which, 
together with the distribntion of the water, is 
committed to the care of a particular Junta. Great 
numbers of farms are also watered by means of 
the aoraoy a machine introduced by the Saracens 
for raising water from wells. The soil is in parts 
so very light that it is ploughed with a couple of 
oxen, and sometimes witti one horse, or even mule ; 
bat with the help of the water it is rendered fer- 
tile, and produces on the same spot com, wine, 
oranges, and olives. 

The silk and woollen manufactures of Catalonia 
were formerly carried on to a great extent, and 
are still of considerable value and importance. In 
the latter part of last century the cotton manu- 
fisctiue was intxwluced ; but it has not succeeded. 
Exdusive of siUts, cottons, and woollens, a good 
deal of linen is made, with paper, hats, and cord- 
age. All kinds of weaving are carried on upon 
the slopes of the Pyrenees, where wages are low- 
e^ the webs being brought to Barcelona to be 
bl^u^hed and printed. Lather is largely manu- 
factured, and shoe-making used to be one of the 
principal emploj^ments. In 1786, the export of 
shoes from Baurcelona only was estimated at 
700.000 pairs, mostly for the colonies. Since the 
emancipation of the latter, this trade has greatly 
declined. Dbtillation is extensively carried on ; 
the exports of brandy amounting, on the average, 
to 35,000 pipes a year. Cannon and small arms, 
soap, glass, sheet-iron, and copper utensils, are also 
jmMluced. Women, in the agricultural districts, 
are employed in the making of blond and other 
laces. The shipbuilding, formerly carried on at 
Barcelona, Mataro, and other places on the coast, 
where timber was cheaj), has nearly ceased. Tarra- 
gr>na is the chief place in the prov. for the export 
of natA, almonds, wines, brandy, cork wood, and 
cork bark. (See Tarragona.) 

The pop. of Catalonia was estimated in 1788 at 
814,412. According tx> the census of 1857, it con- 
tained 1,652,291 innabitants. Catalonia is now 
divided into the four provinces of Barcelona, 
Tarragona, Lerida, and Gerona. The principal 
towns are Barcelona, Tarragona, Gerona, Lerida, 
Bens, Manresa, and Tortosa. 

The language of the Catalans is a dialect of the 
Romance or Proven^^al, at one time the common 
langoage in the S. of France, and in some other 
parts. Bat it is now a good deal intermixed with 
CastOian and other words. Letters were success- 
fully cultivated at the court of Barcelona ; and 
some of the counts attained to distinction as 

Catalonia had for a lengthened period its states, 
composed of the clergy, nobility, and commons, 
who shared the legislative power with the sove- 
reign. It had, also, particular and ver^ extensive 
privilege:^ and a peculiar form of jurisdiction in 
the bands of magistrates, called viguiervtf whose 
districts are named vigvitriet. The highest court 
of appeal was the royal council established in 
Catalonia. Their oonbibutions to the king were 
not oinsidered 9» imposts, but as voluntary gifts; 
the Catalans were to be tried by the laws of 
Catalonia only, and by native judges ; and their 
estates were never to be confiscated, unless for 
treason. But these privileges were suppressed by 
Philip y. when he subdued the provmce ; and 
the laws of Catalonia were then assimilated to 
those of Castile. Thev have always been ex- 
empted from the akavauxy cienfot, and mt/2bnes, in 
Cea cf which they paid 10 per cent, on all rents, 
whether belcmging to individuals or communities, 



and on the supposed gains of merchants and me- 

The Catalans are hardy, active, and industrious; 
and used to be distinguished by their attachment 
to their privileges, and their opposition to arbi- 
trary power. But in this respect they seem to 
have undergone a material change, being now 
distinguished by their veneration for the aposto- 
lical party in church and state — ^a consequence 
probably of their ignorance and subservience to the 
priesthood. There seems, indeed, to be little or 
no provision made for educadon. Philip Y. sup- 
premed the universities of Barcelona, Lerida, and 
Gerona, and established in their stead only that of 
Cervera. There are academies in the principal 
towns ; but the great bulk of the i>eople appear to 
be without the means of instruction. Their im- 
proved condition is not therefore in any degree 
owmfr to their superior intelligence, but to the com- 
paratively favourable circumstances under which 
they have, in other respects, been placed. 

Ihe difference between the cottages of Cata- 
lonia and those of the othet provinces of Spain is 
very visible. The houses and cottages here have 
an air of convenience and comfort ; there is glass 
in the windows, and the insides display the 
articles of furniture in common use. No beggars, 
and few ragged people, are seen ; industry is every 
where active ; stones are removed from the ground 
and collected in heaps; fences are more gener^ 
and more neatly constructed ; nobody is seen bask- 
ing in the sun ; even the women and girls who 
attend the cattle do not sit idle, wrap^d up in 
their plaids, but every one has her spmdle in her 

Catalonia anciently made a part of the Hi^aania 
Taraconenns of the Komans. The Goths were its 
next masters, who spread themselves from it over 
the rest of Spain. On the fall of the Gothic em- 
pire, the Catalans submitted to the Moors, but the 
dominion of the latter was not of long duration. 
In the 8th and 9th centuries, Catalonia, with the 
adjoining country of Roussillon, became an inde- 
pendent state, subject to the counts or earls of 
Barcelona. Under their government, liberal insti- 
tutions were established in the prov. ; it was dis- 
tinguished by its naval power, commerce, and 
proficiency in the arts ; «nd its fleets and armies 
frequently interfered with decisive effect in the 
contests of the time. In 1137, Catalonia was 
united with Aragon by the marriage of one of its 
counts with the heiress of the latter ; but the Ca- 
talonians retained their separate legislature, and 
distinct privileges. In 1640 the prov. revolted 
against Philip I v., and was not recovered till 1659. 
In the war of the succemion, the Catalonians were 
the most zealous adherents of the Archduke 
Charles ; and even after £ngland and Austria 
had withdrawn from the contest, they refused to 
submit, and defended Barcelona with an obstinacy 
of which there are but few examples. On its cap- 
ture, their ancient cortes, and most of their peculiar 
privileges, were suppressed. 

CATANIA, an ancient and celebrated city and 
sea-port of Sicily, cap. prov. same name, on the £. 
coast of the island, at the foot of Mount iCtna, at 
the extremity of a vast plain, 31 m. NXW. Syra- 
cuse, on the railway from Messina to Syracuse. 
Pop. 64,396 in 1862. The city, though it has suf-. 
fered much from earthquakes, by one of which, iu 
1693, it was all but totally destroyed, has always 
risen from its ruins finer and more magnificent 
than ever. Catania has a noble appearance from 
the sea ; and what is rare in an Italian town, the 
effect is not diminished on landing ; for the streets 
are r^ular, spacious, and handsome ; and the nu- 
merous churches, convents, palaces, and public 



establiBhments, principally constructed of lava, 
faced with magneaian lime8t<one fiom Malta and 
Syracnse, and enriched with maibles from the 
niins, are magnificent. The city is nobly sitnated, 
on the roots of iEtna, its despoiler and its bene- 
factor. Overwhehned, as it has often been, by 
torrents of liquid fire, it has risen, like the phoenix, 
more splendid from its ashea. Tlie very substance 
which once ravaged its plains has, by Its own de- 
composidon, covered them with soil fertile as the 
fabled garden of the Hesperides ; and on all sides 
the material of detraction is turned to the pur- 
poses of ornament and utility. The streets are 
paved with lava ; houses, palaces, and churches, 
are built of lava ; of lava they form ornamental 
chimney-pieces, tables, and a variety of toys ; 
whilst a natural mole of lava defends the shipping 
from the fury of the tempest. The cathedral, 
founded in 1094, was rebuilt on a simple and 
grand scale, after the earthquake of 1693 ; the 
senate-house, mante dipieta^ theatre, and most of 
the municipal establishments, are also fine, appro- 
priate buildings. Near the cathedral is a fine 
square, ornamented with an antique statue of an 
elephant bearing on its back an obelisk. It has 
49 churches, of which that of St Maria dell' 
Ajuto, and several others, are magnificent struc- 
tures ; it has also 19 convents for men, and 1 1 for 
women. The Benedictine convent of San Nicolb 
d' Arena has long been justly celebrated for its vast 
extent, superi> church, excellent organ, large mu- 
seum, ancient mosaics, and great nches. Among 
the charitable establishments, exclusive of the 
fiumfe dipiethj are several hospitals, a workhouse, 
a foundhng hospital, a lyin^-in hospital, and a 
Magdalen asylum. The imiversity, founded in 
1445 by Alphonso of Aragon, is an extensive 
foundation with an annual revenue of above! 2,0002^ 
It has able professors, and is well attended : its 
library and museums are open on holydays to the 
public. The heirs of Prince Biscari' and others 
have also fine museums. Catania is the seat of a 
bishopric, of a court of appeal, a criminal courts a 
civil court, and of the provincial authorities ; and 
enjoys extensive privileges. The humanity, hos- 
pitality, and good-breeding of the inhabitants have 
been eulogised by all travellers. On many occa- 
sions they have shown a singular unanimity in 
public anairs; they had the courage to practise 
inoculation so early as 1742, and to introduce the 
potato while an ignorant prejudice existed against 
It among their neighbours. ' The principal manu- 
facture is that of silk, which is largely carried on. 
The working of the yellow amber found on the S. 
coast of the island afifords eznployment to some 
thousands of the population. The snow of Mount 
yEtna is also a great source of wealth. The har- 
bour is not equal to the importance of the dty ; 
but it is generally full of small craft that resort 
thither for com, macaroni, potatoes, olives, figs, 
silk, wine, almonds, cheese, oil, soda, manna, can- 
tharides, amber, snow, and lava. The environs 
are fruitful, and well cultivated. 

Catania is very ancient. It is believed to have 
been founded bv the Chalcidians, and had Cl)a- 
rondas for its early legislator. Under the Romans, 
it was the residence of a pnetor, and was adorned 
with many noble buildings. Owing, however, to 
the repeated occurrence of earthquakes, and the 
irruption of lava from iEtna, its ancient monu- 
ments have been mostly destroyed ; but the re- 
mains of its amphitheatre, the circumference of 
which exceeds even that of the colosseum, as well 
as of its theatre, odeum, hippodrome, temples, 
aqueducts, baths, <fcc , attest its former extent and 

CATANZARO, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 


Cosenza, in a healthy and agreeable situation, on 
a mountain near the Gulf of Squilace, 29 m. SS£. 
Cosenza. Pop. 11,464 in 1862. The town suf- 
fered very severely from the dreadful earthquake 
of 1783, which overthrew several of its principal 
buildings ; it still, however, has a cathedral, several 
churches and convents, a seminary, a loyal aca- 
demy of 8cien(%, a lyceum, a foundling hospital, a 
monte dipitia, and two hospitals ; and is defended 
by a castle. It is the seat of a bishopric, of one of 
the four great civil courts of the kingdom, of a 
criminal court, and of an ordinary civu tribunaL 
There are considerable manufactures of silk, velvet, 
and cloth, and a good deal of trade is carried on in 
silk, com, cattle, wine, and oiL The inhabitants 
are affable and industrious, and the women are 
reckoned the handsomest in the three Calabrias. 

CATEAU-CAMBRESIS, a town of France, d^p. 
dn Nord, cap. cant, on the Salle, 15 m. £SE. 
Cambray, on the Northern railway. Pop. 9,212 
in 1861. The town was formerly fortified; and 
has manufactures of starch, soap, and tobacco, 
with tanneries, and some trade in lace. It is 
celebrated in diplomatic history for the treaty 
concluded in it, in 1559, between France and 

HORA DO DESTERRO, a marit. city of Brazil, 
cap. prov. St Catherine, on the W. 'side of the 
island of same name, on the narrow strait se- 
parating it from the mainland, 520 m. SW. Rio 
Janeiro; lat 27° 36' S., long. 48° 40' W. Pop. 
probably from 5,000 to 6,000. Pn>m the landing 
place in the harbour, which is at the bottom of a 
verdant slope of about 500 yards, the town has 
a most beautiful appearance, and the perspective 
is nobly crowned by its fine cathedraL llie green 
is interspersed witli orange trees, and forms an 
agreeable parade. The houses are well built, have 
two or three stories with boarded floors, and are 
provided with neat gardens well stocked with ex- 
cellent ve^tables and flowers. Besides the church 
of Nossa Senhora do Desterro, which gives name 
to the place, there were some years ago two 
chapels, a convent, an hospicio, and good barracks. 
Notwithstanding its excellent port and convenient 
situation, the trade of the Xawa. is not very con- 
siderable; but it is frequently visited by ships 
passing to and from the Pacinc, and by those m 
the S. Sea whale-fishery. Sperm-whales used to 
be frequent on this coast, and even in the bay of 
St Catherine, but they are now comparatively 
rare. There are some manufactures of coarse 
cotton and linen stuffs, and earthenware. 

The island of St Catherine may be entirely 
circumnavigated, and many good anchorages are 
found between its W. coast and the continent; 
but the N. part of the channel is tlie only one 
suitable for large vessels. Here they anchor in 
5 fathoms on a mud bottom which holds well, and 
are protected from all winds, except from the N£., 
which are rarely dangerous. Opposite to the 
town the channel narrows, anid the depth of water 
deo^eases to 2 fathoms. The roadstead is defended 
by two forts. This is one of the very best places 
at which to refit : excellent water may be had in 
any quantity for nothing, and provisions of all 
kinds are cheap and abundant 

The island of St Catherine is about 35 m. in 
length, N. to S., and from 4 to 8 m. in width. Its 
shores rise abmptly from the sea to such a height, 
that in fair weather it is visible 45 m. off. Its 
most N. extremity, Point Rupa, is in lat. 27® 22' 
31" N., lon^. 48° '32' 7" W. The surface of the 
island is singularly varied, presenting granit« 
mountains, fertile plains, swamps fit for the 
growth of rice, lakes stocked with fish, and several 


tsaaSk Btieama. Mandioc and flax are the chief 
aitickB of culture; but wheat, maize, pube, 
ooiooA. rice, sugar, cotton, indigo, and an abund- 
ance of fruit are alao grown. The climate is rather 
humid, but temperate and aalubrious. 

titf of N. Hindostan, cap. of the Nepaul dom., 
built in a mountainous region, 154 m. NNW. 
Patna, and 4,784 ft above the level of the plains 
of Bengal. Estimated pop. 20,000. It extends 
for about 1 m. along the bank of a river ; and con- 
tains many wooden and brick temples, with the 
palace of the Nepaul rajah. The houses are 
mostly mean brick or tile buildings, often three or 
four ttories high ; streets narrow and dirty. 

CATRINE, a manufacturing town of Scotland, 
CO. Ayr, parish Som. on the N. bank of the Ayr, 
32 m. S. Glasgow. Pop. 2,484 in 1861. Cotton- 
works were erected here by a company as early as 
1786, and a bleaching-work in 1824. Both works 
are carried on by means of water-power, but in 
case of a deficient supply of water, steam-engines 
make good the deficiency. The bleaching estab- 
lishment, in addition to what is manufactured at 
Canine, bleaches all the cotton produced at the 
other mills belonging to the same company, the 

Suantitv varying from 15,000 to 25,000 yards per 
ay. £very part of the process is carried on 
within doors, and without interruption, at all 
seasons of the year. There are seven schools, 
six of which are supported by the school fees, and 
one maintained by a fixed salary paid by the 
oompany ; four libraries, one of wluch is attached 
to a Sunday-school ; and several places of worship 
connected with the established church, or belong- 
ing to Presbyterian dissenters. 

CATTAKO, a town of the Austrian sUtee, cap. 
circ of same name, at the SE. extremity of the 
C;ulf or Bocea di Catarro, 210 m. S£. Zara ; hit 
42© 25' 26" N., long. 180 46' 16" E. Pop. 8,970 in 
1857. The town is walled, and is farther defended 
by a fort built on an adjoining eminence. Streets 
ojtfmw, dark, and gloomy. Aot?rithstanding its 
small size, it has a cathedral, a collegiate church, 
seventeen other Roman Catholic churches and 
chapels, a Greek church, six convents, and a 
hospitAl. It is the seat of the administration of 
the drde and of a bishop, and has a government 
high-schooL The harbour is one of the best in 
the Adriatic At its mouth there are two rocks 
dividing the entrance into three separate chan- 
nels, two ai which admit the largest ships. In- 
temallv the gulf is s^ious and secure, though 
little ne(|ueuted by shippinf^. The trade of Cat- 
taio is chiefly with the Tiirkish district of Monte- 
negro. The vicinitY is very picturesque; but 
fium being surrounded on three sides by moun- 
tains, CaUaiD has this disadvantage, that the 
sun rises an hour htter and is lost an hour earlier 
than in other places under the same latitude. The 
district of Cattaro was the seat of a Roman colony ; 
bat the town itself only dates from the 6th cen- 
tury. It has suffered much iirom earthquakes, 
ci«pecin]ly in 1563 and 1667. It was long the 
cap. of a small republic, which, falling into debt, 
placed itself under the government oi^ Venice on 
the single condition of having its debts paid. 
Previously to the treaty of Ti&it this town was 
for some time in the occupation of the Russians. 

CATTEGAT, or KATTEGAT, a portion of the 
N. Sea, or of the Baltic, between Jutland and 
Sweden. (See Baltic.) 

CAUBUUor CABUL (an. Aria and Arachoma), 
MB extensive region of Central Asia, formerly 
the centre of a powerful kingdom reaching from 
Meshed to Cashmere, and from the Oxus to the 
I, but now comprising only the country be- 



tween lat. 299 and 87^ N., and long. 59^ 80' and 
72^ E. ; and divided into four chiefshipe, inde- 
pendent of each other, viz. those of its principal 
cities, CaubuU Peshawur, Candahar, and Herat. 
Caubul, in its extended sense, includes the 
neater portion of Aifghanistan, Seistan (an. 
l}rangittna)f and Sewestan, with parts of Kho- 
rassan, Caufiristan (the Kohistan), and Lahore: 
length and breadth each about 600 m. The 
pop. was estimated by Mr. Elphinstone, in 1809, 
at about 14,000,000, but this estimate is believed 
to have been too high when it was framed ; and 
since that period civil wars and foreign conquests 
have deprived Caubul of the* provs. of Beloo- 
chistan, Sinde, Moultan, Damaun, Cashmere, 
Balkb, d^c., and have diminished the pop. to little 
nfore than 5,000,000. At present, besides Uie 
cities already named, the chief towns are, Ghiznee, 
Dooshak, aiid Furrah. 

The N. and E. portion of Caubul is a loftiy 
table-land, its mountuns belonging to the Hindoo 
Koosh (or Indian Caucasus), and two of its offsets, 
viz. the Solimaun and Paropamisan ranges. The 
Koosh mountain, about long. 69^ £., gives its 
name to the range which extends from it both 
W. and E., and beyond the Indus is continuous 
with the Himalaya, running genenlly SW. to 
NE., and in the Kohistan forming the N. boundary 
of CaubuL Between long. 70<^ and 72^ it makes 
a remarkable curve to the S., opposite to which 
the Bolor-Tagh (or cloudy mountains) unites with 
or l^)proaches it, from Budukhshan on the N. 
The highest, as well as the most S. point of this 
curve, IS apparently a mountain, called Coond, 
or Kooner, near long. 71^, where the AlTghans 
believe the ark to have rested after the deluge ; 
a tradition current, however, respecting the 
Tukhte Solimaun also. The Koosh is covered 
with perpetual snow; its peaks are visible from 
Bactna, India, and even Tartary, and one of them, 
measured by Sur A. Bumes, was found to be 
20,493 ft high. Mr. Elphinstone observed at 
Peshawur three inferior mountain ranges, pro- 
gressively decreasing in height beneath the 
former; the description of which will serve, he 
says, to give an idea of the rest of the Koosh 
chain ; the lowest range was destitute of snow, 
and its sides were clothed with forests of pine, 
oak, and wild olive, European fruits and flowers, 
fern, and elegant shrubs. The tops of the second 
range are covered with snow, and the third are so 
to half their height. On the high central range 
Mr. Elphinstone observed that * no diminution in 
the snow could be perceived in any part in the 
month of June, when the thermometer m the plain 
of Peshawuryras at 113<> Fahr.' The Koh-i-Baba 
range, between Caubul and Banmian, is the con- 
tinuation W. of the Koosh ; but its peaks are not 
so lofty, probably not more than 18,000 ft. 
(Bumes, iii. 203), although * covered with eternal 
snow for a considerable distance beneath their 
summits.' The passes of Hajee^sruk and Kaloo 
on this range are respectively 12,400 and 18.000 
ft. above the sea ; the other passes are none more 
than 9,000 ft. in height, and all, without ex- 
ception, are free from snow by the end of June. 
In the defiles the road often winds at the base of 
a mural precipice, rising to 2,000 or 3,000 ft. per- 
pendicularly, and in one part, called Dura-i* 
zundan, or the * Valley of the Dungeon,' the 
height is such as to exclude Uie sun at noon- 
day: at the height of 10,000 ft, however, the 
ground in some {Mirts is ploughed when the snow 
disappears, the grain sown in Mav being reaped 
in October. The ranges N. of the koh-i-Baba are 
much inferior in height, and often free from snow, 
but rise from the plains of Balkh in a bold and 



precipitous line, 2,500 ft, high. The valley of the 
Caubul river separates the Koosh from the Teera 
mountains, which mn in a parallel direction, de- 
creasing in size to the £. ; but in their higher 
parts are covered with perpetual snow, and are 
certainly as much as 15,000 ft. high. (Bumes, 
ii. 105.) The Solimaun range commences with 
the Sufued-Koh, S. of the Caubul valley ; across 
which it may be considered as connectmg itself 
with the Koosh, by means of cross ranges, causing 
many cascades and acclivities in the bed of the 
river. This range stretches from nearly 34° to 
29° N. lat., where it becomes <»nnected with the 
high table-land of Kelat (Beloochistan). It is 
not so high as the Koosh : its principal points are 
the Sufued-Kob, or * White Mountain,' and the 
Tukhte Solimaun, or * Throne of Solomon,' the 
last near lat. 31° 30' N. : the former is always 
covered with snow, and the latter so for throe 
months in the year. Between these two points 
this range decreases considerably in height, 
eepeciallv whero it is intersected by the Gomul 
river, l^he Solimaun chain has several parallel 
ridges, and gives off many lateral and other 
ranges, especially a remarkable one to the SW., 
including the Khojeh Amram hills ; abroad range, 
though of no great altitude, which appears to join 
the table-land of Kelat On the £. a high and 
broad range, abounding in salt, passes off near the 
Teera mountains, across the Indus, into the Pun- 
jab, with a SE. direction. The Paropamisan 
mountains (for which as a whole there is no 
modem name) occupy a laige space of country, 
extending 350 m. £. to W., and 200 m. N. to S'. ; 
W. of the Koosh, and between the Ilehnund river 
and Toorkistan. They are a maze of mountains, 
difficult of access, and' little frequented ; their £. 
portion is cold, rugged, and barren, although no- 
where covered with perpetual snow : in Uie W. 
they contain rather wider valleys, and are some- 
what better cultivated. Their greatest declivity 
is on tiie N. side, from which they send off several 
ranges towards Balkh ; the slope of the whole 
tract is towards the W. 

The Koosh, collectively called the Caubul Ko- 
histan, or ' Land of Mountains,' contains, in its 
higher ranges, a number of narrow valleys ; in its 
lower portions the valle^^ are of some size ; Mr. 
£lphinstone calling them * plains.' Many open 
laterally into the valley of Caubul, which occupies 
the space between the Indian Caucasus and the 
Solimaun and Teera mountains, and which in 
some places is 25 m. wide. The narrow plain, or 
valley of the Swaut river, is well watered ; yields 
two harvests of most sorts of grain ; and abounds 
in orchards, mulberry-gardens, and plane-trees: 
others are by no means so wide or productive, and 
are often bounded by a number of narrow glens. 
There are many fertile and well-watered valleys 
on both sides the Solimaun range. 

Besides those of the desert, which extend over 
the S. and W. parts of Caubul, there are many 
extensive and productive plains : that of Peshawur, 
about 35 m. in diam., is well watered ; its streams 
fringed with willows and tamarisks ; and has nume- 
rous gardens and orchards scattered over it : the 
latter contain a profusion of apple, plum, peach, 
pear, quince, and pomegranate trees. The grater 
part of this plain is mghly cultivated and irri- 
gated bv canals, and the uncultivated parts co- 
vered with a thick elastic sod, scarcely equalled, 
except in England: ita villages are generally 
large, very dean and neat, and surrounded with 
groves of date, peepul, and tamarisk. The vallev 
of Caubul encloses some small plains, of whicK 
that of Jellidabad is the principaL Most of the 
cities and Luge towns are in fertile plains ; one of 

great luxuriance surrounds H&nt ; and the site of 
Furrah, and other places in the W., as well as the 
banks of the Helmund, seem ' rich oases in the 
midst of a waste.' The desert in Seistan, Gurm- 
seer, and Shorawuk, has an ill-defined boundary, 
and often encroaches on the habitable country. 

The Indus forms, for a short distance, the £. 
boundary, and excepting it, there lb no river which 
is not fordable throughout its course for the greater 
part of the year. The principal of the minor rivers 
are the Caubul, Helmund, Furrah-Rood and Lora. 
The only lake of any importance is that of Seistan, 
or Zurrah {Aria Peutu), which receives the waters 
of the Helmund {Etymander), 

The CKmate varies with the elevation ; the tem- 
perature is much higher at Peshawur and Canda- 
bar than at Caubul and Ghiznee ; but, generally 
speaking, the average heat of the year does not 
equal that of India, nor the cold that of England. 
At Caubul the snow lies on the ground for five 
months, and Bumes found the thermometer stood 
no higher than 64° Fahr. during the hottest period 
of the day in the month of May. The prevailing 
winds throughout Caubul are westerly. The rains 
brought by the SW. monsoons are much dimin- 
ished in power by the time they reach the N£. 
part of the country, where the rainy season is 
limited to a month of cloudy weather, and occa- 
sional showers. At Candahar the influence of 
this monsoon is not felt in the least degree : at 
Caubul there is no rej^ar wet season ; but showers 
are frequent at all tmies of the year, as in Eng- 
land. At Peshawur, by the first week in March, 
peach and plum trees bcigin to blossom, and by the 
end of that month are in full foliage : firom July 
to Septr. the weather is cloudy ; the winter lasts 
from the latter month till Feb. Caubul generally 
is healthy ; the most prevalent diseases are fevers, 
small-pox, and ophthalmia. Sir A. Bumes found 
the inhabitants of the Koosh, at 10,000 ft. above 
the sea, quite free from goitre, so common in the 
lower ranges of the Himalaya. 

Geology and Mtnerala, — A core of granite, and 
resting on it a deep bed of slate, are the prominent 
geol(^ical features of the Koosh : the slate forma- 
tion includes gneiss, mica, and clay-slate, chlorite, 
carbonate of lime, and quartz; gneiss generally 
occupying the lower portion. Hie Solimaun chain 
is composed of a hard black stone ; its accompany- 
ing ranges on the £. of an equally hard red stone, 
and a triable grey sandstone : the hills between 
Herat and Dooshak consist partly of a mixed 
reddish and black rock, streaked with ore, and 
partly of ^ywacke slate. Iron, lead, copper, an- 
timony, tin, and zinc are found in various parts 
of the mountain re^on, and 10 or 12 lead mines 
near Baumian, and elsewhere, are worked ; gold is 
washed down by the rivers that come from the 
Hindoo Koosh ; there' are extensive deposits of 
sulphur in Seistan, at Cohut, <frc. ; coal, naphtha, 
and petroleum are met with in the latter district; 
salt m the £. part of the country, both in springs 
and beds ; and saltpetre is pruoured from the soil 
in many places. 

Many of the forest trees, and most of the finer 
fraits of Europe grow wild. The timber in the 
mountain re|pon consists chiefly of pine, oak, 
cedar, gigantic cypresBf and wild olive : the Hindoo 
Koosh IB destitute of wood, and in many places of 
verdure. Some of the hills produce the birch, 
hoUv, hazel, and mastic, the wild vine, berberry, 
blackberry, and many other bushes bearing edible 
berries; the valleys abound with extensive or- 
chards, particularly of apricot-trees; the other 
trees most common on the plains are the mulbenyy 
tamarisk, plane, willow, and poplar. The assa- 
foetida plant grows luxuriantly at an elevation of 



7,000 ft.; hemlock, fennel, peppermint, nettles, 
and other sach pUmts common in Euxope, are 
equally common m the higher parts of Caubul, 
with a praftision of roees, poppies, hyacinths, and 
jessamines. The Tegetadon of the lowlands ap- 
proximates more to that of India ; and, on descend- 
mg into them, the contiast with the country just 
passr^ is so striking that it is thus adverted to by 
the Emperor Baber in his commentaries:—' I saw 
another worid. The ^rsss, the birds, the trees, 
the animals, and thetnbes of men : all was new I 
I was astoni^ed.* 

Lions of a small species are said to have been 
fuund in the hiUy country about Caubul ; tigers 
are met with in most ra the wooded tracts; 
wolves, hyenas, jackals, wild d(«8, the elk, and 
▼aiious other kinds of deer, wild weep, and goats, 
cm the E. hills; the wild ass in the desert; foxes, 
hares, poreupines, ichneumons, and ferrets are 
also found. Birds are very numerous, and include 
several kinds of eagles, hawks, and other birds of 
prey ; herons, cranes, wild fowl, and game, in 
plenty; doves, ma^ies, thrushes, and nightin- 
gales : parrots and buds of rich plumage are found 
only in the £. Turtles and tortoises are nume- 
rous; there are no crocodiles in the rivers; the 
snakes are mostly harmless. Large scorpions in- 
fest Peshawur ; mosquitoes, except in Seistan, are 
less troublesome than in India; large flights of 
Iticosts are rare, but occasionally cause a fiunine 
in Kharassan. 

Baofuf Men, — ^The Affghans, who call them- 
selves Pooehtoon, bear a considerable resemblance 
to the Jews; and, though they consider it a re- 
prv^ach to be called Jews, they claim descent from 
a son of SauL Sir W. Jones and Sir A. Bumes 
contend for their Jewish ori^ ; Mr. Elphinstone 
diseiedits it. They are divided into a number of 
tribes, often at war with each other, especially 
those in the £. of Caubul, and each under the au- 
thority of a chief, who, however, is usually as- 
sisted by a council (I'eer^), consisting of the 
heads of the tribe. Mr. Elphinstone conceives 
their poUtioal condition to bear a strong analogy 
to that of the Scottish dans, in former times; but 
tbe genius of the Affghans u more decidedly re- 
publican ; they resist every encroachment of their 
rulers, and have a boldness and elevation of cha- 
racter unknown to most other Asiatic nations 
They are Mohammedans of the Soonite sect, but 
use the Persian alphabet : their literature bears a 
similarity to that of the Persians ; but it has a 
sapetior digni^ and refinement, and in many re- 
spects is not unlike that of Europe. The Affghans 
are hoiqpitable, and tolerant in religion; but ex- 
tremely superstitious and addicted to astrology, 
divinatioD and alchemy. Thejr are plunderers^ 
piofeeaion ; in the W. they live in tents, in the £. 
m fixed habitations ; onlv a few of than reside in 
the laize towns. Their cbief amusements are the 
chase. Masting, s<mgB and recitaUons : they have 
slaves, but traffic very little in them. (See 

The Eimanks and Hazaurehs, two races of Tartar 
ofigixi, although using dialects of the Persian 
tongue, inhabit the Paropamisan mountains. The 
Fiwi*nfc«j who are divided into four principal tribes, 
subdivided into numerous clans, each governed by 
its duef, occupy the lower parts of the country, 
between Caubid dty and Herat ; Mr. Elphinstone 
otimated their number at about 460,000. In war 
they are fenxaons and cruel : they retain many 
Mo|nil CQStoms, mixed with others of Persian 
origm ; they live almost entirely in camps, and use 
the same kind of food as the Affghans, with the 
addition of horse-flesh and bread of an oily kind 
of nut. Tliey cultivate wheat, barley, and millet ; 


keep many sheep, and rear a small but active breed 
of horses: thev are Mohammedans of the Soonite 
sect. The Hazaurehs have been estimated at 
about 350,000 ; they inhabit a higher region than 
the Eimauks, a cold and sterile country, where 
little com can be grown : their sheep, oxen, horses, 
and the produce of the chase, furnish them with 
their principal articles of food ; sugar and salt are 
the foreign commodities most in demand amongst 
them. Thepr live in villages of thatched houses, 
and are divided into different dans, constantly at 
war with each other, and each governed by an 
absolute chief. The Hazaurehs have strong Tartar 
features, and many similarities in customs and 
dress with the Uzbeks ; the women, who are fre- 
quently good-looking, possess an unexampled li- 
cense and ascendancy over their husbands. These 
people are passionate, fickle, and capricious ; but 
conversable, hospitable, and very fond of music, 
redtation, visiting, and other sociable kinds of 
amusement. Manv of them are performers on a 
guitar, poets, and r^rovisatoru Thev belong to 
the sect of Ali. llie Tadjiks, or T^aujiks (see 
Bokhara), are probably descendants of the ori- 
ginal Persian inhab. of the country, and of the 
Arabs who conquered it in the first century after 
the H^ira. They live mostly in and round the 
larger towns, and everywhere reside in fixed habi- 
tations, having settled employments. They are 
zealous Soonees, mild, sober, peaceable, and indus- 
trious ; and assimilate much more with the Affghans 
than their brethren of Bokhara do with the Uzbeks. 
The Tadjiks are most numerous towards the W. of 
Caubid ; as the Hindkees (Hindoos, Juts, Sindiaiui) 
are towards the E. The Hindoos are, however, to 
be met with all over the country, chiefly as money- 
changers and tradesmen ; they are mostly of tne 
Ksh^triya or military caste. The Kuzzilbashes, 
or Persian Toorks, inhabit the towns ; the Beloo- 
ches are generally almost confined to the S. : there 
are about 2,000 Arab families, besides Armenians, 
Abyssixuans, European Turks, Jews, and Caufirs 
amongst the population. 

AffrieuUmre. — There are five classes of cultiva* 
tors — Ist, proprietors, who cultivate their own land ; 
2nd, tenants, who pay a fixed rent in money, or a 
proportion of the produce; Srd, buzgun, or me- 
tayen; 4th, hired labourers; 5th, viUeinsy who 
cultivate their lords' lands without wages. The 
lands are more equally divided in Caubul than in 
most countries, and the first class, or that of small 

Eroprietors, is very large, as by the Mohammedan 
iw every man's estate is at his death divided 
equally amongst his sons. The class of tenants is 
not numerous. Leases are generally from 1 to 5 
years, and the rent varies from 1-lOtn part to half 
the produce ; the landlord generally providing the 
seed, cattle, and farm implements. Labourers are 
prindpally employed by the buzgura; the]^ are fed 
and clothed by their employers, and paid for 9 
months' work about 80 rupees. The villehu arp 
many of them of foreign descent, and always at 
tached to the service of some master ; they are 
subject to taxation, and even death-punishment 
from their lord, but have the privilege of removing 
from the service of one master to another : they 
are most numerous amongst the Eusofzyes and 
other Affghan tribes in the NE. There are two 
harvests m the year; one crop, consisting of rice, 
miUet, jowaree, and maize, is sown in the spring, 
and reaped in autumn ; the other, which consists 
of wheat, barley, and legumes, is sown at the end 
of autumn, and reaped in summer. Bice is grown 
in most parts of the country, but wheat is the 
common food of the people : barley is usually given 
to horses. The ve^^tables and pot-herbs of 'Kun>pe 
and India are cultivated laigdy, especiallv turnips 




and eairota; melons and cacumben are abundantly 
grown in the neighbourhood of the towns; and 
ginger, turmeric, and the sugar-cane in the £. ; but 
the latter plant is confined to rich plains, and most 
of the sugar, as well as the cotton, used in Caubul 
is brought from India. The palma Chiisti, sesa- 
mum, and mustard, are grown for the sake of their 
oil ; tobacco is cultivated in most parts ; madder 
abounds in the W. ; and Caubul furnishes to India 
its chief supply of that article : lucerne and other 
artificial grasses are sown for the cattle. Much of 
the land It for culture has been brought into that 
state by irrigations undertaken by individuals 
singly, or associated for the purpose. Cultivable 
land m Caubul is generally valued at from nine to 
twelve years' puroiase. Irrigation ia effected by 
means of canals and subterranean conduits, be- 
neath the slopes of hills, termed emtraiz, which 
are common in Persia. The plough is heavier and 
makes deeper furrows than that of Indil^ but still 
only employs one pair of oxen. All grain is sown 
broadcast ; and drul husbandry ia unknown. The 
place of a harrow is supplied by a plank dragged 
over the field, on which a man stands. The sickle 
is the only instnmient used for reaping. The flail 
is unknown ; and the com is trodden out by o<en, 
or forced out l^ a frame of wood filled with 
branches, on which a man sits, and is dragged over 
the straw by cattle. It is winnowed by being 
thrown against the wind, and, -vrhen cleaned, is 
kept in nampers plastered with mud, unbaked 
earthen pots, and ooane hair-cloth bags. 

For gnnding the com, windmills are used in the 
W., but these are very different from ours, for the 
saSs are inside, and there is an opening in the 
erection to admit the wind. Water-mills are not 
unknown, but handmUls are most generally used. 
The manure employed is composed of dung! straw, 
and a&hes, but the dung of camels is carefully 
avoided. Horses are employed in ploughing onl^ 
by the Eimauka ; in Seistan camds perform thjs 
work. There are no carts. The horses of Herat 
are very fine, and somewhat similar to the Arabian 
bre^ ; and there is a strong and useful breed of 
ponies, especially about Baumeean. Mules pre- 
ferable to those of India; but asses, camels, and 
dromedaries mostly are used for carriage. The ox 
resembles that of India ; sheep chiefly m the broad- 
tailed kind ; and the goats, which are numerous, 
have oftm long and tortuous horns. The grey- 
hounds and pointers are excellent. A great number 
of hones are annually sold in the N. and W. of 
India, under the name of Caubul and Candahar 
breeds ; but no horses are bred in large numbers in 
Caubul, nor are those of Candahar exported in any 

Trade. — ExvortM, — The principal foreign trade 
is with India, Persia, and Todrkistan : the exports 
to the fint-named country are principally horses 
and ponies; furs, shawls, chintz; madder, assa- 
foetida, tobacco, and fruits: those to Toorkistan 
are shawls, turbans, chintz, white cloth, indigo, 
and other Indian produce: to Persia the same 
articles, with the carpets of Herat. The latter- 
named article, with wobllens, furs, madder, cheese, 
'and some piece-goods, are sent from the W. to the 
£. provs. ; and Bhawupoor and Mooltan cloths, 
silk, cotton, and indigo, are sent back in return. 
Iron, salt, alum, sulphur, and the other natural 
produce, are also exported. 

ImportM, — From India are ooane cotton cloths, 
worn by the mass of the people ; muslins, «dks, 
and brocade; indigo, in ^reat quantities; ivoiy, 
chalk, bamboos, wax, tin, sandal-wood, sugar, and 
spices : from Toorkistan, hones, gold, and silver ; 
cochineal, broad cloth, and tinsel : cast-iron pots, 
cutlery, hardware, and other European articles, 

from Russia, vid Bokhara. Silks, cottons, era- 
broidery, and Indian chintz come troia Penia; 
slaves from AraUa and Abyssinia; silks, satins, 
tea, porcelain, d^es, and the precious metals, from 
the Chinese dominions ; and dates and cocoa-nuts 
from Beloochistan. The merchants are chiefly 
Tadjiks, Penians, or Afighans, and Hindkees in 
the £. ; but no Afighan ever keeps a shop, or ex- 
ercises any handicraft trade. Caubul is Uie great 
mart for tne trade with Tooiidstan ; Peshawur fur 
that with the Punjab; and Candahar and Herat 
tor that with Penia. The demand for British 
manufactures has increased so much latterly, that 
Russia, which before 1816 supplied a great many 
articles, now only sends nankeen and broad chintz, 
of a description not manufactured in Britain, into 
the market The greater part of the trade between 
India, Caubul, and Bokhara is conducted by the 
Lohanees, a pastoral tribe of Affghans, often of 
considerable wealth. About 1,000 camel-loads of 
Indian goods are annually consumed in CaubuL 
The Caubul merchants have latterly begun to fre- 
quent the annual fkirs on the borden oi the Rus- 
sian dominions, and most of the Russian trade with 
Bokhara has fallen into their hands. Sir A. Bumea 
remarks, that were such fain to be established on 
our NW. frontier, and encouragement given to the 
Lohanee merehants, who are every way deserving 
of it, a large export of British manufactures would 
take place. 

Boada, — In an inland country, without navi- 
gable rivers, and not suited to wheeled carriages, 
traffic must be caurried on by means of beasts of 
burden ; camels are the principal of these in Cau- 
bul, and constitute great part of the wealth of 
many individuals, as they are let out to merehanta 
hj those who cannot anord to trade themselves, 
llie merehants commonly travel in bodies, called 
caravanuj and place themselves generally under 
the conduct of some chief whom they elect as a 
canJUa hauahtt, or an officer with absolute command 
over all the arrangements of the journey. There 
are but two great routes through the country; 
one from Balkh across the mountains at Baumeean, 
through Caubul to Peshawur, and thence into the 
Punjab ; and the other from Herat to Candahar : 
on this line there are few obstacles to oppose a 
European army, and the latter city could furnish 
abundant supplies. From Candahar there are two 
routes; the former through Ghiznee to Caubul, 
not difficult for nine months in the year, but next 
to impassable in the winter, from the snow and 
intense cold ; the second through the valley of 
Pisheen and Quetta to Shikarpore in Sinde; a 
country furnishing supplies of food, but deficient 
in wood and water. There is another road across 
the Soliroaun range from Candahar to Den Ghazee 
Khan, in Damaun; but it is said to be hardly 
practicable for a European army, and ii not tra- 
velled by merchants. The Khybcf Pass frota 
Peshawur to Caubul has, in consequence of enor- 
mous exactions on merehandise at the former 
place, been deserted by traden, and is unsafe. 
Camels, horses, mules, ^c, are cheap enough 
throughout Caubul; but fuel is very scarce and 
dear, and water is not generallv to be had in 
abundance: two great drawbacks in travelling. 
(Conolly, ii. 828.) 

The rublic Revetme^ in settled times, amounts, 
according to Mr. Elphinstone, to nearly 3,000,000/. ; 
but, before the revolution which dethroned Shah 
Shoojah, 1-drd part was remitted to different tri- 
butary princes, who consented to hold their do- 
minions as grants firom the khan of Caubul : of 
the rest, half was assigned for military services to 
the chiefs, and the remainder for the maintenance 
of moollahs and dervises. The chief sources of 



the rerenne under the pro a en t khan axt? the land, 
the tribute oi certam tribes, the town duties and 
cttstoms, certain fines and forfeitares^ and the 
profits of the mint. The land revenue is collected 
by the head man of each village, and paid either 
^rongfa the head of the tribe, or the hakim or 
gDveraor of the province: great peculation is 
often practised by the AoAtm, as the current ex- 
penses are paid before the balance is sent to the 

GacermmemL — Under the monarchy, the crown 
was hoeditary in the fiunily of the Suddozyes, 
who bek>nfi:ed to the tribe of the Doorannees, said 
by Mr. £^>hinatone to be the greatest, bravest, 
and most civilised of all the Aflj^ian tnbes. The 
rii^ht of saeoessicm was not always vested in the 
eldest son ; but Uie future heir was determined 
either by the reigning sovereign or a council of 
the great olBeetB of state. 

MaHee ia administered in the cities by the 
camsy (or eadS), assisted by mufUs and other 
officers; but where the khan happens to reside, 
criminal complaints are made to him. Thecauzies 
have deputies over the whole country. The police 
of towns is managed under one head, in three 
departments, vis. watchmen, inspectors of public 
merals, and superintendents of weights and mea- 
feores. In the country the people to whom the 
land belongs are answerable for the police. In 
eases of n^bery and theft, if the chief of the 
village or of the division of a tribe in whose lands 
a oime was committed, fiul to produce the thief, 
he pavs the value of the property stolen, and 
levies it on the people under him. The police is 
Ttry bad, and does not interfere in mu^ers for 
retaliatioB, except in towns and their viciiiit}r. 

RdigiomM EatabSdtmeni. — Moollahs or priests 
always fill the duties of inspectors of public morals : 
undor the police established in the country, they 
have granta of land, firom the head-man of the 
tribe, and a tax similar to tithes, but by no means 
equivalent to them in amount : in the towns they 
are maintained hv fees <m lutfriages and burials, 
and the gifts of their congregations. A super- 
intendent priest and a registrar are established in 
each citv; several are connected with the royal 
househokl; and at the visit of Mr. Elphinstone, 
these waa a professor and a body of students in 
theology at the king's palace, each of whom re- 
ceived a daily allowance for his support. 

Armed force is chiefly cavalry, d-4th8 of whom 
are Kozadlbashes. They are collected in bodies, 
varying in number from 6 to 800, under their 
several chief^^ and tolerably mounted. Their dress 
B a iooHffte or turban, one end of which is tied 
under the throat in the field; a kummerbmid or 
fZanoent, which serves for a coverlid at night ; a 
iooHa or shirt, idhaHq (low trowBers), and Iwots to 
the knees, and over all a eafUm or cloak : their 
arms are a salne, a gun, with a good flint lock, 
and loi^ bayonet ; a powder and £ill pouch round 
the waist, and always a shield : their saddles are 
high both behind and before, and they all cany a 
rope with a twisted chain attached, by which they 
can secure their horses at any place or time. 
Tttere are about 12,000 infancy, all A%hans, 
armed with a sword, shield, and match-lock, which 
carriea twice as far as a musket; but being too 
heavy to be brought up to the dioulder, is fur- 
nx^Md with a prong or rest, which is fixed in the 
^nmnd. These troops are but skirmisherB, and 
6cbt generally in amoush : there are besides two 
rpgiments raised seven years ago in Bombay, one 
of 800, and the other of 300 men, dressed in Euro- 
pean uniform, but ill paid and disciplined; and 
unretcbed artillery of about fifty field-pieces of dif- 
ferent sizes, only half of which are used. 

Hifory, — Orabul was amongst the countries 
invaded by Alexander, and several spots may be 
almost confidently identified with those mentioned 
bv the historians* of that conqueror. A remark- 
able rock near Bajour is probably the celebrated 
Aomus; Jellalabad is supposed to be in the neigh- 
bourhood of the spot where Alexander revelled in 
imitation of Baochus; many topes or artificial 
mounds are situated along the skirt of the moun- 
tain ridges, and on the bfuiks of the Caubul river, 
some of which having been opened, have been 
found to contain Grecian coins, gems, bones, cups, 
lamps, &C. A. D. 997 Caubul was conquered by 
the Tartars under Sebuctaghi, whose successors 
extended their empire over great part of India, 
Khorsssan. Balkh, and Budukshan. In 1737 
Nadir Shah possessed himself of the country ; and 
in 1747 Ahmed Shah Abdalli, the founder of the 
Doonunee dynasty, was crowned at Candahar. 
His successor Timour Shah died in 1798 without 
naming an heir, and, in consequence of the un- 
certainty of the succession, a protracted civU war 
broke out among his three sons. One of them, 
Shah Shoojah-id-Moolk, having succeeded in 
placing himself on the throne, was defeated and 
deposed, in 1809, by Futteh Khan, chief of the 
Bauricksye family, who espoused the cause of 
Mahmoud, brother of Shah Shoojah. But not- 
withstanding his great services, Futteh Khan was 
treacherously murdered, in 1818, by Mahmoud. 
On this event taking place, the brothers of Futteh 
Khan, who had been made governors of fnovinces, 
revolted ; and one of them, Dost Mohamed Khan, 
established himself on the throne of CanbuL Run- 
jeet Singh seized about the same time on Cash- 
mere and Peshawur; and Uerat and its depen- 
dencies were the only part of the old monarohy 
that continued in the possession of the Dooraunce 
dynasty. Dost Mohamed having assisted the 
Penians in their attempts on Herat ; and having, 
it is alleged, on various occasions evinced his 
hostility to British interests, the Indian govern- 
ment determined upon dethroning him, and on 
placing Shah Shoofah on the mumed. For this 
purpose a powerful army crossed the Indus, and 
advanced as far as Ghiznee without meeting any 
opposition, other than that arising firom the nature 
of the country, and the deficiency of supplies. 
The latter having been taken by storm, after a 
short but sharp contest, on the 23rd June 1839, a 
panic seized the troops of Dost Mohamed, who 
immediately disbanded themselves; and Shah 
Shoojah was shortly after enthroned at Caubul, 
whence he had been driven thirty years before. 
But he was unable to maintain himself on his 
slippery elevation even with the assistance of the 
strong British force left in CaubuL We have 
elsewhere noticed the singularly disastrous retreat 
of that force from that city eariy in 1842 ; with 
the subsequent invasion of the country by the 
British, and their final withdrawal from it. (See 
Affqhanistan in this Diet. ; Elphinstone's Cau- 
bul, poMsim ; ConoUy's Journey to India; Bnmes' 
Trav. into Bokhara, 1836.) 

Caobul, the ancient cap. of the above country, 
under the Douraunee dynasty, situated in the 
plain, and on both banks the river of same 
name, 6,600 ft above the level of the sea; 56 m. 
NNE. Ghiznee, 140 m. WNW. Peshawur: lat. 
84° 22^ N., long. 69° 15' E. Pop. about 60,000. 
The citv is compactly built : on three sides it is 
enclosed by a semicircle of low hills, along the top 
of which runs a weak wall, with an opening sur- 
rounded by a rampart towards the E., by which 
the principal road enters through a gate, after 
passing a bridge over the river. The Balla His- 
saur, or ' palace of the kings,* which stands on the 

o 2 



part of the hill N. of this entrance, is a ki^d of 
citadel, and contains several halls, distin^ished 
with the royal ornament of a gilded cupola : thexe 
is an upper citadel, formerly used as a state prison 
for princes of the blood ; but as fortresses both are 
contemptible. In the centre of the city is an 
open square, whence issue four bazaars, with shops 
about two stories high ; the houses are constructed 
of sun-dried bricks and wood, but few of them 
have any pretensions to elegance. Caubul is, how- 
ever, a bustling place; the chief mart of trade in 
the country ; and its bazaars are superior to most 
in the £. : the great bazaar is a handsome roofed 
arcade 600 ft. long by 30 fL broad. Each different 
trade has its separate quarter. Provisions in sum- 
mer are moderate, but both wood and grain are 
dear in winter. Its climate, and the scenery 
around it, are both very fine ; the banks of its 
river are beautifully adorned with poplar, willow, 
and mulberry ; but the most pleasmg spot in its 
vicinity is the tomb of the Emperor Baber, who 
made Caubul his capital. His grave is marked 
by two erect slabs oi white marble, situated in a 
small garden «t the summit of a hiU overlooking 
the dty : outside Caubul also stands the tomb of 
Timour Shah, an unfinished octagonal brick build- 
ing 50 ft high. 

In the 7th century of our lera, the Arabian 
writers mention Caubul as the residence of a 
Hindoo prince; it was, as already* stated, the 
capital of the empire of Baber, and taken by 
Nadir Shah in 1789. At his death it was taken 
by Ahmed Shah Abdalli, and remained the capital 
of Affghanistan till the destruction of the 

The cniefship of Caubul extends N. to the 
Hindoo Koosh and Baumeean ; £. to Neemla half 
way to Peshawur; S. to Ghiznee, which city it 
includes ; and W. to the conntiy of the Hazaureha. 
Much of the country ia mountainous, and of great 
natural stren^^ but small resources; there ia 
plenty of frmt, and forage for cattle, but grain 
grows scantily. The revenues of Caubul amount 
to 18 laca rupees a year: those derived firom the 
city customs are 2 lacs annually, which amount 
they have reached in consequence of the en- 
couragement given to trade by the lately deposed 

CAUCASUS, a great mountain-range, extend- 
ing in a NW. ai^ S£. direction, l^tween the 
BUck and Caspian Seas. Its extreme points are 
those of the main ridge or back bone of the 
system, which, commencing at Anape, on the 
Black Sea, in lat. 44<' 50' N., runs first SE. as far 
as the parallel of 42^ 50', and meridian of i(P 45' ; 
then almost due £. to the long, of 46^, and finally, 
again SE. to Baku, on the Caspian Sea, in lat. 
40^ 20', where it terminates. The direct distance 
between Anape and Baku is 690 m., but, following 
its windings, the ridge of the Caucasus meaaures 
800 m. 1 he extent of the mountains towards the 
N. is very well marked by the courses of the 
rivers Kuban and Terek; the one fiowing W., 
along the basis to the Black Sea, the other E. to 
the Caspian. The natural S. limit is the Aiaxes ; 
so that the breadth of this range, in ita widest 
part, is about 5^, or nearly 350 m. ; and in its 
narrowest, along the shores of the Caspian, not 
much short of 250 m. The area enclosed by 
these two seas and three rivers, taken as the 
boundaries of the Caucasian ^stem, is not less 
than 100,000 sq. m., but it must be remarked, 
that within these limits there is, though not 
much, some level land; and that the least ele- 
vation is found, not in the bed of the Araxes, but 
in that of tibe Kur. (Klaproth's Trav. in Cauc. 
and Geoig., p. 158, ei seq,; Mignan's Winter 

Journey through Russia, i. 27, et seq. ; CoL Men- 
teith^s Geog. Joum., iii. 21-57.) 

The highest peak of the Caucasus attains an 
altitude of 17,785 ft., which is more than 2,000 ft. 
higher than Mont Blanc. (Bontzkoffskoi's 
Lettres sur le Caucasse, p. 23.) This peak, or 
rather mountain-knot, is found nearly at the 
intersection of the 4drd parallel with the 42nd 
meridian. Among European geographers it has 
been called, improperly enough, Elbourb, El- 
BURZ, or El AROuz ; a name which, in the spread 
of information concerning E. oountri^, is likely 
to be productive of no little confusion. It is 
already applied to a peak of the Caucasus, and a 
range on the S. of the Caspian Sea, and may, 
unless care be taken, be multiplied indefinitely, 
since it is not a proper name, but a common de- 
signation for any mountain which reaches Uie snow 
line. (Klaproth, p. 170.) From this point, as 
from a centre, the mountains descend in all direc- 
tions, but much more rapidly towards the N. and 
W. than towards the E. and S. (Klaproth, p. 276.) 
The Mquinvari peak, to which the Russians have 
improperly given the name of Kasbek, is said by 
Klaproth to attain an elevation of 4,419 metres, 
or of 14,500 ft. (Lettres sur la Caucasse, p. 40.) 
Farther E., the ridge declines towards the Cas- 
pian ; and where it approaches that sea, as in the 
Cape of Abeharon, or at the town of Derbend, the 
eminences do not probably exceed 1,500 or 2,000 ft. 
The ridge W. from Elbours is very considerably 
lower, and presents fewer peaks; it appears to 
descend giaciuall^, till at Anape, on the Black 
Sea, ita devation is only about 180 feet above the 
toater ; but this height rises perpendicularly, and 
the face of the rock ia continued downwards for 
several hundred fathoms; such being the depth 
of the sea at this point. The N. ranges run 
nearly parallel to tne main ridge, and extend 
about 100 m., when they auddenW and abruptly 
terminate in the low steppe of*^ the Don and 
Wolga. This fh>ntier, as it may be tenned, of 
the Caucasus, is called the Buick Mountains 
(Schemye Groir). The Bechtag, the highest 
point, is probably not less than 6,000 tt. in height, 
and there are several summits which appear to 
have a nearly equal elevation ; extreme rugged- 
ness is, however, a stronger characteristic of these 
hills than altitude. The Elbours (Osha Makhna) 
appeared to Pallas to rise in the horizon to more 
than double the height of the Bechtag, when 
viewed from a station very near the base of the 
latter. S. of the main chain, the country spreads 
into table-lands, terraces, and slopes, broken and 
intersected by transverse ranges and peaks, of 
which last t&e highest is All Guz, in 40^^ N., 
44|o E., its elevation being about 15,000 iU 
About 50 m. S. of this, but on the other side of 
the Araxes, is Mount Ararat ; but it cannot with 
any propriety be reckoned as part of the Caucasus. 
Towards the SE., between the Kur and Araxea, 
the mountains spread into a level but considerably 
elevated plain, 24 m. in width, and terminated by 
a strong defile towards Erivan. The various 
plains, valleys, and defiles of this part of the 
mountains seem to vary between 4,000 and 6,01H) 
ft. in height On tlie N. the Caucasus is abso- 
lutely unconnected with any other mountain- 
range, unless the chain of tne Crimea may be 
regarded as an exception ; but on the S. it mingle 
with the high land of Azerbijan ; on the SW. it 
combines with the mountains of Armenia, and 
through them with the Taurus ; and on the SE. 
its of^hoots appear to be continued by the moun- 
tains of Ghilan and Mazunderan, to the Elbours 
(Persian), Paropamisan, Hindoo Koosh, and 
Himalayas^ (Guldenstadt, Reise durch Rnasland, 



I. 43S, €t ae^, ii. 23, et §eq, ; Gnelin, Reue diirch 
KuAslaiid, iiL 34, ef »eq, ; AdiiaIm des ^oy^ xii. 5, 
et seq., 167, e< m^. ; Pallas, i. 339, et seq. ; 
Klafwoth, 158, e< weq. ; Montdth's Geog. Journ., 
iii. 31, €t Btq^ 

^ Tbe above remits as to the extent and eleva- 
tioo of the Cancasva are deduced from a very full 
oompfliuoo of the aathorities cited, and of othen 
not named. It is right, however, to state that 
they cannot be wholly depended upon. There is 
the most extraordinary discrepancy among au- 
thorities as to the extent of the mountain-system, 
its elevation, Ac ; but the above results seem to 
be those on which most reliance may be placed. 

Tbe ancients mention two principal passes of 
the Cancas n a, the Caucasian Gates and the Al- 
banian Gates ; of which the former is at present 
the great, indeed almost the only frequented pass. 
It nans dose by the base of the Kasbek moun- 
tain, in lat. 4240 N., long. 44^ E., and is, in 
iaet, a deep ravine, through which the Terek 
seems to have cut its way in a channel, some- 
timea scarcely wide enough to allow of its passage. 
Tbe commencement of this cleft on the S. is 
4,000 ft., and it continues to rise, till, at the neck 
of the pass, it is full 8,000 ft. above the sea. Pre- 
cipitous walls of por^yry and schist, 3,000 ft. in 
height, piess upon its sides ; and awful abysses 
open beneath it, sometimes, it is said, to the depth 
of 10,000 ft. Avalanches are firequent in this 
pass, carrying with them not only any unfortunate 
timvelleis who may be in the defile, but very 
often the road itself, and even when the snow 
does not descend in masses, its meltings in the 
spring and summer cause occasional floods, which 
carrv eveij thing bef(«e them. The direct length 
of this defile may be about 120 m., from Mosdok 
to Gory; and some idea may be formed of its 
dilBcnlty fiom the fact that Strabo (xi 600) 
describes it as oocupjring four days in the passage. 
This most be understood also of summer travel- 
ling, smoe in winter the pass was wholly unw- 
pitMchable. The Russians have, however, made it 
passable even for caniaees ; and in January, 1880, 
It was crossed by the rersian embassy, but this 
winter transit employed mx day, TMi^an, L 46.) 
About midway stands the old castle of Dariel, in 
the narrowest and highestpart of the gor;^ where 
the statement of Pliny (vl 2), that an iron gate 
would be sufficient to dose the opening, seems to 
be any thin^ but an exaggeration. This castle 
is tberefbre, m all nrobabiB^, the fortress whidi, 
aceofding to the Roman naturalist, was called, 
tboqgh improperly, the P^ Ckupia. (Klaproth, 
p. 311; Honteith, G. J., iiL 39.) The Albanian 
Ciates appear to answer to a pass between Greoigia 
and Dagfaestan, in kt. 42^ N., long. 47^ £. 
(I*toiemv, V. 9; Lapie's Map; An. Yoy., xiL 1.) 
This is, howevegr, vtry little known ; it is almost 
wfaoUv in the possession of the native tribes, and 
piobably is not passable excg>t for hunters, and 
m the summer. Ptolemy's £. Sarmatian Gates 
(Gepg. V. 9) appear to be the pass of Derbeod, 
00 the Caqnan Sea : this is always available; its 
naiiowness makes it a strong military position, 
and the swampy nature of the shore renders 
trailing along it often difficult. . A similar 
remaik applies still more finrcibly to the pass be- 
tween the W. termination of the Caucasus and 
the Hack Sea. Along this road Prince Gortscha- 
kolt^ in the last war, succeeded in marching an 
army, with incredible difficulty, from Anape to 
Sokhomknlla (about 150 m.) ; but here he found 
it equaUy impoflrible to advance or retreat, and 
vaseompdled to return by sea. (Montdth, G. J., 
iii. 37.) The impediments to the coast roads 
appear, however, to consist only in the*.niunber 

and power of the mountain torrents, which, with- 
out bridge or boat, are quite impassable ; and as a 
very wide bank of hard sand stretches along the 
whole shore, it may be practicable to throw 
bridges over all the streams ; but very consider- 
able hdght and strength will be necessary to 
secure them firom the effects of sudden floods. 
These are all the passes over the main ridge, and 
the transverse ranges do not seem to be better 

Frovided; one only appears to exist between- 
meritia and Geoii^a, and that has been rendered 
available only within modem times, and b still 
encumbered with great difficulties. 

Geology, — ^The bases of the Caucasus on the N. 
seem to be covered with sand or a sandy marl, 
from which the first eminences rise in low but 
abrupt hills of sandstone, tufa, and iron-stone. 
These are mpidly succeeded hj higher and more 
mountainous elevations, of white (alcareous lime- 
stone, many of which exhibit unquestionable evi- 
dence of decay, the rivers that flow through and 
round them depositing thick layers of a yellow 
and grey sand^ consistence. Occasionally the 
limestone rises mto great rod^ P^*^ *°^ ndges, 
between which marshy plains of sandy, mud are 
not unfiequen^ apparentlv formed by Uie debris 
of the mountains themselves. This limestone, of 
which the Bechtag, the Metshuka, and nearly all 
the frontier line of the Caucasus is formed, is very 
andent,and exhibits scarcely anv petrifactions; 
behind this rises a ridge of slate, from the api>ear> 
ance of which the term Black Momttain is given 
to the range. The higher ranges, which rise to 
the snow Ime, oonsLst of basalt, schistas, porphyry, 
granite, and other old formations, so that wnether 
Its actual material, or the absence of organic re- 
mains, be considered, it is probable that the Cau- 
casus is one of the oldest mountain systems in the 
world. The S. slope exhibits the same succession 
of formations, as far as regards the three principal 
strata, but much less rapidly. Sandstone is far 
less abundant in the S. than in the N., but, on the 
other hand, calcareous spar, milk-qaartz, and other 
fossils, are frequently met with, indicating a much 
greater degree of wealth in mineral ores. Lava 
and other volcanic matter is common enough 
among the formations ; but. though mud^ vol- 
canos exist in various parts of the Caucasus, igne- 
ous eruptions are unknown ; and neither Kla!proth 
nor Pdlas cotdd come to any satisfactory oondu- 
sion as to their former existence. Montdth is of 
opinion that the volcanic rocks are rather to be 
ascribed to the sudden rise of a great extent of 
country, than to emLssions from particular moun- 
tains. (Guldenstadt, L 434-441, iL 23-29 ; Pallas, 
L 337, 347, 358, 365, &c. ; Klaproth, pp. 386-390 ; 
Montdth, G. J., iii 49.) 

Hydrograpky, — ^The Caucasus, like the Alps, 
does not form tbe dividing line between rivers 
flowing in opposite directions ; other ranges rise 
immediately on its S., whidi shut it out from 
communication with the Persian Gulf and the 
Mediterranean ; while, on the K., the great plain 
of the Wolga and Don, after rising from the beds 
of those rivers for some dtstanoe S., subsides a|[sin, 
leaving a podtive, though scarcdy perceptible, 
ridge between the sources of Mantyeh and Sarpa 
and the bases of the Caucasus, with a podtive 
though very gentle dope towards the latter. In 
consequence of this formation, every drop of water 
from the Caucasus faUs into the Black or Caspian 
Sea. The prindpal streams, besides the Kuban, 
Terek, and Araxes, already mentioned, are the 
Kur (an. Cyrua)^ and the Phasis, rising on oppodte 
ndes of the transverse range which mvides Ime- 
ritla from Geofgia, and running, the first SE.' to 
I the Aiaxes, the other W. to the Black Sea. The 



Shonk or Jonk (niu Apmmu) is another tolerably 
lai|^ river, runmiig to the Black Sea, and the 
Koisu (an. Gtumtf), a still larger, falling into the 
Caapian. The torrents that run short courses to 
these seas from the flanks of the mountains in 
their ndghbourhood are qnite innumerable, as are 
the affluents of the principal streams which pour 
firom the mountain sides in every direction, some- 
times with respectable length of course, and always 
in immense volume. It may, indeed, be reason- 
ably concluded that the store of moisture in the 
Caucasus cannot possibly be exceeded by that of 
any other country of like extent ; and since, from 
the causes before named, it is prevented from spread- 
ing beyond the bounds of the mountains, it follows 
necessarily that no land can be more abundantly 
watered. Most of the streams are flooded by the 
melting of the winter snows ; and their action on 
the substance of the mountains is at all times very 
violent, especiallv on the slate and limestone. The 
former is brought down in the form of a black 
glistening sand, the latter, in that of a soft white 
substance, so fine and so abundant, that it is used 
by the natives, in its natural state, for whitening 
tlieir houses. (Klaproth, p. 886 ; Palhu, L 866.) 

There is, perhaps, no other mountain region in 
the world so destitute of lakes as Caucasus. The 
lake of Sevan or Gookcha, between the Kur and 
Araxes, is the only one of any size in the whole 
region, and it can hardly be regarded as belonging 
to the Caucasus. It is a salt lake, of the kind so 
common in Central Asia, without any outlet, and 
occupying nearly the whole extent of a small ele- 
vated plam about 48 m. long, by 12 m. in width, 
5,800 ft above the sea. (Pallas, L 887, Ac ; Khip- 
roth, pp. 169, 241-407, Ac. ; Monteith, 6. J., ill 48, 
et tea. ; Spencer, pan.) 

CwnaU, — This, of course, varies with the eleva- 
tion ; but perhaps still more with the degree of 
shelter afforded oy the neighbouring ranges from 
the different, winds. Some of the N. Tallevs, not- 
withstanding their exposure to the bleak gusts 
from the Snowy Mountains, are so perfectly pro- 
tected from the N. wind, that their winter is as 
mild as in the S. parts of the Crimea. (Pallas, L 
339.) They are sobjectj however, to sudden and 
fierce, though brief, vicissitudes; and the very 
shelter which they possess, bv confining the air, 
makes them unhealthy. With the sharp ascent of 
the land, the temperature rapidly decreases, and a 
few hours serves to convey the traveller from the 
climate of the temperate zone to that of ever- 
lasting winter. The cold in the upper ranges is 
intense ; but observations are wanting on which 
to found any conclusion as to its average ; Mignan, 
at a comparatively low part of the range, found it, 
in Jan. 1830, a very cold winter, at 4^ Fahr., or 
28^ below the freoeing point, (L 85.) A better 
idea may, perhaps, be formed on this point, from 
the quantity of snow deposited in tne defiles r 
1,400 men were employed a fortnight in cutting a 
road for the Persian embassy, which, after all, was 
scarcely passable. (Mignan, i. 40.) Notwith- 
standing this intensify of cold, the plague is very 
common on the mountains. 

On the S., the countries on the Black Sea and 
Caspian may be described as warm ; those of Ime- 
ritia and Georgia as rather cold ; but this, again, 
must be taiken with considerable limitation, the N. 
parta of the two seas being subject to winter frosta. 
The melting of the ice in them frequently causes 
chillv summers on their shores, while, on die other 
hand, some of the higher valleys are among the 
ottest spots in the Caucasus. The abundance of 
running water, and the neighbourhood of the 
two bounding seas, cause a great accumulation of 
vapour; indeed, so extensive is the exhalation 

constantly going on, that it may be said every 
wind, if long continued, brings with it a mist, 
which nothing can disperse except a storm. These 
last are, consequently, frequent and terrible. 
Luckily, however, the cause that produces them 
gives warning of their approach ; the vapours, 
when grown too heavy for the atmosphere, collect 
themselves in dense masses round tne ndes and 
tops of the mountams ; and the Caucasians, warned 
bv this clothing of their Alps, prepare for the ex- 
plosion, which they know, by long experience, 
will speedily follow. They wrap themselves in 
their tehaouMaa (large cloaks made of wool and 
goat's hair, and perfectly waterproof), and under a 
low tent made of felt, expressly for such emer- 
gencies, or under the lee of a rock or tree, await, 
generally in safety, the passing of the tempest. 
(Spencer*s W. Cauc., p. 129.) Sometimes, how- 
ever, the falling of the diff or tree destroys those 
who have sought its shelter ; but these accidents 
are of rare occurrence, as it is not often that the 
natives are compelled, for want of their felt tentis, 
to run such risks ; but to strangers unprovided 
with the means of combating these storms, the 
effect is sure to be ultimately fataL One or, at 
most, two years' exposure to the varying infinence 
of a Caucasian climate, sends the Russian soldier 
either to his graTe or to the hoepital, with a con- 
stitution irrecoverably broken. The uncertain 
temperature and the humidify of the atmosphere 
appear indeed to make it very unhealthy to stran- 
gers, especially on the slopes and flats towards the 
sea. Intermittent and bilious fevers of a very grave 
kind are endemic, and exceedingly obstinate ; and 
the plague, as before observed, is also very com- 
mon. (For a singular statement connected with 
the climate of the Caucasus, see Herodotus, Clio, 
p. 105 ; KlaproUi, p. 160.) The varying humidity, 
or some other cause, seems Ukewise to impress the 
air with vefy peculiar qualities ; observations of 
altitude by the oarometer, or the boiling point of 
water, give very inconsistent results at different 
times (see Caspian Ska), and the extent of hori- 
zontal vision is frequently quite startling. The 
Caspian Sea is sometimes seen from the summit 
of the Bechtag, 164 m. distant ; and the Snowy 
Mountains from Sarepta, on the Wolga, a length 
of 822 m. ^Pallas, 1870; Klaproth, p. 158.) The 
distance of the visible horizon, exclusive of refrac- 
tion, would be in the first case about 94^ m., in 
the second about 168^ m. ; the amount of refrac- 
tion is, therefore, equal to more than 1^, and nearly 
2^^ respectively ; but, in ordinary states of tiie 
atmosphere, the maximum being onl^ 83', the 
excess of 27' and 1^ 57' indicates a vanable den- 
sify in the medium which is truly surprisiii^. 
Some of the laiger delta are said, in the tradi- 
tions of the natives, to have been caused by earth- 
auakes ; but there are no authenticated records of 
lese phenomena. (Guldenstadt, L 217-432 ; Pal> 
las, L 840, 858, 447, ei pau, ; Gmelin, ui jmus; ; 
Klaproth, pp. 168, 165, 809, 388, Ac. ; Chardm, 
p. 165 ; Spencer, W. Cauc., p. 125, et ae^, 820, 
dkc ; Circass., i. 286, dc ; Monteith, G. J., iii. 81, 

Produetknu, — 1. JUineraU, — Except in its de- 
ficiency of lakes, the Caucasus has many points of 
resemblance to the Alps; among others, an appa- 
rent poverty of mineral treasures. It is true tnat 
this, m the case of the Caucasus, may be iq>parent 
only. The ancients uncjuestionabl^ believed these 
mountains to be rich in the precious metals, bat 
this they also believed of most other districtathat 
were but slightly known to them ; and the limited 
obscarationB of scientific men in modem times 
tend to the opposite conclusion. A yellow mine- 
ral, called cat gold, is indeed found, which may, 



pcriiapcy hMTe oocanooed the stories as to the gold 
mines of the Caucasus ; but it is perfectly worth- 
lea& Iron, copper, saltpetre, sulphur, and lead, 
are finind, the last in tolerably laxge quantitiw. 
Salt is almost wholly wanting, and of eems there 
«loes not appear to be any vertJge. Indications of 
coal have lately been disoovered; and, hmn the 
enonnoos quantity of lime deposits, it is likely 
that maiblee may be found. (Pallas, i. 429 ; Gul- 
denstadt, L 441, 466; Klaproth, p. 891; Spencer, 
W. Cane, L 331.) 

2. VtaetableM. — In amount and variety of vege- 
tation, the Cancasianicgions seem to be unrivalled. 
Chardm, writing in 169^ says, * Mount Caucasus, 
till ve oome to lAe eery tap i^Uj is extremely fruits 
ful;^ and Spencer, in 1^ says, • However high 
the ascent, we see luxurious vegetation, mingling 
CTco with the mow of^ cemimrie$.* Nearly every 
tree, slijub» fruit, gram, and flower, found from 
the limit of the temperate zone to the pole, is 
native to or may be raised in the Caucasus. The 
N. bases consist of arable land of an excellent 
qoalitv, meadows of the finest grass, and dwaif 
wood in ^reat abundance. At a verv little dis- 
tance Uie increase of wood indicates a higher and 
colder oonntiy, but the plants which dcdight in a 
wmrm situation still continue to be verv numerous. 
From the more n^Md rise of thegiouna, bare rocks 
ai« more numerous on the N. uan on the S., but 
every shelf, however limited, is marked bv a rich 
▼csefation to a height almost inconceivable. The 
S. slopes and table-lands are still more abundant 
and varied in their productions than those on the 
N. ; to say nothing of the swampjr shores of the 
Euxine and Caspian, which are, in most cases, 
nearly impenetrable Juu^ of the rankest and 
most varied vegetation. The rising country con- 
sists of a suc ce s s ion of small flats, each covered 
with a most productive earth. The mountain 
sides and higher plains are clothed with dense 
forests, and the riven are frequently unapproach- 
able for a great distance. The forest trees consist 
of oaks of every species, osdars, cjrpresses, beeches, 
savins, junipers, hazels, fiis, boxes, pines, alders, 
and a host of others. Among the standard fruits 
are found the date pafan, the jujube, quince, cheiiy, 
olive, wild apricot, and willow-leaved pear. Pome- 
grsnatcs, figs, and mulberries grow wild in all 
the warmer valleys; and vines twine round the 
standard trees to a veiy great elevation up the 
mountains. A hard-wood tree, called b^ the 
nadves otOehsHa, is apparently peculiar; it is bf a 
deep rose oolour, veiy closely ^^rained, and suscep- 
tible of an extremely hi^h polish. In addition to 
the vine, the other climbing plants are innu- 
menUe, which mixing with the standards, the 
hnmble fruits, such as laspbenies and black- 
benies, and otto dwarf woocu, form a density of 
vuetation which it is impossible to penetrate, 
onleas a passage be hewn with the hatchet. Rye, 

bvleT, oats, wbnt, and millet are abundantly 
ttiaed, even as high as 7,600 ft. above the sea; 
and besides these grsins, the warmer plains and 
valleys produce flowea of every scent and dye, 
cotton, noe, flax, hemp, tobacco, and indigo, with 
evc^varie^ of cucumber and melon. This list 
is of necessity venr impofect, as wUl be evident 
when it is stated that Guldenstadt has filled 
ej^teenonarto p^ges with the mere names of the 
vazioiis plants seen by him on the banks of the 
TerdKandinGeoigia. (L 18^-197, 418-430.) It 
may serve, however, to exhibit the vegetable 
riches of a region which seems to produce eveir- 
thing necessaiy for the existence, and, with the 
exception of salt, even for the luxurious accom- 
modation of man. (Guldenstadt, as above, tt paa$, ; 
GmeUn, iti 22-68, et poM. ; Pallas, L 340, 357, 

364, 368, 879, &&; Klaoroth, pp. 167, 809, 391» 
Ac; Spencer, Circa8sia,'L 317, 330, il 233, 318i 
357, Ac; W. Cauc., L 29, 188-195, 216, Ac.; 
Monteith, 6. J., iii. 31-35.) 

3. AnimaU. — ^Animal life in the Caucasus is on 
a scale of magnitude and varietv equal to its ve^ 
tation. Wolves, bears, lynxes, jackals, foxes, wild 
cats, a peculiar beast of prey called chenu, toge- 
ther with many varieties of deer, wander in the 
forests and on the sides of the mountains. The 
smaller fur-bearing tribes are also common, as 
weasels, polecats, ermines, and moles of many 
varieties. Hares and every other species of game 
abound, with chamois and goats, of which the 
Caucasian goat (C^pu Oinuxunoa) seems peculiar. 
Sheep with peculiarly long wool are numerous; 
and it is even doubtful if, among the mountains, 
this creature be not yet living in a state of nature. 
This also is one of Uie homes of wild cattle ; the 
largest spodes (the aurochs)^ being found in its 
forests; while of the domesticated kinds the va- 
rieties are numerous and serviceable. The horses 
of the Caucasus have been famous from a very 
high antiquity, the Bechtag Mountain having 
formerly been called Hippicon Clwurwr), from the 
number of these animals which were grazed upon 
its sides. (Ptolemy, v. 9.) They are not less 
numerous in the present dav, and are among 
the very finest varieties or the species. Of 
birds there ore pheasants, partridges, grouse, and 
the whole tribe of mountain game, a great va- 
riety of the crow kind, nearlv ev^ species of 
birds of prey and passage, and some of the best 
specimens of the domestic varieties. Among in- 
sects, the bee and silkworm claim pre-eminence: 
they ore both numerous, and their productions, 
particularly the honey, formed a considerable 
branch of trade with Turkey, till the power of 
Russia sealed the ports of the Black Sea. Other 
insects are equally numerous, as are also the rep- 
tile tribes, among which are some fine species of 
tortoises and snakes, both harmless and venomous. 
(Guldenstadt, i. 418, et paanm ; Gmelin, iii 58, et 
paasimi Pallas, L 841, 410, Ac, Klaproth, p. 344, 
Ac; Spencer, ^Misstm.) 

/iiAaVi ' towls.— There is probablv no other part of 
the world, except Africa, S. of the Sahara, where 
so many nations and languages are collected within 
so small a space as in the Caucasus. Guldenstadt 
gives a list of seven difierent nations, besides 
Tartars, who speak langua^ radically different, 
and who are again suMivided into almost innu- 
merable tribes, among whom the varieties of dia- 
lects are nearly infinite. The principal nations 
he thus enumerates: — 1. Geofgians; 2. Basians; 
3. Abchasians ; 4. Tchericessians ; 6. Okesians; 
6. Kistiens ; 7. Lei^hians; 8. Tartars. (Keire, i. 
458-495.) Of these the most numerous and im- 
portant are the Georgians and Circassians or 
Tcherkessians ; but the Abchasians and Okesians, 
called by Pallas and Klaproth Abassians and 
Osetians, are also powerful tribes. In habits and 
mannen a strong resemblance is observed among 
them all; they are usually wandering huntors 
and warriors, for whidi occupations their country 
is peculiarly fitted, and only in an inferior degree 
shepherds or agriculturists. A partial exception 
must, however, DO made to this general character 
in favour of the Georgians, who reside in towns, 
and have long possessed a fixed form of government 
and internal polity ; but, for the rest, they iqipear 
to possess the erratic disposition, reckless courage, 
boundless hospitality, and much of the predatory 
habits which mark the Arab and other half bar- 
barous people. (See Circabsia, Georgia, Ac) 
It is well known that Blumenbach looked here 
for the origin of his first and most intellectual 



race of men (the CaucosUn) ; but for this, as 
has been proved, there is nut a particle of evi- 
dence, historical or philologicaL The Caucasians, 
though surrounded by the means of improvement, 
and occupying a country more favourably situated 
than that of Switzerland, have made no progress 
either in arts or arms ; and continue ta this day 
the same unlettered barbarians as in the days of 
Herodotus. rCUo, 203.) They have fine physical 
forms, but uieir mentisd endowments are of the 
most inferior description. 

iVame.--This has in all ages been the same 
among neighbouring nations, uiough, according to 
Strabo (xi. 600), the range was called by the 
natives Kaowior opoc (Caspian Mountains). The 
names Caspian and Caucasus have, in the opinion 
of Klaproth (p. 169), a similar etymology, namely, 
Koh-Chaf or Ckasp^ the mountain of Cktupj so 
called from the Caspii, a powerful people on its 
sides. (See Caspian Sea.) Pliny (vi. 2) de- 
rives the name, but with no great appearance of 
probability, from GroMuxuus, which, he says, in 
the Scythian tongue, means moe candiduL At 
present the term Caucasus is but litde uaed by the 
Asiatics, the name for the mountains among the 
Tartars being Jat-lnu] among the Turks, CXuzf- 
daghi ^Mount Ckaf) ; and among the Armenians, 
JaUfustsaaTt a modMcation of Uie Tartar term; 
but Caucasus is still in use among them. 

CAUDEBEC, a sea-port town of France, d^ 
Seine Infe'rieure, cap. cant., on the Sdne, at the 
mouth of the Caudebec, 6 m. S. Yretot. Pop. 
2,164 in 1861. The parish church, buUt in the 
16th century, is remaraable for the boldness and 
delicacy of its architecture. It has some manu- 
factures of cotton goods. Previously to the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes, it was comparatively 
flourishing; but that disastrous measure gave a 
blow to Its manufactures and commerce, from 
which it has not recovered. Its port, though safe, 
commodious, and advantageously situated l^tween 
Havre and Kouen, is but little frequented. 

CAUDETE (an. Biggern), a town of Spain, 
prov. Murda, « m. NNW. ViUena, 12 m. NE. 
Yecla. Pop. 6,672 in 1867. The town was for- 
merlv fortified ; and has a church, 2 convents, a 
hospital, several distilleries, and a palace of the 
bishop of Orihuela. On the heights in the vicinity 
a battle was fought in 1706, the day afr«r the great 
victory gained by the Duke of fierwick at Al- 
manza, between a detachment of the combined 
French and Spanish forces and those of the Arch- 
duke Charles, which ended in the defeat of the 

Central Asia, occupying a great part of the Hindoo 
Kooah and a portion of the Bolor Tagh mountains, 
chiefly between lat 86^ and Z&> N., and long. l(fi 
E. and the VV. limits of Cashmere ; having N. 
Budukshan, E. Little Thibet, S. the dom. of the 
Punjab and Caubul, and W. those of Caubul and 
K(x>ndooz. The hills N. of Bajour and Kooner 
form its S. limit ; its other boundaries have been 
vexy imperfectly defined. The whole of this coun- 
try is a lofty Alpine tract of snow-capped moun- 
tains, deep pine forests, interspersed with small 
but fertile and often populous valleys, and table- 
lands sometimes 10 or 16 m. across. Toirents and 
rivers are numerous, and are crossed by stationary 
wooden bridges or hanging bridges of rope and 
osiers. The cold of the winter is severe, but the 
valleys afford an abundance of grapes and other 
fruits, and the hills good pasture for sheep and 
goats. The Canfirs finfidels) who inhabit this 
region are an indepenaent nation, said by Baber 
and Abul Fazel, and believed by themselves, to be 
descended from the troops of Alexander the Great | 


They arc supposed by some to have been driven 
thither from the valley of the Oxus, on its beinf:; 
overrun by the Mohammedans; but Sir A. Bumes 
and Mr. Elphinstone suppose they had emigrated, 
through a similar cause, from the neighbourhood 
of Candahar. They are remarkable lor the fair- 
ness and beauty of their cbmplexions; are liberal, 
social^ and extremely hospitable : they never com- 
bine in war against their neighbours, but retaliate 
invasions fiercely, and fight with great bravezy 
and detemunation. They indulge an unceasing 
hatred against Mohammedans, and a Caufir adds 
an additional ornament to his dress, or another 
trophy to a high pole before his door, for each 
Mussulman he has slain. All wear tight clothes ; 
those of some tribes made of black goat skins, and 
of others of white cotton : all suffer their hair to 
hang over their shoulders, and each looks upon 
every one else as a brother who wears rirglets and 
drinks wine : to the latter they are much addicted, 
and grape juice is given to children at the breast. 
They eat uie flesh of all kinds of animals, except 
the dog and jackal, and use both tables and chairs 
of a rude construction : the women perform the 
business of tUla^, as well as all laborious domestic 
occupations. Fme rice, wheat, and barley are the 

Erincipal grains cultivated ; honey, vin^^, cheese, 
utter, milk, bread and fruit, constitute the rest 
of their food. Both sexes dnnk wine to excess. 
Their dwelling-houses are usually built of wood 
upon hill-slopes, the roof of one low of houses 
forming the street to those above it: the only 
roads in the country are footpaths. Their weapons 
are spears, scimitars, and bows and arrows. After 
battle the victors are crowned with chaplets of 
mulberry-leaves. Both sexes wear ornaments of 
gold, silver, and other metals ; and drinking-cups 
of the precious metals are often used, and much 
priaed by them. Their language is unintelli^ble 
to Hindoos, Usbecks, or Affghans; it contams a 
mixture of words from the Hindoo, A&han, and 
Persian tongues; but the majorpart of its roots 
are different from either: they have no books, and 
neither understand reading nor writing. They 
adore a supreme being, whom they call Dogan, 
and to whom they sacrifice both cows and pnta ; 
but address themselves to surbordinate deities, re- 
presented by idols of wood or stone, who, they 
say, intercede with the chief deity in their behalf: 
fire ia a requisite in every religioiis ceremony, al- 
though no veneration is paid to that element 
itselu They neither bum nor bury their dead, but 
expose the corpse in an open ooflin, in a forest 
jungle or on a mountain, and after a certain time 
collect as many of the bones as possible, and 
deposit them in a cave: these ceremonies are 
solemnized with triumph, dances, and sacrifices. 
Music, dancing, which is eagerly practised by all 
classes, conversation, and carousab, form their 
chief amusements. They have priests, but they 
do not possess an extensive influence : they live 
under different chiefs, but little farther is known 
respecting their ^vemment. The slavery of such 
as have lost their relations is universal : some of 
the Caufirs possess many slaves and cattle, and 
much land. By old writers this region is often 
named Kuttore: it was invaded by Timour, 
and in 1780, unsuccessfully, by a oonfederacv of 
the surrounding Mohammedan nations. (Elphin- 
stone's Caubul, ii. 878^77; Bnmes's Tnv., iiL 

CAUNES (LES), a town of France, d^ Aude, 
on the Aigent-Double, 11 m. NE. Caztauaone. 
Pop. 2,847 m 1861. The town has a fine parish 
church, formerly belonging to the Benedictine 
abbey suppressed at the revolution; with dis- 
tiUenes, tanneries, dye-works, maible-works for 


troikin^ the maible foand in the ndghbouring 

CAUSSADE, a town of France, d^. Tam-et- 
Gaioime, cap. cant^ in a fertile countiy, near the 
Cande, 12 m. NE. Montauban, on the railway from 
MonUnban to Viviers. Pop. 4,033 in 1861. The 
town is handsome, well-built, and has broad and 
stiaigfat streets; has numerous flour-mills, with 
manufactures of\woollen and linen stuffs, and 
canies on scMne trade in com, saffiton, and truffles. 

CAVA, a town of Southern Italy, prov. Salerno, 
cap. cantl, in the middle of the agreeable valley of 
Fenestra, 26 m. ESE. Naples. Fop. 24,378 in 
1862. The town has a cathedral, three other 
churdies, a convent for noble ladies, a charity 
workhouse, a hospital, and a seminary. Silk, 
eottoo, and woollen stufb axe manufactured in the 
town and the adjacent villages. The territory is 
not very fruitful, but the inhabitants have become 
rich by thdr industry and c<Mnmerce. About a 
mfle £rom the town is the magnificent Benedictine 
conve n t of La Trinity with a fine library. 

CAVAILLON (anc. (hbelUo), a town of France, 
dep. Vancluae, cap. cant., on the Durance, near 
where it is joined by the Coulon, at the foot of a 
mountain, 18 m. SEC Avi^on. Pop. 7,797 in 1861. 
The town is mo^y ill-built, with narrow and dirty 
streetai The fortifications by which it was for- 
merly surrounded were destroyed during the re- 
volution ; the bishopric of which it was the seat 
has been also abolished. It has a considerable 
trade in dried fruits and preserves, shoes, and nuts. 

Cavaillon is a very andeut town. The Romans 
are believed to have planted a colony in it, and, at 
all events, they embellished it with several magni- 
ficent edifices. But having been since repeat^ly 
ovecmn and piUaged by barbarians, and having 
aaffered mnch from an earthquake in 1731, com- 
poiativety few remains of antiquity are to be found 
cither in the town or its vicimty. The best pre- 
served, though even that is much dilapidated, is 
a fragment of a triumphal arch supposed to belong 
to the age of Augustus. 

CAVAN, an mL oo. of Ireland, prov. Ulster, 
having N. Fermanagh, E. Monaghan, S. Longford, 
Heath, and Weetmeath, and W. Leitrim and 
Loi^oid. Area, 473,749 imperial acres, of which 
30,1)00 are unimproved mountain and boc^, and 
21,9i^ water, oonsiBtinff principally of Toughs 
ShUUn, Ramor, and Oughter. The Shannon has 
its principal source in the NW. part of this co., 
and it is traversed by the Erne, Annalee, Ac 
Surface hilly, and boQ generally poor. There are 
some h^ge estates, but the greater number are of 
modeiate aze. About 4-dtha of the land imdcr 
tillage. Agriculture in the most depressed state ; 
hokUngs generally small, and the competition for 
them excessive. Spade cultivation is very general, 
so much so that in some parishes there is hardly a 
pkxigb. Oats and potatoes principal crops, but 
aome wheat is raised, and flax. Cottiers have 
generally pigs and goats ; the former being sold to 

Ely the rent, and the latter kept for their milk, 
inen manufacture widely diffused, having not a 
tittle contributed to the subdivision of the co. It 
is affirmed that the condition of the peasantry has 
been materially deteriorated during the last 20 
yemn, IGnerau UUle known. Cavan is divided 
into 7 baronies and 30 parishes, and sends 2 mems. 
to the H. of C for the co. K^stered electors 
5,989 in 1865. Principal town Cavan. The co. 
had a popolattoo of 243,262 in 1841 ; of 174,260 
in 1851; and of 153,906 in 1861. These statistics 
of population tell« more than words can do, a sad 
history of decline. 

Cavav, an inland town of Ireland, co. Cavan, 
prov. Lister, 60 m. NW. Dublin, on the railway 



firom Dublin to Enniskillen. Pop; 8,209 in 1861. 
Cavan, though the assize town, is with few ex- 
ceptions meanly built, long lines of suburbs being 
formed of thatched mud cabins. The public 
buildings are a large parish church and Rom. 
Cath. chapel ; an endowed school of royal foun- 
dation, having accommodation for 100 resident 
students ; a fine court-house, a co. prison on the 
radiating plan, and an infirmary. A garden of 
Lord Fanmam's, near the town, has been thrown 
open as a promenade for the inhabitants. The 
corporation, under a charter of James I., in 1610, 
consisted of a sovereign, 2 portreeves, 2 burgesses, 
and an unlimited commonalty ; but having been 
deprived at the Union of the ri^ht of sending 
mem. to the H. of C, it has fallen mto desuetude. 
The assizes for the co., general sessions at Hilary 
and Midsummer, and petty sessions every week, 
are held here. Trade inconsiderable, and chiefly 
in oats and butter. Markets are held on Tuesdays; 
fairs on Feb. 1. April 4, May 14, June 30, Aug. 14, 
Sept 25, and Nov. 12. 

CAVERY, a river of S. Hindostan, the most 
considerable and useful S. of the Krishna ; both 
Mysore and the Camatic owing much of their 
agricultural wealth to the water it distributes. It 
rises in Coorg, bounds Coimbatoor NE., and afrer 
a winding course of 450 m., chiefly in a E. direc- 
tion, falls into the sea by various mouths in the 
district of Tanjore, where it is industriously made 
use of for irrigation. It is fllled by both monsoons, 
but is not navigable for lilrge vessels. 

CAVERYPAUK, a town of Hindostan, prov. 
Camatic, 57 m. WSW. Madras, in the neighbour- 
hood of which is an immense tank 8 m. long by 
3 m. broad, faced with large stones, and supported 
by a mound of earth 30 ft. high. This is one of 
the finest works constructed for the purpose of 
irrigation throughout the S. of India. 

CAVITE', a town of Luzon, one of the Philip- 
pine Islands, in the Bay of Manilla, 3 m. SW. that 
city, of which it is the port ; lat. 14^ 34' N., long. 
120^ 48' E. Estimated pop. 5,000. It is the naval 
dep6t of all the Spanish possessions in the East, 
and is built on the E. extremity of a low bifurcated 
peninsula, stretching into the' sea for about 3 m., 
having between its two extremities the outer har- 
bour, while the inner harbour is situated to the S. 
of the town : neither has more than four fathoms 
water, thoujgh very large ships moor in the inner 
harbour. 'Die houses of Cavity which are two 
stories high, are built chiefly of wood, their win- 
dows being furnished with a semi-transparent shell 
instead of glass. It has an arsenal, a marine hoe- 
pital, some well-built churches, and several con- 
vents ; but has of late years greatly decreased in 
size and importance. 

CAWNPORE, or CAUNPOOR (Khanpura\ a 
district or collectorate of Hindostan, prov. Alla- 
habad, presid. Bengal, composed of cessions from 
the nabob of Oude, between lat 260 and 27^ N., 
and long. 79^ 30' and 80° 30' E.. having NW. the 
distrs. of Etawah, Belah, and Fumic^bad, NE. 
the Oude reserved territories, SE. the Fultehpoor 
and Kalpec distrs., and SW. Bundlecund. Area 
2,650 sq. m* Pop. probably nearly a million. 
This distr. is bounded NE. by the Ganges, and 
intersected in its entire length by the Jumna : it 
is therefore almost wholly comprised within the 
Doab. Surface flat ; soil highly productive, and 
upon the whole tolerably wdl cultivated, though 
in some parts there are extensive wastes. Maize, 
barley, and wheat, turnips, cabbages, and other 
European vegetables; grapes, peaches, &&, are 
grown, and the sugar-cane flourishes in great lux- 
uriance. Agriculture prospers in the neighbour- 
hood of the cap., owing to the presence of a Euro- 



pcan maiket, and conseqaeiit high prioea. The 
assessment on the land is hi^h, and the prov. was 
on its first comine into British possession very 
mach over-assessed, and suffered greatly in con- 
sequence. There are about 2,000 villages in this 
distr., which possess lands; but the perpetual 
settlement is also established. Nearly all the 
pop. are Hindoos, the heads of the villages being 
mostly of the Rajpoot caste. Offences are ftequent, 
but yearly dimmishin^ as the efficiency of the 
police increases; dacot^f, or gang-robbery, was 
formerly frequent, but was committed only by 
gangs out of the Oude reserved territory. Thuggee^ 
or murder bv professional murderers, also prevailed 
greatly in this distr. ; and from 1830 to 1840 the 
average was about 10 thuggeeB yearly. The prin- 
cipal towns are Cawnpore, the cap^ Beaoulabad, 
Jaugemow, and Acberpoor. 

Cawspurk, the cap. town of the above distr., 
and chief British militaiv station in the ceded 
provinces, on the W. bank of the Ganges, 38 m. 
SW. Lucknow, and 100 m. NW. Allahabad; lat. 
26^ 30' N., long. WP 13' £. The town extends 
irregularly for 6 m. along the bank of the river, 
which is here a mile broi^ and lined by the bun- 
galows of European officers. It is built in a very 
straggling; manner, with the exception of a tole- 
rable mam street nearlv parallel with the military' 
lines, composed of well-Duilt brick houses two or 
three stories hi^h, wiUi wooden balconies in front. 
Excepting its sue, few circumstances about Cawn- 
pore attract much notice; the European public 
ouildings are of simple architecture, and confined 
to works of absolute necessity ; the chief are the 
military hospital, gaol, assembly-room, and cus- 
tom-house. A Protestant church has been erected 
by public subscription within the last fev? years : 
most of the other religious edifices are mosquee, 
some of which are hiuidaome. Shops large and 
tolerably well supplied, provisions being about half 
the price they bring in Calcutta. The European 
private houses are roomy, one story high, with 
sloping roofii, first thatched and then tiled. The 
officers' bungalows along the banks of the Ganges 
are encircled by gardens surrounded by mud widls. 
At the NW. extremity of the town are the public 
magazines protected by a slight entrenchment; 
and farther on, in the same direction, is the old 
town of Cawnpore, a place of no consequence, and 
containing no interesting relics of antiquity. A 
free-school was established here in 1823, which is 
attended by Europeans, Mohammedans, and Hin- 
doos, who receive instruction tt^ther, and the 
progress of which is most satisfactory. It is sup- 
ported partly by a government grant of 4,800 
rupees a year. Cawnpore is not a pleasant place 
of residence for Europeans. Its great heat and 
the clouds of dust to which it is subject are repre- 
sented as most distressing. 

Cawnpore derived a sad notoriety daring the 
Indian mutiny of 1857. The small British foroe 
stationed in this town having surrendered, by 
capitulation, to Nana Sahib) thev were allowed to 
leave ; but had no sooner embaned in their boats, 
on the 17tii of Jun& when they were fired upon, 
and nearly all cruelly murdered. A numbcar of 
women and children escaped the slauobter onlv to 
be killed, soon after, with unexampfed brutauty. 
The tale of these horrors is perpetuated by a 
monument erected at Cawnpore. 

CAXAMARCA, a city of Peru, cap. prov. of 
same name, in a fertile and well-cultivated valley 
in the Andes, 370 m. NNW. Lima ; Ut. ?<> 8^ 38" 
S., long. 78<» 36' 15" W. Pop. about 7,000, chiefly 
Indians and MesUzoes. Its name is equivalent to 
* place of frost,' and has been probably derived from 
its being sometimes vudted by frosty winds from 


the £. ; but, in general, the climate ii excellent. 
Most of the houses are tiled and whitewashed. 
The churches, which are numerous and handsome, 
are built of stone richly cut, and are omamenteil 
with spires and domes. They were formerly cele- 
brated for the quantity of gold and silver decora- 
tions they contained. There are also some convents 
and nuimeries. The inhab. are industrious, and 
(^nsidered the best silver and iron woricersin Peru. 
' 1 have,' says Mr. Stephenson, ' seen many very 
handsome sword-blades and daggers made hero; 
pocket-steels and bridle-bits most curiously 
wrought, besides several well-finished pistol and 
gun locka. Literature would prosper here, were it 
properly cultivated ; the natives are fond of in- 
struction, and scholars are not rare ; many of tho 
richer inhab. send their children to Truxillo and 
Lima to be educated.' (Stevenson's Peru, ii 132.) 
The inhab. of the interior resort thither to sell 
their own produce and manufactures, and to pur- 
chase sudi other as they may reouire. Hence a 
considerable trade is earned on wiui Lambayeque, 
and other places on the coast, to which Caxamarca 
furnishes manufactured goods, such as baizes, 
coarse doth, blankets, and flannels ; and receives 
in return European manufactures, soap, sugar, 
cocoa, brandy, wine, indigo, Paraguay tea, salt- 
fish, iron, and steeL Some of the shops are well 
stored with European goods. The markets are 
well supplied with frnh meat, poultry, bread, 
ve^tables, fruit, butter, and cheese, at very low 

Ences. About a league E. from the city are some 
ot and cold springs, which were used by the 
incas for baths, and are still employed for the same 

Cfaxamarca is a jklace of considerable celebrity 
in the history of Peru, and of Spanish atrocity. 
The incas had apalaoe here; and it was here that 
Friar Yincente Valverde delivered his famous ha- 
rangue to the Inca Atahualpa, which was imme- 
diately followed by the butchery of the Peruviana, 
and by (he imprisonment, accusation, and murder 
of the inca. 

CAYENNE, a seanport town of French Guyana, 
cap. of that colony, at the NW. extremitv of the 
isL of same name, at the mouth of the Oyaque ; 
hit 40 60' 16" N., long. 620 14' 45" W. Pop. 
6,230 in 1861. The town covers a surface of about 
70 hectares^ and contains about 600 houses, mostly 
of wood. It is divided into the old and new towns : 
the former, which is ill-built, contains the go- 
vernment house and the ancient Jesuits' oollc^ : 
it is separated from the new town by the Place 
d'Armes, a large open space planted with orange- 
trees. The new town is larger than the old, and 
was laid out at the end of the last century ; ita 
streets are wide, straight, mostlv paved, and dean ; 
it has a handsome church, with some large ware- 
houses and good private residences. The old town 
is commanded by a fort, which, with some low 
batteries, protects the entrance of the harbour. 
The latter is shallow, but otherwise good, and well 
adapted for merchant-vessels of moderate size. 
There are two quays for loading and unloading. 
The roadstead at the mouth of the Oyac^ue, though 
small, is the best on the coasL Its holding-ground 
is good, and it has everywhere from 12 to 18 fU 
water; trading vessels lie in it within 1 m. of the 
land, and 2 m. of the town. Ships drawing more 
than 16 ft. water anchor about 6 m. from Cayenne, 
near a rocky islet cidled 'L'Enfant Perdut' Cay- 
eime is the centre of the whole tnule of the coloiiy. 
(See GuAYAKA, French.) It is the seat of a 
royal court, a court of assizes and of tribunals of 
the peace and original jurisdiction. The tovm was 
founded about 1686. The Emperor Napoleon III., 
on establishing himself on the throne of fWrnce^ 


It a immber of poUdcal prisonen here, many of 
whoa perished on aooonnt of the nnhfalthinww of 

Catexitb. See Gutaxa (Frekch). 

CAYLUS, a town of Fiance, d^p. Tam-et^Ga- 
ronne, near the right bank ni Uie lionnette river, 
and th« high road between Montanban and Rho- 
des, 24 m. N£. the fonner dtj. Pop. 4,978 in 
1861. It haa a oonrideiable tiade in com, and 
eleven fain annually. 

CAZALLA, a town of Spain, proy. Seville, on 
the cnst of the Sierra Moiena, 18 m. SE. 6aadal> 
canaL Pop. 6,852 in 1857. The town has a 
chofch, five monasteriee, and two hoepitaU. Its 
c&vinma have many Roman and Arabic antiqoi- 
taea, and rains of country residences of mcwe mo- 
dem date; with mines of silver, iron, sulphur, 
amianthos, and copper; and quarries of beauti- 
fully variegated maroles. The mountains are the 
resort of wild boais and wolves, which make much 
havoc among the cattle. 

CAZERES, a town of France, dtfp. Haute 6an 
roone, cap. cant^ on the Ganmne, 31 m. SW. 
Toulooae. Pop. 2,683 in 1861. A handsome pro- 
menade sepaiates the town ftom the suburbs. 
Tlien are fiibrics of hats, with dye-works and 



CEFALU, a sea-port town of Sicfly, prov. Pa- 
lermo, on the Tyrrhenean Sea, at the foot of a 
rock, 40 m. ESE. Paleraw; lat, 88^ K., long. 
140 la' 57" £. Popw 11,188 in 1861. The town 
ia aurroonded by a bastioned line wall, but the 
works are old and weak. The streets are tolerably 
leeular, and then is a good cathedral and some 
other churches, with a school of navigation. The 
port ia on^ Mid the trade of the place but inoon- 
MdemUe. On the summit of the hill above the 
town are the ruins of a Saracenic castle. 

CEHEJIN {Syim), a town of Spain, prov. 
Horaa, on the river Caravaca, 8 m. K Canvaca 
town, and 40 m. WNW. Murda. Pop. 8,710 in 
11^7. The town is situated in a well cultivated 
and fertile district. The principal streets are well 
|«ved, and the houses good — some of them mag- 
nificent, marble being abundant in the neighbour- 
hood. It has a church, a convent, and an ancient 
castle, with several distilleries, and manufactures 
of ooane paper, linen, and sandals. 

CELANO, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 
Aquila, ca^ cant., near the lake Fudno or Celano, 
20 m. 88£. Aquila. Pop. 6,625 in 1861. The 
town has one collegiate and some other churches, 
and a manufactoiy of paper. For an account of 
the Lake of Celano see Fuonco (Lakb of). 

CELEBES, a krge island of the £. ArchipeUigo, 
fvaoing the centre of its 2nd divisicm ; stretching 
from lat. 20 N. to nearly 6^ S., and from long. 
1190 to 12SP E.; having N. the Sea <tf Celebo, 
W. the Stmits of Macassar, K the Molucca and 
Pitt*a Paasages, and S. the Flores Sea. Areaesti- 
mated at ^000 sq. m. Pop. supposed to be 
between 1,500,000 and ^000,000. Ito shiHPe is 
wngnlaily inegular; it is deeply indented by 
three peat bays, separated by lour peninsulas, 
divefsmg N., ^ and S. 

Cettbea, unlike most of the other great islands 
of this archipelago, abounds in extensive grassy 
plains, free fhmi mresta, which are looked upon as 
the oommon property of the tribes who live upon 
theoi, by whom they are carefully guarded from 
the intrusion of aUens. There are only three 
rivoB of any consequence; the Chiurana, which 
ri«ca near the centre of the island, and running S. 
throogh the state of B<mi, fiUls by several mouths 
into toe bav of the same name; a second stream, 
having a If. direction; and a third, which dis- 
chaiges itself on the W. coast, S. of Macassar. 

The Chiurana is navigable for ships to some dis- 
tance ; and native boats pass up it considerably 
farther into a fresh-water lake. Volcanos are said 
to exist in the N. division of the island. Gold is 
found in Celebes; but in a less quantity than yn 
Borneo, and chiefly in the sands of the streams. 
Timber is not very plentiful ; teak-trees are gene- 
rally few ; but a laxge forest of them exists in one 
part of the island, which the natives report to 
nave been raised from imported seecL Tne vast 
plains afford abundant pasture and cover for a va- 
riety of the best game, deer, wild hogs, Ac The 
tiger and leopard, though common in the W. parts 
01 the archipelago, are here unknown. The horses 
of Celebes, though seldom exceeding 18 hands 
high, are larger built, and unite a greater share of 
blood and strength than any other oreed of the E. 
islands; they are regularly trained for hunting, 
and are noted for fleetness and perseverance. Rice, 
maize, and cassava, with cotton and tobacco, are 
the chief artides grown. The S. peninsula being 
the most healthy, is by far the most extensivdy 
peopled, and contains Uie two principal states of 
the island, those of Boni and Macassar. The 
centre of the island is said to be inhabited by Ho- 
raforas (see E. Archipblaoo), supposed to be 
aborigines : the brown race consists of a number 
of tribes, agreeing remarkably in person, but di- 
vided into four or five different nations, of which 
that of the Bugis is by far the most considerable. 
The^ are usu^y squat, robust, and somewhat 
heavily formed, though not ill built; their medium 
height is a little above 5 ft. ; faces round; che^- 
bones high ; nose small, and ndtber veiy promi- 
nent nor flattened; mouth wide, and teeth fine, 
when not discoloured by art. They are more dis- 
tinguished for a revengeful disposition than any 
of the other natives of this arohipelago. Not- 
withstanding most of the tribes have long passed 
that sta^ of sodety in which the chase is pursued 
for subsistence, they follow it with great ardour; 
and no sooner is the rice seed cast into the ground, 
than the chiefs and their retainers turn with en- 
thusiasm to the sports of the fidd, in parties of 
firequently not less than 200 horsemen. 

The Wadju, or Tuwadju tribe, inhabiting the 
body of the island, are distinmushed as a com- 
mercial and enterprising peoiJe. The natives of 
Celebes and Bali are the most celebrated in the 
arohipelago for their manufactures of cloth, their 
fabrics ranking before all others for fineness and 
durability : they are, however, ignorant of the art 
of printing cloUis, or of giving them the brilliant 
colours of the fabrics of the Asiatic continent. 
The inhabitants import cotton, birds' nests, tri- 
pang, sharks' fins, tortoise sheU, agar-wood, Ac ; 
and, together with gold in small quantities, and 
hides, re-export these articles to China, by tiie 
junks which annually trade to Celebes. The se- 
veral chiefs have often a monopoly of some artide 
of moduce, as Imiss, betd-nut, opium, and salt 

The various independent nations of Cdebos 
have each their peculiar form of government; 
but these are for the most part limited monar- 
chies, the sovereign being controlled by the subor- 
dinate chieftains, and these again frequentlv by 
the mass of the people. The fMieral state of ^ni 
consiBts of eight petty states, each governed by 
its own hereditary despot ; while the general go- 
vernment is vested in one of the number elected 
from among the rest, but who can do nothing 
without the iissent of the others. 

In the state of the Goa Macassars, the king is 
chosen by ten electors, who also choose an officer 
invested with powers similar to those of the mayors 
of the palace of France, or the ancient iu8tiza 
of Aragon, and who can, of his own autliority. 



remove the king himself or any one of the coun- 
cilf and direct the electors to proceed to a new 

In the Bugis state of Wadju, forty chiefs con- 
stitute the great council of the nation, which is 
divided into three chambers, from each of which 
two members are nominated, who, in their turn, 
elect the chief of the confederacy. The * Council 
of Forty * decide on all questions of peace and war. 
Women or infants of the privileged families in 
Celebes are commonly eligible to the throne ; and 
women very frequently actually exercise the 
|K)wers of sovereignty ; they are throughout the 
island associated on terms of equality with the 
men, taking active concern in all the business of 
life. They appear in public without scandal, and 
are often consulted on public affairs. Though the 
husband invariably pays a price for his wife, she is 
never treated with contempt or HiaHnin, 

Notwithstanding the symptoms of a considerable 
advance in civiliiuition now enumerated, a great 
deal of rudeness and barbarity exhibit themselves 
among the inhabitants. Crimes are frequent; 
thefts and robberies extremely so : a total disregard 
of human life seems to prevail, and murder and 
assassination for hire are by no means rare. Mo- 
hammedanism is the predominant reli^on, espe- 
cially in the S. part of the island ; it was mtroduced 
by the Malays ; but the inhab. generally are by no 
means strict as to its injunctions. The languaces 
spoken belong to the great Polynesian famuy, but 
differ from those common in the W. of the archi- 
peli^^o, in being more soft and vocalic, and having 
less intermixture of Sanscrit : the two dialects of the 
Bugis and Macassars are the principal, and amongst 
the most improved tongues of Uie archipelago: 
the Bugis have a literature by no means con- 
temptiwe. In their costume, the people of Celebes 
avoid showing the knee ; they wear a long coloured 
cloth, the end of which they throw over the 
shoulder. They blacken the teeth, and use unc- 
tuous cosmetics: their ornaments are flowers, gold 
trinkets, and diamonds, krisses, betel-boxes, Ac 
They appear to have no scientific treatises ; but are 
not wholly ignorant of some of the constellations, 
by the observation of which they navigate their 

Celebes was first visited by the Portuguese in 
1612, who were expelled by the Dutch in 1660. 
In 1811 the territories belonging to that nation 
fell under the British dominion ; but in 1816 were 
restored. The principal Dutch settlement is Ma- 
cassar, which contains Fort Rotterdam, the resi- 
dence of the governor. The Dutch have other 
settlements on the bays of Tolo and Tominie ; and 
most of the native states are subordinate to Uiem. 
(Crawfurd, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 8 vols.) 

CEPUAI.ONIA (an. CephaUenia), an isL in the 
Mediterranean, and the kugest of those composing 
the former Ionian republic, now forming part of 
the kingdom of Greece, near the W. coast of 
Greece, opposite the Gulf of Patras : between lat. 
38° 3' and 88° 29' N., and long. 20© 21' and 20^ 49' 
£. ; 8 m. N. Zante, 5 m. S. Santa Maura, and 64 
m. SSE. Corfu. Length, NNW. to SS£., 32 m. ; 
breadthj very unequ^ Area 848 sq. m. Pop. 
70,120 m 1860. Its aspect is generally moun- 
tainous and barren, and though some spots are 
rich and fertile, the soil is, for Uie most part, onlv 
scantily spread over the limestone rock, of which 
the countiy consists. The shores are indented by 
numerous bays, of which that of Argostoli in the 
SW. is the principal. It extends for 7 or 8 m. 
inland, and has, m most parts, deep water and 
good anchorage. In the interior of tne island an 
elevated range, called the Black Mountain, runs 
^W. to S£., the highest point of which (an. M, 


(Eno$)y is 5,000 ft. above the level of the sea. 
Surface generally uneven ; the only plain is in the 
SW. near Argostoli, which is also the most densely 
inhabited part of the island. Climate mild ; but 
storms and heavv rains, sudden changes of tem- 
perature, and earthquakes are frequent The island 
contains about 40,000 acres of cultivated, and 
180,000 acres of uncultivated land. Wheat, In- 
dian and other com, pulse, currants, olive oil, wine, 
cotton, flax, and salt, constitute the chief products. 
The principal article of export is currants; and 
next to it, wine and oiL The annual produce of 
cuirants is estimated at from 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 
lbs. The Yalonea oak abounds. Tenures of land 
are mostly annual, on the mtUmer system. Pro- 
perty is much divided, few proprieton having a 
revenue of 1,000/. a year. Cephalonia is repre- 
sented by ten deputies in the parliament of the 
kingdom of Greece. Aii^ostoli and Lixuri are the 
chidf towns ; they are situated on either aide the 
Bay of AigostolL At the mouth of this inlet there 
is a ligh^ouse ; and at Lixuri, a mole for the 
security of trading vessels has been constructed. 
Near Axgostoli, a curious undershot water-mill was 
built by an English merchant in 1835. The roads 
were formerly vezybad^ but have been greatly im- 
TOoved during the time that the island was under 
British protection. Most of the pop. belong to the 
Greek church ; the remainder are chieflv Soman 
Cath. Lixuri is the seat of a Roman Cath. bishop, 
llie inhabitants of this island are active, enter- 
prising, and noted for their industiy and com- 
mercifld spirit. A great number of them are phy- 
sicians ; and, like many other of their conntzymen, 
emigrate and settle elsewhere. The bland was 
anciently known by several names : Thncydides 
calb it Tetrapolis,*from its four principal cities, 
Samoe, Pali, Krani, and Pronos, remains of which 
still exist. The site of Samoa exhibits very ex- 
tensive ruins, amongst which many medals, vases, 
statues, Ac have been found, and Dr. Holland 
traced the Cyclopean waUs of Krani, at the head 
of the Gulf of Argostoli, in almost their entire 
extent. Cephalonia belonged successively to the 
Byzantine empire, Normans, Venetians, Tuiks, and 
Venetians again ; from whom it was taken by the 
French in 1799. In 1815 it was, vdth the rest of 
the Ionian Islands, placed under the protectorate 
of Great Britain, but ceded to the kingdom of 
Greece in 1864. 

CERAM, a oonmderable island of the £. Archi- 
pelago (third division), chiefly between lat 3^ and 
40 S., and long. 128^ and 131^ E. ; length, E. and 
W., about 185 m. by 80 m. average brradUi ; area 
5,500 sq. m. A mountain chain runs £. and W. 
through the centre of the island, the highest peak 
of which is apparently about 7,000 ft. above the 
level of the sea. Ceram is chiefly distinguished 
for its large forests of sago-palm and its fine woods 
for cabinet-work ; in one portion of it great quan- 
tities of nutmegs and cloves were formerly pro- 
duced ; but the trees were extirpated by the Dutch 
about 1657. The shores of Ceram abound with 
rare and beautiful sheUs; its interior is peopled 
by tribes of HoraforBa. (See Arohipkuioo, East- 
ern.) A cluster of small islands, called Ceram 
Lant, lies off the E. end of Ceram. 

CERET, a town of France, d^. Pyren^ Oii- 
entales, cap. arrond., near the Tech, 15 m. SSW. 
Perpignan, and 5 m. from the frontier of Spain. 
Pop. 3,585 in 1861. The town is the seat of a de- 
parbnental college and of a court of primaiy iuria- 
diction. It was here that the plenipotentiaries 
met to fix the limits between France and Spain, 
in 1660. 

CERIGNOLA, a town of Southern Italy, prov. 
Foggia, cap. cant, 23 m. SE. Foggia, Pojk 18,517 


in 1861. It is a weU-bnilt town, with a college, 
•evenl oonTenta, and a hospital. In the neigh- 
booriiood of thia town, in 1503, Gonaalvo de Cor- 
dova gained a decisive victory over the French 
fiwoefl commanded faj the Due de Nemoazs, who 
was killed in the action. 

CERI60 (an. C^thera), the most southerly of 
the seven principal Ionian Islands, which formerly 
oonstitated the Ionian xepublic, situated at a con- 
siderable distance from the others, near the S. ex- 
trcmitr of the If orea, between lat. S€9 T and 
Sdo t^ N.» and lonff. 22© 62' 30" and 28© T 80" E. 
Length, N. to S., 20 m. ; greatest breadth, 12 m. 
Areall6s(i.m. Pop. 14,100 in 1860. The surface 
is mountainous, rocky, and mostly uncultivated ; 
bat some parts of it produce wheat, maize, pulse, 
ooctoo, flax, wine, and olive oil ; the latter of which 
is iughly esteemed. The honey of Cerigo is also 
of very good quality. It has a greater number of 
homed cattle than any of the other islands. The 
afaorea are abrupt ; the sea round Cerigo is mudi 
distmbed by currents; and gales dangerous to 
shipping are frequent. The best anchorage is at 
SU Niooks on the £. coast. The principal town is 
Kapsali, at the S. extremity, with a pop. of about 
6,000 ; houses mostljr of wood and ill-built. Though 
nofw comparatively insignificant, Cythera was for- 
merly a jjlaoe of considerable importance, and pro- 
bdUy <M wealth, if we may judge from the ruins 
litill extant in various parts of the island. It was 
the buthpLaoe of Helen, and sacred to Venus, in 
honour of whom a temple, said to have been 
founded by J&neas, was erected. (Larcher, M^ 
moire sor Venus, 144.) Cythera was oriffinally 
called Porpkjfri*^ frtnn the nature of its rocks. It 
was long a naval 9tati<m of the Lacedaemonians ; 
and belonged successively to Macedon, Egypt, 
Kome, and Venice. The httle island of Cerigotto, 
(an. OgUid)^ 4 m. long, and inhabited by about 
thirty familiea, lies midwav between Cengo and 
Crete, about 20 m. from either. 

CERKETO, a town of Southern Italy, proT. 
Benevento, cap. cant, on the declivity of Mont 
If ateia, near the Cnsano, 10 m. ESE. Piedimonte. 
Popw 6,961 in 1862. It is well built, and is one of 
the most agreeable towns in the province : it has 
a fine cathedral ornamented with superb pictures, 
a eollegiate church, three convents, a seminary, 
and oMisiderable manufactures of coarse cloth. La 
1656 it was wasted by the plague, and in 1688 an 
eaithqaake destroyed great part of the town. 

CEKVERA, a city of Spam, prov. Catalonia, on 
an eminence, 57 m. NW. Barcelona, 102 m. E. 
Saragossa. Pop. 4,499 in 1857. The town stands 
on a considerable eminence, is surrounded by waUs, 
and has an ancient decayed castle. It has a church, 
five oonTenta, a hospital, and five colleges. Some 
of its streets are well paved. The church is a 
Gothic building, with three naves; and the uni- 
vcfsity, establiuied in this city hy Philip V., is a 
laijce, magnificent structure. Ine vicinity pn>- 
dnces wine, oil, almonds, grain, pulse, cattle, and 
plenty of game. 

CEKVIA, a town of Central Italy, prov. Ra- 
venna, near the Adriatic, with which it communi- 
cates by a canal, 1 1^ m. SE. Ravenna. Pop. 5,733 
in 1862. The town is a seat of a bishopric ; is 
legnlariy built; has a cathedral and several 
chmcfaes and oonventsi To the W. Of the town 
is a vast marsh, called the VtdU di Cervitu 

CESEN A, a town of Central Italy, prov. Ferrara, 
on the Sario, at the foot of a mountam, 10 m. SE. 
Forii Pop. 33,752 in 1862. llie town is the seat 
of a buhoptic ; is well built ; has a cathedral, a 
handsome town-house, fourteen convents for men, 
and seven Ux women, a seminar^', a society of agri- 
cailtnre and of arts, with silk filatures, and a con- 



siderable trade in wine and hemp, produced in its 


CETTE, a fortified sea-port town of France, d^p 
Herault, cap. cant., on the narrow tongue of land 
separating the lagoon of Thau from the sea, and 
on the declivity and at the foot of a calcareous 
hill, which advances into the Mediterranean in the 
form of a peninsula, 15 m. SW. Montpellier, on 
the railway from Montpellier to Narbonne. Pop. 
22,438 in 1861. The town is well built, but it de- 
rives its chief importance from its harbour, and 
from its being the port, on the Mediterranean side, 
of the Canal du Midi The harbour is formed by 
two lateral moles, with a breakwater across the 
entrance. There are forts on both these moles, 
and on the principal is a lighthouse, the lantern 
being elevated 84 ft. above the level of the sea. 
The harbour is perfectly safe in all weathers ; has 
frt>m 16 to 19 ft. water ; and can accommodate 
about 400 sail of large and small ships. A broad 
and deep canal, bordered with quays, establishes a 
communication between the port and the lagoon 
of Thau ; and, consequently, with the Canal du 
Midi on the one hand, and with the canals leading 
to the Rhone on the other. Cette is the centre of 
a great deal of trafiic, particularly of the coasting 
description; and from about the middle of No- 
vember to Uie end of March freights are generally 
to be met with. There is regular steam^Mit com- 
munication with Algiers and the chief ports on 
the eastern coast of Spain ; but the principal ar- 
ticles of export and import are those conveyed by 
the canal About 86,000 tons of wine, and 4,000 
tons of brandy, are annually exported. A good 
deal of Benicarlo wine from Spain, for mixing with 
claret, is imported. It has a court of summary ju- 
risdiction, a school of navigation, an exchange, 
barracks, and a theatre. Ships are built here, and 
there are glass, soap^ and tobacco-works, with di»- 
tdlleries, and a manufactory of highly esteemed 
liqueurs. The fishery of sardines is successfully 
carried on along the coast ; and the salt-works on 
the adjoining lagoon are extensive, and furnish 
employment to many individuals. Cettle is of 
modem date, having been founded in 1666, to 
serve as a port for the great canaL 

CEUTA (aiu Septum or Septa), a sea-port town 
of N. Africa, in the possession of Spain, coast of 
Morocco, directly opposite Gibraltar, and at the 
SE. extremity of the straits, on a narrow peninsula 
stretching about 8 m. ENE. into the Mediter- 
ranean, and having a capacious bay on its S., and 
a smaller one on its K. side. Pop. 7,144 in 1857. 
The £. part of the peninsula is occupied by the 
mountam of Almina, on the highest point of 
which is the castle of Ceuta, 14 m. S. by E. from 
Europa Point ; Uu 850 54' 4" N., long. 50 17' W. 
This mountain, which, towards the sea, is fenced 
round by inaccessible rocks, is the Abyla Proper 
of the ancients, and is famous as one of the pillars 
of Hercules ; the rock of Gibraltar (Afoiu Calpe) 
being the other. The citadel, a very strong fort, 
is built acrnss the narrowest and lowest pirt of 
the peninsula, at its Junction with the mamland. 
The town, immediately to the E. of the citadel, is 
situated at ^e foot and on the declivity of the 
mountain. Ceuta has many points of resemblance 
with Gibraltar, and, like it, if properly eairisooed, 
would be all but impregnable. It is well supplied 
with water; is the seat of a bishopric; has a 
cathedral, two convents, a hospital, and a hague 
or prison for criminals employed on the public 
works. It is also used as a place for the confine- 
ment of state prisoners. It is the most important 
of all the Spanish prtntHoa or settlements in 
Africa, and is the seat of a military governor, a 
royal tribunal, and a financial intendant. Most 



of the provisions and other necessaries required 
for the supply of the town and garrison are brought 
from Spam. Ceuta was taken from the Moors b^ 
John, king of Portugal, in 1416. Since 1640 it 
has belonged to Spain. It has been several times 
besieged by the Africans, especially in 1697. 

C£VA (an. Ceba)y an inL town of Northern Italy, 
prov. Cuneo, cap. mand., at the confluence of the 
Cevctta with the Tanaro, 10 m. £. by N. Mondovi. 
Pop. 4,520 in 1862. It is built, at the foot of a rock, 
formerly surmounted bv a castle, wliich was used as 
a state prison previously to its destruction by the 
French revolutionary forces. The town was fbrmerly 
burrounded with walls; but these were in great 
part destroyed by an inundation of the Tanaro, 
in 1584. It contains a church, and several con- 
vents ; some forges, and silk factories ; and, in 
both ancient and modem times, has been cele- 
brated for its cheeses. 

CEYLON (an. Tiqtrobtma)^ a large island be- 
longing to Great Britain, near the 8. extremity 
of Hindostan, bearing the like relation to the 
Indian that Sicily does to the Italian peninsula. 
It lies between lat. 6^ 56' and 9^ 5(y N., and 
almost entirely between long. 80° and 82^ K; 
having NW. the Gulf of Manaar and Palk's 
Straits, which separate it from Hindostan ; S. and 
SW. the Indian Ocean, and £. the Bay of BengaL 
It tapers to a point towards the N., and is shaped 
like the section of a pear cut lengthwise through 
the middle. Length N. to S., 270 m. ; average 
breadth nearly 100 m. ; area 24,500 sq. m. Pop^ 
2,075,284 in 1862, of whom onlv 7,102 whites. 

The CoagUy on the N. and NW., are low and 
flat ; those on the S. and £. bold and rocky, and 
in some places fenced with reefs : in many parts 
they are deeply indented by the sea. and present 
some large and many small haroours. Trin- 
comalee harbour, on the N£. coast, is one of the 
finest anywhere met with. Point de Galle, in the 
S., is the next in importance; the inferior har- 
boun are Batticaloa, Matuia, and Caltura, on 
the S. .and £., and Negumbo, Chilaw, Calpenteen, 
Manaar, and Point Pedro, on the W. coasts. 
The deep water along the £. shores admits the 
safe approach of large vessels, but the harbours on 
the N. and NW. are full of sands and shallows, 
whose position varies with the monsoons. Co- 
lumbo, the marit. cap., has merely a roadstead, 
which is practicable for large ships only from the 
beginning of Dec to the latter end of Bfarch. So 
la^e a number of inlets causes a oorresponding 
proportion of small islands, promontones, and 
penmsulas; of the latter the principal are the 
peninsulas of Jafinapatam, on tne N W. and that 
of Calpenteen, on Uie W. coast. At its N. ex- 
tremity especially, the shores of Ceylon are 
studded with numerous small rocky and verdant 
islets. The ridge of sandbanks called Adam's 
Bridge, which crosses the Gulf of Manaar from 
Ceylon to the island of Ramisseram, near the 
opposite coast of India, is connected by the 
natives with a variety of curious traditions, and 
forms a great obstacle to die more speedy com- 
munication with the continent, by its hinderanoe 
to navigation. It consists of loose sand, resting 
on firm foundations, but constantly varying in 
form from the action of the monsoons. There 
are three principal openings or channels through 
this ridge; one near the island of Manaar, an- 
other 8 m. farther to the W., and a third about 
11 m. from the island of Ramisseram ; but all of 
them are impracticable except for small native 
boats in fine weather, and even then the navigation 
is attended with some danger. Near these open- 
in|^s the bank rises above the water for some 
miles, broken occasionally by smaller channels, , 


but towards the centre it is mostly covered by 
water, the depth of which does not in any part 
exceed a few feet. By the late accounts (see 
Asiat. Joum., April, 1839), attempts at enlar^g 
the passage between Kamisseram and the con- 
tinent are now in progress. 

Interior — Mouniaina, — The belt of oonntzy 
along the shore surrounding the interior, or oU 
kingdom of Candy, is, for the most part, flat, 
varying in width from 8 to 80 m., and, m the N., 
to nearly 80 m. ; its extensive green plains giving 
to the shores of Ceylon an advantageous appear- 
ance when contrasted with the barren and sandy 
shores of the opposite oontinenL The interior 
consists of three distinct natural divisions->the 
low country, the hills, and the mountains. The 
centre of the island S. of lat. 8(P N. is occupied 
by an extensive tableland, 67 m. in length, by 
about 50 m. in width, and estimated at from 2,000 
to 8,000 ft above the sea. The interior <tf the N. 
and central divisions consists of ranges of moun- 
tains running mostly NE. and SW., and varying 
from 1,000 to 4000 ft. above the sea, clothed to the 
summits with magnificent forests, and intersected 
b^ numerous ravines, cataracts^ and cascades. 
Ifrom these r^ons various oomcal-shaped hills 
rise up at intervals to an additional height of from 
2,000 to 3,000 ft The most conspicuous summit 
is that which is known by the name of Adam's 
Peak (the Samenella of the Singalese), in lat 70^ 
N., and long. 9^ 40' £., 46 m. ESE. Columbo, 
rising to 6,152 ft above the sea. Namany-CooU- 
Kandy, the next in elevation, is about 5,548 ft 
above the sea. 

The mountaina are generally In continuous 
ranges, and are seldom or never found isolated. 
This region is skirted by a hilly country, from 
10 to 20 m. wide, and varving in elevation ttoxn 
100 to 500 ft, with occasional summits of more 
than twice that height This tract is destitute 
of the ravines and other bold features of the 
mountainous country. 

Mivera <md JLoAes— Ceylon has nameroos small 
rivers and perennial streams ; but few of them 
are navijgable, even by a canoe, to many miles 
fipom their mouths. The principal is the Mahavilly 
Ganga : it rises near the highest part of the cen- 
tral table-land, about 80 m. S. Ctaidyr ; and, hav- 
in^ received many tributaries, faUs into the sea, 
a little S. of Trincomalee, after a course of about 
200 m. It is the only river navigable for any- 
considerable distance. The next most important 
river is the Kalani-Ganga, which has its source 
in the countr^^ at the foot of Adam's Peak, and 
empties itself into the ocean by several mouths 
in the neighbourhood of Columbo : it is made oon- 
siderable use of for internal tr^c 

There are no lakes of any consequence in the 
interior, the largest being no more tlum 4 m. 
across; but along the E. coast, from Batticaloa 
northward, there are several extensive lagoons, 
which, by means of artificial channels, are made 
serviceable to traffic : other lagoons exist in .the 
neighbourhood of Ne^mbo and Columbo. (Davy's 
Account of the Interior of Ceylon, pp. l-o ; Per- 
dval's Account pp. 55-60.) 

Geokgy and JameraU. — The rocks met with in 
Ceylon are mostly primitive, and consist with 
little exception, of granite or gneiss, with large 
veins of auartz, hornblende, and a snow-white 
dolomite : limestone occurs only in Jaflhapatam, 
and the N. districts. A belt of gre^ or black 
sandstone, together with coial formatuHis, neariy 
encompass the whole island. The upper soil is 
in general sandy, with but a small mixture of 
clay, and chiefly derived from the disintegretioD 
of primitive rooks : the cinnamon soil near Co- 




Ivmbo IS perfectly white, and oonsists of pun 
qaaits. Ceylon is rich in valuable minerala ; its 
metallic products are, however, comparatively xm- 
known: ores of iron, lead, tin, and manganese 
an foand in the interior, but are made litde use 
of: phunbago is the only article amongst these 
which has become of any commercial importance. 
Mines of quicksilver were formerly worked by the 
Dntch. It has numerous gems; and common 
salt-heds are found in various places. No volcanos 
exist in Ceylon, nor are mineral waters veiy 
abundant; but they axe met with near Trin- 

C Kmate , — ^The mountain ranges which separate 
Ceylon atanost completely into two parts, by arrest- 
iBfC the course of the monsoons, occasion a radical 
diflerence at the same moment in the climate of 
the £. and W. parts, whole floods of rain deluging 
the island on one side, while on the other the 
natives are carefully hoarding all the water left 
fiom previous inundations. In the S. and SW. 
the cumate is moist, temperate, and similar to 
that of Malabar ; in the £. and S£. it is hot and 
dry, and more like that prevalent on the Coro- 
maiidel coast. The SW. monsoon lasts from April 
to Sept. ; the NE. from Nov. to Feb. : in the inter- 
vening months the winds are variable. The SW. 
moosooos are usually accompanied by violent 
storms of thunder and lightning, and torrents of 
rain, which sometimes extend Uiemselves to the 
central table-land, especially in March and April; 
bat this high regicn is generally out of the influ- 
ence of either monsoon, and both its winds and. 
tempoatnre are greatly modified by its own phy- 
aicaf diaracter, and the directions of its principal 
ridges. The quantity of rain which falls during 
the year is about three times as great as in Eng- 
land ; the rains being, though not more frequent, 
far heavier, so much so that a fall of two or even 
three inches in twen^-ibur hours is not uncom- 
mon : 64 indies is the annual estimate in the 
alpine region, and 100 inches at Colombo. The 
BfaBons depend more on the monsoons than on the 
oouxse of the sun ; and the coolest season is during 
the sammcr solstice, while the SW. monsoon pre- 
vails. The heat is, however, nearly the same 
thiongboiit the jear, and much less oppressive 
than on the contment of India. Along die coast, 
the annual mean temperature is about 80^ Fahr. ; 
at Candy, 1,467 ft. above the sea, it is 780; at 
Colmnbo the annual variation is fit>m 76^ to 86^ ; 
at GaDe, 70^ to 90^; at Trinoomalee, 74^ to 9V>, 
For a tropical countiy , Ceylon has a comparatively 
salnhriotts climate ; but some of the less inhabited 
parts, and the low wooded hilly countiy between 
the HMwinfains and the sea, are highly insalubrious. 
Near Colnmbo and Trinoomalee, where the jungle 
has been deared away, and the land dramed, die 
oonntXT has been rendered perfectly healthy. The 
prevalent diseases are those affecting the liver and 
mtestines, often accompanied by rever: diseases 
of the lungs, urinai^' organs, and nervous system, 
are very rare : gout w unknown. Elephantiasis, 
Lidum inpiauj and other cnteneous complaints, 
are common. The smsll-pox was formerly ver^ 
destructive, but is now guarded against by vacci- 
nation, to which the natives raise no objection; 
measles and hoopin^-oongh both occur in a mild 
Conn. The beri-wn {Htfdnp$ aHkmatiaut) is a 
disease neariy peculiar to Ceylon. 

ViyrtahU product are numerous and valuable. 
The most important, next to rice and other grain, 
is the cinnamon {LemruM Onmamoinaem), called by 
the Singalese eontndooi which here arrives at its 
gruitcst oerfection, and has always been a chief 
article utexpmU It delights in a poor sandy soil, 
with a moist atmosphere, and is almost exclusivdy 

confined to the SE. part of the island, between 
Negombo and Matura. In the N., where the cli- 
mate is dry and sultry, it is totally unknown, and 
the endeavours to propagate it at Batevia, in the 
W. Indies, and on the opposite coast of Tinnevelly, 
have not been so successful as was antidpated. 
In ito wild state it grows to the height of 20 or 80 
ft., and bears a white blossom in January : while 
in bloom, the cinnamon forests have a verv beau- 
tiful appearance ; but the aroma of the plant re- 
sides wholly in the bark, and the fragrance of the 
groves is not nearly so great as strongerB have 
been led to bdieve. The soil is peculiarly suitable 
for the growth of coffee; and its culture has of 
late years been so much extended that it is now 
the prindpal article of export The cocoa-nut 
tree flourishes with singular vigour, and is of 
great importance to the native population, almost 
every part of the tree being converted into artidea 
of food or domestic use : the best trees produce 
from 50 to 100 nnto annually, and grow so close 
to the sea, that the rooto are even washed by ite 
surge, llie Palmyra palm grows prindpally in 
the N. part of the islimd, and is scarody of less 
importence than the cocoa-nut tree. The talipot 
palm, the leaves of which are large enough to 
shdter many individuals, grows luxuriantly here, 
though rare on the continent of India. Tho 
bread-fruit-tree attains an immense sixe; cotton 
is not equal to that of India; indigo is found 
wild, but ite culture is n^lected; the areca and 
betd nut, as well as tobacco, all of which are of 
excellent quality, grow abundantly ; the cardamom 
seeds are inferior to those of MiUabar. Gum-lao 
and gamboge are alw produced in this island. 
The flora of Ceylon is not so extensive as bean- 
tiftd and various : the rose, pink, mignonette, Ac 
are as fragrant as in England, and the jessamine 
much more so; thejjplbrtosa nqterba and amaryllis 
grow in profusion, and the Jamba, or roee-apple, 
strews the ground with ite scarlet bloesomD. 
(Heber's Naixadve, iii 148-145, Ac; Percival, 
pp. 819-837.) 

^miiui&.--Ceylon has been from an early period 
odebreted for Ito breed of dephants, which, though 
inferior in size to those of other countries, are more 
valued for their greater strength and docility. 
The chase of these animals has always been with 
the Singalese an object of great importance ; but 
the avidity with which they have been pursued 
has greatly diminished their numbers, and they 
are now chiefly confined to the N. and NE. dis- 
tricts. The roy^ tiger is not met with, but bears, 
leopards, the diete (a small spedes of leopard), 
hysanas, lackals, ana tiger-cato are numerous: 
besides dks, deer, gazelles, buffaloes, wild hogs, 
and monkeys. Near Jaffna a large bshoon is very 
abundant, and fearless: a large variety of the 
monkey tribe, porcupines, racoons, 'armadilloes, 
squirrels, and mungooses, are met with. There 
are no foxes ; but the flying fox and rate are very 
common and troublesome. Pheasants, snipes, red- 
leg(^ partridges, pif^eons, peacocks, and a great 
vanety of birds; with serpente, aUigators, and 
reptiles of all sorts, are abundantly plentifuL The 
fishing of the pearl oyster is an important branch 
of industry. 

People, — ^The pop. of Ceylon, exdudve of the 
various colonisto who have at different times pos- 
sessed themselves of the coasts, may be divided 
into four classes: — 1st, the native Singalese or 
Ceylonese, who may be again subdivided into 
those occupying the Candian territories, and 
those of the coasts; 2nd, the Moors, who are 
found in all parte of the island, and form the 
chief population of the district of Pultam ; 8rd, 
the Yeddahs, a savage race, who are supposed to 



be the aborigines, and inhabit the monntainouft 
r^ODS and unexplored fastnesses, ahnost in a 
state of nature; 4th, the Malabnr and other 
Hindoos, who are chiefly confined to the N. and 
£. coasts. The Singalese of the coasts, -whose 
complexion, features, language, and manners 
closely resemble those of the Maldivians, are 
about 5 ft. 8 in. in height, of a slim figure and 
fair complexion, especially the women ; they are 
represented as remarkably mild, bashful, and 
timid, and rather deficient in intellect. The 
Candian Ceylonese are in all respects superior to 
those of the coasts, and differ from Europeans less 
in feature than in colour ; they are taller, better 
made, and more robust, than the Singalese ; and 
for Indians are stout, with large chests and broad 
shoulders. They have small bones, rather short 
but muscular legs and thighs, and small hands and 
feet ; heads well formed, and, like those uf other 
Asiatics, longer than those of Europeans ; features 
often handsome. The colour of their skin, eyes, 
and hair varies from brown to black ; they have a 
profusion of hair, which is allowed to grow to a 
considerable length. The Candian character differs 
essentially from that of the Sinhalese, having 
none of the effeminacy, and timidity which dis- 
tinguish the latter, and there is a certain haughti- 
ness and independence in their whole bearing and 
demeanour. They will not generally, however, 
attack an enemy' in the open field; but resort to 
ambush, in Uie same manner as the Singalese. 
Indolence, hypocrisy, and revenge may be re- 
garded as national vices. Some traits may be 
recc^nised as common to the natives of C«ylon 
with tiie Bengalese, but they are still more closely 
idlied, both in physical and moral characteristics, 
as well as language, religion, and traditions, with 
the Indo-Chinese nations, and especially the Bir- 
mese. The MfUabars of Ceylon differ but little in 
any respect from those of the continent, though 
varying somewhat in their manners and customs. 
They retain, in great measure, the redigion and 
manners of their congeners of S. India, and are 
much leas numerous ttian formerly. The Moors 
have a tradition that they are the descendants of 
a tribe of the posterity of Hashem, expelled by 
Mohammed from Arabia. They retain many cus- 
toms similar to those of the ancient Jews. 

Of the Veddahs little more is known than that 
they chiefly inhabit the great forests which extend 
from the S. to the £. and N., and also the most 
inaccessible parts of the central table-land, having 
neither clothing nor habitations, subsisting upon 
wild fruits and animals, and having the branches 
of large trees for their resting-places. They axe 
4»njectured by some to be a portion of the original 
inhabitants, who, upon the invasion of the island, 
retreated to the inaccessible haunts in which they 
are now found* They are divided into two tribes, 
»-the Village and the Forest Veddahs ; the former, 
who are the more civilised, occasionally go down 
into the lower districts to exchange their game 
and cattle for rice, doth, and iron. They live in 
huts and cultivate the ground ; though, in common 
with their more savage brethren, they seek their 
chief subsistence .in the forests. The^ are peaceable 
and inoffensive, never oommencmg, although 
easily pennaded to join in any insurrection; and 
in tunes of disturbance they have occasionally 
been employed as mercenaries. 

The other inhabitants of the coast consist of 
Dutch, Portuguese, and English colonists : some 
Cafires and Javanese ; a few Chinese and Parsee 
traders ; and a various pop., sprung from the in- 
termixture of these wirb each other and with the 
native races. The buighm, many of whom fill 
public ofScos and subordinate situations under 

government, are th^ descendants of Europeans 
and half-castes. The distinctions of caste are 
recognised, and in some instances scrupulously 
preserved, by the Ceylonese; but they respect 
them only in their civil, rejecting their religious, 

Till latterly, the pop. had been diminishing for 
four or five centuries. But a considerable increase 
has taken place in the pop. of the maritime pro- 
vinces during the last thirty or forty years. 
Several parts of the interior are, however, very 
thinly peopled, there bein^, in some districts, not 
more than four, five, or six persons to a square 
mile. In the central prov. the pop. is dense in 
certain parts; but with the exception of the 
country round Candy, and the districts of Ouva 
and Mattele, seven-eighths of the ground is covered 
with wood and jungle, and nearly unpeopled. 

Ceylon is now divided into six provmces, the 
area and population of which, according to a cen- 
sus taken in the year 1862, is shown in the follow- 
ing table : — 


An* In 


Western • • 
Korth-Westem . 
BoQthem . . 
Northern • 

Total . 





Not included in these populatioji returns are 
4,647 military persons, which added make the 
total population 2,079,881. 

It will be seen, from the preceding table, that 
the pop. of Ceylon is very unequally distributed, 
the western province being the densest populated 
part^l90 inhabitants per square mile — and the 
eastern province the least dense— only seventeen 
inhabitants on the square mile. This mequality is 
only partly explained by differences of soil and 

Agriculture, — ^The tract of country near the 
Coromandel coast is only in some parts fit for til- 
lage, the ground for many miles exposing only a 
barren and naked surface. The soil of the central 
parts is capable of producing luxuriant crops were 
it properly cultivated. All products requiring a 
moist soil and climate flourish most in the S W., 
and rice is grown chiefly in the level lands there, 
or in the vaJleys of the hill r^on, but oflen also 
on the slopes^ on account of the facilities they 

{present for irrigation. Around the fields, on the 
evel lands intended for its reception, small em- 
banlcments, about three feet in height, are raised, 
and water let in upon them ; they are afterwards 
trodden over by buffaloes or turned up with a sort 
of light plough. On the hill slopes tne rice-fields 
are dammed up, and form a succession of terraces, 
for irrigating whidi the water is conveyed some- 
times for a mile or two along the mountain sides, 
and let off fhnn one terrace to another, as the 
state of the ^^nun requires it. There are two rice 
harvests dunng the year; the fint crop is sown 
from July to October, and reaped from Januarv to 
March; the second is sown nom March' to l}ay, 
and reaped from August to October. What is 
called a plough consists of a piece of crooked 
timber shod with iron, which tears rather than 
ploughs up the ground. After the first ploughing, 
the fields are flooded; then ploughed again, and 
carefully weeded. Rice is industriously cultivated 
by the Malabars of the N. and NK districts; 
but the produce is insufficient for the consomption 
of the island, and large quantities are annually 



iioportod from both the Malabar and Coromandel 
Goaata. Hemp ia raised in abundance, the sandy 
soil of the maritime districta being well adapted 
for it. Cotton of different Borta grows with the 
greatest facility, the buds ripening within four 
months after being sown. Each village or hut 
has its sugar and tobacco plantation: coffee is 
saiaed of a very superior quality. 

Aa cinnamon forms a chi^ article of export and 
revenue in Ceylon, its cultivation is one of great 
interest, and is conducted with much care. The 
neighbourtiood of Colombo is particularly favour- 
able for its growth, being well sheltered, and 
having a high and equable temperature. About 
2,000 acres of land, cluefly near that town, are 
laid out in cinnamon plantations, furnishing em- 
plovment to 30,000 individuals, and yielding an- 
nnally about 500,000 lbs. of bark, worth 138,0002. 
sterling. In its wild state the plant grows to the 
Bze of a laige apple-tree ; but when cultivated, is 
not allowed to attain to more than 10 or 12 ft. in 
height, after seven or eight years' growth. May 
and June are the months for stripping the bark 
from the plant, which is done by two methods. 
In the fint, the rou^h bark is removed with 
knives, and the inner rmds stripped off by a pecu- 
liarly shaped instrument; by the other method, 
the outer bark is not artificially removed, but the 
piooeas of fermentation which the strips undergo 
when tied together in laive quantities sponta- 
neoual\* removes it. The baik, in drying, ^dually 
cootmcta, and rolls itself into a quUl-hke form ; 
and, after being subsequentlv dried in the sun, the 
analler are inserted in the larger pieces, and the 
whole are made up into bundles of about 30 lbs. 
weight. Layers, shoots, and transplanted stumps 
are the best means of extending the growth of the 
cmmawton plant. 

Wages are considerably higher, and provisions 
rropcirtionsLlly dearer, in Ceylon than in Bengal. 
Those of the poorer classes, who possess small por- 
tions oi land, rarely derive their support from it 
exrlnsively, but employ themselves in fisheries, 
tradea, manufactures, and the petty traffic of the 
countrp'; the wages of mechanics and artisans 
are proportionally higher than those of the la^ 
bounng population, but still very moderate. A 
very minute subdivision of property often exists, 
and the inheritance of one person will sometimes 
consist of 9-lOths of a seer of rice land, 5-12ths 
of the produce of a cocoa-nut-tree, or 2-3rds of 
that of a jack-tree. Notwithstanding this, the 
peasantry of Ceylon are generally in better cir- 
cumstances than thoee of the adjoining continent. 
They are not under either a zeminduy or ryot- 
warry settlement, and the demands of the govern- 
ment on the land rarely exceed 1-lOth part of the 
prudnoe, and are sometimes less. Under the Can- 
dyan government, the tenures of land were of 
three kiiida. Some lands belonged wholly to the 
sovereign ; others were cultivated by individuals 
at a government rent, of some fixed proportion of 
the produce ; and others, again, were granted as 
payment for the performance of specinc services 
to the headmen of different districts, chiefs, and 
reverted ^gain to the crown on the death of sudi 
individnalk The latter could neither be mort- 
gaged nor alienated; the second class of lands 
might be tzansfened in any way as long as the 
peimanent rent continued to be* paid. The lands 
beioiiging to the sovereign himself were cultivated 
on hia aooount, or let out to the highest bidder, 
and sometimes brought a rent of l-3rd or half 
the iwodnoe. The fuan of redeeming the whole 
rent, above 1-lOth part of the produce, has been 
adopted by the British government with much 
success, and in those districts where the practice 


has prevailed the revenue has increased rather 
than diminished: for more lands having been 
brought into cultivation, 1-1 Oth part of the 
crops now yields as much as l-3rd or l-4th part 
formerly did. Domestic animals are not nume- 
rous. The horse is a degenerate breed, and not 
aboriginal; oxen, though small, are well tasted, 
and the chief food of the British troops, though 
eaten by none else: poultry of all kinds are 

Fearl Fishery, — ^The pearl fishery in the Bay of 
Condatchy, which was formerly a government 
monopoly, is now free; but, whether from the 
banks having been over-fished, or otherwise, the 
produce is now of comparatively little importance. 
The pearl banks are formed by coral ridges from 6 
to 10 m. off shore, and of a variable depth, but 
commonly from five to seven fathoms below the 
surface. Tlie oysters are attached by fibrous bands 
to these ridges, from within a short time of their 
bursting from the egg, to about 6^ years old, when 
they loose their hold, and drop to the sandy bot- 
tom, where they lie in heaps. Soon after attain- 
ing the age of seven years, the animals are said 
to perish. As many as sixty pearls have been 
found in one oyster ; but such instances are rare, 
as is, indeed, the presence of pearls generally. 
The season commences in Feb. and finishes in 
April : six weeks or two months, at the utmost, 
is the time allowed for its continuance. Each of 
the boats carries a Hndal, or master, and twenty- 
three men, ten of whom are divers, and relieve 
each other, five divers being constantly at work 
during the hours of fishing. After they are taken 
out of the boats, the oysters are left to open spon- 
taneously, die, and rot^ the stench of their putre- 
faction filing the air for many miles round Con- 
datchy, till it is swept off by the SVV. monsoons. 
The Ceylon pearls are wniter than those of 
Ormuz, or the Arabian coast; and the natives are 
extremely expert in cutting and drilling them. 
The usufl^ Ceylonese boats are like the catamarans 
of Madras and other parts of the peninsula. A 
great number of chank shells are found, and ex- 
ported to India from the N. shores of Ceylon. 
(Raschenbergcr, Dr., in Martin's Statistics, p. 400 ; 
Pcrcival, pp. 86-100; Sturt, in Phil. Transac., 
uL 3.) 

Salt is a government monopoly, and its manu- 
facture, in leeways and pits on Uie sea-shore, is 
carried on to a great extent in the N. and £., 
where it is of fine quality, and may be procured 
in greater abundance than the government re- 
quires, or has been able to collect. Before the 
Dutch monopoly existed, this coast supplied Ben- 
gal with salt ; and, indeed, the Ceylon salt may 
l)e imported at Calcutta for two-thirds the price of 
the salt produced in India. There are no other 
manufactures of any extent or importance, except 
that of arrack, which is distilled from the blos- 
soms of the cocoa-nut-tree, as toddy and iaghery 
are from the juice ; while ropes, bnislics, baskets, 
brooms, matting, rafters, and thatch for cottages 
are obtained from the various parts of the tree, in 
addition to the valuable oil now in extensive use 
in England. Saltpetre is made firom the chipping 
of rocks, in which nitrate of lime is prevalent, 
mixed with wood ashes ; the mixture washed, and 
the liquor evaporated to a concentrated solution, 
and suffered to crystallise. lime of excellent 
quality, and possessing a power of adhesion much 
greater than that procured fh>m shells, is made by 
bummg the coral found upon the shorefli Gun- 
powder is made by a rude process ; the native pot- 
tery is coarse and unglazed. Little progress has 
been made in weaving; the loom is somewhat 
similar to the primitive loom of Ireland ; all tha 




cloths used are of domestic manufacture; no mns- 
Uns are woven, nor indeed anything but coarse 
cottons, and some silks. Rude imaf^es and im- 
plements of husbandry are made of the native 
metals, and the Singalese can work with dex- 
terity and taste in i^old and silver. They are 
generally more capable of setting gems than cut- 
ting them ; and excel in the manufacture of lac- 
quered ware. 

Trade, — Since the Dutch monopoly system has 
been abandoned, both the internal traffic and 
foreign trade have greatly increased. Subjoined is 
A table of the imports and exports of Ceylon, in 
the two yean 1862 and 18G3 :— 

Ceylon— Importt 



Principal Abticles. 

Coals and Coke . 




Pnti/Mi Mfinn- 




factores . .' 




I £ 






Cotton Twist . Cwts. 






r Packpi. 



Cutlery and 




Hondwaro , . 




I £ 


. 66,547 

r Paekf^s. 



Carry StnfCS. A 





'. s. 



Fish, Salted and i 

r Cwts. 



Dried ... 




Grain : Faddy . 




„ Eice 







and Millinery 










Specie and Bullion • £ 



Total Yalnc of pi 
and other Artie 

■incipal ) 
los . j 



Ceylon— .Bxporto 




Aroca Nats . . 



61. .304 

Cinnamon . . 

r Lbs. 



Coffee, Planta- J 




tion .... 




Coffee, Native . 



317 034 

rViftnn Monii' 




factures . . 







Cotton Twist . 







„ Wool . 







Oil, Coooanat . ' 




Specie and Bnllion . . £ 



Spirits, Arrack , 





Tobacco, TJn- 
manof actured ' 






Total Yalne of pi 
and other Artie 

Jes . j 



Both the imports and exports of Ceylon have 
enormously increased since the year 1850. In 
ttiis year, the imports were l,488,678iL, and the 
exports 1,246,956/. The rise took place very gra- 
dually, but in import-s was chiefly visible in grain, 
and m exports in coffee. 

I There is a cimal between Calpenteen and Co- 
lurabo, by which cargoes are conveyed during the 
SW. monsoon. A fine road luis been constructed 
from Coliunbo t^o Candy,' on which a mail-coach 
runs; carriage-roads also extend from Columl>o 
N. to Chilaw, and S. to Matura. Many rapid and 
unfordable streams have had iron and wooden 
bridges thrown across them, amongst which is 
that of Paradeinia, across the MahaviUy Ganga, 
which consists of a single arch, with a span of 
205 fL, principally composed of satin-wood. 

English weights, measures, and moneys are be- 
coming universal in Ceylon. 

The public revenue of Cevlon consists chiefly of 
import duties on merchandise and indirect taxes. 
It amounted to 767,10U in 1860; to 751,997^ in 
1861 ; and 759,136/. in 1862. The public expen- 
diture is principally for costs of administration, 
and was 705,440/. in I860; 635,230/. in 1861 ; and 
626,654/. in 1862. The cost of governor and prin- 
cipal officers amounted to 57,865/. in 1862 ; while 
there were expended in the same year for works 
and buildings 23,896/., and for roads, streets, and 
bridges 94,167/. 

The administration of the colony is vested in 
the hands of a British governor, assisted by a 
council of European civil servants, selected either 
by the governor himself or the secretary of state 
for the colonics ; but the power of the council is 
limited, and sutwervient to the authority of the 
governor. The governor has complete control 
over the flnancial department in the interior, 
while in the maritime provinces he is restricted to 
a certain sum for contmgcnt expenditure, unless 
authorised in exceeding it by his council, to whom, 
except on this point, he refers, or not, at pleasiupc, 
being empowered to carry into effect any law 
without their concurrence." All laws, before being 
acted upon, are published in the official gazette, 
for the piupose of their general diffhsion, with 
translations into the Sin^^ese and Malabar lan- 

The active business of the government is con- 
ducted by individuals of three different classes. 
Ofllces of the first and second classes are usually 
fiUcil by Europeans ; the subordinate situations by 
natives ; but, by recent regulations, any person 
judged to ])osscss sufficient qualifications may till 
the most important offices without reference to 
nation or faith ; a knowledge of the English lan- 
guage being, however, considered indispensable. 
Each village and caste has its elected headman, 
who is recognised by the government, which com- 
monly selects native servants from amongst this 
class of people ; the modelian of corles, or lieu- 
tenants of districts, are appointed from this body. 

Armed Force. — Exclusive of native troops there 
are in Ceylon, on the average, some 3,000 British 
troops. The cost of these is chiefly borne by the 
home government, and amounted to 110,268/L in 
1862. The contribution of the colony towards 
this militaxy expenditure was only ^4^000/L in 
this year 1862. 

Juttice. — A supreme court of justice is esta- 
blished at Columbo, with powers equivalent to 
those of the Court of Queen s Bench and Court of 
Chancery. It is presided over by three English 
judges, aided by two other functionaries, ^1 of 
whom are appointed from England. Trial by jury 
was introduced into Ceylon by Sir A. Johnston, 
and is now established m every district Exclu- 
sive of Colombo, the whole ialand is divided into 
three cireuits, viz. the N., S., and £. ; the last of 
which comprises the old kingdom of Candy, with 
all the country to the £. of it. The cireuits are 
subdivided into many districts, each of which baa 
ita own court, with a judge and three assessors. 



and with jurisdiction in all cases not punishable 
uith more than a fine of lOLj one year's imprison- 
ment, or 1()0 lashes. The supreme court in 
Culumbo is the sole court of appeal. Excepting 
in the maritime provinces, where arrack drinking 
i» prevalent, atrocious crimes are in general rare ; 
m that the courts are more occupied with petty 
Uti^^mtions than serious offences. 

T%e Rdigian of the Siagalese is Baddhism ; but 
the upper classes profess Christianitv, and many of 
the others have been converted to Mohammedan- 
ism. There are 16 Protestant churches in the 
i:»land, subordinate to the archdeacon of Colombo, 
and 32 dissenting places of worship. Roman 
Catholic chapels are very numerous, and 10 years 
a;?o it was believed that half the Ceylonese popu- 
lation were Christians, following the ritual mostly 
of the Romish and Dutch churches. There is a 
tradition amongst the natives that Buddh himself 
>i:Qted this island, which, before his advent, had 
been inhabited by demons. There are numerous 
temples to that deity in the island, especially in 
the central parts, where the Buddhic sect is most 
prevalent; and the Britbh government, having 
succeeded to the temple patronage and other pri- 
vileges belonging to the old kingdom of Oindy, 
has the appointment of the Buddhic priests. VVhen 
the palace of Candy was taken by the British, a 
celelkated relic, believed by the natives to be a 
^^^enuine tooth of Buddh, was captured ; the posses- 
Mi a of which is considered to insure ita possessors 
the sovereignty of the whole island. This relic is 
annually exiwsed with great state and ceremony, 
and is woislupped by multitudes flocking from all 
])«rta of the country, and bringing offerings of 
various kinds to the priests, who thereby realise 
considerable sums. (Journal of the Asiat. Soc, 
iii. 101.) 

PnbUc Education. — Education is making great 
progress in Ceylon. There were, in 1862, above 
^yo schools in the colony, atten(^d by 25,408 
papils. Of these, 5,518 were in 'public;' 49 in 
' orphan ; ' 822 in * regimental ; ' 13,51 1 in * free ; ' 
and 5,508 in 'private* schools. Unfortunately, 
the Ijenefit of this education did not include the 
female sex. In 1862 there were but 876 females 
in the 'public;' 24 in the 'orphan;' 35 in the 
* regimental ; * and 148 in the 'private' schools. 
The free schools, which had 13,511 male pupils, 
were not attended by a single female. The public 
schools are supported by government. The others 
have been establLthed by the Church Missionary 
and Dissenters' Missioruury societies. Free ele- 
mentary education in the English language, arith- 
metic, and geography is given in these schools. 
The government schools are chiefly in the Singa- 
lew maritime districts. At Col umbo there is a 
superior academy, where the usual branches of a 
claUrical and mathematical education are taught, 

driUiatitm and ArU, — In civilisation the Sin- 
galese apnear to be nearly, if not quite, on a par 
with the Hindoos ; in courtesy and polish of man- 
ners they are inferior to none, but m intellectual 
acqoirementa, and proficiency in the arts and 
Mriences, they have made Uttle advancement. 
Many of the male Singalese read and vrrite in 
their own tongue, but this is no part of female 
education. They write with a sharp iron style, on 
talipot leaves, and colour the traces afterwards 
with lamp-black. They excel more in lacquered 

{Minting than in an^ other art. Their statuary is 
letter than their pictures, though the figures of 
Buddh have been subject to no innovation of style, 
and are always in the same posture, of whatever 
material they may be formed. The Singalese 
rohiur the statues of their gods, and give a pupil 
(o the eye ; which last ceremony^ is supposed to 

confer all the holiness belonging to the figure, and 
is done with much mystery and solemnity. There 
seems to be no peculiar national stylo of architec- 
ture ; the Buddhic temples arc like Tartar struc- 
tures. The Ceylonese rise at dawn, and retire at 
nine or ten o'clock at night ; they sleep either on 
mats on the floor, or on couches. Their meaU are 
short and unsocial, the men and women not often 
eating together; there are two principal meals, one 
taken at noon, and the other at seven or eight 
o'clock in the evening. The standing dish con- 
sists of rice with curry; some eat ^ygs and 
poultry ; but beef is never eaten excepting by a 
very low class, who are in consequence held' in 
great abhorrence: milk, ghee, oil, and fruits are 
the other important articles of diet. The best of 
their houses are commonly of mud, with tiled roofs, 
and a single story in height: built on a low ter- 
race, presenting outwardly dead walls, and having 
in the interior an open space, into which the rooms 
open by doors, which, as well as the windows, are 
ver}' narrow. The floors are composed of clay, 
plastered with manure, to keep off the insects, and 
the walls are covered with the same material, or a 
coat of white clay : lime is used for the wails of 
temples only. The furniture of the houses consist 
of two or three stools, a few mats, and porcelain 
dishes, a stone hand-null, a pestle and mortar for 
rice, a rattan bag for compressing seeds to procure 
their oil, and a few other indispensable articles. 
The dress of the men is a handkerchief wrapped 
like a turban round the head, leaving the top ex- 
posed, and a long cloth, called topettyf reaching 
from the loins to the ankles, lliat of the women 
is very similar; they leave the head uncovered, 
but the end of their dress is thrown across the left 
shoulder. On occasions of ceremony, both sexes 
wear a small jacket. Rings, and silver and crystal 
bugles, and other ornaments, are commonly worn, 
and certain privileged persons are permitted to 
wear gold and silver chains and trinkets ; but the 
Ceylonese look with extreme jealousy on every 
assumption of dress which is not strictly in con- 
formity with the caste of ita wearer. Like the 
Hindoos, they admit of the four chief subdivisions 
of castes, viz. the religious and military orders ; 
Toiesaen, cultivators, merchants, &c ; and Rshood- 
r€Uf artisans : the first two ranks have, however, 
scarcely any actual existence in Cevlon, and all 
the honours' and hereditary rank in the island are 
monopolised by the cultivators, at the head of the 
tliird class, wjth whom all Europeans are ranked, 
while the Moors are classed with the fishermen at 
the head of the fourth order. The male Singalese 
marry generally at the age of eighteen or twenty, 
the females earlier. Matches are determined on 
and concluded by tlie parents of the parties to be 
affianced : the dowry of the women generally con- 
sists of household goods, or cattle ; seldom of land : 
the husband always pays a price for his wife. The 
women seldom have more than four or five chil- 
dren ; but sometimes suckle them for as many 
years: the latter are in consequence very back- 
ward, and often neither speak nor walk till upwards 
of two years old. Infidelity is little regarded, pro- 
vided it be not an intrigue with a person of inferior 
caste : concubinage and polygamy are indulged in 
by the men, but plurality of husbands is more 
common than that of wivc», one woman belonging 
equally to several brothers of the same family. 
This, as well as other usages, is, however, fast dis- 
appearing before new habits, acquired by the ex- 
tending intercourse with Europeans. The Cey- 
lonese appear to be sincere and warm in their 
attachments. Dr. Davy disbelieves the report of 
the practice of exposing female infants, ' except- 
ing in the wildest parts of the country, and then 




never from choice, but necessity, and when the 
parents are on the brink of starving.' The sick 
and dying, though not openly exposed, are cer- 
tainly removed to temporary buildings. Every 
respectable family bums its dead ; low castes are 
not allowed to do so, but bury them with the head 
towards the west. Immediately after a decease, 
the relations, with their hair dishevelled, and beat- 
ing their breasts, cry and embrace each other, 
giving utterance to hunentations of a hif^hly poeti- 
cal nature. (See Journal of Asiatic Society, d. 63, 
64.) A common exhortation is, ' When I die, pay 
me due honours.' The common language of the 
Singalese is a dialect of the Sanscrit; the sacred 
language, like that of the Birmans, is the Pali. 
(For further details of Ceylon, see the works of Sir 
Gr. Emerson Tennent : — * Christianitv in Ceylon,' 
1860 ; * Sketches of the Natural History of Cey- 
lon,' 1861 ; and the admirable and most exhaustive 
* Ceylon, an Account of the Island, Phj'sical, His- 
torical, and Topographical, 6th edit. 1864.) 

AntiquUies and History. — The proper name of 
this island is Singhala; but there is considerable 
uncertainty whence the people originated who 
gave it that name, and who are called Singalese. 
They have a tradition that their ancestors came 
hither from the eastward nearly 2,400 years ago ; 
some modern authors think, on the other hand, 
that they were a colony of Smghtj or Kajpoots, 
who arrived here about 500 years B.C. Toiieya 
(perhaps of the royal house of SaJ^ Sinffh, of 
Magadha, the native countiy of Buddh, but evi- 
dently the same as the Sanscrit Yijaya) is the first 
king of Ceylon mentioned in history. The nume- 
rous ruins of cities, tanks, aqueducts, extensive 
canals, bridges, temples, Ac, show that Ceylon had 
been, at a remote pc^od, a rich, populous, and com- 
paratively ci^'ilised countiy. In 1505 the Portu- 
guese formed settlements on the W. and S. coasts, 
and received a tribute of cinnamon from the king 
of Candy, on condition of defending Ceylon against 
the Arabian pirates. They, as well as the Dutch 
who expelled them, after a long and sanguinary 
struggle in the next centuzy, and the English, 
who supersedad the latter, became, soon after the 
conquest of their first enemies, involved in hostili- 
ties with their native allies. In 1815 the Candyans 
entreated the interference of the British, to drive 
a tyrannical sovereign from the throne. This was 
soon effected, and Candy has since become a part 
of the British dominions. 

CHABLIS, a town of France, d<$p. Tonne, cap. 
cant., on the Seray, 10 m. £. Auxeiie. Pop. 2,335 
in 1861. The town is principally distinguished 
by its excellent white wuies, which the French 
epicures take with ovsters. 

CHAIBAK, or KHEIBAR, a town of Arabia, 
in El-Hedjaz. JML 26° N., long. 39© 30' E., 150 m. 
NE. Medina. Pop. said to be 50,000. It is the 
cap. of, and gives name to, an independent sove- 
reignty of Jewty the descendants, according to their 
own assertion, of the Trans-Jordanic tribes, Reu- 
1)en, (iiad, and Manasseh. They have a character 
for bravery and learning ; but the term Beni-Chai- 
bar is so odious among Mohammedans that its 
application is regarded as an insult. In manners 
and appearance the Jews of Chaibar do not differ 
from other Arabs : their state has existed upwards 
of 1,100 years ; and though the town was captureil 
b^ Mohammed in the 7th Ilejira, a.d. 628, it is 
still said to be flourishing and powerful. It was 
here that Moliammcd received from a Jewess a 
poisoned ^CK* professedly to test his prophetic 
powers, which laid the seeds of the disorder under 
which he finally sank, about four years afterwards. 

city of France, cap. d^p. Mome, on the Mame, in 


the middle of extensive meadows, 27 m. SE. 
Rheims, on the railway from Paris to Strasbourg. 
Pop. 16,575 in 1861. The Mame formerlv traversed 
the town, but since 1788 it has skirted it in a new 
channel dug for the purpose, and crossed by a 
magnificent stone bridge. Two small afHuents of 
the Mame run through the town. It is surrounded 
by old walls in pretty good preservation. With 
the exception of that which leads from the bridge 
to the Hotel de Ville the streets are narrow and 
crooked ; houses generally mean, not a few beuig 
of wood. The cathedral, consecrated in 1147, and 
rebuilt in 1672, is a large fabric, partly of Greek 
and partly of Gothic architecture. The Hotel de 
Ville and the Hotel de Prefecture are both fine 
buildings : the Porte St. Croix has a good effect, 
and there is a splendid promenade, call^ the JartL 
It is the seat of a bishopric, and has a court of 
primary jurisdiction, a commercial tribunal, a de- 
partmental collie, a primary normal school, a 
diocesan seminary, a school of practical geometry, 
a botanical garden, a society of agriculture, a>m- 
merce, and a public library, with 20,000 vols. But 
the most important establisliment belonging to the 
town is the public school of arts and trades, at 
which 450 pupils are maintained, at the expense 
of government, exclusive of those who pay. It 
has also a theatre. Different branches of the 
woollen, linen, and cotton manufactures are carried 
on in the town ; there are also extensive tanneries, 
and a good deal of trade is carried on with Paris 
in wine, com, wool, hemp, and rape-oil. La Caille, 
the astronomer, and D'Ablanoourt, the translator, 
were natives of Clialons. 

This is a very ancient town: it has been re- 
peatedly taken and pillaged, and was once much 
more considerable than at present. Attila was 
defeated under its walls in 451. In 1591 and 
1592 it burned the bulls of Pope (Gregory XIV. 
and Clement VIII. against Henry IV. In 1814 
it was for a while the central point of the opera- 
tions of Napoleon. 

town of France, d^p. Saone-et^Loire, cap. arrond., 
in a fertile plain, on the right bank of the Saone, 
which here forms an island, in which is situated 
the suburb St. Laurent, 34 m. N. Macon on the 
railway from Pans to Lyon. Pop. 19,709 in 1861. 
The town is pretty well built, but the streets are 
narrow and ill paved : it has a fine quay on the 
Sadne, and is connected with its suburb by a stone 
bridge of five arches. There is a cathedral, and a 
hdtel de ville ; but the objects most worthy of at- 
tention are the Hospice St. Laurent, in the suburb 
of that name, and the Hdpital St. Louis, both large 
establishments, and exceedingly well managed. 
The latter is an asylum for indigent old persona 
and orphans. There are some fine promenades, 
one of which, at the head of the Canal du Centre, 
is ornamented with an obelisk in honour of Napo- 
leon. The bisho[)riG has been suppressed ; but it 
has a court of pnmary jurisdiction, a trilmnal of 
commerce, a dep. college, a school of design, a 
public library with 10,000 volumes, and a theatre. 

Chalons is very favourably situated for a com- 
mercial entrepdt, communicating with the Medi- 
terranean by the great line of railway from Paris 
to Marseilles, which has a station here, as well aa 
by the Rhone and Saone, and the canals con- 
nected with them, and with the North Sea by the 
canal of the centre, constructed in 1792. 

The town is very ancient, and was for some 
time the capital of the kingdom of Burgundy. It 
suffered severely during the civil wars of the 16th 
century, and not a little from the invasion of the 
allies m 1814. It was formerly very unhealthy ; 
but in this respect it has been materially im« 


proved, by the belter drainage of the miRoandiiij^ 
CDontiy, and the greater attention paid to cleanh- 
ne» in the town, though in both these respects it 
might still be very considerably improved. The 
funcnis Abelard died here in 1142. 

CHAMAS (ST.), a town of France, d^.Bouche8- 
dn-Rhdne, on the X. bank of the lagoon de Berre, 
23 m. NW. MareeiUes. Pop. 2,692 in 1861. The 
town is well btdlt, has a handsome church, and is 
celebrated for its oils and olives, which it ships 
from its port on the lagoon. It is divided into 
two portions by a hill, through which a huge 
tunnel has been cut for a channel of communi- 
cation. It has an important powder magazine, 
which supolies Toulon and the fortresses dependent 
upon it. in the vicinity is a Roman bridge, of a 
Miigle arch, having a triumphal arch at ^ch ex- 

CIIAMBERTIX, a famous vineyard of France, 
dep. Cote d'Or, a few miles NE. Beaune. It oc- 
cupies about twenty-five hectares, and produces at 
an average from 130 to 150 pipes of buigundy. 
Chambertin was the favourite wine of Louis XIV. 
and of Napoleon. 

CHAMBERY, a city of France, ddp. Savoie, 
cap. of d^ on the left bank of the Aysse, in an> 
elevated and fertUe vaUey, 110 m. WNW. Turin, 
and 43 m. SSW. Geneva, on the railwav from 
Paris to Mont Cenis, which is to be prolonged, 
by means of a gigantic tunnel under the Alps, to 
Turin. Pop. 19,960 in 1861. The city presents 
little worthy of notice; it has one good street, 
bat most "of the othen are crooked, dark, and 
sombre. There are several squares adorned with 
fountains; and most of the houses are three stories 
in height. Chief public buildings, the cathedral, 
the Hotel Diea or principal hospital, the barracks 
constmcted by the French, ana the manufactory' 
ijf silk-gauzes, for which Chambery has long been 
celebrated. The palace is an old castle, in no way 
remarkable. The churches exhibit gaudy deco- 
ntions; in one, however, there is some good 
painted glass. The city was formerly fortitied; 
but the walls have been removed, and the space 
they occupied is laid out as public walks. 

Chambery is the seat of the superior judicial 
tribunal, and of an archbishop. It has societies 
of agiicultare and commerce, a public library, 
theatre, public baths, and many charitable insti- 
tutions. Besides gauze, other silk fabrics, laoe, 
hats, leather, and soap are manufactured; and 
there is some traile in hqaenrs, wines, lead, copper, 
and various other articles. The environs abound 
in vineyardis woods, and picturesque scenery. 
Near Chambery is the country house of Les Char- 
mettcff, once the residence of Mad. de Warens and 
Rooaseaii. The city is supposed to stand near, 
though not upon, the site of the ancient Lemin- 
dOH. It was taken by the French in 1792, who 
made it the cap. of tKe dep, of Mont Blanc, and 
retained it till the second treaty of Paris, in No- 
vember, 1815, when it was made'overto the king of 
Sardinia, who, however, gave it up, together with 
the whole pnn-inoe of Savoy, to France, in 1861. 

CHAMBORD, a village and famous castle of 
France, d«<p. Loire-et-Cher, on the Cosson, 10 m. £. 
Bkiis. The village — ^pop. 327 in 1861 — is incon- 
siderable, and the place derives its entire im- 
p<«tance from its castle, one of the most magni- 
licent and best preserved in France. This noble 
edifice was commenced by Francis I., after his 
return from Spain. He is said to have employed 
1,800 workmen for twelve years upon it; and 
here, in 1540, he entertained his illustrious rival 
Charles Y. The building was still further en- 
larged by Henry II., and finished by Louis XIY., 
wbu frequently 'inhabited it during the early part 



of his reign. The BomyeoU GenHlhomme of Mo- 
li^ was acted, for the first time, at a fete given 
here by Louis, in October, 1670. Stanislaus 
Leczinsky, king of Poland, occupied this castle 
for nine years previously to his being put in pos- 
session of the duchy of Lorraine. In 1748 it was 
assigned by Louis XV. to Marshid Saxe, who 
spent in it the evening of his days in almost 
regal splendour. After many vicissitudes, it was 
given by Napoleon to Marshal Bcrthier; and 
having been sold by his widow, in 1820, it was 
bought by subscription for the Due de Bordeaux, 
to whom its possession has since been confirmed 
by a decision of the courts. Since the expulsion 
of the elder line of the Bourbons from France, 
the head of the family has taken his name from 
this property. 

The castle is buried in deep woods, and its 
situation is rather low and damp. It is of vast 
extent, in the Gothic style, and has a profusion 
of towers, turrets, and minarets. Being built of 
black stone, it has a hea^'y appearance. The in- 
terior is very magnificent. Tne ^rand staircase is 
so contrived that persons ascending and descend- 
ing do not see each other ; it has two fine chapels, 
and many spacious apartments and splendid ceil- 
ings. Its gorgeous furniture was sold by auction 
during the Revolution ; and the beautiful tapestry 
that adorned the apartments of Francis I., Louis 
XIY., and Marshal Saxe, was burned, as the 
surest way of getting at the gold and silver with 
which it was embroidered; but the castle itself 
was not injured. The park is of great extent, 
comprising above 12,000 arpcnts. 

CHAMOND (ST.), a town of France, d^ Loue, 
cap. cant., in a fine valley at the confluence of 
the Gicr and the Ban, 8 m. NE. St. Etienne. 
Pop. 11,620 in 1861. It is a thriving, industrious 
town, is well built, has a handsome promenade, a 
departmental college, a fine parish church, and 
public baths. On a hill above the town are the 
ruins of the ancient castle, destroyed during the 
revolutioiL The manufacture of ribbons and 
laceU (laces) is very extensively carried on. It 
has, also, considerable cast-iron and nail-works. 

CHAMOUN Y, or CHAMOUNIX, a celebrated 
valley of the Alps, dcp. Haute-Savoie, France, 
immediately NW. of Mont Blanc, by which, 
and others of the Pennine Alps, it is bounded 
on its S. and £. sides, and on the W. and N. 
by Mont Breven and the AigwUe» Rougeg, Its 
length, NE. to SW., from the base of the moun- 
tains, is about 12 m., and its breadth at the 
bottom in most* parts exceeds a mile ; but in- 
cluding the mountain slopes and sides, it is as 
much as 9 m. in breadth, and may be reckoned 
22 m. in length from its head at the Col-de- 
Balme to its outlet at the torrent of the Dioza, 
near Servoz. llie average height of this val- 
ley above the sea is about 3,400 ft.; the Arve 
rises at its upper end, and intersects it in its 
entire length, escaping into the valley of Ser\*oz 
through a ridge of granitic rock. The pines and 
larches which clothe the lower parts of the moun- 
tains give a sombre appearance to the W. end of 
the valley ; and this effect u increased by the un- 
varied snows of Mont Blanc, which hang over it. 
But after passing the priory of Chamounix, the 
scene changes, and to this dreary magnificence 
succeeds a series of majestic pyramids, called 
Aiguilles, or needles, of astonishing height, and 
too steep to admit of the snows resting on them 
at any season. The valley, which becomes nar- 
rower, is richly ornamented with trees ; and the 
Arve, rushing between finely-dothed rocks anil 
precipices, adds life and beauty to the rccne. The 
little village of Aigenti^ with its church and 



f^littermg spire, and the two Aigmttes above it, 
together with the cheerful appearance of culti- 
vation, fonn a landFcape Bublimely picturesque. 
The averaf^e height of the mountain-range on the 
S. side of Chamounix is about 5,000 ft ; but the 
principal AigiuUes on this side, viz, those of Char- 
mos ; the A. Verte, de Dm, d'Argcntiere, and de 
la Tour, rise from 11,000 to 13,000 ft. above the 
level of the sea. Between these Aiguilles are 
situated the numerous glaciers which constitute 
the chief interest of the valley, to the verj' bottom 
of which they descend. Nowhere else in the Alps 
are the glaciers of equal magnitude. 

These mountains of ice are formed bv the con- 
solidation of the snow lodged in the high Alpine 
valleys. As the surface of the snow thaws and 
percolates through the mass, it is again frozen, 
and acts as a cement ; and by a repetition of this 
process ; the whole mass iS' converted into solid 
ice ; not so compact, however, as that of rivers or 
lakes ; for it is full of air-bubbles, owing to the 
mo<le of its formation. Entering the vaUey from 
the SW., the first glaciers met with are those of 
Tacona}' and de Bnissons, succeeding which are 
the more considerable ones of Montaiivert, de Bois, 
d'Argentiere, and dela Tour. The glacier de Bois, at 
the foot of the Aiguille de Dm, and about a league 
£. of the Wllage of Chamounix, u the la]>^st of 
all : it is upwards of 7 ro. in length, and in some 
places more than a mile broad ; it is, in fact, the 
tenninus of the Mer de Glnce. (See Mont Blanc.) 
Near its foot, the Arveiron, a tributary of the Arve 
has its souroc in an ice cavern, which varies in 
size at different periods of the year : but is some- 
times as much as 100 ft, in height On the W. 
side of the valley, Mont Breveu, and the AiguiUes 
Rouges (so called from their reddish colour) form 
an imbroken ridge, but of a much less elevation 
than that on the opposite side of Chamouny. The 
Col-de-Balme, at the NE. end of the valley, and 
8,000 ft, above it, affords a full and magnificent 
view of the gigantic group. Across this mountain 
one of the roads from Chamouny into the Yalais 
passes. The climate is rigorous: the winter in 
the valley of Chamounix lasts from October to 
May, during which season the snow usuallv lies to 
the depth of 3 ft., while at the village of l\)ur, the 
highest in the valley, it often attains the depth of 
12 or 13 ft In suinmer, the thennometer at noon 
commonly stands no higher than from 67° to 68° ; 
it rarely reaches 68P Fahr. Barley and other kinds 
of com, pulse, hemp, and some fruits, are grown, 
and a good many cattle are reared, llie honey of 
Chamounix is of a very fine quality. The total 
pop. of the valley was about 4,000 in '1861. There 
are several small villages : that of Prieur^, or 
Chamounix, par exctUence^ on the right bank of 
the Arve, towards the centre of the valley, has a 
pop. of about 1,700, and several good inns. It 
originated in a Benedictine convent, founded here 
at the end of the 11th centur}" by Count Aymon 
of Geneva. The other chief villages are Onches, 
Aigentiere, Le Boissons, and Tour. 

CHAMPAGNE, the name of an old prov. of 
France, in the E. ^art of the k. adjacent to Franchc 
Comtd and Lorraine, now distributed among the 
dcpts. of the Ardennes, Mame, Haute Maine, Aube, 
Gonne, and Seine-et Mame. Champagne is also 
the name of several small towns in different parta 
of France. 

CHAMPLAIN (LAKE OF), a long and narrow 
lake, principally in the U. States of N. America, 
between New York and Vermont and having its 
N. cxtremitv in Lower Canada. This lake occu- 
pies a consfderable part of what has lieen called 
the Great Glen of N. America ; that is, the re- 
markable hollow or chasm, stretching N. from 


New York to the St Laurence, a distance of about 
390 m. The glen is occupied from New York to 
Glen's Falls, 1 90 m., by the Hudson ; thence for 
21 or 22 m. to Lake (3hamplain, by a table land 
which, in its highest part, is only 140 ft above the 
level of the tides in the Hudson. The lake ex- 
tends N. and S. 110 m., with a breadth var>'ing 
from ^ to 14 m. ; but it is, in general, very narrow : 
the distance, 67 or 70 m. from the lake to the St 
Laurence, is traversed by the river Richelieu, or 
Chamblv, the outlet of the lake, which is partly 
navigable by vessels of 150 tons, and throughout 
by river barges. A canal has been constmcted 
uniting Lake Champlain and the navigable por- 
tion of the Hudson ; so that there is now a direct 
inland navigation, which, by a little outlay on the 
Kichelieu, might be made suitable for steamers, 
from New York to the St Laurence, between 
Montreal and Quebec (Darby; Gordon's Gaz. 
of New York.) 

CHAMPON, or CHOOMPIIOON, an int town 
of Lower Siam, on the road between Ligor and 
Bankok, on the E. bank of a river about 7 m. W. 
the Gulf of Siam ; lat 10° 51' N., long. 99° 23' E. 
Estimated pop. 8,000. In 1826 it was stockaded, 
and considered by the Siamese an important mili- 
tary post. Tin, good timber for ship-building, and 
excellent rattans, are found in its vicinity. 

CHANDA, an inL town of Ilindostan, prov. 
Gundwanah, cap. distr. of same name, l^etween 
two small rivers, 62 m. S. Nagpoor ; lat 20° 4' 
N., long. 79° 22' E. Its walls are 6 m. in circuit, 
and from 15 to 20 ft in height, built of freestone 
well cemented and flanked by round towera. Ita 
interior consists -of straggling streets, detached 
houses, gardens, and plantations. In 1803 it 
contained 5,000 houses ; in 1822 onlv 2,800. In 
its centre there is a fort called Bala Killa. Chanda 
was taken by the British in 1818, when it was 
found to contain a good deal of treasure and valu- 
able propertv, brought thither for securitv. 

CHANDEKNAGORE, a marit town' of Hin- 
dostan, prov. Bengal, belonging to the French, 
built on the W. bank of the Hooghly river, 16 m. 
NNW. Calcutta, and in point of situation, in 
cverv respect superior to that city ; lat. 22*^ 49' 
N., long. 88° 26' E. In 1814 it had a pop. of 
41,000, but which has been reduced now to lef» 
than half that number. The streets are straight 
and well-paved, but present a scene of solitude 
and desertion ; and the trade, formerly so flourish- 
ing, is almost annihilated. Tlicre are some manu- 
factures of cotton cloths ; the commerce is chiefly 
in opium. The territory originally attached to this 
town extended to 2 m'. along the river, and 1 m. 
inland : about 2 m. below Chandemagore are the 
ruins of a superb house, the country residence of 
its former governors. 'The French, in 1676, ob- 
tained permission to establish this settlement, 
which they subsequently appropriated and for- 
tified. In 1757 it was taken oy the British, who 
destroyed the fortifications. 

CHANDORE, a considerable inl. town of Hin- 
dostan, prov. Candcish, presid. Bombay, 68 m. 
WNW. Auningabad, lat 20° 19' N., long. 149 W 
£. It has a most foimidable position on a rock, 
commanding one of the best passes on the range 
of hills on which it is situated, and is quite inac- 
cessible everywhere but at the gateway, where it 
is strongly fortified. It however surrendered with- 
out much resistance to the British arms, both in 
1804 and 1818. 

CHANTIBUN, a large inl. town of Siam, capi 
of the rich distr. of the same name, at the foot of 
the mountain chain separating it from Caniboja, 
on the S. bank of a river 18 m. E. the (lulf of Siam, 
and 150 m. 8E. Bankok ; lat 12^ 45' N., long. 


l(ff> 18* K. It is a place of considerable trade ; 
its chief export is pepper, to the amoant of 30,000 
or 4I),000 pictils yeariy. Cardamoms, rosewood, 
dye-woods, ship timber, hides, horns, ivory, lac, 
and benzoin, are products of the Chantibun distr. 
Near the town are mines of precions stones. 

CHAXTILLY, a neat town of France, d^p. 
Oifle, on the Nouette, and on the road from Pans 
to Ainicns. 24 m. N. of the former, on the Northern 
railway. Pop. 2,930 in 1861. It has a fine hos- 
pital, endowed by the last prince of Condd This 
town is distingmshed by its industry and manu- 
factures of cotton and porcelain ; but it owes its 
eelcbfity to its having bieen, since 1632, the seat of 
the fimaily of Cond^ and to the vast sums they 
expended on the formation and embellishment of 
its castle, paik, and gardens. The castle was one 
of the largest and finest structures of the kind in 
France; the 'grand Condd' lived here in regal 
maf^ificence; and the entertainments given by 
him to Louis XIV. were so splendid as to excite 
the jealousy of the monarch. But the glories of 
Chantilly have disappeared, and cotton-miUs oc- 
cupy the sites where Kacine, Moli^, and Boileau 
u^ed to recite their chefs dToeuvret amid the ap- 
plauses of all that was beautiful and chivalrous in 

The Gnmd Chateau, rebuilt in 1779, was de- 
fttroved during the revolution, and all that now 
remains is the Petit ChAteau, the Chateau d^'En- 
phien, and the stables ; the latter, constructed be- 
tween 1719 and 1735, are unequalled in Europe. 
The remains of the Admiral de Coligni, butchered 
at the massacre of St. Bartholomew, are interred 
in the parish church of Chantilly. The forest of 
CliantiUv occupies a space of about 3,806 hectares. 
CHA^EL-EN-LE-FRITH, a market town and 
par., England, oo. Derby, hund. High Peak, on 
the declivity of a hill rising from an extensive and 
fertile vale, surrounded by lofty eminences, 11m. 
NW. by W. Derby, 167 m. NW. by N. London. 
Pop. of par. 4,264'in 1861. The town is only par- 
tially paved. There is one cotton mill, employing 
about 120 hands, and many of the lower classes 
are employed in weaving for the Manchester houses. 
At White Hall Mill is a considerable manufactory 
of paper. There is a brewery in the town, and 
nails are also made. Here is an establishment for 
warehousing goods, the place being a medium of 
communication between Manchester and Sheffield, 
and having in consequence a large carrying trade. 
The town, is one of the polling places for the elcc- 
tkni of mems. for the N. div. of the co. Besides 
the par. church, a neat edifice with a square tower, 
there is a chapel for Weslevan Methodists. There 
is also an endowed school at Chapcl-en-le-Frith, 
and another at Bowden's Edge. Lead and coal 
mines and quarries are worked in the vicinity. 
The Peak Forest lime-works lie 3 m. E. of this 
town, and commimicate by railway with the Peak 
Forest canal. Use par. includes the townships of 
Bowden*8 Edge, Biadshaw's Edge, and Combe's 

CHARD, a town and bor. of England, oo. So- 
merset, bund. Kingsbury East, in an elevated 
Kituatiun, near the S. border of the co., 11 m. N. 
Lyme Regis, and 170 m. WSW. London, by London 
and South- Western railwav. Pop. of bor. 2,276, 
and of par. 5,316 in 1861. "the old municipal bor., 
wfaidi is a parish of itself, comprised an area of 
fifty-two acres *, but the area of the new municipal 
bor. has been increased. It has an old town-hall, 
an extensive mvket-place, a church with a tower 
and bells, a well-endowed hospital for the main- 
tenance of old and infirm persons belonging to the 
parish, and is well supplied with water. Fairs, 
1st Wednesday in May, August, and November. 


Market'-day, Monday. Chard was made a bor. by 
Edward I., and elected mems. to nine parliaments, 
when it lost the privilege. 

CHARENTE, an inland d^ of France, distr. of 
the W., formed principally out of the ancient prov. 
of Angoumois : it takes its name from the Charente, 
by which it is traversed; and has N. the Deux 
Sevres and Vienne, E. Haute Vienne, S. Dordogne, 
and W. the Charente Infi^rieure. Area 594,238 
hectares, or 3,270 Eng. sq. m. ; pop. 379,081 in 
1861. Surface diversified by a great number of 
little hills. Soil various, being mostly thin or 
clayey, and encumbered with moisture ; the latter 
firevails in the arrond. of Confolens, where there 
are no fewer than sixty-two shallow lakes, or 
etanpsy some of them of considerable extent ; there 
is also in the latter arrond., and in that of Bar- 
bezieux, a laige extent of heath and waste land. 
Principal com crops, wheat, maslin (a mixture of 
wheat and rye), maize and millet, rye, barley, and 
oats ; but, owing to the inferiority of the soil, the 
returns are among the poorest in France, and the 
produce is insufficient for the consumption. The 
principal wealth of the d^p. consists in its vine- 
yards, which cover about 100,000 hectares. Their 
produce is mostly converted into eau-de-vie^ the 
superiority of that made at Cognac being univer- 
sally acknowledged. Hemp, flax, and potatoes 
are extensively cultivated. The woods cover about 
74,000 hectares; and the produce of chestnuts ave- 
rages 200,000 hectolitres. Truffies aro abundant, 
the value of those sold being estimated at about 
300,000 fr. a year. There are, comparatively, few 
horses ; but cattle, sheep, and hogs are abundant : 
wolves, foxes, and otters are pretty common, 
but wild boars have become rare. The minerals 
are antimony, lead, iron, and gypsum; the last 
two being wrought to a considerable extent. Be- 
sides the iron-works, there are vezy extensive dis- 
tilleries, with paper-works (see ANoouLiMK), 
tanneries, and manufactures of linen, canvas, 
conlage, doth, hats, and earthenware. The d^p. 
is divided into five arrondissements. The prin- 
cipal towns are Angouleme, Cognac, Ruffec, and 

CHARENTE INFEOilEURE, a maritime d<<p. 
of France, on the W. coast, deri\'ing, like the fore- 
going, its name from the Charente, bv which it is 
intersected; having N. Vend<fe, NE. t)oux Sc\'Pm*, 
E. Charente, S. the Gironde, and W. the Atlantic 
Ocean. Area, including that of the islands of 
Oleron, Rd, and Aix, 682,569 hectares, or 3,763 mi. 
m. ; pop. 481,060 in 1861. Stuface fiat, and in 
part marshy;* soil partly light, calcareous, and 
gravelly, and partly heavy and clayey. Principal 
crops, wheat., maslin, r\'e, barley, maize, millet, 
and oats. The rotation is, 1st year, wheat ; 2nd 
rye, or some other grain ; during the 3rd year the 
ground remains untilled, serving as a kind of pas- 
ture for sheep; in the 4th year the old routine 
recommences. Rent of arable and pasture land 
varies from 8s. to 36s. an acre. About half the 
ddp. is cultivated by proprietors, who possess from 
50 to 100 and 150 acres ; the other half is occupied 
by farmers, whose farms may vary from 300 to 
700 acres, and who are said to be prosperous. About 
112,000 hectares are occupied by vineyards, whose 
product, like those of the Charente, is'mastly con- 
verted into eau-de-vie or brandy. The forests cover 
above 70,000 hectares. Pastures extensive and 
excellent, furnishing food for a great number of 
cattle, excellent horses, and sheep. Minerals not 
of much importance; but there are in the dcp. 
very extensive salt marehes, particularly in the 
neighl)ourhood of Marennes, which furnish large ' 
quantities of salt. In summer, the marshes are 
unhealthy, but otherwise the climate is mild and 



salubrious. This d^. has great facilities for com- 
merce. It has several deep bays and excellent 
ports, and, exclusive of the Charente, which has 
Kochefort near its mouth, it is watered by the na- 
vigable rivers Seudre and Sdvre, from the latter 
of which there is a canal to La Kochelle, and is 
skirted on the S. by the Gironde. The fishery of 
sardines and oysters is extensively carried on, and 
vessels arc also fitted out for the cod fishery. La 
liochelle, llochefort, and the other ports have also 
a considerable share of the colonial and coasting 
trade of France. With the exception of the salt 
manufacture and distillation, manufacturing in- 
dustry is not prosecuted on a large scale; but 
coarse woollen stuffs, soap, fine earthenware, and 
glass are produced; and there are also tanneries 
and sugar refineries. The df^p. is divided into six 
arrond. Principal towns, La Kochelle, Rochefort, 
Saintes, and St. Jean d*Angely. 

CHARENTON-LErPONT, a town of France, 
d^p. Seine, cap. cant., agreeably situated on the 
Mame, near its confluence with the Seine, 4 m. 
SE. Paris, on the railway from Paris to TVoyes. 
Pop. 5,&81 in 1861. The town has several country 
houses, amon^ which b the one occupied by the 
famous Gabnellc d'Estrdes. The Mame is here 
crossed by a bridge, the possession of which has 
always been regaled as of material importance to 
the defence or attack of Paris ; and it has fre- 
quently been the scene of obstinate conflicts, the 
last of which took place in 1814, when it was 
forced by the allies. The bridge unites the town 
with the village of Charenton St> Maurice. There 
is hero an excellent lunatic asylum, founded in 
1741, and capable of accommodating 400 patients. 
The Protestants had formerly a large church in 
this village, in which synods were held in 1623, 
1631, and 1644; but it was demolished in 1655, 
after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. 

CHARITE' (LA), a town of France, dep. Nifevre, 
cap. cant., at the foot of a hill planted with vines. 
The Southern railway has a station here. Pop. 
5,297 in 1861. The town is situated on the right 
bank of the Loire, over which there are two bridges. 
It was formerly fortified, and much more consider- 
able than at present. It is celebrated for its 
manufactures of coarse jewellery, buttons, glass, 
earthenware and woollen stuffs. 


CIIARLEROY, or CHARLEROI, a fortified 
and important manufacturing town of the prov. of 
Ilainault., in Belgium, on the navijj^able river 
Sambre, 33 m. S. of Brussels, on the railway from 
Brussels . to Paris. Pop. 10,800 in 1856. The 
town is built on the side of a steep hill, and the 
inhab. are occupied chiefly in workmg the exten- 
sive coal mines of the district, and in numerous 
iron foundries and glass works. The town is in 
the (Centre of the great coal-basin of Charleroy. 
Adjacent quarries of slat« and marble are also im- 
portant sources of industry and wealth ; and the 
neighbourhood contains numerous mills for saw- 
ing marbles. The manufactures of glass comprise 
all kinds of vessels and sheet glass, of various 
qualities; and the iron works include the manu- 
facture of fire-arms, cutlery, tools, and utensils. 
There are, besides these principal establishments, 
several factories for spinning wool and weaving 
woollen cloths ; dye-houses, tanneries, snuff miUs, 
rope walks, soap-houses, salt and sugar refineries, 
breweries, distilleries, and brickyards. The com- 
munication, with Brussels by means of the rail- 
way, as well as the Charleroy canal, affords great 
facilities for commerce. Between 200 and 300 
capacious barges are constantly employed m ex- 
porting from Charleroy to Brussels coal, iron, 
ilate^ glass, and soap. A large fair for oattle and 


merchandise is held doling 10 days, commencing 
on the 5th of Aug. 

The fortress or Charleroy was built in 1666, by 
Rodrigo, Spanish gov. of the Netherlands, and 
named after Charles II. king of Spain. The lower 
and middle town were added by Louis XIY. in 
1676. Charleroy has sustained several memorable 
sieges; and by various treaties has been transferred 
from Spain to France, from France to Spain, firom 
Spain to Austria, and from Austria to France. 
The fortifications were materially improved under 
the direction of the Duke of Wellington, after the 
campaign of 1815. Near Charleroy are the ruina 
of the magnificent abbey of Alne, in a beautifully 
romantic solitude, about 9 m. from the town. The 
cloistera of this superb establishment were sap- 
ported by 300 columns of coloured marble, and 
Its revenue amotmted to 250,0002. 

CHARLESTON, a dty and sea-port of the 
U. States, one of the principal in the S. part of 
the Union, and the largest town of S. Carolina, 
on a low point of land at the confluence of the 
Cooper and Ashley rivers, 6 m. W. by N. the 
nearest point of the Atlantic, 118 m. NE. Savan- 
nah, and 690 m. SSW. Baltimore ; Ut. 3^29 46' N., 
long. 79° 49' W. Pop. 51,200 in 1860. Charles- 
ton was, till 1787, the seat of the state govern- 
ment This city was viated, in 1838, by a most 
destructive fire, which raged with great fury in its 
most populous part, destroying several streets and 
an immense amount of property. Previously to 
this disaster, the streets, which were rather nar- 
row, crossed each other at right angles, and were 
often planted with pride-of-India trees (Melia aze- 
deracha) : the houses were mostly of orick, and 
generally furnished with verandahs. Charieston 
was partly destroyeil a second time in 1864, when 
it was taken possession of by the troops of the 
United Slates, aft«r having been for four years in 
the hands of the Confederate government, servjng 
as the chief port of entry for foreign vessels into 
the Southern States, and the principal refuge of 
' blockade runners.' The town has a college, toi^ni- 
hall, exchange, custom-house, guard-house, the- 
atre, drcus, orphan asylum, hospital, two markets, 
two arsenals, and numerous churches. The col- 
lege, established in 1785, was reorganised in 1824: 
it possesses a commodious edifice, ¥rith a library 
and philosophical apparatus. There are two me- 
dical schools, and various learned and charitable 
societies. The harbour is large and convenient, 
but rather difficult of access, in consequence of its 
entrance being obstructed by a range of sand- 
banks. Through these there are but two channels 
suitable for ships of large burden. In t-he princi- 
pal or S. channel the depth of water in the shal- 
lowest part, 8 m. SE. from the town, at ebb tide, 
is only about 12 ft., and at flood tide from 17 to 
18 ft. A lighthouse, 80 ft. high, with a revolving 
light, has l^n erected on a small island bearing 
2^ m. NW. from the bar, at the entrance to the 
S. channeL After crossing the bar, there is deep 
water up to the city, where vessels lie moored 
alongside wharfs or qua^s. Charleston is a place 
of very extensive trade, it being the port whence 
more than three-fourths of the whole foreign trade 
of S. Carolina is carried on. Its exports consist 
chiefly of cotton and rice. Most of Uie imports are 
from the N. and middle states, and consist of wheat 
and flour, fish, shoes, and all kinds of manufactured 
goods* The foreign imports are mostly brought 
at second hand from New York, and consut of 
cottons, woollens, linens, hardware, iron and steel, 
coffee, sugar, tea, wine, and spices. Like moat 
other cities in the S. part of the United States, 
Charleston formerly had a large slave pop., and 
the slaves were treated with a severity revolting 


to those who lived in ooimtries free from this mo- 
nl eontemination. Happily all this has ceased by 
the emanHpariop of the slaTes in I860, in conse- 
qoenoe of the great dril war in the United States. 
The yellow ferer occasionally commits great ra- 
vages here ; bat it is more fatal to foreigners than 
to the native pop. The fever is supposed to be 
owing, in a oonsidemble degree, to the marshy 
natnic of the soil on which a part of the town 
has been built; bat the swampy ravines by which 
it was formeriy intersected have been ^^ndually 
filled np and drained, and the dty has, m conse- 
qoence, beoome mach more healthy. The town 
is badly aopplied with water, having mostly to 
depend on tne rain water collected in cisterns. 
Charieston was founded in 1680, and was the seat 
of govcmment till the building of Columbia, in 
CHARLEYILLE, an mland town of Ireland, 

EDT. Monster, N. extremity 00. Cork, 22 m. S. 
mcrick, on the railway from Limerick to Coik. 
Pop. 4,766 m 1831, and 2,468 m 1861. The town 
ooosists of four main streets croasing each other 
at light angles. In it are the par. church, a laxge 
R. Cath. chapel, a building for public meetings, 
a national school, and an endowed grammar 
scbooL The oorporation, under a charter of Charles 
11^ in 1671, consists of a sovereign, two bailiffs, 
twelve burgesses, and an indefinite commonalty. 
It returned two membexs to the Irish H« of C. till 
the Union, when it was disfranchised. A manor 
oourt has jurisdiction in pleas to the amount of 
2(H>6, and as a civil bill court. Petty sessions are 
held on alternate Mondays. The oourt and mar- 
ket house are in the same building. Tanning and 
blanket making are carried on to some extent, 
and there are two laif*e flour mills. Markets on 
SAtonlavs; fairs on 10th Jan., 16th March, 12th 
May, 15th Aug., 10th Oct., and 12th Nov. The 
town is a constabulary station. 

Chabijcville, a town of France, d^ Ar- 
dennes, on the Mease, at a short distance from 
Meziera, on the railway from Chalons to Namur. 
Popw 9,907 in 1861. The town is extremdy well 
baUt ; streets straight and broad, intersecting each 
other at right angles ; houses nearly all of the 
same height, and slated, having a comfortable, 
gay appearance. In the centre of the town is a 
fine square, surrounded by arcades, and ornamented 
with a superb fountain. The river is crossed by a 
Mispension bridge. It is the seat of a court of pri- 
mary jurisdiction, and of a commercial tribunal ; 
and has a departmental college, a primary normal 
school, a secondary ecclesiastical school, a course 
of geometry and mechanics applied to the arts, a 
pnUic library, with 24,000 voU., a cabinet of 
natural history and antiquities, and a theatre. 
The royal manufactory of arms, formerly estab- 
lished here, has been transferred to Tulle and 
Chatelleiaidt ; but arms are still laigelv manu- 
factoied on account of individuals. The nail- 
pioduce about 8,500,000 kilog. of nails a 
and there are, besides, copper foundries, 
where laxge quantities of copper-wire, and plates, 
are pioduoed, with soap-works and tanneries. It 
has a commodious port on the Meuse, and a con- 
eideraMe trade in wine, spirits, coal, iron, slates, 
maihle, and manufactured goods. Through the 
canal of Ardennes, as well as the railway, it has 
also an easy communication wiUi Paris. 

The foondations of Charleville were laid in 
1605, by Charles of Gonzaga, duke of Mantua 
Nevera, who gave it his name. Having passed 
from his heirs to the house of Bourbon, the fortifi- 
cations were razed, in 1 686, by order of Louis XIV. 

CilARLOTTENBUKG, a town of Prussia, 
pvoT. Bnsidenbarg, on the left bank of the Spree, 


5 m. W. Berlin, with which it is connected by 
railway. Pop. 12,431 in 1861. The town con- 
sists diiefly of vUlas and taverns, the summer 
residence of the rich, and the resort of^the humbler 
classes from Berlin ; is well built, and has hand- 
some straight streets, ornamented with rows of 
trees. There is a niagnificent palace, built by 
Frederick the Great, and furmsked with a col- 
lection of antiquities. The gardens, which are 
finely laid out, are always open to the public, 
and are much visited by Sunday parties and 
strollers fix>m the capital. Within the gardens 
is the mausoleum, erected by Kin^ Frederick 
William II L, over the remains of his beautiful 
and unfortunate queen, Louisa of Mecklenburg. 
It contains the celebrated recumbent marble statue 
of Louisa, by Kauch, admitted to be not only the 
masterpiece of that eminent sculptor, but one of 
Uie finest modem worics of art. 

CHAROLLES, a town of France, d^ Sadne- 
et-Loire, cap. azrond., at the confluence of the 
Semence and the Reconce, 28 m. WNW. M&con. 
Pop. 8,284 in 1861. The town is agreeably 
situated, neat, and well built ; has a communal 
college, tribunals of primary jurisdiction and com- 
merce, an agricultural society, iron forges, and 
fabrics of earthenware, and crucibles. A hill 
above the town is crowned with the picturesque 
ruins of the old castle of the counts or Charolais. 
One of these, a prince of the blood royal, who lived 
during the reign of Louis XY., achieved an in- 
famous notoriety. 

CIIARTRES^ a city of France, d^p. £ure-et- 
Loire, of which it is the capital, on the Eure, 48 m. 
S W. Paris, on the railway from Paris to Nantes. Pop. 
19,531 in 1861. The town is surrounded by walls 
and ditches, and is situs ted partly on a hill, and 
partly on low ground. The Eure, which here divides 
mto two branches, runs through and endrcl^ the 
lower town. Streets narrow and crooked; those 
forming the communication between the upper and 
lower towns being so very steep as to be inaccessible 
to carriages. The cathedral is reckoned one of tho 
finest Gothic edifices in France. Here are, also, 
two fine steeples, a monument to General Marceau, 
barracks, a theatre, and some fine promenades. It 
is the seat of a bishopric ; has a court of assizes, 
tribunals of primary jurisdiction and commerce, a 
departmental college, a public library, with 80,000 
vols., a school of design, and a botanical garden. 
The manufactures consist principally of hosiery 
and hats, and there are also tannenes and dye- 
works. Chartres is the centre of the com trade of 
the dep., its corn-markets being amon^ the most 
important in France, and providing m a great 
measure for the supply of Paris. It is the native 
country of Regnier the poet, of Brissot, and 
Petion, members of the convention, and of General 

This is a very ancient city, being reckoned be- 
fore the Roman conquest, as the capital of Celtic 
GauL It was for a considerable time in the pos- 
session of the English. Henry IV. was crowned 
here in 1594. 

monastery of France, dep. Is^re, 14 m. N. Grenoble, 
among rugged mountains, at an elevation of 8,281 
ft. (1,000 metres) above the level of the sea. The 
access to it is very difilicult. This monastery was 
founded in 1084 ; but having been several times 
pillaged and burnt down, the present building has 
oeen erected since 1676. It is of vast extent, and 
has cost an immense sum. During the revolution, 
the monks were driven out, and their property, in- 
cluding their valuable library, confiscated and sold. 
But, in 1826, the building, which had escaped tiie 
revolutionary tempest, was restored to its original 



destination. Some of the old monks, accompanied 
by Bcveral neophj^es, returned to the building; 
and the Chartreuse existed once more, but shorn 
of its old lustre, importance, and M-ealth. 

CHARYBDIS. See Scylla and Chabybdis. 

CHATEAUBKIANT, a town of France, d<<p. 
Loire Infdrieure, cap. cant, on the Chere, near the 

?)nd or lake of Grand Lieu, 26 m. WN W. Ancenis. 
op. 4,636 in 1861. The town is old and meanly 
built, round the ruins of the old castle, founded in 
1015, whence *it derives its name. Francoise de 
Foix, celebrated for her beauty and gallantries 
with Francis I., died here in 1537, and was buried 
in the church of the Trinity, with an epitaph on 
her tomb written by Clement Marot. The town 
has a court of primary jurisdiction, an agricultural 
society, and manufactures of coarse woollen stuffs, 
and its pastry and confitures are held in high esti- 
mation. It has some trade in iron, coal, and wood, 
and a considerable com-market 

town of France, d<^p. Nie\'Te, cap. arrond., near the 
Yonne, in the middle of mountains, at an elevation 
of 1,968 ft. (600 mdtres) above the level of the sea, 
20 m. WNW. Autun. Pop. 2,960 in 1861. The 
town was formerly surrounded by fortifications, 
and was defended by a vast castle, of which there 
exist considerable ruins. It has a court of primary 
jurisdiction, an agricultural society, and some fa- 
brics of coarse woollens and linens. Having been 
taken by the royalists in 1591, after an obstinate 
resistance, the garrison and the greater part of the 
inhabitants were put to the sword. 

CHATEAUDUN, a town of France, d<<p. Eure- 
ct-Loire, cap. arrond., near the left bank of the 
Loire, 25 m. SSW. Chartres. Pop. 6,719 in 1861. 
Having been almost wholly burnt down in 1723, 
it has been rebuilt on a regular plan, with broad 
straight streets, and uuiform houses. The principal 
square, the Hotel de Villc, and the buildings of 
the communal college, are worthy of notice. 
Besides the college, it has a court of primary juris- 
diction, a public library, with 6,000 voLs,, and some 
manufactures of woollens, and tanneries. On a 
rock, commanding the tow^n, are the remains of the 
old castle of the Counts of Dunois, the chapel at- 
tached to which has the tomb of the famous 
general of Charles VII., and some other tombs of 
less distinguished menil)crs of the familv. 

CHATEAU-GONTIEB, a town of Fnmce, d^. 
Mayenne, cap. arnmd., on the Mavenne, 18 m. S. 
Laval Pop. 7,214 in 1861. The' town is badly 
laid out, but well built ; has a stone bridge over 
the river, by which it is united to its principal 
suburb, a fine Gothic church, a communal college, 
3 hospitals, public baths, an agricultural society, 
&c. ; and' is the scat of a court of original jurisdic- 
tion. It has considerable manufactures of fine 
linen and linen thread, with extensive blcachfields ; 
is the entrepot of a great proportion of the wines, 
slate, coal, and tufa of the dep. ; and the centre of 
the trade in fine thread. The tovm was formerlv 
surrounded by walls, and had a castle, whence it 
took its name. It suffered a good deal during the 
wars of Vend<*e. 

CIIATEAULIN, a town of France, dep. Finis- 
t>re, cap. arrond., in an agreeable valley, on the 
Aulne, which there takes the name of Chateaulin, 
22 m. SE. Brest, on the railwav from Brest to 
Quimper. Pop. 2,892 in 1861. 'The town is ill- 
built ; has a court of primary jurisdiction, and an 
agricultural society. Vessels of from 60 to 80 
tons come up to the town, which has a good deal 
of trade in slates, procured from quarries in the 
neighbourhooii, cattle, and butter. 

derable town of France, ddp. Loz^e, cap. cant on 


a mountAin, 12 m. NE. Mende. Pop. 1,465 in 
1861. The town was formerly fortified ; and an 
English garrison was besieged in it, in 1380, by a 
French force under the famous constable Dugiies- 
clin ; the constable having died during the course 
of the siege, the English governor laid on his coffin 
the keys of the town, which he had engaged to 
deliver up to him if not relieve<l within fifteen 
days. A monument was erected here in 1820 to 
the memory of Duguesclin. 

of France, d<^p. Charente, cap. cant, on the Cha- 
rente, 12 m. VVSW. Angouleme. Pop. 3,565 in 
1861. The town has a considerable trade in wine, 
brandy, and salt It was anciently called Berde- 
ville, and was defended b^ a castle burnt down in 
1081. A new castle having been built to replace 
the former, the town took firom it the name of 

CIIATEAUROUX, a town of France, dep. 
Indre, of which it is the cap., in an extensive 
plain on the left bank of the Indre and on the 
railway from Paris to Bordeaux. Pop. 16,176 in 
1861. Though materially improved Ch&teauroux 
continues to be one of the worst built towns in 
France. Streets narrow, crooked, and iU-pavcd ; 
houses small, irregularly built, and gloomy. It 
has, however, some finely shaded agreeable pro- 
menades, and some good buildings, it is the scat 
of a court of assizes, of tribunals of primary juris- 
diction and commerce ; and has a theatre, a public 
library, a public garden, a society of agriculture, 
science and arts, and an annual exhibition of the 
products of the industry of the dep. The cloth 
manufacture is very extensively earned on ; cotton 
hosier^'^ and hats are also produced, and there are 
establishments for the spinning of wool, with tan- 
works, and tile-works. 

Chateauroux was founded in 950 ; was burned 
down in 1088, and rebuilt shortly after. Louis 
XIII. erected it into a duchy ; and it was given by 
Louis XV. to one of his mistresses, Madame de 
Mailly, better known by the name of the Duchess 
de Ch&teauroux. 

CHATEAU-THIERRY, a town of France, dop. 
Aisne, cap. arrond., on the Mame, 25 m. S. Soiti- 
sons, on the railwav from Paris to Soissons. Pop. 
5,925 in 1861. Tlie town is built on the declivity 
of a hill, the summit of which is surmounted by 
its ancient castle, a vast mass of thick walls, 
towers, and turrets. It has a considerable suburb 
on the left bank of the Manie, the communication 
between them being kept up by a handsome stone 
bridge of three arches. It has a court of primarv- 
jurisdiction, a communal college, an establishrnent 
for the spinning of cotton, and tanneries. The 
famous poet La Fontaine, not less original by hLs 
character and conduct than by his talent and 
genius, was bom here on the 8th of July, 1661. 
The house which he inhabited is still pre»erveil ; 
and a marble statue was erected to his memory 
on the end of the bridge in 1824. Ch&teau> 
Thierry suffered considerably during the cam- 
paign of 1814. 

CHATELLERAULT, a town of France, d<«p. 
Vienne, cap. arrond., on the Vieime, 20 m. NNE. 
Poitiers on the railway from Paris to Poitiers and 
Bordeaux. Pop. 14,2*10 in 1861. The town is 
situated in a fertile, agreeable country, but is ill 
built It is joined to its suburb on the opposite 
side of the river by a stone bridge, built by the 
Due de Sully. Besides several churches, it has a 
communal college, a theatre, an exchange, a bos • 
pital, and a royal manufacture of arms, the build- 
ings of which are among the finest in the town ; 
and some fine promenades. This town has been 
long famous for its cutlery, and lias manofactores of 



clocks and watches, and lace. It serves as a kind 
of entrepot for the towns of the S. and the N. of 
France ; particularly for wines, spirits, salt, slates, 
iron, com, hemp, and timber. The Scotch Earl of 
Arnan, ancestor of the Dukes of Hamilton, was 
created Dnc de CMtellerault in 1548. 

CHATHAM, a par., town, parL bor., naval 
arsenal, and sea-port of Englanc^ co. Kent, lathe 
Aylesford, on the Medway, 2l m. E. by S. London, 
by road, and 344 m. by London, Chatham and 
Dover railway. Fop. o'f parL bor. 86,177 in 1861. 
Chatham is separated from the city of Rochester 
by a merely artificial line ; and the latter being 
ccmnected with Stroud by a bridge, the three towns 
fona a continoons street of upwards of 8 m. along 
the old Dover road from London. For about ^ m. 
below Rochester, the town extends along the bank 
of the river, which there bends NN£. and E. by 
X. till it falls into the sestuary of the Thames 
at Sheemess. Notwithstanding the shortness of 
iti» course, the Medway has very deep water. At 
Chatham the tide rises 18 ft. at springs, and 12 ft. 
at neaps ; and from Sheemess to Uhatham there is 
water to float the laxgest ships ; and the ground 
being soft, and the reaches short, it forms an ad- 
mirable haxbour for men-of-war : and it is to its 
facilities in this respect that Chatham and the 
ciintiguoos towns are mainly indebted for their 

The principal church, a plain brick structure, 
was rebuilt in 1788 ; and a more modem one was 
erected in 1821, by the parliamentary commis- 
Muner«. Several more churches have since been 
built, as also a number of dissenting chapels, a 
national school, a proprietary classical school, a 
philociophical and literary institution, to which a 
museum is attached, and two public subscription 
libraiies. Here is also a chapel, on the site of one 
attached to a monastery, founded in 1078, the en- 
dowment of which supports* four brothers, two of 
them in orders. Sir J. Hawkins* hospital for de- 
cayed seamen and shipwrights, chartered in 1594, 
pupportji 10 individuals. There are three or four 
min<ir charities. 'Chatham chest,' which origi- 
nated with Sir F. Drake and Sir J. Hawkins, after 
the Spanish Armada, and at first consisted of 
voluntary contributions from seamen, soon became 
ccnnpalsory, and was ultimately removed, in 1803, 
to Greenwich. Down to the 4th Wm. IV. it was 
sapp(»rted by deductions from the monthly wages 
of seamen, but an act of that session made it 
chargeable on the consolidated fund. The town 
wait ccMTisiderably improved under an act passed in 
177^, but many parts of it still remain narrow and 
irregular. It is in the jurisdiction of the co. magis- 
trates, with the exception of a small part, com- 
prised within the municipal limits of Rochester. 
The Reform Act, which made it a borough, con- 
ferreil on it the privilege of returning one member 
to the H. of C. The limits of the parliamentary 
b(»ru«igh include a considerable area S. and £. of 
the town. Registered electors 1,741 in 1865. 
Market-dar, Saturday; annual fairs. May 15, 
N?|)tember* 1 9, each lasting three days : annual 
races in August. 

The town is almost wholly dependent on the 
great naval and military establishments at Bromp- 
ton, in its immediate neighbourhood, but separated 
fmm it by a line of fortifications. The dockyard, 
which lies along the K. side of the river, is, in- 
dwiing the arsenal, above 1 m. in length ; and is 
defended by Gillingham Fort, Upnor Castle, and 
several bastions. Fort Pitt, on the S. or land side 
of the town, was erected in 1803. The dockyanl 
contains between 500 and 600 houses for the arti- 
lioens cmployetl in the diflferent works, and is 
abundantly supplied with every means and ac- 

commodation required for the biulding and fitting 
out of the largest ships. It has five large tide 
docks, capable of receiving first rate men-of-war, 
and six building-slips for vessels of the largest di- 
mensions; a mast-house, attached to which are 
saw-mills worked by steam, and two large floating 
basins, for the reception of the timber for the masts; 
a smithery, where anchors of the largest size are 
forged; a rope-house, where cables above 100 
fathoms in length, and 25 inches diameter, are 
twisted by powerful machinery ; a sail-house, and 
numerous warehouses, containing every article re- 
quired for the building and equipment of ships of 
war. Here also is a spare set of Brunei's block 
machinery, in the event of that at Portsmouth 
getting out of order ; dwellings for the civil oflicers 
of the establishment, and a handsome chapel 
Near the entrance (which is a spacious gateway 
flanked bv two towers) is a general marme hos- 
pital, built in 1828, and capable of receiving 840 
patients. Four hulks moored off the dockyard, one 
for juvenile, two for adult offenders, and one as a 
hospital, form the convict establishment, usually 
containing from 900 to 1,000 individuals, emploved 
in the common dradgery of the arsenal The 
ordnance wharf, to the W. of the dockvard (on the 
slip of land between the church and rfver, quarter 
of a m. from the high street of Chatham), contains 
the guns belonging to each vessel respectively, 
in separate tiers, piles of shot and shells, a weJl- 
arran^ed armour^', and a large building in which 
lead 18 rolled and paint ground by steam ma- 
chinery. The military establishments, comprised 
within the lines, consist of large infantry, marine, 
engineer, and artillery barracks, with a park of 
artillery. There is also a school, established in 
1812, where young engineering officers and re- 
cruits are trained to a practical acquaintance with 
their duties. The naval arsenal was first formed 
a short time previously to the Spanish Armada, 
on the site of the present onlnance wharf : Upnor 
Castle was also built about the same time. The 
dockyard was removed to its present site by 
James I., and was subsequently enlarged and iin- 
proved, by the formation of floating docks, by 
Charles I., at which period Gillingham Fort wan 
built; but the present establishments were princi- 
pally formed subsequently to 1758, when an act 
was passed for their construction. Previously to 
this, the security of the arsenal depende<l mainly 
on the river forts, especially that of Sheemess; 
and on the guard ships stationed in the river. 
These, however, were not adequate for its protec- 
tion. A memorable instance of their insufliciency 
occurred in 1667, when a powerful Dutch fleet, 
under De Ruyter, having suddenly appeared in 
the Thames, -took Sheemess, broke a strong chain 
that had been drawn across the Medway, and, 
sailing up the river as far as Chatham, destroyed 
several sail of the line and a great quantity of 
stores. The Dutch accomplished this brilliant and 
daring achievement without incurring any material 
loss; but the fortifications were soon after very 
materially strengthened, and are now such as to 
render any eotrp de main of this sort quite out of 
the question 

To shorten the distance by water, and facilitate 
the communication between London and Chat- 
ham, an open canal and tunnel was made, at the 
l>eginning of the present century, from the 
Thames, opposite Tilbury Fort, to Chatham, a 
distance of about 9 m., of which about 2 m. are 
tunnelled. But notwithstanding the obvious im- 
portance of this channel of communication an a 
means of saving distance^ the too great height of 
the rates prevented it from being much used, and 
it was ultimately sold to the North Kent railway 



company, who naed the tunnel for the raihroad. 
Cetchami or the Village of Cottages, is the name 
of Chatham in Domesday, and many British and 
Roman remains have been found in its vicinity ; 
but the greater part of the modem town has Ix^n 
built since the reign of Elizabeth. Chatham has 
given the title of earl to the Pitt family. 

CHATILLON-SUR-LOING,a town of France, 
d^p. Loiret, cap. cant,, on the Loing, 14 m. SSE. 
Montaigis. Pop. 2,594 in 1861. This town be- 
longed to the family of Coligny ; and in its old 
castle, on the 16th of Februaiy, 1517, was bom 
the famous Admiral de Coligni, the most illus- 
trious victim of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. 
The mangled remains of the admiral having been 
deposited, by the care of some of his servants, in 
the chapel of the castle of Chatillon, were trans- 
ferred, in 1786, to Maupertuis, where a monument 
was erected to his memory. 

CHATILLON-SUR-S£lNE, a town of France, 
dep. Cote d*Or, cap. arrond., on the Seine, 28 m. 
NNE. Semur-cn-Auxois, on the railway from 
Paris to Mulhousc. Pop. 4,836 in 1861. The town 
is neat, well built, and well laid out ; it has a fine 
castle, a commimal college, a small public library, 
a hospital, and a school of design, a society of 
agriculture. It has also fabrics of coarse cloth, 
hats, jewellery, iron-plates, glass, beet-root sugar, 
and casks. There was formerly, within the park 
belonging to Marshal Marmont, a very perfect 
agricultural establishment, and an establishment 
for the preparation of iron and hardware articles : 
but since the death of the marshal, the establish- 
ments in question have been dismantled and the 
articles sold. Chatillon was, in 1814, the seat of 
the unsuccessful negociations between Napoleon 
and the Allies. 

CHATRE (LA), a town of France, d^p. Indre, 
cap. arrond., on tlic left bank of the Indre, 22 m. 
SE. Chateauroux. Pop. 6,038 in 1861. The town 
is agreeably situated on the side of a hUl, and was 
formerly defended by an immense castle, now in 
ruins, and of which one of the towers serves for a 
prison. It has a handsome church, and a fine 
promenade ; with a court of primary jurisdiction, 
a communal college, very extensive tanneries and 
leather manufactures, and fabrics of seige and 
other coarse woollen stuffs. Clicstnuts are very 
plentiful in its vicinity ; and it has a considerable 
trade in them, and in cattle, wool, and hides. 

CHATSK, a town of Russia in Europe, gov. 
Tambof, cap. distr., on tlie Chatcha, 95 m. N. 
Tambof. l<^tim. pop. 8,000. The town was 
founded in 1653, and peopled with Strelitz, Pouch- 
gars, and Cossacks, and was formerly fortified; 
and has a good deal of trade in com, cattle, tallow, 
honey, hemp, and iron. 

ClIATSWORTH, a famous scat belonging to 
the Duke of Devonshire. See Bakewblu 

CHATTERPOOli, a town of Ilindostan, pro- 
vince Allahabad, about 140 miles WSW. that 
city, formerly a flourishing place, and still pos- 
sessing extensive manufactures of coarse cotton 

CUAUDES-AIGUES, a town of France, ddp. 
Cantal, cap. cant., in a narrow, deep gorge, on one 
of the afiluents of the Truy^, 14 m. SiSW. St 
Flour. Pop. 1,950 in 1861. This town is indebted 
for whatever importance it may possess to its hot 
springs, which were known to tlie Romans, by 
whom they were called Aqiue CulaUesn of which 
its modem name is a translation. Their tem- 
perature varies from 30° to 80° Reaumur. In 
winter, the houses are warmed with the hot water 
conveyed through the streets and into the houses 
in wooden pi()es. It is also successfuU}' employed 
in the incubation of various species of eggs. It 


has some trade in isinglass, and camcs on some 
branches of the woollen manufacture. 

CHAUMONT (formerly Oiaumont-en-Bas^ffny)^ 
a town of France, ddp. Haute Mame, of which it 
is the cap., on a height between the Mame and 
the Suize, about H m. from the confluence of these 
rivers, 18 m. NNW. Langres. Pop. 7,140 in 1861. 
The town is indifferently built; streets straight 
and clean, but some of them steep and of difficult 
access. It formerly laboured under a deficiency 
of water ; but now it possesses several fine foun- 
tains, supplied by means of a hydraulic machine. 
It has several good public buildings; and in the 
upper part of the town are some fine promenades. 
Louis AIL, Francis L, and Henry IL, surrounded 
it with walls and ditches ; but these are in a state 
of disrepair, and in most places, indeed, are thrown 
down and filled up. It has tribunals of primary 
jurisdiction and of commerce ; a departmental col- 
lege, a society of agriculture, commerce, and arts ; 
a public library, with 35,000 volumes ; a theatre, 
a hospital, and a house of correction ; manufac- 
tures of coarse woollens and dmggets, with im- 
portant fabrics of hosiery and gloves ; and a con- 
siderable trade in iron and cutlery. The emperors 
of Austria and Russia, and the king of Prussia, 
signed here, in 1814, a treaty against Napoleon. 

CHAUNY, a town of France, d<^ Aisne, cap. 
cant., at the point where the Oise is joined by the 
canal of St. Quentin, half the town being built on 
an island in the river, 18 m. W. Laon, on the rail- 
way from Paris to Mons. Pop. 8,163 in 1861. A 
good deal of cider is made in the town, which has 
also a considerable amount of trade, bcdng favour- 
ably situated for commerce. 

CHAVES, a fortified frontier town of Portugal, 
prov. Tras os Montes, on the right bank of the 
Tam^B, over which it has a Roman bridge of 
eighteen arches, 40 m. W. Braganza. Pop. G,720 
in 1858. The town has mineral baths, which were 
formerly much frequented. It was taken by the 
French, under Marshal Soult, on his entry into 
Portugal in 1808, but was recaptured by the 
Spaniards in the following year. 

CHAYEXPOOR, a town and distr. of Nepaul, 
N. Ilindostan ; the former is fortified, and is 130 
m. E. by S. Catmandoo. The distr. is altogether 
mountamous; it exports to Thibet rice, wheat, 
oil, butter, iron, copper, cotton and woollen cloth, 
planks, spices, indigo, tobacco, sugar, furs, and 
pearls ; and imports Uiencc, salt, gold, sUver, musk, 
musk deer skins, chowries, blankets, Chinese silks, 
borax, and medicinal herbs. 

CHEADLE, a market town and par. of Enj::- 
land, CO. Stafford, S. div., hund. Totmonslow, 180^ 
m. NW. London, by London and North- Western 
railway. Pop. of town 8,191, and of par. 4,803 in 
1861. " The town is pleasantly seated in the most 
fertile X)art of the Moorland, in a vale surrounded 
by hills, planted with forest trees, and in a district 
abounding with coal. It consists of one princiftol 
and four small streets, and is intersected by the 
roads from Newcastle to Ashboum, and from Leek 
to Uttoxeter. The church is an ancient structure, 
in the decorated style of English church architec- 
ture. The chapel* of ease, a neat building, was 
erected by subscription in 1832. The town is 
govemed by a constable and headborough, nomi- 
nated annually at the court-leet, held by the lond 
of the manor. It is also a station for receiving 
votes at the election of mems. of the H. of C. for 
the N. div. of the co. The li^dng is a rectory, in 
the archdeaconry of StaffonI, and diocese of Lich- 
field and Coventry. Patron, master and feUows 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. There are various 
chapels u>r dissenters and R. CathoUcsL It has a 
free school, endowed in 1685 ; a national school. 


and sandry bequests for the poor of the par. In 
the vicinage are veiy extensive copper, tin, and 
bra.««i works, and a considerable tape maDufactory. 
There are also in the town numerous blacksmiths, 
brazien, and tin-plate workers; iron merchants, 
nail-makers, curriers, and tanners; rope-makers, 
flax-<beaaen, saddlers, and maltsten. Copi)er ore 
has been found in the neighbourhooci, but not in 
puffirient abundance to make its working advan- 
tageoua. The Caldon branch of the Trent and 
Mfisey canal paivea within 4 m. of Cheadle, 
Market-day, Friday ; and faixs are held in January, 
March, Holy Thursday, 16th August, and 4th 
October, for cattle and horses. 

CHKDDER, a par. and village of England, co. 
Somerset, hund. Winterstoke. Area G,090 acres. 
Pop. 2,032 m 1861. The villag«», 15 m. S. by W. 
]hi»tol, at the base of the Chedder cliff, a part of 
the Mendip hills, has three irregular streets branch- 
ing from a centre. The church is a spacious struc- 
ture, with a lofty pinnacled tower; there u a 
charity school for 35 boys and 13 girls, supported 
by a portion of a bequest left in 1751, the remain- 
der being appropriated to the apprenticing of poor 
c*hildrpn, and the relief of the poor generally. 
There are tsun fat sheep and cattle, May 4 and 
Oct. 29. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in 
agrunilture; but a paper-mill in tLe immediate 
vicinity employs several hands, and many females 
are engaged in knit-ting stockings. The Chedder 
rt»ck.<% close to the town, form a huge chasm or 
p>rge, apparently tcrni apart by some conyuUion 
</ nature, presenting iire^lar precipices and ex- 
t<>n8ive caverns, characteristic or calcareous strata. 
The extensnve downs comprised within the par. 
are <^thed with fine pasture ; and the dairies of 
the diatrict have long been famous for the produo- 
titm of an excellent species of cheese, known by 
the name of Chedder. 

CUEDUBA, an island in the Bay of Bengal, 
about 10 m. SVV. Kamree, Aracan, to which prov. 
it bdongs, cmiatituting one of its four chief divi- 
saona. It lies between bit 18^ 36' and 18^ 46' N., 
and long. 93^ 28' and 93<^ 44' £.: shape, nearly 
round; length and breadth, about 20 m. each; 
ai«a, 400 sq. m. Pop. between 5,000 and 6,000. 
Xeariy the whole of its surface consists of a rich 
productive soil; the interior is much more free 
fnjm jungle than that of any other island upon 
this coast. The sugar cane, tobacco, hemp, cotton, 
and rice grow most luxuriantly, and the cattle 
are the finest in the whole prov. 

CHELMSFORD, a town and par. of EngUnd, 
CO. Essex, hniui Chelmsford, at the confluence of 
the Widd, or Cann, and Chehner, 28 m. N£. by K. 
London by road, and 29^ m. by Great Eastern 
railway. Pop. of town 5,513, and of parish 8,407 
in 1861. The town, which is almost in the centre 
of the cou, CMisbts of one principal street and 
three otbears branching from it: houses mostly 
well built, many of them having gardens extend- 
ing to the rivers. It is lighted, and well supplied 
with water frcmi a spring distant ^ m., conveyed 
to a h^iMliiome reservoir in the town. Ihe church, 
a stately fabric of the earty ]>art of the 15th cen- 
tury, has been repaired ynthin the last few years, 
but the original pointed style has been carefully 
preserved. It has a chapel of ease, several dissent- 
uig chapels, four sets of almshouses (the oldest 
fiMUided in 1625) ; a public dispensary, and many 
minor charities and benevolent societies ; a gram- 
mar school, founded by Edward VI., which partici- 
(lates alternately with those of Malton and Brent- 
wood in an exhibition to Cains College, Cambridge ; 
2 charity schoob (one founded in 1713, one in 1714) , 
which respectively clothe and educate 50 boys and 
20 girls; a national, a Lancastrian, and an infant 



school ; a neat theatre ; public l>aths, with a read- 
ing-room attached ; and a handsome hall, in which 
the courts of assize and of quarter sessions for tho 
county are held, and which also contains a spacious) 
assembly-room. The present co. gaol, on a hill 
about 1 m. from Chelmsford, in the par. of Spring- 
field, where it occupies an area or 8 or 9 acres, 
was built in 1828 on the radiating plan. The 
former gaol, in the same par., in now only used for 
prisoners previously to conviction, and debtors: 
attached to it is a house of correction for females. 
During the last war, two sets of barracks, capable 
of containing 4,000 men, were erected near the 
town ; but thev have since l)een taken down. A 
line of embankments defended by star batteries 
inay still be traced, erected during the threatened 
invasion in 1805, to protect the approaches to the 
metropolis from the E. coast. The Chclmer is 
crossed by a handsome iron bridge. Below the 
town, the river has been formed into a navigable 
canal, 12 m. in length, for barges, by means of 
locks and artificial cuts, to Maldon, at the head of 
the estuary of the Blackwater. A handsome stono 
bridge of one arch has been thrown over the Cann, 
to replace an older bridge of three arches built in 
the reign of Henry I. Chelmsfonl is on the line 
of the Great Eastern railway, and has long been 
the main thoroughfare to the E. parts of Essex, 
and to those of Norfolk and Suffolk. This and the 
general co. business of assizes are the chief support 
of the place, for there is no manufacture, and the 
principal part of the labouring pop. are employed 
m agriculture, or as carriers and droven to the 
metropolis. There are well-frequented annual 
races m July, held on Galley Common, 2 m. from 
the town. Chelmsford is near the Quaromoffus 
of the Roman period. 

CHELSEA, a town and par., forming part of 
the W. suburbs of the metropolis of England, 
CO. Middlesex, hund. Ossulston, Kensington div. 
Pop. of par. 32,371 in 1831 ; 40,179 in 1841 ; and 
63,439 in 1861. Chelsea is situated on the N. bank 
of the Thames, along the widest of its reaches above 
London Bridge, and is connected with Battersca 
bv a modem suspension, and an old wooden bridge. 
Ine lower, or old town, is irregularly built, and on 
the whole of mean appearance : its best houses are 
those of Cheyne Walk, along the side of the river 
above the hospital, anciently a fashionable resf^rt, 
where many distinguished individuals resided. 
The upper and more modem town, which extends 
towards Hyde Park, and comprises Sloane Street 
and Square, Cadogan Place, and part of Knights- 
bridge, consists or handsome and r^ularly built 
houses. The original parish church near the river 
(the oldest part of which is of the 14th century) 
contains many interesting monuments ; amongst 
others, one to Sir Thomas More, and in its church- 
yard is one to Sir Hans Sloane, who resided here, 
and was lord of the manor. This original church 
has now become a chapel of ease to a splendid 
church, built in 1824, in the decorated and later 
Gothic style, of which it is a very tine qiecimen : 
it has 927 free sittings, in consequence of tho 
parliamentary commissioners having contributed 
several thousand pounds towards its erection. 
There are numerous other religious edifices, among 
them an episcopal chapel in Park Street, built in 
1718 ; another in Sloane Street, in the later 
pointed style, in which there are 650 free sittings ; 
several dissenting chapels, a charity school founded 
in 1694, in which 40 scholars are educated, and 30 
of the number clothed ; a national school behind 
the church, and others connected with the Park 
and Sloane Street chapels ; besides several minor 
charities. The most important public estab., how- 
ever, is that of tho military hospital, finished in 



1690, on a plan of Sir C. Wren, at an expense of 
150,000/. : it is of brick, with stone quoins, columns, 
and cornices, and forms three (}uadninglcs in the 
centre of extensive pjounds; tliose at the back of 
the structure being planted with avenues, those in 
front, occupied by ganlens which extend to the 
river, to which the central quadrangle opens, form- 
ing the S. front, with wings on either side, orna- 
mented with porticos and piazzas. The cstab. has 
a governor and lieutenant-governor, and usually 
about 550 in-pensioners, consisting of veteran 
soldiers, who, besides food and clothing, receive 
weekly pay, varying according to rank and service. 
The affairs of the hospital are managed by a board 
of commissioners. Sir Stephen Fox, the chief 
promoter of this noble institution, contributed 
13,000/. towards its formation. York Hospital is 
connected with the Koyal Hospital, having been 
built for the reception of wounded soldiers from 
foreign stations, who arc taken into the other as 
vacancies occur. A military asylum was esta- 
blished by the Duke of York in 1801, for soldiers' 
oq)han8, and the children of those oh foreign 
stations. It is a handsome bnilding, not far from 
the Royal Hospital: 700 boys and 800 girls being 
maintained, clothed, and educated in it on Bell's 
plan : tlie boys, on leavmg, enter the army ; the 
girls are apprenticed. Between Chelsea Hospital 
and Chcyne's Walk are the botanical gardens of 
the Apothecaries' Comtmny, occupying four acres 
on the bank of the river, granted by Sir H. Sloaue, 
whose statue by liysbrach is placed there : a hot- 
house green-houses, and library arc connected with 
them, and annual lectures are given. There are 
similar gardens near Sloane Street, estab. in 1807, 
comprismg six acres, in which lectures are al«o 
given in May and June : the plants are arranged 
m compartments on the Linmean system. 

Chelsea continued, through the 17th and 18th 
centuries, a favourite and fashionable resort, and 
was noted for its taverns and public gardens : the 
Kanelagh Gardens, adjoinii^ those of the Royal 
Hospital, were closed in 1805. 

CllELTKNHAM, a town, pari. bor. and fashion- 
able watering-place of England, co. Gloucester, 
hund. Cheltenham, in a fertile vale opening to the 
S. and W., at the base of the Cotawold Hills, on 
the Chelt, a small steeam, whence it derives its 
name; 9 m. NE. Gloucester, 97 m. WNW. Lon- 
don by road, and 121^ Great Western rail- 
way. Pop. of parL bor., which is identical with 
the parish, 39,093 in 18G1. The increase of the 
town since the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, occasioned by the great influx of wealthy 
invidids and others, attracted by the celebrity of 
its spas, the mild and equable temperature of the 
site, and the beauty of the 8urn)unding neigh- 
bourhood, has been quite extraordinary. In 1801 
the pop. amounted to only 3,076; in 1811 it had 
increased to 8,325; in 1821, to 13,396; in 1831, to 
22,492 ; and in 1841, to 81,411. The High Street, 
running NW. and SE., is upwards of 1^ m. in 
length; several others branch from it at right 
angles, on each side, leading to the various squares, 
terraces, detached villas, and spas ; each of the 
latter being surrounded by extensive pleasure- 
grounds. On the N. side of the town, amongst 
other fine ranges, are Columbia Place, St. Mar- 
garet's Terrace, and Pitville Lawn ; on the S. the 
Upper and Lower Promenades (on the plan of the 
Louvre), and the Crescent ; and up the ascent in 
that direction, Lansdown Place, Crescent, and 
Terrace, commanding fine views of the Malvern 
Hills. The spas, to which the town is indebted 
for its rapid growth and celebrity in the fashion- 
able world, originate in a considerable number of 
saline springs, rising in different parts of the vale, 

and having their source in the new red sandstone 
formation, which appears at the surface at the Iwise 
of (Joombe Hill, N\v. of the town, whence it diiw 
gradually, and is alh)ut 700 ft, beneath the surface 
of the chief streets and squares. In aU the springs, 
chloride of sodium is the predominating ingre- 
dient, and prevails the most where the rwi sand- 
stone is approached the nearest The other mine- 
ral components consist chiefly of the sulphates of 
soda, magnesia, and lime, oxide of iron, and chlo- 
ride of manganese — the three last in smaller pro- 
portions. Iodine and bromine have also been de- 
tected in several of the springs. Though tlie 
ground has been liored to the depth of 260 ft., none 
of the present wells exceed 130 ft, in depth. The 
watera, not only of different springs, but thooe of 
the same spring, at different times, probably vary- 
much in their analysis, as several eminent che- 
mists have arrived at different results. The various 
ingredients, except chloride of sodium, are sup- 
(X).sed to be derived from the lias incum|)ent on 
the red sand, the waters becoming impregnated in 
tlieir ascent through the different marls and claya 
of that formation. They are chiefly eflicaciouii iu 
bilious and dysjieptic cases ; and are taken as ai)c- 
rients, usually to the extent of 2 or 3 half-pint 
glasses before breakfast, at intervals of a quarter 
of an hour between each. The alkaline form the 
most numerous class ; the magnesian occurs in 2 
or 3 wells of recent origin ; and at the old wells 
and Montpellier are sidphurous springs used in 
cases of scrofula. The earliest of tliese saline 
springs first attracted attention in 1716, and was 
sutraequently enclosed and resorted to by a few in- 
valids. It was not, however, till the visit of George 
III. in 1778, that the watera obtained any exten- 
sive repute ; since which period, or a little later, 
Cheltenham has increased, with singular rapidity, 
and with every prospect of its still continuing a 
favourite resort of the fashionable world, and of 
wealthy invalids from the E. Indies, and other hot 
climates. The Original Establishment, or Old 
Well, has been greatly extended and improved ; it 
is approached by a fine avenue, and has the crest 
of a pigeon on various parts of the structure, iu 
allusion to tHe discovery of the first spring, from 
its being resorted to by flocks of those birds. The 
Montpellier Spa (about ^ m. S. of the town) was 
fii8t opened in 1809; this has also been greatly 
augmented, and is at present the most fashionable 
resort during the season, which, at all the spas, 
begins May 1 and ends Oct. 31. During this pe- 
riod they are opened at 6 in the morning ; and at 
Montpellier there is a numerous band in attend- 
ance from 8 to 10 o'clock, the usual time for 
drinking the waters and promenading. The eve- 
ning musical promenades at the same spa are also 
amongst the principal attractions of Cheltenham ; 
and, during the season, the weekly assemblies take 
place in the rotunda of this spa. In winter they 
are held at a splendid stute of rooms in the High 
Street. The Montpellier baths comprise every 
variety of warm, cold, vapour, air, and shampooing, 
and adjoining them is an extensive laboraU^rv for 
manufacturing the various kinds of * Cheltenham 
Salts.* They form altogether an extensive range 
of buildings, and are supplied with the mincnd 
water of 80 different wells, conducted bv one main 
pipe to the establishment. The monthly exhibi • 
tions of the Horticultural and Floral Society are 
held at the Montpellier and Pittville Spaa. " The 
latter is in the Grecian style, and is a splendid 
structure, on an eminence N. of the town, com- 
manding fine prospects, with extensive walks and 
drives round it. A few public breakfasts are given 
at this spa during the season, but hitherto the 
southern quarter of Cheltenham has always been 


the most freqaented and fashionable. The Pitt- 
ville establishment was opened in 1830, having 
OMt in all about 60,000/. The Cambxay Spa is a 
small Gothic stnicture, built over a chalybeate 
ttpring. The whole of these spas are more or less 
frequented throughout the year: there are also 
good md>lic baths in the High Street. The parish 
chnrch is an ancient Gothic Duilding, with a lofty 
^ire, in the midst of an extensive churchyard, 
planted with noble avenues. There are also 6 
modem churches ; built partly by private subscrip- 
tion, and partly by grant from the commissioners ; 
a Catholic, and various dissenting chapels. A free 
grammar school was founded in 1586, for at least 
50 boys ; but granmiar being held to mean Latin, 
though the scholan are instructed gratuitously in 
that language, they have to pay for instnlction in 
£nglish. Various efforts have* been made to ob- 
viate this anomaly and get the school placed on 
an improved footing. It has 2 exhibitions at Pem- 
broke Colle^, 0:dbrd, worth 602. each ; and 4 
church livings are exclusively open to the scholars 
of this school who have obtained exhibitions. A 
charity school was founded in 1682, for boys of 
this and several other pars., who, on leaving, have 
an apprmtice fee allowed them ; a national school, 
established in 1817, has between 500 and 600 chil- 
liren daily, and 200 on Sundays ; a female orphan 
a^faim, founded in 1806 by Queen Charlotte, 
iiiaintain<> and educates about 27 children. 

But the principal educational establishment con- 
nected with the town is the Proprietary College. 
It was set on foot by a large body of subscribers, 
with the view of furnishing a complete course of 
classical instruction to the sons of the upper classes. 
The building, a magniticent fabric in the Tudor 
strle, opened in 1843, has a front 240 ft. in length, 
with a tower rising to the height of about 80 ft 
Inside it has a schuol-room 90 ft. by 45 do., a gym- 
nanum of the same dimensions, and lecture-rooms. 

The principal charitable institutions ore, the 
genial hospital, accommodating 100 patients from 
all parts; the dispensary and casualty hospital, 
established 1813; the benevolent and anti-men- 
dicity society, established in 1827, and affording 
relief in kind, bv means of tickets ; the Cobourg 
(for women in child-birth), Dorcas, and numerous 
otheiv; alms-houses, founded 1574, f^r six old 
people; and several minor charities. There are 
public libraries and reading-rooms at each of the 
spas, and five or six others m the town ; a literary 
and philosophical institution, established 1833, at 
which lectures are frequently given, with a good 
library and museum ; and zoological gardens. The 
General Association for Scientific and Literanr In- 
struction has weekly meetings and courses of lec- 
tures — ^it is on the plan of a Mechanics' Institute. 
There is a neat theatre, usually open in summer, 
but enjoying no great share of patronage. The 
assembly rooms in Regent Street, opened in 1816, 
oust e/OfidOL The bdl-room is 87 ft. by 40, and 
40 ft. high. The market-place is an extensive 
etmctare, built in 1823, with an entrance, through 
an arcade, from the High Street. Market, Thurs. 
and Sat. ; thore is usuidly an abundant supply, at 
moderate prices. Aimual fairs for cattle and cheese 
are held the 2iid Thursday in April, August 5, 2nd 
Tuesday in Sept., and 3nl Thursday in Dec. ; there 
are also two statute fairs, on Thursday before and 
after Old Michaelmas Day. Malting is carried on 
to some extent, but the chief trade of the place is 
caused by the great inilux of visitors to the spas, 
and by its bemg a considerable thoroughfare. 
Cheltenham is connected by railways with au parts 
of the country, and has profited much by the con- 
aeqoent facility of communication. Coals and 
other articles of general consumption arc brought, 



by a railway, from the Gloucester and Berkeley 
Ship Canal to the W. side of the town (9 m.), 
where there are convenient wharfs and warehouses. 
Water, for domestic use, is conducted from sources 
in the Cotswold HilLs to a large reservoir, and 
thence, by pipes, to the upper stories of most of 
the houses: this and the gas (with which the 
whole of the town and suburbs are well lighted) 
are supplied by private companies. The Reform 
Act conferred on Cheltenham, for the first time, 
the privilege of returning 1 mem. to the H. of C. 
The limits of the parU bor. coincide, as already 
mentioned, with those of the par. Registered 
electors, 2,664 in 18()2. Gross anniud value of real 
OToperty, 201,098^. in 1857, and 216,169Z. in 1862. 
The government of the town is vested in commit* 
sioners. The scenery in every direction is very 
beautiful, and nightingales abound in the vicinity. 
Rennal's Wood,* about 1 m. from tlie town, haa 
been named, from the numbers that frequent it. 
Nightingale Grove. From some of the neighbour- 
ing summits extensive prospects are commanded, 
especially froom Cleeve Cloud, Birdlip, (Charlton 
Deer Park, and * the Castles,' so named from the 
remains of some ancient encampmentn. Sudeley 
Castle, a splendid old ruin ; Southam, a curious 
specimen of domestic architecture of the Tudor 
period ; Witcoml)e, where the remains of a Roman 
villa were discovered in 1818 (Archa0olog.,voLiL), 
and Toildington, a splendid modem scat, are in 
the vicinity. 

CHELVA, a town of Spain, prov. Valencia, on 
a river of the same name, 39 m. NW. Valencia. 
Pop. 4,499 in 1857. There are vestiges of an 
ancient Roman aqueduct, on the N£. of this town, 
that served to convey water to Liria. The neigh> 
bourhood is planted with mulberries and vines, and 
produces wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, wine, 
and oil. 

CHEMNITZ, a town of the k. of Saxonj-, circ 
Zwickau, cap. distr. of same name, on the Chem- 
nitz river, 20 m. ENE. Zwickau, and 37 m. WSW. 
Dresden, on the railway from Dresden to Nurem- 
berg. Pop. 45,432 in 1861. The town was for- 
merly walled, but its fortifications have been le- 
velled, and their site is now laid out in public 
walks. It has some go3d streets and squares, a 
castle, five churches, four hospitals, a town hall, 
cloth hall, lyceum, and school of design, and has 
handsome and thriving suburbs. Chemnitz is the 
principal manufacturing town of the kingdom. It 
has extensive cotton manufactures, and that of 
cotton hosiery, mitts, dtc, to w^hich it is mainly 
indebted for its rapid growth, Ls said to employ 
from 15,000 to 20,000 looms in Chemnitz and the 
neighbouring villages. The stockings and mitts 
manufactured here are now very widely diffused 
over the states comprised within the German 
Customs League ; and considerable quantities are 
also shipped for the U. States. In 1862, there 
were in the town 51 factories of woollen stuffs ; 18 
factories for stockings and mitts ; and 16 for cotton. 
There were also, at the same date, 4 iron foundries, 
and 20 establishments for the manufacture of spin- 
ning machinery, with which it supplies a consider- 
able part of the Continent, The town has besides 
manufactures of linens, and dyeing and bleaching 
establishments. The district of Chemnitz contmns 
fourteen villages, and had, in 1861, a pop. of above 
80,000 inhab., most of whom are employed in the 
above branches of industry. Chemnitz was for 
400 years a free imperial city. It was the birth- 
place of Puffendorf. 


CHEPSTOW, a sea-port town and par. of Eng- 
land, CO. Monmouth, hund. Caldecot ; on the Wye, 
2^ m. from its embouchure in the Severn, lio'm. 



W. Lond. by road, and 141^ m. by Great Western 
railway. Pop. 8,364 in 1861. The town stands 
on a fn^dual sloiie betwixt bold cliffs rising from 
the W. bank of the river, and is surrounded by 
some of the finest scenery in England. Streets 
broad, well paved, and lighted with gas, but badl}' 
supplied with water. There are many good houses, 
and the town looks neat and cheerful. The church 
has a fine Norman entrance, and many curious 
specimens of the early pointed style. It has also 
a Cath. and several diss, chapels; an endowed 
charity' school for thirteen children ; a national 
school^ two ancient hospitals, in which twenty-five 
aged persons are supported; and several minor 
charities. Market, \\ ed. and Sat Fairs, Frid. 
and Sat. in Whitsun-wcek ; Sat. before June 20, 
Aug. 1, and Frid. before Oct 29. It has no manu- 
factures ; but a considerable trade, being the chief 
port of most of the places on the Wye and Lug, 
including Herefordshire and the E. part of Mon- 
mouth. Ship-bui3ding is carried on to some ex- 
tent ; and about 70 vessels, of the aggregate ton- 
nage of 4,600 tons, belong to the port The tide 
runs with great rapidity m the river, making its 
navigation a little dangerous ; and it rises at or- 
dinary springs between 40 and 50 ft, and at high 
springs it sometimes reaches between 50 and 60 
ft ; hence very large ships may come up to the 
town, and barges of 30 tons burden ascend the 
river to Hereford. A handsome iron bridge was 
thrown over the river in 1816 at the joint expense 
of the two cos. separated by the Wye. The castle, 
on a steep cUff overhanging the Wye, dates from 
the 11th centiiry. though most of the existing 
remains, which occupy a considerable space, appear 
to be of more recent origin : it was alternately in 
the hands of both parties during the last dvil war ; 
and after the restoration, Henry Martyn, the regi- 
cide, was imprisoned for life in one of its towers, 
where he died after thirty years' confinement 
The CO. magistrates hold petty sessions in the 
town, and a smidl theatre is occasionally opened. 

CHER, an inl dep. of France, reg. Centre, 
formed of part of Bern and Bourbonnais, having 
N. the ddp. Loiret, £. Niv6re, S. Allier and Creuse, 
and W. Indre and Loir^-et^Cher. Area, 720,880 
hecures, or 2,853 Eng. sq. m. Pon. 323,393 in 
1861. It derives its name from tne Cher, by 
which it is intersected, and is included in the 
basin of the Loire, which, with the Allier, forms 
its K boundary. Surface generallv fiat Soil 
various : in the E., and along the Loire, it is very 
fertile ; S. it is of a medium quality, while in the 
N. it is sandy, and covered in great part with 
heath. Agriculture backward. Principal crops, 
wheat, maslin. rye, barley, and oats. Hemp is 
Uugely cultivated, the crop being estimated at 
about 750,000 kilog. a year. The natural mea- 
dows, which are extensive and valuable, are prin- 
cipally depastured by sheep and cattle. The stock 
of sheep is estimated at about 500,000 head, pro- 
ducing annuallv 570,000 kilog. of wooL The stock 
of black cattle is estimated at 85,000 head. In the 
reign of Henry lY., the horses of Berri enjoyed a 
high reputation ; but the breed is now matly de- 
tenorated. Hogs and goats numerous. The forests 
occupy about 120,000 hectares; and furnish timber 
for the navy. The vineyards cover nearly 13,000 
hectares ; those in the arrond. of Sancene furnish 
the best wines. Iron is abundant, and is pretty 
extensively wrought The cloth manufacture, 
once the staple of the dep., has greatlv fallen off ; 
and the glass works that were fonnerly to be met 
with have ceased to exist The cutlery of Bouxges 
is much esteemed ; and there are fabncs of coarse 
cloth and linen, with earthenware manufactures, 
bceweries, and tanneries. 


The dep. is divided into three airondissements. 
Principal towns, Bouiges, St Amand, Yierzooy 
and Sancerre. 

CHERASCO, an inL town of N. Italy, pror. 
Cuneo, advantageously situated on a point of laud 
between the Stura and Tanaro, near their con- 
fluence, 31 m. SSE. Turin. Pop, 8,852 in 1861. 
Tlie town was formerly an important military 
post, and is still surrounded with walls ; but its 
citadel was dismantled in 1796. * It is well built 
and laid out, and supplied with water by a canal 
cut from the Stura, which also turns several silk 
mills. Trade chiefly in wine and silk. 

CHERBOUH(}, a principal sea-port and forti- 
fied town of France, d^p. Manche, on its N. 
shore, nearly opposite the W. extremity of the Isle 
of Wight, at the bottom of a oay formed b^ Cape 
Levi on the £., and Cape La Hogue on its ex- 
treme W., at the mouth of the Divette, 41 m. 
NW. St Lo, and 185 m. WSW, Paris, at the ter- 
minus of the Paris-Cherbouig railway. Pop. 41 ,8 1 2 
in 1861. The streets are narrow and dirty, not- 
withstanding there are many public fountains. 
Houses mostly of stone and slated. Chief public 
buildings: the military and marine arsenals; a 
spacious marine and several other hospitals ; the 
parish church, a singular edifice; the town hall 
and prison, both new and handsome buildings; 
a theatre; public baths and barracks. From ita 
advanced position in the English Channel, it haa 
long been a favourite object with the French go- 
vernment to render Cherbouig a great naval ar- 
senal, and a secure asylum for ships of war ; and, 
to accomplish this, vas^ sums have been expended 
upon it The harbours for merchantmen and ships 
of* war are quite distinct from each other. The 
last, which was constructed by the Emperor Na- 
poleon I., is a magnificent worki It is mostly exca- 
vated out of the solid rock, is 328 yards long by 
250 wide, and is capable of accommodating 50 
ships of the line, which may enter it at all times, 
there being 25 n. water at low ebb. It has four 
fine covert ^anite docks, 85 ft deep, for the 
building of ships, and a basin for those undeigoing 
repair. Near the naval port is the dockyard of 
Chantereyne for the building of frigates, contain- 
ing a large timber yard, and a rope walk 546 yds. 
in length. The commercial port, fonned by the 
mouth of the Divette, and easy of access, consists 
of an outer haibour and a basin, the fonner 262 
yds. long, by 218 wide ; the latter 446 yds. long, 
by 138 wide. Between the two divi»ons is a 
sluice : the outer hart)our communicates with the 
sea b^r a canal 656 yds. long, and 54 wide, bor- 
dered in its whole length by a granite jetty, within 
which a depth of 19 fu water Is always retained. 
The roadstead of Cherbouig is one of the best in 
the Channel, and capable of containing 400 sail. It 
is defended on all sides by batteries, and is pro- 
tected from the northerly winds, which would 
otherwise throw in a heavy sea, and in a great 
measure also from the Channel currents, by a vast 
artificial diffuef or breakwater, similar to that in 
Plymouth Sound, constructed in the centre of the 
bay, opposite to, and about 2^ m. from, the mouth 
of the nver. This great work, formed for the most 
part of granite and sandstone, was commenced 
under Louis XYL, in 1784, and continued till 
1791 ; it was re-commenced by Napoleon I. in 
1802, again discontinued in 1813, and finally 
completed by the Emperor Napoleon III. in 1804. 
Its foundation was laid by sinking many massive 
wooden frames, which were ailerwards filled with 
blocks of stone. The length of the tUgue is 3,768 
metres (4,120 yards) ; breadth at its base, 262 ft^ 
at its summit, 101 it On its central part, which 
ia 9^ ft above the water at the highest spring 



t^den, a battery has been erected. The K. channel 
between it and the shore is 1,060 yards in width, 
that on the W. side 2,5o0 yards. 

Cberbooig is the seat oi^ a tribonal of original 
jnrijsdiction, of a marit. tribunal and prefecture, 
and 19 the cap. of the 1st naval arrondissement. 
It has a departmental college, a royal academical 
Kiciety, a public library with 3,500 vols., a naval 
library, and several museums. Cherbourg, which 
U verr ancient, was in the 10th century called 
Cant^bttr, It was long in the possession of the 
Kngliid), and was the hist place they retained in 

C'REHIBON, a sea-port town of Java, cap. div. 
aud prov., at the head of a wide bay on the N. 
etta:^ of the isL, 128 m. S£. by £. Batavia ; lat 
iP 44?f S., long. 10«o sr E. In the early part of 
the present century it suffered from a pestilence, 
which destroyed more than a third of its inhab. : 
and. from this and other causes, it is said to have 
deolined of late ; but it still continues to be the 
n^4deDce of a Dutch governor, and enjoys con- 
siderable tiude. The town and harbour are pro- 
ittrted by a fort. The district of Cheribon is re- 
markable for its fertility, and the excellence of 
iu coffee, indigo, teak and timber. 

CHEIiSO and OSERO (an. Crepta and Abtonu, 
t4^^ther called Abayrtidei), two contiguous, long 
and narrow isls. of the Adriatic,* belonging to 
lUvria, gov. Trieste; between lat 44° 30' and 
45^ 20' N., and long. 14© 16' and 14© 30' E., 
ii^parated from Istria by the Gulf of Quamero ; 
united length nearly 50 nu, breadth varying from 
1 to 8 m. Area 95 sq. m. Pop. of Cherso, 1 7,200 ; 
of Osero, 3,535 in 1857. Surface generally moun- 
tainmos, stony, and barren ; but in some parts the 
c»live, vine, tig, and various other fruits, and a 
little com, are grown, and in several parts there 
are good pasture lands for sheep. Oil is the most 
valuable product of Cherso, wine of Osero. In 
the N. part of the former island there are some 
fine woods; and shrubs and plants for dyeing are 
very abundant. The breed of sheep is very in- 
different, and the wool bad. Other domestic 
animals are few. Many of the pop. subsist by the 
tnimy and anchovy fisheries. 'There are a few 
mana£u;tures, chiefly of coarse woollen cloth and 
liqueurs ; and vessels are built at the principal 
towns :— these are Cherso, Osero, Lossin Grande, 
and Loaein Piccolo. Cherso, the cap., on the W. 
fride ci the island of same name, has a good 
though small harbour, and 3,000 inhab. It con- 
tains a cathedral and numerous other churches ; 
its streets are ruurow and dirty; but its inhab. 
clean and industrious. Osero, idso on the W. side 
of the island of Cherso, in an unhealthy situation, 
has only 1,500 inhab. ; bat it has a catnedral with 
a tine steeple, and was formerly the seat of a 
lof^opric It was sacked by the Saracens in 
mo. Its inhab. have some trade in timber. 
Losan Grande and Piccolo are two insignificant 
towns on the island of Osero. The two islands 
are connected by a bridge. 


CHERTSET, a town and par. of England, co. 
Surrey, bund. Godley, 22^ m. SW. London, by 
the London and South Western railway. Pop. of 
town 2,910, and of nar. 6,589 m 1861. The town, 
rituated on the S. bank of the Thames, is neatly 
built of brick, partially paved, and well supplied 
with firing water, but not lighted. It is con- 
nected with the Middlesex side of the river by a 
sione bridge of 7 arches, built in 1785, at the ioint 
expense of the two counties. The churen, a 
handsome structure, erected in 1808, in the later 
pointed style, contains a tablet to the memory of 
the celebrated statesman C. J. Fox, who resided 

vou n. 



for a lengthened period at St Ann^s Hill, near the 
town. There are also several dissenting chapels, 
and a school, foundc<I in 1725, for 50 children of 
this and ' tluree atlj dining parishes ; its present 
revenue is above 4(H)/. a year, and it has l)een ar- 
ranged on liell's plan, and now educates 230 boys 
and 180 girls, of whom 30 of either sex belonging 
to Chertsey are cl< »tbed. Market day, Wednestlay. 
Fairs, First Monday and Tuesday in I^nt, for 
cattle; May 14, for sheep ; Aug. G and Sept 25, 
for pleasure and pedlery. The chief business of 
Chertsey consists in the manufacture of malt, 
flour, iron hoops, and bnK>ms : great quantities of 
bricks are also made in the neighbourhood; and 
vegetables are largely cultivated for the Loudon 
markets. Cffisar is supposed to have crossed the 
Thames near this place to attack CasNibeUtunus ; 
the stakes then driven into the bed of the river by 
the Britons to obstruct the passage of the Romans 
are noticed by liede as remaining in the 8th 
century ; and vestiges of them are still traceable 
^ m. below tlie bridge. During the Heptarchy, 
Chertsey was the residence of the S. Saxon kings : 
at Hardwick Court, in the par. (now a farm), 
Henry YI. resided when a cfiild ; and in an an- 
cient monastery (founded by Edgar, and existing 
till Henry VIII.) he was privately interred, 
though hu remains were subsequently removed 
to Windsor. Cowley the poet died intliis town, 
where bis study is still preserved, 

CHESAPEAKE BAY, a noble bay on, the 
Atlantic side of the U. S. of N. America, having 
its embouchure on the coast of Virginia, l)etwecn 
Cape Charles, Ut. 37© T N., long. 1(P 2' W., and 
Cape Henry, hit 36° 56' N., long 76° 4' W., 
about 13 m. apart It stretches nearly due N. 
from Cape Henry to the mouth of the Susque- 
hannah river, in 39° 35' K., a distance in a direct 
line of above 180 m. Its average breadth N. of 
the Potomac river, in lat 38°, is about 10 m. ; 
but S. of that point it is al)out 25 m. Its coast 
line Is yery irregular, inasmuch as it branches out 
on both sides into an immense number of bays ; 
but including these, and its numerous islands, its 
area is estimated at 3,600 sq. m. (Darby.) It is 
wholly within the states of Virginia and Mary- 
land. Chesapeake Ihiy differs from the otlicr 
sounds on the Atlantic slope of the U. States in 
having only one outlet, as well as in its greater 
depth of water, which is generally about nine 
fathoms, affording many commodious harbours, 
and a safe and easy navi^tion for ships of the 
largest burden. At its head it receives the Susque- 
hannah ; and on its W. site the Potomac, Rappa- 
hannock, York, and James rivers. On the same 
side are Baltimore, Annapolis, Norfolk, Hampton, 
&C. ; and on its E. shore, Chester and Cambndge. 
Dismal Swamp canal connects Chesapeake Bay 
with Albemarle Sound ; the Chesapeake and Ohio 
CMial, from the tide water of the Potomac to Pitts- 
burg, was commenced in 1828. 

ClIESHAM, a town and par. of England, co. 
Bucks, bund. Bumham, in a fertile vale, through 
which a small brook flows to loin the Coin. Area 
of par., 11,880 acres. Pop. of town 2,208, and of 
par. 5,985 in 1861. The town, 26 m. NW. London, 
consists of three streets. The chureh, an ancient 
cruciform structure, has an embattled tower and 
spire; there are also four dissenting cha[)elH, an 
almshouse for four old people, and a national 
schooL Market on Wednesday for com, Saturday 
for general provisions. Fairs, April 21 and July 22, 
for cattle ; a statute fair Sept 28. Chesham w^as 
formerly noted for the manufacture of wooden tur- 
neryware, which, though still carried on, has 
greatly declined. The lace manufacture is wholly 
discontinued. Shoemaking, for the supplv of the 



metropolis, is the chief business ; but the mftkiii(( 
of straw plait employs many females : there are 
also several paper-mills, and a small silk-mill in 
the vicinity. 

CIIESrilRE, a marit. co. of England, having 
N. the Irish Sea, the sestuary of the Mersey, 
Lancashire, and a small part of Yorkshire ; £. the 
cos. Derby and Stafford ; S. Salop, and a portion 
of Flint; and W. Denbigh, Flint, and theaestuary 
of the Dee. Area, 673,280 acres, of which about 
600,000 are supposed to be arable, meadow, and 
pasture. Pop. 470,174 in 1861. The surface is 
generally low and flat, with some considerable 
hills along its E. border, and a broken ridge on its 
W. side extending from Malpas to Frodsham ; in 
this ridge, near Tarporley, is the insulated rock of 
Buston. It is watered bv the Dee, Weaver, and 
other streams, and the Mersey forms the line of 
demarcation between it and Lancashire : it is also 
intersected by several canals. It has mines of 
coal, copper, lead, and cobalt; but its most 
valuable mineral consists of an inexhaustible 
supply of rock-salt, vast Quantities of which are 
annually dug up, and used partly for home con- 
sumption and partly for exportation; a great 
quantity of salt is also procured from the brine 
springs contiguous to Northwich, Middlewich, 4c. 
The soil consists, for the most part, of a red, rich, 
sandy or clavey loam, much improved by marling, 
and generally very fertile. The climate is mild 
and humid ; and the country being low and well 
sheUered, and divided by hedges and hedge-row 
troesj is remarkable for its verdure and the 
luxuriance of its pastures. Hence Cheshire is 
one of the finest grazing districts in England, and 
has l)een long celebrated for its dairies. Cheese is 
the principal product; and is not only highly 
esteemed throughout England, where it is con- 
sumed in immense quantities, but also in many 
parts of the Continent and of America. Arable 
nusbandry is a secondary object, and is less suited 
to the climate ; but potatoes are grown in large 
quantities. Estates for the most part large ; this 
is one of the cos. in which the least change has 
taken place, for a lengthened period, in the owner- 
ship of land : farms mostly small, a great many 
under 10 acres ; but, excluding these, the average 
is probably about 70 acres. Though there are 
but few extensive woods, Cheshire has, owing to 
the prevalence of hedge-row trees, a very woody 
appearance, and a large supply of available timber. 
Manufactures of cotton and silk are carried on 
with great spirit and success at Macclesfield, 
Congleton, Stockport, and other places. Cheshire 
has 7 hund. and 90 par., exclusive of the city of 
Chester. It sends ten members to the H. of C, 
viz. four for the co., and two each for the city of 
Chester, and the bors. of Macclesfield and Stock- 
port. Kegist. electors for the co. 13,184 in 1865, 
of whom 6,303 for the northern and 6,881 for the 
southern division. Gross annual value of real 
property — m the northern division, 838,416^ in 
1857, and 932,777^ in 1862; in the southern divi- 
sion 1,144,023^. in 1857; and 1,067,5231. in 1862. 

Cheshire is called a co. palatine, from the sove- 
reign power in it being formerly exercised by the 
Earl of Chester as fiuly as by the king. liut it 
has been long held by the crown. It had, how- 
ever, separate courts and law officers till the pass- 
ing of the Welsh Jurisdiction Act of Geo. FV., 
when thev were abolished, and its courts assimi- 
lated to those of the rest of the kingdom. 

CHESTER, a cit^', co., parL bor., and seaport of 
England, locally m the co. of Chester, hund. 
Broxton, on a rockv elevation on the N. bank of 
the Dee, by which it is half encircled, on the S. 
border of the co., about 6 m. above the confluence^ 


of the Dee with its sestuary, 27 m. S. by E. Liver- 
pool, 164 m. N^V. Ix)ndon, by road, and 178]^ m. 
by London and North Western railway. Pop. 
31,110 in 1861. The city is enclosed within an 
oblong quadrangle by walls of great antiquity, 
and which are most probably built on the site 
of those constructed by the Romans. They 
make in all a circuit of 2,670 yards, and are of 
great thickness, and kept in a complete state of 
repair. The ancient gateways havmg been re- 
moved and replaced by modem arches, a con- 
tinuous walk on the top of the walls, 6 ft. wide, 
defended on one side by a parapet, and on the 
other by a railing, extends all roimd the city, and 
affords a great variety of fine prospects. *The 
form of the city,' says Mr, Pennant, * evinces its 
Roman origin, being in the figure of their camps ; 
with four gates, four principal streets, and a 
variety of lesser, crossing the other at right 
angles, so as to divide the whole into lesser 
squares. The structure of the four principal 
streets is without parallel; they run direct from 
E. to W. and X. to S. ; and have been excavated 
out of the earth, and sunk several feet below the 
surface. The carriages drive far below the level 
of the kitchens, on a line with ranges of shops ; 
over which, on each side of the streets, passengers 
walk from end to end, secure from wet or heat, in 
galleries (or nnrs, as they are called) purloined 
nom the floor of each house, open in m>nt, and 
balustraded. The back courts of all these houses 
are level with the rows ; but to go into any one 
of these four streets it is necessary to descend a 
flight of several steps.' (Tour in Wales, i. 147, 
8vo. ed.) The city has of late years been much 
modernised and improved, and a handsome new 
street has been formed from near the centre of the 
town to Grosvenor Bridge, — a noble stone struc- 
ture of a single arch, 200 ft. in span, with a 
roadway 38 ft. in width. Previously to the erec- 
tion of this bridge, the communication acrr>ss the 
rivcir was by an old, narrow, and inconvenient 
bridge of seven arches. The suburbs have also 
been considerably extended. The whole is paved, 
lighted by gas, and supplied with water, raisnl 
by a steam-engine, from the Dee, and conducted 
by pipes to a large reservoir. The cathedral is 
a lai;^ Grothic pUe, with a low massive tower ; 
the mterior is fine, with several lateral chapels 
in the earlier, and a deristoiy in the latvr 
pointed style: the bishop's throne, and sevuul 
ancient monuments, are highly interesting. Con- 
tiguous to the cathedral are the remains of St. 
Werbiirgh's Abbey, which for nearly seven cen- 
turies was one of Uie wealthiest in the kingdom. 
Tlie bishop's palace (rebuilt 1752), the prebendal, 
and other good modem houses (forming the Abbey 
Square), occupy the rest of the precinct. There 
are nine pansh churches, and two others not 
parochial. St. John's church is a magnificent 
specimen of Saxon architecture ; in Trinity Church 
are monuments to Pamell, the poet, and Matthew 
Henry, the celebrated commentator, interred 
within its walls. It has also a Catholic antl 
several dissenting chapels; a grammar-sch(K»l, 
founded in 36 Hen. YIII. for 24 Ix^ys, from whom 
the cathedral choristers are selected: its aimual 
revenue is 108/., and it has one exhibition to 
either university; two charitv schools founded 
in 1717, on the site of the ancient hospital of St. 
John, one for 38 boys, of whom 28 are also maJD- 
tained; the other for a like number of girls; 
the Marquis of Westmmster's school, establishes! 
in 1811, and wholly supported by him, educating 
between 400 and 500 children ; a diocesan sch«xvl, 
on Bell's plan, for 150 boys; three infant schools 
and sevexal laiige dissenting and Sunday schools. 


The oo. infinnaiy, and the oo. Innatic asylum, 
each hare accommodation for 100 |»atient8; and 
it has a Iring-in hospital, a house of industry, 
w\-end sets of alms-houses, and various cha- 
ritable bequests, — the chief of which (called 
Jones's) produces about 400/L a year, which is 
shared by the memben of the ancient city euilds. 
The old Xonnan castle (with the exception of 
one towitf) was removed m 1790, and a magnifi- 
cent ool hall and gaol, together with government 
hanacks, and an armoury, subseqnenUy built on 
the site. These structures are in the Grecian 
style, and have great architectural merit; they 
f«iim three sides of a large quadrangle, the en- 
trance to the area being , by a splendid Doric 
iMWtico. The city courts of justice are held, and 
curporation business transacted in the Exchange, 
a plain brick edifice on pillars. There are three 
CTHnmercial halls; one Iniilt by the Irish Linen 
Company, in 1780, for their trade, but at present 
n.<sed for the cheese fairs, — that of linen, once so 
oonsiderabte, having wholly ceased; a second 
halL built in 1809 by the Manchester manufac- 
tarets for their business ; and a third, in 1815, for 
general purposes, as a private speculation : tiiey 
are all on the same plan, forming a quadrangle, 
niund whidi* are pillared arcades and shops. 
There are also ccMnmereial rooms, comprising a 
good public library, news-room, a small theatre, 
and a good modem market-place. Market, Wed- 
ne^dav and Saturday. Fans, last Thursday in 
Feb. for hones and cattle ; July 10 and Oct. 10 
for general merchandise : these last are of great 
antiquity, and continue several days: there are 
aLno eight annual cheese fairs of recent origin; 
and the dty bein^ situated in the principal 
cheese-making district of the em[ure, these fairs 
have become of considerable importance. Annual 
races are held in the first dear week of May on 
* the Rood-Dee,* a level pasture tract of about 80 
acres at the base of the city walla. Manufactures 
inconsiderable : skins and gloves once formed the 
staples ; but these have greatly diminished : there 
are a few small fabrics of tobacco-pipes, large 
fi^Hir-mills by the old bridge, and a shot-tower 
b(>3«ide the canal, on the N. side of the city, 
where also are several wharfs and warehouses, 
chieflv for the convenience of the traffic between 
the aty and Liverpool ; articles of general con- 
sumption being now chiefly suppliol from the 

At the lera of the Conquest, and for long after, 
(liester was a place of verv considerable impor- 
tance as a oommerdal and sibipping port ; but the 
gradual filling up of the channel of the river, and 
Utterly the superior facilities enjoyed by Liverpool, 
have pioved destructive to its trade. In 1737, in 
<frler to obviate the difficulties of the river navi- 
gatioo, an artifidal channel was excavated, on a 
plan suggested long previously by the celebrated 
Andrew Yarranton, from Chester to the sea. It 
has since been improved, and vessels of 300 tons 
may now ascend to the city ; but it has not re- 
cinrered any portion of its former importance as a 
maritime town. 

( liester is a bor. by prescription ; its three ear- 
lit^ charters are without date, but were probably 
granted in the early part of the 13th century. 
There are many others, the latest of which dates m 
44 Geo. IIL ; the governing charter previously 
u> the Munidpal Reform Act), in 21 Hen. YII., 
ct^nt^iderably extended the former priv-ileges, and 
ma^le Chester a distinct co. : under it were a mayor, 
deputy mavor, 24 aldermen, and 40 common coun- 
rillors. The governing body were self-elective, 
dopite the provisions of the charter, and of much 
litigation, which in the twenty years preceding 



1832, cost upwards of 20,000il Chester has re- 
turned two mem. to the II. of C. since 1541. Pre- 
viously to the Reform Act, the elective franchise 
vested in the governing body and in the resident 
freemen. The limits of the parL bor. include the 
greater part of the township of Broughton and 
some other patches, the registered constituencv 
numbering 2,395 in 1862, of whom 1,086 old 
freemen. The limits of the municipal have since 
been made to coincide with those of the parL bor. : 
and it is now di\ided into five wards, and governed 
by a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 30 councillors. The 
^ross annual value of real property assessed to 
income tax, in the citv, amounted to 253,156/. in 
1857, and to 174,6647. in 1862. There are 24 
ancient guilds or trades still subsisting, though at 
present possessing scarcely any property or impor- 
tance, except that of the goldsmiths, who have an 
assay master and office, and claim the examination 
of all plate manufactured for sale in Cheshire, 
Chester, Lancashire, and N. Wales. The cro¥m 
mote is the criminal court, with jurisdiction over 
the highest offences ; the port-mote is the chief 
dvil court where actions to any amount are tried ; 
the pentice and passage courts are subordinate to 
the latter, the sheriff presiding in them. There 
are three general sessions a year, held in the supe- 
rior courts, attended by barristen, and presided 
over by the recorder and mayor ; petty sessions 
for the city are hdd twice a week. 

The city is most probablv of Roman origin. 
Originally it had the name oi Deva, from its situ- 
ation on the Dee, and subsequently of Cestria, 
from its being a cattntm, ox camp. It was the 
head-quarteis of the 20th l^on, which came into 
Britain preidously to a.d. 61 ; and not only does 
the figure and construction of the town attest its 
Roman oriMn, but fragments of Roman arehes and 
other buildings existed down to a recent period, 
and probably some still remain ; and pavements, 
many coins, and an altar dedicated to Jupiter 
Tanarus by the primipUut (principal centurion) of 
the 20th legion, have been dug up. William the 
Conqueror bestowed the title of Earl of Chester, 
with sovereign power over the whole of Cheshire, on 
his nephew Hugh d'Avranchcs, or Lupus ; and his 
successors to the reign of Henry III. continued in 
the exercise of like authority. In the last ci\il 
war Chester sustained a memorable siege under 
Lord Byron, by whom it was ultimately surren- 
dered on honourable tenns. In 1745 it was gar- 
risoned against the Pretender, which is the last 
event of any importance in its history. 

Eaton Hall, the magnificent seat' of the Mar- 
quis of Westminster, is about 3 m. S. of Chester ; 
its chief approach being by a triple avenue of limes 
extending from the end of the new Grusvenor 
Bridire (where there is a Gothic lod|^) to the 
principal front, through a park abounding in fine 
forest trees. The structure is an adaptation of the 
pointed ecclesiastical style to modem domestic pur- 
Jioses; that of Edward 111., as seen in York Min- 
ster, is chiefly followed, and emblazoned shields are 
profiLsely dispersed ; in the compartments of some 
of the windows arc several fine portraits executed 
from cartoons by Singleton : among others those 
of the six first earls of Chester, who held sovereign 
power previously to the title being bestowed by 
Ilcn. III. on his eldest son ; since which period it 
has uniformly been conferred on the eldest sons of 
his successors. 

CHESTER-LE-STREET, a township of Eng- 
land, CO. Durham, near the Wear, 5 m. N. Durham. 
Pop. of tn. 3,013, and of par. 23,076 in 1H61. It 
stands in a valley, on the line of the Roman way 
called Ermine Street, leading to Newcastle. The 
Saxons called it Cunccagtre, or Cuueagester, and 

£ 2 



under that name it was the seat of the episcopal 
sec of Durham for 1 13 yaaxs, till its removal to 
Durham in 995. The town is nearly 2 m. in 
length, and has a bridge over the Wear, opened in 
1821. The churchi formerly coU^iate, and dedi- 
cated to St. Mary and St. Cnthbert. has a tower 
surmounted by a very fine spire 160 fu high, and 
contains monuments with effigies of members of 
the Lumley family from the Conquest to the time 
of Elizabeth, l^e - Independents and Primitive 
and Wesleyan Methodists have places of worship. 
An endowed school educates twelve children. A 
mechanics' institute is held in a hand^me build- 
ing erected for the purpose. Copyhold courts are 
held in April and Nov., in which debts under 40«. 
are recoverable ; and petty sessions are held on 
alternate Thursdays. The place is a station for 
receiving votes at elections for the S. div. of the oo. 
The manufacture of nails, ropes, and tiles is carried 
on here ; but the inhab. are mostly employed in 
the surrounding collieries and other works. 

CHESTERFIELD, a bor. and market town of 
England, oo. Derby, hund. Scarsdale, 20 m. N. 
Deroy, 180 m. NW, by W. London by road, and 
161^ m. by the Midland railway. Pop. of bor. 
9,836, and of par. 18,970 in 1861. The town, 
which is irregularly built, covers a considerable 
extent of ground, and is pleasantly situated be- 
tween the rivers Kother and Hyper, in the vale of 
Scarsdale. The church, a beautiful and spacious 
edifice of the 13th century, is remarkable for its 
crooked spire, 230 ft. high. There is also an ele- 
gant assemblv-room, and near the town is a race- 
course, on which races are aimually run in the 
autumn. There are two or three manufactories of 
silk and cotton, but they are not considerable. Just 
out of the bor. there are some large iron-works. 
The chief source of support for the town is the 
weekly market for agricultural produce, which is 
well attended. It is governed by four aldermen 
and twelve councillors, but is not divided into 
wards. The lord of the manor holds a court leet 
in Oct., when a constable is chosen ; and a court 
of record for the recovery of debts not exceeding 
20/. llie petty sessions for the division are held 
here in the town -hall, on the ground-floor of which 
there is a prison for debtors. Chesterfield is one of 
the polling places at the election of M.P. for the 
]S. division of the co. The town is lighted under 
an act passed in 1825. There are various places 
of worship for dissenters, a free grammar-school, 
founded 2 Eliz., and formerly well attended, was 
closed in 1832. It has still, however, infant, Sun- 
day, and national schools; several well-endowed 
alms-houses, a dispensarv, a savings' bank, a me^ 
chanics' institute, and a literary and philosophical 
institution. The N. ]\iidland railwav between 
Derby and Leeds passes by Chesterfield It gives 
the title of earl to a branch of the Stanhope family. 
MarkctMlay, Saturday. Fairs, Jan. 27, Feb. 28, 
first Sat. in April, May 4, Jul^4, Sept. 25, Nov. 
28. The par. of Chesterfield mcludes an area of 
13,160 acres. 

CHEVIOT HILLS, a ridge of hills in Great 
Britain, on the confines of England and Scotland, 
partly in Northumberland and partly in Kox- 
Durghshire. They extend from Kirknewton X. to 
Carter Fell on the S., where they unite with the 
hills that stretch across Dumfiriessbire and Gallo- 
way. The hill to which the name Cheviot is e»\ie- 
cially given, is in Northumberland, on the bordera 
of Roxburghshire, 8 m. SSVV. Wooler, and is 
2,658 ft. in height. The Cheviot hills are mostly 
pointed, the sides smooth and rapidly sloping, and 
their b^es separated by deep narrow glens. They 
are mostly covered witli a close green sward ; but 
in a few instances, as in that of tlie Cheviot itself, 


there are considerable tracts of heath. These hills 
are depastured by the valuable and peculiar breed 
of sheep called the Cheviots, now widely diffused 
over England and Scotland. 

CHLVPA DOS INDIOS, a considerable inL 
town of Mexico, state of Chiapas, advantageously 
placed in a valley near the Tabasco, 30 m. vVNW. 
Ciudad de Las Casas. It is chiefly inhabited by 
Indians, whence its name, of whom there are said 
to be as many as 4,000 families. It is the laxgest 
town in the state, the chief trade of which it 
engrosses. Its principal export is logwood, which 
is sent down the river to Tabasco, on the Gulf of 
Mexico; but a good deal of sugar is also grown 
in its neighbourhood. Its inhab. are said to be 
rich. Chiapa enjoys many privileges : it was 
founded m 1827. 

CHIARAMONTE, a town of Sicilv, prov. Sy- 
racuse, cap. cant., on a hill, 11^ m. N^W. Modica. 
Pop. 8,995 in 186 1. The town is regularly built, 
with broad and straight streets. From the Capu- 
chin convent there is one of the finest and mtjst 
extensive views in Sicily. The environs produce 
good >rine, and the town is thriving. 

CHIARI, a town of Northern Italy, prov. 
Brescia, cap. distr., near the left bank of the 
Oglio, 15 m. W. by S. Bresda. ^op. 9,430 in 
1861. The inhabitants are chiefly occupied in 
spinning silk and tanning leather. The town 
preser\'es some remains of its ancient fortifications, 
and has a handsome collegiate and many other 
churehcs, a hospital, and a public library. 

CIUAROMONTE, a town of Soutliem Italy, 
prov. Potenza, cap. cant., on a liigh mountain. 
Pop. 2,921 in 1861. It has two parish churches, a 
convent, and a seminary. Its environs produi% 
wine and silk, and there is a fine cliartreuse about 
3 m. off. 

CHIAVARI, a marit. town of N. Italy, prov. 
Genoa, cap. prov., at the head of the'liav of 
Rapallo, 22 nu ESE. Genoa. Pop. 10,501 in 1861. 
It IS a handsome and flourishing place, surrounded 
by hills, tlie rich produce of which supplies a 
profitable commerce. The Genoese, from the 
earliest times, appreciating its natural advantages, 
surrounded it with a strong wall, and gave it many 
pri\ileges to encourage the resort of merchants. 
It has a hospital and many fine edifices, and 
several lace and silk twist factories. Marble and 
slate are quarried m its neighbourhood, and it has 
a productive anchovy fisherv. 

CHICAGO, a town of the U. States, Illinois at 
the embouchure of the Chicago river, in the SW. 
comer of Lake Michigan ; lat 42^ N., long. 87<> u7' 
W. Pop. 4,853 in 1840; 29,963 in 1850; and 
109,260 in 1860. The river, which is formed of 
two branches that unite about f m. from the lake, 
di\ides the town into three portions, the princi^ial 
seat of business being on the S. side of the main 
stream. The growth of Chicago has been quite 
extraordinary, as wiU be seen from the preceding 
statistics of population, and there is every proba- 
bility that it will continue rapidly to increase for 
many years to come. It is indebted for this 
wonderful development to its situation and the 
enterprise of its mhabitants. It is the natural 
entrepot for the trade between the flourishing state 
of Illinois and the vast regions watered by the 
great lakes; its importance in this respect having 
been very greatly increased by its having been 
united by a canal, of tlie largest class, with the 
navigable watera of the Illinois river, an affluent 
of the Mississippi ; so that it communicates, on 
the one hand, with New Orleans and the Mejucan 
Gulf, and, on the other, with Quebec and the St« 
Lawrence. Hence the value of its exports and 
imiwrts, which, in 1840, were respectively 228,(>3(> 


and 562,106 dolkn, had risen, in 1860, to 3,576,4.50 
and 4,139,761 dollars. The haj^ur, which is partly 
artificial, is fonned by means of piers, at the ex- 
tremity of one of which is a lighthouse, projecting 
from the river into the lake. The trade of the 
p>rt employs a great number of steamers and sail- 
in*; Temels, many of which belong to the town. 
Tlie atoadon, though low, is above the level of 
the inundations, and is said to be healthy. The 
stre^'ts crom each other at right angles, and the 
wooden buildings of the fint settlers have given 
way to substantial brick edifices. It has some 
handsMne churches, a medical coU^e, various 
elementary and superior schools, a merchants' 
academy, banks and insurance offices. Five dif- 
fervnt lines of railway centre at Chicago. The 
most important of them are the Chicago and Alton 
fine, 220 m. long; the Chicago and Rock-Ishmd 
line, ooonecting Lake Michigan with the Missis- 
rippi river; and the Chicago and North- Western, 
213 m. long, extending from Chicago to Appleton, 
Wmxmsin. Fort Deiuhom, which acquired some 
celelmt^ in the last war between this country and 
the Umted States, is in the immediate vicinity of 

CHICHESTER, a dty, co., and parL bor. of 
England, oo. Sussex, 55 m. SW. by S. London by 
mtti, and 79 m. by London, Brighton, and South- 
Coast railway. Pop. 8,059 in 1861. The city is 
about 1| m. £. from the extreme N£. angle of the 
bay or arm of the sea called Chichester Harbour. 
It is situated on a gentle eminence, sloping in 
every direction, amidst the widest part of the plain 
named from it. The Lavant (a small rivulet usu- 
ally dry in summer) bounds it on the £. and S. 
Its walls, forming a circuit of about 1^ m., are still 
in tolerable preservation, within which a mound 
extends all round in the Roman fashion, planted 
in parts with fine elms. Chichester is weU built, 
lighted, watered, and drained. It consists chiefly 
of four principal streets, diveiging at right angles 
from a common centre, occupied by an octagonal 
crrt», erected towards the close of the loth century, 
and said to be the most beautiful of this class of 
structures in the kingdom. The present cathedral 
was built in the 13th century, on the site of an 
older one founded in 1 108. It is an inferior build- 
ing of its class, partly in the Norman, and partly 
in the earlier pointed style; the old tower and 
spire of the 14th century fell in Feb. 1861, and a 
new spire was completed in 1865. The cathedral 
or>ntain8 many ancient and several well-executed 
mi*dejn monuments ; among the latter is one to 
the memory of the poet Collins, a native of the 
town. The collegiate establishment was, frota the 
first, for secular canons, and so leil unaltered at 
the Reformation ; it consists of a dean, thirty pre- 
bendaries, and other ecclesiastical officers. The 
lec orimprisca the entire co. of Sussex, with the 
exception t^twentv-two parishes, which are pecu- 
liars : the episcopal palace is within the dty walls, 
and has fine gardens attached to it. Except that 
of St. Paul, which is a handsome modem struc- 
ture in the pointed s^le, the other churches are 
email, mean buildings. There is a grammar school, 
finuuled in 1497, and a blue-coat school, founded 
in 1702. There are several charitable institutions, 
the most andent of which is that of St. Mary's 
Hospital, with a chapel attached to it. The other 
public buildings are the g^dhall, town-haU, 
mazket-house, and com exchange ; the buildings 
<jf the' mechanics' institute, of the Literary and 
Philosophical Sodety, and a small theatre. 

There are no manufactures, the town principally 
depending on the surrounding agricultural district. 
Market-<^ys, Wednesday and Saturday ; the former 
for oom, the latter for general provisions: an im- 



portant cattle-market is held every second Weil 
nesday ; and four large cattle and horse fairs, Mav 
4, \\'hit^Monday, Oct. 10 and 20. The transit of 
com through the town to the metropolis and to 
the W. of England is also considerable. The har- 
bour is rather difficult of access ; but at spring- 
tides vessels of 170 or 180 tons reach the quay, 
about 1^ m. below the town; but its communica- 
tion with the sea is kept up by the Arundel and 
Portsmouth Canal, a branch from which is carried 
to the city. It is di\4ded into two wards, and 
governed by a mavor, six aldermen, and eighteen 
councillors. Chichester has returned two mem. to 
the H. of C. from the 23rd of Edw. I. PreWoudy 
to the Reform Act the franchise was vested in the 
corporation and freemen and scot-and-lot payers 
within the bor. The Boundary Act extended the 
limits of the parL bor., which is identical with the 
municipal bor., so as to embrace the suburbs. 
Registered electors, 585 in 1865. Annual value of 
real oroperty, 42,734il in 1857, and 37,409il in 1862. 
Chicnester is supposed to occupy the site of the 
Reffnum of the Roman period. It was destroyed 
b;^ Ella in the 5th century, and restored by his son 
Cissa, whence the name. Some additional im- 
portance was g^ven to it by the removal of the see 
from Selsea thither, after the Conquest. It gives 
the title of earl to the Pelham family. 

CHICACOLE, or CICACOLE, an inL town of 
Hindostan, formerly the cap. of the N. Circar of 
same name, on the high N. bank of the river Chi- 
cacole, 4 m. NW. the bay of Bengal, and 50 m. 
NE. Yizagapatam. It is of considerable size, but 
irr^ularly built, being a collection of all sorts of 
houses and huts. It contains some neat Euro- 
pean barracks, several large bazars, and numerous 
mosques and other Mohammedan building, 

CHICLANA, a town of Spain, Andalusia, prov. 
Cadiz, 12 m. SE. Cadiz. Pop. 9,097 in 1857. The 
town is situated between two hills, on one of which 
are the ruins of an ancient Moorish castle; has 
two churches, two convents, a hospital, a work- 
house belonging to Cadiz, a theatre, and some 
good private houses. It is much resorted to by the 
wealthy classes of Cadiz, who have here country 
residences and pleasure grounds. The adjoining 
hdghts command a fine view of Cadiz and its 
bay, the isle of Leon, drc. on one side ; and, on 
the other, the andent dty of Medina Sidonia, and 
plains of Andalusia, towards Algeairas and Gib- 
raltar. The battle of Barossa, in which, after an 
obstinate engagement, the Anglo-Spanish army 
under Sir Thomas Graham (Ix)rd Lynedoch) de- 
feated a French force under Marsh^d Victor, was 
fought, a few m. S. from Chiclana, on the 5th of 
March, 1811. 

CHIERI (an. Carrera PotenHa)j an inl. town of 
N. Italy, prov. Turin, cap. mand., on the declivity 
of a. vine-clad hill, 8 m. SE. Turin, on the railway 
from Turin to Alessandria. Pop. 15,033 in 1861. 
The town is well built, has four handsome squares, 
and a coUegiate church, said to have been origi- 
nally a temple of Minerva. Its fortress. La Ro- 
chetta, was destroyed in the 16th century. It has 
some cotton and linen thread and wooUen-doth 

CHIETI, a city of Southern Italy, prov. Chieti, 
of which it is the cap., on the narrow crest of a range 
of hills, on the right bank of the Pescara, about 10 
m. from the Adriatic, on the railway from Anoona to 
Naples. Pop. 20,192 in 1861. The streets of the 
town are generally narrow and crooked, and in 
many parts dark and dirty ; but the houses and 
shops are good, and approach nearer to the standard 
of the metropolis than those of most provincial 
towns. It has a large cathedral, and tour other 
churches ; a lyc^um, or college ; a large seminary ; 



namerouA convents ; a society of agriculture, arts, 
and commerce ; a hospital ; a workhouse ; and a 
handsome theatre. It is the seat of an archbishopric, 
of the dvU and criminal tribunals of the prov. ; 
and has manufactures of woollens and silks. The 
surrounding country is well cultivated and fertile, 
and the population have an appearance of ease, 
cheerfulness, and activity. The Abbd Galiani was 
a native of Chieti, having been bom here in 1728. 

Chieti is veiy ancient, being built on the site of 
Teate^ the capital of the small but not unim- 
portant tribe of the MaruccinL Silius Italicus 
calls it Moffnum et Clarum. The remains of a 
theatre of considerable dimensions, a larg^ public 
edifice, two temples, a gateway and Mosaic pave- 
ment, with numerous coins and inscriptions, evince 
its ancient magnitude and importance. 

CHIHUAHUA, a city of Mexico, state of Chi- 
huahua, of which it is the cap. ; 740 m. NNW. 
Mexico, 490 m. E. Guaymas, and 500 m. from the 
mouth of the Rio Grande del Norte: lat. 28° 47' 
N., long. 107° 30' W. It is situated in an arid 
plain, on a rivulet which falls into an affluent of 
the Rio Grande. Pop. at one period said to have 
been 70,000 ; in 1803, 11,600; at present estimated 
at 10,000. Streets regular; houses well built and 
well supplied with water, conveyed to it bv an 
aqueduct 8 m. long. The cathedral, a very large 
and highly ornamented structure, was erected at 
an expense of 1,600,000 doll, raised by a duty on 
the produce of the adjoining mines. The town is 
chiefly maintained by supplying necessaries to the 
surrounding mining districts; and from being a 
depot for goods to and from Gua}Tnas. Charcoal 
is conveyed thither for the mines and domestic 
purposes' from a distance of 80 leagues. There are 
several large monasteries in the town ; but they 
are much diminished in their income and in the 
splendour of their buildings and establishments 
since the revolution. The countrj- surrounding 
the city is occupied by extensive hacriendas, or 
farms, in which large herds of mules, homed cattle, 
and sheep, are pastured. But, notwithstanding 
the great capabilities of the soil, agriculture is in 
a very depresse<l state, the mines being the great 
objects of attention. Of these the most" celebrated 
for the quantity of the precious metals drawn 
from it is El Parral, in the SE. part of the state ; 
but it is now in so dilapidated a condition, that 
the amount of capital required to re-establish it 
is too great to justify a well-grounded expectation 
of its returns being sufficient to repay the outlay. 
Batopilas, 80 leagues W. of Parras, once one of 
the most productive of the Mexican mines—a 
single mass of pure silver weighing 425 lbs. having 
been found in it — is but feebly worked. One of 
its veins was discovered by an Indian, who, on 
swimming across a branch of the Rio del Fuerte 
after a flood, perceived the crest of a rich lode laid 
bare by the force of the current, the greatest part 
pure silver, sparkling in the sun. Siuita Eulalia 
in the E. has long been abandoned. The pop. of 
the plain country is almost wholly of European 
descent, the natives having retired before them 
into the mountainous recesses of the Bolson do 
Mapimi. Their f>rincipal tribes are tlie Apaches, 
Comanches, and Chichimeques. 

CHILI, or CHILE, a republic of S. America, in 
the SW. part of that continent, consisting of a 
long and narrow strip of countnr between the 
Andes and the ocean, extending from lat 25° 20' 
to 42° S., and between long. 70<^ and 74° W. ; 
having N. the southem extremity of Bolivia, E. 
the tcrrit. of La Plata, SE. and S. Patagonia 
and the Gulf of Ancud, and Strait of Chacao 
(which separate it from the Archipelago of Chi- 
lo6), and W. the Pacific. Length, N. to S., 1,150 


m.; average breadth between 110 and 120 m. 
Estimated area 249,952 sq. m. Pop. 1,439,120, 
according to the census of April 19, 1854; and 
1,648,894 according to official returns of the year 
1861, The country is divided into fifteen prc^- 
i-inces, the pop. of which, by the oensua of 1854, 
was as follov^ : — 

Besides these territories, the islands of Juan-Fer- 
nandee, Mocha, and some others in the Pacific 
belong to Chile. 

Topography, — The country rises successively 
from the coast to the Great Cordillera of the 
Andes ; but not by a number of successive terraces 
mnning parallel to each other and to the sea, 
except in the N. * Elsewhere, the surface,' as 
Mr. Miers savs, * is not formed by a series of table 
heights, reaching from the sea to the foot of the 
CordiUera; but it is a broad expansion of the 
mountainous Andes, which spreads forth its ra- 
mifications from the central longitudinal ridge 
towards the sea, diminishing continually, but irre- 
gularly, till they reach the ocean These 

mountain branches arc of considerable height, being 
seldom less than 1,000 ft, and more generally 2,00() 
ft above the bottom of the valleys wliich intersect 
them : it may, therefore, be readily conceived that 
there is but little level country between the smaller 
branches of thrae chains ; the more valuable portions 
were foimeil by the beds of the rivers now oompa- 
raUvely small, although there is evidence of their 
having been once the courses of greater streams. 
Some of those valleys present broad expansions 
of surface, such, by way of illustration, as that 
portion of (he country called the Valley of Acon- 
cagua. These are the patches which constitute the 
finest and boasted portions of the midcUe portion 
of Chile.' (Miers' Trav. in Chfle, i. 378, 379.) 

The Great Cordillera of the Andes has in S. 
Chile a mean elevation of 13,000 or 14,000 ft. above 
the level of the ocean ; but it presents many Pfaks 
which rise to a considerably greater height 'rheste 
peaks, most of which are volcanic, l&.gin to ht 
numerous beyond lat 30°, and increase in numlter 
as we proceed farther S. The principal one is that 
of Aconcagua, about lat 32^ 10', which has been 
nroved to be at least 23,200 ft. in height (Capt. 
Fit«oy's Paper in Geog. Joum., vii, 143), and 
therefore ranks first among the mountains of S. 
America. At intervals it is an active volcano. 
N. of 330 30' the Cordillera is divided into two 
separate ranges, enclosing the immense valley of 
Uspallata, so celebrated for its mineral riches, and 
other valleys. The principal road across the Ande^ 
— from Santiago and the Vale of Aconcagua to 
Mendoza — crosses Uspallata ; several other passes 
from ChDi into the La Plata territories exist far- 
ther S. (See Andks.) Between the ramifications 
of the mountain chains and the sea some small 
plains line the coast The shores are mostly high, 




Atacama . . . 


Coquimbo . . . 


Aconcaffoa . . . 


Valparaiso . . . 



Santiof^ . . . 


Golcagua . . . 




Manlo .... 


Nuble .... 


Ck>ncepclon . . . 


Arauoo .... 


Yaldivia . . . 


Chiloe .... 


Llanguihue . . 


Magallanes . . . 
Total . . . 





vteep^ and rockr, as is goiend along the whole of 
the W. caa»t ot S. America. They have almost 
evenrwheiv, however, deep water near them, and 
there are many tolerable harbours, the best being 
thoiie of Valdivia, Concepeion, Yalparaiso, and Co- 
qoimbo, though some are safe onlv during certain 
HiaMma of the year. The rivers of the middle and 
S. prova. are sufficiently numerous, but they are 
all MnalL The N. part of the country is scarcely 
watered by any ; and ' from Ma3rpo to Atacama, a 
distance of 1,000 geog. m., all the nvere and streams 
toffether would not form so considerable a body of 
water as that with which the Rhone enters the 
I.ake of Geneva, or aa that of the Thames at 
Srainea.* (Schmidtmeyer's Trav., p. 28.) The 
liven retain pretty much the same quantity of 
water throughout the year : they are not augmented 
much at any particular season by the melting of 
the snowa, since, while in the summer the snow 
on the upper mountain ranges melts, that on the 
lower heights liquefies even in the winter. They 
ase generally unfit for the purposes of trade. In 
the K. there is no stream navigable for laden boats 
for more than 6 m. inland : in the middle provs. 
the Manle is the only one which brigs of 150 tons 
baiden can enter at high tide, and these cannot 
ascend far; and in the S. the Callacalla, or river 
of Valdivia, is the onl^ one capable of being en- 
tered with safety by shlpa carrying 60 guns. Some 
lakes, or rather lagunes, are scattered over the 
coontzy ; they are most numerous in the S., and 
in the prov. of Valdivia and in Araucania are of 
some size. A few arc 60 or 70 m. in circumference. 
Q i mt a t e is equable and healthy: epidemic dis- 
eases are rare. The interior is hotter than the 
coast : in the former, during Jan. and Feb., the 
thennometer often rises to 90^ and 95° Fahr. in 
the shade ; on the latter, at the same season, it 
ri<«e9 to about 85° in the day, and sinks to 70° or 
75° in the night. At Santiago the mean summer 
heat 6um Dumber to March at midday is about 
H44°, and at night 58°. A cool and pleasant breeze 
arij«8 at sunset. Winter begins in /une. No snow 
falls on the coast, and ftost is rare ; on the Andes 
the snows remain from June to November. About 
April the rains set in, and fall at intervals till Aug. ; 
bat this b only in the S. provs. N. of Santiago 
the rainy season is limited to a few occasionid 
showers, and in the arid prov. of Coquimbo no rain 
whatever falls, the want of it being^ occasionally 
supplied by heavy night dews. The N. provs. 
being at a distance from the volcanoes of the Cor- 
diUera, which apparently act as safety-valves, are 
especially subject to earthquakes. Shocks are felt 
in some parts almost daily, and the country is 
oantinnally desolated by them. In 1819 the town 
of Cofnapo was totally destroyed ; and in 1835 
Concepdon, and other towns on the coast in the 
middle provsw, were nearly rained by an earth- 
quake. (Miers, I 878-399; Schmidtmeyer, p. 25, 
^CL ; Campbell's Geog. Joum., voL vi ; Molina ; 
Voyage of the Adventure and Beagle, Ac.) 

Geologjf, — ^According to Schmidtmeyer, the hi^h 
chain of the Andes is chiefly composed of aigd- 
laceous schist, while the lower chams and moan- 
tain groups uxe principally granite. Sienitic, ba- 
saltic, and felspar porphyries, serpentines of various 
ouloars, quartz, homolende and other slates, pud- 
ding-stone, gypsum, abound in the Cordillera, and 
fine statoaiv maihle is said to abound in the de- 
partment of Copiapo. Chili is extremely rich in 
metals : silver is found there at a greater elevation 
than any other metal ; it is also met with in the 
valleys or bowb in the lower rang^ but, gene- 
rally speaking, its quantity decreases in proportion 
to its distance from the Andes. Gold is most fre- 
qoently aitoated at a much less elevation than 

silver ; it is found chiefly in the * bowls,' and perhaps 
few of the lower mountain ranges throughout Chili 
are without it. Most, or perhaps all tlie rivers, 
wash down gold. The copper mines are one of the 
chief sources of national wealth. Lead and iron 
are found in abundance, but neither is much sought 
after. Zinc, antimony, manganese, anseuic, tin, 
sulphiur so pure as not to require refining, alum, 
salt, and nitre, are plentiful. Coal mines have 
been opened near Concepeion : the coal improves 
with the depth of the mine, and has already be- 
come a considerable article of trade and consump- 
tion at Valparaiso. The soil of the N. provs. is 
sandy and saline ; and in the opinion of Mr. Miers, 
not l-50th part of the N. half of Chili can ever be 
cultivated. Some of the valleys in the central 
provs., as that of Aconcagua, present broad and fer- 
tile expansions of surface, and others, being con- 
siderably inclined, admit of irrigation wherever 
water can be procured ; but the hiUy parts being 
dried and parched during the greater part of the 
year, are mcapable of adture. 8. of the river 
Maule, however, the proportion of cultivable land 
is larger, the soil becoming progressively more 
stiff and loanrv. (fliers ; Schmidtmeyer.) 

Vegttable Productg. — Fertility increases in pro- 
portion as we proceed S. Capt. Basil Hall ob- 
serves : * At Concepeion, in the S. of Chili, the eye 
is delighted with Uie richest and most luxuriant 
foliage: at Valparaiso, which lies between 100 and 
200 m. farther N., the hills are poorly clad with a 
stunted brushwood, and a faint attempt at grass, 
the ground looking everywhere starved and naked : 
at Coquimbo even this brushwood is gone, and 
nothing is left to supplv its place but a wretched 
sort of prickly pear oiish, and a scanty sprinkling 
of wiry grasses. At Guasco, there is not a trace 
of vegetation to be seen, all the hills and plains 
being covered with bare sand, excepting where 
the fittle solitary stream of water, caused by the 
melting of the snow amount the Andes, gives 
animation to the channel which conducts it to the 
sea. The respective latitudes of these (daces are 
37°, 83°, 80°, and 28^°' (Hall's Extracts from a 
Journal, in Constable's Misc., iiL 9, 10.) Exten- 
sive forests cover Araucania and the S. provs. The 
flanks of the Andes also exhibit a profuse vegeta- 
tion. The Mtnumtfameskma flourishes over most 
of the country, and the algarob is nearly as common. 
The qmUaij the bark of which produces a natural 
soap, IS brought to the towns as an article of trade ; 
laurels, myrtles, cypresses, and other evergreens, 
grow to such a size as to be highly useful for their 
timber. Most European fruits flourish, but tro- 
pical plants are few. Schmidtmeyer observes, that 
the numerous groves of palm and cinnamon trees, 
spoken of by Molina, have disappeared since his 
Ume. Chili' produces many hard woods, which, in 
a great measure, supersede the use of iron in the 
country; and Mr. Miers says that *■ the herbaceous 
plants and flowers are so rich, various, beautifid, 
and novel, that to a botanist no treat can be 
greater than a journey through the Cordillera.' 

AfdmaU, — The coguar or puma, the iaguar, 
llama, ^^uanaco, numerous monkeys, and other 
wild animals common to this continent, inhabit 
Chili. A kind of beaver {Cagtar kuidibrius) fre- 
quents the rivers, and the chinchilla abounds in the 
desert country of the N. ; both are hunted for their 
iiir, which is much prized. The great condor, 
several vultures, pelicans, and many other water 
fowl, flocks of parrots, parroquets, &&, are among 
the birds; whales, dolphins, cod, pilchards, &&, 
are caught aroimd the coasts. The skunk, which, 
when pursued, emits an intolerable odour, is a 
native of Chili ; but in other respects this country 
I enjoys a singular freedom from annoying or ve- 



nomous quadrnpcds, noxious insects, and reptiles. 
(Miere, vol. i. ; Schmidtmever.) 

Agriculture and Cattle breeding, — ^The climate 
and soil of the S. and central parts of Chili are 
highly suitable for the culture of European grains. 
S. of lat. 30^, the limit at which they cease to 
attain perfection varies from 3,700 to 5,200 ft. 
above the ocean ; but at the height of 3,000 ft. the 
harvests are extremely good. Only the middle 
ppovs., however, produce sufficient com for ex- 
portation, aft'Cr supplying the wants of their inhab. 
Aconcaf2^ia is by far the best cultivated prov., and 
that which exports most com. Its prrduce goes 
chiefly to the market of Valparaiso. >Vheat is the 
staple, and in the N. almost the only grain culti- 
vated. Barley is grown in the S. ; maize, buck- 
wheat, and oats are but little raised, and rve is 
unknown. Kidney beans are exported to I^em, 
and occasionally to Brazil ; all kinds of pulse are 
common ; and potatoes are extensively cultivated, 
though they fail in flavour. Culinary vegetables 
are raised, especially near the towns. A^^atcr melons 
are very fine, and gourds of a good flavour are pro- 
duced in great abundance ; the latter are appen- 
dages to evcrv Chilian dish of boiled meat. Hemp 
of good quality is grown chiefly in Aconcagua. 
The sugar-cane has been tried, but does not suc- 
ceed. Rice and cacao are imported. At Quillota 
there are some good gardens : in Aconcagua prov. 
the vinevards and ouve grounds yield an abun- 
dance oi good fruit; and in that of Concepcion, 
which was once celebrated for its wine, tlie vine- 
yards are still extensive, and the grapes flne-fla- 
voured. Elsewhere, according to Poeppig (Reise 
in Chili, i. 125-127), both orchard and ^putlen cul- 
tivation is in the back-ground. The olive crops 
are good, but the oil is. ruined by a bad mode of 
treatment, and rendered unfit for European mar- 
kets. Little care is taken in the cidture of com. 
The art of agriculture is greatly in aiiear. The 
plough, which ia everywhere alike throughout the 
country, consists of only a part of the trunk of a 
tree, with a crooked branch which 8er\'es as a 
handle, the forepart of the trunk being wedge- 
shaped, and having nailed to it * a somewhat 
pointed flat plate of iron, which performs the ne- 
cessary operation of coulter and share, neither of 
which were ever heard of by the natives.' (Miers.) 
The yoke is fastened not to the shoulders, but to 
the horns, of the oxen, according to the approved 
ancient Spanish method. The substitute for a 
harrow is a heap of bushes weighed down with 
stones ; the tummg up of the soil by spade dig- 
ging and the use of the English hoe are unknown ; 
and what little weeding is practised is performed 
by the hand or the bUtdebone ojfa sheep. Lands 
are cultivated until worn out, with the mtcrval of 
a fallow every four or five years : no manure is 
used. The productiveness of the soil in Chili 
appears to have been formerly much overrated. 
Mr. Miers observes, that a piece of ground recently 
cleared * may produce to me extent of 100 or even 
200 foid during the first year ; but such lands are 
now scarce in the cultivated parta of Chili ; ' and 
the average of the wheat fields may be from 8 to 
12, or of the best crops, from 12 to 20 fold. (Miers, 
i. 37 1 .) Reaping is performed b^ means of a rough 
sickle; and the com, in quantities of about 100 or 
150 quarters at a time, thrashed out in a hard dry 
spot of ground, bv being galloped over by horses. 
ItiLs then generally left in the open air for some 
months, not being housed till tne rainy season 

Kew farms are wholly arable, and such as are so 
are small and situated in narrow valleys. Cattle 
breeding is the most important branch of rural in- 
dustry. In the middle provs. the haciendas, or 

farms, feed often from 10,000 to 15,000 head of 
catUe, in some cases as many as 20,000 ; and on 
the smallest grazing farms from 4,000 to 5,000 head 
are reared. The black cattle in some parta are 
strong and bony, but in the N. small : they are 
dull, and neither the beef nor milk they vield is 
very good. The horses of Santiago are said to be 
excellent, well broken, and more docile than those 
of Buenos Ayres. Those of the country generally 
are well made, and gallop, though they do not 
trot, weU. Schmidtmeyer says (Trav., p. 93) that 
they are * so strong and hardy as to be able to 
carry their riders above 80 m. a day at a gallop, 
with very little rest, and no other food than lu- 
ceme grass.' The mules and asses are of a good 
size, hardy and strong : the former are the general 
beasta of burden, and are especially used in tra- 
velling across the Cordillera. Goats are plentiful, 
being more fitted than sheep for the pastures of 
ChilL The sheep are siud to be very inferior, and 
both the mutton and wool bad. 'Hogs are not 
very good, and very little of their flesh is con- 
sumed. In the dry season the cattle are often 
reduced to great straits for want of food. (Poeppig, 
1 121-129.) 

After its conquest by the Spaniards, Chili was 
divided into 860 portions, which were given to as 
many individuals; and though by the Spanish 
law of succession these portions have been, and 
continue to be, subdividea frequently, most estates 
still remain very large. The propnetors of the.oe 
large grazing estates usually reside with their 
families in the towns, and keep on their farms a 
major-domo or steward, under whom are a head 
and a few subordinate herdsmen, and these are 
assisted sometimes by a few tenants who hold 
their dwellings under the proprietor by a kind of 
feudal tenure, being obliged to give their services 
in any kind of labour that is required of them, 
without pay, or for a very small remuneration. 
Land is never leased out to the agricultural 
tenants, but from year to year : the latter have 
neither oxen for ploughing, mares for thrashing, 
nor capital to get in their crops; and all these, and 
all other kinds of assistance, come from the pro- 

Erietor, who is repaid out of the produce of the 
md, which he brides generally buys up at two- 
thirds or half what the former might sell it for, 
could he command the necessary funds to harvest 
it. The cultivator, in short, is rather worse off 
than the day-labourer, and is even in the habit of 
hiring himself out as such at times to recruit his 
means. He is destitute of most comforts, can 
seldom read or write, nor has any means within 
his reach of educating his children. The moment 
his harvest or the prwluce of his garden is reaped, 
the landlord enforces his right to the stubble and 
pasture for the benefit of his cattle, and large 
droves are even frequently tumed in before tlie 
produce is cut, either utterly destroying the cropis 
or obli^ng them to be gathered half ripe. The 
tenant is scarcely ever aUowed to build his hut on 
cultivated grounds, to enclose his rented land witli 
fences, or to possess any catUe ; and a multitude 
of other arbitrary practices tend to keep the peon 
in that state of servitude in which it is the object 
of the proprietor to retain him. (See especially 
Miers, i 341-^76.) 

FiAeries, — The coasts present good fishing 
ground, and with good boats, good nets, and good 
government regulations, the Chilians might be 
made tolerable fishermen ; but, owing in part to 
some ill-advised measures adopted by the govern- 
ment, Mr. Miers affirms that in his time the fishers 
were the most abandoned, lazy, and worthless 
class in the country. They seldom fish more than 
a mile from shore, using only canoes of the rudest 



ponsible construction, or nils snpported on large 
seal-skin air-bags, both urged onward by means 
of a double-bladed paddle, used first on one aide 
and then on the other. 

The country has abundance of minerals, of the 
richest quality, from which, however, little profit 
is drawn, owing to the constant civil strife and 
political disturbances under which the republic is 
suffering. Nevertheless, several mines of silver, 
gold, and copper are being worked in the pro\'ince 
of Coquimbo,and, since ^e year 1859, some valu- 
able coal mines are worked at Lota and Coronel, 
in the piov. of Talca. At Lot« the whole of the 
mines are the pro^^erty of Messrs. Cousino and 
Son, natives of Chili, and are wrought bv English 
and native coal miners on the Lnglish system, 
with the assistance of railways, steam engines, 
and wharves, and are now formed into a very com- 
plete establL^ment, at an expense to the owners 
of upwards of 1,000,000 doUars. The establish- 
ment was oommenceii} in 1852, but only got into 
proper working order during the year 1859. The 
produce of the mines is at present from 4,000 to 
a,000 tons of clean coal per month, and can be 
greatly incraued when more labourers can be ob- 
tained. The coal of these mines is being mined, 
screened, and embarked by contract, and at cur- 
rent prices leaves a clear profit to the owners of 
more than three dollars and a-half per English 
ton. Messrs. Cousino and Son have also furnaces 
for the purpose of smelting copper ore with the 
refuse or small coaL The mines of Coronel are 
being wrought by several individuals to a much 
greater extent tlian even the mines of Lota, and 
the pioduoe is greater. Samples of very rich silver 
ore, gold quartz, and copper ore have been found 
in the Araucanian territory ; but nothing can be 
done with either, until the Indians come under 
the dominion of some civilised government. (Re- 
port bv Mr. Cunningham, British Yice-Consul at 
Takahoano, Chili, in ' Consular Reports,' 1863.) 

It is a common saying in Chili, Uiat * a diligent 
man who wntkB a copper mine is sure to gain ; that 
he who opens one of silver may either gain or 
lose; but that if the mine be of gold, he uml cer- 
tainly be ruined.' This is owing in great part to 
the circumstance of many mines having been 
opened or wrought by persons without capital, 
who are very soon obliged to suspend their opera- 
tions ; land carriage being difficult and laborious, 
and fuel, water, and fodder very scarce in those 
districts which are the richest in ore. The mines 
are mostly wrought by two parties, one the pro- 
prietor of the mme, who supplies the labour, the 
other the habUitadorj who advances the capital 
The proprietor, who usually resides on the spot 
and superintends the woriu, is seldom wealthy 
enough to conduct them on his own resources, and 
it 18 generally the kabUUudor, or moneyed indi- 
vidual who resides at the port where the metal is 
shipped, who alone derives any ultimate benefit 
from the mine. (Meyen ; Hall ; Schmidtmeyer.) 

Maimfaeiurea and Trade, — The Chilinoe are 
good potters, and make light and strong earthen- 
warejara, which ring like metaL Hempen cloths, 
indirorent hemp, cordage, soap, copper wares made 
in a very rough manner, leather, brandv, tallow, 
and charcoal, are amongst the chief articles manu- 
factured. The rest are mostly domestic, and con- 
ducted by women. 

Chili is suppoaed to be the only American state, 
formerly subject to Spain, whose commerce has in- 
creased since the separation from the mother 
ooontry. Most of the foreign trade is with Great 
Britain, the imports from which, consisting chiefly 
of cotton and woollen goods, hardware, iron, ^c, 
amounted, in 1835, to 606,176/.; in 1838, to 413,647^; 

in 1859, to 1,510,176/.; and, in 1863, to 1,474,040/. 
A portion of the merchandise imported from 
Great Britain is subsequently sent to other parts 
of America. Linens, Ac., are imported from Ger- 
many ; silks, paper, perfumery, leather, wines, and 
brandy, from France; silks, nankeens, tea and 
sugar from China and the £. Indies ; tobacco, 
spermaceti, candles, oil, sugar, and manufactured 
goods, from the U. States; dyes, coffee, pearls, 
sugar, cacao, tobacco, cotton, rice, salt, and spirits, 
from Peru and Central America; and cotton, 
Paraguay tea, and European goods, from La Plata 
and Brazil. The exports are chiefly bullion, 
copper, hides, tallow, pulse, wheat, fruits, drugs, 
and European goods re-exported to Peru, Bolivia, 
and Central America. The exports to the United 
Kingdom have rapidly increased of late years. 
They were of the value of 1,969,547/. in 18^9 ; of 
2,416,895/. in 1861; and of 2,288,862/. in 1863. 
Copper was the principal article of these exports, 
furnishing about three-fourths of the value. Val- 
paraiso is the chief port, and centre of the foreign 

But little accommodation exists for internal com- 
itaerce. The only towns of any importance, except 
the cap. Santiago, viz. Valparaiso, Coquimbo, Con- 
cepdon, and Valdivia, are near the sea, and at a 
great distance from each other ; and, except be- 
tween Valparaiso and Santiago, the latter city and 
Talca, there are no good roads. Latterly, however, 
the want of ordinary roads has to some extent 
been mitigated by the construction of rulways. 
In the year 1863 there existed nearly 400 miles 
of railway, among them lines from Valparaiso to 
Santiago, from Santiago to San Fernando, from 
Caldera to Pabellon, and firom Coquimbo to Las 

Government, — ^The public revenue, which, in 
1831, amounted to 1,517,537 dollars, has since been 

C^ressively increaising in amount, and in 1860 
risen to 7,494,750 doUars, or 1,498,950/. The 
expenditure, in the latter year, amounted to 
7,507,025 dolhirs, or 1,501,405/. There was a pub- 
lic debt, at the end of the year 1861, of 15,251,600 
dollars, or 3,050,320/. 

Chili is a republic under a president, elected for 
a tenn of years. It has a congress of 56 members 
elected by the different provs. The executive 
power is in the hands of the president and a 
council of ministers. 

The national religion is the Roman Catholic. 
The cler]^ are not numerous ; they are subordinate 
to the bishop of Santiago. Other religions are 
tolerated ; but the exercise of their public worship 
is not allowed. 

Feople — are mostly of Spanish and Indian de- 
scent, but there are some negroes and mulattocs. 
' The Chilians,' says Mr. Miers, * though they may 
be said to possess in no degree a smgle virtue, 
have the credit of possessing fewer vices than 
other Creoles ; there is a passiveness, an evenness 
about them approachiiig to the Chinese, whom 
they stronf^ly resemble in many respects : even in 
their physiognomy, they have the broad low fore- 
head and contracted eyes; they have the same 
cunning, the same egotism, and the same disposi- 
tion to petty theft.' (Travels, ii 223, 224.) They 
are moderate in their food, but frequently very 
dissipated and profligate in their habits, and in 
the towns very^ fond of dress and display. High- 
way robbery is rare, and so are murders in tlie 
countiy, but not in the towns. Education, or any 
taste for the fine arts, have hitherto made but 
little progress. 

HiUorv, — Previously to the Spanish conquest. 
Chili belonged to the incas of Peru. In 15.>6 
Pizanro sent Almagro to invade the country, and 



in 1540, Valdivia; the latter of whom conquered 
most of the country excepting Araucania. The 
revolution, which scparateri the colony from Spain, 
broke out in 1810 ; from 1814 to 1817 it was kept 
under by the royalist forces; but in the latter 
year the victory of Maypii gained by San Martin, 
permanently secured the independence of Chili, 
and opened for it a career, which promises a high 
state of national prosperity, unless prevented by 
internal dutsensions, which, unfortunately, have 
been very frequent of late yeare. 

CUILKEAH, an inL town of Hindostan, prov. 
Delhi, on the borders of the Kumaon distr., 110 
m. NE. Delhi; lat. 29° 24' N., long. 79^ 5' E. It 
is a chief mart of trade for the W. provinces, with 
Kumaon, Thibet, and Tartary, but is abandoned on 
the approach of the unhealthy season, when dan- 
gerous malaria prevails. 

CHILLAMBARAM, a marit town of S. Hin- 
dostan, prov. Camatic, 34 m. S. Pondicherry, and 
a short distance N. the mouth of the Coleroon 
river; lat. 11© 28' N., long. 79^ 47' E. In its vi- 
cinity there are some celebrated Hindoo temples, 
of considerable antiquity. 

CHILAIARRY (Chakmrnrt), a town of Hindos- 
tan, prov. Bengal, distr. Rungpore, on the Brahma- 
putra, 35 m. SE. Rungpore. A festival is annually 
held here, which is usually attended by 60,000, and 
sometimes by 100,000 Hindoo pilgrims and others. 

a province of Chili, consisting of a large island in 
the S. Pacific, near the S. coast of Chili and the 
NW. coast of Patagonia, between lat. 40° 48' and 
48<^ 50' S., and having on its E. side 63 small 
blands, 36 of which are inhabited. The group, 
including the town of Maulin on the main land of 
the continent, forms the most S. prov. of Chili. 
Shape of the island of Chiloe, oblong ; length, N. 
to S. 120 m. ; average breadth, 40 m. Area, 4,800 
sq. m. Pop. 61,586 m 1854. The island is moun- 
tainous, and covered with wood, chiefly a bastard 
cedar, very durable, and exported in great quan- 
tities to Peru and Chili. Tnere are several good 
harbours, in all of which vessels of anv size may 
anchor with the greatest safety ; and In those of 
St. Carlos (the cap. in the NE. part of the island), 
and Castro, ships ride quite land-locked close to 
the shore in good holding ground. Climate 
healthy, but damp ; at an average, ten months of 
the year may be called rainy. Cold, however, is 
not severe; water seldom freezes, and a fall of 
snow is unknown. Little ground is cleared ; the 
soil is rich, though never manured ; it consists of 
dark mould and mie loam upon chalk, and produces 
good crops of wheat, potatoes, fruit trees, especially 
apples, which yield a large quantity of cider. 
Wme is prohibited, and spirits are rarely seen. 
Tobacco, being a govenmnent monopoly, is very 
dear. Domestic animals are largely reared. The 
sheep are bred solely for their wool, and are never 
eaten. The island' swarms with hogs, and the 
hams of ChUoe are celebrated in S. America. 
Poultry and fish are very abundant. Principal 
export»— planks about 260,900, and hams 7,800 
annually ; brooms, hides and woollen cloths, to the 
value of about 25,000 dollars a year. The archi- 
pelago possesses about 1,500 coasting vessels. 
Money is here nearly unknown, and traffic ia con- 
ducted by barter, or payment in indigo, tea, salt^ 
or Cayenne pepper. All these articles are much 
valued, especially the first for dyeing woollens, 
for the weaving of which there is a loom in every 

The archipelago sends one mem. to the Chilian 
congress, 'fhe public revenue is chiefly derived 
from a tithe on all produce, paid in kind. There 
are numerous churches and cbapelsi but few priests. 


The chief towns are San Carlos, which is fortified, 
and has about 2,000 inhab., Castro, and Maulin. 
A good road, 54 m. long, runs between the two 
former towns. Acconling to Captain Blanckley, 
the golden age would seem to be reWved in this 
part of the world. * Murders,' says he, * robbery, 
or persons being in debt, are never heard of: 
drunkcmiess is only known or seen when European 
vessels are in port : not a private dwelling in the 
towns or country has a lock on the doors,' and the 
prison is in disuse. (Blanckley, in Geug. Jour- 
nal, iv. 344-361.) The inhab. are pasiiionately 
fond of music and dancing. Chiloe was the last 
possession held by Spain in the Pacific 

CHILTERN HILLS, a ridge of chalk hills in 
England, traversing the co. of Bucks, and reach- 
ing from Tring, in the co. of Hereford, to Goring 
on the Thames in Oxford. Wendover Hill, in 
Bucks, the highest part of the range, is 905 ft. 
above the level of the sea. Camden says that 
these hills were once thickly covered with trees, 
which were a receptacle for thieves till thev were 
cleared by the abbot of St. Alban's. (Gibson's 
Camden, l 327.) An office, called the steward- 
ship of tlie Chiltem-hundreds, waa established at 
a remote period. Whatever were formerly ita 
duties, they have long since ceased ; and it is now 
nominal only, being kept up to afford mema. of 
the H. of C. an opportunity, by accepting it, of 
vacating their seats. 

CHIMBORAZO, one of the highest summits of 
the Andes, which see. 

CHINA, a vast country of SE. Asia, be- 
tween lat. 20© and 56© N;, and long. 70° and 
144° E. ; in form nearly square, being bounded 
on the E. and SE. by those arms of the Pacific 
Ocean known as the Gulf of Tartary, the Sea of 
Japan, the Yellow Sea, the Strait of Formosa, the 
Cmnese Sea, and the Gulf of Tonquin ; on the 
land sides by Tonquin, Laos, and Birmah ; SW. 
and W. by Independent Tartary ; and N. for the 
immense extent of 3,300 m. by Asiatic Russia. 
Its extent from the borders of Kokhan and Bu- 
dukshan to the Sea of Okhotsk is 3,350 m., and 
its greatest width from the frontiers of Daouria 
N. to Tonquin S., is 2,100 m. ; inclosing altogether 
a space of about 5,300,000 sq. m. Thus the 
Chinese empire includes all the table land of 
Eastern Asia — about a third part of the whole 
contuient^-or a little less than a tenth part of the 
habitable globe ; and contains, within its aiormoua 
area, the largest amount of population and of 
wealth united under one government in the world. 
The coast line has an extent of above 8,350 m., and 
the total circumference of the empire is about 12^0 
m. (More detailed particulars of Uie suirounding 
FK)88e8sion8 of China must be sought in the ar- 
ticles Asia, Thibet, Mongolia, Mamchooria, 
Islands of Hainan, Formosa, and TcuuaAiv.) 

The area of China Proper does not exceed a 
fourth part of the whole empire. It is true that 
its dimensions have not been satisfactorily deter- 
mined, and the following estimate of the ext«nt 
of the empire, as well as of China Proper, differs 
from the ciedculations of many geographers, which, 
in their turn, widely disagree with each other, ex- 
cept where the mistakes of one writer have been 
copied by another. To determine the extent of 
the empire, seventeen linear' measurements have 
been made ; two upon native maps, which have 
been carefully compared with European maps, 
and the result in reference to China Proper stands 
thus : — for its lengtli, from N. to S., 1,474 m. ; 
breadthj from W. to £., 1,355 m. But these are 
not the lon^t straight lines that may be made 
to intersect its surface ; since, from the NE. comer 
to the frontieis of Biixnah the distance is 1,669 m^ 



and ffnm the NW. extremity to the Isle of Amoy 
it » 1,557 m. The entire area contains 1^48,870 
M|. m. The coast is upwards of 2,500 m. in length, 
while the land frontier occupies a space of 4,400 
m. Thns China Proper is about eight times the 
size of France, and eleven times that of Great 
Britain. (Staunton; Tab. Geog. Chin. Native; 
ijf^hjj L 7, and Map ; Du Hulde's General and 
Particular Maps; Lord Macartney's do.; Arrow- 
smith's Atlas, pL 27, 29, 32, 3d; Gutzlaff's China 
Opened, i. 21-57.) 

Gemral Atpeet — ^The first object that invites 
attention in the general aspect of China is its 
Grtai Flam, which, occupymg the N£. part of 
the country, is above 700 m. in length, and varies 
in width from 150 to near 500 m. The entire 
incloses no leas than six provinces, and a 

opaoe of 210,000 so. m., being seven times greater 
than the plain or Lombaidy. It is extremely 
pcipttlons ; and if we might depend upon the cen- 
sus of 181d» no fewer than 170,000,000 * mouths'— 
the Chinese expression for souls— -are fed upon its 
surface. The N. portion, bounded by the great 
wall, is dry and sandy, and its £. portion, border- 
ing on the sea, and between the two great rivere 
the Hoang-ho and the Yang-tse-Kiang, by which 
it is intersected, is low, swampy, and studded witlv 
lakes. But, notwithstanding these deductions^ it 
may be said to be, on the whole, extremely fertile. 
It has few trees, but is everywhere well watered ; 
lA cultivated with the utmost care, and produces 
vast quantities of rice, with cotton, wheat, &c. 

MotaUavu wnd HUU. — The mountainous and 
hilly districts of China comprise about half its 
aurea. A portion of the great mountain system of 
K. Asia entering this country at its N W. and SW. 
ffontiers, subsides previons'ly to its termination 
near the sea-coast into low hills ; so that, tracing 
their course backwards from £. to W., they gradu- 
ally ascend in terraces or slopes, and give to the 
S. and W. districts a mountainous, and to the £. 
divisions a hilly character. N W., at about 34^ N. 
lat. and 102® E. long., the great Pe-ling range, 
which has already traversed a portion of Thibet 
from W. to £., is joined by the Yun-ling chain, 
which, entering China at about Sl^' N. lat. and 
lOlo £. long., descends southward nearly to the 
pKOT. of Yun-nan. These mountains form the 
eatttemmost edge of the high table-lands of £. 
Asia, are snow-capped, and inaccessible to the 
natives, being actually left hiank in the Chinese 
mapSb (Davis, i. 131.) Another ridge, joining the 
Pe-fing at the same point, takes an o[)po6ite or 
NNE. direction, and entering the empire in the 
pror. of Shen-se, reaches nearly to 1 10^ of £. lon^. 
Another arm ^ the Pe-ling— the Tar-pa-ling cham 
— intenects the country from W. to £. to about 
115P £. long.; the Pe-lmg itself continuing in its 
former course, gives out various branches, which 
traverse the central provinces. The other moun- 
tain chains join the stupendous Himalaya ridges, 
and enter the country at its SW. extremitv in the 
province of Yun-nan, from whose high table-lands 
the most extensive Chinese ranges rise. The Yun- 
ling, the most southerly of these chains, runs 
nearly £. into the prov. of Quang-tun^. But by 
far the most important mountain range is the Nan- 
linji;, which, branching off from the northern ed^ 
of the Yun-nan highluids, runs eastward to within 
150 m. of Canton; it then inclines to the N£. to 
its tennination near the harbour of Ningpo; 
having given out many branches, some of the 
moontains belonging to which rise above the 
snow-line. (Macartney's Embassy, pp. 207, 246, 
259; Barrow, iL 241, iii 29, 122; Malte Brun, ii. 
554, 555 ; Davis, pp. f30, 131.) Most of the moun- 
tains hoB enumerated end in low hiUs in the 

eastern provinces, which consequently comprise 
the hUly districU, These are the most picturesque 
portions of China; and being covered with noole 
forests, crowned with pagodas, and with cities 
along their sides, give to the country a magnifi- 
cent aspect, without interrupting its culture. 

Rivera cmd Lakes, — It* is to her mighty riven 
that China is chiefly indebted for that fertility 
which is at once the source of her riches, and of 
her vast population. The Hoang-ho^ or yellow 
river, and the Yang-tse-Kiang, or 'son of tho 
ocean,' rank in the first class of rivers. ' These 
two great streams, similar both in rise and desti- 
nation, descend with rapidity from the great table 
lands of central Asia, and each of them mcetM a 
branch of mountains which forces it to describe 
an immense circuit, the Hoang-ho to the N., and 
the Yang-tse-Kiang to the S. Separated by an 
interval of 1,100 m., the one seems inclined to 
direct itself to the tropical seas, while the other 
wanders off among the icy deserts of Mongolia. 
Suddeuly recalled, as if by a recollection of their 
early brotherhood, they approach one another like 
the Euphrates and Tigris in ancient Mesopotamia; 
where, being almost conjoined by lakes and oanals, 
they terminate, within a mutual distance of 1 10 
m., their majestic and immense course.' (Malte- 
Brun, iL 556.) The waters of the Hoang-ho bring 
down from its sources laige quantities of yellow 
clay, which not only tirige them with that colour, 
but supply the banks with alluvial soil Laige 
deposits of this clay are constantly being made 
at the mouth of the Hoang-ho; so that the depth 
of the Yellow Sea has sensibly diminished. The 
Yang-tse-Kiang is, however, the pride of China. 
It is the chief artery of the country, and undoubt- 
edly one of the largest rivers of Asia. This stream 
is also heavily charged with alluvium, for at its 
exit into the sea — near which it is from 15 to. 20 
m. broad — continued deposits have formed the I. 
of Tsung-ming, besides numerous banks. The tri- 
butaries received into this river during its course, 
which is about 2,300 m., are innumerable; and, 
with the canals, connect it with the whole empire. 
Both the rivers, especially the Hoang-ho, wnich 
has a very rapid course, occasionally overflow their 
banks, and, in spite of many strong artificiid 
mounds, cause the most destructive inundations. 
The river next in importance is the £u-ho or 
Yun-liang river, which flows N£. till it joins the 
Pei-ho or Pekin river: the latter rises in the 
mountains NW. of Pekin, near which city it be- 
comes navigable for boats ; and is, during the rest 
of its course, the mwt jxpuhua stream of a country 
where a large proportion of natives live upon the 
water in junks ; their united waters flow into the 
sea in the most W. angle of the Pe-che-lee Gulf. 
The Ta-si-Kiang, Choo Kiang, or Canton river, 
rising in the prov. of Ynn-nan, takes an £. course 
to the plains of Canton, and having received the 
Pe-ki-ang, the Ta^ho, and other smaller streams, 
forms an estuary known as the Bocca Tigris, by 
which it is finally discha^d into the China Sea, 
after a course of 600 m. There are a vast number 
of other rivent, some of which fall into the sea, 
and others into the great lakes. The Brahma- 
putra, Irawaddy, Thaluen, Menam, &c, have their 
sources in the SW. parts of China. (Journal 
Koyal Geog. Soc, iii 305 ; Lindsay's Voyage m 
the Lord Amherst, pasnm ; Gutzlaff^s Vova^e, 
pasnm', Chhia Opened, i. 29 and 61-168 ; Malte- 
Brun, it 665-557.) ' 

The principal lake in C!hina is the Tunting-hoo, 
220 m. in circ It receives the waters of many 
considerable rivers, and furnishes an important 
afiluent to the Yang-tse-Kiang, which passes near 
its N. extremity. After a further course of be- 



tween 200 and 300 m., this great river receives 
the surplus waters of the Po-Vanp-hoo lake, which 
also is of great dimensions, and is the recipient 
of many considerable streams. This lake is sur- 
rounded by picturesque and finely-wooded hills. 
Indeed, its scenery is so much admired, that its 
shores are the favourite spot where Chinese poets 
muse and writ* their versified prose. It is, how- 
ever, subject to sudden tempests, w^hich render its 
navigation dangert us. The environs of the Tai- 
hoo hike, near the E. coast, kt. 81° N., long. 120° 
E., are even more picturesque than those of the 
Po-yang, ha>'ing gained the name of the ' Chinese 
Arcadia.' The Hong-tse-hoo, being situated near 
the junction of the Grand Canal with the Yellow 
Kiver, is much frcquent«d on account of its ad- 
vantageous position. All the lakes, in fact, furnish 
intermedia of communication, and are abundantly 
stocked with fish. China contains several smaller 
lakes, but the whole do not occupy any great pro- 
portion of her vast sur&ce. (Chma Opened, I. 31 ; 
BaiTow, u. 3«7, 391, iiL 12.) 

Coari, — Tlie coast of China has yet to be de- 
scribed. If our statement be correct, that the sea- 
coast ^extends for 2,500 m., there is only one mile 
of coast to every 539 m. of territory ; but internal 
navi^tion is carried on so extensively that this 
deficiency has no ill effect upon Chinese commerce. 
Commencing at the X£., the coast opposite Cores 
is bold and rocky, but, on approaching the Gulf 
of Pe-che-lee, presents a low and sandy shore, 
scarcely perceptible from the sea. The bur formed 
in this bay, at the mouth of the Pei-ho, makes its 
bed inconveniently narrow, and, when the S. 
winds blow, the whole adjacent country is over- 
flowed to -h great extent. The coast of the Shan- 
tung peninsula is bold and rocky, so indented as 
to afford excellent harbours ; but, once rounded, 
the low swampy character of coast is again pre- 
sented as far as the Tchusan islands. Meantime, 
the two great rivers have brought down their im- 
mense deposits from the in tenor, which give its 
name to the YeUow Sea. llie mud is so thick as 
to retard the headway, and affect the steering of 
ships ; and this great gulf will, in process of time, 
become a vast alluviid district, like Bengal and 
Egypt. * The present inclination of the bottom is 
alM)ut a foot in a geographical mile, or somewhat 
less than 1 in 5,000 ; and it is probable that the 
bottom of the YcUow Sea, as it rises, will likewise 
gradually approximate to a horizontal plain.' 
(Hall's Voyag«t, i 27.) This sea is nearly sur- 
rounded with islands. The coast down to the 
strait of Formosa continues low, and, except where 
it faces the Tchusan islands, and in the prov. of 
Fokien, is but little indented. The strait itself 
abounds with headlands, and is also so thickly 
studded with islands, which are but imperfectly 
notified even ia the best charts, that navigation is, 
bv Captain Hall's account, * exceedingly trying to 
the nerves.' The Quang-tong shore is bold and 
high, except in the recesses of the numerous bays 
and harbours. A narrow peninsula is thrust out 
far into the sea at the W. extremity of Quang- 
tong, and forms, with the island of Hainan, a 
narrow channel, which is shoal, full of sand bwoks 
and rocks, so that even the native flat-bottomed 
junks are exposed to great dangers. The rest of 
the shore is washed by the Tonquin Gulf, which is 
studded with small islands. (Hall's Voyages, 
12mo. edit i. 29-46; Gutzlaffs Voyage, txiMm; 
Lindsay's Voyage ; Journal Geog. Soc., lii. 297- 

Public WorhM, — Atpect of Cities and Toums. — 
An amount of human labour, probably unmatched 
Inr any other nation in the world, except ancient 
Egypt, has been expended on the public works of 

China, by which the natural aspect of the country 
has been materially varied. The first and mtist 
stupendous of these is the great wall, built several 
hundred years before the (Christian aera, to protect 
CJhina fmm Tartar incursions. It extends along 
the whole N. frontier, from the Gulf of Leatong, in 
120°, to the NW. extremity of the empire, in 
about 99° E. long., and 40° N.'lat, being, including 
its windings, about 1,250 m. in length : itiscarrietl 
over the tops of the highest mountains, through 
the deepest valleys, and continued by bridges over 
rivers. Its height varies from 15 to 30 ft. It is 
15 ft. across at the top; and, at short intervals, 
square towejrs are erected, some of them 37 ft. 
high. The wall is composed of earth faced with 
masonry, the top or platform being paved with 
square tiles. It is now in a state of decay, being 
no longer rec^uired, since the union of the Tartar 
with the Chinese territory, for its original purpose. 
(Davis, 1 136 ; Bell's Travels, ii 88.) 

The Great Canal commences at Hang-tchon, 
near the mouth of the Tching-tang-chiang river, 
in about 30° 22* N. hit, and 1 19° 45' E. long., and, 
extending N., unites first with the Yang-tse- 
Kiang, and then with the Hoang-ho, terminating 
at Lin-tcing, on the Eu-ho river, in about 37° N. 
lat, and 116° E. long. The direct distance between 
the extreme limits of the canal is about 512 m., 
but, including its bends, it is above 650 m. in 
length ; and as the Eu-ho, which b a navigaUo 
river, unites with the Pei-ho, also navigable, an 
internal water communication is thus established 
between Hang-tchou and Pekin, across 10° of lat. 
And by the junction of smaller canals and nume- 
rous rivers, the Great Canal not only assists in tho 
irrigation of immense tracts of land, but affords a 
ready means for conveying its produce to all parts 
of the empire. But, api^ from its utility, tho 
Great C^al does not rank high as a work of art 
A vast amount of labour has, however, been ex- 
pended upon it: for though it mostly passes 
through a flat country, and winds about to pre- 
serve its level, its bed is in parts cut down to a 
considerable depth, while in other parts it is carried 
over extensive nollows, lakes, dc, on vast mounds 
of earth and stone. (Barrow, 511.) The sluices, 
which keep its waters at the necessary level, arc 
all of very simple constiruction. In the jmbHc 
roadsy and where ru^ed steeps are only accesuble 
by means of laboriously formed passes, Chinese 
industry is fully apparent Three mountain paths 
traverse the Nan-hng; one, N. of Canton, is esti- 
mated by Sir G. Staunton to rise 8,000 ft. above 
the sea ; yet vast quantities of goods are conveyed 
over this pass from Canton to the interior' by 
cofdies or porters. The obstacles to communication 
presented by the Pe-ling and Ta-pa-ling ranges 
are greatly diminished by an artificial road some- 
times conducted over yawning clefts by arches, in 
other places deeply cut through high'mountains, 
and extending altogether for 150 m. In short, 
wherever intercourse is expedient between any 
two parts of China, no natural impedimenta are 
too gigantic, no labour or expense too great, to 
overcome them. 

The followinpf summary of the general appear- 
ance of the cities and towns of China is supfJied 
by Gutzlaff : — * The districts on the sea-coast are 
generally the best inhabited and the richest ; the 
tracts along the Yang-tse-Kiang the most fertile. 
Large and flourishing cities are found only where 
a ready water communication with other parts of 
the einpire can be carried on. The greatest same- 
ness exists in all the dties. In the larger ones 
are a few well paved streets, lined with shops ; but 
the greater part of the streets are very narrow, 
extremely filthy, and planted with mere hovels. 



The sttbarbs of many cities are much laiger than 
tile cities themaelTes; and it is by no means ex- 
traordinaiy to see an immense walled space with- 
oat any houses, where fonnerly a city stood. 
Milages and hamlets have a beautiful appearance 
at a distance; but on entering them one sees 
nothing but a heap of houses irregularly thrown 
together, the outside fair to behold, but the inside 
without furniture or comforts, and more filthy even 
than a stable. This does not apply to one district 
only, but it is common to most. Although the 
fields and gardens are beautifully laid out, there 
yet appears in them little attention either to ele- 
gance or pleasure. The ^rdens are very few; 
and a Chinese grandee delights more in artificial 
landscapes laid out in a smul compass, than in an 
extensiye park or a flower-garden. Utility is 
studied in preference to pleasure. The grandeur 
of natunl sceneiy is in many parts of Uhina as 
striking as in many parts of the world. Mountains, 
crags, rivulets, and valleys, both picturesque and 
romantic, are found in most provinces. Com- 
manding situations are chosen for temples, the 
haunts of superstition and idolatry. These serve 
likewise for taverns, stages, public halls, and 
gambling-houses. The building of houses is regu- 
lated bylaw ; none are allowed to exceed a certain 
dimension. Public halls have little to recommend 
them ; the Chinese were never great architects ; 
they understood the building of dwelling houses, 
but not of palaces.' (China Opened, L 57, 58.) 

Ciimate, — Connected with this subject there are 
some singular circumstances. Situated between 
the 20th and 42nd degrees of N. lat., and the most 
K. long, of any. part of the Old World, the tem- 
perature of Cluna is very low for its ideographical 
IMwition. Its climate may also be said to be one 
oi extremes; and while at Pekin, which is nearly 
1^ farther S. than Naples, the mean temperature 
is that of Brittany, the scorching heats of summer 
are greater than at Cairo, and the winters as rigo- 
roos as in the northern provinces of Sweden. But 
in so extensive a territory there are necessarily 
many variations. The W . districts are much in- 
Huenoed by the colds diffused bv the mountains, 
while the climate of the maritime provinces is 
modified by the sea. Atr Canton, which is under 
the tropic, the heat during July, August, and 
September, is excessive : then occur those fright- 
ful tOTuadoes, called typhoons, spreading devasta- 
titya in their course, which, however, do not extend 
far beyond Canton. At the breaking up of these 
hurricanes, the transitions from the heat of day to 
cold and foggy nights are more violent and sudden 
than in any other part of the globe. The N. winds 
set in about November, and bring with them cold 
as intense as the preceding heats. The mean 
temperature of Canton is 76^ Fahr. The climate 
of the Interior is not however, with few exceptions, 
so extreme, particularly towards the N. frontier, 
where the summers are genial; and though the 
winter be cold, it is dry, and does not check the 
gr*ywth of fruit; but the N. winds bring clouds of 
white sand, which afflict the natives with oph- 
thalmia. The W. frontier districts of Yun-nan 
and Sze-chuen are said to be unhealthy, and are 
selected as places of banishment for Chmese con- 
▼icts. The central provinces present a striking 
contrast to those already named, lliere the 
climate exhibits a happy medium between the 
rigour of the N. regions and the enervating heats 
and sudden colds of the S. The Kiang-tse is the 
most favoured in this respect. The fall of rain in 
China varies considerably in different years. Hum- 
boldt states — without naming on what authority — 
that the average quantity per an. is 70 in. ; though 
it has been known to exceed 90. Many violent 

earthquakes have been felt in China. (Malte- 
Brun,aTt*China*; China Opened, I 31,60,90,162, 
163, 185; The Fan-qui in China, by C. T. Down- 
ing, £sa., L 191, 192; Lyell's Geology, ii 50.) 

FapuiaHon^ — China has long been very gene- 
rally believed to be the most densely peopled 
countnr of any considerable extent in the world. 
The /esuit ^medo, writing in 1645, remarks 
that, after living in the country twenty-two years, 
he was no less surprised on leaving than on his 
first arrival, at the immense number of persons he 
met with, not only in the towns and cities, but on 
the highways, ' where,' says he, * there is at all 
times as huge a crowd as is usually to be met 
with on some great festival or pubuc occasion.* 
The Jesuit Amiot, founding on official docu- 
ments, estimated the pop. in 1743 at about 
143,000,000, which, adding for some classes that 
he had omitted, may be carried to about 
150,000,000; and in 1792, Lord Macartney was 
informed, bv a mandarin, *a plain, unaffected, 
honest man,' whose statement is said to have been 
made on the authority of official documents, that 
the pop. was 333,000,000, and later accounts cany 
it up to above 360,000,000. 

It must be confessed, however, t^t, with the 
exception of that of Amiot, these statements ap- 
pear altogether incredible, and that, in point of 
fact, there is no certain information as to the pop. 
of China. According to the statements in Chinese 
official works, the pop. of the empire amounted, in 
1393, to 60,545,000; and in 1578 to 60,692,000. 
It is supposed to have continued at or about this 
amount till the Tartar conquest in 1644, a year 
before the publication of Semedo^s work. But it 
appears from an imperial proclamation quoted in 
the 'Chinese Repository,' issued in 1792, and said 
to be founded on official data, that the pop. had been 
reduced in 1711 to 28,605,716! (vol i. p. 356, 
Canton, 1833.) This extraordinary diminution is 
attempted to be explained in the work referred to, 
bv the mortality occasioned by the long and 
bloody wars that accompanied tne establishment 
of the Manchoo dynasty, by the &ct of some of 
the provs. in the S. not having been fully subdued 
when this census was taken ; and by the circum- 
stance of a poll-tax being then imposed, which 
made it for the interrat of individuals to escape 
being enrolled in the census. But even admitting 
the force of some of these statements, and allow- 
ing that but for the wars occasioned by the Tartar 
conquest, and the imperfectly subdued state of 
parts of the country, a correct census taken in 
1711 would have given a pop. of sixty or seventy 
millions, still it can scarcely be credited that the 
pop. should have increased from even th^t amount, 
in 1711, to above 300,000,000 in 1792. Had 
China been a new counby, or had the Tartars, by 
whom she was overrun in the 17 th century, been 
distinguished by their superior intelligence and 
industry, an increase of this sort mightnave been 
possible. But the reverse of all this is the fact. 
China has been settled and civilised for many cen- 
turies; the great works undertaken and com- 
pleted by her inhabit, at a very remote period, 
show that she had then been pretty thickly peo- 
pled; and it is admitted, on all hiands, that in 
China the arts have been for ages in a nearly sta- 
tionary state. The Tartars imparted to her little 
that was new. They were, in truth, mere roving 
herdsmen; and though they might have given 
the Chinese some instruction in predatory war- 
fare, they could communicate to them no useful 
art, science, or invention. Under these circum- 
stances it must be admitted either that the former 
official accounts of the pop. were grossly under- 
rated, or that the later ones were grossly ex- 



ag|::erated. (For a further discussion of thia 
8iibject, 8ce I)e Guignus, Voyages k Peking, iii, 

Subjoined is an account of the area of the dif- 
ferent provs. as given by Lord Macartney, and 
their pop. as given by Amiot in 1743, by Lord 
Macartney in 1792, and by the official returns in 


•q. nu 



Shan-se ^ 
(W. of 

Sben-se \ 
(W. of I 
Pass.) [ 

Kan-sah ) 

Ho-nan . . 

Kiang-se . 

Iloo-pih . 

Hoo-nan . 


Snathrm a 

Yun-nan . 



Total . . 









Pop. 1743 

Pop. 1702 

















Pop. 181S 

16,181,710 27,000,000 
235,620, — 












1,297,999150,265,476 838,000,000860,279,897 

The census for 1813 adds an additional 1,413,982 
Bouls as the pop. of Shing-king, Keih-lin, Turfan, 
Lobnor, and Formosa; and 188,326 families as 
engaged in the service of the emperor. Supposing 
the latter to consist of four members each, the 
total pop., according to the census of that year, 
wiU be 362,447,183. 

A glance at the above table will show that the 
account of the pop. fumiahed to Lord Macartney, 
in 1792, and the census of 1813, cannot both be 
accurate. The last shows an excess over the 
former of 29^ millions in the aggregate ; but it 
would appear that in the majority of the pro- 
vinces there has been no increase; but, on the 
contrary, a diminution. In the evidence adduced 
before the British parliamentarv committees, in 
1830, 1831, and 1832, the area of China was com- 
puted at 1,872,452 English statute square miles, 
and the number of inhabitants at 141,470,000, or 
103 to the square mile; to which was added 
1,182,000 for the standing army, and 12,000,000 
for Tartary. But the information was very ob- 
scure with regard to the population. Thibet, 
Korea, the Manchoo, and other Tartar and Mon- 
golian states, were computed to have a population 
of more than 30,000,000, which would increase the 
whole population of China and ita assumed de- 
pendencies to nearly 400,000,000 inhabitants. 

Local JXvithns,— Though the geography^ of the 
world be not much studi«l in the * Celestial Em- 
pire,' the more minute details of local topography 
are no where better understood. The sur\'e}'^ of 
the Jesuits, made by order of the emperor Kang-he, 
is said to be very correct ; and every distnct of 
any importance has since found a geographer, 
who describes it, if not so scientifically as the 
Catholic missionaries, with the utmost minute- 
ness, so that, with little difficulty, a library of 
3,000 vols, might be collected treating exclu- 

sively of Chinese geography. Nothing can be 
more* systematic than the manner in which the 
whole empire is dividecL Each prov. is portioned 
oft' into provincial districts ; while tlie towns and 
cities are dinded into the Ist class (Joo), 2nd class 
{tchoo)j and 3rd class (h^en). Formerly China 
Proper consisted of fifteen provs. ; but in Ke€n- 
Lung's time the largest were bisected, and there 
are now eighteen. 

Northern Frovincet. — 1. Pe-che-lee (the inde- 
pendent) is subdivided into sixteen districts, the 
most W. of which are verv flat ; the central ones 
somewhat hilly; while those on the seji-coast 
along the Pe-che-lee Gulf are low and marshy. 
Pekin, the metropolis of Northern China and re- 
sidence of the court, is situated in this prov., about 
60 m. from the great wall, and 100 m. from the 
sea. The Pei-ho flows through Pe-che-lee, disem- 
boguing at the small sea-port of Takoo. The 
chief ports are Tong-choo and Tein-sing. It is a 
curious fact, and one which does not square well 
with the popular notions of absenteeism, that, de- 
spite the residence of the court, the bulk of the 
population are probably more depressed in thia 
than in any other prov. (Barrow, 495.) 2. Shan-se, 
or Chan-«e (west of the mountains,) Is divided 
from Mongolia by the great wall, a branch of 
which (the inner great wall) separates its E. limit 
from Pe-che-lee. It is said to have been the most 
early occupied part of China. Its mountainous 
portions are not, however, habitable, and many 
other localities aftbrd but a scanty subsi8ten<%. 
Hence it has no largo or remarkable cities. 3. 
Shen-ae, or Chen-se (west of the pass), is also 
separated fix>m tiie Mongolian borders by the great 
wall, which in this place is kept in good repair. 
The mountains in thia prov., which are more 
Tu^^ than high, contain gold mines, but these 
are not allowed to be worked, lest the attention 
of the people should be withdrawn firom agricul- 
ture. The valleys through which the Jlei-hoand 
the Han-Kiang run are fertile in millet, wheat, 
and pulse, but are too dry to produce much rioe. 
Swarms of locusts frequently appear in Shen-ae, 
destroying Uie harvest, and converting smiling 
valleys into wastes. The chief town is Se-gan- 
fou, one of the largest in' the empire. 4. Kan-suh 
(voluntary awe) and Shen-se, formeriy united, 
made one large prov., extending over a space of 
154,008 sq. m. Kan-suh consists principally of a 
narrow neck of land thrust out upon the edge of 
the great Gobi desert ; hence the soil is cold and 
barren. Kan-suh forms the NW. limit of China, 
the great wall ending at Shwang-lan. 

Central Provmce^^—h, Ho-nan (south of the 
river) is one of the most fertile provinces of the 
great plain, and is called the garden of China. 
Shen-se, Pe-che-lee, and a part of Shan-tung loin 
its N. boundary, while branches of the Pe-ling 
enclose it to the W. The Hoang-ho, or Yellow 
Kiver, runs nearly parallel with the N. boundary, 
and intersects the finest parts of the pro%% '6. 
Kiang-se (west of the river) has its boundaries 
well defined by the Nan-ling range and its 
branches, which surround it on three sides, the 
W., S., and E. Its N. part contains the great 
Poo- Yang lake, and its contiguous maishes, said 
by Mr. iSirrow to be the sink of China. It has, 
however, many well cultivated valleys, in wliich 
rice, cotton, indigo, and sugar, are produced. It 
has also extensive manufactures, amongst which 
must not be forgotten the China-ware, so highly 
esteemed all over the world, till European imita- 
tors exceeded the original manufacture in beauty 
and cheapness. StiU, however, no fewer than a 
million persons are said to be exclusively em- 
ployed in this manufacture, which is chietly 



cwricd on at the capitid King-le-chio. Here 
5*)0 funiaoes are constantly burning. 7. Hoo-pih 
(north of the river), and,' 8. Hoo-nan (south pf 
the river), form the ancient prov. of Hoo-Kwang, 
divided into two parts by the Yang-tse-Kiang. 
The former is divided into eleven and the latter 
into thirteen districts; the whole covmng an area 
of 1-44,770 sq. m. Both provs. are extremely fer- 
tile, and the capital of Hoo-pih yields to few 
cities of the empire in extent and prosperity. 
The tea grown in its neighbourhood is of superior 
qaaUty, and the bamboo-paper manufactured 
within its walls is extensively exported. This 
city is ttlled Woo-«hang-foo. Hoo-nan bears a 
great resemblance to the Hc-nan prov., but is 
richer in minerals. A very active trade is carried 
on, on both banks of the Yang-tse-Kiang. Hoo- 
pih and Hoo-nan are both within the great plain. 
9. Kwi-chow has been designated the Switzer- 
land of China, being traveraed by the highest 
portion of the Nan-Ung range. To the S. it is 
peopled by wild and intractable highlanders 
(Jleaam^tze), who, though in the centre of the 
empire, preserve their independence, and fre- 
quently make predatory descents on the adjoin- 
ing provinces. Kwi-chow has no large towns, 
but several fortresses. 

Maritime and Southern Provinces, — 10. Shan- 
tung (east of the mountains) is partly in the 
great plain and partly consists of a promontory 
jutting into the Yellow Sea, S. of Pe-che-lee, 
and NE. of Ho-nan. Its W. part is traversed 
by the Great Onal, but the country is poor, 
and the climate, though bracing, bleak. There 
are, however, some valuable coal mines, which 
Fupply the whole empire with that article. The 
coast is bold, and affords good shelter. The prin- 
cipal port is Tong-cheou-foo. 11 & 12. The Kiang- 
soo {nYer Soo) and Gan-hway (fixed excellence) 
prov. were onoe united under the name of Kiang- 
nang. The two great rivers, the Hoang-ho and 
Yang-tse-Kiang, cross both districts, and fall into 
the sea 29 apart, forming the Chinese delta. Gan- 
hway has 13 districts, and the Kiang-soo 11; 
their united extent being 92,96 1 sq. m. ' If we 
consider,' remarks Gntzliw', * their agricultural re- 
sooroes, their ^reat manufactures, their various 
productions, theur excellent situation on the banks 
of the two largest rivers in China, their many 
canals, and amongst them the Great Canal and 
tributary riven, thoy are doubtless the best terri- 
tc»TT of China.' Enjoying these blessings, chiefly 
conferred by their two great rivers, these provinces 
are also the most liable to the evils they produce, 
namely, frequent and destructive inundations. 
The staple products are grain, cotton, green teas, 
and silk. Kice suits admirably with the black 
marHhy loam of which most of the soil consists. 
Nanking (capital of the S.) is situated on the S. 
liank of the Yang-tse-Kiang, but at the distance 
of a league from the stream (Nankin). The 
Kiang-soo prov. only faces the ocean. The scene 
which appeared at the junction of the Yang-tse- 
Kiang and Great Canal is thus describc^d by 
IWuTow: — *The multitude of ships of war, of 
bunlen, and of pleasure; some gliding down the 
stream, others sailing against it; some moving 
by oais, and others Tying at anchor ; the banl^ 
on either side covered with towns and houses as 
far as the eye could reach ; presented a prospect 
more varied and cheerful than any that had 
hitherto occurred. Nor was the canal on the 
apposite side less lively. For two whole days we 
were continually parsing among fleets of 8hi|)s 
of different construction and dimensions. Cities, 
tr»wns, and villages were continued along the 
banks without intermission. The face oi the 

country was beautifully diversified with hill and 
dale, and every part in a high state of cultiva- 
tion.' (j). 516.) 13. The Che-lSang (river Che), or 
Tche-Kiang, is the smallest Chinese prov. It 
occupies the SE. comer of the ^reat pl^. The 
Yun-ling chain ends here in mnumerable low 
hills, the most barren of which poduce abun- 
dance of tea. In fact the whole district is most 
assiduously laid under contribution by the in- 
habitants, every inch of ground being* tenanted. 
At the port of Cha-poo, a huge trade is carried 
on with Japan. 14. Fo-Kien (happy establish- 
ment), which forms the W. shore of the Formosa 
channel, is mountainous. Barren hiUs and sandy 
plains are, in truth, the natural characteristics of 
Fo-Kien, but Chinese industry has made the land 
fruitfuL The tea-plant thrives in perfection, and 
the < China oran^p^e ' is chiefly derived from this 
prov. The maritime commerce of Fo-Kien is 
extensive, its merchants monopoUsing most of 
the Chinese shipping trade. Emigration though 
discouraged by the government, is here very pre- 
valent 15. Quan-tong (eastern breadth) joins 
Fo-Kien to the E. ; its shores stretch along the 
whole S. coast of (jhina, to the borders of (liochm 
China, the N. boundary being formed by the 
Nan-ling mountains. Quan-tong has 13 districts, 
and an equal number of trading emporiums, and 
to this prov. alone are £uroi)eans allowed to 
trade. It has many wide valleys, particularly 
the plain around Canton, which is of great ex- 
tent, and many valuable products ; but, though it 
be the great entrepot for tea, that article is not of 
the number. The capital, Kwang-choo-foo (Can- 
ton), is the greatest emporium of the E. 16. 
Kwang-se (western breadth) joins the W. limits 
of Quang-tong, the Nan-lmg range divides it 
from Hoo-nan on the N., while its S. border 
unites it with the Cochin Chinese prov. of Tonkin. 
The mountainous portions of the prov. — by far 
the greatest part of it — are said to contain gold 
and other metals : the lowlands and vaUe3rs pro- 
duce rice, sUk, and timber. Both the language 
and manners of the inhabitants differ from those 
of their countrymen. 17. Yun-nan (south of the 
clouds), the most W. of the S. provs. ; is conter- 
minous on the S. with Cochin China and the 
Birman empire ; and towards the W. with Thibet. 
Its mountains, which are remarkably high and 
bold, furnish tlie copper that supplies the currency 
of China. It is in Yun-nan that the Yang-tse- 
Kiang enters China ; and by the aid of a high 
road, which has been made parallel to its banks 
for a great distance, communication between it 
and the rest of the empire is rendered constant 
and easy. The same road branching off to the S., 
extends into the heart of the Birman empire. 

Tlie western province^ Sze-chuen (five rivers), is 
the largest in China. Plains, mountains (the 
Yun-ling), and extensive deserts are its princi[)al 
components. The Yang-tse-Kiang having taken 
a N. bend at the Yun-nan frontier, traverses its 
whole extent ; and, during this part of its course, 
receives several tributaries. The capital, Ching- 
tooy was once the metropolis of an independent 
state, which then surrounded it; and its inhiib. 
still boast of greater independence of character 
than their neighbours ; which they evince by fre- 
quent rebellions. ^China Opened, i. 165-168.) 

Natural Producttons of China, — The climate of 
China, exhibiting occasionally such severe cold, 
forbids the presence of some members of the 
animal kingdom met with in the similar latitudes 
of India. The universal ctdtivation of China 
Proper, and the thickness of its population, have 
long expelled most of the wild animals which 
still abound in the surrounding r^ons. There 



are also fewer domestic ones than inhabit most 
European countries. Beasts of burden are in a 
great degree superseded by the means of transit 
BO copiously afforded by canals and water-courses, 
and by that fine race o^men the coolies or porters ; 
while the canal boats are dragged along b^ track- 
ers. Add to this, that animal food la con- 
siderably less in use among the Chinese than 
vegetable diet. There are no meadows for feed- 
ing cattle ; and even if there were, the natives 
have a singular aversion to butter and milk. 
Tigers, though they have been seen in the forests 
of Yun-nan, are scarcely known ; and the lion 
is almost deemed fabulous in China. There are 
wild cats, wliich are caught, confined, and fed 
in cages, and considered a dainty for the table. 
Monkeys are found in the southern districts. 
The Chinese horse and ass are small and spirit- 
less, and so is the buffalo, which is sometimes 
employed in ploughing. Dromedaries are much 
uscKi between Pekin and Tartary. Pigs are 
reared with great care; sheep are smaller than 
those of England, and goats, of various colours, 
have uniformly straight horns. The dog of China 
is about the size of a spaniel, and is uniformly 
met with of the same variety. Rats emigrate 
occasionally from one place to another in large 
troops, when they devour crops and harvests: 
they are very large, and are used by the common 
people as an article of food. There is a genus 
of rat peculiar to China, which bears some resem- 
blance to the bamboo rat of Sumatra. The 
ornithology of China presents, in the furst place, 
the eagle, which freouents the mountAinous dis- 
tricts ; the haetsin, a Kind of falcon, abounding in 
the province of Che-keang, is considered imperial 
property, while the magpie, which is so numerous 
as to be the farmer's worst nuisance, is considered 
sacred by the reigning family. Crows and spaxiows 
are also abundant in China. Among others of 
their manifold stratagems for catching fish, the 
Chinese have trained the fishing cormorant ; but 
that the bird may not help itself too bountifully, 
the owner puts an iron ring round its neck, 
which obliges it to deliver up a portion of its 
prey. Curlews and quaila are found in great 
quantities in the N. : the latter are esteemed 
chiefly for their fighting qualities, as cocks used 
to be m England ; and, when tamed, good fighting 
quaila sell at enormous prices. Larks are nume- 
rous, and sing admirably. But the greatest boast 
of Chinese ornithology is its splendid varieties 
of pheasants. One, tibe medaUion pheasant, takes 
its name from a membrane of brilliantly coloured 
feathers, which are displayed or contracted at the 
will of the bird. The gold and silver pheasants 
have also a most brilliant appearance, and are so 
plentiful as, in some districts, to furnish the 
tables of the poor with an excellent dish. 
Pigeons of different sorts are not rare, but the 
natives seldom domesticate them. Aquatic birds 
are naturally invited to a country which has so 
many lakes and rivers. The most celebrated of 
these is the mandarin duck, a species of teal, so 
celebrated for the strong mutual affection be- 
tween the male and female that it is used by 
the Chinese as an emblem of conjugal fidelity: 
their plumage is beautifuL The snow-white rice- 
bird of Siam is of great use in China in extir- 
pating vermin from the marshy rice-fields ; which 
It is enabled to accomplish by means of its long 
legs and long beak. 

From the fishes peculiar to China we derive the 
gold and ^ver fish, which are kept there, as in 
Europe, for ornament in glass globes. The edible 
fish peculiar to China are, first, one of a yellowish 
colour, caught in the Yang-tae-Kiong, which, | 

while fresh, is insipid ; bat is considered a great 
delicacy after having been kept for a time in ice. 
The shang-tung, sea-eel, and a sort of rock cod, 
called isang-gu, are also much esteemed, and so 
are sturgeon, mullet, carp, perch, sea-bream, &c. 
Crab fish of various kinds are plentiful. On parts 
of the rocky coast, oysters are successfully pre- 
served and fattened in oyster-beds. 

Though the larger species of reptiles are un- 
known in China, the smaller lizard tribes are 
numerous in the hot months ; several fresh water 
tortoises have been discovered, and also two new 
species of frogs. Venomous serpents are but little 
known. The insect tribes of China furnish ita 
greatest plague and its greatest blessing. The 
plague of locust-swanns is terribly infiictM upon 
the N. and W. prov. Nothing can exceed their 
voracity; and it is not uncommon for them to 
occasion so much destruction, as to reduce thou- 
sands of human beings to starvation ; while an- 
other insect, the silk-worm, furnishes employment 
and riches to an immense part of the pop. In 
rearing these profitable wonns, the Chinese excel 
aU other nations. Scorpions and centipedes are 
plentifuL A spider, peculiar to China, which 
mhabits trees, devours small birds, after en- 
tangling them in its enormous web. Butterflies 
of gigantic size, and brilliant colours, abound £. 
of Canton. Multitudes of white ants are very 
destructive in the S. ; and the mosquito is found 
in most parts of the countnr during the summer 
months. There is a sinj^iar sort of bee, called 
the white-wax insect, which furnishes the whole 
nation with that article, which it deposits upon a 
particular sort of tree, furnished by the natives 
with nests to attract the insects. 

The vegetable Inn^lom of China is remarkable 
for not containing any very large trees, and 
timber is consequently scarce. The oak is seldom 
seen, fir trees chiefly supplying its place, every 
ridge of mountain where it is likely to grow being 
phmted with the fir. Palms, laurel, cassia, and 
caper trees are often met with, especially in the 
S. provinces, and the cultivator grows together 
the banana, guava, orange, papaw, cocoa, Utchi, 
peach, apricot, vine, pomegranate, and chestnut. 
There is also a singular production called the 
tallow-tiee, which resembles the bireh, but the 
bark is white^ and the branches slender: the 
fruit, growing m bunches, is enclosed in a brown 
capsule, which encloses three kernels, all coated 
with tallow, themselves containing an oil much 
used for the lamp, while the tallow is converted 
into candles. There is also the tee, or varnish 
tree, resembling the ash, which exudes a viUuable 
essential oil, but produces a cutaneous disease 
if dropped upon the skin. It is the white blossoma 
of the le~pth which attract the wax-fiy. The 
camphor* laurel is extremely productive of that 
drug in China. The hwaiC^an contains a pith 
which, when ground to powder, answers all the 
purposes of fiour. A species of sycamore, the 
hoo^oo^ supplies paper to the Chinese firom the 
rind ; thin, riband-like strips are peeled and made 
into paper. M ulberry trees, as food for silk- worms, 
have much pains bestowed on their culture. 

We come now to the shrub which has brought 
China into nearer contact with foreigners than 
her sages ever desired, or her government seem 
willing to render closer. The tea-plant, called 
by the natives cha^ rises from four to five feet in 
height, and bean a strong resemblance to the 
myrtle^ but the flower is not unlike small white 
hedge roses. Although European botanists have 
only discovered two varieties, black tea and green 
tea, native writers enumerate as many huncSeds; 
an obvious exaggeration. Though this plant will 



grow in the most sterile ground, the quality of 
the leares depends upon the soil which nourishes 
them, and the age of the tree. The best are taken 
from three year old shrubs. There are three in- 
gatherings of the leaves ; the first in early spring, 
the second at the commencement, and the third 
at the end of the summer. They are carefully 
manipulated, dried in various ways, and then 
packed. The coarsest leaves are beaten into 
cakes and exported, principally into Tartaiy, 
under the name of kend-ehay or brick tea. But 
the finer descriptions of tea require a vast deal of 
laboor in their preparation, and could only be 
produced in a country where the inhabitants are 
universally industrious, and wages low. That 
giant of the grass tribe, the bamboo, is most ex- 
tensively used; besides being an important in- 
strument for enforcing the laws, the Chinese 
boild cottages and fashion all sorts of furniture 
with it. "nie tender shoots make an excellent 
food, and supply the material for a coaise sort of 
paper. Tobacco, the cotton plant, and sugar- 
caafli, are also profitably cultivated. The growth 
of garden flowers is not much encouraged, every 
available inch of ground being used for the pro- 
duction of edible ^nts. Even the more opulent 
natives are content with a few flower-pots, with 
some pretty flower for the sake of ornament. The 
water-lily not only produces a beautiful flower, 
but its firadt provides an excellent meal, not un- 
like gmel, in much request among the Chinese. 
They have almost unlimited varieties of the 
ramipllia. A plant, the name of which has not 
vet reached this country, furnishes that delicate 
material for drawing upon, and making into 
artificial flowers, falselv called rice-paper. 

The great pop. of China, and the fondness of 
the people for vegetables, cause a great number of 
table-plants to be rea]ped. Turnips, carrots, sweet 
potatoes, and pot-herbs of every kind, are pro- 
dnced in abundance. A white cabbage, called 
pik-tme, and not unlike the Roman lettuce, con- 
stitatce the principal food of every class, and is 
really delicious. Of grainy the plenitude of water 
in China causes rice to be so successfully culti- 
vated, that it is brought to greater perfection there 
than in any other part of the ^lobe. Indeed, 
there is scurcely any sort of gram but may be 
found in some part of the countay or other. No 
medical root is in such high favour as the gm- 
Kwg^ which is administered as a sort of universal 
panaraea, and is a good tonic It was formerly 
found only in Shan-tung, Leao-tung, and Tar- 
taiy ; and brought a vcxv high price. But it has 
been discovered in diflerent parts of America, 
and u now extensively imported into Canton by 
the American traders. The Hrwangy a plant very 
suttilar to liquorice, is also much used as a re- 
staradve. The other roots are Radte China (a 
sort of traffle), galangal, rhubarb, ginger (often 
exported as a sweetmeat), and poppy, whose juice 
is made a snbstitnte for opium, anu is extensively 
cnltivated in spite of the stiictest government 
regnlations to die contrary. 

But scanty informarion is to be obtained of the 
wumerai kuwiom of China ; but the portion of the 
mountain ^tricts that luui been explored is found 
to possess great mineral riches. The gold mines 
are worked exclusively by government, but their 
situation is kept a secret, though that metal is 
supposed to be derived from the Kwei-choo and 
Yun-nan mountains. Gold-dust is found in the 
Yang-tse-Kiang during its course through Sze- 
chuen. Iron is produced throughout the empire. 
Several sorts of copper are found in abundance, 
the most famous of which is the pe-hhufy or white 
copper, dug up in Yun-nun. Mei^iy is also very 

Vou II. 

common, as are arsenic, cobalt, and orpiment. 
There are coal mines in various parts of China. 
The beautiful lapia lazuli is met vrith in the W. 
provinces. Salt, produced from the earth, and by 
the eva^ration of sea- water, is an article of great 
trafiic : it is collected in immense mounds, chiefly 
on the banks of the Pei-ho. China also furnishes 
the crystal, ruby, amethyst, sapphire, topaz; 
but diamonds are little valued. There are stones 
resembling basalt, which, when struck, give out 
a sound. Marble, porphyry, and jasper are pro- 
duced from the quarries of S. China, l>eside excel- 
lent granite and quartz. (Dr. Abel's Narrative 
of a Journey into Uie interior of China, peuuim ; 
Downing's Fan-Qui in China, ii 140-152 ; China 
Opened, L 83-54 ; Malte Brun, art. <Chuia.') 

Trade and Commerce — The Chinese are famous 
for their industry. Of the immense territory they 
inhabit, there is scarcely a rood of arable ground 
that is not assiduously cultivated ; and such im- 
portance do they attach to agriculture, that once 
a vear the sovereign of the Celestiid Empire — so 
seldom seen in public— exhibits himself holding 
a plough. But it is the misfortune of the Chinese 
that their patient enduring industry is allowed 
to usurp the place of ingenuity and science. 
Their fanning instruments are of the most primi- 
tive kind, their ploughs being inferior to the very 
worst of ours. Owing to the smallness of the 
farms, there is no room for the 8ubdi\*ision of 
employments; and agriculture, as a science, is 
but little advanced in China. But they accom- 
plish all that can be efiected by the most perse- 
vering industry. They spare no pains in the 
collection and preparation of manure; and they 
are superior to everyr other people in the irrigating 
of land. By the aid of chain-pumps, they draw 
water from the numerous canals and rivers, while 
the highest mountains are cut into terraces so 
constructed as to retain the requisite quantity of 
water, and to allow what is superfluous to pass 
off : by these means, and a good system of manur- 
ing, they are able, in many parts, to produce two 
crops a year, without intermission. 

But notwithstanding their remarkable industry 
and economy, the biuk of the population have 
usually so httle to spare, and are so completely 
without the ability to retrench in periods of dis- 
tress, or to resort to a less expensive species of 
food, that the failure of a crop never fails to in- 
volve them in the extremity of want ; and, despite 
the supplies brought from other parts of the 
country, it frequently occasions the death of vast 
numbers, and the committal of all sorts of out- 
rages. There can, in fact, be no real securitv for 
a country at all approaching to the condition 
of China, unless the food of the people in ordi- 
nary circumstances be such as to permit of their 
retrenching in adverse seasons, and thus counter- 
vailing the deficiency of the crops by increased 

As a manufachaing people, the Chinese are 
highly distinguished : the fabric of porcelain origi- 
nated entirely with them ; and though the forms 
of their articles will not bear a comparison with 
those of the classic ages of antiquity again brought 
into use in modem Europe, the fabric is excellent, 
and the colours inimitable. The art of spinning 
sUk was also given to the VV. world by the Chinese; 
and that light cotton stuff we call nankeen derives 
its name from the ancient capital of China. The 
lacquered ware, though eclipsed by that of Japan, 
is very beautiful; but it is in the minute arts ol 
carving and inlaying that the Chinese exccL The 
articles brought here in mother-of-pearl and ivory 
are too well known to need description. Gun- 
powder, though a Chinese invention, is manufac- 
' F 



tured only on a small scale, and is exceedingly 
bad ; which, indeed, could hardlv be othenvise, as 
it Ls a part of the soldier's eraployment to make 
his own pfimpowder, (Harrow, p. 300.) Paper is 
alno a Chinese invention, and seems to have been 
lirst manufactured a.d. 95. The materiah* used in 
making it are very various. It is thin, silky, and 
very absorbent of ink, Chinese books are printed 
only on one side the leaf. The ffovemment is 
jealous of everything new; but the people dis- 
cover no lack of genius to conceive, or of dexteritv 
to execute. Their talent for imitation is well 
known. During the couwe of the present centurj', 
a Chinese sailor, who came to England in an India- 
mfcn, frequented a manufactory in Southwark 
where Prussian blue was pre|Mured ; and having 
miule himself master of the process, without ex- 
citing the suspicion, or attracting the notice of 
anyone, he established, cm his return home, a 
similar work ; and so well has it succeeded, that 
the whole empire is now supplied with native 
Pruhsian blue, whereas it was formerly wholly 

Money in China consists of the caaA, alx)Ut the 
size of an English farthing, made of copper ; from 
720 to 1,100 of them being, according to tlieir 
quality, equal to a dollar. Silver is employctl 
rather as an article of trailic than as a circulating 
medium; that used as money is cast into the 
B\ia\ie of a horse's hoof, and called toe/, being eqaal 
to a little over 0«. of English money. (Jold is also 
seldom used as currency ; but when it is, comes 
into the market beaten into thin leaves. Credit 
is Httle known, except at ("anton; consequently 
T)a|K!r money has not a verv extensive circuhition. 
There are, however, banks in tlie large commercial 
towns, wliich issue paper. The Chinese trade has 
the peculiarity of being for the most i)art internal, 
the countr)' supplying most articles nece-ssary for 
the sul)sistence or luxury of its inhabitants, and is 
curried on by means of canal and river Ijoats. The 
])rimitive expedient of barter Ls still resorted to on 
account, perhaps, of the inconvenience of the cir- 
culating medium. Salt may be almost designated 
the standard commodity, as being an article of the 
most extensive commerce. 

The foreign trade of China is chiefly in the 
hands of the English and Americans. The first 
attempt on the part of (ireat Britain to o[K»n a 
trade with China was made in 1G37, when four 
merchant vetjwels arrived at Macao; but through 
the intrigues of the Portuguese there established, 
the enterprise failed. Afterwards the East India 
Company carried on a small traffic at the different 
maritime |K»rts, and chietiy at Canton. In 1792, 
Lord Macartney's embassy attempted to put the 
trade on a more liberal basis, but with little suc- 
cess. In 181(», Lord Amherst's mission for a simi- 
lar puri)ose also failed, though the Einglish trade 
continued for the next twenty ywirs. In IHM the 
exclusive tratie of the East India Comjwuiy with 
China terminated, and the country was thrown 
o|)en to general traders. H(»wever, the govern- 
ment placed many obstacles in the way of tnule, 
and. in 1839, went as fjir as to confiscate 20,000 
chests of opium belonging to English merchant's 
at Canton. This led to war with Great Britain, 
ending in the l>eaty of Nankin — concluded 
August 29, 1842 — which virtually unlocked, fur 
the first time, the gates of the CELKsriAL £m- 


The following is the ofRcial return of the de- 
clanul annual value of British pnKlucc and manu- 
factures ex|K)rted to China and Hongkong, from 
1^34 — the year when the distinction was first 
made in th(» ('ustom-house records Ix'twecn the 
eximrts lo Chiiia and to India— to 18(53: — 

To ChlllA Mid 


To China 

To HoackoQf 

Uou^koQK coo- 







— . 





































aw, 196 



















j 18.V) 




! 1801 



















































There is no pcparate record of the exports to Hong- 
kong prior to 1843. 

By the terms of the commercial treaty signel 
on August 29, 1842, bv the plenipotentiaries of 
the Queen of (rreat Britain and the Emperor of 
(Miina, five ports of the empire were opened to 
Eu#oi)ean trade. Tlie five ports are those of Canton, 
Amoy, Foochowfoo, Ningpo, and Shanghai. Sonui 
minor porta were added to t}:esc by the treaty «>f 
|)eaceof June 2G, 1856. The exports fn>m China — 
including Hongkong — to the United Kingdom are 
of great value, and consist of two principal articles, 
namely, tea and silk, to which lately there has 
been added a third in cotton. The total value of 
the exports amounted to 9,014,310^ in 1K,')0 ; 
i»,323,764/. in 1860; 9,070,445/. in 1861 ; 12,137.0'.C>/. 
in 1862; and 14,186,310/. in 1863. The sole article 
tea figures to the amount of two- thirds in the sum' 
total of these exports. The computed real value 
of tea ex|)ort«d from China to the Unitwl Kin^:- 
dom amounted to 5,528,660/. in 1859 ; to <)/>()! ,8H J /. 
in 1860; to 6.449,540/. in 1361; to 8,759,7(k>/. in 
1862 ; and to 10,051,803/. in 18t>3. Compared with 
this article, the other exports, of China to Grtui 
Britam seem insignificant. Of raw silk, the ex- 
ports amounted to 3,031,280/. in 1862, but only to 
1,626,539/. in 1863. On tlie other hand, the ox- 
iMtrt of raw cotton was but of the value of 108,995/. 
m 1862, and n>se to 2,164,995/. in 1863. In return 
for the vast quantities of tea, silk, and cotton 
which China sends to the United Kingdom, sIjc 
accepts little else but a few manufactured cotttai 
g«>o(ls of about one-third the value. This, the 
principal article of British imports into China, wa< 
of but the value of 1,162,505/. in 1863, while the 
tea exports amounted to 10,051,803/. 

History^ Government^ and Law^ — It may be 
almost said that China lias no history, for she has 
so few revolutions or political changes to rectmi, 
that her aimals rise but in a small degree above 
the limits of chronology. The antiquity whieh 
the Chinese have claimed for their origin, is now, 
even by the enlightened among themselves, e«>n- 
sidered fabulous. Almost the first names men- 
tioned in their annals are Shing-noong, * the di\-iue 



btL^handman,* who taajEcht their ancestors the arts 
of a^culture; and Hoang-ty, who i)artitioned 
their landss, and contrived a cycle of 60 yearn, to 
enable them to register events, and to mark the 
iwt>jcre»s of the seasons. Then comes the period of 
the * five kings/ the last two of whom, Yaoii and 
Shun, are held np as patterns for futare sovereigns, 
lieing the exemplars of royalty down to the pre- 
.>«f nt reign. Yu, the succeissor of Shun, made him- 
m\( con.<piciiou0 by his transcendent merit in 
draining the countnr that had suffered from a 
gnat deluge. The Chinese have no existing re- 
c>>r«ls older than the compilations of Confucius 
(}»m 560 B.C.), which must have been made from 
tj/klition. From that period the annals of the 
empire have been carefully not«d and preserved, 
and de:M!end in an unbroken line down to the 
prejient day. These, * the suo^essive labours of 
twenty-one historians,' consist of 600 vols. Formed 
into a prosperous and comparatively civilised com- 
munity, under the Tsin dynasty, the Chinese be- 
came ulgecta of envy to their neighbours, of whom 
the Tartan were the most troublesome ; and, to 
guard against their incursions, the great wall was 
built. A.D. 184 was the era of the * three states,' 
into which the empire was divided; but in 585 it 
was again united under one ruler. The 9th and 
lt>th centuries were much occupied in civil wars, 
cau<ied by the contending claims of several aspi- 
rants to the throne; but these were finallv ad- 
j lusted AJ>, 950, by the consolidation of the §oong 
(lynastA*, ander Tae-taoo. This was the first great 
literary age of Chinese history; and printing hav- 
ing been invented 500 years before it was known 
to Europeans, authors and books were much multi- I 
r»lied. Under this dynasty the Chinese, unable to \ 
re^bt the Tartars called in the aid of the Mon- 
gids ; and they, bv a policy of which historv affords 
numerous examples, soon exchanged the character 
<'f aUiea for that of conquerors; and, under the 
famous Rublai-Khan, founded the Mongul dy- 
nasty. Thia able sovereign established the seat 
rjf his government at Pekin, or Kambalu, as it is 
called bv Marco Polo, and constructed the great 
c4inaL But his suocessoni rapidly degenerate<l ; 
and the ninth Mongul monarch surrendered the 
tlirone to a Chinese, a.d. 1366. Twelve emj)eror8 
<tf thli native dynasty of Ming reigned in com- 
jiarative peace till, in 1618, during the sway of 
Wan-lie, the 13th in succession, the Manchoos, a 
mx^ sprung from the expelled Monguls and the 
Kin or £. Tartars, afler a war of twenty-seven 
years, eatablished themselves firmly in the empire. 
Tlie {Seventh in descent fmm Shunchy, the first of 
the Ta-thsing dynasty of Tartars, occupies the 
thnjne of China at this day. (Da\ns, i. 157, 18^.) 
The most conflicting statements have been made 
with respect to the government of China: while 
fr^ne wnters have represented the w^hole* empire 
an trembling under the yoke of a capricious despot, 
others have represented the government as ad- 
rain L»tered aceovding to the inflexible rules of 
justice, and with the greatest moderation and 
liumanity. Both these representations seem to 
\*e alike inconsistent with the facts. According 
to the theory of the constitution, the emperor is 
abcHjlute ; his will is law ; and he is not responsible 
Ui any earthly tribunal for any of his actions. In 
i'hina. as in ancient Rome, fathers have full power 
over their families, and, on the same principle, the 
«^znperor is held to be the father of the entire 
Chinese people ; and to have the same unlimited 
{('>wer over them that each individual has over his 
own children. Piactically, however, his power is 
ciira{>arative]y circumscribed. In China everv- 
thing is determined by custom, or by immemorial 
practice, from which it would be highly dangerous 

for even the emperor to depart. The Cliinosc is 
emphatically a government of ])recedent; and his 
celestial majesty is, in reality, the creature of cus- 
tom and etiquette. All employments are bestowed, 
according to fixc<i rules, on those who have ob- 
tained certificates of pn>ticieiicy after passing their 
examinations. The penal laws of the empire are 
printed in a cheap form, and widely diffu.sed ; and 
one of the sixteen discourses annually read to 
the public, inculcates the propriety of ever^' man 
making himHclf acquainted with tliom, anil M-ith 
the iKuialties consequent on their iiifrjiotion. Al- 
though, therefore, the government of China l>e 
despotical in its form, and every device be em- 
ployed to give to the emperor not merely a 
paternal, but a sacred character, he in fact governs 
according to long-established niles; and with pro- 
bably as little admixture of despotism as is to be 
found in most governments. 

The great defect of the Chinese, as of all simi- 
larly constituted goveniments. Is the want of any 
effectual control over the inferior agents. The 
emperor is not omniscient; and notwithstanding 
the various devices put in motion to learn the real 
conduct of the sulwrdinate authorities, and their 
liability to punishment if they abuse their power, 
it would seem that these checks are, in many in- 
stances, of comparatively little avail; and that 
much injustice and oj)pr(>ssiori on the psrt of per- 
sons in power, escajH? detection and punishment. 

The emperor w called * the son of heaven ' (Te<?n- 
tsye), and the mandarins and other natives not 
only prr»strate themvselves when in his presence, 
but also before a tablet with the inscription * the 
lord of a myriad years' (Wansuy-yay), In his 
character of patriarch, his imfxirial majesty is not 
only looked ujwn as the father of that' multi- 
tudinous family, the pop. of his empire, but is also 
considered the sole disfKjnser of the blessings of 
heaven ; for the prime canon of belief is, that * the 
duty of affording to the people sustenance and 
instruction is imposed on The One Man ;' while, 
on occasions of national calamity, he publicly con- 
fesses his errors, andacknowle<lges his misc(»nduct 
to be the cause of the divine displeasure. (Quar- 
terly Keview, xxv. 41G.) The parallel between 
the relations in which every person stands to his 
own parents and to the cmj^ror is carried out fritm 
the most important functions of the legislature, 
down to Uie minutest observances of ceremony, all 
of which are regularly prescribed by law. ( Davis, 
L 201 .) The union of the avenger with the father, 
in the em|)eror, Ls well illustrated by Davis. A 
man and his wife had severely ill used the mother 
of the former, which circumstance was reported to 
the emperor. The very place where the crime 
was committed was niade accursed. The prin- 
cipal offenders were put to death ; the mother of 
the wife was bambooe<l, branded, and exiled, for 
the daughter's crime ; the scholars of the district 
were not permitted to attend the public examma- 
tions for three years; and their promotion was 
thereby stopped. The magistrates were deprived 
of their office, and banished, * For,' says the edict 
publbhed on the occasion, ' / intend to render the 
empire Jilial.' Every device is employed to create 
the impression of awe. Dressed in a robe of yellow, 
the colour worn, sav the Chinese, by the sun, the 
emperor is surrounded by all the ])ageantry of the 
highest dignity in the world. All ranks must lx)W 
the head to a yellow screen of silk ; in the great 
man's presence no one dares speak but in a whisfier, 
though his person is too sacred to be often exhi- 
bited in public, and an imperial dispatch is re- 
ceived by the burning of incense and prostration. 
But with all this he is not allowed to lean back in 
p ublic ; to smoke, to change bLs dress, or, in fact, 

r 2 



to indulge in the least relaxation from the fa- 
tiguing support of his dignity. (Chinese Hist. ; 
Davis; Quarterly Re\iew, lvl499; Ellis's Account 
of Lord Amherst's Embassy, p. 307.) 

Next, after the emperor, the court is composed 
of four principal ministers, two Tartars and two 
Chinese, who form the great council of state, 
assisted by certain assessors from the Han-lin or 
Great College, who have studied the sacred books 
of Confucius, which form the basis of Chinese law. 
These may be considered as the cabinet ; but the 
real business of the empire is executed by the 
Le-poo, or Six Boards. No. 1. Le-poo is the board 
of official appointments, which has cognisance of 
the conduct of all civil officers ; 2. Hoo-poo, the 
board of revenue, which regulates all fis<^ mat- 
ters ; 3. Le-poo, board of rites and ceremonies, 
wliich enforces the customs to be observed by the 
people ; 4. Ping-poo, military board ; 5. Hing-poo, 
or supreme court of criminal jurisdiction ; 6. ^ung- 
poo, board of public works. There is also a colo- 
nial-office, composed of Manchoos and Monguls, 
so that the respective tributary princes may have 
confidence in referring whatever concerns their 
interests to their 0¥m countrymen. To each of 
the provs. a viceroy is appointed by the cliief, or 
Le-poo board ; and every t0¥m is presided over b^ 
a magistrate, who takes rank according as he is 
at the head of a foo^ tchoo, or heen. Subordinate 
officers su|>erintend the lesser divisions. All these 
functionaries are removed every three years ; and 
that no ties of kindred may interfere with the strict 
discharge of their duties, the viceroys and magis- 
trates are forbidden to form any matrimonial con- 
nection with a family within the limits of Uieir 
rule. It is honourable to the Chinese that, for 
these and other state offices, merit alone is the 
qualification ; the son of the poorest peasant or 
artificer may offer himself as a candidate, and, by 
talent and application, rise to the highest employ- 
ments. A singular expedient is adopted to ascer- 
tain with what fidelity the viceroys and magistrates 
perform their duties. There is a board, headed by 
a Tartar and a Chinese, on whom it formerly de- 
volved to watch over the words and actions of the 
emperor, and freely censure him for any misde- 
meanour ! The duties for which this office was 
originally established have, for reasons easily un- 
derstood, long fallen into disuse ; and the members 
are now employed as censors for the emperor, 
being sent as inspectors into the provs. to see how 
the viceroys and magistrates do their duty, and 
to report their delinquencies. But these function- 
aries are less formidable than might be supposed. 
If they did their duty honestly, they would, no 
doubt, be of singular advantage ; but in China, as 
elsewhere, it is usually found that inspectors look 
with an indulgent eye on the faults of those in 
authority ; and it has been doubted whether their 
visits be not as often the means of stifiing the com- 
plaints of the public, and of preventing and delay- 
ing justice, as of facilitating its course. Nothing 
con be more lucid and methodical than the code of 
laws promulgated for the guidance of Uie boards 
and their subordinate officers. Each district has a 
separate code, adapted to the habits and disposi- 
tion of those for whom it is framed ; and offences, 
with their punishments, are classed under six dif- 
ferent heads, corresponding with the six boards, 
so that each case is referred to the tribunal against 
whose authority the offence may have been com- 
mitted, unless it be one admitting of summary 

The Thsing Leu Lee, being the fundamental 
laws, and a selection from the supplemental sta- 
tutes of the penal code of China, has been ably 
translated by Sir Geoige Staunton. ' The most I 

remarkable thing in this code is its great reason- 
ableness, clearness, and consistency ; the businesi^ 
like brevity and directness of the various provisfons, 
and the plainness and moderation of the langunge 
in which they are expressed. There is nothing here 
of the monstrous verbiage of most other AHiatic 
productions ; none of the superstitious deliration, 
the miserable incoherence, ^e tremendous nan- 
sequUttrij and eternal repetitions of those oracular 
performances : nothing even of the tureid adu- 
lation, the accumulated epithets, and fatiguing 
self-praise of other eastern despotisms ; but a clear, 
concise, and distinct series of enactments, savourin^^ 
throughout of practical iudgment and European 
^ood sense ; and if not always conformable to our 
improved notions of expediency in this country, 
in general approaching to them more nearly than 
the codes of most ouier nations. (Edin. Kev^ 

This is high, but not undeserved praise. At the 
same time, however, the Chinese code is not with- 
out very serious defects. There is an elaborate 
attention to trifles; and a perpetual interference 
on the part of the legislator to enforce duties and 
observances of no importance, or that had better 
be left to the discretion of individuals^ But its 
greatest defect is the vagueness of some of its 
clauses : so that a person may be punished if his 
conduct be * contrary to the spirit of the law I ' 
The frequency of corporal punishment seems ex- 
traordinary to Europeans. It is, in fact, the uni- 
versal penalty : offences the most trivial and the 
gravest, whether committed by persons in the 
highest or the lowest walks of life, being visited 
by so many strokes of the bamboo I These, how- 
ever, are not always inflicted. Persons under 
fifteen or above seventy, or maimed, may redeem 
themselves from all but capital punishments, by a 
small fine; in other instances the punishment may 
be commuted by paying a sum of money propor- 
tioned to the number of blows. But there are 
crimes for which even those who are rich enough 
to escape whipping for ordinary offences are not 
suffered to make a pecuniary compromise. Indeed 
the bamboo seems in universal requisition, from 
the emperor down to the meanest of^ his subjects ; 
and not only the number of blows, but th6 length 
and thickness of the instrument to be used for each 
offence, are minutely prescribed. The prerogative 
of mercy is not unfiequently extended, with, how- 
ever, one exception. In a country which has 
preserved its institutions unchanged, and its laws 
unaltered, for 2,000 years, it is not surprising that 
seditious offences should be severely dealt with. 
The crime of treason is visited with remorseless 
severity. In 1803, Mr. Davis states, a stnirle 
assassin attempted the life of the emperor. He 
was condemned to a lingering death ; and the 
criminal's sons, being of tender age, were * mer- 
cifully ' strangled ; for it seems to be the peculiar 
barbarity of the Chinese criminal code, that it 
involves the innooent familv of an offender in the 
retribution for his crime. There is much in use a 
sort of pillory, called the cangne ; and torture 
is employed to extort confession. The police (»f 
China is' said to be vigilant and efficient ; but, as 
a safeguard against oppression, the name of every 
person in any way connected with the govemmeiit 
IS published m a sort of Red Book, of which a cor- 
rected edition appears four times a year. 

Another type of the patriarchal form of the 
Chinese government is to be found in the mode in 
which the state revenue is produced ; it consists 
principally of tithes : not paid in the nature of 
taxation, out as rent, the emperor uniting the cha- 
racter of universal landlord with that of king and 
father : but though the whole pop. be tenants-at- 



win. dectxnent 10 seldom resorted to; and it is his 
uwn niult if a Chinese be ever deprived of his 
lands. There are here no great estates ; but if any 
c«e happen to hold more land than he can oon- 
veniently cultivate, he lets it to another, on the 
mttejftr principle, or on' condition of his receiving 
half the produce, oat of which he pays the whole 
taxes. A great part of the poorer peasantrjr hold 
lands in this way. (Bairow, p. 398 ; De Guignes, 
iii. 341.) The revenue is paid partly in money 
and paitlpr in kind. The greatest possible discre- 
pancy exists amongst the estimates that have been 
jHven of ita amount. It is believed, however, that 
the entiiB revenue remitted to the imperial trea- 
wjy mav amount to about 12/X)0,000iL sterling, 
tba't is iO,000,0002. in money, and 2,000,0002. m 
pniduce. But it is essential to bear in mind that 
this is not the whole amount of Chinese taxation, 
inasmocfa as the expenses of a collection, and 
many local and provincial charges, are deducted 
before any remittance be made to the imperial 

Thm JtfUUtay service of China is nominally com- 
posed of 1,000,000 soldiers, besides the militia and 
niunerous standaids of Mongol cavaliy ; but irom 
this vast nomber many names must be deducted 
which are merely ent^ed in the books, and per- 
haps the whole force does not exceed 700,000. 
The soldiers are enrolled in the cofpe quartered in 
the provinces in which they are bom, and which 
are never quartered any where else ; the Chinese 
frovenunmt being imnressed with the opinion, 
that soldiers living witn their families, and bdng, 
in fact, more than half citizens, will exhibit greater 
Irravery in the defence of their country, should 
any oocamon arise for their services, than if they 
were cooped up in banacks or fortresses, and sub- 
jected at all tunes to sdict discipline and martial 
law. The troops are only embodied at certain sea- 
fMina. being at other periods their own masters. 
The Tartar tioope, inasmuch as thev belong to a 
standing aimy at a distance from nome, receive 
higher pay, and are more efficient soldiers than 
the native Chinese ; though they also seem to be 
poervmted by their long residence in this tranquil 
r«>ja<>n. Tlie whole army is divided into stand- 
anlis diartngiiiwhed by their different borders and 
coloun. l^ese corps — ^not unlike our brigades — 
are subdivided into camps and wings ; the right, 
Mt, and middle. The officers are lul raised m)m 
the ranks, and are looked upon by the civilians as 
little better than police agents ; but, like the latter, 
are obliged to take their regular degrees to obtain 
pfinnotioa, which is rapid. Their grades are pi^ 
ci^Iy similar to ours, from the Le-tnh, com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces, down to the Wae- 
wei, or seijeant. The principal weapons are bows 
and arrows ; but they also use clumsy match-locks 
and iron guns, without carriages, and, more ib- 
ci>ntly, have imported tolerably good rifles and 
superior ofdnance from Europe. The theory of 
tactics is well understood ; but the practice is very 
deficient. In so peaceful a country there is btrt 
little oocaaon for military skill; and without in- 
telligent officers, or improved weapons, it is not 
to be soppoaed that they should make any effec- 
tual of^mdtion to European troops. A standing 
army, m the European sense of the word, is not in 
existence. The sohUeis do not live in barracks, 
tiut in their own houses, pursuing as chiefbusiness 
«ome civO occupation, irequenUy that of day- 
labourers, and meeting (mly on certain occasions, 
pursuant to orders firom the military chieftains. 
(Moger, Harcruis de, BeooUections of Baron Gros's 
Cmbasov to China, Lond. 1860.) 

The Chinese Navjf is extensive, but inefficient ; 
it includes, perhaps, 1,000 sail; but the men-of- 

war are mere junks, which mount a few guns ; and 
there are few huge vessels. This imperial nav;^ is 
commanded by three high admirals and their in- 
ferior officers, all of whom are so profoundly igno- 
rant of their business, that the merchant junks are 
better managed than the imperial cruisers. ^ Gutz- 
laff draws a deplorable picture of the condition and 
discipline of the mercantile navy. Few sailors 
are regularlv bred to the service, but are chiefly 
wretehes who have been obliged to flee from their 
homes. Though there be a nominal commander 
in every lunk, his authority is uniformly disre- 
garded. Every one having the liberty of putting 
a certain quantity of goods on board, is a sort of 
shareholder, and does nearly what he pleases. 
The Chinese make use of a compass, invented by 
themselves, divided into 24 parts, beginning at the 
S., the needle moving freely in a box placed upon 
a bed of sand. Their pilots having been accus- 
tomed to the sea from their you^, and always 
performing the same voyage, have a perfect know- 
ledge of the various localities. In the construction 
of river craft, the Chinese are more skilful ; many 
of these vessels are indeed floating habitations, and 
thousands of families Uve in them during their 
whole lives. (Sketeh of Chinese Hist by Gutzlaff, 
L Introd. 1-40; Sir G. Staunton's Trans, of the 
Leu-lee, or Criminal Code ; Davis's Chinese, i. 204 
ei $eq. ; Quarterly Review, No. vi) 

Character and Social QmdUum, — ^The Chinese 
are said by Mr. Davis to be a nation of * incurable 
cotuervaiivei,* Their rule is to adhere to all that 
is established, and to reject all that is new. They 
are the very transcript of the ancient world living 
in the present day ; they wear the same costume, 
are subject to the same laws, which are adminis- 
tered precisely in the same way, and they exist to 
all intents and purposes in the same social and in- 
tellectual condition as their forefathers did 2,000 
years ago. This uniformity may be almost said 
to have been ordained by nature, for it is a remark- 
able fact that the Chinese are so much like each 
other in personal appearance, that it is difficult for 
a European to distmguish between them. We 
find no diversity in the colour of their hair, no 
variety of eye, no prominent and striking feature 
which indicates the place of their birth. (China 
Opened, i. 290.) They have black, stiff and strong 
hair, shaved so as to leave a much cherished tan 
depending from the crown; a depressed face, 
wherein the distinguishing features are not strongly 
marked, a flat nose, smaU angular eyes, round and 
prominent cheeks, a pointed chin, thin eyelids, 
small beards, middle stature, and strong bones. 
Long ears and plumpness form their beau ideal of 
beauty; consequently, to attain the latter, they 
exercise but little aguity. (Id. p. 293.) The aris- 
tocracy of rank and wealth are unknown in China. 
Dittinciion it wolefy to be obtained by learning ; and 
dignity is only conferred by office. Even the 
sons of the emperor and their families merge into 
the common mass, should they not study, so as to 
become qualified for some official employment. 
The mandarins, or literary aristocrats, do not ob- 
tain their rank except by passing repeated examin- 
ations, as to the fairness of which no doubt has 
ever been surmised, and establishing their supe- 
riority over their competitors to the satisfaction of 
the Board of Examination. There are nine de- 
grees of mandarins, the highest being viceroys or 
governors, and the lowest, collectors of the reve- 
nue, Ac; promotion can only be obtained by 
superior proficiency in the study of the law. The 
different functioiuiries are distinguished by the 
number of buttons in their caps, and other varia- 
tions of costume. As the pav of all persons in 
office is unreasonably small, they often resort to 



extortion to make up this deficiency, and there is 
Bcarcely a number of the * Pekiii Gazette,' that does 
not record wime instance of a public officer being 
degraded for that crime. The natural character- 
istics of the Chinese are summed up by Davis in 
these words : — ' The advantageous features of their 
characters, as mildness, docility, industry, peace- 
ableness, subordination, and respect for the aged, 
are accompanied by the vices of specious insin- 
cerity, falsehood, mutual distrust, and jealousy.' 
The lower orders arc passionately addicted to 
gambling, for which they have their peculiar cards 
and dice, lliat honesty is more valued than prac- 
tised has been inferred from the notification to be 
frequently seen in shop windows, that ' there is no 
cheating here,* and from a caution placarded in 
most public conveyances for travellers, to * take 
care of their purses ;' but we doubt whether such 
notices reallv go for much. The insincerity and 
falsehood laid to their charge, in so far as they 
really exist, are the natural consequences of the 
restraints, under which they are laid from infancy, 
of the interference of the law with all their actions, 
and of their being obliged to suppress and conceal 
those feelings and emotions to which, in other 
countries, full vent would be given. Their atten- 
tion to etiquette is a consequence of the same 
principle. Even when peasants visit each other, 
complimentary cards — the size of which deter- 
mines the rank of the sender — and polite answers 
are exchanged. * On the arrival of the guest, con- 
siderable difficulty is found in arranging who shall 
make the lowest bow, or first enter the door, or 
take the highest se^t, or assume precedency at 
table, though the host contrives to place his guest 
in the most elevated position. AVhen conversa- 
tion commences, the mutual assent to every pro- 
})osition, the scrupulous avoidance of all contra- 
diction, and the entire absence of every offensive 
expression or melancholy allusion, show what a 
sense these people entertain of politeness.' (Med- 
hurst's China: its State, Prospects, <&c., 1838.) 
The condition of the poor is wretched in the ex- 
treme : they are frequently destitute of food, and 
many arc said to pensh in the winter season from 
cold,' for want of fuel. (GutzlafTs Voyages, p. 
67.) Begging is common in the large cities, but 
not more so than in Europe. It is a curious fact, 
that though the Chinese be remarkable for assist- 
ing each other, particularly their own relations, 
with money or food, they will on no account step 
out of their way, in case of accident, to save a 
fellow-creature's life; but this arises from their 
laws making the person last seen near a corpse 
answerable for the death. Robbery is not uncom- 
mon, but is very seldom accompamed with murder. 
The people, generally so quiet and submissive, 
when once roused by the oppression of an intoler- 
ant magistrate, will rise en masse against him, 
and subject him to lynch law : in such cases the 
government of Pekin generally concludes that the 
magistrate has been in fault ; and the outrage ia 
allowed quietly to fall into oblivion. The drown- 
ing of infants, particularly of females, has been 
said to be cttstomary in China ; but this is a most 
unfoimded statement, lliat an enormity of this 
sort b sometimes committed is certainly true ; but 
we believe that it is of ojcceedingly rare occur- 
rence. Mr. Da'^'is says, that * the Chinese in 
general are exceedingly fond of their children, and 
the attachment seems to be mutual.' (i. 246.) 

The whole of the Chinese nation is divided into 
families, each of which bear the same surname, 
and consider each other cousins. These clans are 
bound to assist each other in any way that may 
be required ; and the most powerful of them act as 
a salutary check upon local despotism. The women 

of China occupy a lower scale in the estimation of 
their countrymen than those of other nations. A 
broad face, diminutive waist, pale features, and 
feet small to deformity, constitute female beauty 
in the eyes of a Chinese. To insure this last, their 
feet are confined fipom tender age in shoes calcu- 
lated to stop their growth, so that the feet of some 
ladies only measure 3 in. from toe to heel. Females 
are universally objects of traffic. Wlien young 
they are purchased by dealers for the harems of 
the great, where they remain in splendid seclusion. 
Marriages depend entirely upon the will of the 
parents, who sell their daughters at from 5,000 to 
6,000 dollars a piece, according to the beauty or 
rank of the female. Early marriages are univer- 
sal ; no man who can afford the expenses of the 
ceremony deferring it after the age of 20, and 
parents get rid of their daughters as soon as they 
can, even at the early age of 14. The Chinese 
may be said to be an omnivorous people. The 
principal part of their food consists of rice, which 
Ls generally eaten dry ; but in the S. provinces it 
is mixed with the sweet potatoe in a sort of sou]). 
Vegetables are the chief provision of idl ranks, 
who do not consume a fifth part of the animal 
food that Europeans do. Pork is the favourite dish, 
and the head of the ass is esteemed a great deli- 
cacy. To eat every thing which can possibly give 
nourishment is the comprehensive principle uj^kui 
which Chinese diet is regulated ; so that d(^^ cat^ 
and even rats and mice, are not rejected by them. 
They are the most expert fishermen in the world ; 
no aquatic creature escapes their vigilance,'whethor 
it inhabit the sea, lake, canal, or river ; eyen p<K>l^ 
and the ridges of fields are searched for fish. 
Every kind of meat is minced into small piece^i, 
and 18 eaten with chop-sticks.. The Chinese epi- 
cure delights in soups made of edible birds' nasr-* 
of the swallow species (Hirundo esculenia)^ an<l 
imported in great quantities from the E. islands. 
It appears that the birds make use of great quan- 
tities of a peculiar sea-weed (SphtBro-coccus ear- 
tilaffineus)t and when it is sufficiently softened in 
their stomachs, it is returned and used as a plaister 
to cement the dirt and feathers of the neat. These 
nests, after having been purified in immense 
manufactories, are eaten with grestgout by the 
Chinese. The favourite beverage is t^ drunk out 
of small cups, which are seldom washed, for that 
process is thought to diminish the flavour. In 
this article the Chinese are as ^reat connoisseurs 
as Europeans are in wines. Distilled liquors are 
chiefly made flx>m rice : rum is much used, but 
grape wine has not been met with. Dmnkenne«^ 
prevails, especially in the N. provinces ; but the 
worst species of debauchery is opium smoking, 
which, when carried to excess, deprives the yictim 
of strength ; he becomes a walkmg shadow ; his 
eyes are vacant and staring ; his whole frame is 
deranged, and he soon sinks into a premature 
grave. But it should be observed that thetse are 
the consequences of the abuse of the practice: 
when used in moderation, it is said to be com- 
paratively innoxious. The fumes of the dru^ 
are inhaled through a peculiar pipe, in a recumbent 
position, and the smoker soon sleeps. When he 
awakes, he drinks a cup of tea, and smokes again. 
Tlie Chinese delight in the dmma : they wifi at- 
tend a play for a whole night without being wearied, 
and recount with ecstacy what they have seeiu 
In their pastimes the women are never assooiatecL 
The accounts of Chinese architecture are not 
very satiffactor)', a consequence of its being neces- 
sary to employ terms in its description that convey 
to foreigners impressions very different from the 
reality. Accordmg to Mr. Barrow, it is ' as un- 
sightly as unsolid; without elegance orconvenienoe 



of design, and without any settled proportion; 
mean in its appearance, and clumsy in the work- 
maa^hipw' (p. 330.) Perhaps however, this opinion 
i-* founded too much on preconceived notions of 
rhe ahcHilnte su^ierioritv of the European standard. 
But without entering on this, it is sufficient to ob- 
ft-rve that the walls of the houses are of brick, 
»>:nne, or wood, but principally of the first The 
TKifs) are always supported on columns, that is, on 
nprt|f:bt pieces of timber, without either capital or 
I'A'M', In the country they are rarely more than 
Mie i»t<»ry in height, but in the great towns they 
are frequently two. Their roofs, which are curved, 
are QKiially covered with tiles. Their pagodas are 
|M>]ygi>nal buildings, of 5, 7, or 9 stories or roofs. 
Mrl Barrow says, that the pagoda execte<l by 
(teorge III. in Kew Gardens is *■ not inferior to the 
very be^t ' he met with in China — a statement 
u ^uch certainly does not tend to exalt our opinions 
of thiit species of buildings. 

ReiiyioM. — There is no religion in China actually 
supported by the state, and Km, the doctrine of 
Toiifucius, is the only one countenanced by it. 
But there are two other sects ; Fb, or Buddhism, and 
Taouy or that of the * rationalists.' The first ac- 
knowledges a Supreme Being, and believes the 
empen>r his sole vicegerent on earth. Heaven, 
earth, the elements, Confucius, gods of various 
attriUites, saints, the emperor, &c., are objects of 
worship: the rites in performing which are watched 
over with the most jealous care bv the Le'poo^ or 
iVyard of Rites. The doctrine of Confucius tills 
the world with genii, demons, and the spirits of 
d4*ceat«ed worthies, who are supposed to have each 
their senarate duties and influences astitigiied to 
tliero. 2iko worship is so strictly observed as that 
of ancestry, 4IO that filial piety is carried to an 
cxcfsa, even beyond the grave. Tlie religious 
e«litices of the Yu sect are said to be very splendid. 
1*1 ley chiefly consist of one laige hall approached 
by j4ep9, with the idol placed upon an altar, or 
t;>Me; the walls are adorned with pictures, and 
tl e ceiling with gilded griffins and dragons. An 
a)>[iaratu9 for sacrificing various animals is abso 
prinrided. There is no congregational worship. 
I>n«ldhLim \» a despised creed in China, and is en- 
tirt>|y {supported by the mendicancy of its priests 
I'lie latter practise celibacy, dress in a similar 
manner to monks, and the devotees use holy 
MaXei., and a rosary to keep account of their pray- 
( TK, Mr. Malcolm, the missionary, has given a 
\ ( ry favourable view of Buddhism. *It has no 
m ytho]«)gy of obscene and ferocious deities ; no 
.saiiguiuary or impure observances ; no self-inflicted 
tortures ; no t\Tannising priesthood; no confound- 
ing <»f right aiid ^nrong, by making certain iniqui- 
ties laudable in worship. In its moral code, its 
<it^M.Tiptions of the punty and peace of the fin«t 
a;r<:8, of the shortness of man's life because of his 
MHit, kc^ it seems to have followed genuine tradi- 
tioQt. Id almost every respect it seems to be the 
U-^ religion man ever invented.' (Travels, L 322.) 
I'he |iiofesEiora of Taomsm pretend to magic, al- 
( I>iny, and to be poaeessed of the elixir of long 
lilf; practise glaring impositions, and inailcate 
the most puerilB supentitions. They encourage a 
iM'lief in ghosts and evil spirits ; make use of spells 
and taliignana, lucky and unlucky birds, and a 
^y«•ten(] of tricks called Acn^-sAtM^, by which they 
Intend to choose lucky situations for building 
houses and tombs, and a hmidred other fallacies, 
by which these impostors contrive to till their 
purses. Religion, of whatever kind, has always, 
we believe, been reckoned a matter of secondary 
importance in China. But this is a subject as to 
wiiirh our information is comparatively little to be 
rtlied on. The ancient and modem missionaries, 

how much soever they may have admired many 
parts of the Chinese character and institutions, have 
generally represented their morals and religion in 
the most unfavourable i)oint of view. That there 
is much about them that is objectionable is cer- 
tainly true ; but it is so obviously the interest of 
the mL<isionaries, by depreciating the moral and 
religious character of those they are labouring 
amongst, to exalt their own utility and importance, 
and to justify their claims to the patronage and 
support of the Christian public, that their state- 
ments can hardly be supposed to be free from 
bias. Many endeavours have been made to in- 
troduce Otrigtianify into China, but with less 
success than has attended similar efforts in other 
nations. It was first introduce<l by the Notorians 
in the 17th century, lliese were followed by the 
Jesuits, whose missionaries were more successful 
than those of any other sect ; for at the Tartar 
invasion there were no fewer than thirty Catholic 
chiuches in the province of Keang-nan alone ; the 
first of the Tartar princes openly espoused the 
cause of the missionaries, by taking a Cierman 
Jesuit, Adam Schaal, for his instructor. The abo- 
lition of that order, and the continual waT>« in 
Europe, reducing their funds, the Catholic missions 
declined, and but few native converts at pre;«ent 
remain. The'late Dr. Morrison was the fir^t Pro- 
testant missionax^'^ who landed in China ; he com- 
piled a dictionanr (havmg been preceded in that 
arduous task by De (luignes) and grammar ; trans- 
lated the Scriptures into the Chinese language, 
and established printing-presses at Canton, I'nira 
which a judicious selection of tracts has issued. 
These pious efforts have been ably seconded by 
Mr. Milne and the Kcv. Charles (^utzlaff, the 
latter of whom has pubUshetl several valuable 
works on China, of which we have made consider- 
able use. The Mohammedan, Jewish, and many 
other religions are to be found in China, but in a 
very languishing condition. A semi-[K)litical, serai- 
religious movement, which broke out in (-hina 
about the year 1«50, and, acconling to some re- 
ports, threatened for a time the destruction of the 
actual government, was long believed to be owing 
to the teaching of Christian mLHsionaries. But 
this belief was scarcely founded cm fact. The in- 
surgents, commonly called Taepings, whatever 
their religious faith, were certainly not Christians, 
for the many atn)cious acts committed by them — 
asts completely inexcusable even by the direst 
necessities of warfare, and warfare in its bitterest 
form, civil strife — showed them entirely unac- 
quainted with the fundamental precepts of the 
divine Gospel of Christ. This, too, was the con- 
viction of the leading statesmen of Europe, vfiih 
whose help, and the aid of British and American 
ofKceis, the Taepings were finally crushed in IWGo. 
The valuable help thus afforded went for to rec<»n- 
cile the Chinese government to Euru{M»n prt>gress, 
and to enter upon a liberal fulfilment of the treaty 
of peace concluded with (ireat Britain, June 20, 
1856, by the terms of which Christianity will be 
tolerated throughout the whole of the Chinese 

lAMnguage, Education^ and Literature, — Distinct 
as the Chinese are from the rest of mankind in 
habits, manners, and religion, their total dissimi- 
larity is rendered com[)lete by their language; 
which, arrested between the hieroglyphic and al- 
phabetic systems, presents a singular'phenomenon. 
The most obvious expedient for expressing sub- 
stantive ideas otherwise than by speech, would bo 
to figure a representation of the object intendc<l to 
be expressed; and this was unquestionably the 
plan first adopted by man to communicate and 
reconl what he tliought through the medium of 



the eye instead of the ear. As civilUatioii and 
knowledfj^e advanced, and the necessity for com- 
municating it increased, more concise forms or 
conventional letters were substituted ; but in the 
case of the Chinese, the primitive mode is still the 
principle upon which their characters are con- 
structed ; so that their system may be called the 
{x^rfection of the hierc^lyphic meUiod of written 
languafi^c. Having pictorial representations of na- 
tural objects for their basis, the elementary signs 
of the Cliiuese language are few and simple. A 
horizontal, a perpendicular, two oblique lines drawn 
in different directions, and an acute angle and dot, 
are the elements of which the Chinese characters 
consist. These marks are so combined in the first 
instance as to form 214 keys or generic characters. 
Thus, the s^ymbol for * man' is always present in 
a word which has direct or indirect reference to 
him; this character, for example, combined with 
the symbol for field, signifies a farmer. The Clii- 
nese notion of government is well expressed in 
another example : the verb ' to govern ' is repre- 
sented by the two characters that stand for 'bam- 
boo' and 'stroke.' The keys are divided into 17 
classes, and the number of words thus formed, upon 
a system more complete than that of any of the 
W. languages, to be found in the most copious 
Chinese dictionaries, amounts to 40,000, each of 
which stands as arbitrarily for the thing or idea 
intended to be conveyed as a figure does in a paint- 
ing for the object it is meant to represent. Thus 
the character presents an object to the eye which 
enters the mind with a striking and viyid cer- 
tainty; it forms a feature which really is, or by 
early associations is considered, beautiful and im- 
pressive. Chinese writing is also more permanent 
than the alphabetic system, which is ever varying 
its spelling with the' continuallv changing pro- 
nunciation of the living voice. I'erhaps the Chi- 
nese written lan^age has contributed in some 
degree to the umty of the Chinese nation. (Dr. 
Marsham's Clavis Sinica ; Elements of Chinese 
Grammar, Introduction, p. xi. ; De Guignes, Dic- 
tionnaire Chinois, Introduction ; Quarter^ Review, 
Ivi. 506 ; China Opened, L 391.) The causes, how- 
ever, which operate to make the written language 
in China the most complete and beautiful in the 
world, render oral communication the most difficult 
and confined. That systematic regularity which 
so continually reouires the mesence of the keys, 
as parts of words oearing dinerent meanings, and 
thus precludes a necessary variety of wounds^ leaves 
the spoken language as meagre and defective as, 
when written, it is rich and complete. The sound 
corresponding with our e has at least 2,000 signifi- 
cations, and * one might write a perfectly intelli- 
gible treatise in which only the sound of e was 
employed.' (China Opened,*!. 383.) Thus, in con- 
versation between even two of the best educated 
Chinese, constant misapprehensions occur. ' They 
underatand each other, says Mr. Davis, ' perfectly 
on paper, but are mutually unintelligible in speech.' 
And m Uie most common-place colloquy it is not 
unfrequent for the speakers to resort to pen, or 
rather frnciA, ink, and paper, to make themselves 
understood ; in the absence of these materials, they 
draw the figure of the root or key in the air with 
their fingers. So that oratonr is entirely unknown 
in China ; and all affain of importance, such as 
lawsuits, civil or criminal, are caxried on in writing. 
The deficiencies of the oral language are in a smidl 
degree supplied by the different tones in which 
the same words and their various significations are 
uttered. But these inflections are so nice as to be 
only distinguishable by a native ear. The diffi- 
culty of free intellectuaJ intercourse must have had 
a very considerable effect in preventing the Chinese 

from advancing a step further in civilisation than 
they had attained so many hundred years ago. 

Education in China is more encouraged and fa- 
voured even than in Prussia ; and such is the esti- 
mation in which it is held, that all state employ- 
ments are given by competition, as school and 
college prizes to the best scholars. Schools for 
youth are abundant in every part of the empire ; 
and education is so general, and its cost so reason- 
able, that reading and writing may be almost said 
to be universaL Language is taught to very young 
pupils by means of rude pictures which represent 
the names of the chief objects in nature and art. 
Then follows the Sanr-tte-kouf, or summarr of 
infant erudition, conveyed in chiming lines of tLree 
words or feet. They soon after proceed to the 
' Four Books,' which contain the doctrines of Con- 
fucius, and which, with the ' Five Classics,' subse- 
quently added, are, in fact, the Chinese Scriptures. 
Writing is taught by tracing the characters witli 
a hair-pencil, on transparent paper placed over the 
copy. This is a most important article in Chinese 
education, for no man who does not write a good 
hand can lay claim to literary distinction. The 
emperor hiinself, when bestowing a great reward, 
writes a few characters on a piece of paper, and 
sends it to his favourite, and this is more valuable 
than conferring an order. TDavis, i. 290 ; China 
Opened, i. 390.7 Females oi the higher class are 
allowed to acquire a little reading and writing, and 
have been known to write poetry; but the great 
object of their education is to inculcate obedience. 
The schools establbhed all over Uie onpire are 
superintended by various officers appointed by 
government. In every district there is a sort of 
literary chancellor; but early aspirants are ex- 
amined by superintendents, who make the circuit 
of their district twice a year for that purpose. The 
pupils they approve of repair to tne chirf, and 
should they pass that ordeal, and thus obtain the 
approbation of the officers of their native district, 
they are el^ible for the lowest literary honour of 
the'state. This is called Tew-Uae (floweiy talent) . 
For this degree the examinations take place twice 
in eveiy three years in foot of every province ; the 
scholan having each a theme given them from the 
' Five Classics,' in a laige hall, are confined in 
separate boxes to prevent their receiving assist- 
ance f)nom others; and eveiy avenue is strictly 
guarded by soldiers. The Tao-tmu degree having 
been obtained, the aspirant has to acquire two 
other honours in the metropolis of his province, 
and he is placed on the booKS as eligible fur em- 
plo3rment corresponding with his advancement, 
fo procure the highest state offices, an examina- 
tion before the national college, or Htm-^m, is ne- 
cessary; but the very pinnacle of fame is only 
arrived at by being examined by the emperor him- 
self. Every literary honour confers the title of 
mandarin, and each degree is distinguished by a 
difference of the dress, which is, in some instances, 
very splendid. Genius and originality amongst a 
people so blindly enthusiastic in their admiration 
of the ancients, are considered rather a blot upon, 
than as an ornament to, the character of a student. 
Memory is the chief object of admiration — memory 
to repeat the greatest number of the wise sajrings 
of the ancient sages. 

From what has been already stated, it will be 
readily conceived that the titerahare of the Chinese 
is most extensive. ' Books,' says Mr. Medhiust, 
' are multiplied at a cheap rate, and to almoat an 
indefinite extent, and every peasant and pedlar 
has the common depositories of knowledge within 
his reach. It would not be hazarding too much 
to say, that in China then; are more books and 
more people to read them than in any other 


conntry in the worid. Amongst the 360,000,000 
of i:h inamcn, at leant 2,000,000 are literati.' (China 
Ofiened, i. 417.) Yet it mav appear strange that 
there is hardly one orighuu writer among them : 
it u generally believed m China, that whatever is 
to be known has alieadv been discovered and com- 
monicated by the ancient sages ; and should an 
author be bold enough to start any thing new, if 
that shooUl happen to vary in the smallest par- 
ticular from the orthodox writers, he would be 
severely punished. It is this which keeps the 
knowledge and civilisation of China at a stand- 
stiU. The historical writings are nothing more 
than elaborate chronologies ; and, where real dates 
ha\^ been wanting, the writers are suspected of 
having supplied them from their own imaginations. 
The scientific and philosophical works of the Chi- 
nee are by the * ten philosophers,' or Confucius 
and his disciples and commentators. Chinese lite- 
rature has, however, been in several respects un- 
juiitly depredated. It has been said, for example, 
that they are so ignorant and ostentatious as to 
fuppose that China occupies the centre of the 
world, and that it is surrounded with a few insig- 
nificant and petty territories, all its tributaries. 
But the accounts' that have been txanslated from 
Chinese writers of several foreign countries, how 
defective soever in many respects, are sufiicient to 
show that this is a most unfounded statement. It 
f^ena lughly probable that the vast empire of 
China will, notwithstanding the extreme conserva- 
tive character of its inhabitants, be graduallv led 
within the pale of Western civilisation and Euro- 
pean modes of thought. Recent events, among 
them a war with the two greatest nations of Europe, 
have powerfully contrilmted to this effect The 
hoarding, by Chinese soldiers, of a small vessel, 
the ' Arrow,' Oct. 8, 1856, and other trilling mat- 
ters, having led to a war between Great Britain 
and China, in which France was made to Join, the 
government of Pekin was in a short time reduced 
to such straits as to sue for peace on the most 
hnmiliatii^ terma. According to the stipulations 
of the treaty of peace concluded between Great 
Britain and China, June 26, 1856, the empire is 
open to European travellers, especially British sub- 
jects, while British men-of-war ma^ visit any 
Cliinese pMoct. More than this, it is stipulated that 
missionaries shall be allowed freely to preach the 
Ifospel of Christ, and that Christianity shall be 
tolerated throughout the Chinese empire. 

CHINACHIN, a lam town of Nepaul, N. Hin- 
dostan, 250 m. WN\^ Catamandoo. Its houses 
are ot brick and stone, with flat roofs : it has two 
Hindoo temples, and an export trade in horses, 
cow tails, sheep, salt, mask, drugs, and woollen 
cloth ; and imports metals, spices, cloth, Ac, from 
other parts of Hindostan. 

CHINAUB (an. Acesines), the laijg^t river of 
the Punjab, rishig in the Himalaya, m lat. about 
320 10' N., long. 37° 50' £. ; running at first with 
a NW. but aftmrards with a SW. course between 
the Ravee {Hydraatea)^ and Ihylum {Hydatpen). 
It unites with the latter river below I hung with 
considerable noise and violence, as remarked by 
the historians both of Alexander and Timour, and 
with the Sutlege (Hppkasis) near Ooch ; after 
which it joins the Indus, in lat. 2d<>, long. 70^ 30'. 
About 50 m, N. Lahore, it has been found to 
measure 1^ m. across in the month of July ; but, 
in the dry season, is there only 300 yards wide. 
It is no where fordable S. of the hills, though in 
many places easily crossed. Kishtawar, Yiziera- 
bad, and Ihung are on its banks. 

CHINCHILLA, a city of Spain, prov. Albacete, 
cap. dist., in an elevated situation, on the hi^h 
ruad £ram Valencia to Madrid, 146 m. S£. Madnd, 



72 m. NNW. Murcia. Pop. 6,044 in 1857. The 
city has a church, convent, a hospital, barracks, 
and an ancient ruined castle, which was partly 
restored during the war of independence. There 
are mines of silver in the neighbourhood ; and it 
produces earthenware and some coarse linen and 
woollen cloths. 

CHINCHOOR, an inl. town of Hindostan; 
prov. Aurungabad, pres. Bombay, on the road be- 
tween that city and Poonah, 10 m. NNW. the 
latter. Estimated pop. 5,000, including 300 Brah- 
min families. It is chiefly remarkable as the resi- 
dence of the Chintamun or Narrain Deo, an 
individual whose honours are hereditary, and who 
is believed by a large proportion of the Mahratta 
nation to be an incarnation of their favourite deity 

CHINGLEPUT, or «rte Jaghire; a distr. of 
Hindostan; prov. Camatic; pres. Madras; be- 
tween 12® and 14° N.. and intersected by long. 
80° E. ; having N. the distr. Nellore ; WS. Arcot ; 
and E. the Bay of Bengal Area, 2,253 sq. m. 
Pop. estim. at about 35(),(K)0. Surface generally 
low, but with hills intersi)ersed ; there are several 
rivers, the principal of which is the Palaur, which 
rises among the Nundydroog hills in Mysore, and 
after a winding course of 210 m., chiefly E., past 
Vellore, Arcot, Conjeveram, and Chingleput, falls 
into the sea, near Madras. There are some lakes 
and lagoons, or inlets of the sea, the chief of which 
is that of Pulicat Granite is the most abundant 
of the primitive formations, and often projects in 
detached masses firom the surface. Soil sandy 
and indifferent, and the country often barren, or 
overrun with low prickly bushes. Owing partly 
to the scarcity of water, but quite as much to the 
oppressiveness of the assessment, a laige portion of 
the land does not ropay the cost of cultivation ; 
but the rest supplies the Madras market with 
grain, betel, frut, oil, vegetables, &c; the pal- 
myra {borauuM flabelliformui) thrives without 
trouble, and is both cheap and abundant. There 
are no manufactures, excepting some of cloth. 
The great mass of the people are Hindoos. Chief 
towns, Chingleput and Conjeveram. This distr. 
was obtained by the E. I. Comp. in 1763, from 
the nabob of the Camatic, who rented it till 1780, 
when the Madras pres. assumed the entire control 
over it It was twice invaded by Hyder Ali, and 
was afterwards nearly depopulated by famine and 
emigration. During the present century it has 
been gradually recovering. 

Chikolbpijt (^Singhakip€tta)j an inL town of 
Hindostan; presid. madras, cap. of the above 
distr. ; in a small valley, in great part covered by 
a beautiful artificial lake ; 20 m. W. the Bav of 
Bengal, and 38 m. SSW. Madras; lat. 24° 46' N., 
long. 80° E. Though much reduced in extent, it 
has a fort of great strength, and in a good state of 
defence : the latter incloses an inner fort, in which 
the public functionaries hold their several courts 
and offices. 

CHINON, a town of France, d^p. Indre-et- 
Loire, cap. arrond., on the Yienne, 26 m. SW. 
Toun. Pop. 6,905 in 1861. The town was for- 
merly fortified; and the ruins of its walls and 
those of its castle are its most important and 
interesting objects. It has a court of primary 
jurisdiction, a commercial college, and some manu- 
factures of linen and woollen stuffs. The cele- 
brated Rabelais was bom within a short distance 
of Chinon, in 1483. 

CHINSURAH, an inl. town of Hindostan, prov. 
Bengal, formerly a Dutch settlement, but latterly 
transferred to the British government, on the \V . 
side of the Ho(M;hly river, 18 m. N. Calcutta, and 
about 2 nu NNE. Chandernagore ; lat, 22° 52' N., 



lonj^. 88<^ 28' E. In appearance it has quite a 
Dutch character. There are many small neat 
bouses, with green dcxjrs and windows. A pretty 
little square, with ^ass-plot and promenades, 
shaded by trees ; a fortified factory ; and a |;loomy 
old-fashioned government-house, are the more re- 
markable features. 

CHIO. See Scio. 

C'lIIOGdlA, or CHIOZZA (perhaps the Portm 
Kdro of the ancient*), a sea-j)ort town of Austrian 
Italy, prov. Venice, cap. distr., on an Lsland of the 
same name, at the S. extremity of the lagoon of 
Venice, 14 m. S. that city.^ Pop. 26,800 in 1858. 
The town is about 2 m. in circuit; well built; 
contains a wide and handsome street lined with 
porticos, a cathedral, hospital, orphan asylum, and 
theatre ; and is connected with the mainland by a 
stone bridge of forty- three arches. It has a har- 
bour with 17 ft water, protected by two forts: 
there are other batteries, and Chioggia is deemed 
one of the roost strongly defended points of the 
Venetian lagoon. It is a bishopric, and has an 
episcopal palace, a gymnasium, a high seminary, 
conventual female school, and an evening nidi- 
mental school attended by nearly 300 poor chil- 
dren. In ita vicinity are some important salt- 
works, which, together with the manufacture of 
corda^ the building of vessels, for which there 
are thirty-six slips, navigation, and fishing, occupy 
many of the inhab. Trade active in Italian and 
German produce, and facilitated by canals com- 
municating with the Brenta, Adige, and Po. 

CHIPPENHAM, a parL bor., town, and par. of 
England, co. Wilta, bund. Chip|)cnham, 87 m. W. 
London, 20 m. E. Bristol, on the Great Western 
railway. Pop. of municipal bor. 1,603, and of 
parL bor. 7,075 in 1861. The town is situated on 
the Avon, which is here crossed by a bridge of 
twenty-two arches. It is well built, paved, lighted 
with gas, and amply supplied with water. From 
its situation at the intersection of two great roads, 
the Malmesbury and the London and Bath lines, 
many daily coaches formerly used to pass it, and 
it liad a bustling appearance. It is now on the 
line of the Great Western railway, and a branch 
of the Berks and Wilta canal terminates in the 
town. The church ia a spacious structure of 
various dates, some portion being as old as the 
12th century: there are also several dissenting 
chapels, a free school for twelve children, and 
other charitable and benevolent institutions. The 
market, which was formerly very extensive, is 
held on Friday. There are lai^ cattle-fairs, 
May 17, June 22, Oct. 29, and Dec. 11. 

Though one of the oldest towns in the kingdom, 
Chippenham received no charter till 1554. Under 
the Municipal Kefcxm Act, it is governed by four 
aldermen and twelve counsellors, and the limits 
of the bor. have been extended for municipal pur- 
poses, so as to include the whole town and a pop. 
of about 4,000. The corporation revenue amounts 
to about 850/. a year, derived principally from an 
estate left for the maintenance of tne bridge and 
of a road to Derrj'hill in the vicinity. A court of 
requests for debts* under 40<. sita successively here 
and at Calne and Coisham. 

Chippenham has sent two members to the H. 
of C. from the reign of Edward I. Previously to 
the Reform Act, tne right of voting was restricted 
to the occupiers of 129 buiigage tenemeiita within 
the ancient bor. The extension of tlie limita of 
the pari. bor. by the Boundary Act has been no- 
ticed above. Registered electors, 375 in 18G5. 

CHIPPING NORTON, a town and par. of Eng- 
land, CO. Oxford, hund. Chadlington, 85 m. NW. 
London by London and North Westeni railway. 
Pop. 3,137 in 1861. The town b built partly on 


low and partly on high ground. It has a largo. 
(iothic church, with a low tower; a free school, 
fi)uii(ied by Edward VI. ; a sulwcription sch(.K>l, 
fur educating and clothing forty girls; and alnij*- founded in 1640. It returned twomenilx'r< 
to the H. of C. in the 30th of Edwartl I., and the 
32nd and 33rd of Edward IIL Its bailiflPs were 
empowered by a charter of James I. to decide 
actions under 40«. 

About 3 m. from Chipping Norton is the Rowl- 
drich monument, formed of upright stones, ar- 
ranged in a nearly circular form, lliis monument 
is ascribed by Dr. Stukeley, though probably with- 
out any good foundation, to the Druida. (See 


CHISWICK, a par. and village of England, co. 
Middlesex, Kensington div. of Ossukt^m hund., 
on the N. bank of the Thames, 4^ m. from Hyde 
Park comer by road, and 8^ m. from W^aterloo 
Bridge by. London and South Western railway. 
Pop. of par. 6,505 in 1861. The church, which 
has been frequently repaired and altered, has se- 
veral interesting monumenta ; and in Uie church- 
yard is the tomb of Hogarth. There are many 
tine v\l\tt& ; but the great oniament of the place 
LH Chiswick House, belonging to the Duke of 
Devonshire. It was built after the model of a 
villa by Palladio, by the famous Earl of Burling- 
ton, and has a choice collection of paintings. Tlie 
illustrious statesmen, C. J. Fox and (xeorge Can- 
ning, breathed their last in this villa. 

CHITORE, a city and stnmg fortress of Hindo- 
stan, prov. Rajpootana, and formerly the cap. of 
the rajahship of Ode^^poar, 64 m. EN^E. that city. 
The fortress, situated upon a rock scarped by na- 
ture and art to the height of from 80 to 12U ft., is 
surrounded by a rude wall with semicircnlar ba.*^ 
tions, the circuit of which is said to be 12 m., hut 
which incloses only a narrow, irregular, and dis- 
proportionately small area. Its outworks are mas- 
sive and striking, and its appearance picturesque : 
its interior contains numerous temples, several 
palace^ some minareta, one of which is a square 
tower of white marble, nine stories high, and tnir- 
mounted by a cupola; and many wells, fountaioi^, 
and cintems. All the public buildings are of Hin- 
doo origin, excepting one erected by a son of Au- 
rungzebe. The town, seated below the fortres.**, 
is chietiy inhabited by weavers and dealers in 

CHITTAGONG {Chatt^rgrama), a dist of IiidLi 
beyond the Ganges and Brahmaputra, but includeti 
in the prov. of Bengal, of which it forms the SE. 
extremity, lying chiefly between lat, 21° and 23** 
N., and long. 91° 30' and 93° E., having N. Tifv- 
perah, £. the country of the iudep. KJiyens, S. 
Arracan, and W. the bay of Bengal. Length, N. 
to S., about 165 m.; breadth uncertain. Pop. esti- 
mated at 790,000. The islands of Hattia, San- 
deep, and Bameeny, with Mascal and others con- 
tiguous to its shores, are under iLs jurisdiction. 
Its const, S. of the mouth of the Kamapbuli or 
Chittagong river, abounds with openings and har- 
bours ; but unfortunately none oi them are avail- 
able for ships of any size, their moutlia bein^^ 
choked up with sandbanks and shoaLs. Surface 
along the coast low and flat ; the interior is hilly; 
and the E. frontier is formed by the same exten- 
sive mountain chain which bounds S^^het, Tip- 
perah, and Arracan, to the £., and which in this 
portion of its extent varies from 2,000 to 5,600 ft. 
m height In this region many streams arise 
which disembogue on the Chittagong coast. Cli- 
mate in many respects similar to that of Bengal ; 
but the rains set in earlier, and last longer : in the 
hill region the crops often suffer from the inunda- 
tions of the moimtain toirents, as they do on the 


coast from invasions of the ftea. Chittagong is in 
many parts particularly healthT, and is, thei^fore, 
often frequented by Europeans from Bengal. Manv 
of the vallevs and plains possess so fertile a soil 
that very little labour insures redundant crops. 
Much of the country is ovei?jrown with jungle, 
and the whole of the mountain chain is covered 
n ith lofty forests. The hilly region, when cleared, 
is believed to be well adapted for the culture of 
c^ee, pepper, and spices. The low hills are inter- 
spersed with many hamlets inhabited by Mughs, 
who emigrated thither after the conquest of Arra- 
can by the Birmese in 1783, in the neighbourhood 
of which, on small plots of cleared land, they 
nis>e plantains, ginger, betel-leaf, the sugar-cane, 
cotton, indigo, tobacco, and capsicum. The hills 
in the N. are inhabited by Tripurah, Joomca, and 
other tribes, apparently without any dependence 
on particular chiefs; who cultivate cotton and 
rioe, apd rear hogs, goats, and poultry, which they 
exchange with the Bengalese for salt, iron, earth- 
enware, and fish. 

Notwithstanding the fertility of its soil, Chitta- 
gong is, upon the whole, but thinly inhabited: 
towards the end of last century it was estimated 
that there was twice as much unproductive hilly 
country as culti\'ated arable land. Landed pro- 
perty IS m<»tly divided into very small portions, 
among numerous proprietors, llie waste lands, 
when cleared, become liable to assessment under 
the decennial land settlement. Except on the 
s«!a-coast, towns and villages are very scarce. The 
Mughs or Arracanese inhabit either temporary 
hamlets, which they change tc^ether with the 
spots they cultivate, or else permanent dwellings 
about 40 ft. long by 20 broad, elevated on posts 
several feet from the ground, after the fashion of 
scwoe Ultra-Gangetic nations, ascended by a ladder 
or notched stick, and much more comfortable in 
their interior than the huts of the Bengalese pea- 
santry. The male Mugh pop. have adopted the 
dress and habits of Bei^al, while the females re- 
tain those of Arracan and Ava : all are Buddhist%. 
The Mohammedans in this dist. are to the Hindoos 
as 3 to 2 ; but are extremely tolerant, and have 
adopted many Hindoo habits and customs. The 
chief exports of Chittagong are timber, planks, 
canvass, coarse cloths, stockings, umbrellas, &c, ; 
on the sea coast salt, which is a government mo- 
nopoly, is extensively manufactured. Coal is be- 
lieved to exbt, but no mines have yet been worked. 
The elephants of Chittagong have been celebrated 
both for size and excellence. They are admirably 
adapted for the camp and the chase, and hunting 
them still forms a chief occupation of some of the 
forest inhabitants. Many were formerly caught 
and exported, yielding a considerable profit to the 
sovereign; the trade in them is now farmed by 
the government to a contractor. 

Chittagong probably once formed part of the 
extensive kingdom of Tripurah. In the sixteenth 
century it was successively possessed by the Aff- 
ghan kings of Bengal and the Arracan rajah ; in 
1760 it was finally ceded by its nabob to the 

CHITTELDROOG {Sitaia durga, the spotted 
castle), an inland town and fortress of Hindostan, 
prov. and dom. of Mysore, but occupied by a 
British garrison ; cap. of a dist., on a cluster of 
rocks at the extremity of a ridge of hills, 110 m. 
NNE. Seringapatam, 280 m. WNW. Madras; lat, 
14° 4' X., long. 76^ 30' E. The town, which 
stretches along the base of the droog or fortress at 
the NE., is surrounded by dilapidated ramparts of 
granite with round towers at intervals, a spacious 
ditch excavated from the rock, and a wide-spread 
glada : it is neither ver}* large nor populous, but 



its principal street is remarkably spacious. The 
fort, enclosed by the town, is probably the most 
elaborate specimen of a defended rock to be found 
in S. India ; an endless labyrinth of walls of solid 
masonry winds irregularly up to the summit, 
guarding every accessible point, and forming en- 
closure within enclosure ; the more exposed points 
are crowned with batteries, and the ascent is part- 
ly by steps, and partly by superficial notches cut 
in the rock, and scaled with great difficulty. Such 
is the intricacy of the works, that an enemy might 
be master of the outer walls and yet not materially 
advanced towards the reduction of the fort. The 
lower enclosure contains the former poligar*s pa- 
lace, now occupied by the British commandant, 
other ancient structures, the officers' bungalows, 
and a reservoir of good water which supplies all 
the town : in the other enclosures there are two 
other tanks, various Hindoo temples, a deep ma- 
gazine sunk in the rock, and a depot for ghee. 
At a short distance W. of Chitteldroog is a curious 
suite of subterranean chambers, apparently the 
former habitations of devotee worshippers of Siva. 
This station is noted above all others in India for 
the great variety and excellence of its fruits. 

CHIUSA, an inl, to¥m of N. Italy, prov. Coni, 
cap. mand., on the Pesio, 7 m. S£^ ConL Pop. 
6,314 in 1861. The inhabitants are chiefly occu- 
pied in the manufacture of silk goods and mirrors, 
and vine cultivation. The town is well built. A 
continuation of the ancient Emilian way passes 
through its vicinity. 

CHIVASSO, an inl. town of N. Italy, prov. 
Turin, cap. Mand, on the Po, in a fertile plain, 13 
m.NE. Turin. Pop. 8,734 in 1861. The town was 
formerly one of the strongest places in Piedmont, 
but is now surrounded by only a simple wall with 
two gates leading to two suburbs. It has a square, 
a church, and several convents, and some trade in 
com and cattle. 

CIIOLET, or CHOLLET, a town of France, 
d^p. Maine-et-Loire, cap. cant., on the Maine, 
12 m. SSE. Beaupreau, on the railway from Paris 
to Nantes. Pop. 12,753 in 1861. The town is 
finely situated, and had formerly several religious 
houses and a superb castle, destroyed during the 
revolution. Extensive manufactures of cottons 
were established here and in the neighbouring 
communes during the last century ; but the town 
having been the theatre of a battle, in 1793, be- 
tween tlie Vendeans and the republicans, the 
manufactures were all but destroyed, and the 
workmen either put to death or dispersed. In 
1 795, however, after the first pacification of Vendee, 
the expatriate manufacturers returned to Cholet; 
and, instead of being dispirited by their disasters, 
entered with fresh vigour on a new career of m- 
dustry, and have succeeded in carrying the manu- 
factures of the town and its \Hicinity to a higher 
pitch of prosperity than ever. At present there 
are establishments for the spinning of cotton and 
wool, with extensive bleach-fields and dye-works. 
A great variety of cotton, linen, and other goods 
are produced in the town. 

CHOLULA, an inL town of Mexico, state of 
La Puebla, in a fertile plain S. of the Cordillera of 
the Malinchc, 8 m. WNW. Puebla, and 64 m. SE. 
Mexico; lat 19° 2' 6" X., long. 98° 13' 15" W. 
Pop., when visited by Humboldt, 16.000 ; but it 
has fallen off in the intervaL It was compared by 
Cortez, in the earl}- part of the 16th century, with 
the most populous cities of Spain ; but it declined 
with the rise of Puebla. It still, however, cover.* 
a large space of ground, and the size of its great 
square indicates its past importance. It contains 
many churches, and regular and broad streets; tlie 
houses are mostly of one stor>', and flat roofed. 



There are some mannfactares of cotton cloth. 
The principal extant relic of its ancient grandeur 
in a huge pyramid, or teocaUiy to the L. of the 
town, now covered with prickly-pear, cypress, and 
other evergreen shrubs, and looking at a distance 
like a natural conical-shaped hill. As it is ap- 
proached, however, it is seen to consist of four dis- 
tinct pyramidical stories, the whole built with 
alternate layers of clay and sun-dried bricks, and 
crowned ¥rith a small church. According to 
Humboldt, each side of its base measures 439 
metres (1,440 ft.), being almost double the base of 
the great pyramid of Cheops (which stands on an 
area equal to that of Lincoln's Inn Fields) ; its 
height, however, is only 60 metres (164 ft.). It 
appears to have been constnicted exactly in the 
direction of the four cardinal points. The ascent 
to the platform on the summit is by a flight of 120 
steps. This elevated area comprises 4,200 s^. 
metres (5,028 sq. yds.). The chapel erected on it 
is in the shape of a cross, about 90 ft. in length, 
with two towers and a dome. It was dedicated to 
the Virgin by the Spaniards, and has succeeded to 
a temple of Quetzalcoatl, the god of the air. This 
pyramidal pile is, however, conjectured to have 
served for a cemetery, as well as for the purposes 
of religion; and Humboldt and other authorities 
r^ard it as bearing a remarkable anal(^y to the 
temple of Belus, and other ancient structures of 
the Oriental world. The Indians believe it to be 
hollow, and have a tradition that during the abode 
of Cortex at Cholula a number of armed warriors 
were concealed within it, who were to have fallen 
suddenly upon the Spanish army. At all events, 
it is certain that Cortez, having some suspicion or 
information of such a plot, unexpectedly assaulted 
the citizens of Cholula, 6,000 of whom were killed. 
In making the present road from Puebla to Mexico, 
the first story of this p^Tamid was cut through, 
and a square stone chamber discovered, destitute 
of an outlet, supported by beams of cypress, and 
built in a remaricable way, every succeedmg course 
of bricks passing beyond the lower, in a manner 
similar to some rude substitutes for the arch met 
with in certain Egyptian edifices. In this chamber, 
two skeletons, some idols in basalt, and some 
curiously varnished and painted vases, were found. 
There are some other detached masses of clay and 
unbumt brick in the immediate vicinity, in one of 
which, apparently an ancient fortress, many 
human bones, earthenware, and weapons of the 
ancient Mexicans, have been found. The view 
from the great pyramid, embracing the Cordillera, 
the volcanoes of La Puebla, and tiie cultivated 
plain beneath, is both extensive and magnificent. 
Cholula is surrounded by com fields, aloe planta- 
tions, and neatly cultivated gardens. (Humboldt, 
Kesearches, L 88, £ng. Trans.; Bullock; Six 
Months in Mexico, ppw 114-116 ; Ward, Antiq. of 

CHOOROO, an inL town of Hindostan, prov. 
Rajpootana, in a naked tract of sand liills, 100 m. 
ENE.'Bicanere; lat. 28^ 12' N., long. 74° 35' E. 
It is 1^ m. in circ., exclusive of its suburbs, and 
has a very handsome external appearance. The 
houses are all terraced, and, as well as the walls of 
the town, are built of a kind of limestone found in 
vast quantities in this part of the prov., of a very 
pure white, but soft, and apt to crumble. In 1817 
Chooroo was plundered bv one of Meer Khan's 
sirdars; in 1818 it was visited by a British de- 
tachment, and afterwards transferred to the rajah 
of Bicanere: its chief, however, is rather a de- 
pendent than a subject of that prince. 

CHORLEY, a par. and market to. of England, 
CO. Lancashire, hund. Leyland, on the Chor, 20 m. 
NW. Manchester, 8 m. *N. Wigan, and 175 m. 


NWN. London, by London and North Western 
railway. Pop. 15,013 in 1861. This thriving town, 
which takes its name from the stream near the 
source of which it is situated, stands on a rising 
ground about a mile above the confluence of the 
Chor and Yarrow. It is well built ; streets broad, 
lighted with gas, and abundantly supplied with 
water from a rescr\^oir, into which the stream is 
thrown up by steam machineiy. The par. church 
of St. Laurence is an ancient structure in the 
Norman style; that of St Geoige, a handsome 
edifice, was buUt by the pari, commissioners in 
1835, at an expense of 13,700/. The Independents, 
Unitarians, Methodists, and R. Cathohcs have 
places of worship, to some of which Sunday-schools 
(ire attached. A free grammar school was founded 
in 1634, and a national school in 1824. The town 
is governed bv a constable chosen anunally at a 
court leet. The increase of population — from 
4,516 in 1801 — is a consequence of the still more 
rapid increase of the cotton trade. As early as 
1790, spinning-mills Ix^an to be erected in the 
town. Exclusive of yam, the fabrics principally 
produced are muslins, jackonets, and fanc^ goods. 
Bleach-greens and print-works are established on 
the banks of the neighbouring streams. The coal 
mines in the neighbourhood have contributed 
greatly to the improvement of the town ; there are 
also valuable quarries of slate, and gritstone for 
mills, with lead and iron mines. The Liverpool 
and Leeds canal, which passes within half a mile 
of the town, and is joined by that from Lancaster 
and Preston at a short distance from it, afTords 
great facilities for conveying the produce of the 
factories and mines throughout all ^e N. counties. 
Markets are held on Tue^ay ; fairs on 26Ui March 
and 5th May for homed cattle ; 21st October for 
horses; and' 4th, 5th, and 6th Sept. for woollens 
and general purposes. 

CHOWBENT, or ATHERTON, a township of 
England, co. Lancashire, hund. W. Derfov, par. 
Leigh, 10 m. WNW. Manchester, and 6 m'. ESE. 
Wigan, Pop. 5,907 in 1861. This is a thriving 
place. Previously to the American war, the 
making of nails was extensively carried on hare ; 
and, though the manufacture has declined, con- 
siderable quantities are still made for exportation. 
It is also remarkable for several inventions and 
improvements in cotton machineiy ; and it is said 
that the value of the application of heat in the 
production of some kinds of cotton fabrics was di»- 
covered here. The Bolton and Leigh railway 
passes within a short distance of the town. 
Fairs, at which premiums for the best cattle are 
given, take place on the first Saturday in May, and 
the last Saturday in October. 

CHRISTCHURCH, a pari bor. and par. of 
England, co. Hants, New Forest, W. div., hund. 
Chnstchurch, 99 m. SW. London by London and 
South Western railway. Pop. of pari bor. 9,868, 
and of par. 7,042, in 1861. It is situated at tlie 
confluence of the Avon and Stour, about 1 m. from 
where their imited streams fall into Christchurcb 
Bay, 90 m. SW. London. The town presents no 
symptoms of activity or industry. No trade nor 
manufacture is carried on. The church was the 
collegiate one of the ancient prioiy, and is a large, 
fine structure ; the older part in the Norman, the 
rest in the earlier and later pointed styles : the 
fine tower is of the fifteenth century. It has a 
very ancient and curiously carved altar, and many 
beautiful chapels. There are also two episcopal 
chapels (one of them built by parliamenta^ grant 
in 1828, witJb 462 free sittings), a Roman CaUiolic 
chapel, a dissenting ditto, a nree school of uncer- 
tain foundation, educating ten boys, a national 
and a LancastriAn school^ and several small cha-» 


zitiea Market on Mondays : fairs. Trinity Thurs- 
day, and Oct. 17, for horMs and cattle. It returned 
two membcfirs to the H. of C. in 35th £dw. I. and 
in the 2nd £dw. II. No other return appears till 
the 13Ui of Eliz.; since which period it regularly 
letomed two members, till the Reform Act de- 
prived it of one of them. The franchise, pre- 
Tioujdy to this act, was vested in the corporation, 
which' oonasted of a mayor and an unlimited 
number of burgeases. The Boundary Act very 
materially extended the limits of the parL bor. 
Registered electors, 351 in 1861. The harbour 
has a shifting bar, with not more than 5 or 6 ft. 
water over it, so that it is accessible only at spring 
tides for the smaller class of coasters. There are 
several breweries In the town ; and the manufac- 
ture of watch springs employs a few hands. The 
name is derived from its ancient priory, of very 
remote origin. There are traces or many ancient 
camps and barrows in its vicinity. 

CHRISTIANIA, a sea-port town of Norway, of 
which it is the cap., on the Agger, at the bottom 
<^ a voT deep gulf or fiord, to which it gives 
name; 162 m. £SE. Bergen, 242 m. S. by E. 
Droatheim^ and 255 m. W. by N. Stockholm. 
Popu 44,212 in I860. The town is suironnded by 
an amphitheatre of hills, and its situation is ex- 
tremely picturesque. It is well laid out ; streets 
spadoua and regular, and some of them even 
handsome. Houws in the town all brick or stone; 
thoee of wood having been prohibited^ on account 
of the former frequency of fires. They are airy 
and well built, though seldom more than two 
fsturies high. In thebest quarters they are built 
round an open square court, and are generaUy oc- 
cupied by several &milies. It is the residence of 
the viceroy, and the seat of the diet ; has a cathe- 
dral, and three other churches ; a military and a 
lunatic hospital, two orphan asylums, a house of 
correction, a new town hall and exchange, and 
two theatres; but none of the pubHc buildings 
in any wise remarkable. Four suburbs part from 
the town as a centre, one of which is the old tO¥m 
of Opslo, from which Christian ia originated. In 
these, wooden houses are not prohibited ; and, as 
the suborbe are mostly inhabited by the lower 
classes, the dwellings are chiefly of wood. A short 
distance beyond the walls is the royal palace, a 
plain brick building of modem construction. The 
whole vicinity of Ui« town is sprinkled with the 
oonntry houses of citizens. The gulf of Christi- 
ania unites with the farthest N. point of the Ska- 
gerac: tlK>ugh in parta narrow, and difficult of 
navigation, it has deen water throughout, there 
being 6 or 7 fathoms close to the quay. Christi- 
ania is the seat of the higher courts of*^ law, and a 
university. The latter is attended by about 600 
students,' and has attached to it a public library, 
with 115,000 volume^ collecUons of natural hij»- 
ttriVand mineralogy, a museum of northern anti- 
qnitaca, an observatory, and a botanic garden. 
Here is a military school, with schools of com- 
merce and desi^, dementarjr schools, and several 
learned and philanthropic societies. Manufactures 
not verr extensive ; the chief are those of wool- 
lena. tobacco, glass, hardware, soap, leather, and 
cordage. Pxincipal exports, timber, deals, glass, 
iron and nails, smaltz, bones, oak-bark, and Mdted 
and pickled &ih, a staple mostly sent to Beigen. 
The deals of Chnstiania have idways been held 
in the highest estimation, in consequence of the 
sap being carefully cut away. Chnstiania was 
built by Christian IV., king of Denmark, in 1624. 

CHi^ISTIANSAND, a sea-port and fortifted 
town of Norway, near its S. extremity, cap. dio- 
cese of same name, dist. Mandahl, on the Ska- 
gene, at the head of a deep fiord, 160 m. SW. 



Christiania. Pop. 10,536 in 1860. The town is 
regularly laid out ; streets long and wide, houses 
generally built of wood, and separated by gardens. 
Chief public building the cathedral, a Gothic 
structure, and, next to that of Drontheim, the 
finest ecclesiastical edifice in Norway. Here is an 
asylum for the poor, a sail-cloth manufactory, and 
docks for the construction of vessels, ship build- 
ing being the principal branch of industry. The 
harbour is ve^ secure, and sheltered on nearly 
every side by lofty and rocky heights It is well 
supplied with fish ; and lobsters are taken in great 
numbers, and exported to the London maniets. 
Timber is another principal article of export. 
Christiansand ranks as the fourth town in Nor- 
way ; it is a bishopric, and the residence of a go- 
vernor. It was founded in 1641 by Christian Iv., 
king of Denmark, who intended 'to make it the 
principal naval port of his dominions. 

of the W. India islands belonging to Great Britain, 
lying about lat 1?^ 20' N., and long. 629 40' W., 
and about 50 m. W. by N. Antigua, of the govern- 
ment of which island it constitutes a part. Length, 
NW. to SE., about 15 m.; breadth in general 
about 4 iq,f but no more than 3 m. towards its 
SE. extremity, where it is divided by only a nar- 
row chaimel from the island of Nevis. Total area 
103 sq. m.; pop. 23,177 in 1851, and 24,440 in 
1861. The island contains many rugged preci- 

5 ices and barren mountains, the principal of which, 
fount Misery, an extinct volcano, rises to 3,711 
ft above the sea. The climate is healthy, but 
violent hurricanes sometimes occur. Of 43,720 
acres of land, the extent of the surface of the 
island, it is estimated that nearly half is unfit for 
culture. The soil of the plains, however, which 
is of a volcanic origin, intermixed with a fine 
loam, makes amends by its fertility for the barren- 
ness of the mountains.* Sugar is the great article 
of cultivation, the only articles raised in addition 
to it being a little cotton, coffee, and arrow-root. 
The value of the principal articles of produce im- 
ported into the U. Kingdom from St. Christopher's 
amounted to 68,3282. in 1850; to 134,3282. in 1855; 
to 166,6392. in 1860; and to 148,929 in 1863. The 
exports from the U. Kingdom to St. Christopher's 
were of the value of 92,4192. in 1850; of 96,0982. 
m 1855; of 158,0342. in 1860; and of 151,8852. in 
1863. The island is divided into nine parishes, 
and contains four towns, Basseterre, Sandy Point, 
Old Road, and Deep Bay. The first two are ports 
of entry established by law. Basseterre, in the 
SW., is the cap. It contains about 800 houses, 
and, as weU as Sandy Point and some other parts 
of the island, is defended by several batteries. St, 
Christopher's was discovered, in 1493, by Colum- 
bus, who gave it the name it bears ; but it was not 
settled tUl 1623, when a party of English took 
possession of it. After many disputes for its occu- 
pation with the French and Spaniards, it was 
finally ceded to Great Britain at the peace of 
Utrecht in 1713. 

CHUDLEIGH, a town and par. of England, 
CO. Devon, hund. Exminster. Area of par., 6,230 
acres. Pop. of ditto, 2,108 in 1861. The town, on 
an acclivity near the Teign, 8 m. S. by W. Exeter, 
consists chiefly of one wide street of well-built 
houses, being part of the main line of road from 
Exeter to Plymouth. The church is an old struc- 
ture amidst fine trees; the vicarage in the pa- 
tronage of such of the parishioners as have free- 
holds to the amount of 52. a year and upwards. 
There are two dissenting chapels, a grammar 
school, founded 1668, with a residence for the 
master, and three exhibitions to the university of 
Cambridge, a national school, and several charities. 




Market on Saturdays. Fairs, Easter Tuesday, 
third Tuesday and VVednesday in June, and Oct. 
2, for cattle and sheep. The serge manufacture 
was formerly carried on to some extent, but at 
present there is no manufacture of any kind, and 
the labouring part of the pop. are chietiy engaged 
in agriculture. Ugbrook I*ark, in the immediate 
neighbourhood (the seat of Lord de Clifford), is 
considered one of the (hiest in the kingdom. 

CHUMBUL (supposed to be the Sambut of 
Arrian), a river of Ilindostan, which rises in Mal- 

wah prov., and falls into the Jumna river, about 
25 m. below Etaweh, after a course of about 500 
m., generally in a NE. direction. 

CHUMPANEER, a town and large district of 
Hindostan, prov. Gujerat : tlie former, called also 
Powanghur, stands on a 8car))ed rock 25 m. NE. 
Baroda, and is supposed to have been the cap. of 
a Hindoo principality, before the Mohammedan 
rule in India. The remains of an ancient city 
stretch for several miles on either side of it. This 
town was taken by Humayoon in 1534, and by 
the British in 1803. 

CHUPRAH, a town of Hindostan, prov. Bahar, 
distr. Sarun, of which it is the cap., on the N. side 
of the Ganges, along which it cxtendsJbr nearly 
a mile; 33 m. W. by N. Patna. Pop about 
30,000. It has some trade in cotton and sugar. 

CHUQUIS ACA (formerljr La Plataor Charcot), 
an inland city of S. America, cap. Bolivia, in a 
small plain surrounded by heights, on the N. bank 
of the Cachimayo, and on the high road between 
Potosi and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 65 m. EXE. 
the former, and 220 m. SW. the latter; lat, 19° 
29' S., long. 66° 40' W. Estimated pop. 10,000, 
pretty equally divided amongst Spaniards, In- 
dians, and mixed races. The city contains a 
large and handsome cathedral, with some good 
paintings and decorations, several monastic es- 
tablishments with splendid churches, a conventual 
hospital, three nunneries, and a university. The 
best houses are but one story in height, but 
roomy, and have pleasant gardens : it is supplied 
with "water from several public fountains. The 
climate is mild; but the rains are of long con- 
tinuance, and during the winter violent tempests 
are not unfrequent. Chuqui^teca was founded in 
1539, made a bishopric in 1551, the seat of a 
Toval avdiencia in 1559, and an archbishopnc 

CIEZA, or ZTEZA (an. CaHna, or Cartda), a 
town of Spain, prov. Murcia, on the Segura, in a 
rich well-cultivated plain, 24 m, NW. cap. Pop. 
9,616 in 1857. llie town has convents for both 
sexes, a workhouse, public granary, d'C. ; with 
manufactures of coarse linens. On the opposite 
side of the river are ruins supposed by some to 
be those of the ancient Cartejcu 

CINCINNATI, a city of the U. S. of Amenca, 
Ohio, cap. CO. Hamilton, and, next to New Orleans, 
the largest and most flourishing commexcial town 
in the W. part of the Union, on the N. bank of 
the Ohio, about 410 m. W. by N. Washington. 
Pop. 24,831 in 1830; 46,338 in 1840; 115,436 in 
1850; and 161,044 in 1860. The town is buUt 
on two inclined plateaux rising from the river, 
one about 50 ft, higher than the other, and both 
running parallel to the Ohio. It is regularly laid 
out ; streets wide and clean, and intersecting each 
other mostly at right angles. They are generally 
lined with trees on either side, and most of the 
houses have a small enclosure in front filled with 
flowering shrubs. Houses mostly of red and 
particoloured brick ; but many ^ are Btuccoed, 
and a few are of stone. A square in the centre of 
the city is appropriated to public buildings. Here, 
and ill udier parts of tlie to^-n, arc numerous 

churches: the city has also the Cincinnati col- 
ic^, 2 theatres, 4 market-houses, one 500 fL in 
length, a court-house, medical college, mechanics* 
institute. Catholic athenieum, 2 museums, a 
lunatic asylum, with hospitals, and numennis 
schools. Manufactures extensive and increasuig : 
the principal are those of iron ; next in impor- 
tance are cabinet work, steam-boat building, and 
hat-making; the manufacture of cotton and 
woollen stuffs, and extensive distilleries and flour- 
mills. Cincinnati is the largest pork-market in 
the Union. Two-thirds of all the hogs fed in tlie 
foresta of Ohio, Kentucky, and W. Virginia, are 
driven here for slaughter and exportation. The 
buildings for this branch of trade are very exten- 
sive, and occupy many acres. 

The Ohio is 600 yards wide at Cincinnati, and 
na\-igable for small steam-vessels as far as Pitts- 
buigh, 464 m. higher. Lane Seminar^', founded 
in 1829, chiefly for theology, and situated aYx>ut 
2 m. from the city, has 2 commodious edifice's, 
and contains 100 rooms for students. It possesses 
a library of 10,000 volumes. One of the museums 
contains a number of enormous organic remainis 
and antique vases, excavated from some of the 
ancient mounds in Ohio. There are a great many 
religiouB and benevolent associations, several 
academies, a public library, and some excellent 
hotels. The pop. is composed of emigrants fmm 
all the states of America and most of the countries 
in Europe. There are said to be no less than 
30,000 German settlers. 

The advance made by Cincinnati has been won- 
derfully rapid. It was founded in 1789, and in 
1800 the population was only 500 ; in 1810, it was 
2,500; in 1815, about 6,500 ; in 1820, 9,600; and 
in 1860 it amounted, as already seen, to 161,044. 
Its picturesque situation, and the beauty of its 
environs and of the surrounding scenery, have 
gained for it the title of * Queen of the* West ;* 
while its central position, the abundance of its 
railway communication, and its rapid increase in 
population and commerce, make it probable that 
It will speedilv rival in wealth and importance 
the principal cities of the United States. 

CINTRA (3/oiw Cynthia), a town of Portugal, 
12 m. WNW. Lisbon. Pop. 4,460 in 1858. Tliw 
Richmond of the Portuguese capital is situated at 
the head of the rich and beautiful valley of the 
CoUaris, and at the foot of a rugged rock or moun- 
tain. The latter * is in part covered with scanty 
herbage ; in part« it rises into conical hills, formeirl 
of immense stones, aiid piled so strangely that all 
the machiner)r of deluges and volcanos must fail 
to satisfy the inquirer lor their origin. On one of 
the mountain eminences stands the Penha con- 
vent, visible from the hills near Lisbon ; on an- 
other are the ruins of a Moorish castle. Fn>in 
this elevation the eye stretches over a bare, and 
melancholy country, to Lisbon on the one side, 
and on the other to the distant convent of Mafra, 
the Atlantic bounding the greater part of the 
prospect,' (Southev's l<,etters, iL 202.) In sum- 
mer, the citisens of Lisbon resort on the Saturday 
nights to Cintra, where they spend the SundaTs, 
returning home on Monday. Alany of the nobility 
and the wealthier merchants, especially the En- 
glish, have villas in the \icinity of the town, 
which is as much celebrated for its fine air as for 
the beauty of its situation. It has also a palace, 
occasionally occupied by the court : in one of its 
apartments are painted the armorial bearings of 
all the noble families of Portugal. 

Tlie convention agreed to in 1808, after the 
battle of Vimiera, a memorable incident in the 
war with Napoleon, by which the French fortes 
under Junot, with their arms and artillery^ were 


conveyed to France, is usually described as the 
Convention of Cintra. 

CIOTAT (LA), a sea-port town of Frawce, de'p. 
Beaches da Rhone, cap. cant, on the W. side of 
the Bay of Leques, 15 m. SE. Maraeilles, on the 
railway firom Mar:%illes to Toulon. Pop. 8,444 
in 1801. The town is surrounded by an ancient 
rampart of considerable extent, and in a tolerably 
perfect condition. Streets regular, and well 
{ksved ; houses well built. It possesses some good 
quays^ a lai^ge par. church built in the 16th cen- 
tury, and a tine public promenade, but is ill-sup- 
plied with water. Its port, sheltered by a mole 
and defended by a fort, is commodious, secure, 
and accessible to vessels of 300 tons burden. A 
li;rfathou8e, in the fort, has the lantern elevated 
8-2 ft. above the level of the sea. Ships are built, 
and oil is manufactured here ; and it has a con- 
!>Merable trade in wines and dried fruits, the 
vicinity being interspersed with vineyards, olive 
gnjunds. and plantations of oranges and figs. La 
( iotat is said to occupy the site of the ancient 
Citkaruta ; the modern town was, however, 
f«>anded in the 13th century, and did not acquire 
municipal rights till 1429. 

CI KCAKS (XOUTHERN), a laige marit. prov. 
of Ilindostan, extending along its E. coast for 
470 m., between lat. KSP and 2(P N., and long. 
71**^ and 8^° E. ; ha>'iug N. and W. Orissa, Gund- 
wanah, and HyderaLiad, and S. and E. the Car- 
natic and the Bay of BengaL It comprises 
jxirtiomi of the ancient territories of Orissa and 
T<:ltngana. an<l, previously to the British rule, 
ci*it>i«ted of five divisions or * circars.' viz. Gun- 
t<j'>r, Cc»ndapilly, EUore, Rajamundry, and Cica- 
ci»le. At present it is wliolly included within 
the territories of the Madras presidency. Area 
i':>.760 sq. m. ; pop. estimated at 3,000,000. The 
tt^rritury L$ bounded W. by a chain of mountains 
continuous with the E. Ghauts, but no where of 
any great height. Vizagapatam, between lat. 
17^ and 19^ N., is the most mountainous district, 
and contains a ajnsiderable range of hills, running 
parallel to the former and to the coast, often 
cloMi'ly approaching the latter, and enclosing an 
extensive and fertile valley, t(^ether vnih. the 
princifial range. From (ranjam to Coringa, the 
cikB5t generally appears mountainous, but thence 
Ls low, flat, and sandy, with numerous small coast 
htreams. Chief ri\'ers, the Godavery and Krishna ; 
the first has an extensive and fertile delta at its 
mouth Iielow Rajamundry. The Chilka lake 
citnstitutes the X. limit of the prov. ; the only 
other lake of note is that of Colair m the Masulipa- 
tam distr. ; but several lagunes of some size are 
met with on the shores. A black soil prevails in 
the S. parts of the prov. highly suitable to the 
cultivation of cotton. S. of tjie Godavery the 
climate is extremely hot, and for a month pre- 
ceding the rains, the thermometer in the country 
n>und the month of the Krishna somedmes stanils 
fur a whole week at 110^ Fahr. ; in other parts 
it has been known to stand at 112^ at 8 o'clock 
in the evening, and at midnight as high as 108^. 
At such times, wood of all kinds readily warps, 
and glass cracks and flies in pieces; in all the 
liilly regions and round Masulii>atam, a very 
noxious state of the air prevails throughout the 
different seasons of vegetation. 

The circara are extremely productive of grain, 
and have long been the granary of Madras during 
the XK. monsoon, though at present the distr. of 
3ia!tulipatam annually imports large quantities of 
rice from Calcutta and Aracau for home consump- 
tion. Laxge crops of paddy and dry grains, cot ton, 
and tobacco of excellent quality, the sugar-cane, 
and esculent vegetables, are produced in the S. ; 


the same articles, with ginger, yams, turmeric, 
chilics, <S:c., in the central parts ; a great deal of 
sugar in the delta of tlie Godavery ; and wheat, 
maize, the sugar-cane, and an abundance of rice 
and other grains in the N. 

Agriculture is least advanced in Yizagapatam, 
owing chiefly to an oppressive revenue assess- 
ment : many of its hilLs are wild, and destitute of 
vegetation. In Masulii)atam distr. there are ex- 
tensive tracts of grass. The total number of black 
cattle in the circars is about 1,380,000, of sheep 
509,000. The Ganjam distr. is interspersed with 
numerous bamboo jungles. The forests of Ra- 
jamundry abound with teak, which tree is found 
no where else on the E. side of Hindoetan. The 
chief manufactures are chintzes, carpets, and cotton 
stuffs, in the central; and indigo, punjum cloths, 
muslins, and silks, in the N. distr. : the piece goo<U 
of the circars, which were formerly their staple, 
are now rather objects of curiosity than made in 
any considerable quantity. Rum was formerly 
distilled in the N.; the sugar of Ganjam is in 
much request, and exported in large quantities: 
the other exports are wax, salt, pepper, horns, 
ivory, indigo, tobacco, and other agricultural pro- 
duce. Th£ external trade is chiefly with Madras, 
Calcutta, Hyderabad, and the central Dcccan. 
The exports to Europe are chiefly fine cotton 
go<Kls: all the raw silk used is imported. The 
natives are mostly Hindoos; Mohammedans are 
few. The Orissa and Telinga races have become 
much intermixed, though they still retain dis- 
tinct dialects, and have distinct traits and customs. 
The villages consist of mud huts and houses ; but 
the peasantry are not on the whole incommo- 
diously lodged. The roads are amongst the worst 
in India, and unfit for wheeled carriages; there 
are but few tanks, bridges, or ferry-boats. The 
lands appear for a long i)eriod past to have be- 
longed either to the goveniment or to zemindars ; 
for no instance has occurred since the BritLsh Iiave 
come into possession of the prov. of any rj'ot claim- 
ing those cultivated by him. The chief" towns of 
the circars are, — Chicacole, Ellore, Coringa, drc, 
besides those which bear the names of the several 
districts. Religious temples are not numerous; 
but in Ganjam, where Juggernaut is the favourite 
object of worsliip, their architecture is peculiar; 
they consist of groups of low buildings, each with 
a graduated pyramidical roof, terminating in an 
ornamented conical cupola. In 1571, the rajah of 
Hyderabad conquered this prov., which, together 
with Hyderabad, fell under the dom. of Aurung- 
zebe, in 1687 : it however became again inde- 
pendent of the Mogul empire in 1724. The Eng- 
lish obtained the four most N. circars in 1765 ; the 
French had become possessed of Guntoor in 1752 ; 
but it also came into British possession in 1788. 

or TCHERKESKAIA, the hirgest and most im- 
portant country m the Caucasus, of which moun- 
tain-range It occupies nearlv the whole N. slope ; 
extendmg from 42<^30' to 45° 40', and from 
370 to 450 48' E. long. At ite NW. comer it 
reaches the Black Sea, but, with this exception, 
it is bounded on the S. and W. by the main ridge 
of the mountains which divide it from (.Jeorgia, 
Mingrelia, Imeritia, and Great Alichasia. The N. 
limit is formed by the rivers Kuban and Terek, 
which separate it from the lowlands of the C<is- 
sacks, Turkmans, Nogay Tartars, and the Russian 
colonies in the Caucasian steppe ; towards tlie E. 
it terminates at the junction of the little river 
Sunsha with the Terek, at which point a host of 
small streams divide it from the countr}' of the 
Tchetchentzes. In extreme length, from NAV. to 
SE., Circassia is about 470 m. ; in its greatest 



nv-idth, about 100 m. ; in its least, about 40 m., and, 
at an avera^i^e, about 70 m. Its area may there- 
fore be calculated at about 33,000 sq. m. Estimateft 
pop. between 3,000,000 and 4,000,000. (Gulden- 
Btadt, Keise durch Ruasland, i. 466-469 ; Pallas's 
Trav. in S. Russia, i. 298, 390-392, 395, 422, &c. ; 
Klaproth's Trav. in Caucasus and Georgia, pp. 252, 
811, drc; Lapi^, Annales dcs Voy., xii. 36.) 

Political Divisions, — Tlie Circassians are divided 
into a great number of tribes, who lead a partially 
wandering life, so that no very precise arrange- 
ment can be made with regard to the districts of 
their country. The £. portion, or that enclosed 
by the Terek, is divided by Russian geographers 
into two provinces — GreatKabardak^ to the SW., 
and LittU Kabardah, to the N£. These divisions 
are not, however, recognised by the Circassians, 
who know but of one Kabardah, and that in the 
SW. portion, called by the Russians Great (Klap- 
roth, p. 354.) Between the sources of the Kuban and 
Terek, and along the courses of those rivers, as far 
as they run N., the land is wholly occupied by a 
tribe called the Abbasinea or Abane\ and forms 
the LitOe Abasa of Pallas, the AUikeaek Abchaaia 
of Guldenstadt The Great Abaaa of Pallas, Ba- 
Btana of Guldenstadt, occupies likewise a very con- 
siderable part of the Kubanian Circassia ; among 
the rest, the Nottakhaitzi district, mentioned by 
Spencer. It appears, indeed, that the Absne are 
the lawful proprietors of all Kubanian Circassia, 
and that the Circassians have only the right of 
conquest to the W. portion of their country ; that 
right is, however, very fully established, not only 
on the N. slopes of the mountains, but even to a 
very great d^pree on the W. side, along the shores 
of the Black Sea (the Great Abchana of Gulden- 
stadt). Spencer makes but little distinction be- 
tween the Absne and Circassians, and frequently 
speaks of them as one people : this must, however, 
be an error, since the former display a very pecu- 
liar physical conformation, and their language, 
with the exception of a few Circassian words, is 
totally unlike tnat of their conquerors, and of every 
other known people, European or Asiatic The 
Circassian princes are cruel and oppressive tyrants 
to their Abassian subjects, so much so, that the 
latter have in many instances sought the protec- 
tion of the Russian government; out it does not 
appear that they are m any morad attribute supe- 
nor to their tadcmasters, smce in every age they 
have been infamous for their robberies by land, 
tbeir piracies by sea, and their reckless cruelties 
everywhere. (Guldenstadt, I 460, 463, 466, 469 ; 
Pallas, i. 383-391 ; Klaproth, pp. 247-263, 283, 
811; Spencer's Circassia, ii 412, &c.; W. Cau- 
casus, 1 20, 200, 212, 247, &c) 

Pkytical Features. — ^These have been generally 
described in the article Caucasus (which see), 
and what is peculiar to Circassia is only the con- 
sequence of that country's occupying the N. slope 
of the mountains. With the exception of the low- 
lands on the banks of the Kuban and Terek, the 
whole territory is broken into precipitous moun- 
tains, small table-lands, and valleys of the most 
picturesque and romantic description. Its hydro- 
graphy Delongs to two systems, the waters of 
Kabaraah being aU conveyed by the Terek to the 
Caspian, and those of W. Circassia by the Kuban 
to the Black Sea. The former river rises near the 
Kazibeck, and, forcing its way through the pass of 
Darid (an. Caucasian Gate), receives, directly or 
indirectly, thirty-five streams before it quits the 
Circassian country. Of these, the Malk, which 
joins it at its E. bend, is scarcely inferior in size 
to the principal river. It rises near the E. bases 
of the Elbours (Osha Makhua), and is itself the 
recipient of a considerable number of tributariesi 

The Kuban rises on the N. base of the Elbours, 
not far from the sources of the Malk, and receives 
the water of more than fifty rivers, thirty of which 
fall dire-ctly into its bed. \t has every reason to 
be considered, exclusively, a Circassian river ; for 
though no part of its N. bank be inhabited by 
Circassians, it does not receive a single drop of 
water, in. its whole course, that does not rise within 
their territory. A similar remark will apply, in 
a modified sense, to the Terek, which, like the 
Kuban, does not receive a single stream from the 
N., and only one of consequence after entering 
the Tartar country £. of Little Kabardah. The 
country between the sources of the Malk and Ku- 
ban is watered by various streams ; and when it 
is recollected that, in addition to these, innume- 
rable torrents pour from the upper ranges of tlie 
mountains, it will be evident (h&t no land can be 
better irrigated. The water is in general clear and 
good, but occasionally impregnated with mineral 
and other extraneous matters. The tributary 
streams become flooded in winter, and extremely 
shallow during the heats of summer ; Uie currents 
of all are extremely rapid, as are those also of the 
Terek and Kuban, except where the latter forms 
morasses, which it does in some parts of the flat 
countiy, when its course becomes sluggish, and its 
water thick and muddy. (Guldenstadt, L 469, and 
map; Klaproth, pp. 242—247, 255, 269, 261, 351, 
Ac; Pallas, L 385-889, 418-417; Spencers W. 
Caucasus, L 106; Circassia, ii. 412, et passim,) 

Climate, SoUj and Natural Productions, — ^These 
are also the same with those of the Caucasus gene- 
rally (see Caucasus), but the temperature is 
rather lower than on the S. slopes, except on tlie 
banks of the Kuban, where the greater depression 
more than compensates for the d^erenoe of aspect, 
and where the extensive marshes and the exuber- 
ant vegetation create miasma, which render it 
more pestilential than anyother district in the 
whole region. (Spencer's W. Cauc, L 106 ; Cir- 
cassia, iL 304.) There is a greater proportion of 
bare rock in Circassia than in Geoigia and the 
other countries S. of the main ridge, but on evexy 
shelf and in every rift, trees, g^'ain, vegetables, 
and fruit of almost every kind^ are pxtxluced from 
most fertile soil The animals, also, are on the 
same scale of abundance and variety, whether the 
wild or domesticated tribes be considered; the 

Quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, or reptiles. (See 
Iaucasus.) The Circassian horses are nearly aa 
famous and quite as good as those of Arabia. 
Cattle of all kinds are abundant in the extreme, 
and in addition to the herds forming the numerous 
stocks of the pastoral population, the aurochs and 
aigali (wild ox and sheep) stiU wander among the 
mountains, with the ibex, and another beautiful 
variety of the goat. Game of all kinds, winged, 
hoofed, or clawed, are found in equal abundance, 
but differing in kind, in the mountains and plains ; 
nor are beasts of prey, as jackals, wolves, bears, 
lynxes, and tiger cats, ^c, much less numerous, 
though they do not seem to be much regarded by 
the natives. Wild boars are found, especially 
among the swamps of the Kuban, and it is afikm^ 
that the tiger is not wholly unknown. The rep- 
tile and insect tribes are equally numerous, in 
one of the late campaigns or the Russians, besides 
the thousands who fell victims to the bad air, 
numbers died J'rom morHfied bites of mosquitoe*, 
(Spencer's Circassia, ii. 917.) Both natives aiid 
Russians believe that the mountains abound in 
gold and silver, but apparently on no good grounds. 
(See Caucasl'B.) Iron, however, lead, and cop|>er 
are found ; and saltpetre is very abundant. Salt 
is nowhere found within the limits of Circasjda ; 
and since Russia has excluded the natives from 




the brine pits in the Caucasian steppe, and sealed 
their ports af^ainst the trade of Turkey and Persia, 
they nave been almost totally deprived of that 
nei^essarv. (Goldenstadt, L 188, 441, &c ; Pallas, 
L 339-^80, &c ; Klapioth, pp. 309, 324, 356, et 
passim; Spencer's Orcassia, il 220, 233, 242, 250, 
;j05, 317; W. Cane, I 330-341, ^c.) 

ImhMknUs, — The Circassians have long been 
pfovctbial for their beauty of form and figure, espe- 
cially the women, and though it seems they have 
in this respect been confounded with the Georgians, 
who are a totally distinct nation, yet all the 
statements of the modem, and most accurate tia- 
vellera, concur in describing them as an extremely 
handscMiie people, tall, finely formed, slender in the 
loins, small in the foot and hand, elegantly fea- 
tured, with fresh complexions, and extremely in- 
telligent countenances. (Pallas, i 398 ; Spencer, 
passimkj Ac.) It would be well did their moral 
and intellectual attainments correspond with their 
physical appearance ; but it is obvious, even from 
the statements of their eulogists, that they are 
mere semi-bariMuians, whose darling occupation Is 
robbery and plunder, and who seem to be radi- 
callT deficient in most of the requisites necessary 
to fe>nD a civilised and flourishing community. 
They have many points in common with the 
Arabs ; and, like the sons of Ishmael, are quite as 
barbarous at the present day as in antiquity. 

The Circassians are divided into five classes. 1. 
Psehi, or pseheeh (princes) ; 2. Uork (ancient 
nobles) ; 3. the freedmen of these princes and an- 
cient nobles, who, by their manumission, become 
themselves noble, and are called uork of uork ; 4. 
the freedmen of these new nobles, called begualia ; 
and 5. the vassals or tcKkoA, Betweoi tl^ ancient 
and recent nobilitv there is no real distinction, ex- 
cept that, in military service, the latter are still 
under the command of their former masters -, nor 
i<« there any great practical difference between the 
begualia and the tcho^kolt, or vassals. The latter 
are, of course, the labourers ; and are subdivided 
into such as are engaged in agriculture, and such 
as serve the superior classes in the capacity of 
menial servants. Of the former, many are wealthy, 
nor is the state of any, one of great degradation, 
nnce there are very few, if any, offices of labour 
which prince or noble would consider as derogatory 
to himself. To every princely house belongs a cer- 
tain number of uork, or tcsdm, as they are called 
by the Russians ; and the latter are the direct pro- 
piietoEB of the vassals. Of these last, though all 
are nnqucstionably slaves, those engaged in agri- 
culture cannot be sold singly ; and the sale of any 
is so rare as almost to be prohibited by custom. 
i m the other hand, it appears the vassal mav trans- 
fer his duty to another usden : which is, of course, 
a great protection from ill usage. The vassals pay 
no money tax, and though they are comi>clled to 
supply their loud with all he wants, yet this, from 
the check upon the noble's power just alluded to, 
extends no farther, usually, than to bare necessa- 
ries : since, should the latter carry his demands txx) 
far, he runs the risk of losing his vassal altogether. 
The relation between prince and usden is precisely 
the same as that between usden and vassal ; the 
noble muHt supply the necessities of his sove- 
reign ; but should the exactions of the latter be- 
cmDe excessive, the furmer may transfer his alle- 
giance to another prince. The usden must pay 
the debts of their juince, and the vassals those of 
their iwden; and, m each case, the inferior must 
make good all losses sustained by his superior, 
whether from robbery or accident ; by which ar- 
rangement it b eindent that all losses or expenses 
are defrayed, ultimately, by the vassal. The head 
of the prmeelv house is the leader in war ; and his 

usden are bound to attend him with all their re- 
tainers, or as many as may be required. There 
is no people, not even the Arabs, among whom 
pride of birth is carried to a greater height than 
among the Circassians, especially those of Kabar- 
dah. In this district, if an usden were to marry 
or seduce a princess, he would forfeit his life with- 
out mercy ; and the same result would attend the 
attempt of a begualia or vassal to ally himself, to 
a noble house ; an Abassian prince is, in this re- 
spect, considered equal only to a Circassian usden, 
and can obtain a Circassian wife only from that 
class. The rigorous enforcement of tliis ciuitom 
has preserved the different ranks very distinct, 
though Pallas has obser\'ed, even in the Kabar- 
dalis, s(mie traces which indicate a descent from 
Tartar mothers. (I. 398.) It must be observed, 
however, that there does not appear to be any re- 
striction upon a man's taking a wife or concubine 
from an inferior class ; and the issue of such con- 
nexions take rank from the father, but are not ac- 
counted equal to the descendants of a pure stock 
from both parents. Thus there are princes of the 
Ist, 2d, and 3d class, &c, according to the greater 
or less degree of inferior blood which they inherit 
from their maternal ancestors. ThLs state of so- 
ciety, closely resembling the feudal institutions of 
the Gothic ages, seems to imply the division of the 
Circassians into two distinct people, a conquering 
and a conquered race; but when or how the pre- 
sent relations were established is involved in ob- 
scurity. (Klaproth, p. 314, et Beq.\ Pallas, L 395, 
402 ; Spencer, passim.) 

Customs, Habits, and Manners of the Circassians. 
— The whole of the Circassian and Abchasian 
tribes live in small villages scattered here and 
there, without the slightest approach to anything 
resembling a city or walled town ; indeed, the 
prince or noble has an unconquerable aversion to 
any castle or place of artificial strength, which he 
regards as only fitted to restrain his state of wild 
freedom. He lives, therefore, in the centre of his 
village, which usually consists of 40 or 50 houses, 
or rather huts, formed of plaited osiers, plastered 
within and without, covered with straw or grass, 
and arranged in a circle, within the area of which 
the cattle are secured at night. These primitive 
dwellings, which strongly resemble, in form and 
appearance, the humbler residences in Arabian 
towns, have, however,the peculiar recommendation 
of being unexceptionably clean, which is also the 
case with the persons, dress, and cookery of the 
inmates. From the slender nature of the build- 
ings, they are evidentl}' not formed for long endur- 
ance, and a Circassian village is, in fact, by no 
means a fixture. The accumulation of dirt in their 
neighbourhood, the insecurity of the position, and 
frequently even the caprice of the inhabitants, 
cause them to be from time to time abandoned. 
On such occasions the dwellings are destroyed, 
the household utensils (lacked up, and th^ 
whole colony migrate in search of a new abode. 
While stationary, however, there is mucli comfort 
in a Circassian's tiovel, for those who can dispense 
with superfluities; but, as may be supposed, their 
domestic arrangements are of the most simple 
kind. The usual occupations of the higher classes 
are the chase and war, on which expeditions, or 
on those of a predator}- kind, they depart with no 
other provision than a little millet, or wheat, and 
that without the slightest fear of suffering from 
want, since every man who possesses and can use 
a rifle is sure of finding proviMiotis on every hedge. 
In these expeditions the CircasHians carry with 
them tent covers of felt, but chiefly for tlie purjiose 
of protecting themselves from sudden storms (see 
Caucasus), as, in fine weather, the hanlv moun- 




taineer throws himself on the ground, and sleeps 
with no other covering than the heavens. While 
in his hut, the Circassian of whatever rank is his 
own carpenter, weaver, car\'er, and shepherd. It 
does not appear, however, that the higher classes 
often take part in agricultural pursuits, not so 
much because it is considered derogatory, as from 
that species of indolence (ouite consistent with 
great occasional exertion) wnich recoils from re- 
gular and continuous labour. The occupations of 
the women consist in spinning and needle-work. 
They make Ihe clothes of their household down 
to the very shoes, and also saddle-cushions, hous- 
ings, and horse trappings, and sheaths for the 
warriors' swords and poniards. They frequently 
excel in embroidery, are skilful dairy-women, and 
sometimes even noblewomen may be seen taking 
a part in field labour. As in other half-barbarous 
societies, the greater portion of labour falls upon 
the females ; but their condition is far superior in 
Circassia to what it is in most other Eastern 
countries. As Mohammedanism is little more 
than a profession among these people, their habits, 
with the exception of some formal observances 
W^ith regard to food, have undergone but little 
change by its introduction. The sexes mix freely 
together 'while unmarried, and, under the restric- 
tion of caste, love matches are probably as nume- 
rous here as in other parts of the world. The hus- 
band has, however, to purchase his bride of her 
father, and neither husband nor wife, from the 
moment of their union, is permitted to appear in 
the presence of the parents for a year, or till the 
birth of the first child. It is a still more remark- 
able custom, that the husband must never be seen 
in company with his wife ; and though the latter 
is permitted to receive without restramt the visits 
of strangers, yet the former is never present on 
such occasions, and the matrimonial correspond- 
ence is always carried on by stealth, and in the 
utmost secresy. 

The greatest insult that can be offered to a 
prince, or usden, is to inquire after the health of 
his wife or famUy. The son of a prince is com- 
mitted, at the age of three days, to the care of an 
usden, by whom he is brought up, and never 
again seen by his father till he is married ; the 
son of an usden remains in the paternal household 
till he is three or four years old, when he, in like 
manner, is consigned to the care of a stranger. 
The foster father stands in every respect in the 
place of the natural parent He receives no pay- 
ment for his trouble, but claims all the duty and 
service of his ward. The cause of this Ver>' re- 
markable custom is said to be the wish to prevent 
the effect of indulgence consequent on a home 
education, in enervating the character ; but though 
it destroys the usual affection subsisting between 
father and son, it establishes another not less 
strong between the guardian and his ward, which 
is usually as intense as any exhibited in the 
social connections of other countries. The daugh- 
ters are brought up at home, and at the age of 
ten or twelve years have their waists enclosed by 
tight-fitting stays, or a broad band of untanned 
leather, which is never removed nor loosened till 
they are married. On the wedding night the 
bridegroom cuts this boddice open with his dag- 
ger, an operation which is frequently attended 
with danger. As a fine waist is considered the 
great beauty of a Circassian, men are also sub- 
jected to a very heavy compression on that part, 
but nothing to that which the females endure. 
The girdle remains on the latter for a period vary- 
ing from tw^o to six years, (a girl unmarried at 
seventeen larely obtains a husband,) during which 
the victim is growing, and, in addition to this, 

they are, still farther to improve the form, so 
sparingly fed, that the young unmarried female^-t 
have generally a look of ill health. The finest 
looking women are the young wives. 

The dress of both sexes is rather long, that of 
the men consisting of shirt, tunic, and cloak, 
much resembling those of the Kalmuck Tartars, 
but formed of better materials, and in general 
richer ; the female costume is not very different, 
except in being longer. According to the plate 
(18, p. 398) in Pallas's first vol., the outer robe 
reaches to the instep, and is furnished with hang- 
ing sleeves. The men shave or crop the he»l, 
leaving only a single lock of hair hanging from 
the crown ; they wear thick mustachios, and the 
learned classes (priests and phj^sicians) suffer the 
whole beard to grow. The women's heads have 
luxuriant tresses, but both sexes eradicate ever>' 
appearance of hair on all other parts of their 
bodies, by means of a caustic ointment of un- 
slaked lime and orpiment. llie princes and usden 
rarely go out unarmed, and in his coat of mall, 
helmet, musket, pistols, bow, quiver, and shield, 
the Circassian chief forms a most imposing and 
picturesque object. In this dress they pay their 
visits of state, and in this also they ride out on 
their warlike or predatory expeditions. The Cir- 
cassian, like the Arab, is a strange mixture of 
ferocity and hospitality ; the unfortunate travel- 
ler who approaclies his country without securing 
the protection of some chief, is seized as a slave 
by the first native who meets him ; but, on the 
other hand, should this protection be extended, 
the whole power of the host, or ktmak^ as he is 
called, is strained to procure i^ot onlv tJie safety, 
but accommodation, of the guest. iThe form of 
granting protection is remarkable. The wife of 
the konak gives the stranger her breast to suck, 
after which ceremony he is regarded as her son, 
and the whole tribe as his adopted brethren. 
Robbery and plimder are honourable occupations ; 
but the charge of thieving is accounted an insult, 
because it implies detection. The custom of blood 
revenge is precisely similar, in all its details, to 
the same custom in Arabia (see Arabia), and i» 
known by a name thUJ-ncuaj which is said to be 
similar in etymology to the thar of that country. 
The ransom by fine is, according to Pallas (L 40o), 
never taken; but Spencer (Circass., iL 882), on 
the contrary, affirms, that it is almost always pre- 
ferred. The exclusiye nature of Circassian mar- 
riages has been already noticed It is, however, a 
little inconsistent, that while a Circassian prince 
would unhesitatingly slaughter an usden of hi^ 
own tribe, or Abchasian, who should presame to 
wed his daughter, he wiH unhentatingfy tell her to 
Turk, Persian, Turcoman, Nogay Tartar, or Kal- 
muck ! Spencer, who professes to admire ever>' 
institution of Uiese people, has ingeniously dis- 
covered (Circass., ii. 873) that this practice has 
tended to refine and civilise the inhabitants of tlie 
Caucasus ! He admits, indeed, that it has occa- 
sioned wars and feuds innumerable among the 
petty tribes, from the rapacity with which they 
nave overrun each other's territory in search of 
beauty for the foreign market. Trtie greater por- 
tion of the females thus sold have, however, 
always been Imeritians, Georgians, and Mingre- 
lians; the Circassian slave trade having lieon 
chiefi^'' confined to the male sex, from which they 
supphed the Mamelukes and other slave troops of 
Egypt and Turkey. The fact is, that the safv- 
pression of this infamous traffic by the Russians 
has been one of the main causes of the resistance 
made to their government by the Circassian 
chiefs. (Pallas, i. 396-409 ; Interiano, la VitA de 
Zichi, &c., pp. 1-10 ; KUproth, pp. 815-^20,822- 


.n2o. tc ; Spencer's Ciresaa^ u. 223, 233, 242, 246, 
325, 375, 3W. Ac.) 

Z<aK«. — The^ mif^ht have been included in the 
lik^t article, since they rest onlv on lonf(-€«tab- 
lished custom. They are administered in a coun- 
cil of elders, bat not always by the reigninfs: prince 
of the tribe, if any other of his rank jiosweM the 
n-quuiite qualities in a higher degree. The council 
otnsi^ta not of princes and usden only, but also of 
the wealthier and more aged vassals, who, in the 
judgment-seat, are regarded as on an equality 
with the higher classes. The laws themselves are 
ba.«cd upon the principle of retaliation, and the 
l>Tti»inefl0 of the court seems to consist of little 
ehe than the aMessroent of damages. Robbery of 
a prince is punished by the restitution of nine 
times the property stolen ; of an usden by simple 
n.-$itituti<m, and a fine of thirty oxen. The prince 
or oiiden can scarcely commit a robbery on a vas- 
sal since his abstract right to all the property of 
the latter is tacitly acknowledged, and the punish- 
ment of robberr by one vassal of another appears 
to vary with the cirvumstances of the case. Fine, 
ft* among the Arabs, seems almost the universal 
pnnishraent, except in cases of murder and adul- 
tery ; in both which cases the punishment is left 
in the hands of the injured party. The ofltending 
wife has her head shaved, her ears slit, the sleeves 
of her garment cut off, and in this trim is sent 
back, on horseback, to her father, who, if he can- 
nt»t sell, generally kills her. The paramour is 
certain of death, being a marked man by all the 
hiL^hand's tribe. Polygamy is allowe<l, out very 
rarely practised. The Circassians are very atten- 
tive to their breeds of hones, and have dUitinct 
marks to show the noble races from which they 
have descended. The stamping a false mark upon 
a filly is a forgery, for which nothing but life can 
atfjne. (Klaproth, p. 319 ; Pallas, i. 411 ; Spencer's 
Circassia, iL 382, ac.) 

Leaning is a complete blank. The people, from 
whom Blnmenbach took it into his head to sup- 
poi«e that the Europeans are mostly all descended, 
have not even an alphabet, and consequently 
neither book nor manuscript in their own lan- 
guage. The few who read, and they are very 
fow, oae the Tartar or Arabic tongues, both of 
which, the former especially, are very generally 
understood. The Circassian language is itself 
tfitally diflerent from any other at present known, 
and what is singular, considering the total al> 
•Nroee of letters, there is a secret dialect, apparently 
an <4d bariMrous gibberish, peculiar to the princes 
and nadcn, and used by them chiefly on their 
preilatory excursions. (Klaproth, p. 321 ; Pallas, 

Art», MastmfatturtMy Commerce, — These also are 
at the lowest ebb; the doctx>rs are simply con- 
jurr^rs or sainta, who profess to cure diseases by 
chaims and the roughest applications of actual 
cautery. Their success may be surmised from the 
fact, that notwithstanding the length and in- 
vet4^racy of the war with the Russians, scarcely a 
mi^le instance of a maimed Circassian warrior is 
to ifn met with : to be wounded among these peo- 
ple b to die. Of artificers and skilled mechanics 
th<»ie are only cutlers, armourers, and ^Idsmiths, 
who, however, exhibit great ingenuity in the con- 
fitruction and decoration of the warriors' arms. 
The art of preparing gunpowder has been known 
for ag» in the Caucasus, and the abundance of 
r^tpetre renders the inhabitants independent of 
other countries for this important element of war- 
fsre ; tlieir mode of manufacture is, however, very 
primitive. *It has already been stated that the 
women are the great manufacturers of clothes, 
which may be said to be the only manufacture 



which these people possess. They formerly tradoft 
with Persia and Turkey for their chain and other 
armour, and with Tartar tril)es northward for salt, 
the equivalents on their parts l>eing their children 
and cattle. The Ru.s^ians have annihilated both 
trades ; and this, as already stated, is one great 
cause of the hatred entertained against them by 
the Circassians. (Klaproth, p. 323 ; Pallas, i. 400, 
dec. ; Spencer, ii. 246, dbc.) 

Natne, History.— The word Teherkeana is Tartar, 
and literally means out the road ; that is, high- 
wayman or robber, one who makes communication 
imsafe. The general name for these people, in the 
Caucasus, is AojorA, whence it has been inferred 
that they are of the same race with the (Cossacks 
of the Don and the Wolga ; but et>Tnology has 
indeed run mad upon this point; /or this term, 
like the former, has a general, not a national, sig- 
nification, and means a roan who leads a wander- 
ing and martial life. The Circassians themselves 
rec()gnise neither term ; they style themselves 
Adige^ which has been derived by siime authorities 
from the Turco-Tartar adah (island), whence it 
has been inferred that these people came originally 
from the Crimea. This may be the case, but it 
acquires no strength from the etymological pnwf, 
since the Circassians have no word for island (how 
should tliey, being necessarily ignorant of the 
thing?) and their language, as before ol>ser\'ed, 
has no connection with either Turkish or Tartar. 
From a resemblance in sound Ixjtween the Tartar 
name {Tchetke»s), they have been pretty generally 
supposed to be identical with the /ygo^ (Zi/yoi) of 
Strabo (ii. 129, xL 492). (Stephen of IJyzantium, 
art. Ziryol, and Procopius, De Rel. ficit, iv. 4.) 
This, again, is not improbable, but the premitfcs 
are far too weak and uncertam to found a conclu- 
sion upon. The Kabardlnes have a tradition that 
they are Arab (Pallas, I 392); but in the W. 
mountains they say that before their ancestors 
arrived here, the huid was inhabited by men so 
small, that they rotie hares instead of horses 
(Spencer's Circass., ii.) ; and, as to the time when 
this settlement took place, they are profoundly 
Ignorant. Among all this confusion, naturally to 
be expected in speaking of a barbarous and but 
little known people, all that can be inferred with 
certainty is, that the Circassians have inhabited 
their mountains for many centuries, and that they 
have always been the same hardy, reckless, daring 
robber warriors, that we find them at this hour. 
Christianity is supposed to have found its wav 
among them in the ver>- early part of the Christian 
era; but, in the palmy days of Turkish power, 
they nominally embraced Moluimmedanism, pre- 
serving, however, many Christian ceremonies, and 
acknowledged a kind of doubtful dependence on 
the Porte. Their first connection with Russia took 
place in 1555, when the princes of the Besch Tag 
submitted to the Czar Iwan VaKsilievitch. Frxira 
that time the Russian power has been constantly 
increasing in the Caucasus ; and, by the treaty of 
Adrianople (1830), Turkey made over to it 'the 
whole Circashian country. Ry the end of 18(54, 
Russia had become master of the whole of Circassia, 
and introiiuced her own form of government 

CIRENCESTER (usually called «V;efer),aparL 
bor. and par. of Enghmd, co. (Gloucester, hund. 
Crowthome, on the Churn, 89 m. VV. by N. Lon- 
don by road, and 95 m. by (ireat Western railwav. 
Pop. 6,336 in 1861. The limits of the pari bo*r. 
are identical with those of the par. The town is 
on the line of road from Oxford to Bath, and con- 
sists of four principal, and several smaller streets, 
paved and lighted : houses mcMtly of stone, and 
well built ; many of the more respectable are de- 
tached, and have shrubberies nmnd them. Portions 

u 2 



of its ancient walls (2 m. in circuit) are still trace- 
able, showing that the modem town occupies only 
a portion of the ancient site, a large part of the 
enclosed area, on the SE., being occupied by gar- 
dens and meadows. The church is in the decorated 
style of the 15th century, with a lofty tower, and 
several lateral chapels and ancient monuments of 
great interest ; both within and without, it is ela^ 
borately ornamented, and is one of the finest par. 
churches in England. There are four dissenting 
chapels ; a free grammar-school, founded in the 
reign of Hen. VII., which had Dr. Jenner for a 
pupil; blue-coat and yellow-coat schools with 
small endowments, clothing and educating about 
forty children ; three ancient hospitals, or alms- 
houses, and several other charitable institutions. 
In the vicinity is an agricultural college of con- 
siderable repute. The building, about 1^ m. from 
the town, is in the Elizabethan style, the principal 
front being 190 ft. in length, and commanding an 
extensive view. It includes a private chapel, 
dining hall, library, museum, and lecture rooms. 
An experimental farm of about 450 acres is at- 
tached to the college, and it has extensive kitchen 
and botanical gardens. The course of instruction 
comprises the science and practice of agriculture, 
chemistry, natural history, veterinary practice, 
surveying and practical engineering. Tne busi- 
ness of education is carried on by a principal and 
professors, under the superintendence of a council 
of noblemen and gentlemen. Cirencester is a poll- 
ing place for the E. div. of the co. ; and has itself 
returned two mem. to the H. of C. from the Idth 
of Eliz., the franchise previously to the Reform 
Act having been vested m the inhab. householders 
being parishionera. Registered electors, 439 in 

Cirencester was the Corinium of the Romans ; 
and was a place of considerable importance from 
its being situated at the intersection of three mili- 
tary roads. Numerous Roman remains have been 
dincovcred ; and near it is an amphitheatre (now 
called the Bull-ring), being an eUipse of 63 by 43 
^ards, enclosed by a mound 20 ft, high, on the 
inner slope of which were turf seats, which are still 
})nrtially traceable. A magnificent abbey of Black 
Canons was founded here by Hen. I., whose abbot 
was mitred, and had a seat in parL Its revenue 
at the general dissolution was 1,051/.; some slight 
remains of it still exist. Oakley Park, the seat of 
Earl BaUiuret, is in the immediate vicinity. The 
ancient annalist, Richard of Cirencester, was a 
native of the town. 

ClUDAD DE LAS CASAS (formerly Oudad 
Real) J an inl. city of Mexico, cap. of the state of 
Chiapas, in a fertile plain near the border of Gua- 
temala, 450 m. SE. Aiexico. Pop. about 4,000, one- 
eighth of whom are Indians. It has a cathedral, 
another church, and several chapels. It was the 
see of the celebrated bishop Las Casas, the protector 
of the Indians, to whose memory a monument is 
here erected. 

ClUDAD REAL, a city of Spain, prov. Ciudad 
Real, of which it is the cap., in a plain about 5 m. 
S. and E. firom the Guadiana, 102 m. S. Madrid, 
162 m. NE. Seville, on a branch of the railwav 
from Madrid to Seville. Pop. 10,159 in 1857. 
The city was built after the expulsiou of the 
Moors from La Mancha, to serv'e as a check upon 
those who still maintained themselves in the Sierra 
Morena. Extensive remains of its ancient walls 
and towers still exist Streets long and straight, 
but narrow. The grand square is surrounded by 
two rows of boxes for viewing the buU-fights and 
public festivals. It has five churches, eight con- 
vents, three hospitals, barracks for troops, a mag- 
nificent workhouse, including a school for the 


instruction of poor children in useful occapRtlonn 
It was the head-quarters of the famous ScaUa Her- 
mandad^ or Holy Brotherhood, an order founded in 
1249, for the extirpation of highway robbers. 

CIUDAD RODRIGO, a city of Spain, piov. 
Salamanca, on an eminence on the right bank of 
the Aqueda, which is here crossed by a bridge of * 
seven arches ; 55 m. SW. Salamanca, 146 m. W. 
Madrid, and 16 m. from the frontiers of PortugaL 
Pop. 5,730 in 1857. The city has a castle, and is 
strongly fortified. It is tolerably well built, and 
has some good public buildings, including a cathe- 
dral, founded in 1170, with numerous churches and 
convents, an episcopal seminary, and a hospital. 
In the great square are three Roman columns, 
with inscriptions. The city has two suburbs, and 
its environs are fertile. Ciudad Rodrigo was taken 
by the French under Marslial Massena, in 1810. 
The Duke of (then Lord) Wellington, having come 
upon it by surprise, with Uie ulied English and 
Portuguese forces, on Jan. 8, 1812. after a vigorous 
siege, took it by assault on the 20th of tibe same 
month. A laige battering train and immense 
quantities of ammunition were found in the 
town. The allies lost about 1,200 men, and 90 
officers, in the siege and assault. This important 
achievement procured for the general the title of 
Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo firom the Spanbh gov., and 
of Marquis Torres Vedras from the Portuguese. 

CIUDADELA, a city of the Spanish island of 
Minorca, of which it was formerly the cap., at the 
head of a deep and narrow bay on the W. coast of 
the island; lat 39^ 59' N., long. 3® 54' E. Pop. 
5,726 in 1857. The city has walls, partly of Moor- 
ish construction, and partly modem, with stone 
bastions. In the centre of the town is a large fine 
Gothic church, llie streets are narrow, but it has 
a considerable number of good houses, inhabited 
by many of the nobles of the atijacent countrv. 

CIVITA VECCHIA (an. Centum CeVUt), k for- 
tified sea-port town of Central Italy, cap. del<^. of 
same name, on the Mediterranean, 36 m. WXW. 
Rome, of which it is the port, and with which it 
is connected by railway. Pop. 24,985 in 1868. 
Though the streets are narrow, the town is tole- 
rably well-built and laid out ; it contains several 
convents a lazaretto, a theatre, an arsenal, build- 
ing-docks, and warehouse and has a very con- 
siderable import and export trade. Its harbour, 
which was constructed by the Emperor Trajan, is 
formed of three laz)^e moles — two projecting from 
the mainland, and inclined the one a litde to tlie 
N., and the other to the S. ; and a third constructed 
opposite to the gap between the others, and sen-ing 
to protect the shipping from the heavy sea that 
would otherwise be thrown in during W. gales. 
The latter mole clearly appears from a passage in 
Pliny's letters ^lib. 6, epist 31) to have been formed 
in a precisely similar manner to the breakwater at 
Plymouth, by sinking immense blocks of stone, 
which became fixed and consolidated by their own 
weight, till the structure was raised above th« 
waves. Its extremities are about 90 fothonis 
distant from those of the lateral moles, and at its 
S. end there is a lighthouse, with a lantern ele- 
vated 74 fl. above the level of the sea. The S. 
entrance to the harbour is the deepest, ha\-ing 
from 8 to 4 fathoms water. Ships may anchor 
within the port, in from 16 to 18 ft water, or 
between it and tlie outer mole, where the depth is 
greater. Civita Yecchia is a f)ee port, — that is, a 
port into which produce may be imported, and 
either made use of or re-exported free of duty; but 

?uarantine regulations are very strictly enlbnced. 
ts imports consist chiefly of cotton, wt>oUeii, silk, 
and linen stuffs; coffee, sugar, cocoa, and other 
colonial products ; salt and salted fish, wines, jewel- 


lerv, |*:]Asfi, and earthenware. The exporU are 
I>ruicipally staves and timber, com, wood, cheese, 
|M>tash, pumice-«tone, alam, and other Italian pro- 
duce. The shipping, in 1862, consisted of 1,908 
veAsels, of 300,059 tons, which entered, and 1,886 
vescKds, of 302,751 tons, which cleared the port 
Among them were 65 British vessels of 10,542 tons 
entering, and 65 vessels of 12,701 clearing. Far 
more important than the British commerce with 
Civiu Vecchia is the French, which includes about 
one-half of the whole shipping. 

This city was originally called TrajoHMg Portua, 
and it is to be regretted that it did not continue to 
bear the name of its illustrious founder. 

CLACKMANNAN, the smallest co. of Scotland, 
on the N. side of the Forth, bein^, except for a 
short distance on the £., where it adjoins Fife, 
every where surrounded by the cos. of Perth and 
Stirling. Area 29,744 acres, or 46 sq. m. The co. 
is timversed by the Devon, an affluent of the Forth. 
The range of the Ochill hills crosses and mostly 
occapies the part of the co. to the N. of the Devon ; 
but the other and far laigest portion consists, for 
the most part, of clay and carse land, and is re- 
markably fertile and weU cultivated, producing 
exoelleot crops of wheat and beans. Estates 
middle-idaed ; farms huge ; farm buildings excel- 
lent. There are valuable mines of coal, large quan- 
tities v4 which are shipped at Alloa ; ironstone Ls 
also abundant. There are some large distilleries 
and breweries, but little other manufacture is 
carried on. Alloa is the laigest, but Clackmannan 
is the oo. town. Clackmannan is divided into five 
parishes, and had 2,996 inhaU houses, with a pop. 
of 24,450 in 1861. It is united with Kinross in 
returning 1 mem. to the H. of C. Registered elec- 
ton 680 in 1865. The old valued rent was 2,207(. ; 
the new valuation for 1864-^ amounted to 74,0002. 

Clackmannan, a town of Scotland, cap. of the 
above co., oo an eminence 190 ft. high, on the left 
hank of the Frith of Forth. Pop. 1,159 in 1861. 
The town ccmsists principally of one long unpaved 
street, and is a very unimportant place. On the 
W. of the town is Clackmannan Tower, the palace 
(^ King Robert Bruce, long the residence of a 
haranch <^ the Bruce family, and now the property 
of the Earl of Zetland. The par. church is a modem 
i^thic building. Debtors and criminals are sent 
to Stirling, the jail of which is partly maintained 
by the ou. of Clackmannan. 

CLAGENFURTH (Germ. K/aoenfurt), a town 
of Illyiia, gov. Lavbach, cap. duchy of Carinthia, 
(*a the GUn, an affluent of the Drave, in an exten- 
Mve plain, 21 m. £. Villach, and 40 m. NN W. Lay- 
Ijach, on a branch of the railway from Vienna to 
Triestte. Pop. 13,478 in 1857. The town was for- 
merly fortified, but its works were destroyed by 
the French in 1809. It has four suburbs, is well- 
Inilt, with broad and regular streets. There are 
five squares, one of whidi has a leaden statue of 
the Empress Maria Theresa, and a group (indiffer- 
ently executed) representing Hercules destroying 
the hydra. Anotho' square contains the residence 
of the Prinoe-Bishop oi Gurk, with its galleries of 
paintings, statuar)', a rich cabinet of minerals, and 
an obelisk erected in honour of Francis I. There 
are seven churches, two hospitals, several infirm- 
aries, a l}iiig-in hospital, workhouse, house of cor- 
rection, l^cenm with a public libraiy, college, 
normal high school, Ursuline school for girls, an 
agricoltoral society, and a theatre, lliis town is 
the seat of the court of appeal for the gov. of 
Ljiybach, and of municipal, provincial, and oUier 
oourts of justice. It has a few manufactures of 
fine woollen and silk fabrics, and white lead. Clo- 
genfurth ia supposed by some to derive its name 
fium the Emperor Claudius, and in its vicinity 



there are some ruins believed to be those of the 
ancient Tibumia, It has several times been par- 
tiallv destroyed by fire. 

CLaMECY, a town of France, d^. Nifevre, in 
which it holds the second rank, at the foot and on 
the declivity of a hill on the left bank of the Yonne, 
where it is joined by the Beauvron, by both of 
which it is intersected; 86 m. NK. Nevers. Pop. 
5,622 in 1861 . Little remains of its ancient castle, 
and the massive walls by which it was formerly 
surrounded. It, however, contains several old 
(jothic churches, and a handsome modem castle 
surrounded by fine gardens, which stands in the 
Phee de Vauvert Clamec^* has manufactures 
of common woollen cloths, fiUling mills, dyeing 
houses, tanneries, and a considerable trade in wood 
and charcoal, most of which are sent down the 
Yonne to Paris. There are good coal mines in the 

CLARE, a marit co. of Ireland, proy. Munster. 
It is in a great measure insulated, having Gulway 
Bay on the N. ; the Atlantic on the W.; the 
Shannon, by which it is separated from Kerry, 
Limerick, and Tipperary, on the S. and SE. ; and 
Galway on the NE. Area, 802,352 acres, of which 
259,584 are unimproved mountain and bog, and 
18,665 water. Surface in parts almost mountain- 
ous ; but it has a laige extent of low level land. 
The low grounds, known by the name of the ttw- 
coMteBf on the banks of the Shannon and Fergus, 
are almost equal to the very best grazing lands in 
Lincolnshire. The arable lands are mostly light, 
but fertile. Estates large; tillage farms very 
small, many being below 5, and very few above 
60 or 70 acres, i^piculture bad, but improving; 
it is still common in many parts to take a succes- 
sion of com crops till the land be completely ex- 
hausted. Principal crops, oats and potatoes ; but 
wheat and barley are now rather extensively cul- 
tivated. Sea-weed and sea-sand are a good deal 
used as manure ; and in the hilly parts the %, or 
spade, is much employed in cultivation. Cottages 
mostly of stone, but without lime or other cement. 
Condition of the occupiers of small tillage farms 
and cottiers quite as bad as in most other parts of 
Ireland. Lime is the most important mineral. 
Manufactures have hardly an^ footing. Exclusive 
of the Shannon, the Fergus is the principal river. 
Clare has 9 baronies and 79 parishes, and sends 3 
mem. to the H. of C, viz. 2 for the co. and 1 for 
the lx>r. of Ennis, the principal town in the co. 
Registered electors for the co., 5,509 in 1865. The 
pop. was 286,523 in 1841; 212,734 in 1851 ; and 
166.305 in 1861. Consequently, the decrease of 
population, in the year 1841-^1, amounted to 42 
per cent. In 1841 Clare had 44,870 inhab. houses, 
and 286,894 individuals, of whom 144,109 were 
males, and 142,285 females. 

CLAUSTHAL, or KLAUSTHAL, a town of the 
k. of Hanover, cap. of the mining captaincv {Ber- 
ghatrntnumnackaft) of the same name, and the prin- 
cipal mining town of the Harlz; in a bare and 
bleak region on the top and slopes of a hill 1,740 
ft. above the sea, 26 m. NE. Cr5ttingen, and 56 m. 
SW. by S. Hanover. Pop. 8,918 in 1861. The 
inhab. are mostly miners or persons connected 
with the mines and smelting-houses. The town 
has a desolate appearance ; its houses are chiefly 
of wood, and even its principal church is of the 
same materiaL It contains a mining-school, su]>- 
ported by the king, and possessing an extensive 
collection of models of mines, mining buildings, 
machinery, and a cabinet of the Hartz minerals. 
The chief lead and silver mines in the Hartz are 
in the ncighlM>urhiKxl, next to which arc the Sil- 
bersegen. The shaft of one of these mines reaches 
to 2,000 ft. below the level of the Baltic The 



mines are drained by a tunnel, cut through the 
mountain to the small town of Grund, a disitance 
of 6 m. The total length of this tunnel, however, 
with its branches, is nearly double this distance : 
it was commenced in 1777, and finished in 1799. 
Nearly all the machinery used in the mines being 
set in motion by water-power, ever>' little stream 
around Clausthal is carefully made use of to form 
a reservoir ; and the canals conducting the water 
thence to the different mills, machines, &c., are 
said to have an aggregate length of 125 m. There 
are numerous forges ; besides which, camlets, and 
a few other articles are manufactured. 

There are many other small towns in France 
named (Vermont ; but none of any importance, 

CLERMONT-KEKRAND (an. Augutt^meme- 
tum)f a city of France, de'p. Puy-<le-D6me, of 
which it is the cap., on an affluent of the Allier; 
82 m. W. Lyons, and 208 m. S. by E. Paris, on the 
railway from Bourges to Le Puy. Pop. 32,275 in 
1861. The city is finely situated on an eminence, 
surrounded on the S. and W. by an amphitheatre 
of mountains, of which the Puy-de-Dome is the' 
culminating point, and overlookmg on the N. and 
E. the picturesque and rich plain of the Limagpe. 
The city itself is about 1^ m. in circuit, being 
separated by a boulevard, partially planted with 
trees, from several considerable suburbs. Though 
it has some fine structure, it is in general badly 
laid out ; streets crooked, narrow, and dirty ; houses 
lofty, mostly old, and gloomy lookinj^ from being 
buiit of the lava found in the neighbourhood, 
with which also the streets are paved. The more 
modem buildings, however, which are rapidly in- 
creasing in Clermont and its suburbs, have a more 
cheerfiu and agreeable aspect. It has several 
squares omament'Cd with handsome fountains, and 
is exceedingly well supplied with good water, 
conveyed to it by subterranean conduits from 
Royat, a league distant. The principal edifice is 
the cathedral, a work of the Idth century*, and the 
third, according to Hugo, which has been con- 
structed in this city. Externally it has nothing 
to recommend it, being unfinished, and crowd^ 
amongst a number of mean buildings ; but its in- 
terior is considered one of the finest existing 
specimens of Gothic architecture. It is built of 
Yolvic lava, a material well in keeping with its 
style, and has a choir, and chapels of gresit beauty, 
a number of handsome columns supporting a lofty 
nave and aisles, and much elegant car\'mg and 
stained glass. Of the five towers it possessed b^ 
fore the revolution, only one remains. Of the 
other churches, that of Notre Dame du Port, built 
in 853, b the most ancient, and is elaborately or- 
namented externally with mosaic work, bas-reliefs, 
d^c. The com and linen halls, the ancient col- 
lege, town-luill, cavalry barracks, Hotel Dieu, and 
another hospital, the prefecture, a public library with 
16,000 vols., founded bv Massillon, and the theatre, 
are the other principail public buildings. It has 
also a botanic garden, museums of natural history 
and antiquities, and a cabinet of mineralogy, par- 
ticularly rich in specimens of the volcanic products 
of the neighbourhood. It is the seat of a bishopric 
which has to boast of Massillon for one of its in- 
cumbents, and of tribunals of original jurisdiction 
and commerce; and has a roval college of the 
third class with about 350 pupiliB, a primary school, 
and an academy of sciences and beUes* lettres. 
Trade considerable, it being the entrepot for the 
produce of the surrounding deps., consisting of 
hemp, flax, com, wines, cheese, leather, and linen 
fabrics, and for a part of the merchancUse of Pro- 
vence and Languedoc intended for Paris, besides 
being on the great line of communication between 


Bordeaux and Lyon& Four large fain are held an- 
nually. Manufactures not very important; the 
chief are those of silk stockings, druggets, tinted 
paper, coarse woollens, linen, cutlery, porcelain, 
cotton yam, twine, sweetmeats, preserved fruits, 
and chemical products. There is also a saltpetre 
refinery. In and round Clermont there are nu- 
merous warm chalybeate springs, holding in solu- 
tion carbonates of lime, and which, on cooling, 
deposit very extensive sediments. The most re- 
markable of these is in the suburb of St. Allyre, 
where a streamlet having raised its bed to a con- 
siderable height by means of successive depttsits, 
and subsequently formed a cascade over another 
streamlet into which it had previously run, has 
efiected the formation of a natural bridge over the 
latter, 21 il. in length by 16 ft, high. The little 
town of Mont-ferrand, formerly containing the 
stronghold of the Counts of Auvergne, is now one 
of the suburbs of Clermont, with which it is con- 
nected by a fine avenue of willow and walnut 

Anterior to the Roman conquest, this city was 
named Nemonuj and was the cap. of the Arverini : 
Augustus embellished it, and gave it his name. 
In the 8rd century it was erected into a bishopric. 
It was several times demolished in the succeeding 
ages, and especially bj^ Pepin-le-Bref. The counts 
of Clermont and Auvergne aftem'ards possessed 
it It was here that the celebrated council, which 
bears its name, was held in 1095, when the first 
crusade was resolved on. Philip Augustus united 
this citv to his dominions in 1212. Clermont has 
been the birth-place of many illustrious men, 
among whom may be specified Gregory of Tours ; 
Pascal, bom here on the 19th June, 1623 ; Thomas, 
Chamfort, Delille the poet, and General Dessaix, 
in honour of whom an obelisk has been erected in 
one of the squares. 

CLEVELAND, a town of the U. States, Ohio, 
on the S. shore of Lake Erie, at the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga river. Pop. 86,126 in 1860. The to^-n 
—which had only a pop. of 6,071 in 1840— has 
grown-up very rapidly, owing to its advantageous 
commercial position, and at the point where the 
Grand Canal, connecting the Ohio river (and con- 
sequently the Mississippi) with Lake Ene unites 
with the latter. The opening of this canal has 
made Cleveland, which was previously quite un- 
known, a place of much importance, heightened 
by the subsequent constmction of several lines of 
railway, amon^ them the Cleveland, Colnmbus 
and Cincinnati, 141 m. long, and the Cleveland 
and Toledo, 87 m. long, which place the town in 
direct communication with the whole nilway 
system of the United States. 
" CLEVES, an ancient town of the Prussian 
states, Rhine prov., formerly the cap. duchy of 
Clevcs, and now of a circ., on the railway from 
Cologne to Utrecht and Amsterdam. Pop. 9,095 
in 1861. The town stands on the declivity of some 
hills, nearly at the NW. extremity of the prov., 
about 2^ m. from the Rhine, with which it is 
united by a canaL It is neatly built in the Dutdi 
style, and surrounded by walls, but is not a place 
of* any strength. It has a ^^ymnasium or college, 
a handsome town-house, with iron foundries, and 
manufactures of flannel and cotton. 

CLITHEROE, a town and pari. bor. of England, 
CO. Lancaster, bund. Blackburn, on the Ribble, 188 
m. NW. by N. London, and 20 m. SE. by E. Lan- 
caster, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway. 
Pop. of town 6,990, and of pari. bor. 10,864 m 
1861. The town stands at the foot of Pendil-hill, 
which rises 1,800 ft. above the level of the sea. 
The houses are of stone ; the streets paved, weB 
kept, and plentifully supplied with water from 


spiin^ The pariah church, rebailt in 1828, is 
a plain building; there is another church, and 
chapels belonging to the Methodists, Independents, 
and R. Catholics. In the churchyard is the free 
grammar-school endowed by Queen Mary in 1554. 
Clitheroe is abor. by prescription, and has returned 
2 mem. to the U. of Com. since 1 Elizabeth. 
Vnder an order of the H. of Com., in 1694, the 
right of election was vested in the buxgesses and 
freemen, who held in right of freehold in houses or 
land within the bor. ; ont-buigesses, holding iree 
burgage tenures in the bor., had also the right of 
voting. Pre^'iously to the Reform Act, the num- 
ber of burgage tenures was 192, of which not 
mote than a half were occupied by burgesses, and 
in fact it was a mere nomination bor. The Reform 
Act depriTed it of one of its members ; and the 
electoral limits were at the same time extended so 
as to comprise various adjoining chapelries and 
tifwnshipa. Re^tered electors 496 in 1865. Under 
the new municipal corporation act, the bor. con- 
sists cf one ward, and is governed by 4 aldermen 
and 12 coanseUors. Several branches of the cot^ 
ton manufacture are extensively carried on ; they 
consist principaUy of the weaving of calicoes by 
hand and power looms, cotton spinning, and 
calico printing. In the neighbourhood are exten- 
tive beds of limestone, of which huge Quantities 
are burnt for manure and building. A mineral spa 
near the town is much resorted to. In 1669, tne 
town and neighbourhood suffered sev^ely from an 
extraordinary outbreak of water from the higher 
part of Pendil-hill. Markets are held on Tuesday ; 
cattle shows on alternate Tuesdays ; fairs on 24*th 
and 25th March; 1st and 2nd Aug.; Thursdav 
and Friday before the fourth Saturday after 29th 
Sept, ; and 7th and 8th Dec 

CLONAKILTY, a marit town of Irehmd, co. 
Coik, prov. Munster, at the bottom of the bay of 
the same name ; 19 m. SW. Cork. Pop. 3,087 in 
1>&U and 3,108 in 1861. The town is formed of 
four streets, that meet in the centre, and of a 
square. It has a par. church, a R. Catholic chapel, 
a Methodist meeting-house, an endowed grammar- 
iichool, a dispensary, a public library, three read- 
ing-rooms, a court-house, bridewell, linen-hall, 
and market-house. The corporation, under the 
charter of James I. in 1613, consists of a sovereign, 
twenty-four buigeases, and a commonalty. It re- 
turned two mems. to the Irish H. of C. till the 
I'nion, when it was disfranchised. A manor court, 
held every third Wednesday, has cognisance of 
f»leas to the amount of 22. Mariiets, Fridays : 
fain on 5th April, 1st June, Ist Aug., 10th Oct., 
and 12th Nov. A party of the constabulary is 
stationed here. The trade is much limited by the 
badness of the harbour, w^hich is nearly imprac- 
ticable for vessels of any size, in consequence of 
it« shallow and shifting bar. Sea-sand is raised 
here in large quantities, and carried to the adjoin- 
ing country lor manure. Com is exported to 
C^k, and ooal received in return, chiefly via Kin- 
sale, from which there is a railway to C'ork. 

CLONES, an inL town of Ireland, co. Monaghan, 
prov. Ulster; 66 m. NW. by N. Dublin. Pop. 
23^1 in 1831, and 2,390 in 1861. The town con- 
sists of a triangular market-place^ in which is an 
ancient stone cross, and a few streets with mean 
thatched houses. It has a par. church, a R« Cath. 
chapel, two Pre8b3rterians and two Methodist 
meeting-houaes, and two dispensaries; and is a 
ofoifltabulary station. A manorial court is held 
nxiothly, and petty sessions on alternate Fridays. 
Fairs are held on the last Thursday of every 
month. The Ulster canal passes near the town. 

CLONMEL, an inL to. and parL bor. of Ire- 
land, piro%'. Munster, partly in Tipperary and partly 



in Waterford on the Suir, 90 m. SW. bv W. Dub- 
lin, and 26 m. NW. by W. Waterford, on the rail- 
way from Waterford to Limerick. Pop. 13,012 in 
1821 ; 13,503, in 1841 ; and 11,774 in 1861. The 
town chiefly lies on the N. side of the river in 
Tipperary ;' the communication with the other 
portion in Waterford being maintained by three 
stone bridges. The streets, which consist of a 
main thoroughfare upwards of a mile in length, 
intersected by several smaller, are well paved and 
lighted with gas. The co. club house is at the E. 
end of the town, and near it are extensive barracks 
for cavalry, infantry, and artillery. It has a 
parish church, a modem building, with some good 
monuments, two Rom. Cathobc par. chapels, a 
Franciscan and a Presentation chapel, and meet- 
ing houses for Presbyterian Calvinists, Unitarians, 
Baptists, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, 
and Quakers. An endowed school has been re- 
built at an expense of 5,0002. ; besides which there 
are parochial schools for boys and girls, and others 
are mauitained by voluntary contributions. The 
CO. infirmary and dispensary, the fever hospital 
and the house of industry for the reception of 
well-conducted paupers and the confinement of 
vagrants, are in the town, as are two orphan estab- 
lishments, a mendicity association, and a savings' 
bank. Here also is the district lunatic asylum 
for the CO., built to accommodate 120 patients. 

The bor. was incorporated at a very early period, 
but its ruling charter was granted hy James I. in 
1608. The goveming body consists of a mayor, 
two bailiffs, twenty other burgesses, and an un- 
limited number of freemen : the right of freedom 
is enjoyed by the eldest son, by apprenticeship or 
b^ marriage with a freeman's daughter. Pre- 
viousl^r to the Union, the bor. sent two mem. to 
the Irish H. of C, and it now sends one mem. 
to the im^rial H. of C. The elective franchise 
is vested m the burgesses and freemen resident 
¥rithin 7 m., and in the lO/L householders. No. of 
registered electors 366 'in 1862. The electoral 
boundary comprises 331 acres, but the municipal 

i'urisdictaon for other purposes extends over 4,800 
rish acres, of which 1,000 are on the Tipperary 
side, and the remainder on the Waterford side of 
the river. 

The woollen manufacture was introduced into 
the town in 1667, when a number of German 
manufacturers were induced to remove thither : it 
declined at the Revolution, and has never revived. 
The cotton manufacture has been introduced, and 
there are extensive flour mills in the town and its 
vicinity. The town is well situated for inland 
trade, being on the main lines of road from Dublin 
to Cork, and a chief station on the railway from 
Waterford to Limerick, and having the advantage 
of river navigation for barges of 50 tons burden 
to Waterford, a distance of 23 m. There is an 
extenave salmon fishery on the Suir, and the 
influence of the tide is perceptible beyond Clonmel. 
The principal trade is in grain, provisions, cattle, 
and butter, with all which it supplies the Liver- 
pool, London, and Bristol markets. A considerable 
portion of the produce goes to Waterford, and 
numerous carriers conduct the inland trade with 
all the surrounding country. The butter market 
is a spacious buildm^, with suitable offices for in- 
specting and marking the article before it is 
exposed for sale. Market-days, Tuesdays and 
Saturdays: fairs are held on 5tli May and 5th 
Nov., and on the first Wednesday of every other 
month ; they are chiefly for cattle. 

CLOSTER-SEVEN, a small village of Hanover, 
duchy of Bremen, on the Aue, 26 m. NE. Bremen. 
It deserves notice only from its being the place 
where, the famous convention, which bears its 



name, was agreed to on Sept. 10, 1757, by which 
an army of 38,000 Hanoverians and llessians, 
commanded by William, Duke of Cumberland, 
was dispersed and sent into cantonments. This 
convention was alike uni)opular in England and 
in France : in the first it was looked upon as the 
result of imbecility and misconduct ; and in the 
latter it was believed, and probably on good 
grounds, that had Marshal Richelieu not assented 
to the convention, the Duke of Cumberland must 
have surrendered at dii<cretion. (The convention 
ifl given in Smollett's Hist, of Eng., iiL 413.) 

CLOYNE, an inl. town, or rather citv, of Ire- 
land, CO. Cork, pro v. Munster, in a fertile valley, 
8 m. £. Cork harb., with which it is connected by 
railway. Pop. 1,227 in 1831, and 1,434 in 1861. 
The town, which is small, irregularly built, and 
far from prosperous, has a large old cruciform 
cathedral, in which are some good monuments; 
among others one to Dr. Woodward, bishop of 
Clovne, who died in 1794, and was one of the 
earliest advocates for the intnKluction of poor laws 
into Ireland. A little distance from the cathedral 
is one of those extraordinary round towers, the 
origin and object of which have given rise to 
much learned conjecture. It Is 102 ft. in height. 
The old episcopal palace at the E. end of the 
town is now a private residence ; the bishopric of 
Cloyne having, on the death of Dr. Brinkley, the 
laHt bishop, in 1835, been merged in that of Cork. 
The famous Dr. Berkeley, one of the subtlest of me- 
taphvsicians, and most amiable of men, was bishop 
of Cloyne from 1732 to 1753. The K. Cath. ca- 
thedral is a plain building, without any preten- 
sions to architectural beauty. Crowe's charity- 
school, founded in 1719, gives instruction to 35 
pupils in reading, writing, and arithmetic There 
IS here a constabulary station. Market-day 
Thursday. A court leet is held annually; a 
manor court every week; and petty sessions on 
alternate Wednesdays. At Carrigaeramp, near 
the town, is a quarry of dove-marble, of which 
from 2,000 to 0,000 tons are raised annually. 

CLYDE, a river of Scotland, and the only im- 
portant one on the W. coast of that part of the 
U. Kingdom. It has its source near the S. ex- 
tremity of I.anarkshire, on the borders of Dum- 
fries-shire and Peebles-shire, in the highest part 
of the S. mountain-land of Scotland, contiguous to 
the sources of the Tweed and Annan. Its course 
is at first N., with a little inclination to the E., 
till near Biggar it tunu NW. ; it then makes a 
sweep round by the SE., till, being joined at Har- 
pertield by the Douglas-water, it re-assuraes its 
NW. course, and, passing by Lanark, Hamilton, 
and Gla.sgow, unites with the Frith of Clyde, a 
little below Dumbarton. The distance in a direct 
line, from its source to Dumbarton, is only about 
52 m., but including its windings, the course of 
the river is near 75 m. Soon after its junction 
with the Douglas, it is precipitated over a series of 
falls celebratMl for their picturesque beauty: of 
these the principal are the falls of Bonington, 
Corehouse, Dimdaff, and Stoneb^nres. The dis- 
tance from the highest to the lowest fall b 
about 6 m. ; during the whole of which the river 
dashes along with great impetuosity. Corehouse 
Fall is about 70 ft in height The Qyde has 
been rendered navigable at high water as far as 
Glasgow for vessels of 350 and 400 tons. (See 

the cap. of the British settlementa on the Gold 
Coast of Africa, empire of Aahantee ; lat. 5^ 6' N., 
long, l^ 51' W. The first colonial establishment 
formed here was by the Portuguese in 1610, but 
the Dutch dislodged them after a short period. 


Finally the British obtained possession of the set- 
tlement, in whose hands it has remained since 1661. 

Tlte castle is built upon a rock about 50 ft. high, 
projecting into the sea, ita walls being washed by 
the surf that rolls impetuously along the coast. 
It is of a quadrangular shape, with bastions at 
each angle; has bfljracks, with accommodations 
for 16 officers and 200 men; but ia of little 
strength, the walls being out of repair, and com- 
manded in every direction by the adjacent heights 
fbut on some of these forts have been erected). 
The water for the garrison is obtained from tank^ 
in which the rain from the buildings is collected. 
(Captain Tulloch*s Kcfiort on W. Africa.) 

The town is situated behind the casUe, and pre- 
sents a dirty and irregular appearance. The 
native houses have a few small rooms scantily 
furnished with mats and stools ; the fires are made 
in a comer, with no other escape for smoke than a 
hole in the roof. There are, however, some su- 
perior residences belonging to Europeana, and the 
merclumta have built themselves a neat club- 
house. The scenery of tlie neighbourhood has 
been described by a late distuiguished female 
poet, Mrs. Maclean, better known as L. £. L., 
whose melancholy death at this place, in 1837, 
has given an interest to it which it did not pre- 
viously possess * The land view, with its cocua 
and palm trees, is very striking — it is like a scene 
in the Arabian Nights. The native huts I first 
took for ricks of hay, but those of the better »on 
are pretty white houses with green blinds. The 
English gentlemen resident here have very laige 
houses, quite mansions, with galleries running 
round. Generally speaking, the v^tation is so 
thick that the growth of the shrubs rather re- 
sembles a walL The hills are covered to the top 
with what we should call calf-weed, but here it is 
called bush.^ 

The climate of this settlement is characterised 
by excessive humidity. The heat is, however, not 
so great as might b« supposed. In the hottef^t 
weather, owing to the tempering influence of the 
sea breeze, the thermometer seldom rises above 
86^ Fahr., and rarely, in the coldest, falls below 
76^. It has generally been described as exceed- 
ingly unhealuy, and' the official statements show 
that such is the fact. During the four years 
ending with 1826, Uoo-thinU of the white troo})S 
in garrison died annually ; and in 1824 the mor- 
tality was in the enormous ratio of 982*2 in 1,000. 
It is true that these were singularly unhealthy 
seasons, and that the vice and mtemperauce pre- 
valent among the troops added considerably to 
their sickness and mortality. But stiU, to* use 
Captain Tulloch's words, ' there is unquestionable 
evidence that in every year, and to all classes of 
Europeans, the climate proves extremefy/abtV 

The imports consist of cottons, hardware, and 
gunpowder, firom Great Britain ; sogar, rum, and 
tobacco from the colonies ; and of foreign pruduc<-, 
beads, silks, and tobacco. The exports are gold dusit, 
ivory, palm-oil, pepper, cam or dye-wood, tortoise- 
shell and maize. But the value of the trade is incon- 
siderable. The total exports from the Gold Coast to 
the United Kmgdom amounted to 42,763^. in 1859 ; 
to 74,466/. in 1861 ; and to 89,2882. in 1863. The 
imports were of the value of 6o,905iL in 1859 : 
144,1942. in 1861 ; and 80,849 in 1863. 

COBLENTZ (the CmjluaUee of the Romansi). 
a town and fortress of tiie Prussian states, prov. 
Khine, cap. reg. and circ., on the railway from 
Cologne to Mayence. Pop*. 28,525 in 1861,exclus. 
of 5,810 military persons. The town stands in a 
beautiful situation on the point of land at the con- 
fluence Of the Bhine and Moselle. It has a free- 
stone bridge across the latter, and one of boau 


. 89 

the Rhine. The streets are mostly regular, 
and many of the public buildings are handsome ; 
bat, being a forUess, Coblentz has derived but 
tittle advantage from its line situation for com- 
merce. The principal public building is the mag- 
nificent castle, erected in 1779 for the elector of 
TrevesL It was converted into bairacks by the 
French ; but has since been repaired, and is now 
used for the holding of the avil and criminal 
ooarta. Coblentz has a court of appeal for the re- 
finer, a theatre, a gymnasium or college for 
(^atholics, and some other literary establishments. 
Commerce prettv extenave. Prince Mettemich, 
the late prime minister of Austria, was a native of 

Coblentz has been rendered one of the strongest 
places in the Pntssian monarchv, and is deemed 
vae of the principal bulwarks of Germany on the 
side of France. The fortifications by which it is 
stuTounded are constructed partly on the system 
of Vauban, and partly on that of Montalembert. 
They mclose a laige extent of ground, and are 
capable of accommodating 100,000 men. Ehren- 
brextstein, *the Gibraltar of the Khine,' on the 
right bank of the river, the fortifications of which 
had been blown up by the French, has been ren- 
dered stronger than ever, and is one of the prin- 
cipal outworks of Coblentz. 

COBURG, or more properly SAXE-COBURG- 
(iOTHA, a duchy of Central Germany, and the 
most S. of the indep. Saxon principalities, consist- 
ing of several small detached portions of territory ; 
between Ut. 50© 7 30" and 51° 22^ N., and long. 
liPiy and 12° 40' E., surrounded mostly by the 
territories of Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony, Meiningen, 
Hildburghausen, and Weimar. The area and pop. 
of its two great divisions are, according to the 
censos of Dec. 1861 : — 

Am In 
■q. m. 

Pop. 1861 

Saze-Oobarg • . 
Gotha . . 

Total . . 





Coburj; Proper is on the S. side of the Thfl- 
ringer Wald (Thuringian Forest), and is included 
within the jtMsin of the Rhine, having a general 
slfipe to the S. Gotha and Altenbuig are situated 
whuUy on the N. side of the ThUringer Wald, and 
belong to the basins of the Elbe and Weser. The 
mcwt mountainous parts of the country are the 
N. of Cobuig and the S. of Gotha; through these 
the Thuringian forest-range passes, the highest 
summits of which, — the Beerburg, 3,265 ft., and 
the Schneekopf (snow-cap), 3,243 ft in elevation, 
— are in the latter principality. Both divisions 
are, however, interspersed witk fine valleys and 
fertile plains: Gotha is watered by the Lnstrut, 
(rera, U5ncl, and Saale; and Coburg by the Itz, 
a tributary of the Mayn, and other rivers. Climate 
h«althy and mild, especiaUy S. of the mountains. 
The pnncipal occupations of the people are tillage 
and cattle breeding; but the mountains, which 
are covered with pine forests, contain little culti- 
vable land, and the forest economy there forms 
the chief branch of industry. In the valley of the 
Itz, the vine is cultivated, and hops, flax, and 
hemp, are also grown in the S. : the other agri- 
cnltoral products are corn, pulse, culinary vege- 
tables, fruits, aniseed, coriander, cummin, safliower, 
and other medicinal plants : potatoes are a prin- 
cipal article of nourishment. Many hogs are fat- 
tened in the woods and sent down the Mayn to 
Frankfurt and elsewhere : considerable Quantities 
<W timber, pitch, tar, charcoal, and potash are ob- 

tained from the forests. Iron, coal, excellent 
millstones, marble, alabaster, ^-psum, potter's 
clay, and salt are mined or quamed. Agriculture 
flourishes most in Coburg, manufacturing industry 
in Gotha. The principid manufactures are those 
of linen cloth, tick,* linen, thread, woollen and 
cotton fabrics, leather, steel, iron, and copper 
wares, glass, earthenware, buttons, and paper. 
There are also numerous sawing-mills, linen- 
bleaching factories, breweries, and distilleries; 
and great numbers of toys are made at Neustadt 
in Coburg. A good deal of advantage accrues 
from the transit trade, the duchy being on the 
road between Leipzig and Frankfurt. Gotha is 
the principal trading town, and has several con- 
siderable mercantile establishments. The govern- 
ment is a constitutional monarchy ; each of the 
principalities has its own elective assembly, and 
the two unite into one chamber, composed of 30 
members. Evexy man above the age of 25, who 
pays taxes, has a vote, and any citizen above 
30 may be elected a deputy. New elections take 
place every four years, for which period also the 
budget is voted. The annual public revenue for 
the period July 1, 1861, to June 30, 1865, amounted 
to 83,925/., and the annual expenditure to57,851iL 
The greater part of the surplus thus produced went 
into the i>rivate purse of the reigning duke. 

Education is well attended to m the duchy. 
There are 3 gymnasiums and classical schools, 
1 academical ^nnanasium, 2 seminaries for school- 
masters, 35 town schools, and about 350 village 
schools in the duchy. The ducal house, and 
nearly all the pop., profess the Lutheran religion, 
there being only about 2,000 Roman Catholics 
and 1,000 Jews. Difference of religion, however, 
does not affect the equal enjoyment of political 
rights. The Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha holds, 
together with the Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and 
the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and the Grand Duke 
of Saxe- Weimar, the tweUth place in the German 
diet ; and the duchy is bound to furnish a contin- 
gent of 1,860 men /or the service of the confedera- 
tion. Coburg belonged successively to the counts 
of Henneberg, the house of Saxony, and that of 
Saalfield. In 1816, its territoriea were enlarged 
by the cession of the principality of Lich ten berg, 
on the left bank of the Rhme ; but the reigning 
duke disposed of that possession to Prussia. In 
consequence of the extinction of the line of Gotha 
in 1826,the Duke of Saxe-Cobiug became possessed 
of the territories of Gotha and Altenbuig, for 
which, by a family compact^ Saalfield was ex- 
changed. The house of Saxe-Coburg is famous 
as one of the most fortunate of all the existing 
great families of Europe in respect to marriages. 
The late king Leopold married, hrst, the heiress to 
the British throne, next a daughter of the King of 
the French, and was then seated on the throne of 
Belgium, after ha\4ng refused that of Greece. 
Prince Ferdinand married one of the richest 
heiresses of the Austrian empire, and his son 
became king-consort of Portugal. One princess 
married the Grand Duke Constantine, heir pre- 
sumptive to all the Russias ; another became the 
Duchess of Kent ; and, finally, the late Prince 
Albert, in wedding the sovereign of the British 
realms, became progenitor of a new race of kings — 
* father of our kmgs to be.' (Tennyson). 

CoRUKO, a town of Centre! Germany, cap. of the 
above duchy, on the left bank of the Itz, 106 m. 
E. by N. Frankfurt-on-the-Mayn, and 130 m. 
SW. Dresden, on a branch line of the railway 
from" Frankfort to Dresden. Pop. 11,110 in 1861. 
The streets of the town are mostly narrow and 
uneven ; but it is surrounded by some agreeable 
public walks, which separate it from its suburba 



and has several handsome public buildings. The 
Ehrenberg palace, built in 154U, contains a collec- 
tion of pictures, a library of 26,000 vols., and some 
apartments adorned with figures in alto-relievo^ the 
finest of which is a state banquetihg-room, called 
the ScJle de GeatUj from some coloa^al caryatides 
wliich surround it On an eminence commanding 
the town stands an ancient castle of the dukes of 
Coburg, now in part converted into a prison and 
house of correction, but containing also a collec- 
tion of armour, and some rooms once occupied by 
Luther, with the bedstead on which he slepL 
This castle was unsuccessfully besieged during the 
80 years' war by Wallenstein, who had for some 
time his head-quarters here. Cobuig contains five 
churches, a government house, a gymnasiifm, with 
an observatory, and two libraries, a superior ladies' 
school, a teachers' seminary, a large workhouse, 
and other charitable institutions, and a riding- 
school. The principal places of amusement are 
the theatre, casino, redoute, and musical club. 
The town is the seat of gov., and of the high board 
t)f taxation for the duchy, and of the superior ju- 
dicial courts and church consistor\' for the princip. 
of Coburg. It has manufactures of woollen, linen, 
and cotton fabrics, porcelain, earthenware, and 
gold and silver articles ; with bleaching and dye- 
works. The fine seat of the duke, Hosenau, is in the 
immediate neighbourhood. 

COCENTAYNA, a town of Spain, prov. Ali- 
cante, 30 m. N. Alicante. Pop. 7,369 in 1857. The 
town has 2 churches, 2 convents, a hospital, and 
a house of charity for poor travellers. Neither the 
streets nor the bohses correspond with the number 
and wealth of the inhabitants, who are more intent 
upon increasing their substance by agricultural 
and manufacturmg industry, than on beautifying 
the town. They manufacture cloths, tafferies, 
handkerchiefs, and other articles. Their fields, 
which are well irrigated, produce wheat, maize, 
pulse, wine, oil, and silk. 

COCHIN, a small rajahship of Hindostan, near 
its S. extremity, extending along the Malabar 
coast, chiefly between lat 9° 30' and lO^ 30' N., 
and long. 76^ and 77^ £. ; having N. and E. the 
territory of the Madras presidency, S. Travancore, 
and W. the ocean: average length and breadth 
about 45 m. each; area, 1,988 sq. m. Its £. 
boundary is formed by the W. Ghauts, which are 
here covered with forests of teak and viti (a black 
wood), of large dimensions, which obliges both to 
be cut into short logs, in order to reach the coast ; 
with poon, lack, and iron woods, &c. Towards 
Cacadu the hills are covered with grass instead of 
trees; but though their soil appears good, they 
are but little cultivated: in the N. there are 
narrow and well-watered valleys, in which rice is 
raised, and sometimes two crops a vear are reaped, 
llie houses of the cultivators are ohen embosomed 
in groves of palms, mangoes, jacks, and plantains. 
A considerable portion of the rajah's revenue is 
derived from the teak forests, the timber of 
Cochin being in great demand in Bengal, and, 
since 1814, having been sent to the dockyards 
of Bombay, from which, previously to that period, 
it was excluded. There are many villages in- 
habited by Christians and Jews; the latter are 
settled mostly in the interior, but have a syna- 
gogue at Cochin town. This country was for a 
£)ng period badly governed, and its inhab. much 
oppr^sed. The rajah for a time was tributary to 
lippoo Sahib, and subsequently became subject 
to the British. 

Cochin (Cach'ki, a mnraas)y a marit. town of 
Hindostan, prov. Malabar, on a small island near 
the S. extremity of India ; formerly cap. of the 
above rajahship, but since 1796 it has belonged to 


the British. Next to Bombay, it is the most 
eligible port on the Malabar coast; it is 150 no. 
NVV. Cape Comorin, 80 m. SSE. Calicut : lat, 9° 
51' N., long. 76° 17' E. ; and is buUt on the N. 
extremity of the island, along the entrance from 
the sea to the * Backwater, * an inl. harbour or 
lagoon, which extends nearly 120 m., being sepa- 
rated from the sea by a narrow peninsulated tract. 
Under the Portuguese and Dutch, by whom it was 
successively possessed, Cochin was a flourishing 
town ; but since it has belonged to the English, 
who in 1806 demolished the fortifications and many 
of the buildings, it has progressively declined, and 
the inhab. are now very much impoverished ; it 
still, however, trades with the rest of the Malabar 
coast, China, the E. Archipelago, and the Arabian 
and Persian Gulfs. Large supplies of teak floated 
by the rivers from the forests into the Backwater, 
are shipped for the ports of the two last-named 
countries; the other exports are sandal wood, 
pepper, cardamoms, cocoa nuts, coir, cordage, 
cassia, and fish-maws. It is the only place on the 
coast S. of Bombay where ships of any size can lie 
built. Under the walls of the old foit there is al- 
ways from 25 to 30 ft. water, and ships obtain 
supplies of fresh water without difficulty. Pro- 
visions are extremely cheaps <ui<i ^ a po^ as well 
as a place of trade, it is said to be much superior 
to Calicut. Jews of both the black and white 
catte* are numerous, and have a synag(^rue in 
Cochin, almost the only one in India. Cochin is 
also the see of a Koman Catholic bishop, whose 
diocese includes Ceylon, and comprises more than 
100 churehes. Herein 1503 Albuquerque erected the 
first fortress possessed by the Portuguese in India. 

COCHIN-CHINA, a prov. of the empire of 
Anam, which see. 

COCKERMOUTH,a market- town and parLbor. 
of England, co. Cumberiand, at the confluence of 
the CcK>ker and Derwent; 24 m. SW. Carlisle, 12 m. 
NE. Whitehaven, 306 m. NW. London by road, 
and 319 m. by London and North Western railwav. 
Pop. of town 6,388, and of parL bor. 7,057 in 186'l. 
Cockermouth has but few houses of a better sort, 
and little seems to have been done towards its 
improvement. The streets are narrow in many 
plac&s, with a want of foot-pavement everywhere'; 
and though the lower classes seem to be better off 
than in many other towns in the some co., vet 
there appears to be little about the place tending 
to improvement. There are bridges over both 
rivers, that over the Derwent being 270 ft. long. 
Thou|^h unpaved, the streets are clean, and w^eil 
supplied with water. A castle on a hill over the 
town, built shortly after the Conquest, was tidcen 
and razed by the pari, forces in the war of 1641. 
The chureh of All Saints, erected in the time <^ 
Edward III., was rebuilt in 1711, and enlai^ged in 
1825. St. Mary's chureh, rebuilt in 1850. has a 
memorial window to the poet Wordsworth, who 
was a native of the town. The Independents, 
Methodists, and Society of Friends have places of 
worship. 'Jhere are also a free grammar school 
and some almshouses. The borough return^ two 
mem. to the H. of C. in 23 Edward I., alter which 
the privilege was not exercised dll 16 Charles I., 
since which it has been uninterruptedly enjoyed. 
Previously to the Reform Act, the franchise was 
exclusively vested in Uie holders of burgage 
tenures in the town of Cockermouth. The boun- 
daries of the parL bor. were then extended. 
Registered electors 413 in 1865. The bor. is also 
a poUing-plaoe at elections for mem. for the \V. 
div. of the co. There are collieries at Greysouthezn 
and Broughton, about 8 m. distant, 

CODOGNO, a town of Northern Italy, |wov. 
Milan, cap. distr., in a fertile territory, between 


tbc Po and Adda, 15 m. S£. LooL Pop. 9,620 in 
1861. The town has broad stieeta and good pri- 
vate boildinga, some handsome churches, several 
crilleges and schools, with a hospital and theatre. 
It is a place of considerable tnde, especially in 
Pannesan cheese, and has some silk manufac- 
tures. Near this town the Austrian troops were 
defeated, in 1746, by the Spaniards, and in 1796 
bv the French. 

' CXXXrESH ALL, a town and par. of England, 
CO. Essex, hund. Lexden, the town being on a 
hill on the N£. bank of the Blackwat«r, 10 m. VV. 
Colchester. Pop. 3,116 in 186 L The town is 
iil-boilt; and the cloUiing trade, particularly the 
manofactore of baize, formerly carried on, has 
almost wholly disappeared ; but some branches of 
the silk manufacture have been introduced ; and 
a few of the inhab. are engaged in the making of 
toys. The church, a spacious structure, in the 
perpendicular style, has a large 8()uare tower. 
The liver is here' crossed by an ancient bridge of 
three arches. It has an endowed school, three 
unendowed almshouses; and an annuity of 150Z. a 
year, payable by Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, goes 
to the support and education of the poor. The 
I'uterdan monks had an abbey here, a portion of 
the nuns of which still remains. 

COGNAC, a town and river port of France, 
€^ep. Chaientc, cap. arrond., on the navigable 
river Charente, 22 m. W. by N. Angonl^me. Pop. 
8,167 in 1861. The town is ill-built, and contains 
no edifice worthy of notice, except an ancient 
castle, now converted into warehouses. The 
brandy, for the shipment of which the town is 
celrinated, and whicn is everjrwhere known by its 
name, is made from white wme : that made Jirom 
red wine is very inferior. In good vears wine 
^-ields about l-oth part of its volume of eaa-cfe-rie. 
Whereas in bad years it does not jdeld more than 
from l-9th to 1-1 1th part. All the brandy of 
Charente is sold under the name of Cognac ;* but 
the best qualities are produced in the canton of 
that nsme, and in those of Blanzac, Jamac, 
Rouillac, Aigre, and Ruifec The park belonging 
to the castle is an agreeable public promenade, 
and ui it is a bronze statue of Francis I., erected 
on the spot where he was bom, in 1494. Three 
councils have been held in Cognac. 

COIMBATOOR, a British prov. of S. Hindos- 
Un. presid. Madras, between lat. 1(P S' and 129 
4K' N., and long. 76© 50' and 78° 10' E., having 
N. the Hjw>re dom., E. the provs. Salem and 
Camatic, S. the latter, and W. Cochin and Mala- 
bar; area, 8,3&2 sq. m. Pop. estimated at 
near 1,000,000. Generally it is a nat open country, 
with a medium height of 900 ft. above the sea ; 
its surface gradually ascending from the Cavery 
on the £. to the Ghauts and Neilghenry hills on 
its W. bordexB. The W. Ghauts rise from 1,500 to 
2,000 ft. above the Coimbatoor plain, and have in 
one place a remarkable opening, about 81 m. in 
length, called the Palighautcherry Pass, present- 
ing a clear level wa^ from the Malabar to the 
Cocomandel coasL Next to the Cavery the prin- 
cipal nvea are the Bowany, Noyel, and Am- 
boawatty, all which run more or less £., and join 
the Cavery before it leaves the distx. Climate on 
the whole healthy and pleasant ; and except in 
that part £icing the Palighautcherry Pass, this 
pcov. IS protected by the Ghauts from the violence 
ii( the SW. monsoon. There are some marshes in 
the S. and in the vicinity of the hills ; but the 
soil in general is dry, and well adapted for the 
tiry eniin culture, to which nearly ten times as 
mncn land is appropriated as is occupied by well, 
and twenty times as much as is occupied by tref, 
cnltivation. In the N. rice is the chief crop ; cot- 



ton of several kinds is grown in considerable quan- 
tities both above and below the Ghauts, and 
almost all the tobacco that supplies Malabar 
comes from thJB distr. There are altc^ether about 
579,700 acres of pasture land; cattle and sheep 
nuraoous. Chief mineral products, salt and nitre, 
which are occasionally obtained from certain 
earths impregnated with muriates and nitrates 
abundantly scattered throughout the distr. In 
1818, an aquamarine mine was opened and 
worked. Weaving is the only art that has at- 
tained any perfection. Some of the towns are large 
and well built ; but, excepting in these, mud cot- 
tages with red tUed or thatched roofs are almost 
the only houses. The peasantry, however, are 
contented, and enjoy comparative comfort. Pa- 
godas or temples are not numerous ; and except- 
mg that of Peowra, a little VV. of the cap., which 
contains some well-carved granite figures, they 
have little notoriety. The areas in front of most 
of them are ornamented with gigantic groups in 

Eottery covered with chunam of caparisoned 
orses, elephants, and grotesque figures. Near tlie 
Ghauts the ox is adored, and every village pos- 
sesses one or two bulls, to which weekly or 
monthly worship is paid. The prov. became sub- 
ject to the Mysore rajahs nearly 200 years ago, 
and to the British in. 1799. It was greatly de- 
popidated by an epidemic fever, which prevailed 
from 1809 to 1811. 

CoiHBATOOK, an inL town of S. Hindostan, cap. 
of the above distr. and seat of a collector of re- 
venue under the Madras presid., in an elevated 
situation on the N. bank of one of the affluents of 
the Cavery, 90 m. SSE. Mvsore, and 270 m. SW. 
Madras; lat. 10© 52' N./long. 77© 6' E. It is 
tolerably well built, and has a mosque erected 
by Tippoo, who sometimes resided here. The 
water is brackish, and 2 m. off both salt and nitre 
are procured by lixiviating the soil. Five m. to 
the N. iron is smelted from black sand. Peowra, 
not far distant, has a temple dedicated to Siva, 
highly ornamented with Hindoo figures, but desti- 
tute of elegance, which was spared by Tippoo 
when he demolished most other idolatrous build- 
ings. In 1783 and 1790 Coimbatoor was taken 
by the British, to whom it has permanently be- 
longed since 1799. 

COIMBRA, a city of Portugal^ prov. Beyra, 
cap. distr., and see of a bbhop, partly on a steep 
rocky precipice, and partly on a plain contiguous 
to the Mondego, 115 m. NNE. Lisbon, on tlie 
railway from Lisbon to Oporto. Pop. 15,710 in 
1858. The town was fortified at a very early 
period, and has undergone many sieges. The 
ancient walls and towers still remain, and form its 
only defence. It has an imposing appearance 
when seen at a distance, the summits of the ad- 
joining heights being crowned with convents and 
public buildings ; but the interior of the town by 
no means corresponds with the exterior view, the 
streets being narrow, steep, crooked, and dirty. 
The principal public building is the university, 
the only one in Portugal, transferred thither from 
Lisbon in 1306. It consists of eighteen colleges, 
and is divided into six faculties, viz. those of 
theology, the canon law, civil law, medicine, na- 
tural philosophy, and mathematics. It has also 
attached to it grammar schools, with schools of 
philosophy and rhetoric, ecclesiastical and civil 
colleges or seminaries, and a royal coUege of arts, 
at which those who intend entering at the mii- 
versity complete their preliminary studies. Dif- 
ferent degrees are taken in the respective faculties, 
the student applying himself pnncipally to the 
particular branch most connected with his in- 
tended profession, which, as Lord Caemar\'on sur- 



mises, is probably an improvement upon the 
English system of college education, where the 
same degree is taken by all, without reference to 
the nature of their future occupations. (Caernar- 
von's Portugal and Galicia, i. 42.) The collection 
of subjects of natural history* is tolerably good, the 
obscr\'atory complete, and the instruments in per- 
fect order, the greater part having been made in 
London and Paris. The present system of edu- 
cation was introduced bv the Marquis Pombal, in 
1773 ; it is, however, mdebtcd, for various im- 
provements in the course of study, to Englishmen, 
who have been instructors ; but, with all this, it is 
still very far behind; and many important 
branches of knowledge are either not taught at 
all, or are taught in the worst possible manner. 
The universitv is extremely well endowetl ; and 
the inferior class of nobles are sometimes com- 
petitors for the vacant chairs. The annual ex- 
penses of the students do not exceed 50/. each, 
any excess being defrayed from the revenues of 
the institution. The library consists of three 
large saloons, containing about 30,000 vols., but 
they are nearly all of ancient date. The College 
of Arts, which formerly belonged to the 'Jesuits, 
is a remarkably handsome building, 'fhe mo- 
nastery of Santa Cruz, an immense Gothic build- 
ing in the worst taste, belongs to the order of 
Augustines, who, in addition to numerous im- 
portant privileges, enjoy the right of appointing 
their prior to the office of chancellor of the uni- 
versity. The monks are, for the most part, of 
noble descent and polished manners, and are often 
seen mounted on fine horses splendidly capari- 
soned, being forbidden by the regulations or the 
monastery to appear on foot beyond its walls. 
(Lord Caernarvon, i. 43.) On a hill opposite to 
the town is the superb convent and church of the 
nuns of St Clara. Besides these public buildings, 
there are the cathedral and eight churches, five 
of which are collegiate, with several other con- 
vents, hospitals, &c There is a fine stone bridge 
over the Mondego, whose bed, which is progres- 
sively rising, is nearly dry in the summer, while 
in the winter it becomes an impetuous torrent, 
and overflows the surrounding country. The town 
it well supplied with water, conveyed to it bv an 
aqueduct. Near Coimbra, on the S. bank of the 
river, is the Quinta das Lagrimas, or Villa of 
Tears, the residence of the beautiful Inez de Cas- 
tro, whose murder forms the subject of the fine 
episode m the third book of the * Lusiad.' Earthen- 
ware of good Quality is produced here, with woollen 
and linen cloths. 

Coimbra is said to occupy the site of Conimbriai, 
founded bv the Romans 300 years b.c. It suffered 
severely by the earthquake of 1755, and was a 
scene of great distress m 1810, when the Duke of 
Wellington retreated on the lines of Torres Yedras. 

COLABBA, an island on the Malabar or W. 
coast of Hindostan, immediately 8. the Island of 
Bombay, with which it is connected by a cause- 
way, and on which a fine lighthouse and canton- 
ments for the British troops have been erected. 
(See Bombay.) 

COLAPOOH, a small rajahship of Hindostan, 
in the presidency of Bombav, partly above and 
partly below the W. Ghauts, including the towns 
of Colapoor, Pamellah, Mulcapoor, and Culgong. 
The rajah of Colapoor is descended from the eldest 
branch of tlie familv of Sevajee, the founder of the 
Mahratta empire. Me formerly possessed Malwan, 
and some otner ports on the Malabar coast; but 
his subjects being notorious for piracy, the British 
compelled him to cede these places m 1812 ; and 
in 1829 assumed the government of the country. 

CuukPooB, an inL town of Hindostan, cap. of 


the preceding distr., in a valley surrounded on 
three sides by hills; 125 m. SSE. Pooimh; lat 
16° 19' N., long. 740 25' E. It has a citadel; but 
its chief protection is in two hill forts in the 
vicmity. The town is neatly built, and contains 
some lofty trees, gardens, and good tanks. 

COLBEKG, a fortified sea-port town of Prussia, 
reg. Coslin in Pomerania, on the Persante, near 
where it falls into the Baltic, and on the terminus 
of the railway from Berlin to the Baltic Sea. Pop. 
1 1,700 in 1861 , exclus. of a garrison of 1,678. The 
princi])al public buildings are the cathedral, town- 
house, and the aqueduct for supplying the town 
with water. There is in the ancient ducal castle 
a foundation for the daughters of nobles and 
burgesses. It has a gymnasium, a house of cor- 
rection, and some manufactures; but its salmon 
and lamprey fisheries, and its shipping, are the 
principal sources of wealth. There are salt springs 
m the vicinity ; but, owing to the want of coal 
and timber, they are of comparatively little use. 

COLCHESTER, a parL bor. and nver port <»f 
England, co. Essex, div. Colchester, hnnd. Leyden ; 
50 m. NE. London by road, and 51^ m. bv Great 
Eastern railway. Pop. 23,809 in 1861. Tiie town 
stands on the declivity of a hill rising from the 
Colne, which cuts off a small suburb. It is well 
built, has several good streets, is paved, lighted 
with gas, and adequately supplied with water. 
Great improv^ements in its m tenor have been 
effected, and are still going on. There are three 
bridges over the river. A part of the remains of 
the ancient castle, said to have beos founded by 
Edward the Elder, is occasionally used as a prison. 
There are eight parish churches : St Peter's, built 
previously to the Conquest, has been modernised 
and enlarged; St. James's dates preWously to 
Edward II., and is a handsome structure; St. 
Leonard's is also large and convenient: besides 
these, there are a French and a Dutch Protestant 
church, and nine dissenting chapels. 'The re- 
mains of the church of St Botolph's priory, founded 
in the early part of the 12th century, are said to 
afford some of the finest specimens of Nonnan 
architecture in the kingdom. 

Colchester has a free grammar school, founded 
in the 26th of Elizabeth, with one scholarship in 
St John's college, Cambridge, annexed to it ; two 
others, in the same college, revert to this school 
on failure of applicants of the surname of Gilbert 
(that of founder) or Torbington; and fourfoundetl 
in Pembroke college, Cambridge, on failure of anv 
boys being sent from the Ipswich grammar school. 
It educates from thirty to fortv scholara; two 
charity schools, founded in 1708, have been joined 
to the national school, in which about 400 bo\*8 
are educated, of whom 148 are clothed by the 
charity; a Lancastrian school, and an endowed 
school founded in 1816, for children of Quakers, 
with a library attached to it The principal 
charitable institutions are, a hospital, founded by- 
James I. ; several almshouses ; and the Emcx and 
Colchester Hospital, built in 1820. A commodious 
theatre was erected in 1812 ; and there are literary 
and philosophical, medical, botanical, and musical 
societies, all in a flourishing state. MaxiLet-daya, 
Wednesdays and Saturdays: the latter a latf^ 
com market; but general provisions are on sale 
daily in the large and commodious market-place. 
There are large annual cattle fairs on the 5th and 
6th of July, 28rd and 24th of the same month, and 
20th Oct and three following days. 

Colchester is a bonding port,' but the foreifi^n 
imports are comparatively insignificant ; they con- 
sist chiefly of wine, oil-cake from Holland, and 
timber from the Baltic The trade coaatwiae is 
more extensive, the imports being chiefly colonial 


{iroduoe, and home manufactures, firom London ; 
with coals, Ac from the northern counties: the 
<>xports, com and malt. The river is navigable 
for vessels of 150 tons to * The Hythe,' a little be- 
low the town, where there is a custom-house and 
commodious quay, warehouses, and bonding, coal 
and timber yards ; larger vessel (chiefly colliers) 
dbcfaarge at Wivenhoe, still lower down, into 
lighters. On Jan. 1, 1864, there belonged to the 
port, or rather river, exactly 800 vessels ; but of 
these no fewer than 202 were under 50 tons bur- 
den : and their aggregate tonnage and that of the 
1M vessels of above 50 tons, amounted to only 
16,168 tons. The oyster fishery of the river has 
been long celebrated, and was granted to the bur- 
gesses by Richard I. ; it employs a considerable 
number of the inhab., and a large proportion of 
the small craft belonging to the town. There is 
a large distillery at Uythe. A silk manufactory 
in the town employs between 300 and 400 hands, 
chiefly females. The weaving of baize ^introduced 
by the Flemings in the reign of Elizabeth) used 
formerly to be carried on to some extent, but has 
wholly ceased. At present, the prosperity of the 
town mainly depends on its retail trade, by which 
an extensive agricultural district is supplied. Dur- 
ing the last war a large military establishment 
was stationed here, the withdrawal of which caused 
some deterioration to the borough. Under the 
Municipal Act its boundaries are contracted to an 
area of about 2,000 acres immediately round the 
town; and it is divided into two wards, and 
governed by a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen 
councill<»s. Borough revenue 8,6702. in 1862, of 
which about one-fourth from rates. 

Colchester has (with some interruption) returned 
two mem. to the U. of C. from the 28rd of Ed- 
ward I. JE*re\'iously to the Reform Act the right 
of election was vested in the free bargesaes not re- 
ceiving alms. The part bor. (co-extensive with 
the ancient liberties) extends over a space of 
1 1,770 acres, divided by the Colne into two nearly 
equal parts. Number of rc^tered electors, 1,314 
in 1862, of which 413 are freemen. Ann. val. of 
leal prop, assessed to income-tax 66,320/. in 1857, 
and 85,727/. in 1862. 

Colchester has claims to high antiquity, and is 
snpposed by some to have been the CUitnelodunum 
«!" the Roman period, though this has been dis- 
puted. There is, however, no place in the king- 
dom where more numerous Roman remains have 
lieen discovered. It had many monastic institu- 
tions previously to the Reformation ; of these, St. 
John's Abbey, of which the noble gateway is the 
sole relic, was the chief. 

Colchester was made the seat of a suffragan 
biahop in the 26th Henry YIII. There were two 
oomiecrations only, the first In 1536, the other in 
1592; on the death of the last diocesan, in 1607, 
oo soccessor was nominated. In 1648 the town 
was held by insurrectionary royalists, and endured 
a siege, by Fairfax, of eleven weeks, when it was 
starved into surrender, and the leaders hung : half 
the fine subsequently levied appears to have been 
nud by Dutch refugees, who had escaped from the 
l>oke of Alva's persecution. It gives the title of 
banm to the Abbot family. 

COLDSTREAM, one of the border towns of 
Scotland, oo. Berwick, on the Tweed, 14 m. SW. 
Berwick-upon-Tweed. Pop. 1,884 in 1861. Formerly 
the coommnication between England and Scot- 
land was here effected by a ford, by which Edw. I. 
entered the latter with a powexful army in 1296 ; 
and it continued to be the chief passage for the 
Scottish and English armies till the union of the 
crowns in 1603. It was by this ford, also, that the 
Covenanters entered EngUnd in 1640. A bridge 



of five arches spans the river, which formed one of 
the greatest thoroughfares between the two king- 
doms previously to the construction of railways. 
At present, the iron roads have completely thrown 
the old highway into the shade, and Coldstream 
bridge lies silent and deserted. The town is irregu- 
larly built, and quite Scotch in appearance. It 
has a weekly corn-market, and a monthly sheep 
and cattle market, both of considerable importance. 
There is a par. church and two Presbyterian dis- 
senting chapels, three subscription libraries, and 
four fnendly societies. The means of education 
are good. General Monk resided at Coldstream 
in 1 659-60, previously to his going to England and 
effecting the Restoration. During his stay here, 
he raised a horse regiment, to which he gave the 
name of the * Coldstream Guards,' whidi name 
the re^ment BtUl retains. 

COLERAINE, a marit town and pari. bor. of 
Ireland, prov. Ulster, co. Londondenry, on the 
Lower Bann, 4 m. from its mouth, and 47 m. 
NNW. Belfast, on the railwav from Belfast to 
Portrush. Pop. 4,851 in 1821; 6,143 in 1841 ; and 
5,631 in 1861. The town was built and fortified 
by the Irish Society of London, to whom the dis- 
trict was granted by James I., in 1618. The town 
consists 01 a square, called the Diamond, a main 
street, and several others, in which are many well- 
built houses. A wooden bridge, constructed in 
1716, and renovated in 1743, connects it with the 
suburb of Killowen or Waterside, on the W. bank 
of the Bann. The par. church is a large plain 
building. The Rom. Cath. chapel, an el^ant 
structure, is in KiUowen. The other places of 
worship are, two for Presbyterians, and one each 
for Methodists, Independents, and Seceders. The 
manufactures in the town and immediate neigh- 
bourhood are trifling ; a few paper-mills and 
some small tanneries. It has an endowed school, 
built by the Irish Society ; a town-hall, with a 
dispensary, loan fund, and a mendicity association. 
The corporation, consisting of a mayor, 12 alder- 
men, 24 burgesses, and an unlimited number of 
freemen, is become extinct; and its property is 
now vested in commissioners. Its jurisdiction ex- 
tended over the town and liberties, the limits of 
which were fixed by the charter at 3 m. in every 
direction from the centre of the town. The town 
returned two members to the Irish H. of C. until 
the Union, since which it has sent one member to 
the Imperial H. of C. Registered electors, 274 in 

There are numerous bleach-greens in the neigh- 
bourhood. The salmon and eel fisheries on the 
Bann, in the vicinity of the town, are valuable. 
The principal trade is in the export of com and 
meal, provisions, including pork, and linens of a 
fine kind, called ' Coleraines. The entries at the 
port, in the year 1863, comprised six British ves- 
sels, of 1,338 tons, and three foreign vessels, of 
709 tons. The customs duties received amounted 
to 7,561/. in 1859 ; to 7,94U in 1861 ; and to 6,168/. 
in 1863. Formerly, the trade of the town was 
much impeded by the bar at the mouth of the 
river, which had but 9 ft. water over it at springs, 
and 5 at neaps ; but this defect has been in a great 
degree obviated 1^ the formation of a harbour at 
Portrush, 4 m. NE. from the mouth of the Bann, 
in which vessels drawing 17 ft. water may anchor, 
being sheltered by a projecting rock from the swell 
of the ocean. The ouUay on this harbour amounted 
to about 13,000/. ; and it affords great fadlities to 
the trade of Coleraine, there being also a railway 
from the town to Portrush. 

COLESHILL, a town and par. of England, co. 
Warwick, Birmingham div., bund. Hemlingham; 
116 m. NW. London bv London and North West- 



em railway. Pop. of par. 2,063 in 18(51. The 
town derives ita name from its being situated on a 
hill, near the Cole. It has a handsome Gothic 
church with a lofty spire, several ^ood houses, and 
a school supported out of lands purchased by the 
inhab. after the dissolution of the monasteries. 

and par. of England, co. Devon, hund. Hayridge, 
12 m. N£. Exeter, and 181| m. W. London by 
Great Western railway. Pop. of town 2,205, and 
of par. 3,185 in 1861. The town is situated in an 
extensive vale beside the Culm, a tributary of the 
Exe, and consists of one large street, along the 
road from Exeter to Bath, and of several smaller 
streets diverging from it on either side; many of 
the houses are ancient, and some of them favour- 
able specimens of their day. The church, origin- 
allv coll^ate, is a spacious structure, in the later 
pointed style, with a lofty and highly ornamented 
tower, and a beautifid chapel attached. There 
are seven dissenting chapels; a national school, 
in which above 200 boys and girls are educated ; 
with other schools, and several extensive charities. 
Market, Saturdavs ; fairs, first Wednesdays in 
May and Nov., for cattle and cloth. There is a 
woollen mill; and the manufacture of narrow 
woollen cloths and serges employs a considerable 
portion of the pop., though the business has much 
declined. There is also, in the immediate vicinity, 
a paper-mill, two laige flour-mills, and four tan- 
yards. A monthly session for the district is held 
in the town. 

COLMAR (an. Columbaria, or Cobnaria, a city 
of France, d^p. Haute Khin, of which it is the 
cap., in a fertile plain, on the banks of two tribu- 
taries of the 111 ; 86 m. NNE. Strasbourg, and 234 
m. ESE. Paris, on the railway from Strasbourg to 
Mulhouse and Basel Pop. 22,629 in 1861. The 
city was fortified previously to 1678, when Louis 
XIV., having taken it from Germany, destroyed 
its defences, and united it to the dommions of the 
French crown. The city is now surrounded only 
by bovlevarda, planted with trees, and serving for 
public walks. It is tolerably well built, but con- 
tains few public edifices deserving of notice. The 
principal are the cathedral, built in 1363, the the- 
atre, and prison. The other public buildings and 
establishments are the haU of justice, city hall, 
prefecture, oolite, with a public library contain- 
ing 60,000 vols, and several paintings by Albert 
Durer and others ; the deaf and dumb asylum, 
civil and military hospitals, church of the Do- 
minican convent, now a corn-hall, Protestant 
church, and museum, containing, amongst other 
curiosities, a remarkable aerolite, which descended 
near Ensisheim in 1492, and originally weighed 
260 pounds. 

Colmar is environed by pleasant walks, gardens, 
and country houses; and possesses an orangery 
and deparunental nursery grounds. It is the seat 
of a royal court, and of tribunals of primary juris- 
<hction'and commerce. It has numerous manu- 
factures of cotton stuffs and printed goods, a large 
cotton and silk ribbon factory, besides others of 
cutlery, paper, brushes, combs, and leather; and 
an extensive trade in iron, spices, drugs, and wine, 
which, with its manufactured goods, it exports 
largely to Switzerland. The Columbaria of the 
Romans is believed to have replaced the more 
ancient Argentunria, This town was several times 
destroyed by the barbarians, and in aflcr times 
suffered greatly during the wan between the 
houses of Hapsburg and Nassau. The Swedes 
took it in 1632. 

COLMENAR DE OREJA, a town of Spain, 
prov. Madrid, 13 m. ENE. Aranjuez. Pop. 4,833 
in 1857. The town contains a fine church, two 


convents, and two hospitals; and is finely situ* 
atcd in a plain productive of wine, oil, and fruit. 
It has manufactures of woollens, pottery, and 
Spanish rush; and mill-stones, ana fine white 
stone for building, are found in the vicinity. 

COLNE, a market town and chapelry of Eng- 
land, CO. Lancaster, hund. Blackburn, p«r. Whal- 
ley, on the Colne, an affluent of the Calder : 26 m. 
N. Manchester, 15 m. NE. Blackburn, and 238| 
m. N. London, by London and North Western and 
Midland railway. Pop. 7,906 in 1861. This is a 
place of great antiquity ; but antiquaries are un- 
decided whether it be the Colunio of the Romans, 
or the Culme of the Saxons. Many Roman coins 
have been found here ; and Castor Cliff, about 1 
m. distant, retains evident traces of a military 
station, having a regular quadrangular rampart, 
surrounded by a fosse. The town is situated on 
an eminence, on a tongue of land formed by the 
river and the Leeds and Liverpool canal, which 
passes through a tunnel about I m. from the place, 
and is surrounded by the fine grazing district of 
Craven. It is a brisk second-rate town, and has 
of late years been greatly improved. It is well 
supplied with water by pipes from Flass spring, 
2 m. E. The parochial chapel of St. Bartholomew, 
supposed to be coeval with the reign of Henry I., 
but repaired in that of Henry VIII., and more re- 
cently in 1815, is said to be a ' spacious and decent 
building.' The Methodists, Baptists, Independ- 
ents, and Inghamites, have places of worship. A 
gallery' in Uie first named of these gave way in 
1777, from the pressure of the crowd assembled t4> 
hear John Wesley, tlie founder of the society, 
preach on its open Ing ; but though many were in- 
jured by the accident, no lives were losL A free 
grammar-school, rebuilt in 1812 by subscription, 
on the site of one more ancient, educates six boys: 
Archbishop Tillotson was a pupil in it. The'oo. 
magistrates hold sessions here, and a constable for 
the gov. of the place is chosen aimually by the 
rate-payers. The lord of the manor holds a court 
baron, and courts leet or halmote are held in May 
and Oct This is one of the most ancient seats of 
the woollen manufacture : a fulling-mill existed 
in 1311, and about the same period a coal-mine 
was worked in the vicinity. In addition to the 
woollen fabrics, shalloons, calamancoes, and tam- 
mies, were made in considerable quantities; and a 
piece-hall, on the principle of those at Bradford 
and Halifax, was erected in 1775. It is a sub- 
stantial stone building, containing two rooms, 
each 162 ft by 42 ft The upper room has been 
used for the sale of woollens during the fairs, and, 
owing to the decline of the worsted trade, the 
whole building is now thrown open for the sale of 
general merchandise on the same occasions. The 
cotton trade having been introduced towards the 
close of last century, has nearly superceded the 
woollen trade, and the pop. is now principally 
employed in manufacturing cotton goods for the 
Manchester market The spinning power is chiefly 
water supplied in abundance from the streams, 
steam-en^nes being used to obviate their occa- 
sional failure. The first power-loom was intit>- 
duced into the district in 1832. The canal already 
noticed affords a ready mode of conveyance for 
the coal, slate, lime, and stone raised here. Mar- 
kets on Wednesday : fairs, March 7, May 13 and 
16, Oct 11, Dec 21 ; also a fair on the last Wed- 
nesday of the month for cattle «id cloth. 

COLOGNE, or COLN (Germ. K6ln), an ancient 
and celebrated city of Prussia, formerly the cap. 
of the electorate of the same name, and now uf 
the Rhine prov., and of a reg. and circ of the 
same, on the left bank of the Rhine, and at the 
junction of the great lines of railway from Berlin 



to Paris, and from Amsterdam to Frankfort-on- 
the-Mayn. Pop. 120,568 in 1861, excltuiive of a 
fTairison of 7,485. llie city, one of the most 
ttouri^ing in the Prussian dominions, is connected 
bv a fine bridge built of stone, as well as by a 
bridge of boats, with the town of Deutz, on the 
oppc»ite side of the river. It is built in the form 
of a crescent, close to the water ; and is strongly 
fortified. The walls have a number of towers 
a la Momtaiambert, and form a circuit of nearly 
7 m. ; but a part of the included space is laid out 
in promenades and gardens. Though finely 
sitoated on the banks of a noble river, on a 
plightly elevated ground, Cologne has many wood 
houses And is ill-built, having been laid out in 
the Middle Ages, when the ol^ect of architects 
was more dirked towards defence against ex- 
ternal enemies than interior comfort and beauty. 
Tlie city has a great many interesting building, 
chief among them the cathedral or minster of St. 
Peter, a vast and imposing but incomplete Gothic 
edifice, begun about the year 1248. It is about 
4<K) ft. in length, and the choir rises to the height 
of 180 ft. To complete the vast structure and add 
to it a suitable tower, has been the object of all 
< Germany for the last forty or fifty years, and 
large smns have been collected for the purpose. 
The church of Sc 3fary is remarkable for its 
antiquity, and that of St. Peter for the famous 
altar>piece painted by Rubens. Several of the 
other churches are ahio interesting, particularly 
that of Sc Gereon. The town-house is a fine old 
building. The hall for the courts of justice was 
erected in 1824. In the arsenal are preder\'ed 
many carious specimens of ancient armour. Co- 
Icq^e is the seat of an archbishopric, of the pro- 
\*incml authorities, and of the courts of appeal for 
the province. Its university, established ui 1388, 
was stipprpssed during the occupation of the coun- 
tzy bv the French. The city has two gymnasiums 
or colleges — one for Catholics, to which is attached 
a very valuable library, and one for Protestants ; 
there is besides an archiepisoopal seminary for the 
education of clergymen, a normal school, a oom- 
roerciAl school, a public library, with numerous 
litcnuy institutions, and a theatre. Manufactures 
important ; they consist principally of cotton yam 
and stuffii, woollen stockings, oonnets, silks, vel- 
vets, tobacco, soap, hats, lace, thread, and clocks. 
There are tan-works and several distilleries, the 
most esteemed product of the latter being the 
well known eau He Coioffne. The citv ha8 a very 
g(M)d pcfft on the Rhine, and is the prmcipal entre- 
pot of the extensive and increasing commerce 
oetween the Netherlands and the countries in- 
cluded within the German customs' union. Ru- 
bens was bom in Cologne in 1577, and several of 
its churches are ornamented with his chef- 

Cologne was anciently called Oppidum Ubiotwn, 
from its being the chief town of toe Ubii, a German 
tribe. A Roman colony was planted in it by 
Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus, who was 
bi#m in it ; hence it obtained the name of Agrippina 
Cotomia, and latterlv of Oilonia and Cologne. 
(Tacit. AnnaU lib. xu. § 27 ; Ollarii Notit. Orbis 
Antiqui, L p. 327.) In the middle ages, Cologne 
was much more populous and wealthy than at 
present. It was tor a lengthened period one of 
the most important cities belonging to the Han- 
seatic League. It suffered much at different 
periods fincim the intolerance of its magistrates, by 
whom all Protestants were expelled from the 
city in 1618. 

COLOMBIA, a vast territory of S. America, 
formerly one country, but, since the year 1831, 
divided into the states of Ecuador, New Granada, 

and Venezuela. The territory occupies the N. 
part of South America, between lat 12° 25' N. 
and fp S., and long. 60° and 83© W. ; having N. 
the Caribbean Sea, £. British Guiana and Brazil, 
S. Brazil and Pera, and W. the Pacific Ocean and 
the repub. of Central America ; length £. to W., 
1,320 m.; breadth N. to S., 1,080 m.; area 
1,155,000 sq. m. 

Colombia is naturally divided into 3 distinct 
zones, or tracts of country. The first comprises 
the country between the Pacific Ocean and the 
Caribbean Sea and the Andes; the second, the 
mountainous region; the third, the immense 
savannahs which stretch S. and £. from the Andes 
to the neighbourhood of the river Amazon, and 
the mountains which border on the Orinoco. Co- 
lombia has as much as 2,000 m. of coast on the 
Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic, and 1,200 m. on 
the Pacific. The former is a great deal more in- 
dented with bays and inlets than the latter ; the 
principal are the Gulfs of Paria, Maracaybo, and 
Darien, on the Caribbean Sea; with Panama, 
Choco, and the Gulf of Guayaquil, on the Pacific. 
Several islands belonging to Colombia suiround 
its coast; as those of Margarita, Tortuga, &c, 
(Venezuela) ; I. Rey, Quito, Ac (N. Granada) ; 
and Puna (Ecuador). (Hall's Colombia, Ac., pp. 
26-28 ; Mod. Trav., xxvii. 7, Ac.) 

3/oun/m'iM. — ^The great Cordillera of the Andes 
enters the prov. of Loxa from tlie S., between 
lat 49 and 5° S. ; in 2<> 23' S., where it is neariy 
15,000 ft. in height, it divides into two parallel 
ridges, in the elevated valley between which, 
9,000 ft. above the level of the sea, Quito and 
other towns are situated. £. of this valley rise 
the summits of Copaurcu, 16,380, Tunguragua, 
16,720, Cotopaxi, 17,950, and Guyambu, 18,180 ft. ; 
and on its VV. side, those of Chimborazo, 20,100, 
Ilenisa, 16,302, and Petchincha, 15,380 ft, hi^h ; 
all covered with perpetual snows, firom amidst 
which torrents of name and lava have frequently 
burst, and desolated the surrounding country. 
ITiese two ranges afterwards unite, but near i° 
N. again separate, enclosing the lofty valley of 
Pastos, bounded by the stiU active volcanoes of 
AzufsaJ and Gambal, and the extinct one of 
Chiles. Beyond Pastos, the Cordilleras consist 
of three ranges, the most W., the elevation of 
which is generally less than 5,000 ft., follows the 
coast of the Paciflc, and terminates in the Isthmus 
of Panama ; the central range is interposed be- 
tween the vallevs of the Cauca and Magdalena 
rivers, and terminates near Mompox, between lat. 
9° and 10° N.; and the third, being the most E. 
and highest range, extends to the extremity of 
the Parian promontory, in long. 62^^ E. This 
last-named range divides the waters which flow 
into the Orinoco on its E., from the Magdalena, 
Zulia, Tocuyo, &c., and their affluents, on its W. 
side. Many of its summits reach above the limit 
of perpetual snow; and it has numerous lower 
summits, called /wmmos, which rise to 10,000 or 
12,000 ft. above the level of the sea, and are con- 
stantiy enveloped in damp and thick iag^ The 
city of Bogota, 8,100 ft. above the sea, is built on 
a table-land formed by this mountain range ; as 
are the towns of Nirgua, San Felipe el Fuerte, 
Barquesimeto, and Tocuyo; but these are at a 
much lower elevation than Bogota, the mountains 
decreasing in height very considerably N. of 
Merida. The mean elevation of the Andes in 
Colombia is about 11,100 ft.; their altitude is 
greatest near the equator. In Venezuela, between 
the parallels of 8° and 7° S. lat,, there is another 
moimtain system, unconnected with the Andean, 
from which it is separated by the Orinoco and 
the plains of Caraccas, Varinas, and those in 



the £. parts of New Granada. Thu system has 
been called the Cordillera, or Sierra of Parima. 
It is less a chain than a collection of granitic 
mountainSf separated by small plains, and not 
uniformly disposed in lines ; its mean height is not 
above 3,500 ft,, although some summits rise to 
upwards of 8,000 ft. above the level of the sea. 
(Uumboldt^s Pers. Karr. and Researches; Hall's 
Colombia, pp. 2-6 ; Mod. Trav., volxxvii.) 

Plain*, — Colombia includes the most northerly 
of the three great basins of the %. American con- 
tinent, the IJanoiof Varinas andCaraccas; which, 
like the Pampas of Buenos Avres, consists of sa- 
vannahs or steppes devoid of large trees. These, 
in the rainy season, appear from the high lands 
as a boundless extent of verdure, but in time of 
drought they are a complete desert. Humboldt re- 
marks, that * tliere is something awful, but sad and 
gloomy, in the uniform aspect of these steppes.' 
* I know not,' he says, * whether the first sight of 
the LlanoM excites less astonishment than that of 
the Andes. The plains of the W. and N. of Europe 
present but a feeble image of these. All around 
us the plains seemed to ascend towards the sky ; 
and that vast and profound solitude appeared Uke 
an ocean covered with sea- weeds.' The chief cha- 
racteristic of these steppes, like those of X. Asia, 
is the absolute want of hills and inequalities. An 
uninterrupted flat of 180 leagues extends from the 
mouths of the Orinoco to Araure and Ospinos ; and 
j&om San Carlos to the savannahs of the Caqueta 
for 200 leagues. This resemblance to the surface 
of the sea strikes the imagination most powerfully 
where the plains are altogether destitute of palm- 
trees, and where the mountains of the shore and of 
the Orinoco are so distant that they cannot be seen. 
Occasionally, however, fractured strata of sand- 
stone, or compact limestone, stand 4 or 5 ft. 
higher than the plain, and extend for three or four 
leagues along it; and convex eminences, of a very 
trifling height, separate the streams which flow to 
the coast from those that join the Orinoco. The 
phenomena of the mirage, and the apparitions of 
large lakes, with an undulating surface, may fre- 
quently be observed. These savannahs are watered 
by the numerous streams which form the Meta, 
the Apure, and finally the Orinoco ; and the pe- 
riodical overflowings of which convert the whole 
country, during four months of the year, into 
an inland sea. The equally well-watered plains 
of Ecuador are intersected by numerous large 
branches of the Amazon, and form a part of the 
great central basin of the continent. (Humboldt's 
Pers. Narr.; Hall, p. 8; Mod. Trav., pp. 19-21, 

Riven» — The chief are the Amazon, which, in 
the earlier part of its course, runs almost entirely 
through Ecuador, near its S. border ; and the 
Orinoco, which, t^ogether with all its branches, is 
wholly included within the territories of Vene- 
zuela and New Granada. Besides these, there are 
the Magdalena, Cauca, Atrato, Zulia, Tocuyo, and 
Guarapiche, whose waters go to the Caribbean 
Sea ; the Patia, Mira, Esmeralda, and Guayaquil 
rivers falling into the Pacific ; the Yapura, Pu- 
tumayo, Napo, Piguena, Pasta9a, Marona, San- 
tiago, Huallaga, dkc, affluents of the Amazon; 
the Guaviare, Meta, Arauca, Apure, with its nu- 
merous branches, Ventuari, Caura, and Carony, 
which discharge themselves into the Orinoco; 
and the Cayuni, which passes into the territory of 
British Guiana. 

Lakes, — The most considerable is that of Mara- 
caybo, which is rather a kind of inland fresh water 
sea, and communicates with the gulf of the same 
name by a channel about 2 leagues broad and 8 
long. (See Maracaybo.) The lake of Valencia, 

which is the next in importance, is larger than 
that of Neufchatel in Switzerland : there are others, 
both in the plains and in the mountainous regions ; 
the most celebrated of them is that of Guatavita, 
not far from Bogota, into which, it is affirmed, 
lar^e sums were thrown by the natives during the 
penod of the Spanish conquests. Some extensive 
salt marshes are to be met with in different parts 
of the NW. coasts (Mod. Trav., voL zxvii ; 
Account of Colombia, pp. 19-25.) 

Minerals. — The Cordilleras teem with metallic 
wealth ; and, though imperfectly explored, have 
already produced large quantities of gold, silver, 
platina, mercury, copper, lead, and iron : the gold 
is mostly obtained by washing the auriferous soil, 
and comes chiefly from the provs. of Choco, An- 
tioquia, and Popayan ; silver is found in the prov. 
of Pamplona and the valley of the Cauca ; pla- 
tina, on the coast of the Pacific; mercury and 
cinnabar, in several parts, as well as lead ; and iron 
and pit-coal in abundance near Bogota : copper, in 
great plenty, is found, especiallv at Aroa, in New 
Granada. There are mines of rock salt in the 
mountains NE. of Bogota, and caves producing 
nitre near the lake Guavita. Hot sulphureoui» 
springs abound in several parts ; those of Las Trin- 
cheras, about 10 m. from Valencia, are believed to 
be the hottest hitherto discovered, excepting those 
of Urijino in Japan. Colombia abounds in stu- 
pendous natural wonders : amongst the rest are 
the natural bridges of Icononzo, not far from Bo- 
gota ; the fall of fequendama, the loftiest cataract, 
and the Silla de Caraccas, the loftiest cliff yet dis- 
covered. ^Humboldt's Pers. Narr. and Researches ; 
Delabeche s Geolog. Manual, pp. 410, 411 ; Present 
State of Colombia, pp. 297-314.) 

The climate of the country between the Cordil- 
lera and the Caribbean Sea is extremely hot, and 
generally unhealthy. In the valley of the Orinoco 
the heat is also intense ; but this tract is not so 
insalubrious as the sea coast, and b often refreshed 
by strong breezes. The middle region possesses 
every gradation of temperature, according to ele- 
vation : when at the level of the sea, the ther- 
mometer has been found to stand at 115^ Fah. ; 
at the height of 4,800 ft. it has descended to 77^ ; 
at 8,000 fU to 50<) ; at 9,000 ft. high, it becomes 
extremely cold ; and at 15,700 fK all vegetation 
ceases. At Caraccas, most rain falls in April, 
May, and June : Dec., Jan., Feb. are the months 
of greatest drought. Violent storms, accompanied 
with thunder and lightning, are frequent at Mara- 
cay bo. Earthquakes are very common ; many took 
place at the end of the last century, and one in 
1812 overthrew most of the principal towns on the 
N. coast, with great destruction of human Ufe, 
Intermittent, putrid, and bilious fevers and dysen- 
teries are the most prevalent diseases on the ooa^t ; 
goitre is nearly universal in the mountainous re- 
gions. (Hall's Colombia, pp. 6-10; Account of 
Uolombia, pp. 13-18; Mod. Trav., voL xxvii) 

Vegetable Products, — ^The vast forests diat line 
the shores of the rivers, and cover the moontains, 
abound with fine timber, which would yield a large 
revenue, if the means of transit to the coast were 
better. Mahogany, cedars, and an infinite num- 
ber of woods of great beauty and durabUity, a 
very hard species of oak {Q^ercHS cents, Uun.), 
iron-wood, ebony of various kinds ; Nicaraf^u^ 
Brazil, and numerous other dye-woods ; the cocoa 
and other palms ; bananas, plantains, and gigantic 
mimosas, are found in profusion. Humboldt ob- 
serves, ' It might be said that the earth, overloaded 
with plants, does not allow them epace enough to 
unfold themselves. The trunks or the trees are 
every where concealed under a thick carpet of 
verdure ; and if we carefully transplanted the 



Orekidtef the pqten, and the pothofl, which a 
single courhanl or American fig-tree nourishes, 
we should cover a vast extent of groand.' Yene- 
zaela is, generally speaking, more ^rtile and richly 
wooded than New Granada. Mangroves and Cacti 
grow thick upon the coast; the tamarind, date, 
and various other tropical fruits, are nearly every 
where plentilVil, and the Ficus giganUa sometimes 
reaches the height of 100 feet. The cocoa-nut, 
indigo, cotton, tobacco, yam, and potato, are indi- 
genous to Colombia, as are vanilla, cassia-fistula, 
cochineal, Ac : the prov. of Loxa and Mariquito 
are famous for their cinchona bark ; cusparia, sar- 
f^parilla, saasafiras, squills, storax, and a multi- 
tude of other medicinal plants, gums, resins, and 
balsams, are natives of this country. Arborescent 
ferns of an enormous size are met with ; and the 
earth in some parts is covered with gramineous 
iilanta occasionally 30 ft. high. (HumlM>ldt'8 Pers. 
rCarr. and Researches ; Mod. Trav. ; Hall's Colom- 
bia, pp. 30, 31, drc ; Account of Colombia, pp. 

AmmaU. — Nature has been equally prodigal of 
animal as of vegetable life. Jaguars, tapirs, wild 
hones, hogs, deer in immense numbers, wild dogs, 
and monkeys of difTerent kinds, are amongst the 
most common quadrupeds; as vultures, parrots, 
and parroquets, in la^ flocks, macaws, scarlet 
cardinals, flamingoes, pelicans, and an abundance 
of water-fowl, are plentiful amon^ birds. Immense 
alligators inhabit the larger nvers and llanos, 
where, together with large serpents of various 
kinds, they lie buried in die mud during the dry 
season, and revive at the first appearance of the 
rains. The riven and lakes are weU stocked with 
fish ; and the stagnant pools in the llanos abound 
niith the gymnotus, or electrical eel. (For a de- 
hcription of this remarkable animal, see Hum- 
l»f»ldt 9 Pers. Narr., 346-377 ; or Mod. Trav., xxviL 
233-237.) Scorpions, millipedes, soolopendras, 
termites, mosquitoes, and myriads of other insects 
abound : the pearl oyster inhabits several parts of 
the coast. 

AffricultHre. — Cocoa, coflee, cotton, indigo, sugar, 
Ufbacoo, hides, cattle, and Brazil-wood, are the 
principal articles of culture and commerce: the 
grainv and the nutritious roots known in the West 
Indies by the name of ground provisions, are 
produced only in sufficient quantities fur home 
consumption. Maize is grown every where, and, 
when npe, is pounded in wooden mortars into a 
coarse meal, there being no more perfect ma- 
chinery for grinding it. Wheat is grown on the 
higher lands, especially in New Granada, where it 
succeeds as well as in Ei^land, and often yields 
4*) bushels an acre : two crops may be produced in 
a year. A substitute for bread is found in cassava, 
whidh is procured, by a process similar to that for 
making starch, firom the yuca root : the plantain 
14 to the mass aithe natives what the potato has be- 
come to the poor of Ireland ; the rice of Colombia 
is indiffoenL Cocoa properly the cacao nut) is 
princxpdly grown in Venezuela, on the low rich 
soil or the coast, in Yarinas, and near Guaya^uiL 
It docs not come into full bearing till after eight 
or nine years* growth ; but, after that, continues in 
produce' from 20 to 30 years, bearing two crops a 
year, with little trouble or expense. The cultiva- 
tioo of cacao has however diminished, that of 
cc^ee having been in part sut»tituted for it. 
Coffee has been introduced into almost all the 
temperate valleys of Venezuela, and the prov. of 
Santa Martha and Mariquita in New Granada ; 
but its culture is conducted with less care than in 
the W. Indian Islands. Its produce and the trade 
in it have, however, increased rapidly since the 
revolationar)' war, and it now forms by far the 

Vou IL 

greatest article of export. Cotton is grown in all 
parts of the country ; but principally in the valleys 
of Aragua, and the provs. Cartagena and Mara- 
caybo. The produce is said to be inferior in quality 
to that from the uplands of N. America, which is 
in great measure owing to the defective mode 
generally followed of cleaning and depriving it of 
the seed. In the prov. Cartagena, the plant is 
grown upon newly cleared land, between succes- 
sive crops of maize. Indigo is cultivated prin- 
cipally m the valleys of Aragua and the prov. 
Varinas, and formerly was exported in large quan- 
tities ; but the competition in this article, which 
British skill and capital has produced in Hindostan, 
materially affects this branch of agriculture. The 
tobacco of Caraccas is greatly superior to that of 
Virginia, yielding onlv to that of Cuba and the 
Rio Negro ; in some places, as at Cumanacoa, it is 
even superior to the latter. Under the Spanish 
regime, the culture and sale of tobacco were mo- 
nopolised by the government. All individuals 
authorised to raise it were registered, and the entire 
produce was brought to the government depots 
{estancos\ and sold to its agents at a certain fixed 

f>rice, who again sold it to the consumer at a 
aige advance. The Colombian con^ss originally 
abolished this among other monoijobes; but finding 
that they could not spare the revenue, of which it 
was productive, it was again revived. The culti- 
vation of the plant had, however, from some cause 
or other, so much declined, that the revenue de- 
rived from the monopoly ceased to be o^ any 
material importance ; and a law passed the con- 
gress for its abolition, on the 1st of June, 1834. 

Previously to the arrival of Columbus, the horse 
and ox were unknown in the New World ; but the 
llanos are now covered with herds of both. M. 
Depons, in the early part of the present century, 
estimated that there were, from the mouths of the 
Orinoco to the lake Maracaybo, 1,200,000 oxen, 
180,000 horses, and 90,000 mules; an estimate 
which Humboldt thought too low. Sheep and goats 
are plentiful in the table-lands of Bogota ; animal 
food is cheap and much consumed; and hides, 
wool, and cheese form a principal portion of rural 
produce. Agriculture generally is in a very low 
state, and the government have been lately de- 
sirous to promote its improvement by encouraging 
foreign settlers, and dispoang of the waste lauds 
to them at a low rate, and exempting them for a 
period from taxes. Few people possess estates 
of 6,O002L a year; 6,000 dollars are reckoned a 
good income. Near Pamplona the grounds are 
surrounded with stone wall hedges, which give an 
air of proprietorship not often seen ; and in the 
valley of Serinze (New Granada), a similar plan 
is adopted, and cultivation is in a tolerably ad- 
vanced stage. Commonly, however, the natural 
indolence of the natives precludes this, and * the 
Colombian who can eat beef and plantains, and 
smoke cigars as he swings in his hammock, is 
possessed of almost every thing his habits qualify 
him to enjoy, or which his ambition prompts him 
to attain — the poor have little less, the rich scarcely 
covet more.' in the llanos the indolence of the 
inhabitants is such that, after having suffered for 
half the year from inundations, they patiently ex- 
pose themselves during the other hall to the most 
distressing want of water, though they know that 
almost every where they may obtain a good supply 
at 10 ft. below the surface of the earth. The fer- 
tility of the soil and the warmth of the climate 
have, in fact, indisposed and unfitted the people 
for any vigorous exertion. (Humboldt ; Mod. 
Trav.; Hall) 

Pearl Fisheriet, — Along the coast many of the 
inhabitants subsist as fishermen, bartering the fish 



they catch for maize and other inland produce. 
There are three pearl fisheries ; two on tlie shores 
of the Atlantic, and one on those of the Pacific. 
The first are situated on the coast of the islands 
Margarita, Cubagua, and Coche, and at the mouth 
of the Rio Hacha; in the 16th century they were 
much celebrated, and yielded pearls to the value 
of half a million dollars annually. The pearls of 
this coast are remarkable for their beautiful play 
of light, in which they are much superior to those 
of tlie East. The other fishery is at Panama : all 
of them are now much neglected, and do not yield 
more than 180,000 dollars a year. The Indians of 
Cariaco have a singular method of catching mid- 
fowl, which may here be noticed : they leave ca- 
labashes continually floating on the water, that the 
birds may be accustomed to the sight of them. 
* When they wish to catch any of these wild fowl, 
they go into the water with their heads covered 
each with a calabash, in which they make two 
holes for seeing through. They thus swim towards 
the birds, throwing a handful of maize on the 
water from time to time, the grains of which 
scatter on the surface. The birds approach to feed 
on the maize, and at that moment the swimmer 
seizes them by the feet, pulls them under water, 
and vtTings their necks before they can make the movement, or, by their noise, spread an alarm 
among the fiock. . . .*. Many have no other trade 
in the neighbourhood of large towns, and daily 
take multitudes of these birds, which they sell at 
a low rate.' (Humboldt's Pers. Narr., iL 271, 276 ; 
Present State of Colombia, pp. 822, 323 ; Hall's 
Colombia, pp. 28, 29 ; Mod- Trav., xxvii. 30, 54, 
55, <!^c.) 

Manufacturet. — Such of these as are not merely 
domestic are chiefiy leather, hammocks, baizes, 
blankets, coarse cloths of various kinds, hats, and 
salt ; but none of them is of any importance. The 
principal salt works are at Araya and Santa Mar- 
tha. The whole process is left to nature, and 
consists simply in the washing of the muriatiferous 
soil by the rains, into shallow basins, where the 
salt is' found incrusted, after evaporation, in a state 
of great purity. The common pottery is rude, and 
made by Indian women only. At Caripe, oil is 
manufactured by the Indians, from the fat of young 
guachcro birds ; and on the Magdalena, the negroes 
stuff their pillows with the wool obtained from the 
fruit of the mahagua {bomhax). Such expedients 
often supply the place of better manufactures, all 
of which must be procured from abroad, and are 
comparatively scarce and dear. (Mod. Trav.; 
Humboldt; Hall's Colombia, 4&c.) 

Trade. — The ports of La Guayra, Rio dd Hacha, 
Santa Martha, Cartagena, Chagres, Puerto-Ca- 
bello, Panama, and Guayaquil are those most fre- 
quented by foreign traders. The value of the im- 
ports and exports of the three states of Colombia 
from and to the United Kingdom, in the years 
1861 and 1862, is shown in the subjoined state- 
ment : — 


\Wl ' 


New f Imports from 
Granada ' Exports to 





Venezuela • 

[ Imports from 



Exports to 



' Ecuador • 

Imports from 



Exports to 



The internal trade of the Colombian states is 
of no great imix)rtance. The want of internal 
communication is a considerable disadvantage; 
throughout the whole country there is scarcely a 
road passable for wheel carriages ; and every species 

of commodity is conveyed on mules. The ways 
generally are mere tracks, formed by the tread of 
successive travellers, and even in what were for- 
merly termed royal roads, all that has been done 
is to cut down the trees. Bridges are few, and 
except those of Valencia and Capitanejo, consist 
of only a few rough planks, with branches laid 
across ; or of ropes, upon which a suspended basket 
is made to run from one end to the other. In 
the more precipitous and dangerous passes, where 
mules can scarcelv be used, it is customarv for 
travellers to be carried in chairs fastened to the 
backs of men, who obtain a miserable livelihood 
by continually exposing themselves to risks, such 
as those which beset the chamois-hunter. (See 

Government is vested, in each of the states, in a 
senate and a house of representatives, both con- 
sisting of members elected by the cantonal de- 
Euties of the provinces, in a pro\'isional assembly, 
eld once in four years. In Colombia, previous to 
its partition, the right of suffrage in the election 
of deputies required the parochial voter to be a 
Colombian, above the age of 21, the owner of pro- 
perty worth 100 dollars, or exercising some trade 
or profession, and able to read and write (this last 
qualification to be |)eremptory after 1840). To be 
a cantonal elector, it was requisite to be a native 
of the canton, possessed of property worth 500 doK, 
or an income of 300 dollars : to be a senator, it was 
necessarv to have an income of 500 dollars, or to 
be of a learned prof««ion. The executive power 
was vested in a president and vice-president, the 
former of whom could not continue in office longer 
than eight years successively; and neither he, nor 
any of the ministers, could be members of the con- 
gress. With some variations, this government has 
been adopted by the existing states. The poli- 
tical government of each department is, by law, 
vested in the hands of an intendente, appointed by 
the president, with the sanction of the oongre&s 
with authority over the administration of justice, 
police, finance, and defence ; but without the com- 
mand of an armed military force. The provuices 
are under the administration of governors, with 
powers similar to those of the intendente; the 
cantons and parishes have each their own officers. 

The civil and criminal codes are an ill-digested 
collection of the laws of Castile and of the Indies, 
royal ordinances and other Spanish decrees, and 
colonial regulations; and their administration i» 
ver}' unfavourably spoken of. The judges wore 
elected by the congress, from lists ^vcn by the 
president. Trial by jury, and the liberty of the 
press, were amongst the first enactments of the 
Colombian congress. 

Religion^ the Roman Catholic^ the ceremonies 
and festivals of which are celebrated with i^rreat 
splendour. The Inquisition was abolished in 182 1 ; 
but the clexgy still possess considerable power, and 
though general toleration is afforded to persona of 
other creeds, they are not at liberty to pexform 
their rites in public. The deigy are paid by tlie 
state : convents are still numerous, but diminish- 
ing, and dissent from Catholicism is spreading. 
Many Indians have embraced Christianity. 

llie ranks of the different armies are filled ^th 
Indians and mixed races, in a tolerable state of 
discipline. In addition to these, there is a mllida, 
consisting of the whole male population between 
16 and 40 years of age. Considerable pains have 
been taken by the states of Colombia to rai^e a 
navy ; but their maritime 'force is inconsiderable. 
A marine school has, however, been established at 

During the Spanish regime elementary educa- 
tion was sadly neglected, and all the more impor- 


taut branches of useful knowledge professed at the 
universittG« of the Canu;cas, Bogota, and Quito, 
were so taught as to be really worse than useless ; 
and init4*ad of expanding and enlightening the 
mmd, served rather to imbue it with the grossest 
prejudices. But considerable progress has since 
heen made towards the establishment of a better 
order of things. Primary schools were ordered to 
\ie. established in every parish, by the congress of 
1^21; Lancastrian schools exist in the principal 
townsy and the universities have been remodelled. 
The Colombian congress applied certain projj^erty 
f-iiimerly belonging to the clergy to the aid of 
public education ; and the legislatures of the pre- 
hent republics have been anxious to carry into 
etfcct Che system adopted by it. Several public 
jc»uma]a are establish^ in different parts of the 

Architecture has made but little progress, and 
almost the only specimens worth notice are confined 
to Bogota. Painting is successfully cultivated in 
tliat city and Quito, and music in Caraccaa ; but, 
generally speaking, the fine arts are in a very 
backwaid state. The besetting vice of the Colom- 
bians is indolence, which retards all their sm^ial 
pnigress : they are courteous, hospitable, and, when 
intimately known, friendly and cordial ; temperate 
in their habits, and grave m their deportment ; but 
feu^pidous, reserved, slow, and imbued with much 
national pride. The manners, dress, habits, and 
amusements of those of European descent resemble 
tho^^e of their Spanish ancestors. 

History. — Ecuador, and esptecially the valley of 
Quito, contains manv monuments of the sway of 
the Incas. Venezuela was the first part of the 
new continent discovered bv Columbus in 1498. 
The Spaniards found more difficulty in conquering 
thi5 than any other part of their American terri- 
t4iries ; bat, t)efore the middle of the I6th centur}% 
both Venezuela and New Granada had been erected 
into captaincies, governed by viceroys from Spain. 
In 1808, after the invasion of Spain by Napoleon, 
a spirit of insubordination broke out in these 
citlooiea; in 1811, their independence was de- 
clared; and, in 1819, Venezuela and New Granada 
united into one republic, under the name of Co- 
lomUa. In 1822, the royalists in Ecuador were 
defeated by Gen. Sucre ; Bolivar headed the re- 
voluttooiats elsewhere ; and in 1823 the struggle 
ended with their complete independence. In 1829, 
Venezuela separated from the other states; re- 
joined them lor a short period in 1830 ; but in 
Aov. 1831 separated anew; since which period 
Colombia has remained divided into the above 
three republics. But such is the state of insccuritpr 
in which all th^e governments exist, that it is 
highly probable that, for the sake of gaining the 
necensary power to r^ist foreign aggression, they 
will, before long, be apiin consolidated into one 
united state of Colombia. 

COLUMB (ST. MAJOR), a town and par. of 
Kngland, co. Cornwall, hund. Pyder. Area of 11,680 acres. Pop. of ditto, 2,879 in 1861. 
The town is situated on an emmence, at the foot 
of which is a small river, 4 m. from the sea, and 
14 m. NE. Truro. It had formerly a communi- 
cation with the sea by means of a canal, now 
fallen into disuse. It has a large old church, and 
two methodist chapels. Market-day, Thursdav. 

COLUMBIA, a distr. of the U. S. of America, 
lying between the states of Virginia and Mary- 
land, on both sides the Potomac, about 120 m. 
fnim its mouth ; length and breadth, 10 m. each ; 
area, 100 aq. m. Pop. 75,080 in 1860 ; and 39,834 
in 1830. Surface gently undulating; soil na- 
turally thin, sandy, and sterile. Climate healthy; 
mean temn. of the cap. about 55^ Fahr. The Po- 



tomac traverses the distr. chiefly in a SE. direc- 
tion, receiving in its way through it a tributary 
from the E., by its junction with which a penin- 
sula is formed, on which the city of Washington 
is built. At the confluence of the two rivers there 
is an excellent harbour and a navy-yard, to wliich 
ships of the largest tonnage may ascend. The 
yard covers a space of 37 acres, and in it are made 
all the anchors, cables, and blocks required for the 
ser\ice of the U. S. navy. 

Washington is the cap. of the U. States, the 
seat of the general government, and the re^^idcntH* 
of the president and other prii)cii)al ofTicers of 
; state. (See Wasiiimoton.) The other chief 
towns are Georgetown and Alexandria ; the former 
is separated from Washington by K<x!k Creek, 
anotlier affluent of the Potomac Alexandria is 
on the right bank of the river, 7 m. below Wash- 

Considerable quantities of flour and other do- 
mestic produce are brought down the Potomac, 
but ncitlier the commerce nor shipping of the 
distr. are of great im[K)rtance. Alexandria and 
Georgetown have together al)out 19,0(K» tons shii>- 
ping. There are three colleges in the dintrict, all 
m active operation : — the Columliia Institute at 
Washington; the Roman Catholic university at 
Georgct<»wn; and the theological seminar^' at 
Alexandria; connected with which w a medical 
department, and a preparatorj' school. The tlis- 
trict is under the immediate government of con- 
gress. It was cetied to the U. States by Mar^'land 
and Virginia in 1790; and in 1801 it was enacted 
that the laws of these states should continue in 
force in the portions ceded by each. Congress 
first met here in 1800. 

Columbia, a town of the U. S, of America, cap. 
S. Carolina, and seat of the state government, m 
an elevated plain near the centre of the state, near 
theCongaree river; 100 m. NNW. Charleston, and 
68 m. NE. Augusta. Pop. 7,052 in 18G2. The 
streets, which are 100 ft. wide, intersect each 
other mostly at right angles, and it has many 
go<Kl houses. It has a state-house, court-house, 
gaol, and several places of worship. The S. Cart)- 
lina college, founded in this town in 1804, has two 
laige brick editices, and possesses a philosophical 
apparatus, cabinet of minerals, and library' of 
10,000 vols. Here is also a theological seminarv, 
establbhed in 1829. Columbia was founded in 

' COLUMBIA RIVERj a large river of N. 
America, the principal m the Oregon territory, 
with an extremely tortuous course. It rises in 
the Rocky Mountains, in about the 51st deg. of 
N. lat., and the 1 16th deg. of W. long. Its course 
is first NW. till about the 5ilni deg. lat ; and then 
nearlv S. for about 245 m. till its junction with 
the I'^Iathead, or Clarke's river. It then pursues 
a WSW. course, being precipitated over some 
verv high falls, till it reaches Fort Okanegaii, 
in about 48° N. laU and V2iP W. long., when it 
flows S. to li'ort Ne|)erce8, a distance of 155 m., 
where it is joined by the Great Snake river from 
the SE. After receiving the latter it turns to the 
W. ; and pursuing that direction during the re- 
mainder of its course, it falls into the Pacific 
Ocean, between Cape Disappointment on the N. 
and Point Adams on the S., in 46^ 18' N. laL and 
124*^ W. long. Its embouchure is 5 or 6 m. in 
width. It has not, where deepest, more than 
from 4^ to 5' fathoms over its bar, on which the 
sea breaks with considerable \'iolence, making 
its ingress and egress, to sailing vessels, a work 
always of considerable difficulty, and practicable 
only, it is said, at certain seasons. Vessels of 400 
tons may ascend tlie river to Fort Vancouver, 

u 2 



about 100 ID. (dir. dist) from its mouth; and 
sloops may ascend it for about 80 miles farther. 
At the Long Narrows, by which the navigation 
is first interrupted^ the river is precipitated over 
an upper and a lower fall respectively 20 and 8 ft. 
in height. 

COLUMBO, a sea-port town of Ceylon, the 
modem cap. of the island, and seat of govern- 
ment, on the W. coast, towards its S. extremity ; 
lat. 60 55' N., long. 79° 45' E. : pop. estimated at 
60,000. The town has a fort, defended by walls 
flanked with several bastions, and is built upon a 
peninsula projecting into the sea, having on the ! 
land side a fresh water lake of some size. It con- 
tains the residences of the governor and most of 
the British inhabitants. The pettak, or inner 
town, a few hundred yards £. iVom the fort, has a 
mixed pop. of Dut^h, Portuguese, and their de- 
scendants. The native Ceylonese reside chiefly' 
in the suburbs. The town within the walls is 
regularly laid out, and built in the European 
style ; houses, chiefly of stone, clay, and lime, are 
seldom more than a story in height, but each has 
in front a large wooilen verandah. The English 
have substituted Venetian blinds in their houses 
for the glass windows used by the Dutch. The 
fort contains the government house, a handsome 
building of two stories, the English church, court- 
house, library, museum, several hotels, and a 
lighthouse 97 ft, high. There are also in Columbo 
a Dutch and a Portuguese church, several Pro- 
testant dissenting chapels, with missionary and 
other schools. To the N. of the fort is a small 
semicircular bay, on which a wooden quav has 
been built, but the depth of water is not sufl^cient 
to admit of vessels above 100 tons burden coming 
alongside. Tlie bay is sheltered and defended by 
a projecting rock on which two batteries are 
erected ; but from this rock a bar of shifting sand 
stretches across the mouth of the bay, within 
which the larger class of ships can venture only 
diuing the fine weather of the safe season. Be- 
sides its small bay, Columbo has an open road- 
stead, which, however, is safe only during the 
NP]. monsoon: were the town more favoured in 
this respect, it would be the most eligible port in 
the island, since it is placed in the centre of the 
cinnamon country, is the depot for nearly all the 
foreign trade of the island, and has a somewhat 
extensive traffic by means of internal navigation. 
Columbo is ill supplied w^ith water. Its climate is 
healthy, though damp and destructive of books, 
clothing, Ac The Portuguese erected a fort here 
in the early part of the 16th century, of which the 
Dutch dispossessed them in 1656 ; and the town 
was taken from the latter by the English in 1796, 
which change of masters was afterwards ratified 
bv the peace of Amiens. 

' COLUMBUS, a city of the U. Sutes.cap. Ohio, 
of which it is nearly in the centre, on the banks of 
the Scioto, immediately above the point where it 
is joined by the Whetstone river, 100 m. NE. Cin- 
cinnati; hit. 89° 47' N., long. 83® 8' W. Pop. 
18,5.'>0 in 1860. The town was founded so late as 
1812, the land on which it stands having pre- 
viously been a wilderness. It is well situated on 
land rising gradually from the river ; the streets, 
which are broad and straight, cross each other at 
right angles, being for the most part lined with 
substantial houses. It has a square which com- 
prises 10 acres ; and a convenient wharf extends 
along the margin of the river. But the naviga- 
tion of the latter (an affluent of the Ohio) being 
liable to interruption, the city is united by a canal 
to the Ohio canal, which opens an easy communi- 
cation with tlie lakes on the one hand, and the 
^Iissi:?Nippi on the uthor; and its trade is farther 


promoted by its being on the line of railway from 
Indianopolis to Zanesville. A bridge across the 
river unites the city with the submrb of Frank- 
linton. The public buildings comprise a state 
house, commanding a fine view of the sur- 
rounding country; an edifice for the accommo- 
dation of the officers of the state; a state 
penitentiar}' ; a lunatic asylum, and asylums 
for the bund, and for deif and dumb per- 
sons ; a Lutheran theological seminaiy, and nu- 
merous churches. Here, as in the other towns 
of the U. States, there is ample provision for the 
education of the young in elementary and superior 
schools. The town has factories of various sorts, 
with tanneries, breweries, distilleries, and printing- 

COMBOOCONUM, an inl. town of Hindostan, 
prov. Camatic, distr. 'Tanjore, 20 m. NE. that city. 
Pop. estimated at 40,000. It was anciently tlie 
cap. of the Cholas, one of the most ancient Hindoo 
dynasties in the S. of India of which any traces 
have been discovered, and who gave their name 
to the whole coast of Cholamundtd or CoromandeL 
Its ancient splendour is evinced by its pagodas 
and tanks. It is chiefly inhabited by BranminM. 

COMILLAH, an inl. town of Hindostan, pruv. 
Bengal, distr. Tipperah, of which it is the cap., on 
the S. bank of an affluent of the Brahmaputra 
river, 50 m. SE. Dacca. The roads round it have 
been much improved by the labour of convicts. 
Six m. W. of Comillah are the remains of many 
brick buildings, and of a fort 200 ft. square, the 
residence of the former rajalis of Tipperah. 

COMO (CITY OF) (an. Cwnum), a city of 
Northern Italy, cap. of the province of same name, 
at the S W. extremity of the Lake of Como, 23 m. 
NN W. Milan, with which it is connebted by rail- 
way. Pop. 20,614 in 1861. The city is encircleil • 
by an amphitheatre of hills, one of which to the S. 
is surmounted by the old fort of Baradello. It is 
defended by double walls, flanked with massive 
towers, and has four gates. Its interior is crowded 
with dark streets, numerous old churches, and db- 
mantled dwellings of the ciUadini. The suburbs, 
however, in which more than half the pop. resides, 
contain many good streets and buildings ; Boigo 
de Vico, the chief, stretches along the shore of the 
lake for a considerable distance, and is adorned 
with the Odescalchi and lovian palaces, besides 
numerous other handsome edifices. Como has 12 
churches, the principal of which, the cathedral, 
commenced in 1896 and finished in 1513, is an im- 
posing building, notwithstanding its incongruous 
character. It is of white marble, the front is of 
light and not inelegant Gothic, the nave is sup- 
ported by Gothic arches, the choir and transepts 
are adorned with composite pillars, and a dome 
rises over the centre. In front of Uie cathedrad is 
a statue of Pliny the vounger, a native of Como, 
with a bas-relief alluding to his writings, and an 
inscription to his honour on each side the grand 
entrance. In one of the squares a monument is 
erected in honour of Volta, also a native of this 
city. Como possesses a lyccum erected by the 
French, with some fine philosophical apparatus, 
and a library of 15,000 vols., an ecclesiastical col- 
lege, 3 gymnasia, 2 female seminaries, a hc^pital, 
workhouse, orphan asylum, and many other cha- 
ritable institutions, a cabinet of naU history, and 
lK)tanic garden, a new theatre, and an amphi- 
theatre. Como is a bishopric, and the seat of the 
provincial council, and of civil, criminal, and com- 
mercial tribunals. At one period it was the prin- 
cipal seat of the Inc^uisition. It has manufactures 
of woollen cloths, silks, cotton yam, and soap, for 
which latter article it is celebrated. Its trade, 
which is facilitated by a port on the lake, is chieti y 


with the Swiss canton of Ticino, and with Ger- 
many, to which it sends rice, and raw and manu- 
factored ailka. The artisans of Como have, in all 
ages, been noted for their disposition to emigrate 
as hawkers of goods, or in search of employment, 
and they may be met with all over Europe, as 
Tendofs of telescopes, spectacles, and barometers. 
The fine climate and situation of Como attract 
many TisitovsL Como is said to have been founded 
by the Oxobiif the earliest inhab. of this district. 
It was taken by the Komans 196 B.C.; and owed 
its principal importance under them to a colony of 
Greeks planted in it by Julius Ciesar, when it took 
the name of Norumcomum, Near it is the Villa 
d'Este, once the property and residence of Queen 
(Caroline of England. In the middle ages it be> 
longed to the Ghibelline party, and was the rival 
of Milan. Under the French it was the cap. of 
the d^ of the Lazio. 

Cl>MO (LAKE OF), (It Logo di Como, an. 
Lanms Laeus)^ famous lake of N. Italy, which, 
in modem times, has derived its name from the 
above city. This fine sheet of water is very irre- 
gularly shaped, beuig divided by the triangular 
diiitrict which has Bellagio at its apex, into three 
great arms, one of which stretches from Bellagio 
SW. to Como, another N. to Riva and Novate, 
near the mouth of the Maria river, and a third 
SE. to Lecco, and the outlet of the Adda. These 
divisions of the lake are sometimes called from the 
chief towns on their banks, the lakes of Como, 
Bellano, and Lecco. Its greatest length, follow- 
ing its windings, may be about 45 m. ; but it is no 
where above 4 m. in'width. The depth is said to 
vary from 40 to 600 ft. It receives the waters of 
the Upper Adda, and several other rivers, but its 
only outlet is by the Lower Adda. Owing to the 
g:reat height of the surrounding mountains, which 
expose it to sudden squalls, and the influence of 
cairents, its navigation is rather dangerous to 
sailing vessels ; but steamers traverse it in all direc- 
tions with ease and expedition. The climate round 
the lake is mild and delightful ; and, except in its 
more N. part, near the mouth of the Upper Adda, 
its banks are remariubly healthy. Throughout its 
whole extent its banks are formed of precipitous 
mountains, from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. high ; in some 
places overhan^ng the water, and in others par- 
tially clothed with wood, and studded with ham- 
lebs cottages, villas, chapels, and convents. The 
most beautiful point of view is at Bellagio. The 
npiper waters are there seen winding up to the 
very foot of the higher chaiv of the iups, and ter- 
minating within a short distance of the terrific 
pass of the Splugen ; the loftier hills that border 
the lake of Leoco rise on one side, and on the other 
the wider expanse of the lower lake retires behind 
the beautiful foreground, rocks, and hanging woods 
that form the point of Bellagio. 

The yonn^^ Pliny had several seats on the 
border of this lake. The principal of these stood. 
one opoo a height commanding a view of the lake, 
and the other so dose to its edge as to admit of 
fiikhing fines being thrown into the water from the 
bed-rooms. (Epist., lib. ix. § 7.) Many attempts, 
bat very unsuccessful ones, have been made to 
identify the site of these villas. The ViUa PU- 
uiama, 5 m. NE. from Como, is, from its having 
near it an intermittent fountain, usually supposed 
tn occupy the site of one of these villas. But Plinv 
does not say that the intermitting fountain which 
he describes was on his estate, or near his seat ^iv. 
s. 30) ; and there is no real ground for supposmg 
that the ViOa PUmamL, which was built near the 
middle oX the 16th century, has an^'thing in com- 
mon with either of the villas described bv Plinv. 

COMORIN (CAPE), a promontory forming the 



S. extremitv of Hindostan, in Travancore, 188 m. 
N W. Columbo, in Ceylon ; Ut. 8° 4' N., long. 77«> 
44' 30" E. Its approaches are beset with rocks. 
Notwithstanding its remarkable position, it never 
attracted the least attention from the Hindoo geo- 
graphers; and, what is more singular, modem 
authorities differ considerably as to its lat. The 
above is that given by Heywood. 

COMORN (Hungar. Abinartnn), a fortified town 
of Hungary, in the NW. part of that king., cap. 
CO. of the same name, on a point of land formed 
by the confluence of the Waag with the Danube ; 
46 m. WNW. Buda, on the railway from Buda- 
Pesth to Vienna. . Pop. 12,176 in 1858, excl. of 
garrison. The citadel, built by Mathias Corvinus, 
m the 15th century, is held to be impregnable, 
and its works have been so much strengthened 
during the present century, that it is now one of 
the strongest fortresses in Europe. The town is 
irr^ularly built, and the streets are narrow and 
dark. It contains 4 Catholic and 2 Protestant 
churches, a Greek church, and a synagogue, a 
county hall, town council house, many large maga- 
zines and barracks, a hospital, Cath. and Prot. 
high schools, and an assurance-office for vessels 
navigating the Danube, which river is here crossed 
by both a flying bridge and a bridge of boats. It 
has manufactures of woollen cloths, and consider- 
able trade in com, wine, honey, fish, and timber, 
by the Danube. There are numerous vineyards 
in its neighbourhood. 

COMPIEGNE, a town of France, d^p. Oisc, 
cap. arrond., on the Oise, which is here crossed by 
a handsome bridge of three arches ; 33 m. E. by S. 
Beauvais, on the railway from Paris to St. Quen- 
tin. Pop. 12,137 in 1861. The town is ill laid 
out and ill built, but contains many public and 
private edifices worthy of notice; amongst them 
the town-hall, a curious Gotiiic building, and 
several churches. But the glory of Compiegne is 
its royal palace, one of the most remancable in 
France for extent and magnificence. A palace 
was originally built here by the Merovingian 
kings; but tbe present edifice was commenced 
under Louis XY., finislied by his successor, and re- 
novated by Napoleon. It has a noble front to- 
wanls the' forest of Compiegne, 623 ft. in length ; 
all the apartments are on a single floor, commmii- 
cating with each other. The peristyles, «a/7e« dea 
gardes, ball-room, theatre, and a superb gallery, 
are especially deserving of admiration. The gar- 
dens surrounding this palace are much more ex- 
tensive than those of the Tuileries, which they 
rival in beauty. Compi^^e contains a public 
library with 28*000 vols., and a theatre. It was 
form^ly fortified by walls flanked vi\\\i towers, 
and entered^ by seven gates. Charles the Bald 
established an abbey here, and gave the town the 
name of CarlopolUj after which it rose considerably 
in importance, and became the seat of many na- 
tional councils and assemblies, as well as the 
burial-place of several of the French kings. But 
in proportion as the consequence of St. Denis in- 
creased under the kings of the third race, that of 
Compiegne declined. It was at the siege of this 
place, in 1430, that the famous heroine Joan of 
Arc fell, through the mean jealousy of the 
governor, into the power of the English. 

COMPOSTELLA, an inL town of Mexico, state 
Guadalaxara, 36 m. from the Pacific Ocean, and 
100 m. W. by S. Guadalaxara. In its \Hcinity 
there are some silver mines ; and to the NW. of it, 
tobacco of a superior quality was formerly grown. 

CONCAN, a narrow tract of country, prov. 
Bombav, comprising a portion of the ancient ilin- 
doo subdiv. of Kankana, whence its name. It 
extends both N. and S. of that city, along the 



Malabar coast, between lat 15° 50' and 20° 15' N., 
and long. 72o 40' and 730 64' E., having N. the 
collectorate of Surat, and a detached portion of 
the Giiicowar's dom. ; E. the distr. Ahraednuggtur 
and Poonah and the Sattarah dom. ; from which 
it is separated by the W. Ghauts ; S. a portion of 
the Sattarah territory, and W. the ocean. Length 
N. to S. 810 m. ; breadth yary'mg to nearly 60 m. 
The territory is commonly divided into Southern 
and Northern Concan, the former with an area of 
6,770 and the latter of 6,500 so. m. The general 
aspect, though there are many fertile tracts, is that 
of a congeries of steep and rocky mountain^, in- 
termixed with a multitude of ravines and chasms, 
and interspersed with jungle. It formerly abounded 
in fortified heights, difficult of access, most of 
which have been dismantled by the British since 
their conquest of the country in 1819. The coast 
has a very straight general outline, but is broken 
by a great number of shallow harbours, which, 
previously to the British rule, were the resort of 
numerous pirates. The W. Ghauts, which bound 
the Concan to the E., rise to the elevation of from 
2,000 to 4,000 fU, with an abrupt face towards the 
W. The passes over them are impracticable for 
wheeled carriages. They are mostly composed of 
primitive trap-rocks ; but their summits are covered 
with a thick crust of laterite or ferruginous clay- 
stone, of which material much of the surface of 
the Concan is composed. In the S. shelly sand- 
stone is met with. There are many mountain 
streams, but none deserving the name of a river. 
Concan produces all the grains of Malabar, but is 
chiefly celebrated for its hemp and cocoa-nuts. 
Oil grains, the sugar-cane, turmeric, ginger, &c., 
are grown in the S. The land in S. (k>ncan is 
assessed on the ryotwar, and in the N. on the 
village system. In some instances ill-cultivated 
tracts of land are allotted for a term of years at a 
low rent to a speculator for the purpose of im- 
provement. A large proportion of the inhab. are 
Hindoos, and Suttees (bumuigs of widows) are said 
to have been more frequent here than in any other 
part of India, liengal excepted. Many Bheels 
and Coolies inhabit the Ghauts and N. Concan. 
A large portion of the Bombay native army was 
formerly, and to some extent is still, recruited from 
these districts. The Augria family once possessed 
nearly the whole of Concan ; it subsequently be- 
longed to the Peishwa, on whose fall it came into 
the possession of the British. 

CONCEPCION, a city of Chili, in the S. part of 
the Kepublic, cap. prov. of same name, on the 
right bank of the Biobio, 8 m. E. from ibs mouth, 
and about 270 ra. SSW. Santiago; lat, 36° 43' 26" 
S., long. 73° 5' 33" W. Estimated pop. 12,000. 
It stands upon a low neck of land between the 
Biobio and the SE. angle of the Bay of Concep- 
tion, and occupies a surface of about a sq. mile. 
Streets intersect each other at right angles ; nouses 
mostly only one story in height in consequence of 
the great frequency of earthquakes, and many are 
built entirely of unbaked bricks. Conception was 
fonnerly a flourishing town, containing several 
gm)d buildings, and 20,000 inhab. ; and, previously' 
to 1835, it possessed a massive cathedral, but tlus 
and the greater part of the city were in that year 
totally destroyed by an earthquake. It Ls the 
residence of a bishop and the military governor of 
the prov. Manufactures and trade are said to be 
at present of little importance. 

The Bay of Concep9ion is a laige square inlet, 
open on the N., while the S. and W. sides are 
f<.>rmcd by a high promontory jutting out from the 
main land, and bending into the shape of an elbow, 
each side being 3 or 41eagues long. The diameter 
of the space uius encloKd is about 6 m. The 


mouth is divided by the island Quirinauina, which 
lies across it, into 2 channels; the N. entrance 
has 30 fathoms water, diminishing gradually to 12 
fathoms in the middle of the bay ; the S. entrance 
has 30 fathoms at its commencement, and 11 
fathoms at its entrance into the Talcahuano an- 
chorage. There are 3 harbours; that of Talca- 
huano, close to the small fortified town of the 
same name, under the promontory in the S\y. 
angle, is the most secure from winds, and that in 
which ships generally lie. Full 12 fathoms water 
are found m all parts of the bay within | m. of the 
beach ; the holding ground is excellent, and the 
bottom free from rocks. 

Concep9ion was founded in 1763, after the de- 
struction of the old city of Penco by inundation, 
during an earthquake. 

CONCORD, a town of the U. S. of America, 
cap. New Hampshire, and seat of the state govern- 
ment, CO. Rockingham, on the Merrimac, 63 m. 
NNW. Boston. Pop. 10,890 in 1860. The town 
consists chi fly of two street-s, extending for above 
2 m. along the W. side of the river, which is here 
crossed by two bridges. It contains the state- 
house, a handsome stone building, and the state 
prison. The courts were removed to Concord from 
rortsmouth in 1823. It is a town of consider- 
able trade, and has a water communication with 
iioston by means of the Merrimac and Middle- 
sex canal. 

CONDE', a town of France, ddp. du Nord, cap. 
cant., at the confluence of the Hague with the 
Escaut (Scheldt), 26 m. SE. Lille, on the railway 
from Lille to Valenciennes. Pop. 6,804 in 1861. 
The town is strongly fortified by works constructed 
by Vauban : is well built, and contains a handsome 
town-hall and a fine arsenal. A canal, 16 m. in 
length, connects Conde with Mons, in the Nether- 
lands. It was taken bv Louis XI. in 1478. 

CONDE' SUR NOlREAU, a town of Fiance, 
d^p. Calvados, cap. cant^., on the road between 
Caen and Domfront., 23 m. SSW. the former. 
Pop. 7,234 in 1861. The buildings are generaUy 
heavy ; the town contains, however, two old 
churches worthy of notice. It formerly possessed 
a castle with a large tower, but little now remains 
of that edifice. It has some commercial activity, 
and fabrics of woollen, cotton, and linen articles, 
and cutlery. 

CONDOM, a town of France, d^p. Gers, cap. 
arrond., on a height the foot of which is washed 
by the Baise, which is here crossed bv two bridge:*, 
23 m. NW. by N. Auch. Pop. 8;070 in 1861. 
The town is ill-built, Dut improving ; is surrounded 
b^ boulevards planteil with trees, and has numerous 
villas in its environs. In its centre is a large (^>en 
space, in which is the parish church, formerly the 
cathedral, which, despite the mutilations it h&s 
undeigone, is still a magnificent Gothic edifice. 
Pens, corks, earthenware, brandy, woollen vajv, 
and leather are produced here ; and there is a\iri»k 
trade in com, flour, and wines. It has a tribunal 
of original jurisdiction and a communal coUefi^. 
It owes its origin to a monastery, which existed 
in the 9th century, but was of a much earlier date. 
It was formerly tiie seat of a bishopric, onoe filled 
by Bossuet, 
* CONDKIEU, a town of France, d^. Rhone, at 
the S. extremity of which it is situated, capL 
cant., on the Rhone, 21 m. S. Lyons. Pop. 2,566 
in 1861. The town has acquired some (^lebiity 
for excellent white wines, the original plants pro- 
ducing which were, it is said, brought thither from 
Dalmatia W order of the emperor Probua. 

CONGLETON, a market town and bor. of Eng- 
land, CO. Chester, hund. Northwich; 22 m. S. 
Manchester, and 16 1^ m. N W. London by London 



and North Western and North Staffordshire rail- 
way. Pop. 12,344 in 1861. The town stands in 
a remarkably healthy situation, on the Dane, in a 
deep valley bordering on Staffordsh. The prin- 
cipal street is upwards of a mile in length, paved, 
and lighted with gas : it contains many ancient 
houses of timber framing and plaster; at the W. 
end are many detached mansions, surrounded by 
gardens and shrubberies, and chiefly occupied by 
the more opulent manufacturers. It has an epis- 
copal chapel, in the patronage of the corporation ; 
a Catholic and several large dissenting chapels ; 
a grammar-school, nominally free for tne sons of 
buigeases ; an infant school, established in 1835 ; 
several large Sunday-schools; and many chari- 
table institutions and bequests, the latter chiefly 
held in trust bv the corporation ; a town-hall ; and 
public assembly-rooms, built in 1822, contiguous 
to which is a modem market-place. Silk is the 
fetaple manufacture of the town; the silk-mills 
being m<»tly erected along the banks of the river. 
The trade consists chiefly m the throwing of raw 
silk, the spinning of waste ditto, the manufacture 
of thrown silk into plain ribands by power looms, 
of which there are about 254 in the town, and the 
wea;>ing of ribands and broad cloths by hand- 
looma. There are also cotton spinning factories, 
and a few tanneries and leather-manufactories. 
Certain lands reserved under an enclosure act are 
held in trust for the benefit of the poor. The bor. 
is divided into 3 wards, and governed by 6 alder- 
men and 18 counsellors. 

CONGO, otherwise LOWER or S. GUINEA, a 
roontrv in S W. Africa, to which various boundarie.s 
have been a;^igned by the old and more recent 
travellers. The Portuguese, who discovered it in 
1 4^7, included in Congo all the OMist of W. Africa 
from Cape Lopez Gonsalvo (Loango), in lat. 0^ 37' 
S., long. 8° 35' E., to Cape Negro, in lat 15° 50' 
S., long. 11<^ 55' £. ; for they found the whole of 
that tract inhabited by negro tribes, resembling 
each other in every respect, and subject to one 
jiaramount chief, called Mani-Congo (Sovereign of 
Congo) ; but in process of time this empire became 
diaoiembered ; inferior chiefs threw off their alle- 
giance and erected separate kingdoms, which are 
at present known as Angola (a name now more 
frequently a[^Iied to the distnct over which all 
thcHe kingdoms extend), Loango, Benguela, and 
lastly Congo Proper. 

The bovndarieM of Congo Proper are at present 
marked N. by the river Congo or Zaire, which at 
about lat. 6° 5' separates it from Loango ; S. by 
the river Dando, in lat. 8^ 20' S., dividing it from 
Angola ; W. the Congoese coast is washed by the 
S. Atlantic ocean, while to the £. it has the un- 
known countries of Fugeno and Matamba, the 
Mountains of the Sun, £c. According to the in- 
vestigations of Ritter, Congo consists of two dis- 
tinct regions : that next to the sea, or the littoral, 
i» low and flat, is traversed by many streams, and 
abounds in sandy deserts, but is elsewhere very 
fertile. The climate in this region is exceedingly 
unfavourable; and pestilentiiu emanations, and 
bwarms of noxious animals, expose the lives of 
the inhab. to perpetual danger. The other region 
consists of the terraces, or acclivities, ascending 
from the plain to the high table-land in the in- 
terior. This is by far the finest part of the country, 
and the richest and most populous. The river 
Zaire, which descends firom the interior to the 
coast, has its great cataracts in passing through 
this region. 

This river is a most conspicuous object in the 
topography of Congo : it is a magnificent stream, 
particularly towards ita embouchure : it overflows 
during the rainy season, and fertilises the sur- 

rounding country; but these risings take place 
also in the dry season, elevating the current 7 fu, 
— increased to 12 ft. by the rains. It is exceed- 
ingly deep ; Massey's sounding-machine having 
indicated 113 fathoms, and yet the lead had not 
touched the bottom. In the upper parts, the cur- 
rent varies in strength from 2^ to 5 m. an hour, 
but is sufiiciently strong in the channel to prevent 
a transport entering the river without the aid of a 
powerfiil sea-breeze. At about 140 m. from its 
mouth, the Zaire narrows to from 300 to 500 yds. 
for about 40 m. ; ita banks bristling with precipi- 
tous masses of slate, which sometimes intercept 
the stream, and form rapids and cataracts, called 
by the natives yellala. Beyond these craggy re- 
gions, the Zaire expands in breadth to 2, 3, and 
even to 4 m. ; and near the place where Captain 
Tuckey was compelled to abandon his journey, the 
width and majestic appearance of the river, the 
verdure of the land, which was here well peopled, 
combined to render the scene agreeable in the 
highest degree. (Tuckey's Expedition, pp. 337- 
348 ; Joum. Royal Geog. Soc, hi. 220.) 

The banks of the Zaire, from its mouth to Em- 
bomma (about 60 m.), are clothed with a most 
exuberant vegetation, presenting to the eye a con- 
tinued forest of tall and majestic trees, clothed 
with foliage of never-fading verdure. 

The supposed identity of the Congo wdth the 
Niger was long a question agitated among geo- 
graphers ; and its decision was one of the objecta 
of Tuckey's expedition. This question has been, 
as every one knows, set at rest by the Messrs. 
Lander. But it is sufficiently clear from the in- 
formation collected by Tuckey, that the Zaire, at 
no great distance from the point to which he had 
ascended, divides into two great arms, the most N. 
of which has its source in a lake or marsh. 

The natural productions of Congo have been ad- 
mirably arranged by Professor Smith, a member 
of Tuckey's expedition (who unhappily lost his life 
in the course of it), and Mr. Brown. Lai^e trees 
are only found in the valleys, or thinly sprinkled 
over the sides and summits of the hills, and consist 
for the most part of the Adantoniaf Bombax pen- 
tandrum, AnUiodeista, Maaanga (native term, but 
allied to Cecropia), Ekeis guiniensiSf Raphia rtni- 
ferUf and Pandanus candelabrum. Intermixed 
with these, on the alluvial banks of the Quorra, 
large patches of the Egyptian papyrus form a 
grand feature in the vegetation. The edible pro- 
ductions are maize, cassava, sweet and bitt«r, two 
kinds of pulse, the Cytisus cajan^ a species of Pha- 
aeolus, and ground nuts (ArachtM hypoacBa), The 
common yam, besides another species of Dwacorea, 
so bitter as to require four days* boiling before it 
be eatable, with the sugar-cane, capsicum, and to- 
bacco, are alimentary plants of secondary import- 
ance, llie most valuable fruits are plantains, 
papaws, limes, oran^^ pine-apples, pumpkins, 
tamarinds, and a fruit about the size of a small 
plum, called safu. The plant, however, of most 
importance to the natives is tlie oil palm (Elaia 
guiniensisjj from which is extracted the best palm 
wine ; this and two other species ofpalm {Raphia 
vinifera and a Hyphaa) are to the Congoese what 
the cocoa-tree is to many of the Asiatic islanders. 
The indigenous fruits are the Aruma tenegalensis, 
SarcocmnaluSf a species of cream-fruit, Cnrysoba- 
lanuSf Icacoj a species of Ximenia, and another of 
Antidesinti. (Professor Smith's Journal in Tuckey's 
work, with remarks thereon by Mr. Brown, /xun'm ; 
Quarterly Review, xviii 350, 351.) 

The aninuiU appear to be those chiefly which are 
found in every part of this great continent ; lions, 
leopards, elephants, buffaloes, antelopes, wild hogs, 
porcupines, hares, and monkeys. The river abounds 



with good fish, and also with those hnp^e monBters 
the hippopotamus and crocodile. Domestic ani- 
mals are few and scarce ; those mostly met with 
are hogs, goats, fowls, Mufcovv ducks, and pigeons, 
and a few sheep, generally spotted with hair in- 
stead of wool. The natives eat these animals in a 
manner quite characteristic of their rooted laziness. 
They remove neither skin, feathers, nor hair ; and 
scarcely warming them by the fire, tear the meat 
in pieces with then* teeth. (Dr. Leach and Mr. 
Crouch, in Appendix to Tuckey's work ; Quarterly 
Review, xviii. 351.) 

Government and Papulation, — If we may depend 
on the traditions of the people, who have neither 
annals nor history, Congo was formerly a powerful 
empire under a single sovereign, or ratJier absolute 
despot. But it is evident, from the accounts of the 
early travellers, little as they are, in many respects, 
to be depended on, that, when first visited by Eu- 
ropeans, the government of C>ongo did not diflfer 
materially in its form from what we find it at the 
present day; and that it consisted of a sort of con- 
federacy of small states under a principal sove- 
reign. (Prevost, Histoire Gc^n^rale des Voyages, 
V. 1-7.) It would appear, however, to be pretty 
certain that the power of the superior monarch has 
materially declined during the last 200 years. At 
all events, Congo is now split into an infinite 
number of petty states or chenouahipt^ each governed 
by a chenou or chief. These chicftainshipe would, 
in Europe, be said to be fiefs, held under a principal 
sovereign, called Untfy or blindy N^CongOf residing 
at Banza Congo. But it would seem that most of 
these chiefs affect a nearly total independence ; 
and being all despots in their own limited spheres, 
and frequently at war with each other, and with 
the principal sovereign, the country is uniformly 
almost in a state of the most frightfiil anarchy. 
At the death of a chenott, it is not his son, but his 
brother or maternal uncle that succeeds him. 

The mhab. are said to be a mixed race ; but the 
Portuguese never visited the country in such num- 
bers as to produce any impression on the physical 
character of the people: and the Congoese are 
certainly one of the least favoured negro varieties. 
Speaking generally, they seem to be sunk in the 
lowest state of degradation. They are incorrigibly 
indolent ; have little or no clothing ; and though 
they raise Indian com, agriculture is in the lowest 
state, and they frequently suffer the extremity of 
famine. Their religion is the grossest species of 
feticism. The Portuguese having established mis- 
sions in different parts of the country, the natives 
sometimes exhibit in their religion an odious mix- 
ture of Christianity and idolatry. They are prone 
to all sorts of excesses and debaucheir. The 
women are degraded to the condition of beasts of 
burden ; and prostitution to strangers is considered 
as a necessary part of hospitality. Still, however, 
they are not wholly destitute of good qualities ; 
and are said to be sincere, hospitable, and com- 
passionate. Having been long a principal seat of 
the slave trade, a considerable part of the disorders 
that prevful in the country are with much proba- 
bility ascribed to the enormities growing out of 
that detestable traffic. This is said to isolate one 
petty state from another, and to occasion peipetual 
ware ; the slaves being mostly prisoners taken in 
battle, or kidnapped on the public roads. But, 
admitting the infiuenoe of these causes, still we 
apprehend that the intellectual inferiority of the 
negro race is at bottom the real cause of the de- 
graded condition of Congo, and of all the other 
negro states. The Congoese are said frequently 
to decapitate their prisoners, and bum their txxlies ; 
and if such barbarity be practiBed when the pri- 
Boners may be sold) the presumption would seem 


to be that it would become much more prevalent 
were the trafiSc put an end to. (See Tuckey, 
passim ; and Ritter's €reography of Africa, French 
translation, i. 379-^87.) 

The coimtry has been represented as very popu- 
lous, and as studded with towns and villages 
swarming with inhab. Carli, one of the early 
missionaries, gravely reports that a king of Congo 
marched against the Portuguese at the nead of aii 
army of 900,000 men. ( Prevost, ubi supra,) Bu t 
it is evident that a country in the state we have 
described cannot be thickly peopled; and, in point 
of fact, Tuckey states that the most considerable 
banzaj or cap., of a petty state that he visited did 
not contain more than 100 huts and 600 persons. 
In Embomma he found 60 huts, with 500 inhab. ; 
and at Inga 70 houses, in which not more than 
300 persons resided. It is tme that his observa- 
tions in the interior were not very extended ; and 
he admits that the upper banks of the Zaire (where 
his operations unhappily ended) were considerably 
more populous than those towards the coast ; but 
still it is abundantly certain that the accounts of 
the extraordinary pop. of the country' have no 
better foundation than the imagination of the 
writers. According to the statements of the mis- 
sionaries, the cap. of the country, which they 
divided into six provinces, was bmlt on a moun- 
tain about 150 m. from the sea, and was called by 
them St. Salvador. They speak in the mo«t ex- 
travagant terms of the beauty and salubrity of the 

CONGOON, a sea-port town of Persia, prov. 
Fare, on the Peraian Gulf, ISO m. S. by E. Schtraz. 
Pop. from 6,000 to 7,000. It has an excellent road- 
stead, where a frigate may ride in safety in the 
most tempestuous weather, and good water and 
firewood may be procured in abundance. (Kin- 
neir's Persian Empire, p. 81.) 

CONI, or CUNEO, a town of N. Italy, cap. div. 
and prov., on a hill at the confluence of the Stura 
and Gesso, 45 m. S. by W. Turin, vrith which it is 
connected by railway. Pop. 22,510 in 1861. This 
was formerly a strong fortress, and sustained witli- 
out capture various sieges, till bein^ delivered up 
to the French they dismantled it m 1801. It i^ 
still, however, surrounded by a wall, with two 
gates ; it has a cathedral, three other churehes. a 
royal college, hospital, workhouse, and some pub- 
lic baths. Its principal street is wide and hand- 
some, and is lined throughout with porticoes : the 
other streets are, in fact, mere lanes. Coni is the 
seat of a court of primary' jurisdiction and a 
bishopric, and the residence of the intendente and 
military commandant of the div. It haa some silk 
fabrics, and carries on a considerable trade, being 
a sort of entrepot to Turin and Nice. 

CONJEVERAM {Canch^mra, the golden dty), 
a considerable town of Hindostan, prov. .Caraadc, 
distr. Chingleput, in which it is the chief military 
station under the Madras presidency. It stands in 
a valleY 36 m. WSW. Madras, and 25 m. E. Arcot ; 
lat. 12° 49' N., long. 79© 41' E. It is tolerably 
populous, and covere a large space of ground, which 
is m great part occupied by extensive gardens and 
cocoa plantations. It has two remarkable pagodas ; 
one, dedicated to Siva, contains many pillan hand- 
somely sculptured, and some well-ciurved figures of 
elephants, &c. ; the other, which is smaller, has a 
great deal of curious workmanship and sculpture, 
which, for truth of proportion and delicacy or exe- 
cution, is scarcely surpassed by any other Hindoo 
edifice. There aire numerous weavere amongst the 
pop. ; who manufacture red handkerchiefs, turbans, 
and cloths for native dresses. Small pagodas, and 
choultriesj or traveUere* houses, abound Iwth in the 
town and its yicinity : the valley of ConJeTeram 


b fertile, contains many substantial tanks, and 
appears in a prosperous state. 

CONNAUGHT, one of the four provs. into which 
Ireland is divided, on its W. coast, containing the 
COS. of Galwav, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, and 

S%0. (See f RBLAKD.) 

CONNECTICUT, one of the smallest of the 
U. States, in the N. part of the Union, between 
lat. 400 58* ,nd 420 2' N., and long. 71© 63' and 
739 50' W., having N. Massachusetts, E. Rhode 
Island, W. New York, and S. Long Island Sound ; 
length, £. to W., 90 m. ; average breadth, about 
52 nu; area, 4,674 sq. m. Pop. 460,147 in 1860. 
The state ranks third in the Union as to density 
of pop., having 98 individuals to the sq. m. Sur- 
face generally undulating. A chain of mountains 
of inc(»nsidenible height runs N. and S. through 
the W. part of the state. The principal river is 
the Connecticut: it rises in New Hampshire, 
and having passed through Massachusetts, inter- 
s^rtB this state nearly in its centre ; and then bend- 
ing to the £., falls into Long Island Sound, a little 
b^ow Newhaven, after a course of 410 m., 250 of 
which have bc«n made navigable by means of 
locks and canals. Along the coast are several ex- 
cellent harbours; the best are those of New London 
and Newhaven. Climate very variable : an ex- 
treme d^^Tce of heat and cold are experienced at 
different seasons; but the sky is usually serene, 
and the country healthv. There are some sterile 
districts ; but tlie soil is for the most part fertile, 
and (for America) well cultivated. European 
grains, Indian com, flax, hemp, and culinary vege- 
tables, are raised in abundance ; orchards are 
namerous, and apples so plentiful that cider is a 
conaderatile product. The pasture-lands are good ; 
large herds of cattle are reared, and butter and 
cheese are made in lai^e quantities. Farms vary 
in size from 50 to 200 acres. There are mines of 
iron ore, lead, and copper ; but, excepting the first, 
none of them are wrought. Marble, black-lead, 
fiorcelain clay, and freestone, are found in many 
parts. The chalybeate waters of Stafford are cele- 
brated. Manufactures occupy more attention than 
rural industry, and are more considerable, in pn>- 
ponion to the population, than in any other state 
of the Union, Rhode Island excepted*. The prin- 
cipal are those of cotton and woollen stuffs, iron 
and tin ware, leather, fire-arms, carriages, powder, 
clocks, gin, and snuff. There were 49 savings 
banks on April 1, 1863, with an invested capital of 
23,446,1«36 dollars. A considerable coasting trade 
and traffic with the W. Indies are maintained. 
The principal articles of export are cattle, horses, 
mules, gram, fish, candles, soap, butter, and cheese. 
The state is divided into eight counties. Hartford 
is the chief dty, and is, in conjunction with New- 
haven, the seat of govemm. ; the other principal 
towns are Middletown, New London, and Norwich. 
These contain several collies, learned societies, 
and public schools. The state school-fund, founded 
in 1821, is the most considerable of any in the 
Union; the capital amounted, Feb. 28, 1863, to 
2.049,426 dollars, while the revenue was 132,589 
dfillan. Yale College, founded at Saybrook in 
1700, and removed in 1716 to Newhaven, contains 
the finest cabinet of minerals in the Union, and 
an extensive library. The legislature of the state 
consisted, in 1863, of a senate of 21 mems., and a 
H. of Representatives of 237 members. The sena- 
tors, representatives, governor, and lieut-govemor 
are all ^ected every year, on the first Monday in 
April, by the vote of all male citi2en8 who have 
resided one year in the state, and have attained 
the age of 21. The judges of the supreme courts 
are appointed by the assembly, and hold their 
offices during good behaviour, or until they are 



70 years of age, when they must retire. Connec- 
ticut sends four mems. to the national H. of Re- 
presentatives, and two senators to the national 
senate. This portion of the Union was first colo- 
nised in 1635 and 1638, by two colonies united in 
1665. Its subsequent progress has been one of 
almost uninterrupted prosperity. 

CONSTANCE (an. Constantia, Germ. Koiutanz 
or Q}gtnitz)j a city of the grand duchy of Baden, 
cap. circ. same name, or Seekreis {jCake Circle) , 
finely situated on the Rhine, at the point where it 
emerges from the Lake of Constance, 100 m. SSE. 
Carlsruhe, 26 m. E. Schafihausen, on the terminus 
of the Basel-Onstance railway. Pop. 7,816 ia 
1 86 1 . Onstance is a highlv interesting city, from 
its historical associations. In the 15th century it 
is said to have contained from 80,000 to 40,000 
inhab. ; and its streets and many of its buildings 
remain unaltered since that period, though seveml 
of them are wholly, or almost wholly, deserted. It 
is fortified by a wall flanked with towers, and sur- 
rounded by a ditch; has three suburbs, one of 
which, Petershausen, is on the opposite bank of 
the Rhine, but communicates with the city by a 
long covered wooden bridge built upon stone piers. 
The cathedral or mifuterj begun in 1052, is a hand- 
some Gothic structure with a lofty steeple, com- 
manding an extensive view of the lake and countr>% 
as far as the mountains of Vorarlberg and the Ori- 
sons. The doors of the main portal are curiously 
carved; and the choir is supported by sixteen 
pillars, each of a single block. A fine high altar, 
and several interesting tombs and relics, attest the 
ancient wealtli and grandeur of the see, which wn^ 
formerly the most considerable in Germany, ai^l 
had large possessions in, and jurisdiction ovi/, 
Switzerland. A plate of metal let into the floor 
of this cathedral, near the entrance, marks the 
spot where John Huss stood when he was con- 
demned in 1415. The Franciscan convent, the 
first prison of Huss, -is now a ruin; and the Do- 
minican convent, to which he was afterwards re- 
moved, has been converted into a cotton factory. 
The kaufhaug (market-hall), erected in 1388, is 
interesting, as being the place of meeting of the 
famous Council of Constance, held from 1414 to 
1418. The concourse of ecclesiastics and others, 
from all parts of Christendom, at this council was 
such that not only the houses in the town were 
crowded, but booths were erected in the stroels, 
while thousands of pilgrims were encamped in the 
adjacent fields. Religious processions, dramatic 
representations, and entertamments of even* de- 
scription, hourly succeeded each other; and thou- 
sands of individuals were employed solely in 
transporting thither the choicest delicacies of 
Europe. The great object of this council was to 
vindicate the authority of general councils, to 
which the Roman pontiff was declared to be amen- 
able. And having done this, the council proceeded 
to depose three popes or antipopes, John XXI II., 
Gregory XII., and Benedict XIII.; they next 
elected Martin V., and thus put an end to a schism 
which had lasted forty years. But, notwithstand- 
ing its merit in these respects, the Council of Con- 
stance is justly infamous, for the treacherous seizure 
and execution of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, 
notwithstanding the safe-conduct granted to the 
former by the Emperor Sigismund, the president of 
the assembly, who wanted power or inclination 
effectually to vindicate his pledge. Huss suffered 
at the stake, on the 6th of July, 1415 ; and Jerome, 
who had attended him to the council, was burnt 
on the 30th of May, 1416. The opinions of \Vy- 
cliffe were also condemned; and an order was 
issued to commit his works and bones to the flames. 
Various relics of this period, and a collection of 


lioman and German antiquities found in the neigh- 
bourhood, arc prei^erved in the kavfhitus, 

Constance contains an ancient palace, a lyceum, 
a hospital, a conventual school for females, 
several collections of art and science, and a theatre. 
The suburb of Peterhatisen contains a grand ducal 
residence, formerly a Benedictine abbey ; that of 
Rreuzlingen is fortified, and possesses a convent, 
in the church of which there is some elaborate 
carving. The suburb of Bruhl is the scene of the 
raartj'nlom of Huss and Jerome. On the bridge 
across the Ehine there are mills for various pur- 

Constance is the seat of the circle and district 
government. It was a place of considerable com- 
mercial impcirtance till the period of the Reforma- 
tion, since which it has, until very recently, pro- 
gressively declined. The chief resources of its 
inhah. are derived from the culture of fruit and 
vegetables, some trade, the navigation of the lake, 
and a few manufactures, chiefly of cotton cloth and 
yam, and silk fabrics, which have latterly been a 
good deal extended. This is one of the oldest 
towns in Germany. It was founded or enlarged 
by the Romans in the 4th century. It was a free 
imperial city till 1548, when Charles V. placed it 
under the ban of the empire; next year it was 
attached to the Austrian dominions, and in 1805 
to Baden. 

CONSTANCE (LAKE OF), (an. Lanu Bngan- 
tinus or Suevicu$, Germ. Bodensee)^ a lake of 
Central Europe, the largest belonging to Germany, 
between lat 47° 29' and 47° 49' N., and long. 
9° 2' 30" and 9° 45' E., surrounded hy the terri- 
tories of Baden, Wirtemberg, Bavana, Austria 
(Vorarlbeig), and Switzerland. Length, NW. to 
SE., about 34 m., greatest breadth about 8^ m. ; 
area, about 200 aq. m. ; elevation above the level 
of the sea, 1,255 ft; greatest depth, 964 ft. Its 
most N. portion consists of a narrow prolongation, 
called the Neberling Lake. The Rhine enters the 
Lake of Constance on the SE., and issues from its 
NW. extremity at the city of Constance, connect- 
ing it with the lake called the Unter or Zeller-see, 
which contains the fertile isL of Reichenau, and is 
sometimes considered part of the Lake of Con- 
stance. The banks of the latter are mostly flat or 
gently undulating, and distinguished for their fer- 
tility, lliey abound with com-tields and orchards, 
and some tolerable wine is grown on them. Tlie 
8. shore especially is studded with a picturesque 
line of ruined castles and other remains of the 
middle ages; and both sides are crowded with 
numerous towns and villa^, the principal of 
which are Landau, in Bavana ; Friederichshausen, 
a summer resort of the king of Wirt4jmberp:, 
Miersbuig, and Neberling, in Baden : Arbon, m 
Switzerland ; and Bregenz, in the Austrian do- 
minions, llie waters of this lake are green, clear, 
and subject to sudden risings, the cause of which 
has not been satisfactorily explained. Numerous 
aquatic birds and Crustacea inhabit this lake ; and 
it is abundantly stocked with fish. Its navigation 
is somewhat dangerous, owing to sudden squalls : 
considerable trafiic, however, takes place upon it, 
and a number of steamboats run almost hourly 
from Constance to the diflferent ports situat^ 
around it, 

CONSTANTINA (vulg. Kosantinah), an inland 
city of N. Africa, Algeria, cap. of its E. prov., be- 
yond the Lesser Atl^, on a peninsulated height, 
surrounded on three sides by the Rummel, or 
Wad-el-Kebir {Ampaaga of the ancients), which 
runs in part through a deep ravine, crossed by an 
ancient bridge, 114 yards above the water, and 
llSvards in length; 190 m. ES E.Algiers; lat. 
m> 24' N... long. 6° 8' E. The hill, on which the 


city stands, appears to have been separated froni 
the opposite heights of Setah-el-Mansurah by an 
earthquake, or some other natural convulsion.' On 
the 8W. side it gradually declines downwards to 
the plain, and on that side only the city is acce^ 
sible. The present citv is about \\ m. in circ 
Pop. 34,500 in 1861, o'f whom 6,500 Europeans, 
about a half Kabyles, a fourth Moors, and the re^t 
Turks and Jews. The ancient city was much 
larger, extending on the other side of the ravine, 
and down into the plain. 

Constantina is strong, as well by art as by nature : 
the walls on the land side are 5 ft thick, and have, 
in many parts, casemates behind them. There 
are 4 gates, all of Arabic construction, built how- 
ever, in great part, of the materials of Roman 
edifices : the superb gates, with columns of red 
marble, mentioned by former travcllere, no longer 
exist. On its N. side, on the most elevated part 
of the plateau, is the Kasba, or citaiiel, occupying 
the site where was formerly the Numidian citadel, 
and more recently the Roman capital, parta of 
b<)th which edifices still exist. The palace, built 
within these few years, is a large edifice, hand- 
somely fitted up. There are said to be 13 mosqueft, 
exclusive of chapels, but none of them deserve 
any especial notice. Streets narrow and dirty; 
houses generally two stories high, covered wi'th 
tiled roofs, a dos ddne-y they are constructed of 
brick, raised on a foundation of stones, the remains 
of the ancient buildings. Many of them are large 
and well furnished, and there are no indications of 
extreme poverty in any class of the inhabitants. 
There are many remains of antiquity ; but the^^e 
have suffered much of late years, having been 
taken down, and employed as materials for the 
fortifications. The bridge over the ravine, already 
alluded to, was originally constructed by the 
Romans. There are also several Roman cisterns, 
and a church, probably of the asra of Constandne, 
with arches. The inhabitants are industrious : the 
principal manufactures are those of saddle bridle^, 
boots, slippers, and garters ; a few coarse blankets 
are also made ; and the late bey employed 25 men 
in the manufacture of gunpowder. A considerable 
trade is carried on with the S., the inhab. receiving 
gold-dust, ostrich feathers, slaves, and the finer 
sort of haiks, both silk and wool, in return for com, 
saddler}*^, and articles of European manufacture. 
From 1,200 to 1,500 mule-loads of com used to be 
annually sent to Tunis. The land round the town 
is fertile, and mostly belongs to the community. 
Tlie actual cultivators pay four- fifths of the produce 
as rent, 

A French force of 8,000 were foiled in an at- 
tempt to take this city in 1836, and suffered much 
on their retreat. In the following year another 
French army, proceeding from Bona, sat down 
before it on the 6th of October, and took it by 
storm, after a desperate resistance, on the 13th of 
the same month. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, so caUed from its 
founder, or rather restorer, Constantine the Great 
(Turk. Stamboul), a famous city of Turkey in 
Euro))e, cap. of the Turkish dominions, and the 
first city of the Mohammedan world ; a distinction 
which it has held since 1453, when it ceased to be 
the cap. of the Eastern empire. Its situation, 
whether considered in a commercial or political 
point of view, is the finest imaginable; and it 
seems naturally fitted to be the metropolis of an 
extensive empire. It occupies a triangular pro- 
montory near the E. extremity of the prov. of 
Roumelia (an. Thrace) ^ at the junction of^the sea 
of Marmora with the Thracian Bosphorus, or 
Channel of Constantinople, being separated from 
its suburbs of Galata, Pera, and Cassim-Pacha by 



the noUc baiboiir ealled the Golden Horn ; lat 
410 (f IT N., lonp. 280 69' 2" E. Pop. uncertain, 
bot sappoeed to amoont, includuig the suburbs, to 
above a million. 

Constantinople is shaped somewhat like a harp ; 
the longest side of the triangle being towards the 
Fea of Marmora, and the shortest towards the 
' Golden Horn.' Its length, E. to W., is about 3^ 
VOL ; breadth varies from 1 to 4 m. Its circ has 
been raziously estimated at from 10 to 23 m. ; but 
measured upon the maps of Kauffer and Le Che- 
valier, it appears to be about 12^ m. in circuit, 
and contains, according to Dallaway and Gibbon, 
an area of about 2,000 acres. Like Home, Con- | 
stantinople has been built on seven hills, six of 
which may be observed, distinctly enough, from 
the port, to rise progressively above each other 
from the level of the sea to 200 ft. above it ; the 
seventh hill, to the SW. of the others, occupies 
more than one-third of the entire area of the city. 
Each of these hills affords a site to somecon- 
it]>icuoii5 edifice. The first is occupied by the 
Seraglio; the second crowned with the Burnt 
Pillar, erected by Constantine, and the mosque 
<if Othman ; the most^ues of the sultans Solyman, 
Mohammed, and 8ehm stand on the summits of 
the third, fourth, and fifth ; the W. walls of the 
city run along the top of the sixth ; and the Pil- 
lar of Arcadius was erected upon the seventh. 

This amphitheatre of peopled hiUs, with its in- 
numerable cupolas and minarets interspersed with 
tall dark cypresses, and its almost unrivalled port^ 
crowded with the vessels of all nations, has, ex- 
ternally, a most imposing aspect, to which its 
interior forms a lamentable contrast. The expec- 
tations of the stranger are, perhaps, nowhere more 
deceived. The streets are narrow, crooked, steep, 
dark, ill-paved or not paved at all, and dirty; 
though, by reason of the slope of the ground on 
either side towards the sea and harbour, and the 
great number of public fountains, much of the 
tilth is conveniently cleared away. Adrianople 
Street, running from the gate of the same name 
to the Seraglio, is the only one desemng the name 
of street; the rest are mere lanes. Ihe houses 
are mo^ly small and low, being built of wood, 
earth, or, at the best, of rough or unhewn stone. 
It is the palaces, mosques, l^lgnios, bazars, khaus, 
^c. that make so splendid a show at a distance. 
I>allaway (Constantinople, p. 70) and Sir J. Hob- 
hoope believe that its streets were anciently not 
more regular than at present ; and that from the 
fivquent and sudden devastations by fire, men- 
tiuned by the Byzantine historians, its houses 
were formerly, as now, built mostly of wood or 
other fragile 'materials. About a century after its 
n-storation, Constantinople is reported (Gibbon, 
ch. xvii.) to have contamed * a capitol, or school 
it( learning, a circus, 2 theatres, 8 public and 1«53 
private baths, 52 porticos, 6 granaries, 8 aqueducts, 
or reservoirs of water, 4 spacious halls for the 
meetings of the senate or courts of justice, 14 
churches, fourteen squares, 344 streets, and 4^88 
houses, which for their size or beauty deserved to 
be distinguished from the multitude of plebeian 
habitations. It contains, at present, 14 royal and 
332 other mosques, or houses of Mohammedan 
worship, 40 colleges of Mohammedan priests, 183 
bo^itals, 36 Christian churches, several syna- 
gogues, 130 public baths, nearly 200 khans, and 
numerous oonee-houses, caravanserais, and public 
fountains; besides some extensive subterranean 
cL«tems, die aqueduct of Yalens, several remark- 
able pillars and obelisks erected by the Greek em- 
ptors, and other monuments which, together with 
the walls, the castle of * Seven Towers,' &c., are 
interesting remains of antiquity, and for the most 

part in a tolerable state of preservation. (Andr&- 
ossy, p. 124; Cours Mdthodique de G^graphie, 
p. 625 ; Hobhouse.) 

Constantine surrounded the city with walls, 
chiefly of freestone, flanked at variable distances 
by towers. These have been, in many parts, de- 
molished at different periods by the violence of 
the sea, and by frequent earthquakes, and on the 
side facing the port are especially in a very ruin- 
ous state. The city was increased towards the W. 
b^ Theodosius II., who built the waUs on the land 
side which still bear his name. These consist of 
a triple range, rising one above another, about 18 
ft. apart, and defended on the outside by a ditch 
25 to 30 ft. broad, -and 12 to 16 ft deep. The 
outer wall is now very much dilapidated, and in 
many places is only a little above the level of the 
edge of the dit^h ; it seems never to have had any 
ttjwcra. The second wall is about 12 ft in height 
and furnished with towers of various shapes, from 
50 to 100 yards apart The third wall is above 
20 ft high, and its towers, which ahswer to those 
of the second, are well proportioned. These walls 
are constructed of alternate courses of brick and 
stone; and the inner ones, notwithstanding the 
ravages of time, earthquakes, and numerous sieges, 
are still tolerably perfect On both the other sides 
of the city the walls are only double, and, gene- 
rally speaking, not so lofty. They are frequently 
adom^ with crosses and other ornaments, which 
have not been removed by the Turks; and in 
many parts there are bas-reliefs, and inscriptions 
by the Greek emperors who have built or repaired 
the several portions. When Dr. Clarke visited 
the place, he says there were in all 478 mural 
towers, and probably about the same number still 

Constantinople originally possessed 43 gates, 18 
of which opened on the Isjid side, 12 towards the 
Golden Horn, and 13 towards the Propontis. Only 
7 gates now exist or are at present used, on the 
land side, the centre one of which, the Top-Ka- 
poussi, or Cannon Gate, is the Porta Sancti Ro- 
mania through which Mohammed II. made his 
triumphal entry into the city. Near the SW. 
angle of the city is the Heptapyrgium^ or castle of 
* Seven Towers ' (though it has now but four 
towers), an irregular fortress, supposed to have 
been built about the year 1000. It was enlarged 
in succeeding ages, and in ^eat part rebuilt by 
Mohammed 11., who made it a state prison, it 
being useless as a fortress. The Golden Gate, 
erected by Theodosius to commemorate his victory 
over Maximus, was originally profusely ornamen- 
ted with beaten gold, and surmounted by a gilded 
bronze statue of Victory. Mohammed II. walled 
it up. When Wheeler saw it it was still adorned 
with bas-reliefs, in white marble, repHesenting se- 
veral scenes of classic mythology ; but these must 
have disappeared, since more recent travellers 
speak of it as only an ordinary arch between two 
large marble pillars, and ornamented with Corin- 
thian pilasters, ' d'un style assez m<5diocre.' 

The ancient Byzantium, founded by Byzas th^ 
Megarean, B.C. 656, and ultimately destroyed by 
Severus, not long before the building of Constan- 
tinople, occupied the first hill or apex of the tri- 
angle, at present the site of the Seraglio. Its 
w^ls, according to Herodian, were Cyclopean, and 
so skilfully adjusted tliat they seemed like one 
entire mass. Most authors say that there, are no 
vestiges of Byzantium; but Dr. Walsh afifirms 
that ' part of the walls of this very ancient city 
are actually standing, and ait off the gardens 
from the adjoining streets.' The Seraglio, which 
is believed to be of about the same extent as the 
ancient Byzantium, is nearly triangular, about 3 



ni. in circuit, and entirely surrounded by walls: 
those of the city forming its boundary towards 
the port and sea of Marmora, while on the W. it 
is shut in by a lofty wall with ^atcs and towers, 
built by Mohammed II., soon after the capture of 
Constantinople. Its whole surface is * irregularly 
covered with detached suites of apartments, baths, 
mosques, kiosks, gardens, and groves of cypress.' 
The apartments are chiefly on the top of the hill, 
and the gardens below, stretching to the sea. 
Though externally picturesque, from the contrast 
of its light and elegant minarets with its dark, 
solemn, and stately trees, the Seraglio is unmarked 
by anything to characterise it an the habitation of 
royalty. The greater part of its interior is not 
open to the public ; but those acquainted with it 
say that it contains little worthy of admiration, 
and that that little has been imported from Eu- 
rope, The palace consists of various parts built 
at different times, and according to the taste of 
successive sultans, without any regard to imi- 
formity or architectural rule ; and it is, therefore, 
a heap of houses clustered together without any 
kind of order. Out^jide are two courts, the first of 
which is free to all persons, and is entered by the 
Bab-a-hoomajdn or Sublime Porter the principal 
of the gates on the city side,— a ponderous, un- 
sightly structure, covered with Arabic inscriptions, 
guarded by fifty porters, and having a niche on 
either side in front, in which the heads of state 
offenders are publicly exposed. The irregular but 
spacious area into wKicb this gate leads, formerly 
the Farum Augustij contains the mint, the vizier's 
divan, and other state offices, the infirmaries for 
the sick belonging to the Seraglio, and the church 
of St, Irene, l^lieved to have been built by Con- 
stantine, and in which the second general council 
was held by Theodosiua. (Andr^ssy, 16.) ITiis 
church resembles St, Sophia on a small scale, and 
contains much marble and mosaic work : the Turks 
have converted it into an arsenal. The second 
quadrangle is smaller, being about 300 paces only 
in diameter; but is more regular and handsome 
than the former. It is laid out in turf, inter- 
sected by paved walks, and supplied with foun- 
tains. On the left hand are the treasury, the 
divan, or hall of juatice, and the smaller stables 
(the larger stables, containing, according to Tour- 
ncfort, 1.000 horses, are in another place, facmg 
the sea oif Maimora). On the right are the ofiSces 
of the attendants, nine kitchens, and the entrance 
to the private apartments. All round the court 
runs a low gallery, covered with lead, and sup- 
ported by columns of marble. At its farther end 
IS the tail Corinthian column erected by Theodo- 
sius the Great to commemorate his victory over 
the Goths; and near it are the Baba-Saadi, 'Gates 
of health and happiness,' which lead to the throne- 
hall, the royal library, the apartment* of the 
sultan, the harem, and other suites of rooms, em- 
bellished with a costly but tasteless magnificence. 
The throne-hall is isolated, lofty, built in great 

Eart of marble, and adorned with handsome mar- 
ie columnsL and stained glass windows. The 
thrcme itself is a canopy of velvet fringed with 
jewels, supported by four columns covered with 
gold, pearls, and precious stones ; but its effect is 
destroyed by horse-tails, and other paltry oma^ 
mental suspended from the roof. The state apart- 
ments closely resemble each other; their chief 
furniture consists of sofas, carpets, and mirrors. 
The walls are wainacotted with jasper, mother- 
of-pearl, and veneered ivory inlaid with mosaic 
flowers, landscapes, and sentences in Arabic The 
pavilions of the harem are built upon arches, and 
roofed by domes covered with lead or spires with 
gilded crescents. They have many balconies, gal- 

leries, cabineL«», &c. Baths of marble and porce- 
lain, rich pavilions overlooking the sea, marble 
basins, and spouting fountains, are sprinkled ovrr 
the rest of the surface within the Seraglio. The 
number of inmates, and others connected with the 
Seraglio, have been estimated at upwards of 10,0l>(» ; 
but this is probably much beyond the mark. All 
are provided for by the sultan. And Toumefort 
(Lett v. vol. ii. p. 104) states that, when he 
visited the place, besides 40,000 oxen yeariy, the 
purveyors furnished for the use of the Scraplio 
daily 200 sheep, 100 lambs or goats, 10 calves, 200 
hens, 200 pairs of pullets, 100 pain* of pigecjiis 
and 50 green geese. But, notwithstanding the 
general accuracy of Toumefort, we have no doubt 
that in this instance he was misled, and that ]VIr. 
Elliott (L 395) has done right in rejecting this 

On the third hill is the Eski Semi, or Old 
Palace, said to have been the residence of the later 
Greek emperors ; a building surrounded by a lofiy 
octangular wall about 1 m. in circuit, and to which, 
when a sultan dies, his harem is removed. It pre- 
sents nothing remarkable. 

The mosques of Constantinople have all an open 
space around them, generally planted with frees, 
and refreshed by fountains. The principal mo8que, 
the celebrated St. Sophia, stands on the W. decli- 
vity of the first hill, near the Sublime Forte of the 
Seraglio. It was begun and finished under the 
Emperor Justinian, between the years 531 and 537. 
It is in the form of a Greek cross,' 269 ft, in length, 
by 243 ft, wide, or about 3-5th8 the length of St. 
Paul's, London, by nearly the same width ; and 
surmounted in its centre by a dome, the middle f)f 
which is 180 ft. above the floor. The dome i» 
of an elliptical form, and much too flat to be ex- 
ternally beautiful, its height not exceeding 1-Gth 
part of the diameter; which is 115 ft., or 15 fu 
more than that of the dome of St. Paul's, and IS 
ft, less than that of St. Peter's at Rome. It 13 
lighted by twenty-four wmdows ranged round its 
circumference, and rests upon four strong arches, 
the weight of which is firmly supported by four mas- 
sive piles, strengthened on the r^. and S. sidea by 
four columns of Egyptian granite. The present 
dome is not coeval with the building ; the original 
one, which was 1«8 lofty and more circular, having 
been thrown down by an earthquake twenty-one 
vears after its erection. There are, besides, two 
lai;^ and six smaller semi-domes, the whole of 
which blending internally with the principal one, 
form altogether a magnificent expiEmse of roof. 
Four minarets, but each of a different shape, have 
been added to this mosque by the Mohammedans. 
The building has been outwaJndly so much patched 
and propped up in different ages, that it has lo6t 
whatever beauty it may have originally poesessod, 
and is now a heavy, unwieldly, and confused- 
looking mass. It is entered on the W. side by 
a double vestibule, about 38 ft. in breadth, whic& 
communicates with the interior by nine bronze 
doors, ornamented with has reliefs in marble. 'The 
interior is spacious and imposing, not being broken 
by aisles or choirs; but the vanegated marble floor 
is covered with mats and caqjets : the mosaid of 
the dome, &c, have been whitewashed over by the 
Turks ; the colossal seraphim and other sculptures 
have been in great part destroyed, and the general 
ctnq) tfceil is spoiled by * a thousand little roids 
depending from the summit to within 4 ft. of the 
pavement, and having at the end of them lamps 
of coloured glass, large ostrich-eggs, artifldal horse- 
tails, vases and globes of crystal, and other moan 
ornaments.' (Hobhouse.) llie building is said to 
contain 170 columns of marble, granite, pori>h\-T>-, 
verdrcmtiquef &Cf many of which were brought ftoin 



the temple of Diana at Epbeans, and other ancient 
btnictures. The coet of the building, owing to 
the ambiguity of the Byzantine liistonans, cannot 
be accmrately detennined ; but Gibbon observes 
(Decline and Fall, ch. xL), that * the sum of one 
million sterling is the result of the lowest com- 
putation.* Yet with all this, Justinian seems to 
have failed in making SL Sophia a really fine 
edifice. Sir J. Hobhouse says of it, — * My impres- 
sion was, that the skill of tne one hundred archi- 
tects, and the labour of the ten thousand workmen, 
the wealth of an empire, and the ingenuity of pre- 
«ding angels, had raised a stupendous monument 
(if the heavy mediocrity which distiogubhed the 
{tniductions of the sixth century from the perfect 
Kpecimens of a happier a^* 

Most travellers agree m preferring the mosques 
of Solyman the Magnificent and Achmet' to St. 
Sophia. The former of these, called the Soly- 
mania, was built in 1556, of the ruins of the church 
of St. Euphemia at Chalcedon. It is 216 ft. in 
length by 210 ft. broad, and has a handsome 
dume, supported on four columns of Thebaic gra- 
nite, 60 ft. high, pavements, galleries, &&, of mar- 
ble, several minor cupolas, four fine minarets at 
the angles, a spacious court-yard leading to it, 
with g^dleries of green marble on either side, and 
twenty-eight leaded cupolas, and a very handsome 
gate of entrance ascended to by a flight of at least 
twenty marble steps. The whole of this mosque 
L» in very good taste. Behind it, in an encIoHeil 
c Hirt shad^ with trees, is the mausoleum of Soly- 
man, an octagonal building, and the handsomest 
of all the royal sepulchral monuments, which are ! 
very numerous in the citv. The mosque of Ach- 
met I., between St. Sophia and the Propontis, 
was constructed in 1610, and has a very beautiful 
marble pavement. It is the only mosque which 
fKnoiessefl six minarets. These are of extraordinary 
height and beaut v, and each has three Saracenic 
gmlleries surronndmg it. The Osmaule, or mosque 
<if Othman, completed in 1755, has a light and de- 
gant dome, and b tastefully ornamented. The 
fither principal mosques are those of Mohammed 
1!., Bajaxet, Sehm II., Mustapha III., the Vali- 
dea, A:c. The last lumied, founded by the mother 
of Mohammed lY., contains a double row of fine 
marble pillars,' chiefly brought from the ruins of 
Truv. Another mosque has become an object of 
canotitjf from its containing a sarcophagus, sup- 
posed to have been that of C^nstantine the Great. 
3lany of the mosques have, like St. Sophia, been 
formerly Greek churches ; the remainder have been 
erected mostly by the Turkbh sovereigns, the vi- 
ziers, or wealthy individuals. The roval founda- 
tions comprise a college, with a public library, a 
hospital, and an almshouse ; and the m(^ues in 
eenezal have attached to them some charitable 
institudons. They derive their revenues from 
Tillages and lands belonging to them, and held 
by a tenure not dissimilar to that of our church- 
lands. The incomes of some of the mosques are 
very large ; that of St. Sophia has been said to 
amount to 800,000 livres annually (Hobhouse) ; 
Dallaway says 3,000/. (p. 58.) 

The largest space in Constantinople is the AI- 
3/eidcm, or UoTse-course, the ancient Hippodrome. 
It b at present 300 yards long by 150 wide. 
(Elliott.) In it formerly stood the celebrated group 
of four horses, originally transported thither from 
Itome, and afterwards removed to the cathedral of 
ht. Mark, at Venice. It still contains the granite 
obelbk from Thebes, set up by Theodosms the 
Great ; the broken p^Tamid of Constantine Por- 
phjrrogenitus, shorn at its bronze plates ; and be- 
tween the two, the hollow spiral brass column, 
which originally snpportcd the golden tripod in 

the temple of Delphi. The last consbts of three 
serpents, twbted together. Mr. Elliott describes 
it as being at present about 12 ft. high, mutilated 
at the top, and much injured in the centre. Close 
to the Hippodrome formerly stood the imperial 
palace, the senate-house, and the forum. No re- 
mains of these exist. The Hippodrome continues 
to be used by the Turks for feats of activity, both 
on horseback and on foot. 

In the Adrianople Street b the * Burnt Pillar,* 
so called from its having been blackened by re- 
peated conflagrations. It was erected by Con- 
stantuie the Great, and was originally 120 ft in 
height, and composed of ten blocks of porphyry, 
each upwards of 9 ft. high, and 35 ft. in circum- 
ference, resting on a marble pedestal 20 ft. in 
height. The lomts of the column were concealed 
by embossed brass or iron hoops, and the whole 
supported a colossal bronze statue of Apollo, said 
to have been the work of Phidias. ^Gibbon, ch. 
xviL) The statue and three of the clocks were 
tiirown down by lightning in 1150, and the whole 
height b now only 90 ft. In the centre of the 
city the pillar of Marcian may be seen, enclosed 
in a private garden. It b of granite, with a Co- 
rinthian capital of white marble, surmounted by 
an urn of the same material. The finest of ajlf 
the Arcadian or Hbtorical column, erected early 
in the 5th century', and covered with a series of 
bas-reliefs, representing the victories of Theodosius 
the Great, was taken down at the end of the 17th 
century, and only 14 ft. of it are now above 
ground. (Dallaway, pp. 113, 114.) Dallaway rea- 
(lilv traced the vestiges of the Boucolton palace, 
built by Theodosius II., opposite the Sea of 

The means for the supply of Constantinople 
with water are worthy of remark. The aqueduct 
of Yalens, which communicates with another and 
more extensive, though similarly constructed aque- 
duct, beyond the walls, continues, as anciently, to 
convey water into the city. It was originally 
built by the Emperor Hadrian ; and rebuilt first 
by Yalens, and again by Sol3rman the Magni- 
ficent. It runs from the summit of the third to 
that of the fourth hill, consisting of a double tier 
of fort^ Gothic arches in alternate layers of stone 
and bnck. It b in some parts considerably dila- 
pidated, and its E. extremity especially is much 
mjured. Andnk>s8y estimates that it was ori- 
ginally nearly 1,280 yards in length; it b now, 
he says, 669 yards long, and about 74 ft. in height. 
^Andrdossy, p. 432.) There are several other aque- 
aucts on both sides tlie port, which, as well as the 
betuUSf or reservoirs, without the walls, were chiefly 
the work of the Greek emperors, though they have 
been augmented and kept in repair by the Turk- 
bh sultans. All the water that supplies Con- 
stantinople comes from Belgrade, a village a little 
to the NE. of the citv. An American traveller 
(Sketches in Turkey in 1831-32) has estunated 
the quantity brought into the city at 15,000,000 
gall, every twenty-four hours, and states that the 
various water-courses about Constantinople must 
exceed 50 m. in length. The whole of these im- 
portant works are under the superintendence of 
an officer with great powers, and are annually 
inspected by the sultan. 

The Greek emperors constructed many largo 
cbtems within the walb, both open and subter- 
ranean : the former have been gradually filled with 
earth, and converted into gardens ; but several of 
the subterranean ones stiU remain entire. Tbe 

{>rincipal are contiguous to the Hippodrome. The 
aigest, or Cittema BaaUika^ is a vault of brick- 
work, covered with terrace composition, 336 ft. in 
length by 182 ft. broad, and supported by 336 



marble pillars, each 40 ft 9 in heipht. (Clarke, 
pp. 170, 171.) It still aflfords water to the in- 
nabitants, being supplied by the city aqueduct, 
and many wells are sunk into it. Another vault, 
the Cistema Maxima, called by the Turks * the 
thousand and one columns,' L^, according to Mr. 
Elliott, 240 ft. long by 200 wide, 5 fathoms deep, 
and sustained by 14 rr>w8 of 16 double columns of 
white marble, the capital of one pillar forming the 
ba^se for another. This cistern is now drj', and 
half filled with earth : it is at present used as a 
rope-walk, or place for spinning silk. Not far 
from it is another cistern, also dr\', but capable of 
holding 1,500,000 gallons of water. (Elliott.) 

The fountains are amongst the chief omamenta 
of the city. There are almost as many as tbere 
are streets; one is to be found in every piazza, 
market-place, and mosque. They are uniformly 
square, with a spout at each side and a leaden 
roof; and are generally gilded, painted, inscribed 
with sentences from the koran, or otherwise deco- 
rated. The pubUc baths are built mostly of mar- 
ble, on a uniform plan, and covered with little flat 
domes : their interior is generally handsome and 
spacious ; and the pric^ of a bath, the first of 
oriental luxuries, is so low that a poor man can 
enjoy a hot bath for a penny. In the better sort, 
coffee, sherbet, and pipes are furnished to the 
bathers. Few hous^ of consequence are unpro- 
vided with a commodious bath. 

The greater number of the khans (bazaars) and 
bezestina (or changes) are built of stone or brick. 
The khans and serais, or inns, are for the most part 
royal or charitable endowments, each capable of 
accommodating from 100 to 1,000 persons. They 
consist of open squares, surrounded by rooms, in 
several stones, and possess recommendations for 
outweighing their want of architectural elegance. 
Most of them are intended for travelling mer- 
chants. Excepting a small present to the servant 
at departing, strangers are gratuitously lodged in 
them, and during their residence in the city are 
masters of their rooms, of which they keep the 
keys. * They are for all men, of whatever quality, 
condition, country, or religion soever, and the 
construction of them has contributed to attract 
the merchandise of the furthest bowidaries of 
Africa and Asia to the capital of Turkey. During 
fires or insurrections, their iron gates are closed, 
and they afford complete security to the persons 
as well as goods of the merchants.' (Hobhouse.) 

The covered bazaars have more the appearance 
of a row of booths in a fair, than a street of shops. 
Each is appropriated to a separate article of mer- 
chandise. The shops are all open in front, and 
under cover of a common roof; the sills of the 
windows, as in ancient Pompeii, forming the 
counters. (Elliott) 

The better sort of coffee-houses are open on one 
side, and have a fountain playing in the midst of 
a range of marble seats, and recesses furnished 
with pillows, mats, and stuffed carpets. A row of 
them, near the Solymania, is frequented by opium 
eaters ; but there are not nearly so many of these 
individuals in the Tiurkish capital as is generally 
imagined. All the public buildings of Constanti- 
nople are crowned by cupolas, in consequence of 
which, their number, at a distance, seems to be as 
great as that of the private houses. The domes, 
as well as the minarets of all the sacred struc- 
tures, are terminated by a crescent. 

The houses of opulent Turks are built, like the 
khans and most other large houses in the E., round 
a court, which has always a fountain playing in 
its centre. Occasionally these residences are not 
ill-constructed; but the common dwellings are 
mere comfortless wooden boxes, with unglazcd 

windows, and without fire-places. (Dallaway.) 
House-rent is said to be higher in Constantinople 
than in any other city in the world; this is 
ascribed to the frequency of fires, a house not 
being reckoned worth more than five years' pur- 
chase, if so much. The fact is, that these fires 
are very often intentional ; and that thev are re- 
sorted to for the same purpose that public meetings 
and petitions are got up m England — ^to make the 
sultan aware of the public discontent, and of the 
necessity of appeasing it ! A striking instance of 
this sort is given by Porter (Obsen'ations on the 
Turks, p. 92), and similar instances may be found 
in other travellers. We do not know that any 
thing could better e\'ince the atrocious nature of 
the despotism under which Turkey has so long 
groaned, than the circumstance of its making fire- 
raising a sort of constitutional resource ! 

The Golden Horn (an. Sinus Byzantinus) has 
usurped the ancient name of the promontory' on 
which Byzantium was built, and which wasfir^it 
called Kc'pa? Xpvatovj Chrysocertu, or Golden Horn. 
(;^Clarke's Trav., ^-iii. 176, 182.) It is one of the and most secure harbours in the world, 
capable of containing upwards of 1,000 sail of the 
line, and of a depth sufficient to admit of goods 
being landed on the quays from the largest ships, 
in many places without the assistance of boats. 
It extends from the Seraglio Point inland, for 
about 4^ m. NW., with a breadth varying from a 
furlong to half a mile. At its entrance it has a 
light-house on either side, and is defended by some 
batteries on the Seraglio Point. At its u^Wler end 
the ancient Lycus, now called the Sweet Waters, 
falls into it, and it is continually cleared by the 
stream of that river, in conjunction with a current 
setring into it from the Bosphorus. It exhibits a 
most picturesque and animated scene, covered, as 
it always is, with merchant ve-^sels, steamers, ships 
of war, and caigues of aU descriptions. Along the 
SW. side of this harbour, the FanoTf or Greek 
quarter, extends nearly the whole way from the 
seraglio to the western walls of the city. Beyond 
the walls, on the same side, is the suburb of Azoob 
or Ejoop, in the mosque of which the new sultan 
is always installed in his office. The upper extre- 
mity of the harbour, anciently called the 3Iar- 
cidum Mare, is now, as formerly, a low, mafshy, 
unwholesome tract; but about 1^ m. beyond, m 
the Valley of the Sweet Waters, the Sultan Ach- 
met III. had some grounds laid out in the French 
style, with the addition of gaudy kiosques, coffee- 
houses, dtc, to which the inhabitants of tiie city 
and suburbs frecjuently resort. 

On the NE. side of the harbour are the suburbs 
of Galata, Topkanah, Pera, and Cassim Pasha. 
The fiist two stand side by side on the shore 
opposite to the Seraglio, and E. end of the city. 
Pera is on a hill to the NE. behind both ; and 
Cassim Pasha to the NW. of all, opposite the 
Fanar. Galata was built by the Genoese in the 13th 
century, and walled in the 15th. It is about 4 m. 
in circuit, divided into three quarters, and inhabited 
chiefiy by European and other merchants. It has 
twelve gates and contains a citadel or tower, 140 
ft. high, built by the Emperor Anastasina, a very 
fine ^h-market, several mosques, a handsome foun- 
tain, and a great number of shops. Toamefort 
remarks that * one tastes in Galata a snatch of 
liberty not to be found elsewhere in the Ottoman 
empire. Galata is, as it were, Christendom in 
Turkey; taverns are tolerated, and the Turiu 
themselves freely resort thither to take a cheerful 
glass.' Topkanah {an arsenal) contains an arsenal, 
artillery-barracks, and magazines, and a cannon 
foundr}'. Pera is beautifully situated, but iire- 
gularly built and ill-paved. It is about 2 m. in 


length ; its pop. is almost wholly Frank, and it 
contains the residences of most of the European 
ambassadors, besides four Catholic and one Greek 
chorcb, a monastery of dervishes, and a Moham- 
medan college. In 1831 it suffered severely from 
a fixe, which destroyed 10,000 houses, amongst 
which were the palaces of nearly aU the ambassa- 
do», and piuperty estimated to be worth 8,000,000 
doUan. Cassim Pasha contains the great naval 
arsenal, dock-yards, barracks, quarters for slaves 
and workmen, the palace of the cai>itan--pasha, dec 
There are no suburbs on the W. side of Constan- 
tinople, only a few cemeteries and scattered cot- 
tages beyond the walls. The Immediate vicinity 
towards Thrace consists generidly of an expanse 
of open downs ; the solitude and desolation which 
prevail on this sdde are remarkable. On the Asiatic 
continentr about a mile across the Bosphorus from 
the Seraglio Point, stands the town of Scutari (an. 
Chrywopoiis) ; and about 2 m. S. of it, the ancient 

Manufactures few : the principal are those of silk 
and cotton ikbrics, arms, morocco leather, saddlery, 
hon^e-trappings, shoes, and other articles of ordi- 
nary use and consumption, together with those of 
tobacco bowls, tubes, and mouth-pieces. The latter 
tranches of industry employ many hands, and one 
bazaar is devoted solely to those articles. The keff- 
kU earth is dug in several parts of Asia, rudely 
fashi«ined into pipe-bowls in Constantinople, and 
exported in laige quantities to Hungary, Germany, 
and France, where the bowls are re-manufactured, 
and receive the name of meerschaums. The best 
tulies are formed of the stems of the cherry or jes- i 
samine tree, both of which are laigely cultivated I 
in the neighbourhood for the purpose. The rank | 
of A person in this city being determined by his 
jnp*-, it is often adom^ in a very costly manner, 
and the price of a tchtbouque may vary from 20 
paras to 20,000 piastres. The dsheries of Con- 
stantinople are by no means unimportant : the sea 
and harbour abound with shoals of tunny, sword- 
fish, dEc, and the ' sweet waters ' with a profusion 
id fresh-water fish. 

The foreign trade is considerable. Imports, 
chiefly com, iron, timber, tallow, and furs, from 
the Black Sea; cotton stuffs and yam, tin. tin- 
plates, woollens, silks, cutlery, watches, jewellery, 
paper, glass, furniture, indigo, cochineal, orpiment, 
^c, from England and other parts of Europe ; com 
and coffee from Alexandria ; a ^ood deal of coffee 
lh>m Brazil and the W. Indies, m American bot- 
toms, which traffic has latterly much increased ; 
ssugar, partly from the E., but chiefly from the W. 
Indies ; wax, copper, drugs, gums, porcelain, over- 
land from China (a trade which existed in the time 
of the Romans) ; and slaves, chiefly from Georgia, 
Cirausia, and Aftica. Exports comparatively 
trifling : chiefly sdlk, carpets, hides, wool, goats* 
hair, potash, wax, galls, bullion, and diamonds. 
Tlie trade, which, as a whole, is less than might 
have been expected in a city of such size, is for 
the most part in the hands of English, French, 
Armenian, and Greek merchants, and Jew-brokers. 
The more wealthy Armenians (a nation constitu- 
ting a considerable proportionof the pop.) are money- 
changers, bankers, jewellers, physicians, and apo- 
thecaries ; the lower classes are employed in the 
moat laborious occupations. As chintz-printers 
and maslin-paintei9, the Armenians here surpass 
most European artisans. The Greeks are much 
leas numerous than before the Greek revolution. 

Constantinople is the residence of a Greek, an 
Armenian, and a Catholic-Armenian patriarch. 
The first haa now no authority in the newly erected 
kingdom of Greece. Elementary schools are to be 
met with in every street ; and in every quarter 



there are Turkish free-schools for the poor, the ex- 
penses of which, as well as the board and lodging 
of many of the pupils, are defrayed out of the re- 
venues of the mosques. The number of these ele- 
mentary schools amounted to above 1,200 in the 
year 1864, according to an official return, while of 
upper schools, or colleges, there were 522. Some 
of the medressesj or colleges attached to the 
mosques, have between 400 and 500 students, who 
are lodged and educated on the foundation, and 
have each several professors, the salaries of the 
principal among which are equivalent to about 
100^ a year. In these seminaries all the members 
of the uJemah are educated, and no one can be ad- 
mitted into the hierarchy or the law without hav- 
ing first graduated in one of them. The Moham- 
medan law had prohibited the Turks from learn- 
ing European tongues ; but the late sultan estab- 
lished a school for the instruction of native youths 
in French, outside the Seraglio. The French and 
Austrian embassies have schools for the acquisi- 
tion of Turkish by their members. There are 16 
public libraries, 9 or 10 of which are attached to 
the royal mosques, and contain about 2,000 ma- 
nuscripts each, mostly copies of the koran and 
commentaries on it. The private library in the 
Seraglio is richer than any oi the rest, and contains 
some valuable Greek and Latin MSS. 

' Amid the novelties that strike the European 
on his arrival, nothing surprises him more than 
the silence that pervades so large a capitaL He 
hears no noise of carta or carriages rattling through 
the streets ; for there are no wheeled vehicles in 
the city, except a very few painted carts, called 
arabahsj drawn by buffaloes, in which women occa- 
sionally take the air in the suburbs, and which go 
only at a foot-pace. The contrast is still more 
strongly marked at night. By ten o'clock every 
human voice is hushed.' Constantinople is not a 
healthy place of residence for strangers ; it is sub- 
ject to sudden changes of temperature ; and the 
strong etesian or N. winds, which prevail in the 
summer, and do injury to trade, by preventing the 
access of ships from the ^gean and Mediterra- 
nean, are also detrimental to public health and 
comfort. Earthquakes, the plague, and devasta- 
ting fires, often consuming 2,000 or 3,000 houses, 
cause great destroction of life and property. In 
other respects, too, it is a most unpleasant place 
of residence to a European or other stranger. In 
many cases property is not secure, iustice is noto- 
riously corrupt, the police is bad, the place is in- 
fested with cats, rats, and, as most travellers say, 
with herds of wild dogs, and birds of prey, which 
act as scavengers. Sir J. Hobhouse states, that 
* Constantinople is distinguished from every other 
capital in Europe, by having no names to its 
streets, no lamps, and no post-office.' 

The history of this renowned city for a length- 
ened period is given by Gibbon. It was originally 
founded by Byzas, from whom it derived the name 
of Byzantium, atmo 656 B.C. ; and having been de- 
stroyed by Severus, was rebuilt, a.d. 828, by Con- 
stantine, who made it the cap. of the Roman em- 
pire. On the subjugation of the Western empire 
by the barbarians, Constantinople continued to be 
the cap. of the Eastem empire. Its wealth and 
magnificence were celebrated during the middle 
ages. It has sustained numerous sieges, but has 
only been twice taken ; first, in 1204, oy the Cru- 
saders, who retained it till 1261 ; and, lastly, by 
the Turks, under Mohammed II., May 29, 1458, 
when the last remnant of the Roman empire was 
finally suppressed. 

CONSLEGRA, a town of Spain, prov. Toledo, 
on the Amarguillo, 38 m. SE. Toletlo. Pop. 6,870 
in 1857. The town has 2 churches, 3 convents, a 



palace, and a variety of Roman inscriptions and 
antiquitieH. On a neighbouring hill are the re- 
mains of its ancient castle. Streets tolerably re- 
gular, but narrow and steep. The vicinity pro- 
duces grain, wine, oil, barilla, and soda, and has 
quarries of azure-coloured marble, jasper, and 
other stones. It has fabrics of coarse stuffs, baize, 
and serge. 

CONWAY, a town and pari. bor. of N. Wales, 
CO. Caernarvon, hund. Isaf, on the sestuary of the 
Conway river: 15 m. NW. by W. from the Menai 
Bridge, and 224^ m. NW. London by the London 
and North Western railway. Pop. of par. 1,855, 
and of parL bor. 2,523 in 1861. The town, which 
is of a triangular shape, stands on a steep slope, 
and is surrounded by lofty walls, fenced with 24 
round towers. The lower face of the triangle 
borders on the river ; and at its farthest angle, on 
the vei^ of a slate rock, its magnificent castle 

' Frowns o'er old Conway's foaming flood.' 

This qoble structure was built by Edward L in 
1284. * A more beautiful fortress never arose. Its 
form is oblong, placed in all parts on the verge of 
the precipitous rock. One side is bounded by the 
river : another bv a creek fidl of water at everv 
tide, and most beautifully shaded by hanging 
woods. The other two sides face tlie town. Within 
are two courts ; and on the outside project ei^ht 
vast towers, each with a slender one of amazmg 
elegance issuing from its top, within which had 
been a winding staircase. In one of the great 
towers is a fine window, in form of an arched re- 
cess, or bow, ornamented with piUara. The great 
hall suited the magnificence of the founder. It 
extended 130 ft. in length, was 32 broad and of a 
fine height. The roof was supported by eight 
noble arches, six of which still remain. There 
were two entrances into the fortress, one from the 
river, and one from the town. (Pennant's Tour in 
Wales, iiL 123, 8vo. ed.) llie town is poor and 
inconsiderable, without trade or manufacture of 
any sort. Much of the ground within the walls is 
used for gardens. The bor. is one of the contri- 
butaiy bors. to Caernarvon in returning a mem. to 
the H. of C. The limits of the bor. extend to a 
considerable distance bevond the walls of the 
town. The port dries at low water. 

The old and dangerous ferry over the river has 
been superseded by a magnificent suspension 
bridge completed in 1826. The length of the 
bridge between the centre of the supporting towers 
is 327 11. ; and it is elevated 18 rt. above high- 
water mark. The construction of this and the 
Menai Bridge, and the excavations and improve- 
ments that nave been made at Penmanmawr and 
other places, have made the road, formerly so dan- 
gerous, from St. Asaph and Conway to Bangor 
and Anglesea, one of the best and safest in the 

COOCH-BAHAR, or VIHAR, a raiahship of 
Hindostan, prov. Bengal, between lat. 26^ and 27^ 
N., long. 89^ and 9(P E. ; having N. Bootan, and 
on all other sides the distr. of Rungpore, with 
which it is incorporated ; length about 90 m ; 
greatest breadth, 60 m. Its raiah also possesses 
some tracts beyond the Mogul limits of Bengal, 
not snbiect to tribute, and on which opium is ex- 
tensively cultivated. The S. part of this country 
is fine and fertile, but N. of the cap. it is low, 
marshy, and interspereed with jungle and coarse 
rank vegetation. The Cooch or Rajbangsi tribes 
eat various kinds of fiesh, and are considered by 
the Bengfdese and other Hindoos as very low and 
impure. Notwithstanding provisions are cheap as 
compared with other districts, and rents low, many 
of the natives, especially in the N., are so indigent 


as to be fi^uently obliged to sell their children 
for slaves. Hoe-cultivation is common. In 1 5H2, 
Abul Fazel relates that the chief was a powerful 
sovereign, having Assam and Camroop under his 
government, and able to bring into the field 1,000 
horse and 100,000 foot ; in 1661 this territory waa 
conquered by the Mogids, and devolved, with the 
rest of Bengal, to the British in 1765. 

COOKSTOWN, an inL town of Ireland, prov. 
Ulster, CO. Tyrone, on the Ballinderry river, 9 m. 
W. from Lough Neaig:h. Pop. 2,883 in 1831, and 
3,257 in 1861. The town consists of one long street, 
planted on each side, with a transverse street 
crossing it. The par. church is a large Gothic 
structure : there are three meeting-houses for Pres- 
byterians, two for Methodists, and near the town 
is a Rom. Cath. chapeL There is also a dispensary 
and a constabulary station. Linens are manufac- 
tured here, and bleached in the vicinity. Markets 
for grain are held on Tuesdays, and for general 
sales on Saturdays ; £urs on tfie first Saturday of 
eveiy month. 

COORG {Hodoogoo)^ an anc rajahship of Hin- 
dostan, prov. Mysore, formerly independent, but 
now under the pres. of Madras. It lies for the 
most part between lat \^ and 13° N., and inter- 
sected by the 76th parallel of E. long. ; ha\4ng X 
and E. the Mysore territories, and on all other 
sides those of the Madras presidency ; length N. 
to S. about 70 m., breadth very irregular : area, 
2,340 sq. m.- To the W. it is bounded by the W. 
Ghauta, parallel to whidh there is a succession of 
lofty narrow ridges, enclosing vaUeys of various 
extent The chief elevations are, Tadiandamole 
5,781 fL, and Soobramany 5,682 fU above the sea: 
the principal valley is that between Markara and 
Naknaad, 18 m. long, by 15 m. broad, with an ex- 
tremely uneven surface, in the lowest part of which 
runs the Cavery. The geology of Coorg strongly 
resembles that of the ^eelghcrries; the principal 
rocks bein^ sienite, granite, and greeiutone, and 
the subordinate ranges uniformly capped with the 
detritus of these, cemented by alliaceous earth, 
and coloured by oxide of iron: porcelain clay 
frequently occurs. The whole country, with few 
exceptions, is covered with forests, but not over- 
loaded with jungle, excepting in the vicinity of 
the Mysore dominion ; where elephants, game,*and 
other wild animals are found. Sandal and other 
valuable woods abound. Both the botAny and 
zoology of this re^on offer a rich field to ob- 
servers, but have hitherto been but little studied. 
From the greater elevation, the temperature is 
much below that of either Malabar or Mysore, and 
remarkable for its equality. The climate ia, in 
general, highly suitable to European constitutions, 
though the monsoon rains, from June to Sept^ 
often fall with great violence. The Coorgas are a 
Nair tribe of martial habits ; they have few towns, 
or even villager, of any size, preferring to live in 
jungles and wilds. They cultivate rice in the 
valleys, which are very productive, though the 
Quantity of land under culture be very trifling. 
The pastures are excellent, and cattle are abundant. 
Manufactures limited to the blankets worn by the 
pop. Cotton cloths are imported. Contrary to the 
custom in Malabar on the other side of the Ubautit, 
hereditary rights and possessions in Coorg descend 
in the male line, and some family disputes arose 
in 18Q8, in consequence of Beer Rajendra (who 
had expelled the troops of Tippoo from Coorg) 
having left, at his death, the government of his 
dom. to his daughter, to the prejudice of his 
brother, who was ultimately established in posses- 
sion by the British government. The country was 
annexed to the British dominions in 1832. 

COOTEHILL, an inU town of Ireland, pivv. 


ITlster, 00. CaTan, on a small river of the same 
name, 26 m. W. by N. Dundalk. Pop. 2,178 in 
1831, and 1.994 in 1861. The town consists of 
fonx broad streets, neatly laid out and well kept. 
It has a par. church, a Kom. Cath. chapel, two 
Presbyterian meeting-houses, places of worship 
for Monvians, Quakers, and Methodists : a market- 
house, a ooort-hoose, and a bridewelL There is an 
cxtensiTe trsde in grain and coarse linens. The 
com markets are held on Saturdays, the general 
markets on Fridays; and fairs on the second 
Friday in erery month. 

CO'PENHAGEN CKiobenhavn, merchants' ha^ 
Ten), the cap. of Denmark, a well-built city, 
principally on the £. coast of the island of Zea- 
land, but partly also on the contiguous small 
island of Amak, the channel between them form- 
ing the port. Pop. 155,148 in 1860. The town is 
wul fortified. IJie nmparts, which extend for 
aboat 5 nu, are flanked with bastions, and sur- 
rounded by a deep ditch filled with water. It is 
also defended by a very strong citadel, and by the 
Tlkree Crowns Mttery, constructed at the entrance 
of the port on a bank of sand, about 1,500 fathoms 
frcKn shore. The city is usually divided into the 
old town, the new town, and Christianshavn. The 
firai b the largest and most populous, and having 
at different periods suffered much from fire, most 
part of it h^ been rebuilt on an improved plan, 
tbon^ s<Hne of the streets are still narrow, 
crooked, and inconvenient. In the new town the 
streets are straight and broad, though generally 
ill-pftved, the squares r^^Iar and spacious, and 
the private houses and public buildings the finest 
in the dty. The part called Christianshavn, from 
its being built by Christian lY., stands on the 
island oiAmak. It is intersected by various canals, 
ai»d communicates with the other parts of the 
town by bridges. Public buildings numerous, and 
man^ of them superb. Among others may be 
specified the castle of Christiansboig, destroyed by 
fire in 1795, and since rebuilt. It has a picture- 
gallery, comprising a complete coUection of Danish 
pictores, with a fine collection of the Dutch school ; 
a chapel ornamented by bas-reliefs from the chisel 
of Tborwaldsen ; and the royal library, one of the 
best in Europe, containing, exclusive of manu- 
sczipU, above 450,000 volumes. The part of the 
new town called Amalicnboig was entirely rebuilt 
bv Frederick V. between 1745 and 1765. It con- 
sists chiefly of an octagon, divided by four broad 
rectangular streets, in which is the palace of the 
king. In the centre is a bronze equestrian statue 
of Frederick Y., erected by the East India Com- 
pany. There are also the royal palaces of Rosen- 
bnrg and Chariottenboig, appropriated to public 
purposes; the university, tne town-house, the 
theatre, the exchange, and the barracks. The 
cathcdnd chureh of Notre Dame, nearly destroyed 
during the bombardment in 1807, has been rebuilt ; 
and u enriched by statues of Christ and the Apos- 
f lea, by Tborwaldsen. The tower of the chureh of 
the Tnnity, 1 15 ft. in height, is used as an obser- 
ratoiy : it also contains the library of the univer- 
sity, and the great globe of Tycho Brahe. The 
cfanrcb of Our Saviour is reckoned the finest in the 
town : its spire, nearly 800 fU in height, is a 
masterpiece of art* The educational, literaiy, and 
sciectinc establishments of Copenhagen, rank with 
the first of their class, and reflect infinite credit on 
the goremment and the people. Besides the uni- 
veiBity, to which we have elsewhere alluded, there 
is a polytechnic school, a metropolitan school, a 
royal sdiool of marine, a royal school for the 
hi^er military sciences, and a normal schooL 
'lliere is, also, a royal societv similar to that of 
London, a Scandinavian society, and a society of 




northern antiquaries* The academy of arts is and 
has long been in a flourishing condition. Besides 
the ro3ral library in the pal^ of Christiansborg, 
the university library has above 100,000 volumes, 
and a large collection of manuscripts. The CUusem 
library, bequeathed to the public by the general of 
that name, is mainly devoted to science and 
natural history ; and, 'exclusive of these, there are 
several other minor but stUl valuable collections. 

The hospitals are numerous and well conducted. 
The most splendid is that of Frederick Y. The 
Ijring-in hospital has attached to it a school of 
midwifery and a foundling hospital The royal 
institution for deaf and dumb admits patients 
from all parts of the kingdom. 

If distillation be excepted, the manufactures of 
Copenhagen are neither very extensive nor impor- 
tant. There are about 258 distilleries, mostly on a 
small scale, and about 50 breweries, with sugar 
refineries, tobacco manufactories, and soap-wons. 
Cotton and woollen goods, linens, silks, gloves, and 
hats are also produced, but in limited quantities. 

The trade of the port is considerable. There 
axrived, in 1860, 4,015 vessels, of 115,502 ksts (of 
9 tons each) ; in 1861, 8,252 vessels, of 127,224 
lasts, and, in 1862, 8,233 vessels of 126,862 
lasts. Of these, there were British vessels 120 in 
1860 ; 160 in 1861 ; and 249 in 1862. The prin- 
cipal articles of import are— anchors, pitch, and 
tar, from Sweden and Norway ; fiax and hemp, 
masts, sail cloth, and cordage from Russia ; tobacco 
and rice, from the United States; wines and 
brandy from France ; and coal, earthenware, cot- 
tons, and colonial produce from England. 

The harbour is formed, as already stated, by the 
channel or arm of the sea running between Zea- 
land and the opposite island of Amak. The 
entrance to it is nanrow ; but the water is suffi- 
ciently deep to admit the hugest men-of-war. 
There are dry docks, and every facility for the 
building and repairing of shipal Copenhagen is 
the station of the Danish jiavy. 'Die bank of 
Copenhagen, founded in 1786, was remodelled in 
1818 : it IS now a private institution. The charge 
of the public health is entrusted to a commission. 
The police is under a special establishment ; and 
besides the garrison, the citizens are formed into a 
national guard. 

Copenhagen is not a very ancient city, having 
been founded in 1168. It has at different periods 
suffered severely from fires, particularly in 1728, 
1794 and 1795 ; but how disastrous soever at the 
time, these visitations were in the end advan- 
tageous, the narrow streets and wooden houses 
of which the town formerly consisted having been 
replaced by broad streets and handsome stone 
btuldings. Besides the loss of her fleet Copen- 
hagen suffered severely from the bombardment 
by the English in 1807, and by an inundation in 
1824. But she has fortunat^y recovered from 
both these disasters, and by her literary and other 
establishments has placed herself at the head of 
civilisation in the north of Europe. 

The environs of Copenhagen are celebrated for 
their beauty. Fredencksbeig, a magnificent cas- 
tle, the summer residence of the king, stands on 
a rising ground within a moderate distance of the 
city. Its gardens are open to the public, and are 
a favourite resort. Fredericksboig, another royal 
residence, is situated about 21 m. N. Copenhagen* 
It is a vast, but incongruous pile, partly brick and 
partly stone, and partly of Greek and partly of 
Gothic arehitecture. It has some fine pictures 
and a series of portraits (partly imaginary) of the 
sovereigns of Denmark. 

COFl APO, the most N. town of Chili, formerly 
the cap. of tiie prov. of same name, now inoor- 



poratcd with that of Coquimbo. It stands on 
the right bank of the rivulet of Opiapo, 80 m. 
from the Pacific, and 178 m. NNK Coquimbo; 
lat 270 10' S., long. 710 6' 16" W. Pop. estimated 
at 3,000. The town is connected by railway with 
Caldera. Most of the houses are built of sun- 
dried bricks whitewashed; and, the better to 
. resist earthquakes, used to be constructed with 
great solidity; but in 1819 it was destroyed by 
the earthquake that caused such devastation 
throughout a great part of Chili. In 1822 it 
suffered severely from another earthquake. The 
harbour of Copiapo on the Pacific is good ; and 
at a small village on the shore most of the ore 
from (he mines of the prov. is smelted, and the 
metal is exported. 

COQUIMBO, or LA SERENA, a sea-port 
town of Chili, in the N. part of the republic, cap. 
of the proT. of same name, on the Chuapa, near 
its mouth; 270 m. NXW. Santiago; lat. 29° 53' 
43" S., long. 71° 18' 40" W. Estimated pop. 7,000. 
The town is clean, and tolerably well laid out ; 
streets intersect each other at right angles ; houses 
mostly of sun-dried bricks, and only one story 
in height, but interspersed with numerous gardens 
of fruit-trees and eveigreens. It has several 
churches and convents, a public school, and a 
hospital. It is the seat of the intendent of the 
prov., and is the residence of many families, and 
in some sort the cap. of N. Chili, as well as the 
chief mercantile port The exports amounted to 
8,201.266 dollars in 1863, and to 4,898,870 dollars 
in 1864 ; the imports to 818,356 dollars in 1863, 
and to 678,041 dollars in 1864. (Report by Mr. 
Consul Tait, dated March 18, 1865.) The harbour 
or bay of Coquimbo is large, well-sheltered, and 
secure at all seasons, lliere is sufficient depth of 
water for ships of large burden, 9 fathoms being 
found 300 yards off shore, and nearly 8 fathoms 
close in shore. A railway connecting Coquimbo 
and Serena with Las Cardas and the mines in the 
interior was opened on 26th April, 1862. The 
line was entirely constructed and is worked by 
Englishmen. Coquimbo was founded by Yaldivia 
in 1544. About 25 m. up the valley of Coquimbo 
are some singular paralld roads, of which Captun 
Hall has given an account. 

CORDOVA (an. Cbrduba and Cotonia Patricia), 
a famous city of Spain, cap. prov. and kingdom of 
the same name in Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir, 
73 m. NE. SeviUe, and 185 m. SSW. Madrid, on 
the railway from Madrid to Seville and Cadiz. 
Pop. 42,909 in 1857. The city occupies a large 
oblong space of sloping ground, enclosed by walls 
flanked with towers originally erected oy the 
Romans, and afterwards, repaired, strengthened, 
and extended by the Moors. But a great part of 
this space is now covered with gardens and ruined 
buildings, and but little remains of its ancient 
grandeur. Streets narrow, crooked, and dirty; 
and a few either of the public or private buildings 
are conspicuous for their architecture ; the latter 
seldom exceed two stories in height. The great 
square, Plaza Real, or de la CbfutchcfKm, is, how- 
ever, large and regular ; the houses surrounding 
it are lofty, and furnished with porticoes and 
balconies. There is a suburb of some extent on 
the S. bank of the river, with which the city 
communicates by means of a stone bridge of 16 
irregular arches, 860 ft. in length, and 23 ft. in 
width, constructed by the Moors towards the 
close of the 8th century, and the approach to 
which is guarded by an old Saracenic castle, still 
maintained in a state of defence. The city con- 
tains a cathedral, 13 parish churches, about 40 
convents, 7 hospitals, a foundling and another 
asylum city-hall, bishop's palace, 3 colleges, be- 


sides other schools. By far the moat remaikAble 
public edifice is the cathedral or mezqtdta, formerly 
a mosque, built by the Moors at the latter end of 
the 8th century upon the ruins of a Gothic chnich, 
which is itself beheved to have replaced a Roman 
temple. Both of these edifioea haye apparently 
furnished many pillars and other matoiala for 
the present building. The mezquita externally is 
unprepossessing, and little calculated to tMnet 
notice ; but the singularity of its interior strikes 
every one with astonishment. It is a gloomy 
labyrinth of pillars, 356 ft. in length N. to S., by 
394 ft broad E. to W., and lighted only by the 
few doom that remain open, and some small 
cupolas in different parts of the roof, which latter 
is fiat, and only 35 n. above the pavement; being 
supported in most places by a kind of double 
arcade of horse-shoe arches. The colamns sap- 
porting these arches, and which amount to sevenl 
hundreds, are of jasper, marble, porphyry, granite, 
verd-antique, and various other materuus, and 
differ as much in their architectural as in their 
geological character. They are aU, however, of 
the same height; ' for the Arabs, having taken them 
from Roman buildings, served them in the same 
manner that Procrustes did his guests: to the 
short ones they clapped on monstrous capitals 
and thick bases; those that were too long fw 
their purpose had their base chopped off and a 
diminutive shallow bonnet placed on their head.' 
(Swinburne's Travds, iL 89.) The number of 
aisles or naves is lengthwise 19, and tnmayersely 
from 82 to 85. A considerable space at the a. 
end was parted off for the use of tne /moiu, and 
now serves for the chapter-house, sacristy, and 
treasni^'^ of the cathedral. In the firont of this 
space u what is called the xanoamm, an octagon 
Moorish sanctuary, 15 ft in diameter, richly 
ornamented without and within, and domed over 
by a tittffle block of vcHnic marble, carved into the 
form of a scallop-sheU. Adjoining thia^ in 1815, 
another small apartment was brought to light, 
preserving, in a remarkable degree, its pristine 
decorations. The goi^eousness of this little 
chamber vriU perhaps give an idea of that of the 
building generally in uie time of the Moors; for 
the splendour of almost all the rest of the mez^iate 
has entirely disappeared; the gilding and orna- 
ments of the roof, the arabesques and inscriptions 
on the walls, and the mosaics of the pavement, 
have nearly all vanbhed; and of the 24 gates, 
formerly plated with brass, and curioosly embossed, 
only 5 remain open. The sacristy contains some 
tolerable paintings, and the church is very rich 
in jewels, plate, and silks. The mexqtdia stands 
within a court planted with orange-trees, palms, 
and cypresses, and surrounded with a cloister, on 
the N^. side of which a square belfry has been built. 
The bishop's palace is a huge and rather hand- 
some building, containing a suite of state apart- 
ments, in one of which there is a laige collection 
of portraits of the bishops of Cordova. Previously 
to the late civil war, 2,000 poor persons were daily 
supplied with food fh>m the bishop's kitchen, 
which mistaken bounty aooonnta sufficiently for 
the swarms of beggars wiUi which the town in 
infested, llie famous palace of the Moori^ 
sovereigns is now unoccupied; it had been con- 
verted into a royal stud-house, where the be«t 
horses in Spain were reared : the stables are now 
empty. The manufactures have participated in 
the general decay of the place ; there are at present 
only some trifling fabncs of ribands, laoe, hats, 
baize, and leather after the Moorish fashion : the 
latter article was formerly very extensively 
manufactured; and was known in oommerce by 
the name of cordovanj and from it the teim 


coidwainer bas been derived. In ld38, a hand- 
e*ome quMj wm erected above tbe brid^ but 
a» tfaeire ia bot little tzade, and tbe nver is 
for 9 moDtha in tbe year navigable only for 
bcata, the quay would' seem, like many other 
public wofka in Spain, to be more for show than 

Cotdova ifl aaid by Stiabo to have been founded 
by the Romane under MaicelluB; but af there 
-were aevcrel distinguished persons of that name, 
this leavea the epoch of ito foundation uncertain. 
No mention is made of it before the age of Cceaar 
and Pompey, but it soon after attained to great 
distinction as a rich and populous city, and a 
seat of learning. (CeUarii, Not. Orbis Antiqui, 
L (^) In 672 it was taken by tbe Goths, 
and in 692 by the Moors, under whom it be- 
came the splendid cap. of the * Caliphate of the 
West,* and subsequently of the kingdom of Cor- 
dova. , In 1286, however, it was taken andalmoet 
wholly destroyed bv the impolitic zeal of Fer- 
dinand III. of Castile, and has never since reco- 
vered its previous prosperity. Cordova has given 
birth to some illustrious mei^ among whom may be 
apecified the two Senecas, Lucan the poet, and the 
ftnuNis Arabic physicians, Avioenna and Aver- 

CoBDOVA, an inL town of Mexico, state Vera 
Omz, at the £. foot of the volcano of Orizaba, and on 
one of the roads between Yen Cruz and La Puebla; 
^>m. SW. the former, and 72 m. £S£. the latter city. 
Estimated pop. 6,000. Streets wide, regular, and 
well paved ; houses built mostlv of stone. In the 
centre of the town there is a laige sc|uaie, three 
•idea of which are ornamented with Gothic 
arcades; the fourth is occupied by the principal 
church, an elegant structure, richly decorated 
within. Cordova contains two convents, each 
with a hospital attached; many of its edifices 
have domo, towers, or steeples. Cotton and 
woollen labncs and leather are made here; and 
there are besides numerous distilleries, sngar- 
miila, and bee-hive farms ; but the principal em- 
ployment of the inhab. is the culture of tobacco 
and coffee. The vicinity is extremely fertile, 
and abounds in fruits, timber, game, and fish. 

COKEA (called by the natives, Cham-Seen, by 
the Chinese, KeatmUe^ and by the Manchoo Tar- 
tar* Sol-ko), a merit, country of N£. Asia, tribu- 
tary to China, consisting ci a laige oblong-shaped 
fieninsula, with an adjoining portion of the con- 
tinent, and a vast number of islands, which are 
especially numerous <mi the W. coast. The whole 
of the dominions lie between Ut. 8d<' and 43^ N., 
and long. 1280 fiO' and 1290 SV £.; having £. the 
Sea of Japan; S. the Struts of Corea; W. the 
Yellow Sea and Gulf of Leao-tong ; NW. the 
jnw. Leao-tong; and N. Manchoo Tartaiy. From 
the latter it is separated by a mountain chain, and 
the Thn-men-Kiang river, and from Leao-tong 
moatly by a wooden wall or palisade. Length, 
NW. to SE., 560 m. ; average breadth of the pe- 
ninsula, about 180 m. Total area, inclusive of 
inlands, probably about 80,000 sq. m. Corea is 
generally mountainous. A mountain range runs 
throujph it longitudinally, much nearer its £. than 
its ^A . coast. The £. declivity of this range is 
steep and rugged ; its W. one declines gradually 
into a fertile and well-watered country. All the 
principal rivers run W., and discharge themselves 
mto tne Yellow Sea ; the chief is the Ya-lu-kiang 
in the KW., which is navigable for lazge ships to 
about 22 m., and for small vessels for a distance of 
nearly 1 20 m. above its month. The coasts, as well 
of the islands as of the continent, are generally 
nxrky and difficult of access; though there are 
aume spacious and secure hazboun. The climbte 



of the K. is very rigorous ; the Thu-men-kiang, for 
six months in we year, is thickly frozen over, and 
barley is the only kind of com capable of being 
cultivated in that region ; even the S., though in 
the same lat. with SCcily and Malta, is said to ex- 
perience sometimes very heavy falls of snow. The 
climate of this part of Corea, however, must be on 
the whole mild, since cotton, rice, and hemp are 
staple products ; and GutzlalT conjectures (Voy- 
ages, ACfp, 319), that many other plants, common 
to the S. of Europe, flounsh. GutslafT observes, 
* In point of vegetation, the coast of Corea is far 
superior to that of China, where barren rocks often 
preclude any attempt at cultivation; but here, 
where the land is feitile, the inhab. do not plough 
the ground.' (p. 887.) Agriculture may be 
better farther inland, but on the coast it is much 
neglected : wheat, millet, and ginseng are amongst 
the chief articles cultivated. Tobacco was intro- 
duced by the Japanese about the beginning of the 
17th century, and potatoes, h^ GutzlafT and 
Lindsay, in 1882. Tne orange, citron, hazle-nut, 
pear, chesnut, peach, mulberry, Monu papyriferoj 
Fuetu §ac«karimu, and the wild grape, are conmion ; 
but the art of making wine from the latter seems 
to be unknown. An ardent liquor is, however, 
made from rice. The mountainous parts of the N. 
are covered with extensive forests : pines are very 
abundant on the coasts ; and in the interior there 
is a species of palm producing a valuable gum, 
from which a varnish, giving an appearance uttle 
inferior to gilding, is made. Oxen, hogs, and 
other domestic animals common to Europe are 
reared : there is a spirited breed of dwarf horses not 
exceeding 8 ft. in height; panthers, bears, wild 
boars, cats, and dogs, sables (whose skins form an 
important article of tribute), deer, and an abun- 
dance ofgame, storks, and water-fowl of many sorts, 
are found ; caymans of 30 or 40 ft. in length are 
said to be met with in the rivers, and venomous 
serpents are not rare. In the vrinter, whales, seals, 
drc. visit the shores. The mineral kingdom pro- 
duces gold, silver, iron, rock salt, and coaL 

Fetiple. — The pop. has been estimated at 
15,000,000, but there are no real grounds for this 
estimate, which, we have little doubt, is greatly 
beyond tbe mark. GutzlafT represents the coasts 
as thinly inhabited. We have elsewhere stated 
that the Coreans are superior in strength and 
stature to the Chinese and Japanese, but that they 
are inferior to either in mental energy and ca- 
pacity. (See Asia.) They are gross in their 
habits, eat voraciously, and drink to excess. The 
dress of both men and women is very similar to 
that of the Chinese, though the Coreans do not, 
like that people, cut off their hair. Tteir houses 
are also like those of China, being built of bricks 
in the towns, and in the country are mere mud 
hovels; each house is surrounded by a wooden 
stockade. Their language or languages are pecu- 
liar, differing from those of their immediate neigh- 
bours. Ic writing they use alphabetic characters, 
though the symbolic characters of the Chinese are 
also understood and sometimes resorted to. They 
have a copious literature, and are very fond of 
reading, as well as of music, dancing, and fes- 
tivities. Polygamy is permitted, but the women 
do not appear to be under such restraint as in 
China. ^M'Leod.) The reli^on of the upper 
orders is tnat of Confucius, while the mass of^the 
people are attached to Buddhism ; but neither ap- 
pears to have m uch influence. Christianity, which 
was introduced by the Japanese, appeared to be 
extinct when Gutzlaff visited Corea m 1832. 

Manmfacturt* and Trade, — ^The manufactures 
are few : the principal are a kind of grass-cloth, 
straw-plait, horse-hair caps, and other articles for 

I 2 



domestic use : a veiy fine and transparent fabric 
MToven from filaments of the Urhca japamca^ 
cotton cloth, and a very strong kind of paper made 
of cotton I and rice-paper ; which articles, together 
with p;inseng, skins, some metals, horses, and silk, 
constitute the chief exports. What trade there is, 
is principally with Japan, from which they import 
pepper, aromatic woods, alam, buffaloes , goats', 
and bucks' horns, and Dutch and Japanese manu- 
factured goods. There is, however, some trade 
with China carried on at Fungwang-ching (the 
FhaniX'town)j beyond the Leao-tong border ; but 
this trade is conducted with great secrecy, in con- 
sequence of the jealousy of the government of any 
intercourse with forei^ers. This jealousy is so 
great, that no Chinese is allowed to settle in Corea, 
nor any Corean to leave his own country ; Euro- 
peans are scarcely ever safiered to land, or remain 
any length of time on the coast ; and the N. fron- 
tier is abandoned for manv miles, in order that no 
communication should take place with the Man- 
choo Tnrtais. Little skill in ship-building is dis- 
played by the Coreans ; their junks do not carty 
more than 200 tons, and are quite unmanageable 
in a heavy sea. In the construction of their 
fishing-boats not a nail is used. Metallic articles 
and money are rare. The only coin in circulation 
is of copper, but payment is often made in silver 

Corea is divided into 8 provs. King-hi-tao, the 
cap., is placed on the Kiang river, in about 37^ 40' 
N. lat, and 127° 20' £. long., or about the centre 
of the kingd. The gov. is said 'to be despotical : 
most of the landed property in Uie country belongs 
to the king, of whom it is held in different portions 
as fiefs, which revert to the sovereign at the de- 
cease of the occupier. Besides the revenues from 
these domains, a tenth part of all kind of produce 
belongs to the king. Justice is in many respects 
very rigid. KebeUion, as in China, is punished by 
the destruction of the rebel with his entire family, 
and the confiscation of their property. None but 
the king may order the death of an official person : 
the master has always power over the life of his 
slave. For miubr crimes Uie general punishment 
is the bastinado, which is pretty constantly at 
work. The Chinese interfere but little with the 
internal administration of Corea ; but the king 
can neither assume the government, nor choose 
his successor or colleague, without the authority 
of the court of Pekin, to which he sends tribute 
four times a year : the tribute consists of ginseng- 
root, sable-sliins, white cotton paper, silk, horHes, 
and silver ingots. The Corean ambassador is 
treated at Pekin with but little consideration. There 
seems reason to believe, that, like some other states 
in Asia, Corea is tributary to the more powerful 
nations on either side, and that it also sends a 

? -early tribute to Japan, consisting of ginseng, 
eopaids, drins, silks, white cotton fabrics, and 
horses ; but for which an acknowledgment is made 
in gold articles, fans, tea, and presents of silver to 
the ambassadors 

Higtory, — Corea was known to the Chinese from 
a very early period, and is reported to have been 
civilised by tne Chinese sovereign Khil-su, about 
1,120 years before our sera. After experiencing 
several revolutions, it was invaded and conquered 
by the Japanese in 1692, who, however, abandoned 
their conquest in 1698. 'The Coreans having called 
in the aid of China during that struggle, Corea 
has since formed a subordinate part of tne Chinese 

CORELLA, a dty of Spain, prov. Navarre, in a 
fertile plain on the Alama, 13 m. W. Tudela, 12 m. 
SE. Calahorra. Pop. 6,023 in 1867. The town 
has two churches, 4 convents, a hospital, and some 


remains of an ancient castle. The inhabitants are 
employed in the extraction of liquorice and madder 
juice, and in the manufacture of brandy, oil, and 

CORFE-CASTLE, a market town and bor. of 
England, co. Dorset, Blandford div., hnnd. Haislor, 
in the Isle of Purbeck, 32 m. SSW. Salisbury. 
Pop of par. 1,901 in 1861. The town is most pro- 
bably indebted for its origin to its castle, on a steep 
rocky hill, a little to the N., formerly a place of 
considerable strength. But its importance, in 
more modem times, was owing to its having en- 
joyed the privilege of returning two mems. to the 
H. of C. from the 14th of Elizabeth down to the 
passing of the Reform Act, by which it was dis- 
franchised. The inhab. are mostly employed in 
the neighbotuing clay-works and quarries. 

CORFU (an. Corcyrd), an island in the Medi- 
terranean, forming (since 1864) part of the kingdom 
of Greece, and the most important, though not the 
largest, of the Ionian Islands. It lies between lat. 
390 20' and 39o 60' N., and long. 19° 36' and 200 g' 
£. ; off the S. part of the coast of Albania, from 
which it is separated by a channel only 3-5ths of 
a m. wide at ita N. extremity, 6 m. at its S. ex- 
tremity, and 16 m. in the centre. The shape of 
Corfu is elongated ; the island describes a curve, 
the convexity of which is towards the W. ; length 
N W. to SE. 41 m. ; breadth greatest in the N., 
where it is 20 m. ; but it gradiuilly tapers towards 
its S. extremity. Area, 227 sq. m. Pop. 69,414 
in 1860, including 6,766 aliens and strangexs. The 
native pop., in 1860, was composed of 33,620 males 
and 30,129 females— a rather remarkable prepon- 
derance of the male sex, particularly in a seafaring 
population. Suriince hilly, particularly in the N W., 
where the peak of St Sfdvador rises ^,979 ft. above 
the level or the sea. The streams watering it are 
few and small, and mostly dried up in summer. 
Chmate mild ; the mean maximum temp, in the 
open air for Ihe five years ending December, 1838, 
was about 88<^ Fahr. ; and the average minimum 
31^ Fahr. ; but Coifu is subject to sudden transi- 
tions from heat to cold, owing, amongst other 
causes, to the proximity of the snowy mountains 
of Epirus. Earthquakes also are frequent, llie 
more elevated lands are rugged and barren, but 
the plains and valleys are fertile, and prodnctive 
of wneat, maize, oats, olive-oU, wine, cotton, flax, 
and pulse. Corfu yields no rurranta Oil is the 
great staple of this isL, which has, in fact, the ap- 
pearance of a continuous olive wood, a consequence 
partly of the extraordinary encouragement for^ 
merly given to the culture of the plant by the 
Venetians. There is an oil harvest every year, bat 
the great crop is properly biennial, the trees being 
sufiered to repose for a year. Next to oil, salt, 
obtained from saltpans alon^ the shores, oranges, 
citrons, and other fruits, besides honey and wax, 
are the other chief articles produced. Corfu is 
divided into 6 cantons ; it sends 12 mema. to the 
l^pslative assembly of Greece. Corfu, the cap., is 
the only town worthy of mention ; the rest are 
mere villages. 

The ciiy and port of Corfu lie on the £. side of 
the island, on the channel between it and the 
opposite coast, which is here about 6 m. wide ; lau 
89^ 37' 39" N., lon^. 19«> 66' 84" E. It consists 
of the town and citadel, both fortified ; and has 
several suburbs, one of which is supposed to occupy 
the site of the ancient city of Curv^m, founded hy 
the Corinthians about the same time with Syra- 
cuse. The citadel, separated from the town by 
wet ditches and outworks, and an esplanade, is 
built upon a rocky cape projecting into the sea, 
and contains the barracks, arsenal, military hoi^ 
pital, the former residence of the Bridah knd high 


cnrnmiwHOiwr, dow the seat of the Greek ^vem- 
ment, and a lighthoiue erected upon a point 283 
A. aboTe the level of the sea. The town has three 
sataa towards the sea, and one on the land side. 
It is not well built ; streets narrow and irregular, 
and booses mostly small and ill-contrived. Corfu 
is strengthened bv two other fortresses besides its 
citadel— Fort Neof and Yido. The latter is built 
on a small island of the same name (an. Ffycha)^ 
nearly 1 m. N. from the city, and has had much 
paina and (British) expense bestowed on its im- 
pfDTcmenL Corfu contains a cathedral, and several 
<k«ek and Roman Catholic churches and chapels, 
M nnivenity, gymnasium, ecclesiastical seminary, 
and aererai pnmaiy schools. Around it there are 
some pleasant walks, interesting from classical 
associations; the esplanade is well planted ¥rith 
trees, and forms an agreeable promenade. The 
town is well supplied with water, which is con- 
veyed by means of iron pipes from Benizza, a dis- 
tance of 7 m. Roads have been made from Corfu 
to most of the principal towns and villages in the 
island. The harbour between the island of Yido 
and the city is safe and commodious, and vessels 
anchor in from 12 to 1 7 fathoms water. The cana/, 
or channel ci Corfu, is a little difficult of naviga- 
tion, bnt has deep water throughout; there is a 
Ughthoose on the rock of Tignoso at its N. entrance, 
and a floating light is moored off the point of 
T if srhimo near its S. extremity. The city of Corfu 
is the seat of the supreme court of justice, the chief 
special ooorts for the island, and <» a Gredk areh- 
bafaop. In 1 716 it was unsuccessfully besieged b^ 
the Turks, and did not fall into their hands until 
the end of last century. 

Corfu is the chief seat of the external trade of 
the Ionian Islands. The roads in it are good, 
having been greatly improved since it has been 
under British protection. Most of the inhab. 
beloag to the Greek church. It is believed to be 
the ooontry of Plueacia, or Scheria, mentioned by 
Homer, on which Ulysses was wrecked, and after- 
wards hospitably entertained by King Aldnons. 
It became afterwards a celebrated colony and naval 
Bta t iop of the Corinthians, and a quarrel between 
it and the mother country led to the Peloponnesian 
war; It was also an important naval station under 
the Romans. It belonged successively to the 
Eaatetn Empire, the Normans, and Yenetians, and 
shared the late of the Yenetian republic in 1799. 
The island, with the rest of the Ionian republic, 
was placed under the protectorate of Great Britain 
by the oonaress of Yienna, but ceded to Greece in 
1864. A Greek garrison arrived at Corfu, and 
took poascssion on the 28th of May, 1864. 

COBINGA (Cara9Ufa)j a considerable sea-port 
town €ff Hindostan, prov. N. Circan, distr. Kaiah- 
mundry, and 83 m. 8£. that town ; lat. le^^ 4Qr N., 
lon^. iS2^ 44' E. Excepting Blackwood's Harbour, 
Coffinga Bay contains the only smooth water to be 
foond on the W. side of the Bay of Bengal, during 
the SW. monsoon. A wet dock has bc«n formed, 
and many small vessels are annually built here. 
In 1784, a remarkable inundation of the sea took 
place, destroying much property and many inha- 

CORINTH (K6iHv99t), a famous city of Greece 
within the Morea (an. Fekqi)oimutu)f near the 
iftthmus of the same name, between the gulft of 
Lepanto (Cbrml/UocM Smut) on the W., and of 
Egma {SanmiaiM Shnu) on the £., 7 m. from the 
nearest point of the latter, and 2 m. from the 
nearest point of the former; lat. S7^ 63' 87" N., 
long. 22<}52'5''£. Pop. 2,150 in 1860. The town 
is situated at the N. foot of a steep rock, 1,386 ft. 
in height, the AcrooorinUnu or AcropoUa of Corinth, 
the summit of whidi is now, as in antiquity, occu- 



pied by a fortress. The present town, though 
thinly peopled, is of considerable extent, the houses 
being plac^ wide apart, and much space occupied 
with wardens. The only Grecian ruin at present 
to be found in Corinth is a Doric temple, with bnt 
a few columns standing. There are some shape- 
less and uninteresting Roman remains, supposed 
to have been baths ; but there is nothing approach- 
ing to a well-defined building, and we may ex- 
djum with the poet, — 

' Where is thy grandenr, Corinih ? shrank from sight. 
Thy ancient treunreSf and thy rampart's height ; 
Thy god-like fanes and palaces I — Oh, where 
Thy mighty myriads and majestic fahr I 
BelentlesB war has pomr'd around thy wall, 
And hardly spared the traces of thy fall I ' 

The situation of Corinth is extremely advan- 
tageous, being placed on a narrow isthmus between 
the seas that wash the £. and W. shores of Greece, 
she could hardly fail to become an important em- 
porium ; while the Acrocorinthus, if properlv for- 
tified, would be all but impregnable, and the 
possession of the isthmus would enable her to 
command all access by land between the two great 
divisions of Greece. No wonder, therefore, that 
Corinth was early distinguish^l by the wealth, 
commerce, luxury^ and re&iement of her citizens. 
In the earlier ages of antiquity, the attempt to sail 
round the Peloponnesus, or to double Cape Malea, 
was regarded as an undertaking of the greatest 
hazard ; and to obviate this danger, the usual prac- 
tice was to land goods, coming from the W. shores 
of Greece, Italy, and Sicily, destined for the £., 
at the harbour of J^eduntm O^t nearest point to 
Corinth), on the Corinthian Uulf, and to convej 
them across the isthmus to Cenchrettjon the Saronic 
Gulf, where they were again shipped for their final 
destination. The products or the £. coasts of 
Greece, Asia Minor, and the Black Sea, destined 
for the W. parts of Greece, Italy, Ac., were con- 
veyed through the Corinthian territory in an oppo- 
site direction ; so that the city early became the 
seat of perhaps the most important transit trade 
carried on in antiquitv. In addition to this, Co- 
rinth at an early period founded Corcyra, Syracuse, 
and other important colonies ; established within 
her walls various manufactures, particularly of 
brass and earthenware; had numerous fleets, both 
of ships of war and merchantmen ; and was the 
centre of an active commerce that extended to the 
Black Sea, Asia Minor, Phcenicia, Egypt, Sicily, 
and Italy. In the magnificence of her public 
buildings, and the splendour of the duft-ttceuvre 
of statuary and pamting by which they were 
adorned, she was second only to Athens. The 
opulence, of which she was the centre, made her a 
&vottrite seat of pleasure and dissipation, as well 
as of trade and industry. Yenus was her principal 
deity, and the temple and statue of the goddess 
were prominent objects in the Acropolis. Lais, the 
most famous of the priestesses of Yenus, though 
of Sicilian origin, selected Corinth as her favourite 
residence ; and so highly was she esteemed, that a 
magnificent tomb (described by Pausanias) was 
erected over her remains, and medals struck in 
commemoration of her beauty ! In consequence, 
Corinth became not only one of the most luxurious, 
but also one of the most expensive places of anti- 
quity, which gave rise to the proverb — 

* Kon cnhris homini contingit adire Corinthom/ 

Hor., Bplst. i. 17 36. 

The Acropolis is one of the most striking objects 
in Greece. It has some famous springs, and is in 
most parts precipitous. Livy calls it, *Arx inter 
amma in immanem altitudinem ettiUt^ aoaten$ fonti^ 



bus ' (lib. 45, § 28) ; and Statius says, that it throws 
ita shadow over both seas — 

' qua suznmas caput Acrooorinthos in auras 

Tollit, et altema geminum mare protegit umbra.' 

Theb., Ub. 7. Un. 106. 

If properly fortified, it would render aU access to 
the Morea by land impracticable ; and as a for- 
tress, it might be rendered not less secure than 
Gibraltar. (Clarke, vi 568, 8vo. ed.) It is, in 
fact, one of the keys of Greece ; and was, there- 
fore, aptl^^ said by the oracle to be one of the 
horns which a conqueror should lay hold of to 
secure that valuable heifer the Peloponnesus. The 
view from its summit is one of the most extensive, 
and at the same time richest in classical associa- 
tions, of any in Greece. Athens is seen in the 
distance ; and the eye wanders over six of the 
most celebrated of the Grecian states, — Attica, 
Achala, Boeotia, Locris, Phocis, and Aisolii. 

The government of Corinth, like that of the 
other Grecian states, was oriffinallj monarchical. 
It then became subject to the oligarchy of the 
Bacchids, and was a^ain, after a period olf ninety 
years, subjected to kings or t3rrants. Periander, 
the early part of whose rei^ was that of a Titus, 
and the latter of a Tiberius, was the last of its 
sovereigns. At his death the Corinthians estab- 
lished a republican form of government, inclining, 
however, more to aristocracy or oligarchy than 
democracy. It seems to have been Judiciously 
devised ; and the public tranquillity was less dis- 
turbed in Corinth than in most Grecian states. 

When the Achaeans became involved in a war 
with Rome, Corinth was one of their principal 
strongholds. Though the Roman senate had re- 
solved u[>on the destruction of the city, Metellus 
was anxious to avert the catastrophe; but his 
offers to bring about a reconciliation, which might 
have saved Corinth, were contemptuously rejected, 
and his deputies thrown into prison. The Co- 
rinthians suffered severely for thid inconsiderate 
conduct. The consul Mummius, ha\'ing super- 
seded Metellus, appeared before Corinth with a 
powerful army ; and after defeating the Achaeans, 
entered the city, which had been left without any 
garrison, and was deserted by the greater number 
of its inhabitants. It was first sacked, and then 
set on fire; and it is said that the accidental 
mixture of the gold, silver, and copper, melted on 
this occasion, furnished the first specimens of the 
Corinthian brass, so much esteemed in subsequent 
ages ! Not satisfied with the total destruction of 
the city, the natives of Corinth who had escaped 
were carefully hunted out and sold as slaves, their 
lands being at the same time disposed of to 
strangers, mostly to the Sicyonians. The de- 
struction of Corinth took place anno 146 b.c. ; and 
it is worthy of remark that this also was the epoch 
of the destruction of Carthage, both these great 
cities having been sacrificed nearly at the same 
moment to the insatiable rapacity and ambition 
of Rome. According to Strabo. the finest works 
of art which adorned Rome in his time had been 
brought from Corinth ; but it seems pretty clear 
that many, if not the greater number, of these 
masterpieces had b^n destroyed. Polybius, who 
was present at the destruction of the city, had the 
mortification to see the Roman soldiers playing at 
dice on a picture of Aristides, a contemporary of 
Apelles, for which Attalus king of Pergamus sub- 
sequently offered 600,000 sesterces, or ahout 5,000/1 
of our money. (Strabo, lib. viii. ; Plin. Hist. Nat., 
lib. 35, cap. 4, ac) We need not, indeed, be much 
surprised that the soldiers should have made use 
of such a dice-board, when we find the consul 
himself assuring the maeteis of the Yessels se- 


lected to convey the pictures and statues to Rome, 
that if any of them were lost or injured, he should 
compel them to supply others in their stead 
at their own cost! (Velleiiis Patenmloa, lib. L 
cap. 13.) 

Corinth remained in the minons state to which 
it had been reduced by Mummius, till a colony 
was sent thither by Julius Caesar. Under its new 
masters it once more became a considerable city, 
as is evident from the account ^ven of it by 
Pausanias (lib. ii.), and is much distinguished iii 
the gospel history. After being sacked by Alaric, 
it came, on the fall of the Eastern empire, into the 
possession of the Venetians. The Turiis took it 
from the latter in 1458 ; the Venetians, however, 
retook it in 1687, but lost it again to the Turks in 
1715. It is now a principal place in the monarchy 
of Argolis and Connth, kingdom of Greece. ^ For 
some time after the establisnmoit of Greek inde- 
pendence, tiie city prospered, but it was almost 
entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 1858. 

rowest, about 6 m. £. from Corintii, this celebrated 
isthmus is about 5 m. across. The advantages 
that would result to Corinth, and to the commerce 
of Greece, b^ cutting a canal or navigable channel 
throug:h this isthmus, were perceived at a very 
early period ; and attempta to accomplish so bene- 
ficial a work were made by Periander, Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, Julius Ca»ar, and other Roman em- 
perors: all of them, however, proved abortive^ 
though parts of the excavations are still viaibie. 
This want of success has been variously accounted 
for; but we incline to think that it was wholly 
owing to the difficulty of the ground. The isthmus 
is high and rocky ; and at a period when the con- 
struction of locks was unknown, the canal must 
either have been excavated to the required level, 
or been partly excavated and partly tunnelled, 
either of which operations would have been all 
but impracticable. As the next best resource, 
ships were drawn by means of machinery from 
one sea to another ; but it is clear that none but 
the smaller class of vessels could be so conveyed. 

The isthmus has been repeatedly forUfied. 
The first instance of this of which w« have any 
certain accounts took place on the invasion of 
Greece by Xerxes. It was afterwards fortified 
by the Spartans and Athenians in the time of 
^paminondas. During the dechne of the Eastern 
empire, the defence of the Peloponnesus princi- 
pally depended on this bulwark, whica was 
strengthened and renovated under Justinian. It 
was restored for the last time by the Venetians 
in 1696. (See Dodwell's Greece, ii. 185, and the 
authorities there quoted.) 

The Isthmus of Corinth was also famous in 
antiquity for the games celebrated there, every 
fifth year, in honour of Neptune and of Palemon 
or Melioertes, with the utmost splendour and mag- 
nificence. They continued in vogue after tl)e 
Olympian and other public £[ame8 had fallen 
into disuse. After the destruction of Corinth the 
Romans committed the suporintendenoe of the 
Isthmian games to the Sicyonians; but on itd 
restoration by Julius Ciesar, Corinth recovered it« 
ancient presidency. Dr. Clarke discovered at the 
port of Schcsnos, on the £. side of the isthmus, 
the remains of the temple of N^tune, the theatre, 
stadium, and other public buildings, described by 
Pausanias as connected with the Isthmian so- 

CORK, a marit co. of Ireland, proy. Munster, 
in the SW. part of the island, having S. St. 
Geoi]^'s Channel, E. Waterford and Tipperaiy, 
N. Limerick, and W. Kerry and the Atlantic 
Ocean. It is the moat extensiye of all the Irish 



eofl^ eootamiog 1,769|063 imp. acres, of which 
about one-third ue unimproved moantain and 
bqg^ It haa ereiy Taiiety of suxfaoe and soil ; in 
the W. it ia rugged and mountainoos, but the N. 
and £. diatricto an distinguished by their rich- 
neaa and fertility. There is a great deiicien<^ 
of timbtf, otherwise the country would be emi- 
nently beaatifoL Climate extremely mild, but 
moia£. Propcvtjr principally in very large estates. 
Tllljige fiuma for the most part small; those of 
laiiper stxe are frequently held in partnership, or 
have been divided amongst the family of the 
occupant. Where such practices prevail, agri- 
culture caimot be otherwise than in a very back- 
ward state. Potatoes engross a great part of the 
attention and labour of the smaller class, of occu- 
paen ; and after them the ground used .to be sub- 
jected to a series of com crops, as long as it was 
capable of bearing any thing. But ax| improved 
iiTBtem has been inta)duoed of late years on 
MTcnd large estates; and better implements and 
breeds of cattle axe now generally met with. Oats 
ia the principal com crop, but wheat is also ex- 
tensively produced. There are extensive dairies 
in the vidnitj of Cork and in other dis^cts ; and 
the exports of com, flour, provisions, and other 
articles of agricultuiml produce from Cork, are very 
extensive. The aversge value of land, per 100 
acres, was 108^ in 1841 ; 1S2L in 1861; and 1652. 
in 1861. (Census of Ireland, part v. 1864.) Dif- 
ferent branches of the linen manufacture have 
been established at Cork and other towns, and 
there are some large distilleries. The coast of 
Cork ia deeply indented by the sea, and has some 
of the finest bays and harbours in the world, 
anacMig which Bantiy Bay and Cork Harbour 
are pie-eminenL Principu rivers, Lee, Bandon, 
Blackwater, lien, Puncheon, Bride, and Awbeg. 
Principal towns, Cork clt3r, Yougbal^ Bandon, 
Kinsaie, Mallow, Fermoy. Cork contamus, exclu- 
sive of the dty of the CO., 23 baronies and 269 
p#^*lw«ff, and returns eight members to the H. of 
C^ viz. two fi>r the oo., two for the city of Cork, 
and one each for the boiB. of Youghal, Bandon, 
Mallow, and Kinsaie, Registered Sectors for oo. 
15,716 in 1861. In 1841, the oo. of Cork had a 
popnlataon of 775,360 ; in 1851, of 565,754 ; and in 
1^(61 of 464,697. The pop. per square mile was 
296 in 1841 ; 225 in 1851 ; and 189 in 1861. Con- 
aeqacntly the decrease of pop. from 1841 to 1861 
amoonted to 107 per sc^uare mile. 

CoBK, a city and nver-port of Ireland, prov. 
Monster, on the Lee, 11 m. above where it dls- 
chaises itself into Cork harbour; 136 m. SVV. 
Dabun by road, and 164| by Great Southern and 
Western railwa^. Pop. 85,746 in 1851, and 80,121 
in 1861. Cork is the diird city of Ireland in re- 
spect of pop. ami commercial importance, and forms 
a CO. in itself, having a local jurisdiction separate 
from that of the co. of Cork, by which it is sur- 
nmndcd. The oo. of the city extends over 48,006 
acres, of which 2,683 are comprised within its 
municipal boundanes. The city lies in the vale 
of the river Lee, and is surrounded by hills of 
considerable elevation, which render the climate 
moist, though not unhealthy. It owes its origin 
to a religious establishment founded at a remote 
period. Previously to the arrival of the English, 
It was inhabited ^ a colony of Danes, and then, 
and for a long time after, consisted of a single 
street in an island formed by the river. Even so 
lately as the reign of Elizabeth, it is described as 
* a little trading town of much resort,' but con- 
siffting of a nngle street. After the revolution it 
began to improve, and at length, chiefly in con- 
sequence of Its vicinity to Cork harbour, a prin- 
cipal i^aoe of rendezvous for the Chaimel fleet 

during wan with France, and its being a great 
mart for the supply of the fleets and colonies with 
provisions, it rose rapidly to wealth and import- 
ance, until it became the second city of Ireland, 
The pop. in 1821 amounted to 100,658 souls, and 
in 1831 to 107,016; after this period, a decline 
set in. and continued steadily to the present time, 
as shown in the statistics of pop. above given. 

The city, situate on the nver Lee, which here 
diverges mto several branches, and forms an 
island, is 11 miles inland from the entrance of the 
river into Cork harbour. The public buildings are, 
the cathedral, 6 parish churches, and 2 chapels of 
ease, 4 Roman Catholic parochial chapels, 4 mon- 
asteries, and 2 nunneries, with a chapel attached 
to each ; 2 Presbyterian, 4 Methodist, 1 Baptist, 
1 In^^eipeodent, and 1 Friends' meeting-houses; 
the episcopal palace of the bishop of the consoli- 
dated dioceses of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross; the 
diocesan libraiv; the county court-house; the 
military banack ; the queen's college ; the county 
and dtv prisons ; the house of correction ; the 
bank of Ireland, provincial, national, and sa\nngs 
banks; the north and south inflrmaries; the lu- 
natic asylum ; the custom house ; the commercial 
buildings; the chamber of commerce; and the 
Royal Uork Institution. The head-quarters and 
st^ of the Cork or southern military district of 
Ireland are stationed here. Near the city is a 
cemetery, after the plan of P^ La Chaise, on the 
site of the old botanic garden. The New Wall is a 
picturesque public walk, 14 miles in length along 
the S. bank of the river, ftom Albert Quay to the 
pier opposite the convent at Blackrock ; and the 
Mardyke, a public walk, a mile in length, on the 
W. of the city. A park has been enclosed, 
containing about 240 acres, extending from the 
Yictoria-road along the south bank of the river to 
Blackrock. There are 9 bridges over the river and 
its branches; and in Patrick Street there is a 
handsome bronze statue to the memory of Father 
Mathew, the apostle of temperance. 

The corporation consbts of the mayor, 16 alder- 
men, and 48 town councillors. The number of 
burgesses on the roll in the year 1864 was 1,850 ; 
and the revenue of the city in 1863, 11,7932. The 
borough retums 2 members to parliament ; con- 
stituency 3,143 in 1865. The assizes for the 
county and city are held here. 

The principal manufactures are tanning, distil- 
ling, brewing, iron jfoundries, gloves, ginghams, 
and friezes. The trade is extensive, chiefly in 
grain, provisions, and butter; and there are 12 
markets in different districts. 

The harbour, pre-eminent for its capacity and 
safety, is situate 11 miles below the city ; it is 8 
miles h>nff, 2 broad, completely land-locked, and 
capable of sheltering the whole British navy. Its 
entrance is by a channel, 2 miles long and 1 broad, 
defended by batteries on each side, and by others 
in the interior. The upper portion extends for 
about 5 miles below the city to Passage, and 
this part since 1820 has been considerably deep- 
ened by steam dredging, so that vessels of 600 
tons can unload at the quays, where at low water 
there is a depth of 7 feet. The tide flows up H 
miles above the city. Within the harbour are 
Great Island, Little Island, Foaty Island ; Spike 
Island, on which is a bomb-proof artillery barrack, 
and where a convict depot has been lately esta- 
blished for the reception of persons sentenced to 
transportation ; Hawlbowline Island, containing an 
ordnance depot, and Rocky Island, in which there 
are 2 powder magazines, excavated from the rock. 
The number of vessels entered inwards in 1863 
was 375 — tonnage, 115,634; and the number 
cleared outwards, 93— tonnage, 28,691. The Great 



Southern and Western railway connects the city 
with Dublin. The Cork, Blackrockf and Passage 
railway runs along the river through the city 
park, from the road near the Monerea marsh ; the 
Cork, Bandon, and Kinsale railway terminates at 
Albert Quay; and the Cork, Queenstown, and 
Youghal, at Summer HilL 

The net annual value of property under the 
Tenement Valuation Act b 122,114/L; and the 
property and income tax for the year ended 5th 
April, 1863, amounted to 22,068/. (Thom's Di- 
rectory, 1865.) 

The corporation derived its privileges from a 
series of charters, commencing with one from 
King John, when Earl of Morton and viceroy of 
Ireumd. The mayor, recorder, and aldermen are 
justices for the city. The corporate business is 
transacted by the court of common council, com- 
posed of the mayor, recorder, sheriffs, and alder- 
men ; and by the court d'oyer hundred, formed of 
the freemen at large. The mayor resides in the 
mansion-house, a li^e and elegant building on the 
Mardyke. The courts are those of the mayor and 
sheriffs, which have jurisdiction in pleas to any 
amount above 40«.; those of a lower rate are 
abjudicated in the court of conscience. The former 
of these courts sits weekly, as does the city sessions 
court, for criminal cases. The mayor, sheiifis, re- 
corder, and aldermen are the recognised judges of 
these courts ; but virtually the recorder presides. 
A police-office, or magistrates' court, is also held. 
The city court-house is a fine building erected at 
an expense of 20,000/1 The prison is divided into 
82 wards, besides day and work-rooms. 

There is also a bridewdl for the temporary con- 
finement of* persons under examination. The 
assizes for the co., and one of the general sessions 
for its £. riding, are held here. The county gaol 
and house of correction are situated a short dis- 
tance from the city. A female con\ict depot, for the 
reception of prisoners from all parts of the coun- 
try, till the arrival of the transport ship to convey 
them to their destination, is in the S. suburb. 

The foreign trade is carried on with Portugal, 
whence wines and salt are brought; with the 
Meditezranean, for wine and fruit ; and with the 
Baltic, for timber and articles for navsl equip- 
ment ; timber is also imported from Halifax and 
Canada. The West India trade has declined, in 
consequence of the great facilities for supply 
from those colonies through the English ports. 
During war, Cork harbour is a great naval station, 
and the place of rendezvous for most of the out^ 
wud-bound convoys. Naval arsenals and stores, 
which have now become nearly useless, having 
been abandoned by the government, though in the 
best state of preservation, were fitted up on its 
smaller islands. 

The appearance and habits of the citizens of 
Cork are exclusively mercantile. The attempts 
that have been made to elevate the eitv in the 
scale of literature and science havv not bad that 
success which their more sanguine promoters an- 
ticipated; though they have probaoly succeeded 
better than a careless observer might suppose. 
Some rather distinguished persons have been na- 
tives of Cork, among whom may be specified 
Arthur O^Leary, O'Keefe, Barry theartist, MacHse 
the artist, and Sheridan Knowles. The newer 
part of the city indicates an increasing state of 
prosperity ; in it are the town residences of the 
wealthy merchants ; while the adjoining country, 
for several miles round, is studded with their villas 
and country seats. But, on the other hand, seve- 
ral extensive districts of the suburbs evince the 
existence of comparative destitution ; lines of ca- 
bins being bnilt and peopled like those in the sur- 


rounding rural villages. But improvement is 
notwithstanding, said to be advancing, even in 
those quarters in which there is the greatest po- 
verty, and where old habits and prejudices are 
sure to linger longest. The food of the working 
classes consists chiefly of potatoes, which is aU 
but equivalent to saying that their wages are low, 
and their condition alike degrading and precarious. 
Several remains of antiqmties, odefly monastic, 
are to be traced, as are considerable remains of the 
ancient walls, some parts of which are in a p«grfect 
state. Coins struck at a royal mint in the time of 
Edward I. have been occasionally found. 

CORLEONE, an inhuid town of Sicily, prov. 
Palermo, cap. dist, near the source of the Belini, 
on the dechvity of a hill rising from a fruitful, 
well-cultix'ated plain ; 22 m. S. by W. Palermo, 
near the railway from Palermo to GiigentL Pop. 
13,123 in 1861. The town is well buUt, and has 
several churches and convents, a royal college, a 
prison, and some other public buildings. 

CORNWALL, a mant. co. of England, forming 
the extremity of the SW. peninsula, being every> 
where surrounded by the sea, except on the K., 
where it adjoins Devonshire, from which it is se- 
parated nearly in its whole length by the Tamar. 
Area, 851,200 acres ; of which about 650,000 are 
arable, meadow, and pasture. In many parts Corn- 
wall is rugged and moorish ; but though its gene- 
ral aspect be bleak and dreary, it hi^ numerous 
valleys of great beauty and fertility. The tem- 
perature is particularly equal, being so far embo- 
somed in the Atlantic that it is neither so cold in 
winter, nor so warm in summer, as the cos. more 
to the £. The winds, however, are very variable, 
and often violent ; and the air being surehaiged 
with moisture, harvests are late, and fruit is inferior 
in flavour to that raised in the E. and midland cos. 
The raising of com and potatoes are the principal 
objects of Cornish agriculture, which has been 
much improved of late years. Property much 
divided and * vexatiously intermixed.' Farms for 
the most part small, and held under lease for 14 
or 21 years. The principal wealth of Cornwall is 
derived from its mines of tin and copper. It is 
believed that the Phoenicians traded Uiither for 
tin, and that the mines have been wrought ever 
since. The total quantity of tin produced in Corn- 
wall amounts to about 5,000 tons a year. The 
Cornish copper mines, though they were not 
wrought, witn spirit or success, till the beginning 
of last century, are now become of great value 
and importance. Their produce, which a century 
ago did not exceed 700 tons pure met«l, amounts 
at present to about 12,000 tons. The copper mnd 
tin mines number about 240, giving employment 
to 60,000 persons. Ores of lead, antimony]i man- 
ganese, Ac, are also met with. Gold b sometimes 
round in the Hream-worksy or places where the 
alluvial deposits are washed in order to procure 
grain tin. Silver is also found inteimixed with 
the lead ores, and is extracted to a considerable 
extent About 5,000 tons of soapstone, and about 
7,000 tons of China clay, are annually shipped ft»r 
the Potteries and other seats of the poroelain ma- 
nufacture. The miners and othen engaged in the 
Cornish mines are under the especial jurisdictioa 
of the stannary courts : these were much improved 
by a late act, and are said to transact the busincets 
brought before them expeditiously, cheaply, and 
well. The oppressive duties formerly imposed on 
the coinage of tin were repealed in 1837. The 
pilchard nshery is extensively carried on alon^; 
the Cornish coasts, particularly at St Ives, Mount's 
Bay, and M^avissey; and is a considerable souroe 
of employment and of wealth to the co. Princi- 
pal towns, TniTOi Helston, Penzance, St. Ivea, 


Fafaaoa^ Previously to the Refonn Act, Com* 
wnll sent forty-two members to the H. of C, but 
DOW it sends only fourteen, viz. four for the co., 
two each for the bois. of Bodmin, Falmouth, and 
Truro, and one each for the bors. of Launceston, 
Helston, St. Ives, and Liskeard. Registered elec- 
tees for the CO., 10,643 in 1865, of which number 
5.908 for the east division, and 4,735 for the west 
division. The pop. of the cm, was 355,558 in 1851. 
and 369,390 in 1861. Gross anniuU value of real 
piopertv assessed to income tax — ^in eastern divi- 
aom 587,1 79iL in 1857, and 655,615iL m 1862; in 
western division, 548,2831. in 1857, and 511,272/. 
in 1862. Cornwall is divided into 9 hundreds; 
i03 whole parishes, with parts of 8 others; 14 
registry districts; 18 poor-law unions; and 11 
ooontv coorts. 

COkO, a marit. dty of Venezuela, cap. prov. of 
the same name, in a sandy and arid plain, near 
the head of £1 Gofete, an arm of the Gulf of Ma- 
raeavbo, 3 m. SW. the Caribbean Sea, and 210 m. 
WN\V'. Caiw»s ; lat. 11© 28' N., long. 69© 48' W. 
Estimated pop. 10,000. It is well situated for 
commeroe, and has had a considerable trade with 
the West India Islands, especially Cura^oa, in 
moles, goats, hides, skins, cheese, and pottery; 
bat this has now very much dwindled, and the 
inhabitants are poor. The streets of Coro are 
Tegular, bat unpaved, and th^ houses mean : the 
only public buildings are, two churches, a con- 
▼enty several chapelB, and a hoepitaL The cli- 
mate is dry and hot, but not unhealthy ; so 
great, however, is the scarcity of water, that it 
haa to be brought thither daily, on the backs of 
mnles, a distance of 2 m. Coro was the second 
Eniopean settlement formed on this coast, and 
was conaideied the capital of Venezuela till the 
transferoxoe of the seat of government to Caracas, 
in 1576. 

COROMANDEL (Okohmandala), COAST OF, 
foiniing the £. shore of Hindostan, from Point 
Calymere, hit. lio 20', to the mouth of the Krish- 
na river, 15*^ 50' N., probably deriving its name 
from the Chola dynasty, who formerly ruled in 
Tanjore. It is destitute of any good harbours, 
and, from the great surf, it is usually difficult any- 
whcsre to effect a landing. The monsoons' on this 
coast are always in a contrary direction to those on 
that of Malabar. From the middle of October to 
the middle of April, winds from the N£. prevail, 
dnrii^ which pmod the storms are so violent and 
dangerous that all British ships of war are ordered 
to quit the coast by the 15th of October. In the 
middle of April the SW. winds set in, and a period 
<if great droi^ht commences. 

CORK£Z£, a d^. of France, reg. South, for- 
merly part of the Lunousin, having X. the d^s. 
Uanto 'llenne and Creuse, £. Puy-de-Ddme and 
Cantal, S. Lot, and W. Dordogne. Area, 586,609 
hectares Pop. 310,118 in 1861. Surface hilly 
and moontainous. Its N. part is intersected by a 
moantain chain, dividing the basin of the Loire 
from that of the Dordogne. The latter, which 
nxns thrDogh the S£. part of the d^p., is the only 
navigable stream, the Corrfeze, from which the 
d^ derives its name, being available only for 
rafts and boats. Climate compantively cold ; soil 
sumy and inferior, except in some of the larger 
valleys. Heaths and wastes occupy more of the 
surface than the arable lands ; soffiaent com, how- 
ever, diicfly rye and buckwheat, is grown for home 
eonsomption. Agriculture is in a backward state, 
partly owing to the obstinate attachment of the 
coltivators to ancient routine practices, and partly 
to want of capital, and to the minute division of 
the land. Cnestnuts, buckwheat, and potatoes 
cooatitate the principal dependence of a huge pro- 



portion of the pop. ; and when these fail, the in^ 
habitants suffer severely. Vineyards occupy about 
15,200 hectares. Some of the wines are tolerably 
good, and though no great quantity of wine he 
produced, still, as few of the labouriiig classes can 
afford to drink it, some is exported. The meadows 
are extensive, and considerable numbera of oxen 
are reared for the Paris market and the plough. 
There are upwards of 400,000 sheep, chiefly an in- 
digenous breed, yielding annually about 450,000 
kilogr. of wooL Property much subdivided, there 
not being in the whole d^p. above a dozen pro- 
perties which pay a government tax of 1,000 fr 
Corrtee has mines of copper, iron, aigentiferous 
lead, antimony, and coal ; out, with the exception 
perhaps of coal at Lapleau, none of them are 
vrrought to any considerable extent. Manufac- 
turing industry is even in a less prosperous state 
than agriculture. There is, however, a huge 
gun manufactory at Tulle, and a cotton mill 
at Brives. Tulle is generally supposed to be the 
grand seat of the manufacture of the species of 

Eoint lace called jxriiU de TuUe ; in point of fact, 
owever, there is not a single looe-worker in 
the d^., nor has there been, time immemorial, 
a lace-frame in Tulle. Trade chiefly in cattle, 
wine, poultry, a^cultural produce, and truffies. 
The d^p. is divided into three arronds. Chief 
towns,. Tulle, the cap., Brives, and UsseL There 
exists a general usage (for it is inconsistent with 
the law of France) in this d<^, whereby the 
eldest son becomes entitled to a clear fourth of the 
paternal property, over and above an equal ^are 
with each of the other children. The peasantry 
exhibit a remarkable dislike to enter the military 
service, but prove afterwards very good soldiers. 
Marmontel, CabaniS| and Latreille'were natives of 
this d^p. 

CORSHAM, a par. and village of England, co. 
Wilts, hund. Chippenham ; 98^ m. W. London by 
Great Western railway. Pop. of par. 8,196 in 
1861. The village, in an open pleasant district, 
8 m. NE. Bath, consists chiefly of one long street 
of neatly-built houses, with a market-house near 
the centre, erected in 1784. The church is a cruci- 
form Gothic structure, with a tower. There are 
also two dissenting chapels; and an almshoui^*, 
founded in 1688, at present supporting six old 
women. A free school for boys and girls was 
built by the Methuen family, to' which the manor 
belongs; and who have a fine mansion, with a 
good collection of pictures, near the village. The 
manufacture of woollens, formerly carried on to a 
considerable extent, has long been discontinued, 
agriculture being now the chief employment of 
the inhabitants. Sir R. Blackmore, the author of 
various epic poems, now known only by the sati- 
rical allusions made to them bv Pope and other 
wits of the time, was a native of Corsham. 

CORSICA (Fr. Cbrse), a large island of the 
Mediterranean, belonging to France, of which it 
forms a de'p. ; between Jat 41© 27' and 48^ 1' N., 
and long. 8^ 37' and 9° 30' E. Its S. exteemitv 
is 10 m. N. Sardinia, from which it is separated by 
the Strait of Bonifacio. Piombino, about 55 ni. 
distant, is the nearest town in Italy, and Antibes, 
120 m. NW., the nearest point in France. Shape 
somewhat oval, with a prmecting appendage at 
the N£. extremity: length, N. to 8., 100 m.; 
greatest breadth, 44 m.; area, 874,741 hectares. 
Pop. 252,889 in 1861. 

'fhe £. shores of Corsica are generally low and 
sandy, and in many parts marshy ; the W. shores 
are more lofty, and mdented %vith several exten- 
sive harbours or bays, the principal of which are 
thrse of Valineo, Ajacdo, Sagone, Porto, Cah-i, 
and St. Florenu Corsica has several small islets, 



cspecklly at ita S. extremity. It is, generally 
speakui^f hilly. A chain of mountaing traverses 
it from Its N.'to its S. extremity, for the most part 
nearer to its W. than to its £. coast ; the highest 
summits of this chain are Monte Rotondo, 8,766 
ft., and Monte d'Oro (the Mom Aureus of 
Ptolemy), 8,700 ft. above the level of the sea. 
The declivities of the central chain are steep : it 
abounds in clefts and gorges ; valleys are few, ex- 
cepting in the lower hill ranges, and even there 
the}'^ are narrow. The plains along the £. coast 
amounting to about l-24th part of tne whole sur- 
face, though rich and densely peopled in the time 
of the Romans, are now mostly abandoned. Were 
they drained and cultivated, they would be again, 
as of old, the best part of the island. The ma- 
jority of the rivers run W., but the two largest, 
The (jolo and Savignano, have an E. courae : most 
of them are mere torrents, and none of them are 
navigable or adapted even for rafts, bv reason of 
their rapidity. 1 here are a few insignificant lakes 
in the centre of the island ; but the largest col- 
lections of waters are some lagunes on the £. 
coast, a topographical feature which this part of 
Corsica shares with the opposite coast of the Tus- 
can Maremme and the Campagna di Roma. 
These stagnant waters render the adjacent parts 
unhealthy, giving rise to intermittent fevers, drc., 
similar to those of the corresponding Italian 
shores ; but elsewhere the climate is sufficiently 
salubrious. The temperature of course varies with 
the elevation ; in the low lands the maximum is 
92 4^ Fabr., in the mountains the minimum is 
2o|^ Fahr. The most prevalent winds are — the 
aciroccOf or S£., which brings rain ; the N., which 
often brings snow ; and the SW., which is com- 
monly very violent The aspect of the country 
is, in the words of Hugo, * a vast elevated r^on, 
the culminating points of which are covered with 
snow, surrounded by lower ranges of mountains, 
their summits bare, but tiieir sides covered with 
thick forests of fir and oak; narrow and dark 
glens, through which roll impetuous torrents ; and 
here and there an isolated human habitation, 
I)erched on some solitary crag, like the inacces- 
sible eyrie of an eaele. As we approach nearer the 
sea the valleys emai]^e, and show traces of cul- 
ture, and villages b^in to enliven the banks of 
the rivulets ; ue hill-sides are covered with olive, 
orange, and laurel trees; while their tops are 
crowned with woods of chestnut, whose time-ho- 
noured trunks, notwithstanding the little depth 
of soil they ^t>w in, have attamed an enormous 
size. On the sea-shores, obscured by an un- 
healthy fog, ruined habitations, corn-lands, nuMa 
(close copses), and marshes alternate with each 
other, and the traveller hastens to quit this pesti- 
ferous tract for a brighter sk;^ and a purer air 
upon the uplands.' Granite, mica, porphyry, ala- 
baster, and marble of various colours, serpentine, 
jasper, and asbestos of remarkably long fibre, are 
plentiful in Corsica. The island probably con- 
tains neither gold, silver, nor copper ; but there is 
a vein of lead at Barbaggio, and iron mines are 
worked in several places : the produce of the last 
occupies ten foiges at Catalane. Quarries of sta- 
tuary marble are worked; pipe-clay, emeralds, 
and globular masses of granite and porphyry are 
found ; the last, which are prized as ^ems, have 
been hitherto met with no where but m the bed 
of one of the torrents. There are an abundance 
of warm, mineral, and saline springai The upper 
soils consist chiefly of decomposed granite and 
silex, with a small proportion of chaUL and other 
calcareous matters, and the remains of animal and 
vegetable substances. In many parts the land is 
very fertile; agriculture is, however, in a very 

backward state, and artificial iirigation ahnosi 

Landed property in Corsica is extremely sab- 
divided, and IS aunost all occupied by owners. 
^ For centuries the laws have promoted an equal 
succession among children; the Genoese, imen 
rulers, abetted tms system, and the French law 
of succession, which found Corsica in an extra- 
vagantly parcelled state, has confirmed and aggra- 
vated it. These ancient and modem agranan- 
ismfl^ unaccompanied by the remedies of capital 
and of various roads to industry, have made a 
proprietor of almost every Corsican, and have, it 
is true, averted bare mendicity, but also gener^y 
created a narrow situation, without resources, 
pregnant of family intrigues, and not unbloody 
dissensions, litigious propensities, and various 
checks on population; and, combining with these 
incidents, they have fostered maxims which again 
serve to the same end of disconnecting all landed 
property. It is a distinctive trait, that fAe Corn" 
can ramer ttarvet them tells hnd; that inheritances 
which lose in value by division still must submit 
to it; and advantageous offers are the more 
readily refused the more such land would aggran- 
dise and connect the purchaser's estate.' (Con- 
sular Report.) The inhab. do not live in cottages 
dispersed over the country, but in villages, many 
of which are built on the summits and declivities 
of the mountains. 

The forests are remazkably fine, and aboimd 
with timber of the best quauty, and which sup- 
plies the best masts for the dockyards at Toolon ; 
but such is the indolence of the' inhab., that this 
source of wealth is comparatively neglected. The 
nuMkiSf previously mentioned, are dense thickets of 
cystus, bay, myrtle, and thom, which rapidly 
^w up on rich unfilled lands, into inextricable 
masses of 8 to 12 ft:, in height, and which, when 
burnt — the usual mode ofgctting rid of them — 
form admirable manure. Tne orange, citron, and 
pom^ipranate grow in the open air, and yield 
excellent fruit The olive is badly managed; 
but much more oil is produced than is requir^ in 
the island, and is therefore exported. The vine ia 
tolerably well cultivated in most of the cantons; 
and, notwithstanding that but little art is dis- 
played in the manufacture of wines, tiie red wines 
of Sari, and the white of Cape Corsica, are very 
good, and exported to the Continent. The com 
grown is not adequate to the demand, but its de- 
ficiency is made up by the abundant supply <^ 
chestnuts Vast quantities of honey are produced 
in the island. The honey has a bitterish taste, 
supposed to be imparted by the abundance of box- 
wood and yew. A great portion of the immense 
quantity of honi^ consumed in France is supplied 
ftom Corsica. The island produced ao much wax 
in ancient times that the Romans imposed on it 
an annual tribute of 100,000 lb. weight. Subse- 
quently the inhabitants revolted, and they were 
punished by the tribute being raised to 200,000 lb. 
weight annually, which they were able to supply. 
Wax is to honey in Corsica as one to fifteen, so 
that the inhabitants must have gathered 3,000,000 
kilogrammes of honey. When Corsica became a 
dependency of the papal court it paid its taxes in 
wax, and the quantity was sufficient to supply the 
consumption not only of the churches in the city 
of Rome, but those in the Papal States. Brittany 
likewise supplies a great quantity of honey, but 
of inferior quality to that of Corsica. The annual 
value of the honey and wax produced in Corsica 
is estimated at 5,000,000 f., or 200,0004 Tobacco, 
though little cultivated, ia said to be {ueferable to 
that of France, and the mulbeny and flax are 
grown with advantage. Cattle oonstitate the 


nrinopal irealth of the fumeni and peasantry. 
Mmt kinds are small, bat the ox, hoxae, male and 
ma» are all strong and active; the cows afford good 
milk, from which much cheese is made. The 
sheep are black, with four or even six horns; 
there are abont 300,000 in the island : hogs very 
plentiful. Goats are laige and strong; the 
moi^Umj considered by Buffon to have been the 
ongmal <^ the sheep, is found in this island. 
Game is extremely abundant, as are wild boars 
and foxes: turtles are obtained in groat number, 
and are important articles of trade. There is a 
fp«at profusion of the most excellent fish in the 
aurroonding seas, and the Corsican mullet was 
anHHig the delicacies supplied to the Roman 
Ubles. (Jnv., Sat. v. 1. 92.) Red coral of a fine 
deep ooloor is found in many places round the coast. 
Bat, owing to the indolence and apathy occa- 
sioned by the dependence of the people on small 
patches of land, and the want of ci^pital and 
manufactures, everything is conducted according 
to a system of routme, and very few improvements 
are cither attempted or even so much as thought 
of. Agricultoral implements are all of the most 
wretched description, and they hardly know any- 
thing even of the advantages of manure. All the 
more laborious employments are devolved upon 
the fenudes, who an the slaves rather than the 
oo«npanions of their husbands, or upon emigrants 
from Lucca, Tuscany, and other parts of Italy, by 
whom the island is annually visited. The fish- 
eries are ^lioUy abandoned to the Genoese and 
Neapolitans. Their manufactures are limited to 
the fabrication of some ooane woollens used by 
themselves, a few foiges and tanneries, a gkuM 
frndary, a pottery (in which asbestos is used), a 
mannJEactory of tobacco-pipes, and one of soap. 
The exports are nearly confined to timber, fire- 
wood, wines, dried fruits, oil, silk, leather, and 
fish, in comparatively trifling Quantities. The 
roads are wretched ; those caUea royo/ being in 
parts almost impracticable even for mules. 

In 1793 Corsica was divided into two depart^ 
menta — those of Golo and Liamone ; but since 
1811 these have been again united: the seat of 
the prefecture is Ajaccio. A royal court is estab- 
lished in the capital ; there are five courts of ori- 
ginal jurisdiction, one in each arrond., and three 
tribimals of commerce, viz. at Ajaccio, Bastia, 
and De-Rouse. There are no churches but those 
of the Catholic establishment in Corsica ; the dep. 
la a bishopric suffragan to Aix. Corsica forms 
the 1 7th military division of France : it contains 
tok fortxesses. 

In person, habits, and disposition, the Corsicans 
bear a considerable resemblance to the natives of 
Italy. They are brave, sober, and hospitable; but 
eabject to violent gusts of passion, and in the last 
degree revengeful and implacable. This, in fact, 
ia the distinguishing trait of their character, and 
has beoi supposed to indicate a peculiar ferocity 
of diapoeition. It appears, however, rather to have 
originated in the long-continued misgovemment 
of the Grenoese, when the grossest corruption pie- 
vailed, and money or interest could procure im- 
punity for the most atrocious crimes. Under such 
csicmnstances, the avenging of injuries became, 
as it were, a private dutv ; and the Corsican would 
have considered himself degraded who had not 
obtained that redress for himself that was denied 
by law. It is needless to point out the sanguinary 
practices, crimes, and enormities to which such a 
state of things must necessarily lead. The im- 
proved and more vifforous government introduced 
by the French has, however, done a good deal to 
lessen the temptations to vengeance; though it 
will be iaog before the passion be wholly subdued 



among a people in the situation of the Corsicans. 
They use an Italian dialect, with a laige namber 
of Arabic words and Spanish idioms intermixed. 
The dress of both sexes bears a simUaritv to that 
of the Italians : the men wear a kind of Phrygian 
bonnet, and commonly go armed with a long 
knife, pistol, musket, and bayonet. At Caxgese, 
on the W. coast, there is a Greek colony of Mainot 
origin, consisting of about 700 individuals, the 
descendants of some Greeks who settled in Corsica 
in 1676, who preserve their drMs and religion, 
but have adopted Catholic rites of worship. The 
tract they inhabit is the best cultivated in the isl. 
The Phocians, who afterwards founded Marseilles, 
and the Phoenicians, have both been considered 
the first inhab. of Corsica ; and by them the ifdand 
was called Qfmot, It was aflerwards conquered 
by the Carthaginians, from whom it was taken by 
the Romans about b. c. 231. In the middle ages, 
the Goths, the emperors of the East, Saracens, 
Franks, House of Colonna, Pisans, and Genoese, 
successively possessed it. Insuiiections against the 
latter continued at intervals for sevenl centuries, 
till the Genoese finally ceded it to France in 1768. 
The pop. under the gallant Paoli made a deter- 
mined resistance ; but ultimately they were forced 
to submit, and the island has since belonged to 
France, with the exception of two short periods, 
in 1796 and 1814, when it was occupied by British 
troops. The names of Pascal Paoli and of Napo- 
leon, both natives of Corsica, are sufficient to 
confer on it an enduring celebrity. 

CORTONA, or COTRONE (an. Ootoiia), adty 
and sea-port of Southern Italy, prov. Catansaro, 
cap. district and cant., near the mouth of the 
Esaro (an. jEaamt), on the Ionian Sea. Pop. 
5,910 in 1861. The town is surrounded by walls 
and defended by a strong citadeL The latter fronts 
the sea, and is separated from the town by a ditch 
and drawbridge. It has a cathedral and several 
other churches, 2 convents, a seminary, and 2 hos- 
pitals. The hiubour is protected on Uie S. by the 
projecting tongue of land on the side of which 
the town is bmlt, and on the N. by a mole ; but it 
is too shallow to admit of vessels of considerable 
size, and is not very safe. 

Cortona was once one of the richest, most popu- 
lous and powerful cities of Ma^na Graecia. Various 
accounts have been ^ven of its origin, but it is 
sufficient to say that it was founded by emigrants 
from Greece at a very remote period. It speedily 
rose to eminence. Pythagoras resided here for a 
considerable period aner leaving Samos ; founded 
a very extensive school ; and ia said, by his ex- 
ample and his precepts, to have effected a very 
considerable change m the manners and conduct 
of the inhab. It had also a celetnated sdiool of 
medicine. Ancient writers have praised its in- 
vigorating air, which was said to give superior 
strength to the men, and beauty to the women. 
Milo, famous alike for his success as a wrestler at 
the Ol3rmpian and Pythian games, and for his tra- 
gical end, was a native of Crotona. It produced 
many other celebrated wrestlers, so that it became 
a proverbial saying, that the last wrestler of Cro- 
tona was the mst of the other Greeks. (Strabo, 
iL 262.) The mode which Zeuxis took to paint 
his famous picture of Helen is a sufficient compli- 
ment to the beauty of the fair Crotoneans. (The 
curious reader will find this subiect thoroughly 
discussed in Bayle, art. * Zeuxis.') In the thini 
year of the 67th Olympiad, some exiles from 
Sybaris, having taken refuge in Crotona, the latter, 
on refusing to give them up, was attacked by 
30,000 Sybarites ; and thougn the Crotoniats are 
said to have been able only to bring 10,000 men 
into the field, they gained a complete victory over 



the Sybarites, and took and sacked their city. 
(Ancient Universal History, vi. 424, 8vo. ediU) 
But their success in this conflict is said to have 
been followed by a renewal of that corruption of 
morals which Pythagoras had done so much to 
correct, and by a decline of the martial virtues. 
At all events, the Crotoniats were not long after 
signally defeated by the Locrians, and do not ap- 
pear to have again recovered their former power 
or influence. Still, however, Crotona was a large 
city at the epoch of the invasion of Italy by Pyr- 
rhus, though it appears to have suffered severely in 
the contests to which it led. Livy says, * J7r6« 
Croto murum in circuitu patentem 12,000 pauuutn 
habuitf ante Pyrrhi in Italiam advenium, Fost 
vastiiatem eo hello Jactim, vix pan dimidia habita- 
batur'Jlumen (JEtarus) mod medio oppido jiuxerat, 
extra frequentia tectia loca praterjittebatj (Li v. 
24, § B.) It was afterwanls taken by the Cartha- 
ginians, and the inhabitants removed to Locri. 
Subsequently, however, it received a colony from 
Rome. In the war between Charles of Anjou and 
Frederick of Aiiagon, it was taken by surprise, 
And sacked ; and it has since continued in the de- 
pressed state in which we now find it. 

About 6 m. S£. from Crotona, at the extremity 
of the narrow projecting tongue of land, now 
called Capo Nau or Delle Colonne (the Lacinium 
Fromontorium of the ancients), stood a famous 
temple of Juno, hence frequently called Viva 
Lacinia, It is said by Livy to be nofrt/e templum, 
ipsd urbe nobilius. It was of great antiquity, was 
surrounded by magnificent groves, and was held 
in such veneration that it was annually resorted 
to by crowds of pilgrims from all parts of Italy 
and Greece. The Helen of Zeuxis was placed, 
with many other articles of great rarity and value, 
in this sacred edifice, whose sanctity was respected 
both by Pyirhus and HannibaL But succeeding 
conquerors have had less forbearance ; and a soli- 
tary Doric column is now all that remains of this 
once venerated and splendid edifice. 

CoRToMA, a town of Central Italy, prov. Firenze, 
on the declivity of a steep hill, which commands 
a magnificent prospect of the Thrasimene lake, 
the mountains of Radicofani, and the wide and 
yariegated vale of Chiana, 52 ;n. S£. Florence, and 
22 m. NW. Perugia, on the railway from Florence 
to Perugia. Pop. 27,960 in 1861. This, which 
was one of the 12 principal cities of Etruria, ia 
supposed to have been founded by the Pelaagi, 
and is probably among the most ancient towns in 
Italy. * Its original walls still appear round the 
cit^, as foundations to the modem, which were 
built in the 18th century. Those Etruscan works 
are most entire towards the N. Their huge, un- 
cemented blocks have resisted, on that side, the 
storms of near 8,000 winters ; while on the S. they 
have yielded to the silent erosion of the tirocco. 
None of the stones run parallel ; most of them are 
faced in the form of travezia ; some are indented 
and inserted in each otner like dove-taiL This 
construction is peculiar to the ruins of Tuscany : it 
is far more irregular, and therefore, I presume, 
more ancient than the Etruscan work of Rome, 
No part of these walls is fortified.' (Forsyth's 
Italy, p. 99.) The town is commanded by a cisstle 
built by the Medici, on the summit of the hill on 
which It stands. It has a cathedral, which pos- 
sesses some fine works of art, several other 
chiuches, and a theatre. There b a temple of 
Bacchus, and the remains of some baths orna- 
mented with mosaic work. Next to the city walls, 
however, the most interesting relic of antiquity is 
a small sepulchral chamber a little below tlie town, 
formed of large blocks of sandstone, the construc- 
tion of wfai(£ proves that the architects of the 


Etruscan period were acquainted with the prin- 
ciple of the areh. Cortona is the residence of a 
bishop; it has an ecclesiastical and some other 
seminaries, and was the seat of the Etruscan aca- 
demy, founded in 1726, which had here a library*, 
a cabinet of natural history, a museum of antiqui- 
ties, engravings, and gems ; but these collections 
have b^n dispersed. In the middle ages, 0)rtona 
was attached to the Ghibelline party ; since the 
early part of the 15th centurj' it has alwa3'8 been 
subject to Florence, except during the short inter- 
val it belonged to the French under Napoleon. 

CORUN>iA (Span. Cbruila), a city and sea-port 
of Spain, prov. Galicia, NW. extremity of the 
kingdom, on the £. side of a small peninsula, 
forming the S. extremity of the Betanzos Bay ; 18 
m. SW. Ferrol, 815 m. NW. Madrid, on the ter- 
minus of a railway from Madrid. Pop. 27,364 in 
1857. Corunna is divided into the Upper and 
Lower Towns, the former, situated on more ele- 
vated ground, is surrounded by walls and bastions, 
and defended by a citadel : the other is situated 
lower down, on the isthmus joining the peninsula 
to the mainland, from which it is separated by 
ramparts and a ditch. The streets in the Upper 
Town are comparatively steep and narrow. Among 
the public buildings are 4 churehes, 5 conyenta, a 
palace for the captain-general, and the snpreme 
court of justice of the prov. ; 2 barracks, an arve- 
nal, 2 hospitals, and a school of design, mathe- 
matics and navigation, supported by the commer- 
cial consulate. 

There is a fine oommodiooa quay, and a good 
building yard. The harbour, which is safe and 
well-sheltered, is commanded by Port St. An- 
thony, on an insulated rock at its mouth, and by 
Fort St. Diego on the mainland. It is the station 
for steamers between Spain and the Havannah, 
and between Spain and Falmouth. At the bottom 
of the harbour is the suburb of St. Luda. On the 
N. shore of the peninsula is the famons light- 
house, called the Tower of Hereules, or the Iroa 
Tower, 92 ft. in height, and which, bemg built on 
high land) is visible at sea in clear weauier 60 m. 
oC The tower is said by Humboldt to be of 
Roman construction, and is believed to be of the 
Kra of Trajaiu It was repaired in 1791. The 
principal manufacture carried on in Uie town is 
that of tine table and other linen, with which the 
royal palaces used to be supplied, and of course 
linen. It has also fabrics or hats, canvass, and 
cordage, and a royal manufactory of cigare, in 
which about 500 women are employed. Owunna 
ia famous, in the history of the struggle between 
Spain and Napoleon, for bdng the point to which 
Sir John Moore directed his diaastroos retreat in 
1808 ; and for his death in the engagement which 
took place under its walls, on the 16th of January, 
1809, previously to the embarkation of the British, 
when a superior French force under Marshal Soult 
was repulsed with great lues. 

COSALA, a town of Mexico, state of Scmoni, in 
a mountainous district, 200 m. S£. £1 Fuerte, and 
60 m. from the Pacific Ocean. Pop. estimated at 
7,000. The town is the third in the state in point 
of size. It derives importance partly from bdng 
a depot for goods passing to and from the port (i 
Guaymas, on the Gulf of California, but chiefly 
on account of its mines, one of which, called 
Guadalupe, contains an extremely rich yun of 
gold ; and, being at a considerable devation, is free 
from water. 

COSLIN, or KOSLIN, a Prussian town, piny. 
Pomerania, cap. reg. and drc of same name, on 
the Niesenbecke, about 4 m. from where it falls 
into the lagoon Jamund, which communicates with 
the Baltic, and on a bianch line of the nulway 


fiKim Beriin to Dantzic. Pop. 12,110 in 1861. t 
Having been nearly destroyed by fire in 1718, it 
was rebnilt on a regnlar plan by Frederick William 
L, whoee statue has beoi erected in the market- 
place by the citizens to commemorate the bene- 
ticeaoe of the monarch and their gratitude. It is 
the residence of the governor of the regency, and 
has a court of appeal, and a society for the promo- 
tion of agriculture, and various schools. Mount 
< lollen, a little to the £. of the town, is one of the 
hi^iest elevations on the Pomeranian coast. 

GOSSELR, KOSSAIR, or KOSIR, a sea-port 
town of Upper Egypt, on the W. shore of the Red 
Sea, 93 m. £. by S. Ghenneh, or Kenne, and 102 
m. ENE. Thebes ; lat, 260 6' 59"^ long 34© 23' E. 
Pop. estimated at from 1,500 to 2,000. It is situ- 
ated near the centre of a semicircular bay, about 
5 m. across, sheltered on the N. by a sandy point 
of land, where vessels may lie in 5 fathoms water 
witMn 60 yards of the shore. The town is meanly 
Inilt ; the houses being low, and built of sun-dried 
liricks made of a white calcareous earth ; only a 
few have two stories. Immediately on the NW. 
is a small citadel defended by round towers, on 
which a few small guns are mounted. This for- 
tress ]a the residence of the governor and garrison. 
A caravan road leads from Ghenneh to Coeseir, 
which is the centre for all the tn&ffic between tlie 
tipper valley of the Kile and the Arabian ports ; 
and to this circumstance it owes its existence, as 
it has neither trade nor manufactures of its own, 
and the surrounding country is perfectly bare of 
an vegetation. Qld Cosseir is about 10 ra. NW. of 
the modem town, on the N. bank of a small inlet, 
from which the sea has now mostly retired. Of 
the latter town only a few ruins exist, Berenice, 
the great port for the eastern traffic of Egypt 
under the Ptolemies, was situated a good deal 

(X>SS£XZA, or COSENZA (an. Conaeniia), a 
city of Soothem Italy, cap. or prov. of same 
name, on the maigin of a valley surrounded by 
hills, at the confluence of the Crati and Busento, 
12 m. E. from the Mediterranean. Pop. 8,250 in 
1861. The city is intersected by the Busento, 
which is here crossed by two bridges, and the lower 
pans of the town are said to be unhealthy. It has 
only one good street, the others being narrow, 
crooked, and dirty. The tribunaley or palace of 
Jnstiee, is a fine edifice ; an old castle, now con- 
verted into barracks, crowns the summit of an 
etainenoe on the opposite side of the river. It has 
also a cathedral, several churches and convents, a 
Inland seminarjr, a royal college, a hospital, a 
foundling hospital, 2 academies of science and 
be0e94e^^ and a theatre. It is the seat of the 
provincial courts and authorities, and of an arch- 
wbap. Earthenware and cutlery are made here; 
and it has a considerable trade in silk, rice, wine, 
Umita, manna, and flax. In the 16th century 
there was here a famous academy, founded or im- 
proved hy Bernardino Telesio. 

In antiquity Cossenza was the cap. of the 
Brettii. Alanc, by whom it was besieged anno 
410, died before its walls, and was buri»l in the 
bed of the Busento. It was taken and sacked by 
the Saracens, who were expelled from it by the 
Kormans, and has suffered much from earth- 
quakes, particularly 60m those of 1658 and 1788. 
The extensive forest of Sila lies a little to the W. 
of Cossenza. 

COSSIM BAZAR, an inL town of Hindostan, 
prov. Bengal, distr. Moorshedabad, and about 1 m. 
8. of that city, of which it is the port ; on the 
left bank of the BhajirathL or HoQghly river ; lat. 
240 IC N., long. 88<^ 15' E. It is one of the most 
considerable trading towns in Bengal, and during 



the rainy season has an unequalled variety and 
extent of water carriage. A vast quantity of raw 
silk is thence exported to Europe, and to almost 
every part of India; and a great deal consumed 
annually b^ the natives in the manufacture of 
carpets, satms, and other stuffs. Cossimbazar is 
also noted for its stockings, which are wire-knitted, 
and esteemed the best in Bengal Its \'icinity is 
flat and sandy, and abounds with a great variety 
of wild animals. 

Asiatic Turkey, Natolia, cap. pachalic, 285 m. £ 
Constantinople, and 50 m. S. from the nearest 
point of the Black Sea, in a dreary and unfertile 
country, intezsected by deep ravines and numerous 
water-courses. Estimated pop. 12,500. It stends 
in a hollow, in the centre of which rises a lofty 
and perpendicular rock crowned with a ruined for- 
tress, formerly possessed by the Comneni. The 
houses are built of wood and stone ; and the palace 
of the pacha, a poor edifice, opens into the mydan 
or square. There are 80 mosques, with minarets, 
25 public baths, 6 khans, and a Greek church. 
The trade of the town is but inconsiderable, and 
there are no manufactures. In the later ages of 
the Greek empire, Costamboul was the cap. of an 
independent prince, who was first expelled by Ba- 
jazet, reinstated in his possessions by Timour, and 
finally subdued by Mahomet I. 

COTE-D'OR, a d^p. of France, in the E. part 
of the king., between lat 46® 66' and 48^ 2' N., 
and long. 4^ 7' and 5° 8' W., formerly part of the 
prov. of Buigundv, having N. the d/ps. Aube and 
Haute Mame, E. Haute Saone and Jura, 8. 
Sadne-et-Loire, and W. Yonne and Nifevie. Area, 
876,116 hectares; pop. 384,140 in 1861. Surface 
mostly hilly and mountainous. The principal 
chain connecting the Faucilles with the Cevennes 
runs nearly through its centre, separating the 
streams which flow into the Seine from the 
affluents of the Sadne. A fmrt of this range gives 
its name to the dep., having been termed the 
C6te-d'0r, from the number and excellence of the 
vineyards on its declivities. Both the Seine and 
Armani^n have their sources in this dep.; and 
the Saone winds along its SE. border. Climate 
temperate ; but said to have become colder within 
the last 80 years, from the woods having been ex- 
tensively cut down. Soil for the most part gra- 
velly' or calcareous ; and in the E. and S. verv 
fertile. The arable land is estimated at 457,000 
hect., forests 198,000, meadows 63,000, and vine- 
yards 26,450 do. The vine culture is by far the 
most important branch of industry earned on in 
this dep. It has been said that the wines of the 
Cote d'Or have degenerated within the last forty 
or fifty years; but this is not really the case, 
though, from the extension of vineyards in less 
favourable situations, the quantity of secondary 
and inferior growths bears a larger proportion to the 
superior growths, the supply of which is limited, 
and apparently unsusceptible of increase. The 
best wines are produced in two contiguous tracts 
to the SE. of the Cote-d'Or range. One tract, 
called the C6te-de-Nuits, extends between Dijon 
and Nuits ; the other, the Cote Beaunoise, is com- 
prised between Nuits and the Dheune. To the 
Cote-de-Nuits belong the first class wines of the 
Clos Vougeot^ Romanety Chamhertin, Corton, and 
Richehourg ; to the C6te Beaunoise tlie celebrated 
but secondary growths of Volnav, Bomard, Beaune, 
and others and some fine white wines, as Mtm- 
trachetj and MeunavlL The total annual produce 
of wine is estimated at 700,000 hectolitres, or 
18,500,000 gallons. Agriculture is in a medium 
state of advancement More than suflictent com 
is grown for home consumption, principally wheat, 



oate, barley, and rye. Hemp, flax, and some le- 
guminous and oleaginous plants are also cultivated. 
Dijon is famous for its mustard. Cattle abundant : 
both the ox and horse are used for the plough, 
except in the mountainous districts, where the 
spade is employed. The first attempts to improve 
the breeds of sheep in France were made in this 
dep., and here they have been eminently^ suc- 
ceasfuL The annual produce of wool is estimated 
at 245,600 kilogs. There are some fine natural 
pastures on the banks of the Sadne, but the system 
of irrigation pursued in the Yosges and elsewhere 
is not ac'opted. Hogs are numerous, and bees are 
extensively reared. Property in this is less sub- 
divided than in most other deps. in France. Mine- 
ral products numerous and valuable, especially 
iron and c<>aL Thane are f^ve 100 furnaces for 
smelting iron, and its production and manufacture 
into dinereut articles constitute a very consider- 
able branch of industry. There are also numerous 
breweries and distilleries, with establishments for 
the manufacture of beet-root sugar, mustard, and 
vinegar; tanneries, potteries, and cloth fabrics. 
Wine, however; forms the principal article of 
export. The trade of the dep. is much promoted 
by the canal of Burgundy, by which it is inter- 
sected. It is divided into 4 arxonds., 36 cantons, 
and 727 communes. Chief towns, Dijon, Beaune, 
and Chatillon-sur-Seine. There are several Roman 
antiquities in this dep., especially a sculptured 
column near Cussy, supposed to have been erected 
in the time of Diocletian. 

COTES-DU-NORD, a mariL dA). of France, 
region of the NW., formerly part or the prov. of 
Bnttanv, having £. Hle-et-Vuaine, S. Morbihan, 
W. Finist^ and N. the British Channel. Area, 
688,562 hectares. Pop. 628,676 in 1861. Coast 
generally steep, rocky, much indented with the 
mouths of small rivers, the chief of which is the 
Ranoe, and surrounded, particularly towards its W. 
end, by many snudl isliuads. A chain of heights, 
called the * Black Mountains,' runs through the 
centre of the dep. E. and W., sending off numerous 
branches on either side : Uie highest point of these 
is the Menea-Haut, about 1,115 ft. above the level 
of Uie sea. Soil mostly stony, primitive forma- 
tions being everywhere found near the surface : 
the plain on both sides the mountain-chain are 
often sandy and sterile. Arable lands occupy 
411,000 hectares, meadows 54,500 do., heathy 
wastes and forests about 170,000 do. Agricul- 
ture is in a very backward state : in some cantons 
asses only are employed in farm labour : more com 
is however grown than is required for home con- 
sumption ; it is mostly oats, wheat, and rve. This 
dep. is beyond the limits of the vine culture, but 
the annual produce of cider is estimated at 500,000 
hectolitres. The sheep are generally small and 
weak, but l^e rearing of blads-cattle and horses 
engrosses a considerable share of attention ; and 
the latter especially are strong and much esteemed, 
llie fisheries of cod, mackerel, and pilchards yield 
an annual sum of about 600,000 fr., and while they 
constitute one of the most important resources of 
the dep., are usei^ as preparatory schools for sea- 
men. The forests are extensive, and abound with 
wild animals. Iron and lead mines are wrought ; 
but the dep. is not rich in other minerals. The 
culture of flax, and its manufacture into linen, are 
pursued to a great extent. The linens of Brittany 
are mostly exported to S. America. Sailcloth, 
woollens, parchment, leather, shoes, and beet-root 
sugar are amongst the other principal articles of 
manufacture. Two canals, that of the Hie and 
Ranee, and that between Nantes and Brest, pass 
through different parts of this dep. It is divided 
into 5 arronds, 4o cantons, and 875 communes. 


Chief towns St Brieuc, the cap., Dinan, Guin- 
gamp, Lannion, and Loudeac. The Bas-Breton is 
Uie language commonly spoken, but most of the 
upper cluses understand French. Manv Celtic 
and Roman antiquities are scattered over tbis dep., 
of which the teinple of Lanleff is the prindpaL 

COTHEK (Germ. Kothen), a town of Central 
Germany in the duchy of Anhalt, on the Ziethe, 
76 m. Sw. Berlin, and 83 m. NW. Leiraic, on the 
railway firom Leipzic to Magdeburg. Pop. 11,112 
in 1861. COthen is divided into the old and new 
town, and is well built. Among the public build- 
ing are the old ducal palace, with a gallery of 
paintings, cabinet of natural curiosities, and a 
good library ; the new ducal Sehlau — former re- 
sidence of the reigning family of Anhalt-Cdthen, 
which became extinct in 1847 — three churches, a 
synagogue, orphan and female asylums, a teachers* 
seminary, and a school for the indigent. Gold and 
silver lace, woollen cloth, linens, tobaooo, and lea- 
ther are manufactured here; and there is aome 
trade in com, butter, cheese, and wooL 

COTOPAXI, a celebrated volcano of S. America, 
in the republic of Ecuador (Colombia), belonging 
to the E. or more inland chain of the great Cordfl- 
lera of the Andes ; in lat 0^ 40' S., and long. 78^ 
39' W., 34 m. SSE. Quito. Its shape is a ^ect 
cone ; it consists chiefly of mica, but in part of 
obsidian ; its absolute height is 18,878 ft. above 
the level of the ocean, the upper 4,400 of which 
are covered with perpetual snow. Its summit is 
not more than about 9,800 ft. above the great lon- 
gitudinal valley between the yro chains of the 
Cordillera ; but such is its steepness that finm« 
boldt was unable to ascend it above the point at 
which the perpetual snows commence. The cxater 
appears to be surrounded by a kind of circular 
wall, which, especially on the S. aide, has the 
aspect of a parapet ; and, probably ovring for the 
most part to the heat, this summit of the cone is 
never covered with snow, and looks at a distance 
like a dark stripe. On the S£. side of the moun> 
tain, near the snow-limit, there is a comparativelj 
small projecting mass of rock, studded with points, 
and called the * Head of the Inca * bpr the Indiana, 
who have a popular tradition that it formed ori- 
ginallv a part of the summit of Cotopaxi Hum- 
boldt himself inclines to the belief that the cone 
supporting the present crater, like the aomma on 
Vesuvius, is composed of a great number of stiata 
of lava heaped upon each other. * Cotopaxi is the 
most dreadful volcano of the kingdom of Quito, 
and its explosions are the most frequent and di»> 
astrous. The mass of soorise, and the huge paeoea 
of rock thrown out of this volcano which are spread 
over the neighbouring valleys, covering a surface 
of several square leagues, would form, were they 
heaped together, a colossal mountain. In 1738, 
the flames of Cotopaxi rose nme hmdred metres 
(4^ furlongs) above the blink of the crater. In 
1744, the roarings of the volcano were heard as far 
as Honda, a town on the borders of the Magdalena, 
and at the distance of 200 common leagues. On 
the 4th of April, 1768, the quantity of ashes ejected 
was so great that in the towns of Hambato and 
Tacunga da^ broke only at three in the afternoon. 
The explosion that took place in the month of 
January, 1803, was preceded by a dreadful ]Ae- 
nomenon, the sudden melting of the snows that 
covered the mountain. At the port of Guayaquil, 
52 leagues distant in a strai^t line from the 
crater, we heard day and night the noises of the 
volcano, like continued discharges of a battery ; 
we distinguished these tremendous sounds even 
on the Pacific Ocean, to the SW. of the island of 
Puna.' (Humboldt's Researches, English tiansu 
i. 115-126.) 


eOTTBUS (Genn. Kottbtu), a town of PraasU, 
prov. Bnmdenbuxg, cap, circ. same name, on the 
Spree, 42 m. S. by W. Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and 
64 m. SE. Bolin, <» a bnanch line of the railway 
f ram Bolin to Bredan. Pop. 11,112 in 1861. The 
town is walled, and has four chiuches, two hoopi- 
tala, a gymnawwm, and library, an orphan asylum, 
and a girls' schooL It has three suburbs, and is 
eoaunanded by a castle built on a height to the E. 
Cottbos is the seat of the council for the cure, 
and of a municipal court. There are considerable 
fabrics of woollen and linen stufb and stockings, 
with bteweries and diatilleriea. This town was 
made over to Prussia by the congress of Vienna, 
preriously to which it belonged to Saxony. 

COVE OF CORK. (See Qubbmstowm.) 

COVENTRY, a CO. and citr of England, within 
the CO. of Warwick, 10 m. N]^£. Warwick, 18 m. 
ESE. Birmingham, 85 m. NNW. London, and 94 
m. by London and North Western railway. Pop. 
of mun. city 40,936 and of parL city ^1,647 m 
1861. Coventry stands on a gentle declivity on 
the N. Western ndlway, and is watered by the 
Radf<»d and Sherborne brooks. Streets of the 
old town (with the exception of Cross Cheaping, 
where the splendid cross formerly stood, and 
which is now used as a com market), generally 
narrow and ill-paved, and the upper parts of a few 
of the houses, which are hitfh, project and present 
a somtRe uipeamnce. WiUiin the last forty years, 
Itowever, tne suburbs have been considerably ex- 
tended, sevend new lines of streets having been 
laid out, and many new houses erected. The 
jirinc^ial buildings are, St. IfichaeFs church, one 
4if the finest specimens of the lighter Oothic in 
England, with a beautifol steeple, 808 ft in 
lieigbt; St John's and Trinity diurches, Christ 
Cbordi, attached to the old and beautiful spire 
of the Gieyfiiars' monastery ; a Catholic chapel ; 
aeyeral dissenters' meeting-houses; the county 
hidl, erected in 1785; St. Mary's hall, erected 
(Henry VI.) for the Trinity ^ufld, now used for 
meetings of the town cooncU, and public con- 
certs ; a neat and commodious theatre ; the drapers- 
hall; the canal office; the free school; the gaol, 
and the barracks. Coventry was, conjointly with 
Lichfield, the see of a bishop, but on the recom- 
mendation of the ecrlesiswtiral commissioners, it 
has been joined to the diocese of Worcester. 

Under the Municipal Corporation Act the city 
is divided into six wards ; and is governed W a 
ma^or, 10 aldermen, and 80 counsellors. The 
Junsdictum of the corporate authorities extends 
over the dty and the co. of the dty, including, 
in all, an area of 15,070 acres. The recorder holds 
a court of quarter sessions, and a court of record 
for the lecovery of debts to any amount. The 
sheriff holds a county court monthly. Coventry 
has rcgnlariy sent 2 mems. to the H. of C since 
1453. Previously to the Reform Act the right of 
voting was exclusivdy in the fieemen of the city 
wbohad served a seven years' appenticeship in 
the city cr suburbs. Registered eiectoii9 5,576 in 
1862. The limits of the parL bor. correspond with 
the ancient limits of the pars, of St. Michael and 
the Holy Trinity, except that it does not include 
the hamlet of ^erestey. It embraces an area of 
4,920 acres. The municipal boundary is co-ex- 
tensive with the 00. 

Coventry has been the seat of 12 pariiaments : 
one (Henry IV.) in 1404, called, from lawyers 
being excluded, paHiamenttim iKdodttm ; the 
other (lleniy Vl.^ in 1459, called parliamentum 
diaboliemm, mm its numerous acts of attainder. 
The city was incorporated by Edward HI., and 
the first mayor chosen in 1845. It was erected 
into a county by Henry VL, with the hamlets 



belonging thereto, and lying within the vill, or 

This city has many extensive and well-endowed 
charities ; of these, one of the most celebrated is 
the free school, founded by John Hales in the 
rei^ of Henry VIII., in which the celebrated 
antiquary, Dugdale, received the early part of 
his education ; it has a revenue of SOOL a year, 
and exhibitions to both universities. Here are 
also various charity, national, and infant schools, 
as Bonds' hospital, at Bablake, for 45 old men, 
with a revenue of 1,050/. a year; and Wheatley's 
school and hospital, at the same place, for 40 
poor boys, with nearly 600/. a year ; Ford's hos- 
pital, in Grey-friars-lane, for 85 old women ; Fair- 
fax's school, in Su John's par., for 40 boys; Mrs. 
Catharine Bailey's school, in St. Idlchael's par., 
for 35 boys ; the Blue Coat school in TMnity par., 
for 50 girls; White's charity, amounting to 
about 2,500/. per annum ; and the House of In- 
dustry, formerly the White-friars' monastery. A 
library was established here in 1791 ; it is regulated 
by a committee. A mechanics' institute was 
founded in 1828. Here is. also a society for the 
diffusion of religious and useful knowledge ; ge- 
neral and self-supporting dispensaries, and a 
public hospitaL 

Previously to 1486, woollen cloth caps and 
bonnets were an important article of manufacture. 
In the early part of the 16th century, Coventry 
became famous for the production of a blue thread, 
called * Coventry true blue.' But this was given 
up before 1581, after which woollen and broad 
cloths continued the staple until the destruction 
of the Turkey trade in 1694. The manufacture 
of striped and mixed tammies, camlets, shalloons, 
and calimancoes, flourished during a part of the 
last century, but is now inmost discontinued. 
This was succeeded by silk throwing and riband 
weaving, now the staple business of the place, and 
watch making. When first introduced, about a 
century and a half ago, the riband trade was for 
some time confined to a few hands, but it after- 
wards increased so as to exceed that of every other 
town in England. The alteration of the law as to 
the silk trade in 1826, and the commercial treaty 
with France of 1860, though productive of con- 
siderable loss and injury at the time, have, by 
introducing a spirit of competition, and stimulating 
the manufacturers to call all the resources of 
science and ingenuity to their aid, been the 
causes of great improvement. Lute-strings may 
now be purchased more cheaply in Coventry than 
in France. Plain goods of English manufacture 
are fully equal to those of the French ; but tlie 
latter have the advantage in style and fashion, 
and in Uie brilliancy, though not in the per- 
manency, of their colours. It is the general prac- 
tice for the work to be given out to be executed 
in the houses of the workmen. The manufac- 
tureis employ girls and young women, who work 
together on the premises of the maiii^acturers, in 
winding and warping the silk for the out-door 
weavers. In 1889 it appeared, from the report of 
Mr. Fletcher to the commissioners of inquiry into 
the condition of the hand-loom weavers, that the 
operative loom owners in the city and suburban 
villages held 8,967 looms, of which 8,145 were 
worked by members of their own families, and 
the remaining 822 by journeymen and half-pay 
apprentices. It further appears from the same 
report, that 27 master manufacturers employed 
in loom shops or factories 1,862 looms. No official 
report of the state of manufactures in Coventry 
has been made since that time, and it is probabte 
that no great changes have taken place. Large 
quantities of ribands are exported out the prin- 



cipal demand is for the London and country 
markets. There are several large dyehouses, for 
dyeing the silk, employing from 800 to 500 

The manufacture of watches was intirodnced 
about a century ago. and has continued progres- 
sively to increase. Laige quantities are prepared 
for the home and foreign markets; some manu- 
facturers employing, when the trade is in a state 
of activity, great numbers of hands. The wages 
of the workmen vary from 15s. to 70«. per week, 
the larger amounts being paid to those only who 
are proficients in working at the patent lever and 
other superior watches, which are now produced 
here equal in quality to these made in London. 
Coventry is advantageously situated for commer- 
cial operations, lying nearly in the centre between 
the four greatest ports of the country — London, 
Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull, and having^ direct 
communication by railroads and canals with the 
metropohs and principal towns in the kingdom. 
Corp. revenue, 14,938 in 1862. Gr(M» annual value 
of real property assessed to income tax 120,9312. 
in 1857, and 157,342Z. in 1862. 

During the monastic ages, Coventry had a splen- 
did monastery, and a large and beautiful cathedral, 
similar to that at Lichfield. The latter was de- 
stroyed by a barbarous order of Henry VIII., and 
only a few fragments of it now remain. The 
dty was formerly surrounded with walls of great 
strength and grandeur, with 32 towers and 12 
gates. It has been always renowned for its pan 
geants and processions, and particularly, in the 
monastic ages, for the performance of mytUrieB. 
The legend of Peeping ']\>m, and the Lady Oodiva, 
is too well known^ through the exquisite poem of 
Tennyson, ^ I waited for the train at Coventry,' 
to require any special notice. An efBgy of the 
over-inquisitive Udlor may be seen in the upper 
part of a house at Uie comw of Hertford Street, 
llie tradesmen of Coventry were formerly famed 
for their affluence. In 1448, they equipped 600 
men armed for the public service. Many eminent 
persons have either been bom or bred at Coventry, 
among whom were, Nehemiah Grew, curator, m 
1672, to the Koyal Society for the anatomy of 
plants, and in 1677, sec. to the Royal Soaety. 
Coventry gives the title of earl to the'descendants 
of John Coventry, mayor of London in 1425. 
Market-days, Wednesdays and Fridays. The prin- 
cipal fair, held first Friday after Trmity Simday, 
is called Show Fair, and continues eight days, on 
the first of which the representation of the Coun- 
tess Godiva's procession is sometimes enacted. 

COVILHA, a town of Portugal, prov. Beyra, on 
the £. slope of the Sierra de la Eatrella ; 20 m. SW. 
Guarda. Pop. 6,158 in 1858. The town rises am- 
phitheatrewLse between two streams. In the upper 
})art there is an antique castle and tower, and in 
the lower part, on the margin of one of the streams, 
is a manufactory of fine cloths, druggets, and baizes, 
carried on by a company in Lisbon, containing 
above 120 looms. There are nine churches, with 
a hospital and n workhouse. 

COUKLAJSD,agovemmentof Russiain Europe, 
on its W. frontier, having N. the Gulf of Riga and 
Livonia ; £. the ^v. of Witepsk ; S. that of Wilna, 
and a small portion of Prussia ; and W the Baltic. 
Area about 10,000 sq. m. Pop. 558,800 in 1846, 
and 567,078 in 1858. Near Mittau, and along the 
shores, Uie surface is flat, and is overspread with 
marshes and sandy heaths; but the interior is 
mostly undulating, there bein^ a chain of hills 
along the bank of the Duna, which sends ramifica- 
tions over the whole country. The Duna forms 
the £. and a part of the N. boundary: the other 
principal riven are the Aa and Vindau. There are 


many lakes. Speaking generally, the atmosphere 
is damp, the sky cloudy, and the temperature low 
and variable. Soil generally light and sandy, re- 
quiring much manure; it is most fertile towards 
the £. : two-fifths of the surface is occupied by 
forests, chiefly of pine, fir, birch, alder, with a con- 
siderable intermixture of oaks. Agriculture is the 
principal occupation of the people, and notwith- 
standing the badness of the soil, has advanced 
more than in any of the neighbouring provs. More 
com is grown than is necessary for home consump- 
tion ; it is chiefly rye, barley, and oats. Flax and 
hemp, and a few fruits and pulse, besides a little 
tobacco, are also cultivated. Pasturage is scarce* 
and but few cattle are reared ; the oxen and horses 
are both of a bad quality, and the sheep yield only 
a coarse species of wool. Bees are kept only to a 
trifling extent. Iron, lime, and turf, and occa- 
sionally amber, are found. Manufactures quite 
insignMcant, and mostly domestic : in respect to 
them, Courland ranks nearly last amongst the 
Russian govs. There are a few of paper, copper 
articles, and earthenware, and some brandy dis- 
tilleries and tile factories. Mittau, the cap., is the 
only town of any size : the principal sea-ports are 
LeBau and Vindau, both on the W. coast. The 
exports, which are principally com, flax, hemp, 
and hemp-seed, skins, and salted meat, are said to 
amount to about 2,500,000 roubles a year, and the 
imports about 600,000. The inland trade is almost 
entirely In the hands of the Jews, of whom there 
are about 20,000 in the gov. Most of the pop. are 
Lutherans, and of Letton origin. CourUmd was 
anciently a part of Livonia, and was conquered in 
the 13th century bv the Teutonic Knights; in 
1561 it became a fief of Poland. After the faU of 
that power, it remained for a short time indepen* 
dent under its own dukes; but in 1795 it waa 
united to Russia. 

COURTRAY, or COURTRAI (Flem. Kortryk, 
Lat. Cortoriacum)f a fortified and manufacturing 
town of W. Flanders, 17 m. £. Ypres, 25 m. S. 
Bmges, on the railway from Ghent to Touraay. 
Pop. 24,652 in 1856. The town is situated on the 
navigable river Lys, by which it communicates 
with the principal towns of Flanders. Houses well 
built ; streets spacious and remarkably df^an. The 
principal pubbc buildings are the town house and 
the cathedral of Notre Dame, which are fine old 
Gothic edifices beautifully ornamented. The church 
of St. Martin is also a handsome stracture. There 
is a nunnery, a collegiate school, an exceUent aca- 
demy of design, two orphan asylums, a savinga* 
bank, and an exchange and a chamber of com- 
merce. The spinning of linen thread, and the 
weaving of plun and damask linens, employ a 
large portion of the uihabitanta. The fine linens 
of Courtray are known throughout £urupe. Nearly 
all the weaving is performed on the handloom at 
home, and much of it by cottage farmers. The 
annual quantity of unbleached linen brought to 
the Courtray market is about 80,000 pieces, two- 
thirds of which are bought by the meichanta of 
the town, and the rest bj those of Belgium, France, 
and £ngland. The spinning of cotton 3ram, and 
the manufacture and dyeing of varioua cotton 
fabrics, constitute an important branch of industry. 
Courtray has also establishments for the manufac* 
ture of soap, candles, salt, tobacco, chicory, choco- 
late, oil, wax, paper, and pottery; besides nume- 
rous breweries and tanneries. 

The surrounding plain is abundantly producrive 
of aU kinds of field and garden crops, especially 
flax, of which immense quantities are grown of the 
finest description, and the vicinities of the town 
are picturesquely varied by numerous bleacfaing- 
fields. Courtray was first built in the 6th centory. 


It ms anciently knovm under the name of Cor- 
tofiacam, and in the 7th centorjr it was a muni- 
cipal city. Like the other towns of Flanders, it 
has been suHect to many vicissitudes, has sus- 
tained seTeral memorable sief^es, and been burnt 
and {Sundered in war. Under its walls was fought, 
in 13<^ the famous battle of the Spurs, between 
20.000 Flemings, consisting chiefly of weavers of 
Ghent and Bruges, and a French army composed 
of 7,000 knights and noblemen, and 40,0()0 infantry. 
In this ocMiflict the flower of the French chivalry 
was slain, and the victorious Flemings collected 
from the iMttle-field about 6,000 pairs of gold spurs 
worn by their proud and defeated foes. Among 
the antiquities that have been found, are nume- 
rous medjds of the Oesars. Fairs for all kinds of 
merchandise axe numerously attended on Easter 
Mondav and Aug. 24. 

CX>UTANCES(an. Cbatfimtia), a town of France, 
d^ La Manche, cap. arrond., on a hill on the N. 
bank of the SouUe, 6 m. E. from the sea, and 16 
m. WSW. St. Lo. Pop. 8,062 in 1861. Streets 
narrow, steep, and ill-paved; houses mostly of 
stcme, roofed with slate. It contains several old 
chnndies worthy of notice, especially a Gothic ca- 
thedral, having two spires in front, and a large 
square tower surmountmg the centre of the cross ; 
it is a conspicuous object, and a landmark for ships 
in the ChanneL The town has a bishop's palace, 
a communal college, a public library with 5,000 
volumes, and a small theatre. Druggets, cutlery, 
and parchments are produced here; it has also 
marble-works, and a brisk trade in com, butter, 
pi*ttltzT, flax, hemp, and hones. In its imme- 
diate vicinity are the remains of an ancient aoue- 
duct. with many of the arches still very perfect. 
C'outanocfl was die birthplace of the Abbe de St. 

COWES (WEST), a town and sea-port of Eng- 
land, Gow Hants, Isle of Wight, liberty West Me- 
dina, par. Northwood, 75 m. SW. London, 10 m. 
W. Portsmouth, on the acclivity and summit of a 
hiU rising immediately from the W. bank of the 
31ediiia, at its embouchure in the channel between 
the Isle of Wight and the opposite coast of Hamp- 
bhire. Area of par., 4,270 acres : pop. 4,591 m 
1«4>1. Streets narrow and very irregular; but, as 
the booses rise above each other from the water's 
edge to the summit, they have a striking effect, 
many of the upper and more modem ones being 
handsome structures commanding splendid and ex- 
tensive views. In the immediate neighbourhood 
are numerous elegant villas. The town, which is 
much reaorted to as a fashionable sea-bathing 
place, poasesses ample accommodations for visitors, 
UK hotels, lodging-houses, assembly-rooms, and 
reading-rooms. A crescent-shaped battery, . de- 
fending the entrance to the harbour, has some 
tieavy pieces of ordnance and accommodation for 
A company of artillery. £. Cowes, on the opposite 
»ide of the river, | m. from W. Cowes, is a small 
irre^fular built hamlet, of the par. of Whippenham, 
at the foot of a hill. Pop. 1,954 in 1861. Here is 
the custom-hcMise of the port. The harbour and 
luadstead of Cowes are amongst the best and most 
convenient in the English Channel, and form the 
rendezvous of the Itoyal Yacht Club, and the 
station where their annual r^atta is held. Many 
merchant vessels and yachts are built in the har- 
bour. Many large ships, outward or homeward 
bound from or to London, are accustomed to touch 
At Cowes before proceeding on their voyage. It 
haA also a considerable coasting trade. The ex- 
ports cmisist chiefly of agricultural produce and 
malt : the imports of coius, manufactured goods, 
colonial produce, and other articles of genend con- 
sumption. There are hourly bteamcn to Porta- 

\ou IL 



month and Southampton, and passage boats to 
Newport, up to which the tide flows. 

CRACOW, a small and formerly— until Nov. 16. 
1846 — a nominally independ. state of Central 
Europe, once part of the k. of Poland, at the present 
time a circle of Galicia; between lat. 50^ and 50^ 
15' N., and long. 19^ 8' and 20° 12' E. Length, 
£. to W., 46 m. ; breadth varying from 5 to 15 m. 
Area, 488 sq. m. Surface generally undulating, 
consisting of the last ramifications of the Carpa- 
thian mountains. The Vistula, which bounds it 
on the S. in its whole extent, receives several small 
streams from the N. in this part of its course, one 
of which, the Brinica, forms the W. boundary of 
the Cracow territory. Climate healthy and tem- 
perate; mean annual temp. 47^° Fahr. Soil very 
fertile, producing sufficient com for home con- 
sumption, and an abundance of pulse, culinarv 
vc^tables, and fruit The territory contains ricn 
mines of coal, zinc, and alum ; some iron is also 
found ; and there are quarries of marble, building 
stone, and freestone. By the third partition of 
Poland, in 1795, Cracow passed under the dominion 
of Austria; but it was reconquered by the Poles in 
1809, and incorporated with the grand duchy of 
Warsaw, At the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, the 
territory was erected into an independent neutral 
republic, under the protection of Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia. Agreeably to the amended consti- 
tution of 1883, the government was vested in a 
senate composed of a president and eight senators, 
two of whom were elected for life, and the other 
six, as well as the president, for six years. One 
of the latter was elected hy the clergy (chapter) of 
Cracow. There was a legislative chamber com- 
posed of two senators (one of whom, chosen by the 
chamber, presided at its deliberations), 4 justices 
of the peace, 2 delegates of the clergy, 2 of the 
university, and 20 representatives, chosen by the 
electoral collies of the city and territory. This 
assembly was convoked every three years to vote 
the bud^t, to inquire into the administration of 
the pubhc funds, to elect the members of the senate 
and the different tribunals, and to discuss the laws 
presented for its sanction by the senate. But 
from 1826 to 1846 the territory was garrisoned by 
Austrian troops ; and at the latter date, as above 
stated, it was incorporated into the Austrian 

Cracx)W (an. Carrodumim), a city of Central 
Europe, previously to the 17th century, the me- 
tropolis of the k. of Poland; on the N. bank of the 
Vistula, where it is joined by the Rudawa, 160 m. 
SSW. Warsaw, and 200 m. NE. Vienna, on the 
railway from Vienna to Lemberj^. Pop. 41,086 in 
1857, excL of garrison. The city is divided into 
three portions, one of which, the Jews' quarter, is 
built on an isL in the Vistula. The city has, be- 
sides, several suburbs. Cracow has near it Mount 
Wawel, a rock of moderate elevation, but consider- 
able extent, on which are the castle and cathedral ; 
and two barrows, said to be the burial-places of 
the founder of the citv and of his daughter Venda. 
The city itself is old, and irregulariy built ; but 
its streets are broad, and its churches and other 
public buildings, having many of them interesting 
monuments, and being associated with some of 
the most important events in Polish history, invest 
it with much interest. It was formerly fortified, 
but the ramparts have been converted into public 
widks. The royal castle of Cracow^ built m the 
14th century, and formerly the residence of the 
kings of Poland, though not in ruins, is greatly 
decayed. It has been partly destroyed by fire at 
different times, and imperfectly restored; but it 
has suffered more from Uie effects of war, having 
been in great port demolished by Charics XII, in 




1702» and BtUl more from H» change of masters : 
at one time it was used by the Anstrians for bar- 
racks, and now serves for a workhouse. Of the 76 
churches fonnerly in Cracow, about 40 are in ruins ; 
the cathedral alone has retained its splendour and 
costly decorations, for which, and for its monu- 
ments, it is celebrated. Around its interior are 20 
small chapels, crowned with domes in the Byzan- 
tine style. Most of the Polish kings and man^ 
illustdous men are buried in it ; among others it 
contains the tombs of Casimir the Great, of John 
Sobieski, the deliverer of Vienna, and of the • last 
of the Poles,' Kosciusko and Poniatowski. The 
other churches and palaces have tine paintings, 
statues, and ancient monuments. The episcopal 
palace is the most striking of the modem edifices, 
its walls l)eing adonied with paintings in fresco, 
representing the most remarkable events of Polish 

The university, founded and endowed by 
Casimir the Great, and improved by Ladislaus 
Jaghellon, has lost most of its ancient importance. 
(hrScow contains a college, a school of arts, an 
academy of painting, a public library with 30,000 
vols, and 4,600 MSS., an observatory, and a bo- 
tanical garden. The articles of export and import 
cHjnsist principally of skins, linen, wax, com, wood, 
Hungarian wines, and manufactured articles from 
England and Gerraanv. 

About a league W. of the city is an artificial 
tumulus erected to the memory of Kosciusko. 
•On the 16th of Oct. 1820, the senate of Cracow, 
accompanied bv vast numl)€r8 of the nobles and the 
people from all the adjacent provinces, proceeded 
to deposit the first load of earth upon an eminence 
not far from the walb) of the city, which had been 
selected to bear a mountain tumulus in honour of 
the patriotic general For four years this great 
wort was eagerly pursued ; citizens of every rank 
toiled at the wheelbarrow; parcels of the sacred 
soil were sent to join the mass from all the great 
battle-tields which had been sprinkled with Polish 
blood ; and the mound gradually rose to an altitude 
of about 150 ft. This monument of clay, planted 
on the soil which has been most frequently and 
grievously convulse*! by political revolutions, will 
probably maintain its place as long as the world 
IS habitable by men. Of all the stmctures of 
our age, if stmcture it can be called, this alone 
seems raised for all-time — a tiling lasting in itself, 
lasting by the name it bears, and lasting by the 
spirit which made it, when those who raised it 
shall all be scattered in uncollected dust.' (Reeve's 
Sketches of Bohemia.) 

The citv is said to have been built about the 
year 700, by Krak, a Polish duke, from whom it 
clerived its name. It successively belonged to the 
Moravians and Bohemians, and was taken from 
the latter at the end of the 10th century by Bo- 
leslaus the Great, who made it the cap. of Poland. 
In the 16th century it contained three times its 
present number of inhab. 

CRAIL, a royal and pari. bor. of Scotland, co. 
Fife, 2 m. from the East Neuk of Fife, or Fife 
Ness. Pop. 965 in 1861. It is a decayed place, 
destitute of trade or manufactures. Many of the 
houses, however, are of that massive description 
that indicates former greatness. David I. had a 
palace here, which is now entirely demolished. 
The par. church was once collegiate, with a pro- 
vost, sacrist, and ien prebcndanes. The famous 
James Sharp, afterwards archbishop of St Andrew's, 
murdered by the Covenanters on Magus Muir in 
1679, was once minister of Crail Coal is abun- 
dant in the neighbourhood. 

CRANBOURNK, a town and par. of England, 
CO. Dorset, div. Sha-stou. Area of par., i:{,75>() 


acres. Pop. of ditto, 2,656 in 1861. The town is 
situated in an open pleasant district, 12 m. SSW. 
Salisburv. The church is a fine old structure, 
partly in the Norman, and partly m the earliest 
Gothic, with a noble tower in the later Gothic 
style. There is an almshouse for three old people, 
and a few smaller charities. The ribbon manu- 
facture, formerly carried on here, has declined, and 
the inhabitants are now chiefiy employed in agri- 
culture. This par. is the supposed arena of the 
battle between the British, under Boadicea, and 
the Romans. Numerous barrows are dispersed 
over it, in which bonea and urns have been found. 
On the Castie-hill, S. of the town, are the remains 
of a circular fortification, enclosing an area of six 
acres. Cranboume Chase, a tract extending near- 
ly to Salisbury, was celebrated during both the 
Saxon and the Norman periods. An old embattled 
manor house, called the Castle, still exists, which 
was occasionally the royal residence: in its hall 
courts were held ; and there is a dungeon for the 
confinement of those who infringed on the game 
laws. Bishop StilUngfieet was a native of Cran- 

CRANBROOKE, a town and par. of England, 
Co. Kent, lathe of Scrar, hund. Cianbrooke. An?a 
of par., 10,460 acres. Pop. of ditto, 4,128 in 1861 . 
The town, on the Crane (a small stream traversing 
the Weald district), 38 m. SSE. London, consLst^t 
of a main street, nearly 1 m. in length, and a 
smaller one divergm^ from it. Many of the houses 
are well built, and it is partially paved and lightetl, 
and amply supplied with water. The church, re- 
built about 1730, in the later Gothic style, ban a 
lofty embattied tower. There are also s£x di&sent- 
in^ chapels ; a grammar-school, endowed by Queen 
Elizabeth ; a writing-school, founded in tiie same 
reign, with a small endowment; and a national 
subscription school The woollen trade, introducetl 
here by Edward III., and long considerable, has 
disappeared; and the trade in hops is now the 
staple business of the place. Sir R. Baker, the 
antiquary, and Huntington, the founder of a reli- 
gious sect, were natives of this place. 

CRAY FORD, a town and par. of England, co. 
Kent, lathe 8utton-at-Hone ; 11m. £. bv S. Lcm- 
don by road, and 14| m. by London, Chatham, 
and Dover railway. Area of par.. 2,380 acres. 
Pop. of ditto, 3,013 in 1861. The town, situated 
on the Cray, about 4 m. above its confluence with 
the Darent, and on the great road from London to 
Dartford, consists of a long irregular street. Tlie 
church is a good modem stmcture, on an accHWty 
at the higher end of the town. Its market hais 
been long discontinued, but an annual fair is hold 
Sept 8. Until a recent period, extensive print- 
works were carried on a little below the town; 
and a mill for flattening iron and splitting iron 
into hoops, one of the first of its sort constructed 
in England, was, until recently, in operation. In 
the parish are numemus artificial caves, upwards 
of 100 ft, in depth, increasing in magnitude at> 
they recede from the earth's surface. Some of 
them contain several distinct apartments, exca- 
vated in the chalk, supported by pillars left at in- 
tervals for the purpose. Their origin is a matter 
of dispute ; some having supposed them to be mere 
chalk Quarries, while by others thev are suppt^fNt 
to be places of security' excavated W the ancient 
Britons or Saxons as receptacles for their faniili(>s 
and goods during periods of danger. The Roman 
station Noviomagut is supposed to have been near 
Oayford, contiguous to which, a.d. 457, was fought 
the great battle between Hengist and Vortigeni, 
which ended in the total defeat of the Britonk. 

CRECY, an inconsiderable village of Fran<^», 
d«'p. Somme, 11 m. N. Abl)eviUe, famous in hi>ti»ry 


for the victory guned here on the 2t5th of August, | 
VUO, by the English forces under Edward III. over 
the French under their king Philip of Valois. The 
Flinch aimy is believed to have amounted to about 
1*20,000 men, while that of the English was under 
44),00O : but the superior discipline and good order 
of the latter more than oounterbalancea their in- 
feriority in point of numbers, and enabled them to 
achieve one of the greatest victories of which we 
have any account. The loss of the French, in the 
liattle and pursuit, has been estimated at 1,200 
knights, 1,400 gentlemen, 4,000 men at arms, and 
ahnut 30,000 inferior troops. Besides the king of 
France, there were in the defeated army the kings 
of Bohemia and Majorca, both of whom were 
killed. The crest nf the former, consisting of three 
<estrich feathers, with the motto leh Dien (I serve) ^ 
was adopted by the Black Prince, the eldest son 
of Edwaid, whose bravery was most conspicuous 
on this occasion ; and has been continued as the 
creipit and motto of all subsequent princes of Wales 
down to the present times. The loss on the part 
of the English was comparatively trifling. It has 
been said that cannon were first employed by the 
English in this battle, and that they contributed 
not a little to their success. (Rapines Ilist of Eng- 
land, iiL 458. 8vo. edit. ; Hume's ditto, cap. 15.) 

CREDITOX, a town and par. of Enghmd, co. 
I>evon, bond. Crediton, 7 m. XW. Exeter, on the 
London and South Western railway. Area of par., 
1 1,440 acres. Pop. of town, 4,048, and of par., 5,731 
in 1861. The town is situated in a narrow vale be- 
tween two steep ridges, through which the Creed^ 
dows and joins the Exe a little lower down. It is di- 
vided into two distinct parts, the E. or ancient town, 
and the W. more modem and larger part, consisting 
chiefly of a broad street along the jraincipal line 
of road from Exeter to N. Devon. The church, a 
noble building in the later pointed style, with a fine 
ttiwer springmg from the centre, was rebuilt in 2 
Henry VII. There are four dissenting chapels ; a 
free grammar school, founded by Edward Yl., for 
Ixiys of Crediton and Sandford par., — it has three 
exhibitions to either university ; a blue-coat school, 
f'lunded 1730, and incorporated with a national 
Khonl established 1814, in which 150 boys are in- 
frtrueted, 80 of whom are clothed ; a mathematical 
school, founded 1794, for 12 boys ; two sets of an- 
cient almshouses ; and several minor charities. 
The majority of the labouring pop. are now em- 
ployed m agriculture. Formerly there were se- 
veral large woollen and seige manufactories: at 
present, however, there are no resident manufac- 
turers, though many females weave long ells at 
ttieir own dwellings,' for manufaccurers resident in 
N. Towton. This town sent members to the pari, 
at Carlisle, in Edwaid I. (WUlis's Not. Pari) It 
was several times the head-quarters of each party 
during the last civil war. In 1743 it was nearly 
destroyed by fiire, and was also smously injured by 
fire in 1769. 

CKEETOWN, a neat marit viUage of Scotland, 
CO. or stewartry of Kirkcudbright, par. Kirkma- 
breck, at the head of Wigtown Bay, where it re- 
ceives the Cree, and on the road between Dumfries 
and Portpatrick. Pop. 969 in 1861. The hills in 
the neighbourhood of Creetown seem to be almost 
entirely composed of granite ; and an extensive 
granite quarry, within 2 m. of the village, has 
fUmished materials for the Liverpool Docks. There 
used formerly to be large beds of sea shells in the 
vicinity, Uie shipment of which for manure to 
other places was a considerable source of employ- 
ment ; but these are now nearly exhausted. The 
late Dr. Thomas Brown, the celebrated ethical 
philosopher, was bom here in 1780, his father 
being mini^iter of the parish. 



CREFELD, a thriving town of Rhenish Prassia, 
cap. circ same name, m a fertile plain, 6 m. W. 
from the Rhine, and 13 m. NW. Dusseldorf, on 
the railway from Cologne to Utrecht and Amster- 
dam. Pop. 50,584 in 1861. It is the principal 
town in the Prussian dom. for the manufacture of 
silks, silk velvets, and silk thread. It has also fa- 
brics of woollen, cotton, and linen stuffs, lace, oil- 
cloth, camlets, and earthenware; with tanneries 
and distilleries. The town is well built, with 
wide streets and neat houses. It has four churches, 
an orphan and a deaf and dumb asylum, a hos- 
spital, a high school, poliix! and commercial courts, 
and is the seat of a court of justice. In its vici- 
nity is an old castle, now used for a silk-dyeing 
establishment In the latter half of the seven- 
teenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, 
its pop. was greatly augmented by many reformists 
and Mennonites, expelled from the neighbouring 
duchy of Juliers, and who, in return for their hos- 
pitable reception, introduced those manufactures 
to which the town owes all its prosperity. 

CREMA, a town of Northern Italy, prov. Cre- 
mona, on the Serio, 25 m. ESE. Milan. Pop. 
8,240 in 1861. The town is surrounded by a brick 
wall, a ditch, and some other old fortifications, 
and has a castle, which, before the use of artillery, 
was considered one of the four strongest fortresses 
in Italy. It is well built ; streets spacious ; palaces 
and public edifices numerous, including a cathe- 
dral and many other churches, a hospital, three 
separate charitable asvlums, and two theatres. 
It has manufactures o^ lace, hats, linen thread, 
and silks, and is celebrated for the excellence of 
its flax. Very good wine, frait, and fish are ob- 
tained in its vicinity. Crema was founded about 
570 A.D., during the reign of Alboin, the first 
Lombard king of Ital^. In 1159 it was sacked 
by Fred. Bor^rossa ; it was taken bv the French 
in 1797, the day after the capture of Lodi 

CREMONA, a city of Northern Italy, cap. de- 
1^. same name, on tne left bank of the* Po, 46 m. 
SE. by E. Milan, and 26 m. NW. Parma, on a 
branch of the railway from Milan to Venice. Pop. . 
28,591 in 1861. The town is of an oval shape, 
about 6 m. in circ ; is surrounded by walls, bas- 
tions, and wet ditches, and defended by a citadeL 
It is well laid out, but has a melancholy appear- 
ance, from the evident signs of decay, and large 
tracts of grass being seen m many of the broad and 
regular streets. Among its 44 churches, the 
IHtomo alone has any particular attractions. This 
is an ancient edifice in the style of architecture 
approaching to Saxon, mixed with a sort of mon- 
grel Italian. If not beautiful, it is at least pic- 
turesque ; and its lofty tower, 372 ft. in height, is 
singularly so, being adorned with a sort of rich 
open work : it is one of the highest in Italy. The 
interior is composed of a nave with two aisles, 
divided by eight immense piUars, above which are 
a series of paintings by Bordenone. Near the 
cathedral is an octagon baptistery, said to have 
been once a temple of Minerva. In the town-hall, 
among others, there is a fine picture by Paul 

Cremona is the residence of the delegate of the 
prov. and seat of a bishopric ; it has civU, criminal, 
and commercial tribunals, a lyceum, gymnasium, 
superior and female schools, several well-attended 
infant schools, which were the first institutions of 
the kind opened in Italy, a public library, nume- 
rous collections of works of art, two theatres, bar- 
racks, a numte-di-pieta, and several hospitals, asy- 
lums, uid other charitable institutions. The 
manufactures of silk and cotton fabrics are con- 
siderable, and there are others of porcelain and 
earthenware, dyes, and chemical products. During 




the 17th, and the earlier part of last century, Cre- 
mona was highly celebrated for ita musical mstru- 
ment8, especially its violins made by the Amati 
and Straduarius. Instruments by these makers 
are now very scarce, and fetch an extraordinary 
price ; and the manufacture of violins and strings 
has greatly declined. Cremona has a brisk trade 
in com, ftax, cheese, silk, oil, honey, wax, Ac : 
the flax grown in its vicinity is much esteemed. 
This citv IS verv ancient: it was probably founded 
originally by the Gauls, and, together with Pla- 
centia, was the seat of the first colony established 
by the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul ; but its antiqui- 
ties have been swept away bv the successive re- 
volutions it has undergone, ftaving espoused the 
cause of Brutus, Augustus divided its territory 
among his veterans ; and this bein^ insufficient for 
the purpose, he added to it the temtory of Mantua, 
as is well known from the line of Virgil : — 

* Mantna rm misene nimidm vidna Cremonnl* 

Eclog. ix. 28. 

But it speedily recovered from thb disaster, and 
rose to great wealth and eminence. Certainly, 
however, it was, as Tacitus says, ' bellis ci\'ilibus 
infeUx.' In the struggle between Vitellius and 
Ycspasian it was occupied by the troops of the 
fonner, and, being taken by those of the latter, it 
was sacked and burnt bv the infuriated soldierv. 
(Tacit Hist., lib. iil §§ 26^3.) It was again, m 
as far as practicable, restored by Vespasian. From 
the 12th century, downwards, its history is iden- 
tified with that of Milan. In 1796 it opened its 
gates to t^e French; and from 1800 to 1814 was 
the cap. of the de'p. Alto-Po. Vida, bishop of 
Alba, one of the best modem Latin poets, was bom 
at Cremona in 1490. 

CRETE (vulg. CANDIA), a laige and celebrated 
isl. of the Mediterranean, bclonguig to the Grecian 
Arphipelago, of which it forms the S. boundarv. 
It lies between 84° 67' and 35° 41' N. lat, and 2^9 
29' and 26° 20' E. long., ite XW. extremity being 
80 m. SE. Cape Matapan, in Greece, and its N W. 
termination 110 m. SW. the nearest point of Asia 
Minor. It is long and narrow, its length from £. 
to W. being about 160 m., with a breadth varying 
from 6 to nearly 60 m., but averaging about 20 m. 
Area, 8,200 sq. m. Pop. estimated at 158,000 ; of 
whom 100,000 are native Greeks, 44,000 Turks, 
and the remainder Hellenes, Jews, and other 
foreigners. Previously to the breaking out of the 
Greek Revolution, the pop. was estimated at about 
270,000. At the period when it was acquired by 
the Venetians, Crete hadprobably a pop. of 600,000 
or 600,000, but it fell off greatly under their op- 
pressive sway. Its fertility, and the number and 
magnitude of its ancient cities, warrant the sup- 
position that the pop. in antiquity may have 
amounted to 1,000,000 or 1,200,000. (l»ashley, il 
826.) The isL at present belongs to 'Turkey, and 
is divided into the three prov. of Candia, Retimo, 
and Canea, so named from their respective capi- 
tals. These prov. are subdivided into 20 eparchies, 
or districts, of which Candia comprises 11, Retimo 
4, and Canea 5. 

Topography. — Crete is almost whoUy covered 
with mountains. A serrated range stretches 
through its whole extent £. to W. : in the £., al- 
though rugged and barren, it attains no great ele- 
vation ; but as it proceeds westward, its peaks in- 
crease in height, and are covered with snow even 
in June. At the W. extremity of the island, the 
range of the White, or Sphakian mountains, rises 
to perhaps 6,000 ft., and Ida (now PsUoriti) the 
loftiest as well as the most famous of the Cretan 
mountains, nearly in the centre of the island, is, 
ac^irdiiig to Sicber 7,074 fL high. Ida, however. 

has little besides its height and classical celebrity 
to recommend it The different mountain ranges 
abound with grottos and caverns, some of which 
are alike extensive and celebrated. Everv cUasi- 
cal reader must be acquainted with the history of 
the famous labyrinth in which Minos kept the 
Minotaur killed by Theseus. A cavern of great 
extent and intricacy, and which answers In all the 
most essential particulars to the accounts given 
of the lab^Tinth, in a hill at the S. foot of Mount 
Ida, about 8 m. from the ruins of Gortyna, has 
been visited and described by Toumefort (I 65), 
Cockerell (Walpole's Memoirs, i 405), and others. 
It has been supposed by some that this cavern, 
which consists principally of many long, winding, 
and narrow passages, which can only be safely 
explored by means of a due, was a ouarry whence 
the stones used in the building oi Cnoesiu and 
Gort^iia had been derived ; but any such supposi- 
tion seems wholly out of the question ; it is not 
possible to imagine, had it been a quarry, that it 
should have l^en excavated in narrow winding 
passages, as that would have added immeasurably 
to the difficulty and cost of procuring the atones. 
Toumefort has supposed it to have been origin- 
ally a natural cavern, and that it bad been im- 
proved and perfect«d by art, to make it a place of 
concealment, or refuge, in periods of distress. 

On every side of the island, but especially on 
the S., the mountain region extends (|uite to the 
coast, which is generally lofty and inaccessible. 
The N. shores present several remaricable head- 
lands, as capes Busa (Cory cum). Spada (Psacon), 
Melek (Cyamon Pr.), St John, Salmone, Ac., and 
are indented bv many extensive bays, the chief 
of which are those of Kisamos, Khania, Sudha, 
Armyro {An^imalle) and MirabeL There arc 
some tolerable harbours on this shore ; but of these 
the S. coast is entirely destitute, and presents only 
one point worthv of notice, Cape Matala, the most 
southerly of all, belonging to Europe. Several 
small islands surround Crete, as Grabusa, Dhia, 
Gozo, &Cf and in the Bay of Sudha are the 
Leucae, supposed to be the isles of the Syrens 
celebrated by Homer. The plains are few; the 
chief are those in the N. of Crete, surrounding the 
towns of Canea, Candia, drc, and the larger one 
of Gortyna or Messara in the S., throuj^ which 
the Messara, the lai]gest stream, flows. 'There are 
no rivers of any importance, but every little 
ravine in the furrowed sides of the mountains 
bears its tribute of melted snow to the rich allu- 
vifd valleys lying at their feet, rendering them 
abundantly fertile. At the E. and W. extremities 
of Crete there are a few unimportant lakes. 

Climate and Natural Product*, — In the lower 
parts of the country it never freezes, and in sum- 
mer the heat would be intolerable if not tempered 
by N. winds, which are then prevalent Kmus 
occur mostly in the spring and autumn. The 
country is generally healthy, and sulject to few 
endemic diseases. Granite, schist, slate, &c. are 
amongst the primary rocks of the mountaina, but 
calcareous formations, as in Greece, are the most 
common. Crete is not rich in metals ; there are 
no mines, though Diodorus Siculus and other 
ancient writers preserve the tradition that irun 
was first discovered here. The mountains are 
clothed with woods of oak« chesnut, walnut, mnd 
pine trees, and the plane, cypress, m>*Ttle» wild 
olive, %ine, carob, aloe, arbutus, Jicua uuheuM, and 
a multitude of fine fhiits and v^etables li^^w 
spontaneous! V, while the ground is fra^pwnt with 
aromatic herbs. For luxuriant vegetation it firt- 
sents a wide and favourable contrast with some of 
the arid regions of continental Greece. The wild 
boar, wild gnat, wolf, ^c. are met with in the 



forestB, and game of varioiu kinds is plentifuL 
Birds of prcv are numerous, but reptiles are few. 
(Pasblev, Scott, ±c) 

Affrifemltmn.'-'¥rom 1821 to 1880, Crete suffered 
the wont evila of a sangninazy and devastating 
war, and though its agriculture be now somewhat 
reviv«d, it is still in a deplorable state. Its male 
pop. has been more than decimated, its oUye plan- 
tations and vinevards uprooted, its Tillages burned 
down, and much of its most productive land been 
ovdgrown with rank vegetation. The soil is for 
the most part light, and but little adapted for the 
culture or grain. Wheat, barley, and oats are, 
however, growut and, previously to the Greek 
revolution, wheat was annually exported; but 
sufficient com is not produced for home consump- 
tion, and Crete is obliged to depend for supplies 
on Egypt and Barca. The chief products are oil, 
sUk, wine, raisins, carobs, valonea, wool, oranges, 
lemons, wax, honey. Unseed, and almonds. Cotton 
and flax are also cultivated, and in the mountains 
many of the fruits and v^etables of colder cli- 
mates. The oil is good. Cretan wine is fre- 
quently euloeised by ancient authors. In the 
middle ages it held the first place amongst the 
exports, and under the names of Malmsey and 
Muscadine, considerable quantities were sent to 
England. The pastures are fine, and cattle of all 
kinds are reared, but their exportation is pro- 
hibited. Poultry are everywhere plentifuL Al- 
most every peasant has his own farm ; those who 
have not, cultivate the lands of the aga, or district 
govemor, on a kind of metayer system, the lessor 
furnishing the seed and all the necessaries of 
hodiandry, and dividing the crops in equal pro- 
portions with the cultivator, after deducting the 
seventh, to be paid to the government, and the 
seed previoosly advanced. The Mussulman rural 
population has been diminishing ever since the 
tsUnd fell under the Egyptian rule. Finding they 
are no longer able to obtain the fbrced larour of 
the Greeks, they are continually selling their lands, 
which are as eagerly purchased by the Greeks, 
who often borrow money for the purpose at an 
intercet of 20 to 30 per cent per ann. Landed 
property gives at an average a nett profit of 8 to 
10 per cent, per ann. 

Comumerce md Traded—The subjoined table ex- 
hibits the exports of the island (Keport by Mr. 
Consul Frank Hay on the Trade of tne Island of 
Cnfte, dated April 26, 1865) for the year 1864 :— 







£ <. 


£ «. 

OlHc OU . toiu 




.so*p . . „ 




.^^ilk . . lbs. 


1 2 


Wsz . . cwt. 


9 10 


t Honey . . lbs. 



1,058 15 

' Almonds . cwt. 




Carobs. • „ 





1 Vakmea . tons 




< cTioese . . cwL 


8 6 

1,800 10 

, Oranges 1 per 
; ^Lemons ) 1000 



5,465 12 

'Wool . . Ibi. 




Wine . gallons 



918 8 

Unseed bushels 




889 14 

, Cbesnnu valoel — 





1,890 15 

LwDDbSUnsNo.; 7,040 



Cotton • cwt. 603 


• • 


TMal . £ 


• • 

844,407 14 

The manufactures of the island are inconsider- 
able. The chief are those of soup, leather, and 
spirita : the rest consist only of domestic manufac- 

tures, as coverlids, sacking, and coarse cloths, 
woven by women and children. There are twenty- 
four soap manufactories at work, capable of pro- 
ducing 6,000 tons a year, though little more than 
half that quantity is made. The article is of good 
Quality, highly esteemed in the Levant, and fetches 
tne highest price in the market at Trieste. 

Goventment — Crete is governed by a pasha, and 
each province by a president with a Ifrg^ salary, 
who IS either a European 6r Asiatic Turk, in 
each province there is a council consisting of the 
cadi, treasurer, and other functionaries, and of a 
Turkish and a Greek representative from each of 
its districts, chosen however not by the district 
they represent, but by the pasha himself, from 
whom they receive a salary. These councils de- 
cide on all judicial questions within their respec- 
tive provinces, and professedlv according to the 
code Napoleon. The will of the president deter- 
mines the council. 

7^ armed foret amounts to about 4,500 men, 
chiefly Arabs and Albanians. There are eight 
fortresses, mounting altogether 468 pieces of can- 
non. The fortifications of the principal towns are 
kept in good order; but those of the others are in 
the most n^lected state. 

Before the Greek revolution, the Christians and 
Mohammedans were nearl]^ eaual as to numbers ;