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In course of publication, to be completed in Twelve Pabts, price 5«. each, 

forming Threb Yolukes, mediom 8to. price 2!U. each, 

— (Vols. L and 11. are now ready) — 









W. T. BRANDE, D.O.L. F.R.S.L. & E." 

Of Hw UaimtiT* MkU, Honorarv Pnfe$w of Chemi$6nf i* Oe Mtufol InMtiUiM of Qreat Britain ; 



LaU Scholar of Tr¥taty CoVUqb^ Oaford ; 

rE progress of scienoe and general knowledge during the twent j-fonr years which 
hBTe ekpsed since the pnblioation of the first edition of The Dictionary of Scienoe, 
Literatnre, and Art, has made it impracticable any longer to render that work a fit 
representatiye of existing knowledge, by mere corrections and supplements. It has, 
therefore, been considered advisable to re-write or re-edit it throughout, and thus 
to make it an entirely new work. It was the original plan of the Editor to associate 
with himself writers of admitted competence in the yarions subjects treated of in the 
work, and the same system has been followed in the new edition now in course of 
publication. It is believed that the names of the gentlemen who have contributed to 
this new edition form a sufficient guarantee that the Editors' efibrts to render this 
work a trustworthy source of information have in no way relazedi and that the book 
may therefore be consulted with confidence by all who wish to make themselves 
acquainted with the principles of each particular science, with the details and history 
of many, and with the mam facts of the multifarious subjects with which it is neces- 
sary, at the present day, for all intelligent persons to have some acquaintance. 

The plan of the fourth edition differs slightly from that of the former ones, but it 
is more in accordance with the idea on which the Dictionary was originally planned, 
and which was expressed in the name at first designed for the work. The intention 
of the Editor was to call it a * Dictionary of Scientific Terms,' and to limit its con- 
tents to a brief explanation of an exhaustive list of Scientific words ; but after mature 
consideration it was thought desirable, in carrying the design into execution, to limit 
the number of words included in the Dictionary, and by extending the length of par- 
ticular articles to make it a readable book, rather than a mere work of reference. In 
the present edition it has been the object of the iSditors, while retaining the readable 
character oC the work, to diminish the extreme length of some of the articles, and to 
increase their number ; but the total quantity of matter contained in the New Edition 
is considerably increased. It has been found that, in many branches of Science, and 
especially in Mathematics, Physics, Gheology, Mineralogy, and Botany, the omission 

London: LONGMANS, GEEEN, and CO. Paternoster Eow. 


New Edition of Brande^s Dictionary, — continued. 

of terms now in common use, which are requisite for students and collectors, some- 
what lessened the utility of the work. A large number of new articles have therefore 
been added in the present edition, and the whole has been brought, as closely as 
possible, up to the present time. It is not pretended, and indeed it would be im- 
possible, to include all the terms employed in any branch of science, but it is beliered 
that the omissions are few and unimportant, and that, practically, a sufficient number 
are included to meet the requirements of the general reader and the non-professional 
student. The progress of historical criticism, and of the Sciences of d^mparative 
Philology and Mythology, has rendered it necessary to re-write the articles which 
treated of these subjects, and to add many new ones. In assigning derivations, the 
Editors have sought chiefly to avoid guess-work ; but the principles which have 
guided them in this part of their task are given in detail in the general preface to the 

A larger and more legible type has been adopted than that of the previous editions; 
but although the size of the work has been thereby, and by the lai^e accretion of new 
matter, extended to three volumes, the price is not increased. 

General Editor 

Joint Editor 


Architecture, History, Lanfnisge, 
Lofpc, Mythology, and General 

Astronomy, Observational and 
Descriptive, and Meteorolog^y 

Biologrical Sciences, comprisinfir 
Anatomy, Pliyslolofcy, Zoo- 
logy, and Palaeontolog^y 


W. T. Brandr, F.R.S. frc. late of Her Haiesty's Mint, and 
Honorary Professor of Chemistry in the Koyal Institution 
of Great BriUin. 
The Rev. Gborgb W. Cox, M.A. late Scholar of Ttinity Col- 
legre, Oxford. 
r John Chalmbrs Morton, Editor of the 'Agricaltoral 
\ Gazette,' &c. 

Botany and Gardening 

Bailding and Engineering. . 

General Chemistry and Physics 

Geology, Physical Geography, 

and Hydrolof^y 
Law. History, andGeneral Litera- 



Mathematics, Pare and Applied 
Military Subjects 



Naval Subjects 


Paintiaff and the Fine Arts 

Political Economy 

Printing, Bibliography, &c. 

Theology and Ecclesiastical 

The Rev. Gborob W. Cox, M.A. 

E. Frankland, Ph.D. F.R.S. Prof, of Chemistry in the 
R. Inst, of Great Britain; and J. N. LocKYsa.Esq. 

Professor Richard Owbn, F.R.S. LL.D. D.C.L. Superin- 
tendent of the Natural History Departments, British Mu- 
seum; andC. Carter Blakb, Ph.D. F.G.S. Foreign Asso- 
ciate of the Anthropological Society of Paris. 

John Lindlry, F.R.S. F.L.S. late Emeritus Professor of 
Botany in University College, London ; and Thomas 
MooRB, F.L.S. Curator of the Botanic Garden, Chelsea. 

G. R. BuRNBLL, Architect and Civil Engineer, F.R.I.UkA. 
F.G.S. F.S.A.: and John Bourne, Civil Engineer. 

yf.T. Brandr, D.C.L. F.R.S.L.&E.; E. Fran bland, Ph.D. 
F.R.S. ; John Attfield, Ph.D. F.C.S. Director of the 
Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Soc. of Great Britain ; 
John Brouohto.v, B.S. Assist, in the Chem. Laboratory 
of the Royal lust. ; W. F. Barrett, Assist, in the Physical 
Laboratory of the Royal Inst.; and Hbrbbrt McLbod, 
Demonst. of Chem. in the Roy. Sch. of Mines. 

D. T. Anstbd, M.A. F.R.S. F.G.S. &c. Hon. Fellow of Ring's 
College, London. 

Herman Mbrivalb, M.A. C.B. late Fellow of Balliol 
College, Oxford. 

Arthur P. Whatblt, M.A. of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at- 
Law; late Student of Cbriat Church, Oxford. 

T. A. Hirst. Ph.D. F.R.S. Professor of Mathematical Physics 
in University College, London. 

Lieut. H. Brackknbury, R.A. F.S.A. Assistant-Instructor 
in Artillery, Royal MiliUry Academy, Woolwich. 

Henry William Bbistow, F.R.S. F.G.S. Hon. Fellow of 
King's Coll. Lond. of the Geol. Survey of Great BriUin. 

Professor W. Pole, F.R.S. Mus. Bac. Oxon. 

Dbnham Robinson. 

H. W. Jeans, F.R.A.S. Royal Naval College, Portsmouth. 

Ralph N. Wornum, Keeper and Secretary of the National 

The Rev. Jambs E. Thorold Roobrs, M.A. Professorof Poli- 
tical Economy, Tooke Professor of Economic Science and 
Statistics in King's College, London. 

R. J. Courtney, Superintendent at Messrs. Spottiswoode 
and Co.'s Printing Office. 

C. Mrrivalb, B.D. Chaplain to the Speaker of the Hoose of 

London: LONGMANS, GEEBN, and CO. Paternoster Eow. 

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1. IRELAND tofacepage 8 


3. ITALY, NORTH „ „ 29 

4. ITALY, SOUTH . . ,\.'' •• '- --'1 -1^ :-^' • » »» ^^ 

6. NORWAY, WITH SWEDliir" / /.^ - .^ -^^ . „ „ 453 

, ... --^ ;- r* •• • 
• •« •*• •>■«•' / 

*- i *!.'•. C V I* I 

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IONIAN ISLANDS, a coUection of 7 principal 
and many smaller blands on the W. and S. coasts 
of Greece, fonning part of the kinj^om of Greece, 
between the 36th and 40th parallels of N. lat., and 
between the 19th and 23rd deg. of £. long. The 
following is the area and population of the seven 
principal islands, aooozding to a census taken in 
the year 1860:-^ 


An* In NatlT* 
Sq.HUM Population 

AU^ni and 
rMldflot In 


CortvL . . 
; Cephalonia 
1 Zante . . 


Ithaca . . 

Cerigo . . 

Paaco . . 

Total . 



























Corfu . . . 
Cephalonia . 
Zante . . . 
Santa Maura 
Ithaca . . 
Cerigo . . 
Paxo . . . 

Total . . 











The number of each kind of live stock was as 
follows in the year 1862 : — 

These islands— a more minute description of 
which will be found under their several heads- 
hare, generally speaking, rugged irregular coasts, 
and a very uneven simace; barren rocks and 
faeath-covoed hills fonning nearly half their 
whole contents. Their geological formation is 
chiefly limestone, disposed in highly inclined 
strata, intennixed with grey foliated gypsum, and 
mawTifw of sandstone : and there are few organic 
remains. The climate is mild, but subject to 
sadden changes. The nrocco^ however, makes 
the heat occasionally oppressive, and the ther- 
mometer in summer frequently rises to 32^ Reaum. 
Hurricanes, called here (6onifcaf),and earthauakes, 
arc frequent, especially in Zante. There fell, in 
1838, 49.04 inches rain. Fine springs of fresh 
water are abundant on most of the islands. The 
soil ia more favourable to grape cultivation than 
to the raising of com ; and nence more than | 
of the sorfiuK available for tillage is laid out in 
cnriant-grDunds, vineyards, and olive plantations, 
which are all managed with considerable skill. 
The land is chiefly m the hands of small pro- 
prietore, who let it out to tenants on the meUtyer 
system, receiving half the produce as rent 

The following table gives the nature of the 
occupations of the people of the seven islands, 
according to ofBcial returns, in the year I860 : — 







Corfu . . 
Zante . . 
Ithaca . . 
Cerigo . . 
Paxo . . 

Total . 



























The manufactures are not important Soap is 
made at Corfu and Zante: earthenware, silk 
shawls, goat-hair carpets, coarse blankets, linen 
cloths, and sacking are also made to some extent. 
The islands, however, enjoy a considerable share 
of the commerce of tiie Mediterranean, oaring to 
their convenient situation for the supply of the 
neighbouring continent. They import wheat and 
other grain; chiefly from Odessa, silks, cotton, 
and woollen fabrics, cured fish, British hardware, 
and colonial produce, the total value of which 
amounted, in 1862, to 1,273,114/.; and m the 
same year, they^ exported island produce and 
manufactures (olive-oil, currants, wme, valonia, 
cotton, salt, soap, and woven fabrics) to the 
amount of 1,108,519/. 

The subjoined tabular statement gives the value 
of the total imports and exports in each of the 
vears 1859, 1861, and 1862. 




Imports . 
Exports . 





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Besides sending deputies to the parliament of 
Greece, and taking their share in the legislative 
government of the kingdom, the seven iahmds 
have each a council of 5 mems., selected out of a 
list of 10, furnished by the n/ndetOy with whom 
6 other active functionaries are nominated by the 
Greek government to act as an executive body. 
The judicial power is lodged in a supreme court 
at Corfu, comprising four ordinary and 2 extra- 
ordinary mems. ; of the former, two must be native 
lonians, and two are appointed by the central 
government. The ordinary mems. decide common 
causes, and, in case of diflFerence of opinion, appeal 
to the extraordinary mems. Subordinate to this 
coffex are four tribunals on each island, making 21 
in the whole, and tmder these again are justioe-of- 
peace courts for minor offences and small civil 
suits. The religious establishment consists of an 
archbishop and bishops, with the vicars or curates 
of the Greek church, which is the dominant reli- 
gion. Full liberty, however, is given to the adhe- 
rents of the Rom. Catholic and Protestent creeds. 
The revenues of the Ionian Islands are princi- 
pally derived firom export duties on oil and cur- 
rants of 19^ per cent., on wine of 6 per cent,, and 
on soap of 8 per cent, ad valorem. The duties on 
imported merchandise are regulated by a tariff, 
and all articles not specifically included in it pay 
an ad valorem duty of 7 and 8 per cent The 
following is an official statement of the revenue 
and expenditure of the Ionian Islands, in each of 
the years 1860-62 •.— 

1 1860 



Revenue . . 140.866 
Expenditure 161,187 



The chief branches of expenditure are for police, 
courts of law, and public education — on the latter 
account 18,828/. were exjiended in 1862. The prin- 
cipal sources of revenue, in the year 1862, were as 
follows : — 


Import Duties :— 
On General MerchandiBe 
„ Foreign Wines and SpiritB . 





. Grain 


Total . . . 

Export Duties :— 
On Olive Oil 






Oorrantw ...»»- 

Total . . 

ToUl of Cui 

1 Stamp Duties . 
Bale of Gunpowder (1 

1 Receipts for Tariff 
1 Dues. 

Free Port Warehouw 
Receipts for PuWlc li 

Btoms Duties . 

f Health Office 

Post Office . 

Executive Polioe . 


Rents . 



Total . 


The only coins properly belonging to the Ionian 
Islands are a silver 3dl piece and a copper cent ; 
but those mostly in circulation are Spanish doub- 
loons and dollars and Venetian dollars, received 

in pa^'ment for the produce exported to Spain 
and Italy. British alver coins are also occa- 
sionally met with. The chief standard of weight 
is the im()erial troy pound /of 5,760 grains : 24 of 
these grains make a caU^; 20 calci make a4 
ounce, and 12 ounces compose a libhra tottUe. 
The libbra grmtse is equivalent td the pound avoir- 
dupois, and 100 of these pounds make a talento. 
The English yard is the standard linear measure : 
5^ yards make a camicoy 220 yards a stadio, and 
1,760 yards a mile. The gallon (eouivalent to 
the English gallon) contains 8 dicotolu 

The Ionian Islands are frequently mentioned in 
the ancient history of Greece, but only as 'de- 
tached governments, and not under their collective 
form. After having repeatedly changed masters 
during the middle ages they at length became the' 
possession of the Venetians early in the 15th 
century. They were thenceforward governed by 
an Italian proconsul; the Italian language was 
generally introduced into public acts and ambng ^ 
the nobles ; and Corfu was made the chief arseiiial 
and port of the Venetian navy. In this state the 
islands continued till 1797, when they were seized 
by the French, who were confirmed m their pos- 
session by the treaty of Campo Formio. Two 
years afterwards they were taken by the Russians 
and Turks, and declared an independent republic, 
under their joint protection. The treaty of Tilsit, 
in 1807, restored them once more to the French, 
who retained them till 1814, when they were 
placed under British protection. The Britbh 
government, finally, ceded the Ionian Islands to 
the young kin^om of Greece, the protocol of 
cession being signed on May 28, 1864. On the 
Ist of June, 1864, a Greek garrison arrived at 
Corfu, and the same day the last British troops 
quitted the islands. 

IOWA, one of the United States of N. America, 
between lat. 40® 80' and 43° 30' N., and long. 90° 
and 97° W., haying N. the Minesota teiritorv, E. 
the states of Wisconsin and Illinois from Which it 
is separated by the Mississippi, S. the states of 
Missouri, and W. the Miflsoun and Sioux rivers. 
It is shaped like a parallelogram, and has aA'ar^a 
of 55,045 square miles. Pop. 674,948 in 1860. 
Surface undulating, without any high hills or 
mountains ; but a tract of considerably elevated 
table land occupies the greater part of its centre, 
dividing the streams that fall into the Mississippi 
from those that fall into the Missouri. The 
margins of the creeks and rivers are covered for a 
considerable way back with large timber trees, the 
rest of the country being mostly open prairies. The 
latter, which extends over two-thirds of the surface, 
are generally covered with luxuriant herbage, oc- 
casionally intermixed with hazel thickets and 
sassafras shrubs, which, in the flowering season, 
have a rich and beautiful appearance. Sou various, 
but generally good ; consisting in the bottoms of 
a deop black mould, mixed in the prairies with 
sandy loam, red clay, and gravel. Iron is abun- 
dant; and one of the richest portions of the lead 
region of the Union is found in the SW. quarter 
of the state ; zinc is met with, and limestone is a 
prevalent formation. Except in some of the low^t 
bottoms, the country is salubrious. The cold in 
wmter, though frequently severe, is not injurious ; 
and the heats in summer are said not to be op- 
pressive. Iowa bids fair to become one of the 
prindpal agricultural states of the Union. It is 
wen suited to the growth of wheat, Indian com, 
and all sorts of grain, and a great .variety of fruits 
and culinary vegetables have been already intro- 
duced ; it is also extremely well fitted for grazing 
and dairy purposes. The situation of the state, 
between* two great navigable rivers, affords every 

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fac3ity for the exportation of its Tarions products. 
The town of Iowa, on the river of that name, in 
the £. part of the state, is the seat of government; 
and Burlington, Dabuque in the lead district, Da- 
venport, and various other places, are fast rising 
into importance. The government is vested in a 
governor, chosen every four, a senate — numbering 
46 in 1864 — elected every four, and a house of re- 
presentatives — numbering 93 in 1864 — every two 
years, by the suffrages of the white male iiihabs. 
of twenty-one years of age. The members of both 
hons^ are paid for their attendance. The judges 
of the supreme court receive each 1,000 doll, a 
year of salary.' The constitution prohibits the 
creation of any corporation with banking privi- 
leges. A university has been established; and 
ample provision made for the support of public 
schools. Slavery is not permitted. Iowa was ac- 
quired from the Indians m 1832 : in 1833, it began 
to be settled; in 1838 it was erected into a terri- 
torial government; and on the 28th December, 
1846, it was admitted into the Union. It sends 6 
members to the Congress of the United States. 

IPSWICH, a pari, and mun. bor., river-port and 
town of £ngland, cap. co. of Suffolk, on the C^- 
well, 40 m. S. Norwich, and 63 m. NE. London, 
on the Great Eastern railway. Pop. of pari. bor. 
37,950 in 1861. Area of pari.* bor., which includes 
12 entire pars, and parts of 6 others, 7,020 acres. 
The town occupies the foot of a range of hiUs 
gradually sloping to the river, which is navigable 
np to this point by vessels of 200 tons, and is 
crossed by a handsome iron bridge. The streets 
are irregularly built, and for the most part narrow; 
bat some of them, which are new or have been 
recently widened, consist of neat and substantial 
buildings. On the whole, although containing a 
great many old-fashioned houses, the town pre- 
sents a flourishing appearance, and is not only 
improving, but rapidly extending. It is lighted 
with gfi&j and the streets are either paved or ma- 
cadamised. There are 14 churches, none very re- 
markable for architectural beaui^, and several 
places of worship for dissenters. The other public 
buildings are, the town-hall ; the shire-hall ; the 
custom-house, a respectable brick structure on 
the quay ; a commodious market-house, erected in 
181 1 ; the com exchange ; the co. gaol, said to be 
very well regulated ; the bor. gaol ; and the town 
libnry, kept, as well as the grammar school, in an 
old building, once a monastery of Black Friars. 
The grammar school, which was intended by its 
founder, Cardinal Wolsey, to form part of a college 
preparatory to Christ-Church, Oxford, was char- 
tered by Queen Elizabeth in 1665, and rebuilt in 
1851, when it was endowed with 8 scholarships 
and 2 exhibitions. A charity school for main- 
taining, clothing, and educating 16 poor children, 
two national schools, and a Lancastrian school, 
famish instruction to a great many children ; and 
Sunday schools are attached to most of the 
churches and all the chapels. An institution for 
the support of widows and orphans of poor clergy- 
men was established in 1704 ; and there are several 

Ipttn-ich formerly enjoyed a considerable share 
in the woollen and coarse linen trade; but manu- 
facturing is now all but extinct, the trade in this 
district having been nearlv annihilated by the 
cheaper goods made in the North. The town has 
no spinning factories ; but small quantities of yam 
are spun for the Norwich weavers. The principal 
Ixnineas of the town consists in the com and coal 
trade ; large quantities of meal, flour, and malt, 
lieing exported to London ; while coals are exten- 
sively imported, being supplied by the Stowmarket 
Canal to the W. p^rts of the co. A general foreign 



trade of some importance, especially in Norway 
timber, is carried on. On the 1st of January, 1864, 
there belonged to the port 52 sailing vessels under 
50, and 127 sailing vessels above 50, tons, besides 
10 steamers. The gross amount of customs revenue 
was 24,829/. in 1859, 18,390/. in 1861, and 19,938/1 
in 1863. 

The corporation, the first charter of which was 
granted by King John, and confirmed by subse- 
quent monarchs, appears to have been, previously 
to the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, one 
of the worst regulated and most corrupt in the 
kingdom, * every power intrusted to it, its property, 
its patronage, and its charities, having been used 
for election purposes.' (Muil Report.) The pre- 
sent municipal ofiScero are, 10 aldermen, one of 
whom is mayor, and 30 councillors; the bor. being 
divided into*5 wards, and having a commission of 
the peace, under a recorder. Corporation revenue 
6,228/. in 1862, of which 8,075/. were from rates. 
Ipswich has sent 2 mems. to the H. of C. since the 
reign of Edward I., the franchise, till the passing 
of the Reform Act, being vested in freemen ^by 
birth, servitude, gift, or purchase) not receiving 
alms. The boundaries of the old bor. have not 
been changed. Registered electors 1,979 in 1865. 

The ancient name of the town was Gyppenstoick, 
derived from its proximity to the confluence of 
the Gipping (now converted into a canal) with the 
Orwell. Its antiquity is proved by the record of 
its destruction, in 991. by the Danes. In the reign 
of Edward the Confessor it comprised 800 bur- 
gesses. William the Conqueror erected a castle 
for its protection. Its ancient corporate privileges 
included admiralty jurisdiction over the river and 
port of Harwich, which was long subordinate to 
Ipswich, and an exemption from serving on co. 
juries or holding co. ofiSces. During the 18th and 
14th centuries, the town seems to have been a fa- 
vourite resort of monks and clergymen, there being 
at that period not fewer than 21 churches and 6 
religious houses. 

IRELAND, a h^rge and important island of 
Europe, in the N. Atlantic Ocean. It is situated 
to the W. of Great Britain, being separated from 
the latter by St. George's Channel on the S., the 
Irish Sea in the middle, and the N. Channel on 
the N.: the distance from St David's Head, in S. 
Wales, across St. George's Channel, to Camsore 
Point, in Ireland, is about 47 'm.; the distance 
from Holyhead in N. Wales, across the S. border 
of the Irish Sea to Dublin, about 55 m. ; and the 
distance from the Mull of Cantiie, across the N 
Channel to the opposite coast of Ireland, about 
13^ m. And besides its proximity to England, 
Ireland has been long pohtically connected vdih. 
that part of the empire ; and since 1800, when its 
separate legislature was mezged in the imperial 
parliament, it has formed a principal portion of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 

Ireland was called by Aristotle and Strabo leme 
('Upv-n), by Caesar, Tacitus, and Pliny, HH/erma^ 
and by Mela and others, Juventai these names 
being obviously derived from its native or abo- 
riginal name of 7r, Eri, or Ann, whence also the 
modem name has been deduced. (Cellaiii Orbis 
Antiaui, L 449.) 

Ireland is situated between the parallels of 51<^ 
25' and 55° 23' N. lat, and of 6© and 11° W. long. 
It is of a rhomboidal figure; and though more 
compact than Great Britain, is deeply indented, 
particularly on its SW. and N. coasts, with bays 
and arms of the sea. Its greatest length, between 
Mizen Head in Cork and Fair Head in Antrim, 
is about 801 ra. ; and its greatest breadth, from the 
W. coast of Mayo to the E. coast of Down, is about 

B 2 Jp 


182 m. ; but in other places the breadth is much 
less, and there is no part of Ireland above 50 or 
55 m. from the sea. Tts area is estimated at 
31,874 sq. m., of which 985 sq. m. are water. 

Fact of ike Country, — As contrasted with Soot- 
land, or even the greater part of England, Ireland 
may be said to be a flat country. Still the surface 
is in most parts much diversified ; and even where 
it is quite flat, the prospect is generally bounded 
by hills or mountains in the distance. With the 
exception of the Devil's-bit and Sliebhloom moun- 
tains, which run N£. and SW. for about 30 m., 
intersecting Tipperary, and dividing King's and 
Queen's Counties, most of the other mountains in 
Ireland are parcelled out into groups, or form only 
short chains. The principal group is situated in 
the SW. comer of the island, in the cos. Kerrv 
and Cork, adjoining the celebrated lakes of Kil- 
lamey. Gurrane Tual, in Macgillicuddy's Reeks, 
in this group, the highest mountain in Ireland, has 
an elevation of 3,404 ft. above the sea. The 
Wicklow mountains, in the co. Wicklow, on the 
E. coast of the Island, cover a considerable area : 
LugnaquiUa, the highest, is about 3,000 fu above 
the sea. Some of the glens in this mountain 
group are celebrated for their beauty. The Moume 
mountains, in the S. part of the co. Down, are also 
of considerable extent; and some of their peaks 
attain to an elevation of above 2,700 ft. The 
mountains of Donegal, and those in the X. parts 
of Leitrim and Sli^, and in the W. parts of Mayo 
and Galway, constitute a formidable barrier along 
the NW. and the greater part of the W. coast, and 
serve at once to attract the moisture brought from 
the Atlantic, and to break the furv of the storms 
from that quarter. Some of the Irish mountains 
are rugged and precipitous; but the greater num- 
ber are smooth and rounded, admitting of cul- 
tivation a considerable way up their sides, and 
sometimes to their very summits. 

The central portion of Ireland consists of a vast 
tract of level land, broken in some places by a few 
undulating hill ran^ ; but for a great part of its 
extent nearly an unintemipted flat, extending in 
some parts, as between Dublin and the Bay of Gal- 
way, quite from sea to sea. This great level con- 
sists partly of rich cultivated land ; but it also 
comprises a vast extent of bog, partly in Rildare, 
King's County, and Roscommon, and partly in 
Meath, Westmeath, and Queen's County. Though 
not continuous, these bogs differ but little in ele- 
vation ; and being in many parts separated only 
by narrow ridges of dry land, they have received 
the common appellation of the Bog of Allen. 
Several rivers have their sources in this bog, tlie 
highest part of which may be elevated about 
280 ft. above the level of the sea. There are seve- 
ral very extensive levels in other parts of the 
country ; and some of them, particularly in Tip- 
perary and Limerick, are not inferior in fertility 
to anv land in the empire. 

Ireland is very well watered, having to boast of 
an unusual number of rivers and lakes. At the 
head of the former is the Shannon, which, as a 
channel of internal communication, is not inferior, 
if it be not superior, to any other river in the 
United Kingdom. Excepting the Shannon and, 
perhaps, the Erne, there is no river of any conse- 
quence flowing westward. The Blackwater, Suir, 
Nore, and Bairow, all considerable streams ; and 
the Lee and Bandon, which, though much smaller, 
have a good deal of commercial importance, pour 
their waters into the Atlantic on the S. comt; the 
Slaney, Liffey, and Boyne, dischan^ themselves 
into St. Geoige's Channel and the Irish Sea; and 
the Bann and Foyle have their mouths on the N. 
coast The Shannon, after rising at the base of the 

Culkeagh mountain, in Ulster, runs through the 
centre of the island, traversing, or rather, expand- 
ing into the lakes Allen, Ree, and Deiig; and, 
after nearlv insulating the prov. Connaught and 
CO. Clare, falls into the Atlantic by an estuary of 
great length and width. This fine river is navi- 
gable for 214 m., or throughout its entire course, 
except about 6 or 7 m. alwve Lough Allen. (See 
Shannon.) The Blackwater or Broadwater ia 
the chief river of Munster : it rises on the confines 
of Limerick and Kerry, and soon assumes an E. 
direction, which it generally preserves till about a 
dozen m. from its mouth, when it turns suddenly 
S., and falls into the ocean at Youghal harbour. 
Its course may be estimated at about 100 m. The 
tide rises as liigh as Cappoquin, to which point it 
is navigable. Mallow, Fermoy, Lismore, and 
Youghal are on its banks. The Suir rises in the 
Sliebhloom mountains, and has generally a S. 
course till it ap|>roaches the Knock-me-le-down 
range of hills, which separates its basin from that 
of the Blackwater. It then turns E., and ulti- 
mately falls, together with the Barrow, into the 
estuary termed Waterford harbour. In a conuner- 
cial point of view, this is one of the most valuable 
rivers of Ireland. Vessels of 500 tons come up it 
to Waterford ; besides which city, Carrich, Clon- 
mel, and Cahir are situated on it. The Barrow b 
the most important of the Irish rivers, after the 
Shannon. The Nore, its chief tributarv, holds its 
course between the Banrow and the Suur : it has a 
general direction SSE., running past Kilkenny, 
Thomastown, and Innistioge. It is navigable for 
considerable vessels to the latter place, and for 
barges to Thomastown. The Slaney, Uke the two 
foregoing rivers, has in general a SE. course; it 
rises at the foot of Mount LugnaquiUa, co. Wick- 
low, and falls into the arm of the sea termed Wex- 
ford Haven. Wexford, Enniscorthy, Newtown 
Barry, and Tullogh, are built on it : it is navigable 
for barges as fiur as Enniscorthy. The Lee and 
the Bandon have both an E. course ; the former, 
on which Cork is situated, is navigable to that city 
for vessels of from 150 to 200 tons; the Bandon 
has its mouth in Kinsale harbour. The Boyne, 
celebrated in Irish bistory, has been elsewhere no- 
ticed. The Liffey is remarkable only as the river 
on which the metropolis is situated. The Upper 
Bann, rises near the Moume mountains, and runs 
into Lough Nea^, which receives several otlier 
large streams. The outlet of this lake is the 
Lower Bann, which has a N. course to its month, 
5 m. below Coleraine, to which point only it is 
navigable for boats, and that with difficulty, from 
the rapidity of its current. Its salmon and eel 
fisheries are highly important and valuable. The 
Foyle, formed by the confluence of several streams 
near Strabane, runs generally NNE., and disr- 
charges itself into Lough Foyle. Strabane, Lif- 
ford, St Johnstone, and Londonderry are on tlie 
Foyle, which is navigable to the latter city for the 
largest class of merchantmen, and to St. John- 
stone for barges. The Erne, Arrow, Moy, Ken- 
mare, &c, require no particular norice. 

Ireland is more remarkable for the number and 
extent of her lakes, or, as they are there called, 
lofught, than either Scotland or England, though 
they must perhaps, in general, yield to those of 
the sister island m point of picturesque beauty. 
Lough Neagh, in Ulster, ranks high among the 
secondary European lakes, inasmuch as it extends 
over about 100,000 acres. Lough Erne, co. Fer- 
managh, consists of two considerable lakes, con- 
nected by a winding strait, on an island in which 
the town of Enniskulen is built. Both these lakes 
are full of islands, some lai^e and thickly inha- 
bited, many well wooded, and the whole so dis- 



posed, and aocompanied by each a diversity of 
coast, as to form a vast nnmber of rich and inter- 
esUng prospecta. Loagha Conib, Mask, and the 
lakea of Killamey, so celebrated for their snr- 
looDding scenery, are the other principal lakes. 
(See KiL.LARnBY.) The total extent of the Irish 
lakes has been estimated at 456,399 acres; of 
which 32,474 acres are included in Leinster, 44,652 
in Monster, 183,796 in Ulster, and 194,477 in Cou- 

Tne term lough is also often applied in Ireland 
to aims of the sea nearly enclosed on all sides by 
the land, and frequently forming commodious har- 
bours. Of these, the most celebrated are Loughs 
Foyle and Swilly on the N., and Belfast and 
Stnngford on the E. coast 

The Irish coast, particularly on the W. and 
SW., is deeply indented with numerous bavs, 
gulCs, and arms of the ocean, formine some noble 
faaven& Ireland has 14 harbours tor the largest 
ships, 17 for frigates, and from 80 to 40 for coast- 
ing vessels, independent of at least 24 good summer 
roadsteads. The principal inlets of the sea on the 
W. coast are Donegal, Sljgo, Killala, Clew, Gal- 
way, Tialee, Brandon, Di^le, Bant^ (a match- 
less bay) and Dnnmanus bays, and the estuaries 
of the Shannon and Kenmare ; and on the S. the 
harboars of Cork (one of the finest in Europe), 
Waterfoid, Dnngarvon, Youghal, and the bays of 
CoDTtmacksheny, and Cloghnakiltj. The £. 
coast has no good harbour ; the principal inlets on 
that side bei^, exclusive of Loughs Strangford 
and Belfast, Uie bays of Dublin, Dundalk, and 
Dondrum, and Wexford Haven. The chief Irish 
headlands ;are, Dunmore Head (which, exclusive 
of a few insignificant islands, is the most W. 
point of Europe) and Achil Head, on the W. 
coast. Cape Clear, on the S., Camsore Point, on 
the S£., and Fair and Malin Heads, on the N. A 
great number of small islands and islets belong 
to Ireland, which lie chiefly along its W. coast. 
They are of little importance: the largest are 
Achil, Clare, N. and & Arran, Yalentia and Rach- 
lin (the Ridna of Ptolemy), on the N£. coasL 

Ijie climate is more temperate and equable 
than that of other parts of Europe in the same lat. 
The heat of summer is less oppressive, and the 
oold oi winter less severe ; and, when anything 
like immoderatelv hot or cold weather takes place, 
it lasts for a much shorter time. The great defect 
of the climate of Ireland is excess of humidity : 
not only is rain more frequent than in England, 
bat the atmosphere, when there is no rain, is 
largely im pregnated with mobture. This drcum- 
etance, the renilt of the insdar position of Ireland, 
and of the prevalence of W. winds for three-fourths 
i^ the year, accounts for the greater verdure of the 
country, and for the trees continuing in leaf much 
longer than in England. In the driest seasons, 
Ireland rarely sufTers from drought, but the crops 
are often iiyured by too much wet. It is a com- 
mon saying in Ireland, that the very driest sum- 
mers never hurt the land ; for, although the com 
and grass upon the high and dry grounds may get 
harm, oeverthdess the country in general gets 
more good than hurt by it : and when any dearths 
fall out t6 be in IreUmd, they are not caused 
through immoderate heat and drought, as in most 
other oountries, but through too much wet and 
exeenive rains. Hence, Irdand is naturally much 
better adapted for a granng than for an a^cul- 

tuial country; a peculiarity noticed bv Giraldus 
Cambrensis in his 'Topog. Hibemiis,^ who says 
that it is more fruitful of pasture than of fruit, and 

of straw than of grain. ' Ptucwb iumen quam frur- 
fibuM, gramme quim ffrano faecwtdior est mmku* 
i he superiority of Ireland as a pastoral country 

was well known to the ancients.. * CWt,' says 
Pomponius Mela, * ad maturanda semina iniqui ; 
verum adeo luxuriosa herbiSf nan Uetu modo, ted 
etiam dulcibutj ut ge eximtd parte dieipeoora im- 
pUant' (De Situ Orbw, lib. iil § 6.) It is 
alleged that the atmosphere is less humid now 
than formerly : a probable consequence of the cut- 
ting down of the woods, and the great extension 
of cultivation. Were drainage as extensively 
practised in Ireland as in En^nd, there can be 
little doubt that the climate would be still further 
improved ; though, firom the position of Ireland in 
respect of the Atlantic, it must necessarily be 
always distinguished for humidity. The average 
quantity of ram in a series of years was found to 
be 35 inches annually in Cork, and 81 in Derry. 
The changes of the seasons, and of the weather 
generollv, are a good deal more uncertain even 
than in England ; and the business of agriculture 
is proportionally hazardous. Thunderstorms are 
less frequent and destructive in Ireland than in 
Britain. The mean temp, of the N. of Ireland is 
about 480, of the middle 50^, and of the S. 52^ 
Fahr. Its range at Dublin has been found to be 
betnreen 14^ 50 and 81^^50', the mean being about 
49^. Peaches, grapes, and most other southern 
fruits do not ripen without much care and atten- 
tion ; but the broad-leaved myrtle grows luxuri- 
antly in the S. counties, and the arbutus is not 
native to any other country so remote from the 

The geology of Ireland difiers greatly from that of 
England, and in a general point of view rather re- 
sembles that of France ; Ireland being, like the 
latter, a basin surrounded by mountains of a pri- 
mary or transition character. The Moume moun- 
tains, and others in the NE, are composed chiefly 
of ^nite, mica-slate, ^uwackd, and porphyry, 
similar to the mountam ranges on the opposilo 
Scottish coast. Granite prevails in the mcklow 
mountains, and it is found, together with gneis-s 
mica-slate, hornblende, quartz, and old red sand^ 
stone, in Mayo, and other parts of the W. Clay- 
slate, felspar, primitive greenstone, and limestone, 
are the other chief primary and transition rocks. 
Limestone is a very prevalent formation, it being 
found over the whole country, except in a few of 
the N. and W. counties ; in many places sand' 
stone protrudes through it in the form of knolls* 
In the N., the trap-field of Antrim, the largest 
basaltic formation in Europe, extends over an area 
of 800 sq. m., and presents, in the Giant's Cause- 
way, drc., the finest specimens of columnar basalt. 
No tertiary beds, containing shells, like those of 
the London and Paris basins, have been disco- 
vered ; but the limestone in most parts abounds 
with fossil remains. Coal, that most valuable of 
fossils, is found in the S. and E. The principal 
coal-field is that of Kilkenny, which rests, like 
the great coal formations of England, upon mouu^ 
tain limestone; the other coal-fidds are those of 
the COB. Tipperary, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, 
Lough Allen in Leitrim, Monaghan, and another 
in Ulster, N. of a line drawn between Dublin and 
Galway. Little coal is, however, raised, and tlie 
produce is also verjr inferior. Dublin, Belfast, 
Cork, and all the principal Irish towns, are sup- 
phed with coal from Great Britain. Iron is found 
m many parts of the country ; and the great in- 
crease of iron-works in the earlier part of the 17th 
century is said to have been a principal cause of 
the destruction of forests in Ireland. But these 
having been exhausted, and coal not having been 
found of such quality and in such quantity as to 
supply the deficiency, the Irish iron-works have 
been almost wholly abandoned. In Donegal and 
Gralway, statuary marble, nearly equal to that o^ 

Digitized by 




Italy, is found ; and the black and grey marbles 
of Kilkenny are much prized, and exported to a 
considerable extent There are copper and lead 
mines in Cork, Kernr, Wicklow, and other places. 
Small quantities of gold and silver have been 
found in Wicklow. Indeedi some stream-works 
were wrought in the latter co., on account of go- 
vernment, previously to the rebellion of 1798; 
and it is said that as much gold was obtained as 
paid the expense. But some mining operations in 
w icklow, commenced by government early in the 
present century, having failed, all attempts to ob- 
tain the precious metads have been since entirely 
abandon^]. Copper is the onlv metal which at 
present appears to repay the labour and expense 
of raising it: the ore is mostly sent to Wales to 
be smelted. Antimony, manganese, serpentine of 
excellent quality, fullers' earth, gypsum, lime- 
stone, slate, with ber^'ls, and garnets, are the other 
chief mineral products. 

The deficiency of good coal in Ireland is less 
felt as regards domestic than manufact-uring pur- 
poses. About 2,800,000 acres, or nearly 1-7 th part 
of the entire surface, consists of bogs, which are 
capable of furnishing an almost inexhaustible sup- 
ply of peat at very little more expense than that 
of the labour required in digging it. About 
1,576,000 acres of this peat soil are estimated to 
consist of flat red bog; the remaining 1,255,000, 
called mountain bogs, lie on the surface of the up- 
lands. The red peat bogs, which form a remark- 
able feature of the count^, are chiefly comprised 
in the great central plain of Ireland; and the 
space bounded N. by a line drawn from Howth 
Ilead to Sligo, and S., by another from Wicklow 
Head to Galway, would mclude the greater por- 
tion of the Irish bogs. Unlike tlie Englbh 
mosses, they are rarely level, but undulating; and 
in Donegal there is a bog completely diversified 
M'ith hill and dale. These bogs consist of moist 
vegetable matter, containing a ^eat deal of stag- 
nant water : and after heavy rams and fogs, some- 
times burst, and inundate or overwhelm the sur- 
rounding country. But they vary infinitely in 
wetness, as also in depth and compontiom The 
extensive bogs in the central part of the island, 
though separated from each other, have recei%'ed 
the common name of the Bog of Allen. The bogs 
in general rest upon a stratum of blue clay, based 
on limestone, and are invariably above the level 
of the sea; their greatest elevation, however, not 
exceeding 488 fu Many conflicting opinions have 
been entertained with respect to the origin of 
these bogs. It has been contended by some that 
they are of no great antiquity, and originated in 
the cutting down of the forests, after the invasion 
of Ireland by Henry II., or at a somewhat earlier 
period. It IS alleged that the recumbent trees 
naving intercepted and dammed up streams of 
water with the rubbish carried along yrith them, 
the whole became gradually covered with a vege- 
tation of moss, sedgy grass, rushes^ and various 
aquatic plants. But there seems but little foun- 
dation ror this theory; and it is more probable 
that the bogs owe their origin to natural causes, 
and not to a supposititious cutting down of the 
forests. The English did not, till long after the 
reign of Henry II., spread themselves over any 
considerable portion of the country, and could not, 
therefore, be the agents in any very remote and 
extensive destruction of its woods, whidi, in fact, 
were both numerous and extensive long after the 
bogs had attained to their present extent (See 
Boate's N. Hist of Ireland^ pp. 118-122., ed. 1652.) 
The drainage and cultivation of these exten- 
sive portions of the surface of Ireland have long 
been regarded as objecta of great national im- 

portance, and frequent attempts have been made 
to show that they might be efiected at no very 
^reat expense. But there are but few examples 
m any part, of the island, and those under very 
peculiar circumstances, of successful bog cultiva- 
tion. The attempts to drain the bogs hitherto 
made in Ireland have not been very successful ; 
and even had they succeeded, it is doubtful 
whether the bogs would have produced any con- 
siderable return. It is, indeed, by no means' dear, 
supposing them to be quite dried^ that they would 
not, in most instances, be rendered still more 
worthless than at present (Wakefield, L 105.) 
In those parts, indeed, where bogs are scarce, 
they are the most valuable properties in the 
country. In not a few localities tliey have been 
wholly cut out ; and where this is the case, and 
other bogs are not easily accessible, the inhabs. 
have sustained great privations from the want of 

The divers!^ of soils is not nearly so great in 
Ireland as in England. It has no stiff day soils, 
such as those of Essex, Hants, and Oxfordshire, 
nor any chalk soils, as those of Hertford, Wilts, 
and Sussex. Sandy soils are also rare. Loam, 
resting on a substratum of limestone, predomi- 
nates m Ireland; and, though often shallow, it is 
almost every where very fertile. A large part of 
Limerick, Tipperary, Roscommon, Meath, and 
Longford, consists of deep fine friable loam, and 
is, perhaps, not surpassed by any land in Europe. 
It IS not permanently injured by the bad system 
of culture to which it is subjected, and if kept 
clean, will yield an almost interminable system of 
com crop; and how bad soever the order in 
which it IS laid down to grass, it is in no long time 
covered with the finest pasture. The deep rich 
grazing lands on the banks of the Shannon and 
Fergus are not surpassed by the best in Lincoln- 
shire. A good judge of such matters, Arthur 
Youn^, contends that, acre for acre, the soil of Ire- 
land IS superior to that of England, though, as 
the proportion of waste land in the former is much 
greater than in the latter country, this must be 
hdd an exaggerated statement Had Mr. Young 
confined his remark to the cultivable land in botn 
countries, it would have been quite correct In 
fact, deducting the bogs and mountains, it is cer- 
tain that Irdand is about the richest country, in 
respect of soil, in Europe. As a grazing country, 
Irdand is probably superior to any territory in the 
old world. 

The Jlora and fauna of Ireland do not differ 
much m>m that of England. The arbutus and 
myrtle have been already mentioned, and besides 
these plants, most of those common to Britain are 
met witii. The wild animids do not materially 
differ firom those of England. Wolves formerly 
infested the country, but they were extirpated 
under CromwelL The Irish greyhound, which 
was of use in clearing the country of these ani- 
mals, is about 8 ft in height of a light colour, 
and of such strength and courage, that it is said 
to be more than a match for the mastiff or bull- 
dog: it is now, however, nearly extinct The 
numbers of deer have greatlv declined with the 
clearance of the forests, and the progress of culti- 
vation. The native Irish horse is sddom more 
than 15 hands high, very hardy, and suxe-footed : 
it is 4ised for all kinds of labour. A large blood- 

horse is reared extensively in Meath, and is to be 
found in most of the rich grazing counties. The 
native Irish cattle, a breed with short legs, lai;ge 
bellies, and white faces, have been, to a consider- 
able extent, superseded by the introduction of the 
Holdemess, Staffordshire, and Devonshire breeds* 
either pure or crossed. As compared with Eng- 

Digitized by 



Jand, bat few sheep are raised in Ireland. The 
native Imh sheep is small, and covered with 
nearly as much hair as wool ; but it is now uncom- 
mon in a pure state, having been crossed with 
Tarious English breeds. 

The value of live stock (exclusive of goats) in 
1851 was given by the census commissioners as 
27,649,1512., being an increase over that in 1841 
of 6,543,343i— equal to 31 per cent. ; whilst the 
excess in value in 1861, compared with 1851, was 
6,714,043^— equal to 21 per cent. 

In 1841, the value of stock on every 100 acres 
(exclusive of the larger rivers, lakes, and tide- 
ways), was 104t ; in 1851 it was 136i and in 1861, 
164/. In the provinces the value was — ^in Leinster, 
in 1841, 123/.; in 1851, 151/.; and in 1861, 187Lper 
100 acres. In Munster, in 1841, it was 107/. ; in 1851 
it was 132/., and in 1861, 165/. In Ulster it was 
102L in 1841, 153/. in 1851, and 170/. in 1861; 
and in Connaught, 79/: in 1841, 104/. in 1851, and 
180L in 1861. 

In the counties the increase in the average 
value of live stock in every 100 acres in 1841, 
1851, and 1861, was as under:— 


Antrim . . . 
Armagh . , 
Carlow . . , 
Cavan . . , 
Clare . . . 
Cork. . . , 
Donegal . , 
Down . . , 
Dublin . . , 
Galway . . . 
Kerry . . . 
KUdare . . . 
Kilkenny . , 
King's . . . 
Leitrim . , 
Limerick . . 
Londonderry , 
Longford . , 
Loath . . , 
Mayo . . , 
Meath . . , 
M onaghan . , 
Qucen'B . , 
Roscommon , 
SUgo. . . . 
Tipperaiy . . 
Tyrone . . . 
Waterford . , 
"Wexford . . 
Wickiow . . 

Valiw per 100 Acre* 


















1841 and 1861 




The appearance of the country is, in most parts, 
indicative' of the poverty and dapressed condition 
of the bulk of the pop. Generally speaking, what 
are called farm-houses and offices in England, do 
not exist in Ireland : and the aspect of the cot- 
tages, which, in the vast majont^ of instances, 
are of the most wretched description ; the small- 
nesB of the fields, which, instead of hedges and 
ditches, or stone fences, are usually divided b^ 
turf dykes ; and the badness of the horse furni- 
ture, and of the agricultural implements, all im- 
press the traveller with the most unfavourable 
convictions. But, how mortifying soever the con- 
trast between the excellence of the soil and the 
atate of the people, it is some satisfaction to know 
that it is less striking now than formerly. In 
many districts, a considerable advance has been 
made towards a better order of things ; and the 
spirit of improvemant has begun to scatter its 

seeds and spread its roots in most parts of the 

Theextent of arable land, in square miles, in 
each of the years 1841, 1851, and 1861, was re- 
turned as follows by the census commiasioners : — 

Extent of Arable Und in Sqnart Mil« 





Carlow County . 




Dublin „ . 




Kildare „ . 




Kilkenny „ . 




King's „ . 




Longford „ 




Louth „ 




Meath ;; . 




Queen's „ 




Westmeath „ 




Wexford „ 




Wickiow „, . 
Total . . 








Clare County . 




Cork ,/ . 




Kerry ,, 

648 ' 



Limerick „ 




Tippeniry „ 




Waterford „ 
Total . 






Antrim County . 




Armagh „ . 




Caran „ . 




Donegal „ . 




Down „ . 




Fermanagh „ . 




Londonderry „ . 




Monaghon „ . 




Tyrone „ . 
Total . . 








Oalway County . 




Leitrim ,, . 




Mayo „ . 




Bosoommon ,, . 




Sligo „ . 
Total . 
Total of Ireland 











Fapulation, — The first authentic account of the 
>p. of Ireland is given by Sir William Pettj', in 
s tract entitled the ' Political Anatomy of Ire- 
land.* Sir WiUiam was employed bv government 
to superintend the survey and valuation of the 
forfeited estates, instituted during the protectorate; 
and so well did he execute his task, that his sur- 
vey continued, for the space of near two centu- 
ries, to be the standard of reference in the courts 
of law as to all points of property. He had altoge- 
ther, the best means of obtaining accurate informa- 
tion with respect to the numbers and condition of 
the people ; and, as the results are exceedingly curi- 
ous, it may be best to give them in his own words. 
* The number of people now in Ireland (1762) 
is about 1.100,000;. viz. 800,000 English, Scotch, 
and Welsh Protestants, and 800,000 Papists; 
whereof l-4th are children unfit for labour, and 
75,000 of the remainder are, by reason of their 
quality and estates, above the necessity of cor^ 
poral labour ; so as there remains 750,000 labour^ 
ing men and women, 500,000 whereof do perfona 
the present work of the nation. 

Digitized by 



*The HHuI 1,100,000 people do live in alunxl \ A compariaon of the census returns of 1841 » 

SOOfOOO familli;^ or him^civ whereof there are 
nboiit IStOOO which havs rrn^re than on<!. chimney 
in each, and about 2Unm which have Imt orie \ (ill 
the other hou«&ij Ix^n^ L^iO,0rNi, arc wretch di 
tmsty eahinK, i^vithmit chimncv % window, or dtmt^ 
ahiitt e\eii wor^^e thau thn^e r>f tht^ savj^e Anieri- 
tmn»J (Pi)lit. Anat, nf I fi- 1 a rid, p[K 114, 118, ed. 
1719.) in im)i}^ Mr, Newpnham I'^timati.'fl the in tp. 
at 6j3i*5T45i>. An ineonipiete cpuitus was LakfMi 
in 182 It fmm whidi the pop. was comjiuted at | 
o,0a7,Wri<;. At length a c^^mplete ccii'iiia was taken i 
in [^2if when Ireland vva^i fottiiil tn contain a 
pop. of **,8'U|Hl^7* AccorJitiA*; to the ceiL^uw, taktju 
in 1841, the pr>p* amounted lo ^,175,124, viz. ^ 
Loinster, 1,97.^7:M ; Muiinter, ?,:im,liil j LTIsier, ' 
IMG^il^i Connatight. l,4lH,K.-jlj, Fuialtyt thccon- 
fiLui of April 7, l^tii, |i^nve the f5 ] I low ini; result :— 

18dl, and 1861. strikingly shows the decrease of 
population in the various provinces and counties : — 

?Jumb«flMnli»blt«nUlB Hflt 1 






Carlow Ciinnty . 




I*roKhftlft TfHwn 




Dublin CitiMliiidoU'rU 



2411. 7- 1:' 

„ .t Suburbs . 




Couuty , 



im;.. -.- 




Ml.ll I'l 

Kilkcmij City . . 




County . 

5:1,4 ]* 



King** „ , . 




Lonfrfond ,, 




l^>iith „ . , 




Mcath ^, 




QuAii'fl „ 




Wc^Lnimtti „ 











ToLiilof L(i[i!*ter . 




Clarie County . 




Cork City 




„ County, E,E,, 








K^ny „ . . 



21 Pi .'".s-f 

Llmcrjek: CUv 




,, County - 




Tipjiemry „ N.R* . 

ri.1.1 ;ii; 

;i.".,:i (|| 


ajl. . 




Watorf&r^ City 




„ County . 
Total of MnnHtcT » 





Antrim County , 




Armiigli ,. 



Belfast Town . 




CarrlckferEajsC^v aadTown 


6.1 UK 


CflTan Couuty 




Donegul „ 







Fermanagh „ 




L^indondL-rri' „ 


9^1 9 


MonB^iijin ♦, 




Tyrone ^, 




Tijtal of Ulster 
Phovtkce tiFCo;raACGirr. 




tiftlwfty CijEiniy * 




„ Town 


H.NHJ-* lfl.7Mjt 

T^itrlra Coinity . 


ClMTO V>4,(i|V 



I2W,o?rfi *j:.j,i4;^ 

RofComDioQ „ 


?7,iiia, i;;iij.-4 

Total of Connaugbt 
Total of Irclantl . 








Pr«Tlji«w ud CoanUw 




Provincb of 

Carlow County 




Drogheda Town . 

Dublin City, ) 

Municipal . / 




Do. do. Suburbs. 
Do. County . . . 

} 140,047 


( 46,281 
t 106,068 

Kildare County . 







„ County, 
pig's „ . 







Longford „ 




Louth „ 




Meath „ 




Queen's „ . 




Westmeath „ 




Wexford „ 




Wicklow „ 
Total of Leinster 
Pkovwcb of 








Clare County 




Cork City 




„ County, B.II. 
„ „ W.B. 

J 778,398 

r 351,816 
I 211,761 


Kerry ,, 
Limerick City . 







„ County . 
Tipperary „ N.R. 

„ „ 8.R. 
Waterford City . 





f 147,209 

\ 184,368 



„ County. 
Total of Munster 
Provincb of 







Antrim County . 




Armagh „ 




Belfast Town . 

Carrickfergus ) 

County ii Town j 




Cavan County . 




Donegal „ . 




Down „ . 




Fermanagh „ . 




Londonderry „ 




Monaghan „ . 




Tyrone „ . 

Total of Ulster . 

Provincb of Con- 






Galway County . 




„ Town . 




Leitrim County . 




Mayo „ . 




Roacommon „ . 




Sligo „ . 

Total of Connaught 

Total of Ireland . 










The causes which led to the diminution of the 
population between 1851 and 1861 were not of 
the twofold character to which the decrease was 
to be attributed between 1841 and 1851. In the 
latter decade it may be said to have been entirelv 
owing to the great mortality and emigration which 
originated with the famine consequent upon the 
failure of the potato crop for several years, com- 
mencing with 1845. The diminution between 1851 
and 1861 may be said to have been directly due 
to emigration, no &tal epide^c having prevailed 
during that period. 

Digitized by 


In 1861 there were 42-6 in cveiy 100 families 
chiefly employed in agricultaie-*being a redaction 
in the proportion of 10 per cent since 1851, and 
of 23*5 since 1841. In mannfactures, trades, dc 
there was also a redaction from 24*7 in 1851, and 
23-9 in 1841 to 17*5 per cent in 1861. In other 
puiaxits the proportion increased from 10 per cent 
in 1841 and 22*7 in 1851 to 89*9 in 1861. Bat 
these changes may be said to have arisen from the 
emigration of penons employed in anicnltare or 
trade, who in the censna of 1841 and 1851 were 
classed in these divisions : thus raising the pro- 
portion of families which remained in the country 
who were engaged in other pureoits. 

The condition of the people is more satisfac- 
torily exhibited in considermg the means upon 
which they are dependent Thas, in 1861, there 
were chiefly dependent on vested means and 
professions 8*9 per cent of the families— an in- 
crease firom 2*6 in 1841 and from 7 per cent in 
1851. Engaged in the direction of Jabonr there 
were 46*1 per cent in 1861, compared with 34*4 
in 1851 and 81*8 in 1841. There were livmg 
by their own manual labour in 1861, 85*3 per 
cent of families; whilst in 1851 the rate was 52, 
and in 1841 62*9 per cent Those whose means 
of subsistence were not specified, and many of 
whom probably should be included with those 
having vested meana, amounted to 10*7 per cent; 
the proportion in 1841 having been only 2*7, and 
in 1851 6*6 per cent 

Of the entire popuUtion, 2,705,665, or 46*66 per 
cent, were returned in the family schedules of 
the census of 1861 as having some occupation or 
puisiiit; and 3,093,802, or 53*34 per cent, had no 
apedtied occupations. This latter number included 
1,770,714 persons (890,904 males and 879,810 fe- 
males) under 15— the age at which employment 
might be expected to commence. Above that age 
those having no spedfled occupations amounted 
to 1^2,588, of whom 101,673 were males, and 
1,220,915 females. 

According to the censns of 1861, there were 
1,053,045 posons, or 18*16 per cent of the en- 
tire population, engi^ged in occupations placed 
under the head of ministering to food; of these 
945,615 were males, and 107,430 females. 490,492 
persona, or 8*46 per cent of the people, ranged 
Uiider employmenta ministering to clothing, of 
whom 150,856 were males, and 839,636 females. 
Miniatering to lodging, furniture, and machinery 
were 463y562 persons ; to conveyance and travel- 
ling, 68,791; to banking and agency, 4,568 ; to 
literature and education, 40,853 ; to religion, 10,627 ; 
to charity and benevolence, 983 ; to health, 6,735 ; 
to justice and government, 55,085 ; to amusement, 
2,840 ; to science and art, 757 ; and under unclas- 
sified occupations, which could not be properly 
placed under any of the above heads, were 507,327 

The total number of Irish who left the United 
Kingdom between 1841 and 1861 was, by the 
reports of the emigration commissioners, 1,240,737 ; 
whilst the number who emigrated from Irish ports 
duiiiig the period firom Ist April, 1851, to 7th 
April, 1861, according to the returns obtained by 
the registrar-general, was 1,208,360. 

The following are the number of emigrants 
who left Ireland in each of the fourteen years 
between 1851 and 1864 :— 

Tmii Emignmta 

1851 179,807 

1W2 190,822 

1863 178,148 

1864 140,666 

1866 91,914 

1866 90,781 

1867 96,081 





Had emigration and inunigration been equal 
between 1851 and 1861, and the excess of births 
over deaths— or the natural increase of popular 
tion— on an average, equal to that of England 
and Wales, the number of inhabitants, on the 7th 
April, 1861, would have been 7,241,768. 

Rural Economy.— The bulk of the population 
depend for employment and subsistence on the 
soil The competition for small patches of land 
is consequently very keen, and the rents greater 
than the occupiers can afford, though not greater 
than might be paid for them, were they conso- 
lidated into proper sized farms, and cultivated on 
an improved system. In Ireland, in fact, the pos- 
session of a piece of ground has long been a con- 
dition all but indispensable to existence ; and we 
need not therefore, wonder that the occupiers 
should cling with desperate tenacity to their small 

This has led in most parts to a sort of tacit 
but well-understood agreement among the oottiera, 
or small farmers, to support each other against 
intruders; and, in the greater part of Ireland, 
it is as necessary to the quiet possession of the 
land to secure what is called the tenant's right, 
or the good-will of the occupier, as it is to make a 
bargain with the landlord. Any tenant who should 
neglect this indispensable precaution would run a 
great risk of being disturbed in, or violently ousted 
from, his possession. Indeed, most of the distur- 
bances by which Irehmd has been so long agitated 
and disgraced have been of an agrarian character, 
or have been directly or indirectly connected with 
the occupancy of the land. It is not necessarr to 
enter into any lengthened disquisitions as to' the 
various circumstances which have led to that 
minute parcelling of the land that is the bane 
of Ireland. The greatest influence is no doubt 
to be ascribed to the habit of providing for the 
sons, and sometimes, also, the daughters of the 
occupiers of land, by giving them shares of their 
father's holdings. 

A good deal of what is peculiar in the mode of 
occupying land in Ireland has grown out of the 
circumstances under which it was originally ac- 
quired by the ancestors of its present owners. 
About nine-tenths of the land was forfeited under 
CromweU and WiUiam lU.; and this vast amount 
of property was mostly either gratuitously be- 
stowed upon, or was acquired at a verv small sacri- 
fice, by noblemen and gentlemen of fortune and 
influence in England. Such peisons could not be 
expected to leave England to reside in Ireland; 
and, in point of fact, they very rarely visited their 
estates m the latter, but satisfied themselves with 
taking what rents they could get for them. 
There was no sympathy between Uiem and their 
tenants: the religious and political principles of 
one party were opposed to those of the other. The 
landlords looked upon their tenants as a sort of 
unwilling bondsmen, who, if any favourable op- 
portunity should present itself, would immediatdy 
shake off their dependence on them; and the 
tenants regarded the bindloids as usurpers un- 
justljr intruded on the estates of others, and as 
enemies to the religion and riahts of the Irish 
people. Very few had any confidence in the sta- 
bihty of such a state of things ; and it could not 
be expected that landlords should care much 
about the permanant interests of such estates, or 

^lyiu-Lcu uy 




that they shoald lay oat any considerable sum on 
their improvement. To build a farm-house or 
offices was an outlay which, for a lengthened 
period, no Irish landlord ever incurred ; and even 
to this day the old habit maintains au ascend- 
ancy, and the great majority of landlords lay 
out little or nothing on buildings. In conse- 
quence of this practice, and of the general small- 
ness of the holdings, and the poverty of the oc- 
<nipiers, the faim-buildings, if we may so call 
them, of Ireland are, as already stated, quite 
unworthy of the name; and, in most instances, 
are wretched in the extreme. Such a thing 
as a bam ia hardly known among the smaller 
occupiers : and the com is not unfrequently 
thra&ed on the public roads, which serve as bara- 

The three principal crops grown in Ireland are 
oats, potatoes, and hay, which combined occupy 
about three-fourths of the entire area under til- 
lage. The proportions of these three crops in 1851 
and 1861 were as under: — 







B*7, Kerm 

All other 




The following are the proportions of the crops 
comprised under the head of * all other crops ' : — 


WbcAt, Barley, 

Turnip, and Manin>ld. 
bage. Vetohaa, and Rap* 





2-4 . 

The acreage of the entire country, and the pro- 
portion under arable land, plantations, towns, 
water, and uncultivated districts, at the several 
census periods in 1841, 1851, and 1861, are given 
in the following table, showing the number of 
acres in each province under cultivation, or 
otherwise occupied in the year, 1841. 1851, and 
1861; also the same reduced to proportions per 
cent.: — 

DtTbloo of BuTtmem 


Town* Water 

AcTM Acres Acre* 

8,961,188, 116,944 16,669 
4,087,7171 101,776, 18,712 
4,079,180 102,218; 20,063 


Acres Aerea 

61,624' 781,886 

62,009' 666,997| 

62,009 622,895! 

8,874,6181 180,416' 14,693 151, 881 ' 1,898,477 
4,310,4621 103,665 14,238 151,881 1,484.848 
4,688,064; 106,347 13,176 162,167 1,267,987 

8,407,639 79,783* 8,790,214,956 1,764^370 
8,994,269 68,611! 8,H15i 214,956 1,198,797 
4,067,668 69,66M2,183 210,2341,189,743 



48,840 3,877! 212,864 1,906,002' 
40,8541 8,826 212,8(;4 1,674,347 
48,8711 8,814 218,064 1,886,713 

874,482 42,929' 680,826 6,296,785 
304,906 46,690 631,210 5,023,984 
316,697 49,286 627,464 4,367,338' 

The foregoing table reduced to proportions per 
cent: — 










































































Total of Ire- 

























Tlie chief alteration in the surface of the coun- 
try was caused by Uie conversion of bog and wast« 
into pasture, 8*3 acres in every 100 having been 
retumed as uncultivated in 1851 which were pro- 
fitable in 1861. The number of acres added to tlie 
grass lands in the period was 784,952. 

The amount retumed under bog and waste is not, 
as already stated, to be considered as altogether 
unprofitable, as the laree areas of bog throughout 
the country aflTord fuel at a much cheaper rate 
than coals could at present be procured. 

The census returns show tLat the number of 
small holdings in Ireland, above one and up to 
five acres, was reduced from 310,436 in 1841, to 
85,469 in 1861, or 72-5 per cent. Holdings from 
five to fifteen acres decreased from 252,799 m 1841 
to 183,931 in 1861, or 27*2 per cent. The farms 
above fifteen acres increased in number; those 
between fifteen and thirty acres, 79,342 in 1841 
were 141,251 in 1861, an mcrease of 78 per cent, ; 
and the holdings above thirty acres from 48,625 in 
1841 to 157,833 in 1861, or 109*208 per cent. 
These changes were substantially made between 
the years 1841 and 1851 ; the changes in the next 
ten years have been comparatively trifling. This 
statement does not show the number of land- 
holders in Ireland, but the number of distinct 
holdings, the enumerator having to account for 
the total acreage of every townland. There was 
another retum made, for the first time, in the 
census of 1861. 

The enumerators of the census of 1861 were in- 
structed to obtain an account treating all farms held 
by one person as one holding, whether the lauds 
adjoined or not This reduced the retum of the 
total number of holdings in 1861 from 610,045 to 
553,664. It showed that 39,210 persons held land 
in Ireland not exceeding one acre; 75,141 held 
above one and not exceeding two acres ; 164,00(> 
from five to fifteen. acres; 127,899 from fifteen to 
thirty ; 65,896 from thirty to fifty ; 49,654 from 
fifty to 100; 20,375 from' 100 to 200; 9,046 from 
200 to 600; and 2,437 held above 500 acres. The 
retum being novel, is approximate rather than 
precisely accurate ; the tendency of corrections 
would be to reduce the numbers, but it would not 
be to any great extent. 

From the returns of the Registrar-General it 
appears that the total area of land under cultiva- 
tion in Ireland in the yearl864 was 5,672,980 acres, 

Digitized by 




bcin^ an increase of 10,493 acres over the extent 
of tUIace of 1863. The number of acres under 
wheat in 1864 was 279,863, being 19,552 over 
1863 ; but there was a decrease in the acreage 
under oats amounting to 145,965 acres, the total 
number of acres grown being 1,869,918. The 
whole return of 1864 shows a total decrease in 
cereal crops to the extent of 122,437 acres. The 
returns of the green crops are : — Potatoes, 1,039,282 
acres; turnips, 837,283 acres; mangold-wurzel 
and beetroot, 14,106 acres; cabbage, 31,756 acres ; 
carrots, parsneps, and other green crops, 23,190 
acres ; vetches and rape, 29,918 acres ; total, 

Owing to the humidity of the climate, the 
country is not well fitted for wheat and barley, 
which are at once more precarious and not of so 
good quality as in England ; but it is admirably 
suited for the gTO¥rth of oats, the culture of which 
has xmpidlv increased. Turnips are cultivated only 
in some of the best fanned districts, and, though 
extending, are not to be looked upon in the li^t 
of a general cropb 

Concurrently with an increase of arable land 
between 1841 and 1861, there has been in the 
twenty years a large increase in the value of 
live stock in Ireland. In 1841, according to the 
returns obtained by the census commissioners, 
horses, mules, and asses, and cattle, sheep, pigs, 
and poultry, were valued at 21,105,808^ In the 
year 1861 the same description of stock, accord- 
ing to the returns of the registrar-general, were, 
at the like estimated rates of average value, 
worth 33,363,194A, showing a rise in value of 
12,257,386^ during that period; while, if the 
improved breeds and enlaii^ed demand for live 
stock in 1861, compared with 1841, were to be 
taken into account, the value in 1861 would, no 
doubt, be still greater. 

Ireland, on the whole, is much better adapted for 
grazing tlian for agriculture: and such, in this 
respect, is the excellence of the soil, that in most 
parts it never fails, however foul and exhausted 
wfLen laid down to grass, speedily to clothe itself 
with a rich and luxuriant cover of herbage. The 
natural effect of this has been that of late years, 
under improved management — notably since the 
period of 1851-61 — Ireland has chiefly become a 
grazing country. 

RaU of Land and Value of Real Property,— In 
1727, Mr. Brown computed the gross rental of 
Ireland, inclusive of quit-rents, tithes, &c., at 
2^4,000/. ; and, in 1778, Mr. Young estimated it 
at 6,d00,000i (Newenhams View of Ireland, p. 
232.) Mr. Wakefield, from minutes collected in 
his tour, estimated the average rental of Ireland 
at 27«. the Irish acre, or at 16<. 6^d, the imperial 
acre (voL L p. 305); and, notwithstanding the 
imperfect data on which it was founded, this esti- 
mate, though, perhaps, in excess, probably came 
near the mark. However, the elaborate estimate 
framed by Mr. Giifllth, and contained in his 
evidence given in the Second Report of the Lords* 
Committee on Tithe (1832), is more deserving of 
attention : it is principally based on official valua- 
tions, and is probably, 'therefore, a little under the 
muk. According to Mr. Griffith the total rent of 
Ireland in 1832 amounted to 12,715,4782., which 
would give an average rent of 12«. 2cL per acre for 
the whole kingdom. But to get a correct notion 
of the rent, the area occupied by water, amounting 
to 630,825 acres, must be deducted, and this being 
done the average rent would have been 12«. 7d. 
an acre. According to the most recent estimate 
of the value of the land obtained under the valua- 
tion of the poor*s rate, the average rent per acre, 
dedactiug water, is Ids. Id, 

The subjoined tabular statement shows the 
official return of the gross annual value of real 
property — including raiiwajrs and canals — assessed 
to mcome-tax, in uie various counties and parlia- 
mentary divisions of Ireland in each of the years 
(ending April 5), 1862 and 1857. 

GroM Anntul Vmlmof Real 


Propenj, aavtMcd to Income Tax 


in tho You ending 5Ui April 





Antrim . . 



Armagh . 


288 889 




Cavan . 



Glare . 



Cork . 






Down . 






Fermanagh . 






Kerry . 






Kilkenny , 



King's Connty . 






Limerick . 






Longford . 



Louth . 



Mayo . 



Meath . 



Monaghan . 
Queen's CJounty . 








Sligo . 



Tipperary . 






Waterford . 



Westmeath . 






Wlcklow . 
Total . 





Fi»herie8.-^T!he seas round Ireland swarm with 
fish. Cod, ling, and hake are found in great 
abundance on the Nymph Bank to the 8. of 
Waterford. Flat fish also abound in many parts. 
Laige shoals of herrings visit the coast annually ; 
and the bays and creeks furnish great quantities 
of the smaller and more delicate species, as pil- 
chards, sprats, smelts, and sand-eels. The basking 
whale and sunfish are often seen off the western 
coast But the fishery has never been either 
largely or successfully carried on by the Irish. 
In 1764 a system of bounties was established to 
encourage the tiftde, but without any material 
success. It was re^-ised in 1819 by a commission, 
which also gave loans for the purchase of boats 
and tackle. With such encouragement the num- 
ber of fishermen and boats increased consider- 
ably during the ten years the system was in 
operation. But though the fishing declined on 
the bounties being withdrawn, this decline was- 
temporary only, and it has since considerably in- 

There are salmon and eel fisheries in most of 
the great rivers. The salmon fisheries in the Banu^ 
near Ck)leraine; the Foyle, the Billick, near Bally- 
shannon; the Boyne, above Dn^heda; and in 
various other parts are very productive. Irish 
salmon, packed in ice, is principally exported t» 
Liverpool, Bristol, and London. There were em- 
ployed in 1864, upon the coast of Ireland, 9,300 
vessels, with 37^16 men and 3,530 boys. The 
return showed a considerable falling off as com- 
pared with 1863, but it was believed to be owing 




mainly to an increased stkictaieas !n the reviiiion 
of the registry, which previously incladed boats 
and men long after they had ceased to be'em- 

MatafachiTU. — Ireland is not, and never has 
been a manufacturing country. Its unsettled 
state, and the general dependence of the popula- 
tion on land, nave hitherto formed insuperable 
obstacles to the formation of great manufacturing 
establishments in most parts of the country; 
whilst the want of coal, capital, and skilled work- 
men, and the great ascendancy of England and 
Scotland in all departments of manufacture, will, 
Uiere is reason to think, hinder Ireland from ever 
attaining to eminence in this department. And 
it is needless to add, that while manufactured 
ffoods can be produced cheaper in Britain than in 
Ireland, so long will the interests of the latter be 
best promoted by their importation. 

The woollen manufacture was carried on to 
some extent in Ireland previously to the revolu- 
tion of 1688, soon after which, in compliance with 
the interested solicitations of the English manu- 
facturers, the export of Irish woollens to foreign 
parts was prohibited, and oppressive duties laid on 
their importation into England. The existing 
woollen manufacture of Ireland is earned on upon 
a small scale. At Dublin, and other parts in the 
vicinity, some cloth of a better description is 
made; and other branches are carried on to some 
extent in Kilkenny^ and other places, more espe- 
cially at Moun-melick and Abbeyleix, in Queen's 
Co., and a few other places. 

To compensate for the bad treatment of the 
woollen, the linen manufacture of Ireland was 
long the olgect of especial patronage. It was 
fostered and promoted by a number of statutes, 
and placed under the superintendence of a board, 
with an annual ^rant of public money for distri- 
bution in premiums and bounties. The board, 
however, has been discontinued for many years, 
and the grants withdrawn. The manufacture is 
chiefly confined to Ulster. It was at one time 
very generally diffused over the country; the 
yam being spun by the cottier's family, and woven 
by the cottier himself. But since the introduction 
of machinery for the spinning of yam, and of 
power-looms, the old system has been to a con- 
siderable extent abandoned, and the yam is now 
principdly spun bv machinery. 

A good deal of cloth is siso made by power 
looms; but the greater part continues to m woven 
in the houses of the cottiers, who are supplied 
with yam by the agents of the manufacturers. 
In fact, but for this change of system, the manu- 
facture would have been whollv annihilated ; as 
the manufacturers under the old domestic system 
oould not have withstood the competition of 
Dundee, Leeds, and other towns in England and 

The exports of flax from Ireland for the years 
1862, 1863, and 1864 show a remarkable advance. 
For the first eleven months of 1862 the total 
export of linen yams and linen manuftictures was, 
in value, 6,292,0002. For the same months in 

1863 it was 8,084,0002.; and in 1864 it rose to 
10,327,0002. In the year 1864, the produce per 
acre of flsjc in Ireland was five cwt., which was 
10 per cent, above the average of the seven years 
ending with 1862. 

From 1864 to 1865, the area of flax culture in 
Ireland slightly decreased. It appears from the 
returns of the registrar-general, that in Ulster in 

1864 there were 278,143 acres under flas^ and in 
1866, 283,289— decrease 44,864; in Lemster, in 
1864, 7,888 acres, and in 1866, 6,862 acres— d^ 
crease, 1,626 acres; in Munster, in 1864, 7,680 

acres, and in 1865, 4,980 acres— decrease, 2,600 
acres ; and in Connaoght, in 1864^ 8,682 acres, and 
in 1866, 7,421 acres— decrease 1,161 acres. The 
total number of acres in 1864 was 301,698, and in 
1866, 261,662 — decrease on the whole, 60,141 
acres. The quantity grown in 1865 was still, how- 
ever, by a very large figure, greater than that of 
1868, which was greater by about 60,000 acres 
than any of the previous 12 years. 

The silk trade was introduced by French emi- 
grants shortk^ after the Revolution. Its chief 
seat was in Dublin ; but since the repeal of the 
protecting duties it has declined, so as to be now 
nearly extinct, with the exception of tabbinet or 
Irish poplin, a mixed fabric of silk and worsted, 
for whicn there is a considerable demand. The 
first importation of cotton wool into Ireland, of 
which there is any authentic notice, took place in 
1771. The manulacture was carried on with 
some little success in several parts duiii^ the con- 
tinuance of the protecting duties. On their with- 
drawal it declined for a while; but it has since 

Of the number of people employed in the chief 
branches of manufacture, a clear account is given 
in the census returns of 1861, which enter mi- 
nutely into the subject. It appears firom these 
returns that the number of workers, male and 
female, in the two manufactures of cotton and 
flax, and of mixed materials, was as follows at the 
date of the census : — 




Flax Yam Ifonafaotozen . 





Linen Thread Mannfaotorer . 



Flax If erchants and Dealers . 



Flax DroneTB . 



Flax Twisters and Hacklen . 




ThreadHakers . . . . 



TapeWeavera . . . . 


Lhien and Damask Weavers . 



Linen Lappen . . . . 



and Workers . . . j 



Cotton MannfaotorerB . 





Cotton and Mnalin Weavers . 



Cotton Sphmers . . . . 
Wick Maker 







Flock Makers 



QuUt Makers 



Corduroy Weavers . 



Corduroy Cutters . . . . 



Gingham Weaver . . . . 



Bewed Mnslin MannftetDrers 



Sewed Muslin Agents . . . 



MoaUn and Calico Printers . . 



Muslin Lappers . . . . 
Sewed Muslin & Tambour Workers 




Weavers (unspecified) . 



Drapers (unspedfled) . . 



Linen Drapers . . . . 



Linen Merchants . . . . 



Girth Web Makers 



Fringe and Tassel Makers . 





Binbroiderers . • • « . 






Spinners (unq)ecified) . • • 



The comparatively limited extent of Irish ma- 
nufacturing industry is shown in the subjoined 
table, whidi gives the returns of the total number 
of factories for spinning and weavinj^ cotton, wool, 
flax, hemp, jute, and suk, in the United Kingdom, 
in 1861, number of spindles, and the number of 
persons employed therein. 

^lyitized by 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 





Englivid \ 

and WalM i 

Scotland . . 

Ii^land. . . 

Total . . 


Sootland . . 
IreUmd. . . 

Tbtal . . 


Bngland ft W. 

Scotland . , 

Izeland. . . 

TMal . . 

Sootland . . 
Irelaad. • , 

TMal . . 

Bngland &W. 
Irelaad. . . 

INvtal . . 


England ft W. 

Scotland • . 

Ireland. . . 

Total . . 

Bngland &W. 
Scotland . . 
Ireland. . . 

Total . . 


England ft W. 


Ireland. . . 

Total . . 

England &W. 
Sootland . . 
Ireland . . . 

Total, TT. K. 

2,716 38,858,125 

lesj 1,915,898 
9 119,M4 

1,4561 1346,850 
184 817,185 
89 18,674 




























6,878 86<450,028 

Tocal NiualMn «anplo7ad 


824{ 1,910 



182,556 269,018 451,569 
































2,162 3,335 

371,440 871,167 
35,843| 69,713 
11,490 36,383 

























806,278|467,261 1775,584 

Chmmeree a»d Sh^iping.— -The total value of the 
exports from Iriah ports to foreign countries was as 
follows in each of the four years 1860 to 1868 :-- 










Belfast . 





OoA . . 





DabUn . 





Dnndalk . . 





Gahrav . 









Londonderry . 





Newry • • 




Boa . . 










SUgo . . 















Wexford • • 
Totslof Ireland 









The number and tonnage of British Hndnding 
Irish) and foreign vessels which clearea at Irish 
ports in the year 1863, is given in the subjoined 
table :— 







Belfast . . 





Ooleraine . 





Cork . . 









Dublin . 





Dondalk . 





Oalway . 
Limerick. . 









Newry . ■ 










Skibbereen . 





Sligo . . 





Stiangford . 





Tralee . 










Westport . 
Wexford . . 







Total of Ireland 





Canab. — The Grand Canal, commenced in 1766, 
is carried from Dublin to Robertstown, 25 m. W., 
whence proceed two branches, that to the right to 
the Shannon harbour, on the Shannon, near Ba- 
nagher, and thence on the W. of the river to Bal- 
liziasloe, 94 m. from Dublin, with a branch of 8^ 
m. to Kilbeggan ; that to the leffc to Athy, 65 m. 
from Dublin, with a branch of 11 m. from'Monas- 
tereven to Portarlington and Mountmellick. The 
summit level is 200 ft above the sea. The Barrow 
is navigable from Athy for small craft, to the Scars, 
43 m., thence for Uuger vessels by Ross to Water- 
ford, 80 m. 

The Royal Canal, commenced in 1789, extends 
from Dublin to Tarmonbarry on the Shannon, 92 
m., with a branch of 5 m. from Killashee to Long^ 
ford. Its greatest height above sea level is 807 ft. 
The Shannon has been rendered navigable from 
Limerick almost to its source, and is traversed by 
steam-boats both for passengers and goods. The 
Boyne navigation from Drogheda to Mavan, and 
the Lagan m>m Belfast to Lough Neagh, are partly 
river and partly still water. The Ulster Canal 
connects Loughs Neagh and Erne. The Suir Na- 
vigation Company was incorporated in the year 
1887, for making a ship canal to Carrick-on- 

Raihpe^a, — ^Numerous railways, some of which 
promise to be of great advantage, have been opened 
in Ireland; others are in course of bein^ con- 
structed, while many more have been projected* 
Among the leading lines may be specified the 
Great South Western, extending from Dublin to 
Cork and Limerick, with branches to Killamey 
and other pUces; the South Eastern to Water- 
ford and Wexford; the Great Western connect- 
ing Dublin with Mullingar, Athlone, and Galwav ; 
the Northern line from Dublin to Belfast, and the 
Second Northern line, running almost parallel to 
it, to Londonderrv, by way of Enniskillen. Dublin 
is the centre of £ve lines of railway, Cork of four, 
and Belfast of three. Except the north western 
districts of Ireland, the country is intersected 
throughout by a well-planned network of rail- 
ways. The subjoined tabular statement shows 
the progress of the Irish railway svstem from 
1864 to 1868, saving the length of lines, the 
total paid-up capital, the total number of passen- 
gers, and tne tiafiic receipts in each of the ten 
years :— 

Digitized by 




Length of 
at the End 

Total Capital 
Paid up (Sharct 

Namb«r of 

Total of 






the End of each 























































Revenue, — The revenue of Ireland is raised from 
the same sources as in England. But, owing to 
the depressed condition of the great bulk of the 
Irish people, and their inability to consume taxed 
articles, the revenue of Ireland falls far short of 
that of Great Britain. While the proportion of 
revenue per head of population amounted, in Great 
Britain, to 3/. 5«. lid. m 1800, to 4L 14«. in 1817, 
to 3^ 198. 9</. in 1822, to 2L 11*. 9d in 1842, to 
'2L 18«. Irf. in 1862, and to 2L 12*. 7d. in 1863, it 
was as follows at the same dates in Ireland : — 

Omei R*. 


Proportion of 


ReTCDue per 

Yean ended 



Bead of the 

within the 




£ s. d. 

January 5, 1800 



14 1 




10 17 8 
14 10 








Maroh 81,1862 



13 4 


5.781,626 . 


12 6 

Exclusive of the above, or of the public revenue, 
a considerable sum is annually raised by grand 
jury presentments, that is, by assessments on the 
COS. made by the grand juries, for constructing and 
keeping up roads, prisons and bridewells, police 
and police establishments, and for charitable pur- 
poses. Subjoined is an account of the sums raised 
by presentments for various services made by the 
grand juries in Ireland, in each of the years 1861 
and 1862. 

I 1861 I isn 

New Beads, Bridges, PlpeB, Gnl-\ 

lets, Qiiay Walls, or cutting [ 

down Bills or filling np Hollows [ 

or Ditches ) 

Repairs of Roads, Bridges, Pipes, ) 

Gullets, or Walls . . .J 
CJourt or Seaslons Houses, Erec- ) 

tion or Repairs . . . . f 
Gaols, Bridewells, Houses of Cor- ) 

rection, building or repairing . f 
All other Prisons and Bridewell) 

Expenses, including Salaries . [ 
Police,and Police Establishments, ) 

and Payments to Witnesses . [ 
Sala ies of County Officers not ) 

included in the foregoing . . j 
Public Charities .... 
Repayment of Advances to Go- ) 

vernment J 

Miscellaneous .... 

Gross Amount of Presentments . 
Amount of Re-presentments 

Net Amount of Presentments . 





















The above sums are small, compared wi^ what 
is assessed for similar purposes in England. 

Constitution and Administration of Justice..— The 
constitution of Irehind is modelled on that of Eng- 
land; but, for a lengthened period, the native 
Irish, comprising the great bulk of the population, 
were effectually excluded from all participation in 
its benefits, and were in fact reduced to a state of 
hekttism. This conduct, it is needless to add, was 
little less injurious to the conquerors than to the 
conquered. 'As the English would neither in 
peace govern the Irish by the law, nor could in 
war root them out by the sword, thev needs became 
micks in their eyes and thorns m their sides.' 
But nations are slow and reluctant learners ; and 
that selfish, short-sighted policy, whose effects 
were thus forcibly exposed by Sir John Davies 
(Discoverie, p. 120, ed. 1747) in the reign of James 
I., flourished in its full vigour down almost to our 
own times. The granting of the elective franchise 
to the Catholics, so late as 1792, was the first great 
step in the progress to a better system, which was 
happily consummated by the repeal of the last 
remnant of the penal code in 1829. The odious 
distinctions by which society was formerly divided 
have no longer any le^al or statutory foundations. 
Adherence to the rehgion of their ancestors has 
ceased to entail upon the Catholics a denial of 
their political franchises; and all classes now par- 
ticlpate equally in the rights and privileges granted 
by the constitution. 

The l^slature consisted, previously to the 
Union, of a chief governor, under the name of 
lord lieutenant, with power to appoint a deputy 
during absence, a house of lords, and a house of 
commons. Under Henry VII., the prostration of 
the Irish parliament was effected, by transferring 
the right to bold parliaments, which had been 
vested in the lord lieutenant, and to originate bills, 
to the king and the English privy council The 
first parliament, in which members were returned 
from all parts of Ireland, sat in the beginning of 
the reign of James I. The number of members 
varied at different times, but was ultimately fixed 
at 800, two for each co., two for Trinity College, 
and the remainder for cities and bors., the repre- 
sentatives for the latter being, in most instances, 
nominated' by their proprietor or patron, Pre- 
\'iously to 1768, the members held their seats for 
life, so that they could hardly be considered as 
representatives even of the Protestant part of the 
nation, and had but little sympathy witji popular 
feelings. At this epoch, however, parU^ents were 
made octennial 

Smce the Union, Ireland has been represented 
in the imperial parliament by twenty-eight tem- 
poral peers, elected for life by the 'whole body 
of Irish peers ; four bishops, who sit accoitliug to 
annual rotation of sees ; and from the ITnion till 
the passing of the Reform Act, it was repre- 
sented in the H. of C. by 100 members, two for 
each CO., two each for the cities of Dublin and 
Cork, one for Trinity College, and one each for 
the 31 bors. of Armagh, Athlone, Bandon, Belfast, 
Carlow, Carrickfei^gus, Cashel, Clonmel, Coleraine, 
Downpatrick, Drogheda, Dundalk, Dungannon, 
Dungarvan, Ennis,Enniskillen,Galway, Kilkenny, 
Kinsale, Limerick, Lisbum, Londonderry, Mallow, 
New Ross, Newry, Portarlington, Sligo, Tralee, 
Waterford, Wexford, and Youghal. The Reform 
Act gave Ireland five addition^ members, which 
were assigned to Trinity College, Belfast, Galway, 
Limerick, and Waterford, which consequently 
have now two members each. It also vested the 
electoral franchise in cos. in the same classes as 
in England, with the sulMtitution of 20Z. for bOL, 
and 14 for 20 years, and in cities and bors. in free- 

^lyitized by 




men resident within 7 m^ And 102. freeholders. 
But these qualifications having; been found to be 
too high, were reduced, in 18^0, by the 13 & 14 
Vict. cap. 69, which has given the franchise in 
counties to the occupiers of land rated for the 
poor-nte at the nett value of 12^ a year, and to 
the possessors of estates in fee or for life rated at 
5L : it has, also, given the franchise in towns to 
all parties occupying lands or premises rated at 82. 
a year. Tlie electoral boundaries of the bors. are 
fixed by statute. The executive government is 
vested in the lord lieutenant, or, in his absence, in 
the loids justices, generally the primate, lord chan- 
cellor, and commander of the forces, and a privy 
council nominated by the crown, and consisting 
chiefly of the high judicial and ministerial func- 
tionaries. The lord lieutenant is assisted by a 
chief secretary, a member of the House of 
Commons; and who, being in effect secretary for 
Ireland, is especially responsible for its govern- 
ment. The salary of the lord lieutenant is 20,00021 
year, with a liberal allowances both for residence 
and household. 

The judicial establishment is vested, as in Great 
Britain, in the lord chancellor, removable at plea- 
sure, assisted by the masters of the rolls, and in 
twdve judges, 'four for each of the courts of 
queen's bench, common pleas, and exchequer. 
Two of the law judges go through each of the 
six drcuits into which t))e country is distributed, 
twice a year, to decide criminal and civil cases. 
The judges of the courts of prerogative and admi- 
ralty are generally practising barristers. A barris- 
ter also presides along with the co. magistrates at 
the courts of quarter sessions. Petty sessions, at 
which at least two magistrates must be present, 
are held weekly, or once a fortnight, in every 

Each corporate town has a judge or recorder, 
and local magistrates, elected by the corpora- 
tion; and every manor has its courts under a 
seneschal or bailiff nominated by the proprietor. 
The lord chancellor has the power of appointing 
and removing the co. magistrates, for whose con- 
duct he b responsible. An act passed in 1840 
(3 4 4 Vict. cap. 108) for remodelhn^ the munici- 
pal corporations in Irish towns. It gives the right 
of voting at municipal elections to all persons resi- 
dent in boroughs, or within 7 m. of their bounda^ 
ries, occupying houses, shops, or other premises 
within the same of the annual value of 10/. 

The conservation of the peace is committed, in 
the COS., to a lord lieutenant, aided by an indefinite 
number of deputy lord lieutenants, all nominated 
by the crown and by the high sheriff, selected, as 
in England, from lists prepared by the judges of 
assize. Ireland has a well-organised constabulary 
force, which consisted, according to the census re- 
tunis of 18G1, of 18,864 officers and men. The 
actual number of soldiers in Ireland, at the same 
period, was returned at 26,276, exclusive of 
militiamen, to the number of 1,045. The military 
department is under the control of the commander 
of the forces. He has under him 5 general officers, 
who respectively command one of the 5 military' 
districts into which the island is divided. The 
ordnance, which is a branch of that of Great Bri- 
tain, has its chief station at the Pigeon House 
Fort : attached to it is the staff of the trigonome- 
trical survey of Ireland. There is at Kilmainham 
a hospital for decayed and disabled soldiers, simi- 
lar to that of Chelsea. 

Crime and Criminals, — The subjoined table gives 
the total number of persons, of each sex, com- 
mitted to prison in Ireland, for various offences, 
and the number con\'icted and not convicted, in 
the year 1862 :— 

1 •«" 1 




Class of Offences. 

Felony .... 




Petty Larceny . 








Under Revenne Laws 




„ Poor Law Act 




By Courta-martlttl, and \ 
Deserters . . ) 




Under Vagrant Act 








Lunatics, dangerous ) 
and criminal . f 




For further Examina- ) 
tion or Trial . j 

Total Committals . 









Felons .... 








Criminal Lunatics • 

Summary Convictiokb. 







Offenders under Larceny ) 








Dangerous Lunatics 




Under llevenue Laws 




„ Poor Law Act 







DeaerterB .... 



Under Vagrant Act 




Not Convicted. 






Felons acquitted 




„ no Bill or Prose- ) 
cutlon found ] 




Misdemeanants acquitted 




„ no Bill or Prose- ) 
cution found ] 




For further Ezamini^on 




For Trial. 








Religious Establishments, — The ecclesiastical ar- 
rangement-s that prevail in Ireland are at once 
anomalous and irrational The Reformation never 
made any considerable progress in the country, 
the new doctrines being only espoused bv the Eng- 
lish settlers within the pale. But after Protestant- 
ism had been adopted by the bulk of the English 
people, and had been made the established religion 
on this side the water, it was determined to esta- 
blish it as the state religion in Ireland. In pur- 
suance of this resolution, the Catholic cleigy were 
ejected from their livings, which were bestowed 
upon divines attached to the doctrines of the 
church of England. This change did not, however, 
produce any corresponding change in the reli- 
gious feelings of the people, who seemed, indeed, 
to become the more attached to their ancient faith, 
according as their clergy were treated with harsh- 
ness and injustice. In eveiv other country, the 
established religion, if there be one, is that of the 
great majority of the people ; but in Ireland the 
established religion is, and long has been, that of 
a small minority — and that minoritv, be it ob- 
served, consists pruicipally of the wealthy and best 
educated classes, who could, without difficultv, 
supply themselves with religious instruction. Such 
an arrangement is inconsistent with and subver- 
sive of every principle of sound policy and common 

Digitized by 




sense. The grand object of an establushment, it 
.is needless to say, should be the provision of reli- 
gious instruction and oonsolatioh for the great 
bulk of the community, and especially for those 
who are too poor to be able to provide it for them- 
selves. But in Ireland the reverse of all this 
obtains. The established religion is alien to and 
repudiated by nine-tenths of the pop., who regard 
it as erroneous in principle, and as a usurpaUon 
upon the rights ana property of their deigymen. 
These feelings are natural ; and it is nugatory to 
suppose that they should be got rid of, so long 
as the existing arrangements are maintained. A 
Catholic establishment in England would not, in 
fact, be more irrational and absurd than a Pro- 
testant establishment in Ireland ; and, so long as 
the latter is perniitted exclusively to enjoy the 
revenues appropriated by the state for the support 
of religion^ so long will it be an object of disgust 
and hostility to the Catholic people and clerey, 
that is, to the great majoritv of the nation, and be 
productive of me most mapiacable animosities. 

Previously to 1834, when the Church Tempo- 
ralities Act, the 3 4fe 4 Will 4, c. 37, was passed, 
the country was divided into 4 archbishoprics, cor- 
responding nearly with its four civil provinces, and 
these were farther subdivided into 29 bishoprics, 
held by 18 bbhops. But this hierarchy, obviously 
dispropoitioned to the wants of the (M>untrv, was 
restricted within more moderate dimensions by the 
act referred to above. It reduced the archbishop- 
rics of Cashel and Tuam to bishoprics; and di- 
vided the island into the northern and southern 
provinces, the archbishop of Armagh being the 
head of the one, and the archbishop of Dublin of 
the other. It also reduced the number of bishops 
to 10 ; and effected various changes in the reve- 
nues of the different sees, to take effect on the 
demise of the different incumbents by whom they 
were then occupied. The revenues arising from 
the cancelled bishoprics and other sources were 
vested in commissioners, to be applied to the build- 
ing and repair of churches, and other ecclesiastical 

Under the old airangement, the archbishoprics 
and bishoprics, with their revenues, were as fol- 
lows : — 

Armagh .... 
Meath and Glonmacnoise 

Down and Connor 

Derry .... 14,198 

Raphoe .... 5,787 

EUmore .... 7,478 

Dromore .... 4,818 

Dublin and Glanddagh . . £9,321 

Kildare .... 6,462 

Ossory 8,859 

Ferns and Leighlin . . 6,550 


Cashel and Emly . . . £7,854 

Limerlok,A.rdfert,andAghadoe 5,869 

Waterford and Lismore . 4,828 

Cork and Boas . . . 4,846 

Cloyne 6,009 

Eillaloe and Kllfenora . 4,041 


Tuam and Ardagh . . . £8,206 

Elphin 7,084 

Clonfert and Ellmaodnagh . 8,621 

Killala and Achonry . . 4,082 

Total Income . £150,685 

The revenues increased greatly in course of 
time, as will be seen from the subjoined parlia- 
mentary return, issued in the session of 1863, 


which gives the revenues of the various dioceses 
in 1861, and the number of members of the Estab- 
lished Church in 1834 and 1864 :— 

Numbo-of Vcmben 


* Qf the 



Cbureh in 



eaeii DloofM 

1834 1 1861 


Armagh and Clogher . 





Dublin and Eildare . 




Meath .... 




Derry and Bapboe 




Down, Connor, and) 
Dromore . . J 




Ellmore, Elphin, and ) 
Ardagh . . j* 




Tnam, Tfiilft^t^^ and ) 
Achonry . . ) 

Oflaory, Ferns, and) 
L^hlin . . 1 







Cashel, Emily, Water- ) 
ford, and Lismore J 




Cork, Cloyne, and Ross 




Eillaloe, KUfenora, 

Clonfert, and KU- 




maodaagh . j 

Lfanerlck, Ardfert, ) 
and Aghado . J 

Total . . 







Another parliamentary return— ordered by the 
House of Commons, on the 6th May, 1863 — shows 
the number of Roman Catholics in Ireland in the 
years 1834 and 1861 ; the number of members 
of the Established Church in Ireland in the 
vears 1834 and 1861; and the proportion of 
iRoman Catholics to members of the Established 
Church in 1834 and in 1861. It appears from 
this return that the number of Roman Catholics 
in Ireland was — 


The number of members in the Established 
Church of Ireland i 

In 1884 
In 1861 

In 1834 
In 1861 


Consequently, the proportion of Roman Catho- 
lics to members of the Established Church ^ 

In 1834, 100 Roman Catholics to 13'25 members of 

the Established Church. 
In 1861, 100 Roman Catholics to 15-85 members of 

the Estoblished Church. 

Exclusive of deans, prebendaries, and other 
dignitaries, Ireland is divided into about 2,400 
parishes, and has about 1,400 beneficed cleigvmen. 
The incomes of the prelates and other dignitaries 
are principally derived from the rent of lands let 
on lease, or rather on leases renewable by fine. 
The other clergy are partljr provided for by glebe 
lands, but principally oy tithes, and in towns by 
an assessment called minister's money. 

In addition to the unpopularity attaching to the 
church of England in Ireland, from its bemg the 
church of a mmority, the fact of its deriving the 
lai^t portion of its income from tithes, tended ma- 
terially to increase the odium under which it has 
long laboured, lithe is everywhere a most vex- 
atious and impolitic tax, but in Ireland it has 
been peculiarly noxious ; for there the land being 
mostiy split into small portions occupied by poor 
Catholic cottiers, the payment of tithes to Pro- 
testant cleig>'men is not only ielt to be a most 
oppressive burden, but it is, at the same time, 

Digitized by 




looked upon as a sacrifice imposed for the promo- 
tion and advantage of heresy and error. It has 
al$o been very muairly assessed. By a resolution 
of the Irish H. of C. in 1735, grass lands obtained 
an exemption from tithe ; so that while a tenth 
part of the produce of a pibtato garden or slip of 
land, on which, perhaps, a numerous family was 
dependent, went to the establishment, the herds 
of the opulent grazier contributed nothing to its 
suppcHt. For a lengthened period, the payment 
of tithes in Ireland was made with extreme re- 
luctance, and theii collection has, in innumerable 
instances, been productive of outrage and blood- 
shed. At last, It became next to impossible, in 
many parts of the kingdom, to derive anj revenue 
from &is source ; and in consequence it was atr 
tempted to substitute compositions or fixed pay- 
ments for tithes in the room of tithes themselves. 
But, though productive of some advantage, this 
measure was comparatively useless, from its leav- 
ing the composition to be paid bpr the occupier 
and not by the hindlord. To obviate this defect, 
an act was passed in 1838 (1 and 2 Victoria, cap. 
109) abolishing compositions for tithes, and sub- 
stituting in their stead a fixed payment of three- 
fourthM of their amount (401,11^.) to be made by 
the landlords or others having a perpetual interest 
in the land. This act, by relieving the tithe- 
collector ftom the necessity of coming into con- 
tact with the great bulk of the.occupiers, obviated 
a prolific source of predial disturbance. Still, 
however, it cannot be supposed that either this 
or any other device should ever reconcile the 
Irish people to the appropriation of a large revenue 
to the exclusive use of the church of a small 
minority of their number. The efifect of this 
prepoeteroos arrangement is to insult and alienate 
ihe bulk of the population, who would be more or 
less than men if it ceased to encounter their 
rooted hostility. 

The R. Catholic church is governed nearly in 
the same manner as the Established church was 
previously to the recent changes, lliere are four 
archbishops, the same in name and provincial 
rank as those of the Protestant church, and 23 
bishops. Eight of the bishops — Ardagh, Clogher, 
Deny, Down and Connor, Dromore, Kilmore, 
Heath, and Baphoe — ^are suffragan to Armagh. 
Dublin has but three sulAragans— Kildare and 
L^hHn united. Ferns, and Ossory. Six are 
snffragen to C«shd, namely Ardfert and Aghadoe 
(usually called the bishop of Kerry, Clovne, and 
Ro«), *Coik, Killaloe, Limerick, Waterford, and 
Usmore. Tnam has four suffragans — ^Achonxy, 
Clonfert, Killala, and Galway. The bishop of the 
united dioceses of Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora is 
alternately sufiVagan to the archbishops of Tuam 
and Cashel. The wardenship of Galway, formerly 
an exempt jurisdiction, subiect only to the 
triennial visitation of the archbishop of Tuam, 
has been lately erected into a bishopnc, under its 
foiroerarchiepiscopal jurisdiction. On the death 
of a bishop, the clergy of the diocese elect a yicar- 
capitular, who exercises spiritual jurisdiction 
during the vacancy. They also nominate one of 
their own body, or sometimes a stranger, as suc- 
cessor to the vacancy, in whose favour they 
postulate or petition the pope, llie bishops of 
the province aJso present the names of two or 
three eligible persons to the pope. The new 
btsbop Ls generally chosen from among this latter 
number : bat the appointment virtually rests with 
the cardinals, who constitute the con^rregation efe 
pnpaganddjide. Their nomination is submitted 
to the pope, by whom it is usually confirmed. 
In csMs of old age or infirmity, the bishop nomi- 
nates a coadjutor, to discharge the episcopal duties 

in his stead ; and his recommendation is almost 
invariably attended to. The emoluments of a 
bishop arise from his parish, which is generally 
the best in the diocese, firom licenses of marriage, 
and from the cathedraticum. The last is an 
annual sum, varying from 2^ to 10/., according 
to the value of the parish, paid by the incumbent 
in aid of the maintenance of the episcopal digpitv. 
The parochial clergy are nominated exclusively 
by the bishop. The incomes of all descriptions 
of the R. Catholic dergy of Ireland arise ^rtly 
from fees on the celebration of births, marnages, 
and masses; and partly, and principally, from 
Christmas and Easter dues, and other voluntary 
offering All places of worship are built by 
subscription. There are numerous monasteries 
and convents. 

Exclusive of the ii^ustice inflicted on the R. 
Catholics of Ireland by the seizure of the funds 
belonging to their church, and their appropriation 
to the support of the clergy of the church of 
England, tney laboured for a lengthened period 
imder the most degrading disabilities. The treaty 
of Limerick, in 1691, between the generals of 
William III. and those of James II., guaranteed 
to the Irish B. Catholics the same religious privi- 
1^^ they had enjoyed during the reign of Charles 
IL But this treaty was most shamefully 
broken ; and during the reigns of Anne, George 
I., and George II., a series of acts were passed, 
constituting what has been called the Catholic 
penal code, which had for its object the extermina- 
tion of the R. Catholic religion in Ireland. It 
is unnecessar}"- to recapitulate the provisions of 
these statutes. Their spirit was succinctly and 
truly described by Mr, Burke : — ' The laws made 
in this kingdom (Ireland) against Papists were as 
bloody as any of those that had been enacted by 
the popish princes and states; and when these 
laws were not bloody they were worse : they were 
slow, cruel, outrageous in their nature, and kept 
men idive only to insult in their persons every 
one of the rights and feelings of humanity.* 
(Letter to Sir H. Langrishc.) 

It is well known that this atrocious code en- 
tirely failed of its object, and that, instead of 
being exterminated, the R. Catholic religion 
gained new strength and vigour from the persecu^ 
tion to which it was exposed. 

' Per damua, per coBdes, ab ipso 
Ducit opee anlmumque ferro.* 

In the earlier part of the reign of George III., 
the leading statesmen of England became alive 
to tile impolicy and mischievous operation of 
parts, at least, of the penal code ; and its more 
offensive provisions were gradually repealed. In 
1793, the elective franch^e was conceded to the 
R. Catholics ; but they continued, down to a com- 
paratively late period, to be excluded from the 
Privilege of having seats in the legislature, of 
eing members of corporations, and of holding 
numerous public ofiSces of trust and emolument. 
At length, in 1829, the R. Catholics were fully 
emancipated from all civil disabilities on account 
of religion, and were placed, as respects their 
political rights and franchises, nearly on the same 
footing as Protestants. 

That this measure was a great boon to Ireland 
is most true ; but though it allayed, it was not 
enough to extinguish, religious feuds and ani- 
mosities. Justice, and the most obvious dictates 
of policy, require, as already stated, either that 
the R. Cath. should be made the established 
religion of Ireland, or, at all events, that the R. 
Cath. clergy should participate, proportionally to 
the numt^r of their flocks, in the emoluments 

^lyitized by 




now exclusively engpowed by the dergy of the 
church of England. It is a contradiction and an 
absurdity to suppose that a great and decifliye 
majority should exet quietly submit to be de- 
prived of privileges possessed by a minority. This, 
however, is the state of thiup in Ireland ; and, 
till it be radically and completely changed, the 
country will do doubt continue, as heretofore, 
to be disgraced and distracted by religious dis- 

The Protestant dissenters are found chiefly in 
Ulster. They are classed in congregations, an 
indefinite number of which forms a presbytery, 
and delegates, partly ministers and partly lay 
elders, form the general synod, which regulates 
the ecclesiastical concerns of the body, and is 
presided over by a moderator chosen annually. 
The synod of Ulster is coexistent with the estab- 
lishment of the Presbyterian doctrine and dis- 
cipline in Ireland. The Southern Assodation, or 
Presbyterian synod of Munster, was formed about 
1660 : the Presbytery of Antrim separated from 
the svnod of Ulster in 1727, and the Remonstrant 
synod in 1829. 

The Methodists are divided into two societies — 
the Wesleyan and the Primitive Wesleyan. The 
Independents, or Cong^regational Union, form a 
separate body from Presbyterians or Methodists. 
The Society of Friends, or Quakers, are most nu- 
merous in Dublin, Cork, Queen's Co., and Annagh, 
but they numbered altogether only 1,848 at the 
census of 1861. The United Brethren, or Monir- 
vians, have establishments in Dublin and Antrim. 

The numbers attached to the three principal 
religious bodies in Ireland are given in the sub- 
joined table, which shows by provinces, counties, 
cities and corporate towns, the religions profes- 
flions of the inhabitants on the night of the 7th 
April, 1861. 

Ptotidcm. CovnliM| 










Carlow Comity . 





Drogheda Town 





Dublin aty . 





Dublin Suburbs 





Dublin Ck)unty (ex- 


clusive of Baburbs 

of aty . 





Kildare County 





Kilkenny City . 





Kilkenny County . 





King-f „ . . 





Longford „ . 





Louth „ . 





Meath „ . . 





Queen's „ . 





Westmeath „ . 





Wexford „ . 





Wicklow „ . 
Total of Leinster 









Clare County . 





Jork City . . . 





Cork Co., Bast Riding 





Cork Co.,We«t Riding 





Kerry „ . . . 





Limerick City . 





Limerick County 





Tlpperary Co., North 

Riding . 





Tlpperary Co.. South 

Biding . . . 





Waterford City . 





WaterfoPd County . 
Total of Hunster 






4,0181,420,076 1,518.568 

ProvtfMM. CoantiM, 

CitlM, Mid Towu 







Antrim County 




Annagh ., . 

58,785, 80.746 



Belfast Town . 

80,080 42.604 



Carrickfergus, Co. of 

Town . 





Cavan County . 





Donegal „ 

29,948 26,215 



Down „ . 

60,657 183,421 



Fermanagh „ 

40.608 1,909 



Londonderry „ 

81,218 64.602 



Monaghan „ 

17,721 15,149 



Tyrone „ 

Total of Ulster 


52,240 46,568 






GalwayTown . 





Oalway County . 

7,865 892 


954.51 1 

Leitrim .. . 

9.4881 888 




6.739! 961 



5,728', 277 



SUgo „ . 
Total of Gonnaught 
Persons at Sea on 

10,438| 981 







Census Night 





Total oflndand . 

698.867 628,291 

4,505.265 5.798.967 

It will be seen that there -were, at the oensas of 
1861, out of every hundred persons, 12 belonginfr 
to the EsUblished church. 10 Presbyterians, 77 
Roman Catholics, and one per cent Protestant and 
other dissenters. 

Education, — The principle of educating the 
grest body of the people was fully recognised at the 
Reformation. An act of 28 Henry YIII. bound 
every beneficed cleigyman by oath, on his incum- 
bency, to keep or cause to be kept a school in 
his parish. A subsequent act of Elizabeth re- 
quired the -bishop and beneficed clergy of every 
diocese to maintain a grammar-schooL Bnt in 
nine cases out of ten, the oath and the act were 
alike disregarded; and the few schools that were 
oxganised were founded on sectarian principlea, 
beiii^ intended for the exclusive use of the 
dommant sect. In 1783, a society was established 
by charter, for founding schools at the public 
expense, in which the children of the poor should 
be taught the elements of literature, and instructed 
in usdbl works. Bnt though the avowed, thia 
was not the real object of this society, which ex- 
erted itself to undermine the Catholic religion by 
educating Catholic children in the principles of 
the Protestant faith. But this attempt at proaely- 
tism was soon discovered ; and the schools were 
deserted by all but Protestants. In 1815, a 
societv in Dublin, for the suppression of vice, re- 
ceived a large parliamentary grant for the instruc- 
tion of the poor on the principles of the estab- 
lished church ; and, in 1819, a society for the 
instruction of the poor, but professing to avoid 
any interference with the religious opinions of 
the pupils, received a much larger annual grant. 
The latter of these associations was called the 
Kildare Street Society^ from the place of its 

These societies failed, however, in producing a 
general effect. The grants of public money, by 
which the chartered schools were chiefly main- 
tained, were -withdrawn, from a conviction of their 
inefiicacy, and of the abuses which had crept into 
their management. The grants to the society for 
the suppression of vice, and the Kildare Street 
Society, were also withdrawn, in consequence of 

.-lyiii^cu uy 




tbdr mmt of sncoees, and of their real or suppoeed 
interference with the religious tenets of the pupiLi. 
In 188d, the public money hitherto parcelled oat 
among these associations was vested in the lord 
lieutenant, to be expended in promoting the 
education of the children of every religious de- 
nomination under the superintendence of commis- 
aionen forming a board of National Education. 
Education in the national schools is strictly con- 
fined to the common and most useful branches of 
secular knowledge, the religious instruction of 
the pupils being, in every case, left to the care of 
their parents and the cleigy of the denominations 
to which they belong. 

The total number of national schools in Ireland, 
on the 31st of December of each year, was 5,632 
in 1860 ; 5,830 in 1861 ; and 6,010 in 1862. The 
average number of children in daily attendance 
was 262,828 in the vear 1860; 284,726 in 1861; 
and 284,912 in 1862.* 

The subjoined tables show the. sums received 
and expended for the i>urpo6e of National Primaxy 
Education in Ireland in each of the years, ended 
8l8t Dec. 1860, 1861, and 1862 :— 





Balance from prevloos 
Yemr ... 

Grants from the Trea- 
sozy (on aooonnt of ■ 
Votes) . . . 
For Books and Beqnisites 
■old to the Kationid 
Schools at reduced 
prioeB . . . j 

For Sato of Fann and 

School Fees . 
Total . 














III % Ih 








1 Salaries, Gratnities. and) 
General Expenditure f 
for Schools . . j 


Printing, Binding, and^ 

Pnichace of Books and ( 

1 for other School Be- ( 

qnJsites J 

Central Ofladal Bsta-) 
bliahment . J 


MisoeUaneouB . 

Total . . . 

















The conunissioners comprise some of the highest 
dignitaries, both of the Frotestant and B. Cath. 
churches, and some distinguished Protestant and 
Catholic laymen. The]^ seem to dischaige their 
important functions with great diligence and 
impartiality. The schools they assist in estab- 
lishing appear to be making the most satisfactory 
progress; and will, no doubt, be productive of 
great public benefit. 

Of the children educated, fnlly^ one-ceventh are 
Protestants, which seems a fair proportion, as 
the Protestant poor certainly do not exceed one- 
leventh -past of the poor of Ireland. 

There are several collegiate institutions for in- 
itmction in the higher departments of science 
and literature. Among them are Trinity College, 
Dublin, the only onivcisitv entitled to confer de- 
grees in all the faculties, the R. Catholic College 

at Maynooth, the Academical Institution in Bel- 
fast, and others. Some details relating to each of 
these are given in the accounts of their respective 
localities. (See Dublin, Maynooth, Belfast.) 

More recently, however, or in 1845, an act was 
passed (8 4 9 Vict, c 66) for founding new col- 
leges in Ireland with liberal endowments, on an 
enlar;^ and comprehensive plan. In pursuance 
of this act, colleges, denominated the * Queen's' 
have been opened in Belfast, Cork, and Galway. 
The professors have been selected with the greatest 
care, regard being solely had to their moral, lite- 
rary, and scientific chuacter, without inquiring 
or caring whether they were R, Catholics or Pro- 
testants. Beligious mstruction is given in the 
class-rooms of the colleges, but attendance at such 
times is quite voluntaiy on the part of the stu- 
dents ^ and no r^igious test, qualification, or de- 
claration is required to enable any one to enter 
the coU^e, or to contend for its honours and 
prizes. These institutions were intended by the 
late Sir Kobert Peel, by whom they were founded, 
to furnish the best classical, literarv, and scientific 
education to all ranks and orders ot Her Majesty's 
subiects ; and they appear eminently well fitted to 
realise these objects. 

Poor. — Notwithstanding the great natural ad- 
vantages of the country, it has been overspread 
with a population, in such depressed circumstances 
as to be involved in the extreme of destitution on 
any failure of the crops ; and there is also, at all 
times, much suffering among the lower classes of 
the people. Down to a recent period there was no 
efficient provision for the relief of the poor, who, 
in consequence, had to depend wholly on private 
benevolence. Mendicity was practised to an extrsr- 
ordinarv extent, and strangers in Ireland were 
shocked by the swarms and disgusted by the im- 
portunity of beggars of all ages and sexes, and m 
the most abject state of poverty, that infested the 
roads and pubHc places. Such a state of thinpi 
was a di^race to a country pretending to be civil- 
ised. But discreditable as it was, it could not be 
materially improved without instituting a com- 
pulsory provision for the support of the poor, which 
was long successfully resisted, through the pre- 
valence of unfounded theories with respect to its 
operation in this country. At length, however, 
sounder opinions gained an ascendancy; and par- 
liament became impressed with the conviction that 
it was indispensable, in order to preserve the tran- 
quillity of the country in seasons of scarcity, to 
make more effectual provision for the support of 
the poor. This was done by an act passed m 1838, 
which introduced the principle of compulsory as- 
sessment for the poor into Ireland ; and which, 
while it served to protect the population from fall- 
ing a sacrifice to the extremity of want, was a new 
and powerful motive to the* landlords to oppose 
the splitting of farms, and to take a greater in- 
terest than they previously did in the condition 
of the cottiers and others inhabiting their estates. 
In both these respects, the compulsory assessment 
has been eminently useful The system is placed 
under the control of the poor law commissioners 
for England, and is extended over the whole 

The poor law came into operation in 1889, but 
none of the workhouses were opened for the ad- 
mission of paupers till 1840. Since 2dth March, 
1846, all the workhouses in Ireland have been 
open, and a rate has been made in every union. 
The subjoined tabular statement gives the total 
amount received from poor rates, and other re- 
ceipts in aid of poor rates, as well as the total ex- 
pended in each of the fifteen years-lending Lady 
day— 1850-64 :— 

Digitized by 





Espnid«i tn the 
R«il^ and 


Poor Ratflt wd 

otiMr K«eeli>U 

in aid 

















































The amount expended inclndee expenses under the 
Burial Grounds Acts and Registration of Births. Deaths, 
and Marriages Acta. 

The subjoined tAblc gives the number of paupers 
in receipt of relief in unions in Ireland at the close 
of the first week of January in each year : — 



































































It will be seen that there is a steady and most 
hopeful decrease of pauperism in Ireland. 

ntxceSj Character J ana Condition of the People, — 
The first inhabitants of Ireland, of whom history 
lias preserved any account, belonged to the great 
Celtic famUy. Much ingenious conjecture has been 
expended on the question whence Ireland derived 
her earliest colonists ; and the claims of Britain, 
France, Spain, Scythia, and even Troy, to the 
honour of being the mother country of tlie Irish, 
have all been supported with some learning and 
much confidence. It may be enough to observe 
that, owing to greater proximity to the Continent, 
it is most probable that Britain was peopled before 
Ireland; and the latter being nearer to Britain 
than to the Continent, it is for the same reason 
roost probable that she was either wholly peopled 
from Britain, or principally from her, but partly 
also from Gaul. 

Though there be no direct evidence of the fact, 
it may be inferred that Ireland was visited at an 
early period by Phoenician, or rather Carthaginian 
ships ; but, in tibose days, this must have been a 
long and perilous voyage ; and there are no grounds 
for thinking that it was of common occurrence, or 
that the Phoenicians ever made any settlement in 
the country. 

The Irish belong to what is called the Gaelic 
division of the Celtic family; having, as b sup- 
posed, emigrated from Britain when the latter was 
invaded and settled by the Cimbri or Northern 
Celts. About the period when the Romans with- 
drew from Britain, a tribe called the Scoti began 
to acquire a preponderating influence in Ireland, 

which, from the 5th to about the lltb centurr 
was thence called Scotia. But about the latter 
period this tribe, having efiectcd a settlement on 
the W. coast of N. Britain, its name was trans^ 
ferred to that country, which still retains it, and 
Ireland again recovered its old name of Hibemia, 
leme, or Ireland. The greatest diversity of opinion 
exists, and an almost impenetrable obscuritv hangs 
over every circumstance connected with the esta- 
blishment of the Scoti in Ireland. Colonists from 
Belgium are known to have settled in it, and some 
suppose that they were the progenitors of the 
Scoti ; but this is disputed by others, who contend 
that the settlement of the Scoti in Ireland is com- 
paratively recent ; and that they were of Scandi- 
navian origin. 

But though these Belgian or Scandinavian im- 
migrants succeeded in obtaining an ascendancy in 
parts of Ireland, they were not sufficiently nume- 
rous to make any considerable change in the lan- 
guage, character, or institutions of its Celtic inha- 
bitants. ' The conquering tribes themselves, one 
after another, became mingled with the general 
mass, leaving only in those few Teutonic words, 
which are found mixed up with the native Celtic, 
anv vestige of their once separate existence.' 
(Moore's Ireland, i. 98.) 

The number of English settlers in Ireland was 
long Inconsiderable. Till the plantation of Ulster, 
in the reign of James L. they were almost entirely 
confined to the E. and SE. counties, where, 
though they had partially changed the language, 
they had dfected comparatively little cliange in 
the habits and manners of the people. The pop. 
of Connaught, and generally of all the western 
and of a buge portion of the other parts of the 
island, may, even at this day, be considered as of 
nearly pure Celtic origin; and in several of the 
remoter districts Celtic is even now the ordinarj'- 
language of the common people. Notwithstand- 
ing the differences that may easily be traced in 
different parts, from the intermixture of English 
and Scotch blood, the entire pop. has a peculiar 
and distinctive character, that is not to oe mis- 
taken. It may, in general, be said of the Irish, 
that they are ardent in their affections, credulouH, 
vain, fond to excess of flattery, irascible, easily 
influenced by sudden impulses, uncertain, and 
usually in extremes. Hence the facility with 
which they have been duped by the merest im- 
postors ; and their proneness to believe every false- 
hood, how gross soever, that flatters their preju- 
dices. They are in general destitute not merely 
of the foresight and prudence, but also of the reso- 
lution and steady perseverance of the English and 
Scotch ; and though their bravery is unquestion- 
able, and they will undertake anything, they are 
verv apt, if they do not succeed at the first onset, 
to become dispirited, and to despond. They are 
eminently witt^, hospitable, and social, though 
often parsimonious. Prodigalit^r is one of their 
distinguishing traits; as is their light-hearted, 
contented disposition; but this frequently degene- 
rates into thoughtlessness ; and, how advantageous 
soever in some respects, by disposing them to be 
satisfied with existing circumstances, it tends to 
hinder their making any persevering and well- 
concerted efforts for their improvement 

Dr. Crumpe, an intelligent physician of Lime- 
rick, who received a prize from the Royal Irish 
Academy for the best essay on the employment 
of the people, has the following statements with 
respect to the character of the lower Irish: — 
' Two leading and naturally allied features in the 
character of the lower Irish are idleness and in- 
quii>itivenes9, especially when hired and emplo3'ed 
tu |)crform the work of others. The moment an 


orcrseer quite them, the^ inevitably drop their 
^ork, take snuff, and fall into chat an to the news 
of the day; no tnrreller can pass them without di- 
reiting their attention from the business in hand, 
and giving rise to numerous surmises as to his 
person, errand, and destination. The most trivial 
occurrence, especially in the sporting line, will 
hurry them, unless restrained, from their occupa- 
tions. £ven the sedentary manufacturer will, on 
such occasions, quit his employment. Nothing is 
more common than to see a weaver in the N. start 
fnmi his loom on hearing a pack of hounds, and 
pursue them through a long and fatiguing chase. 
A tendency to pilfering and theft is very predomi- 
nant among them, and connected with this vice is 
the prevalence of low cunning and lying ; and, as 
their accompaniment, mav be mentioned a fawn- 
ing flattery. The blunt honesty, the bold inde- 
pendence of the English yeoman, are wanting; 
and in their stead too generally substituted the 
pet^ dishonesty of the vassal, the servility and 
artince of the slave. Drunkenness is an evil of 
<M>nsiderable ma^itude in the catalogue of na- 
tional vices. It IS one to which the Tower Irish 
are peculiarly addicted, and that from which the 
most serious obstructions arise to their industry 
and employment That vile beverage, whisky, 
so cheaply purchased, and so generally diffused, 
affords them an easy opportunity of gratifying this 
destructive pas^on. As one consequence of the 
general prevalence of ebriety, the lower Irish are 
remarkably riotous. I do not here so much allude 
to \Vhitelx>yism, and other public disturbances, 
"which owe their origin chiefly to other causes, as 
to their quarrels among tliemselves. Their fairs 
arc frequently the scenes of confusion, riot, disturb- 
ance, and bloodshed. Combinations, too, risings, 
and outrage among tradesmen, are far from un- 
usual, and on pretexts that are truly ridiculous. 
The Irish are also, to a remarkable de^ee^ law^ 
le^ly inclined. It is well known that, mstead of 
being anxious to apprehend offenders, or to assist 
the execution of the law, they are, in general, 
ready to give the former ever}' assistance to escape ; 
and to resist the latter, unless awed by a superior 
force.' (Essay, pp. 170-175.) 

This, though not a very flattering, seems a per- 
fectly fair statement. But some, at least, of 
the defects of national character, specified by Dr. 
Crumpe, originate in circumstances that either 
have been, or admit of being, obviated. Drunken- 
ness is now in a fair way of being expunged from 
the list of Irish vices ; and with it will disappear the 
riots and disturbances to which it gave birth. The 
idleness of the Irish, though in part constitutional, 
is in part, also, a consequence of the minute divi- 
sion of the land, and of the impossibility of its 
occupiers finding any regular or continuous em- 
ployment. Their proneness to combination and 
outrage, their readiness to obstruct the course of 
law, and to assist the escape of malefactors, were 
formerly promoted, if not occasioned, by oppression 
and misgovemment, and now they are the results 
of their desperate efforts to keep possession of their 
patches of land. Down to a comparatively recent 
jieriod the native Irish had not, and could not be 
expected to have, any confidence in the law. They 
Here, in fact, a proscribed and enslaved race, among 
whom it would have been preposterous to look for 
'blunt honesty' and *bold independence.' And 
notwithstanding the * oppression and extortion' to 
which the Irish were formerly subject have disap- 
peared, their effects will, it is to be feared, be long 
visible, and with the defects inherent in their 
character will make their regeneration a work of 
extreme difficulty. Agitation is still rife in the 
kndi The peasantxy are taught to ascribe all the 

Ills with which they may be visited to misgovem- 
ment, or to their connection with England. No- 
thing is ever set down to account o? their own 
improvidence, or want of industry. On great 
emergencies, such as a scarcity of food, or of em- 
ployment, the^ become quite' paralyseid ; and in- 
stead of exerting their energies, sink into despair,^ 
or, at best, abuse the government which leeds' 
them. These evils can only be modified by slow 
degrees ; b}* government pursuing a consisteut and 
impartial couiBe; placing the Catholics on a level 
with the Protestdnts, in respect of religious en- 
dowments as well as of civil rights; diffusing 
sound instruction; discouraging agitation; en- 
forcing, at all hazaitis, the empire of the law ; and 
adopting every practicable method for preventing 
the further splitting of the land, and for promoting 
its consolidation into larger farms. 

Wages in Ireland vary from about Is. to about 
6d. a day; but at neither rate is' employment con« 
stant, and in parts of the country half the labourers 
are all but unoccupied for nearly half the year. 
Under such circumstances, it is needless to add 
that their food and clothes must, speaking gene- 
rally, be of the most inferior description. In these 
respectsy however, there are some material differ- 
ences ; and in the NE. and eastern counties, but 
especially the first, the condition of thejpeasantry 
is much superior to what it is in the SW. and W. 

In the north eastern counties they are better 
lodged, clothed, and fed than in the others } the 
wages of labour are higher, being, at an average, 
about Is. per day ; and their food consLsts chiefly 
of meal, potatoes, and mUk. The inhabitants 
here are a nrugal, industrious, and intelligent race ; 
inhabiting a district for the most part inferior, in 
natural fertility, to the S. portion of Ireland, but 
cultivating it better, and paying higher rents in 
proportion to the quality of the land, notwith- 
standing the higher rate of wages. 

In the southern districts there is a population 
whose condition is, in every respect, imerior to 
that of the northern. Their habitations are worse ; 
their food inferior, consisting at best of potatoes 
and milk, without meal 9 the wages of laoour are 
found reduced from 1«. to 8^. per day ; yet the 
peasantry are a robust, active, and athletic race, 
capable of great exertion, often exposed to great 
pnvations, ignorant; but ea^er for instruction, and 
readily trained, under judicious management, to 
habits of order and steady industry. 

The population of the midland and eastern dis^ 
tricts does not differ materially in eondilion from 
those of the south ; but the inhabitants of the 
western district are decidedly inferior to both, in 
condition and appearance : their food consists of 
the potato alone, without meal, and in most cases 
without milk ; their cabins are wretched hovels ; 
their beds straw ; the wages of labour are reduced 
to the lowest point, upon an average not more 
than ScL per day. Poverty and misery have de- 
prived them of all energy ; labour brings no ade- 
quate return, and every motive to exertion is de- 
stroyed. Agriculture is in the rudest and lowest 
state. The substantial farmer, employing la^ 
bourers, and cultivating his land according to the 
improved modes of modem husbandry, is rarely 
to be found amongst them. The country is covered 
with small occupiers, and swarnos with an indi- 
gent and wretciied population.. It is true, that 
some landed proprietors have made great exertions 
to introduce a better system of agriculture, and to 
improve the condition of their immediate tenants ; 
and a few of the lesser proprietors have made 
humble attempts to imitate them ; but the great 
mass of the population exhibits a state of poverty 
bordering on destitution. 

Digitized by 




The disdnctioiis as to the usual diet of agricul- 
tural labourers in liie different parts of Ireland, 
are strictly applicable to those only who have re- 
gular emplo}'ment \Vben they are out of work, 
which is the case in many places during three or 
four months of the year,* the line is not so easily 
perceived. Then a reduction in the quantity as 
well as in the quality of their food takes place ; 
butstill, though on a diminished scale, their relaUve 
local degrees of comfort or of penury are main- 
tained nearly according to the above classification. 
In no extremity of privation or distress have the 
peasanti^r of the* northern counties approached to 
a level with those of the W. ; while Leinster and 
the greater part of the S., though sometimes re- 
duce4 to the lowest condition, retain, generally, 
even in the most calamitous periods, a shade of 
superiority. , There are districts, indeed, in every 
(j^uarter of the land, where through peculiarities of 
situation, or other causes, distress falls with an 
equal pressure upon all; but such exceptions are 
rare, and so limited in extent, as scarcely to qua- 
lify the foregoing observations. 

History,^The early accounts of Ireland are sin- 
gularly disfigured bv fable. It was not invaded 
bv the Romans, wliose knowledge of it could, 
therefore, be derived only from the reports of the 
Britons, or of natives of Ireland in Britain. The 
fair presumption, however, is, that its inhabitants 
were then more barbarous than even those of 
Britain. Pomponius Mela, who has given an ac- 
curate account of the soil of Ireland, and of the 
richness of its pastures, says, * Cultores ejui inoon- 
diH nmty et omnium virtuhtm ifftiari, pietatU admo- 
dum expertes: (Lib. iii. sec 6.) Strabo (lib. iv.) 
gives some extraordinary details respecting the 
Irish, which, however, he does not state on his 
own authority, but merely as having been reported 
to him. In the 5th century Christianity was in- 
troduced into Ireland by St. Patrick, a native of 
N. Britain, who, in his youth, had been carried a 
captive into Ireland. Along with the gospel the 
British missionaries introduced the letters and 
learning of Rome ; and a school founded at Ar- 
magh, not long after, became famous in most 
parts of Europe. But it would be as inconsequen- 
tial to infer, nom the fiiMst of this and a few other 
schools existing in the country, that it was then 
distinguished by literature and civilisation, as it 
would be to allege that such was the case with 
the Western Island's, and the adiacent parts of the 
mainland of Scotland, in the 8th century, because 
there was then a celebrated monastery and school 
in lona. 

The accounts of the political state of Ireland, 
previously to the English invasion, are obscure 
and contradidtory. This much) however, may he 
gleaned from them, that the island was parcelled 
out into a number of semi-independent states, 
which sometimes did, and sometimes did not, ac- 
knowledge their dependance on a chief prince or 
king of all Ireland. Incessant hostilities were 
waged by the petty sovereigns ilgalnsteach other, 
which were not even interrupted by the invasion 
of the Danes in the 9th century. The latter, in no 
very long space, became masters of the ^^reater 
part of the coasts of the island ; and occupied the 
ports of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, and Cork, 
where they were taken by the English. 

The successors to the petty sovereigns, or to the 
chiefs of clans or septs, were called taniati, and 
were generally elected from the family or kindred 
of the reigning prince or chieftain during his life- 
time. Females were excluded from the succes- 
sion, and minors were never chosen as tanbts ; the 
object being to have a prince of mature years 
always at the head of the seignioiy or clau) who 

might be able to direct their operations, and to 
defend them from hostile attacks. The laws of 
the Irish were such as might be expected to pre- 
vail among a rude and barbarous people ; and were 
administered in the open air by hereditary judges, 
denominated brekons. The most atrocious crimes 
mijght be compounded for by the payment of an 
eric, or fine; and as in all cases a considerable 
portion, and in some cases the whole, of the fine 
went to the lord, or chief of the sept, his interest 
obviously led him to encourage rather than to re- 
press crime. The laws with respect to the succes- 
sion to fixed property were such as would have 
alone served to extinguish all industry. ' Through 
the whole country,' sxys Leland, * the tenure of 
lands determined with the life of the possessor ; 
and, as the crimes or misfortunes of men frequently 
forced them from one tribe to another, property- 
was eternally fluctuating, and new partitions of 
lands made almost daily. Hence the cultivation 
of lands was only in proportion to the immediate 
demands of nature, and the tributes to be paid to 
superiors.* (Hist of Ireland, Introduction, p. 34.) 

A people with such institutions could not be 
otherwise than barbarous ; and such, in fact, they 
were. They had made little or no progress even 
in the most necessary arts ; and were, with few ex- 
ceptions, entire strangers to civilisation and re- 
finement* ' Neither was it possible to reform the 
evU customs that prevailed among the Irish, with- 
out altering their government ; nor could that be 
accomplished by any other means than by their 
being subjected to some more civilised foreign 
power.' Ojyttleton's Henry II., v. 56 ; where mo 
reader will find an ejxcellent account of the state 
of Ireland previously to the English invasion.) 

Soon after the English conquest effected by 
Henry II., in 1171, the island was divided by John 
into 12 counties. But, though the king of Eng- 
land received the submission of the Irish chief- 
tains, and was nominally lord of Ireland, his au- 
thority was, for a lengthened period, only partially 
recognised. The native families of O'Conor, 
O'NeU, O'Mehighlln, Byrne, and O'Toole, stiU 
asserted, and, to a certain degree, exercised sove- 
reign authority in Connaught, Ulster, and part of 
the midland districts. Even in Leinster and Miin- 
Bter, Where the English were principally settled, 
and which had partially adopted the laws and 
constitution of England, the sovereign authority* 
was far fh>m being generally or firmly established. 
The allegiance of several of the great feudal barons, 
who held extensive tracts of land, was frequently 
little better than nominaL The English families 
of De Burp^h in the W., of Desmond m the S., and 
of Butier in the central parts, adopted the man- 
ners of the natives, and often became the declared 
and most dangerous enemies of their mother 
country. At one time there were 9 counties pala- 
tine, with independent jurisdiction, in the part of 
the island subject to England^ and distingubhed 
by the name of the pale» The miseries resulting 
from the interminable disorders inseparable from 
such a state of things, were increased in 1315 by 
an invasion of the Scotch, under Edward, brother 
of Robert Bruce. He overran the greater part of 
the country, but was finally defeated and killel 
near Dundalk. The resources of the country were 
also wasted in subsidies, and its youth carried 
away to fight the battles of their masters on the 
continent, or in England, during the wars between 
the houses of York and Lancaster. After the 
death of Richard III. and the accession of Henry 
VIL had terminated this sanguinary struggle, 
Ireland was chosen by the defeated party ofthe 
Yorkists as a theatre on which to commence a sys- 
tetn of operations for the dethronement of the nesr 

Digitized by 




monarch. In oonaeqnence, Lambert Simnelwas 
sent thither by the Ducheas of Burgundy as the 
descendant and representative of Edward lY. His 
title was acknowledged by the Anglo-Irish, and 
lie was crowned in Dublin with all the ceremonies 
attendant on the inauguration of the ancient Irish 
soyereigns. A similar, though less vi^rous, effort 
was afterwards made in favour of Perkm Warbeck, 
whose title was also acknowledged in the S. of 

In 1495, a parliament assembled at Drogheda, 
under the presidency of Sir Edward Poynings, 
then lord-deputy, passed some very important 
statutes. By one of these, afterwards well known 
in Irish history by the name of ^ Poj^nin^rs' Law,' 
effectual provision was made for maintaining the 
ascendancy of the government of England over the 
legislature of Ireland. With this view it was 
enacted, that no parliament should in future be 
holden in Ireland without license from the king ; 
and that no bill or draft of a law should be sub- 
mitted to its consideration, without having been 
previoosly sent over to England by the Irish ^ 
veznment for the approval, alteration, or rejection 
of the king; so that the power of the Irish parlia- 
ment was thus, in fact, hmited to the mere accept^ 
ance or rejection of bills approved or modified by 
the English government. 

This act was much and justly complained of at 
a later period ; but, when passed, it was a decidedly 
popular measure. Parliaments had previously 
been, for the most part, the mere instruments of 
the faction that happened to be ascendant at the 
time ; so that their enactments were often conflict- 
ing, and tiie administration wanted consistency. 
Poynings' law obviated, in some measure, these 
defects; and parliament henceforth became de- 
pendent rather on the government of England than 
on any particular faction or parry in Ireland. 

Early in the reign of Henry VIII. the spirit of 
insurrection broke out in a formidable shai>e. The 
chief authority had previously been exerdsed for 
a lengthened period by the rival families of the 
Fitzgeralds and Butlers, whose heads were the 
Earls of Eoldare and Onnond. The former of these 
noblemen was at this period lord-lieutenant. On 
being summoned to England, to answer chaiiees 
brought against his government, he appointed his 
8oo/Lo«d Thomas Fitzgerald, his deputy. The 
latter, on a false rumour of his father's execution 
in London, not only threw up the reins of go- 
vernment, but declared himself' an open enemy to 
the English monarch, ravaged the pale, and laid 
aicae to Dublin, whef<Q he was riepulsed by the 
gaSantry of the citizens. Having soon after sur- 
rendered to Lord 6x^y) the new lord-lieutenant, 
he was sent prisoner to England^ where he ex- 
piated his offences on the scaffold, along with 
sevetal of his near relations, who, though uncon- 
nected with his acts, were unjustly implicated in 
their consequences. 

The introduction of the Reformed doctrines, 
wMch was effected with equal violence and con- 
tempt for the prejudices of those within and with- 
out the pale, brought a new element of discord 
into Ireland. The native Irish were devoted ad- 
hcvents of the church of Borne. Their hostility 
to the new doctrines did not, however, displav it- 
self openly during the rei^ of Henry, who, about 
this tim^ changed his title of lord to that of king 
of Ireland, nor m the reign of his Protestant suc- 
oessor, Edward VI. ; but it broke out with unre- 
Btnuned fury in that of Elizabeth. O'Neil, who 
possessed nearly the whole of Ulster, instigated 
by the court of Spain, hoisted the standard of re- 
bellioa. He was supported by a Spanish arma^ 
meat, which took possession of Kinsale, without, 

however, being able to maintain itself in that posi- 
tion. After a lengthened contest O'Neil was 
forced, by the energetic and |)rudent measures of 
Lord Mountjoy, to an uuconmtional submission ; > 
and his subsequent flight from Ireland, on the im- 
puted chaige of another insurrection, terminated 
the war. Ulster was soon after divided into 
counties, and planted with numerous bodies of 
English and Scotch settlers, which laid the foun- 
dations of the improvement of that province, and 
5ave it a distinctive chaxacter. The reign of 
ames I., and the earlier part of that of Charles I., 
formed a period of undisturbed tranquillity. But 
the disputes between the latter and the English 
parliament afforded the Irish a flattering though 
fallacious prospect of regaining their independence 
and re-establishing their religion. To effect this 
object, an insurrection was secretly organised, on 
a very extensive scale, embracing, not only the 
native Irish, but many Rom. Oath, families of 
English descent. Th'is formidable conspiracy 
broke out in 1641. The treachery of one of the 
conspirators prevented Dublin from falling into 
their hands ; but the insurrection broke out simul- 
taneously in Ulster, and soon after spread into 
most other parts of the country. The most hor> 
rible excesses were committed by the conspirators, 
which were sometimes fearfully retaliated ; and 
the country continued to be a pre^' to all the 
honrors of civil war till 1649, when Cromwell ap- 
peared in the field, at the head of a well-disciplined 
and powerful army. Having taken Drogheda by 
storm, he delivered it up to military execution ; 
and such was the terror inspired by the fate of 
this city, that almost all the strongholds belong- 
ing to the party of the Catholics soon after fell 
into his hands, and the English supremacy was> 
for the first time, established in every part of Ire- 
land. The confiscations that followed Cromwell's 
success were upon so vast a scale that about fintr- 
fifUit of the soil was transferred to new proprie- 
tors, either parliamentaiy soldiers, or speculators, 
called adventurers, who had advanced money to 
carry on the war. 

After this tremendous visitation Ireland con- 
tinued tranquil, and b^an to advance considerably 
in prosperity, till the events connected with the 
Revolution of 1688 again made it the theatre of 
fresh and sanguinaiy contests. After the flight of 
James II. from England, he landed, with a view to 
retrieve his fortunes, in Ireland, where he was 
received with open arms by the Catholics} and 
having brought with him from France a number of 
experienced troops and officers, partly Irish and 
partly French, he soon found himself at the head 
of a powerful army. However, he was wholly 
without the talents necessary to ensure success in 
such an enterprise. The battle of the Boyne, on 
the 1st of Julv, 1690, gained by William III., 
turned the scale completely in favour of tlie lat- 
ter; and the battle of Aughrim, on the 12th of 
July, 1691, when the British under Ginkell, after- 
wards earl of Athlone, obtained a decisive victory 
over the troops of James II., commanded by St. 
Ruth, who fell in the action, was the last great 
effort made by the Irish to achieve their indepen^ 
dence. The remains of the Irish forces, ha^'ing 
retreated to Limerick, capitulated under condi- 
tions embodied in the famous convention called 
the treaty of Limerick. The violation of this 
treaty has ahready been noticed. It is due to the 
memory of William III. to state, that he was no 
willing pirty to its violation. This is entirely to 
be ascribed to the intolerance of the Engllsh'and 
Irish Protestants, who, flushed with victory, did 
not hesitate, despite the stipulations to the cou- 
txaiy in the treaty, to trample the Catholics under 



foot, and as far as possible to exterminate their 
YeligioOi ' By the total reduction,' says Mr. 
Burke, ' of the kingdom of Ireland, in 1691, the 
ruin of the native Irish, and in a great measure^ 
too, of the first races of the English, was oom« 
pletdy accomplished. The new interest was 
settled with as solid a stability as any thing in hu- 
man affairs can look for. AU the penal laws of 
that unparalleled code of oppression, which were 
made after the last event, were manifestly the 
effects of national hatred and scorn towards a 
conquered people, whom the victors delighted to 
trample upon, and were not at all afraid to pro- 
voke. They were not the effects of their fears, but 
of their security. They who carried on this 
system looked to the irresistible force of Great 
Britain for their support in their acts of power.' 
(Letter to Sir H. Langrish, p. 44.) 

The violation of the treaty of Limerick being 
accompanied by the most extensive confiscations, 
and followed up by the enactment of the penal 
code, completed the prostration of Ireland. There 
being no longer any means of rising, nor even 
security at home, the aspiring Catholic youth 
sought employment and distinction in the service 
of France, which, for a lengthened period, drew 
lar^ supplies of recruits from Ireland. Hence, by 
a smgiiiar contradiction, the same revolution that 
established freedom of conscience and a liberal 
system of government in England and Scotland, 
established an odious despotism and persecution in 
Ireland. In the words of Mr. Burke, *it estab- 
lished, in defiance of the principles of our revolu- 
tion, the power of the smaller numba", at the ex- 
pense of the religious liberties of the far greater, 
and at the expense of the civil liberties of the 
whole.' But, as already stated, the penal code 
failed to effect its object; and, instead of being 
exterminated, the Camolics gradually acquired a 
Mill greater numerical superiority. At length, in 
the earlier part of the reign of George HI., the 
rigour of the code began to be abated, and the 
Catholics ceased to ^ regarded as mere fer<B 

One of the most curious chapters in Irish his- 
tory is that connected with the embodying of the 
volunteers in 1782, and the revolution that was 
soon after effected in the constitution of Ireland. 
The difficulties in which Great Britain was then 
involved having occasioned the withdrawal of the 
greater number of the troops from Ireland, ru- 
mours were propagated of an expected invasion 
of the island by the French; and, to meet this 
contingency, the Protestants of Ulster and other 
parts took up arms, and formed themselves into 
volunteer corps. These bodies soon became sen- 
sible of their strength; and having appointed 
delegates and concerted measures, they proceeded 
to set about reforming the constitution. In this 
view they published declarations to the effect, that 
Ireland was a free and independent kingdom, and 
that no power on earth, except that of the king, 
lords, and commons of Ireland, could legally 
enact laws to bind Irishmen. These declarations, 
which struck a direct blow at the superiority 
hitherto claimed and asserted by the British par- 
liament, might, and most probably would, at 
another time, have been successfully resisted. But 
Great Britain, being then enga^ in a desperate 
contest with her revolted colonies, and with al- 
most all the great European powers, prudently 
made the) concession demanded by the Irish 
volunteers ; and the Independence of Irekmd was 
proclaimed amid the most enthusiastic demon- 
strations of popular rejoicing. 

In truth, however, this independence was appa- 
rent only. The wretehed state of the elective 


franchise in Ireland was totally inconsistent with 
anything like real independence; and so venal 
was the Irish parliament, that anv minister, how 
unpopular soever, had no difficulty in securing a 
majority in that assembly. Hence the anticipa- 
rions in which the more sanguine Irish i)atnots 
had indulged were destined soon to experience a 
most mortifying disappointment; and this, and 
the hopes inspired bv the French revolution, ter- 
minated in the rebellion of 1798, which was not 
suppressed without a repetition of the former 
scenes of devastation and bloodshed. 

The British government at length wisely deter- 
mined to effect a legislative union between Great 
Britain and Ireland, and to suppress the separate 
legislature of the latter. This measure, notwitii- 
standing a strenuous opposition, was happily car- 
ried, and took effect from the 1st of Januar}', 1800. 
And, unless it were resolved or wished to put an 
end to all political connection between the two 
countries, nothing could be more inexpedient and 
absurd than the existence of a separate indepen- 
dent legislature for Ireland. Perpetual jeiflousies 
could not have failed to arise between it and 
the le^lature of Great Britain, which must ne- 
cessanly in the end have led to estran^ment, and 
probably separation. A legislative union was the 
only means of obviating these and other sources 
of mischief: its repeal would make Ireland a 
theatre for all sorts of projects and intrif^ies, and 
it would be sure to be followed, at no distant pe- 
riod, by the dismemberment of the empire. Its 
maintenance should, therefore, be regarded as a 
fundamental principle of policy ; and, to give it 
permanence and stability, every effort should be 
made to remove all just grounds of complaint on 
the part of the Irish people, and to make the 
union one of national interest and affection, as 
well as of constitutional law. 


IRKUTSK, a city of Asiatic Russia, cap. of 
Eastern Siberia, on the Angar^ at its confiuenoe 
with the Irkut, about 80 m. from the NW. shore 
of Lake Baikal, 500 m. SE. Krasnojarsk, and 1,450 
m. in nearly the same direction ftom Tobolsk. 
Pop. 19,350 in 1858. The town is situated in a 
wide plain, 1,240 ft. above the level of the sea; 
the mean temperature of the year being— 0*3 R., 
or rather below the freezing point. The Angaria 
which is about 1,000 ft. broad at Iritutsk, divides 
the city into two nearly equal parts. It is forti- 
fied and defended by a citadel, and has 4 suburbs. 
Of about 1,900 private houses, only 50 are built 
of stone ; tiie rest are chiefly of wood, or faced 
with painted planks. The streets are broad, bat 
altogether unpaved; from the soliditv of the 
ground, however, they are not dirty. Irkutsk has 
38 churches, 12 of which are constructed of stone ; 
an exchange, also a stone edifice, and a gtXKl 
bazaar with numerous shops. The Baikal admi- 
ralty house and building docks on the Angark, 
medical college, gvmnasium, and cotuptoir of the 
Russo- American Company, are said to be worthy 
of a European city; the government-house, 
theatre, several convents and hospitals, and a pri- 
son, are among its other public edifices. It is the 
seat of an archbishop, and of a Russian governor, 
whose authoritv extends over the immense prop's, 
of Irkutsk, Yakutsk, Okhotsk, Kamtschatka, and 
Russian America, including Bodega and the other 
settlements on the coast of Cfuifomia, distant 
nearlv 120° long. The town has numerous educa- 
tional establishments, including, besides the g^^m- 
nasium, with a library of 5,000 vols., an episcopal 
seminary, high school of navigation, with classes 
for instruction in the Tartar, Chinese, and Japan- 

Digitized by 




ese lanipiages; nonnal, secondary, Lancastrian, 
luid other M^hools, and a cabinet* of mineralogy. 
It has an imperial factory of woollen cloth for the 
supply of the troops in Siberia, manufactures of 
linen 'and other piece ^oods, glaks, hats, soap, and 
leather ; and is the residence of numerous artisans 
in the different trades common in Euiope. It is 
the great entrep6t for the commerce of NE. Asia, 
importing tea, rhubarb, fruit, paper, silks, porce- 
lain, and other manufactured goods from Chma by 
way of Kiachta, and furs, <&c from Kamtschatka, 
the Aleutian Islands, and Russian America; 
which articles are here exchanged for European 
goods sent from Petersburg and Moscow by way 
of Tobolsk. It has also some trade with Bokhara 
and Khokan. The total annual amount of its 
oommeroe is estimated at 4,000,000 paper roubles 
(or francs), one-fourth of which has sometimes 
been transacted at its annual fair in June. 

IRRAWADI {ErivaH, *the Great River 0, an 
important Asiatic river, the principal in India- 
beyond-the-Brahmaputra. It has its sources near 
the E. extremity of the Himalava range in Thibet, 
about lat. 28° N., and lon^. 97° 80^ E., not far 
from the sources of the Lohit, a principal branch 
of the Brahmaputra. With the exception of two 
reaches to the W., at Bhamo and Ava, it flows 
generally S. through the centre of the Birman 
empire, which it traverses in its entire length, till 
it falls, by numerous mouths, into the Bay of 
I^ngal (or rather the Eastern Ocean), between 
(^pe Negrais and the Rangoon river, in about the 
16th deg. of N. laL, and between 93° 20' and 97° 
£. long. Its course may be estimated at about 
],200 m., during which it passes through 12 degs. 
of lat. It receives at Yandabo, lat. 21° 43' N., 
long, about 95° E., its principal tributarj', the 
Ning-thee, or Kyen-dwem, from the N. Its delta 
cummences about lat 17° 45'. This is a va^t 
alluvial plain, about 130 m. in length, N. and S., 
and where ¥ddest about as many miles across, 
interjected by a vast number of arms of the river 
that frequently interlace each other. Of its nu- 
merous mouths, the Rangoon and Bassein rivers, 
forming respectivelj' the E. and W. boundaries of 
the delta, are the principal. Most of its mouths 
are navigable for large craft, and those of Bas- 
sein and Rangoon for vessels drawing five fathoms 
water. The harbour of Negrais, formed by the 
month of the river of the same name, is said to be, 
without exception, the most secure in the Bay of 
Bengal. The Ba^ein branch, which may be con- 
sidered the proper continuation of the mam stream 
of the Irrawadi, is about 700 yards in width at the 
point where the Rangoon river separates from it. 
From the apex of the delta to Yedan above Ava, 
the breadth of the Irrawadi is seldom less than 
1 m. and often 4 m. It may be ascended as far as 
Ava, at all seasons, by vessels of 200 tons ; and in 
the rains they may proceed to the Mogoung river, 
a sailing distance of about 800 m. from Uie sea. 
Above ledan, the river suddenly contracts to 150 
or 200 yards in breadth. It is navigable for canoes 
np to Bhamo; but in the dry season, it is in many 
parts dangerous, from its passing over rocky ledges 
and through precipitous defiles. About 50 m. from 
its source, it has been obser\'ed with a width of 80 
yards, during the dry season. 

The current is not, in general, remarkably rapid ; 
even above the Mogoung, the Irrawadi, in the dry 
season, flows only at the rate of about 2 m. an hour. 
(Malcolm, I, 171.) But in the inundations, from 
June to Sept,, it flows so rapidly that, in the delta, 
its current would be too powerful for boats to stem 
were it not for the assistance of the SW. monsoon, 
which sets in the opposite direction. During its 
inundation, it has a breadth of about 1 m., above 

Bhamo, and in some places below Ava of from 4 
to 6 m. At the former place its rise is as much 
as 50 ft., at Ava about 83 ft, at Prome about 30 
ft, and in its delta 10 ft The latter region be- 
comes at that period almost an uninterrupted ex- 
panse of water, it being at ordinary times little 
above the level of high tides. The quantity of 
water discharged by the Irrawadi, as compared 
with that discharged by the Ganges^ is roughly 
estimated by Capt Hannay, in the Asiat Joum. 
of Bengal, as 1 to 1'63. In the plain of Pegu, and 
in the undulating country through which the 
Irrawadi flows in the middle part of its course, it 
incloses a great number of islands and sandbanks ; 
though these, in various parts, would seem, from 
a comparison of the statements of Symes with 
those of Orawfurd, to be less numerous than for- 
merly. In the upper part of its course, on its lefb 
or E. bank, the Irrawadi receives some large afflu- 
ents, as the Shoomae Kha, Pin-lang or Bhamo 
river, Lung-tchuen, Ac. Its chief affluents on the 
opposite sides are the Mogoung and ^ing-thee, 
which join it about the middle of its course. The 
last as already stated, is its principal tributary ; 
and after its junction, the Irrawadi receives no 
stream of any importance. Sakaing, the present 
metropoUa, and Ava and Amarapura, former capi- 
tals or the Birman empire, Bhamo, the great mart 
for the Chmese trade with Birmah, Yandabo, 
Pugan, and Prome, are situated upon the main 
stream, and Rangoon and Bassem upon the 
branches bearing their names. Besides these 
cities, numerous towns and laige villages are built 
on or near the banks of the river, the great mass 
of the Birmese pop. being accumulated on the 
Irrawadi, leaving the rest of the country', in great 
part, an uninhabited desert. 

The Irrawadi is to the Birman empire what the 
Nile is to Egypt, the source of life and abundance, 
and the main artery and great commercial high- 
way of the country. * The number of tradmg 
boats on the river is astonishing. We pass scorei» 
every day, and sometimes hundreds; the largest 
of them carry 10,000 or 12,000 bush, of uncleancd 
rice, the smaller 300 or 400. Their chief lading 
seemed to be rice, salt, and pnor-pee. In ascending 
thev are for the most part drawn by the crew 
with a rope upon the bank, or propelled by set- 
ting-poles; sailing only when the wind is fair, 
and neither -too strong nor too weak. They are 
generally from three to four months in ascending 
from the delta to Ava. 

* The boats on this river, though of all sizes up 
to 200 tons, are of but two general descriptions. 
All retain the canoe shape, sharp at each end. 
Large boats have one mast and a yard of long 
slender bamboo, to which is suspended a square 
salt The sail is made in sections, the centre 
ones only being used in strong winds, and the 
others added at the sides when necessary. Some- 
times a small sail is temporarily fastened above 
the yards to the ropes, by which it is sustained. 
The deck extends from 6 to 10 ft beyond the 
sides with large bamboos fastened beneath, mak- 
ing at once a platform for the men, when using 
their setting-poles, &c., and an outrigger to pre- 
vent their upsetting. The vessel itseu is wholly 
covered with a regular Birman house, well 
thatched, which carries part of the cargo, and 
furnishes cabins to the family and boatmen. Over 
the roof is a platform, on which the men stand to 
work the sail. They ore manned by from 16 to 
25 or 30 men, and sometimes 40 or more.' The 
smaller-sized vessels are of an elongated shape, 
like the foregoing, and do not merit a particular 

* No one can ascend the river without being im^* 



pressed wifch the hardihood, skUl, energy, and 
eood-bamour of the Birman boatmen, and the 
nappy adaptation of their boats to the navigation. 
In ascending, much of the way must be accom- 
plished by setting'poles. For these they use 
straight bambooS) of a species which is almost 
solid and very strong. The end is applied not to 
the front of the shoulder, as with us, but above the 
collar-bone, or on the top of the shoulder. Bend- 
ing forward till their hands touch the deck, they 
bring the resistance perpendicular to the spine, 
and thus possess far greater power than is possible 
by our mode. When but slight exertion is re- 
quired, the_pole is applied as with us.' (Malcolm's 
Trav. in S.E. Asia, l 90, 91, 96, 97.) 

Neaf the Irrawadi, in the prov. Sarawadi, are 
celebrated teak forests, covering the hill-ranges 
bounding the valley. Petrifactions of wood, bones, 
Ac, are common along this river ; and Mr. Craw- 
furd collected on its banks a great number of fossil 
remains, induding those of two species of maa- 
todon, the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, tapir, hog, 
ox, deer, antelope, gavial, aUigator, emys, and 
trionix. (See Trans, of the Geolog. Soc, and 
Appendix to Crawfurd's Embassy.) Coal (an> 
thracite) has been discovered along its course, 
and about 40 m. S. Pugan are some rich petro- 
leum wells on the £. bimk, respecting which see 


IRVINE, a royal and pari, bor., sea-port, and 
market town of Scotland, oo. Ayr, on rising ground 
on the N. bank of the river of the same name, the 
sestuary of which forms ita harbour, on the railway 
from GlaGgow to Ayr, 28 m. SW. the former, and 
12 m. N. by W. the latter. Pop. of parL bor., 
7,060 in 1861. A suburb has arisen to the S. of 
the river, which is connected with the town by a 
bridge, the widest and handsomest in the co. 
There are other suburbs, not in the royalty, but 
oomprised, since 1832, within the parL bor. The 
parish church, between the town and the river, 
with a handsome spire, is the most striking build- 
ing in the bor. Here, also, is a free church, and 
chapels belonging respectively to the Associated 
Synod and ReUeC To the N. of the town an aca- 
demy was erected in 1814, at an expense of 2,250iL, 
of which the burgh contributed l,638t 4«. 6dL ; 
the reminder being raised by public subscription. 
This seminary, which embraces all the branches 
of a learned and commercial education, has fully 
realised the object of its founders. There are 
various other schools, with several libraries, and 
a news-room. EgUnton Cattle, famous in the 
sporting world for the 'tournament' held in its 
park in 1839, is in the immediate vicinity of the 
bor. According to the official returns, there be- 
long to the port, on the 1st of Jan. 1864, 14 
sailing vessels under 50, and 28 above 50 tons, 
besidM 1 steamer of 15 tons. Coal is the chief 
article of export, considerable quantities being 
shipped for Irelaind. A considerable number of 
weavers woris in connection with the Glasgow 
manufacturers, or for local consumption. Irvine 
was created a royal bor. by Robert Bruce, in 1308. 
It unites with Ayr, Campbelton, Oban, and In- 
verazy, in returning a member to the H. of C. 
Registered voters, 271 in 1865. Robertson's * R ural 
Recollections,' a valuable and authentic work, 
illustrative of the progress made by Scotland from 
1765 downwards, was published at Irvine in 1829, 
the author being at the time factor for an estate 
in the neighbourhood. John Gait, author of ' An- 
nals of the Parish,' and other works, was a native 
of the bor. ; and Bums was for a short time en- 
gaged in business in it as a flax-dresser. 

ISCHIA (an. JEnaria^ Inarimefand^Uhectua)j 
an isL of the Mediterranean, belonging to Italy, 


SDv. Naples, 8 m. SW. from the promontory of 
isenum, and 18 m. WSW. Naples. It is about 
7 m. in length and 20 in circ, having an area of 
21 sq. m., and a pop. of 24,930, according to an 
enumeration of 1863. Nearly in its centre is M. 
San Nicolo, or Epomeo (an. Epopeus), This, 
though now an extinct, waa formerly an active 
volcano, the eruptions of which are noticed by 
Strabo (Ub. v.) and Plmy (lib. ii § 88) ; and which 
burst forth with great fury in 1801, since which 
it has been quiescent It is 2,513 ft. above the 
level of the sea, and the whole island falls in a 
gentle slope from it to the sea, except on the N., 
where its sides are more abrupt. Ischia obviously, 
indeed, owes its origin to volcanic agency, and 
consists wholly of volcanic matters. Its bold and 
rocky shores present an imposing appearance from 
the sea; and the favourable impression it makes 
at a distance is not dispelled on landing, it being 
remarkable both for fertility of soil, and beauty of 
situation. Besides a great quantity of wine, it 
produces olives and ar variety of fruits, with wheat, 
maize, pulse, and excellent herba^ It is well 
supplied with game, especially partndges. Sulphur 
and other usdul mineral products are abundant, 
and there are numerous hot springs and natural 
vapour baths, especially at its NW*. extremity. 
The inhab. are partly husbandmen and pardy 
sailors and fishermen. The manufacture of straw 
hats, baskets, and earthenware, are carried on to 
some extent 

Ischia is divided into two cantons : chief towns, 
Ischia and Foria ; the former on the £. and the 
latter on the W. coast Ischia, the can. with 
8,000 inhab., is a pretty town of white buddings, 
and the residence of a bishop. A round black 
rock forms a kind of haven by means of a cause- 
way communicating with the town ; its summit 
and sides are covered with houses, old turrets, and 
ruinous fortifications, huddled together, and acces- 
sible only on one side by a steep winding road. 
On this rock stands an old fortress, in which the 
last princes of the house of Aragon took refuge 
when Naples was conquered by the French. This 
building is now used as a prison. Foria is ill- 
built, and without a harbour. 

The poets account for the volcanic phenomena 
of Ischia, as for those of Vesuvius and Etna, by 
ascribing them to the violent efforts of Typhoeus 
and the other giants buried below them to escape 
from their prison x-^ 
' Apparet proool Inarime, qua turbine nigro 
Fumantem premit ISpetum, flammasqne rebelli 
Ore ejectantem.' BiliuB Italicns, xii. lin. 147. 

See also iEneid, iz. lin. 714. 

Ischia was, at a remote period, colonised by the 
Eretrians and Chalcidians, and afterwards by 
Syracusans sent thither by Hiero, who, however, 
abandoned the island in consequence, it is said, 
of a violent eruption of Mount Epopeus, B.a 470. 

ISE^RE, a frontier ddp. of France in the £. part 
of the kingdom, formerly included in the prov. of 
Dauphiny; between lat 44^ 44' 30" and 45^ 53' 
N., and long. 4° 46' and 6° 22' E., having E. 
Savoy, N. the ddp. Ain, and W. Rhone, Loire, and 
Ard^che, from all which it is separated bv the 
Rhone, SW. Drome, and S£. Hautes Alpes. 
Length, NW. to SE., about 95 m. ; average 
breadth about 40 m. Area, 828,984 hectares ; 
pop. 577,748 in 1861. This ddp. is very moun- 
tainous, especially its SE. part, and its scenery is 
in general highly picturesque. The Alpine chains 
that traverse it rise in the Cb/ cfe S<uf»$e to an 
elevation of 11,017 ft« (3,858 metres), and in the 
Pic de Belladone to 10,802 (t (8,140 m^t) above 
the level of the sea. Some of the valleys 
are spacious and many very fertile; that of 

Digitized by 



CkaisivBudaii, throo^h which the Isere flo^ys, is 
one of the richest in France. There are a few 
plains in the N. and W., and numerous lakes and 
marshes, but none of the latter is of any con- 
siderable size. Next to the Rhone, the chief river 
is the Is^, which gives its name to the d^p. It 
rises in the £. part of Savoy, runs with a tortuous 
course, generally SW., and falls into the Rhone 
about 6 m. NN£). Valence, after a course of 188 
m., 106 of which are navigable. Its chief affluents 
are the Romanche and Drac ; Grenoble stands on 
its banks. W. winds predominate in this d^p., 
and the annual fall of rain is estimated at nearly 
35 inches. The arable lands were estimated at 
316,387 hectares, meadows 66,718, vineyards 
27,698, forests 168,420, and heaths 171,990 do. 
Agriculture is backward, but improving. About 
300,000 hectolitres of com, chiefly wheat and rye, 
are harvested annually, being a larger supply 
than produced in any of the surrounding depe. 
The vine is (jretty generally cultivated, and the 
produce of wine amounts to about 450,000 hectols. 
a year. Chesnuts, almonds, and other fruits 
abound, and large quantities of ratafia and other 
liqueurs are made. The number of mulberry tiees 
had increased greatly of late. Good cavahy 
homes and mules are bred. The breed of black 
cattle is generally small, but the cows are good 
milkers, and some superior cheese is made. The 
sheep yield excellent wool, and many flocks from 
the surrounding d^ps. are sent to pasture in sum- 
mer in the mountains. Poultry are reared in 
great numbers. The number of large properties is 
a good deal below the average of the d^ps. 

Is^ is one of the richest d^ps. of France in 
respect of minerals, and miniiu^ is one of the chief 
occupations of its inhabs. Gold and silver mines 
were wrought till the commencement of the pre- 
sent century. At present iron, copper, zinc, and 
lead are the chief metallic products; but mercury, 
bismuth, antimony, and cobalt are likewise ob- 
tained; as are also coal, sulphur, alum, marble, 
granite, and gypsum. There are numerous large 
smeltii^ furnaces, foiges, and steel factories. 
Paper, silk stufis, and yam, coarse woollens, table 
linen, sail and packing doth, gloves, especially at 
Grenoble, cotton and wooUen yam, crape, straw 
hats, and mineral acids are the other chief manu- 
factures. Lyons b the great entrepOt for the pro- 
duce of Is^re. The d^p. is divided into 4 arronds., 
45 cants., and 556 com. Chief towns, Grenoble, 
the cap., St. Marcellin, La Tour du Pin, and 
Vienne. The ddp. abounils with remarkable 
natural curiosities, and Roman and other anti- 

ISKARDO, a commercial town of Little Thibet, 
on the Uppe^ Indus, about 180 m. NW. Leh, but 
at present little known. It is reported to be a 
large fortress of irregular construction, and the 
cap. of a distr. of the same name. 

ISLAMABAD, a town of India-beyond-the- 
Brahmaputra, belonging to the prov. Bengal, dis- 
trict Chittagong, of which it is the cap., on the 
river Chittagong, 8 m. from the Bay of Bengal, 
and 134 m. SE. Dacca. Estimated pop. 12,000, 
about 2,000 of whom are of Portuguese descent. 
'The streets are in good order, and the bazaar 
abundantly supplied with every sort of domestic 
and foreign produce. The mode of building, and 
the general aspect of every thing, is decidedly 
Ben^deei About 800 vessels, chiefly brigs of 
firom 40 to 100 tons, are owned in the place, and 
manv vessels from other places resort thither. The 
cfaiei exports are rice and salt. Large Maldive 
boats come aimually, during the fine season, with 
cowries, tortoiseshell, cumela, cocoa-nuts, and 
coir for lopo; and carry away rice and small 



manufactures. j[Malcolm, i. 134.) This town is 
the emporium or a great extent of country, and 
the resort of numerous merchants. A kind of 
cotton canvass is made in its neighbourhood, and 
vessels of considerable burden are built. Islama~ 
bad has two Portuguese churches, and a large 
English school, established in 1818. (Malcolm's 
Travels in SE. Asia.) 

ISMAIL, a strongly fortified town and harbour 
of Russia in Europe, in Bessarabia, on the N. side 
of the Kilian aim of the Danube, about 43 m. from 
the Black Sea. Pop. 27,980 in 1858. Ismail was 
stormed b^ the Russians, under Suwarrow, in 1790, 
by whom it was given up to an indiscriminating 
pillage and massacre. It has a considerable trade, 
exporting com, hides, and tallow. The custom- 
house and quarantine are of the first class. Owing 
to the shallowness of the water over the bar of the 
Kilian mouth, vessels bound for Ismail generally 
enter the Danube by the Soulineh or middle 

ISPAHAN {Aspadttfia), a celebrated city, for- 
merly the cap. of Persia, 211 S. Teheran, and 263 
m. SSW. Bushire. Pop. estim. at 90,000 in 1860. 
The city was once so extensive and populous that 
the Persians said of it, * Sdhon nitpe gihon'-^ 
* Ispahan is half the world.*^ (Chardin, iii 3.) 
Is(Mihan is situated in the province Irak Adjimi, of 
which it is the cap., as well as of a begler-beglik, 
of the same name. The city, which was at the/ 
height of its glory during the reign of Shah- Abbas, 
in toe 17th century, now presents to the traveller 
little beyond the magnificent rains of its former 
greatness. It stands in the midst of an extensive 
pUin, abundantly watered by the Zeoderood, a 
river about 600 ft broad ; and is surrounded by 
groves, avenues, and spreaiding orchards. *Among 
the first objects that strack our eyes,' says Sir R. 
K. Porter, ' were the .numerous noble bridges, 
each carrying its long level line of thickly-ranged 
arohes to porch-like structures, some fallen into 
stately rain, others nearly entire, but all exhi- 
biting splendid memorials of the Sefi race. The 
S. avenue, through which we entered the town, 
terminated at the great bazaar of Shah-Abbas, the 
whole of which enormous pile is vaulted above to 
exclude heat, yet admit air and light. Hundreds 
of ^ shops without inhabitants filfed the sides of 
this once great emporium, the labyrinths of which 
we traversed for an extent of nearly 2 m., till we 
entered the Maidan - Shah, another spacious 
theatre of departed grandeur.' (Travels, ii 37.) 
This vast oblong, formerly enriched with shops, 
in which every commodity of luxury and splendid 
manufacture was exposed, is of very large dimen- 
sions, being (according to Porter) 2,600 ft. long 
and 700 ft. broad, and in the centre of each of its 
sides stands some edifice remarkable for grandeur 
or character, while the reiruiining parts composing 
the square are occupied by uniform ranges of 
building, once used as apartments for the nobility 
and officers of the Persian court, the lower part 
being open, and forming a noble arched walk. On 
the Nw. side is the great painted gate of the 
bazaar, on which, in former times, stood the cele- 
brated clock of Ispahan, and on the opposite side 
is the Meshed-Shah, a superb mosque built by 
Shah- Abbas, and dedicated to Mehedi, one of the 
twelve Imdin& The centre of the NE. side is 
occupied by another mosque, called Loofb Ullah, 
which faces the Ali-Kapi, a noble gate, surmounted 
by a dome, the marble ornaments of which still 
remain. Above the gate is a pavilion, pointed out 
as the place where Shah- Abbas was wont to sit 
and witness the games and exercises of his troops 
in the Maidan ; but only a few wooden columns, 
pieces of glass, and decayed paintings remain tu 




attest its fonner beauty, as described by Chardin. 
The summit of the tower commands a view of the 
city in its whole extent, presenting a succession 
of narrow unpaved streets, ruinous houses, mos^ 
ques, and shapeless structures, broken by groups 
of various tali trees which once made a part of the 
gardens attached to the houses now fallen to 
decay. In the S. part of the city is a large tract 
of pleasure ground, called the Chahar^Boffk, which 
consists of a series of eight gardens, or paradUes, 
watered by canals, basins, and fountains, adorned 
with numerous palaces or pa>nlions, and enclosed 
within four majestic walls. In the centre of the 
enclosure Is the palace of the Chehal SUvonj or 
forty pillars, the favourite residence of the later 
kings of the Sefi dynasty. Its front, which is 
entirely open to the garden, is sustained by a 
double range of columns, each shooting up from 
the united backs of four lions of white marble ; and 
within are several large apartments on which all 
the caprice and cost of eastern magnificence have 
been lavished. The walls of the saloon, in par- 
ticular, are embellished with large paintings, 
which, without exhibiting much taste or correct- 
ness of design, are still useful as illustrations of 
the manners and habits of the Persians. The 
suburb of Julfa, which is situated S. of the Zen- 
derood, and connected with the Chahar-Bagh by 
a bridge 1,000 ft long, having 34 arches, was 
originally founded for a body of Armenians, whom 
8hah-Abbas transplanted from their own country 
fJtdfaonthe Araxes), and stationed here, with 
rull toleratioti of their religion, and many v^uable 
mercantile privileges. They were known all over 
the £. for their manufacturing industry; and 
their quarter, which was inhabited exclusively by 
Christians, fonnerly comprised 18 churches, and 
some of the handsomest private residences and 
gardens in the cit^, the pop. of this industrious 
quarter alone havmg exceeded 30,000 at the close 
of the 17th century. At present, however, it is 
little more than a mass of ruins, the few remaining 
houses bein^ tenanted by a population, whose 
moral condition, according to Sir K. K. Porter, has 
suffered a deterioration corresponding to the decline 
of their fortunes. The suburb of Abbas-abad, 
which lie W. of the city, and that of the Guebers, 
or fire-worshippers, on the S. side, near Julfii, are 
entirelv destroyed. 

Ispalian has, wiUiin the last 50 vears, begun to 
revive from its desolation; and the spontaneous 
efforts of the inhabs., in tr}4ng to better their con- 
dition, were ably seconded by the exertions of 
>Iadji Mahommed Hussein KJian, the Atneen^- 
flttolahj or second minister of the shah, who em- 
ployed his immense wealth and influence in the 
improvement of his native city. A new palace, 
near the Shetd Sitoon, has been completed, and 
extensive repairs have been made in the bazaars, 
streets, and fountains ; besides which, a large tract 
of land, close to the river, has been enclosed to 
form rice plantations, the produce of which now 
forms an important article of commerce. The 
manufacture of all kinds of woven fabrics, from 
the most costly gold brocade of figured velvet to 
the most ordinary calico or coarse cotton, is pur- 
sued on an extended scale ; partly on raw materials 
raised in the surrounding district, and partly also 
on silk and cott«)n wool introduced from Ghilan I 
and other provinces of Persia; many hands are ' 
also employed in making gold and silver trinkets, ' 
paper and paper boxes, pcncases, ornamented 
book covers, fire-arms, sword-blades (of steel, from 
India), glass, and earthenware. These goods are 
sent to all parts of the E., Ispahan being the chief 
emporium m Persia, and on the great line of com- 
muuication between India, Caubul, and China, on 


the E., and Turkey, Egj-pt, and the Mediterranean , 
on the W. Its trading prosperity, however, like 
that of Bushire, is much obstrucfed by the mo' 
nopolies and injudicious taxes of the government. 
The inhabs. of Ispahan are considered the best 
manufacturers in Fersia, and education seems to 
be very general. Every one' above the lowest 
order can read and write ; and artisans and shop- 
keepers are familiar with the works of their fa- 
vourite poets. The merchants form a distinct 
class : frugal, and even penurious in their habits, 
they seldom make an^ display of wealth, and are 
extremely wary and circumspect in their commer- 
cial speculations, owing, no doubt, to the severity 
of their sufferings during national disturbances, 
when they have been usually selected as the first 
victims of plunder and (»ppression. Their houses 
are mean on the outside, with low, narrow en- 
trances, but are often fitted up internally with 
great luxury. These merchants, with all their 
affectation of poverty, have capitals embarked in 
trade which vary from 80,000 to 160,000 toraana, 
and not only control in a great degree the whole 
trade of Persia, but are able also, it is said, to in- 
fluence prices in the markets of W. Hindostan. 
Owing to insecurity and bad government, the in- 
terest of money in Ispahan varies from 12 to 36 
per cent, a year ; and the farming pop. are often 
compelled to pay 60 per cent, for the loans required 
to enable them to meet the exactions of the go- 

The origin of Ispahan is uncertain ; but its po- 
sition seems to identify it with the Atpadana of 
Ptolemy. Under the caliphs of Bagdad it became 
the cap. of Irak, and rapidly increased in wealth, 
pop., and trade. • This nsing prosperity, however, 
received a severe check during the invasion of 
Timour, who took the city, in 1387j and gave it 
up to military execution. The troops massacred 
70,000 of the inhabs., whose heads, piled on the 
walla of Ispahan, long attested the merciless se- 
verity of the conqueror. From this desolation Uio 
city gradually revived under the Sefis; but it did 
not become the residence of royalty till Shah- 
Abbas the Great made it the metropolis of Persia, 
embellished it with stately mansions, and rendered 
it not only a luxurious capital, but filled it with 
merchants, artificers, and agriculturists from Eu- 
rope as well as Asia, whose united industry soon 
made it the great emporium of the Asiatic world. 
The city was at this time 24 m. in circuit, and is 
stated to have comprised 160 mosques, 48 coU^es, 
1,800 caravanserais, 273 public baths, and 12 
cemeteriop; while the pop. is said to have 
amounted to 600,000 persons. The shah's court, 
at this time, was the resort of ambassadors from 
tlie proudest kingdoms of the east, as well as of 
Europe. This prosperity, however, was but of 
short duration ; for, in 1722, Persia was invaded 
b^' the Affghans, and Ispahan, after sustaining a 
siege of eight months, during which the adjacent 
country was laid waste by the barbarous policy of 
the enemy, was reduced to its present ruinous 
state : the walls were so completely destroyed that 
all traces of them are obliterated, the palaces dis- 
mantled and robbed of all their ornaments, and 
the people massacred without mercy. Nadir-Shah 
recaptured the city in 1727, but he took no steps 
to restore its ancient glory. The sovereigns have 
resided at Teheran during the last hundred years, 
and Ispahan has gradually fallen to a state of 
decay, from which even its commercial importance 
has not been able to preserve it. 

ISSOIRE, a town of France, d^ Puy-de-Dome, 
cap. arrond. on the Creuze, 19 m. SSE. Clermont. 
Pop. 6,159 in 1861. The town is wcH built and 
clean; in its centre is a spacious market-place. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Its4y- 'Maddand I Ar^ 95.612 St/ Jff/Ar 
^pbind A-WalrB r.4nvi ntmiv S'fl.OOO Sq.Jdof 

Brmddi l&O IShst 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Jt has mamifiMtures of copper kettles and other 
copper wares, with some trade in wahiut oil, hemp, 
and wine. 

ISSOUDUN, a town of France, d^p. Indre, of 
which it is the most important, though not nomi- 
nally the chief, town, cap. arrond., on the Theols, 
which is here crossed by three bridges, 16 m. 
N£. Gh&teauroux, on the railway from Paris to 
Tonloose. Pop. 14,282 in 1861. The town stands 
partly on the declivity of a hill, and partly in the 
plain at its foot ; is said to be better laid out and 
tmilt than any other town in the centre of France ; 
and is remarkablv clean. It owes its regularity 
and beauty principally to the numerous devasta- 
ting; fires it has undergone at different times, 
daring one of which, in 1651, the citizens repulsed 
and put to flight the troops of Louis XIY., then 
investing the place. Issoudun was formerly a for- 
tress of some strength, and possessed a large castle, 
a portion of which, now remaining, serves as a 
prison. The town has 4 churches, 2 hospitals, a 
new iown-hall, barracks, a small theatre, and 
several public walks. It is the seat of a sub-pre- 
fecture, of a tribunal of original jurisdiction and 
commetoe, and of a chamber of maimfactures. It 
has linen and woollen cloth and parchment fac- 
tories, and was formerly a place of considerable 
commercial activity; but it has not yet recovered 
the injury done to its industry by the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes. Issoudun is of great an- 
tiquity, having been one of the towns laid waste 
by the Bituriges to arrest the progress of Julius 

ISTRIA. See Illtria. 

ITALY (Lat. Italiaj Fr. Jialie)^ one of the most 
celebrated and fertile countries of Europe, the seat 
of the greatest empire of antiquity, and of art, 
science, and civilisation, when the surrounding 
countries were immersed in barbarism. It is finely 
situated, comprising the whole of the central pe- 
ninsula of S. Europe, with the extensive and nch 
country to the N. of the peninsula, and included 
between the Alps and the Mediterranean. It ex- 
tends between Ut. 36° 46' and 46° 30' N., and 
long. 6° 30' and 189 30' E., having to the NW. 
France, N. Switzerland and the Tyrol, NE. 
Carinthia, Camiola, and the Hungarian Littorale, 
E. the A<hiatic, and on all other sides the Medi- 
terranean. In antiquity, it was known by the 
names of Hesperia, Auaonioj SatumiOf (Enotria, 
Ac, ; but these names, though loosely applied to 
the whole country, were strictly applicable onl^ to 
particular portions of its surface. Various denva- 
tions have been assigned to the term Italy. 
The name is said to have designated originally 
only its more S. portion ; but in the course of 
time it superseded every other term, and was gra- 
dually extended to the whole country from the 
Alp 'southward. 

in shape, Italy has been familiarly likened to a 
boot, the heel formed by the Terra d'Otranto, and 
the foot by Calabria. The general direction of 
the Italian peninsula is SE. and N W. ; its length, 
from Mount St. Gothard to Cape Spartivento, in 
Calabria, is nearly 750 English m.; its breadth 
varies from about 380 m. in N. Italy, to less than 
80 m. near its centre ; and in one part of Cala- 
bria it is no more than 18 m. from sea to sea. The 
area of tlie mainland may be estimated at about 
100,000 sq. m.; but two large blnndfl, Sicily 
and Sardinia, and many smaller, as Elba, Ischia, 
the Lipari group, and others, belong to Italy. 
The kingdom of Italy, according to an enume- 
ration made in the spring of 1864, has a popu- 
lation of 21,777,334 souls, dwelling on an area 
of 98,784 English square miles. The extent and 
population of the ancient political diviifions of 



which the monarchy is composed, is shown in the 
following table : — 


Continental Sardinian Statea . 
Island of Ri>.»tl^n««^ . . 
Lombardy . . . . 


Umbria and the Marches 
Tuscany . . . . , 
Neapolitan States . 
Island of Sicily 

Total . 

iq. mUct Popatotton 





Added to this must be the territory still (1865) 
belonging to the pope, containing an area of 
4,891 sq. m., with 692,106 inhabitants, and Aus- 
trian Italy, comprising 8,720 sq. m., with a pop. of 
2,446,056. This brings the total area of Italy to 
112,395 sq. m.,with 24,915,496 inhabitants. 

The kingdom proper is divided into 193 * cir- 
condarii,' or administrative circuits, subdivided 
into 1,597 * mandamenti,' or districts, embracing 
about 8,000 parishes. 

The population is most crowded in the south of 
the Sardinian states ; it is least dense in the island 
of Sardinia and in the Marches. Italy contains on 
an average 220 inhabitants to the square mile^a 
figure higher than that of France and (Tcnnany, 
but lower than that of England, the Netherlands, 
and Belgium. 

Physical Geogra^y. — The frontier of Italy is 
extremely well dehned. She is defended on the 
N., the NE., and NW. by the vast bulwark of the 
Alps, the passes of which might be easily guarded 
and made impervious to hostile attack. She has 
everywhere else a sea frontier; so that, while she 
is protected by a natural rampart against attacks 
by land, she has every facility, by means of her 
extensive sea frontier and numerous ports, for in- 
ternal and foreign commerce. 

Though bounded by the Alps, only a compara- 
tively small portion of the surface of Italy is 
covered with Alpine ramifications. The mountain 
system exclusively^ belonging to the peninsula is 
that of the Apennines. These mountains, which 
may be regarded as a continuation of the maritime 
Alps, at first run E. along the Mediterranean shores 
in the former Sardinian territory; and then, turn- 
ing gradually S., pass through the peninsula nearly 
in its centre, and sending off numerous branches 
on either side. At length, near lat. A^P 45', the 
main ridge divides into two separate chains, the 
principal of which continues S. to the extremity 
of Calabria, while the other runs ESE. througli 
the Terra d'Otranto. The mean elevation of the 
Apennines is about 4,000 ft. ; Monte Como, the 
summit of the Gran' Sasso d' I talis, in AbruKzo 
Ultra, is, however, 9,521 ft. in height, and is capped 
with snow during the whole year ; Monte Vclino 
is 8,182 ft. ; and Monte Sibilla, 7,212 ft. high ; and 
many other summits in Central and extreme S. 
Italy approach the latter in elevation. The Ajien- 
nines are much less rugged than the Alp«, and 
abound with rich forests and pasture land, on 
which numerous fiocks of sheep are fed. They are 
of great 8er\'ice to the country', by the numerous 
rivers which have their sources in them, and by 
their infiuence in moderating the summer heats. 
Italy is also famous for its volcanoes; those of 
Etna, Vesuvius, and Stromboli, in Uie Lipari Is- 
lands, being, if not the greatest, by far the most 
celebrated and best known of any on the globe. 

Hut though for the most part mountainous, Italy 
has some plains of great extent and extraordinary- 

Digitized by VjC_^ ^^rS '^'^ 



fertility. Of these, the most extenfiiye and richest 
is that of Lombardy, or of the Po. This noble 
plain extends from the foot of the Alfts, near Sasa, 
to the mouths of the Po, in the Adriatic, a distance 
of about 250 m., with a breadth varying from 50 
to 120 m., including nearly the whole of what was 
formerly known as the Lombardo- Venetian king- 
dom, and the northern part of Umbria and the 
Marches. This great plain is extremely well wa- 
tered ; the numerous rivers and streams that rise 
in the Alps, and pour down into the plain, afford 
a vast and inexhaustible supply of water; and 
from these an infinite number of canals have been 
cut, that diffuse the fertilising element over the 
whole country, and give to its com and rice fields 
and its variegated meadows, extraordinary produc- 
tiveness. The soil, though different in the various 
parts, is for the most part loamy and very fertile. 
The surface is generally divided into small farms 
of from 10 to 60 acres ; and if not scientifically, is 
at least carefully and economically, cultivated. 
The fidds are enclosed by lines of fruit-trees, mul- 
berry-trees, poplars, and oaks ; and their growth 
is so luxuriant, that in many parts the country 
has the appearance of a vast forest. This plain 
has to boast of an immense number of cities, many 
of which are of great antiquity and considerable 
size, and all of them adorned with noble buildings 
and valuable works of art Probably, on the whole, 
the plain of Lombardy may be called the garden 
of Europe ; and, at all events, it is certainly the 
garden of Italy. 

The next great plain stretches along the W. 
shore of Central Italy for about 200 m., from Pisa, 
down to Terracina, in the former Neapolitan states. 
Within these limits are included the Tuscan 
maremme, great part of the ixtmpagna of Rome, 
and the Pontine nutraheg (anc Fomptinte poludes). 
This plain is, iu all respects, very different from 
the former. Though in antiquity, and to a cer- 
tain extent, also, in tlie middle ages, it was cele- 
brated for its fertility, and was highly cultivated 
and populous, it is now comparativdy a desert. 
This is a conseauence of the prevalence of 
tnalaria, which infests these districts to such an 
extent as to render them at certain periods of the 
year all but uninhabitable. They are necessarily, 
therefore, for the most part in pasture ; and are 
occupied by a vacant population, who reside in 
the counti^^ only in the healthy season. In the 
campagna of Rome the shepherds who have charge 
of the flocks are obliged, during the summer 
season, to repair every night to the city, or to 
some other town, as sleeping in the countiy would 
be fatal ; it is then, also, extremely dangerous to 
travel by night through the Pontine marshes. 
The vagrant population of this extensive tract, 
and those who live on its borders, have all an 
emaciated, unhealthy, cadaverous aspect; and 
where the plain is cultivated, the labourers who 
come from other parts of the country to assist in 
the harvest frequently fall victims to the per- 
nicious influence of the atmosphere, or have tneir 
constitutions injured for life. In the Tuscan 
maremme, the soil has in many places become, 
from neglect, sterile and unproductive ; but, in the 
campagna of Rome and the Pontine marshes, the 
soil is, in most parts, extraordinarily fertile, is 
covered with a luxuriant vegetation, and, were it 
properly cultivated, would yield immense crops. 

There are no hills in the Campagna. Its undu- 
lations do not arise from elevations of the surface, 
but from depressions; it may be described as a 
plateau from 1 to 200 fi. above the level of the sea, 
traversed by wide and shallow valleys, which oc- 
cupy one-fourth or one-fifth part of its surface. 
Soine of these valleys are dr>', others have small 

sluggish streams, and thev are from 50 to 150 ft. 
deep. There is a strip of swamp along the sea- 
coast, probably 2 or 8 m. broad ; but -mm this ex- 
ception, the Campagna di Roma seems to be 
^nerally dry ; for the wet lands seen in some of 
Its small valleys are such as we find in every 
countiy, and are not worth mentioning as an ex- 
ception. Its present appearance is bleak and 
deserted in a remarkable degree. There are scat- 
tered clumps of brushwood ; but the eye ranges 
over it for miles often without discovering a single 
timber tree, and there is nothing deserving the 
name of woodland or forest within its vast bounds. 
Fences are rare, except near Rome ; a gentleman^s 
country house, or villa, is not to be seen in it, nor 
a decent farm-house ; and even the cottages are 
few and far between. The whole district is divided 
into immense estates, usually let in small lots, on 
the metayer system, and is kept mostly in pasture, 
not more than one-eighth or one-tentlh part being 
under the plough or rather Aoe, for it is laboured 
¥rith the latter. 

The Pontine marshes are 24 m. long, and pro- 
bably 12 broad. The work of draining was com- 
menced under the Roman republic, was conrinued 
by the emperors and popes, and is not yet entirely 
finished. The journey through them is most mo- 
notonous. A canal 50 ft. broad, the grand trunk 
of the drainage, extends along the whole lengtli, 
in a line mathematically straight. The soil 
thrown out of this canal forms a rused bank, 5 or 
6 ft. above the water, and 80 or 100 ft. broad. An 
excellent road passes along this bank, with a 
double row of lofty trees on each side It was 
upon this canal that Horace travelled in a track- 
boat, on his journey to firundiaium. The marshes 
are not altogether uninhabited. A few houses are 
met with on the road, and others are seen in 
the distance. The surface is chiefly in pasture ; 
but part is planted with tall reeds used for vine 
props, part covered with brushwood, probably raised 
for fuel, and some small patches are ploughed. 
Very httle wet marsh is now visible till the north 
or higher end, where there is a considerable tract 
still undrained. The general surface of the plain 
inclines eastward and southward, so that the in- 
land f >art is actually lower than that towards the 
coast on the north; and, like the Neapolitan 
Campania, the level ground abuts sharply against 
tile mountains. 

Various and very conflicting causes have been 
assigned for the increase of malariof and the con- 
sequent depopulation of these extensive and once 
fertile temtories. They were always, indeed, 
rather unhealthy; but their unhealthiness has 
been prodigiously aggravated in modem times. It 
is believed by many that its deterioration has 
been, in a considerable degree, owing to the wanton 
destruction of the woods and forests, by which the 
land was shaded in antiquity, and screened from 
the fiery beams of the summer sun. No doubt it 
is in part also a consequence of the obstructions 
that have been allowed to grow up in the courses 
and ftt the mouths of rivers, by which their waters 
have been formed into stagnant and noxious 
marshes. But the last-mentioned circumstance 
may itself be ascribed to what has had by far the 
greatest influence, that is, to the decay of pop. and 
industry, occasioned by the irruptions of the bar- 
barians, the ravages of war, and the influence of 
epidemics. The HI success that attended the 
efforts of the late Tuscan government to reclaim 
some portions of the maremme, by establishing 
colonies in them, appears to have l€^ many to be- 
lieve that they were absolutely irreclaimable. 
However, this is not the case. The great woika, 
principally of a hydraulic character, that have of 

Digitized by 




Ikte Teais been azidertaken and carried into effect 
in Italy, by which iaige tracts of the maremme 
hare been converted into productive estates, show 
what may be done by jadicioos efforts on a large 
scale. llithertOt indeed, the land that has been 
reclaimed and made tolerably healthy, bears but a 
small proportion to what is still abandoned. 

The third great plain of Italy is that of Capi- 
tanata (Apulia), having Fc^ia in its centre. It 
comprises the greater portion of a tract of flat 
country, extending from the border of Samnium 
to Otranto, along the shore of the Adriatic, an- 
ciently indnded in Dannia, Japygia, Peucetla, and 
Measapia. The lower part of the Apulian plain is 
arid, the rivers decreasing both in size and ire- 
queney as we proceed farther S. ; and in the pro- 
vinces of Otranto and Ban the rain water is 
obV^ed to be carefully preserved in cisterns for 
the uT^don of the hind. The upper portion of 
the plam is more plentifully supplied with water, 
but it also has, in many parts, a sandy and thirsty 
Boil. A fpreat part of it is destitute of bush, house, 
€fr tree ; it is farmed in laige estates, and round 
about Lnccra and elsewhere there is a good deal 
of axable land ; but by far the greater portion of 
the surface consists of pastures, called tavoHerej 
into which immense flocks of sheep from the 
Ahntzzi are driven to feed in the winter. 

The level district round Naples is still well en- 
titled to its ancient epithet of Campania FeUxj 
being at once rich, well cultivated, and densely 
peopled. The Campania is a tract of cane land, 
40 m. in loigth, by 15 or 20 in breadth, presenting 
a dead levd like the surface of the ocean, and 
probably from 1 to 100 ft. above it In the midst 
of tbis vast area, there are two large islands ; Y e- 
Buvius and its dependant hillocks constitute one 
ofa round form, and about 8 m. in diameter; a 
chain of hillocks, narrow ridges, and truncated 
cones, extending from Naples to Cape Misenum, 
covering a space of 12 m. m length, and 8 or 4 in 
breadth, constitutes the other. With the excep- 
ticm of these two elevated tracts, the whole district 
is a dead leveL It is, in fact, a portion of the 
bottom of the ocean lifted up by subterranean 
agents, and converted into diy land. As might 
be expected, it does not rise by a series of small 
elevations to the outer hills of the Apennines ; it 
abuts sharply against them, as the waters of the 
German Ocean abut against the last level of the 
Lammennuir hills. The Campania Felix is pro- 
bably equal in fertility to any spot in the world. 
Though so level, it is remarkably dry, and hence 
fiee of malaria. The vegetable soil, which is ex- 
posed in drains at some places, is of great depth, 
and cultivated like a garden. It is put to what 
may be called a double use, first ploughed and 
sown with com and then, at every mterval of 50 
or 100 ft, there is a row of vines. 

Riven and Lakes. — ^Few countries are better 
watered than Italy, whether in regard to springs, 
riven, or lakes. The principal river is the ro, the 
JSridttnuM or Paebu of the ancients ; it issues from 
Mount Viso in the Alps, on the confines of France, 
and receives, during its long course to the Adriatic, 
a vast number of tributa^ streams. It divides 
thegieat plain of Lombardy into two nearly equal 
parts, and is the grand receptacle for the streams 
flowing S. from the Alps, and for the lesser 
waten that flow N. firom a part of the Alpine 

' Find with a titoumnd raptures, I survey 
Eridanus through flowery meadows stray, 
The king of floods I that, rolling o'er the plains. 
The towering Alps of half their moisture drains. 
And proudly swoln with a whole winter's snob's, 
Distributes wealth and plenty where he goes.' 

Of its numerous afiiuents, the most important 
are the Baltea, Sesa, Tessino, Adda, Chiesa, and 
Mincio, from the N.; and the Tanaro, Bormida, 
Trebia, famous for the great victory gained by 
Hannibal on its banks, and Panaro, on the S. The 
other large rivers of the N. of Italy, are the A'dige, 
Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento, all flowing S. 
from the Alps. In Central and Southern Italy no 
great river can be expected to arise, on account of 
the narrowness of the peninsula, and the central 
position of the Apennines, in which they have 
their sources. The Tiber is the principal, and also 
the most celebrated ; but, like the other rivers of 
this part of Italy, it is interesting chiefly from its 
ancient renown, and the classical reoollecUons as- 
sociated with its name, than from its magnitude 
or intrinsic importance. Among others of this 
class are the Amo and Ombrone in Tuscany. Con- 
siderable differences of opinion have taken place 
as to the identity of the Rubicon, the S£. boundary 
of Cisalpine Gaul, so famous in ancient history. 
It is generallj^, however, believed to be represented 
by the Fiumicino, which falls into the Adriatic 18 
or 20 m. below Ravenna. An ancient law of the 
senate and people of Rome made it death to cross 
this river with arms in a hostile intention. Its 
passage, by Csesar, has been flnelv described by 
Lucan (lib. L lin. 183-227) ; and his exclamation 
on that occasion, *Jacta eat aUa,^ has passed into a 
proverb. In the former Neapolitan states, the only 
streams deserving the name of rivers are the Yol- 
tumo, the Garigliano, anciently the Lirie, and the 
Ofanto, formerly the Aufidns, which, flowing past 
CannsB, is thence called aanffuineua by Silius Ita- 
licus (lib. X. 820). The rivers which descend from 
the Apennines are apt, like other mountain cur- 
rents, to swell suddenly, and to cause inundations 
in the level parts of*^ the country, particularly 
towards the mouth of the Po. 

* Prolnit insano contorquens vertlce sUvas 
Flnviomm rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes 
Gum Btabulis armentatullt.' 

Oeorg. i. 481. 

To restrain this, dykes or mounds have been 
erected in many places ; and as the earthy sub- 
stances brought down by the flood have, in many 
cases, raised the bed of* the stream, and required 
fresh embankments, the mounds are often of 
considerable height, and have the appearance of 

The most considerable of the Italian lakes are 
situated in the N. ; including those of Garda, 
Magffiore, Como, and Lugano. In Central Italy 
are the lakes of Perugia (an. lAicua Thraaimenue), 
Bolsena, Braeciano, Celano or Fudno, and Albano ; 
and in the S. those of Avemo and others, which, 
though insignificant in point of size, have acquired 
imperishable renown. Many considerable salt la- 
goons line the Mediterranean coast in various parts 
of Tuscany- and the Marches, and the shores of 
the Adriatic in the Venetian territories, and round 
the promontory of Gaigano. Besides the Pontine 
marshes, there aro numerous marshy tracts of less 
extent in the Val di Chiana and other parts of 
Tuscany, in the plain of Salerno, and along the 
banks of the Po, especially in the region round its 
mouth. S. of the last-mentioned tract, a consider- 
able extent of bog-land, called the Vol di Com^ 
machio, occupies a large portion of the papal le- 
gation of Ferrara. Italy has about 8,000 m. of 
sear-coast Its chief capes and headlands are Ar- 
gentaro, Circello, Campanella, Spardvento, and 
Santa Maria di Leuca, on the Mediterranean, and 
the Testa di Gargano and Cape Promontoire 
j^Istria), on the Adriatic Of the goifg or bays 
lormed along its coasts, the principal are the Gulf 
of Taranto on the S£., between Apulia and Ca- 

Digitized by 




labria ; those of Genoa, Gaeta, Naples, Salerno, 
PoUcastro, Enfemia, and Gioja, on its W. ; and 
those of Squillace, Manfredonia, and Trieste, on it3 
E. shores. 

Geology and Minerah. — ^Italy may be described 
as ^ aVuilcareous region enclosing a schistous band ; ' 
but volcanic action has been so prevalent, that the 
strata are often found extremelv disarranged from 
their original position. N. of 6enoa, the primary 
formations in tne Apennines include granite, gneiss, 
serpentine, quartz, and clay-slate, often intermixed 
yf'iih transition limestone and grauwackd. Granite 
and gneiss are absent in the Apennine region of 
Central Italy, but they reappear in the S., where 
they predominate among the primary formations, 
from the Abni2zi to the furthest end of Calabria. 
They also exhibit themselves in the fwaremwie, 
near the surface ; the secondary formations in Tus- 
cany being often intermixed with primary rocks, 
and in some instances overlain by them. The 
tertiarv deposits of Italy are very extensive, and 
form the sub-Apennine region, or low hill ranges, 
extending along the flanks of the Apennines 
throughout the whole peninsula, consisting of sand- 
stone, marl, and coarse limestone. These fonna- 
tions contain an abundance of marine shells, among 
which as many as 770 different species have been 
enumerated, half of them still inhabiting the ad- 
jacent seas. The alluvial plain of the Po abounds 
m fossil remains of mammedia, birds, and amphibia, 
and similar fossils have been discovered in the 
Neapolitan states. Several regions in the central 
and S. parts of Italy are almost wholly composed 
of volcanic products. Such are the Campagna di 
Roma, which abounds with a volcanic tufa, called 
travertkUf of which great part of Rome is built ; 
and the neighbourhood of Vesuvius, which is co- 
vered with lava and acoria. Numerous traces of 
extinct volcanoes exist, the craters of which have 
been converted into lakes. 

Italy is less rich in metals than in most other 
things ; it, however, is well supplied with iron ; it 
has also copper and lead ore, and the precious 
metals have been found, but in inconsiderable quan- 
tities. The centre is the chief seat of mining in- 
dustr}', and large quantities of iron are furnished 
by the island of Elba. The most valuable mineral 
product of continental Italy is, however, the fine 
statuary marble of Carrara. Marble of a similar 
kind, and nearly as good, is found at Scravezza, 
and other kinds are met with in almost every part 
of the peninsula. Great quantities of borax are 
found in Tuscany: sulphur, building stone, salt, 
nitre, alum, alabaster, and crystal are the other 
chief mineral products ; and the Apennines abound 
in basalt, dried lava, pozzolana sand, and other 
volcanic substances. Caverns of stalactites are 
met with in many parts, and mineral springs and 
vapours are of very frequent occurrence. (Hoff- 
mann, Europa ; Lyell's Geology.) 

The climate of Italy is delightful. Owing to its 
length from N. to S., and tbe great difference in 
the elevation of its surface', there is necessarily a 
considerable variation in the temperature of dif- 
ferent parts; but, speaking generally, the air is 
throughout mild and genial ; the excessive heats 
of summer are moderated by the influence of the 
mountains and the surrounding sea, and the cold 
of winter is hardly ever extreme. As respects 
temperature, it may be divided into four r^^ns : 
the flrst, extending N. of the Apennines, and of 
lat» 430 30', and including the plain of Lombardy, 
has a climate somewhat similar to that of S. Ger- 
many, but wanner. In winter, the lakes of Garda 
and Maggiore, and the lagoons of Venice, are par- 
tially frozen; snow often falls, and the thermo- 
meter sometimes sinks to 149; even in summer, 

the N. wind is cold, and oranges, lemons, and ot1>er 
agrumi do not flourish in the open air. The second 
region, extendmg between lat,43o 30' and 41° 30', 
includes the greater part of Tuscany, Umbria, and 
the Marches, with the N. part of the Neapolitan 
states. Within this band, snow and ice are mostly 
confined to the mountain tops, and olives and 
agrumi of all kinds flourish luxuriantlv without 
culture. The third region, from 41° 30' to 39°, 
comprises the middle Neapolitan provs. Snow is 
here vei^' rare, and the finest fruits are found in 
the valleys throughout the winter. The fourth 
region embraces the S. part of Calabria, with Sicily 
and the Lipari Islands. Here the thermometer 
never falls to the freezing poiut, and the sugar- 
cane, Indian fig, papyrus palm, and other tropical 
plants are abundant on the low lands. 

The following is a table of the medium tempera- 
ture of the year in different latitudes of Italy: — 


Milan . 
Rome . 
Naples . 

450 28' 
44 30 
43 46 
41 63 
40 60 

Helgbt tboTc 

492 feet. 
265 „ 
230 „ 
187 „ 

Mean Annual 

66-44 „ 
69-4 „ 
60-0 „ 
62-2 „ 

Throughout most parts of Italy there are but 
three seasons in the year : a spring, which more 
than realises all that poets have said in its praise ; 
a hot summer, and a short, and not severe, winter : 
most of the vegetable products, even in the N., 
flower bv the end of March. Heavy rains prevail 
during Oct. and Nov. ; W. and NVV. winds are the 
most prevalent ; but the Ubeccio and aroccoj the 
simoom of the Arabs, also occasionally occur, and 
exert an oppressive, and in the S. an injurious, in- 
fluence over the animal frame. 

Notwithstanding the mildness and general salu- 
brity of the Italian climate, huge districts of the 
country are very unhealthy, and the chances of 
longevity are less than in England and other coun- 
tries under more inclement skies. But the un- 
healthiness is not the effect of climate, but of 
circumstances connected with the physical geo- 
graphy of the country, and the want of industry. 
Nor is the lesser longevity of the Italians to be 
ascribed to their climate, but to the depresseil situ- 
ation and poverty of the bulk of the people ; the 
bad quality and scanty supply of food and clothes ; 
the low state of medical science ; and the want of 
cleanliness. The |^enial climate may, indeed, be 
said to contribute indirectlv to bring about these 
results, by encouraging slotliful habits, and making 
the people less industrious than they would l^ 
were it more severe. 

It has been supposed that the climate of Ital^' 
has undergone a considerable change, and that it 
is now less cold in winter than formerly. There 
seem to be good grounds for concurriiig in tliis 
opinion ; and the change may be accounted for by 
the cutting down of the forests already alluded to, 
and by the changes that have taken place in the 
countries to the N. of Italy. (Sec Hume's Essay 
on the Populousncss of Ancient Nations, and the 
authorities referred to in it.) It is to be doubted, 
however, whether there be any foundation for the 
notion, that either the productiveness of Italy or 
its pop. has diminished. Some extensive tractSy 
as the Tuscan maremme^ the Campagna, and some 
parts of the former Neapolitan provinces, which in 
antiquity were occupied by a dense pop,, are now 
all but uninhabited; but, on the other hand, Lom- 
banly has been signally improved, and is at this 
monicnt intinitely better cultivated and more po- 
pulous than at any former period* On the whole, 

Digitized by 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 


it is probable, that whatever Italy may have lost 
in respect of i>op. in certain districta, has been 
fally oonnterviuled by a corresponding f^ain else- 
where ; and that her decline from her ancient fame 
and influence has not been occasioned by any de- 
cline in the number of her sonn. 

General Aspect of ite^.— Speaking generally, 
nothing can surpass the beauty and diversity, of 
the scenery of Italy. Its mountains have everv 
variety of form and' elevation : alternately smooth 
and ruggedf they exhibit by turns gentle decli- 
vities and fine pastures, tremendous precipices and 
chasms, water-falls, deep and majesuc forests, and 
summits, sometimes capped with snow, and some- 
times emitting smoke and flames. Many of the 
Tslieys, as that of the Amo, are delightful beyond 
descripuon ; the plain of Lombsrdy is not less 
beautiful than ricn, and even the half-desert tracts 
along the W. shore interest by their solitude and 
their vastness. The extent of the sea coast, and 
the number and magnitude of the lakes, add also 
greatly to the beauty and variety of the land- 
scape ; while the deamess of the atmosphere gives 
to every object a brightness of colouring, and dis- 
tinctness of outline, that can with difficulty be 
conceived by those accustomed to our cloudy and 
less brilliant skies. No wonder, then, that the 
beauty and richness, as well as the glory of their 
country, should have been a favourite theme of 
the ancient writers : — 

' Sed neqae Medomm silva, dltiraima terra, 
Kec palcher Qanges a^ne aiiro tnrbidns Hermns 
' Landibug Italls certent ; non Bactra, neqne Indi 
Totaqne thoriferls PanchaXa pinguis arenis. 

Sed graTidse frnges et Baccbi Masdcus humor 
Implertoa ; tenent oles armentaqne Inta. 

HIo yer assidnun atque alienis menalbas sestas ; 

Adde tot egregias nrbes, opemmqne laboreni, 
Tot congesta mana prcruptis oppida saxis, 
Flnminaque antlqaoa subter labentia muros. 

Sahre, magna parens frngum, Satumia tellnii, 
Magna virOm.^— Georg. U. 186, 148, 149, 165, 178. 

In respect of its vegetable product*^ Italy may 
be divided into six regions, according to its eleva- 
tion. These are as fculow : — 

1 B..I... 

ElcTMlon Prodoeti 

1. Of the plains 

— to 1,200 ft. Lentlak, myrtle,' 

laurel, ilex and 

oork trees, citron ,1 

flg, olive, vine,' 

2. Cakandches- 

1,200 — 8,000 — 



olive, vine, and 

3. Beech aadfir 

3,000 — fi,000 — 

Beech, firs, larch, 
jnniper,and wheat, 
barley, oats, and 


maize, to 4,000 ft. 

4. Sab-Alpine 

5,000 — 6,000 — 

Dwarf pine, arbu- 


tus, gentian, ane- 

5. Upper Alpine 

6,000 -- 8,500 — 

Androsacn, nud- 


frage, and other 
Alpine plants. 

S. Begion of 

8,500 ft. and 

Iceland moss, Ar- 



temuia mntellina, 
•and a few other 

Thcfce is a much greater diversity of plants in the S. 
portion of the Apennine chain than in any other 
part of its extent: this diversity b the most 
marked in the second, or oak and cheenut region. 
The Italian or S. declivities of the Alps present a 
greater diversity of vegetation tha|i those facing 
the K.; and more species of plants are found on 
Vou IIL 

them than en the Apennines. On the Alpine sum- 
mits are seen the dwarf birch, juniper, and other 
plants of Lapland and Siberia, while at their 
feet flourish toe flg, Agave americana, and (hctus 
opuntia, Mt. Vesuvius has a Flora peculiar to itself. 

Italy is much more an agricultural than a ma- 
nufacturing country ; but the indolence of a great 
par^ of the pop., and the backward state of agri- 
culture, render the actpal retmm far inferior to 
what the country is calculated to yield. Silk has 
become a most important product, and its culture 
has increased very rapidly -ndthin the last half a 
century. Wine and olives, particularly the latter, 
are also very important pioducts ; and there is a 
great abundance of the nnest fruits. Com is not 
so generally cultivated in Italy as in the more N. 
countries of Europe ; but pulse and other vege- 
tables are extensively raised. Partictdar parts of 
the country are ai)propriated to particular pro- 
ducts. Lombardv is the chief com country ; in 
the Genoese and Tuscan territories, the culture of 
fruit, particularly of olives, predominates; while 
the unhealthy district of the Maremme and Cam- 
pagna remains, as before stated, chiefly in a state 
of natural pasture. Skilful agriculture is prin- 
cipally confined to the N. ; in the centre, with the 
exception of portions of Tuscany, and S., it is at 
a very low ebb; and in the former Neapolitan 
states the abundance of vegetable productions is 
owing more to the climate and soil than to the 
industry of the husbandman. The products of 
the N. parts of the peninsula are found there in 
abundance ; and whole groves of olives are seen 
growing in the open country, interspersed with 
spices and other tropical products. 

The pastures of Italy are stocked with large 
herds of black cattle, sheep, and goats : few horses 
are reared ; and the breed is in little estimation, 
except in certain parts of the Neapolitan teiri- 
tory« Mules are more common, being found better 
adapted for the bad and mountainous roads. The 
operations of agriculture are performed by oxen. 
The buffalo is found in Italy, tiiough hardly any 
where else in Europe. Ho^ are fed in large herds 
in the forests, particularly in Calabria. The moun^ 
tains and forests contain a number of wild animals ; 
among others, the boar, stag, marmot, and badger. 
The lynx or tiger-cat is nst uncommon in themotm- 
tains of Abmzzo ; and the crested porcupine is sup- 
pof%d to be peculiar to the S. of Italv. Foxes, hares, 
and winged game are sufficienUy abundant From 
the heat of the climate in the S. provs., snakes 
and reptiles of different kinds are numerous. The 
rivers, lakes, and coasts abound with fish. 

Mcatufacturet and Trade. — Italy is not distin- 
guished for manufactures : the chief are those of 
alk fabrics and silk thread, which have their prin- 
cipal seat in Lombardy. Woollen and linen stuffs, 
straw plait, gauze, artificial flowers, straw hats, 
paper, parchment, leather, gloves, essences, and 
musical instroments are among the other goods 
manufactured in Italy; but, generally spei^iig, 
the raw products of the country form its chief 
exports, and most manufactured articles, whether 
of necessity or luxury, are imported from foreign 
nations. Venice and Genoa engroned a large pro- 
portion of the trade of Europe, till the discovery of 
the passage to the East, o^ the Cape of Good 
Hope, and the enterprise of the Portuguese and 
Dutch, and after them the French and English, 
diverted European commerce into a new channel. 
From that period, the prosperity of those cities 
padually decayed, and the first of them has sunk 
mto comparative insignificance, while Italy at large 
has but a small portion only of her former com- 
mercial im^rtance. The subjoined table shows 
the quantities of the principal articles imported 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


into the Id 
1862 And 18 

I of Italy, in each of the years 



Wine. . . litras 



Spirits . . 



OU: Olive . kilogr. 



Other EJndfl „ 



Cocoa . . „ 



Coffee . . 



Pepper . . „ 



Sugar . . 



Chemicals . „ 



Colours . . „ 



Stuffs for Dyeing ) 
and Tanning j " 



Wax . . . 



Soap. . . „ 



Oleaginous Seed „ 



Cheese . . „ 



Fish ... 



Horses . , number 



Cattle . . 



Sheep . . ^ . 



Furs . . . kilogr. 



Hides: Baw . 



Tanned „ 



Other Kinds „ 






Hemp and Flax „ 



Yam of Flax . „ 



Cloths of Mixed Ma-) 
terial . . ; »» 



Other Mann&ctures ) 
of Hemp and Flax j* " 



Cotton: Raw . „ 



Yam . „ 



Mixed Stuffs „ 



Other Tissues of „ 



Wool. . 



Woollen Yarn . „ 



Mixed Stuffs „ 



Other Tissues of,, 






Thrown . „ 



Mixed Stuffs „ 



Other Tissues of „ 



Wheat . . Utres 



Grain . . ., 
Flour . . kilogr. 





Charcoal . . „ 



Firewood . . „ 



Wood for Cabinet.) 
making. . / »» 



Furniture . . „ 



Wooden Wares . „ 



Paper . . „ 



Paper Hangings ,, 



Books . . „ 



Mercery and Small ) 
Wares . . ; »» 



Millinery . 



Machinery value in lire 

^^Tii 1,736 


Rags. . . kilogt. 



Iron: Cast . „ 

2.^; ;.i.i>28 


Wrought „ 

^^"^ si, .187 


For Railways „ 



Iron : Ore . „ 



Of the 1st Fusion,, 

^17, :i 1,1136 

4-! .-7 7,186 

Rails . 

1 1 ,:s^ci,*)38 

L^:. -'41,123 

Wrought . „ 



Copper: Raw . „ 



T . ^Wrought „ 



Lead : Raw . „ 






Sulphur . . „ 



Coal ... „ 



Pottery . . 



Porcelain . . „ 



Glass and Crystal „ 



The total value of the imports of 1868 amounted 
to nearly 18,000,000^, to which France contri- 
buted 7,088,984/., Great Britain 6,903,288t, Austria, 
l,872,222i:,and Switzerland 1,341,038/. 

The quantities of the principal articles exported 
irom the kingdom of Italy, in each of the yean 
18C2 and 1868, aie given in the subjoined table :— 



WEne , . . . litTw; 

2S^7,251 34,8M,181 

Oil 1 01 h^ . 


63,636,632^ »fi,lll.*iiB 

Ot^jer kind* 






Mnima . 






Irt-mcm T'cTl . 

156 .Ml 


C*ii>i[il£riil Frodiictjona 



SnU: MflHue 


MiTieml* Sec. 

3,70O,WMJ| a,a!M^K8 

Dyeing fitkiiF* : L n pruiDd „ 

^,UUJ4\\ fi,(H;!i,443 

Gruund „ 

lB,(5fi9;j3S 21,i>0.\939 

Sriaji . , . . „ 



S<..ibi . . . , „ 

(1211 ..IPS 


FniSt. .... 



Alinnndi : in tfap BMI „ 


Ktmd ,. 



OU^l^inonu Ski^^B . , „ 



C\i*'K^ . 




Fi-.h . 



H i T^P-ri . 




CitiS^ . , 



Shrrp , 




Skins : Raw . 

. Mlogr. 





153 ,9<ii 


EL-m|)pn (Vjrnh 








Cotton : Vartt 








SilkrTlnw . 


3. (H 7,899 






1 ,EJT'i,Wi»i 






'Wriioat . 



21 ,09 1 J^.-! 

Grjiin . 


asj'iflj:^; b'jMj»^ 


. UU^gT. 

S4.7tH,(UW. 43,01 7 J37 

P.L Cl-l . 


T.fU.^.JA? a^'ifi^.dl 



34:.147,Sf>n 08^42.232 



USn,149 1 4,050 J2T 

Si\y:ir . 


miJSM M6,5T3 

P.I 1 NT . 


2,A58,fHS M6^-3'^* 

R.ijk?? , 


443,21 a' ltl«,4lR 

RiiL-^of aUl 



Ml1?,-t:"i 10,432 J44' 

Bi'TU^^ . 


4.S?i4.4?H"! 5,WHJ5S 



2j;?3,17B' 4,«3*I,2*j9 

L'ud . 


9. 7.^3 J «2 6.*nU14M 




O'TJ^nnn rcttf-rr . . ^^ 

a,2H1.450J Ul07t3l3 

The yalue of the imports of British and Irish 
produce into Italy, in the years 1862 and 1863, was 
distributed as foUows between the fiye great divi- 
sions of the kingdom : — 



Sardinia, indndingthe Island 




Adriatic Ports of Ancona) 

Total . . . 















Shipping,^The total number of ships engaged 
in the foreign commerce of Italy during the year 
1862 was 40,692, tonnage 6,801,843, of which 
20,188 entered the ports of the kingdom, and 
20,576 cleared. These figures include 3,576 
steamers arriving, and 3,418 departing. Sailing 
navigation bears the proportion to steam-naviga- 
tion of 83 per cent Out of every 100 sailing 
ships 61 sail under the national flag, while oufc 
of every 100 steamers only 21 carry Italian colours. 
The coasting trade employed 173,696 vessels;^ 
tonnage 8,496,802; and the steamers anriving 
numbered 7,441, tonnage 1,634,607. Ahnost the 
whole of the coasting trade is carried on in native 
bottoms. There are not more than 16 foreign 
vessels in l,00a engaged in it; but out of every 
100 steamers engaged in- it, 19 are foreign. The 




luiT^atioA with foreign ports oompsied with the 
ootstuig trade is as 1 to 4. 

The nnmber of seamen employed amomited in 
1862 to 948^19, of whom 259,669 were engaged 
in the forogn commerce, and 689,150 in the 
eoaating trade. The foreign seamen numbered 
201,080, and the native 747,789. For every 100 
tons of shipping engaged in foreign commerce, the 
crew was 9 men, and 16 men for eveiy 100 tons 
engaged in the coasting trade. 

The nnmber of fishing boats was 8,835 of which 
7,822 were engaged in coast fishing, and 657 in 
deep-sea fishing, the remainder in foreign waters. 
874 boats were employed in the coral fisheries in 
national wateia, and 140 in foreign waters. 

The nnmber of laise sailing vessels at the same 
period was 22,656, ofa tonnaee of 988,562. The 
shipping was distributed as foUows : — 



Kingdom of Itaiy. . . 
IstrUandYenioe . . . 
Papal SUtea .... 

Total . . 









It would appear, therefore, that, with the ex- 
ception of Great Britain, the ItaHan merchant 
service is larger than that of any other country. 
It 18 to be remarked, however, that in all these 
official returns Istria and Venice^ as well as ^e 
Roman States, are considered as ^art of Italv. 

Armjf and Navy, — ^The Sardinian law of con- 
scription forms the basis of the military oiganisa- 
tioD of the kingdom of Italy. According to it, a 
certain portion of all the young men of the age of 
twenty-one is levied annually for the standing 
army, while the rest are entered in the army 
reserve. The standing army is divided into six 
corps d'arm^, each corps consisting of three 
divisions, and each division of two brigades ; four 
or six battalions of * bersagUere,' or riflemen, two 
regiments of cavalry, and from six to nine com- 
panies of artillery. Reduced into practice, the 
fonnation of the airmy is as follows : — 


6 regiments of grenadiers 

6 „ of Infantry of the line 

. 17,946 
. 185,442 
. 24,288 

Total infantry . 
4 regiments of cninusierB 

C „ of lancen .... 
T Z of 'guides' .... 

. 227,796 


. 1,064 

iMalof cavalry . 16,920 

AftOhiy Mm 

9 regiments or 72 companies of foot artfOsKy 85,840 

2 ,. of sappers and mlnen . 6,006 

» „ of borseartUlaxyandtndn 9,240 

Total artillery and train . 40,586 
The standing armj is completed by fourteen 

lof 'carabinien,'or gendarmes, numbering 
1^461 meiK and a staff of 210 men ; which brings 
the total of^tfae forces of the kingdom of Italy, as 
they ou^ht to exist according to the mihtary 
flflganisation, up to 808,048. But in reality, the 
strength of the anny is far below this numl>er. 

The navy of the kingdom comdsted, at the com- 
mencement of 1864, of 98 steamers, of 20,760 
hflonBe-power, with 2,160 guns, and 17 sailing ves- 
teb, with 279 guns ; altogether 115 menrof-war, 
with 2,489 guns. The list comprised— 

5 iron-clad frigates of 800 

1 aorew-Bteamer of the line of 450 

18 acrew-Bteam frigates of 
14 paddle-steam frigates of 

4 screw-steam corvettes of 
20 paddle-steam corvettes of 
14 screw-steam gnn-boats of 

2 sailing frigates 

4 sailing corvettes 
11 brigantines . 







The rest of the fleet consisted of smaller vessels, 
including a number of transport steamers of 200 
horse-power, with two guns each. 

Ctmatituium and Government, — Previous to the 
events of 1860-1861, which resulted in the form- 
ation of the kingdom and the growth of na- 
tional life, there was but the shadow of popular 
representation in Italy. The little duchy of Lucca 
had its senate of 86 representatives, of the classes 
of merchants, scholars, artisans, and cultivators, 
and the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom had also 
its two provincial assemblies; iniile the king- 
dom of Sardinia succeeded in obtaining^ a liberal 
constitution in 1848. But the provincial assem- 
blies of the Lombardo-Venetian kinsdom were 
divested of all legislative powers, and elsewhere 
the governments of Italy were mere petty des- 
potisms. The war and revolutionary events 
which united the various Italian territories under 
one rule, entirely changed this state of things, by 
transforming the government into a constitutioniil 

The present constitution of Italy is an expen- 
siott of the 'Statute fondamentale del R^no,* 
granted on March 4, 1848, by king Charles An>ert 
to his Sardinian subjects. According to this 
charter, the executive power of the state belongs 
exclusively to tiie sovereign, and is exercised by 
him through responsible ministers; while the 
legislative authority rests conjointly in the king 
and parliament, the latter consisting of two cham- 
bers, an upper one, the Senato, and a lower one, 
called the * Camera de* Deputati.' The senate is 
composed of the princes of the royal house who 
are of age, and or an unlimited number of mem- 
bers above 40 years old, who are nominated by 
the king for life. The deputies of the lower house 
are elected by the majority of citizens who are 
21 years of age, and pay taxes to the amount of 
40 lire, or 1^ 12a. For 'this purpose the whole of 
the population is divided into electoral colleges, 
or districts. No deputy can be returned to par- 
liament unless at least one-third of the inscribed 
electors appear at the polL A deputy must be 30 
years old, and have the requisites demanded by 
the electoral law, among them a slight property 
qualification. Neither senators nor deputies 
receive any salary or other indemnity. The 
duration of parliaments is five years ; but the king 
has the power to dissolve the lower house at any 
time, bemg bound only to order new elections, and 
convoke a new meeting within four months. It is 
incumbent upon the executive to call the parlia- 
ment top^ther annually. 

Rdigton and Education, — ^The Roman Catholic 
faith, to which the overwhelming majority of the 
inhabitants belong, forms the state religion, but 
all other forms of oelief enjoy the fullest tolera- 
tion. The Roman CaUiolic hierarchy consists of 
45 archbishops and 198 bishops. All these digni- 
taries of the church are appointed by the pope, on 
the advice of a council of cardinals, the congrega- 
tion de prcpagandd fdt. But the royal consent 
is necessary to the installation of a bishop or 
archbishop, and this having been frequently with- 
held of late years, there were no less than thirty^- 
five vacant nesy about one-seventh of the whole 



number, in the kingdom of Italy at the com- 
mencement of August^ 1865. On the death or 
removal of a bishop, the clergy of the diocese elect 
a vicar-capitular, who exercises npiritual iurisdio- 
tion during the vacancy. In case of old age or 
infirmity, the biahop nominates a coadjutor to 
dischaige the episcopal duties in his stead. His 
recommendation is almost invariably attended to 
by the pope, and the bishop-coadjutor is appointed 
and consecrated, and takes his title from some 
oriental diocese not actually existing, which he 
relinquishes on succeeding to a bishopric As long 
as he retains the oriental title, he is styled a 
bbhop in partibus infiddiuin, or, as usually 
abridged, a bishop in partibui. Each diocese 
has its own independent administration, consisting 
of the bishop, as president, and two canons, who 
are elected by the chapter of the diocese. 

The immense wealth of the North Italian deigy 
has been greatly reduced since the year 1850, when 
a bill, annihilating ecclesiastical jurisdiction and 
the privileges of the cleigy, passed the Sardinian 
chambers. This law was extended, in 1861, over 
the whole of the kingdom of Italy. By a royal 
decree of May 25, 1855, there were confiscated, in 
the kingdom of Sardinia, the following establish- 
ments of the church of Rome ; — 

66 monasteries on the Ur* 

continent, with . 772 monks and 770,000 

46 Do. do. do. 1,085 nuns „ 593,000 

40 monasteries on the 

island of Sardinia 489 monks and nmis 869,000 
182 alms-seddng con- 
vents, with . . 8,145 monks — 

65 chapters, with . 680 priests aad MOfiOO 
1,700 eoclesiastical bene- 
fices, with. . . 1,700 clergy 1,870,000 

Or, 145,640/. annual income. 

According to official statements, the regular 
income of the whole Sardinian clergy, ct the period 
of the royal decree of 1855, amounted to 18,000,000 
lire, or 7z0,000t, per annum. 

When the monastic orders were partially sup- 
pressed in the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 
in February, 1861, the number of religious esta- 
bUshments for men was found to be 1,020, contain- 
ing 18,611 inmates, of which number 8,899 lived 
entirely upon alms. The remaining 4,712 monks 
possessed an annual revenue of 4,^5,968 lire, or 
967 lire, equal to 39^ per head. Of nunneries 
there were 272, with 8,001 inmates, possessing an 
income of 4,772,794 lire, or 24i!. per head. A pre- 
vious return, of the year 1834, showed that there 
were in the kingdom ofvflaples 14 archbishops, 66 
bishops, 26,800 ordained pnests, 11,730 monks, and 
9,520 nuns. 

Under the new Italian government a great part 
of the property confiscated from the monastic 
establishments has been devoted to the cause of 
public education, for which, besides, an annual 
credit of 15,000,000 lire, or 600,000^, is voted by 
the parliament. Since the commencement of the 
year 1861, there were opened throughout the 
kingdom, thirty-three great model schools, of 
which ten are in the Sardinian states, six in Lom- 
bardy, four in the Emilia, six in the Marches and 
Umbria, two in Tuscany, and five in the Southern 
provinces. In the former kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies, public education stood very low prior to 
1860. From an examination made by the new 
government, it appeared that there were 3,094 
large parishes whicn had no schools whatever, and 
920 others in which the public instructors were 
individuals themselves devoid of the most 

elementary knowledge. The administration' im- 
mediately set to worx to apply a remedv to thi« 
state of things, and before tne end of 1^1— that 
is, in the course of little more than a year— 1,054 
elementary boys* schools were established in the 
ex-kingdom of Naples, exclusive of the central 

rvince of Naples itself. These were frequented 
^ 23,569 pupils. The dementarv giris' schools 
founded during the same period of time were 778, 
with 18,912 pupils. To these must be added 18 
evening schools, frequented by 911 persons. In 
1862 the 1,054 boys' schools rose to the number 
of 1,603 ; the pupils, instead of 23,569, became 
60,250. The girls' schools were no longer 778, 
but 922 ; the pupils, not 18,912 but 30,567. The 
evening schools increased from 18 to 234; their 
frequenters from 911 to 9,804. 

'There are thirteen universities in Italy, includ- 
ing the Koman States. These are — Bologna, 
founded in the year 1119; Naples, founded in 
1244 ; Padua, in 1228 ; Rome, in 1244 ; Pemgia, 
in 1320; Pisa, in 1329; Siena, in 1849; Pavia, 
said to have been established by Chariemagnein 774, 
reoiganised in 1390; Turin, 'founded in 1412; 
Paima, in 1422 ; Florence, in 1448 ; Catania, in 
1445 ; Cagliari, in 1764 ; and Genoa, in 1783. To 
these may be added the high schools of Palermo, 
Camerino, and Macerata, and the univenity of 
Modena, which latter was closed in 1849. 

Revenue and Expenditure and DebL—Tht bud- 
gets of the kingdom of Italy for the two yean 
1864 and 1865, were as follows :— 

1864 1866 

Total estimated Bevenne . £25,844,749 £25,030,101 
Total estimated Expenditure 85,214,417 84,152,761 


£9,869,668 £9,18y,96» 

The actual revenue and expenditure for the two 
yean 1862 and 1863, was as follows r-^ 

1862 1863 

. £28^J8,076 £28.486,56« 

. 89,023,708 88,519,788 

Total Revenue 
Total Expenditure 


. £15,895,627 £15,08S,22S 

To cover these large annual deficits, the Italiao 
government has had recourse, at various times, to 
loans of a considerable amount. 

The total amount of the public debt of thv 
various provinces of the kingdom, in the year 1860, 
amounted to \ — 



Saxdinian States , 



Lombardy . . . 



EmUla .... 



Tuscany . . . 



Naples and Sicily 
Total. . . 





By a law of Jone^ 1861, all these obligatioas 
were ordered to be inscribed into a ' Great Book,' 
and to be united into a national debt of the king- 
dom of Italy, the whole to bear interest at the nte 
of 5 per cent. Various loans were subsequently 
added to this national debt. In July, 1861, a loan 
of 500 millions of lire was contracted ; on March 6, 
1863, a further loan of 700 millions of lire was or- 
dered to be issued ; and a fresh loan of 425 millions 
of lire, or 17,000,000^, was sanctioned April 25, 
1865. On January 1, 1864, the whole debt of 
the kingdom of Italy amounted to 3,817,470,979 
lire, or 152,698,83921 The interest on this capital 
amounted to an annual burthen of 197,41^24^ 
lire, or 7,896,6892., distributed as foUowB^-*- 

Digitized by 


DelA of the * Greit Book/ 5per cent, oon- 

Debt of tlie ' Great Book* 8 per oent. con- 


Great Book* 




Debt incsloded in 
Debt not indnded 
Conoomitant ezpenaea 







. 197,417,244 

The debt not indnded in the ' Great Book, and 
which oonsomes an annual interest of 4,464,930 
lire, or 178,1972^ consists chiefly of local obliga- 
tions and communal bonds of the south Italian 

For further particulars concerning the physical 
aspect, population, industry, and history of the 
kingdom* see the names of the various territories 
and states which formed the old political divisions 
of Italy. 

ITALY (AUSTRIAN). Under this term are 
indttded all the Austrian territories within the 
limits of Italy, comprising a portion of the former 
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and extending over 
a ^Mce of 8,720 Eng. sq. m., with a pop., in 1864, 
of 2,446,056 mhabitants, or 280 per sq. m. 

The N. part of this territory is mountainous ; the 
S. flat forming a portion of the plain of Lombardy. 
Tlie Alpine chains on the N. frontier rise to an ele- 
vation of more than 13,000 ft. above the sea. The 
greater part of the surface, however, is flat : the 
flat lands comprising the dd^s. of Padua, Rovigo, 
Yenioe, and parts of Yeiona and Yicenza. 1 he 
shores of the Adriatic are lined with extensive 
li^oons^ in the midst of which is Yenice. A suc- 
cession of marshes extends along the banks of the 
Po, in the lower part of its course, and round its 
embouchure is a dreary tract of swampy ground 
scarcely enlivened by a single tree. 

The central parts of the high mountain chain 
consist of gramte and other primary formations : 
the lower hill ranges consist chiefly of secondary 
limestone. The country north of the Po is a vast 
alla^ial plain, containing numerous fossil remains. 
Traces of former volcanic action exist in the Eu- 
ixanean hills, an isolated group to the SW. of 
l*adna. Lava, basalt, iron, (»al, turf, potter's day, 
some copper, arsenic, marble, and alabaster, are 
the moat important mineral products. The cli- 
mate is senerally healthy, except in the rice 
groimds dong the Po, in the vicimty of Mantua, 
and near the Adriatic The thermometer, though 
it keeiw much higher in summer, generally sinks 
lower in winter m Lombardy than in England. 
The mean temp, of the year at Padua is 56*6. 
More rain falls m this than in any other portion 
of the Austrian dominions : in the government of 
Yenioe the mean annual amount is estimated at 
34 inches. The greatest faU is in autumn and 

The tope of the Alps are naked, covered with 
anow, and interspersed with gladers ; but their 
aides are for the most part covered with fir, larch, 
oak, pine, chesnat, and other trees, or natural 
pastorages. Most of the productive land in the 
moontains consists of pastures. Only the lower 
border of the mountain bdt is arable : the land 
is there frequently cut into terraces, one above 
another, the divisions being occasionally supported 
by stone walls. The earth that fills these terrace 
trenches is continually carried down to the lower 
levels bv the action of rain and other causes, and 
has to be brought up acain every two or three 
years, often on peasantir backs, the routes being 
impracticable for vehicles. The vine, mulberry, 
walnut, and various other fruit trees, barley, rye, 
a Uttle wheat, buckwheat, panico, millet, kitchen. 

vegetables, hemp, and flax, are the chief agricul- 
tural products of this region. The land is here 
divided into the most minute portions ; and being, 
as it were, the one thing needful to existence, the 
greatest value is attach^ to its possession. In the 
central region, or hill country, properties are less 
divided; though they are there split into small 
stewardships. These farms are mostly the pro- 
perty of the higher classes, and of the inhabs. of 
cities. There is scared^ a single peasant pro- 
prietor, the peasantry being mere tenants, paying, 
m general, a rent of half the produce. A lease at 
a fixed rent, or a money rent, is extremdy rare. 
Silk, wines, oranges, lemons, olives, and other 
fruits, corn^ cheese, and cattle, are the chief pro- 
ducts of this region : the culture of the silkworm 
is an important occupation of the peasants' fami- 
lies, and with the money gained from this source, 
thej provide themsdves decently with the neces- 
saries of life. 

The aspect of this south-western part of Austrian 
Italy is very pleasing. Flourishing villages, ham- 
lets, and isolated houses are spread over it, con- 
nected b^ carriage roads made at the expense of 
the proprietors and communes, which latter possess 
a considerable portion of the soil in this and the 
next region. In the high flat country, or that 
part of ^e plain near the hills, small stewardships 
are not uncommon. The system b that of pignia- 
naiUif or sharing-tenants ; that is, tenants who 
pay a rent in money for their house, and a fixed 
rent in kind for the' ground. The mode of irriga- 
tion deserves some notice. It is effected in the 
first place hyfontaniliy or excavations in the earth, 
in which are placed long tubes, from the bottom of 
which bubble up copious streams of water, analo- 
gous to Artesian wdls. From the fantanili the 
water is conducted into a ditch, by which it is 
carried to irrigate the fidds placed on a lower 
leveL To these natural waters, derived from the 
subterraneous springs, replenished by a constant 
supply from the mountain region^ are added a great 
mass of water drawn from the nvers by means of 
canals, some of which are navigable. The waters 
are diligently measured by mles, derived from 
hydrostatic laws, which have passed into an ha- 
bitual practice. The canals are provided with 
graduated doors, which are raised or lowered ac- 
cording as the case may be : they are termed tn- 
castri. The measure is called onciuj and corre- 
sponds to die quantity of water which passes 
through a square hole. Sometimes the same 
number of inches of water i? given out by the 
day and the hour on different farms. The value 
of a property depends on the command and good- 
ness of the water ; if deprived of the fertilising 
fluid, it would diminish rapidly in price. Hence 
the state of the waters is the object of locd sta- 
tutes, and of diligent care and attention. 

Maize is grown in considerable quantities near 
Yerona, and the mulberry very extensively be- 
tween that dty and Mantua, and towards Yicenza. 
The mulberry trees are frequently planted all 
round the corn fidds, and vines festooned from 
one tree to another, so that on the same ground 
three crops — silk, wine, and grain— are annually 
produced. From Yerona to Yicenza the meadows 
are irrigated with great care as well as facility, by 
means of the numberless streams that flow hito 
the Adige, the beds of which, being continually 
raised by the gravel they bring down, and artifi- 
cially embanked, are, for the most part above the 
? general level of the plain. Notwithstanding the 
ertility of the soil, the inhabitants are generally 
poor. A few large farming establishments may 
be seen, but no comfortable cottages, or signs of 
wealth, among the peasantry, who bear a very in- 


diffeient duoacter. The fields about Vioenza, 
however, aie kept with great neatneeB, and culti- 
yated with much industxy, presenting a favourable 
contrast to those about Padua. On the road be- 
tween those two cities all beauty of sceoerv dis- 
appears. Willows in all their pollard ugUness, 
and long lank poplars trimmed to the top, aiFord 
a yearly crop or faggots, the only fuel of the 
country. The tops of the pollarded trees near 
Yicenza may be seen cut almost in the shape of 
goblets, for tne sake of holding the leaves of the 
maize placed there for drying. Potatoes are often 
cultivated amidst the com. On the road may be 
seen immense butts full of grapes, mounted upon 
domsy waggons, to which they axe secured by 
such iron rin^ and chains as would hold a frigate 
at her moonngB, dragged alon^ by four, six, or 
ei^ht oxen, ^en a proper vehicle would not re- 

auire more than a pair. The grain produced in 
tie Yenetian prov. leaves a surplus over what is 
required to meet the home demand. Good hus- 
bandry dimimshes eastward, and Istria is a country 
which would scarcely repay it. That peninsula 
is a collection of bairen limestone hills, inter<- 
apeised with a few fertile valleys ; it yields very 
Lttle com, and the expenses of cultivation nearly 
absorb the profits. Wood is scarce, and fuel has 
mostly to be brought fzom Camiola or elsewhere. 
The oUs of Istria, however, are frequently as good 
as those of Tuscany, and form its chief export. 
Some of its wines, also, are good, but the inhab. 
are more a commercial and sea-faring, than an 
agricultural or manufacturing, people. (See II- 


Gaoemment, Army, and Educatum, — The ^ 
vemment of Austria in Italy is so liable to be dis- 
turbed, through the rooted dislike entertained by 
the Italians for the Gennans, as to require the 
most vigilant attention on the part of the Austrian 
ministry. The policv of the latter has been to 
restrict the power and privileges of the nobles and 
laige proprietors, who have generally been found 
at the head of any popular movement ; and, at 
the same time, to conciliate the middle and lower 
classes. Accordingly, the representation in the 
coundl of the province has been rendered more 
complicate than in the other parts of the empire. 
The province has its assembly, with attributes smd 
powers similar to those of the other seventeen pro- 
vincial diets of the empire ; but the composition 
is somewhat different. The members are appointed 
through the medium of a triple stage of election. 
The two classes of Contadini, tlie proprietors of 
land, and Cittadinij the inhab. of towns, are the 
primary electors, the sufirage depending on the 
pa^'ment of a certain amount ot taxes, lliese 
primary electors return from their general body a 
council of election, the members of which must 
possess a higher property qualification than is re- 
quisite for the primary electors. The council 
finally elect the membters of the provincial diet« 
The diet of the province has power to make laws 
concerning local administration, but is otherwise 
without influence. 

Justice is administered bv courts of primary 
jurisdiction in the principal towns ; and a h gh 
court of revision sits in Verona. Trial by jury 
and tivd voce pleadings and examinations are un- 
known. A stnct censorship is established over the 
press, and only certain foreign journals or books 
can be imported. Two regiments are maintained 
for the poUoe service. Four regiments of the line 
in the Austrian army are levied in the prov., but 
there is no militia. All males, whether noble or 
otherwise, are registered for military service at the 
age of eighteen, unless exempted from physical or 
other causes. From those thus registered the 


number required are taken by ballot ; bnt all are 
allowed to serve by approved substitutes, Cor 
whom, however, it is often neoessaxy to pay laige 
sums, llie period of service is eight years, after 
which the soldier is entirely free. 

Luge sums are expended by the government in 
keeping up the roads and other public worics, and 
in public education. A larger proportion of the 
pop. is educated than in any other prov. of the 
Austrian tmpire, except the Tyrol and Bohemia. 
By a law of 1822, evexy commune is obliged to 
maintain a primaxy school, either wholly' or in 
part. But education is whoUy under the direction 
of the dei^ ; and no school can be opened, or 
book used in a school, or other seminary, without 
the express sanction of the government. 

History, — The neater part of this portion of 
Italy, after the &1 of the Western Empire, was 
successively possessed by the Heruli, Ostipgoths, 
Greeks, and Lombards. The latter held it from 
568 till 774, when Charlemacne annexed it to the 
empire of the Franks, to which it remained at- 
tached till 888. From that period, except the 
territory of the Venetians, it genexaUy belonged 
to the German emperors. After the war of the 
Spanish succession, the duchies of Milan and 
Mantua were assigned to Austria, and remained 
in its possession tiU the year 1797, when the peace 
of Campo Formic made Lombardy over to France, 
and Austria in turn received Venice. But by the 
peace of Presbuxg, signed 1805, Austria had to 
cede the Venetian territory, besides the whole of 
Istria and Dalmatia, to Fximoe, and, four yeao 
after, the treaty of Vienna gave to France also 
Camiola and Tneste. All these possessions fell 
back to Austria in 1815. Venice and its teiiitor^, 
which had existed as an aristocratic republic 
from the seventh century to 1797, was likewise 
confirmed to Austria by the treaty of Vienna, in 
1815. The Italian possessions of Austria were then 
erected into a Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, which 
existed till 1859, when, compelled by the vic- 
torious arms of France, Austria had to cede the 
greater part of Lombardy to the emperor Napoleon 
IlL, who in turn made it over to the king of Sar- 
dinia — subsequentlv king of Italy. 

ITHACA, one of the Ionian Islands, and cele- 
brated in antiquity as the kingdom of Ulyssee 
(' scopulos Ithacae, La£rtia r^gna,' Virg. i£n., iiL 
275), 7 m. S. Santa Maura, 8 m. £. CephaloniaY 
and 17 m. W. the coast of Acamania ; Point Mar- 
maca, at its N. end, being in lat 38^ 80' N., and 
long. 2(P 89' £. Length, 14 m., breadth, 4 nu, 
area, 44 sq. m. Pop. 11,756 in 1860. Ithaca pre- 
sents from the sea the appearance of a baxren, 
rugged rock, d^ply indented on its K side 1^ a 
glut, at the bottom of which is Vath^', the port 
and cap. of the island, accurately destobed in the 
Odyssey : — 

' A BpsclouB port appears, 
Sacred to PhorCT's power, whose name it bean ; 
Two craggy itx^s, projecting to the main. 
The roaring winds' tempestuous rage restrain ; 
Within, the waves In softer mnrmors glide. 
And ships secure without their hawsers ride.* 


About a third part of the surface is capable of 
cultivation, the greater part of which is laid out in 
vineyards. The chief products are wine (esteemed 
in Ureece as extremely delicious), olive oil, cur- 
rants, barley, and a small quantity of wheat. 
Ithaca has little to interest, beyond the i 

tions connected with its ancient history. Many- 
of the places mentioned by Homer can be traced, 
with great appearance of probability. The port 
Phorcva is clearly identical with Molo, and the 
inner harbour of Vatby seems to correspond with 

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the iwffAoxw TtlBpov ex^vov under Mount Nelson. 
In the S. part of the island, at no great distance 
fiom the snore, is a spring, rising at the foot of a 
nek still called Koraka, and supposed to be the 
Aiethusa of Homer. (See Odys., v. 408.) Some 
fuins of Cvdopean walls, simiLar to those of My- 
cene and I'iryns, are considered by Dodwell to be 
the remains of the city of Ithaca, the residence of 
Ulysses. (See Iomiak I8lani>s.) 

IVES (ST.), a parL bor., sea-port, and par. of 
Cornwall, at the W. extremity of the bav of the 
same name, 18 m. W. IViuo, and 2^ m. W. by S. 
London by road, and 299 m. by Cornwall and 
Great Western railway. Pop. of mimic, bor. 7,027, 
and of pari. bor. 10,358 in 1861. St. Ives consists 
principally of one long street, branching S. into 
two smaller ; and the houses are generally of mo- 
denite size, and built in situations to suit the con- 
veoienoe of persons connected with the trade of 
the port. The church, a low but spacious building, 
erected in 1434, stands close to the sea : there are 
also four places of woiship for dissenters, a na- 
tional school, and two Sunday-schools. A gram- 
mar-school, founded by Charles I., has gone to 
decay. The town-hall and custom-house are the 
only other public edifices. The port has a pier, 
built by Smeaton, in 1770, at an expense of 
10,000^ within which small vessels lie a^und 
at low water. Laxge ships may anchor m the 
bay, in 6 and 7 fathoms ; but, being exposed to 
the N. winds, it is not much frequented. There 
belonged to the port, on the 1st of Jan. 1864, 70 
sailing vessels under 60, and 98 sailing vessels 
above 50 tons burthen, besides 1 steamer of 150 
tons. The principal employment of the inhabs. is 
the pikhardfishery, which of late has been carried 
on with more than ordinary success, and to a 
greater extent than in any other tovm of Devon 
«r ComwaU. The season lasts from July to Sept., 
and in favourable years very lazge quantities are 
exported to the Mediterranean, a considerable 
supply bdiog also furnished for the consumption 
of the town and neighbourhood. Several mines 
have likewise been opened in tlie vicinity, afford- 
ing additional employment to the people. The 
corporation, chartered in the reign of James II., 
was, down to the passing of the Municipal Reform 
Act» a close, self-elected body of eleven members : 
it now onnprises four aldermen, one of whom is 
mayor, and twelve councillors, and has a commis- 
sion of the peace, under a recorder. Corporation 
revenue 285t in 1862. The bor. sent two mems. 
to the H. of C. from the 5th of Queen Mary down 
to the passing of the Keform Act, which deprived 
it of one mem. Previously to the last mentioned 
act, the franchise was vested in the inhabs. 

Cying aeot and loi\ the boundaries of the pari. 
c were then also enlaiged, by the addition of 
the two adjacent pan. of Lalant and Tuwednak. 
Kegistered electors 525 in 1865, including 113 
' scot and lot voters.* Markets on Wednesday and 
Friday ; cattle>fair, Saturday before Advent 

IVIZA or IBIZA (an. Ebuwa), an isL in the 
Heditenanean, forming one of the Balearic group 
belonging to Spain, 50 m. £. by N. Cape Nao in 
Valencia, and 42 m. SW. Majorca : the cap. on 
its SW. side being in UL 880 53' 16^' N., long. 1<^ 
26' 32" £. It is of an inregular five-sided figure ; 
its length from N£. to SW. being 27 m., and its 
average breadth 15 m. Pop. 21,870 in 1857, 
living in 24 towns and villages. The coast is 
imgnlar, indented by a great number of bays, 



the largest being those of St Antonio and Iviza : 
the surface is nilly, and in many parts well 
wooded; but there are several picturesque and 
fertile valley's having a soil well adapted for til- 
lage. The climate is, in most respects, similar to 
that of Valencia^ and Catalonia : the winters are 
so mild that the" thermometer seldom falls below 
13^ Rflaum., and the heats of summer are tem- 
pered by the sea breezes. The chief products of 
the island are olives, wine, com, flax, and hemp, 
different kinds of fruit, especially figs, for which it 
was celebrated even in the time of ue elder Pliny. 
The salt-pans are so productive that salt is a chief 
article of exportation : large flocks of sheep are 
pastured on the hills, and the sea near the coast 
abounds with fish, the capture of which gives em- 
plo3na]ent to many of the inhab. But^ notwith- 
standing these advantages, the island is in great 
poverty owing to the indolence of the inhab., and 
their slovenly mode of tillage. The Ivizans are 
of middle size, shrunk and Mdlow ; they speak a 
langua^ similar to that spoken in Catalonia and 
Yalencu^ being a corrupt dialect of the ancient 
Romaunce, once the common language of aU S. 

The cap. Ivixa— pop. 5,551 in 1857 — is fortified, 
and has a good harbour. It is the residence of 
the ^vemor and a bishop's see. The chief 
buildings are a cathedral, 6 churches, 2 convents, 
2 hospitals, and a public schooL 

Iviza, the largest of two islands, called by Strabo 
PiiyuatBf or the pine-bearing islands, was early oc- 
cupied by Phcenicians and Carthaginians, whence 
it has been called Ehoau Phctnisaa by Silius Ita- 
licus. (Pun., lib. iiL 1, 362.) It was taken from 
them by Q. Metellus, and remained subject to 
the Romans, and their successors the Vandals, till 
the conquest of Spain by the Moors in the 8th 
century. The Spaniards took the island in 1294, 
and attached it to the kingd. of Anagon, since 
which it has usually followed the fortunes of the 
lai;^ islands, Majorca and Minorca. In 1706, 
during the war of the succession, it submitted to 
Sir John Leake with a British squadron, and was 
ceded to England, together with Minorca, at the 
peace of Utrecht Thev continued in the posses- 
sion of the British till the peace of 1814, when 
thev were restored to Spain. 

IVREA (an. Eporedia), a town of North Italy, 
cap. prov. of same name, on the Doire, 30 m. 
NNE. Turin, on a branch line of the railway from 
Turin to Mihin. Pop. 9,563 in 1863. Iviea is an 
ill-built town, defended by old fortifications, a 
citadel, and a small fortress upon an adjacent hill; 
and has an ancient catiiedral, supposed to occupv 
the site of a temple of Apollo, five other parish 
churches, several convents, a hospital, a semi- 
nary, and a large prison. There are manufactures 
of silk fabrics and of organzined silk, and some 
recently established cotton-works; with markets 
for cheese, cattle, and other Alpine produce ; and 
for the iron obtained near Cogne, and other places 
in its vicinity. Eporedia is reported to have been 
colonised by the Romans in tne time of Marios. 
It would appear from Tacitus (Hist., i. 70) to have 
been a mumcipium as well as a colony. Strabo 
says that 36,000 Salassi, made prisoners by Te- 
rentius Varro, were sold here as sUves by public 
auction. Ivrea has been repeatedl^r taken by the 
French, and under the French empire was the cap. 
of the dep. Doire. 

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TACA, or XACA, a town of Spain, prov. Aragon, 
cap. of a partido of its own name, 66 m. N. 
by E. Saragossa, and 82 m. NN W. Hueaca, on the 
railway from Saragosaa to the Pyrenees. Pop. 
S,540 m 1867. The town sUods at the foot of 
one of the highest ridges of the Pyrenees, only 21 
m. from the French frontier, in a wide and fertile 
yalley, eadosed by the rivers Aragon and Gallego : 
it is sunroanded by a strong wal^ and entered by 
7 gates. The chief public buildings are a cathe- 
dral church, castle, military hospital, and 6 con- 
vents. The inhabe. are chiefly employed in agri- 
culture and woollen weaving ; but the difficulty of 
access to other places confines their industry to 
the supply of the town and immediate neighbour- 
hood. The crops raised in the district comprise 
wheat, barley, pulse, and fhiits, but the severity 
of the climate during winter prevents it from pro- 
ducing many of the tniits of S. Europe. 

Jaca was a place of some consideration in the 
time of the Romans, and was the cap. of the reffio 
Jacatania, It was taken by M. P. Cato, anno 196 
A. c, and was made a station for the troops during 
the war with Spain. 

JAEN, a prov. and former kingdom of Spain, in 
Andalusia, between lat. 37^ SO' and 38^ 40' N., and 
lon^. 29 60' and 4© 20' W. Its shape is that of 
an irregular four-sided figure ; and it is bounded N. 
by the Sierra Morena and La Mancha, W. by 
Cordova, S. by Granada, andE. by Mnroia. Great- 
est length, 86 m.; greatest breadth, 78 m. ; area, 
4,430 so. m. Pop. 346,879 in 1857, and 266,919 in 
1846. The province, situated in the upper part of 
the valley of the Guadalquivir, is encircled by 
lofly mountains, which make access diflicult, and 
give to its borders a rude and mountainous cha- 
racter. The surface is chiefly an alternation of 
hills and valleys, formed by the Guadalimar, Her- 
Tumblar, and other affluents of the Guadalquivir. 
The climate, though damp in some parts, is, on 
the whole, healthy and favourable to vegetation. 
The soil on the hills, consisting of detritug from 
the primitive and transition rocks of the Sierras 
Morena and Granada, is sandy and barren ; but 
the valleys are extremely rich,*and, with moderate 
attention to tillage, might be made highly produc- 
tive. Agriculture, however, is in the most degraded 
state : only a very small portion of the soil is 
tilled, and the produce is insufficient for the con- 
sumption of the prov. Olives, wine, and other 
fruits of good quality, gall-nuts, woad, kermes, 
and shumac are abundant, and honey and silk are 
produced in small quantities. Cattle and horses, 
however, are pastured on a large scale, and a breed 
<»f the latter, peculiar to the neighbourhood of 
Ubeda, ranks as nearly equal to the Arabian. The 
mineral wealth of the province, which was cele- 
brated even under the Komans, consists chiefly of 
irMn, lead, and copper, with small quantities of 
silver ; but lead and iron are the only ores now^ 
wrought. Veins of marble and jasper occur here 
as frequently as in Grauada, but are not quarried, 
from want of spirit in the inhabs. Manufactur- 
ing industry is quite insignificant : silk and woollen 
fabrics are made in some of the ton-ns; but the 
chief branch of employment is in pottery, and par- 
ticularly in making (ucarmzat, a species of porous 

earthen jars, much used in Andala«A for keeping 
liquors cool in warm weather. 

J A EN, a city of Spain, cap. of prov. and partido 
same name, and a bishop's see, on the Jaen, an 
affluent of the Guadalquivir, 37 m. N. Granada, 
and 123 m. ENE. Madrid. Pop. 19,820 in 1867. 
The town is situated on the outskirts of the great 
Sierra de Susana, and is so surrounded by moun- 
tains, crossed b^ bad roads, that few traveUen 
visit it The railway from Madrid to Cadiz, how- 
ever, passes not more than a dozen miles to the 
northward, and a modem road, Joining the old 
high road between Cordova and Madrid, and pass- 
ing through Baylen and the Puerto de Penacena- 
dos of the Sierra Morena, has made it more easy 
of access. The city, above which towers a Moor- 
ish castle commanding a fine view of the whole 
country, has extremely narrow streets, a cathe- 
dral, 12 par. churches, and 16 convents. The 
cathedral is of Corinthian architecture, 300 ft, 
long, by 190 ft« in breadth, and built in a very 
pure style: the pavement is laid in chequered 
slabs of black and white marble, and the high 
altar is enriched with fine specimens of jasper and 
marbles : it also has some good pictures and sculp- 
tures. The city, which was celebrated, under the 
Moors, for its 'manufactures, still contains nume- 
rous fabrics of silk, linen, and woollen cloths, and 
mats, and has a thriving appearance. 

The remains of a tloman aqueduct, and various 
inscriptions, prove the antiquity of Jaeiu Under 
the Moors it rose to considerable importance, and 
successfully withstood the attacks of the kings of 
Castile. It was the theatre of war duripg the 
final struggles between the Moors and Spaniards 
in the 16th century, since which time it has never 
recovered its former consequence. 

JAFFA, or YAFFA (an. Jtmpa), a town and 
port of Turkey in Asia, on the coast of Syria, 
pach. Damascus, sandjiak Gaza, 32 m. NW. Jeru- 
salem, and 60 m. SSW. Acre ; lat. 32o 3' 25" N., 
long. 340 46' 10" E. Pop. estimated at about 
4,000, one fourth of whom are Christiana. Jaffa 
is fortified, and stands on a tongue of land project- 
ing into the Mediterranean, and rising from the 
shore in the form of an amphithertre, at the top 
of which is a ruined castle. The port, defended 
by two batteries, lb merely a long basin, enclosed 
by a ledge of rocks, extending nom the S. side 
northwani, directly in front of the town ; but it is 
so choked up with sand as to be unapproachable 
by all except small coasting craft 'The houses 
are chiefly of stone, and the streets are uneven, 
narrow, badly paved, and dirty; the principal 
public buildings are 3 mosques, 1 Rom. Cath. and 
2 Greek churches, with 3 convents, and a good 
l)azaar. The quarantine house, recently founded, 
is clean and well regulated: separate divisious, 
with a chapel attached to each, being allotted to 
the pilgrims of the several nations, chiefly Greek, 
who land here on their way to Jerusalem. A mili- 
tary establishment is kept'up, comprising (accord- 
ing to Dr. Bowring) 1 reg. of infantry, with 4 bat- 
taUons of 800 men, and 3 cavalry regs., each hav- 
ing 700 men. A considerable traffic has recently 
b^n created by the disturbances in Syria for the 
supply of the pacha's troops ; but usually the town 



ii dan, and little fiequented by Strang^ except 
at nUf^rim time, when the pop. is often nearly 
doubled. Cotton ia raised to some extent within 
the diatnct ; and in the neighbourhood are beauti- 
ful gardens of orange and lemon trees, tall waving 
^rpreasea, ooral, and fragrant mimosa& intersected 
with enormous prickly pears. The fruit bears a 
high character, and forms a considerable article of 
exports Tradition assigns to Joppa an exceed- 
ingly ancient date. Joshua defined the posses- 
sions of the tribe of Dan as including ' the border 
before Joppa.' (Josh. xix. 46.) In the time of 
Solomon it was, no doubt, a port of some conse- 
quence ; for Hiram, king of Tyre* ^ent a letter to 
the former monarch, then engaged in building 
the temjde at Jerusalem, saying, *We will cut 
wood out of Lebanon as much as thou shalt need ; 
and we will bring it thee in floats by sea to Joppa, 
and thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem :' and from 
this place Jonah took his passage in a ship going 
to Tarshish, when * he fled from the presence of 
the Lord.' In the New Testament it is mentioned 
aa the place where Peter had the vision which re- 
vealed to hhn the duty of preaching Christianity 
to the Gentiles as well as the Jews; and where he 
raised to life Dorcas, a faithful disciple, ' full of 
good works and almsdeeds.' Among the Greeks 
and Komans,al80, Joppa had the reputation of 
being very ancient. It is stated by Pliny (Hist. 
Nat., lib. IX. § 5.) to be the place where Andro- 
meda was exposed to the sea monster, from which 
she was rescued by Perseus. Keland suspects that 
this fable may have its origin in, or be connected 
with, the history of Jonah. (Relandi Palestina, 
pw {J64.) In A.D. 66, during the Jewish wars, it 
was repeatedly taken, and finally all but destroyed : 
and during the Crusades it was so entirely mined 
by SaUdin, that it had scarcely any buildmgs left, 
except its two castles. It was soon afterwards re- 
paired by Louis IX. of France. The subbequent 
bistoiT of the place, till the close of the last cen- 
tury, is little known. In 1799 it was taken by 
Napoleon, after an obstinate and murderous siege. 
On this occasion Napoleon put to the sword about 
1,200 Turks that had formed part of the garrison 
of £1 Arisch, which, having previously capitulated, 
had been dischaiged, on their engaging not to 
serve against the French. But though their 
execution was, no doubt, justifiable, according to 
the kws of war, sdll it seems to have been an act 
of extreme and useless cruelty, and wholly at va- 
riance with the general conduct of Napoleon. 

JAFFNA, a sea-port town of Ceylon, near the 
N. extremity of the isl., cap. of the distr. Jaffha- 
patam, 190 m. N. Colombo; lat 9^ 36' N., long. 
790 50* E. Pop. estimated at 8,000, chiefly Mo- 
hammedan. The town stands on an inlet, 
navigable for boats, which communicates with the 
Gulf of Manaar. It has near it a pentagonal 
fortress of some strength, which forms the head 
quarters of one of the principal garrisons in the 
ialand. As a commercial port, Jaffna is the third 
in Ceylon, ranking after Colombo and Point de 
Galle. Provisions are cheap ; and from its salu- 
brity the town is a favourite resort of the Dutch 
Indents in Ceylon, who have named several 
small and verdant islands in the opposite road- 
stead after the principal cities of Holland. 

city of Cuba, cap. of its £. division, the second in 
pop. and magnitude, and the third in mercantile 
importance in the island, about 6 m. from the 8. 
coast, on the river Santiago, the mouth of which 
forms its port, about 470 m. ESE. Havannah, lat. 
190 oT 29" N.. and long. 78© 23' W. Pop. 29,980 
io 1857, inclusive of 8,000 slaves. The city is 
veil built, having wide streets and stone houses. 

JAGO (ST.) 41 

It has a cathedral, several other chnrches, a 
college, hospital, and numerous convents and 
schools. The port is from N. to S. about 4 m. 
long, with an irregular breadth, and in some 
places rather narrow ; but it has water sufficient 
for ships of the line, and is sheltered from 
winds on every side. Its entrance is narrow, and 
defended on the windward side by the Morro 
and Estrella castles. The city is very unhealthy ; 
being hemmed in by mountains on three sides, 
the free circulation of air is greatly impeded, and 
the yellow fever commits great ravages in the 
rainy season. St. Jago is the see of an archbishop, 
and the residence of a governor, who, in respect 
of civil and political affairs, is independent of the 
captain-general. It was the cap. of Cuba till the 
beginning of the 18th century, when the Havannah 
was raised to that dignity ; since which the im- 
portance of Santiago has diminished. Its trade 
has however, of late years, increased considerably, 
partly on account of its being the port where the 
copper ore of the Sierra de Cobre is shipped. St, 
JsLgo was founded by Diego Velasquez in 1514. 

JAGO (ST.) or SANTIAGO, a city of ChiU, of 
which it IS the cap. and seat of govemmeht, in 
the prov. of the same name, on the Maypocho, at 
an elevadon of 2,600 ft. above the sea, 64 m. ESE. 
Valparaiso, and 270 m. NNE. Conception; lat. 
330 16' S., long. 69° 48' W. Pop. estim. at 76,000 
in 1864. The city is situated on the verge of the 
extensive and fertile plain of the Maypocho, and 
at a distance has a very imposing appearance, 
its domes and steeples rismg among groves, vme- 
vards, gardens, and maize fields. It is inferior to 
Lima and Buenos Ayres in its public buildings, 
but greatly surpasses them in cleaimess and regu- 
larity, and is, upon the whole, one of the ^t 
cities ia S. America as to appearance, con- 
venience, and salubrity. Like other cities of 
Spanish origin, it is divided into ^uadnUf that is, 
squares or compartments of buildings 408 ft. 
square, separated by streets about 13 yards across. 
The city-proper is on the SW. bank of the May- 
pocho, and is connected with its suburb of La 
Chimba by a handsome stone bridge. On its SE). 
side the city is separated from its suburb of CaSa- 
dilla by the Ca&ada, a handsome promenade 50 
yards wide, planted with po|)larB; and at the 
SW. extremity of Santiago is the suburb of 
Chuchunoo. Both the city and suburbs are built- 
upon ground sloping gently towards the W., of 
which circumstance advantage has been taken in 
supplying water for its consumption and under- 
dramage, which latter is more perfect than in 
any other S. American city. The waters of the 
Maypocho are also frequently employed fur the 
ornament as well as use of the city, tliere being 
numerous public fountains and reservoirs. A 
solid brick rampart, 6 ft. in breadth, and raised 
10 ft above the ground, extends along the S. 
bank of the river, and protects the city against 
inundation from the river during the rains. Be* 
tween it and the town is the Alamedoj the favourite 
promenade of the inhab. planted with willows, and 
furnished with seats and fountains. At the NE. ex- 
tremity of the city-proper is the hill of Santa Lucia, 
the site of the fortress of the same name built to 
command the town. Santiago has no other defence, 
and this fortress could be easUv silenced by artil- 
lery placed on the contiguous hills. 

'fhe houses of the city occupy a good deal of 
ground; most of them take up l-63i part of a 
quadra. The rooms are ranged round three quad- 
rangles or patios^ the first being an outer paved 
court-yard, the second generally laid out as a 
parterre, and the third used for domestic purposes. 
.The wide archway (^ning into the' front patio 


41 JAGO (ST.) 

is doeed tt nSgfat by a pair of luge folding gfttes, 
but is always open doling the da}'. The windows, 
looking into the two outer oourt-yaids, are pro- 
tected 07 iron gratings. The front and sides of 
the houses facing the streets, where not blank 
walls, are divided into small roonu^ and let out as 
shops. In the centre of the city b the Plaza, or 
^[reat square, occupying an entire quadra. On 
Its NW. side are the directorial mansion, the 
palace of government, the prison, and the chamber 
of iustice; on the SW. side stand the cathedral 
and the old palace of the bishop, now occupied by 
the atado wtayor ; on the SE. is a range of shops, 
with an arcade in front; and the N£. side is 
composed of private residences. All these build- 
ings, except the cathedral, are of brick, plastered 
and whitewashed. The palace is by far the best 
ediBce as to its architecture: it consists of two 
stories, indosing a laige open quadrangle; the 
lower story comprises the armoury and treasury, 
and the upper story the great hall of audience 
and the ministers' offices. The cathedral is the 
only stone edifice in Santiago ; it is constructed 
of limestone quarried in the Chimba suburb : its 
desigA is of the better order of Moorish architec- 
ture. In the centre of the square is an orna- 
mental fountain, furnished with water by a 
subterranean a<}ueduct. The dty is moetly sui>- 
plied hence with water for drinking, which is 
conveyed in bairels of 10 gallons each, two of 
which are a mule's load, and sold for bd, a baneL 
The largest public building, and that most ad- 
mired by the natives, is the mint It occupies an 
entire quadra, and, like the private houses, con- 
sists of a variety of offices arranged round three 
quadrangular courts. Its front, radng the street 
in which it is situated, presents a series of heavy 
pilasters, supporting a rude cornice and a ponder- 
ous balustrade, and having in its centre a lar^ 
arched portico. The entire edifice b of plam 
brick, and was, like the other public buildings, 
constructed by bricklayen sent out from Spain for 
the purpose. The consulado, a spacious plastered 
and whitewashed structure, in which the commer- 
cial tribunal, senate, and national congress meet, 
the custom-house, and the handsome little theatre 
are worth notice. The dty and suburbs are 
divided into 5 parishes. AU the parish churehes 
are. mean; but not so those of the couventual 
establishments, which are numerous. One of the 
Jesuits' convents has been converted into a na- 
tional college, and another b used for the public 
library and printing-office. The library contains 
aeveral thousand printed voK, and some curious 
MSS. rdative to the Indian tribes. 

Santiago has 3 markets : the prindpal b holden 
in the Bassoral, a large open space at the foot of 
the bridge, and is tolerably well supplied with 
meat and v^etables. The other markets consbt 
of mere movable stands at dther end of the 
Catlada; but meat, kitchen vegetables, fruits, and 
other requbites, are continuidly hawked about 
the streets on horses or mules, which predudes 
the necessity of sending to the markets. Fodder 
for horses b hawked about in a similar manner ; and 
laige quantities of lucerne are daily brought into 
the town, horses being kept by nearly every 
family. The horses of Santia^ are generally 
well broken, and are more docile than those of 
Buenos Ayres. Most part of tlie acyaceut country 
b devoted to the rearing of live stock; but, when 
cultivated, it produces good crops of wheat, the 
soil being excdlent, and irrigated by many sub- 
terranean spring The climate, were it not for 
the dreadful visitation of earthquakes, would be 
delightful; and, from its comparative coolness, 
European vegetables may be rabed in great per- 


fectioD. The vine b grown, and wine of good 
quality might be made if its manufacture were 
properly understood. In the outskirts of Santiago 
are numerous handsome gumbu or villas, and the 
approaches to the dty are mostly through lanes 
bounded by walb indosing extensive vmeyards 
and orehards, which yidd a large revenue to 
theur proprietors. 

Santisgo occupies the site of a previous Indian 
settlement; it was founded by Pedro de Valdivia 
in 1541. It has frequently suffered ftxNn earth- 
quakes ; but, with otner towns of the interior of 
Chili, it escaped the catastrophe which destroyed 
Valparaiso and Concepfion in 1835. 

JAMAICA (Nat. Xt^maea), one of the Greater 
Antilles, and uie largest and most valuable of the 
West Indian islands bdongipg to Great Britain. 
It lies in^ the Caribbean Sea, between lat. 17<) 44' 
and 18° 30' N., and long. 70^ 12* and 78© 25' W., 
about 100 m. S. Cuba, and 120 m. W. Havti, from 
which it b separated by the Windward Channel. 
Shape nearly oval; greatest length, E. to W., 
150 m.; average breadth, about 41 m. Area 
6,400 sq. m.: pop. 441,2(54 in 1861, of whom 
213,521 males, and 227,743 females. 

The Blue Mountains, a lofty range, run through 
the island in its whole length, rising in some 
nlaces to upwards of 7,200 ft in height. On the 
N. and S. sides of thb range the aspect of the 
country b extremely different. On the former the 
surface rises gradually from the shore by undu- 
lating hilb, separated by spadous valleys, watered 
by numerous rivulets, and dothed with pimento 
groves. The scenery on the S. side u much 
bolder. The shore is skirted by abrupt predpicea 
and inaccessible cliffs; and the hill ranges to- 
wards the interior are more abrupt and less fer- 
tile. Between these ranges and the foot of the 
central chain are extensive savannahs, and wide 
plains cultivated with sugar-can^ the luxuriant 
beauty and verdure of which b set off by a bound- 
less amphitheatre of forest — 

* Insuperable hdgbt of loftiest nhade. 
Cedar, and brsnohiDg palm.' 

The outline of the forest mdts into the dbtant 
blue hills, and these again are lost in the douds. 
The bland b well watered. There are about 100 
streams dignified with the name of rivers, but 
none of them are luivigable except for boats. 
Black Kiver, which debouches on the SW. coast, 
the laigest, b only available for fiatr-bottomed 
boats and canoes for about 80 m. Like all the 
other streams, its current is very rapid. 

From the geographiod podtion of the island, so 
near the equator, the climate in the low grounds 
b necessarily very hot, with little variation 
throughout the year ; the days and night are, for 
the same reason, nearly of equal duration, there 
not being more than two houn difference between 
the longest day and the shortest. The medium 
temperature of the year near Kingston ranges 
between 70° and Sifi; but little differences of 
elevation have here a great effect over the tem- 
perature and the salubrity of Uie climate. At 
about 4,200 ft. above the levd of the sea, the 
temperature usually ranges between 55° and 65^ ; 
in the winter it faUs even as low as 44°. There 
the vegetation of the tropics disappears, and is 
supplanted by that of temperate regions. Showen 
are common m the interior almost tliroughout the 
whole year, but they do not fall with the same 
violence as in the plains, and the quantity of rain 
appears to be less. The air b exceedingly humid, 
subject to dense fqgs, and those rapid idteniationa 
of temperature peculiar to all mountain respooB, 
While the pestilence of yellow fever rages u the 
low grounds, and along the coast of tSa island. 

Digitized by 




cattiDg off its thousands ammaUy, these elevated 
regions enjoy a complete immam^fioni its effects ; 
for the plague has never been known, in any cli- 
mate, to extend beyond the height of 2,500 ft. 
The inhabitants aie said to enjoy a dejgree of lon- 
^vity raidy attained in other countries. The N. 
side of the island is more healthy than the S. ; 
but all insalubrity is supposed to cease at an ele- 
vation of 1,400 ft. The mid-day heat is, during 
most part of the year, greatly modified by an in- 
vigorating sefr-breeze, called by Europeans the 
dxtor, which sets in from 8 to 10 o'clock in the 
morning, increases in force till about 2, and de- 
clines with the sun, till, on the approach of even- 
ing, it is succeeded by the land wind from the 
mountains. When these winds become lera regu- 
lar, or altogether fail, as is sometimes the case 
before the rainy season, the atmosj^ere is ex- 
ceedingly oppressive. The year is divided into a 
short wet season, which begms in April or May, 
and lasts about six weeks; a short dry season, 
firam June to August ; a long wet season, com- 
jtfising Sept., Oct., and Nov. ; and a long dry sea- 
son^ which occupies the renuiimng four months, 
dunng which the weather b serene and pleasant, 
bean^ comparatively cooL The annual fall of 
rain is nearly 50 in. ; the amount has become less 
in proportion as the forests have been felled. 
More rain falls on the N. than the S. side of the 
island, and the average temperature is lower. 
The'prindpal towns and military stations are on 
the S. side. Fevers, dysenteries, and diseases of 
the lungs or brain, are the most fatal. Fevers of 
a remittent character are more {>revalent than in 
any of the other British stations in the W. Indies. 
Earthquakes are frequent, and sometimes violent ; 
in 1692 the town of^ Port Koyal was submerged 
several fathoms beneath the ocean by a catas- 
trophe of this kind. Hurricanes mostly occur 
between July and October; and though not so 
firequent as m the windward islands, they are 
sometimes most destructive. One of the most 
of these visitations took place on the 
...u__ j7gQ_ Qjj jj^lg occasion the little 

3rd of 

sea-port town of Savannah-la-Mar, on the SW. 
coast of the island, was completely destroyed. 
During the tremendous conflict of tiie elements 
die sea btiist over it with irresistible fur}', and in 
an instant swept into its abyss its inhab. and 
their houses, leaving behind no vestige of either. 
Several hurricanes have occurred since, but hap- 
pily none of them have had suoh frijichtful con- 
sequences. Jamaica contains no active volcano ; 
but the traces of former volcanic action are suffi- 
ciently obvious. Micaceous schist, quartz, and 
lock spar are common ; but limestone, containing 
numerous shells, is the most prevalent geological 
formation. The island contains argentiferous 
lead, copper, iron, and antimony ores; and the 
Spaniards are reported to have wrought both cop- 
per and silver mines. Mining industry is now, 
nowever, ouite extinct. 

The tuET-cUd hills on the N. side of the island 
are chiefly composed of a chalky marl ; elsewhere 
the aoil is frequentiy of a deep chocolate colour, 
or a warm yellow or hazeL The latter, called the 
Jamaica brick numldf retains a good deal of 
moisture, and is among the best adapted for the 
sugar-cane throughout the West Indies. But 
thoog:h the soil be in some parts deep and fertile, 
Jamaica is not generally pnxiuctive, and requires 
both skilful labour and manure to make it yield 
heavy crops. Indigo, cotton, and cocoa were for- 
merly important staples ; but these have mostiy 
given way to other articles. Maize, Guinea com, 
and rice are the principal grains cultivated ; the 
latter, however, is not laisid in great quantities. 

Maize vields two, and sometimes three, crops a 
year, of from 15 to 40 bushels the acre. C^iJa- 
vances, a species of pea used by the negroes, the 
kinds of pulse and other garden vegetables com- 
mon in Europe, thrive well in the mountains; 
and the markets of Spanish Town and Kington 
are abundantiy supplied with these, as vrSl as 
native pot-herbs, of excellent quality. The plan- 
tain, banana, yam, cassava, and sweet potato aro 
indigenous; the first named is the principal sup- 
port of the coloured population. 

Few countries ofirer so fine an assortment of 
tropical fruits. Amon^ these is the bread-fruit 
tree, from Otaheite, onginally introduced by Sir 
Joseph Banks. The orange, lemon, lime, vine, 
melon, fig, and pomegranate are met with, having 
probably been mtroduced by the Spaniards ; and 
many other European fruits succeed in the cool 
mountain region. The sunflower is an article 
which has recently begun to be cultivated for ita 
oiL Cinnamon has been naturalised in Jamaica; 
and the forests abound with dye-woods and guaia- 
cum, iron-wood, brazilletto, mahogany, green- 
heart, and other valuable kindisof timber, and woods 
fit for cabinet work. Various kinds of grasses 
are cultivated; the principal is Guinea grass, a 

{)roduct of so much importance, and growing so 
uxuriantiy, that the ^razbg farms are for the 
most part covered with it. Homed cattie are ex- 
cellent, and better or cheaper beef is not met with 
in any part of Europe. Oxen or mules are used 
for farm labour. Horses^an active and hardy 
breed— are reared for saddle and harness. Sheep, 
goats, and hogs are numerous : the latter are of a 
small breed, but their flesh lb very good. Poultry 
and pigeons are kept in great numbers. The 
Europeans found many indigenous quadrupeds on 
the island, but none worthy of notice now exist, 
except the agouti, some monkeys, and rats, which 
last are in such immense numbers, and so destruc- 
tive of the sugar-canes, that from 8 to 10 per cent, 
per annum of the sugar crop, while standing, is 
supposed to be destniyed by them. Great num- 
bers of wildfowl are met with; and rice biixls, 
esteemed great delicacies, visit the island in large 
flocks in October. Alligators inhabit some of the 
larger rivers, and nuiny varieties of lizaids and 
snakes are found, some of which are used as food 
by the natives. The mountain crab of Jamaica is 
highly prized. These singular animals come down 
by milhons from the mountains to the sea, to de-. 
posit their spawn, firom Feb. to April, and return 
to their original habitations by the end of June. 

llie emancipation of the slaves had a great, and, 
for the moment, a disastrous effect upon the state 
of agriculture in Jamaica. From the passing of 
the Slave Emancipation Act, in 1832, till the year 
1848, no fewer than 653 sugar and 456 coffee plan- 
tations were abandoned, and their works entirely 
broken up. After their emancipation, the blacks, 
who were formerly provided with lodgings and a 
piece of ground rent-free, had to pay rent for 
them; and a good deal of dissatisfaction arose 
from the manner in which this rent was charged 
under the new system. In some cases it was esti- 
mated, not according to the real worth of the pre- 
mises, but according to the number of pereons de- 
riving subsistence irom the land, so that the man 
with the hirgest family became liable to the 
heaviest rent. In order the better to command 
the services of the occupiers, the planten refused 
at fint to give them leases, and stipulated that 
they might be ejected even at a week's notice. 
But this plan defeated its own object, both by 
making the former bondsmen inattentive to the 
culture of grounds held on so precarious a tenure, 
and by making them extremely anxious to acquire 




the property of a small piece of land. Subse- 
quently, the plan of fixed rents, unconnected with 
labour, was adopted, with better result, though not 
eradicating, by any means, the great source of 
dissatisfaction of the freed negroes — that of being 
mere labourers, instead of owners of the soil. 

The discontent of the coloured population, ag- 
gravated in many instances by the haish treatment 
of the whites, who here, as elsewhere, exhibited 
an excessive arrogance and pride of race, led to an 
iusunection in the month of November, 1865. It 
was suppressed in blood, several thousands of the 
unfortunate outcasts suffering death by being hung 
or shot ; while many others, not a few entirely un- 
connected with the outbreak, were flogged with 
wire cat-o'-nine-tails, and otherwise treated in the 
most cruel manner. But these atrocities had the 
good effect of arousing public opinion in England, 
and after a lengthen^ investigation of the state 
of affairs in Jamaica, undertaken by a special 
commission sent out by the British government, 
great and sensible reforms were introduced in the 
administration of the colony. 

It has been attempted to obviate the deficiency 
in the supply of labour, by importing free labourers 
from India and Africa. But Uie former have been 
found to be quite unsuited to the demands of the 
country ; whereas the latter, so long at least as 
they are unable to find the means of supporting 
themselves othenvise, make serviceable labourers. 
In recent years, therefore, the importation of such 
labourers has been continued only on a small scale. 
The numbers brought to Jamaica in the year 1862 
were, according to official returns, as follows : — 



CalcatU and St. Helena 
St. Helena . . . . 

Total . . 





The rate of wages at Jamaica is comparatively 
high, amounting to from Is. 6</. to Is. 9<i, a day for 
agricultural laMurers, and from 8«. to 6s. per diem 
for handicraftsmen, according to returns of 1862. 

The products raised for exportation, more espe- 
ciallv sugar, are the chief objects of the industry 
of the colonists; and the greatest efforts have 
been made, by the introduction of machinery and 
otherwise, to obviate the drawbacks under which 
they have latterly been placed. The estates on 
the high grounds, called 'pens,' are kept almost 
entirely in pasture, to supply the sugar and coffee 
estates with homed cattle, burses, and mules. The 
culture of com and other grain, with the exception 
of maize, has hitherto been confined within narrow 
limits. The following table, which gives the 
quantities and value of the principal articles of 
colonial produce exported in each of the years 
1861 and 1862, shows the agricultural and indus- 
trial state of Jamaica at the present time : — 

Priadpia AitlolM 







Ck)ffee . lbs. 
Ginger . „ 
Pimento „ 
Run . galls. 
Sugar . cwta. 
Wood: Log. 
wood . tons 



























Total Value 
other Art 

of princi] 

pal and) 



The total value of the imports and exports of 
the years 1861 and 1862, and their division among 
various countries, is given in the following table : — 

Imports 1 









United Kingdom 





British PosB.: 

India . . . 



N.America . 





West Indian . 





African . . 



Honduras . . 




United Stotes . 





Uanse Towns . 





Portugal . . . 




MewOranada . 





Venesuela . . 





Dutch W. Indies 



Danish ,. 





SpoBlsh „ 





F^ch „ 





Mexico . . . 

— . 




Guatemala • . 
Total . . 



1,141,984 1,214,614 1,113,442! 

The principal ports (all of which are free) are 
Kingston, Ports Royal and Morant, Black River, 
and Savanna-la-Mar on the S. coast ; and Luoea 
and Monte^ Bay, Faknouth, St Ann, Ports Maria 
and Antomo, and Annotto Bay, on the north. 

Jamaica is divided into three counties ; Middle- 
sex in the centre, Suxiey in the £., and Corawall 
in the W. These are subdivided into twenty-two 
parish(», ten of which are comprised in the first, 
seven in the second, and five in the third named 
CO. St. Jago de la Vega, or Spanish Town, is the 
seat of government; but Kingston is the largest 
town, and the real cap. of the island. The exe- 
cutive power is vested in a governor, appointed 
by the crown, aided by a council of four members, 
appointed in like manner. The legislative power, 
previous to the revolt of 1866, was vested in a 
house of assembly, of forty-seven members, three 
being elected by each of the parishes containing 
the towns of Kinfiston, Spanish Town, and Port 
Royal, and two oy each of the other nineteen 
parishes. The executive power was greatly 
strengthened, and the legislature reduced in influ- 
ence, after the events of 1865. The house of assem- 
bly had formerly the power of originating as well 
as appropriating grants of money ; but thb was 
abolished in 1864, and no grant now can originate 
in the assembly except by message from the go- 
vernor, or through the executive committee; which 
committee consists of one member of the legisla- 
tive council and not exceeding three members 
of the assembly, not office-holders, chosen and 
changed at pleasure by the governor. The salary 
of the governor is 5,000/. a year. Justice is ad- 
ministered in a supreme court, composed of the 
chief justice and two puisne judges, which sits 
three times a year at Spanish Town. Courts of 
assize are holden three times a year in each county. 
Inferior courts of common pleas decide in causea 
to the value of 202. with costs, and justices of the 
peace in those not above 40s. The court of chan- 
cer}- was formerly held by the governor only ; but, 
in Lord Metcalfe's time, a ^-ice-chancellor was 
appointed, with a salary of 2,500Z, a year, who 
transacts all the ordinaiy judicial busmess of the 
court. Appeal is made from the court of chancery 
to the privy council Inhere are, also, admiralty 
and other special courts. Since the emancipation 
of the slaves, coitrt»ofconciliaHonj similar to those 

Digitized by 



establiahed in Denmark and eome other countries, 
have been institoted in various parishes. The co- 
loured pop. are frequently members of these tri- 
bunals, and are thus accustomed to the discharge 
of some of the most important social duties. Sub- 
mission to their decisions is optional ; but there, 
as elsewhere, they are usually acquiesced in. A 
police force, of upwards of 400 constables, was 
eutablished in 1840. 

The military force usually amounts to about 
2,000 r^^lar troops, exclusive of the insular mHitia, 
which is at present in a very reduced stAte. The 
public expenditure on account of religious estab- 
lishments amounted to 29,133/. in 1862, the Presby- 
terian and R. Catliolic clergy besides the church 
being salaried by the government Nearly ] 3,0002. 
— 12,884^ in 1862 — are spent yearly on public in- 
struction and charitable institutions. Education 
is widely diffused. Numerous schools and churches 
have recently been established ; and the emanci- 
pated pop. have not been slow to avail themselves 
of the benefits resulting from the institution of 
savings' banks. The public revenue, in 1862, 
amounted to 291,0882., and the expenditure, in the 
same year, to 292,402/. The compensation money 
awarded to the proprietors for the liberation of the 
aUves, in 1833, amounted to 6,161,927iL, the ave- 
rage value of a slave irom 1822 to 1830 having 
been 44^ l&s. 2<1 The ordinary currency of the 
United Kingdom has been adopted in Jamaica. 

Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in 1496, 
and was settled in 1503. ■ It remained in the pos- 
session of Spain till 1655, when it was taken by 
the English, to whom it has since belonged. 

JANEIKO. See Kxo db Janeibo. 

JAPAN (EMPIRE OF), called y^thon by the 
Japanese, and Yang-bou by the Chinese ; an in- 
Bultr empire of the £. coast of Continental Asia, 
and opposite to the sea of Japan and the gulf of 
Tartvy and Corea, from whicn it is separated by 
Mancho<Hna. It comprises five large and a great 
number of small islands, lying between the 30th 
and 50th parallels of N. lat., and between the 128th 
and 151st degrees of E. lonff. ; bounded N. by the 
sea of Okotw and the independent part of the 
island or peninsula of Tarakai, or Karafto (formerly 
known to English geographers as Saghalien) ; by 
the N. Pacific Ocean ; S. by the eastern sea of the 
Chinese ; and W. by the sea of Japan, which com- 
municates with the open ocean by the straits of 
La Perouse and Sangar, running between the 
different islands. The present knowledge of J span 
is very unsatisfactory : the cautious and jealous 
policy of the Japanese government with respect to 
the admission of foreigners (caused, as in China, 
by the attempts of Jesuit missionaries to chris- 
tianise the country), has hitherto, in a great 
measure, bafiled the efforts of European inqui- 
rers into its internal arrangements and economy. 
The total area is estimated at 152,604 sq. m.,with 
a pop. of from 35,000,000 to 40,000,000. 

Phjfneal Geoffriaphf, — ^The three principal islands 
of Japan Proper have a very uneven surface, few 
plains being of any great extent, and the hilly 
country extensive and of a rocky character. 
Niphon, the larges^ longest, and best known of 
these idands, contains a regular mountain chain, 
running NNE., the highest summit of which, 
called Fudy is upwards of 12,000 ft. high, another 
alio (Siro^jama) reaching an elevation of 8,000 ft., 
and being covered with perpetual snow : the ave- 
rage height, however, is so moderate, that the 
high ground generally admits of cultivation almost 
up to the dividing line of the watershed. The 
aommita above named are active volcanoes, and 
many other hUls emit either flames or smoke. 
Eaithqoakeaiare frequent, one in 1705 having do- 


stroyed nearly half of Yedo, and killed more than 
100,000 of its inhab. ; thermal and mineral springs 
also are of very frequent occurrence, so that, on 
the whole, the islands of Japan may be considered 
the seat of great volcanic movements, connected, 
most probaUy, with those of Kamtschatka and 
the islands of Formosa aud the Asiatic Archipelago, 
all of which belong to a chain of heijB^hts almost 
as distinctlv marked as the volcanic chain of 
America, llie metallic riches of Japan are stated 
to be very great, comprising copper in sufficiently 
laige quantities for an extensive exportation, a 
considerable quantity of sulphur, some lead, tin 
and iron, and a little gold and silver, the mines of 
the labt two being under the exclusive superin- 
tendence of the government. The rivers of Japan , 
though numerous, are not long, on account or the 
peculiar narrowness of all the islands : few of them 
are navigable, and most might be characterised 
rather as torrents than rivers. The largest is the 
Yedo-gawa, in Niphon, rising in the large lake 
Oitz, or Biwa-no-oumiy and empt^ng itself, after 
a probable course of 60 or 80 m., into the harbour 
of Osaka. The kke Fakonee, SW. of Yedo, is 
treated with superstitious reverence by the natives. 
The climate in a country extending over so many 
parallels of lat. must, of course, vary extremely, 
the N. dependencies having a severely cold climate, 
while the S. parts of the empire are neariy as 
warm as the S. of France, though with a tempera- 
ture considerably more variable, owing to their 
insular condition. In Kiu-siu and the S. parts of 
Niphon, as far N. as Yedo, the thermometer ranges 
between 104<> and 29^ Fahr., S(fi being the avenge 
height in the middle of summer, and 85 during 
the severest months of winter. The winter cold, 
however, is much increased by the prevalence of 
N. and N£. winds ; and the summer neats of July 
and August are moderated by cooling breezes from 
the S. and SE. Rain is very frequent, fallhig 
more or less on two-thirds of all the davs in tiie 
year, but more especially in June and Jufy, which 
are the tatoaku or rainy months : hurricanes, also, 
and storms frequently occur, and are described as 
bemg very violent 

Agriculiure. — Tillage is followed in Japan, not 
merely as a pursuit dictated by private mterest, 
but also in obedience to a general and very pe* 
remptorv law, which obliges all owners of land« 
under the penalty of confiscation, to keep their 
property in good productive condition, and there- 
fore able to pay a lar^ land-tax to government 
or its officers. The soil, though not naturally fer- 
tile, has been so much improved as to be rendered 
extremely productive. Few plants, except on tho 
hills, are found in a natural state ; and the face of 
the country, even on the mountain sides (which 
are formed into terraces, as in some parts of Italy 
and Persia^, is so diligently cultivated, that it 
would be difficult to find in the country a single 
nook of untilled land, even to the dry summits of 
the mountains. In the S. district rice is raised in 
very large quantities, as it forms a principal article 
of food ¥rith the inhab. ; but wheat is little grown 
and held in light estimation ; barley, also buck- 
wheat, a bean called daidton, and another, the 
tcja doKchoty potatoes, melons, pumpkins, and cu- 
cumbers, are raised in great abundance ; and the 
fruit trees of S. Europe, the orange, lemon, vine, 
peach, and mulberry (the last of which is carefully 
reared for silk worms), are both plentiful and 
highly productive. Ginger and pepper are the 
chief spice plants. Cotton is cultivated in con- 
siderable quantities, and tobacco, introduced by the 
Jesuits, is very generally raised in the S. islands. 
The ^nd object of cultivation, however, next to 
rioe, 18 the tea-plant, brought here firomCUna in the 



0th centaiy. Not only are thete Uuge tea-pUmtA- 
tions with dyeing^hoiiBes, bat every heage on 
every farm consUts of the tea- plant, and furnishes 
the drink of the fanner's family and labooreVB. The 
finer sorts demand extreme care in their cultiva- 
tion : the plants thrive best on well-watered hill- 
sides, and they are said to be manured with dried 
andioviesi and a liquor pressed out of mustard- 
seed. Among trees, the Brouuonetia papyr^era 
is cultivated for its bark, which is converted into 
cloth and paper ; and the varnish tree {Rhus vemix, 
and called oerotmo-hi by the natives), for its gum, 
used in varnishing wooden furniture ; the camphor 
laurel, also, the iron tree, the oak, flr, and cynress 
are common, and furnish products useful as weU for 
home consumption as for exportation. Of timber, 
however, there is an insumciencv, and supplies 
are obtained from the N. dependencies of Jesso 
and Saghalien. The plants are extremely beautiful, 
and many of them, as the CTerodendnmj Gsme/ui, 
and Pynu, have been naturalised in Great Britain. 

Ammals. — Pasturage in a country inhabited by 
a people eating scarcely any animal food except 
fisn, and so weU supplied with cotton and silk that 
they fed no want of wool for the manufacture of 
clothes, must necessarily be very unimportant. 
Buffaloes and oxen are not numerous, and are used 
only for draught labour, and there are but few 
sheep, the progeny of a breed introduced by the 
Dutch soon Atter their settlement in Japan : the 
horses are of inferior size, and are only used by the 
nobility; there are neither mules nor asses, and 
pigs are fotmd only in the neighbourhood of 
Nagasaki. Do^ are common, and are considered 
sacred animals, in consequence of the favour which 
they enjoyed from one of the Mihados or supreme 
emperors; and cats are even more esteemed, if 
possible, by the Japanese ladies than by the 
venerable spinsters of Great Britain. Among the' 
wild animals, may be enumerated bears, wild boars, 
foxes, wild dogs, deer, monkeys, hares, rats, mice, 
and two small animals of the weasel kind peculiar 
to the country, and called the Uutz and Hm. Birds 
are numerous and of many varieties : falcons are 
highly valued, and pelicans, cranes, and herons 
are considered useful in destroying vermin and in- 
sects that are injurious to the mterest of agri- 
culture : the pheasants, ducks, and wild geese have 
splendid plumage ; beades which there is a great 
variety of teal, storks, pigeons, ravens, larks, and 
other small birds. Among reptiles, snakes are not 
unfrequent, especially in the N. lyart of Niphon, 
and one variety, the Ouwihami, is of enormous 
size : tortoises aliso and lizards are of common oc- 
currence; and the islands, particularly towards 
the S., abound with noxious insects, scorpions, 
centipedes, and white ants. An apteroua phoa- 
phoric insect (LampyriM iaptmvx^ deaerves notice 
as being similar in its nabits to the firs-fly of 
America, but of an entirely different genus. The 
seas contain large quantities of fish, affording a 
main article of food to the inhabitants and givmg 
employment to numerous fishermen. The salmon, 
herring, cuttle-fish {Sepia odopodia), eel, perch 
{Scuenajaponica and CaUionjfmnMJap(micui)y with 
many others, are caught m great quantities: 
oysters, also, of a peculiar and delicious kind, are 
extremely abundant, and are used almost ex- 
clusively as food by many of the poor inhabitants 
about redo, where the fisheries he. Whales and 
narwhals frequently visit the coast, and are caught 
by harpooning ; the flesh is eaten, the whalebone 
nerves various purposes, and ambeigris is extracted 
from the entnus. 

^ami/Sicteres.— The mdustry of the Japanese 
will bear to be compared with that of the Hin- 
dooQi or even ChineB& The aitaficen in copper, 


iron, and steel have a high character, and tiM 
fiwords of Japan rank second only to those made 
in Khorassan. Telescopes, thermometers, watchea 
and clocks, of good quality, are constructed at 
Nagasaki, and many of the workmen possess a 
high degree of mechanical ingenuity. Glass is 
made; but the natives are not acquainted with 
the art of glass-blowing. Printing was introduced 
in the 13th century, and is conducted, as in China, 
by means of wooden blocks: engravings also are 
made, but in a very dumay manner. Silk and 
cotton fabrics, of good quality, are raanufsctured 
in quantities almost suffident for the consump- 
tion of the population. Porcelain, more highly 
esteemed even than tnat of China, is formed from two 
peculiar kinds of earth, called kadbt andpetwnaee. 
The art of lacquering furniture with gold, silver, 
and various pigments, the secret of which was till 
lately almost exdnsivdy confined to the Japanese, 
and hence called 'japanning,' is practised with 
great success; and some of the finest necimens 
that have reached Europe, and are deposited, 
with other curiodties, in the Royal MnMum at the 
Hague, exceed in excellence eveiy other sort of 
japanned wares known in Europe. The procesa is 
extremely tedious, and the gum requires longpro- 
paration for its conversion into varnish. Five 
coats, at least, are successively applied, and when 
dry, rubbed down, and polished with stone; many 
of the more costly specimens are inlaid with 
mother-of-pearL Good paper is made from the 
maceration of the mulberry and other barks, the 
fibres of which are used in the manufacture of 
cordage. The art of building houses is little 
understood: they are almost universally con- 
structed of timber, covered on the outdde with 
plaster, and the insides consist usually of two 
stories, each of which, when divided, is parted off 
into dose rooms by flimsy paper partitions, 
adorned, or rather disfigured, witn p^arish and bold 
paintings. Ofship-buildinff and navigation the Ja- 
panese have a s%ht knoinedge; and that is pro- 
vented firom increamng by a law, which compds the 
people to build their ships in a particular fadiion, 
somewhat similar to that of the Chinese junks. 
They are made of cedar, fir, or camphor-wood, and 
the merchant vessels avenge about 70 ft. in 
length, by 20 or 24 It in breadth, their burden 
varying from 100 to 150 tons. Great numbers of 
ships are employed in trading with the different 
ports of the empire, and many others besides are 
engaged in fishing. 

Trade and Cbmmeree. — The internal trade of 
Japan is very extensive, and a variety of regula- 
tions are in force, the tkjtet of which is to ptoteet 
"^ home industry. The prices or goods 

are not enhanced by imposts of any kind ; and 
communication between the ^reat markets and 
all parts of the empire is facilitated by numerous 
coasting vessels and well maintained roads. The 
shops and markets, especially in Yedo, Miako, and 
Nagasaki, are well provided with almost every 
description of agricultural and manufactured pro- 
duce, and the great fairs are crowded with people 
from the most distant parts of the country. Ac- 
counts also are published, from time to time, of 
the general state of trade and agriculture, and of 
the prices current for the chief artides of txafilc at 
the trading towns of Yedo. Miako, Osaka, and 
Simonoseki on the island of Niph<Mi, Sanga, Ko- 
koura, and Nagasaki in Khn-du, Tosa in Sikokf, 
and Matsmai in Jesso. Foreign commerce, how- 
ever, was, until recently, vigoroudy opposed by 
the government, in consequence of the attempts 
of the Jesuit missionaries to christianise the 
people. An edict, published in 1687, and stall in 
force, makes it a ca^tal offence for the natives to 

Digitized by 


tnvd into other oonntries ; and their seamen even, 
when aoddentally cast on foreign shoree, are, on 
their return, sabjected to rifporous examination, 
and aometimoa tediona. impnaonment, to purify 
them from the snppoaed pollution contracted 
abroad. The Dutch, who were the first permitted 
to visit the empire after the expulsion of the 
Portuguese, had their earliest factory on the island 
of Firato: but they were removed, in 1641, by 
the empeior^B orders, to Nagasaki, where, in oom- 
mon with the Coreans and Chinese, they are al- 
lowed to bring their goods for sale ; but tht num- 
ber of vessels allowed to come each year, and 
the quantity of each description of wares to 
be 8(^, were strictly defined ; and the residents 
in the factory restricted to ifl only. The ships, 
immediately on their arrival, were minutely 
aearched, and the crews kept, during their stay in 
port, oompletely secluded from the natives, on the 
small island of Djesima, dose to the harbour. 
In recent years, the combined efibrts of the Euro- 
pean and American governments has brought 
about a more liberal state of things. By treaties 
made with several European governments — with 
Knsaia in October, 1867, and with Great Britain, 
France, and the United States in July and Au- 
gust 1868 — ^the three Japanese ports ci Nagasaki, 
Kaiiagawa, and Hakodadi were thrown open to 
forei^ commerce. At the last-named port, com- 
mercial intercourse was attempted in the vears 
1859-60, but did not succeed. The total vafue of 
importa at the port of Nagasaki in the year 
1862 amounted to 149,3262., and of exports to 
217,dl4iL Of greater commercial importance than 
the foregoing is the port of Kana^wa* at present 
the chidT station of commercial mtercourse with 
Japan. The following return shows the amount 
of trade carried on at the port of Kanagawa during 
the year ending December 81, 1862 :-- 


In in vBswIs— 
By Brltiah merchants (including two Ger- 

Bj French merchants (including one Gtar- 
man firm) 

By American merchants .... 

By Dutch merchants (inclnding ttvo O&r*- 
man firms 



By British merrhants 
By French merchants 
^y American merchants 
^ Dntdh merchants 


The imports comprise raw silk, woollen, cotton, 
and linen cloths of various kinds, sugar, dye- 
woods, seal-skins, pepper, and other spices, quick- 
silver, tin and iron, cinnabar, glass-wares, Ac 
from the Dutch, and silk, tea, sugar, dried fish, 
and whide oil from the Chinese : the exports con- 
niet chiefly of copjper ingots, camphor, and, to a 
smaller extent, of silk fid)rics, lacquered wares and 

The number of foreigners settled in Japan is as 
yet very small. At the end of the third year that 
the porta had been opened, the foreign community 
at Kanagawa consisted of fifty-five natives of 
Great Bntain; thirty-eight Americans; twenty 
Dutch ; eleven French ; and two Portuguese : and in 
the latter part of 1864 the permanent foreign resi- 
dents at Kanagawa had increased to 800, not counts 
ing soldierB, of which number 140 were British sub- 
Jeda, and about 80 Americans and 40 Dutch* At 


Na^pasaki, the number of ibreignen at the same 
period was 89, with a greater proportion of Dutch. 
The port of Hakodadi, in the north of Japan, was 
deserted, after a lengthened trial, by all the foreign 
merchants settled there, it having'been found im- 
possible to establish any sadsfactory intercourse 
with the natives. 

Accounts are k«pt in thaSsj each of which is 
equivalent to 8^ Dutch florins, or bs, lOd, Eng. 
money, and the thail is composed of 10 nuw, and 
the mas of 10 combfrma. The gold coins are the 
itzib, worth 15 mas (or 8s. 9(1), the kobang, equal 
to 64 mas (1/. 7«. 4dl), and the o&oii valued at 8 
kobangs. Large payments, however, are most 
commonly made in silver ingots of a fixed weight 
and value. The standard of weight is the Japan- 
ese picuL, equal to 180*9 English lbs. avoirdupois, 
and divided into 100 eatfyB and 1,600 to&s. The 
measure of length is the tottotmy, equivalent to 
6 ft. 4 in. English ; but road distance is reckoned 
by rt, or Japanese leagues, about 80 of which go 
to a degree of latitude. 

Govmment and Law9, — The government of 
Japan is an hereditary, absolute monarchy. The 
supreme power was originally vested in an eccle- 
siastical emperor, called Dalri-mmuL, or Mikado \ 
but in 1583 Joritomo, the emperor's Sjogitn, or 
military^ commander, usurped the chi^ civil 
power, and from that time to the present, not- 
withstanding its acknowledged illegality, the mi- 
kado, who is the only real emperor, has been a 
mere puppet-king, in a state of dependence on his 
sjogdn, bis firBt oflScer, and the military chief of 
the empire. All enactments, however, must have 
tlfe sanction of the emperor before thev haVe 
legal force ; he alone conrers honorary distmctions 
on the sjo^n and the nobility, and h*e has the en- 
tire superintendence of religious aflbirB and edu- 
cation. Any further connexion with sublunary 
alTairB would, it is supposed, degrade the Son of 
Heaven, and profane his holy character. His court 
is at Miako, where he lives secluded in a large 
palace, and surrounded by numerous officers, who 
treat him with almost divine honours. His person 
is considered too sacred to be exposed to the air, 
and the rays of the sun, and still less to the view 
of his subjects; and he is consequently confined 
within his palace : his hair, nails, and beard are 
not cleaned or cut by daylight, these operations 
being always performed when he is asleep; he 
never eats twice off the same plate, nor uses any 
vessels a second time ; and they are invariably 
broken to prevent them fVom falling into unhallowed 
hands. The mikado's finances, however, are now 
restricted to the taxes collected from Miako and 
the surrounding territory, certain revenues from 
the treasury of the sjofffhi, and the fees paid on the 
admission to honourable dignities and offices. His 
income, indeed, is so smaU, and the number of 
dependents so great, that he may be said to live 
in splendid poverty. The sjoefin. who has usorped 
all the substantial power, holds nis court at Yedo, 
and exercises entire authority over the lives and 






. 6,306.138 

Eroperty of the natives, controlled only by the 
iws enacted by former emperorB, and which ad- 
mit of little change. To him, also, directly be- 
longs the local government of the five great 
towns, . Vedo, Miako, Osaka, Sakai, and Naffuaki. 
The countr>' is divided into 8 districts, whidi are 
subdivided into 68 provinces, and these again into 
6(K( counties : the provs. are governed by princes 
called dmmio or high-named; and under them are 
eovemors of districts, called siosito, or well-named. 
The daimioa are appointed by the sjogfin, to whom 
they are accountable, with hostagea for the proper 
exercise of their authority. Th^ are entiUed to 
the revenues of their xespeetive provs^ which 



enable thein, besides maintaining their state and 
dignity, to keep an armed force for the preserva- 
tion of order, and to make outlays in repairing 
roads, and other public wortcs. They reside 
usually in laige towns, either maritime or situated 
on rivers, and their castles are defended by strong 
gates and lofty towers. Once a year, in token of 
Boblection, they repair to the sjogAn's court at 
Yedo, attended by numerous and splendid reti- 
nues, and bearing valuable presents, constituting 
a main portion of his yearly revenues. The ex- 
ecutive department is confided to seven ministers, 
who undertake severally the departments of in- 
ternal economy and finance, oommesce and navi- 
gation, public worlu, police, civil and criminal 
legislation, war and religion. The supreme judi- 
cial council, called gorondje, is composed of 5 
daimios, who assist the kubo in his decisions on 
political offences ; and a senate of 15 daimios or 
nobles forms a subordinate court, that takes 
cognisance of civil and criminal cases. 

The laws of Japan are severe, and even san- 
guinary; fines are seldom imposed, and exile to 
the penal settlement of Tcdtae-en-tima (inflicted 
on the nobles), banishment, imprisonment, torture, 
and death b^ decapitation, or impaling on a cross, 
are the ordmary penalties of crime, the shades 
of which are little distinguished. It frequently 
happens, also, that the courts visit with punish- 
ment not only the delinquents themselves, but 
their relatives and deoendents, and even strangers 
who have accidentally been spectators of tneir 
crimes. The prisons are gloomy and horrid abodes, 
containing places for torture and private execu- 
tions, besides numerous cells for solitary confine- 
ment. The police is extremely strict, and in the 
large towns each street has a chief officer, called 
the ottona, who is responsible for the maintenance 
of order, the punishment of delinquents, and the 
registration or birUis, marriages, and deaths. Be- 
sides these, four supcaintendents regulate the eco- 
nomy of the towns, and rigorously punish, often 
with death, the most trifiing infhiction of public 
order or peace, information of which is obtained 
by an established system of e^tionage, 

' RevetneM. — The public revenues are derived from 
taxes on land and houses. The land is assumed 
to be the property of the state, and ia rated accord- 
ing to the class of soil to which it belongs ; the 
rate being said always to exceed half and often 
three-fourths of the produce ; but it is difficult to 
believe that so heavy a tax can be collected. Ten- 
ants neglecting the proper cultivation of their 
land are punished by ejectment Houses are rated 
according to the extent of street frontage, and the 
amount in which the holders are mulcted is greatly 
increased by forced presents to the dvil officers, 
and dues for maintaming the temples and idols, 
llie amount of the kubo's revenues cannot be 
ascertained; but it ma^ be inferred that the land- 
tax, and the contributions from the daimios, who 
farm the taxes of their 68 provs., must form a 
pretty large privy purse. 

Armed Force.— The army in time of peace con- 
sists of 100,000 infantry and 20,000 cavalry; the 
force during war being increased by levies from 
the different provs. to 400,000 infant^^, and 40,000 
cavalry. The arms used by the infantry are the 
musket, pike, bow, sabre, and dagger ; those of the 
mounted troops being the lance, sabre, and pistol 
The artillery is confined to a few brass cannon and 
light pieces. The generals have no permanent 
office, but, in case of war or disturbance, are ap- 
pointed by the sjo^^ and princes. Discipline and 
fortifications are httle understood ; and their bat- 
teries consist usually of a few odd-looking walls, 
•raised without either order or apparent object. 


Japan, though an insular dominion, has no navy; 
the ships, such as they are, being used in trade. 

Religion. — The form of religious worship in Jwan, 
especially the old form, has no resembUnce what- 
ever to any of the contemporary Chinese forms : 
the early inhabs. of Japan had a peculiar form, 
which, bein^ respected as that of their ancestors, 
has maintamed itself to this day, as well in the 
hut of the peasant as in the palace of the dairu 
Being generally liked, it is not only tolerated, 
but even protected and venerated by government ; 
even at the present time, it might have been the 
positive religion of the Japanese, if political causes 
had not obliged the subjects openly to acknowledge 
one of the sects of Buddh. The doctrines, views, 
and interpretations of the ancient rites of the Ja- 
panese worship are in no essential points similar 
to those of Buddh ; and though, by contact of 1,000 
years, they appear to have more or less amalga- 
mated, yet they are kept rigorously distinct l>y 
Japanese theologians. The old reli^on is the Stm- 
nu (liL faith in ^odt), or, accordmg to Siebold, 
the Kami-no-mitn, or way to the hami, or gods, 
the other being a modem Chinese term for it. 
This sect regards the founders of the empire to be 
sprung from Ten^agoo-dai-zin^ the supreme deity, 
and to have descended from heaven upon the Ja- 
panese land ; and their title Ten-zi is a recognition 
of their divine origin. The race is never extinct ; 
for in ca^ of a failure in the succession, a de- 
scendant is supposed to be sent from heaven (thongh 
in fact privately selected by the emperor from the 
families of the nobles) to the childless ten-zL The 
spirit of their ruler is immortal, and this also con- 
firms the faith of the people in the immortality of 
the soul, in connection with which they also be- 
lieve in a future retribution of their good and evil 
deeds during life on earth. Their paradise is called 
Takama-kahava, and their hell iVe-no-fafm. The 
supreme deity is too great to be addressed in 
prayer, save through the mediation of the Mikado, 
the Son of Heaven, or of inferior spirits called Amu, 
of which 492 were bom spirits, and 2,640 are ca- 
nonised mortals. For these hami, who seem to be 
regarded somewhat like the saints of the Bomish 
calendar, as intercessors with God, temples are spe- 
cially erected ; and in everv Japanese dwelling is 
a kind of oratonr, in which the natives, morning 
and evening, ofier their prayers to the supreme 
deity. Laxge gates and triumphal arches lead to 
the temples, which, with the dwellings of the priesta 
and other buildings, frequently form extensive and 
stately edifices. Various eatables are offered as 
sacrifices to the kuni, and anciently even human 
victims were immolated to reconcile the hostility 
of evil spirits. The priests of this sect are allowed 
to marry. 

The Buddhist form of worship is supposed to 
have been introduced from China, through Corea, 
in the 6th century of the Christiau sera; and the 
dogmas of that religion are divided into a higher 
and lower doctrine of faith. According to the first, 
man derives his origin fVom nothingf and therefore 
has no evil in himself; the impressions of the ma- 
terial world bringing out the evil in him, and fos- 
tering its growth. This evil is to be counteracted 
by following the bent of the soul, within whidi ia 
neither more nor less than the deity guiding our 
actions. The human body having sprung from 
nothing, will, after death, return to nothing; but 
the soul survives, that of the wicked floating eter- 
nally in the void of space, while that of the good 
will repose in the palace of the deity, whence, if 
the denizens of this lower world should ever need 
the aid of a virtuous man, it will be sent from 
heaven to occupy another bodv. This is the 
esoteric doctrine of the priests, but whidi yazies 

Digitized by 




from the more popular and practical tenets of the 
people. The oommon belief of the Japan^e is that 
on the other side (t. e. in the other world), before 
the fi;reat jud^ Emaoo, stands a laii^^e mirror, in 
which the actions of all mankind are imaged forth. 
Near this minor stand two spirits, who obsen^e 
and report the deeds of eyery pexBon, and a third 
records them in a book, by which the souls of the 
dead will ultimately be judged, and, according to 
their sentence, sent to their places of rewards and 
poniahmentSb Amidti, the saving deity, is the god 
of paradise; and the way to ensure a' journey on 
the Ookurak, or road to paradise (one only out of 
six to which departed spirits may be sent), is an 
obedience to five commandments— viz. not to lie, 
not to commit adultery, not to kill any living 
creature, not to get drunk, and not to steal. One 
of the roads for the dead is Tmkttsyo^ the road to 
the hell of animals ; and hence the Buddhists of 
Japan believe in the transmigration of souls into 
ammals as well as men. 

Of the religion of Buddh, as now professed, there 
are many ramifications, and much superstition pre- 
vails. Jananabotj or monks of the mountain, live 
a secluded and ascetic life ; and blind monks, who 
deprive themselves of sight that they may not 
behold the vice around them, are very common 
thmighout Japan. Occasionally, in pursnance of 
vows, men are met running about the street en- 
tirely naked, on a round of visits to different 
temples ; multitudes of religious beggars also are 
to be seen with shaven heads ; and suging gi^s, 
in the assumed habit of nuns, procure from the 
rich considerable sums. The sect of Svunioo, which 
professes the morality of Confucius, is quite sepa- 
rate from any of the creeds above described, and 
has existed in Japan since a.d. 59. Here, as in 
China, its only object is the inculcation of a vir- 
tuous life in this world, without reference to an 
after-state of existence. 

FoptUatumf HabvU^ and Mamnera, — The pop. of 
Japan are divided into eij^ht classes, the princes, 
nobles, priests, soldien, civil officers, merchants, 
artisans, and labourers either agricultural or other- 
wise. The caste system is strictly pursued, and 
each follows the employment of his'fathers, what- 
ever his talents may be for a different pureuit. 
The p^Hiple, physically considered, appear to be 
a mixed breed of Mongolian and Malay blood, 
though they regard themselves as aborigines. 
They are, in general, well made, active, and 
supple, having yellow complexions, small deeply 
set eyes, short flattish noses, broad heads, and 
thick black hair, which, however, is not allowed 
to be worn except on the crown, the sides of the 
head being kept constantly shaved. The dress of 
the Japanese consists of several loose silken or 
cotton robes, worn over each other, the family 
arms being usually worked into the back and 
laeast of that which eovers the rest. To these is 
added, on state occasions, a robe of ceremony ; 
and the higher classes wear with it a sort of 
trousers called hakkama (resembling a full-plaited 
petticoat drawn up between the kgs), with one or 
more swoids, according to the rank of the parties. 
The lower orders are prohibited from wearing 
swords. The men shave the front and crown of 
the head, the rest being gathered and formed into 
a tuft, covering the bald part : the women, on the 
contrary, wear their hair long, and arranged in 
the form of a turban, stuck fulfof pieces of higl 



polished tortoise-shell ; and they paint their faces 
ltd and white, and stain their lips purple, and 
their teeth black. Hats are worn only m rainy 
weather ; bat the fan is an indispensable append- 
age to all dasaes of the Japanese. Their gait is 
awkward, owing partly to their dumsy shoes; 

bat that of the w^omen is the worst, in conse- 

auence of their practice of so tightly bandaging 
tie hips, as to turn their feet inwards. On the 
other hand, they do not deform themselves by 
confining their feet in ti^ht shoes, like the Chinese. 
Polygamy is not practised even by the nobles, 
and far more freedom is permitted to the female 
sex than in China : many are well educated, and 
almost all play on musical instruments. Con- 
cubines are kept in numbers, varj'ing according 
to the means of the owner; but they hold a rank 
much inferior to that of wives : prosritutes are 
found in every town in greater numbers than in 
any country in Asia, except Hiudoostan; and so 
little discredit is attached to their profession, that 
they are visited by married females, and received 
back without remark into respectable society. 

The great bulk of the people appear intelligent, 
and desirous of increasing their knowledge by 
inquiries; they Study medicine and astronomy, 
and their observations are as correctly made as 
their rude instruments ¥dll allow. Almanacks are 
compiled at Miako, the great centre of the national 
science and literature. The history of Japan has 
been written with great care by some of the 
native writers; and their works on botany and 
zoology contain good descriptions and tolerable 
engravinp of the plants and animals indigenous 
to their islands. Poetry, also, is cultivate, and 
there is a prevalent taste for music. The Japan* 
ese language has no relation to the Chinese, nor, 
indeed, to any known Asiatic language, except 
that of the Ainos, who inhabit Jesso and TarakaL 
It is a polysyllabic language, has an alphabet of 
47 letters, and is written in four different sets of 
characters, one of which (the hatakanti) is used 
exclusively by the males, while another (the 
kiragcma) is appropriated to the females. The 
Chinese character also is in use among the learned. 
History, — Marco Polo was the mst to make 
known to Europeans the existence of a country 
called by him Z^xmgu, but since proved to be 
identical with Japan. In 1542, Mendez-Pinto, a 
Portuguese, was cast by storm on these shores, 
and a Portuguese settlement from Malacca was 
soon after m^e at Nagasaki, the commercial re* 
lations of which, with the inhab., were very con* 
siderable and highly lucrative to the settlera, till 
the interference, in 1585, of Jesuit missionaries 
with the religious profession of the inhab., led to 
the persecution and final expulsion of the tradera. 
The Dutch soon after^'ards (in 1600), with great 
difficulty, prevailed on the Japanese to £low 
them to' trade on condition of not interfering with 
the national religion ; but the vexations and 
harassing regulations bv which the trade was ob- 
structed, and the very limited extent allowed to 
it, made it a matter of question how far the 
factory should be kept up by the Dutch govern- 
ment. The Russians tried subsequently to esto^ 
blish commercial relations with Japan ; but their 
proposals were declined, and the envoys were 
ordered not to return on pain of death. Finally, 
in 1857, the combined efforts of the leading 
governments of Europe and that of the United 
States, were so far successful in opening Japan as 
to lead to commercial intercourse at the three 
treaty ports before specified. The results of the 
first eight or nine years of commerce have not, 
however, answered the expectation. The general 
belief is that the reluctance to intercourse with 
the Western nations is not to be found among the 
mass of the people, but solely in the ruling feudal 
aristocracy, the daimioa, 

JAROSLAVL, or YAROSLAV, a province, or 
government of Russia in Europe, chiefly between 
the 57th and 59th degs. of lat. and the 88th and 


Digitized by^ 




42d of long., having N. Novgorod and Vologda,' 
E. Kostroma, S. Vladimir, and W. Tver. Length, 
N. tx) S., about 160 m. ; greatest breadth nearly 
the same. Area, 13,800 sq. m. Pop. 976,866 in 
1858. Surface almost wholly flat, in some parts 
marshy, and in general only moderately fertile. 
The Wolga traverses this government in its centre ; 
the other chief rivers are its tributaries, the Mo* 
loga and Scbeksna, which have, more or less, an 
E, direction. The lake of Rostof, in the S., is 
8 m. long by 6 broad, and there are nearly 40 
other lakes of less size. Kye, barley, wheat, oats, 
and peas, are grown, and the annual produce of 
com is estimated at about three millions of 
chetwerts ; a quantity insufficient for the inhab., 
who are partly supplied from the adjacent pro- 
linces by means of the Wolga. Its hemp and 
flax are excellent, and cherry and apple orchards 
are numerous. The gardeners of Jaroslavl and 
Kostof are famed throughout Knssia, and many 
are met w^ith at PeteiHbuig. Timber is rather 
scarce. The rearing of live-stock, excepting horses, 
is little pursued ; but the flsheries in the Wolga 
are important. The government is, however, more 
noted for its manufacturing than its rural in- 
dustry. Linen, cotton, and woollen stufts, leather* 
silk, paper, hardware, and tobacco are the prin- 
cipal manufactures ; the peasants are almost every 
where partially occupied with weaving stockings 
and other fabrics, and making gloves, hats, har- 
ness, wooden shoes, and various rural implements. 
Commerce is facilitated by several navigable 
rivers and good roads. 

Jaroslavl is subdivided into ten districts ; chief 
towns, Jaroslavl, Rostof, and Ouglitoh. Its pop. 
is Russian ; and the women are proverbial (among 
Russians) for their beauty. Only about 1-1 7th 
part of the inhabs. reside in towns. 

jARosiiAVL, a city of European Russia, cap. of 
the above gov., and of a circ. of same name, on 
the Wolga, at the mouth of the Kotorosth, 212 m. 
KE. Moscow, and 325 m. 8E. St. Petersburg. 
Pop. 35,100 in 1858. The town is well built, 
though mostly of wood; and is defended by a 
fort at the confluence of the two rivers. In its 
broad main street, which is ornamented with trees, 
are many handsome stone houses ; and 3 convents 
and numerous churches contribute to give Jaro- 
slavl an imposing appearance. The Demidoff 
lyceum, founded m 1803, has a f^od library, a 
cabinet of natural histor}', a chemical laboratory, 
and printing-press, and ranks immediately after 
the Russian universities. It was originally en- 
dowed with lands, to which 8,578 serfs were at- 
tached, and with a capital of 100,000 silver roubles ; 
ajid on the emancipation of the serfs, in 18C3, it 
feccived a large pecuniary compensation. The 
same educational course Is pursued as in the uni- 
versities, and lasts three years. The establishment 
is placed under a lay-director and an ecclesiastic, 
and has 8 professors, 2 readers, and 40 pensionary 
students. Jaroslavl has also an ecclesiastical se- 
taiinary, with 500 students. A large exchange 
{Go8tindi dvor), an hospital, foundling asylum, 
house of correction, and 2 workhouses, are the 
other chief public edifices. This city is the resi- 
dence of a governor, and the see of an archbishop. 
It has about 40 different factories, including 3 of 
cotton, 4 of linen, and 2 of silk fabrics, 8 tanneries, 
and several tobacco, hardware, and paper-making 
establishments. Its leather and table linen are 
much esteemed. The position of Jaroslavl on the 
Wolga contributes to promote its commerce, which 
is very considerable. Its manufactures are sent 
to Moscow and Petersbuig, and a great many are 
sold at the fair of Markarief. Two annual fairs 
Are heldk 


Jaroslavl is a city of considerable antiquity, 
being founded in 1025 by the famous Jaroslav, . 
son of Vladimir the Great, who annexed it to the 
principality of Rostov. It fell under the dukes of 
Moscow, in 1426. Peter the Great was the first 
to give it commercial importance, by establishing 
its linen manufactures, since which its prosperity 
has been progressive. 

JAROSLAW, or JAROSLAU, a town of the 
Austrian empire, Galicia, circ. Przemisl, on the 
San, a tributary of the Vistula, 16 m. NNW. the 
town of Przennisl. Pop. 8,773 in 1857, among 
whom many Jews. It has a castle belonging to 
prince Czaritorinsky, a cathedral, and several other 
churches, a high ' school and girls* school, and 
manufactures of woollen and linen cloths, roso- 
glio, and w^ax candles. It has an extensive trade 
in tht«e goods, and in wooden wares, honey, 
bleached wax, flax, and Hungarian wines, con- 
siderable qnantiti^'s of all wliich are sent to 
Dantzic, though less than formerly. The^ town 
has some rather large fairs ; the principal is that • 
holdcn on the 15th of Aug. 

JAS8Y (an. Jcusiorium Municipium)^ a town of 
Moldavia, of which it is the cap., on the Baglui, a 
tributary of the Pruth, about 120 m. NNW. Ga- 
lacz, and 160 m. WNW. Odessa. Pop. estim. at 
35,000 in 1863. The town is situated in a fertile 
country, partly on a hill, and partly in the valley 
l)eneath, and covers a laige surface, the houses 
being interspon*cd with ganiens and plantations. 
Its fortitications were demolished in 1788, and its 
only defence is now a small fortress on an emi- 
nence, opposite the residence of the hospodar. 
About 4,700 houses, including all its handsomest 
residences, were destroyed by fire in 1822 ; since 
which, Jassy has been partly rebuilt. Of the 
6,000 houses it is now stated to contain, about 200 
only are of stone or brick. The principal street is 
wide, and lined with low shops ; the other streets - 
are narrow and crooked: they are paved only 
with logs, and in wet weather are impassable from 
the mud, while in dry weather they are enveloped 
in clouds of dust. Inhere is want of cleanliness ; 
and this, with the proximity of marshes, and the 
exhalations which arise from the imperfectly 
covered sewers, render the town, especially its 
lower part, very unhealthy. Jassy is the see of a 
(ireek archbishop, whos^ residence is perhaps the 
most remarkable public edifice. It has many 
Greek chiurches and chapeL% a Rom. Oath, and a 
Lutheran church, numerous convents, a hospital, 
three public baths, a large building appropriated 
to a WaUachian printing estalilishment, a gym- 
nasium established in 1644, a Lancastrian school, 
and a school of handicraflrs for females founded in 
1834. It has few manufactures; some canvass is, 
however, made in the town for export to Con- 
stunt inople, and the trade in wine, flax, com, 
hides, wool^ wax, honey, and tallow is consider- 
able, especially at the fairs. The town has so 
oflen suffered from fire that, to be secure, some 
of the merchants deposit their most valuable 
wares in chests in the high church of St. Nicholas. 
The boyars, or principal inhabs., have a great 
passion for pageantry and gaming, and are illi- 
terate in the extreme. Their costume is a mix- 
ture of Oriental and European, and the showy 
dresses of the upper classes strikingly contrast 
with the general wretched appearance of the pop. 

JASZ-BERENY, a town of Hungary, distr. 
Jagyzia, of which it is the cap., on botn sides the 
Zagy va, here crossed by a stone bridge, 40 m. E. 
Pesth. Pop. 15,893 in 1857. The town has a 
laige and handsome Rom. Oath, parish church, 
several other churches, a Franciscan convent^ 
Rom» C^tli. gymnasium, high school, and a U>wa- 

^lyitized by 



ball, in which are kept the aichives of Jagyzia 
and Great and Little (Mmania. In the centre of 
the town stands a marble obelisk, erected in 1797 
in honour of the Archduke John ; and within the 
precincts of the convent, on an island in the 
Zagyva, the traveller is shown a tomb, reported 
to be that of Aitila. The town has a large trade 
in com, horses, and cattle, which latter are reared 
in great numbers in its vicinity. 

JAUER, a town of Prussia, prov. Silesia, cap. 
rirc of same name, on the Neisse, 10 m. S£. 
Licgnitz, on the railway from Liegnitz to 
Schweidnitz. Pop. 8,(>80 in 1861. The town is 
the seat of the judicial courts for the circle ; has 
a house of correction, a Lutheran, and five Rom. 
Cath. churches, a free school, and fabrics of linen 
and woollen cloths. 

JAVA, a huge and fertile island of the Eastern 
Archipelago, belonging to the Dutch, and the 
centre, as well as the most valuable, of their pos- 
sessions in the East. It lies between the 6th and 
9th degs. S. lat., and the 105th and 115th £. 
long. ; separated from Sumatra on the W. by the 
straits of Sunda, E. by those of Bali from the isl. 
of that name; having N. the Sea of Java between 
it nod Borneo, and S. the Indian Ocean. Its 
general contiguration is not unlike that of Cuba, 
except that it is not curved, and it also resembles 
Cuba in its extent, fertility, products, and com- 
mercial value, while it supports eight times its 
amount of pop. Its length vV. to £. is about 660 
m.; breadth varying from 40 to 130 m. Area, 
inclusive of the neighbouring isL of Madura, 
51,336 sq. m. ; pop. 13,019,108 in 1861. Among 
the pop. are 100,000 Cliinese, with Malays, natives 
of Bah and other isls. of the Archipelago, a few 
Arabs, Moors, and Bengalese, and 20,000 Euro- 
peans, moetlv natives of the Netherlands. 

Phyneal Creography.—lAo9X> part of the surface 
is mountainous. A mountain chain, obviously of 
volcanic origin, runs W. and E. entirely through 
the centre of the isl., its peaks varying in ele- 
vation from 5,000 to probably 12,000 ft All these 
peaks are of a conical form, and, with few excep- 
tions, each appears to have originated in a distinct 
convulsion of nature. All have been at some 
period active volcanoes ; in most of them, how- 
ever, volcanic agency is now apparently extinct, 
though, from some, eruptions occasionally take 
place, and sulphureous vapours are emitted, espe- 
cially after rain. The S. coast is usually bold 
and rocky and being exposed to all the violence of 
the ocean, is unsafe for shipping; the N. shore is, 
on the contrary, low and marshy, and has manv 
tolerable harbours and roadsteads, affording suf- 
ficient shelter to trading vessels, the sea being 
generally smooth. Rivers numerous; but very 
ien of any size. The largest is the Solo, which 
luss through neatly the centre of the isl., and 
(tiserobogucs on the N. coast, opposite Madura. 
Its kngth may be estimated at 400 m., seven- 
eighths of which are navigable for vessels of 200 
tons. Five or six other rivers aite at all times 
navigable for a few miles from the coast, and 
aboDt fifty 3iore are in the wet season used for 
the convevance of rafts and rough produce down 
wards, "fhere are many extensive 8wam{)6, and 
m the mountains many small lakes occupy the' 
crateift of extinct volcanoes. 

Basalt, hornblende, and other volcanic forma- 
tions are abundantly intermixed among the pri- 
mary rocka of the mountain region. On either 
ride of the mountain chain coarse limestone and 
ai^gillaccous iron-stone are vei^' prevalent forma- 
tions, and are covered, especially in the lower 
parts of the countrv, with a volcanic soil of great 
ochnees in some places 12 ft. in depth. The N. 

JAVA 61 

coast rests entirely upon coraL Metals are few. 
Mineral springs of various kinds are met with, 
besides naphtha and petroleum wells, and in one 
distr. is a cluster of hills which eject a mixture 
of mud and salt water, like the mud-volcano of 
Maccaluba, in Sicily. 

The seasons are divided into the wet and dry. 
The former accompanies the monsoon fh)m Octo- 
ber to March or April ; the latter, the E. mon- 
soon» which lasts during the rest of the year. On 
the N. coast, where the thermometer sometimes 
rises to 90^^ Fahr., the climate is very unfavour- 
able to Europeans ; but in the interior, at an ele- 
vation of 4.000 fl., where the temperature ranges 
between 50° and 60°, no deleterious intiuence is 
to be apprehended from the atmosphere. Thun- 
derstorms and earthquakes are frequent, but hur- 
ricanes are unknown. 

Java has a most luxuriant vegetation. It is 
distinguished by the number and excellence of 
its fruits and other vegetable products, which 
comprise many of the most valuable common to 
tropical climates. Dense forests of teak and 
other trees, useful for shipbuilding, cover a great 
part of the interior, especially towards the E. end 
of the island. The teak of Java is inferior in 
hardness and solidity to that of Malabar, but it 
is superior in those respects to that of Birmah ; 
and is said to excel every other variety in dura- 
bility. The sago, and many other palms, the 
very curious pit«her-plant {Neptwthe* distU- 
latoria)f and two virulently poisonous plants, the 
anchor and the chetikf are natives of the island. 
The latter, which is peculiar to Java, is a large 
creeping shrub, and identical with the celebrated 
iqxuf formerly supposed, but on no good founda- 
tion, to be, like Avemus, destructive of birds 
flying over it. The aggregate number of mam- 
malia has been estimated at fifty, including the 
royal and black tigers, rhinoceros, several kinds 
of deer, the wild hog, wild Javan ox, and buffalo. 
Crocodiles and other large reptiles infest the 
mouths of the rivers and the marshes ; and up- 
wards of twenty venomous serpents are enume- 
rated, including some of enormous size. BirdM ' 
are in immense variety; the bird of paradise 
visits Java, from Gilolo, Papua, and the othef 
islands to the E. ; and the edible nests of the sea 
swallow (Hirundo esculaUa) form an important 
and valuable article of trade for the Chinese 
markets. This sin^ar product is obtained in 
the greatest perfection from deep, damp, and all 
but inaccessible caves along the rugged pafrts of 
the sea coast. These are the property of govern- 
ment; and, when they can oe easUy gnarded^ 
produce a considerable revenue;. The Aests are 
taken twice a year; and if no unnecessary vio- 
lence be done, the operation seems to be but little 
injurious : at all events, the quantity is but little 
increased by the caves being left untouched 
for a year or two. The nests are assorted in 
three qualities, the best being the whitest, of 
those taken away before they have been soiled by 
the food or frees of the young bird. The supply 
of nests beiu|;^ limited and unsusceptible or in- 
crease, and bemg, at the same time, highly prized 
by the rich and luxurious Chhiese, on account of 
their real or supposed invigorating powers, they 
bring enormous prices ; the finest sorts selling for 
6L ov 6/. per lib., and the inferior for 24s. or 25a, 
They are collected, but in smaller quantities, in 
other parts of the Archipelago. 

7 reu/e cmd Industry, — The vast majority of the 
Javanese are a nation of husbandmen. To the 
crop the mechanic looks for his wages, the soldier 
for his pay, the magistrate for his salary, the 
priest for his stipend, and the government for ita 

^2 le 



tribute. The wealth of a province or village ia 
measured by the extent and fertility of ita land, 
ita facilitiea for rice irrigation, and the number of 
its buffaloes. The proportion, at an average of 
the inhab. engaged in agriculture to the rest of 
pop. may be stated at 4 to 1 ; and it is probable 
that if the whole island were under cultivation, 
no area of land of the same extent in any other 
quarter of the globe could surpass it, either in the 
(quantity, quality, or value of its vegetable produc- 
tions. At present, only about one-third part of the 
surface is supposed to be under culture ; and yet 
Java produces not only enough of com for its own 
consumption, but is the granary of the E. Archi- 
pelago, and even of Singapore. Within the last 
twenty years the cultivation of all its great staples 
lias wonderfully increased; and the progress of 
Java has been more remarkable than tluit of either 
Brazil or Cuba. 

The husbandry of the Javanese may be said to 
exhibit, upon tlie whole, much neatness and order. 
Two or more crops are never cultivated in the 
same field, as is the slovenly practice of the Hin- 
doos. Neither are the lands tilled in common, as 
IS a usual but most injurious practice in India. 
The peasant and his family bestow their labour 
exclusively on their o^vn possessions, and consider 
their culture rather as an enjo^'ment than a task. 
It is here only that their industrv assumes an ac- 
tive and systematic character : tfie women take a 
lai^e share of the labour. Tlie work of the plough^ 
the haiTow and mattock, with all that concerns 
the important operations of irrigation, are per- 
formed by the men, but the lighter labours of 
sovring, transplanting, reaping, and housing, belong 
almost exclusively to the women. 
^ The implements of agriculture are few and 
simple ; but, as well as the agricultural processes, 
the^v are more perfect, and imply a greater degree 
of mtelligence, than those of the Ilindoos, and 
perhaps, indeed, thafa those of any Asiatic people, 
the Chinese excepted. The Javanese plough, like 
the Hindoo, has no share. The stock is tipped 
with a few ounces of iron, and the eafth board is 
carved out of the body of the plough ; the wood 
is teak, the yoke of bamboo cane. One man con- 
ducts the plough, and with a long whip guides the 
cattle, which never exceed two in number. The 
Javanese harrow is a large rake, with a single row 
of teeth. The same yoke and cattle are used for 
it aH for the plough, and over its beam a bamboo 
cane is placed, on which the person who guides it 
aits to give a necessary weight to the implement, 
Tlie hoe is very indiflerent ; its edge only tipped 
with a little iron, and its handle a^ut 2^ ft. long. 
The Javanese sickle is a very peculiar instruments 
Ita object ia to nip off separately each ear of rice 
with a few inches of the straw ; for which purpose 
it is grasped in the ri^ht hand, and the operation 
effected with a dexterity acquired by habit The 
whole farming stock of a villager may be pur- 
chased for little more than one-third part of the 
yearly produce of his land ; or for about 16 or 16 
dollars, including a ^ir of buffaloes. These 
animals usually serve all agricultural and other 
purposes in place of horses. Cattle of every de- 
scription areplentifid throughout Java; but the 
cows are inferior, and yield little milk. Sheep, 
goats, and hogs are numerous. 

Kice is the principal food of all classes : it is 
grown not only along the whole of the aea-coast, 
but in all the low grounds and ravines where water 
is to be had. Wherever rice is cultivated by im- 
mersion, the land is divided into small chequed 
of about 200 or 300 sq.^ardS) suilrounded by dykes 
not exceeding 1^ ft. high, to detain the water for 
iirigation. When the culture depends on the 

periodical rains, the charge of these dykes con- 
stitutes, 80 far as irrigation is concerned, the only 
care of the husbandmen; but the greater quantitv 
of the grain of Java is mised by the help of arti- 
ficial irrigation. The principal care of the hus- 
bandmen is to dam the brooks and mountain 
streams as they descend from the hills, and before 
the difficulty has occurred which would be pre- 
sented by their passing through deep ravines. 
From this cireumstance, the crests of Uie moan- 
tains, and the valleys at their feet, are best sup- 
plied with water, and there, consequently, is the 
finest and richest husbandry'. The slopes of the 
mountains are formed into terraces highly culti- 
vated, and the vaUeys are rendered almost' impas- 
sable from the frequency of the water courses, xhe 
art of forcing rice by artificial irrigation is found 
only to prevail in the most improved parts of the 
Eastern Archipelago, and in the best lands. This 
mode does not depend upon the seasons ; and hence 
we see in the best parts of Java, where it chiefly 
obtains, rice in every state of progress, at any given 
season, and in the same district, within, indeed, 
the compass of a few acres. In one little field, or 
rather compartment, the husbandman is plough- 
ing or harrowing ; in a second, he is sowing; in 
a third, transplanting; in a fourth, the grain is 
banning to flower ; in a fifth, it is yellow ; and 
in the sixth, the women, children, tuid old men 
are busy reaping. Lands which may be inundated 
at pleasure almost always yield a white and a 
greeb crop within the year ; and tx) take two white 
crops from them, whether a judicious practice <xr 
otherwise, is very common. 

Two varieties of rice are raised in Java, one a 
large, productive, but delicate kind, requiring 
about seven months to ripen, and the other small, 
hardy, and less fruitful, which ripens in little 
more than five months. The first is always culti- 
vated in rich lands, where one lymual crop only 
is taken ; but where two crops are raised, the other 
variety is grown. The rapid growth of the latter 
has, indeed, enabled the husbandman, in a few 
happy situations^ to reap six crops in two years 
and a half. 

Kice, of whatever description, is reaped and 
stored in the same way. The whole field is not 
reaped at once, but each portion of the grain is 
taken successively as it ripens; so that, in the 
desultory mannerin which the operation is per- 
formed, a very small field, with many reapers, 
may occupy a period of ten <»r twelve days in 
reaping. With the singular sickle before men- 
tioned the ears are nipped off, and forthwith 
transported to the village by the manual labour 
of the reapers, for cattle or carriages are very 
rarely used. At the village the com is sufficiently 
dried' by a day or two's exposure to a powerful sun, 
when it is tied in sheaves or bundles, and de- 
posited in little granaries of wicker work, one of 
which is attachMl to every cottage. Grain is never 
thrashed by treading it out by means of cattle. It 
sometimes, chiefly in the case of mountain rice, 
becomes necessary to separate the seed from the 
straw, which is done by treading, or rather rub- 
bing, the sheaf between the feet, an operation 
effected with considerable dexterity. Commonly 
the grain is stored for use and transported to 
market in the straw. The operation of^ husking 
is performed by the women in laige wooden 
mortars, with pestles of the same materiaL Rice 
is mostly grown in the £. part of the island, whence 
it is sent in large quantities to Batavia for expor- 
tation, or to Sfunarangi from which port a good 
deal is shipped for China and the islands of the 

Coffee, which has betome the great commercial 




aUpIe of Java, is grown in the uplands, the best 
situatioDS for it being the vaUe3r8 from 8,000 to 
4,000 fu above the level of the sea. llie coffee 
plant grows from 12 to 16 ft. in height ; it attains 
to malunl^ in about 5 years, ana continues to 
bear well for the succeeding 10 or 12 years, each 
tree yielding, at an average, 1\ lb. coffee. The 
chief peculiarity of the colee culture in Java is 
the planting of the dadap tree {Erytlirina iitdica), 
in TOWS altemalely with the coffee plants, for the 
ptirpoM of affording shelter to the latter. Coffee 
la raised principally in the W. part of the island, 
where the residency of Preangers furnishes at least 
one-fourth part of the total produce. 

Sugar is, also, a most important staple. The 
best known in European markets is called Jaocatra 
sugar ; it is grown near Batavia, where numerous 
sugar mills have been erected of late years. For- 
merly the sugar mills and grounds were almost 
whoUy in the hands of the Chinese, but this is no 
longer the case : the Europeans share the culture 
of sugar with the Chinese, and having the advan- 
tage of machinery, surpass the latter both in the 
quantity and quality of their produce. The 
Chinese, however, by their frugality and business- 
like habits, are supposed to reap the greatest profit 
from its production. A species of sugar obtained 
by fermenting the juice of a tree, is much used by 
the natives. 

_ The increase in the production of sugar in Java 
since 1825 has been very great ; the quantity ex- 
ported in 1862 having been above fifty times 
greater than in 1826. The exports, in 1862, 
reached 1,543,896 picols. The increase in the 
growth of coffee has, however, been far greater 
than that of sugar ; and Java is now become one of 
the principal sources of the supply of these im- 
portant products. 

In 1839, the government officially^ announced 
that the cultivation of spices, previously prohi- 
bited in Java, would for the future be free to tUl 
parties desirous of engaging in it; and, further, 
that every facility would be given to such persons, 
by supplying them with whatever information, 
and even seed, they might require. This liberal 
policy has had a considerable influence, though 
not, perhaps, so much as was anticipated. Indigo 
has been one of the most successful of the various 
articles introduced into the island; and has al- 
ready, indeed, been found to be a formidable rival 
to Uie indigo of India. In 1828, the culture of 
the tea plant was attempted; and considerable 
(inantities are now raised m different parts of the 
island. The silk-worm was introduc^ early in 
18th century; but though often ronewed, the 
attem|>ta to produce mlk have failed. Pepper is 
extensively produced; but long pepper, though 
indigenoio, has been comparatively neglect^. 
Tobacco and cotton may be ranked amonff the 
staple' products: considerable quantities of the 
latter are exported. Maize is gro\m in the plains, 
and wheat, rye, oats, and barley in the hilly 
tracts, but the latter only in small quantities. A. 
great variety of pulses and vegetable oils, the 
sweet potato, cocoa, betel-leaf, and pistachio nuts 
are among the other articles of culture. 

Labour is very cheap; but the labourers are, 
notwithstanding, in a much better condition than 
the inhab. of Bengal, being generally well fed and 
clothed, and for me climate, well housed. Their 
food is principally rice or maize, with a little 
sugar ; their clothing is chiefly of cotton, and in 
the centre of the island it is mostly the manu- 
lactore of the country; but they consume a 
greater quantity of manuiactured articles of good 
qiuditv than the Bengalesc. Each peiisant has his 
hut of bamboo, which costs onlv from about 5s. to 

lOx. in the first instance, and is usually sur* 
rounded by a small garden. 

The proprietary right to the land, except in a 
few districts, belongs evei^-where to the sovfereign. 
No law nor usage gives to the oldest occupant the 
land he has reclaimed from waste, or the farm he 
has enriched by his industry. As a matter of 
convenience, the same cultivator may continue to 
occupy the same field for life, and his family may 
afterwards succeed, but none can retain possessioii 
against the will of the sovereign, or even of his 
own immediate superior. Hafif the produce of 
wet lands, atad a third part of that of dry, was 
formerly exacted by the government, but at pre- 
sent it takes only one-fifth part of the produce ; 
nor has any propnetor purohasiog land of the go- 
vernment the right to demand more of the native 
occupant, except for lands which the proprietor 
himself may have brought into cultivation, for 
which he may demand one-third part, or less, 
according to the productiveness of the land. It 
is not uninstructive to compare this moderate 
assessment with the exorbitant amount taken 
from the occupiers in Hindostan, and to mark the 
results exhibited in the impoverishment of the 
inhab. of British India and the stationary state 
of the country, and the comfort of the Javanese 
labourer, and the great and rapidly increasing 
prosperitjr of Java. 

No permission is necessary from the Dutch go- 
vernment for Europeans wishing to go io Java, 
but a licence from the colonial governor is neces- 
sarv to remaining there. Europeans are permitted 
to buy and sell lands in the W. provs., and to 
hold leases in the N. The principal conditions 
are the payment of a tax or 1 per cent, on the 
estimated value of the property; that the pro- 
prietor shall not exact more than the before- 
mentioned proportion of produce as rent; and 
that he shall keep the roads and bridges in repair. 
The European proprietors receive their rents in 
kind, and are obliged to take their produce to 
Batavia to be shipped. The free cultivation of 
every article of produce is allowed, except the 
poppy. Large capitals have been expended on 
the«lands held by Europeans in irrigation, the 
construction of sugar-milb and mills for husking 
rice, and the introduction of machinery from 
Europe. The introduction of European capitalists 
and residents has greatly improved the condition 
of the natives, who are always ready to enter 
their service. Theft and robbeiy are seldom heard 
of on estates belonging to Europeans, and there 
are no instances of personal violence done the 
latter. A village system is very prevalent, bv 
which every commune has its own lands, the cul- 
ture of which it has a right to direct, and which 
is conducted for the benefit of its inhabs. in com- 
mon. This is particularly the case in the E. : the 
produce is afterwards divided (after deducting tho 
rent) into equal parts, according to the numl^r of 
hands engaged in its production. The land be- 
longing to a commune varies generally from about 
40 to 100 acres, and the extent allotted to each 
individual from one half to two acres. 

Manufactutes are few, and principally domestic: 
the peasant's family fabricates almost ever\- ar- 
ticle required for its own use. Cotton goods are 
woven ; and a cubit's length of cotton cloth, 5 
spans in breadth, is considered a sufficient day's 
work by the Javanese weaver. 

The Javanese and Indian islanders, in general, 
are wholly unacquainted with the art of manu- 
facturing fine cloths of any kind : all their fabrics 
are of a coarse, though durable texture ; and all 
the labours of the loom are performed by women 
only.. Of calico-printing the Javanese are en- 



tiiely Ignorant; but they have a sing:alar substi- 
tute for it. The part not intended to be coloared, 
they daab over with melted wax. The cloth, 
thus treated, is thrown into the dyeing-vat, and 
the interstices take the colour of the pattern. If 
a second or third colour have to be added, the 
operation is repeated on the ground made by the 
first application of wax; more wax is applied, 
and the cloth is once, or oflener, consij<ned to the 
vat. The greater refinement that is attempted, 
the more certain seems to be the failure. This 
awkward substitute for printing adds 100 per cent., 
at least, to the price of the cloth. And yet, un- 
skilful as the manufacturing industry of the 
Javanese is, it generally exceu that of the other 
islanders of the Archipelago. Leather and sad- 
dlery are made at Solo, l>oots and shoes at Sama- 
rang, mats, and hats of bamboo, coir, fishing-nets, 
paper from the bark of the Moms ^^yrifera, 
Dricks, cabinet-work, carved wooden articles, boats 
and ships, in the constniction of which the natives 
are tolerably versed, and Ames, matchlocks, and 
other arms, are, exclusive of cottons, the chief 
manufactures. Copper and brass pans are made, 
but their manufacture has very much declined. 
Almost all the manufactured goods used by Eu- 
ropeans are imported. Java is the only island of 
the £. Archipelago in which salt is made to any 
extent: along the N. coast there are numerous 
salt-pans, from which a great deal more of the 
article is obtained than is required for home con- 
sumption — a quantity estimated at 82,000 tons 
annually. The salt marshes, and other inlets of 
the sea, are often embanked for the rearing of fish 
in large numbers. 

In architecture, the Javanese surpass the other 
natives of the E. Archipelago ; and many struc- 
tures of stone and brick, some in a style of su- 
perior magnificence, exist in different parts of the 
island. But the art of building has declined 
since the middle of the 13th century, and the 
modem Japanese do not even understand the art 
of turning an arch, though arches are seen in 
every ancient structure remaining in Java. The 
karatonay or palaces of the native nobles, are 
walled inclosures, laid out on a uniform plan, and 
comprising numerous buildings. They were for- 
merly constructed of hewn stone, but at present 
consist only of ill-burnt bricks and ill-concocted 
mortar. After these, the better sort of residences 
are called pandapas, a word derived from the 
Sanscrit; and the edifice is, therefore, probably 
of Indian origin. In most of these a thatched 
roof is supported by four wooden pillars, round 
which is an awning of light materials, supported 
by movable props of bamboo; and the whole is 
closed in by a temporary paling, and divided into 
apartments by light partitions. The chief ma^ 
terials of the houses of the Javanese are the 
bamboo, rattan, palmetto leaf, and vrild grass. 
The house of a peasant in a populous part of Java, 
where materials are not the most abundant, will 
not exceed the value of 60 days' labour. In the 
dwellings of the chiefs there is generally, in & 
conspicuous part of the house, a kind of state 
bed, rather for display than use ; but an ordinary' 
bed is usually only the bamboo floor of the cot- 
tage, or, at best, a bench of the same flimsy 
material, on which a mat and small pillow are 
laid, and the peasant retires to rest without un- 
dressing. Food is served up on salvers or trays 
of wood or brass. A few Chinese porcelain dishes 
are used occasionally, but neither spoons, knives, 
nor forks. 

The commerce between Java and Holland, which 
amounts to five-sevenths of the whole external 
trade, is chiefly carried on by the Nederlandisch 

Handel MaaUchappy^ or Dutch Commercial So- 
ciety, which includes some of the most wealthy 
persons in the mother country. 

The principal articles of import are linen and 
cotton manufactures, chintzes, muslins, provisions, 
wines and spirits, iron and iron goods, and woollen 
goods, haberdashery, glass, and copper wares, from 
Europe and America ; opium from the Levant and 
Bengal ; sacking, linens, and wheat, from India ; 
porcelain, tea, tobacco, silk and silk goods, from 
China ; copper and camphor from Japan ; gambier, 
coffee, tin, cotton, gold dust, benzoin, and sandal- 
wood from the rest of the Archipelago. 

The subjoined table shows the quantities of the 
principal articles exported from Java, in each of 
the years 1861 and 1862 :— 



Arrack . 




Cochineal . 












Hides, Cow & 
Buffalo . 

1 Btuka 







Cinnamon . 








Oil . 




Pepper . 




Rattans . 




Rice . 







Nutmegs . 




Sugar, White 




„ Brown 




Tobacco . 




Tin . 




Birds' Nests 

} .. 



Salt . 




The value of the principal articles exported from 
Java in the year 1861 amounted to 3,478,860/., of 
which 2,445,380/. was to the Netherlands, and 
but 82,986/. to Great Britain. The exports of 
18G2 amounted to 3,858,996/. in value, of wliich 
2,422,081/. was to the Netherlands, and 38,010/L to 
Great Britain. 

The internal traffic of Java is comparatively 
small, though few countries have better means of 
communication. A carriage road, extending from 
one extremity of Java to the other, 800 m. in 
length, was made by General Daendels, a Dutch 
governor, but it is alleged that its construction 
cost the lives of 12,000 natives. 

The Chinese weights are invariably used in 
commercial transactions at Batavia, and through- 
out Java and the other Dutch possessions in India. 
These are the picul and the cattie, which is its 
hundredth part The picul is commonly estimated 
at 125 Dutch or 133^ lbs. avoirdupois, but at Ba- 
tavia it has been long reckoned equal to 136 lbs. 
avoird. The bahar is 3, and the timbang 5, piculs. 
The coyang of rice is equivalent to 3,300 Iba. 
Dutch. The coins in use are similar to those 
current in the Netherlands. ISpanish dollars are 
received at the custom-house in Batavia, at the 
rate of 100 for 260 florins. 

Government. — Java, inc. Madura, is divided into 
24 provinces, or residencies, each governed by a 
European resident, assisted by a secretary, and as 
many sub-residents as may be deemed necessary. 
The residencies are sub-divided into arronds. or 
regencies, the administration of wiiich, especially 
in respect to the police, is confided to native chiefs, 
termed regents. The colonial government at Bata- 
via exerts a full and complete power over all the 
Dutch colonies in the E. seas. The gov.-general 
iu the cap. is the representative of tlic king of 



Holland, and commander-in-chief of the foices by 
land and sea. He is assisted by a secretary-general, 
and a colonial council of four membezs, who must 
be of Dutch extraction, bom m Holland, or one of 
its dependencies, and thirty years of age, and 
who can exercise no other functions while they 
remain councillors. Justice is administered in the 
last resort in a supreme court at Batavia, which 
has jurisdiction in all cases above the value of 500 
florins. Three subordinate civil and criminal tri- 
bunals, and three courts martial, subordinate to a 
central court in the cap., are established in Batavia, 
i^amarang, and Sourabaya. A member from each 
of these courts makes a circuit at least every three 
months into the residencies under its control, to 
preside at a court of assize, composed besides of 
four native chiefs chosen annually by the govern- 
ment, on the recommendation of the natives. The 
permanent tribunals of the residencies are the 
land-raaden, composed of the resident, four mems. 
selected from among the regents, and a secretarj'. 
In each arrond. and commune are justices of the 
peace, with authority in petty cases. The Chinese 
are governed by their own laws, under function- 
aries chosen by them, who are responsible to the 
Dutch for the behaviour of the rest. There are 
few slaves belonging to Europeans in Java. The 
greatest religious toleration exists, and ministers 
of all Christian sects are equally remunerated by 
the government. Superior schools are established 
in the chief towns, and primary schools in most of 
the residencies. The squadron stationed in Java 
sometimes comprises several ships of the line, but 
in time of peace usually consists only of a few 
frigates and corvettes. There is, besides, a colo- 
nial navj' of light vessels, which forms a sepa- 
rate branch of service, though both are generally 
placed under the command of the admiral of the 
royal souadron, who has the title of Director of the 
Dutch East India Navy. Besides the foregoing 
force, a flotilla of cruisers, manned by native Javan- 
ese, is supported by the diflferent marine residen- 
cies. The land forces consist of several battalions 
of infantry and artillery, a corps of pioneers, a 
regiment of hussars, and* a portion of a squadron 
of lancers. In all there are about 10,000 Euro- 
peans in the Dutch Javanese anny. Notwith- 
standing the heavy expense incurred in the 
government, Java is one of the few colonial de- 
pendencies that in ordinary years remit a con- 
siderable revenue to the mother country. 

The Javanese^ as a nation, are the most ad- 
vanced of any in the E. Archipelago. They only, 
of those inhabiting that region, have a native 
calendar, and have made considerable progress 
in the arts and sciences of civilised life. They 
appear to have received these originally from Ilin- 
dostan, together with the Hindoo religion, which 
is supposed to have prevailed over Java, till its 
conqnest by the Mohammedans in 1478. 

Hutory, — The history of Java cannot be traced 
with any degree of confidence, further than the 
latter portion of the Tith century. From that 
time Aown. to the establishment of Mohamme- 
danism, at the close of the 15th century, the reli- 
gion, of the people was a modified Himiooism and 
a number of independent states existed in Java. 
The ruins of Mojopahit, one of the principal capi- 
tals of these several states, are among the most 
extensive in the East. This city had between 
two opposite gates, the remains of which still 
exist, a breadth of about 3 m., which would give 
a circuit of 12 m. if the enclosure had been a 
square. The Hindoo kingdom of Mojopahit was 
overturned by the Arabs in 1478, 

The Portuguese reached Java in 1511, and the 
Dutch in 1595. The latter founded Batavia in 



1619, and gradually consolidated their power on 
the island, though' for a lon^ period engaged in 
continual wars with the native sovereigns. In 
1811, Java was taken by a British force from Hin- 
dostan, and held till 1816, when, in pursuance of 
the treaty of Paris, it was restored to the king of 
the Netherlands. 

JAXARTES, a celebrated river of antiquity, 
now very generally acknowledged to be identical 
with the Sir-Daria, the chief stream of the Kiighis- 
steppe. It rises in the Kachkar-Davan, a W. 
branch of the Tiang-khang range, in lat 42<^ 30' 
N., and long. 73° 50' E. Its course to Kokau is 
WSW. about 180 m.; but at that point it takes 
a NNW. direction for about 300 m. as far aS Ak- 
metschet, in lat. 45° N., long. 66° 5' E., where 
the channel divides, the N. and laiger branch re- 
taining the name Sir, while that to the S. is 
called Kouvan-Daria: their mouths in the Cas- 
pian Sea lie about 40 m, apart, but are both in 
long 61°. The entire length of the Sir, including 
its windings, cannot be much less than 900 m. ; 
and it is both broad ond deep, which may be 
attributed to its being the sole recipient of the 
waters on the N. side of the great chain separate 
ing the khanate of Kokan from Chinese Turkestan. 
It has no aflluentof any great size ; its banks (which 
are low and sandy) are usually flooded m summer 
and at the beginning of winter; and the water is 
described as being loaded with a whitish-brown 
deposit. The ruins of temples and habitations in 
the Karakoum sands at the lower part of its course 
clearly proved that its banks were once peopled by 
a race far more civilised than the brigand Kixghis, 
who now wander over the steppe. 

Herodotus gives the name Araxes to a large 
river full of fish, and studded with islands, situ- 
ated in a vast immeasurable plain. (See i. 201- 
216.) Some geographers have conjectured that 
he meant the Amoo (Ojks), others the Wolga; 
but D'Anville, Heeren, and Mannert clearly 
show, from the position of the Massagatae rela- 
tively to the Issadones, that no other river but the 
Sir could have been meant by the Father of His- 
torj'. Ancient geographers agree in stating that 
the Jaxartes flowed into the Caspian Sea, an 
assertion, perhaps, not quite so erroneous as 
modem critics have supposed, if any credit be 
attached to the investigations of Mouravief and 
Berg on the level of the country between the 
Caspian and Arab seas, which lead to the suppo- 
sition that these great salt-lakes were once united. 
This conjecture, also, if it be correct, at once 
accounts for the great breadth (E. and W.) given 
to the Caspian by all the ancient writers. With 
respect to the term Araxes^ which was used by 
the old authors as applicable to at least Jive 
distinct rivers, it is now regarded as generic, 
meaning simply any rapid stream, like the modem 
Area, (See D'Anville's paper, Des Fleuves du 
Nom d'Araxes, in vol. xxxvi. of the Histoire de 
TAcad. des Inscriptions.) Herodotus, whose geo- 
graphy is in general very accurate, was probably 
led into his mistake respecting the direction of 
the Araxes by not knowing that this name was 
held in common bv several eastern rivers. 

JEAN D'ANGELY (ST.), a toi^Ti of France, 
dc'p. Charente Info'rieure, cap. arrond. on the 
Boutonne, which here begins to be navigable for 
vessels of from 30 to 40 tons, 33 m. SE. by E. La 
Kochelle. Pop. 6,405 in 1861. The town is ill 
built, but clean and cheerful. It has an ancient 
abbey, a handsome public hall, some baths, a 
theatre, and other places of entertainment, and a 
brisk trade in wine, brandy, and timber. 

JEDBURGH, a royal and pari. bor. and market 
town of Scotland, co. Roxburgh, of which it is 




the ca])., in a nairow valley on the Jed, about 2 m. 
above its junction with the Teviot, near the ter- 
mination of the Cheviots, 40 m. SE. Edinburgh, 
and 43 m. NE. bv N. Carlisle, on a branch line 
of the Edinbtti^ and Hawick railway. Pop. 
8,428 in 1861. The town ooosists of four leading 
streets, which cross each other at right angles, and 
are wide and well built Around the town are 
several beautiful villas. The Town Head, a stzeet 
parallel with the liver, consists of old houses, 
which, with their inhab., are said for generations 
to have undergone little or no change. The pub- 
lic buildings are the castle (built on the site of 
the ancient castle of Jedburgh, once a royal resi- 
dence), containing a bridewSl and prison, the co. 
hall, the town-house, and cfaurcnes belonging 
respectively to the Associate Synod and Belief. 
The par. church consists of the western portion of 
the abbey, founded by Da\'id I. in the 12th cen- 
turj', and will be noticed below. A majority of 
the people are dissenters. The denomination of 
dissentf'rs, termed Reliefs had its origin here in 
1764. The grammar-school of Jedburgh, an en- 
dowed seminary, has long been eminent It had 
among its pupils lliomson, the author of the 
I Seasons ' and of the ' Castle of Indolence,' bom 
in the par. of Ednam, in this co., on the 11th of 
Sept 1700. Dr. Thomas Somerville, author of 
* the History of Great Britain during the Life of 
Queen Anne,' was minister of Jedburgh. 

The chief manufacture of the town is that of 
woollens. The fabrics made are blankets, carpets, 
flannels, and hosiery. 

The abbey of Jedburgh, belonging to the Canons 
Kegular of St Augustine, must, when entire, have 
been one of the most magnificent ecclesiastical 
structures in Scotland. It exhibits different stvles 
of architecture, according to the taste [»revaiiing 
at the different periods when it was built The 
walls of the nave, central tower, and choir re- 
main, and, though much dilapidated, they suffi- 
ciently attest its ancient grandeur. The N. 
transept, which has a beautiful traceried window, 
is nearly entire. There are two magnificent 
Korman doors in this edifice, one at the W. end, 
and the other in the S. wall of the nave, close to 
the transept The ruin generally affords fine 
examples of the Saxon, Norman, and eaxly Eng- 
lish styles, the latter being exemplified in the 
long range of narrow painted windows above the 
arches of the middle part of the nave, and in the 
blank arches of the W. end. The altar, or £. end 
of the choir, the cloisters, and the chapter-house, 
have disappeared. 

A monastery for Grey Friars was founded in this 
town by the citizens in 1618 ; but of it all traces 
have disappeared. Here may still be seen the 
house in which Queen Mary lodged after her 
visit to the KmI of Bothwell, at Hermitage. 
Mary continued in it several days, owing to a 
sickness she had contracted in her unfortunate 
journey. The apartment which she occupied was 
on the third stoxy, and is in tolerable preser- 

JedbuTgh was erected into a royal bor. in the 
12th century ; but the castle, the site of which is 
now occupied by the gaol and bridewell, is sup- 
posed to have been of eariier date. After having 
been for some time in the possession of the Eng- 
lish, the castle was taken by the Scotch, in 1409, 
and demolished. Like other borderers, the citizens 
of Jedburg:h were anciently more celebrated for 
their martial than for their peaceful virtues. 
Their favourite weapon was a partizan or halbert 
known by the name of the * Jethart (Jedburgh) 
staff.' Their war-cry, or slogan, was 'Jethart's 
here.' The term * Jetliart Justice,' which implies 


execution before trial, is supposed to have origin- 
ated in the many instances of lynch law executi^d 
here on border marauders. (Scott's Border Min- 
strelsy, i. 60.) The eldest son of the Marauis of 
Lothian, descended from the ancient lx>rder 
family of the Kers of Femiehurst, for centuries the 
feudal superiors of the bor., has the title of Lord 

Jedbuigh unites with N. Berwick, Haddington, 
Lauder, and Dunbar in sending a menu to the 
H. of a Registered voters, 174 in 1864. Cor- 
poration revenue 29L in 1868-64. 

JEDDO. See Yeddo. 

Affghanistan, in a fertile plain, and on the high 
road between Caubul and Peshawur, 80 m. E. by 
N. the former, and 60 m. WNW. the latter; lat 
34© 80' N., long. 7(P 82' K It is a small town, 
with a bazaar of 60 shops, and a pop. of 2,000 
people; but its number increases tenfold in the 
cold season, as the people flock to it from the 
surrounding hills. Julalabad is the residence of 
a chief of the Barukzye family, who has a revenue 
of about 7 lacs of rupees a year. The Caubul 
river passes i m. N. of the town, and is about 150 
yards wide : it is not fordable. 

JEMME (EL). See Tysdrus. 

JENA, a town of Central CJermany, grand 
duchj of Saxe Weimar, circ. Weiraar-Jena, cap. 
distnct, on the Saale, 12 m. E. Weimar, and 41 
m. SW. Halle, on the railway from Halle to 
Gotha. Pop. 6,984 in 1861. The town, which 
is walled, and has handsome suburbs outside its 
four gates, lies in a valley, between two abrupt 
eminences, on the left bank of the river, which 
is here crossed by a handsome stone bridge. The 
streets are wide, and some of the houses are lai^o 
and well built, many being highly ornamented 
with rude and grotesque sculpture. The ducal 
palace, containing a library and museum, with a 
good collection of minerals and animals, 1 Rom. 
Cath. and 8 Protestant churches, 8 hospitals, a 
lunatic asylum, and the university-house, are the 
chief public buildings. It is a place of consider- 
able eminence for literature, and the seat of a 
university, founded in the 17th centnry by the 
sovereign princes of the Ernestine branch of 
the house of Saxony, in whom the patronage and 
appointment of the professors is still vested. The 
constitution is similar to that of other German 
universities; it has faculties of divinity, law, 
medicine, and philosophy, with 28 ordinary pro- 
fessors, composing a senaius accuiemiciaj for 
examining students and conferring degrees: there 
are also 17 extraordinary professors, and a few 
privat-docentent or private tutors. The salaries 
of the ordinanr professors range between 80/. and 
180/., those of the * extraordinary' varying from 
80/^ to 90/., which are increased by fees from 
pupils, each of whom pays at the rate of about 
6 thalers, or 16«. 6dl, for the course. The re- 
muneration of the tutors depends wholly on the 
number of their pupils. The annual expenditure 
of the university, mcluding the expense of theo- 
logical and other seminaries, the liboiiry (com- 
prising 100,000 vols.), veterinary school, collec- 
tions, botanical garden, and ofiicers, amounts to 
about 88,000 thalers, or nearly 6,000/., a year. 
A fund, also, similar to that in GDttingen, with 
a capital of 4,600/., is employed in pensioning 
the widows of professors ; and' an academical re- 
fectory fund {Speise-cauialt), supported by endow- 
ments and yearly grants from the grand dukes of 
Saxe- Weimar, Cobuig, and Meiningen, furnishes 
daily meals at several ordinaries for 132 indigent 
students. The number of students has averaged 
600 during the last 10 or 12 years; an attendance 

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far mofre limited than in the middle of the last 
centar>'^, when 8,000 were in actual residence at 
the same time. Living in Jena is considered 
cheaper than at almost any other university of 
Germany; and a student may live respectably, 
and enjoy for half the money the same education 
he comd command in Great Britain. The in- 
dustiy of the town, which is considerable, com- 
prises the mann&cture of coarse linen fabrics, 
hats, and tobacco. Three annual fairs are very 
namerously attended. 

Jena is famous in modem history, from its 
vicinity ha\*ine been the scene of the great battle 
of the 14th of October, 1806, between the French 
anny, under Napoleon, and the Prussians, com- 
manded by the king and duke of Brunswick, the 
latter of whom was mortally wounded in the 
action. The French gained a complete and 
decisive victory. The Prussians lost above 20,000 
men, killed and taken in the course of the day, 
with all their cannon and baggage. In fact, their 
army may be said to have h&sn totally destroyed; 
asmostof the troops who escaped from the field 
were soon ailer compelled to surrender. 

JERSEY, an island of the English Channel, 
belonging to Great Britain, and the principal of 
that group known as the Channel Islands, in St 
Michaers Bav, 18 m. W. the coast of France, and 
85 m. S. Portland Bill, its NW. point bemg in 
lat 490 16' N., long. 2© 22' W. Shape somewhat 
oblong; greatest length, £. to W., 12 m. ; average 
breadth, 5 m. ; area, 39,000 acres. Pop. 56,076 m 
1861, and 57,020 m 1861. The entire K side of 
the island, and portions of the NE. and SW. sides, 
are defended by bold precipitous rocks, rising to 
upwards of 250 ft. above the sea, and all around 
it are almost innumerable rocky islets, separated 
from the cliffs by the operation of the tides, which 
set with great force and rapidity round the 
Channel Islands. The surface has a general in- 
clination from N. to S., on which side the coa?t 
approaches the level of the sea. There is little 
table land; but elevated hill ranges run south- 
ward, bounding deep and narrow vales, watered 
by small rivers. Jersey, geologically considered, 
is, like the other islands in the same group, 
composed of secondary rocks, resting on granite 
formations. True granite is not observed ; but 
sienite, which is largely quarried and exported as 
l^ranite, is very prevalent, passing^ in some parts 
into porphyry and greenstone : it is covered in the 
S. and more level tracts by schistus and clay-slate, 
intermingled here and there with a clav conglo- 
merate. Iron and manganese, the only metals 
that occur, are not wrought The climate, though 
damp, owing to frequent rains and intense sea- 
fogs, is remarkably mild. ^ The island,' says Dr. 
Hooper, * enjoys an early spring and a lengthened 
autmnn, vegetation being usually active and for- 
ward in March, and the landscape far from naked 
at the end of December. Spring is marked by 
unsteadiness of temperature and harsh variable 
weather, with a prevalence of E. winds ; and this 
disadvantage is felt particularly in May, which 
often fails to bring with it the expected enjoy- 
ments. March is mild, and October yet milder.' 
(Observations on the Top., Clim., and Diseases of 
Jeney.) llie soil in the higher parts is gritty, 
being composed of detritus from the rocks and sea 
Band, mixed with vegetable mould; but in the 
valleys there is a great depth of alluvial matter, 
washed down by violent rains from the higher 
lands ; and these tracts, where not swampy, are 
extremely fertile. The SW. comer of the island 
is a mere assemblage of sandy and barren hillocks. 
A^culture is backward, owing partly to the 
minute division of property, occasioned by the law 

of gavelkind, and partly to the insufficiency of 
rural labourers. The value of land ranges between 
120/. and 160/. per acre, and rents vary from AL 
10«. to 6/. 159^ according to the distance fVom St. 
Heller's, the capital. Farms average about four 
acres, few exceeding ten: the occupiers are for 
the most part poor. 

The rotation of crops, as applicable to the soil 
and climate, is well understood, and absolute 
fallows are rarely, if ever, seen. Wheat crops, cut 
early in August, produce, according to the official 
returns, nearly 5 qrs. per acre, and the gross yearly 
produce is said to amount to 13,000 qrs. of wheat 
and 8,200 qrs. of barley. But the culture of neither 
wheat, barley, nor oats, is found to be profitable, 
and they are, therefore, chiefly imported. Potatoes 
are raised in large quantities, the returns some- 
times exceeding 60,000 lbs. per acre, but the sea- 
weed used as manure gives them an unpleasant 
flavour. Parsneps and mangold-wurzel are largely 
cultivated. Lucerne is highly in favour with the 
farmers, as it will grow on soils unfit for other 
purposes: four crops in a year are not unusual, 
and tlie land is afterwards fed off. A large por- 
tion of the cultivable land is occupied by apple 
trees, and the exports of apples and cider have 
been steadily increasing for some years. The 
annual yield of apples averages 20 hhds. per acre. 
The pear-main is a good eating apple, but the 
pride of the island is the chaumontelle pear, often 
a pound in weight, and sold occasionally at the 
rate of 5/. per hundred. The colmar pear is also 
well esteemed, and peach-apricots, melons, and 
strawberries are abundant, and noted for size and 
flavour. Timber trees grow in the hedge-rows, 
and unite with the fruit trees in giving to the 
scenery softness and richness rarely equalled. * In 
fact,' says Mr. Inglis, * Jersey appears like an 
extensive pleasure-ground, one immense park, 
thickly studded with trees, beautifully undulating, 
and dotted with cottages.' (Channel Islands, i, 
p. 35.) The maniure universally used in dressing 
the land is sea-weed or vraic, the gathering of 
which b restricted by the island legislature to two 
seasons, the middle of March and the end of July, 
times of great interest to the natives. On grass 
lands the vraic is used in its natural state, but for 
other purposes it is burnt. Cattle breeding is a 
favourite and highly profitable pursuit here and 
in the other Channel Islands, and the treasure 
highest in a Jerseyman's estimation is his cow. 

The Jersey cow, usually called the Aldemcy 
cow in England, materially differs from that of 
Guernsey, which is larger, and resembles the 
short-homed Devonshire breed. It has a fine, 
curved, tapering horn, slender nose, fine skin, and 
deer-like form. Its purity is maintained by 
breeding in and in ; and in order to preserve the 
breed intact, the legislature has prohibited the 
importation of other breeds under heavy penalties. 
Milch cows produce daily, at an average, 10 quarts 
of milk and 1 lb. of butter (8 quarts of the former 
producing 1 lb. of the latter), the yearly produce 
of a cow bein^ estimated at lOi. The price of a 
good cow vanes from 10/. to 15/. The butter is 
chiefly sent for sale to St Helier's market, or ex- 
ported to England. Sheep are little reared. The 
Jersey horse is a cross or the Cossack, procured 
through the residence of some Russian cavalrv 
on the island in 1800 : it is a strong, hard-work- 
ing animal, but little attention is paid to the 
improvement of the breed. The oyster fishery 
employs many of the natives, but lately it ha's 
been on the decline, owing to the competition of 
the French fishermen of Granville. Tlie fishery 
is most active from Feb. to May. The conger-eel 
and herring fishery, formerly 'highly productive, 



iias been dlmost superseded by the deep-sea cod 
fishery, which employs nearly* 80 vessels of 8,000 
tons, and gives employment* during the summer 
to 1.3O0r Jersey men. 

The trade of Jersey has increased rapidly during 
the last 60 years, and its commercial relations, 
formerly confined to England and France, now 
extend to the chief countries of Europe, the W. 
Indies, and S. America. The trade with England 
Ls subject to certain regulations intended to pre- 
vent contraband traffic; but everj^ article of the 
growth, produce, or manufacture of Jersey is ad- 
mitted into the mother country on payment of the 
duties imposed on similar commodities grown, 
prcKluced, or manufactured at home. The island 
receives from England cotton and woollen fabrics, 
and hosiery, hardware and cutlery, earthenware 
and glass, soap and candles, and about 20,000 tons 
of coals yearly, in exchange for which it sends 
apples and cider, cattle, potatoes and potato-spirit, 
oysters, and granite. The imports from France 
consiiit of wine and brandv, skins, fruit, and 
poultry, for which coals, bricks and potatoes are 
sent in exchange. The island is supplied with 
fir and oak timber from Sweden and Norway, with 
hemp, linen fabrics, and tallow from Russia, with 
wheat and barley from Prussia and Denmark, and 
with cheese, geneva, and tiles from Holland, the 
exports to these countries chiefly consisting of 
coffee and sugar from Brazil, with which this 
island has extensive dealings. ITie imports from 
Spain, Portugal, and Sicily average vearlv 70,000 
galL of wine and 100,000 gall, of brandy. The 
Jersey merchants also trade with Honduras for 
mahogany, sent chiefly to England. The manu- 
facturing industry of the island is almost confined 
to p-hip-building, shoe-making, and hosiery. Ship- 
building is carried on to a considerable extent in 
consequence of the timber imported into the island 
being exempted from all duty. Shoe-making is 
pretty extensively carried on, and about 13,000 
pairs of boots ancl slioes, chiefly of French leather, 
are sent annually to British N. America. The 
ho&icrj' business has greatly declined, owing to 
the use of machine-made stockings; and the 
])erson8 now emplo}'ed in it depend almost entirely 
on the demand of the island. The communication 
with England is kept up by means of steamers to 
and from Southampton four times a week, and by 
mail-packets twice a week to and from Weymouth. 
On the arrival of the steamers from Southampton, 
packets leave for St. Malo and Granville, retum- 
mg on the alternate days. Traders are constantly 
sailing to and from London, Bristol, and other 
English ports. 

The vernacular language of the Island is French, 
which is used in the churches and courts of law : 
the upper ranks speak it in its purity, but the 
lower classes speak Jersey-French, a patois com- 
pounded of old Norman-French with Gallicised 
English. English, however, is becoming daily 
more prevalent, and most of the country people 
understand and speak it. * llie Jerseymen, espe- 
cially the lower orders, are characterised by blunt 
independence, often amounting to brusqueriej ex- 
cessive love of gain, and unceasing industrj'. The 
minute division of property prevents them from 
acquiring an independence, while at the same time 
the actual ownership of land protected by legal 
privileges, gives thefn a freedom of sentiment 
which no tenant at will can enjoy. Their parsi- 
mony, however, is not only prejudicial to them- 
selves, as leading them to begrudge provender to 
their most valuable cows, but is also injurious to 
others, whom they overreach in bargaining.' (In- 
glis, Channel Islands.) Their fare is simple and 
inexpensive, consisting principally of aoupe-a- 

chouxj a compound of lard, cabbage, and potatoes { 
conger-eel soup and pickled pork are rarities re- 
served for festive occasions. The chaumontel\e 
pear is conunonly eaten with tea ; dder is the 
general substitute for beer. The higher classes 
seldom give entertainments or exchange civilities, 
and are much divided by party spirit. The old 
parties of Magot and Chariot have given way to 
the liberal Rose and the exclusive high church 
and state lAxureL Literature is foigutten amid 
island politics ; and even the press, so powerful an 
engine in England, has scarcely any influence in 
Jersey. The English residents must be con- 
sidered as a class quite distinct from the natives, 
with whom they have little intercourse; they 
amount to atwut 4,000, being chiefly half-pay 
officers with their families, attracted by the cheap- 
ness of living and the mildness of the climate. 

The revenues of Jersey have greatly increased 
of late years, for, at an average of the three years 
ending with 1812, they only amounted to 4,600/. a 
year, whereas, in 1862, they exceeded 8.000/., 
arising from licenses to tavern-keepers, mai^et- 
tolls, harbour-dues, and duties on wine and spirits. 
These revenues, after the current expenses of the 
government and the interest on the public debt 
have been paid, are applied to the public works 
and general improvement of the island. The ex- 
pense of the militia and English troops (exceed- 
ing 20,000/. yearly) is defrayed by the British 
government, and the salaries of the governor and 
his officers are provided for from tl^ great tithes 
of the 12 parishes. French and Spanish coins 
were formerly current in Jenrey; but, in 1832, the 
French government called in its old silver coins, 
since which time English sovereigns and silver 
have been commonly circulated. The exchange 
varies from 8 to 9 per cent, in favour of England, 
so that an English shilling passes for 13//., and a 
sovereign for 1/. la. 8d, Jersey currency. "■ 

Jersey and Guernsey have long enjoyed peculiar 
privileges granted by John and succeeding mon- 
archs. No process in either of the islands, com- 
menced before an island magistrate, can be carried 
out of it, and no person convicted of felony out of 
the said islands is to forfeit his inheritance in 
them, so as to deprive his heirs of their lawful pos- 
sessions. Tliey are exempted from the jurisdic- 
tion of the British courts, except that of the admi- 
ralty, and have an immunity from all taxes except 
those voted by the island legislature. 

Jersey is governed by a local legislature, and a 
distmct judicature under the ultimate control of 
the sovereign in council. The legislative assem- 
bly, called the states, consists, ex officio, of 3G 
members, viz. 12 jurats elected for life by the 
rate- payers of the island, the 12 rectors of the 12 
pars, into which Jersey is di\'ided, and the 12 con- 
stables of pars, chosen triennially by the parish- 
ioners. To these 30 * official' members of the 
legislature, 14 deputies were added in 1866, with 
a view of giving the constitution a more popular 
character. The legislative assembly is convened 
by the bailiff, who always presides, either in per- 
son or by deputy; and its chief business is to raise 
money for the public service, and to pass laws for 
the government of the island ; which, however, 
continue in force only three years, unless ratified 
by the sovereign in council. The governor, as the 
king's representative, has a veto on all the pro- 
ceedings of tlie state, but never uses it, except in 
cases wliich concern * the special interest of the 
crown.' The Jersey court of judicature, called the 
* roj'al court,' is composed of the bailiff, who here 
represents the sovereign, and of the same 12 jurats 
who sit in the states. The officers are, the attor- 
ney-general, solicitor-general, high-sheriff or vb- 

/ Google 


eonnt clerk, or ^ffier, and 6 pleaders appointed 
by the bailiff, and styled avocaU du barreau. This 
eourt has cognisance of all pleas, salts, and ac- 
tions, whether real, personal, or criminal, arising 
within Che island, except cases of treason and 
eoiniiig, which are referred to the sovereign in 
councu. A code of laws, compiled in 1771 and 
sanctioned by the kin^, is the funilamenial statute 
law ; bat it is extremely defective, and is continu- 
ally changed by the enactment of new laws. The 
custom of gavelkind obtains, with respect to the 
dLnpoeal of real property; the eldest son, however, 
by common usage, takes half the estate, and the 
rest is equally divided. Personal propertv may 
be devised, but when left intestate is divided 
among the children, two- thirds going to sons, and 
one-third to daughters^ Debts are recoverable by 
legal process in the royal court. Insolvents may 
be compelled to give up (renoncer) their property, 
for the benefit of creditors, and either the vicomte 
may scc^uestrate it, to pay demands entered against 
it, or the court may grant the debtor a respite of 
a year and a day for payment of his debt«. Per- 
suDS not possessing lands or houses may be ar- 
reted for debt ; but property is attached before the 
person, and landed pruprieton cannot be impri- 
soned till afler a judgment. Debts contracted in 
England can be sued for in Jersey, if nut of more 
than 6 years' standing ; debts contracted in Jersey 
are recoverable within 10 years. 

The military' government of the island is con- 
ducted by a lieutenant-governor, who has the cus- 
tody of the fortresses, and the command of both the 
regular trciops and the mihtia. The chief fortresses 
are Fort Kegcnt, Elizabeth Castle, and Mt. Or- 
geail Castle, all on the 8. coast. The island is 
further defended by a chain of martello towers, re- 
doubts, and batteries, which encircle it The 
militia, in which all male natives, from the age of 
17 to XiOf arc liable to serve, comprises 6 regiments 
and 2,500 men, exclusive of an artillery battalion 
of 600 men. The regular troops in time of peace 
seldom exceed 300 men, but 7,000 men were quar- 
tered in the island during the French war. 8ince 
the reign of James I., the church of England has 
been the established religion of Jersey, which is 
under the ecclesiastical direction of the bishop of 
Winchester. Every par. has a church, and the 
service ia usually performed in French, except at 
St. Uelier's, where English is the language of the 
congregation. The Indeiiendents. Wesleyans, 
and Baptists have chapels in which service is con- 
ducted both in French and English, and there are 
two places of worship for Rom. Catholics. Two 
free grammar-schools were established in Jersey in 
the 15th century, but the endowments are small. 
In 1852, a superior school, called * Victoria Col- 
lie,' was opened at St. Uelier's, to commemorate 
the visit of the Queen to the island in 1846. 

The remains of Roman fortifications and the dis- 
covery of coins belonging to the emperors, prove 
Jersey to have been a military station, and under 
the Franks it formed a part of the region called 
Neustria. The Normans invaded the Channel 
Islands in the 9th century; and when the duchy 
of Normandy was annexed to the crown of Eng- 
land at the Conquest, they came under the British 
dominion. The French "have repeatedly tried to 
gain possession of these islands, which, by their 
' proximity to the coast of France, seem to be their 
natural property; but they have uniformly failed. 
The last attempt was made in 1781 by a detach- 
ment of 700 soldiers, under the Baron dc Rullc- 
eourt, who surprised and captured the garrison, but 
were tinally com])eIled to escape to their ve.sAels 
after a desperate encounter with the native militia 
under Major Pieison, in the streets of St, llelier's. 


JERSEY (NEW), one of the U. S. of America, 
in the XE. part of the Union, between lat. 88° 54' 
and 41° 20' N., and long. 74° and 75° 20' W. ; 
having N. and NE. New York ; W. Pennsylvania ; 
SW. and S. Delaware Bay; and E. the Atlantic. 
Length, N. to 8., 170 m.; average breadth about 
40 m. : area, 8,320 sq. m. ; p<)p. 672,035 in 1860. 
A great part of the E. shore is skirted by a cbain 
of low islands, similar to those on the coasts of 
the more southerly maritime states, but with more 
numerous, larger, and deeper inlets between them. 
Great Egg Harbour, Little Egg Harbour, Bame- 
gat, Tomsbay, Shark Inlet, and the united bays 
of Neversink and Shrewsbury, afford shelter to 
vessels of considerable burden. The S. half of 
the state is low, level, sandy, and in many parts 
barren ; but N. of an imaginary line drawn between 
the mouth of the Shrewsbu^ river and Borden- 
towTi, about lat ¥fi 10', the surface is overspread 
with several hill-ranges, abounding with rich 
scenery; and the coast is skirted by the Neversink 
hills, the only heights of any consecjuence in the 
Union near the ocean. A mountain region, rising 
abruptly from the hilly countr}', occupies the N. • 
part of the state, which at its N. extremity com- 
prises a portion of the Alleghany chain. The 
Hudson forms the NE. boundary for about 35 m. 
The river next in importance is the Delaware, 
which divides this state from Pennsylvania. The 
other chief rivers are, tlie Raritan, which rises in 
the hilly country, within 5 m. of the Delaware, 
and falls into Amboy Bay, after a course of 70 m., 
16 of which are navigable; and the Passaic and 
Hackinsach, which fall into the small bay of 

The difference of the climate of the N. .and S. 
parts of the state is very striking. The plain 
country (if the S. is warmer than might have been 
expected from its lat., the temperature approxi- 
mating to that of E. Virginia, and admitting of 
the culture of cotton ; while the winter in the N. 
assimilates in severity to that of the N. states. In 
the upper part of the state, and along the banks 
of the rivers, there is some good land; but the 
surface is in general either sandy or marshy, and 
it is chiefly by the unremitting industry of its in- 
habs., who till lately have been principally engaged 
in agriculture, that New Jersey has been rendered 
so productive as it is. Wheat, rye, barlev, oats, 
maize, buckwheat, and potatoes are cultivated; 
and in the higher parts of the state large herds of 
black cattle and sheep arc reared. Laige quan- 
tities of butter and cheese of superior quality are 
made. The only wild quadrupeds now met'with 
are the racoon and fox ; the fisheries are produc- 
tive, and employ manv of the inhabitants. Iron 
in the mountains, and bog iron ore in the marshes, 
form the most important mineral products; but 
there is abundance of marble, limestone, peat, clay, 
sand of tine quality, copi>er, and zinc. The prin- 
cipal articles brought to market are cottle, fruit, 
iron, tiax-seed, butter, cheese, citler, and hams. 
New York and Philadelphia are the chief outlets 
for the sur|)lu8 produce, New Jersey being very 
advan togeously si tuated between those cities. The 
exports elsewhere are tritling. Manufactures are 
already extensive, and increasing ; the principal 
arc tliose of iron. 

Paterson is one of the principal manufacturing 
towns in the U. States, and is well supplied with 
water-power by the Passaic Its principal products 
are cotton, linen and woollen goods, paper and 
buttons. Manufactories of glass, leather, shoes, 
carriages, and gunpowder are established in dif- 
ferent jjlaces. 

'1 he mtenial communications are generally good ; 
the Morris Canal, 101 m. in length, by 30 to 32 ft! 

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wide, and 4 ft. deep, extends across the state, from 
Jersey city, on the Hudson, to Delaware river. 
The fielaware and Raritan Canal, 42 m. long, from 
Bordentown to New Brunswick, is 7 ft, deep, and 
75 ft. wide at its surface, and therefore adapted to 
vessels of considerable burden. It is connected 
with the Chesapeake, Delaware, and Dismal Swamp 
canals, and effects a continuous water communi- 
cation between New York city and Albemarle 
Sound. Another canal, 4 m. long, connects Salem 
Creek with the Delaware river. Three railroads 
were completed as early as 1837 ; and the principal 
of these, from Camden to Amboy, a distance of 
61 m., in the N. part of the state, was finished in 
1832. At present, the state is intersected, in all 
directions, by railways. 

* New Jersey is divided into 14 counties : Trenton, 
on the Delaware, is the capital and seat of govern- 
ment. It owes this rank to its central position 
only, since it has not above half the pop. or wealth 
of ]^ew Brunswick or Newark. Elizabeth, Bur- 
Ihigton, Somerville, and Paterson are the remain- 
ing chief towns. 

The constitution framed in 1776 has continued, 
with little variation, to the present day. The 
governor is chosen, by a plurality vote of the 
people, for three vears. The general election is 
held on the first "f uesdav in November. His term 
commences the third luesday of January. The 
secretary of state is appointed bv the governor, 
with the advice and consent of the senate. His 
term of office is five years. The treasurer is elected 
by the legislature on joint ballot for one year, and 
until his successor is qualified ; and the state li- 
brarian is appointed for three years. The super- 
intendent of schools is appointed bv the trustees 
of the school fund for two years, ^e adjutant 
and quartermaster general are appointed by the 
governor. Senators, 21 in number in 1864, are 
elected for three yeiurs, one- third every year. Re- 
presentatives, 60 in number in 1864, are elected 
each year. The pay of a member of either branch 
is 3 dollars a day ior the first forty days, 1*50 
dollar a dav afterwards. The presiding officers are 
paid 4 dollars a day for the firBt forty days, and 
2 dollars a day afterwards. The legislature meets 
annually at l^nton, on the second Tuesday of 
January. The judicial authority is vested in a 
supreme court, a court of chancery held at Trenton, 
circuit courts, and courts of (nftr and termtner, held 
in most of the oos. four times a year ; and inferior 
courts of common pleas, which, with courts of 
quarter sessions of the peace, are held in the dif- 
ferent cos. by judges chosen by the legislature, 
and receiving no salary. The college of New 
Jersey, established at Elizabeth Town, in 1746, 
has been removed to Princeton, where it occupies 
a spacious edifice. It has a museum and philoso- 
phical apparatus, and 2 libraries, with 11,000 vols. 
A great part of the pop. are QusJcers. 

The earliest settlement of New Jersey was made 
by the Dutch, in 1612. Many Swedes and Danes 
afterwards settled in it, but the Dutch continued 
to possess it until finally expelled by the English, 
in 1664. In 1682, it came under the jurisdiction 
of Penn and his associates. It took an active part 
in the revolutionary war, and suffered proportion- 
ally. New Jersey sends 6 mems. to congress. 

Jerusalem (Heb. Kaduahah, Gr. K««i;Tts 

by Herodotus, and 'l«po<roAv^a by Strabo and later 
writers ; mod. Arab. Kl-Koddea), a famous city of 
Palestine, interesting from its high antiquity, but 
far more from its intimate connection with the 
history of the Jews, and the eventful life of the 
great Founder of Christianity; 128 m. SSW. Da- 
mascus, 33 m. E. Jaffa, and 76 m. S. by E. Acra; 
lat. 310 46' 84" N., long. 36° 31' 34" E. Pop. es- 

timated at 12,000, of whom about two-thirds are 
Mohammedans. The city stands on a hill, between 
two small valleys, in one of which, on the W., the 
brook Gihon runs with a SE course, to join the 
brook Kedron, in the narrow valley of «fehoeha- 
phat, E. of Jerusalem. The first view of the city 
from the W. is thus described by Robinson : — *■ As 
we approach Jerusalem, the road becomes more 
and more rugged, and all appearance of vegetation 
ceases ; the rocks are scantily covered with soil, 
the verdure is burnt up, and diere is an entire ab- 
sence of animal life. A line of embattled walls, 
above which rose a few cupolas and minarets, sud- 
denly presented itself to my view. I was disap- 
pointed in its general appearance ; but this feeling 
originated not so much from the at^Mct of the town 
as from the singularity of its position, suiToandc<l 
by mountains, without any cultivated land to be 
seen, and not on any high road.' (Pal. and Syr. 
i. p. 86.) The opposite view, however, from the 
Mount of Olives, is much more attractive, for it 
commands the whole of the city and nearly every 
particular building, including the church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, the Armenian convent, the mosque 
of Omar, St. Stephen's gate, the round-topped 
houses, and the barren vacancies within its circ. 
The modem city, built about 300 years ago, is en- 
tirely surrounded by walls, barely 2^ m. in circ, 
fianked here and there with square towers. The 
four principal gates are those of Damascus and 
Jaffa on the W., that of Zion on the S., and St. 
Stephen's on the E. The interior is divided by 2 
valleys, intersecting each other at right angles 
into 4 hills, on which histor>', sacred and profane, 
has stamped the imperishable names of Zion, Aero, 
Bezetha, and Moriah. Zion is now the Armenian 
and Jewish quarter ; Acra is better known as the 
lower city and Christian quarter; while the mosque 
of Omar, with its sacred inclosure (called by the 
Turks d Haram Schereef)^ occupies the hill of 
Moriah. The streets are narrow, hke those of all 
SjTPian towns; the houses, except those belonging 
to the Turks, shabby, and the shops poorly sup- 
plied. The public buildings are not numerous, 
and excepting those consecrated to religious wor- 
ship, there are none worthy of notice. The baths 
also and bazaars are mostly inferior to similar es- 
tablishments in other parts of the £. 

The boundaries of the old city, said by Pliny 
to be * Itmge clarisnma vrbium Orientis non Judaie 
modo ' (Hist. Nat. lib. v. § 15), are so imperfectly 
marked, that no fact can be deduced respecting 
them from the elaborate researches of D'Anville, 
Clarke, Niebuhr, and others, save only that tliey 
varied at different periods ; and that, when most 
extensive, at the eara of its destruction, its treble 
row of walls embraced a circuit of 33 stadia, in- 
cluding Mount Moriah, Mount Zion, Acra, and 
Bezetha. (ReUndi Palestma, p. 835.) But the 
walls having been wholly destroyed, it is impos- 
sible to trace their exact situation. Josephns 
most distinctly says that the Romans left only 
the W. wall standing, with the towers Phase! us, 
HippicuB, and Mariarone, and that the remainder 
was rased to the ground. Toi' 5' aWw inavra r^f 

iroXcwf ircpi^oAov ovrm i^utfLakuray oi Karao-caaTorrcf, 
«0C iiriBi irwiror* otmjtf^cai wurriv ojr in irapa<rx(ii' toi? 
wpwrtKBovvi. (Jud. Bel., lib. vii. c 1.) This assur- 
ance of an eye-witness, and the knowledge that 
two subsequent and very destructive sieges left 
scarcely any remains even of a more recent city, 
suffice to show how little credit is due to any of 
these antiquarian speculations, however ingenious. 
It is impossible to describe in detail the many spots 
within the modem city which blind superstition 
or minute criticism has fixed on as the scenes of 
events connected with the history of the patri- 

Digitized by 




archR, and the suiTcrings of Christ; but some 
places are ascertained beyond a doubt, which all 
traveUers visit with interest, and which command 
universal respect. There can, for example, be no 
question, that the mount (Moriah) on which the 
mosque. of Omar now stands was once crowned 
-with the UouM of the Lord built by Solomon, at 
a cost and with a magnificence of which we can 
ftinn no adequate idea (1 Kings, caps. vL and 
vii.). This great glory of Judea, after standing 
for above 400 yesas, was first rifled, and soon after 
destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. 
A second temple, built on the site of the first, by 
the Jews, after their return from the Babylonish 
captivity, was so much enlarged and improved by 
Herod the Great, as to be little inferior to that of 
SM>lomon. Tacitus calls it, * immenaiB opidentuB tern- 
plum ;' and he truly adds, ' nulla intus De&m effigicy 
Tacuam aedem, et tnania arcana.^ (Hist., lib. v. § 8, 
9.) Notwithstanding the efforts of Titus for its 
preservation, this structure, the palladium of the 
Jewish nation, was totally destroyed during the 
sirj^ of J erusalem, a.d. 70. The mosque of Omar, 
which oonxpies this sacred site, stands on an ele- 
-vated four-sided plateau, about 1,500 ft. long, and 
1,000 ft. broad, supported on aU sides by massive 
walls, built up from the lower ground. The lowest 
portion of these walls is supp<»ed to belong to the 
ancient temple, and to be referable to the time of 
Herod at least, if not of Kehemiah and Solomon. 
The mosque el Sakhara, the erection of which was 
bqi:un by the caliph Omar, in 637, is of an octa- 
gonal shape, surmounted by a lead-covered dome, 
above which is a glittering crescent. It has four 
entrances, one of which, towards the N., is adorned 
by a fine portico, supported by eight Corinthian 
pillars of marble. Its forty-eight windows are of 
sLiined glass, and the walls are faced below with 
blue and white marble, and above with glazed 
liles of various colours, forming a beautiful mosaic 
nf texts from the Koran. It is altogether a fine 
specimen of light and elegant Oriental architec- 
ture ; and the building contrasts singularly with 
the severity of the surrounding scenery. The 
interior is not allowed to be entered except by the 
followers of the prophet ; and but few Christians 
have been admitted within its walls. The arrange- 
ments are so managed as to keep up the external 
octagonal shape. The inside of the wall is white 
and without ornament, and the floor is of grey 
marble. A little within the W. door is a flat 
polished slab of green marble, forming part of the 
floor, and regarded with peculiar respect b^ the 
Mohammedans; a little bevond is a senes of 
twenty-four blue marble pillars supporting the 
nK>f, and inside these are four large square 
columns, forming the support of the dome, which 
xi«cs about 100 ft. above the floor. The central 
part is nuled round, a single door admitting the 
devotee to the sacred stone, called the Hadjr el 
Sakhara, on which is shown the print of Maho- 
met's foot when he was translated to heaven. 
The whole interior is extremely beautiful, and 
the effect is much heightened by the blending of 
ci>loura in the pillars that run round the mosque. 
Within the same enclosure, near its S. wall, is 
another mosque, of square shape, called £l-Aksa. 
The cupola is spherical, and ornamented with ara- 
Itesque paintings and gildings of great beauty. 
Between the mosques is a handsome marble foun- 
tain for ablutions. On the opposite side of the 
city, in the Latin quarter, called Harat d Ntu- 
aam, is the churoh of the Holy Sepulchre, a build- 
ing in the Byzantine style, erected by Helena, 
neither of Constantine the Great, in the centre 
of a court or enclosure, filled at pil^pim-time with 
pcdlera of every description, especially venders of 

relics and rosaries. The building resembles Rom 
Catholic churches In general, but it is greatly in- 
ferior, notwithstanding its valuable marbles, to 
many of the sacred edifices in Rome. 

Immediately in front of the entrance, which is 
guarded by Moslem soldiers, is a slightly elevated 
marble slab, called the 'stone of unction,' on 
which, according to the monks, our Lord's body 
was hud, to be anointed by Joseph of Arimathea ; 
and near it are 17 steps, conducting to the sup- 
posed Mount Calvary, now a handsomo dome- 
covered apartment several feet above the floor of 
the church, floored and lined with the richest 
Italian marbles ; in the crypt beneath is a cir- 
cular silver plate with an aperture in the centre, 
through which the arm is said to reach the iden- 
tical hole in which the cross was fixed. The 
great object of interest-, however, is the Holy 
Sepulchre itself, an oblong structure 15 ft. long 
by 10 ft. in breadth, roofed in with a handsome 
ceiling corresponding to the richness of the silver, 
gold, and marble decorating its interior. It stands 
directly under the great dome of the church, and 
is divided into two chambexs, the first contauiing 
the stone on which the angel sat when he ad- 
dressed the afirighted women, * Why seek ye the 
living among the dead? he is not here, but is 
risen,' and the other being the sepulchre to which 
he pointed, saying, ^ Behold the place where they 
laid him.' The mner compartment, lined with 
verd antique, is only large enough to allow four 
persons to stand by the side of a plain white 
marble sarcophagus of the ordinary dimensions, 
over which hang 7 large and 44 smaller lamps, 
always kept burning. Around the huge circular 
hall, which is surrounded by a gallery supported 
on pillars, and roofed by a vast dome, are orato- 
ries for the Syrians, Copts, Maronites, and other 
sects who have not, like the Greeks, Armenians, 
and Roman Catholics, chapels in the body of the 
church. The Greek chapel at the E. end of the 
hall is parted off by a curtain, and is incompara- 
bly the most elegant and highly decorated ; the 
Latin chapel closely resembles those seen in 
Italy, and has a gallery with a fine organ : that 
belonging to the Armenians is in the gallery. 
Various parts of the church are pointed out by 
monks and pilgrims as the scenes of certain events 
connected with the last sufferings of Christ ; and 
to such an extent is superstition carried, that a 
stone is exhibited and gravely declared to be that 
on which our Saviour was placed when put in the 
stocks. The faith, indeed, of intelligent men is 
most severely tested during a visit to this church. 
There cannot be a doubt that it stands on the hill 
of Calvary, and it probably includes the site of the 
crucifixion ; but there seems to be little ground 
for the assumption, that the tomb and site of the 
cross were so near to each other as to be enclosed 
by the same building. In an antechamber near 
the entry are several relics, the most authentic 
probably of which are the sword and spurs of 
Godfrey of Bouillon. 

The tombs of Godfrey and his brother Baldwin 
were destroyed during a fire which took place in 
1808, and have not been restored, owing to the 
ill-will felt by the Greek Christians towards the 
Romish church, to which these monarchs be- 
longed. Westward of the church just described 
in the Hardt-el-Nasaarf or Christians' Street, is 
the Franciscan convent of St Salvador, caUed by 
way of distinction Jl Convento della Terra Santa, 
a large stone building, ha>4ng several courts and 
gardens enclosed within a strong wall. The funds 
are supplied by contributions sent from Rome and 
other Catholic countries, and the inmates com- 
prise firom 60 to 80 monks, chiefly Italian and 




Spanish, by whom European strangere visiting 
the Holy City are hospitably entertained. The 
church attaclied to the convent is gaudily fur- 
nished with candlesticks and images^ and has a 
good organ. E. of the above stands the Greek 
monaster}', a well supported establishment with 
a small subterranean church. The city castle, 
close to the gate of Jaffa, is supposed to have 
been built on the ruins of the Turru Psephina of 
old Jerusalem; it comprises a few towers con- 
nected by curtains, and has a few old guns 
mounted on broken carriages. Close by it, on the 
ascent to the hill of Zion, is the Armenian con- 
vent, in the best-looking district of the city, com- 
prising within its precincts rooms sufficient to ac- 
commodate a tliousand pilgrims, and a laige 
garden : the conventual church is spacious, aiid 
most elaborately ornamented ; the floor is paved 
in the most delicate mosaic. E. of the convent is 
a small Armenian chapel, marking the site of the 
house of Annas, the high-priest ; and just outride 
the gate of Zion is another chapel, supposed to 
occupy the site of the house of Caiaphas : these 
positions seem to be far from improbable, (Com- 
pare Joseph. Antiq., lib. xviii. c 3, with St. John 
xviii. 24.) 

Not a vestige remains of the ancient buildings 
on Mount Zion, where David built a palace, his 
own residence, and that of his successors, whence 
it was emphatically called the * Citv of David.' 
Its limits are, however, well defined by the aque- 
duct which conveyed water from Jenisalem to 
Bethlehem. The hill-side is now used as a 
Christian burial-ground. N. of the city, in the 
district called Acra, are the ruins of Herod's 
palace, and about 800 yards to the SE., near the 
reputed pool of Kethesda, is the residence of the 
rnvtzellim^ or Turkish governor, supposed, though 
with little show of reason, to occupy the site of 
the prwtorium of Pontius Pilate. It is a large 
straggling building, having a flat roof, which 
commands a comj)lete view of the mosque of 
Omar: it stands m the principal street of the 
modem city, called by the Turks Har&t-el-Aflam, 
and by the Christians Via Dolorosa, the monks 
having fixed on it as the line of route along 
which our Saviour was led from the hall of iudg- 
ment to Calvary. The Jewish quarter (Ilarat- 
el- Vahoud) occupies the hollow between the hills 
of Zion and Moriah : it contains seven mean and 
small Bjmagogues ; and the numerous private 
dwellings, how comfortable soever inside, have 
uniformly mean and ill-built exteriors, owing, it 
is said, to the fear of exciting among the Moham- 
medans any suspicion of the wealth of the des- 
pised nation. The poorer Jews are supported by 
charitable contributions obtained from their fel- 
low-countrymen in Europe, especially in Germany 
and Spain. The Turks reside on the E. side of 
the city all round the great enclosure of Mount 

The suburbs of Jerusalem abotind with in- 
teresting remains of less questionable antiquity 
and authenticity than most of those within the 
modem walls. Close to the gate of Jaffa is the 
pool of Gihon, near which, in a village of the 
same name, ' Zadok the priest, and Nathan the 
prophet, anointed Solomon king over Israel' 
(1 Kings i. 84), and, at a later period, Hezekiah 
* stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and 
brought it straight down to the W. side of the 
city of David.' (2 Chron. xxxii. 80.) S. of 
Mount Zion is the valley of Hinnom, m which 
are numerous tombs hollowed out of the rock, 
and a building, once used by the Armenians as a 

The E. boundary of Jerusalem w formed by the 

valley of Jehoshaphat, which divides it from the 
Mount of Olives. Proceeding up this valley, the 
traveller soon arrives at 

* Siloa's brook, that flow'd 
Fast by the oracle of God.' 
The source of these celebrated waters, which now, 
at least, are brackish and sulphureous, lies close 
under the waUs of Harai-el-Schereef on Mount 
Moriah ; but the pool is rather more than \ m. 
below it. The stream issues bv an undei^^und 
passage from a rock, and falls into a small basin 
of no great depth. It was once covered with a 
chapel, erected to commemorate the miracuhms 
cure of the man bom blind. The descent to the 
lower p<M)l, which is remarkable for its daily ebb- 
ing and flowing, is by a flight of 30 steps, whence 
it has acquired the name of the ' fountain of stairs.* 
On the E. side of the brook Redron, now a mere 
rivulet, mnning in a valley so closely pent up aa 
to deser\-e the name of a mountain-goige, espe- 
cially at its N. extremity, are four sepulchres 
constructed, unlike most in Judea, above ground, 
and designated the tombs of the patriarchs : one 
of them is alleged to be the burial-place of Zac- 
charias, the son of Barachias. (Malt, xxiii. 29. 
35.) S. of these tombs, and under the shadow of 
the temple of Solomon, is the favourite burial- 
ground of the Jews, among all of whom the 
dearest wish is, that they may lay their bones 
near those of their long-buried ancestors, and be 
readv for the summons of Jehovah, when He 
shall *come up to the valley of Jehostiaphat; for 
there will I sit to iudge all the heathen rotud 
about' (Joel iiL 12.) 

Further NE. are the gardens of (vethsemane^ 
enclosed by a wall, and still in a sort of mined 
cultivation', and the Mount of Olives, a hillock 
covered ynX\\ stunted herba^, and with patches 
here and there of the trees with which it was once 
abundantly clothed. Here everj- spot has its 
grotto and legend, and on the hill the precii<e 
place is pointed out whence the Saviour ascended 
into heaven. The Enipress Helena built on it a 
monastery, which the Turks have converted into 
a mosque*; somewhat to the N. is the Church of 
the Ascension, now in the hands of the Greek 
Christians. N. of the bridge, over the brot>k 
Kedron, and about 250 yds. from St, Stephen's 
Gate, w the reputed tomb of the Vii^gin Mary, 
comprising, besides several cenotaphs, a subter- 
ranean chapel, in which lamps are kept con* 
stantly burning, and services daily celebrated 
accortiing to the rites of the Greek church. Pass- 
ing thence up the bank of the Kedron, and cross- 
ing the hill Bezetha, the stranger is conducted 
to the excavations called 'the Tombs of the 
Kings.' The road down to them is cut in the 
rock, and a stone doorway leads to a kind of ante- 
chamber, now at least open at the top, and 
measuring 60 ft. in length bv 40 ft. in breadth. 
It is ornamented by a beauti/ully carved cornice, 
and in the SVV. comer a door, formed of a single 
stone slab, admirably adapted to its framework, 
and easily working on its hinges, leads into a 
series of chambers, nmnd which are niches in the 
rock for the reception of the dead. It is very 
probable that these are the * royal caves ' described 
by Josephus, as situated close to the N. boundary 
of the ancient city (see Bell. Jud., lib. v. c. 4) ; 
but whether they contained the bones of the sons 
of David (2 Chron. xxxii. 33), or those of Helena, 
queen of Adiabene (as Drs. Clarke and Pococke 
have supposed), is a matter as to which no certain 
conclusions can be drawn. 

Jerusalem, considered as a modem town, is of 
very slight importance. Superstition and fanati- 
cism constitute tlie principal bond by which the 

Digitized by 




pop., Chri.«tian, Jew, and Moslem, are held to- 
gether. The Jew despises the Christian, and the 
follower of the Prophet looks down with contempt 
ooiioth; but pilgnras of each of the three creeds 
resort thither in such numbers as to increase the 
pop. at certain times nearly a half; and heavy 
taxes are levied on all for the benefit of the pacha. 
The convents are supported by wealth sent from 
foreign countries, and a great influx of property 
takes place from the thousands of annual visitors, 
rich and poor, so that Jenisalem draws laigely on 
Jaffa, Damascus, Nablous, and other places. But 
it has no industry whatever — nothing to give it 
commercial importance,— unless, indeed, a trade. 
now almost wholly engrossed by the monks of the 
Terra Santa (invent, in shells, beads, and relics, 
whole cargoes of which are shipped from Jaffa for 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal, rhe shells are of 
mother-of-pearl sculptured, and the beads are 
manufactured either from date-stones or a hard 
kind of wood called Mecca fruit. Rosaries and 
amulets are also made of the black fetid limestone, 
and are highly valued in the East as charms 
against the plague. I'he retail trade of Jerusalem 
is quite insignificant. The bazaar, or street of 
shops, is arched over, dark, and gloomy, the shops 
are paltry, and the merchandise exposed for sale 
of an inferior description. This, however, is the 
only part of Jerusalem where any signs of life 
are'shown. In the other quarters of the town the 
visitor may walk about a whole day without 
meeting with a human creature. Well, then, may 
the Jews, who still indulge the hope of restoring 
their metropolis to its pristine greatness, lament, 
with the prophet Jeremiah, * From the daughter 
of Zion all her beauty is departed. Jerusalem 
hath grievously sinned ; therefore, she is removed. 
The adversary hath spread out his hand, and the 
heathen hath entered into her sanctuary. All 
her people sigh and seek bread : see, Lord, and 
consider, for I am become vile.' (Lam. i. 6-1 1.) 

Nothing can be well conceived so vile, so de- 
grading, as the mummeries enacted in the Holy 
tStr, especially during the Easter festival. The 
monks, who are servants of Mammon rather than 
of Christ, act on these occasions as showmen and 
masters of the ceremonies; and even the pilgrims, 
who crowd to the Sepulchre in such numbers as to 
make order impossible, too frequently exhibit the 
greatest levity and unconcern. * What a scene was 
before me,' exclaims a traveller * the whole church 
was absolutely crammed with pilgrims, men and 
women hallooing, shouting, singing, and violently 
stmgcling to be near the Sepulchre. One man in 
the contention had his right ear literally torn off.' 
A number of years ago, during the representation of 
the blasphemous pantomime, entitled ' the Holy 
Fire ' (intended to represent the descent of the Holy 
Spirit), the pressure was so intense, 6,000 persons 
being a<»embled on the ground-floor, that great 
numbers fainted, a general confusion ensued, and 
upwards of 300 were either suffocated or crushed 
to death. In fact, the whole scene is revolting to 
every rational and really devout Christian. Such, 
however, is the strength of superstition, that a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem is still regarded, in many 
parte, as an act of the highest merit, and as bring- 
ing with it the assurance of eternal felicity. 

The local government of Jerusalem is conducted 
bv the mMtzeilim, or military governor; the m«/a- 
khadij or chief of the police ; the mufti, or chief 
judge ; the capo-verde, or superintendent of the 
mosque of Omar; and the tubadtl, or town-major; 
all of whosif except the mufti, hold their appoint- 
ment under the pacha of Damascus. 

Jerusalem has been usually supposed to be 
identical with the Salem of which Melchizedek 

was king in the time of Abraham, anno 1913 
B.C., according to Abp. Usher. When the Ii*- 
raelites entered the Holy Land 600 years after- 
wards, it was in the possession of the Jebusites, 
descendants of Canaan. Joshua, soon after his 
entrance into Canaan, ' fought against Jerusalem, 
and took it, and smote it with the edge of the 
sword, and set the city on fire.' (Judges i. 8.) 
But the citadel on Mount Zion was held by the 
Jebusites till they were dislo<lged by David,* who 
made Jerusalem the metropolis of his kingdom, 
and his dwelling in * the strong-hold of Zion.' 
(2 Sara. V. 7.) He enlarged the city and built a 
beautiful palace: it was further ernbellLshed by 
his son Solomon, who in the years 1012-1004 b. c. 
erected the temple already referred to. Palestiuo 
was afterwards successively invaded by the Egyp- 
tians, Assyrians, and Babylonians, the last* of 
whom, under Nebuchadnezzar (b. c. 588), took 
and d&stroycd the city, burnt the temple, and car- 
ried the people captive to Babylon. After a 
bondage of nearly 70 years the Jews were restored 
to their city, by Cyrus the Persian, and about 
anno 515 b. c. they rebuilt the temple, under the 
superintendence of Zerubbaal and Nehemiah. 
Alexander the Great is said, by Josephus, to have 
visited Jerusalem in peace, and to have respected 
the religion of the Jews ; but the best critics re- 
ject this statement as inconsistent with the ascer- 
tained events in the life of Alexander, and un- 
worthy of credit. (Ancient Universal Historv, 
viii. 536, 8vo.; Milford's Greece, vli. 533.) Pto- 
lemy Soter, one of Alexander's generals, seized 
upon Syria and Palestine, sacked the Holy City, 
and carried off a large portion of its inhabitants 
to Alexanidria. Later monarchs of the Macedo- 
nian empire, who attempted to introduce the pagan 
worship, were successfully opposed by the Macca- 
bees, and the liberty of Judaea was at length 
restored, anno 165 n. c. The all-absorbing pov/er 
of Rome finally put a period to Jewish indepen- 
dence, the whole of Syria being reduced by Pom- 
pey, and made a proconsular province. This groat 
general, who took Jerusalem after a stout resist- 
ance, entered the temple, and explored its inmost 
recesses ; and it is mentioned to his honour, that 
he touched none of the precious rolics, or of the 
vast wealth accumulated in the sanctuary. * Victor 
ex il/o fano nihil attigit,* (Cicero pro L. Flacco, 

Jerusalem, however, was merely tributary, and 
had not lost its nominal sovereignty (in other and 
prophetic words, the sceptre had not departed from 
Judahy nor a lawgiver from between his feet until 
Shiloh had come^ Gen. xlix. 10.) till after the 
birth of Christ, when it became the residence of a 
procurator, llhe repeated rebellions of the Jews 
at length roused the vengeance of the Romans ; 
and, A. D. 70, the city was taken by Titus, after 
one of the most memorable and destructive sieges 
of which history has preserved any account. The 
Jews, though rent by intestine factions, defended 
themselves with invincible obstinacy ; they con- 
temptuously rejected every proposal for a surren- 
der, and braved alike the attacks of the Romans, 
and the still more dreadful attacks of famine. 
But their resistance was unavailing, except for 
their own desti^ction ; and the cit^', being taken, 
was completely destroyed, along with the temple 
— three towers only being left as memorials of its 
existence and destruction. According to Josephus, 
no fewer than 1,100.000 persons feU in the siege, 
exclusive of above 100,000 taken prisoners. But 
notwithstanding what has been alleged in defence 
of this statement by Brotier (Notae ad lib. v. § 18. 
Hist. Tacitl) and others, there can be no reason- 
able doubt that it is grossly exaggerated. Tbo 




statement of Tacitus would seem to be infinitely 
more probable, though even it is, perhaps, beyond 
the mark. * Pervicacissimus quisque illuc perfu- 
gerat ; eoque seditiosiUs agebant. Tres duces, to- 
tidem exercitus: .... pnelia, dolus, iucendia inter 
ipsos, et magna vis fhimenti ambusta. .... Mutti- 
tudinem obtesaorum, omnis cetatiSf virile ac muliebre 
secuSf SEXCEKTA MILLIA fvisse occeptmut, Anna 
cunctis qui ferre possent; et plures qu&m pro 
numero audebant. Obstinatio viris feminiscjue 
par; ac si transferre sedes cofferentur, major vitae 
metus quhm mortis.' (Hist., Jib. v. c 12 and 13.) 
It should be acknowledged, however, that the 
errors of Josephus, like those of Herodotus, Dio- 
doms, Arrian, and others, in mere numbers, may, 
perhaps, be attributed less to the author's inac- 
curacy than to the old-fiishioned writing in MSS., 
in which the numeration is effected by single 
letters, and mistakes, though easily occurring, are 
detected with extreme difficulty. In general points 
of history and topography, Josephus's works 
should be considered Uie vademecum of the tra^ 
veller in Palestine. 

Adrian rased the city to the ground, ploughed 
up a great part of the surface, and built on its site 
the Roman town of ^lia Capitolina. The condi- 
tion of Jerusalem at this period is well described 
by Milman:^- 

* Her taie of splendour now is told and done ; 
Her wine-cup of festivity is spilt. 
And all Is o'er, her grandeur and her guilt. 
Her gold is dim, and mute her music's voice ; 
The Heathen o'er her perish'd pomp rejoice : 
Her streets are rased, her maidens Bold for Blaves, 
Her gates thrown down, her elders in their graves : 
Her feasts are holden 'mid the Gentiles' scorn. 
By stealth her prienthood's holy garments worn : 
Oh I long foretold, though long aooomplish'd fata 
Her house is left unto her desolate.' 

Fall of Jerusalem. 

When Christianity, in the reign of Constantine, 
became the established religion of the Roman em- 
pire, Jerusalem, in name at least, was restored by 
the zealous Hdena. The idol temples were de- 
stroyed, and several churches and other buildings 
were erected on sites supposed to be connected 
with the events of Christ's history; in short, no 
efforts and expense were spared in the attempt to 
raise the Holy City td its rank as the metropolis 
of Clurist«ndom. The period of prosperity thus 
commenced terminated m 636, by the conquest of 
Omar, who made the city tributary, heavily taxed 
the pilgrims, and desecrated the site of the 
temple, by erecting on it a mosque in honour of 

After being more than 400 years subject to the 
Arabian caliphs, Jerusalem fell into the hands of 
the Turks, who proved still more oppresHive mas- 
ters than any of their predecessors. The resent- 
ment and sympathy of the princes and people of 
Ciiristendotn were now awakened by Peter the 
hermit, and the Crusades were undertaken to 
rescue the natives and pilgrims of Palestine, and 
above all the holy sepulchre, iirom the dominion 
of infidels. The" Christian army reached Jeru- 
salem in the summer of 1099. * Godfrey of 
l^ouillon erected his standard on Mount Calvary ; 
the time of the siege was fulfilled in forty days of 
calamity and anguish, during which the soldiers 
suffered intensely from hunger and thirst At 
length, on a Friday, the day and hour of the 
Passion, (Jodfrey stood victonous on the walls of 
Jerusalem ; his example was followed on every 
side by the emulation of valour; and, about 4^0 
years after the conquest of Omar, the Holy City 
was rescued from the Mohammedan yoke. A 
bloody sacrifice was offered to the God of the 
Cliristians; resistance might provoke, but neither 


age nor sex could modify their implacable rage: 
they indulged themselves three days in a promis- 
cuous massacre, and the infection of the dead 
bodies produced an epidemic disease.' (Gibbon, xi. 
84.) Saladin, 88 years afterwards, appeared in 
arms before Jeitisalem: some feeble and hasty 
efforts were made for its defence, but within 14 
days the banners of the Prophet were erected on 
its walls. Saphadin, the brother of Saladin, de- 
stroyed, in 1218, all that remained of the fortifi- 
cations of this devoted city, and reduced the 
population to a servile subjection to the Moham- 
medans. A series of changes subsequently oc- 
curred ; but Jerusalem came finally into the hands 
of Selim in 1519, since which the ^rkish flag has 
always floated over its sacred places. For more 
than three centuries its fortunes have been station- 
ar>': crowds of pilgrims fill its streets at one 
season of the year, creating a temporary activity, 
and increasing the revenues of the Turkish on- 
cers ; but at all other times its condition recalls 
forcibly the complaint of Jeremiah : — * The city 
sits soUtary that was full of people : she is become 
as a widow : she that was great among the pro- 
vinces is become tributary. Her gates are deso- 
late. . . . All her beauty is departed* . « . FUtbi>- 
ness is in her skirts.* 

J£SI (an. .^EriumY, a town of Central Italy, 
prov. Ancona, on the Fiumesino (an. JStis), 16 m. 
WSW. Ancona, on the railway from Ancona to 
Rome. Pop. 18,786 in 1864. 'the town is walled, 
and has a handsome main street, three large 
squares, a cathedral, and six other churches, many- 
convents, and a theatre. It is a bishop's see. It 
has manufactures of silk and worsted stockings. 
iSsium anciently bore the rank of a Roman colony. 
Numerous antiquities exist on the banks of the 
river in its neighbourhood. 

of N W. Hindostan, prov. Rajpootana, and formerly- 
one of the five principal Rajpoot principalities, be^- 
tween the 25th and 28th parallels of N. lat., and 
the 69th and 72nd of E. long. Area 10,000 sq. m. 
Pop. estimated at 300,000. Surface uneven, and 
intersected with rocky hills : it is not watered by 
any considerable strefun, has little arable land, and 
is hardly more productive than the sandy desert 
that encctnpasses iL Cultivation is, consequently, 
very limited ; and the parts which are cultivated 
yield only the coarser grains, which form the food 
of the inhab. Irrigation is effected with great 
labour chiefly by means of very deep wells and 
tanks; but lar^e and spacious tanks occur every 2 
or 3 m., and ram water is carefully preserved, the 
periodical rains being scanty and uncertidn. The 
heat of summer is oppressive, but the cold of 
winter is sufficiently great for the tanks to be 
covered with ice every morning during a part of 
Jan. Mineral products few ; the chief are primary 
limestone and lithographic stone : no metals ap- 
pear to be found. Wood is scarce. The better 
kind of houses are of stone ; the others mere conical 
grass huts. The open nature of the country frees 
it from the most formidable wild animals. Foxes, 
wolves, hyenas, and jackals are met with, as are 
several kinds of antilopes, game of various kinds, 
and wild ducks; but the uncertainty of water 
hinders both the animal and vegetable kingdom 
from thrivuig. Jesselmere is letter suited for 
grazing than agriculture; but neither herds nor 
flocks are numerous. The homed cattle are of 
medium size, and indifferent quality : the sheep, 
though small, have excellent wool. The mass of 
the pop. consists of Bhattee Rajpoots. The com- 
merce of Jesselmere b insignificant; what little 
wealth it does possess arises from its being on the 
chief road between Central India and the Indus. 

Digitized by 




Tt has no exports of itji own ; and its only manu- 
facture is that of woollen cloth of a ven- fine tex- 
rone, but in no demand elsewhere, fndigo and 
cotton cloths are imported from Malwah, su^ar 
from Je.^'poor and Delhi, iron and brass from Na- 
pore. From 20 to 25 thousand matmds of opium 
pass annually through Jesselmere to Sinde, the 
return articles of transit theuce being sulphur, 
assafoetida, nee, and tobacco. Jesselmere con- 
tains 2 towns and H4 villages, but, except hi its 
cap^ everywhere betrays the strongest marks of 

Jks^ei^xebe, a town of NW. Hindostan, pror. 
Kajpootana, cap. of the above rajahship, 120 m. 
WNW. Joudpoor; lat. 26© 66' N., long. 7(P 64' E. 
Pop. estim. at 20,000. It is of an oval shape, about 
2 m. in circuit, and surrounded by a rampart of 
loose stones. At its SW. angle is a fort built on 
a scarped n)ck about 80 or lUO ft higher than the 
city; and it presents a commanding appearance 
externally, and is in reality a place of considerable 
strength.' It is of a triangular shape, its two 
longest sides, about 300 yards in length each, 
facing theW. and N. The only entrance is on the 
N. side, leading through several narrow and strong 
gates. The whole ojf the works are of firm sub- 
stantial masonr>', and comprise a vast number of 
towers. Thesestud the brow of the hill on all 
sides, and give it a rerv remarkable appearance ; 
some are as much as 40 K. in height. I'be fortress 
is supplied with water from wells 80 fathoms deep. 
llie town is regularly laid out, and, for an eastern 
city, its streets are wide. Its houses are lofty, 
spacious, terrace-roofed, and built entirely of 
a hard yellow limestone, sometimes elegantly 
carved. Some opulent merchants reside at Jessef- 
meie, it being on the great commercial route from 
Malwah to the port of Kurachee. 

JESSOKE, a dwtr. of British India, presid. and 
prov. Bengal, chiefiy between the 22nd and 24 th 
dcgs. of N. lat. ; and the 89th and 90th of E. long. ; 
having N. the main stream of the Ganges, sepa- 
rating it from the distr. Kajcshaye ; E, Dacca and 
Backergange; W. Nuddea and tfie 24 peigunnahs, 
and S, the Bay of Bengal. Length, N. to S., about 
160 m. : average breadth 32 m. Area 3,612 sg. m. ; 
pop. 381,744 in 1861. It is a fiat country, mter- 
aected by numerous interlacing branches of the 
Ganges;' its S. part comprises a portion of the 
r^on called the Sunderbunds ; and, on the shore, 
are many extensive marshes, in which salt is 
largelv made on goveniment account. The soil is 
reiA" fertile, and a good deal of rice is grown. In- 
digo, tobacco, mull^rry, betel nut, and long pepper 
arc also rais^ ; but a great proportion of the land 
is uncullivatwi, and covered with jungle. Chief 
towns, Jeasore or Moorley, the residence of the 
Zillah authorities, Culna, and Mahnudpoor. 

JEYl'OOK, or JYEPOKE, a city of NW. Hin- 
dostan, prov. Bajpootana, former cap. of a sub- 
siitiaiy state of the same name, in a barren valley, 
loO m. SW. Delhi; lat. 260 55' N., long. 75© 37' 
E. pop. estimated at 60,000. Jeypoor is one of 
the handsomest and most regularly built cities of 
Hindostan. It is surrounded by a battlemented 
*wall of grey stone, flanked with towers, and de- 
fended or commanded by a citadel and a line of 
forts on the adjacent heights, a few hundred feet 
in elevation. Jej-pore is laid out, like most 
modem European and American cities, in regnlarly 
Fquare blocks of houses. A main street, 2 m. long, 
and about 40 yards broad, traverses it \V. to E., 
and is crossed at right angles by four others of 
equal width, though much shorter. At the points 
of intersection are spacious market-places, and 
there are two good squares, which, like the prin- 
cipal streets, are crowded with shops. The great 


JOHN'S (ST.) 66 

thoroughfares are, however, disfigured by hovels, 
platforms, and stalls, erected along the centre of 
them, which detract greatly from their appearance. 
The houses are generally two stories high, but 
some are 8 or 4 stories, with ornamented Tvindows 
and balconies, and are often adorned with frescoes 
and sculptures. The chief public edifice of Jeypoor 
is a magnificent palace, constructed, it is said, by 
an Italian architect, in the 15th century', for the 
rajah Jey Singh, under whose reign this city was 
one of tlie principal seats of Hindoo learning. 
This palace, with its fine gardens, occupies about 
one-sixth part of the citjr. Jeypoor has numerous 
temples, in the purest Hindoo style, and some are 
of lazgcr dimensions than are to be found in any 
other citv of Upper Hindostan. 

JHYLUM, JELUM, or BEHUT (an. flydat^- 
pes)f a river of the Punjab, Hindostan, which 
rises in the SE. extremity of Cashmere, and, 
after a course of about 450 m., at first NW. or W., 
and afterwards SW., joins the Chenab (Acesines), 
about lat. 31° 10' N. During most part of its 
course it is not fordable : and at Jelalpoor, in lat. 
82° 40', it has been found, even when not at its 
highest point, 1,800 yards broad, and 14 ft. deep. 
It is correctly descritied by Arrian as * muddy and 
rapid,' having a current of 3 or 4 m. an hour. Its 
banks are interesting as the scenes of several of 
the exploits of Alexander, but it is impossible to 
indicate their localities. Not far from the Jhylum 
is the famous U^ of Manykiala. (See Punjab 
and Indus.) 

JOHANNISBERG, a village famous for its 
vineyards, with a castle, in the duchy of Nassau, 
near the E. bank of the Bhine, on the N. confines 
of the distr. called the Rheingau, 16 m. W, by N. 
Mentz, on the railway from Coblenz to Frankfort- 
on-the-Main. Pop. 874 in 1861. The viUage, 
situated on the slope of a hill, or berg — beig of St. 
John — formerly belonged to an abbey, the monks 
of which planted the vinevard towards the end of 
the 11th century. The hill comprises, excluding 
the portion which produces only ordinary wine, 
about 63 arpents ; and its produce in average 
years is estimated at about 25 tuns of 1,300 bot- 
tles each. The soil is composed of the debris of 
various coloured stratified marl. The grapes are 
gathered as late as possible, or when thev are 
dead ripe. Its choicest produce, called Schloss- 
Johannisberger, is admitted to be the very finest 
of all the Khen»h wines, being distinguished by 
its hfgh flavour and perfume, by an idmost total 
want of acidity, and by its being improved the 
longer it is kept. The finest growth m the best 
years fetch enormous prices, sometimes as much 
as 5/. the bottle. The vintages of 1779, 1783, 
1801, 1811, and 1822, enjoy a high reputation. 
After the secularisation of the abbey of Fulda, 
this celebrated vineyard became successively the 
property of the late king of the Netherlands, 
Marshal Kellerman, and Prince Mettemich, father 
of the present owner, to whom it was presented by 
the late emperor of Austria. The prince has re- 
paired the castle, which he occasionally occupies. 

JOHN'S (ST.), a city and sea-port of New 
Bnniswick, on its S. coast., and the laigest and 
most important town, though not the cap. of that 
colony. It is built on rocky and very irregular 
ground on a small peninsula, on the N.^slde of the 
St. John river, near its mouth, in the Bar of 
Fundy, 130 m. WSW. Halifax, and 190 ro. ENE. 
Augusta, in the state of Maine ; lat. 45^ 20' N., 
long. 66© 3' W. Pop. 20,715 in 1861, Its har- 
bour is commodious and spacious; and though a 
bar across its entrance dries at low water, the rise 
of the tides is such (from 25 to 30 ft.) that hiige 
vessels enter the port at high water, 'I'he en- 


66 JOHN'S (ST.) 

trance to the harbour is between a bold headland 
bounding the river to the E., and Partridge Island, 
about 2 m. S. of the town, which has a lighthouse 
and a fort. Another fortress guards the harbour, 
at Carleton, opposite St John's, and on a com- 
manding height immediately above the towm 
itself is Fort Howe, now in ruins. At ebb tide a 
mud flat extends for some distance in front of St. 
John's ; but at high water it is covered, and the 
aspect of the place is most imposing. A project- 
ing rock separates the town into the upper and 
lower coves. The former, containing the wharfs 
and warehouses, is the principal diviMon ; but the 
lower has been much improved by the erection of 
a line of barracks. Several of the streets are in- 
conveniently steep, and in winter even dan- 
gerous, though much labour has been employed 
to level and adapt them for carriages. The houses, 
principally of brick, are regularly arranged, and 
on the whole handsome ; but ornament has not 
been much studied. The chief public buildings 
are, a handsome stone court-house, recently 
erected on high ground above the middle of the 
town, the marine hospital, poor-house, gaol, two 
episcopal churches, a Scotch church, and Roman 
Oath., Methodist and Baptist chapels. The gram- 
roar school has an endowment of 135/, a year, 
and there are other schools, and several religious 
and charitable associations. St. John's has a 
chamber of commerce, a savings' bank and a 
marine insurance company, two public libraries, 
and a good news-room. 

On the opposite bank of the river is the little 
town of Carletown, under the municipal govern- 
ment of St. John's, comprising many new build- 
ings, a church, with some saw-mills, and building 
docks. St. John's is a corporate city, which, in- 
cluding Carleton, is divided into six wards, and 
governed by a mayor, recorder, six aldermen, and 
six assistants. The mayor, recorder, and other 
chief officers, are appointed by the governor ; the 
aldermen being elected annually by the freemen. 

St John's is a free port, and the great com- 
mercial emporium of New Brunswick. In 1862 
there entered 1,644 vessels, of a total burthen 
of 347.708 tons, and there cleared 1,439 vessels, 
of 366,652 tons burthen. The tonnage of the port, 
in 1862, amounted to considerably more than one- 
half of the whole shipping of New Brunswick. 

At the end of the last century the site of this 
thriving city, with the exception of a few strag- 
gling huts, was covered with trees. This was its 
condition at the peace of 1788, since which time 
its growth has been extraordinary. Its chief 
importance is in its position, which must ever com- 
mand the trade of the vast and fertile country 
watered by the lakes and streams of the river St 

John (St.), or the St. John's River, called 
by the Indians Looshtookj ' the long river ;' the 
principal river of New Brunswick, and, next to 
the St Lawrence, the finest in British America. 
The area of its basin is estimated at 19,200 sq. m. 
The St John rises from two principal sources, 
about lat 46° 10' N. and long. 70° \V., in the 
territory N. of the state of Maine, disputed be- 
tween Great Britain and the U. States. It flows 
through this territ<^»ry, at first NE., for about 100 
m. ; and then takes a bold curved sweep to the E., 
as far as long. 67® 50', where it leaves the -dis- 
puted country, and enters the prov. of New 
Brunswick. It then flows, first in a S. direction 
for about one-fourth part, of its course ; then E. for 
perhaps 80 m. ; and lastly S. for at least 60 more; 
when it dischaiges itself' into the Bay of Fundy, 
a little below the city of St John, about lat 45° 20' 
and long. 66°, after an entire course of 380 m. 

Independent of any artificial improvement, the 
St Jolm is, in the greatest part of its course, one 
of the most navigable of the Atlantic rivers, being 
much less impeded by rapids, shoals, or falls, than 
any other stream between it and the Hudson. At 
its mouth, which forms St John's harbour, it is 
5 m. wide : and at Fredericton, 85 ra. up, it is 
half a mile wide. Vessels of 50 tons come up to 
Fredericton, and barks of 20 tons ascend to the 
Great Falls, about 200 m. from its mouth, above 
which it is fitted only for boats. It is unfortunate, 
however, that almost at the very entrance of this 
river, about a mile above St John's, its bed 
contracts to about 400 ft. in width, and is crossed 
by a formidable rocky bar, on w^hich there is 
seldom more than 17 it water, and which only 
admits of the passage of vessels at certain times 
of the tide. The waters of the river at low ebb 
are in this place about 12 ft. higher than the sea, 
and at high water about 5 ft. lower; so that in 
everjr tide there are two falls, — one outwards, and 
one inwards. The only time of passing with 
safety is when the waters on either side of the bar 
are about level, which hap|>ens twice in a tide, 
continuing nearly 20 minutes at a rime. The 
tide is not perceptible much above Fredericton; 
where it rises to from 6 to 10 inches. The (xreat 
Falls, near lat 47°, consist of one principal ca- 
taract, perhaps 50 ft. high, and some smaller ones 
of several feet each, extending altogether for i m. 
along the stream, and^ having a total fall of about 
75 ft. Though very inferior in respect of magni- 
tude compared with that of Niagara, the Falls of 
the St John are said to be more picturesque. Its 
entire descent, from its mouth to its source, is 
estimated at above 1,000 ft. 

Besides St. John's, Carleton, Gage-town and 
Fredericton, there is no place of any consequence 
on the banks of the St John ; but the country' 
through which it flows is well cleared, and settled, 
and is said to be greatlv superior in fertility 
to the river basins of Newlilngland. (See Ma ink.) 

John's (St.), a town of the island of New- 
foundland, of which it is the cap., on its SE. 
coast Lat 47° 32' N., long. 52° 29' W. Pop. 
25,229 in 1861. The town stands at the inner 
end of an excellent harbour, the narrow entrance 
to which has 12 fathoms water in the centre of 
the channel It is protected by several strong 
batteries and forts, and a light-house is con- 
structed on a rock at the N. side of its entrance. 
The town, which extends along nearly the whole 
N. side of the port, principally consists of one 
main street, more than a mile in length, and ftom 
40 to 50 ft. broad, from which, at almost every 
step, stages, csLHed/ith-flahes^ proiect into the sea. 
There are some good stone and brick houses, and 
other handsome buildings, erected principally 
since the great fires that devastated St John's in 
1816 and 1817. 

The population of St John's fluctuates greatly. 
Sometimes, during the fishing season, the town 
appears full of inhabitants : at others it seems 
half deserted. At one time many of the inhabs. 
depart for the seal fishery ; at another to different 
cod-fishing stations. In the fall of the year the 
fishermen arrive from all quarters to settle their 
accounts with the merchants, and procure supplies 
for the winter. At this period St John^ is 
crowded with people; swarms of whom depart for 
Prince Edward Island, NOva Scotia, and Cape 
Breton, to procure a livelihood in those places, 
among the farmers, during winter. Many of them 
never return again to the fisheries, but remain in 
those colonies, or often in the U. Stales. 

Fort Townshend, on a steep height above the 
town, was formerly the residence of the governor; 

Digitized by 



Imt a new edifice has been mons recently bailt at 
a cost of 50,000i!. The custom-house, chorch, and 
other public buildings present nothing remarkable. 
The inhab. are generally possessed of the rudi- 
ments of education, and many of them pretty wel 
informed. Most of the pop. are R. Catholics, and 
this is the see of a Kom. Catholic bishop. It is a 
good deal agitated by party contentions. 

In 1862 there entered the port of St John's 786 
TesseK of a total burthen of 108,630 tons, and 
there cleared 729 vessels, of 102,783 tons burthen. 
Agricolture is scarcely pursued at all in the neigh- 
bourhood, the ground being rugged and stony. 
Potatoes form the chief crop. Provisions and other 
commodities are dearer than on the American 
continent, from which they are mostly imported. 

JOHNSTON, a manufacturing town of Scot>- 
land, par; of Paisley, co. Renfrew, on the Black 
Cart, 3 m. W. Paisley, and 18 m. W. by S. Glas- 
gow, on the railway from Glasgow to Ayr. Pop. 
6,404 in 1861. The rise of this town is remarkable, 
having been, for a time, more rapid than that of any 
other in Scotland. The ground on which it stancls 
began, for the first time, to be let on building 
leases, in 1781, when it contained only ten per- 
aoiia. In Oct. 1782, 9 houses were built, and 2 
more were being erected. In 1792 the inhabitants 
amounted to 1,434 ; in 1811 to 8,647 ; and in 1831 
to 5,617. The increase from 1831 to 1861, it will 
be seen, was not veiy considerable. The place 
was formerly called ' tLe Brig o' Johnston,' from a 
bridge over the river in the immediate vicinity. 
It is built on a regular plan and lighted with gas. 
Thoe are two squares, besides numerous streets, 
and public works. The houses are, for the most 
part, two and three stories in height. To each 
bouse 18 attached an adequate extent of garden 
ground. The town has an established church, and 
various dissenting places of worship. In its im- 
mediate neighbourhood is Johnston Castle, the 
residence of Mr. Houston, lord of the manor. 
There are excellent grammar and English schools. 
The civil polity of the town is managed by a com- 
mittee elected annually by the feuars. 

Johnston is chiefiy distinguished for its manu- 
factures, consisting of numerous cotton mills. 
There are, besides, brass and iron foundries, on 
an extensive scale ; with machine manufactories, 
as well as various minor branches of industry. 
The Glasgow and Ardrossan canal, projected m 
1806, has been completed only from Glasgow to 
Johnston. It was on this canal that light iron 
boats, or gig-boats, for the rapid conveyance of 
passengers, were first (1831), tried and esta- 
blished. Near Johnston are four collieries. 

JOKiNY (an. Joviniacum)^ a town of France, 
d^ Yonne, cap. arrond., on the Yonne, 15 m. 
NW. by N. Auxerre. Pop. 6,971 in 1861. A 
handsome quav runs along the bank of the river, 
above which tLe town rises on a steep declivity, 
crowned with the remains of an ancient castle. 
Joigny is surrounded with old walls, and entered 
by 6 gates ; it has 2 suburbs, with one of which 
it is connected by a handsome stone bridge of 6 
arches across the Yonne. The streets are narrow, 
steep, and inconvenient; but some of the houses 
are good. It has a cathedral built in the fifteenth 
centurv, two other Gothic churches, and cavalry 
barracks, with vinegar and other factories. 

JORDAN (Arab. Sheriat-el-Kebir), a river of 
Palestine, famous in sacred histoiy ; it rises in lat. 
320 35' N., long. 33° 26' E., a few miles N. of 
&nias (the an. Casaarea PhiHpm)^ in a small pool 
fomierlv called Phiala, on the Vv. slope of Djebel- 
e»-Sheikh, the Antilibama or Mount Herman of 
antiquity. After a S. course of about 40 m., during 
which it crosses the fenny Bahr-el-Uool (an. L. 



Merom\ it opens into the lake Tabariah or Gen- 
nesarethy close to the ancient town of Bethsaida. 
At the S. end of this fine sheet of water (15 m. long, 
and about 7 broad), on and near which occurred 
so many striking scenes in the histoiy of Christ, 
the Jordan enters a narrow, pent-up valley called 
el-Ghor, and after running through it with a 
tortuous southerly course of about 90 m., empties 
its waters into the Dead Sea, its entire length 
being about 150 m. The discoveries of Burckhard t 
in the Wady-el-Araby, which he traced com- 
pletely up from the Red Sea to the lake Asphal- 
tites, have led to the supposition that before the 
volcanic movement which so altered the surface, 
this river had a continuous course down this vallev 
to the Gulf of Akabah (see Dead Sea). Its 
tributaries on the W. side are mere torrents, one 
of the largest of which is the brook Kedron^ rising 
in the suburbs of Jerusalem : the E. afiluents com- 
prise the Sheriat-el-Mandhur Tan. Jarmqk^ Gr. 
•Jcpafxaf), and the Wady Zerka, which is the 
scriptural Jabhoh (see Deut. iii. 16). The breadth 
and rapidity of the stream varv in different parts 
and at different seasons. The floods occur in 
February and March, and at that season, when 
filled with the melted snow of Mount Lebanon, it 
is fipom 30 to 70 yards wide, and about 17 ft. deep, 
with a current so rapid that it is not safe even for 
an exp^ swimmer to bathe in it. In the dry 
seasons it is low, and has a comparatively languid 
current ; and to this circumstance, probably, may 
be attributed the discrepancies in the statements 
respecting the nature and magnitude of the river. 
The channel, however, having cut its way through 
a loose sandy soil, is much deeper now than 
formerly, and the waters, even in floods, run 
within narrower limits. A second and higher 
bank now skirts the actual bank at about a fur- 
long's distance on either side, and the intervening 
space is so filled up with bushes and trees (tama- 
risks, willows, oleanders, and myrtles), that the 
stream is completely hidden from view till its 
upper and dry channel has been passed. Lord 
Lmdsay says :— * The river is concealed till you 
are close upon it, by dense thickets of trees, reeds, 
and bushes " the pride of Jordan " (Zech. xi. 8), 
growing luxuriantly to the very water's edge. 
The lions, hippopotami, &c (Jet, xlix. 19), that 
formerly haunted these thickets are extinct ; but 
wild boars are still found there.* * The nightin- 
gales,' says the same writer, *sung in the cool 
starlight night from the trees; and the scene 
altogether was most delightful.' (Travels in 
Egypt and the Holy Land, voL ii. p. 65.) 

l*he water is described as being rather warm 
than cold, of a white sulphureous colour, but free 
from any taste or smeU. On analysis, however, it 
proves to be strikingly dissimilar to that of the 
Dead Sea ; for while the latter contains ^ part of 
its weight of salts, the former has only l-300th 
part of the proportion of solid matter contained in 
the water of the lake. (Dr. Marcet, PhiL Trans, 
for 1807.) 

The Jordan has been the scene of many events 
in which biblical scholara must be deeply inter- 
ested. This river valley was the dwelling of Lot, 
who ' pitched his tents towards Sodom,' the men 
whereof * were wicked, and sinners before the Lord 
exceedingly.' Here the four kings, persecuted by 
the five powerful princes close to the Salt (or 
Dead) Sea, fought and regained their liberty ; and 
the power of the latter was afterwards destroyed 
by divine interference. (Comp. Gen. xiv. 1-12, 
with xix. 24;-26.) At a later, but still veiy early 
historical period, when the clans of Israel were 
returning, after an absence of four centuries, to 
the possessions of Abraham, the great sheikh oLa 

F 2 Ip 



nation that was yet only in the nomad state, the 
ark, by command of Jehovah, was carried by the 
^ priests before the people, fell into the stream, and 
* the waters which came down from above, stood 
and rose up upon an heap : and those that came 
down towards the sea of the plain, tven the Salt 
Sea, failed, and were cut off; and the people 
passed over right against Jericho.' (Josh. lii. 
14-16.) It is said that the prophets Elijah and 
Elisha afterwards divided its waters to prove their 
divine mission, and the special fact that * the spirit 
of Elijah doth rest on Elisha,' (2 Kings ii.) In 
Christian times it has been celebrated as the 
stream in which Jesus Christ received from John 
the baptism which prepared him for the minis- 
trations destined to exercise so important an in- 
fluence over mankind. By modem devotees in 
I^alestine, the spirit of this institution has been 
forgotten, and a superstitious attention to the 
form substituted in its stead; hence every year 
pilgrims, at the great Easter season (about April), 
are found rushing, young and old, rich and poor, 
sick and sound, men, women, and children, into 
the stream. *Aiy says Mr: Elliott (an English 
clergyman), * carried with them the piece of cloth 
with which they wished to be enveloped after 
death,' The Moslems ridicule these vain ablu- 
tions, and their violation of decorum; and the 
Protestant cannot but lament the degradation 
they exhibit, (Elliott's Travels, ii. 476; llobin- 
son's Palestine, i. 69-75.) 

active volcano of Mexico, state of Valladolid, in 
an extensive plain, 70 m. SSW. the city of that 
name, and 80 m. from the Pacific; remarkable 
not only for its extent, but as being the only 
volcano of any consequence that has originated 
in New Spain since its conquest by Europeans. 
Its origin was, perhaps, one of the most tremen- 
dous and extraordinary phenomena that has ever 
been witnessed; for, in one night, there issued 
from the earth a volcano 1,600 ft. high, surrounded 
by more than 2,000 apertures, which still continue 
to emit smoke. Humboldt, who visited Jorullo, 
describes its appearance and formation nearly as 
follows : — * A vast plain extends from the hills of 
Aguasarco, to near the villages of Teipa and Pe- 
tatlan, from 2,460 to 2,624 ft above the level of 
the sea. In the midst of a tract of ground, in 
which porph}Ty, with a base of greenstone, pre- 
dominates, basaltic cones appear, the summits of 
which are crowned with eveigreen oaks and small 
palm trees, their beautiful vegetation forming a 
singular contrast with the aridity of the plain, had 
waste by volcanic fire. Till the middle of the 
18th centary, fields cultivated witli sugar-cane 
and indigo occupied the extent of ground between 
the rivers Cuitamba and San Pedro. From June, 
1759, hollow subterranean noises, accompanied by 
•fi'eipient earthquakes, succeeded one another for 
from 50 to 60 days. At length, in the night between 
the 28th and 29th of Sept,, a tract of ground from 
3 to 4 sq. m. in extent, which goes by the name 
of MalpaySy rose up in the shape of a bladder. The 
bounds of this convulsion are still distinguishable 
in the fractured strata. The Malpaysy near its 
edges', is only 39 ft, above the old level of the plain 
called the Playcu de Jondlo ; but the convexity of 
the ground thus thrown up increases progressively 
towards the centre to an elevation of 524 feet. 
Flames were now seen to issue forth, it b said, for 
an extent of more than h sq. league; fragments 
of burning rocks were thrown up to prodigious 
heights ; and, through a thick cloud of ashes, illu- 
mined by volcanic fire, the softened surface of the 
earth was seen to swell up like an agitated sea. 
The rivcis of Cuitamba and San Pedro precipitnted 


themselves into the burning chasms. Thousands 
of small cones, from 6 to 9 ft, in height, called by 
the natives hornitos (ovens), issued forth from tlie 
Malpaysj from each of which a thick vapour* 
ascends to the height, of from 30 to 50 ft. In 
many of them a subterranean noise is heard, 
which appears to announce the proximity of a 
fluid in ebullition. In the midst of the orens, six 
laige masses, elevated from 1,312 to 1,640 ft, each 
above the old level of the plains, spring up from a 
chasm, the direction of which is frtmi JsNW. to 
SSE. The most elevated of these euonnous masses, 
the great volcano of Jorullo, bears some resem- 
blance in shape to the Puys of Auvergne, in 
France, It is continually burning, and has thrown 
up from the N. side an immense quantity of sco- 
rified and basaltic lavas, containing fragments of 
primitive rocks. These great eruptions of the 
central volcano continued till Feb. 1760. In the 
foUo^ving years thoy became gradually less fre- 
quent ; but the plains of Jorullo, even at a great 
distance from the scene of the explosion, were long 
uninhabitable, from the excessive heat which pre- 
vailed in them.' 

The Cuitamba and San Pedro totally disap- 
peared on the occajiion above mentioned; but two 
new streams are now seen bursting through the 
argillaceous vault of the hornitos, having the ap- 
pearance of mineral waters, in which the thCTrao- 
meter rises to 126° Fahr. The Indians give these 
streams the names of the former rivers, because, 
in several parts of the Malpays, great masses of 
water, with which they are supposed to be con- 
tinuous, are heard to run in the direction from E. 
to W., as the Cuitamba and^ San Pedro did ori- 
ginally. Jorullo is situated in the great volcanic 
band of Mexico, which runs E. and W., nearly at 
right angles, to the ("ordillera, including the i)eaks 
of Orizaba, Puebla, Toluca, Tancitaro, and Colipaa; 
and of which Humboldt conjectures the Revilla- 
gigedo islands, in the Pacific, may mark the con- 

JOUDPOOR, or MARWAR, a state of NW. 
Hindostun, under the British government, bctwe4?ii 
240 36' and 27° 40' N. lat., and 70° 4' and 75° 33' E. 
long. Area, 35,672 sq. m. Pop. 1,783,600 in 1861. 

Joudpoor and Jesselmere, may be takcn^ as 
pretty fair types of the old Rajpoot states of NW. 
India ; the former being, however, the most exten- 
sive and valuable of any, and the latter the least 
80. The wealth of Joudpoor has been much un- 
dervalued, and it has been erroneously consi- 
dered as a portion of the sandy desert Its exports 
in wheat are considerable, the soil is favourable 
to many other kinds of grain, and it.s central 
parts are highly productive. The country con- 
sists generally of open plains, the hills being 
almost confined to the S, The soil is not arid slu 
in Jesselmere and Bicanere, but is almost every 
where watered by torrents, and affluents of the 
Loonee or Salt river. This river rises in Ajmere, 
and flows through the centre of Joudpoor to enter 
the Runn of Cutch, Its waters are distributed 
over the adjacent wheat lands, which extend along 
its banks from Ajmere to the Runn, by means ot 
earth aqueducts, sometimes a mile in leligth. The 
fields are surrounded with dykes to prevent the 
egress of the water; and being thus iirigated, 
Joudpoor produces heavy crops of barlev, hajrecy 
jowareCj and other kinds of gnnain. Neither the 
climate nor soil is favourable to the poppy, but 
an inferior kind of opium is grown in the E., 
where it is an article of laige consumption and 
export. Tobacco is produce<i in some fmrts, but 
not in a sufficient quantity to supersede the neces- 
sity of importing it from Gujrat^ Cotton is an 
important article of produce. Marwar is celebrated 


for its camels, which may be purchased in everj' 
village, at from 50 to 60 rupees each, and which 
have contributed greatly to the commercial im- 
portAHce of the state, by facilitating the convey- 
ance of almost every kind of goods. Goats, sheep, 
and hogs are numerous ; mutton is good, but the 
wool is not so much prized as tliat of the poorer 
countries. Salt is a very important article of pro- 
duce. Laz^ tracts are impregnated with it, espe- 
cially about Punchpuddur, on the Loonee towards 
Cutch. It is got by digging pits of about 120 ft. 
by 40, and about 10ft* deep in the saline soil. A 
jungle shrub is then thrown in upon the water 
which exudes ; this assists the crystallisation, and 
in the course of two years, the moisture having 
evaporated, a mass of salt, sometimes from 4 to 5 
ft. deep, is left. The commerce of Joudpoor is 
extensive, its great emiwrium being Pallee, about 
40 m. SE. of the cap. This town is the entrei)6t 
between the W. coast and Upper India, and the 
channel bj' which the Malwah opium is exported 
to China and W. Asia. Tlie chief trade of Pallee 
is in opium, which is sent by land to Kurachee in 
Sinde, a distance of 500 m., whence it is shipped 
to Damaun. It is customary with the PaUee mer- 
chants to consign their opium to contractors, who 
agree to deliver it safe at Damaun, uninjured 
by weather, plunder, or otherwise, on the receipt 
of BOO rupees for each camel-load. Marwar ex- 
ports wheat of superior quality to Ajraere and 
Bicanere, and has most extensive dealings in salt, 
with which it supplies the upper provs. of Bengal, 
and, indeed, all parts of Up{]«r India. It imports 
from Sinde, by its return camels, rice, assafoetida, 
and sulphur ; from Lahore, Cashmere shawls ; from 
Delhi and Jejrpore, metals, woollen and cotton 
cloths, and sugar. From Cutch it receives spices, 
cocoa-nuts, coffee, and dates; ivory from Africa, 
and European goods from Bombay. Its commer- 
cial importance has risen wholly within the last 
seventy years. The inhab. are* chiefly Khatore 
Kajpoots, a handsome and brave race of men of 
the purest castes. Bhats, Chunars, and Jauts, 
the last of whom are the cultivators, comprise 
most of the remaining inhab. Within the limits 
of Marwar there are several thousand towns and 
villages, many consisting of from 500 to 1,000 
bouses. Chief towns, Joudpoor, the cap., Pallee, 
Nagore, and Meerta. 

JouiiPOCiR, a town of Hindostan, prov. Eajpoo- 
tana, cap. of the above rajahship ; in a hollow 
surrounded by rocky eminences, and on a soil 
destitute of water; 100 m. W. Ajmere. Pop. 
estim. at 80,000. Near it is the residence of the 
rajah of Joudpoor, a fort about ^ m. in circuit, 
placed on a low mountain, and said to have some 
resemblance to Windsor Castle. 

JUAN-DEL-RIO (ST.), a town of Mexico, 
state of Quen^taro, and cap. dist. of its own name, 
81 m. NW. Mexico, and 164 m. SW. Tampico. 
Pop, 10,295 in 1864. It is a neat and tolerably 
well-built town, in an extensive plain, 6,490 ft. 
alx)ve the sea, and on the S. bank of a stream, 
crossed here by a fine bridge of 5 stone arches : 
S. of it rises a hill of basaltic rock, the summit of 
which is crowned with a pretty chapel and spire. 
The private residences are of st<jne, and are large, 
roomy, and well furnished. The town is sur- 
luunded by gardens and orchards: and nothing 
can exceed the beauty and fertility of the neigh- 
bouring country. Indian com is the chief article 
of culture, buc the ear is much smaller than that 
of the com grown in the United States. 

of the Argentine republic, near the Chilian fron- 
tier, cap. prov., and on the river of same name, 
125 m. N. Slendoza, Pop* estimated at 16,000. 



The territory round San Juan, besides being highly 
productive, has the advantage of being free Irom 
the incursions of the Indians. The prov. San 
Juan produces wheat, barley, maize, olives, figs, 
pasturage, garden vegetables, and all the fmits of 
the temperate zone in great luxuriance ; and, in 
times of scarcity, com has been sent from San 
Juan to Buenos Ayres, a distance of above 1,000 m. 
The mountain ranges in the neighbourhood ot 
San Juan yield fine statuary marble, gypsum, 
sulphur, alum rock, and copperas, and the earth 
in Its vicinity is strongly impregnated with sul- 
phate of soda, which is extracted by washing for 
medical purposes. 

JUAN-FERXANDEZ, a group comprising two 
chief and several smaller islands in the S. Pacific 
Ocean, about 400 m. W. of the coast of Chili : 
lat. 33° 40' S., long. 79° W. The largest of these 
islands, and the only one inhabited, is called 
Mas-a-tierra, to distinguish it from Mas-a-fwtra^ 
a lofty volcanic rock, about 90 m. W. It is from 
10 to' 12 m. long, and about 6 ra. broad, its area 
being nearly 70 sq. m. The coast line is very 
irregular, with frequent bays and headlands ; and 
the chief harbours are Port English, on the S. 
side, visited by Anson in 1741 ; Port Juan, on the 
W. ; and Cumberland Bay, on the N. side of the 
island. Its northern half is a lofty basaltic form- 
ation, intersected with narrow, but fruitful and 
well-wooded, valleys while to the S. the land, 
though less elevated, is rockj and barren. The 
fig and vine flourish on the hill sides, and among 
the larger trees are the sandal, cork, and a species 
of palm called cliuia^ bearing a rich fruit. Goats 
are found in a wild state, and on the rocky shores 
are seals and walmses: fish are plentiful, espe- 
cially cod. The island is very subject to earth- 
3ualies, two of which (in 1761 and 1835) are 
escribed as having done great damage. In the 
earthquake of 1835, an eruption burst through the 
sea about a mile from the land, where the depth 
is from 50 to 80 fathoms ; smoke and water were 
ejected during the day, and flames were seen at 
night, (Geog. Journ., vi. 1.) 

Juan-Femandez (which is popularly applied 
only to the island of Moi-a-tierra) was discovered 
by a Spanish navigator, who gave to it his own 
name, and formed an establishment, which was 
afterwards abandoned. The buccaneers of the 
17th century made it a place of resort during their 
cruises on the coast of Pern; and subsequently 
it became the solitary dwelling, during four 
years, of a Scotchman, called Alexander Selkirk, 
whose adventures are supposed to have given rise 
to De Foe's inimitable novel of Robinson Crusoe^ 
In 1760, the Spanish government formed a settle- 
ment and built a fort; which, however, with tho 
town, was all but destroyed by an earthquake in 
the following year. They weie rebuilt somewhat 
further from the shore; and were still inhabited, 
and in good order, when Carteret visited the 
island in 1767, but they were soon after abandoned. 
(Geog. Joura., iv. 2.) The Chilian government 
established a penal colony here in 1819 ; but this 
has been discontinued, on account of its expense 
The island has lately been taken on lease from 
the Chilian govenunent by an enterprising Ame- 
rican, who has brought thither about 150 familiea 
of Tahitians, with the intention of cultivating the 
land, rearing cattle, and so improving the port of 
Cumberland Bay, that it may become the resort 
of whalers and other vessels navigating the Pacifio 

JUANPORE, a distr. of British India, prov^ 
Allahabad, chiefly between the 2oth and 26tU 
degs. of N. lat,, and the 82d and 83d of E. long. ; 
having N. Oude, and the distr. Aziroghur; E* 



Benares ; S. the Ganges, separating it from Mir- 
zapoor; and W. Allahabad. Area, 1,552 sq. m. 
Pop. 798,503 in 1861. The surface of the district 
is slightly undulating. The river Goompty runs 
through it in a SE. direction. The soil is sandy, 
but generally well cultivated, and irrigated with 
care, except towards the Oude frontier, where 
there is much waste land covered with jungle. 
This distr. has improved greatly since it has been 
brought under the British government, and it is 
now the principal seat of the sugar cultivation in 
the central provs. of the Bengal presidency. Some 
sugar lands m Juanpore let as high as 10 rupees 
the begah, from 6 to 8 rupees being the average 
rent of sugar lands in the adjacent districts. The 
buildings and villages, though still very indif- 
ferent, have been latterly much improved. The 
land is generally divided into such small portions, 
that the incomes of very few landholders exceeded 
501. Education is at a low ebb, and the people 
have alwavs been rather celebrated for turbulence. 
The remains of many mud forts are to be seen, 
but none of stone exists, except that of the cap., 

Juanpore, a town of British India, presid. 
Bengal, cap. of the above distr., on the Goomptv, 
88 m. NW. Benares. Pop. 27,200 in 1861. 
Though now decayed and comparatively insig- 
nificant, it was previously to the middle of the 
15th century a place of importance, and the cap. 
of an indep. sovereignty. It was annexed to the 
Mogul empire by Akbar, under whom was built 
its magnificent bridge over the Goompty, which 
is now in perfect preservation, and is one of the 
finest works of the kind in India. A stone fort, a 
mosque of great beauty, and a number of ruined 
edifices and monuments, attest the former great- 
ness of Juanpore. The modem town is wholly 
built of mud ; it is, however, the residence of the 
collector, judge, and other chief British author- 
ities of the district 

JUGGERNAUT (Jaggatmaeha, 'the lord of 
the world'), a town and celebrated temple of Hin- 
dostan, the latter being one of the chief places of 
Hindoo pilgrimage, and according to Hamilton, 
the most sa^ed of all the religious establishments 
of the natives of India. The town stands on the 
sea coast of the distr. of Cuttack, presid. Bengal, 
prov. Orissa, beside a branch of the Mahanudda, 
45 m. S. Cuttack, and 260 m. SVV. Calcutta ; lat. 
19° 49' N., long. 85® 54' E. It contains nearly 
5,800 houses, with 30,000 inhabs. It is for the 
most part mean and dirty, consisting of low brick 
buildings, with here and there latge seratM and 
some handsome residences. Tlie chief street is 
wholly composed of religious edifices, interspersed 
with plantations; and at its S. end stands the 
great temple of the divinity or idoL This struc- 
ture is imposing only from its immensity ; its ex- 
ecution is rude and inelegant, and its form unplea- 
sing to the eye. It is built of coarse red granite, 
and was completed in 1198, at a cost of from 40 to 
50 lacs of rupees (400,000/. to 500,000/.) The es- 
tablishment of which it forms a part comprises 
about 50 temple dedicated to various deities, 
within a nearly square area inclosed by a stone 
wall 24 ft. high, and measuring 676 ft. in length 
on two of its sides, and 670 ft. on the two others. 
The principal gate of entrance to this area is on 
tlie £. side, from which a broad flight of 22 steps 
leads to a terrace raised about 25 rt, and inclosed 
by a second wall 445 ft. square. On this terrace 
is the first apartment, called the Bhog Mandap. a 
building 60 ft. square, in which the great idol is 
worshipped during the bathing festival ; and in a 
line, and connected with it by a low portico, is 
the antechamber opening into the great tower or 


sanctuary. This tower rises to 180 ft. above the 
area on which it is raised, or ratlier more than 
200 ft. above the ground, and forms a valuable 
landmark to mariners on this dangerous coast. Its 
ipcound plan is 28 ft. square within the building ; 
Its shape is conical, its walls are externally covered 
with stone stat-nes in relief, and its roof is orna- 
mented with representations of monsters of various 
kinds. Little pains, however, appear to have been 
taken in the sculpture of these decorations, and of 
late the temple has had an outer coating of chunam 
or mortar, while its figures have been daubed with 
red paint. Within this sanctuary, seated on their 
thrones, are the rude statues of three of the most 
revered deities of Hindoo faith — Juggernaut or 
Vishnu, his brother Balaramaor Mahadeo, and hia 
sister Subhadra or Kali, the temple being devoted 
to all three, though particularly to the first. Ad- 
jacent to this edifice are two other temples, much 
smaller, and of a pyramidal form. The £. gat« 
of entrance to the outer enclosure is flanked by 
colossal figures of lions or griffins in a sitting pos- 
ture, and porters of Hindoo mvthology. In front 
of it is a column, remarkable for its light and ele- 
gant appearance, composed of a single block of 
dark basalt, 40 ft. high and 8 in diameter, sup- 
porting a sitting figure of the god Huniman. This 
pillar was brought thither from the half ruined 
black pagoda of Kauarak (which see), less than a 
century since. On the NE. side of the temple is 
the collection of bungalows forming the European 

All the land within a distance of 20 m. from the 
pagoda is accounted holy by the Hindoos, and is 
held rent-free by the cultivators and others, on 
condition of their performing certain services in 
and about the temple. The priests and other per- 
sons deriving their subsistence from the establish- 
ment, are said to amount to 3,000 families, exclu- 
sive of 400 families of cooks, to prepare the holy 
food so much sought after by pilgrims. 

* The provisions furnished' daily for the idol and 
his attendants consbt of 220 seers of rice, 97 seers 
of kallai, 24 of mung^ 188 of clarified buffaloes' 
butter, 90 of molasses, 35 of vegetables, 100 of 
milk, 13 of spices, 20 of salt, and 22 of lamp oiL 
The holy food is presented to the idol three times 
a day, and the gates are cautiously shut during 
this presentation, and none but a few personal ser- 
vants of the idol are allowed to be present. This 
meal lasts for about an hour, during which period, 
the dancing-girls attached to the temple (consist- 
ing of 120), dance and sing in the room with many 
pillars. On the ringing of a large bell, the doors 
are thrown open, tlie food is removed, and Uie 
rajah of Khurda^ as high priest of the temple, di- 
vides it with the priests.' (Trans. As. Soc, iii 255.) 

The images or Juggernaut, Balarama, and Sub- 
hadra, are nothing more than wooden busts, about 
6 ft. high, fashioned into a rude resemblance of a 
human head, resting on a sort of pedestaL The}*- 
are painted white, black, and yellow respectively, 
with grim distorted features, and decorated with 
different coloured head-dresses. The two brotheiB 
have arms projecting forward, horizontally, from 
the ears : the sister is without arms. These mon- 
strous figures may, in general, be seen dail}', and 
are publicly exposed twice a year; when Jugger- 
naut and his brother, after uridergoing certain ab- 
lutions, assume the form of Ganesa, the elephant- 
headed god, a transformation eff'ected by means of 
a mask. Thus dressed, they are placed on the high 
terrace, overlooking the outer wall of the temple, 
surrounded by crowds of priests, who fan them to 
drive away tlie flies, whilst the multitude below 
gaze in stupid admiration. But the grand festi- 
val, or raCh iatra, takes place in March, when the 

Digitized by 



min has entered Aries. This has been described as 
follows, by a British eye-witness, for some years re- 
sident at Poori, Juggernaut * Three large rafht^ or 
cars of wood, are prepared for the occasion, of 
which the first (intended for Jaggannat'ha) has 16 
wheels, each 6 ft. in diameter; the platform, to re- 
ceive the idol, is 26 ft. square, and the whole car 
is fully 46 ft, from the ground. The wood- work 
is ornamented with images of different idols, and 
TMiintcd, and the car has a lofty dome covered with 
Knglish woollens of the most ^audy colours, 
bought at the import warehouse m Calcutta ; a 
large wooden image is placed on one side as a 
charioteer, and several w(K>den horses are suspended 
in front of the car with their legs in the air. (An 
exact model of the car of Juggernaut, about 3 ft. 
souaie and 4 ft. in height, is in the museum 
or the Royal Asiatic Society.) Six strong cables 
are fastened to the raVhy by which it is dragged 
on its journey. The concourse of pilgrims is 
always very great, and a loud shout from the mul- 
titude announces the approach of Jaggannat'ha, 
who is carried from the temple by a number of 
priests, appointed for the purpose. A short time 
after, the rajah of Khurda, as hereditary hi^h 
priest, makes his appearance in a state-palanqum 
of a strange construction, followed by large state 
elephants, and generally alights near the rat'h of 
the idol Balabhadra. The latter, and Subhadra, 
are placed upon two separate rat'hs, like that of 
Jaggannafha, except being a little smaller, the 
one having only 14 wheels, and the other 12. 
The rajah is surrounded by a large train of priests, 
and immediately prostrates himself before the idol 
Ja^annat'ha, amidst the shouts of pilgrims and 
the piercing notes of the shrill silver trumpets ; he 
then with a broom sweeps the floor of the car, and 
is presented by the pnests with a silver vessel, 
containing essence of sandal- wood, with which the 
floor is sprinkled all around the idoL The rajah 
receives from Jaggaiinat'ha, as a mark of honour, 
a garland of flowers, which the priests take from 
the image, and put round the rajah's neck. The 
rajah then descends from the principal car, and 
proceeds bare-footed to the car or each of the other 
idols, and endeavours to propel them forward, 
without which ceremonies it is supposed they 
could not afterwards be moved. On a signal being 
given, a most active scene commences, and seve- 
ral thousand men, each holding a small green 
branch in his hand, come running to the ra'ths, 
clearing their way through the crowd for a con- 
siderable distance in regular files. They imme- 
diately lay hold of the cables, each man hav- 
ing first touched the car with his branch ; and then 
aided by the pilgrims (men and women), pull the 
ntlis to their destination, taking care to keep 
their faces towards the idol, who is driven to his 
garden-house, where he is worshipped for four 
days, and then returns in the same way to the 
temple.' (Mansbach in Trans. Astat, Soc.^ iii. 258- 
259.) B^des that described, 12 other principal, 
and many minor, festivals are celebrated duruig 
the year. The worship of Ju^emaut is attended 
by every sect and class of Hmdoos, who meet on 
equal terms, all caste being aboluhed within the 
preeimctg of the temple. 

That excess of fanaticism, which is said to have 
prompted the pilgrims to court death by throwing 
themselves, in crowds, imder the wheels of Jug- 
gernaut, either never existed, or has long ceas^l 
to actuate the worshippers of the idol. During 
four yeans that Mr. Mansbach witn&<tsed the festi- 
vals, only three cases of self-immolation occurred ; 
one of these was probably accidental, and the two 
others were suicides, committed by sufferers to rid 
themselves of painful diseases. The greatest mis- 



representations were formerly circulated in Europe 
respecting the number of widow-burning, pil- 
grims, and loss of life, at Juggernaut. It is true 
that, for many miles round the temple, the sides 
of the roads are literally whitened with the bones 
of devotees, who have perished by the way-side. 
But this is not the result of any violent modes of 
destniction, voluntary or othertvise. If a Hindoo 
has reason to believe dissolution at hand, he forth- 
witli collects his remaining stren^h, and should 
he fortunately succeed in dragging his diseased 
body within sight of the sacred edifice, he will 
lie down in peace, and die with a perfect con- 
fidence of future happiness ; besides which, thou- 
sands set out on a pilgrimage thither in health, 
and m the full intention of returning, whose sub- 
sistence failing by the way, devote themselves, 
simply because they can do' nothing else, to death 
by starvation. An unfounded clamour was long 
raised in England against the government of 
British India for promoting idolatry, as it was 
said, by continuing to exact taxes on the pilgrims 
to Juggernaut, Gaya, and other places, as had 
previously been done by the native sovereigns. 
But though the levy of 'taxes on pilgrims seems 
rather an odd way of promoting idolatry, yet, in 
deference to the well-intentioned, thougli absurd, 
misrepresentations propagated in England on the 
subject, these taxes have been rep^ed, to the 
great satisfaction of the ^ idolaters.' The number 
of pilgrims to this and other shrines has since 
greatly increased ; and the natives are extremely ■ 
well pleased by this act of liberality on the part 
of government. It may be right to mention 
that no part of the pilgrim-tax ever came into the 
general funds of the government, but was wholly 
laid out on the repair of roads, and the maintenance 
of a proper police at the different places of pUgrim- 
a^ (Asiatic Researches, vols. viiL x. xv. ; iVans. 
ot the Royal Asiat. Soc., vol. iii) 

JULIERS (Germ. Jiilich)^ a town of Prussia, 
cap. circle, on the Ro6r, a tributary of the Maese, 
23^ m. W. Cologne, and 16^ m. NE. Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, on the railway from Aix-la-ChapeUe to 
Cleves. Pop. 5,181 in 1861. The town has a strong 
citadel, 3 churches, a fine old town-hall, circle court 
of justice, police court, and high school, and manu- 
factures of woollen cloth, leather, and vinegar. 

Juliera is believed to be identical with Juliacum, 
in Antonine's Itinerary. After the extinction of 
the Roman dominion, it became the property of 
independent counts of the Germanic empire, who 
were created dukes by the emperor Charles IV., in 
1356. The family of the dukes of Juhers becoming 
extinct in 1609, the town was taken by Prince 
Maurice of Nassau in the following year; in 1G22 
it was taken by the Spaniards, who held it till 
1659. In 1794 it was taken by the French, who 
afterwards made it the cap. of the d^p. lioHr, The 
former duchy of Juliers is the most \V. portion of 
the Prussian dom., and is remarkable for its fer- 
tility, and its linen manufacture. 

JIFMBOSEER, a toym of British India, presid. 
Bombay, distr. Baroach, on a river of the same 
name, 25 m. NNW. Baroach. Pop. estim. at 10,000. 
It carries on a considerable trade with Bombay, to 
which it sends cotton, grain, oil, and piece goods. 

JUMILLA, a town of Spain, prov. Murcia, 36 
ra. N. by W. Murcia, and 76 m. SSW. Valencia. 
Pop. 9,613 in 1857. The town is situated on the 
S. slope of a hill, at the summit of which is a castle 
commanding the town; streets straight and of 
moderate width, but not paved. The public build- 
ings comprise 2 churches, 2 convents, a public 
granary, and a hospital. The town contains 
about 30 oil and corn mills, 2 soap manufactories, 
and on establishment fur making fire-arms ; also 


Beveral salt-paoB under the direction of goTcm- 
ment. A considerable fair is held here, Dec. 2. 
The climate, though not so genial as in neighbour- 
ing towns situated at a less elevation, is salu- 
brious ; and com and fruit are abundant. Grazing, 
however, is the principal pursuit of the people in 
and near the town. 

Jumilla was taken from the Moors, who, having 
founded or rebuilt it, gave it its present name, by 
a king of Arragon : it was again taken from Ar- 
lagon by Henry of Trastamare, who made it sub- 
ject to the crown of Castile. 

JUMNA (Sanscr. Vamunaj the Jomone* of Pliny), 
a river of Hindoston, and the chief tributary of the 
Ganges. It rises on the SVV. side of the great 
Himalaya range, about lat. 30^ 55' N., and long. 
78^ 24' E. ; and has been traced to an elevation of 
about 11,^0 ft. above the sea, at the foot of an 
abrupt mountain nearly 4,000 ft. higher. Over 
the wall of this mountain falls a streamlet, pro- 
bably caused by the melting of the snows on the 
summit, and which appears to be the true source 
of the river. For some miles the Jumna proceeds 
through a glen no more than about 40 yards in 
width at its bottom, and bounded by munil pre- 
cipices of granit« many thousand feet in height. 
The stream is here concealed by a thick bed of 
frozen snow, which arches over the course of the 
river beneath, su]>porte<l by the shehnng walls of 
the ravine. About half a mile below the point to 
which the Jumna has been traced, is Jumnotri, a 
celebrated place of pilgrimage and ablution with 
the Hindoos. At this spot are numerous hot fer- 
ruginous springs, some of which rise in the rocky 
w^l 10 or 12 fu above the bed of the river ; and 
having melted the snow for 20 or 30 yards round, 
mix with the waters of the Jumna, rendering them 
sensibly warm. Some of the springs arc hot enough 
to boil rice, their temperature having been found 
as high as 194*7° Fah., or near the point at which 
water is converted into steam at that elevation, 
about 10,840 ft above the sea. Before arriving at 
them, the Jumna is only about 3 ft, in width and 
a few inches deep; but these, causing a continual 
melting of the snow, contribute greatly to augment 
its supply of water. About 50 m. below its source, 
the Tonse unites with the Jumna ; and, though 
double the size of the latter, takes its name. From 
this point to Delhi the river flows generally in a 
S. direction ; it thenceforward gradually declines 
to the 8£. Throughout its whole court>e it usually 
runs parallel to the Ganges, the tract between the 
two nvers. called the Doabj varying from 20 to 80 
m. in width. At its emerging from the hilly region, 
about lat. S(P 15', the bed of the Jumna, which is 
1,000 yards broad, is full in the rains, though in 
the dry season the river is not more than 100 yards 
across. It is not usually very deep, being foitUiblc 
in several places above Agra; in its progress 
through the prov. of Delhi it divides into various 
branches inclosing large islands. It joins the 
Ganges at Allahabad, where its breadth is fullv 
equal to that of the latter river. Its entire length 
is estimated at 780 m. It receives no tributaries 
of any consequence in the upper port of its course ; 
but in the lower, the Chumbul, Sind, Betwah, and 
Cane join it from the 8., and the Kinde fn)m the 
N. Delhi, Agra, Allahabad, Etaweh, and Kalpec 
are on its banks. From its shallowness, the Jumna 
is little serviceable to commerce, and its waters in 
the great plain of the upper provs. are so impreg- 
nated with natron, that vegetation is rather hin- 
dered than promoted by its inundations. The 
country to the W. o4" Delhi is, however, fertilised 
by the canal of Ali Giordan Khan, cut from it 
immediately after its leaving the hills ; and the 
upper portiun of the Doab is irrigated in a similar 


manner by the Zabeta Khan*s canal, 200 m. in 
length, which also commences at the foot of Uie 
hillv region, and proceeds to Delhi. 

J'UXGEYPOOR, a town of HindosUn, prov. 
Bengal, distr. Moorshedabad, on an arm of the 
Ganges, 25 m. NNVV. Moorshedabad. It is one 
of the principal stations in the British territories 
for the culture of the silk-worm. The mulberry 
Lb cultivated to a great extent from annual shoot/i, 
and large quantities of indigo are also grown in 
the neighbourhood. 

JUKA, a frontier d^. of France, region of the 
E., formerly included in Franche Comt<?, between 
lat. 46© 16' and 47° 18' N., and long. 5° 19' and 
6° 12' E., having N. Haute SaOne, E. Doubs and 
a part of Switzerland, S. Ain, and W. Saone-et- 
Loire and Cote d'Or. Length, NW. to SE., 70 m. 
Area, 499,401 hectares; pop. 298,053 in 18C1. 
More than two-thirds of the surface, principally 
in the S. and E., is covered with mountain ranges 
belonging to the Jura system, the principal summit 
of which, the Rcculet, 5,633 ft. lygh, is in this de'p. 
Rivers numerous: the chief are the Doubs and 
Ain. There are several small lakes, and in the 
NW. some lai^ge marshes. In the plains the at- 
mosphere is moist and heavj', while in the moun- 
tams it is dry, and the winters long and severe. 
The arable laiids are estimated at 183, 1 1 3 hectares ; 
meodows at 50,547; vineyards at 21,027; forests 
at 110,614; and heaths and wastes at 79,000 do. 
Sufficient com is grown for home consumption, 
chiefly wheat, barley, maize, and oats. Upwards 
of 400,000 hectol. of wine are produced annually, 
some of which is ver>' good. The mountains afford 
excellent pasture, on which many black cattle are 
fed; and chalets are established o|i them, as in ' 
Switzerland. The butter and chee«e of the dep. 
are much esteemetl. Horses and mules are exten- 
sively bred ; and hogs, poultry, and bees are aLeo 
very* plentiful. The number of large properties is 
much below the average of the d^ps. There are 
several iron mines, and quarries of marble, ala- 
baster, and gypsum. The d<^p. has also ores of 
lead, coal, copper, and even gold, but no mines of 
these metals are at present wrought. Iron forges 
and paper factories are numerous ; cotton and linen 
fabrics, chamois and other leather, glue, mineral 
acids, and marble ornaments, are among the other 
chief manufactures. Watches and trinkets are 
made at Morez, and ivory, bone, horn, maihle, and 
wooden articles are sent all over Europe from the 
turning establishments of St. Claude. Jura is di- 
vided into 4 arrond. : chief towns, Lons-le-SauI- 
nier, the cap., Dole, Poligny, and St. Claude. 

JuHA Mountains, a chain of Central Europe, 
usually classed with the Alpine system, and in- 
cluding the mountains of W. Switzerland, and 
those between the Lake of Geneva, the Rhone, the 
Saoue, and tlie Doubs. The range commonly 
thus designated has a length of about 160 nu, with 
an average breadth of 30 m., commencing S. on 
the bank^ of the Rhone, and running NE. to the 
junction of the Rhine and Aar; but connected 
mountains of analogous composition run N. through 
Suabia and Franconia, and SW. along the riglit 
bank of the Rhone to the vicinity of Narbonne, so 
that the Jura range, in its most extended sense, 
has a length of aliout 600 m. The Swiss Jura 
consists of several long parallel chains, inclosing 
narrow longitudinal valleys, such as the Val de 
Joux (in wliich is the mountain-lake of the same 
name, 3,260 ft, above the sea), the Val Travers, 
the Val de Ruz, and the valleys of the Valserine, 
Doubs, Birs, and other rivers. ' Transverse valleys, 
similar to those in the main Alpine system, are of 
rare occurrence, and the range throws* off only one 
lateral spur, viz. the cliain of Mount Jorat, paaung 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


between the lakes of Geneva and NeuchJLtel, and 
joining the Bernese Alps. The slope is rapid on 
ilie Swiss side, but more gentlie towards France ; 
and the ridge, as seen from a distance, ])resents a 
regular undulating line with rounded dome-like 
summits, contrastmg strongly with the abrupt 
crags and towering peaks of the Alps. The chain 
sinks, as it advances N. : the culminating point, 
le Recxdet, b 5,633 ft high, and 8 others rise above 
5,000 ft. : the roads across the ridge have an ele- 
vation varying from 3,600 to 2,500 ft. above the 
sea. Snow lies on the highest ground about seven 
months in the year, and there are no glaciers. 
The geological constitution of the Jura mountains 
is limestone of the oolitic series. The strata com- 
prises most of the varieties lying between the lias 
and the compact limestone, answering to the Port- 
land stone of English geologists; and the beds 
are thrown up at high elevations, thus causing the 
formation of those longitudinal valleys which are 
a characteristic feature of the Jura. ' On llie SE. 
slopes, and, as Lyell observes, exactly opposite 
the principal o^ienings by which great rivers de- 
scend from the Alps, lie numerous ^ erratic ' blocks 
of extraordinary magnitude. How these granite 
fragments came to their present situation is wholly 
matter of conjecture; but if it be true, as Lyell 
supposes, that the limestone layers of the Jura 
were upraised by some in tenial' commotion, it is 
not improbable that these boulders were detached 
from the Alpine summits, and transported to lower 
platforms, which have been subsequently elevated. 
(Princ of GreoL, vol. iii. p. 424.) The vegetation 
of the Jura nearly resembles that of the Alps : 
box-trees are ver>' abundant on the NW. side, and 
the hills near Poligny are covered with firs, the 
timber of which furnishes materials for the iu- 



dustry of the pop. during the winter months, and 
is also a considerable article of trade with the sur- 
rounding districts. Many of the villagers, also, 
on the mountain sides, and in the valleys, are em- 
ployed in making M'atch-movcments, which find a 
readv market at (ieneva and other towns. 

JUTLAND, a large prov. of Denmark, formerly 
comprising the whole continental portion of the 
Danish dominions, but which is now restricted to 
the part of the peninsula belonging to Denmark to 
the N. of Schleswig, extending m)m about 55^° 
to nearly 68° N. lat,, being about 170 m. in length, 
and from 60 to 80 in breadth, comprising an area 
of 9,560 sq. m. Pop. 611,552 in 1860, of whom 
. 92,061 in the towns. The province is of an oblong 
; form, with the addition of a triangle towards the 
I N. Surface generally flat. It has few rivers, and 
none of any considerable magnitude; but it is 
deeply indented, and in part traversed by inlets or 
arms (fiords) of the sea. Soil various. In the 
middle it is dry, sandy, and occupied by extensive 
heaths ; on both shores it is more fertile ; and on 
; the W. coast, particidarly towarfls the S., there 
j are large tracts of very rich marsh-land, defended 
I by dykes from being overflowed by the sea . 
I Agriculture, though still backward, has made 
' great progress during the present century. Rye, 
I oats, and buckwheat are the crops most generally 
raisotl ; and they, along with cattle of excellent 
I equality, horses, and butter, form the principal ar- 
' tides of export. Hogs are very plentiful, and 
' Jutland has sometimes been called ' the land of 
' bacon and r\'e bread.' Fish very abundant in the 
! fiords or inlets of the sea. Minerals and manu- 
factures unimportant.. The principal towns are 
, Aalborg, Aarhuus, and Wyborg 


XTAFFA, or THEODOSIA, a sea-port town of 
■^ European Russia, on the SE. coast of the 
Crimea, hit. 45© 1' 37" N., long. 35° 23' 37" E. 
Pop. 7,580 in 1858. The town is believed to sUnd 
on the site of the ancient Theodosia, founded by j 
Milesian colonists in remote antiquity^. The Athe- 
nians carried on a great trade with this city, | 
importing from it vast quantities of com, with 
slaves, lumber, and naval stores, hides, and honey. 
After undergoing many revolutions, it fell, in the , 
13ih centurj', into the possession of the Genoese, ' 
who rebuilt'it, and made it the chief seat of their i 
power during the lengthened period of their as- 
cendancv in the Black Sea. In 1475 it was taken \ 
by the I'urks ; but it continued, down to its con- 
quest bv the Russians, to be a large, populous 
town, it, however, suffered severely from this 
event, partly in consequence of the devastations 
committed 'by the Russian soldiery, and partly 
through the emigration of its Tartar inhab. Lat^ 
lerly, however, it has begun to revive; though, 
owing to the superior advantages enjoyed by 
Kertsch as an etUrepSt for the trade of the sea of 
Azoff, it docs not seem very probable that Kafia 
will ever recover her former importance. The 
road, or bay, of Kafi'a is very extensive, and capable 
of accommodating a great number of vessels. It 
has deep water throughout; the holding ground 
is good ; and, with the exception of the E., it is 
sbeltennl from all winds. 

KAIRA, a town of Ilindostan, cap. of a colleo- 
torate, 113 m. NNW. Surat; lat. 22° 47' N., long. 
72<^ 48' E. It is a neat town, surrounded by bas- 

tioned ramparts and walls in good repair. Its 
streets are narrow, but tolerably clean, and its 
houses are solid, lofty, and adorned with a great 
deal of carving. Its chief public buildings are the 
district court-house, a handsome Grecian edifice, 
a large and secure prison, a church, an English 
school, and, near the centre of the town, a laigo 
Jain temple. The cantonment of Kaira, about 1^ 
m. distant, is unfortunately (like many of the 
settlements in India founded by the British), in a 
very unhealthy situation ; but it is extensive and 
I well laid out, with good barracks, a hospital, a 
regimental school, and a tolerable English librarv. 
KAIRWAN, or KEERWAN, a large city of N. 
I Africa, regencv Tunis, 85 m. S. from the citv of 
Tunis ; lat. 35° 36' N., long. 95° 57' E. Pop. esti- 
mated at 50,000. It is situated in a barren sandy 
I plain, and is surrounded by a low wall ; the public 
Duildings comprise a large citadel and several 
mosques, two of which are richly adorned. The 
houses are clean and respectable, and the streets 
, wide and ornamented with columns, capitals, 
and highly raised Cufic inscriptions. ItLsregarde(l 
as the second town in the regency; and its Kadee, 
I or governor, is almost independent of the bey of 
j Tunis. 

I Kainvan is famous for its yellow Morocco boots 
' and slippers, the delicate dye of wliich it has 
hitherto been found impossible to equal. It was 
I formerly a place of great literary eminence, pos- 
I sessing weU-endow^ institutions and good li- 
! braries, from which Europeans have derived a laigo 
I portion of their knowledge of Arabic literature. 



Kairwan is supposed by Shaw to occupy the site 
of the Vicus Augusti in Antonine's Itinerary ; but, 
notwithstanding the deference due to so ^eat an 
authority, this supposition is contested on good 
grounds. The present city was built about a.d. 
670, about the time when Africa was invaded by 
the general of the Ommiyade, caliph Moawyad I. 
In 802, the governor of W. Africa threw off his 
allegiance to the caliph, declared himself inde- 
pendent, and established his capital at Kairwan. 
In 969, the seat of government was transferred to 
Cairo, ^ce which its importance, though, still 
considerable, has materialh" declined. 

KAISARIAH (an. MazaccL, and afterwards 
Camrea)y a town of Asiatic Turkey, prov. Kara- 
mania, sandjiak of its own name, on the Kaiasa 
(an. ^Fdaa), a tributary of the Euphrates, 140 m. 
ICNE. Konieh, and 135 m. SE. Angora; lat. 38° 42' 
N., long. 350 20' 20" E. Pop. about 25,000, of 
whom 2,000 are Armenians, Greeks, and Jews. It 
is situated on the E. side of a fertile plain of great 
length, and in a recess formed between two spurs 
projecting from the lofty, snow-covered Mount 
Erdjisk, the Argasus of antiquity. The houses, 
though built of stone and brick, have a mean 
appearance. It is surrounded by a wall now in 
ruins, and in the suburb are some interesting re- 
mains of a Roman city. Several mosques, one 
Greek and two Armenian churches, a convent, and 
some mausoleums, are the chief public buildings. 
Kaisariah is the emporium of an extensive trade, 
and the resort of merchants from all parts of Asia 
lilinor and Syria, who come to purchase cotton, 
cidtivated in the vicinity in great quantities, and 
sold either in a raw state, or when manufactured 
into cloth. Cotton thread and cloth constitute the 
chief articles of industry, and there are some tan- 
neries of yellow Morocco leather. The land in 
the neighbourhood is fertilised by the inundations 
of the Karasa, and produces an abundance of large 
and delicious-flavoured fruits and vegetables. The 
climate is very healthy, except within the town, 
where epidemics prevail, owing to the offal left in 
the streets to decay and infect the air. 

Mazaca, the ancient capital of Cappadocia, took 
the name of Cfesarea in nonour of Tiberius. Its 
antiouity b attested by Strabo, who also gives an 
excellent description of the neighbouring moun- 
tain. It was the residence of the kings of Cap- 
i)adocia previously to its being annexed to the 
ioman empire, after which it continued to increase 
in size and beauty. An amphitheatre and many 
temples were erected ; and in the reign of Valerian, 
when Shapoor I., king of Persia, pillaged the city 
and massacred its inhabs., it is said to have had a 

a. of 400,000 persons, though this is most pro- 
ly beyond the mark. (Gibbon, i. 439.) Its 
dimensions were contracted oy Justinian, who re- 
built the walls : it was raised to the dipnitv of an 
apostolic see, and gave birth to St. BasiL Having 
been destroyed by an earthquake, it was afterwards 
rebuilt, and by turns became subject to the sultan 
of Iconium, the princes of Karaman, and the grand 

Kaisariah, a ruined town and sea-port of Par- 
lestine. (See CiKSAREA.) 

KALISZ, a city of Poland, and the most west- 
erly in the Russian dominions, cap. palat. of the 
same name, on an island in the IV^na, imme- 
diately within the Russian frontier, 128 m. WSW. 
Warsaw, and 70 m. SE. Posen. Pop. 12,253 in 
1868, of whom about one-fourth are Jews. Kalisz 
is surrounded by old walls flanked with towers, 
and entered by five gates, and has a citadel founded 
by Cassimir the Great. Its streets are broad and 
well paved, and several are planted with trees : its 
houses are generally good. The most remarkable 


public edifices are the former palace of the voi- 
vodes, now occupied by the courts of law, the 
cathedral, church of St. Nicholas, and the Lutheran 
church. Besides the cathedral, there are five R. 
Catholic churches and six convents, several syna- 
gogues, a R. Catholic g3rmnasium or lyccum, with 
a fine library and large scientific collections, a 
military school with 200 students, and many ele- 
mentaiy schools. It has also a theatre, a house 
of charity, and three hospitals. Kalisz is a town 
of some industrv, having manufactures of linen 
and woollen cloths, and leather. A fine road leads 
to Opatowek, a village about 6 m. distant ESE., 
celebrated for its large manufacture of woollens, 
and its gardens, which form the favourite resort of 
the inhabitants of KaUsz. 

The city was founded about 655, and was long 
the residence of the dukes of Great Poland. Near 
it, in 1706, the Poles totally defeated the Swedes; 
and in Sept. 1835, a grand military muster and 
review took place at Kalisz, att«nded by the sove- 
reigns of Russia, AiL<)tria, and Prussia. 

KALPEE, or CALPEE, a large and populous 
town of British India, presid. and prov. Agra, on 
the S. bank of the Jumna, 45 m. SVV. Cawnpore. 
It is a place of considerable trade, being an entre- 
pot for the transport of cotton from the S\V. of 
India to the Gangetic pro vs. ; and has also manu- 
factures of sugar-candy and paper. 

KALUGA, a government of Russia in Europe, 
near its centre; chiefly between lat. 53«>30'and 
550 30' N., and long. 33° 40' and 37^^ E., having 
W. the gov. of Smolensk, N. the latter and Mos- 
cow, E. Tula, and S. OroL Area, 11,470 sq. m. 
Pop. 1,007,471 in 1858. Surface an almost unin- 
terrupted plain, watered by numerous rivers, of 
which tlie Oka and its tributaries arc the princi- 
pal Climate tolerably mild for the hit. Soil 
mostly either sandy or liard clay, and not fertUe. 
Forests occupy more than half the surface ; arable 
lauds rather more than two-fifths; but a good deal 
of manure is required to render the latter even 
moderately productive, and the agricultural pro- 
duce is not adequate to the consumption of the 
inhabitants. IlIvq is principally grown ; but oat*, 
wheat, and barley are also cultivated ; as are hemp 
and flax. Cattle not numerous, and but little 
valued ; but there are in the gov. two extensive 
studs for the breeding of superior horses. The 
fisheries are insignificant: little game is met with. 
Bog-iron is found, but in no great quantity, and a 
^ood deal has to bo imported to supply the* various 
mm works. This government being so little suit- 
able for agriculture, the attention of its inhabitants 
has been turned towards manufacturing industn^^ ; 
in this respect Kaluga ranks immediately after the 
governments of Moscow and ^^adimir. On an 
average about 20,000 workmen are employed in 
distilleries and manufactures of sail-cloth, linen 
and cotton goods, leather, soap, candles, and hard- 
ware. The manufacture of lieet-root sugar has 
been lately introduced. Nearly all the peasants' 
families employ a considerable portion of their 
time in weaving. Many of the merchants in this 
government are opulent, and some have com- 
mercial transactions with foreign countries, through 
Archangel. The chief exports are oils, spirits, 
potash, honey, linen, sail-cloth, and other manu- 
factured goods. The chief commercial towns are 
Kaluga and Borofsk. Kaluga is divided into 1 1 
districts, and is imder the same military governor 
with Tula. Its scholastic institutions' are under 
the university of Moscow. 

Kaluga, a town of Russia in Europe, cap. of 
the above government, on the Oka, near where it 
suddenly turns eastward, 105 m. SE. Moscow. 
Pop. 32,335 m 1858. The town is said to occupy 

Digitized by 



a space of 10 versts, or little shoit of 7 m., in circ., 
and U divided into three quarters b^ the Oka and 
its tributary the Kaloujeka. It is an ill built 
place, with narrow, crooked, and ill paved streets 
and wooden houses. There are, however, some 
good pnblic edifices, as the high church, govem- 
ment-houae, town-hall, and theatre. Of the 24 
churches, 23 are of stone ; a convent, also a stone 
building, gymnasium, seminary for poor children 
of noble birth, foundling asylum, several work- 
houses and hospitals, and a house of correction, 
arc the other chief public establishments. Kalu- 
ga is one of the most important manufacturing 
and commercial towns in the empire: it has 5 sail- 
cloth factories, employing 400 weavers and 1,000 
spinners, between 30 and 40 oil factories, numerous 
tan-yards, some sugar refineries, and manufactures 
of woollen cloth, cotton fabrics, hats, paper hang- 
ing earthenware, soap, and vitriol. Besides car- 
rymg on an extensive mtemal trade, its merchants 
make large exports of lamb-skins, Russia leather, 
and wax, to Dantzic, Breslau, and Berlin. 

KAMINIETZ (Polish, Kaminiec FodoUkt), a 
town of Bussian Poland, gov. Podolia, of which 
it is the cap., on the Smotryez, about 12 m. fron^ 
its junction with the Dneistr, 215 m. SE. Kief, 
and 300 m. NW. Odessa. Pop. 15,230 in 1858, 
many of whom were Jews, It is irregularly laid 
out, with narrow streets, and wooden houses. It 
has, however, some conspicuous edifices of stone 
and other solid materials ; including the cathedral, 
dedicated to St Peter and St. Paul, a Gothic 
building, containing fifteen altars and a nave sup- 
ported by 150 columns. Near it is a column 
supporting a statue of the Saviour. The church 
of the Dominicans, originally constructed of wood, 
in 1360, was rebuilt m stone after the expulsion 
of the Turks in the 18th centur>\ There are in 
all five R. Catholic and four Greek churches, and 
one Armenian church, a fine edifice, completed in 
1767. The R. Catholics have several convents. 
The other chief public buildings are the govern- 
ment library, circle school, and new gymnasium, 
commenced in 1837. 

The town was formerly walled, but its works 
were levelled, by order of the Russian govern- 
ment, in 1812. It is, however, still defended by a 
citadel and other fortifications. The former, situ- 
ated on a steep isolated rock overlooking the town, 
might be made impregnable, were it not com- 
manded by some more lofty adjacent heights. 
Kaminiec was, for a lengthened period, the prin- 
cipal bulwark of Poland on the side of Turkey. It 
was founded by the sons of Ol^herd, in 1331, after 
that prince had wrested Podolia from the Tartars. 
It was soon after fortified, and in 1374 attained 
the rank of a city. It remained attached to Po- 
land tUl its final capture by the Russians in 1793, 
except from 1672 to 1699, during which it was in 
the possession of the Turks. 

KAMTSCHATKA, a large peninsula at the 
NE. extremity of Asia, forming a part of the 
Bussian gov. of Iricutsk, and bounded N. by the 
country ra the Tchuktchi, E. by the Aleutian archi- 
pelago, and W. by the sea of Okhotsk. It lies 
between the 51st and 62d parallels of K. lat,, and 
the 166th and 167th deg. of £. long. ; has a length 
of about 800 m., and a breadth varying from 100 
to 250 m., the area beiug estimated at 80,000 sq. 
m. Supposed population 6,000, of whom about 
1,500 are Russians. The coast line on the W. 
side is tolerably regular, the Gulf of Penginsky, 
at its N. end, forming the only considerable ex- 
ception ; but on the £. side are several extensive 
bays, enclosing respectively between the capes 
Chipunsky, Kronotzky, Kamtschatka, Ozemov, 
and Olutorsky, the last of which is near the nI). 



end of the peninsula : C. Lopatka (lat 61© 0' 15" 
N., long. 1620 2' 15" E.) is the S. extremity of 
Kamtschatka. The coast, generally speaking, is 
abrupt and rocky, especially on the E. side, and 
the peninsula, when viewed from the sea, presents 
the appearance of a barren and desolate rock ; but 
in the interior there are plains of considerable 
extent, having a soil well adapted for tillage. The 
high lands, which cover about two-thirds of the 
entire surface, consist of a chain of volcanic 
mountains, running in a SSW. direction. Many 
volcanoes in this chain have been ascertained by 
Erman and Lutkd to be in a high state of action ; 
and it seems very probable that, geologically con- 
sidered, they fonn only one extremity of a great 
volcanic belt, continued through the Kurile and 
Japanese islands, Formosa, and the islands of the 
E. Indian archipelago. 

The following statements are drawn up from 
the observations of the naturalists in Commodore 
Lutkd's expedition, in 1827-80. and of Prof. Erman, 
who visited Kamtschatka in 1829. In the main 
range running N. from C. Lopatka, 13 summits, 
with craters and hot springs, have been observed 
within the 51st and 56th parallels, one other 
height being isolated, and lying W. of the prin- 
cipal chain. The elevation of nine summits has 
been accurately measured, and is stated to be as 
follows : — 

Aasatchinaky . 8,840 ft. 

Viliitchinaky . 6.846 

Ayatcha . . . 8,760 

Koriata . . . 11,120 

Jupouov . . . 9,060 

Kronotsky . . 10,610 ft. 

KlutchewBky . 16,500 

Tolbanchin . . 8,2.'>0 

Chevelutch . . 10,590 

The most active are Assatchinsky, Avatcha, and 
Klutchewsky, The scoria* and ashes thrown from 
the first, in 1828, were carried as far as Petropau- 
lowsky, 120 versts distant ; and it appears to be 
more or less in continual activity. In 1827 there 
was a violent eruption of Mount Avatcha, during 
which, besides lava and stones, a very large quan- 
tity of water was ejected ; a phenomenon remarked 
also bv Humboldt in the volcano of Karkuarizo, a 
little N. of Chimborazo, in the Colombian Andes, 
and known to have occurred, though in a less 
degree, during the eruptions of Etna and Vesuvius. 
At the summit is a crater several hundred yards 
in circ, formed by a wall 30 ft high, composed of 
porphyry, febpar, and trachyte; and on the E. 
side, at an elevation of about 5.000 fU, is another 
crater, now extinct, and similar both in origin and 
appearance to the Somma of Mount Vesuvius. 
Klutchewsky, which, in common with six others, 
continually emits smoke, was during the last cen- 
tury in very violent action, sometimes for a year 
or two at a time, sending forth vitrified stones, 
lava, pumice, and water : after having been com- 
paratively quiet for about 40 years, it broke out 
again during Erman's visit in 1829. It presents 
a laige base, swelling in an elliptic curve, and 
crowned by four cones : its geological components 
are trachyte, Labrador felspar, obsidian, and lava, 
a^d on its sides are numerous thermal springs of 
high temperature. Indeed, the gr neral formation 
of Kamtschatka is of igneous origin, comprising 
porphyr}', jasper, felspar, schist, trachyte, and 
dolomite ; the W. side, however, lb composed of 
Neptunian, secondar}', and tertiary rocks, among 
which may be distinguished various beds of 
lignites, sandstone, iron-sand, and chalk, in the 
last of which are found large quantities of yellow 
amber : fossil shells in great variety have been 
discovered in all the secondary and tertiary forma- 
tions of this interesting peninsula. The shape of 
Kamtschatka precludes the possibility of there 
being any extensive rivers; and, accordingly, those 
met with resemble torrents more than rivers, 

^lyitized by^ 



being either nearly dry, or flooded and rapid : the 
Karatschatka river, however, is alleged to be ca- 
pable of admitting vessels of 100 tons about 150 
m. up the stream. 

The severity of the climate, though considerable, 
has been greatly exaggerated. The average tem- 
perature in the middle of winter is about 10^ 
ilifaum. ; that of summer is about 7^ ; but the 
difference seems greater, owing to the prevalence 
of raw piercing winds and thick fogs. Still, if 
any judgment may be formed from the health of 
the inhabs., it cannot be unwholesome, for they 
are robust and long-lived, and there are few dis- 
eases, except small-pox and syphilis, introduced 
by the Russians, who also corrupted the pop. by 
familiarising them with the use of ardent spirits. 
(DobelVs Travels, vol i, p. 87.) The vegetation 
is generally considered to be very limited; but 
the limits are prescribed by man rather than by 
nature. Rye, barley, potatoes, cabbages, turnips, 
hemp, and flax, ^vith several other plants pecuhar 
to the country, may be raised successfully, with 
moderate attention'; but the people are, with few 
exceptions, devoted to hunting, able to live on 
game and dried fish, and extremely loth to engage 
in the more civilising, though less exciting pur- 
suit of agriculture, the first attempts at which 
date no further back than 1810. Among the fruits 
are the rasjiberry, red-currant, whortle-berry, 
cranberry, a delicious species of strawberry called 
knejniAa, a wild cherry called cheroonha, and a 
kind of apricot or pluna. The forest trees com- 
prise the birch, fir, larch, poplar, cedar, willow, 
and juniper. Pasturage has hitherto been little 
followed ; but the abundance of grass shows that 
if there was an inclination towards it, the pursuit 
would be profitable. The animals usually hunted 
comprise bears, lynxes, sea and river otters, rein- 
deer, foxes of diflerent colours, sables, and beavers, 
and the number of skins exported is supposed to 
average about 30,000 a year, chiefly of roxes and 
sables. Among the birds, the principal are moor- 
game of different kinds, and many varieties of 
waterfowl, the eggs of which, saturated with oil, 
constitute the chief food of the inhabs. The fish 
caught in the rivers comprise many varieties of 
salmon, some of which are peculiar to the coun- 
try, all serving most essentially to suppl;^ winter 
food : the sea also abounds with cod, hemngs, and 
seals ; walruses and whales furnish oil, exclusively 
employed for domestic purposes. 

The trade of Kamtschatka, owing to the exac- 
tions of the Russian governors, who, in conse- 
quence of their great distance from Petersburg, 
or even Tobolsk, have few checks on their own 
cupidity, is extremely limited. Taxes are taken 
in skins ; and the people complain that no equit- 
able svstem of taxation has been authorised by the 
imperial goveniment. Hence, wholly left to the 
mercy of individual oflScers, they justly apprehend 
the insecurity of property, and want the chief 
motive for improving the natural resources of the 
countrj' : labour is confined to the supply of 
merely temporary necessities, domestic comforts 
are little known or cared for, and afl[luence is 
scarcely ever attained even by the most provident 
and laborious, Fure and dried fish are exported j 
from Petropaulowsky, chiefly by the Russians and | 
Dutch, who bring in exchange rice, flour, coffee, ' 
sugar, brandy, and whisky. 

The natives, comprising the two tribes of the 
Kamtschatdales and Koriaks, who differ more hi 
mode of life than in physical conformation, are of 
low stature, but stout and broad in the shoulders, 
with large hearls, flat and broad faces, prominent 
cheek-bones, thin lips, lank black hair, and eyes 
deeply sunk in the head. Their features seem to 

identify them with the Mongolian race, to which 
they are certainly more closely allied than to 
the Esquimaux, with whom Fome writers have 
erroneously classed them. The Kamtschatdales 
are described by Dobell as being shy and averse 
to stranger^, but at the same time intelligent, and 
fully capable of improvement, if endeavours were 
made to instruct them in the arts of civilised life. 
Honesty, openness of character, and extreme hos- 
pitality are prevailuig features among them ; but 
it has been remarked by more than one traveller, 
that their morals have been much debased by the 
introduction of felons from Siberia, and the quar- 
tering of Russian troops at Petropaulowsky: 
drunkenness has since that i)eriod been an increas- 
ing-evil, and now threatens to be as destructive to 
the Kamtschatdales as to the Indian tribes of N. 
America. Their emplo\Tnent, when not agricul- 
tural, is hunting and fishing. They live in fixed 
habitations ; but their dwellings are low, comfort- 
less, and extremely filthy, sunk in the ground in 
the winter months, and raised on posts during 
summer, to facilitate the curing of fish, which ia 
hung up on lines tfi cir^'. In travelling they use 
dogs instead of horses. These animals somewlint 
resemble the ICnglisli shepherd-dog, are extremely 
intelligent, and endure an almost incredible degree 
of labour and privation. Thov are fed during the 
winter, when they are principally used, on offal 
and decayed fish, and' in the summer are allowed 
to roam abroad, and shift for themselves. Few 
Kamt«?chatdales. have less than six, and some 
upwards of twenty, the whole number of dogs 
being estimated at'3,000. When used for draught 
they are harnessed, two and two to a sledge, one 
particularly well trained being placed hi front as 
leader. The sledge is in the shape of an oblong 
basket about 3 ft. long, and raised 3 ft. from the 
ground: the driver usually sits sideways, like a 
lady on horseback, and urges the dogs by throw- 
ing at them a stick, which he after^'ards catches 
with great dextenty. Occasionally parties travel 
in company ; *■ and then,' says DobelC * the eager- 
ness and impatience of the dogs, and the rivalrj' 
of the kywrshiksj or drivers, are worthy to be 
compared with the exertions of the high-blooded 
coursers of Newmarket ; nor does the management 
and driving of the dogs require much less skill and 
attention than are needed in the latter case, to 
arrive at perfection, and gain the pahn of victorv.' 
llie Koriaks, who inhabit the N. part of tie 
peninsuU, a wandering tribe, subsist on the pro- 
duce of their herds of rein- deer, which they also 
use to draw their sledges. The number of Koriaks 
is unknown, and they are not included in the 
estimates of the population. 

Kamtschatka was first known to the Russians 
in 1696, when Vladimir Atlassov invaded the 
j)eiiinsula, and made great part of it tributary to 
Peter the Great. The conquest was completed in 
1706, since which, regular tribute has bt'en paid, 
in furs, to the governor of Irkutsk. There are 4 
districts, each of which is governed by a toion, or 
lieutenant, whose business is to preserve peace, 
enforce the orders of government, and collect the 
tribute, the quantity of which varies according to 
the character of the governor, and the favour 
which particular persons happen to enjoy. The 
commander of the troops resides at Petropaulow- 
skv, which for some years has been the princi- 
pal place. Its population, however, does not ex- 
ceed 700, while that of Kishni-Kamtschatk, the 
former capital, has scarcely 160 persons. Bol- 
cheresk, a small harbour on the W. side of Kamts- 
chatka has a p<ip. of about 200. (Erman, Reise 
um die Erde, i. 415-420; Dobell's Kamtschatka, 
i. 1-188.) 

Digitized by 



KANDAHAR, See Caxdahar. 

KANNAGHERRY (A:^ami^iri),atownofHia- 
d(«tiin, prov. l^japoor, fonnerly the cap. of a 
Hincioo principality, 19 m. NW/Bijnagur. It is 
beaut ifully situated in a valley, enclosed by 
^vooded declivities, and partialljr encircled by a 
rivulet. The principal street is very spacious, 
and at one extremity is a fine pagoda to Krishna, 
the interior of which is elaborately ornamented 
•with stucco bas-reliefs. Various other temples 
have been converted into dwelling houses or 
subles by the Mussulman pop. ; and the vicinity 
abounds with fragments of Ilmdoo monuments. 

KANOJE {Kanyaeubja), a town of Hindostan, 

Erov. x\gra, possibly the an. Calintpeua mentioned 
y Pliny, about 2 m. from the Ganges, 118 m. E. 
bv S. Agra, and 67 m, WNW. Lucknow? lat, 
2'7<^ 4' N., long. 79° 47' E. It is now a second- 
rate town of the district of Etaweh ; but is men- 
tioned by Ferishta as having been once the cap. 
of the prmcipal kingdom along the Ganges, com- 
prising the mod. provs. of Delhi, Agra, Oude, 
and Serinagur. The Indian histories are full ol 
accounts of its grandeur and extent; and for a 
distance of 6 m. the traveller now wanders over a 
tract covered with scattered ruins of brick and 
other buildinp. The most perfect vestige of the 
an. Hindoo city is a portion of a small and rude 
fiagoda, its interior adorned with figures of Lak- 
shmi and Rama, surrounded by the Hindoo pan- 
theon ill miniature. There are several handsome 
tombs, mosques, and other Mohammedan edifices 
in stone, Kanoje having been taken by the Mo- 
hammedans under Mahmoud of Ghizni, in 1018. 
Under the Moguls it gave its name to a circar; 
but it soon lost its importance, and, to complete 
its ruin, it was sacked by the Mahrattas in 1761. 
The mod. Kanoje consists of only a single street, 
and presents nothing worthy of note, except a 
citadel, close to which is the termination of a 
canal communicating with the Ganges. 

Kx\RA-HISSAR, See Afium Kara-IIissar. 

KARAK, or KHARRACK (the Icarus of 
Arrian), an island of the Persian Gulf, now be- 
longing to (Ireat Britain, lat. 29° 13' N., long. 
50O 21' E., 35 m. NW. Bushire. It has an area 
of 12 or 13 sq. m., with a pop. of about 800 or 
400. ' It affords a safe anchorage at all seasons, 
but more particularly during the severe gales 
which blow from the NW.. and are the prevailing 
winds in this sea. The greater part of tlie island 
v^ so rocky, that little use can be made of it : but 
t he E. side, being somewhat lower than the other 
parts, is capable of being cultivated. It has abun- 
dance of water. The inhab. gain a livelihood by 
gardening and fishing, and manufacture a small 
quantitv of common doth for their own consump- 
tion, 'the island of Corgo, lying about 1^ m. or 
2 m. X. Karak, contains about 2 sq. m., and is of 
a light sandy soiL It has also plenty of water, 
but not of so good a quality as that of Karak; 
and although not inhabited at present, it is cap- 
able of being cultivated, and will produce both 
wheat and barley during the rainy seasons.' (Kin- 
ncirs Pers. Empire, p. 18, 19.) Pearls of a superior 
colour and description are fished around the coasts 
of both Islands. The Dutch, after having been 
obliged to abandon their factory at Bussorah, 
founded an establishment at Karak in 1748. They 
were, however, driven from it by the Arabs, about 
17G5. Karak was subsequently occupied by the 
Persians ; and in 1807, for a short period, by the 
French. During the disagreement with the shah 
of Persia, the British resident, previously sta- 
tioned at Bushire, removed thither; and the 
i.4land was taken possession of by an English force 
in 1800. Karak i« of sonic importance as offering 



a secure anchorage for ships, and a station where 
they may water and refit. 

KARA MAX, a town of Asiatic Turkey in Ka- 
ramania, 68 m. SSE. Konieh; lat 87° 10' N., 
long. 33° 5' E. Pop. estim. at 14,000. The town 
stands at the S. extremity of a lai^e plain, and 
at the foot of the lofty range of Bedlerin-dagh, a 
branch of Mount Taurus : it covers with its squares 
and gardens a large area; the houses are of mud 
and sun-dried bricks, and have a mean wretched 
appearance; but the climate is salubrious, and 
water abundant The public buildings comprise 
four mosques, with the niins of others, numerous 
khans and hummums, and a castle on a height, 
now mouldering to decay. Karaman trades with 
Kaisariah, Smvma, and Tarsus, in cotton fabrics, 
hides, and nut-gaUs ; and it has a pretty exten- 
sive manufacture of blue cotton cloth, worn by 
the lower classes. 

Karaman, which occupies the site of the ancient 
Laranfia^ is said to have been founded by Kara- 
man Oghe, a powerful prince living in the 14tli 
century. It was the cap. of a Turkish kingdom, 
which lasted from the time of the partition of the 
Seljuck dominions of Iconium till 1486, when 
Karamania was subjected by the Ottoman empe- 
ror Bajazet II. Konieh then became tlie seat of 
the pachalic, and from that period Karaman has 
been graduallv falling into decay. 

KARAMANIA. See TuRKity in Asia. 

KARASUBASAR, a town of European Russia, 
Crimea, 15 m. E. SimpheropoL Pop. 15,034 in 
1858. The inhabitants are a mixture of races, 
chiefly Tartars, Greeks, Russians, Jews, and 
Armenians. Streets narrow, winding, and dirty. 
There are several graceful looking mosques, a new 
Rom. Catholic church, and a large building, or 
khan, occupied by shops. The town is celebrated 
for the manufacture of a very superior sort of red 
and yellow mon)cco leather, and contains several 
tanneries, candle and soap works, potteries and 
tile-works. It is also the great mart of the Crimea 
for fruit, wine, and cattle. There is a weekly 
market, and a great annual fair. 

KARLSBURG. See Carijjburo. 

KARS, a town of Turkish Armenia, formerly 
cap. of a pachalic of the same name, on the Ar))ah- 
Chai. a tributary of the Aras, or Araxes, 85 m. 
NE. Erzeroum, and 160 m. E. bv S. Trebisond. 
Pop. estimated at 12,300 in I860.* The town is 
situated on the N. side of a plain, which, though 
about 4,000 ft. high, is extremely fertile : a part 
of it Is walled, and there is a citadel, which, how- 
ever, is commanded by heights within musket- 
shot on the other side the river. Two stone 
bridges unite the two portions of the city divide(t 
by the river, which encircles the walled portion on 
three sides. The houses of the citadel are tole- 
rably large and well-built, but those of the town 
below are of the undeiground architecture usual 
in tlie Armenian villages. The public buildings 
comprise several mosques, and one Armenian 
church outside Uie walls : the Armenian convent 
is uninhabited and in ruins. Kars being the 
centre of a tine com-gro\Wng district, had fonneriy 
a considerable trade in farming produce; but it 
was nearly destroyed during the Russian invasion, 
and is only slowly recovering. 

Kars, tlie origin of which is doubtful, was for- 
merly a large town, with a pop. of neariy 8,000 
families ; but it is now little better than a heap 
of ruins. During the Russian occupation at the 
beginning of the century, a large part of the 
Turkish pop. abandoned it, while at the same time 
the Armenians emigrated with the retreating 
army of the Russians, leaving imwy deserted 
villages and much unoccupied land^ Kars waus 



apain beBioged by the KuBsians in the war between 
KuBsia and Turkey 18o4-55, and after a gallant 
defence by the Turks, under Colonel WUliams, 
had to capitulate Dec. 12, 1835. 

KASAN, one of the eastern governments of 
Russia in Europe, having N. Viatka, E. Orenbuig, 
S. Simbirsk, and W. Nijcgorod. Area, 24,000 sq. 
m. Pop. 1,543,344 in 1858. The Inhabs. are 
partly Russians and partly Tchouvaches, of Fin- 
nish origin, and Tartars. The government is tra- 
versed for a considerable distance by the Wolga, 
the Kama, one of the principal affluents of the 
latter, and by some lesser streams, and is inter- 
spersed unth numerous lakes. Surface generally 
flat, but in parts undulating and hilly; soil almost 
evcrj'where fertile, producing, with very imperfect 
culture, abundant crops of rye, wheat, hemp and 
flax. Forests verv extensive, covering nearly 
half the surface. Climate in winter very severe ; 
but the summer, though short, is generally fine. 
Grazing is not well understood, and but little 
attention is given to the rearing of cattle. The 
fishery in the Kama is very productive. There 
are numerous distilleries, saw-mills, and potash 
works, with tanneries. More than half the landeil 
property within the government belongs to the 
crown, or to members of the Imperial family. 

Kasak, a city of European Russia, cap. of the 
above government, on the Kasanka, about 4 m. 
above where it falls into the Wolga. Pop. 58,169 
in 1858. After being burnt down by Pougatcheff 
in 1774, Kasan was rebuilt, by order of Cathe- 
rine II., on a more regular plan. It was again the 
prey of an accidental conflagration in September 
181*5, by which it was more than half destroyed ; 
but, like Moscow, it has risen from its ashes larger 
and better built than ever. It stands on very 
uneven ground, interspersed with lakes, and con- 
sists, like most other Russian cities, of three parts : 
the kremlin or citadel, on a considerable eminence ; 
tJie town, properly so called ; and the alobodesj or 
suburbs. The town is well buiU, and has broad 
and spacious squares and market-places. In the 
suburbs, which are principally occupied by the 
Tartar pop., the houses are of wood, and the streets 
filthy. Principal buildings, the grand catliedral, 
founded in 1552 ; the cathedrals of St. Peter and 
St..Paul,with several other cathedrals and churches, 
some of them built in the course of the present 
centur>\ There are, further remarkable, the con- 
vent of Bogoroditskoi Kasanskoi, rebuilt by the 
emperor Alexander; the hotel of the general go- 
vernor; the archiepiscopal palace; the hotel of 
<he nobles ; the bazaar ; the military hospital, and 
the arsenal. Kasan is one of the most literar>' 
towns in Russia. It has a univer^itv, founded in 
1804, but which was not opened till 1814, witJi 
70 principal and subordinate professors, about 300 
pupils, and a library of above 28,500 volumes. Its 
))rincipal object is to supply instruction in the 
eastern languages, or in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, 
Tartar, Mogul, and Chinese language and litera- 
ture. The city has also a theological academy, 
with a gymnasium, an obser\'ator5', a grammar- 
school, a Tartar school, and a school for the in- 
struction of schoolmasters. A great cloth manu- 
factory, established by Peter the (ireat, is now the 
projMjrty of private individuals, and employs about 
1,000 work-people; and there are besides manu- 
factories of cottons, hardware, earthenware, and 
tiles, with tanneries, soap-works, and distilleries. 
Kasan is the seat of an admiralty, and vessels are 
constnicted for the navigation of Uie Wolga and 
the Caspian. It also carries on an extensive trade, 
for which its situatiorr adjoining the Wolga gives 
it peculiar facilities. About 15,000 of the pop. are 
Mohammedans. The rest, with Uic exception of a 


few Protestants, belong to the established Greek 

KASCHAU, a royal free city of Hnngair, in the 
circ on this side the Theiss, co. Abaujvar, on the 
Ilemad, 123 m. NE. Pesth, with which dty it is 
connected by railway. Pop. 17,150 in 1858. The 
town is well built, with fine squares, and regu- 
larly laid out streets ; and has 13 Rom. Cath. and 
2 Lutheran churches, besides a theatre, and several 
other handsome public build ings. The chief public 
establishments are a royal academy, with a hbrary 
of 10,000 vols., and a fine collection of natural 
history, a gymnasium, an episcopal seminary, a 
school for nobles {eulleget KouinAt), and a military 
asylum : it is the seat of a county-assembly anil 
court of justice, and has manufactfures of tobacco, 
cutlery, earthenware, and paper, and a laige transit 
trade with Poland. 

KATRINE (LOCH), a lake of ScotUnd, in the 
district of Monteith, in the S W. part of Perthshire, 
on the confines of Stirlingshire, 8 m. W. Callander, 
and 5 m. £. from Loch Lomond. This, which is 
the most westerly and largest of a chain of lochs, 
consisting of lochs Venacher. Achray, and Katrine, 
the principal feeders of the Teith, is about 10^ m. 
in length, and from 1^ to 2 m. in width, of a ser- 
pentine form, and very deep. It is embosomed 
among lofty mountains, divided by deep ravines, 
whose sides, in parts clothed with wood down to 
the water's edge, and in parts consisting of bold 
rugged precipices, give it every variety of wild, 
picturesque scenery. Still, however, it was but 
seldom visited, and little known, till Scott made 
it the scene of bis fine poem of TTke Lady of the 
Lake^ when it at once attained the maximum of 
celebrity, and has since been annually resorted to 
by crowds of visitors. At the E, end of the loch, 
between it and Loch Achray, is the celebrate<l 
pass of the Trosachs, so beautifully described in 
stanzas 11-13, of the first canto of The Lady of 
the Lake, 

KAZAMEEN, a town of Asiatic Turkey, prov. 
Irak-Arabi, on the W. bank of the Tiirris, *3 m. N. 
Bagdad. Pop. estim. at 7,000, chieiBy Persians, 
who have been induced to settle here on account 
of its being the burying-place of two celebrated 
im&ms, to whose memory a noble mosque has been 
erected. It is ornamented with two gilded cu- 
polas, and, like those of Meshed AU and Kerbela, 
IS supported by the contributions of pilgrims. Tlie 
to^Mi has a bazaar, many cofice-houses, 3 hum- 
mumsj and a caravanserai ; and on the opposite 
side of the river is the tomb of Im&m Abn Uanafi, 
a Mohammedan saint, 

KEDGEREE, a town of British India, prov. 
Bengal, on the W. side of the II(x)ghlv river, near 
its mouth, lat 21° 55' N., long. 88° 16' E. It stands 
in a low, swampy situation; but is, notwithstand- 
ing, much healthier than Diamond IIart)our. A 
lighthouse has been erected a few miles further 
down the river. There is also a government 
marine officer stationed at this town, who has to 
make daily reports of the ships which arrive and 

KEDJE, a town of Beloochistan, prov. Mukran, 
of which it is the cap., on a rivulet, by which the 
surrounding district is well irrigated, 274 m. SW. 
Khehit; lat. 26° 24' N., long. &29 28^ E. Pop. 
estim. at 3,000. The town sunds clustered around 
the base of a precipice, on which is a fortress ; and 
was formerly a placA of considerable trade, which 
having dechned, it has fallen into decay. 

KEHL, a town of Baden, circ. Middle Rhine, 
on the Rhine, immediately opposite Strasbourg, 
and 10 m. NW. Oflenburg, on the railway from 
Strasbourg into Baden. Pop. 1,623 in 1861. Kehl 
was formerly a fortress, and was esteemed an im- 

^lyitized by 



portant bulwark of Gennany. It was fortified by 
Vanban in 1688, ceded by France to Baden in 
16J>7, taken by the French in 1703, 1733, 1793, and 
1796 ; by the* Anatrians, also, in the latter year ; 
and re-taken by the French in the year succeed- 
in^c. After the peace, its works were dismantled, 
Germersheim being fortified by the Germ, Confed. 
in its stead. The town is connected by a fine 
bridge with the opposite bank of the Rhine, and 
Strasbourg. Its innab. employ themselves chiefly 
in transit trade. 

KEIGHLEY, or KIGHLEY, a market town 
and par. of England, in the W. riding of co. York, 
wap. Stainclifl^and Ewcross, on an affluent of the 
Aire, 16 m. WNW. Leeds ; 178 m. NNW. London 
bv road, and 218^ m. by Great Northern railway. 
Pop. of town, 15,006, and of par. 18,819 in 1861. 
The town is beautifully situated in a vaUey close 
to the range called t^e Blackstone Edge ; and, 
though irregularly buUt, comprises many hand- 
some stone houses : it is well paved, sufficiently 
supplied with w^ater, and lighted with gas. A neat 
and commodious court-house and a spacious mar- 
ket-place were erected in 1833, and more recently 
a mechanics' institute has been built on ground 
given by the Earl of Burlington, who has large 
possessions in and near the town. The parish 
church was built in 1805, on the site of one erected 
in the reign of Henry I., and is a laige and hand- 
some structure, with a lofly steeple, containing a 
fine peal of bells : the living is a rectory in the 
gift of the Duke of Devonshire, There are also 
places of worship for Independents. Baptists, Wes- 
leyan New Connection, and Primitive Methodists, 
Swedenboigians, and the Society of Friends ; and 
to all of these, as well as to the churches, large 
Sunday-schools are attached, fumlshing religious 
instruction to about 1,800 children of both sexes ; 
A free grammar-school, founded and well endowed 
in 1713, a girls' national school, and an infant 
school, are Uie chief educational establishments ; 
and a mechanics' institute, founded in 1825, and 
now in union with that at Leeds, has conferred 
many benefits on the working classes. The worsted 
manufacture, especially of coarse stuffs, merinos, 
and worsted yams, is carried on to a considerable 
extent; and the produce is chiefly sold in the 
piece-halls of Halifax and Bradford. The Leeds 
and Liverpool canal, which passes near the town, 
affonls cheap conveyance for manufactures, and 
establishes a communication with Hull on the one 
hand, and Liverpool on the other. Under the 
Boundary Act Kei^hley is a polling place for 
the \y. riding. It is also the head of a union, 
comprising 6 pars. Markets, weU supplied, on 
Wednesday: fairs^ May 8 and 9, and Nov. 7, 8, 
and 9. 

Keighley is known in the history of the great 
civil war, as having been the scene of an en- 
counter, in 1645, between the king's troops and 
a division of the parliamentary army, under Col. 
I^mbert. Its name is derived from an old family 
called Keighley, one of whose members married a 
I»Td Cavendish, from whom the present Duke of 
Devonshire and the Earl of BurUngton are de- 

KELLS, a town of Ireland, prov. Leinster, co. 
Meath, adjacent to the Blackwater, on the top 
and sides of a gentle hill, 85 m, N W. Dublin, and 
21 W. Drogheda, on a branch line of the Mid- 
land Great Western railway. Pop. 3,224 in 1861, 
against 4,205 in 1841. The town consists of three 
principal and some smaller streets, and has some 
good nouses; but, generally speaking, is a poor, 
mean place. Here is a fine old church, conti- 

Saous to which is a pillar or round tower 99 ft, in 
eight It has, also, a K, Cath. chapel, a court- 


house, market-house, bridewell, fever hospital, and 
a national school. 

Kells is a very old town, a synod having been 
held here in 1152, and a castle erected on the site 
of the market-place in 1178, Here, also, was a 
monastery, some remains of which still exist, and 
are called St, Columb Kill's House, from the name 
of its reputed founder. In one of the streets is a 
fine stone cross. The bor. returned two mcms. to 
the Irish H. of C, but was disfranchised at the 
Union. The magnificent seat of the Headfort 
family is in its vicinity. 

KEITH, a market^town of Scotland, co. BanflT, 
on both sides the Isla, a tributary of the Deveron, 
41 i m. NW. Aberdeen, on the Great North of 
Scotland railway. Pop. 2,648 in 1861. Keith is 
divided into three towns, namely Old Keith and 
New Keith, on the S. of the river, and Fife Keith, 
on the N., the whole Ijnng in the centre of an 
ampMtheatre of hills. The first, which is very 
old, is but of mean appearance and irregular 
shape ; the second, begun to be erected in 1750, 
stands on a gentle eminence to the SE. of the 
former, and consists of one principal street divided 
into several portions; the third, or Fife Keith, 
which had its origin in 1816, is connected with the 
two former towns by two bridges over the Isla. 
New Keith is the largest and best built of the 
three divisions in question, and in it most part of 
the public buildings are situated, such as the par. 
church, a Gothic building, with a tower 104 ft. 
high, and a R. Cath. chapel, after the plan of St. 
Maria de Yittoria at Rome. It has aho an epis- 
copal chapel, and two meeting-houses belonging 
to the Associate Synod. The means of education 
are very ample. There are four subscription libra- 
ries. A considerable number of persons are em- 
ployed in weaving woollen and linen clotli for the 
Aberdeen manufacturers. In addition to weekly 
markets, Keith has four annual fairs, all of con- 
siderable importance. Summer-eve fair, held in 
September, is the greatest fair in the north for 
cattle and horses. 

A skirmish took place in 1745 at Old Keith, be- 
tween the forces of the Pretender and those in the 
royal service, in which the former had the advan- 
tage, and carried off 150 prisoners. James Fer- 
guson, the celebrated self-taught astronomer, was 
bom in the vicinity of Keith : the only school he 
ever attended was one at Keith, and that for only 
three months. He died in 1776. His * Autobio- 
graphy ' is well known. 

KELSO, an inland market-town of Scotland, 
CO. Roxburgh, beautifully situated on the left 
bank of the Tweed, near the point where it is 
joined by the Tcviot, 38 m. SE. Edinburgh, 20^ 
m. SW. Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 366 m. N. 
London, by Great Northern railway. Pop. 4,309 
in 1861. The town, which is neat and handsome, 
consists of four principal and some smaller streets. 
The former meet in a square or market-place in 
the centre of the town, consisting of well-built 
houses, mostly of freestone and slated. On the E. 
side of this square is the town-house, an edifice of 
two stories, with a pediment in front supported 
by four Ionic columns, surmounted by a handsome 
balustrade and dome springing from' the centre of 
the roof. The old par. church being a * misshapen 
pile,' a new or second par. church was built here 
m 1837 in the Elizabethan style, with a quad- 
rangular tower 70 ft. high. The bridge across the 
Tweed; from a plan of Rennie, is said to have been 
the prototype of Waterloo Bridge over the Thames 
by the same architect. It has five elliptical arches ; 
its total length is 494 ft. ; the breadth of the road- 
way is 25 ft., and the greatest height from the bed 
of the river 42 ft. It was finished in 1803 at an 




expense of 18,000/. In the immediate vicinity of 
the town, on the W., is Flours, the seat of the 
ducal family of Roxburgh, the feudal superiors of 
the bor. A mansion erected in 1718, and recently 
repaired and modernised, combining, as Sir W. 
Scott observed, * the ideas of ancient baronial gran- 
deur with those of modem taste.' But the most 
prominent object in or round Kelso is its vene- 
rable abbey, founded in 1128 by David I. for Ty- 
ronensian monks, and endowed with immense 
possessions and privileges. Its form is that of a 
Latin cross, and it affords a fine specimen of the 
Saxon or early Norman style of architecture. It 
has long becii in a state of dilapidation ; but the 
Scotch reformers are guiltless of the demolition of 
this noble fabric, for, having been occupied as a 
place of security by the townspeople in 1645, it 
was then battered down by the English under the 
Earl of Hertford. The parts now remainhig are 
the N. and S. aisles, each having two round 
towers, with two sides of the central tower, now- 
only 91 ft. high. The thickness of the lower walls 
is 5'^ ft. The pillars are clustered ; the arches cir- 
cular. Part 01 the ruin served as the par. church 
from 1649 till 1771, when it was deserted, from the 
idea of insecurity, for another place of worship. 
The Roxburgh family have of late laudably ex- 
erted themselves to repair and perpetuate this tine 
ruin. Kelso has been characterised by Scott, in 
his ' Autobiography,' as ' the most beautiful, 
if not the most romantic, village in Scotland.' 
* It presents objects,' he savs, * not only ^and in 
themselves, but venerable from their associations,' 
The best view of the town and environs is from 
the bridge. 

In addition to the old and new par. churches 
already noticed, there are a number of other places 
of worship in the town, belonging to the Episco- 
palians, Cameronians, Original Seceders, Relief 
and Associate Synod. There are ten schools in 
the bor. and par.,* attended by about 700 scholars ; 
so that alx)ut a seventh part of the people are, at 
the same time, being educated ; and this without 
including Sunday schools. Kelso has six sub- 
scription libraries; the oldest, containing about 
6,000 vols., ha\dng been instituted in 1750. There 
is also a ' Kelso Physical and Antiquarian So- 
ciety.' Kelso was the first provincial town in 
Scotland that introduced the printing-press. (Ir- 
ving's Scot. Poets, i. 76.) The first edition of 
Scott's * Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border ' was 
printed in Kelso by James Ballantyne, w^ho after- 
wanls brought the typographical art to high per- 
fection in Edinburgh, where he carried on the 
printing business in partnership with Scott. 

Kelso was originally a kind of suburb to the 
bor. of Roxburgh, on the opposite bank of the 
Tweed. But the foundation of the abbey gave 
Kelso a more important character; and, on the 
final destruction of Roxburgh, in the fifteenth 
centur>', its inhabs. transferred themselves thither. 
No traces now remain of the bor. of Roxburgh, 
and but few of its castle ; though the latter was 
for centuries one of the moat important Border for- 
tresses. In 1460, James II., having taken the 
town of Roxburgh and demolished it, laid siege to 
the castle, during which he was killed by the 
bursting of a cannon. The queen, attended by her 
infant son, James III., encouraged the besiegers. 
And, in a few days, the fortjrcf* was comj^ellcd to 
surrender. It was then destroyed; since which 
time it has remained in ruins^ though partially re- 
paired by the English, under Somerset, in 1547. 
Soon after the Reformation, the lands and posses- 
i*ions of the abbey were conferred on the ancient 
family of Kerr, of Cessford. in the hands of whose 
4iesce*udants, the family of Roxbui^gh, they still 


remain. Kelso has repeatedly suffered from con- 
flagrations, not in warlUce times merely, but in 
pacific, as in 1686 and 1738. 

KEMPTEN (an, Campodunum), a town of Ba- 
varia, circ Swabia and Neuberg, cap. distr. of 
same name, on the Iller, 60 m. SSW. Augsburg, 
on the railway from Augsburg to the lake of Con- 
stance. Pop. 10,370 in 1861. Kempten consist:^ 
of two parts, an old town surrounded with walbi 
nearly encircled by the new town. The former is 
the commercial portion of Kempton : the latter, 
seated on higher ground, comprises the abbey, 
where was formerly held the court of the abbot of 
Kempten, an ecclesiastic possessing, beddes the 
town, an independent territory of 340 sq. m., 
ceded to Bavaria in 1802. Kempten has a fine 
collegiate church, aqueduct^ and theatre^ a hos- 
pital, foundling asylum, and public library ; and 
IS the seat of the council for the circle, courts of 
law for the circle and town, a board of tolls, a 
g}'^mnasinm, and high-school. It has manufac- 
tures of linen and cotton fabrics, and a brisk trade 
in these goods, and in wool, cattle, and Italian 
produce. The lUer becomes navigable near Kemp- 
ten. Adjacent to the town is the eminence of 
Ililarmont, on which are the ruins of a fortress 
supposed to be Roman, and where various Roman 
coins have been found, 

KENDAL (KIRBY), a market town, parL bor. 
and par. of England, co. Westmoreland, ward of 
same name, 40 m. S. Cariisle, 219 m. NKVV. 
London by road, and 252^ m. by London and 
North West4im railwav. Pop, of bor. 12.029, and 
of par. 18,600 in 186i. The town on the side 
of a hill, at the bottom of which the river Kent 
(crossed here by three bridges), runs nearly N. 
and S., consists principally of one long street on 
the line of the Carlisle road, and a lateral street 
leading do^vn to the river on the Appleby road. 
The houses are well built of stone, and being 
w^hitened, and roofed with blue slate, have a re- 
markably clean and neat appearance. The town- 
hall is an elegant building, and the market, for 
butchers' meat, is neat and commodious. At the 
N W. end of the town is a large and well arranged 
workhouse, and near it is a house of correction. 
The other principal buildings are a handsome hall, 
belonging to the society of * odd fellow^s,' the as- 
sembly and news rooms, theatre, and several ex- 
tensive factories. The parish church, near the S. 
entrance of the town, is a laige Gothic structure, 
w^ith a square tower: the living is a vicarage in 
the gift of Trinity College, Cambridge, There are 
two other churches, and 11 chapels belonging to 
different denominations of dissenters. Among 
the educational establishments are a well en- 
dowed grammar-school with university exhibi- 
tions, a blue-coat chnrity, a green-coat' school, a 
largo national school, supported both by endow- 
ment and subscription, a school of industry, an 
infant school, and several Sunday schools : there 
is also a thriving mechanics' institute. The 
charitable institutions comprise a hospital for 
old unmarried women, endowed with lOOl a year, 
a dispensan*^, and a lying-in charity; and the 
corporation )ias the trust of charitable funds to a 
considerable amount, 

Kendal has long been noted for its weaving 
industry ; and, in the reigns of Richard II. and 
Henry IV., special laws were enacted for the pro- 
tection of its manufactures. The present manu- 
factures comprise linseys, serges, baizes, the 
coarser kinds of kerseymere, and carpets. There 
are about 3,000 persons emploved in weaving, and 
otherwise preparing cloth. The marble worts, for 
cutting and polishing marble, quarried at Kendal 
Fell, employ also a numl>cr of hands ; and tlie 

Digitized by 



raachineiy is very ingenioas. There is water- 
communication by a canal with Lancaster. 

Kendal was first incorporated by Qaeen Eliza- 
beth, and a second charter was granted b^ Charles 
1. Under the Alunicipal Reform Act, it is divided 
into three wards, the munici|>al officers being a 
recorder, a mayor, and 5 other aldermen, with 18 
councillorai Corporation revenue, 1,110/!. in 18G2. 
The Reform Act conferred on Kendal the privilege 
of sending 1 mem. to the H. of C: the electoral 
boundaries include the townships of Kendal and 
Kirkland, with those parts of Nethexgraveship 
which adjoin Kendal. Registered electors 405 in 
I860. Markets, well attended, on Saturday: 
cattle fairs, March 22, April 29, and Novem- 
ber 8. 

Near Kendal, on the opposite side of the river, 
are the ruins of a castle, commandingly situated 
on a rocky eminence, and celebrated as the birth- 

?lace of Catherine Parr, one of the queens of 
fenry VIII. A large portion of the outer wall, 
and two towers, still remain to mark its former 

KENILWORTH, a market town and par. of 
England, co. Warwick, hundred Knightlow, 5 m. 
N. Warwick, 18 m. SE. Birmingham, and 96 m. 
NNW. London, by London and North Western 
railway. Pop. 3,018 in 1861. The town is de- 
lightfully situated on an affluent of the Avon, and 
cofisiats chicHy of one long street, about 1 m. in 
length, part of the road from Warwick to Coven- 
try. In the lower part of the town is the church, 
a Gothic building of different periods, having a 
handsome tower and spire; and near it are the 
ruins of an abbey, valued at the dissolution of the 
monasteries at 644/. On the higher ground are 
several handsome houses ; and at the top of the 
hill on which the town stands are the niins of a 
castle, the ancient fame of which has been made 
familiar by Sir Walter Scott. There are several 
places of worship for dissenters, to each of which, 
as well as to the church, are attached well attended 
Sunday schools. A free-school was founded in 
1724, and there is a large national school. Among 
other charities, are almshouses for 16 widows, and 
an apprentice fund. Ribands, gauzes, and combs 
are made here ; and there are cliemiciil works for 
the preparation of Glauber salts, sal-ammoniac, 
and Prussian blue ; but they are not important. 
Markets on Wednesday; horee and cattle fairs, 
April 30 and Sept 80. 

Kenilworth Castle, whose extensive ruins bear 
ample testimony to its ancient splendour and mag- 
nificence, was erected in 1120 by Geoffry de Clin- 
ton, treasurer and chamberlain to Henrv I., and in 
the reign of Edward I. the earl of Leicester held 
a tournament here, which was attended by 100 
knights with their ladies. The estate afterwards 
reverted to the crown, and was given by Queen 
Elizabeth to her favourite, Dudley, earl of Lei- 
cester, who is said to have expended on its im- 
provement 60,000/. — a vast sum for those days. 
* The outer wall,' says Sir W. Scott, ' inclosed 
seven acres, a part of which was occupied by ex- 
tensive stables and by a pleasure-garden, with its 
trim arbours and parterres ; and the rest formed 
the large base-court or outer yard of the noble 
castle, which was itself composed of a huge pile 
of castellated buildings surrounding an inner 
court. A laree and massive keep, called Ciesar's 
Tower, was of uncertain though great antiquity ; 
and that noble and massive pile, which yet bears 
the name of Lancaster's Buildmgs, was erected by 
John of Gaunt, ' time-honoured Lancaster.' The 
external wall was on the S. and W. sides adorned 
and defended by a lake partly artificial, across 
which was a sUtely bridge, and on the N. eide 

You III. 



was a barbican, which, even in its present ruinous 
state, is equal in extent and superior in architec- 
ture to the baronial castle of many a northern 
chief. Beyond the lake lay an extensive chase, 
full of deer and game, and abounding with lofty 
trees. Queen Elizabeth twice visit^ this noble 
palace; and here, in 1576, she was entertained, 
with her whole court, with princely magnificence 
during 17 days, at the enormous expense of 1,000/. 
per diem. The castle was plundered and ulti- 
mately left in a state of ruin bv Cromwell's 
soldiers, who appropriated to themselves the adja- 
cent lands. After various changes, the estate came 
into the possession of Hyde, earl of Clarendon, 
and is still held by that noble family.' (Sir W. 
Scott's * Kenilworth,' vol ii. with notes.) 


KENSINGTON, a town and par. of England, 
CO. Middlesex, hund. Ossulston, forming one of 
the western suburbs of London, 1^ m. W. Hyde 
Park Comer, comprising (with the hamlets of 
Bayswater, Earl's Court, Brompton, and Little 
Chelsea) an area of 2,680 acres. Pop. of par. 
70,108, and of town 61,910, in 1861. The town 
consists of a main street forming a part of the Lon- 
don road, and of many streets miming from it N. 
and S. The houses are weU btdlt, and many large 
detached residences are scattered in the outskirts. 
The par. church is' a plain but spacious building, 
erected in 1690 ; and the living is a vicarage in 
the gift of the Bishop of London. There are Also 
many district churches, and a great number of 
places of worship for dissenters. A large charitv 
school, national and Lancastrian schools, and pri- 
vate boarding schools, furnish instmction to all 
classes : and there are numerous charities for the 
relief of the aged and sick poor. The trade of the 
town chiefly depends on the many families of 
rank and wealth resident in and around it. 

Kensington Palace, which, with its gardens, 
forms the chief object of attraction, is an irregular 
brick building, purchased by William III. of the 
Earl of Nottingham. Among other additions made 
by that monarch, the whole S. front was rebuilt 
under the direction of Sir C. Wren, and the interior 
received great improvements and embellishments : 
the W. front was rebuilt by Kent, in the reign of 
George II. The state rooms comprise 12 hand- 
some chambers, well adapted for occasions of 
ceremony ; but few of them, except the galleries, 
are of commanding proi)ortions. The staircase, 
painted by Kent, is intended to represent a num- 
ber of spectators on a court day ; and the artist 
has introduced several portraits of characters con- 
nected with the court of George I.: the stvle, 
however, is bizarre, and in very bad taste. 'I'he 
presence chamber is now hune with pictures, 
manv of which were highly valued by the late 
president West. This palace was the residence of 
VVilliam and Mary, Anne, George I., and George 
II., all of whom (except George I.) died within 
its walls. George III. removed the town residence 
of the court to St. James's; and Kensington 
Palace has since been allotted to junior members 
of the royal family. The childhood of Queen 
Victoria was spent in it; and it was for many 
vears the town residence of the Duke of Sussex. 
The duke's library, which has been sold, was very 
valuable, especially the collection of bibles and 
biblical works, inc. about 800 rare MSS. The 
gardens occupy an area of about 360 acres, and 
have been for many vears an attractive public 
promenade. Holland House, a brick stracture, in 
the Elizabethan style, at the W. end of Kensing- 
ton, was built in 1607, and descended in the reigu 
of Charles I. to the Earl of Holland. >\ddisoa 




occapied it after his marriage with the Dowager 
Countess of Warwick. In 1766 it was porchased 
by Henry Fox, lord Holland, in whose family it 
still remains. The library is 112 ft. in length, 
and contains a valaable collection of books, espe- 
cially in Spanish and Portnguese literature. 
There are many good pictures, and in the hall is 
a sitting statue of C. J. Fox. About 200 acres of 
land are attached to the house, which is one of 
the finest residences in the vicinity of London. 
(For a full anecdotal history of Kensington and 
its neij§^hbourhood, see Leigh Hunt's book, * The 
Old Ck)urt Suburb,' 2 vols. London, 1855.) 

KENT, a marit. oo. in the SE. part of England, 
being the nearest of any in the kingdom to the 
Continent, having N. the Thames and its aestuary, 
E. and SE. the German Ocean and the Straits of 
Dover, S. Sussex, and W. Surrey. Its greatest 
length, from Dcptford to the N. Foreland, is 
about 64, and its greatest breadth about 30 m. 
Area 1 ,627 sq. m., or 1,039,419 acres, of which above 
900,000 are arable, meadow, and pasture. This 
is a finely diversified and beautiful co. Two 
parallel ridges of hills traverse its whole extent from 
£. to VV. The upper, or most northerly of these 
ranges, extending from Westerham, on the con- 
fines of Surrey, to Dover, being composed chiefiy 
of chalk, and thence called the chalk ridge ; while 
the lower, or most southerly range, about 8 m. 
from the former, is usually called the ragstone 
range, from its consisting principally of ragstone 
aifd ironstone. The country to the N. of the 
upper range, including the isles of Sheppey, 
Grain, and Thanet (see Thanet), is generally 
very fertile, and contains a good deal of marahy 
and of rich loamy land, producing the finest wheat 
Romney Marsh, a celebrated grazing district (see 
RoMNEY Marsh), and the n^eald, lie to the S. 
of the lower or ragstone range. The latter, which 
extends into Sussex and Surrey, is a ver>' singular 
tract Its soil is generally stiff and cfayey, but 
in parts sand predominates. For a lengthened 
period it formed an immense forest; but was 
gradually, though slowly, brought into tillage. 
Its soil continues to be particularly well adapted 
to the growth of timber, especially oak, which 
here attains to the greatest luxuriance. Most 
incloeures in the wea^d are surrounded with 
oaks, and every wood and coppice is full of them.- 
* When viewed from the adjoining hills, which 
command a prospect over the whole of it, the 
Weald exhibits the most delightful scene that 
can be imagined. It appears to the eye an ex- 
tensive level country (the few hills in it being so 
small and inferior to those whence it is viewed), 
covered with all the richness of both art and 
nature ; the variety of small inclosuree of com 
and meadow, and the houses, seats, and villages, 
promiscuously interspened among the large and 
towering oaks, which grow over, the whole face of 
it, have the most pleasing effect, and represent 
to us, even at this time, something, though 
a great improvement of its original state, in the 
idea of an inhabited and well cultivated forest' 
(Hasted's Kent, i. 293,298, 8vo. ed.) From its 
proxiiftity to the Continent the climate of Kent 
IS colder* in winter, and the E. winds in spring 
are said to be more piercing than in other cos. in 
the same parallel more to the W. ; but, on the 
other hand, the summers are warmer, and its 
autumns less liable to wet, which renders it 
especially fitted for the production of com and 
fruit Agriculture is in a very advanced state in 
Kent and it has a greater variety of products than 
any other co. in the kingdom. *{ts wheat barley, 
beans, and peas are all excellent With the ex- 
ception of the Isle of lluiuct, turnips are extea- 


sively raised on the light soils. Hop« are pro- 
duoed in large quantities, especially in the district 
between Maidstone and Canterbury. Most part 
of the cherries, filberts, plums, and other fruits 
brought to the London markets, are supplied by 
the orchards between Maidstone and Tonbrid^ 
while the Isle of Thanet and other places furnish 
supplies of spinach and of various seeds. Though 
Kent feeds large numbers of cattle, it cannot be 
called a grazing co. : the stock of sheep is, how> 
ever, very large. Romney Marsh has a peculiar 
breed that furnishes long, combing wool. There 
is a great deal of timber in other parts of the oo., 
exclusive of the weald. Property much divided, 
and there are no great estates. Size of farms 
various ; but, owing to the sort of garden culture 
carried on in many parts, they are mostly rather 
small; many varymg in extent from 10 to 30 
acres, while there are but few above 200 or 250 

The yeomanry of Kent are a very superior dass ; 
and, besides their own, some of them occupy ex- 
tensive hired farms. All lands in Kent, unless 
specially exempted by an act of the legislature, 
are held by the tenure of gavelkind ; descending, 
in the event of the father dying intestate, not to 
the eldest son, but to all the sons alike in equal 
portions; and if there be no sons, they divide 
equally among the daughters. This is supposed 
to have been the common tenure in England before 
the Conquest; but exclusive of Kent it now 
obtains in but a few places. Some estates have 
been ditgavelled, or excepted by a special act of 
parliament, from this tenure; and partition is 
now, in most instances, prevented by testament 
But such lands as are not disgavelled, or settled 
by testament are invariably disposed of in the 
way stated above. (Hasted's Kent, I 311-321, 
8vo. ed.) Ironstone is abundant in many parts ; 
and, previously to the eroploj-ment of coal m the 
making of iron, the weald, from the abundance of 
its timber, was a principal seat of the iron trade ; 
but this has been long abandoned. With the 
exception of ship-building carried on at Deptford, 
Woolwich, Chatham, and other places, and the 
industry of the metropolitan part of Kent manu- 
factures are unimportant ; they consist of paper, 
made at Maidstone and Dover, gunpowder at 
Dartford and Faversham ; and toys at Tonbridge. 
Exclusive of the Thames, the principal rivera are 
the Medwav (which see), Stour, Rotbe, Darent, 
and RavensDoume. Kent is divided into the two 
nearly egual divisions of E. and W. Kent each 
having its own court of sessions. Principal 
towns, Greenwich, Deptford, Chatham, Rochester, 
Canterbury, and Dover. It is divided into 5 
lathes, 63 hundreds, and 15 liberties, and 41 L 
parishes. It sends 18 mems. to the H. of C» viz. 
2 for each of the 2 divisions of the co. ; 2 for each 
of the bors. of Canterbury, Rochester, Dover, 
Greenwich, Maidstone, and Sandwich, and 1 each 
for Chatham and Rye. Registered electors for the 
CO. 18,061 in 1865, being 8,250 for the eastern 
division, and 9,811 for the western division. 
Pop. 738,699 in 1861, of which 193,427 metn>- 
politan, and 545,272 extra-metropolitan. Amount 
assessed to property-tax, 2,555,438^ in 1862. 

KENTUCKY, one of the U. S. of America, in 
the central part of the Union, between lat 36^ 3U' 
and 38° 30' N., and long. 86«> and 89^ W. ; having 
N. the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, from 
all which it is separated b^' the Ohio river, W. 
Missouri, from which the Mississippi divides it S. 
Tennessee, and E. Virginia. Length, E. to W., 
nearly 400 m.; breadth, varying from 40 to 175 
m. Area, 37,680 sq. m. Pop. 1,655,684 in 1860, of 
whom 225,483 were slaves. The general sloi>e ia 





towards the NW. The E. extremity of the state 
is occopied by some ofiRsets of the Alleghany moun- 
tains; and along the Ohio the country is broken, 
and oontains many abrupt hills, and deep and fer- 
tile valleys, often densely wooded. Towards the 
centre of Kentucky the siuface is undulating ; the 
W. is comparatively level. In the latter direction 
is an exteusiye tract called the * barrens,' not ste- 
rile, however, as its name would seem to imply^ 
but comprising some of the fine pasture land for 
which Kentucky is distinguished, and studded 
with oak and other forest trees. Next to the Ohio 
and Mississippi, the chief rivers are the Cumber- 
land, Green, Kentucky, Licking, and Tennessee, 
which have numerous affluents, and are all tribu- 
tary to the Ohio. Most of them rise in the SE. 
and mountainous part of the state. Cumberland 
river, the course of which is principally in Ken- 
tucky, has an entire length or 440 m., and is na- 
vigable for steam-vessels to Nashville in Tennessee, 
and for boats to near its source. Most of the 
other rivers above mentioned are navigable for 
more than 100 m. in the wint«r ; but in summer 
the large streams are diminished to a greater ex- 
tent Lhan those of any other state in the union, 
and the small ones are entirely dried up. The 
whole of Kentucky appears to rest upon a bed of 
limestone, which rock is usually met with about 
8 ft. below the surface. Bituminous coal is found 
akmg the banks of some of the rivers, and iron of 
excellent quality In numerous places. There are 
many salt spring from which salt is obtained in 
sufficient quantities, not only for the supply of 
Kentucky itself, but of a great part of Ohio and 
Tennessee. Nitre and fine white marble are plen- 
tifoL In the limestone formation, in the SW., are 
K^-eral stupendous caverns, one of which. Mam- 
moth Caye, in Warren co., is supposed to be 8 or 
10 m. in extent. The climate in the E. and cen- 
tral parts is highly salubrious; but in the W., 
especially along the Mississippi, it is unhealthy, 
no year elapsing without a considerable mortality 
fmm fevers. Great extremes of heat and cold are 
experienced in the state ; and, considering its lat., 
its winters are both long and severe. The soil is 
generally fertile: of 83 cos., into which Kentucky 
is divided, 50 consist of rich land, and are com- 
prised in the tract called the * Garden of Ken- 
tucky,' 150 m. in length, and from 50 to 100 m. in 
breadth, in the centre of the state. Nearly all 
the European grains, Indian com, and tobacco are 
cultivated. The hills along the N. boundary are 
under culture wherever their declivities are not 
too steep for the plough ; and in those places they 
are generally covered with forest trees of vigorous 
growth, as oak, pine, elm, sycamore, chestnut, 
black walnnt, and locust trees. The vine, mul- 
benv, and a great variety of other fruits are grown. 
Hemp is a staple product. In the central tracts 
the land is generally well cultivated, and the farm- 
houses and offices are good. Artificial grasses and 
red clover are sown; white clover is of spon- 
taneous growth. The chief branch of niral in- 
dustry is the rearing of horses and cattle. The 
Kentucky horses are of acknowledged excellence, 
and bred in large numbers. Their superiority is 
80 great that many are sent over the mountains to 
the Atlantic states, and the principal supply of 
saddle and carriage horses for the lower country is 
drawn from Kentucky, the horses being sent 
down the Mississippi in fiat-bottomed boats. Mules 
are numerous, and of excellent quality ; when full 
grown they average from 15 to 16 hands, and are 
sometimes 17 hands, high: their price varies from 
80 to 160 dollars. Many of the central counties 
are cultivated by lai]gc proprietors, who rear cattle 
very extensively, with which they supply the W. 

markets. Large droves of the first quality are 
also exported to Yiiginia and Pennsylvania. Hogs 
are reared in large numbers on the barrens. Ma- 
nufactures are of secondary importance : the chief 
are those of cotton and woollen cloths, cordage, 
salt, iron goods, and maple sugar. Cattle, hemp, 
wheat, and tobacco are the principal articles of ex- 
port Most of the external trade is carried on 
through New Orleans. The means of internal 
communication are very complete, including a 
well-planned network of railways. Improvements 
in the river navigation are at the charge of the 
state; the construction of locks and dams on 
Green Biver was begun by the government in 
1834. A canal near Louisville, 2 m. long, by 
which the rapids are avoided, was completed in 
1831. Frankfort, on the Kentucky, is the cap., 
and seat of the legislative government ; but Louis- 
ville is the largest commercial emporium. Lex- 
ington is ^e other principal town. 

The legislative power is vested in a senate, 
which consisted, in 1864, of 88 mems., and in a 
house of representatives of 100 mans. The sena- 
tors are elected for four years, one-fourth of their 
whole number being returned yearly. The repre- 
sentatives are elected annually. 'The right of 
election is in every free male citizen, 21 years of 
age, who has resided in the state for two years 
preceding the election, or for one year in the 
county for which he desires to vote. The gover- 
nor and lieutenant-^veinor hold office for four 
years ; and are re-eli^ble only after the lapse of 
seven years. Justice is administered in a supreme 
court, a court of chancery, and 16 district courts. 
The U. S. circuit-court is held at Frankfort. There 
are many superior schools in the chief towns. 
Transylvania University, the oldest establishment 
of the' kind in the W. part of the union, is at 
Lexington (which see). Centre college, at Dan- 
ville, founded in 1822, has an average attendance . 
of 180 students. St. Joseph's college, at Bards- 
town, founded 1819, has a library of 7,000 voK, 
and generally about 180 students. There are col- 
leges at Augusta, on the Ohio, Princeton, and 
Georgetown ; a state literary fund, several lunatic 
and aeaf-&nd-dumb asylums, and hospitals. 

The earliest permanent settlement of this terri- 
tory was made by settlers from N. Carolina, in 
1773. Kentucky continued to form a part of Vir- 
ginia till 1790, when a separation was efi^ected ; 
and in 1792 it was admitted into the union as 
an independent stite. It sends nine mems. to 

of Asiatic Turkey, prov. Irak-Arabi, 50 m. SW. 
Bagdad. Pop. estimated at 20,000.- The town 
stands on a plain, about 6 in. W. of the Euphrates* 
with which it is connected by a canal said to be 
more ancient even than the era of Alexander. It 
has five gates, a well-supplied bazaar, and seven 
caravanserais ; but the chief ornaments of the city 
are the tomb of Hoesein, adorned with a gilded 
cupola and a noble mosque. Its chief lustre has 
been derived from Hossein, son of Ali by Fatima, 
the daughter of the Prophet, who was slain near 
it, and to whose tomb numerous pilgrims of the 
sect of Ali flock from all quarters, but especially 
from Persia, to pay their devotions. It is subject 
to the Turks, but still the majority of the inhab. 
are Persians ; and it has always been a favourite 
object of their king to obtain possession of this 
place, as well as of Meshed Ah and Kazameeii, 
both of which are, like Kerfoela, the resort of pil- 
grims. The environs of the town and borders of 
the canal are shaded by extensive plantations of 
palm-trees, and the walls, which are upwards of 
2 m. inciicuit, are kept in good repair, to secuid 

o2 Jp 



the riches of the holy city against the pi^dalory 
excorsions of the Wahabees, by whom it was 
plundered some years ago. 

Kerbela occupi^ the site of Vologenaj a small 
town built by Vologese, one of the Parthian kings, 
contemporarv with Nero and Vespasian. 

KERESOtJN (an. Cerasus), a town and sea-port 
of Asiatic Turke^, on the S. shore of the Black 
Sea, pach. Trebizond, from the t4>wn of which 
name it is distant 88 m. W. by S. ; lat, 40^ 57' 10" 
N., and long. 88© 24' E. Pop. about 8,000, half 
being Armenian and Greek. It stands on an ele- 
vated rocky promontory bounding an extensive 
bay to the E., and appears to have been formerly 
a place of great strength. A considerable part of 
the ancient wall still exists ; but the present town 
is in a ruinous condition, and the people bear the 
appearance of being in abject poverty. There is 
some little trade in com with the Crimea; and 
trading vessels are built in the bay under the city 

Cerasus was visited by Xenophon on his return 
with the ten thousand ; and he calls it a * Hellenic 
colonv, situated in the countrj'of the Colchi.' 
(Anab. v. 3.) It is also said to ba the native coun- 
try ol the cherry, which hence received its name. 
It was here that Mithridates ordered his wives 
and sisters to be poisoned after the battle of Ca- 
bira, when it fell into the hands of Lucullus ; but 
that it was, as Arrian states, identical with the 
Phamacia which was the residence of the kings of 
Pontus is, to say the least, extremely doubtful. 
(Cramer's Asia Minor, i. 281,) Keresoun was con- 
quered by Mahmoud IL, and has since been at- 
tached to the Turkish empire. 

KERKOUK {Demetrias, Strab.; Corcura, Ptol.), 
a large town of Asiatic Turkey, in Lower Kurdis- 
tan, cap. sandiiak, 100 m. SE. Mosul, and 130 m. 
N. Bagdad. Pop. estim. at 18,000. The town is 
situated on a commanding eminence nearly per- 
p)endicular on idl sides, below which is an extensive 
suburb : it is surrounded b}- a mud wall, but be- 
yond this are extensive suburbs. Besides nume- 
rous mosques, it has three K. Catholic churches 
and one Armenian ditto. The surrounding dis- 
trict is uneven and hilly ; and on the N. side a low 
range of barren and rocky mountains separates it 
from the line plain of Altun-Kupri In the pass 
through these mountains are numerous naphtha 
pits, yielding an inexhaustible supply of that use- 
ful commoditv, which is sent in earthen jars all 
over the neighbouring country. 

KERMAX (an. Caranumia)^ a prov. of Persia, 
between lat. 25° 30' and 81° 20' N., and long. 
540 30' and 60«> 20' E., having N. Khorassan, E. 
Affghanistan and Beloochistan, S. the Persian 
Gulf, and W. the provs. Fars and Laristan. Shape 
triangular ; extreme length, 380 m. : breadth, 250 
m. ; supposed area, 65,000 sq. m. Pop. alleged to 
be under 600,000, ha^nng greatly decreased of late 
vears through the wars of extermination waged 
by the Persians on the Guebres or Parsees. Ker- 
man, generallv speaking, is mountainous ; but the 
elevation of the high ground varies considerably, 
from mere hills to lofty ridges, scarcely lower than 
those of the great mass in which they originate. 
The principal range divides Nurmansheer from 
Laristan, and thence runs W. with many ramifi- 
cations. The interior of the prov. is not irrigated 
by a single river, and the natives could not pos- 
sibly exist, but for a few mountain springs, and 
the diligence used in cutting kareze»j or subter- 
ranean reservoirs for watering the land. The 
Rud Shuir, which nms through the 8. part of 
Kcrmau into the Persian Gulf, is very imperfectly 
known. The climate is accounted the least healthy 
of any part of Penia; the hills, which are dad 


with snow nearly all the year, being extremely 
cold, and the long narrow valleys b^ween them 
oppressively hot. The winds from the mountains 
are cool ; but, as they bring iidth them agues and 
epidemic fevers, the natives prefer sultry weather. 
1 he N. portion of the prov., and that close on tlie 
coast, are arid, sterile deserts ; but in Nurmansheer 
and a few other central districts, where irrigation 
has been properly followed up, layers of alluvial 
soil and rich vegetable mould are found to be ex- 
ceedingly productive. Wheat, maize, and barley; 
cotton, tobacco, saJSron, and madder are raised 
with facility, and in the greatest pexfection. Dates, 
oranges, lemons, grapes, almonds, and pistachios, 
with other fruits of S. Europe, are ot common 
occurrence ; and mulberry trees are laigely culti- 
vated for the silk-worms, in breeding which the 
inhabs. have attained considerable celebrity. The 
gum-plants, the produce of which is not less es- 
teemed than that from Arabia, comprise the aaa^ 
foetida, mastic galbanum, sandaric ammoniac, sar- 
cacolla, and tragacanth. Much attention is like- 
wise given to the cultivation of the white rose, 
from which is distilled an attoTy or essence, highly 
valued in Asia. Pasturage, however, is a more 
favourite pursuit than tillage. The breed of 
sheep peculiar to this prov., called dumbedoTj is 
small and short-legged, ivith a long bushy tail ; 
its wool fetches a higher price in the market than 
that of any other variety in Persia. Camels also, 
and goats, are bred in great numbers, as their hair 
is thought to make a fibre at once stronger and 
more delicate than that of animals reared else- 
where. Oxen and horses are little attended to. 
The forests are infested with wild beasts of the 
cat and bear tribe, and there are many species of 
serpents, some being highly venomous. On the 
S. coast sea-fish is abundant ; but the pearl-fisher>', 
once very profitable, has been abandoned in con- 
sequence of the too great depth of the oystex-beds. 
The mineral riches might be made a source of 
considerable wealth,for most metals are abundant ; 
but iron, copper, and sulphur are the only products 
hitherto obtained. The manufactures comprise 
fine woollen fabrics, carpets, goats' and camelV 
hair shawls, coarse linens, and a peculiar kind of 
matchlock, much esteemed in the £. These arti- 
cles, with chenna, a yellow dye, fruits, and gums, 
are either sent N. by caravans, or exported from 
tlie port of Gombroon. 

The mhabs. were formerly almost exclusively 
Guebres, but the number of these is now less than 
40,000. The Persians constitute the chief mass of 
the pop., but there are also many Belooches and 
Arabs of different tribes. The government is 
vested in a beglerbeg, and the prov. is divided 
into 9 districts, each of which is under a hakun or 
lieutenant. The taxes on land, and imposts on 
manufactured goods, are very oppressive, and ope- 
rate as a great hinderance to industry. The S. 
part of Herman, called Moghostan, is not subject 
to Persia, but to the im&m of Muscat, who receives 
from it a yearly tribute of 7,000 tomauna. The 
Arabs of various tribes are governed by their re- 
spective sheiks. 

Kerman, or Serjan (an. Carmama), a city of 
Persia, and cap. of Uie above prov., 230 m. I'l. 
Shiraz, and 340 m. SE. Ispahan ; lat 29° 66' N., 
long. 56^ E. Pop. estimated at 30,000. This 
city, which was once more prosperous and ex- 
tensive than at present, stands on the W. side of 
an extensive plain, so close to the mountains as 
to be completely commanded by two of them. 
The walls, ])ierced by 4 gates, ai^ high and bnilt 
of mud, fianked outside by a dry ditch, 20 yards 
wide, and 10 yards deep. On the S. side of the 
town is a citadel, in which the governor resideai 





The tnzkar, well supplied with every article of 
necessity and luxury, Ls covered in with very ele- 
gant domes, built of a beautiful blue stone pro- 
. cured in the a^oinin^ mountains. There are nine 
j^ood caravanserais within the walls, several mos- 
qatt and baths, but most of them are in a ruinous 
eondition« The trade of Kennan, however, is still 
vexy considerable, and it is celebrated for its 
manufactures of shawls, carpets, and matchlocks, 
which are exported to Khorassan, Balk, and Khiva, 
Arabia, Sinde, and all parts of India. The shawls 
of Kerman are of coarser quality, but approaching 
nearly in colour and general appearance to the in- 
ferior cashmeres. Immense quantities of the 
commoner kinds are sent to all parts of Turkey ; 
they are about two yards square, very low in price, 
and' ane generally worn by the lower classes in W. 

Kerman, formeily one of the most celebrated 
cities of the Persian empire, owed much of its 
former opulence to its situation on the road from 
Bokhara to Gombroon, a port which has been 
almost superseded by Bushire. Domestic and 
foreign wars, however, with repeated pillages, have 
all but ruined it^ In 1794 it was besieged and 
taken by Aga Mahommcd Khan ; the walls and 
public buildmgs were then levelled to the ground, 
a licentious soldiery were aUowed to pillage it 
during three months, vast numbers of the inhabs. 
were put to death, and 80,000 are said to have 
been seiit into exile. From these calamities 
Kennan is only very slowly recovering, nor does 
the present state of its trade warrant the con- 
dusion that It will ever attain its former importance. 

ofPensia, the cap. of Persian Kudistan and of a' 
district bearing its own name; 82 m. WSW. Ha- 
madan, and 320 m. SW. Ispahan; laL 34° 26' N., 
lung. 47° 15' 15" E. Pop. estimated at 12,000. 
The dty stands a short distance from the right 
bank of the Kerkah or Karasu, in a beautiful pbdn 
open to the S., but inclosed on every other side by 
lofty mountains. It is surrounded by a substantial 
brick wall, having round towers at its four angles 
and a deep ditch in front. The citadel, strongly 
fortified, is the tesidence of the beglerbeg, who be- 
longs to the royal family of Persia. 'I he streets 
are narrow, crooked, and unpaved ; but the town 
is adorned with many gardems, has 14 hummums 
(ir piibUc baths, 4 mosques, several bazaars, and a 
spacious caravanserai kept in tolerable repair. Its 
manufactures consist chiefly of woollen carpets 
and Bwoids mostly sent to Bagdad, with cotton, 
very delicious grapes, and other products of the 
rich soil belonging to the district. Considerable 
ailvantages accrue to tlie town in consequence of 
itssituaiion on the great caravan road between 
Pereda, Caubul, and Asiatic Turkey. Great im- 
pcovements have been made by the existing dy- 
nasty in its ibrtitications and public buildings, and 
it has become the residence of one of the members 
i>f the reigning family, so that its pop. and general 
importance have been steadily increasing during 
the present century. 

About 6 m. K of Kermanshaw, on the road to 
Hamadan and in the N. range of mountains, arc 
the excavations and sculptures of Taki-Bostan. 
The most considerable of these is an arch cut in 
the rock, 60 fL high, 20 ft. deep, and 24 ft. wide ; 
on the top is an emblematic figure flanked by two 
angels, the sculpture of which is tolerably perfect 
and ill good taste. At the extremity of the arch 
is the flgnre of a mounted warrior clothed in chain 
armour, with a shield on his left arm, a lance in 
his right hand, a quiver at his side, and a tiara on 
his head. The hontt is well proportioned, and tole- 
lably carved* The representation of a boar-hunt 

occupies the entire left side of the arch ; it is re- 
markably well executed. At the upper end of 
another cave, similar in shape and size, is a basao- 
relievo of two kings in the costume of Persepolis, 
and wearing globular crowns identifying them 
with memben of the Shapour dynasty. Near the 
entrance of this cave, also, are three figures, two 
of which are treading on the third, who is pros- 
trate* The origin of these sculptures is a matter 
of doubtful coniecture : some attribute them to 
Semiramis, while by others they are ascribed to 
the successors of Alexander ; but, if SUvestre de 
Sacy's translations of the Pehlvi Inscriptions be 
correct, they must be attributed to the monarcha 
of the Sassanian dynasty. (Ritter's Erdkunde von 
Asieu, part ix. p. 867-386.) 

The date of the foundation of Kermanshaw is 
not accurately known, but it is generally attributed 
to Bah ram (Vararanes IV.), the son of Shapour II., 
about 400 years after Christ. Kobad improved it, 
and built a citadel, which, after having been al- 
most destroyed by the Turks, was re-established 
by Kouli-khan, when he restored its independence 
ill 1723. 

KERRY, a marit. co. in the SW. part of Ireland, 
prov. Munster, having N. the estuary of the 
Shannon, E. and S. the cos. of Limerick and Cork, 
and W. the Atlantic Ocean. Area, 1,1 59,856 acres, 
of which 552,862 are unimproved mountain and 
bog, and 14,669 water, including the lakes of KU- 
lamey, so famous for their scenery (see Kil- 
larnby). This co. is particularly wild, nigged, 
and mountainous. Macgillicuddy's Reeks, the 
highest mountains in Ireland, lie to the W. of 
Kulamey ; and several other mountain ridges rise 
to above 2,000 ft. in height* The coast is deeply 
indented by Tralee and Dingle bays and the estuary 
of the Kenmare; Dunmore Head, between the 
bays now named, in lat. 52^ T 30" N., long. lO^ 
28' W., is the most westerly land in Ireland, and 
eonsequentlv in the U. Kingdom. The climate is 
mild, but also extremely moist. The soil in the 
low grounds mostly rests on a limestone bottom ; 
it is very fertile, and produces fine herbage, which 
the mildness and moisture of the climate main- 
tains m a constant state of verdure throughout the 
year. The arbutus flourishes in the greatest vigour 
round Killarney, and other places in this co. 
Large flocks of goats are fed on the mountains, 
which also depasture great numbers of the pure 
Irish breed of middle-homed cattle. There are 
seme rather extensive dairy farms ; but, speaking 
generally, agriculture is at the lowest ebb. Tillage 
farms are, for the most part, very smaU, and the 
occupiers miserably poor. The potato is the only 
article they reserve to themselves; cattle, com, 
butter, pigs, and eggs all go to market to make 
up the rent. Still, however, improvements are 
taking place ; good roads now lead into districts 
that were formerly next to imper\4ous ; and somft 
landlords have laboured, M'ith considerable success, 
to introduce an improved svstem of mana^ment 
on their estates, and to meliorate the condition of 
the occupiers. In some parishes the greater part 
of the tillage is performed by means ^ the % or 
spade, but Scotch and other improved ploughs 
have recently been introduced. The sea-weed, 
which aboimds along the sea-shore, furnishes an 
ample supply of manure; but it is in most parta 
neglected, or injudiciously applied. Property 
mostly in very large estates, but some of them are 
leased for ever. 1 he Irish language is in many 
parts used to the exclusion of the English ; and, ia 
consequence, old customs and habits maintain their 
^und in a remarkable degree. Minerals, though 
m a great measure unexplored, are of considerable 
value and importance. Copper mines have been 



wTougbt near Killaraey, and Valentia Island pro- 
duces good slAte for roofing and ilag:ging. Manu- 
factures can hardly be said to exist. Prindpal 
rivers, Feale, Lane, the outlet of the lakes of Kil- 
larney, Roughan, and Mang. Principal towns, 
Tralee, Killamey, and Dingle. Keiry is divided 
into 8 baronies and 88 parishes ; and sends 8 mems. 
to the H, of C, viz. 2 ibr the ca and 1 for the bor. 
TnUee. Registered electctfa for the oo., 5,415 in 
1865. In 1861, Kerry had a pop. of 201,800, or 
86,259 families, living ui 82,178 houses. In the 
20 yean 1841-61 the pop. declined by 92,080. 

£L£RTSCH, a sea-port town of European Rus- 
sia, in the Crimea, on a spacious bay on the W. 
side of the straits of Tenikale. Pop. 12,787 ui 
1858. The town occupies the site of the ancient 
J^ioUiccqMBumy the seat of the Bosphorian kings, 
and once the residence of Mithiidates. The 

Suarantine for the sea of Azoff has been estab- 
shed here ; and it seems probable that it will^ 
at no distant period, supersede Taganrog as the 
emporium of that sea. Com, salt, and hides are 
the principal articles of export In the onter road, 
5 or 6 m. from the town, there are 19 ft. water; 
in the inner bay there are 14 fU, and close in shore 
it shoals to from 9 to 11 ft. During the last war 
between Russia and Turkey, the allied Anglo- 
French squadron entered the bay. May 24, 1855, 
capturing 250 Russian vessels, and a mrge quan- 
tity of guns and stores. 

KESMARK (Germ. KaUermnarH), a royal free 
town of Hungary, co. Zips, on the Poprad*, a tri- 
butaty of the Vistuhi, at the foot or the Tatra 
mountains, 180 m. NE. Pesth. Pop. 3,924 in 
1857, of whom about 2,500 are Protestants. The 
town is surrounded with old and decayed double 
walk, and entered by three ^tes, near one of 
which the Emp. Sigismund, m 1483, erected a 
large tower, to protect the town against the attacks 
of the Hussites. Kesmark has several handsome 
public buildings, as the town-hall, with an elegant 
tower, and the large Rom. Catholic church ; be- 
sides a Rom. Catholic high school, Protestant 
lyceum, and girls' school. Manv of its inhabs. 
are linen weavers and dyers ; others carry on a 
brisk trade with Galicia in wine and garden pro- 

KESWICK, a market town of England, co. 
Cumberland, ward of Allerdale, par. of Cross- 
thwaite, on the Greta, in a well-cultivated valley at 
the foot of Skiddaw, add contiguous to the N. end 
of Derwent-water, or Keswick lake, 22 W. 
Carlisle, and 18 m. E. by N. Whitehaven. Pop. 
2,610 in 1861. This neat and finely situated town, 
which may be regarded as the cap. of the English 
lakes, consists principally of one long street of 
well-built houses. It has manufactures of linsey- 
woolsey stuffs and fancy waistcoatings •, black 
lead pencils ale also made in the town, of lead 
from the famohs mine in Botrowdale; and the 
potting of char taken in the lake is a considerable 
biyriness. Copper mines were formerly wrought 
in the vicmity, but they have been long aban- 
doned. The principal dependence of the place is 
on the crowds of visitors to the adjacent l&kes and 
mountains, who are here supplied with lodgings, 
guides, and conveyances. It has a free school, a 
national school, a Workhouse, and two inuseuins, 
containing many fine specimens of natural history 
peculiar to the county. Property, which at pre- 
sent produces above 20021 a year, was bequeathed 
ih 1642, by Sir John Banks, chief justice of the 
Cotntnon Pleas, for behoof of the poor of this, hts 
native town. 

Keswick lake, ot Derwent-water, is about 8 tai. 
in length, by rather more than 1 m. in breadthi 
extending over an area of 1^282 aci«& It has 


numerotis small islands, is embosomed amon^^' 
lofty mountains, and, from its picturesque scenery, 
is d'eservedly called the 'rem 'of the lakes. 

KESZDI-VASARTHELY {Qem.Neumari(),a, 
town of Transylvania, in the Szekler-Land, 45 m. 
NE. Cronstedt. Pop. 8,460 in 1857. The town 
has a Protestant gymnasium, several breweries 
and distilleries, and manufactures of hats, jMper, 
and cloth ; but it is chiefly noted for its military 
establishments. It is the head-quarters of the 
second regiment of Szekler infantry, in the Tran- 
sylvanian military frontier, and has a oelebnited 
military school. This institution was founded hy 
the late emperor, Ferdinand I. of Austria, and is 
supported partly by a royal grant and partl3r b^ 
the Szeklers themselves. The regulation of it is 
entirely in the hands of the government. On the 
foundation there are 100 boys, from 6 to 18 years 
of age, who are fed, clothed, and taught, free of all 
expense. A few additional scholars are admitted 
on the payment of about 16«. per month. The 
children, when they have finished their education, 
are drafted into the infantry, and often rise to the 
rank of officers. The course of education, besides 
drilling, includes writing, reading, arithmetic, 
geography, mathematics, militanr drawing, and 
Uie German language. In fact, all the lessons are 
given in German, all the books are German, and 
the children are even obliged to speak German to 
each other. The national language is never heard 
within the walls of the school. Hence the Szek- 
lers affirm, that the grand object of the school is 
to denationalise their children, and makcT them 
renounce their native language. 

KESZTHELY, a market town of Hungary, in 
the circ on the other side the Danube, co. Szalad, 
near the W. end of hike Balaton, 38 m. SW. 
Veszprim, and 98 m. S. Presbui)^. Pop. 3,995 in 
1857. Keszthely is a thriving little town, and of 
considerable importance from the great school of 
agriculture founded here by Count George Fes- 
tetits, and known as the Georgicon, which, though 
no longer in so flourishing a state as formerly, has 
still several professors and practical teachers. The 
object of this establishment is to form useful and 
trcll-instructed officers and accountants for the 
tnanagement of estates, to give instruction in 
particular branches of husbandry to the peasantry, 
and to furnish opportunities for farmers to improve 
their knowledge of agriculture. The school is 
divided into six sections : 1. for scientific agricul- 
ture and its auxiliary sciences; 2. for the Law of 
property, as fUffecting landlords and tenants ; 8. for 
practical husbandry, as taught to the peasantry ; 
4. for forest-planting and the chase ; 5. for horse- 
breeding and training ; and, 6. for teaching girls 
the branches of knowledge connected with house- 
keeping. The complete course appointed for the 
pensioners lasts 3 years; but others may select 
their pursuits, and limit themselves to one or two 
vears, as they think proper, the theoretical course 
lastbg from the beginning of Nov. to the end of 
Aug. In the Georgicon, laige apartments are 
fitted up as lecture-rooms, depositories for phUo- 
sophical instruments, and museums; chambers are 
set apart for the pensioners ; and the lower floors 
are occupied by the farming servants and their 
families, and by a spacious workshop for carpen- 
ters and coopers. The outbuildings comprise 
stalls for fattening cattle, a shed for sheep, a 
granary, brew-house, and a house for silkworms 
and the winding of silk; gardens and orchards 
of diflerent kinds are laid out for the purpose of 
teaching horticulture in all its branches, and on a 
farm set apart for the purpose practical instruction 
is given in the rotation of crops after the Norfolk 
system. The other educational institutions are a 



Tatholic prmnafdaiii, a high and normal school. 
The public baildings com prise, besides the Geor- 
i:iooD, a fine castle, which contains a library of 
15,000 Tola^ 2 Catholic cbtuvhes, a convent, and 
a hoapital. Wine, from the extensive vineyards 
ill the neighbourhood, is a considerable article of 
trade, and several hands are employed in weaving 
woollen fabrics. (Bright's Travels in Lower Hun- 
gmy, pp^ 860-389.) 

KEl^KEMET, or KUZKEM£T, a market 
town of Hungary, circ. on the N. side the Danube, 
CO. Pesth, 50 m. SE, the cap., on the railway from 
Pwth to Szegedin. Pop. 42,890 in 1867. The 
houses are generally low, the streets lon^, nar- 
row, and crooked, and the surrounding districts 
of a monotonous character. There are five 
churches (two Som. Cath., and one each belonging 
to Greeks, Lutherans, and Calvinists), a Francis- 
can convent, a reformed college and gymnasium, 
a I*iarist oollese, a normal school and a school of 
design, an prpban asylum, and a military hospi- 
taL The breeding of horses, cattle, and sheep is 
the chief employment of the pop. ; and there are 
some tanneries and soap factones. 

K£TT£RIX<T, a market town and par. of Eng- 
land, COL Northampton, Huxloe hund., on an 
aifluent of the Nen, 14 m. KE. Northampton, and 
65 m. NNVV. London, on the Midland railway. 
Pop. of town 5,498 and of par. 5,845 in 1861. 
Area of par., 2,840 acres. The centre of the town 
comprises a spacious area, surrounded by well- 
bailt houses and shops, with a commodious ses- 
nonsr-house ; but in the suburbs are many low 
thatched tenements of a mean and wretched ap- 
pearance. The church, considered a fine specimen 
of ecclesiastical architecture, luis an ele^nt em- 
liattled tower at its W. end, surmounted by a 
]i|^ht crocketted spire : the living is a rectory. 
There are places of worship also for Wesleyan 
Methodists. Baptists, Independents, and the So- 
ciety of Friends. Sunday schools are attached to 
all, e^ccept the last ; and there is a small free 
acbooL This, and an almshouse fur 6 poor widows, 
az« the only endowed charities of the town. Se- 
xeral hunclred weavers are engaged at Kettering, 
and the neighbouring villages of RothWell and 
Desborough, in makmg silk plush for hats. A 
Ipceat number of hands were formerly employed 
in woollen and wonted weaving, but this branch 
of industry appears to have dechned of late years. 

KEW, a village and par. of England, co. Surrey, 
hund. Kingston, on the S. bank of the Thames,*? 
m. W. London, on the London and South West^ 
em railway. Pop. of parish, 1.099 in 1861. Area, 
230 acres. This village, which is connected with 
Brentford on the opposite side of the river by a 
frtone bridge of 7 arches, consists principally of the 
houses on and near a laige and neatly kept green. 
The par. church is a small brick structure with a 
turret at the W. end. Many handsome residences 
are scattered over the village, but none deserves 
particular mention ekcept Kew House, or Palace, 
a red brick building of the age of James I., for 
many years Uie favourite residence of Geoige III. 
and his queen. It was taken on lease from S. 
Molyneux, esq., by Frederick, prince of Wales, 
and was greatly improved in its interior fitting 
by Kent. Geoi;^ III. acquired the property m 
fee simple, and it is still occupied by members of 
the royal family, or persons belonging to their 
households. Near this house, and close to the 
river's bank, a new palace was commenced by 
Geofge III., but the situation and plan of the 
building proved to be ill chosen. It was never 
completed, and was ultimately taken down in 
1827. The grounds, which were first laid out by 
Sir William Chambers for Frederick, prince of 



Wales, have since been greatly improved. They 
are under the management of the commissioners 
of woods and forests, and consist, at present, of 
what are called the. pleasure grounds, comprising 
about 130 acres, and of the royal gairdens, com- 
prising about 75 acres, the whole open to the pub- 
lie every day including Sunday. The improve- 
ments in KeW Gardens, which hmn in 1840, have 
been on a very grand scale, ana they now form 
one of the favourite resorts of the Londoners, 
having been visited in 1861, by 480,070 ; in 1862, 
by 550,182; and in 1868, by 408,418 persons. 
Rather more than one-half of the whole of these 
visitors came on Sundays. The palm-house, com- 
pleted in 1848, is somewhat in the form of the 
null of a large ship with the keel upwards, having 
attached to it the hulls of smaller ships, one at 
each end, the ribs being of cast-iron, and the in- 
termediate spaces of glass. It is 862 ft. in length , 
the central compartment b 100 ft in width, and 
66 ft. in height, and the wings respectively 50 ft. 
wide and 80 ft high. The central portion has a 
gallery all round, reached by a spiral stair, at the 
height of 80 ft. from the floor. The glass is tinted 
green to mitif^ate the intensity of uie light, and 
the structure is heated bv hot-water pipes distri- 
buted beneath the floor, ue smoke being conveyed 
by an under-ground flue to an ornamental tower 
at a little distance. Opposite the palm-house is a 
fine piece of water ; and the whole garden, whether 
reference be made to its arrangements, or to the 
infinite variety of rare and valuable plants with 
which it is furnished, reflects the highest credit 
on the public liberal!^, and on the taste of those 
by whom it ha^ been planned and directed. In 
the pleasure-gardens are different grotesque, if not 
very elegant, buildings. The laigest and most 
celebrated of these is an octagonal Chinese pagoda 
of 10 stories and 1 68 ft high, from the top or which 
is an extensive view of the surrounding country. 

JCEYNSHAM, a market town and par. of Eng- 
land, CO. Somerset, hund. of its own name, at the 
confluence of the Chew with the Avon, 5 m. 
ESE. Bristol, 100 m. W. London by road, and 
118i m, by Great Western railway. Pop. of 
par. 2,190 m 1861. Area of par. 8,880 acres. 
The town is built on a rock, and consists of 
a single street about a mile long. The church, 
which stands in the centre of the town, is a laige 
and handsome edifice, with a fine lofty toWer at 
its W. end, and some curions monuments : the 
living is a vicarage, in the gift of the duke of 
Buckingham. The Wesleyan Methodists and 
Baptists have places of worship, to each of which^ 
as well as to the church, Sunday schools are at- 
tached. A Well conducted charity school also fdr- 
nishes a plain education to poor children of both 
sexes. The river Chew runs through the E. end 
of Keynsham, and falls into the Avon at the 
bridge, which is of stone, and consists of 15 
arches : another bridge crosses the Chew on the 
Bath road. The tides of tlie Avon ascend up to 
the tow^n. The clothing trade, formerly consider- 
able^ has now almost wholly fallen .to decay, 
though a few people are still employed in spinning 
and winding for the clothiers of Bradford and 
Shepton Mallet Coarse linen-weaving has been 
introduced within the last 80 years, with little 
success ; but a good deal is done in malting. 

KEY-WEST, a small island from 6 to 6 m. in 
length, by 1 in width ; 56 m. SW. from Cape Sable* 
in Florida. It is one of the Florida keys, or of 
that extensive circular range of low islands, banks, 
and reefs, which fences the coast of Florida, and 
foitns the northern boundary of the Gulf Stream, 
from the Tortugas islands on the W. round to 
Cape Florida on the N. A lighthou&e erected on 




the SW. point of the island laL 24° 29' N., long. 
81° 55' W., has a fixed light elevated 83 ft, 6 in. 
above the sea. The town of Key-WesU near the 
NVV. part of the island, has about 2,500 inhabs.. 
and has an excellent harbour, with about 25 ft. 
water. A safe passage, about 6 m. in length, leads 
by Key- West from the Gulf Stream to the Gulf of 
Mexico. It has 12 ft. water at ebb tide^ and ves- 
sels from the N. bound for New Orleans and Mo- 
bile, or from the latter for the former, by passing 
through it, avoid the delay and danger of the 
more westerly passage round the Tortugas. 

Owing to the frequent accidents to shipping 
from coming in contact with the banks and reefs 
in this dangerous vicinity, the American govern- 
ment have organised an establishment at Key- 
West for the assistance of ships in distress, and 
made it the seat of an admiralty court for the ad- 
judication of claims for salvage. The former con- 
sists of 15 licensed vessels with crews of about 10 
men each. These are kept constantly cruising 
about on the look-out for sliips in distress or want- 

KHARKOFF, a government of European Rus- 
sia, having on the N. TchemigofT and Koursk, on 
the £. Voronetz, on the S. Ekaterinoslaff, and on 
the W. Poltava. Area, 20,931 sq. m., pop. 
1,582,571 in 1858. This, like the other govern- 
ments of Little Russia, has a fiat, monotonous 
surface, and a very fertile soil. It has nearly 
470,000 deciatines of forests. Principal rivers, 
Donetz, Orkol, and Vorskla ; but none of them 
are navigable, at least, for any considerable dis- 
tance. All sorts of com are mised, the produce 
in ordinary years amounting to alx)ve 5,000,000 
chetwerts, of which about 1,000,000 are cx{K>rted. 
Flax and hemp, tobacco, and hops, are also raised, 
and the potato is extensively grown. Cattle ex- 
cellent ; there are few peasants without bees. With 
the exception of distilleries, which are numerous, 
and some tanneries, and establishments for the 
preparation of tallow and saltpetre, manufacturing 
mdustry can hardly be said to exist The pop. 
consists of Little Russians, Great Russians, and 
Cossacks. Some regiments of cavalry are colo- 
nised in this government. 

KiiAKKOPF, the cap. of the above government, 
on the Lopanh, 295 m. NWN. Odessa. Pop. 45, 1 56 
in 1858. The town is built of wood; has narrow, 
crooked, and dirty streets; therampartj) by which 
it was formerly surrounded have been converted 
into gardens and public walks. It is the residence 
of the provincial authorities, and has a cathedral, 
a gymnasium, and an ecclesiastical seminary. 
Kharkoffau the scat of a university, founded in 
1804, which has 90 professors and masters, and, 
on the average, about 500 pupils. It pos8e8ses a 
pretty good library, and a valuable collection of 
medals. This town is the seat of a considerable 
commerce. Four fairs are held each year, of which 
that called Krechtchenski (Jan. 3^15), and that of 
the Trinity, are the most extensive. One of the 
other fairs is principally for wooL 

KHELAT, or KELAT, a city of Beloochistan, 
of which it is the cap., and a fortress of consider- 
able strength, now in possession of the British; on 
an elevat^ site, on the W. side of a highly cul- 
tivated plain about 250 m. N. the Indian Ocean, 
and 240 m. S. by W. Candahar; lat. 29^ 7' N., 
long. 65° 45' E. Pop. estimated at 20,000, chiefly 
Beloochees, Brahooes, Hindoos, and Affghans^ 
The town, of an oblong form, is encompassed on 
three sides by a mud wall, 18 or 20 fu high, 
flanked at intervals of 250 paces, by bastions 
pierced, as well as the wall itself, with numberless 
loopholes for matchlocks. The defence of the 
fourth side is formed by the W. face of the hill, on 


which the town w partly built, being cut awar 
perpendicularly. On thesummit of this eminence 
stands the palace of the khan, enclosed bv a mud 
wall, with bastions, kept in better repair than any 
other portion of the fortifications. In 1839, Major 
Willshire said, * The defences of the fort, as in the 
case of Ghiznee, far exceeded in strength what I 
had been led to suppose from previous report ; and 
the towering height of the inner citadel was most 
formidable both in appearance and reality.' (Pari. 
Report on Khelat.) The town is, however, com- 
manded by heights to the N. and W. ; it has three 
gates, and above 2,500 houses within the walls ; 
and about half as many more were comprised in 
the suburbs. The houses are of half-burnt brick, 
on wooden frames, and plastered over with mud 
or chunam. The streets are generally broader 
than is common in the E., and have a raised foot- 
w^ay on either side ; but their centre is a recep- 
tacle for all sorts of filth ; and they are dark and 
gloomy, from the upper stories of the houses nearly 
meeting. The markets are well furnished with 
flesh, vegetables, and other necessaries, at a cheap 
rate; and the town is supplied with excellent 
water by a spring, which is tepid during the night, 
but after sunrise becomes cold, and remains so the 
whole day. Some water-mills are turned by the 
stream from this source. Khelat has some trade 
and manufactures, respecting which sec Beloo- 


KHERSON, a gov. in the S. part of Russia in 
Europe, on the N. shore of the Black Sea, between 
the rivers Dniestr, on the W., and Dniepr, on the 
E. Area, 28,305 sq. m. Pop. 1,027,459 in 1861. 
Besides the great boundary rivers, already speci- 
fied, it U divided into two not very unequal 
portions by the Bug. In the N. part of the go- 
vernment, the surface is undulating and covered 
with immense forests; but elsewhere it consists 
mostly of an immense steppe, without trees, and 
covered with ^rass the height of a man. Gene- 
rally, the portion on the W. side of the Bu^ is 
decidedly more fertile than that en the E. side. 
Climate in extremes, the rivers being mostly 
frozen over for a short time during winter, while 
in summer the thermometer rises sometimes to 
above 25^ Reaum. Agriculture has made little 
progress, and is but a secondary pursuit, the rear- 
ing of cattle and sheep forming tne cliief employ- 
ment of the inhab. The breed of sheep has been 
much improved, and is now the best in the empire. 
Among the horned cattle, bufialoes are common. 
Flax and hemp, tobacco, saffron, and liquorice, 
are all cultivated ; and a good deal of an inferior 
acid wine is made. There are establishments for 
the cleaning and sorting of wool, tanneries, tallow 
and candle works, with manufactories of cloth. 
The commerce of the government centres entirely 
at Odessa and Kherson, and is very extensive. 

Khekson, the cap. of the above government, 
on an eminence on the right bank of the Dniepr, 
about 60 m. above Kinboum Fort, at the entrance 
of the testuary to that river. Pop. 40,430 in 1858. 
The town was founded in 1778 ; was fortified in 
1780 ; and soon after became a large and flourish- 
ing town. Owing, however, to the difficulty of 
navigating the Dniepr, which, for 15 m. below 
Kherson, is shallow and encumbered with shifting 
sand banks, Odessa, founded in 1792, soon took 
precedence of it as a commercial emporium, and 
it began to decline. It is di\4ded into four dis- 
tinct parts : the citadel, the admiralty, and the 
Greek and military suburbs. Within the first are 
the government buildings, arsenal, prison, barracks, 
and the cathedral. The latter is the burial-place 
of the celebrated Prince Potemkin, the powerful 
favourite of Catherine II., who died near Yassy, 

Digitized by 



in 17D1. In the admiralty are the docks, for con- 
etnictin^ ships of war, cut out of the limestone 
rock. They are sent down the river on machines, 
called camels, but only when there is a laige flood« 
The Greek suburb is inhabited by the burgesses, 
«n<l the military suburb by sailors and artizans. 
Within these few years a part of the mast trade 
that used formerly to be confined to Kiga, has 
been transferred to Kherson ; and, besides masts, 
stares, planks, flax and hemp, com, cordage, 
tallow, wool, of which it is a principal market^ 
are sent down the Dniepr to Kherson. 

John Howard, the celebrated English philan- 
thropist, expired at Kherson, on the 20th of Jan., 
1790 ; and is interred about 3 m. N. from the town, 
'Where an obelisk has been erected to his memory. 

Chortumia)j an indep. khanat of Turkestan, in 
Central Asia, properly comprising only a narrow 
strip of fertile land along the Oxus, in the lower 
portion of its course. Of late years, however, it 
has establii^ed a supremacy over the wandering 
Turkman hordes to the S. and W., and hol(S 
Mervfe (Muru), with its territory, on the road be- 
tween Khoraasan and Bokhara. The dominion of 
the khan extends between the 36th and 44th 
degrees of N. lat., and 52nd and 64th of E. long., 
having £. the Karakalpack territories and Bok- 
hara, S. Afghanistan and the Persian prov. of 
Khoraasan, W. the Caspian, and N. the Kirghiz 
Nieppe and the Sea of Aral The Oxus is the 
great fertiliser of the tract it passes through; 
many canals communica,^g with it have been 
cut for the purpose of irrigation, some of which 
are 30 m. in length ; and ^e cultivated lands in 
the neighbourhood of the capital are surrounded 
with wet ditches. The climate and products are 
much the same as in Bokhara; the summer is 
warm, the air dry, and evaporation rapid; the 
winter is short, and ice lasts only a few days at a 
time. Agriculture is better attended to in the 
small extent of productive laud comprised in this 
khanat than in some of the neighbouring coun- 
tries. The lands, after being irrigated, are ma- 
nured; but animal manure is scarce, from the 
fseces of the cattle being used as fuel, and their 
being seldom stalled. Wheat, barley, djugari 
{Uf^cus mxceharatus), millet, sesamum, oleagi- 
nous plants, lendls, fruits. Unseed, cotton, hemp, 
flax, and some rice are grown. The vine thrives 
well ; but the tnhab., being chiefly Mohammedans, 
little wine is made. The distailation of brandy 
from raisins has, however, been introduced by the 
Pennans ; and, out of the capital, the inhab. in- 
dulge pretty freely in its use. An intoxicating 
liquor, as well as a narcotic product for smoking, 
iii obtained fropa hemp. Little tobacco is grown. 
Manv of the fruits are good, and the melons are 
excellent; but the culture of fniit-trees is nearly 
abandoned for that of grain or fodder. Wood is 
sufhcientlv abundant in the N., and is not dear in 
the capital ; but over all the desert the only vege- 
tation is a few stunted bushes. Homed cattle are 
few ; sheep and goats are much more numerous, 
their flesh, with that of the horse, forming the 
chief animal food of the inhab. Camels are the 
principal beasts of burden, and almost every khivan 
possesses one. Agriculture and cattle rearing oc- 
cupy moat of the settled pop. ; but some cotton 
and silk stuffs and shawls are made by the women, 
and exported to the neighbouring countries. The 
dominant race in Khiva, as in Bokhara, is the 
Uzbek, to which the khan belongs; the rest of 
the pop. consists of Ouigours, Turkmans, Karakal- 
pBcks, Tadjiks, about 2,000 families, chiefly pri- 
soners of war Arom Bokhara, and a few Af^^hans, 
Jews, Armenians, Persians, Eimauks, and Kirghiz. 

Tlie Uzbeks enjoy no nrixdleges over the rest, but 
they compose the chiel^ portion of tlifi khan's army. 
The Turkmans are altogether nomadic, and live 
pruicipally by plunder, especially the capture and 
sale of slaves. They seize upon the subjects of 
Russia on the Caspian, and make many inroads 
into Khoraasan: Bokhara and the whole of the 
Turkestan ia supplied by them with Persian cap- 
tives. It is estimated that from 30,000 to 40,000 
of the pop. of the khanat are slaves. They have 
frequently a piece of land given to them to cul- 
tivate, or are permitted to exercise some handi- 
craft, paying an annual rent to their masters for 
the privilege, from the produce of which they are 
afterwards frequently able to ransom themselves. 
No foreign slave, however, even after the purchase 
of his liberty, is permitted to leave the country. 
Meyendorf, in comparing this khanat with that of 
Bokhara, observes : — * Though the inhab. of the 
two countries are of the same race, and profess the 
same religion, the schools of Khiva have never 
enjoyed the same reputation as those of Bokhara ; 
the Khivans are more barbarous than the Bok- 
harese, as is attested by an inferior agriculture, 
worse habitations, a more limited commerce, less 
wealth, and a more savage mode of life.' (Voyage 
k Boukhara, p. ill.) According to Bumes,* the 
Khivans are at best but an organised banditti, 

Protected by the natural strength of their country. 
>readful scenes of cruelty ajid barbarism are occa- 
sionally witnessed even at the capital. M. Ar- 
minius Yambery, a Hungarian gentleman, who 
travelled through the country, in 1860-61, in the 
disguise of a dervish, describes one of these atro- 
cious spectacles : — * In the last court (of a prison, 
at the city of Khiva), I found about 300 Tchau- 
dorF, prisoners of war, covered with rags; they 
were so tormented by the dread of their approach- 
ing fate and the hunger which they had endured 
several days, that they looked as if they had just 
risen from their graves. They were separated 
into two divisions, namely, such as had not yet 
reached their fortieth year, and were to be sold as 
slaves, or to be made use of as presents, and such 
as from their rank or age were regarded as Aksa- 
kals (grey beards) or leaders, and who were to 
suffer the punishment imposed by the khan. The 
former, chained together by their iron collars in 
numbers of ten to fifteen, were led away; the latter 
submissively awaited the punishment awarded. 
They looked like lambs in the hands of their 
executioners. Whilst several were led io the 
gallows or the block, I saw how, at a sign from 
the executioner, eight aged men placed themselves 
down on their backs upon the earth. They were 
then bound hand and foot, and the executioner 
gouged out their eyes in turn, kneeling to do so 
on the breast of each poor wretch ; and after every 
operation he wiped his knife, dripping with blood, 
upon the white beard of the hoary unfortunate. 
Ah! cruel spectacle I As each fearful act w&» 
completed, the victim liberated from his bonds, 
groping around with his hands, sought to gain his 
feet. Some fell against each other, head against 
head ; others sank powerless to the earth again, 
uttering low groans, the memory of which will 
make me shudder as long as I live.' (TraveU 
in Central Asia, b}^ A. Vambery, Sva, London^ 
1864.) M. Arminius Vamberj* and other tra- 
vellers express fears that Russia will gradually 
take possession of Khiva. After reading the 
above, any civilised bemg must exclaim <God 
speed Russia!' 

The trade of such a country may be described 
in a few words. Four routes exist'for communi- 
cation with Russia: one through the Kirghiz 
steppe, W. of the Aral sea, to Orenburg ; a second 

^lyitized by 




by way of Sorachak, or Sarachik, on the Onral, 
also to Orenburg; a third throof^h Sarachak to 
Astrakhan; and a fourth from Khiva to Kara- 
ghan, on the E. shore of the Caspian, whence 
goods are sent by sea to Astrakhan. About 2,000 
camels go annually to OrenbuifCt Astrakhan, and 
some towns of Caubul and Persia, with wheat, 
barley, silk and cotton fabrics, and yam; and 
about a doKen large boats come annually from 
Astrakhan to Karaghan and the Qalf of Manghis- 
lak, with the products of Russia and the West, to 
be exchanged for those brought by the caravans 
from Khiva. The chief imports are slaves, coin, 
iron and copper, wrought and unwrought; hand- 
kerchiefs, wax, honey, su^, tea, wmch, as in 
Bokhara, is a favourite article ; cochineal, spices ; 
and hardware. The commerce with Persia is in- 
significant. The merchandise which goes to As- 
terabad is conveyed on camels, at a charge ave- 
raging from Sk to 4 roubles per pooelj under the 
conduct of Turkman guides. The trade of Khiva 
is solely in the hands of Turkmans, Khivans, 
and l*ersians ; none but Mohammedan merchants 
being suffered to transact business within the 
khanat. No foreign merchants pass through or 
into the country with ease or safety; when not 
openly robbed of a large portion of their goods, 
the caravans are delayed by the khan's officers, 
the bales of merchandise are opened, and much 
property has been at times extorted. The khan 
demands duties at the port of Manghislak on the 
Caspian, which lies opposite Astrakhan, and some- 
times on the Jaxartes, £. of the Aral Sea. In 
order to reach Bokhara by a route avoiding Khiva 
altogether, the Russians attempted, in 1820, to 
oend caravans by vray of the latter river ; but the 
khan took umbrage at a measure which turned 
the traffic from his own territories, and sent an 
army to the' Jaxartes, which intercepted a caravan, 
and occasioned the destruction or its merchan- 
dise. The commercial duties realised by the khan 
amount to, perhaps, half his total revenue, which 
latter is roughly estimated at 2,000,000 rouble^ 
the remainder of this sum being made up of l-5th 
of the produce of every predatory excursion of his 
subjects, a family tax or 3 ducats a year, taxes on 
war-horses, and on land cultivated by slaves. A 
regular transit duty of 2^ per cent, ad valorem is 
levied on all kinds of merchandise passing through 
the countrj'. 

The government is despotic : for judicial affairs, 
each town has ita atalyk, or judge ; and in the 
cap. is a central court of justice in the last resort, 
composed of the cadi or chief priest, the four 
ministers, and other members nommated by the 
khan. The khan may sometimes raise a force of 
10,000 men, and has a park of nine pieces of ord- 
nance. His troops, which are mostly cavalry, 
are entirely composed of Uzbeks and Turkmans, 
and armed like those of Bokhara : some of the 
Turkmans carry bows and arrows. There are in 
die khanat, besules Mervfe, only two towns worth 
notice, — KhiMi, the cap. and seat of government, 
cmd Orgunje^ the chief commercial town, and 
largest of the two. Khiva was tributary to Bok- 
hara till the late khan rendcnnl it independent, 
early in the present century. Political relations 
have long existed between Russia and Khiva, 
envoys having been sent from the one to the 
other as early as the time of Peter the Great. 
Latterly, the Russians have determined to put an 
end to the robberies committed by this horde; 
and though the impracticable nature of the coun- 
try has hitherto hindered them from reaching 
Khiva, there is little doubt of their ultimate 

Kjhiva, a town of Central Asia, cap. of the 


above khanet, and residence of the khan ; in an 
irrigated and fertile plain near the Oxns, 290 ni. 
WNW. Bokhara, and 720 m. SSE. Orenburg, on 
the high road between those two cities. Pop. 
probably from 10,000 to 12,000. The town ifl 
surrounded by a mud wall and wet ditch, and 
contains about 700 hooses, the suburbs comprising 
1,200 more. Khiva has a palace, which, like 
nearly all the rest of the dwellings in the toim, 
and m the khanat generally, is of mud, though 
placed upon an eminence composed of stone, l^e 
only stone buildings in the town are three mosques, 
one having a handsome minaret* a school, and a 
caravansary. Khiva is extemallv picturesque, 
being surrounded with gardens; but its streets 
are so narrow as scarcely to admit a laden cameL 
Its pop^ is ver^ mixed; its chief trade is in slaves, 
for which it is the laij^t mart in Independent 
Turkestan. The wky in which slaves and pri- 
soners of war are brought into Khiva is thus de- 
scribed by M. Arminius Vambery, the Hungarian 
traveller, mentioned in the preceding article: — 
* Next morning I did really see about a hundred 
horsemen arrive from the camp covered with du8t. 
Each of them brought at least one prisoner with 
him, and amongst the number, children and 
women, also bound either to the tail of the horse 
or to the pommel of the saddle ; besides all which, 
he had buckled behind him a large sack contain- 
ing the heads of his enemies, the evidence of his 
heroic exploits. On coming up he handed over 
the prisoners as ftfesents to the khan, or some 
other ^reat personage, then loosened his sack, 
seized it by the two lower comers, as if he were 
about to empty potatoes, and there rolled the 
bearded or beardless heads before the accountant, 
who kicked them together with his feet until a 
large heap was composed, consisting of several 
hundreds. Each hero had a receipt given to him 
for the number of heads delivered, and a fiew davs 
later came the day of payment.' (Travels In 
Central Asia, by A. Vambery, London, 1864.) 

KHOI, a town of Persia, prov. Azerbijan, and 
cap. of a distr. 70 m. NW. Tabriz. Pop. about 
5,000 families, or 30,000 inliab. It is situated on 
a tributarv of the Kur, about 25 m. K. from the 
lake of Ormiah, and is a handsome, well built 
town, in much better repair than most others in 
Persia. It has few mosques or large public build- 
ings ; but the regular streets, shaded with avenues 
of trees, give the town, on the whole, an ajv- 

C ranee of respectability and even grandeur. A 
je and hamlsome bazaar, with a caravansary, 
furnishes ample accommodation to the merchants, 
who carry on a considerable trade with Turkey 
and E. Persia. Tlie suburbs were formerly inlia- 
bited by about 600 Armenians ; but their number 
has greatly decreased since the war with Russia, 
when most of them migrated N. of the Araxps. 
The plain of Khoi is celebrated as the scene of a 
great battle fought in 1514 between Shah Ismael 
and Selim L, m which the Turks, though tlie 
most numerous, were signally defeated. 

KHOJEND, a town of Indep. Turkestan, in 
Central Asia, knanat of Khokan, near its W. ex- 
tremitv, cap. distr. of same name, on the Jaxartes, 
90 m. W. Khokan, and said to be as populous as 
that city, or Samarcand, from which it is 150 m. 
NE. It is built on rising ground, and protected 
by walls, which, however, are much decayed 
on the S. and W. sides. It is surrounded by 
wet ditches, and intersected bv canals. It is of 
high antiquity ; and near it, Nacarov saj-a, are 
some remarkable ruins. Khojend has manufactures 
of coarse cotton goods, and a brisk trade in these, 
and in Russian merchandise. It is the station at 
which the caravans entering the khanat from 

Digitized by 



Bokhara pay toll, as the town of Usch is for 
those entering from the Chinese dominions. 

fle[w khanat of Turkestan, in Central Asia, between 
lau 40° and 450 N.^ and long. 67© and 75° E. ; 
having N. the Kiighiz steppe, E. and S£. Chinese 
Turkestan, S. the table-land of Pamere and Bok- 
hara, and W. the desert territory of the Karakal- 
packa. It 18, for the most part, mountainous, 
comprising a portion of the region which forms 
the W. wall of the great table-land of £. Asia. 
(iie» Asia.) The Jaxartes TSir or Siho(m), which 
rises not far beyond the E. boundary, traverses it 
E. to W., about its centre, watering man^ fertile 
tiactSL Khokan is divided into 8 provinces or 
districts. Great extremes of climate are ex- 
perienced at different seasons. The products are 
very simihu' to those of the countries to the S. 
and W. This khanat has a greater extent of 
cultivable and pasture land than Bokhara. In 
the S., com and fruits, especially grapes and 
naelons, grow in great perfection ; and a proverb 
of Central Asia praises the * pomegranates of Kho- 
jend with the .apples of Samarcand.' This was 
the patrimonial kmgdom of the Emperor Baber, 
who celebrates in lively terms its beauty and fer- 
tility. Cotton and the mulberry are articles of 
constant culture, silk being the chief stifle, and 
one for which Khokan is fiunous. The pastures 
on the Jaxartes are excellent : sheep are the prin- 
cipal live stock, and wool is an important product 
llie camel, horse, and ass are extensively used ; 
andhoise-fiesh is a common article of food. Game 
i» very plentiful. Coal, iron, copper, jasper, and 
lapis lazuli are the chief mineral products, llie 
use of coal has been long known in Khokan, since 
Abulfeda speaks of * stones that flame and bum ' 
being found there; and this important mineral 
may, at no very distant period, become a powerful 
auxiliary in civilising this, at present, semi-bar- 
barous region. The mhabs. ace mostly Uzbeks; 
to which race, as in Bokhara and Khiva, the khan 
belongs. They are Mohammedans, and equally 
bigoted and strict in their religious customs with 
the Bokharese. The dialect they use is the Jaga- 
t«i-Turkish. The rest of the jwp. are chiefly 
Tadjiks (see Bokhara) and Kiighiz, who in- 
habit the N. and £. The Tadjiks are deprived of 
the richt of property, which th^ enjoy m Khiva 
and Bokhara, and are only su^red to cultivate 
the soU under the Uzbeks. After agriculture, 
and the rearing of sheep and silkworms, the chief 
occupation of the people is the manufacture of 
embroidered silks and cotton goods. The former 
are much worn by the Ktighiz hordes ; the latter 
are sent in large quantities to Bokhara, the re- 
turns being made in Russian goods, as iron, steel, 
woollen cloths, otter-skins, cochineal, vitriol, and 
Mindal-wood. Shawls and other Indian manu- 
factures come from Cashmere and the Punjab, by 
Caubnl and Balkh. The trade between Khokan 
and China has been long established. It is re- 
lated by Ferishta, that * when Baber was prince 
of Fei^ham, a rich caravan of Chitta and China, 
which was crossing the mountains of Andijaii, 
was buried in the snow. He ordered all the goods 
to be collected, and sent messengers to China to 
proclaim the accident, and bring the owners or 
their heirs to his court. Upon their arrival, at 
the end of two ytarB, he entertained them hos- 

Besides the roads to Bokhara, Kabul, and Yar- 
kand, there is a caravan route of 70 days' journey 
to Scmipalatinsk Oat. SO® 30' N., long. 80^ E.) on 
the Irtisch, one of the principal seats of Russian 
trade ; to which there is a shorter road, of 60 or 55 
da^'s, from Taahkand (hit. A3P N^ long. ^^ £.), 



one of the chief towns of Khokan. The direct 
routes to Peshawur over the Pamir steppe are ex- 
tremely difficult, and can be attempted only in 
summer. About 300 or 950 m. from khokan, and 
about 400 m. from the Sea of Aral, b the Russian 
fort of Ak Masjid, on the Sir. Steamets can ap' 
proach within 30 m. of Tashkand. (Report on the 
Trade of Central Asia (Official), London, 1864.) 
A duty of 2jr per cent, ad valn-em, is laid on all 
merchandise imported by Soonite Mussulmans, and 
5 pcx cent, on the goods of all other individuals 
passing the frontier; but these duties are levied 
with httle regularity. Internal commerce is en- 
tirely free, as in Bokhara, and the trade is second 
only to that of the last-named countiy. Each 
town possesses at least one caravansary, and has 
stated fairs, at which a good deal of business is 
transacted. The following are the subdivisions of 
Khokan }— Khokan, Maighilan, And^dn, Nar- 
mangdn, Shehr-i-Khin, Khojand, Nou, Urctappa, 
Chust, Kdsdn, Ispdrah, Kelwa, Karakphi, Tash- 
kand, Hazrat Sultiln, Gultala, and Peskak. Be- 
sides the cap., the cluef towns are Andejan, Kho- 
jend, Turkestan, and the othen which give name 
to the several provs. The government is despotic ; 
the khan maintains an army of about 10,000 ca- 
valry, which he can, on an emergency, increase 
to 30,000. According to some Chinese records, it 
would appear that this country was formerly sub- 
ject to China; it has however, for many ages, 
thrown off its allegiance. In the early part of the 
present century, many of the adjacent Kirghiz 
tribes were reduced to subjection ; but, about 1830, 
the khan having supported the Mohammedans of 
Cashgar against then: Chinese masters, was totally 
defeated in a great battle, and his territories in- 
vaded by the latter; smce which the power of 
Khokan has been on the decline. This and the 
neighbouring comi tries arc interesting, from having 
been the seats of nations whose armies have fre- 
quently changed the political face of Asia, and 
even in some degree of Europe. Besides giving 
birth to Baber, the conqueror of Hindoetan, who 
ascended the throne of Feighana in 1494, Khokan 
and its vicuiity aboimd with localities intimately 
connected with the history of Jenghiz Khan and 

It is probable that this country will, at no dis- 
tant penod, be united to Russia. The boundary 
between Russia and Khokan, as determined about 
1828, was fixed at the Kuk-su, or * Blue river,' but 
the Russians have long ago crossed that river, and 
erected forts on the Khokan side. 

Khokan, a city of Central Asia, cap. of the 
above khanat, and seat of its gov., on the Jaxartes, 
230 m. NE. SamaTcand, and about the same NW. - 
Cashgar. Pop. estim. at 75,000. Khokan is an 
open town, but contains a palace fortified with a 
wall of mud, of which material most of the houses 
in the town are constructed. The only exceptions 
are three bazaars, built of stone, open twice a week 
for the pumoses of trade ; some ancient monu- 
ments in different parts of the city, and some laxgc 
stables constmcted of brick, and belonging to the 
khan. There are a great many mosoues and public 
schools, and several caravansaries. Wheeled carts, 
or * arabahs,' are common. Among the pop. are 
many Cashmerians, and some Ilindoos, Jews, 
Nogai-Tartars, and Russians. The streets are 
narrow and un paved, but its vicinity is very pro- 
ductive, and sprinkled with numerous gardens, 
cultivated fields, meadows, and villages. 

KHONSAR, a town of Persia, prov. Irak-Ad- 
jimi, 82 m. WNW. Ispahan ; hit 30° T N., long. 
50^ 26' £. It is said to contain 2,500 families, or 
from 12,000 to 13,000 people. Its situation is sin- 
gularly interesting and romantic, at the base of 




two ranpjes of monntaina, running parallel to each 
other, and so very close, that the houses occupy 
the bottom, and, at the same time, the face of the 
hills to some height. The town is about 6 m. long, 
but only \ m. bniad, and each house is separated 
and surrounded by its own garden. The hills 
afford an ample supply of water ; and the appear- 
ance of the black and barren rocks, without a par- 
ticle of vegetation hanging over the gardens, forms 
a striking contrast with the luxuriant and varie- 

fat«d foliage of the plantation. No corn of any 
ind is grown in the valley, but the fruit is so 
abundant, that it alone enables the inhab. to pro- 
cure in return every article either of necessity or 

GUAN, a town of the khanat of Koondooz, in 
Central Asia, on the Khulm river, a tributary of 
the Oxus, and on the high road between Balkh 
and Koondooz, 40 m. £. by S. the former, and 68 
m. W. by S. the latter city. Pop. estimated at 
15,000. The houses are built of clay and sun- 
dried bricks, of one story, with domes, in the usual 
fashion of the countr>',* and each stands by itself 
in a walled inclosure, oflen containing fruit trees. 
The streets are straight, of a moderate breadth, 
intersecting each other at right angles, and have 
commonly a stream of water running through 
them. The town is surrounded by a wall of earth, 
with wooden gates ; a sufficient protection agninst 
sudden incursions of horsemen. It is also guarded 
by two forts, one on an eminence, on the right 
bank of the river to the SE. ; the other on the left 
bank, and on the plain : both are of earth, and of 
no strength. There are 4 tolerably good serais for 
travellers. Th§ inhabs. are chiefly Tadjiks and 
Caubulees, witli a sprinkling of Uzbeks. The 
shops for dyes and drugs are usually kept by 
Hindoos, who also act, in a small way, as bankers. 
The vendors of dried fruits are mostly from Caubul. 
The Uzbeks engage little in traffic. They are all, 
rich and poor, dressed much alike, in long gowns 
of striped cotton ginghams. Bazaars are held 
every Monday and Thursday, when horses, asses, 
mules, camels, cows, sheep, and goate, are brought 
to their respective markets. A slieep sells at from 
two to four rupees ; they are of the large teil va- 
riety, and the fat of the tail, and along the back, 
in commonly one-third of the weight oif the sheep, 
including the bones. Cotton cloths, cotton in the 
pod, tanned leather, raw hides, fuel, grapes, raisins, 
pistachio nuts, pomegranates, dried plums, rock 
»alt, brown leather boots with iron-shod heels, 
dyes, as the pomegranate bark, madder (indige- 
nous), and indigo, from Hindostan, are exposed 
for sale, along with blankets of line w^ool from 
Chitral, and raw wool from thence and Budukh- 
shan. Printed chintses, quilts, and turbans are 
also brought from India. Coarse saddlery is much 
in request. There is one market entirely for melons, 
which are raised in this neighbourhood in great 

Old Khulm (now entirely destroyed), is situated 
about 4 m. from Tash Kurghan. It was a place 
of importance in the time of Khilich Ali (a former 
chief of Balkh) ; but its situation on the plain 
exposed it to predatory incursions; and the Ha- 
zaui^s dammed up or diverted the course of the 
river, upon which the fertilisation of its soil de- 
pended. The chief therefore removed his capital 
to Tash-Kurghan, much to the regret of the people 
of Khulm, whose orchards had been celebrate 
throughout the E. for the quantity and quality of 
their produce. 

KHORASSAN {eoimtry of the sun), a prov. of 
Persia, lying between the Slst and 38th parallels 
of N. lat., and the 53rd and 62nd degrees of E. 


long., beuig bounded NE. and N. by the Oxus and 
country of Balkh ; S. by Caubul and Seistan ; and 
W. by Irak, Asterabad, and Daghestan. Its boun- 
daries, however, have been very different at dif- 
ferent times ; and its present area, which is small 
comparatively with the great extent of country 
that it comprised prior to the invasion of the Aff- 
ghans, is roughly estimated at about 80,000 sq. m. 
Pop. believed to amount to 1,900,000. Its surface 
is much diversified by plains and mountains ; a 
large portion consists of arid rocks, destitute of 
vegetation or fresh water, and of salt and sandy 
deserts, among which may be found a few fertile 
oases. The Elburz range of mountains crosses the 
N. part of the prov. eastward, and between this 
lofty ridge and the Caspian Sea is an immense 
uninterrupted plain, which includes the steppe of 
Khiva, and forms a part of that extensive flat 
called by the natives Dusbt^el-Kipchauk. That 
portion of the plain which belongs to Khorassan 
IS without a single cultivated spot or permanent 
habitation, and its scantv pop. comprises only a 
few tribes of wandering Turkmans. At the foot 
of the mountains, however, there are many rich 
valleys, watered by numerous rivulets, and for- 
merly well peopled and cultivated. This district, 
known in Persia as the Attack, once comprised 
several lai^ towns, all of which are now in ruins, 
and totally deserted, in consequence of the inces- 
sant attacks of the Turkmans, who have obtjiined 
full possession of the whole tracts The Elburz 
mountains send ramifications southward, which 
penetrate from 60 to 100 m. into the plain. This 
range contains considerable quantities of iron, 
which, however, is not wrought: the turquoijte 
mines of Nishapoor are rich, and if managed with 
skill would yield large revenues ; but the exorbi- 
tant demands of the Persian government on the 
tenants of the land have led to the closing of many 
of the most productive mines. (See NiSHAPOORr) 
In this portion of the countrj' are many fertile 
tracts, which, were there any security for propert v, 
would no doubt be cultivated and well peopled. 
The valley of Mushed is of great length, com- 
mencing about 10 m. NW. of Sheerwan, and ex- 
tending in a SW. direction for upwards of 50 m. 
beyond Mushed. Its breadth varies from 12 to 30 
m., and it comprises, besides Mushed (which has 
a pop. of 30.000), the towns of Chinnarin, Radkan, 
and Koochan, with a great extent of good land, 
cultivated by Koordish scttlen. The W. limit 
of Khorassan is nearly that of the great saline 
desert, which forms its predominating feature. 
This tract, which, though considerably more lofly. 
is considered to be connected with the desert N. of 
the Elburz ridge, skirts the districts of Teheran, 
Kashan, and Ispahan, insulat-es that of Yezd, and 
extends from Toorsheez southward to the confines 
of Pars, Kerman, and Seistan, including hardlv 
any habitable country except that near Beeijooii 
and Ghayn. Its E. limit is indicated by a line 
connecting the towns of Herat, Subzawar,*Furrah, 
and Dooshak. The nature of this desert varies 
much in different parts. In some places it pro- 
duces a few of those plants that thrive in a salt 
soil, while in others it consists of a crackling crust 
of dry earth, covered with salt effiorence : a con- 
siderable portion is marshy, and in the lower parts 
water accumulates during winter, which is evapo- 
rated in the hot weather, leaving lakes of salt on 
a bed of mud. Again, in certain districts, sand 
abounds in plains, inter^rsed with waving hil- 
locks, easily moved by the wind, and sometimes 
so light and impalpable as to prove not only dis* 
agreeable but extremely dan^rous to traveHers, 
who not unfrequently are buned in its heaps. Of 
the rivers of Khorassan, the Tedzen (an. Ochtu) is 

Digitized by 



next in size to the Oxus : it appears to rise near 
SerakSf and after receiTing the Meshed and other 
streams, falls into the Caspian Sea in lat. 38^^ 41' 
N. The rivers of the interior are few and incon- 
siderable, and for the most part are lost in the 
sand, like the Zenderoon of Ispahan. 

The climate of Khorassan varies according to the 
nature and elevation of the districts into which it 
is divided. In some parts it is temperate, in others 
extremely cold. The deserts are infested by the 
simoom, which is as fatal here as in Arabia. The 
cultivated districts produce the grains and fruits 
of S. £uiope, with asafoetida, tragacanth, and 
other gums ; but timber is rare. , Cattle-feeding is 
the chief emplojrment of the nomad race that 
roam over the desert ; and the camels and goats of 
Khorassan are celebrated for their fine soft hair, 
which is a valuable article of trade in the markets 
of Meshed and Nishapoor, the two laigest towns 
of the province. The inhab. of the settled dis- 
tricts are Tadjiks or Peisians, properly so called, 
and their number has been estimated at 1,200,000. 
The Ilyats, or nomads, comprise Turkmans, 
Djelen,* and other Turki.<^ tribes, and there are 
about 30,000 Kurds in the N. part of the province. 
The religion of all the inhab. is Mohammedan, 
and most of them belong to the sect of Ali. The 
province is divided into several governments; 
but the authority of the king of Persia extends 
onlv over the dty of Meshed, Nishapoor, Turs- 
kis^, and Tabas, with their dependencies. The S. 
parts belong to the Affghans, and the Uzbek Tar- 
tars and Turkmans wander over the N. and E., 
acknowledging only their own native khans. 
These ^ild tribes carry on incessant hostilities, 
invading each other's territories with bodies of 
irregular horse, who, after ravaging the countp' 
and burning the villages, carry on the inhabit- 
ants into slaverv. 

KHOTAN, or ILLITSI, a town of Chinese 
Turkestan, prov. Yarkund, on the high road be- 
tween that citv and Lassa, 260 m. £S£. the 
former: laU 37<5 10' N., long, about 789 E. It is 
ptrincipallv occupied by Uzl^ks, and b said to be 
ce1ebrate<[ for * its musk, and the beauty of its 
inhaba.' Khotan, according to Abulfeda and other 
Mohammedan geographers, was formerly a town 
of great consequence : it is still a place of con- 
siderable size, enclosed by ramparts of earth, and, 
though ill built, has broad streets. It is the sta- 
tion of a Chinese governor and garrison: has 
mannfkctures of sUk fabrics, leather, and paper, 
and a brisk trade in these and various other 
articles, including vk, the jasper of the ancients. 

KIACHTA, or KIAKHTA, a town of Asiatic 
Russia, gov. and prov. Irkutsk, being the centre 
of the trade and political intercourse between the 
Kussian and Chinese empires. It stands imme- 
diately within the Siberian frontier, on a rivulet 
of the* same name, a tributary of the Selcnga,and 
upon a plateau elevated about 2,220 ft. above the 
sea, 55 m. S. by E. Selengiusk, and 180 m. SE. 
Irkutsk. Pop. estim. at 6,000. Kiachta is divided 
into an upper and lower town : the former, or the 
fortreaa of Troiahoi Sawskf was founded when the 
first commercial treaty took place between Bussia 
and China, in 1728. The town within is regularly 
laid out, in the form of a square ; in the centre of 
which is the bazaar, or market place, a wooden 
building. Except a chapel of stone, and some of 
the puUic offices, built partly with brick, Kiachta 
u constructed wholly of wood. The church, 
government-house, barracks, and watch tower are 
the chief public edifices within the town : the 
various courts and government offices, imperial 
rhubarb depot, and custom-house are in one of 
the suburbs. The lower town, a few versts dis- 



tant, consists of only about 60 houses, inhabited 
by merchants, who conduct the trade with the 
Chinese, and some of whom are said to be ver^" 
rich. The circulation of gold is entirely prohi- 
bited at Kiachta, and no person can pass the 
gates without being searched. (Travels in the 
Regions of the Upper and Lower Amoor, by T. 
W. Atkinson, London, 1860.) 

On the Chinese side of the boundar}' is tlie 
Mongolian village of Mia-mia-tchin (the place of 
trade), which, like the Russian town, is laid out in 
a square form, and surrounded by a palisade. It 
is ill built, and has only from 1,200 to 1,500 inhab., 
all males, no women being allowed to reside in it. 
All the mercantile transactions are conducted 
between this village and Lower Kiachta, and the 
merchants of the two places visit each other with- 
out let or hindrance. The goods bought by the 
Russians are immediately sent to Upper Kiachta, 
to be examined by the custom-house authorities. 
The Russians exchange furs, sheep and lamb 
skins, Russian and Silesian broad-cloths, Russian 
and morocco leather, coarse linens, cattle, and 
especially bullion, for tea, raw and manufactured 
silks, nankeens, porcelain, sugar candy, rhubarb, 
tobacco, and musk. At the Kiachta Dec. fair, the 
tea bought by the Russians is, at an average, said 
to amount to 60,000 chests, or 4,200,000 lbs., of 
fine Pekoe ; besides a large quantity of an inferior 
kind, much of which is consumed by the Siberians 
and nomadic Tartars. Goods may be conveyed 
from Kiachta to European Russia either by land 
or water (b^ the Lake of Baikal, the Angara and 
Yeneisei) ; in the former mode the journey occu- 
pies a year, and in the latter three short summers, 
the rivers being for a great part of the year 
frozen over. 

KIDDERMINSTER, an important manufactur- 
ing and market town, pari. bor. and par. of Eng- 
land, CO. Worcester, hund. Halfshire, on the Stour, 
an affluent of the Severn, 13 m. N. Worcester, 
16 m. WSW. Birmingham, 118 m. NW. London 
by road, and 184 J m. by West Midland railwav. 
Pop. of bor. 16.399, and of par. 20,870 in 1861. 
Area of par., 11,160 acres. The town, divided by 
the river into two unequal parts, is irre^larly 
built, but has several good streets, and is well 
paved, lighted with gas, and kept clean by an 
undeiground sewerage. In the centre of the mar- 
ket place is the town-hall, a capacious brick 
structure, coniprising, besides several other rooms, 
a large council-chamber for corporation meetings 
and quarter sessions. The chureh, which stands 
in a fine open space, on the brow of a hill, and 
close to the river, is a large Gothic edifice, richly 
adorned, and surmounted by a loHy pinnacled 
tower, the whole being in excellent repair. The 
interior has accommodation for 2,000 persons, and 
contains several fine old monuments. Connected 
with the chureh, at its E. end, is a Gothic chapel 
or chantry, now appropriated to the use of the 
grammar-school On the E. side of the town is 
the fine district church of St. George, erected m 
1823, at an expense of 18,13U; the altar-piece is 
embellished with a representation of the descent 
from the cross, in carpet-work, executed with 
much taste and brilliancy of colouring. There are 
also places of worship for Independents, Baptists, 
Wesleyan Methodists, and Unitarians. The 
grammar-school, chartered by Charles I., has 
estates attached to it worth about 5001. a year; 
but though all the inhab. are entitled to send'their 
sons here to be educated, free of expense, it is of 
little practical utility, and is attended only by a 
few bo^s. A free school, founded in 1795, pro- 
vides instruction for about 25 boys, chiefly dis- 
senters. There arc numerous Sunday schools, 



attended by about 8,000 children ; and 3 national 
schoolB and 8 Lancastrian schools furnish in- 
struction to above 1,100 children. The charitable 
institutions comprise several almshouses and a 
dispensary, with some clothing and benefit soci- 
eties. Near the town is a chalybeate spring, the 
road to which is an agreeable and fashionable 
promenade, and in the suburt)s are some elegant 
villas, inhabited by the wealthy manufacturers. 

Kiddertninster has been noted for its weaving 
industry since the time of Henry VI IL, in whose 
reign it had a considerable trade in broad cloth. 
Linsey-woolseys were afterwards introduced, and 
were superseded, in their turn, by poplins, bom- 
bazeens, and carpets. The fabrics now made are 
carpets, finger-rugs, borabazeens, coverings for 
buttons, and waistcoat^pieces. The carpet manu- 
facture, introduced in 1735, has long been the 
staple business of the town. The carpet fabrics 
comprise Brussels or pile carpets, Kidderminster 
or inr-grain carpets, and Venetian carpets. 

Kidderminster is a bor. by prescription, and re- 
ceived its charter of incorporation in 12 Charles I. 
Since the Mun. Reform Act it has been divided 
into three wards, the government being vested in a 
recorder, 6 aldeimen, and 18 councillors. Quarter 
and petty sessions are held in the town-hall. It 
is also the scat of a county court. Corp. revenues, 
6J66/. in 1862. In the reign of Edward I., Kid- 
derminster sent 2 mcms. to the H. of C, but the 
privilege being either lost or disused, it ceased to 
be represented, and the town had no voice in the 
legislature till the Reform Act conferred on it 
the privilege of sending 1 mem. to the H. of C. 
The electoral limits comprise the old mun. bor. 
and a small ])ortion of the * foreign' district. It 
had 614 reg. electors in 1865. Markets on Thurs- 
day: fairs, Holy Thursday, June 20, Sept 4, 
and Nov. 26, for horses, cattle, linen and woollen 

KIDWELLY, or CIDWELL, a mun. bor., 
market-town, and par. of S. Wales, co. Caer- 
■ marthen, and hund. of its own name, on the 
Gwendraeth-Vechan, 9 m. S. Caermarthen, 179 
m. W. London by road, and 234^ by Great Wes- 
tern railway. Pop. of par. 1,652 in 1861. Kid- 
welly is divided by the river into 2 townships, 
Old Kidwelly being on the W., and New Kidwelly 
on the E. or left bank. The former was once 
surrounded by walls with 8 gates, one of which 
is yet standing; but the houses have fallen to 
'decay, and consist at present of little more than 
hovels. New Kidwelly, which is joined to the 
other by a stone bridge, has several respectable 
houses and numerous cottages. On a rocky 
eminence overlooking the old town stands the 
castle, said to have been built soon after the 
Nonnan Conquest, and now a large and imposing 
ruin in tolerable preservation, with many of its 
apartments and staircases still entire. The W. 
gateway is a noble specimen of arcbitectiu^, and 
some of the towers at the angles retain their 
arched roofs of stone. The battlements command 
magnificent views of Caermarthen Bay and the 
country on both sides the Towy. The church, 
which is in the new town, is an old cruciform 
structure, with a tower and spire 170 ft. high : the 
transepts are now in ruins, and the centre aisle is 
the only part used for service. The ruins of a 
priory of black monks adjoin the church. The 
living is a vicarage in the gift of the crown, and 
connected with it is a rural deanery in the diocese 
of St. David's. There are places of worship also 
for Calvinist and Wesleyan Methodists, Presbyte- 
rians and other dissenters. A free-school is sup- 
ported by funds in the hands of the corporation, 
and one other school is maintained by subscription. 


The industry of Kidwelly is chiefly employed in 
working coal, smelting iron, and making tin 
plates. It is not a place Of much trade, however, 
owing to the choking up of the river, which is 
almost useless. There is canal communication 
with Pembrey, where there is a commodious 
quay ; and a canal and tram-road connect it also 
with Llanelly, which has a flourishing and in- 
creasing trade. Kidwelly forms a part of the 
duchy of Lancaster, but is governed by its own 
mayor and 12 aldermen, whose privileges were not 
affected by the Mun. Reform Act. Markets on 
Friday : cattle fairs. May 24, July 22, and Oct. 29. 

KIEF, a government of Russia in Europe, 
lying lengthwise along the right bank of the 
Dniepr, having N. the government of Minsk, W. 
Volhvnia and Podolia, and S. KhexBon. Area 
19,184 sq. m.; pop. 1,944,334 in 1858. Principal 
rivers, Dniepr, by which it is bounded all along 
the E., Pripet, which traverses its N. division, 
Teteriff, and other aflFluents of the Dniepr. Surface 
flat; soil very fertile, so much so that, though 
agriculture is very indifferent., the return to most 
sorts of grain is said to be as 6 to 1. Cattle nu- 
merous, lai^, and of a fine breed. Horees small. 
Forest* extensive. In its N. parts there are con- 
siderable marshes. Manufactures, exclusive of 
those carried on in the houses of the peasantty, 
can hardly be said to exist Commerce trifling, 
and mostly in the hands of the Jews. Principal 
town Kief. 

Kief, the cap, of the above government, and 
the former residence of the grand dukes of Russia, 
on the Dnieiir, a little below the confluence of the 
Desna with that river, 278 m. N. Odessa. For). 
60,682 in 1858. Kief is a ver>' ancient city. It 
was the earliest seat of the Christian rchgion in 
Russia, and was for a considerable period the cap. 
of the empire. But it subsequently underwent 
many licissitudes, being sometimes subject to 
the Lithuanians, and sometimes to the Tartars, 
and the Poles. In 1686, however, it was finally 
ceded to Russia, and has ever since continued in 
her possession. The town consists of three parta 
— the old town, on an eminence elevated con- 
siderably above the river; Htchersk, or the 
citadel, more to the S., and on a still higher 
eminence ; and the lower town, or Podolsk, on a 
plain along the river. The first or old town con- 
tains the cathedral of St. Sophia, founded in 1037, 
and an object of the greatest veneration on the 
part of the Russians. The citadel is 8urrounde<l 
by a rampart. Within it is the arsenal, erected 
by Catharine II., a laige handsome building, con- 
taining an extensive supply of arms. But the 
principal object of curiosity in the citadel is the 
famous monastery of Pitchersk, vrith its caUiedraL 
It derives its name from pitchora, a cavern, be- 
cause in the vaults beneath are preserved the 
bodies of several Russian saints. The tower or 
belfry of the cathedral, deemed by the Russians 
a master-piece of architecture, rises to the height 
of 804^ ft. The theological academy of Kief, 
founded in 1661, in the Podolsk, is one of the 
most celebrated in Russia. In 1888 a university 
was founded at Kief, intended to replace that of • 
Wilna, suppressed after the Polish revolution. 
It has about 90 professors and assistants with 
600 pupils, and a library with more than 85,000 
vols. The university buildings are at once laig« 
and handsome. One of the most remarkable 
edifices in the lower town is the exchange, a \ersr 
large building, the great hall of which can ac- 
commodate 8,000 peraons. The houses are, for 
the most, part, of wood, and the streets narrow 
and crooked. The town is principally dependent 
on the pilgrimages to the cathcdial and the 

^lyitized by 




ttonastery, and on the academy. In 1798 a fair, 
formerly held at Dabno, was transferred thither. 
It takes place from the 10th to the 30th January, 
and is attended by all the satrounding nobles, as 
well as by great numbers of merchants and other 
descriptions of people. 

KIEL, a town of the duchy of Holstein, Ger- 
many, on the N. shore of the prov. at the bottom of 
a beautiful bay, and at the terminus of a line of 
railway from Hambuic. Pop. 17,543 in 1861. 
Kiel is handsome, well-built, and thriving. The 
Quiretsity, founded in 1665, has many distin- 
guished men among its professors : it has a valu- 
able library comprising 70,000 volumes, and is 
attended at present by about 200 students. ^ There 
is also an excellent grammar school, with an 
orphan-house and a workhouse. The church of 
St. Nicholas is a fine old building; a handsome 
palace — formerlv inhabited, at occasional visits, 
by the kings of benmark — stands on a hill adjoin- 
ing the town. 

Kiel has manufactures of hats, starch, tobacco, 
and refined sugar. The harbour is safe, and has 
water sufficient for large ships. A good deal of 
trade and ship-building is carried on. The Hol- 
stein canal, forming a navigable communication 
between the Eyder and the Baltic, unites with the 
latter 2 m. from the town. There is a great annual 
fair in January. 

KILDA (ST.), or HIRT, a small island belong- 
ing to Scotland, the most remote of the Hebrides, 
or Western Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, 60 m. 
W. firom Uist. It is about 3 m. in length by 2 m. 
in breadth, and contains about 4,000 acres, having 
attached to it a few dependent and inferior islets. 
Except at the landing place on its S. side, and at 
a rocky bay on the >i., the island is whoUy fenced 
round* with lofty inaccessible precipices. The 
landing place aJBTords, except during southerly 
winds, good anchorage. St. K.ilda is principally 
occupied by four hilU, and though the soil is but 
thin and poor, it is, owmg to the moisture and 
mildness of the climate, covered with luxuriant 
verdure, and affords pasture for some hundreds of 
sheep and a few cows. A small portion of the 
surface is in tillage, and produces the variety of 
barley called here or big, and oats; but owing to 
the frequent and tremendous storms by which 
the island is visited, the crops are exceedingly 
Mecarious, and are not unfrequently destroyed. 
The inhaba. oonsLst of about 30 famihes, of 5 or 6 
individuals each, who live together in one poor 
hamlet. The island bein^ resorted to by a vast 
number of sea-fowl, the inhabe. are prmcipally 
engaged in fowling, and are mainly dependent on 
the eggs, flesh, and feathers of the birds. Fowling 
is here, as in all similar localities, an extremely 
perilous occupation, and one requiring great nerve 
and dexterity. Fishing is, alBo, a considerable 
resource. The people are dirty in their habits, 
destitute of most of the comforts of life, and 
apparently unhealthy and short-lived. The island 
belongs to a single proprietor, who lets it to a 
middleman, by whom it is let to the inhaba. The 
latter pay their rents in feathers and here. The 
pop. has long been nearlv stationaiy. 

kiLDARE, an inland county of*^ Ireland, prov. 
Ldnster, having N. Meath, £. Dublin and Wick- 
low, S. Carlow, and W. King's and Queen's Cos. 
It contains 418,415 statute acres, of which 66,447 
are unimproved bug and waste, consisting prin- 
cipally of portions of the bog of Allen T which see). 
Surface mostly flat or but slightly undulating ; and, 
with the exception of the bog, the soil is mostly 
dayey and fertile. The famous common, called the 
ettrragh of Kildare, in the centre of the co., con- 
tains about 5,000 acres, and is said to be un- 



matched for the softness of its turf and the richness 
of its verdure. Agriculture in this co. has been 
materially improved in recent years, and better 
implements, better stock, and improved processes 
have been generally introduced. There are some 
very large estates ; but property is, notwithstand- 
ing, a good deal divided. Farms vary in size from 
5 up to 200 and even 500 acres ;jmd have, indeed, 
been less subdivided in this than in most Irish 
counties. Minerals and manul'actures unimpor- 
tant Principal rivers Banrow, Liffey, and Boyne ; 
the last-mentioned river having its principal 
source in this co. near Carbury. It is also inter- 
sected by the Grand Canal, and by its branch 
leading to Monastereven and A thy. It has no 
considerable town, Athy being the most populous. 
Kildare contains 10 baronies and 113 parishes; it 
returns 2 roems. to the H. of C, both for the co. 
Registered elector, 3,055 in 1865. In 1861, the 
CO. had 14,596 inhab. houses, 15,874 families, and 
90,946 inhabitants ; while in 1841, it had 18,556 
inhabited houses, 20^38 families, and 114,488 

KILIA, a small town of European Russia, in 
Bessarabia, on the N. bank of the Kilia, an arm of 
the Danube, about 8 m. from its mouth. It has 
some trade; but owing to the shallo^vness of the 
water over the bar at Sie mouth of this arm of the 
rivOT, it is not likely ever to become a place of any 

KILKENNY, an inland co. of Ireland, prov. 
Leinster, having N. Queen's Co. ; E. Carlo\r and 
Wexford, from which it is separated by the Bar- 
row ; S. Waterford, from which it is separated by 
the Snir; and W. the latter and Tipperaiy. Area, 
506,333 statute acres, of which 96,569 are unim- 
proved mountain and bog. Though in parts hilly, 
the surface is mostly either flat, or but slightly 
undulating. Soil of various qualities; but, for 
the most part, it rests en a limestone bottom, and 
is light, loamy, and in the valleys particularly 
fertile. In some districts the dairy husbandry is 
extensively carried on. Property mostly in very 
large estates. Farms of various sizes, but gene- 
rally small Partnership tenures are not uncom> 
mon ; and farm houses and cottages are, in general, 
very inferior. There are extensive beds of coal in 
this CO., and collieries have been wrought at Castle- 
comer for more than a century; but, owing to the 
excess of sulphur, the coal is but Uttle csed for 
domestic purposes, and is principally employed in 
malting and lime-burning. The woollen manu- 
factures formerly established in this co. are nearly 
extinct, and, except the grinding of com into 
meal and flour, and some breweries, distilleries, 
and tanneries, the manufactures now carried on 
are quite inconsiderable. Kilkenny is intersected 
by the Nore, and bounded on the E. by the Bar- 
row, and on the S. by the Suir ; so that it has 
peculiar facilities for the shipping of its produce, 
which may be conveyed either to Waterford by 
the Barrow and the Suir, or to Dublin by the Bar- 
row and the Grand Canal. It contains 9 baronies and 
127 pars. ; and sends 3 mems. to the H. of C., being 
2 for the co. and 1 for the bor. of Kilkennv. 
Registered electors for the co. 5,151 in 1865. In 
1861, the 00. had 19,884 mhabited houses, 21,111 
families, and 110,341 inhabitants; while, in 1841, 
Kilkenny had 32,147 inhabited houses, 34.805 
families, and 202,420 inhabs. 

Kilkenny, an inland city and pari bor. of 
Ireland, prov. Leinster, cap. of the above co., on 
the Nore, 72 m. SW. Dublin, and 27 m. N. by W. 
Waterford, on the South Eastern railway. Pop, 
14,174 in 1861, against 23,625 in 1841. the pari, 
bor. extends over a space of 17,012 imp. acres, and 
forms a co. of itself; ^the portion on the E. side the 



river, called St. Cannice, or Irishtown, being on 
the estate of the Bishop of Ossory. Kilkenny Lb 
well-built, excepting the suburbs, and beautifully 
situated. The principal streets are parallel to the 
river, but there are many cross streets. The 
principal structures are the castle and cathedral. 
The former, which is of great antiquity, having 
been built by Strongbow, has been long the pro- 
perty and residence of the Ormonde family. It 
nas in modem times been almost entirely rebuilt, 
and has been rendered a commodious as well as 
magniiScent residence. The church of St, Cannice, 
the cathedral of the see of Ossory, is a large 
venerable pile of Gothic architecture: it has 
several monuments, and near it is a round or 
pillar tower 108 ft. high : the bishop's palace and 
the deanery are also close by. The co. of the city 
comprises the parishes of ^t. Mary, St« Patrick, 
St. John, and St. Cannice. The church of St, 
Mary is an elegant modem building ; that of St. 
John, which was the chapel of the monastery of 
the same name, has been restored, so as to pre- 
serve the character of its former singular style of 
arcliitecture, in which the windows are replicated 
in such close succession, that the intervals are 
merely mullions, whence it, is called the Lantern 
of Kilkenny. There is a Rom. Catholic chapel in 
each parish, that of St. Mary's being looked upon 
as the bishop's cathedral. Chapels are also at- 
tached to the Presentation Convent, and to the 
Dominican and Capuchin friaries. The mins of 
the Franciscan and of the Dominican, or Black 
Abbey, add greatly to the interest of the place. 

A public grammar-school, endowed by one of 
the earls of Ormonde, and elevated to the rank 
of a royal college by James II., has accommoda- 
tion for eighty resident pupils : the house, which 
stands in a retired situation, on the banks of tlie 
Nore, was rebuilt, at the public expense, towards 
the close of last century i the children of the 
inhab. of Kilkenny are admitted at half price. 
Here is also a charter-school in which twenty-four 
boys are instmcted in weaving, a seminary for 
candidates for the R. Catholic priesthood at Birch- 
field, a large female school, conducted in the best 
possible manner hy the nuns of the Presentation 
Convent, a parochuil school, and a female orphan 
house. There are about 1,500 pupils in the public, 
and 1,600 in the private schools. The prmcipal 
charitable institutions are the infirmary for the 
CO., the fever hospital, and a lunatic asylum, in- 
dependent of the county district asylum. There 
are several almshouses, and two loan ftmds. The 
charitable society afToids relief to sick tradesmen 
and to their widows: the benevolent society to 
the bedridden poor. The workhouse for the Kil- 
kenny union, opened in 1842, is an extensive 
buildmg, having accommodation for 2,000 inmates. 
A public walk, called the Mall, extends upwards 
of a mile along the bank of the Nore. 

A charter, granted to the city by William carl 
marshal, was repeatedly confirmed by successive 
sovereigns. Elizabeth combined the two borouglis 
into a single corporation. Under the Municipal 
Reform Act, the corporation consists of a mavor, 
two aldermen, and eighteen councillors. Pre- 
viously to the union, Kilkenny and Irishtown 
sent 4 mems. to the Irish H. of C. ; and, since 
then, they have sent 1 mem. to the imperial H. 
of C. TTie right of voting was formerly in the 
freemen and freeholders of the co. of the cit3% the 
freedom of the city being obtained by birth, ser- 
vitude, or by g^rt of the corporation. Registered 
electors, 674 in 1865. 

The Ormonde family have exerted themselves 
at different ])eriods to introduce manufactures into 
Kilkenny. In this view, Pierce, the third carl, 


brought over a colony of Flemings skilled in the 
makinff^of tapestry and carpets, but without suc- 
cess. The first marquis expended laige sums in 
attempts to establish the linen manufacture. That 
of frieze, after being carried on for a considerable 
period, was eventually transferred to the neigh- 
bouring town of Carrick-on-Suir. Wool-combing 
was also introduced, and the manufacture of blan- 
kets was extensively carried on ; but this also has 
all but entirely failed. Several flour and com 
mills have been erected in or near the city, and 
there are several distilleries, breweries, and tanne- 
ries, and a starch manufactory : but the principal 
dependence of the town is on its retail trade. A 
great number of pigs are also killed in the citv, 
and it has an extensive butter trade. 'Within 
about 1 m. from the city are some marble quar- 
ries and a sawing and polishing milL The marbic 
is extremely beautiful: it has a black ground 
variegated with madrepore, bivalve shells, and 
other oiganic matter; it takes a fine polish, and 
malces beautiful chimney-pieces and such like 
articles. Kilkenny coal neither emits flame nor 
smoke; but its sulphureous exhalations unfit it 
for domestic purposes. Markets on Wednesdays 
■and Saturdays, in the covered area of the Tholsel 
or town-house. Fairs on the 28th of March 
and Corpus Christi day, for cattle and wool, are 
frequented by purchasers from all parts of the 

Kilkenny derived its name from a church or 
cell dedicated to St. Cannice, or Kenny. It ap- 
pears to have been a place of some importance 
before Uie arrival of tiie English ; for Strongbow 
built a fortress here, which was enlarged and 
strengthened by William earl marshal, and sub- 
sequently by the earls of Ormonde, in whose pos- 
session it has continued for centuries. Parliaments 
were frequently held in this city; and a famous 
statute, passed in 1371, for regulating the inter- 
course between the English and the native Irish, 
is still quoted by the title of the Statute of Kil- 
kenny. In the wars of 1641, the assembly of the 
confederated Catholics held its meetings here, in 
a building which is still, on that account, an 
object of curiosity to strangers. In 1650, it sur- 
rendered to CromwelL 

KILLARNEY, a town of Ireland, co. Kerry, 
celebrated for the fine scenery in its vicinity, 1^ 
m. from the E. margin of the lake of the same 
name, 162 m. SW. Dublin, and 44 m. E. by N. 
Cork, on a branch line of the Great Southern* and 
Western railway. Pop. 5,187 in 1861, against 
7,127 in 1841. The town took its rise from iron 
and copper works in its neighbourhood, nuw dis- 
continued from want of fuel ; but, for a lengthened 
period, it has been principally indebted for its 
support and celebrity to the attractions of the 
surrounding scenery. It has three pretty gooil 
streets, with many bad alleys, and close filthy 
lanes and yards inhabited by vast colonies of 
beggars. The principal buildings are the par. 
church, built in 1802 ; a large heavy Rom. Cath. 
chapel, a Methodist meeting-house, a national 
school, a fever hospital with a dispensary, au 
almshouse for aged females, founded and endowed 
by Lady Kenmare, a market-house, theatre, courts 
house, and bridewell. In New Street is a convent 
for nuns of the order of t)ie Presentation. At- 
tached to their convent is a school, in wldch the 
nuns give gratuitous instmction to about 400 
girls. General sessions are held four times a 
year; petty sessions on Tuesdays, and a manor 
court monthly : a party of the constabulary has 
a station here. The town has several good inns, 
which, in the visiting season, are much frequented. 
The only manufactures carried on in the town, are 




those of toys and fancy articles, mado of the wood 
of the arbutus, which is here very abundant It 
has a considerable trade in com, f^roceries, wool- 
lens, and coarae linens ; and it has some tan- 
neries, two breweries, and a large flour-mill. 
Markets on Saturdays; fairs on 4th Jul}*^, 8th 
Aug., 7th Oct^ 11th and 28th Nov., and 28th 
Dea The town is built on the estate of the Earl 
of Kenmare, whose house and grounds lie betwe€ih 
it and the lakes. 

The lake of Killamey, or Longh Lane, consists 
properly of three lakes connected by a winding 
channel, through which vesseh) pass from the one 
to the other. It lies at the £. extremity of the 
extensiye range of mountains called Macgilli- 
cuddT*s Beeks, and has in its immediate vicinity, 
or rather, indeed, rising from its banks, the 
highest summits in Ireland. The laigest division 
of the lake, or that portion called the lower lake, 
occupies an area of about 8,000 acres ; its W. shore 
is formed by the mountains of Tomies and Glenna, 
respectively, 2,150 and 2,090 ft above the level of 
the sea, having their precipitous sides well clothed 
with forest trees: on the opposite shore is the 
striking coatrast of flat land in a high state of 
cultivation, ornamented by the fine demesne of 
Lord Kenmare. There are said to be no fewer 
than tbirty^-three islands, many of which are ex- 
tremely picturesque in the lower lake. One of 
these islands, Innisfallen, has been admired by 
every traveller. Arthur Young says that it is the 
most beautiful spot in the United' Kingdom, and 
perhaps in Europe. It contains about twenty 
acres, is extremely well wooded, and has every 
variety of tranquil beauty and ^"^Ivan scenexy. 
On the S. shore of this lake is the fine rain of 
llackross Abbey. The lake is, in some parts, very 
deep. lietween Glenna Mountain and Ross Island, 
the largest in the lake, the soundings give 42 
fathoms. The middle lake occupies about 640 
acres : it lies immediately under the Fore or Turk 
Mountain, elevated about 1,900 ft above the level 
of the sea. The strait which joins the middle and 
upper lake is about 3 m. m length, having, in 
many places, the appearance of a beautiful nver. 
The upper lake contains about 720 acres. It lies 
in a hollow, formed by some stupendous moun- 
tains, amon^ which are Gurran Tnal, the highest 
in Ireland, rising 3,404 ft above the level of the 
sea; so that its scener>' is in the highest degree 
magnificent and sublime. * Here,' says Mr. Wake- 
field, ' Nature assumes her roughest and most ter- 
rific attire to astonish the gazing spectator, who, 
lost amid wonder and surprise, thinks he treads 
enchanted ground; and while he scarcely knows 
to which side he shall direct his attention, can 
hardly believe that the scenes he sees around him 
axe not the effects of delusion, or the airy phan- 
toms of the brain, called into momentary exists 
ence by the creative powers of a fervid ixnaguia- 
tiun. Here rocks piled upon rocks rise to a tower- 
ing height ; there one mountain rears its head in 
Bocoession above another, and sometimes a gi- 
gantic range seems to overhang you, forming a 
scene that may be more eaoly conceived than 
descxibed. Such sublime -scones cannot be beheld 
but with a mixed sensation of pleasure and awe, 
and on a contemplative mind they must make a 
deep and lasting impression.' (Vol. i p. 66.) In 
other places, however, especially on the E. shores 
of the lower and middle lakes, the scenery is of 
the softest and most agreeable kind, consisting of 
finely wooded promontories, ornamented with 
riven and seats, and venlant islands ; and it is in 
the contrast between these and whatever is most 
wild snd ragged that lies the great charm of Kil- 
Vol. IIL 



The lakes of Killamey receive the Flesk and seve- 
ral other streams, their refluent waters bein^ carried 
off by the Lane. The latter issues from the N\V. 
extremity of the Lower Lake, and, after pursuing 
a WNW. course for about 10 m., falls into Castle- 
maine Harbour, at the bottom of Dhigle Bay. It 
is well stocked with salmon and white trout and 
also with pearl oysten, whence pearls have been 
repeatedly taken.' It is said that the Lane might, 
at a small expense, be made navigable from the 
sea to the lAke. 

KILLIECRANKIE, a celebrated pass through 
the Grampian mountains in Scotland, co. Perth, 
about 15 m. above Dnnkeld. It is about ^ m. in 
length. The road is cut out of the side of one of 
the contiguous mountains ; and below it at> the 
foot of a high predpice, in the bottom of tho 
ravine, the river Garry dashes along over rugged 
rocks, but so shaded with trees as hardly to be 
seen. At the N. extremity of this pass, the Re- 
volutionary army under Mackay was defeated in 
1689, by the troops of James 1 1., under the famous 
Graham of Claverhouse, viscount Dundee, who 
fell in the moment of victory. 

KILMARNOCK, a manufacturing town, pari, 
bor., bor. of barony, and par. of Scotland, district 
of Cunningham, co. Ayr, on level ground on tho 
N. bank of the Irvine, and on the small stream 
Kilmarnock or Fenwick, a tributary of the former; 
20 m. SW. by S. Glasgow, and 12 m. NNE. Ayr, 
on the Glasgow, Dumfries and Carlisle railway. 
Pop. 22,619 in 1861. The main street forming 
part of the high road between Ayr and Glasgow, 
IS upwards of 1 m. in length, and is regularly 
built The houses, generally of freestone (which 
is found in great abundance in the immediate 
vicinity), are erected in a handsome substantial 
style, Kilmarnock has recently been extended 
greatly towards the S. and E., and in these di- 
rections there are many handsome buildings. The 
older streets are narrow and irregular; but the 
magistrates ha\ing obtained an act for improving? 
the town, about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, judicious measures were adopted to carry 
its objects into effect ; and Kihnamock is now, on 
the whole, one of the neatest and best built manu- 
facturing towns in Scothind. 

Among the public buildings are the two 
parish churches, one of which^ the High Church, 
after the plan of St Martin's in London, is 
surmounted by a tower 80 feet in height; tho 
academy; and the town-haU, a neat modem 
building in the centre of the town, on an arch 
over the water of Kilmarnock. The merchants* 
society have built a spacious inn, which, in 
point of architecture, is a great ornament to the 
town. There are five bric^i^ over the Kilmar> 
nock within the town, and two over the Irvino 
between Kilmarnock and Riccarton, all substan- 
tial stractures. In addition to the two parish 
churches, one of which is collegiate, there are 
four f^e cliurches, and several chapels belong- 
ing to the U. Presbyterian Associate Synod ; and 
the Relief. Cameronians, Independents, and Rom« 
Catholics have each a chapel. 

Kilmamock is chiefly eminent as a place of 
trade and manufacture. It seems originally to 
have been distinguished for its manufacture of 
woollen bonnets, formerly worn by all the pea- 
santry ; and of striped nightcaps. These articles, 
called * Kilmarnock' bonnets and caps, are still 
manufactured to a very considerable extent as 
are forage caps for the airmy. The caipet manu< 
facture was introduced more than a century ago. 
There are, besides, manufactures of printed shawls 
and Delaine goods, besides large tanneries. Ma^ 
chineiy is al^ produced, and uiere are a number 




of inferior manufactures. Coal \a abundant in the 
neighbourhood, and is extensively exported. 

Ihe port of Kilmarnock is at Troon, on the 
Ayrshire coast, urith which it is connected by a 
railroad 9^ m. inlength. This was the first public 
railway constructed in Scotland, the act for its 
construction having passed in 1808, though it was 
not finished till 1812. 

Kilmarnock was originally a mere appendage of 
the baronial manor of the Boyds, lords of Kilmar- 
nock, attainted in 1745, who 'had their seat in the 
neighbourhood. Its first charter as a free bor. of 
barony was granted by James YI. in 1591 ; a 
second was granted in 1672. The Reform Bill 
erected Kilmarnock into a pari bor., conferring 
on it, along with Renfrew, Port Glasgow, Dum- 
barton, and Rutherglen, the privilege of sending 
a member to the H of C. Constituencv 1,550 in 
1865. Corp. rev. 545/1 in 1863-64. Under the 
Municipal Reform Act it is governed by a provost, 
4 bailies, a treasurer, and 12 councillors. 

KILKENNY, a royal and pari, bor., sea-port, 
and par. of Scotland, co. Fife, on the NE. shore of 
the Frith of Forth, near the mouth of that great 
estuarv, 20 m. NE. Edinburgh, and 9^ m. 8. by 
W. St. Andrews. Pop. 2,145 in 1861. Its burghal 
privileges embrace Cellardykes, sometimes called 
Nether Kilrenny, distant | m. SE. Kilrenny is a 
place of no importance : but Cellardykes engages 
extensively in the herring and whale fishery, and 
is a thrivmg village. Kilrenny, which was cre- 
ated a royal bor. in 1707, unites with Cupar, 
St Andrews, and three small adjacent bort>., in 
sending a member to the H. of C. Registered 
electors 71 in 1865. Municipal revenue, 62L in 

KILRUSH, a sea -port town of Ireland, SW. 
part of the co. Clare, on the innermost extremity 
of a creek on the N. side of the estuary of the 
Shannon, 37 m. W. Limerick, and 20 m. E. by N. 
from Loophead, at the mouth of the Shannon. 
Pop. 4,565 in 1861, against 5,070 in 1841. It ex- 
ports considerable quantities of com, meal, and 
fiour: the herring fishery is also carried on to 
some extent; and it has a pier and a patent slip 
for the repair of vessels. It is a creek belonging 
to the port of Limerick. Its chief buildings 
are the par. church, R. Catholic chapel, Metho- 
dist meeting-house, market-house, custom-huuse, 
court-house, and bridewell. It has a school on the 
foundation .of Erasmus Smith, and some other 
schools. A manor-court is held monthly : general 
sessions at Easter and Michaelmas, and petty 
sessions on Tuesdays. It is a coast-guard and 
constabulary station. Markets on Saturdavs: 
fairs, May 10 and Oct. 12. 

KILSYTH, a bor. of barony, market and manu- 
facturing town of Scotland, co. Stirling, in a val- 
ley lOi m. N. by E. Glasgow, and 16 m. SW. by 
S. Stirling, on the railway from Glasgow to Stir- 
ling. Pop. 4,692 in 1861. The town is irregularly 
built The only public buildings are the parish 
church, with a lofty spire, and a chapel belonging 
to the Relief. The inhabs. are chiefiy employed 
as cotton-weavers in connection with the manu- 
facturers of Glasgow. The Forth and Clyde canal 
passes within ^ m. to the S., and contributes 
greatly to the prosperity of the district 

Of the pntsidiaj or foirts, erected by Agricola in 
his fourth campaign, several mouldering remains 
may }'et be traced. (Taciti Agricola, cap. 23.) 
They were generally about 2 m. apart, and built 
nearly in the direction afterwards occupied by the 
wall of Antoninus. This wall, or Graham's Dyke^ 
as it is vulgarly termed, buUt by the Emperor 
Antoninus Pius, about the year 140, as a protec- 
tion against the Caledonians on the N., ran across 


the isthmus between the Forth and Clyde, and 
passed within five furlongs of Kflsy th on the S. 

Kilsyth gives its name to a great Wctorv gained 
in iu vicinity (15th Aug. 1645), by the Marquis 
of Montrose over the Covenantera, commanded bv 
General Baillie. Sir James Livingston (a branch 
of the noble house of Linlithgow) was created 
Viscount Kilsyth (1661), on account of his lojalty 
during the civil wars ; but the title was attamted, 
and the estates forfeited in the person of the third 
viscount, who joined the rebeUion in 1715. * Re- 
ligious revivals,' as certain fanatical displays got 
up in various places throughout Scotland, in 1839, 
have been termed, originated at Kilsyth. 

KILWINNING, a market and manufacturing 
town and bor. of barony, Scotland, in the district 
of Cunningham, co. Ayr, on a rising ground on the 
right bank of the Gamock, 8 m. NNW. Irvine, 
and 21 m. SW. Glasgow, on the railway from 
Glasgow to Irvine. Pop. 3,921 in 1861. The 
town consists chiefiy of one street, but there are 
various narrow lanes. The modem additions to 
the town are substantial and elegant The only 
public buildings are the parish church and several 
dissenting chapels. Eglinton Castle, jamous for 
the tournament held there in 1839, is in the imme- 
diate vicinity. The inhabs. are chiefly employed 
in the weaving of cottons and gau2es, for the 
Paisley and Glasgow manufacturers. lime and 
coal abound in the district around. 

Kilwinning is celebrated for its abbey, founded 
by Hugh de MoreviUe, constable of Scotland, in 
1 140, and dedicated to St Winning. It was, at 
the Reformation, one of the richest in the king- 
dom. It is said that the foreign architect who 
built the abbey >vas the first to introduce the craft 
of FreemasonV}' into Scotland. The lodge of 
Kilwinning, as the mother lodge of the kin^om, 
was in the habit of granting charters to other 
lodges, all of which append the word Kil\\inning 
to their name ; but the institution of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland at Edinburgh has nearly super- 
seded the dignity of Kilwinning as a mother lodge. 
Kilwinning is the seat of a body of archers, 
which existed at least as early as 1488, and is 
still in a flourishing condition. 

a marit. co. of Scotland, having N. the county of 
Aberdeen, from which it is for the most part sepa- 
rated by the Dee and Avon, E. the German Ocean, 
by which it is bordered for above 30 m., and 8. 
and W. Forfar. It is of a triangular shape. Area, 
394 sq. m., or 252,250 aci^s, of which 1,280 are 
water, llie Grampian mountains occupy the 
western, central, and most of the northern parts of 
the county, extending from Battock-hiU, 2,611 ft, 
high, on its W. confines, to Stonehaven on the E. 
coast The arable land consists princinally of the 
district denominated the How of the '3Iearru, 
being a portion of Strathmore, or a continuation 
of the Jiow of AnfftUf extending from Strath- 
cathro and Mar^'kirk to within a few miles of 
Stonehaven. It' comprises about 50,000 acres of 
comparatively low, fertile, and well cultivated 
land, with many thriving plantations. On the E., 
the How is divided by a range of low hills which 
separate it from what is called the Cocut district, 
containing about 68,000 acres, about a half of which 
is in a high state of cultivation, lliere is also a 
narrow glen or district of arable land along the 
Dee. Property in a few hands. Arable farms of 
all sizes, many small, some from 400 to 500 acres, 
and the proportion of small farms decreasing. 
Hill pastures let in immense tracts. Im|)rovc- 
nients began in this county about the middle of 
the lost ceptury, and have been carried on suice the 
close of the American war, and esi)ecially during 

^lyitized by 



the last thirty years, with f^reat spirit and extra- 
ordinary success. Commodious fann-hoases have 
been erected, and new and level roads constructed 
in d'istricts where formerly there were only 
iHnretched footpaths. Lime is the only mineral of 
any hnpoitance. The manufacture of the jointed 
and painted wooden snuiT-boxes originated at 
Lfturencekirk, in this co., about 1790 ; but Cum- 
nock and Mauchline, in Ayrshire, have become 
the pnncipal seats of the manufacture. Principal 
rivers, Dee, N. £sk, Bervie, and Dye, on some of 
which are considerable salmon fisheries. It con- 
tains 19 parishes, and one roy. bor., Inverbervie, 
which is quite inconsiderable. It sends 1 mem. to 
the H. of C. for the county, and Inverbervie joins 
with Montrose, Arbroath and other bors., in retum- 
infr a mem. Registered electors for county, 987 in 
1865. In 1861, the co. had 6,697 inhabited houses, 
and 34,466 inhabitants, while, in 1841, there were 
7,304 inhab. houses, and 33,075 individuals. The 
old valued rent was 6,243/., and the new valuation 
197.133/: for 1864-66. 

KINCARDINE, a searport town of Scothind, 
in a detached part of the co. Perth, par. of Tul- 
liallan, on the N. side of the Frith of Forth, 21 m. 
WNW. £dinbni|rh, on the Scottish Central rail- 
way. Pop. 2,166 in 1861. The streets are mostly 
narrow, izr^lar, and dirty ; but the houses are 
good, especially those in the ncM^est parts of the 
town, it has a fi^ood quay and harbour, and a 
good roadstead, affording convenient anchorage for 
vessels of large burden. Ship-building b carried 
on to a considerable extent, and the town has an 
extensive coasting trade. The different parties in 
the town to whom vessels belong have formed 
themselves into a Kincardine Mutual Assurance 
Company, the value of the property so insured 
being estimated at about 80,000/. A regular ferry 
is established with the opposite side of the river. 

KINGHORN, a royal and pari, bor., sea-port, 
and par. of Scotland, co. Fife, on an eminence, 
overhanging a small bay, on the N. banks of the 
Frith of Forth, 9 m. N. by E. Edinbuigh, and 8 
m. SW. Kirkcaldy, on the Edinburgh-Perth rail- 
way. Pop. 1,426 in 1861. The town was not 
long since one of the most irregularly built in 
Scotland ; but it has of late undergone many im- 
provements in this respect, and most of the older 
hooses (which had two flats or stories, with outside 
stairs facing the street) have been superseded by 
more modem and better buildings. The only 
public edifices are the par. church, a dissenting 
chapel, a town-hall, gaol, and a handsome school- 
bouse erected by subscription. Fifty poor children 
are educated gratuitously on the bequest of the 
late Mr. Philip of Kirkcaldy, and are clothed and 
provided with books and other school utensils. 
The chief branch of industry is flax-spinning, and 
weaving of different linen fabrics. A few persons 
engage in fishing. The harbour is bad, and has 
Mttnoely any shipping. Pettycur, about a mile 
W., is a better harbour ; but its chief business de- 
rived from its being one of the seats of the ferry 
across the Frith of Forth, is now all but wholly 

Kinghom lays claim' to great antiquity ; it is 
certain that it waa created^ a royal bor. as early as 
the 13th century. It was originally a royal resi- 
dence, but lost that dignity on the death of Alex. 
III., who was killed (1285)' by falling over a rugged 
and lofty eminence about a inile W. of the town. 
Kinghom unites with Burntisland, Dysart, and 
Kirkcaldy in sending 1 mem. to the H. of C. 
Registered voters. 61 in 1865. 

KING'S COUNTY, an inland co. of Ireland, 
piov. Leinster, having N. Westraeath, E. ICildare, 
S. Tippcrary and Queen's County, and W. Ros- 


common, Galway, and Tipperarj'. Area 498,019 
statute acres. A portion of the bog of Allen 
covers a very considerable tract in the more north- 
erly parts of this co., while on the S. it is par- 
tially encumbered with ramifications of the Devils* 
Bit and Sliebhbloom mountains. On the whole, 
the unimproved bog and mountain occupy 133,349 
acres, of which, however, the far greater portion 
belongs to the bog. Soil of an average d^^e of 
fertility. Estates mostly very large. Tillage 
farms small, but some of those devoted to grazing 
are very extensive. Subtenancy is less common 
here than in most parts of Ireland ; but its mral 
economy is, notwithstanding, but little different 
firom that of the surrounding cos. Silver has been 
found at Edenderr>', but, except limestone, it has 
no minerals of any real importance ; manufactures 
can hardly be said to exist. Its chief town is 
Birt or Parsonstown. It is bounded on the W. by 
the Shannon, and on the S. by the Little Brosna, 
while it is intersected by the Greater Brosna and 
the Grand Canal. It is divided into 11 baronies 
and 52 pars., and returns 2 mems. to the H. of C, 
both for the co. Registered electors, 3,380 in 1865. 
In 1861 the co. had 16,365 inhab. houses, 17,879 
families, and 90,043 inhabitants, while in 1841 
King's CJounty had 24,534 inhab. houses, 26,683 
families, and 146,857 inhab. 

KINGSTON-ON-THAMES, a munic bor., 
market town, and par. of England, co. Surrey, loc. 
cit in hund. of its own name, but with separate 
jurisdiction, on the London and South Western 
railway, 12 m. SW. London. Pop. of bor. 9,790, 
and of par. 17,792 in 1861. The town extends 
from N. to S. about a mile along the Thames, 
crossed here by a stone bridge of 5 arches opened 
in 1828. Nearly continuous lines of houses, how- 
ever, diverge from the body of the town along the 
two principal high roads towards London, to the 
bottom of Kingston Hill, and on the road to Ports- 
mouth as far as the par. boundary, 1^ m. from the 
town. On the opposite side of the river is Hamp- 
ton-wick, which may be considered to constitute 
a part of Kingston. The town is well paved and 
lighted with gas. The streets are naixow and ir- 
regular ; but there is a spacious market-place, in 
which is the town-haU, erected in the reign of 
James I., containing some curious pictures and 
carvings of high antiquity. The Lent assizes for 
the CO., which were formerly held in it, have been 
for some years transferred to a neighbouring brick 
edifice built for the purpose : and attached to it is 
a small gaol, used for the temporary accommoda- 
tion of prisoners. The churcli is large but plain, 
with a low square tower, and appears to have been 
erected at different periods, commencing with the 
reign of Richard II. : the living is a vicarage, in the 
patronage of King's College,^ Cambridge. There 
are places of wor^ip for several denommations of 
Dissenters. It has a grammar school, founded in 
1560, furnishing instruction to between 30 and 40 
boys ; a boys' and girls' national school, supported 
by subscriptions ; an almshouse for 6 aged men and 
as many women ; and a dispensary. 

Kingston is not a place of much trade. Con- 
siderable business is done in malting, there being 
a large number of malting-houses in or near the 
town ; and there are also some flax and oil mills ; 
but most of the townspeople are dependent on their 
retail dealings with the neighbouring gentry. A 
large and wdJ-attendcd com market is held every 
Saturday: and the fairs are on Thursday, Friday, 
and Saturday in Whitsun week, Aug. 2, 3, and 4, 
and Nov. 18, for horses, toys, and pedlery. 

Kingston, first incorporated by King John in 
1 199, and chartered by many subsequent monarchs, 
luw been governed since the passing of the Mu- 

H 2 



nicipal Reform Act, by a recorder, 6 aldermen, and 
18 oouncilloTB, the bor. being divided into 3 wards. 
Members were sent by it to the H. of C. in the 
leigns of Edward I. and II.; but the burgesses 
were relieved from the burden on petition, and the 
franchise has not since been renewed. Roman 
coins, ums, and other antiquities, that have been 
dug up in considerable quantities, prove Kingston 
to have been inhabited by Uiose early conquerors 
of Britain. It received its name, King'3-town (its 
more ancient appellation being More-ford) ^ from 
its having been the residence of our Saxon mon- 
archs, eight of whom were crowned here, some in 
the market-plaoe^the supposed throne, a rude 
atojie, still preserved as a monument, near the spot 
— and others in a very ancient chapel once at- 
tached to the church, but now destroyed. A 
general council was held here by Egbert in 888, 
and attended by the chief prelates and nobility of 
the realm. The town continued during several 
centuries to be a place of high consideration, and 
in royal favour. 

KINGSTON, the largest and most commercial 
city of Jamaica, though not the cap. of the isL ; on 
its'S. coast, on the N. side of a fine harbour, on 
the vprge of an alluvial plain surrounded by an 
amphitheatre of mountains. Pop. 35,930 in 1861. 
The dty is built on around gently shelving to the 
verge of the sea, and was originally comprised in 
an oblong space, 1 m. in length by ^ m. in breadth, 
but it has of late years extended considerably be- 
yond these limits.' The streets in Lower Kingston 
are long and straight, crossing each other at right 
angles ; the houses in general are two stories high, 
with verandahs above and below. There are4;wo 
churches, an English and a Presbyterian, both 
handsome structures, especially the former, which 
is built on an elevated spot overlooking the city. 
Kingston has several dissenting chapels, two syn- 
agogues, a hospital founded m 1776, numerous 
other charitable institutions, a free school esta- 
blished in 1729, with an endowment of l,6O0L a 
year, a workhouse and house of correction, com- 
mercial subscription rooms, an athenanim, a society 
of agriculture, arts, and sciences, a savings' bank, 
and a theatre. 

The mountain chain forming the boundary of 
the plain on which Kingston stands, terminates to 
the £. in a narrow ridge, whence a long narrow 
tongue of land extends to Port Royal, forming 
the S. boundary of the Kingston harbour, a land- 
locked basin, in which ships of the largest burden 
may anchor in perfect security. It is strongly 
fortified. Its entrance, between Port Royal on 
the £., at the extremity of the tongue of land al- 
readv noticed, and the opposite coast, is defended 
by Fort Charles, near Port Royal, on the one hand, 
and by the Apostle^' Battery, Fort Anderson, and 
Fort Augustus, on the other. The depth of water 
in the centre of the channel leading to the harbour 
is, where shallowest, 4 fathoms, and in the harbour 
itself it varies from 6 to 10 fathoms. About 2 m. 
N. of Kingston is Up-Park Camp, the only go- 
vernment barracks in the island, consisting of two 
long and parallel Uiies of buildings, two stories 
high, occupying, together with the parade ground, 
between 200 and 300 acres. Not far from this 
station is the * Admiral's Pen,' the former residence 
of the naval commander-in-chief, but which has 
been abandoned for several years. Stouey-hill 
garrison is about 7 m. N. Kingston, at an elevation 
of about 2000 ft. above the sea. 

Kingston engrosses by far the largest portion of 
the trade of tlie island. The tot^ shipping of 
Jamaica, in 1 862, consisted of 606 vessels, of 1 1 2,64 2 
tons, which entered, and 523 vessels, of 117,474 
tons, which cleared. Of these there entered at 


Kingston, did vessels, of 69,006 tons, and there 
cleared 234 vessels, of 45,058 tons. The sUple 
article of export is sugar. 

The corporation of Kingston consists of a mayor, 
12 aldermen, and 12 common-coundlmen. The 
town was founded in 1693, in consequence of tlie 
destruction of Port Royal by an earthquake ; but 
it was not incorporated till 1802. 

Kingston, a town of Upper Canada, British 
North America, Midland dist.^ on the site of Fort 
Frontenac, at the NE. extrenuty of Lake Ontario, 
and at the mouth of the Cataraqui, 150 m. ENE. 
Toronto. Pop. 12,100 in 1861. The town covers 
a laige surface, has many stone buildings, with a 
good harbour, and is the entrepdt of the trade 
between Upper and Lower Canada. Since the 
completion of the internal canals, its carrying 
trade has much declined. 

KINROSS, a small inhmd co. of Scotland, on 
the W. confines of Fife, being entirely surrounded 
by the latter co. and that of Perth. Area, 77 sq. 
m., or 49,531 acres, of which 4,480 are water, con- 
sisting principally of Lochleven. Surface varied : 
in the lower district, to the N. and W. of the lake, 
the soil is clayey, sandj, and moderately fertile ; 
but in the upper districts it is mostly moorish, 
mossy, and unproductive. Agriculture a good deal 
improved ; but it labours under great disadvantages 
from the backwardness of the climate. Property 
much subdivided, being mostly occupied by resi- 
dent proprietors holding of the estate of Kinross 
under payment of a feu or quit rent. The manu- 
factures are of little importance; and thoagh it 
has limestone and fireestone quarries, it has no coaL 
Kinross and Milnathort are the onl^ towns. It is 
divided into seven parishes, and is united with 
Clackmannan and certain parishes in the SW. part 
of Perth in returning a mem. to the H. of C. Re- 
gistered electors in this co. 485 in 1865. In 186t 
the CO. had 1,664 inhab. houses, and 7,977 inha- 
bitants, while in 1841 Kinross had 1,812 inhabu 
houses, and 8,763 inhab. The old valued rent was 
1,674/., and the new valuation, 58,069Z. in 1864-65. 

Kinross, a market town of Scotland, co. Kin- 
ross, of which it is the cap., in an open vale on 
the W. shore of Lochleven, and on the high road 
between Edmbuigh and Perth, 21 m. NW. by N. 
Edinbuigh, and 13^ m. S. by E. Perth. Pop. 2,083 
in 1861. The town formerly consisted of a series 
of narrow tortuous lanes, but the main street, along 
the ])ublic road, of comparatively recent erection* 
is wide and substantiidly built, though not en- 
tirely straight Tlie other portions of the town 
are irregular, narrow, and of an inferior descri])tion. 
The public buildings are the par. church, built in 
1832, in the Gothic style, the co. haU, which also 
contains the public gaol, erected in 1826 ; a Free 
church ; and several places of worship in con- 
nection with the Associate Synod. On the margin 
of the lake, in the immediate vicinity of the town, 
is Kinross House, built on the site of an ancient 
castle, long the residence of the earls of Morton, 
by Sir William Bruce, architect to Charles 11., and 
now the seat of the feudal superior of the buiigh 
(Sir Graham Montgomery). This mansion was 
originally intended for the residence of the Duke 
of York, afterwards James VII. of Scotland, in the 
event of his being prevented by the Exclusion Bill 
from succeeding to his brother. 

Kinross was famous of old for its cutlery, after- 
wards for the manufacture of Silesia linen ; but 
both these have ceased. Cotton weaving, in con- 
nection with Glasgow, and more recently the 
manufacture of tartan shawls, plaiding, and such 
like articles, are now the principal emplo}anent& 
Damask weaving, for the Dunfermline manufac-^ 
turerd, has also been introduced. There are four 


mnoal fiun, chiefly ibr cattle, held at Kinroes; 
and it has branches of the B. Linen Company and 
of the Edin. and Glasgow banks. 

Lochleven, on the banks of which the town is 
built, has of late been subjected to a considerable 
drainage. Its drcuit is 12 m., being three less 
than formerly; and its mean depth has been re- 
duced from 18^ to 14 ft. Its fishery, which opens 
€m 1st Jan., and closes on 1st Sept, yields a yearly 
rent of about 200/L Notwithstanding its dimin- 
hibed size, Lochleven is still a ver^ hne sheet of 
water. It contains three islands, of which two are 
important ; St. Serfs, on the £., on which are the 
rains of a priory belonging to the canons regular 
of St. Augustine ; and the Castle Isle, on the W., 
so named from its castle, once a royal residence, 
and in which, as every body knows,* Queen Mary 
was confined from 16th June, 1567, to 2nd May, 
1568. During her imprisonment here she was 
forced to sign an instrument resigning the crown 
to her infant son. The battle of Langside, which 
decided her fate in Scotland, took place on the 
13th May, only eleven days after her escape from 
Lochleven. Andrew Wintsun, author of the Cro- 
)i|i!ih/ rf Scotland, was prior of the monastery of 
St. Sen. Michael Bruce, the poet, who died in 
1767, in the 2l8t year of his age, was bom in Kin- 
neswood, on the NE. shore of Lochleven, and 
received the principal part of his education in 

KINSALE, a pari. bor. and sea-port town of 
Ireland, co. Cork, on the £. side of the Bandon, a 
little way above its mouth in St. George's Channel, 
14 m. S. Cork, with which it is connected by rail- 
wav, and 7 m. N. from the lighthouse on the Old 
H«ui of Kinsale. Pop. 4,003 in 1861, against 6,918 
in 1841. The town is mostly bailt along the 
water^s edge, but extends in parts up a steep hill, 
so that many of its streets are of inconvenient 
access; they are generally also narrow and dirty; 
the houses have for the most part an antiquated 
appearance, and some of them are built m the 
Spanish fashion. The harbour is excellent. There 
are 12 ft waler over the bar at the river's mouth 
at low ebb; and at the anchorage within the bar, 
off Cove, there are 4 or 5 fathoms water within 
half a cable's length of the shore, and large vessels 
may lie close to the town. It was formerly stronglj 
fortified ; Fort Charles, on the E. side the river, is 
now oonverted into a barrack. It has an ancient 
par. chorch, a modem and handsome R. Catholic 
chapel, another R. Catholic chapel attached to a 
convent, and two Methodist meeting-houses ; with 
a suite of assembly-rooms, a town-hall, prison, 
fever hospital, and dispensary. Exclusive of Fort 
Charles, there is another extensive barrack adjoin- 
ing the town. Here is an endowed school, founded 
in 1767; it has also charity schools for R. Catho- 
lics and Protestants, and 'Sunday-schools. The 
former corporation was dissolved ntider the Muni- 
cipal Corporation Act, and its revenues, which 
were but of trifling amount, made over to the 
* town's commissioners.' Previously to the union, 
Kinsale returned 2 mems. to the Irish H. of C ; 
and it has since returned 1 m. to the Imperial II. 
of C who, down to the passing of the Reform Act, 
was elected by the soverei^, burgesses, and free- 
men. The village of Solly, contiguous to the 
town, is comprised within the limits of the present 
port bor., which includes a space of 290 acres, and 
had 144 registered electors in 1865. 

Notwithstanding the excellence of its port and 
its fine river, which is navigable for a considerable 
way above the town, the tirade of Kinsale is but 
trifling. It is, consequently, in rather a depressed 
condition. The principal dependence of the to\ni 
is on its fisheries, whicn supply Cork and the sur- 


rounding country. Every kind of fish is taken* 
and the sales of fresh fish average 500i. per week. 
The fishermen are esteemed the most skilful of 
any in Ireland ; and, being well acquainted with 
the coasts, they are good pilots, which obtained 
for them an exception from impressment during 
the French war. Oysters of a large size were for- 
merly abundant, but are said to be decreasing, 
from the want of a judicious and properly enforc^ 
code of fishery regulations. The Kinsale fishing 
district extends from Flathead to the east side of 
Inchy Bridge, comprising 60 m. of coast 

Kinsale is a place of some note in Lnsh history. 
It was taken m 1601 by a Spanish armament, 
but was retaken during the same year. James 
II. landed here in March, 1689 ; but it was taken 
by the troops of William III., under the Earl, 
afterwards Dnke, of Marlborough, in the follow- 
ing year. It had formerly a royal dock}'ard ; and, 
durmg the French war, the harbour was a good 
deal resorted to by ships of the royal navy. 

KINTORE, a royal and pari. bor. and market 
town of Scotland, co. Aberdeen, on the railway 
from Aberdeen to Inverness, 11 m. NW. Aber- 
deen, and 3 m. SE. by S. Inverury. Pop. 568 in 
1861. It is a place of' no importance. The Aber- 
deenshire canal passes it on the W. The bor. 
lays claim to great antiquity ; its earliest extant 
charter is dated 1506, confirming others of older 

Kintore gives the title of earl to a branch of 
the ancient family of Keith, descended, in the 
17th century, firom a younger son of the sixth earl 
mariscbal. It unites with Elgin, Banff, Cullen, 
Inverary, and Peterhead in sending 1 member to 
the H. of C. Registered voters, 44 m 1865. 

KIRBY-MOORSIDE, a market town and par. 
of England, N. riding co. York, wap. Ryedsle, on 
the Dove, an affluent of the Derwent, 22 m. N. 
by E. York, and 192 m. N. by W. London. Pop. 
of par. 2,659 in 1861. Area of par., comprising 
live townships, 19,920 acres. The town, which is 
very small, stands on the side of the N. York 
moors, and is nearly encompassed by steep hills. 
The par. church, in a romantic situadon, is about 
1 m. distant There are places of worship for 
Calvinistic and Weslevan Methodists, and for the 
Society of Friends. The river turns several corn- 
mills, limestone is dug in the neighbourhood 
and the malting trade is carried on, the surround- 
ing district bemg very productive of grain. Its 
only historical celebrity is owing to the fact that 
George Yilliers, second duke of Buckingham, the 
favourite of Charles II. (a part of whose estates 
lay here), retired thither after his disgrace at 
court, and ended his days, on the 16th of April, 
1688, in seclusion and poverty. Pope has de- 
scribed the circumstances attending his death in 
some of the finest verses in the English language. 
(Moral Essays, epist iii. lin. 229!) Markets on 
Wednesday; cattle and horse fidn, Whit- Wed- 
nesday and Sept. 18. 

KIRGHIS (STEPPE OF THE), a country of 
W. Aria in the N. part of Independent Tnrkestan 
between the 44th and 55th parallels N. lat, and 
b^ and 82° E. long. ; bounded N. l^ the Oui, a 
trib. of the Tobol, and a line of forts connecting 
Zverenogolovsk, Petropavlowsk, and Omsk; E. 
by the Irtish and the Chinese stations, extending 
S. as far as the 42nd parallel ; S. by the khanates of 
Kokan, Bokhara, and Khiva; and W. by the 
Oural and the Caspian Sea. Length, about 1,400 
m.; breadth, 1,100 m.: probable area, 1,533,000 
sq. m. Pop. of the three hordes composing the 
Kjrghis nation, 2,300,000. The Kii^his steppe is 
not, as the word seems to imply, a mere flat and 
unvaried plainj but is intersected by numerous 



raouutain ridges, and even in iU more level parts 
is covered with round hillocks, causing con^der- 
able undulations on the surface. Offsets of the 
Oural range occupy a large amount of surface in 
the W. and NW.'parts of the steppe. The W. 
continuations of the Altai ran^e run in very irre- 
gular ridges close to the Chinese frontier, and 
finally connect themselves about the 42d parallel 
with the W. part of the Muztagh or Thian-chan 
range. The principal ridges are N. of the 48th 
deg. of N. lat. The Kara-taou mountains sepa- 
rate the Kirghis steppe southward from the khan- 
ate of Khokan. The geological constituents and 
mineral riches of these mountains are little under- 
stood; the central masses appear to consist of 
granite, gneiss, and serpentine quarts, on which 
are superimposed silicious and clay-slate, blue 
limestone, coal strata, with various secondary and 
other rocks. Lead, copper, and iron, with a small 
quantity of silver, are found in these mountains, 
but the* present state of the country makes mining 
wholly impossible. 

The waters of the Kixghis steppe comprise, be- 
sides the two land-locked seas, the Caspian and 
the Aral, a considerable number of < lakes and 
rivers. Among the former, most of which are 
salt, the largest are the Balkat, 115 m. long; the 
Isik, 90 m. by 80 m., in the S£. angle of the 
steppe; the Kourdalgiane, Tenis, Tehagli, Ouba- 
gan Denghis, and Alksakel-Barbi lakes, with 
many others of smaller extent. The chief rivers 
are, 1. the Sir-Daria, rising in the Mus-tagh, 
about lat 40^^ N. and long. 76° E., having a 
course SW. to Khokan, and thence NW. through 
the sandy plains of Kisil-koum and Kara-koum 
into the sea of Aral, its entire len^h somewhat 
exceeding 800 m. ; and, 2. the Irtish, rising in 
Chinese Turkestan on the W. side of the great 
Altai, entering the steppe in the 49th par., forming 
its £. boundary up to 55° N., and receiving on its 
W. banks the Ichim, the Tobol, and other tribu- 
taries, which intersect with their streams the en- 
tire N. half of the steppe. Numerous smaller 
rivers fall into the different lakes, and many others 
are almost unknown to Europeans. 

The climate is remaricable for its extremes of 
heat and cold. In the middle and little hordes, 
that is, in the N. and NW. parts of the steppe, 
the therm, often falls to 20°, and sometimes 30° 
below freezing point (Rdaum.). The rivers and 
plains are covered with ice, and the hills with a 
thick coating of snow ; while strong winds from 
the NE. increase the intensity of ue cold, and 
hurricanes, called boftranatf often uproot forest 
trees, and cany away both man and beast, causing 
dreadful, and often irremediable, destruction. In 
summer, on the contrary, the temp, often rises to 
86° Rdaum. (112° Fahr.) in the shade: the oppres- 
siveness of the heat is much increased also by the 
sandy nature of the soil, and the paucity of 
rivers and forests over so vast an extent of 
country. This f^teat variability of temp., how- 
ever, and the rapid transition from one extreme to 
the other, are said not to be so prejudicial to the 
health either of natives or travellers as might 
have been expected: agues, indeed, and fevers 
are common in the marshy districts ; but, gene- 
rally speaking, the people are robust andlon^- 
lived. Rain is very nu^ even on the mountain 
sides : dews refresh the soil in some parts, but by 
far the largest portion of the surface is dried up 
and rendered useless, by the entire absence of 
atmospheric moisture. Trees and shrubs are only 
found on the banks of rivers, and at the foot of 
tlie mountains near the Russian frontier, where 
the soil is the most capable of cultivatioii : the 
principal are elms, poplars, willows, wild plum, 


juniper, and liquorice trees (the latter very abun- 
dant, and their produce forming a principal article 
of trade), wormwood, alkanet, tragacantn, various 
kinds of euphorbia, aucmonies, camomile, aspa- 
ragus, garlic and onions, horse-radish, wild oats, 
and rye. Short coarse grass geneially covers the 
plains, on which also the salsola plant grows in 
great perfection. Aj^culture, as a branch of in- 
dustry, cannot be said to exist. Some land about 
the rivers is roughly tilled, for the purpose of 
raising millet, rye, and barley ; but the pursuit, 
except by the Karakalpaks, S. of the Sii^Daria, 
is generally despised, being only followed by the 
poorest classes, and then chiefly by women. The 
wild animals of this region comprise the wolf, wild 
boar, fox, Cossack dog, wild goat, and hare, all of 
which roam in great numben over ever>' part of 
the steppe : the boar, buffalo, antelope, wild horse, 
beaver, and water-rat are plentiful in some dis- 
tricts ; and there are likewise tigers, l^nixes, and 
other varieties of the cat tribe, in the S. Among 
the birds may be mentioned the eagle, falcon, cor- 
morant, pelican, stork, heron, goose, and pheasant, 
with many smaller birds. The lakes and ri%'ers 
abound with seals, and with several kinds of fish, 
sturgeon, pike, perch, and carp being the most 
common. The domestic animals of the Kii^his 
are the sheep, goat, horse, and camel, the rearing 
of which constitutes the chief employment of this 
nomad race. Larger flocks of sheep are nowhere 
to be found, some of the richer inhabs. possessing 
upwards of 20,000 head. The animals are strong 
and large, weighing from 100 to 150 lbs., and they 
have lon£: coarse wool and enormous tails, some- 
times 80 lbs. in weight. They endure with great 
patience the long privations of food and dri^ to 
which they are subject, soon recovering in spring 
their plump and healthy appearance. 

The advantages derived by the people from 
these animals are immense ; their flesh and milk 
supply them -with food, and the wool furnishes felt 
for covering the tents and other purposes, while at 
the same time they serve as a standard of value, 
and form a chief article of export About 1,000,000 
sheep are sent off every year and sold in Rnada, 
Bucharia, and China. Goats, very similar to 
those of Thibet, are chiefly used as guides in 
leading the sheep from pasture to pasture, as the 
latter will not move without them ; their flesh is 
eaten, and the down concealed under their red 
shaggy hair is a valuable article of trade. The 
camels (most of which have two humps, the 
single-humped variety being too delicate for the 
climate) are here, as elsewhere in Asia, the chief 
beasts of burden. 1 hey are indispensable to the 
Kirghis, for transportuig their women and children, 
their property and trading stock; nor is it un- 
usual for the rich to possess 300 or even 400 of 
these animals. Their hair is spun and made into 
garments, the milk and flesh are used as food, 
and the skins of the younger animals make warm 
pelisses. The camels are extremely docile, and 
carry burdens var^'ins from 14 to 18 poods 
(from 5 to6 cwt), travelling during long journeys 
at the rate of 25 or 35 m. a day. Camel breeding 
is pursued to a considerable extent in the great 
(or S.) horde, and great numbers are sent to Persia 
and India. Homed cattle are very little bred, 
except in the middle horde ; and they were not 
introduced into the country till about a hundred 
years ago. Horses are reared in immense num- 
bers, particularly in the N. part of the steppe, 
where there is a grass called kovil admirably smted 
for horse pasture. A kirghis's wealth is usually 
reckoned by the number of his hones, and the 
richest among them have as many as 6,000 or 
8,000. They are small but strong, and extremely 

Digitized by 



xspid in their movements ; they can travel firom 
SO to 50 ni« without stopping for days together, 
and, like the other domestic animals, are inured to 
great privations and long abstinence from food 
and water. Yarions expedients are adopted to 
procure pasturage for the cattle during winter, by 
making enclosures and raking away the snow; 
but stul they feel most severely the absence of 
nourishing food, and great numbers, especially of 
sheep, are lost every year. (Ldvchine, La Des- 
cription des Hordes et des Steppes des Kiighis- 
Kazaks, p. 406-415.) 

The pop. of the Kiighis steppe, however dif- 
ferent uie origin of the various tribes, has long 
become amalgamated ; and thev are now but one 
people, inhabiting the same kind of country, 
speaking the same language, professing the same 
religion, and characterised by nearly uniform 
habits and customs. The following table of the 
races and tribes of the three j^reat hordes gives 
also some insight into the disiribution of the 
population : 






1. Little Horde :— 

AUmonly . . . 

Baionly . . . 

Bjetir-ounuig . 
3. Middle Horde :— 

Arghina . . . 

NaXmanes. . . 

Kiptohak . . . 

Orwak-Ghlris . 
8. Great Horde :— 

Ouianin . . . 

Toolatai . . . 

Sargam . . . 

Kodkrafc . . . 

Total . . . 





1 160,000 








Hence it appears that the terms * great' and 
* little' are wholly misapplied. The little horde 
was still greater in the 14th century than at 
present; the great horde, however, is generally 
respected, as being the most ancient. 

Tlie Kiighis, physicallv considered, are closely 
allied to the Mongol Turkmans. Their faces ai^ 
not so flat and broad as those of the Kalmuks ; 
bat tfaeir small black eyes, small mouths, pro- 
minent cheek-bones, and' almost beardless chins, 
prove their similarity to the Mongols, which has 
been strengthened also in recent years bv frequent 
marriages with Kalmuk and Mongol women, 
whom they often brings away by force into their 
own countty. The hair of the men is usually 
dark brown; bat the women have black hair, 
firesh complexions, and brilliant animated eyes, 
which, however, are ill-contrasted with lean 
cheek-bones, coarse skins, and a shapeless slovenly 
person. Both Hexes are strong and healthy, long- 
lived, and capable of enduring, to an extraordinary 
extent, both cold and hunger; in fact, if they 
were not thoroughlv inured to ever^ kind of 
privation, they could not live in this country'. 
The men take the most violent exercise, being 
often almost wholly on horseback for days to- 
gether; bat in the height of summer, and during 
Uie winter, they w^nd their time in listless indo- 
lence, sleeping, drinking hmtmiSf their favourite 
beverage, and listening either to stories or the 
rade music of their national instruments, a reed 
pipe and a rude kind of violin. Household labour 
and tillage are undertaken wholly by the women, 
whO) as in other parts of Asia, are treated almost 
like slaves. The Kirghis language is a verv 
corrupt dialect of the Turkish, so interlarded with 
local words that it is almost unintelligible by the 


Turks of Kazan and Khiva. Few can read, still 
fewer are able to write, and he that knows enough 
of Arabic to read the Koran is reckoned a paragon 
of erudition. Their poetry, however, clearly shows 
them to be an imaginative people. The dwellings 
of the Kiighis, who are distinctly pastoral, having 
no fixed station except in winter, consist of rude 
tents composed of wooden trellis-work covered 
with felt, having an opening at top serving at 
once for window and chimney : their dimensions 
average about 30 ft in diam. and 12 ft. in height ; 
the ground (bare earth) is covered with felt or 
carpeting; the inside is hung with straw mats 
or red cloth ; and the furniture consists only of a 
few boxes and warlike implements. The food of 
the people is very simple, consisting almost alto- 
gether of the flesh and milk of their flocks and 
herds. Bread is not known; but balamiky or 
porridge made of millet, rye, or wheat, is in com- 
mon use. Kice, being an article of import, is very 
dear, and is used only by the rich. Smoked 
horse-hams, colts' haunches, and camels' humps 
are esteemed great delicacies. Eremetchik, a rich 
cheese made from mares' milk, is likewiae highly 
valued ; a thinner and inferior kind, called kroute, 
is much used by the lower ordera, and constitutes 
almost the only article of food on those marauding 
expeditions, which give such zest to the life of 
a ICiighis. Fish are eaten only by the lowest 
orders, chiefly by those living on the banks of 
rivers ; and game is little valued. The favour- 
ite • drinks are the houmis, a whey made from 
mares' milk, and a spirit distilled from koumis, 
alleged to be both strong and palauble. Aralc 
(made by distilling rice) and tea are luxuries 
enjoyed onlv by the wealthy classes. The dress 
of the people is long and full, and, to European 
notions, little suited for horse exercise, in which 
they are chiefly engaged : two or more tchapams, 
or loose goi^Tis of velvet, silk, or cotton, according 
to rank ; a leathern belt fastening the robe and 
securing a knife and tobacco bag; and a round 
cap surmounted by another when abroad, of felt 
or other wann materials, conically shaped, and 
with broad flaps. Very full and highly orna- 
mented trowsers are worn, by the men at least, 
over the ^omtu, which is tucked underneath ; and 
lai^e pomted, high heeled boots complete the 
costume. The heads of the men are usuallv kept 
shaved, with the exception of a forelock; but 
those of the women are adorned with long plaits 
running down the back. The female costume, in 
other respects, difliers little ftt^m that of the 
males, except that the robe is close in front, and 
the bonnets are high, shaped like truncated 
cones, and surrounded by veils, which iierve both 
for shade and warmth. 

The employments of the men consist in an at- 
tendance on their flocks and herds, and in hunt- 
ing antelopes, boars, and wild horses. Very 
generally, however, they join with the life of a 
huntsman that of the robber attacking and 
plundering caravans crossing their steppe, or 
seeking vengeance for some real or imagined 
insult from a neighbouring tribe. They are 
cowards in regular warfare, soon discouraged, 
and, when unhorsed in close conflict, wholly 
vanquished. The feuds, or barantas, had become 
so frequent and extensive in 1812-1820, that the 
pop. of the hordes, especially the little horde, was 
much thinned; the trade m cattle was all but 
destroyed; and thousands of families, unable to 
support life in their own country, emigrated to 
the ^vemment of Orenburg, and other parts of 

The arms of the warrior Kirghis are the lance, 
sabre, bow and arrows, a long-^mdled axe, called 



tchahane, and a clumsy kind of ^^un, their defen- 
sive armoor being a coat of mail, and sometimes 
a helmet. Among a people so disorderly it is 
impossible that internal industry should flourish. 
Weaving is carried on for the supply of family 
>vants, cordage is manufactured from horses' and 
goats' hair, a coarse soap is made of grease and 
vegetable ashes, and the skins of sheep and goats 
are converted into a rude kind of leather. Black- 
smiths, and other workers in metal, make the or- 
naments attached to horse-furniture, belts^ sword- 
blades, and spears; but every article is of the 
coarsest quality and worst maxe. llie trade now 
carried on by the people with other nations is much 
less considerable than it was half a century ago, 
in consequence of the loss of cattle and horses by 
the barantas. The Russians and Chinese have 
laige dealings with them, and a brisk trade is 
also carried on with Khiva, Khokan, and Little 
Buchana. The trading posts of the Russians 
are at Orenbuig (the most important of all), 
Troitsk, Petropavlowsk, Omsk, Semipalatinsk, 
and Ouralsk, those of the Chinese being at 
Tchugutchak (Chin. Talbazatai) and Kuldsha 

The business, usually carried on in summer and 
autumn, is conducted wholly by barter, the 
Kiighis furnishing sheep, horses, homed cattle, 
camels, goats, goats' hair and wool, the skins of 
horses, sheep, and other animals, wild as well as 
domestic, and antelopes' horns; in return for 
which they receive from the Russians iron and 
copper implements, thimbles, needles, cutlery, 
padlocks^ hatchets, velvets, brocades, siilk-stuffs, 
linens, nbands, looking-glasses, and snuff; from 
the Chinese, silver, silk goods, porcelain, japanned 
wares, ^d tea ; and from the khurians and Bok- 
harians, cotton goods, quilted dresses, rice, swords, 
fire-arms, and powder. Independently of the 
trade they carry on at the outposts, considerable 
traffic takes place with the caravans crossing the 
steppe between Khiva, Khokan, and the Russian 
frontier. The Kirghis are usually employed as 
protectors and guides in the journey over these 
wilds; great delays often occur owing to the 
caprice of the guides ; and the travellers, if they 
are not entirely plundered of their property, are 
in general heavily mulcted by the khans, through 
whose pastures they are obliged to pass. The 
chief caravan routes are, 1. from Kalmikof to 
Khiva, across the Oust^urt plateau, between the 
Aral and Caspian Seas; 2. from Orenburg to 
Bokhara (64 days), over the Mogodiar mountains 
and across the Kaiakoum and Kizil-koum deserts; 
8. from Petropavlowsk to Bokhara (90 days) ; and 
4. from Semipalatinsk to Khokan (40 days). 
These roads, however, are so vaguely laid down, 
and so often varied, that distances cannot be com- 
puted with any accuracy. 

The government to which these people are sub- 
ject cannot be properly compared witn any form 
common to civilised countries. Geographers have 
termed it patriarchal and despotic ; but, in fact, 
there is no system of government, for even where 
a khan, or sovereign, is chosen, he u usually 
elected only by a few of the tribes, who obey only 
so long as they are pleased with their ruler, while 
the rest refuse all oliedience^ and probably take 
arms against him. He may issue orders, but he 
cannot enforce compliance ; and even where there 
is an absolute infraction of the laws of the Koran, 
by which they profess to be guided, the delin- 
quent's punishment is more frequently inflicted by 
private revenge than by the decision of a public 
judge. The punishments are founded on the lex 
talionut and consist commonly of the bastinado, 
maiming, and strangling ; but, if the offending 


party consent, almost all crimes may be atoned 
for by payments of sheep or horses. The khan 
must be elected from the highest class, known as 
the white kost^ those, in fact, who can lay daim to 
noble descent: the rest of the people belong to 
the black kost. These are the only remuning dis- 
tinctions among a people who, a century ago, 
were, of all others, the nicest in establishing family 

With respect to religion it is difiicultto say 
whether the Kiighis have any particular form. 
They acknowledge a supreme creative intelli- 
gence ; but some worship according to the dc^n"^ 
of the Koran, and others mingle Islamism with 
an old kind of idolatry, while a third section of 
the pop. believe in the existence not only of a 
good deity, called Koudaty but also of a wicked 
spirit Chaitane^ the author of all evil. In the 
existence of infenor spirits, and in witchcraft and 
sorcery, the people have universally the most im- 
pUcit faith ; and the hadjis travelling through the 
steppe reap great pecuniary advantages by im- 
porang on their credulity. The exerciaes of re- 
ligion meet with little attention ; long and fre- 
quent pravera do not suit the Kirghis ; they fast 
too often by compulsion to do so by choice ; and 
they are not so friendly to cleanliness as to relish 
the ablutions enjoined by the Mohammedan r&- 
ligion. In fact, with the exception of extreme 
credulity, there is hardly a trace of religious sen- 
timent among them. 

The history of the KirghU-Kazaks cannot be 
traced with much probability beyond the 16th 
century. Earlier historians, commencing even 
with Herodotus, say that the steppe was inhab. b^ 
a people living in* felt tents, and otherwise assi- 
milated to the great Mongolian family; but these 
were Nooai*t not Kirghis, being more civilised, 
and in all probability the builders of those tern- 

Eles and houses the ruins of which are still visi- 
le. (See Herod., iv. 24, 46, and Heeren's Re- 
searches, Asia, ii. 285-298.) The name of the 
Kirghis first appears in Russian history about the 
middle of the 16th centui^. But Ferdusi, in the 
11th century, speaks of Kazaks characterised by 
the same habits as the Kirghis, though it does 
not appear that they then lived on the great 
steppe £. of the Aral They first became nomi- 
nally subject to Russia in 1740, but the rule of 
that country has never been felt but by the tribes 
adjoining the frontier. As to the native khans, 
so also to the Russian government, obedience ia 
paid only when it is convenient, a rapid journey 
mto the mterior soon carr^'ing them out of reach, 
when it suits their purpose to plunder rather than 
trade. It remains to be proved whether the efforts 
now in progress at Orenburg, to introduce civilisa- 
tion into the steppe by educating young Kiighis, 
will accomplish the professed object of making 
them, instead of a burden and nuisance, useful 
and obedient subjects of Russia. 

KIRKCALD'k , a royal and pari, bor., sea-port, 
and manufacturing town of Scotland, co. Fife, on 
the N. shore of the Frith of Forth, 10 m. N. Leitb, 
on the Edinbuigh-Perth railway. Pop. 10,841 in 
1861. The town consists principally of a single 
street, parallel to the shore, 2 m. in length. 
Having been originally laid out and built with no 
attention to any general plan, but according to 
the taste, convenience, and means of the parties, 
this street was formerly of the most irr^ular de- 
scription, being narrow, crooked, and the houses 
frequently mean and poor. In 1811, however, an 
act was obtained for widening, paving, and light- 
ing the streets, and otherwise improving the town ; 
and since that period several new lines of houses 
have been constructedi and many important im- 

Digitized by 




pmvoneiits effected. The hoiues in the main 
tfCreet are now mostly of a very respectable class, 
and the shops are good, and handsomely fitted up. 
The town is well supplied with water, paved, and 
lifted with gas. Among the public buildings 
are, the par. church, rebuilt in 1807 ; Abbotshall 
church, within the pari bor. ; several chapels be> 
longing to the Free Church ; various dissenting 
chapels ; and a handsome town-house, including 
a gaol, with a spire erected in 1828. Besides the 
parochial schools, and a varietv of private semi- 
naries, there are two charity schools for the edu- 
cation of children of both sexes, on an endow- 
ment by Mr. Philp, merchantf who bequeathed 
70,0002^ for the foundation and maintenance of 
these and similar schools in Pathhead and King- 

The staple manufacture of the town is that of 
coarse linen, including sheetings, ticks, dowlas, 
and canvass. There are also rope-walks, bleach- 
fields, iron foundries, and breweries. The harbour, 
near the £. end of the town, consists of an inner 
and outer basin. It is wholly artificial, being 
formed of three piers, and dries'at low water ; but 
notwithstanding this drawback, the town pos- 
sesses a good deal of shipping, and carries on a 
pretty extensive trade. There belonged to the 
port on the Ist Jan. 1864, 26 sailing vesseh) under 
50, and 32 abcrve 50 tons, besides two steamers, 
one of 35, and the other of 86 tons. There is a 
good deal of trade with the N. of Europe, whence 
hemp, fiax, timber, and tar are imported, and to 
which manufactured goods and coal are exported. 
Gross customs' revenue, 10,764/. in 1868. There 
is a weekly com market, which is well attended. 

Kirkcaldy was made a royal bor. by Charles I. 
in 1644. It had attained about this period to con- 
sideiable wealth and distinction; but it subse- 
quently encountered severe losses, and, about the 
middle of last century, it had only two ferr}'- 
boats and one coasting vesseL But since 1768, 
and especially since the close of the American 
war, its manufactures, commerce, and population 
have steadily increased. It is now governed by 
a provost, two bailies, and eighteen councillois. 
Corporation revenue 699^;. in 1863-64. Kirkcaldy 
unites with Burntisland, Dysart, and Kin^hom, 
in sending one mem. to the'H. of C. Registered 
electors in the bor. 431 in 1865. 

Kirkcaldy is the birth-place of Adam Smith, 
the author of the * Wealth of Nations,' bom here 
on the dth of June, 1723. His father bein^ comp- 
troller of customs at this port. Smith received the 
rudiments of his education in the parish-school ; 
and he afterwards resided here, with little inter- 
ruption, from 1766 to 1776, occupied in the elabo- 
ration of his great work, which appeared in the 
last-mentioned year. Raith, the seat of the Fer- 
guson family, is in the immediate vicinity of the 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT, a marit co. of Scotland, 
or, as it b more frequently termed, a stewartry, in 
the most southerly portion of that kingdom, com- 
prising the £. hiQf of the district known by the 
name of Galloway. It is bounded on the K, N., 
and W. by the counties of Dumfries, Ayr, and 
Wigtown, and on the S. by the Irish Sea and the 
Solwa^ Frith. 'Area, 954 sq. m., or 610,784 acres, 
of which from one-fourth to one-third part are 
arable. Surface much diversified, but in general 
hilly, and in extensive districts mountainous. 
The highest part of the Kell's range has an eleva- 
tion of 2,652 fL ; and Caimsmoor of Fleet, on the 
bay of Wigtown, rises to the height of 2,329 ft 
The greater number of the hills are bleak and 
barren ; bat in parts, particularly on the confines 
of Ayrshire, they afford good sheep pasture. The 

arable lands lie principallv to the S. of a line 
drawn from the middle of the par. of Irongray to 
Gatehouse; but Criffel, 1,831 ft. high, on the 
Solway Frith, and some other considerable hUls, 
lie within this tract. Climate in the lower dis- 
tricts mild but moist; in the upper districts it is 
sometimes severe. Except along the Solway 
Frith, the soil even of the arable land of the 
stewartry has seldom a smooth, continuous sur- 
face : it IS very often broken with gravelly knolls, 
but the hollows between these consist principally 
of a gravelly or hazelly loam, and are often ex- 
tremely productive, and particularly well adapted 
for turnip husbandry. In wet summers the arable 
knoUs are covered with luxuriant crops, while 
many of those that do not admit of cultivation 
yield excellent pasture. Principal crops, barley 
and oats, but wheat is also raised. Within the 
last few years the turnip culture has made great 
progress. Arable husbandry has been greatly 
improved since the peace : furrow draining is now 
extensively practised, and latterly bone-dust has 
been successfully employed in the raising of tur- 
nips. But the soil and climate are better suited 
for grazing than cropping, and the principal atten-; 
tion of the farmer is given to the former. The 
breed of polled cattle, peculiar to this co. and that 
of Wigtown, is one of the best in the empire: 
they are principally sent up by land when half 
fat to the Norfolk fairs ; but they are also, with 
sheep, sometimes fiittened off on tnmip and sent 
by steam to Liverpool. Farm buildings have been 
vastly improved, and the roads, which were for- 
merly execrable, are now nowise inferior to those 
of any other co. in the empire. There are some 
very laige estates; but property is, notwithstand- 
ing, more subdivided in this than in most other 
S<^tch COS. Farms of medium size, and all let on 
19 year leases. This co. and Wigtown are mostly 
subdivided by the 6iy stone walls known, from 
this district, by the name of ' Galloway dykes,' 
and which, when well built, make an excellent 
fbnoe. Manufiictures and minerals unimportant; 
lime, coal, and freestone are all imported prin- 
cipaUy from Whitehaven, on the opposite side of 
the Solway Frith. The granite used in the con- 
struction of the Liveqwol docks is mostly ob- 
tfdned from near Creetown, in this co. Principal 
rivers, Dee, Fleet, and Urr; the salmon fisheries 
on the first are valuable. Principal town, Kirk- 
cudbright. The CO. has twenty-eight parishes^ 
and sends one mem. to the H. of C., for the co., 
while the bor. of Kirkcudbright joins with Dum- 
fries, Annan, and other bors. in returning a mem. 
Registered electors for the co. 1,353 m 1865. 
In 1861, the co. had 7,326 inhab. houses, and 
42,495 inhabs. ; while, in 1841, it had 8,162 inhab. 
houses, and 41,119 inhabs. The old valued rent 
was 9,549/.; the new valuation was 279,820/. for 

Kirkcudbright, a royal and pari, bor., and 
sea-port of Scotland, cap. of the above co., on the 
Dec, about 6 m. above its confluence with the 
Solway Frith, 24 m. SW. Dumfries, and 83 SSW. 
Edinburgh, on a branch line of the Glasgow, 
Dumfries, and Carlisle railway. Pop. 2,638 in 
1861, against 2,692 in 1841. It is a finely situ- 
ated, well buUt town. The streets intersect each 
other at right angles, and the houses are mostlv 
two stories high. A large Gothic church, mth 
a spire, was erected in 1838, at an expense of 
6,782/. ; it has also a gaol erected in 1816 ; an 
academy, with a room for the public subscription 
library ; and the ruins of an old castle, once the 
property of the lords Kirkcudbright. Exclu- 
sive of the parish church, the Free Church, United 
Secession, and Rom. Catholics have places of wor- 

^lyitized by 




ship. A school founded and endowed by Mr. W. 
Johnston, a native of Kirkcudbright, and intended 
to furnish the children of the poorer classes with a 
good English education, was opened in 1848. A 
workhouse for the use of this and the adjoining 
parishes of Tongland, Twynholm, Borgue, and 
Berwick, has been erected at a little distance from 
the town. The harbour of Kirkcudbright is the 
best in the S. of Scotland. At low ebb in neap 
tides there is about 10 fK water in the river; and 
as the tide then rises about 18 ft., there is at all 
times water to float the largest ships. The access 
to the Dee is much facilitated by the lighthouse 
erected in 1843, on the little Ross at its mouth. 
But, despite its fine harbour, Kirkcudbright, owing 
to the thinness of the population in the vici- 
nity, has very little trade. The harbour revenue 
amounts to 2*50/. a year. Ship-building is carried 
on to some extent., but it has no other manu- 
facture worth notice. 

Kirkcudbright was made a ro^al bor. by James 
II. in 1466. Under the Municipal Reform Act it 
is governed bv a provost, two bailies, and fourteen 
councillors. It unites with Dumfries, Annan, San- 
quhar, and Lochmaben, in sending one mem. to 
the H. of C. Registered electors, 121 in 1865. 
Corporation revenue 1,899/. in 1863-64. Its pecu- 
niary affairs have been exceedingly well man- 
aged, and it has at this moment the whole 
property contained in the charter of James II. 
The town's revenues are employed to defray the 
expenses of the academy, and the charges on 
account of lighting the town and supplying it 
with water, for which no assessment is imposed 
on the inhabitants. The environs of the town are 
extremely beaut ifuL The rising grounds on each 
side the nver, from Tongland to the sea, are em- 
bellished with plantations. St Mary^'s Isle, the 
residence of the earls of Selkiric, adjoms the town 
on the S. 

KIRKHAM, a manufacturing and market 
town and par. of England, co. Lancaster, hnnd. 
Amonndemess, in the low district, called the 
Fylde, 7 m. W. bv N. Preston, 27 m. N. Liver- 
pool, and 220 m. NNW. London, on the London 
and North Western railway. Pop. of town, 3,380 
and of par. 11,445 in 1861. The town, though 
email, is handsome and well built. The church, 
a large moilem structure, was erected, in 1822, at 
an expense of 5,000/. : its interior, which accom- 
modates nearly 2,000 persons, is ornamented with 
several fine old monuments, carefully replaced in 
the new buildmg. The living is a vicarage, in 
the patrimony or the dean and canons of Christ^ 
church, Oxford, the chapehries in the out^town- 
ships being in the gift of the incumbent Within 
the town are places of worship for Wesleyan 
Methodists, Independents, Swedenboigians, and 
Rom. Catholics, with attached Sunday schools, 
attended by about 500 children; and connected 
yrith the church is a national school for boys and 
girls. A grammar school, founded in 1670, is at- 
tended by 80 or 100 boys: it is managed by a 
principal and two under-masters ; the instruction 
given is purely classical. A charity school, esta- 
blished in 1760, for clothing and educating 40 
^irls, is respectably conducted. The Rom. Catho- 
lics have also large schools for the children of 
that religion, which has numerous adherents in 
and round the town. The industry of Kirkham, 
20 years ago. was confined to the manufacture of 
sail-cloth, cordage, and coarse linens, of materials 
brought from the Baltic ; but now, the cotton ma- 
nufacture is extensively carried on. The Lan- 
caster Canal, the Lancaster and Preston railway 
(opened in 1840), and the Preston and Wyre 
railway, afford conveyance both for passengers 


and goods. Petty sessions are held onoe a fort- 
night, and a court of requests for debts under 40«. 
sits monthly. Markets on Thursday : fain, Feb. 
4 and 5, April 29, and Oct 18. 

LISSA (meaning the Toum of Forty Oiurdtes), a 
town of European Turkey, prov. Itoumelia, cap. 
circ of its own name, 30 m. E. Adrianople and 
106 m. WNW. Constantinople; kt 41o 50' N., 
long. 16^ 55' E. Pop. estimat at 5,500 families^ 
or 28,000 individuals, about one-half of them 
Greeks. It is a large, dirty, niinous town, sur- 
rounded with old walls defended by a citadel, and 
has a bazaar, several mosques and'hummums and 
Greek places of worship. The neighbourhood 
produces an abundance of grapes, melons, and 
other fniits ; and a good deal of wine is made. 
The Turkish inhab. are rude, bratal, and ignorant, 
but the Greeks are a laige and thriving com- 
munity, who have established two good schools 
on the monitorial system for the instruction of 
their children, a degree of refinement to be met 
with in few other towns of Turkey. 

KIRKWALL, a royal and pari bor., market 
toyrUf and sea-port of Scotland, in Mainland, or 
Pomona, the largest of the Orkney Islands, of 
which it is the cap., on the NE. side of the island, 
at the head of an open bay exposed to the N. ; 
26 m. N. by E. John O'Groats, and 208 m. X. 
Edinburgh. Pop. 8,519 in 1861. The town con- 
sists chiefly of one narrow and inconvenient street, 
about 1 m. in length, parallel to the bay. Tlie 
houses have generally their gables to the stzeet, 
and most of them bear the marks of antiquity. 
But new and handsome houses are gradually being 
erected, both in the town and neighbourhood. 
Here most of the country gentry reside, at least 
during winter, and the society of this remote 
place IS esteemed equal, if not superior, to that of 
anv provincial town of its size in Scotland. The 
only public building of a modem date is the 
town hall, with piazzas in front, containing a 
gaol, assembly- rooms, and court-room. The prin- 
cipal building in Kirkwall is the cathedral, erected 
in the 12th century, and dedicated to Magnus, one 
of the Scandinavian earls of Orkney, who, having 
been assassinated in 1110, was canonised after 
his death. This venerable Grothic structure, which 
has been enlarged at different times, is, after the 
cathedral of Glasgow, the most entire in Scotland ; 
it is in the form of a cross, its extreme length 
being 236 ft., its greatest width 56 ft, the height 
of the roof 71 ft., and that of the spire 140 ft. 
But the original spire having been destroyed by 
lightning in 1671, the present spire is modem, 
and it is, also, unworthy of the building. About 
100 yds. S. from the cathedral are the rains of 
two ancient edifices, viz. the Earl's Palace, built 
by Patrick Stewart, earl t)f Oritney, and the 
Bishop's Palace. In the latter, Haco, king of 
Norway, died on his return to Orkney, after the 
unsuccessful battle of Laigs,in 1263, and James V. 
occupied it on his visit to the island in 1540. 
The remains of Kirkwall Castle, on the W., are 
still visible. The cathedral formed the cemetery 
of many Scandinavian kings, nobles, and warriors. 
The par. church, consbting of the choir of the 
cathedral, is collegiate. There are also chapela 
belonging respectively to the Associate Synod, 
Original Seceders, and Independents. The town 
has numerous and well attended schools, several 
libraries, a museum, and a printing-press. Mal- 
colm Laing, the historian of Scotland, was bom 
in the vicinity of Kirkwall, and educated at iiie 
grammar-school of the bor. ; and at his death, in 
1818, his remains were interred in St. Magnus' 

Digitized by 



Rye straw nised in Orkney having been 
found to be peculiarly suitable for the manu- 
facture of straw plait for ladies' bonnets, the busi- 
ness is earned on in Kirkwall to a considerable 
extent, thoagh not so much so as formerly. It 
has also distilleries, and some weaving is carried 
on for domestic use. The herring, cod, and lobster 
fishery is prosecuted to a considerable extent The 
town 'is the seat of the courts of law for the whole 
of Orkney. Kirkwall has a custom-house, which 
comprises all the harbours in the Orkneys; its 
revenues amounted to 981iL in 1859 ; to ISHL in 
1861 ; and to 114^ in 1863. A steam-boat nlies 
between Leith and Kirkwall, touching at Aber- 
deen, Wick, and intermediate ports : m summer 
it goes as far as Lerwick, in Shetland. Kirkwall 
has an annual fair in the month of August, which 
lasu about two weeks; and the greater part of 
all the mercantile business of the Orkney Islands 
is negotiated at this fair. 

Kirkwall was made a royal bor. by James III. in 
1186. It unites with Cromarty, Wick, Dingwall, 
Dornoch, and Tain in sending a member to the 
U. of C. Registered electors, 157 in 1865. 

KIRRIEMUIR, a bor. of barony, market and 
manufacturing town and par. of Scotland, co. 
Forfiar, in a pleasant situation, partly on a flat 
and partly on an inclined plain, along the N. brow 
of a picturesque glen, through which the stream- 
let Garry runs, 15 m. N. by W. Dundee, and 5 n). 
XW. Forfar. Fop. 3,275 m 1861. The Gram- 
pians are within 3 m. of the town, on the N. llie 
view from its upper part, about 400 ft. above the 
level of the sea, is most extensive and striking, 
having Uie Grampian ranjB^ on the N., and the 
whole extent of the splendid valley of Strathmore 
on the S. The form of the town has some analog}' 
to an anchor. The only public buildings are, the 
trades' hall, the prop«rty of 12 friendly societies 
of the town and parish ; the parish church ; and 
chapels belongii^ respectivelv to the Associate 
f^ynod, the Relief the Original Seceders, and the 
Episcopalians. There are 16 schools m the par., 
of which 8 are endowed, 1 supported by subscrip- 
tions, and 12 unendowed. There are 2 be<mest8 
for education, the one educating about 50 ooys, 
the other 20 boys and 50 girls. Dr. M*Crie, the 
biographer of John Knox, and Dr. Jamieson, the 
Scotch lexicographer, were once dissenting clergy- 
men in Kirriemuir. 

Though inland, and devoid of ready communi- 
cation with the sea, Kirriemuir has attained to 
considerable eminence in the manufacture of the 
coarser kinds of linen fabrics, such as Osnaburgs, 
sail-cloth, bagging, and imitation Russia sheeting. 
This branch of business, which is carried on chiefly 
in connection with the Dundee manufacturers, 
was introduced soon after the rebellion of 1745. 

Kirriemuir is governed by a bailie, nominated 
by the feudal superior (Lord Douglas). The peace 
is preserved by a body of constables, chosen an- 

Kl'SHM (the Oarada of an. Greek authors), 
the largest island in the Persian Gulf, and the 
chief of a group situated near its mouth, extend- 
ing between lat 55^ and 56^ 30' N., and long. 26^ 
and 27^ £., comprising Ormnz, Kenn, Anjar, La- 
rak, and many smaller islands. Kishm is of an 
elongated shape, nearly 60 m. in length E. to W., 
and 12 m. in Its greatest breadth. Pop. estimated 
at 5,000. It is separated from the main land bv 
Clarice Straits, a nanow and intricate channel, 
navidpable, however, for' large ships, the soundings 
varying from 4 to 12 fathoms. A ridge of hiUs 
exten£ from one extremity to the other of the 
island on its S. side; the rest of the surface is 
mostly plain. &mdstone is the predominant form- 



ation. The surface is generally arid and barren, 
and is in parts extensively incrusted with saline 
efflorescence ; but a few portions are remarkably 

J>roductive. The N. part of the island is the most 
ertile and populous : the soil there consists of a 
black loam, on which wheat, barley, ve^tables, 
melons, grapes, and dates in lai;^ quantities are 
produced. The island at present yields com enough 
for home consumption. Jikiats from all parts of tiie 
g^lf come to Kishm for wood. Cattle and poultry 
are reared: the former are scarce, but ^ts are 
bred in considerable numbers, and thnve well. 
The greatest enemies of the goats are jackals, with 
which the island is much infested ; antelopes of a 
superior breed, partridges, and rock pigeons abound, 
and wildfowl in winter. The inhab. are chiefly 
Arabs ; they employ themselves in fishing, a^- 
culture, and the manufacture of cloth, and reside 
chiefly in villages and hamlets scattered along the 
coasts. Kishm is said to have once contained up- 
wards of 800 towns and villages, but at present it 
has not half that number. The chief towns are 
Kishm at its £., and Basidoh at its W. extremity, 
and Left on itsN. side. Kishm, with about 2,000 
inhab., seems to have been formerly of considerable 
commercial importance. It is surrounded by a 
high mud wall, flanked with towers, on which a 
few old guns are mounted. Streets narrow and 
dirty ; houses flat roofed, and some of them large 
and neatly fitted up. The bazaar is plentifully 
supphed with many kinds of ve^^etables and fruits 
from Persia; and good wines, dned fruits, silk and 
cotton cloths, and carpets of the richest patterns, 
may be obtained. The town has a brisk trade and 
a bustling appearance, many native vessels calling 
for food and water, or to take pilots for the Kishm 
channel. It is the residence of the sheikh. A 
few coasting vessels are built here with timber 
from the Malabar coast Basidoh, or Bassadoie, 
once belonged to the Portuguese, and the ruins of 
their town and fort may still be traced. It is ad- 
mirably situated in most respects and healthy, 
but ill supplied with water. Being the principal 
station in the gulf for ships of the Indian navy, 
it has several buropean houses and public build- 
ings, including a hospital, store and guard houses, 
and is the residence of th^ commander of the In- 
dian squadron. Its port is difficult to enter, but 
vessels have good anchora^ in 6 or 7 fathoms, \ 
m. from the shore. Left is at present a town of 
only 600 inhab. : it was bombarded by the English 
in 1809. Yesseh) may lie before it in 4^ fathoms 
water completely landlocked. 

The island of Anjar, 8 m. S. of Kishm, is of 
volcanic origin, 5 or 6 m. in circuit, and uninha- 
bited, thoupfh the remains of a town and reservoir 
be still vuible on its N. side. It is covered with 
mts of salt and metallic ores, and between it and 
Kishm is an excellent anchorage. Larak, to the 
S£., is also of volcanic origin, and inhabited only 
by a few fishermen. The Great and Little Tombs, 
about 25 m. SW. Kishm, are low and uninhabited. 
The small islets between Kishm and the main land 
are verdant and covered with wood, a circumstance 
rare in the adjacent parts of Persia. Nearchus 
visited and described this island group; and Arrian 
affirms that in his time was to be seen in Kishm 
the sepulchre of its first king Ervthras, from whom 
the gulf was named Mare Liythrceum, These 
ishmds are now governed by a sheikh, tributary to 
the imftm of Muscat. 

KLATTAU, a town of Bohemia, cap. circ of 
same name, on the Bradlenka, 70 m. SW. Prague, 
on the railway from Prague to Ratisbon. Pop. 
7,382 in 1657. The town is well built, and has a 
castle, some handsome churches, a council-house, 
with a tower 150 ft. m height, containing a bell 



'weighing 90 centners^ a gymnasiuin, high school, 
two hospitals, and manufactures of woollen cloth 
and stockings. It is said to have been founded 
in the eighth century. 

KNARESBOROUGH, a pari, bor., market town, 
and par. of England, co. York, W. Riding, wap. 
Claro, 16i m. W. by N. York, the same distance 
N. Leeds, and 182 m. N. by W. London on the 
Great Northern railway. Pop. of pari. bor. 6,402 
in 1861. The town is beautifully situated on a 
slope, NE. of the Nidd, the stream of which is 
rapid, deep, and very serviceable for turning the 
wheels of mills and machiner^r connected with 
the Imen trade. Two stone bridges cross it, one 
above and the other below the town ; and on a 
beetling crag, close over the torrent, stands a 
ruined castle, opposite to which, on the other side 
the river, is a curious dropping well, the water of 
which runs from a source 50 ft. above, and trickles 
through a porous limestone rock with sufficient 
rapidity to deliver about 20 gallons per minute. 
At no great distance is an oratory, carved out of 
the rode, and a mile lower down the stream are 
the ruins of a priory, founded by Richard, brother 
of Henry III., and a cavern known as St Robert's 
Cave, where Eugene Aram, now so well known 
through Sir Lytton Bulwer's novel, committed the 
murder in 1746, of which he was convicted fifteen 
vears after. The streets of Knarcsborou^h are 
broad, regularly laid out, well paved, and lighted 
with gas : the houses are almost wholly of stone, 
and many of them laige and handsome. The 
market-piaoe is extensive, and there u a good 
market-nouse. The court-house occupies the centre 
of the old castle, and another part of it is used 
as a prison for the liberty of the forest of Knares- 
borough. The par. church is of considerable an- 
tiquity, but little beautv. The Independents, 
Wesleyan Methodists, and R. Catholics have also 
places of worship, and the Sunday schools of the 
church and chaplels are attended by upwards of 
800 children, A charity school, two national 
schools, an infant school, a school of industry, and 
two other schools, furolBh instruction to about 600 
children, chiefly belonging to the working classes. 

The public institutions of the town compiise a 
public hbrazy, dispensaiy, lying-in charity, savings' 
bank, and Bible society. 

The industry of Knaresborough is chiefly con- 
fined to linen-weaving. The trade has been long 
established, and a lar^ amount of capital is vested 
in milk, warehouses, and machinery. Knares^ 
borough has a great com market, and from this 
place and Ripon the maimfacturing districts of the 
W. Riding are principally supplied. 

Knares^rough is abor. by prescription, governed 
by a bailiff. Amount assessed to property tax, 
12,694/. in 1862. The parL franchise was granted 
in 1 Mary (1553), since which the bor. has sent 
two mems. to the H. of C. The right of voting, 
till 1832, was vested in the owners of 84 burgage 
tenures, all of which, excepting four, being the 
property of the duke of Devonshire, the members 
were his nominees. The Boimdary Act enlarged 
the limits of the bor. by including in it parts of 
the townships of Scriven and Knaresborough. 
Registered electors, 271 in 1865. Markets on 
Wed., and on alternate Weds, for cattle. Sheep 
fairs, Wed. and Thurs. after Jan. 13, Wed. after 
March 12, May 6 and 7, Aug. 12. Statute fairs, 
Tues. and Wed. aft^r October 10, and Wed. after 
Kov. 22. 

KNIGHTON, a market town, pari bor., and 
par. of N. Wales, co. Radnor, on the Teme, 28 m. 
SSW. Shrewsbury, and 138 m. WNW. London. 
Pup. of pari. bor. 1,655, and of par. 1,853 in 1861. 

Area of parish, 252 acres. The town comprises 


two chief streets, intersecting each other at right 
angles, and the ^ntle acdivitj' on which it stands, 
not only gives it a picturesque appearance, but 
greatly contributes to its cleanliness. A small 
modem-built church, subordinate to that of Stowe 
in Shropshire, and a chapel for Methodists, are the 
onlv places of worship ; and the charities comprise 
a nree-school and an almshouse. Knighton is 
principally occupied by tradesmen, mechanics, and 
maltsters. It has no manufactures, the wool-dyeing 
and spinning business having ceased to exist. 
Wool-stapling is carried on to some extent, though 
much less than before 181 1, when a large establish- 
ment failed. The market is large, and is attended 
by dealers from Birmingham and its neighbour- 
hood, who come for meat, poultry, eggs, butter, 
and cheese. Petty sessions are held monthly. 
The officers of the borough are a bailiff, burgesses, 
and constables ; but they have little or no author- 
itv, and the bailiff's only business is to collect the 
chief rents of the manor, which belongs to the 
earl of Oxford. The boundaries of the parL bor. 
were not changed by the Boundary Act of 1832, 
and in 1866 there were 401 registered electors in 
the bor. of New Radnor, to which Knighton is 

Knighton is called by the Welsh Tref-y-Clawd, 
or * the town on the dyke,' from the circumstance 
of its position close to* Offa's dyke, which enters 
the parish on the N., and running due S. about 2 
m., may be traced through sevenl parishes into 
the CO. of Hereford. 

KNUTSFORD (corrapted from CtuU^s Ford, 
so called because the Danish Canute crossed here 
with his army), a market town and par. of Eng- 
land, co. Chester, hund. Bucklow, 11^ m. W. by 
N. Macclesfield, 13^ m. S. by W. Manchester, and 
164 m. NW. London, on the London and North 
Westem railway. Pop. of town, 3,576, and of iM&r. 
4,194 in 1861. Area of parish, 4,300 acres. The 
town is divided into two parts, called Over and 
Nether Knutsford. by the brook Birken, an affluent 
of the Bodlin, which rises about ^ m. S. In 
Nether Knutsford aro the market-place, sessions- 
house, and oounty-gaoL The church, a modem 
stmcture of brick and stone, with a square tower, 
was built in 1741, when the parish was separated 
trom that of Rostheme. The living is a vicarage 
in private patronage. Another church, at Over 
Knutsford, is in the patrona^ of Lord de Tabley. 
The other places of worship are for Wesleyan 
Methodists, Independents, and Unitarians; and 
Sundav schools are connected with the two former, 
as well as the churches. The charities of the 
town comprise a free school, founded in the reign 
of Edward YI., and well endowed by an ancestor 
of the Legh family, a school of industry for 100 
girls, supported by the Egerton family (who sup- 
port also another school at Rostheme), and a 
parochial school for 70 boys. The manufactures 
of shag, cotton velvet, sewing thread, worsted, and 
leather, employ manv hands ; but the supply of 
the wants of the opulent gentry in the neighbour- 
hood is a chief source of support to the trades- 
people. Races are held annually in July, and 
are well attended. Knutsford is the election 
town for the N. division of Cheshire, and sessions 
are held in July and October. Markets on Satur- 
days. Cloth and cattle fairs, Whit-Tues., July 10, 
and Nov. 8. 


KONIEH (an. /ocmtum), a town of Asiatic 
Turkey, prov. Karamania, cap. of a pach. and 
sandjiak of its own name, 27 m. K by S. Smyrna, 
and 132 m. S. Angora. Pop. about 8*0,000, chiefly 
Turks. It extenc^ over the plain E. and S. far 
beyond the walls, which are about 2 m« in drc. 



Snow-covered monntaios sarroond the level coon- 
tzy on every side except the E., where a dreary 
pLiiiii extends to the horizon. The walls were 
Doilt by the Soljek soltans, of materials taken 
from more ancient edifices; and the figures in 
oho relievo which ornament the gates are alleged 
to be amongst the finest in Turkey. In the middle 
of the town a small eminence is covoed with the 
remains of a fortified palace, once inhabited by the 
Sdjuk princes. The present public buildings com- 
prise 12 large and numerous smaller mosques (that 
of Saltan &lim having been built on the model of 
St. Sophia at Ck)n8tantinople), several madressas 
or colleges, 2 Armenian churches, 4 public baths, 
and 7 khans for the accommodation of merchants. 
The importance of Konieh belong to the past, 
for it has now dwindled into insignificance, and 
exhibits every mark of desolation and decay. A 
few carpets and some morocco leather are manu- 
factured here; but trade is in a very languishing 
state, and far the greater portion of the adjacent 
territory is permitted to he waste. 

Iconium, the cap. of Lycaonia, mentioned by 
Herodotus and Xenophon as being on the great 
post road between Sa^rdis and Susa, is report^ by 
Stzabo to have been a well-built town, situated in 
a fine country, and is celebrated in gospel history 
as having been the scene of St Paul's persecution 
by the unbelieving inhab. (Acts xiv. 1 — 7.) 
After the taking of Nioea by the Crusaders in 
1099, it became the residence of the Seljnk sultans 
of Ruum, by whom it was much embellished and 
enlarged. Frederick Bart>aro6sa expelled them in 
1189; but, after his death, they re-entered their 
capital, and lived in splendour till the irruption 
of Jenghis-Khan and his son Holukow, who broke 
the power of the Seljuks. Konieh has been in- 
cluded in the dominions of the Grand Seignior 
since the time of Bajazet, who finally extirpated 
the Ameers of Karamania. 

KONIGGKATZ (Boh. Ktxdowy-Hradeez, Atown 
of Bohemia, cap. drc. of same name, on the £lbe, 
63 m. ENE. Prague, with which it is connected 
by railway. Pop. 5,061 in 1857. The town is 
fortified, and has 8 suburbs, some laige barracks, a 
fine cathedral, Jesuits' college, episcopal seminary, 
gymnasium, high school, arid a celebrated orphan 
asylum. Woollen cloth weaving is the chief 
emplovment of the inhabitants. It was taken 
several times by the Prussians during the last 

KONIGSBERG, a large dty of the Prussian 
states, cap. of the prov. or Prussia Proper, and of 
a reg. and circ. of the same name, 820 m. N*. Ber- 
lin, on the railwav fh>m Berlin to Wilna and 
St. Peterebuig. Pop. 94,680 in 1861. A bar at 
the mouth of the Piegal prevents vessels drawing 
more than 5 or 6 ft. water ascending the river to 
KSnigsbeig, so that its port is properly at Pilhiu, 
at the junction of the Frische Hail with the 
Baltic A part of Kttnigsberg is built on an island 
formed by the Pre^el, the houses being founded 
on piles, as at Temce and Amsterdam. Opposite 
to this island, and on the N. bank of the river, 
stands the rest of the city, consisting of the old 
town, and a quarter to the £. called Lobenicht. 
The drc of these 3 quarters, which properly form 
the dtv, hardly exceeds 2 m. ; but the suburt>s 
are very widely spread, and the wall that encloses 
the whole is no less than 9 m. in circ. A large 
portion of the included space, however, consists 
of gardens and open fields. The streets of the old 
town are long, narrow, and ill-paved, lined by 
lofty old-fashioned houses, the basement stories 
of which project far out in the shape of teiraces, 
with their flights of steps guarded by antiquated 
brass railings. The old town contains the town- 



house, rebuilt in 1774 ; an anatomical theatre, a 
hospital for the widows and orphans of dtizens, 
and many Urge warehouses. The quarter to the 
£. of the old town contains a laige hospital on 
the river side, a mint, theatre, an orphan house 
Here also is the old royal palace or castle, now the 
government-house. The insuUted part of the 
town contains the council-house, exchange, and 
university buildings. Its orphan-house is also a 
conspicuous edifice, but none of these rival the 
cathedral, which, besides its architecture and 
ornaments, is remarkable for its organ, erected in 
1721, contauiing 5,000 pipes, and for several 
monuments of the old dukes of Brandenbuig, the 
founders of the monarchy. There are 7 bndges 
over the arms of the Pregcl. 

KSnigsberg is the seat of the government of the 
prov., and of a court of appeal and a tribunal of 
commerce. Its university, founded in 1644, had 
Kant, who died here in 1804, for one of its pro- 
fessors, and is attended by about 850 students. 
The dty has, besides, three gymnasiums, two 
seminaries for preachers, with numerous schools, 
a royal literary society, a celebrated observatory, 
and various otiier literary establishments, and a 
blind asylum. There are manufactures of woollens, 
cottons, leather, gloves, lace, wax, soap, and re- 
fined sugar, with breweries and distilleries on a 
large scale. The great articles of export consist 
of wheat, rye, barley, oats, pease, tares, fiax and 
hemp, timber, linseed, ashes, and bristles; the 
imports being colonial products, cotton and cotton 
twist, wine, dye stuffs, spioes, oil, and coals. 

K()OM, a city of Persia, prov. Irak-Adjemi, 
district of its own name, 186 m. N. by W. Ispa- 
han, and 60 m. S. by W. Teheran ; kt. 84° 46' 
N., long. 50© 29' E. Pop. estim. at 7,000. The 
city stands in an extensive plain, and on the banks 
of a small river rising at no great distance, and 
lost eastward in the great salt desert. On ap- 
proaching the citv, the remains of habitations, 
giurdens, and tomlw become so numerous as to 
evince that this district was formerly very popu- 
lous. Among the sepulchral ruins are upwairds of 
100 tombs of imam zadehs (descendants of imftros), 
distinguished by their tiled cupolas. There is a 
very beautiful college, with a celebrated mosque 
and mausoleum dedicated to the memory of 
Fatima, the daughter of Im&m Reza, and con- 
taining the tombs also of Sefi I. and Shah Abbas 
II. The dome is lofty, and with the interior 
covered with gilt plates. Koom, although for- 
merly a place of some trade in fruit, silk, soap, 
swoid-blades, and white earthenware, has sunk 
into utter insignificance. The bazaars hardly 
contain 40 shops, and the only employment of the 
inhab. is the cultivation of a little corn and rice. 
In fact, the place is little more than a mass of 
ruins, and at least two-thirds of the buildings have 
been untenanted for half-a-century. Its sanctity, 
however, as a place of refuge and pil^mage, is 
generally celebrated throu^ont Persia, and de- 
votees still order their bones to be brought here 
for sepulture. 

Koom is conjectured to stand on the site of the 
ancient Choana, visited by Alexander. In the 
Shah Nameh it is named as an ancient city, and 
its foundation assigned to Kai-Kobad. More de- 
pendence, however, may be placed on the state- 
ment, that it was dther founded or rebuilt by the 
Saracens, about the beginning of the ninth cen- 
tury. Timur-Leng destroyed it, but it regained 
its importance under the Sefi dynasty. In Char- 
din's time there were 15,000 houses, 20 large 
mosques, extensive bazaars and a handsome bridge 
over the river; but in 1722, when the A%hans 
invaded Persia, they pillaged and all but destroyed 



the city. Repeated earthquakes have also much 
damaged the remaining buildings, and Koom is 
now only a melancholy ruin. 

KOONDOOZ, an indep. khanat of Central Asia, 
between the 85th and 38th deg. N. lat, and the 
86th and 72nd £. long., at present comprising, as 
tributar}' states, Budukshan, and many other Hmall 
chiefehips N. of the Hindoo Koosh. It has N. the 
territ. of Hissar and Durwaz, £. the Bolor-Tagh 
mountains, separating it from the Chinese dom. ; 
S. Caufiristan and the Hindoo Koosh, which di- 
vides it from Caubul ; and W. a part of Affghan- 
i^an and the territ. of Balkh. The central part 
of this dom., or Koondooz Proper, seems to be 
situated on a lower level than, the surrounding 
provs. It is of limited dimensions, is enclosed 
by ranges of low hills, and watered l^ two of the 
pnnci{«l tributaries of the Oxus, in the upper part 
of its course. It is in many parts so marshy, that 
the roads are obliged to be constructed on piles of 
wood, fixed among noxious and rank vegetation. 
The climate is pestiferous; snow lies for three 
months in winter, but the heat in summer is often 
excessive. The soil is, however, very fertile ; and 
produces abundant crops of grain. In the marshy 
grounds rice is the chief product, and in the drier 
grounds wheat and barley. The revenues of the 
chief are derived, as in the other £. states, from 
the land : they are paid principally in kind, and 
are said to amount to a third part of the produce 
of the soiL Apricots, plums, and chernes, are 
plentiful, as are most necessaries of life ; a good 
deal of silk, also, is produced on the banks or the 
Oxus. Since the conquest of Budukshan, that 
proy. has been, in a great measure, depopulated. 
Its inhab. being carried off to cultivate the lands 
of Koondooz, where they die rapidly from the 
effects of the climate. The surrounding provs. 
have mostly both a rich soil and a good climate. 
The inhabs. of Koondooz are mostly Tadjiks. (See 
Bokhara.) The khan or meer is, however, an 
Uzbek, Koondooz appearing to be the most 
southerly region into which the Uzbeks ever pene- 
trated, and afterwards succeeded in establishing 
their dominion. The army, comprising about 
20,000 cavalry with six pieces of artillery, consists 
chiefly of Uzbeks ; but most of the civil employ- 
ments under the state remain in the hands of 
the native pop. The khan frequently makes 
* chupawali,'' or predatory incursions into the 
neignbouring territ of Balkh, and the Hazaureh 
coimtry, for prisoners, whom he sells for slaves ; 
and the chief of Chitral pays his tribute in human 
beings, who, being also sold by the Khan, form a 
principal article of export from Koondooz. There 
IS a considerable trade between Koondooz and the 
Chinese prov. of Yarkund, and sometimes an ex- 
change of presents. Tea is an important article 
of consumption. European and other foreign 
luxuries are derived from Bokhara, in exchange 
for slaves and cattle sent to its markets. At pre- 
sent, of all the Uzbek state;), Koondooz is the most 
adverse to British influence. 

Koondooz, the nominal cap., is in a wide valley, 
near the confluence of two rivers, about lat. 36^ 
60' N., and long. 69® 10' E. It has formerly been 
a large town, but its pop. does not now exceed 
1,500. It has a mud fort, surrounded by a ditch, 
and the winter residence of the chief. The largest 
town in the khan's dom. is Khooloom. 

KOROTCHA, or KAROTCHA, a town of 
Russia in Europe, gov. Koursk, cap. circ., on the 
river of the same name, and on the road from 
Voronoje to Kharkoff, 100 m. SW. the former city. 
Pop. 6,171 in 1858. The tovm is well built, and 
surrounded by numerous gardens, and has sevend 
churches, nearly all, however, constructed of 


timber. It has also a saltpetre manufactofy, with 
an extensive trade in apples, for which its vicinity 
is famous. Korotcha was founded by Michael 
Fedorovitch in 1658, as a barrier against the in- 
cursions of the Crim-Tartars. 

aecunda)j a town of European Turkey, prov. Rou- 
melia, and cap. sandiiak of its own name, 107 m. 
N. Salonica, and 192 m. WNW. Adrianoplc. Pop. 
estimat. at 8,000. It stands on the N. declivity 
of the Karasu mountains, at a short distance from 
the right bank of the Strouma (the an. Sirymon), 
and is defended by a crenellated wall flanked with 
square towers. A bazaar, governor's palace, and 
several sulphur baths are the only public esta- 
blishments. Employment is given to a portion 
of the pop. by the 'silver and iron mines of the 
neighbouring mountains. 

KOSTROMA, a gov. of Russia in Europe, be- 
tween 660 45' and 59° 1 2' N. lat, and 40° 27' and 48^ 
E. long., having N. the gov. of Vologda, W. Jaro- 
slavl, S. Wladmir and Nijegorod, and £. Yiatka. 
Area 30,400 sq. m. Pop. 1,076,988 in 1858. Sur- 
face flat, with some undulations. It is indifferently 
fertile, being marshy in the N., while in the S. it 
is sandy and clayey! Climate severe, but healthy. 
It is watered by the Wolga, and by its important 
tributaries the Ounia and Vetlouga. Principal 
com crop rye, but the cjnantity grown is insufli- 
cient for the consumption. Flax and hemp are 
largely produced. Cattle few, and but little at^ 
tended to. This, however, is not the case with 
the forests, which are extensive, valuable, and 
better taken care of than those of most other go- 
vernments. The rivers and lakes furnish abun- 
dance of fish. The inhabs. particularly excel in 
the preparation of Russia leather, and there are 
various fabrics of cloth and linen. Many of the 
peasants are masons, carpenters, Ac, who seek for 
employment in the summer season in the con- 
tiguous governments ; and many are employed at 
home, in the making of charcoal, pitch and tar, 
mats, of which there is an immense consumption, 
boats, and rafts. 

* Kostroma, tJie cap. of the above gov., on the 
Wolga, at the confluence of the Kostroma with 
that river. Pop. 20,630 in 1858. The situation 
of the town is elevated and agreeable ; houses 
mostly of stone ; the rampart of earth by which 
it was formerly surrounded has been converted 
into a promenade. It has a handsome cathedral, 
two lai^e convents, a great number of churches, 
and a large stone building, or bazaar, for the sc> 
curity, exhibition, and sale of merchandise. There 
are several tanneries, with manufactures of linen, 
Prussian blue, soap, and tallow, a bell-foundry. 
Various fairs, and a considerable commerce. 

KOTAH, a town of Hindostan, prov. Rajpoo- 
tana, on the Chumbid, 195 m. SW. Agra. Pop. 
estim. at 25,000. The town has some good and 
well stocked bazaars, and a great number of 
temples and substantiid private houses. The en- 
trances to Kotah are through double gateways, and 
its walls are surrounded by a fosse hewn in the 
solid rock. Its chief public edifice is the palace of 
the rajah, rendered conspicuous by its loltv white 
turrets, and enclosed by a separate line of^^ works. 
Kotah has manufactures of cloth and other ardclea 
of native consumption. Its territory is among the 
most flourishing of India. 

KOURSK, a government in the S. part of Eu- 
ropean Russia, having that of Orloff on the N., 
Voronetz on the E., Kharkoff on the S., and 
Tchemigoff on the W. Area 17,382 sq. m. Pop. 
1,811,972 in 1858. Surface flat, or slightly undu- 
lating; soil vcr>' fertile; forests not very exten- 
sive, and in some parts there is a scarcity of wood. 



There are no navigable rivers, the want of which 
is oD« of the ^preatest drawbacks on the govern- 
ment. The climate b mild and healthy. Com is 
kept in silos, or caves, sometimes for 6 or 10 years 
together, and there is always a large surplus for 
exportation. Hemp and flax, tobacco and hops, 
are also produced. The pastures, which are ex- 
cellent, afford ample provision for laige herds of 
oxen, with horses and sheep. Manufactures con- 
siderable and improving, consisting of coarse 
doth for the army and the peasantry, leather, soap, 
saltpetre, spirits,* and earthenware. 

KouRSK, a town of European Russia, cap. of 
the above gov., 268 m. S. Moscow. Pop. 27,056 
in 18o8. The town once had a citadel and ram- 
parts ; bnt the former is in ruins, and the latter 
has been converted into public walks. Situation 
elevated ; houses principally of wood, but many 
of stone ; streets narrow, crooked, and ill paved. 
There are two convents, numerous churches, with 
a g^'ronasium, a normal school, a hospital, and a 
foundling hospital. It is a thriving, industrious 
town, having numerous tanneries, tile and earthen- 
ware, and wax and tallow works. It carries on 
an extensive commerce with Petersburg, Moscow, 
and Odessa, sending to them cattle and horses, 
tallow, leather, wax and honey, hemp and furs. 

Korennaia Poustyn, a convent in the vicinity 
of Koursk, is celebrated for a miraculous image of 
the Vi^^, and for a great fair held annually on 
the ninth Friday after £aster, resorted to equally 
by merchants and pilgrims. 

town of Asiatic Russia, gov. Yeniseisk, of which 
it is the cap., in a plain of great beauty and fer- 
tility, on the Yenesd, and on the high road be- 
tween Tobolsk and IrkuUk, 290 m. £. by S. 
Tomsk. Pop. 7,628 m. 1858. Though small, this 
is a town of some importance, being the emporium 
of a wide extent of country. It is well built; its 
two principal streets are broad, and its houses, 
which are mostly faced with pknks, are painted 
in bright colours. Its chief public buildings are, 
several churches; an edifice, partly of stone, occu- 
pied by the government offices ; and a large fac- 
tory, devoted to several branches of industry, 
especially coach-building, and the manufacture of 
Russia leather. The district subordinate to this 
town is the most productive in the prov. Irkutsk, 
of grain, cattle, and horses. Within the last fifty 
veara this town has been rising considerably in 
importance, and it has now a brisk traffic in 
Chines and agricultural produce. 

KR£MNITZ.(Hung. Komwcz-Bcmya), a royal 
town of Hungary, oo. Bacs, and one of the prin- 
cipal muring and coining towns of the kingdom ; 
in a deep vallej* 10 m. W. Neusohl, and 88 m. 
ENE. Presburg. Pop. 8,603 in 1857. The walled 
town comprises a castle and about 40 houses, one 
of which 18 the mine, ranged round an open space 
in which the market is hdd. In the suburbs are 
many mining offices, and about \ m. distant are 
the smelting furnaces. Kremnitz is ill paved, 
dirty, and disagreeable. It has 5 churches ; one 
with a lofty gilt and coppered steeple and very 
gand^ internal ornaments, 3 chapels, a Protestant 
meeting-houae, 2 hospitals, a royal infirmary for 
miners, a gymnasium, normal and girls' schools, 
and a Lutheran grammar school; and it is the 
seat of municipal and mining tribunals, and of a 
mint, and councils of mines and forests. 

The Kremnitz mines have 11 or 12 principal 
shafts, attached to which are 18 or 20 washing 
worka (pochwerken). The best mines belong to 
private companies, bnt the richest veins of Krem- 
nitz are for the most part exhausted, and a con- 
siderable portion of the former working is under 



water. The mines at present yield about 15,000 
marcs of silver, and 250 do. of gold a year. 
These metals, however, are rarely found pure, but 
much intermixed with copper, lead, and arsenic 
Quartz is the matrix of the ore, which is first re- 
duced by the hammer, to small pieces about the 
size of stones used for Macadamising roads. , The 
ore is next exposed to the stamping-mill, by 
which it is pulverised : it is then washed over 
slanting frames; somedmes roasted, to drive off 
the sulphur and arsenic; and is finally smelted. 
The object of this process, which lasts four and 
twenty hours, is to separate the noble from the 
ignoble metals, which is effected by the oxydation 
of the latter. At the moment the oxj'dation is 
complete, a bright bluish-white met^lic lustre 
spreads itaelf over the whole surface of the liquid 
metal. The impure metals are then allowed to 
run off, a stream of warm water is passed over the 
gold and silver to cool them ; the solid mass is 
taken out, cut up into bars, weighed, and sent off 
to the mint, where the gold and silver are sepa- 
rated and coined. The amount of gold and silver 
coined at Kremnitz is about 250,0002. a year 
(2,500,000 fior.). The silver is mostly coined into 
pieces of 20 kreutzers (zuunn^erj), and the gold into 
ducats and half ducats. Kren^nitz has also a royal 
vitriol factory, 2 paper-mills, and manufactures of 
earthenware and vermilion. It is abundantly 
supplied with excellent water by a water-course 
carried by a former archbishop of Gran, at his 
own expense, from the Thurocz to ELremnitz, a 
distance of 50 m. 

KRISHNA, or KISTXAH (the name of a sup- 
posed incarnation of Vishnu), a river of Hindos- 
tan, and one which bounds an important division 
of that country; the S. part of the peninsula 
being entitled * India S. of the Krishna.' It rises 
in the W. ghauts, near lat. 18P N. and long 74°, 
not far from Sattarah ; and runs with a veiy tor- 
tuous course £. for about 700 m., through the 
provs. Bejapoor, Beeder, and Hyderabad, and be- 
tween Masulipatam and Guntoor; falling into 
the ocean on the Coromandel coast by severid 
mouths, near lat, 16°, long 81°. Its course lies 
mostly through a mountainous country, greatly 
elevated above the sea ; its channel is of very ir- 
regular depth, much broken by rocks and rapids ; 
and it is altogether ill-adapted for navigation, ex- 
cept in the X^, Circars, where it is available for 
large boats. ,In the highlands the craft usually 
employed on it are round bamboo wicker baskets, 
covered with half-tanned hides, and directed with 
paddles. Its chief tributaries are the Joonga- 
budra, Gutpurba, and Malpurba, from the S. ; and 
the Seema and Mussy, from the N. Satarah is 
the principal city on its banks. It is said to be 
much more productive of gems than the Gtxiaver}', 
diamonds, chalcedonies, onyx, and other precious 
stones, and some gold, being found in its sediment 
in the drv season. 

KULDSHA, GULDSCHA, or ILI, a city of 
Chinese Turkestan, cap. prov. Ili or £1^, in lat. 
42° 46' N., long. 82° 48' 15", about 450 m. NE. 
Yarkund. It lb said to be 18 Chinese li (about 
5 m.) in circuit, surrounded by mud walls and wet 
ditches, and entered by six gatea The town is 
much better built than either Kotan or Bokhara : 
the houses are either of stone or wood, seldom of 
earth, and the streets are traversed by running 
streams. The inbab. are mostly Chinese ; there 
are, however, about 1,500 Toorkee families, who 
profess Mohammedanism, but whose dress and 
customs resemble those of the rest of the pop. 
The inhab. of Kuldsha are very industrious, and 
devoted to commerce. Almost every house baa 
, a shop, frequently filled with expensive merchau- 




due; besides which, the streets abound with, 
moveable stalls, and hawken going about to sell 
their wares, Kuldsha being the entrepot of an 
extensive region, peopled W nomadic Kalmuck 
tribes. It is the residence of a Chinese governor. 
KUMAON, or KEMAON, a prov. of N. Hin- 
dostan, presid. of Bengal, compnaing, with Ku- 
maon Proper, that portion of Gherwad SE. of the 
Alcananda river; chiefly between lat. 29^ and 31^ 
N., and long. 78° and 81° E., having NW. Inde- 
pendent Gherwal, NE. the great range of the 
Himalava, separating it from Thibet, SE. Nepanl, 
and SW. the prov. Delhi. Area 6,962 sq. m.; 
pop. 166,766. The whole country is overspread 
by mountains successively ascending from SW. to 
K£., till they reach the height of 25,000 fL The 
Ganges in the upper part of its course, the Kalee, 
and a few of their tributaries, are the chief rivers ; 
there are no lakes of any consequence. The 
lower portion of the prov. u covered with jungle 
interspersed with groups of saul, sisso, and other 
timber trees, and tracts of high reedy grass. The 
centnd hilly region is an almost uninterrupted 
forest ; above the elevation of 2,600 ft. the vege- 
tation of the tropics gives place to the pine, oak, 
and rhododendron. The fruits and vegetables of 
Europe are common, and thrive well. Wheat, 
mandua, and other diy grains are those principally 
grown, but rice also is cultivated alternately with 
the foregoing, a regular rotation of crops* being 
pursued. Hemp is raised in laige quantities, and 
grows luxuriantly to the height of 12 or 14 ft. ; 
little cotton is raised, though it is of excellent 
quality. The sovereign has the entire property 
of the soil ; and the great functionaries under the 
native gov. were always paid by grants of land, 
or by perquisites arising from the soil. The ope- 
rations of tillage, except ploughing and harrow- 
ing, are chiefly performed by women. The im- 
plements and operations of husbandry are similar 
to those in the plains of Hindoetan. Irrigation is 
frequently effected bv aqueducts carried a con- 
siderable distance, and water-mills, scarce in Hin- 
dostan, are here common. The breeds of homed 
cattle are small, but yield ver}' good milk ; there 
are domesHc camels, but they are small, and goats 
and sheep are principally used for the transport of 
goods. Elephants, tigers, leopards, and various 
kinds of deer abound. Copper, iron and lead mines 
are wrought to some extent; and garnets, rock 
crystal, and bitumen are met with. Manufac- 
tures very few; they include blankets, coarse 
camlets, hempen doUis, coarse cottons, bamboo 
mats and baskets, and wooden vessels. Artisans 
are sufficiently numerous in the towns, but their 
work exhibits little neatness. It is singular that, 
though the saw, plane, and tnming-laUie be un- 
known to joiners, the goldsmiths are acquainted 
with the use of the spirit blow-pipe. The inhabs. 
at laxge are more inclined to commerce than agri- 
culture. They cany iron, copper, ginger, tur- 
meric, and other hUl drugs and roots into the 
plain of N. Hindostan, where they exchange 
them for ccarse chintz, cotton cloths, sugar, to- 
bacco, coloured glass, beads, and hardware ; and 
they frequently travel to execute mercantile com- 
missions as far as Furruckabad and Lucknow. 
The traders of more capital send the products of 
.India across the mountains into Thibet, where 
they are exchanged for hawks, musk, coarse cam- 
lets, wax, incense, and other drugs and roots, the 
produce of that country : and borax, salt, and 
gold-dust from Tartary. In the marts of Kumaon, 
the chief of which are Mandi, Kasipoor, Chillda, 
Afzelghnr, and Naiibadad, sugar-candy, spices, 
European broad cloths and corsJ, from the S., are 
exchanged for shawl wool, csarse shawk, China 


silks, saffron and hides. Large periodical fairs 
are held at the above places, whence neoemanes 
are procured, there being no village maricets in 
Kumaon. The country is thinly peopled; the 
inhabs. are of two distinct races, the dominant 
being the Hindoo, and the supposed aborigines a 
race apparently of Tartar origin, many of whom, 
called dom9y appear to have been reduced to a 
state of slavery by their Hindoo conquerors. The 
native government was despotic in an oppressive 
degree till the British took possession of the 
country in 1816; since which the condition of 
Kumaon and its inhabs. has been progressively 
ameliorated. Kumaon, like many other parts of 
N. Hindostan, contains numerous places of Hindoo 
pilgrimage, and many Hindoo temples. 

KUR Tan. Cynu), a river of Western Aria, in 
Georgia, having its rise within the Turlcish do- 
minions, not far from Kars, on a S. offset of the 
Caucasian range, dividing the tributaries of the 
Caspian from those of the Black Sea, in lat. 41 <^ 
N., and long. 42^ 30' E. It assumes its name 
near the town of Akiskar, whence it flows about 
80 m. ENE. to Gori. Its course thenceforward is 
SE., by Tiflis, through the plain of Kara, and 
afterwards through a lower plain abounding with 
salt marshes, and in which are several mud vol- 
canoes and petroleum springs. The latter of these 
plains is frequently overflowed by the river. The 
total length of the Kur, as measured along \Xs 
windings, somewhat exceeds 620 m. Its chief 
aflluents are — I. the Alazan, from the main Cau- 
casian ridge, joining the main scream in lat. 40^ 
66^ N., and long. 46° 51' E. ; and 2nd, the Aras 
(an. Araxe$)t which rises near Erzeroum, curvca 
northward round Mount Ararat^ and thence runs 
SE., and afterwards NE., to its juncture with the 
Kur, at Dlwat. The Kur at this point is 140 
yards broad, and may be navigated by hage boats 
to its mouth on the W. side of the Caspian Sea, 
a distance of about 100 m. Fishing villages are 
established on its lower banks, and great wealth 
is accumulated from the proceeds of these flsheriea. 
A delta at the mouth projects conadembly into 
the Caspian Sea. 

KURACHEE, or KARACHEE, the principal 
sea-port of Sinde, NW. Hindostan, on the E. side 
of an inlet of the Indian Ocean, 80 m. SW. Hy- 
derabad, and about 18 m. from the W. arm of the 
Indus. Pop. 22,237 in 1861. Kurachee is built 
on a low, barren, sandy shore, and is walled. The 
town is irregularly laid out, and the streets are so 
narrow that two people can scarcely walk abreast. 
The houses are chieny of mud and sandstone, ob- 
tained in great abundance from the coast Kura- 
chee has a considerable trade with Cutch, Bom- 
bay, and the principal porta on the Malabar coast. 
Its harbour is commodious, perfectly safe in all 
winds, and, though not deep, is capaUe of shelter- 
ing vessels of 200 or 300 tons ; so that it is of 
greater commercial importance than any of the 
ports on the Indus, which can only be reached 
flrom the sea by flat-bottomed boats. Nearly all 
the Malwa opium exported seaward is shipped at 
Kurachee. Most of the men engaged in the 
fisheries of Sinde are from Kurachee, and are 
superior in intelligence and appearance to the 
other inhab. of the coast. Kurachee was bom- 
barded and taken in a few hours by a small 
British force, on the 2nd of Feb., 1839. 

KURDISTAN, an extensive countiy of W. 
Asia, comprised chiefly within the basin of the 
Tigris, and belonging partly to Turkey and partly 
also to Persia ; being bounded N. by Armenia, E. 
by Azerbijan and Irak-Adjimi, S. by Khuzistan 
and the pach. of Bagdad, and W. by Diari)ekir 
and Algezira. Area roughly estimated at 62,000 


tq. m. ; and pop. at 1,000,000, of whom more than 
three-fourths are Kords. The sarface of the 
countiY is very onequal ; but the mountams are 
mach loftier and more frequent in its N. part, the 
plains in the latter being ahio consideraoly more 
elevated than hi S. Kurdistan. Hence there is a 
great difference of climate in the two sections into 
which the country is divided. The principal 
ranges are the Ejebel-tagh and Nimrod ; the cul- 
minating summit being the snow-covered Mount 
Bisutum, rising 7,500 ft. above the surrounding 
plain, and about 12,000 ft abo\^e the sea. The 
geological constitution of these mountains consist 
of serpentine hornblende and other primaiv rocks, 
covered, except in the highest parts, by transition 
limestone, old red sandstone, and various saliferous 
formations with odier locks, ascending even, in 
^some parts, to the London clay. The principal 
'riven are the Tigris, Diala, Great and Little Zab, 
Kermh, and Kabur. Extensive and rich pasture 
grounds support ^p^at numberB of sheep and goats, 
the rearing of which constitutes the cluef emplov- 
ment of the pop., and their produce almost the 
whole wealth of the country. Hence, in the 
Kurd dialect (which is a patois, composed chiefly, 
though not entirely, of Arabic and Persian), the 
word OToA/, which means wealth generally, applies 
in a primary and more particular sense to flocks of 
sheep. It B estimated that 600,000 sheep and 
goats are annually supplied to Constantmople 
ftom Kmdistan. Each flock comprises fiiom 1,500 
to 2,000 animals, and the time required to take 
them to their destination is somewhat more than 
seventeen months. The N. part produces the 
grains and fruits of middle Europe, while in the 
S. the plains and valleys produce, in addition, 
rice, cotton, tobacco, with a great variety of fruits. 
Excellent timber is found in the forests, and nut- 
galls form a laige article of export at Iskenderoon 
and Smyrna. Good cultivation prevails in the 
vicinity of the towns, and more especially between 
Hoenl and Bagdad. The agriculture of Kuidistan 
is elsewhere, however, in the most primitive con- 
dition ; and the implements of husbandly are less 
effective, even, than those of the neighbouring 
provinces, which owe almost eveiything to fiatnre 
and Terr little to industry. 

The Kurds, who inhabit this countir, and give 
to it its distinctive appellation, are commonly con- 
sidered as a mixed br&ed of Mongols and Uzbek 
Taitan, though this is doubtfuL Thev are Mo- 
hammedans, m the sect of Omar : their dress much 
resembles that of the Turks, but it is lighter, and 
they do not wear the turbans or the long beard. 
A red bonnet is their usual head-dress, and the 
outer garment is a doak of black goat-skin. They 
are excellent horsemen, and the exercise of the 
lanoe, with other military amusements, are points 
in which they particularly excel. Improvisation 
is commonly, and, on the whole, not unsuccess- 
fully practised; and their music, though rude, 
proves that they have a tolerable acquaintance 
with the art. There are two castes of Kurds, 
characterised by very different habits. Those of 
Turkish Kurdistan liave fixed habitations, are ac- 
quainted with the working of metals, weaving, 
and other arts, and live subject to their native 
princes, and governed by their own laws. The 
nomad Kurds are chieflv found in Persian Kur- 
distan and in the pachaliks of Diarbekr and Mosul ; 
often roaming over the desert in search of -plun- 
der to the neighbomhood even of Damascus and 
Aleppo. The love of theft and brigandage is a 
naarked feature in the whole race, without excep- 
tion ; and this accounts for their usual carelessness 
and improvidence about property, for which there 
18 no security. At the same time, all writers 

Vol. in. 



agree, that when visited by travellers they exer- 
cise the most generous hospitality, and often force 
handsome presents on their departing guests. The 
tents of the wandering tribes are low, hastily put 
together, constructed of coarse black doth, and 
generally divided into two parts for the men and 
women. A defence of reed hurdles surrounds the 
endosure in which the tents are pitched, and the 
horses ready saddled are tied to stakes close to 
the encampment. Females meet with better treat- 
ment among them than in the rest of Asia ; neither 
sex can marry without the permission of relatives, 
and the constancy of the contracting parties is 
commorrly tried during a long engagement pre- 
viously to marriage, which with them is considered 
a sacred and indissoluble tie. Hence the women 
are considered more as companions than slaves ; 
they are treated with respect, and there is a free- 
dom and openness in their character not to be 
found in other women of Turkey or PiBrsic. 

Turkish Kurdistan comprises the pachaliks of 
Mosul and Chehrezour, with small parts of the 
pachaliks of Van and Bagdad. Persian Kurdistan 
is divided into four districts^ Ardelan. Kerman- 
shah, and Kinghtavor, Kermanshah being the 
cap. and the residence of a bc^lerbeg. Neither 
the sultan, however, nor the king of Persia, has 
any substantial power, their utmost authority being 
litnited to the exaction of tribute, the payment of 
which they cannot always enforce. 

KUKIL*^ ISLANDS, a chain of small ishmds, 
twenty-five in number, connecting the peninsula 
of Kamtsehatka with the large islands forming 
the empire of Japan : they are chiefly dependent 
on Russia, but the three farthest S. belong to 
Japan. They extend between lat. ^89 46^ and 
51<> N., and long. 148o 50* and 1560 20' E., and 
occopy a length of more than 700 m. Pop. esti- 
mated at 1,200 in 1862. The surface is very irre- 
gular, some of the heights rising nearly 6,000 ft. 
above the ocean, while in other parts deep and 
narrow valleys are almost on a level with the sea. 
Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are of common 
occurrence, the islands being wholly of i^eous 
origin, indubitably show their eoiraeetion with the 
great volcanic band passing SSW. from Kamt- 
sehatka to the island of Formosa, through more 
than 80 deg. of lat. The shores are abmpt and 
difiicult of approach ; the coast currents are very 
violent, especially on the £. or ocean side ; and 
continual fogs, hovering over the islands, render 
access extremely difBcult The animals and plants 
differ little from those found in Kamtsehatka ; and 
the minerals oonsbt diiefiy of iron, copper, and 
sulphur. The inhab. mostly engage in hunting 
and fishing ; the former supplying them not only 
with meat, but also with furs, which serve as 
money for the Russian Americans, Japanese, and 
Dutch ; while the latter furnishes oil, whalebone, 
and spermaceti. Agricultctre is confined to the 
islands bdonging to Japan. The inhab. of the 
N. islands resemble the Kamtschatdales in 
honesty, openness of character, hospitality, and 
shyness to strangers. Those in the S. islands are 
Ainos, a race similar to the Japanese. These 
islands were discovered between 1713 and 1720; 
but they are very littie known even now, after the 
lapse of a century and a half. 

KURNOUL, a town of British India, presid. 
Madras, cap. of a subdivision of the Balaghaut 
ceded districts, which formerly composed an inde- 

5endent Patau priiidpality. Pop. 21,230 in 1861. 
lie town stands on the Toombuddra, 90 m. NE. 
Bdlary, defended on two sides by that river and 
its tributary the Hundry, and on the W. strongly 
fortified, three of its bastions being 50 ft. high, 
and covered to the parapets of the curtain by a 

^lyitized by 




steep glucifl. S. of the fort is the petiahj or open 
town, of considerable extent and pop. Kumoul 
was considered impregnable by the natives, and 
neither Hyder nor Tippoo ever attempted its cap- 
ture ; bat it was taken by the British, in 1815, 
after a siege and bombardment of a single day. 

KUTAIAH (an. Cotytsum), a town of Asiatic 
Turkey, cap. of the prov. Anatoli and of a sanjiak, 
180 m. ENE. Smyrna, and 134 m. W. by S. An- 
gora. Pop. estimated at 60,000, of whom about 
10,000 are Armenians, and 5,000 Greeks. The 
city stands at the foot of a cluster of mountains 
called the Pursak-Dagh, in which rises the Pursak 
(an. Thymbriu9)t flowing N. to the Black Sea. 
The streets, though st^ and narrow, contain 
many handsome and well-supplied fountains, and 
many of the private houses are large and well fur- 
nished. Besides 50 mosques, 20 of which have 
stone minarets, 1 Greek and 4 Armenian churches, 
there are 30 humnuuns or public baths, and 20 
khans. The house architecture is very similar to 
that of Constantinople ; and good gardens attached 
to many of the private resid^ces take o£f much of 
th^ sombre appearance common to Turkish towns. 
The surrounding country is well ¥ratered, and ex- 
tremely productive. Grain, cotton, nut-galls, and 
different fruits are raised in large quantities for 
exportation ; and goats and sheep are pastured for 
their hair and wool^ which fetch high prices in the 
markets of Smyrna and Constantinople. 

KUTCH, or CUTCH, a small territory of NW. 
Hindostan, between hit. 2^ 45' and 2d^ 45' N., and 
long, e^ 35' and 71^ 5' E., having N. and E. the 
Bunu, separating it from Sinde Riupootana and 
Gulrat, S. the Gulf of Kutch, and W. the ocean, 
and an arm of the Indus, which divides it from 
Sinde. Its shape is elongated ; greatest length, 
E. to W., 160 m. ; average breadth, 45 m. Area, 
6,764 sq. m. ; pop. estim. at 500,536. It is in goieral 
arid and barren ; but its scenery is bold, forming a 

rit contrast to that of the adjacent provs. on ^e 
and N. A chain of rocky hills runs through 
it in its whole length, dividing it into two nearly 
equal parts. This chain is of no great height, but 
its peaks rise in wild and volcanic cones of primary 
formation. It unites at its W. end with another 
mountain chain, running nearly parallel to it on 
the N. side, and from Doth many ramifications 
are given off. The streams of the prov. are mere 
torrents, dry when the rains have ceased ; there is 
no navigable river. The scarcity of water is, in 
fact, one of the greatest drawbacks on the country ; 
and the streams flowing N. of the mountains are 
all so braddsh that, in the hot season, they are not 
drunk even by the cattle. Good water is, how- 
ever, usually found 80 ft below ground. The sur- 
face ia mosUy sandy, the sand resting on strata of 
clay; but near the hills the country is covered 
with volcanic matters, which in India are of rare 
occurrence. CoiQ and iron of ^^ood quality, bitu- 
minous and ligneous petrifactions, and foanl ani- 
mals of a late geologicfil period, are found; and 
there are some mineru springs yielding alum and 
other salts in large quantities. The country is 
generally bare of wood; date trees are pretty 
common, and the neem, peepul, and babool are 
met vrith round the villi^es, but the tamarind, 
banyan, and mango are rare, and the cocoa-nut is 
reared with difflcnlty even on the sea coast. The 
arable land is chiefly in the narrow valleys between 
the mountain ranges towards the S. shore, which 
latter is the best watered portion of Kutch. Less 
com is grown than is necessary for home consump- 
tion, and it is imported from Gujrat, Malabar, 
and Sinde, in return for cotton, Ac. The Kutch 
horse is of a good breed ; but other domestic ani- 
mals, except goats, are generally very inferior. 


The singular tract called the Runn of Kutch, 
extends from the Indus to the W. confines of 
Gujrat, a distance of about 200 English m. In 
breadth it ia about 35 m. ; but there are, besides, 
various belts and ramifications, which give it an 
extent of about 7,000 sq. m. It has no herbage, 
and vegetable life is only discernible in the sh^>e 
of stunted tamarisk busnes, which thrive by the 
suction of the rain water. It differs as widely 
from the sandy desert as it docs firoin the culti- 
vated plain ; neither does it resemble the steppes 
of Russia, but may justly be considered of a 
nature peculiar to itseLUT. It has none of the cha- 
racteristics of a marsh ; it is not covered or satu- 
rated with water, but at certain periods ; it has 
neither weeds nor grass in its bed, which, instead 
of being slimy, is hard, dry, and sandy, of such a 
consistency as never to become clayey,' unless from 
a long continuance of water on an individual spot ; 
nor is it otherwise fenny or swampy. It is a vast 
expanse of flat, hudened sand, encrusted with 
salt sometimes an inch deep (the water having 
been evaporated by the sun), and, at others, beau- 
tifully crystallised in large lumps. So much ia 
the whole surrounding country imbued with this 
mineral, that all the wells dug on a level with the 
Runn become salt Fresh water is, in fact, ob- 
tained only on what may be called the peninsulaa 
and islands of the Runn, tracts of land elevated 
above the rest of that region, covered with ver- 
dure, and moderately peopled by a pastoral race. 
The Runn has every appearance of having been 
an inland sea; and the natives of Kutch have a 
tradition, that it was such about three centuries 
ago, and that Nerona, Bitaro, and other places on 
its Umits, were formal^ sea-ports. This is appa- 
rently confirmed by ship nails, and stones shaped 
like those still used as anchors, beinff frequently- 
met with ; and in one instance the huU of a vessel 
of some size was found imbedded in the soiL 
During the SW. monsoon the sea overfiows a 
laige part of the Runn ; and it is also sometimes 
partially inundated b^ the Loonee, Bunaas, Snn- 
drawuttee, and other nvers, which lose their waters 
in it. 

The mirage is here continually presented in 
wonderful perfection ; and the wild ass, the only 
inhab. of this desolate region, appears often to the 
traveller at a distance as large as an elephant. 
^ Kutch has undeigone many political vids- 
situdes which have been singuUu'ly connected 
with natural phenomena. In 1762, *the ruler of 
Sinde, unable to conquer this prov., threw a huad 
at dam across the Phurraun, the E. arm of the 
Indus, and converted the NW. portion of Kutch 
from a fruitful rice district into a sandy waste. 
In 1819, a violent earthquake shook every fortress 
throughout Kutch; destroyed Bhooj and Anjar; 
submeiged Sindree ; and upheaved the UOak b^nd 
(mound of God) across the former course of the 
Phunnaur, a tract of soft day and shells, 50 m. 
long, perhaps 16 broad, and many feet in height. 
In 1826, the Indus burst through the UUak bund, 
and, after an interval of 65 years, resumed its 
former channel, with a depth at Sindree of three 
fathoms; adroumstance which may perhaps re- 
store to Kutch a portion of its former commercial 

The chidT towns of the prov. are Bhooj, the cap., 
Mandavee, the principal port, Luckput, Moondra, 
Anjar, and Kotara. The exports are chiefly cotton, 
glue, and oil, which are transported in 'ooasUnf 
vessels of from 25 to 220 tons. The natives excel 
in naval architecture, and are noted for their aldll 
and daring as seamen and pilots. The sodal or- 
ganisation is analogous to that which (otevailed in 
many countries of Europe, in the middle ages. 

Digitized by 



Th« iBO is the head of a kind of feudal aristocracy; 
each member of which is absolute within his own 
domains. The rao can summon them all to his 
standard, with their followers, but he must papr 
tbem ; the nomber of chieftains is about 200, their 
SDnual revenue varying from 100 to 30,000 rupees 
each. The Jharejahs, to which sect the rao and 
his chieftains belong, are of Sindian origin, and 
ue a degraded, ignorant, and sensual race, who 
pass their lives m indolence and drunkenness. 
Thej uniformly many Bajpoot women ; and their 
pride is so great, that, lest their daughters should 
disgmee them by marr^'ing into inferior ranks, 
they are said sometimes to destroy them in in- 
faocr. The abolition of female infanticide formed 
the subject of an express stipulation between the 
British government and the rao; but there is 
reason to believe that it still prevails. The reli- 
gion of the pop. is a mixture of the Hindoo and 

KUTTENBERG (Boh. Kyttnahora), a town of 
Bohemia, and, after Pra^^e, Reichenberg, and 
£ger, the most populous in the kingdom, circle 
CzaaUn, 38 m. ESE. Prague. Pop. 12,727 in 
1857. The town had a larger numoer of inhab. 
before the failure of the veins of silver in the 
mines near it. The latter, however, still furnish 
a^iper, lead, arsenic, and zinc ; and miniiig in- 
dustry is the principal dependence of the inhab. 
The town has several pubhc edifices, the principal 
bemg the church of St. Barbara, a fine Gothic 
builmng. It has also a high school, a military 
Khool, an Ursuline convent a hospital, and fac- 
tories for printing cottons and spuming cotton 
yam. A ^ood deal of starch is made for exporta- 
tion to Silesia. The first German coins, cfdled 
rilver groschena, were struck here in 1300. 

EUZISTAN (an. Suskma), a prov. of Persia, 
sit* between lat 30^ and 880 N., and long. 47<^ and 



510 30' R, being bounded NW. by the pachalik 
of Bagdad, N. bv Louiistan, E. by Farsistan, and 
S. by the Persian Gulf. Length about 240 m., 
breadth 130 m. : supposed area. 9,600 sq. m. The 
country is divided between the territories of the 
Chab-Sheikh and those forming the government 
of Shuster. The Chab territories extend from the 
Chab to the confluence of the Karoon and Abzal, 
and from the shore of the Caspian Sea to the I'ange 
of hiUs skirting the valley of Ram-Hormuz. This 
part of the country consists principally of sandy 
plains and morasses, wholly destitute of vegeta- 
tion. Eastward, also, intersected by the river Tab, 
on the banks of which are a few cultivated spols, 
is a desert about 30 fursungs long, and varying in 
breadth from 10 to 16 fursungs. The most fertile 
spots in this part of Kuzistan are near Dorak, the 
capital of the Chab territories, and in the delta of 
the £uph]3ites: in the latter, dates and rice are 
produced in great abundance on well-irrigated 
lands, the rice harvest taking place in August and 
September. The grain-harvest is in April and 
May ; but the produce is insufficient for the con- 
sumption of the district. The N. and W. parts 
of the eountry afford tolerable pasturage; and 
here the wandering tribes, comprising the greater 
part of the pop., pitch their tents. The chief 
towns of the Chab territory are Dorak (the capital, 
with a pop. of 8,000, and a manufacture of Ara- 
bian cloaks, largely exported), Ahwaz, Endian, 
and Mashoor. The territories attached to the 
government of Shuster comprise the fairest part 
of Kuzistan : four noble rivers, with their tnbu- 
taries, irrigate the plain in every direction. Its 
riches in Strabo's time consisted of cotton, rice, 
sugar, and grain, yielding a hundred-fold ; but it 
is at present little better than a forsaken waste, 
the only signs of oiltivation being near Bundekeel 
and Haweeza. 


T.ABRADOB, an immense peninsula of British 
K. America, opposite the Jutland of Newfound- 
land, from which it is separated by the strait of 
Belieiale, extending between the oOth and 64th 
parallels of N. lat, and between long. 66^ and 
78^ W.; hang bounded S. by Cana& and the 
Golf of St Lawrence, £. by the Atlantic Ocean, 
N. by Hiadson's Straits, and W, by Hudson's Bay. 
Area estimated at 170,000 sq. m., with a fixed 
popi of 5,000, consisting diiefly of Esquimaux, 
with but a few Europeans. Labrador is generally 
described as one of the most dreary and naked 
regions of the globe, exhibiting scarcelv any thing 
except rocka destitute of vegetation. Sut, though 
this De its appearance when seen from off the coast, 
on penetrating a little into its interior, the surface 
is found to be thickly clothed with pines, birches 
and popUra, and with a profusion of delicate 
berries. It is everywhere most copiously irri- 
gated by brooks, streams, ponds, and lakes. A 
chain of high mountains appears inland, but their 
height is not correctlv known. Mount Thoresby, 
near the coast, is 2,730 ft high. The Labrador 
fielspar is found chiefiy in the vicinity of Nain. 
The prevailing rock is gneiss, overlaid by a bed 
of sandstone, alternately red and white, and 
strongly marked with iron near the surface : above 
this again are varieties of secondary limestone, 
arranged in parallel strata, and full of shells. A 
few miles from the shore, the secondary formations 
disappear, leaving gneiss and mica-slate on the 
surface. (Geog. Joum., vol. iv. p. 208.) The cli- 

mate is extremely severe, the tficiRnometer occa- 
sionally falling below zero of Fahi;; the summera 
are of short duration, with an av«raj^ day tem- 
perature of bSP. The prevailing winds, on the 
E. coast, are from WSW. to NW.: there is less 
fog than on the neighbouring island of Newfound- 
land, and the straits of Belleisle are never frozen 
over. Com will not ripen ; but potatoes, cabbages, 
spinach, and turnips answer pretty well. The 
wealth of the countnr, however, consists chiefly 
in the abundance of nsh on its coasts. Whales, 
cod, salmon, and herrings are extremely plentifuL 
The Labrador fishery is neariy confined to the SE. 
tract, opposite Newfoundland : within a few years 
it has increased six-fold, and it now rivals that of 
Newfoundland. During the fishing season, about 
300 schooners come from the latter to the fishing 
stations of Labrador, and about half the produce 
is sent to St John's, the remainder being ex- 
ported to England, Lisbon, and the Mediterranean, 
by English and Jersey houses unconnected with 
Newfoundland. The American fishing vessels ave- 
rage about 400, principally sloops and schooners, 
manned by crews varying from 9 to 13 hands, 
making a total of about 6,000 men. Each man 
catches, at an average, about 100 (quintals of fish 
during the season ; and the oil is m the propor- 
tion of 1 ton to 200 quintals. They frequent 
chiefly the N. part of the coast, clean their fish 
on board, and leave Labrador early in September. 
About 10 ships from Quebec, and 120 from Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, carry away fish and 

12 r 

Digitized by 



furs to the ralue of aboat. 60,000t a year : the 
French, also, send a few vessels, but thej are not 
successful fishermen. From 16,000 to 18,000 seals 
are taken in the spring and autumn, producing 
about 350 tons of oil ; and the export of fuis of 
wolves, bears, foxes, and beavers caught in the 
interior, averages 4,000^^ per annum. 

The native pop. of Laorador, the Esquimaux, 
are of small stature, and in their language, per- 
sons, and manners, bear a near resemblance to the 
Greenlanders. Their food consists chiefly of the 
flesh of seal, rein-deer, and fish ; and their dress 
is entirely of skins. Their houses in winter resem- 
ble caverns sunk in the earth, and consist only of 
one apartment, which, though not very large, 
g^erall^ contains several brothers, or other rela^ 
tives, with their wives and children. In summer, 
they dwell in tents of a circular form, constructed 
of poles, and covered with skins sewed together, 
which they are continually moving from place 
to place. They have always a great number 
of dogs about their camp ; which, TOsides serving 
to guard the habitation, and to draw the sledg^ 
are occasionally used as food, and their skins 
made into clothing. The European residents are 
English, Irish, or Jersey servants, left in charge 
of the property in the fishing-ro«ms, and who 
also employ themselves in catdiing seals. Their 
principal settlements are at Bradore Bay, I'Anse^ 
le-blanc, and Forteau Bay, the last being by far 
the most considerable. The Moravians formed 
tiieir first settlement in 1762. Their habits, and 
quiet, unobtmsive life, render them comparatively 
unknown. They trade with the Esquimaux, bar- 
tering coarse cloths, powder, shot, guns, and edge- 
tools for furs and oils. Their influence is alleged 
to have been very beneficial to the natives, not 
only in changing their religious belief, but in im- 
proving both their moral and physical condition. 
Murder, and acts of violence, are much less fre- 
quent than formerly, and mutual enmities have 
been removed. Their boats, houses, and fishing 
implements are better constructed, and many of 
them have bc^n to exercise foresight and 
economy. The Moravian settlements are at Nain, 
Okkak, Hopedale, and Hebron, all on the £. 

The coast of Labrador was first discovered by 
Sebastian Cabot, in 1496 ; but it was not visited 
till 1501, when Gorte Real called it Terra La- 
brador (cultivable land)» to distinguish it from 
Greenland, Which he named Terra verde. The 
name is now applied not only to the E. coast but 
to the whole pieninsula, induding that part on 
Hudson's Bay called the £. main. 

LABUAN, a small island off the NW. coast of 
Borneo, a dependency of the British crown, about 
€ m. distant from the nearest point of the main- 
land, and 80 m. N. from the city of Borneo or 
BruDi ; hit. 5^ 12' N., long. 115© 19' 86" E. It is 
from 25 to 80 m. in circ., flat and covered with 
wood. Pop. 3,845 in 1863, of whom only 40 
Europeans. The anchorage, on the E. side of the 
island, is protected by the greater and three 
smaller islands; and the town of Yictoria has 
been founded at the embouchure of a rivulet in a 
small bay, at the head of the anchorage. Coal of 
good quality is found on the island, and it is well 
supplied with fresh water, it was ceded by the 
Sultan of Borneo to Great Britain in 1846 ; and 
Sir James Brooke, who negotiated its cession, was 
appointed the first governor, and retained his post 
till 1848. The government is administered by a 
l^ovemor and a legislative council, consisting* of 
the governor and two 1 ustices of the peace. Justice 
is administered by the general court established j 
by a local ordhianoe, which oiHiaists of a governor 


as president, with two or any greater even number 
of justices of the peace. Cases of treason and 
miirder are tried with a jury of seven persons, 
and a verdict may be returned by a majority of 
five. The expense of the establishm^its at La- 
buan has been, for the most part, defrayed from 
imperial funds. The amount voted by parliament 
in 1860-1 for Labuan was 6,665i ; 1862-3, 4,374i.; 
1868-4, 5,250^: Amount voted, 1864-5, 4^2d3iL 

The imports of Labuan amounted to 37,84211 in 
1860, and to 71,365/1 in 1863; the exports to 
12,6032. in 1860, and to 22,322f. in 1863. The 
products at present are small, but coal of good 
quality abounds; it is expected that its supply 
will be of great service to the ships trading be- 
tween Singapore and China. Labuan has a fine 
?>rt ; there are no duties on imports or exports, 
he temperature varies little during the year, 
ordinarily the thermometer stands at 75° at day- 
break, and 869 during the heat of the day ; the 
extreme rangres are from 71° to 90°. The average 
fall of rain is 160 mches for the year, and it 
generally falls at night. 

The governor of Labuan is aim British con- 
sul at Borneo. Borneo, or Bnmi, on the adja- 
cent shore of the mainland, the residence of 
the sultan of Borneo Proper, has been termed 
the Venice of the East. It contams from 30,000 
to 40,000 inhabitants, mostly Malays, and it ap- 
pears as if floating on the waves. It is situated 
on an estuary, and though buUt with little regard 
to regularity, it is intersected crosswise by two 
main streets, which divide it into four portions, 
one only of which stands on dry land. The 
houses in the other three parts are of wood built 
on piles, which support them above the water, 
with streets, if so they may be called, to admit 
the passage of canoes. The steamer which con- 
veyed Sir James Brooke to Borneo, when Labuan 
was ceded, anchored in the main street, in the 
centre of the tovm. 

The greatest novelty at Bnmi is the floating 
bazaar. There are no shops in the city, and the 
market is held every day in canoes. These come 
in at sunrise every morning from every part of 
the river, laden with fresh f^t, tobacco, pepper, 
and every other article which is produced in the 
vicinity; a few European productions, such as 
handkerchiefs, check-cotton prints, Ac, also make 
their appearance. Congregated in the main streets, 
the canoes are tacked together, forming lanes 
through which the purchasers in their own canoes 
paddle, selecting and barg^iining for goods with 
as much convenience as if the whole were trans- 
acted on terra firma. The gold mines of Borneo 
are amongst the richest of me world. At the be- 
ginning of the present century, about 82,000 
Chinese labourers were employed in these mines 
on the W. coast of Borneo ; and it is not easy to 
sa^ how productive they might become, were' the 
miners in a condition to prosecute their under- 
takings in safety, and to bring the reeouices of 
science and of capital to their aid. Antimony is 
also found in abundance in Borneo, eapecially in 
the district of Sarawak; and the diamonds of 
Borneo rival those of India and Brazil. The sago 
palm grows in great perfection in many parts of 
the island, and sago is largely exported in a rough 
state to Singapore. The areca nut, rattans, gutta 
percha, gum-benjamin, camphor, and birds* nests 
are also considerable artides of export; and 
sugar, pepper, and nearly all the products of tro- 
pical regions are raised in most parts of the island. 

LACCADR'E ISLANDS (LakMhor-Dtinpa, *a 
lac of isles*), a group in the Indian Ocean, lying 
chiefly between lat. 1(P and 129 N., and long.' 72° 
and 74° E., about 75 m. from the Malabar coast 

Digitized by 


There are 19 principal islcs^rbut the largest is not 
more than 6 sq. m. in extent. Most of them are 
BoiTDUuded by rocks and coral reefs: the water 
near thera, however, is deep, and they are sepa- 
rated by several wide channels, frequented by 
diips passing from India to Persia and Arabia. 
They are inhabited by a race of Mohammedans 
called Mopla3r8. They do not yield grain, but 
produce an infinite quantity of cocoa-nats, from 
the husks of which the inhab. form coir cables, 
which are more elastic and durable than hemp, as 
the sea-water, instead of rotting, preserves them. 
These islands are well supplied with fish, and ex- 
port the small shells called cowries, which pass as 
coin all over India. Jagheiy, a little betel-nut, 
plantains, a few eggs and poultry, and coral for 
conversion into Ume, are their remaining exports ; 
bat they are of little importance, and the mhab. 
are wretchedly poor. Yasco de Gama discovered 
these islands in 1499: they were dependent on 
Cananore till ceded bj Tippoo, in 1792, and came 
into British possession with the zest of that 
sovereign's dcnninions. 

LADAKH, an independent country of W. 
Thibet, between 82° and 86<> N. lat, and 76° and 
79° £. long. ; bounded on the N. and N£. by the 
Karakorum mountains, which divide it from the 
Chinese provinces of Yarkund and Khoten, E. by 
Chanthan, Rodokh, and Gardokh ; S. and SE. by 
the Himalaya, separating it from Cashmere, and 
the teiritones of Bissahar, Kulu, and Chambu; 
and W. by Baltea, or Little Thibet. Length, N. 
to S., rather more than 200 m. ; average breadth, 
150 m. Area estimated at about 80,000 sq. m., 
with a pop. of irom 150,000 to 180,000, chiefly of 
the Thibetan nee. The country is divided into 
4 diatdcts ; Ladakh Proper in the centre, Nobra 
to the N., Zanskar SW., and Piti SE. It is 
an inhospitable land, its surface being, for the 
moat part, a sncoession of lateral mountain ranges 
belonging to the Himalaya, the lowest range 
rising neaily to the limit of perpetual snow, hi, 
the cap., 18 more than 11,000 ft. above the level of 
the sea, and some parts of the prov. Nobra are 
2,000 n. hicrher. The passes that lead into La- 
dakh from &e S. are above 16,000 ft Jbigh, and 
many summits in the oentxal part of the country- 
are nrach more lofty. Narrow and deep valleys, 
of great length, watered by considerable rivers, 
intervene between the mountain ranges, and com- 
prise nearly all the cultivable land of the countiy. 
The chief of these valleys is that of the Upper 
Indus here called the Singh-kha-bab. This ex- 
tends SE. and NW. through the greatest part 
of the country. The Indus, while within Ladakh, 
receives the zanskar, Zakat, and Dras rivers ; the 
Sfaaknt, its chief affluent N. of the Himalaya, 
flows prindpally through Xjidakh, but does not 
join the mam stream till it has passed into Little 
Thibet. Nearly all the rivers of Ladakh are tri- 
botaiy to the Indus; in the S., however, are several 
which Join the Sntl^ge, of which the Piti is the 
chief. There are some considerable lakes. The 
ooimtzy is subject to extremes of temperature. 
Frosty snow, and sleet commence earl^ in Sept., 
and continue, with little intermission, till the De- 
ginniq^ of Mav. From the middle of Dec. to the 
beginning of l^eb., Moorcroft found the thermo- 
meter out of doors at night seldom above 15^ 
Fahr. But dnring the summer the sun has great 
power; and at L^ in July, the thermometer has 
been found, at noon, to stand, in the sun, at 184^ 
Fahr., and between L^ and Piti, at 10<3 higher. 
The atmosphere is, in general, dry and clear; 
what little rain occurs falls chiefly during the 
aommer months* The mountains being of pri- 
mitive formation, the soil consists almost entirely 


of disintegrated rocks washed into the bottoms 
by the action of thaws and torrents. The de- 
composed granite and felspar clothes these por- 
tions of the surface with a coating of clay, sand, 
gravel, and pebbles, which skill and industry can 
only render productive. Both climate and soil 
being thus hostile to vegetable life, the general 
aspect of the countiy, where not cultivated, in of 
extreme sterility ; a few willows and poplars are 
the onlv timber trees ; and the chief verdure con- 
sists of the Tartaric furze, with a few tufts of 
wormwood, hyssop, dog-rose, and other plants of 
the desert. 

Notwithstanding these unpromising circum- 
stances, the harvests of Ladakh are by no means 
niggard; and year after year equally abundant 
crops are raised from the same land, without its 
ever being suffered to lie fallow, and without any 
attempt at an alternation of produce. The moui>- 
tain sides are formed into a succesnon of terraces, 
supported by stone breasts-works, down which 
stone channels conduct a plentiful supply of water, 
and the detritua from the rock. The stone dykes 
are not only disposed to form terraces near the 
towns and villages, but m spots remote ftom 
human habitations, where they are coustrueted 
by the peasantry, and suffered to remain undis- 
turbed for many years, perhaps for some genera- 
tions, till a quantity of earth is collected. 

The field thus gained from the mountain has 
next to be supplied with manure. As wood is 
yery scarce, the fieces of cattle are mostly used 
as fueL The floors of the houses are strewed with 
a coating of gravel, three or four inches thick, 
which is removed from time to time, and this, 
with the ashes of the burnt fuel, forms almost the 
only manure that sustains the nutritive proper- 
ties of the soil. Wheat, barley, and buckwheat 
are the chief grains cultivated. The wheat is of 
three, the barlev of two varieties: one of the 
latter, the sherokk, or naked barley, is a superior 
kind, especially for malting, but' it degenerates 
in a lower level, as in the a^acent plains of Hin- 
dostan. Wheat and barley are usually sown in 
May, and reaped in September, the great heat of 
the sun in summer fully compensating for the 
shortness of that season. At Pituk, near L^ 
more than 10,000 ft. above the sea, barley is 
ready for the sickle in two months from the time 
of sowing. The plough is entirely of wood, gene- 
rally wmow, except the point, which is formed 
of a small piece of iron. The furrow is not more 
than four or five inches deep ; but the earth is 
well broken, and the seed is afterwards carefully 
covered over. Ploughing is performed by a pair 
of zhos (a hybrid male between the yaik, bos 
grunnieru^ and common cow), or zebus, driven 
without reins, but, with the utmost precision, by 
the voice, or by a wand. The ground is ploughed 
twice ; the grain is sown broad cast in the 
furrow, or planted by the dibble. Com is fre- 
quentlv reaped while green, and laid on the 
ffround in flat bundles to ripen more completely. 
In vexy dry soils the grain is pulled up by the 
roots, the straw being valuable for fodder ; in moist 
soils, it is cut close to the ground by a curved, 
short-bladed sickle. There is no great variety 
of kitchen vegetables ; but onions, carrots, turnips, 
and cabbages are raised in some places, and 
carraway, mustard, and tobacco are grown in a 
few gardens. Plenty of apricots and apples are 
raised everywhere, but few other kinds of fruits. 
Pears, grapes, and melons are imported from the 
neighbourmg countries. Lucerne grows with 
great luxuriance in some parts, and a species ot 
saintfoin is met with in the mountains ; but the 

most valuable source of fodder is, perhaps, the 



pranffOB (Prang, patnlaria, Lindley). This plant, 
which is a perennial delighting in a poor sterile 
soil, but growing in every variety of site, except 
actual swamp, is common in the W. of Ladakn, 
and varies in size, from a cluster of leaves and 
flowers, to from 12 to 18 ft. in circ In August 
or September, the plants are cut to within two 
or three inches from the ground, on which they 
are laid in bundles to dry, and afterwards piJeid 
like other kinds of fodder, on the house tops. The 
prangos require no shelter. In the winter, about 
1 cwU for 24 hours is considered sufficient for 20 
sheep, or 30 lambs. Healthy sheep fed upon it 
become fat in 20 days ; it is also excellent food 
for cattle and horses, though perhaps less so than 
for sheep. Rhubarb is an abundant indigenous 

The yaik-mule, or zho, is principally used for 
^he transport of burdens; horses are few and 
small, though active and hardy. The native 
breeds of sheep, though mostly larger than those 
of Ihdia, are much smaller than the sheep of 
Chan-than. One species, the Purik sheep, is very 
diminutive ; but it gives ^ lambs in 12 months, 
about 8 lbs. of wool a year, at two shearings, and 
its mutton is excellent Being domesticated like 
the dog, it is maintained at a very small cost. 
The shawl-wool goat is the common breed in this 
and the neighbouring countries; the fleece is 
finer in Ladakh than elsewhere. The latter is 
cut once a year ; the wool picked out is sent to 
Cashmere, and the hair made into ropes, coarse 
sacking, and blankets, for home consumption. 
The wild animals are not numerous: the ibex, 
wild sheep, otn« ammon, and a kind of wild horse, 
are the principal. The leopard, jaguar, ounce, 
bear, and lynx are rare. Fish are very plentiful, 
but the prevailing religion prevents their being 
used as food. 

Sulphur is found in some places, and soda in 
great plenty on the Indus, and in the N., lead, 
iron, and copper are said to exist, and gold in the 
sands of the Shayuk; but the government, from 
politic or superstitious motives, has prohibited 
the search for this metal. 

The native trade of Ladakh is of no great 
amount ; but its transit trade is important from 
the country being the great thoroughfare for the 
commercial intercourse between Thibet, Turkes- 
tan, China, and even Russia, on the one hand, and 
Cashmere, the Punjab, and the plains of Hin- 
dostan, on the other. Ladakh is the entrepdt for 
the goats^ wool, of which the Cashmere shawls are 
made, and which is partly supplied from this 
country, but chiefly from Rodokh and Chan-than. 
About 800 camel loads are annually exported to 
Cashmere, to which country, by ancient custom 
and engagements, the export is exclusively con- 
fined, all attempts to convey it elsewhere being 
punished by confiscation. In like manner it is 
considered ille^ in Rodokh and Chan-than to 
allow a trade m shawl-wool except through La- 
dakh ; and, in the latter, impediments are opposed 
to any import from Yarkund, though the wool of 
that province be of superior quality and cheaper. 
The fleece of the wild goat is exported in smaller 
quantities to Cashmere, and wrought into shawls, 
soft cloth, and linings for shawl-wool stockings ; 
this material is softer and warmer than the or- 
dinarv shawl wool, but is much less used for 
shawls. Sheeps' wool is wrought into cloths ex- 
ported to Kotoch and Kulu; and many Chan- 
than sheep are exported to the mountain-states, 
where they are extensively used as beasts of 
burden, Cirrying from 26 lbs. to 30 lbs. weight. 
Tea comes from China through Lassa and Yarkund, 
and is exported in considerable quantities to 

Cashmere and the Punjab : infterior kinds of the 
same shrub are imported firom the British terri- 
tories of Bissahar, and used by the lower dasaes 
in Ladakh. Borax and salt from Thibet ; silks, 
silver ingots, and various manufactured articles 
from China; felts, camlets, dried sheep-skins, 
steel, boots, Russia leather, brocades, velvets, and 
broad cloths, horses, and drugs from Yarkund; 
cooking vessels, water-pots, and about 300 maunds 
of dried apricots, yearly from Baltee; shawls, 
chintzes, copper-tinned vessels, and other domea- 
tic utensils, and grain, from Cashmere and the 
Punjab; ghee, honey, raisins, and grain, from 
Hindostan ; and iron and hardware manufactures, 
wooden tea-cups in large numbers, from Bissahar, 
are the remaining principal imports into Ladakh. 
The imports from Yarkund, of Russian goods, are 
mostly mt«nded for the Punjab. The dned fruits 
from Baltee are exchanged for foreign wool, and 
the goods from Cashmere and the Punjab are 
partly re-exported into the Thibet provinces. 

The government is despotic ; but the rajah has 
very little real power, being controlled by the 
lanuuj or priesthood, by whom he is occasionally 
deposed. The business of the state is carried on 
by the khalun, or prime minister, the deputy 
khalun, the lom-pa, or chief military officer, the 
treasurer, who is a lama, and the master of the 
horse. The towns and d^tricts are ^vemed by 
inferior khaluns ; and the magistracy is discharged 
by officers called nar-pas, and by the head men 
of villages. Most of these are paid by assign- 
ments of land, and by claims on the people fur 
contributions or articles of daily use. The rajah, 
khalun, and lom-pa divide among them the pro- 
duce of the imports on merchandise in transit, 
and cany on a trade in shawl wool and tea, from 
which most of their income is derived. 

In spiritual affairs Ladakh is subordinate to 
the authority of the supreme pontiff of the Budd- 
hists, the grand lama of Thibet, who appoints the 
chief lamas of this coundy. The lamas are verf 
numerous, every family m which there is more 
than one son furnishing one, who is a family 
priest, attached to a monastic institution or 
collie, though living ordinarily among the 
people, and condqcting the rites of their daily 
worship. All profess poverty and celibacy, though 
a roan who has been mamed is admissible into 
their order. The lamas do not confine them- 
selves to strictly religious duties, but cultivate 
the land, rear sheep and goats, and take an active 
share in the fiscal and political administration. 
There are many conventual establishments for 

Mohammedanism has of late made great pro- 
gress in the S. and W., but the mass of the pop. are 
still Buddhists. Their religious belief and practice 
is a strange mixture of metaphysics, mysticism, 
morality, fortune-telUng, juggling, and idolatiy. 
The doctrine of the metempsychosis is curiously 
blended with tenets and precepts very similar to 
those of Christianity, and with the worship of 
grotesque di\'inities. The lamas recognise a sort 
of trinity, or a triad consisting of a paramount 
deity, a prophet, and a book ; and the people are 
exhorted to truth, chastity, resignation, mutual 
forbearance, and good-wilL The religious service 
performed daily at the temples attached to monas- 
teries consists chiefly of prayers and chanting, in 
which the mystic sentence, * Oom mane paet me 
oom^^ is frequently repeated, and the whole is ac- 
companied with the music of wind instruments^ 
chiefly harmonising with tabrets and drums. 

The military force consists of a peasant militia, 
very ill equipped and inefficient; and there ia 
little to prevent Ladakh falling permanently imdev 

the dominion of some one of its more powerful 

There u little wealth in the eoontrv, bat what 
exists is equally diffosed, and the great body of 
the people are m easy circumstances. They pay 
no money taxes to the state, but are bound to 
suit and sendee, both domestic and military, and 
fiimish contributions in kind for the support of 
the lajah and the governors of districts. The 
people are in seneral mild and timid, frank, honest, 
and mora], when not corrupted by communication 
with the dissolute Cashmerians; but th^ are in- 
dolent, exceedin|^ly dirty, and addicted to in- 
toxication. Their food is nourishing, and consists 
chiefly of rice, meal porridge, bread, vegetables, 
tea, wheaten cakes, and once a day the flesh of 
sheep, goats, or yaiks. The wealthy drink grape 
jnioe and water or sherbet, the poorer classes a 
kind of beer, called chang, made of /eimented 
haiky. All orders and both sexes dress chiefly 
in wodlens; to which the men add mantles of 
flowered chmtz, and brocade or velvet cape, and 
the women cloaks of cotton, China satin, or Be- 
nares brocade lined with sheep skin, the wool 
inwardB, and numerous ornaments. Both sexes 
wear leather boots, in which they take great 
pride. Some curious domestic customs prevail: 
among others, polyandry is common, the younger 
SODS of a fiunily being subordinate husbands to 
the wife of the elder brother ; and when the latter 
dies, his property, authority, and widow, devolve 
upon the next brother. 

i^iftoiv.— Ladakh originally formed one of the 
nova, of the kingdom of Thibet ; but when the 
Chinese conquered that country, they did not 
extend their sway to Ijidakh, which seems to 
have retained its own princes. About 200 years 
ago, the Kalmuck Tartars invaded Ladakh, and 
the rajah fled to the governor of Cashmere, who, 
with the permission of Aurungzebe, recon(}uered 
the country for the rajah. From that time a 
small annual present was made to the emperor of 
Delhi through the governor of Cashmere. Run- 
jeet Smg^ took possession of Ladakh, and exacted 
a tribute; but, after his death, the country re- 
covered its former independence. A small annual 
tribute or present is, however, sent to the author- 
ities of Gardokh, on behalf of the government of 



Ladakh, or L^ the cap. of the above coimtry. 

LADOGA (LAKE), a lake of Russia in Europe, 
sonnmnded bv the governments of Petersburg, 
Olonetz, and Wvborg in Finland, and extending 
from lat. 690 68^to 61<^ 46', and from long. 29° 60' 
to 320 55' £. The Ladoga is the largest col- 
lection of fresh water in Europe. Its length, NW. 
to SE., is about 125 m. ; greatest breadth about 
70 m. Area estimated at from 6,200 to 6,300 
tq. m. Its depth is very unequal. It receives 
about 60 riveiB, the chief of which are the Vuox, 
coonectmg it with the Saima Lake in Finland; 
the Svir, by which the surplus waters of the Lake 
Onega are poured into it ; the Volkhov, by which 
it oommumcates with Lake Ilmen ; and the Siass, 
Hke the latter, from the S. It discharges its 
surplus waters by the Neva into the Gulf of Fin- 
land. Its shores are generally low ; on its NW. 
and S. banks are situated Serdobal, Kronsborv, 
Kekshohn, Schlusselburg. and New Ladoga. It 
has several islands, chiefly towards its N. extre- 
mity; and is so full of rocks and quicksands, 
and subject to storms, that, to avoid i^ Peter the 
Great bi^an, in 1718, the Ladoga Canal, from 
Kew Ladoga, on the Volkhov, to Schlusselburg, 
on the Neva, along the S. shore of the lake, a 
^tistance of about 70 m. This woric was finished 

under the Empress Anne, in 1782 : it is 74 ft. 
broad, and, according to the season, from 4 to 8 
or 9 ft. deep, and has 20 large, besides many 
smaller, sluices. It is annually navigated by an 
immense number of boats, chiefly with merchan- 
dise for Petersburg. The canals of Siass and Svir 
form, with that of Ladoga, a continuous chain of 
communication round the S. and SE. shores of 
the lake ; and the canal of Tikhvine ^ovgorod) 
places it in direct connection with the Wolga. 

group of islands in the N. Pacific Ocean, belong- 
ing to Spain, between the ISth and 21st deg. of 
N. lat., and the 144th and 146th of K long. 
There are about twenty of them ; but five only 
are inhabited, and these lie near the S. extremity 
of the cluster. They are so close together, and 
are also so broken, as weU as ineguhir in their 
form and position, as to appear like fragments, 
disjointed from each otiier, at remote periods, by 
some sudden convulsion of nature. Those frag- 
ments have a very barren and unpromising aspect. 
In particular spots there are scattered patches of 
verdure ; but, m general, little better than naked 
rocks appear, and scarcely a tree or shrub is 
visible amone them. The coast of the islands 
consists mostly of black or dark brown rocks, 
honeycombed m many parts by the action of the 
waves. Tbeir geological constitution is almost 
wholly volcanic, and some volcanoes have been 
in action in modem times. The climate is gene- 
rally serene and temperate, the tropical heats 
being much diminished by the regular searbreezes. 
During the months of «fuly and Aug., however, . 
the weather is intolerably hot ; and at the season 
of the W, monsoons, between June and Oct, the 
most tremendous hurricanes are experienced at the 
full and change of the moon. The surface of the 
interior is much broken, and rises into high hills 
and even mountains; but the soil in the vaUeys 
is of great fertility, and, if properly cultivated, 
would produce abundantly most of the inter- 
tropical plants. Anson visited the Ladrones in 
1742, and describes Tinian as abounding with 
every thing necessary to human subsistence and 
comfort, and being withal of a most pleasant and 
delightful appearance, diversified by a happy in- 
termixture 01 vallevs and gently rising hills, the 
woods consisting of tall and well spread trees, 
with fine lawns interspersed. The same island 
bein^, however, visited by subsequent navigators, 
was found to have become an uninhabitable wil- 
derness, overgrown with impenetrable thickets. 
The reason of this change was, that the Spaniards, 
by whom these islands had been conquered, had, 
for what reason it seems difiicult to conjecture, 
removed the inhab. from Tinian to another island, 
and after their departure it soon degenerated into 
a state of nature, and, when last visited, was 
nothing better than a wild and savage wilderness. 
This statement, however, does not apply to the 
whole group ; for cotton, indigo, rice, Indian com, 
sugar, and the plantain thrive in other islands, 
and produce abundant supplies for the pop. 
Cattle, horses, mules, and asses are numerous, and 
the ll^a has been introduced with success from 
Pera. Wild hogs also are found in ^reat num- 
bers, many of them of a large uze, weighing200 
lbs., particularly on the island of Saypan. They 
are very fierce, and when hunted by dogs make a 
formidable resistance. The fish that are found on 
the coast are said to be very unwholesome. Tlie 
tripang, or holothuria, is caught by the natives, 
and sold to the Chinese. The country is infested 
with mus(^uitoes, and with endless varieties of 
loathsome insects. The natives are tall, robust, 
and active ; the men wear scarcely any covering. 



and the women only a petticoat of mat. Both 
66X68 stain their teeth bhick, and many tattoo 
their bodies. Their huts are formed of wood from 
the palm tree, and divided by mats into several 
apartments devoted to distinct uses. They are 
good swimmers, and extremely clever in managing 
their canoes, in which, with a good wind, the^ 
will sail at the rate of 20 m. an hour. Their 
number, in the middle of the 17th century, is 
supposed to have amounted to 150,000, though 
this is probably far beyond the mark ; but the 
race has been so moeh thinned by the cruelties 
practised on them by the Spaniards, that the pre- 
sent Indian pop. seaiscely iexceeds 4,000. Gu^an, 
the largest island, contained in 1856 only one 
Indian family, its inhab. consisting of settlers from 
Mexico and the Philippine Islands. The cap. is 
San Ygnacia de Agana^ the seat of the Spanish 
governor. The number of Spaniards is very small. 
The Ladrone Islands were originally discovered 
by Magellan, who called them Las Ida* de las 
Ladtrmetf or The Idands of Thieves, because the 
Indians stole every thing made of iron within their 
reach. At the latter end of the 17th century they 
obtained the name of the Mariana, or Marianne 
Islands, from the queen of Spain, Mary Ann of 
Austria, mother of Charles II., at whose expense 
missionaries w«re aent thither to propagate the 
Christian faith. 

LAGO-NEGRO, or LAGONERO, a town of 
^oath Italy, prov. Potenza, on the high road from 
Naples to Calabria, 12 m. N£. Policastro. Pop. 
r>,718 in 1862. The town— situated near the lake 
of the same name— is well built, and has an old 
castle, a hospital, and several other charitable 
institutions, with manufactures of woollen «loUi 
and caps, and a large weekly market. 

LAGOS, a fortified sea-port town of Portugal, 
prov. Algar^'e, cap. of a comarca of its own name, 
18 m. E. by N. Cape SL Vincent, and 114 m. S. 
hy E. Lisbon. Popu 7,100 in 1858. The town is 
built on the shore of a large bay sheltered N. and 
W. by hills covered with vines and fruit trees. 
The streets are narrow, and the houses generally 
small; but there are several handsome and regu- 
larly-built public edifices, among which are 2 
parish chuxches, a military asylum, town hospital, 
and 8 convents, two of which are in the suburbs. 
The neighbourhood abounds in wine, figs, and 
other fruiU, with pulse of different kinds; but, as 
in the rest of Algarve, there is a gnat scarcity of 
com, which is imported from Alemtqjo and the 
porta of Spain, liie fishery of tunnies and an- 
chovies is very considerable, and the produce, 
after being salted, is sent by sea to other parts of 
the kingdom. 
LAGUNA. See Tekeriffe. 
LAHORE, an independent kingdom of Hindos- 
tan. See Punjab. 

Lahore, a city of the Punjab, Hindostan, and, 
in Ruujeet Singh's time, the cap. of his dominions, 
on the Ravee {Hydraotes), 280 m. NE. Delhi 
Pop. estimated at 120,000. Lahore is surrounded 
by a brick wall about 80 ft. h^h, which extends 
for about 7 m., and is continuous with tlie fort. 
The latter, in which the rajah resides, is sur- 
rounded by a wall of no great strength, with 
loop-holes for musketry ; a branch of the Ravee 
washes the foot of its N. face, but it has no moat 
on either of tiie remaining sides. The palace 
withm this enclosure is of many stories, and en- 
tirely faced with a kind of porcelain enamel, on 
which processions and combats of men and animals 
are depicted. Several of the old buildmgs are in 
ruins ; others are entire, and throw into shade the 
meaner structures of more recent date. Lahore 
is said to have been formerly 12 coss (about 19 dl) | 


in die. The ancient cap. extended £. to W. for 
5 m., and had an average breadth of 3 m., as may 
be learned by the ruins. The modem city occu- 
pies the W. angle of the ancient cap. The houses 
are in general of brick, and 5 stories high, but 
many in a very crazy condition. The chief 
bazaar follows the direction of the city wall, and 
is not far distant from iL The street is narrow, 
and this inconvenience is ag^vated by platforms 
in front of the shops, on which the goods are dis- 
played under projecting pent^houses of straw to 
protect them from the sun and rain. Through 
the oentane of the remaining contracted space mns 
a deep and dirty drain, the smell from which is 
very offensive. The pop. consists of Mohamme- 
dans, Hindoos, and Sikhs, the former in the great- 
est number. Across the Ravee, about 2 m. N. 
Lahore, is the* Shah Dura,' or mausoleum of the 
emperor Jehangire, a monument of great beauty. 
* It is a quadranp^ular building, with a minaret at 
each comer nsmg to the h^ght of 70 fL It is 
built chiefly of marble and red stone, which are 
alteraatelv interlaid in all parts of the building. 
The sepulchre is of most chaste workmanship, 
with its inscriptions and ornaments axzanged in 
beautiful mosaic ; the shading of some roses and 
other flowers is even preserved bv the different 
colours of the stone. Two lines of black letters, 
on a ^und of white marble, announce the name 
and title of the * Conqueror of the World,' Jehan- 
gire ; and about a hundred different words in 
Arabic and Persian, with the signal signification 
of God, are distributed on diffemnt parts of the 
sepulchre. The floor of the building is also mo- 
saic. It is probable that this beautiful monument 
will soon be washed into the Ravee, which is cajxi- 
dous in its course near Lahore, and has lately 
overwhelmed a portion of the garden wall that en- 
virons the tomh.' (Bumes* ^khara, i. 137.) The 
Shalimar, or garden of Shah Jehan, is another 
magnificent remnant of Mogul grandeur. It is 
about ^ m. in length, and has 3 tenaces, each 
rising above the other. A canal, brought from a 
great distance, intersects il^ and throws up nume- 
rous fountains to cool the atmosphere. Hunjeet 
Singh removed some of its marble houses, and 
replaced them by others of stone. The bazaars of 
Lahore do not exhibit much apjpearance of wealth ; 
the commerce of the Punjab is centred at Unuitzir. 
Lahore was captured by Sultan Baber in 1520, 
and was for some time the seat of the Moeul go- 
vernment in India. It was for a while in the pos- 
session of tlie Affghans, and was repeatedly 
saclced by Shah Zemaun, ex-kii% of CaubuL 

LALAND or LAALAND, an island of the 
Danish archipelago, in the Baltic, between lat. 
540 »8' and 64° 68' N., and long. 11® 63' E.; 
forming, with Falster, from which it is separated 
by the narrow but now navigable channel ofGuId- 
boTg, a prov. of the kingdom. Length, £. to W., 
35 m. ; average breadth about 13 m. Area, 460 
sq. m. Pop. 60,971 in 186a The island is low, 
and is in parts liable to inundations ; its shores 
are much indented by the sea, and it has some 
considerable bays. In its centre is the lake of 
Marieboe, 5 m. in length by 2 in breadth. The 
climate is said to be unhealthy; but the soil is 
very fertile, and it is looked upon as the most 
productive of the Danish islands. l*rincipal crops, 
wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Hemp and hops 
are also produced, and great quantities or apples. 
Oak and other kinds of timber abound. Mmcral 
products and manufactures few and insignificant. 
Laland has an active trade in agricultural pro- 
duce, the chief seat of which is Na^how, the cap., 
a town of 2,200 inhab., on the W. coast. 
LALITA-PATAN, a considerable town of Ne- 

Digitized by ^^^^^^^..^ 


paol, N. Hindostan, about 1^ m. S. Catmandoo, 
with an estimated pop. of 24,000. It is 8aid to be 
a handsomer town than Catmandoo, and to possess 
some fine public edifices, 

LAMBALLE, a town of France, d^ Cdtes- 
du-Nord, cap. cant., on the declivity of a hill, be- 
neath which runs the railway from Paris to Brest, 
12 m. ESE., St. Brieuc. Pop. 4,256 in 1861. The 
town is well built, has an iiidustiious and thriving 
pop., is surrounded by old walls, and has two sub- 
urbs, a communal college, public library, with 
manufactures of woollens, linens, parchment, and 
leather; and a considerable trade in agricultural 

LAM EGO, a city of Portugal, prov. Beira, and 
cap. of a comarca of its own name, near the left 
bank of the Douro, 44 m. E. Oporto, and 192 m. 
NNE. Lisbon. Pop. 10,170 in 1858. The town 
stands at the foot of the Sierra de Penide (an off- 
set of the Sierra Estrella), on the little river Bal- 
samone, just before its junction with the Douro, 
and is divided into three quarters, two of which 
are occupied by the cathedral and bishop's palace, 
while the third comprises the square, and a long 
street crossed by others of smaller size. A cathe- 
dral of Gothic architecture, built by order of Don 
Henrique, the father of the first kiuf of Portugal, 
4 convents, and a hospital, are the chief public es- 
tablishments. The marshy lands, near the town, 
are very rich, producing an abundance of fine 
wines and delicious fruits ; but these advantages 
«re more than countervailed by the badness of 
the roads, which makes communication with 
Oporto and other places all but impossible. 

three islands in the Mediterranean, collectively 
called the Pelagian Isles, belonging to Italy, b^ 
tween lat. 35° '60' and Se© N., and long. 12^ and 
13P IL, about midway between Malta and the 
shore of Tunis. Lampedusa, the an. Loj^tua^ 
by far the largest, is about 13A m. in circmt. Its 
shores are precipitous, but it has a tolerable har- 
bour on its S. side. Its surface is level ; the £. 
extremity has been cultivated by an English spe- 
culator ; the W. end of the isL is covered with 
dwarf olive trees and other wood, much of which 
is cut for fuel, and sent to Malta and Tripoli 
Both Lampion and Linosa are uninhabited, except 
by rabbits and goats; the former island has, how- 
ever, some interesting traces of ancient buildings; 
the latter presents distinct marks of volcanic 




land CO. of Scotland, having N. the cos. of Dum- 
barton and Stirling ; £. West Lothian, Mid Lo- 
thian, and Peebles ; S. Dumfries; and W.Ayr and 
Renfrew. It extends from Queensberry Hill, on 
the borders of Dumfries-shire, to near Renfrew, a 
distance of 55 m., comprising nearly the whole 
coantry drained by the Clyde (which see) and its 
tributaries, the Douglas, Avon, N. and S. Calder. 
Area, 987 sq. m., or 631,719 acres, of which from 
a third to a half are supposed to be arable. It is 
divided into three wards, each of which is charac- 
terised by peculiarities of surface, soil, and cli- 
mate. Tne i^pper ward, of which Lanark is the 
principal town, includes nearly two-thirds of the 
CO., comprising the district bounded by Peebles 
ofn the £., Dumfries on the S., and Ayr on the W. 
This district consists for the most part of moun- 
tains, hills, and wide dreary moors ; the only cul- 
tivi^le land lying along the banks of the Clyde 
and Douglas. ' Some of the mountains in this 
ward have an elevation of above 2,300 ft. The 
middJe wcard, having Hamilton in its centre, has a 
comparatively level surfiuce, the low grounds along 
the Clyde extending to a much greater distance, 

and the hills by which they are bounded on either 
side being of very inferior altitude. The louier 
xvardj though of small dimensions as compared 
with either of the others, is the most fertile and 
best cultivated ; and, having the city of Glasgow 
within its limits, it is by far the most populous, 
important, and wealthy of the three. The climate 
in the upper ward is often very severe ; in the 
middle and lower ward it is comparatively mild 
and humid, especially in the latter. The soil of 
the middle and lower wards is principally a reten- 
tive day, but in parts it is loamy, sandy, and grar- 
velly. Agriculture, though formerly backward, 
has of late been greatly improved: drainage, 
which is here quite essential, is now prosecuted 
with the greatest vigour, and bone dust is exten- 
sively employed in the raising of turnips. The 
draught horses of this co. have long enjo3'ed the 
highest reputation of any in Scotland. Ayrshire 
cows are generalljr introduced, and a good deal of 
cheese is made in imitation of Dunlop. There are 
several valuable orchards in what is called the 
trouah of the Clyde, between the mouth of the S. 
Calder and the lowest waterfall. Farm houses 
and offices rank with those in the best improved 
districts. Property mostly in very large estates ; 
farms of all sizes, and let generally on leases for 
19 years. The minerals of this co., particularly 
its iron and coal, are of the highest importance. 
The command of cheap and abundant supplies of 
the latter has been the principal cause of the ex- 
traordinary progress made by Glasgow in manu- 
facturing mdustry; and, more recently, the com- 
mand of coal, added to the discovery of the pecu- 
liarly valuable carboniferous iron-stone (provin- 
cially black-band), have made Lanarkshire one of 
the principal seats of the British iron trade. The 
principal iron works are those of Gartsherrie, 
Dund^an, Monkland, Summerlee, and Calder. 
Lead is also rather extensively produced at Lead- 
hills in this CO. The manufactures and commerce 
are of the highest importance, and principally 
concentrated at Glasgow. Each of the tbree wards 
into which this co. is divided has a sheriff substi- 
tute to superintend its judicial affairs. The Forth 
and Clyde canal is partly, and the Monkland 
canal wholly, in the co., and it has also numerous 
lines of railways. It is divided into 47 pars., and 
sends 3 members to the H. of C, 1 being for the 
00. and 2 for the city of Glasgow j the bors. of 
Lanark, Airdrie, and Hamilton umte with Lin- 
lithgow and Falkirk in returning a mem. Regis- 
ter^ electors for the co. 5,184 in 1865. At the 
census of 1861, the co. had 46,675 inhab. houses 
and 631,566 inhabitants, whUe in 1841 Lanark- 
shire had 81,458 inhab. houses; and 426,972 in- 
hab. The old valued rent was 13,51 U, while the 
new valuation for 1863-64 was 1,153,3382., inclu- 
sive of railways and canaK 

Lanark, a royal and pari. bor. and market 
town of Scotland, co. Lanark, of which it is the 
cap., on an elevated plateau, 1^ m. irom the 
Clyde, 30 m.. SW. Edinburgh, and 23 m. SE. by E. 
of Glasgow, on the Caledonian railway. Pop. 
5,384 in 1861, agamst 4,467 in 1841. Ihe town 
consists of one leading street in the direction of 
E. and W., wiUi several subsidiary streets and 
lanes. The streets are well-paved, but many of 
the bouses are mean, bein^ thatched with broom, 
heath, or straw, and exhibiting strong marks of 
poverty or decay; but the older buildings are 
gradually being superseded by new and better 
edifices. The only public buildings are the county 
hall, including a gaol, the* par. church, a free 
church, two ch&pels belonging to the Relief, and 
one to the Associate S3'n<^ Various sums have 
been bequeathed, at different times, for the pro- 

^lyitized by 




motion of education. Twenty-d^ht boys are sup- 
ported at the grammar-school ; and, in addition to 
the school fees being paid, each gets an annual 
sum, var^'ing from 2f. to 9L There is, besides, a 
charity school for 50 children. The chief manu- 
factures are weaving and kee embroidery. Wm. 
Lithgow, the traveller, and Gavin Hamilton, the 
historical painter, were natives of the bor. ; and 
(General Roy, the celebrated engineer, and author 
of *The Military Antiquities of the Romans in 
Britain,' was educated at the grammar-school. 
Corp. rev. 1,084^. in 186^-4. 

Lanark and its vicinity have many remuns of 
antiquities. The Castle Hill, on the S. of the 
town, was once the site of a royal residence; but 
every trace of it has disappeared. The old church, 
the date of which is unknown, and St« Nicholas's 
chapel, have been allowed to go to ruins. There 
are, in die neighbourhood, distinct vestiges of two 
Roman camps, supposed to have been the work of 
Agricola : one of them measures 600 yds. in length, 
and 420 in breadth. The bor. seems to have been 
more important in ancient than in modem times. 
In 978 Kenneth II. held in it an assembly of the 
states of the realm. It was a royal bor. as early 
as the 12th century. Lanark was the scene of the 
first military exploit of Sir William Wallace. 
During his residence here, after his marria^ with 
the co-heiress of Leamington, he killed, in 1298, 
Hazelrigg, the English sheriff, and expelled his 
soldiers from the town. This bor. formerly had 
the custody of the standard weights of Scotland: 
they are still preserved ; but the act of 1826, in- 
troducing the imperial standard, has superseded 
their use. 

Lanark unites with Falkirk, Linlithgow, Air- 
drie, and Hamilton in sending a mem. to the H. 
of C. Registered voters 282 in 1865. The Falls 
of Clyde are in the near vidnitv of the town; 
Bonnington Linn, 30 ft. ; Coira Lmn, 120 ft. ; and 
Stonebyres, 84 ft. : the two former axe to the £. ; 
the latter to the W. of the town. Another re- 
markable object is the Cartland Crags, a deep 
chasm formed by the Mouse, a small tributary of 
the Clyde, over which a bridge of three arches was 
thrown in 1825. 

Lanark (New), a manufacturing village of 
Scotland, co. Lanark, on the bank of the Clyde, 
close to the river, and bounded on the N. by steep 
and beautifully wooded hills, 1 m. S. of the bor. 
of Lanark. Fop. 1,896 in 1861. The village 
consists of a series of cotton mills and of two 
streets, in which the work-people live; and so 
little space intervenes between the river and the 
hilU, that there is room for only two lines of 
edifices. The mUls were founded, in 1784, by Mr. 
David Dale; and Arkwright, the father of the 
cotton manufacture, was for a while a partner in 
them. (Baines* Hist, of the Cotton Manufacture, 
w 193.) Mr. Dale was afterwards succeeded by 
lis son-in-law, Robert Owen, whose attempts 
(first made at New Lanark) to reduce to practice 
his projects for the renovation of society, are well 
known. Owen ceased, in 1827, to have any interest 
in the business. The mills give employment to 
above 1,000 individuals, of whom nearly 4O0 are 
under 18 years of age. The hours of labour are 
limited to 10^ a day throughout the year, and the 
people are pecuUarly respectable. A school is 
established in the works, for the education of the 
children, and lb attended by about 500 pupils. It 
may be mentioned that teaching by objects, and 
what is called the intelleetual system of education, 
was originally pnuftised at the mills of New 
Lanark, about the beginning of the century. 

LANCASHIRE, or LANCASTER, a marit. co. 
of England, on its W. coast, having N. Cumber- 



land and Westmoreland, E. Yorkshire, S. Deiby- 
shire and Cheshire, and W. the Irish Sea, by which 
it is in various parts deeply indented. Its most 
northerly portion, consisting of the hundred of 
Fumess, is separated from the main body of (he 
CO. by the intervention of Morecambe Bay and a 
small portion of Westmoreland. Area, 1,905 sq. m., 
or 1,219,221 acres, of which about 850,000 are 
supposed to be arable, meadow, and pasture. The 
hundred of Fumess is generally rugged and moun- 
tainous ; and the £. parts of the county along the 
Yorkshire border are occupied by portions of, or 
offsets from, the great central or mner ran^ of 
English mountains ; but, with these exceptions, 
the country is generally flat; and in the S. part 
of the CO. an extensive plain stretches firom Formby 
Point and Liverpool on the W., to Oldham on the 
E. Sandy loam and sand are the prevailing soils 
in the lower districts, in which, however, there are 
several extensive mosses: peat soil prevails in the 
mooxB. The climate is mild and salubrious, but 
more humid than any other in England. The oo. 
is wholly indebted to manufactures and commerce 
for its vast population, wealth, and importance ; 
for, as respects agriculture, it is, though consider- 
ably improved, one of the most backward in the 
empire. There is a great want of drainage. 
Potatoes are more extensively cultivated in this 
than in any other English co. ; and this is one 
cause why few turnips are raised. Grazing is 
more attended to than tillage husbandry ; large 
quantities of hay are produced, and there is a good 
deal of dairying. Lancashire is believed to be the 
original seat of the long-homed breed of cattle; 
but they are now so crossed and intermixed with 
others, as to be seldom found pure. There are 
some lai^e estates ; but property is, notwithstand- 
ing, a good deal subdivided. Tillage farms for 
the most part rather small, and usually held on 
seven years' leases, a tenure too short to admit of 
the occupiers undertaking any very expensive 
improvements. Farm buildings generally good. 
Exclusive of other minerals, this co. has vast 
beds of coal, and to that, more perhaps than any 
thing else, its extraordinaiy progress in manufac- 
tures is to be ascribed. It is the grand seat of the 
cotton manufacture, which has grown up with a 
rapidity wholly unexampled in the history of 
industry. Manchester, Preston, Bolton, Oldham, 
Blackburn, Ashton, Bury, Choriey, Wi^an, and 
other towns, where the manufacture is prmdpally 
carried on, and Liverpool, the pand emporium of 
the trade of the county, have mcreased with equal 
rapidity. Manchester is now the first manufac- 
turing town in the world ; and the trade and na- 
vigation of Liverpool are inferior only to those of 
London. Besides that of cotton the woollen 
manufacture is extensively carried on at Roch- 
dale and other places in this co., as is that of silk, 
flax, paper, hats, and many other branches of 
industzy. The extension of manufactures and 
trade has been at once a cause and a consequence 
of the extension of the facilities for conveyance, 
by means of canals, railways, and ordinary 'roads, 
which traverse this co. in every direction, and 
bring it, as it were, into immediate communication 
with almost every other part of the anpire. Lan- 
cashire was the first co. to construct a navigable 
canal (the Duke of Bridgewater's) ; and the open- 
ing of the Manchester and Liverpool railway, with 
locomotive engines, in 1830, formed a new and 
most important sera in the history of internal 
communication. Lancashire is a co. palatine, apd 
contains 7 hundreds, 4 boroughs, and 70 parishes, 
many of which are verv extensive. It sends 26 
mems. to the H. of C, being 4 for the co., 2 each 
for the bors. of Manchester, Livexpool, Oldham, 



Bolton, Preston, Lancaster, Wi^, and Black- 
burn, and 1 each for Rochdale, Bury, Clitheroe, 
Ashton, Salford, and Warrington. Registered 
electors for go. 34^61 in 1865, being 13,006 for 
North Lancashire, and 21,555 for South Lanca- 
shire. At the census of 1861, the co. had 438,503 
inhab. houses, 'with 2,465,366 inhabitants, wtiile 
in 1841 Lancashire had 289,184 inhab. houses, and 
1,667,054 inhab. The gross annual value of real 
property assMsed to income-tax under schedule 
(A.) amounted, in 1862, to 1,836,639^ in the 
northern division, and to 2,967,159/. in the south- 
ern division. 

Lakcasteb, a mun. and parL bor. and sea-port 
town and par. of England, cap. of the above co., 
locally situated in hunds. Amoundemess and Lons- 
dale, but with separate jurisdiction, on the S. bank 
of the Lone, 46 m. N. by £. Liverpool, and 232 
m. NW. London by London and North Western 
railway. Pop. of municipah bor. 14,487, and of 
parL bor. 16,005 in 1861. The town stands on a 
gentle slope facing the Lune, which is crossed here 
by a handsome stone bridge of five arches ; and the 
summit of the hill is crovmed by the bastions of 
its fine old castle, and the lofty tower of the par. 
church. Nearly the whole town is built of free- 
stone, from quarries in the neighbourhood: the 
houses are generally well constructed, and many 
an huge and handsome. The streets however, 
with one or two exceptions, are inconveniently 
narrow, and badly paved. Lancaster is lighted 
with ^9Af under an act passed in 1824, and is well 
supplied with water firom springs and wells. The 
pimcipal public building is the castle, once a mag- 
nificent structure, origuially built in the eleventh 
century, but renovat^ by John of Gaunt, duke of 
Lancaster, during the reign of Edward III. It 
was repaired at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and much enlaiged in 1788, when it was converted, 
at an expense of 140,0002., into assize and county 
courts, g^l, and female penitentiary. The walls 
enclose an area of 10,525 sq. yards. The prison 
is conducted on the system of classification and 
silent labour: above 160 debtors and 200 criminals 
have been confined in it at an average of the last 
few years. Among the other pubhc buildings, 
exclusive of the churches, are the town-hall, erected 
in 1781, the custom-house, on St. Geoige's Quay, 
having a portico and pediment supported by four 
Ionic columns, theassize house, the assembly-room, 
the theatre, the public baths, and the market- 
houses. The county lunatic asylum, on Lancaster 
Moor, is a quadrangular building, with a handsome 
Doric front, occupying, with its grounds, about 
5 acres : it accommodates 550 patients, and jb said 
to be humancdy and judiciously conducted. The 
par. church, which stands on the green and shapely 
knoll of Castle hill, is of the same date as the 
ca^e, and consists of a central and two side aisles 
of equal length, terminated by a well-proportioned 
and lofty tower at its W. end : it was all but re- 
built in 1759. Its richly-carved stalls, and other 
curious carvings in the chancel, and its fine monu- 
ments, are universally admired. The living is a 
vicarage, of the clear annual value of 1,700Z. ; and 
the incumbent nominates the ministers of St. 
John's and St. Ann's, the two district churches, as 
well as those of all the chapelries within the par. 
There are also places of worship for R. Catholics, 
Presbyterians, Independents, Quakers, and Wes- 
leyan and Association Methodists, to each of which, 
as well as to the churches, Sunday schools are at- 
^^faed, furnishing religious instruction to about 
2,000 children. The school charities comprise an 
acdent grammar school, under two masters, greatly 
modified in 1824, and now furnishing a good clas- 
sical and general education to about 60 boys ; a 

boys' national school, united with an old Bloecoat 
charity, attended by 360 boys (80 of whom are 
clothed); a girls' national school, established in 
1820, and attended by 130 girls ; a charity school, 
for clothing and instructing 60 girls ; a Catholic 
charity school, attended by 90 children of both 
sexes ; and a Lancastrian school, with 200 children. 
Among the other public charities are Mrs. Ripley's 
hospital for 300 children, founded in 1853, with a 
building in the Gothic style; Penny's hospital, 
endowed with land worth 340(. a year, and afford- 
ing a residence, clothing, and small stipend to 
twelve poor men ; Gillison's hospital, for the re- 
ception of eight unmarried women, each of whom 
has a stipend of 4^ a year; Gardyner's alms- 
houses, for four old men, a dispensary, and house of 
recovery; a lying-in charit^, and a benevolent 
society. Bible, church missionary, and tract so- 
cieties are also well supported. 

Lancaster had formerly a considerable share in 
the trade with the W. Indies ; for it appears that, 
in 1799, there came 57 vessels, of the burden of 
12,820 tons, from the W. Indies only. In conse- 
quence, however, of the superior facilities enjoyed 
by Liverpool, this branch of commerce is now all 
but extinct The great bulk of the shipping be- 
longing to the port consists of coasters. On the 
1st of January, 1864, there were registered 35 sail- 
ing vessels under 50, and 113 above 50, tons ; be- 
sides 4 steamers under, and 6 steamers above, 50 
tons. The navigation of the Lune being obstructed 
by shallows, vessels of above 200 tons load and 
unload in Glasson dock, constructed in 1787, about 
5 m. below the town, to and from which their 
cargoes are conveyed by means of lighters. Gross 
customs' revenue, 17,019t in the year 1863. The 
manufactures of Irfmcaster comprise cotton fabrics, 
silk thread, hnen thread, and sail-cloth. The 
cotton trade, introduced in 1806, is in a thriving 
condition ; but the sail-cloth business has declined. 
Cabinet-work and upholstery are made in con- 
siderable quantities for exportation, and there are 
candle and soap establishments and two extensive 
ship-yards. The Lancaster canal skirts the town, 
and about ^ m. to the N£. it crosses the Lune by 
a noble aqueduct bridge of five arches, erected by 
Kennie at a cost of 48,0007. The Lancaster and 
Preston junction-railway, forming a portion of the 
Great North Western line, intersects the town. 

Lancaster is one of the most ancient of the 
English bors., its first charter having been granted 
by King John, and confirmed by subsequent mon- 
archs. The present mun. bor. is divided into three 
wards, and governed by six aldermen (one of 
whom is mayor) and eighteen counciilors: it has 
a commission of the peace under a recorder. Cor- 
poration revenue, 2,027 In 1863. Assizes are held 
m Lent and summer, and the quarter sessions on 
Jan. 4, April 5, June 28, and Oct. 19. A bor. 
court sits every fourth Thursday for the recovery 
of debts to any txmount incurred within the bor. ; 
and it is the seat of a county court; The right to 
send representatives to parliament was first exer- 
cised m 1293 (23 Edward I.), but it ceased m 1359, 
and was not resumed till 1547, since which Lan- 
caster has regularly sent two mems. to the H. of C. 
Previously to the Reform Act, the right of election 
was vested in the fireemen and inha& The limits 
of the old pari. bor. were extended by the Boun- 
dary Act, so as to include parts of the townships 
of Skerton and Bulk. Kegistered electors, 1,394 
in 1865. Lancaster has two weekly markets on 
Wednesday and Saturday, but chiefly on the latter; 
and fairs are held 1st May, 5th July, and 10th 
October, for cattle and cheese. 

Lancaster is supposed to have been a Roman 
stetion. Urns, altars, and other antiquities have 



been discovered, and tlie affix caetter^vea by the 
SaxoDs, serves to confirm the fact. The Normans 
found the town in a state of decay; the ancient 
city reduced to a village, and the Roman caatrum 
little better than a roin. It was given by William 
the Conqueror to Koger de Poictou, who built a 
castle on the site of the ruined castrum : a flou> 
rishing town soon gathered round ; the burgesses 
of Lancaster acquired extensive privileges from 
their lords, and it continued to mcrease in im- 
portance. Kinff John conferred * the honour of 
Lancaster * onhis favourite Gilbert Fitz-Kein- 
frede, and gave it a charter. The first earl of 
Lancaster was created in 1266; and, in 1351, 
Henry earl of Derby was advanced, by special 
charter, to the title and dignity of duke of Lan- 
caster, with power to have a chancery in the 
county, and ' to enjoy all other liberties and re- 
galities belonging to a count palatine.* John of 
Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III., married Blanche, 
the duke's daughter, and, by virtue of this 
alliance, succeeded to the title. His son, Henry 
of Bolingbroke, first earl of Derby, and after- 
wards duke of Hereford, became duke of Lan- 
caster on his father's death in 1398, and finally 
king of England in 1399, from which time to the 
present this duchy has been associated with the 
regal dignity. Lancaster espoused the royalist 
cause during the parliamentary war, and was 
visited by the Jacobite troops in the rebellions of 
1716 and 1745. 

Lakcabtbk, a town of the U. States of N 
America, Pennsylvania, cap. co. of its own name, 
near Conesto^ Creek, a tnbutary of the Susque- 
hanna, 56 m. W. by N. Philadelphia, on the rail- 
way from Philadelphia to New York. Pop. 17,623 
in 'i860, against 8,417 in 1840. The town is 
pleasant, healthy, and flourishing, in a fertile and 
highly cultivated vicinity. Its streets are regular; 
the houses are chiefly of brick and stone, and 
many are spacious and elegant. There are nu- 
merous places of public worship, 8 of which for 
Germans; a courthouse, gaol, 8 banks, several 
charitable and religious societies, an academy for 
the classics and ^glish literature; a school of 
mutual instruction, and several other schools. 
The pop. is mostly of German descent; and some 
of the newspapen are in the German language. 
Lancaster has heen long famous for its manufac- 
ture of rifle muskets, and the excellence of the 
stage coaches built in it. Latterly several large 
cotton factories have been erected. Exclusive of 
cotton it has also manufactures of saddlei^, hats, 
nails, hand-screws, and other tools ; and many 
breweries, distilleries, tanneries, and potteries. Its 
general trade is extensive: it is connected with 
Philadelphia and fiarrisburg by railroads, and 
with the Susquehanna below Colombia by a 
canal. It is the seat of the district judicial court 
for the S. division of the county. 

LANCIANO, a town of South Italy, prov. 
Ghieti, cap. dist and cant, or circondariOf 6 m. 
from the Adriatic, and 18 m. S. Pescara. Pop. 
16,620 in 1862. The town is built on the summit 
of three hills, in a healthy and pleasant situation; 
and has a cathedral, several churehes and con- 
vents, an archbishop's palace, a diocesan semi- 
nary, and other schools, and a tribunal of primary 
jurisdiction. This is a very ancient citv ; and, in 
the middle ages, it was distmguished by its pro- 
ficiency in manufactures, and by the extent of 
the commerce carried on at its fairs; but these 
have both greatly declined. 

church of the TaO» * ^^^^ ^^^ P*'* of S. Wales, 
CO. Glamorgan, hund. Kibber, on the W. bank of 
the TtU 2 m. NW. CardiflF, and 27 m. W. Bristol, 


on the TaffVale railway. Pop. of par. 6,585 in 
1861 ; area of par., 2,386 acres. Landaff is at 
present little more than an inconsiderable village, 
with about a dozen respectable residences and 
several cottages; nor would it be worth notice, 
except from its being a bishop's see, and contain- 
ing a handsome cathedral. This sacred edifice 
was built early in the 12th centurv on the site of 
one still more ancient; but its W. end, with its 
fine front, and rich Norman doorways, and elegant 
pinnacled towers, has been allowed to fall into 
decay. The cathedral now comprises a choir, 
short nave and transepts : its total length, from 
£. to W., including the Ladye-chapel behind the 
altar, is 263 ft, breadth of the body 65 ft, and 
height, from the floor to the centre of the roof, 
119 ft Very extensive repairs, but in very bad 
taste, were effected in 1751, at an expense of 
7,000^ The new front, built about 80 ft within 
the original Norman W. end, has a Venetian win- 
dow, Ionic pilasters, and flower-pot jars on the 
parapet; and till lately the fine Gothic altar was 
enclosed within a Grecian portico. The chapter- 
house, S. of the church, is m the decorated Eng- 
lish style, with a central pillar; but it is fast 
falling into the same ruinous condition as the 
monuments and the episcopal palace, which were 
defaced and all but destroyed by Owen Glendwr. 
The choral services have been disused for some 
years, and the building is now employed aa a 
parish church, the service being occasionally in 
the Welsh language. The see of Llandaff (created 
in the 6th century) comprises all the county in 
which it is situated, and Monmouthshire, except 7 
pars. It was formerly the poorest of all the Eng- 
lish bishoprics, the annual income, mcluding pre- 
ferments, at an average of the 3 years ending with 
1831, being only 924/.; and it was held for some 
time in commendam with the deanery of St Paul's, 
London, and the rectory of Bedwas. Since the 
last voidance of the see, however, the sum of 
3150Z. has been paid out of the episcopal augmen- 
tation fund, to raise the income to 4,2002., and a 
further allowance of dOOL is to be made till the 
residence be restored. The patronage of the see 
comprises the cathedral appointments with 8 
livings, and the chapter comprises 11 dignitaries, 
besides the bishop: there are also 2 vicars-choral. 
Llandaff has no market, and is wholly dependent 
for its supplies on Cardiff, except for vegetables, 
which it sends in considerable quantities to that 
market Cattle fairs, Feb. 9 and Whit-Monday. 

LANDAU, a strongly fortified town belonging 
to the German confederation, in Rhenish Bavaria, 
on the Queich, a tributary of the Rhine, 54 m. S. 
by W. Mayence, and 46 m. NNE. Strasbuig. 
Pop., according to Beighaus, 6,100, exclusive of 
the Bavarian garrison of 6,000 men. This fortress 
is considered a ckef-tTcBuvre of Vauban, who com- 
menced the construction of its works in 1680. It 
is an octagon, with seven bastions, as many demi- 
lunettes, and several other outworks : its ditches 
are filled from the Queich. The barracks and 
ma^asine are bomb-proo£ The town was almost 
enturely consumed by fire in 1686, since which it 
has been regularly laid out, and has some good 
public edifices, including the prindpal church 
with a loily tower, two convents, the town-hall, 
court of justice, and a civil and military hospitaL 
In the centre of the town is a spacious parade 
ground. Some extensive vinegar factories have 
been established here within the last few years» 
The gates are closed at an early hour, after which, 
neither ingress nor egress is permitted. 

The history of Landau is httle else than that of 
a succession of sieges, blockades, captures, and 
other militaiy events It was founded by the 

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Emperor Rodolph of Hapsburg, and made a free 
town of the empire in the 14th centaxr. During 
the 30 yeaiB' war it was repeatedly taken and re- 
taken by the Swedes, Imperialists, French, &c^ 
and in the 18th century it was many times taken 
or besieged bjy the French and Germans. It was 
f^enenily held by the French from the peace of 
Kimegaen, in 1680 to 1815, when it was restored 
to Germany by the second treaty of Paris. 

LANDERIJEAU, a town and river-port of 
Fnnce, d^ Finistb«, on the Elom, 12 m. ENE. 
Brest, on the railway from Brest to St, Brienx. 
Pop. 6,969 in 1861. The town is ill-built, and 
badly payed; but its quays are good, and its port 
admits vessels of from 800 to 400 tons. It has a 
large and fine marine hospital, formerly an Ursn- 
line convent, and considerable manufactures of 
linen doth and leather. 

LANDES, a d^ of France, and one of the lar- 
gest, though the poorest, in the kingdom, reg. 
SW., chiefly between lat 48° 80' and 44° 80' K, 
and long. (P T and 1® 82' W., having N. Gironde, 
£. Lot-et-Garonne and Gers, S. Basses Pyren^, 
and W. the Bay of Biscay. Length and greatest 
breadth about 70 m. each. Area, 982^1 31 hectares; 
pop. 300,889 in 1861. The ddp. denves its name 
nom an extensive tract of heath, marsh, and 
other waste land, with a loose sandy soil, about 
300 ft. above the leyel of the sea, termed the 
' Landes,' which occupies 781,142 hect., or nearly 
4^ths of its total surface, besides a considerable 
portion of the adjacent d^p. of the Gironde. 
This eztenaiye and almost desert plain is for the 
most part a dead flat, interspersed with patches of 
pasture or cultivated land, clumps of pmes, scat- 
tered habitations of a miserable kind, and a few 
wretched hamlets; and bounded towards the sea 
by a chain of dunet or sandy dowds, inside which 
is a succession of lagoons fre(](uently communica- 
ting with each other, and occasionally with the sea 
bv openings between the cfvnet. The cbmes extend 
along the ^ore nearly from the mouth of^ the Gi- 
ronde to the Pyrenees, forming a chain from 
140 to 150 m. m length, by about 5 m. in width 
and from 100 to 160 ft m 'height. They consist 
of loose shifting sand thrown up by the sea. 
They are continually changing in form and posi- 
tion, according to tiie prevalent winds; but have 
a general tendency to move easterly, in which di- 
rection they are uid to advance about 25 yards a 
year ; and m process of time they would infallibly 
overspread the whole country, unless arrested 
and fixed by planting them with pines or other 
trees, as is done inHolland. Occasionally im- 
mense masses of sand have shifted their position 
through the agency of tempests, as in the African 
and Arabian deserts. The church and a consi- 
derable part of the village of Mimizan was over- 
whelmed by an inundation of this sort. The in- 
crease of the cbau9 having prevented the egress 
into the sea of many smim rivulets, the lagoons 
have been formed, the laigest of which is 7 m. in 
length and about as many in width. These also 
CQDtiuue to extend, since the shifting sands have 
been gradually shallowing the channels by which 
they commumcate with the sea. The surfhce of 
the ' I^ndes * is usually parched and arid, except 
for about four months of the year, when the rains 
fbmi extensiye pools in its depressed portions, 
vaiying to the depth of several feet These are 
often covoed with sand carried over them by the 
wind, when they are called bhuses, and are ex- 
ceedingly dangerous to strangers. To avoid such 
dangers,* and to travel more speedily through the 
loose soU, the inhab. use long staffs having notches 
for the feet 1, 2, or 8 ft above their lower extre- 
mity; 80 that a person of ordinary stature, when 



in walking order, has at a distance the appearance 
of a giant 8 ft high. The inhab. are yeiy expert 
at the use of these singular helps to locomotion. 
The Adour, and its tributary the Midouze; bound 
the * Landes ' to the SE., and form the N. Umit of 
the fertile portion of this ddp. The soil is there 
light but productive. Maize, millet wheat U^ 
saffion, hemp, and flax, are grown : in the arrond. 
St Sever, about 250,000 kil<^. of linseed-oil are 
produced annually, and about 820,000 hectoL of 
wine, certain kinds of which, termed the vins de 
sables, rival some of the growths of the Gironde. 
The culture of the mulbmy is on the increase. 

Agriculture in the Landes was in an exceed- 
ingly backward state till the year 1857, when, on 
the initiatiye of the Emperor Napoleon III., the 
French legislative assembly vot^ considerable 
sums for the drainage and general improvement 
of the soiL Since then, immense districts, which 
formerly were not only entirely unproductive, but 
frequently engendered disease, have been brought 
under cultivation. The work still continues, to 
the same good effect. Goats, hogs, and poultry 
are frequently kept by the peasantry, and bees are 
numerous. The pine forests furnish abundance of 
deals, pitch, tar, and rosin ; and coal, iron ore, and 
potters' clay are met with. Manufactures unim- 
portant; some smelting furnaces and foiges, em- 
ploying about 500 hands, and some tanneries, oil- 
mills, and glass and earthenware factories, com- 
prise almost all the manufacturing establishments. 
The trade of the d^p. is chiefly in cattle, wines, 
timber, and agricultural produce. Landes is di- 
^Hded into 3 arronds., and sends 8 mems. to the 
cham. of dep. Chief towns, Mont-de-Marsan, the 
cap., St Sever, and Dax. 

LANDSBERG, a town of Prussia, prov. Bran- 
denburg, gov. Frankfort c«P' circ»» on the Warta, 
a tributary of the Netz, here crossed by an excel- 
lent bridge, 88 m. NE. Frankfort on the Oder, on 
the railway from Berlin to Kttnigsb^^g. Pop. 
76,131 in 1861. Landsberg is divided into the 
Old and New Tovm, and has several suburbs. It 
is walled, and is one of the best built towns in the 
prov. It has several churches, a house of cor- 
rection, the inmates of which are made to support 
themselves by the manufacture of woollen cloths, 
a hospital, an orphan asylum, and a high schooL 
It is a principal mart for com and wool/fie greater 
part of the produce of Pomerania. the Neumark, 
and W. Prussia being brought thither for export 
by the Oder. The town has also brisk manufac- 
tures of woollen goods, leather and paper, and 
numerous breweries and distilleries. Landsberg 
is the seat of a circle assembly, a circle and town 
tribdnal of the first class, boards of taxation, forest 
economy, and agriculture, and the superintendency 
of the drainage of the vale of the Warta. The 
town was repeatedly taken and retaken by the 
Swedes and tne Imperialists in the 80 years' war. 

LANDSOKONA, a fortified sea-port town of 
Sweden, prov. Malnus, on a tongue of land pro- 
jecting into the Sound, 16 m. NE. Copenhagen. 
Pop. 6,276 in 1861. The town has strong waSs, a 
citadel, and other works ; is well laid out and bas 
a safe and well sheltered hart)our, with 20 ft water. 

LAND*S END, a headland at the W. extremity 
of the CO. Cornwall, celebrated as being the most 
westerly land in England ; lat 50^ 4' ?' N.,long. 
60 41' 31" W. It is formed of eranite cliflBi, which 
rise about 60 ft above the level of the sea. These 
assume, in some places, the appearance d* shafts, 
and are as regular as if they had been cut by the 
chiseL About 1 m. W. fh>m the Land's End are 
the rocks called the Longships, on the largest of 
which is a light-house, with a fixed light having 
the lantern elevated 88 ft above high water mark. 

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LANDSHUT, a town of Bavaria, ciic Lower 
Bavaria, on the Tsar, 38 m. N£. Mttnich, on the 
railway from Milnich to Batbhon. Pop. 12,184 
in 1861. Landahut is divided into an old and a 
new town, has a suburb on an island in the Isar, 
with which it is united by two bridf|[es, and is 
partly suirounded b^ old walls and ditches. It 
consists of two principal and many smaller streets ; 
the houses, which are of brick, are mostly envi- 
roned by gardens. The town has a very pic- 
turesque appearance, from the antioue architecture 
of its buildings, and the number or its towers and 
spires, that of St. Martin's* church being one of 
the loftiest in Germany. It has an old castle, 
the residence of the dukes of Bavaria in the 13th 
century; a Cistercian abbey, in which they were 
buried*; a royal palace, an old town-hall, a hos- 
pital for decayed citizens, 2 other hospitals, 3 con- 
vents, a lyceum, gymnasium, chirurgical and ec- 
clesiastical seminaries, and various other schools. 
In 1800, the university of Ingolstadt was removed 
thither; but in 1826 it was transfened to MUnich. 
Landshut has manufactures of woollen cloths, 
stockings, tobacco, paper, and cards, with nume- 
rous distilleries and breweries, and some trade in 
com, cattle, and wool. 

LANE-END. See Potterhes. 

LAN6ELAND, an island of the Danish archi- 
pelago, in the Baltic, between Laland and Funen, 
extending from lat 54P 43' to 559 20' N., and be- 
tween long. 1(P 40' and 11° £. Length NNE. to 
SSW. 82 m. ; average breadth 2^ m. Area, 80 
sq. m. Pop. 17,105 in 1860. Ita shores are gene- 
rallv uniform, except on the W., where they are 
bioKen by numerous inlets. Its surface is more 
elevated than that of the adjacent islands, but it 
is generally quite flat. Climate healthy. Chief 
products, com, potatoes, fruits, and flax. A good 
many cattle are reared, and the fisheries are pro- 
ducdve. Rudkidbing, on the W. coast, with 1,680 
inhab., is the chief town, and centre of the trade, 
which is tolerably active. 

LAN6ENSALZA, a town of Prussia, gov. Er- 
furt, cap. drc of its own name, on the Salza, 19^ 
m. NW. Erfurt. Pop. 8,672 in 1861. The town 
is well built, walled, and further defended by a 
castle ; and has 4 churches, 4 hospitals, a lazaretto, 
an orphan asylum, a high school, a public library, 
and a theatre. It is the seat of a district council, 
a board of taxation, judicial courts for the town 
and circle, and the lliuringian Agronomical So- 
ciety. It has manufactures of various descriptions 
of woollen, linen, and cotton fabrics, a saltpetre 
factory, with dyeing houses, breweries, diataUcries, 
and paper mills. 

LANGHOLM, a bor. «f barony and mariEet- 
town of Scotland, «o. Dumfries, in the bosom of a 
wooded vaUey on the Esk. and on the railway- 
between Edinburgh and Carlisle, 21^ m. N. by W. 
the latter, and 69 m. S. by E. the former. Pop. 
2,990 in 1861. The town is intersected by the 
Esk, New Langholm (founded in 1778) being on 
the W. side of the river. The latter is regularly 
built, of a triangular form. The old town consists 
chiefly of one street on the line of the road. In it 
are the town-hall and gaol, ornamented with a 
spire, and the par. church. Tbere are, also, chapels 
belonging^respectively to the Associate Synod and 
KelieL The communication between the different 
parts of the bor. is maintained by a fine bridge. 
There are sundry schools in the parish, of which 
two are endowed ; average attendance, about one- 
tenth pop. There are two subscription libraries, 
to one of which the late Thomas Telford, the cele- 
brated engineer, a native of the district, bequeathed 
l.OOOiL William Julius Mickle, the translator of 
the ' Lusiad,' was a native of the bor. ; and Sir John 


and Sir Pulteney Malcolm were bom in the neigh- 

Langholm- was created a buxgh of barony in 
1610. Gilnockie Tower, the residence of * Johnie 
Armstrong,' the famous border freebooter in the 
time of James v., is in the neighbourhood, but has 
long been in rains. Langholm Lodge, a seat of the 
Duke of Bnccleugh, is also in the neighbourhood. 

LANGRES (an. Andematumtm and CivUas 
Linganum)^ a town of France, d^. Haute-Marac, 
cap. of arrond., 18 m. SSE. Chaumont, and 39 m. 
NNE. Dijon, on the railway ^from Paris to Mul- 
house. Pop. 7,940 in 1861.' The town is sur- 
rounded with walls flanked by towers, and is well 
built, its streets being regular, wide, and dean. 
The principal public edifice of Langres, its ancient 
cathedral, has a choir, the peristyle of which, of 
the Corinthian order, is supposed to have formed 
part of a Roman temple : the edifice itself, though 
of uncertain date, is very ancient, excepting the 
grand entrance, constracted in the 18th centory. 
The bishopric of Langres was founded as early as 
the 8rd century. Langres has a handsome town- 
hall, a theatre, a public libraiy with 3,000 vols^ a 
school of drawing, several hospitals, and a fine 
public promenade. It is distinguished by its cut- 
ierv, which is its chief branch of industry*. 

The Langonea are noticed by Ciesar as beinff at- 
tached to the Romans (De Bello Galileo, lib. L 
§ 26, 40) ; they afterwards became /ouferali, or al- 
lies of the Romans ; and their city is characterised 
by Frontinns as opulentisiima, '(Lib. iv. cap. 3.) 
Among the remains of antiquity of which it has 
still to boast, are several triumphal arches ; one of 
which, now included in the town-walls, supposed 
to have been erected in honour of the two Gordians, 
circa cemho 240, has a frieze on its entablature, in* 
dicating a high state of the arts. It suffered nu- 
merous disasters in the dark ages, being taken ami 
burnt by Attila, and again destroyed by the 
Yandals, in 407. Louia VII. annexed it to the 
French crown. Diderot was a native of Langres, 
where he was bom, in 1712. 

LANGUEDOC, one of the old provs. of France, 
in the S. part of the kingdom, now distribated 
among the ddps. of Ardtehe, Aude, Gaid, Haute 
Garonne, H^rault, Haute-Loire, Loz^and Tam. 

LANNION, a town and river port of France, 
d<$p. Cotes-du-Nord, cap. arrond., on the Guer, 85 
m. WNW. St. Brieua Pop. 6,698 in 1861. Its 
port on the river is bordered by a spadoas quay, 
but within the last 40 yean vesaeb of 260 tons 
have been unable to come op to the latter. It has 
a church erected in the 12th century, two hos- 
pitals, barracks, and a communal college. It is 
the seat of a sub-prefecture, and a court of primary 
jurisdiction, and has manufactures of linen fabrics, 
and an active trade in agricultural prodace. 

LANZEROTA, one of the Canary Islands, which 

LAODICEA AD LTCUM, an ancient city of 
Phry^^ in Asia Minor, chiefly interesting as bong 
the site of one of the seven primitive Christian 
churches, on the Lyons, a tributary of the Meander, 
120 m. ESE. Smyrna, lat 37^ 66' N., long. 29o 
16' N. The site of this town, once ranking as the 
second in Phrygia, is marked only by the deserted 
ruins of public buildinp; and hence the neigh- 
bouring hamlet, inhabited only by a few squalid 
Turks, has received the name of Aki-hitaar, *old 
castle.' The remains are very extensive ; and the 
whole surface within the walls is strewed with 
pedestals and fragments, indicating by their size 
and workmanship the former luxury and mag- 
nificence of the city. The largest ruin is that of 
an oblong amphitheatre, having an area of 1,000 
sq. ft. Many of the seats are still in tolerable 

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preserrfttioDi and at the W. end is a vaulted 
passage about 140 ft. long, and designed for the 
horses and chariots entering the arena. A Greek 
inscription on the mouldings states that it was 
competed in the reign of the emperor Vespasian, 
AJ>. 82, after having occupied twelve years in 
building. There are remains also of an odeum, 
two theatres, and a fabric which Chandler supposed 
had been a senate-house and exchange. Tne soil 
in and about the city is hard, dry, and porous, 
bearing many indications of an igneous origin ; and 
Laodicea hais at many different times suffered 
greatly from earthquakes. 

Laodicea, so called from the wife of its founder, 
Antiochus IL, was long an inconsiderable place, 
notwithstanding Uie beneficence of Hiero, Zeno 
the philosopher, and his son Polemo. Alter its 
sufferings, however, in a siege by Mithridates, the 
Romans strengthened and enlarged it, so that at 
length, about the Christian era, it became, next to 
Apamea Cibotos, the largest dtj of Phrygia, and 
vied in importance with the cities on the coast. 
There can be little doubt that it was visited by 
St. Paul in the course of his missionary tour 
through Asia Minor, and perhaps the Christian 
converts of Laodicea, as well as those of Colosse 
and Hierapolia {Pambouk), both neighbouring 
towns, were the results of the apostle's preaching. 
In the epistle to the Colossians (iv. 16), mention 
is made of an epistle to the Laodiceans; and 
though some critics have maintained that it is 
identical with that to the Ephesians, the more 
probable conjecture is that it nas not come down 
to modem times. The persecution which raged in 
Asia Minor during the latter part of the first cen- 
toiy tended somewhat to abate the zeal of the 
Laodicean Christians, and hence the rebuke in the 
Rerelalioas. Of the subsequent history of this 
city for several centuries little is known. It was 
generally in a prosperous condition under the 
Koman emperors, and was flourishing even in 1190, 
when Frederic Barbarossa visited it on his way to 
the third cruaade. Soon afterwards, however, it 
was repeatedly attacked and ravaged b^ the 
Tuiica, and finally came into their hands m the 
beginning of the 14th century, since which it has 
bem a mere rain, * wretched, and miserable, and 
poor, and naked.' (Rev. iil 14-22.^ 

Laodicea ad Ltfeum must not be confounded 
with Laodicem condnuta (now ZodtA), 19 m. KW. 
Konieh, also a considerable city, of which there are 
extensive ruina. 

LAODIC£A AD MARE, in Syria. See 

LAON (Lat. lAmihmum)^ a town of France, d^p» 
Aisne, of which it \a the cap., on the summit of a 
steep hill, 62 m. WSW. Mead^es, and 74 m. NE. 
Paris, on the railway from Rheims to Amiens. Pop. 
10,090 in 1861. The town is about 1 m. in length, 
nanow in the centre, expanded at either extremity, 
and surrounded by old walls, flanked with nume* 
loos small towers. Except its main street, it is ill 
built, but it has pleasant promenades, a healthy 
situation, and fertile neighbourhood. It has a large 
Gothic cathedral, with 4 towers, rebuilt in 1114; 
a la^ old abbey, now occupied by the prefecture ; 
a public library^ comprising 17,000 vols.; exten- 
sive barracks, a remarkable leaning tower, 2 hoe- 
{itals, a town-hall, communal college, and theatre, 
t is the seat of a tribunal of original jurisdiction ; 
and has manufactures of nails, leather, copperas, 
and earthenware. 

Laon has been sometimes supposed, but on no 
good grounds, to occupy the site of the Bibrax 
mentioned by Oesar. In the middle ages it was 
distingiiiwhed by its industry and wealth; its 
bishopric was one of the most lucrative in the 



kingdom ; and the position and importance of the 
towii made it be regarded as a kind of second 
capital. It was, however, far more distinguished 
by the spirit which animated its inhabitants, and 
by their persevering efforts to emancipate them- 
selves from the feudal ^'ranny of their bishops, 
and to establish a muniapal government, and the 
regular administration of justice under magistrates 
of their own selection. They succeeded in esta- 
blishing an independent government so early as 
the year 1110 ; and maintained it, at the cost ot 
many great sacrifices, for above two centuries, or 
till 1331, when it was finally abolished by royal 
ordonnance. (For an account of the commwne of 
Laon, see the work of M. Thierry, Lettres sur 
I'Histoire de France, Nos. 16-18.) 

Laon was, in 1814, the scene of some severe 
fighting between the French and the Allies. The 
Prussians under Blucher having occupied the 
town, their position was unsuccessfully attacked 
on the 9th of March, by the French, under Na- 
poleon ; and the Prussians having cut to pieces and 
dispersed the corps of Marmont during the night, 
Napoleon was obliged to withdraw from before the 
town on the 11th. 

LAOS, or the SHAN COUNTRY, a countrv of 
India beyond the Brahmaputra, extending * be- 
tween lat 16«> and 24P N. and long. 98° and 103® 
E.; having N. the Chinese prov. Yun-nan; W. 
the Birmese empire, from which it is separated by 
the Than-lweng river; S. the Tenasserim provs., 
Siam and Camboja ; and E. Tonquin and Cochin 
China, finom which a lofty mountain chain divides 
it. The country lies in the basins of two large 
rivers, the Menam, which afterwards waters Siam, 
and the Menamkong, or river of Camboja, in the 
middle portion of its course. The Laos territories 
formerly comprised eight or nine larger and seve- 
ral smaller distinct states ; but of late the Siamese 
have conquered most of these, and the rest are 
principally tributary to the surrounding nations, 
espedally the Birmese and Chinese. The Laos 
pop. in the Siamese dom. is estimated at 840,000 ; 
to which must be added nearly 200,000 for the 
pop. of N. Laos, making a total of somewhat 
more than a million. The country is fertile ; but 
it is in general very poorly cultivated and thinly 
inhabited. The smaller villages are mere col- 
lections of huts; and a great part of the pop. con- 
sists of small migratory hordes, who have no per- 
manent habitation. The labour of cultivation is 
thrown principally on the women. The fields are 
ploughed about the beginning of the rains in 
August, and the crop is reaped m February. The 
Oryza gluHnota is the only variety of rice that ia 
raised; and, as there is no market for surplus 
grain, it seUs in plentiful years at an extremely 
low price. The implements of husbandry are, 
rude ploughs, drawn by two oxen or buffaloes, 
harrows, spades, and hoes. The hire of a labourer 
averages a quarter of a rupee a day ; but hired 
labourers are few, and the cultivators assist each 
other by turns in their various operations. The 
grain is cut with the common sickle, and thrashed 
by treading out with oxen. Tobacco, with sugar- 
canes and mulberries, are generally raised ; and 
the country yields pepper, cardamoms, different 
sorts of indigo, benzom, stick lac, and oUier s^ums, 
betel, numerous fhiits, an abundance of teiu and 
sapan-wood, and a species of sandal-wood. It 
abounds with elephants, which are exported in 
considerable numbers; and with buffaloes, oxen, 
and other animals found in thea(^acent countries. 
There are, however, no sheep. Asses are used as 
beasts of burden, but waggons are frequently 
employed in the conveyance of goods. Gold la 
found in parts of N. Laos, but m such trifling; 

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quantities as hardly to afford the ordinaiy low 
rate of wages of the country to those engaged in 
sifting and washing the sand in which it is found. 
Tin ore is abundant, and iron, lead, copper, anti- 
mony, and silver are met with. Some of these 
metals are smelted and wrought, but the ores are 
principally sent in a rough state to Birmah. Silk 
and cotton fabrics, paper made from the bark of a 
creeping plant^ leather, date-sugar, and gunpow- 
der are the chief manufactures. There are, how- 
ever, gold, silver, and iron smiths, mat^makers, 
potters, embroiderers, and a variety of petty arti- 
sans. Spinning and weaving are usually per- 
formed by wdmen, who, aa in Birmah, conduct a 
good deal of the retail trade. Some commerce is 
carried on with the immediately adjacent countries. 
The inhab. exchange their lac, sapan-wood, and 
other dyes, paroquet skins, ivor^, rhinoceros' 
horns, wax, tin and lead, with the Tonquinese for 
sulphur, cinnabar, gamboge, orpiment, borax, 
musk, silks, gold thread, embroidery, steel, cutlery, 
and paper crockery. About fiity merchants come 
annually from Tonquin, each with twenty or 
thirty horse-loads of merchandise. Laige quan- 
tities of salt, with spices and woollen cloths, are 
imported from Rangoon, to which the Laos mer- 
chants take jaghery, drugs, dyes, silks, cottons, 
lacquered wares, ^old, silver, copper, and other 
metals, partly naUve produce, and partly obtained 
from China. The intercourse with the Tenas- 
serim provs. is increasing; and some British cot- 
ton and woollen goods are bought by the Shans 
at Martaban. In N. Laos, however,' the people 
are not dependent on the coast for salt, a good 
deal, though of inferior quality, being there col- 
lected in the plains. A caravan occasionally 
comes from Siam. 

The form of government is a pure despotism. 
The king is assisted by four councillors. The 
laws, derived from the Institutes uf Menu, are 
administered by the councillors, under whom are 
eight inferior judges. Their general tenor is the 
same as that of the Siamese laws, but they are 
not generally enforced with so much rigour. 
Unlike most E. countries, the people have a right 
of property in the soil, and may dispose of it at 
pleasure; waste land may be occupied by any 
one, and if he cultivate it, he establishes a right 
to its exclusive possession. In N. Laos a small 
militaiT force is kept up. The Shans somewhat 
resemble the Birmese; to whose dress, habits, and 
customs, their own are very similar. Various 
books have been written in the Shan language, 
which is little different from the Pali : it is written 
in a character similar to the Birmese. 

Some of the most striking and venerated Bud- 
dhist temples exist in this country. The most 
not«d is that of Nang-rung, NW. of Zimmai, the 
cap. of N. Laos. The chief city of S. Laos, Lan- 
chang, is reported to be both populous and com- 
paratively well built. The mhab. assert that 
they are the stock whence the Siamese sprung, 
and this the latter do not hesitate to acknowledge. 
ITie emigration of the Siamese southward from 
Laos is conjectured by Captain Low to have been 
about the year 688. ^Low's Hist of Tenasserim, 
in Joum. of Royal Asiatic Soc, v. 245-263.) 

LAPLAND, the most northerly country of 
Europe, belonging partly to Russia and partly to 
Sweden, between lat 64® and 71o N. and long. 
10° and 429 E. ; bounded N. by the Arctic Ocean, 
E. bv the White Sea, S. by Sweden and Finland, 
and *W. by the Atlantic Ocean. Area 150,000 sq. 
m., about two-thirds of which belong to Russia. 
Pop. vaguely estimated at 60,000, of whom only 
9,000 are Laplanders, the rest being Swedes, Nor- 
wegians, and Russians. That part of Lapland 

which lies along the N. shore of the Gulf of Both- 
nia, is an extensive plain, abounding in immense 
forests of spruce and Scotch fir ; but at the dis- 
tance of 80 m. Arom 'the sea, the ground becomes 
gradually elevated, and is at l^t full of lofty 
mountains, composed chieflv of primitive and 
transition rocks, very rich m copper and other 
metallic ores. These, between the lat of 67° and 
68° 30', rise to a height of from 5,500 to 6,200 ft^ 
which, in this hvperborean region, is 2,700 ft. 
above the line of perpetual congelation. These 
central mountains are the highest in Lapland. 
The ranges continue all the way to the N. Cape, 
but decline gradually in height The principal 
rivers of Lapland are the Tomeo, which, takin;; 
its rise in the highest mountains, near lat 689 
20', holds a course first S£., and afterwards nearly 
S., receiving tributary streams from the right and 
left, till it reaches the N. extremity of the Gulf of 
Bothnia, at the town of Tomeo. The Kemi, a 
river almost eoually laige, rises in the N£., flows 
S., and falls mto the Gulf of Bothnia, not far 
from the Tomeo. The Lulea and Pitea both rise 
in the mountains of the NW., in about lat 689, 
and flow S£., nearly parallel to each other, till 
they also reach the Gulf of Bothnia. In N. Lap- 
land, above lat 689 30', the slope of the ground is 
N. The Tana, which is the pmicipal river in the 
NE., and the Alten, the largest in the NW., both 
run into the Arctic Ocean. All these, like the 
rivers of Switzerland, are comparatively small iii 
winter, and become mighty streams in summer, 
on the melting of the snows. Lapland abounds 
in Lakes : that called Enare, or Indiager, in Ra»- 
sian Lapland, in lat 69<^, is of great size. Several 
of the others are likewise extensive, and are tra- 
versed by considerable rivers. 

The climate of Lapland is noted for extreme 
coldness; but, in fact, it is milder than that of any 
other region under the same parallel The coasts 
of Norwegian Lapland and Finmark are free from 
ice early in May, whereas the sea of Siboria is 
never open till the end of July. The climate of 
one part of the country, also, differs very much 
from that of another. In the maritime districts 
the temperature is pretty uniform: the winters 
are not severe^ but the summers are raw and 
foggy; while, m the interior, the winter is in- 
tensely coldj but the heat of summer is steady 
and fructifving. The mean annual temperature 
at the N. Cape (lat 71^ ir 80") is 6^ higher than 
at Enontekis in the interior (in lat es^^dC). Yet, 
at the latter, the thermometer rises in July to 
64^), while at the Cape it seldom reaches 50^. In 
both, the summer begins in May and ends in Sep- 
tember ; but in the valleys, among the mountains, 
com ripens in the short space of three months. 
The sun being so many hours above the horizon, 
the heat is then intense, and the clouds of insects 
are exceedingly troublesome. The cold of winter, 
on the contrary, is frequently so intense as to 
freeze brandy or spirits of wine ; and the rivers 
in the interior are covered with ice to the depth of 
several feet Towards the N.^ the sun remains 
for many weeks below the honzon in winter, and 
in summer is as long without setting. During the 
long night of winter, however, the darkness is 
relieved b^ the brightness of the moon and stars, 
and the vivid coruscations of the aurora boreaha. 
The twilight is also such that, during several 
hours each day, it is possible to read without a 
lamp or candle. 

Tue vegetable productions of the maritime and 
mountainous district differ as widelv as the 
climate. In the low country, particularly near 
the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, are large 
forests of spruce, Scotch fir, and other resinous 

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trees; potatoes, turnips, and other vegetables are 
cultivated; and roses and carnations deck the 
guldens during the brief months of summer. In 
a colder region the spruce disappears, the Scotch 
fir being the only tree of that class that braves its 
seTerity. It, in its turn, declines in vigour, till 
it totafiv disappears ; and its place is supplied by 
the bircL, whidi again yields to the Satix glaucoj 
a plant unknown in Bntain, and peculiar to cold 
climates. The Bubvi Cbamanwrus, Iluhna arcti- 
cu$^ and other benry-bearing plants, are here nume- 
rous, and support even an additional degree of 
cold ; but we arrive soon after at a climate where 
nothing is to be seen but a few of the hardiest 
plants, such as the dwarf birch, with the Stiliv 
jnpnmitvt^ QrdttM kyptrhorto, and other trees and 
shrabs peculiar to the countTy. A few mosses 
still keep their ground ; but, before reaching the 
point of perpetual congelation, there is here, as 
in other countries quite destitute of eveiy species 
of Tegetation, neither ^lant nor animal to be seen. 
The reinndeer's lichen is of a bright yellow colour, 
which, as the plant withers, becomes snow white : 
it thrives better near the fir forests than in the 
loAier legions of birches, and a plain covered 
with this moss fbrms a Lapland meadow. It is 
the winter food of the cattle, and, when ground, 
is used as flour by the inhab. Rich pastures also 
are furmsbed by the bear's moss {Mu$cua poly- 
<ncfta), which, *on account of ita softness and 
elasticity, is made into beds and mattresses, 
alleged by travellers to be superior to any in 
Europe. The root of the Aftgeuca and the stem 
of the Fonchns are used as food, and of all the 
grains barley is that which thrives best ; but the 
potato yields a surer harvest, and, if generally 
cultivated, might afford sufficient sustenance for 
the inhabs. The turnip and cabbage, introduced 
bv the Russians, succeed well on the low lands, 
l^e best agriculturists are the Finnish colonists, 
who have raised com at Alten in lat 70^, which 
nay safel}' be pronounced the N. limit of hus- 
bandry ; but tillage, generally, is in a very back- 
ward state. 

Among the animals of Lapland, the rein-deer is 
the most valuable. It ser\-es as the principal beast 
of burden ; its milk is highly valued ; its flesh sup- 
plies the chief nourishment of the people during a 
|>an of the year; its sinews are made mto thre&d ; 
at horns into spoons, and other domestic utensils ; 
tnd its skin furnishes a great part of their dress. 
The rein-deer bears a great resemblance to the 
stag, but is much smaller, being in general only 
four feet in height from the foot to the top of the 
back, and but two feet long in the body. It is 
remvkable equally for the elegance of its shape, 
the bMuty of ita palmated horns, and the ease 
with which it supporU itself during a long winter 
of nine months. In summer it feeds on grass, and 
is estremely fond of the herb called the great 
water horse-tail ; but in winter it refuses hay, and 
obtams its whole nourishment from the rein-deer 
moss. It thrives best in the cold dry regions of 
Central Lapland, where numerous herds roam at 
Isige the whole year round, under the care of 
shepherds asusted by dogs. The rein-deer, indeed, 
form the chief wealth of the natives. The poorer 
classes have from 50 to 200, the middle classes 
frum 300 to 700, and the affluent often above 
1,000 head. The females are driven home morn- 
ing and evening to be milked, and yield about as 
much milk as uie goat Horses, oxen, goats, and 
sheep are common ; and in the forests are bears, 
gluttons, wolves, elks, hares, martens, squirrels, 
and lemming-rats. Birds of passage arrive in 
flocks every summer; capercailies, grouse, par- 
tridges, and aquatic fowl are very plentiful near 

Vou in. 



the coast, and lammexgeyers and eagles soar 
nearly to the line of perpetual snow. The rivers 
are stored with salmon, herring, and other fish; 
and in July and Aug. insects abound in such enor- 
mous quantities, that Wahlenberg has supposed 
that their dead bodies serve aa an excellent ma- 
nure for the soiL 

The Laplanders, who call themselves Samej are 
most probably a tribe of Tschoude or Finns, though 
difference of situation has, in the course of ages, 

Produced a fundamental difference of character, 
he Finns, an industrious though unpolished race, 
were encouraged to form colonies in Lapland about 
a century ago ; and their number has since increased 
rapidly, while that of the Laplanders has been 
stationary, perhaps on the decline. Of the 27,000 
inhabitants of Norwegian Laphmd, there are not, 
it is thought, above 6,000 Laplanders. They 
have swarthy complexions, black short hair, 
wide mouths, hollow cheeks, and long and pointed 
chins. They are strong, active, and hardy ; but 
they sufler much from disease, and few live be- 
yond fifty. Dishonestv is general among them, 
and dram-drinking is often carried to a fatxd ex- 
cess. They were not converted to Christianity 
till the 17th century. Those of the Russian pro- 
vince are professedly of the Greek church, while 
those subject to Sweden are Lutherans. But not- 
withstanding the efforts of the missionaries, they 
are still very ignorant both of the doctrines and 
duties of Christianity, and retain many heathen 

rhe rein-deer Laplanders live either wholly or 
principally on the produce of their herds, building 
their rude huts during summer in the moss pas- 
tures of the elevated country, and in winter on the 
level tracts inhabited by other nations ; but the 
fishing I^Aplanders confine themselves to the banks 
of lakes and rivers, and catch fish and beavers, 
which, as well as skins and venison, they ex- 
change with the Russians and Swedes for spi- 
rituous liquors, meal, salt, and tobacco. 

The clothing of these half-civilised tribes is 
abundantly coarse, consisting of a woollen cap, 
a coat commonly of sheepskin, with the wool 
inwards, and a great coat, either of kersey or of 
rein-deer skin, with the hair outwards. " They 
have no stockings, but a kind of pantaloons of 
coarse cloth, or tanned leather, fitted close to the 
legs ; their shoes are made of rein-deer's skin, the 
sole being taken from the forehead, and the upper 
leather from the legs. The women dress nearly 
in the same manner, but with the addition of some 
rude ornaments; and, in the case of the more 
affluent, of mantles and aprons of Russia linen or 
cotton. These, and leather for the boots of the 
men, are obtained in the petty traffic of the Lap- 
landers with the Swedes. When travelling, and 
exposed to the winter blast, it is customar}' for the 
natives to cast a hood over the head, neck, and 
shoulders, leaving only a small opening, through * 
which they see and breathe. 

The language of the Laplanders is a Finnish 
dialect; but it contains so many obsolete and 
forei^ words, that they are not intelligible by 
the mhabitants of Finland, nor indeed can the 
tribes in one part understand the language spoken 
by those of another. The Laponic has been mixed 
more than the other Finnish tongues with tlie 
German and Scandinavian, and hence its prin- 
cipal roots and derivations bear much less amnity 
with those in the languages of Upper Asia. 

LAR, a town of Persia, cap. of the prov. of La- 
ristan, 130 m. WNW. Gombroon, and 182 m. SE. 
Shiraz. Pop. estim. at 12,000. The town stands 
at the foot of a range of hills in an extensive 
plain, covered with palm trees. The houses gene- 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^Bliy are commodioaB andneatty furnished, and 
there are several handsome public buildings. The 
governor's house, in the middle of the city, is sur- 
rounded by a strong wall Hanked with towers. 
The bazaar, which is in good repair, is alleged to 
be the best structure of the kind in Persia : it is 
very ancient, and built on a similar nlan to that of 
Shiraz, but on a much greater scale, with loftier 
arches, greater length and breadth, and superior 
workmanship. The castle, on the top of a hill, 
overlooking the town, is now in ruins. Rain- 
water being the only water to be found in this 
parched and arid country, is collected during the 
wet season in laiige cisterns, similar to those in 
the island of Ormuz. 

Lar was formerly the capital of an Arabic king- 
dom destroyed by Shah Abbas II. It is at present 
in a state of decay ; but it still manufactures fire- 
arms, gunpowder, and cotton fiibrics, exchanged 
at Shiraz and Gombroon for coffee, sugar, Indian 
silks, and European merchandise. 

LARGS, a bor. of barony and sea-port of Scot- 
land, CO. Ayr, beautifully situated on a bay of the 
same name, and overhung on the land side by 
richly-wooded hills, 22 m. W. by S. Glasgow. 
Pop. 2,638 in 1861. The town, which is much 
frequented by visitors, for the purpose of sea- 
bathing, has an elegant suite of public baths, with 
a reading-room and library, and various circulat- 
ing libraries. Though not built on any regular 
Elan, it contains many excellent and substantial 
ouses. The par. church, with its spire and clock, 
is conspicuous. Many gentlemen's seats are in the 

Laigs is celebrated in histor>' as the scene of a 
great battle, fought in 1263, between Ilaco, king 
of Norway, and the troops of Alexander IL, in 
which the former was signally defeated. The 
cairns and tumuli, erected by permission of the 
conquerors, by the Norwegians over their slain, 
are still visible on the S. side of the village. 

LARISSA (Turk, renitcher)^ a town of Euro- 
pean Turkey, prov. Trikala, 25 m. NW. Volo, and 
70 m. ESE. Yanina, Pop. estimated at 15,000. 
It is a walled town, and is situated on the Selem- 
bria (an. Peneius), crossed here by a bridge of ten 
arches. This river approaches it through a tract 
of woodland, almost concealing it from view, and 
then flows close at the foot of a convent of der- 
vishes, two large Turkish mosques, and several 
groups of lofty buildings, soon after disappearing 
among the woods. The winter floods, which come 
down from the mountains with great force, fre- 
quently occasion damage to the clay-built houses 
in the lower part of the town. Internally, Larissa 
is mean and irregular; near its centre is an open 
space, having some good bazaars ; but the streets 
are generally ill built, narrow, and fllthy; and 
both houses and people seem to be in the most 
abject condition. Besides the mosques, there is a 
Greek metropolitan church ; and these, with some 
baths and a khan, constitute all the public build- 
ings of the place. There is ver>' little trade, and 
the bazaars are ill supplied with manufactured 
goods. The plains surrounding Larissa consist of 
a fine alluvial soil, and are extremely fertile. 
They produce large crops of Indian com, wheat, 
and tobacco, and northward are found rich sheep 

Modem Larissa is supposed to occupy the site of 
the ancient city of the same name, claiming, in 
competition with Phthia, the honour of being the 
birthplace of Achilles, hence called Larissearij 
and being probably identical with the IIcAacryiitbi' 
"Apyof mentioned by Homer in his catalogue of 
the Greek forces. (II. b. 681.) At a subsequent 
period it acquired some celebrity from its adoption 


of the democratical form of government, and from 
its zealous support of the Athenian cause during 
the Peloponnesian war. (Comp. Aristot. Pol. v. 
6, with Thuc. ii. c. 82.) It afterwards fell into the 
hands of Philip pf Macedon and his successors, 
under whom it remained tUl the subversion of 
their empire by the Romans. It appears to hare 
declined under the early Roman emperon firom 
its ancient importance. Lucan says of it : 

*Atqueolim Larissa potens' .... 

Lib. vl. line 865. 

The town and neighbourhood were subject in an- 
cient times to the same violent and sudden inun- 
dations which now cause such extensive mischief. 

LARISTAN, a small prov. of Persia, part of the 
an. Caratuania, extending along the N. shore of 
the gulf of that name, between 26^ and 29<> N. 
lat,, and 55° and 68' E. long., bounded NW. by 
Ears, and N£. by Kerman. Area, 16,000 sq. m. 
It is the poorest and least productive prov. of 
Persia, diversified indeed with plains and moun- 
tains, extending to the sea; but so arid and so 
destitute of wholesome wat«r, that, were it not 
for the periodical rains, which fill the dstems of 
the natives, and enable them to cultivate the 
date tree, with small quantities of wheat and 
barley, it would be quite uninhabitable. The 
coast is in the possession of different Arab tribes, 
who, under their respective sheikhs, maintain 
their independence, paying only a trifling tribute 
to the king. They are chiefly pirates, and reside 
in small towns or mud forts scattered along the 
shores of the gulf : the chief of these are, Congoon, 
having about 5,000 inhab. ; Nakhilo, opposite the 
island of Shitwar ; and Mogoo, which has one of 
the most secure roadsteads in the gulf. The in- 
terior of the country has seldom been visited by 

LARNE, a sea-port town of Ireland, co. Antrim, 
on a creek of the inlet of the sea called Lame 
Lough, 18 m. N. bv R. Belfast, on the railwav 
from Belfast to Camckfeigus. Pop. 2,768 in i 86 f, 
against 3,345 in 1841. Lame consists of an old 
and a new town, and has, besides, the parish 
church, a K. Catholic chapel, 3 Presbvterian, and 
1 Methodist meeting-houses, and a national school. 
A manor-court is held everv six weeks, and petty 
sessions every fortnight. It formerly carried on 
a brisk trade in salt ; but its traffic is'now chiefl v 
confined to the export of linen, grain, and provi- 
sions. Coal is the principal arricle of importation. 
The hari)our is land-locked, and is admurablc for 
the smaller class of vessels, which enter and depart 
at all times of the tide. Fish is abundant, par- 
ticularly mackerel, hake, cod, and mullet; salmon 
is taken near the entrance of the bay. The fisher- 
men do not restrict themselves to the fishing, but 
are also agriculturists, and go to sea only when 
there is a prospect of a large take. 

LARNICA, a sea-port town of the island of 
Cyprus, on its SE. shore, at the bottom of the 
bay of Salines, 23 m. SE. Nicosia. Pop. esti- 
mated at 5,000. It consists of an upper and a 
lower town; the latter, called the Marina, is 
built along the sea-shore; the other is a little 
more inland, and on higher ground. The houses, 
with the exception of a few belonging to the 
Frank merchants, are built of mud bricks dried 
in the sun, and are mean; they have mostly, 
however, very fine gardens, but these being in- 
closed by high walls, contribute little or nothing 
to the beauty of the town, as seen from the streets. 
It is the seat of a Greek bishopric, and in the 
Upper Town is the cathedral and convent of St. 
Saviour, and the Lower has a mosque, a convent, 
the chapel of St, Lazarus, and the remains of a 
castle constructed by the princes of the house of 


Longnaii. Being sitnated on the verge of a 
mushy plain, screened by high moontainB from 
the cooling influence of the N. winds, and having 
near it extensive lagoons, which in summer pro- 
duce laij^e quantities of salt, Lamica is hot, and, 
at certam seasons, unhealthy. It has no good 
water, except what is brought to it by an aque- 
duct constructed, in 1747, by a Turkish emir. 
There is no harbour; but the bay, which opens 
to the S£., and derives its name from the salt 
lagoons, affords good anchorage in deep water, 
at no great distance off shore. Lamica is the 
second city of Cyprus, the emporium of its com- 
merce, and the principal residence of the foreign 
consuls. The exports consist of wheat, several 
cargoes of which are exported to Spain and Por- 
tugal with barley, cotton, silk, wine, and drugs ; 
the imports are rice and sugar from £g}i)t, and 
doth, hardware, and colonial produce, from Malta 
and Smyrna. 

Drummond, Pooocke, and the Abbd Mariti, 
concur in opinion that Lamica occupies the site 
of the ancient dtthtm ; while Kinneir and others 
suppose the latter to have been near a cape, still 
called Chitti, a few miles SW. from Lamica, 
where there are numerous tumuli and hillocks 
of rubbish. The probability, however, seems to 
be in favour of the supposition that the site of 
Lanica and Cittium are reiUly identicaL (Drum- 
mond, p. 250 ; Qarke, iv. 39, 8vo. ed.) Cittium 
was founded by the Phoenicians at a very remote 
period, and will be for ever memorable as the 
birthplace of Zeno, the founder of the stoical 
system of philosophy. Cimon, the great Athenian 
commander, either died at the siege of Cittium or 
immediately after he had taken it. The epoch of 
the destruction of the city is unknown. 

LASSA, or U'LASSA (Lasid of the Divine 
Intelligence) y the cap. of Thibet, prov. Qui, 8G0 m. 
E. by X. Katmandoo, the cap. of Nepaul ; lat 
290 aO' N., long. 91° 40' E. Pop. conjectured to 
be aboat 24,000. It is situated on the Galdjao, a 
tributary of the Sanpo, about 28 m. from its con- 
flueuoe with that river, in an extensive and fertile 
plain about 60 m. long and 35 m. broad, surrounded 
by lofty mountains. The houses are built of a 
brown stone, are two or three stories high, with 
tolerably lofty rooms, and give the idea of wealth 
and respectability. The great temple of Buddha, 
which is likewise the residence of the Dalai Lama, 
the pontifical sovereign of Thibet, stands on the 
hill Bota-la, in the W. part of the city, and con- 
sists of an extensive range of sc^uare-shaped 
boildmgs, crowned in the centre with a gilded 
dome, and occupying altogether an area of about 
40 b^ahs. It comprisee, according to the Chinese 
geogiaphexB, 10,000 apartments, varying in size 
and grandeur according to the supposed dignity 
of the idols which they respectively contain. 
Contiguous to the temple, on its four sides, are 
the four celebrated monasteries of Brephung, 
Sera, Ghaldan, and Samyii, alleged to be in- 
habited by upwards of 4,000 monks, and much 
resorted to by the Chinese and Mongols as schools 
of pbiloeophy and Buddhism. In and near the 
city axe nve other temples, built on the same 
general plan, but ver^ inferior in size and splen- 
aonr to that just described. Lassa, besides being 
the resort of zealous Buddhists from all parts of 
China, Turkestan, and Nepaul, is a place of con- 
siderable trade in silk, wool, and goats* hair, 
woollen cloths and Cashmeres, velvets, linens, 
asafcetida, bezoar, various kinds of fruit, silver 
bullion, gold dust, and precious stones, chictly 
with N. Hindostan, Nepaul, Bhootan, Great 
Bucharia, and China ; and m the markets, where 
the goods are exposed for sale on mats, regularly 



ap|>ointed market-inspectors fix the prices, from 
which no deviation is allowed. Handicraft is 
much followed, and with great success ; and the 
lapidaries, workers in metal, and engravers are 
not inferior to the Chinese. 

LATAKIA, or LADAKIEH (an. Laodicea ad 
mare) J a town of Syria, in the pach. of Aleppo, 
90 m. SW. Aleppo, and 74 m. S. by E. Iskenderoon. 
Pop. estimated at from 6,000 to 10,000. The 
town comprises an upper and a lower part, separated 
by gardens and plantations. The lower portion, 
called the ScaUt, consists of a double street, mn- 
ning parallel to the shore, and another leading 
down to it from the upper town, having coffee- 
houses and places of resort for seafaring people. 
The port is a small shallow basin with a narrow 
entrance, and well sheltered, except westwartl: 
on its N. side is a mined castle, standing on a 
rock connected by arches with the main land; 
and at the E. end are the custom-house, landing- 
place, and several large warehouses. The upper 
town, which is in a very dilapidated state, in con- 
sequence of the damage occasioned by frequent 
earthquakes, consists of several narrow and irre- 
gular streets: the houses are constracted of cut 
stone, flat-roofed, usually two stories high, with 
an inner court. The greatest ornament of the 
place is a triumphal gate, between 30 ft. and 40 
ft. in height, encircled near its summit by a hand- 
some entablature: its four arches axe in the 
Roman style of architecture, and, as the |2|eneral 
appearance of the building denotes great antiquity, 
it was probably erected in honour of Julius Caesar, 
or, perhaps, Germanicus. The comers are adomed 
with handsome Corinthian pilasters, and one of 
its fronts exhibits a basso-relievo, with arms and 
martial instmments. At no great distance is a 
mosque, built from the rains of another ancient 
edidce, with Corinthian columns ; and amidst the 
rocks and crags N. of the town is a large necropor 
lis, containing numerous square sarcophagi, simi- 
lar to those seen in the island of Milo. There 
are 3 other mosques and 2 Greek churches. The. 
bazaars are poor and insignificant, and the only 
connderable article of trade is tobacco, raised near 
the town in large quantities, and highly prized 
all over the Levant 

Latakia is the representative of the ancient 
Laodicea, so named by its founder, Seleucus Nica- 
tor, in honour of his mother, and was a town of 
considerable importance before the conquest of 
Syria by the Romans. It was visited by Julius 
Csesar, when on his way from EgA'pt to Pontus, 
and is styled JuliopoUs on some of its medals. 
During the civil wars, Dolabella, with his fleet 
and army, was shut up in it by Cassius, and obliged 
to surrender. It became a \)ishop*s see early in 
the Christian era, and was held by the Clu-istians 
when the Crasaders invaded Syria. It was after- 
wards included in the empire of Salodin, and was 
finally added to the Turkish dominions by Selim 
I., in 1517. The ruins of the ancient city fully 
attest its size and grandeur, and offer ready build- 
ing materials to the modem inhab. The acropolis 
st^)d on a tabular summit S£. of the town, but 
nothing remains of it beyond a few wells and cis- 

LAUBEN, or LUBEN, a town of Pmssia, gov. 
Liegnitz, cap. circ. of its own name, on the Queis, 
40 m. WSW. Liegnitz. Pop. 4,550 in 1861. The 
town is surrounded with old walls, and garrisoned 
by invalids. It is the seat of judicial courts fur 
the town and circle ; has a Rom. Cath. and three 
Protestant churches, a gymnasium, an orphan 
asylum, two hospitals, a school for teaching the 
art of spinning woollen yam, and some trade in 
woollen and linen fabrics. 

Digitized by 




LAUDER, a royal and pari. bor. and maiket 
town of Scotland, co. Berwick, dist. of Lauderdale, 
of which it is the cap., near the Lauder, a tributary 
of the Tweed, on the road between Edinburgh and 
Coldstream, 24 m. SE. of the former, and 23 m. 
KW. by W. of the latter. Pop. 1,137 in 1861, 
and 1,148 in 1841. The only public buildings are 
the par. church, a dissenting chapel, the town- 
house, and gaoL Thirbtane Castle, the ancient 
residence of the noble famih' of Lauderdale, is 
within ^ m. of the town. It has a branch bank, 
various schools, and subscription libraries. A com- 
mon, comprising 1,695 acres, is divided among the 
burgessea In 1482, Cochrane and other minions 
of James IIL were hanged by order of the Earl 
of Arran and other noblemen, 'over the parapet of 
a bridge in the vicinity of this town. Lauder 
unites with Haddington, Dunbar, Jedburgh, and 
N. Berwick in sending one member to the H. of 
C. Registered electors, 66 in 1866. 

LAUENBURG, a duchy of the German Con- 
federation, belonging to the king of Prussia, situ- 
ated between hit 629 21' and 630 48' N., long. 
10© 13' and 11° 3' E., bounded N. by Lttbeck, E. 
Mecklenburg Schwerin, S. by the Elbe, and W. 
by Holstein. Area 455 sq. m. Pop. 60,147 in 
1860. Surface flat, sandy m centre, and marshy 
in S. On its E. borders are several lakes, the 
chief of which are the Ratzebuiiger See and Schaal 
See. Principal rivers, the Stecknitz and Del- 
venaue. It is divided into three amts., Ratzebnrg, 
Lauenburg, and Schwarzenbek. The duchy for- 
merly was an appendage of the crown of Den- 
marlc but was taken from it by Austria and 
Prussia in the war of 1863-4. It was ceded to 
these two powers by the king of Denmark at the 
treaty of Vienna, signed October 30, 1864; but 
the emperor of Austria sold his share in the duchy 
tx) the king of Prussia— in the convention of Gas- 
tein, Aug. 16, 1865— for the sam of 2,500,000 
thalers, or 876,000/., which was paid out of the 
private purse of the Prussian sovereign. The 
duchy thus became the * personal property ' of the 
latter, without being incorporated with the king- 
dom of Prussia. 

Lauenburo, a town of Gexmany, cap. of the 
duchy of same name, on the Elbe, 28 m. SE. 
Hamourg, on a branch line of the railway from 
Hamburg to Berlin. Pop. 4,086 in 1860. The 
town has the ruins of a castle formerly occupied 
by the dukes of Saxe Lauenburg, a church, a hos- 
pital, and a large market-place. A brisk transit 
trade is carried on between the Elbe and Lubeck. 
Except a beetroot-sugar factory, Lauenburg has 
no manufactures of any kind. 

LAUNCESTON, a pari, and mun. bor., maricet 
town, and par. of England, co. Cornwall, in the 
N. division of hund. East^ on the Atterv, a tributarv 
of the Tamar, 19 m. ENE. Bodmin, 20 m. NNW. 
Plymouth, 200 m. W. by S. Ix)ndon by road, and 
264 m. by Great Western railway. Pop. of pari, 
bor. (which comprises, besides the old bor., the 
parishes of St. Stephen, St. Thomas, Lawhitton, 
and St, Petherwin), 6,140 in 1861, and of munic. 
bor. 2,790. The town consists of two chief ave- 
nues on the London and Tavistock roads, inter- 
secting each other almost at right angles, crossed 
by several narrow and mean-looking streets. It 
was formerly surrounded by walls, parts of which 
are yet standing. The rums of an ancient castle 
cover a large extent of ground, and attest its for- 
mer strength and importance. A part of its keep 
was once used as a county gaol ; but the prisoners 
are now sent to Bodmin, which has been the assize 
town since 1838. A small guildhall is the only 
public building devoted to civil purposes. The 
church, a handsome Gothic structure built of gra- 


nite blocks, enriched with curiously carved orna- 
ments, has a lofty tower at its w. end. There 
are places of worship also for Wesleyans and 
Baptists, with attached Sunday schools. A gram- 
mar school, founded by Queen Elizabeth, has, ac- 
cording to the charity commissioners, fallen into a 
state of decay, there having been no master since 
1821. Baron's charity school is in nearly as use- 
less a condition, and the only place of instruction 
for the poor is the national school, attended by 
about 260 children. Numerous money charities 
are chiefly distributed by the corporation. Laun- 
ceston is neither a manuf'acturing nor a oommereial 
town. Serge-weaving and wool-spinning formerly 
employed a considerable number of hands, but the 
trade has wholly disappeared. The removal of the 
assizes and quarter sessions has, also, deprived the 
town of much of its activity, and it now depends 
chiefly on its retail trade and on its markets, which 
are large and well attended. Marketr-day, Satur- 
day. Cattle fain, first Thursday in March, third 
ditto in April, Whit-Monday, July 6, Nov. and 
Dec 6. 

Launceston, otherwise called DunA^twd^ received 
its first charter from Richard, earl of Cornwall, in 
the thirteenth century, and its privileges were con- 
firmed by Richard II., and many submquent sove- 
reigns. It is governed under the Mun. Reform 
Act by four aldermen and twelve councillore ; but 
it has* no commission of the peace. Corp. revenue, 
315^ in 1862. Launceston returned two mems. to 
the H. of C. firom the 28rd Edward I. down to the 
passing of the Reform Act, which deprived it of 
one member. Previously to this act, the mems^ 
though formally elected by the corporation, were, 
in fact, mere nominees of the proprietor, the duke 
of Northumberland. Besides depriving it of one 
member, the Reform Act enlarged the limits of the 
bor., as stated above. Reg. electors, 443 in 1865. 

LAURENCE, or LAWRENCE (ST.), the prin- 
cipal river of N. America, and when considered, 
as it should be, in connecrion with the chain of 
lakes or inland seas of which it is the outlet, it is 
one of the largest rivers in the world, extendinjir 
from W. to E. through about 27^ of long., and 
about 8P of lat. Regarding the St. Lawrence in 
this point of view, or as a general name for the 
connecting line of that great river or water system 
that unites with the Atlantic in the Gulf of St. 
Laurence, its remotest source will be found to be 
the St. Louis, an affluent of Lake Superior, rising 
in the table land of the Huron country, near the 
sources of the Mississippi, flowing S., and of the 
Red River, flowing N. It receives different names 
in different parts of its course, being at first the 
St Louis; between Lake Superior and Lake Hu- 
ron, the St. Mary; between Lakes Huron and 
Erie, the St. Clair and Detroit; between Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, the Niagara ; and from Ontario 
to Montreal it is sometimes called the Cataraqui 
or Iroquois, its course from Montreal to the sea 
being the St. Laurence, properly so called, but it 
is now usuellv called the St. Laurence from Lake 
Ontario to the sea. Considered in this point of 
view, its entire course, from its source to its mouth 
in the Gulf of St. Laurence, in about long. 64^ 3(V 
W., may be estimated at upwards of 2,000 m. 
Besides traversing Lake Superior, Huron, Erie, 
and Ontario, the Lake St. Clair, and some similar 
sheets of water, are mere enlargements of its bed. 
Lake Michigan also is included in its basin, which 
is roughly estimated by Darb^ to comprise an area 
of upwards of 500,000 sq. m., including the laif^est 
collection of fresh water to be found on the surface 
of the globe. (Darby's Geog. View, 200, 201, 218, 
231.) For considerably more than half its extent 
the St. Laurence forms the boundary line betweea 



the British N. American tenitories and those of 
liie U. Stotea. 

The sonroe of the St. Louis is estimated at about 
1,192 ft abore the sea leveL The elevation of the 
riyer in succeeding portions of its course, with the 
estimated area of the great inland seas and smaller 
laJusy of which it is the connecting link and out- 
let, are exhibited in the foUowlng table : — 


above dd* 







Lake Superior . 
„ Huron . 

„ Ontario . 
renoe and 
smallo-Lakea j 

Total Water ) 
Surface . J 







24,000 , 





The St. Laurence varies very considerably in 
breadth, in the middle part of its course inclosing 
a great many blands, and forming numerous rapids. 
In those pwrts of St. Mary, St Clair, Detroit and 
Niagara rivers, where no large islands are met 
with, the breadth of the stream is usuaUy from ^ m. 
to 2 or 3 m. At the Sault of St Louis, 6 m. above 
MoDtieal, the river narrows to 5 furlongs ; and at 
Quebec it is not more than 1,814 yards across ; but 
between those cities its average width is 2 m. 
From Quebec, the breadth of the St Laurence 
begins to increase rapidly. Immediately beyond 
the island of Orleans it is 11 m. broad ; where the 
Saguenay joins it, 18 m. ; at Point Pelee, upwards 
of 30 ml; at the Bay of Seven Islands, 70 m.; 
and at the island of Anticosti, about 850 m. firom 
Quebec, it rolls a flood into the ocean nearly 100 
m. across. 

The basin of the St Laurence is supposed by 
Daiby to contain * more t^an the half of all the 
fresh'water on this planet' Taking the area and 
mean depth of the lakes, as given above, their 
solid contents will amount to 1 ,647,01 1,792,360,000 
cubic it of water, being sniHcient to envelope the 
entire earth with a watery covering 8 in. in depth* 
(Darby, Geogr. View, p. 232.) 

The annual discharge, however, though prodi- 
gionsly great, does not ^^^ ^^^ nature of the 
basin, bear so considerable a proportion to the con- 
tained body of fluid as migh t be expected. Darby, 
firom observations made at three different places, 
estimated the hourly dischaige at the enormous 
amount of 1,672.704,000 cubic ft. This estimate, 
continues Darbv, * exceeds by more than a half 
the quantity which, on another occasion, I esti- 
mated for the MissLssippi ; and though contrary 
to my own opinion when I first arrived on the 
banks of the St Laurence, I am convinced it faUs 
below reality.' (Geogr. View, 238.) 

The source of the St Lawrence (St Louis) being 
1,192 ft. above the level of the sea, the average 
Um of the river will, perhaps, be somewhat more 
than 6 inches a mile. But this fall is very un- 
eqnally distributed, on account of the many, and 
in one instance stupendous, cataracts, rapids, Ac. 
inteiBpeiBed along tne river's course. The Nia- 
gara, between Li£es Erie and Ontario, has within 
the short distance of 85 m. a descent of at least 
334 ft, 164 of which are contributed bv the Great 
Falls. The St Mary, between Lakes Superior and 
Hoion, has a fall of 28 ft. in 900 yards ; and the 
npids are so numerous and dangerous between 
Kingston and Montreal, that an extensive line of 
canal navigation has been cut, at a vast expense, 

to connect* Lake Ontario with the Ottawa, and 
enable ships to avoid this portion of the river. 
fFor a more particular description of the mat 
faUs, the chier lakes through which the St Lau- 
tence passes, and other parts of the basin, see arts. 
NiAOAKA, and Lakes Sui'Eriok, Huron, and 

The great Canadian lakes, especially the three 
upper lakes, receive few tributaries of any conse- 
quence ; but the St Laurence, in the middle and 
lower part of its course, is augmented by several 
considerable rivers, of which the Ottawa, from the 
N., uniting with it near Montreal, and^ the Sa- 
gueiiay, abo from the N., uniting with it 180 m. 
below Quebec, are the most important 

The St Laurence is said by Darby to be as re- 
markable for its uniformity throughout the year 
in the diurnal and monthly expenditure of its 
waters, as the Mississippi is for its continual 
change. A rise of 3 ft is a more remarkable phe- 
nomenon in the former than a rise of 80 would be 
in the latter. The two rivers differ widely also in 
numerous other particulars. The waters of the 
Mississippi are turbid ; those of the St. Laurence 
and its lakes are highly transparent In the 
course of the Mississippi few lakes or enlaigemenis 
occur, its banks are low, much of the surface within 
its basin consists of open f^rassy plains, and before 
it disembogues it divides mto numerous channels ; 
the St Laurence, on the contrary, consists, in 
great part, of a chain of vast lakes ; as its bed en- 
larges, it has shelving or precipitous banks, gene- 
rally covered with pnmeval forests ; and, instead 
of a delta, it forms at its mouth a large estuary. 

The St. Laurence is the great commercial tho- 
roughfare of the Canadian provinces, and the north- 
em states of the American union. Its banks, and 
those of its lower lakes, are studded with flourish- 
ing cities and towns, as Quebec, Montreal, St 
Francis, Cape Vincent, Kingston, Toronto, Buffalo, 
Oswego, and others are daily springing into exist- 
ence. The rise of the tide is perceptible as high 
as St Francis, or Three Rivers, 482 m. up the St 
Laurence, and nearly midway between Quebec and 
Montreal The river is navigable for ships of the 
line to Quebec, and for ships of 600 tons to Mon- 
treal, 580 m. from the sea, though the navigation 
is in some places obstructed by rocks and shoals. 
Beyond the latter point however, a succession of 
lapids, especially between Cornwall and Johnston, 
unfits it lor the navigation of other than flat-boA- 
tomed boats of from 10 to 15 tons. Further up, 
Ontario and Erie are navigable for ships of the 
largest size, as is the Niagara river, both above 
and below the foils. The Falls of Niagara are 
avoided by the Welland canal, a work undertaken 
by a company incorporated in 1825. lliis canal, 
iuto the formation of which the Ouse, Welhind, 
and Chippway rivers enter, is 48^ m. in lengthy 
56 ft in breadth at its surface, and 26 ft at its 
base, 8^ ft. deep ; and has 37 wooden locks, 10 ft. 
long, 22 ft wide, and capable of admitting ships 
of 125 tons. Detroit river is no more than 7 or 
8 ft in depth, and the lake and river of St. Clair 
are navigable only for steam-boats and schooners ; 
but beyond this,' a wide navigation for ships of 
any magnitude extends nearly to the falls of St. 
Mary. Boats of 6 ft. draught may reach the foot 
of these falls, but they cannot ascend them, though 
canoes, at great risk, sometimes venture to shoot 
downwards. The falls of St Mary are generally 
avoided by a portage of 2 m. 

It is thus seen that there is a continued navi- 
gation for vessels of medium burden from the head 
of Lake Huron to Kingston on Lake Ontario, and 
from Montreal to the mouth of the St Laurence. 
The water communication between Kingston and 




Montreal is efTected chiefly by a chain of canals, 
the principal being the Rideau canal, constracted 
by the Canadian, or rather the English gov., con- 
necting Lake Ontario with the Ottawa. Rideau 
river and lake, the Indian lake, and the Little 
Cataraqui, form parts of its course. It admits 
vessels of about 125 tons. The Grenville and La 
Chine canals, with the Ottawa, continue the com- 
munication to Montreal; the Grenville canal is, 
however, only adapted for vessels not exceeding 
20 ft. in width. On the side of the U. States, the 
(vrand Erie, Oswego, and Champlain canals (sec 
New York and Erie) unite the basin of the 
8t. Laurence with the basins of the Hudson and 
Susquehanna; as the Ohio and Pennsylvania 
canals (see Ohio, Pennsylvania) do with the 
basin of the Mississippi. There is another line 
of canals in Upper Canada between Lakes Huron 
and Ontario. 

Strong tides prevent the St. Laurence being co- 
vered with compact ice below Quebec; but the 
enormous masses driven in every direction by the 
winds and currents render that portion of the river 
unnavigable for nearly half the year. Between 
Quebec and Montreal the water communication is 
totally suspended by the frost from the beginning 
of Dec to the middle of April. The navigation 
of Ontario closes in Oct. During the winter the 
NE. part of that lake, from the l^y of Quinto to 
Sackett's Harbour, is frozen across, and the rest of 
its surface is usually frozen to a considerable dis- 
tance from the shore. Lake Erie is not so much 
encumbered with ice as Lake Ontario, while Lakes 
Huron and Michigan are more encumbered. On 
Lake Superior the ice often extends to 70 m. from 
its shores. The frost, however, by no means stops 
commercial intercourse, but forms the rivers and 
lakes into excellent roads, on which vehicles of all 
descriptions are used. Among these are tee-boats^ 
buUt like other vessels with a rudder, mast, and 
sail, and resting on iron skates attached at either 
end to cross-bars under stem and stem. One of 
these ice-boats has, it is said, sailed before the 
wind from Toronto to Fort Geoige on Niagara, a 
distance of 40 m., in little more than three-quarters 
of an hour. (Darby, Geog. View, St. Laurence 
Basin, pp. 200-251.) 

OF, a bay of the Atlantic, chiefly between the 4Sth 
and 51 St deg. of N. lat, and the 57th and 65th of 
W. long., bounded N. by Lower Canada and La- 
brador, E. by Newfoundhmd, S. by Nova Scotia 
and Cai)e Breton, and W. by New Brunswick and 
the peninsula of Gasp^^ (Lower Canada). At its 
NW. extremity it receives the river SL Laurence; 
and it communicates with the ocean on the NE. 
bv the Strait of Belle-isle, between Labrador and 
Newfoundland, on the SE. by its principal outlet, 
the channel called St« Paul's, between Newfound- 
land and Cape Breton, and on the S. by the Gut 
of Canso, between Cape Breton and Nova Scotia. 
It contains the large islands of Anticosti and 
Prince Edwiurd; and the Magdalen Islands, a 
group about lat. 470 30', and between long. 61° 27' 
and 62' W., inhabited by about 1,000 Canadians, 
French, English, and Irish settlers, who carry on 
a profitable fishery. The shores of the gulf are 
genially precipitous, barren, and inhospitable ; and 
dense fogs are very prevalent. A powerful current 
sets continually from Hudson's Strait into the gulf, 
through the Strait of Belle-isle, and meeting the 
stream from the estuary of the St. Laurence, forms 
a dangerous race off the S. coast of Newfoundland. 
(Purdv's Memoir of the Atlantic, pp. 105, 144.) 

LAUSANNE, a city of Switzerland, cap. canton 
■ of Vaud, at the termination of a spur from the 
. chain of the Jura» 480 ft above the level of the 


Lake of Geneva, from the N. shore of which it is 
about 1 m. distant, and 30 m. NE. Geneva, on the 
railway from Bern to Geneva. Pop. 20,515 in 
1860. The city is finely situated on three 
eminences, and their intervening valleya; but, 
from being on uneven ground, its streets are steep 
and irregular. They are also generally narrow 
and ill-paved, and the interior of Lausanne by no 
means corresponds with its exterior appearance. 
It is divided into 6 quarters, the city and 6 saburb^s 
and is now an open town, but on' its S. side are 
some remains of ancient waUs. At the highest 
point of the city is the castle, a massive square 
building of stone, flanked at its angles by four 
brick towers. It was originally the residence of 
the bishops of Lausanne, but is now the council- 
house of the canton : its terrace, and that of the 
cathedral, commands magnificent views of the 
vicinity, the lake, and, far beyond, the mountains 
of Savoy. The church, formerly the cathedral, a 
vast Gothic building, founded about 1000, but not 
finished till the Idth century', is the finest religious 
edifice in Switzerland. It has two large towers, 
one supporting an elegant spire, the summit of 
which is 240 ft. above the ground, and a fine 
round window of stained glass, 30 ft in diameter : 
in its interior are some singular specimens of 
architecture; and amongst others the tomb of 
Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy. This persona^, 
after abdicating the dukedom, which he had 
greatly enlaiged, and governed with singular 
ability, was elected pope, by the title of Felix V., 
under which name he is l)e8t known in history. 
But another pope having been elected, about the 
same time, by a different party in the church, 
Felix, to terminate the schism, resigned the tiara 
in 1449. He died within two years of this event. 
(Biographic Universelle, art * Savoie, Ame' VIII.*) 
The church of St. Francis ; the cantonal college 
with a library and museum, comprising collections 
of antiquities and minerals found in the neigh- 
bourhood ; the bishop's palace, now appropriated 
to a school of mutufld instruction and the district 
prison ; the cantonal hospital, a fine edifice in the 
Tuscan order ; the lunatic asylum of Champ d^Air; 
the new penitentiary, established in 1822. and 
organised like that of* Philadelphia ; the barracks, 
theatre, charity schools, and post-office, are the 
other chief public buildings. 

Lausanne is famous in literary history, finom its 
having been the residence of Haller, Tiasot, Vol- 
taire, and Gibbon. The house occupied by the 
latter, and in which he wrote the last half of his 
groat work, is still in good preservation, and is an 
object of attraction to all travellers to Lausanne. 
*It was here,' to borrow the passage in which 
Gibbon has perpetuated the memory of the event, 
' it was here, on the day or rather night of the 
27th of June, 1787, between the hours of II and 
12, that I wrote the last lines of the last page, in 
a summer-house in my garden. After laying down 
my pen I took sevenu turns in a bercnnt, or 
covered walk of acacias, which commands a pros- 
pect of the country, the lake, and the mountains. 
The air was temperate, the sky was serene, the 
silver orb of the moon was reflected from the 
waters, and all nature was silent. I will not dis- 
semble the first emotions of joy on recovery of my 
freedom, and, perhaps, the establishment of my 
fame. But my pride was soon humbled, and a 
sober melancholy was spread over my mind, by 
the idea that I had taken an everlasting leave of 
an old and agreeable companion, and that, whatso- 
ever might l^ the future date of my history, the 
life of the historian must be short and precarious.' 
Voltaire, previouslv to his settling at Femey, lived 
at Monrepos, a little distance from Lausanne^ oa 



the Bern road ; and Byron wrote his * Prisoner of 
C'hilloD ' at Ouchy, the port of Lausanne, on the 

Lausanne is the seat of the snperior courts of 
jnHice, and authorities of the canton of Yaud, of 
the councils of health and public instruction, the 
inspector of militia, and military commandant of 
the canton. It has an academy, with 14 pro- 
fessors, founded in 1537, a collie for the French 
language, with schools of military science, and 
numerous literary societies. Its manufactures are 
of little importance. Woollen cloths, paper, 
leather, and a few other articles, are made, but in 
nnall quantities. I'he celebrated actor, John 
Kemble, is buried in the cemetery of St. Pierre, 
about 2 m. from Lausanne, where a monument is 
erected to his memory. 

Lausanne derived its name from the an. Lau- 
smium, which stood a little to the W., in the 
plain of Vidy. Various Roman remains have 
been discovered there and elsewhere in the 
vicinity. Before the Reformation, Lausanne was 
a rich' bishopric It was taken in 1536 by the 
Bernese, and governed b^ an offic